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Full text of "The anatomy and philosophy of expression"



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THE 



ANATOMY 



AND 



PHILOSOPHY 



OF 



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EXPRESSION 




AS CONNECTED WITH THE FINE ARTS 



BY 



SIR CHARLES BELL, K.H 



SftirU IBUttion, tnlargetr. 



LONDON: 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET 



M.DCCC.XLIV. 



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PRINTED BY MOVES AND BAUCLAY, CAST[.E STREET, 

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PREFACE. 



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These Essays formed the earliest and the latest 
occupation of the lamented author's leisure hours ; 

■ 

and they now appear under the disadvantages which 
must attend a posthumous publication. 

It was the habit of the author, in his literary com- 
positions, to sketch his first ideas as they arose ; and parts 
of this work were found, evidently intended to be revised 

They are faithfully added to the text of 



and corrected. 



the last edition, where they bear upon the subject. 

The following prefatory remarks are from the pen 



of the late Professor Bell,* to whom 



the warmth of 



brotherly affection, the second edition of the work had 
been inscribed. 



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The Essays which are now presented to the public 
their enlarged form, were originally composed, as the 



* 



George Joseph Bell, Professor of the Law of Scotland in the 



University of Edinburgh. He died September 23, 1843. 



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IV 



PREFACE. 



author fondlv said in his dedication, " when we studied 
together before the serious pursuits of life began ;" but 
were not published till the year 1806, after the author 
had left Edinburgh and fixed his residence in London. 



/ 



A second edition appeared in 1824; but he resisted every 
call for a new impression, until he should have had an 
opportunity of verifying in Italy the principles of criticism 
in art, by the study of the works of the great masters in 
painting and sculpture. 

With this view he visited the Continent in 1840; 

L 

L 

and on his return he recomposed the whole for a new 
edition, introducing occasional extracts from his journal, 
sometimes to enforce the text and sometimes to shew 
from what authority he drew his conclusions. 

In a declining state of health he had taken advantage 
of a recess in his professorial duties in the University of 



Edinburgh 



his friends in England. He hoped 



in the leisure of the country to give this work a final 
revisal for the press ; but before he had fulfilled his 
wishes in this respect, his life was terminated by an access 
of his illness at Hallow Park, in Worcestershire, on the 
Sgth of April, 1842. 

L 

In the speculations 



of which this work 



the result 



and in the interesting inquiries to which they led, Sir 

' Charles Bell was accustomed to seek relief from the 

wearing anxiety which, from his exquisite sensibility to 

ever attended the practice of his 



hum 



* 



an suffering, had 









I 

;- ■ 



PREFACE. 



V 



was to follow 



It 



profession: but a still greater effect 

was from these investigations that he 

make those discoveries in the system of the nerves, which 



was first led to 



con- 



are now acknowledged to be the most important 
tributions of modern times to the science of Physiology. 

s time, the nerves, which per 



Before Sir Charles Bell 



ade 



every the minutest portion of our fram 



seemed 



in the studies of anatomists 



a mass of inextricable 



fusion and a subj 



believed that 



of hopeless obscurity; but he 



in the works of the Creator there 



IS 



othing imperfect or unnecessarily complex, and that the 

apparent confusion was not beyond the 



solution of this 



reach of human inquiry. In tracing the causes of move- 

n the frame of the body 



ments in the countenance and 
under the influence of passion 



or emotion, he engaged 



m a 
destin 



very careful inquiry into the 
ition of the nerves ; and cons( 



orign 
quent 



course, and 



g' 



led him to those fundamental truths, hitherto unperceived 




hav 



which he, and those who have followed his 
e revealed to the medical world the beautiful 



course. 



Sim 



phcity of this part of the animal economy 



olog 



To the phy- 
be particularly interesting to trace in this 



work the steps by which the author was led to the com 



prehen 



of that most intricate portion of the 



system, the class of 



tory J 
views 



a 



ubi 



so difficult, th 



which he has named respira- 

it it was long before his 



acknowledged by the medical profession 



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VI 



PREFACE. 



Meanwhile his labours and his 



relieved 



bv the variety of his pursuits 



He was a true lover of 



nature, and to trace the proofs of perfe 



and desig 



in all the works of the Creator was to him a source 



of 



new delight 



Constantly he had some useful 



some 



noble purpose in view, whether in following up 
scientific inquiry, or in enthusiastically pursuing nature 



or art. 



Those who knew him best, and had 



him 



in the most trying circumstances of life, were most sen- 



sible that there 



man whose mind 



more 



uniformly attuned to grateful happiness 



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CONTENTS. 






\ 



PAGE 

Introduction.— Comparison of Ancient and Modem Art- 
Studies of the Italian Masters 1 

Essay I. Theory of Beauty in the Countenance— Of the Form 

and Proportions of the Head and Face 19 

Essay II. Changes from Infancy to Age 45 

Of the Skull, as a Protection to the Brain 50 

Characteristic Forms of the Lower Animals 53 

Characteristic Organs of Man 57 

Theories of Ideal Beauty 63 

National PecuHarities in the Form of the Head 71 

Essay III. Of those Sources of Expression in the Countenance 

which cannot be explained on the idea of a 

direct Influence of the Mind upon the Features 82 

Blushing 95 

Essay IV. Of the Muscles of the Face in Man 97 

Muscles of the Forehead and Eyebrow 98 

Expression of the Human Eye 101 

Muscles of the Nostrils 107 

Muscles of the Lips and Cheeks 108 

Beard n^ 

Expression in the Lips and Moustaches 116 

Essay V. Of the Expression of Passion, illustrated by a Com- 
parison of the Muscles of the Face in Man 
and in Animals ; and of the Muscles peculiar 
to Man, and their eiFects in bestowing Human 

Expression 220 

Expression in Animals 12I 

^^^^^^^ r 

The Muscles of Animals 139 



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viii CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Essay VI. Of Expression in the Human Countenance 142 

Laughter 146 

Weeping 148 

Grief 150 

Essay VII. Of Pain 156 

r 

Demoniacs 159 

Convulsions 161 

Fear 163 

Terror 168 

Despair 169 

Admiration 171 

Joy 172 

Jealousy 173 

r 

Rage 175 

Madness . 179 

Death 183 

Essay VIII. Of Expression in reference to the Body 189 

The Emotions modified by controlling Expression 199 

Essay IX. The Study of Anatomy^ as necessary to Design . . . 201 

Of the Genius and Studies of Michael Angelo 

Buonarotti 204 

The Study of Anatomy 210 

Essay X, Uses of Anatomy to the Painter 212 

Faults into which the Artist may be betrayed in 

Studying the Antique 214 

or in Drawing from the Academy Figure .... 219 
Anatomy^ as conducting to Truth of Expression 

and of Character 221 

APPENDIX. 

Of the Nerves^ by Alexander Shaw 231 

Explanation of the Plates 259 












ON 



EXPRESSION. 



INTRODUCTION. 



It is not an easy task to reconcile two subjects so far 
apart in the minds of most readers as anatomy and the 
fine arts ; but if prejudices, early imbibed, be thrown off, it 



be found that there is no science, taken 



hensive 



compr 



sense, more fruitful of instruction, or leading to 
more interesting subjects of inquiry, than the knowledge of 
the animal body. 

The academies of Europe, instituted for the improve- 
ment of painting, stop short of the science of anatomy, 
which is so 



well suited to enlarge the mind, and 



the eye for observing the forms of 



or 



if they 



enforce the study at all, it is only in its more obvi 



ppl 



th 



fig 



of assisting the drawing of the human 



But my design in this volume 



farther 



I 



purpose to direct attention to the characteristic forms of man 
and brutes by an inquiry into the natural functions, with a 
view to comprehend the rationale of those changes in the 
countenance and figure which are indicative of passion. 

A just feeling in the fine arts is an elegant 
ment, and capable of cultivation. Drawing is i 



acquire 



y 



many pursuits and useful 



Locke has included 



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INTRODUCTION. 




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amongst the accomplishments hecoming a gentleman, and, 
we may add, it is much more useful to the artisan. 



Good 



taste and 



xecution in design are necessary to manufac- 
tures ; and consequently they contribute to the resources of 
a country, 

I am not without hope that a new impulse may be 
given to the cultivation of the fine arts, by explaining their 
relation to the natural history of man and animals, and 
by shewing how a knowledge of outward form, and the 
accuracy of drawing which is a consequence of it, are 
related to the interior structure and functions. 

Anatomy, in its relation to the arts of design, is, in truth, 

the grammar of that language in which they address us. 
The expressions, attitudes, and movements of the human 
figure are the characters of this language, adapted to con- 
vey the effect of historical narration, as well as to shew the 
working of human passion, and to give the most striking 
and lively indications of intellectual power and energy. 
The art of the painter, considered with a view to these 

r 

representations, assumes a high character. 
Every lesser embellishment and minuteness of detail 



interesting 



IS 



igarded 




an artist who has those 



more enlarged 



views 



of h 



s profession as foreign to the main design, 
distracting and hurtful to the grand effect, admired 
only as accurate imitations, almost appearing to he what 
they are not. 



Th 



distinction must be felt, or we shall 



never see the grand style in painting receive that en- 
couragement which results from public feeling and good 

taste. The painter must not be satisfied to copy and 
represent what he sees ; he must cultivate this talent of 
imitation merely as bestowing those facilities which are to 
give scope to the exertions of his genius j as the instru- 
ments and means only which he is to employ for com- 






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INTRODUCTION. 



3 



municating his thoughts, and presenting to others the 



of his fancy 



by his creative powers alone 



that he can become truly a painter j and for these he is to 
trust to original genius, cultivated and enriched by a con- 
stant observation of nature. Till he has acquired a poet's 
eye for nature, and can seize with intuitive quickness the 
appearances of passion, and all the effects produced upon 
the body by the operations of the mind, he has not raised 
himself above the mechanism of his art, nor does he rank 
with the poet or historian. 

It is a happy characteristic of the present times, that a 

d more preva- 



mere 



love of the fine arts is becoming more 

lent among the affluent; but still, rich furnit 
ornamental painting and gilding, usurp the place of art 
properly so called. The mansion of an English nobleman 
and that of a Roman of the same rank present a singular 
contrast. The former exhibits carpets, silk hangings, lamps, 
mirrors, china, and perhaps books. The palazzo, on the 
other hand, in its general aspect, may betray antiquity and 

; yet respect for ancestry retains on its walls the 



decay 

proofs of former grandeur and taste 
pictures, each of which would purchase an English villa 

LUce of 



there hang many 



furnish a London mansion 



fash 



Vulg 



all the extravag 



ity may seek admittance to the 



finery of the one, while princes are gratified by admission 



the other 



Original genius seems peculiarly necessary to excellence 
design. Good taste may be acquired by familiarity with 



statues and paintings, and by the 
genious ; but the power of 



of the 



depends 



deep 



sources. In reading Vasari, we are struck by the diffi 



culties with which the fam 




Th 



painters had to 



•gle 



is hardly one of them who had not to combat 



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INTRODUCTION. 



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parental autliority before obtaining leave to give up his day 



painting 



surprising that there should be an 



gness to permit a youth to dedicate his life 



art so little gainful, where 



aordinary excellence alone 



obtains notice, and hardly ever an adequate reward 
speak of the higher department of art. 

Much has been done at home by the force of ge 



I 



alon 



O 



native artists have vindicated us from the 

US for the fine arts is 
a notion which has so 



aspersion of Winckelman, that g< 
stinted in these northern climes, 
extensively prevailed, as even to have influenced our own 



Milton : 



" Unless an age too late, or cold 
Climate, or years, damp my intended wing. 



J) 



Winckelman, in his history of ancient art, seems to 
attribute all to climate j not only the perfection of form of 
the inhabitants of Greece, but their serenity of mind, 
sweetness, and love of beauty. Such a theory would 
imply that the people of Sparta and Athens must have 
had the same qualities. But when Sparta triumphed, it 
was in pride and rapacity : neither the general inter- 
course between nations, nor commerce, nor intellectual 
nor moral excellence, derived any benefit from her ascend- 
ancy.* Athens has been the mistress of the world, leaving 
the examples of the greatest virtues and excellence in phi- 
losophy, eloquence, poetry, and art j yet she has also left 

humiliating instances of tyranny, cruelty, and blood. The 
history of Greece is the record of incessant wars, where 
towns were sacked and citizens inhumanly massacred j 
and in Athens, war was always justified if it promised 

misfortune, she was found 



advantage. 



When tried 




i 



* Arnold's " History of Rome. 



)» 



• 




' I 



INTRODUCTION. 



5 



wanting : during pestilence, every affection was blunted ; 
and licentiousness abounded to such a degree, tbat history 



informs us the people became brutalised. 



It 



is strange 



that Winckelman should give so much to the influence of 
climate, seeing that where the olive still ripens, in the 
long summer of Greece, there exists not a vestige of those 
virtues which were the admiration of the world ; and cen- 
turies have passed without a poet or philosopher appearing 
in the country of Homer and Plato. 

In the soil and climate of Italy, there have existed 
together states of society the most dissimilar. The arts 
and civilisation of Egypt and Phoenicia had taken root 
among the Etruscans, and the cities of Central Italy had 
made a great advance in civilisation, and certainly in the 
arts, when Rome* arose to crush them. Her policy, and 
the leaning of her most virtuous citizens, were adverse to 



* A more just estimate is now made than formerly of the early 
Romans, and of the virtues of the surrounding tribes. (Dr. Arnold's 
" History of Rome.") The remains discovered in the tombs of Tar- 
quinii, Tuscania, Argyllae, Veii, and Clusium, leave no doubt of the 
high advancement of art in these cities, centuries before the founda- 
tion of Rome — at least of its fabled rise under Romulus. These 



• . • 



Cities were the adversaries of the early Romans ; and, though subdued, 
furnished to their masters the elements of government and of civil 
policy. Rome had conquered the surrounding states, and sought to 
blot out all memory of them ; when new settlements of Greeks (giving 
name to the district of Magna Grtecia) again offered to her a more 
extended field of enterprise, in which the arts of peace were once more 
subjugated under her iron sway. 

If I did not believe that Providence rules in the march of nations, I 
should say, that the world would have more rapidly advanced in phi- 
losophy, literature, and art, but for that stern, remorseless people, ob- 
stinate against instruction. We are biassed in favour of Rome from her 
language containing the only record of much that, but for her conquests, 
would have earlier, and with happier influence, spread over the western 
world. 




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INTRODUCTION 



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the ar 

soften 



They feared that whilst they refined, they should 



away 
Koman soldi 



those 



gged and sterner qualit 



of th 



which were 



hestowing 



on 



the 



m 



the 



empire of the world. But the old virtues at length de- 
clined, and the Romans came to covet the luxuries of 
conquered nations, whom they could not rival in refine- 
ment or the arts ; so that Rome became the centre and 
the common receptacle of the spoils of Egypt, Greece, and 

Italy. 

ft' 

The inquiry into the effects of climate were an idle 
one, if it did not lead to the conviction, that institutions, 
much more than climate, influence the faculties of man. 
Indolence steals upon communities as well as individuals. 
In the same regions, and in the same climate, the in- 
habitants are at one time overwhelmed in ignorance and 
superstition, and at another, elevated to the most admired 



intellectual 



When the energies of a peopl 



roused, there is an improvement in the arts of peace, 
however gloomy and foreboding the struggle may at first 

public events does not 



appear 



The mind excited 




subside into indolence. In Athens the struggle for power, 
and the desire of independence, forced the highest talents 

station.* It was during the contests of the 



the highest 



free states of Italy that the arts revived 



Perhap 



we should attribute the cultivation of lite 



rature and the arts in 



Italy 



mor 



to the smallness of 



r 

the states than to the forms of their governments, for 



of every kind. While in Rome the Pop 



an 



absolute 



g 



Venice the nobility had raised 



an oligarchic authority on the necks of the peopl 



d 






* See Roscoe's introductory chapter to the "Life of Lorenzo 



di 



Medici 






.^^ 









INTRODUCTION. 



7 



both were distinguished from the democratic turbulence of 
Florence. 

In the great kingdoms of Modern Europe, princes are 
surrounded by a dense body of courtiers, political agents, 
and soldiers, numerous and clamorous in proportion to the 



offices of command and pi 

are distinguished by excellence 

jostled aside, and the prince knows little of men of g 
far less does h 



be bestowed. All who 
in liberal studies are 



think of making them friends 



But 



in the smaller states of Italy, princes sought the acquaint- 
ance of men remarkable for their talents, for the cultivation 
of philosophy, of the language of Greece, or of Ancient 
Rome, for the improvement of their native Italian, and of 



poetry, or of the fine arts ; 
easily the presence or ab 



and it is pleasant to notice how 
;ence of such men affected the 



Amidst the more than barbari 



of modern courts. 



tainly of 



men would be 



splendour of the court, 
magnificence and riches 

our own, the exit or entrance of such 
unmarked. 

Perhaps the circumstance that all m ^ 
formerly conducted in Latin, and the conse°quent necessity 
for courtiers being acquainted with the learned languages. 



g 



were 



gave a liberal 



the men of influence in the several 



es, and a disposition to promote hterature and science. 
Some authors have attributed the genius of the Greeks, 
and their love of philosophy and art, to the conformation 

On this subject 
But does not 



of the brain,— to the form of the skull ! 
I may have occasion to touch hereafter 
history determ 



the 



extirpated 
people 



que 




the Roman 



The Greeks were -not 
quests. The skulls of a 



» do not change. During all the period of the 
-Byzantine Empire, between the reigns of Constantino and 







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8 



INTRODUCTION. 



PalsBologus, luxury, sloth, and efFeminacy prevailed, whilst 
the people of the West of Europe were rising in moral and 
intellectual energy, and in the cultivation of the mind.* 

During the latter periods of Ancient Rome 



fashion arose w 



hich 



nduced much 



the advancement 

The 



of art, and filled the city with its thousand statues. 
Romans, like the Greeks, sought a species of immortality 

the erection of their husts and statues ; they con- 





g up 



secrated their friends 

temples. These heing g 

whom they worshipped, were preserved 

personag 



their busts in their 



in honour of the divinity 

even when the 



they represented had incurred the odium of 
the people, and when their statues placed in public 



cast down. This desire of obtamm 



the busts of illus 



ment explains the reason of the multitude of those 

are chiefly in mar- 



found collected in the Vatican 



they 



ble ; for the statues and busts in bronze and other metals, 
tempted the cupidity of men in the middle ages, and 

We are struck, too, with the number 



melted down 



of the busts of celebrated men in propor 
of princes, which Visconti beheves to have been 



those 



the desire which, in the better ag 



both of Greece and 



Rome, prevailed among private citizens to have them 
copied, as appropriate ornaments for their libraries, 

porticos, and gardens. 

The remains of antiquity in Italy, the presence, though 



in ruins, of temples, statues. 



pha 



altars, and re- 



lievos, account for the earlv revival of art in that country 



^1 



* See Prichard's " Physical History of Man." He justly controverts 



the idea of Blumenbach. 



t On this subject, see the Preface to Visconti's " Iconographie. 



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INTRODUCTION. 



9 



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rti 



s 



These must have been the studies of Donatello * and 
Ghiberti, as afterwards of Buonarotti ; for sculpture led 
the way to painting. Our countrymen, pursuing their 
tudies there, are placed under similar influences, and give 
proof that it is neither genius nor devotion to the imitative 
arts which is wanting in the north. But the time is past 
when the people knelt down before the works of a sculp- 
tor's hands ; when the Amphictyons, the council of all 
Greece, gave him solemn thanks, and assigned him a 
dwelling at the public expense in every city ! t 

It is in vain that we dream of equalling the great 
works of antiquity ; they were raised under tyranny and 
false religions. We must hope for excellence, in a dif- 
ferent condition, as the fruit of a religion of love, joy, 
and peace. If the arts of design bear no relation to 
that which has the greatest influence on mankind j if 



* If all the great works of Grecian art had been at once disclosed, it 
might not have produced the happy effect of the successive exhumation 
of the splendid works of antiquity; the excitement or, as Cicognara has 
expressed it, ^' un certo fermento," kept up by the contest of princes for 
these works of art, gave importance to all who sought to imitate them, 
and raised them in the estimation of even the most vulgar minds. The 
progress in the history of art seems to have been — First, the esta- 
blishment of new families; then, the erection of splendid palaces and 
the necessity or convenience of digging for materials in the foundation 
of ancient buildings ; next, the exhumation of fine statues, and the 
emulation thence arising; lastly, the desire of having professors and 
universities arose, and this took place at a time when the pontiffs were 
banished from Rome, 

t Tiraboschi refers to an ancient chronicle regarding the Dominican 
church of Reggio, erected in 1233, for an example of the enthusiasm 
under which great edifices w^ere built, and where all grades of society 
wrought as common labourers, like emmets in an ant- hill. '' Tarn parvi, 
quam magni, tam nobiles, quam pedites, tarn rustic!, quam cives, ferebant 
lapides, sablonem, et caleinam, supra dorsum eorum .... et beatus ille 
qui plus portare poterat," &c, 

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10 



INTRODUCTION. 



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they stand related neithe 
of history, nor to the pro 



el 



b 



the records 



xress of empire, — they must be 

associated with ancient times; 

d with us, nothing more than a handmaid to domestic 



ever. 



dead 



ornament and individual refinement and 



Our artists should be brought to consider the changed 



No one in these modern times, however 

de of mankind, is exalted, 

the 



frame of society 

much he mav deserve th 

as they would desire to see the proficient in art. 




}' 



madden themselves by the contemplation of 
tiquity, v/hich leads to disappointment and repining age. 



The last 



I had with Flaxman, whose g 



better estimated abroad than at home, was whilst the 



old man was elevated o: 
studio (Anglice, a shed) 




block of marble 



his 



Ay 



j> 



says he, '* we shall see 



hat is thought of these things two hundred years hence 



Y 



but thev will h 



the 



d of these thing 



eotyp 



not in marble. Printing banished sculpt 



d no man now, or hei 
11. like Fabius Maximu 



addr 



es 



g the peopl 



Scipio, point to the 



ofh 



Without cherishing vain regrets, th 



a source 



of 



iltivated among us ; and 



infinite dehght in art, even as c 

we may hold the remains of antiquity as supei 



mo 



del 



Gods and goddesses we shall not again see in 



marble, but the human figure in its perfection we certainly 
may. The Greeks gave prizes for excelling beauty. Among 
them a youth might be celebrated for the perfection of his 
evebrow j and the proportions of an Aspasia were trans- 
ferred to the statue of a goddess. The forms of strength 

of the victor in the games were sci- 

it was for wrest- 



and the proportions 



fically noted 



d 



lin 



o 



r 



g, or pitch 



ded, whether 
the discus. 



Here, th 



were 



If 



'\ 





■V -r " ^ -a 






1 



-- 



INTRODUCTION. 



11 




Studies for the sculptor, and a public to judge of the per 

fection of his 
naked figure, 



k 



O 



connoisseurs never see 



the 



or, if they do, it is 



demy fi 



probably some hired artisan, 
developed by the labour of h 



dth h 



nequally 



pale and shiver 



and offer 



g 



none of those fine carnations which mon 
xposure gives to the body, as we see in the face 



nor having that elegant freedom of hmb, which youth 



under a 



g 



climate and the various exercises of th 



gymnasium, acquired 



* 



For the improvement of art, there 



be a feel 



» 



the public in correspondence with the artist's aspirations.! 



In visiting the Sistine Chapel 



I 



d to the celebrated 



ompanied me, "How could Michael Angelo 



venture to do such thing 



\^ 



such 



man to arise 



among us, he would meet with ridicule, or live in neglect 



* So conscious were some of the Grecian states of the advantages 
derived from exercise, that they denied them to their slaves. 

t I cannot withhold the following instance of public feeling in 

England 



When X^KJLKX X^l^XL, K.xv^..^ 



the figures of the 



-.-ing.anu . rriicii x^w^va ^.^-.x. ^.^..^.^•. .« _- ^ ^ 

beautiful frieze from the Parthenon of Athens, and while they renmmed 
in his court-yard in Piccadilly, he proposed a great treat to his friends. 
Pie had entertained an ingenious notion that, by exposing the natural 
figures of some of our modern athletics in contrast with the marbles, the 
perfection of the antique would be felt, and that we should see that^the 
sculptors of the best time of Greece did not deviate from nature. The 
noblemen and gentlemen whom he conceived would take an interest in 
this display were invited. He had the boxers, the choice men of what 
is termed - the fancy." They stripped and sparred before the ancient 
statues, and for one instant it was a very fine exhibition ; but no sooner 
was the bulky form of Jackson, no longer young, opposed to the fine 
elastic figure of the champion of all England, than a cry arose, and 

and ancient art and the M-orks of Phidias 
were forgotten. Such I fear is the feeling of even the better part 
of the English public. Let not the young sculptor be too sanguine of 
support. 



"the 



?? 



ring" pressed forward 



? 



t 



! 



/■ 



I 

/ 




k _ . 




r ■- - ■ >■ 





^, 



12 



INTRODUCTION. 




J 
I 



But my friend said, " Do you not remember the impa- 
tience of Julius to see these paintings 



durinof 



their 



exe- 



cution? For Michael Angelo being unwilling to let his 
unfinished work be seen, the Pope threatened to break 
down the whole scaffolding on which the painting was 



raised." It was by such enthusiasm, and the consequent 
encouragement of art, that Julius has justly participated 
in the fame of those who made his days an era in the 

world. 

It is, perhaps, favourable to painting, that it has not to 

contend with the excellence of antiquity. In visiting the 



schools of Florence and Bologna, and the galleries of 



the Vatican, we can trace the successive works of the 
early painters and the progress of modern painting. In 
the commencement, the subjects are such as could only be 
suggested by monkish superstition and enthusiasm. They 
are the representations of the wasted figures of anchorites, 
or if of women, they are suffering martyrdom. Even the 
Saviour, represented so full of beauty in after-time, is 



painted from the dead of the lazar-house or hospital, 
purpose must have been to subdue the mind.* 



The 
With 



better times the influence of the Church was more 



happily exercised, and finer feelings prevailed. 



The sub- 



1 1 ^ 




* 



* In the old library in Basle there is a remarkable painting of Christ 
by the younger Holbein. The painter must have been where anatomy 
was to be learned ; for I am much mistaken if he has not painted from 
the dead body in an hospital. It is horribly true. " There is here the 
true colour of the dead body : (the Italian painters generally paint the 
dead of an ivory white). Here is the rigid, stringy appearance of the 
muscles about the knee. The w^ounds where the nails have penetrated, 
the hands and feet are dark red, with extravasation round the wound, 
and the hand itself of the livid colour of mortification. The eyes, too, 
shew from whence he drew ; the eyelids are open, the pupil raised, and a 
little turned out. Holbein born here in 1489." — Note from Journal. 



I 





-T- 







»- 



J 



INTRODUCTION. 



13 





jects were from the Script 



and noble efforts were 



made, attesting a deep feeling of every condition of hu- 



manity. What we see in the churches of Italy, and 
almost in every church, is the representation of innocence 
and tenderness in the Madonna and Child, and in the 
young St. John. Contrasted with the truth, and beauty, 
and innocence of the Virgin, there is the mature beauty 

In the dead Christ, 
in the swooning of the Mother of the Saviour, and in the 
Marys, there is the utmost scope 
painter. We see there, also, the grave character of mature 
years in the Prophets and Evangelists, and the grandeur 

of expression in Moses. In short, we have the whole 
range of human character and expression, from the divine 



and abandonment of the Magdalen. 



for the genius of the 



loveliness and purity of the Infant S 



of ang 



d 



■\ 



the strength, fierceness, and brutality of th 



cutioners. There, also, we may 



the effort made, the 



g 



of all, in imitation of the ancients, to infuse 



divinity into the human beauty of that countenance, which, 

y, was superior to passion, and 



though not without feelin 
in which benevolence was 
human infirmity. These 



be represented unclouded by 



the subj 



to 



forth 



the exertions of genius, while the rewards were the riches 



of the church, and 



the 



public exhibition 



th 



deep feelings of the people. Thus did 



later period tend to restore what it had almost destroyed 



on the overthrow of Pagan idolatry 



For the 



born 



zeal of the first Christians s( 

ment of the antique religion, 

destroying the mosaics and pictures, effacing- everv me 



ught to efface every monu 
throwing down the statues 



every 



morial, and razing the ancient temples, or converting them 

into Christian churches. 

The Church of Rome has favoured the arts in a 



\ 



I 






'v 




^- '. '- 




^ r - 





/ 



/ 




14 



INTRODUCTION. 



J 



* 




remarkable manner. The ceremonial and decorations of 
the altar have been contrived with great felicity. He is 
insensible to beauty who, being a painter, does not there 
catch ideas of light and shade, and colour. The Gothic 
or rich Roman architecture, the carved skreen, the 



statues softened 




a 



subdued 



te> 



ht, form altogether a 



The effects of light and colour are 



The painted glass of the high 



magnificent scene, 
not matters of accident 
window represents to the superficial observer no more 
than the rich garments of the figures painted there. 
But the combination of colours evinces science ; the 
yellows and greens, in due proportion with the crimsons 
and blues, throw beams of an autumnal tint among the 
shafts and pillars, and colour the volumes of rising in- 
cense. The officials of the altar, the priests in rich vest- 
ments, borrowed from the Levites under the old law, 
are somewhat removed from the spectator and obscured 
the smoke of the incense.* The young men flinging 

the silver censers, in 

the volumes of incense rise, give the effect of a tableau, 




themselves beautiful, and making 



defying imitation 



? 



for where can there be such a com- 



bination to the eye, joined to the emotions inspired by 
the pealing organ, the deep chant, and the response 



of the youthful choristers, whose voices seem to come 
from the vaulted roof? 



There is something too in the 



* If the painter requires to know these vestments, he will find an 
account of them in Eustace's " Classical Tour through Italy," vol. ii. 
Antiquity characterises every thing in the Roman Church; and to the 
English traveller this affords additional interest. The ceremonies are 
ancient ; the language of the service is that which prevailed at the 
period of the introduction of Christianity ; the vestments are Jewish 

* 

at all events very ancient and majestic. Like every thing else in painting, 
the artist should know the origin and uses of the drapery, or his lines and 
folds will be unmeaning, — (See Preface to Vasari.) 












^ 



INTRODUCTION. 



15 



— . 



belief that tlie chant of the psalms is the early Jewish 



measure. 



It 

Reforo 
jecting 
monial 



was 



ircely possible, during the str 
to keep the middle course ; 



'g 



of th 



e 



d 



m re- 



the 



pt and superstiti 



P 



of its cere- 



al, to retain the better part of the Roman Church. 

r 

Enthusiasm would have the recesses of each man's breast 
to be the only sanctuary; that, even while on earth, and 
burdened with the weakness, and subject to the influences, 
of an earth-born creature, he should attain that state of 
purity and holiness, when, as in the Apocalypse, there is 
" no temple." Philosophy came to countenance the po- 
verty and the meanness of our places of public worship. 
Climate, it was inferred, influenced the genius of a people 
and, therefore, their government, and mode of worship. 



The offices of religion in hot climates were said to require 



some 



ble object before the eyes, and hence the ve- 



neration paid to statues and pain 



whilst in the 



colder climes we were to substitute internal contemplation 
and the exercise of reason for passion.* 

We trust, or hope, that in the breasts of those who fill 
the family pew, in these northern churches, there may be 
more genuine devotion j but to appearance all is pale and 
cold : while to the subject we are now considering, at least, 
no aid is aff'orded. What a contrast is offered to the eye 
of the painter by the figures seen in the churches of the 



Roman Catholic cc 
those in our own ! 



of the south, as compared with 
There are seen men in the remote 



aisles 



or 



chapels, cast down in prayer, and abandoned 



* Some such thoughts must have come early into my mind, in trying 
my pencil on the ruins of an ancient abbey ; and when, afterwards 
within the kirk, I looked to the rafters, as of a barn, and saw the 
swallows flying about during divine service. 






* - :^',r>.jj 



E**»* 




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'.inri^ 



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t* 




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16 



INTRODUCTION 



their feelings with that unrestrained expression which 
belongs to the Italian from his infancy : and even the 
beggars who creep about the porches of the churches are 
like nothing we see nearer home. In them we recognise 
the figures familiar to us in the paintings of the great 
masters. In visiting the church of the Annunziata in Genoa, 
I found a beggar lying in my way, the precise figure of the 
lame man in the cartoon of Raphael. He lay extended at 
full length upon the steps, crawling with the aid of a short 
crutch, on which he rested with both his hands. In 
Roman Catholic countries the church-door is open, and a 
heavy curtain excludes the light and heat ; and there lie 
about those figures in rags, singularly picturesque. 



In short, the priests in 



th 



rich habiliments, stu- 



diously 
the o 



ged for effect 



the costume of the monks of 



J 



der of St. Francis and the Capuchin 



the 



men 



and women from the country, and the mendicants prostrate 
in the churches, and in circumstances as to light and 
shade, and colour, nowhere else to be seen, — have been, 

r 

and are, the studies of the Italian painters. 



Again, in passin 



from th 



g 



of Rome to th 



country and villages around, we cannot doubt where Ra- 
phael and Dominichino found their studies and prettiest 

r 

models. The holyday dress of the young women in the 



IS 



the 
and 



same with that which we see in their 



as 



each village has something distin 



and characteristic, and still picturesque in its 



villages 

painting 

guishing 

costume, much is left for good taste to select and 

combine. 

When a man of genius, nurtured in his art at Rome^ 

where every thing conspires to make him value his occu- 
pations, returns home to comparative neglect, he is not to 
be envied. He wants sympathy and associates. David 



:t 




1^ 




■ Lff 







1, 



INTRODUCTION. 



17 



Allan, the Scottisli Hogarth,* in a letter to Gi 
milton, whom he had left in Rome, laments the 



Ha 



of 



g models, and the defective sensibility of his coun- 



I 



trymen. He says, 
nance like that of 



! rarely see in this country a c( 
Franciscan or an Italian begg 



full of character, so useful to the study of history painting 



But, he adds, we have 



and with the assistance of 



models and casts from the Greek statues, much 



may be accomplished 



* See his beautiful edition of the " Gentle Shepherd." While a 
child, I remember him as a kind and somewhat facetious old gentleman, 
but chiefly because he gave me drawings to copy and called me " Brother 
Brush." 



,.._„-/x_4^^ 



^S^^Vr. 




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.^IL lYl 




.^^. 



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r ^1 ' 



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■ ' - ■ -T 



■■. ••■-■'. ^j •■--iffta 



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#UW| 



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.'. '•• ' 



li-a^TO ty Charles Bell 




o 






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criven. 



■1 





7. _ 



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f 



ESSAY 




I 
1 








m 



OF THE PERMANENT FORM OF THE HEAD AND FACE, IN 

CONTRADISTINCTION TO EXPRESSION. 



Much has been written, and gracefully and agreeably 
written, on the sources of Beauty ; yet I cannot help 



thinking that, by losing sight of nature, and what may 



be justly called the philosophy of the subject, the right 
principle has not been attained. 

Beauty of countenance may be defined in words, as well 
as demonstrated in art. 

A face may be beautiful in sleep, and a statue without 
expression may be highly beautiful. On the other hand, 

face the most ordinary. 

the 



expression may g 



charm 



Hence it appears that our inquiry divides itself 



permanent form of the head and face 
the features, or the expression. 



d the motion of 



But it will be said, there is expression in the sleeping 



fi 



& 



or m 



the 



Is it not rather that 



these the capacity for expression? that our minds are 
active in imagining what may be the motions of these fea- 



tures when awake or animated 



Thus 



ipeak of 



expressive face before we have seen a movement g 
cheerful, or any indication in the features of what prevails 



in the heart. Avoiding 



mei 



distinction in words, let 



D 



I 



' I 



, I 



'i 



if 



.— -r 



. ' ^.- '- 






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Ml 





20 



FORM OF THE HEAD AND FACE. 



US consider first, Why a certain proportion and form of 
face is beautiful, and conveys the notion of capacity of 
expression ; and, secondly, the movements or the actual 
expression of emotion. I believe that it is the confusion 
between the capacity of expression, and the actual indica- 
tion of thought, which is the cause of the extraordinary 
difficulty in which the subject is involved, and which has 
made it be called a mystery : La beaute est un des plus 
g7'ands mystdres de la nature, 



A countenance may 



be distinguished by being ex- 



pressive of thought 5 that is, it may indicate the possession 
of the intellectual powers. It is manly, it is human ; and 

A, 

yet not a motion is seen to shew what feeling or senti- 
ment prevails. On the other liand, there may be a move- 
ment of the features, and the quality of thought, 



af 



fection, love, joy, sorrow, gratitude, or sympathy with suf 



fering 



■J 

mmediately declared 



A countenance which 



may 



in ordinary conditions, has nothing remarkable, 
become beautiful in expression. It is expression which 
raises affection, which dwells pleasantly or painfully on 



the memory 



When we look forward to the meeting with 



those we love, it is the illuminated face we hurry to meet 



and 
that 



r ■ 

who bave lost a friend but must acknowledg 



it is 



the 



expression, more than the per 



manent form, which is painfully dear to them. 

It is a prevailing opinion that beauty of countenance 
consists in the capacity of expression, and in the harmony 

- . ' 

of the features consenting to that expression.* The author 




N 



m 






- 

* Great names may be quoted — Plato, Cicero, and St. Augustin, 



down to our own professors. 



a 



Et ut corporis est qusedam apta 



■^ 



figura membrorutn, cum coloris quadam suavitate, eaque dicitur pul- 
chritudo: Sic in animo opinionum judiciorumque sequabilitas, et con- 
stantia, cum firmitate quadam et stabilitate pulchritude 




4 




V 







f ■ 











FORM OF THE HEAD AND FACE. 



21 



of the " Essays on the Nature and Principles of Taste " 

positive beauty to the human 



denies 



any 



original or 



countenance. 



Those who have professedly written on the antique 
say, that, to arrive at the perfection of the ancient statue, 
the artist must avoid what is human, and aim at the 
divine.* But we speak of what stands materially before 



us, to be seen, touched, and measured. 



With what divine 



essence is the comparison to be made? When the artist 
models his clay, he must have recourse to some abstract 
idea of perfection in his own mind j whence has he drawn 
his idea of perfection ? This brings us to the right path 
in the inquiry : the idea of representing divinity is 
palpably absurd ; we know nothing of form but from the 
contemplation of man. 

The only interpretation of divinity in the human 
figure, as represented by the ancient sculptors, is, that the 
artists avoided individuality; that they studied to keep 
free of resemblance to any individual; giving no indica- 
tion of the spirit, or of the sentiments or affections ; 
ceiving that all these movements destroy the unity of the 
features, and are foreign to beauty in the abstract. 

In proceeding to define beauty, all that the writers on 
art have been able to affirm is, that it is the reverse of 



con- 



deformity. 



Albert Durer so expresses himself. 



If we 



xoc^imr-Cicero. Burton, in the Objects of Love, quotes thus : 
« Pulchritudo est perfeetio compositi, ex congruente ordine, mensura et 

ratione parti um consurgens." 

* " Se la figura era huraana, vi facevano tutto quello, que appartiene 
alia proprieta, e qualita dell' uomo. Se poi era divina, esse tralasciavano 
la qualita umane e sceglievano unicamente le divine. -Meng^' Again, 
Winckelman, « La beaut§ supreme reside en Dieu. L xdee de la beaute 
humaine se perfectionne a raison de sa conformite et de son harmonie 



avec FEtre Supreme," &c. 



Winckelman, Histoire 



f 



I 



f- 



I 

I 



I 



i 



^ 




a- 








•^ 




FORM OF THE HEAD AND FACE. 



m 



i% 



I If 



» 



I 



r 

intend the representation of beauty, then let us mark de- 
formity, and teach ourselves to avoid it. The more remote 
from deformity, the nearer the approach to beauty. So 
Mengs : " La hellezza e Vopposito della hruttezza" 
Leonardo da Vinci, attributed much to comparison. 



searched for ugliness 



If he saw an uncommon 



He 

-if 



it were a 



of expression, — he would follow it, 
and contrive to look at the individual in all aspects. 
He would pursue a ci 



riosity of this kind for a whol 



day, until he was able to go home and draw it. 



* 



We 



hav 



here the practical 



of the theory, which is 



to study the deformities, in order to learn to avoid them ; 
and certainly the effect was admirable, since we know, as 
his biographer has written, that his painting of beauty 
raised love in all beholders.t 



n 



*^ *l- 



I I 



r 

* " Piglio tanto gusto nel dipingere cose bizzarre et alterate, che 
s'egli s'imbatteva in qualche villano che con viso strano et alquanto fuor 
del ordinario, dasse un poco nel ridiculo invaghito dalla bizzarria dell'ob- 
bietto, I'haverebbe sequitato un giorno intiero, fin a tanto c'havendone 
una perfetta idea, ritornato a casa lo disegnava come se I'havesse havuto 



presente 



?> 



VasarL 



-j- This great painter ascribed much importance to contrast in paint- 
ing, bringing extremes together, — cKil brutto sia vicina al bello^ et il 
vecchio al giovane^ et il dehole al forte ; and such appears, on many 
occasions, to have been the principle which directed the old masters, 
" The statue of Venus may stand alone ; but not so the painting of 
the goddess by Titian, — there are two hideous old women introduced 



for contrast. — The Florentine Gallery. We may take a further illus- 
tration from the finest picture in Italy — 



the Archangel Michael sub- 



duing Satan, which is in the convent of the Capuchins in Rome, painted 
by Guido. The beauty of the angel is perfect; the face is undisturbed 
by passion. It conveys to us with how little effort the superior nature 
subdues the monster who lies howling, and on which he puts his feet. 
The expansion of the wings is grand; and the manner in which the 
drapery encircles him indicates the motion of descent, — that he has 
alighted I We have all the contrast between a face convulsed by bad 
passion, and the serenity and beauty of virtue." — Notes from Journal. 




1 



« 




-n 




% 








"i 







4 



FORM OF THE HEAD AND FACE. 



Q3 



If a painter entertains the idea that there is some 
undefined beauty, distinct from nature, which is in his 

mind, his works will want that variety which is 



own 



m 



nature, and we shall see in his paintings the same 

We are informed 



countenance continually reproduced 

that Raphael, in painting the head of Galatea, found 



beauty deserving to be his model; he is reported to 
have said, that there is nothing so rare as perfect 

beauty 



m woman 



and that he substituted for nature 




his own fancy 




th 



a certain idea inspired 
mistake : painters have nothi 
has been put there. There 
engage ourselves from material thmg 
sphere of intellectual ideas," and least 



This is a 



heads but what 



no power in us " to dis 



and 

of a 



what 



gards man 



I 



the Palazzo Farnesina, there are frescoes 




Raphael and his scholars, demonstrating to me 



the 



abled him to 
that he first 



nature of those studies which at length ei 

compose, not to copy, the beautiful Galatea : 

drew from what he saw, and finally avoided imperfections, 

and combined excellencies.* 

We shall arrive at a better understanding of this 
subject, by inquiring into the peculiar form and beauty of 
the antique. 



* "Palazzo Farnesina. Saw the Frescoes of Raphael. Some, finished 



by his scholars from his outline 



only one finished by himself. 



Wh 



most admire is the beauty and variety of his female heads, especially the 
different manner in which he has bound up the hair and let it flow about 
the neck and shoulders ; and yet he may have found all this, selecting 
from what may be seen in the streets. Here is the Galatea I"— iV^ofe 
from JoiirnaL 




-I 



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.-'. 



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- X^ -J 



III liMi 






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4 



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N 



24 



OF THE PERMANENT FORM OF THE HEAD, AND THE 

PROPORTIONS OF THE HEAD AND FACE. 



Pleased as all are with the variety in the human coun- 
tenance, and desirous of discovering why, in the antique 
statue, that is beautiful, which is not found in nature, we 
•seek for some means of more accurate survey, some rule by 
which we may measure proportions. 



The scientific principle is deducible from this. 



that 



the outward forms result from the degree of developement 
of the contained organs. The most obvious plan, and that 
which has been most generally adopted, of examining the 



proportions, is 




a comparison of the size of the head 



with that of the face ; understanding by the head, the 
brain-case, as containing the organ of intellect; and by 
the face, the seat of the collected organs of the senses. 

But we are not prompted, naturally, to institute this 
comparison, or estimate the dimensions of the whole 
head. Both nature and custom teach us, every moment, 

to scan the features ; and to look there for what is to ani- 
mate, to charm, or to grieve us. Every scheme by which 
it shall be proposed to elicit the reasons of our feelings of 
admiration, love, or disgust, by measuring the comparative 
areas of the head and face, will fail. 

Nor will that comparison enable us to mark the grada- 
tions in the heads of animals ; because the peculiarities in 
the skulls of brutes either result from, or are connected 
with, the developement of particular organs. Those organs 



have relation to the 



of the animal, to its means 



of procuring nourishment, the pursuit of its prey, or the 
mode of avoiding its enemies j and the difference in the 
relative size of their instruments of prehension, or in 
that of their ears, eyes, or organs of smelling, will entirely 



» 








PROPORTIONS OF THE HEAD AND FACE. 



25 



disturb the line of demarcation between the^brain-case and 



the face 



The vast mass of the brain in man, must have 
effect on the'conformation of the whole head : it causes 



the upperipart of the face to be thrown forward 



th 



once 



distinguishing him from the brute, and marking 



periority of intellect. But when we consider the condition 
of the lower animals, we must take into our calculation, 



properties, but the instincts of brutes 



and 



the measurement of the face 
of the brain, fails us altogethe 



as compared with the 



I must speak with respect of this 



g. 



of mea 



suring the face against the head, since it has been enter 
tained by John Hunter, Camper, Blumenbach, and Cuvier 
I shall, however, direct what I have to say on the subjec 
principally to the works of Camper. 

If we are to study the form of the human head, seen ii 
profile, we must obtain a line, which shall be permanent 
on which we can raise a perpendicular, and so commence £ 
more accurate survey than by the unassisted eye. 




If we present a skull in profile, or draw it thus with 
the pen, we may begin by tracing a horizontal line, which 
shall pass through the foramen of the ear and the alveoli or 
sockets of the front or incisor teeth of the upper jaw. On 






♦ 



f 






I 



- J 



, —r -— -'■"♦"^ V X -. 



1 T l- 



■.--- -h-^.-' 



T" .'^ 



k ^ 




^;i^^v^wi 




26 



PROPORTIONS OF THE HEAD AND FACE. 



i i 



i 



i 







I 







^ 



X 



this we can raise an oblique line, touching the sockets 
of the teeth and the most prominent point of the forehead, 
or of the frontal bone. This is the facial line of Camper ; 



and by its obliquity it will be, to a certain degree, the 
measure of the relative proportion of the areas or spaces 
occupied by the brain and the face. Another line may be 
drawn, which will divide the brain-case from the face ; 
commencing at the foramen of the ear, it will touch the 
upper margin of the orbit. 





On looking to these illustrations of Albert Durer, it is 



pparent th 



he 



tained and practised this mode of 



distinguishing the forms of the head. 

But the idea of the facial line was suggested to Camper 
on examining certain antique gems. He observed that, in 
imitating these, the artists failed, from neglecting to throw 
forward the head, so as to make the line which touched the 
forehead and teeth nearly perpendicular. For by this line 
he thought that he had got the key to the whole difficulty, 
as marking the distinctions in the natural head, compared 





#• 



•it^- 








PROPORTIONS OF THE HEAD AND FACE. 



27 



with the antiq 



He conceived that wh 



profile 



he drew a 



that the forehead and lips touched the 



dicular line, he obtained the charact 



of 



perpen- 
antique 




2 







/ 



ir 




■* 



head 



I 



If, on the other hand, he let this line fall back, and 



accommodated the outline of the head to it, he diminished 



the beauty and perfection of the form 



For exampl 



if 



the Ime formed an angle of seventy, it became the head of 
Negro J if declining backwards still farther, bv the 



dep 



of the brain 



sa\' 



sixty, it declared the 



face of an orang-outang '; and so, down to the dog 

To a certain extent, this ingenious mode will be found 

Had the Count Caylus been guided by it in his 



useful 



great work on Antiquities, his figures, in many 



would have been better drawn 



But even in respect to the 



#• 



r J 



- V 






\ 



¥ 



I 



» 



\ 





1 




h 



28 



PROPORTIONS OF THE HEAD AND FACE. 



state of the human brain, this line does not fully answer the 
purpose. In the skulls of certain nations the depression 
of the forehead is so great, that the line drawn from the 
alveolar processes to the frontal sinus, does not even touch 

the frontal bone. 

Camper's position is this, — that as, by the diminution 
of the cranium and the further inclination of the facial line, 
the head is depressed in character to that of the Negro ; 



^ 



X 




vV., 



L. 




V V 



r} 







*' ■* -i 'r 




SO, by raising and throwing the skull upwards and for- 
wards, until the facial line reaches the perpendicular, as 
in the preceding page, the great object is attained of 
resemblance to the antique head. 

But his own figures contradict his conclusion j for, 




1 



^ 



^ 





1 






< 



» 



■ 




i ^iT' 







-f^^--— 



^ 



PROPORTIONS OF THE HEAD AND FACE. 



29 



even 



although he has thrown the head forward in them, 
beyond the perpendicular of the facial line, yet, as he has 

preserved the features of common nature, we refuse to 



I 



-- J 




I 



acknowledge their similarity to the beautiful forms of 
the antique marbles. It is true, that, by advancing the 
forehead, it is raised ; the face is shortened, and the eye 
brought to the centre of the head. But with all this, 
there is much wanting, — that which measurement or a 
mere line will not shew us. 

The truth is, that we are more moved by the features 
than bv the form of the whole head. Unless there be a 



i 



t 




»- I - 



mmiOk 



•Smk 




\ 



30 



PROPORTIONS OF THE HEAD AND FACE. 



