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Full text of "A sketch of modern and ancient geography for the use of schools"

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A 



SKETCH 



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and Sntient 






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N. 



FOR^THfi-USE OF SCHOOLS, 












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* By SAMUEL BUTLER, D. D. 

W^D MASTER OF THE ROYAL FREE GRAMMAR SCHOOL OF SHREWSBURY 

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FOURTH 



CONSIDERABLY ENLARGED AND IMPROVED 












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LONDON i 



PRINTED FOB LONGMAN, HURST, REES, ORME, AND BROWN, 

P ATEBN STE B-RO W . 

1818. 






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Printed by A. Straharsy 
Printers-Street, Londom. 



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PREFACE 
















presenting to the public the fourth edition of 



this little work, I beg to offer my respectful 
knowledgements for the favourable reception 
has already experienced, and 
moments as I could snatch from the duties of 

uation, have been recently devoted 



it 
such 



laboi 
to 



mpr 



vised, and considerable add 



The whole 



been 



re- 



have b 



made thr 



tions or corrections 
it. In the modern 
part m particular, the Chapter on Great Britain 
has been wholly re-written, and as much inter- 
esting and important matter brought together 
seemed suitable to a book which professes to 



be onl) 



/ 






ary. Important additions have 






been made in the antient part, especially 



the Chapt 



Italy and 



Britain 



In 



consequence of these, I have thought it desirable 



to om 



the former Preface 



that th 



of this Edition might be increased as little 



price 



possible 



as 

































IV 



Finding the great advantage of accustoming 
boys to draw outline maps on a scale, I have 
provided a geographical copy-book, adapted to 
the maps of D' Anville's Geography, which may 

be had either with or without this volume ; it did 

not appear necessary to provide a similar book 
for modern Geography, as they may be readily 



procured from any bookseller 

* 

Shrewsbury School, 
/%2. 1818. 






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i 



* 












> 









* 





















I 



' 4 




















/ 









I 






CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE. 









/ 



i 



I 








B.C. 




4004 




2348 


4 


2247 




2059 




1996 




1728 




1571 




1556 



1493 
1452 



1406 
1356 



1263 

1225 
1184 

1104 

1095 

1070 

1044 

1004 

975 

907 
896 

884 

869 

820 






Creation of the world. 

The deluge. 

Tower of Babel built, and confusion of lan- 
guages. 
The Assyrian empire founded. 
Birth of Abraham. 
Joseph sold into Egypt. 

Moses born. 

Kingdom of Attica founded by Cecrops. 

Thebes built by Cadmus. 



Mose 



next year 



Minos the Cretan lawgiver. 

Eleusinian mysteries introduced at Athens by 

Eumolpus. 
Argonautic expedition. 

Theban war. 

Troy taken. 

Return of the Heraclidte to the Peloponnese. 

Saul made king of Israel. 

Codrus last king of Athens. 






Minor 






Dedication of Solomon's temple. 
Kingdoms of Israel and Judah divided. 
iEra of Homer and Hesiod. 
Elijah taken up to heaven. 
Lycurgus the Spartan lawgiver 
Carthage built. 
Sardahapalus, last king of 

empire founded* 






Assyria. Median 



/ 



a 












p 

I 



■ 



■ 







\*s 



- 









X 



X 















CM. 

i.l, 



v. 4. 

vi. 4. 

ix. 2. 



xiv. 4. 



xxiiL 4 



xxiv. 1, 




• 2. 









xxxix. 2. 
xliv. 1. 



xlvii. 2. 



xlviii. 2 



1. 4. 
liv. 3. 



liv. 4. 



A.U.C.iB 






11 



33 



69 



70 



95 



131 
150 



163 






167 



177 

192 



193 



776 



757 

753 
74 



3 



72 



685 



Coroebus conquers at the O- 
lympic games; from which 
time the regular dates of the 
Olympiads begin. 

Isaiah begins to prophesy* 

Rome founded, April 20. 

First Messenian war ; conti- 
nues 19 years to the taking 
of Ithome. 

Kingdom of Israel finished by 
the taking of Samaria by Sal- 
manasar king of Assyria* 



Me 



conti 






nues 14 years to the taking 



of Ira 



after a siege of 11 



684 



659 



623 
604 



591 



587 



years. Age of Tyrtasus and 
Archilochus. 

Annual Archons established at 
Athens. 

Cypselus usurps the govern- 
ment of Corinth. 

Draco the Athenian lawgiver* 

Age of Arion, Pittacus, A!* 
caeiis, Sappho. 

Pythian games established at 
Delphi, and continued every 
second year of each Olym- 
piad. Age of Chilo, Ana- 
charsis, Thales, Epimeni- 







rus, &c. 



iEsop 



577 

562 




561 



Jerusalem taken by Nebuchad- 
nezzar king of Babylon, 
June 9. after a siege of 1 
months. 

Death of Jeremiah the prophet. 
First comedy acted at Athens 

by Susarion and Dolon. 
Pisistratus usurps the sovereign 

power at Athens. 












■ 



-* 












' 

















Oh 

Iv. 2. 



Iviii. 1 



ix. 2. 



lx. 3. 
Ixi. 1. 



lxiii. 4 



Ixiv. 4 



Ixvii. 3 



lxvii. 4 



Ixix. 1 



s 



lxx. 3. 




X 



i 



lxxi. 4. 



Ixxii. 3. 



lxxv. L 






vii 



A. U. C 

195 



206 



215 



B.C. 

559 



548 



539 



216 

218 



229 



538 
536 



233 



244 



245 



525 



521 



Persian empire founded upon 

the Median by Cyrus. Age 
of Anaximenes, Bias, Anax- 
imander, Phalaris, and Cie- 

obulus. 

Croesus, last king of Lydia, con- 
quered by Cyrus. Age of 
Theognis and Pherecydes. 

Marseilles built by the Pho- 
caeans. Age of Pythagoras, 
Simonides, Thespis, Xeno- 
phanes, and Anacreon. 

Babylon taken by Cyrus. 

Edict of Cyrus for the return 
of the Jews, and rebuilding 

of the temple. 
Egypt conquered 

byses. 
Darius Hystaspes, king of Per- 




Cam- 



510 



509 



250 



sia. 



Age of Confucius the 



504 



256 498 



261 



264 



493 



274 



490 



480 



Chinese Philosopher. 
Tyranny of the Pisistratidas 

abolished at Athens. 

Expulsion of the Tarquins from 
Rome. End of the regal, and 
establishment of the consular 

government. 

Sardis burnt by the Athenians, 
which causes the invasion 
of Greece by the Persians. 
Age of Heraclitus, Parme- 
nides, Milo the wrestler, 
Aristagorasj, &c. 

Lartius the first dictator cre- 
ated at Rome. 

Secession of the Roman people 
to Mons Sacer. 

Battle of Marathon. Age of 
Miltiades. 

Battles of Thermopylae and 






Sal amis. Age of TEscbylife 



? 



a 2 



. 













OL 






y 






! 






i 



i 






I 






■ 









Ixxv. 2. 



Ixxv. 4. 






Ixxviii. 4 



Ixxxi. 3. 



Ixxxiii. 1. 



ixxxiii. 2. 



Ixxxiii. 4. 



ixxxv 



ii. 2. 



i 






Ixxxix. 4. 






xci. 1. 



VilJ 



a.u. ciB.C. 



275 



277 



289 



479 



477 



300 



465 



306 



454 



Pindar, Anaxagoras, Zeuxis, 

Aristides, Themistocles, &c. 
Battles of PJataea and Mycale 

on the same day. 
The 300 Fabii killed in one 

day. 



Messenian 



* 



conti- 



nues 1 years. 
The Romans send to Athens 
for Solon's laws. Age of 
Sophocles, Pericles, Zaleu- 
cus, Nehemiah the Prophet, 



&c. 



307 



3 09 



323 



448 



447 



445 



The 



Delph 



431 



The Athenians defeated by the 
Boeotians at Chaeronea. 

ft 

Age of Herodotus, Empedo- 
cles, Euripides, Phidias, &c. 



7- and continues 27 



May 



333 



*\ 



42] 



Age 



Cratinus, Eupolis, 



critus, 
Hippocra 



Meton, Demo 

, Thucydides, 
Malachi the 



last of the Prophets: and 
the history of the Old Testa- 
ment ends. 



338 



416 



The fifty 



years peace 
the Atheniai 



made 



Lacedaemonians, which is 
kept but 6 years and 1© 
months. 

Scene of the Peloponnesian 
war removed to Sicily. The 
Agrarian law first moved at 



« • fi 



xcin. 4. 






I xciv. 1 . 



349 



Rome. 
405|Battle of 



Mg 



Potamos. 



350 



Usurpation of Dionysius the 
elder. 

404|Athens taken by Lysandcr 

























■i 



* 


























• 



IX 



01 



xciv. 4 









i 



;* 



xcv. 1. 

xcvi. 1 



xcvi. 2 






X 



xcvi, 3. 



xcvii. 3 









xcviii. 1. 



A.U.C 



353 






c. 4. 



Cll. 2 



cii. 3 



B.C. 



401 



354 

358 



400 
396 



which puts an end to the 
Peloponnesian war. 



Age of 



Parrhasius, Protagoras, Ly- 



sias 
Cyrus 



Agathon, Cebes. 
the 



Cunaxa. 



younger 
Retreat 



killed at 



of the 



359 



10,000 Greeks. Expulsion 
of the thirty tyrants from 
Athens by Thrasybulus. 

Socrates put to death. 

Expedition of Agesilaus into 



Asia. 



Age 



Xenoph 



395 






360 



Zeuxis, Aristippus, and Ar- 
chytas. 

Corinthian war begu 






394 






364 






390 






366 



388 



^ 



377 



377 



alliances of the Athenians, 
Thebans, Corinthians, and 
Argives against the Lace- 
daemonians. 
Conon defeats the Lacedaemo- 
nian fleet near Cnidus. The 

allies defeated by Agesilaus 
in the battle of Coronea. 

Rome burnt by the Gauls. Age 
of Plato, Conon, Iphicrates, 
Camillus. 

Peace of Antalcidas, which 

made the Greek cities in 

Asia Minor tributary to the 

Persians. 
Lacedaemonians defeated off 

i Naxus by Chabrias. Age of 



383 



37 



Isaeus, 
&c. 



Diog 



384 



370 



The Lacedaemonians defeated 
l by the Thebans, commanded 
by Epaminondas, at the bat- 
tle of Leuctra. 
Messenians return to the Pelo- 
ponnese, having been ba- 
nished 300 years, 
a 8 






■\ 
























/ 



>£ 



: 






Ol. 



• • .• 



cm. 2. 



civ. 2 















: 















civ. 3 



cv. 1. 



cv. 4. 



cvi. 4. 



• • • 



- - - ■ — 

CV111. 1 



cix. 2. 












y- 









ex. 3. 



x 



-,- 



cxi. 1 
cxi. 2 
cxi. 3 










cxi. 4. 
cxii. 1. 



cxii. 2 









X 



A.U.C 

387 



391 



392 



\ 



394 



397 



401 



406 



411 



416 



418 
419 
420 



421 
422 



B.C. 

367 



362 



One of the consuls at Rome 
elected from the Plebeians. 
363 Lacedaemonians defeated by 

Epaminondas at the battle of 
Mantinea. Death of Epa- 
minondas a year after that 
of Pelopidas. 

Agesilaus goes into Egypt, and 
dies on his return home. 

Athenians defeated at Methone 
by Philip of M acedon, being 
the first battle he gained in 
Greece. 

Second sacred war begun ; the 

Phocians having attacked the 
temple of Delphi. 
Philip defeats the Phocians 
commanded by Onomarchus. 
3481 Philip puts an end to the sacred 



360 



357 



353 



343 



338 



war. 



Timoleon banishes Dionysius 

the younger tyrant of Syra- 

Age of Speusippus, 
Protogenes, Aristotle, iEs- 



cuse. 



Demosthene 



Pho- 



cion, &c. 






336 
335 
334 



Philip defeats the Athenians 
and their allies in the fatal 
battle of Chaeronea. 

Philip killed by Pausanias. 

Alexander destroys Thebes. 

his Persian 



of the 



423 



333 

332 



331 



Alexander begins 
expedition. Battle 
Granicus. 

Battle of Issus. 

Tyre taken and destroyed by 
Alexander : Alexandria in 
Egypt founded by him. 

Battle of Arbela. End of the 
Persian, and commencement 
of the Grecian empire* 



» 

























7* 






» 













J 



< 



f 









>-, 



* 






XI 







* hS 



■* 







. ■ 



■ 









' 



■ 



< 



■ 



Ol. 






cxiii. 2. 



/ 



a. u. c.l B. CI 







427 



327 



cxiv. 2. 



431 



323 



lexander's expedition i 
Porus. AgeofApelk 
perides, Lysippus, &c. 



May 



King- 



cxiv. 4 



433 321 



cxv. 1. 



434 



320 



dom of Egypt founded by 

, Ptolemy. 
Romans defeated by the Sam- 

nites at Caudium. 
Poly perch on publishes liberty 
to all the Grecian cities'. 
A«p of Praxiteles. Menan- 



Demetr 



I ' • 

cxvi. 2. 439 315 Eumenes delivered to Antigo- 



cxvii. 1 



442 



cxviii. 2 



447 307 



cxviii. 3 



448 



cxix. 4. 



453 



306 



nus by his army. 

Seleucus takes Babylon, uom-^ 
mencement of the sera of 
the Seleucidas. 

Democracy re-established at 
Athens by Demetrius Poli- 

orcetes. 
Alexander's successors assume 



the title of kin 



r\ 



301 



cxxii. 2 



cxxiv. 1 



463 



470 



cxxiv. 4 



73 



Battle of Ipsus, in which Anti- 
gonus is defeated and killed 
by Ptolemy, Seleucus, Lysi- 
machus, and Cassander. Age 
of Zeno, Pyrrho, Philemon, 
Grantor. 

291 1 Age of Euclid the mathema- 
tician, Epicurus, Bion, &c. 

284| Pharos of Alexandria built. 

The Septuagint translated 
about this time. 

281 Lysimachus defeated and killed 

*** ' Romans begin 



cxxv. 1. 



cxxv. 3. 



474 



476 



280 



278 






by Seleucus. 

the Tarentine war. Achaean 

league begins. 
Pyrrhus king of Epirus goes to 

Italy to assist the Tarentines. 
The Gauls cut to pieces near 



Delph 



Ag 



of Sostratus 5 



a 4 










- 



























* I 



\ 






' 












































•V 





















s 



^ 



OL 



cxxvi. 3. 



cxxvii. 4. 
cxxix. L 



cxxx. 1, 



cxxxi. 1. 



cxxxii. 2. 



cxxxiv. 1. 



cxxxiv. 3. 



cxxxiv. 4. 



cxxxv. 1. 



cxxxv. 4 



cxxxvi. 2 



cxxxvi. 4. 



cxxxvii. 2. 



cxxxix. I. 



XH 



Ia.u.c. 



480 



485 
490 



494 



498 



503 






510 



512 



513 



B. C 



514 



517 






519 



521 



523 



530 



274 



269 
264 



260 



256 



251 



Theocritus, Aratus, Lyco- 

phron, &c. 
Curius defeats Pyrrhus, who 

retires to Epirus. 
Silver first coined at Rome. 
First Punic war begins, and 

continues 23 years. 
Duillius gains the first naval 

victory with a Roman fleet 

over the Carthaginians. 

defeated by Xan- 



Regulus 



s. 



,' 



,. 



244 



242 



241 



240 



thippu 
Age of Aratus, Cleanthes, Ma 

netho, Timaeus, Callimachus 
Zoilus. 

Citadel of Corinth taken by 
Aratus. 

4 

Carthaginians defeated by Lu- 
tatius Catulus. End of the 
first Punic war* 



to death. 



Lacedaemon 



237 



235 



233 



Plays of Livius Andronicus 

first acted at Rome. 
Amilcar passes into Spain with 

his son Hannibal. 
Temple of Janus shut the first 

time since the reign of Numa„ 



M 



chylus, Sophocles, and Eu- 
ripides lent to Ptolemy on a 
pledge of fifteen talents. 
231 1 First divorce known at Rome. 

Sardinia and Corsica con- 
quered. 
Colossus of Rhodes thrown 
down by an earthquake. 
Romans first cross the Po 
in pursuit of the Gauls. 
Age of Chrysippus, Archi- 



224 



Messala 



* 



M 












" 







§■■ 




.\ 



01. 



cxl. 1. 



cxl. 2. 






X 



cxl. 3. 



v 



cxl. 4. 
cxli. 1. 
cxli. 3. 



cxlii. I 






cxliii. 2. 



XUl 






A.U. C 



B.C 






cxliv. 3 



cxlv. 1 



cxlv. 4. 






cxlvii. 1. 




cxlix. 2. 



clii. 2. 



534 



535 



536 



537 
538 

540 



542 



47 



552 



554 



557 



Nsevius, Aristarchus, Apol 
lonius Rhodius, Fabius Pic 
tor the first Roman histo 



nan 



&c. 



220 



c 



119 



218 






„ m between the,iEtoli~ 

ans and Achseans assisted by 
Philip the last Macedonian 
king of that name. 

Hannibal takes Saguntum, 
which is the cause of the 
second Punic war. 

Second Punic war begins, and 
continues 17 years. Battles 
of Ticinus and Trebia. 



1 7 Battle 



216 
214 



212 



Battle of Cannae. 
Romans begin the 
Philip in Epirus. 

taken b\ 



Marcellus 



Syracuse 

after a siege of three years 

Death of Archimedes. 



207 



202 



200 






197 



Asdrubal defeated by Claudius. 

Age of Plautus, Ennius, &c. 
Battle of Zama, which put an 

end to the second Punic war. 
First Macedonian war begins, 

and continues four years 

nearly. 
Philip defeated at the battle of 
Cynos-cephale, which puts 



562 



192 



an end to the 



Mace- 



donian war. 



Romans 



begin 



the war with 



571 



183 



583 



171 



Antiochus the Great, which 
continues near three years. 
Age of Laelius, Masinissa, 
the S.cipios, the Gracchi, 
eath of Hannibal and Philo- 

Scipio died the 



pcemen. 
year preceding. 
Second Macedonian 









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* ^* w^ 


















1 





















; 






. 









u 














































-*-^ 









' 






Xiv 




A.U.C 

586 




clvii. 4, 
clviii. 1 



clviii 2. 



\ 



605 
606 



609 



608 



613 



^ •■ 



618 



619 



621 



633 



643 



652 
653 



657 




/ 



663 



665 



6G6 



B.C. 

,68 












149 



148 



145 



Battle of Pydna, in which 
Perscs Is defeated by Paulus 
iEmilius, and Macedonia re- 
duced to a Roman province. 
Age of Terence, Pclybius, 
Pacuvius, Hipparchus, Car- 
neades, &c. 

Third Punic war begins. 

Romans make w 






Achaeans. 



UpOkJ 



the 



146 



141 



Carthage destroyed by Scipio, 

and Corinth by Mummius. 
Viriatus defeated by Laelius in 



Sp 



pin 



136 



135 



133 



Numantine war begins; con- 
tinues 8 years. 

The famous embassy of Scipio, 
Metellus, Mummius, and 
P. naetius into Egypt, Syria, 
and Greece. 

The history of the Apocrypha 



end 



s. 



121 



111 



102 
101 



97 



91 



Numantia taken. Pergamus 
annexed to the Roman em- 
pire. 

Caius Gracchus killed. 



of Lucilius 



Age 



89 



88 



Jugurthine war begins, and 

continues five years. 
Teuton es defeated by Marius* 
Teutones and Cimbri defeated 

by Marius and Catulus. 
Cyrene left by Ptolemy Apion 

to the Romans. 
Social war begins, and con- 
tinues 3 years till finished by 

Sylla. 
Mithridatic war begins, and 

continues 26 years. 
Civil wars of Marius and Sylla 

begin* and continue 6 vears, 

i<S 


















. 






, I 



hm 



[~V*^^H^^^HH 






. - 



H 





-' 



XV 






• 



a.u.c. B.C. 
















y 



X 



67 



*■ 



676 

679 
681 
683 
685 



688 



689 



691 



694 



696 



699 
701 
704 
706 

707 
708 









709 

710 
7ii 



712 
715 



82 



Marius, and is made 



dictator. 



78 Death of Sylla. 



75 

73 

71 

69 



Bkhynia left by Nicomedes to the Romans. 

Servile war begins under Spartacus. 



Mi 



and Tioranes defeated 



Lucullus. 



1 igranes 



by 



a 



Mithridates conquered by Pompey in 
night battle. Crete subdued by Metellus, 
who obtains the surname of Creticus. 

65JPompey conquers Syria, which puts an end 

to the reign of the Seleucidae. 

63|Catiline's conspiracy defeated by Cicero. 



60 



Mith 



First triumvirate of Caesar, Pompey, aud 
Crassus. Age of Cicero, Catullus, Lu- 



cretius, Sallust, &c. 
5 8l Cicero banished, and recalled in 



sixteen 



55 

53 



months. 

Caesar invades Britain. 

Death of Crassus. 



50 Civil war between Caesar and Pompey. 
48 Battle of Pharsalia. 

47 
46 



Alexandria taken by Caesar. 

War of Africa. Cato kills himself. Caesar 



corrects 



the advice of 



45 
44 

43 



Sosigenes : the year of confusion, consist- 
ing of 1 5 months, or 445 days. 

Battle of Munda. 

Caesar killed in the senate house. 

Battle of Mutina. Second triumvirate of 

Octavius, Antony, and Lepidus.^ Cicero 

proscribed and put to death. 

Nepos, 

peius, Varro, &c. 
42|Battle of Philippi. 



Age of C. 
Diodorus Siculus, Trogus Pom- 



39 



Ventidius defeats 






Pacorus general of the 
Parthians on the same day 14 years after 
the death of Crassus. 









m 






. 


















XT I 















«rf 



■ 






1 






r 

































. 






M 









\ 












1 



A. U. C 

718 



' 



722 
723 

724 



727 



734 



737 
739 

742 
748 
749 



755 

762 

763 

767 



770 



772 



779 

784 
786 
789 
790 



h 



792 



B.C. 

36 






/ 



32 
31 
30 






27 



20 



17 
15 

12 
6 

4 



A.D. 

2 

9 
10 

14 



17 



19 



26 
31 
33 



°6 



o 



37 



Pompey the younger defeated in Sicily by 

Octavius. 
Octavius and Antony prepare for war. 
Battle of Actium. 

Alexandria taken, and Egypt reduced to a 
Roman province. 

Title of Augustus given to Octavius. The 
Augustan age — of Virgil, Manilius, Asi- 
nius Pollio, Meceenas, Agrippa, Strabo, 
Horace, Macer, Propertius, Livy, Ti- 
bullus, Ovid, Varius, Tucca, Vitruvius, 
Dionysius Halicarnassensis, and Diony- 
sius Periegetes. 

Tiberius recovers the Roman standards from 
the Parthians. 

Secular games celebrated at Rome. 
Rhaeti and Vindelici defeated by Drusus. 

Pannonians defeated by Tiberius. 
Tiberius retires to Rhodes for seven years. 
Our Saviour born, four years before the vul- 
gar aera. 

Tiberius returns to Rome. 

Ovid banished to Tomos. 

Varus defeated in Germany by Arminius. 

Augustus dies at Nola, and is succeeded by 
Tiberius. Age of Phsedrus, Asinius Gal- 
lus, Paterculus, Cornelius Celsus, &c. 

Twelve cities in Asia Minor destroyed by an 
earthquake. 

Germanicus poisoned by Piso, dies at An- 

tioch. 
Tiberius retires to the island of Caprese. 

Sejanus disgraced and put to death. 

Our Saviour crucified. 

Conversion of St. Paul. 

Tiberius dies and is succeeded by Caligula. 

Age of Valerius Maximus, Columella, 

Philo Judseus, &c. 



39|St. Matthew writes his gospel. 













1 









! 









< 









xvn 



A.U.C 
793 



794 



796 

797 
804 

807 



812 

817 

818 
819 



820 
821 

822 



823 



832 






A.D. 

40 



834 






848 
849 




851 

855 



41 



43 
44 
51 
54 



The disciples first called Christians at, 

Antioch. 
Caligula killed ty 

by Claudius. 



and 



59 
64 
65 
66 



Claud 



67 

68 
69 



St. Mark writes his gospel. 
Caractacus brought a prisoner to Rome. 
Claudius poisoned by Agrippina and suc- 
ceeded by Nero. 
Agrippina put to death by her son 
First persecution of the Christians. 
Seneca and Lucan put to death by Nero. 
Nero visits Greece. The Jewish war begins 



Nero 



r 



Joseph 



Q. Curtius, Pliny the 



70 



79 



Titus 



81 



95 
96 



98 
102 



St. Peter and St. Paul put to death. 

Nero killed and succeeded by Galba. 

Galba killed and succeeded by Otho. 
Otho, defeated by Vitellius, kills himself. 
Vitellius defeated, and killed, and suc- 
ceeded by Vespasian. 

Jerusalem taken and destroyed by Titus, 

Saturday, Sept. 8. 
Death of Vespasian : succession of 
Herculaneum, Pompeii, and Stab 
stroyed by an eruption of Vesuvius, in 
which Pliny the elder lost his life. Age 

of Josephus. 

Death of Titus and succession of Domitian. 
Age of Sil. Italicus, Martial, Apollonius 
of Tyana, Valerius Flaccus, Solinus, 
Epictetus, Quintilian, Agricola, &c. 

Second persecution of the Christians. 

Domitian killed by Stephanus and succeeded 

Nerva. Age of Juvenal, Tacitus, 

Statius, &c. 
Death of Nerva and succession of Trajan. 
Pliny proconsul of Bithynia writes his fa- 




of the Christians. 



g 













































« * d 

XV ill 












i 






■: 





















i I 



l ; 









■ 


















,. 



























■ 



A. U. C.| 

856 
859 



A.D. 

103 
106 






860 

867 

870 

871 

874 

883 



884 



891 



X 



914 






922 
933 



945 



946 



i. 



i 



947 
951 



107 
114 

117 

118 

12i 
130 



D 



m 



131 



138 



Trajan's expedition to Parthia. Age of 
Floras, Suetonius, Pliny the younger, 

Plutarch, &c. 
Third persecution of the Christians. 
Trajan's column erected at Rome. 
Death of Trajan : succession of Hadrian. 
Fourth persecution of the Christians. 
Hadrian builds his wall in Britain. 
Hadrian rebuilds Jerusalem and erects a 

temple there to Jupiter. 

The Jews rebel, and after a war of five years 
are defeated and all banished. 

Death of Hadrian and succession of Anto- 



ninus Pius. In the reign 



H 



161 



169 

180 



flourished Phavorinus, Aristides the so- 
phist, Polycarp, Arrian, Ptolemy the geo- 
grapher, &c. 
Death of Antoninus : succession of Marcus 
Aurelius and L. Verus. In the reign of 
Antoninus flourished Maximus Tyrius, 
Pausanias the topographer of Greece, 

Diophantus the mathematician, Lucian, 

Hermogenes, Polysenus, Appian, Arte 
midorus, Justin Martyr, Apuleius, &c. 

War of the Marcomanni. 

Death of Aurelius : succession of Commo 
dus. In the reign of Aurelius flourished 
Galen, Athenagoras, Tatian, Athenaeus, 



MV 



D 



192 



Martia 



succeeded by Pertinax, who reigns a few 

s. In this reign flourished Julius 



onth 



193 



Pollux, Theodotian, Irenaeus, &c. 
Pertinax killed by the Praetorian guards, 



Didi 



. ^ * 



Didiu 



194 
198 



guards, and succeeded by Severus. 
Severus defeats his rival Niger at Issus. 



h 



at Lyons. 






















^mm 








xix 



A. U. C 





960 
962 
964 



fA.D.1 

202 Fifth persecution of the Christians. 



965 
970 



971 



975 



988 



989 



990 



997 
1002 









1003 
1004 



1006" 



1010 
1012 



1013 



20 



/ 



209 
211 



212 
217 






218 



222 



235 



236 



Severus visits Britain. 

Severus builds bis wall in Britain. 

Severus dies at York, and is succeeded by 

Caracalla and Geta. In the reign of Se- 
verus flourished Tertullian, Minucius 
Felix, Papinian, Clemens Alexandrinus, 
Philostratus, &c. 

Geta killed by his brother Caracalla. 

Caracalla killed and succeeded by Macrinus. 
In this reign Oppian flourished. 

Macrinus killed by the Praetorian guards 

and succeeded by Elagabalus. 
Elagabalus killed by the Praetorian guards 

and succeeded by Alexander. 
The sixth persecution of the Christians* 
Alexander killed by the soldiers and suc- 



ceeded 




Maximin. In the 



238 



244 
249 






250 
251 



253 



257 
259 



260 



reign of 
Alexander flourished Dion Cassius, Ori- 
gen and Ammonius. 

Maximin killed by the soldiers, and suc- 
ceeded by the two Gordians, who are 

killed by Pupienus and Balbinus. 

Pupienus and Balbinus killed by the soldiers 

and succeeded by Gordian. 
Gordian killed and succeeded by Philip. 
Philip killed by the soldiers and succeeded 

by Decius. 

Seventh persecution of the Christians. 
Decius killed in battle against the Goths 

and succeeded by Gallus. 
Gallus killed and succeeded by iEmilianus, 

who is soon killed by his soldiers and 

succeeded by Valerian. 
Eighth persecution of the Christians. 
Valerian taken by Sapor King of Persia, by 

whom he is kept prisoner and at length 

flayed alive, 

Gallienus succeeds Valerian. The thirty 
pretenders to the empire called the thirty 
tyrants* 












1 



m 












* 






I 



' 



I i 



1 ! 



f 















■ 






























- 






/ 



XX 



/ 



I 



A.U.C 

1021 



1023 
1025 
1026 



1028 



1035 



1037 



1039 



1056 



1057 



1059 



/ 



1065 



1072 



1077 



1078 
1081 



1083 


















L.D. 

268 



270 

272 

273 



275 



Gallienus killed by his soldiers, and suc- 
ceeded by Claudius. 
Claudius dies and is succeeded by Aurelian. 
Ninth persecution of the Christians. 
Zenobia defeated by Aurelian at Edessa. 



Age of Longinus. 



by 



who reigned only six month s^ and was 
succeeded by Probus. . 

282 Probus killed by his soldiers, and suc- 
ceeded by Carus and his two sons Ca- 
rinus and Numerianus. 

_ 

284 Carus killed by lightning, and succeeded 



Dioclesian 



286 



Maximianus 



303 



304 



306 



312 



319 



ner in the empire. 

Tenth persecution of the Christians, which 

continues ten years. 
Dioclesian and Maximianus abdicate the 

empire, and are succeeded by Constan- 

tius Chlorus and Galerius. 
Constantius dies, and is succeeded by his 

son Constantine the Great. 

Maxentius defeated and killed by Con- 
stantine. 
Constantine begins to favour the Chris- 



324 



tians. 



325 

328 






330 
331 



337 



340 



Licinius defeated and banished by Con- 

stantine. 
The first general Council of Nice. 
The seat of empire removed from Rome 

to Constantinople. 
Solemn dedication of Constantinople. 
Constantine orders all the heathen temples 

to be destroyed. 
Death of Constantine and succession of 
his three sons, Constantine, Constans, 

and Constantius. 
Constantine killed by Constans at Aqui- 

* 






I 



350 



leia. 






by Ma 






* . 



* 










' - 



XXI 









.D. 

360 
363 
364 



410 



Death of Constantius : succession of Julian. 

Death of Julian: succession of Jovian. 

Death of Jovian. Division of the empire into 






Western 



g 



426 
447 



455 
474 
476 



529 



581 



622 



632 
637 
640 



verned by Valens, the latter by Valentinian. , 
Rome taken and plundered by Alaric king of the 

Visigoths. 
The Romans leave Britain. 
Attila king of the Huns, surnamed the Scourge 

of God, ravages Europe. 
Rome taken by Genseric king of the Vandals. 
Augustulus last emperor of the West. 
The Western empire destroyed by Odoacer king 

of the Heruli, who assumes the title of King of 

all Italy. 
Justinian publishes his celebrated code, and four 

years after, his digest. Age of Belisarius. 
About this time Latin ceases to be the language 

of Italy. 
Mahomet, in his 53d year, flies from Mecca to 

Medina, on Friday, July 16., which forms the 

first vear of the Hegira, or 



Mahometan 



Mahomet 



732 



800 



1096 
1099 
1188 
1453 






Jerusalem taken by the Saracens. 

Alexandria taken by the Saracens and the library 

destroyed. 
Battle of Poictiers, in which the Saracens are 
defeated and driven out of France by Charles 

Martel. 
Charlemagne crowned emperor of Rome and 

of the Western empire. 
The first crusade. 
Jerusalem taken by the crusaders. 
Third crusade, and siege of Acre. 
May 29. Mahomet II. takes Constantinople, 

and puts an end to the Eastern empire. 



\ 



b 











■^^c^^ 
















\ I 






lit 



. 



i; 















■ " 



| 






















• * 



XXL1 



* * v ** * f d* * < * 



NOTE 



I 



ON THE CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE 









MOST of the events mentioned in this table are extracted from 
Dr. Blair's Chronology, and prefixed to that most excellent and _ 
useful work Dr. Lempriere s Classical .-Dictionary > with this dif- 
ference that I have followed Dr. Blair in giving the synchromcal 
dates of Olympiads and years of Rome, whereas Dr. Lempnere 
has content d himself with giving merely the year before Christ, 
!Td adds that « the era from the foundation of Rome, will be 
easily found by recollecting that the city was bunt 753 years 
before Christ ; and the Olympiads can likewise be recurred to by 
the consideration that the conquest of Corcebus (B.C. 776) forms 
the first Olympiad, and that the Olympic games were celebrated 
after the revolution of four years." The learned author however, 

may thus lead his readers into an error of considerable magni- 
tude' To illustrate this as briefly as possible, I will give an 
instance in both cases, explaining the source of the error, and 
<nve the rule for rectifying it. The reader may possibly infer 
from Dr. Lempriere's rule, that having the year before Christ 
eiven he can find that of Rome by simple subtraction, and that 
of the Olympiads by subtraction and division: this, however, is 

not the case ; — to take an example — 

Rome was founded B. C. 753 
. Csesar was killed B. C. 44 
I wish to know in what year of Rome this event happened j 

Therefore from 755 

take 44 

Remains 709 
for the year of Rome, in which C*esar was killed. But, m fact, 
he was killed A. U. C. 710, a year later than the date given ™. 
reason of this difference will be plain, if we consider ~ 



The 



an 












t l 









V-. 



/ 






XX111 






which happened 752 years before Christ, and which, therefore, 
must have happened in the second year of Rome, a& 753 was the 



first year. 



Yet, from 755 









take 752 









d 



t 
t 



IS 



,ct, 
he 
nt 






Remains 1 



\ 



So that it appears to have happened not in the second but the first 
year of Rome. Again, an event which happened in the first year 
would have no remainder •, or would appear to have happened before 
Rome was built. In all cases, therefore, it will be necessary to add 

to the remainder one for the current year, in order to get the true year 
of Rome; or as a shorter and more commodious 



\ 



RULE, 

hristfi 



of 



Thus Caesar was killed B. C. 44 — required the year of Rome. 



From 754 
take 44 



r 

Remains 710.— -Answer, A. U. C.710. 



The 



The 



Battle of the Granieus was fought B. C. 354 : the first Olympiad 
took place B. C. 776 ; and an Olympiad is a period of four years- 
K, therefore, we subtract 554 from 776, and divide the remainder 
by 4, the quotient, according to Dr. Lempriere, ought to give us the 
Olympiad ; and the remainder, if any, the year of the Olympiad. 
Let us try this : 



From 776 
take 334 






4 | 442 | 110,2 

or this event ought to have happened in the 2d year of the lioth 
Olympiad, as I get a quotient of no and 2 over. Now it really 
ha Ppened in the 3d year of the 1 1 lth Olympiad. Whence we may 



ded 



uce the following 



b 2 






■ 




































T 



I 






r 

i 




































p 









i 









XXIV 



RULE 



Subtract the given year from 176, divide t e remainder by 4, and to the 
quotient add one for the current Qlympiad and one for the current 
year of it. 

Thus, in the event already instanced, 01. 1 10,2 



Add 



1,1 



And we have the true year 01. 1 1 1 >3 

The reason of this is obvious by pursuing the analogy in the case of 
the years of Rome; for let us take an event which happened in the 
year 776, that is, in the/r^year of the first Olympiad, and if 

From 776 

we take 776 






o 



we shall find that it will appear to have happened in no year of wo 
Olympiad, 

i 

i 

. 

I fear I may be thought prolix, but the importance of the subject 
to the learner makes me anxious to represent it in the plainest light 

I can. To the learned author of the Classical Dictionary the rising 
generation and their instructors owe so great obligations, that I can 

only say I wish this little book of mine may be but one-tenth as 
much and as deservedly esteemed. 













. 



























i 



\\t 









\ < j 






























X 










i 




/ 



PART I. 



A SKETCH 






OF 



X 






MODERN GEOGRAPHY 



vr 









/ 










* 






/ 















I 



y 



CHAPTER I 



■ 



G 



implies a description of the earth 



being derived from the Greek words y« the earth 



and 



describe 



. 



The form of the earth is very nearly spherical ; the 
polar axis being only about 38 miles shorter than the 

■ 

equatorial, which, in a diameter of near 8000 miles, 
produce no sensible difference. 



can 






The principal circles on the globe are the Equator, 

^ _ 



the Ecliptic, the Tropic of 



the Tropic of 






Capricorn, the Arctic and Antarctic circles. Every 
circle, whether greater or less, is divided into 360 
degrees ; for the antients supposed that the Ecliptic, or 



ppears 






heavens, was completed in 360 days. Each day's 
advance in this circle they called a gradus, or step, or 
degree, and applied the same mode of division to circles 
m general. Each degree is subdivided into 60 minutes, 
and each minute into 60 seconds. Degrees, minutes, 
and seconds, are marked thus °, ', "; thus 23° 40' 52" 

i 

means 23 degrees, .40 minutes, 52 seconds. The half of 
360 is 180, and the half of 180, or the fourth part of 



Hence 



£ 












L 









1 > 









11 












hi 1 












III 









1 | 









* I 









H 






' I } 












. 




































c z 



^circle wil! contain i 80°, and a quadrant o^quarter 
of a circle, will contain 90% or an angle called a right 
all Hence it will be seen that the Equator dtvtdtng 
2 earth equally, must divide it into two sermc.rcle^ 
Gaining 180' above and 180P below, or, — ^ 
quadrants, into two qnadrants of 90° each above, and 
two of 90° each below the Equator. 

The Ecliptic, or circle which the sun appears to de- 

JH in theVavens, sets out front the =^J~£ 

tinues to rise, through the first quadrant, to the Trop,c 









ra T treTw;,"! n,eaLes through it. Hatf.hU dialer 
:S fro! L centre to the —rence in o. P o» 
..„. a dj radius of the circle. And it » a property of the carde 



If a circle be 

figure 



The 



is called the radius of the circle, 
o have all its radii, or diameters, of equa ength 

1 to turn round on its diameter, it will genera 
supposed to turnrou ^ ^ ^^ 

called a sphere. Such is *£* h called its axis . I 

diame ter o. iwhch he ^arc e ^ ^^ „ 

*™P<^^^ is any circle described on a sphere, 
um round. A . § reaC1 di J eter of t he sphere. The Equator 
whose diameter is equal to the ««** secondary is a great 

and Ecliptic are J* J^^tl tZ * J 1*5 I 

circle whose ax - ^ J J be 9Qo from the ^ of 

the poles, «*«£ £££• J the circumference of a circle 

the primary. An arc a y P inated f ro m the number 

contained between two radn and deno ^^ ^^ 

of degrees it contams. Thus SO ^ ^ of 

between two radii is called an arc of ,0 a q ^ 

90 o ; a semicircle is an - f 1^ *£^ ^ ^ 
*h everywhere k ep * ^^ side f each 

arde, and so run ^™ ' ^ c f the globe ar 

other. The remaining greater <iuu 
omitted, as unnecessary to be described here. 









/ 
















3 



of Cancer; it then* turns, or declines, towards the 

* 4 

Equator, for the second quadrant, till it again meets the 

Equator 180° from the place at which it set out; it then 

descends, for the third quadrant, below the Equator to 

the Tropic of Capricorn, from whence it turns upwards 

towards the Equator, for the fourth quadrant, till it 
reaches the point from which it set out. Thus we see a 

change in the direction of the Ecliptic, with respect to 

the Equator, at every quadrant. 

The Equator, or Equinoctial, is so called because on 
the two days on which the sun is in the Equator, in the 
signs of Aries, and Libra, nodes cequantiir 9 or the time 
of day and night is exactly equal all ovef the world. 

The Ecliptic is so called because all ixAe/\|/sic, or 
eclipses of the sun or moon, can only take place when 

* 

the moon is in or near that circle, f 

The Tropics are two parallels to the Equator drawn 
through the Ecliptic, at those points where the Ecliptic is 

at the greatest distance from the Equator ; this is found 

to be about 23° 30' from the Equator, on either side. 

The Polar circles are those circles which are supposed 

to be described by the Poles of the Ecliptic revolving 

round the poles of the Equator. Hence* they must be 

the same distance from the poles of the Equator, as the 

plane of the Ecliptic from the plane of the Equator, or 

23° 30', which is the distance of the Tropics from the 
Equator. 

■ 

* Hence the name of Tropic, from *fi*uv 9 to turn. 

f An eclipse of the Sun is caused by the moon intervening be- 

tween the sun and earth, so that the moon's shadow falls on the 

earth. An eclipse of the Moon is caused by the earth intervening 

between the sun and moon, so that the earth's shadow falls on the 
moon* 



> 



B 



o 









/ 

































I 










/ 






m 



I 






■ i 









■ 















4 



Zones are so called from $ 






being those spaces contained between the several prin- 
cipal circles we have described. Thus, between the 
Poles and Polar Circles are the two Frigid Zones, 
between the Frigid Zones and the Tropics are the two 
Temperate Zones, and between the two Tropics the 



Torrid Zone, deriving these appellations from the 



temperature of the atmosphere. 

Longitude is the distance of any place from a given 



spot 



the country, measured 



a direction east or west, either along the equator or any 
circle parallel to it. 

Thus the English measure their longitude East and 
of London (or rather Greenwich), the French 



West 



West of Paris, &c. &c. + 






■ 






| \ 









; 



* 









■ 






,-li 









* I 



Latitude is the distance of any place from the Equator, 

north or south, and is measured along a secondary to the 
Equator, supposed to be drawn through the place. 

Meridians or circles of longitude are so called from 



* The antients (who knew more of the earth from the Streights 



West 



East, than from the Barbary Coast to the Baltic, L e. from South 
to North,) called the greater dimensions the Longitude, or length, 
and the smaller the Latitude, or breadth. Hence the origin of the 
terms longitude and latitude, as applied to distances on the earth'* 
surface; the former being measured in a direction East and 
from a given point, the latter in a direction North or South. 



West 



T 



which passed through the Fortunatse Insula?, or Canary Islands. 



13 












■■■HIM^^iMB^hMMHAiBi 




»*- r ^-- 









, 









5 



tneridiesy or mid-day ; because, as the Earth makes one 
complete revolution round its own axis in 24 hours, 
every part of its surface must in the course of that time 



be 



therefore 



evi- 



then appear at its greatest altitude to the inhabitants at 
that point ; and will afterwards appear to descend for as 
long a time as he appeared before ascending : in other 
words, it will be mid-day or noon. It is, therefore, 
dent that there maybe as many meridians drawn as 
there are points in the Earth's equator : for the sake of 
convenience, they are generally drawn at 1 0° distance 
from each, other in maps of the world, and at 5°, or less, 
in maps containing a smaller portion 



of the 



surface. 




Parallels of latitude are smaller circles drawn par 

to the Equator. As the circumference of the Earth's 
surface is greatest at the Equator, and decreases con- 
tinually towards the Poles, it is evident that the circles 
of latitude, which are parallel to the Equator,, must also 
continually decrease in like manner; therefore^ the 
number of miles in each parallel of latitude must con- 
tinually decrease. But the number of degrees in every 
circle, whether greater or less, is always 360°; therefore, 
the number of miles in each of these 360°, or in every 
degree of longitude, must continually decrease from the 
Equator to the Poles. W e may, therefore, consider the 
Equator as the greatest of all the circles of latitude. * 

* 

* It is evident that the number of miles in the meridians, or circles 
of longitude, which are all great circles, is every where the same, 

therefore the number of miles in a degree of latitude is every where 

Sesame. 

B 3 






* 












I J ; 



■I 
I 



I 



\ 

































t 









I I 






■ 






* 
























I 






■ 







6 






S 



The longitude of any place, therefore, being its 



distance from 



Wc 



of th 



e 



same place being its distance from the Equator, measured 

direction North or South, if we know both the 



m a 



latitude and longitude of a place we know its exact 
situation on the Globe. To exemplify this in the Map 



Wo 



H 



D 



>ttom of the map, lying under the meridian 
marked 30 on the equator, is in the thirtieth degree of 
longitude East of London : I should find Alexandria, in 



Egypt, and Petersburg, in Russia, both in this degree 
of longitude, but I know not their relative distance from 
each other; they may lie one under the Equator, the 
other under the North or South Pole, or in any other 

* 

possible position on the meridian marked 30 from the top 

of the map to the bottom of it ; but when 1 find the lati- 
tude also, I have their exact position, both with respect 
to each other and all other known places on the globe : 
thus I find also, that the sixtieth degree of North lati- 
tude passes through St. Petersburg, and about the thirty- 
first degree of North latitude through Alexandria, or that 
Petersburg is 60°, Alexandria 31°, North of the Equator; 
consequently I now know their exact situation with 
regard to each other, to London, and to every place on 
the Earth's surface. We say, therefore, that 
burg is in 60° N. lat. (North latitude), and 30° E. long. 
(East longitude), and that Alexandria is in 31 Q N. lat. 

L 



Pete 



and 30 E. long. 



English 



when other miles are not expressed- 









i 1 



1 1 

i 












7 






Map 



a 



miles are to be understood as spoken of. 
the World the divisions of latitude and 
made at 10° distance, as the most convenient: but it is 
evident, that the more minute the divisions can conveni- 
ently be made, the more accurately wilUhe situations of 
places be ascertained. In the 



Map 



every 



Map 



England, at every degree, and each degree is subdivided 
into six equal parts ; each, therefore, contains ten miles. 
Hence, although it is not easy in a small Map of the 
World to ascertain the situation of places within perhaps 
a degree, in the Map of Europe we may do it with 
tolerable accuracy to the half or quarter of a degree, 
and in the Map of England almost to the precision of a 
single mile. It may be necessary here to caution the 
young student, that the exact situation of a place is to 
be taken from the small spot, or circle, which is made 
near, and generally at the beginning of the name. * 






* It may be remarked, that the latitude is to be reckoned on 
either side of the map j and the longitude at the top or bottom, 
according as the reference may be made with the greatest conve- 

°The learner may farther observe, that when the figures 






nience. 



increase in value from the bottom to the top of the map, the por- 
tion of the globe described in the map is wholly in North latitude ; 
when they decrease in value, wholly in South latitude ; when it is 
nartlv in North and partly in South latitude, the figures increase 



cypher. 



World 



There is no map in common collections used at schools comprising 
a part of the globe wholly in Southern latitude : South America 
contains the greatest portion of it. Also when the figures con- 
tinually increase to the right at the top or bottom of the map, all 

the places in it are in East longitude; when they continually m- 



> 



left, in West 



B 4 



I 















ii 




















I 









1 1 

It 



























I 



t 3 












iii 



■ 









\ 



• 



i 


















8 



i 



It may be an useful Exercise to describe the latitude 



Map 



Europe : 



London 
Edinburgh 

■ 

Dublin 

Paris 

Madrid 

Lisbon 

Brussels 

Amsterdam 

Vienna 

Bern 

Turin 
Rome 
Naples 
Constantinople 

Buda 



Warsaw 

Berlin 

Moscow 

Petersbur] 

Stockholm 

Bergen 

Copenhagen 

Dresden 

Prague 
Frankfort 

Genoa 

Venice 
Geneva 
Hamburgh, 



Also the following places in the Map of England 






London 

Manchester 
Liverpool 

York 

Birmingham 
Bristol 
Oxford 



Cambridge 
Lincoln 

Durham 

Exeter 

Plymouth 

Lizard Point 
Land's End 



Portsmouth 

Chester 
Canterbury 

Norwich 
Leicester 

Shrewsbury. 






























Of turning Degrees of Longitude into 2 ime. 

As the Earth makes one complete revolution on it 
axis, in a direction from West to East, in 24 hours, any 



ypher 



West 



of 



Germany, Ireland, and Europe. In most maps, unless the con- 
trary be expressed, the top of the map is the North, the bottom the 
South, the right side the East, and the left side the West. 















1 1 












I 












9 



t 



must 



through 360° in that time; or if we suppose a fixed 
meridian above the Earth, like the brazen meridian of 

I 

a globe, every part of the Equator, containing 360°, 
must have passed under that meridian in 24 hours. 
Hence, if we divide 360 by 24, we shall find how many 
degrees pass under this meridian in one hour, which will 
be 15. Now, as the Earth really revolves in a direction 
from West to East, it is continually as it were falling 
below the heavenly bodies on the Eastern, and rising 



\ 



above those on 



Western horizon; hence, those 

West 



bodies appear to rise in the East, and set in the 
because they come into sight as the Eastern edge of our 
horizon falls below them, and are hid from view as the 

! rises above them. If the sun, therefore, 



Western edg 



appears to rise at six o'clock at London, it will be yet an 



hour befo, 

London, 

3 0° West 



West 



I 






already appeared to have risen one hour at a place 15 
East of London, two hours at a place 30° East, and so 
on. Therefore, when it is twelve o'clock at noon at 



ifternoon at all 



15 



West 



ck in the fore- 
The following 



questions may serve to exercise the young student : 



It is eleven o'clock in the morning at Vienna 



Where 



where is it ten in the morning ? 

/ 

i 

When it is mid-day at London — Where is it midnight? 






f I 









I 






' 












•I 





















I \ 



I 



• 















* f 
























I 









10 



When 



Map 



West 



What 



Map 



? 



Suppose an eclipse of the sun takes place at three 
in the afternoon at the place where I am, and I see by 
the almanack that it took place at half past twelve in 
London — In what longitude am I ? 

















j 



4 





















i ■ ■ . - 






* 









\ 



> i 






/ 
























^ 






■ 






hi 









S,:' 









f 1 









I 



il 



i i 



\ 







* 






11 
































I 



CHAPTER II. 



■+ •* 




he Map of the World is divided into two 
Hemispheres. The right, or Eastern Hemi- 

* 

sphere, contains the three Continents of Europe, 

Asia, and Africa, commonly called the Old 
World, as having been known to the antients. 
The left, or Western Hemisphere, contains the 
two Continents of North and South America, 

r 

I 

called the New World, having been only dis- 
covered by Columbus, in the year 14Q2. 



Europe, Asia, Africa, and the two Americas, are 
commonly, but absurdly enough, called the Four 
Qitarters # of the World, bearing, as we shall see here- 
after, a very great relative disproportion to each other* 












* If the word quarter be taken in its proper sense for an equal 
fourth part, the term is absurd when applied to the divisions 
of the globe; but not if we use it in the sense of division, or 
region. Thus we speak of the quarters of an orange, of quar- 
tering ground, &c. and we say, In these quarters, for In these 
regions, or In this part of the World. Still the division of the 
world into four quarters is inconvenient, as it leaves us at a loss to 



and 



Seas. 






i 























t I 



ii*' 


















.. 









I 













































• 



I 






. 


















i 1 1 f 






























12 



Some recent geographers have divided the World into 
six, or rather seven portions : Europe, Asia, Africa, 
and the two Americas, Australasia, containing New 
Holland and the adjacent Islands, and Polynesia (from 

■ 

•xoXbg and v>]<ros), comprising the numerous Islands in 
the Pacific Ocean. It is not probable, however, that 
this more scientific distribution will supersede the 

division, sanctioned by the general usage of 



vulgar 

preceding ages 



N 



EUROPE. 




Of the four generally received divisions of the 



world 



the smallest, comprising 



greatest breadth about 



and in its g 



length about 2350 British miles. It is bounded 

* 

on the North, by the Arctic or Frozen Sea, on the 
West by the Atlantic : an imaginary line, drawn 
through the Mediterranean, separates it from 
Africa, on the South; and it is divided from Asia, 
on the East, by another imaginary line, drawn 
through the Archipelago, the Black Sea, the Sea of 
Azoph, continued along the River Don, or rather 

,nd thence bent East- 

ns, and from 
tfrence continued till it reaches the Arctic Sea, 



perhaps along the Volga, ; 

ward towards the Uralian Mounta 

























13 






under Nova Zembla ; but the Eastern line of 

separation is not well agreed on, or defined. 












The Island of Great Britain is in the West of 
Europe, comprising the kingdoms of England 
and Scotland, and the Principality of Wales. 
The Southern part of Great Britain to the Solway 
Firth on the West, where the island is narrowest, 
and Berwick upon Tweed on the East, is called 
England -, above it is Scotland j and on the West, 
between the Bristol Channel and Chester, is 
Wales. West of Great Britain is Ireland, and 
above Ireland is Iceland. 






Below Great Britain is France, and below 
France to the West is Spain, and still to the West 

of Spain is Portugal. Below France to the 
Eastward is Switzerland, at the South- West of 
which is the Lake of Geneva and City of that 

name, and below it Italy, which resembles a 
Boot. The lower part of Italy is called the 
Kingdom of Naples. At the top of Italy, to the 
West is Genoa, and above, Piedmont, in which 
is Turin, the Capital of the King of Sardinia's 
Continental Dominions. At the top of Italy, on 

the East, is Venice, giving name to the Gulph of 
Venice, which separates Italy from Turkey in 
Europe. The lower part of Turkey in Europe 

is called Roumelia, antiently Greece, and the 
























'I 
























HP! 






I 












» 











































































HI 



» 1 I 



t ' t 









\ 



Vi 



part of 



called the Morea 



ently 



the Pelop 



Immediately above the Gulph 



of Venice is the Tyrol, and Carinthia, Istria, and 

Carniola, and above Turkey in Europe are the 
Dominions of the Emperor of Austria, Hungary, 
and Bohemia. These, together with a consider- 
able tract of country lying east of France, ; 






nd 



■/ 



above the Alps, were comprised under the general 



name of Germany 



formerly 



* 

petty States, and recently several newly-erected 
Kingdoms and Principalities, the chief of which 
are Saxony and Hanover in the North of Ger- 
many, Wirtemberg and Bavaria in the South. 

9 

The parts on the Coast, North of France, are the 

■ 

mntries, now called bv 



Netherlands 



Low C 



their antient name of Belgium, and forming, to- 
gether with Holland and its confederate States* 
the Kingdom of Holland. Next to these is Jut- 
land, forming part of the Kingdom of Denmark, 

then Prussia, lying above Germany on the Coast 
of the Baltic. To the East of Germany, above 
Hungary, was formerly the Kingdom of Poland, 
divided in 1793 between Prussia, Russia, 



and 



Austria: and 



the whole remainder of Europe, 
from the Black Sea upward to the East and North- 
East, forms a part of the immense Empire of 

i 

Russia; that part of it which is contained between 
the Black Sea and the Sea of Azoph is called 
the Crimea, or Little Tartary. On either side of 






l S 















II 


















15 






the Gulph of Bothnia is Sweden, and to the West 



of Sweden is Norway- 



Above the upper part of 



Norway, Sweden, and Russia, is Lapland, divided 
into Danish (or Norwegian), Swedish, and Rus- 
sian Lanland, and between the Gulphs of Bothnia 
and Finland, is Finland, divided between Russia 
and Sweden. The Kingdom of Denmal 
sists of Jutland in the Continent, and several 
Islands in the Baltic, of which Zealand and 
Funen are the chief. Norway is now subject to 




con- 



the Crown of Sweden 



Between the Island of 



Zealand and the Coast of Sweden is the celebrated 
passage called the Sound, where a toll is claimed 
from all ships which pass, by the King of Den- 
mark. 






The principal European Islands are the Islands 
of Great Britain and Ireland, above which is 

Iceland. About midway between Europe and 
America, off the Coast of Portugal, 



are 



the 



Azores, the most remote of the European Islands. 
In the Mediterranean are Yvica, Majorca, and 
Minorca, off the Coast of Spain, 
is Corsica, with Sardinia below it 



Under Genoa 
it. At the foot 

* 

of Italy is Sicily, and below it the small but 

# Denmark and Norway, which had been sometimes under the 
same, and sometimes under different sovereigns, were united into 
one kingdom in 1417, and so continued till 1814, when Norway was 

ceded to Sweden. 



j * 



















1 








■ 1 










* 




















■ 

r 




' 




N 














J 




1 


* 








1 




%^^x\. 






1 


to 1 



; t 















♦ »t 





















16 



t 

sbrated Island of Malta. Below the Morea, 



kh 



East, is Candia, and still Eastward is 



Cyprus. Of the Islands in the Baltic, the 
principal is Zealand, in which is Copenhagen, 
the Capital of Denmark. And in the Arctic 
Sea is Nova Zembla. 



The following are the Capitals of the principal 
European States, with their Lat. and Long. The 
learner is desired not only to look for them in the 
Map of Europe, but in the maps of the several 
countries to which they belong : 















! 















• i 







England 
Scotland 

Ireland 
France 
Spain 

Portugal 

Holland 



London 

■ 

Edinburgh 
Dublin 

i 

Paris 

Madrid 

Lisbon 

Amsterdam 










The Nether- 3 Bmssels 



lands 
Switzerland 

Piedmont 



Italy 
Naples 

Sicily 



Bern 

Turin 

Rome 

Naples 

Palermo 



Latitude. 
51°30'N. 



53 21 N. 

48 50 N. 

40 25 N. 

38 42 N. 

52 21 N. 

50 50 N, 



46 57 N 
45 4 N 



Turkey in Eu- 1 Constantinople 4 1 



rope 
Hungary 






Buda 



Longitude. 
0° 0' 



55 57 N. 3 12 W 



6 6 W. 

2 20 E, 

3 12 W. 
9 4 W. 

4 51 E. 
4 21 E, 



7 30 E, 
7 40 E 



41 53 N. 12 29 E. 
40 50 N. 14 17 E 

38 20 N. 13 15 E 



1 N. 



28 55 E 



47 20 N. 19 12 E. 





















I 


















k 













Austria^ 

Hanover 
Saxony 



s 



Bavaria 
Prussia 

Kussia 



Sweden 



No 



way 



Denmark 



The 



17 



Vienna 

Hanover 

Dresden 



Wirtemburg Stutgard 




Munich 
Berlin 
Petersburg 
Moscow 

Stockholm 
Bergen 

Copenhagen 







Latitude. Longitude, 
48°12'N. 16°16'E 



52 22 N. 



9 48 E. 



51 12 N. 13 24 E. 






48 44 N, 



9 21 E. 



48 9 N. 11 30 E. 

52 31 N. 13 22 E. 



59 56 N. 



30 19 E. 



55 45 N. 37 32 E. 
59 20 N. 18 3 E. 



60 10 N. 



5 15 E. 



55 41 N. 12 35 E. 






- 



Europe 



respective maps. 



v 






I 









/ 










IN FRANCE. 




m 

N. La. 


Long. 


Boulogne 


50° 43' 


1°36'E.] 


Brest 


48 22 


4 29 W. 




Bourdeaux 


44 50 


34 W. 


* 


Nantes 
Marseilles 


47 13 

43 17 


1 33 W. 
5 21 E. 


f Seaports, 


Toulon 


43 7 


5 55 E. 




Calais 


50 57 


1 51 E. 


i 









Lyons 
Amiens 

Rouen 




lers 






45 45 



49 26 
46 35 



4 49 E. 



49 53 2 17 E. 



l l E 



o 21 E. Celebrated for the battle of Poictiers, 

September 19th, 1356; in which the 
Black Prince, Son of our Kins Ed- 
ward III. with SOOOEnglish, defeat- 



C 






I 









/ 






■ 



hi 












18 






li: 



N. La, E. Lo, 



i t 















i M 















slaughter. 












/ 












Cressy 



ed 50,000 French, and took John 
King of France prisoner. 
Agmcoiift 50° 35' 2° io' The battle of Agincourtwas fought 

near the castle of that name, not 
far from Hesdin in French Flanders, 
Oct. 25th, 1415; in which Henry 
V. defeated the French with great 

The French left on the 
field the Constable d' Albert of 
France, 3 Dukes, the Archbishop of 
Sens, 1 Marshal, 3 Earls, 92 Barons, 
1 500 Knights. 
Cressy is a small town, not in the 
maps, near Abbeville, about fifty 
miles from Calais, celebrated for the 
battle in which our Edward III. de- 
feated Philip VI. of Valois, August 
26th, 1346. The French are said to 

■ 

have left the King of Bohemia, 1 1 
Princes, 80 Bannerets, 1 200 Knights, 
1500 Gentlemen, 4000 Men at 
Arms, and 30,000 other soldiers on 
the field of battle. 

- 

Where the Kings of France were 

formerly crowned. 
Near Paris, the residence of the 
Kings of France. 
47 54 1 54 Giving its title to the Duchy of that 

name, which was always held by a 
Prince of the Blood Royal. 



Rheims 



49 15 4 1 



Versailles 48 48 



2 7 



Orleans 






i 












The principal Rivers are the Seine, which flows into 



Channel at Havre 



the Loire, 



which enters the Bay of Biscay beyond Nantes; the 
Rhone, which rises from the Glacier of Furca, one of the 
Swiss Alps, and enters the Mediterranean below Nismes 



5 












i 






hi 









', 



19 



■ I 






and Montpelier ; and the Garonne, which flows into the 
Bay of Biscay not far from the Isle of Oleron. The 
principal Mountains are the Southern and Western 
boundaries of the Alps and Pyrenees. 



X 









L 

■ - _ ^ * 

In the Netherlands, formerly called also Flanders, or 
the Low Countries, now called Belgium, the following 
are the principal cities : 



iV. La. E. Lo 



51° "' 



51 \3 

50 29 



3° 43' 



Brussels 

Ghent^H 

Antwerp 51 13 4 22 
Ostend I 

Namur 



2 55 

4 45 



Lou vain* 50 53 4 41 
Malines 51 2 4 29 







The chief Rivers are the Scheldt which passes by 

Antwerp, and falls into the North Sea near Flushin 
and the Meuse, whose banks are eminently beautiful and 
picturesque. There are no mountains in the Nether- 
lands. 















In Holland is 



\ 



JV. La. E.Lo. 



Leyden 52° 8' 4° 28' Celebrated for its University. 
Rotterdam 51 55 4 29 The birth-place of the illustrious Eras- 
mus, A. D. 1467. 
The Hague52 4 4 17 The residence of the Court of Holland, 



i 



Waterlo 



and about two miles farther South is the ever memorable plain where 
the Emperor Napoleon was utterly defeated by the Duke of Welling- 
ton, June 18. 1815. 

c % 

































I 



■ 









t I* 


















I 















• 



s 



so 



T 



he principal Rivers are the Rhine with its branches, 
the Waal and the Yssal, and Meuse, all which flow into 
the North Sea. There are no Mountains in Holland. 



\ 



The German States may be divided into Northern and 
Southern, by the Mayne, which falls into the Rhine at 






JV. La. E. Lo. 



Mentz 



50° 



/ 



80 10' 



■ 

The chief cities in the Northern States are 






» 



jy. La. E. Lo. 



In Saxony 
In Hanover 
In Hesse Cassel 

On the Mayne is 



Leipsic 

Gottingen 

Cassel 



51° 19' 12° 20 



r 



51 51 
51 19 



Frankfort 49 55 
Mayence 49 54 



9 53 
9 45 

8 35 
8 20 





















\ 






ii 



In Germany, South of the Mayne, we have the follow- 



ing Cities : 



In Bavaria 



Ratisbon 

Manheim 



N. La. E. Lo. 

49° O' 12° 5' 









In Wurtemberg Stutgard 



49 25 
48 44 



8 53 

9 21 






V 



■ 

The chief Rivers in the North are the Elbe, which 
rises in the Sudetic mountains of Silesia, and flowing by 
Dresden, Magdeburg, Hamburg, and Altona, enters the 
North Sea near Cuxhaven. West of it is the Weser, 
which flows by Minden and Bremen into the North 
Sea. Still West is that noble river the Rhine, which 
rises in Switzerland, receives the Mayne at Mentz, and 
many other tributary streams, and flows through the 
countries already described ' into the North Sea. Its 
course is about 600 miles. In the Southern States we 



» 
















/w.JL 



/ 



- 
* 

have the Danube, which rises within 30 miles of the 
Rhine in Suabia, and, after a course of above 1300 miles, 
falls into the Black Sea ; and the Mayne, which may be 
considered as dividing the Northern from the Southern 
States. The principal Mountains are the Hartz, in the 
North ; the Erzgeburg, or Metallic Mountains running 
between Bohemia and Saxony ; the Mountains of the 
Black Forest in Wurtemberg ; and the Mountains of 
Bavaria and Salzburg, which are continuations of the 
Swiss and Tyrolese Alps. 



\ 



In the Austrian Dominions 

* 

N. La. E. Lo. 

Prague 50° 5' 14° 24' Which 

Presburg 48 20 17 50 Which i 

Cracow 49 59 19 50 Which 



» 






OlmutZ 49 30 17 55 



Trieste 45 51 



late Kingdom of Poland 






14 3 Which 






the Emperor of Austria. 



The principal Rivers in the Austrian Dominions are 
the Danube, whose source and course is already described; 
the Tiess, which flows into the Danube near Belgrade ; 
the Save, which forms'a boundary to Austria and Turkey, 
and flows into the Danube at Belgrade; the Drave, which 
joins the Danube above the Save, near Esseg; the Inn, 
which joins the Danube on the Western boundary of the 
Austrian Dominions, near Passau; and the Elbe, already 
described, which rises not far from Olmutz in Moravia. 



\ 



/ 



Germany before its dismemberment by the late Emperor of France, 
^was divided into nine circles: J, Westphalia, East of the Seven 

9 

United Provinces ; 2, 3, Lower and Upper Saxony, East of West-* 

c 3 













1 



I !}:> 















I t t 



I ■ 









I 






.! 



»*- 









1 
















phaiia ; 4, 5, theXower and Upper Rhine, South and South East of 
Westphalia ; 6, Franconia, East of the Rhine, and South of Saxony ; 
7, Swabia, South of the Rhine and Franconia ; 8, Bavaria, East of 
Swabia ; and 9, Austria, South and South East of Bavaria. - The 
remainder of Germany contained Bohemia, East of Franconia, and 
North East of Bavaria j and its dependencies, Lusatia to the North, 
Silesia to the North East, and Moravia towards the South East of 
Bohemia. 



In Switzerland are 



/ 



Basil 
Zurich 



Lausanne 46 31 



JST. La. E.Lo 

47° 35' 7° 29' 



47 20 



Geneva 



46 12 



8 30 

6 55 

6 O 



At the extremity of the beautiful Lake 
of that name. 



\ 

The principal Rivers are the Rhine, already described, 
which rising amidst tremendous Alpine precipices in the 



Lake 



stance ; the Rhone, already described, which rises from 
an extensive glacier, forming as it were a palace of arches 

of perpetual ice, and flows through the lake of Geneva ; 



Waldshut ; the 
The Mountains in 



Limmat which flows into the Aar. 

Switzerland are the Alps, the highest of which are toward 



5 



u _ Mount 
Mount Rosa, to the North East of Mount 



very 



little lower. Between them is the Great St. Bernard, one 
of the passes over the Alps into Italy. 

In the North of Italy are 



* 

Alessandria 



N.La. E. Lo. 

44° 55' 8° 4C/ Near which is Marengo, celebrated 

for the victory of Buonaparte over 

the Austrians. 















» 






;i 
















. 



23 



Milan 

Pavia 

Venice 

Padua 

Mantua 

Parma 

Placentia 

Modena 



G 



JV. La, E. Lo. 

45° 27' 9° 11' 



enoa 



45 15 

45 26 
45 14 

45 10 

44 56 

45 5 
44 54 
44 25 



9 15 

12 22 

11 55 
10 47 
10 51 

10 24 

11 12 
8 56 












The principal Rivers are the Po, which flows into the 
Adriatic near Venice ; the Tesino, Mincio, and Trebia, 
which flow into the Po; and the Adige, which also flows 
into the Gulf of Venice. The Alps are the principal 
Mountains in the North of Italv. 






In the central part of Italy are 



» i 






JNT. 



Lucca 

Pisa 
Florence 

Livorno or 
Leghorn 

Bologna 



45 45 
45 46 



44 29 



E.Lo. 



45° 52' 11° 27' 



10 25 

11 51 



45 55 10 25 



/ 



11 21 



The principal Rivers are the Tiber which falls into 
the sea near Rome, and the Arno which flows by Florence 
and falls into the sea near Pisa. The Apennines are the 

in the Centre of Italy, and run 



Mountain 



through the middle of Italy from North to South. 



% 



* The Apennines branch off from the Alps, and their highest 
point is Mount Velino, near the centre of Italy, almost 8000 feet 
above the level of the sea. 

c 4 



\ 



/ 













. 







. I 









a 



\ 




































M 



























f 



' 



* 



24 



In the Southern part of Italy are 



N. La. E. Lo. 



Brindisi 
Tarento 



40° 52 

40 35 



18° 5' 
17 29 



In Sicily are 



Messina 
Catania 

i 

Siracusa 



N.La, 

38° 10 
37 30 
36 56 



E. Lo. 

15° 50' 
15 19 
15 



In the South of Italy, near Naples, is the celebrated 



r is 



the much more 

The 



Volcano of Vesuvius. In Sicily 
stupendous Volcano of iEtna, near Catania, 
height of Vesuvius is not above 3600 feet, nor its cir- 
cumference more than 30 miles; while iEtna rises at 
least 11,000 feet in height, and covers a space of 180 

■ 

miles in circumference. Many of the smaller moun- 
tains in the neighbourhood of iEtna exceed Vesuvius. 

The crater of Vesuvius is about half a mile in circum- 
ference, that of iEtna never less than three, and often 
six miles. In the neighbourhood of Sicily, to the North, 
are several small Volcanic Islands, known by the general 
name of the Lipari Isles. 



. 












4 



> M 



In Sardinia the principal city is 

N. La. E. Lo. 
Cagliari 39° 12' 9° 14> 









In Corsica 



Bastia 



\ 



N. Let* E. Lo 

42° 35' 9° 42' 



In Spain are the following principal Seaports : 






- 



■ 



■ 



- ■ 









i 



/ 










25 






N. La. Long. 

36° 32' 6°16'W, 
36 35 4 10 W, 



Cadiz 

Malaga 

Barcelona 41 23 2 13 E. 

Corunna 43 23 8 19 W. Memorable for the famous Battle of 

Corunna, between the English and 

French, the latter of whom were 

defeated; but the English General, 

Sir John Moore, fell in the action, 

16th January, 1809. 

Carthagena 37 37 1 8 
Alicant 38 16 5 



-< 







4 






Also the following cities and towns : 






Valencia 
Saragossa 



N. La. W.Lo. 

39° 27' 0° 27' 
41 45 48 



Toledo 



39 50 3 20 



Memorable for its siege and gallant 
defence against the French army. 

9 



Ciudad Real 39 1 3 57 
Badajos 



38 45 6 40 Memorable for its siege and capture 

by Lord Wellington, 6th April, 1812. 



Reckoned the Wonder of Spain. 



