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Full text of "Annulosa javanica, or An attempt to illustrate the natural affinities and analogies of the insects collected in Java by Thomas Horsfield ... and deposited by him in the museum of the Honourable East-India company"

&tate College of Agriculture 
St Cornell IHnibersitp 

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Number I. 



OF 



ANNULOSA JAVANICA, 

OR 

AN ATTEMPT TO ILLUSTRATE THE 
NATURAL, AFFINITIES AND ANALOGIES 

OF THE 

INSECTS 

COLLECTED IN JAVA BY THOMAS HORSFIELD, M.D. F.L. & G.S. 



AND DEPOSITED BY HIM IN THE MUSEUM OP THE 



^onoutafcle <#a*i-Jntrta tfonumng* 



BY W. S MACLEAY, ESQ., M.A. RL.S. 

IOC. 028. NAT. CUB. MOSQ. NAT. ECBUTAT. BEBOLIN. SOCIUS ET 
MOS. BEG. GAIi. HIST. NAT. COBBESP. 



LONDON: 



PUBLISHED BY KINGSBURY, PARBURY, AND ALLEN, 
LEADENHALL STREET. 

1825. 

Price 12s. coloured, 10s. 6d. plain. 






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, X 




Hatt (QalltQz of Agriculture 

At Qfarttcll IniuEratty 
Stljrara, N. $, 



ffithrary 



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London. fuVlishecl .ly Hn,.,j,s-I,„n . l\,rhun:f: Ml,n. .\,„ij !S:f: 






EXPLANATION OF PLATE I. 

Fig. 1. Lissauchenius rufifemoratus. 

Fig. 2. Pericalus cicindeloides. 

Fig. 3. Colpodes brunneus. 

Fig. 4. Anaulacus sericipennis. 

Fig. 5. Catadromus tenebrioides. 

Fig. 6. Dicselindus felspaticus. 

Fig. 7. iEphnidius adelioides. 

Fig. 8. Planetes bimaculatus. 

Fig. 9. Helota Vigorsii. 

(N.B. This sheet will be replaced, with the second number, in a form corresponding with 
the work.) 



TO THE 



HONOURABLE THE COURT OF DIRECTORS 



ionourable ©a0t>3fntua Company 



THIS WORK 



IS, WITH THEIR PERMISSION, RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED, 



BY THEIR OBEDIENT SERVANTS, 



WILLIAM SHARP MACLEAY, 

AND 

THOMAS HORSFIELD. 



QL: 



■M5 



o 



Q.^C35^ 



PREFACE. 



For several years after his arrival in Java, the principal pursuits of Dr. Horsfield 
were Botany and Materia Medica, but as numerous insects were constantly occurring to 
him during his botanical excursions, he was naturally and almost imperceptibly led to 
the collection of these beautiful and interesting animals. Like most other entomologists 
he commenced his career in the science by paying attention to Lepidopterous insects, 
to the collection of which he was the more induced by their great abundance in cer- 
tain districts, during the latter part of the rainy season, The Coleopterous and other 
insects, which have been deposited by him in the East-India Company's Museum, 
were principally collected towards the end of his residence in the island, which he 
finally quitted in 1817, on its being ceded to the Dutch. 

In the year 1812, or soon after the conquest of Java by the British arms, Dr. Horsfield' s 
original plans were considerably enlarged, in consequence of the liberal patronage which 
was bestowed on his researches, by the Honourable East-India Company, through the 
friendly medium of Sir Stamford Raffles, the Lieutenant-Governor of the Island. At 
this time Dr. Horsfield was established in an extensive plain, elevated nearly 200 feet 
above the level of the ocean, and situated near the middle of the island, in regard both 
to its length and breadth. This plain is highly fertile, and with very little exception, 
is in a complete state of culture. The soil is a deep vegetable mould which, near the 
banks of several large rivers that flow through it, is mixed with sand. Here the col- 
lection of insects was carried on with zeal and perseverance, not only by Dr. Horsfield 
himself, but by various native assistants, who had been properly trained to this pur- 
suit. His attention, as may be conceived, soon extended itself to all Annulose animals 

^X. without exception, and his assistants were accordingly instructed to look for them in 

-. every situation, and as far as possible, to leave no place unexamined. During these 

v researches, therefore, the party being provided with all the usual implements of 

entomological collectors, neglected none of the ordinary resorts of insects, such as 

|\ flowers, decayed wood, carcases of dead animals, ponds, &c, and consequently, the 
collection now in the possession of the East-India Company, may very fairly be con- 

C/ sidered as affording a general view of the entomology of the above mentioned plain. 
When any remarkable deficiency is observed in particular natural groups, we may at 
s least conclude, that such insects are on this plain comparatively very rare. Accord- 
ing to Dr. Horsfield's general observation, indeed, those insects which live on plants, 

b shrubs, 






j PREFACE. 

shrubs, and trees, are extremely abundant in Java ; while such as in more temperate 
climates are commonly found in various situations near the surface of the earth, are 
limited to a few families. At the same time, however, it may be well to bear in mind, 
on regarding the immense proportion of herbivorous insects in the collection, that 
from the nature of Dr. Horsfield's more immediate pursuits, he was particularly led 
to collect on plants. 

From the plain just mentioned, in which, on account of the -extension of agriculture 
and a numerous population, the variety of vegetable and animal productions is neces- 
sarily limited, Dr. Horsfield often made journeys, in different directions, through the 
more wild and uninhabited parts of the island. Some of these were undertaken 
almost exclusively for entomological research, and were particularly directed at the 
proper seasons to a long range of hills extending parallel to the southern coast of the 
island, and rising to an elevation of 2,000 feet above the level of the ocean. 