I 



I 



conformity in every feature to the general shape of the 
head, throwing the forehead forward on the face produces 
deformity;* and the question returns with full force: 



I 





9 





VK' 



(i 



t 



1', 



m 




I 



» 




How is it that we are led to concede that the antique head 
of the Apollo or of the Jupiter is beautiful, when the facial 
line makes a hundred degrees with the horizontal line? 
In other words, How do we admit that to be beautiful 
which is not natural ? Simply for the same reason that if 
we discover a broken portion of an antique, a nose, or a 
chin, of marble, we can say, without deliberation, this 
must have belonged to a work of antiquity ; which proves 
that the character is distinguishable in every part, 
each feature, as well as in the whole head. 



m 



We must assume a new principle, and it is this 



that 



* I have here sketched the profile of a poor begging Negro in con- 
trast with the head of M. Agrippa, in which the artist has dignified the 
character on the principle stated by Camper; but, it is here apparent 
that the manly dignity results from the character of each feature, even 
more than from the facial line. It is seen in the eye, in the nose, mouth, 
and chin ; each of which are in as much contrast with those of the Negro, 
as is the shape of the whole head. 



m 



•* 




4 




I 




»*i 






-^ 



PROPORTIONS OF THE HEAD AND FACE. 



31 



* 







^ 



n 




i 



^ 
^ 



in the face there is a character of nohleness observable, 
depending on the developement of certain organs which 
indicate the prevalence of the higher qualities allied to 
thought, and therefore human. A great mistake has pre- 
vailed in supposing that the expansion of some organs in 
the face of man, marks a participation in the character of 
the brute : that the fully developed nose indicates the 
grovelling propensities, and the extended mouth, the fero- 
city, of the lower animals. Let us correct this misconcep- 
tion by considering the properties or uses of the mouth. It 
is for feeding certainly, but it is also for speech. Extend 

project the teeth, widen the mouth, and a 



the 



jaws 



carnivorous propensity is declared ; but concentrate the 
mouth, give to the chin fulness and roundness, and due 
form to the lips ; shew through them the quality of elo- 
quence, of intelligence, and of human sentiments, — and 
the nobleness is enhanced, which was only in part indicated, 

by the projection of the forehead. Now, look to the antique 
head and say, is the mouth for masticating, or for speech 
and expression of sentiment ? So of the nose. Here, even 
Cuvier mistook the principle. The nose on a man's face 
has nothing in common with the snout of a beast. The 
prominence of the nose, and of the lower part of the fore- 
head, and the developement of the cavities in the centre of 
the face, ai e all concerned in the voice. 



This 



IS ascer- 



tained by the manliness of voice coming with the full de- 
velopement of these parts.* Nothing sensual is indicated by 
the form of the human nose j although, by depressing it and 



joining it to the lip, — the condition of the brute, - 
the satyr, the idea of something sensual is conveyed. 



as m 



A 



comparison 



of the eve 



and the ear brings out the 



principle more distinctly. Enlarge the orbit, magnify the 

* These cavities do not exist in the child, and only attain their full 
size in the adult. 



I 
I 



I 

I 



It 



t ---■■ r ' 




—.1.1 



fc 






p-1 



N 



n 

► 



» 



I 



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ft *>* 



pf 



f J 

! 







rt 



F'-;* 





32 



FORM AND PROPORTIONS OF THE SKULL, 



eyes ; let them be full, clear, piercing, full of fire, still they 



combine with the animated human countenance. 



They 



imply a capacity consistent with human thought, a vivacity 
and intelligence partaking of mind. But large pendulous 
ears, or projecting and sharp ears, belong to the satyr ; for 
man is not to be perpetually watchful, or to be startled and 
alarmed by every noise. 

If we consider for a moment what is the great mark of 
distinction between man and brutes, we shall perceive that 
it is SPEECH : for it corresponds to his exalted intellectual 
and moral endowments. Speech implies certain inward 

propensities, a conformity of internal organs, and a peculi- 
arity of nervous distribution ; but it also implies a par- 

ticular outward character or physiognomy, a peculiar form 
of the nostrils, jaws, mouth, and lips. These latter are the 
visihle signs of this high endowment. 



Then, again, as to sentiment. 



laughter and 



weep- 



ing, and sympathy with those in pleasure or in pain, 
characterise human heings, and are indicated by the same 
organs. Hence, the capacity of expression in the nostril and 
mouth, are peculiar attributes of the human countenance. 



SOME FURTHER OBSERVATIONS ON THE FORM AND PROPOR- 
TIONS OF THE SKULL, AND BONES OF THE FACE. 

Let US return with more just principles to the study of 
the lines marking the regions of the face and head. 

A line drawn from the tube of the ear to the evebrow, 
or prominence of the frontal bone, and one from the 

r 

same point to the chin, include the face in a triangle. 
If another line be drawn to the lowest point of the 

the lower 



nose, 



we divide the face into two regions : 



occupied by the masticating apparatus of teeth, jaws, and 
their muscles. If this alone be enlarged, the eifect is an 












3 





J 




\ 



i 



n 






^ 



\ 








•^ 



AND BONES OF THE FACE. 



33 



encroachment on the nose and orhit, and the face loses all 

dignity and form. The eye is especially diminutive, and 

r 

the nose misshapen. 



•^ 




i t 

f 



It will he found that the 



J 



pond with the 



general skeleton j very tall men, especially if gig 



have large j 



and comparatively small heads 



In 



1 




f 



1 





I -1 



-I 



ricketty deformity of the hones, the character of the face 
is exhibited, as in this sketch, by a defect in the size of 



E 





34 



FORM AND PROPORTIONS OF THE SKULL, 



the jaw-bones, which have yielded to the action of their 
muscles. The qualities of mind, evinced in 



may redeem any de 



of deformity 



b 



m expression, 
the peculiarity 



of the countenance here, is that of rickets ; the prominence 
of the forehead arises merely from the acci 



mulation of 



bone, and not from a superior developement of the brain. 

!r opportunity of observing that the 



We have a furth 



projection of the facial line, unaccompanied with due 
conformity of features, only adds to the deformity.* 

Blumenbach, dissatisfied with the facial line of Camper, 
contrived a different mode of distinguishing the capacities 
of the head and face. He selected two bones of the skull ; 
the frontal bone 
cranium or brain- 



as 



representing the developement of the 
e J and the superior maxillary bone, as 
the seat of the organs of sense, which are considered as 

opposite to the intellectual properties. He placed the 




^ 






^ 



* "In visiting the Villa Albani, among the indescribable beauties 
which are every where around us, the party was amused with my atten- 
tion being fixed upon the statue of a deformed person. I was indeed 
struck with the truth of the representation : the manner in which the ribs 
are distorted, the head sunk upon the breast, and the exaggeration of 
certain muscles, consequent upon displacement of the bones. I was 
thinking of the accurate conception which the ancients had of human 
anatomy, and the precision with which they copied from nature. 

" This is said to be a statue of Esop, and on referring to Visconti, where 
he treats of the fabulist, I see that his engraving of the statue, beautiful 
as it is, is deficient in what appeared to me a due correspondence in the 
countenance, and the distortion of the body. On comparing it with a 
sketch I had made, I find that I have marked more distinctly the position 
of the head, the projection of the chin, and the fulness of the forehead 
characteristic of that defect in the face which arises from the jaw 
yielding to the action of the muscles during the age when the bones 
are soft, 

" Visconti discovers in the face a spirituality quite in contrast with 
that expression which the ancients give to buflfoons, and dwarfs, whose 
physiognomy they always make ridiculous." — Note from Journal. 













i 



I 

i 




m 






AND BONES OF THE FACE. 



35 



> 



,j— 



vertex of the skull towards him, so as to look over the hrow 
or forehead ; and then he noted how much the hones of the 
cheek, the nose, and the upper jaw projected beyond tha 
level of the frontal bone. This method he used as better 
suited to mark the peculiarities of the national head ; and 
to be employed in the skull rather than in the living head. 
It may be useful, but it is manifestly imperfect. The 
breadth of the face may be noted in this manner ; but it 
will better serve the purpose of the artist to draw the face 
in front, and to apply the principle already explained, in 
the profile. 



It was observed in the preced 



pages, that the 



different plans of measuring the head might assist in 



pointing 



the 



the form of th 



e 



head 



but 



that for distinguishing what is acknowledged by all to be 
beautiful in the antique, none of them proceeded on a just 
principle. A circumstance to which Professor Gibson, of 
Philadelphia, then my pupil, first drew my attention, con- 
vinced me that the methods which physiologists had prac- 



tised were verj' 
of an Europea] 



Drrect. He placed before me the skull 
d of a Negro ; and resting them both 



the condyles of the 



pital bone, as the head is sup 



ported on the spine, it appeared that the European fell 
forward, and the African backward. This seemed re- 
markable, when both physiologists and physiognomists 
were describing the greater comparative size of the face, 



was 



as the grand peculiarity of the African head. I 
desirous of investigating this matter further. 

The difficulty of finding a line by which to measure 
the inclination of the face would be removed, if we were 
to take the head as fairly balanced on the articulating 
surfaces of the atlas, or first bone of the spine ; but in the 



■ 



I 




» 



k 'f ' 




I ■ 





>{ 



bi 



' I 



■i 




1^ 



I 



m 




M 



i^ 



1 



36 



FORM AND PROPORTIONS OF THE SKULL, 



the 



living body, it will not be easy to fix tbe head 
equipoise. Something may be attained by comparing the 
general position of the head, in the European and the 

but nothing approaching to the accuracy which 
observation pretending to science, requires. 

To find a line which should not vary, but enable us to 
measure with correctness the angles both of the facial 
line, and of the line intermediate between the 



Negro J 



cranium 



and the face, I poised the skull upon a perpendicular 
rod, by passing the point through the foramen magnum 



mto the interior of the skull 



the cranium rested 



the point 



that the upper part of 

shifting the skull 




till the rod was exactly betwixt the condyles of the occi- 
pital bone, and in the centre of the foramen magnum, I 
procured the line which was wanted. 

I now divided into degrees, or equal parts, the great 
convexity of the cranium, from the setting on of the nose 
on the fore part, to the margin of the foramen magnum 
behind ; and having so prepared several skulls for adjust- 
ment on the rod, I began to make my observations. 

In comparing the European skull with that of the 



Neg 



the point of the rod in the latter, touched th 



inside of the cranium several degrees nearer to the bones 
of the face, or more forward on the cranium, than the 
former. 

On measuring the angle of the facial line of Camper 
with this perpendicular line, in a European skull the most 
perfect in form of any I possessed, I found the difference 

to be ten degrees. 

The cause of the difference being much greater between 
the European and African skull, in this way of measuring. 



than 




Camp 




is, that here the facial line ha 



n 



i 



n 




1 




\ 



^ 




^ 





1^ 






I 

I 



^ 



AN1> BONES OF THE FACE. 



37 



•^ 



reference to the whole form and proportion of the head ; 
whereas in Camper's measurement it marks only the 
inclination of the face. 




\ 




^ 
1 




We have now an explanation of the peculiarity in the 
position of the Negro's head, the upward inclination of the 
face, and the falling hack of the occiput. And here too we 
have it proved, that it is an error to suppose the Negro 
head to be remarkable in character on account of any 
increase in the proportion of the bones of the face, to the 



1 






H^Vv 



■■ - .■ ■ 



- 'l 








T 




1!^ 






-. • ■, 



i 



I I 






1 

ii 




ftj^w-* 



** 



r 



f 



*■''¥ 



U^ 



t 



/ 






J 



«l 



t 

«; 



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J-' 



Ih 







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!f ri' ; 



38 



FORM AND PROPORTIONS OF THE SKULL, 



this 



Negro bore 



a 



cranium ; for the area of the bones of the face is in 
way shewn to bear a less proportion to that of the bones 
of the cranium, in the Negro than in the European head. 

My next object of inquiry was to find on what the 
distinctive character of the Negro face really depends. 
For to the eye the Negro face appears larger, while in fact 
it is proved to be smaller than the European, considered 
in relation to the cranium. I took off the lower jaw-bones 
from both the European and the Negro skull ; and then, 
in order to poise the skulls on the perpendicular rod, it 
was required to move both forward on the point of the 

rod. But it was found necessary to shift the Negro skull 
considerably farther forward than the European : the 
point of the rod thus indicating by its removal backward 
on the scale, that the lower jaw of the 
greater proportion to the skull than that of the European. 
The facial line was of course thrown farther backwards in 
both skulls on taking away the jaw ; but the jaw of the 
Negro being larger than that of the European, the in- 
clination backward was greater in the Negro skull. Pro- 
ceeding to take away the upper jaws, and then the whole 
bones of the face, the index on the surface of the 
cranium shewed that the jaw-bones of the Negro bore a 
much greater proportion to the head and the other bones 
of the face, than those of the European skull j and that 
the apparent magnitude of the bones of the Negro face 
resulted from the size and form of the jaw-bones alone, 
while the upper bones of the face, and indeed all that 
had not relation to the teeth and mastication, were less 
than those of the European skull. 

In proceeding with these experiments, I changed the 



manner 



of noting the 



the inclination of the 






^J 



* 




T 

^ 



Ml 



] 



T 










t 



\ 






■i- 



n 



AND BONES OF THE FACE. 



39 



cranium ; because I perceived that 



index, marked on 




the convexity of the skull, varied according to the form of 
the head. Preserving the principle, I measured the in- 
clination of the cranium by an angle formed by the per- 
pendicular line (a b) and a line (a c) intermediate between 
the cranium and the face. On poising the cranium on 
the rod, after taking away all the bones of the face, it 
appeared that the Negro cranium had the line elevated 
nearly ten degrees more than the European. I also found, 
on comparing the cranium of a child with that of an adult, 
that it was deficient in the relative proportions of weight 
and capacity on the forepart — that the line was depressed 

the size of the forehead increasing in proportion to 
the advance in maturity. 

On looking attentively to these skulls, it was evident 
that there were distinctions to be observed in the form 
of the cranium itself, independently of the proportions 
between the face and cranium; that these varieties de- 
pended on the form of the brain, and proceeded (I think 
we may conclude) from the more or less complete deve- 
lopement of the organ of the mind. In the infant there is 
a deficiency of weight, and a less ample area in the higher 
and anterior part of the brain-case. I say less ample, only 
m comparison with that which we may estimate as the 
standard, viz. the adult European. In the Negro, besides 
the greater weakness and lightness in the bones of the 
whole skull, there is a remarkable deficiency of length 
in the head forward, producing a narrow and depressed 
forehead; whereas a large capacious forehead is allowed 
to be the least equivocal mark of perfection in the 
head. 

w ' 

Having been brought by this more accurate method of 





[■ 



ij I 



^ i 




. -, 






f." .1 







1 



^ 



t 



40 



FORM AND PROPORTIONS OF THE SKULL, 



measuring the skull, to observe distinctions not only in the 
cranium and bones of the face, but in the face itself, and 
in the cranium independently of the face, I wished, in the 



pi 



consider more 






the varieties in the 



form of the face, and the cause of the secret influence of 
certain forms on our judgment of beauty. 

From the examination of the heads, both of men and 



brutes 
there 



, and of the skulls of a variety of animals, I think 
is reason to conclude, that the external character 

in the relative proportions of the parts of 



more 



O 



the face to each other, than has been admitted. 

first consideration we are apt to say, that in the beautiful 

form of the human countenance the likeness of the brute 



is inadmissible ; that where 



we see a resemblance to 



or m 
But 



the brute in the form of the whole countenance, 
the particular features, it implies degradation, 
this is true to a limited extent only: and how far it 
•extends, the examination of the 
inform us. 



uses of the parts will 



We have therefore again to inquire, which are the 
nobler features of the face, and what belong to the inferior 
functions. 



In examining the mouth and 



of animals we shall 



be convinced that the form of the bones 



is adapted to 



the necessities of the creature, independently altogether 

sense of taste j that in man, whose jaw-bones are 



of the 



sm 



th 



those of other animals, this sense is most 



perfect, most exquisite in degree, and suited to the greatest 



riety 



its exercise. T 



Qg to the skulls of the 
that the one is fitted for 



horse and the lion, we shall see 
powerful mastication, and the other for tearing and lacer- 
ating, not for cutting or grinding ; and if we examine the 







1 

n 



If 





( ■; 




i 




^ _ 












AND BONES OF THE FACE. 



41 



form of the teeth more narrowly, we shall perceive that 
there must necessarily be a form of the jaw corresponding 



these 



In the lion, the tiger, and 



\ 



animals, much of the character of the face lies in the 
depth of the jaw forward ; because this depth is necessary 
for the socketing of the long canine teeth. When, on the 
contrary, the jaw is deep and strong towards the back part, 
it is for the firm socketing of the grinding teeth, and is 
characteristic of the form of the head of the horse, and 
of all graminivorous animals. There is also a peculiar 
form of the head and distinct expression, in the rodentia, 
and such animals as have to pierce shells for their food, 
as the monkeys, which is produced by their cutting teeth 
being placed at right angles in their jaws, for the action of 
gnawing. 

Now it certainly is by that unconscious operation of the 
fancy, that associating power which has a constant in- 
fluence on our opinions, that a human face with pro- 
tuberant jaws seems degraded to the brutal character; 
that the projection of the incisor teeth especially gives a 
remarkable expression of meanness ; while we see that the 
enlargement of the canine teeth, as in the demons of the 

^ 

Last Judgment of Michael Angelo, produces an air of 
savageness and ferocity.* 

When we consider further the muscles appropriated to 
the motions of the jaws, we may comprehend why it should 
be thought a deformity when the zygoma (the arch of 
bone on the temple) is remarkably prominent. It is en- 
larged to permit the massy temporal muscle by which the 
jaw is closed to act freely, and its form corresponds with 
the size of the jaw, and with the canine teeth. This will 



T»Vl 



^1 



!-l 



h 




* Fairy Queen, Book IV. cant. vii. 5. 



'ii 



V' 



t 



/ 



-r^tflfrr 





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\:i 



I 



i 



^ :i 



I ;1 



-^ 



*t 





nr 



#*p 



42 



FORM AND PROPORTIONS OF THE SKULL 



be very evident if we place the human skull beside the 
skull of the horse, the lion, the bull, the tiger, the sheep, 

the dog, &c. 

It has already been said that a comparison of the area 
of the bones of the head and face in different animals will 
not inform us of the relative perfection 



of the brain 



its exercise. 



But still we may recognise, in the form of the 



and bill, the beast or bird of rapine 



jaws 

and extent of the 



the 



the breadth 



tral cavities of the face, the seat of 



■gan of smelling, tribes which hunt th 



prey 



m 



the prominent eye placed more laterally, timid animals 
which are the objects of the chase j and in the large 
socket and great eyeball, the character of such as prowl by 



ght 



With these variations in the perfection of the 



d senses, there are, no doubt, corresponding changes m 
the brain, and therefore, in the instincts and habits of 

h 

animals . 

In obtaining a line which shews with precision the 

bearings of all the parts of the head, I think that I have 
reduced this subject to greater simplicity ; and have been 



able to make observations more correctly than 




the 



methods hitherto 



I have shewn that the relative 



capacity of the cranium or brain-case to that of the face, as 
containing the organs of the senses, is insufficient to mark 



the scale of intellect, or to 




the distinctions of 



character in the human head :— That the perfection of th 
human head greatly consists in the increase of the cranium 



forward 
cranium 



the full and capacious forehead 



and that the 



of the Neo-ro, when compared with the perfect 



cranium of a European, has less capacity at the fore-part 



* 



J - 

* In comparing the skulls of men with those of brutes, e. g 



the 



chimpanzee, it cannot be just to measure the proportions of the cranium 

behind the foramen of the occipital bone ; for that foramen must corre- 




f 



14 « 





'^ 



ii 





3'' 

















AND BONES OF THE FACE. 



43 



It has been shewn that in the Negro the whole of the face 



IS 



tually 



sm 



instead of being g 



when 



com 



pared with the brain 



but that the 
face, are lar 



than that of the European 



J 



contrasted with the other parts of the 
The conclusion to which these views 



lead 



is, that some principle must be sought for, not yet 
acknowledged, which shall apply not onlv to the form of 



the whole head, b 



principl 



I 



also to the individual parts 



This 



imagine, is to be found in the form of the 



face as bearing relation to its various functions ; nc 
of the senses merely, but of the parts contained 
attached to the face — the organs of mastication, the 



those 



m or 



to 



6 



of speech, and the organs of expression. 

And here it is to be observed, that it is not necessarily 
a deformity that a feature resembles that of a lower animal. 
In our secret thoughts the form has a reference to the func- 

r 

If the function be allied to intellect, or is connected 



tion. 



with mind 



the 



eye 



pecially 



then there is no 



incompatibility with the human 



though the 



organ should bear a resemblance to the same 



brut 



pai 



a 



e 



whereas, if 



has a relation to the meaner 



cessities of animal life, as the jaws, or the teeth, the effect 



IS 



patible, and 



igether 



th human 



physiognomy. 

If we take the antique as the model of beauty in the 
human head, we shall confess that a prominent cheek-bone, 
or a jaw-hone large and square behind, is a defect ; that 



the 



great depth of face, produced by the length of the 



teeth, is also a deformity ; that the projecting jaws are still 
worse J and, above all, that the monkey-like protrusion of 

spond with the spine on which the head rests ; and the position of the 
animal, monkey, or quadruped, must determine the connexion of the 
spine and skull. 

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FORM AND PROPORTIONS OF THE SKULL, ETC. 



ay 



from the dignity of human 



the fore teeth takes av 

expression. 

When the principles that sway our secret thoughts are 
discovered, and when by a comparison of the parts of the 
head anatomically, a secure foundation is laid for the 

nature, the lines of Camper and 



accurate observation of nature, 
Blumenbach will aid us in the examination of character ; 
but these methods of measurement are, of themselves, 
imperfect, and, being founded on a mistaken principle, 
they lead to unsatisfactory conclusions. 



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ESSAY 



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CHANGES FROM INFANCY TO AGE. 



OF THE SKULL, AS PRO- 



TECTING THE BRAIN. OF THE CHARACTERS OF BRUTES 
NATIONAL PECULIARITIES. 





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The bones, and the parts which cover them, or are 
contained within them, grow, as it were, by one impulse, so 
that they correspond together j the fleshy lips of the Negro 







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46 



CHANGES FROM INFANCY TO AGE. 



are suited to his large protuberant teeth. Among our- 



s 



elves, a square jaw-b 



attended b\ 



thickness and 



heaviness of the cheeks and lips ; and if the canine teeth, 
the strong corner teeth, be unusually long and prominent, 
there is not only a coarseness and heaviness of a different 
kind, but a certain irascibility of expression. In women 
and young persons \ 



ith large 



incisor teeth, there is a 



pretty fulness and ripeness of the lips. 

The whole character of the face of a child results from 
the fleshy parts and integuments being calculated, if I may 
use such a term, for the support of larger bones than they 



possess in early 



The features are provided for the 



growth and developement of the b 



- %- 



of the face, and 



hence the fulness, roundness, and chubbiness of infancy 



Th 



are some 



oth 



pie : the head is of 



peculiarities in infancy, 
elongated and oval form 



For 



greatest length being in the direction from the forehead 
to the occiput; the forehead is full, but flat at the eye- 
brows, and the whole part which contains the brain is re- 
latively large ; the jaw-bones, and the other bones of the 
face, are diminutive ; the neck is small compared with the 
size of the head, owing to the peculiar projection of the back 

of the head (or occiput). 



Compare th 



of the infant's head with that of 



the boy, and the eifect of the expansion of the bones of 
the face in bestowing the characteristic form of youth, will 
be apparent. The face in the youth is lengthened, and is 



round than that of the infant. The brow, h 



not 



■ged in propor 



to the increase of the lo 



part of the face ; though the form is so far changed that a 
prominent ridge is now developed along the course of the 

eye-brows. 

This ridge (the supra-orbitary) is caused by a cavity 



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CHANGES FROM INFANCY TO AGE. 



47 




which is formed in this part of the head by the layers of 
the frontal bone (or os frontis). It is the enlargement 
of this cavity (called the frontal sinus) that makes the 
prominence over the eyes which is peculiar to manhood. 




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From, infancy to adolescence, there is a great increase 
the size of the upper jaw-bone (the superior maxillary 



bone) 



This is chiefly owing to its containing within 



another cavity (the maxillary 



) 



which, like the 



frontal sinus, becomes greatly developed with advancing 

And there are several new characters given to the 

the enlargement of the upper jaw-bone. 




years. 

countenance 

which may be regarded as the 

face. 



of the bones of the 



It has the effect of raising and lengthening the bones 
of the nose, and of making the cheek-bones (or ossa malse) 
project farther.* 



* The cavities in the frontal and maxillary bones communicate with 
the nose, and assist in giving the sonorous, manly tones to the voice. 
They are very small in women as they are in children. 









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48 




CHANCES FROM INFANCY TO AGE. 



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The growtli of the large teeth in the adult, contrasted 
with the child, adds to the depth, as well as length, of both 
the upper and lower jaw-hones, and the whole face becomes 
consequently longer. Another necessary eifect is, that the 
angle of the lower jaw recedes more towards the ear, and 
acquires more distinctness. Thus it is, that by the growth 
of the teeth and of those processes of the bones which sup- 
port and fix them (the alveolar processes), and by the 



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CHANGES FROM INFANCY TO AGE. 



49 




*^l 



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i 



lengtliening and receding of the angle of the jaw, a manly 
squareness of the chin and lower part of the face takes 
the place of the fulness and roundness of childhood. 

This view of the skull at different periods of life sug- 
gests another ohservation, relating to the characters of age. 
When the teeth fall out in old age, the sockets which 
grow up along with them waste away. Accordingly, 
while the depth of the lower jaw-bone, from the hinge to 
the angle, is undiminished, and its length towards the chin 



the same, there remains nothin 



the part where the 



teeth were implanted but the narrow base of the jaw 
The effect on the countenance is perceived in this sketch 



The j 



are allowed to approach nearer to each other 



at the fore-part 



the 



g 



of the lower jaw comes of 



course more forward, and resembles that of the child, were 
it not that the chin projects : the chin and the nose 
approximate, the lips fall in, the mouth is too small for the 
tongue, and the speech is inarticulate. 

Before leaving this subject, we may point out a defect 
in the sculptures of Fiammingo, who has been justly cele- 
brated for his designs of boys. In his heads of children, 
it is obvious that he intended to present us with an ideal 
form, instead of a strict copy from nature. But it will be 
remarked, that the eyes are too deeply set in his figures. 
He has made the prominences over 



orbitary ridges), which 



peculiar 



the orbits (the supra- 
advanced 



more 



age, distinct features in the child, and has thus produced 
an unnatural appearance. The only character of the boy 
which he has kept true to nature is the largeness of the 
head compared with the face, the fulness of the cheeks, and 
the falling in of the mouth and chin. In exaggerating the 
natural peculiarities, the artist has strictly imitated the 
antique. But it may remain a question, how far the prin- 



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50 



OF THE SKULL, AS PROTECTING THE BRAIN 




whicli 



SO happy in its effect of heightening the 



beauty of the adult countenance, is 
in designing the forms of childhood 



necessary or allowable 



OF THE SKULL, AS PROTECTING THE BRAIN. 



In touching even slightly on this subject we must 
attend to certain principles. It is to be understood, that a 
shock or vibration passing through the brain proves more 

A 

skull stronger, thicker, and more solid than that which 
we possess would not have given 



destructive than a wound penetrating its substance. 



greater security 



it 



would have vibrated to a 



g 



deg 



cussion 



arising 



even 



from trifling- bio 



ee, and the con- 

vs on the head, 
would have effectually benumbed the faculties. 

A child bears knocks which would be fatal in old age. 

This is owing to the skull being thin, uniform in texture, 

and elastic, in childhood; and to the brain being of a 



pondin 



The brain is at this age soft 



This 



a degree that would be unnatural in mature years, 
resiliency of the skull, and yielding quality of the brain, 
explain how the child is uninjured by blows, which would 
be attended with fatal concussion in after-life. But there 
is also a provision in adults for moderating the effects 

ion as the brain acquires 



of such accidents 



In 



propor 



firmness during growth, a gradual change takes pi 



the structure of the bones of the head 



cranium is not simply 



the protecting 



t> 



thened 



thickened ; the flat bones which 



it is not merely 



d the brain 



are 



split into layers, an external and an internal one. These 
layers have each a different density, and a softer substance 



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OF THE SKULL, AS PROTECTING THE BRAIN. 



51 



than either is interposed between them j the effect of 
which is, to interrupt that vibration which would other- 
wise ring around the skull, and reach every molecule of 

the brain. 



I have elsewhere* shewn that 



brutes, as in man 



the processes and joinings of the skull are formed in re- 
lation to the forces to which the head is to be exposed ; 
and that thev vary according to the habits or mode of 



existence of the animal 



The 



fangs of the 



nivorous animal, and the still more powerful teeth of the 



hy 



adapted for breaking the hardest bones 



im 



The horns 



planted in sockets of corresponding strength, 
of the bull, the antlers of the stag, are rooted in bones not 
only capable of supporting their weight, but of receiving 
the shocks to which such instruments expose the brain; 
and the firmness of the sutures in the crania of these 
animals demonstrates the precision with which every thing 

is set in just proportion. 

A remark is here suggested by these considerations. 
The provisions which we have been noticing in the human 



head are not designed to g 



absolute 



ity ag 



violence, but to balance duly the chances of life ; leaving 
us still under the conviction that pain and death follow 



mj ury ; 
fear of 



so 



th 



our experience of bodily sufferin 



in 



and 



b 



whilst they 



the life, lay th 



foundation of important moral qualities in our nature. 

Let us now direct our attention especially to the forms 
of the skull. The back of the head is more exposed than 
the forehead: we defend the front with our arms and 



hands : not so the back, as in falling backwards 



Th 



* Paley's "Natural Theology," with illustrative notes by Henry 
Lord Brougham and Sir Charles Bell. 



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OF THE SKULL, AS PROTECTING THE BRAIN. 



is, accordingly, a very marked distinction in the strength 
of the occipital bone and that of the frontal hone. The 
prominence felt at the back part of the head is the 

!S, which 



r 

centre of certain groinings, or arched 



dg 



gthen the bone within. We say groinings, for there 



is nothing more resembling the 



arches 



groin 



g 



of 



under-ground story of a building than these 



projecti 



on the interior of the 



put. In front, the 



skull forms, on the whole, a lighter and more dehcate 
shell than behind • yet it is not less adapted to protect the 
brain. The projecting parts of the forehead, which the 
anatomist calls the eminentice frontales, are, undoubt- 
edly, most exposed ; but they are, at the same time, the 
strongest points of the bone, for here the outer and inner 



surfaces are not parallel 
bony substance in 



the 



there 
tables. 



IS an accumulation of 



g 



them increased 



thickness 



It has already been seen that the prominences 
over the eyebrows, characteristic of the mature or manly 
forehead, have no relation to the form of the brain af this 



part 



they are merely th 



walls of the frontal 



smuses. 



g 



which, it has been stated, belong prin 

voice ; yet they, and the ridge; 



of 



cipally to the o 
which project towards the temples, are a safeguard to the 
brain. Those latter- raised arches, called the temporal 
ridges of the frontal bone, consist of dense and hard bone, 
as obviously designed for adding strength, as is an edging 
of brass, in carpentry, or a piece of steel let into a horse- 
shoe. Imagine a man falling sidewise, and pitching on 
the shoulder and side of the head, — he strikes precisely on 
that point which is the most convex, the most dense, the 
thickest, and best protected. 

Altogether, independently of phrenology, it has of old 
time been acknowledged, that fulness of the forehead. 



% 



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. 









CHARACTERISTIC FORMS OF THE LOWER ANIMALS. 



58 



I 




1 



combined with those forms which have been noticed, is an 
indication of intellectual capacity ; and, as we have shewn, 
of human character and beauty. All physiologists have 
agreed in this view ; whilst they are equally confident in 
affirming that anatomy affords no foundation for mapping 

\ ■ 

the cranium into minute subdivisions or regions. As 
nature, by covering the head, has intimated her intention 
that we shall not there scan our neighbours' capacities, 
she has given us the universal language of expression. 
Man is gregarious ; he looks for sympathy : it is not good 
for him to be alone ; he solicits an unity of sentiment ; and 
the language which expresses it is in the face. 



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THE CHARACTERISTIC FORMS OF THE LOWER ANIMALS. 



Notwithstanding the high authorities in favour of the 
facial line, we have ventured to say that it is not adapted 
to give a measure of the capacity or area of the head in 

ates ; because the peculiarities 



with the face, in br 



of face in them depend on their instincts and propensities 

are for the most part indicated by the greater de 



These 



velopement of some one or more of the organs common to 
them all, and the subserviency of others, not by the mass 



of the brain. The head of the horse 



with 



an 



example ; it is an herbivorous or graminivorous animal, and 
hence the peculiarities of its teeth. Now, it is in accord- 
ance with the teeth that the whole character of its form is 
derived. The incisor teeth or nippers project, that the 
head may reach the ground for feeding ; and they have a 
peculiar structure, that they may be preserved sharp. The 
lips also conform to this object; they are not only suited 
to cover the teeth, but to project and gather the food. 



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CHARACTERISTIC FORMS OF THE LOWER ANIMALS. 



Again, the grinders are large, strong, deeply socketed, and 



adapted to bear tlie 



ponding to the 



of the food for a term of 
tural life of the animal. 



years corre 

While the mouth is small, the head is Ion 

muscles which operate on the lower 



o 



and the 



g 



jaw, to close it, 
the lateral motions necessary for grinding 



and 



proportionably larg 



therefore the depth of the head 



behind, and the length and narrowness forwards 
principal characteristics of the horse.* 



the 



Another peculiarity of the horse's head is seen in the 

nostril. He does not breathe through 



of his 



Here 



the mouth, but only through the nose, 
ing relation of parts, which, though remote in place, are 
united in function. The nostril is indicative of the state 
of the lungs : and a large dilateable nostril has descended 
from the Arabian breed, and marks the capacity of 

" wind." 

It is agreeable to see the young kid in the first hours 
of existence, impelled by its instincts to mount the cliffs and 



summits of the hills ; or to behold the goat perched high 



on the scarped rock, his beard tossed by the wind, and 



* Cuvier has been at the pains of measuring the facial line in a great 
variety of animals, beginning with the orang-outang and ending with the 
horse. Let us take the pug-dog, in which the angle is fixed at 35°, and 
compare it with the horse at 23° ; who will not perceive that the 
difference of the facial angles depends on the extension of the jaws of the 
horse, necessarily arising from the form and number of the teeth, or in 
other words, from his mode of feeding? 

Veterinary surgeons and naturalists have found it difficult to assign a 
use for certain cavities at the back part of the horse's head called the 
Eustachian cells. To me they do not appear to be subservient either to 
neighing or to the organ of hearing, as supposed; but they are placed in this 
situation, and filled with air, to occupy the large space intervening between 
the sides of the jaws, without materially increasing the weight. All jockeys 
know the defect in a horse of a heavy head and long neck. 



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CHARACTERISTIC FORMS OF THE LOWER ANIMALS. 



55 



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browsing fearlessly. These animals, the sheep, and horned 
cattle generally, congregate, and make a circle to oppose 
an enemy j and present for their defence a combined 
front. Their eyes are placed differently from those of the 
horse ; and the nostril wants the expansion necessary for 
maintaining a continued flight. The most curious adapta- 
tion of the form of an herbivorous animal to its mode of 



feeding 



IS seen m 



th 



giraffe 



The whole frame of the 



creature is formed with the view of enabling it to reach 

F 

its food, which is not the herbage, but the leaves of trees. 



The skull is smalL and 



ht, even in comparison with 



that of the horse, that it is like a thing of 
tongue and the lips protrude, to 



and the 



head 



to catch the branches over 

The large prominent eyes, and the limbs formed 
for flight, betoken the timidity of the creature. 

If we compare a carnivorous animal, as the lion, with a 
horned animal, as the bull, it will be readily perceived 
that it is from the teeth or the horns that the whole 
character of the head results. The peculiarity of the 
skull of the lion, or the tiger, consists chiefly in the breadth 
of the face, caused by the large zygomatic processes, which 
are formed of great size to give room to the strong muscles 



that close the 



and it is visible also in the shortness of 



the muzzle, and the depth of the face in front, where the 
canine teeth are situated ; for these must be deeply sock- 
eted in the jaws to sustain the strength of the fangs, and 
the powerful efforts of the animal. The grinding teeth 
are small, and formed so as to cut like scis 
is here no lateral play of the jaws, as in 



for there 



grinding 



the 



canine 



teeth 



lapp 



and preventing that motion 



The muscles which close th 



J 



are of tremendou 



power 



commensurate with the length and strength 



of 



those fangs, which are for holding or tearing the prey 



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56 



CHARACTERISTIC FORMS OF THE LOWER ANIMALS. 



See, 



again. 



the head of the hoar, how all the parts 



i-i 



as with horn 



hut he runs 



i 



I 



hang, as it were, together, to produce its characteristic 
form : the snout and the great tusks are for gruhhing up 

r 

roots ; yet, from his strength, he is a formidahle animal, 
for he will turn and rend. This very term implies a great 
deal ; he does not tear with his teeth, he does not butty 

aight forward, and with 
his projecting lateral tusk ploughs up the flesh. The 
whole strength of his hody and neck is concentrated to the 
use of these formidahle instruments. Look to the antique 
hoar of the Florentine Gallery. The head rises high and 
projects hehind, to give strong attachment to the powerful 
muscles constituting his very peculiarly shaped neck, which 
is large, thick, inflexible, and suited, when he rushes for- 
wards, to convey the impulse to the head, and finally to 
the tusks.* 

It ought to he a pleasing study to the artist to found 
his designs on an accurate knowledge of the structure and 
functions of animals. This pursuit unites his art with the 
liheral sciences of the naturalist and the comparative ana- 
tomist. And if he be a lover of the antique, he must 
have observed that, in the better ages of the arts, the 

vinof a true and natural 



culpt 



were 



remarkable for g 



character in their representations of brutes. The know- 
ledge of animal form is the only guide to the right con- 
ception of the perfection and beauty of the antique. 




* Bridgewater Treatise on the Human Hand, 4th edition, p. 400 



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51 




FURTHER ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE PRINCIPLE, THAT BEAUTY 
IN THE HUMAN FORM HAS RELATION TO THE CHARAC- 
TERISTIC ORGANS OF MAN. 



What, then, gives nobleness and grace to the human 
figure, and how is deformity to be avoided? In the 



statues of antiquity we 



seo 



o 



that the artists had a perfect 



knowledge of the frame, and could represent it in all its 
natural beauty. But in many of these remains there is 
something beyond an exact copy of nature, — something 
which, as we have seen, has been called divine. Now the 

real 



difficulty of explaining why such deviations from 



nature should inspire us with admiration, has forced in- 
quirers into vague surmises and 



comparisons 



For 



ex- 



am pi 



they have applied the principles of harmony in 



music to the beauty of the human figure. 

When the animal frame is surveyed as a whole, or as 
composed of parts more or less common to all living 

taking the philosophical view of the 

m is seen to pervade the animal 



wh 



ubject, an uniform pi 



kingdom. Not only may the skeleton be traced from a 
shell up to the complex mechanism in man,* but every 
organ or individual part, when viewed comparatively, will 
be found to undergo a similar developement ; 



from the 



simpl 



of those creatures which enioy the lowest 



kind of sensibility, to that which exists in the human 

frame. If, according to this view, we examine the head, 
and follow the course of developement of the brain, as the 
part which occupies the cranium, ai 



organs 



and then that of the 
of the senses, which together constitute the face, 



I. 



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* See the author's " Bridgewater Treatise on the Human Hand," 
which may be taken as an introduction to the present subject. 



1 



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58 



CHARACTERISTIC ORGANS OF MAN. 



[id include the apparatus of speech, we shall distinguish 

hat is peculiar to man. We shall learn what forms of 

which he 
conclusion 



parts bear relation to those endowments 




holds his acknowledged superiority : and th 
may be arrived at, that by magnifying, in works of art, 
what is peculiarly characteristic of man, we may ennoble 
his countenance, and, without being strictly natural, attain 
what is better. 

No faculties of the mind have been bestowed without 
the field for their exercise ; men's capacities, their 
thoughts, and their affections, have their counterparts, or 
objects, to excite or to gratify them. There are beings 
superior to ourselves, and in a condition of existence 
different from ourselves, and the mind delights in con- 
templating them. Even in our enj( 



obj 
the 



our 



untry 



enjoyment of beautiful 
beyond them. We walk into 
the woods and wilds, in love with nature 



thoughts 



and delighting in solitude. But if we examine our 
minds, we shall find that we people these solitudes j how- 
ever we may believe that it is nature and inanimate 
creation which please us, all is referable to, and con- 
centres in, some reflexion of the voice and features of 
human kindred. 

In admiring the finer works of antiquity, it is admitted 
that the forms which w^e regard as models of perfection 
are unlike what has existed in nature : that no living 
head ever had the facial line of the Jupiter, the Apollo, 
the Mercury, or the Venus 
reject the theory 



Having found reasons to 



3ory of Camper, the question returns. How 
is that beautiful which is not natural ? 

Let us take the head of Mercury, which is simply 
beautiful, and the head of a satyr, both antique ; and 



!i 



contemplate them 



In the Mercury, there 



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CHARACTERISTIC ORGANS OF MAN 



59 



IS a 



combination of forms and general proportions of 



the head and face, never seen m 
living 



all the varieties of 



man 



yet is the whole and each particular feature 



perfectly beautiful 
every proportion i 
pressed ; the eyes 
nose flattened to 



In turning to the 
eversed: the forehead 




we 



find 



mall, and a little obliq 



and de- 
ue ; the 



the 



pper lip ; the mouth protubei 



the ears large, tipped, and sharp 
of the whole goatish and savage ; 



human 



and the expression 

and what there is of 

is lively and humorous, but common 

and base. ^ Now the principle which has been followed 

giving beauty to the head of Mercury is obvious 

the human countenance. 



expres 



m 

h€ 



Whatever is peculiar 
distinguishing it from the brute, is enhanced 



Not only 



is the forehead expanded and projecting, and the facial line 
more perpendicular, but every feature is modelled on the 



same principl 



the ear is small and round ; th 



eminently human, and unlike that of the beast ; the mouth 
the teeth, and lips, are not such as belong to the brute 



they the mer 



instruments of mastication, but of 



peech and human expression 



So of 



every par 



take 



them individually, or as a whole j whatever would lead 
the resemblance of the brute is omitted or diminished. 



The principle is furth 



ded 



It 



not in th 



proportions between the face and the brain-case alone that 
the contrast is perceived, but in the quality or function of 



each organ. 



We have adverted to the theory of C 



that as hunger and the animal passions govern brutes, and 
the parts which chiefly minister to them in the face 



are the 



■g 



of smell and of taste, the 



sual de 



velopement of the nose and the mouth degrades or bruti- 
fies the human countenance. But we remarked, in regard 
to this, that the nose is not elevated in man, to increase 



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60 



CHARACTERISTIC ORGANS OF MAN. 



tbe organ of smelling : it belongs to the voice, to human 
voice and speech. And so must we consider the different 
functions of the mouth. In brutes, it is for prehension, 
tearing, and mastication j in man, its more distinguish- 
able office is speech and expression. Model the lips for 
this, for eloquence and the expression of the softer passions, 
and it becomes beautiful j extend the teeth, and make 
the lips a mere covering for them, and it is brutal, at 
variance with human physiognomy and detracting from 
whatever is agreeable in the face. 

Our principle will apply with equal force to the motions 
of the face as to the permanent form. Human sentiments 
prevailing in the expression of a face, will always make it 
agreeable or lovely. Expression is even of more conse- 

up features otherwise 
heavy j it will make us forget all but the quality of the 
mind* As the natural tones of the voice are understood 
and felt by all, so it is with the movements of the counte- 
nance : on these we are continually intent, and the mind 
ever insensibly exercised. 

Whether the views which I have here advocated were 
ever announced by the ancients I know not. But I think 
it is abundantly evident that their artists acted upon them. 
They went beyond mere imitation. They advanced to a 
higher study, that 
what was indicative of the higher and purer qualities, 
impassioned thought, and this they exaggerated. Their 
divinities were of human mould ; but still, as not visibly 
present, they were creations of their imagination.* 



quence than shape : it will light 



of combining excellencies ; selecting 



* In high art, it appears to have been the rule of the sculptor to 
divest the form of expression. In the Apollo, there is such a stillness of 
features, that every one follows his fancy, and thinks he sees in the statne 
what is really in his own mind. In the Venus, the form is exquisite and 






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CHARACTERISTIC ORGANS OF MAN. 



61 



The explanation which I offer differs from what is 
commonly given by writers on art. They call the *' ideal 
head" that which does not represent individual beauty, 
but collective beauties, a selection and adaptation of beauti- 
ful parts taken from a variety of individuals; and combined 
in one representation.* I place the superiority of the 
antique on higher ground, on the more extended study of 

nature, of brutes as well as of man. 

That the true animal character was fully understood by 
the ancient artists there is sufficient proof. Is there any 
thing finer than the wolf of the Capitol, or the antique 
boar, or the dogs in the entrance of the Florentine Gallery, 



or the horses of the Elgin marbles ? It was this study 



of pure nature that enabled them to undertake such 
compositions of surprising beauty, as we see in their 



the face perfect, but there is no expression there: it has no human soft- 



ness, nothing to love. Mrs. 



saw a young gentleman, she thinks an 



American, kissing the tips of his fingers to the statue, as he left the 
Tribune (the apartment dedicated to the goddess), but for this the 
statue gives no license ; it would not have been unbecoming had he so 
saluted the Melpomene, for there we see the loveliness which lurks in 
expression. The authoress of an agreeable work on Rome is disturbed 
because "she has seen women, real living women, almost as beautiful as 
the Venus, and far more interesting." We should find more of her way 
of thinking, if all would confess their first impressions. This, however, 
cannot detract from the perfection of a statue, w^hich has been admired 
in all times, as now. It only points to the purity of the design, the high 
aim of the artist, and his successful execution. Had the Helen of 
Zeuxis been preserved, I can imagine that it would have been of a more 
feminine and seducing beauty than the Venus. But we must bear in 
mind that which I have taken notice of in the text, that all individuality 
was studiously avoided by the ancient sculptors, in the representation of 
divinity; they maintained the beauty of form and proportion, but 
without expression, which, in their system, belonged exclusively to 

humanity. 

* " Nous dirons done, que la combinaison des parties pent former un 
tout, est ce qu'on appelle I'ideal."— Winckelman. 



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62 



CHARACTERISTIC ORGANS OF MAN. 



Fauns, Satyrs, Centaurs, and masks, where the peculiarities 
of brutes are engrafted on the human form. And it may 
he remarked that they did not merely give to their sylvan 
deities hair and cloven feet ; they bestowed on them a 
certain consistency of character very difficult of execution, 
but necessary to reconcile the eye to the absurdity ; a 
goatish expression of countenance, or a merry festive air, all 
in conformity with the hair and the hoofs, their embrowned 
skin, and the savage wildness of their life.* 

What, then, was more natural or obvious, in studying 
the effect of these forms and characters when transferred 
to the human countenance, than that the artist should per- 
ceive that the proportions which distinguish them should 
be avoided, or even reversed, in representing the dignified 
and characteristic form of man. 

Winckelman would make it appear that the artists of 
Greece studied the forms of the lower animals for a 
different purpose: — to join the character of the brute 

with that of man, in order to embellish him, and to bestow 
on him new and preternatural properties. And he refers 
to the heads of Jupiter and of Hercules as instances. *' 



In 



the former," he says, " we may discover the great eyes, 
and imposing front, and the mane of the lion ; and in the 
latter, the head and neck of the bull. 

I must entertain doubts of this theory, and of the effect 



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* The difficulty of giving these combinations of the human and brute 
character, is shewn in the attempts of modern artists to imitate the 
ancients in their representations of Fauns and sylvan boys. They do not 
seem to know how to knit their joints, and their faces are too sober and 



wise. 



" faber imus et ungues 



Exprimet, et molles imitabitur 9sre capillos, 
Infelix operis summa, quia ponere totum 
Nesciet." 



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THEORIES OF IDEAL BEAUTY. 



63 



of the 



exagg 



sration ; — in the head of Jupiter I 
have not felt its influence. But, if the theory he true, it 
goes to establish the fact, that the artists studied the form 
of brutes in comparison with that of man ; and I hold it 

inevitable consequence of such a comparison, that 



be 



they should discover that the perfect 



of the human 



form was to be attained, by avoiding what was character- 
istic of the inferior animals, and increasing the proportions 
of those features which belong to man. 

I shall not deny ingenuity to the theory of Hogarth, or 
usefulness to that proposed by Sir Joshua Reynolds. But 
there is danger to the modern artist, if he is led to conceive 
that he can bestow beauty by following some fancied curve 
or gradation of outline. Sir Joshua held that beauty is the 
medium, or centre, of the various forms of individuals : 
that every species of animal has a fixed and determinate 
form, towards which nature is continually inclining, like 
lines terminating in a centre, or pendulums vibrating in 
difiorent directions over a single point : as all these lines 
cut the centre, while only one passes through any other 
point, so he conceived that perfect beauty is oftener pro- 
duced than any one kind of deformity. This ingenious 
idea is well suited to the portrait-painter, who will not be 
a favourite unless he knows how to soften the features and 
preserve the likeness. But there is this fatal objection to 
it; that, as in the antique, the artists deviated from 
nature, the pendulum would never reach the centre. 

It is happy for philosophy, science, history, poetry, and 



eloq 



that the Greeks were a superior people, and 



happy for our subject that they were an eminently beau 



tiful people 



The artists of Greece certainly did not 



follow a vague line of beauty. They rather imitated some 



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64 



THEORIES OF IDEAL BEAUTY. 



acknowledged beautiful form of age or sex. 