Seville 
Murcia 

Grenada 



37 14 5 59 
37 58 1 16 
37 8 3 38 






Valladolid 41 42 4 47 

Salamanca 41 24 5 48 Memorable for the Battle of Sala- 

manca, July 22. 1812 ; in which the 
French army, under the command 
of Marshal Marin ont, were totally 
defeated by the allied army, under 
the command of the Earl of Wei- 
lington. 
Vittoria 42 52 2 50 Memorable for the Battle of Vittoria, 

gained by the Marquis of Welling- 
ton, June 21. 1813. 






•^ 



B^^H^^H^^^^^^H 







Ml* 












I I ' 


















■ 












26 



Eastward, below Cadiz, is the famous Rock of 



N. 



W. Lo. 



Trafalgar 






Gibraltar 36° 6' 5° 22' Belonging to the English, who took 

it in 1704. 
56 1 1 6 2 The promontory at the entrance into 

the Straights of Gibraltar is the ever- 
memorable Cape Trafalgar, where 
Lord Nelson defeated the combined 
fleets of France and Spain with im- 
mense loss, having taken no less 
• than nineteen sail of the line, Octo- 
ber 21. 1805, and was himself shot 
by a rifleman in the very moment of 
victory. 






The principal Rivers of Spain are the Ebro, which 
rises near Reynosa, and flows into the Mediterranean 
near Tortosa; the Guadalquivir, which originates in 
the Sierra Morena, and flows into the Gulph of Cadiz 
near Xeres and St. Lucar; the Guadiana, which rises 

not very far from Toledo, and, flowing by Merida and 
Badajoz, falls into the Atlantic, East of Cape St. Mary; 
the Taje, or Tagus, which rises in Castile, and flows 
through Spain and Portugal till it enters the Atlantic 
below Lisbon ; and the Douro, which rises near the 
ruins of antient Numantia, and, flowing through Spain 
and Portugal, enters the Atlantic at Oporto. The 
principal Mountains of Spain are the Pyrenees, of which 
the highest, Mount Perdu, is about 11,000 feet, being 
not lower than iEtna ; the Sierra Morena ; and Sierra 
Nevada; and Montserrat ; which last is a solitary 
mountain near Barcelona, and so high that the Islands 
of Majorca and Minorca can be seen from it, which are 
distant about 180 miles. 






\ 









! i 



















\ 



27 



/ 






In Portugal we have 

XT. La. W< Lo 

41° 10' 8° 22' 



Oporto 
St. Ubes 

Coimbra 

Evora 

Beja 



58 22 



38 28 



57 58 



8 54 



40 25 8 20 Celebrated for its University 



7 50 
7 40 



/ 









The Mountains of Portugal are not of very peculiar 
magnitude or importance. The chief is the chain of 
Arrabeda, in Estremadura, some of the highest points of 
which may be 8000 feet. The principal Rivers are the 
Tagus and Douro, already described, the Mondego, 
which passes by Coimbra, and the Minho, which forms 
the boundary between Portugal and Gallicia. 



The principal cities in Turkey in Europe are 



Atini 

Larissa 

Salonica 



JVL La. E. Lo. 
38° 5' 25o 52' The antient Athens. 



59 48 
40 53 



22 47 
25 5 



\ 



Adrianople 41 55 26 27 
Belgrade 



Bucharest 
Ismail 

Bender 



44 46 

44 57 

45 11 

46 53 



21 5 
26 8 
29 50 
29 24 






The principal Rivers of Turkey in Europe are the 
Danube, already described ; and the Maritz, or antient 
Hebrus, which rises in Mount Haemus, and falls into 
the Archipelago at the Gulph of Eno. The chief 
Mountains are part of the grand Carpathian chain, 
running through Wallachia; the chain of Haemus 

and Rhodope; Mount Olympus ; Athos; and others, 
























■ 






















>IU 






28 















r 



. 






i 



hereafter 
Greece. 



to 



be described in the account of Antient 



In Prussia are 



Konigsberg 

Breslaw 

Warsaw 
Dantzic 
Potzdam 
Magdeburg 






N.La. E.Lo. 

54° 42' 20° 45' 

51 3 17 9 The capital of Silesia. 

52 14 21 o The former capital of Poland, 



54 21 



18 38 



5225 15 7 A favourite Royal residence. 
53 10 11 55 A prodigiously strong fortress 



























The principal Rivers of Prussia are the Elbe, already 
described; the Oder, which rises in the Mountains of 

* 

Moravia, and flows into the Baltic below the Island of 
Rugen; and the noble River Wiesel, or Vistula, which 
rises in the Carpathian Mountains, and, flowing by 
Cracow and Warsaw, enters the Baltic, near Dantzic ; 

and the Memel, which enters the Baltic by Tilsit, above 
Konigsberg. The principal Mountains of Prussia are 
in its Southern boundary, in what was formerly part of 
the Kingdom of Poland : they are part of the Carpathian 
chain, and called by the general appellation of the 
Sudetic Mountains; — the greatest height is about 5000 
feet. 



Russia in Europe contains the following principal 



cities : 



< 



Moscow 
Smolensk 

Cherson 



N.La. E.Lo. 

55°45' 37° 22' The antiept capital of Muscovy 

54 50 32 34 

46 37 31 26 On the Black Sea* 











** 









- k ■ — * I 



X 



* 









I 



Kafa or \ 

Theodosia $ 
Riga 

Archangel 



29 






2V. L#„ JE. Lo. 

45° o' 55° 20' On the Sea of Azopli 

56 50 24 15 

f 

64 53 38 59 



* 






The principal Rivers of European Russia are the 
Volga, which forms for a long space the boundary 
between Europe and Asia, and rises in Europe between, 
Petersburg and Moscow, and, after receiving the Kama ; 
(another important stream which rises in the Uraliaft 
Mountains,) flows into the Caspian Sea below Astrachan ; 
the Don, or Tanais, which rises in a Lake in the 
Government of Tulan, and flows into the Sea of Azoph ; 
the Dnieper, or antient Borysthenes, which rises in the 
Government of Smolensk, and falls into the Black Sea 

below Cherson, where it is joined by the Bog, or antient 
Hypanis ; the Dniester, which rises in the Carpathian 
Mountains, and falls into the Black Sea at Akerman. 






between the Dnieper and the Dniester 



Poland 



Cara 






rises m 



Uralian Mo 



White Sea, 



Way 



and may be 



mentioned as a continuation of the boundary between 
Europe and Asia, from the Uralian Mountains North- 
wards ; West of this the Ousa rises in the Ural Moun- 
tains, and falls into the Sea, West of Waygat Island; 
the Dwina rises frorh the West part of the Uralian 
chain, and falls into the White Sea at Archangel ; 



the One 



/ 



W 



le Government 
Sea, West of 



Dwin 



the 



Neva rises on the great Lake Ladoga, and, flowing 



tersburg, falls into the Gulph 






I 






■ j 
























i i 






i p 



i 



























30 



Duna rises near BieloW, in the Government of Smolensk, 

■ 

and falls into the Gulph of Riga at Riga. The princi- 
pal Russian Mountains are those of Taurida, on the 
Black Sea ; of Olonetz, towards the White Sea ; and of 
Ural, which separates Europe from Asia : but none of 
these heights are very considerable, — Pauda, which is 
one of the highest, not being 5000 feet above the level 

of the sea. 

In Sweden are 

N. La. E. Lo. 
Upsal 59° 52' 17° 39' Celebrated for its University. 

Carlscrona 56 7 15 26 



Stralsund 
Abo 



54 20 
60 27 



13 16 In Swedish Pomerania. 
22 13 In Finland. 















Sweden, Norway, and Lapland abound in Lakes, bu 
the Rivers are generally of inconsiderable magnitude. 
The principal Rivers of Sweden are the Dahl, which 
rises in the Norwegian Alps, giving name to the pro- 
vince of Dalecarlia, and enters the Gulph of Bothnia, 
nearly opposite, but a little North, of the Island of 
Aland ; the Tornea rises from a Lake of the same name, 

i 
■ 

and enters the Gulph of Bothnia at its Northern ex- 
tremity, near the town of Tornea, the most Northern 
city in Europe. Sweden may be considered as a moun- 
tainous country, especially on the confines of Norway. 
The highest Swedish Alps are about 6700 feet above 
the level of the sea. The Island of Rugen, in the 

1 

Baltic, and several smaller Islands belong to Sweden. 



In a direct line above the town of Tornea is 

N. La. E. Lo. 

■ 

North Cape 7 1° l o' 25° 57 The extreraest Northern part of 

Europe. 






w, 













1, 
















r 






..>.-. 



31 



















In Denmark and Norway 



Altona 



Christiana 
Drontheim 



N. La, E. Lo. ' 

53° 54' 5° 58' Is a celebrated commercial town, 

near Hamburg, belonging to 

Denmark. 

59 50 10 50 > Are two of the most considerable 
63 26 10 22 i cities in Norway. 



Denmark abounds in small streams, but has no River 
of importance. In Norway there are abundance of 
Rivers, but few of them, owing to their cataracts,' are 
navigable- The principal River of Norway is the 
Glomen, which is full of cataracts and shoals: it snrinrrc 



from 



and falls into the North 



Sea at Frederickstadt, below Christiana. Denm 
has no Mountains ; but Norway is an Alpine coun 
The highest Norwegian Mountains are about 9fi00 f 



or perhaps somewhat more, above the level of the sea. 

Among the numerous Danish Islands, we should not 



\ 



of Iceland, in which is th 



Hecla 



Water 



high, and several 



column of water to an immense height. The 



Mountai 

the sea. 



D 



feet above 
f Norway, 









■ 



l&tliQwm of cBuiope, 

The Church of England is commonly called a 
Lutheran Church, but whoever compares it with the 
Lutheran churches on the Continent, will have reason 






I 













t 






I 1 
























I 









L I 




to congratulate himself on its superiority. It is in fact 
a church sui generis, yielding in point of dignity, purity, 
and decency in its doctrines, establishments, and cere- 
monies to no congregation of Christians in the world ; 
modelled to a certain and considerable extent, but not 

■ 

entirely, by our great and wise pious Reformers, on the 
doctrines of Luther, so far as they are in conformity with 
the sure and solid foundation on which it rests, and we 



trust for ever will r 



Holy 



tures, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone. 






1 






Other Lutheran churches are those of the North of 
Europe, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Prussia, and the 
North of Germany. 













/ ' 



Martin Luther, the great Reformer, was born at 
Eisleben, in Saxony, A. D. 1483; was summoned to 
Rome for preaching against Indulgences A. D. 1518; 

excommunicated by the Pope A. D. 1520; threw off 
his monastic habit A. D. 1524; married A, D. 1525; 
died A. D. 1546. His great protector on the Continent 

was the Elector of Saxony. 















« 






John Calvin, whose real name was Chauvin, was born 
at Noyon, in Picardy, A. D. 1509. The persecution of 
the Protestants in France obliged him to fly to Geneva, 
whefe he established his system, and died A. D. 1564. 



Among the leading features of Calvinism are belief 
in Predestination, Election and Reprobation, and Irresist- 
ible Grace, together with the rejection of Episcopacy ; 
instead of which Calvin proposed that the Church should 

14 













• 







\ 



% 









\ 






S3 



*- i 















■ 
■ 

be governed by presbyteries and synods, composed of 
clergy and laity, without bishops or any clerical superi- 






ority 



Hence Calvinistic churches are also called Pres- 



byterian. 



The following churches are Calvinistic : Scot- 



land, Holland, and Geneva. 






/ 



Protestants are subdivided into numerous other sects, 
which it is unnecessary to particularize. 






The Roman Catholic Church contains many errors, 

which were gradually introduced into it by the conti- 

nually increasing thirst of the Popes for temporal 
power. Among their principal errors, renounced and 
opposed by the Protestants, are Transubstantiation, or a 






belief that the consecrated wafer, or Host, as it is called 

I 

(from Hostia, a victim), are absolutely changed in the 
Sacrament of the Lord's Supper into the real and sub- 
stantial body and blood of Christ ; Purgatory, or the 

intermediate state of punishment between this life and 
the final judgment, from whence the souls of men can 

I 

be delivered by the prayers, or alms, or penances of the 

- 

faithful; the Intercession of Saints; the worship of the 



Marv; Miraculou 



r« • 



the Celibacy 



of the Clergy: — against these, and many other idle, 
superstitious, or erroneous doctrines, and against the 
Supremacy and Infallibility of the Pope, the Reformed 
Churches Protest, and are therefore called Protestant 

s 

* 

Churches. * x The Popes formerly claimed the supreme 



* The term Protestant was originally applied to the Elector of 
Saxony, the Landgrave of Hesse, and other Lutheran powers of 
Germany, who protested against the decree of the Diet of Spires, 
for the maintenance of the Catholic religion, A. D. 1 530. April 1 9. 



/ 



B 












, 



V 






■ 







U!P 


















I 












t 









i 












h 






M 



tli 



Sov 



immediate vicars or vicegerents of God. —It is but justice 



Catholics 









sions, generally known under the name of the dispensing 
and deposing powers, (or the power of the Pope to dis- 
pense with the oath of allegiance from the subject to the 
Sovereign, and to depose the Sovereign in case of heresy), 
have been formally disavowed by the six principal Catholic 
Universities, consulted for that purpose in the year 1 788. 


















The follow 



Spain, Portugal, Italy, Austria, nearly the whole of 
the Southern German States, Belgium, and 



part 



Switzerland^ 



of England 



& 



established 



land; but the 



Roman 



Catholic. 
TheC 



Roman 



Empire, the capital of which was Constantinople. 
Hence it is also called the Eastern, in contradistinction 
to the Romish or Western Church, from which it differs 
in many unimportant points of discipline, but few very 

doctrine. The Patriarch of Constan- 



material points of 



t 

Greek Church 



Russians and Greeks, whether on the 
tie Grecian islands. 



Mahometanism is a form of religion engrafted on the 
Jewish and Christian dispensations by the impostor 






II 



\ 

































35 



Mahomet, who was born A. D. 57 1> at Mecca, in Arabia^ 

and died A. D. 632. The Mahometans acknowledge 
the divine mission of Moses and of Christ; but maintain 
that these were ineffectual to convert mankind, and that 
none but faithful Mussulmen, or Mahometans, will be 
entitled to future happiness, which they believe will con- 
sist in a paradise of sensual delights. They are also 
believers in predestination. The doctrines of Mahomet 
are to be found in the Coran, which may be called the 






Mahometan bible. 









r 












\ 



- 












. 












■ 




































k 









. 



1 






s 



/ 









D 2 






mm 



























36 



\ 









CHAPTER III 



I 



GREAT BRITAIN. 



< 













he Island of Great Britain extends from 50° to 58° 



North 



miles, and its greatest breadth 



about 580 British 

Land's End to the 



Kent, is about 370 



\ 



* 



Great Britain is divided into England, Wales, and 

Scotland. The greatest of these divisions is England, 
which is bounded on the East by the German Ocean, on 
the South by the English Channel, on the West by Wales, 
between the Bristol Channel and Chester, and above that 

- 

by St. George's Channel, and on the North by the river 
Tweed, and an imaginary line continued South West 
down to the Firth of Solway. The remainder of the 
island. North of this, is Scotland. 



V 



England was divided into Shires by Alfred ; these are 
also denominated counties, from having been governed 
by an Ealdermai*, a dignity corresponding with the Latin 



Comes, or Count, and afterwards with the Danish title of 

Earh 












/ 

























r * 



37 






. 



and Wales are divided 



: 



containing about 



& 



may be classed as follows 
is taken from the returns 



British square miles-*, which 

the extent and population 



\ 










. 






Counties 



Extent in Popu- 



Sj. Miles 



lotion 



Chief 
Towns. 



f Northumberland 1809 172,161 Newcastle 



& 



O 



Cumberland 

Durham 
Yorkshire 

East Riding 



1497 155,744 Carlisle 
1040 177,625 Durham 



York 



Popu- 

* 

httion. 

27,587 
12,551 

6,765 
18,217 



1268 



167,555 






North Riding V 2112 152,445 
West Riding \ 2633 653,315 

j Westmoreland 

I Lancashire 

f Cheshire 



J Shrop 



shire 



722 45,922 Appleby 

1806 828,509 Lancaster 

1017 227,051 Chester 

1 405 1 9 4,59 8 Shrewsbury 









no 

c<3 



1 Herefordshire 

■ 
i 

Monmouthshire 

Nottinghamshire 

Derbyshire 
Staffordshire 

Leicestershire 

Rutlandshire 



94,075 Hereford 

62,127 Monmouth 






971 

516 

774 
1077 

1196 295,155 Stafford 
816 150,419 Leicester 
200 



2,160 

924 

16,140 

1 5,530 
7,50 6 

5,505 



162,900 Nottingham 54,255 

185,487 Derby 15,045 

4,868 

25,146 

1,111 



^ 



Northamptonshire 9l35 



674 



Warwickshire 
Worcestershire 
Gloucestershire 1122 

Oxfordshire 742 

748 
450 



j Buckinghamshire 
(^ Bedfordshire 



16,580 Okeham 
141,555 Northampton 8,427 

6,49 T 

15,814 

8,280 

12,951 

2,98 7 

4,60 5 



984 228,755 Warwick 

1 60,546 Worcester 

285,514 Gloucester 

119,191 Oxford 

117,650 Buckingham 



70,215 Bedford 



* An English square mile contains 640 statute acres 



and is to 



a 



mile 



D 3 



/ 































■ 









t I 















III ! 






38 



Co unties 






Extent in 
Sq* Miles* 



Popu- 
lation* 



Chief 
Towns* 



S-4 



f Lincolnshire 
Huntingdonshire 

Cambridgeshire 



2787 

345 
686 



«H 



s . Norfolk 
J j Suffolk 

n Essex 

! Hertford 

Middlesex 
. r Surrey 



237,891 Lincoln 

42,208 Huntingdon 
101,109 Cambridge 



2015 291,999 Norwich 

236,2 1 1 Ipswich 



1566 



1525 252,475 Chelmsford 



602 

297 
811 



111,654 Hertford 






Kent 

Sussex 



f» 



955,276 London 

325,851 Guildford 

1462 575,095 Maidstone 

1461 1 

744 



190,085 Lewes 

118,277 



Reading 



$3 I Wiltshire 

.© 

* r Somersetshire 
E i Devonshire 



Hampshire 
Dorsetshire 



1283 195,828 Salisbury 

1555 245,080 Southampton 

124,695 Dorchester 

* 

305, 180 Bridgewater 



§ g \ ^ Y 
co 8 [Cornwall 



1129 

1549 

2488 



585,508 



'to 

Exeter 



£ 






1407 216,667 Launceston 



509 



46,518 Flint 



Popu- 
lation* 

8,861 

2,597 

11,10S 

57,256 

13,670 

4,64& 

5,900 

1,009,546 

2,974 

6,221 

10,785 
8,245 

9,617 

2,546 

4,9 1 1 

,76S* 



V455 





& ! Denbighshire 

-t-i r*\ I. 



<L> 






o r2 «/ Carnarvonshire 

P^ J Anglesea 

! Merionethshire 

[ Montgomeryshire 

(Radnorshire 
Cardiganshire 
Pembrokeshire 

» £ 1 Carmarthenshire 
10 I Brecknockshire 



^ 



751 
775 

402 

982 
455 
726 

I 

575 

926 

751 

822 




35,111 Denbigh 

■ 

49,536 Carnarvon 

37,045 Beaumarais 

50,924 Dolgelle 

51,951 Montgom 

20,900 Presteign f ^ 

50,2#0 Cardigan + 

60,6 1 5 Pembroke 

77,217 Carmarthen 

37,735 Brecknock 

85,067 Cardiff 




2,714 

4,595 

1,810 
5,064 

932 



1,114 
2,129 
2,4 1 5 

7,275 
3,196 
2,457 



I Glamorganshire 

The total population of London, which is by far the 
greatest metropolis in the civilized world, is 1,050,000. 
The following cities and towns in England have a popu- 

lation above 10,000, exclusive of those already enume- 
rated; 






























, 



39 






Towns* 



Counties, 



9 

Population 



\ 



!>' 



\ 


Manchester 


Lancashire 




Liverpool 


Lancashire 




Birmingham 


Warwickshire 


1 




Gloucestershire 




Bristol 

• 


and 




i 


Somersetshire 




Leeds 


Yorkshire 




Plymouth and 


• 

> Devonshire 




its suburbs 


^H 




Portsmouth 


Hampshire 




Sheffield 


Yorkshire 




Bath 


Somersetshire 




Hull 


Yorkshire 




Deptford 


Kent 

1 




Yarmouth 


Norfolk 




* 

Coventry 


Warwickshire 




Bolton 


Lancashire 




Preston 


Lancashire 

> 




Woolwich 


Kent 


\ 


Greenwich 


Kent 




Oldham 


Lancashire 




Blackburn 


Lancashire 




Wolverhampton 


Staffordshire 




Wigan 


Lancashire 




Dudley 


Staffordshire 




' Chatham 


Kent 




Colchester 


Essex 






- 



Macclesfield 
Sunderland 

Brighton 

Lynri 
Canterbury 

Whitehaven 



Cheshire 

Durham 

Sussex 

Norfolk 

Kent 

Cumberland 



98,573 
94,376 
85,755 



76,433 



62,534 

56,060 

40,567 
35,840 
31,496 
21,299 
19,833 

17,977 

17,923 
17,070 
17,065 
1 7,054 
16,947 
16,690 

15,083 

14,85© 

1 4,060 

13,925 

12,652* . 
12,544 

12,299 
12,289 
12,012 

10,25* 
10,2001 
10,106 



r 



r 



\ 












contiguous 






Westminster 



» 4 












r 










































I 



< 






40 






The 



':? 



which rises in the Cotswold Hills, in Gl 

i 

and flows through London into the Ge 
below Gravesend. The 



3 



Ocean 



Med 



♦ of the Thames. The Severn rises in Plinlimmon, on the 
edge of Montgomeryshire and Cardiganshire, and flows 
by Shrewsbury, Worcester, Tewkesbury, 



where it 



receives the Avon, and Gloucester, into the Bristol 
Channel, below Bristol, receiving in its estuary the 



Wy 



Humber 



Gern 



an Ocean than a river; receiving the 
waters of many rivers, the principal of which are the 



Trent and the Ouse. 



Mersey 



and forms an estuary at Liverpool. In Wal 



the 



Dee, w 

Wales 



Wy 



estuary below 



the Severn, and flowing by Hereford, Ross, 
mouth, falls into the Severn below Chepstow. 



Mon 






The following may be reckoned among the most 



remarkable mountains of England : 



-£ ■ 










r r 



Height 
in Feet. 




2658 



The Cheviot Hills, Nor 

thumberland 
The Fells in Cumberland, of 

which the highest are 
Scafell 
Helvellyn 

Skiddaw 

Whernside 

Ingleborough ^ Yorkshire 2361 
Pennigent J 2270 



3166 

5055 
3022 

2384 



Heigh* 
in Feet* 



Some of the Hills in Derby- 
shire are of considerable 
height, among the highest 
is Holme Moss 

The Malvern Hills in Wor- 
cestershire 

The Brown Clay ) 



1859 



The Wrekin 



> Shropshire 



1444 



1805- 
1320 
























41 






^^H 









Height 
in Feet. 

The highest Welsh Moun- 
tains are principally in 
North Wales. 

i 

Snowdon, Carnarvonshire 3571 
Cornedd Llewellyn 3469 

Cornedd ap David 5427 



Arran Fowddy"^ 

Caderldess ^ _ .. 
„ ■ \ ethshire 

Cader BerwynJ 

In South Wales. 
Beacons of Brecknock 
Cradle Mountain 



Height 

in Feet- 

2955 
2914 

2563 






2862 
2545 



Plinlimmon, Cardiganshire 2465 
Radnor Forest, Radnorshire 2165 















In Somersetshire, 



Mendip Hills 



range, but of no great elevation. In Devonshire, a long 
range runs through the country, seen at a great distance 
by mariners, and called by them the High Blue Land. 



Scotland contains about 278 miles in length, its 
breadth varies from 180 to 60 miles, giving a surface of 

about 30,531 square miles, on the best recent calculation, 

and comprising the following 33 counties, according 

\ extent is given 
from the Scotch Statistical Accounts; the population 
from the returns to Parliament in 1811. 



Union in 1707. Th 






S 






Northern 
Division. 



Orkney and 1 
Shetland Isles j 
Caithness 
Sutherland 

I 

Ross 

Cromartie 
Inverness 



Sq. Miles. 



1601 



691 
1895 
2950 | 

25*3 

4301 



Population. 

* 

46,1 5 3 

23,419 
23,629 

60,853 



78,336 




* Cromartie is so incorporated with Ross as not to be separated 
*n description. , 



\ 









■ a 













t 



I 












X 









\\ 






■■ 















t 



Middle 

Division 






Southern 
Division. 









/ 



£ 
« 



2 



53 



CO 



C3 



i 



¥1 



Nairn 

Elgin or Murray 
Banff 

Aberdeen 
Kincardine or 
Mearns 

.1 Angus or Forfar 




Fife 
Perth 

Clackmannan 

Kinross 

Stirling 

Dumbarton 

Argyle 

Bute 



I 



f Haddington or 
East Lothian 





w I Berwick or Merse 
Edinburgh or 
Mid Lothian 
Roxburgh 

Linlithgow or 1 

West Lothian 3 

Lanark 

Peebles 

Selkirk 

Dumfries 

Renfrew 
Ayr 

Wigtown 
Kirkcudbright 






CO 



Sq. Miles. 

151 

576 
751 

I 

* 

1891 



382 



929 

476 

2378 

47 

78 

705 

1346 

2922 

224 



300 



481 



366 



737 



112 



871 

295 

261 
244 

246 

1036 

468 

863 



Population* 

8,521 

28,108 

36,668 

135,075 

27,439 



107,264 
101,272 
155,093 

12,010 
7,245 

58,174 

24,189 
85,585 
1 2,035 



31,164 

30,779 

148,607 

37,250 

19,451 

191,752 

9,935 

5,889 

63,960 

92,596 
103,954 

26,391 
33,684 



Scotland contains four Univer 



Edinburgh, 






celebrated as a school of Medicine, Glasgo 



Saint 



Andr 



\ 



Aberdeen. The populat; 



4 

ipai towns is as follows 
















\ 



























43 






" 



Edinburgh 

Glasgow 

Dundee 

Aberdeen 

Paisley 

Greenock 

Perth 

Dumferline 



Population. 

102,987 
100,749 

29,616 
21,639 

19,937 
19,042 
16,948 
11,649 



Inverness 

Falkirk 

Dumfries 

Stirling 

Berwick, which though 
reckoned an English 
town, is on the Scotch 

i 

side of the Tweed 



Population. 
10,757 

9,929 

9,262 
5,820 



7,746 



The principal Rivers in Scotland, are the Forth and 
Clyde, which are united by a magnificent canal; the 
Tay, the Spey, and the Tweed. The Forth rises in 
Ben Lomond, and, flowing by Stirling, falls into the 
estuary called the Firth of Forth, which forms a grand 

arm of the Sea at Edinburgh, The Clyde rises in the 
corner of Tweeddale, not far from the Southern source 
of the Tweed, and flowing by Lanark, Glasgow, Dum- 
barton, and Greenock, falls into the Firth of Clyde. 

The Tav rises in a Lake of the same name, and falls into 



North Sea near Dundee. The Spey 



mountain 



Augustus in Inverness* not far from the high 

Corriarok; and, dividing the counties of Banff and 

Elgin, flows into the North Sea at some distance East 

of Forres, where Shakspeare lays the opening scene of 
Macbeth. 



e 



Scotland abounds with magnifice: 
cipal of which are Loch Lomond, 



the 



Tay. 



the 



Ness. The two latter are united by 



Eastern and We 



navigation, and a\ 
North of Scotland 



Coasts by inland 
passage round the 
er Lakes we should 



not omit Lochs Vennachar and Catharine, about 
























i 



/ 








" 






' 






/ 



III i 



i : 



44 



, 



It 









i!! 






I f 












i ' 



West 



of a great modern 

in Fifeshii 



has made classic ground. Lochlevin, in 
also celebrated as the spot where the unfortunate 
Queen Mary was confined by the confederate Lords, 
A. D. 1567. 



X 



Scotland north of Stirling, presents a vast extent of 



mountain 



Mounta 



cr fumasR the Island from Loch 



Stonehaven in Kincardineshire on the East. 



^Vest to 

Among them we may notice 






Ben Nevis 
Cairngorum 
Ben Lawers 

Benivas 

Ben More 
Benglo 

Shehallion 

Ben Voirlich 

Benlomond 

Ben Ledi 
Benvenue 



County. 
Inverness 

Banff 
Perth 
Ross 
Perth 

Perth 



Perth 






Perth 

Dumbarton 

Perth 
Perth 



Feet 

4370 

4060 

4015 

4000 

3903 
3724 

3564 
3300 
3262- 

3009 
3000 





















Nevis is the highest Mountain 



Ireland is about 235 miles in length and 182 in its 



370 



It 



and a population probably exceeding five millions, 
is divided into four provinces. Ulster m the North, 
Leinster in the South East, Munster in the South West, 



and Connaught in the West 

* 

reigns of James I. and Char 



These were divided in the 















-. 






















45 



enumerated, but their 



i 



County 



r 



w 

1S 1 



Down 

Armagh 
Monaghan 

Cavan 






Tyrone 

London- 

I derry or 

J Derry 
[ Donegal 

f Louth 
Meath 
Dublin 

Wicklow 
Wexford 



Assize Town. 

Carrickfergus 
Downpatrick 

Armagh 
Monaghan 

Caran 

Enniskillen 

Omagh 










decay. 

County. 

f Tipperary 
Waterford 

Cork 

Kerry 
Limgrick 



», 



Londonderry 



re 



issize Town 

Clonmel 
Waterford 

Cork 

Tralee 

Limerick 

Ennis 









Lifford 



^ j Kilkenny 




hi 



Carlow 
Kildare 

Queen's 
County 

King's 

County 



Dundalk 
Trim 

Dublin 

Wicklow 
Wexford 

Kilkenny 
or 
Ossory 

Carlow 

Naas 

Maryborough 
Philipstown 




Leitrim 
Sligo 



Carrick 
Sligo 



s 



Roscommon Roscommon 



Mayo 

Galway 



Castlebar 

Galway 



Westmeath Mullingar 



t Longford 



Longford 






■ 



The 



principal towns 



Belf* 









Antrim, 



Newry in Down, Drogheda in Louth, on the river 
Boyne, and Kinsale, South 



The principal rivers are 



West of Cork 
he Shannon, i. 



the lake of Allen in the 











\ I 



I t 















111 









1 






• 
























46 



and passing through two other considerable lakes, Lough 
Ree and Lough Darg, extends below Limerick, into an 
estuary 60 miles long and from three to ten miles broad, 



till 



Atlantic at Lough Head 



The 



stream 



;h the capital, and the Boyne is celet 
fought on its banks between William 



July 



Among the numerous 



lakes of Ireland, the largest is Lough Earne, which in 
its greatest extent is 30 miles long and 10 broad. In an 
island almost in the narrowest part of this lake, on its 



Western side, stands the town 
Neaffh in the county of Antrir 



Enniskillen. Lough 

has however a greater 



expanse of water, being 22 miles long and 12 broad. 



most 






Killarney 



hich for beauty 



ty of scenery is unrivalled 



Mountains 



tion. 



Macgillicuddy Reeks, near 



the Lake of Killarney, which are about 3500 feet high. 

near the same lake is 2511 feet. The 

are in the counties of Down and 



Mangerton 
Mourne Mountain 



Antrim. 
Groagh 
Mayo, a 



Donard 



Mount Neph 



of 



Wick 



Mountains are more remarkable for their picturesqi 



than 



We ought not to pass 



the G 



of 



Scotland, ii 
s magnifice 



in that celebrated cave of Fingal. 


















' 







■ 



47 










Among the British Islands we may enumerate the Isle 
of Wight, off the coast of Hampshire ; the islands of 

Scilly, off the coast of Cornwall ; the isles of Anglesea 

f 

and Man, in St, George's Channel ; the isles of Bute 
and Arran, off the peninsula of Contere ; the Hebrides 
or Western isles, corruptly called the Hebrides, off the 
Western coast of Scotland, the principal of which, 
towards the Atlantic, are Lewis and North and South 
Uist ; towards the coast of Scotland, Rum, Mull, Isla, and 
Jura ; the Orkneys off the North of Scotland, the chief 
of which is Mainland, called by gome Pomona ; and the 
Shetland isles, North East of the Orkneys, the chief of 
which is also called Mainland. The islands of Jersey, 
Guernsey and Alderney, belong also to Great Britain, 

— 

out lie off the coast of Normandy. 









I 












/ 












L 



■ 


















h 


















48 









CHAPTER IV. 




1 

i 
t 












ASIA. 



\ 









Asia is in length about 7580, and in breadth 
about 5250 British miles. 



Asia is bounded 



the North by the Arctic, on the East by the 
Pacific, and on the South by the Indian Ocean , 
its Western boundary, which separates it from 

Europe, has already been described. 



Between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean 

■ 

is Anatolia, and at the Eastern extremity of the 
Mediterranean is Syria, and below it Arabia, be- 



the Arabian and Persian Gulphs 



Per 



East of 
ia, and 



the Persian Gulph, and above 
South East of Persia is Hindoostan, the antient 
Empire of the Great Mogul, lying between the 
Rivers Indus and Ganges, and being tftat part of 
Asia in which are the principal British and other 
European Settlements. 



In Hindoostan 



the 



l 3 






r 



i 




















A 



V 






49 



West, is the British settlement of Bombay (an 
island a little below the Gulf of Cambay, at 
the top of the Peninsula), and above it is the 
town of Surat on the Continent. Below it is 
Groa, the chief settlement of the Portuguese. 
The lower Western coast of the Peninsula is 
called the coast of Malabar, and the opposite 
Eastern, that of Coromandel. On the coast of 
Malabar is the Kingdom of Mysore, formerly 
possessed by the celebrated chieftains, Hyder 
AH and his son Tippoo Saib, who were almost 

* \ 

always at war with the British. Tippoo Saib 
Was conquered and slain, and his capital, Serin- 
gapatam, taken by the British, May 4th, 1799 ; 

since which time the Mysore has been under 
the direction olF the British Government. The 

extreme Southern point of Hindoostan is called 
Cape Comorin. On the Coromandel or Eastern 
shore, the Kingdom opposite the Mysore is 
called the Carnatic, nominally possessed by the 
Nabob of Arcot, but virtually by the British. 
About half- way between Cape Comorin and 
Masulipatam, where the shore bends to the East, 
is Pondicherry, formerly the capital of the 
French settlements in the East Indies, but now 
possessed by the British, who are, in fact, the 
actual possessors of India Proper. South of 

Pondicherry is Tranquebar, and North of it is 



Mad 



ras. 



At the Mouths of the 



Ganges is 



E 






» 



























f* 






*. 















H 












M 












i i 












* t 



/ 



/ 



50 



Bengal, ' whose capital is Calcutta, the chief of 



all the British settlements in India. To the 
North West of Bengal is Bahar, and below 
Orissa, also belonging to the English 



North 



f 



\ 



West of Bahar is Oude, and North West of Oude 
is Delhi, whose capital of the same name is the 
seat of the once celebrated Mogul Empire j be- 
low Delhi is Agra : — all these provinces are vir- 
tually under British Government. Eastward of 
the Ganges is the Kingdom of Pegu, and South 

_ _ 

East of it Siam. The Peninsula below Pegu on 
the one side and Siam on the other, is called 
Malacca. On the East coast of the Gulph of 
Siam is Cambodia, and on the Worth East of it 
Cochin China. Above Cochin tSiina is Ton- 
cpiin, 



and the immense EasteA sweep of the 



coast is called China, which extends from the 

Gulph of Tonquin to the Yellow Sea. West of 
China, and stretching over the British settle- 
ments in India, the Mogul Empire, and the 
Peninsula of Malacca, is the immense unex- 

plored region of Thibet. North and North 
West of China is the extensive and almost unex- 
plored region of Chinese or Mongul Tartary, 
(or, as it should be rather called, Tatary). 
Still Westward, towards the Caspian, is Calmuc 
and Usbec Tartary (which consists of roving 
independent tribes), and between the Black and 




Caspian Seas, is Russian Tartary. 



The whole 



upper part of Asia, beyond the provinces already 



















i 



s 
















if 



I 



51 






described, belongs to Russia, and is included 
under one general name of Siberia. The North 

Eastern peninsular extremity is called Kam- 
schatcka, and above it are the Coriacs and 
Tchutuskoi, between which and the North 
Western parts of North America is a straight 
called Bhering's Straights. 






Among the more remarkable places and cities in Asia, 






Min 






N. 



E.Lo. 






Smyrna 



33° 28 27° V 





On the Eastern coast of the Mediterranean 

N. La. E. Lo. 






35° 40 



36 1 



♦ 



37° 16 
36 40 



Aleppo 
Antioch 

Damascus 33 30 36 40 
Jerusalem 31 47 35 20 






i 



J 









On the Arabian Gulph 



Medi 



ma 
ecca 



- 

N. La. E. Lo. 

24° 20' 39° 33' 

21 40 40 55 The former celebrated for being the 

burial-place, the latter for being 
the birth-place of Mahomet. 









On the Tigris 



Bagdad 



N. La. E. Lo. 









33° 20' 44° 46' Near the site of antient Babylon, 






In the Persian Gulph 



B 



ussora 



2T. La. E. Lo. 

30" 31' 47° 45' 



E 2 


















5% 












In Persia 



Ispahan 



Shiraz 



JV. La. E. Lo. 

32° 35' 52° 32' 



The 












24 miles in 
> 600.000 in- 



habitants. 



29 37 52 40 



Which 



fertile vale, and most delicious 



climate* 



Hindoostan 



At 

already described. 



N; 

Cal 



S, 









In China 



Pekin 



r 



ir. 



E.Lo. 



39° 54- 116° 27' The population of which is esti- 
mated by the recent writers, who 
accompanied Lord Macartney in 
his Embassy, *t 3,000,000 but 



hap 



dilation. 



Wall 



< 



The towers are 



of human industry. It is conducted over the summits of mountains, 
some of which rise to the height of 5225 feet, across the deepest 
vales, over wide rivers, by means of arches, and in many parts is 
doubled and trebled to command important passes. At almost every 
100 yards is a square tower, or bastion. Its length isi 500 miles, its 
height 25 feet, and its breadth at the top 15 feet. "" 
48 feet high, and 40 feet wide. A much greater antiquity is given 
to this stupendous work than is probably consistent with fact ; it 
being asserted by Sir G. Staunton to be about 2000 years old ; but 
the best informed writers do not give it an antiquity of 600 years, and 
perhaps even less woul d be nearer the truth. It was built to prevent 
the incursions of the Mandshur Tartars into China; who, however, 
climbed over it about A.D. 1630, and conquered China, which they 
have kept possession of ever since, the reigning Monarch, and all the 
principal officers, being always of Tartar extraction. 

S4 








-' 



I 






53 



1 



\ 






Nanki 
Cant 



on 



N. 



- 



32° 5' 118° 47' Said to exceed even Pekin in extent. 



23 8 113 



.000 



ants, and is the principal port for 
European commerce. 






- 

In Independent Tartary the principal city is 

K. La. E. Lo. 

Samarcand 39° 40' 65° 15' Where Timur the Great, or Tamer- 

lane, as he is more generally called, 
was born, in whose time and that 
of one of his predecessors, Zmgrs, 
the Tartars were a far more civi- 
lized nation than they are at pre- 
sent. In A. D. 1494, Sultan Baber, 

one of the descendants of Timur 
Khan, was expelled from Bucharia, 

I and founded the Mogul Empire in 
Hindoostan. 









r— 

In Russian Tartary the most celebrated city is 

N.ta. E.Lo. 



Astraehan 



46' 22' 47° Hi 






In Siberia the chief city is 



N. 



E. Lo. 



Tobolsk 



5S° 12' 68° 35 



\ 



f 



pal rivers of Asia are the Euphrates, which 



If 



Persia 



g 



-" 



mouth, flows also into the Persian Gulph ; the Sinde 
Indus which rises in the Tibetian Mountains, and fl 



Arabian Sea 



whose sources are 



e 3 









* 



\ 





: 





















\ 






54s 



unknown, but which, after a course of above 1400 
miles, flows into the Bay of Bengal below Calcutta ; the 
Burram-pooter, whose sources are unknown, and which 
forms a junction with the Ganges, near its mouth, but for 
the last 60 miles of its course is from 4 to 5 miles wide ; 
the rivers Hoang and Kiang, which rise near each other 
in the Mountains of Tartary, and after flowing each 
above 2000 miles in length, at a distance of above 1000 
miles from each other, at last both empty themselves into 
the Yellow Sea; the Ob, which rises in Lat. 55°, and 
falls into the Sea of Ob, a Gulph of the Arctic Ocean. 
We must not omit some singular but immense bodies of 
water : of these, the Caspian Sea is detached from all 
communication with other seas, and is about 700 miles 
in length, and from 100 to 200 miles in breadth. About 
100 miles East of the Caspian is another smaller detached 



called the Sea of Aral, about 200 miles long, 



and 



A 



North 



70 broad, which is salt like the Cas 

once joined it. At a great distance 

Sea of Aral, is the Sea or Lake of Baikal, in the South 
of Siberia, about 350 miles in length, and 35 in breadth, 

whose water is fresh. 



/ 



The most elevated mountains of Asia have not been 

■ 

explored, and our whole information on the subject is 
very imperfect. In Thibet, and the adjacent countries, 
they have been considered by some of the latest and 
most intelligent writers, to be most probably of prodi- 
gious altitude, — beyond the European Alps, and per- 
haps the American Andes. # Among the others most 

% Dwawala-gin, or the White Mountain, one of the Himalayan 

■ 

chain, has been estimated lately by Colonel Kirkpatrick and Mr. Cole- 
brooke at the amazing height of 26,862 feet above the level of the sea* 









c 

C 

tol 
is 



A 
h 

tal 

I 

a 

S 
S 



b 



o 



c, 

t 

t 1 



c 



I 

1 

II 



c 



\ 












< 









55 



celebrated are the Mountains of Taurus, in Natolia ; of 



Cau 



casus, whose highest point, Mount Elborus 



to Mount Blanc ; Mount Ararat is in Armenia ; m k 
is Mount Libanus; on the coasts of the Archipelag< 
Mount Olympus and Mount Ida; in Siberia is 
Altaic chain, which extends in length 5000 miles, w 
hinrWt summit, is Roffdo Alim, or the Almighty 



the 



1 



Moun 



tain ; in Independent Tartary is Belen Tag, the Northern 



Mountain of Himmal 



Mount 



Unknown altitude, still preserving the name of the 

Southern Imaus ; in Arabia we must not omit Mount 
Sinai, which, however, is in itself of no remarkable 
height. 






The principal Asiatic Islands are the Island of 

Ceylon, lying to the South East of Cape Comorin, at the 
bottom of the Bay of Bengal. Off the Promontory of 

Malacca, South and South West of it, are the Suroatran 
°r Sunda Isles, of which Sumatra is the largest, but the 
capital is Batavia, in Java. East of Sumatra, and above 



Ja 



va 



is the large Island of Borneo. 



Above Borneo are 
the Philippines, belonging to Spain, called sometimes 
the Manillas, from Manilla, their capital. East of 
Borneo are the Celebezian Isles, of which Celebes is the 
chief. East of Celebes are the Banda or Spice Isles, and 
South 

G 



East of these is New 



umea 



New Holland 



Island, which some geographers dignify with 
lation of another continent, under the title o 
It is hardly one-fourth less than Europe. Off 

coast of China lies the Island of Hainan. East 

E 4 



\ 



Not; 



the 



\* 






^^H 



M 




x 
























, 



* 



\ 




/ 



is the Island of Formosa, and North of the coast of 
China are the Islands of Japan. The remainder of the 
Asiatic Isles will be briefly noticed in another place. 



The religion of the Turkish dominions in Asia is 
Mahometanism. In Georgia and Syria there are many 
Christians, though their doctrines are very corrupt. In 
Persia are Mahometans, and in many parts of Hin- 
doostan, but the Hindoo religion is the proper religion 
of Hindoostan, and consists in the idolatrous worship of 
a Trinity, composed of three deities — Brahma, Vishna, 
and Shiva, or the Creator, Preserver, and Destroyer, 
together with an infinite number of subordinate and 
inferior deities. The Japanese, Chinese, and Tartars, 
are Idolaters ; but the Tartars are generally Schama- 
nians, whose religion is founded on the self-existence of 
matter, a world of spirits, and the general restitution of 
all things. The Thibetians worship the Dalai Lama, a 

man whom they conceive to be omnipotent and immor- 

■ 

tal, as being a great spirit embodied : their religion is 
intimately connected with Schamanism, as is the Brah- 

m. 

manism of the Hindoos, and the idolatrous polytheism 
of the Chinese. 









- 



/ 





















. 



I 












» 



57 



CHAPTER V. 






AFRICA. 












A 



FRICA 



breadth is about 



) 



in 



length 



about 4200 miles 



In Africa th e first Kingdom on the Western 
de, immediately below the Straights of Gib- 



raltar, is Fez, and 



of it Morocco ; these 



are united into one Kingdom under the Emperoi 
of Morocco. Next to Fez, proceeding eastward 



is Alg 



and 



of it Tunis ; then Tripol 



where the shore has taken a Southward direction 



and Barca, and still Eastward 



Egypt 



The 



whole coast from Fez to Tripoli inclusive is 
called the Barbary Coast ; and the Governments 
are of a military nature, under a Governor called 
a Dey, or Bey, who is nominally subject to the 



Grand Sig 



but really independent 



pt 



his own soldiers, who 



th a licentiousness 



resembling that of the antient praetorian guards 

frequently depose and murder their Governors 



















Ml 









I 

























58 



Below the whole Barbary coast is the Sahara, i 
great desert of immense and unexplored extent 
and below it, reaching from a little above Cap 
Verd to the coast of G 

Senesrambia, so 



the coast of 



'to 



and Gambia 



j 



so called from the rivers Senegal 
and in the interior various uncivi- 
lized Kingdoms of Negro Chiefs, the principal of 
which are the Foulahs and JalofFs. Towards the 
Southern extremity of the coast of Senegambia is 
the settlement of Sierra Leone, below which is 



the coast of Guinea, divided into the Gr 

Ivory coast, Gold 



d formerlv the Slave 



traffic for slaves was abolished by 

act of parliament, A. D. 1806. Below Guinea 
are the Portuguese settlements of Loango, Congo, 
and Angola. The Southern point of Africa is 

called the Cape of Good Hope*, long possessed 



y 



by the Dutch, but at p 



by the English 



Here is the country of the Hottentots, who pro 



lowest rank in 



the 



of 



verbially hold the 

human intellect and civilization, though, accord 

i 

ing to the accounts of the most recent and 



ligent 



avellers, they must either hav 



been 



formerly misrepresented, or have made consider- 
able improvements within the last 20 years 



* The Cape of Good JEiope was first sailed round in modern 



times 



discovered a passage to the East Indies. It appears, however, pro- 
bable, that the Phoenicians had doubled it about B. C. 607, 

i 5 



• 



r 










* 









/ 



59 


















* 






% 



Ascending from the Cape, along the East side of 

Africa to the Red Sea, are Cafraria, and the 
coasts of Natal, Sofala, Mosambique, Zanguebar, 
and Ajan. West of these, towards the interior, 

are the Gallas, and still West bearing to the 

South, in central Africa, is vEthiopia, North of 
which is Nigritia or Sudan. The entrance into 
the Red Sea is called the Straights of Babelman- 
del j to the West is the Kingdom of Abyssinia, 
above it is Nubia, comprising Sennaar and Don- 
gola, above which is Egypt. To the West of 

West of Nubia is Bornou, 
and North West of Bornou is Eezzaa. The re- 
mainder of Africa is almost wholly unexplored 

and unknown. 



Abyssinia is Darfur. 



Among the memorable places and cities in Africa, we 



may reckon 



Morocco 
Fez 

Algiers 
Tunis 



N. La. 

30° 57' 
33 40 
36 49 



Long. 

7°15'W. 
4 45 W. 

3 48 E. 






36 45 10 16 E. Antiently Carthage. 



In Egypt 



Alexandria 
Cairo 

Suez 

Assouan or 
Syene 



N. La. E. Lo. 

51° ll 7 309 10' 

30 3 31 18 Near the Pyramids. 
30 2 32 51 On the Red Sea. 

* 

24 o 32 20 Near the Falls of the Nile, 



The principal Rivers of Africa are the Nile, the 



sources of which have been for so many ages unknown 



« 



























1 






m 




__„\ 



















































60 



Mr 



Bruce, however, in his Travels to Abyssinia for 
this express purpose, visited what the Abyssinians termed 

the Source of the Nile, rising from three fountains at a 



village 



Gee 



the territory of the Agows, 



November 5th, 1770* But geographers still maintain 
that Mr. Bruce mistook the course of the antient Astapus, 
now called Bahr el Azreek, Or Blue River, for that of 
the Nile, or Bahr el Abiad, whose sources are yet un- 



ity 



'■rk 



called 



abably to be searched fo 

* 

Mountains of the Moon 



r in 




600 -miles bevond the sources of the Nile 



sinia. The great Cataracts of the Nile are in Nubia, 
about 40 feet high ; those of Syene are now only 

■ 

rapids. On the Western side of Africa is the great 
river Niger, whose sources are also unknown, which was 



f( 



It is 



singular, that this river, though on the Western side of 
Africa, runs towards the East, and most probably dis- 

charges itself into some immense lake in the central 



and unexplored parts of Africa. 



# 



Niger 



Gambia 



into the Atlantic. 



Of the Mountains, the most memorable is Mount 
Atlas. The central parts of Africa may possibly contain 
immense mountains, as the mountains of Abyssinia are 
of prodigious height, and yet seem but parts of some 
great central chain. There is also some high land about 
the Cape. 

* 

* There seems some foundation for this. See the note on p.259. 
Park, however, in his last iourney, published in 1815, believes 



Mr 



West 



Zaire, or Great Congo River, enters the Atlantic. 






























\ 



























61 



The most remarkable features of Africa are the im- 
mense Deserts of Sand, the chief of which, called Sahara, 
or the Great Desert, is about 3000 miles in length, and 

- • 

almost 1 000 in breadth. The sand is here carried by 
the wind like waves in the sea, or rather like immense 



moving columns, which 



T 
* 

un frequently overwhelm 



whole caravans of the unhappy travellers, who attempt 

t 

to cross these perilous deserts. Frequently also both 
themselves and their camels perish for want of water. 



Below the Straights of Gibraltar, 

Madeira Islands, two in number, belonging 
Portugal, and below them the Canary Islands, 
or Fortunatae Insulae of the antients, belonging 
to Spain, seven of which are inhabited, 
chief of the Canary Islands is Teneriffe, where 



is tne celebrated mountain called the 

Teneriffe, which is an almost extinct volcano, 
about 12,138 feet above the level 

Below the Canaries are the Cape Verd Islands, 
ten in number, lying off Cape Verd, and belong- 
ing to the Portuguese, the chief of which is St. 
Jago. North of Congo is 
Thomas, belonging to the Portuguese, 
considerably to the West of it 
Ascension, below which, to the South East, is 
the small Island of St. Helena, belonging to the 
English, where the homeward bound East India- 
men touch for refreshments. Off the coast of 
Mosambique is the Island of Madagascar, which 




















■ 






m 












■ 












is one of the la 
miles long, and 
little i 
the ii 



'g 



in the world, being 840 
broad; it has been very 



explored, and presents a rich prospect to 
dustry of future speculators. East of 

tius and 



Madagascar are the Islands of Mauritius 
Bourbon, lately called the Isles of France and 
Re-Union. The smaller African Islands on the 
coast of the Red Sea are not worth particular 
notice. 



The religion of Morocco, the Barbary States, and 
Egypt, and many of the Northern tribes of Africa, is 
Mahometan. The Abyssinians are nominally Christians, 
but their doctrines have been grossly corrupted. The 

Central and Southern tribes of Africa are generally 
Pagans. 






















. 






s 



\ 



K \ 






/ 






V 






























63 









CHAPTBB 



AMERICA. 




immense Continent of Amei 



forming 




rather another hemisphere than a quarter of the 

globe, was discovered by Columbus. In his first 
voyage he discovered the Bahama Islands 
October 12. 1492, and soon 
St. Domingo. It was not till his fourth voyage 
that he discovered the main land of South Ame 
rica, in the year 1502 ; previously to which time 
Amerigo Vespucci, a Florentine, had published 
an account of the islands discovered by Colum- 
bus, and from this circumstance, has given his 
name to the New World. The first discovery of 
North America was made by Giovanni Cabot, 
Venetian, in the service 

A. D. 1497- 



■ 






¥ 









r 









\ 



» 





















t 



64 






on 



y 



North America is bounded on the East by the 
Atlantic, on the West by the great Pacific 
Ocean, on the South by the Isthmus of Panama, 
the North, above Hudson's Bay, its boun- 
daries are unknown. Above it lies Greenland, 
both West or New, and East or Old Greenland. 
The British possessions in North America lie 
above five vast Lakes— Ontario, Erie, Huron, 
Michigan, and Superior, which discharge them- 
selves, through the River St. Lawrence, into 

the Atlantic Ocean. At the mouths of the River 



St. Lawrence 



Nova Scotia and New Bruns 



/ 

wick. The country lying above the River St. 
Lawrence is called Lower Canada, that above 
the Lakes is called Upper Canada. Above Lower 



j * 

Canada is Labrador 



New Britain, and ab 



Upp 



Canada is New South W 



on 



the 



* : 



Western side of Hudson 



Bay 



North East of 



Hudson's Bay, are Davis's Straights and Baffin 



Bay 



A North West passage to the East Indie 



has been hitherto in vain 



pted through 



these straights and Baffin's Bay ; but an expedi 
tion has just sailed (1818) on this voyage which 
it is hoped may be 



ful 



Th 




tribes of Indians in this vast and thinly-peopled 



ntry are not worth 



jjeiow the 



River St. Lawrence and the five Lakes 



the 



, 



United States of Amer 



formerly provinces 



of Great Britain, but severed from 



and 































i 







V 



\ 



f 



m 



65 


























cognised as independent by the peace of 1782. 
These States, now sixteen in number, may be 
divided into Northern, Middle and Southern. 
The Northern States contain what was formerly 
called New England, and consist of New Hamp- 
shire, at the back of which is Vermont,, below 
them Massachussets Bay, Rhode Island, and 

Connecticut. Below these are the Middle 
States — Westward is New York, with Long 
Island, and below it Pennsylvania, to the East 
of which, on the Atlantic, is New Jersey, and, 

below New Jersey, Delaware, between the 
Delaware and Chesapeak Bays. The Southern 
States are Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, 

South Carolina, Georgia. At the back of Vir- 
ginia and North Carolina is Kentucky, below 

which, but separated by the country of the 

Tenassees, is Georgia, reaching even to the 
coast of the Atlantic. The remainder of North 
America, belongs to Spain, consisting of East and 

West Florida, Louisiana (a country claimed by 

the Spaniards and Americans), and West of it 
New Mexico, and still Westward California, 
lying between the shores of the Pacific and the 
immense Gulph of California. Below these is 
Mexico, or New Spain, divided into various 
provinces, at the lower part of which is Hon- 
duras, where logwood is cut. The last province 

m North America is Veragua, near which is 
Panama, giving name to the Isthmus which 






™ 



■■■■■i^Bi 





I 
















































I i 






66 



separates North and South America. The North 
and North Western parts of North America are 

but little known. 



Of the cities in North America, the principal in the 
British dominions are 



N. 



W.Lo. 



Halifax 

Quebec 



Montreal 









44°' 45' 62° 30' In Nova Scotia. 

46 47 71 10 In Lower Canada, on the North of 

the River St. Lawrence. 

45 50 75 1 1 At the junction of the Rivers St. 

Lawrence and Utawas, which is 
the boundary betwen Upper and 
Lower Canada. 









/ 






In the United States 



New York 
Boston 



N. La. W. Lo. 

40° 40 74° ll' In New York. 
42 22 70 59 In New England. 



\ 



Philadelphia 39 57 75 8 In Pennsylvania. 



Baltimore 



39 20 76 50 In Maryland. 



Charlestown 32 42 80 O In South Carolina, 
Washington 38 57 70 In the year 1800, thig city was 

founded on the River Potowmack. 

which runs into Chesapeak Bay. 
as the intended capital of the 



United States. 



In the Spanish Dom 



Mexico 



\ 



Vera Cruz 
Acapulco 



Campeche 19 35 



N. La. W. Lo. 

20° 4' 100° 40' Of great extent, situated on a beau- 
tiful lake, and containing a popu- 
lation of 1 50,000 souls. 

* 

19 5 96 50 On the Atlanti-. . 
17 22 100 10 In the Psc'.fic; the chief mart of 

trade with the Philippine Isles. 
91 SO In the province of Yucatan ; whence 

the dyeing woods are brought. 
























\ 








\ 



k 





















67 



The Rivers of North America are numerous, and some 

i 

of them of prodigious magnitude. The St. Lawrence is 
90 miles wide at its mouth, and navigable for ships of 



theli 



Quebec, 400 miles from the sea« where 



is still five miles broad. It is the outlet of the immense 

* 

lakes of Canada, already mentioned, which may be 
called an inland sea of fresh water, Lake Superior alone 
being 1500 miles in circumference. Lake Huron is 1000 
miles in circumference, and storms here are as d 
as in the ocean. The famous cataract of Niaar 

o 

the river of that name, which empties itself 



o 



empties itself from the 

Lake Ontario. This cataract is 
from 140 to 160 feet high, and more than three quarters 



Lake Erie into 



of a mile in the 



g 670 



tons of water in a minute; the sound of it is often heard, 
and the ascending mist seen at an incredible distance. 
The Susquehanna and Potowmack, which flow into 

Chesapeak Bay, are important rivers; but the first of 
North American rivers is the MissisioDU which is inineri 



Missouri 



38° 40', and flows into the Gulph 



New 



O 



■ 

Lake of Winnepig, North West 



five Canadian Lakes, is of great magnitude, and still 
North, the Slave Lake is 200 miles loner and 100 broad. 



The Mountains of North America, with the exception 
of those in Mexico, are not of great height. The most 



celebrated are those of the Apalachian chain, which, 
extend for 900 miles ; but their highest summits, in the 
province of New Hampshire, are not above 5000 feet, 

and generally speaking are considerably lower. Mexico 
abounds with volcanos and mountains of great height 

f 2 



















: 






68 



1 









i; 









I 









The summit of Orcasilas is visible from the sea, though 
1 60 miles from the coast, and Orizava, near Vera Cruz, 
is thought to be still higher. The Topian Mountains, on 
the side of California, form the principal Mexican 

chain. 






The Islands on the coast of North America 
are, the large island of Newfoundland, near the 
mouth of the River St. Lawrence, belonging to 
the English, where the great cod fishery is 
carried on \ to whom also belong the islands of 
Cape Breton, off Novia Scotia, and St. John's to 
the West of it. Below these are the Bermudas 
or Somers islands, four in number, lying off the 
Coast of North Carolina, about midway between 
Newfoundland and the West Indies. Off the 

coast of East Florida lie the Bahamas or Lucayos 
(the first land discovered by Columbus), and 
below are the important West Indian Islands of 

Cuba, Hispaniola, or St. Domingo, to the East, 
and Jamaica below it. Still East of Hispaniola, 
is Porto Rico. Cuba is 700 miles long, and about 
70 broad, belonging to Spain. St. Domingo 
is 400 miles long, and 100 broad, and was 
formerly divided between the Spanish and 

_ _ 

French ; but since the French Revolution it has 
been formed into an independent Government, 
under a Black Chief, and is by him dignified with 
the title of the Empire of Hayti. Jamaica is 


















♦ 





















II 












• 



















/ 



69 



■ 

170 miles long, and 60 broad, and has been 
possessed for above a century and a half by the 



English. 



Porto Rico is above 120 miles long, 



and 40 broad, and belongs to Spain. East of 
these are the Carribbee Islands, the principal of 
which are Antigua, Guadaloupe, Martinico, and 
Barbadoes. Below them is the island of Trini- 
dad, ceded by Spain to the English : consider- 
ably to the West of which are the Islands of 
Margarita, belonging to Spain, and, still West- 
ward, Curacoa, belonging to the Dutch. 















t 



The religion of the Spanish and French possessions in 
North America, and the British possessions in Canada, 
(which formerly belonged to France,) is Roman Catholic* 
The United States have no established national church, 

but tolerate all sects of Christians. The Indians are un- 

converted Pagans, who yet have some notion of a Great 
Spirit and a future state. 






* 









♦ 















F 3 
















! < 









. 



n hi 









i ( 



■i i 


















r 



' 






CHAPTER VIE 


















\ 



AMERICA 



(continued). 




he whole top of South America is called the 

Spanish Main. — East of the Isthmus of Panama, 

or Darien, and the Government of New Granada, 
is the Government of Caraccas, Eastward of 
which is Guiana, divided among the Dutch 



French, and Portug 



East of this is the im 



J 



Sp 



province of Brazil, belonging to Portug 
back of which is Paraguay, belonging 

Below is Buenos Ayres, belonging also 



Spain, and below it are the Pampas, or immense 
plains, between the Eastern Coast and the Andes. 
At the lower part of South America is Patagonia. 
On the Western side, and above Patagonia, is 
Chili, East of which, between the Andes, Buenos 

































K 






71 






Ayres, and Paraguay, is Tucuman. Above Chili 
is Peru, and above Peru, Granada, reaching up 
to the Isthmus of Darien. 


















g 



to the Spanish settlements) in South America : among 



these are 

* 

S. La. W. Lo. 

Buenos Ayres 34° 35' 58° 31' 

Potosi 

Guzco 



19 50 67 30 



12 1 



71 47 Formerly the seat of the Incas o£ 



Lima 
Quito 



12 1 

13 



In Brazil are 



St. Salvador 
Rio Janeiro ") 



or 
St. Sebastian 




Peru, 



76 49 

77 55 



f 



S. La. W. Lo± 

13° 30' 39° 30' 



22 54 42 44 






The Rivers and Mountains of South America are on 

a scale of the most astonishing grandeur, far exceeding 
those in any other part of the world. 



** 









The great River Maranon, formerly called the River 
of the Amazons, from its source in lat, 17° among the 
Andes of Peru, where it is first called the Apurimac, 
runs from South to North, and afterwards in a direction 
from West to East, till it falls into the sea, dividing the 
provinces of G uiana and Brazil. This Monarch of rivers 
is navigable, for a ship of 500 tons, for a distance of 
4500 miles, and receives many mighty streams in it» 

f 4 










'' 
























! 






• 










72 



course,' and even where they unite with it, 3506 miles 
from its mouth, is not less than two miles broad, increas- 
ing in depth and breadth till, itself a sea, it falls into 
the Atlantic. The effect of the tide in this river is per- 
ceptible for 600 miles, and at about 200 miles from its 
mouth it is so broad, that the opposite shore cannot be 
seen. The Rio de la Plata flows into the Atlantic, and 

> 

is principally formed by the two streams of the Paraguay 
and Parana, besides some other very great though less 

* 

mighty rivers. It rises in the mountains of Brazil, in 

It 

Is so immensely broad near its mouth, that land cannot 
be discovered on either side from a ship in the middle of 
the river. The Orinoco is another mighty stream, which 
is thought to rise in the small Lake of Ipava, 5° 5' N. 
Lat. and flows into the Atlantic opposite the island of 
Trinidad. 



Lat. 19° N. and is navigated for about 1600 miles. 
















The principal Mountains of South America are the 
Andes, forming a stupendous chain of 4600 miles of the 
most gigantic mountains in the world. They stretch 

from Capes Isidro and Pilares, in the Southern extremity 
of South America, nearly to the Isthmus of Panama, and 
are generally about 100 miles from the coast of the 
Pacific, and not less than from 100 to 180 miles in 
breadth; their highest summits are near the Equator: 



Chimboraco is 20,280 feet high, or 5000 



high 



than the highest of the Alps; Cotopaxi is 18,000 feet; 
Pichincha, El Altar, and many others, are not inferior* 



are 



seated in immense plains, from 8000 to 10,000 feet 
above the level of the sea ; so that their actual height 



t t 



























73 



from their awn bases does not surpass 



Mar 



these mountains are volcanic, and the province of Q 

m particular, is subject to the most 

quakes, which frequently destroy or swallow up whole 

cities. The town of Riobamba, at the foot of Chim- 

boi 



*aco 



containing 9000 inhabitants, was completel) 
med bv the Peak of Sicalpa, one of the neigh- 



bouring mountains falling on it, February 4th, 
and not more than 400 persons escaped. 



The Islands of South America, in the Pacific 

are the Gallipagoes, off the coast of New Gra- 
nada and Peru, under the Equator. Off the coast 

— 

of Chili, in Lat. 34° S. is the island of Juan Fer- 
nandez, where Alexander Selkirk supported 



himself in a life of solitude for four years ; whose 
adventures gave rise to the celebrated tale of 

Robinson Crusoe. At the bottom of Chili is the 

large island of Chiloe, 140 miles long, 

broad, in the Gulph of Chonas. And at the 



extremity of South America, 
islands, eleven in number, 



Fuesro 



to 



Land of Fi 



there. Their extreme point is called Cape Horn 
The Straights of Magellan separate South Ame 



from Terra del Fueg 



are 



the Falkland Isles, which are little better 

i 

than a morass ; below which, to the South East, 



Geor 



to 



and. still lower, Sandwich Land 



Southern Thule. These countries 
description cold, dreary and desola 




from 



a collection of 

I 

Terra 

r 

volcanoes 



North East of these 









■■ 











£ 



\\\ * 






i'i 












i 



I r 



1 












74 



Tlie religion of South America is chiefly Roman Ca» 
tholic ; except -those Indian tribes which are yet uncon- 
verted from Paganism. 



















POLYNESIA. 













he Islands in the Pacific Ocean are compre- 
hended by the best modern geographers, under 
the name of Polynesia. Itimay be sufficient 
to enumerate the chief of these ; which from 

* 

the following sets (See the Map of the World 
Eastern Hemisphere) : I. East of the Phi- 
lippine Isles lie the Pellew Isles ; and above 
them, North East, are, II. The Ladrone Isles, 
about twelve or fourteen in number. East of 

the Pellew, and South of the Ladrone Isles, are, 
III. The Carolinas, in number thirty. In the 
Western Hemisphere are, IV. The Sandwich 
Islands, the largest of which is Owhyhee, where 
Captain Cook was killed in February, 1779* 
Below the Equinoctial, and South East of the 
Sandwich Islands, are, V. The Marquesas ; and 

below them are, VI. A group of Isles, in number 
about seventy, called the Society Islands, of 
which Otaheite is the principal. West of these 

i3 





















75 



are, VII. The Navigator's Isles; and below 
them are, VIII. The Friendly Isles. West of 
these, IX. The New Hebrides, Caledonia, New 
Zealand, &c. belonging to the division of Aus- 
tralasia. The remaining parts of the Globe ate 
either unexplored, or omitted as of less impor- 
tance in a summary survey like the present. 










\ 









































V- 












» 



\ 


















i 






I 

















/ 









PART II 



• 




eograpl)ia Classic* 






y 



OR 






THE APPLICATION 



OF 



ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY 









TO 



THE CLASSICS 



\ 



/ 
















It 



I I 



1 1 



















^ 









\ 















\ 









J 



/ 









/ 






1 I 



f 
























Slnttent eaiorlD. 



CHAPTER I 













he antient Greeks and Romans knew only 

the three divisions of the world — Europe, Asia, 

and Africa. In Europe they had little or rather 



no 



S 



quaintance with the 



North of 



Germany 



Prussia* Sweden. Denmark 



d 



Norway, which they called Scandinavia, and 
thought to consist of a number of islands. 



East 

of Germany and North of the Black Sea, was 
Sarmatia, now Russia, equally unknown to them. 
In Asia they knew nothing North of the Caspian, 
but comprehended all the country under the ge- 
neral name of Scythia, divided into Scythia intra 
Imaum and Scythia extra Imaum, that is, on 

■ 

either side Mount Imaus, part of a chain, the 
































I 









m 



i ( i 









80 



highest point in which is perhaps Himmel in 
Thibet Still Eastward, we may doubt whether 
they had a confused notion of Serica, or the 
North Western part of China, as an undefined 
continuation of Scythia. India they knew as far 
as the Ganges, and even mention a nation called 
Sinae, now part of Cochin China. In Africa they 
knew little beyond Lat. 10° N. and little of that 
perfectly, beyond the immediate coast of the 

Mediterranean and banks of the Nile. 

































81 












CHAPTER II 













ITALIA ANTIQUA. 




was called Hesp 



being West of Gre 

prince of the name of Italus 



?ria* by the Greeks, as 

It was called Italia from 

: Ausonia from 



the Ausones, a people found in Latium ; (Enotr 



from 



Arcadi 



prince 



of Ly 



wh 



settled 



CEnotru 

Lucania 



the 

Sa- 



t from having been the fabled residence 



Est locus, Hesperiam Gfaii cognomine dicunt, 



Terra antiqua, potens armis atque ubere j 

CEnotrii coluere viri ; nunc fama minores 
Italiam dixisse, ducis de nomine, gentem 



Virg % Mix. I. 534, 



f Augustus 



Saturno quondam 



:gnata 






Virg. Mn. VI. 792. 






Salve, magna parens frugum, Saturnia tellus, 



Ma<rna virum 



Vir& Georg. II* 175. 



G 







* 


















M * 



{ I 
















m 



4 



of Saturn, after his expulsion from Ti 



by 






Jupitef. It was bounded on the North by the 
Alps, on the West by the Mare Tyrrhenum sive 
inferum, or Lower Sea, on the East by the Mare 

sive superum, or Upper Sea, now 



Hadriaticum sive 

the Gulph of Venice, and on the South by the 
Mare Ionium, or Grecian Sea, so called because 

- 

this sea washes on one side Greece itself, and on 
the other side the South of Italy, which, under 
the name of Magna Graecia, antiently contained 

many flourishing Greek colonies. Italy may be 
divided into three parts, Northern, Central, and 
Southern. The first of these is called Gallia 
Cisalpina, or Gaul on this (i. e. the Roman) side 
the Alps ; the second Italia propria, or Italy pro- 
perly so called ; and the third Magna Graecia. 
Its principal states were Gallia Cisalpina, Etruria, 
Umbria, Picenum, Latium, Campania, Samnium 



and Hirp 



Apulia, Calabria, Lucania, and 



Bruttiorum ager. 
























I 









s 



Gallia Cisalpina extended from the Maritime 
Alps, and the river Varus, or Var, to the shores 
of the Adriatic, and was also called Gallia togata, 
from their use of the Roman toga. It contained 
Liguria, on the coast, at the bend or knee of the 
boot, where is Genua, now the territory and 

gulph of Genoa. Above them were the Taurini, 
or Piedmontese, whose capital Augusta still re- 

* 

• 14 




83 



tains the name of Turin. East of Gallia Cisal- 
pina are the Veneti and Carni, at the top of the 
Sinus Hadriaticus. West of the Veneti are the 
Euganei. 
























Medio] 



Milan 



Marius defeated the CimbrL A. U 



A. C. 100; 
now Pavia 

is Mantua 



* 



Eastward is Cremona, and still Eastward 
on the river Mincius, now Mincio. the 



b 



both 



names. Between them is Bedriacum, now Cividala, 



wher< 

A. D 



North West 



Mantua is Brixia, now 



Breschzp, and still North West 



is Bergomium, now 



Bergamo, near which is Comum, at the South end of the 

Lacus Lorius, now the Lake of Como. the-hirth-nWo nf 



ger Pliny, neph 



A 



North East of Mantua, among the Veneti, are Verona, 
on the river Athesis, or Adige, the birth-place of Catullus 
and Pliny the naturalist; to the East Patavium, or Padua* 
the birth-olace of Livv. 



