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Full text of "Fundamenta entomologiæ: or, An introduction to the knowledge of insects. Being a translation of the Fundamenta entomologiæ of Linnaeus .."

COLLE0E 
AQWCULI 






Comell Xflntverstt^ 



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IRew Ji)ork State College of Hgriculture 



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Fundainenta Entomologiae ; 

O R, A N 

IN TR O DUCTION 

T O T H E 

KNOWLEDGEof INSECTS. 

BEING A TRANSLATION OF THE 

Fundamenta Entomologite c/XiNN^ys, 

F A K. T H E R 

Illuftrated with Copper Plates and Additions. 

By W. CURTIS, Apothecarv; 



L O N D O N: 

Printedfor theAuthor; and fold by G. Pearch, 
Cheapfide, MDCCLXXIL 



@ 
L 1S" 



Vr<? 



t 




A D V E R T I S E M E N T. 

HE piece of which the 
followino- is a tranflation, 
was originally written by Andrew 
John Bladh, a pupil of the ce- 
lebrated Linnasus, and after- 
wards publifhed in the 7th vol. 
of Linnaeus's Amoenitates Aca- 
demic je^v It may therefore be 
confldered if not entirely as Lin- 
naeus's own, yet as having the 
fanction of his approbation. 

It afforded me fo much plea- 

fure in the perufal, and appear- 

ed fo well adapted to facilitate 

A 2 the 



[ '". I 

the knowledge of infe&s, tliat 
I was induced to make this tranf- 
lation of it public, in order that 
others nright receive t.he fame en- 
tertainment, and this agreeable 
ftudy become more general. 

The addition of the copper 
plates will, it is prefumed, tend 
to make what is contained in 
thefe pages better nnderftood ; 
and by that means ftill farther 
anfwer the end the tranflator had 
in view by this publication. 



EXPLA. 



EXPLANATION of PLATE I. 

Flg. I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, in plate i. and fig. 6. 13 
plate ii. reprefent the feveral kinds of Antennse, 
page 38. 

Fig. 1. PECTiNATiE, or Feather'djasin thei 3 ^- 

lcena^ Motbs. 
2. Perfoliatje, or Perfoliated, as in the 

Dermejlts and Dytifcus. 
5. Fissiles, or Fifllle, divided into Laminae 

at the extremity, as iri the Searabai, 

Beetles. 

4. Clavatje, or Club-fhaped, as in the 

Papilio, Butterfly. 

5. Moniliformes, like aNecklace of Beads, 

as in the Chryfomela. 
& Setaceje, Setaceous, or BrMHe-fhap^d, 

as in many of the Pbal&nce. 
7» Aristatje, fig. 6, plate ii. furnifhed 

with a lateral hair, as in the Fly, 
8-9. a Caput, the Head. 
b Palpi, or Feelers. 
c Antennze, or Horns. 
d Oculi, the Eyes. 
e Thorax 

f Scutellum, or Efcutcheona 
g Pectus, or Breaft. 
h Sternum, or Breaft Bone. 
* z Abdomen, and its fegments» 

& Anus. 
/ Elytra, or Shells. 



tn Membranous Wings. 



Fig. 8-9. 



[ vi j 

fig. 8-9. n Pedes y or Feet, which are Natatorii, 

10. Femur, or Thigh. 
p Tibia, or Leg. 

q Tarfus, or Foot. 
r Unguis, or Claw. 

11. a The Anterior part of the Wing. 
b The Pofterior part. 

c The Exterior part. 
d The Interior part. 
e The Margin. 
/TheDifk, orMiddle» 
g Oculus, or Eye„ 



EXPLA- 



t 



EXPLANATION of PLATE II. 

Fig. i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, reprefent the claffes of 
Infe&s, page 70. 

Fig. 1. Coleoptera, fuch as have cruftaceous 
Elytra, or Shells, which fhut together, 
and form a longitudinal future down the 
back of the infect, as in the Chafer„ 
In moft infects of this clafs the Elytra 
cover the Abdomen entirely ; in others 
but partially, as in the Earwig, &c. 
The word is derivcd from koAso?, a 
Sheath, and wlifiavy a Wing. 

'%. H£MlPTERA,have their upper wings moft 
commonly half cruftaceous, and half 
membranaceous, not divided by a longi- 
tudinal future, but incumbent on each 
other; as in the Water-fcorpion and 
Grafshopper. From ?f*«w, half, and 
«fyor, a Wing. 

%. Lepidoptera, have four wings, cover'd 
with fine fcales in the form of powder 
or meaL* as m tne Butterfly and Moth, 
from *£OT£, a Scale, and iflepov, a Wing. 

4.. Neuroptera, have four membraneous 
tranfparent naked wings, generaliy re- 
ticulated, with veins or nerves ; tail 
without a fting, as in the Libellula or 
Dragon-fly ; from «Sgov, a Nerve, and 
wlfjjoe, a Wing. 



Fis:. 



$• 



[ viii J 

5. Hymenoptera, have four membraneous 

wings, tail furnifhed with a fling for 
various purpofes ; as in the Wafp and 
Ichneumon, from ■*$», a Membrane 
or PeJIicle, and v\sfiv 9 a wing. 

6. Diptera,Two wings only, and Foifers,as 

in the Houfe-fly ; from §£& t two, and 
vfhpov, a Wing. 

7. Aptera, have no wings ; as the Spider^ 

&c. from » Without, and «rfcp», a 

Wing. 
$. 9. 10. 11. reprefent the infecl: in ifS 
Egg, CaterpilJar, Pupa, and Perfe<3; 
itate, 



A fl 



A N 

INTRODUCTION 

T O 

ENTOMOLOGY. 



SECTION I. 

THE pleafure and utility of na- 
tural hiftory, including its fe- 
veral branches, is fo great, that it has 
engaged the attention of mankind from 
the remotefl period of time : there is 
fcarce an age but what has contributed 
fomewhatto its increafe, though iri fome 
countries it has not been purfued with 
the like ardour, nor attended with the 
B fame 



r % ] 

fame fuccefs as in others. The all~ 
wife Author of Nature hath implanted 
in the mind a peculiar thirft for know- 
ledge, which however, from the nar^ 
row limits of our intellects, and the 
infmite variety of objects, is not poffefr. 
by all in the fame degree. When this 
principle is rightly directed, it may 
juftly be called a fpur to wifdom, 
ojherwife it is apt to precipitate us i nto^ 
doubts and uncertainti.es, and in at- 
tempting many and great things we 
perform nothing. To fay nothing of 
other purfuits, would it not have been 
rnore reafonable for the antients, who 
devoted themfelves to the fludy of 
aftrology, andthe contemplation of ce- 
leflial bodies, at an infinite diftance, to 
have inveftigated the various inhabi- 
tants of their own planet, and been 
more foiicitous about things which 
.were really known to exift, than about , s 

thofe 



[ 3 ] 

Yhofe whofe exiftence was only pro- 
bable ? 

It is the opinion ofmoft Theologifts 
and Philofophers, that the two branches 
of natural hiflory, zoology and botany, 
were among the primar y ftudies of our 
firft parents. Botany, if we except 
the times of barbarifm,has every where 
been cultivated ; but zoology in general 
has lain almofr. neglected, even to our 
time; that part more particu-larly which 
relates to infedts, has, for reafbns we 
fhall prefently mention, been defpifed 
and ill treated. As this fcience is too 
extenfive to be fully difplayed by any 
one perfon, my intention is to propole 
it in asfhort a manner as pofiible, by 
running through its principal heads r 
Infects exceed other terrefMal animals 
in number of individuals and fpecies, 
and taken alltogether,conftitufe alarger 
B 2 bulk» 



[ 4 2 

bulk. Notwithftanding their con- 
temptible appearance, each of them 
has its proper bufmefs affigned to it ia 
the ceconomy and police of nature, 
whereby they frequently tranfacl the 
greateft things, and though gradually 
and llowly, yet by their number they 
effecl: what would appear to exceed all 
expectation and belief. 



S E C T. II. 

I T was formerly believed that in- 
fects were produced by equivocal o-e- 
neration,orfrom putrefaclion , and that 
the putrified remains of other animals 
were chawged into them ; and that in~ 
finite mixtures and varieties mip-ht thus 
arife without iaw or order. This ab- 
furd and futiie opinion, almoft univer- 
fally prevailed 'till the times of Harvey 

and 



1 5 ]. 
and Rhedi, who, from uncontroverted 
experiments, proved that the fame laws 
of propagation exifted in thofe as in 
other animals, and that every living 
thing was prcducedfrom an egg. Some 
■of thofe animals are extremely minute, 
fo as to be fcarce vifible to the naked 
eye,asAcARi,f^/V^THRiPEs,Coccr, 
Phal^na occultella, (a fpecies of 
moth) others again are very large, as 
the Monoculus Polyphemus, Can- 
cer Gamarus, (lobfler) and fome 
others of the crab kind, Scarab^eus 
Act^eon, (afpecies ofbeetle) and Pha^ 
LiENA Atlas (another fpecies ofmoth). 
With regard to their ftrength, con- 
iidering their fize, it appears prodigi- 
ous. Excepting aqnatic infecls, which 
are biennial, mofr. of them are a?inual, 
and cannot fubiifr through the winter 
in our cold climate; but being renewed 
every fpring, they render their ipecies 

peren- 



[ « ] 

perennial: They multiply incredibly, 
vying even with the fifhes in their in- 
creafe. Reaumur informs us, that one 
female bee can yeariy depofit in the 
hive forty thoufand eggs ; the fame 
author alfo difcovered in one fly two 
thoufand young ones : their ftructure, 
wonderful mechanifm, and fhape, dif- 
play the perfeclion of the all-wife Cre- 
ator ; in the beauty of their colours, 
they are not inferior to the finefr. ani- 
mals andflowerSjtoinftancetheBupRES- 
*ris ignita, Papilio, Priamus, Helena, 
Menelaus, and moft of the Indian but- 
terflies, and thofe kind of moths called 
Tinece. It is therefore matter of admi- 
ration that the Englifh and French 
nobility, who are curious in this parfc 
of natural hiftory, have not conftru&ed 
hot-houfes for the Indian Lepidoptera, 
iu which they might fubiiit duringthe 
winter, as they are undoubtedly more 

pieafing 



f 7 ]" 

pleafing to the eye than any other, as 
appears from the paintings of Clerck 
and Merian. 