The base of this range is of a mixed nature ; partly calcareous, partly trappean, 
and the hills are covered with trees and shrubs, although in many places the vegeta- 
tion is less abundant and luxuriant than in the volcanic district, which constitutes a 
long series in the centre of the island. The great bulk, however, of the Coleoptera 
to be described in the following pages, was collected in the southern ranges, or on 
hills of nearly the same elevation, near the foot of the large volcanos, in the centre of 
the island. And here maybe stated a curious circumstance in entomological geogra- 
phy, observed by Dr. Horsfield, namely, that the temperature which exists from an 
elevation of 1,000 to that of 2,000 feet above the level of the ocean, is most produc- 
tive in Coleopterous insects ; and, consequently, that this order occurred most abun- 
dantly in the southern and lower central ranges. The Lepidopterai on the other 
hand, appeared to be most abundant at an elevation of between 3,000 and 4,000 feet, 
that is on the declivities of the high volcanic peaks. On such lofty situations, the 
luxuriance of vegetation greatly exceeds that of the southern ranges ; and here, at 
the height of nearly 4,000 feet above the level of the sea, multitudes of the most bril- 
liant and rare Lepidoptera were taken, and from the quantity of larvae observed by 
Dr. Horsfield, he conceives that many more species remain still to be collected. 

If the collection can be considered defective, Dr. Horsfield imagines that it is only 
scanty in such species as may be peculiar to the districts which extend from the 
immediate confines of the ocean to an elevation of 200 feet. On the south coast the 
hills rise so abruptly from the sea to an elevation of several hundred feet, that proba- 
bly few species were lost by these shores not having been examined ; but along the 
northern coast of the island, which in many cases is low, and bounded by extensive 
plains of sand, there possibly remains much to be discovered. 

It 



PREFACE. yy 

It may therefore be stated in recapitulation,— 1st. That this collection affords a 
general sample of such Coleoptera and Lepidoptera as are to be found in the exten- 
sive plain which is situated south of Samarang (one of the principal towns on the 
northern coast), and which extends from the declivities of the mountain Merapi, in 
the west of the island, to those of the mountain Lawu, in the east. 

2dly. That in frequent excursions made from the capital Suracarta (which is situated 
in the plain above-mentioned), towards the eastern and western boundary of the 
native princes territory, and towards the ranges extending along the southern coast 
of the island, both Coleoptera and Lepidoptera were carefully sought after, but were 
almost exclusively collected on plants. 

3dly. That the fertile acclivities of the volcanic series, extending longitudinally 
through the centre of the island, and covered with a profusion of the most luxuriant 
vegetation, have afforded a large proportion of the Lepidoptera in the collection ; 
while in the western extremity of the island, which comprises many uncultivated 
tracts of country highly productive in insects, the opportunities which Dr. Horsfield 
possessed for collecting were comparatively limited. 

From what has now been stated, it must sufficiently appear that this collection is 
not brought under the notice of the public as a complete one. Many species indeed 
have lately been described from the continental collections as inhabitants of Java, 
which will not be found in the following list ; and it is possible that many more still 
remain undescribed in the cabinets of the King of the Netherlands, M.M.Westermann, 
Reinwardt, &c. But this much may be said with the strictest truth, namely, that Dr. 
Horsfield has brought to England so fair a sample of the Entomology of Java, that if 
it be deficient in several species, it is probably not deficient in many peculiarly new 
forms. And if so much can be said of the extent of our materials, still more may be 
promised with respect to their intrinsic value ; for Dr. Horsfield will be found to have 
paid such attention to the metamorphoses of Lepidoptera, as has enabled him to bring 
to the shores of Europe a more valuable mass of entomological information, than had 
ever hitherto been collected within the tropics. 

Having thus given an outline of the mode and localities in which this valuable col- 
lection was made, and some notions with respect to its extent, I may be allowed to 
say a few words on the plan of descriptive catalogue that has been employed to make 
thespecies known. 

Scarcely one of the many voyages and travels which at present teem from the 
press, is considered as scientifically ushered into the world, unless it be accompanied 
by an appendix containing descriptive catalogues of the animals or plants which may 
have occurred in the course of the expedition. The nature, use, and proper object 

b<2 of 



PREFACE, 
via 

of such catalogues become, therefore, questions not altogether without interest. A 
descriptive catalogue in Natural History is nothing else than a list of species, accom- 
panied with such descriptions as may be judged sufficient to make these species 
known ; and it is evident that a number of various catalogues, having very different 
objects in view, may be drawn up to correspond with the terms of this definition. A 
catalogue, for instance, may be formed like that of Buffon, with an express contempt 
of technical nomenclature and a thorough disregard of system ; the interest of the 
work depending wholly on that of the history of the individual species described, and 
the fecundity of imagination, or floridness of style with which their respective 
manners are developed. Such is, so far as concerns true science, the least profound, 
and therefore the most ancient sort of descriptive catalogue ; although indubitably it is 
in certain cases quite sufficient for the purpose of making known the animal intended to 
be described. Thus, considering the horse merely as a domesticated animal, no scien- 
tific description can so eloquently, so admirably depict it as that of Buffon, and yet from 
such a description, we gain no notion whatever of the place which this noble creature 
holds in the great plan of creation. For all that we learn by it, there need scarcely be 
more than two insulated beings in the world, man and the horse. The consequence is, 
that such catalogues only suit for giving popular accounts of a few of such remarkable 
plants and vertebrated animals, as are directly connected with the habits of man. 
They seem to proceed, not only on the idea of all design, all order being absent in the 
creation as a whole, but also as if the infinitely greater part of organized forms need 
scarcely have been created. It would be absurd, even if it were possible, which it 
certainly is not, to adopt such a plan of catalogue for the description of insects or 
shells ; for the interest taken by the public in these " Animated Natures," depends 
either on the number of anecdotes they contain, or upon our having already, in the usual 
course of life, acquired directly or indirectly some notion of the animals described, and 
therefore some curiosity to know more of their manners. Such a catalogue, therefore, 
is truly unscientific ; but at the same time, and certainly for this reason it is the most 
popular of any. To understand it requires no previous acquaintance with Natural 
History ; and to read it, we are told, is all that is necessary for the common purposes 
of life. True indeed it is, that a horse, a dog, a bee, any animal in fact which is 
already interesting to us from its immediately affecting the interests of man, may in 
this way be described, so that every characteristic trait, every particular of their man- 
ners shall be detailed : and yet it is easy to prove, that both tiie reader and writer of 
such descriptions may remain utterly unacquainted with Natural History as a science. 
They know no more ot it, necessarily, than that person knows of astronomy who may 
have observed the change of seasons, or the difference in the length of days anil 