They 



even 



combined the beauty of both sexes, as in the young Bacchus 



more decidedly in the Hermaphrodite 
With them, the highest effort of ar 



present 



man deified 
racters of n£ 



as it were, purified from the grosser cha 
re. This they did, as we have already seen 



by exaggerating whatever is proper to the human form 



by increasing what g 



dignity, and bestowing features 



capable and prone to the expression of the finer emotions 
representing them, either as still and imperturbed, or s 
indicating a superiority to the things of this lower world. 
In painting, the representation of the Deity is always 



distressing failure 



If 



man 



j> 



and 



dwelt among 



present Him who " became 
" be the highest effort of art. 



how is the Creator to be represented? Michael Angelo 
painted the Deity boldly, and with the expression of the 
indignant wrath of man. Raphael represents the Creator 
plunging into chaos * and separating the elements. But on 
viewing these paintings, we are brought to feel the insuf- 
ficiency of the art, and to think of the artist to the exclusion 
of all sublime contemplations which the subject 



should 



inspire 



Yet it is foolish 



to call such attempts impiety, 
since no other idea is presented than that which is in- 
culcated from our infancy. Our expressions in words are 
at variance with our just conception of Divine Intelligence, 
and our tongue as imperfect as the pencil of the painter. 



The one solitary expr 



in the Script 



descript 



of the person of God, is studiously obscure, and the 



accompaniments of His presence, not the 
the Almighty, are described. 



of 



* In the Gallery of Raphael, in the Vatican. 





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65 



The sentiments of Plato, Cicero, and Seneca, are 



brought 



hear on this subject of beauty and ideal per 



fection. Yet 



fortunate that 



have the works of 



the 



sculpt 



before us, to preserve us from the 



Cicero has given us his coi 
•* And such an ideal person 



influence of vague theories. 

ception of a perfect orator. 

he says, «' may be the object of imitation ; but those who 

imitate can only approach the model according to the 

talents which nature has given them. No man can possess 

all the qualities, or attain to the whole perfection of the 



model: he must 



some 



pect be deficient 



His 



knowledge and capacity of research, his acquaintance with 
human character, his insinuating or commanding language, 
or his eloquent appeal to the heart, his countenance and 
expression, his voice, manner, gesture, cannot be all 



equally balanced so as to constitute the perfect orator.; 
And he illustrates his position by the example of Phidias 
who, when he made the statue of Jupiter and Minerva, 
took no individual for his model, but had an idea of 

perfection in his own mind.* 

Here I conceive is the source and the authority for all 
which has been written on this view of the subject. The 



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In the following quotation, Brutus has asked Cicero what con- 



stitutes excellence in oratory 



He answers, that no man has been 



perfect; that there is an ideal perfection which we should attempt to 
attain, nor resign the effort because to accomplish all is impossible ; just 
as there is nothing beautiful which may not in imagination be surpassed: 

" Sed ego sic statuo, nihil esse in uUo genere tarn pulchrura, quo non 
pulchrius id sit, unde illud, ut ex ore aliquo, quasi imago, exprimatur, 
quod neque oculis, neque auribus, neque ullo sensu percipi potest; cogi- 
tatione tantum et mente complectimur. Itaque et Phidiffi simulacns, 

perfectius videmus, et his picturis, quas 



quibus nihil in illo genere 

nominavi, cogitare tamen possumus pulchriora 



Nee vero ille artifex, 



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66 



THEORIES OF IDEAL BEAUTY, 



great artist had formed a conception of beauty : the 

question perpetually returns, By what studies, 




what 

theory, had he attained this ? The perplexity appears to 
me to proceed from a distinction being made between the 
pleasures of the mind, and those addressed to the senses. 
Plautus says that the poet seeks what nowhere exists, 
and yet finds it. His genius supplies it, it is in his 
mind. 

The novelist who has genius to catch and to represent 
the feelings of men, and their motives to action, may give 
a truer picture of his period than the historian, even 

That is to 

say, the incidents, the passions, the prejudices, which he 
describes, may never have been combined as he combines 



although he describes what never existed 



the 



m 



but they 



and to the state of 



society in which he lives, and are, therefore, a record of 



B 



this is not the rationale of the ideal 



the time, 
painting. 

Or we may illustrate tills in another manner. When 
Zeuxis was employed on his Helen, five of the most 
beautiful women were before him, from whom he com- 
posed his perfect beauty. But it was not the object of 
the artist here to produce ideal beauty, or to give that 
repose of sentiment which is the effect of contemplating the 
Medicean Venus ; his aim was to represent a beautiful 



cum faceret Jovis formam, aut Minervse, contemplabatur aliquem, e quo 
similitudinem duceret: sed ipsius in mente insidebat species pulchri- 
tudinis eximia quaedam, quam intuens, in eaque defixus, ad illius similitu- 
dinem artem et manum dirigebaL Ut igitur in formis et figuris est 
aliquid perfectum et excellens, cujus ad cogitatam speciem imitando 
referuntur ea quae sub oculis ipsa cadunt : sic perfectae eloquentise 
speciem animo videmus, effigiem auribus quserimus." — Cicero de Oratore^ 
cap. 2. 






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THEORIES OF IDEAL BEAUTY. 



67 



and seductive woman, whose charms were to lead men 



g 



And why have not painters with the same 



means attained to the same perfec 



It has been 



On 



swered, Because they have not had the same gemus. 
which M. Quatremere De Quincy observes, " What, then, 
is a model, if genius be still necessary in order to imitate 

Who shall tell whether it is the model that causes 



it? 

genius to see the image of beauty ; or, genius that sees its 

own idea in the model." * 

There has been another theory advanced, that, in the 
antique statue there is presented to us the grandeur of 
form and the proportions of man, as he originally pro- 
ceeded from the Creator: such as he was designed to 
be before he was subjected to labour, poverty, and 

sickness 



B 



the 




times of all people, their gods have 
been represented by the trunks of trees, or pillars rudely 
carved J and, when improved, it has been by imitating 
the human form with simplicity 
carved as on a pedestal ; 



At first, the head was 
then the neck, breast, and 



shoulders, and the indication of 



then the arms 



and 



the extremities were imperfectly blocked out, until, at 
length, and after ages had passed, the members were dis- 
played free, and the figure perfected in manly beauty. 

* The same author thus expresses himself: "In this we have the 
enigma of Plautus solved ; in every art, whatever comes within the scope 
of the understanding, of sentiment, and of genius, does not really exist 
any where ; has neither substance nor place, and is subjected to no one 
of the senses, while he who finds it is unable to point out where he has 

seen the model of it." 

This is language which puffs up the young artist to inordinate con- 
ceit ; and, instead of studying, sets him a dreaming of something for 
which he is to be beholden to his innate genius. 






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68 



THEORIES OF IDEAL BEAUTY. 



I shall once more endeavour to analyse that process 
of thought by which, out of the contemplation of nature, 
ideal perfection is derived. The idea of the divine form 
in the mind of any man, whatever may be his genius, has 



been acquired, and is of human 



d the attempt 



of all painte 



and 



works, evince that such 



Iptors to embody the idea in their 

case. That a man of 



the 



genius has an idea of perfection cannot be the result of 



pure imagination. Whatever concept 



he 



may 



How 



must have been acquired j and the question returns, 
^ Let us suppose a painter to have before him the 



the same : for 



three Graces; their perfecti 
have full influence on the heart, we know that, however 
beautiful, each must be individual \ that the form, the 
attitude, and the expression must be varied, or the interest 
and grace are injured. The attempt of the painter to 
combine what is beautiful in each, into one more perfect, 
would, in my opinion, fail; nature would be lost, and 

the whole prove inconsistent. At all events, the com- 
bination of individual human beauty, however made, and 
with whatever exercise of genius contrived, would not pro- 
duce what is aimed at, — 



at, — ideal beauty, as exhibited in the 
remains of antiquity ; a form which we acknowledge to be 
beautiful, but which has had no existence in 
models. 



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With the view of attaining beauty, the artist is not to 
slight nature or to avoid it, but to study it deeply, as the 
only source of improvement. He must not only contem- 
plate those beauties which we may suppose to stand before 
him, but consider where they difi^er from others less ad- 
mirable. How beautiful that smile ! How eloquent those 



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THEORIES OF IDEAL BEAUTY. 



69 





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lips ! Let him ask himself in what this consists. Smiling 
and speech are characteristic of man, and are bestowed 
to express the affections of the heart, and communicate 
thought. Give to the mouth the capacity for these. 
Observe the forehead, and the defined eyebrow: 



IS 



there 



in nature superior 



? 



What 



Let him mark them, and 



then raise and throw forward the forehead, a feature 
especially human, and elevating to the countenance. Now 
he sees that depth is given to the eye ; that the shadows 
fall with bold relief, the eyebrow acquires more freedom, 
stands in a finer arch, and is more expressive of agree- 
able emotions. And thus he passes from point to point ; 
from one feature to another, — the nose, the ear : exag- 
gerating a little the outline of whatever indicates the 
higher and purer qualities, and avoiding what is low, or 
whatever is associated with the baser human passions or 
with the form of the brutes ; and by insensible gradations, 
and long contemplation of what is highest and best, he 
acquires, and from nature, that idea which is, in his mind, 
the perfection of form. 



with his 
of what 



Supposing that a painter so tutored is se 
fellows to copy a model ; by his knowledg 
constitutes humanity in its most perfect condition, and 
of what is indicative of human sentiment, he is enabled to 
elevate his design; and then it is acknowledged that, 
whilst he has preserved the likeness, he has refined 
it, and has introduced something of the purity of the 

antique. 

Although I have taken the form of the head and the 



features for 
whole fig 



the principle is applicable to the 
In comparing the finer forms of antique 



statues with those of the Athletse, Lapithse, and Fauns 



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70 



THEORIES OF IDEAL BEAUTY. 



down to the brutes, we see that the grace, the repose, and 
the nobler attitudes of the human body, are preserved in 
the former, to the exclusion of whatever belongs to indi- 
vidual character, or partakes by association of what is mean 

in condition. 

The Satyr and Faun are as mules and hybrids ; the 
man and the brute are joined ; sometimes with the horns 
and the hoofs, sometimes with nothing more distinctive 
than the tail ; and the conception is fulfilled by the gross- 
ness of form, the muscular developement, and the propor- 
tions indicative of activity. But there is neither freedom 



of the body or 
In short, we 



nor grace of movement in the position 
limbs, nor in their proportions or contour, 
have the Apollo and Marsyas exhibiting a perfect con- 
trast, and shewing that which is characteristic in the one 
reversed in the other. 



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NATIONAL PECULIARITIES IN THE FORM OF THE HEAD. 

Sir David Wilkie, whose loss we have had so lately to 
deplore, was one of my earliest pupils, having attended 
a course of my lectures on anatomy, as connected with 



desig 



On 



g 



from the Continent in Aug 



I found him preparing for a journey ; and he made 



me g 



whither he 



going 



To Rome 



no. 



To 



no. 



Greece ? — no. Surely not to court fortune in India: 

He was setting off to the Holy Land, to study there an 

Eastern people. In this, he displayed that energy which 



ever accompanies g 



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much of character, in 



feature and costume, would he 



have thrown 



his 



future pictures 



Here we have a lesson from one entitled 



to 



swav our opinion 



1 

on his art, of the importance of 
knowledge of national forms to the historical painter, 
is for this reason that I introduce a slight account of 



It 



the 



of the human head, depending 



national 



peculiarities. It may assist the artist in the study of 
such natives of foreign countries as he may chance to 
meet with. 



Even in the most admired product 



of 



I find 



little to which I can refer for elucidating this suhj 
Sculptors and painters have been too commonly conteni 
characterise an inhabitant of the East by a tuft of hair 



his crown 



African, by a swarthy face 



Th 



late publication that illustrates the question of national 
pecuHarities in a very interestii 



g way 



a folio volum 



which contains accurate portr 



of the skulls of all the 



American races, 

Peru to those of the farthest north 



from the old inhabitants of Mexico and 



% a 



Crania Americana/' by Dr. Morton, Professor of Anatomy in 



Pennsylvania College. 



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72 



NATIONAL PECULIARITIES IN 



In considering the extraordinary collection of skulls in 
this work, with the view of marking the relation between 
the form of the head and superiority of mind, in men of 
cultivated intellect, as contrasted with those leading a 
savage life, it must be acknowledged that much is wanting. 
Although there can be no objection to the mode adopted 
by the writer of estimating the actual mass of brain ; yet 
his measurements ought to have been made in reference 



The 



size 



of th 



to the dimensions of the whole body, 
cranium, and consequently, the volume of the brain, must 
be relative to the face j and the face can be taken only 
as an imperfect index of the entire skeleton. If the 



cavity of the skull 



sand 



be gauged, — if the quantity of 

pable of 
not be 



of seeds, which different crania are ci 
ig, is to be measured, the comparison will 



satisfactory, unless the measurement of each be contrasted 
with that of the face and of the body ; and be also examined 
with respect to the proportions of the brain itself, or its 
form. 

Again, it is taken for granted, that we who exercise our 
best faculties within the four walls of a house, must have a 
developement of brain beyond what the free-dweller in the 



plains 
possess 



or forests of, what 



termed 



country can 



I believe, on the contrary, that man, in his state of 
nature, has imposed upon him the necessity of bringing into 
operation quite as many faculties of mind as the man at his 
desk J and that, from the brain being exercised in every 
use to which the external senses are put, its volume is not 
inferior to that of the individual in civilised life. We must 
take along with us this consideration, that the exercise 
of our external senses infers an accompanying activity of 
the brain : that of the nervous apparatus appropriated to 
the senses, it is the exterior part alone that is given to the 



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THE FORM OF THE HEAD. 



73 




f 



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eye, ear, nose, tongue : the internal part, forming the 
sensorium, is in the brain. Remembering this, and that 
the powers exercised by the savage are not instincts, as in 
the brutes, but operations of the mind calling the brain 
into action, I am unwilling to grant that any measurable 
deficiency in its mass, as a whole, is likely to be perceived. 



Were it really so, we should find the gamekeeper inferior 



to his master, in a greater degree than my experience 



warrants. 



Every one must have observed among those with whom 
he lives, that there is as much variety in feature, stature, 
colour, hair, beard, &c. as there is in expression of counte- 

: and a very little philosophy will indicate the 



nance 



;essity of such 



for the 



of 



But in regard to national peculiarities, although the dis- 
tinctions between individuals of a particular country are, 
doubtless, in many instances, as great as between the 
people of one country compared with another j yet there 
are certain forms of head, or casts of feature, or pecu- 
liarities of hair, and complexion, which characterise 

different nations. 

We need not here enter into the question, how these 
distinctions have been produced. It would require much 
critical examination to decide whether national pecu- 



liarities of form are owing to an 



nal provision 




which the structure ch 



t? 



and acquires distinctive 



characters under the influence of circumstances 



uch 



the various climates to which the first families were 



centre j 



whether 



exposed, on their dispersion from one 
there are truly distinct races which had a conformation 
and constitution from the beginning, suited to the regions 
for which they were destined, and to which they were 
blindly driven. 



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74 



NATIONAL PECULIARITIES IN 



All testimony agrees in shewing that mankind was first 
planted in Western Asia j there, in the valleys, perpetual 
summer reigns ; there the vegetable productions best suited 
to man's nourishment are most abundant : there are the 
animals, in a state of nature, which are led 




their 

instincts to yield themselves up to his use — the horse, 
the ass, the cow, the sheep, the goat, the camel, the dog ; 
and there the climate is so favourable to the human con- 
stitution, that even now we look to these countries for 

examples of perfection, both in feature and colour, of man 
himself. 

From this part of the globe, the varieties of man, 
distinguished as to exterior form and complexion, may be 



traced divergingly 



this point the 



and arts may 



be followed back ; and the study of the derivation of 



and of the grammatical 



does not 



■S 



th 



conclusi 



;onstruction of languages, 
m, but rather indicates 

that this part of the earth was the centre from which the 

nations spread. 

The grouping of mankind into races has occupied the 

ingenuity of many naturalists and physiologists, from the 
time of Buffon and Linnaeus to the present day ; but we 
rest principally on the authority of Blumenbach. In the 
valleys of the Caucasus, between the Black Sea and the 
Caspian, we may distinguish, in the Caucasian family, those 
features which, according to the views just presented^ we 
should say were the nearest to perfection. The skull is 
large and fully developed in front j the face is small, and 
the features well proportioned ; the forehead is elevated ; 
the nose arched, or raised; the teeth perpendicular in their 
sockets ; the chin round, and the lips full of expression ; 
the skin fair ; the eyes dark ; the eyebrows arched ; the 
eyelashes long ; and the hair varied in colour. The Cir- 



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THE FORM OF THE HEAD. 



15 



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cassians liave long been noted for the beauty of the women, 
and for the imposing stature, elegance, and activity of the 
men ; and the Georgians and other tribes are remarkable 
for personal beauty. 

From this centre, proceeding westward, we recognise 
the Europeans. The original inhabitants of Thessaly 
and Greece are designated as the Pelasgic branch : that 
enterprising and migratory people, who at an early 
period extended to Italy, and from whom descended the 
Etruscans. The Hellenes, or Greeks, receiving letters 
from the Phoenicians, surpassed all the nations of antiquity, 
in philosophy, literature, and art. The Greek face is a 
fine oval ; the forehead full, and carried forward j the 
eyes large ; the nose straight ; the lips and chin finely 
formed: in short, the forms of the head and face have 
been the type of the antique, and of all which we most 
admire. The modern Greeks are still distinguished 
athletic proportions and fine features. 

The Roman head differs from the Greek, in having 
a more arched forehead, a nose more aquiline. 




and 



features altogether of a more decided character j and 

' !. as ex- 



The 



this is even apparent in the busts of that people, 
hibited in the two splendid volumes of Visconti 
remarks of Bishop Wiseman on this subject are important, 
as his lectures were delivered in Rome, and to persons 
who had only to step out of the college to ascertain their 
accuracy. Travellers have often stated that the counte- 



nances of the population beyond the Tiber 



tly 



re- 



semble those of the Roman soldiers on the column of 



but Dr. Wiseman observes 



tly, that any 



Trajan ; 

one slightly 

that the model on these historical monuments is 



quainted with art, will soon be satisfied 




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76 



NATIONAL PECULIARITIES IN 



Grecian, and 



give no aid in 



siognomy of the ancient inhabitants of Italy 



g the phj 



H 



e 



bids 



look to the busts, and reclining 

sarcophag 



atues of the ancient 
or to the series of 



Romans carved on the sarc( 
imperial busts in the Capitol, where we shall discover 
the true type of the national figure, viz. a large flat head, 
a low and wide forehead, a face broad and square, a 
short and thick neck, and a stout and broad trunk • 



proportions totally at variance with wh 



are generally 



considered to be those of the ancient Roman. Nor h 



go far, if in Rome, to find their descend 



they 



are 



be met with every day in the streets, principally 



among the burgesses or middle class.* 

The German race has been spread, from 



great part of Europe, blending with the Celts 



It 



is 



sparated 



the Teutonic and Sclav 



families 



their military enterp 



form the history of the darker 



* a 



ages, when they came down upon the Roman empire. 

For my part, I looked for the type of the Roman soldier among 
the Galleotti. There was a body of these condemned men, chained 
together, who were marched every evening from their work of rebuildino- 
the great basilica of St. Paul's, beyond the walls. This church, which 
was burnt, stands some way out of Rome, and I walked beside and 
behind these bands; and finer figures are not to be conceived; their 
loose dress, and the gyves upon their legs, gave to their air and attitude 
something formidable. They seemed fit for the offices of a tyrant, and' 
to subdue the world. I must ever remember one evening, when I saw 
these men, with their mounted guards, passing under the Arch of Titus, 
and the broad shadow of the Colosseum. Dr. Wiseman says, in regard 
to the sculptures on that arch, that the profiles of the soldiers shew that 
there was a rule, or model, adapted to the common men, and from which 
the artist might not depart ; while the figure of the emperor, seated in 
his chariot, forms a strong contrast to them. Though his features are 
now quite effaced, enough remains of the outline to shew the full heavy 
face, and bulky head, of a true Roman." — Notes from Journal. 



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THE FORM OF THE HEAD. 



77 



Other hordes mingled with the Tartars 



d 



are recog 



nised in history, as the people who broke in upon the 
Persian and the Roman empires in the east. The Celtic 
Gaul of the Romans gave residence to a race, which is 
now diminished to the remnant living in the mountainous 

districts of the extreme west of Europe. 

The Mongolian Tartars occupy great part of the north 



of A 

ohliq 



sia and Europe 



The 



ivelids of this peopl 



are 



th 



nose is small and flat, broad towards the 



forehead ; the cheek-bones are high, the chin short, and 
the lips large and thick ; the ears are flat and square ; 
the general form of the head round. The Mongol 
Tartar tribes have become mixed with the neighbouring 
nations, and exhibit a variety of physiognomy. Hordes 
of this people invaded China, and settling in the north 



empire hav 



blended 



th the original 



of that great 

Chinese. 

To the north-west, they mingled with the polar races, 
and have merged in the Kamschatkans and Tungusians ; 
the Huns, whose incursions into more civilised Europe, are 
recorded in history, were Mongol Tartars. The primitive 



Turks were 



of the same 



but, by 



g 



Circassia, Georgia, Greece, and Arabia, their physical cha 
racter has been changed, and they have become a hand 



some people. Th 
mark the Turkish 



open nostril and short nose, w 



hich 



their eves are 



extraction ; 

whole face is expressive and intelligen 

The Chinese skull is oblong, th 



Qce, still betray their original 

dark and animated, and the 



frontal bone nar- 



proporti 



to the width of the bones of the face 



Accordingly the countenance is flat, and the cheeks ex- 



panded 



th 



yelids are not freely open 



and 



drawn 



obliquely up towards the temples j the eyebrows are black 



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78 



NATIONAL PECULIARITIES IN 



and higWy arched ; the nose is small and flattened, with a 
marked depression separating it from the forehead; the 
hair is black, and the complexion sallow. 

The Malay race is scattered through the Indian Islands, 
Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Amhoyna, Celebes, the Philippines, 
Moluccas. The forehead, in the Malay, is prominent and 
arched, but low ; the orbits oblique and oblong ; the nasal 
bones broad and flattened ; the cheek-bones high and ex- 
panded ; the jaws projecting. The head is, altogether, 
large ; the mouth and the lips protrude ; the nose is short, 
depressed, and flattened towards the nostrils ; the eyes are 
small and oblique. They are of a brown complexion, vary- 
ing in the diff'erent tribes. 

Some uncertainty prevails as to the race to which the 
ancient Egyptians belonged. This has arisen from the 
difficulty of reconciling the early and extensive knowledge 
of that people, with the acknowledged deficiency of capacity 

We might expect that the mummies and 
drawings in their pyramids and tombs should have long 
since decided the question ; but the position of Egypt may 
account for the obscurity, 
great continents, the Egyptians became early a mixed 



in the Negro. 



Being on the confines of two 



people. 



The skull is found to be well formed, and unlike 



that of the Ethiopian. The probability is, that the Negro 
was then, as now, a subjugated race.* 

The Greek applied the terms Ethiop and Indian to all 
the dark people of the south. By Ethiopian, we now cor- 
rectly understand the diff'erent races which inhabit the 
interior of Africa; extending from the south of Mount 



* Blumenbach thinks that he can discover among the mummies the 
heads of the Ethiopian, the Indian, and the Besbers. Denon conceives 
that the female mummies indicate that the women of ancient Egypt had 
great beauty. 



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THE FORM OF THE HEAD. 



79 



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Atlas and Aby 
Hottentots. 



to the country of the Caffres and 



The general character of the Negro countenance is 

race there 



familiar 
can he 



Of the great antiquity 



of the 



doubt 



When, indeed, the effigy of the Neg 



is found depicted on the ancient 



lis of Egypt, and 



vessels are dug up, the characters on which 



read by 



modern Chinese, we may well despair of obtaining any 
thing like a satisfactory history of the spread of nations, 
and the settlement of mankind in the different regions^ of 
the globe. The depression of the forehead and compression 
of the temples, which are distinctive of the Africans, 
although there be splendid examples of fine form among 
the nations of that continent, mark them as a degraded 



race. 



* 



Diverg 



still from the presumed central orig 



of 



mankind, we find the Polynesian family in the islands of 

The inhabitants of these isles are of 



the Pacific Ocean 



middle stature, athletic, with heavy limbs 



Th 



faces 



are round or delicately oval 



the nose is well formed 



ght, or aquiline, sometimes spread out, but not having 



the flatness of the Neg 



the forehead 



low, but 



* The great families of mankind are distinguished by colour as well 
as form and features. The Caucasian by white ; the African by black ; 
the Mongolian by olive, tending to yellow; the Malay by tawny ; the 
American by brown, or nearly copper hue. The colour of the ha,r, 
and that of the iris, partake of the^ colour of the skin. The Caucasian, 
with fair complexion, has red, brown, or light-coloured hair, and the eyes 
of different shades of grey and blue. In those^of darker complexion 
the hair is black and the eyes dark. In the 

stiff, and straight. In the European, soft, flexible, and flowing. _ 

Negro, thick-set, strong, short, and curly. But in all races there spnng 
up occasional varieties. 



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80 



NATIONAL PECULIARITIES IN 



receding ; the eyes black, bright, and expressive j the lip 
full, and the teeth fine.* 

In America, the same difficulties present themselves u 



the 



Old World 
tinction of 



and propagation of 



the 



The most recent inquiries authorise the dis- 
families inhabiting America ; first, a race 

ixico and Peru. 



called Toltecan, belonging originally to Mexico 
which, from the shapes of the skulls found in the graves 
and the accompanying relics, give evidence of greatei 
civilisation than belongs to the present natives ; and secondly 



people which extending 



the greater portion of the 



embraces all the barbarous 



of the 



New World, excepting the polar tribes, or Mongolian 
Americans, which are presumed to be straggling parties 

from Asia, such as the Esquimaux, Greenlanders, and 
Fin s . 

In the native American, there is no trace of the frizzled 
locks of the Polynesian or the woolly texture on the head 



of the Neg 



The hair is long, lank, and black 



beard 



deficient 



nent ; the 



; the 
the cheek-bones are large and promi- 



jaw broad and ponderous, truncated 



front ; the teeth vertical and very large ; the nose 
cidedly arched, and the nasal cavities of great size, 
ought not to be called the copper-coloured race. 



is de- 

They 

The 



colour is brown, or of a cinnamon tint. 



A 



s in the 



Old World, the colour varies, and the darkness does 
not alwavs correspond to the climate or vicinitv to the 
equator. 



m 

* It is amusing to find voyagers making distinctions here between the 
plebeian and the aristocratic classes. But so it is every where. Among the 
Lybians and Moors, as in the countries of Asia and Europe, the comforts 
and luxuries of life improve the physical condition of man. 



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THE FORM OF THE HEAD. 



81 



Of the imperfect sketch of the varieties of mankind 
which I have here presented, every sentence might be the 
text of a long essay. But in this, as in the whole volume, 
I have attempted only to awaken attention, and to make 
the reader an observer of what may pass before him ; giving 
him the elements on which his ingenuity or acumen is to 
be employed in his intercourse with society. 



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ESSAY III. 




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ON THOSE SOURCES OF EXPRESSION IN THE HUMAN COUNTE- 
NANCE WHICH CANNOT BE EXPLAINED ON THE IDEA OF A 
DIRECT INFLUENCE OF THE MIND UPON THE FEATURES. 



" The heart of a man changeth his countenance, whether for good 
or evil." — T/ie Son of Sirach. 

" I do believe thee ; 
I saw his heart in his face." — Shakspeare. 



In the human countenance, under the influence of 

passion, there are characters expressed, and changes of 
features produced, which it is impossible to explain on the 
notion of a direct operation of the mind upon the features. 
Ignorance of the source of these changes of the features, or 



the cause which produces them, has th 



obscurity 



wish to remove 



the whole of this subject, which it is my 



If, in the examination of the sources of expression, it 
should be found that the mind is dependent on the frame 
of the body, the discovery ought not to be considered as 
humiliating, or as affecting the belief of a separate ex- 
istence of that part of our nature on which the changes 
wrought in the body are ultimately impressed. Since 
we are dwellers in a material world it is necessary that 




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ON THE SOURCES OF EXPRESSION 



83 



the spirit should be connected with it 
body, without which it could neither feel 




an 



■ganised 



manifest itself in any way 



It is a fundamental law of 



nature that the mind shall have its pow 



developed 



through the influence of the body 5 that the organs of the 
body shall be the links in the chain of relation between it 
and the material world, through which the immaterial 

principle within shall be affected. 

As the Creator has established this connexion between 
the mind and external nature, so has He implanted, or 
caused to be generated, in us, various higher intellectual 
faculties. In every 



intelligent being 



H 



has laid th 



foundation of emotions that point to Him, affections 
which we are drawn to Him, and which 
their object. 




rest in Him as 
In the mind of the rudest slave, left to the 



education of the mere 



elements around him, sentiment 



which lead him to a Parent and a Creator 



These 



feelin 



g 



spring up spontaneously 



they are universal, and 



be 



g 



be shaken off ; and no better example than this can 
en of the adaptation of the mind to the various 
relations in which man is placed, or one that tends more 
to raise in us a conception of the Author of our being, and 
increase our estimation of ourselves, as allied to Him. 

This it is, perhaps, necessary to premise, when I am 
about to prove the extensive influence of the corporeal on 

the intellectual part of man. 

In examining the phenomena of the mind, philosophers 
have too much overlooked this relation between the mental 
operations and the condition of the bodily frame. It ap- 
pears to me that the frame of the body, exclusive of the 
special organs of seeing, hearing, &c. is a complex org- 



I shall not say of sense, 



but which ministers, like the 



external senses, to the mind ; that is to say, as the org 



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ON THE SOURCES OF EXPRESSION. 



of the fi 



senses serve to furnish ideas of matter, the 

ites, in certain conditions. 



framework of the body contributes, 
to develope various states of the mind 
In the affections which we call 



passions 



emotions 



there is an influence which points to the breast as the part 



whe 



they 



are 



felt 



Some have 



ted that they are 



seated in the bowels ; and the sensations I am about to 
describe have been arrayed as proofs that the affections 
exist in the body. But that, I affirm, is impossible. They 
are conditions of the mind, and cannot be seated in the 
body, although they both influence and are influenced by it. 
We have learned enough to know that the impressions 



communicated by the external organs of sense belong really 



to the mind ; and there can be no doubt that there is a 
mutual influence exercised by the mind and frame on each 
other. This is not asserted on the mere grounds that each 
affection which is deeply felt, is accompanied by a disturb- 
ance in our breast ; nor on the language of mankind, which 
gives universal assent to this proposition j but it may be 
proved by circumstances of expression, in which we cannot 
be deceived. I shall make it manifest that what the eye, 
the ear, or the finger, is to the mind, as exciting those ideas 
which have been appointed to correspond with the qualities 



of the material world, the organs of the breast are to the 



developement of our aff'ections ; and that without them we 
might see, hear, and smell, but we should walk the earth 
coldly indifferent to all emotions which may be said in an 
especial manner to animate us, and give interest and grace 
to human thoughts and actions. 

By emotions are meant certain changes or aff'ections of 
the mind, as grief, joy, astonishment. That such states or 
conditions of the mind should in any degree pertain to the 



body, mav 



perhaps, be willingly admitted, unless 



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ON TPIE SOURCES OF EXPRESSION. 



85 






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take along with us that the ideas of sense, as light, sound, 
or taste, are generated by the organs of the senses, and 

any thing received and conveyed by them to the 

the different organs of 
ve rise to sensation and 




sensorium 



It is ascertained that 
the senses can be exercised, and g 



percept 
pressioi 



, when there is no corresponding outward im 
and the ideas thus excited are according to 



organ struck or agitated : that is, 
conveyed to different organs of sense will g 



the 



the same impression 



variety of 



as light, when the e}' 



Lse to a 
struck ; 



sound, when the ear is struck 



with the other 



organs ; the sensation corresponding with the organ which 
is exercised, and not with the cause of the impression. A 
needle passed through the retina, the organ of vision, will 
produce the sensation of a spark of fire, not of sharpness or 
pain; and the same needle, if applied to the papillae of 
the tongue, will give rise to the sense of taste ; while if it 
prick the skin, pain will follow. This law of the senses is 
arbitrarily or divinely ordered ; it might have been other- 



Accordingly 



wise, 
the i 



ently of their 



hen we observe that the organs of ^, 



perate in producing specific ideas, independ 
own peculiar exciting causes, we can com 



prehend better how other organs of the body may h 



relation established with^the mind, and a control 



-J 




without reference to outward impressions 

Let us consider the heart, in its office of receiving the 



^•'- 



influence of the mind, and of reflecting that influence 



It may 



the first pla 



be observed, that there is 



hardly an organ of the body limited to one function ; all 



complex in their operatio 



H 



many offices, for 

gular 



It 



example, are performed by the lungs ? 

fact in the history of physiological opinions, that the 

heart, an organ the most susceptible of being excited by 



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ON THE SOURCES OF EXPRESSION. 



the agitations or derangements of the body, should h 



been considered 



time as insensible 



And 



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one sense it is true that 



To actual touch the 



hear 



is insensible, as was exhibited to the illustrious 



Harvey, in the person of a young nobleman, who had 
the heart exposed by disease. This single circumstance, 
had there been no other evidence, should have earlier 
directed physiologists to a correct view of the matter; 
from its proving that the internal organs are affected 



and 



united by sensibilities which are altogether different 

The 



in kind from those bestowed upon the skin, 
sensibility of the external surface of the body is a spe- 
cial endowment adapted to the elements around, and 
calculated to protect the interior parts from injury. But 
though the heart has not this common sense of touch, yet 

which it is held 




it has an appropriate sensibility, 
united in the closest connexion and sympathy with the 
other vital organs ; so that it participates in all the 
changes of the general system of the body. 

But connected with the heart, and depending on its 
peculiar and excessive sensibility, there is an extensive 
apparatus which demands our attention. 



This 



the 




organ of breathing: a part known obviously as the in- 
strument of speech ; but which I shall shew to be more. 
The organ of breathing, in its association with the heart, 
is the instrument of expression, and is the part of the 
frame, by the action of which the emotions are developed 
and made visible to us. Certain strong feelings of the 
mind produce a disturbed condition of the heart ;^nd 
through that corporeal influence, directly from the heart, 
indirectly from the mind, the extensive apparatus con- 
stituting the organ of breathing is put in motion, and 

gives us the outward signs which we call expression. The 





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ON THE SOURCES OF EXPRESSION. 



87 



T ■ 

man was wrong who found fault with nature for not 
placing a window before the heart, in order to render 
visible human thoughts and intentions. There is, in 
truth, provision made in the countenance and outward 
bearing for such discoveries. 

One, ignorant of the grounds on which these opinions 
are founded, has said, " Every strong emotion is directed 
towards the heart : the heart experiences various kinds of 
sensation, pleasant or unpleasant, over which it has no 
control ; and from thence the agitated spirits are diffused 



over 



The fact is 



the body." 
iguage be figurative. 

d what are their effects 



tainly 



although the 



H 



these spirits diffused 



We find that the influence of the heart upon the 
extended organ of respiration has sway at so early a 
period of our existence, that we must acknowledge that 



the 



operation or play of the instrument of expression 
precedes the mental emotions with which they are to be 



joined, accompanies them in their first dawn 



gthens 



them 



d directs them. So that 



too 



much to conclude th 



from these 



■g 



perhap 



movmg m 



from the 



sympathy with the mind, the same uniformity is produced 
among men, in their internal feelings, emotions, or passions, 
as there exists in their ideas of external nature 
uniform operations of the organs of sense. 

Let us place examples before us, and then try whether 
the received doctrines of the passions will furnish us with 
an explanation of the phenomena, or whether we must go 
deeper, and seek the assistance of anatomy. 

In the expression of the passions, there is a compound 
uence in operation. Let us contemplate the appear- 



infl 



ance of terror. 



We 



can 



readily 



conceive 



why 



a man 



stands with eyes intently fixed on the object of his fears, 



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88 



ON THE SOURCES OF EXPRESSION. 



the eyebrows elevated to the utmost, and the eye largely 
uncovered ; or why, with hesitating and bewildered steps, 
his eyes are rapidly and wildly in search of something. 
In this, we only perceive the intent application of his 
mind to the object of his apprehensions 



its direct in- 



But observe him further : 




fluence on the outward organ, 
there is a spasm on his breast, he cannot breathe freely, 
the chest is elevated, the muscles of his neck and 
shoulders are in action, his breathing is short and rapid, 
there is a gasping and a convulsive motion of his lips, a 
tremor on his hollow cheek, a gulping and catching of 
his throat; and why does his heart knock at his ribs, 



while yet th 



force of circulation 



for his lip 



and cheeks are ashy pale 



So in grief, if we attend to the same class of pheno 



mena, we shall be able to draw an exact picture 
imagine to 



Let 



ourselves the overwhelming influence of grief 
The object in her mind has absorbed all the 
powers of the frame, the body is no more regarded, the 



woman 



pirits have left 



reclines, and the limbs g 



they are nerveless and relaxed, and she scarcely breathes 



but why comes at 



the long-drawn 



gh 




are the neck 



d throat convulsed 



what causes the 



swelling and quivering of the lips, and the deadly paleness 
of the face? — or why is the hand so pale and earthly 
cold? — and why, at intervals, as the agony returns, does 
the convulsion spread over the frame like a paroxysm of 

suffocation ? 

) come to 

IS of the 



It must, I think, be acknowledged, when 
arrange these phenomena, these outward \ 



g 



passions, that they 
ence of the mind al 

unaccustomed ears. 



\^^- 



it proceed from the direct influ- 
However strange it may sound to 
it is to the heart and lungs, and all 



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ON THE SOURCES OF EXPRESSION 



89 



the extended instrument of breathing, that we are to trace 
these effects. 






/'; 



Ove 

qual 



uch motions of the body the mind h 



an 



By a strong effort the outward tokens 



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may be restrained, at least in regard to the general 
bearing of the body ; but who, while suiFering, can retain 
the natural fulness of his features, or the healthful colour 
of his cheek, the unembarrassed respiration and clearness 
of the natural voice ? The villain may command his 
voice, and mask his purpose with light and libertine 
words, or carry an habitual sneer of contempt of all softer 
passions j but his unnatural paleness, and the sinking of 

his features, will betray that he suffers. Clarence says to 
his murderers. 



" How deadly dost thou speak ! 
Your eyes do menace me : Why look you pale ? " 

But the just feelings of mankind demand respect ; men 



will not have the violence of ofrief obtruded on them. 



To 



preserve the dignity of his character, the actor must per- 
mit those uncontrollable signs of suiFering alone to escape, 
which betray how much he feels, and how much he restrains. 
Even while asleep, these interior organs of feeling will 
prevail, and disclose the source of expression. Has my 
reader seen Mrs. Siddons in Queen Katharine during 
that solemn scene where the sad note was played which 
she named her knell ? Who taught the crowd sitting at a 
play, an audience differing in age, habits, and education, 
to believe those quivering motions, and that gentle smile, 



and those slight convulsive twitchings, to be true to 



nature ? To see every one hushed to the softest breathing 
of sympathy with the silent expression of the actress, ex- 
hibits all mankind held together by one universal feeling : 
and that feeling, excited by expression, so deeply laid in 



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ON THE SOURCES OF EXPRESSION. 



have influence, without heing ohvious 



reason. 



To illustrate this curious subject, I shall first explain 
the extensive connexions which are established betwixt the 
great organs that sustain life and the muscular system of 
the face, neck, and chest. I shall then shew that the 

are affected by passions of the 
s connexion subsists at the 



functions of these 



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us through 



life 



and 



mind> I shall prove that 
moment of birth, and accompanies 
finally, that from this source are derived those obscure in- 
dications of emotion in the countenance and general frame, 
which cannot be explained on the supposition of a direct 
influence of the mind on the muscles of expression. 

The heart and the lungs may be safely taken as two 
parts which are combined 



the same function 



The 



action of the heart, and the motion of the lungs, are equally 
necessary to the circulation of that blood which is fitted 
for the supply of the body ; and the interruption of their 

motions threatens life. Accordingly, these two organs are 
united by nerves, and consequently by the closest sympathy ; 
and in all the variations to which they are liable, they are 
still found to correspond, the accelerated action of the one 
being directly followed by the excitement of the other. 

The motion of the lungs proceeds from a force altogether 
external to them : they themselves are passive, being moved 



bv a very great number of m 



which lie upon the 



breast, back, and neck j that is, the exterior muscles give 
play to the ribs, and the lungs follow the motions of 
the chest. The heart and lungs, though insensible to 
common impression, yet being acutely alive to their proper 
stimulus, suffer from the slightest change of posture or 
exertion of the frame, and also from the changes or 
affections of the mind. The impression thus made on 



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91 



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these internal organs is not visible by its effect upon tbem, 
but on the external and remote muscles associated with 

This law exists in all mankind ; we see the con- 



them. 



sequence in those 



ptible and nervous person 



whom 



the mere change of position, or the effort of rising, or the 
slightest emotion of mind, flutters and s 




But 



when the 



strong are subdued by this mysterious union of 
soul and body, when passion tears the breast, that the most 
afflicting picture of human frailty is presented, ai 



d the 



afforded, that it is on the 



spiratory org 



passion 



fall 



s 



th so powerful an 



that the influence of 
expression of agony. 

The next circumstance of this detail to which I beg 
attention, is the extent of the actions of respiration : the 
remoteness of the parts agitated in sympathy with the 
heart. The act of respiration is not limited to the trunk j 
the actions of certain muscles of the windpipe, the throat, 
the lips, the nostrils, are necessary to expand those tubes J 
and openings, so that the air may be admitted through,, 
them in respiration, with a freedom corresponding with 
the increased action of the chest. Without this, the sides 
of these pliant tubes would fall together, and we should be 
suffocated by exertion 



1 



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passion 



Let us consider h 



many muscles are combined in the simpl 



of breath 



mg 



how 



many 



added in the act of coughing 



these are changfed and modified 

c!> 



— how 
reflect 



the various combinations of muscles of the throat, wind 



pipe, tongue, lips, in speaking and 
be able justly to estimate the 



g 



and 



shall 



; of the muscles which 
associated with the proper or simple act of dilating and 



compressing the chest 



But how much more numerous 



are the changes wrought upon these muscles, when na 
employs them in the double capacity of communicating 



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ON THE SOURCES OF EXPRESSION. 



thoughts and feelings ; not in the language of sounds 
merely, but in the language of expression in the coun- 
tenance also : for certainly the one is as much their office 
as the other. 



■-" '-».■ 



The nervous system is complex in an extraordinary 
degree ; but the reader may not be deterred from attempt- 
ing to understand at least so much, that there is a class of 
nerves appropriated to respiration. These nerves arise 
from the same part of the brain j the great central nerve 
descends into the chest, to be distributed to the heart and 
lungs ; 



and the others extend 



the 



muscles of 



the chest, neck, and face. Under the influence of the 
central nerve, the diverging external ones become the 
instruments of breathing and of expression. The labour of 
many months discloses to the anatomist but a part of these 
nervous cords ; and the consideration of the uses they 
serve presents the most overwhelming proof of the ex- 
cellence of design, — but a design made manifest by the 
results, rather than comprehensible in its means. 

Can we perfectly understand how tickling the throat 
should produce a convulsion over the whole frame, in which 
a hundred muscles are finely adjusted, and proportioned in 
their actions to expel what irritates the windpipe ? or how 
tickling the nostril should make a change in these muscles, 
throw some out, and bring others into action, to the effect 
of sending the air through a different tube to remove what 
is offensive, and all this without the act of the will ? 

Let us see how the machine works. Observe a man 
threatened with suffocation : remark the sudden and wild 
energy that pervades every feature ; the contractions of his 
throat, the gasping and the spasmodic twitchings of his 
face, the heaving of his chest and shoulders, and how he 
stretches his hands and catches like a drowning man. 







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ON THE SOURCES OF EXPRESSION. 



93 



These are efforts made under the oppressive, intolerable 

sensation at his heart ; and the means which nature em- 



plo 



guard and preserve the animal machine, giving 



to the vital org 
the utmost exert 



bility that irresistibly 



It is this painful sensation that introduces us to " this 
breathing world ;" which guards the vital functions through 
life, as it draws us into existence. Pain is the agent which 
most effectually rouses the dormant faculties of both mind 
and body. While the child slumbers in the womb it does 
not live by breathing, it possesses an organ which performs 



the office of the lungs. 



In the birth there is a short in- 



terval, betwixt the loss of the one organ, and the sub- 
stitution of the other ; nor would the breath ever be 
drawn, or the lungs perform their function, but for this 
painful and irresistible nisus, which calls the whole cor- 
responding muscles into action. Spasms and contractions 
are seen to extend over the infant's chest ; the features 
are working, and the muscles of the face agitated, pro- 
bably for the first time; at last air is admitted into the 
lungs, a feeble cry is heard, the air in successive inspira- 
tions fully dilates the chest, and the child cries lustily. 
Now the regular respiration is established, and the animal 
machinery subsides into repose. 



(I 



We came crying hither. 



Thovi know'st, the first time that Ave smell the air 
wawl and cry : — I will preach to thee : mark, 



We 



When we are born, we cry, that we are come 
To this great stage of fools ! " — Lear. 



With the revolution which the whole economy has 



underg 



new wants are engendered, new appetites 



these are again lulled by the mother's breast. During all 



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94 



ON THE SOURCES OF EXPRESSION, 



this no one sympathises with the little sufferer, the grimace 
with which he enters the world excites only smiles. 

'^ On parent's knees, a naked new-born child, 
Weeping thou sat'st, while all around thee smiled 
So live, that sinking in thy last long sleep 



Calm thou may'st smile, when all around thee weep. 



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Ang 



99 



says 



LordB 



6< 



IS 



tainly a kind of 



baseness, as it appears well in the weakness of those 



hjects in whom 



reiP'ns 




children, women, old folks 



sick folks." But this I may say, tlmt anger is at no period 
of life so strongly impressed upon human features, as in 
the first moment of our visiting the light. At the instant 
of our birth, an association of muscles 



is formed, and 



the 



same time put 



op 



tamping a ch 



er of 
early 



expression which betrays the wants of the body in 
infancy, and the sufferings of the mind in the after period. 
The frame of the body, constituted for the support of the 
vital functions, becomes the instrument of expression ; and 
an extensive class of passions, by influencing the heart, by 

aflecting that sensibility which governs the muscles of 



:to co-operation, so that they be- 
d sure sign of certain states or 



respiration, calls them ii 
come an undeviating ai 

conditions of the mind. They are the organs of expression. 

Returning now to the contemplation of any of the 

stronger passions, we comprehend much which was before 



obscure. We see w^hy that grief which strikes the heart 



f 



i 



should aficct the regularity of breathing* — why the muscles 
of the throat should be afl'ected with spasm — why slight 
quivering motions pass from time to time over the face, the 



* '^ The grief that does not speak, 
Whispers the o'er- fraught heart, and bids it break." 



Macbeth. 








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ON THE SOURCES OF EXPRESSION. 



95 



lip 



and cheeks, and nostrils; — because these are the 



■g 



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piration 



g 



which have their 



m 



united to the sensibility of the heart, and moved under its 
influence. Now we comprehend, how the passion of rage 
or terror binds and tightens the chest, how the features 
are so singularly agitated by the indirect, as well as by the 



direct influence of the passions 



the words 



how the voice sticks in the throat — how the paralysed lips 
refuse the commands of the will, so that they are held in a 

mixed state of violence and weakness, which, more than 
any fixed expression, characterises the influence of the 
passion. 



Blu 



The sudden flushing of the countenance 



in blushing belongs to expre 



as 



one of the 



many 



of sympathy which bind us together. This sufi"usion 
10 purpose of the economy, whilst we must acknow- 



■^^- ,.^^- 



«**vifcfT"5tfiifi«*m««-r'-?'^M 



ledofe the interest wbich it excites as an mdication ot mmd 



It adds perfection to the features of beauty 



# 



The colour which attends exertion, or the violent pas 



of rage 



from general vascular excitement 



and differs from blushing 



Blushing is too sudden and 



partial to be traced to the heart's action. That it is a 
provision for expression may be inferred from the colo 



r^ 



tending only to the surface of the'lace, neck, and breast 



the parts most exposed 



acquired 



from the 



beginning 



It 



unlike the efi'ect of powerful, depressing 



emotions, which influence the whole body. The sudden 
conviction of the criminal is felt in every pore; but the 
colour caused by blushing gives brilliancy and interest to 



* Dr. Burgess, who has written a volume on " Blushing," affirms that 
a Circassian maid who blushes, brings a higher price in the slave-market I 



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96 



ON THE SOURCES OF EXPRESSION. 



the expression of the face. In this 



perceive an ad 



vantage possessed by the fair family of mankind, and which 
must be lost to the dark ; for I can hardly believe that a 



We think of blushes 



blush may be seen in the Negro.* 
accompanying shame ; but it is indicative of excitement. 
There is no shame when lively feeling makes a timid youth 
break through the restraint which modesty and reserve 



have imposed. 



It is becoming in youth, 



it is seemly in 



more advanced years in women. Blushing assorts well 
with youthful and with effeminate features ; whilst nothing 
is more hateful than a dog-face, that exhibits no token of 
sensibility in the variations of colour. 



* A wound in the black leaves a scar in which the dark pigment of 
the skin is wanting ; and the white spot, formed by such a cicatrix in the 
face of the Negro, reddens with passion. 

In contrasting, by. comparative anatomy, the internal structure of 
animals, we find in some classes, parts of the organisation apparently 
useless or superfluous, to discover the full developement and appropriate 
functions of which, we must refer to other classes. If the black blushes 
unseen, it only shews that the incidental colour does not affect the 
general structure and processes. 



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ESSAY 



IV. 