S E C T. III. 

A S infedts furnilli but few of the 
neceffaries of life, the ignorant and 
imcivilized part of mankind have not 
fcrupled to ftigmatize the ingenious 
enquirers after them with the name 
of fools, as thefe animals appeared to 
them altogether contemptible, and de- 
ferved to be confidered only as punifh- 
ments innieled on particular countries 
for the lins of its inhabitants; forgetting 
in the mean time that the all-wife 
Creator, who formed them, created no- 
thing in vain, nothing without its ufe. 
But as mankind became more enlifffit- 
en^d 9 the great wonders of nature in 

thefc 



t 8 ] 

thefe imall animars began to be ob* 

ferved ; each fpecies was found to be 

furnifhed with inftruments adapted to 

keep up a proper proportion in the 

ceconomy of nature ; happily fome 

clear the furface of the earth from 

impure and fuperfiuous, fome the air 

of fetid and putrid matters, and-others 

muddy and itagnating waters of hetero- 

geneous or filthy mixtures ; they affift 

in preferving a due proportion among 

vegetables, by deftroying many which 

are inacceflible to the larger animals. 

DifTerent parts of the fame plant of- 
ten afford nourifhment to difierent in- 
fe£ts ; fome live on the flowers, as the 
Curcuiwnes ; fome on the roots ,as the 
Leptura ; and others on the leaves, as 
the Phakncc ; and as the piants increafe, 
fo does the number cf their refpedivl 
inhabitants. La%, they carry D ff 

an ? 



[ 9 ] 

any fuperfluous or noxious humour fe- 
creted on the furface of animals or ve- 
getables; and their influence will pro- 
bably be found much greater than it is 
at prefent, when focieties, fimilar to 
thofe of Peterfburgh, Paris, London, 
Leipfic, Gottingen, &c. vying with 
each other in difcoveries relating to 
ceconomy of nature, come to be efta- 
blifhed in the feveral kingdoms and 
principal cities of Europe. To arrive 
at a perfecl: knowledge of this ceco- 
nomy, every part 6f the produclions of 
riature muft be accurately inveftigated, 
and confequently the extenfive province 
of infe£ts : for, notwithftanding their 
great ufe in the ceconomy we have 
been fpeaking of, they are oftentimes 
extremely troubkfome and deftructive, 
and with great difficulty got rid off; 
but if we underftood how to apply 
them properly, we might ufe them as 
C we 



[ >° ] 

vve do cats againft mice, and by attend- 
ing to the defign of nature, prevent 
much damage. Thus houfe-bugs, the 
Phaltena Graminis, caterpillars which 
infeft gardens, with a thoufand others, 
might eafily be deftroyed by their 
natural enemies. To bring this 
art to fome degree of perfection, we 
mufr. become better acquainted with 
the plants, &c. on which infects feed, 
with a variety of other circumftances, 
which pofterity perhaps will be happy 
in the difcOv r ery of. The great advan* 
tages which have accrued to mankind 
from lilk-worms and bees, have occa- 
fioned fo many volumes to be written 
on them, as would inclineone tothink 
the fubje£t exhaufled ; but there is 
much room for farther obfervation. 
D. Lyonett has lately publifhed 2 vols. 
in quarto on one infe£t, the Phalsena 
Cofiiis, and yet hath flill left room for 

farther 



I « 3 

farjther contemplation on the fubjed. 
In the age fucceeding Swammerdam,; 
the art fuffered much from the prolixi- 

r 

ty of writers ; the hiftory of each infecl 
was delivered in a verboie and luxuri- \ 
ant ftile ; this is to be avoided; and the \ 
neceflary particulars being afcertained, 
our aim in delivering them fhould be 
to unite brevity with perfpicuity. The 
defcription of thofe animals is more 
difficult, as they make their appearance 
at fo many different times, and under 
fuch a variety of forms ; all infecls, 
except thole of the clafs Aptera and the 
bed-bug, paffing through three meta- 
morphofes, in each of which it is necef- 
fary we fhould know them. Wethink 
our knowledge very confiderable when 
we are acquainted with moft of the in- 
fects of a country in their Fly ftate, al- 
though we are ignorant of one half of 
their manner of life previous to'this 
. C 2 flate 5 



■ 



[ I* : ] 

tfate; and the difficulty of acquiring 
this knowledge is greater than the in- 
attentive are aware of ; to inftance in 
the FJea, an infecl we are fo well ac- 
quainted with, and which, like moffc 
others, undergoes three transforma- 
tions or changes before it arrives to per- 
fection ; yet not one in a thoufand has 
feen it in its caterpillar or chrjfalis 
ftate. From a confideration of the 
many wonders in this part of nature, 
in order to avoid confuiion, I find it 
neceflary, in purfuing what I have far- 
ther to fay on infects, to follow fome 
natural order of fyffematic arrange- 
•ments. 



S E C T. IV. 

In ftudying any fcience, the names 
made ufe of therein are firft to be learnt, 

without 



[ '3 f 

without which it would become life- 
lefs, as we fhould be deprived of all 
intercourfe with learned men. Among 
former Entomologifts, there were fome 
who defpifed all fyftem, or at leaft the 
enumeration and defcription of the ih- 
fects of particular countries ; and in- 
fifted, that the metamorphofes of infecls 
were folely to be attended to. But 
certainly method conftitutes the life of 
fcience ; and we fhould in vain ftudy 
natural hiftory, without accurate de- 
fciptions ; fuppofe, for inftance, the 
figures of Reaumur, in his immortal 
work, in which he illuftrated this fci- 
cnce in a manner fuperior to all that 
went before him, to be fo obfcure and 
indeterminate as to convey no idea of 
what he meant to communicate ; of 
what ufe, I pray, would be his infinite 
difcoveries ? But when the fpecific 
name of any infect is determined, and 

the 



[ H 3 

the fynonymous names of Swammer- 
dam, Reaumur, De Geer, and Roefel, 
are annexed, thefe authors may be im- 
mediately confulted ; and what has been 
the ' work of many ages, and could 
fcarce be attained by much reading, 
may be learned from a fingle work. In- 
deed, the fame confufion which reigned 
in botany before fyftems were efta- 
blillied, would prevail in this fcience, 
unlefs a lyftem was formed. I there- 
fore judge it moft eligible to treat of 
Entomology in a fcientific manner ; 
but previous to our entering on this, it 
will be proper to lay before the young 
ftudent fuch authors as have written on 
this fubjecl:. 



S E C T. 



[ *5 J 



S E C T. V. 

Authors whohavewritten profelTedly 
on infects are very few ; the laft fifty 
years have produced nearly double the 
number of all the preceding ages ; and 
when they began to be treated of fyfr.e- 
matically, fcarce any branch of natural 
hiftory had more cultivators, or was 
purfued with more ardour ; among 
others may be reckoned Linnseus, 
Reaumur, De Geer, Roefel, Wilkes, 
Admiral, Clerk, Ehret, Seba, Harris, 
Poda, Scopoli, Shultzer, Geoffroy, 
Gronovius, and Schaeffer. Whereas at 
the commencement of the laft century 
we had not dne treatife entirely Ento- 
mological : but about that period this 
fcience began to be cultivated; its pro- 
grefs however was very flow, 'till fome 

painters, 



I l( ] 

painters, prompted by a defire of em- 
bellifhing their drawings of flowers, 
delineated thereon fome of the moft 
beautiful butterflies ; and thus it was 
that Hoefnagel, Goedart, Robert, and 
at length Albin, were allured to a con- 
templation of infe&s. Swammerdam 
was the firft who inveftigated the inte- 
rior ftruclure of infe&s ; in which he 
was fo amazingly dextrous, as to de- 
monftrate the parts in the fmalleft ani- 
mals with equal ciearnefs as in the 
larger. In this the immortal Reau- 
mur made a farther progrefs. Lady 
Merianwasfo captivated with the ftudy, 
as to fail from Holland to Surinam, 
chiefly to enquire into and obferve the 
metamorphofes of thofe exquiiitely nne 
Butterflies, with which that country 
particularly abounds, expofing herfelf 
with her daughter to all the dangers of 

a tem- 



r. -7 ] 

a tempefluous ocean, a moft flngular 
inflance of her zeal for this fcience ! 

The minutenefs of infects makes it 
more difficult to have a proper idea of 
them by defcription than by drawings 
colouredfrom nature, fuch as are given 
us by Goedart, Albin, Roefel, Wilkes, 
Admiral ? Merian, Clerk ? Efrret, Sha^ 
effer, and Harris, 

The principal authors who have 
treated of infe&s fyftematically, are 
Linnseus, De Geer, Poda, Scopoli, 
Shultzer, GeofFroy, Gronovius, and 
5haefFer. The exotic or extra Euro- 
pean infedts have never been profef- 
fedly written on, neverthelefs a great 
number of them are figured in the fol- 
lowing works : 

Clerkii Icones infectorum rariorum, 
Msriana Infe&a Surinamenfia. 

P Bxo%vnU 



[ 18 ] 
Browns Civil and Natural Hiftary of 

Jamaica. 
Catejbefs Naturai Hiftory of Carolina, 
Sloanes Natural Hiftory of Jamaica. 
Edwards^s Natural Hiftory of Birds, 

2 vols. 

b. — • * Gleanings of Natural Hif- 

tory, 2 vols. 

The beft authors that havc written on 
particular infects, beiides innumerable 
ories on filk-worms and bees,are LJler, 
Albin? and Clerk de Araneis, Rhedi de 

Pediculis, 



* To thefe authors may be added the Illujlra- 
tlons of Natural Hijlory, lately publifhed in two 
volumes quarto, by our countryman D. Drury: 
this work may indeed be confidered as written 
profeffedly on this fubje&, and contains a greater 
number of exotic infects, than any other work of 
the kind. 

Thofe authors to which an afterifm is prefixed 
are added by the tranflator. And the obferva- 
tk>ns be has made on the works of others, are 
piinted in italic letters, 



[ $q J 

Pediculis, and Rhumphius de Ca.ncria 
Xndicis. 