nights. 



PREFACE. ix 

nights. Buffon himself, to whom such catalogues owe their chief reputation, was 
more properly the historian of a few natural objects, than the " Historian of Nature." 
This, perhaps, to the generality of readers, will appear a bold assertion, when directed 
against a man so celebrated ; and may indeed startle any person who has been accus- 
tomed to allow the following parallel to be correctly drawn. " Linnaeus saisissoit avec 
finesse les traits distinctifs des itres ; Buffon embrassoit d'un coup d'aeil les rapports les 
plus eloignes." But I confess that the truth of this distinction, so indisputable in the 
eyes of French naturalists, has never yet been apparent to me ; and so far from attri- 
buting general views of the plan of creation to Buffon, in preference to Linnaeus, I 
do not conceive that the mode in which he studied Natural History, could ever have 
led him beyond a well-written " Animal Biography." It is not indeed asserted, that 
Buffon was destitute of general notions on the creation ; for this with a man of 
genius, looking at so divine a work, was impossible : still less is it asserted that he 
was deficient in the powers of generalizing ; but what I mean is, that his ideas of 
nature were from the foundation wrong, his mode of studying her works errone- 
ous, -and his general conclusions, therefore, almost always false. For the truth of 
my position, I have only to refer to those parts of his works that touch on what 
is truly the science of Natural History : as for instance, to take one of the most 
profound of them, his account of birds that have not the power of flying. All 
that can be said in favour of the above distinction, is, that if Buffon had an 
eye for seizing any relations of affinity, they were indeed " les plus eloignes." 
Leaving, therefore, such a plan as his to those inventive imaginations, those crude 
theories, and that pompous flowery style, which can alone give it any peculiar interest, 
the modern writers of Faunae or Flora?, have invariably been obliged to resort to 
systematic descriptive catalogues. All of these however may, I conceive, be reduced 
to two kinds — those which are founded on artificial systems, and those which are 
grounded, not on any particular artificial system, but on the endeavour to disco- 
ver the natural system. Of the first kind, that is, of those which are drawn up 
according to the pre-conceived importance of some one or two particular organs, 
is the justly celebrated Sy sterna Natural of Linnaeus. 

We have seen that by such a plan as that of Buffon, it would be impossible to 
make known the forms of every insect, shell, or moss, that may occur in distant coun- 
tries, and recourse is therefore had to a systematic catalogue wmch, by referring to the 
arrangement of some classical work, such as the " Sy sterna Naturae," or the " Regne 
Animal," enables the traveller at once to give a name to the object he describes, and 
the reader to know it by that name. The advantage of such a descriptive catalogue 
is, that to scientific characters and technical descriptions, written with the precision 
of Linnaeus, may thus be subjoined the histories of the rarest animals, written with the 

eloquence 



PREFACE. 

eloquence of a Buffon. While, therefore, it records the manners and economy of 
such beings as most directly affect our habits of life, it also admits that of which an 
unscientific catalogue is incapable ; namely, the means of making the lowest animal- 
cule or lichen of a distant country, nearly as well known to us in point of form, as a 
horse or an oak. A systematic descriptive catalogue, founded on an artificial system, is 
indeed very convenient for the description of newly discovered animals, when the 
principal object in view is the possibility of their being useful or injurious to us in 
the course of life. Those fire-side travellers who limit their researches in Natu- 
ral History to such points, as being acquainted with the forms of the cereal plants 
used by the peaceful Hindoos, or with those of the animals eaten by the savages of 
the Polar regions, require nothing more than this species of catalogue ; and so far all 
may be right. But if we descend to the description of minute mosses or insects on 
this plan, it is difficult not to imagine that our leisure hours might have been better 
employed. Unless it be for killing time, it is difficult to conceive what possible pur- 
pose it can serve, to name and describe some thousands of minute insects and shells, 
which we may never see but in the cabinet of a collector. Certain insects, indeed, 
may attract a portion of attention on account of the uses to which they may be applied 
by man, or the injuries which they may inflict on him. Thus the cochineal insect 
of America, or the destructive locust of Africa, may excite some share of interest in 
the general reader of an entomological systematic catalogue ; but these are only drops 
in a vast ocean of species, and the writer of such a catalogue, founded on an artificial 
system, must, when he has done his best, content himself with the credit of having 
enabled some virtuoso to give barbarous names to a few dried beetles. 