OF THE MUSCLES OF THE FACE IN MAN. 



The muscular part of tlie animal frame consists of a 
peculiar fibrous substance, possessing the power of con- 
traction, and, consequently, of producing motion. In the 
limbs and trunk, the muscles are attached to the bones, 
and are distinct and powerful : but as in the face they 
have merely to operate on the skin, the lips, nostrils, 

and eyelids, they require less power, and are, therefore, 
more delicate. And that power is not always directly 
under the will, like the muscular exertions of the body 
and limbs ; it is often involuntary, and is inseparably 



united to the conditions or affections of the mind. 



The 



latter consideration gives much interest to the subject ; 



for. 




this provision in the muscles, the very spirit by 



which the body is animated, and the various emotions, 
shine out in the countenance. 

It has been said that the superiority of the human face 
in expression is an accidental effect of the number of 
muscles which are provided in man for the faculty of 



speech. 



That many of the muscles called into action in 



speech are also employed in expression will be readily 
admitted; but besides these, there are muscles of the 
human features which have no connexion with the voice. 



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MUSCLES OF THE FOREHEAD AND EYEBROW 



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are purely instrumental in expression. Further, the 



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human countenance is pre-eminent, not only in having 
muscles proper to man, hut we shall find that he also 
possesses the peculiarities of two great classes of the lower 
animals, having the muscles which are characteristic of 
hoth these classes comhined in his face. 

To understand what follows, it is not necessary for the 
reader to know more of the structure of muscles than that 
they are formed of distinct packets of fibres ; that the 
extremities are called their origins and insertions : the 
fixed extremity, attached generally to some point of bone, 
being the origin ; the extremity which is moved, the inser- 
tion. I shall consider the muscles of the face in three 

L 

groups. First, those which surround the eye ; secondly, 
those which move the nostrils j and lastly, those around 
the mouth. 
And first, 



OF THE MUSCLES OF THE FOREHEAD AND EYEBROW. 





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The forehead is more than any other part characteristic 

It is the seat of thought, a 



of the human countenance. 



tablet where every emotion is distinctly impressed ; and the 
eyebrow is the moveable type for this fair page. 



" Frons hominis tristitise, hilaritatis, clementiae, severitatis, index est." 

Pliny, 



The eye is the chief feature of expression. It takes 
thousand shades from the relations of the surrounding parts 
and the eyebrow, 



that dark arch which surmounts 



itself an eloquent index of the mind. Some one has called 
the eyebrow " the rainbow of peace, or the bended bow of 
discord." 



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MUSCLES OF THE FOREHEAD AND EYEBROW. 



99 



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There are four muscles attached to the eyebrow. 
1. A muscle, called occipito frontalis (a), descends 



the forehead, and 



ted 



the eyebrow, where it 



mingles 



its fibres with the next muscle. The simpl 



of the frontal portion of the occ 
r arch the eyebrow, as in surprise 



pito frontalis 



doubt 



or, as 



if we meant to say, " I must look further into this 



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S. The muscle which closes the eyelids, is the orbicu- 



laris palpebrarum (b). 



We shall divide this muscle into 



three parts. Its fibres surround the eye, being spread in a 
circular direction upon the margin of the orbit and the 
eyelids. The stronger portion, encircling the orbit, shuts 
the eyelids with that spasmodic force which is felt when 
something irritating is thrown into the eye. The paler 
and more delicate fibres, which lie more immediately upon 
the eyelids, gently close the eye, as in winking, or in sleep. 
A third set of fibres is situated directly on the margins of 



the eyelids. 



* 



It is the outer and stronger circle which 



draws down the eyebrow, and is the direct opponent of the 
occipito frontalis. 

* For the actions of these diiFerent portions of the general muscle, 
see the author's « Practical Essays," Part I. on Squinting. 



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100 



MUSCLES OF THE FOREHEAD AND EYEBROW. 



3. The third muscle (c), is properly a part of the first, 
and is termed the descending slip of the occipito frontalis 



As it descends 



the side of the nose to be attached 



the bridge, it has a diiferent effect from the greater part 
of the muscle : it draws down the inner extremity of the 
eyebrow. 

4. The next 



muscle 



the 



corrugator supercilii (d). 
It arises from the lowest point of the frontal bone, where 



it joins the bones of the nose, 



d 



running obliquely 



upwards, is inserted into the skin under the eyebrow. The 
two muscles acting together knit the eyebrows. These are 
the muscles of the forehead and eyebrows. 

In the arched and polished forehead, terminated by the 
distinct line of the eyebrow, there is an especial capacity 
for indicating human thought. The lines drawn here often 
give meaning of a high character to motions of the features 
in the lower part of the face, which would otherwise 
express mere animal activity. • And it is not a fleshy brow 
that is best adapted for expression. The fulness of the 
forehead and around the eyes, which the artists and poets 
combined to give to Hercules, conveys the idea of dull, 
brutal strength, and a lowering expression ; while the fore- 
head of the thin, pale student, may evince intelligence or 
elevation of thought. 

The levator palpehrce superioris, the muscle which 
raises the upper eyelid, and is an opponent of the orbi- 
cularis, arises deep within the orbit, and is attached in 
front to the cartilage which gives form and firmness to the 
upper eyelid. 

There are also within the orbit six other muscles, 
which are inserted into the eyeball. Their action is a 
subject of high interest, to discuss which would require 
a volume. I must limit myself to the question of the 






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THE EXPRESSION OF THE EYE. 



101 



expression of the eye ; referring the reader for more ample 

L 

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illustrations, to those memoirs which treat of the sub- 
serviency of the muscles to vision, and of their action in 
cleaning the cornea, and protecting the organ.* 



OF THE EXPRESSION OF THE HUMAN EYE. 



The eye is the most lively feature in the countenance ; 
the first of our senses to awake, and the last to cease 
motion. It is indicative of the higher and the holier 
emotions — of all those feelings which distinguish man 
from the brutes. 

A large eye is not only consistent with beauty, but 

necessary to it. The eye of the eagle, even of the ox, is 
familiar in the similes of poets. The Arab expresses his 
idea of a woman's beauty, by saying, that she has the eye 
of the gazelle ; it is the burthen of their songs. The 

* 

timidity, gentleness, and innocent fear, in the eye of the 

deer tribe, are compared with the modesty of a young girl. 
"Let her be as the loving hind, and pleasant roe." In 
the eye we look for meaning, for human sentiment, for 

reproof.t 

Do architects study enough, when arranging the masses 
of their buildings for effect, how the shadows will fall? 
The statuary, at all events, must. "The eye ought to be 



X 



sunk," says Winkleman.t Yes, relatively to the forehead ; 

r 

but not in reference to the face. That would give a very 
mean expression. It is the strong shadow produced by the 






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* See the " Nervous System/' 4th edition, p. 145 ; *« Bridgewater 
Treatise on the Hand/' 4th edition, p. 329. * 



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^ " I gave him," said Dr. Parr 

ij: " Aux tetes ideales, les yeu^ 

le sont en general dans la nature." 



^ the chastisement of my eye." 






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102 



THE EXPRESSION OF THE EYE. 



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projecting eyebrow, which gives powerful effect to the eye, 
in sculpture. 

We have said, that the eye indicates the holier emotions. 
In all stages of society, and in every clime, the posture and 
expression of reverence have been the same. The works 
of the great masters, who have represented the more 
sublime passions of man, may be adduced as evidences : by 
the upturned direction of the eyes, and a correspondence 
of feature and attitude, they address us in language in- 
telligible to all mankind. The humble posture and raised 
eyes are natural, whether in the darkened chamber, or 
under the open vault of heaven. 

On first consideration, it seems merely consistent, that 
when pious thoughts prevail, man should turn his eyes from 
things earthly to the purer objects above. But there is a 
reason for this, which is every way worthy of attention. 
When subject to particular influences, the natural position 

J 

of the eyeball is to be directed upwards. In sleep, languor, 
and depression, or when affected with strong emotions, the 
eyes naturally and insensibly roll upwards. The action is 
not a voluntary one ; it is irresistible. Hence, in reverence, 
in devotion, in agony of mind, in all sentiments of pity, 
in bodily pain with fear of death, the eyes assume that 

position. 

Let us explain by what muscles the eyes are so revolved. 

There are two sets of muscles which govern the motions 
of the eyeball. Four straight muscles, attached at car- 
dinal points, by combining their action, move it in every 
direction required for vision j and these muscles are subject 
to the will. When the straight muscles, from weariness or 
exhaustion, cease to guide the eye, two other muscles operate 
to roll it upwards under the eyelid : these are the oblique 
muscles. Accordingly, in sleep, in fainting, in approaching 



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THE EXPRESSION OF THE EYE. 



103 



death, when the four voluntary muscles resign their action, 
and insensibility creeps over the retina, the oblique muscles 
prevail, and the pupil is revolved, so as to expose only the 
white of the eye. It is so far consolatory to reflect, that 
the apparent agony indicated by this direction of the eyes, 
in fainting or the approach of death, is the effect of en- 
croaching insensibility — of objects impressed on the nerve 
of vision being no longer perceived. 

We thus see that when wrapt in devotional feelings, 

and when outward impressions are unheeded, the eyes are 
raised, by an action neither taught nor acquired. It is by 
this instinctive motion we are led to bow with humility 
to look upwards in prayer, and to regard the visible 
heavens as the seat of God. 



'^ Prayer is the upward glancing of the eye, 
When none but God is near." 

* 

Although the savage does not always distinguish God 
from the heavens ahove him, this direction of the eye would 



appear 



be the source of the universal belief that the 



Supreme Being has H 



throne above. The idolatrous 



sk V . * 



or that he may be 
3 the canopy of the 
So, in intercourse with God, although we are taught 



Negro in praying for rice and yams 
active and swift, lifts 



up 



his 



eyes 



that our globe is ever revol 



though religion inculcates 



that the Almighty is every where, yet, under the influence 
of this position of the eye, which is no doubt designed for 



purpose 



seek Him on high 



I will lift up mine 



eyes unto the hills from whence cometh my help." t 



* Barbot : " Description of Guinea." 

f The same influence, which thus induces a posture of the body in 
accommodation to the eye, makes the attitude of stooping the sign of 
supplication — of obeisance — and caurtesy, among all nations. "And 
Araunah looked, and saw the king and his servants coming on towards 



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104 



THE EXPRESSION OF THE EYE. 



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See, then, how this property of our bodily frame has 
influenced our opinions, and belief ; our conceptions of the 



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Deity 
habits. 



our religious observances 



our poetry, and daily 




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Although the geologist may think that the account in 
the Scriptures of the formation of the earth, is contradicted 





him : and Araunah went out, and bowed himself before the king, on his 
face upon the ground," So, Abraham : " And he lift up his eyes and 
looked, and lo, three men stood by him ; and when he saw them he ran 
to meet them from the tent door, and bowed himself toward the ground." 
The Mahomedans, in acts of devotion, cross their hands on their 
bosom and incline the head. 



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THE EXPRESSION OF THE EYE. 



105 



"by his theories 



perceive 



present investigati 



a strict agreement in man's inmost structure with the hook 

of life : and we may say with Kepler, that man should 

not resign his natural feelings and thoughts in pursuit of 

philosophy, " but that, lifting up his natural eyes, with 

which alone he can see, he should from his own heart 

pour himself out in worship to the Creator j being certain 

that he gives no less worship to God than the astronomer." 

By this physical conformation, combined with our 
highest quality of mind, we are 



devotion 



The 



might praise 



desig 
d hon 



of 



man 



led to the expression of 
s being was, that he 



Maker. Gratitude 



the 



debt of our nature, and in this property of the eye 



there is pointed 



how that gratitude, which 



the distinguishing character of our minds, is to be 
directed. 

The orbicularis muscle of the eyelids acts powerfully in 

certain kinds of expression. In laughing and crying, the 
outer circle of this muscle, as it contracts, gathers up the 
skin about the eye ; and at the same time it compresses 
the eyeball. A new interest is given to the subject when 
we inquire into the object of that compression. It has a 
distinct relation to the circulation of the blood within the 
eye. ''During every violent act of expiration, whether in 
hearty laughter, weeping, coughing, or sneezing, the eye- 
( ( ball is firmly compressed by the fibres of the orbicularis j 
and this is a provision for supporting and defending the 
vascular system of the interior of the eye from a retro- 
grade impulse communicated to the blood in the veins 
at that time. When we contract the chest, and expel the 
air, there is a retardation of the blood in the veins of the 
neck and head j and in the more powerful acts of expulsion, 
the blood not only distends the vessels, but is even regurgi- 






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106 



THE EXPRESSION OF THE EYE. 



tated into the minute branches. Were the eye not pro- 
perly compressed at that time, and a resistance given to 
the shock, irreparable injury might be inflicted on the 



delicate textures of the interior of the eye.*. Hence we see 
a reason for the closed state of the eyelids, and wrinkling 
of the surrounding skin, and twinkling of the eye, in 

hearty laughter. 

In the drunkard, there is a heaviness 



of eye 



dis 



position to squint, and to see double, and a forcible 
elevation of the eyebrow to counteract the dropping of 
the upper eyelid, and preserve the eyes from closing. 
Hogarth has very happily caught this hanging of the 
eyelid, with the effort in the muscles of the forehead to 
prevent it from actually falHng. The peculiar expression 
may be thus explained. In the stupor of inebriation, the 
voluntary muscles of the eyeball resign their action to the 
oblique muscles, which, as we have seen, instinctively 
revolve the eye upwards when insensibility comes on : at 
the same time, the muscle which elevates the upper lid 
yields, in sympathy with the oblique muscles, to the action 
of the orbicularis which closes the eyes, and the eyelid 



drops. 



The condition is, in short, the same as that of 



falling asleep ; when the eyeball revolves as the lids close. 
It is the struggle of the drunkard to resist, with his 
half-conscious eff^orts, the rapid turning up of the eye, and 
to preserve it under the control of the voluntary muscles, 
that makes him see objects distorted, and strive, 
arching his eyebrows, to keep the upper lid from de- 




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^ ' cries and struggles with passion, by taking off the natural support to the 



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vascular system of the eye, and the means of guarding it against the rush 
of blood then occurring, the conjunctiva becomes suddenly filled Avith 
>lood, and the eyelids everted/' — Nervous System^^. 175. - 



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OF THE MUSCLES OF THE NOSTRILS. 



107 



scending. The puzzled appearance wliich this gives ris( 
to, along with the relaxation of the lower part of the face 
and the slight paralytic obliquity of the mouth, complett 
the degrading expression. 






iii 




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OF THE MUSCLES OF THE NOSTRILS. 



The nostrils are features which have a powerful effect 
in expression. The breath being drawn through them, and 
their structure formed for alternate expansion and con- 
traction in correspondence with the motions of the chest, 
they are an index of the condition of respiration, when 
affected by emotion. As they consist of cartilages moved 

appropriate muscles, acting in strict sympathy with 
the drawing of the breath, they become expressive of 
animal excitement. 



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We may enumerate four muscles which move the 
cartilages of the nostrils. 

Levator lahii superioris et alee nasi (a). — This muscle 
arises from the upper jawbone, and descends to the lip j 

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108 



MUSCLES OF THE LIPS AND CHEEKS. 



but a part of it stops short, to be attached to the moveable 



the nostril along with the 



cartilage of the nostril ; it raises 
upper lip. 

The Depressor olce nasi (b) arises from the upper 
jawbone, close to the sockets of the front teeth ; it ascends 
and is inserted into the lateral cartilage of the nostril, and 

pulls down that cartilage. 

The Compressor nasi (c) arises from the cartilaginous 



bridg 



of the nose,* and is inserted into the lateral 



ge of the 



The name would imply that this 




muscle compresses the membraneous part of the nose, 
which it does j but its principal action must be to expand 
the nostril, by raising the lateral cartilage. 

The next muscle is a slip of the Orbicularis oris (d), 
which, detaching itself from the mass of that muscle, runs 
up to the edge of the septum of the nose. 

Thus we see how nature has provided for the motions 
of the nostrils. The actions of these muscles are con- 
trolled by a nerve of the class which has been distin- 
guished as subservient to the apparatus of breathing ; and 
it is owing to this that the sympathy is established be- 
tween the general act of drawing the breath and the 
expansion of the nostrils. As the motions of the nostrils, 
however, are intimately connected with those of the lips, I 
shall defer making any further observations upon them, 
until the muscles of the mouth have been described. 



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MUSCLES OF THE LIPS AND CHEEKS. 



The fleshy structure of the lips is in a great measure 
owing to a circular muscle which surrounds the mouth. 



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* That is certainly its most fixed extremity. 



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MUSCLES OF THE LIPS AND CHEEKS. 



109 



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This muscle closes the lips, and is the opponent of many 
other muscles, which, taking their origin from the pro- 
minent points of the bones of the face, are concentred 
towards the mouth, and, besides opening it, move the lips in 
various directions. We must look upon the whole of these 



muscles in three points of 



belonging to masti 



of the teeth 



g the morsel, and placing it under the £ 
2, as part of the organ of speech j and 



powerful agents in expression. 

Orbicularis oris (a) The fibres of this circular 

muscle can be traced continuously round the lips, and have 
properly no origin. We have already taken notice of the 
Levator lahii superioris et oIcb nasi (b), some fibres of 
which are inserted into the upper lip. 

The Levator lahii proprius (c) arises from the upper 
jaw, near the orbit. It is attached exclusively to the upper 
lip, and raises it. 

Levator anguli oris (d) This muscle lies under the 

last, and is, of course, shorter • it^raises the angle of the 



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The Zygomaticus (e) 



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arises irom 



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110 



MUSCLES OF THE LIPS AND CHEEKS. 



of the cheekbone, which j 



the temporal hone 



it 



is inserted into the angle of the mouth. 

There is sometimes an additional muscle, arising and 
inserted in a similar manner, called the zygoinaticus 

minor (f). 

The Buccinator (some of the fibres of which are re- 
presented by g) is a flat muscle, which lines the inside of 

the cheek, and, arising from the sockets of the back teeth 
of both jawbones, is inserted into the angle of the mouth. 

As the teeth of man indicate that he is omnivorous, 
and intermediate between the two great tribes of animals — 
the carnivorous and herbivorous, we expect the muscles 
also to exhibit the same middle state and to partake the 
characters of both these classes. And such is found to be 
the case. The three muscles last enumerated combine to 
* raise and retract the angle of the mouth, and by doing so, 
they expose the canine teeth. Now this group of muscles 
is especially powerful in the carnivorous animal ; they lift 
the fleshy lips off the long tearing fangs of the lion or 
\ tiger, and produce a fierceness of expression. But in the 
milder graminivorous animals the same class of muscles have 
a different direction given to their action, and they are not 
capable of elevating the angles of the mouth in a similar 
manner. In ourselves, when these muscles draw upon the 
orbicularis, and disclose the angular teeth, a painful and 
bitter expression is the effect. But before we can speak 
correctly on this subject, we must pursue the description of 
the remaining muscles. 

Of the muscles which depress the lips, there is, 
1st. The Triangularis oris, or depressor anguli oris 
(h), a comparatively powerful muscle, which arises from 
the base of the lower jaw, and is inserted into the angle of 

+ 

the mouth. 







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MUSCLES OF THE LIPS AND CHEEKS. 



Ill 



In the drawing, some muscular fibres (i) may be 



which join the triangularis oris, and pass to the angle of 
the mouth. These are part of a superficial muscle of the 



neck 



the platysma-myoida 



the fibres of which mount 



over the jaw to terminate on the cheek. The uppermost 
fasciculus, represented in the drawing, has been de- 
scribed bv Santorini as a distinct muscle, and from its 



action in laughter, has obtained the name Risorius San 



tor int. 



The Quadf 



menti (k), a small square muscle 



situated on the chin, depresses the lower lip. 

The Levator menti (l) is a small muscle, which arises 
from the lower jaw, near the sockets of the front teeth, 
and passes to be inserted into the centre of the integument 
of the chin. When both muscles act, they throw up the 

chin, and project the lower lip. 

The angle of the mouth is full of expression; and 
much is implied, according to the prevailing action of the 



The 



g 



superior or inferior class of muscles. 

oris and the levator menti combine to produce a kind of 



expression 



hich is peculiar to man 



Th 



gle of the 



mouth is drawn down by the former, while the lower lip 
is arched and elevated, with a contemptuous effect, by the 



latter 



h 



th 



lev 



menti has sometimes been 



called superhus 



The union of so many muscles at the 



angle of the lips produces that fulness about the mouth 
remarkable in those who are both thin and muscular. In 
the child, or youth, whose face is plump, they make the 
dimple in the cheek. It is perceived that the orbicularis 

pponent of all the muscles which are concentred 



IS 



th 



from various points to the lips ; and it is by the 

action and relaxation of these antagonising muscles that s( 

much and so varied expression is given to the mouth 



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11-2 



MUSCLES OF THE LIPS AND CHEEKS. 



Th 



muscle is affected 



emotions 



it 



tremblingly yields to the superior force of its counteracting 



m 



both in joy and grief: it relaxes pleasantly 



smiling ; it is drawn more powerfully 

muscles in weeping. 




'pponent 



We can have no better illustration of how much depends 

the mouth, for the par- 



on the function 



d 




ticular character impressed on the lower part of the face 
when the lips are in motion, than by watching the features 
of a preacher or advocate engaged in his vocation, and 
afterwards, if opportunity offers, looking at the play of the 



same i 



and lip 



when 



over a trencher. The whole 



machinery from the temple downwards, and from the 
angle of the jaw to the chin, is in operation during masti- 
cation j whereas, in the most impassioned discourse, the 
action is concentrated to the lips. 

In speaking, there is much motion of the lower lip, 
and consequently, activity in those muscles which form the 
fulness of the chin : yet a remarkable variety is produced 
in the Hnes which mark the features about the upper lip, 
by the play of the different muscles which converge to the 
mouth from the margins of the orbits. But this subject has 
further interest. 

The organisation necessary to speech, the great instru- 



ment of hum 



th 



thought, is widely dispersed : that 



utterance of sound th 



is, for 
must conform, a motion 



of the lungs or chest, an adjustment of the lary 
pharynx, and a fine modulation of the lips. It 
directly from the motions of the 
articulate sounds 



and 



IS more 



tongue and lips that 
proceed ; and the connexion of the 



numerous muscles brought into operation in these actions, 
is congenital with the awakening intellect. 



a child is 



Long before 



taught 



to speak, we may see an imperfect 





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OF THE BEARD. 



113 



i 



agitation of the lips and cheeks ; and sounds are uttered 
which wait only for the effort of imitation to become 
language. 

These remarks bear out our former statement, that 
beauty in the lips and lower part of the countenance 
of a well-formed face, has relation to the perfection of 
the structure viewed in connexion with speech, and in 
contrast with the apparatus for mastication. 



The 



pos- 



session 



of an instrument of speech is instinctively asso- 
ciated in our thoughts with the most exalted endowments 
of man, moral and intellectual. 



OF THE BEARD. 



" Vidi presso di me un veglio solo, 
Degna di tanta riverenza in vista, 
Che piu non dee a padre alcun figliolo. 
Lunga la barba e di pel bianca mista, 
Portava a' suoi capegli simigliante 
De quai cadeva al petto doppia lista." 



Dante. 



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The stages of man 



life 



are 



outwardly characterised. 
An opinion prevails, that the form and lineaments of old 

r 

age are a consequence of the deterioration of the material 
of our frame j and that the resemblance so often drawn 
between an aged man leaning on his staff, and a ruin totter- 
ing to its fall, is a perfect one. It is not so ; the material 
of the frame is ever the same : years affect it not ; but 
infancy, youth, maturity, and old age, have their appro- 
priate outward characters. Why should the forehead be 
bald, and the beard luxuriant, if not to mark the latest 
epoch of man's life ? or what reason can be given for the 
hair not growing on the chin during the vascular fulness of 



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114 



OF THE BEARD. 



youth, but that it would be inconsistent with the characters 
of that time of life to be provided with a beard ? 

When these Essavs were first written, there was not a 
beard to be seen in England, unless joined with squalor 
and neglect : and I had the conviction that this appendage 
concealed the finest features. Being in Rome, however, 
during the procession of the Corpus Domini, I saw that 



the expression was not injured 




the beard ; but that 



it added to the dignity and character of years, 
evident that the fine heads 



It 



was 




the old masters were 
copies of what were then seen in nature, though now 
but rarely. There were beards which nearly equalled 
that of the " Moses" of Michael Angelo, in length; and 
which flowed like those in the paintings of Domenichino 

and Correggio.* 

The beard is characteristic of nations. In the East, it 

is honoured; and to be shaved, is the mark of a slave.t 
A beard of three hands' breadth is a goodly show ; but to 
exceed that, requires a life of repose : violent exercise in 
the field shortens the beard. The Turks have a very poor 
beard. The Persians have noble beards, arid are proud of 
the distinction. The beard of Futteh Ali Shah, the late 
king of Persia, reached below his girdle, was full and fine, 
and remarkable in a nation of beards, for having no division 

- ^ r -■ 

^ " In the procession of the Corpus Domini, the Pope is attended by 
bishops from all parts of Christendom : from Mount Lebanon and the 
East, as well as from Roman Catholic Ireland. These dignitaries, with 
the cardinals, the superiors of convents, the friars of various orders, and 
the cavalcade of the guarda nobile, form a pageant far beyond what 
royalty can attain, or can any where else be witnessed, w^hether we 
coftsider the place and accompaniments, or the actors and their costumes. 
Then it was, that age, with bald head, and flowing beard, and appro- 
priate robes, surpassed youth and beauty, with all the trappings of the 
cavalier." — Note from Journal. 

f 2 Samuel, x. 4. 




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OF THE BEARD. 



115 








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in the middle. Such a beard, during the active period of 
life, shews finely on horseback ; being tossed over the 
shoulders in the wind, and indicating speed. In the 
natural beard, the hair has a peculiarity depending on the 
place from which it grows. The hair of the upper lip is 
more profuse, and even in the oldest man is of a darker 
hue, than that of the under lip ; so that falling on the 
lower part, it can still be distinguished as it mixes with the 
purer white. Again, the hair descending from the sides 
of the face attains a greater length than that which comes 
from the chin : and this is more especially the character 

of age. 

In the French regiments they set frightful fellows, with 

axes over their shoulders, to march in front : on their 
heads is a black bear-skin cap, of the form and dimen- 
sions of a drum, and they select men with beards of the 
same hue, which grow in a bush, the counterpart of that 
on their heads. But the face, as seen between the two 
black masses, is more ludicrous than terrible, and has 



effect very different from what is 



tended 



A 



com 



mon fellow's beard, like a common fello 



countenance, 



IS coarse. 



Even in the Franciscan and Capuchin monks, the 



beard has not 
works of the old 



always the fine character displayed 



Their models 



gone 



: the 
with 



their times. Something excessive and ideal may be repre- 
sented by the beard. Michael Angelo has, perhaps, followed 
Scripture, in the beard of his " Moses," which floats below 
the girdle ; and in the fresco of Jeremiah, in the Sistine 
Chapel. The finest painting of the beard that I have 
seen, is by Correggio, in the Scala of the Albergo dei 
Poveri, in Genoa, 



a fresco of the Saviour, in the arms of 
the Almighty, where the beard of the Father flows beauti- 

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116 



OF THE BEARD. 



fully 



In sliort, the beard may become, with knowledg 



and taste, the most characteristic part in a fig 



Exp 



in the Lips and Moustaches 



Thing 



familiar do not always give rise to their natural 
I was led to attend more particularly to the mo 



a feature of expre 



in meeting a handsome voung 



French soldier, coming up a long ascent in the Cote d'Or, 
and breathing hard, although with a good-humoured, 
innocent expression. His sharp-pointed black moustaches 

rose and fell with a catamountain look that set me to think 
on the cause. 

Every one must have observed how the nostrils play in 
hard breathing.t We have seen that there is a muscle which 
is the principal agent in this action ; and it may be felt 



elling during inspiration, when the finger is pressed 



the upper lip, just under the 



It is the dep 



alee 



rhe action of this muscle, under the 



of 



the hairs on the lip 



ibly 



moves 



them 



and as all 



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Our northern artists are unfavourably situated, not owing to the 
direct influence of cold, as Winckelman imagined, but an indirect 
cause. In historical painting, they draw from copies of nature, and 
paint beards, as they do the naked figure, without seeing it, or being 
familiar with the form and colour of the one or the other. But in Rome 
also they make mistakes. I found the artists supporting a fellow, whose 
beard was their model. The hair of the head, and the beard of this man, 
had grown to an extraordinary length, shewing what an uncouth mass it 
may become- He had been painted so often as the Father of the gods, 
that in his craze he had believed himself to be no less. I said, if they 
would plunge him in the Tiber, and study him as he rose, he might pass 

r 

for a river god. No ; the beard is a mere mass of hair, but admits of 
much chai^acter." — Note from Journal. 

f Physiognomists make a wide nostril the sign of a fiery disposition. 
It may be expressive of passion, without being the cause. The idea of 
its being the seat of passion, is undoubtedly taken from animal expression. 
*^ There went a smoke out of His nostrils," is hardly descriptive of human 
excitement. 



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OF THE BEARD, 



117 



passionate excitements influence the respiratory actions, 



the nostrils and moustaches 



rily participate in th 



movement in violent passions. Thus, although the hair 
of the upper lip does conceal the finer modulations of 



the mouth 



woman 



adds to the character of the 



nger and harsher emotions. 

I continued to think of this in descending the Rhone 



m 



company 



th some French officers ; they 



merry 



with wine, and I saw their moustaches, black, red, and 

white, animated in their songs and laughter; and although 
with a. farouche character, these appendages rather added 
to, than concealed expression. We see the pictorial efi*ect 
in the hilarity of the Dutch boor. 

The lower lip moves more than the upper. With this, 
too, we are so familiar as not to 



be sensible of 



but if 



we 



try the 



periment of looking on the face of a friend 



versed position, we shall be convinced that 



The 



expr 



of speaking results very much from the 
modulation of the lower lip ; and the rising and falling of 

the same time, and more 

Passion, how- 



the jaw, 
especially 




takes 




in singing, adds to the motion 
pressed more in the upper lip. 



In compassionating a fellow-creature, it is not natural 
look on the face reversed. Yet I have seen in a modern 



pictur 



a soldier re 




his 



ded comrade, dessu 



dessous, the mouth to the forehead, the eye to the mouth. 
The immediate effect was a want of sympathy, — of proper 
feelino". Even the nurse turns her head in correspondence 
with the face of the infant. Is the same not meant by the 
Psalmist, "% heart said unto thee, Let mi/ face seek thy 




This was in my mind in looking on a picture of 
the Saviour, dead, lying on the knees of the Madonna ; she 
turns her head, bringing her face nearly parallel with that 



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OF THE BEARD, 



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of the Redeemer ; which produces infinite grace and 

tenderness.* 

The drawing of the head of a man, thrown to the 
ground, being to our eye reversed, has not the same effect 
as when represented upright. Certain features must be 
exaggerated. That is, if the painter were to draw the 
face accurately, and then turn the picture the contrary 
way, the head downwards, it would have no force. This 
arises from the reversed features being deficient in the 
accustomed harmony, and from the altered relation of the 
upper and lower lips. Michael Angelo, with his other 
excellencies, was a master of expression. There is a Pieta 
by him in alto-relievo, t which gives proof of this. 



The 



piece 



of marble does not exceed three feet ; and nothinof 



if 





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but expression could have given to it its celebrity. 

I was never more sensible of the action of the lower 
lip, as expressive of speech, than in looking on a picture 

that very extraordinary painter, Zurbaran. It repre- 
sents St. Francis. He is kneeling, his hands locked 
together energetically, his eyes raised, and his lower lip 
has the expression of moving in prayer. J 

Among the many advantages which the artist has in 
the southern countries of Europe, the service of the Roman 
Catholic Church affords him the chief. At all seasons, as 
w^ell as during the service of the altar, there are in the 



I 







* In the Gallery of the Academia delle Belle Arte, Bologna. 

t In the Albergo del Poveri, in Genoa. " A Pieta is the representation 
of Christ resting on the lap of the mother. The eyes of the mother are 
shut, the mouth not open, but in the lips a form that implies she is 
about to kiss the cheek. The angles of the mouth are in the slightest 
degree depressed, and the lips must open when next she draws breath." 
Note from Journal. 

X The picture is in the Spanish School of the Musee Royale of 
Louvre. 




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OF THE BEARD. 



119 



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cathedrals and churches groups and single figures ; the 
lady in rich attire, not more picturesque than the country- 
girl ; the beggar, and the monk, on their knees, mut- 
tering their prayers. In the family pew of the Reformed 
Church there may be as holy a frame of mind, but never 

r 

the expression of those wrapt and solitary figures, whom 
we see prostrate on the bare stones in the solemn light of 
these churches. But my object was to advert to their 
inaudible mutterings, in which the amount of expression 
capable of being thrown into the lips during speech, may 
be well observed. Nor can a stranger go from the church 
to the picture-galleries, and mistake for a moment where 
the great painters found their studies, where they gained 
those conceptions of devotion, of enthusiasm and abandon- 
ment, which we see in the portraits of their saints and 
martyrs.* 



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* ^^ St. Siro, Genoa. It is a new thing to see those beggars crawling 
on the stairs. There is one who, lying on his belly, drags himself along 
with a short stick; the precise figure that is in the cartoons of Raphael. 
They are squalid, distorted, and strange. One fellow among them I 
should have in my sketch-book. He is on his knees, and, whilst 
receiving a soldo from a very poor and very old woman, counts his 
beads, and crosses himself, with an indifference that hardly can be real. 
In entering a church in health, and the enjoyment of life, to step 

r 

through amongst the ' poveri ' is no bad preparation. It is impossible 
to witness the countryman, whose coarse dress marks the lowness of his 
condition, — to see him apart, in an obscure aisle, cast down, and in 
praver, with such perfect abstraction and abandonment, without the 
words of the publican being suggested, ' God be merciful to me a 
sinner.' In this respect, amidst all the blazon and show of worship 
which belong to the Roman Catholic, it is still the church of the poor. 
There is no respect for rank or condition within the precincts of a place 
of worship." — Note from Journal. 




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ESSAY V. 



OF THE EXPRESSION OF PASSION, AS ILLUSTRATED BY A 
COMPARISON OF THE MUSCLES OF THE FACE IN MAN AND 
IN ANIMALS ; AND OF THE MUSCLES PECULIAR TO MAN, 
AND THEIR EFFECTS IN BESTOWING HUMAN EXPRESSION. 





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The violent passions are exhibited so distinctly in the 
countenance of both man and animals, that we are led to 
consider the movements by which they are made obvious, 
as characteristic signs provided by nature for the express 
purpose of intimating the inward emotions : that they may 
be interpreted by a peculiar and intuitive faculty in the 
observer. 

This view, however, so natural at first, is not altogether 
satisfactory ; and an opposite theory has been proposed, in 

which such special provision is denied, and the appearances 
are accounted for, as the effect of certain actions which are 
performed in obedience to the common laws of the animal 
economy. It is also said, that we are taught by experience 
alone, to distinguish the signs of the passions in man : that 
in infancy we learn that smiles are expressive of kindness, 
because accompanied by endearments, and that frowns are 




blows. 



The 



the reverse, because they are followed 

expression of anger in a brute is alleged to be merely the 





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OF EXPRESSION IN ANIMALS. 



121 



cast of features which precedes his biting ; and the cha- 
racter of fondness, that which is seen in his fawning and 
licking of the hand. In short, it has been maintained that 
what are called the external signs of passion, are only the 

concomitants of those voluntary movements which the 
structure renders necessary. That, for example, the glare 
of the lion's eye proceeds from his effort to see his prey 
more clearly ; and his grin or snarl from the natural act 
of unsheathing his fangs before using them. 

But, if we attend to the evidence of anatomical investi- 
gation, we shall perceive a remarkable difference between 
the provision 



for giving 



motion to the features in ani- 



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mals, and that for bestowing expression in man. In the'^ 
lower creatures, there is no expression, but what may be 
referred, more or less plainly, to their acts of volition, or 
necessary instincts ; while in man there seems to be a 
special apparatus, for the purpose of enabling him to 
communicate with his fellow-creatures, by that natural 
language, which is read in the changes of his countenance. 
There exist in his face, not only all those parts, which 
their action produce expression in the several classes 
of quadrupeds, but there is added a peculiar set of 
muscles to which no other office can be assigned than to 
serve for expression. 




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OF EXPRESSION IN ANIMALS. 



-7- 

In brutes the most marked expression is that of rage ; 
the object of which is opposition, resistance, and defence. 
But on examination it will be found that the force of the 



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OF EXPRESSION IN ANIMALS. 






expression is in proportion to the strength of the principal 
action in the creature when thus excited. 

The graminivorous animals, which seek their sub- 
sistence, not by preying upon others, or by the ferocity, 
contest, and victory, which supply the carnivorous with 
food, have in their features no strong expression of rage ; 
it is chiefly confined to the effect produced on the general 



system. 



Thus the inflamed eye and the breathing nostrils 



of the bull are induced by the excitement of the whole 
frame ; his only proper expression of rage is in the po- 
sition of the head, with the horns turned obliquely to the 
ground, ready to strike ; and indeed it may be observed, 
that animals which strike with the horns shew little 
indication either of fear or rage, except in the position 
of the head ; for the breath ejected from the expanded 
nostril is the effect of mere exertion, and may belong 
to different conditions of the frame. In all gramini- 
vorous animals, the skin of the head is closely attached 
to the skull, and capable of very limited motion : 



the 



eye 



IS 



almost 



uniformly mild, and the lips are unmoved 

by passion. 

It is in the carnivorous animals, with whose habits and 
manner of life ferocity is instinctively connected, as suited 
to their mode of subsistence, that rage is distinguished 

remarkable strength of expression. The eyeball is 
terrible, and the retraction of the flesh of the lips indicates 
the most savage fury. The action of the respiratory organs, 
the heaving and agony of breathing, the deep and harsh 
motion of the air drawn through the throat in the growl. 




^ declare the universal excitement of the animal. 



It 



IS 



wrong to imagine that all this is a mere preparatory ex- 
posure of the canine teeth. Brutes may have expression. 




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OF EXPRESSION IN ANIMALS. 



123 



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properly so called, as well as man, thougli in a more limited 
degree ; but in them, expression is so moulded to their 
natures and their necessities, that it seems accessory to 
their needful and voluntary actions. 

The horse is universally held to be a noble animal, as 
he possesses the expression of courage, without the fero- 
ciousness of the beast of prey; and as there is a consent 
between the motions of the ear and the eye, which resembles 
the exertion of mind, and the movements of the human 
countenance. But even this expression is the result of an 
incidental consent of animal motions ; and no more proves 
intelligence, than the diminutive eye and the unexpressive 
face of the elephant denote the contrary. We admire it, 
because there is as much animation as in the tiger, without 
the ferocity. The consent of motions between the eye and the 
ear of the horse is a physical consequence of the necessities 
of the animal. His defence lies in the hind feet, and there 
is an arrangement both in the muscles, and in the form of 



the skull, for that retrovert ed dire ction of the eye, which 




:,*v.^- 



seems so expressive in the horse, but which merely serves 



I 



to guide the blow. The inflation of the nostrils, and the 
fleshiness of the lips, belong to the peculiar provision for 
his respiration and mode of feeding. 



The head of a lion is taken to shew the muscular 
apparatus of a carnivorous animal. 

A A. The circular fibres, which surround the eyelids, 

and which are common to all animals. 

BCD. Accessory muscles, which draw back the eyelids 
from the eyeball, and give a sparkling fierceness to the eye. 

Artists bestow an expression on the eye of the lion 
which they suppose gives dignity — a kind of knitting of 
the eyebrows, whilst the eyelids are straining wide. 



This 



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OF EXPRESSION IN ANIMALS. 



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is quite incompatible with the powers of expression in 
brutes. When the lion closes his eyes in repose, the 
fleshiness about the eyelids and the hair of the skin pro- 
duce the effect of a morose human expression, but when he 
is excited, and the eye is fixed, there is no such character. 
E F. The mass of muscular fibres, with those concealed 



under them, are very 



strong in 



this class of animals. 



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They raise and expose the teeth, with the savage expression 
peculiar to the carnivora. 



^- -~ 



G. The miiscles which move the nostril in smelling. 
H. A muscle which answers to the zvffomaticus in 



man, and which must have great power in this animal 
it reaches from the ear to the angle of the mouth, 
opens the mouth, retracts the lips, and disengages 

r 

from the teeth, as in seizing their prey. 



It 

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OF EXPRESSION IN ANIMALS. 



125 



I. The buccinator muscle. 

K. Insertion of part of the masseter muscle, one of the 
powerful muscles that close the jaws. 

I observed above, that some painters have thought it 
allowable to give human expression to the heads of Hons, 
and others h 

I think this 



presented it 



their heads of horses 



is done on a mistaken view, and that it 
.11 never enhance the peculiar beauty of any animal to 
graft upon it some part of human expression. Rubens, 



his picture of Daniel 



character to the heads of the lions 



the lions' den, has giv 



this 



It is more th 



doubtful, whether it be in the true spirit of that principle 
of association which should govern the adaptation of 



expression and charact 



in producincf an ideal form 



thus to mingle human expression with the features of the 
savage animals. It seems, however, that a 



be made when th 



a distinction is 
presented in its natural 



and when sculptured emblematically. Represented 

the forest, the picture should possess 



m his den 



all the natural charact 



wh 



couched amidst the 



insignia of empire, there may be a difference 



A horse's head is 
from Giulio Romano, 
ideal head : we say that 



added in illustration; it is taken 

The painter has here produced an 

it is a horse rather on account 



of the bridle in the mouth than because 



th 



character of that animal 



we recognise 



Instead of the full 



clear eye standing prominent upon the temple, there is an 
eye sunk deep, with an overhanging eyebrow ; the cha- 
racter entirely human, and the expression thoughtful and 
suspicious. In the hair of the forehead, and in the ears, in 
the roundness of the head and neck, the artist has 
ferred the model of the antique to what, in this insti 



pre 



must consider to be 



finer forms of 



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126 



OF EXPRESSION IN ANIMALS 



'• • 



the nostrils of the horse, but they 



expansion 



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and there are thick and fleshy lips, with an open mouthy 
which no power of association can ever teach us to admire 



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There is a spirit in the expanded nostril, a fire in the 



the h 



head taken 



eye, a kind of intellig 

altogether; there is a beauty in the form of the neck, and 



an ease 



and grandeur in the carriage of the head, where 
gth and freedom are combined, which cannot be 

No doubt 






monness 



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excelled by the substitution of an ideal form, 
the painter in this instance wished to avoid that com- 

of form, which represses sentiment in the be- 
holder, and destroys the poetical effect of a picture ; 
but it is attempted at the expense of truth of cha- 
racter. In the utmost excitement, animals of this class do 
not open the mouth; they cannot breathe through the 



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mouth 



valve in the throat prevents it. 



that 



The 




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mation is exhibited only in the nostril and the eye. 
open mouth is from the checking of the bit between the 



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OF EXPRESSION IN ANIMALS. 



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teeth, and is never seen when the horse is untrammelled 
and free. 

Such were the opinions delivered in the first edition of 
this work, and they were drawn from observation of 
nature, on which I always rest with absolute reliance. 
Since that time, the Elgin collection of sculptures has 
arrived. These remains of antiquity are of great value to 
the arts of this country,* as they obviously tend to turn the 
artist's attention to nature, and exhibit to him the con- 
sistency of natural form and beauty. The horses' heads in 
that collection are perfectly natural, and if there be ex- 
aggeration, it is only in the stronger marking of that 
which is the characteristic distinction of the animal. 



The next drawing represents the muscles of the horse's 



head. 



A A. The orbicular muscle of the eyelids. 
B. An accessory muscle to raise the eyelid. 

r 

c. A very peculiar muscle. It pulls down the eyelid. 
D. A muscle connected also with the eye, and arising 



from the cartilages of the 

E. A muscle answer 
man. 



g to the zygomatic muscle in 



These muscles, surrounding the eyelids of the horse, 
account for the superior expression of the eye. The 
muscle D seems calculated to operate upon the outer 

e of the eyelids, and to enable the animal to direct 



g 



the eye backwards 
muscle E. 



thi 



probably assisted by th 



F. This forms a class of muscles which descend 



the 



side of the face, and are inserted into the 
G G. Muscular fibres, also operating 
of the tube of the nostril. 



distension 



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128 



OF EXPRESSION IN ANIMALS. 



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H. A strong muscle, which acts upon the cartilage, and 
distends the nostril with great power. 



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There is something in the distribution of these muscles 
which illustrates the character of the class, and accounts 
for the peculiarity of expression. We cannot fail to ob- 
serve the difference in the general direction and classing 
of the muscles of the face in the horse and in the lion. 
In the carnivorous animal, they all tend to lift the lips 
from the canine teeth, so that they cannot act without 
shewing the teeth, with a snarling expression : in the 

graminivorous animal, on 
the 



J 

the contrary, muscles, having 



same place and origin 



pass 



to the cartilages of the 



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OF EXPRESSION IN ANIMALS. 



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nose, and inflate it tlie instant they are excited. It is 
these musclesj therefore, more than any thing else, which 
produce the very different character and expression in the 
two classes of animals. 

A strong muscle, which lies under that of the 



1 1. 



nostril f. 



Its tendon passes forward over the nose, and 
unites with its fellow of the other side. These together 



form a broad tendon k, which is inserted 



the 



lip 



upper 



There is a similar muscle moving the lower lip 



which cannot be seen in this view. 

L M. The circular fibres of the lips, which in the horse 

- 

are particularly strong and fleshy. 

r 

N. A web of muscle, which is extended from the cuta- 
neous muscle of the neck. 

r 

The last-named muscles have all great power, and 

\ ■ 

give extensive motion to the lips. They take a course 

r 

over the nose in a manner quite peculiar to this class 
of animals, to raise and project the upper lip, as in 
gathering food. Any one who feeds his horse from his 
hand may feel the singular sensitiveness and mobility of 
his lips. 

Looking to these muscles, and contrasting them with 
the animated sketch by Mr. Northcote, we cannot fail to 

h 

see how much the form of the head depends upon the 
teeth being small in fronts and large and deep-set at the 
back part of the jaw ; how much the peculiarity of ex- 
pression in the animal is owing to its breathing through 
the nostril, and not through the mouth, and to its brilliant 
eye being placed on the utmost projection of the head, so 
that, by the slightest turn of the pliant neck, it may be 
directed backward. Finally, we perceive how the muscles 
are adapted to draw back the eyelids, to expand the 
nostrils, and project the lips from the incisor teeth, and 



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130 



OF THE MUSCLES OF ANIMALS. 






also to place the food under tlie operation of the grinding 



teeth. 



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OF THE MUSCLES OF ANIMALS COMPARED WITH THOSE 

OF MAN. 



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Referring to the remarkable difFerence between the 
range of expression in man and in animals, and considering 
that in brutes it proceeds from necessity or voluntary action, 



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OF THE MUSCLES OF ANIMALS. 



131 



- 

while in man there is a special provision for bestowing it, 
a peculiar set of muscles to which no other office can he 
assigned, it is proper to reduce the muscles of several 
quadrupeds into classes, that we may distinguish the 

characteristics of mere animal expression from those in 
man. 

They may he distinguished as, 1st, Those which raise 

r , 

the lips from the teeth ; Qd. Those which surround the 
eyelids ; and 3d. Those which move the nostrils. 

1* The first of these classes, viz. the muscles which 
raise the lips Jtom the teethy admit of a subdivision. In 
the carnivorous animal the muscles of the lips are so 
directed as to raise the lip from the canine teeth. In the 
graminivorous they are directed so as to raise the- lips 
from the inbisor teeth. The former I would distinguish by 
the name ringentes, snarling muscles : the latter by the 
name depascentes, muscles simply for feeding. 

The snarling muscles arise from the margin of the 
orbit, and from the upper jaw j they are inserted into that 
part of the upper lip from which the moustaches grow, 
and which is opposite to the canine teeth. Their sole 
office^ is^ to raise the upper lip from the canine teeth ; 

^ _ 

others (the 




and although they are assisted in this 
masticating muscles), I have ventured to distinguish them 
particularly as the muscles of snarling. This action of 
snarling is quite peculiar to the ferocious and carnivorous 
animals. The graminivorous are incapable of it, and con- 
sequently these muscles are to be found largely developed 
only in the former class, not in the latter. In the car- 
nivorous animals it can scarcely be said that there is a 
perfect or regular orbicular muscle, as in man, for con- 
tracting the lips ; the lips hang loose and relaxed, unless 
when drawn aside by the snarling muscles, and they fall 





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132 



OF THE MUSCLES OF ANIMALS. 



back into this state of relaxation, with the remission of the 

4 

action of these muscles. 

The chief muscles of the lips, which in carnivorous 
animals are directed to the side of the mouth, are, in 
graminivorous animals, directed to the middle of the lip over 
the front teeth. I call them depascentes, from their use, 
which is to enable the creature to open its lips so as to 



gather food, and to bite the g 



They 



muscles 
and joi] 



are long 



one 



come 



down upon each side of the face 



broad tendon, pass over the 



inserted into the upper hp. Another 



lower j 



lose to be 
along the 



be inserted by a peculiar feathered tendon 



into the under lip. These muscles are very strong in the 
horse. They give a peculiar and characteristic expression 
to the. stalHon, when he snuffs the breeze, with his head 



high 



in air ; when he b 



th 



different from that of the 



e expression is entirely 



animal 



tead of 



exposing the teeth 



ponding with the canine, he lifts 



Th 



the lips from the fore teeth, and protrudes them. 

carnivorous animals have not these muscles of the fore part 
of the lip ; in them the lips covering the incisor teeth are 
not fleshy like those of the graminivorous animals, but 
are tied down to the gums, and the fore teeth are ex- 
posed only in consequence of the straining occasioned by 
retraction of the side of the mouth. 