A catalogue of the princjpal authors 
that have written on infecl:s, with fome 
obfervations on their works : 

Mouffet. Infeclorum five mini- 
morum animalium tjieatrum, London 
1634, folio. This work was begun 
bj Edward Wotton, in the year 1550, 
continued by Conrad Gefner, enriched 
by Thomas Penny, and finiihed by 
Mouffet ; it is embellifhed with wooden 
cuts. There is a tranflation of it into 
Englifh, by Edivard Topfel/, i6<S, 

Aldrovand. Ulyffis Aldrovandi 
animalia iniecta. Bonon. i6o2,et 1638, 
folio ; written in a loofe manner, 
wooden cuts ; it alfo contains the in« 
feds of Mouffet. 

Johnston. Johannis Johnfroni 

Hiffor. Natural. de infeclis. Frankf. 

D2 1653, 



[ p ] 

1653, folio. Aplagiary from Aldro- 
vand, with copper plates engraved by 

himfelf. 

Hoeffnagel. Jacobi Hoeffnagel 
lcones infeaorum, 1630, in quarto. 

Goedart. Johannis Goedartii meta- 
morphofes infe&orum. Mediol. 1662, 
oclavo. This is written in the Dutch 
language, and the cuts are coloured. 
There is dlfo an edition of it in French, 
andlikewife in Latin, by M. Li/Ier, ivith 
great additwns. 

Hooke. Roberti Hooke Microgra- 
phia. London, 1665, folio, tab. 38. 

Rhedi. Francifci Rhedi experi- 
menta. Florent. i668,quarto. Anima- 
lia viva in vivis Florent. 1684, i2mo. 

Blancard. Stephani Blancardi thea- 
trum infeclorum (Schouburgh van de 
Rupen) Araft. 1668, octavo. 

Swammerdam. Johannis Swam- 
merdamii hiftoria infe&orum generalis. 

Ultraj. 



[ 2' ] 

Ultraj. 1669, quarto. Biblia NatUrse 
Lugd. Batav. 1737, 2 vols. folio. 

Lister. Martini Lifteri hiftor. ani- 
mal. Angliae. Londoni 1678, quarto. 
This work treats principally of the 
Englifh fpiders, and by way of appen- 
dix explains fome plates publifhed at 
the end of his edition of Goedart. 

Merian. Mariae Sybillae Merian 
Erucarum Ortus. Norimberg 1678, 
quarto, with cuts coloured, and not 
coloured. Moft of the Lepidopterae 
here defcribed are delineated in their 
caterpillar and chryfalis ftate. On her 
return from Surinam, this lady pub- 
lifhed her iplendid work, the Infecla 
Surinamenfia, which isfeldom to bemet 
with coloured. 

Lewenhoek. Antonii Lewenhoekii 
Anatomia. Londini 1687, quarto. 
Epiftolae Delph. 16 19, quarto. Microf- 
copical. 

Petiver. 



f ^ ] 

Petiver. Jacobi Peteveri Mufeurri. 
London 1695, 8vo. without cuts. Ga- 
zophylacium 1702, folio, a great num- 
ber of cuts, and many of exotic infects. 

Ray. Johannis Raii hiftoria infec^> 
torum. Londini 1720, quarto. This 
work was publifhed after the author's 
deceafe, and is particularly valuable for 
the excellent defcriptions of infecls 
which it contains. 

Frisch. Johannis Leonardi Frifch 
defcriptiones infeclorum (Befchreibung 
yon infecleninTeufchland)Berol. 1 720, 
quarto, 13 parts, 38 plates, with many 
flgures. It is written ia the German 
language, and is a work of great 
merit. 

Albin. Eleazar Albin. hiftoria in- 
fe&orumAnglia^London 1 72o,quarto. 
This work contains 100 plates co.- 
ioured. 

— Hif. 



[ 2 3 1 

- — Hiftoria Araneorum, Lon- 



don, quarto, table 40. 

Bradley* Works o£ nature by 
Richard Bradley.Lohdon 1721, quarto. 

Reaumi/R. Ren. Ant. Reaumere 
hiftoire des Ihfecles. Paris 1734? quar- 
fco, 5 vols. wiffi copper plates. 

LiNN^ts. Carol. Linnasi Equit, 
fyitema naturse. Lugd. Batav. 1736, 
folio. Holrri. 1767, oclavo, with the 
fvnonymous names of other authorsi 
Fauna Suecica. Holm. 1761, octavo, 
editio 2da. Mufeum Regina. Holm. 
1 764. o&avo, with defcriptions. 

m 

Roesel. Aug. Johan. Roefel Iii- 
feclen Beluftigung. Norimb. 1746. 
4 vols. plates beautifully coloured. 

Wilkes. The Englifh Butterflies, 
by Benjamin Wilkes, 4to. 125 plates 

finely coloured, 

Pe 



r *4 j 

De Geer. Caroli de Geer Hifloire 
des Infectes. Holmise 1752. 2 vols. 
4to. with neat plates. 

Admiral. Jacob Admiral Waar- 
mingen. Amfterdam, folio. 

Clerk. Caroii Clerkii Icones In* 
fectorum rariorum. Holm. 1759. 4to. 
Part I. 16 plates, 61 figures. Part the 
fecond. Holm. 1764. 4to. 17 plates, 
$$ figures. The cuts in this work are 
elegantly coloured. 

Ehret. Icones Plantarum, Lond, 
folio. Infecls interfperfed. 

Poda. Nicol. Podse Infecta Grze- 
cenfia. Gnec. 1761. 8vo. 2 voi. Tbis 
contains the infects of Greece, arranged 
according to the fyftem of Linnaeus. 

Scopoli. Joh, Anth. Scopoli En- 
tomologia Carniolica. Wienn. 1763. 
8vo. An enumeration and defcription 
of the infeclis of Carniola, after the Lin- 
naean fyftem. An excellent book. 

Sult- 



[ *S ] 

Sultzer. J. H. Sultzer KenZeffierr 
der Infecten. Zurich 1761, quarto, 24. 
plates in the Linnaean manner. 

Gronovius. Laur. Theod. Grono- 
vii, Zoophylacii fafciculus fecundus. 
Leid. 1 764, foh four plates. After the- 
Linnaean iyft.em, with fynonyma ancl. 
defcriptions ; it contains 600 fpecies^ 
many of which are foreign. 

Seba. Albert. Sebae Thefaurus 
Naturae, vol. 4. Amil. 1765, folio* 
tab. 100. 

* Geoffroy. Hiftoire abregee des 
Infecles qui fe trouvent aux environs de 
Paris, 2 tom. 4to. Paris 1762. 

Schaeffer. Joh. Chri.ft. Schaeffer 
Icones Infedxorum. Ratifb,. 1767, 4to. 
1,00 plates coloured. 

* Fundamenta Ento 

mologiae, quarto, plates coloured. 

Harris. The Aurelian, or aNatural 

Hiftory of Englifh Infects, naniely 

E Moth 



[ 26 ] 

Moths atid Butterflies, byMofesHarris* 
Lond. folio, cuts coloured,Lond. 1766. 

* Brunnich. M. Th. Brunnichii 
Entomologia fiftens Infe&orum tabulas 
fyftematicas, cum introducldone et ico** 
nibus. HafFniae I/64. A kind of 
introduction to the ftudy of infecls, re- 
markable for its elegance and concife- 
nefs, with an explanatory plate. 

* Leche. Novae Infectornm Spe- 
cies, qnas dirlertationis academicae loco, 
prefide Johanne Leche, propofuit Ifaa- 
cus Uddman. Aboae 1753, 4to, cuia 
figuris. 

* Drury. Illuftrations of Natural 
Hiftory, by D. Drury, Englifh and 
French, 2 vol. 4to. London 1771. 
The firft volume contains a great nurri- 
ber of exotic infe&s, excellently drawn, 
coloured, and defcribed, moft of which 
are not figured by any other author ; 
the fecond volume, wh]ch will foon 

make 



[ k l 

make its appearance, confifts entirely 
of non-defcripts, executed in the fame 
mafterly manner. 

* Sepp. Befchouwing der Wonde- 
ren Gods in de minftgeachtte Schep- 
2elen of Nederlandfche Infe&en, 4-to. 
1762, by Chriftian Sepp. Amfterdam» 
This work, which is now publifhing 
. in numbers inHolland, contains a great 
number of the more rare moths and but- 
terflies of that country, but which are 
found in many other parts of Europe. 
Each infeft is delineated in its egg^ ca- 
terpillar, chryfalis, and fly ftate, and 
executed in a manner which refledls the 
greateft honour on the artifl ; we are at 
a lofs which moft to extol, the accu- 
racy of the drawing, the delicacy of the 
engraving, or the foftnefs and jufhiefs 
of the colouring ; the whole is finifhed 
in a manner exquifitely beautiful, great- 
ly fuperior to the paintings even of Roe- 

fel or Merian. 

E a * For- 



[ *3 ] 
* Forster. Novae Infeclorum Spe- 
eies, centuria prima, o£tavo, I77 1 ' 
London. A fy ftematic defcription of 
an hundred fpecies of infecls found in 
Great Britain, and elfewhere, not in- 
ferted in the 1 2th edition of Linn<£us's 
Syflema Naturae. 

S E C T. VI. 