If, however, a descriptive catalogue can be formed, not resting on the preconceived 
importance of any particular organ or organs, but, on the manner in which the whole 
animal structure varies, and having, therefore, for its object the discovery of the general 
plan of creation, it is obvious that the lowest insect or polype derives importance from 
this object. Organized nature is a complicated chain of beings, of which chain each 
species forms a link. Every new species added to our list, serves thus to increase our 
knowledge of this stupendous system,— a system that ought to excite in every breast 
the most intense interest ; not merely as one of the works of our Creator, but as that 
particular work of the Divine Hand, which has been designed with direct reference to 
ourselves. A minute beetle of Java, therefore, which of itself scarcely raises a thought 
in our minds beyond what may originate in its splendour of colour, or its eccentricity 
of form, becomes absolutely important when described in reference to its fellows. Not, 
indeed, that with respect to the particular fact itself, the world need care much to 
know that some tribes of beetles are constructed on a plan beautiful and regular 
beyond measure ; but when, in consequence of this knowledge, a similar beauty and 

regularity 



PREFACE. xi 

regularity are detected in other branches of the organized creation, even in that with 
which we ourselves are immediately connected, and the presumption thus arises that 
they extend throughout nature ; then at least ought naturalists to attend to this 
delightful field for discovery, and by none ought it to be despised. Those who 
take up the subject in this light, will even excuse the entomologist for making 
insects the particular object of his study, in preference to the other branches of 
nature. Entomologists indeed, when their researches are properly directed, may truly 
say with the poet, — 

" In tenia labor, at tenuis non gloria." 

For it is among insects, above all other groupes of animals, that, owing to their 
myriads of species, the mode in which nature's chain is linked — a mode, the know- 
ledge of which comprizes all knowledge in Natural History — will be most evident, 
and therefore most easily detected. Nay, with a view to the discovery of the natural 
system, a local descriptive catalogue of insects, arranged according to their natural 
affinities, is more useful than a descriptive catalogue of Vertebrata on the same plan ; 
and this, because the comparative paucity of vertebrated species in a given place will 
render such a catalogue infinitely more disjoined, than any similar list of Annulose 
animals ever can be. 

It is obvious also, that such a catalogue may contain vivid descriptions of such 
animals as of themselves are interesting to mankind, while it admits of even more 
scientific precision than the most copious of those which are founded on artificial 
systems. The very situation of an animal in a catalogue, which is arranged correctly 
according to natural affinities, may point out a thousand particulars, both of its economy 
and structure, that could never have been arrived at by the most elaborate description. 

The sole disadvantage attending this sort of catalogue is, that it ceases to be a dic- 
tionary of nomenclature, to which a perfect tyro in entomology may, with certainty, 
resort for the name of any insect he has collected. And, undoubtedly, if a person be 
unacquainted with the Linnean genera of insects, I fear that he will not be able to 
make much use of the following observations ; but if, on the other hand, he should 
know these genera, he can, in my opinion, have little difficulty in comprehending 
every thing here stated. 

I am not aware that any local descriptive catalogue of insects has ever yet been at- 
tempted, with reference to the discovery of a natural arrangement, unless, perhaps, it 
be the admirable Monographia apum Anglice ; but even the plan of this work had only 
reference to a few Hymenoptera, and consequently, was inapplicable to other insects, and 
much more so to all other animals. The reader will, therefore, take into consideration 
the difficulties I encounter- in commencing a catalogue of insects, on a plan of investi- 
gating 



x \[ PREFACE. 

eating Affinities and Analogies which is conceived to be applicable to the whole of organ- 
izedmatter. The most comprehensive view that, in this world at least, man can ever take 
of nature, must be but a glimpse of the reality, and must, consequently, be always sus- 
ceptible of infinite improvement. As yet, moreover, we have not even arrived at the 
threshold of nature's temple ; so that I shall have attained the utmost I can hope for, 
if I should be found to have made a nearer approach to it, than had ever yet been made 
in the same branch of entomology. The attention of naturalists in different countries, 
andin widely different departments of Natural History, havinglately been turned towards 
the laws which regulate the distribution of organized nature, and their works in general 
being easily referred to, I shall not in this place enter into the theory. The staunch 
partizans of Linnaeus, however,— those who account the Sy sterna A aturae to be Nature's 
system, — will not be displeased to find, that in the following pages the Linnean genera 
of Coleoptera, even those which, by Fabricius and Latreille, were most widely broken 
asunder, now again become groupes, and this merely by following the Jilum ariad- 
nceum of affinities, and certainly without any remarkable partiality on my part to the 
learned Swede's character as an entomologist. It cannot, however, be denied, that 
almost in every case his genera are natural groupes, although he erred in making 
them all of the same rank, and appears to have had no idea whatever of the manner 
in which they are connected. 

I have only now farther to observe, that it shall be my earnest endeavour to render 
this work useful to persons resident in the Indian Archipelago, not merely by enabling 
them to know the species they may meet with, and so to commence a science which 
may eventually prove an agreeable source of amusement ; but by informing them of 
the circumstances to which they ought to pay most attention, and thus making their 
labours tend to the development of the plan of creation. 

My next and principal endeavour shall be not only to render the Javanese species 
of Annulosa known to European collectors, but to shew the places which they respec- 
tively occupy in the scale of created being. In the meanwhile let the young naturalist 
bear in mind, that it is not the ready ability to give a name to an object, which ought 
to be considered the grand, the ulterior aim, the " ultimus Jinis" of his observations, 
but, as Linnaeus says, the discovery of the natural system ; and of this the meanest atom 
that lives, the Monas itself, may perhaps form a link as necessary towards our proper 
comprehension of the whole, as any other animal, however large, or however intelligent. 



ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 



INTRODUCTION. 



As this Work is to be conducted with as much reference as possible to those general prin- 
ciples of natural distribution which I have laid before the Public, both in the Horce Entomologies 
and the Transactions of the Linnean Society, the reader may easily perceive that there will be 
some novelty in the arrangement, as well as in the matter arranged. In abandoning, however, 
that division of Coleoptera which is founded on the number of joints in the tarsi, and which has 
acquired so much vogue on the Continent, it may be necessary to shew that I am countenanced 
by some authority. I shall, for this purpose, therefore, content myself with citing the following 
words of M. Latreille : that is, of the distinguished naturalist to whom the Tarsal System owes 
much more of its celebrity than to its inventor. " Articulorum tarsorum progressio numerica 
decrescens in methodo naturali non admittenda." — (Gen. Crust, et Ins. vol. i. p. 172.) 