Although the graminivorous animals do not possess 
those muscles which so powerfully retract the lips in the 
carnivorous class, they have a more perfect orbicular 
muscle surrounding the mouth, and regulating the motion 
of their fleshy lips. 

2. Muscles which surround the eyelid. — In man, the 
upper eyelid is raised by a muscle coming from the back 
of the orbit. But animals of prey, in whose eyes there is 



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OF THE MUSCLES OF ANIMALS. 



133 



the peculiar and ferocious splendour, which distinguishes 
the tiger or the lion, have, in addition to this muscle, 
three others attached to the eyelids, which, stretching the 
coats and drawing the eyelids backward upon the pro- 
minent eyeball, produce a fixed straining of the eye, and 

w ' 

a greater brightness. These muscles I have termed scintil- 



lantes, because 




g 



the 



yelid 



they expose 



the brilliant white of the eye, which reflects a sparklin 



ght 



In the sheep, besides the proper muscle coming 

of the orbit, there is only a web of 



from the bottom 



fibres to assist in raising the eyelid. In the horse, there 
is a muscle to pull down the lower eyelid ; and another, 
which, passing from 



the ear to the outer 



g 



of the 



yelid, retracts it, and 



bles the animal to direct th 



pupil backward, where his defence lies. In the • feline 



tribe light is reflected from the bottom of the 



eye, 



when 



the pupil is dilated; and as the pupil dilates in obscure 
light, there is a brilliant reflection from the cat's eye, 
which we mistake for indication of passion. All these 
may be partially displayed in the human eye, as in the 
bloodshot redness combined with the circle of reflected 
light from the margin of the cornea, like a flame or angry 
spark, as Charon is described by Dante, 



" Ch' intorno agli occhi avea di fiamme ruote, 



9? 



Or as lighted charcoal, from the bottom of the eye. 



" Caron demonio con occhi di bragia. 



?> 



It is in this way that a touch of true expression will 
illustrate a whole passage ; so Milton, 

" With head uplift above the wave, and eyes 



That sparkling blazed."* 



* So also Spenser, B. vi. cant. 7, stanza 42. 



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134 



OF THE MUSCLES OF ANIMALS 



d. Muscles of the Nostrils. — Th 



are not less dis 



and peculiar, in different classes of animals, than the 



muscles of the eye and lip 
the nose is comparatively 



In the carnivorous animals, 
significant, provision being 



made in the open mouth for any 



onal 



of 



while 



respiration above the uniform, play of the lungs ; 
the inoffensive animals, which are the prey of the more 
ferocious, the inflation of the nostril is provided for by the 
action of another set of muscles. 

For example, in the horse " the glory of whose nostrils 
is terrible," the muscles which inflate the nostril are very 



peculiar 



They 



like the ringentes ; but instead of 



being fixed into the lips, as in carnivorous animals, whosa 
lips are to be raised from the canine teeth, they pass to 
the nostrils, and in combination with some lesser muscles,, 
powerfully inflate them when the animal is pushed to his 
speed, excited by fear, or inflamed to rage. • 

In the gallery of Florence, there is the head of a horse 
in bronze, and antique ; it is very fine, and in all respects 
as natural as those of the Elgin Marbles ; the mouth is 
Qpen,, but there is a bit in it.. 



Over the fountain 



the Piazza of the Grand Duke 



is placed a group of Nept 



drawn 




four h 



the mouths of all the horses are open, and as they are 



they seem to be of 
ame thing, whatever 



free agents, without bit or harness, 

F 

one mind, and to be expressing the i 

that may be. They would have been much finer, had the 

artist given them animation through the eye and nostril, 

4 

without opening the mouth,* 

The horse's mouth is never seen open when the animal 



* *^ Milan. The four horses in the triumphal arch have their mouths 
gaping wide ; not so the coursers last night in the Circus." — Note from 
JournaL 




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OF THE MUSCLES OF ANIMALS. 



135 



is free. Nothing can be finer than the action of a charger 
in the field : but though he should snort and neigh and 
throw up his head and mane, with all his excitement he 
does not open his mouth. In the antiquities of Count 
Caylus, the horse's head is represented naturally. 

We may notice here, that most of the carnivorous 
animals hunt their prey. For this object, they not only 
require a peculiar and extended organ of smelling, hut the 
air must he drawn forcibly over the surface on which the 

olfactory nerve is spread. It appears to me, that this 
accounts for their small confined nostril, and their breathing 
freely through the mouth. In smelling, an action of the 
nostrils takes place which directs the stream of air up- 
wards into the cells of the nose, where the olfactory nerve 
is distributed. This is especially the case in the con- 
formation of the dog's nostrils. 



Returning 



the muscles in the human counte- 



nance, we perceive that, although the motions of the lips 
and nostrils in man may not be so extensive as in other 
classes of animals, there is in his face a capacity for all the 
varieties of expression which distinguish these creatures. 
He stands, as we have said, between the carnivorous and 
graminivorous animals j or, rather, he partakes the nature 
of both. He has the snarling muscles which so peculiarly 
distinguish the carnivorous class, while he is able to 
protrude the lips, and uncover the teeth, like the grami- 

nivorous. We have seen that in the carnivorous animals, 
the muscles descending from the cheek-bones and upper 
jaw to raise the lip are strong, and that the orbicular or 
circular fibres of the mouth are feeble, the lip being 
attached to the fore part of the gums. In the grami- 
nivorous animals, on the contrary, the orbicular muscle 

- 

has great power ; while the elevating and depressing 



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136 



OF THE MUSCLES OF ANIMALS. 



muscles of the side of the mouth are weak. But in man, 
both classes of muscles are combined; the elevating and 
depressing muscles are fully developed, while the orbicular 
muscle completely antagonises them, modulating and qua- 
lifying their actions, and bestowing the utmost perfection 

on the motions of the lips. 

Whether we look to the form of the features or to their 

power of expression, the consideration of these two classes 



of muscles alone will 



for certain varieties in the 



human face. In one man, the excitement of passion 

may be indicated chiefly by the prevalence of one class, 

while in a second, another class will predominate in the 

expression. 

to give examples, I would say that 



If it be allowable 
in the countenance of Mrs. Siddons or Mr. John Kemble, 
there was presented the highest character of beauty which 
belongs to the true English face. In that family the 
upper lip and nostrils were very expressive : the class 
of muscles which operate on the nostrils was especially 
powerful, and both these great tragedians had a remark- 
able capacity for the expression of the nobler passions. 
In their cast of features there was never seen that blood- 
thirsty look which Cooke could throw into his face. 



In 



him, the ringentes prevailed : and what determined hate 
could he express, when, combined with the oblique cast 
of his eyes, he drew up the outer part of the upper lip, 



and disclosed a sharp angular tooth! And is it not this 
lateral drawing of the lips, and stretching them upon the 
closed teeth, which make the blood start from them, in 
remorseless hate and rancour? 

But besides the muscles analogous to those of brutes, 
others are introduced into the human face, which indicate 
emotions and sympathies of which the lower animals are 



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OF THE MUSCLES OF ANIMALS. 



137 



not susceptible j and as they are peculiar to man, they may 
be considered as the index of mental energy, in opposition 

to mere animal expression. 

The most moveable and expressive features are the 

inner extremity of the eyebrow and the 



g 



of the 



-fc«:---^ '*-■>;-. 



mouth ; and these are precisely the parts which have 
least expression in hrutes ; for they have no eyebrows, and 

of elevating or depressing the angle of the 



no power 

mouth. It is therefore 



these feat 



that 



should 



,f 



expect to find the muscles of expression peculiar to man. 

The most remarkable muscle of the human face is the 
corrugator supercilii (d, fig., p. 99), arising from the frontal 



! 



bone, near its 



with the nasal bones, and inserted 






an 



the skin of the eyebro 

stic efifect. which i 



•g 



knits the eyebrows with 
untably, but irresistibly, 



V- 



H^ 






conveys the idea of mind. 

The frontal portion of the occipito-frontalis muscle (a, 
fig., p. 99), is the antagonist of the orbicular muscle of the 



ey eli ds 



It is wanting in the animals which we 



have 



examined ; and in its stead, fibres, more or less strong, ar< 
found to be inserted directly into the eyelids . 

The motion of the features which, next to that pro 



duced by the 



gator supercilii, is most expressive of 



human passion and sentiment, is to be seen in the angle of 
the mouth. At one time I conceived that this distinctive 



expression was chiefly owing to the superbus 



fig 



p. 1 09), which elevates and protrudes the under lip, but I 
was deceived. The character of human expression in the 



g 




the 



\gularis oris, 



or 



dep 



(h, fig., p. 109) 



mouth is 

anguli on 

found in any of the 

peculiar to man, and I can assign no other use for it th 



a muscle which I have not 
animals ; I believe it to be 



r 



that which belongs to expression 



It arises from the base 



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138 



OF THE MUSCLES OF ANIMALS. 




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of the lower jaw, and passes up to be inserted, with the 

no- fibres of almost all the muscles of the side of 



convergi 
the face 



the corner of the mouth 



produces that 



«, 



arching of the lip so expressive of contempt, hatred, 
jealousy ; and in combination with the elevator of the 
under lip, or superbus, and the orbicularis, it has a larger 
share than any other muscle in producing the infinite variety 
of motions in the mouth, expressive of sentiment. 

When we compare the muscles of the human head with 
those of animals, we perceive many smaller distinctions, 
which I shall not at present discuss. The depressor alee 
nasi (d, fig., p. 107), the nasalis labii superioris (b, fig., 
p. 109), the anterior fibres of the occipito-frontalis (a, fig., 
p. 99), are not found in the brute ; and in general, the more 
minute and fasciculated structure of all the muscles of the 
lips, in the face of man, shews a decided superiority in the 
provision for motion of the features. 

We have already observed, that the faces of animals 
seem chiefly capable of expressing 
pain is indicated more in the voice, and in writhing and 

struggling. 

The rage of the graminivorous animal is chiefly visible 
in the eye, in the inflation of the nostril, and in the dis- 
turbed state of the body. It is expressed most strongly 
by the carnivorous animals : in them it is wild, ferocious, 
and terrifying. Their expression of rage, so far as it 
appears in the face, is shewn by the strong action of the 
ringentes^ or snarling muscles, the exposure of the canine 
teeth, the gnashing of the tusks, and the brilliant excite- 
ment of the eye. The expression of human rage partakes 
of both J the corresponding muscles of the lips and nostrils 
producing a similar action to that in animals ; an ex- 



posure and clenching of the teeth j a degree of sparkling 



rage and fear ; even 



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OF THE MUSCLES OF ANIMALS. 



139 



of the eye, and an 



■ 

inflation of the nostrils 



Of 



under the influence of such actions, a spectat 



infallibly say, that the aspect was 



brutal 



g 



a face 
would 
J. and 



cruel. 



But when th 



culiar to human 






^„K ,..-..-.. ., " -■ -..':-.- — '--■-!- 




g 



gator supercilii, a^uscle„per 
is brought into action, the 

of 



'altered. The eyebrows are knit, the energy 



mtecTis apparent, and there is 



the mingling of thought 



and emotion with the savage and brutal rage of the mere 



animal 



In man, the 



of the frontal muscle, of the cor- 



rugator supercilii, and of the orbicular muscle of the mouth 
give much expression 



If instead of the 



of the 



lips and the exposure of the teeth, as in the rage or pam 
of animals, the mouth is half closed, the lips inflected by 
the circular fibres, and drawn down by the action of the 
peculiarly human muscle, the depressor anguli oris, fhen 
there is expressed more agony of mind than of mere bodily 
suff'ering, by a combination of muscular actions of which 

animals are incapable. 

The action of the orbicular muscle of the lips is, indeed, 
the most characteristic of agony of mind, and of all those 
passions which partake of sentiment ; ii 
of spirit, in warping, it modifies the eff"ect of the muscles 
of animal expression, and produces human character. 

Fear is characterised in animals by a mingling of anger, 

and of preparation for defence, with a shrinking of alarm 



ffrief 



to 



m 



the more ferocious, and a 



g of the eye and 

In 



inflation of the nostril, with trembling, in the milder, 
human fear and suspicion, the nostril is inflated, and the 
eye has that backward, jealous, and timid character which 
we see in the horse, and in the gentler classes of animals. 

The orbicular muscle of the lips, with the system of 
elevating and depressing muscles in man, lead to expressions 



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140 



OF THE MUSCLES OF ANIMALS. 



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peculiarly human. And here I may observe, that ex- 
pression is not always the effect of a contraction of the 
muscles of the face, either general or partial. It proceeds 
rather from a combined action of the muscles when under 
passion : for it is often the relaxation of a certain class, 
more than their excitement, which gives expression ; and 
of this, smiling and laughter furnish the most apposite 

examples. 



The capacity of receiving ludicrous ideas 



as com 



pletely denied to animals as they are utterly incapable of 



the accompanying 



action of laughter 



Dog 



m 



their 






I. 

t 

s 



expression of fondness, have a slight eversion of the lips, 
and grin and snuff amidst their frolic and gambols, in a 
way that resembles laughter j but in all this there is 
nothing which truly approaches to human expression. 
That is produced by the relaxation of the orbicular muscle 



of the lips, and the 



quent preponderating 



of 



the elevating muscles j and, of course, it can exist only in 
a face which possesses both the orbicular and the straight 
muscles of the lips in perfection. 

In the emotions of contempt, pride, suspicion, and 



jealousy, the orbicular muscle 



d the 



gularis oris. 



produce by their combination the arching of the lips, and 
the depression of the angle 



of the mouth. The hori 



zontal drawing of the lips which just discloses the teeth 



and betrays the 



bitter and malignant passions 






owing to a more general action of the muscles overcoming 
the opposition of the orbicularis. 

In grief, the muscles of the eyebrow and those of the 
lips are combined in expression j hence the union of that 
upward direction of the extremity of the eyebrow charac- 
terising peevishness, discontent, and sinking of the spirits, 
with the depression of the angle of the mouth, which so 



# 



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) 







OF THE MUSCLES OF ANIMALS. 



141 



distinctly indicates the harassed and subdued state of 



mind. 

By the combination of those muscles of expression, 
much of that various play of the features expressive of 
human passions, as joy, hope, admiration, anxiety, fear, 
horror, despair, is produced ; and thus, while the human 
countenance is capable of expressing both the rage of the 
more ferocious animals, and the timidity of the milder, it 
possesses, by the consentaneous action of a few superadded 
muscles, powers of expression varying almost to infinity. 

It is curious to observe how the muscles thus afford a 
new occasion of distinguishing the classes of animals ; and 

IS of superior intelligence, they give proofs of 



how, as signs 

the endowments of man, and the excellence of his 



The full clear eye 



the arched and moveable eyebr 



the smooth and polished forehead -, as indicating suscept 
bility of emotion, and power of expression, are grand 
features of human character and beauty; and it is 



the 



perfection of beauty when the spectator is made sensible 
of this inherent, this latent power, even while no pre- 
vailing passion affects the features. But a great portio 
of the beauty of the human face 



the 



and the 



mouth 



tril which has a capacity for expression 
without being too membranous and inflatable, for that 
produces a mean 



d imbecile kind of fier 



and 



lip 



full and capable of those various modula 






tions of form which are 
indication of human feeling. 



y 



to speech and the 



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ESSAY VI 



" Grief laments the absence, and fear apprehends the loss of what 
we love ; desire pursues it ; hope has it in view ; and joy triumphs in 
possession." * 



OF EXPRESSION (CONTINUED). 

We advance to tlie interesting subject of variable ex- 
pression in the human face. It is by the habit of ex- 
pression that the countenance is improved or degraded, 
and that the characters of virtue or vice are imprinted. 
If hardship, misfortune, care, and, still more, vice, are 

there habitually impressed, then all that we admire is 
lost. 

Peace, comfort, society, and agreeable studies, preserve 

the features mobile, and ready to conform, as an index of 

the mind, to the sentiments we love. Petrarch, Boccaccio, 

and Dante, dwell on the expression of their mistresses.t 



* Heylin, vol. i. p. 5. 

t " Poi guardo I'amorosa e hella bocca 
luSi spaziosa fronte, e il vago piglio 

r 

Li bianchi dentin e il dritto naso, e il ciglio 
Polito e brun tal che depinto pare." — Dante 

^' Soave va a guisa di un bel pavone." 



Decamerone Giornata^ iv 



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OF EXPRESSION. 



143 



Addison has justly said, "No woman can be handsome 
by the force of features alone, any more than she can be 
witty only by the help of speech." 

The form of the face and the features are but the 



groundwork of expression 



The influence of passion on 



the body is a subject which has been discussed from the 



first dawnings of philosophy 



The Greeks did not confine 



their study to the outward form of man 



they also spe 



culated on the habit of the body as aff'ecting the mind 
and we insensibly use their language, although the cours 
of their ideas may be rejected or forgotten. 



There 



the forms, strength, temper, and capacities of man 



It has been well said, that you 



tread on a man's 
T. One man 



toe without learning something of his temper. 

will have his joke, although it mny hurt his dearest friend 



and another has so little imag 



that 



the 
to 



delirium of fever he is dull. Some are gen( 
profligacy, or frugal to meanness, or gallant and true, or 



cowardly and insincere 



these varieties are a 



part of 



human nature, and necessary to the constitution of society 



But the ing 

the diversity of disp 



of Ancient Greece ascribed 
to the texture of the frame j 



the features, nor to the proportions or shape of the 

to the mixture of the elements of the 



skull, but rath 



body 



and more to the fluids than 



the solids. Th 



distinctions, famihar to all, have in every succeedmg ag 



been attributed to the humours 



When we speak of the 



constitution, the temp 



the humour of a man 



truth adopting the language of Hippocrates, who treated 
of the four radical humours,— the sanguineous, phlegmatic, 

choleric, and melancholic. 

Other philosophers have imagined that the disposi- 



of man might have their 



his greater or less 



II 



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144 



OF EXPRESSION. 



1 
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KT 



resemblance to the brutes. It was then allowable to fancy 
that a lion-like framej strong hair, deep voice, and pow- 
erful limbs, were combined with courage. But our heroes 
are not of that mould. To be collected amidst fire and 
smoke, and the deafening sounds of battle — to marshal 
thousands — or to direct the Yessel's course, whilst exposed 
not only to wounds but to death, is true courage ; and, in 
these days, it is witnessed in the pale and fragile, more 
than in the strong and sanguineous, or the bulky and 
hairy savage. We can better estimate true courage since 
combatants have been divested of the helmet and mail.* 

That the features indicate the disposition by resem- 
bling those of animals, is an unjust and dangerous theory. 
The comparison which we have made of the human form 
and features with those of certain classes of animals, is 

)se speculations which would lead 



very 



different from th 



us to condemn a man because of some resemblance in face 

to a brute.t 

Notwithstanding the attraction of the engravings in 

Lavater's work, the study of physiognomy is now aban- 
doned for that of the cranium. But I must repeat. 



V 



* Sir G. N-5 in the assault of 



, killed his opponent. 



u 



The 



soldier thrust at me with his bayonet. I parried, and passed my sword 
through his body. In withdrawing it, I experienced a sensation which 
will only leave me with life," A kindred spirit expresses himself well. 
"The modern soldier is not the stern, bloody-handed man the ancient 
soldier was;" the ancient warrior, fighting with the sword, and reaping 
the harvest of death when the enemy was in flight, became habituated to 
the art of slaying. " The modern soldier sees not his peculiar victims fall, 



and exults not over them as proof of personal prowess. Homer repre- 
sents Achilles as driving over the dead, till his chariot-wheels are dyed 

in blood. 

r 

f This was the theory of Giambatista Porta, in his " Humana Phy- 
siognomia." He was equally successful in detecting the qualities of 
plants by their resemblance to animals. 



r 

I 



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J 



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OF EXPRESSION. 



145 



that the hrain and the skull are constructed in strict 



relation 



perfect brain and a perfect skull are formed 



igether. And what is the perfection of the skull 



The 



cranium is as a helmet 
of the hrain : and if so 



constituted for the protectio 

J 

must it not be adapted to th 



forces it has to sustain or resist? The skull is most 
perfect when its forms indicate the best possible provision 
for its peculiar use, the defence of the brain. 

Let us attend more especially to the human passions. 
I do not mean to treat of all those conditions of mind 
which are considered under the head of the passions, 
sentiments, or emotions ; but to limit my inquiry to that 
kind or degree of mental excitement, which draws the 
frame into action, and which is interpreted by its agi- 
tation ; when the spirits, by their yehemence, produce 
uncontrollable movements of the body, not determined by 
the will, but spontaneously arising with the state of feeling, 
which they strengthen and direct.* 

We shall begin, by marking the most extreme expres- 
sion of the passions, — laughter and weeping. They suit 
our purpose as being peculiarly human, arising from senti- 
ments not participated by the brutes* 

It is vain to inquire into the sources of these emotions ; 
but I hope my reader consents to believe that the capacity 
of expression is bestowed as a boon, a mark of superior 
intelligence, and a source of enjoyment ; and that its very 
nature is to excite sympathy ; that it radiates, and is un- 
derstood by all J that it is the bond of the human family. 



* Were we not to limit our inquiry to the agitations of the body, we 
should be embarrassed with the ambiguity of such words as passion, 
emotion, desire, inclination, appetite, the generous passions, the pas- 
sion of pride or of avarice ; even the mere state of suffering is called 
passion. 



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146 



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LAUGHTER. 



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We have seen that the muscles which operate upon the 
mouth are distinguishable into two classes, — those which 
surround and control the lips, and those which oppose 
them, and draw the mouth widely open. 



The effect of 



ludicrous idea is to relax the former, and to contract the 
latter j hence, by a lateral stretching of the mouth, and a 
raising of the cheek to the lower eyelid, a smile is pro- 
duced. The lips are, of all the features, the most sus- 
ceptible of action, and the most direct index of the feelings. 




\ 






f 




LAUGHTER. 



147 



If the idea be exceedingly ridiculous, it is in vain that 
we endeavour to restrain this relaxation, and to compress 
the lips. The muscles concentring to the mouth prevail j 
they become more and more influenced j they retract the 
lips, and display the teeth. The cheeks are more power- 
fully drawn up, the eyelids wrinkled, and the eye almost 

The lacrymal gland within the orbit is com- 
the pressure on the eyeball, and the eyes 



A 




concealed, 
pressed 

suffused with tears. 

Simple and passive pleasures, the delight of meeting or 
the contemplation of innocence, relax the lips and dimple 
the cheek, whilst the eyes are bright and intelligent. The 
dimple is formed by the muscles which are inserted in the 
angle of the mouth acting on the plump integument of 
infancy and youth. 

Observe the condition of a man convulsed with laughter, 
and consider what are the organs or system of parts afffected. 
He draws a full breath, and throws it out in interrupted, 
short, and audible cachinnations j the muscles of his throat, 
neck, and chest, are agitated j the diaphragm is especially 

n _ 

convulsed. He holds his sides, and, from the violent agita- 



he is incapable of a voluntary 



It 



impossible to avoid the conclusion, that it is the 



and their muscles which are affected 

sts. in all 



respiratory organs 

during the paroxysm of laughter. Physiolog 

former times, attributed the line of sympathetic relations 

which draw these remote parts into action, to a nerve called 



the sympathet 



But I have proved, that there is a 



expression, 
irises from 



machinery altogether distinct ; and that the 
not only of this, but of all the other passions 
that system of nerves, which, from their great office, I have 

called respiratory. 



The respiratory 



sprmg 



from 



common 




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148 



WEEPING. 







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♦ 



the medulla oblongata,* and pass oiF divergingly to all 



the parts just enumerated, and to every 



gan employed 



'A 



.'i 



piration 



They combine these distant parts 



th 






ordinary action of breathing ; and they are the agen 
all the efFects of passion, when these organs give the 
ward signs of the condition of the mind. 



WEEPING.t 



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* The medulla oblongata is that part of the nervous system which is 
traced from the brain into the tube of the spine ; it is, consequently, the 

upper part of the spinal marrow. 

f I have thrown the expression of weeping, from pain, into the face 
of a Faun ; for such expression is inexpressibly mean and ludicrous in 
the countenance of a man. 





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WEEPING. 



149 



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1 








i 



Weeping is another state of the features, proceeding 
have before observed, from sensibility ; 



; and, therefore, 
human. Though the organs affected are the same as in 
laughter, viz. the respiratory muscles, the expression is as 
much opposed as the nature of the emotion which produces 
it. Were the condition of the features the effect of mere 
excitement, why should there be an association of the same 
class of muscles, so different from that in laughter 



r 
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? 



Is 



) 



3 

I 



this variety of expression a proof of desi 



and that 



all our emotions are intended to have their appropr 

outward characters ? 

Accordino^ to Homer, the expression of weeping is 



confined to babes 



Uly 



made to feel that 



his nose which precedes the shedding of tears. 
The lacrymal glands are the first to be infected ; then 

muscles of 

from their 






the eyelids ; and finally, the whole converg 
the cheeks. The lips are drawn aside, i 




fibres relaxing, as in laughter, but from their being 



super 



influence of their an- 



angle is depressed, 
two adverse powers 



forcibly retracted by the 
tagonist muscles. Instead of the joyous elevation of the 
cheeks, the muscle which pulls down the angle of the 
mouth, triangularis oris, is more under influence, and the 

The cheeks are thus drawn between 
: the muscles which surround the eye- 
lids, and that which depresses the lower lip. 

The same cause which drew the diaphragm and muscles 
of the chest into action in laughing, is perceived here. 
The diaphragm is spasmodically and irregularly affected ; 
the chest and throat are influenced ; the breathing is cut 
by sobbing ; the inspiration is hurried, and the expiratio 



slow with a melancholy 



In the violence of weep 



accompanied with lamentation, the face is flushed 



I 



mg, 

rather suffused by stag 



blood, and the veins of th 



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150 



WEEPING. 



forehead distended. In this we see the effect of the 



I 



impeded action of the chest ; a proof. 



only that 



the respiratory system of nerves which is affected, but also 



of the condition of the heart, and 



tion, of which we h 



poken 



influence in 
former essay 



respira- 
. This 



expr 



of emotion may be 



troduced even in the 



highest walks of 



but it requires great taste to pourtray 



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* 



'*'. 



ithout offensive exaggeration.* 

The depression of the angle of the mouth g 



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of despondence and langour when accompanied by a general 
^relaxation of the features, or, in other words, of the muscles. 



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When the 



',gator which knits the brows 



perates 



with it, there is mingled in the expression something of 



mental 



■gy, of moroseness, or pain 



If th 



frontal 



muscle adds its operation, there is an acute turning upwards 
of the inner part of the eyebrow, characteristic of anguish, 
debilitating pain, or of discontent, according to the pre- 



o 



of the rest of th 



But while languor and despondency 



indicated by 



depression of the angle of the mouth, the depression must 
be slight, not violent : for the depressor anguli oris cannot 
act strongly without the combination of the levator menti 



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* '' The finest possible example of this condition of suffering is in the 
picture of Guercino (in the Gallery of Milan), the ' Departure of Hagar 
and Ishmael/ Those who have seen only the engraving can have little 
conception of the beauty of the picture, for the perfection is in the 
colouring. Hagar has been weeping; her eyes are red and swollen, but 
not so as to destroy her beauty; she turns again on hearing Abraham 
\ once more addressing her ; she suspends her breath, you persuade your- 
! self that vou hear her short convulsive sobs ; for in the elevated shoulders 



,7 



I 



41 



I 






The suffering 



and in the form of the open lips, this is, plainly indicated, 
expressed in the condition of the chest, the misery in the forehead, and 
the colouring of the eyelids, make this the finest example of expression 
which 1 have seen." — Note from Journal. 




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WEEPING. 



151 



or 



qjerhus, which quickly prod 



a 



chang 



m 



the 



take an inclination 
of the angles of the 



filled with tears, and the eyehrows 
similar to that which the depressors 

lips give to the mouth.* 

I am not quite sure that in the distress of Constance there 
is not an unnatural mixture of the tumult and violence of 
grief with the contemplative recollections of sorrow. Her 
impatience and turbulence, which make her tear her hair, 
defy all counsel and redress, and call on death or madness 
as her sole rehef, seem ill assorted with that calmness of 
spirit which can stop to recollect and enumerate in detail 
the figure and endearing manners of her son. 

" Grief fills the room up of my absent child, 
Lies in his bed, walks up and down with me ; 
Puts on his pretty looks, repeats his words, 
Remembers me of all his gracious parts, 
Stuffs out his vacant garments with his form : 
Then, have I reason to be fond of grief. 
Fare you well ! had you had such a loss as I, 
I could give better comfort than you do. 



* Some have been so far deceived by the effect of this raising of the 
eyebrows towards the centre of the forehead as to give the same oblique 
line to the eyes ; but the canthus or angle of the eye is fixed immoveably, 
and no working of passion can alter it. 



■ - 



i 



expression, by making the nether lip pout contemptuously. 
In sorrow, a general languor pervades the whole coun- 
tenance. The violence and tension of grief, the lamenta- 
tions, and the tumult, like all strong excitements, gradually 
exhaust the frame. Sadness and regret, with depression of 
spirits and fond recollections, succeed; and lassitude of 
the whole body, with dejection of the face and heaviness of 
the eves, are the most striking characteristics. The lips 
are relaxed and the lower jaw drops ; the upper eyelid falls \ 
and half covers the pupil of the eye. The eye is frequently 









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WEEPING. 



2fh 



When 



O Lord ! my boy, my Arthur, my fair son ! 
My life, my joy, my food, my all the world 
My widow's comfort, and my sorrows' cure 



JJ 



* 



Th 



appear 



which is called 



with a 



5 rather to be the stage of the passion 
rrow y the indulgence of which is attended 
melancholy delight which can sanction the con- 



Yet 



elusion, " Then have I reason to be fond of grief." 
as conviction returns at intervals upon the mind, a period 

lation is succeeded by starts 



of quiet and 



ful resig 



and violent bursts of grief. 

Though grief is in general distinguished by its violence, 
lamentation, and tumult, while sorrow is silent, deep brood- 

and full of depression, there is a stupefaction which 



g 



sometimes characterises grief, " the lethargy of woe." 

We have already had occasion to remark, that ex- 
pressions, peculiarly human, chiefly afifect the angle of the 



mouth and the inner 



emity of the eyebrow 



and 



these points we must principally attend in all our observa- 
tions concerning the expression of passion. They are the 
most moveable parts of the face ; in 



a them, the muscles con- 
and upon the changes which they undergo, expression 

To demonstrate their 



acknowledged chiefly to depend 



importance, we have only 



peat the experiment made 



by Peter of Cortona 



sketch a placid countenance, and 



touch lightly with the pencil the angle of the lips and the 
inner extremity of the eyebrows. By elevating or depress- 
ing these, we shall quickly convey the expression of grief 
or of laughter. 



These parts, however, and all the feat 
passioned countenance, 



of 



an 



have an accordance with each 



+ 

* King John^ Act III. Scene 4. 



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WEEPING. 



153 



other. When the angles of the mouth are depressed in 
grief, the eyebrows are not elevated at the outer angles as 
in laughter. When a smile plays around the mouth, or 
the cheek is raised in laughter, the brows are not ruffled 
as in grief. The characters of such opposite passions are 
so distinct, that they cannot be combined where there is 



d genuine emotion 



it 




those 



ho have an 



When we see them combined, 
unnatural control over their 



muscles, and the expression is farcical and ridiculous 



It 



IS an 



unworthy conceit to give to one side of the face 
comedy and to the other tragedy. 

In the features of an impassioned countenance there is 
a consent and accordance of expression. It is not upon a 
single feature that the emotion operates ; but the whole 
face is marked with expression, all the movements of which 
are consentaneous. This is referable to some cause acting 
generally on the tone and state of the frame : the peculiar 
expression of individual emotion being distinguished by the 
action and determination of certain features. 

Takino^ indifference as the line of distinction between 
the two great classes of pain and of pleasure, the sensa- 
tions above this line are weak compared with those below 
it. The simple sensations of pleasure, before they are 
heightened and diversified by the multiplied associations of 
mental affection, are soft and gentle in their nature. The 
class of painful sensations is powerful and overwhelming ; 
they are meant as our guardians and protectors against 
danger and death, and they operate with resistless force. 
The pleasurable sensations induce a languor and delight, 
partaking of the quality of indulgence and relaxation ; the 
painful excite to the most violent tension, and make the 

F 

muscular frame start into convulsive action. 

The emotions and passions, grounded on these great 



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154 



WEEPING. 



from the general tone of 



classes of sensation, raised and increased by the mingling 
of hopes and fears, and the combination of analogous and 
associated images of delight or of danger, derive their most 
important traits of expression 

pleasure or of pain. 

In pain, the body is exerted to violent tension, and all 
the emotions and passions allied to pain, or having their 
origin and foundation in painful sensations, have this 
general distinction of character, that there is an energetic 
action or tremor, the effect of universal and g 



ex- 



tr"- 



■■-. 



citement. It must at the same time be remembered, tha 
all the passions of this class, some more immediately, other 
more indirectly, produce in the second stag 
debility, and loss of tone, from over-ex( 



exhaustion 



is characterised 




all the emotions re- 



On the other hand, as pleasure 
languor, tranquillity, and relaxation, 
lated to it, or deducible from pleasurable sensations, are 
felt in the prevailing state of the system — a degree of 
inaction, and as it were forgetfulness of bodily exertion. 



The 



con- 



and an indulgence in mental contemplation.* 
templation of beauty, or the admiration of soft music, 
produces a sense of languor j the body reclines ; the lips 
are half opened ; the eyes have a softened lustre from the 
falling of the eyelids ; the breathing is slow ; and from 

* " Here (Academia delle belle Arte, Bologna) are two pictures 
which one naturally compares. On the one side is the St. Cecilia; on 

;r of the Innocents. In the St. Cecilia of Raphael, 
in ecstasy, there is not only great beauty, but very fine expression. 
She hears the music of angels ; her face is turned upwards ; the 
features composed and fine. In the lower part of the face there is a 
gentle relaxation, almost a smile ; the eyes are directed upwards, but 
the eyebrow is placid. She is so wrapt, that the pipes of the organ are 
almost falling from the hands, which hang without exertion. 

" In the picture of the Murder of the Innocents, by Guido Reni, 
there is an admirable figure of a woman, wild and full of fire, who 



Murd 







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WEEPING. 



155 



the absolute neglect of bodily sensation, and the temporary 
interruption of respiration, there is a frequent low-drawn 
sigh. 



r 



flies with her inftmt pressed to her bosom. But there is another^ whose 
face is in the very attitude of the Cecilia, yet how different! The 
murder of her child has been perpetrated ; the child lies dead before 
her; she is on her knees; her hands are clasped, and she looks up to 
heaven ; her mouth is open, and all the features relaxed. The hair and 
dress are deranged- What, then, is the difference in 



expression 



for 



^ 

V 



there is a certain resemblance in the form and attitude of these heads? 
What is the difference between the relaxation of despair and of enjoy- 
ment: the relaxed jaw, and open mouth, and troubled Torehead of the 

the softness and languor, with a certain firmness in the lips of the 



one 



other." — No (e from. JoiirnaL 






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ESSAY 



VII. 








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THE SUBJECT CONTINUED ; 



OF PAIN 



HORROR 



CONVULSIONS 



DEMONIACS 



DEATH. 



The further we proceed in tliis inquiry 



th 



moT 



difficult and delicate does 



become 



In continuing the 



subject, I shall rather indulge in detached remarks than 
pretend to follow a regular course ; keeping, I hope, still 
true to the observation of nature, and, as far as possible, 

unprejudiced by theory. 

Pain is affirmed to be unqualified evil ; 



necessary 
faculties. 



; yet pain is 
birth, it rouses the dormant 



d gives us consciousness. 



T 



o 



imag 



th 



absence of pain, is not only to imagine a new state of 

being, but a change in the earth, and all upon it. As 
inhabitants of earth, and as a consequence of the great law 
of gravitation, the human body must have weight. It 
must have bones, as columns of support, and levers for the 



action of 



muscles ; and this mechanical 



im 



plies a complication and delicacy of texture beyond our 
conception. For that fine texture a sensibility to pain is 
destined to be the protection ; it is the safeguard of the 
body; it makes us alive to those injuries which would 
otherwise destroy us, and warns us to avoid them. 



y 



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PAIN. 



157 





When, therefore, the philosopher asks why were not 
our actions performed at the suggestions of pleasure, he 
imagines man, not constituted as he is, hut as if he 
belonged to a world in which there was neither weight, 
nor pressure, nor any thing injurious, where there were no 
dangers to apprehend, no difficulties to overcome, and no 
call for exertion, resolution, or courage. It would, indeed, 
he a curious speculation to follow out the consequences on 
the highest qualities of the mind, if we could suppose man 
thus free from all bodily suffering. 



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158 



PAIN. 



But I return to the position, that pain is the great 
safeguard of the frame, and now proceed to examine its 




expression 



In bodily pain the jaws are fixed, and the teeth grind j 
the lips are drawn laterally, the nostrils dilated ; the eyes 
are largely uncovered and the eyebrows raised ; the face is 
turgid with blood, and the veins of the temple and fore- 
head distended ; the breath being checked, and the de- 
scent of blood from the head impeded by the agony of the 
chest, the cutaneous muscle of the neck acts strongly, and 
draws down the angles of the mouth. But when joined to 
this, the man cries out, the lips are retracted, and the 
mouth open j and we find the muscles of his body rigid, 
straining, struggling. If the pain be excessive, he becomes 
insensible, and the chest is affected 




sudden spasms. 
On recovering consciousness, he is incoherent, till again 
roused by suffering. In bodily pain conjoined with distress 
of mind, the eyebrows are knit, while their inner ex- 
tremities are raised; the pupils are in part concealed by 
the upper eyelids, and the nostrils are agitated. 

The expression of pain is distinguished from that of 
weeping not less than from that of laughing. These arise 
from mental conditions, independent of physical causes. 



But 



pam 



IS 



and are uncontrollable and sympathetic, 
bodily ; that is to say, there is a positive nervous sensa- 
tion, which excites to action, or to acts of volition ; an 
energy of the whole frame is produced by suffering, and, 
from the consciousness of its place or source, the efforts 
are directed to remove it. Hence the struggle, the pow- 
erful and voluntary exertions which accompany it. Yet 
there is a resemblance and, in some degree, an alliance 
between these actions and the spasms excited by galvanism 
in experiments on the nerves of animals apparently dead. 



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159 



OF DEMONIACS 



''He has a Devil"— Tv^o of the greatest painters, 

Raphael and Domenichino, have painted demoniacal boys. 
In the convent of the Grotto Ferrata, in the neighbourhood 
of Rome, Domenichino has represented Saint Nilus in the 



act of relieving a lad possessed.* 



The saint, an old man. 



is on his knees in prayer j the lad is raised and held up 
by an aged man ; the mother with a child is waiting the 
consummation of the miracle. Convulsions have seized the 
lad J he is rigidly bent back ; the lower limbs spasmodically 
extended, so that his toes only rest on the ground j the eyes 
are distorted, and the pupils turned up under the eyelids. 
This would be the position of Opisthotonos, were not the 
hands spread abroad, the palms and fingers open, and the 
jaw fallen. Had the representation been perfectly true to 
nature, the iaws would have been clenched, and the teeth 



grinding 



But then the miracle could not have been 



represented, for one, under the direction of the saint, has 
the finger of his left hand in the boy's mouth, and the 

ue is to be 




other holds a vessel of oil, with which the ton 
touched. The drawing and colouring exhibited in the 
lad, and the grandeur of the old men, make this one of 
the most admired paintings in Italy. 



I have h 



given 



a sketch of the true Opistho 



tones, where it is seen that all the muscles are 



gidly 



contracted, the more powerful flexors prevailing over the 



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Domenichino, in consequence of some peccadillo, took shelter in 
the sanctuary of the monks of the Grotto Ferrata, a fortified convent 
some miles distant from Rome. The monks, under the threat of de- 
livering him up, made him paint their walls ; and the frescoes are, indeed. 



beautiful, particularly the old men 



That compartment which is called 



the Demoniac Boy, is most admired."— Note from Journal. 




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160 



DEMONIACS. 



extensors. Were the painter 
stance faithfully, the effect 



present every circum 



might 



be too painful 
something must he left to his taste and imagination.* 



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It may be considered bold to criticise the works of 
Raphael ; but I venture to say that, if that great master 
intended, in his cartoon of the Death of Ananias, to 
excite horror, the eifect would have been more pow^erful, if 
there had been 
chief 



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m 



the 




tead of a mer 



Strang 



but 



convulsions of the 
3 twisting of the body, 
are most affected by the 



more slight, if correct, portraiture of a natural condition 




In the same painter 



g 



picture of the Transfi 



guration, in the Vatican, there is a lad possessed, and m 
convulsions. I hope I am not insensible to the beauties of 



._ _ •* The original sketch is in the College of Surgeons of Edinburgh. 
I took it from soldiers wounded in the head, at the Battle of Corunna. 
Three men were similarly hurt, and in short successive intervals similarly 
affected, so that the character could not be mistaken. 



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CONVULSIONS. 



161 



that picture, nor presumptuous in saying that the fig 



natural. A physician would conclude that this youth 



he 



tiff. 



was feigning. He is, I presume, convulsed ; 

ened with contractions, and his eyes turned in their 



sockets 



B 



no 



child was ever so affected 



In real 



convulsions, the extensor muscles yield to the more pow- 
erful contractions of the flexor muscles ; whereas, in the 
picture, the lad extends his arms ; and the fingers of the 



left hand are stretched 
the lower extremities c 



rally backwards 



Nor do 



ipond 



th truth : he stands 



firm 



th 



eyes 



are 



atural ; they should have been 



ed more inwards, as looking 



the head, and 



partially buried 



der the forehead. The mouth 



open, which is quite at variance with the g 



con- 



dition, and 



the apology which Domenichino had. 
The muscles of the arms are exaggerated to a degree 
which Michael Angelo never attempted ; and still it is the 
extensors and supinators, and not the flexors, which are 

thus prominent. 

Disease has characteristic symptoms, which we can 



tely and scientifically reduce to descript 



and 



borrowing from th 



there is no state of suffenng 



from which we can so well infer the nature of the 



to 



of th 



r 

frame as from hydrophob 



The patient being 



sensible of his condition, and calm, and aware of the 



periment which is 



to be made upon him by his phy 



when he calls for a glass of water, cannot resist the 
influence of the disease. He shudders, his face assumes 

of extreme horror and alarm ; convulsive 

gulpings take place in his throat ; he flies to some support, 

agony of suffocation. 

man. I have had the 



an expression 



d clings to the bedpost in 



an 



This I have witnessed in a powerful 



pain of seeing 



the disease in a girl of eighteen 



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162 



CONVULSIONS. 



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irritability of the skin being increased to an awful degree, 
so that the touch of her long hair falling on her naked 
body, excited, as she said, the paroxysms. These recurred 
with a sense of choking, with sudden and convulsive 



ihuddering, and catching of th 



heavings of the chest, a 

muscles of breathing, and an appalling expression of suf 



1 



fering 



The paroxysms 



in such a case becoming more 



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frequent and severe, finally exhaust the powers of life, 
these convulsions it is the nervous and muscular systems 

F 

belonging to the natural function of respiration which are 
affected ; and as they are also the organs of expression, 
the condition is seen not only in the countenance, but in 
the throat and chest, to be that of extreme horror. 





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163 



FEAR. 



« Nam Timor unus erat, facies non una timoris, 
Pars laniat crines, pars sine mente sedet. 
Altera mcesta silet, frustra vocat altera matrem, 
Hffic queritur, stupet base, haec fugit, ilia manet." 



Ovid de Arte Amandi. 



So Ovid describes the Sabine virg 



and such the 



& 



daunt and onset of 



tumultuary and distracted state of mind produced by fear. 
And there is afood reason for this, because in a sudden 

an unexpected evil, the spirits which 
were before orderly carried by their several due motions 
unto their natural works, are upon this strange appearance 
and instant oppression of danger so disordered, mixed, and 
stifled, that there is no power left either in the soul for 



counsel 



the body for 



» 



In mere bodily 

The 



fear there is mere animal expression and meanness, 
breath is drawn and the respiration suspended j the body 
fixed, and powerless ; the eyes riveted, or searching and 



dy 



and the action undetermined 



Mr. Burke, in his speculatio 



fear, assimilate 



with perhaps too little discrimination, to pam 



A man 



great pam 



55 



he observes, " has his teeth set ; his eye 



brows are violently contracted ; his forehead is wrinkled 
his eyes are dragged inwards, and rolled with g 



hemence 



his hair stands on end ; his voice is forced 



short shrieks and groans ; and the whole fabric 



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Fear 



sion of pain 



" he continues; 
death, exhibits 



which 



pprehen 



tly the same efi'ects 



approaching in violence to those just mentioned 
portion to the nearness of the cause, 
the subject."* 



m pro- 
and the weakness of 



* Sublime and Beautiful, Part IV. sect. 3. Cause of Pain and Fear. 



411 
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164 



FEAR. 



But there is one distinguishing feature of the two 
conditions : the immediate effect of pain is to produce an 
energetic action and tension of the whole frame ; that of fear 
is to relax all the energy of mind and of body — to paralyse, 
as it were, every muscle. Mr. Burke seems to have written 
loosely, partly from forgetting that pain and fear are often 
combined, and partly from taking a view of the subject too 
much limited to the particular conclusion which he wished 
to enforce. There cannot be great pain without its being 
attended by the distraction of doubts and fears ; the dread 
even of death is a natural consequence of extreme pain, 
and so the expression of fear in the countenance is fre- 
quently mingled with that of pain. But, perhaps, there 



are few passions which may 



be assimilated by such 



combinations ; fear and hatred ; hatred and rage ; rage 
and vengeance and remorse. On the other hand, confining 
ourselves to simple bodily fear, there is much truth in the 
observation of this eloquent writer. The fear of boiling 
water falling on the legs, gives an expression of the antici- 
pation of scalding, resembling the meaner expression of 
bodily pain. As Mr. Burke says, fear in a dog will no 
doubt be that of the lash, and he will yelp and howl as if 
he actually felt the blows j and this indeed is the only 
kind of fear which brutes know. The higher degrees of 
fear, in which the mind operates, and which we shall see 
characterised in the countenance by an expression peculiar 
to mental energy, do not appear in them. 

In man, the expression of mere bodily fear is like that 
of animals, without dignity ; it is the mean anticipation of 
j pain. The eyeball is largely uncovered, the eyes staring, 



and the eyebrows elevated to the utmo 



There 



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a spasmodic affection of the diaphragm and muscles of the 
chest, disturbing the breathing, producing a gasping in the 






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FEAR, 



165 




throat, with an inflation of the nostril, convulsive opening 




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of the mouth, and dropping of the j 
conceal the teeth, yet allow the tong 



the lips nearly 
to he seen, the 



space between the nostril and the lip being full 



There 



hollowness and 



motion of the cheeks, and 



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trembling of the lips, and muscles on the side of the neck. 
The lungs are kept distended, while the breathing is short 



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pect is pale and 



* See Essay on the Nerves. 



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166 



FEAR. 



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cadaverous from the receding of the blood. The hair is 
lifted up by the creeping of the skin, and action of the 

occipito-frontalis. 

In the preceding sketch, I have endeavoured to 

express fear mingled with wonder. But if we should 
suppose the fear there represented, to have arisen from 



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apprehended danger still remote, and that the object 
of fear approaches, and is now about to cleave to the 
person, he trembles, looks pale, has a cold sweat on his 
face, and in proportion as the imagination has less room 
to range in, as the danger Is more distinctly visible, the 




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expression partakes more of actual bodily p 



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scream of fear is heard, the eyes start forward, the lips are 
drawn wide, the hands are clenched, and the expression 
hecomes more strictly animal, and indicative of such fear 
as is common to hrutes.* 



and such the 



* I shall here transcribe a portion from my brother's volume on Italy. 
Mr. John Bell travelled in declining health; and died in Rome, in 1820. 
He had written a great deal with a pencil, in the course of his journey ; 
and no less than thirty small volumes of notes, thus jotted down on his 
knee, were submitted by his widow to Professor Bell and myself. In 
these we saw much to admire ; but knowing how much would have been 
changed and corrected had our brother lived, we thought them unfit for 
publication. Of the many striking passages in the work, the following 
may be selected as relating to the present subject: 

" Turin. The Execution of an Assassin. — I found myself opposite 
to the distracted criminal whom they were conducting to execution in 
all the agonies of terror and despair. He was seated in a black car, 
preceded by arquebusiers, on horseback, carrying their carabines pointed 
forward. These were followed by a band of priests, clothed in long black 
robes, singing, in deep and solemn tones, a slow mournful dirge,— part of 
the service for the dead. A hot burning sun shone with a flood of 
light; and, though it was mid-day, such was the silence 
power and effect of this solemn chant, that its sound was re-echoed 
from every distant street. The brothers of the 
in black, and masked, walked by the side of the car, and joined in the 
chant. On the steps of the car sat a man bearing a flag, on which 
Death was represented in the usual forms, and on which was inscribed 
in Latin (if I read it rightly), ' Death ha^ touched me with his fingers,' 
or, ' Death has laid his hands on me.' / On each side of the car, the 
officiating priests were seated; and in the'centre, sat the criminal himself. 
It was impossible to witness the condition of this unhappy wretch without 
terror • and yet, as if impelled by some strange infatuation, it was equally 
impossible not to gaze upon an object so wild, so full of horror. He 
seemed about thirty-five years of age ; of large and muscular form ; lus 
countenance marked by strong and savage features ; half naked, pale 
as death, agonised with terror, every limb strained in anguish, his 
hands clenched convulsively, the sweat breaking out on his bent and 
contracted brow, he kissed incessantly the figure of our Saviour, painted 
on the flag which was suspended before him ; but with an agony of 
wildness and despair, of which, nftthing ever exhibited on the stage 



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168 



TERROR. 



