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Full text of "A decade of curious insects: some of them not describ'd before: shewn in their natural size; and as they appear enlarg'd before the lucernal microscope; in which the solar apparatus is artificially illuminated. With their history, characters, manners and places of abode; on ten quarto plates, and their explanations .."

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CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 




ENTOMOLOGY 



Q.16. 



tMl 



DATE DUE 


'AUG 2 


) 1977 






































































































































1 | 




RETURN TO 
ENTOMOLOGY LIBRARY 

Cornell University 
Ithaca, N. Y. 



jLj? XI/ \^j JTjL JL/ ,i 4 

O F 

CURIOUS INSECTS: 

SOME OF THEM NOT DESCRIB'D BEFORE: 

S H E W N I N 

THEIR NATURAL SIZE; 

AND AS THEY APPEAR ENLARg'd BEFORE 

THE LUCERNAL MICROSCOPE; 

In which the SOLAR APPARATUS is artificially illuminated. 

With their HISTORY, CHARACTERS, MANNERS, 
and PLACES of ABODE; 

On Ten Quarto Plates, and their Explanations. 
DRAWN AND ENGRAVED FROM NATURE. 

By J. H I L L, M. D. 

MEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL ACADEMY. 



LONDON: 

Printed for the A U T HO R, in St. James's-Street. 

And Sold by B. White, in Fleet-Street ; P. Elmsly, in the Strand ■„ 

Parker, inCornhill; Baldwin, in Pater-nofter-Row ; Ridley, 

St. James's Street* and J. Balfour, at Edinburgh; 



MDCC.LXXIIJ. 



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Z&adies who 'may chufe to paint ihefe Infe&s themfelves may have Set* 
of 4he Cuts on Royal Paper printed pale for that purpoie. 



I N S E C T S, 

ENGRAVED FROM NATURE. 



CLASS t 

THOSE WHICH HAVE 

FOUR GAUZY WIN GS, 

AND 

A WEAPON IN THE TAIL. 



PJY Gauzy Wings, we understand fuch as are thin, tender, and 
■*— f tranfparent : not crafty, as the Beetles ; nor leathery, as the 
Crickets; nor dufty, as the Moths and Butterflies; but clear. Such 
are the wings of common Flies. 



A 2 GENUS 



[ 4 J 

Q ■ E N U S I,. 

SAW-FLY. 
T E N T H R E D O, 

Character of the Genu?.. 

The Mouth is form'd of Jaws; and has no Trunk. 

The Scutcheon, has two fihall, diftant, elevated points, on its hin- 
der part. 

The Wings lie plain; but are a little puff' d up, and uneven. 

The Weapon at the tail is fhort ; and form'd of two plates, jag- 
ged like a Saw ; andhollow'd lengthwife in the Female. Plain in 
the Male. Plate i. abed. 

All two-wing'd Flies have a pairof Plummets behind their Wings ; 
rifing from under a bloated Scale. Thefe fwellings in the Saw-Fly feem 
to be fuch Scales not open'd; and never difclofing any Plummets. 

Nature does all. things regularly; and makes her advances 
by equal and gradual degrees : . and this feems her gradation from 
the two-wing'd to the four-wing'd Clafles of Infects j the. frrfr. 
in which the Plummets ceafe. 

We mall find throughout her univerfal regions, . that creatures 
differ by equidifcant fteps from one another; and that this dif- 
ference, .this advance of Species above Species, is all her laws allow. 
All real knowledge of her. works is, and for ever will be, confined 
to this ; the knowing and eftablifhing the differences of one Species 
from another : Claffes, and Genera, tho' ufeful, are arbitrary j 
ideas of mens minds ; that -exift not in nature. 

To know thefe characters of difference, is all : but the parts- 
which mark them ; the greater, as well as the leffer ; are fo imper- 
fectly feen in the fmaller Infects, that their names, or kinds, often 
cannot be known ; nor does the mind perceive the wonders of 
the Creator difplay'd in thefe his creatures. 'Tis therefore they are 
here reprefented both in their natural fize ; and as they appear 
before a fmall, but diftinct magnifying power : and that way only 
they can be either well known, or juftly admir'd. 

I. MOURN- 



1 s J 

1% 

M O U - R N I N G S A W - F L Y. 

TENT.HREDO L U C T U OS A. 

Plate i; 

Character of the Species. 

The Antlers have feven joints, and are all the way of a thicknefs. 
The Head and Trunk are red; the Body is black. 

Plate i. a* 

This pretty, quiet, melancholy Fly is found among Alder Plantati- 
ons ; and is often fatally entangled in the clammy juice, that oozes 
from their Leaves. I caught it this laft May, by the road-fide y near 
Uxbridge. 

Its Head is of the fineft fcarlet. 

The Eyes are blue. 