It will also be seen that I commence with the Adephagous Coleoptera, not indeed because they 
form a particularly rich part of the Hon. East-India Company's collection, and still less from any 
notion of the Linnean genus Cicindela having a peculiar title to this pre-eminence, but because 
they constitute that department of the science which at present most engages the attention of 
Continental Entomologists. In the course of this investigation I shall have several new genera, 
or rather subgenera, to propose, of which the characters in some cases must necessarily rest on 
refined, and even minute considerations. Now, as the object I have in view is to make known 
in a definite manner all the species that may be new, I cannot hope to carry this my intention 
into execution without adopting some of those delicate distinctions, which result from the mode 
of investigation that has lately been pursued by M. Bonelli, in his study of these insects. I 
have, indeed, little choice to make : for I must either expose myself to a charge very frequently 
at present brought against Entomologists— namely, that they disgust persons with the science 
by the multitude of names with which they load it ; or I must display unpardonable ignorance of 
the many excellent observations which could never have been discovered, nor can now be 
explained, without such a mode of discrimination being resorted to. When, therefore, I venture 
to add to the already overwhelming number of subgenera into which the Linnean genus Carabus 
has been divided, I have to state in excuse, that this course of proceeding is adopted from the 
conviction that it is impossible to assign some of the new Javanese forms to any of those genera, 
which MM. Dejean and Bonelli have almost entirely founded on the examination of European 

B insects. 



2 ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 

insects. If, in short, new subgenera are here made, it is because otherwise I should have had 
either to refer all the new Javanese insects to European subgenera, with the characters of which 
they do not agree; or to assign them to large groupes, where the Entomologist would have had 
to search for them among some hundreds of species, and at last have ended his toil with com- 
plete uncertainty as to their identification. 

If my subgenera were in every case natural, or if I could in every case display their true 
place in the series of affinity, I should as little think of offering an apology for minuteness 
of investigation, as my readers would expect it. In that event, a sufficient answer would be, 
that certain affinities were pointed out by such minute discrimination, while the resulting series 
was natural ; but this I am sorry to say cannot be pretended in every case, and particularly in 
that of one of the families into which the Linnean Carabus shall here be divided. Conse- 
quently the new subgenera of this family, viz. the Harjmlida, must rest their stability first on 
their own merits, as serving to make new forms definitely known ; and secondly, on the little 
value of every argument that has hitherto been used to prove the minuteness of modern Ento- 
mological genera. Indeed, on this last head I cannot refrain from calling the reader's attention 
to a few curious facts, which will serve to illustrate an argument that has already been ably sus- 
tained by Mr. Spence, in his monograph on the genus Choleva. 

There is nothing which makes the fertility of design that has characterized the Creation so 
incontestably evident, as the variation of structure that sometimes prevails in groupes of an in- 
ferior rank, such as genera or families. It is indeed manifest, that if a groupe like the Vertebrata 
be of a primary degree, and the number of species it contains be nevertheless small, then the divi- 
sions will be more decided and more easily seized than if the number of species were great. But if 
the groupe be not of a primary nature like the Linnean genus Carabus, and yet the number of 
species contained in it be great, then the difficulties of distribution are augmented, owing to the 
number as well as to the minuteness of the differences to be seized. And yet it is such difficult 
ground that we ought in a particular manner to cultivate, if we wish to attain a true knowledge 
of nature; and this remark truly deserves attention from those who object to that delicacv of 
research which has characterized the labours of MM. Clairville, Bonelli, and Dejean. anions: the 
Harpalidce. The distinctions of these Entomologists are, it is true, often minute; but when we 
observe that the groupes characterized by such distinctions contain twenty, thirty, sometimes 
more than a hundred species, we necessarily say that, for the sake of convenience alone, it were 
to be wished that even these groupes, minute as they are, could be subdivided. But while this de- 
licacy of discrimination is useful for theartificial purposes of nomenclature,it becomesindispensably 
necessary in the study of affinities. More than 1600 species of the Linnean genus Carabus have, 
for instance, come within my own knowledge. Now, supposing a new species to occur, which 
indeed happens every day, what definite idea of its structure or affinities can possibly be obtained 
by a person who refers it to a groupe of 1600 beings of so many various forms ? And if these 
1600 species compose but one genus, as they do according to Linnaeus, what person can be found 
with either time or inclination to identify the specific name of one of them ? Indeed this circum- 
stance of itself has rendered the identity of many species of Linnaeus, and even of Fabricius, 
quite uncertain. For example : " Carabus alatus atcr nitidus, elytris striatis antennis ritfis" 
(Fab. Syst. Eleuth. vol. i. p. 189) is a description that will apply to hundreds of insects, of 