Ant 



enor 



Hadria 



said to have been founded by 



atic. Among the Carni are Forum Julii, 



Friul 



thougl 



its consequence- On the Sinus Tergestinus, near 



A 



is 



t: 






* Mantua, vae miserae nimium vicina Cremonae. 



f Antenor potuit, mediis elapsus Achivis, 
Illyricos penetrare sinus, atque intima tutus 

g 2 



Virg. Ed. IX. 28. 









I 



I 






I! 






84 



now Trieste, in Carniola. -All these countries are in 
that division of Gallia Cisalpin a called Gallia Transpa- 
dana, or Gaul North of the -Po. In Gallia Cispadana, 
or Gaul South of the Po, is Placentia, now Placenza, 
near the mouth of the Trebia, where Hannibal gained 
his first victory over the Romans, B. C. 218. A. U. C. 



536. South 
name ; then 
besieged, aft 



which still retains its 



M 



Modena 



M 



Antony, but was rescued by the last of the free Roman 



* 



Consuls elect, Pansa and Hirtius, who were both kill 
the same day, the year in which Ovid was born 
April 15, B. C. 43. A. U. C. 711) and Bononia, now 

Bologna. On the coast is, Ravenna, celebrated for a 
port and arsenal, made there by Augustus as a rendez- 
vous for his fleets in the Adriatic, afterwards, for its 
having been the residence of the Emperors of the West, 
when Rome was possessed by the Barbarians, and, after 
that, for its being the seat of the Exarch, or Governor 
appointed by the Emperors of the East, when Italy 
was in possession of the Lombards. It was remarkably 

ill supplied with water till it became the seat of govern- 
ment. f 



Re*na Liburnorum et fontem superare Timavi 



# 



* 



% 



% 



m 

Hie tamen ille urbem Patavi, sedesque locavit 



Teucrorum 



Virg. JEn. I. 242. 



* Editus ego sum, 

Cum cecidit fato consul uterque pari. 



Ov. TrisU IV. 10. 





-j- Sit cisterna mini, quam vinea, malo Ravennae 



•\ 



Cum 





















\ 



. 






■ 



85 













The principal Mountains of Gallia Cisalpina are the 
Alps, which in various parts of their course received 
various denominations. Near the mouth of the Varus, 
or Var, at the Western extremity of Liguria, they were 
called the Alpes Maritimae, or Maritime Alps. Advancing 

i 

in a Northern direction, they were called the Alpes 



Cottias, now Mount Genevre.f Still North, where they 




begin to turn to the East, Alpes Graias, now Little St. 
Bernard. Then Alpes Penninae, (from Pen, a summit,) 
and Alpes Summae, now Great St. Bernard and St. 
Gothard. Still Eastward were the Alpes Lepontiae, 
which separate Italy from the Helvetii, or Swiss, Alpes 
Rhaeticas, which separates it from Rhaetia and Vindelicia, 
now the country of the Grisons, and the Alpes Juliae, or 
Carnicae, which separate it from Noricum and Pannonia* 

now the Tyrol, Carinthia, and Stiria. The Apennines 
branch off from the Alps, and run nearly through the 

middle of the whole of Italy, from North to South/ 

The rivers in Gallia Cisalpina* are the Padus or Po, 
called also Eridanusf, which rises among the Cottian 
Alps, and runs from West to East, through the middle 
of the country, till it falls into the Adriatic near Hadria ; 
the Ticinus, or Tesino, which rises not far from the 



^ 












\ 



% 



# 



# 



# 



* 



Callidus imposuit nuper mihi caupo Ravennae : 
Cum peterem mixtum, vendidit ille merum. 

Martial. III. 56 & 57. 

This is the most probable passage of Hannibal into Italy. 






f Proluit msano contorquens vortiee sylvas 



Fluviorum rex Eridanus. 






G 3 



Virg. Georg* 1. 482* 









■ 






r 






. 






v 


















86 






Rhone 5 among the Lepontine Alps in the country of the 
BrenniandGenauni, celebrated by Horace as subdued by 
Drusus *, and flows through the Lacus Verbanus, now 
Lago Maggiore, into the Po, near the town of Pavia (it 
was here that the Romans were defeated by Hannibal, 
the same year with their defeat at Trebia} ; the Mincius f, 
or Mincio, which flows from the lake Benacus j, or Logo 

di Garda, celebrated by Virgil, and falls into the Po 
below Mantua; and the Trebia, already mentioned, 

which falls into the Po, in Gallia Cispadana, near Pla- 
centia. The Athesis §, or Adige, is a separate river,* 
which rises in the Rhaetian Alps, and, flowing by Verona, 
falls into the Adriatic above the Po, Considerably 
below Ravenna, and just above the town of Ariminium, 
or Rimini, is the celebrated stream of. the Rubico ff, 
now called Fiumesino, a mountain torrent, or rather one 

■ 

of three which separates Italia Propria from Gallia Cis- 



* Drusus Genaunos, impavidum genus, 



Brennosque veloces 



dejecit. 



Od. IV. 4. 



+ Propter aquam, tardis ingens ubi ffexibus errat 



Mincius 



Virg. Georg. Ill* 14 



J An mare quod supra memorem, quodque alluit infra, 
Anne lacus tantos ; te, Lari maxime, teque 
Fluctibus et fremitu assurgens, Benace, marino. 






Virg. Georg. II. 1 58 



§ 



JEn.lX 



(I Fonte cadit modico, parvisque impellitur undis 
Puniceus Rubicon, cum fervida canduit aestas : 
Perque imas serpit valles, et Gallica certus 
Limes ab Ausoniis disterminat arva colonis. 



- 
























if 









>\ 



/ 



W^^^^^H 






I 









87 



* 

alpina, which it was forbidden to pass with an armed 
force, under the most dreadful imprecations ; but which 
was crossed by Caesar, when he advanced to make him- 
self master of the Roman Empire. 


















The first province in Italia Propria was Etruria, 
or Tuscia reaching to the mouth of the Tiber. 
The Etrurians were called Tyrrheni by the 
Greeks, and are supposed to have been originally 
a colony of Maeonians, from Lydia*, in Asia 
Minor, and were remarkably addicted to augu- 
ries t and soothsaying. East of Etruria were the 
Umbri, a very antient nation, whose coast along 
the Adriatic was subsequently occupied by the 
Galli Senones. Their name still remains in 
Sena Gallica, now Senigaglia. Below these was 












Turn vires praebebat hyeml 

Caesar ut adversam superato gurgite ripam 
Attigit, Hesperiae vetitis et constitit arvis, 
Hie ait, hie, pacem temerataque jura relinquo; 
Te, Fortuna, sequor 



Lucan. L 212 



* Hence Horace addressing Maecenas, who was descended from 

the antient Kings of Tuscany : 

Nonquia, Maecenas, Lydorum quidquid Etruscos 



Incoluit fines nemo generosior est te 



Hor. Sat. 1,6. 



f Hence Virg. 






Inflavit cum pinguis ebur Tyrrhenus ad aras, 
Lancibus et pandis fumantia reddimus exta. 



Georg. IL 195% 



G 4 



<# 
















N 









I 






t t 



i V 












ll 



. 






1 






88 



Picenum, celebrated for its apples * : Below Urn- 
bria were the Sabini, separated from Latium by 
the river Anio, now the Teverone. On the South 

I 

of the Tiber and Anio was Latium, and on the 
South bank of the Tiber, just below their junc- 
tion, is Rome. The river Liris separated Latium 



from Campania, i 

nium and Hirpini 



the back of which was Sam 



> 



The principal Cities in Etruria were Pisae, on the coast, 
now Pisa, and above it Luca, now Lucca ; Florentia, 
now Florence^ and South East Arretium, now Arezzo 
below which is Clusinium, or Ciusii, near to the Lacus 
Trasimenus, now called the Lago di Perugia, from 

a, antiently Perusia, at its South Eastern extre- 

Near this lake was the memorable defeat of the 

is by Hannibal, B. C. 217. A. U. C. 537. South 



Peru 



to 



mity 



of Florentia is Sena, now Siena, West of which is Vo- 

laterrae now Volterra, and East is Cortona above the 
Lacus Trasimenus. Below Clusium is Volsinii, now 
Bolsena, where Sejanus was born. South East is Falerii, 
or Falisci, a small village, now Talari. Among the 



Falisci was Mons Soracte mentioned 




f Horace. 



West of Falerii is Tarquinii, from whence the Tarquin 
family came to Rome, and below Falerii is Veil. West 
of Veii is Caere, or Agylla, now Cer-Veteri. North West 



, \ 



* Hence Hor. 



Picenis cedunt pomis Tiburtia succo* 






Sat. II. 



f Vides ut alta stet nive candidum 
H Soracte 



. 













































\ 






























89 



I 

of Caere, on the coast, is the port of. Centum, Cellae, now 
Civita Vecchia, the chief port of modern Rome. In 
Umbria, on the shore of the Adriatic, near the Rubicon, 
is Ariminiuu), now Rimini ; below is Pisaurum, or Pe- 
saro, and Sena Gallica, now Senigaglia. Inland, at the 
foot of the Apennines, is Nuceria, now Nocera. Con- 

* 

siderably below it is Spoletum, now Spoleto. On the 

■ 

coast ot Picenum is Ancona, w T hich still retains its name. 
Somewhat inland below is Asculum, now Ascoli, West 
of which is Nursia, now Norsia, and Southwards Ami- 
ternurn, West of which is Reate, now Heati. These 

three last are Sabine towns. 

The principal Rivers and Lakes in Etruria, are the 

Arnus, or Arno, which rises in the Apennines, not very 
far from Florence, and flows into the sea near Pisa; the 
Tiber, which flows principally from North to South, 

rising in the Umbriah Apennines, and receiving the 

Clanis, or Ckiaca, below Clusium ; the Nar # , or Neva, 
which rises near Nursia, and flows into the Tiber near 
Narnia and Ocriculum ; and the Anio, or Teveronc, 
which rises at Treba near Anagnia, and flowing by the 
town of Tibur now Tivoli, celebrated for its cascades, 
falls into the Tiber just above Rome. The river Me- 
taurus, or Metro, celebrated for the defeat of Asdrubal, 
the brother of Hannibal, by the Consuls Li v. Salinator 
and Claudius Nerof, A. U. C. 547. B. C. 207- rises 






* Audiit et Trivia? longe lacus, audiit amnis 
Sulphurea Nar albus aqua. 



Virg.JEn.VII.Sl6 



j- Quid debeas, O Roma, Neronibus, 
Testis Metaurum fluraen, et Asdrubal 

Devictus. 



Hor. Od. IV. 4. 



s 



t 
















II if ' 





















U 


















s 



90 



• , 



Umbrian Apennines, and falls into the 



Pisaurum. 



Tiber was Latium, in which is Ostia 



called from its being the port at the mouth of the Tiber, 
about 20 miles from Rome. Below it is Antium *, now 



Aim 



Circeii, 



time 






Horace and Juvenal for its oysters f, and 
residence of the enchantress Circe, 



Monte 



Circello. 



G 



JEneas.t 









Southward are the small islands of Pontia, now Potiza, 

i 

and Pandataria, where Julia the daughter of Augustus 
was banished. Between Circaei and Caieta, on an emi- 
nence, is Anxur §, or Terracim, which latter name it 
still retains. Here the celebrated Pontinse Paludes, or 






* Here was the famous Temple of Fortune, the subject of the 



Ode of Horace. 






O Diva gratum quag regis Antium. 



Od. I. 35. 



Ostrea Circaeis, Miseno oriuntur echini 



Hor. Sat. II. 4. 



Circaeis nata forent, an 
Lucrinum ad saxum, Rutupinove edita fundo 
Ostrea callebat primo dignoscere morsu 



Juvenal. Sat. IV. 140. 



t Tu quoque littoribus nostris, j?Eneia nutrix 
iEternam moriens famam, Caieta, dedisti. 



Firg. JEn. VII. 1 . 



§ Imposkum saxis late candentibus Anxur. 



Hor. Sat. I. 5. 






















91 






Pontine Marshes, end. In these marshes Marius * hid 
himself, and was dragged out from them with a rope 
round his neck, to the neighbouring prison of Min- 
turnae. About twelve miles South East of Rome we 
have Tusculum, where was Cicero's celebrated villa, 
the scene of his Tusculan Disputations ; it is now called 
FrascatL Praeneste f, the retreat of Horace, is to the 
East of this now called Palestrina. South East Praeneste 
is Anagnia, the capital of the ancient Hernici, and still 
South East is Arpinum,- or Arpz?w 9 the birth-place of 
Marius and Cicero. 



/ 















The orincioal Rivers of Latium 



Teverone, which, passing 
Tibur J, antiently bounded 




Li 



ins 



the delightful town of 
the North East ; and the 
j Fucinus §, not very far 



* Hence Juvenal, speaking of Marius : 

- 1 

Exilium et career, Minturnarumque paludes 
Et mendicatus victa Carthagine panis. 






Sat. X. 276 



f Trojani belli scriptorem, maxime LolU, 
Dum tu declamas Romae Praeneste relegi. 



Hor. Epist. II. 6. 



X Tibur Argaeo positum colono 
Sit meae sedes utinam senectae 






Hor. Od. II. 6. 



Domus Albuneae resonantis, 



Et praeceps Anio, et Tiburni lucus, et uda 
Mobilibus pomaria rivis. 



Hor. Od. 1. 7. 



§ Te nemus Angitiae, vitrea te Fucinus unda 
Te liquidi flevere lacus. 



Virg. JEn. VII. 759 



v 



i 






i 



* ■ - 






92 















1 % 



i; 



f f ' 









from the Anio, and, flowing in an opposite direction, 
falls into the sea near Minturnae. The Liris is now 

i 

called the Garigliano. The small river Fibrenus, which 
ran by Cicero's paternal villa, falls into it not far from 
Arpinum. 






■ 

The city of Rome itself was built on seven hills # : 
Mons Palatinus, in the center, then Capitolinus, Quiri- 
nalis, Viminalis, Esquilinus, Coelius, Aventinus ; the 
most extreme f, North and South, were Quirinalis and 
Aventinus. On the Esquilias % was the splendid palace 
and gardens of Maecenas. On the Palatine Hill was the 
celebrated Palatine library § of Augustus. This was the 
first inhabited part of Rome, and is sometimes put by 

way of eminence for the whole. || Indeed, here was the 






\) 



* Hence Horace : 

Diis quibus septem placuere colles. 



X 



Carm. Scec* 7 



f Hence Horace : 



* Cubat hie in colle Quirini, 



Hie extremo in Aventino : visendus uterque 
Intervalla vides humane commoda. 



Epist.ll. 2 



Nunc licet Esquiliis habitare salubribus, atque 
Aggere in aprico spatiari, qua modo tristes 
Albis informem spectabant ossibus agrura. 



§ Scrip ta Palatinus quascunque recepit Apollo. 



\\ Hence Hor. 

Si Palatinas videt aequus arces 

Remque Romanam Latiumque felix 



Hor. Sat. I. 8. 



Hor. Epist. I. o. 



Carm. Scec. 65 












\\i'- 




I 



/ 



93 


















residence of Romulus and the Roman Kings, of Augustus 



Palatium has 



ever 



* 

since been applied to the residence of a monarch. On 
Mons Capitolinus was the Capitol, and Tarpeian Rock, 
Mons Aventinus was the burying-place of Remus; 
hence it was looked upon as a place of ill omen. * Be- 
tween the Collis Capitolinus, Quirinaiis, and the Tiber, 
was the Campus Martius, the principal situation of 
modern Rome ; and opposite Mons Palatinus, across the 
Tiber, on the Tuscan side, was the Janiculum. At the 
foot of the Capitol was the Forum Romanum, and on 

one side of it the famous Milliarium, or Golden Mile"" 
stone, from which all the Roman roads were measured. 
The nations in the immediate vicinity of Rome, during 
the earlier periods of the Roman history, were the Latini 
below Rome ; the iEqui East, and Hernici South East 

of Rome; the Volsci South Westwards, and Aurunci 
below them, on the coast of Latium, towards Campania; 

_ 

the Marsi East of the JEqui ; the Sabini North East of 
Rome ; and to the North West of it, the Veientes. 




Below Latium, and separated from it by the Liris, was 
Campania, now Campagna, and part of the Kingdom of 
Naples. The chief city of Campania was Capua, cele- 
brated for the luxury of its inhabitants ; and below it, on 
the coast, is the no less celebrated city of Neapolis, a 
Greek colony, which is now Naples. Neapolis was 
antiently called Parthenope, from the name of one of the 

Sirens, said to have lived there ; and was the favourite re- 



* Ut immerentis fluxit in terram Remi 

4 

Sacer nepotibus cruor. 



Hor. Epod. VII. 1 8 












\ 













/ 


















fl 









94 






of Virgil 



Misenum. Baiae and Puteoli were on the op- 



and celebr 



Roman nobility f . 






ficent palaces. The former of these is now called Bay a, 
the latter Pozzuolo. Misenum, which received its name 
from the trumpeter of iEneas, whose death is recorded 
by Virgil :(:, was the station of the Roman fleet in the 
Lower sea ; and above it was Cumae §, the residence of 
the Cumaean Sybil, the conductress of iEneas to the 
shades below. k Opposite the promontory of Misenum is 
the island of Pithecusa, or iEnaria, now Ischia, and 
below it, on the South side of the bay called Crater, is 

the island of Capreae, or Capri, infamous for the cruelties 

and debaucheries of Tiberius. || East of Naples is Nola, 

where bells are said to have been first invented, thence 
called Nolae, or Campanse, and at the Northern point 









'/ 



* Illo Virgilium me tempore dulcis alebat 
Parthenope studiis florentem ignobilis oti. 



Virg. Georg. IV. 563 



f Marisque Bails obstrepentis urges 



Summovere littora. 



Hor. Od. II. 18. 



t 



' ■ Illi Misenum in littore sicco, 
Vt venere, violent indigna morte peremptum ; 
Misenum iEoliden, quo non praestantior alter 
jEre ciere viros Martemque accendere cantu. 



Virg. JEn. VI. 162 



/ 



$ Laudo tamen vacuis quod sedem figere Cumis 



Destinat atque unum civem donare Sibyllae. 



Juv. Sat. III. 2 



i 



Jj Principis angusta Caprearum in rupe sedentis. 



Juv. Sat. X. 85. 






' 



95 



' 















- 

of the Sinus Postanus is Salernum, now Salerno. North 
West of Capua are Suessa Auruncorum and Teanum, 
now Sezza and Tiano *, the latter of these places was 
a favourite residence of the Roman nobility. Above 
them, on the confines of Latium was Venafrum, or 
Venafro^ celebrated for its olives f and oil. The cele- 
brated vineyards % of Falernum were about Cales near 
Teanum ; the Caecubus Ager near Formiae and Caieta ; 
and the Mons Massicus near Sinuessa. 






f 

The principal Rivers of Campania are the Liris, al- 
ady described, and Vulturnus, or Volturno. which rises 



the 



Samnium. and 



little above Liternum, the burial-place of Scipio Afri- 
canus, East of which is Atella, where the Latin farces 
called Ludi Atellani originated. 



The celebrated 



§ Lake was opposite to 



Puteoli, near to Lake Avernus. It is now only a muddy 



# 



Cras ferramenta Teanum 



Tolletis fabri. 



f Pressa Venafi^nae quod bacca remisit olivae. 



Hor. Epist. I. I . 



Hor. Sat II. 4. 



X Caecubum, et praelo domitam Caleno 
Tu bibes uvam. Mea nee Falernae 
Teraperant vites, neque Formiani 

Pocula colles. 



I 



Hor. Od. I. 20 



§ An memorem portus, Lucrinoque addita claustra, 
Atque indignatum raagnis stridoribus sequor : 
Julia qua ponto longe sonat unda refuso 
Tyrrhen usque fretis immittitur aestus Avernis? 






Virg, Georg.lh 161* 






y 



i 



J 










96 















■ 

pool, having a conical hill in its center, 
one night from a subaqueous volcano. 



hich 






n 



Vesuvius is the 



Mountain in Campania ; 












though it does not appear to have been a volcano in the 
days of Virgil, who merely celebrates the fertility of its 
soil. * The first eruption of Vesuvius which We have on 
record, is that A. D. 79, when the cities of Pompeii, Her- 

culaneum, and Stabi*, were overwhelmed with ashes, 
and the elder Pliny lost his life by approaching too near 
the volcano* 

■ 

At the back of Latium and Campania is Samnium 
and Hirpini ; the two first cities of which, beyond Cam- 
pania, .are Caudium, celebrated for the ignominious 
defeat of the Romans by the Samnite General Pontius, 
at the Fauces Caudinse, A. U. C. 433. B. C. 321. and 
Beneventum, or Benevento, originally called Maleven- 
tum, but which changed its name for one of more fa- 
vourable omen. Here Pyrrhus was f " " 



U 



Th 



e 



Fauces Caudinae are still called Forchie. Above these, in 

Samnium properly so called, is Allifae, antiently cele- 
brated for its manufacture of pottery +, and ^sernia' 
now hernia. Above, bordering on the Sabines, were 



the 



celebrated for their 



\, and East of 



* 

# Talem dives arat Capua, et vicina Vesevo 



Orajugo. 



Virg. Georg. II. 224, 



+ Invertunt Allifanis vinana tota. 

% Haec genus acre virum, Marsos pubemque Sabellaro 
Assuetumque malo Ligurero, Volscosque verutos 



Hor. Sat. II. 



Extulit 



i 

Virg. Georg. II. 167 






» * 



\ * 











97 






them 
puted 



Pel 



6 



re- 



# 



■ 


















w 

Marrubium, the principal City of the Marsi, was si- 
tuated at the South East extremity of the Lake Fucinus, 
now Lago di Celano. Among the Peligni was Corfinium, 
and, a little lower, Sulmo, now Sulmona, where Ovid 
was born. North West of these was Amiternnm. 



On 



the Coast of the Adriatic were the Samnite tribes of 



the 



Marr 



Frentani. This part of 



Italy is now called Abruzzo. The principal River 

Samnium is the Sagrus, or Sangro. ) 



m 




f 



The remainder of Italy is called Magna 
Graecia, from the number of Grecian colonies 
Which it contained. It is divided into the prin- 
cipal provinces of Apulia, Messapia, or Japygia, 

called also Calabria, Lucania, and the country 
of the Bruttii, or Bruttiorum Ager. 



% * 



P> 



Daunia, from Daunus 



its coast Was called 



was 



h 



ere 



after 



Diomede. Diomede settled 
ir, and founded the city of 



Marsis qusesitae in montibus herbse 



Firs. Mix. VII. 758. 



Nee vocata mens tua 






Marsis redibit vocibus. 



Hor. Epod. V. 75. 



Quid proderit ditasse Pelignas anus 
Velociusre miscuisse toxicum. 



Hm Epod, XVIII. 8. 



H 









\ 



• 



V 






• ' 



/ 



■ I 



/ 



98 






Arpi*, still so called. 



Arp 



Manfredonia. West of Arp 



Luceria 



Venu 



brated for its wool. + 

ft**", the birth-place of Horace £ and near it § Bant 

and Acherontia, or Acerenza 



Nor 



Dio 



memorable for having been recorded by him. 
East of Venusia is Canusium, or Canosa, built I 
mede || and a little Eastward of Canusium is Cann*e, 



in 



fatal scene of defeat ar, 
the dreadful battle ag 



Hannibal, May 



A. U. C 538, B. C 
and Messapia was a 



The country between Apulia 



equented 









* Atque iterum in Teucros .ffitolis surgit ab Arpis 




Virg. Mn. X. 23 



-J- Te lanae prope nobilem 



Tonsse Luceriam, non citharse, decent, 



Hor. Od. III. 15. 



* 



Lucanus an Appulus anceps. 



Nam Venusinus arat finem sub utrumque colonus. 

Hor. Sat. II. 1. 



§ Quicunque celsae nidum Acherontiae, 
Saitusque Bantinos, et arvum 

Pingue tenent humilis Ferenti 



Hor. Od. III. 4 . 



11 Qui locus a forti Diomede est conditus olim 



Hor. Sat. I. $, 









■% Ban moenia piscosi 



Hor. Sat. I. S 



i 



r* \ 







r 



99 









The principal River 



i' 



* 



Aufid 



us 



Ofc 



a violent Apennine stream, which falls Into 



the sea near Cannae. In the spur of the boot was 



Mons 



Monte St. Angelo ; and near Venusia was Mons 



Hoi 



'«b 



race. 












Below Apulia is Messapia, or Iapygia, containing two 
nations, the Calabri on the North East, and the Salentini 

on the South Western side of the heel of Italy. The 
Calabri have given to this country the general name of 



Calabria. 



Adriatic is B 



the principal port for the passengers from Greece to Italy. 
Horace has described the road from Rome to this place 
in the fifth satire of his first book. Below it is Riidiae, 



th 



d 






* Sic taurifbrmis volvitur Aufidus, 
Qui regna Dauni perfluit Appuli, 
Cum saevit horrendamque cultis 
Diluviem meditatur agris. 



f Garganum mugire putes nemus. 






Aut Aquilonibus 
Querceta Gargani laborant. 



J Me fabulosae Vulture in Appulo 

> 

Altricis extra limen Apuliae, 
Ludo fatigatumque somno 

Fronde nova pueram palumbes 

■ Texere 



/ 



H 



Hor. Od. IV. 14. 



Hor, Eput. II. 1. 



Hor. Od, II. 9. 



Hor, Od, III. 4 a 



S 

























I 









,( 












100 



and father of Latin poetry * 



Hydruntum 



now Otranto. The extreme promontory of the heel of 
Italy was called Japygium, or Salentinum Prom 



\ 



Matinum. 

heel, at the West 



+ At the 



founded 



— ~~ 7 

The principal River 



of Calabria is the small stream of the Galesus* 



the 



Campania, is Paestum, now Pesti 



§ 



Greeks 



mentioned by Horace 
e bay was Metapontur 



. „f Neptune. Below 
On the coast of the 

the celebrated school 

C. 497 ; below it, 



of Pythagoras, who died there B. C. 

Heraclea and Sybaris, or Thurium, so celebrated 






# Ennius emeruit, Calabris in montibus ortus, 



Contiguus poni, Scipio magne, tibi. 



Ovid. De Art. Am. III. 400 



t 



Ego apis Matins 



More modoque 



Grata carpentis thyma per laborem 
Plurimum, circa nemus uvidique 
Tiburis ripas operosa parvus 



Carmina fingo. 



\ 



Hot. Od. IV. 2 



X 



% 



JL/U1CC JJCaixwia vt*~— ~ 

Fiumen, et regnata petam Laconi 

Rura Phalanto. 

■ 

Biferique rosaria Psesti. 



Her. Od. II. C 



Virg. Georg. TV. 119 



I 



Quid sit hyems Veliae, quid coeluro, Vala, Salerni. 
■ Hor. Epist. 1. 1 





















1 








101 



\ 



1 



e 









<efteminacy of its inhabitants, that a Syb 
term of reproach for luxurious and dissoli 



The principal Rivers in Lucania 



the 



Mare Tyrrhenum, near Mount 
the banks of which were much i 



# 



gad-fly ; 



Bradano* 






Sybaris, rise 
of Tar en turn. 



Gulph 



South of Lucania are the Bruttii. — On the Mare 
Tyrrhenian is Consentia, now Consenza. — Quite on the 
toe of Italy, on the straight which divides it from Sicily, 
is Rhegium, now Regio ; and on the opposite coast of 
Italy, on the Ionian Sea, are the Locri Epi-Zephyrii, so 

■ 

called from the promontory of Zephyrium a little below 

it. Above Locri is Scylacium, now Squillaci, and above 

it is the promontory of Lacinium f, now called Capo 
delta Colonna, from a column of a celebrated temple of 
Juno Lacinia still remaining. Above it is Croton, or 
Crotona, the birth-place of the famous Olympic victor 






2. 



e* 



9 






.a* 



Est 



Alburnum 



Romanum est, cestron Graii vertere vocantes 



Virg. Georg. III. 146 # 

I 

f Hie sinus Herculei, si vera est fama, Tarenti, 
Cernitur, attollit se Diva Lacinia contra, 

Gaulonisque arces, et navifragum Scylacaeum. 

Virg. Mn. III. 551. 

See also a beautiful story respecting the painting of Venus by 

2euxis in this temple, related by Cicero, De Invent, II. 1. 

H 3 



I 



* 



/ 






« 






I 











\ 



102 



Mito. and 



Petilia 



of Pythagoreans. Above this is 

loctetes, after his return from the Trojan war; and above 

it Roscianum, now Rosano. 

t 

The principal Rivers of the Bruttii are the Crathes, or 
Crati> which rises in the Apennines, not far from Con- 

and falls into the Tarentine bay a little below 



sentia. 



Neto 



same vicinity, and falls into the sea above Crotona. 






The principal Roman Roads were the Via Appia, 
from Rome to Brundusium; the Flaminia, from Rome 
to Ariminium ; the Aurelia, by the coast of Etruria, to 
Liguria and Gallia, near Nice; and the Claudia, which 
branched off from the Flaminia, at the Pons Milvius, 
near Rome, and, proceeding through the more inland 
part of Etruria, joined the Via Aurelia at Lucca. The 
Roads of inferior note were, the Via Latina, which had 
Alba Longa on the right, Tusculum on the left, and 

Algidus into Latium. The Labicana, 

to Prseneste, having Labicum on the right, and the 
Lake Regillus on the left. The Pramestina, to the same 
city, which passed through Gabii, having Collatia to the 
left. The Tiburtina or Valeria, which led through 
Tibur to the Adriatic. The Nomentana which passed 
over Mons Sacer to Nomentum and Cures, among the 
Sabini. The Salaria, which passed through Fidenae, 
crossed the river Allia, and joined the Nomentana at 



Mons 















* Parva Philoctetae subnixa Petilia rauro. 

* 

15 



Vim. JEn. III. 402- 









103 



Eretum, between Nomentum and Cures, and passed on 
to the Adriatic, having at some distance to the left 
Capena, and the grove of Feronia. The Cassia, which 
passed between the Flaminia and Claudia, over the little 
river Cremera, through Veii. The Triumphal is, which, 
joined the Claudia six miles from Rome. The Portuensis 
and Ostiensis, which led to the Portus Augusti on the 
North, and Ostia on the South side of the mouth of the 
Tiber. The Laurentina and Ardeatina led to Laurentum 

and Ardea, between the Via Ostiensis and Appia. Con- 
siderably to the left of the Via Ardeatina, near the Via 

Appia, was Lanuvium. 












a 



e 



t 












\2. 



« 4 




















I > 



/ 



S* 






104 







CHAPTER III 



9 






ITALIAN ISLANDS. 






/ 




icilia was antiently called Sicania, from the SicanI 



) 



possessed 



driven to its Western 



an 



Italian nation. It was also called Trinacria, from having 
rgeig cheque three, celebrated jjromontories (the island 
itself being of a triangular shape) ; Pelorum at the East, 

\ 

adjacent to Italy, Pachynum at the South, and Lilybceum 



at the West 



It 



colonized 



the Greeks 



Carthaginians, an 



d 



came 



th 



the 



Romans in the second Punic war. The promontory of 

ro. A little South of this was 



Ft 



Me 






Ltly called also Zancle, from the 

30ur, now Messina. Close to this 

on the Sicilian shore, was Charybdis, and above it, on 
the Italian shore, Scylla*, the two well-known objects of 



* 



Dextrum Scylla latus, laevum implacata Charybdis 
Gbsidet, atque imo barathri ter gurgite vastos 
Sorbet in abruptum fluctus, rursusque sub auras 









/ 



105 



/ 



though 



terror to the antient mariners, 
formidable. Below it is Tauromenium, 
and below it Catana, which still retains il 
foot of Mount jEtna, now called Monte 



Taorm 



The 



most remarkable poetic descriptions of the eruptions of 
.Etna are in Pindar Pyth. I. 31, iEschylus Pr. Vinct. 
362, and Virml .'En. III. 571. * Above Catana was the 



Ovid Met 



XIII. 860, and near it the Cycl 



Mn 



•J- ; and the plains below the river Simaethus 



the Giaretta 



i 














# 



Erigit altera os 9 et sidera verberat unda. 
At Scyllam caecis cohibet spelunca latebris, 
Ora exsertantem et naves in saxa trahentenu 

Prima hominis facies, et pulchro pectore virg 

Pube tenus : postrema immani corpore pristis 

Delphinum caudas utero commissa luporura. 



^ 



M% 



JEtna 



x 



Interdumque atram prorumpit ad aethera nubem. 
Turbine fum ant em piceo et candente favilla: 
Attollitque globos flammarum, et sidera lambit : 
Interdum scopulos avulsaque viscera montis 
Erigit eructans, liquefactaque saxa sub auras 
Cum geroitu glomerat, fundoque exaestuat imo, 
Fama est Enceladi semiustum fulmine corpus 
Urgeri mole hac, ingentemque insuper JEtnam 
Impositam, ruptis flammam exspirare caminis : 
Et, fessum quoties mutat latus, intremere omnem 
Murmure Trinacriam, et coslum subtexere fumo. 






Mn 



i 



Virg. Eel. I. 1 55. 






















tl 



1 









■ » 












106 



* 






Campi, from the Laestrigones, a barbarous antient people, 
who, as well as the Cyclopes, inhabited Sicily. The 
wine of this region is celebrated by Horace..* On the 
coast were the Leontini, now Lentini. Below was the 

! 

river Anapus, and the far-famed city of Syracuse, still 
called Siracusa. It was taken by Marcellus, the Roman 
Praetor, in the second Punic war, B. C, 212, A. U. C. 
542 ; and was also the scene of the memorable defeat of 
the Athenians, so finely related by Thucydides, in his 
seventh book of the Peloponnesian war. The ports of 
Syracuse lay at the South, below the town. The lesser 

port was formed by the town and the North side of the 
little island Ortygia, in which was the fountain Are- 

thusa ; the greater port, in which was the mouth of the 

river Anapus, was formed by the Southern side of the 
island and a bay reaching to the promontory called 
Plemmyrium, in the recess of which promontory was a 
castle. That part of the town called Acradina was near- 
est the shore, and its Southern extremity formed one 
side of the little port. The South Western side of the 
city lying towards the Anapus, and separated from it by 

some marshy ground, was called Neapolis, between 

■ 

which and Acradina was Tyche, and above Neapolis was 

t 

Epipolae. Its whole circuit was 180 stadia, above 22 
English miles. This description maybe of service in 
reading Thucydides. Below Syracuse is Helorum, the 
vestiges of which are called Muri Ucci ; the adjacent coun- 
try was so beautiful as to be called the Helorian Tempe # 

i 

The extreme Southern point of Sicily is the promontory 

* Quanquam nee Calabrse mella ferunt apes, 



Nee Laestrigonia Bacchus in amphora 
Languescit mihi. 






Hor. Od. Ill, 1 6 









■ V 









107 



V 



■ 




the 



of Pachynum, now Passaro. Ascending alon 
Southern shore of Sicily is Camarina, antiently called 
Hyperia, so often celebrated by Pindar ; it is still called 
Camarana : above it is Gela, near the modern Terra 



Nov, 



H 



rated the Syracusan from the Carthaginian dependencies 
in Sicily. West of the Himera is the city of Agrigen- 
tum, or Agragas as it is called by the Greeks, so often 
celebrated by Pindar, now called Girgenti. Still West 

were the Thermae Selinuntiae, and Selinus itself, a 
splendid Syracusan colony. From Selinus the shore 

bends upwards to the Western promontory of Lilyboeum, 
which is nearly opposite Carthage, and still preserves 
its old name in Boeo ; but the city of Lilybceum is now 
called Marsala. North of Lilyboeum is Drepanum, 

and Mount Eryx, celebrated for its 



W 



nowWTrapani, 

temple of Venus, hence called Erycina. 

was the Trojan colony of Segeste, or Egesta. Off the 

* 

Mount Eryx are the iEgades or M 



celebrated for the famous victory gained by the Romans 
under Lutatius Catulus over the Carthaginians, which 
ended the first Punic war, B. C. 242, . A. U. C. 5 1 2. 
Proceeding along the Northern coast, we find Panor- 
mus, now the capital of Sicily under the name of Pa- 



/ 



lermo. 



H 



on another and 



smaller river of that name; it is now called Termini, 
from the Thermae, or warm baths, which were in its 

vicinity. Towards the Eastern promontory of Pelorum 



H ' 









* Sive tu mavis Erycina ridens 



Hor. Od. I. 2. 






\ 


















!l 










108 



the 



Mylse, now Milazzo, between which 
called Naulochus, the fleet of Sex 



Pomp 



was 



defeated by that of the 



Octavius, B. C. 36, 



U.C.7 



In the interior of the country, and 



9 

nearly in its centre, was the celebrated plain of Enna, 



i 



from 



Proserp 



the shades below. 



Met 



It is 



now 



■ 

called Castro Janni, or Giovanni. 













Each of the promontories of Sicily had a celebrated 
temple. At Pelorum was that of Neptune ; at Pachy- 



num that of Apollo ; and near Lilybceum that of Venus, 

Eryx. The antients fabled that the giant 



Mount 



Typhosus was buried under Sicily, Pelorum and P 



feet, and iEtn 



placed on each arm, Lilyb 
a on his head, and that the 
of iEtna were caused by his 



move. * 






* Vasta giganteis injecta est insula membris 

* 

Trinacris ; et magnis subjectum molibus urget 

iEtherias ausum sperare Typhoea sedes. 
Nititurille quidem, pugnatque resurgere saspe ; 
Dextra sed Ausonio manus est subjecta Peloro : 
Laeva, Pachyne, tibi : Lilybceo crura premuntur 
Degravat iEtna caput : sub qua resupinus arenas 
Ejectat, flammamque fero vomit ore Typhceus. 
Saepe remoliri luctatur pondera terrae, 
Oppidaque et magnos eyolvere corpore montesj 



Inde tremit tellus. 



Ovid Mel. V. J46. 













I 



100 



North of Sicily are some volcanic islands, called the 
Insute ^olia? *, Vulcanise f, et Liparaese, from Molus 
and Vulcan, who were supposed to have their dwellings 
here, and Lipara, the principal island. Here were the 
forges of Vulcan, described by the poets, particularly 
by Homer and Virgil. Below Sicily were the islands 
of Melite, now Malta, and Gaulos, or Gozo, adjacent 



to it. 

North Wei 

and Sardinia. 



and 



peopled by the Ligurians, and colonized by the Cartha- 
ginians, from whom it was taken by the Romans, B. C. 



U 



It was celebrated 



which gave a poisonous quality to the honey. % Th 



e 



Greeks called it Cyrnos. 



Ma 



Mariu 



On the North 



Western 



coast was the Casalus Sinus, thought to be 
Calvi, and on the opposite side, above Mariana, Manti- 

norum Oppidum, now Bastia. About the middle of the 
Western side was Uranium, now Ajaccio, said to have 







I 



i 



* Nimborum in patriam, loca foeta furentibus Austris, 






JEoliam 




JEolus 



Luctantes ventos tempestatesque sonoras 
Imperio premit, et vinclis et carcere frsenat. 



Pire.JSn.L51. 



f Insula Sicanium juxta latus iJSoliamque 
Erigitur Liparen, spumantibus ardua saxis : 



* 



# 



* 



Vulcani domus, et Vulcania nomine tellus. 



Virg.Mn* VIII. 416. 



\ Hence Virg. 



Sic mea Cyrnaeas fugiant examina taxos 



Eel IX. jo.- 



* ' 






I P 



^ 



^■5 


































110 



: 



* 

been founded by Eurysaces, the son of Ajax. Below 
Corsica is Sardinia, called by the Greeks Ichnusa *, 
from its fancied resemblance to the print of a foot. It 
derived its name from Sardus, the son of Hercules, 

- 

chief of an African colony planted there. It was taken 
by the Romans with Corsica. The air of Sardinia was 
considered very unwholesome, and the quantity of worm- 
wood and bitter herbs it produced, particularly a species 
of ranunculus, was proverbial, f As the features were 
contracted by the taste of these, the expression Sardous 
risus, a Sardonic smile, was used to signify a malevolent 
grin. The principal town was Caralis, now Cagliari. 



. 



Recent events have given celebrity to the little island 
of Ilva, now Elba, lying between the extreme Northern 
point of Corsica and Etruria. 



* The adjacent countries have been generally assimilated to some 
well-known form. Italy to a boot ; Sicily, by the antients, to a 
triangle, hence called Triquetra, by the moderns, to the less philo- 
sophic form of a shoulder of mutton; Corsica to a heart. 



t 



Virg. Eel. VII. 4 2 



1 ' 















ft* 













Y 



111 



CHAPTER IV. 



BRITANNIA ANTIQUA. 



I 




s Britain appears to have been peopled by successive 
migrations from the neighbouring coast of Gaul, it will 
be our most natural way of proceeding to begin with 
describing the parts nearest that country. 



Opposite the coast of Gaul, and divided from it by a 

narrow Strait, were, I. The Cantii, or people of Kent 
and part of Middlesex, whose principal harbour was 
Rutupise, or Hi chborough, where the Romans generally 
landed. Even in the days of Juvenal the oysters of 
Richborough were imported into Italy. # Durovernum, 
or Darvernum was Canterbury. A little below Dover 

was Portus Lemanis, or Lymne> where Caesar is thought 

* 

to have landed on his first expedition to Britain, B. C. 
55, A. U. C. 699 : having set out from the Portus Itius, 
in Gaul, a little South of Calais. II. South West of 



\ 

Circeis nata forent, an 



saxum 



Ostrea, callebat primo dignoscere morsu* 



Juv. Sat. IV. 140 



/ 






\ 



112 







V. 



the Cantii were the Regni, or antient inhabitants of 
Surrey, Sussex, and part of Hampshire, whose principal 
city Neomagus, or Noviomagus, is placed at Woodcote, 
near Croydon, in Surrey. III. Nearly West of the Regni 
were the Belgas, or inhabitants of Wiltshire, Somerset- 
shire, and part of Hampshire. The principal station 
here was Venta Belgarum, or Winchester. Aquae Calidae 
was Bath ; Ischalis, Ilchester ; the Isle of Wight was called 
Vqctis. South West them were, IV. The Durotriges, 
or the inhabitants of Dorsetshire. The chief town was 

Dunium, or Dornovana, now Dorchester. V, 
Durotriges were the Damnonii, or Dumnor 



West 



j 



Devonsh 



The 






Isca Damnoniorum, Or Chiselborough, and Uxela, or 
Exeter. Tamari Ostia was the mouth of the Tamar, now 

Plymouth Sound. Ocrinum was the Lizard Point ; and 

Bolerium the Land's End or Cape Cornwall. VI. North, 
above the Cantii, were the Trinobantes, or people of 

Essex and Middlesex. The principal settlements were 
Camulodunum, or Maldon, Colonia, probably Colchester, 
and Londinium, or London. VII. South West of the 
Trinobantes were the Atrebatii, in Berkshire and part of 
Oxfordshire. Their principal town was Calleva, pro- 
bably Silchester. VIII. Nortn of the Atrebatii were the 
Catti, Catieuchlani or Cattevelauni, in the present coun- 

ties of Hertford, Bedford, Northampton, and Bucks. 
Their capital was Verulamium, near St. Albans. IX. 
South West of the Cattevelauni and Atrebatii were the 
Dobuni, who inhabited Oxfordshire and Gloucestershire. 
The two principal stations were Corinium, or Cirencester, 
and Gl^vum, or Gloucester. Wales was divided among 
two principal nations : X. In South Wales the Silures 

IO 



l\ 



r 



t 



t 



o 



t 



a 



« 












f 









-/ 









US 



inhabited the counties of Hereford, Monmouth, Radnor* 
Brecon, and Glamorgan ; whose capital was Isca Silu- 
fum, now Caerleon,on the river Isca, or Uske, in Mon- 
mouthshire. The other principal stations were Burrium* 
or Uske, Blestium, or Monmouth, Gobannium, or Aber- 
gavenny, and Venta Silurum, or Caer Gwent, near 
Chepstow. The Demetae were a tribe of Silures on the 
coast. The great Caractacus, who was defeated by Os- 
torius Scapula, A. D. 51, was a prince of the Silures* 
XL In North Wales were the Ordovices, who occupied 






i 



Montgomery, Carnarvon, Denbig 



and 



flint. Their capital was Mediolanium, or Meywood, in 
Montgomeryshire. Among them were also Segontium, 
or Carnarvon, on the river Seiont, and Conovium, or 



Conwy 



The island of Anglesea 



Mona. XII 



N, 



Or Iceni, in Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambridgeshire, and Hunt- 
ingdonshire ; whose capital was Venta Icenorum, or 
Caister, not far from Norwich. The famous Boadicea 
Was queen of the Iceni, who revolted against the Romans, 



and 



/ 



defeated 



S uetoniu s Paul inus, 



D. 61. 



XlIL North West 






possessed the counties 



Rutland. 



I 

Nottingham, Derby, and part of Stafford, 
Principal stations were Lindum, or Unci 



long the 
ci Ratae* 



«r Leicester. XIV. West of the Coritani were the 
Cornavii, who were settled in Warwickshire, Worcester- 
shire, Staffordshire, Shropshire, and Cheshire. The prin- 
cipal stations here were the Deva, or ChesterSVTicomma. # , 



Wrekin 



























i 















114 



or WroxeteV) near Shrewsbury, the antient capital of 
the Cornavii, Etocetum, or Wall, near Lichfield, 



and Mand 



Mancet 



in War 



■ 

though the two last belong more properly to the Coritani. 
The Huicii, or Jugantes, as they were called by Tacitus, 
were a tribe of the Cornavii settled in Warwickshire and 

Worcester 

Parisi, 



hire. XV. North of the Coritani were the 
but a small nation, situated in that part of York- 



Molderness. 



XVI 



The Bri- 



gantes, the greatest, most powerful, and most antient of 
the British nations. They possessed the whole extent 
of Britain from sea to sea, comprising the counties of 
York, Durham, Lancaster', Westmoreland, and Cum- 
berland. The famous Cartismandua, with whom Carac- 
tacus took refuge, was queen of the Brigantes. The 

principal towns were Eboracum, or York, one 



of 



Borouffhbrid 



sland, and Isurium, or Aldborough, near 
which was at one time the capital of 






the Brigantes. These are the principal British nations. 
The antient inhabitants of Scotland were very little 



may 



Not 



berland, Merse, and 



the Gadeni 



' 



West 



Otadeni 



Northumberla?id and Teviot 



JEskdale 






dale, on the shores of the Solway Firth : still 
Novantse, in Galloway, Carrick, Kyle, and Cm 
and on the North West, above the Otadeni an< 
the Damnii, in Clydesdale, Renfrew, Lenox, 
linrrshire. These five nations were sometime* 

headed under the general name of the Mseatse 



West 



4 



nd Stir- 
compre 



I 



N 






/ 





^H 







\ 






f 



e 



e 






i 



e 



9 



U 



115 






When Britain was formed 



vmce 



erated 



the five following grand divisions : 



L Britannia Prim 



a, 



comprising the East and South East of Britain. IT. Fla- 
via Caes'ariensis, containing the West and South West. 
III. Britannia Secunda, containing Wales. IV. Maxima 
Caesariensis, containing the North of Britain. And sub- 
sequently, V. Valentia, comprehending the five Scottish 
tribes, already mentioned under the name of Maeatae, 
lying between the walls of Antoninus and Severus, about 
to be described, which were built to prevent the incursions 
of the barbarous Scottish tribes into the Roman provinces* 

The first of these was built by Agricola, A. D. 7% nearly 












Severus 



Hadrian and Wall 
1. But in A. D. $ 



Agricola built aline of very strong forts, advanced consi- 



North 






These, h 



e 9 on the Western coast of Scotland. 

appear to have been insufficient to re- 



progress of the barb 



Agricola 



D. 85 : and in A. D 



Hadrianplanned and executed that mighty rampart about 

described. It began from Tunnocelum, or BouU 



be 



iEstuarium 



/ 



Western 



House, bevond Pons iElii 



Newcastle upon 



» 



74 Roman 



It consisted of a principal agger 
part, about 10 or 12 feet high, 



■ 

ditch, on the North of 



i vallum, 9 feet deep and 1 1 feet wide, an agg 
the North side of this ditch, and an agger, 



i 2 












I 









'I 



116 






ditch, 5 feet on the South of the principal agger, and 
nearly of as large dimensions. This work was garrisoned 
by soldiers stationed at proper intervals, in forts which had 
formed the Jirst wall of Agricola. Twenty years alter 

i 

this, A.D. 140, Lollius Urbicus, under the Emperor An- 
toninus, having re-conquered the Maeatae, restored the 
second Wall of Agricola, which is commonly called the 
Vallum Antonini. This work consisted of a ditch about 
12 feet wide, the principal wall, or vallum, on the South 
brink of the ditch, whose foundations are 1 2 feet thick, 
but the height is unknown, and a military way on the 
South of the vallum. There were forts, or stations, at 
the distance of every two miles, and smaller towers in the 
intervals between the forts. 



But the greatest work of all was that of Severus, yet 
to be described. It was begun A. D. 209, and finished 
the next year, and was only a few yards to the North of 
Hadrian's Wall. This great work consisted of a ditch, 

the dimensions of which are not known, except that it 
was in all respects larger and wider than that of Hadrian* 
on the South brink of which stood the wall, built of solid 

stone, and cemented with the strongest n 
height of this wall was 12 feet y besides the ] 
its breadth 8 feet, defended at intervals by 
three different kinds. Those called 



The 



stationes 



strong 




e of containing 



600 men, and having a town without their walls; the 
number of these was not less than 18, at an average dis- 
tance of four miles from each other, but placed with some 

irregularity, according to the nature of the surrounding 



country and the exigency 



thes 



■? 



ii 

























there were, in the 



were very strong forts, 
Lastlv. betwee 



about 7 furlongs from each 



These 
square. 



number 



from each other. These were used as watch towers, and, 
being within reach of each other, communications could 
be made with the utmost facility, 
relieving guards, there was a mil 



For 



made 



square stones, the whole length of the wall, on its South 
side, and communicating with each turret and castle; and 
at some distance, South of this, Was another larger mili- 
tary way, paved also with square stone, communicating 
from station to station. The whole body of forces em- 
ployed to garrison this stupendous work was not less than 
10,000 men, 1600 of whom were cavalry, and 600 ma- 
riners, at the points where the ramparts communicated 

with the shore. k 















Roman road 



henc 



called Streets, were the Watling Street, across the 
country from Dover to Cardigan, Anglesea, or Ches- 
ter, (for authors are not agreed on this point, but 
the latter appears the more probable,) passing through 
London, St. Albans, Dunstable, Towcester, Atherstone, 

Its etymology is uncertain, but 
it is perhaps corrupted from the name of Vitellianus into 






w 



Wroxeter 



fossa, a a ^ 
through Cirenc 



Watling Street. 



Way, derived from 



extended from Tot n ess in Devonshire 

- 

sster and Lincoln to North Britain* The 
Ikenild Street, probably so called from the Iceni through 
*hose cm 



ntry it ran, extended from Southamp 



/ 



I 3 



I 









Ill 



■; 









■ 









118 






through York, to Newcastle upon Tyne. The Ermm 
Street most probably derived from the Saxon Herrman, 
a warrior, signifying that it was a military road, extended 
from St. David's to Southampton. From these principal 
roads there were many minor branches. 






Of the British Islands, Vectis was the Isle of Wight } 
the Cassiterides were the Scilly Islands, which are said 

_ 



/ 



Mona 



Mona described by 






the Isle of A 



Mona Caesaris the Isle of 






Man 



Hiber 



/ 




























U 



■ 



\ 




/ 



119 









CHAPTER V. 






V 



HISPANIA 



Spain was divided by the Romans at first into two 

provinces, called Hispania Citerior, or nearer, and His- 
pania Ulterior, or farther Spain. Hispania Citeriorwas 

afterwards called Tarraconensis, from Tarraco its capital, 

and extended from the foot of the Pyrenees to the mouth 



Durius, or Dow 



hen din 



& 



all the 



Ulterio 



South as far as a line drawn below Carthago Nova, or 

Carthagena, and continued, in an oblique direction, to 
the Durius, above Salman tica, now Salamanca. His- 

ded into two provinces, Baetica, 
or the South of Spain, between the river Anas, or Gua- 
diana, and Hispania Citerior ; and above it, Lusitania, 
corresponding in great measure, but not entirely, to our 

Citerior, or Tarraconensis, con- 
The Ceretani, Cosetani, Lace- 



Portugal. H 



■b 



tained many nations. Thq 
tani, and Ilergetes, occupied what is now Catalonia. 
Here was Barcino, or Barcelona, Tarraco, or Tarra- 
gona, the capital of the province, and Ilerda, the capital 

I 4 



V 





















120 






of the Hergetes, now Lerida, celebrated for the resistance 
it -made against Caesar, under the Lieutenants of Pompey* 
Afranius and Petronius, North Westward, at the foot of 
the Pyrenees, were the Jacetani. The Vascones were 
seated in the kingdom of Navarre ; whose chief city was 
Pompelo, or Pampeluna. TheCantabri* possessed Bis- 
cay, and part ofAsturias, and held out against the Roman 






power for many years. Among them were the Concani, 
whose ferocity is also celebrated by Horace, f Next 
to the Cantabri were the Astures, or inhabitants of As- 
turias, whose capital Asturica is still called Astorga. 
The station of the seventh legion gave name to the colony 
of Legio, or Leon. Still Westward, the Callaeci or Cal- 
liaci inhabited the country now called Gallicia. Here 
was the promontory of Artabrum, or Cape Finisterre, 
North East of which was Brigantium, now Corunna. At 
the mouth of the Durius is the port of Calle, which, having 
been corrupted into Portugal, has given a modern name 
to the antient province of Lusitania. South East of 
the Astures are the Vaccaei, and South East of them 
the Arevaci, in Leon and Castile. Among the Vaccaei, 

was Palentia, and East of it was Numantia, among 
the Pelendones, which resisted the Roman armies four- 
teen years, and was utterly destroyed by Scipio Africanus 
Minor, B. C. 133, A, U. C. 621. It was situated near 

the sources of the Douro. Below the river Iberus, or 



* Cantabrura indoctum juga ferre nostra 






Jffor. Od. II. 6 



3 



Cantaber sera domitus catena. • 



Hor. Od. III. 8 



f Et laetum equino sanguine Concanum 



Hor. Od. Ill, 4 












121 



Ebro, were the Celtiberi, a great and powerful peopl 



of 



Romans. 



the 



b 



M 



Kast of the Celtiberians, below the Iberus, 

tk.1 in the other nart of Arrapon and Vgl- 



V 



' 



lenciay whose Northern boundary was the Iberus, and 



Southern the Sucro, 



Xucar. Their capital Caesar 



Augusta has been corrupted into Saragossa. A little 
above their Southern boundary was Valencia, and above 
it the famous city of Saguntum, by the siege of which 
Hannibal began his first attack on the Romans, which 



Pun 



219, A. U. C. 535. Hannibal 



after a siege of 



four months, and the inhabitants burnt themselves and 
their effects that they might not fall into his hands. It 
was afterwards rebuilt, and some remains of it are still to 

be seen, undei 
Muri Veteres. 



Murviedro. 



teres. North West of Saguntum was Segobriga, 
now Segorbe. East of the Edetani, near the mouths of 
the Iberus, were the Ilercaones. At the back of the 
Celtiberi, below the Arevaci, were the Carpetani, in New 
Castile, occupying the centre of Spain. Their principal 
city was Toletum, now Toledo, and Complutum, now Al- 
cala. West of Toletum was Libora, now Talavera, on 



theT 



agus. 
Mancha 



Below the Carp 



.testani, 



Th 



e 



-— — ~~ * 

he kingdom of Murcia. Their capital was 
ed city of Carthago Nova, or Carthagena. 
shore of this country was called the Spartianus 
us. from the quantity of rushes growing there. 





















\ 



/ 



\ 



• 







122 



."■ 






- 






H 



the river Baetis, or G 



It is now 



known by the name of Andalusia, a corruption of Van- 
dalitia, from the Vandals, who in the decline of the Ro- 
man empire were settled there. Along the Southern 
shore were the Phoenician Bastuli, occupying part of the 
Kingdom of Granada. * North West of these were the 



Turd 






towards the mouth of the 



river Baetis. North of them was Bseturia below the river 
Anas, or Guadiana, in part of Estremadura and the 
Kingdom of Seville. Below them were the Turduli, in 
Cordova; and Eastward the Bastitani, in Jaen. Among 
the Bastuli was Malaca, now Malaga, and a little west of 
it is Munda, celebrated for the victory of Caesar over the 

younger Pompey, March 17, B. C. 45, A. U. C. 709. 
At the Fretum Herculeum stood Calpe, or Gibraltar, 
celebrated for one of the pillars of Hercules ; the other 
was at Abila, on the African coast. These pillars are 
said to have been erected by Hercules as the limits of 
the Western world. Gibraltar is a corruption of Gebel 
Tarik, the mountain of Tarik, a Moorish General, who 

first led the Moors into Spain, A. D. 710. On the At- 
lantic side of the Straits is Junonis Promontorium, the 
ever memorable Cape Trafalgar. Above it is Gades, 
slightly corrupted into Cadiz, and Tartessus, an island 



r 



* Hence we may fully understand Horace, when he says 
Latuis regnes avidum domando 
Spiritum, quam si Libyam remotis 
Gadibus jungas, et uterque Pcenus 

Serviat uni. 

Od. II. 2. 

* 

Alluding to the Carthaginians, or African Pceni, and the Bastuli 
Poeni, in whose country Gades was situated. 



m 









\ 









123 



J 



by the two mouths of the Bsetis 



/ 



\ 



now dried up. Among the Turdetani was Hispalis, now 
Seville, and not far from it, Italics, the bmh-place of 
the Emperor Trajan. Among the Turduli was Corduba, 
now Cordova, the birth-place of both the Senecas and 



Lucan. 



1 

1 

In Lusitania the principal nation was that of the Lusi- 
tani, between the Durius and Tagus, which letter river, 
though called the Tajo by the Portuguese, still retains 



its name in general use. Below the Duri 




was Conim- 



Coimbr 



\ 



labis, afterwards called St. Irene, and now corrupted into 
Santarem. At the mouth of the Tagus was Olisippo, 



Uly 




the name of 



— ^ — _ — — 

which is now corrupted into Lisbon. The Volumes oc- 
cupied the province of Estremadura. On the frontier of 
the Lusitani is Lancia Oppidana, now La Guarda, near 

the source of the river Munda, now Mondego, and East 
of it Lancia Transcudana, or Lancia beyond the Cuda, 
now Ciudad Rodrigo. On the frontier of the Arevaci is 
Salmantica, now Salamanca. About the middle of Lu- 
sitania, on the Tagus, wasNorbaCaesarea, now Alcantara. 



Belo 

gusta 



now Merida. On the South part of Lusitania 
were the Celtici, in Alontejos; their principal town was 
Pax Julia, or Beja, and below them the extreme Southern 
part of Lusitania was called Cuneus, or the wedge, now 
Algarve, or the Western part, Garb, in Arabic, signifying 
West. Its extreme promontory was called the Sacrum 
Promontorium, now the memorable Cape St. Vincent. 

It was called Sacrum because the antients believed this 






I 









f 



\ 






124 



the place where the sun plunged his chariot into the 



sea* 



# 






of Majorca and Minorca 



Romans 



Greeks 



Gymnesiae. Thei 
skill in slinging, f 
retains its name. 



In Majorca was Palma, which still 
[n Minorca was Portus Magonis, so 
called by the Carthaginians, from Mago, one of their 
Generals, now slightly corrupted into Port Malum. 



West of these were the Pityusae, or Pine Islands ,• 
3, corrupted into Yvica ,• and, below it, the small 
island- of Ophiusa, now Formontera. 



Ebus 



* Hence 



t 



Audiet Herculeo stridentem gurgite Solem. 

■ 

Ut cum Balearica plumbum 
Funda jacit, volat illud et incandescit eundo. 



Juv. XIV, mo 



Met 



Balearis 






Virg. Gcorg. I, 309. 






t 



a 



rl 
i 

c 
t 



a 







* 






125 






CHAPTER VI. 









GALLIA. 



r 








allia Was originally divided among three great 

- 

nations, the Belgee, the Celtae, and the Aquitani. Of 

these the Celtae were the most extensive and indigenous, 
and their name is that under which the whole nation was 

known to the Greeks, the word Galli being the Latinized 
native term Gael. The Celtae extended from the Se- 
quana, or Seine, in the North, to the Garumna, or Ga- 
ronne, in the South of Gallia. The Belgse lay above 

the Celtae, between the Seine and Lower 

course were intermixed with the Germanic tribes; and 
l he Aquitani lay between the Garumna and Pyrenees, 
and were intermixed with the Spanish tribes. These 
great divisions, however, were subsequently altered by 
Augustus, B. C. 27> A. U. C. 727, who extended the 



m 



\ 4 



er, or Loire. 



into Celtica as far ai 
remainder of Celtica, 



tig 

tiger, was called Gallia Lugdunensis, from the colony 

°f tugdunum ; and the remainder of Celtica, towards 










I 



/ y 






126 

the Rhine, was added to the Belgae, under the title of 
Belgica. Lastly, the South of Gaul, which, from having 
been the first province possessed by the Romans, was 
distinguished by the name of Gallia Provincia, took the 
name of Narbonensis. This province was antiently called 
also Gallia Braccata *, from the braccae, or breeches, 
worn by the inhabitants; while Gallia Celtica was 
called Comata, from the long hair worn by the natives. 



These 



prevailing 



the time of Caesar, before the quadruple partition above 



alluded to. 



i 



others. 



These four great provinces, 
the four Gauls, and were subdivided into seventeen 

Of these, Narbonensis contained five : Narbo- 

*.««« Prima, Viennensis, Narbonensis Secunda, Alpes 
Maritimae, Alpes Graiae et Penninae. 
briefly mention some of the principal trr 
each of these. 






We 



Western 



bend of the Sinus, nearly corresponding to Languedoc. 
The principal tribes were the Volcae Arecomici, towards 
the Rhodanus, or Rhone, and the Volcae Tectosages, 

South West of them. Among the former was the city 



Nemausus, or Nismes. 



now 



■ 

Toulouse, 



On 



X 



\ 



* Breac is the Celtic word for a stripe. Hence we need not 
doubt that these breeches were made of striped materials. Hence 
also we may understand what is meant by the virgati Daha, having 
a reference to their striped garments. Traces of this early apparel 
may yet be observed in the Scotch plaid, the patterns of which are 
always longitudinal and transverse stripes. The Highlanders are a 
Gaelic (t e, a Celtic) race. 



12 




127 









Nat 



5 



f2\ 



to this division of Gaul. Above them, and on the East 

* 

bank of the Rhone, was Viennensis, so called from 



Vien 



Dauph 



In the North of 

* 



this province were the Allobroges ; in the South the 
Vocontii ; below them we may notice Avenio, Avignon* 

* 



Mar 
if, I 



In Nar- 



-J 






bonensis Secunda, the Salyes were the principal people, 
who were descended from the Ligurians, and stretched 

along the South bank of the Druentia, or Durance, almost 
to the Alps. The capital was Aquae Sextise, or Aix. 

Below it, on the coast, was Telo Martius, now Toulon : 

but the celebrated Roman port was North East of it, at 
Forum Julii, now Frejus, the birth-place of Agricola. 

North East of Nart 

the Alpes Maritime, whose metropolis was Ebrodunum, 

or Embrun. The most considerable people were the Ca- 

turiges. They were situated at the foot of the Cottian 

Alps, or Mount Genevre, over which Hannibal passed in 

his way to Italy, and which were so galled from a prince 
named Cottius, who was protected by Augustus. Above 
the Alpis Cottia is the Alpis Graia, or Little St. Bernard, 
and above it the Alpis Pennina, or Great St. Bernard. 



\ 



These formed the fifth province into which Gallia Na 
bonensis was subdivided. 



T 



~a 







* Not to be confounded with Vindebona, now Vienna, in Gee- 



many 



t 



Phocaeorum 



y 



Veiut profugit execrata ciyitas. 



Hon Epod, XVI. 1 1 < 



\ 









y 



m 



s 



128 






Aquitania was subdivided into Prima, Secunda, and 
Novem Populana. The Bituriges Cubi were the princi- 
pal people of Aquitania Prima ; their capital, first called 
Avaricum, afterwards took the name of the people, and 
is still called Bourges. The Arverni also were very 
powerful in the time of Caesar, who occupied the district 
still called Auvergne ,• their capital was Augustonome- 
tum, now Clermont, a little North of Gergovia, which so 
long baffled the arms of Caesar. Below them were the 
Gabali, whose capital was Anderidum, or Mende ,♦ and 
the Ruteni, whose capital was Segodunum, or Rodez. 
West of the Ruteni were the Cadurci, whose capital 
was Divona, or Cahors ; above it was Uxellodunum, be- 



sieged by Caesar 



The Lemovices, whose capital was 



Augustoritum, still give name to Limoges. 



The capital of Aquitania Secunda was Burdigala, 
or Bourdeaux, upon the mouth of the Garumna, among 
the Bituriges Vivisci. The Petrocorii give name to 

Perigeux, the former name of which was Vesuna, still 
retained in that quarter of the city called La Visone. 
Above the Garumna, the Santones give name to the 

province of Santogne, and the city of Saintes. Uliarus, 
opposite the mouth of the Garonne, is the Isle qfOleron. 
ve them, the Pictones, or Pictavi, extend to the 
Southern bank of the Liger, or Loire ; they still give 
name to their capital Poictiers, antiently called Limo- 




irtan. 



■ 

The third province of Aquitania is that 



originally comprehended under that 
exchanged for that of Novem Popul 



but which it 






^ 



t 



t 

t 



a 



V 























129 






appear 



* 

tions, of whom the Elusates and 
been the chief. The Sotiates t 
; them, mentioned bv Caesar. 



* 



■ 



Gallia 



to 



and subsequently into four divisions, called Prima, Se- 



cunda, Tertia, and Q 



i 



It extended 



from the city of Lugdunum, or Lyons, on the Rhone, to 



the Western 



South 



Aquitania, and on the North by Belgia. The capital of 
Lugdunensis Prima, was Lugdunum, in the small tribe 
of the Ambarri, between the junctions of the Arar and 
Khodanus, or the Saone and Rhone. 



V 



^d 



The g 



called 



were in this district, whose capital was 



ttnder Augustus, and is now corrupted into Autun. 
Above it was the famous city of Aiesia, or Alise, the 
account of whose memorable siege occupies the last two- 



and-twenty chapters of Caesar's 
Gallic war. Near it were 
given their name to their ash 



seventh book on the 
Lingones, who have 



tunum, now Langres. Immediately adjoining these, to 
the North West, were the Senones, from whom the 
Lugdunensis Quarta was called Senonia, and which will 
be more conveniently now described, than in its regular 
order after the second and third. Their capital, origin- 
ally called Agidincum, is now called, from the name of 



peo 



Sens. 



To the 



West of them, the 



Carnutes have, in like manner, given to their capital 



B 



he name of Chartres ; and, to the North, the 
give to Lutetia the name of Paris. South 

mtes, the Aureliani still preserve their name 

K 














s 






:,'i! 



; 






















if 






ISO 



in Orleans, called by 



Csesar 



Among 



Senones was Antissiodurum, now Awerre, Noviodunum 9 



Nevers* and Melodunum, Melun 



North 



of the Lugdunensis Q 






larta was the Lugdunensis 

in the situation of Normandy. 

the Velocasses, whose capital 

Above them were the Ca- 

* 

nd South West the Lexovii 
is, is still Lizieux ,• South are 
the Aulerci Eburovices, whose capital, Mediolanum, 






Rotomagu 



Pi 



hose 



of Evreux. West 



90 



are 



the Viducasses, Bajocasses, whose capital is still 



eux< 



and Abrincatui, whose 



Avranckes 



Below were the Saii, or Essui, whose capital is Seez. 
Off this coast were the islands of Csesarea, Sarnia, and 
Riduna — Jersey, Guernsey, and Alderney, 



The Lugdunensis Tertia had for its principal people 
the Turones, who have given the name of Tours to 
Csesarodunum, their capital. Above them were the 

Andes, or Andecavi, whose capital, Juliomagus, has still 

And the Aulerci 
tal, Suindunum, the 



ved the name of Angers. 



preser 
Cenomani have g 






Mans. The Arvii have preserved their capital 
in a place called Cite, on the little river Erve. The 
Diablintes have given to Neodunum the name of Jablins. 
The Redones are easily discoverable in Bennes, and the 
Nnmnetes, in Nantz, which two capitals were antiently 



Condate 



*W 



Namnetes were the Veneti, whose antient capital, Dari 



origum, still preserves the name of Vennes. 
them were the Corisopoti and the Osismii, who 



Above 



i 



s. 



o 



8 






th 
A 

or 

th 
of 

tor) 
th 

arel 

va c | 
Co 

<*p 



« 









\\ 



x ; 



131 







Vorganium, 
Osismii were 
Insula, Usha 



is corrupted into Korbez. Among the 
also the Brivatus Portus, Brest ,• Uxantis 



Mona, as being 



sacred residence of the Gallic priestesses. The whole 
of this tract between the Seine and Loire was called 
Armorica, which at last, however, was exclusively con- 



fined to Bretagne 



i 



Gall 



Secunda, Gerraania Prima, or Superior, and Secund 



and 



Inferior, and Maxima 



the principal people were the Trevere 
Augusta, is still called Treves, situate 



In Belgica Prima 



Mos, 






afterwards 



situated on the Mosella, 

which flows into the Rhine. Southwards 
Mediomatrici, whose capital, Divodurum. was 



Met 



and Mi 



the Leuci, and to their North West 

Miose capital, Verodunum. is still Vpi 



Still South were 



th 



Belgica Secund 



Romans in the time of Caesar. 



tor 



un. North West 

i. The principal 
who were much attached to the 

capita], Durocor- 






th 



eir South, the Catalauni 



fMhetms. 



On 



give 



name to Chalons. 



C Wly connected with the Remi were the Suessiones, 



is now Sozssons. Northw 
a *e the Veromandui, or Vermandois, whose capital, 

Quintin. West of them were the Bello- 

a very warlike nation, well known in Caesar's 



*- 8 



commentaries, whose 



h. 



Envois 



capital, Caesaromagus, is still 
Northwards, the Ambiana had for their 



C{l pital Samarobriva, so called from the bridg 



\ 



K 2 



■ 
















^^ 













132 



/ / 



Samaras, or Samme. It is now, from the name of the 
people, Amiens. Still 



Atrecht. 



Northwards 
capital, Nemetacum, is still Arras, or 
these were the Morini, on the extreme 



Northern coast. # Their capital was Taruenna, or Te- 



rouenne 



On 



Witsan 



now Bologne, and about it Portus Itius, or 
from which Caesar embarked for the invasion of Britain. 
East of these were the Nervii, whose original capital was 
Bagacum, Bavia, 



Hai 



but after- 



ds Camaracum, or Cambray, and T 



nay. Next to these was Germania Secunda, inferior, or 
lower, so called as being near the coast, lying between 
the Scaldis, or Scheldt, and the Rhenus, or Rhine, On 
the West bank of the Rhine were the Ubii, the chief 

people, whose capital, Colonia Agrippina, or Cologne, 



called 



the Empe 



Claudius. West of these were 



the 



Eburones, a people who were annihilated by Caesar, in 
revenge for their having slaughtered a Roman legion, 
and their country was occupied by the Tungri, whose 

capital, Atuj 



is still called Tongres. 



of Germanic 



Bet 



All these 

these and 

Treves, was 

iding 



the great forest of Arduenna, or Ardenne, 

from the confines of the Nervii to the Rhine. Above 



Men 



and still North, 



Batavi 



# Hence Virgil 

Extremique hominum Morini 



JEn. VIII. 121, 



i 






\ 






I 




n 






. 



r 



n 



f 



f 
n 

se 

■se 

d 

as 

ve 
b, 

hi 



133 



branch of the Rhine and the Vahalis, or Waal 



branch. The principal citv of the B 



was Lug- 






dunum Batavorum, which still preserves its name in 



Leydi 



Noviomagus 



also 



is 



easily 



rec 



ognised 



in 



eguen 

O 






Germania Prima, superior, or upper, so called as 
being more inland, lay along the Western bank of the 



Rhi 



ine, and contained three Germanic nations 



the 



V 



angiones, Nemetes, and Triboci. The capital of the 
Vangiones was Borbetomagus, or Worms, North of 
which were Mogantiacum, or Mentz, and Confluentes, 
or Coblentz $ the capital of the Nemetes, Noviomagus, 
or Spires; and of the Triboci, Argentoratum, or 
Strasburg. 