The Antlers are of a dufky brown, and hairy. 

The Feelers ihort, and pale. 

The Mouth' is arm'd with hard and crufly jaws. 

Its Trunk is fcarlet above, and of a. ruddy brown below. 
The Scutcheon is of a deeper red. 
The Points on it are blue. 

The Body is coal-black above, and greyifh black below. 

Its Rings are divided by lines, form'd of a deep brown membrane 

joining them. 
Its Air-holes are of a dead brown.- 

The Legs are grey j they are all of a length, and have two claws. 

The Wings are of a pale yellowifh brown, with little yellow •■rifings. 
on the ribs, and an edge of deeper yellow. 

The Tail. is of a deep brown. 

The 

5... 



t 6 ] 

The. Sting or Saw which terminates it, is flatted, and thin, and of 
a cbefout brown ; faw'd in the Female, plain in the Male. Os 
prefling the body of the Fly between the fingers, it may be forc'd 
out farther, a little from the vent- 

This is the Tcnthredo-Alni, of the Syflema Nature of Lin- 
nsus. Perhaps alfo, it is the Tenthredo Ovata of the fame work ; 
for Infects are not fo numerous, as 'tis the cuflom now to think 
them : and colour, tho' an obvious, is no certain character among 
thefe creatures : in fome it differs with the feafon ; in others, with 
the fex -, in all, it glows according to the creature's health and vi- 
gour : in moft, it is exalted in the time of courtfhip, as the feathers 
on the necks of fome Fowls -, and in fome, it fades, and is loft utterly 
in dying, as the colours of many fillies. 

This pretty Fly rifes from a yellow Worm with a black head, and 
twenty little feet ; frequent in fummer on the Alders, and bury'd 
under ground all winter for its change : in May we fee it perfect. 

'Twere well if we knew all the Infects, as this is known ; but 
'tis only a fmall part that have heen trac'd fo thoroughly ; where they 
have, it makes a great addition to their hiftory : but where the eye has 
not diftinctly ken it, 'tis befl to be filent. They who relate their errors 
and conjectures, under the feeming face of knowledge, deceive, and 
are deceiv'd. 



II. MOTTLED 







Si 



C 7 3 



II. 

MOTTLED SAW-FLY. 
TENTHREDO V A R I E G A T A. 

Plate 2. 

The Antlers have more than twenty joints ; and grow fmall to the 
point. 

The Head is blue ; the Trunk is deep grey, mottled with yellow j 
the Body is black. 

Plate 2 i 

This is. a very ftrange and delicate Fly : 'tis found in damp woods 
and moors in Auguft and September. 

The Head is of a mining blue*. 
The Eyes are green. 
The Antlers are amber-colour'd. 
The Feelers fhart, and brown. 
And the Jaws of a yellow brown. 

The Trunk is of an iron-grey, mottled with 1 irregular fpots of gold* 

like the womens tambour-work in embroidery. 
The Scutcheon is entirely raven-grey. 
The Points on it are black. 

The Body is coal-black above, and raven-grey below*. 
The Lines dividing the rings are brownilh. 
The Air-holes are black. 

The Legs are of a fine bright yellow, with black claws. 

The Wings are brown, with aduiky edge. 

The Tail is amber-colour'd. 

I received 



I received this pretty creature by an accident from Scotland : the 
Duke of Athol found, this Autumn, in an oak-wood near Dunkeld, a 
Whortleberry-Shrub with white fruit : a thing not known before in 
Britain. His Grace did me the honour to fend me fome growing 
Plants of this fmall Shrub, for the garden of her Royal Highnefs 
the Princefs Dowager of Wales at Kew ; and upon one of them 
came feveral of thefe Flies wrap'd up alive. 

It feems the Tenthredo Sylvatica of the Syftema Nature of Lin- 
naeus. 

The Fly is Female, that is here defcrib'd ; the Male has no Saw, 
for he has no ufe for it. Nature has given that inftrument to the Fe- 
male, to cut a way into a growing Vegetable ; and there to lodge 
the eggs : which pafs through the hollow made by the two fides or 
plates of the Saw. 

The Male has in the fame place, a kind of Forceps, or Pincers, 
which he can thruft out, and with them feize the Female. 
Thus in larger animals, where the Female has teats for fuck, the 
Male has a refemblance of them for conformity. 

When the Female lays her eggs, there goes with them an acid 
mucilaginous juice, which perverts the courfe of the Sap in the 
Plant, and makes it grow into a kind of gall : this operates as foon 
as it is iffu'd, and cicatrizes the part the Saw had wounded. 

One may fee bubbles of this juice always left upon the Plant ; 
it is foft and clammy : the wound is oblong, and crooked, and the 
part becomes black as if burnt : the egg increafes in bignefs to twice 
or more than that, after it is lodg'd in the Plant; nor Is this ftrange 
fince it has no hard covering:. 

a 



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[ 9 ] 

G E N U S II. 