structure, 



INTRODUCTION. 3 

structure, economy, and appearance all totally different from each other. On this account, 
therefore, Clairville and Bonelli merit the greatest praise for the assiduity and perseverance 
they have shewn in the study of the Harpalidte. Their labours, however, soon gave rise to the 
complaint that every species was thus becoming a genus, and that confusion instead of order 
was thus arising from their innovations. This complaint, indeed, has gradually died away 
among Entomologists ; but it has, in consequence, become a charge levelled generally against 
Entomology, by certain persons who are ignorant of the present state of the science. The 
genus Carahus of Linnaeus has, above all others, given rise to such charges ; and it must there- 
fore not a little surprise these critics to know, that after all the various mutilations which the 
genus Carabus of Bonelli has undergone, it appears in the collection of M. Dejean, whose 
catalogue, be it remembered, is very far from being extensive in extra-European insects, to con- 
tain about twice as many species as Linnaeus has described of bis genus Carahus. In the 13th 
edition of his Systema Naturae, the latter describes only forty-three of his genus Carahus, which 
is a groupe of four modern families ; whereas Baron Dejean's collection contains eighty-three 
species of the modern genus Carahus ; and I know of about forty more. No genus can rest on 
more refined considerations than the genus Harpalus, as it at present stands ; yet Dejean's 
catalogue contains ninety-two species, of which sixty-three are European. On looking at this 
catalogue, we find that the average number of species Baron Dejean possesses in each of his 
eighty-six genera made out of the Linnean genus Carabus, is ten ; that is, the same number 
which Persoon, in his last edition of the Synopsis, describes in each of his 2280 genera of plants ; 
and yet, as Decandolle has well observed, in the Tlieorie Elemeutaire de la Botanique (p. 222), 
Persoon has in reality fewer genera, in proportion to the number of plants he knew, than 
Linnaeus ; for while the former assigns ten species to each of 2280 genera, the latter naturalist 
only allows six species at an average to each of 1260 genera. So that if 1500 species of Linuean 
Carabus exist in collections, we may double thenumber of published subgenera, and yet allowfewer 
subgenera, in proportion to the number of species we know, than Linnaeus did of genera in that 
portion of nature with which he was best acquainted. So much for the observation that every 
species is now a genus in Entomology, — an observation that has had its origin entirely in the 
inadequate idea generally prevailing as to the number of annulose species which exist. We 
every day hear of the difficulty of natural history having increased, and doubtless it is increasing 
every hour : but this is owing to the number of new species which are pouring in upon us. 
Still a great advantage has accrued to the science from the augmentation of our collections ; 
for if the study of natural affinities was formerly impossible, it has now come within 
the reach of every person who does not allow himself to be frightened by the multitude of 
names which necessarily crowd the pages of the best modern works on natural history. Names, 
after all, are only formidable when marshalled in an index ; and the difficulty they present to the 
voung naturalist not only vanishes when it is encountered, but soon is found to be his best aid, 
in combating difficulties of infinitely greater importance. 

With respect to my general distribution of Clairville's Adephaga, I have little more to say, 
than that it is a sketch of natural affinities which the reader of the Horcc Entomologies will find 
to illustrate certain questions there left in doubt. And if I have not been able to adopt that 
exposition of these insects which has lately been given to the public by my friends MM. Latreillc 

B 2 and 



4 ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 

and Dejean, it has at least been as closely attended to as I judged either consistent with nature 
or convenient for use.* 

Some of the new subgenera here proposed being founded on external characters, it may be 
necessary to premise, that where the specimen was unique or very rare in the collection, I had 
not, of course, the permission to dissect it. I hope, therefore, that this circumstance will be 
taken particularly into consideration, by those who may have occasion to refer to the following 
descriptions, which I shall now proceed with. 

* I have not, for instance, thought it advisable to lay so much stress on the form of the external joint of the 
palpi as these gentlemen have done. The validity of my reasons for differing from them in this respect may be 
judged on a perusal of P. i. p. 4, Horae Entomologicae. As to the general distribution of M. Latreille, it is confessed by 
himself to be artificial, and therefore I need offer no apology for abandoning it. 



ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 



COLEOPTERA. 

An attempt has been made in the Horcs Entomological to shew that if we gradually limit our 
views, and descend from the consideration of the kingdom Animalia to the department or sub- 
kingdom Annulosa, from this again to the class Mandibulata, and then to the order Coleoptera, 
thus leaving each groupe for one of its component minor groupes, we shall at length observe 
the last-mentioned, viz. the order Coleoptera, to resolve itself into five minor groupes, which I 
have termed tribes. Now one of these tribes consists of insects having Chilopodiform larva? ; 
that is, their larvae are carnivorous, having their head furnished with ocelli and strong man- 
dibles, generally pierced for suction. Their body is subdepressed, composed of angular, or at 
least of laterally incontinuous segments, of which all, or at least a certain portion, are each 
covered with a corneous lamina. Some one of the hinder segments of the body (in general the 
penultimate or last) is moreover always furnished with at least two styliform appendages, which 
are sometimes corneous, sometimes membranaceous, and sometimes articulated. From this 
general resemblance of the larva? to young Chilopoda, the tribe may be termed 

CHILOPODOMORPHA. 

Character Typicus. 

Larva chilopodomorpha plerumque carnivora, corpore processubus duobus posticis styliformibus 
dorsalibus semper instructo. 

Imago plerumque pentamera, mandibulis cornels, maxillis bipartitis vel processubus duobus ; 
lacinid interiori in unguem corneum incurvum fere semper desinente ; lacinid exteriore scepius biar- 
ticulatd interdum palpiformi. 

I have elsewhere shewn that nature appears to have varied less in the structure of the 
maxillae than in any other part of the mouth of Coleoptera, and have consequently inferred that 
the Entomologist ought to pay particular attention to the form of the maxillae in the perfect 
insect. In the tribe having Chilopodiform larvae, we have a remarkable example of the truth of 
this reasoning, for a particular modification of that form of maxillae which is general to this tribe 
caused the carnivorous insects, or Adephaga of Clairville, to be early separated from all other 
Coleoptera by a most anomalous character, viz. that of having six palpi. When Savigny, how- 
ever, reduced to one general structure the mouth of all winged insects, it followed as an imme- 
diate consequence, that Coleoptera do not differ so much among themselves as that two or three 
families should have four maxillary palpi and all the rest only two. We find, accordingly, that 
a more philosophical view of the subject did not fail to be taken by M. Latreille, as soon as he 
had weighed with due consideration the theory of M. Savigny.* For instance, the maxillae of 
Coleoptera may be described generally as being composed of several pieces which are often 
entirely confluent, and generally so far confluent as to form one mass; the interior palpi (as they 
are called) of adephagous insects forming almost the only known exception to the rule. But even 

in 
* Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Hist. Nat., art. Bouche, p. 242. 