\ 



Maxima Sequanorum had for its principal nation the 

Sequani ; their capital w r as Vesontio, or Besanfon, on 



the river Dubis, now JDoux. Next to them were the 

\ 

Helvetii, part of Switzerland, whose principal city was 
Aventicum, now Avenche ; Turicum is now Zurich. 
Above the Helvetii were the Rauraci, whose principal 
city was Augusta, now Augst, a little South of Basilia* 
or Basle. 





&3 




















* 



134 






\ 



CHAPTER VII 



y 



/ 



GERMANIA 




he first grand division of the German nations is in! o> 
the Istsevones, on the West of Germany, who inhabited 
the countries adjacent to the Rhine ; the Hermiones, on 
the South, who were those adjacent to the Danube ; and 

the Suevi, in the North, who were contiguous to the 
Baltic, and the most celebrated of the three. 



The Western bank of the Rhine has already been 
described, as containing several German nations, in the 
three Gallic provinces along the Rhine. On the 
Eastern bank of the Rhine, on the coast, are the Frisii, 



by 



canal, 



made by Drusus, called Flevo, the waters of which, 
having in time increased, now form the Zuyder Zee, or 
Southern Sea, one of whose channels, the VUe, still 
retains traces of the original name. North East of the 
Frisii were the Chauci Minores and Majores, a Suevic 
race, distinguished by Tacitus as the most noble and just 
















^^H 






135 



of all the Ger 



The Minores were situated 



\ 



between the Amisia, or Ems, and the Visurgis, or Weser ; 
the Majores between the Visurgis and the Albis, or Elbe. 
South of the Frisii were the Bructeri, in the Eastern 
parts of whose country were the Chamavi and Angrivarii. 
The former had originally been settled on the banks of 
the Rhine, till removed by the Usipii ; the latter have 



name to Angria, the kingdom 



of 



Saxon 



given 

Witikind. The Marsi and Chasuarii were also in this 
district- South East of the Chauci, between the Visurgis 
and Albis, were the Cherusci, who, under the conduct 
of Arminius, defeated and slew the three Roman legions 
commanded by Varus, A- D. 10, in the Saltus Teuto- 
bergiensis, or Bishopric of Paderborn. They were after- 
wards defeated by Germanicus, and never recovered 
their former eminence. On the East bank of the Rhine, 

South of the Usipii, were the Sicambri, who were driven 

over it by the Catti, in the time of Augustus, and settled 

in Germania Prima, under the name of Gugerni. The 
Tencteri inhabited a district South of the Sicambri. 
East of these was the great and powerful nation of the 
Gatti, called by Caesar the Suevi, an Hermionic tribe, 
who were seated in Hesse. A fortress of the Catti, called 

Castellum, still bears the name of Cassel, but their 
capital, Mattium, is Marpurg. South of them, along 



the Rhine, were the Mattiaci, a nation in firm alliance 
with the Roman Empire ; and South of these was the 
original settlement of the Marcomanni, who afterwards 
migrated into Bohemia. South East of these was Mons 
Abnoba, or the Black Mountain, in which the Danube 
rises ; the adjoining district was called the Decumates 

-Agri, because the inhabitants were subject to a tax of 

K 4 




































: 






\ 










136 



the tenth of their produce 



Here the Alemanni settled 



* 



from whom Germany was called, in the middle ages, 
Almagne. 



East of these, the Hermunduri, the first of the Her- 
mionic tribes, were a great and powerful nation, in the 

of Germany, attached to the Romans. East of 
n the bank of the Danube, were the Narisci ; 



interior of 

them, 01J 

■ 

North East of whom in the center of Germany, were the 
Boii, or Boiohemi, in Bohemia, whose country was 
seized by the Marcomanni, under their king Maroboduus, 



th 



or 



Marcomanni, were the Quadi, who occupied Moravia, 
Eastwards of the Marcomanni and Quadi were the 

Marsigni, Gothini, Osi, Burii, and Lygii, which last 
nation bordered on the Vistula. 



The rest of the German tribes are Vandal or Suevic j 

the most noble of them were the Semnones, between the 
Albis and Viadris, or Oder. North of these, on the East 

t * 

bank of the Albis, were the Langobardj, or Lombards ; 

the Varini were supposed to have been in Mecklenburgk. 






Towards the mouth of the Elbe and the 
Cimbrica, in Holstein. were the Andi and 



English 



their original settlements here. 



The Teutones and Cimbri had 

The whole coast of the 



Baltic was occupied by various tribes of the Vendili, or 
Vandals; and the name of theRugii is still preserved in 
Rugewwald; the Burgundiones, South East of the Lan- 



Ft 



the province of Burgundy. On their North 



the 



Goth 



or Goths ; and ab 



them the LemoviL 






. 

















\ 






137 



That part of the Baltic which washes the shores of Ger- 
mania was called Sinus Codanus, and above it was 
Scandinavia, comprising Sweden and Norway, but very 
imperfectly known to the antients. # 













The remainder of Europe, East of Germania and 
North of the immediate vicinity of the Danube, was 
known by the generic name of Sarmatia, and the inha* 
bitants were called Sarmatae and Sauromatae. In like 
manner, the North of Asia, beyond the Euxine and 
Caspian Seas, was known by the generic name of 
Scythia. 






We should not omit, in our account of Germany, to 

notice the immense forest called the Hercynia Sylva, the 

whole extent of which was unknown, but it took Caesar 
nine days to cross it, and it had been travelled longitu- 
dinally sixty days' journey, without coming to any 

boundary. It contained part of Switzerland and Tran- 
sylvania. An account of it is to be seen in the sixth 
book of Caesar's Gallic wars. 






* They seem to have considered it as consisting of a number of 
islands. Of the two nations mentioned by Tacitus, the Suiones are 



Sweden 



m 










f 



/ 




^v 



I 



\ 









138 



r» 






















I 




CHAPTER VIII 



COUNTRIES SOUTH OF THE DANUBE 







>i Europe, not yet described, consists of 
f the Danube, and East of the Adri- 






atic: these, with the exception of Greece and its im- 
mediately adjacent country, will form the subject of the 
following chapter* 



Immediately beloW the Danube, from its sources on 
Mount Abnoba, was Vindelicia, and South of it was 
Rhsetia, bounded on the West by the Helvetii or Swiss, 
on the South by Cisalpine Gaul and the upper part of 



It 



and on the 



^Noricum. It more than 



prised the country of the Orisons. The 



wh 



Gallic 



of A 



lus. H 



celebrated in the fine and well- 



known Ode of Horace, Book IV. 4. * The Vindelici 
and Rhseti, thus subdued, formed one province, whose 






* Videre Rhaeti bella sub Alpibus 
Drusum gerentem et Vindelici. 



Hot. Od, IV. 4 



#* 









V 
















139 



subsequent divisions we need not enter into* It is hardly 
necessary in a treatise like the present, which is a mere 
Compendium of Classical Geography, to enumerate the 
names of all the barbarous tribes which formed these 
nations. We may content ourselves with observing* 
that in the Southern angle of the Rhaeti, near the lake 

Larius, were the Vennones, in the Valteline, and South 
East of them, above the lake Benacus, was Tridentum, 

or Trent, so well known to modern theologians* 
from the last Christian Council having been held there, 
A. D. 1545* In the South West part ofjVindelicia, 

the Lacus Brigantinus was so called from the nation of 
the Brigantii, but it is now called the Lake of Constance, 
perhaps from their neighbours the Consuanetes. In the 
angle of two rivers* Vindo and Licus (the Wartach and 
Lech% whence the name of the nation, was Augusta 

Vindelicorum, or Augsburg. 



( 



It^ 

(En 



us, or Inn. 



Koricum, in part of Bavaria. 
> Vindelici by the great river 

nation of the Inn and Danube 



was Boiodurum, or Passau, and East of it Was Lau 



riacum 



fleet on the Danube 



where is now a small village called Loren* Inland is 



South 



/ 



East 



Koricum 



the Danub 



outh of the river Savus, or Saave, Was Pannonia, first 
duced to a Roman province by Tiberius, and sub** 
quently divided into Superior and Inferior, the former 
•cupying part of Hungary, the latter Sclawnia. In 

annonia Superior was Vindobona, now Vienna, but th© 















\ 



140 



P 



little to the East. Still East, after the first bend of the 

* 
r 

Danube Southwards, is Aquincum, or Acincum, now Buda, 
and, on the opposite shore of the Danube, Contra Acincum, 



Pest. 



Pannonia 
nd Drave. 



brated in the latter ages of the Roman Empire, and the 
district is still called Sirmia. 



South of Pannonia, bounded 



West 



the 



the East bv Mcesia 



Gentes 



Dal 



part of Croatia, the latter retains its name. The light 

Liburnian gallies constituted great part of the fleet of 



the battle of Actium 



In Dalmatia 



Epidaurus, and near it the island Melite, which is by 
some thought to have been the scene of St. Paul's 

shipwreck, though there are stronger reasons for fixing 
upon Malta. Below Epidaurus we may notice the cities 
of Scodra and Lissus, the former now called Scutari, the 



Jlessio 



\ 












Mcesia 



Macedonia 



Dan 



ing the present provinces of Servia and Bulgaria. The 
North was occupied by the Scordisci, a Celtic nation, the 
vSouth was called Dardania, in the center were the Tri~ 






* Ibis Liburnis inter alta navium, 
Amice, propugnacula. 



Hor. Epod. I. 1 



I 



\ 








1 

I 






I 



141 



balli, and on the shores of the Euxine were the Scythae. 
But under the reigns of Angustus and Tiberius it was re- 
duced to a Roman province, under the names of Moesia 
Superior, nearer to Pannonia, and Inferior, nearer to 
Thrace. The center of Moesia was called Dacia Cis- 
Danubiana, or Dacia Aureliani, by the Emperor Aurelian, 
when he abandoned the province beyond the Danube call- 
ed Dacia Trajani. In Moesia Superior, Singidunum, at 
the mouth of the Save, is now Belgrade. East of it, 

Viminiacum was another important city. Somewhat East 
of this was Taliatis ; after which began the province of 
Dacia Cis-Danubiana. Near this place also was a ridge 
of rocks, forming a cataract in the Danube, remarkable as 
thought to be the spot where the Danube changes its 

name, the Eastern part of it being called the Ister by the 

antients, as the Western was the Danubius. A little 
East of this place was the famous Pons Trajani, or bridge 
built by the Emperor Trajan across the Danube, to pass 

into his province of Dacia. Its ruins still remain. It 
was 3325 English feet in length.* Below it is Ratiaria, 
the antient metropolis of Dacia, and Nicopolis, built by 
Trajan to celebrate his victories over the Dacians, and 
memorable also for the defeat of the Christian army and 
flower of French nobility, by Bajazet, A. D. 1393. In 
the interior is Naissus, now Nissa, the birth-place of Con- 
stantine the Great, and South East is Sardica, the metro- 
polis of Dacia, and celebrated for a Christian council. In 






i 

* The longest bridge now existing in Europe is the Pont de 
Saint Esprit, built in the twelfth century, across the Rhone, on 
50 arches, between Monteliraar and Orange, which is said to be 



3197 English feet in length : that of Prague is 1812, Tours 1422 










Westminster 



• - 



> 






pMW 



■PP 






142 



Moesia Inferior was Marcianopolis, the capital, so called 
from Marciana, the sister of the Emperor Trajan. Un- 
der the mouths of the Danube was the city of Tomi, now 
Tomeswar, or Baba, to which Ovid was banished. On 
the Northern bank of the Danube was the vast province 
of Dacia, comprehending part of Hungary ', Transylvania, 
Wallachia, and Moldavia. The Iazyges, a Sarmatian 
tribe, separated them from Pannonia. The Daci and 
Getee were two nations associated in language and terri- 
tory, and the Getae were of Scythian origin. It is not 
necessary to enter into a particular account of them, or 
of many places which might have been enumerated in this 
chapter, but which, having a special reference only to the 
lower ages of the Eastern Empire, are purposely omitted 
in a treatise which professes only to give a sketch of clas- 
steal Geography. 















The remainder of Europe, north of the Danube, we have 

ft 

already seen was called Sarmatia. It is unnecessary to 
enter into much detail on the subject of these barbarous 
and almost unknown tribes. On the shores of the Baltic, 

were the Venedi, perhaps in part of Livonia ; above the 
Daci were the Bastarnae and Peucini ; on the shores of 

i 

the Palus Ma&otis, were the Iazyges and Roxolani ; North 
are the Budini, Geloni, and Agathyrsi. The Borysthenes 
of the antients, which flows into the Pontus Euxinus, is 
the Dnieper ; the Hypanis, called also Bogus, is the Bogs 

4 

the Tanais is corrupted into the Don; and the Rha is the 
Volga, which flows into the Caspian Sea. The Borders 

of the Euxine, from the Ister to the Borysthenes, were 
called by the antients Parva Scythia, and by the moderns 



Little Tartary. Beyond the Borysthenes was the Cher- 



ii 






/ 









\ 



A 




















143 






V 

sonesus Taurica, (which preserves its name still in the 
city of Cher son, ) so called from the Tauri, a Scythian 
nation, who conquered it from its antient possessors the 
Cimmerii. This was the scene of the Iphigenia in Tauris 
of Euripides. The narrow straight which joins the Palus 

Maeotis, or Sea of Azoph, to the Pontus Euxinus, was 
called the Cimmerian Bosphorus. The principal city here 
was Panticapseum, a Greek colony, called also Bosporus, 
now Kerche. The extreme Southern point of the Cher- 
sonesus Taurica was called Criu Metopon, or the Ram's 
Forehead, nearly opposite to Sinope in Asia Minor, 






' 












S 









I 




■ - + ^v 



^^ 



144 



. 



; 



CHAPTER IX 




GR^ECIA ANTIQUA 



* 




he most general name for Greece among 



the natives themselves 



Hellas ; and the 






people were called Hellenes ; but even this term 
did not comprize the inhabitants of Macedonia 



and Ep 



The poets, however, used, by 



synecdoche, to put the names of several small 
tribes for the whole body of the nation. The 
most usual term in Homer* is Achaei and Danai. 






* The word Hellenes occurs only once in Homer, Iliad II. 648.; 
where it is used, not as a generic, but a specific name of the 
inhabitants of that part of Thessaly called Hellas; and, what is 
also remarkable, the word Gracia was not legally recognised by 
the Romans, who, from their having subdued the last bulwark 
of Grecian liberty, the Achaean confederacy, reduced Greece 
into a Roman province called Achaia. Afterwards, when the 
Romans overthrew Perses they formed his dominions into the 
proconsular province of Macedonia. The name of Gratia, 



familiar 



and conversation. 











145 



I 






§ 



and sometimes Argivi. They were also called 
Pelasgi, from an antient nation of that name in 
Thessaly ; Iones, Dores, and iEoles, from the 

% 

inhabitants of particular districts. Attica was 
the original seat of the Ionians, the Peloponnese 
the principal seat of the Dorians, and Thessaly 
the original country of the iEolians. 












The lowest part of Greece, below the Sinus 

Corinthiacus and Sinus Saronicus, was called the 



Pelop 
Pelop 



It 



from nlAoTroj vrjo-oj, the island of 

is most antiently called iEgialea, 



from ^Egialeus, Apia, from Apis, Pelasgia, from 

antient Kings ; but took the 



Pelasgus, its more 

name of Peloponnese, from Pelops, the 



of 



Tantal 



who 



reigned there. It was very 

early an island, being connected with the 



of Gi 



Corinth 



eece only by the narrow isthmus of 
The modern name of Peloponnese is 
Morea, from the mulberry trees which 
there, having been introduced for supplying silk- 
Worms. The first province on the Eastern side, 
Under the Sinus Saronicus, is Arsrolis ; and below 



grow 



Laconi 



wester 



de 



L 



pposite 



is Messenia j above it is Elis j along 



the Sinus Corinthiacus is Achaia ; and in tht 
middle is Arcadia. 



1, 






















146 



Argolis derives its name from Argos, situated on the 
iver Inachus, above the Sinus Argolicus, and still called 



'Argo. 



Argos was Myce 



* 



Krabata, the royal city of Agamemnon, North West of 
which was Nemea, celebrated for the Neraean games, 
instituted in honour of Archemorus, who was killed there 
by a serpent, and for the victory of Hercules over the 
Nemean Lion. Eastward of Argos was Tyrins, or Ti- 



Hercules, who is then 

Mons 




which he announced the capture of 



called Tirynthius. 

on which was one of the beacons, or fire telegraphs, of 

Agamemnon, „ . 

Troy the same night that it was taken.* Still East, on 
the coast of the Sinus Saronicus, is Epidaurus, cele- 
brated for its worship of ^Ssculapius ; and below it is 
Trcezen, or Trcezene, now Damala, the birth-place of 
Theseus, and scene of the Hippolytus of Euripides, off 

the coast of which is the island Calauria, where De- 
mosthenes poisoned himself. Near the South point of 
Aro-olk is the citv of Hermione, now Castri, giving to 



Hermionicus. At 



\ 



the Sinus Argolicus was Nauplia, now Napoli, 

ves. Southward, below 



g 



Argos near the shore, was Lerna, celebrated for the de- 



the Lernean Hydra by Hercule 



by 






677 




Below Argolis was Laconia, whose capital was Sparta, 
or Laceda^mon, on the river Eurotas, near which is the 



\ 



See JEschylus, Agam. v.3i" 

8 






; . i 






1 . 










r* 



f 



f 



147 



r \ 



more recent town of Misitra. To the North was Sal* 
lasia, a frontier town commanding the principal pass into 
Laconia, and a little South of Sparta was Amyclse, built 
by Amyclas. Castor and Pollux were born here, and 
Apollo was here worshipped with peculiar solemnities. 
Amyclse was called Tacitae % or the silent, either from 

the inhabitants being Pythagoreans, or from their having 
made a law which forbad the mention of an enemy's ap- 
proach, they having been once deceived by a false re- 
port. They were afterwards the victims of their absurd 
statute. »■ A little below Amycke was Therapne, The 
extreme South Eastern promontory of Laconia was 
called Maleaf, now Cape Malio, or St.Angelo, and the 
Gulph contained between it and the South Western 
promontory of Tsenarus, or Cape Matapan, (one of the 

fabled entrances into the infernal regions}.) was called 
the Sinus Laconicus, or Gulph of Colokythia^ from the 

■ 

antient town of Gytheum, now Colohythia^ near the upper 

part of the bay. 



> 




I 



\ 









t 



1 



\ 



West of Laconia was Messenia, the capital of which 
was Messene, which still retains its name, above the top 
of the Sinus Messeniacus, now the Gulph of Cor on* The 
fortress of Ithome was near it, and served as its citadel* 
On the Western side was the Messeniaft Methone, now 
Modon, and above it the Messenian Pylos, now Nava- 



9 

e 



# 



Tacitis regnavit Amyclis. 



f Maleasque sequacibus undis 



| Taenarias etiam fauces, alta ostia Ditis 



Ingressus 



l a 



Virg. Mn. X. 564 



Virg. Mn. V. 1 ftg. 



Vfg.Georg, IV. 4 



' 



* 










f 

















• 
























■-/ 



148 



off which was the island of 



B* 



ble in Thucydides for the capture of many of the noblest 



Lacedaemonians, 
is the river Cypj 



North 



o 



the citv o( 



Cyparissae giving name to the adjacent Sinus Cyparis 



SIUS 



■ 

and inland the fortres 



elcf 






out against the Lacedaemonians, who ejected the Mes- 
senians Ol. 27. 2, and held the province from them for 

300 years, till Ol. 102. 3. 



Messeni 



Elis, divided into Triphyli 



the South, Pisatis, in the middle, and Ccele, in the North. 
In Triphylia we meet with the Elean or Triphylian 

Pylos, which disputes with the Messenian the honour of 
beino- the country of Nestor, and a little above it, 



x 



Alfe 




th 

bank 



and 



Northern Pisa. This was the 

hich the Olympic games were 

held in honour of Jupiter Olympius. They were of 



Oiymp 

celebrated region 



very antient foundation, and revived B. C. 776, and 



logy. They 



3 



celebrated at the conclusion of every fourth year, or 
rather of every forty-ninth month, and were held for 

m — — ■ * * _™_ . 



five, successive days. 



The Roman Lustrum was a 



period af>? years. Elis itself was situated on the river 
p^ahr. in the district of Ccele, it was near Gastonni > 



East 



strong claims to being allowed as the country of Nestor. 
Near it was a little stream called Geron, and a little 



e called Gerena, whence Nestor 
styled in Homer the Gerenian. 

7 



Pindar, howev 







I 









149 



calls him a King of Messene. The port of the Eleans 



was Cyllene, now Chiarenza, a little North of t\je bay 
and promontory of Chelonites, now Cape Tomese. 










The rest of the coast of the Peloponnesus was occupied 
by Achaia, lying along the Southern side of the Sinus 
Corinthiacus, comprising also the districts of Sicyon 
and Corinth, called Sicyonia and Corinth ia. Before we 
enter the straights of the Sinus Corinthiacus, or Guljph 

qfLepanto, is Dyme, on the coast of the Ionian Sea; 
and above it is Patrse, now Patras, near the mouth of 






the straights. 



At the entrance into the straights is 



Rhium, and on the opposite coast Antirrhium. Pro- 



ceeding Eastward, along the shore, is JE. 






i f 



*-> 



within land, is Tritsea, now Triti. 

5 -ZEffira. which had a nnrt anr! <\nc 



Wes 



East of it, within land, was Pellene ; North East of 

which is the district of Sicyonia. On the coast was 
Sicyon, which, in the modern name of Basilico, still re- 
tains the memorial of having been the most antient 
kingdom of Greece. South of Sicyon, in the interior, 
was the city of Phlius, which still preserves its name in 
Staphlica.* Proceeding towards the end of the Sinus 
Corinthiacus, we come into the district of Corinth, 

i 

where we meet with that far-famed city, which was 
destroyed by Mummius the Roman General, B. C. 145, 

C. 609, and rebuilt by Caesar. It is still called 



U. 



Corito. ,It was itself a little inland, but had two ports, 



* The addition of Sta, or Stan, is common in 
names, being a corruption of k ™> or U rat. Thus 
* called Stambol, or U rh *i\tv. 



modern Greek 
Constantinople 



L 3 






























150 



Cenchr 



*, and a citadel, on a lofty hill 
called Acrocorinthus. The pass between the Pelopon- 



on the Sinus Saronfcus 



Greece 



Hi 



x 



Greek, or perhaps not five British miles in breadth. 

sthmian games were celebrated in honour of 
The Emperor Nero in vain attempted to cut 

through the Isthmus and join the Saronic and Corin- 



Here the I 
Nept 



thian G 















The province of Arcadia occupied the center of the 
Peloponnesus, being surrounded by the five provinces 
already enumerated. This was the celebrated pastoral 
country of the poets, f Near the North of Argolis was 
the river and lake Stymphalus, the fabled residence of 
those Harpies which were destroyed by Hercules. 
Below it was Orchomenus, bearing the same name with 

a town in Boeotia, and below it the celebrated city of 
Mantinea, near Trapolitza, where the great Epami- 

nondas, the Theban General, lost his life, in the me- 
morable victory he obtained over the Lacedaemonian 



th 



re 



B. C 363, 01. 104, 2. 



Below Mantinea is 






Mount Msenalus, 
called Maenalius 
Maenalus was th' 



r 



esidence on which Pan was 

>rn extremity of 



At the South 



Mok 



'> 






* Hence Horace 



Bimarisve Corinthi 



Moenia. 



Od. t 7 



J- Pan etiani, Arcadia mecum si judice certet, 
Pan etiam, Arcadia dicat se judice victum 






Firg. Eel. IV. Si, 









t 















I* 



♦ 



151 






whence also Pan is called Tegeseus. * The celebrated 
Atalanta was a native of this place. In the South of 
Arcadia was Megalopolis, near a place now called Leon- 
dari, or, as some think, Sinano. It was built by Epa- 
minondas to check the inroads of the Lacedaemonians. 



It was the birth-place of Polybius the historian.il To- 



Mes 




t: 



another favourite residence of Pan and the Sylvan 
Deities. Near it was the city of Lycosura, on the river 
Neda. The inhabitants of this part of Arcadia were 
called Parrhasii, from Parrhasius, a son of Jupiter, who 
built a city here, and the name is sometimes put gene- 
ricailv for that of the whole nation, t Northward, on 



the 



Heraea 



Northward 



Psophis ; and above, on the confines of Achaia, Cynethae 
whose inhabitants were remarkable for the barbarous 
rusticity of their manners, so as to be despised, or almost 
excluded from associating with the other Greeks, who , 



* Ipse nemus linquens patrium saltusque Lycaei, 
Pan, ovium custos, tua si tibi Maenala curae, 



Adsis O Tezetee favens. 



Virg. Georg. I, 16. 



t 



Mutat Lycaeo Faunus. 



Hor. Od. I. 17. 



t 




of Jupiter) and 



the nymph Calisto. Juno transformed Calisto into a bear, whom 

Jupiter, with her son Areas, removed into heaven, 

constellations called Ursa Major and Ursa Minor. 

315. Hence the constellation Ursa is called by Ovid Parrhasis 

Arctos, and, as Calisto was daughter of Lycaon, it is called by 



Met 



Virgil 






Claramque Lycaonis Arcton. 



Mn 






L 4 






I 




























152 









attributed their ferocity to a neglect of the study of 
music, so- much cultivated among the Greeks in general* 
Yet it is remarkable, that in their neighbourhood, a 
little to the East, was the mountain Cyllene, celebrated 
as the birth-place of Mercury, the inventor of the lyre, 
of eloquence, and the gymnastic exercise*, who is so 
constantly distinguished among the poets by the name 
of Cyllenius. At the foot of Mount Cyllene was the 
city Pheneos, now Phenia. 



We shall now describe the remainder of 



Greece, or Gr 



properly so called, lying 



above the Isthmus. The first pr 



lying 



almost within the Isthmus, is the small district 

of Megara, which affected to be independent of 
the potent territory of Attica. To the East was 
Attica ; and to the North West of these Boeotia ; 
North East of Boeotia and Attica was the long 
narrow island of Eubcea, separated by the nar- 
row sea of Euripus. West of Boeotia was Phocis ; 

South West of Phocis, lying along , the Sinus 
Corinthiacus, were the Locri Ozolae ; and North 
East of Phocis, lying along the top of Euripus* 
were the Locri Epi-Cnemidii, or Locri of Mount 



* Mercuri facunde, nepos Atlantis,. 
Qui feros cultus hominum reeentum 
Voee formasti catus, et decora^ 

More palaestrae : 

Te canani, unagni Jovis et Deorum 
Nuncium, curveeque lyree parentem. 






Hor. Od. I. 10. 






n 




^ I 




\i 




4 



153 



Cnemis, and the Locri Opuntii below them. 
North of Phocis was Doris, a small tract, but 
which divided with the Ionians the charac- 
teristic features of the language and tribes of 
Greece. Generally speaking, the Dorian colo- 
nies were settled in the Peloponnese, the Ionian 
in Asia Minor: the great Dorian state was 



Lacedasmon, the great Ionian state, Athens ; 
there was a marked distinction in their language 
and manners, The former being more broa,d 
and rustic, the latter more smooth and refined. 
West of Phocis was iEtolia ; and West of 
iEtolia was Acarnania. North of Phocis was 
Thessaly : North of Acarnania was Epirus : 

In Megaris the capital was Megara, which preserves 

its name, and is a little inland. Its port was Nysaea. 
East of Megara, on the coast, in Attica, was Eleusis, now 
Lessina, so celebrated for the Eleusinian mysteries in 

* 

honour of Ceres and Proserpine, which it was death to 
reveal. # They lasted 1800 years, and were abolished by 
the Emperor Theodosius. The statue of the Eleusinian 
Ceres, the work of Phidias, was removed from Eleusis 
by Dr. Clarke, A. D. 1801, and is now in the vestibule 
of the public library at Cambridge, and the temple itself 
has since been cleared by Mr. Gell. Opposite Eleusis, 



# 



Vetabo qui Cereris sacrum 
Vulgarit arcanae # sub isdem 

Sit trabibus, fragilemque mecum 
Solvat phaselum. 



ifi!v 
















Hot: Od. III. -2 



V 






s 



^^m 





















-•• 






. 






154 



and separated by a very narrow sea, is the island of 
Salamis, the birth-place of Ajax and Teucer, the ever- 
memorable scene of the defeat of the Persian fleet by the 
Athenians under the command of Themistocles, B. C. 
480, Oh 75, 1 ; and below Salamis is iEgina or Engia, 
giving name to the Gulph of Engia, antiently the Sinus 
Saronicus. South East of Eleusis is the illustrious city 
of Athens, the eye of Greece, and of the civilized world. 
It is now called Atini, or Setines, by a corruption we 
have already noticed. This renowned city is situated 
rather inland, between two rivers, the Ilissus below, and 
the Cephissus (bearing tfye same name with a larger 
Boeotian riy 



Wort, now Porto 





It had three ports, the Piraeus, 



with the 



% 



two walls called the puxgu 
nix*}, or long walls; East of the Piraeus was the second 
port called Munichia; and kill East of it the Phalerus, 
the least frequented of the tihree. The long wall, which 

connected the Piraeus with ithe city, was sixty stadia (or 
rather more than six and a half English miles) in length, 
and forty cubits (or rather more than sixty feet) high, and 



.puilt 




uo-h for two waggons to pass 
Themistocles, and finished 



Th 




Cimon and 



Pericles. Another somewhat shorter wali, towards the 
East, united the harbour of Phalerum with the walls of 
the city. Entering by the gate of the Piraeus, a straight 
line led to the Propylaea, or vestibules, of the Acropolis, 
itadel. On the summit of the citadel, an oblong 



or ci 



M 



thenon. At the bottom of this hill, on the South side, 
was the theatre of Bacchus, where the tragedians exhi- 
bited their compositions, and East of it was the Odeum, 




\\\ 













' 155 









I % 



or theatre for musical competition. Proceeding round 

the hill of the Acropolis, on the North was the Pryta- 
neum, or place where those citizens who had rendered 
essential service to their country were entertained at 



North We 



Mars, on 



public expence. Opposite the 

Acropolis was the ever-memc 

which was established the court of the Areopagus ; and 

opposite the Propylsea, or Western end of the Acropolis, 

was the Pnyx, or place of public assemblies. Opposite 

to which, on the South, was the hill of the Museum, 
having the road from the Piraeus to the Propylssa 

:. From the hill of the Areo- 



I 

; 



Pny 



W 



to the Forum, which was in a place called the Ceramicus, 
or pottery ground. The Forum had at its Southern 
entrance an enclosure, containing the palace of the 
Senate and temple of the Mother of the God^ On the 
South Western side of the square were the statues of the 

i 

Eponymi, or ten heroes who gave name to the tribes of 
Attica ; and at the Eastern gate were two vestibules, the 
Western called that of the Hermse, in which were three 

statues of Mercury, bearing the names of those soldiers 
who had distinguished themselves in the battles against 






Per 



artist 



court 



painting and statuary . In t 
of the chief Archon, near the statues of the Eponymi, 
and the camp of the Scythians employed by the govern- 

! city. The quarter to the East 

of the Forum was called 
houses of Themistocles an 



th 



Melita 



the 



East of the city, without the walls, was Cynosarges, 



I 






/ 




00 






the school of the Cynic philosophers, at the foot of 



Mount 



Mount 



celebrated for its marble quarries ; and below it was the 



»f 



Mount Hj 



On the North West was the Ceramicus without the 



walls, 



through which 



a road led to the celebrated 



gardens of the Academia, watered by the Cephisus on 
the North West, and having the house of Plato to the 



e North the hill C 
agedy of Sophocles 



(Ed 



Coloneus. The road to Thebes passed over this hill. 
Eastwards from the Parthenon was Mount Hymet- 
tus, celebrated for its bees * ; and North East of it 

Mount Pentelicus, celebrated for its quarries of marble. 
North is Mount Parnes, North West and West, Mount 
iEgaleus and .Corydalus. The extreme Southern pro- 
montory of Attica was called Sunium, where there was 
a temple of Minerva, some columns of which still re- 
main, whence the cape is now called Cabo Colonni. 



Helena. 



or 




A long island lies opposite to It called 

Macris, which still preserves the name of MacronisL 
Near Sunium was Laurium, celebrated for its silver 
mines. Proceeding upwards, along the North Eastern 
shore of Attica, we come to Brauron, near Mons Pen- 
telicus. Here was a celebrated temple of Diana, hence 
called Brauronia : and the statue of Diana, brought by 
Orestes from Tauris, was preserved here till it was car- 
ried off bv Xerxes. North of Brauron is the olnriniic 



* 



Nisi Hymettia mella Falerno 
Ne biberis diluta 



Hot: Sat, 11. 2. 




r 



x 



/ 



157 






plain of Marathon, still preserving its immortal name* 
where the Athenians, under the conduct of Miltiades 
defeated the Persian army, Sep. 28, B. C. 490, OL 72, 3. 
Above it is Rh acinus, celebrated for a temple of the 
goddess Nemesis, thence called Rhamnusia. It was 

O 



built of the marble brought into the field by the Per- 
sians, in order to erect the trophy of their anticipated 

victory. Quittin 
Rhamnus, is Decelia, so 



West 

„ 7 — — 

celebrated for having been 



garrisoned by the Lacedaemonians in the Peloponnesian 

a full account of which is given in the seventh book 

of Thucydides. Below 



war 



Decelia 



i 



both 



has given name to a play of Aristophanes. 



South W 



Thria 



extending 



of Thriasius Campus to the great plain 

towards Bceotia, in the North of which was Phyle, the 
fort possessed by Thrasybulus and the Athenian exiles, 



after 



B. C. 401, 01 






» 



Me 



Mount 



and the Sinus Corinthiacus, we may observe 
Cithaeron, about midway between Thebes and Corinth, 
the celebrated scene of the exposure of the infant 
CEdipus. A little North of Mount Cithaeron is Plataeag, 
the ever-memorable scene of the defeat of the 



of Mardoniu 



by the 



Persians, under the command 
Lacedaemonians, commanded by Pausanias, Sept. 22.. 
B. C. 479, Ol. 75, 2, and of the siege and cruel destruc- 
tion of its inhabitants by the Lacedaemonians, in the 

Peloponnesian war, B. C. 427, 01. 88, 2> so interesting 



' 






/ 



• 











158 












an account of which is given by Thucydkles in his thiri 



book 



West 



so me 



morable for the signal defeat of the Lacedaemonians 



July 8 



tD 



a 371, 1 

Athenian 



conduct of Epaminondas, 

2. Proceeding Eastward, 

w r e find Eleutherae. and 



following the course of the river Asopus, we come to 
Tanagra and Oropus, now Oropo, at its mouth. The 
Athenians and Thebans had many disputes for the pos- 
session of Oropus, till at last it was adjudged to the 
Athenians by Philip of Macedon» The plain along the 
Asopus was called Parasopias. Above Tanagra was 
Delium, where the Athenians were defeated by the 
Boeotians, in the Peloponnesian war, B.C. 421, Ol. 89, 4; 
an account of which may be seen in the fourth book of 



Thucydides. Above it, at the narrowest point of the 
Euripus, opposite to Chalchis, in Euboea, was Aulis, 
the memorable scene of the detention of the Grecian 
fleet in their expedition to Troy, till Agamemnon had 



D 



Above Aulis is Anthedon ; West 



Iphigenia.1 

is the lake Cooais, now called Livadea Limne, into which 

flows the Boeotian Cephisus, a river celebrated by Pindar, 
and larger than the Athenian of the same name. At 
e Northern extremity of this lake stood the small 



/ 



a 



wm 



whence it derived its name. 



Western 



Miny 



celebrated 



Graces 



At its 
ltly called 
and for a 
. A little 



West was the town of Chseronea, memorable for 
ppnt of the Athenians bv the Boeotians* B. C. 447, 



OL SS y 2 ; a- 



for their irretrievable defeat 












■ 






■ 



1.59 






by Philip, Aug. 2, B. C. 338, 01. 110, 3, which put an 
end to the liberties of Greece : it was also the birth- 
place of Plutarch. Below it is Coronea, celebrated also 
for a defeat of the Athenians, and their allies, by Age- 
silaus, King of Sparta, B. C. 394, Ol. 96, 3 ; and below 



the Romans in 



Haliartus, which was destroyed 

Macedonian 






this was Oncestas, sacred to Neptune, and South East 
of it, almost in the centre of Bceotia, on the little river 
Ismenus, was Thebes, founded by Cadmus, and hence 

called Cadmsean, the scene of the sufferings of (Edipus, 
and the birth-place of Pindar. Below it was Potniee, 
the residence of Glaucus, the son of Sisyphus, who was 
torn in pieces by his mares 



the 



JEschylus 



West 



Thebes, above the Sinus Corinthiacus, was Thespise 



at 



the foot 



Mount Helicon, the celebrated abode of 



M 



and the river Permessus. This was the Southern ex- 



cha 



siderable leng 



West 



also 



as we shall see hereafter. About twenty stadia 



H 



said to have been made by the hoof of Pegasus. A part 
of this mountain was called Libethrus, a little above 



He 



Helicon. Hence the Mu 



t 



# 



Glauci 



Potniades malis membra absumpsere quadriga 



Vim. Georg AIL 267. 



f Nymphae, noster amor, Libethrides, 



Fm. £4 VII. "si. 












% 









\ 









v 



















160 



f 









The last place that we shall notice in Bceotia is Lebedee$ v 
now Livadia, where was the celebrated cave of Tropho- 



nius 



into which they who entered were never, seen to 
smile afterwards. From this city Bceotia has acquired 
the modern name of Livadia. 



West of Bceotia is Phocis, bounded by the Sinus 
Corinthiacus on the South. At the first bend of this 
gulph to the North was the peninsula of Anticyra, cele- 
brated for its hellebore, the great remedy for madness 
among the antients. The second bend is called the Sinus 
Crissaeus, from the city of Crissa at its i 
North of which is the renowned city of 






A little 



Delphi 



above it Mon 



sacred to Apollo and the 



M 



Muses 



Delph 



which 



1p- 



Apollo, in honour of whom the Pythian games were cele 
brated every fifth year. Parnassus had two summits, the 



one consecrated to Apollo, the other to Bacchus : who- 
ever slept on Parnassus either became an inspired poet 
or mad. * Delphi is now called Castri 9 and the summit 

of Parnassus is called Lahira, from the antient name of 
Lycorea ; it is so high as to be seen from the Acropolis 
of Corinth, eighty miles distant. North East of these 
was the Corycian cave, also sacred to the Muses, and, 
still North East, the city of Elatea, or Turco-corw, the 
largest in Phocis, the unexpected surprise of which by 
Philip produced a shock at Athens, so finely described by 
Demosthenes in his famous oration De Corona. Nearly 



* Hence Persius 
Nee in bicipiti somniasse Parnasso 
Memini, ut repente sic poeta prodirem 



Per*. Prol V. 2 



1 















\ 



161 



i 



due North of D 



the other side of Parnassus 



Tithorea, now Velitza. 



was 



North East and South West of Phocis are the Locri, 
divided into the Locri Ozol*e, to the South West, the 
Locri Opuntii and Locri Epicnemidii, to the North East. 
The Locri Ozolae were said to be so called from the 
poisoned arrows of Hercules having been buried in their 
district by Philoctetes, from which a mephitic vapour 

They occupy a narrow slip of land, broadest at 



arose. 



the Eas 

Sinus Corinthiacus to its narrowest point. Their prin- 
cipal city was Amphissa, now called Salona, whence also 
the Sinus Crissaeus is now called the Gulph of Salo?ia. 
Near the narrowest point or entrance of the Sinus 
Corinthiacus was Naupactus, a celebrated naval station, 
the possession of which was often contested between the 

\ 

Locrians and their more powerful neighbours, the iEto- 
lians, who ultimately gained it. It is now called Enehect 



West 



Gulph 



Gulph, where it is not above three quarters of a mile wide, 
was Antirrhium, opposite to Rhium in Achaia. These 
two promontories, being fortified with castles, have been 



Dardanelles of Lep 



North East of Phocis 



Were the Locri Opuntii, so called from their principal 
town Opus, situated at the Northern extremity of Boeotia, 
on the Sinus Opuntius : and nearly North of them were 
the Locri Epicnemidii, also a small tribe, so called from 
their vicinity to Mount Cnemis. Their principal town 
Was Thronium, probably now Bodonitza, and in their 



pass of The 



M 












i 









x 









\ 



«« 










; 










1* 



im 









Malia 



& 



OB 



Here 



the West with the sea and morasses to the East. It wa& 
only twenty-five feet broad in its narrowest part. 

the memorable stand made by Leonidas and his three 
hundred Spartans, who all perished but two, against 
Xerxes and the Persian host, amounting, according to 
those who take the utmost numbers, to five millions. 



was 



Th 



£> 



7, B. C. 480, 01. 75 



lasted three days, and was only lost at last by the trea- 
chery of the Thessalians *, who betrayed the passes over 
Mount (Eta. 









w 



Doris, in which springs the river Cephisus. It 



had but four inconsiderable cities, D 
Citineum, Boium, whence it is called 
was the mother of many Grecian stat 
we have already observed. 



Erineum 



> 






West of Locris, Phocis, and Doris, was TEtolia, now 
called VlaJcia, from the Velaques f, settled there by the 

Greek Emperors, having the Sinus Corinthiacus for its 
Southern, the river Achelous for its Western, and Thes- 
saly for its Northern boundary. The alliance formed 
between the Romans and iEtolians, B. C. 214. A. U. C. 
540,' and their subsequent desertion of the Romans for 






Wales 



similarity between Penmaenmawr and Thermopylae, and between 
Snowdon, with its forked head and sacred spring (Ffynnon-Oel), and 



Parnassus. 

-J- The name still r< 
signifies u herdsman. 



Vlach in the Illyrian tongue 






/ 



















163 






i 



Antioch 



King 



gation of Greece. On the river Evenus, now the Fideri, 
a little above the Sinus Corinthiacus*, West of the 

■ 

straights of Rhiura, was Calydon, the country of Meleager, 
and the scene of the Calydonian boar-hunt, described by 
Ovid, Met. VIII. 260, &c. and a little North West of 
it, towards the river Achelous, 
The chief citv of iEtolia 



was Mount Aracynthus. 
was in the interior, called 



Thermus. The river Achelous, now called Aspro Potamo, 
or the white river, is celebrated for a contest between the 
river god, in the shape of a bull, and Hercules, who tore 
off one of his horns, which he gave to the Goddess of 
Plenty for a cornu copiae ; a fable, the application of 
which is obvious to the draining of the neighbouring land 
and one branch of the river. At its mouth are a number 
of small islands, formed by depositions of earth and sand, 
called the Echinades. 



• 






i 

I 



West of ^tolia is Acarnania, still called Carjiia. Near 

the mouth of the Achelous, is the city of GEniadfle, and 



considerably North West 
Teleboides* 



and the island of Leucadia, 



Maure. 



formerly a peninsula called 
South Western promontorv r 



f The extreme 



cate, where was a temple of Apollo, and the celebrated 
rock from which disappointed lovers sought either death 
or a cure by leaping into the sea* The poetess Sappho 
Was one of the most celebrated adventurers of the lover's 



e 



* The Sinus Corinthiacus commenced from the mouth of the river 



Achelous. 



t 



Neritos ardua saxis, 



M-2 



Virg % 2En, III. 271, 



** 



I 





1 1 









t 



I * 












164 



leap, on account 



P 



for Phaon 



-p 



anee 



the Gulph 



its entrance, somewhat resembles the passage called the 
Sleeve at the entrance of the Baltic, was the memorable 
city of Actium, the scene of the great Battle between 



Antony 



U.C. 723. Actium 



is still called Azio. The North Eastern part of Acar- 
nania was called Amphilochia, from Amphilochus, the 
son of Amphiaraus and Eriphyle*, who, having slain his 
mother, in revenge for having betrayed his father to the 
fatal Theban war, retired from his native country Argos, 
and built here a city of the same name, called for dis- 

■ m * M IS 






Mloquia. 



? 



The remainder of Greece, above th 






already described, was 



divided into two great 



portio 



ns 



Thessalia on the E 



ast, and Epirus on 
especially towards 



the West. Though Ep 

the North, was hardly recognized as a g 

Grecian State. Thessaly 



in 



fact 



extended 



all the 



below, except the North 



West part of Acarnania, and was bounded 
the South by the chain of Mount CEta, on 
West by that of Pindus, on the North by 1 



the 



of Olympus 



d on the East by the Sea 



It 



* 



Moestamque Eriphylen 



Crudelis nati monstrantem vulnera cernit 



Virgn JEiu 



VI. 445. - 






i 















165 



contained several tribes or districts. On the 
confines of iEtolia and Phocis, above Doris, 
are the iEnianes ; Eastward, on the coast, was 
Phthiotis, above it Magnesia, and above that 
Pelasgiotis ; in the North was Perrhasbia ; West 
was Estiaaotis, Aperantia, and Dolopia ; in the 
centre Thessaliotis. 



The Sinus Maliacus, so called from the little city of 
Malia, is now the Gulph of Zciton, so called from the 
town of Zciton, antiently perhaps Trachis, or Trachinia, 

called also Trachinia Heraclea, the scene of one of the 
tragedies of Sophocles on the death of Hercules, who 
burnt himself on a funeral pile raised on the neighbouring 
Mount GEta. Above this, the river Sperchius flows into 

the Maliac Gulnh : the heantv of its 'hanlrc ic noloKwit^ 



by Virgil.* On this river was the city Hypata, or Neo 

* 

patra, celebrated for the skill of its inhabitants in f magic 
in which the Thessalians were proverbially thought to 

■ 

excel. Near the mouth of the Sperchius is another Anti- 
cyra, equally famous for its hellebore, and above it Lamia, 
where Antipater was besieged by the Athenians after the 

of Alexander, B. C. 323, Ol. 114, 2, but at last 



death 



* 



ubi Tempe 



Sperchiusque et virginibus bacchata Lacsenis 



Taygeta. 






Virg. Georg. JI, 486 



I have adopted the reading of Tempe here, for convenience, not 
forgetting the reasons in favour of campi. 



t 



Magus yenenis, quis poterit Deus 



Hor.Od. 1.27. 



M 3 



^ ! 







.a. 




■ 























{ 



166 






* 

escaped, and compelled the Athenians to beg a peace, 
and give up Demosthenes, who poisoned himself to 
avoid fatting into his hands. At the entrance into the 
Sinus Pagasius, or Pelasgicus, now the Galph of Volo, 
we find Aphetse, now Fetio, from which the ship Argo 
is said to have $ taken her departure for Colchis. Pro- 
ceeding along the coast we find the Phthiotic Thebes, and 
above it is the river Amphrysus, on whose banks Apollo 
is said to have fed the herds of Admetus king of * Pherae, 
Westward is a city called Thaumaci, from the beauty of 
its situation, now Thaumaco. The river Onchestus 
flows into the Northern extremity of this gulph, on which 
was the lake Baebeis and town of Pherse, or Pheres, and 
the city of Pagasae, giving name to the gulph, and 

Demetrias, or Volo, built by Demetrius Poliorcetes. 
Here were also two promontories, preserving the me- 

i 

mory of the great Thessalian Deluge, in the names of 
Pyrrha and Deucalion. Near the junction of the On- 
chestus and a little stream called the Anauros, was Iolcos, 
the country of Jason, in the district of Magnesia, whence 
Argo is called Magnetian by Ovid, f And on the iEgean 

side of the Chersonese, formed by the gulph and theiEge- 
aii, is the city of Magnesia, above which was the promon- 
tory of Sepias, now Cape St. George, where the fleet of 



* Cynthius Admeti vaccas pavisse Pheraas 
Fertur et in parva delituisse casa. 



Ov. Art, Am. II. 25 8. 



Te quoque, magna Pales, et te memorande canemus 
Pastor ab Amphryso. 



* 

Virg. Georg. III. 1 ♦ 



<f Cur unquam Colchi Magnetida vidimus Argo 



Ov* Med. Jets, V. 9* 



/ 






i 



I 







\ 



167 



I 



Xerxes suffered greatly from shipwreck. From this pro** 
montory all along the coast to the North of Thessaly 
stretch the ranges of mountains, Pelion, Ossa, and Olym- 
pus. * Proceeding Northwards, we come to the river 
Peneus, the Eastern course of which, towards its mouth, 
is through the celebrated vale of Tempe. This delightful 

valley, the beauty of which was proverbial among the 

* 

antients, is about five miles long, but in general very 
narrow, in many places not above an acre and a half in 
breadth. It divides Mount Ossa from Olympus. A full 
description of it is to be seen in the third book of iElian's 
Various History. West of Tempe, but on the river 
Peneus, is Larissa, the principal city of Thessaly, which 
retains its name. In the North of Thessaly was Azoras, 

now Sorvitz, and Oxyma. South of this is Gomphi, and 
below it Tricca, now Triculcu To the East, about the 
middle of Thessalia, on the river Enipeus, is the plain 
and city of Pharsalia, the memorable scene of the decisive 

■ 

battle between Caesar and Pompey, May 1 2, B. C. 48, 



/ 



N 










* Here we mav remark the excess of critical refinement in those 
commentators who compare Homer's ladder of the giants with 
Virgil's, and give the preference to the more judicious arrangement 
of the former. For; say they, Homer places Olympus at the bottom, 

Ossa on Olympus, and Pelion on Ossa ; Virgil uses the contrary 

4 



order 






* 

Ter sunt conati imponere Pelio Ossam 

Scilicet, atque Ossbb frondosum involvere Olympum? 



which makes a pyramid resting on its point, Pelion being the least, 
and Olympus the greatest of these mountains. The fact is, Homer 
enumerates them in their direction from the North, or highest, to 
the South, or lowest point ; Virgil, an Italian, who lived South of 

them, and would naturally visit the Southern point first in his 

journey thither from Athens, enumerates them in the order in 
vhich they would present themselves t© his view, 

M 4 



1 







P 













: ;ilii 



■ ' 









* i 






u 



168 



A. U. C. fOG, in which Caesar obtained the empire of the 



Roman world. 









West of Thessalia 



Ep 



now part of 



Albania, comprising, in the South, Molossia 
above which, on the Western shore, is Thesprotia ; 
and above it Chaonia, and, still North, Orestis. 






* 

On the Sinus Ambracius was Ambracia, the royal 
city of Pyrrhus and his descendants. Opposite the pro- 
montory of Actium, on this gulph, was Nicopolis, a city 
built by Augustus on the site of his camp, in honour 
of his decisive victory. Above it, in Thesprotia, was 
the lake called Palus Acherusia, into which two rivers 

flowed, the Cocytus and Acheron, and the river Thyamis, 
where Cicero's friend, Atticus, had a country seat called 
Amaltheum, near Torone. 



North 



Pa 



turn, now Batrinto, and above it Panormus, now 
norma j above which is Oricum and the Acro-Ceraunian 
Mountains *, so called from their abrupt summits being 

often struck by lightning. They were remarkable for 

attracting storms, and dreaded by mariners on this 
account. In the interior of Epirus was the celebrated 
grove and oracular or vocal oaks of Dodona, sacred to 
Jupiter. 



« 



* 



Ille flagranti 



Aut Atho, aut Rhodopen, aut alta Ceraunia telo 
Disjicit. ' 



Virg. Georg. I. 531 



Infames $copulos Acro-Ceraunia* 



Hor. Od. I. o 








™ 




169 



Extendin 




Thessaly and Epirus, from the 



iEgean to the Ionian Sea, was Macedonia. 

utmost limits as a Roman province ; 
Western part of Macedonia, 



but th 



above Chaonia 



was more strictly speaking part of Illyricum, now 
Albania. The pure Greeks affected to disclaim 



the Maced 
l)emo 



and part of the Ep 



thenes always discri 



in 



and 

very 



pointed terms, between the Macedonian upstart 
Philip and the Greeks, especially the Athenians, 
who claimed their descent from remotest anti- 



quity 
hair, 



\ 

nd wore golden grasshopp 
mark their aboriginal extra 



in their 
n. The 



splendid victories of Philip and Alexander sub- 
dued somewhat of this haughty spirit among their 

Macedon, now JRoumelia, 

ion the 



Southern neighbour 



was bounded on the South by Thessalia, on 
East by Thracia, on the North by Mcesia and 
Dardania, and on the West by Illyricum. 



It 



possessed by several tribes, whose 

not very correctly known. 



l 



No 



Western Pelagonia ; along the central part was Sintica, 
bordering on Thrace, next it Migdonia and iEmathia 



West 



Th 



next it Chalcidice, lying between the Sinus Strymonicus 
and Therrnaicus. Within the Sinus Thermaicus, to the 

South East was Pieria, bordering on Thessaly, and to 


















s 









170 






the South West Elymiotis. Immedia 
on the Sinus Thermaicus, now the 



of 






D 



now Stan-did, according to a corruption 
ed ; above it was the river Haliacmon, and 
na, now Kitrd) so frequently mentioned in 



D 



B 









where Olympias, the mother of Alexander, was besieged 
and put to death by Cassander, and where the decisive 
battle was fought between the Romans, under the con- 



iEmilius 



b 



June 



U 



586, which 






ended in the overthrow of Perses, and the reduction of 



Maced 



Above 



M 



in the contentions between Philip and the Athenians, 
and the scene of his first victory over them, B. C. 360, 
Ol. 1 05, 1 . A little North West of the top of the Sinus 
Thermaicus is Pella *, the royal city of Macedon ; its 
ruins are still called Palatiza or the Little Palace. It 

was situated on a lake communicating by a smaller 
stream with the Axius, or Vardan, the greatest of the 

Macedonian rivers, which falls into the Sinus Thermaicus. 



West of Pella was Beroea 



lum 



of St, Paul for the 



g 



XVII 



&c.) ; and North of it 
mt roval citv. now calle 



Mg 



or 
At 



' 



* Hence Alexander is called the Pellaean youth 
Unus Pellseo juveni non sufficit orbis. 






Juv. Sat.X. 168 



iEmathia, and iEmathia 



country 



1 1 







171 






the North Eastern extremity of the Sinus Thermaicus 
was the city of Therma, which gave name to it, after- 
wards called Thessalonica, and now Saloniki, a city 
well known from the preaching and epistles of St. Paul. 

■ 

The district between the Sinus Thermaicus and Strymo- 
nicus we have already said was called Chalcidice. The 
lower part of it formed three peninsulas* The first, con- 
tained between the Sinus Thermaicus and a smaller gulph 
called the Sinus Toronaeus, now the Gulph of Cassandria, 

* 

was called Phlegra, or Pallene. At the North Western 
extremity of this was the city of Potidasa, so celebrated in 
the orations of Demosthenes ; it was founded by the 
Corinthians* taken by the Athenians, and taken from 
them by Philip, and by him given to the Olynthians. 
It was afterwards called Cassandria* from Cassander, 
which name it still bears. At the top of the Sinus 
Toronaeus* a little North East of Potidaea* was Olynthus, 

1 , 

the scene of so many contests between Philip and the 

Athenians : the cause of its inhabitants was pleaded in 

the Olynthian orations of Demosthenes. A little North 

East of Olynthus is Chalcis* giving name to the 

district. The next gulph was called the Sinus Singiticus* 

or Gulph of Monte Santo, and the peninsula contained 

between it and the Sinus Toronaeus, was called Sithonia. 
On the Western side of this peninsula was Torone, or 
Toron? which gave name to the Sinus Toronaeus ; and on 
the Eastern was Singus, giving name to the Sinus Singi- 
ticus. In the third and last peninsula, between the Sinus 
Singiticus and Strymonicus, or Gulph of Contessa, was 
the celebrated mountain Athos, now called Monte Santo, 
from the number of religious houses there. The 

outhern promontory of Athos was called Nymphaeum* 






s 













/ 



\ 










/ 



172 

■ \ ■ 

the Eastern Acro-Athos, A narrow tongue of land 
which connects the North West of Athos with the con- 
tinent near the cities of Acanthus, on the East, and 



West 



Xer 



fleet, and save it from doubling the dangerous promon- 
tory of Acro-Athos, Above this qn the Sinus Strymo- 



nicus, is 



Staoyra, now Stagros, the birth-place of 
Aristotle, who is hence called the Stagyrite, near to 
which was the tomb of Euripides. The river Strymon 
flows into the Northern extremity of the Sinus Strymo- 



Macedon 



At its mouth 



was 



the city of Amphipolis, another of the causes of 
contention between Philip and the Athenians, as also 
between the Athenians and Spartans, for it was an 
Athenian colony. It was also called Ennea 



X 



Hodoi 



ways, because Phyll 



Demophoon 



return ; and it was predicted that the Athenians should 
suffer here as many defeats. It is now called Iamboli. 
is unnecessary to mention many of the obscure and 

•onsiderable towns in the interior and North of Ma- 



It 



/ 



cedonia 



In the central parts were Heracl 

3 West was Lvchnidus, now A 



Lynces 



Western coast of Ma 



cedonia, above Epirus, we have already said was 
properly Illyricum. Immediately above Epirus was 
Apollonia, now Polina^ on the river Aous, or Lao, and 
North of it Epidamnus, afterwards called Dyrrachium, 
which -was greatly frequented by the Romans, as being 



Brund 



We 



the latter the Dover, and the former the Calais, of 






w 




■ 



1 7 






antiquity 



The rest of the Eastern shore of the Adriatic 



was occupied by the Illyricse gentes, or Illyricum 

/ 

already described. 



9 




East of Macedonia was Thracia, which 



t> 



a barbarous country in the 
Greek colonies on the coast. 



nterior, had many 
But the geography 



of Thrace, as well as Macedonia, is by no means 
accurately ascertained. It was separated from 

Macedonia by the Strymon and the ridge of 



Mount Pangasus and M 



Rhodop 



# 



the 



IN 



West, from Moesia by Mount Hagmus on the 
North, on the East was the Euxine, and on the 
South was the iEgean Sea. 



The principal nations of Thrace were the Bessi, a very 



West 



M 




maritime parts were inhabited by the small tribes of the 
Bistones and Ciconii. In the center were the Odrysae, 

in the South the Paeti, and in the North East the Astae. 

We have considered the Strymon as the Eastern bound- 



>f Macedo 
s Mons Pi 
Mesto. wh 



t> 



Mestus 



% 



M 



& 



the island of Thasus ; the Strymon, however, is the more 

J 

antient and natural boundary. 



* Flerunt Ehodopeiss arces, 

Altaque Pangaea, et Rhesi Mavortia tellus, 

Mime Getse, atque Hebrus, et Actias Orithyia. 



Rfgf, Georg. IV. 4G1 



i 









, 




I 

1 I 

I 













174 



X 



celebrated 



of the defeat of Brutus and Cassius by Antony and 



& 



U. C. 7 



Horace 






was a tribune in the vanquished army*, but afterwards 
found a more congenial and more profitable employment 



in the service of the muses 



Mecaenas 



This city is also well known in the travels and epistles of 
St. Paul. At the mouth of the river Nessus was Abdera, 



Democrit 



East- 



Maronea, Mesemhria, Sarrum, or Serrhium, 



Mzset? 



Wester 



and Mtios, now, respectively, Marogna, 
and Eno. iEnos is at the Eastern mor 
Hebrus, now the Maritza. Inland, on t 

* 

of the Hebrus, was Scapta-hyla, or, as I 
Scaptesula f, where Thucydides, who ha 
silver mines there in right of his wife, retired, after his 

, to write his History of the 



& 



A then 



Peloponnesian War; it is still called Skepsilar. The 
river Melas runs into the small gulph called Melanis Sinus, 
at the top of which was the city of Cardia, destroyed by 
Lysimachus when he founded the citv ctf LvsimarinV o 



* Quod mihi pareret legio Romana tribune 



Unde simul primum me dimisere Philippi 
Decisis humilem pennis, inopemque paterni 
Et laris et fundi, paupertas impulit audax 
Ut versus facerem. 



Hor. Sat. I. 0, 58 



Philippos et celerem fugam 
Sensi, l'elicta non bene parmula. 



Hor. Epist. II. 2, 49* 



t Quales expirat Scaptesula subtus odores. 



Hor. Od. IL 7, 9. 



Lucret.YL 810# 



16 










— H 







' 




** 



175 



Hexam 



/ 



Hexamil 



Melanis 



Hell 



Demosthenes 



The 



Hellespontus, which was so called from Helle, the sister 

* 

of Phryxus, who was drowned there, is now called the 
Straight of the Dardanelles. The town of Sestos was. 
on its Western or European shore, opposite to Abydos, 

on the Eastern or Asiatic : this was the place where 
Xerxes built his famous bridge of boats^ and where 



d 



Hero 



Venus- here. It is now called Zermunic, and is the first 
place that was seized -by the Turks in passing from Asia 
to Europe. Above it is the fatal little stream of 






Above it is the fatal little stream of iEgos 
Potamos, where the Athenian fleet was totally defeated by 



D 



end to the Pel 

now Gallipoli. 



an war* Still North is Callipolis, 
North part of the Hellespont the 



gain, and was antiently called the P 



left 



of Mart 
MarmoTi 



contains. At its North Western 



Rhcedestus, now Rodosto 



About the middle of the 



Northern coast was Perinthus, afterwards Heracl 



1 Macr 

Empei 



Anastasius. 



Selibri 



at its North Eastern extremity, called from its beauty 
Chrvsoceras. or the Horn of Gold, was the renowned city 



/ 



1 

























■■ 



176 



f Byzantium, fixed on by Con stan tine the Gteat 



D 



called Constantinople, a name which it has always pre- 
served, though, by a familiar corruption already noticed, 



by the Turk 



That part of the 



city which was the antient Byzantium is now the seraglio. 
The Turkish sultan, Mahomet the Second, took Con- 
stantinople, May, 28, A. D. 1453, and it has ever since 
been the seat of the Turkish empire. On this occasion 
many of the captive Greek inhabitants fled into Italy and 

■ 

the West; and this event, with the invention of printing, 
which was nearly contemporary, may be considered as 
instrumental, under Providence, to the restoration of 

learning and pure religion in the world, A very narrow 
strait, antiently called the Thracian Bosphorus, now the 



of 



I 



Black 



some well-known rocks, antiently called the Cyaneae, or 
Symplegadesf , which, from their appearing more or less 
open or confined, according to the course of the vessel, 
were said by the poets to open and shut upon the ships 

which entered, and crush them to pieces : the Argo had 
a narrow escape, as we are told by Apollonius Rhodius, 



with the loss of her rudder 



» 



th 



Halmyd 



a city so celebrated for its shipwrecks ; it is still called 
Midjeh. A little above it is Bizya, the residence of 
Tereus, the husband of Procne. Above it is the pro- 
montory of Thynias, whence came the Thyni, who settled 



j\ Compresses utinain Syraplegades elisissent. 

Ovid. EpisU Her 



Med, Jas* r'Kh 



/ 



1 













m 






! 






177 



and 



Abov 



*t was Apollonia, afterwards Sozopolis, now SizeboK : 
above it, at the North Eastern extremity of Thrace, 



was 



North Western 



called 



\ 



from Philip, the father of Alexander, which preserves its 



name 
»ear the 



Adrianople 
he Hebrus, 



Aonsus, and Ardiscus, by whose waters Orestes vva» puri- 
fied from the pollution of his mother's blood, whence the 
place was formerly called Orestias. 
















* * 






v 



-• i* r . 



, 



^ 






s 









N 






178 









CHAPTER X. 



GRECIAN ISLANDS. 




\ 



hese we shall describe beginning from the North of 

the iEgean Sea, or Archipelago, along the coast of 
Greece; and afterwards those on the coast of Asia 
Elinor. Nearly under the mouth of the Hebrus was the 
island of Samothrace, or Samothraki, remarkable for the 
sanctity of its asylum, and the mysterious worship of four 
deities called the Cabiri. Its reputation even continued 
to the time of Juvenal. * Below it was Imbrus, or Imbro, 
where also the same deities were worshipped. West of 
Samothrace, and a little West of the mouth of the river 
Nestus, was Thasos, now Thapso, remarkable for its fer- 
tility, its wines, and its marble quarries. South West of 
Imbrus, and about midway in the iEgean Sea, between 
the coast of Greece and Asia Minor, was the island of 
Lemnos, fabled to have received Vulcan when he fell 
from heaven, who is therefore called the Lemnian god* 
It is now called Stalimine, according to a corruption we 
have frequently noticed. Lemnos was infamous for the 
massacre committed by the Lemnian women on their 



% 



Jures licet et Samothracum 



Et nostrorum aras. 



Juv. Sat. III. 144 









/• 



/ 








f 

£ 

lia 

e 
ae 

r 

d 

o, 
of 
er 

r- 

of 

of 

11 
d. 



e 



e 

ir 



te 



\ 






1 




a full 



husbands and all the male inhabitants of the island, 
account of which is given by Valerius Flaccus, in the 
second book of his Argonautic expedition. Its principal 
town was Myrina, now Palceocastri, in whose forum 
was the famous statue of the ox, made by Myron, the 
back of which, at the winter solstice, was overshadowed 




Mou 



Lem 



nos was i 
Palagnis 



Dromo 



though 87 miles distant. West of 
nail island of Peparethus, or Piperi, 

I South West of it Halonesus, or 
West of which, off the coast of Mag 



nesia, were the islands of Scopelos and Sciathos, which 
keep their names. South of these, below the Maliacus 
Sinus, was the large island of Euboea, lying along the 
coast of Locris, Boeotia, and Attica. Opposite to Aulis, 
in Boeotia, the channel between the continent and the 
island of Euboea is very narrow, and receives the name of 
Euripus. Chalcis, one of the principal cities of Euboea, 
was opposite to Aulis : from a corruption of Euripus, it 

is now called Egripo ; and then corrupted by mariners 
into Negropont. The next principal city in 
Eretria, now Gravalinais* a little below Chal 



Euboea 



At the 



South extremity of Euboea are two celebrated promon- 
tories, one called Carystus, now Caristo, remarkable for 
its fine marble quarries, the other, on the Eastern, or 

■ 

iEgean side, called Caphareus *, memorable for the ship- 



Grecian 



or 



At the Northern extremity of Euboea was Istisea, 
Oreus, now Orio. This part of the coast of Euboea was 
called the Artemisium littus. East of this part of Euboea 










k*. 



Scit tri^t 
s, ultorqu 



-fi&n 



V 2 


























180 



was the island of Scyros, or Skyro, where Achilles was 



the Troj 



disguised 



Below 



find 



islands, for that reason called the Cyclades. The island 
nearest to Eubcea is Andros, or Andro, and below it 
Tenos, or Tine, whi 
narrow channel. A 



:1) is separated from it only by a 



A little to the West, lying as it were 

■ 

between Andros and Tenos, is the little island Gyarus *, 
where the Roman exiles were sent, and a little South 



West 



Syra. West 



off 



the coast of Attica and promontory of Sunium, is Ceos, 
or Zia, a little South East of which is Cy thnus, now Ther- 

mia, and a little below it is Seriphus, now Serpho. South 
East of Seriphus is Siphnus, or Siphanto, and South West 



and Melo 



Milo. 



East of Mel 






Pholegandros, Sicinos, and los, now Polecandro, Sikzno, 
and Nio. Below Ios is Thera, or Santorin, whose inhabi- 
tants colonized Cyrene, in Africa; East of which is Ana- 
phe, or Namphio ; and North East of it Astypalaea f, or 

Stampolia. North of Astypalsea is Amorgus, now Amorgo; 

North West of which is NaxosJ, now Naxia, celebrated 
for its worship of Bacchus, and adjoining it to the West 
was Paros, and the smaller island of Olearos, or Anti- 






iEstuat 



Ut Gyarse clausus scopulis parvaque Seripho. 



Juvenal. Sat. X. 169. 



t 



Ov. Art. II. 82. 



t Bacchatamque jugis Naxon, viridemque Donusam 
Olearon niveamque Paron, sparsasque per aequor 
Cycladas, et crebris legimus freta consita terris. 



Vire. JEnAU. 125* 



m 




— 



ISl 



paros, which retain th 



region 



Delos 



bir 



that all sick persons were transported to the neighbouring 
island of Rhenea, lest it should be polluted by their death . 
On the opposite, or North Eastern side, was the little 



Myconus, or My 



Thus we may see that 
ni circular form round 



Delos, as center, whence they derive their name. 



The antient names of Delos were Asteria and Ortygia, 

* 

the latter being derived from the number of quaife which 
frequented the island. . The antients believed the island 
to have been moveable formerly, and carried about by the 
waves, but that when Apollo was born there it became 
fixed, f 



* 

Cyclades was the great island of Crete. 



renowned 



h 



been the birth-place of Jupiter. The Western extremity 
of Crete was a promontory called Criu Metopon, or the 
ram's forehead, now Crio ; its Eastern was called Samo- 
nium, now Sahnone ; its Northern was called Cimaris, 
now Spada. About the center of Crete was the cele-> 



* Splendentis Pario marmore purius 



f Sacra mari colitur medio gratissima tellus, 
Nereidum matri et Neptuno iEgaeo ; 
Quam pius Arcitenens oras et littora circum 
Errantem, Mycone cqlsa Gyaroque revinxit, 

Immotamque coli dedit, et contemnere ventos. 



Hor. Od. I. 1 9, 6. 



Virg. Mn III. 73 



N 3 




i 














■ 



i 







1 



■^^■■i 



■ 



^ I 









I 






























182 



brated Mount Ida*, where Jupiter was nursed, whence 
came the worship of Cybele, and the priests called the 
Curetes, or Idaei Dactyli. On the Northern coast, 
towards the Western end of the Island, was Cydonia, 
now Canea. The Cretans were celebrated archers, and 

* 

the Cydoniansf were the best, or most esteemed among 



/ 



th 



Towards 



to the South, at the narrowest part of the island, was 



Minos 



for his justice as to have been made one of the judges in 
the infernal regions : with this place we shall, of course, 
associate the names of Ariadne, Theseus, Daedalus, the 

notaur. South of it was Lyctos, now 



M 



Dicte ± 



r 

of the island, sometimes giving name to the whole 

■ 

island. In a cave of this mountain Jupiter is said to have 
been fed by the bees with honey. § Along the South 



Hier 



W 



to which are said to be some ruins resembling a sub- 

Creta maris magni medio jacet insula ponto, 

Mons Idaeus ubi, et gentis cunabula nostra. 



* 



% 



# 



Hinc mater cultrix Cybele, Corybantiaque sera, 



Idaeumque nemus. 
f Primusve Teucer tela Cydonio 



Virg. JEn. III. 1 04 



Direxit arcu. 



* * 



Hor.Od. IV. 9. 17. 



t 



Dictaea negat tibi Jupiter arva. 

- 

Pro qua mercede, canoros 



Virg. JEn. III. 171. 



Curetum sonitus Corybantiaque sera secutae, 
Dictaeo regem superum pavere sub antro. 



Virg, Georg.IV.lSO 



■ 



' 











183 



aneous labyrinth, 
little island of Dia 



Off the North 



Gaulos, now Gozo of Candia, to distin 



• 



from the Gozo of Malta 



West of Crete 



Malea, we find the island of Cythe 



ed 



\ 



risen from the sea in its neighbourhood, and is hence 



called 



Western side of G 



is Zacynthus, now Zante, South of which are the islands 
of the Strophades*, now Strivali, so called because 
Calais and Zethus here turned back from pursuing the 
harpies. Above Zacynthus, almost opposite the 



Sinus 



Corinthiacus, is Cephalenia, now Cefalonia> on the 



Eastei 
name. 