THE SAVAGE. 
S P H E X. 

Plate 3. 

Chara&er of the Genus. 

The Mouth is form'd of oblong Jaws, without Trunk, or Tongue. 

The Wings lie fmooth, and perfectly even. 

The Antlers have ten joints. 

The Weapon at the tail is fimple, fharp, and hollow; and does 
not appear, except the Body be prefs'd; or the creature ftrikes with it. 

Nothing can be fo provident as this creature for its young; nor 
any thing fo favage, as the means it ufes for that purpofe. The man- 
ner of living is different in the various Species ; and fo is the gene- 
ral form of the Body : the prefent and fucceeding figure will fhew 
this difference of fhape : yet all the while the Genus is, and muft be 
allowed the fame, becaufe the Characters in all the diftinctive parts 
agree. And in the fame manner, tho' the place of fhelter, and the 
courfe of life, be utterly different ; yet the fame manners appear in- 
nate, and inherent in both. 

They agree in being the fierceft of all Flys ; they will attack 
Infects much larger than themfelves ; and this, whether they be de- 
fencelefs, or arm'd, as they are, with a Sting. The Strength in all 
this favage kind is great ; their Jaws are hard, and fharp ; and in 
their Sting is a poifon, fuddenly fatal to the creatures with whom 
they engage. The Savage feizes hardily on the creature he attacks : 
and gives a ftroke of an amazing force ; and then falls off, as if himfelf 
were kill'd : but 'tis to reft from his fatigue, and to enjoy his victory. 
He keeps a fleady eye on the creature he has ftruck, 'till it dies, 
which is in a few minutes ; and then drags it to the neft, for the 
young. The number of other Infects thefe deftroy, is fcarce to be 
conceiv'd ; the mouth of their cave is like a Giant's of old in romance ; 
ftrew'd with the remains of prey : the Eyes, the Filament that ferves 
as Brain, and a fmall part of the contents of the Body, are all the 
Savage eats : and he will kill fifty for a meal. 

B 1. COMB- 



C io 3 

i. COMBFOOTED SAVAGE. 
SPHEX PECTINIPES. 

Plate 3. 

Character of the Species. 

The Antlers are form'd of oval Joints, and turn like rams-horns. 
The Fore-feet are form'd like combs, with three claws, and flifF 

hairs above. 
The Body is join'd clofe to the Trunk. Plate 3. ah. 

This ftrong and fierce, tho' heavy Fly, lives in caverns of the 
earth, in the fides of hills and cliffs ; and in holes made in the mud- 
walls of our little villages. I received this from the North of Ire- 
land, where the mud- walls of one of the cabins on the fide of a 
hill, was wrought into the appearance of a Honeycomb, by the multi- 
tudes of thefe creatures. 
Its Head is of a chefnut brown. 
The Eyes are blue. 

The Antlers are brown ; but the tip of each joint is ruddy. 
The J cms are amber- col our'd. 
The Feelers pale brown. 

The Trunk is black, and rough. 

The Scutcheon is grey. 

The Body is fmooth, and fhining; of a rufty iron colour, with bands 

of an orange yellow. 
The Air-holes are brown. 

The Legs are of a blue grey ; and the long hairs upon the fore ones, 
toward the feet, are yellowifh. 

The Wings are of a pale brown. 

The Sting, when the creature pleafes to mew it, is of a fine po- 
lifh'd brown. 

This feems unquestionably the Sphex PecTiinipes of the Syftema 
Naturae. 

It is drawn here, as fhewn by the fourth glafs of the lucernal 
microfcope ; not magnify'd in any vaft degree ; but furficiently to 
fhew all its parts. Creatures much fmaller require often larger figures 
to exprefs their organs diftinctly. All magnitude is comparative ; and 
to be ufeful, the inftrument fihould be employ'd with jurt fo much 
power as is needful for diftinctnefs. 

2. T H E 



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[ » ] 

2. THE TURNER SAVAGE. 
SPHEX SPIRIFEX. 

Plate 4. 

Charatter of the Species. 

The Body is join'd to the trunk by a long fmall thread. 

The Antlers have ten joints ; and they fpread out, and grow fmall 
to the point. 

The Feet are jointed, and equally hairy j and have each two toes. 

This ftrange disjointed creature, as it feems, lives, by choice, among 
men, whom it never offends ; but it is beyond meafure terrible 
to the lefler infects : and by the fabricaturc of its dwelling, it might 
become an object of furprife and wonder ; tho' there were nothing 
more to recommend it to our notice. 

I received this particular Fly from Peterborough in Northampton- 
fhire, where it had form'd its cells in the mud-wall of a fmall cot- 
tage, juft under the edge of the thatch; dry, warm, and fhelter'd 
from the weather. 