As infetts are endowed with the va» 
rious powers of creeping, fiying, and 
fwimming, there is fcarce any place, 
however remote and obfcure, in which 
they are not to be found. The great 
confufion which appeared to the an- 
tients to arife from their number, made 
them never dream of reducing them to 
any fyftem. Swammerdam, that in- 
defatigable enquirer into nature, ob- 
ferved that their metamorphofes were 

divided 



[ *9 ] 
divided by nature into feveral ftates or 
orders. Their external appearance alfb 
carried with it fome mark of diftinc- 
tion, fo that entomologifts called all 
thofe of the Coleoptera clafs, Scarabaei 
(beetles;) thofe of theLepidoptera, Papi- 
Kones ; and thofe of the Gymnoptera 
clafs that had two wings only, Mufcas i 
(flies;) thofe of the fame clafs that had 
four wings, were called Apes (bees). 
No farther progrefs was made in the 
fyftematic part of this fcience tiil the 
time of Linnaeus. He was the firfr. 
that undertook to determine the Ge- 
nera, and affign them their proper cha- 
raclers in the Syjlema Natur^, and 
thus reduced this fcience to a fyilematic 
form. This.fyftem, m fubfequent edi- 
tions, was confiderably enriched and 
amended by him, infomuch that the 
fcience of infecls now fhines forth iri 
its full luflre. He it was who firfr. in- 

flituted 



[ 3° 3 

ftituted natural Orders, and reduc&d 
thetti into Genera by expreffive names ; 
determined an infinite number of fpe- 
cies in the Fauna Suecica, and Mu- 
feum Reginae, collected with incredi- 
blepainsthefynonymousnamesofiheva- 
rious authors who had written on them ; 
and laftly added their defcriptions, and 
the places in which they were to bq 
found. So that the fyftem of this il- 
luftrious author will lead any perfbn, 
without the affiftance of a mafler for the 
moft part, eafily to afcertain the name 
of any infecl: he may meet with. Before 
histimefcarcemorethan2ooinfecl:swere 
known ; whereas, in tbe laft edition of 
his fyftem, he has determined the namds 
of nearly 3000 diftin£t fpecies. The, 
Syftematic Naturalifts, in the more 
Southern parts of Europe, excited by 
his example, have diligently invefti- 
gated the infects of their refpective 

countries, 



[ 3' [ 

cOuntries, {q that we are become pret- 
ty well acquainted with the greateft 
part of the European infects in their 
perfect or fly ftate. From the infects 
colle&ed m the Southern parts of 
France (more than 300 of which were 
fent to our Prefident, by the moft no- 
ble Soubry, Treafurer of France, re- 
liding at Lyons) the number of fpecies 
was conliderably increafed. A cabinet 
full of the irifects of Barbary was alfo 
fent him from the accomplifhed Bran- 
der, Conful at Algiers; and a very con- 
iiderable number from Carolina, in 
America, was received from the very 
ingenious Garden, which greatly in- 
creafed the number of Arctic or Nor- 
thern infecrs. Our knowlege of the 
TropicaL or Indian infects, as they are 
called, is very limited. The larger 
fort of the Lepidoptera, preferved in the 
eabinets of the curious, and thofe col- 

lecled 



[ 3* I 

le&ed at Surmam by Rolander, and 
fent to the cabinet of De Geer, being 
the principal of what we are acquainted 
with. The Antarcliic infedts we were 
totally unacquainted with, excepting 
thofe ten which Petiver delineated in 
his Gazophylacium, till the illuftrious 
Tulbagh, Governor of the Cape of 
Good Hope, fent a iine colledtion of 
them to our learned Prefident. Should 
the Indian and Antarctic infe&s ever 
come to be pretty generally known, 
ihey will doubtlefs vie with plants in 
n.umber, though they will probably 
never attain to the number which Muf- 
chenbroek apprehended in his Ora- 
tion. 



SECT. 



[ 33 J 



S E C T. VII. 



Whoever is delirous of attaining a 
fyftematic knowledge of infe£ts, onght 
primarily to be folicitous about acquir- 
ing the terms made ufe of in the icience, 
that fo he may be able rightly to deno- 
minate every part of an infe£t. This 
theii,asthefirll:rudimentsofthefcience, 
we mall begin with. The ftudent is 
firft to know what an infect is, left he 
miftake hippocampi, and other amphi- 
bious animals, for them, as was former- 
ly done, or confound them with.the 
vermes,whichLinn3eusfirftdiftinguifh- 
ed from infe&s, and which differ as ef- 
fentially from them as the clafs mam- 
malia do from birds. Every infeft is 
furnilhedwith a head,antennae,andfeet, 
of all which the vermes are deftitute. 
All infefts have fix or more feet ; they 
p refpire 



t 3* } 

refpire through pores placed on the fides 
of their bodies, and which are termed 
fpiracula ; their fkin is externally hard, 
and ferves them inflead of bones, of 
which they have internally none. From 
this definition, the acus marina is evi- 
dentlyno infecl. Butthe antennaeplaced 
on the.fore part of the head, confti- 
tute the principal diftinction. Thefb 
are jointed and moveable in every part, 
in which they differ from the horns of 
•other animals ; they are organs con- 
■veying fome kind of fenfe; but we have 
no more idea what this kind of fenfe is, 
than a man has, who, without eyes, at- 
tempts to determine the particular ac- 
tion of the rays of light on the retina 
of the eye, or to explain the changes 
which from thence take place in the 
human mind. That they are the oro-ans 
of fome kind of fenfe, is apparent from 
their perpetually moving themforward ; 

yet N 



[ 35 ] 
yet the hard cruft with which they are 
invefted, and their fhortnefs in flies and 
other infects, would induce one to be- 
lieve them not to be the organs of touch : 
that they are tubular, and rllledwith air, 
and fome kind of humour, appears from 
the antennas of butterfties immerfed in 
water. To come now to the terms of 
the art. A knowledge of the external 
parts of the body is firft to be eftablilh- 
ed, which, after the method of anato- 
mifts, we divide into head, trunk, ab- 
domen, and extremities. 

S E C ■ T. VIII. 

Caput, the head» This part in infects 
is without brain. The difference be- 
tween the brain and fpinal marrow con- 
.fifts in the former being a medullary 
part organized. We do not deny the 
F 2 exiftenee 



[ 3« ] 

exiftence of a medullary thread in the 
heads of infecfs, but we never could dif- 
cover it to be organized ; hence the 
hippobofca equina, or horfe fly, will 
live, run, nay even copulate, after be- 
ing deprivedof its head ; to fay nothing 
of many otherswhich are capable of liv- 
ing a long while in the fame fituation. 
As they are not furnifhed with ears, we 
apprehend them incapable of hearing ; 
as we can no more conceive that fenfe 
to exiff. without ears, than vifion with- 
out eyes. They are neverthelefs fuf- 
ceptible of any fhrill or loud noife, as 
well as fifhes, but in a manner different 
frorh that of hearing. We are alfb du- 
bious iftheyhave the fenfeof fmell, no 
organ being found in them adapted to 
that purpofe ; they neverthelefs per- 
ceive agreeable and fetid effluvia, but 
in a manner wholly unknown to us. 
Many iufects have no tongue, nor make 



[ 37 1 

any found with their mouth ; but for 
thispurpofe, fome ufe their feet, others 
their wings, and others, fome elaftic 
inftrument with which they are na- 
turally furnimed. Mofl infects have 
two eyes, but the gyrinus has four, the 
fcorpion fix, the fpider eight, and the 
fcolopendra three. They have no eye- 
brows, but the external tunic of their 
eyes is hard and tranfparent like a 
watch-glafs ; their eyes have no exter- 
nal motion, unlefs it be in the crab. 
They coniift. for the moft part of one 
lens only ; but in thofe of the butterfly , 
dipterae, and many of the beetles, they 
are more numerous. Pugett difcover- 
ed 17,325 lenfesin the cornea of a but- 
terfly, and Lewenhoek, 800 in a fly* 

Antennae, plate r. a. Thefe are in 
general two (unlefs 4 are allowed to 
fome kind of crabs) and placed on the 

fore- 



[ 3* 1 

fore-part of the head ; they are pecu- 
liar to infecls, and are plainly diftin- 
guifhable from the tentaculae of the 
vermes in being cruftaceous ; and from 
the palpi of infefts, which are more 
mimerous, placed near the mouth, and 
are fometimes wanting. As the anten- 
n<e are of great moment in diftinguiih- 
ing the various kinds of infeds, we 
fhall enumerate and explain the feveral 
difFerent forms of them. 

Setacea', are thofe which grow gra- 
dually taper towards the extremity, as 
in plate i. fig. 6. 

Filiformes, fuch as are of the famc 
thicknefs throughout. 

Moniliformes, are filiform, like the 
preceding, but coniift of a feries of 
round knobs, like a necklace of beads, 

as in plate i. fig. 5. 

Qavati?, 



t 39 ] 

Clavafrf, fuch as gf adually increafe in 
fize toward the extremity, as in plate u 
%. 4. 

Capitatse, are clavata;, but haVe the 
cxtremity ibmewhat round. , 

Fijiles, are capitai<z, but have the ca- 
pitulum,orknob, divided longitudinally 
into 3 or 4 parts, or laminae, as in thq 
Icarabaei, plate 1. %. 3. 

Perfoliat^, are alfo capitat ^,but have 
the capitulum horizontally divided, 
as in the dermeft.es, plate 1. %. 2. 

PeSiinattf, {o called from their fimi- 
litude to a comb, though they more 
properly refemble a feather, as in the 
moths and elateres. This is mofr. ob- 
vious iii the male, plate 1. fig. 1. 

Arijlata?, fuch as have a lateral hair, 
which is either naked or furhifhed with 
leffer hairs, as in the fly, plate 2. 



%. 6. 



Breviores^ 



r 40 ] 

Breviores, thofe which are fhorter 
than the body. 

Longiores, thofe which are longer 
than the body. 

Medlocres, thofe which are of the 
fame length with the body ; all three 
of which varities are diftinguifhable m 
the cerambyces. 

Palpi, or feelers, fo firft named by 
Linnaeus, refemble filiform, articula- 
ted, moveable antennae. They are mpffc 
commonly four in number, fome- 
times fix; they are fufficiently diflin- 
guifhedfrom antennaa, in beingnaked, 
fhort, and always placed at the mouth, 
fee plate 1. rlg. 6. 

Os, the Mouth, Is generally placed 
111 the anterior part of the head, ex- 
tending fomewhat downwards. In 
fome infecls, it is placed under the 
breah 1 , as in the chermes, coccus, can- 
cer, (crab) and curculio. 

Roflrum, 



t 4i ] 

Roftrum, or Probofcis, isthemouth 
drawn out to a rigidpoint : in many of 
the hemiptera clafs it is bent down- 
ward toward the breait and belly, as in 
the cicada, nepa, notonecta, cimex, 
(bug) aphis> and remarkably fo in 
fome curculiones. 

Maxillas, the Jaws, are two in r.um- 
ber, fometimes four, and at other 
times more ; they are placed horizon- 

tally ; the inner edge of them in fome 

infe£ts is ferrated, or furniflied with 

little teeth. 

Lingua, theTongue, in fome iniects 

is taper and ipiral, as in the butterfly ; 

in others it is fiQihy, refembling- a pro- 

bofcis; and tubular, as in the fly. 
Labium Superius, the upper Lip, 

this is lituated above the jaws, as in the 

fcarabaeus and gryllus. 