Was 



i of Ithaca lies to the North East of it, 
Theaki. Above these, off the coast of 

he island of Corcyra, now Corfu. * It 

the Corinthians, and is 






lly colonized 
for having gi 




nesian wars, and for a dreadful sedition which prevailed 
there during part of that war, which is finely described 
by Thucydides, in his third book. This island was 
called Phseacia by Homer, who describes the gardens 
and orchards of its king Alcinous. 

/ 

We shall now proceed to describe the Grecian islands 
adjoining the coast of Asia, f A little below the Helles- 



* 



t 



Strophades Graio stant nomine dictae 
Insulse Ionio in magno : quas dira Celaeno, 
Harpyiseque colunt aliae. ' 



M 



N 4 




? 



> *■ 





J . . 1 



' 















184 



/ 



• 



the 



the 



\ 



is a small island which 
3 fatal station to which 
icealment while awaiting 



Mysia 



Mitylin, from Mitylene, il t 7 _ _ v _„ 

coast. It was the birth-place of Sappho. Above Mity- 
lene, in the North Eastern extremity of Lesbos, was 

Petera. Below Lesbos, off the 



Methym 
coast 



Porto 



Homer, where his school is still shown + 



Chian and Lesbian wines ± 



/ 









V 

convenient to enumerate these islands in this place, and the section 
itself may be reserved, at the option of the teacher, for the con- 
elusion of the chapter in Asia Minor. 

* Est in conspectu Tenedos notissima fama 

Insula, dives opum Priami dum regna manebant, 
Nunc tan turn sinus, et statio malefida carinis, 



Hue se diversi, secreto in littore condunt, 
Nos abiisse rati, et vento petiisse Mycenas. 



&n 



21 



- 

f The places which contended for t 
enumerated in those well-known lines 

Septem urbes certant de stirpe insignis Homeri, 

Smyrna, Rhodos, Colophon, Salamis, Chios, Argos, Athenae. 

Of these Chios and Smyrna have the best claim. I am not one of 
those who doubt bis existence. The uniformity of plan and dic- 
tion convinces me that the Iliad, with possibly a small exception, 
i& the work of one man. The Odyssey I attribute to different 
hands, and to a somewhat later but very early age. 



t Capaciores affer 



Lesbia 






Hor. Epod. IX. 55 






1 



' 



Jn 










-*.. 





t \ 

i 






V"' ' 










: 






. 



*i 















5 



185 






high 



Below Chio 



I 



tremity of Ionia, is Samos, which keeps its name 
was worshipped here with peculiar honours. 



Juno* 
A little 



West of Samos was Icaria, now Nicari 



Below these, 



off the coast of Caria, are a number of scattered isles, 
called from that circumstance the Sporades. Below 
Icaria is Pathmos, to which St. John was banished. 
Below it is Leros, which also keeps its name, and Ca- 
lymna, now Calmina. Below this was Cos, a larger 
island, off the coast of Doris, now Stan Co % the birth 



plac 
and 



m>elles and H 



Nisiri 



....■, 



Below it, Nisyrus 
)copia* and under 



Doris, where the shore of Asia Minor turns to the East, 
is the celebrated island of Rhodus, or Rhodes, so well 
known in the history of the Grecians, Persians, Romans, 
and Mahometans. Its principal city was Rhodes, where 

i 

was the celebrated colossus of the sun, the legs of which 
are commonly but falsely supposed to have stood on each 

side of the harbour, and admitted between them ships 
in full sail. It was the work of Chares, the pupil of 
Lysippus, erected about 300 B. C. and thrown down by 

an earthquake about 120 years after, in which state it 
continued till it was sold by the Saracens, after their 

conquest of Rhodes, A. D. 672, to a Jew, who broke it 
up, and loaded 900 camels with the brass. About mid- 
way between Rhodes and Crete, the island of Carpathus, 
of Scarpanto, gave name to the Carpathian Sea. In the 
Eastern part of the Mediterranean, off the coast of 
Cilicia, was the island of Cyprus, sacred to Venus. Its 
principal city was Salamis, toward the East, founded by 



Quam Juno fertur terris ir 
Posthabita coluisse Samo, 



JEn 



















■ 











' 






- 






M 






' ■ ' 






f 















IV * 










\ 
































►.• 






n 

























186 



from the island 



Salamis in the Sinus Saronicus ; it was overwhelmed by 
the sea, afterwards rebuilt in the fourth century, under 
the name of Constantia, and is still called Constanza. A 

■ 

little below it is the present capital of Cyprus called 
Famagosta, from the antient promontory of Ammo- 
chostos, or the sand-hill. South West of this was 
Citium, now Cito, the birth-place of the great Stoic 
philosopher Zeno 




outh West of which was Amathus, 
whence Venus, who was worshipped there, was called 
Amathusia. West of this was Curium, now Piscopia, 
and in the Western extremity was the much-famed city 
of Venus, Paphos, now Limmeson Antica, and above it 
a more recent Paphos, called still Bapha. On the 

Northern coast Soli is now Solia. Lapethus Lapeto^ and 



mi 



rus 



Cytria : 



f is thought 



about the center of the 



The Grecian Seas were distinguished by various 
names : the Southern part of the Hadriatic, washing 
the Western coast of Greece, was called Mare Ionium 1 5 



# 



Teucer Salamina pattern que 



Cum fugeret, tamen uda Lyaeo 
Tempora populea fertur vinxisse corona, 

Sic tristes affatus amicos : 
Quo nos cunque feret melior fortuna parente, 

Ibimus, O socii comitesque, 
Nil desperandum, Teucro duce et auspice Teucro, 
Gertus enim promisit Apollo, 

Ambiguam tellure nova Stamina futuram. 

Hor. 

t Est Paphos Idaliuraque tibi, sunt alta Cythera. 



7,21. 



Virg. Mn. X. 86< 



J Nosse quot Ionii veniant ad littora fluctus. 



Virg. Georg. II. !$*?• 






187 










the sea between Crete and Africa was ca 



Pel 



above Crete, M 



t \ ; between 
£ ; near the 



Crete nnd Rhodes, Carpathium Pelagus 

island of Icaria, Icarium Mare § ; between Attica and 

the Cyclades, Myrtoum Mare || ; all the rest of the 

* 

Archipelago was called by the general name of the Mare 
raeum. The modern term of Archipelago is rather 



^E 



of doubtful and somewhat curious derivation. It is 
doubted whether Egio Pelago or Agio Pelago be the 

original modern term ; the former a corruption of the 



m 



Mount 



From one or the other of these, mariners are thought to 
have adopted the corruption of Archipelago, which 



h 



avmg 



itself a manifest similarity 



to another Greek 



root, has been generally supposed to be derived from it. 
Even the most illustrious of geographers, D'Anville, to 

whom I owe so many obligations, falls into the vulgar 



error. 



* Delphinum similes qui per maria humida nando 



Carpathium Libycumque secant. 

■ 

j- Tradam protervis in mare Creticum 



Virg. Mn. V. 595 



Portare ventis. 



.- 



Hon Od. I. 26, 2 



J Quicunque Bithyna lacessit 
Carpathium pelagus carina. 

i 

$ Luctantem Icariis fluctibus Africum 



Hor. Od, I. 35, 7. 



Mercator metuens. 



Hor. Od. I. l, 15 



II 






Ut trabe Cypria 






MyrtouiB pavidus nauta secet jyiare 



Hor. Od. I. 1, Iff. 



' h* 



ml 



.i 


























y 






:- 



I 















1 









. 



188 



k 



CHAPTER XL 






i 






ASIA MINOR. 





he country which we call Asia Minor 



term not in use among the antients) is now 

\ 

called Anatolia, or rather Anadoli from umroxn 
the East. It comprises the provinces between 

the Euxine and Mediterranean Seas. Along 
the shore of the Pontus Euxinus, adjoining the 

Propontis, is Bithynia, next to which is Paph- 

lagonia, and East of it Pontus, reaching to the 
river Ophis, where the shore of the Pontus 
Euxinus begins to turn to the North. Below 
the Eastern part of Bithynia and Paphlagonia is 
Galatia. South of the Propontis is Mysia, below 
it Lydia, and below Lydia is Caria. These three 
provinces lie along the Eastern shores of the 

iEgean, but their coasts are chiefly occupied by 
Grecian colonies. Below the Hellespont, the 









',: : 



■' 







189 






coast of Mysia is called Troas, the celebrated 
scene of the Iliad of Homer. The South coast 
of Mysia and a little of the North of Lydia is 
called iEolis or iEolia. The remaining coast of 
Lydia is called Ionia. There were also some 
Ionian cities on the coast of Caria ; and the 
South West coast of Caria was called Doris. 
East of Caria was Lycia, and East of Lycia 
Pamphylia, with Pisidia to the North, and to 

the North East Isauria and Lycaonia. East of 

Pamphylia was Cilicia. In the center, East of 
Lydia, was the large province of Phrygia, and 
East of Phrygia was Cappadocia. 



■. 
















! 














Bithynia was originally called Bebrycia : two Thracian 
nations, the Thyni and Bithyni, who settled there, gave it 
the name of Bithynia. It is separated from Mysia by the 

Rhyndacus on the West, and from Paphlagonia by the 
Parthenius on the East; on the North it is bounded by the 
Pontus Euxinus, and on the South by Phrygia and Gala- 

■ 

tia. On the Western frontier the great mountain of 
Olympus gave the name of Olympena to the surrounding 
territory. At the foot of Olympus was the city Prusa, or 
Bursa, which gave the title of Prusias to the kings of 
Bithynia. One of this name was the betrayer of Han- 
nibal to the Romans, who poisoned himself to escape fall- 
ing into their hands, B. C. 1 83, A. U. C. 571. The next 
city we shall mention is Nicaea, now Isnik, on the banks 
of the lake Ascanius, North East of Prusa. Here was the 
famous general Council held tinder ^onstantine the 
Great, when the Nicene Creed was drawn up, A. D. 325. 




























*■■ 







ft* i* i 






/ 



/ 



mn 



\ 



1 



190 



North of Nicaea is Nicomedia, now called Isnickmid, and 
West of it, towards the Bosporus, is Libyssa, now Gebise, 
which derived its name from containing the tomb of the 
great African general, Hannibal. At the point where the 
Propontis begins to contract was Chalcedon, called the 
city of the blind, in derision for its founders having over- 
looked the more delightful and advantageous situation of 
Byzantium : it is now Kadikeui. Opposite to Byzantium, 
or Constantinople, was Chrysopolis, now Scutari. On 

the Bosporus was a celebrated temple of Jupiter Urius, 

/ 

the dispenser of favourable winds : it is now called loron. 
TheThyni, a Thracian nation, were settled on this part 
of the shore of the Euxine, extending from the Bosporus 
to the river Sangarius, or Sagaris, now the Salcaria. On 
the East of the Sangarius were the Mariandyni, in the 

North Eastern part of whose district was the powerful 

i 

city of Heraclea Pontica, now Ereklz : a small peninsular 
promontory to the North West is called Acherusia, and, 
it is said that Hercules dragged Cerberus from hell 
through a cavern in this promontory. North East of the 
Mariandyni are the Caucones, adjoining Paphlagonia. 









4 

Paphlagonia extends from the river Par thenius, or 

Partheni, to the great river Halys, now called Kizil- 
Ermak, t or the red river. * In the North were the He- 
neti, who are said to have passed over into Italy after the 
Trojan war, where they established themselves under the 
name of Veneti. The principal cities were on the coast 



dominions 



A\u* 



haGfo (uy&xw &£%h wwxk, a line which might well have been ap- 
plied to the late Emperor of France when he crossed the Vistula. 



t 



I 




. 












191 






^ 



■ 

of the Euxine : Amastris # , now Amastreh, Cytorus, now 
Kitros ; North East of which was the promontory of Ca- 
rambis, now Cape Karampi, which we have noticed as 
opposite to Criii Metopon in the Tauric Chersonese; and 
a little after the shore has bent downwards is Sinope, a 
celebrated Grecian colony, founded by the Milesians, and 
the birth-place of the philosopher Diogenes ; it was the 
capital of Pontus in the reign of the great Mithridates, 
and is still called Sinub. 




:> 



„ 









Under the Eastern part of Bithynia and Paphlagonia 
is Galatia. A colony detached from the great Gaulish 



emigration, under Brennus, B. C. 270, crossed the Helles- 






g 



G 



they caused the country to obtain the name of Gallo- 
Graecia, or Galatia ; and what is singular, they continued 

to speak the Celtic language even in the days of St. Je- 
rome, 600 years after their emigration. On the confines 

of Phrygia and Bithynia was the city of Pessinus, origin- 

ally Phrygian, and Mount Dindymus, remarkable for the 

worship of Cybele, hence called Dindymenef, whose 

image was brought from this place to Rome, with are- 






t ±, in the second Punic v> 






* Amastri Pontica et Cytore buxifer. 

f Non Dindymene, non adytis quatit 
Mentem sacerdotum incola Pythius, 




/ 





<L 



Catull.1V. is. 



Non Liber aeque. 



Hi 



t 



dess was prevailed upon by her prayers to vouchsafe her testimony 
to her innocence, by enabling her to remove by her girdle the ship 

which had grounded in the Tibeh — Ov. Fast IV, 315. 














































192 



/ 



i 

A little North of Pessinus was Gordium, also originally in 
Phrygia, where Alexander cut to pieces theGordian knot, 
respecting which there was an antient tradition that the 
person who could untie it should possess the empire of 
Asia. East of Pessinus was Ancyra, now Angora, from 
whence the celebrated shawls and hosiery made of goat's 

■ 

hair were originally brought. Near this place Bajazet 
was conquered and made prisoner by Timour the Great. 
East of this, on the confines of Paphlagonia, Gangra, now 
Kankiari, was the residence of Cicero's friend Deiotetrus, 

one of the tetrarchs or princes of Galatia, in whose favour 

we have an oration of Cicero to the Senate. This city, 
however, was also sometimes considered as one of the 

/ 

principal in Paphlagonia. It is not necessary to enter into 
the detail of the other cities in Galatia ; but we may ob- 
serve, in proof of the Gaulish origin of the people, that 

v L 

the Northern part of them were called the Tectosages. 



• 






** 









i 












East of Paphlagonia and Galatia is Pontus, extending 
along the coast of the Euxine, from the mouth of the 
Halys to the Ophis. It was originally part of Cappa- 

docia, and was formed first into a Satrapy, and then into 

an independent kingdom, about B. C. 300. Leaving 

the mouth of the Halys, the first important city we shall 
notice is Amisus, now Samswi, a Greek colony, aggran- 
dised by Mithridates. The sea here forms a gulph called 
Amisenus Sinus. The river Iris, called now JekiU 
Ermark, or the green river, flows into the sea here* 

Upon its banks, considerably inland, was Amasea, now 
Amasieh, the most considerable of the cities of Pontus, 
and the birth-place of the great Mithridates and-Strabo 
the geographer. Above it was Magnopolis, built by 
Pompey the Great, and below it, in a direction nearly 




4 















I i * 









**\jl 









v 






■ ' J 



, ■ 
















' 



/• 



1 93 






. 










naces, 



Mithrid 



ites, with such rapidity, that he 
Wrote his account of his victory to the senate in those 
three famous words, " Veni, vidi, vici." East of Zele 
was the city of Com ana, now Almons, and called Pon- 
tica, to distinguish it from another of the same name in 
Cappadocia: both were celebrated for their temples, and 
college of priests, consecrated to Bellona, who was, 
however worshipped by those oriental nations rather as 
the Goddess of Love than of War. Above it is Neo- 

Caesarea, now Niksar. Advancing towards the sea we 

find the river Thermodon, or Terme, which runs through 
the plains of Themiscyra, the antient residence of those 
warlike females the Amazons. * East of this was Pole- 
monium, now Vatija, built by Polemon, who was esta- 



of Marc 



was Cerasus, 



Keresoun 



Mithridi 



,'i 



war. 



Considerably East of it, almost on the confines of 

* 

Colchis, was Trapezus, or Trebisond, so famous antiently 

■ 



as 



first Greek colony 



1 0,000 



Greeks in their immortal retreat under Xenophon, and 

subsequently as the seat of Grecian Emperors, so well 

known in romance, and so little read of in history. 

Trapezus, above the banks of the river 
;hes, or Tesqua, now Tekeh, the moun-^ 



East of 



Oph 



Xeno 



-.?• 



v of the sea, the account of which is so finely de- 
bed by him in the latter part of the fourth book of the 



# 



• Cum flumina Thermodontis 



Pulsant, ct pictis bellantur Amazones armis 



Virg, Mn> XL 65?. 
















!i 









f 



















PT+tpIt - 









■ 



■ i 









<} 












* t 













, 





















^-f 









t t 






*\ 









\ 









> 










A 



/ 









i 



1 94 



i 



Anabasis. The South Eastern part of Pontus was occu- 
pied by the tribes of Chalybes, or, as Strabo calls them, 
the Chaldaei. 



/ 



x 



Jfcj 



My 



iEarean on the West 



the 



1 ^ 

dern travellers for the Granicus, separates it from Bi- 
thynia. Proceeding from thence Westward, along 
the shore of Propontis, we come to the island of Cy~ 
zicus, now a peninsula, which preserves its name; it 



West 



was antiently a very flourishing city. A little 

of it is the river Granicus, the famous scene of the 

first great battle between Alexander and the armies 



ius, May 
Macedon 



01. Ill, 3, where 



\) 



Persians 



a torrent called Ousvola. 
w LamsakL is on the Hell 



The 



It was famous for the worship of Priapus, hence called 



the Hellesp 



or Lampsacan God. * Alexander 



' 



:■,:.? 






resolved to destroy this city on account of the vices 

■ 

of its inhabitants, but it was saved by the philosopher 
Anaximenes, who, knowing tfeat Alexander had sworn 

his request, begged him to destroy it. A 
little below is Percote, which was given by Artaxerxes 
to Themistocles, to maintain his wardrobe. Below 



to 












s 



Abydos, which we have already 



as 



nearly opposite to Sestos, but a little more to the South, 



the mouth of the Hellespont, 



the sacred plain of Troy, immortalized by the first and 



• Hellespontiaci tervet tutela Priapi 



Virg, Gcorg, XV. 1 1 1 





















195 



between the 
has received 



greatest of poets. The coast of Mysia, 
Hellespont and the promontory of Lectum, 
the names of Troas, from Troy, and, in its Northern 
part, Dardania, from the city of Dardanus, at the en- 
trance of the Hellespont, which, though now destroyed, 



Hellesnont the name of the D 



Modern travellers very much differ in their accounts of 

■ 

this celebrated plain, and in the position they assign to 
the antient city of Troja, or Ilium. Mr. .Gell, in his 
accurate and interesting survey of the Troad, accom- 
panied with many beautiful and faithful coloured en- 
gravings, thinks he has discovered some vestiges of 
this most famous city near the village of Bounarbachi ; 
but the fact probably is, that though some great and strong 

outlines, such as Ida, and the promontory of -Rhoetasum 
and Sigaeum, may remain, the lapse of 3000 years may 
have caused so great a change in the general ftice of 



the country, as to have obliterated every vestige of the 

antient city, and even several of those minor features 



which may be said to have outlived even nature herself 



Homer./* Troy was more than 




once rebuilt under the name/ of Troja and Ilium, 

generally in a situation nearer the sea than the antient 
city is supposed to have occupied. It stood between 
two rivers, the Scamander, or Xanthus, and the Simois, 
which formed a junction before they entered the Helles- 



pont 



Mount 



range of mountains East of Troy. 



The summit of 



Ida 



Gargar 



The Northern promontory 



of the shore, at the entrance of the Hellespont, 
was culled the promontory of Rhoetaeum, and the 

Southern that of Sigaeum ; between these 



the 



O 2 








r 



i 






















\ 






196 



















d 



South of the island 



Tenedos were Chrysa and Sminthium, where was the 
temple of the Sminthian Apollo, and the residence of 
his priest Chryses, the father of Briseis. Below it is 
the promontory of Lectum, now called Cape Baba. 
South East of it is Assus, now Asso ; South East of 
which was Antandrus, now Antandro. Inland, about the 
middle of the Troad, was Scepsis, memorable as being 

* 

the place where the original writings and library of 
Aristotle were discovered, as we are told by Strabo, 
much injured by having been buried carelessly in a damp 
place by the descendants of Neleus, the scholar of Theo- 
phrastus, to whom Aristotle had left them, in order to 
preserve them from being seized by Eumenes, king of 
Pergamus, for his library : they were at length dug up 

and sold to Apellicon of Teios, for a large sum. North 



m 



East of Scepsis was the city of Zeleia, mentioned 
Homer, and South East of it the Hypoplacian Thebes* 
the birth-place of Andromache, which was occupied by 
a Cilician colony in the time of the Trojan war : a little 
below, the shore begins to turn to the South. The re- 
mainder of the coast of Mysia, and part of Lydia, to the 



Hermu 



# 



led 



Moih 



JEolis 



iEolian 



Here 



or Adramitti, an Athenian colony, mentioned in the Acts, 
ch. xxvii. 2. Below Adramyttium was Pergamus, now 
Bergamo, the capital of a kingdom which the Romans 
considerably enlarged in favour of Eumenes, after they 
had defeated Antiochus/ king of Syria, and which was 












Auro turbidus Hermus. 






Virg. Georg. II. 13 



* 









\ 



*' 



f 



/V 



/ 













197 




'■ 






Roman 



l s> 



U 



621. 



Her 



B. C 

was the famous library 

founded by Eumenes in opposition to that of Ptolemy at 
Alexandria, who, from motives of jealousy, forbad the 
exportation of Egyptian papyrus, in consequence of 
which Eumenes invented vellum, called hence Perga- 
mena. This library, having contained 200,000 volumes 
was transported to Alexandria by Antony and Cleopatra. 
Pergamus is one of the churches mentioned in the Reve- 
ktion of St. John, ch. ii. 11. Here also the great 
physician Galen was born. It stood on the banks of the 
Caicus, and its port Elaea is now lalea. 1 
myttium and Elaea were the maritime cities of Lyrnessus, 
the original country of Briseis, Atarneus and Pitane, 
and a little below Elaea was the promontory of Cana, or 
Colonic near which were the little islands called Argi- 
nusae, where the Lacedaemonian fleet was completely 
defeated by the Athenians, under the command of Conors 

B. C. 106, 01. 93, 3, 






etween 















m 



Below the river Caicus was Lydia, called antiently 



My 



Phrygia on the 
iEerean on the West. 



■ 

The coast of Lydia, nearly to the Hermus, was called 
.^Eolis, and below the Hermus, having been occupied by 
Grecian colonies about B. C. 900, obtained the name of 
Ionia, the cities of which we shall first describe, before 
we give an account of the interior, or Persian part of 
it. Below the Caicus was Cyme, or Cumae, the most 
powerful of the JEolian colonies, now affording but 



a 



fe 



g 



at a place called Nemourt 



colony 



from hence founded the city of Cumae, on the coast of 

o 3 





















a 












N 












198 



Campania, in Italy, the residence of the Cumaean 

_ 

Sibyl. Below it is Phocaea # , now FocJiia, an Ionian 
colony, whose inhabitants deserted it, to avoid beihg 
subject to the power of Gyrus, and having sworn never 
to return, till, a mass of iron, which they sank, should 
rise to the surface, founded the city of Marseilles, in 
Gaul, about 540 B.C. Below Phocaea was the cele- 
brated city of Smyrna, now called Ismur, one of the 
reputed birth-places of Homer, and a flourishing city 
of Anatolia. The little river Meles, which flows by 
Smyrna, has given to Homer the name of Melesigenes, 
behaving been said to have been born on its banks ; lie 
is also called Maeonius f , from having been born in Lydia. 

4 

Smyrna stands at the Eastern extremity of a Gulph 

called the Smyrnseus Sinus, which forms a peninsula, 
near the entrance of which is Clazomenae, now Vourla^ 
the birth-place of the philosopher Anaxagoras and other 
great men; north West of it is Erythrse, opposite to the 
island of Chios, the residence of one of the Sibyls. At 
the Southern entrance of this peninsula was Teos, 
the birth-place of Anacreon, hence called the Teian 

bard, and below it Lebedus, which was ruined by 






* Sed juremus in haec ; simul imis saxa renarint 

- 

Vadis lerata, ne redire sit nefas : 
Nulla sit hac potior sententia, Phocaeorum 

f 

Velut profugit execrata civitas. 

Hor. Epod.XVL 2$. 

have reversed the order of the lines in Horace, for the convenience 
of shortening the quotation, 

f Non si priores Mseonius tenet 
Sedes Homerus. 



Hor. Od. IV. 9, 5, 



12 



X 







■* 



99 



- 



■*e 






ued 



7& 



H 



orace. 



# 



Below it was Colophon, another of the cities which con- 



tended for the bird 



Homer 



Mimnermus and Nicand 



Col 



Iry 




enerally turned the scale on the side on which they 
fought : hence Colophonem addere became a proverb for 
putting an end or finish to a business, and in the early 
periods in the art of printing, the account which the 
printer gave of the place and date of the edition, being 
the last thing printed at the end of the book, was called 
the colophon. Below Colophon, on the banks of the 
Cayster, was the renowned city of Ephesus, celebrated 



D 



for its temple ol 

world. It is now a mass of ruins, under the name of 
Aiosoluc, a corruption of Agio-Tzeologus, the modern 
Greek epithet for St. John the founder of the church 
here. It is almost unnecessary to add, that this city is 
memorable in the writings and travels of St. Paul, and 

is the first of the churches mentioned by St. John in the 
Revelation, ch. ii. 1. 



flowed 



a 



is 



marsh called the Asian marsh, much frequented by water 
fowlf, and mentioned by Homer and Virgil ; this river 
mow called the Kitchik-Minder, or little Mseander. 
Below Ephesus was Magnesia, on the Mseander, to 
be distinguished from another city of the same name 
near Mount Sipylus, in the inland parts of Lydia. Here 
Themistocles died, B. C. 449, Ol. 82, 4, and the Romans 

* Scis Lebedus quid sit, Gabiis desertior atque 



Fidenis vicus. 



Jffor.JEpisL I. 11, 6, 



+ Jam varias pelagi volucres, et qure Asia circuin 

Dulcibus in stagms rimantur prata Caystri. 



o 4 



Vfrg. Georg> I. 383. 



m 

























/ 












t 



¥A 




• 












I 



1 



N 










gave a signal overthrow to Antiochus, King of Syria 
B. C. 187, A. U. C. 567. Below it, and opposite the 
island of Samos, is Mount Mycale, so celebrated for the 
defeat and destruction of the Persian fleet 




the 



> 






r 



Grecians, Sept. 22, B. C. 479, OL 75* 2, on the very 
same day that their land army, under Mardenius, was 
defeated at Plataeae. At the foot of this mountain was 
Priene, the birth-place of Bias, one of the seven con- 
temporary sages of Greece. The river Mseander, so 
celebrated for its windings, is the boundary of Lydia 
and Carta. We shall now quit the Ionian coast of Lydia, 
and take a short view of the interior, or Persian part. 
Beginning at the North, nearly due East of Cyme, is 
Thyatira, one of the churches mentioned in the Revela- 
tion of St. John, ch. ii. 18, now Ak-hisar ; South West 
of it is Magnesia, or Magnisa, where some place the 
defeat of Antiochus : both these are on the Northern side 
of the Hermus. This Magnesia is called Magnesia 
Sipyli, or Magnesia at the foot of Mount Sipylus, to 
distinguish it from the other Magnesia ad Maeandrum. 

Mount Sipylus was the residence of Niobe, hence called 

Sipyleian*; it is on the Southern side of the Hermus. 
South East of it was Sardis, the capital of Lydia, and 
royal residence of Croesus f, the last and proverbially rich 
King of Lydia* who was taken by Cyrus, B. C. 548, 
Ol. 58, 1. Sardis was at the foot of Mount Tmolus, now 



# 



Solicito lachrymas depluit e Sipylo. 



iperba 



Propert. II 



20,^ 



f Quid tibi visa Chios, Bullati, notaque Lesbos, 
Quid concinna Samos ? quid Crcesi regia Sardis ? 
Smyrna quid et Colophon ? majora minorane fama ? 



Hor.EpisLL il ) • 



■ 

s 



y 






: 



f 





201 



Hour-dag, or the cold mountain, and watered by the 
river Pactolus, whose sands, like those of the Hermus, 
were mingled with gold. It is one of the churches 
mentioned in the Revelation of St. John, ch. hi. I, and is 
now a small village, called Sart. South of Sardis, near 
the confines of Caria, a little North of the Maeandrian 
Magnesia, was Tralles, antiently a strong city, but now 
only a small place called Sultan-hisar . East of Sardis, 
towards Phrygig, was Philadelphia, another of the Seven 
Churches, Rev. iii. 7? which, together with Sardis and 



ten more of the principal cities of Asia, was overwhelmed 
by an earthquake, in the reign of the Emperor Tiberius, 
A. D. 17. A great tract of this and the adjoining country 
of Phrygia was called Catakekaumene, or the burnt 
country, in consequence of these frequent earthquakes 



and subterranean fires. 



Caria is separated from Lvdia by the Mseander, and is 

bounded on the West by the JEgean, on the South by 
the Mediterranean, and on the East by Phrygia. The 
inhabitants of Caria were proverbially considered as bar- 
barous and despicable among the Greeks, and the name 



* * 



The name 



)f Carian was synonymous to that of slave. 

of Ionia was continued to the Northern part of the coast 
of Caria, and here we find the city of Miletus, once a 
great and flourishing state, which sent out many colonies^ 
;^nd had a leading influence in the Ionian affairs, but its 
actual site is now unknown, except that it must now be 
somewhat inland, the sands brought down by the river 
Latin us having choaked up its harbour. Thales, one of 
the wisest of the seven contemporary Grecian sages, 
was a native of this place, as were also Anaximenes, 



\ 














t 



■ 










I'! 












1 t 









* 









Mm f 



i 



* 










*'' 

















!» 









S 






&02 



and 



Hecatseus, Timotheus, the celebrated musician, 
several other great men. This was the last of the Ionian 
„;#;-* but Grecian colonies still occupied the Western 

Below Miletus was Iassus, now Assam Kalast, 



coast. 



and in a peninsula, formed by the Iassian and Ceramic 
gulphs, was Myndus, now Myndes, and opposite to it, 

.1 . _ /-i :' _„i„u ,.„w +V10 rplpbratcd citv of Hah- 



carnassus, now Bodro?i, a 



Grecian colony, once 



the 



of C 



for her 



residence of the Kings of Caria. H 
tomb, built by Artemisia, Queen 
husband Mausolus, which was one of the wonders of the 
antient world, and has given to all magnificent sepul- 
chres the name of mausoleums. It was the birth-place 
of Herodotus the father of history, of Dionysus Hah- 
carnassensis, of Heraclitus, and many other great men, 
and is memorable also for the long siege it maintained 

ider the skilful command of Mem- 

Dariu 

the Sinus Ceramicus (so called from the city of Ceramus 

called Doris, being 

re was the city of 





Keramo) 



H 



peopled by Dorian colonies, 

Cnidus, sacred to Venus V near a promontory 



Triop 



In the interior of Caria, 



M 



Towards the southern coast was Stratonicea, or Eslci 
Skehr, so called from Stratonica, the wife of Antiochus 
Soter ; and on the confines of Phrygia was Aphrodisias, 
now Gheira, 



* 



Quae Cnidon 

Fulgentesque tenet Cydadas et Paphon 

Junctis visit oloribus. 



Hor. Od. Ill, 28, 15 

























I 



203 



. u 



■hH 






Lycia was bounded by Caria on the West, by Phrygia 
m the North, by Pisidia and Pamphylia on the East, 
and by the Mediterranean on the South, and indeed, in 
great measure, on the West and East. At the head of 
the Western gulph was Telmissus, now Macri, the inhabi- 
tants of which were reputed skilful magicians; the gulph 
has taken, both in antient and modern times, the name 
of the city, but was also called Glaucus, from the cele- 
brated Lycian hero of that name in Homer. Mount 
Cragus*, sacred to Diana, runs along this gulph: the 
fabulous monster Chimera, said to have been subdued 

by Bellerophon, was a volcano in this ridge, which he 
cultivated. South of it was the river and city of Xanthus, 
now Ehsenide f , and a little below it Patara, now Patera, 
remarkable for having been thought the residence of 
Apollo during one half the year. % East of Patara is 



■Hi! I I 1 




' I 






\ 



Vos lactam fluviis, et nemorum coma, 
Quaecunque aut gelido prominet Algido, 
Nigris aut Erymanthi 
Sylvis aut viridis Cragi. 



t 



Hor. Od. L 21, 5. 



its inhabitants made against Brutus, having set their city on fire, 

- 

and rushed into the flames with such resolution, that although he 
offered a reward for every Xanthian that was brought to him alive, 
he could only save 150, and those much against their will. 

X Hence Horace 

Phoebe, qui Xantho lavis amne crines. 



Delius et Patareus Apollo. 



Hor. Od. IV. 6, 26. 



Hor. Od. III. 4, 64 



Qualis libi Lyciam Xanthique fluenta 

Deserit, ac Delon macernam invisit Apollo. 



Virg, JEn. IV. I4S. 



I 



v 






- rii- 



i! 



_ 









I 
















■ 






ii 



D 






■ 






^^^^m 






^^^^V^^VAi 



204 



Myra, which still retains its name ; East of which was 
the Lycian mountain and city of Olympus, near the Pro- 
montorium Sacrum, and the Chelidonias Insulas, now 



Kel 



Mo 



now Fionda, where is a passage along the sea, so 
contracted by a steep ridge of 'Mount Taurus, called 
Climax, that the army of Alexander, which passed it in 
the winter, were in the utmost danger, being compelled 
to wade a whole day up to their middles in water. 





y 



East of Lycia are Pamphylia and Pisidia, two coun- 
tries whose respective limits we cannot ascertain, farther 

than by observing that Pamphylia lay on the coast, and 

Pisidia more inland* The first place of importance in 
Pamphylia is Perga, its antient metropolis, now Kara- 
hisar, or the black castle, a little inland, on the river 
Cestrus. South East of it was Aspendus, on the river 
Eurymedon ; South of Aspendus is Side, on the river 
Melas, and below it is Coracesium, where Pompey 
destroyed the formidable Isaurian and Cilician pirates, 



67, A.U. C.<687 



to 



th 



Phrygia, are the Solymi, against whom we are told in 
Homer, Bellerophon was sent, with the hope of his 
being killed in the combat. Their city was Termessus, 
in the indeterminate frontier of Pamphylia and Pisidia. 
-North East of it, in the interior of Pisidia, was Cremna, 



Keh 



><%s 



and South 



East of it was Selga, the greatest city of Pisidia, of 



Lacedaemonian origin. 



/ 



N 




^M 



\ 







205 





North East of Pisidia was Isauria; the inhabitants 
were a fierce and rapacious people, conquered by 
Publius Servilius, the Roman general, in the time of the 
Mithridatic war, who thence obtained the surname of 
Isauricus. Their capital was Isaura, on a lake now 
called Bei-sheheri. Below it, in the Eastern angle of 
Isauria, are two cities, mentioned in the Acts of the 



Derbe 



Darb 



Mou 



h 



«£ 



dag, or the pass of the high mountains 











t 






a 



i Hi 



I II 






V 

Cilicia is bounded by Pamphylia and Pisidia on the 
West, by Cappadocia, on the North, by Syria on the 
East, and by the Mediterranean on the South. It was 
divided into two parts ; the Western adjoining Pamphy- 
lia and Pisidia was extremely mountainous and rugged, 
hence called Cilicia Trachea, or the rugged Cilicia, which 

/ 

was subsequently considered as a continuation of Isauria ; 
and Cilicia Campestrk, or the level Cilicia. In Cilicia 
Trachea, the first place East of Pamphylia, o« the coast, 
is Selinus, now Selena, where the Emperor Trajan died* 
A.D. 117. South East of it Anemurium, on apromon- 

i 

tory opposite Cyprus, is still called Anemur, or Ane- 
murieh. North East of it is Seleucia (called Trachea, 
to distinguish it from other cities of that name,) on the 
river Calycadnus, now Kelikidni, or Yersak : it was an- 
tiently the principal city of Cilicia Trachea, and main- 
tains its rank under the name of Seletkeh. Inland, on 
the confines of Isauria, was a strong fortress called 
Homonada, now Ermcnah. 


















" 











206 















In Cilicia Campestris the first place that presents itself 



is Corycus 



now Curco, a place greatly celebrated 



amongst the antients for its saffron, and for a cave in- 
habited by the monstrous Titan Typhon. North East 



of it is Soli, 



decay 



Pompey, who established there the Cilician pirates, 
whom he admitted to a capitulation, and gave it the name 
of Pompeiopolis ; it stands on the river Lamus, whence 
the adjacent territory was called Lamotis, now Lamazo. 
A little inland is Anchiale, where was the sepulchre of 
Sardanapalusf , the last and most effeminate of Assyrian 
kings, who burnt himself, with his palace, B. C. 820 
At the Northern point of the shore, at the mouth of the 
river Cydnus, was the city of Tarsus, the birth-place of 
St. Paul, and so much celebrated for the learning and 
refinements of its inhabitants, as to be the rival of Athens 
and Alexandria. It was here that Alexander nearly lost 
his life, by bathing when hot in the cool stream of the 
Cydnus, and here that Cleopatra paid her celebrated 
visit to Antony, in all the pomp and pageantry of Eastern 
luxury, herself attired like Venus, and her attendants like 

■in a galley covered with gold, whose sails were 










/ 






* Ut cum scexia croco Cilici perfiisa recens est. 



Lucret. II. 42 1 . 



Corycloque croco sparsum stetit 



Hot. Sat ♦ II. .4/ 68 . 



t 



Et potiores 

Herculis SDrumnas ducat ssevosque labores 

Et Venere et ccenis et plumis Sardanapali, 



Juv. Sdt. X. 360 



His epitaph is said to have been to this effect : Edc, foibe, lude 



csetera nihili sunt 















i 




^Hff^^^M^^HM^^R^H^H^m 



V 



S 



20J ' 



of purple, the oars of silver, and cordage of silk, a fine 
description of which may be seen in Shakspear's play of 
Antony and Cleopatra, Act II. Scene 2. It is still called 



Tt 



J* 



East, which still preserves its name, on the Sarus, or 



Seihoun. 



Mount 



Taurus called the Pylae Cilicise, or gates of Cilicia, on the 
frontier of Cappadocia. South East of Adana, is the 
city of Mopsus, or Mopsuestia, now Messis, North of 
which is Anazarbus, or Anzarbe, of considerable impor- 
tance under the Eastern Emperors. A little South of it 
is Castabala, and below it Issus, now Aiasse, the ever- 



s 



Dai 



Ol. 111. 4. and 



most important victory obtained by the Roman Emperor 
Severus over his rival Niger, A. D. 191. The river 
Pinarius, which runs through the plain of Issus into the 

sou. At the point 



Deli 



Med 



Syriae, a very difficult and strong pass, on the frontiers of 
Syria and Cilicia, between Mount Amanus and the sea. 
We must not forget that Cicero was proconsul of Cilicia, 
and was vain enough to hope for the honours of a Roman 
triumph, in consequence of some successes obtained by 
himself and his lieutenant over the neighbouring bar- 
barous tribes. 


















* 










We are now to describe the two inland provinces of 

' Asia Minor, Ph rygia and Cappadocia, Phrygia received 

the appellation of Major to distinguish it from a part of 

Mysia, near the Hellespont, which was occupied by some 

Phrygians after the Trojan war, and from them called 



■ 



V 










■ * 
















■ 







20S 






B 



and Galatia, on the West by Mysia, Lydia, and Caria, 

I 

' on the South by Lycia, Pisidia, and Isauria, and on the 
East by Cappadocia. In the North, adjoining Bithynia 3 



is 



the 



D 



now EsJci-Shehr, below it is 



Kutaieh 



Xer; 



On the South- 



/ 



em confines of Lydia was Laodicea, now LadiJc^ and a 
little North of it is Colossae, now Chonos. In the South 
era angle, between Caria and Lycia is Cibyraf, a con si- 
derable trading city, now Buraz; above it, Eastward, 



LS 






Themisonium, or TesenL and above Themisonium, toth 
North, is Apamea Cibotus, antiently a very rich and flc - 
rishing city, which occupied the site of a more antient city 
called Celense; it is situated near the sources of the 

Maeander, on the river Marsyas, on whoie banks the cele- 
brated musician of that name is said to have been flayed 
alive by Apollo, and his skin was shown at Celsenae. North 
East of Apamea, on the confines of Galatia, was Synnada, 

whose marble was held in great estimation among the 
Romans; a little below it is the plain of Ipsus, where the 

famous battle was fought between the surviving generals 

of Alexander, Antigonus and his son Demetrius on the 
one side, and Lysimachus, Seleucus, Ptolemy, and Cas- 
sander on the other, in which Antigonus was defeated 



nd 



Below 



Ipsus was an Antiochia, called, for the sake of distinction^, 



Hence it appears that the term Phrygians is applied impro 

v 

perly, or by anticipation, to the Trojans in Virgil. 



■ 



t Cave ne portus occupet alter, 

Ne Cibyratica, ne Bithyna negotia perdas. 



Hor. EpkL L 6, 3>> 



I 












/■ 



■ 
















209 



Antiochia ad Pisidiam, or Antiochia near Pisidia; it is now 

called AJc-shehr, or the white city; and East of Ipsus is 



Thymb 



Anabasis. 



ttow TshaJdelu. The remaining Eastern part of Phrygia 
was called Lycaonia; the first place of importance in 
which was Laodicea Combusta, or Ladikie, and a little 
South East of it was Iconium, now Konieh, mentioned in 
the Acts of the Apostles, ch. xiii. 51. In the North of 
Lycaonia was a long and salt pool called Tatta Palus, 

How, Tuzla, or the salt. 

















Cappadocia was bounded on the West by Phrygia, on 
the North by Pontus, on the East by the Euphrates, 
and on the South by Phrygia. The Cappadocians are 
remarkable for having refused liberty when offered them, 
preferring to live under their kings, who seem to have had 
a number of slaves on the royal domains, somewhat like 

our feudal barons.* Cappadocia was divided into a num- 
ber of districts, which it is hardly necessary to enumerate. 
On the confines of Lycaonia, Archelais was a Roman 
colony, founded under the Emperor Claudius, now Erkeli. 

A little below it was Nazianzus, the birth-place of Gre- 
gory, one of the early fathers of the church, who died 
A. D. 389. East of it was Tyana, the birth-place of a 
celebrated impostor called Apollonius, whose life and 
miracles are recorded by Philostratus : he flourished 
A.D. 90 : it was in a district called Cataonia. North East 
of Tyana was Comana, celebrated for its temple of Bel- 
Wa, reputed the richest and most sacred in the East ; it 



* Hence Horace 
Mancipiis locuples eget sens Cappadocum rex. 



Hor. EpisL II. 6, 49. 



P 



•• 

















/ 



310 



was plundered by Antony. South East of which, on the 
confines of Cilieia^ was Cucusus, or Cocsan, a remarkably 

\ 

oloomy and retired place among the mountains of Taurus, 
to which the great St. Chrysostom was banished. Re- 
turning to the confines of Phrygia, in the North of Cap- 
padocia, is Nyssa, or Noris-shehr, 



the birth-place o' 



another Gr 
A. D. 396. 



M 



padocia, called Csesarea in the time of Tiberius, with 
the addition of ad Argaeum, to signify its position at the 
foot of Mons Argaeus, from which both the Euxine and 
Mediterranean seas m 

Kaisariehy and the mountain Argaeus is Argeh-Da 



& 



\ 



r 



Melas, now Korah 

s 

ve Halys rises not i 



rises m 



The North Eastern 



part of Cappadocia, on the Western bank of the 
Euphrates, was called Armenia Minor. Towards the 
confines of Pontus is Sebaste, now Sivas, more antiently 
called Cabira; it was taken from Mithridates by Pompey i 
and a little North East of it was an almost impregnable 
fortress called Novus, now Hesen-Now, where Mithridates 

icipal treasures. Still North of it is Nicopolis* 



pri 



Devriki) built by 



Mithridat 






treme North Eastern angle, on the confines of Pontus 
and Armenia Major, was Satala, now Arzingan, 






/ 









w 








mt 



I 



. 



CHAPTER XII. 











* i 



ORIENS. 



** 




remainder of Asia shall be described under 



the general title of Oriens, or the East 









Below Cilicia, on the Eastern coast of the 
Mediterranean, is Syria, but the coast itself is 
called Phoenicia, and below it Palaestina, or 

Holy Land, in the upper part of which was 
Galilaea, in the middle Samaria, and the lower 

■ 

Judaea. Below Judaea, at the top of the Sinus 
Arabicus, or Red Sea, was Arabia Petraea, or the 
Stony Arabia ; lower, towards the entrance of the 
Sinus Arabicus, was Arabia Felix, or the Fruitful, 
and the rest of the vast plain between the Arabian 
and Persian Gulphs, was Arabia Deserta, or the 
Desert Arabia. East of Arabia, near the mouth 

of the Euphrates, at the top of the Persian 









' 






N 






M 



















%w 



Gulp 



is Chaldea, and above it Babj 






Between the rivers Euphrates and Tig 



Mesopotamia 



on the East of the Tig 



is 

is 



Assyria, East of which is Media, and South of 



Per 



that part of Persia 



the Tig 



called Susiana. North of Mesopotamia is Arme 



Mai 



the East bank of the Euphrates 



Armenia Minor was on the Western bank of the 
Euphrates, being originally part of Cappadocia. 



Above Armenia, on 
Pontus Euxinus, was 

Iberia, and, still East 



the Eastern coast of th 
Colchis, and East of i 
on the shore of the Cas 






■ — 



pian, Albania. Above them, between the Palus 

Maeotis and Northern part of the Caspian, was 
Sarmatia Asiatica. East of Persia was Carmania, 

and South East of it Gedrosia, reaching nearly to 
the river Indus. The great country between the 
Indus and the Ganges, was India intra Gangem, 
and that East of the Ganges, which was very 

little known, was India extra Gangem, South 
East of which were the Sinae. East of Media 
was Aria and Bactriana. North of Media, at 
the Southern extremity of the Caspian, was 
Hyrcania and Parthia, and North of H} 



\ 



4- 



Chorasm 



the North East of whom were 



the Massagetae, and to the South East Sogdiana 
and still Eastward the Sacae. All the country tc 
the North, was called Scythia intra Imaum, 01 

the mountain Imaus, and Soutl 



Scvthia within 



\ 



IO 



I 



I 






/ 






fttk 







213 






somewhat 



fiast of it was Scythia extra Imaum, 

North East of which was Serica, which approach 
ed to the North Western frontier of China. 



i "k 











\ 



We may consider Syria, including the coasts of Phoe- 
nicia and Palsestina, as bounded by Cilicia on the 
North, by the Euphrates and Arabia on the East, by 
Arabia and Egypt on the South, and by the Mediterra- 
nean on the West. Immediately on the CiJician con- 

fines was Alexandria, now Alexandretta* or Seanderona. 
Below it, but somewhat inland, is the famous city of 
Antiochia, or Antioch, now almost depopulated,- and 
called Antakia. It was built by Seleucus Nicator, the 
son of Antiochus, who called it after his father's name. 

* 

Seleucus was one of the most powerful of Alexander's 
generals, who obtained Syria for his share in the dis* 
memberment of the Macedonian empire, and the 
kings of Syria, his descendants, were called Seleucidse* 
We learn from the Acts of the Apostles, ch. xi. 26, that 
the disciples were first called Christians in Antioch, and 

after the prevalence of Christianity it received the 
appellation of Theopolis, or the divine city. It was 



" 



built on the river Orontes, the only important river in 
Syria, if we except its Eastern boundary, the Euphrates* 
About five miles below it was a delightful grove and 
fountains, called Daphne, celebrated for the worship of 
Venus, and the licentiousness of its visitors, it is now 
called Beit el Ma, or the house of water. Near the 
mouth of the Orontes was Seleucia, founded by Seleu- 
cus Nicator, now Savedia y and below it was Mons Casius, 
said to be so high that the* sun-rising might be seen 

from the summit when the bottom of the mountain was 

P 3 



i 












<zn 










yet enveloped in darkness, 
the small river Marsyas, 



Considerably South, near 
which flows into a lake on the 
Orontes, was Apamea, now Famieh, an important city, 
founded by Seleucus Nicator, who kept five hundred 

elephants there ; and below it is Epiphaneia, or 






war 



Hamaft. South East of Epiphaneia is the city of Emesa, 
or Hems, where was a famous temple of Elagabalus, or 



the 



sun 



the priest of which, a youth of fourteen, was 



D 



218, and disgraced himself and the purple, during a 
reign of almost four years, by the most horrid cruelties 



and unheard-of licentiousness. 



West 



Heliopolis 



be 



'to 



th 



It is i 



m a v 



Hel 



i 



alley between 

two parallel ridges of mountains, Libanus and Antili- 
banus. This valley was called Anion, or the hollow, by 
the Greeks, and all this part of Syria was called Coele 
Syria, or the Hollow Syria. Almost South of 
lis, but with a little declination towards the East, was 
Damascus, or Demesk, one of the most celebrated cities 

of Asia, both in sacred and profane geography. It was 
beautifully situated in a valley, still called Goutek De- 

mesk, or the orchard of Damascus, and watered by a 



river called by the Greeks Bardine, or Chrysorrhoas, 



the golden stream, now Baradi. We shall next describe 
the interior of Syria to its Eastern boundary of the Eu- 
phrates. The Northern extremity of Syria, on the de- 



Mount 



£> 



the 



Euph 



place of Lucian. Somewhat South 



West of it is Pindeni 
sieved and taken by C 



- 

when proconsul of Cilicia, 












* 










■215 



J 






ifter a siege of twenty -five days, A. U. C. 702, B. C. 52. 
South East of it is Zeugma, the principal passage of the 
Euphrates ; South of which is Hierapolis, so called from 
its being the seat of worship of the Syrian goddess Ater- 
gatis; by the Syrians it was called Bambyce, or Mabog, 
now Menbigz. Near it was Batnae, now Adaneh, the de- 
lightful situation of which rivalled the Antiochian Daphne. 
South West of it was a city antiently called Chalybon, 
but by the Macedonians of Alexander, Bercea, now cele- 
brated under the modern name of Haleb, or Aleppo. 
South West of it was a city called Chalcis, now Old 

4 

Haleb, and North of it Cyrrhus, now Corns. These 
three cities gave the name of Chalybonites, Chalcidice, 

* 

and Cyrrhestica, to the surrounding districts. Consider- 
ably to the East of Bercea is Resapha, which preserves 
its name ; and South East of it are the celebrated fords 
of the Euphrates at the city of Thapsacus, now El-Der* ' 
This ford was first passed by Cyrus, in his expedition 

_ 

against Artaxerxes, immortalized by Xenophon, B. C 

afterwards by Darius, after his defeat by 
Alexander, at Issus, B. C. 333, 01. Ill, 4; and near 

three years after by Alexander, in pursuit of Darius, 
previous to his final and decisive victory of Arbela. 

Below it is Orouros, or Gornr, which was fixed by 




i n 






401, Ol. 94, 4 



Pompey as the boundary of the Roman Empire, when 
he reduced Syria to a Roman province. To the West, 
about midway between Orouros and Emesa, in the vast 
desert which connects Syria with Arabia, is Palmyra, 
or Tadamora (the city of palm trees,) said to have been 
founded by Solomon, now Tadmor, in the wilderness. 
It 



I 



h< 



was a 



most powerful city under its celebrated Queen 
Zenobia, the wife of Odenatus. She opposed the Em- 
peror Aurelian, in the plains of Syria, at the head of 

p 4 









4 



/ 






216 



700,000 men, and had nearly defeated him, but was over- 
thrown and carried captive to Italy, A. D. 273, where 
she had large possessions assigned to her near Tibur. 
She was no less an accomplished than brave princess, and 
had for her secretary the celebrated Longinus, the 
author of the well-known treatise on the Sublime. 



That part of Syria which occupied the coast of the 
Mediterranean, with the exception of the Northern dis- 
trict, was called Phoenicia, and is most justly memora- 

♦ 

ble for having made the earliest progress in civilization 
and the arts. Navigation was invented and greatly 
cultivated by the Phoenicians, who are thought to have 
visited the Scilly Islands at a period unknown to history. 
The Greeks ascribe the origin of letters to Cadmus, a 

1 

Phoenician ; and we know from the sacred books that 

■ ■ - % 

Tyrian, that is, Phoenician artists, presided over the most 
glorious building recorded in Scripture, the Temple of 
Solomon. Nearly opposite the Eastern promontory of . 
Cyprus wasLaodicea, now Ladikieh j below it is Aradus, 
now Ravad ; below it is Tripolis, now Taraboli, or 7W- 
poli ; below which is the little river Adonis, now Nahr 

Ibrahim, the streams of which, at the anniversary of 
the death of Adonis, which was in the rainy season, were 
tinged red with the ochrous particles from the mountains 



blood 



* The story is told \>y Milton : 



— Thammuz came next behind, 

Whose annual wound in Lebanon allur'd 
The Syrian damsels to lament his fate 
In amorous ditties all a summer's day, 

While smooth Adonis from his native rock 



Ran purple to the sea, supposed with blood 



Thamm 



Far. Lp$t) JBeoi I 



\_r 







t 



217 






Below it is Berytus, now Bend ; below it is Sidon, so 

renowned in sacred and profane history, now Sayda s 
and a little below it Sarepta, the scene of Elijah's mira- 
cles ; and still lower the city of Tyre, now Sur, so greatly 
celebrated by all writers, sacred and profane. Tyros 
was a colony of Sidonians, founded before the records of 
history, and consisted of two cities, one on an island, 
and the other, called Palaetyros, on the shore; the two 
were about nineteen miles in circumference, but Tyros 

alone was not more than four. It was taken after a 
siege of seven months, and a most obstinate resistance, 
attended with innumerable difficulties, by Alexander, 
Aug. 20, B. C. 332, Ol. 112, 1, who thus fulfilled the 
many predictions of its destruction delivered by the pro- 
phets in the scriptures : it is now in ruins. 



r 






Palaestina, or Palestine, derived that name from the 



Philistsei, who inhabited 



i of Abraham, ai 
death of our Red 



we are accustomed to designate it by the more religious 

appellation of the Holy Land. It is bounded on 



the 



North by Phoenicia and Goelesyria, on the East by 






Deserta 



the West 






Sea 



Mediterranean, called in the Bibl 
vill be most convenient to invert th 



order of time, and first describe it as it existed in the 
time of four Saviour, and then to state briefly the settle- 



ment 



under Josh 



The 



nver 



Mount Herm 



lake called 



LaJce of Gennesaretfi, or Sea of Tiberias 








■ 



* 









/ 










218 



from its Southern extremity passes through a long, spa- 
cious, and fertile valley called Aulon, or Magnus Campus, 
at the end of which it enters a much larger lake called 
thP Lacus Asphaltites, or Mare Mortuum, in the sacred 

Sea or Salt Sea. On the Western 



Dead 



Jordan 
Samaria 



on the Eastern side of Jordan was Peraa. In a work 
like this we can only take a brief review of the principal 
cities of this most interesting country. In the kingdom 
of Judaea, about midway between the Mediterranean and 
the Northern extremity of the Dead Sea, stood the 



H 



Melch 



Vino* It was so™^ 1 "™*^ rnlTprl Jehus, from having been 



possessed 



e 



Jebusites, a Canaanitish people, from 



whom it was taken by David, and made his residence. 
It was built on several hills, the largest of which was 

which formed the Southern part of the 
A valley towards the North separated this from 



Mount 



city 



/ 



Acra, the second, or lower city, on the East of which 

was Mount Moriah, the site of the temple of Solomon. 
Still North of which was Bethesda where was the pool 
at which the cripple was healed by our Saviour, as re- 

+ 

lated in the Gospel of St. John, Chapter v. North 
East of Mount Moriah was the Mount of Olives, 

_ 4 

lying beyond the brook and valley of Kedron, which 
bordered Jerusalem on the East ; on the South was the 

1 



Hinnom, and at the North was Mount 



the 

Jer 



scene 



of the crucifixion of our Lord : South of 
was Bethlehem. Jerusalem was utterly de- 



• 







\ ■«. 



219 



._-. 



troyed 




Titus, according to the prophecy of our 



Saviour, Sept. 8, A. D. 70. 






o 



Ph 






h 



names, and above that Azbtus, or Asdod ; still North of 
this is Ekron, which preserves its name, and a little 



Gath 



Re- 



turning again to the South of Judasa, which in the time 
of the second temple was called Daromas, now Darom % 
extending to the North and North West of Idumsea, or 
the antient Edom, we find Gerara, or Gerar, and Bersabe, 
or Beersheba, the well of the oath, so often mentioned in 
scripture as the Southern limit of the country possessed 
by the children of Israel, North East of it was Hebron, 



n < 



the original name of which we find from the books of 
Moses was Kirjath-Arba. This was the burial-place of A 
Abraham and his family, and is now called Cabr Ibrahim^ 

t 

or the tomb of Abraham. North West of Jerusalem 
was Emmaus, recorded in sacred history as the place to' 
which the two disciples were going to whom our Saviour 
shewed himself after his resurrection, and in profane, aft 
the place where Vespasian defeated the revolted Jews. 



D 



of Jerusalem was Bethel : a 



Jericho 



Dead 



denv and Hie- 
Below Jericho, 

Juda&i 



& 



and Idumea * 



* Primus Idumaeas referara tibi, Mantua, palmas. 



■ * 



/ 



pinguib 



Virg. Georg. HI. 1 2 



Hor. Epist. II, 2, 1 3 4 



' 




\ 



1 



1 




















\ 



















■' 



I 









r 



,i 




/ 







220 






Samaria and Galilee lie above Judaea. In the former, 
the original royal city was Sichem, North of Jerusalem, 



afterwards 



Nabolus; it lay in a 



\ 



alley inclosed by two mountains, 



Mo 



Ebal and 



Mount 



of the Samaritans. The city of Samaria itself had been 
destroyed by the Asmonean princes, and was fortified and 
embellished by Herod, who called it Sebaste, in honour 
of Augustus : it w r as North of Sichem. But the principal 



West 



Megidd 



the seat of the Roman governors ; it was antiently called 
Turris Stratonis, but was made a magnificent city and 
port by Herod, who called it Caesarea, in honour of 

Augustus Caesar. Considerably below it, on the coast, 
was Joppa, now Jqfa 9 known also in profane history, or 
fable, as the spot where Andromeda is said to have been 
chained to a rock to be devoured by a sea monster, from 
which she was rescued by Perseus. Inland, East of 
^Joppa, but within the Judssan frontier, is Lydda 3 now 



Diospoli 



Arimathea 






Above Samaria is Galilee, the lower part of which was 
called Galilaea Inferior, being principally inhabited by 
Jews, the upper part, or Galilaea Superior, adjoining 
Ccelesyria, was called Galilaea Gentium, or Galilee of 
the Gentiles, or foreign nations. At the entrance into 
Galilee from Samaria was the city of Jesrael, situated in 

a spacious plain, to which it gave name, and which is 
still called the Plain of Esdrelon ,• North 
along the coast, is Mount Carmel. At tl 



West 



North 










f 



. 







• 






\ 



221 






Mount Carmel, is the brook Kison, which rises in TVToiint 

Tabor, or Itabyrius, and flows into the sea a little below 
Ptolemais, so called from the Ptolemies, kings of Egypt, 
but antiently Aco, and so memorable in the time of the 
crusades, under the name of Acre, for the exploits of 
our king Richard the First, and in our own time for the 
defeat of Buonaparte by Sir Sidney Smith, East of 
Ptolemais was Cana of Galilee, and Southward of Cana 
was the strong city of Sepphoris, afterwards called Dio 

Csesarea, now Sefouri ,- South of it was Nazareth, and 
a little South East of Nazareth was Mount Tabor, 
thought by some to have been the scene of the Transfi- 
guration. South East of "Mount Tabor is Bethsan or 
Scythopolis, now Baitsan ; it was the chief of the cities 
ofDecapolis, or the ten confederate cities, which being 
not inhabited by Jews, formed a confederation for mutual 
protection against the Asmonean princes of Judea* 
Between Mount Tabor and Scythopolis was Endor, near 
Mount Hermon, which must not be confounded with 
the great range of the same name East of the Jordan. 
The city Tiberias, so named by Herod Antipas in honour 

of Tiberius Csesar, stood on the western shore of the 

which is also called the Sea 






lake to which it gave name, 

of Gennesareth, from apleasani 

near Capernaum, at the No 

lake. * A little North of Tiberius was M 



V 

extremity of the 



S 



West 



of which was Beth ulia, where the Jews were delivered 
by Judith from the power of Holofernes. Capernaum 
stood about midway between Bethsaida, to the South, 
and Chorazin. upon the Northern point of the 



lake* 



* Muttb. xi.-SI 
















: : Wm 






\ 
















• 
















Nor 



;h West of the lake is Jotapata, where the Jewish 
historian Josephus sustained a siege against Vespasian. 

i 

On the Northern confines of Palestine was the district 
of Tracbonitis, in which was the city of Paneas, antiently 
Laish, which Herod's son Philip called Caesarea, and 
which received the addition of Philippi to distinguish it 
from the Caesarea already noticed, A little 
Dan, the Northern boundary of the kingdor 
as Bethel was on the South, 



We 



2 

The country on the East of Jordan, between the two 
lakes w r as called Peraea, perhaps from nspuv, beyond, ex- 
tending from the brook Arnon, which flows into the 
North Eastern end of the Dead Sea, to the mountains 

of Galaad, near the sea of Tiberias. At some distance 



/ 



from Jordan, and almost opposite to Jericho, are Mounts 
Abarim and Nebo, from which Moses had a view of the 
Promised Land. A little East of Mount Nebo is Hesbon, 
and North West of it the very strong fortress of Ama- 
thus, or Assalt, commanding the plain of Anion, or 
El"Gour 9 along the banks of the Jordan, above which is 

Bethabara. North East of Peraea is the district called 

Galaaditis, from Mount Galaad, in which, on the brook 
Jabbok, is to be found Ramoth, or Ramoth Gilead. 
North of Galaaditis is Batansea, or Batania, the antient 
territory of Og, kingofRasan, Soiith of which lay the 
possessions of Sihon, king of the Amorjtes. A strong 
fortress called Gaulon gave the name of Gaulonites to 
the Eastern shores of the lake Gennesareth, at the 
Southern extremity of which was the impregnable fortress 
of Gamala ; and above it Gadara, or the country of the 
Gadarenes, on the torrent Hieromax, or Yermak, m 



/ 



^s 



\ 






/ 



I 



N 





228 



s 



ignalized by the fatal defeat of the Christian forces by 
the Saracens, under Abu Obeidah, November 9, A. B. 

636. East of Gadara is Adra, or Edrei, now Adreat. 
North of the lake, Mount Hermon separates Palestine. 



properly so called, from the adjacent countries of Tra- 
chonitis (a rugged district, as its name imports, ad- 
joining Coelesyria), Itureea, and Auranitis, the chief 
city of which, Bostra, now Bosra, was the metropolis 
of a province formed under the name of Arabia, Below 

Auranitis was Ammonites, or the land of the children of 

Ammon, whose chief city was Rabbath Araraon, called 
afterwards Philadelphia, but now Amman; and below 



Moab 



Moab, the chief cifr 
ti Moab, now Maab 



El-Raba, and a little above it Aroer, on the 



river 



Arnon. 



x 



i 

We shall now briefly review the situation of the tribes 

of Israel when settled under Joshua. The largest portion 



Judah, alone the West 



West 



Med 



North 



the smaller tribe of Benjamin, in 
which was Jerusalem ; and West of Benjamin, the still 
smaller tribe of Dan, reaching to the coast, having the 
Philistines to the South. Above Dan and Benjamin was 
a considerable district, from the coast to Jordan, the 

portion of Ephraim ; above Ephraim, extending in • a 

isseh. The coast 
then became that of Syro-Phoenicia, along which, but 
rather inland lay the tribe of Asser, • forming a Western 
barrier to the three following tribes: — Issachar (which 



Man 



X 










■ 



I 






II 










\ 



' 















•Ml 






V 












f 














00^ 



C 



— 

lay above Manasseh, reaching to the Southern extremity 

of the sea of Tiberias), Nephtali, and Zabulon. ""* 



The 



We 



f 



as Dan, considerably North of it, was occupied by the 



Nepht: 



and 



Asser lav the tribe of Zabulon. The whole Eastern side 



>f Jord 



i 



• 



oerias 



was occupied by the other half tribe 



Ma 



nasseh; below it was Gad, reaching about half way 



I 

Moab at the North 



Reuben, reachin 




OS 



A 



These twt> tribes and half were the 



first settled, though their warriors crossed over Jordan 
to assist their brethren in subduing the Canaanites on the 

Western side. ' 






: 






X 







\ 



/ 









\ 






s 






r 



y-^j t**» %J 



CHAPTER XIII. 






■ •:' 







I ( 



■ S| 





















'i l 




xx more succinct description may suffice in a work like 



this for the remainder of Asia. 




Arabia is divided into Arabia Petraea, Arabia Felix, 

and Arabia Deserta. Arabia Petraea extends from the 
South of Holy Land along the two gulphs which form 
the extremity of the Sinus Arabicus, being bordered by 
Egypt on the West, and Arabia Deserta on the East. 
That part of it which borders on Judaea was called 
Idumaea, or Edom, and was possessed by the posterity 
of Esau. The Arabians in general recognize for their an- 

cestors Jectan, or Kahtan, the son of Eber, and Ismael, 
the son of Abraham by his concubine Hagar. In Arabia 
Petraea were Mount Sinai and Horeb, between the two 

gulphs, but nearer the Eastern gulph, which branches 
from the extremity of the Red Sea, and which was called 

iElanites, from the city of iElana, or Ailath, at its 
Northern point. The other gulph was called the Sinus 
Heroopolites or the Gulph of Suez, from thecity of that 
name built on it. The Nabathasi were a nation of Arabia 
Petrasa, deriving their name from Nebaioth, the son of 
Ismael. Here was Madian, the country of Jethro, the 
father-in-law of Moses. Towards Dirae, or the Straights 
of Babel Mandeb, were the Sabaei, in Arabia Felix, or 
Yemen^ East of which is the thurifera regio. The best 



i 



t> 






2 


































(, 





















226 






* 

frankincense being white, in Arabic Liban, Libanos 
also became a Greek name for it, corrupted among the 
modern merchants into Olibanum. A little island, South 
of this region, called Dioscoridis Insula, is now Socotora 






whence the best aloes are brought. Off the coast of 
Arabia Deserta, in the Sinus Persicus, was the little 
island of Tylos, or Bahram, celebrated for its pearl 

fishery. 

At the top of the Persian Gulph, on each side of the 

Euphrates, is Babylonia ; the part nearest the gulph is 



Chaldaea 
whole co 



sometimes taken for the name of the 

It is properly called Irak, a name which 

has extended to the adjacent country of Mesopotamia 

and part of Media, now Irak Arabi. The principal 

city of Babylonia was Babylon, the most antient in the 






ght to have 



with Nimrod 



It 



is near a 



place 



now 



called 



Hellah, on the East bank of the Euphrates, about 47 
miles South of Bagdat. It was surrounded with a pro- 
digious strong wall, said to have been 480 stadia in 
circumference (an exaggeration probably for the sur- 



g re g 



and 200 cubits high. It was 



built by the celebrated Q 



Semiramis, of bricks 



baked in the sun, and cemented with bitumen, abound- 

It was the residence afterwards of 



June 



and 



ing in the country. 

Nebuchadnezzar, wl 

C. 587, and transplanted the Jews to this country 

was taken by Cyrus, B. C. 538, according to the pre- 

dietion of the Jewish prophets, after he had diverted the 

waters of the Euphrates into a new channel, and marched 



y 



the antient 






/ 



x* 






ii 



w 









227 






of the river. The city is said to have been so large that the 
inhabitants at the opposite extremity did not know of its 
fate till the next evening. However, when we consider 
that the Eastern cities contained enclosures for the pas- 
ture and protection of cattle during a siege, there is not 
reason to think that the inhabited part of Babylon was 

i 

larger than London. A full account of the siege is to be 






seen in Herodotus. Babylon also is memorable for the 

death of Alexander the Great, April 21, B.C. 323. It 

is now in ruins ; but the vestiges of the temple of Belus 
remain. After the death of Alexander, Seleucus Nicato 

founded a city called Seleucia a little above it, on the 
Tigris, which he designed for the capital of the East, 
and the kings of Parthia founded one on the other side 
called Ctesiphon, which they made their ordinary resi- 

dence : they are now called Al Modain, or the two cities, 
A little below Ctesiphon is the river Gyndes, which was 
an impediment to Cyrus in his march to Babylon, who 

lost his favourite horse there: in 'revenge he divided it 

into 360 channels, so that it might be forded only knee 

deep. The lower part of the Tigris, after its juncture 

with the Euphrates, was called Pasitigris, now Shcctul- 
Arab 9 or the river of the Arabs. The Chaldaeans or 

Babylonians, as is well known, were greatly addicted 

to astrology. * 



■ 



* Tu ne quaesieris, scire nefas, quern mihi quern tibi 
Finem Dii dederint, Leuconoe, nee Babylonios 



Tentaris numeros. 



Hor. Od.I. 11 1, 



Principis angusta Caprearum in rupe sedentis 
Cum grege Chaldaeo.) 



« 2 



■ 

Juv. Sat. X. 95 



V 







. U! 1 






1 r 

























< i 






1 I 



I'll 


































228 



Above Babylon is Mesopotamia, lying, as its name 
imports, between the two rivers, the Euphrates, which 
divides it from Syria, on the West, and the Tigris, 
which separates it from Assyria, on the East. Towards 
the Southern boundary of Babylonia, the rivers ap- 
proach each other so as to make it considerably nar- 
rower than on the confines of Armenia, its northern 
frontier. The lower part of Mesopotamia is now Irak 
Arabi, the upper Diar Bekr. The North Western part 
of Mesopotamia was called Osroene, from Osroes, a 
prince who wrested from the Seleucidas a principality 

Its capital was called by the 

West 

lied 



here, about B. C. 120. 



Macedonians Edessa, now Orha, or Orfc 



/ 



of Edessa, at the pass of Zeugma, was a city ca 

Apamea, and South East of it Carrhae, a very antienf 
city, the Charran of scripture, from which Abraham 
departed for the land of Canaan, and the fatal spot at 
which Crassus *, the Roman triumvir, lost his life, in 
his expedition against the Parthians, who cut off his 
head, and poured melted gold down his throat, B. C. 

53, A. U. C. 701. The inhabitants were greatly addicted 

to Sabaism, or the worship of the host of heaven, par- 
ticularly the moon, under the masculine denomination 



Deus 



- 



r 



Hat 



Descendin 



opposite to Thapsacus in Syria, we find Circesium, on 
the river Chaboras : the emperor Dioclesian fortified this 
city, and made it a frontier of the empire ; it is now 



Kirkesieh 



Xenophon 



# 



Miserando funere Crassus 



Assyrias Latio maculavit sanguine Carras 



/ 



Lucan I. 104. 



t 








s 




%m 



^^H \ i 



■ 



* 

dttian of Cyrus the Chaboras is called the Araxes. A 
little below Circesium is the tomb of the younger 
Gordian, who was killed there by Philip, who himself 

* 

succeeded to the Roman empire, A. D. 245. Below it, 
at a bend of the Euphrates, is Anatho, or Anah : 
below this, on the confines of Babylonia, near a canal 
which joined the Euphrates and Tigris, was the celebrated 
plain of Cunaxa, where Cyrus was defeated and slain by 
Artaxerxes, B. C. 401, OL,94, 4. From this spot the 

* 

1 0,000 Greek auxiliaries of Cyrus commenced their im- 
mortal retreat, of which so interesting a history is given 
by Xenophon, who was himself one of their generals, and 
ultimately their chief. Nearly opposite to Edessa, but 



T 



■a 



the 



Mesopot 



tier of the Roman empire, till it was ceded to Sapor, 
king of Persia, by the treaty which was made after the 



D 



now Singar. 