The preceding kind lives in a mere cave of its own making ; 
a fimple, oval hole, with a fmall opening, and larger within : this had 
turn'd its dwelling in a clofe fpiral form, and polim'd the infide fo 
well, that it had the afpect of one of the fpiral (hells we fee in ca- 
binets, when faw'd open : about the mouth of this, was form'd a 
kind of funnel, covered with legs and wings of flaughter'd Infects ; 
and juft within this mouth ufually fat the inhabitant watch- 
ing what came by; for the ftrange ftructure of his body made him 
lefs fond of flying far ; left half of it fhould be left behind him. 

Befide the aftonifhing havock of this creature among the Infects, 
on which it preys, there is a part of its hiftory ftrangely replete 
with horror : it has been obferved, that while the Savages are fo 
destructive of other creatures, they have a wonderful attention to 
their young ; and this, by a courfe of Providence unknown to us, 
any more than by the term inftinct, appears in all their actions, even 
before thofe young are born, 

B 2 In 



[ 12 ] 

In the preceding kind, the eggs are laid in the back part of the 
cavern where the creature lives ; evenly arrang'd ; and when the 
time of their hatching is near, the Fly brings in a number of 
flaughter'd Infects, for the food of the expected young ones : me 
then clofes up the mouth of the hole with mud, and her care is over. 
When the young worms hatch, they find their food ready ; and when 
they have eaten their fill, they reft, and take their change into the Fly. 

But this creature lays her eggs in the body of a living Caterpillar : 
they hatch, and eat that creature up, even while itielf is feeding : 
at their appointed time they hatch : and 'twas long a wonder among 
the curious, how a Caterpillar produced this Fly, inflead of a 
Butterfly, or Moth ; or how one Infect changed to many. 

The Head of this creature is of a chefnut brown, with a fhade of 

blue. 
The Eyes are black, and large. 
The Antlers are of a ruddy brown. 
The Feelers are blackifh. 
The Jaws are hard, ferrated, and yellow., 

The Trunk is of a ruddy brown. 

The Scutcheon is yellow. 

The Thread which fattens the two parts together, is alfo vellovr. 

The Body is of the colour of rufty iron ; but there is a fkin of yel- 
low covering part of it from the end of the thread. 
The Air-holes are black. 

The Legs are partly brown, and partly yellow. 

The Wings are of a dufky brown,, 

The Sting is yellow. 

The drawing of this, as of the former, is not greatly magnify 'd ; 
the fame fourth glafs was us'd to it ; the creature being naturally of a 
fize nearly big enough to mew its own particularities ; and always 
here the lefs magnifying is wanted^ the lefs is us'd. 

GENU S 




of* 



in ] 

GENUS III. 

ANT-EATER. 
MYRMELEON. 

Chara&er of the Genus. 

The Mouth is form'd of Jaws, with two long Tulles. 

The Antlers are club fafhion'd -, and there are four long Feelers. 

The Wings hang down. 

The Tail is arm'd with a pair of Knippers, in the Male. 

i. THE GREY ANT-EATER, 
MYRMELEO FORMIC ARUM. 

Plate 5. 

In many of the wing'd Infedts, their prior form of the Worm, or 
Reptile, riling immediately from the egg, demands a mare of our at- 
tention, with the Infect in its more perfect and more beautiful ap- 
pearance ; in the prefent kind, our greater! admiration is demanded 
in that lefs perfect flate. The Butterflies arife from Caterpillars ;, 
the Beetles from fix-footed Worms ; and the Dragon-flies from Infects 
without Wings, which fwim about in water. The creature under 
conlideration here, approaches to the Dragon Fly in kind ; and in- 
ks figure, in the Reptile State j being a broad and bloated hexapode; 
but inhabiting the dryeft earth. 

It is known that birds and beafts of prey can endure great and long- 
continued hunger; the fierceft moft. This creature, ally'd to the- 
Savages in its manners, can alfo bear their abftinence : La Hire, of the 
Paris Academy, obferv'd about fourfcore years ago, that the creature 
could bear a feven months faft ; 'twas to him we owe the fir/ft notice 
of this Infect ; fo well defcribed foon after by Vallifnieri, and Pou- 
part ; and fo much fpoken of, and fo poorly underftood, by the petty 
retailers of natural knowledge iince. 

The Reptile State of this pretty Fly, known by the name Formi- 
caleo, is a coarfe Infect, of a pale yellow, ftreak'd with brown, and 
varied with fome black tufts of hairs ; but ufually it is fo covered with 
dirrt, that ft looks brown : its habitation is under ground 3 it forms a pit, 
like a funnel, of dry dull, and lies conceal'd in the centre of it, to 
catch the Ants, or other little creatures,, that fall into it. 