G Stemmata, 



[ 42 1 

Stemmata, or Crown, are threc 
fmooth hemifpheric dots, placed gene- 
rally on the top of the head, as iil moft 
6f the hymenoptera* and others ; the 
name was firfl introduced by Linnseus. 

* * Truncus, the Trunk, is that 
part which comprehends the breaft or 
thorax ; it is rituated between the head 
and abdomen, and has the lers infert- 
ed into it, that its parts may be dif- 
tinctly determined ; it is divided inta 
1'horax^ Scutellum, and Sienium. 

Thorax, the Thorax, (plate i. c.) is 
the back part of the breaft ; it is veiy 
various in its iliape, and is called Den- 
tatus, when its fldes are armed with 
pomts ; Spkofis, when its back is fur- 
nifhcdwith them, as trj the cerambyx ; 
and Marginatus, having its margin la- 
terally dilated, asin the filpha and caf- 
fida. . 

Scntellum, 



[ 43 1 

Scutellum, or Bfcutcheon, (plate i. 
d.) is the pofterior part of the thorax ; it 
is frequently triangular, and appears to 
be divided from the thorax by an in- 
tervening future, as in mofl of the coleop- 
tera. 

Sternum, the Sternum, is fituated 
on the inferior part of the thorax ; it is 
pointed behind in .the elateres, and bi* 
fid in fome of the dytifci. 

Abdomen, the Abdomen, (plate i» 
e.) is in mofl infecls diflincl: from the 
thorax ; it is the pofterior part of the 
body of the infect, and is compofed of a 
number of annular fegments, which 
ferve occafionally to lengthen or. fhor~ 
ten it, and to contain the organs of 
chylifaclion, &c. 

Spiracula, are little holes or pores, 

placed fingly on each Mde of .every feg* 

G 2 ment 



£ 44 ] 
rnent of the abdomen ; through rhefe? 
the infect breathes ; and if oil be ap- 
plied fo as to ftop them up, it proves 

fatal to moft of themu 

Tergum, theBack, is thefuperiorpart 
of the abdomen. 

Venter, the Belly, is the inferior 
■part, 

Anus, is the pofterior part of the ab- 
domen, perforated for the evacuation of 
the excrement. This part alfo frequent- 
ly contains the organs of generation. 

* * * Artus, the limbs, are the va- 
rious inftruments of motion. 

Pedes, the Legs, are generally fix<. 
there is an exception to thisy however, 
in the clafs Aptera, many of which 
have eight, as Acari (Mites) Phalan- 
gii ; moft ©f the Aranei, (Spiders) Scor- 

piones 



[ 45 ] 

piones, (Scorpions) andCancri (Crabs.) 
The Onifcus has 14, and the Juli an4 
Scolopendri ftill more. 

The firft joint of the leg, which is 
generally thickeft, is called Femur 
(platei.y.) the fecond, which is ge- 
nerally of the fame iize throughout, 
*Tibia\ (g.) the third, which is join- 
ted, is diftinguifhed by the name ef 
Tarfus (h.) ; and the laft, which in moft 
infecls is double, by that of Un- 
guis (i.), The legs of infecls, in ge- 
neral, are named from the various mo- 
tions they produce :-— 

Ciirforii, from that of running, which 
are themoft numerous; Sa/tatorii, from 
that of leaping ; Natatorii, from that 
offwjmming, &c. 






r 46 I 

In the Saltatorii, the thighs are re- 
inarkably large, by which means they 
are able to leap to a confiderable 4ffl* 
tance, as in the Gryllus, (Grafshopper) 
&c. In thoie of the Natatorii y the feet 
are fiat, and edged with hairs| which 
aniwer the purpofe of oars in afiifting 
them to fwim, as in the Dytifcus. 

Muticty are fuch feet as have no 
claws. 

CheLe, or Claws, are the fore-feet 
cnlarged towards theirextremities, each 
of which is furniihed with two lefler 
claws, which ac~t like a thumb and fin- 
ger, as in the Crab. 

i\la?, Wings, theie are the inftru-* 
ments which enable them to fly ; they 
are membranous, and undivided, ex- 
cept in the infrarice of the Phalaenae 
Aiucitae, in which they are in .part di- 

vided : 



[ M 1 

vided. Moft infects have four ; the Dip- 
tera-clafs, and the Coccus, however, 
have tvvo only. 

The wing is divided. into its fuperior 
and inferior fhrfaces ; its anterior part 
^fee explanation of plate i.) in a but- 
terfly, is that towards the anterior mar- 
gin, or next to the head ; its pofterior 
part, that towards the Anus ; its exte~ 
rior part, that towards the outer edge } 
and the interior, that next the Abdo- 
men. 

They are called plicatiles, when they 
are folded at the time the infe&»is at 
reft, as in the wafp ; oppoiite to thefe 
are the plante, which are incapable of 
being foided. 

Ere&tfy fuch as have their fuperiof 
furfaces brought in contacl when the 
mfect is at relr, as in the Ephemera, 
Libellula Puelia, and Virgo, and Pa^ 

piliones, (butterflies.) 

Patentes, 



[ 4S ] 
Patentes, wliich remaia honzontaf- 
ly extended when the infecl: is at reft, 
as in the Phalaenae Geometrae, and mofl 
of the Libellulae. 

Incumbentes, fuch as cover horizon- 
tally the fuperior pait of the abdomen. 
when the infect is at refr. 

Deflexa, are Incumbentes, but not 
horizontally, the outer edges declining 
toward the fides. 

Reverja, are Deflexae, withthisad- 
dition, that the.edge of the inferior 
wings proje&s from under the anterior 
part of the fuperior ones. 

DeHata-, in which the edge is fer- 
rated, or fcolioped. 

Caudata', m which one or more pro- 
jections in the hinder wings are extend- 
ed into proceffes. 

Reticulatte, when the vefTels of the 
wings put on the appearance of net- 

work. 



t 49 1 
Work, as in the Hemerdbius Perla ; 
the two anterior wings generally be^ 
come fuperior, and the pofterior dnes 
hferior, in Moths, when their wings 
are clofed ; biit the anterior wings are 
called primary, and the inferior ones fe- 
condary, in butterflies, as they cannot 
with propriety be called inferior when 
the wings are erett. 

Colores, the Colours, thefe are felf- 
apparent ; but according to their feveral 
fhapes, they take the difTerentnames of 
Puntttf) Dots ; Maculse, Spots ; Fafcite, 
Bands ; which frequently run acrofs, and 
fometimes furround the edge of the 
wings. Strigte, Streaks, are very flender, 
Fafciae ; and Liiiete, Lines, which are 
longitudinally extended. 

H Ocelfes? 






;T 5° 1 

Ocellus, is a round fpot, containing 
a lefier fpot of a different colour in its 

center. 

Stigmata, another term lately intro- 
dnced by Linnseus, fignifies the ipot, 
or anaftamofis, in the middle of the 
wing near the anterior margin ; it is 
confpicuous in moft of the Hymenop- 
tera and Neuroptera, and even in the 
Coleoptera. The fingle or double kid- 
ney-inaped fpot, fituated in the fame 
part of the anterior wings, and fre- 
quently occurring in the Phalaenae Pa- 
ganae, is diftinguifhed likewife by the 
.name of Stigma. 

Elytra, (in the fingular number 
Elytron) the Upper Wings, which are 
•„of a hard fubftance, in fome degree re- 
fembling leatljer, and which in rnoft 
infe&s are of a very hard texture, but 
in, others flexible, : are cailed Elytra ; 
*their fuperior furface is generaliy con- 

vex- 



[5* ] 
vex-, their inferior one concave. When 
the infecl: flies they are extended, and ' 
fhut when it refts, clofing together, and 
forming a Iongitudinal future down the 
middle of the back, as in the Coleoptera, 

They are of various fhapes. 

. Abbrevlata r when fhorter than the 
Abdomen. 

Truncata.1 when fhorter than the Ab- 
clomen, and terminating in a tranfverfe 
line. 

Fajiigiata, whenof equal, orgreater 
length than the Abdomen, and termi- 
natins m a tranfverfe line. 

Serrata, when the exterior margin 
towards the apex is notched_orferrated ? 
as in fome of the Bupreftes. 

Spinofa, when their furfaoe is cover- 
ed with fharp points, or prickles. 

Scabra, when their furface is fo un- 
even as to grate againfl the flngers. 
< - H 2 Sirlata r 



[ 5* ] 

Str/ata, when marked with flender 
longitudinal furrows. 

Porcata, when with elevated longi- 
tudinal fulci, or ridges. 

Sulcata, when thefe ridges are can- 
cave, 

Hemelytra, when the fuperior wings 
are of a middle fubitance betwixt lea- 
ther and membrane ; either totally fb, as 
in the Grylli ; or partially fo, as in the 
Cimices, Nepss, and Notone&ae. Thefe 
are commonjy diftinguifhed by the 
name Hemiptera. 

Halteres, Poifers, (a term alib in- 
troduced by Lhjnasus) &re little heads 
placed on a ftalk or peduncle, mofr. fre* 
quently under a little arched fcaJe, 
They are found only in the clafs Dipte, 
ra, and appear to be nothing more than 
|he rudiments of the hinder wings. 

Cmda, the tail ? in mofl infects is, 

Simplex % 



[ 53 1 

Simplex, fimple, capable of being ex- 
tended, and again drawn back at plea- 
fure ; in the Crab and Scorpion, how- 
cver it is, 

£/0;zg-tfta,elongated,orlengthened0ut. 

Setacea, briftle-fhaped, ortaper, asin 
the Raphidia. 

Trifeta, confifling of three briftles, 
as in the Ephemera. 

Furcata, being forked, as in the Po- 
dura. 

Forcipata, refembling a pair of for- 
ceps, as in the Forficula. 

Foliofa, refembling a leaf, as in the 
Blatta, Grylli, and fome fpecies of 
Cancri. 

Telifera, fuch as are armed with a 
dart or fting,as in the Scorpion and Pi- 
norpa. 

Aculeus, an infirument with which 
they wound, and at the farr*e time in- 

ftili 



[ 54 f 
HIU 1 poifon ; with fuch the Bee, Wafp, 
Scorpion, &c. are furnifhed. 