I should apply the name of terror to that kind of fear, 
in which there is a strong working of the imagination, and 
which is therefore peculiar to man. The eye is bewildered j 
the inner extremity of the eyebrows is elevated, and strongly 



knit by the 



of the 



g 



thus produci 



expression of distracting thought, anxiety, and alarm, and 

which does not belong to animals. The cheek is a 



one 



little raised, and all the muscles which are concentred 



about the mouth 



there being a kind of modu 



lating action in the circular muscle of the lips, which keeps 
the mouth partially open. 



The 



muscle of the 



neck, the platysma myoides, is strongly contracted, and 



fibres may 



be seen 



g into action like cords, under 



the angles of th 
there is an indecisio 



the skin, and dragging powerfully on 

mouth. The imagination wande 

in the action, the steps are furtive and unequal, there is a 

spasm which hinders speech, and the colour of the cheeks 

vanishes. 



(( 



Canst thou quake and change thy colour, 
Murther thy breath in middle of a word, 
And then again begin, and stop again. 
As if thou wast distraught and mad with terror? 



jy 



* 



When mingled with astonishment, terror is fixed and 

upon the scene here presented. The horror that the priest had excited 
in the soul of this savage, was greater than the fear of the most cruel 
death could ever have produced. But the terrors thus raised, were the 
superstitions of an ignorant and bewildered mind, bereft of animal 
courage, and impressed with some confused belief, that eternal safety 
was to be instantly secured by external marks of homage to the image. 
There was here none of the composed, conscious, awful penitence of a 
Christian ; and it was evident, that the priest was anxious only to pro- 
duce a being in the near prospect of death, whose condition should 
alarm all that looked on him. The attempt was successful."— "' 
servations on Italy, p. 48. By the late John Bell. Published by hi; 

r 

Widow. Edinburgh, 1825. 

* Richard III. Act iii. Scene 5. 



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DESPAIR 



169 



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mute. The fugitive and unnerved steps of mere terror 
are then changed for the rooted and motionless figure of a 




creature appalled and stupified. Spenser characterises 



well this kind of terror : 

« He answer'd nought at all: but adding new 
Fear to his first amazement, staring wide 
With stony eyes, and heartless hollow hue, 
Astonish'd stood, as one that had espy'd 
Infernal furies with their chains unty'd. 



* 



* 



* 



* 



* 



But trembling every joint did inly quake, 
And fait' ring tongue at last these words seem'd forth to shake. 



" * 



Hon 



differs from hoth fear and terror, although 



more 



arly alHed to the last than to the first 



It is 



superior to hoth in this, that it is less imhued with per- 
sonal alarm. It is more full of sympathy with the suffer- 
ings of others, than engaged with our own. We are struck 
with horror even at the spectacle of artificial distress, but 



it is peculiarly excited 
another. 




the real danger or pam 



of 



We see a child in the hazard of being crushed 
by an enormous weight, with sensations of extreme horror. 

; the body is in the utmost 



H 



ror is full of 



'gj 




tension, not unnerved 




fear 



The flesh creeps 



d 



of cold seems to chill the blood 



the term is 



pplicable of " damp h 

Despair is a mingled emotion 



While terror is in 



some measure 



the balancing and distraction of 



mind 



occupied with an uncertainty of danger, despair is the total 
wreck of hope, the terrible assurance of ruin having closed 
around, beyond all power of escape. The expression of 
despair must vary with the nature of the distress of which 
it forms the acme. In certain circumstances it will assume 
a bewildered, distracted air, as if madness were likely to be 



* Faery Queen, Book i. cant. 9, v. 24. 



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170 



DESPAIR. 




the only close to the mental agony 



Sometimes there 



wildness in the looks and total relaxation, as if fall 



g into insensibility 



there is upon the countenance of 



the desperate man a horrid gloom ; the eye is fixed, yet he 



neither sees nor hears aught 



rounds him 



Th 



feat 



nor is sensible of what sur- 
are shrunk and livid, and 



convulsion and tremors affect the muscles of the face. 
Hoo-arth has chosen well the scene of his picture of despair. 
In a gaming-house, the wreck of all hope affects, in a thou- 

vice ; but in every 



sand 



the victims of this 



presentation of desp 



olable and total aban 



donment of those exertions to which hope inspirits and 
excites a man, forms an essential feature. We have two 
fine descriptions of despair given in detail by English poets. 
One is by Spenser : 

^ 

« The darksome cave they enter, where they find 
That cursed man, low sitting on the ground. 
Musing full sadly in his sullen mind ; 
His greazy locks, long growing and unbound, 
Disorder'd hung about his shoulders round, 
And hid his face ; through which his hollow eyne 
Look, deadly dull, and stared as astound ; 
His raw-bone cheeks, through penury and pine, 

Were shrunk into his iaws, as he did never dine." * 



The other is in the tragedy of the " Gamester," where 
Beverley, after heart-rending reiteration of hope and dis- 



,ppointment, having staked the last 



of his wife 



and family on one fatal throw, finds himself suddenly 

plunged into ruin. 

" When all was lost, he fixed his eyes upon the ground, 
and stood some time with folded arms stupid and motionless : 
then snatching his sword that hung against the wainscot, 

* Faery Queen, Book i. cant. 9, v. 35. 



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ADMIRATION 



171 





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he sat him down, and with a look of fixed attention drew 



figures on the floor 



At last he started up ; looked wild 



and tremhled; and, like 



woman seized with her 



fits, laughed out aloud, while the 



trickled down his 



face 



So he left the room 



A painter may have to represent terror, desp 
astonishment, and supernatural awe, mingled in one power 
ful expression of emotion. 



In a 



mind racked with deep 



desp 



conscious of strength and courag 



hut withered 



and suhdued 




pernatural ag 



quite removed from all meanness 



the expression is 
must be preserved 



grand and terrific 



the hero may still appear, though 



palpitating and drained of vigour. 

Milton has admirably sketched the nerveless stupefact; 



of mingled astonishment and horr 



a 



On th' other side, Adam, soon as he heard 
The fatal trespass done by Eve, amaz'd, 
Astonied stood and blank, while horror chill ^ 
Ran through his veins, and all his joints relax'd ; 
From his slack hand the garland wreath'd for Eve 
Down dropp'd, and all the faded roses shed : 
Speechless he stood and pale, till thus at length 
First to himself he inward silence broke." * 



is enjoyed to the 
The brow is expanded 

and unrufiled, the eyebrow gently raised, the eyehd lifted 

the coloured circle of the eye, while the 



In admiration, the faculty of sight 
utmost, and all else is forgotten 



so as to expose 



The 



lower part of the face is relaxed in a gentle smile, 
mouth is open, the jaw a little fallen, and by the relaxation 
of the lower lip we just perceive the edge of the lower teeth 
and the tongue. The posture of the body is most expressive 
when it seems arrested in some familiar action. 



* Paradise Lost, Book ix. ver. 888. 



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172 



JOY. 



It 



Joy is distinguishable from pleasure, 
so much in the sense of gratification, as in the delight of 
the conviction that the long-expected pleasure is within 
our reach, and the lively anticipation of the enjoyment 



which is now 



luring 



with joy 



shape 



decked out in its most favourite and al- 
A certain sensation of want is mingled 
recollection of the alternate hopes and fears 



which formerly distracted the mind, contrasted with th 
immediate assurance of gratification. 

In joy the eyebrow is raised moderately, but withou 



any 



gularity 



th 



lively, and sparklin 



forehead is smooth; the eye full 

nostril is moderately inflated 



the 



and 



smile is on the lips. In all the exhilarating emo 



the eyebrow, the eyelid 



the 



and the angle 



of the mouth are raised. In the depressing passions 



th 



reverse. For exampl 



in discontent the brow is 



g 



clouded, the nose pecuharly arched, and the angle of the 

mouth drawn down. 

Contrasted with joy is the testy, pettish, peevish coun- 
tenance bred of melancholy ; as of one who is incapable of 

satisfaction from whatever source it may be 
offered ; who cannot endure any man to look steadily upon 
him, or even speak to him, or laugh, or jest, or be familiar, 
or hem, or point, without thinking himself contemned, 

insulted, or neglected. 

The arching of the mouth and peculiar form of the 

? nose are produced by the conjoint action of 



g 



of th 



the 



gular muscle which dep 



the 



gles of the 



mouth, and the superbus, whose individual action protrudes 
the lower lip. The very peevish turn given 



to the 



eye 



brows, the acute upward inflection of their inner ex- 
tremities, and the meeting of the perpendicular and trans- 
verse furrows in the middle of the forehead, are produced 



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JEALOUSY. 



173 



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by the opposed 
the corrufjator. 



of part of the frontal muscle and of 



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Habitual suspicion and jealousy are symptoms and 



accompaniments of melancholy 
with these expressions ; 



Envy may be classed 



but it is an ungenerous repmmg 



not a momentary passion 



* 



" It consumes a man as a 

a skeleton 



moth does a garment, to be a living anatomy, a 

* "La invidia, crudelissimo dolore di animo, per il bene altrui, fa 
ritirar tutti i membri, come contraere et ofFuscar le ciglie, stnngere^ i 
denti, ritirar le labbra, torcersi con certa passione di sguardo quasi m 
atto di volere intendere et spiare i fatti altrui," &c.— Lomazzo, p. 130. 



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174 



JEALOUSY. 



be 



and pale carcass quickened with the fiend 



tahescetque videndo.' " 
Suspicion is characterised bj 

ain timorous obhquitv of the > 



attention, with a 



i^ 



' Foul, ill-favoured and grim, 
Under his eyebrows looking still askance ; ' 
And ever as Dissemblance laugh'd on him, 
He lour'd on her with dangerous eye glance, 



I 



Showing his nature in his countenance : 
His rolling eyes did never rest in place, ' 
But walk'd each where, for fear of hid mischance, 
Holding a lattice still before his face, 
Through which he still did peep as forward he did pace.'' * 

Jealousy is marked by a more frowning and dark ob- 
liquity of the eyes, as if it said, " I have an eye on you ; " 

the lowering eyebrow is combined a cruel expression 
of the lower part of the face. 



th 



Jealousy is a fitful 



d 



teadv 



passion 



its chief 



character is in the rapid vicissitudes from love to h 



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now absent, moody, and distressed 



now 



g love ; 



now fer 



and 



geful : these changes make it a 

it is only in poetry 



difficult subject for the painter j and it is only in 

that it can be truly presented in the vivid colours of 



nature. 



Even among poets, Shakspeare alone seems to 



have been equ 



the task 



Sometimes it may be per 



sonified in the face of a mean, suspicious, yet oppressed 
creature ; or again in a lowering expression, the body as if 
shrunk into itself j hke that of one brooding over his con- 
dition, and piecing out a tissue of trifling incidents to abuse 
his judgment. 

In jealousy the eyebrows are knit, and the eyelid so 
fully lifted as almost to disappear, while the eyeball 



* 



Faery Queen, Book iii. c. 12, v. 15 



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RAGE. 



175 



glares from under the bushy eyebrow. There is a general 



tension of the 



mus 



which concentre around the 



mouth, and the lips retract and shew the teeth with a 
fierce expression ; this depends partly on the turn of the 



which accompanies the retraction of the lips 



The 



mouth should express that bitter anguish which the Italian 
poet has rather too distinctly told : — 

" Trema '1 cor dentro, e treman fuor le labbia, 
Non pud la lingua disnodar parola, 
La bocca amara e par che tosco v' habbia." 



Again : 

" E per r ossa un tremor fi-eddo gli scone, 
Con cor trafitto, e con pallida faccia, 
E con voce tremante, e bocca amara." 

J- 

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There seems to be a natural succession in the passions 
of rage, revenge, and remorse : I do not mean morally, 
but in regard to our present inquiry concerning the traits 
of expression. A slight change in the lineaments of rage 



gives th 



) expression of revenge, while the cruel 
revenge is tempered by the relaxing energy of the 
part of the countenance in remorse- 



eve 



of 



Rage is that excess or vehemence of anger that can b 
longer restrained — scBva animi tempestas. Whethe 



the object be near or remote, the frame is 



ght and 



chafed 



It is a brutal passion, in which the body acts 



th an impetuosity not directed by 



If we observ 



beast, we shall better recoonise it in man 



ti 



When 



or the wolf with his pole 



the keeper strikes the tiger 
there is an instantaneous fire of expression j the eye, the 
teeth are in a moment exposed, and accompanied with an 
excitement of the frame which we cannot see unmoved. If 
we imagine the human brute strangling helpless age or in- 



fancy, it must be with such a rage as this. 



Lord Kames 



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176 



RAGE. 



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say 



>, " A stock or a stone by which I am hurt becomes an 
object of resentment, and I am violently incited to crush it 
to atoms." This is purely as the wolf bites the stick 
which is presented to him. In considering those bursts of 
passion which lead us to wreak our vengeance upon inani- 
mate objects, Dr. Reid supposes we are possessed with the 
momentary belief that the object is alive : " There must^'* 



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be some momentary notion or conception that 
the object of our resentment is capable of punishment." 



I believe the mistake here is in not havinor a confirmed 




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notion of the intimate connexion between the emotion in 
the mind and the exertion of the bodily frame. The body 
and limbs suffer an agitation as the face does, resulting 
from the passion; and if a man, half conscious of the frenzy 
which possesses him, and afraid of being betrayed into an 
act of cruelty, flings from him the weapon of destruction, 



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177 



with the jerk and impetuosity of 



whilst his humane sense controls him, it is not capable of 
arresting that instinctive agency of the body wrought upon 




the passion; just 



man, after a long 



of 



patience m some work of delicacy or nicety, is at last 
overcome, dashes the instrument from him, and relieves 
himself by a burst of impatience and some angry strides. 



In rage the features are 



teady; the eyeballs are 



seen largely; they roll and are inflamed. The front is 

alternately knit and raised in furrows by the motion of the 

yebrows, the nostrils are inflated to the utmost ; the lip 



are swelled, and being drawn by the muscles, open the 
corners of the mouth. The whole visage is sometimes 
pale, sometimes turgid, dark, and almost livid ; the words 
are delivered strongly through the fixed teeth ; " the hair 
is fixed on end like one distracted, and every joint should 
seem to curse and ban." * 

Tasso thus describes the rage of Argante : 



" Tacque ; e 1 Pagano al sofferir poco uso, 
Morde le labbra, e di furor si strugge. 
Risponder vuol, ma '1 suono esce confuso, 
Siccome strido d' animal, che rugge : 
O come apre le nubi ond' egli e chiuso, 
Impetuoso il fulmine, e sen fugge ; 
Cosi pareva a forza ogni suo detto 
Tonando uscir dall' infiammato petto," 



Cant. vi. 38 



* i 



' La furia fa gV atti stolti e fuor di se ; sicco^me di quelli die si 
avvolgono ne i moti offensivi, senza riguardo alcuno, rendendosi vehc- 
menti in tutti gl' affetti, eon bocca aperta et storta^ che par clie stridano, 
ringliino, urlino et si lamentino, stracciandosi le membra et i panni et 
facendo altre smanie." — Lomazzo, lib. ii. p. 135. 

If the painter has any imagination and power of delineation, the 
reading of the combat of Tancred and Argante must inspire him with a 
grand conception of the sublime ferocity of the human figure in action. 



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178 



REMORSEE. 






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But in representing the passion, it may be mucli 
varied : perhaps the eyes are fixed upon the ground ; the 
countenance pale, troubled, and threatening ; the lip 
trembling and the breath suppressed, or there is a deep 
and long inspiration as of inward pain. 

In the following sketcli I endeavoured to represent that 



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expression which succeeds the last horrid act of revenge : 
the storm has subsided, but the gloom is not yet dissipated. 
Some compunctious visitings of nature are in the lips, 
though the eye retains its severity. By the posture and 



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MADNESS. 



179 



fixed attention, I would indicate that the survey of the now 
lifeless body carries back the train of thought with reo-ret 
for past transactions. 

To represent the prevailing character and physiognomy 
of a madman, the body should be strong and the muscles 
rigid and distinct, the skin bound, the features sharp, the 
eye sunk ; the colour of a dark brownish yellow, tinctured 



th 



ithout one spot of 



the 'hair sooty black, stiff and bushy. Or, perhaps, he 



h 



ht be represented as of a pale sickly yellow, with 



" His burning eyen, whom bloody strakes did stain, 
Stared full wide, and threw forth sparks of fire ; 
And more for rank despight than for great pain, 
Shak'd his long locks, colour'd like copper wire, 

And bit his tawny beard to show his raging ire." * 



I do not mean here to trace the progress of the diseases 
of the mind, but merely to throw out some hints respectin<> 
the external character of the outrageous maniac. 

You see him lying in his cell regardless of every thing, 

settled gloom upon his countenance. 



with a death-like 
When I say it is a death-like gloom, I mean a heaviness of 
the features without knitting of the brows or action of the 
muscles. If you watch him in his paroxysm you may see 
the blood working to his head ; his face acquires a darker 
red J he becomes restless ; then rising from his couch he 
paces his cell and tugs his chains 



; now his inflamed eye 
is fixed upon you, and his features lighten up into wildness 
and ferocity. 

painter may naturally fall, is 
by the swelling features of 



to 



The error into which a 

represent this expression 



* Faery Queen, Book ii. cant. 4, v. 15. 







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180 



MADNESS. 



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passion and the frowning eyebrow ; but this would only 
give the idea of passion, not of madness. Or he mistakes 
melancholia for madness. The theory upon which we are 
to proceed in attempting to convey this peculiar look of 
ferocity amidst the utter wreck of the intellect, I conceive 
to be, that the expression of mental energy should be 




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avoided, and consequently the action of all those muscles 
which indicate sentiment. I believe this to be true to 



nature, because I have observed (contrary to my expecta- 

that there was not that energy, that knitting of the 
brows, that indignant brooding and thoughtfulness in the 
face of madmen which is generally imagined to charac- 



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MADNESS. 



181 



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terise their expression, and which is so often given to them 
in painting. There is a vacancy in their laugh, and a want 
of meaning in their ferociousness. 

To learn the character of the countenance, when devoid 
of human expression, and reduced to the state of hrutalitj, 
we must have recourse to the lower animals, and study 
their looks of timidity, of watchfulness, of excitement, and 
of ferocity. If these expressions are transferred to the 
human face, I should conceive that they will irresistibly 
convey the idea of madness, vacancy of mind, and mere 
animal passion. 

But these discussions are only for the study of the 
painter. The subject should be full in his mind, without 
its being for a moment imagined that such painful or 
humiliating details are suited to the canvass. If madness 
is to be represented, it is with a moral aim, to shew the 
consequences of vice and the indulgence of passion. 

There is a link of connexion between all liberal pro- 
fessions. The painter may borrow from the physician. 
He will require something more than his fancy can sup- 
ply, if he has to represent a priestess or a sybil. It must 
be the creation of a mind, learned as well as inventive. 
He may readily conceive a female form full of energy, 
her imagination at the moment exalted and pregnant, so 
that things long past are painted in colours as. if they 
stood before her, and her expression becomes bold and 
poetical. But he will have a more true and precise 
idea of what is to be depicted, if he reads the his- 
tory of that melancholia which undoubtedly, in early 
times, has given the idea of one possessed with a spirit. 
A young woman is seen constitutionally pale and lan- 
guid J and from this inanimate state, no show of affection 
or entreaty will draw her into conversation with her 



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182 



MADNESS. 




. But how changed is her condition, when instead of 

r 

the lethargy and fixed countenance, the circulation is sud- 
denly restored, the hlood mounts to her cheeks, and her 
eyes sparkle, while both in mind and body she manifests 



an unwonted 



■gy 



and her whole frame is animated 



During the continuance of the paroxysm, she delivers 
herself with a force of thought and language, and in a tone 



greatly altered, that even her parents say, " She 



our 



child, she 



is not our daughter, a spirit has entered 
into her." This is in accordance with the prevailing 
superstition of antiquity ; for how natural to suppose, 
when this girl again falls into a state of torpor, and sits 
like a marble statue, pale, exhausted, taciturn, that the 
spirit has left her. The transition is easy ; the priests 
take her under their care, watch her ravings and give 
them meaning, until she sinks again into a death-like 
stupor or indifference. 

Successive attacks of this kind impress the countenance 
indelibly. The painter has to represent features powerful, 
but consistent with the maturity and perfection of feminine 



beauty. 



He will shew his genius by portraying, not only 



a fine female form with the grandeur of the antique, but a 
face of peculiar character j embodying a state of disease 
often witnessed by the physician, with associations derived 
from history. If on the dead and uniform paleness of the 
face he bestows that deep tone of interest which belongs 
to features inactive, but not incapable of feeling : if he 



can 



shew something of the imprint of long suffering 



isolated from human sympathy, throw around her the 
appropriate mantle, and let the fine hair fall on her 
shoulders, the picture will require no golden letters to 
announce her character, as in the old paintings of the 
Sybil or the Pythoness. 



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183 



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OF DEATH, AS REPRESENTED IN THE PAINTINGS OF THE 



OLD MASTERS. 



Before proceeding, I must repeat, that the convulsions 
of the body which sometimes accompany the act of dying, 
are not the eifect of pain, but succeed to insensibihty. 
There may remain, after death, for a time, the expression 
of suffering; but this soon subsides, and the features 
become placid and composed. Therefore it is that the 
sorrowing friends are withdrawn, until Death has had 
the victory, when the features assume the tranquillity of 
sleep. 

The observation of Leonardo da Vinci, that contrast 
is essential in painting, has a fine example in the picture 



\^ of the " Martyrdom of St. Ag 



>»* 



\ 



soldiers struck down by a miracl 



Near the martyr lie 
: one of these is in 



the agony, but not yet dead ; the muscles of his neck are 
convulsed, the mouth extended, and the lips drawn back 
from the teeth, the brow is furrowed, the eyes almost closed, 
and the pupils not visible : the other soldier is tumbled 
over him ; his features are fixed in death : with both of 
these is contrasted the resignation of the martyr. 

When in Rome, I heard much of the fine statue of 
St. Cecilia ; I, therefore, went to the Convent of St. Cecilia 
Decollata. Looking for a statue. 



my surprise was great 

in a crvpt 



when it was pointed out where the figure lay, in a 
or low marble arch, under the great altar. t A gold case, 
containing the heart of the saint, hangs from the centre of 
the arch. St. Cecilia was an early convert to Christianity, 
and haying drawn her brother, and many others to the 



* In the Academia delle belle Arte, Bologna 
t In the Church of St. Cecilia in Trastevere. 



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184 



DEATH. 






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faith, she suffered martyrdom, and was found in the precise 
position in which this marble represents her. The body 
lies on its side, the limbs a little drawn up 
delicate and fine, they are not 



the hands 



locked, but crossed at the 



wrists ; the 



ms 



are stretched out. 



Th 



drapery is 



The 



beautifully modelled, and modestly covers the limbs, 
head is enveloped in linen, but the general form is seen, 
and the artist has contrived to convey by its position, though 

A gold 
circlet is around the neck to conceal the place of decol- 



offensively, that it is separated from the body 



lation 



It is the statue of a lady, perfect in form, and 
affecting from the resemblance to reality in the drapery of 
white marble, and the unexpected appearance of the statue 



It lies 



living body could 



and yet 



I mean in the 



altogether. 

correctly, as the dead, when left to expir 

gravitation of the limbs.* 

The position of the head will distinguish the dead from 



the living fig 



There is 



much difference hetween 



fainting and death ; that is to say, it is so possible to mark 
the difference, that I confess I have been disappointed by 
the failure of some of the finest painters ; for example, in 
the representation of the Madonna fainting at the foot of 
the cross, which is a very frequent subject, the colouring is 
commonly that of death.t 

* Statua di St Cecilia. — '^ Questa graziosa statua giacente, rappre- 
senta un corpo morto come se allora fosse caduto mollemente sul terreno, 
coUe estremita ben disposte e con tutta la decenza nelU assetto dei pan- 
neggiamenti, tenendo la testa rivolta all' ingiu e avilluppata in una benda, 
senza che inopportunamente si scorga V irrigidire dei corpi freddi per 
morte. Le pieghe vi sono facile, e tutta la grazia spira dalla persona, 
che si vede essere giovine e gentile, quantunque asconda la faccia; le 
forme generali, e le belle estremita che se mostrano, danno a vedere con 
quanta grazia e con quanta scelta sia stata imitata la natura in quel 
posare si dolcemente," 



t 



Morto. — " He lies, the head and shoulders resting on 




VT! 



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DEATH. 



185 



There is sometimes in death a fearful agony in the eye ; 
but we have said, that it is consolatory to know that thij 
does not indicate suffering, but increasing insensibility 
The pupils are turned upwards and inwards. 



This 



IS 



pecially observed in those who are expiring from loss of 

It is the strabismus patheticus orantium of Boer- 



blood, 
haave 



Sauvages observes on this 



ball, in dying children 
patriam respicere." * 



g up of the ej 



looking to their native home 
We cannot fail to observe h 



Vulgo aiunt hos tenellos suam 
The vulgar say, that these little ones 



accommodate their descript 



)w artfully the poets 
of death to that kind of 



which they have laboured 



The tyrant 



falls convulsed and distorted in agony ; the hero, in whose 
fate we have been made to sympathise, expires without 

)rrors of death; his fall is described with all 



the h 



the 



images of g 



sinking, where 



mor 



s 



ucceeded bv 
ruggles. 



lang 



ensibility, unaccompanied by pangs and 



In the episode of Nisus and Euryalus, Virgil gives to 



the death of Sulm 



the horror of 



death 



the 



breath is convulsively drawn, and the sides palpi 

" Hasta volans noctis diverberat umbras, 
Et venit aversi in tergum Sulmonis, ibique 
Frangitur, ac fisso transit prsecordia ligno. 
Volvitur ille vomens caliduni de pectore fluinen 
Frigidus, et longis singultibus ilia pulsat." — jEneid, 



411 



the knees of his mother, who has fainted. The posture and abandon- 



Ma 



usual, loose. She is kneeling at the feet of our Saviour, her hands con- 

^^^ r 

vulsively entwined. The dead body is beautifully drawn; the anatomy 
perfect, not exaggerated. But the mother is dead— gone to decay— not 
in faint, but in death: such is the effect of the colouring."— iVofe/rom 
JournaL Parma. 



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186 



DEATH. 



i 



But in the death of Euryalus the poet recurs to all 
images of languid and gentle decline 

" Volvitur Euryalus letho, pulchrosque per artus 
It cruor, inque humeros cervix coUapsa recurabit : 
Purpureus veluti quum flos, succisus aratro 



(( 



Languescit moriens ; lassove papavera coUo 
Demisere caput, pluvia quum forte gravantur."* 



433. 



Tasso presents us with some very fine contrasts of the 
same kind ; in the death of Argante, for example, there is 
a picture of ferocious impetuosity and savage strength : 

" Infuriossi allor Tancredi et disse ; 
Cosi abusi, fellon, la pieta mia? 
Poi la spada gli fisse et gli refisse 
Nella visiera, ove accerto la via. 
Moriva Argante, e tal moria qual visse : 
Minacciava morendo, e non languia; 
Superbi, formidabili, e feroci 
Gli ultimi moti fur, Tultime voci." 

Tasso, Ger. Lib. cant, xix, 26. 



Sometimes, indeed, death may be represented unac 



companied with the horror 




which it is commonly 



* In the death of Dardinel^ the simile of Virgil is beautifully imitated 



by Ariosto 



'^ Come purpureo fior languendo muore 
Che'l vomere al passar tagliato lassa ; 
O come carco di soverchio umore 
11 papaver no V horto, il capo abbassa ; 

r 

Cosi giu de la faccia ogni colore 
Cadendo, Dardinel di vita passa/' &c. 



Cant, xviii. 153 



As a further contrast, we might take the death of the Soldan's page, 
Ger. Lib. ix. 86. So of Nisus throwing himself upon the body of his friend, 
JErieid, ix. 444. Contrast also the death of Eunseus, lb. xi. 668; with 
that of Camilla, in the same book. 






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DEATH. 



187 



1 



I 



associated. A young creature is seen in death, as if asleep, 
with the beauty of countenance unobscured by convulsion ; 
the form remains, but the animation is gone, and the 
colours of life have given place to the pale tints of death. 



" D' un bel pallore ha il bianco volto asperso, 
Come a' gigli sarian miste viole. 



In questa forma 



Passa la bella donna, e par che dorma." 



Tasso, Ger. Lib. cant. xiL 69 



I 



iW 



Again the same poet : 



a 



E, quasi un ciel notturno, anco sereno 
Senza splendor la faccia scolorata." 



Or Petrarch ; 



1^ 



" Non come fiamma che per forza e spenta, 

Ma che per se medesma si consume, 

Se n* ando in pace V anima contenta : 
A guisa di un soave e chiaro lume, 

Cui nutrimento a poco a poco manca, 

Tenendo al fin suo usato costume; 
Pallida no, ma piu che neve bianca, 

Che senza vento in un bel colle fiocchi, 

Parea posar come persona stanca. 
Quasi un dolce dormir ne' suoi begli occhi, 

Essendo il spirto gia' da lei diviso, 

Era quel che morir chiaman gli sciocchi. 
Morte bella parea nel suo bel viso-" 

Trionfo della Morte. 

A man who has died in battle lies blanched and verv 
pale ; he has bled to death ; but one strangled, smitten, 
or crushed by some deadly contusion, has the blood settled 
in his face. The following picture is truly horrible from 
its truth and accuracy : — 



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" But, see, his face is black, and full of blood ; 
His eyeballs further out than when he lived. 



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188 



DEATH. 



Staring full ghastly like a strangled man ; 

His hair uprear'd, his nostrils stretch'd with struggling ; 

His hands abroad display'd as one that grasp'd 

And tugg'd for life, and was by strength subdued. 

Look on the sheets ; his hair, you see, is sticking ; 

His well-proportion'd beard made rough and rugged. 

Like to the summer's corn by tempest lodged. 

It cannot be but he was murder'd here ; 

The least of all these signs were probable." 

Kina Henrv VL Pa 



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The laws of inquest in England require sucli things to 
be witnessed in all their appalling circumstances, since the 
body lies where it falls, and no weapon or even disorder of 
dress is removed. 

Are such scenes to be painted ? — Certainly not. The 
impression may be conveyed to the spectator consistently 



with eood taste, and 



i 



\ 




in a manner less obtrusive, so as to 
awaken the sensations which should attend them, without 
the detail of the actual scene. It may be allowed in 
words, as Shakspeare has represented the body of the good 

Duke Humphrey ; but, in painting, the representation 

becomes too palpable to admit the whole features of horror. 





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ESSAY VIII. 



OF EXPRESSION IN REFERENCE TO THE BODY THE EMO- 

TIONS MODIFIED BY CONTROLLING EXPRESSION. 



In the preceding essays, it has been shewn, that the 
powerful passions influence the same class of nerves and 
muscles which are afi'ected in highly excited or anxious 
breathing; and it was inferred, that the apparatus of 
respiration is the instrument by which the emotions are 
manifested. 



the 



con- 



nostrils, the uncontrollable tremor of the lips, 
vulsions of the neck and chest, and the audible sobbing, 
prove that the influence of the mind extends over the 



organs of respiration; so that the difiference is 



between the action of the fram 



ght 



in a paroxysm of the 



passions and in the agony of a drowning man. 

Having traced the connexion between the excitement 
of the chest or trunk of the body and expression in the 
face. 



we 



may 



for 



a moment turn our attention to the 



consent between the breathing or expression of the 
body generally, and the position of the limbs. 



take the instances 




Let us 
which we before illustrated the 



universal consent of the animal frame. 



When the tiger 



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In fear or in grief, the movements of the I 



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190 



EXPRESSION IN REFERENCE TO THE BODY 



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or wolf is struck by the keeper, and suddenly roused to 
ferocity and activity, the character is seen not only in the 
glare of the eyes, the retraction of the lips, and the harsh 
sound of the breath as it is forcibly drawn through the 
confined throat, but every muscle is in tension, and the 
limbs in an attitude of strained exertion, prepared to 

spring. In this condition of high animal excitement, 

observe the manner in which the chest is kept distended 
and raised ; the inspiration is quick, the expiration slow ; 
and, as the keeper strikes the jaw, there is at the same 
instant a start into exertion, and the breath rapidly drawn 

The cause of this expansion of the chest is readily 
understood, when we recollect that the muscles by which 
the limbs are exerted have two extremities : one fixed, 
which is called the origin ; the other moveable, which is 
called the insertion. The muscles of the arms, in man, and 
of the forelegs, in brutes, have their origins on 



m. 



ns on the chest. 
To give power to the further extremities or insertions of 
these muscles into the limbs, the chest must be fixed : and, 
to give them their fullest power, it must be raised and ex- 
panded, as well as fixed. Hence that most terrible silence 
in human conflict, when the outcry of terror or pain is stifled 

r 

in exertion ; for, during the struggle with the arms, the 
chest must be expanded or in the act of rising, and, 
therefore, the voice, which consists in the expulsion of the 
breath by the falling or compression of the chest, is sup- 
pressed, and the muscles which perform the ofiice of raising 
and distending the chest, act in aid of the muscles of the 
arms. The moment of alarm is also that of flight or defence ; 
the sudden and startled exertion of the hands and arms is 

attended with a quick inspiration and spasm of the mouth 
and throat, and the first sound of fear is in drawing, not in 
expelling the breath ; for at that instant to depress and 



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EXPRESSION IN REFERENCE TO THE BODY. 



91 



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contract the chest would be to relax the muscles of the 
arms and enfeeble their exertion. Or, to put the example 
in another form, suppose two men wrestling in the dark, 
would nol 
efforts ? 



their 



convey to 



the violence of th 



The short exclamation choked 



the act of 



exertion, the feeble and stifled sounds of their breathing 
would let us know that they turned, and twisted, and wen 



in mortal strife 



To 



an 




observer, two dogs fighting 
might illustrate the subject. Such combinations of the 
muscular actions are not left to the direction of our will. 



but are provided for in the 



g 



constitution of the 



animal body : they are instinctive motions. Yet, the 
principles of criticism in these matters have been laid 
down with surprising confidence by persons who had no 
knowledge of anatomy, and whose curiosity had never 

into the phenomena of their own 



been raised 



inquire 



emotions, or of those they must have witnessed in others. 

transcribe here a passage from an elegant and 
3 critic, on which I shall freely make some 



I shall tr 

ingenious 

remarks. 

" In like manner it is not with the agonies of a man, 
writhing in the pangs of death, that we sympathise, on 
beholding the celebrated group of Laocoon and his sons j 
for such sympathies can only be painful and disgusting: 
but it is with the energy and fortitude of mind which 
those agonies call into action and display. For though 
every feature and every muscle is convulsed, and every 
nerve contracted, yet the breast is expanded and the throat 
compressed, to shew that he sufifers in silence. I therefore 
still maintain, in spite of the blind and indiscriminate 
admiration, which pedantry always shews for every thing 
which bears the stamp of high authority, that Virgil has 



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192 



EXPRESSION IN REFERENCE TO THE BODY. 



debased the character, and robbed it of all its sublimity and 
grandeur of expression by making Laocoon roar like a hull; 
and I think that I may safely affirm, that if any writer of 
tragedy were to make any one personage of his drama to 
roar out in the same manner, on being mortally wounded, 
the whole audience would burst into laughter, how pa- 
thetic soever the incidents might be that accompanied it. 
Homer has been so sensible of this, that of the vast number 
and variety of deaths, which he has described, he has 
never made a single Greek cry out on receiving a mortal 

wound."* 

The criticism here is just, so far as the artist is praised 
and the poet blamed ; but the critic has mistaken the 
ground of the praise and of the blame. It appears 
strange that any one should philosophise on such points, 
and yet be ignorant of the most common things in the 
structure of his own frame, and of the facts most essential 
to just criticism in works of art. What ideas can be 
conveyed, for example, by " the convulsion of a feature," 
and the *' contraction of a nerve ? 

The writer has had the impression, which all who look 
on the statue must have, that Laocoon suffers in silence, 
that there is no outcry. But the aim of the artist is 



» 



■gy 



and 



mistaken. He did not mean to express " ene 
fortitude of mind," or, by "expanding the breast and com- 
pressing the throat, to shew that he suffers in silence." 
His design was to represent corporeal exertion, the attitude 



The throat is 



and struggles of the body and of the arms. 

inflated, the chest straining, to give power to the muscles 

of the arms, while the slightly parted lips shew that no 



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* Mr. Payne Knight on Taste, p. 333 



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EXPRESSION IN REFERENCE TO THE BODY. 



193 







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I 



most, a low and hollow 



H 



breath escapes ; or, at 

could not roar like a bull — he had not the power to push 

his breath out in the very moment of the great exertion of 



his arms to untwist the 
him. 



pent which is coiled around 



It is a mistake to suppose that the suppressed 



and the consent of the features with the 



of the 



frame, proceed from an effort of the mind to sustain his 
pain in dignified silence ; for this condition of the arms, 
chest, and face, are necessary parts of one action. 

The instant that the chest is depressed to vociferate or 
bellow, the muscles arising from the ribs and inserted into 



the arm-bones 



be relaxed, and the 



of 



arms becomes feeble. A 




speaking or exclaimin 



through all the respiratory muscles 



to 



those 



of the mouth and throat combine with those which move 



the chest 



Had the sculpt 



presented Laocoon as if 



the sound flowed from his open mouth, there would have 
been a strange inconsistency with the elevated condition of 
his breast. Neither is it correct to suppose it possible that 
a man struck down with a mortal wound, and rolling in 
the dust, like Homer's ill-fated heroes, can roar out like a 



bull. A mortal wound has 



immediate influen 



th 



vital parts and respiratory organs, and the attempt 



cry aloud would end in a feeble wail or g 



Thei 



* " Ille simul nianibus tendit divellere nodos, 
Perfusus sanie vittas atroque veneno : 
Clamores simul horrendos ad sidera tollit : 
Qualis inugitus, fugit quum saucius arara 
Taurus, et incertam excussit cervice securim." 

^neid, Lib. ii. 1. 220, 

"Virgilio ci rappresente Laocoonte in smanie e in muggite, come 
un toro ferito a morte ; ma Agesendro seppe exprimere tutto il dolore, 
senza cedere la heWezzer — Azara, p. 53. This is just the criticism of 



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194 



EXPRESSION IN REFERENCE TO THE BODY. 



danger that the tragedian who follows nature should 



offend the taste of an audience hy actual outcry 



But these 



critics think it necessary to refine and go heyond nature, 
whereas the rule is to learn her ways, and to be cautious of 

■ 

adding the slightest trait of expression, or 



what 



con 



ceive 



he such, to the simple, and because simple, the 



grand character of natural 



stead of making the 




appeal more strongly to the senses, it is sure to weaken it. 
In Bernini's statue of David with his sling, there is an 
attempt at expression which offends good taste, because it 
is not true to nature. The artist has meant by the biting 
of the lip to convey the idea of resolution and energy. But 
that is an action intended to restrain expression, to sup- 
press an angry emotion which is rising in the breast ; 
if it be permitted, even in caricature, it must be as a sig: 
of some trifling inconvenience, never of heroism. It is nc 

>rous tone which should pervade th 



and 



suitable to the 



g 



pos 



and the 



eyes g 



it a direction and 




whole frame. That vigour cannot be otherwise represented, 
than by the excitement of the breast, lips, and nostrils, 

while the 

meaning. This is all destroyed by an expression so weak 

and inconsistent as biting the lip ; it is vulgar, not because 

^ 

it is common, but because it is a trick, and not true to 

nature. 

The " Dying Gladiator" is one of those masterpieces of 
antiquity which exhibits a knowledge of anatomy and of 
man's nature. He is not resting ; he is not falling ; but 
in the position of one wounded in the chest and seeking 
relief in that anxious and oppressed breathing which at- 
tends a mortal wound with loss of blood. He seeks 
support to his arms, not to rest them or to sustain the 
body, but to fix them, that their action may be transferred 
to the chest, and thus assist the labouring respiration. 



f 



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EXPRESSION IN REFERENCE TO THE BODY. 



95 



I 



Th 



of his sufferings leads to this attitude 



In 



man expiring from loss of blood, as the vital stream flows 
the heart and lungs have the same painful feeling of want 



w 



hich 



is 



produced 




obstruction to the breathing 



As 



the blood is draining from him, he pants, and looks wild, 
and the chest heaves convulsively. And so the ancient 
artist has placed this statue in the posture of one who 



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uffers th 



5 extremity of difficult respiration. The fixed 
condition of the shoulders, as he sustains his sinking body, 
shews that the powerful muscles, common to the ribs and 



arms, have th 



action concentrated to the 



gglmg 



chest. In the same way does a man afflicted with asthm 

)ws upon a table, stooping for 



his hands 



his elb 



wards, th 



the shoulders may become fixed points 



muscles of the arm and shoulder then 



; the 
as muscles of 



ipiration, and aid in the motion of the chest, during the 



heav 




and anxiety which belong to the disease 



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196 



EXPRESSION IN REFERENCE TO THE BODY. 



Wh 



en a man 



mortally 



ounded, and still mor 



if 



he be bleeding to death as the gladiator, he presents the 
appearance of suffocation ; for the want is felt in the 



breast, and relief 



If he hav 



at th 



sought in the heaving of the chei 
moment the sympathy and aid of 



friend, he will cling to him, half raising himself and 



and 



w 



hile 



twisting his chest with the utmost exertion ; 
every muscle of the trunk stands out abrupt and pro- 
minent, those of the neck and throat, and nostrils and 
mouth, will partake the excitement. In this condition he 
will remain fixed, and then fall exhausted with the ex- 

r 

ertion ; it is in the moment of the chest sinking, that the 



of suffering may be heard 



If he have fallen on th 



turf, it is not from pain, but from that indescribable 

struggling, that the grass 



Tony 



of 



and instinctive 



around the lifeless body is lodged and 



S 



too 



th the actor. In order to convey to the 
spectator the idea of human nature agitated by passion or 
suffering, he must study how the parts of the frame are 
united and co-operate in expression. Of the success of 
such an effort we had lately an example on our own stage. 
It was in witnessing the struggles of a man who had 
received the mortal thrust, and the representation was 
horribly correct. The actor having rubbed the paint from 
his face, presented a hollow cheek, with the countenance 
haggard and pale ; but it was the heaving of the shoulders 
attending his deep and painful inspiration, — his difficult 
utterance, — the gurgling of his voice, as if the blood 

a most 
Even 



altogether 



impeded the breath, which made 

powerfully drawn representation of violent death. 

those who knew nothing of the cause of their being moved 

felt that it was correct. 

But let us take a less appalling instance of the consent 




\\ 




EXPRESSION IN REFERENCE TO THE BODY 



197 



It 



of the frame with the functions of the heart and lungs. 

is this connexion between the muscles of the chest and 



arms which makes a little man oppressed 




obesity 



speak with abrupt gesticulation. His emphatic words are 

forced out in barking tones, accompanied by jerks and 

twists of the arms, the reverse of grace ; while a tall and 

ungainly person exhibits an awkwardness of an opposite 

kind, in a disjointed swing of his arms during the efforts 
of his elocution. 




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Are we not now authorised 



passion 



wh 



say, that expression 



reasoning faculties of man 



it language is to thought : that as without 
words to represent ideas, the 

could not be fully exercised, so there could be no vio- 
lence or excess of passion merely in the mind, and in- 



dependent of the action of the body? 



As 



thought 



are embodied and the 



g powers developed 




the instrument of speech, the passions or emoti 



also 



a 



ponding org 



to g 



character and force 



The bod 



)ns have 
them a determined 
frame, though se- 
condary and inferior, comes in aid of the mind ; and the 
faculties owe their developement as much to the operation 
of the instruments of expression as to the impressions of 
the outward senses. 

expression appears to precede 



It 



IS 



also 






curious th 



— ■ ■ ' 



the intellectual 



iperations. The smile that dimpl 



an 



infant's cheek, which in after years 
pleasurable and complex emotions, cai 



ponds 



th 



have its orig 



from such ideas 



Th 



expression is not first 



the infant is awake, but oftener while 



first beam of pi 



leep 



en when 
and this 



mo 



eye is met with the 



cold observation of the wise old women, that it is caused 

some internal convulsion. They conclude that the 




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198 



EXPRESSION IN REFERENCE TO THE BODY. 



child's intellects are not yet matured to correspond with 
the expression, and attribute the effect to some ii 



ternal 



irritation. The expression is in fact the spontaneous 
operation and classification of the muscles, which await 
the developement of the faculties to accompany them 
closely when they do arise, and in some measure to control 



much to affirm, that 



them during life. It may be too 

without the co-operation of these organs of the frame the 



mind would remain 



blank 



but 



ely the mind must 

owe something to its connexion with an operation of 

the features which precedes its own conscious activity, 

and which is unerring in its exercise from the very 

commencement. 

The expression of pain in an infant is extraordinary in 

force and caricature ; the expression of laughter is pure in 
the highest possible degree, as indicating unalloyed plea- 
sure, and it will relax by sympathy even the stubborn fea- 

Here the rudiments of expression 
ought to be studied, for in after life they cease to have 
the pure and simple source from which they spring in in- 
fancy; the feelings are composed and restrained, the mind 
is in a state of more compound feeling, and the genuine cha- 
racteristics of passion are to be seen only in unpremeditated 

bursts of great vehemence. 

How much influence the instrument of expression has 
in first rousing the mind into that state of activity which 
we call passion or emotion, we may learn from the 

" I have 



tures of a stranger. 



power of the body to control these affections, 
often observed," says Burke, " that on mimicking the 
looks and gestures of angry, or placid, or frightened, or 
daring men, I have involuntarily found my mind turned to 
that passion whose appearance I endeavoured to imitate." 
Whether it be possible to mould the body, and thus to 




3 




. 




: ■* 



EXPRESSION IN REFERENCE TO THE BODY. 



199 



3 



teal into another 



thoughts, I know not: but it is of 



more consequence to recollect that we may in this way 
ascertain our own. As the actions and expressions of the 
body betray the emotions of the heart, we may be startled 
and forewarned, as it were, by the reflection of ourselves, 
and at the same time learn to control 
restraining their expression. 



our 



passions 




As 



we hold our breath and throw 



into 



an 



opposite action to restrain the ludicrous idea which would 
cause us to break out in rude laughter, so may we moderate 
other rising impulses, by checking the expression of them ; 
and by composing the body, we put a rein upon our very 
thoughts. The powers of language are so great, and 
minister in so superior a manner to reason and the higher 
faculties of the mind, that the language of expression, 
which attends the developement of these powers. 



IS m a 



manner superseded; good 
it in habitual subordination 



te and good manners retain 
We esteem and honour that 



man most who subdues the passions which directly refer 
to himself, and cultivates those which have their source in 
benevolence — who resists his own gratification, and enters 



™ly by sympathy into what others feel 



who desp 



direct pleasures, and cultivates those enjoyments in which 
he participates with others. '« 



is beautiful 



art: 



the 



" Whatever is morally just 
expression of pain, proceeding 
from the mere suffering of the body, is repulsive in repre- 
sentation, while the heroic pangs which the artist may 
raise to the highest degree of expression, in compassion 
or sympathy with another's sufferings, cannot be too 

powerfully portrayed, if they be consistent with nature 
and truth. 

In studying expression the artist should attempt all, 
even that which is disagreeable, so that in higher com- 



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200 



EXPRESSION IN REFERENCE TO THE BODY. 



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position he may avoid deformity and every debasing 
expression, and this not by chance, hut by knowing them 
and avoiding them ; by this means — and it was followed 
the ancients — his power of representation will be im- 
proved, and what is dignified and beautiful in form and 
expression more certainly attained. 




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ESSAY 



IX. 



OF THE STUDY OF ANATOMY AS NECESSARY TO DESIGN. 



OF 



THE IDEAL, IN THE REPRESENTATION OF THE BODY. 

* 

OF THE GENIUS AND STUDIES OF MICHAEL ANGELO 
BUONAROTTI. 



Were I to attempt a definition of the ideal in the 
representation of the body, or of the head and face, I should 
adopt, as the most harmless to the sculptor or painter, that 



The ideal 



which has been given by Cicognara. *' 

says he, "is nothing more than the imitation of an object 



ht to be in perfect 



divested of the 



He takes 



has deg 



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£C 



that 



we 



or distortions which secondary causes produce 
for granted that man, like every thing else, 
ated from the original design of nature, a 
ought to endeavour to present his form as when he rose a 
newly-created being, before misery and famine, cold or 
excess of heat, had influence upon his frame. To accom- 
plish this, the artist has to contemplate those acknowledged 
beauties in the Venus, in the youthful Apollo, in the 
vigorous Athletse, and in the Hercules. From such sources 
he must select the perfect forms, which are now to be found 
no longer in nature, and recompose them into a beautiful 
zvhole." 



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202 



OF DESIGN. 



This 



IS 



gible, and 



deg 



practicable. It divests the subject of that mystery which 
those throw over it who would persuade the artist that to 
represent perfection of form, he must avoid what is human, 
and retain what is divine. 

But, when this is attained, and the drawingf of the 



fig 



IS 



objectionable, a higher object still is to be 



found, in a deeper meditation on human nature. Senti- 
ment and expression may be impressed on the figure, as on 
the face; but they must be made appropriate to their 
situation. Some of the most beautiful remains of Grecian 



art, when deposited in churches, appear 
while, in the same situation, the statues 



out of place 
of Michael An 



gelo seem perfectly congenial. The noble forms and 
grave 



attitudes of his statues, in the sombre light of 



the aisles, lead memory back to all th{ 
times gone by. Those magnificent desi 



is great m 
3 have the 



effect of a passage in the historian or the poet, when the 



reader closes the book to indulg 
ideas which have been awakened. 



m 



! in the associations of 

But, were they placed 
gallery or saloon, they might with more propriety 
be subjected to the flippant criticisms which they have 
met with. 