Its Head is broad, and flat, and has a pair of Tufks, or Horns ,-:or,* 
by whatever name we may call parts unknown to larger animals 3 thefe 

- ase 



I 1+ ] 

are (harp, open, and hollow : with thefe he pierces the bodies of In- 
fects ; with thefe he draws in their juices for his food ; and when 
that is done, they have an elaftic force, by which they throw the 
carcafe far away. He retires under ground to feed, and juft rifes to 
-throw the refufe out of his pit; then repairs its injuries, and waits 
for the next chance. Thefe pits are about three inches wide ; the 
creature leaves them, and .makes new ones at his pleafure : and in 
this ftate he always lives many •months, fometimes two years, before 
he turns into the Fly, now to be defcrib'd. 

M Y R M E L E O FORMICARUM. 
THE ANT-EATER FLY. 
Plate 5.. 
The Antlers are compos'd of twenty-four joints, and grow larger 
to the tip. 

This is a large Fly, not fwift in its motions, but fierce and destruc- 
tive -, even in a degree equal to that of the Reptile, from which it 
fprings : it plays about the bufhes in the meadows of France and Ita- 
ly, in the latter part of fummer, and will feize on almofl any tiling 
it can catch. 

Its Head is of a chefnut brown- 

The Eyes are vaft, and green. 

The Antlers are of a deep brown. 

The Feelers are long, and dufky ; there are four of them. 

The Jaws are yellow, hard, and fharp; and the two Tufks are brown* 

Its Trunk is of a greyirn brown, with a gilded variegation. 
The Scutcheon is blueifh. 

Its Body is of a pearly grey, deep, and not elegant. 

The Lines or Rings are black. 

The Air-holes are edg'd round with brown. 

Its Legs are fhort, ftrong, and ruddy, with long dark hairs. 

Its Wings are grey -, and in the particular Fly before me, there are 
four fpots of a dufky brown upon each of the upper ones, and two on 
each of the under: I fay, in this particular Fly, which is from Italy; 
for there are more, or fewer, or none, in thofe from other places. 

The Knippers at the Tail are horny, and chefnut colour'd. 

This is the Fly of the famous Fornaicaleo, the Myrmelea Formi* 
carum of the lateft writers. 

GENUS 



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A/z//"/'rie/&> 



&/yr?ne^&7 -ffyr-srugtz^its-f^ 




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[ ■ 16 ] 

I. THE OAK LEAF GALL FLY. 

CYNIPS QJJERCUS FOLII. 

The Antlers are hoop'd, and have a thick extremity. 
The Trunk is bloated, and ftreak'd. 

This Infect, I received from Norway, where the oaks were in a 
manner covered with it, in the months of July, and part of Augulr, 
1768 ; and in our own oak-woods I have {ten fuch a Fly frequently ; 
and found it, tho' differing a little in colour, perfectly the fame in all 
its characters. It is a ftrong, coarfe-made, and not very handfomc Fly; 
and is flow and heavy in its motions : and is generally found fitting 
on the under part of a leaf, with its wings fpread out flat. 

Its Head is of a rufTet brown. 

The Eyes are blue. 

The Antlers are mottled, of black and chefnut colour. 

The Feelers are brown. 

The Jaws are fharp, jagg'd, and brown. 

Its Trunk is of a raven grey, very beautifully ftreaked with white. 

Its Body is coal black. 

The Rings dividing the Joints are brown. 

The Air-boles are dufky. 

Its Legs are grey, with ftiff black hairs, and black toes; and the 
thigh is black. 

Its Wings are of a pale brown, with a tinge of olive-colour; the 
Veins on them are deep grey. 

Its Tail is perfectly black. 
The Sting is chefnut brown. 

With us the Trunk and Body of this Fly are quite black ; other- 
wife there is no difference between fome I caught this year in Bufhy 
Park ; and thofe I had from Norway. 



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[ 17 ] 

GENUS V. 

DAY-FLY. 

PHRYGANEA. 

Plate 7. 

The Mouth is oblong, and without Teeth. 

There are no Feelers* 

There are two large Studs upon the Head, juft above the eyes. 

The Wings are carry 'd {landing upwards, and are unequal in fize. 

The Tail has briftles annex'd to it. 

The Day-Flies are an inoffenfive race ; born to pafs thro' their little 
ftage of being, the prey to a thoufand enemies; but hurtful to no crea- 
ture: they live about waters, in which they breed; and in their Fly ftate 
have fo mort a term, that it has been the fubject of feparate hiflories, 
by Naturalifts, and Emblems for moral writers. The name, Day- 
Fly, arifes from their living in that ftate but one day : but in many 
of the fpecies, even that period is much longer than is allowed. 