/ 



Above Mesopotamia is Armenia, bounded towards the 

South also by Assyria, on the West by the Euphrates, 
which separates it from that part of CappadoCia called 

Armenia Minor, after which a ridge of Anti- Taurus sepa- 
rates it from Pontus ; on the North it is bounded by 
Colchis and Iberia, and on the East by the barbarous na- 
tions North of Media. It was a province particularly fluc- 
tuating between the Persians and Romans, lying as it were 



whi 
•Mou 



ofth 



or Roumelia. East 



is a district called Pha- 



2 3 






ilu 









4 | 









' 


















/ 







\ ' 






• 



230 



r 



siaim 



through which the Araxes *, or 



Xenophon 



calls it, the Phasis, flows, giving name to the country : 
the beautiful birds which we call pheasants still preserve 



the 



The 



West 



We 



Mou 



the Syrian frontier. 



Still proceeding Eastward, along 



Artaxataf 



city. Returning Westward, between the principal stream 



Mount 



M 



called Sophene, now Zqph. In this district, a little above 

Mons Masius, was Amida, now Kara- Amid, or Diar- 

Bekr, a celebrated city in the lower Roman empire. 
South East of it, on a hill a little above the Tigris, was 
Tigranocerta J, built 



war 



■» • 



it was taken by Lucullus, 



M 

foitnd 



great 



treasure there. "W 




;■ 



# 



- Pontem indignatus Araxes. 



Virg. JEn. VIII. 728 



t 



Juv. Sat. II. 170 



t 



soldier of Lucullus, who, having been robbed of his accumulated 



savings, 



Presidium regale loco dejecit, ut aiunt, 
Summe munito et multarum divite rerum. 



\ 



Hor. Epist. II. 2, 30. 
But I cannot think this interpretation sufficiently authorized by 

the words of the poet. 

§ Horace, speaking of the conquests of Augustus, says 



Nova 



\ 



Cantemus Augusti tropaea 
Caesaris, et rigidum Niphaten 



I . 









\ 









g31 



a very lofty mountain in Armenia, is thought to be the 
Ararat on which the Ark rested after the Deluge. 



Colchis, the celebrated scene of the fable of the Golden 

7 

Fleece and the Argonautic expedition, is bounded by 
Armenia on the South, by the head of the Euxine on 
the West, by Iberia on the East, and by Mount Caucasus 
on the North : it is now called Mengrelia. Its principal 
river was the Phasis, or Fasz-Rione, preserving both its 
own name and that of the Rheon, a stream which flows 

into it. Its principal cities were iEa, on the river Phasis, 
and Cyta, within land, where Medea was born, who is 



hence called Cytaeis, 



# 



Iberia, now called Imeriti and Georgia, is bounded on 
the West by Colchis, on the North by Mount Caucasus, 
on the East by Albania, and on the South by Armenia. 
This country and Albania contained some very strong 
passes, which were fortified against the inroads of the 

m^ XTnrthprn and still more barbarous tribes of Mount 



/ 



Caucasus ; that in Iberia was called Pylae Caucasias, or 
the gates of Caucasus, that in Albania, between Caucasus 
and the Caspian, was called Pylae Albaniae, or Caspiae, 

which was afterwards the celebrated strong city of 

Derbend. The country beyond Caucasus, between the 
Palus Maeotis and the Caspian, was called Sarmatia Asia- 
tica, and was inhabited by barbarous and roving tribes, 
who, after the lapse of ages, seem but little civilized. 



t 



Medumque flumen gentibus additum 
Victis minores volvere vortices. 






Hor. Od. 11,9, 18. 



* Non hie herba valet, non hie nocturna Cytseis. 



8 4 



Propert. JEleg. II. 4 




























If Ml ' 









. 



























\ 




M 



N 



282 









Immediately above the Sinus Persicus, or Persian 

Gulph, is Persia, bounded by it on the South, by the 
Tigris and Babylonia on the West, by Media and 
Assyria on the North, and by Carmania on the East. 
It is called in Scripture Paras, and preserves that name 
in its modern term of Tars. That part of it which 

>nia is called Susiana, which was 






approaches Babylonia is 

divided into two districts, the larger, to the North, 

* 

called Elymais, from the Elymsei, who inhabited it, and 
the more Southerly and maritime, but smaller district, 
Cissia, in which was its capital Susa, or Susan, a word 
signifying, in the language of the country, Lilies ; it is 
now Suster. This was generally the winter residence of 
the Persian kings, who in summer retired to the cooler 
situation of Ecbatana. The river Eulaeus runs through 

the middle of this country, called Ulai in the Scriptures, 
and known to the classical reader by the name of 
Choaspes*, as the stream whose waters were so excellent 
that the kings of Persia would drink no other. In Persis, 
or Persia properly so called, was Persepolis, burnt by 



and 



nown 



many 



Below 



called Pasargada, where was the tomb of Cyrus ; it is 



Kuru North 



Media 



Kerman 



West 



Mare 



The limit between it 



Regia lympha Choaspes 



Tibull I. i^i^Q 









%33 






ad Persia was fixed by Alexander's admiral, Nearcluis, 
at the island of Catsea, or Kais % in the Persian Gulph 
remarkable as a great emporium of commerce till it was 
superseded by Ormus, or Ormuz, a little East of it. The 
capital of Carmania was Carmana, or Kerman, South 
East of Persepolis. 



Gedrosia is bounded by Carmania on the West, Aria 
on the North, the Indus on the East, and the Erythraeum 

* 

Mare on the South. It is now called MeJcran. In pass- 
ing through this country the army of Alexander underwent 



very great hardships from want of provisions and water, 
and from columns of moving sand, which had previously 
destroyed the armies of Semiramis and Cyrus* Its prin- 
cipal city was Pura, now Fohrea. 



r 



Mesop 



West 



Media 



It is 



Kurdistan, from the Carduch 
1 narts. between Media and Am 



a and Armenia. Itwas 

the most antient of the four great empires of the world, 
and had for its capital Ninus, or Nineveh, so often 
mentioned in Scripture, founded by Ninus, on the Tigris. 
Nearly East of Ninus was Arbela, or Erbil; and on the 
opposite side of the Zabata, or Zab 9 was the fatal plain of 
Gaugamela, where the third and decisive battle was fought 
between Alexander and Darius, Oct. 2, B. C. 331, 01. 
1 12, 2, which put an end to the Persian empire. Gauga- 



thi 



called the battle of Arbela. 



N 













■ 














III 



: 






i i 












\ 









\ 






■ M 



i: 



\ aim' 






_ 



L 



234 



Media 

;parated 



West 



h 



the East by Aria, and on the South by Persia. Media 
is now called Irak-Ajami, or Persian Irak, to distinguish 
it from Irak-Arabi, or Babylonian Irak. That part of 
Media which borders on Armenia was called Atropatene, 
from Atropates, a satrap of this province, who erected 

i 

it, after the death of Alexander, into an independent 
kingdom. Its capital was Gaza; or Gazaca, now called 



TebriS) or Tauris. 



Med 



Hamedan 



The Persian, and afterwards the Parthian 



monarchs, made Ecbatana their summer residence, to 
avoid the excessive heat of Susa and Ctesiphon. On 



monument, said to be that 

called Bagistana. 



Hamedan 

>f Semirai 



\ 



East of Ecbatana was Ragae, or 
in the history of Tobit. Under the 
Parthian dynasty of the Arsacidas, it was Arsacia, but is 
now called Rei. 



Rag 



/ 



Aria was properly a particular province, but the nam© 

was given to a country of large extent, answering to the 
present Khorasjn> comprising several provinces, and 
bounded on the 
Hyrcania and Pa: 

the South by Carmania and Gedrosia. The capital of 
Aria was Artacoma, now Herat* on the Western side, 



West bv M 



on the North 




Hi 



From hence 



Alexander passed Southward to the country of the 
Zarangae, or Drangae, whose capital, Propthasia, is still 
called Zarang. Below them the Ariaspse, who were 






v 



• ' 



I 












1 
fa 

it 

I 



M! 






s 



235 



» 



lied Euergetae 



Dergasp 



Below these 



H. J 

is Arachosia, now Arrokhage, from which region Alex- 
ander crossed the Paropamisus, one of the highest moun- 



Macedonians 



order to flatter him, called it Caucasus. 



Media 



Hyr 



same name, now Jorjan, or Corcan. The Eastern part 
of Hyrcania was Parthiene, the original seat of a nation 
which under the name of Parthians, founded an ex ten- 



*-% 



re over Persia, Media, 
Nissea, still called Nesa 



Its principal 



West 



tains of Paropamisus on the South, a chain called the 



M 



The capital was Zariaspa Bactra, now Balk. East of it 
was the rock of Aornos, thought to be impregnable j it 



3 



Nor 



Koh 



The river Oxus, or Gihon, separates Sogdiana from 
Bactriana. The country is now Al-Sogd ; in which was 
Maracanda, the celebrated Samarcand of Tartar history, 
which was the royal city of Timur-leng, whose name has 
been corrupted by European writers into Tamerlane. 



East of it was Petra, a strong rock besieged 
der 



or 



Termid* 



North of it was 



-named 



Kaoi 
Still 



ako 



* 



it 















Mi 






it 






I 












I 



! 










* r 






' 










ii 









i 



i\ i . 



I 













^ 



onthe Jaxartes, Shion, or Sir, wa§ a city called Cyros- 
chata, built by Cyrus, and refounded by Alexander under 

The 

Chorasmii, or Kharasm, were between Sogdiana and the 
North Eastern shore of the Caspian; their capital was 
Gorgo, now Urgheng. 



■ 

the name of Alexandria Ultima, now Cogend. 



A. 









The country to the North of these already described 
is called Scythia, or Tartary. It was divided into Scythia 
intra Imaum, or Scythia on the West of the Imaus, and 
Scythia extra Imaum, to the East of it. The ridge of 
mountains called Imaus is connected with the Paropami- 
sus, which separates Bactriana from India, which chain 

is called in the Indian geography, Imeia Pambadam. 
To the South East this chain takes the name of Emodus. 
Another chain of the Imaus runs North East, dividing 
Scythia intra and extra Iraaum in this direction also, 
The principal Scythian nation were the Massagetse, or 
Great Getes, in Turkistan, North of Bactriana ; South 

of whom, to the East of Sogdiana, were the Sacse, now 
Saketa. 



North East of Scyth 



Gete. 



Mon 



The 



principal nation in Serica were the Issedones, who had 
two towns called Issedon; but their most interesting 



Kan 



China. 



Shefi. 





This city has been erroneously confounded 



of 



the 



17 

















■ - 



237 









, 



diate knowledge of China properly so called. They 
knew, indeed, by name, a nation called Sinae, East of 
Serica, who were probably settled in the province of 

■ 

Shensi, the most Westerly province of China, imme- 
diately adjoining the great wall, in which there was a 
kingdom called Tsin^ which probably gave name to these 
Northern Sinas, who are not to be confounded with 
the Sinee, hereafter to be mentioned in the description' 
of India. * 



It remains only to give some account of India, in 

which we shall briefly notice a few remarkable positions. 
India derived its name from the river Indus, or Sind, 



We 



The great stream 



• 

of the Ganges divided it into two parts, called India 



West 



India extra Gangem, or India to the East of it. 



Below the Paropamisus was Alexandria, founded by 
Alexander, now Kandahar. South East of it was Taxila, 
now Attoclc, and above it Aornos, now Renas, on the river 

Suastus, or Sweat, a fortress thought to be impregnable, 

from the capture of which Alexander assumed to himself 

so much glory. I 

across the Hydaspes, or Shantrou, to give Porus battle, 
and on its banks he built the cities of Nicaea in honour 
of his victory, and Bucephala in memory of his horse 
Bucephalus ; he then crossed the Acesines, or Ravei, the 



From Taxila Alexander advanced 



* But we learn from the Chinese Historians, on the authority of 
M. De Guignes, that An-toun, i. e. Antoninus, Emperor of the West, 
sent a commercial Embassy to Oan»ti, who reigned in China about 

* 

A. D. 150. 










I 




























ti 






i 



























■ 






238 



Hydrastes 



Hyph 



Th 



five rivers give to the adjacent country the name of 



Pendjab. 



Hyph 



erected altars in memory of his progress Eastward, and 
wept that he could advance no farther, f Towards the 
mouth of the Acesines he found the warlike nations of the 

■ 

Oxydracae and Malli, and then, descending the Indus, 
came to the royal city of the Sogdi, now BuJcor ; having 
then visited the city of Patala, now Tatia, and the mouths 
of the Indus, he returned through Gedrosia to Babylon. 



Many 



H 






which is unnecessary in a work of this nature. The pro- 
montory of Comaria was unquestionably Cape Comorin> 
andTaprobane was the island of Ceylon ; the Maldivies also 

antients. The river Chaberis is the 






the 



modern Cavery : and North of it Arcati regia, is Arcot. 
Maliarpha is Maliapur, near Madras. 



The Magnum 



Ostium of the Ganges was the Hugley ; and to the West 

of it, in the interior, was Palibothra, perhaps Patna, or 

Allahabad, though this latter city seems to correspond 

with Helabas, and is venerated among the Indians as the 
traditional residence of the first parent of mankind. In 



s 



* According to Major Rennel and Robertson, higher authorities 
in this case than D' Anville, the Hydaspes is now the Betak, and the 
Hyphasis the Biah or Bajah. 

•J- Yet Timur-leng in this respect surpassed Alexander, for he 
boldly entered the Desert, and took the city of Delhi; but Timur 
was familiar with Deserts. Indeed Seleucus, after the death of 
Alexander, seems to have reached the Ganges with an army, He 

i 

had a minister at Palibothra. 






f 






239 





















India beyond the Ganges the Aurea Chersonesus is now 
Malaya; the Southern promontory of it was called 
Magnum Promontorium, now the Cape of Romania, 
beyond which was the Magnus Sinus, or Gulph qfSiam; 
and beyond the river Serus, or Menan, was the country 
of the Sinae, or Cochin China, to be distinguished from 
those already mentioned East of Serica. West of the 
Chersonesus Aurea was Jabadii Insula, now perhaps Su- 
matra, and the antients knew also the smaller islands 

lying above it in the Sinus Gangeticus, or Bay of 
Bengal. 






* 









i * 



. 






* 



n i 


















M U 



I 



. I 



■I 









x 






d\ 





CHAPTER XIV 



AFRICA. 



A 



frica was called Libya by the Greek and 



\ 



Roman poets, the name which we give to the 
whole continent being more generally, though 
not absolutely, confined by the Romans to a 

- 

particular province. Very little of this division 

of the globe was known to the antients, except 
the parts adjacent to the coast of the Medi- 

terranean ; the interior of Africa they thought 
uninhabitable from the excessive heat, or peopled 

it with fabulous monsters, of which Africa was 
proverbially the nurse. * The first province of 
Africa, on the Western side, below the Fretum 
Gaditanum, or Herculeum, now the Straights of 
Gibraltar, was Mauritania, now Morocco and 
Fez. East of it was Numidia, now Algiers, and 






*Plin. VIII. 16. 









. 






. 



* i ' 

I 










41 






,1 ■ 



' 



I 

1^ 






East of Numidia was Africa Propria, or the 
province of Africa properly so called, now Tunis, 
lying along that part of the coast which bends 

t 

from North to South. The bay formed by the 
Southern part of this bend was the Syrtis Minor, 
a dangerous quicksand, and in that formed by 
another sweep of the sea, after which the coast 

■ 

again takes a North Easterly direction, was the 
Syrtis Major : between the two Syrtes was 
Tripoli's, now Tripoli, East of the Syrtis Major 
was Cyrenaica, now Barca, and East of it 
Marmarica ; and still East, at the Mouths of 
the Nile, was iEgyptus, or JEgypt, divided into 
JEgy ptus Inferior, or Lower JEgy p t, on th e coast, 
andiEgyptus Superior, or Upper iEgypt, towards 
the interior of Africa. Below Numidia was Gae- 

tulia, now Biledulgerid: below Cyrenaica and 
Marmarica was Libya properly so called; below 

^Egypt was ^Ethiopia $ and West of ^Ethiopia 

the Garamantes. 






\ 



1 : 






iliifj 
























Mauritania, now the Empire of Fez and Morocco, was 

j 

bounded on the North by the Straights of Gibraltar and 
the Mediterranean, on the East by Numidia, on the 
South by Gsetulia, and on the West by the Atlantic 
Ocean. It was, properly speaking, in the time of 
Bocchus, the ally and betrayer of Jugurtha, bounded 
by the river Mulucha, or Molochath, now Mcdva y and 
corresponded nearly to the present kingdom of Fez; 
but in the time of the Emperor Claudius, the Western 



n 






s 




































242 






under 



Mauritania 



Mauritani 



& 



Tingitana, from its principal 



West 



Opposite to Calpe, or Gibraltar^ in Spain, is the other 
column of Hercules, Mount Abyla, near Ceuta, in 



Maurit 



Western 



shore of the Atlantic was Sale, now Sallee, a well-known 
piratical port* In the South of 



Mauritania is th 



Mount 



Ocean. Mauritania Caesariensis contained many Roman 






colonies, but it may be sufficient for us to notice Siga, 



in 



Masinissa: it is situated North 



Muluch 



Numidia is bounded by Mauritania on the West, the 
Mediterranean on the North, Africa Propria on the East* 
and Gaetulia on the South, corresponding nearly to the 
present state of Algiers. It was occupied by two prijri- 

cipal nations, the Massyli, towards Africa Propria, in the 

Eastern part, and the Massassili, towards Mauritania, in 
the Western ; they were separated by the promontory 
of Tretum, now SeMa-Kiiz, ov the seven capes. The 
Massyli were the subjects of Masinissa, the Massaesili of 
Syphax. This latter prince, having invaded the kingdom 
of Masinissa, the ally of the Romans, in the second 
Punic war, was overcome and taken prisoner by Masi- 
nissa andthe Romans, and was carried to Rome 
Scipio, to adorn his triumph, where he died in prison, 
B. C. 202, A. U. C, 552. The Romans confirmed 
Masinissa in the possession of the kingdom of Syphax, 
and the history of those transactions, together with an 








* 



of the heroic death of Sop! 



is to be 



ded 



found in the 24th book of Livy. After 
Masinissa and his son Micipsa, it was div 
his grandsons Himpsal and Atherbal, who were succes- 
sively murdered by Jugurtha, and thus Numidia became 
again united under one sovereign, and the Romans 
having resolved to punish the crimes of Jugurtha, gave 
occasion to the Jugurthine war, the history of which is 
written by Sallust. Jugurtha was taken, having been 

betrayed by Bocchus, to whom he had fled for refuge, 
and carried to Rome to adorn the triumph of Marius 



B. C. 106, A. U 



after which he was starved to 



death in prison. Numidia was subsequently under the 



of Juba, 



the 



Thapsu 



vince ; but n part of it was restored by Augustus to the 
son of Juba, who bore his father's name, and who also 
received in marriage from Augustus, Cleopatra, the 



of Antony. The capital of Numidia 






Wad^l-Kiber 



afterwards 



neral of the name of Sittius, who greatly assisted Caesar 
in the African war, and was rewarded with this district: 

■ta 

but subsequently it took the name of % Constantirta, which 

* 

it still retains. North-East of Citra, on the coast, was 



Hippo Regius, of which St. Augustine was bishop ; it was 

in a bay, North- 



of 



and 



West of Hippo, was the mountain of Pappua, now 



Edoug, 



which Gelimas, the last king of the Vandals 
fter his fatal defeat by the great Belisarius 



A.D. 534. 



R 2 










i 









Km 












. i 






' 



. 






11 :' 















'ij 













244 



Africa Propria, or the province of Africa properly so 
called, was bounded by Numidia on the West, by the 
Mediterranean on the North and East, and by Getulia 

•- 

and the extremity of Tripolis on the South. It cor- 
responds to the present state of Tunis. Its Eastern 
boundary was formed by a sudden bend of the Mediter- 
ranean to the South from the Promontorium Hermaeum, 
or Cape Bon, to the Syrtis Minor, or Gidph of Cabes. 
The first place adjoining to Numidia is the little island 
of Tabraca, or Tabarca, which we notice only because 
it is mentioned in Juvenal. * Below it, inland, is Vacca, 
now Veja, a city of much note in the Jugurthine war. 
East of Tabraca, is Utica, the capital of the province after 

j 

the destruction of Carthage, and memorable for the last 

stand made by the friends of freedom, under the conduct 



of Cato, against Caesar. 



Metellus 



the father- 



Pompey, had been defeated by Caesar, at the 



Uticensi 



to this city, and, on the appearance of Caesar, stabbed 



Meaei 



. U 
flows between 



Utica, and the renowned city of Carthage, th 



Africa and great rival of 



It had a citadel 



named Byrsa, so called from the stratagem used by 
Dido, who ; 



5 



4 

bull's hide f, which she cut into very 



narrow stripes 



It 



# 



L - 



is a colony of Tyrians*, and by 

- 

■Et tales aspice rugas, 



Quales mjibriferos ubi pandit Tabraca saltus, 
In vetula scalpit mater jam simia bucca. 



Juv. Sat. X. 195 



f Merpatique solum, facti de nomine Byrsam, 
Taijrino quantum possent circumdare tergo. 



Virg, Mn* I. 56 







■ 







Ar 



45 



/ 



them called Carthada 



5 



k 



*i* 



L 



.-, 



- i — 

talizedby the Roman poets and historians on account of 
the three wars it sustained against the republic. The 
first began B. C. 264, A. U. C. 490, and ended B. C. 

C. 513, having lasted twenty-three years: 



u 



amongst its most remarkable events are the capture and 
cruel death of Regulus the Roman general, the esta- 
blishment of the Roman marine, and the defeat of the 
Carthaginians by Lutatius Catulus, off the ./Elates 



U 



The second Punic 



war began in consequence of the siege of Saguntum by 
Hannibal, B. C. 219, A. U. C. 535, and was ended in 
consequence of the victory of Scipio over Hannibal at 

the battle of Zama, B. C. 202, A* U. C. 552, having 
lasted eighteen years: this was memorable for the severest 
defeats the Romans ever experienced, especially in the 
battles of Trebia, Ticinus, Trasymenus, and Cannae, 
all gained by Hannibal, who maintained himself in Italy 
sixteen years. The third Punic war began B. C. 149, 
A. U. C. 605, and lasted onlv three years, bein^ termi- 






t ruction and demolition of 
Minor. B. C. 145. A. U 



ended 



a speech in the senate, on any subject, without the 



5 



■kabl 







\ 



■ |; 






i 




i i 






1 










1 i 



*T 



;;'* 









Urbs antiqua fuit, Tyrii tenuere coloni, 
Carthago, Italiam longe Tiberinaque contra 
Ostia, dives opum studiisque asperrima belli ;, 
Quam Juno fertur terris magis omnibus unam 
Posthabita coluisse Samo. 






FirgiJEn.l. 12 



R 3 























. 






246 


























4 ' 






F * 










I 



the cruel and oppressive exactions of the Romans, the 
patient submission, but at last the obstinate desperation of 
the injured Carthaginians, and the conflagration of their 
city, which was twenty-four miles in circumference, and 
continued burning seventeen days. It was afterwards 
rebuilt by Augustus, and became a flourishing city, till 
it was finally destroyed by the Arabs, under the Kaliphat 
of Abdel- Melek, towards the end of the seventh century. 
A little below it was Tunetum, now Tunis. Below the 

naeum Promontorium is Aspis, or Clypea, now 
Aklibea: below this place the coast takes the name 



Her 



Zeugi 



and 



quite half-way between the 



Promontorium Hermaeum and Syrtis Minor was Hadru- 

* 

metum, a very considerable city of that part of Africa 

Propria called Byzacium, or Emporiae, which comprized 



djacent to the Syrtis Min 



be considered 



Hadrumetum is Leptis Minor, or Lemta, and 



■ 

below it Thapsus, now D 



memorable for the 
, obtained there by 



Metellus 



Below 



party who escaped from the wreck of Pharsalia. 
Thapsus was Turris Hannibalis, from which Hannibal 

departed for Asia, when he was banished by his factious 
and ungrateful countrymen from Carthage. In the in- 



the Numidian 



// 



from 



Numidian citv* which was the birth 



* Frumenti quantum metit Africa 



Ht>r. Sitt. II, 3, 8 7 



Quicquid de Lybicis verritur areis. 



Hot. Od. I. 1 , 1 



14 



\ 




• 






247 







tine, the other Madaurus, the birth-place of Apuleius: 
near to which is Sicca, and South East of it, about the 



cente 



the victory obtained by Scip 
Hannibal, B. C. 202, A. U. 



V 

B. 552. In the interior of 

* 

Cqfsa, in which Jugurtha 



Byz 

deposited his treasures: we find from Sallust that it was 



a very strong city, in the midst of deserts very difficult of 



access 





in antiquity under the names of the Palus Tritonis 




Palus Lvbia, now Faro 



El-Loudeah . On th e 



Minerva is said to have first appeared 



whence she is called Triton 



Near the 





Gorgons are feigned to have had their abodes. * These 

lakes are in the neighbourhood of what fe now called 
Beled-ul-Gerid, Belediilgerid, or the region of grass- 




ers. 



Ill m 

















■'■m 



Tripolis was bounded by Africa Propria on the West, 
of which it originally formed a part, by the Mediterra- 
nean on the North, by Cyrenaica on the East, and by 
Phazania, or Fezzan y on the South, It still retains its 
name which it originally received from three cities on 

the coast, Sabrata, now Sabart, GEa, now Tripoli, and 
Leptis Magna, the ruins of which are still called Labida. 
It lies between the Syrtis Minor, or GalpJi of Cubes, so 
called from the city Tacape, which was at the head of 
it, and the Syrtis Major, or, as it is now corruptly called, 
the Gulpk of Sidra. The Syrtes were very dangerous 












\ 



# 



Jam summas arces Tritonia, respice, Pallas 

Insedit aimbo effulgais et Gcwgone sseva. 



\ 



JEn 



R 4 






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. M 



I 



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■ 






.... 













X 






# 



248 



to mariners, from the shoals and quicksands, and a 
peculiar inequality in the motion of the waters, by 
which they drew in and engulphed vessels, whence they 
derived their name. * Towards the Syrtis Major is the 
small river Cinyphs, the goats of which are mentioned 

m 

by Virgil, as proverbially shaggy f ; it is now called 
the Wad~Quaham. Inland is the town of Gerisa, or 
Gkerze, fabled to be petrified, with its inhabitants, which 
probably arose from some statues of men and animals 
remaining there, which have been thus mis presented 

by the ignorant natives. South of Fhazania were the 

* 

Garamantes, who derived their name antiently from the 



city of Garama, now Gharmes. 



They 



were 



faintly 



known to the Romans under Augustus, in whose time 
some claim was made to a triumph over them, on which 
account they are mentioned by Virgil 4 At the ex- 
tremity of the Syrtis Major are the Phila-norum Are, 






1 

w Axe ra rugsiv. 

The Syrtis Minor is mentioned by Virgil, in his account of the 
:>rm which dispersed the fleet of JEneas. 



N. 



— Tres [naves] Eurus ab alto 

In brevia et Syrtes urget, miserabile visu, 
Illiditque vadis atque aggere cingit arenae. 



t 



Virg. Mn. I. 1 1 0. 



Cinyphii tondent hirci. 



x 



I 

Virg. Georg. III. 311. 



Augustus Caesar, divum genus : aurea condet 
Saecula qui rursus Latio, regnata per arva 
Saturno quondam. Super et Garamantas et Indos 
Proferet imperium ; jacet extra sidera tellus, 
Ultra anni solisque vias, ubi coelifer Atlas 
Axem humero torquet steilis ardentibus aptum. 

Vira.JEn 









' 



/ 




wmm 












* 






/ 







i 



M9 









» 






■ 



ected to mark 

' Carthage and 



th 



Carthaginian brothers suffered themselves for this purpose 
to be buried alive. The story may be seen in Sallust 



L & 



79 







■ 



--.- 



Next to Tripolis is Libya properly so called, which 
contained the two countries of Cyrenaica and Marmarica, 
together with a very extensive unknown region in the 
interior. Cyrenaica is bounded on the West by Tripoli's, 
on the North by the Mediterranean, on the East by Mar- 
marica, and on the South by the deserts of Libya, the 
North Western part of which was inhabited by the Na- 
samones, a barbarous people, who lived by the plunder 
of the vessels shipwrecked in the Syrtis Major, and who 
almost destroyed the nation of the Psylli, so celebrated 

* 

in antient and even modern times for the power they 
appear to possess in charming serpents, and curing the 

They are mentioned bv 






Syrtes. 



bite by sucking the wound. They are mei 
Lucan, in his noble description of the serpents which 
infested the army of Cato during his march between the 

* The province of Cyrenaica was called Penta- 

polis, from five principal cities which it contained. 
After the coast of the Syrtis Major has bent towards 
the North East, is Berenice, or Hesperis, now Bernic. 
where some have placed the gardens of the Hesperides. 

Above It is Rarce* or Barca* and Ptolemais. now Tnln- 



\ 



* Vix miseris serum tanto lassata periclo 

Auxilium fortuna dedit : gens unica terras 
Jncolit a ssevo serpentum tuta veneno, 
Marmaridas Psylli : par lingua potentibus herbis, 






admittere 



Vel cantu cessante potest, &c. 



Luc an. IX, 890, &c 












i 









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£50 



















meta. The extreme Northern point of the coast was 
called Phycus Promontorium, now Cape Rasat; East of 
it was Apollonia, now Marza Sasa, or Sosush, which was 
the port of Cyrene, that city being a little inland : it was 
founded by Battus, who led thither a Lacedaemonian 

■ 

colony from Thera, one of the Cyclades, B. C. 630, Ol. 
37* 3, and the kingdom was bequeathed to the Romans, 
B. C. 97, A. U. C. 657, by the last of the Ptolemies, 
surnamed Apion; it was by them formed into a province 
with Crete. Some vestiges of it still remain under the 
name ofCurin; East of it, on the coast, is the fifth city, 
Darnis, now Derne. 



A place called the Catabathmus Magnus, now AJca- 

- 

hetossolom, separated Marmarica from Cyrenaica on the 

West. It was bounded by Egypt on the East, the Me- 
diterranean on the North, and the Hammonii and Libya 
Interior on the South. We need only notice here Pa- 
raetonium, now Al-Baretoun, which was considered 
as a sort of advanced frontier of Egypt, South of 
Marmarica, in the midst of the sands of the Libyan 

Desert, w r as a amall and beautiful spot, or Oasis, as it is 
called, refreshed by streams and shade, and luxuriant 

with verdure, in which was the celebrated temple of 
Jupiter Hammon, said to have been founded by Bacchus, 
in gratitude to his father Jupiter, who appeared to him 
in the form of a ram, and showed him a fountain, when 
himself and his army were perishing with thirst. Here 
was the Fons Solis, whose waters were cold at noon and 
hot at night* * Here was the antient and much-famed 



* Esse apud Ammonis fanum fons luce diurna 
Frigidus, at calidus nocturno tempore fertur. 



f 



Lucret. VL 848, 














251 



oracle, so difficult and dangerous of access through the 
Libyan Deserts *, consulted by Alexander the Great, 
who, by the flattery of the priests, was saluted as the son 
of Jupiter, and whose head, on some of his medals, bears 
a ram's horn in token of th is descent. The site of this 
temple, which had been long unknown, has been at 
length, probably discovered by an English traveller, Mr. 
Browne, in the year 17^2, in a fertile spot called the 
Oasis of Siwah, situated in the midst of deserts, five 
degrees nearly West of Cairo, f 




1 










.It'" 





I 




' 




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;&>. 






* 

JE<rypt is bounded on the West by Marmarica and 
the Deserts of Libya, on the North by the Mediterranean, 
on the East by the Sinus Arabicus, or Red Sea, and a 

* 

I 

* I cannot avoid quoting a sublime passage in the first part of the 



descripfl 



army 



which may be called the waves, or rather the moving mountains of 



the desert. 



Wave 



iggling limbs 



# 



# 



* 



# 



# 



And one great earthy o 
Then ceased the storm, 
To earth, and listened to the groans below 

* awhile the living hill 



J£th 



# 



convulsive 



and all was still. 






Satanic Garden, Part I. Canto II. v. 489 



-j- Considerable confirmation is given to this discovery by the 
visit of Mr. Horneman to the same spot, A. D. 1798, and the 
question seems to be fully decided in an able memoir written by Sir 
William Young, Bait. Horneman appears to have discovered the 

Fons Solis, 



\ 



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Bl 



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** 



■ 

Suez, to Rhinocorura, or El-Arish, which separates it 
from Arabia, and on the South by ^Ethiopia. It is one 
of the most antient countries known, highly memorable 
both in sacred and profane history, and the mother of 



all the arts and sciences of the antient civilized world. 
iEgypt was governed from time immemorial by kings, 
the earliest of whom recorded in Scripture had the gene- 
ral name of Pharaoh. It is called in Scri] 
(traces of which are still clearly to be 



Misraim 






are still clearly to be found in its 
modern Turkish appellation of Misr) from its first 



king, one of the sons of Ham, B. C. 2188: 



it was 



conquered by Cambyses, B. C. 525, afterwards subject 

to its native kings, and again to the Persians, till after 

the death of Alexander, it was refounded into a kingdom 



B.C 



r 

■ 

under the 



till, after the 



battle of Actium and the death of the celebrated Cleopa- 

r 

tra, it was reduced by Augustus into a Roman province, 



U 



The original natives are called 



Copts, to distinguish them from the Arabs and Turks, 

and in the proper modification of this word, Kypt, we 



of 



iEgypt 






I 



Except on the coast, thqre are few positions but those 
on the bank of the Nile, whose annual inundations 
fertilize the adjacent country,, and are the source of its 
prosperity. 



* 

iEgypt is divided into iEgyptus Inferior, or -32gypt 
towards the sea, and ^Egyptus Superior, or Upper 



/ 










253 






V 



"Egypt 



from 



M 



M 



Hept 



of those nomes, or 



- 

Prefectures, into fifty-three of which the whole country 



was divided. J 



i 
/Eorptus Inferior extends alonsr the sea from 



s 



the 



Sinus Plinth inetes, or Arabs Gulpli^ to the Sirbonis Palus, 
or Sirbonian Bog, and even somewhat beyond it. The 
celebrated city of Alexandria, built by Alexander the 

Great, B. C. 332, the capital of iEgyptus Inferior, stood 



on 



of the Delta 



land formed by the Nile 



/ 



M 



H 



f 700 



without anv very positive proof, to have been destroyed 
by the Saracens, at the command of tKe caliph Omar. 



Alexandria, 



g^v iund 






Africa by the Cape of Good Hope, was the great mart 
for all the merchandise between Europe and the East 

Indies, which was transported from thence to Arsinoe, or 
Suez, at the top of the Red Sea, and so to India. The 
island of Pharos, which had a celebrated light-house, was 

causeway, called 
On the South 



th 



from 



its length the Heptastadium 



Eastern side of the city was the lake Mareotis 



V. 



1 



# The wine made in its vicinity was celebrated. 

Mentemque lymphatam Mareotico. * 






RoKOd. L.37, h. 













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254, 



. 



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Mariout* At the Western mouth of the Nile, a little 
beyond Alexandria, was Canopus *, whence that branch 
is called the Canopic, now Maadi. Near to it was a 
city called Nicopolis, built in commemoration of a 
victory obtai n ed by Augustus over Antony : but the mo- 
dern victory of Aboukir, gained by Lord Nelson over 
the navy of France, Aug. 1, 1799* will render the same 
spot infinitely more celebrated among succeeding gene- 
rations. The next mouth of the Nile is called Bolbitinum 
Ostium, Where is now Rasckid, or, as the Europeans call 
it Rosetta. In the interior of the Delta, nearly below 
Rosetta, was Sais, now'&z, antiently the capital of Lower 
iEgypt. The Sebennytic mouth of the Nile was so 

called from the city Sebennytus, an inland city, now 

Setncnud. Next to it was the Phatniticum Ostium, one 
of the principal mouths of the Nile, near the city of 
Tamiathis, or Darmiata. The Mendesian mouth was so 

called from Mendes, now Ashmur- Tar ah ; the Tanitic 
from ^iiis, the Zoan of the scriptures, now San. The 
Eastern branch of the Nile was called the Pelusiotic, 
from the strong city of Pelusium, now Tire7i, one of the 



of iEgypt at 



mouth 



Ea 



of Pelu 



is 



Here 



Mount Casius, and East of it the Palus Sirbor 

Sirbonian Bog, now called SebaJcel Bardoil. 
Typhon the murderer of Osiris, is fabled to have 

r 

perished; and the country being covered with deep 
and moving sands, is called Al-Giofar^ and has always 



* Hence Canopus from its vicinity to Alexandria, was called 

Peliaean. 

Nam qua Pellsei gens fortunata Canopi 

Accolit effuso stagnantem gurgite Niluim 

Virg. Georg, IV. 287. 






\ 









, 



255 



J/j ' 



rendered the approach to M 



of 



pypt on this side very 
angerous to an invading enemy. * North 
Sibonis Palus is Rhinocorura, now El- 



Arish, the remotest Eastern limit of iEgypt and of 



Africa; . 
the apex 



Delta 



e between Pelusium 
Western branch o 



the Sinus Arabicus is Heroopolis; which gave to that 



branch the 



Heroop 



it was 



residence of the antient shepherd kings of iEgypt. 
th West of it the Jews had a city called Onion, #nd 



a temple, 
built ai 



which continued from the time of Onias who 

> 

d called it after his own name, to that of 



Vespasian. Onias was nephew to Menelaus, and the 



rightful 



#•* 



the priesthood of Jerusalem, but 



who 



JE 



high priest j, he fled to 

» r 

Philometor to let him build this temple there, about 173 
years B. C, which subsisted 243 years. At the very 



Heliopolis 



of the 



JEgyptian Babyl 



the 



probably built during the time of the Persian powc 

iEgypt: it occupied the site of Old Cairo. On 
Western bank of the Nile, fifteen miles South of the 
Delta, was the renowned city of Memphis, the antient 
metropolis of all iEgypt. Near it are those stupendous 
and immortal works, the Pyramids : the largest of these 
is, at the lowest, 481 feet in perpendicular height, and 
covers eleven acres of ground ; it is built of hewn stones, 








■ Ml 






m 















. 




I 



M 






'4*1 



* A gulph profound as that Sirbonian bog 
Twixt Damiata and Mount Casius old, 

Where armies whole have sunk. 



Par. Lost, Book Ih 









t M 












266 






























the smallest being not less than thirty feet in length* 

_ 

The pyramids are thought to have been intended for 
royal sepulchres: they are of so remote antiquity that 
their foundation is utterly unknown. There is a room 
which contains a sarcophagus in the greatest pyramid. 
Below Memphis is Arsinoe, or Crocodilopolis, now 
Feinm, near the lake Moeris, at the South end of which 
was the celebrated labyrinth, which contained 3000 

■ 

chambers, 1500 above and as many below, in which the 
kings and sacred crocodiles were buried: it contained 
twelve principal halls, built b$ as many kings, and its 



V 









ruins are still very magnificent. Another Moeris was a 
canal now called Batheri, running North and South below 

that already described, and wa$ excavated by human 

industry, being 900 stadia in length and four in breadth. 
Below the Southern end of this latter Mceris is Hermo- 
polis Magna, now Ashmuneim, the last city of Hepta- 
liomis. We then proceed to j^Egyptus Superior, in 
which we may notice Ptolemais Hermii, antiently a 

powerful city, now an inconsiderable village called 
Girge. Below it was the great city of Abydos, the 

palace of Memnon, now a ruin called Madfune. West 

of it was a fertile spot, in the midst of the desert, called 
the Oasis Magna, now El-wah. Returning to the Nile, 
below Abydos was Tentyra, now Dcndera, a city at 
variance with Ombos, the former killing, the latter 
adoring the crocodile: a horrible instance of religious 
fury, which took place in consequence of this quarrel, is 
the subject of the 15th satire of Juvenal. Opposite to 
Tentyra, on the 'other side the Nile, is Coptos, or Kypt 9 

* 

from which a road was made by Ptolemy Philadelphia 
258 miles in length, across the desert to the port of 



tl 
1 



t 



i 









%5J 






Berenice on the Sinus Arabicus, by which the merchan- 
dise of India was transported to the Nile, Below Coptos, 
Was the magnificent city of Thebes, called by the Greeks 
Diospplis 9 from the worship of Jupiter there, and dis- 
tinguished by the epithet of Hecatompylos, or the 
hundred-gated, from the city of Boeotia which had seven 

* 

gates. The ruins of this astonishing city occupy a space 

i 

of twenty-seven miles in circumference, on either side 
the Nile, containing several villages, the chief of which 
is Luxor. That part on the Western side of the Nile, 
which was called Memnonium, now Habon, contains 
many stupendous monuments. In the adjacent Lybian 
mountains are hewn sepulchres of the Egyptian kings. 
Near Thebes was the celebrated statue of Memnon, 
which was said to utter a sound when struck by the first 
beams of the sun. It still exists*, though broken, and is 
covered with the names of the most illustrious antient 
writers and monarchs, or generals, who have thus re- 
corded, with their own hands, their attestation to the 
tact of having heard the sound, f Some idea of the 
strength of this antient city may be obtained from the 
account given us by Herodotus, who tells us, that it 

could send out from each of its hundred gates 20,000 

footmen and 200 chariots to oppose an enemy f : it was 
mined 



* L 




Cambyses the Persian, Below Thebes is 
Ombos, already mentioned, and below it was Syene, or 

* It has been brought to London while this edition was in the 

press, 1818. 

■f Hence Juvenal 

Dimidio magicae resonant ubi Memnone chords 
Atque vetus Thebe centum jacet obruta portis. 



Jm> Sat, XV. 5. 



I See also Homer* Iliad, IX, 383. 



s 



1 1 1 1 






- 









i 







in 
























i 




p 






■ft- i» 










■m 
















, 



■ 

Assouan^ the extreme town of Upper iEgypt, where wa 
a celebrated well, the bottom of which at the time of the 
summer solstice was exactly illuminated, the sun being 

Juvenal was sent into a kind of 



perpendicular over it. 
honourable exile to this place. Near it is the Mon 
Basanites, or mountain of touchstone, from which th* 
^Egyptians used to make ornamental vases and house- 
hold utensils. Opposite to Syene, on the Sinus Ara- 
bicus, was Berenice, already mentioned. At the ex- 
treme point of the Sinus Heroopolitis was Arsinoe, called 

afterwards by the celebrated Cleopatra after her own 
name ; it is now Suez. Midway, on the coast, between 
Arsinoe and Berenice, which were so called from the 

names of two of the queens of iEgypt, is Myoshormus. 
About a mile South of Syene were the smaller cata- 
racts of the Nile ; the greater cataracts were more to 

the South, in JEthiopia. 






It is not necessary to take more than a very rapid view 

of the remainder of Africa. The natives living along the 
Southern part of the Red Sea were called Troglodytae* 

and inhabited caves in the earth. On this coast was 



Arkiko* and westwards the city of 



We 



Mer 



The river Astapus, or Abawi, which flows through Nubia 
to a place called Coloe Palus, or Bahr 



Dembea 
w Mr. I 



V/ 



for the Nile : the real Nile, or Bahr el Abiad, flows far t 
the South West of this, and its sources are still unknown 

hut arp nlnrpd in a r.hain of mountains called the Moun 



tains of the Moot 



11 9 



bv 



f 



die 



Memnones ; 

ly authority 



j 










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i 



r 






-V 



e 



e 



s 



a 



•> 



V/ 






e 



- 



■ 







/ 




N 



the Negroes, empties itself into an immense lake in whicl 



i 



Under the names of Zing 



the Nile rises, * 

the antients seem to have known the coasts of Zanguebar, 

and Ajan, nor ought we to omit mentioning that the 



/ 



West 



in the interior of Africa to form a very considerable river. In order 
to enable it to form a junction with the Nile in some great lake in 
the interior, we must suppose some practicable passage by which the 



West 



West 



nearly from South to North. In other words, no chain of mountains 
must be so situated between the Niger and the Nile as to prevent 
their meeting by breaking the level. This was asserted to be the 
case by the antient geographers, but being contrary to general ex- 
perience on such an extent o? the earth s surface, was contradicted 
by the most intelligent of the later geographers ; yet it appears from 
the late discoveries of Mr. Park, that the Niger undoubtedly flows 
from West to East, and I therefore hope I may be allowed, will) 
becoming diffidence, to express an opinion of the possibility of a fact 
which has nothing but presumptive evidence to contradict it, and 
which has some, though certainly weak authority, in its favour. I 
merely mean to say, that it is not impossible ; and that as the Apu- 
rimac flows from the Western side pf South America to the North 
Eastern, the Niger may flow from the Western side of Africa to the 
Eastern, till stopped by the mountains of Abyssinia and JEthiopia s 
when it would naturally form an immense lake, from which its course 
may be continued under the name of the Nile ; and the increase of 



that lake and its tributary waters by periodical rains may cause the 



s 



periodical inundations of the Nile. Mr. Park however in his last 
journey, and subsequent travellers, have entertained an opinion that 
the Niger, after passing Tombuctoo, tyrns to the South, the South 
West, and West, till it enters the Atlantic under the name of the 
Zaire or Great River of Congo. The most recent accounts annexed 
to Riley's captivity tend to confirm this. 

9 2 



' 



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' I ' 






\ 



























; ' 










■ 1 * 



1 













I 




■ X 






'" 







$60 



* 

Ophir of Solomon has been thought to be the modern 
Sqfala. The Garamantes have been already mentioned, 
and it merely remains to notice their Western neighbours, 
the Nigritae, in Negroland, or Nigritia, and the Hespevii 
iEthiopes, in Guinea. 






Oa the Western 



Insula*, or Canary Islands, were known to the antients, 
and were thought to be the residence of the blessed after 



- 

death. # Below them were the H 



Insul 



either the Cape Verde Islands, or, if these are thought 
too far from the coast, possibly some small islands called 

t 



Bissagos, lying a little above Sierra 



He 



was the famous garden of the Hesperides and the Golden 
Apples, the attainment of which was one of the labours 

of Hercules, who carried them off, having slain the 
watchful dragon that guarded the fruit. 






* Ereptum Stygiis fluctibus iEacum 
Virtus, et favor, et lingua potentium 
Vatum, divitibus consecrat insulis. 



\ 



Hor. Od. IV. S, 25. 



Arva, beata 



arva 



Reddit ubi Cerereru tellus inarata quot annis 
Et irnputata floret usque vinea. 

Hor. Evoc 



XVI. 4 1 



/ 






/ 









1 






MODERN GEOGRAPHY 



INDEX I 



Page 

Arcs 2 

. Astapus.. <- S» 

' Austrians, defeated 21 

Baber Sultan. 55 

Babylon, ancient site of 51 

Badaios ••••■■ ^ 

Battle of Agincourt 18 

theBoyne...... 46 

Corunna,. 25 

* 

Cressy 18 

Marengo 22 

Poictiers 17 

Salamanca 25 

Trafalgar 26 

Vittoria .......... 25 

Waterloo.... ... 19 

Bey, orDey.. ........ 57 

Black Prince 17 

Brahma, meaning of ...... 46 

Brahmanism 56 

Bruce, Mr 60 

Buonaparte, victory of... 22 

Cabot, Giovanni 63 

Calvin, John 32 

Calvinism defined 32 

Capitals, principal Euro- 
pean. •••••♦♦ 16, &c» 

Chauvin 32 

Church, Calvinistic 33 

Eastern 34 

- 



s 



Page 

Church of England zi 

Greek..... 34 

Lutheran... 32 

Presbyterian 33 

Roman Catholic 34 

Western ..*.. 54 

Circles, how measured 

and divided 2 

Circles of the Globe. 1 

polar . 3 

primary and se- 
condary ...»••...... 2 

Columbus, discoveries of 63 

Cook, Capt., death of... 74 

Corunna, why celebrated 23,24 

Count, or Comes... •..'. 36 

_ 

Dalai Lama 56 

Degrees, how divided... 1 

number of miles in € 

Deserts of Sand «. 61 

Dey, or Bey 57 

Earl, title of.... ...... ...... 36 

Earthquake, a dreadful 

one 73 

• Earth's ■ diameter ......... i 

form 1 

rotation. 9 

Ecliptic... 3 

Equator or Equinoctial 3 
3 




/ 














■ 









\* 



-, H 




M ft 



U I si 










i 












n 















ill 






■I! 



II Jl 




% 







\ 













I 

/ 

■ 

■ 

■ 
. MQDERN GEOGRAPHY.* — INDEX I. 

' Page Page 

Geography defined....... i Meridians.................. 5 

Gibraltar, when taken by Minorca, island of, 

the English.. 27 whence seen...... ...... 26 

Gibraltar, rock of ........ 2 7 Mogul, Great ............ 48 

Globe, principal circles of i Moore, Sir John, death 

Grand Signior............. 57 of 95 

1 

Muscovy, antient capita! 

Heavenly bodies, rising * of ........................ 2B 

and setting of..... „,.*.„ 9 Mussulmen ............... 35 

Hebrides, an improper 

* 

* erm "MMoei 47 Nabob of Arcot ••••••.,; 49 

Henry V. ...... .......... e ; 17 Nelson, Lord, death of 26 

Hand, residence of the North West passage.*. ... 64 

Court of .. ».-...... 19 Norway ceded to Swe- 

Host, whence derived., . 33 den 14 
riyciGr .All.......... ........ 49 

Parallels ... ..... 2 

!ncasofPeru......oo. 4 .. 71 of latitude ... 5 

John King of France ... 17 Poland, division of ...... U 

Popes, former claims 

King, his station in the of. ..... m % 

Church 54 Protestant, the term 

ViCIJil CU I0OIMIIOO0O0O60CC t?«? 

latitude ........ 4 its origin......... 55 

parallels of-.. 5 Protestants ... ............ 52 

Longitude 4 Purgatory.........*........ 33 

how found ... e 

degrees of, Quarters of the World, 

turned into time...... 9 an improper term ... 11 

Luther, Martin............ 32 

Religion of Abyssinians €2 

Mahomet..- m M, 51 Africa, central 

Mahometanism ..* ..., 00 54 tribes of... 62 
Majorca, island of, Africa, north- 
whence seen 26 em tribes of 62 

Marengo, why celebrated 22 Africa, south- 

Marmont, Marshal . 24 em tribes of 62 

Mary Queen of Scots America, North 69 

confined in Lochlevin 44 America, South 67 













* 

r 

* 

^ 

MODERN GEOGRAPHY. INDEX IT. 

Page P*g e 

Religion of Asia ...... 56 Schamanism 56 

Europe 56 Selkirk, Alexander. 73 

Church of Shiva, meaning of. 56 

England ... 51 Siege of Badajos 25 

Denmark 32 Saragossa 25 

Egypt. 55 Slave trade abolished.... 6* 

Geneva... 55 Spain, wonder of. 25 

Holland.,. 55 

Ireland.-. 34 Tamerlane, or Timur 

Morocco 62 the Great — 55 

North of Tippoo Saib 49 

Europe... 52 Transubstantiation, 

North of meaning of 35 

Germany 52 Trinity, idolatrous wor- 

Norway... 52 ship of a ......... 56 

Prussia... 52 Tropics 3 

Scotland 55 

States of Vespucci, Amerigo .— 63 

Barbary 62 Vishna, meaning of....- 5$ 

Sweden... 52 

Turkish Do- World 3 how divided...... 11, 12 

minions 55 new H 

Robinson Crusoe ..." 15 old......... — n 

Roman Catholic Church, 

principal errors of ... 55 Zingis ......... c ... 55 

Roman Catholics....— 33 Zones ...* 4 

—— Tim i ii i iw . 




ft! f 




















iii 






i 






MODERN GEOGRAPHY, 



ai't* 



M 



t * 






INDEX II. 



Aar- 

Aberdeen 



Page 






22 
42, 43 



Abo .........*....... ..*»,. . 

Abyssinia, kingdom of 



Page 

3 ; 



59 



S 4 



ti 









' 




D 














s 






MODERN GEOGRAPHY, 



INDEX II. 









Abyssinia, mountains of 



Page 



Acapulco ........ 66 

Adige ... ...., 

Adrianople . 

Adriatic Sea... 
Africa a.* 



60 America, continent cf... 



Page 

64 

64 



©»&*• •0»«tt«o«S 



9'jaa«*BioQi # 



boundaries cf 



c o '* 



description o 
extent of 



f 

i • » o 



•*• eoftifs 



27 
22 

11 

57 

67 



67 



latitude and lon- 
gitude of the 
cities of. 

deserts of. ... 






52 

61 



Amiens.,,.. 
Amsterdam 
Anatolia ... 



description of 
mountains of 
rivers of ......... 67 

South 11, 65 

United States of 64 

North, religion of 69 
South, descrip- 
tion of...... 70 5 &c. 



17 

48 



religion of the 
northern tribes 



Andes .. 70, 71, 72 

Anglesea ........ 38, 47 



«r « • « • O * V « •oobC#«(? 



of 



• »• ft** »•• 



African Islands... 

Agincourt...,......*... # . w ... 

Agows . 

Agra... ........ ....o... 

Akerman ....... 



Aland, island of 
Alderney ....... 



•» 



Aleppo 

Alessandria 

Alexandria 



\ 



55 
55 

18 

I 

60 

50 
59 

29 
28 

47 

51 

22 
59 



Angola 

Angus, or Forfar 

Antigua ......... 



• • o o 



58 
42 
69 

Antioch ... ... gi 

Antrim. ....o 45 



Antwerp ............ 

Apalachian mountains... 
Apennines .. e . 



highest point 



19 

61 
25 



of ... 



ceoiti 



25 

37 
71 

Arabia ....... eoc . e . 4©, 



Appleby . 
Apurimac 



Algiers . 57, 59 Aral, sea of 54 



Alicant 



25 



Allen, lake of.. 39 

Alps, European 18, 21, 2 J 

30 



Ararat, Mount 



Archangel 



55 
29 



Norwegian 
Swedish .. 



Archipelago 26 



Arcot 



49 



30 



Altaic chain of moun- 



tains 



Arctic Sea 29,48 

Argyle 






55 



Armagh 



AJtona 20,31 Armenia 

Amazons, river of ...... 



71 



America, North...... 11, 58, 63 Arno. 



mountains of... 



9 



cities of... ...... 



66 



Arrabeda 



42 
45 

54 

53 

23 

1 7 



\ 







MODERN GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX II 






Page 

Arran,the... oc ..... 41 

Ascension, island of...... 61 

Asia 11 

boundaries of 48 

described 48, &c. 

extent of ....... 41 

cities of...... 51 

lat. and long. * 
of the cities 
and remar- 

kable places 

in •••..•.,...... 51 

Asia, rivers of ••.•••*»o.«. 55 

Asiatic islands 55 

Assouan, or Syene 59 

Astapus..... 60 

Astrachan.. 53 

Athos ... 27 

Atini, or antient Athens 27 

Atlantic 57, 64 

Atlas, Mount ....* 60 

Avon «... 40 

Australasia ....* 12 

Austria 14, 21, 22 

Ayr 42 

Azoph, sea of ....«,. ...... 27 

Azores 15 

Babelmandeb,straights of 59 

Babylon, antient site of 44 

Badajos 2.6 

Baffin's Bay 64 

Bagdad ••• 51 

Bahama Islands, or Lu- 

cayos Islands 65, 68 

Bahar ...• rfff SO 

Bahr el Abiad SB 

Bahrel Azreek 60 

1 



Page 

Baikal, sea or Jake of ... 47 

Bala 40 

Baltic Sea * 14, 27 

Baltimore „.•••••.. 66 

Banda Isles 55 

Banff..... ; 42 

Barbadoes B### 59 

Barbary, coast of ...... . . 57 

States, religion of 62 

Barca ...... 57 

Barcelona ......•• 25, 26 

Barram-pooter 54 

Basil, or Basle 22 

Bassora..... ... 44 

Bastia ..., 24 

Batavia, in Java ......... 55 

Bath ... 39 

Bavaria ....?.\ 14, 20,22 

Bay of Baffin .... e 64 

Bengal...... 43, 54 

Biscay is 

Chesapeak ....... 65 

Delaware es 

I 

Hudson ......... 64 

Beacons of Brecknock... 41 

Beaumaris 3$ 

Bedford 57 

Bedfordshire 37 

Beja 27 

Belen Tag 55 

Belfast 45 

Belgium ... 14, 19 

Belgrade 21, 27 

Bender 27 

Bengal , 45, 50 

bay of 48, 55 

Benglo 44 

Benivas 44 

Ben Lawres 44 



\ 



1 



'" Til ' 












1 ril 



r *l 

I 








II 



1 !! 

H r 
in 1 










liiili 




































i 










y 




/ 



MODERN GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX II 















/ 



Ben Ledi 



Lomond 
More ..* 



Nevis . . 
Venue • 
Voirlich 



Bergen .. 

Berkshire 



Berlin 

Bermudas, or Somers 



Page 

44 
43 
44 
44 
44 
44 

17 

38 
17 



Brecknock .... 
Brecknockshire 

Bremen 

Breslaw... 



Brest 

Bridge water 

Brighthelmstone, 
Brighton 

Brindisi 

Bristol 



Page 

8 
38 

20 
28 
17 
38 



or 



Islands 



Bern .... 

Berwick, or Merse 



68 

16 
42 



Channel 



39 
24 

39 

39 



Britain, Great 13, 36 

British Islands 



upon Tweed... _ 43 Brown Clay Hill 



47 
40 



Bhering's Straights 51 



Bielow ...o 

Birmingham 

Biscay, bay of 

Black Sea 14, 50 



?*«••• 



30 
39 
18 



Blackburn 

Blanc, Mont ,•••.••„.•< 
Bog, or antient Hy 



39 
1, 47 



panis 



*«* e> *> e a a r ••••*©•••••• 



59 



55 



Bogdo Alim . •••>••••• 

Bohemia 14, 21 

H^l 



capital of 



» • • ft * * 



Bologna 
Bolton , 



a a 



Bombay 

Borneo, island of 
Bomou 



o o 



23 
39 
49 



. * 55 



5°> 



Borysthenes, antient, or 
Dnieper .. 

Boston 



., 29 

59 

Bothnia, gulph of 15, 30 

Jftouiognc ••••••••••••••••©• a/ 

Bourbon, island of *•..». 62 

Bourdeaux .. ... 17 

■ 

Brazil, province of 70 



/ 



\ 



Brussels * 16, 18 



Bucharest 

Bucharia 

Buckingham.... 

Buckingham shire ........ . 



27 
53 

37 

37 

Buda ••......•.•.•• .*......••• 16 

Buenos Ayres 70, 71 

5) 

42 





Bute ..e 



Cader Berwyn 
Cader Idris .. 



41 
41 



Cafraria 



59 



IMM 



* a 9 flMiii a •# 



Cairngorm ... 

V^HltO •••••eaeaaaeaaa a a* a a a 

Calais 



o 



4 



\ 



©#••#•••©•••••••••••• 



Calcutta 

Caledonia 



? 9 6*9 * Q Q **• 



44 

59 

41 

17 

50, 54 



75 



43 



Caledonian Canal 

California 65, 68 

H49 



Cambay, gulph of 

Cambodia... • 

Cambridge 



eeflfl«» 



50 
58 






tl 













MODERN GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX II, 















Pag 



Cambridgeshire .••...*.. 
Canmeche ......o 



s ~.» o * o ■» i n 



Canada, Lower. ...... 



oa-311 



UppCJ MMMOMill 



Canadian Lakes 
Canary Islands. 
Candia .. 



00 



ooesisoiooo 



<? 



38 
€6 
6*4 

64 

67 
61 
16 



Canterbury 39 

Canton ....... . 53, 55 

Cape Breton, island of. * . 68 



/ 



Comorin 



09 



49 



Jsidro ....... 

North 



• M9)1)l 



of Good Hope ... 53, 58 

Horn 66 

72 
30 

72 

26 
24 
58 



o)57«ia«iinoo 



>s o 9 • ) i m 



Pilares..,.. 
St. Mary •*»•»•». 



7 999 



9QQ09 



Trafalgar ... ... 

Capitals, principal Eu 



ropean 



Cara 



coo 



OI«09II090901«>9«0 00 



• 



ooooc 



« 000 



Caraccas, government of 

V>8il QIU tOOOMOOBMIOMO 

Cardigan .*...o........ 

Cardiganshire 

Caribbee Islands,.... 

Carinthia .»•• 



.. 16, &c. 

29 
70 
38 
38 



i 



Carlisle..... 

Carlow *•*** 

Carlscrona .. .»..#« •»••«• 

Carmarthen •»••«• 

Carmarthenshire 

Carnarvon .. 
Carnarvonshire 



eo 



pooooooo»ooooooo 



ooooooooo 



Carnatic, the .... 
Carnedd Llewellyn ... 
Carnedd ap David 

Carniola 



ooooo o • • 



ooo 



OOO 00 



tf^OOOO'JOVOdWOOvUJi 



38 



69 

14 
37 
45 
30 

38 
38 
38 

38 
49 

41 
41 
14 



Page 

Carolina, North 65 

South ,., 65 

Carolinas 74 

Carpathian Mountains... 28, 29 

Carrickfergus 45 

Carthage, modern name 

of 59 

Carthagena ••• 25 

Caspian Sea . 3 . ...... 50, 54 

Cassel *. 20 

Castlebar 45 

Castile ..... 26 

Catania 24 

Cavan .. 0O 45 

Caucasus, mountains of 55 

Celebes.... , 55 

Celebezian Isles 55 

Ceylon, island of ......... 55 

Channel, English......... IS 

Charles Town 66 

Chatham 3-9 

Chelmsford 33 

Chepstow 40 

Cherson 28, 29 

Chesapeak Bay 65 

Cheshire 37 

Chester 37 

Cheviot Hills 40 

Chili....... 70 

coast of. • 75 

Chiloe, island 73 

Chimboraco 72. 73 

China 50, 52 

description of its 

wall(N.) 52 

Chinese, religion of. $$ 

Chonas, gulph of.. ....... 75 

Christiana _ 31 

CiudadReal ............. 25 





L 1 I 



r h 






'Hi! 






t ( 1 1 m 

1 



















\ 



/ 















I 












MODERN GEOGRAPHY. — INDEX II. 



Clackmannan 
Clare 



Clonmell 

Clyde, the..... 
Cochin China 

Coimbra ...... 

Colchester .... 



Page 

42 
45 
45 
4^ 
50 
27 
39 






Connecticut 



Constantinople 



• » CC © •• C •« 



Copenhagen 
Coriacs , 



Corriarok 
Cork 



Cornwall ...., 

Coromandel, coast of .. 



65 
16 
17 
50 
45 
45 

■ 

38 
49 



Cotopaxi , 

Cotswold Hills 



/ 






Corsica . IS, S3 

* 

Corunna 25 

.......... 72 

40 

Coventry 39 

Cracow 21,28 

Cradle Mountain 

Cressy M 



41 



♦ 



i 



Crimea.... 
Cromartie 



IB 
15 
41 

46 



Croagh Patrick ......... 

Cuba 63, 68 

Cumberland 

Curacoa 

Cuxhaven 

Cuzco 

Cyprus ............. 



37 
69 

* i 

20 

71 

16 



Dahl 

Dalecarlia, province of 
Damascus 



30 

BO 



< * 



Dantzic 



51 

28 



Page 



Danube 21, 27 

Darfur 59 



Darien, isthmus of 
Davis's Straights 
Dee ...., 

Delaware .. 
Delhi 



•«••€**«• 



Comorin,Cape 49, 55 Denbigh 

Congo 58, 61 



Denbighshire 



70 
64 
40 

65 
50 

38 



Denmark e ... % 14, 15, 31 

Deptford 



Derby .„.. 

Derbyshire 



Hills 



Derry , 

Devonshire , 

Dnieper, or antient 



39 

37 

37 
38 

45 

38 



Borysthenes 



Dnieste 



29 

29 
38 



Dolgelle ...„ 

Domingo, St 63, 68 

Don, the, or Tanais 

Donegal 

Doneola 



Dorchester 



29 

45 

59 
38 
38 



Dorsetshire. 

Douro 26, 27 

Down 

Downpatrick 

Drave 



45 

4:5 

21 



Dresden 17, io ? 20 



Drogheda., 
Drontheim 



45 
31 



Dublin 1* 45 

Dudley... 59 



4 



Dumbarton 

Dumferline 

r » - 

Dumfries „ 42, 43 



43 



Duna 



30 








■\ 



MODERN GEOGRAPHY 



INDEX If. 



Pag 



Dundalk ..... 

Dundee ...... 

Durham ...... 

Dwawala-gin 

D 



wina •»<>•». 



o > 



e 



45 
45 

57 
45 
29 



East Indies 



supposed 



48 



passage to 
Ebro 



64 

26 



Edinburgh 16, 42, 45 

Egypt ............ ......... 57,59 

59 



pyramids of 
religion of... 



QM » <* m 



49109 



62 
5° 



<6 



9)11 ....*... ... 



72 



Eisleben . 

EI Altar H 

Elborus, Mount , 
Elgin, or Murray 

England 



boundaries of..,. 
by whom divided 
chief towns of... 
counties of ....... 

described 

division of 

hills of 



population of.... 

English Channel ......... 

Ennis • 

Enniskillen •••••• 

Eno, gulph of •••• 

Erie, lake of • 

Erzgeburg 



55 

42 
15 

56 
56 

57 

37 

37 

37 
40 

37 

56 



4 






Esseg 

Estremadura ........ 

Evora ••• 



<S3 • • <* 



45 
26 
64, 67 
20 
21 
58 



O 



7 



Ethiopia . 



27 
59 



Page 



Etna, Mount 
Euphrates*... 
Europe 



24 



55 



11, 12 

boundaries of ... 12 

> 

capitals of 16, 17 

latitude of the 



capitals of 



16, 17 



longitude of the 

capitals of ... 16, 17 
principal cities of 16, &c. 

principal islands of 15 

principal moun- 

|l6, &c. 



tains of 



••«••• 



principal rivers 

of 16 3 &c. 

principal states 

of............... 16, 17 

remarkable 

* t 

places of ... 16, &c. 
religions of 51, &c. 



European islands 

Exeter 



15 

3$ 



Falkirk 

Falkland Isles 



Fells 



4i 



75 

58 



Fermanagh or Ennis- 
Feroe Islands ...« 



-45 
51 



. 



Fez 57, 59 

Fezzan 

Fife 



Fingal's Cave 



.......... 59 

42 

46 

Finland .>.. 15 

Firth of Solway . %& 

45 

45 

18 

58 



Forth 
Clyde 



Flanders 
Flint 



*5 















>.! 










Mil 















I 



m 



n; 









\ 









(1 






1' 



ii' 
















t:i 






' 



■ 






I 












MODERN GEOGRAPHY* IN1DEX U 






Page 



Page 







I 






I 












\ 



■ i 



Flintshire 
Florence « 



lorida, East 

West 



Flushing 

Formosa, island of 



38 
22 

65, 68 
65 
19 

50 



Forres ,... 

Forth, the ........ 

Fort Augustus.... 

Fortunatae Insulae 
Foulahs, the ....* 



x XtJ 



43 



4 



rr 



France 



\ 



isle of 



•-© or©©©©©©©©©©©©© 



oepoeco 



Frankfort . 
Franconia 

Fredericks,tadt ..... 

Friendly Isles 



61 

58 
15 
62 

20 



o 



2 



c © 



Funen, island of.. 
Furea, Glacier of 



c *>© e t *> 



31 

74 
15 



I 









♦Lianas •*.«*. »©«... 
Gallicia .. 



«>©0»©ff<C©© 



9 ©r © •©•©©© re© 



c««c«* r •• 



59 



27 



Gallipagoes ...... 



7 



t> 



SCO * f ' • 



45 



Gambia, river ..... 58, 60 

48,49,55 



Ganges.. 

Garonne 



c© © g 



© ii © © • • 



19 
60 






■ 

Geesh 

Geneva ••*• 13, 22, 32 

■ 22 



lake of •••••• 



* »♦, 



..».«« 



ijrenoa .......«...«••• 

George's, St., Channel... 

Georgia 



Island .., 



ec»9(ct«r 



\ 






German Ocean.. «... 

German States 

Germany 



© © © © ©© 



1 3, 23 

36 
65 

75 

36,40 

20 



circles of.... 



:.. H, 19 



c a 



21 



Geysers, or Water Vol 



canoes 



31 



Ghent 

Giant's Causeway ...... 

Gibraltar . 



©*©©©••••«©©©•©*• 



19 
49 



26 



Straights of.*.. 57, 61 



Glamorganshire.......... 

Glasgow o. 



38 



c e « o 1 e • & © 



42, 43 



si 



Glomen 

Gloucester ♦..©•• 37 3 40 

Gloucestershire 
Goa •©©©* 



: o « ^ o o c t o 



© |9«C06«€OQC9bO«CCI 



3©co«oci«oai*» 



Gold coast . 
Gottmgen ••••.... 

Grain coast 



37 
49 
58 

20 



ceo©0©©0©#©©©©© 



Grampian Hills 
Grenada, New 



• e © © c © © c * © © © 



58 
44 

70, v I 



coast of, 



oee iif9i9«eo •© 



Gravesend . 

Great Britain ...... 



«oeio» 



73 



40 



36 



Greenland 



East, or 

Old .., 

West, or 
. New... 



64 



Greenock 



© 9 © 



Greenwich . 

I 

Grenada .... 



r.'O 



©©©••©©•••e©© 



64 
43 
32 
25 






Grisons.. 

Guadaloupe. 69 

Guadalquiver S6 

Guadiana ... 
Guernsey ... 



26 

47 

70 

58 



Guiana *. 

Guildford 

Guinea, coast of 53 

Gulph, Arabian 48,51 

of Bothnia 15,30 

49 






Cambay 
Cadiz .. 



Chonas ••••* 

.folio ©•••••••••••••• 

Jl 3 1IU8>I1€1»©« cuciHtfi 



26 
73 
27 

15, 29 



^L 



MODERN GEOGRAPHY— INDEX IT 

9 



Page 
Gulph, Persian 48, 51 



of Riga 

Siam 

Tonquin .... 

Venice ..., 



• • 



30 



50 
50 



1 



Hsemus, Mount 
Hague, the 



4 









Hainan, island of 
Halifax 



27 
19 
55 
66 
20 
38 



Hamburg 

Hampshire .. 

Hanover 14, 17, 19 

Ham 20 

18 

68 

75 



■ 

Havre de Grace ... 
Hayti, empire of... 
Hebrides, New 



C W *> 9 * • 



Hebrides, or Western 



9 Q © 99 



Isles * 

Hebrus.... 

Hecla, volcano of. 

Helvellyn — 



Hereford »•#»♦♦•*• 

Herefordshire ;.... 



OIOOJIH9 



/ 



99990099 



999»©*»*<»»>***«> tt **» 



Hertford 
Hertfordshire ........**.. 



Hesse Cassel .•«... 

High Blue Land •• ..«*.. 

Highlands 

Himmala, mountain oi' 



• »o ••••••aeo 9 9} 9 c « » 



47 

27 
31 

40 
37,40 

37 
38 
38 
19 

41 
44 



i o 



55 



f 

-» S 99 «J 9 9 



56 



Hindoos, religion o 
Hindoostan « 4 8>49, 56* 

■ 68 



ir- T f * * 9 9) 9 



54 



Hispaniola 

Hoang, river ... 