Individuals, as well as nations, have different manners 
of representing the same objects, — the human figure, for 
example. The Egyptians, the Greeks, the people of Hin- 
dostan, or of Europe, will raise a monument with more 
marked peculiarities than are seen even in the designs of 
Michael Angelo, Correggio, and Raphael ; care, there- 
fore, should be taken to give full scope to different dis- 
positions, capacities, or tastes. I cannot help saying, that 
the method of study in the academies tends to cramp the 
efforts of genius. In the Academy of Bologna I found the 



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STUDIES OF THE ANCIENT ARTISTS. 



203 



stud 



copying from tlie 



youths do 



home 



Angelo himself. 



\ and if some means be not afforded to encourage 
indiyidual genius, tameness and mediocrity must be the 
result. I think the remedy is to be found in the study of 
anatomy. 

There has been much unnecessary ingenuity exercised 
on the question, whether the ancients studied anatomy. 
Undoubtedly they did not study it in our fashion \ yet that 
they possessed all the knowledge of it which art requires, 
cannot be denied. The finer specimens of ancient statuary 
eyince a more perfect acquaintance with anatomy, as far as 
it is shewn in the proportions, general forms, and action of 
the body, than the productions of those modern sculptors 
and painters who haye pursued this art with the greatest 
zeal and success, — eyen than Michael 
The only question therefore is, how they acquired this 
knowledge. 

Although in Greece the dead were burned, and no 
artists dissected the human body, yet they certainly had 
the means of learning the nature of a bone, muscle, and 
tendon. No more was necessary ; the rest was before 
them. Fine as their athletse were in youth, they were 
subject to the decay of age. Now, in comparing the frame 
of a man advanced in years, especially if in earlier life he 
had been remarkable for " thews and sinews," with the 
young and active, every thing essential to the painter and 

the sculptor may be observed. If the Greeks had before 
them the most admired forms of youth and manhood, they 
had also the "time-honoured wrestler," who in old age ex- 
hibited, almost as in the dead anatomy, every muscle, origin 
and insertion, every tendon, and every vein. ■ I know how 
far this manner of demonstrating the anatomy may be 
carried. Having in my lectures on surgery taken the 

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OF THE GENIUS AND STUDIES OF 



g man, the academy model 



the practice 



in fractures and dislocations, I was accustomed to in- 
troduce a powerful muscular fellow to my class, with this 
appeal : — " In the exercise of your profession you have to 
judge of the displacement of the lirahs, and the joints 
disfigured by dislocation, fractures, or tumour ; hut not 
one of you, perhaps, has ever looked on the natural body 
itself." In giving these lessons, I became aware how 
much of the structure of the muscles and articulations 
might be demonstrated without actual dissection. 

In the heat of the southern countries of Europe, the 
workmen, the Galeotti, or men condemned to the public 
works, the young people and children, are all accustomed 
to a state of nudity ; the naked form becomes, therefore, 

familiar to the eye. 

In the same day I made careful examinations of the 
anatomical studies of Michael Angelo, in the collection of 
the Grand Duke of Florence, and I compared them with 
his noble works in the tombs of the Medici. I ob- 
served that he had avoided the error of artists of less 
genius, who, in shewing their learning, deviate from 
living nature. I recognised the utmost accuracy of ana- 



tomy 



in the great artist's studies ; in 



his pen-and-ink 



sketches of the knee, for example, every point of bone, 

muscle, tendon, and ligament was marked, and perhaps a 
little exaggerated. But on surveying the limbs of those 
fine statues, this peculiarity was not visible ; there were 
none of the details of the anatomy, but only the effects of 



muscular action, as seen in life, not the muscles. 



As, 



perhaps, this is the most important lesson which can be 
given to the artist, I shall venture to transcribe the notes 
I made at the time. 

" The statue of Lorenzo di Medici, Duca d'Urbino, bv 



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MICHAEL ANGELO BUONAROTTI. 



205 



Michael Angelo, is in the Capella di Principi, of the church 

of St. Lorenzo. Under the statue are two figures, one of 
Twilight, the other of Dayhreak. I observed in the male 
figure, which is of very grand proportions, the clavicle or 
collar-bone, the head of the humerus, the deltoid and 



yet 



igularly 
seen in 



pectoral muscles developed beyond nature, 

true in the anatomy. Such a shoulder was 

man, yet so finely is it imagined, that no one part is 

unduly exaggerated j but all is magnified with so perfect a 

knowledge, that it is just as a whole, the bone and the 



muscle corresponding in their proportions. In the same 
chapel are the statues of Giuliano di Medici, Duke of 
Nemours, and brother of Leo X. with the recumbent 
figures of Day and Night. It is in these finely conceived 



gures that we have the proof of Michael Angelo's g 



They may not have the perfect purity and truth th 
see in the antique ; 
belongs to him alone, 



but there is a magnificence, which 
Here we see the effect of muscular 



action, without affected display of anatomical knowledge. 
The back is marvellously fine. The position of the 
scapula, for example, makes its lower angle throw up the 
edge of the latissimus dorsi, for the scapula is forced back 



upon the spine 



consequence of the position of the 



Michael Angelo must have carefully studied the anatomy 
reference to the changes produced in the living body by 

its members : the shifting of the scapula. 



th 



action of 



with the consequen 



+ 



g of the mass of muscles, some 



action, some merely pushed into masses, are very finely 
shewn." * 

Having just come from observing his sketches of the 



* I might make similar remarks on the statue by John of Bologna, 
Januarius sitting, shivering under a shower, in a fountain in the Villa 
Petraia, near Florence. 



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206 



OF THE GENIUS AND STUDIES OF 



anatomy of the knee-joint, I was curious in my observation 
of the manner in which he made his knowledge available 
in the joints of these fine statues ; and they gave rise to 
the following remarks. 

*' If an artist, with a knowledge of the structure, should 
look upon the knee in a bent position, he will recognise 
the different bones and ligaments. But if he look upon it 
in an extended position of the limb, or during exertion, he 

The contour, the 



will 



not distinguish the same 



parts. 



swelling of the integument, and the fulness around the 
joint, are not produced by the forms of the bones, but by 
the rising up of the parts displaced by the new position of 
the bones. The fatty cushions which are within and ex- 
ternal to the knee-joint, and which serve the purpose of 
friction-wheels in the play of the bones upon each other, 
no longer occupy the same relative places ; they are pro- 
truded from the depth of the cavity to the surface. How 
well Michael Angelo knew this these statues of Day and 

Night evince. 

*' In these statues, great feeling of art and genius of 
the highest order have been exhibited ; anatomical science, 
ideal beauty, or rather grandeur, combined. It is often 
said that Michael Angelo studied the Belvidere Torso, 
and that he kept it continually in his eye. That fine 
specimen of ancient art may have been the authority for 
his grand developement of the human muscles ; but it did 
not convey to him the effect which he produced by the 
throwing out of those magnificent and giant limbs. Here 
we see the vigour of this sculptor's stroke and the firmness 
of his touch, as well as his sublime conception of the 
human figure. We can imagine that he wrought by no 
measure or mechanical contrivance ; that he hewed out 
the marble as another would cast together his mass of 




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MICHAEL ANGELO BUONAROTTI. 



207 



clav in 



first sketch 



Many of his finest works are 



left unfinished ; it appears that he found the block of 
marble in some instances too small, and left the design 



incompi 



* 



For my own part I feel that the finish and 

consistent with the 



smoothness of the marble is hardly consistent 
vigour of Michael Angelo's conceptions j and I should 
regret to think that such a genius should have wasted an 
hour in giving softness or polish to the surface. 



(C 



Wh 



is there, modern or ancient, that would thus 



this great 



voluntarily encounter all the difficulties of the art and 
throw the human body into this position, or who could 
throw the shoulder into this violent distortion, and yet 
preserve the relations of the parts, of bone and muscle, 
with such scientific exactness? We have in 
master a proof of the manner in which genius submits to 
labour, in order to attain perfection. He must have 
undergone the severe toil of the anatomist, to acquire such 
a power of design, which it was hardly to be supposed could 
be sufficiently appreciated then or now. 

Without denying the beaut v or correctness of the 



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^ There is one unfinished production of Michael Angelo which 
discloses his manner of working ; a statue of St, Matthew, begun on a 
block of marble, so small, that it appears to have restrained him. The 
figure is distorted, and he seems to have given up the work before it 
was more than blocked out of the marble. A contemporary gives an 
interesting account of the energy which possessed him while at work. 
" I have seen Michael Angelo, when above sixty, and not very robust, 
make more fragments of the marble fly off* in a quarter of an hour than 
three vigorous young sculptors would have done in an hour ; and he 
worked with so much impetuosity, and put such strength into his blows, 
that I feared he would have broken the whole in pieces, for portions, the 
size of three or four fingers, were struck off* so near to the contour or 
outline, that, if he erred by a hair's-breadth, he would have spoiled all 
and lost his labour, since the defect could not have been remedied as in 
working in clay." — Blaise de Vigenere. 



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OF THE GENIUS AND STUDIES OF 



y 



true Grecian productions of the chisel, they ought not to 
be contrasted with the works of Michael Angelo to his 
disadvantage. He had a noble conception of the august 

form of man : to my thinking, superior to any thing ex- 
hibited in ancient sculpture. Visconti * imputes infe- 
riority to Buonarotti ; and to confirm his views, compares 
the antique statues restored by him, with the limbs and 
heads which he added. But I can conceive nothing less 
suited to the genius of the artist than this task of mo- 
delling and adjusting a limb in a different position from 
that which is entire, and yet so as to preserve the pro- 
portions and character of the whole. The manner of his 
working and the urgency of his genius for an unrestrained 
field of exertion, unfitted him for that kind of labour, 
while it is a matter of necessity, that a copy shall be 
inferior to an original. 

** What the figures of Night and Morning had to do 

before the degenerate son of the Medici is another matter. 
They seem to have been placed there as mere ornaments, 
and in the luxury of talent, to give the form and posture 
of the human figure, 'per ornamento e per solo spoggio di 
giacitura e de^ formed 

" When in Rome I was impatient until I stood before 



the statue of Moses 



much had been said of 



extra- 



ordinary merit, t and also so much of its defects, t It is a 
noble figure, with all the energy of Buonarotti displayed in 
it. It is not the anatomy alone which constitutes its perfec- 
tion ; but there is the same mind displayed in the attitude. 




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\ " Questo e Mose quando scenda del monte 



E gran parte del Nume avea nil volto. 



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MICHAEL ANGELO BUONAROTTI. 



209 



the habiliment, the beard, and all the accompaniments, as 

r 

in the vigour of the naked shoulders and arms. It is the 
realisation of his high conception of the human figure. 

" My brother, in his * Observations on Italy,' finds 
fault with the arm, and, perhaps, looking in one direction, 
it may be imperfect ; but this was one of many figures 
which were intended by the artist to ornament the great 
monument to Julius II. ; and, consequently, designed to be 
seen only in a certain aspect.* Besides, we ought rather 
to teach ourselves to admire what is esteemed excellent 
than to seek for defects. As to other criticisms on this 
statue, it should be remembered that it is an ideal figure 
as much as the Apollo or the Jupiter. From whatever 
notion derived, Moses is represented with horns rising 
from his temples ; an adjunct which, placed either on the 
face of the antique or of common nature, would have been 
truly ridiculous." 

To resume the subject of anatomy, we may take the 
opinion of Vasari : f in addition to the study of the 
antique he recommends the frequent examination of the 
naked figure, of the action of the muscles of the back and 
limbs, and the form and play of the joints j and takes 
occasion to advise the study of the dissected body, in order 
to see the true position of the muscles, their classification 



and insertions ; so that 




perfect knowledge of the 



"-h 



structure the artist may with more security represent the 
figure in every varying attitude, bestowing, through a 
knowledge of their action, the proper swelling and contour 
of the muscles, according to their position and the force 
exerted ; and from this, he truly observes, comes the 



* See the account of this great work in the " Storia della Scultura/* 
by Cicognara. 

f In his Preface, " Da che habbia origine il buon disegno." 



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210 



ON THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE MUSCLES. 



power of invention, giving natural variety to the figures, as 
in the representation of a battle or great historical work. 

And here I cannot help expressing a belief that, as it 
is necessary that the young artist should have an accurate 
eye to form, the drawing of the bones should be sub- 
stituted for what is called the " round," that is. the fine 




indefinite and undulating surface of the antique, 
drawing the curious shapes of the thigh-bone or tibia, he 
will sooner acquire a notion of external form than if set to 

a foot and ankle, or knee, without an idea of what 



draw 
prodi 



the convexities which he 



IS 



from the bones and from the skelet 



g 



Drawing 



will 



g 



him 



a 



desire for learning more, and affbrd an introduction to the 
classification and insertions of the muscles, with perfect 
ease in representing, either from nature or the antique, the 
slightly defined forms of the joints. 

But, as we have seen in the works of the masters, let 
him avoid exhibiting the anatomy or displaying his know- 
ledge, else he will fall into the caricature of Fuseli, instead 



of attaining the vigour of B 



Anatomy 



be displayed, but its true use is to beget an accurate 
observation of nature in those slighter characteristics which 
escape a less learned eye. 



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ESSAY 



X. 



USES OF ANATOMY TO THE PAINTER 



FAULTS INTO WHICH 



ARTISTS MAY BE BETRAYED IN STUDYING THE ANTIQUE 

OR IN DRAWING FROM THE ACADEMY FIGURE ANATOMY 

AS CONDUCTING TO TRUTH OF EXPRESSION AND OF 
CHARACTER. 



It 



mark the 



is interesting in a very high degree to 
traits of emotion, and to compare them with the anatomical 
structure ; and amidst the severer studies of anatomy, as 
connected with health and disease, I have been able, 
without departing too far from professional pursuits and 
duties, to pass many pleasant hours in observing and 
investigating the anatomy of expression. In the prosecu- 
tion of anatomy we never know to what results it may lead. 
The observations I have made on the nervous system 
might be traced to investigations on the present subject. I 
saw that the whole frame is affected sympathetically with 



expression in the countenance : and 



m 



trying 



led to ascertain, that 

nerves, the 



explain that sympathy, that I was 

there exists in the body a distinct system of 

office of which is to influence the muscles in Respiration 

in Speech, and in Expression. 

The study of the animal frame, as it is affected 

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212 



USES OF ANATOMY TO THE PAINTER. 



emotion and passion, is nearly related to pliilosopliy, and 
is a subject of great difficulty and delicacy. The question 
is often discussed, of what use is anatomy to the painter ? 
The study of anatomy has been objected to by some persons 
of pure taste, from the belief that it leads to the representa- 
tion of the lineaments of death more than of life, or to 
monstrous exaggerations of the forms. So far this is the 
case, when an artist without natural talent, or right feeling, 
will rather exhibit the bones or muscles than the fine 
forms of health and vigour. But we return to the question, 
what are the advantages to be gained from this study by 



the 



As we may define anatomy to be th 



tion of that structure by which the mind expresses emo- 
tion, and through which the emotions are controlled and 
modified, it introduces us to the knowledge of the relation 
and mutual influences which exist 



to 



exist between the mind and 
the body. To the painter, therefore, the study is neces- 
sarily one of great importance ; it does not teach him to 

use his pencil, but it teaches him to observe nature, to see 
forms in their minute varieties, which but for the principles 
here elucidated would pass unnoticed, — to catch expressions 
so evanescent that they must escape him, did he not know 
their sources. It is this reducing of things to their prin- 
ciples which elevates his art into a connexion with philo- 
sophy, and which gives it the character of a liberal art. 

By anatomy in its relation to the arts of design, I under- 
stand not merely the study of the individual and dissected 
muscles of the face, or body, or limbs, — but the observa- 
tion of all the characteristic varieties which distinguish the 
frame of the body or countenance. A knowledge of the 
peculiarities of infancy, youth, or age ; of sickness or 
robust health ; or of the contrasts between manly and 
muscular strength and feminine delicacy ; or of the ap- 



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USES OF ANATOMY TO THE PAINTER. 



213 



pearances which pain or death present, belongs to its 
province as much as the study of the 



mu 



of the face 



when affected in emotion 



Viewed in this comprehen 



light, anatomy forms a science, not only of great 



but one which will be 




the artist a true spirit 



of observation, teach him to distinguish what is essential 
to just expression, and direct his attention to appearances 
on which the effect and force, as well as the delicacy of his 
delineations, will be found to depend. 



Among the errors 



which a young artist is most 



likely to be seduced, there are two against which the study 
of anatomy seems well calculated to guard him. The one 
is a blind and indiscriminate imitation of the antique j the 
other, an idea that he will find in the academy figure a 
sure guide for delineating the natural and true anatomy of 
the living body. He who makes imitation of the antique 
the beginning and end of his studies, instead of adopting it 
as a corrective of his taste, will be apt to fall into a tame 
and lifeless style ; and, in pursuing ideal beauty, will be in 
danger of renouncing truth of expression and of character. 
Nay, I suspect that many painters have copied casts of the 
antique for years, without perfectly understanding what 
they should imitate, or even perceiving the necessity of 
previously studying the design of the artist, or the 'pecu- 
liarities of his mode of com 

who is learned in the science and anatomy of painting can 
never fall. But he who has not compared the natural with the 
antique head, nor understood the characteristic differences, 
nor studied the principle on which the ancient artists com- 
posed, may be betrayed into the grossest misconceptions, 
by too implicitly following their models. In painting a 
hero, for example, on whom the Greek 



Into this fault 



artist would have 
bestowed a character of strength and grandeur, by bold 



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214 



USES OF ANATOMY TO THE PAINTER. 



anatomy and expression, he may be following the ideal 
form of a deity in which the sculptor had studiously 
divested his model of all that might seem to pertain to 
humanity. As I have before remarked, the ancient sculptor, 
in accordance with the mythology of his country and the 
spirit of her poetry, studied to shew the attributes of 
divinity in the repose of the figure, without any indication 

or veins, and by a face stamped with the mild 



of muscles or veins, 
serenity of a being superior to human passion ; thus 
shadowing out a state of existence, in which the will 
possessed freedom and activity, without the accompanying 
exertion of the bodily frame. But those ideal forms are 
scarcely ever to be transferred to the representation of the 



hum 



body 



and a modern artist who follows indis 



criminately such models, misapplies the noblest lessons of 



his 



Independently of the ideal form of divinity, there an 

some peculiarities in the nature of the ancient sculp 

! which ought to be well considered by the student ii 




modern painting. 

In the infancy of their 



culptors did 



to give to their figures either animation or character j they 
did not even open their eyelids, or raise the arm from the 
side. A stillness and simplicity of composition were thus 
the characteristics of ancient sculpture ; and we are told 
that Pericles, even in the best period of Grecian art, was 
anxious that his pupils should preserve this feature of the 
early ages in all their works, as essential to grandeur. The 
pleasure of being carried back to old times seems to be a 
part of our nature, or, at least, of the cultivated mind. 



So 



Pliny speaks of retaining in every thing about a villa its 
ancient simplicity. It is observed accordingly, that among 

the excellencies which distinguish the Greek artists, the 



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USES OF ANATOMY TO THE PAINTER. 



215 



that 



first and most admirable is that gravity of style, 
sedate grandeur of expression, and prevailing tranquil- 
lity of soul which still appear under the most terrible 
agitation and passion. Upon this chaste model the taste 
in sculpture was formed in the better ages of Greece and 
Rome, and its influence has extended to modern times. 

Unfortunately this style of composition has been taken 
as an additional authority for rejecting powerful ex- 
pression and character even from the canvass. But, we 
must never forget the distinction between sculpture and 
painting. The statuary, indeed, as well as the painter, has 
often to represent what is not consistent with beauty ; while 
both must sometimes preserve an indefiniteness, and soften 
all the harsher, though strictly natural lines of expression. 
If the statues of Michael Angelo and John of Bologna 
were as familiar to us as the casts of the antique, they 
would probably modify the prevailing opinions on this 
subject. Still there is an essential difforence between the 

principle of composition in painting and in sculpture. 

In the works of ancient artists we see a perpetual effort 
to exalt their productions above the commonness of nature. 
They studied a grand and general effect, avoiding the 
representation of minuteness or sharpness of feature, and 
of convulsions or distortions, however strictly natural ; 
and, indeed, it is scarcely consistent with the character 
of a statue to represent the transitory effects of violent 
passion. The sculptor must exercise his genius on the 
more sublime and permanent feelings, as characterised in 



the countenance and fig 



and much of the difficulty 



of his 



preventing the repose which 



ght 



be preserved in the attitude and expression, from 
guishing all character, and degenerating into 



tameness 



and indifference 



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216 



USES OF ANATOMY TO THE PAINTER. 



It is repose, and not absence of expression, that is to be 
aimed at. The flashes of passion do not assort with the 
material, while the languor and the gloom of the features 
in grief are quite consistent with it. The slaves and mutes 
on the pedestal of a monumental statue may contribute to 
the eff*ect : they are mere accessories, — as the frame to the 
picture. But this principle does not apply to the painter j 
to transfer to his art the rules of composition which flow 
from the study of ancient sculpture would endanger all in 
which it is most excellent. As his materials do not permit 
a close imitation of the actual forms of nature, a stronger, 
and more natural character is to be adopted on the canvass, 
than is proper to a statue. It is true, that he may often 
maintain much of the same gravity of style as the statuary, 
and that in such compositions there may be a certain 
august majesty ; some subjects require this, and others 
only admit of it, provided the tone and principle of com- 
position be preserved, and the colouring be low and sombre. 
In general, however, this is neither necessary, nor perhaps 

suitable to a picture ; and it may be at least laid down, 
that where there is bold light and vivid colouring, there 
should also be strong expression, and bold characteristic 



drawing. 



A painting, with 



high finishing and bright 



colouring, demands minute expression, because the same 

circumstances which display the natural colour, bring out 
a clear disclosure of the parts, and a sharpness of expression 

in the features. 

Thus the painter must study the traits of human ex- 



pression 



The noblest aim of painting is unquestionably 
to affoct the mind, which can only be done by the repre- 
sentation of sentiment and passion, — of emotion as indicated 
by the figure and the countenance. But, if it be contended 
that an imposing stillness and tranquillity must pervade 









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USES OF ANATOMY TO THE PAINTER. 



217 



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It is not such repose as the artist who has 



the higher subjects of painting, I venture to affirm that it 
is a tranquillity which he can never attain who is not 
capable of representing all the violence and agitation of 
passion. 

despised or neglected natural character may be able to 
represent, but such as he alone can conceive and execute, 
who has studied all the variety of expression, and learned 
the anatomy of the face and limbs in their most violent 
action. Nay, tranquillity or repose, in the strict sense of 
the words, can only be truly represented by one who can 
with equal facility give energy to the features and figure ; 
for in rest there must be character, and that character will 

best be expressed by him who has studied the effect of the 
action of the muscles. It ought also to be remembered 
that repose and agitation must ever greatly depend on con- 
trast and opposition. There are few grand subjects in 
history or mythology, in which the tranquillity and higher 
beauty of expression in the main figure does not borrow 
some aid from the contrast of the harsher features, more 
marked characters, and more passionate gestures of the 
surrounding groups. 

Perhaps I have sufficiently pointed out how dangerous 
it is for one who aims at excelling as a painter to imitate 
too closely and indiscriminately the productions of ancient 
sculpture. But it is natural for the student to believe that 
the study of the academy figure may serve as a guard 
against all such danger j and aiford him a sure criterion 



for judging of the anatomy of his figures. 

M^here is the artist to find the principles of his art 
when he desires to express mental suffering under all those 
influences which form the subjects of design in the higher 
departments of art, and especially in historical painting ; is 

he to grimace at himself in a mirror? — then he falls into 






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USES OF ANATOMY TO THE PAINTER. 



caricature : is he to study the expression of the actor ? 
then he represents what is fantastic and theatrical. For what 
may be correct representation on the stage is not correct in 
painting, any more than it would he correct for the tragedian 
to display on the stage those traits of expression with which 
the physician is alone supposed to he familiar. Powers of 
observation, cultivated by good taste, lead us to distinguish 
what is appropriate. The physician in studying symptoms, 
the actor in personifying suffering, the painter in repre- 
senting it, or the statuary in embodying it in marble, are 
observers of nature ; but each sees her differently, and with 
a feeling influenced by his pursuit. 

The study of the academy figure is, undoubtedly, 
essential j but unless followed with some regard to science, 
it necessarily leads to error. In the first place, it can give 
no aid in reference to the countenance. Here the lessons 
of anatomy, associated with the descriptions of the great 
poets, and the study of the works of eminent painters and 
sculptors, afford the only resource. But even for attaining 
a correct knowledge of the body and limbs, the academy 
figure is far from being an infallible guide. The display 
of muscular action in the human figure is but momentary, 
and cannot be retained and fixed for the imitation of the 
artist. The effect produced upon the surface of the body 
and limbs by the action of the muscles — the swelling and 
receding of the fleshy parts, and that starting out of the 
sinews or tendons, which accompany exertion or change of 
posture, cannot be observed with sufiicient accuracy, unless 
the artist is able to class the muscles engaged in the action j 
and he requires some other guide to enable him to recollect 
these varying forms, than that which is afforded by a 
transitory view of them. 

When the academy figure first strips himself, there is 



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USES OF ANATOMY TO THE PAINTER. 



219 



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a symmetry and accordance in all the limbs ; but when 
screwed up into a posture, they indicate constraint and 
want of balance. It cannot be supposed that when a man 
has the support of ropes to preserve him in a position of 
exertion, the same action of muscles can be displayed as if 
the limbs were supported by their own efforts ; hence in 
all academy drawings, we may perceive something wrong, 
from the ropes not being represented along with the figure. 
In natural action there is a consent and symmetry in every 



part. 



When a man clenches his fist in passion, the other 



arm does not lie in elegant relaxation j when the face is 
stern and vindictive, there is energy in the whole frame j 
when a man rises from his seat in impassioned gesture, a 
certain tension and straining pervades every limb and 
feature. This universal state of the body it is difficult to 
excite in those who are accustomed to sit to painters ; they 
watch his eye, and where they see him intent, they exert 
the muscles. The painter, therefore, cannot trust to the 
man throwing himself into a natural posture j he must 
direct him, and be himself able to catch, as it were in- 
tuitively, what is natural and reject what is constrained. 
Besides, those soldiers and mechanics who are employed as 
academy figures are often awkward and unwieldy j hard 
labour, or the stiff habits of military training, have impaired 
the natural and easy motion of their joints. 

Until the artist has gained a perfect knowledge of the 
muscles, and is able to represent them in action without 
losing the general balance of the figure, he is apt to pro- 
duce an appearance like spasm or cramp in the limbs, from 
one part being in action, while the other is in repose. 
For it is always to be remembered, that whether the body 
be alive or dead, whether the limbs be in action or relaxed 
in sleep, an uniform character must pervade the composi- 

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220 



USES OF ANATOMY TO THE PAINTER. 



tion. 



Whether the gently undulating line of relaxed 
muscle be the prevailing outline, or the parts he large and 
strong, and the muscles prominent, bold, and turgid, there 
must be perfect accordance, or there will be no truth of 
expression. 

I think, that in the sketches, and even in the finished 
paintings of some artists, I have observed the effect of con- 
tinuing to draw from the model or from the naked figure, 
without due attention to the regulated action of the muscles. 
I have seen paintings, where the grouping was excellent 
and the proportions exact, yet the figures stood in attitudes 
when they were meant to be in action j they were fixed as 
statues, and communicated to the spectator no idea of 
exertion or of motion. This sometimes proceeds, I have 
no doubt, from a long -continued contemplation of the 

antique, but more frequently from drawing after the still 
and spiritless academy figure. The knowledge of anatomy 
is necessary to correct this ; but chiefly, a familiar acquaint- 
ance with the classification of the muscles, and the pecu- 
liarities and efi^ect of their action. 

The true use of the living figure is this; — after the 
artist has studied the structure of the bones and the group- 
ings of the muscles, he should observe attentively the play 
of the muscles and tendons when the body is thrown into 



» 



and attitudes of 



he should espe 



ally mark their changes during the striking out of th 



limbs. By such a course of observation he will 



be 



able to distinguish bet 



posture and action, and to 



avoid that tameness which results from neglecting the 
efifects of the alternate contraction and relaxation of the 
muscles. And with this view, after having learned to draw 
the figure, the painter would do well to make the model go 
through the exercise of pitching the bar, or throwing, or 



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USES OF ANATOMY TO THE PAINTER. 




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striking. He will then find that it is chiefly when straining 
in a fixed posture that there is a general tension and equal 
prominence of the muscles j and that in the free actions of 
the limhs, a few muscles only swell out, while their oppo- 
nents are relaxed and flattened. He will not, perhaps, be 
able at once to catch the character of muscular expression, 
and commit it to paper ; but having an accurate knowledge 
of the muscles, according to their uses, and the efi^ect of 
each action in calling particular sets of them into activity, 

I 

knowing to what points his observation should be applied, 
and how his preconceived notions are to be corrected by 
the actual appearance of the limb, each succeeding exhibi- 
tion of muscular exertion will advance his progress in the 

delineation of the figure. Hence it may well be said, that 
anatomy is the true basis of the arts of design ; and it will 

infallibly lead those to perfection who, favoured with 
genius, can combine truth and simplicity with the higher 
graces and charms of the art. It bestows on the painter a 
minuteness and readiness of observation, which he cannot 
otherwise attain j and I am persuaded, that while it enables 
him to give vigour to the whole form, it teaches him to 
represent niceties of expression, which would otherwise 

pass unnoticed. 

Even in drawing from a particular model, the artist 
versed in anatomy has a great superiority. When I have 
seen one unacquainted with the internal structure, drawing 
from the naked figure or from a statue, I have remarked 
the difficulty which he experienced in shewing the course 
of a swelling muscle or the slight depressions and con- 



vexities about a joint; and this difficulty might be traced to 



his ignorance of the relations and actions of the muscles. 
The same perplexity he often feels in drawing the knobbed 
ends of the bones or the insertions of the tendons, at the 




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USES OF ANATOMY TO THE PAINTER. 



articulations ; for these parts being covered over by the in- 
teguments, and cushions of fat of variable thickness, and 
sheathed in membranes, are but faintly marked on the 
surface. The delicate and less definite indications of the 
anatomy, though easily traced by one acquainted with the 
structure of the limb, appear to the uninformed only un- 
meaning variations in the outline j he has no means of 
judging of their importance, and he is subject to continual 
mistakes in attempting to imitate them. 



Supp 



that 



young artist, not previously grounded 



in anatomy, is about to sketch a figure or a limb, his 
execution will be feeble, and he will commit many errors if 
he endeavours merely to copy what is placed before him 
to transcribe, as it were, a language 



understand 



H 



bones 



d 



which he does not 
sees an undulating surface, with the 

: he 



processes of the joints faintly marked 



gleets the peculi 



he should 



g 



force 



roundings merely 



he 



as 



IS 



g of the muscles, to which 
nplying motion; he makes 
capable of representing the 



'g 



curved outline of beauty, with deci 



and 



ac- 



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curacy, and of preserving at the same time the cha- 

Drawing what he does not 



racters of living action. 



understand, he falls into tameness or deviates into 
caricature. 

But with a knowledge of anatomy, if he attempt the 
same task, his acquaintance with the skeleton will enable 
him to make his first outline of the fig 
and ease, and preserve its various 



with 



th 



proportion 



and the 
force to 



study of the muscles will enable him to g 
the muscular parts, and to represent the joints accurately 
without exaggeration. 
It is, however, in 



composing 



much 



more 



than 



copying, that this knowledge is truly useful. Without 



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USE OF ANATOMY TO THE PAINTER. 



223 



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all the original efforts of genius must be checked and 
repressed. Every change of posture is accompanied with 
muscular action, and in proportion to the painter's ig- 
norance of the cause of those changes, all his designs will 
he cramped and restrained. Leonardo da Vinci gives 
formally, as a precept, what is self-evident to an anatomist : 
" In naked figures, those members must shew their muscles 
most distinctly and boldly, upon which the greatest stress 
is laid; in comparison with which the rest must appear 
enervate." " Remember, further, to make the muscles 
most visible on that side of any member which it puts 
forward to action." Such rules and precepts are rather 
the result of anatomical study than useful to one ignorant 
of the subject, in pointing out how effect is to be produced. 
It is not by following such recommendations that the end 



is to be accomplished, but 




enriching the mind with 



frequent observation of the changes which are displayed by 

- 

action, and forming rules for their representation. For 
example, in vigorous action there is a general tension of 
the whole frame ; but in order to produce a particular 
motion, a certain class of muscles is brought into stronger 
action than the rest; and the nature of the motion is 
expressed by marking the arrangement of the muscles. If 
a man be merely pointing upwards, a graceful simplicity 
may be all that the painter can attain, or should attempt ; 
but if he is bringing down a heavy sword to make a 
blow, the muscles will start into strong exertion, and the 
idea of mighty action will be conveyed by representing 
those swelling muscles of the chest which pull down the 
arm and give the sweep to the whole body. Thus, to 
compose with truth and force, it is necessary that the 
painter should not only know the place and form of the 

bones and muscles, but that he should also have an 



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USE OF ANATOMY TO THE PAINTER. 



accurate 
action.* 



ption of the classing of the muscles in 



Perhaps I may best convey my idea of the advantage 
to he derived from this study, hy contrasting two young 
artists drawing from a figure ; the one trusting to his 
untutored genius, the other assisted hy a knowledge of 
anatomy. The first is seen copying hit by bit, and mea- 
suring from point to point ; and the eff^ect, after much 



labour 



The other seizes the chief 



characters of the attitude with facility ; because his know- 
ledge of the skeleton has enabled him to balance the trunk 
upon the limbs, and give the contours boldly. The turn of 



* '' Socrates one day paid a visit to Clito, the statuary, and in the 
course of conversation said to him, ^ We all know, Clito, that you 
execute a variety of figures; some in the attitude of the race, and others 
in the several exercises of wrestling, of pugilism, and of the pancratium ; 
but with regard to the quality which particularly captivates the soul of 
the spectator, — I mean their correct resemblance to the life, — how is 
this property wrought into your productions?' As Clito hesitated for a 
reply, Socrates quickly rejoins, * Is it not by endeavouring to imitate the 
configuration of the bodies of those who are actually engaged in those 
exertions of skill and activity that you succeed?' < Without doubt/ said 
the artist. * Well, then/ resumed the philosopher, ' you study, under the 
various gestures and attitudes of the living body, what parts are drawn 
up out of their natural situation, or carried in a contraiy direction 
below it. Some which undergo compression, others an unnatural ele- 
vation ; some which are thrown into a state of extension, others which 
become relaxed ; all this you imitate, and hence you produce that 
fidelity, that accuracy, which we admire.' The artist acquiesced in the 
remark. ' And the expression of the passions, again, — how great a 
pleasure does this produce to the spectator ? ' * Surely,' replied Clito. 
* Thus those who are in the actual conflict of the battle, are they not to 

r 

be represented as bearing menaces in their eyes, while satisfaction and 
joy should sit upon the countenances of the victorious?' ^ Unquestion- 
ably/ ^ It is then equally the business of the statuary to transfuse into 
his productions the workings and emotions of the mind,' — Xenophon: 
Memorabilia^ Lib. iii. cap. x. p. 6. 




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USE OF ANATOMY TO THE PAINTER. 



225 



the limbs, the masses of muscle, and the general forms of 
the joints, are touched with a slight but accurate hand, 
and the spirit and life of the original are recognised at 



once. 



Even in the early stage of his drawing, while his 
rival is copying parts, he will present the foundation of 
a correct and spirited sketch j and as he can convey the 
general idea by a few lines, he also excels in finishing the 
minute parts. 

But this superiority is still better shewn if the model 
be removed from these two young painters, and they draw 



the fig 



from recollection; or if, keeping the model 



before them in its 
alter the attitude. 



ginal posture, they 



quired to 



I 



his breast, or brings him with his knee to the 



et us take for example the fighting 
gladiator. Instead of a young warrior pushing on with 
great energy, let their task be to represent him receiving 
the blow of his antagonist, which forces down his shield 
upon 

ground, as it is beautifully represented on some medals. 
Can we doubt for a moment which will excel ? The one 
will copy from memory his original drawing, or with great 
difliculty twist the erect limbs of the statue into a couching 
posture, while the other will gain by his greater freedom. 
Retaining the 



g 



air, like one who had understood 



what he copied, he is aware that a new class of muscles 
comes into action, while those formerly in exertion are 
relaxed ; he knows that the bending of the limbs increases 



knows how to represent the 



in short, he 



g 



to his 



their measurements j he 
joints in their new postui 
figure energy and effect. 

It is a mistake to suppose that, because in many of the 
finest pictures the anatomy is but faintly indicated, the 
study may not be necessary to a painter. Even that which 
in the finished picture is intended merely to give the idea of 





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USE OF ANATOMY TO THE PAINTER 



muscular exertion, should have its foundation laid in the 
sketch, by a correct and strong drawing of the full action. 
It is true, that the sketch is too often a mere indication of 
the painter's design, intended to he worked up to the 
truth of representation as he transfers it to the canvass, 
that the outlines of the figures are rather shadowy forms, 
undefined in their minute parts, than studies of anatomical 



expression, or as guides in the subsequent labour. 



And, 



perhaps, it is for this reason that there have been many 
painters, whose sketches all admire, but whose finished 



But 



a 



sketch 



paintings fall short of public expectation, 
which is without vigour, and in which the anatomy has 
not been defined, is a bad foundation for a good picture ; 
and even a little exaggeration in this respect is not only 
agreeable, but highly useful. The anatomy should be 
strongly marked in the original design ; and from the 
dead colouring to the finishing, its harshness and rugged- 
ness should be gradually softened into the modesty of 
nature. The character of a sketch is spirit and life ; the 
finished painting must combine smoothness and accuracy. 
That which was a harsh outline in the sketch, or the 

strong marking of a swelling muscle, or the crossing of a 
vein, will be indicated in the finished composition, perhaps 
only by a tinge of colour. The anatomy of the finished 

picture will always be most successful, and even most 
delicate, where the painter has a clear conception of the 
course and swelling of each muscle and vein which enters 
into the delineation of the action. 

While artists neglect the study of anatomy, as con- 
nected with character and expression in painting, they 
never can attain the " vantage ground" of their profession. 
Perhaps it is also to be feared, that while only a few 
artists are versed in this science, they will be apt to 



1 






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USE OF ANATOMY TO THE PAINTER, 



227 



they are learned above their 



is their forte, and they 



solicitous to display 



it. But 

were the study of anatomy more general, the same spirit 

which tempt them to a style 



and love of 



origm 



bordering on deformity, would make those very men seek 
distinction by combining grace, and the other qualities of 
fine painting, with truth and expression. 

It is not enough, however, that the painter should im- 



prove 



him 



in the knowledg 



of 



atomy 



attention must also be directed to its importance 



public 
For 



as necessity precedes invention in the origin of the 
arts, so must general good taste precede or accompany 
their improvement. The mere conviction in the mind of 
the painter, that anatomy is essential to the perfection of 
his art, will seldom be sufficient to insure his application 



The 



to a very difficult and somewhat repulsive study, 
knowledge and opinion of the public must force him to 
the task, and encourage his labour by the assurance of its 
merited reward. 



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APPENDIX 



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APPENDIX 







ON THE 



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NERVOUS SYSTEM 



BY 



ALEXANDER SHAW. 



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In many parts of this volume references are made to an 
Essay upon the Nervous System; and such an essay was con- 
tained in the last edition : but it was found that the author had 
drawn his pen through that essay, and had left nothing new to 
supply its place. It cannot be doubted that he intended to 
recompose that part of his work ; and as some account of his 
observations on the nervous system bearing upon the questions 
here discussed may be interesting, I have been requested to give 
a short review of his opinions. I enter upon the task with 
feelings of great diffidence. 



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It is stated, in various parts of the essays, that a distinct class 

of nerves is provided in the human body for controlling the organ 

of respiration ; and that it is this class which is principally affected 

by passion and emotion, so as to give rise to the phenomena of 
expression. 

The organ of breathing is so constructed in man, that besides 
ministering to the oxygenation of the blood, its primary office in 



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232 



OF THE NERVES 



the economy, it Is the instrument of voice and of expression, — two 
properties which bear relation to his intellectual nature. The 
apparatus required for adapting the organ of breathing to those 
superadded endowments, is altogether different from that which 
is found in the lower animals, where the organ is subservient 
only to the purification of the blood : and as a correspondence 
must exist between the structure of the different moving parts of 



frame 



accom 




panied with a change in the arrangement of the nerves. Accord- 
ingly the author of this volume found, by comparin 
system as it exists in inferior animals, with its order and distribu- 
tion in man, that a distinct class of nerves is appropriated in the 
human frame to the organ of respiration : and to that class he gave 

the name respiratory nerves. 

But this conclusion was not arrived at till many other important 
observations had been previously made by the author on the 
functions of the nervous system. Medical science has been in- 
debted to him for improvements in this branch of physiology, 
only to be compared, for their extent and value, with those intro- 
duced by Harvey by his discovery of the circulation of the 
blood. Although no parts of the living body have excited 
greater interest, since anatomy was first studied, than the brain 
and the nerves ; yet when Sir Charles Bell entered upon his 
researches into this subject, he found it involved in so much 
confusion, and surrounded by so many difficulties apparently in- 
surmountable, that physiologists had almost ceased to prosecute 



it. Errors on points which bore on the first elements of the 
inquiry had taken deep root. He succeeded in removing these 
errors, and in establishing an entirely new principle of investi- 



gation; by adopting which, as his guide, he was rewarded not 



only by making discoveries of the utmost value to medicine 
himself, but by communicating a fresh impulse to the labours of 
other physiologists in the same field. 

The error which formerly prevailed, and had the greatest 
effect in retarding improvement, was this : — It was taken for 
granted that all parts of the nervous system had certain general 



" 





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OF THE NERVES 



^33 



properties belonging to them in common ; so that all were 



considered alike in function. 



The brain, including the spinal 



mar 



marrow, was looked upon as a common store, from which 
certain powers, such as that of motion, were issued to the body, 
and into which others, such as sensation, were received, the 
nerves being regarded as the conductors ; and, in conformity 
with that view, it was further supposed that any part of the 
brain, or any single nerve, had an equal power with all the rest, 
of bestowing the numerous properties commonly assigned to the 
nervous system. For the sake of illustration, let us take the 
nerves of the lower extremities. These come off from the spinal 
'ow. Now it was conceived that they were all simple in 
structure ; and that each had the power of conferring motion on 
the limbs, and at the same time of giving sensation ; and that 
the spinal marrow from which they arise, being a prolongation 
of the brain, had these two functions combined promiscuously 
in all its parts. 

It is not difficult to explain how these mistaken views ori- 
ginated. In the first place, when we look to a nerve, there is 
nothing visible in the structure of the fibrils of which it consists 
to lead us to suppose that one set possesses different functions 
from the others : they are all exactly alike in size, colour, and 
consistence, and are held together in the same manner, in one 
common investing membrane or sheath. In the second place, 
although the brain is subdivided into numerous masses of dif- 
ferent forms and dimensions, so as to give the appearance at 
first sight of its consisting of many separate organs, yet an 
uniformity prevails in its general structure, and the distinct sub- 
stances of which it is formed are so diffused and intermingled with 



common 



possessed equally by all its parts. Again, the phenomena of 
certain diseases and accidents, occurring almost daily, must have 



strengthened these erroneous opinions. When 



nerve, in its course along one of the extremities, is cut across in 
a wound, the lower part of the limb thus isolated from the brain 
is deprived at once both of motion and sensation : if the spinal 
marrow be crushed or wasted by disease, total paralysis ensues ; 



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OF THE NERVES. 



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that is, the limbs lose motion and sensation conjointly. When a 
man is struck down "by apoplexy from a sudden effusion of blood 
into the brain, numbness or insensibility accompanies the loss of 
motion. These circumstances taken together were all likely to 
mislead, and may account for the error mentioned above having 
held its place so long. 

After Sir Charles Bell began to investigate the subject, it 
soon occurred to him that great inconsistencies were involved in 
the opinions generally maintained. One of the difficulties which 
struck him most was the following: — When we suppose a nerve 
in the act of exciting a muscle to contract, it necessarily implies 
that the stimulus by which it produces that effect travels owif- 
wardl7/y— that it originates in the brain, and is conveyed ex- 

rb 

ternally along the fibrils of the nerve to the muscle. But when 
we suppose a nerve in the act of giving rise to a sensation, it 
implies that the impression which occasions the sense is first 
communicated to the extremity of the nerve expanded upon 
the skin, and is then conveyed inwardly till it arrives at the 
sensorium. Hence the peculiar influence which causes muscular 
action travels in one direction ; and that which causes sensation, 
in exactly the opposite direction : and it seemed impossible to the 
author that they could both be conducted by the same nerve. 

The fundamental principle, which may be looked upon as 
the origin of all the author's important discoveries, was thus 
announced. "The nerves of the body possess distinct and appro- 
priate functions, corresponding with the parts of the brain and 
spinal marrow with which they are connected at their roots ; 
and when a nerve, which appears simple, is found to bestow 
more than one endowment, it is a sign that that nerve has more 
than one origin from the brain, and consists in reality of several 
nerves joined together." 

The mode in which this principle was demonstrated and 
established as a law in physiology, was the following : 

The author first directed his attention to the nerves of the 
organs of the senses. These nerves were formerly conceived to 
be allied so closely to each other, that the functions belonging 
to them M^ere regarded rather as modifications of one common 



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property, than distinct and specific ; hence it was supposed that 
the nerve of one organ could be the substitute for the nerve of 
another organ, if transposed to that organ : for example, it was 
believed that the optic nerve, on which vision depends, could 

> 

bestow sensation or pain, like a nerve of the skin. But the 
author proved this to be incorrect, and that each nerve is 

L 

limited to receiving a distinct impression, appropriated to it ex- 
clusively. Thus the nerve of vision can only give ideas of light 
and colour ;* the nerve of hearing, impressions of sound ; the 
nerve of smelling, the perception of odours; and so on. He 
further shewed that these special properties depended on 
each of the nerves arising from a distinct portion of the brain 
provided for receiving its own peculiar Inipression. This fact 
could not be easily demonstrated by referring to the human 
brain alone, where the structure is complicated to the greatest 

to the organs of sense and the intellectual 
capacities related to them, having reached their highest point 
of developement ; but it could be satlsfact 
the assistance of comparative anatomy. 



degree, owing 



m 



When 



.de out with 
we examine 



the lowest classes of animals, it is not found that they have 
the same number of organs of sense which belong to the 
higher. On the contrary, the organs are bestowed gradually, 
one after another, in correspondence with the progressive 
advancement of the creatures In the scale of animal existence ; 
and it is further observed, that the part of their nervous 
system, recognised as similar to the brain, becomes more com- 
plex in proportion as the organs multiply. Each nerve can be 
traced at first Into a little ganglion or accumulation of nervous 
substance, which is concluded to be the source of its particular 



He illustrated this fact in the following manner : — Pressure applied to 
the surface of the eye, between the eyelids, gives rise to pain more acute than 
that felt in the skin generally, but still of a similar kind ; while the same degree 
of pressure applied to the ball of the eye, so as to affect the retina within, 
produces the appearance of a halo of differently coloured light before the eye, 
or a totally different kind of sensation from the former. In couching for ca- 
taract, the needle, when piercing the outer part of the eye, gives rise to pain, 
to a sensation like that of pricking the skin ; when it transfixes the retina, an 
appearance, as if a spark of fire had entered ths eye, is produced. 

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236 



OF THE NERVES. 



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power : they increase in number as the organs increase ; and 
they become larger and more complicated in organisation in 
proportion as the organs are more perfectly developed, and the 
animal more elevated in its position. These ganglions are called 
after the organs of sense, over which they are supposed to pre- 
side ; and hence they get the names of optic ganglions or lobes, 
olfactory lobes, auditory lobes, &c. This was the first step taken 
by the author to shew that the nerves possess distinct functions, 
and that they obtain these from being connected with subdivisions 
of the brain, w^hicli have also distinct endowments. 

The next stage in his progress was marked by more striking 
results. His object was now to explain the cause of the nerves, 
which are distributed to the body generally, having the double 
property of giving motor power to the muscles and sensation to 
the skin. 

The way in which he proceeded was this. He took the dif- 
ferent nerves known to possess these two functions, and traced 
them to their roots in the brain. It has been already noticed, 
that when we examine a nerve situated in a limb, it is found to 
consist of numerous fibrils, all similar in structure, and held 
together by a common membraneous sheath ; no indication ap- 
pearing of one set having different functions from the others. 
But if we follow the nerve in its course towards the spinal 
marrow or brain, we shall find that, as it approaches either of 
these organs, and before it terminates, it subdivides into two 
distinct roots — one of which can be traced into a division of 
nervous substance distinct from the other, and one of which is 
further distinguished by having a swelling upon it, called a 
ganglion, which the other has not. 

Now Sir Charles Bell was led by this observation of the 
anatomy to suppose that each of these roots had a distinct 
function; that one bestow^ed the powder of motion and the other 
sensation; and that the reason why the whole nerve possessed 
both of these properties was, that it consisted of two distinct 
nerves joined together. He proceeded, therefore, to verify this 
opinion by experiment; and he confirmed it by the most satis- 
factory evidence. He shewed that the root which passes to the 



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OF THE NERVES. 



237 



posterior part of the spinal marrow, and has a ganglion upon it, 
gives sensation alone, while that which arises from the anterior part 
gives motion alone. He thus established for the first time the 
important fact, that the nerves of sensation are distinct from those 
of motion. 



numb 



motion 



from 



the spinal marrow ; only a few come directly from 
the brain. Sir Charles Bell was led, in the next stage of his 
progress, to compare these nerves with each other; and by doing 
so, he obtained several interesting confirmations of the truth of 
his views. 