6 ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 

in this case the proper view of the maxillae is, that they terminate in two lobes, generally ciliated, 
and often confluent, the external lobe being in its typical state connected with the internal lobe 
by an articulation, and the internal lobe being terminated by an unguis. Of this typical maxilla 
Passalus affords a good example ;* and among the Petalocera, we find it distinguishable in the 
whole family of Geolrupidce. We have an example of the confluence of the maxillary pieces, 
that is, of a complete departure from the typical maxilla, in Mgus ; and, indeed, the Thalero- 
phagous Petalocera in general, but particularly the Anoplo gnat hid '«, exhibit little or no traces of 
the above typical structure of the maxilla. 

The Maxilla of such Coleoptera as have Chilopodiform larvae, possesses, however, a peculiar 
character, which may be considered as typical in reference to the groupe. The external lobe is 
not only connected with the internal by an articulation, but itself consists of two pieces. 
Sometimes, as in the Linnean genera Cicindela, Car alms, Dytiscus, and Gyrinus, this biarticulate 
external process of the maxilla is slender and cylindrical, and consequently palpiform, occasion- 
ing these genera to be characterized as having four maxillary palpi. Sometimes, as in the 
Linnean genera Hydrous}- and Staphylinus ,£ this biarticulate process is dilated and not palpi- 
form. Sometimes again, as in certain species of the Linnean genus Silpha, the two pieces 
which form the external lobe of the maxilla are confluent or soldered together, although the 
typical structure remains visible, or the outer piece is converted into a penicilliform lacinia, 
adapted to the particular economy of the insect. 

The tribe of Chilopodomorpha is divisible as follows, into five stirpes i.e. races; or, which is 
the same thing, into two groupes ; one of which contains two stirpes, and is typical of the tribe ; 
while the other contains three stirpes, more immediately conducting to other tribes, and which 
may therefore be termed aberrant.§ 

Stirpes. Exempla typica. 

1. Normal groupe, consisting of insects having ,' 

linear or setaceous antennas, with the exterior] 1- Geoiiephaga Carabus. 

§ "J biarticulate process of the maxilla palpiform.) 2 . Hydradephaga Dutu 

S v Adephaga of Clairville. I 



it 



tiscus. 



I T2. Aberrant groupe, consisting of insects having (3. Philhydrida Hydrophilus. 

J J their antennas clavate, or, at least, gradually ) , * T 

3 | thickening towards the apex, while the ex-) 4 ' Necromaga (Lat.J ...Silpha. 
^ ternal lobe of the maxilla is not palpiform. V s - Brachelytra fLat.J ...Staphylinus. 
That this tribe is a natural groupe, sufficiently appears from the above series of five stirpes 
returning into itself, and forming as it were a circle. Thus, from the Geodephaga, or genera 
Cicmdela and Caralms of Linnaeus, we pass by means of Omophron to the Hydradephaga or 
genera Gyrinus, and Dyticus of Linnaeus. From these again we pass to the' Linnean Vnu< 
Hydrous, which, until his entomological career was nearly over, the great Swede confounded 
always with Dyticus. Part of the Pkilhydrida, such as the modern genus Elophoms, was by 

Linnaeus 

For this and the following examples the rpndpv man m „„,i, .. r ■ , 

B CA<ull F J «s. me leaaei may consult the figures given in the first part of the Horcr 
hntomologw/r. ' 

t Hydrophilii Lat. Gen. Ins. et Crust, vol. ii. p. 62. 
i Kirby, Lin. Transact, vol. 14, p. i. p. 100. 

§ The terms applied by M. Fries to such groupes, W , centric and radiant, I have not thought proper to adopt for 
reasons that wul be found at length in the Transactions of the Linnean Society, Vol. 14, p. 59^ 



ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 7 

Linnaeus placed in his genus Silpha, to which, without doubt, Elophor us approaches by some of the 
less typical insects of thatgroupe, which M. Latreille, in the Genera Insectbrum, has named Ne- 
crophaga. From the Necrophaga we pass by means of Micropeplus to Staphylinus* and then 
Lesleva (the Carabus staphylinoides of the Entomologia Britannica) will serve to conduct us back 
again to the Terrestrial Adephaga. 

I now proceed to the consideration of that normal groupe of the Chilopodomorpha, which 
is the same with the 

COLEOPTERA ADEPHAGA of Clairville and Latreille. 
Character Essentialis. 

Maxillae loho interno unguiculato, ungue interdum articulo inserto ; loho externa palpiformi 
scepissime biarticulato, qua de causa sex palpos apud Adephaga quidam enumerant. 

The Adephaga of Clairville compose one of those dichotomous groupes which M. Fries 
would term a centrum. They are remarkable for having been characterized as possessing four 
maxillary palpi, two to each maxilla. This excellent characteristic may, however, as above 
explained, be more accurately understood by accounting all Coleoptera as having only two 
maxillary palpi, and the Adephaga to be only peculiar in having a Particulate process to the 
maxilla, which in some species is degraded to a mere spine. The typical structure of the 
maxilla in adephagous insects seems to be that of the Cicindelidce, where this organ has both 
the external and internal lobe Particulate. In all the other Chilopodomorpha the external joint 
of the internal lobe, when it exists, is as in Cicindela, unguiform, but confluent with or soldered 
to the first joint. 