Holland .; 14, 19 

Holme Moss *.*.» 40 

Honduras «... 65 



»>*> » 9 . *p. - i #&•*•« 



Horn, Cape . 
Hottentots »•.#.. 



* * 



to 



5; 



\ 



Hudson's Bay .... 



Q 9) 



©9> 999919 



Humber .... 
Hungary •••••. 



SJ»»©»«9»»»»»»» 



■ g 



9SOD 999990 



capital of....*. 



Huntingdon ...... 

Huntingdonshire 



Page 

64 

39 
40 

14 

21 

38 



* 



9J 9 



8 



Huron, lake of. 



67 



Hypanis, antient, or the 
Bog .. • 



29 



JalofFs, the 
Jamaica ... 



ft c * 



«C9 



99*.©«*..* •••••••••••..• 



©« 9««filSfM 929*999 



Japan, islands of ,...., 
Japanese, religion of 

Java 
Iceland. 

Ida, Mount .. 

Jerusalem........ 

■ 

Jersey 

Imaus, Northern..... 



58 
68 



56 



56 

55 



13,15,31 



55 



e * 9 • 



«. 



51 



i>) 



Southern 



47 
55 
55 

49 

Kg 

Indus, or Sinde .......... 48, 53 

Ingleborough 40 



India Proper *. 

X II CI X OS* HtCltjh 99MI9I99B9999I 



Inn 



21 



Inverness 41, 43 

John's, St., Island 

ipava, lake of 

Ipswich. ...... .............. 



68 

72 



i8 



Ireland 13, 44 



counties of 

provinces of ... 

1 !>!<** ISiC OX 9 9« ft 9 * • * * *•» • • 9 

Island of Aland .«<'••••„ 



Alderney , 

Antigua .;,-,„. 

Ascension 



9999 



45 
4 4 
47 







47 

69 



i 




| 

! 
















i 
















i 



























. 













*, 



i 






U.J 



i ' 



"f 










MODERN GEOGRAPHY 



INDEX U 






Island of Barbadoes. 



i 









; * 






Borneo 

Bourbon 

Candia 

Cape Breton... 



Cape Verd ... 

Ceylon 

Chiloe ......... 

Corsica ........ 

Cuba 65, 68 



Page 

69 

55 

62 

16 
68 

61 
65 

75 
15 



Curacoa 



3 



69 
16 



Cypru 
Domingo* St., 

or Hispaniola 63, 68 
Formosa 
France ., 
Funen .., 



Georgia 
Great 



56 
62 
15 

73 



Britain 15, 15 



Guadaloupe... 

Guernsey 

Hainan 



• • » 



Helena, St. 

Hispaniola, or 

St. Domingo 
Jamaica ., 



69 
47 
55 
61 



68 
68 

Japan •••**.•••. 56 

Iceland 15, 15,31 

Ireland ......... 

Jersey .......... 



John's, St, ... 
Juan Fernandez 
Long... .v...,*.. 

Madagascar ... 

Madeira 

Majorca ,. 

Malta ..... 



Margarita...... 

Martinico...... 



15 

47 

68 

73 
65 
61 
61 
15 
16 
67 
69 






Islands, 



1 


Page 




62 




15 


Newfoundland 


68 


New Holland 


55 


Nova Zembla 


16 




74 


Porto Rico ... 


6$ 




62 




65 




28,30 


Sandwich, or 




Southern 




Thule 


73 




27 


Sicily 


15 


Staffa 


46 


TenerhTe ...... 


61 


Terra del Fue- 


* 


go, or Land 




of Fire ...... 


75 

| 


Thomas, St. ... 


61 




69 


* 


29 




15 




15, 16 




61 




V JL 

55 




15 


Bahama, or Ln- 






65,6$ 


Bermuda of 






68 




61 

• 




4* 




74 




51 




15 




** 1 



Gallipagos 



• • • t 



75 






y 












MODERN GEOGRAPHY, 



INDEX 1U 



\ 






Page 
Islands, Philippine j 74 Kiang, river........ ao . 



Volcanic 



24 



XVl iClSXS 0«fl«#»»»CClC0efll6«| 



c c 



Isle of Anglesea.. 47 Kilkenny ,.*••»••.. ... 

I Killarney, lake of ...... 

Kincardine, or Mearns... 
King's County 
Kinross .... 



Arran 
Bute. 



4 



Man ... 

Olerori 

Wight 
Isles, Celebezian 

Falkland ... 
Friendly... 
Ladrone... 
Lipari 

Marquesas 

Navigator's 



47 

47 

47 
18 

47 

55 

71 

74 
74 
24 



. . CCOOCCO*. 



OC Bf C 



D 



i 



4 



Pellew 
Sandwich 



• •so •oc««»«9^ 



a occe-:o»c«© 



Scilly ........ 

ociety 



e © 5 *> • o © 



s 



Spice, or Banda... 
Sunda 



Ismail 
Ispahan 

Istria .. 
Italy 






24 

74 

47 
74 

55 

55 

27 

52 

14 

13 



North of............ 21,22 

Central part of .„• 

Southern part of 



Juan Fernandez .. 
Jura, isle of... 

Jutland... 



H9IOI 



O O o « 



qOO»M«*«»««0°« g « 



Ivory Coast 



O ###,Q«0O©»©©# 



25 
24 

73 

47 
14 

58 



29 



Kafa 

Kama .... '29 



Kamschatcka 
Kent 



Kentucky 
Kerry .... 



50 
58 
65 

45 



/ 



T 



Kinsale 



Kirkudbright .. 



c o o a a a 



• GO 



Page 

54 
45 
45 
46 
42 
45 
42 

45 
42 



Konigsberg .... 



COOOOfifiC 0C« 



28 



Labrador, or New Bri- 



tain 



Ladoga, Lake . 
Ladrone Isles .-, 
Lake of Allen ., 

Baikal 



Canadian .... 
of Constance 



46 

29 

74 

45 
54 
67 
22 



Erie .... 64,67 



Geneva 



13,22 



Huron 64,67 

Ipava i.... 



Killarney 

Ladoga mi . 

Loch Lomond 
Loch Ness 

Loch Tay.... 

Michigan ....,• 



72 

46 



<0 



9 



« •• 



c c 



Ontario 
Oresund .. 



*©«©«©• 



© o « c o 






4£ 
4^ 
4£ 
64 
64 



31 



€7 






Slave. 



Superior ......... 64,67 

of Tornea*.. ...... 30 



Tulan, in the 
government of 
Winnepig...... 



29 

67 



Lanark. t## 4 

Lancashire 



9 



4 



5 



•»*•»»#••» 



»»«.'• 



57 










' w 




\V \ 



I 










J 



* 



n-W 



' T 








I 



» frill 











f I 













l! 




li 



/ 









! 

























m 














MODERN GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX II. 



















i 












S 






Page 

.. 37 

36 

I • 15,30 

27 

38 

22 

Lawrence, St, river 66,67 



Lancaster .. 
Land's End 
Lapland ..., 
Larissa 



Launceston 
Lausanne .. 



Leeds 



Leghorn, or Livorno ... 



Leicester 

Leicestershire 



Leinster 



Leipsic 

Lei trim 

Lewes 

Lewis, isle of 
Leyden 



Libanus, Mount 
Liffey .• 

Lifford 

Lima 



Limeric 

Limmat 

Lincoln 

Lincolnshire 

Lipari Isles 

Lisbon 16, 26 

Liverpool 39, 40 

Livorno, or Leghorn ... 23 
Loango . 



39 

22 
37 
37 
44 

20 

45 

38 

47 
19 
55 

46 

45 

71 

45 
22 

38 
38 
24 



Loch Catharine 



58 
43 
44 

43 



Lomond 43, 44 

Ness ... 



Leven 
Lochy 



45 

~45 

v 

■ 43 

Loire %v is 

London »......* 16,38 



Tay 

Vennachar 



Page 

Londonderry 45 

Long Island 65 

Longford 45 

Lothian, East, or Had- 
dington 42 

Mid, or Edin- 
burgh 42 

West, or Lin- 
lithgow 42 

Lough Darg 46 

Earne 46 

Head. 46 

Neagh 46 

Ree 46 

Louisiana 65 

Louth 45 

Louvain 19 

Low Countries 14, lg 

Lucar, St 26 

Lucca .. 25 

Lusatia 22 

Lynn..... 39 

Lyons 17 

Macclesfield 39 

Macgillicuddy Rocks ... 46 

Madagascar, island of... 66 

Madeira Islands 61 

Madras 49 

Madrid..... is 

Magdeburg 20, 28 

Magellan, straights of... 73 

Maidstone £g 

Mainland, isle of 47 

Majorca 15,26 

Malabar, coast of.. 49 

Malacca j 50 

* 

promontory of 55 

Malaga . f f 25 






\ 


















MODERN GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX IJ 



Page 

Malines 19 

Malta 16 

Malvern Hills 40 

Man, isle of, 47 

Manchester 39 

Mangerton ...„ 45 

Manheim 20 

Manilla "... 55 

Manillas 55 

Mantua 23 

Maranon, river 71 

Marengo 21 

Margarita. 69 

Maritz • . 27 

Marquesas, the 74 

Marseilles 17 

Martinico 69 

Maryborough 45 

Maryland 65 

Massachusetts Bay 65 

Masulipatam 49 

Mauritius, islan d of. 62 

Mayence, orMentz 20 

Mayne 20 

Mayo 1 45 

Meath 45 

Mecca 51 

Medina 51 

Mediterranean Sea 12,48 

* 

Medway 40 

Memel 28 

Mendip Hills 41 

Mentz, or Mayence 20 

Merida 26 

Merionethshire 38 

Mersey 40 

Messina 24 

Metallic Mountains 20 

Meuse .,,..,...,,. 19 



T 2 



Page 

Mexico, or New Spain 65 } 66 

gulph of ...... * 60 

Michigan, lake of » 64: 

Middlesex 3 

Milan ., 25 

Mincio 23 

Minden. 2 o 

Minho 27 

Minorca i5 ? 26 

Missisippi 57 

Missouri ## gy 

Modena mtm %" 

Mogul Empire 48 

Molucca Isles 55 

Monaghan ^ 

Mondego 27 

Monmouth 37^ 40 

Monmouthshire 57 

Montgomery 53 

Montgomeryshire sg 

Montpelier j 9 

Montreal $ 6 

Montserrat 26 

M °ravia 21,22,28 

mountains of... 28 

Morea , c 14 

Morocco 57,59 

religion of. 62 

Moscow 17, 28,29 

Mountains, Almighty ... 55 

Abyssinian .. 60 

Altaic chain * 

of ^5 

Andes ....... 72 

Apalachian.. 57 

Arrabeda ... 2 e 

Asia 54 

Bavaria 21 

BelenTag... 5$ 

■ 










' . 












V 






(!' 



i.i'V 



i!| 




« 






in 





















^ 



■■';i!r 



; 






* 



MODERN GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX It 



Page 

Mountains, Black Forest 21 

Carpathian., 28, 29 

Caucasus..,. 55 

England ..... 40 

Erzgeburg... 21 

France 19 

<5ermany ... 21 

Haemus. 27 

riartz •••....• 21 

Him mala.... 54 

Ireland 46 

Italy, Central 23 

Northern 25 

* 

Southern 24 

Mexican .... 68 

Montserrat.. 26 

Moon ..*... 60 

Monrne ... 46 

Nevada 26 

Norway ... 31 

Orcasilas ... 68 

Orizava 68 

Portugal .... 27 

Prussia 28 

Rhodope ... 27 

Russia 30 

Salzburg .... 21 

Scotland .... 44 
Sierra. " Mo- 

rena 26 

*Spain ....»,., 26 

Sudetic. a ,».. 20, 28 

Sweden..,.., 30 

Switzerland. 22 

Tartary.. 54 

Taunda , 50 

Taurus ...,„. 55 

Thibetian ... 53 

Topian *.,,,, 68 



Page 



Mountains, Turkey in 

Europe... 27 

Uralian 29, 50 

Wales „ • 41 

Wicklow .... 46 

Mount iEtna 24 

Atlios 27 

Atlas 60 

Blanc 22 

Elborus, 55 

Ida 55 

Imaus, Northern 55 

Southern 55 

Libanus 55 

Nephen.... e . ...... 46 

Olympus 27,55 

Perdu 26 

* 

Rosa . 22 

Saint Bernard ... 22 

Sinai ... 55 

Vesuvius ..,,»..,.. 24 

Mourne Mountains.*.... 46 

Mozambique ..*,.....,..» 59 

coast of... * 61 

Mull, isle of. ,.. 47 

Mullin.o;ar , 45 

Munich,. . . 17, 20 

Munster 44 

Murcia ... 25 

* * 

Mysore, kingdom of..,..- 49 

* 

Nairn 42 

Namur 19 

Nankin 59 

Nantes , 17, is 

Naples 15, 16, 25 

Natal 59 









I 




MODERN GEOGRAPHY, 



INDEX IT. 






Page 

"Navigator's Isles 75 

Wegrochiefs,kingdoms of 58 

Nephen, Mount 46 

Netherlands 14, 18 

Neva 29 

Newcastle 37 

New Britain,or Labrador 64 

Brunswick •••• 64 

Caledonia 74 

England 65 

Guinea 55 

Hampshire 65 

Hebrides 75 

Holland 55 

Jersey ••••• 65 

Mexico.... ••• 65 

Orleans ••••• 67 

* 

South Wales., 64 

Spain, or Mexico*. • 65 

World 63 

York 65,66 

* 

Zealand .... 74 

Newfoundland, island of 68 

i 

Newry • 45 

Niagara, cataract of...... 67 

Niger, river 60 

Nigritia 59 

Nile, the 59 

falls and source of 

the •••t».tt.....«... ^9 

of Abyssinia 60 

cataracts oi ......*«• 60 

Nismes • 1B 

Normandy, coast of...... 47 

Norfolk 38 

Northampton 37 

Northamptonshire 37 

North CapS eeecoe.e 30 



Page 

Northern States 19 

Northumberland 37 

Norway 15,29,30 

Norwich ........ 38 

Notasia • . 55 

Nottingham 37 

-Nottinghamshire 37 

Nova Scotia 64,68 

Noyon 32 

Nubia , 59,60 

Numantia 26 

* 

Oakham 37 

Ob, the . 54 

the sea of 54 

Ocean, Indian 48 

Pacific 48 

Oder 28 

Ohio, river 67 

Oldham 39 

1 

Oleron, isle of 19 

Olmutz «... 2] 

Olonetz, government of 29 

Olympus, Mount.... 27,55 

Omagh .*••• 45 

Onega 29 

Ontario, lake of .... 64,67 

. Oporto •••• 26,27 

Orcasilas ..••••«•••••••••••• 68 

Oresund, lake of ..«••.••• 31 

Orinoco ....*.... 72 

Orissa 50 

Orizava 68 

' Orkneys, the 41, 47 

Orleans* «...*. lg 

New ., 67 

Ostend .*........*.. 19 

■ 

Otaheite mm ( ., 74 

i 

7 5' 






/ 










v \i\ f 












M 



v\ 








y 










I 









n 



I* 



\m 




II 















MODERN GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX II, 



1 



Otise- 

Owhyhee ... 

Oxford , 

Oxfordshire 



Page 

40 

74 
37 
37 



Pacific Ocean 4g 54 

Padua 

Paisley 



Paler 



•mo 



Pampas 
Panama 



25 

45 

16 
70 

58 



isthmus of... 64, 65, 70 



Paraguay 



river of 



Parana, river 
Paris ,. 



70 

72 

72 

- 

16 

25 

21 

• 70 

Pauda ..••'... 30 



Parma ... 
Passau ... 
Patagonia 



Pavia 
Peebl 
Pegu ■ 
Pekin 



es 



25 

42 
50 
32 



Pellew Isles 74 

Pembroke 

^ ^ ^ ^ v v 9 • m m m w n 

Pembrokeshire 



58 

38 

Pennigent ,. 40 

Pennsylvania $5 



Perdu, Mount 26 

Persia 48, 52, 56 

Persian Gulph 48, 53 

Perth 42,43 



Peru 



coast of. 



71 

• 75 

Petersburg 17 29 

Philadelphia ee 

Philippines 55,74 

Philipstown .,.,,..,,, 4$ 



Page 
Pichinca 72 

Piedmont 

Pisa ..., 



15 

25 



Placentia .. 25 

Plinlimmon 40,41 

Plymouth 39 

Po 



Poictiers 
Poland ., 



antient capital of 



kingdom of 



23 
17 

14 



21 



29 



Polynesia 74 



description of 



74 



Pomona, isle of 47 

Pondicherry 49 

Porto Rico 68 

Portsmouth 






( Portugal w a 



39 



Potosi 



7 



71 



Potowmack gg ^ 

Potsdam 2 & 

Prague 21 



Presburg ^\ 

Presteign $g 



Preston 

Prussia 



Pyrenees 18 



p9 
14,28 



26 



Q uebec 66,67 

Queen's County 45 

Quito ?1 

province of ...... 73 

Radnor Forest. 41 

Radnorshire 53 

Ratisbon 20 

Reading 38 



Red Sea 55 3 59 9 

Re-Union, island of. 



62 

62 




y 







MODERN GEOGRAPHY, 



INDEX II. 



Renfrew 
Reynosa 
Rheims., 



Page 
42 

26 
18 



Rhine ••«• 20,21,22 



circles of 



Rhode Island 
Rhodope .„.., 



22 
65 
27 



Rhone 18,22 

Riga 29,30 

75 

72 



Riobamba 

Rio de la Plata 



Janeiro, or St. Se- 



bastian 



Rivers of Africa 



America, North 



South 



Asia .... 

Austria . 
Belgium 

England 
France , 



- ; 



Germany 
Holland 

Ireland .. 

Italy ■ 



*••••• 



Norway 

Portugal 

Prussia 

Russia 

Scotland 

Spain 

Sweden ..... 

Switzerland ... 

Turkey in Eu- 
rope 

Wales ......... 



Rome 

Rosa, Mount 

Roscommon 

Ross 



71 
59 
67 
71 
53 

21 
19 
40 

18 
20 
21 

45 
23 

31 

27 
28 

29 

A3 

26 

30 

22 



27 
40 
16 
21 
45 



40 



Ross-shire 
Rotterdam 
Rouen .... 



Page 

41 

19 



f^ 



Roxburgh 



1? 

42 

28,50 

47 
13 



Russia in Europe 14, 28 

Rutlandshire 37 



Rugen 

Rum, isle of, 
Rumelia .... 



/ 



Sahara .. 57,60 



Saint Andrews 



43 



r 



Lawrence, river 



of. 64, 66, 67,68 



Jago 



Helena,islandof... 
Salvador, or Ba- 



se 

61- ' 



/ 



hia 



Thomas, island of 
Salamanca ...... 



%> c * • ? • » ••• 



Salonica 

Salzburg 

Samarcand 

Sandwich Islands, or 



71 

61 

i 

23 

33 

27 
21 

53 



Southern Thule 



73 
25 



Saragossa 

Sardinia 15,23 



Save 



Saxony 

Seafell 

Scheld 



21 



14, 19,21 

40 

i 19 

Scilly Islands ... 47 

Scotland 16, 41 



counties of ... 



Sea of Aral 



Archipelago 



•••«Ml|# 



41 
54 
12 



Arctic, or White... 15,29 

of Azoph 12,15, 29 



T 4 



ill! 



! 



h 







1 1 



If J 




























Tl t I 



MODERN GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX II 



>"> 



ea of Baikal 



Balti 



Page 

54 
14 



Slieb Donard 



Sligo 



BIack...l2, 14, 21, 29,50, 50 Smolensk 

Caspian 29, 50,54 



Page 

46 

45 

28 



Mediterranean 12, 4s 



Smyrna 



North 19j20 Snaefial 



of Ob 



54 



Snowdoi 



i 



Yellow i 5o,S4 Society Island 






Sebastian, St., or Rio Ja- 



neiro 



3 3 3 



Seine 

Selkirk 



71 
18 

42 



Senegal, river . 58,60 



a 



o 



Senegarnbia, coast of ... 
Seringapatam ..,.,*«>*• 

OCVLI il « ft # ft ft ft » ft ft #•« 0*9090 

Seville ».*.. 

Shannon ... 

Sheffield 

Shehallion .. 8 ... 

■ 

Shetland Isles ..., 
Shiraz" ...... 



5J3 



o 9 o o s a a c a 



• • c © 9 



58 
59 
49 
40 
25 
45 

39 

44 

47 
52 



government of 29, 50 
51 

31 

.-..,.. 41 

74 

58 

38 

15 

Southampton 58 

Spain ....„ 13,26 

Spanish Main 

Spey ... 

Stafford 



Sofala , 

Somersetshire .,., 
Sound, passage of. 



Shrewsbury ao 37,40 Stralsund 

Shropshire ., I 

Sicalpa, peak of a 

Siam 



37 
73 

SO 



70 
43 
37 

37 

65 

65 

65 

42,43 

17 
44 

30 

Stutgard 17,20 

Sudan 

Suez . 



Staffordshire 

States, Middle 

Northern 

Southern .. 

Stockholm 

Stoneh 



\ 



aven 



Mte««a8« 



• ot>«03«e«»ftft 



Siberia , 51, 53,54 

15,23 

.— 58 



Sicilv.... 

Sierra Leon 



ooiieMi»«M0diMe eeM | 

Suffolk 

Sumatra 



59 
59 
58 

55 



Morena 
Nevada 



Silesia . . 

Sinai, Mount 

Sinde, or Indus. 

Siracnsa ..«»...» 

Slave Coast *.. 



50510*063039 



Judj&Q •••»•»••**•* • ■ 



26 
26 
22 
55 
55 
24 
40 
58 
67 



Surriatran Isles 
Sunda Isles ... 
Sunderland ... 



Superior, Lake 
Surat 



55 
55 

59 
67 
49 

67 

58 
41 



Surrey 

Susquehanna, river 
Sussex 

Sutherland ....... 



#€«>••««• 










; 






X 



v 



MODERN GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX II. 



Page 
Sweden \s 9 30 

.Swiss Alps 20 

Switzerland 13,22 

Syene, or Assouan ...... 59,60 

Syria 6t . e 48, 55 

Tagus or Tajo 27 

Tanais, or the Don 29 

Tarento .- 24 

Tartars, religion of 56 

Tartary... , .. 50 

■ 

Calmuc .... 50 

Chinese, or 

Mongul 50 

Independent.., 53 

mountains of ... 47 

I 

Russian 50, 53 

Taorida 30 

Taurus, mountains of... 55 

Tav, the 43 

Xchutuskoi ,-51 

Teneriffe, island of ...,.,. « SI 

pike of ........ 61 

Tenassees ............. 65 

Terra del Fuego ......... 71 

Tesino • 23 

Thames 40 

Thibet .. 50, 54 

1 

Thibetian Mountains ... 54 
Thibetians, religion of... 56 

Tiber ~ ~ 23 

Tiess ...... 21 

Tigris, the 51, 53 

Tilsit 28 

Tipperary 45 

Tobolsk 53 

jL olcclo •#••••••• *• •©»©•• ©•• 20j -^0 









Page 

Tonquin, gulph of. 50 

Topian Mountains. ...... 68 

Tornea 30 

town of. 30 

Tortosa .., . 72 

Toulon 17 

Trafalgar 26 

Tralee 45 

Tranquebar 49 

Trebia , 23 

Trent .. 40 

^Trieste .. .... 21 

Trim................. 45 

Trinidad ., .... 69 72 

Tucuman yj 

Tulan ••........ 29 

Tunis 57, S9 

Turin i3y 16 

Turkey in Europe... 13, 21, 27 
Tweed-dale. 43 

Tweed, river... ....... 43 

Tyrol ... .. 14 

Tyrolese Alps 20 

Tyrone..,. 45 

* 
VcliCnCicX* MMHiD«0l0M9O9M 25 

Valladolid 25 

Ubes, St < 27 

Venice 13, 23 

gulph of...., 25 

Vera Cruz 66, 68 

Veragua $$ 

Verd, Cape 53 

Vermont ^5 

Versailles 28 

Vesuvius, volcano of ... ^ 24 
Vienna •#••••«••„«*„*,„ 17 

» 

1 
/ 









-i< 





















MODERN GEOGRAPHY 



INDEX II. 






Page 

Virginia 65 

Vistula, or Wiesel 28 

Uist North 47 

South 47 

Vittoria 25 

Ulster 44 

Volcanic Islands.. 24 

Volcano ofiEtna 24 

Hecla.. 31 

Vesuvius ... 24 
Water, or 

Geysers... 31 

Volga 29 

Upsal 30 

Ural 30 

Utawas River 66 

m 

Waal River... 20 

Waldshut.. 22 

Wales 13, 36 

hills of 41 

Wallachia 27 

Warsaw ; f# 28 

Warwick 37 

Warwickshire 37 

Washington 66 

Waterford 45 

Waterloo 19 

Waygat Island 29 

Weser 20 

Westmeath 45 

Westmoreland,. 37 

Westphalia 21 

Wexford ..„, 45 






Page 

Whernside 40 

Whitehaven 39 

Wicklow 4$ 

Wiesel, or Vistula 28 

Wigan 39 

Wigtown 42 

Wight, isle of. 47 

Wiltshire 33 

Winnepig, lake of. ....... 67 

Woolwich 39 

Wolverhampton 39 

Worcester 36 % 40 

Worcestershire. 35 

Wrekin, the 40 

Wurtemburg 14^ 20 

Wye 4 

Xeres 26 

* 

Yarmouth 39 

Yellow Sea £0, 54 

York.. 37 

7 

Yorkshire... ...... ......... 37 

Yssal River, 20 

Yucatan C6 

Yvica * J5 

Zaire, or Congo River 60 

Zanguebar 59 

Zealand, island of 1 5, 1 6 

New 75 

Zembla, Nova is 

Zurich...,. .....,♦... 22 






s 













i 



K 



t W 






- 



ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX L 



Page 

ABOUKIR, victory of 254 

Abraham, the inherit- 
ance of his seed.. 217 

Abraham and his family, 

burial-place of. <,<,.. 219 

Abu Oheidah 3 225 



emia 



156 



Acad 

Achaia, states of, where 

assembled... 149 

Achilles sent to the court 
of Lycomedes ......... 180 

Acro-ceraunian moun- 
tains, dreaded by 



mariners 



Acropolis of Athens.... 

Actium, battle of. 



Admetus, king of Pheras 
Adonis, a fabulous in- 
cident attending his 



168 
154 

164 
166 



death 



216 



JEgialus king of iEgialea 
iEgos Potamos, battle of 
iEneas, the conductress 

of the trumpeter of 

burial place of the 



145 
175 



94 



nurse of. 



vEolians 



90 
145 






s 



iEolus, 
ing of. 



Page 



1 109 

iEsculapius, by whom 

worshipped 146 

-Etna, its eruptions, de- 
nted ■•...' 105 

-ffitolians, their alliance 

with the Romans . i 62 

Africa, account of 240 

peopled with 

monsters 2 4o 

Agamemnon, beacons of hg 






royal city 



of 



147 



iEgates Insulae, battle of 107 Alcimus 



Agncola 115,127 

1st and 2d wall of 115 

Agrippina , lB2 

Aj ax, birth-place of. ..154 

Aiosoluc, a corruption of 
Agio-Tzeologus 



••••#• 



Alcinous 

Alesia, famous siege of 
Alexander gives battle 

to Poms... 

weeps that he 

can advance 

no farther... 



199 
255 
18$ 
129 



1 



237 



238 












m 




1 



n 






ii 












!| 








I 
















i 

■ 



\ 






ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY.— INDEX I 






Page 

Alexander visits the 

mouths of 

the Indus 238 - 4 

perilous situa- 
tion of the 
army of... 204 

his narrow es- 
cape ;•••»••«• 206 

his capture of 

Tyros 217 

scene of his 

death 227 

hardships of... 233 

and Darius, 5d 
and decisive 
battle be- 
tween 233 

founder of 

Alexandria 255 

Alexandria, the great 

mart for Eastern mer- 
chand'ze, before the 
discovery of the Cape 
of Good Hope 253 

Alexandrian library ... 255 

Alpis Cottia, or Cottian 
Alps, why so called... 127 

Alcinous, king 183 

Amaltheum, the coun- 
try seat of Atticus ... 168 

Amathusia, a name of 

Venus ... 186 

Amazons 193 

Amphiaraus 164 

Amphilochus 164 

Amyclae, why called Ta- 

cit3s 147 

Amyclas, founder of 

Amyclae ..,. 14? 



Pagn 

Anacreon, birth-place of 1 98 

Anastasius, emperor ... 175 
Anaxagoras, birth-place 

of.. . 195 

Anaximenes savesLamp- 

saeus 194 

birth- [ ice of 201 
Ancient world described 79 

Greeks and Ro- 
mans, their 

knowledge of 
^ the world very 
confined 70 

Andalusia, whence de- 
rived 122 

Andromache, birth-place 

of. 196 

Andromeda 220 

Antenor 83 

Antigonus „ 208 

Antioch, our Lord's dis- 
ciples first called Chris- 
tians there 213 

Antiochian Daphne ...215,215 

Antiochus Eupator 255 

Antiochus, king of Sy- 
ria ]65, 196, 200 

Antipater, besieged by 

the Athenians 165 

escape of. 165 

Antoninus, wall of . . ^. . US 

Antony 84 

Apelles, birth-place of... 185 
Apellicon of Teios, pur- 
chaser of Aristotle's 

writings., # 196 

Apion, last of the Ptole- 
mies .ossea.c... •••••••••• *00 

Apis, king of Apia.-— 1 45 
16 



■ 










I 



, 



ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY. INDEX I 



Apolio 



noi6ooco»0roo9e 



Page 
165 



% 



Page 



temple of 108, 165 

where worshipped 147 
abode of ......... 159 



Asia Minor, twelve of its 

cities destroyed by 
an earthquake . 



birth-place of..... 
Sminthian .... 

residence of ...... 



181 
196 

203 



201 

Asian water-fowl .... 199 

Atalanta, native place of 1 50 

Atarneus .* ......... 197 

Atergatis, the Syrian 



Apollonius Rhodius 176 

Tyanensis, birth- 



goddess 



215 



Athenians, defeat of, in 



place of, 



209 



Sicily .... 



« • • 9 • ••*••»•» 



Apuleius, birth-place of 247 Athens, topography of... 



106 
154 



Arabs, their origin. ..... 225 

Arcadia, the celebrated 






coun- 



pastoral 

try of the poets 
whence it derives 

its name (N.) ... 



150 



151 



Archemorus 146 

Archipelago, a corrup- 
tion, whence derived 
Archon, court of the 



187 



chief 



Areopagus, court of... 
Arginusae, battle of. 

Argo, the famous ship 166,176 



155 
155 

197 



231 



Argonautic expedition 166, 
Ariadne 182 

■ 

Arfstotle, birth-place of 172 



library and writ- 



ings of 



196 



o 

4-J 



89 



Asia Minor, description 



of 



188. 



Athos, monasteries of 171, 187 



cut th rough by 
Xerxes 

' its shadow......... 



Atropates * 

Attains leaves the king- 
d'om of Pergamus to 



172 
179 

234 



the Romans 



OtlOttMSM 



197 



Aventine Hill, why of ill 



omen 



93 



Augustine. St.... 243 

birth-place of 246 

■ 

Augustus, celebrated li- 



brary of 



03O 



residence of 

restores th 



93 
93 









kingdom of 

Numidia to 
Juba 



243 



Ark of Noah, where said 

to have rested • 231 

Arminius, a commander 

of the Cherusci 135 

Artemisia, queen of Caria 20 

Asdrubal, defeated by 
Liv. Salinator and 
Claudius Naro .... 



rebuilds Car 



thage .. 



e o c e • 



Aurelian, the emperor... 
Ausonia, whence derived 



246 

215 

81 



■ 

Babylon, description o 



f 



226 
walls of. 226 

\ taken by Cyrus 226 



Babylonians, addicted to 
astr ol ogy 



MMtt«fMM«M 



227 



I 



i; M 



Ml 






• 














• 




1 












nil 









!»t 



I 








- 



/ 



/ 



. • 



* 



ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX I 



( 



Page 













i 



I 






Bacchus 159 

temple of 154 

where worshipped 180 
founder of the 
temple of Ju- 
piter Ammon 250 
Baiae, palaces of Roman 

nobles at 94 

Bajazet, his defeat of the 

Christian army, 

&c 141 

mnqnered by Ti- 

mour the Great 192 

Balbec, ruins of 214 

Battle of Aboukir 254 

Actium 164 

Arbela 255 

Beneventum... 96 

Cannae 98 

Caudium 96 

Cunaxa 229 

Gaugamela .... 255 

Granicus 194 

Ipsus 208 

Issus 207 

* 

, Leuctra 158 

Marathon 157 

Methone 170 

near the river Me- 

taurus 89 

of Munda 122 

Pavia ,.... 86 

Ph&rsalia 167 

Philippi 174 

Placentia 84 

Platasa 157 

Salamis. 154 

Salfiis Teuto- 

bergiensis... 155 



Page 
Battle of Thapsus 243, 246 

^ 162 

Ticinus 245 



Thermopylae... 



Trasymenus ... 
Trebia 



245 
84 

Zama 245, 247 

Battus,founder of Cyrene 250 

Belisarius 245 

Bellerophon ,...«... 203 

sent against 

the Solymi 

Bellona, of the Eastern 

nations, the 

goddess of 
Love. 



204 



195 



temple of, plun- 
dered by An- 



tony 



•ce««A«rft4 



■20'- 

Bells, where invented... 94 

Belus 226 

temple of 214 

Bias, birth-place of 200 

Boadicea, defeated by 
Suetonius Paulinus ... 

Bocchus 241,24 

Breeches, whence de- 
rived (N.) 126 

■ 191 



113 



Brennus 

Bridges, the longest in 

Europe 141 

Briseis 197 

♦ 

Britain, peopled from 



Gaul 



ill 



divided into 

provinces ... 

Browne, Mr., an English 



115 



traveller 251 



Bruce, Mr., mistook the 
Astapus for the Nile... 



258 



IO 






i 



/ 









V 



ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX J. 






Page 

84 
84 



Brutus, where besieged 

rescued f 

Bucephalus, the famous 
horse of Alexander ... 

Buonaparte defeated by 

Sir Sidney Smith 221 



257 



Cabin, the 178 

Cadmus, founder of 



Thebes 



the Phoenician 
Csesar lands in 'Britain... 

resisted at Ilerda 



159 
215 

111 



or Lerida 



120 



from what place 
of Gaul he em- 
barked to in- 
vade Britain ill, 132 

his landing- place 



in Britain 



111 



his concise ac- 
count of his vie- 
tory over Phar- 



naces 



193 



his victory over 

Metellus Scipio 

in Africa 247 

passes the Rubi- 



con 



.87 



Calais and Zethus 183 

Calisto, story of (N.) ... 151 

Calvary, Mount ......... 218 

Calydonian boar-hunt .... 165 

Camhyses,his army over- 
whelmed by 



the sands in 

the deserts 
of Africa . . . 

destroys Thebes 



251 

257 



Page 

Cannae, battle of ......... 9^ 

Capitol S3 

Cappadocians refused 
their liberty ............ 209 

Caractacus defeated by 

Ostorius Scapula ...... 115 

Carian, a name for slaves 201 
Carthage, a colony of 

Tyrians ...... 245 

called Cartheda 
by its found- 
ers and C&r- 

chedon by 
the Greeks .. 245 
destroyed by 
Scipio Afri- 
canus Minor 245 
Carthaginian brothers, 
two buried alive 249 

Carthaginians, defeated 
by the Romans off the 
JEgates Insulae....- 107 

Cartismandua, queen of 
the Brigantes 214 

Cassander 273 

Castalides, a name of the > 
Muses xso 

Castor and Pollux, birth- 
place of .... 247 

Cato, death of 244 

the elder..... ^45 

his march along 
the Syrtes in- 
fested by ser- 

pents 249 

Catullus, birth-place of.. 8 g 

Caucasian passes .. . . , 2 5 1 

Caudium, why celebrated 96 
Ceramicus 155 

* 






1 




' H *; fllW 



: 








1 






11 














































/ 



1 



j 



■■■■ 



^■^^^■^^^ 
























• 



ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX I. 



■ 

Page 



Cerberus, drasreed from 
hell by Hercules ...... 190 

Chaeronca, battles of .... 158 

Chares, pupil of Lysippus 185 
Cherries brmight from 
Pontic into Italy by 
Lucuilus 193 



wine 



\ 



Chian 

Chimera, the fabulous 



184 



\ 



monster 



203 



232 



China, whether known 

to the antients 237 

Choa*pes, its waters 
drank by the Persian 

kings 

Christ, the scene of his 

birth, suffer- 

ings, and death 

his appearance 

to the two 

disciples going 

to Emmaus... 

Christian forces, defeated 

by the Saracens, under 

Abu Obeidah 



217 



219 



Chryses, father of Briseis 

Chrvsostom, St., place 

, of his banishment 

Churches, Seven, men- 
tioned bv St. John in 



223 
196 



210 



the Revelations 



^^^ ,.. 197,199, 

200, 201 

Cicero, birth-place of ... 91, 92 



celebrated villa 



of 



91 



proconsul of Ci- 



licia 207, 214 



his pretensions to 
a triumph 



• »*t* 



207 



Page 



Cimbri defeated by Ma- 



ntis 



%$ 



Claudia, the Roman 
vestal (N.)... ...... 



191 



209 



206 



Claudius, emperor, foun- 
der of Arch elais 

Cleopatra, account of 
her visit to Antony ... 

Colonos, hiil of 156 

Colophon in printing, 

explained .., 199 

Colossus of Rhodes 185 

Conon defeats the Lace- 
daemonians at Argi- 



nusae 



9 9 



197 



Constantinople, Roman 

Empire transferred to 
Constantinople taken by 

the Turks 



176 



Copts 

Corcyra, sedition of, 



176 

252" 
183 



Corinth, destroyed by 
Mummius the Roman 



General 



149 



Coronea, battle of 15& 

Corsica, by whom colo- 



nized 



109 



by whom peo- 
pled .. 



109 

. by whom taken 109 
, why celebrated 109 



Corcycian Cave 
Cottian Alps...., 



Council of Trent 

Countries. North of the 
Baltic, thought by the 
antients to consist of 
a number of islands 

(N.) - 



160 
127 
159 



18& 



\ 






-"V* 








ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX I. 






Page 



Crassus, Roman tri- 
umvir, scene of his 



death 



228 



Cretans, skilled 



in ar- 



chery 



182 



190 



Croesus, residence of .... 200 

captivity of. 200 

oracle given to 
Cumasan Sybil, residence 

of 94, 198 

i 

Curetes, or Idasi Dac- 

tyli, worship of 182 

Cybele, worship of.... 182, 191 



image 



D 



of 



191 



Cyclades, why so called 181 
Cyllenius, a name given 

to Mercury 152 

Cynetheans, their rus- 



ticity, 
for.... 



how accounted 



Cynosarges 

Cyrene, bequeathed to 



151 
155 



the Romans 



250 



Cyrus, his expedition 



against Artax- 



erxes 



215 



« defeated 



and 



slain by Ar- 



taxerxes 



o 



29 



tomb of 252 

founder of Cy- 



roschata 



takes Babylon.... 
Cytseis, a name given to 



236 

226 



Medea 



231 



Cytherea, a name of 



Venus 



183 



Daedalus 



182 



> 



V 



Page 

Danube, an account of 

the countries 
South of the 138 
where it changes 

its name 141 

Trajan's bridge 
over it 141 

D'Anville, a trifling 

error of. 187 

Dardanelles of Lepanto 149 
Darius, defeated by Alex- 
ander at Issus 207, 215 

Darwin, Dr., his descrip- 
tion of the army of 
Cambyses overwhelm- 
ed by the sand (N.) ... 251 

David 218 

Daunia, whence derived 97 
Daunus, king of Apulia 97 

Deiotarus,Cicero'sfi r iend 192 

Cicero's Ora- 

* 

tion in favour 

of 192 

Delhi, city of, taken by 

Timur-leng (N.) 25S 

Dellium, defeat of the 

Athenians at 158 

Delos, its sanctity 181 

antient names of 181 
thought moveable 

antiently 181 

Delphi, oracle pf 16\) 

Demetrius Poliorcetes 166, 208 
Democritus, birth-place 

of 174 

Demophoon 172 

Demosthenes, the place 

where he poisoned 
himself.... % 14$ 

* 

■ 



V 




.1 






I: 





! 



* 



1 m 




m 















; 






i 






•J ! 



ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX I. 



Demosthenes, death of 
Derbe, whence derived.., 
Diana, celebrated temple 

and statue of ... 

statue of, carried 

off by Xerxes 



Page 

166 
205 



156 



156 






birth-place of 181 

temple of 199 



Dido, her stratagem in 
founding Carthage .... 

Dindymene, a name of 
Cybele 



244 



191 



Dioclesian 228 

Diogenes, birth-place of 191 
Diomede, founder of the 
city of Arpi and Canu- 



smm 



98 



202 



Dionysius Halicarnassen- 
sis, birth-place of ....*. 

Dorian, colonies 145, 155 

Drusus, the projector of 



a canal which 

now forms the 

Zuyder Zee ... 

subdues the Ge- 



154 



nauni 



86 



Eburones, a people of 

Gallia, who 
were extir- 



pated 

Caesar 



by 



152 



a Roman le- 



gion 



slaugh- 



£ 



tered by them 
Egypt, the nurse of the 



132 



arts 



its revolutions... 



252 

252 









Page 



Egyptian kings, sepul- 



chres of, 



25 



( 



Elagabalns, temple of... 
Elatea, city of, taken by 



214 



Philip 



160 



Eleusinian Ceres, ac- 
count of the removal 



of the statue of 



153 



Eleusinian mysteries ..... 155 



abo- 
lished by the emperor 
Theodosius 



155 



Elijah, scene of his mira- 



cles 



Ennius, birth place of... 

Epaminondas, death of .. 

memorable 



217 

99 

159 



victory of 1 50 

his defeat 

of the La- 



cedaemo- 
nians .... 



158 



Eponymi, statues of. 155 

Eriphyle 164 

Erythrean Sibyl 198 

Esau 

Etrurians, their origin... 

addicted to 

soothsaying 
Eumenes, king of Perga- 



225 

87 



87 



mus 
library 



196 



of, 



containing 

200,000 vo- 
lumes ...... 



19G 



Euphrates, diverted into 

a new chan- 



nel 



•••* 



226 






















* 



ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX I. 












E xarchs of Ravenna 






Page 
215 



Euphrates, fords of, 

Euripides, tomb of 172 



84 



Forms, to which some 
countries have been 

■ 

thought antiently to 
bear a resemblance 

(N.)...~ no 

Fortune, temple of, at 

Antium (N-) 90 

FossWay 117 

Four Empires of the An- 
tient World * 255 

* 

Gael i 125 

Galen, birth place of .... 197 

Galilee of the Nations.... 220 

Gallia, dvisiion of 125 

altered 

, by Augustus .. 125 

Gaugamela, battle of .'.. 235 
Gaulish tribes have left 
the name of the people 
to the capital of the 
province 128 

aulish priestesses 151 

Gauls, a colony of, in 

Asia Minor, 191,192 

Gelimas, the last king of 

the Vandals 243 

Gell, Mr., his description 

of the plain of Troy... 195 
Gergovia, famed for its 

long resistance against 

Csesar 128 

G^rmania, division of . . . 154 
Germanicus defeats the 

Cherusci .♦#•••»*•••••♦•• 15 ^ 



. ' Page 

■ 

Gibraltar, a corruption, 

whence derived 122 

Glaucus, residence of... 159 

the Lycian hero 205 

Golden Apples 260 

Fleece 231 

Gordian, the tomb of ... 229 

knot, cut 1 by 

Alexander ... 192 

■ 

Gorgons, their fabled re- 
sidence 247 

Grsecia Antiqua, des- 
cription of 144 

a name of Greece, 
unknown in the 

\ 

Roman law (N.) 144 

Granicus, battle of 194 

Grasshoppers, golden, 

worn by the ancient 

Athenians 167 

Grecian chronology, 

epoch of ... 148 
fleet, returning 
from the siege of 
Troy, wrecked 
off Caphareus... 179 

islands, description 
of 178 

Greece, reduced to a Ro- 
man province (N.)... 144 

Gregory, Nazianzen, 

birth-place of 209 
Nyssen, birth- 
place of ... 310 
Gyndes, diverted into 
360 channels by Cyrus 227 

Hadrian, description of 
his rampart. ............ 1 15 












, 






* ■ 



it 











■I'li 












IT 2 






i 






I 



>U 












\ 



ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY 



INDEX I. 



s 


















s 



*j 



. 



Page 
Halicarnassus, besieged 

by Alexander 202 

'Hannibal, banished Car- 
thage 246 

his first .Victory 84 
place of his cross- 
ing the Alps, 

(N.) 85 

the Romans de- 

feated by him 86 

his memorable 
defeat of the 
Romans 88 

I 

his route over 

the Alps 127 

betrayed......... 189 

tomb of i 190 

Harpies, destroyed by 

Hercules 158 

t 

Hecataeus, birth-place 

of 202 

Helabas, supposed resi- 
dence of the first pa- 

* 

rent of mankind 238 

Hellas, a name of 

Greece unknown to 
Homer, (N.) 144 

Helle, sister of Phryxus 175 
Heraclitus, birth-place 

of 202 

Herculaneum ' over- 
whelmed 96 

Hercules, death of 165 

pillars of. ...... 122 

his victory over 
the Nemaean 
Lion 146 

favourite resi- 
dence of... 146 



Page 

Hercules, his contest with 

the river-sod 
Achelous .... 16a 
pillars of ... 122, 242 

Hercynian Forest 157 

Hermae, vestibule of .... 155 
Hermin Street 



118 



1 

Hero, a priestess of Ve- 
nus 

Herod 



175 
220 



Antipas 221 



Herodotus, birth-place 



of 



202 



his account of 
Egyptian Thebes ....~ 

Hesiod, birth-place of ... 
Hesperides, garden of 



257 
159 



the 249, 260 



Hills of Rome 

Hippocrates, birth-place 



92 



of 



185 



Hippolytus of Euripides, 



scene of 



146 



Holy Land 257 

Homer, his epithet of 



Nestor 



148 



his terms for an- 

tient Greece 
and Virgil's lad- 

the 



144 



der of 



giants com- 
pared and il- 
lustrated 



• » • • 



167 



reputed birth- 
place of ... 184, 198 

places which con- 
test his birth 



Horace, his retreat 

illustrated 



184 
91 

122 



t 



/ 






i 



ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX I. 






1 1 



i. 



Page 



Horace, a tribune in the 

republican ar- 
my at' Philippi 
interpretation of, 



(N.) 



Hornemann, Mr., his ac- 
count of the Oasis of 
Siwah (N.) 



o 



destroyed by 



Titus 



destroye by 

Nebuchad- 



nezzar 



Jethro, father-in-law to 



Moses 



Ikenild Street.. 

Iliad, whether written 
by Homer 



Patmos 



174 



250 



251 



Idaei Dactyli 182 

Jectan, or Kahtan, son 

ofJEber.... 225 

Jerusalem, topography 



218 



219 



226 



225 

117 



184 



Imaus, chains of 236 

John, St., banished to 



185 

197 






Ionia, whence derived... 

Ionian colonies 145,153 

Josephus, the historian 
Iphigenia in Tauris, 



222 



scene of 

sacrifice of 



145 
158 



Page 

Isauricus, a name given 
to Publius Servilius... 205 

Issus a battle of. 207 

Isthmian Games, where 



celebrated 



Jtalia, whence derived... 

bounded 

Italian Islands 



Juba 

Judith, delivers the Jews 



150 
81 

82 
104 

243 



from Holofernes 



221 



Jugurtha 243 

Jugurthine war 243 

Julia, daughter of Au- 



gustus 



of 



Ipsus, battle of 208 Kaliphat ofAbdel-Melek 



Isxnael, son of Abraham 



Kypt, a name of Egypt 



a 



by Hag 
Isaurian and Cilician pi- 
rates destroyed by 



225 



Pompey 



204, 206 



Labyrinth, the Cretan... 

Egyptian ... 
Laestrigonian wine 



V 5 



90 



Julian, death of 229 

Juno Lacinia, temple of 10 1 

where worshipped 185 
Jupiter Amnion, temple 



250 



251 



Jupiter Ammon, temple 
of, its site discovered 
Jupiter Olympius 143 

where nursed 182 

fed by bees 182 

birth place of 182 

Urius, celebrated 

temple of 190 

father of Bacchus 

Juvenal the occasion of 



250 



his 15th satire 259 
his place of exile 258 



246 
252 



182 

256 
10$ 



I 



























Mi 



■ 












■ 

1 







u 



w, 















ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX I. 













Lucullus 



Page 

Leander, 175 

Learning, restoration of 176 Ludi Atellani 
Legio, Leon, whence it 

derived its name 120 

Lemnian women, massacre 

committed by them... 
Leonidas, memorable stand 



Page 

, 250 

: 95 

Lustrum, its period 148 

Lutatius Catulus 107 



178 



Lycaeum 156 

Lysander, Athenian fleet 

destroyed by 175 

made by 162 Lysimachus 199,208 

Lernean Hydra, descrip- 



Maecenas, descended from 

the antient kings 

of Tuscany (N.) 87 
splendid palace of, 



&c 



tion of. 146 

Lesbian wine 184 

Leucate, rock of. ...».»••• 163 

Leuctra, battle of. 1 58 

Liba?i, Libanos 226 

Libethrides, a name of 

the Muses 159 

Libumian ships in the I 

battle of Actium 140 Magna Graecia, why so 

Library of Eumenes, re- I 

moved to Alexandria 
by Antony and Cleo- 
patra 



92 



Maenalius, a name of Pan 1 50 
Maeonius, a name of Ho- 



mer 



198 



called 



97 



Mago, a Carthaginian 



general 124 



197 
253 



Mahomet II 



176 



Library, Alexandrian... 

said 
to have been burnt by 
the Saracens 255 

Palatine 125 

Lisbon, whence derived 
Livy, birth-place of 



Man tinea, battle of...... 150 

Marathon, battle of. 157 

Marbles of Carystos 179 



Pentelicus.. 

Paros 



92 

S3 

LocriOzolae,why sbcalled 161 
Lollius Urbicus .... 116 

216 

123 



156 
180 

Synnada 208 



Longinus 



Lucan, birth place of ... 

his description of 



Cato's 

attacked 

serpents 



army 

by 



Marcellus takes Syracuse 
Mardonius 

Marius, birth-place of... 

defeats the Tori 

defeats Jugurtha 

hiding-place of 

Maroboduus, king 



Lucian, birth-place of... 
Lucrine lake , 



249 

214 

95 



ioe 

157 
91 
85 

245 
91 

136 



Marseilles, founded by 

the Phocasans 127, 198 

Marsyas, flayed by Apollo 208 
Martial, birth-place of 121 




















ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX I. 






Page 
fassinissa.......... 242 

Mausolus 

Medea, her birth-place 
Melchisedec, king of Sa- 



202 
231 



lem 



218 
163 



Meleager, country of.... 
Melesigenes, a name of 

Homer 198 

Memnon, statue of 257 

Menelaus 255 

Messenians expelled their 



country 



Metellus Scipio 
Micipsa... ......... 



Milliarium Aureum, or 
Golden Milestone..... 

Milo, birth-place of. 



Miltiades, his defeat of 



the Persian army 



Mimnermus, birth-place 



of 



Minerva, temple of. 



Mines... 

Minotaur 

Misraim, son of Ham 
Mithridates 



Mceris, lake 

Mons Casius, its report- 



ed height 

Morea, whence derived 
Moses, whence he viewed 
the Promised Land... 

Munda, battle* of. - 

My cale, battle of 

Myron, his statue of the 



ox 



Naples, antient name of, 



'S 



148 
244 

243 



93 
101 



157 



199 

156 

182 

182 

252 

210 

256 



213 
145 



222 
122 
200 



179 



93 



Navigation, by whom in- 
vented. .......•••••« 

Nearchus 



Page 



215 




225 



Nebaioth, son of Ismael 

Nebuchadnezzar... %% 6 

Negropont, a corruption, 






whence derived 



179 



Neleus, scholar of Theo- 



\ 



196 



phratus 

Nelson, Lord, his victory 

ofAboukir 254 

Nemean games 146 

Nemesis, temple of. 157 

Neptune, temple of...... 108 

L 

Nero, his vain attempt 
to cut through the 

isthmus of Corinth 150 

Nestor, country of ...... # 1 4.8 

the Gerenian 148 



U 4 



Nicaea, general council 
of, held under Con* 



/ 



stantine the Great.. 



• • 



189 



Nicander, birth-place of 199 

Nicene Creed 189 

Niger, conjectures on its 
course, and possible 
junction with the Nile 
(N.) 



Nile, its sources not dis- 
covered by Mr. 



259 



v 



Bruce 



258 



cataracts of....... 25s 

some conjectures 
respecting its 
sources (N.)... 



259 



Nimrod 226 

Ninus, founder of Nine- 



veh 



235 
















; 



mi n 









• 















*. 



i 






















.i 






V 



,1 




V 









ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY 



INDEX I„ 












Page 

Niobe, residence of. 200 

Nomes, or Prefectures... 253 
Numantia, famous for its 

resistance of 
the Roman 

armies 120 

destroyed by 
Scipio Afri- 
canus Minor 120 

Odeum.. 154 

Odyssey, whether written 

by Homer 134 

(Edipus Coloneus, scene 

of the tragedy of 156 
scene of his ex- 
posure 157 

GEnqtrus gl 

Og, king of Basan 222 

Olibanum, a corruption 
of Libanos 226 

Olympias put to death 

by Cassander 170 

Olympic Games 148 

chronological 
epoch of. 148 

period of 148 

■ 

when instituted 148 

Omar, Caliph, said to 

have destroyed ' 
the Alexandrian 

library 255 

Onias, builder of Onion 255 

Orestes, his lustration... 177 

Oriens, description of... 211 

Osroes 228 

Otho defeated by Vi- 
tellus S3 

1 



_ 

Page 

Ovid, birth-place of. 97 

when born §4 

wherebanished... 142 
Oysters, where found ... Ill 

Padua founded by An- 
terior.... 8J 

Palace, whence derived 95 
Palatine Library 92 

Pan, a favourite resi- 
dence of 150 

Pansa and Hirtius, their 

death §4 

Parchment, origin of... 197 
Parnassus, its summit ... 160 

Parrhasius, a son of Ju- 
piter ., 151 

Parthenon 154 

Parthian monarchs, resi- 
dence of 254 

Parthians, original seat of 525 

Paul, St 158,162,187 

his shipwreck.. 140 
his commenda- 
tion of the 

Berceans ... 170 

birth-place of.. 206 
Pausanias lff7 

Pearl fishery % 26 

Pegasus, fabled effect of 

the hoof of 259 

Pekin, unknown to the 

antients a 36 

Pelasgus, king of Pelas- 

§ ia 145 

Pelops, king of Pelopon- 

nese 145 

Percote, given by Artax- 






/ 












ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX I. 



Page 

erxes to Themistocles, 

for his wardrobe 194 



Pericles 



Persepolis, burnt by A- 



154 



lexaoder 

Perses, last king of Mace- 
donia 

Perseus 

Persian fleet destroyed 



Page 
Phrygians, a term used 
by anticipation in Vir- 
gil (N.) 208 

Phyllis i7 2 



232 



Picenum, celebrated for 
apples 



170 

220 



Pindar, his account of 



by the Grecians 200 
kings, residence 



of 



empire 
thrown 



over- 



destruction of... 




Persians, defeat of. 154, 162 Pliny, the elder, how he 

lost his life 



600,000 defeat- 
ed by 30,000 

Macedonians 



194 



Petrified town 248 

Phaon 



164 



birth-place of... 

the younger, birth- 
place of. 



Pharaoh, general name 
for the kings of Egypt 

Pharnaces overcome by 



252 



Caesar 



Pharos, light-house of... 



193 
253 



Pharsalia, battle of 167 Pompeius Sextus, defeat- 
ed by Octavius, the 



Pheasants, whence de- 



rived 



230 



Philip, father of Alex- 



88 



Nestor 249 

birth-place of... 159 



Pindenissus, taken by 

Cicero t-# 214 

232, 234 Plataea, battle of 157 



157 



Plato, house of. 156 



96 
83 



83 



Plutarch, birth-place of 159 
Pn y x 155 



Pcecile, vestibule of. 155 

Polemon, builder of Po- 

lemonium 293 

Polybius, birth-place of 151 



ander 



177 



the Roman empe- 



ror 



229 



Philippi, battle of. 174 

Philoctetes, founder of 



Petilia 



Philostratus 

Phocseans, their emigra- 



102 

209 



triumvir J08 

Pompey 204, 206, 215 

founder of Mag- 
nopolis 192 

Pompeii overwhelmed... 
Portugal, whence derived 
Priapus, the Hellesponti- 
an, or Lampsacan god 



96 
120 
194 
194 



Propyloea 1S5 

Prusias, a name given to 

the kings of Bithynia 189 

Phocion, house of ...... 155 Prytaneum 15 ~ 



tion to Marseilles 198 





M 



< i 



t r 






il 1 



[i\ 


















\ 
1 



.1 



. ' . 













■ 




■I.! 










»' 






* 1 















/ 



ANT1ENT GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX I. 



Page 



N 



Psylli, or serpent charm- 



ers 



249 



Ptolemy 208 



founder of the 

of 



kingdom 



E gypt 



9 



Ptolemy Philometor.. 

Ptolemy Philadelphia, 

his road from the Nile 






252 
255 



to the Red Sea 



256 



Publius Servilius Isauri- 



cus 






Punic wars, causes and 
principal events of ... 



205 



245 



Pydna, battle of.... 170 

Pyramids, an account of 255 
Pyrrhus..... 168 



defeated by Cu 



nu s 



c • 



96 



Pythagoras, school of 100,101 



death of ... 



100 



Pythian games ••. 160 



Ravenna, why celebrated 
Regulus, capture and 



84 



cruel death of 245 



Remi, a people of Gaul, 

attached to Caesar ... 
Remus, burial-place of. . . 
Residence of Augustus 

and the Ro- 
man em- 



120 

95 



perors 



*•» 



93 



Roman nobi- 



lity 



Romulus ... 
Retreat of the 10,000 



94 
93 






Rhaeti, the, subdued by 

Drusus 158 

Richard 1 221 

Richborough, the usual 

landing-place 



of the Ro- 



mans 



111 



oysters exported 
thence in the 
time of Ju- 



venal 



ill 



Roman exiles sent to 



Gyaru 



180 



Roman fleet on the Da- 



nube 



159 



on theLower 



Sea 



94 



Lustrum 148 

nobility, their re- 

sidence 94,95 

roads 102,107 



walls 



115 



Romans, defeated by 



Pontius 



96 



Rome, description of ... 

first inhabited part 



92 



of 



92 



modern situation 



of 



Romulus, residence of... 
Rubicon passed by Caesar 



95 

92 

87 



Sabaism 228 

Sacrum Promontorium, 

why so called 125 

Saguntum, siege of, by 

Hannibal 121 



Greeks 193,229 Sal amis, battle of. 155 



/ 



















ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX I. 



Page 

i 

Salem, conjecture con- 
cerning it 218 

Sallust...... 243,247 

Sapor, king of Persia ... 229 

Sappho, the poetess 163 

birth-place of 184 

Sardanapalus, sepulchre 

of ...... 206 

his epi- 
taph (N.) 206 
Sardinia, from whom 

named 110 

taken by the 

Romans .... 110 
why named Ich- 
nusa by the 
Greeks 110 

Sardous risus, whence 

derived 110 

Satrapy 180 

Saturn reigns in Latium 82 

Scipio 95,242,245 

Africanus Minor 120 

Scotish plaid (N.) 126 

Sejanus, where born 88 

Seleucidffi 213 

Seleucus. 208,227 

Nicator, founder 

of Antioch and 

1 

Seleucia 213 

founder of Apa- 

mea • 214 

* 

Semiramis ••• 226 

ancl Cyrus, ar- 
mies of, des- 
troyed 233 

reputed monu- 
ment of. 234 

Sebecas; birth-place of. e . 123 



Page 

Severus, wall of, de- 
scribed H9 

his victory over 

Niger 207 

Shepherd kings of Egypt 255 
Sicily, its antient names 104 

Sicyon, kingdom of. 149 

Siege of Saguntum 121 

Sihon, king of the Am- 

morites 222 

Sipyleian, a name of 

Niobe 200 

Sittius 243 

Snowdon, its resem- 
blance to Parnassus 

(N.) 162 

Solomon, said to be 

founder of Pal- 

myra 215 

temple of 216 

site of the temple 

of. 218 

Sophonisba 243 

Sta, or Stan, a modern 
Greek corruption of 

U <ra y Or U tccv (N.) ... 149 

Strabo, the geographer 192 
Stratonice, wife of Anti- 

ochus Soter 202 

Street, whence derived 117 

Striped garments in use 

. among the antient 

* 

Gaulish and Germanic 

tribes 12s 

Susa, whence derived... 232 
Sybarite, a term of re- 
proach 101 

Sy ene, its celebrated well 258 

Symplegades, fable of ... ; 176 

* 











I M 












n 











ii 



* 






1 






I I 






• 









w 

i 



if * 



I J 











. 






1 




























/ 







ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX I. 



/ 



Page 

Syphax, residence of ... 242 

Syracuse, topography of 106 

taken by Mar- 

cellus 106 

Syrtes, an account of ... 247 

4 

Tamerlane, a corruption 235 
Tarik, led the Moors 

into Spain . 122 

Tarpeian Rock 93 

Tarquins, whence 

brought to Rome 88 

Tegeseus, a name of Pan 151 
Teian bard, a name given 

to Anacreon ,.. 198 

Telamon 186 

Tempe, description of... 167 
Tereus, husband of 

Procne 176 

Teucer, founder of Sala- 

mis 186 

birth-place of... 154 

Thales, birth-place of... 201 

Thapsus, battle of 246 

Thebes, ^Egyptian, an 

account of ... 257 

called Hecatom- 

polis 257 

Themistocles, builder of 
the wall at Athens 

i 

ealled pccxga <n'w* 154 

Themistocles, his defeat 

of the 
Persian 

* 

fleet .... 154 

houseof... 155 

where he , 

died ... 199 

Thermopylae, battle of. . . 1 62 



Page 

Thermopylae, its resem- 
blance to the pass of 
Penmaenmawr (N.) ... 162 

Theseus . 182 

birth-place of 146 
Thessalian deluge ...... 166 

Thrasybulus, 30 tyrants 

expelled by him 157 

Thucydides, his retire- 
ment after he was ba- 
nished 174 

Tiberius, the scene of 

his cruelties 
and debauch* 

eries 94 

Tigranes, founder of Ti- 

granocerta 250 

Timotheus, birth-place 

of 202 

Timur-leng 235 

compared with 
J Alexander (N.) 238 

Titan Tvphon 206 

Trachiniae of Sophocles, 

scene of. 155 

Trajan, the emperor, 

birth-place of ... 123 
where he died ... 205 

Transfiguration, suppos- 
ed scene of the,. 221 

Trebisond, emperors 

of 195 

Trent, Council of......... 139 

Tribes of Israel.. 223 

Tritonia, a name given 

to Minerva 247 

* 

Troas, the scene of Ho- 

mer'slliad 195 

Trophonius, cave of. 160 



/ 















ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX I. 




/ 



Troy, topography of the 



Page 



plain of. 194 



Ulysses, the fabled foun- 
der of Olissipo, or 



Page 



often rebuilt... 

* 

alterations in 



195 



Lisbon 



125 



the 



Uticensis, a name given 



plain of. 195 



to Cato 244 



Typhoeus, the giant 108 Vulcan, forges and sup- 



Typhon, murderer of 



Osiris 



254 



Tyre, siege of 217 

Tyrian artists 216 

Tyrinthius, a name given 



to Hercules 



146 



Valaques 

Valerius Flaccus, his ac- 
count of the Lemnian 



162 



massacre 



178 



Varus, with three Ro- 
man legions defeated 
by Arminius 155 

Venus, temple of ... 107, 108 

where worshipped 215 

Vespasian 

his defeat of the 
revolted Jews ...... 219 



Vesuvius, its first erup 



tion 



Vienne, caution respect- 



ing the term 



Virgil, favourite resi 



dence of 



birth-place of... 
burial-place of... 



Vitellianus 



222 



95 



127 



94 
85 
94 

117 



posed dwelling of 109 
the Lemnian god 178 



\ 



Walls of Athens ;.... 154 

Walls in Britain 115 

Watling-street Road..... 117 
Witikind, kingdom of... 



155 



Xanthians, their obstinate 
resistance to Brutus (N.) 251 

Xenophon 148, 229 

on Mount Teches 
Xerxes, his bridge over 

the Hellespont... 
his fleet wrecked... 



195 



175 
167 



Yermak, battle of 222 

Young, Sir William, his 
memoir on the ruins 
of the temple of tjam- 

mon (N.).... 251 



/ 



'Zama, battle of 245, 247 

Zeno, th? Stoic philoso- 
pher, his birth-place 
Zenobia, queen of Pal- 

* 

myra, wife of Odenatus 2 15 
Zethus and Calais.. igj 



186 









\/ 













if" 



m 



N. 









I I 




















- 












' 



I 



ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY 



I 






INDEX II. 



' Pa s e 

Abarim 222 

Abdera.... . 174 

Abila 122, 242 

Abnoba 158 

Abrincatui, Avranckes... ISO 

Abruzzo , 97 

Aby dos, Madfune \ 256 

Zermunic 175, 194 

Abyssinia. 258 

* 

Academia 156 

Acanthus 172 

Acarnania 153, 163 

Acesines, Ravei ... 237 

Achaei 144 

Achaia... . 145, 149 

Acharnse 157 

Achelous, Aspro Potamo 1 62, 1 68 
Acheron 168 

Acherontia, Acerenza.... 98 

Acherusia...., 190 

Aciris, Agri 101 

Acis 105 

Aco, Acre 221 

Acra 218 

Acradina.. ..... 106 

Acro-Athos 172 

Acro-Ceraunia Montes.. 168 

Acro-Corinthus. 1 50 

Actium, Azio ., 164., 168 



. 

Pag< 
Adana 207 

Adonis, Nahr Ibrahim. . . 216 
Adra, or Edrei, Adreat 223 
Adramyttium, Adra- 

mitli..., 196 

Adrian opolis, Adrianople 177 

Adulis, Arki/co 258 

JEa 231 

iEdui ....... 129 

JEgades, or JEgates Insula 107 

JEgaleus 156 

JBge, or Edessa, JEdissa 170 

JEgeum Mare 187 

-ZEgialea 145 

iEgina, Engia 154 

.ZEgium, Vostitza 149 

iEgira 149 

iEgos Potamos 175 

-3£gyptus, JBgypt 241,251 

Inferior.., 241,252 

Superior, 241, 252, 256 

JElana 225 

JElanites Sinus 225 

-ZEmathia...... ...... 169 

iEnaria 94 

iEnianes 165 

iEnos, JEno .... 174 

JEoles 145 

-SEoliselnsuIse... 109 






x 



r 





ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX IT 



Page 



Page 



JEolis, or JEolia 189, 196 Alpes Lepontiae, Tyrol 85, 36 



^2qui 

-ZEsculum, Ascoli .. 

JEsernia, Isernia.** 

JEstuarium Ituna?, Sol- 



95 
89 
96 



Maritime, Mari~ 

time Alps 82,85,126,127 
Pejininse, Great St. 

Bernard... 85, 126, 127 



r 

2##z/ Firth.... 



c c a • « • 



115 



Rhasticae 



85 



^Ethiopia 241 

JEtna, Monte Gibello 105, 108 
^tolia, Vlaleia 1.55, 162 



Sumrrge, St. Gothard 85 
Alpheus 3 Alfeo 148 






Am anus 



09O © » • ••••€€•« 



207 



Africa 



Interior .... 



240 
258 



Amasea, Amasieh ,....,,.. 192 
Amastri^, Amazreh „ 191 






Propria, Tunis 241, 244 

159 
142 

129 






16 I90 



Aganippe . 
Agathyrsi 

Agidincum, £<??2S .... 

Agrigentum, or Agragas, 

Girgenli 
Ailath ... . 

Alabanda 



Araathus, Asset t ,. 186, 222 

Arabarri 129 

151 
168 



Ambiani ..... 

Ambracia .. 

Amid a, Kara Amid, or 



«<aa *•• «•• •••©•• 



Alba Longa 
Albania 



107 
225 
202 
102 



Diar-Bekr 218 



Amisenus Sinus 



/ 



192 



Albis, £/fe 135 



(CfiOOieiCMSH 



Aiburnus .... 
Alemanni, Almagne , 

Alesia ,..».. 



101 
156 
109 



\ 



Amisia, i?»?s„ 155 

Amisus, Samsoun ......... 192 

Amiternum 89, 97 

Ammochostus, Famagosta 186 

Ammonitis 225 

Amorgus, Amorgo 180 

Amphilochia .. 164 



Alesia, Alise 129 Amphilochium Argos, 



Alexandria .. 

Alexandretta, or Scan- 



255 



derona 



Kandahar 



AU Giafar 

Allia 

Allifae ... 
Allobrose 



r* 



215 
257 
240 
102 

96 
127 



Filoquia 164 

Amphipolis, Jamboli .... 172 

Amphissa, Salona 161 

166 



Amphrysus 

Ampsagus, Wad-U-Kibir 



Amyclae 
Anactorium 



245 

147 
164 



Alpes Cottise, Mount 



Genevre ...... 85, 127 

G raise, Little St. 

Bernard 85, 126, 127 

85 



Juliae, or Carmcae.. 



Anagnia 89, 91 

Anaphe, Namphio . i8o 

Anapus io6 

Anas, Guadiana ... ....... 122 

Anatho, Anah ' 229 

Anatolia, Anadoli 9999999 .. 18S 






; 













I !' 



















































in 
















' 











) 



ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY 



INDEX H. 



i 



I 



Page 

Anauros 166 

Anazarbus, Anzarle 207 



Anch 



esmus 



156 



> 

Anchiale 206 

Ancona 89 



129 
128 



Ancyra, Angora 192 

Andematunum, Langres 
Anderidum, Mende .... 
Andes, or A ndecavi An- 
gers 130 

Andros, Andro 180 

Anemurium, Anemur.... 
Angli 

Angrivarii 



205 
136 

Bl55 

Anio, Teverone 88, 89, 91 

Antandrus, Antandro.... 196 

Anthedon ■ 158 

Anticyra 160,165 

214 



Antilibanus 

Antiochia ad Pisidiam, 

Ak-Skehr.... 
or Antioch, 



208 



Antaltia 



21 



'•^ 



Antirrhium 149, 161 

Antissiodurum, Auxerre 



Anti-taurus 

Antium, Anzio 

Anxur, Terracina 

Aornos, Tetehan ........ 255 



150 

229 
90 
90 



Renas 



237 



Aous, Lao 172 

Apamea 228 



Cibotus 
Famieh 



208 
214 



Aperantia. 165 



Apollonia, Folina .... 



Sizeboli 

Marza Susa 9 
or Sosuh ... 

Apulia, Puglia ., 

Aquae, Calida*, Bath... 

Sextfe, Aix ..,.. 