The particular kind firll to be figured and defcribed in this place, 
never burfts from its Reptile ftate, till about fix o'clock in a fum- 

mer evening ; and never lives to fee the next fun rife. 

1 

Five hours complete its little fpan of life ; in the which time, if 
it efcape the Fiih, the Dragon- Flies, and Reed Sparrows, (for all are 
after it) it copulates with the Male ; depofits its impregnated eggs 
in the waters ; and dies before the cold of midnight. 

But 'tis not that thefe hours are all it lives ; 'tis in thefe only it 
enjoys the air : but the Worm hatched from the egg of this Fly lives, 
and feeds heartily in the waters, enjoying a much longer date* and 
that in more fecurity ; for it covers its tender frame with a motley 
cafe of its own conftructing j and gormandizes unfufpecled, and un- 
feeni for one, or fometimes nearly for two years. 

C 1. THE 



[ i8 ] 

i. THE WHITE-WING DAY-FLY. 
EPHEMERA CULICIFORMIS. 

Plate 7. 

The Antlers have a multitude of knotted joints, and grow fmaller 

to the point. 
The Bristles of the Tail are hard, and firm. 

This is a fwift-wing'd Fly, abundant about running waters, in 
the months of June and July 5 where it becomes the food of a mul- 
titude of fifties : many leap at it as it drops toward the water 5 and 
others watch the reeds and rufhes near the fhore, and take it with 
more eafe as it is dropping its eggs. This was caught in July laft, 
near Efher. 

Its Head is of a dufky brown. 

The Eyes are green. 

The Studs are jet black, and fhine. 

The Antlers are of a chefnut brown. 

The Mouth is a kind of amber-colour'd beak. 

Its Trunk is of a tawny brown, with a brighter fpot in the middle. 
The Scutcheon is nearly white. 

Ifs Body is of a dead brown. 
The Rings are pale. 

Its Legs are 'of a greyifh, or afh colour. 

The Wings, tho* not decorated as the Moths, or Butterflies -, yet 
have a peculiar and wonderful prettinefs : they are of a pearly 
white, mottled here and there, and clouded as it were with the 
fame colour, only thicker, or lefs pure. 

The Tail is pale brown. 
The Brijiles are ruddy. 

2. ROCK 



IN 



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C f 3 

2. ROCK DAY-FLY. 
EPHEMERA RUPESTRIS. 

Plate 8. 

The Antlers have a multitude of clofe-connec~ted joints, and grow 
all the way fmaller to a point. 

The Bristles at the Tail are fhort, and weak. 

Nothing can be ftranger than the hiftory of this Fly, which came 
to my knowledge by an accident laft year ; and, I believe, has not 
been obferved by any writer. 

On a ftone obelifk, erected before a houfe in London, to fupport 
the lamp, I obferved feveral oblong, greyifh tubes, or cafes, running 
in various directions ; fome ftrait, and others a little bent. I mould 
have fuppofed them the tubuli, or cafes of Sea Worms, petrify 'd, as 
is frequent in many kinds of ftone ; but that thefe obelifks carried 
very plainly the marks of the duffel ; and the little tubules I obferv- 
ed were wrought over them ; and therefore evidently had been formed 
after the ftone was work'd. 

The Angularity of this, caufed me to direct a fervant to pick off 
fome of them ; which he attempted in vain : he found them as hard 
as the reft of the ftone, and fixed to it with great firmnefs : with 
the help of a hammer, fome few were at length got off; and 
I found nothing fhelly in them; but that they were mere ftony 
tubes, form'd of the matter of the obelifk, in fmall granules, ce- 
mented clofe. 

In breaking feveral others, I at length found in fome, the creature 
which had form'd them for its houfe and fhelter : this was a little 
yellowifti Worm, with a black head, and a number of fmall, fhort 
feet. It ufually refided in the bottom of the tubule -, but came out 
at pleafure. 

On fome cobwebs, about the upper part of the obelifk, I found, 
among other Infects, the remains of two or three Flies, feeming 
either of the Day-Fly, or Moth kind ; but too imperfect for me t© 
afcertain the Species. 

C 2 Thus 



C 2 ° ] 

Thus refted the matter for that time ; but my curiofity being 
roufed by the ftrangenefs of the incident, I examined large manes 
of ftone, wherever Ifaw them, this laft year ; and happening to be in 
Buckinehamfhire in July, I found the whole myftery explained. 

Several large ftones that flood in water at their bottom, tho' 
dry enough above, were covered with grey, ftony tubules of this 
kind; and about one of thefe maffes, ort the evening of the 18th of 
July, I found more than fifty, of the Fly, to the Worm of which 
they owed their origin. 'Tis a very pretty creature, and in all 
refpects of the Day-Fly kind. 

Its Head is hoary, and of a ftrong fine green, with a black round 

fpot on its centre, mining at the fummit. 
The Eyes are black as jet. 
The Studs are brown. 