Sexus, the Sex. The fame dirfe* 
rence of fex exifts in infe&s as in other 
animals, and they even appear more 
difpofed to increafe their fpecies than, 
other animals ; many of them, when 
become perfecl, feeming to be created 
for no other purpofe but to propagate 
their fpecies. Thus the fiJJc-worm^ 
when it arrives at its perfect.or Moth- 
ftate, is incapable of eating, and can, 
hardly fly : It endeavours only to pro^ 
pagate its fpecies ; after which the.male- 
immediately dies, and the female, as. 
foon as fhe has depofited her eggs. 

ln many infects, the male and fe- 
male are with difficulty diftinguifhed ; 
and in fome Vney difFer fo widely, that 
an unfkilful perfon might eafily take 
the maie, -and female, of the fame in- 

fea 



[ 55 3 

Jectfor dirTerent fpecies; as for inftance, 
in the Phalaena Humuli, Piniaria, Ruf* 
fula ; each fex of which difFers in co- 
lour. This unlikenefs is ftill more ap* 
parent in fome infects, in which the 
male has wings, and the female none, 
as in the Coccus, Lampyris, Phalaena 
Antiqua, Brumata r Lichenella. And 
as mofl infecls remain a long while iu 
copulation, as we may fee in the Ti- 
pula, -and Silk-worm ; the winged 
males fly with the winglefs females, 
and carry them about from one place to 
another, as in the Phalaena Antiqua. 
It is, however, no certain rule, that 
when one infecl: of the fame fpecies is 
found to have wings, and the other to 
be without, the former muft neceflarily 
be the male, and the latter the female. 
The Aphides, for inftance, are axi ex- 
ception ; and befides theie, individuals 
of both fexes, and of the fame fpecies/ 

are 



[ 56 1 
are found without wings, as tne Cara- 
bi Majores, Tenebriones, Meloes, Ci- 
mices* The Gryllus Pedeflris is like* 
irife deflitute of wings, and might have 
paffed foraGryllus m its pupa ftate, had 
it not been feen in copulation ; for it is 
well known that no infect can propa- 
gate its fpecies, till it arrives at its Iafl 
or perfect ftate. 

cc Pleraquc infectorum genitalia fua 
* c intra anum habent abfcondita, et pe- 
^ nes folitarios, fed nonnulla penem 
' habent biiidum : Cancri autem et 
6 Aranei geminos,quemadmodumnon- 
c nulla amphibia, et quod mirandum 
6 in loco alieno, ut Cancer, fub bafl 
* caudae. Araneus. mas palpos habet 
c clavatos, qui penes fijnt, juxta os 
' utrinque unkum, qir<£ clavae fexum 
c nec fpeciem diflinguunt ; et Foemina 
c vulvuis fuas habet in abdomine juxta 

cc peclus; 



[ 57 1 

" pe&us ; heic vero fi unquam vere 
H dixeris : res plena timoris amor, fi e- 
•" nim procus in aufpicato accefferit, fce- 
" mina ipfum devorat, quod etiam fit, 
" fi non ftatim fe retraxerit. Libellu- 
" la foemina genitale fuum fub apice 
"I gerit caudas, et mas fub pectore, adeo 
" ut cum mas collum foemina forcipe 
" caudae arripit, illa caudamfuam pec- 
" tori ejus adplicet, licque pec.uli.ari ra- 
" tione connexae volitent." 

Befides.thefe of the male and female, 
a third fex exifls in fome infecls,which 
we call Neuter :„ As thefe have not the 
difHnguifhing parts of either fex, they 
may be confidered as eunuchs or infer* 
tile. 

We know of no infr.ance of this kind 

in any otherclafs of animals, norinve* 

I getables, except in the clafs Syngene- 

{iae, and in the Opuius. This kind of 

I fex 



I 5M ' 
fex is only found among thofe infecls 
which form themfelves into focieties, 
as Bees, Wafps, and Ants ; and here 
thefe kind of eunuchs are real flaves, 
as on them lies the whole bufinefs of 
the oeconomy, while thofe of the other 
fex are idle, only employing themfelves 
in the increafe of the family. Each fa- 
mily of bees have one female only (cal- 
led the queen) many males, and an al- 
moft innumerable quantity of Neuters. 
Of thoie, the Neuters (whofe antennae 
have eleven joints) do the working part; 
they extfa6t and collecl: honey and wax, 
build up the cells, keepwatch, and do 
a variety of otherthings. The males, 
whofe antennae-confift of 1 5 joints, do 
110 work ; they ferve the female once, 
and that at the expence of their lives ; 
they may be confidered in the light of a 
fet of Parafites, or Cecifbei ; but as foon 



as 



[ 59 ] 

as their bufinefs of impregnation is over, 
they are expelied by their fervants the 
neuters, who now fhake off the yoke, 
but yet pay all due refpect to their eom- 
mon mother the queen. The fame 
oeconomy nearly takes place in Wafps, 
where the young females, which are 
impregnatedin theautumn,live through 
the winter, and in the fpring propagate 
their fpecies ; but the queen, together 
with all the males, periili in the win- 
ter. 

Among ants, the neuters form a hill 
in the fhape of a cone, that the water 
may run offit, and place thofe which 
are in the pupa ftate, on that fide of it 
which is leaft expofed to the heat of the 
fun. At a confiderabie diftance from 
thefe are found the habitations of the 
males, and females, to whom the moft 
ready obedience is yielded by the neu- 
I 2 ters, 



[ 6o ] 
fcrs, till a new off-ipring fucceeds, and 
then they oblige them to quit their ha- 
bitations. But thofe ants which live 
entirely under ground, provide better 
for themfelves in this refpect; for alit- 
tle before their nuptials, thej quit their 
habitation of their own accord, and af- 
ter fwarming in the manner of bees, 
they copulate in the air ; and each re* 
tiring to ibme new habitation, founds 
a new family. 

No hermaphrodites have as yet been 
difcovered among infects. There is 
fomething very fingular, however, in 
the propagation of the Aphides. A fe- 
male Aphis once impregnated, can pro- 
duce young, which will continue to 
produce others without any frefh im- 
pregnation, even to the 5th progeny ; 
afterwards a new impregnation rAift 
take place, 

The 



f 61 ] 

The male infects, like maleHawks^ 
are always fmaller than the females. 

In the propagation of their ipecies 
they are remarkably careful, fo that it 
is with the greateft difficulty that flies 
are kept from depofiting their eggs on 
frefh meat ; the cabbage Butterfly from 
laying them on cabbage, and other in- 
fecls from depofiting them m the feve- 
ral places peculiar to each. The Scara- 
baeus Pilularius and Carnifex, are de- 
ferving of our attention, as they afford a 
mutualaffiftance to each other; forwhert 
the female has laid her eggs in a little 
ball of dung, the males, with their feet, 
which are axlform, affifl: the female to 
roll it to fome fuitable place, as Arifr.o- 
tle and Pliny formerly, and Loening 
has lately obferved. 

It is very wonderful to obferve, that 
in the Coccus and Onifcus, the fe- 
male has no fooner brought forth her 

young, 



[ 6£. 1 
yonng, than flie is devoured by it ; and 
that the Sphex fhould be able fo readily 
to kill the caterpillar of a Moth, then 
bury it in the earth, and there depo- 
fited hereggs in it. Nor can wewith- 
out admiration behold the fame fpecies 
of Aphis, which was viviparous in the 
fummer, become oviparous in the au- 
tumn. 

Almoflinnumerable examples might 
be brought of the fingularities in the 
eggs of infects ; we fhall, however, only 
mention thofe of the Hemerobius, which 
are depofited on a footftalk ; thofe of 
the Phalxna Neuftria, which are placed 
regularly in a ring round the branch of 
fome tree, and the compound eggs of 
the Blatta. 

Metamarphojis. There are no infe&s, 
except thofe of the Aptera clafs, but 
what are continuaily undergoing fome 

transformation. 



[ 6 3 ] 

transformation. This renders the fcience 
much more extenhve, but at the fame 
time is greatly conducive to finding out 
the natural orders. Infects change firft 
from the (Ovum) egg into the (Larva) 
Caterpillar or Maggot, then into the 
(Pupa) or Chrjfalis, and laftly into the 
(Imago) Fly or Per fect fiate . [See plate 2 .] 
Puring each of thofe changes, their ap- 
pearance difFers as much as night and 
day. 

The infedt, as foon as it came out of 
the egg, was by former entomologifts 
called Eruca ; but as this is iynonymous 
with the botanic name Sifymbrium, 
it was changed by Linnaeus, for the 
term Larva, a name expreffive of the 
infedVs being 111 this ftate, as it were, 
mafked, having its true appearance 
concealed. Under this maft or fkin 
the intire infect, fuch as it afterwards 

. appears 



[ <H J 

appears when perfect, lies concealed, 
inveloped only in its tender wings, and 
putting 011 a foft and pulpy appearance ; 
infomuch that Swammerdam was able 
to demonftrate the Butterfly with its 
wings to exift in a Caterpillar, though 
it bore but a faint refemblance to its fu- 
ture perfection. The infect, therefore-, 
in this ftate, undergoes no other alte» 
ration but the change of its fkin. 

The Larv^e are, for the mofr. part, 
larger than the infect when perfecl:, and 
are very voracious. The Caterpillar o-f 
the cabbage Butterfly eats double what 
it would feem to require from its fize ; 
but its growth is not adequate to its vo- 
racity. 

Pupa. The infecl: in this flate was 
fbrmerly called Chryfalis, or AureEa ; 
but as the appearance of gildingis con- 
fined to a few Butterflies only, the term 
of Pupa has been adopted ni its ftead, 

becaufe 



t «5 I 

tiecaufe the Lepidoptera, efpecially, re- 
femble an infant in fwaddling clothes ; 
and in thisftate all, except thofeof the 
Hemiptera clafs, take no nourifh- 
ment. 

Imago, is the third ftate. This name 
is given by Linnasus to this third 
change, in which the infecl: appears in 
its proper fhape and colours ; and as it 
tmdergoes no more transformations it is 
called perfect. In this ftate it flies, is 
capable of propagating its fpecies, and 
receives true antennse ; which before, in 
moft infetts, were fcarce apparent. 