Page 

172 
177 



Aquileia 

Aquincum, or Acincum, 



250 

82, 97 
112 

127 
85 



Buda 



140 



Aquitani 125 

Aquitania 125 



Prima.., 
Secunda 



128 
128 




250 



Arabia 211, 225 * 

Deserta 211,225 

Felix 211, 

Petra* 211, 225 

Arachosia, Arrokhage... 255 

Aracynthus 165 

Aradus, Ravad 216 

Arar, Soane 129 

Araxes, or Phasis, Aras 

Ararat 250 

Arbela, Erbil 

Arcadia 145, 150 

Arcate Regia, Arcot 258 

Archelais, Erkeli 209 

Ardea . 105 

Ardiscus 177 

Arduenna Sylva, Forest 

of Ardenne 152 

Arelate, Aries 127 

Areopolis 225 

Arethusa 106 




Aphetae, Petio 166 Arevaci, people of Leon 



Aphidnae 157 

Aphrodisias, Gheira 
Apia 



and Castile 



120 



• • • * 



202 
145 



Argentoratum, Stras- 
burg 



155 






v 




■HPVv 






ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX IT. 



Page 



Page 



Arginusae... 197 Aspadana, Ispahan... .... 232 



Argivi , 

Argolis , 

Argos, Argo 



145 



Aspendus 



204 



145, 146 Asphaltites Lacus, Almo- 



146 



tanah 



Aspis, 
Asser 



218 
245 
223 



Assus, Asso -196 

Assyria, Kurdistan ... 212, 213 



Aria, Khorasin 212, 234 

Ariaspae, Dergasp 254 

Arimathea 220 

Ariminiura, Rimini 86, 89 

Arius, Heri 234 

Armenia 228, 229 Astapus, Abawi 258 

I Asteria 181 

Astures, Asturias 120 

Asturica, Astorga 



Astae 



172 



212 



Major 

Minor.. .210, 212, 229 



t 



Armorica, Bretagne 131 

Arnon 222, 223 Astypalasa or Stam- 



120 



Arnus, Arno 
Aroer 



89 

225 
98 
91 

88 
234 



palia, 

Atellae 



180 
95 



Atarneus 197 

Athenae, Atini, or Setines 1 54 
Athesis, Adige..... 83, 86 

Athos, Monte Santo .... 171 

Atlantic Ocean 241, 242 

Atrebates, Artois 112 

Atrebatii, people of Berk' 
shire, and part of Ox- 
I fordshire 112 

Artacoma, Herat 234 Atropatane 234 



Arpi 

Arpinum, Arpino 

Arretium, Arezzo 

Arsacia, Rei 

Arsinoe,^^ 252, 258 

or Crocodilopo- 

lis,Feium 

Artabrum, Cape Finis- 



256 



terre 



120 



Artaxata, Ardesh 230 

Artemisium Littus 

Arverni, Auvergne 

Arvii 



Arze, Erze-Roum. 

Ascalon 

Asculum .*... 



179 

128 
130 

229 

219 

89 



Attica.. 145, 152 

Atuataca, Tongres 132 



Avaricum 



128 



* 

Avenio, Avignon 127 

1 133 



Aventicum, Avenche .... 
Aventinus 



AvernusLacus . 
Aufidus, Ofanto 



Ascanius 189 

Ascra • l59 Augusta Rauracorum, 



92 
95 

99 



Asia 



Minor 
Palus . 



Asopus 



225 
188 
199 
158 



Augst ,. 

Saint Quintin 

Suessionura, 
Soissons 



133 

131 



1 31 



X 





















■ 



l 



I 








' 






















i\ 









ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY 



INDEX II 
















Augusta 



Page 
Treverorum, 

- - 

Treves... 132, 132 
Taurinorum, 



Turin 



8'2 



Vindelicorum, 
Augsburg.., 

Augustodunum, Autun « 
Augustonometuin, Cler- 



139 

129 



Page 

Bagdat. .... 221 

Bagistana v 234 

Bagradas, Megerda.....< 244 

Baise, Bay a 94 

Bajocasses, Bayeux 130 

Baleares Insula, Majorca 



and Alinorca 



124 

98 



wojtf 



123 



Bantia. .«*.«* 

Barce, Barca ....... 249 

Barcino, Barcelona.... ... 119 

Bar dine, Chrysorrhoas 



Baradl 



Augustoritum, Limoges 128 
Aulerci Cenomani 150 

Eburovices 130 

Aulis, Megalo-Vatha, 158, 179 

Aulon, El-Gvur 214, 218, 222 Basilia,' .&wfe 135 

Auranitis ........ 223 

Aurea Chersonesus, 



Barium, Pari 



214 

98 



BastarriEe 



142 



Bastitani, Jaen 122 



Malaya . , 239 Bastuli 



Aureliani..... 129 

1 

Aurunci 



> 



■ 

Ausci... 

Ausones 
Ausonia, 



Autricum, Chartres. , . . 



z- 



Auxume, Auxutn.. 



-••••»» 



95 

129 
81 
81 

139 

258 



Batavi 



Batnae, Adaneh 



122 
133 
215 



Bebrycia ...... 189 

Bedriacum ,,.,,. 

Bellas, inhabitants be- 



35 



tween the Seine and 
Loiver Rhine, 



125 



Axius, Vardan * 170 

* 

Azania, Ajan . 259 

Azorus, Sorvitz 167 

Azoius, Asdod 219 



Belgae, inhabitants of 

Wiltshire , Somerset- 

shire ', and part* of 
Hampshire 112 



Babylon, Hellah 226 



Belgica 



Prim 



Egyptian, Old 



Secunda. * 



Cairo 



r% [* 



O 



Believe 



1 



* 



126 
151 
131 
131 



Babylonia.... : 212,-226 Benacus, Logo di Gar- 

Bactriana..., 212/255 



da 



Bsetica, A ndalusia 119,122 

Bsetis, Guadqlquiver ...... 122 

Baeturia > part of Estre- 



Beiaeventun}, Benevenio 
Bennaxun 



86, 159 
96 



225 



madvra and Seville,*. 



JQ9 O 



12 



!-,' 



Beroga, Car a Veria...... 170,215 

Berenice, or Hesperis, 



Bagacum ° 



16 






jQ C j fZlLr 0««C9I #§«••• 



«el »'#©■♦ o* 



249 






/ 






\ 



I ! 



ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY 



INDEX II# 



ereniee 



Bergoraium, Bergamo... 

Bersabe, Beersheba .....* 

Berytus, Berut.... J 



Page 
251 

85 

217 

175 

„. 222 

Bethel .........;. 219 

Bethlehem........*....*.... 218 

Bethsaida .. ..... 221 

Bethsan, or Scythopolis, 

Baistan ...... 221 



Brauron 
Brenni • 



Page 

1 56 

86 



Bessi. ...... 

Bethabara 



Brigantes, people of 
Yorkshire, Durham, 
Lancashire, Westmore- 
land, and Cumberland 114 

Brigantium, Corunna 120 

Britannia Antiqua. ..-..••.'• Ill 



Prima....... 

Secunda.... 



9' 



Bethulia 
Bibracte 



Bilbilis 

Bisanthe, or Rhoedestus 



221 

129 
121 



9 



Rodosto 



Bistones, 

Bithyni . 

Bithynia 



175 

175 
189 



177, 188, 189 



115 
115 
151 

85 

155 

Brundusium, Brindisi 99, 172 

Bruttii, or Bruttiorum 

82,97,101 

257 



Brivatus Portus, Brest... 

i 

Brixia, Breschia 

Bructeri 



Ager.... 

Bucephala 
Budini..... 



e«o 






Burgidala, Bourdeaux... 



142 

128 



Bituriges Cubi 128 Burgundiones, people of 



Vivisci 



Bizy 



128 
176 



Burgundy, in France 



Burii 



i » 



• 



156 
156 



Blestiuin, Monmouth 115 Burrium, UsJce .. 115 



Boebeis 



166 



Boeotia, Livadia 152, 157 

Boii, or Boiohemi, Bohe- 



Buthrotura^ Butrinto.. ... 168 
Byrsa... 



244 

246 



mia 



Boiodurum, Innstadt 

Boium... .........* 



Bolbitinum Ostium, Ras 



156 
159 

1 62 



Byzacium .. 

By z?Mtinm,Constantinople 176 



chid, or Rosetta. „ 

Bolerium,!^^ End, or 



254 



Gabira* .............. 

Cadurci , 

Cascubus Ager ........... 

Caere, or Agylla,- Cer 



210 
128 

95 



n 



'ape Cornwall. .*....... 

Bononia, Bologna... ...... 

Borbetomagus, Worms... 
Borysthenes, Dneiper... 

Bosphorus...... 176 

Bostra, Bosra..... 225 

Bradanus, Bradano* . . . , • . 101 



112 

84 

155 

142 



V (ft* CI £••'«•«*«•• 991 9 0OO 



09999 



83 



Csesar Augusta, Saragossa 121 

Cassarea ..... 220 

ad ArgaBum 210 



150 



* 

Jersey... ........,,, 

Philippi „,.. 222 



Csesarodunum, Tours.,. 



Tf 



IZO 



T 2 



U 



I m 



■Hi 














\\ 



' 







1/ 









' !' : ' 




s 





! 












t 







ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY 



INDEX IU 









Page 

Caesaromagus, Beauvois 131 

Caicus 197 

Caieta, Gaeta 90,95 

Calabri 99 

Calabria 82, 97 

Calauria 145 

Cales 95 

Caleti, Pays de Caux .... 1 30 

Calleva, Silchester. ... 112 

Calle 120 

Calliaci, Gallicia 120 

Gallipolis, Gallipoli 175 

Calpe, Gibraltar 122 

Calycadnus, Kelikidni, or 

YersaJc 205 

Calydon \63 

Calymna, Calmina... 185 

Camaracum, Cambray.... 152 

Camarina, Camarana 107 

Campania, Campagna 

82, 88, 93 

Campi Geloi.... 107 

Raudii 83 

Campus Martius 93 

Camulodunum, Maldon 112 

Cana, Coloni 197 

of Galilee 221 

Canaanites 224 

Cannae gg 

Canopic (Mouth of the 

Nile) Maadie 254 

Canopus 254 

Ghiit&hn, people of Biscay 

and part of Asturias.... 120 

Cantii, people of Kent 

and part of Middlesex 111 

Canusium, Canosa 98 

Capena..., 105 

Capernaum.. ..... 221 



Page 

Caphareus .«..„..... 179 

Capitolinus, Mons ....... 92 

Cappadocia 189, 207, 209 

Capreae, Capri 94 

Capsa, Cafsa, 247 

Capua 95 

Caralis, Cagliari 110 

Carambis, Cape Karampi 191 

Cardia, Hexamili 174 

■ 

Carduchi 233 

Caria 188, 201 

Carmania, Kcrman ... 212, 232 

Carmel, Mount ... 220 

Carni S3 

Carnuntum, Altenburg... 140 
Carnutes 129 

Carpathium Pelagus. 187 

Carpathus, Scarpanto ... 185 

Carpetani, New Castile... 121 

Carrhze 228 

Carthago 244 

Carthago Nova, Cartha- 

gena 119, 121 

Carystus, Caristo... 179 

Casalus Sinus, Calvi 109 

Caspian 230 

Cassandria 171 

Cassiterides, Scilly Islands 118 

Castabala ,. 207 

Castellum, Cassel 155 

Catabathmus Magnus, 

AJcabet Ossolorn 250 

Cataea, Kais... 233 

Catakekaumene 201 

Catalauni, people of Cha- 
lons i3l 

Catana 105 

Cataonia 209 

Catti. 135 

* 









X 






ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX III 



Page 

Oatti, or Cattevelauni, in- 
habitants of Hertford- 
, shire ^Bedfordshire ,and 
Buckinghamshire ...... 112 

Caturiges 127 

Caucasus 231 

Caucones . 190 

Caudium 96 

Cayster, Kitchik Minder 199 

Celaense 2p8 

Celtae 125 

Celtiberi, people inhabit- 
ing part of Arragon 

and Valencia 121 

Celtica * 25 

Celtici, people of Alon- 

tejos •••• MMM»9»« 125 

CenchresB 146, 150 

Cenimagni .. .... 115 

Centum Cell®, Civita 

* 

Vecchia ••« 89 

Ceos,Z*a * ISO 

Cephalenia, Cephalonia . . ■ 1 83 

Cephissus 154, 158 

Ceramicus 155 

Ceramus, Keramo 202 

Cerasus, Keresoun ....... 195 

Ceretani, Cosetani, La- 
cetani, Ilergetes, Cata- 
lonia .... •••• l *9 

Cestrus 204 

Chaberis, Cavery 238 

Chaboras, or Araxes .... 228 
Chalcedon, Kadikeni ... 190 
Chalcis 158,171,179 

OldHaleb 215 

Chalcidice ........ 169, 173,215 

Chaldsea, /™* - ..212,226 

Chalybes, Cbald^i ....... 194 

x 



Page 



Chalybon, Bercea, Haleb, 

or Aleppo 
Chalybonites 
Chamavi 



lO9g90eO«fi»tl«4 



215 
215 

135 



Chaonia 168, 169 

Charran, Haran.* 228 

Charybdis, ?.. 104 

135 



Chasuarii , 

Chauci Majores 134 



3 



Minores 



c 



134 



Chelidoniae Insulas, Cape 



Kelidoni 



9 



Chelonites, CapeTornese 
C-ziiBBronea... ............... 

Chersonesus Cimbrica, in 

* 

Holstein .* 

Taurica, 
Cher son. „ 

■ 

Thracius.... 



204. 

149 

I SB 



136 



143 

175 
235 



Cherusci 

China .. 212, 236 

Chios, Scio..... 184, 198 

Choaspes 232 

Chorasmii, Khar asm ..212, 236 
Chorazin 221 



196 



Chrysa 

Chrysoceras 175 

190 



• • © • 



Chrysopolis, Scutari 

Chytrus, Cytria 186 

Cibyra, Buraz 208 

Ciconii 



173 

Cilicia * 189,205 

Canipestris 205 

Trachea 205 

Cimarus, Spada igj 

Cimbri ig 6 

Cimmerian Bosphcrus... 143 

Cimmerii , tm 143 

Cimol us, Argentiera ,,.„. 3 8 








. 



il 







> 

















■ 









lli 










1 ji 








■ 
;i 



- 



- 



N 




/ 






l 









1 1 t 




7 






I 






I 















,-'' 












* 









< ^ ■■ ^* 






. 



* r 





















ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY. 



-■■ 
















■ 









~\ I 






INDEX II 







■^ 



,su- ■ '■' — - 



1 




Cinyphs, Wad-Quaham... 248 

Circeii, Monte Circello... 90 

■ 

Circesium, Kirkesieh ..... 228 

Girta .... 243 

Cissia .0. .. 232 

Cithzeron ..*.*\.»..«....... 157 

^^^ »•••»«»•»•» .os 130 

Citineum \ 62 

Citium, Cito .<• 186 

Claniu;, Chiaco .... 89 

Clazomense, Tourla 193 

Climax, 2G4 

Clusinium, or Clusii .... 88 

Clusium, Ckuisi ......... 89 

Clypea, Aklibea 246 

Gnemis 153, 161 

Cnidus 202 

* 

Cocytus 168 

Goele 143 

Coelius, Mons. ,. 92 

Coele-Syria 214 

Colchis, Mengrelia 166, 

212,251 

Collatia 102 

j 

Collis Capitolinus ....... 92 

Quirinalis 

Coloe Palus, Bahr. Dem- 

bea, 258 

Colonia, Colchester....... 112 

* 

Agrippina, Co- 

logne ,. \l$% 

Colonos ..,.,... ...... ...... 35$ 

Colophon. .0. ...... ........ 199 

Colossaer, Chonos . 203 

Comagene 214 

Comana . 209 

Pontica, Almons 193 

Comaria, Cape Comorin 258 

Complutnm, Aleak...... 121 

1 

I 




Fag* 

Comum, Como 83 

Concani 120 

Condate, Rennes 130 

Condivincuin, Nantz ... 130 

Confluentes, Coblentz ... 133 

Conimbriga, Coimbra .... 123 

Conovium, Conwy 113 

Consentia, Consenza .... 102 

Consuanetes 139 

Constantia, Constanza... 186 
Constantinople, Estam- 

boul... 176 

Contestani, in the king- 
dom of Murcia ........ 121 

Contra Acincum, Pest 140 

Copas 158 

Copais, Lavadia Limne 158 

Coptos, Kypt 256 

Coracesium, Analieh .... 204 

* 

Corcyra, Corfou 183 

Corduba, Cordova 12£ 

Corfinium 97 

Coriniurn, Cirencester ... 11£ 

Corinthia 149 

Corinth us, Corito 149 

orisopati... , j^q 

Coritani, people of North- 
amptonshire, Leicester- 
shire, Rutlandshire, 
Lincolnshire. Nottinv- 

hamshire, and Derby- 

^ire 1J5 

Cornavii, inhabitants of 
Warwickshire, Wor- 
cester sh ire, Stafford- 
shire, Shropshire, and 

Cheshire „,,„ 213 

Coronea 35$ 








I 



ANT1ENT GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX II 



Cortona 

Corycus, Curco 



Corydallus... 

Cos, Stan-Co 
Cosetani 



Cotyseum, Kutaieh 

Cragus 

Crater 



Page 

4 

88 

206 

156 

185 

119 

208 

205 
94 

102 

103 



Crathes, Crati ............ 

Cremera 

Cremna, Kebrinaz 204 

„ 83 



Cremona 

Crete, Candia .. 
Creticura Mare 



181 
187 
160 



Crissa • *•• 

Criu Metopon, Crio... 143, 181 

Croton, Crotona 101 

227 



Ctesiphon 

Cucusus, Cocsan 
Cuda 



Cumse 

f 

Cunaxa 

Cuneus, Algarve 

Cures •*•••« 



210 

■ 

123 

94, 197 
229 
123 



&• 



Curium, Piscopia 

Cyaneae, or Symplegades 

Cyclades 

Cyclopes 



Cyclopum Scopuli 
Cydnus..... 



Cydonia, Canca ... 
Cyllene, Chiarenza. 



Mons 



102 
186 
176 

180 
106 
105 
206 
182 

149 
152 



Cyme, or Cumse, Nfr 
mourt ....•••••••• 

Cynethae 

Cynosarges .••* 

Cyparissae •••• 

Cyparissus 



A 



-: 1 






Page 
185 



?%v • t * 



197 

151 
155 

148 

H48 



Cyprus •• •••• 

Cyrenaica, Barca ... 241, 249 
Cyrene, Curin .... 180, 249, 250 
Cyros-Chata, or Alex- 

andria Ultima, Cogend 236 



••oeooo»* 



110 



Cyrnos, Corsica 

Cvrrhestica 215 

Cyrrhus, Corris 



Cyta .- 

Cythera, Cerigo ..* 
Cythnus, Thermia 

Cy torus, Krlros 
Cyzicus 



09 • 9 008 



ee •• • » • ••* 



215 

231 
183 
180 

191 
194 



Dacia, part of Hungary > 
Transylvania, Walla- 
chin, and Moldavia . . . 

Dacia Cis-Danubiana, or 

Dacia Aureliani 



141 






Trajani.. 



Daci 

Dalmatia 



pet*** • • • • 



e*Q*««oe 



141 
141 
142 
140 



~S 




Bamasc 

Goidek*Demesk**x. . . 

Damnii, people in Clydes- 
dale, Renfrew, Lenox, 



214 



e • -a • • • 



114 



and Stirlingshire . 

Damnonii, orDumnonii, 
inhabitants of Devon- 
shire and Cornwall 1 1 2 

Dan • 222,223 

Danai 144 

Danubius 141 



21^ 



Daphne, Beit el Ma * 

Dardania... 140, 195 



Dardanus 

Dariorigmm, Venues ...«. 



195 

130 



■ 

Darnis, Berne 250 

Daromas, Darom « 2 1 $ 



X 4 



. 






































. 



: 



; , in 



























ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY 



INDEX H. 



/ 



97 



Page 

Daunia,.... 

Dead Sea ........... 219 

Decapolis 221 

Decelia 157 

Decumates Agri 155 

Delium . M ., # i£g 

Delos 



180 



Delphi, Castri j 60 

Delta 

Demetse 



254 

* 

115 

Demetrias, Volo .. leg 

Derbe, Alah-Dag 205 

Deserts of Lybia 249 

Deva, Chester jjj 



Deucalion 



166 



Dia, Standia ........ 185 

Diablintes 150 



Diet 



a 



182 



Dindymus 191 

Dioscoridis Insula, So- 



cotora 



226 



Diospolis , 220 

Dine, Straights of Babel 



JMandeb 



225 



Dium, Standia 170 

Divodurum, or Metis, 

Metz i^! 

Divona, Cahors .... 128 

* 

Dobuni, people of Ox- 
fordshire and Glouces- 
tershire ... 112 

Dodona 153 

Dolopia 165 

Dores 145 

Doris 152, 162, 189,202 

Dorylaeiim, Eski Shehr 208 

Drepanum, Trapani 107 

Druentia, Durance....... 127 

Dryopia i 6 2 



Page 

Dubis, Doux 155 

Dunium, or Dornovana, 

Dorchester 112 

Durius, Douro 119, 125 

Durocortorum, JRheims 151 
Durotriges, inhabitants of 
Dorsetshire 112 

Durovernum, or Darver- 

num, Canterbury m 

■ 149 1 
172 



Dyme 

Dyrrachium, Durazzo ... 



* 

Ebal, Mount 220 

Eboracum, York 114 

Ebrodunum, JEmbrun... 127 

Eburones 152 

Ebusus, Yvica 124 

Ecbatana, Hamedan ...252,254 

Echinades 1^5 

Edessa, Orha, or Orfa... 

Edetani t 121 

Edon ^ v 219, 225 

Edonis \ i$ 9 

Ekron t# 219 

Elasa, Ialea 397 

Elataea 160 

Eleusis, Lessina 15$ 

Eleuthera. 



228 



158 

Elis, Gastonni ... 145 148 

Elusates 12 9 

Elymaei 252 

Elymais 232 

Elymiotis 170 

Emerita Augusta, Me- 



rida 



123 



Emes'd,Hems , 214 

Emmaus 2 19 

Emodi Montes 235 

Emodus % 25g 



r-' 



/ 



ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX II 



Page 

Emporiee 246 

Endor 221 

Engaddi 219 

Enipeus 167 

Enna, Castro Janni, or 



Giovanni 



108 
172 

169 
Ephesus, Aiosoluc ........ 199 

Ephrairn 



EnneaHodoi, Iamboli... 
Eordani 










Epidamnus 172 

Epidaurus, Scutari .... 140, 146 
Epiphaneia, Hamah 214 

Epipolae 106 



Epirus 



144, 153,164, 168 



Eretria, Gravalinais ...... 179 

Eridanus, Po 



Erineum 



Erve 



85 
162 
130 



Erythrae 198 

Erythraeum Mare 235 

107 



Eryx 

Esquiliae 

Esquilinus, Mons 



92 

........ 92 

Essur 130 

Estiaeotis ,. 165 

Etocetura, Wall 114 



Etruria 82, 87 

Euboea 152, 179 

Evenus, Fideri 163 

Euergetae 235 

Euganei • 

Eulaeus 



83 

232 

Euphrates ...212, 226, 228, 230 

Euripus, Fgripo, Negro- 

152,179 

146 



- pout 

Euro t as..... 
Euryraedoi) 



204 



Page 

Falerii or Falisci, Falari $$ 

Falernum 95 

Fauces Caudinae, Forckie 96 

Ferentum, Ferento 98 

Feronia 103 

Fibrenus 92 

Fidenae... iQ2 

Flaminia, Via 102 

Flatfia Caesariensis 115 

Flevo, Zuyder Zee 134 

a channel of, Vlie 134 

Florentia, Florence 88 

Fons Castalius \qq 

Solis 250 

Formiae, Mola ,. 95 

Fortunatae Insular, or Ca- 
nary Islands 260 

Forum Julii, Friuli 83, 127 

Romanum 95 

Fretum Gaditanum, or 
Herculeum, Straights 
of Gibraltar 122, 240 

Frentani 97 

Frisii, Frisons 134 

Fucinus Lacus, Lago di 

Celano 91 97 

Gabas, Kaous 235 

Gabali 12s 

Gabii 102 

Gad ......... 223 

Gadara IM 222 

Gadarenes „, 222 

Gadeni, inhabitants of 
part of Northumber- 
land and Teviot-dale. . . \\ 4 

Gades, Cadiz 122 

Gsetulia, Biledulgerid . , , 24 \ 




It 



I 



* n » 









!i 1 






I 



I 1 









V \ 



I >.' 



1 










! 













■ 






















ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX II 



N 



Page 

Galaad 222 

Galaaditis 222 

Galatia 188,191 

Galesus, Galeso 100 

■Galitea 211,218,220 

Gentium 220 

Inferior 220 

Superior ......... S20 

Galli, Gael, 125 

Senones 87 

Gallia 125 

Belgica 126,131 

Braccata 126 

Cisalpina 82, 85, 85, 86 
Cispadana 84,86 

Comata, 126 

Lugdunensis ... 125,129 

Provincia 126 

Togata 82 

■ 

Transpadana .... 84 

Gallo-Graecia 191 

Camala 222 

Ganges 212, 237,2.38 

Gangra, Kanldara 192 

Garama, Gharmes ...... 248 

Garamantes 241, 248, 260 

Garganus • ••• 99 

Gargarus .....; 195 

Garumna, Garonne ... 125, 128 

Gath 219 

Gaugamela 283 

Gaulon 222 

Gaulonitis 222 

Gaulos, Gozo. 109, 183 

Gaza 219 

or Gazaca, Tebriz, 

or Tauris 234 

Gedrosia, Mekran 212, 233 

Gela, Terra Nova 107 

■ 



Page 

Geloni 14$ 

Genabum, Orleans 130 

Genauni 86 

Genua, Genoa •• 82 

Gennesar.w 221 

Gerara 219 

Gerena.. 148 

■ 

Gergovia 128 

Gerisa, Gherze... 248 

Gerizim, Mount 220 

Germania 134 

Germania Prima, or Su- 
perior 133 

Germania Secunda, or 

Inferior., 132 

Geron 148, 

Gesoriacum., or Bononia, 

Bologne 132 

Getae 142 

Glaucus 203 

Glevum, Gloucester 112 

Gnossus..... ... 182 

Gobannium, Abergavenny 1 1 3 

Gomphi.... 167 

Gordium 192 

Gorgo, Urgheng.. ......... 256 

Gertyna 182 

Gothini ,... 136 

Gothones, Goths 136 

Graecia Antiqua 144 

Gr&nieits/ Ousvola 193 

Gugerni 135 

Gyarus 180 

Gymnesias Insulae, Ma- 
jorca and Minorca... 124 
Gyndes 227 

Gytheum, Colokyihia....* 147 

Hadria.. ...... ..**•••««•••••• 92 




■ 






ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX II 



Hadrumetum 

Haenri-Extrenia, Emineh 

borun 

Hainan 



Pa$?e 

246 



■ 



Page 



177 

152 



Hermiones 154, 146 

Hermon, Mount 217, 221 

Heraiopolis Magna, Ash- 



munum 



Haliacmon, 170 

..., 159 

. 202 



256 

Hernici 91, 9 J 



Haliartus , 

Halicarnassus 

Halmydessus, or Salmy- 



Hermunduri 



Hermus, Sarabat y or Ke- 



136 



dons 



196 



dessus, Midjeh 176 Heroopolis 255 



Halonesus, Dromo 



♦ • 



179 



«• 



22 



CO 



Haly s, Kizil-Ermak. . . 1 90, 2 1 

Hammonii ....... ... 



250 



m 

Hebron, or Kirjath-Arba, 



Hesbon .. 

Hesperia 8} 

Hesperides 260 

Hesperidunj Insula*, Cape 



Cabr Ibrahim ...... 219 



Verd Island. 



O 9 • • • •.• 



• • • • 



260 



Hebrus, Maritza...... 174, 177 Hesperii JEthiopes, Gui- 



Helabas 238 

Helena, or Maoris, Ma- 



ne a 



cronux 



Helicon 
Hellas.. 



Hellenes. ...* 

Hellespontus, Straight of 



156 
159 

144 

* 

144 



the Dardanelles. 



175 



Heliopolis, Balbep 214 Hinnora 



.. 260 

I 

Hexamilium, Hexamili... 175 

Hierapolis, Menbigz. 215 

Hiera pytna, Gira petra 182 

Hierichus, Jericho 219 

Hieromax, Yermah 222 

Hierosolvma, Jerusalem 213 

Himera, Termini. ..: 107 

218 



On 



Helorian Tempe 

Helorum, Muri Ucci.... 



255 

106 
106 



Hippocrene 159 

Hippo Regius, Bona . 245 

82, 88, 96 



Helvetia, Swiss... 85, 133, 138 

Heneti 190 

253 

253 



Hirpini... 

Hispalis, Seville 1 23 

Hispania 119 



Heptanomis 

Heptastadium 

Heraclea, Erekli 172, 175 

Heraclea Pontica, Erekli 1 90 



Citerior 



-■ 



Ulterior 



119 
119 
205 



Hersea 

Herculaneum 



151 

95 



Homonada, Ermenah ... 
Horeb 225 

Huicii, or Jugantes inha- 
bitants of Warwick- 



Hercynia Sylva 137 

■Hermseum Promontorium, 

Cape Bon.*..* .. 244 

HeriBioRee»» •••••• ••••••••• 146 



shire and Worcester- 



114 



shire ........ 

Hybla . 

Hydaspes, Shantrou 237 



105 












i 



















't 






I 



IT 



i 



H 






*I >* 



'I 



I 





















■ 



V 











ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY, 



INDEX II. 



■ 



Page 

Hydrastes, Biak 258 

Hydruntum, Otranto ... 100 

Hypanis, or Bogus, Bog 142 

Hypata, Neopatra 165 

Hyphasis, Caul. 258 

Hyrcania, Jorjan, or Cor- 

can 212, 255 

» 

Jabadii Insula, Sumatra 239 

Jabbok 222 

Jacetani . 120 

Janiculum 95,99 

Japygia 97 

Japygiuin, orSalentinum 

Promontorium 100 

Iassus, Assam-Kalasi .... 202 

Jaxartes, &> 236 

Iazyges 142 

Iberia, Imeriti and 

Georgia 212,231 

Iberus, Ebro 120 

Icaria, Nicaria. 185 

Icarium Mare 187 

Icenl H5 

Ichnusa, Sardinia 1 1 o 

Iconium, Konieh 209 

Ida 182,195 

Idalium, Dalin 186 

* 

Idumaea 219,225 

Jebus 218 

Jebusites 218 

Jericho ....♦ 219 

lerne, or Hibernia, Ire- 
land • 118 

Jerusalem 223 

Jesrael 220 

Ilercaones 121 

Ilerda, Lerida ... 119 

Ilergetes 119 

* 



Page 

Ilissus o.. ....... 154 

Illyricse Gentes, or Illy- 

ricum, Albania 140, 169, 17 3 
Ilva, Elba lip 

■ 

Imaus Mons, Himmel ... 80 
Paropamisus, Imeia 

Pambadam...... 236 

Imbrus, Imbro 178 

Inachus «, 146 

India 212,257 

intra Gangem 212 y 237 
extra Gangem 212,257 

Indus, Sind 212, 257 

Insubres •..•■•... 85 

InsukeiEoliae 109 

Liparaae 109 

Vulcanise 109 

Iolchos 166 

Iones 145 

Ionia 189, 197 

Ionium Mare iso 

Joppa, Jafa.. 220 

Jordan 217 

Jos iso 

Jotapata 222 

Ipsus..... e#w 208 

Ira i4 8 

Iris, JekU-Ermark ...... 192 

Isauria 189,205 

Isca, UsJce 115 

Isca Damnoniorum, Chi- 

se/fiorowgA... ...... 112 

Silurum, Caer Leon 115 

Ischalis, Ilchester.. ....... 112 

Isminus 159 

Issachar 224 

Issedon 256 

Issedones 256 

Issus, Aisse 207 









* * 



















' ' 



ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX II. 






Istaevones 
Ister ... 



• oo 



Isthmus 

Istiaea or Oreus 



Page 

154 
141 
150 

179 



Lacus Brigantinus, Lake 

of Constance.*. 



Page 



Isurium, Aldborough. ..... 114 

Italia Antiqua, Italy ... 81 

Propria 82,87 

Italica « o 

Itakis 



Lucrinus 

Trasimenus. Lugo 

di Perugia . 

Verbanus, Logo 



159 

95 



88 




125 
81 



Ithaca, Theatci 185 

Ithaguri • • 



Jthagurus, Mons ........ 



Ithome 



256 
256 
147 



86 

Lsestrigones io6 

Lasstrigonii Campi 105 

Laish 222 

Lamia 165 

Lamotis, Lamuzo .. 

Lampsacus, Lamsaki ... 



206 
194 



Itunse JEstuarium, Sol- 
way Firth...** »••• 

JltiirsBa . ......... .«•..... ... 



115 

225 



Judah 



Jugantes ••....•••• 

Juliomagus, Angers 

, Junonis Promontoriura, 



225 
114 
150 



Lamus 20 6 

Lancia Oppidana, La 

Guarda \25 

Transcudana,Cfw- 

dadRodrigo .... 
Langobardi, Lombards... 



125 

156 



Cape Trafalgar 



900111 



Juvavum, Saltzbourg ... 



122 
159 



Lanuvium 105 

Laodicea, Ladik ...... 208,215 



Combusta, La- 



dikie 



209 



Lapethus, Lapeto. isg 

Kedron.. 218 Larissa \^ 



Kison .„ 



221 



Koptos, Kypt 256 

Kypt 



Larius, Lago di Co- 



252 



Labicui 



Lacetani 

Lacinium, Capo del/a Co- 



102 
119 



lonna 



101 



Laconia 145, 146 

Lacus Asphaltites, or 

Mare Mortu- 



um, Bead Sea, 

or Salt Sea ... 

Benacus, Lago di 



218 



Garda 



86 



™° 85 9 159 

Latini 93 

Latium 82, 88, 90 

Latmus, river 201 

Laurentum 105 

Lauriacum, Loren 139 

Laurium 15$ 

Lebedsea, Livadia 160 

Lebedus , 193 

Lechaeum 250 

Lectum, Cape Baba... 195,19$ 

Legio, Leon...., I20 

Lemnos, Stalimine ...... 17$ 

Lemovices, Limoges,,,,,. 12$ 







I; 












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I 




! 
















; 






I 






v 



. 















\, 






















ANT1ENT GEOGEAPHy. — IKDEX Iti 



^ 



Page 

Lemovii 156 

Leontini, Lentini 106 

Leptis Magna, Lebida... 247 

Minor, Lemta ..* 246 

Lerna, Molini *.*«.. 146 

Leros «... .*•..... 185 

Lesbos, Mitylin .......... 184 

Leucadia, 165 

Leucate 165 

Leuci 151 

Leuctra • 158 

Lexovii . 150 

Libanus 214 

Libethrus 159 

Libora, Talavera ... 121 

Liburnia, part of Croatia 1 40 

Libya 240, 241, 249 

Interior 250 

Libyan Desert. 250 

Libyssa, Gebue 190 

Licus, Lech 159 

Liger, Loire 125 

Liguria, Genoa 82, 109 

Lilyboeum, Marsala... 104, 107 

promontory 

of, Boeo 107, 108 

Limonum, Poictiers ..... 128 
Lindum, Lincoln 115 

Linganes...... . 129 

Lipareae Insulae. .......... 109 

Liris, Garigliano 88, 91, 95 

Lissus, Alessio •••..•<» 140 

Liternum 95 

Locri ■.. 152 

Epicnemidii .... 152, 161 

Epi-Zephyrii...... 101 

Opuntii 155, 161 

Londiniuxn, London .,,,,. 112 






Pag* 

Luca, Lucca. **.***. ...»*** 88 

* 

Lucania 81,82,97, 100 

Luceria, Lucera .... ...... 98 

Lucrinus, Lacus 95 

Lugdunensis Prima 129 

Secunda 129, 150 

Tertia 129 

Quarta, or 

Senonia , 129 

Lugdunum, Lyons 129 

Lugdumim Batavorum, 

■ 

; Leyden ...... ............ 155 

Lusitani 125 

Lusitania, Portaged... 119,125 

Lutetia, Paris 129 

Lybian Mountains • 257 

Lybicum Pelagus 187 

Lycaon 81 

Lycaonia 189, 209 

Lycasum 156 

Lycaeus 151 

Lychnidus, Ahrida 172 

Lycia .*...........,. 189,205 

Lyeorea .................... 160 

Lycosura •.•••...••<, 151 

Lyctos, Lassite 182 

Lycus 229 

Lydda, Lod 220 

Lydia .................... 188, 197 

Lygii.... ••.. 156 

Lyncestae 172 

Lyrnessus ....* 197 

Lysimachia, Hexamili ... 174 
Lystra ... 205 

Macaranda, Samarcand.. 255 
Macedonia, Roumelia 1 44, 169 
Macron Tichos ...... ^.... 175 

Madauru$#»., •-..•<-••#'#-<••••• 24? 






i < 



'■^ww^^^BB^M 






ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY. — INDEX If. 



Madian 



Page 
225 



Meander, Meinder ... 200, 208 



Mgeatse 
M*edi . 



114 

175 

Msenalus, Moris.... 150 

Maeonia 197 

221 



•* ♦ a c 



200 
200 



Magdala ... ,.... 

Magna Grecia. ..<........ 82, 97 

Magnesia ..... 165, 166 

Magnesia ad Mean drum 

S W 1! ■•••• 

Magnopolis r... 192 

Magnum Ostium, Hugley 

Magnum Promontorium, 

Cape of Romania 

Magnus Sinus, Gulph of 

Siam 



258 



259 



259 



Malaca, Malaga 



Maldivies 



122 
258 



Malea, Cape Malio, or 



St. Angela 






Maleventum 

Malia ..... 

Maliacus Sinus, Gulph of 



96 
165 



Zeiton 



165 
258 

Malli./. 258 

Manasseh ■ 223 ? 224 

Manduessedum, Mance- * % 



Maliarpha, Maliapur. Q 



ter 



114 



Mantinea, near Trapo* 



Utza 



150 



Mantinorum Qppiduro, 

Mantua ... 

Maracanda, Samarcand 

Marathon ,. 

Marcianopolis .......... 

Marcomanni, Bohemia.*. 



©•••••<► O C 



109 
83 

255 

157 
142 

155 



♦ 



* 

Page 



MareiEgasum 1&7 



Carpathian! ......... 

Caspian), Caspian.. 
Creticum 



187 

251 

187 



<r 



82 
187 



Hadriaticum, Gulph 

of Venice. ,. 
Icarium ............ 

Ionium, Grecian 

Sea 82, 186 

Lybicum. 187 

Myrtoum 187 

Tyrrhenum 82 






Mareotis, Mariout ....... 255 

Mariana . ,.„ jq^ 

Mariandyni ............... 190 

Marmarica , 241 249, 250 

Maronea, Marogna ...... 

Marrubium r San Bene- 



174 



detto 



Marrucini 



97 
97 



147, 185 Marsi 9 3, 96, 155 



Marsigni i 3G 

Marsyas ...... 208,214 

Masius, Mount ..„. 250 

Massaesili 242 

Massagetae, Great Getes 212 

23Q 
Massilia, Marseilles ...... 127 

Massyli. ....... ....... ....... 242 

Matinura ........ *..... 10$ 

Mattiaci 135 

Mattium, Marpurg 135 



Mauritania, 



Mot 



y occo 



and Fez... 240, 241 
Caesariensis 242 



115 

133 



Maxima Caesariensis 

Sequanorum ... 
Mazaca, Kaisarieh ^ 210 

Media, Irak Aj ami %% . sufe 254 















1 \ i 1 






I ■ 

1! 















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1 














t 







: 1 ■ 






V 



1 



w 



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1 ir 






'i. 













■ 





ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY. 

\ 



INDEX II* 



/ 






Page 

- 

Mediolanum, Myfod.... 115 
Mediolanum, Milan 85 

Evreux ... 1 50 

Mediomatrici 151 

Mediterranean, Great 

Sea .. 217 

Megalopolis 151 

Megara 152, 153 

Megaris 153 

Megiddo .,. 220 

Melanis, Sinus 174 

Melas, Korah Sou 174, 204, 210 
Meles 198 

Melita 155 

Melite, Malta 109, 140 

Melodunum, Melun 150 

Melos, Milo 180 

Memnonium, Habon ..... 257 
Memphis 255 

Menapii 152 

Mendes, Ashmnr-Tarak 254 

Meroe 258 

Mesembria, Miseira ...... 1 74 

Mesopotamia, Irak 

Arabi 212, 226, 228 

Messana, Messini 104 

Messapia, or Iapygia .... 97, 99 

Messene 147 

Messenia... 145, 147 

Metapontum ... 100 

Metaurus, Metro 89 

Methone, Modon 147 

Leuterochori... 170 

Methymna, Porto Peter a 1 84 

Miletus....,,... 201 

Mincius, Mincio 85, 86 

Minturnse 91 

Minyeia 158 

Misenum 94 

* 

promontory of 94 * 



Page 

Misraim, Misser 252 

Mitylene 184 

Moab 225 

Moabitis 225 

Moeris, Bathen 256 

Mcesia ... 140 

Superior 141 

Inferior 141 

Moguntiacum, Mentz... 155 

Molossia 168 

Mona Taciti, Anglesea, 

Island of .... 115, 118 

Csesaris, Isle of 

Man „. 118 

Mons Abnoba, Black 

Mountain.... 155, 158 

Abyla 242 

Algidus..... 102 

Anchesmus ....... 156 

Arachnaeus ; 146 

Argaeus, Argeh. . 210 

Athos 187 

Atlas 242 

Aventinus.; 92 

Basanites 258 

Capitolinus ,. 92 

Casius 215, 254 

Cithaeron 157 

Coelius 92 

Cragus 205 

Eryx fc .... 107 

Esquilinus 92 

Garganus, Monte 

m St. Angelo 99 

Haemus 175 

r 

Helicon 159 

Hermon 217,221 

Hymettus 156 

Ida 195 

Iraaus 212 



L 







* 









ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX II 






Page 

Mons Msenalus. * 150 

Massicus . 95 

(Eta 164 

Olympus... 164, 167, 204 

Palatinus 92 

i 

Pangaeus 172, 175 

Parnassus 160 

Pentelicus 156 

Piiidus 164 

Quirinalis 92 

Rhodope 172 

Soracte 88 

Viminalis 92 

Vultur 99 

Mopsus, or Mopsuestia, 

Missi 207 

Morini 152 

Mosella, Moselle. 131 

Mulucha, Molochath, 

Malva 241,242 

Vlunda 122, 123 

* 

Munichia 154 

Muri Veteres, Murive- 

dro 121 

Mutina, Modem 84 

Mycale 200 

Mycenae 146 

Myconus, Myconi 181 

Mygdonia 169 

Mylae, Melazzo 108 

Myndus, Myndes 202 

Myoshormus 258 

Myra 203 

My rina, Palceocastri 179 

Myrtoum Mare 187 

Mysia 188, 194 

Nabathsei 225 



y 



Page 

Naranetes 130 

Nar, Neva 89 

Narbo, Narbonne 127 

Narbonensis 126 

Secunda... 126, 127 

Narisci 136 

Narnia 89 

Nasamones 249 

Naulochus . 108 

Naupactus, Enebect, or 

Lepanto 161 

Nauplia, Napoli 146 

Naxos, Naxia 180 

Nazareth 221 

Nazianzus 209 

Nesethes, Neto.. 102 

Neapolis, Naples 93 

Nebo 222 

Neda 151 

Nemausus, Nismes 126 

Nemea 146 

Nemetacum, Arras, or 

Atreckt.. 132 

Nemetes 133 

Neo-Caesarea, Niksar ... 193 

Neodunum, Jablins 130 

Neomagus, or Novioma- 

gus, Woodcote .......... 112 

Nephtali 224 

Neritos 163 

* ♦ 

Nervii 132 

Nessus, or Mestus, Mesto 1 73 

Nicaea, Isnik 189 

Nicomedia, IsnieJcmicL.^ 190 

Nicopolis 141, 168 

Nicopolis, Aboukir ....... 254 

Nicopolis, or Tephrice 

Devriki.* 21Q 

Niger, or Gir „.♦.„♦ 258 

* 



\ 



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1 



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i 














1 



d\ 









1' 



1 f 







ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX II 






* 



\ 



* 



Page 

Nigritae, Negroland, or 

Nigritia ... 260 

Nile 255, 254 

BahrelAbiad 258 

Ninus, or Nineveh 233 

Niphates, Ararat 251 

Nisaea, Nesa 235 

Nisibis, Nisbon 229 

Nisyrus, Nisiri.. .......... 185 

Nola 94 

Nomentum 102 

Norba Caesarea, Alcan- 
tara .. 123 

Noricum 85, 138, 139 

Novantae, in Galloway, 
CarricJc, Kyle, and 

Cunningham 114 

Novem Populana 128 

Noviodunum, orNevir- 

num, Nevers.... 130 

Noviomagus, Lizieux .... 130 

Nimeguen 153 

Spires ...... 135 

Novus, Hesen-Now 210 

Nubse Memnones 253 

Nubia 255 

Nuceria, Nocera 89 

Numantia 120 

Numidia, Algiers..*..,. 240, 242 

Nursia, Norsia *... 89 

Nymphaeum 171 

Nysaea 153 

Nyssa, Noris^Shir. ........ 210 

Oasis 250 

of Siwah... ......... 251 

Magna, EUWah... 256 

Ocvicultim 89 

Ocrinum, Lizard Point 112 



Pagf 

Odrysae Vf'8 

CEa, Tripoli 247 

CEniadae... 163 

CEnotria. ,... 81 

(Enus, Inn ... 159 

CEta, 164, 165 

Olearos, or Antiparos, 

Antiparo 180 

Olisippo, Lisbon ... 123 

Olives, Mount of. ,. 218 

Olympena... 189 

Olympia 148 

Olympus 164, 167, 189 

Lycian 204 

Olynthus 171 

Ombos 256 

Onchestus .«. 159, 166 

Onion 255 

Ophir, Sofala 260 

Ophis 188, 192 

Ophiusa, Fromentera .... i 24 

Orchomenus. 150, 15€ 

Ordovices, inhabitants 

of the counties of 

Montgomery, Carnar** 

von, Denbigh^ and 

Flint 1 13 

Orestae... 169 

Orestis , . ... ... 16£ 

Orestias 177 

Oretani, people about La 

Mancha 121 

Oretani, La Mancha... 12 1 

Oreus, Orio.+.o..... 179 

Oricum 168 

Oriens 21 1 

Ormus, Ormuz 235 









/ 



I 








ANTlEtfT feEOGRAfcHY. 



INDEX ii 






Page 

Oropus, Oropv ... -158 

Orouros, Gorur ... ... .*. 215 

Ortygia.........* 106, 181 

Osi *...n.. 136 

Osismii *..... •«•** 130 

Osroene. 228 

Ossa . *.*..... 167 

Ostia ..... 90, 103 

Qtadeni, people of North- 
umberland, Merse, and 

TevioU dale • • •••• 114 

Oxiana, Termid 235 

Oxus, Gihon .... 235 

Oxydraeae 238 

Oxyma, Jaawmwi......... 167 

Pachymim, Powaro 104,107,108 

Pactolus 201 

Padus,Po 85 

P&onia.k 189 

Paestura, IVrt» •• 100, 101 

Paeti •— • W* 

Pagas8B»«.»o»»..*«»*« a9 .* B89 » loo 

Palsestina, Palestine, or 

Holy Land ,. 211 

Patetyros 217 

Palatinus, Mons 92 

Palatium... ..... 93 

Palentia .. 120 

Palestine.. ...... 217 

Palibothra, Patna, or 

Allahabad 258 

Palma >••♦ 124 

Palmyra, or Tadamora, 

Tadmor.:. 215 

Palus Acherusia. 168 

Lybia, El»Loudeah 247 
Maeotis, Sea of 



P®ge 

I 

Palus SirboniSj Sebakel 

Bardoil 254 

Tritonis, Tazo-oun 247 

Pamphylia 189, 204 

Pandatariai... ........ ...... 90 

Paiieas. 222 

Pangseus 173 

Pannonia Inferior, Sola- 

vonia ......... 139 

Superior, Hun- 

■ 

gary 159 

Panormus, Palermo...... 107 

Panormo ... 168 

Panticapasum, or Bospo- 
rus, Kerche 143 

Paphlagonia. ...... ........ 188 

Paphos, Bapha 186 

* 

Limmeson Antica 186 

Pappua, Edoug 243 

Paraetonium, Al-Baretoun 250 

Paras, Pars..***. 232 

I 

Parasopias .. 158 

Parisii... *...... 129 

/Zb&ferwm... ...... 114 

Parma • 84 

Parnassus. .«...,... ........ 160 

Parnes .. *.,.... 156 

Paros, Paro.* 180 

Parrhasii ••...••..•.. 151 

Paropamisus. 235, 236, 237 

Parthenius, Partheni..: 289 

Parthenope 95 

Parthia.... 212 

Parthians..... 235 

Parthiene • 235 

Parva Scy thia, Little Tar* 

tart/* • 14£ 

Pasargada, Pasa Kurt**. 43% 

Pasitigris, Skatal-Arab 221 

1 
















.1 1 
















1 



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i I 






\ m 






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I 












1» 









K 



• 



ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX II. 






JPage 

Patavium, Padua.. ....... 83 

Patara, Patera 203 

Pathmos . ... is5 

Patrae, Patras 149 

Pax Julia, JBeja 123 

Pekin 236 

Pelagonia 159 

Pelasgi 145 

Pelasgia .... . „ 145 

Pelasgiotis ....... ... . ie5 

Pelendones, ...... 120 

Peligni. r . 97 

Pelion. ^ „ 167 

Pella, Palatiza 170 

Pellene 149 

Peloponnese, Morea.... 145 

Pelops 145 

Pelorum, Cape Faro 104, 107, 

108 
Pelusiotic Mouth of the 

Nile 254 

Pelusium, Tireh 254 

Peltae, Uschah ..... 208 

Pend-jab... 238 

P^neus... 148, 167 

Pentapolis 249 

Peparethus, Piperi and 

Palagnisi 179 

Peraea 218, 222 

Percote 194 

Perga, Kara-hisan «.. 204 

Pergamus, Bergamo... 196, 197 

Perinthus 175 

Permessus 159 

Perrhaebia 165 

Persepolis, TsheUminar 232 

Persia...... 212, 252 

Persian Gulph 226 

Per usia, Perugia 88 



Page 

Pessinus 191 

Petilia 102 

Petra, Shadman 235 

Petrocorii, Perigeux 128 

Peucetia 98 

Peucini 142 

Phasaeia 185 

Phalerum 154 

Phalerus 154 

Pharos 255 

Pharsalia 167 

Phaselis, Fionda... 204 

Phasiana 250 

Pbasis, Fasz-Rione... 230, 231 

Phatniticum Ostium.... 254 

Phazania, Fezzan 248 

Pheneos, Pherda 152 

Pheras, Pheres \66 

Philadelphia... 201 

Phikenorum Arae 249 

Philippi 174 

Philippopolis 177 

Philistsea 219 

Philistaei 217 

Philistines 

Phlegra, or Pallene 171 

Phlius, Staphlica 149 

Phocasa, Fochia 196 

Phocis 152, 160 

Phoenicia 211, 216 

Pholegandros, Policandro 180 

Phrygia 189,207 

Major 207 

Minor 20s 

Phthiotis 165 

Phycus Promontorium, 

Cape Rasat 250 

Phylae 157 

Picenum...... 82, 8S 










/ 






c 




ANTIET GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX II. 











- . 







• 



Page 

* 

Ketones, or Pictavi 128 



169 



Pieria 

Pinarius, Deli-Sou 207 

Pindenissiis 

Pindus • 



, 214 

164 

Piraeus, Porto Leone .... 154 
Pisa 88, 148 

148 

89 



Page 

Potidasa 171 

Potniae . 

Praeneste, Palestrina ..«,. 

Priene * 



Proconnesus, Marmora 
Promontorium Hermae- 



159 

91 

200 
175 



ura, Cape Bon 244 



Pisatis 

Pisaurum, Pesaro 

Pisidia 189, 204 

Pitane 197 



Pithecusa, or iEnaria, 



Ischia 



94 
124 

84 
M2ZO 

Plataea 15.7 

Plemmyrium 106 

Polemonium, Vatija ..... 195 

■ 96 



Promontorium Sacrum 204 

Propontis, White Sea?, oe 

Sea of Marmora , c . 17 5 

Propthasia, Zarang 254 

Prusa, Bursa 189 

Psophis 151 



Pityusae, Pine Islands..*. 

Placentia, Placenza.. 

Plain of Esdrelon * ... 



249 



Psylli... 

Ptolemais, Tolometa .... 249 

Aco, Acre .... 221 



Hermii, Girge 256 

Pura, Fohrea 255 

Puteoli, Pouzzola 

Pydna 



Pompeii | 

Pompeiopolis • 206 Pyke Albanise, or Caspiae, 

Pompelo, Pampeluna.... I 
Pons iElii, Newcastle. 



94 
170 



130 



JDerbend 



251 



upon Tyne 
Milvius....... 

Trajani 



<** • .• 



Pontia, Ponza 

Pontinae Paludes, Pora- 



115 

102 

141 

90 



Caucasian... 251 

Cilicige 207 

1 

Cyriae » 



207 



Pylos, Gerenian 148 



Messenian 



147 



tine Marshes 



90 



Pyrrha 
Pytho . 



Triphylia 143 



160 
166 



Pontus 188, 192 I 

Pontus Euxinus, Black 

Sea 142,176,188 Quadi, inhabitants of 



Port of Calle, Portugal 



Augusti 



120 

105 



Moravia 13$ 



Quirinalis Collis 



92 



Portus Itius, Witsand 111, 152 



Lemanis... 

Magonis, Port 



111 



Mahon 



124 



Posidonia loo 



Rabbath Ammon, or Phi- 

ladelphia, Amman ..... 225 

Rabbath Moab, Maab, 

or El~Raba .... 223 



Y 5 



\ 



i 


















1 





















ANT1ENT GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX II 



/ 



Page 

Ragae, or Rages, Rei... 234 
Ramoth, or Ramoth 

Gilead ;......... 222 

Ratae, Leicester .... H3 

Ratiaria 141 

Ravenna s4, 86 

Raudii Campi gs 

Rauraci 133 

Reate, Reaii ....... , 89 

Red Sea 225 

Regillus Lacus . 102 

Regni, inhabitants of 'Sur- 
rey, Sussex, and pari 

of Hampshire ., 112 

Remi . i5i 

Resapha 215 

Reuben ••••••••.••..•.«•.... 224 

Rha, Volga . 142 

Rhaetia ... 85, 138 

Rhamnus .................. 157 

Rhamnusia 157 

Rhedones .. 150 

Rhegium, Regio 101 

Rhenea 181 

Rhenus, Rhine 152 

Rheon 231 

Rhinocorura, EUArish 252, 255 
Rhium 149, 161 

Rhoetaeum 195 

Rhodanus, Rhone 126 

Rhodope 173 

Rhodus, Rhodes *85 

Rhyndacus 189,194 

Riduna, Alderney ........ 130 

Roma, Rome * 88, 92 

Roscianum, Rosano 102 

Rotomagus, Rouen 150 

Roxolani ..;. # 142 

Rubico, Fiumesino •••,„« 86 

II 



Page 

Rudise .......... 99 

Rugii, Rugenwald 1 3 $ 

Ruteni 128 

Rutupise, Rickborough. . . Ill 

Sabsei, Yemen 225 

Sabini . 88,95 

Sabrata, Sabart 247 

Sacae, Sa&eta ... 212, 236 

Sacrum Promontorium, 

Cape St. Vincent 123 

Sagrus, Sayigro 97 

Saguntum, Murviedro... 124 

Saii, or Essui, Seez 130 

Sais, Sa 254 

Salamis, Colouri 154, 185 

Sale, Sallee 242 

Salentini 99 

Salernum, Salerno 95 

Salmantica, Salamanca 119, 123 
Salmydessus 175 

Saltus Teutobergiensis, 

Bishopric ofPaderbom 1 35 
Salyes 127 

Samarobriva, Amiens. ... 131 
Samaria, Sebaste 211, 218, 220 

Samarus, Somme 131 

Same . i 8 3 

Samnium 82, 88, 96 

Samonium, Salmone 181 

Samos 135 

Samosata, Semisat 214 

Samothrace, Samothra/ci 178 
Sana 173 

Sangaritis, or Sangaris, 

SaJcaria 190 

Santones, people of San- 

. togne, 8? City of Saints 128 

Sardica*... Hi 

/ 





/ 



/ 



















ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX II. 




Page 

Sardinia 109, 110' 

Sardis, Sart .... 200 

Sarepta 217 

Sarmatae • 137 

Sarmatia, Russia 79, 137, 142 

Asiatica...212, 231 

Sarnia, Guernsey.. 130 

Sarrhum, or Serrhium, > 

Castro Saros 174 

Sarus, Scihoun.. 207 

Satala, Arzingan 210 

Saturnia 81 

Sauromatae « 137 

Savus, Saave 139 

Saxones 136 

Scalabis, St. Irene, now 

Santarem 123 

Scaldis, Scheldt 132 

Scamander 195 

Scandinavia, Prussia, 
Sweden, Denmark, and 
. Norway 79, 137 

Scapta-hyla, or Scapte- 

sula, Skepsilar 174 

Scepsis 19 ^ 

Sciathos 179 

Scillus l 4 8 

Scodra, Scutari 140 

Scopelos 179 

Scordisci 140 

Scylacium, Squillaci 101 

Scylla 104 

Scyros, Skyro.... 180 

Scythae 13 ° 

Scythia 79, 137,212,236 

intra Imaum ... 79,236 
extra Imaum ... 79, 236 
Sea of Tiberias, or Lake 
of Genesareth 217 



y 



Page 

Sebaste, Sivas ............ 210 

Sebennytic Mouth of the 

Nile 254 

Sebennytus, Semenud ... 254 
Segedenum, Cousin's 

House 115 

Segeste, Egesta 107 

Sego dunum, Rondez 128 

Segoxitium, Carnarvon... 113 

Segobriga, Segorbe 121 

Seleucia, Ctesiphon, Al 

Modani...... 227 

Trachea 205 

Savedia 215 

Selga 204 

Selgovae, in Eskdale, 
Annandale, and Nithis- 
dale • • 114 

Selinus, Selena..* 107,205 

Sellasia 147 

Selymbria, Selibria 175 

Semnones 136 

■ 

Sena, Siena 88 

Sena, Sain • 131 

Sena Gallia, Senigaglia 87,89 

Senones 87,129 

Senonia 129 

Sepias, Cape of St. 

George 166 

Sepphoris, or Dio Caesa- 

rea, Sefouri ... 221 

Sequana, Seine 125 

Sequani 133 

Sera, Kan-tcheon 236 

Serica, North Western 

part of China 
Gete, or Eygur 

80, 213,256 

■ 

Seriphus, Serpho 180 

4 






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M 



ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX II 



Page 

Serus, Menan 259 

Sestos, Zermenic ......... 175 



a 



36 



Shefi-si 

Sicambri 135 

Sicani .......* 104 

Sicania 104 

Sicca.... 247 

Sichem, Neapolis, JSTabo- 

■ 

lu * • 220 

Sicilia ,,, 104 

Sicinos igo 

Siculi # . 104 

Sicyon, JBasilico 149 

Sicyonia 149 



Side 



204 



Sidon,Sayda , t# 217 

Sierra Leone ....... 260 

Siga 

Sigaeum, Cape Inei-Hi- 



242 



sari 






• 195 

Silarus, or Silaro. 101 

Silures, inhabitants of the 
counties of Hereford, 
Monmouth, Radnor, 

Brecon and Glamorgan 112 

Simaethus, Giaretta 105 

Simeni, Cenimagni, or 

Iceni, inhabitants of the 

I 

counties of Norfolk, 
Suffolk, Cambridge 
and Huntingdon ...... 1 ] 3 

Simeon 223 

Simois 195 

Sinae, Cochin-China 80, 

'& 212,257,259 

Shen-si 237 

Sinai, Mount 225 

Singara, Singar 229 

Singidunum, Belgrade. . . 141 



Page 
Singas 159 

Sinope, Sinub -143, 191 

Sintica ie9 

Sinuessa 95 

Sinus iElanites 225 

Ambracius 164 

Arabicus 211, 225 

Argolicus 146 

Casalus.. 109 

Ceramicus ....... 202 

Codanus, part of 

the Baltic 157 

Corinthiacus, 
Gulph of Le- 
panto 145, 149, 157, 

160, 161 

Crissaeus, Gulph 

of Salona ... 160, 161 

Cyparissius 143 

Doridis 202 

Gallicus 126 

Oangeticus, Bay 

of Bengal...... 239 

Hadriaticus 85 

Hermionicus 146 

Heroopolites, 

Gulph of Suez 225, 25S 

Iassius 202 

Laconicus, Gulph 

of Colokythia. . . 147 

Maliacus, Gulph 

of Zieton ... 162,165 

Messeniacus, 

Gulph of Cor on 147 
Opuntius i6i 

Pegasius,orPelas- 
gius, Gulph of 
Volo 166 

Persicus 211 

1 






'• 











s 






ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX II. 






Page 
Sinus Plinthinethes, 

Arabs Gulph..* 255 
Paestanus 95 

Saronicus 146, 150, 154 
Singiticus, Gulph 

of Monte Santo 171 
Stry monicus ... 1 6 9, 1 7 1 

Tergestimis ....... S3 

Thermaicus, 
Gvlph of Salo- 

niki 169,170 

Toronaeus, Gulph 

of Cassandria ... 171 

Sion, Mount 218 

Siphnus, Siphanto 180 

Sipontum, Manfredonia 98 

Sipylus 199,200 

Sirbonis Palus, Sebakei 

Bardoii 253, 254 

Sinnium, Sirmia 140 

Sithonia 171 

Sittianorum Colonia, 

* 

Constantina 243 

Sminthium 196 

t * 

Smyrna, Ismur 198 

Smyrnaeus, Sinus 198 

Socinos and Ios, Sikino 

andNio 180 

Sogdi, Bakor 238 

Sogdiana, Al- Sogd ... 212, 235 

Soli, Solia 186,206 

Solymi ••.. ( 204 

Sophene, Zoph 230 

Soracte 88 

Sotiates 129 

Sozopolis, Sizeboli 177 

Sparta, or Lacedaemon, 
neavMisitra 146 

Spartianus Campus 121 






Page 

Sperchius 165 

Sphacteria 148 

Spoletium, Spolefo 189 

Sporades .*. 385 

Stabile •••••.. .u 96 

Stagyra, Stauros 172 

Stobi 372 

Stratonicea, EsM-Shehr 302 

Strophades, Strivali.**... 183 

Strymon 172, 173 

Stymphalus 150 

Suastus, Suvat ••••.••••••• 237 

Sucro, Xucar 121 

Suessa Auruncorum, 

Sezza 95 

Suessiones . 131 

Suevi 134 

r 

Suindunum, Mans 130 

Sulmo, Sulmona ...... . 6 . 97 

Sunium, Cabo Colonni... 156 

Susa, or Susan, Suster... 

Susiana 212, 

Sybaris or Thurium 1 00 

Sybaris 101 

Syene, Assouan 257 

Synnada 208 

Syracusae, Siracusa 106 

Syria... 211, 213 

Syro-Phcenicia ....^.. 225 

Syros, Syra 180 

Syrtis Minor, Gulph of 

Cabes 241, 247 

Major, Gulph of 

Sidra*. 241,247 

Tabor, or I tabyrius 221 

Tabraca, Tabarca.. ....... 044 

Tacape, Gabes 247 

Tifcnarus, Cape Matapan 147 





# 




























♦- 



\ 



















I 







ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX 11. 



I 



Page 

Tageste, Tajelt 246 

Tagus, Tago... .. , 125 

Taliatis.. . . 141 

Tamari Ostia, Plymouth 



Tergeste, Trieste 
Tetrapolis 



Page 
85 



Sound, 



.... 112 

Tamiathis, Damiata ... 254 
Tanais, Don , 142 



Tanagra, 



158 



Tanis, or Zoan, San 254 

Taniiic Mouth of the Nile 254 

Taprobane, Ceylon 258 

Tarentum, Tarento 100 

Tarquinii 88 



■ 162 

Teutones 156 

Thapsacus, El-Der 215 

Thapsus, Demsas 246 

Thasos, Thapso 175, 178 

Thaumaci, Thaumaco.... 166 
Thebais 255 

Thebes, Boeotian 159 

Egyptian 256 

| 196 

Phthiotic 166 

Themiscyra 195 



Hynoplacian... 



Tarraco, Tarragona 119 Themisonium, Tesenu . . 



208 



Tarraconensis 119 

Tarsus, Tarsous 206 

Tartessus 122 



152 



Taruenna, Terouenne.... 

Tatta Palus, Tuzla* 209 

Tauri 145 

Taurini, Piedmontese 82 

Tauromenium, Taormino 105 
Taurus, Mons.... 204, 205, 207 

Taxila 257 

Teanum, Tiano 95 

Teches, or Tesqua, Teheh 195 

Tectosages... 192 

Tegea, Moklea...... 150 

Teleboides, Megalo-nisi 1 65 

Telmissus, Macri *... 205 

Telo Martius, Toulon.... 127 

Telos, Ptscopia *.... 185 

Tempe 167 

Tencteri 155 

Tenedos 196 



Tenos, Tine 



180 



Tentyra, Dendera 256 



Teos 



198 



Termessus....,, 204 






Theopolis 215 

Thera, Santorin 180 

Therapne 147 

Therma, or Thessalonica, 



Saloniki 



171 

Thermae Selinuntiae 107 

Thermodon, Terme 195 

Thermopylae 161 

Thermus 165 

Thespiae, Neocorio 159 

Thesprotia 168 

Thessalia 155, 164 

Thessaliotis 165 

Thracia 175 

Thracian Bosphorus, 
Channel of Constan- 



tinople 



_ -•« 176 

Thria 157 

Thriasius Campus... 145 

Thronium 



.* 



161 



Thurifera regio 225 

Thyamis 168 

Thyatira, Ak-kisar 200 

Thymbrium, Tsha/clelu... 208 
Thyni. 176, 189, 190 














s. 



ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY* 



Page 

Thynias, Tiniada. .,«..,. 176 
Tiberias .......... . 221 

Sea of. 217, 221 

Tiberis, Tiber . 87, 89 

Tlbur, Tivoli 89, 90 

Ticinum, Patria ,. S3 



> 

J: 






^ fc^^ 


T INDEX Ij 

* J 

- 








Page 



Triphylia 



Il«94*«64 d4<9 ft 4* ft « * 

Tripolis, Taraboli or 



148 



TVipo/i 216,241,247 



Tritaea, 7Vife . 
Troad . 



Troas 



00 #*• • »» •© 



149 



O 9 • Q 



u 



19 



5 



189, 



19 



TIcinus, 7V$ino....., .... S3, 85 Trcezen, Troezene, £te- 
Tigranocerta.... 



O 00 Cft c» •• •• 



230 



watf/a: 



14-5 



Tigris 212, 228, 233 Troglodyte.. 25s 



1 imavus 



83 



Tingis, 0/d Tangier. ..... 242 

Tingitana 242 




a, or Ilium, j5o^ 

narbachi 195 



Tsin 



Tithorea 

Tmolus, Bour-Dag..... 9 . 



237 



161 
200 



Tunetnm, Tunis „. 246 

Tungri, Tongres 131 



Toletum, Toledo «. 121 Tunnocelura, Bouiness... 115 

Tolosa, Toulouse 1 



126 



Turdetani, Seville ■.... 122 

Tomi, Tomes war, or Z?a6# 142 Tur duli, Cordova 122 



Tonsus, Tonza • 177 

Torone, Toron 168,171 

Toxandri 132 



Turicum, Zurich..* 133 

Turkistan 236 

Turnacum, Toumat/ 3 . 9 .„. 132 

Trachini Heraclea 165 Turones ., 150 



Trachis, or Trachinia, 



Zeiton 



165 



Trachonitis 222, 223 

Tralles, Sultan-Hisar.... 



201 



Trapezus, Trebisond. 193 



Treba 



89 



Turns Hannibalis, Mahdia 246 

Turris Stratonis... 220 

Tusculum, Frascati gj 

Tyana ... 209 

Tyche 106 

Tylos, JBahram 226 



Trebia 84, 86 Tyndaris... i 08 

Tretum, Sebda-Kuz...... 242 Tyrins, or Tyrinthus i4 6 

Treveres , 131, 132 Tyros, Sur 217 

Tyrrheni,.. .„, # %>* 



Triballi 



141 



Triboci 133 



1 

Tricca, Tricala 167 Vacca, Veja 244 

Tridentum, Trent.*.. 139 Vaccaei j 20 

Trinacria. 104 Vahalis, Waal. jg 5 



Trinobantes, people of 

Essex, Middlesex, and 



part of Surrey ..< 

Tri opium, Cape Crio .*, 



112 



202 



Valaques i 62 

Valentia 115,121 

Vallum Antonini .,.„ 115 

Vandalitia, Andalusia...* 122 



















I 





















< 



1 






- 









■ 







ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX II 






Page 

Vangiones 133 

Varini, inhabitants of 

Mecklenburgh . 136 

Varus, Var 82, 85 

Vascones, people of JSTa- 



Via Cassia ... 
Claudia.. 

Flaminia 
Labicana 



var re 



Ubii 



120 
152 



Vectis, Isle of Wight... 1 12, 1 18 



Page 
105 

105 

105 
102 
102 
105 
102 



Veientes 
Veii 



95 
88, 105 

Velia ;. 100 

Velocasses, 130 

Venafrum, Venafro 95 

Venedi, inhabitants of 

part of Livonia 142 



Latina 

Laurentina 

Nomentana 

Ostiensis ]05 

Portuensis 105 

Praenestina 

Salaria 



102 

102 

1 

Tiburtina. 102 

Triumphalis 105 

Viadris, Ofer 136 

Viducasses 150 



Veneti 85, 150, 190 Vienna, Vienne in Dau- 



Vennones, Valteline 159 

Venta Belgarum, Win- 



chester 



Icenorum,Ctofcr 



112 
115 



phine 127 

Viennensis 126, 127 

Vientes. 

Viminalis Collis 



Silurum, 
Givent 



95 
92 



Cae 



r 



Venusia, Venosa 

Verbanus Lacus, Lago 



115 
98 



Maggiore 



86 



Verodunenses 131 

Verodunum, Verdun 131 

Veromandui, Vermandois 151 

Verona S3 y 86 

Verulamium, near St. 



Viminiacum 141 

Vindebona, Vienna ...... 159 

Vindeli, Vandals 155 

Vindelicia 85, 158 

Vindo, Wartach ... 159 

Vistula ijg 

Visurgis, Weser 1 

Ulai 



155 



Uliarus, Isle of Oleron... 



o 



51 



128 



Albans 



112 



Umbria g2 87 

Vocontii , 1^7 



Vesontio, Bezanqon 155 Volateme, Volaterra .... 



Vestini 



88 



97 



Vesuna, La Visone 128 

Vesuvius 95 

Vettones, Estramadura 125 

Via Appia 102 

Ardeatina 105 

Aurelia „„. 102 



Volscae Arecomici 126 



Tectosages 



Volsci 



Volsinii, Bolsena 



126 

95 

38 



Vorganium, Korbez 151 

Uranium 109 

Uriconium, Wroxeter ... 



113 


















ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY. 



INDEX II 










Page 



TJsipn, Angria 155 

Utica : 

Vulturnus, Vulturno ...... 

Uxantis Insulae, Ushant 



244 

95 
151 



Uxela, Exeter 112 

Uxelodunum 128 



Xanthus, Eksenide 203 






Zabata, Zal 233 

Zabulon ................... 



224 



Page 

Zacynthus, Zante 185 

Zama 247 

Zancle 104 

Zarangae, or Drang® ..• 234 

Zariaspa Bactra, Balk... 255 

Zele 192 

Zeleia .... 196 

Zephyrium .... 101 

Zeugitana 246 

Zeugma ♦ 228 

Zingus, Zanguchar .♦,... 259 



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