The Antlers are fcarlet, long, thruft (trait forward, and ufually crofs'd. 
The Mouth is dufky. 

Its Trunk is of a lovely green, and is join'd to the body by a kind 

of neck, which is alfo of a velvety green. 
The Back is beautifully variegated with ftreaks and dots of gold. 
The Scutcheon is of a lighter green. 

Its Body is thick, and green, and is connected to the Trunk almoft 
without a divifion. 

Its Legs are of a pale brown* 

Its Wings of the fame pearly grey with the preceding; but ele- 
gantly vein'd, and clouded with a pale blue, and a light brown. 

"The Bristles are amber- colour. 

I believe this Fly lives no longer than one evening in its win^'d 
ftate ^ the Females, among thofe I faw, were very bufily depofiting 
eggs in all the cracks and crevices of the ftones. The Worms 
hatched from thefe, make the ftone tubules for themfelves, and pro- 
bably live in them one or two years. 

INSECTS 









<2s 

k 






[ 21 ] 

I N SEC T S. 

C L A S S II. 

Thofe which have four feathery wings. 

BY feathery wings, we underftand fuch as areform'd, in appearance, 
as of the feathers of birds : each wing confifting of only one 
fuch feather; tho' fometimes fplit, or divided. 

GENUS I. 
CHINCH. 

ALLUCITA, 
Plate 9. 

The Antlers are compos'd of a few oval joints j and the extreme 

one runs out into a point. 
The Tail is fplit, and hairy. 
The Feathers, which are plac'd as wings, eoniift of jointed ribs, 

and thin flat plates fet regularly on them. 

The Chinches are a race of Infedts fo extremely fmall, that they 
have in a great meafure efcaped obfervation. Few of thofe who have 
ftudied thefe fmall objects, have feen any of them ; and from fuch 
as have, very little of their nature is to be learn'd, for they have 
only cafually come before the eye : and thofe microfcopes, by the 
affiflance of which they have been examined, and figured here, have 
not been known till lately. 

The creatures in the Infect world, to which the Chinches ap- 
proach the nearer!, are the feather- wing Moths -, but from thefe they 
differ abundantly in the ftru&ure of their Antlers, and the fhape of 
their body, their motions, and peculiar formation of their Tails. 
Thofe Moths have been called Phalenae Alucitae ; and the latter term 
therefore alone feems the moft familiar and intelligible name for thefe. 

The feathers which compofe, or rather which are the wings of 
the Chinches, tho' they very much referable the plumes of birds in 
appearance, are in reality very different, and have nothing truly 
feathery in them. They are compos'd of a hollow jointed rib, not 
unlike feme of the Corallines ; and the hairs, or plumes, as they feem, 
which rife from them, are flat* thin, conic fcales, 

1. THE 



[ 22 ] 

i. THE STRAW-COLOUR'D CHINCH. 

ALLUCITA PALLIDA. 

Each wing is compofed of one diftincl: undivided feather. 

Plate 9. 

This is a creature very flrange in its nature, and hiitory ; and 
which once came as ftrangely before me. A ftudious gentleman, very 
fubjecl: to the head-ach, which he, and his phyfician, both attributed 
to great attention 3 fneezing one day with violence, as he was writ- 
ing, faw fome atoms a moment afterwards upon a fheet of white 
paper that lay upon his table ; and they plainly moved : he doubled up 
the paper, and brought it to me : when we laid a parcel of thefe 
moving particles before the lucernal microfcope, they appeared of 
the lize and figure reprefented at Plate 9 ; and were in continual mo- 
tion j vibrating their Antlers, making their Wings, and turning up 
their Tail to their Heads, in the manner of Earwigs, but with an 
incredible fwiftnefs. 

'Twas palpable they had been difcharged from his nofe ; and 'tis 
very eafy to fee whence they were thrown, and to underftand how 
they might have caufcd intolerable pain, while they were thus 
railing and moving their irritating hairs, and feathers, upon a part 
where the very fubftance of the brain is almoft naked. 

I had feen the fame Species inhabiting the Flowers of the Plant 
Mignonette ; and on afking, found he had that Plant in his chamber. 

The Head of this creature is lemon-coiour'd. 

Its Eyes are of a delicate blue. 

The Studs over them deep black. 

Its Antlers are of the paleft brown, but ruddy at the bafe of each Joint. 

The Feelers are pale, and fmall. 

Its Trunk is of a pale ftraw-colour. 
The Scutcheon has a tint of greenifh. 
Its Body is very pale ftraw-colour. 
The Rings dividing it are whitifh. 

Its Legs are pale brown, but deeper at the joints. 
Its Wings are whitifh, with a dufk of brown. 
Its Tail is amber-colour'd. 