He was particularly struck, in the first place, by noticing 
that the divisions of the spinal marrow, with which the roots of 
motion and sensation are respectively connected, are prolonged, 
as distinct tracts of nervous substance, into the brain ; and that 
they continue to give oflf nerves, in regular succession, after they 
have reached that organ. Again he observed an important dif- 
ference between the mode in which the nerves of the brain go to 
their destinations, and that in which the spinal nerves proceed. 



W 



the exception of one 



fifth (to which I shall 



presently refer as being similar both in origin and functions to 
the nerves of the spine), all the cerebral nerves escape from the 
skull by distinct holes, so as to be simple in structure, instead 
of consisting of two roots joined together. Accordingly, greater 
facility was afforded for investigating the functions of these 
nerves, than was the case with the spinal nerves. 

The first nerve of the brain selected for experiment was that 
which passes to the tongue, and is called the ninth. It is to be 
remarked that this nerve arises in all respects like the anterior 
root of a spinal nerve, which, it has been seen, is the one that 
confers motion ; that is, the ninth has its origin from the division 
of the spinal marrow, which gives off* the anterior roots, just as 
that division begins to expand and mix with the brain : it then 
passes immediately, without being joined by the fibrils of any 
other nerve, through an appropriate hole in the base of the skull, 
to the tongue, in the 



muscular 



of which it is lost. 



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238 



OF THE NERVES. 



portio dura was capable of bestowing both 



When this nerve was cut across in experiment, it was found that 
the tongue was deprived of the power of motion ; but its sensi- 
bility remained unimpaired ; thereby proving conclusively that, 
like the anterior roots of the spinal nerves, the ninth confers 
motion alone. 

The author next selected for experiment another nerve, 
which springs from a different part of the brain from the 
ninth, — the facial nerve, or portio dura. This nerve arises by 
a simple root, and, without mixing its fibrils with those of any 
other, appears externally before the ear, as represented by A 
in Plate IV., and is distributed to the face. It had been hitherto 
believed that the 

motion and sensation. But the author proved that this nerve was 
limited to giving motor power. By making a small incision 
through the skin, not larger than that for bleeding, he exposed the 
nerve in a monkey, — an animal which he considered better adapted 
than any other for the experiment, owing to the well-known 
mobility and activity of its features : when the nerve was laid 
bare and cut, the motions of the corresponding side of the 
countenance were at once and entirely extinguished ; but the 

sensibility was unimpaired. It was even observed, as an addi- 
tional proof that sensation does not depend upon the portio 
dura, that the animal manifested no signs of pain during the 
act of cutting it through. 

Having obtained these conclusive proofs, with others which I 
need not detail, that each nerve of the brain which arises by a 
single root has a distinct and appropriate function, instead of 
possessing various combined functions, as was formerly supposed, 
it was next important to examine the Jifth nerve, which, it has 
been stated, is distinguished from the others by resembling the 
spinal nerves. It may be briefly mentioned that this nerve 
arises from the brain by two roots, having a similar structure in 
every respect to those of the nerves of the spine, except that in 
the fifth, one root is much larger compared with the other, than in 
the spinal nerves ; the root which has a ganglion upon it being 
about five times greater than that which has no ganglion. It 
may also be stated that, shortly after its origin, the whole nerve 






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OF THE NERVES. 



239 






subdivides into three great trunks, which ramify over the entire 
head ; and that the smaller root accompanies only one of the 
trunks, called the third or inferior maxillary, which supplies the 
lower part of the face and the muscles of the jaws. Hence the 



first and 



simnle in structure, be 



formed entirely of fibrils from the larger, or ganglionic, root ; 
while the third is in part compound, from containing fibrils of the 
lesser root. 

Referring to Plate IV., it may be observed that two large 
branches, one above and the other below the orbit, marked 
respectively I. and II., issue from the bones of the face to go 
to parts already abundantly supplied by the portio dura : these 
are branches of the first two trunks, derived from the ganglionic 
root alone. Now it was found that when these branches, called 
the supra-orbitary and infra-orbitary nerves, were exposed in a 
living animal, it gave the most acute pain to prick or squeeze 
them ; and when they were cut across, the whole surface of the 
face to which they are sent, was deprived instantaneously of 
sensation ; so entirely was the sensation destroyed in these parts 
by this experiment, that the skin could be cut or pinched without 
the animal being conscious of the injury; and yet the motion of 
the parts was perfectly retained, because the portio dura was 
untouched. Again, when the third or inferior maxillary trunk, 
composed of the two roots conjoined, was similarly exposed and 

cut across, pain was experienced in the operation, and the parts 
to which it is sent were deprived of sensation, but an additional 
effect was produced — the muscles of the jaws, to which the 
smaller root goes, were paralysed. Hence the conclusion was 
obvious, that the larger root of the fifth nerve is endowed with 
sensation and the smaller with motion ; and it is only where the 
two are combined that the nerve can give both properties at 

once. 

It will be acknowledged that the facts now stated were suf- 
ficient to prove the truth of the general proposition, that nerves 
of sensation are distinct from nerves of motion ; and that the 
distinction depends on the portions of the brain with which they 

are connected at their roots, having corresponding appropriate 



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240 



OF THE NERVES. 



endowments. Soon after the first experiments were performed, 
additional confirmation of his view^s was obtained by Sir Charles 
Bell, in studying the phenomena of disease : nmnerous cases 
came under his observation "^ where morbid action in the brain or 
spinal marrow, or at the roots of the nerves, gave rise to effects 
in the human body, exactly similar to those produced by the 
experiments on the lower animals. For example, tumours 
times grow within the canal of the vertebral column, where the 

is lodged, and develope themselves in such a 



some 



marrow 



manner 



involving the other : in these cases, only one function of the 
spinal nerves is lost. If the anterior roots be aff^ected, there is 
loss of motion ; and if it be the posterior roots, there is loss of 
sensation ; and the patient is in the singular condition of having 
feeling in the limb, although he cannot move it, or he may be 
able to move it, and have no feeling. Cases of a similar kind were 
met with more frequently in the head ; owing to the nerves of the 
brain being more apart from each other at their origins than the 
roots of the spinal nerves. Thus many cases were observed where 
the two nerves which supply the face, the one with motion, and 
the other with sensation, were affected separately by morbid action, 
so as to be deprived of their functions. 

While the branches of the fifth nerve go straight outwards 
to reach the face by the shortest route, the portio dura takes 
a circuitous course to arrive at the same part. It 
through the bone which contains the ear and behind the lower 
jaw, and is, consequently, liable to be involved in disorders, 
from which the branches of the fifth are free. When the 
portio dura was thus affected by itself, the patient could no 
longer knit his brows, close his eyelids, inflate his nostril, or 

r 

hold any thing between his lips ; expression was entirely lost in 
the side of the face, and there was actual distortion, owing to the 
muscles of the sound side dragging the paralysed cheek and lips 
towards them ; but there was no diminution of sensibility in the 




* 



They were recorded chiefly by his zealous assistant in these pursuits, Mr. 



John Shaw. 



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OF THE NERVES. 



241 



completely deprived of motion 
3r. more properly, those branchi 



Again, wlien tlie fifth nerve, — or, 
of it which arise from the larger root alone, — were implicated in 
disease, so as to have their structure destroyed, sensation was 
lost, while motion was unimpaired. Taking even the most 
delicate and acutely sensible part of the face, the membrane 
which lines the eye, it might be scarified, in cases where the fifth 
had lost its functions, without the patient winking, or, in fact, 
being conscious of the operation.f In painful affections of the 
face, as tic-douloureux, the fifth nerve was found to be the source 

of the sufferinPT. When disease affectf^d a nart wh^p the smallf^r 



or motor root was included with the larger, besides the pain and 
loss of sensation, the muscles which move the lower jaw were 
paralysed, these being controlled by that root. 



From 



tages conferred upon medicine by the discoveries which have 
been described, and especially of the new light they threw upon 



While 



from 



same kind of functions, and that the different divisions of the brain 
and spinal marrow were also alike, it followed that, when a case 
was met with of partial loss of sensation or of motion in any part 
of the body, the physician was led to conclude that disease had 



* And it might be added, that no pain, arising directly from the disease in 
the nerve, attended the loss of function. Patients are seldom aware of their 
face having become paralysed, until told by a friend, or it has been observed by 
themselves in the mirror. This is accounted for by the portio dura being 
simply a nerve of motion, and having no power of bestowing sensation or 

giving pain. 

f The loss of sensation in the eye, from lesion of the ophthalmic branches 
of the fifth, is often followed by inflammation, which terminates in the de- 
struction of the organ. This is caused by the eye having been deprived of its 
most important guardian, — namely, the sensibility which induces not only 
winking, but other efforts to protect the tender surface from irritation. Cases 
are sometimes met with where the surface of the eye has lost its sensation ; but 
w^here the upper eyelid has become permanently dropped (owing to another 
nerve, the third, being also affected), so as to cover it, and defend it from 
injury : in these cases, inflammation does not occur, and the eye preserves its 

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242 



OF THE NERVES. 



commenced in the brain ; and liis treatment was conducted on 
that supposition. But when it was learned that the nerves had 
distinct endowments, it was only required, in sucli cases, to be 
acquainted with the particular uses and the anatomical course 
of the individual nerves distributed to the affected part, to be 
able to determine at once, whether the disorder was in one of the 
nerves, after it had been given off from the brain, and therefore 
a comparatively harmless complaint, or if it were situated in that 
important organ itself, and of a serious nature. In short, the 
knowledge now acquired of the nervous system lends, every day, 



most 



it gives 



means 



not formerly in his power, of exploring disease, and of tracing 
it along the nerves to the precise spot where it is situated. 

But when Sir Charles Bell reached this stage of his progress, 
and had thus settled the distinction between the nerves of sensa- 
tion and of motion throughout the body, he became aware that 
other important questions remained to be examined before we 
could have a satisfactory knowledge of the functions of all the 
nerves. The subject which principally attracted his attention was 
a contrast between the distribution of the large class of nerves 

the whole length of the spinal marrow, 

1 nerves of the brain, and a comparatively 

ises from the medulla oblongata, a division 

placed at the point where the spinal 



which arises 



om 



of the nervous 

marrow and br£ 

When he lo^ 



em 



chief character to be, that they supply the body generally : they 
go to the neck, and even to a part of the head ; they go to the 
arms; they supply the trunk; and they are sent to the lower 

To all these parts, he had also ascertained that they 



extremities. 
s:ive motion 



He 



demonstrated 



same nature as the spinal nerves : it is com 
one of which motor nower is o-ivpn in iht 



muscles of the jaws, and by the other sensation to all the surfaces 
of the head. Now, placing the spinal nerves and fifth pair 
together as one class, and associating the nerves of the organs of 



M * \ 











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I 



OF THE NERVES. 



243 



the senses with them, he considered that there was here a system 
of nerves competent to fulfil all the essential services of a nervous 

system. 

He turned his attention, in the next place, to the nerves which 



^ 



come off at the medulla oblongata ; being four in number, and 
varying in size and extent of distribution. The chief circumstance 
which gave interest to these nerves was, that they arise from a 



from 



small circumscribed part of the nervous system, distinct 
those divisions which give origin to the nerves of the former 
class ; and they pass to a limited extent of the body, already 
plentifully supplied by that class. 

From this observation Sir Charles Bell inferred that the 
nerves of the medulla oblongata could not thus arise from a 
distinct portion of the brain, and course to parts of the frame 
already sufficiently supplied by nerves from a different quarter, 
for the mere purpose of giving the same powers, or even an 
addition of the same powers, conferred by the other nerves. 
He thought, on the contrary, that they must be sent to bestow 
properties which the spinal nerves and fifth are incapable of 



givmg 



He saw, at least, that our 



knowledge of the 



uses 



of the first -mentioned class could not be considered perfect, 
until the question w^s properly solved. Why is the other class 
superadded ? He accordingly endeavoured to remove that diffi- 
culty. 

He began this part of the inquiry by seeking to discover 
whether any common character could be proved to belong to 
the nerves arising from the medulla oblongata ; and, with that 
object, he studied carefully the functions of the organ to which 
they are severally sent. He observed that they all agree in one 
thing, namely, that they are distributed to parts of the frame 
which together form the organ of Respiration. The portio dura 
is sent to the nostrils and mouth, the exterior orifices of the 
tube which leads to the lungs ; the glosso-pharyngeal goes to the 
posterior openings of the nostrils, and upper part of the wind- 
pipe and fauces; the superior and inferior laryngeal nerves, 
branches of the par vagum, supply the larynx, which is the organ 
of voice ; the par vagum then descends into the chest, and is 

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244 



OF THE NERVES. 



distributed chiefly to tlie windpipe and lungs ; but branches, also, 



mu 



of the shoulders and neck, which combine with those of the chest 
m dilating the lungs. Being satisfied, therefore, that the nerves 
of this class belong to the organ of breathing, he proceeded next 
to ask. Why this part should have a distinct set of nerves 
provided for it ? Why the spinal nerves and fifth nerve should 



sufficient 



movements of 



not have beei 
breathing. 

But that question, he soon perceived, could not be answered 
by confining his attention to the organ of respiration merely as it 
is found in man. It was necessary to follow the developement of 
the apparatus in the animal kingdom generally, and to study the 
uses to which it is applied in the lower, as well as the higher, 
animals. By such a course of investigation alone, did he think 
that this problem could be solved. 

It deserves to be particularly remarked that the mechanism 
of the organ of respiration, as it exists in the lower animals, is 
very different from what it is in the higher. And the reason is 

obvious. In t 
one function— 



animals 



— that, which is its primary office in the economy, of 
oxygenating and purifying the blood ; while, in the higher classes, 
it becomes also the organ of Voice ; and, in man, where it is in 
the perfection of organisation, it is the instrument of Articulate 
Language, as well as of Expression. 

Here, then, may be perceived the groundwork of the explana- 
tion given by Sir Charles Bell why, in man and the higher 
classes of animals, the organ of respiration is provided with a 
series of nerves distinct from those which confer motion and 
sensation on the body generally. He considered that, in the 
course of its developement, from the simplest to the most complex 
animals, this part undergoes such great and remarkable changes 



become 



mere 



to regulate the actions of the superadded mechanism. 

Let us reflect on what is necessary in the structure of the 
organ of respiration to form it as the instrument of voice. The 



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OF THE NERVES. 



245 



most 



first essential thing is, that the air for oxygenating the blood 
shall be received into a closed cavity, communicating with the 
external atmosphere by a single tube ; the second is, that this 
cavity shall be capable of contracting on the volume of air within, 
so as to expel it along the tube, with a stream strong enough 
to vibrate and produce sound. This is the simplest view of a 
chest, containing lungs, and of a trachea opening at the nostrils 
and mouth. 

But it were a mistake to suppose that the form of respiratory 
organ here described is one met with generally in the animal 
kingdom. So far from this being the case, it is not till we ascend 
to the class vertebrata, that we find the earliest and faintest 
indications of a true chest and windpipe. 

In the lowest classes of animals, those a single grade in the 
scale above vegetables, there is neither circulating system nor 
distinct respiratory organ. But as soon as a circulating system 
appears, traces are also perceived of an apparatus for oxygenating 
the blood. The organ, however, is of the 
being merely a few prolongations of the integument of the 
animal, disposed in the shape of tufts or fringes, which float 
freely in the water, and expose the blood to the oxygen contained 
in that element. As the circulating system becomes more distinct, 
the fringes are exchanged for small sacs within the animal, 
formed by the integument folded inwards upon itself. The 
apparatus for respiration in insects, is a modification of the latter 
kind of structure : ranged along the sides of their bodies, at 
regular intervals, there is a succession of holes, which are the 
openings of a series of infinitely small tubes, that extend in all 

; these openings and tubes 

conduct the air into their bodies, where the oxygen purifies the 
blood, A higher form of respiratory organ is presented in 
branchiae or gills. These are possessed by such animals only as 
have the circulating system so far developed, that the elements of 
a heart, and a distinct set of vessels for conveying the blood to be 
oxygenated, appear for the first time ; and they therefore indicate 
a greater concentration both of the respiratory organ and of the 



circulating system. But even gills pass through many gradations 



directions through their interior 



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246 



OF THE NERVES. 



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before they acquire that high degree of developement with which 



most 



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at we have chiefly to remark in all these modes of 
respiration is, first, that until we arrive at the order fishes, 
the lowest of the vertehrata, the mouth has no connexion with 
the organ of breathing; —it is limited, in all the invertebrata, 
to the purposes of nutrition: and, secondly, that not only is 
the earliest example of the mouth being an orifice common for 
the food and breathing, seen in fishes, but they have an internal 
skeleton in which is blocked out, as it were, the first rude 
form of a chest for containing lungs, and for inhaling the breath 
through a single tube, the trachea. 

It may be new to many of the readers of this work to be told 
that the air-bladder, which serves in most kinds of fishes to 
accommodate their specific gravity to the degrees of density of 
the water in which they swim, is, in reality, an elementary lung. 
Yet this is proved to be the case by many facts in comparative 
anatomy. It is sufficient to state, that a set of fishes exist called 
^auroid (from their resemblance to the inferior kinds of reptiles), 
in which the air-bladder communicates with the mouth by a tube 
(termed ductus pneumaticus), which resembles, in all respects, a 
windpipe ; and these fishes, when left on dry land, can respire 
by this appa:f atus independently of their gills. The same struc- 
ture passes through various gradations in other animals inter- 
mediate between fishes and reptiles, till the gills at length 
disappear, and the air-bladder becomes a more perfectly 
organised lung. 

If we continue to trace the mechanism by which the sac, thus 
introduced for the first time in connexion with the mouth for the 
purposes of respiration, is alternately expanded and compressed 
by an apparatus of ribs and muscles, to receive and expel 
the air, it will be found that it makes considerable advance 
in its developement in the order reptilia. In the lowest of 



form 



so 



matured 



sac or sacculated 



bag, which constitutes their lungs, being filled by an expansive 
motion of that cavity, it is distended by successive actions 



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OF THE NERVES. 



247 



of the mouthy like swallowing* ; and nostrils are now first 
perceived in communication with the throat. In the higher 
orders, as the crocodile, distinct ribs, and muscles for moving 
them, are provided; and the process of respiration, although 
carried on sluggishly, in accordance with their being cold-blooded 
animals, nearly resembles that with which we are best acquainted 
in mammalia and in man. 

But there is an important distinction between the structure of 
the chest, as seen in reptiles or in birds (which are next above 
them in the chain of animal existence), and that in mammalia. 
In reptiles and in birds, no partition exists between the abdominal 
and thoracic cavities, so that the ribs form a common covering for 
the viscera of nutrition, and the lungs, which lie in contact with 
them. It is not till we ascend to mammalia that a diaphragm is 
introduced, a septum composed of muscular fibres, which stretches 
across from the lower border of the ribs on one side to that of 
the other, and forms a complete boundary between the abdomen 
and chest. Now the diaphragm has not only the effect of 
circumscribing the space for containing the lungs, and thereby 
giving greater force to the expansion and contraction of these 
organs, but it acts itself as a powerful muscle of respiration in 
dilating the area of the chest. In short, when a diaphragm is 
added, the organ of breathing attains its highest state of con- 
centration in the animal kingdom ; and it is not only adapted 
in the most admirable manner for oxygenating the blood, but the 
mechanism surrounding the lungs is so adjusted, that the air can 
be expelled through the larynx, the organ of voice, and through 
the mouth, the organ of speech, with so strong an impulse as to 

produce vocal sounds and articulate language. 

When the chest acquires the compact form and the new 
properties just described, there follow several modifications in the 
structure of different parts of the frame, which do not at first 
appear to have any direct relation to the organ of breathing. 
Peculiar sensibilities are also introduced, with various combined 
actions of muscles far apart from each other, obviously designed 
to guard the organ from injury, and to perfect it as the instru- 
ment of speech. 



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248 



OF THE NERVES 



It 



The first example, I shall take from the circulating system. 

comparative anatomy that, according as the 



found 




apparatus 



becomes more 



heart and blood-vessels begin to be subdivided into two distinct 
systems, the one for purifying the blood, and the other for 
distributing it over the body. 



distinction which 



com 



This 
anatomi 



the 



origm 



of that 



draw between the 



pulmonic circle, including the part of the heart and blood-vessels 
belonging to the lungs, and the systemic circle, which sends the 
blood over the body, and returns it to the heart. This separation 
takes place in a slow and gradual manner in the animal kingdom, 
and it is only seen to be complete in the warm-blooded animals. 
Thus, in man, the division of the circulating system appropriated 
to the lungs or the oxygenation of the blood, consists of cavities 
of the heart and of blood-vessels, which are quite distinct from 
those provided for propelling the blood over the body. Yet 
these two divisions act in perfect concert with each other, a con- 
cert mechanically secured by the peculiar structure of the heart ; 
for the two sets of cavities are ioined toe-ether to form a sinp-lp 



sym 



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organ, and they contract in unison. Thus, so close a 
is established between the heart and the organ of respiration, that 
any interruption to the entrance of air into the chest will not 
only affect the action of that division of the heart which belongs 
to the lungs, but it will disturb that part joined to it in structure 
by which the purified blood is conveyed through the body. 
Hence, the agitation and palpitation of the heart, so much dwelt 
upon in this volume, caused by disturbances in the action of 
respiration, whether from bodily exertion or mental emotion. 

Another point, still connected with the circulating system, 
deserves' to be noticed, as throwing light on some of the questions 
treated in the work. The blood which returns to the heart by 



the 



eam 



by the arteries, being exhausted before it enters the veins. From 
this weakness of the current it follows, that the blood collected in 
the great veins close to the entrance of the chest — as the jugular 
veins, for example — may be stopped by a slight cause ; when 









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OF THE NERVES. 



249 



congestion of the minute branches will be the consequence, and 
serious injury may be occasioned to the more delicate organs 



from which the blood returns. Now there are certain conditions 

r 

of the chest in breathing, during which the blood is thus inter- 
rupted. As we draw in the breath, the blood flows into the chest 
along the veins with perfect facility, because the superior opening 
of the cavity is then enlarged, and the suction, which draws the 
air into the windpipe, has also the effect of increasing the force of 
the current of blood. But when we expel the air, and thereby 
diminish the area of the chest, an obstruction takes place in the 
flow of blood in the veins, and if the act of expiration be strong, 
regurgitation may be produced. This interruption, and retrograde 
motion of the blood in the large veins of the neck, will gorge the 
smaller vessels ; and the effect maybe seen in a person seized 
with a fit of coughing or of sneezing : for his face then be- 
comes suffused and red, and the superficial veins turgid with blood. 
It is therefore obvious, that if the veins of the surface of the head 
become congested, in such violent conditions of breathing, the 
deeper veins, returning the blood from the brain and the eye, will 
also be over distended from the same cause. Consequently, these 
important organs will be in danger of suffering serious injury to 
their textures from the loaded and turgid condition of the veins. 
But both organs are defended from such dangers by a beautiful 
arrangement of the muscles of the neck, which cover and protect 
the large veins. These muscles combine in sympathy with the 
movements of the chest, so as to compress the veins when there 
is a tendency to regurgitation, and to take pressure off* them when 
the chest is expanded. It is further to be noticed, that the flat 
web of muscular fibres which covers the eye — the orbicularis 
muscle — is a part of the same provision. It acts in compressing 
the eye-ball whenever the chest is violently contracted ; by 
this means it closes the veins at the back of the orbit, and 
prevents engorgement of the fine branches which ramify on the 
delicate coats within."^ 



r 



The orbicularis muscle is wanting in animals which have not the same 
concentrated apparatus for breathing as man. I have shewn elsewhere that in 
man and mammalia another provision exists besides that mentioned in the text, 



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250 



OF THE NERVES. 



I shall offer one other illustration of the new sympathies 
and arrangements in the actions of the muscles which are intro- 
duced into parts of the frame originally unconnected with the 
organ of breathing, to accommodate them for its becoming the 

r 

instrument of voice in man. 

We are so familiar with respiration through a mouth and 
nostrils, that we are led to look upon these parts as necessary to 
every apparatus for breathing. But it has been already stated 
that it is only in the class vertebrata, commencing with fishes, 
that the mouth has any relation to the function of breathing. 
In all animals lower in the scale, the openings in their bodies for 
the reception of air or water in respiration, are quite distinct 
from the oral aperture, as it is called, and placed at a distance 
from it. In short, the mouth is exclusively an inlet for the food 

in the invertebrata. 

When so important an office is added to the mouth in the 
higher animals as that of receiving air in its passage to the lungs, 
it is obvious that many changes must accompany its newly ac- 
quired character. To adjust this opening for two functions so 
dissimilar as breathing and taking in food, and to ensure regu- 
larity in the performance of a process so vital as that of breathing, 
we find that a new mechanism, with appropriate muscles, and 

new sensibilities to animate these muscles, are introduced into 
the animal frame. 

This is not the place to enter minutely into the subject ; 
but T request the reader's attention to one or two examples of 
the mode in which the mouth and throat are protected in their 



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for guarding the eye against the irregularities of the venous circulation. The 
veins which ramify in the interior of the organ between the delicate membranes 
that support the retina, join the larger trunks, before these pass out from the 
eye-ball, in a peculiar manner ; each minute branch makes a circular sweep 
so as to describe nearly a complete circle, previous to entering its principal 
vein. These small vessels are so numerous that they quite cover the surface, 
and being arranged in concentric circles, they produce an appearance from 
which the name vasa vorticosa has been applied to them. Nothing could 
be more admirable than this structure for breaking the force of a retrograde 
current of blood, and gradually diffusing it over the membranes. A similar 
appearance, though less distinct, may be observed in the superficial veins of 
the brain. 



i. 



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OF THE NERVES. 



251 






complex operations, by the sensibilities with which they are 
endowed. 

Let us suppose that a morsel of food is chewed and ready to 
be swallowed. I only allude, in passing, to the peculiar arrange- 
ment by which it is provided that, while the mouth is obstructed 
by containing the food, the breathing proceeds uninterruptedly 
by the air passing along the nostrils, which open behind, and 
directly over the windpipe. When the morsel is propelled 
backwards, it comes in contact with a part of the cavity of the 
throat, which is endowed with a remarkable sensibility ; it is of 
such a nature that, when excited, there is an irresistible desire to 
swallow ; and the consequence is, that whenever the part is 
touched, a large class of muscles, consisting not only of those 
immediately adjoining it, but of others situated at a distance, are 

ht into combined action, to QTasp and propel the morsel 




along the gullet. Here a great variety of movements take place 
consentaneously. The windpipe is closed by its valve, the 
epiglottis, falling over it ; the posterior nostrils are shut by the 
folding upwards of the curtain, called the soft palate ; certain 



m 



the morsel, and urge it into that canal ; but, before the food can 
reach the stomach, it must pass through muscular fibres of the 



m 



encircling the gullet ; these fibres consequently re- 
lax, and there is a momentary interruption of the breathing. 
Now all these actions, which shew so remarkable a consent 
between the muscles of deglutition and of respiration, are excited 
and regulated by the peculiar sensibility seated at the back part 
of the throat. If, however, there should be any disturbance in 
the act of swallowing, and a small portion of the food should pass 
the wrong way, a different set of actions will occur, under the 
influence of another kind of sensibility. That is, if a crumb of 
bread should lodge in the throat, near the opening of the 
windpipe, a sensibility distinct from that which gives rise to 
swallowing will be excited, and will rouse the muscles into 
action, to produce a set of movements altogether different from 
the former. The same muscles will be combined in such a way 

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252 



OF THE NERVES. 



^ 

as to cause a succession of violent expirations, which will con- 
tinue till the irritating particle is expelled from the top of the 
windpipe, and the danger of choking removed. It may be 
further noticed, that there are various other sensibilities seated 
in distinct parts of the passages, which differ in kind as well as 
degree from those just mentioned ; and, when these are excited, 
similar concatenated actions of the muscles are produced, 
modified, however, according to the structure which requires to 
be cleared or defended. 

The important circumstance that we have to attend to in all 
these examples of combined actions of the muscles, and fine 
sensibilities, provided in the face, neck, throat, and chest, is, that 
they have each a decided relation to the peculiar form of the 
organ of breathing in the highest animals ; and that they are only 
required, when the mouth combines the two offices of being an 
inlet for the air and for the food. 

It was from studying the human body with these views, that 
Sir Charles Bell was led to conclude that the nerves which arise 
from a part of the brain distinct from that which gives off the 
nerves generally, and which are distributed to the structures I 
have described, are bestowed in correspondence with the changes 
of mechanism, and the new relations established in the organ of 
breathing, during its course of developement in the animal king- 
dom. He concluded, that the main design of the progressive 
changes which the apparatus of breathing undergoes, from the 

best creatures, is to afford to Man an instru- 
ment corresponding with his superior endowments; — to supply 
him with an organ adapted to the great purpose of communi- 
cating thought, and evolving the powers of his Mind — the 
attribute by which he holds his exalted position in creation. 




He 



also thought that the same organization which serves for 



articulate language, or the production of those arbitrary sounds 
by which nations converse in speech, is appropriated to the 
universal language, understood by all, through which emotion 
and passion address us in the countenance, neck, and breast : 



hence, Sir Charles Bell believed that in man, the ora'an of 



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M 












OF THE NERVES, 



253 



breathing is the organ of Expression, and that it is superin- 
tended in all its varied actions, by the class of nerves to which 
he gave the name Respiratory nerves. 

The correctness of these opinions, so founded on a compre- 
hensive survey of the organ of respiration in the animal kingdom, 
was more fully confirmed, when the author examined, in the next 
place, by a similar reference to comparative anatomy, the func- 
tion of the class of nerves to which those of respiration were 

looked upon as superadded ; namely, the spinal nerves and fifth 
nerve of the brain. 

The extensive distribution of this system has been already 
noticed ; it has been seen that it consists of double nerves, each 
composed of a root that bestows motion, and another that bestows 
sensation, and that they are sent to all parts of the body. But, 
although they are thus extensively distributed. Sir Charles Bell 
was much struck by observing, that they do not confer both of these 
properties equally upon the whole frame : he saw that sensation is 
bestowed indiscriminately or promiscuously, but that with regard 
to motion, the case is different : that there is a defined limit to 
the power which this class possesses of regulating the muscles. 
As this observation was of great importance in guiding him to 
the right view of the functions of these nerves, I may enter into 
a little more explanation concerning it. 

If we direct attention to the spinal nerves, it will not appear 
that they are restricted in their distribution ; they pass out directly 
from the spinal canal, to supply both motion and sensation 
equally, to the whole body, not excepting a part of the head. 
But, if we attend to the fifth nerve, it will be seen that, however 
freely it gives its sensitive branches to all the surfaces of the 
head, its motor branches are bestowed on the muscles of one 

* > 

organ alone : they are distributed (as I have already had occasion 
to notice) exclusively to the muscles of the jaws, and those 
muscles of the cheeks and lips which are associated with the 
jaws in mastication. Hence, viewing the functions of this great 
class, comprising the spinal nerves and fifth, we see that they 
give sensation to all parts of the frame, from the crown of the 
head to the toe; but they give motion only to the trunk, the 







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254 



OF THE NERVES. 



extremities, and the parts in the head by which mastication is 
performed. 



from 



fifth to the office of controlling 



motions of the jaws, and 



inquiring into the peculiar relation which exists between the act 
of mastication and the functions bestowed by the spinal nerves 
generally, that the author was led to explain why these nerves 
should be associated to form 
kingdom. 



a distinct class in the animal 



m 



The course of his observation was this : — He as 
t place. What is the primary use of the mechanism 
the higher animals, of head, trunk, upper and lower 



•> 



ex- 



tremities, and, in the inferior creatures, of parts corresponding 



more 



nerves? The answer was, to minister to the great function of 




drawn between them on these grounds. 



nutrition. These different members, he thought, might be re- 
garded, taking this comprehensive view of the animal kingdom, 
as combining to form an oi 
nourishment. 

This will be more readily understood, if we inquire what is 
the chief distinction between an animal and a vegetable. An 
animal possesses a system of organs in the interior of its body 
for elaborating and assimilating the nourishment received into 
it: now a vegetable has analogous organs, by which similar 
processes are performed; no distinction, therefore, can be 

But there is an es- 
sential difference in the modes by which they procure their 
nourishment. The tree or plant is fixed in the soil, and obtains 
the nutritious juices which preserve it in life, by the roots that 
fasten it to the earth : the animal, on the contrary, is locomotive, 
and must transport itself from place to place, in quest of its food. 
Accordingly, the animal must be provided with certain endow- 
ments bearing reference to that peculiarity of its nature ; and if 
we consider what these endowments are, it will be found that they 
are such as the system of nerves under consideration confers. 

Let me enumerate the powers which an animal must possess 
to enable it to go from place to place, and select its food. First, 



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OF THE NERVES. 



255 



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must 



have organs of locomotion : fins, or paddles, or some 
analogous structure, if tlie creature be aquatic ; wings, if it 
move in the air; or extremities and feet, if it inhabit dry land. 
Secondly, it must have certain prehensile instruments, constructed 
for grasping and securing its food; and these may be either ten- 
tacles, paws, or organs corresponding with the hand in man. 
Thirdly, it must have a special mechanism for receiving the 
food, and, if required, for triturating the material of which it 
consists, so as to prepare it for being passed into the stomach ; 
that is, a mouth and jaws. Fourthly, the mechanism here de- 
scribed would be useless, if unaccompanied by the means 
putting it in motion and regulating it ; whence a nervous system 
becomes necessary, consisting of nerves of motion and organs of 
sense, and a central part corresponding with the brain, 
these various structures physiologists have applied the name 
" animal " organs, to distinguish them from parts common to 
vegetables and animals, termed the " organic" structures. 

Here, then, may be perceived the foundation of Sir Charles 
Bell's explanation of the functions of the class consisting of the 
spinal nerves and fifth nerve of the brain. 



of 



To 



H 



ystem 



dom 



and which bestows powers common to all creatures raised 
above the vegetable kingdom, whatever may be their mode of 
respiration. In man they supply the lower extremities, his 
organs of progression — corresponding with the structures in other 
animals by which they move from place to place in search of 
food : they are given to the arm and hand, his instruments of 
prehension — analogous to organs in the inferior creatures which 
are necessary for obtaining their nourishment; and they give 
power to the muscles of mastication, by which the food is prepared 
for the stomach— corresponding with the oral aperture and man- 
dibles in all animals. Finally, these nerves bestow touch and 
taste,* senses which are possessed most generally by animals, and 
which may be justly considered the most essential to an organiza- 

* The gustatory nerye, the special nerve of the organ of taste, is a "branch of 
the fifth nerve. 



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256 



OF THE NERVES. 



tion adapted, in its comprehensive view, to procure nourishment. 
The senses of seeing, hearing, and smelling, which belong to 
a large proportion of the animal kingdom, in common with 
man, are to be regarded, in this comparative survey, as super- 
added senses; they are introduced into the animal frame, one 
after the other, subsequently to touch and taste, according as the 
creatures ascend gradually in the scale of existence. 

Before quitting this subject, it is interesting to remark how 
the mechanism thus shewn to be superintended by the spinal 
nerves and fifth, becomes accommodated to the organ of speech, 
upon that structure being added to the frame; and in such a 
manner, that it still performs its original office in the most perfect 

This adjustment is accomplished by a series of changes 
being gradually wrought in the different organs subservient to 



way 



in ministering to the animal 



the mouth, so that this opening, 
wants, shall have simpler duties to fulfil, and depend more on its 
subsidiary parts, the higher animals ascend in the animal scale. 
Thus in the inferior animals, the offices of progression, of prehen- 

lutition, are shared bv the 




manner 



greater or less extent, the duties proper to the others. 



For 



ned 




instrumental also in seizing and grasping : those intended chiefly 
for prehension assist in progression ; and the mouth, so far from 
being adapted exclusively, in all animals, for mastication, is in 
some an organ of progression, as it is in a great many, the 
principal apparatus for prehension. My limits prevent me from 
entering fully into this subject, or illustrating by example, how 
each of the offices here enumerated comes at length to have its 
own appropriate instrument, distinct from the rest. It may be 
sufficient, however, to say, that when the animal frame reaches 
the high condition presented in man, the hand becomes so perfect 
a minister to his animal wants, that the mouth is absolved from 



offices 



Hence 



this cavity is diminished in size ; the teeth and jaws are reduced to 
moderate dimensions ; and its form is consequently suited in the 
most admirable manner, for being the organ of articulate language. 



I 



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OF THE NERVES. 



257 



Tims, in whatever view we study the developement of the 

frame, new proofs present themselves of its being the 



animal 



aim 



confer upon man an instrument adapted to his intellectual 
nature — an organ of Speech. It is the fine adjustment of the 
various members of his body for that object, that renders his 
organization the most perfect in the animal kingdom. Additional 
strength is, therefore, given to the author's opinions, that our 
conceptions of human beauty, both as regards the form of the 
head, and the moveable features, have a direct relation to the 
fitness of the structures, for Speech, Voice, and Expression. 

Such is a brief account of the leading parts of the discoveries 
made by the author of the volume, in this important part of the 
anatomy of the body — the nervous system. He first established, 
on undoubted evidence, the fact, that the nerves of motion are 
distinct from those of sensation ; and that the nerves generally 
possess different endowments, according to the divisions of the 
brain from which they arise. He then arranged the nerves of 
the whole body into three distinct systems, corresponding with 
the organs which they respectively control. The first class, 
was that composed of the spinal nerves and fifth nerve of 
the brain ; this class, he proved, bestows both motion and sen- 
sation on all the parts to which it is distributed; and these 
parts, he further shewed, are organs which belong to 
common with the lowest creatures, their united function being to 
supply food, the first necessary want of all animals : he termed 
this set of nerves the "original" class, and included in it the 
various organs of the senses. The second class comprised in it a 
series of nerves, distinct from the former, both in their origin and 
mode of distribution : they pass off from a circumscribed central 
portion of the nervous system, the medulla oblongata, and diverge 
to different parts of the head, neck, throat, and chest already sup- 
plied by the original class : he shewed that these structures form 



man 



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together the organ of respu^ation 



a mechanism which does not 



belong to the lowest animals, hut is gradually introduced by a slow 
process of developement into the animal kingdom, in order that, 
besides oxygenating the blood, it may become, in man, the organ of 









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258 



OF THE NERVES. 



* 



Voice and Expression : to this set of nerves he applied the name, 
respiratory class. In these two classes were combined all the 
nerves together which arise either from the brain or spinal marrow. 
The third class consisted of a series of nerves which have their 
centre in large ganglions scattered principally among the viscera 
of the abdomen. This forms the system called ganglionic or 
sympathetic : and their use has been generally supposed to be, to 
unite in sympathy those organs by which the various organic 
functions are performed : such as secretion, absorption, assimilation 
of the food, the growth and decay of the body, &c. When the 
nerves belonging to these different classes are viewed in their 
combined condition, as seen by the anatomist, nothing can exceed 
their apparent confusion; but when examined by the aid of the 
principle, and the arrangement, introduced by Sir Charles Bell, 
order and design are found to pervade every part. 



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EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES 



Plate I. 



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Fiq. 1. The Skull of a Man fully grown, presented in a front view- 



A, 



B. 
C. 



(os frontis) 



The Protuberances formed by the Frontal Sinuses, 

The Temporal Ridge of the frontal bone; on which the form of 



the temple depends. 



) 



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M axillary 



F. The Nasal Bones. 

■ 

G G. The Orbits or Sockets for the Eye-balls. The circle of their 

margin is seen to be formed by the frontal bones, the cheek- 
bones, and the superior maxillary bones. 

H H. The Temporal Bones. These hollows are filled with a strong 

muscle, which arising upon the side of the skull, passes down, 
through the arch, to be inserted into the lower jawbone. 

1 I. The Mastoid or Mamillary Processes of the Temporal Bone. 

These are the points into which the strong mastoid muscles, 
which give form to the neck, are inserted. 

K. The Lower Jaw- 

L. The Angle of the Lower Jaw. 

M. The Processes of the jaws which form the sockets for receiving 

r 

the roots of the teeth. 



Fig* 2 is the Sk 
remark these parts : 

A. The Frontal Bone. 

B. The Temporal Bone. 

c. The Zygomatic Process of the temporal bone, which, with the 

process of the cheek-bone, forms an arch, under M^hich the 

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260 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



tendon of the temporal muscle passes, to be inserted into the 
lower jaw, 

D. The Hole or Foramen of the Ear; a little below this is the 

mastoid process of the temporal bone. 

E. The Parietal Bone; so called, because it forms the greater part, 

as it wercj of the wall of the skull. 

F. The Occipital Bone. 

These bones are united by sutures, in which the processes of the 
bones seem to indent themselves, as they grow, into the opposite bone, 
without there being an absolute union between them. That w^hich unites 
the frontal and parietal bones is called the coronal suture ; that which 
unites the parietal and temporal bones is called the sqtramous or temporal 
suture ; the line between the occipital and parietal bones is the lamb- 
doidal suture; and the line between the parietal bones is" called the 
sagittal suture, because it is laid between the lambdoid and coronal 
sutures, like the arrow between the bow and the string. 

There are many lesser sutures which unite the smaller bones of the 
face ; but they need not be mentioned here. 

G. The Cheek Bone (os malae). 

H. The Upper Jawbone (os maxillare). 
I. The Bones of the Nose (ossa nasi). 
K. The Lower Jaw (inferior maxilla). 
L. The Angle of the Jaw. 

. The Process of the Jaw which moves in the socket in the temporal 
bone. 



M 



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N. The Coronoid Process of the Jaw, into which the temporal muscle 

is fixed, to move the jaw in conjunction with other muscles. 



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yet formed, the bones of the cranium being loose, and attached by their 
membranes only ; while spaces may be observed, left unprotected, from 
the imperfect ossification of the bones. The individual parts require no 
references ; they will be understood from their correspondence with 
fig. 2. 



Fig. 4 is the Section of a Cranium, in which the only thing meant to 
be particularly remarked, is the cavity which is seen in the frontal boncj 
viz. the frontal sinuses. 



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EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES 



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Plate IL 



OF THE MUSCLES OF THE FACE 



Muscles 



front view. 



There are muscles attached to the eyebrow which produce its various 



motions 

A A. 



^ -'--— ^ -' 



Muscle. A thin muscle, expanded over the fore- 



We 



head, and inserted into the skin under the eyebrow, 
not see here the whole of the muscle, but only a part of what 
is properly called Occipito-frontalis. 
It arises in a web of fibres, from the back of the skull (from a ridge 
of the temporal and occipital bones) : becoming tendinous, it covers all 
the upper part of the skull with a membrane or sheet of tendon, and 
terminates in the anterior muscle, which is seen in this view. 

B B. The Corrugator Supercilii arises from the lower part of the 

frontal bone near the nose, and is inserted into the integument 
under the evebrow. It lies nearly transversely, and its office is 
to knit and draw the eyebrows together. 

^he Circular Muscle of the Eyelids (the orbicularis palpebra- 
). There is a little tendon at the inner angle of the eye, 



c c. 



k * 





which is a fixed point for this muscle, attaching it to the 
maxillary bone, and being both origin and insertion. 

The descending slip of the Occipito-Frontalis. As this fasciculus 
of fibres descends from the frontal muscle to be attached to the side of 
the nose, it has a distinct operation, and may be considered as a separate 
muscle. It draws the inner extremity of the eyebrow downwards. 

These four muscles move the eyebrow, and give it all its various 
inflexions. If the orbicularis palpebrarum and the descending slip of 
the frontalis act, there is a heavy and lowering expression. If they yield 
to the influence of the frontal muscle, the eyebrow is arched, and there 
is a cheerful or an alert and inquiring expression, 
supercilii acts, there is more or less of mental anguish, or of painful 

exercise of thought. 



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262 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Muscl 






D. Levator Labii Superioris Alseque Nasi. It arises from the upper 

jaw, and is inserted into the upper lip and nostril, which it 



raises. 



E. Compressor Nasi. A set of fibres which compress the nostril. 

L. The Depressor Alse Nasi lies under the orbicularis oris. It arises 



near the incisor teeth, and 



is inserted into the moveable 




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cartilage, which forms the wing of the nostril. 
These three muscles serve to expand and contract the nostril. They 
move in consent with the muscles of respiration. 
Muscles of the lips : 

^ F. Levator Labii Proprius. It arises from the upper jaw-bone, near 

the orbit, and is inserted into the upper lip^ which it raises. 
G. Levator Anguli Oris. This muscle, lying under the last, is, of 

course, shorter : it raises the angle of the mouth. 

So called, because its origin is from the 
zygomatic process of the cheek-bone. It is inserted into the 
angle of the mouth. 

Orbicularis Muscle of the Lips. 

Nasalis Labii Superioris. Draws down the septum of the nose. 
v^lv. Triangularis Oris, or Depressor Labiorum. A strong muscle 

arising from the base of the lower jaw, and inserted into the 



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angle of the mouth, 
ladratus Ment 
vatores Menti, 



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. Small, but strong, muscles. They arise from 

the lower jaw near the alveolar processes of the incisor teeth, 

descend, and are inserted into the integument of the chin. By 

their action they throw up the chin and project the lower lip. 

Q. The Buccinator forms the fleshy part of the cheeks. It acts 

principally in turning the morsel in the mouth. Its fibres are 






< 



inserted into the angles of the mouth, 
jres of the Platysma Myoides, whic 
upon the side of the cheek. 







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^.ondon.PLtblisheci by John Miuray. Jarvi l344 . 




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EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES 



'263 



J 



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Plate III. 



MUSCLES OF A DOG*S FACE. 



A A. Circular Fibres, which surround 

common to all animals. 

I— 

B F D. Accessory Muscles, which I nam 

back the eyelids from the eye-ball. 
G H. Muscles of the Ear, 
I K. A Mass of Muscular Fibres, always 



which 



They draw 



animals, and which, with those concealed under them, I call 



Ringentes. They raise the upper lip and expose the 



teeth. 



L. 
M. 



Muscles 



Mouth 



a perfect 



N 



orbicularis muscle. 
Muscle which ans^ 



o 



has great power in this animal : it reaches from the ear to the 
angle of the mouth. It opens the mouth, retracts the lips, and 
disengages them from the teeth, as in seizing their prey. 
The Cutaneous Muscle. It sends up a web of fibres from the 
neck on the side of the face : they are stronger here than in 



man. 



h- 









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264 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES 



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Plate IV. 



BEING A VIEW OF THE NERVES OF THE HEAD 



In this Plate the two distinct classes of nerves which go to the face 
are represented ; the one to bestow sensation and mastication, and the 
other for the motions of speaking and expression, that is, the motions 
connected with the respiratory organs. 

The spinal nerves on the side of the neck are also represented. 
These I have discovered to be compound nerves, arising by double roots, 
and possessing tw^o functions ; they control the muscular frame, and 
bestow sensation upon the skin. Besides these regular spinal nerves, 
which are for endowments common to a,ll animals, the nerves of the 
throat are represented. The latter nerves are the cords of sympathy 
which, in the higher animals, connect the motions of the neck and throat 
with the motions of the nostrils and lips ; not merely during excited 
respiration, but in the expression of passion. 

A. The Respiratory Nerve of the Face; or, according to authors, the 

Portio Dura of the seventh nerve. The nerve of motion of 
the features : 

a. Branches ascending to the occipito-frontalis. 

b. Branches which supply the eyelids. 

€. Branches going to the muscles which move the nostrils 

and lips. 

d. Branches going down upon the side of the neck and 

throat. 

e. Superficial Cervical Plexus. 

F 

ff. Connexions formed with the Cervical Nerves. 
ff. A nerve to the muscles on the back of the ear. 

B. The Eighth Nerve, Par Vagum, or Grand Respiratory Nerve. 
c. The Superior Respiratory Nerve, or Spinal Accessory Nerve. 

D. Ninth Nerve, or Lingualis, the nerve of motion of the tongue. 

E. Diaphragmatic Nerve. 

F. Sympathetic Nerve. 

G. Laryngeal Nerve. 



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EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES* 



265 



i 



H. Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve. 
L Glosso-Pharyngeal Nerve. 

I. Frontal Nerve. A sensitive branch of the fifth nerve, 
which I have proved to be the nerve of sensation and of 



mastication, and to resemble the spinal nerves. 



II. 



MaxiU 



A sensitive branch of the 



fifth. 



III. Inferior Maxillary Nerve. A sensitive branch of the 



\ 



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' fifth. 
IV. Temporal Branches of the second division of the fifth, 

which also give sensation. 
V. Branch of the third division of the fifth, prolonged from 
the motor root; it supplies the buccinator muscle and 
angle of the mouth, associating these parts with the 
muscles of the jaws in mastication. 
VI. The Sub-occipital Nerve. The first of the spinal nerves 

which bestow both motion and sensation. 
VII. The Second Spinal Nerve, 
viii. IX. Spinal Nerves. 



/ 



:■ 



THE END. 



\ 



Cambri 



University Library, 



permanent deposit from 
Botany School 



LONDON : — PRINTED BY MOTES AND BARCLAY, CASTLE STREET, 

LEICESTER SQUARE. 






"V 



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PRACTICAL ESSAYS. 



BY 



SIR CHARLES BELL, K.H. M.D. Gott. E.R.S 

PTiOFESSOR OF SURGEUY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH. 

IN TWO PAETS. 

1841-2. 
Imperial 8vo. 



L.&E 






I. 



Contents of Pabt L 
Of the Powers of Life to sustain Surgical Operations. 
Of the different effects of bleeding from the Artery, and 



ITT. Of Squrnting^^^ the attempt to'remedy the Defect. 
IV. Of Tic-Douloureux. 



from the Vein 



s 



V. 

VI. 

VII. 

VIII. 



Part II. 

Of the Nerves of Respiration. 

Of the Powers circulating the Blood. 



O^X^forai^S of the Spine, as distinguished from Distortion. 



STEWART 



EDINBURGH ; 

AND JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, LONDON 



1 

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