As the fhape of the Pupa is different, 
in different claffes of infects, it affumes 
different names ; thus it is called, 

Coartlata, when it is round, and as 
it were turned, without the leaft re- 
femblance of the ftruclure of the infect, 
as in the Diptera. 



K Obtefc 



f 



[ 66 ] 

Obtedia, when it confifts as it were of 
two parts, one of which furrounds the 
head and thorax, and the other the ab- 
domen. 

Incompkta ; in this they have wings 
and feet, but are not capable of moving 
them, as in mofl: of the Hymenop* 
tera. 

Semicompleta ; thefe walk or run, but 
have only the rudiments of wings. 

Completa, in which they immediate- 
ly obtain the perfect form of the infecl:, 
without undergoing any more change, 
as in thofe of the Aptera clafs, except 
only the Flea. 

The Bed Bug alfo belongs to this 
clafs. 

The Spider undergoes frequent trans- 
formations, though only in the colour 
of its fkin. The cruftaceous infects, as 
QrabS) LobJIerS) &c. yearly caft their 

fhells, 



t 67 ] 

■flvells, as their growthwould otherwife 
be impeded. 

The Scolopendri, when young, have 
fewer feet than when they are full 
grown. 

All infects, as fbon as they undergo 
the third change, are arrived at their 
full growth ; nor do we find any difFe- 
rence in the fize of the fame fpecies of 
infectin thefame countries, unlefs, du- 
ring its caterpillar flate, it has not had 
a fufficiency of proper food. 

Swammerdam divided infedts, in re- 
fpect of theirtransformations, into four 
clafles ; 

The Firft contained either fuch as 
Ipring from an Egg, as the oviparous ; 
or fuch as are perfect at their firft pro- 
duction, cAled viviparous, as the Bug, 
and thofe of the Aptera clafs. 

The Second confifted of fuch infecls 

as are furnifhed with fix feet, but have 

K 2 their 



[ 68 J 

fheir wings for a certain time conceaf- 
led under a cruflaceous fkin or covering, 
which covering being caft ofF, they be- 
come compleatly winged. Such is the 
Gryllus. 

The Third clafs included fuch as pafs 
through threefeveral flages,and which, 
upon turning to the Chryfalis fr.ate, evi- 
dently caft. otT a coat or fkin. In this 
clafs were two divifions : the firfr. com- 
prehended fuch as in the Chryfalis ftate 
have vilible feet'and wings, which were 
called Nympha, as Bees ; the fecond 
fuch as in the fame flate have their feet 
and wings covered or invifible. Thefe 
were fpecially termed ChryfaEdes, as 
Eutterflies. 

The JRourth clafs contained thofe in- 
fecls, which in changing to their Chry- 
•falis or Nympha flate, do not cafl their 
outer coat or fkin ; but their bodies 

fhrink ing 



C 69 ] 

fhrinking from it, it furrounds them 
like an Egg-fhell, and is detached from 
the infedt itfelf, while it continues in 
this ftate, till at length it burfts, and 
excludes it completely winged. Such 
is the cafe with many Flies. 

The claffes of Valifnerus are taken 
from the plants, waters, earths, ani« 
mals, and the other habitations of in- 
fects. 

Reaumurs fyfiem of the Caterpillars 
of Butterflies, is founded 011 the fitua- 
tion and number of their middle feet, 
wjiich are inferted into the circular or 
oval rings under the body ; paying a 
regard at the fame to the fix anterior 
horny and pofterior membranous feet» 

S E C T. IX. 

HAVING obferved the nature of 
infects in their feveral ftates, it re- 
mains that we coniider them fyde- 

matically. 



t 7° 1 

matically. A judicious claflification of 
them gives life and fpirit to the fcience, 
and makes each infect as it were declare 
its own name. For this part we are- 
entirely indebted to Linnseus, who firft 
reduced them into certain genera, by 
giving them diftincT: characters. 

The claffes of infecls are feven: 

i. Coleoptera, have cruftaceous Ely- 
tra, which join together, and form as 
it were a longitudinal future down thc 
back of the infecT:. (See explanation of 
plate 2.) 

2. Hemiptera, have moft commonly 
their upper wings cruftaceous at thc 
bafe, or of a middle fubflance between 
Elytra, which are of a coriaceous, and 
foft wings, which are of a membra- 
nous texture. The upper wings do not 
meet by any longitudinal future, and the 

mouth 



{ t* 1 

miouth is either fituated in the breaft, 
or inclining to it. 

3. Lepidoptera, have four farinaceous 
wings, which are covered with very fine 
fcales laid over one another. In the 
mouth is contained a fpiral tongue, or 
at leaft the rudiments of one: 

4. Neuroptera, have four membrana- 
Ceous tranfparent wings (not farinace^ 
ous.) They are with difficulty diftin- 
guifhed from the Hymenoptera by de^ 
fcription ; but having been once feen, 
they are eafily known. The tail, there- 
fore, in thefe infects, being without 
fting, we make ufe of it the more ea- 
fily to diftinguifh this order. 

5. Hymenoptera. Thefe, befides hav- 

ing four membranaceous wings, have 

their tail armed with a fting ; which, 

however, is not always made ufe of to 

in.flil poifon, but frequentLy to pierce 

the 



[ 72 ] 

the bark and leaves of trees, and the 
bodies of other animals, in which it 
depofits its eggs, as in the Cynips, 
Tenthredo, Ichneumon, &c. 

6.Diptera. This order is eafily difiin- 
guimed from the others, the infecls of it 
having two wings, inftead of four ; but 
principally bytheir Halteres orPoifers, 
a diftinction which excludes the male 

Coccus from this order. 

y. Aptera^ is diftinguifhed by having 

ho wings at all. 

S E C T X. 

THESE claffes are again fubdivided 
into difFerent orders : 

The Coleoptera, are diftinguifhed ae~ 
cording to the Jfhape of their antennae, 
which are either JHfformes, clavata, or 
fetacetf. 

Ths 



[ 73 ] 

The Hemiptera are divided into two 
orders ; ift. thofe whofe mouth is fur- 
nifned with jaws, or, 2d. formed of a 
beak, which is either renecled under the 
mouth, or placed in the breaft. 

The Lepidoptera, according to the 
fhape of their antennae. 

The Neuroptera, according to the 
mouth's havingno teeth, havingmany 
jaws, having two teeth, or being form- 
ed into a beak. 

Hymewptera, according to the fting 
being either venomous, or harmlefs. 

Diptera, into thofe which have beaks, 
and thofe which have none. 

Aptera, according to the number of 

their feet. 

To infert here the charaSiers of alkhe 
different genera which may be found~m 
Linngeus's Syft.Nat. would be unnecef- 
fary. It will be fufficient to enumerate 
fome new venera mentioned by the moH: 
L modern 



t 74 1 
modern fyftematic writers, that by be- 
ing acquainted with the fubtil difHnc- 
tions on which they are built, the ftu- 
dent may avoid running into confufion. 
It is among the moderns only that ge- 
nera of this kind are to be met with, 
and new names given them. To re- 
move this difficulty, we fhall firft enu- 
merate the names of thofe authorswhich 
are fynonimouswith thofe of Linnseus. 

New genera of authors fynonimous with 
thefe of Linnseus. 

Linntfuss Names. Names of other 

Anthors. 
Lucanus Platyeeros 

Hifler Attelabus 

Byrrhus Anthrenus Ciflela 

Mylabris Laria Scop. 

Attelabus Clerus 

Silpha Peltis 

Bruchus Mylabris 

Ptinus 



[ 


75 ] 


Ptinus 


Byrrhus 


Chryfomela 


Galerlcula 


Hifpa 


Crioferis 


Cantharis 


Cicindela 


BuprefKs 


Cucujus 


Carabus 


Buprejiis 


Myrmeleon 


Formicaleo 


Sirex 


Uroceros 



New Genera of Authors. 

Copris. Scarabseus abfque fcutello 
Bojlricius. Dermefutes capecinus 
Ciftela. Byrrhus Pilula 
Rhinomancer. Attelabus roftro pro- 

duclo fere Curculionis 
Anthribus. Silpha 

Bruchus. Ptinus Fur ob fpinas thoracis 
Meloloniha. Chryfomela cylindrica 
Altica. • faltatoria 

Diaperis. } Fungorum 

Pyrochora. Cantharis 
Telephorus. Cantharis 

L 2 Cantharis. 



[ 76 I 

Cantharis. Meloe Alata 

Cerocoma. Meloe ShafFeri 

Notaxis. Meloe Monoceros 

Prionus. Cerambyx thoracis margine 

denticulato 

Stenocoris. Leptura thorace fpinofa 

Hydrophi/us. Dytifcus antennis clava- 

tis 

Mylabris. Necydalis minor 

Acridium. Gryllus Muticus 

Locu/la. Tettigonia 

Tettigonia. Cicada 

< 

Corixa. Notone&a. 

Naucoceris. Nepa 

Perla. Hemerobius cauda bifeta 

Libelhdoides. Myrmeleon antennis ca-* 

pitatis 
Crabro. Tenthredo antennis clavatis 
Pterophorus. Phalaena Alucita 
Bibio. Tipula thorace fpinofo 
Stomoxoides. Afilus bucca inflata 
Strationymus. Mufca 

Nemotelus. 



\ 



[ 77 ] 

Nemotelus, Mufca 
Volucella, Mufca. 

Thefe genera appear to us to be in a/ 
great meafure like thofe which were in- 
troduced into botany by the followers of 
Rivinus. Paying too little regard to 
nature, they difunited natural genera, 
on account of the mofl: trifling diftinc- 
tions. This made their continuance in 
the fcience of very fhort duration ; our 
bulineis here is not to fuppofe, but to 
examine, what nature will allow of, and 
what me will not. Knowledge of this 
kind, built on opinion only, wi.ll not 
fiand. We are therefore to look into 
the fcience with great aCcuracy ; and 
the Larva of the infedt, its manner of 
changing, and other thingsof moment, 
are to beknown, before w r e prefume to 
form a new genus, as men of experience 
will readily admit. Daily experience in 
botany teaches us that none are more apt 

to 



[ /8 ] 

to form new genera, thanthofe who are 
the leaffc qualified for it. , | /. . 