«. THE 



^ 

* 



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^ 




1 

11 

^0 



^ 



"I 



[ *3 ] 

f 2. T H E TAWNY CHINCH. 

ALLUCITA FULVA. 

Plate 10. 
Each wing is compofed of two feathers, rifing from a fimple bafe. 

This little creature lives in the hollows of the Flowers of Plants, 
as the preceding ; and feems calculated to do at leaft as much mif- 
chief, being fully as fmall j more covered with Hairs, or fhort 
Briftles; and to all appearance, both as to its ftrudture, and motions, 
able to drive them into the tender membranes with more force : a 
bigger bodied, and more robufl creature. 

It is a wanderer, and lives in a manner at large in gardens : 'tis 
fondeft of the fweeteft Flowers : the Damafk-Rofe is often full of 
them, and the flock July-Flower, and Wall-Flower; nor does it 
difdain the Lupine, and the Pea. 

The characters, and ftrudture of the Chinches, are in no Species 
feen more diftin&ly than in this. 

Its Head is of a dull yellowifh brown. 

The Eyes are large, and of a fiery red. 

The Antlers are firm, elegantly jointed, a little hairy, and very fharp 

at the points ; and they are of a pale brown. 
The Feelers are fhort, and dufky. 

Its Trunk is brown, covered with pale hairs, and variegated with a 

dead yellow. 
The Corcelet is paler. 

Its Body is of a tawny brown, divided by dufky rings, and covered 
thick with fhort, firm, whitifh hairs, which it can raife at plea- 
fur e. 

Its Legs are of a dufky brown, ftrong jointed, and have forked, 
hard, horny toes, and fome very ftifF hairs upon them. 

It 



[ 24 ] 

Its Wings are of a pale dufky yellow ; the rib of them is feen beau- 
tifully jointed -, and is palpably hollow. 

The Scales, which make what are call'd their hairs, or feathery 
fubftance, are very numerous, narrow, and fharp, both at the edges, 
and the point ; and they make a great appearance, becaufe, each be- 
ing compos'd of two feathers, the creature feems, in comparifon 
with the preceding, to have four wings upon each fide. 

The creature has, when living, all the motions of the preceding 
kind, but ftronger ; as its Body feems more mufcular : and the power 
it has of raifing its Briftles, as the Porcupine, muft add greatly to 
the irritation, when it is got into a tender part. 

Whether, and how far, head-achs are to be traced from thefe little 
creatures, is a fubject yet for more enquiry ; but 'tis worth the pains. 
Many have this pain from the fmell of Flowers. Some have 
been found dead, with quantities of violets, and other Flowers, in 
their chamber. Phyficians have attributed thefe deaths to the power- 
ful odour of thofe Flowers ; but that they mould be owing to thefe 
creatures, is much more probable. 

Whether they do, or do not, ever fly far from the Plants they in- 
habit, I have not yet found ; but in the ftillnefs of the night, it 
would not be ftrange if they mould : and that they hover round 
them I have feen : for placing a iiiung light, and a great convex 
glafs* near a pot with a growing Lupine, in a dark chamber, I have 
difcovered the air, all about the tops of the Plant, in a manner filled 
with them, moving like motes in a fun- beam. 



$ 

^ 



^ 



s 




1 









R 



,1 



•I 



s 



I N D EX. 



A. 

ALder Fly 
Allucita 
Allucita Pallida 
Allucita Fulva 
Ant-Eater — 



C. 

Chinch — 
Straw-colour'd Chinch 
Tawny Chinch — 

Cynips — — 

Cynips Quercus Folii • 

D. 

Day-Fly — 
White-wing'd Day-Fly 
Rock Day-Fly ~ 



6 

21 
22 

2 3 

*3 



21 

22 

23 

16 



■17 

18 

*9 



E. 

Ephemera — — 17 

Ephemera Culiciformis — j 8 

Ephemera Rupeftris ~ 19 



F. 

Feather* wing'd Infects — • 21 
Fierceft of Flies "— 9 



Gall-Fly — — l$ 

Gauze-wing'd Flies « — j 



M. 

Mottled Saw»Fly — 7 
Mourning 



I 



H D 



E X. 



Mourning Saw-Fly — 5 Comb-footed Savage 
Myrmeleo — — ,g. Turner Savage - 

Myrmeleo Formicarum —. 13 Saw-FIy — 

Sphex — 
Sphex Pectinipes 
Sphex Spirifex 
Ston^-Fly f— ; 



O. 

Oak-leaf Gall-Ffy 



— 16 



. 10 
n 

9 
10 

** 

19 



Phryganea — — iy 
Savage ■ > ^ q 



T. 



Tenthredo — 
Tenthredo Lucluofa 
Tenthredo Variegata 
Tenthredo Alni 



5 
7 



r n 1 s. 



-/