Coiningof newnames, and changing k 
of one old one for another, has been 
the fource of the greatefl: confufion. 
Thus-, in order to reduce the Ckindela 
and Carabus to the fame genus, Buprejlis 
has been adopted for the generic name; 
but as that genus had long ago received 
a very different application, it was 
changed for that of Cucujus. 

Again, that the qfficinal Cantharides. 
might be ranged among the Ceram- 
byces, the Cantharides have been re- 
moved from the genus of Meloe (to 
which they naturally belong) and re- 
ferred to the genus of Cicindela ; ob- 
taining thus a new name, and fo of 
many others. 

Thus, alfo, to mention no more, 
how needlefs and rafli was it to feparate 
the Acridium and Locujia from the ge- 

nus 



[ 79 ] 

nus of Gryllus, the Crabro from the 
Tenthredines, and the Mylabris from 
the Necvdalis ! 

S E C T. XI. 

T H E trivial names placed nnder 
their reipective genera will occafion 
little or no controverfy ; • they are 
current like money, and of the fame 
ntility as the proper names of men , Pe- 
ter or Paul, &c. Infecl:s living on ve- 
getables fhould receive their names from 
theparticularplants onwhich theymoft- 
ly feed, as they are preferable to all 
others. Thus the names of the Pha- 
Itena mori, &c. are excelient; and when 
we are able to give fuch to infects, the 
old ones are to be difcarded. But we 
are to be cautious of not being too hafly 
in our judgment in this refpect, as in- 
feds, when they cannot get their fa- 

vourite 



[ 8o ] 

vourite food, will often eat other plants* 

Thus theSiik-worm, for want of mul- 

. berry leaves, will eat thofe of lettuce, 

though it will not thrive fo well on 

them. 

Many other inftances of the inven- 
tion of trivial names will be met with 
in the Syflema Naturae, particularly 
among the Butterflies and Moths. To 
prevent confufion from the great num- 
ber of fpecies which confritute the ge- 
nus of Phalana, they are diftributed 
into feclions, and diiKnguifhed by the 
terms of Bombyces, Nodlute, Geome- 
ir<z, Tortrices, Pyralides, Tine^, and 
Aluciiie. The Bombyces and Noc~ 
tu#, which arefo much'alike, that the 
females of the Bombyces are with great 
difficulty diiYinguimed from the Noc- 
tua, are named promifcuoufly. 

All 



[ 8. ] 

All thofe of the Geometrae have their 
names terminating in aria and ata^ ac- 
cordingas their antennae zvefetaceous or 
p£5linated. The Tortrices in aria ; the 
Pyralides in alis ; the Tineae in ella ; 
and th® Alucitae in DaSiyla ; fo that it 
is evident from the termination itfelf to 
what fection the infedt is to be refer- 
red. 

It were to be wiflied that fimilar in- 
ftitutions could be formed throughout 
the whole fcience, as here the name it- 
felf ferves to diiYinguifh the infecl. 

Butterflies are divived into feclions, 
bythe names of Equites, Heliconii,Da- 
nai, Nymphales, and Plebeii. 

In fuch a multitude of Butterflies,the 
greatefl part of which are foreign and 
extra-european, and to whofe food and 
manner of life we are utter flrangers, 
it was impofiible to give fignificant tri- 
M vial 



t 8z ] 

vial names. Linnasus, therefore, by 
way of fimile, has taken the names of 
the Equites from the Trojan hiftory. 
Thefe confift, as it were, of two troops 
or bodies ; of which one contains thc 
fable, and, as it were, monrning No- 
bles, having red or bloody fpots at the 
bafis of their wings. Thefe receive 
names from the Trojan Nobles ; and as 
Priam was King of Troy, the mofr. 
iplendid among thefe bear his name. 
The other body, ornamented with a 
variety of gay colours, are diftinguifhed 
by the names of the Grecian Heroes ; 
and as in both armies there were Kings, 
as well as officers of an inferior rank, 
thofe elegant butterflies, whofe hinder 
wings refembi&d tails, were diftin- 
guiftied by fome royal name. Thus 
when Paris is mentioned (knowing 
from hiftory that he was aTrojan, and 

of 



of royal blood) I find him among thoib 
of the firft fection ; that is, thofe of a 
fable colour, fpotted in the breaft with 
red, and having their hinder wings re- 
fembling tails. When Agamemnon is 
Iiamed, I remember him to be a noble 
Greek, and find him among thofe no- 
bles which have variegatedandfwallow- 
tailed wings. But when Nereus is Ipo- 
ken of, I readily know him to beiong 
to the laft feclion, with wings having 
no tails* 

The fecond clafs, which contaihs the 
Heliconii, derive their names from the 
Mnfes, as Urania. The names of the- 
fbns and daughters of Danaus are be- 
ftowed on the third fe£tion. And as 
thefe fpecies are fubdivided into two 
other fections, viz. the white and par- 
ti-coloured,the metaphor is fo conducTr- 
ed, that the white ones preferve the 
M 2. namet 



■ [ 8 4 ] 

names of the daughters of Danaus, and 
theparti-coloured ones thofe of the fons 
of Egyptus ; fo that it is evident from 
the name itfelf to what fe&ion the but- 
terfly is to be referred. 

The names of the fourth feclion^ 
Nymphales, are taken from various 
nymphs of antiquity ; and thofe of the 
fifth fection, Plebeii, are fele&ed from 
difterent men amongthe ancients,whofe 
names are worthy of remembrance ; fo 
that by this meaiis" a knowledge of the 
ancients may be interiperfed, and this 
agreeable fcience be made doubly plea- 
fmg. 

Thofe, therefore, who fhall find new 
Lepidoptera,and give them newnames, 
will doweil to followthis method, un- 
lefs it be apparent what food the infect 
chiefly fubfifts on, 

Color, 



t 8J ] 

* Color. The Colour, which fo fre- 
quently occurs in other parts of natu- 
ral hiftory, but more efpecially in this, 
cannot be defcribed by words fuffi- 
ciently expreffive, but muft be learn- 
ed from ocular infpection only. On 
this fubjecl: we willingly refer the rea- 
der to the Entomologia Carniolica •# 
Scopoli ; he very ingenioufly informs 
us what mixtures are neceflary to pro- 
duce all the varieties of Colour. 

The great diverfity in the male and 
female infects of this clafs, and more 
particularly in thofe of the Hymenop- 
tera, occafions great difficulties. It is 
probable that wheh we become better 
acquainted with them, we fhall flnd 
the number of fpecies to be confidera- 
•bly lefs, efpecially of Tenthredines and 

Ichneumons. 

The menfuration of infecls feems to 

inerit fome attention, and various au- 

thors 



- [ 86 ] 

thors have accordingly meafured the 
length and breadth of them by lines. 
An infect that is become perfect, after 
the firft expanfion of its wings, con- 
tinues always of the fame fize. We 
are neverthelefs liable to many decep* 
tions from it ; for if the infecl: in itsLar- 
va fiate mould have been deprived of 
proper nourifhment, it will be leis when 
perfecl: than others of the fame fpecies. 
It happens, likewile, that the fame 
Ipecies of infe£ts varies greatly in fize in 
difFerent countries. Thus the Silpha 
Vefpillo in America is twice as large a§ 



ours. 



To conclude, we would earnefily 
recommend to thofe gentlemen whofe 
fummer refidence is in the country, a 
farther inveftigation of the metamor- 
phofes of infeds. They would derive 
much entertainment and rational plea- 
furefromdevoting their leifure moments 

t(J 



[ 8; 3 

to the bringing up the Larvae of infe$s, 
and attentively obferving their various 
transformations, their oeconomy in pro- 
Curing food, their dexterity in prepa- 
rkig habitations, and every other thing 
they are engaged in. By this means many 
infects, and their wonderful properties, 
which have remained in obfcurity from 
the beginningof time, would be brought 
to light, more efpecially if thefe gen- 
tlemen would themfelves defcribe or 
communicate their difcoveries to fome 
academy of fciences. Thus would they 
at one and the fame time enrich the 
fcience of natural hiftory, and tranf- 
mit their names to pofterity with ho* 
nour. 



F I N I S, 



INDEX and GLOSSARY, 

Abdomen, and its divifions, 44. 
Antenncs, peculiar to infedts, 33« 

■ defmition of them, 34. 

■ their fuppofed ufe, 35. 

diftinguifhed from the Palpi, ^„ 

their feveral forms, 38. 



Aptera, the 7th clafs of infe&s, 72. 

Bienhialy continuing for two yearsj 5. 

Caput, the Head, and its divifions, 35. 

Coleoptera, the firft clafs of infecls, 70. 

Colour of infects, 85. 

Diptera y the fixth clafs of infects. 

Entomology, the fcience of infects m general from 

tit.roi4.ci, infecls, and ^6yo<;, a difcourfe. 
Elytra, wha-t, 50. 

-r their various fhapes, 51,. 52. 

Gymnoptera, fuch infecls as are deftitute of Elytra» 
Halteres, or Poifers, peculiar to the clafs Diptera, 

52* 
Imago, a name given to infects when arrived at their 

laft or perfexSr. ftate, 65. 
Infecls y a definition of them, 33. 
Lepidoptera, the third clafs of infects, 71.. 
Lingua, the tongue, 41. 
Limbs of infech, their divifion, 45. 
Larva, a name given to. mfecls when hatch'd frorn 

the egg, 63. 
Metamorpbofis, the changi-ng of infeds fronx one 

ftateto another, 11, 62. 
Maxilla:, the Jaws, 41.. 

N ' Name? 



C 90 } 

Names of Infe&s, 79. 

Os, or Mouth, 40. 

Ovwn, . or Egg, 68. 

Orders of infecls, 72. 

Palpi, what, 40. 

P«ptf, Linnaeus's name for the Chryfaiis, ©4. 

Peclinated y Feathered. \ 

Ro/irum^ or Probofcis, 41. 

Sternum, or Breaft Bone, 43. 

Stemmata, or Crown, 42. 

Spiracula, or Bre^thing-Holes, 43. 

Scutellum, or Efcutchecn, 43. 

5<«m of infe£ls, 54. 

lChorax^ the upper part of the Breafr 3 . 42«, 

Ttf//, and its various kinds. 

Wing y its divifion, 47. 

■ — called plicatilis, &c. according to its. 

frape, 47, 



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