These predaceous insects evidently form two very natural groupes, viz. the Terrestrial and 
Aquatic Adephaga, the former of which is much more numerous in species than the second. 

A. GEODEPHAGA. 

Adephaga Tkrrestria, Lat. Carabus et Cicindela, Lin. Pedes tantummodo gressorii. 
Corpus oblongum raro ovatum. Pedes postici motu horizontali et verticali ; lami?ice pectorales 
quibus inseruntur magnitudine mediocres. 

B. HYDRADEPHAGA. 

Adephaga Aquatica, Lat. Dyticus el Gyrinus, Lin. Pedes natatorii. Corpus ovatum. 
Pedes postici motu tantum horizontali ; lamina pectorales quibus inseruntur maximce. 

If the five following families of terrestrial Adephaga, which coincide with those of MM. Latreille 
and Dejean, be natural, then the subdivision of them will probably depend on the form of the 
mentum, which deserves particular attention. But although I believe the following table to be 
a very near approximation to the truth, I am inclined to think that the accurate demarcation of 
the respective families depends on the forms of the larvae. Thus, the Cicindelidce and Carabidce 
are distinguished from all the other terrestrial Adephaga, in having the styliform appendages to 
the body of their larvae corneous ; but the Cicindelidce have them dorsal and affixed to the eighth 
segment of their body, in order to suit their mode of life ; whereas, the Carabidce have them 

caudal. 

* " Sous quelques rapports les Brachelytres avoisinent les Adephages et sous plusieurs autres les Boucliers et 
les Necrophores." — Lat. Regne Animal, vol. iii. p. 216. 





Familice. 


Kon el-oxw- 


1. 


Cicindelidcs 


volantes. 


2. 


CarabicUe 


mingentes. 


3. 


Harpalida: 


currentes. 


4. 


Scaritidce 


fodientes. 


5. 


Brachinidm 


crepitantes. 



8 ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 

caudal. That the other three groupes of terrestrial Adephaga may be distinguished by their 
larv«e in like manner, I infer from a circumstance recorded by M. Latreille, who says, that the 
larva of Arutus has the form and manners of the larvae of Cicindelidce, a circumstance perhaps 
only to be accounted for on those principles of natural distribution which I have explained at 
length, Hora Entomologicse, Part ii. p. 518. 

Geodephaga. 

1 . Normal groupe. ( Maxillae apice articulate. 
Tibiae anticae haud emarginatae. \ Maxillae haud apice articulatae. 

( Elytra baud truncata abdomine haud pe-1 

2. Aberrant groupe. \ dunculato. ■» 
Tibiae anticae emarginatae. i Elytra haud truncata abdomine pedunculate 

' Elytra truncata abdomine haud pedunculato. 

The Adephaga Terrestria of Ciairville having attracted the attention of all the most cele- 
brated of modern Entomologists, and having been much more studied than any other groupe 
of insects whatever, it is singular that so little should have hitherto been done towards their 
natural arrangement. M. Latreille, even in the very first number of the work which he and Baron 
Dejean have commenced on the ColeopVeres de V Europe, abandons the hope of effecting a natural 
arrangement. When I therefore attempt to combat this difficulty in the above rough sketch, it 
is because it becomes necessary, in order that my readers may form an adequate notion of Dr. 
Horsfield's acquisitions in this branch of natural history. The five families I have given above 
answer, with very little variation, to the Abdomiriales, Cicindeleta, Truncatipennes, Bipartiti and 
Tlwracici of Latreille : who, however, seems to be little more aware of their mutual connexion 
than he is of the groupe Chilopodomorpha. The above names, indeed, used by him, I do not 
adopt, because, in the first place, they disturb that harmony of nomenclature which is so 
essential to the interests of Entomology ; and, secondly, because they appear fanciful, and do not 
sufficiently express the characters of the respective families. I have thus thought proper to 
name them from the most remarkable or best known genus in each. M. Latreille has another 
family called /Subulipalpes, composed solely of his old genus Bembidion, and of which the prin- 
cipal distinctive character is the subulate form of the last joint of the maxillary palpi, as if 
there were not insects in almost every adephagous family which possess this character. The 
family of Subulipalpes is therefore clearly to be abolished, and we shall find that the natural 
place of Bembidion is in one of the five families above laid down. 

On examining the five families in the above table, we find the stirps returning into itself 
and being thus a natural groupe; for it is easy to perceive that Elaphrus has a connexion both 
with the Cicindelida: and Carabidce, that Panagceus and Lieinus lead us from these last to the 
Harpalidce, that Acinopus and Cephalotes lead us from these by means of the genus Aristus to 
the Scarilidce, that Siagona conducts us from the Scarilidce to the Brachinidce, from which 
by means of Anlhia and Manticora we return to the Cicindelida. That parallel analogies exist 
in these families, cannot be doubted by any one who considers the genera Colliuris, Agra 
Discht/rius, Stomis and Ci/chrus, or Megacephala, Anlhia, Semites, Chlanius and Carabus, or 
Cicindela, Graphipterus, Siagona, Blethisa, and Nebria, &c. &c. The genus Enceladus seems 
also to connect the opposite points of the circle of affinity, by connecting the Carabidce with the 
Scaritidce. 

In 



ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 9 

In the further investigation of these families, which I shall now enter upon, I must regret my 
inability, for the present, to separate the genera from the subgenera with any certainty. 

Fain. •]. CICINDELID.E. 

Of this family I shall offer the following Synopsis Generum, both because the number of 
known genera is so small, and because MM. Latreille and Dejean seem to consider it almost im- 
possible to express by one tabular view the affinities which exist in the group. It must however 
be premised, that if we judge Cicindela campestris to be the type of the extensive genus Cicindela 
we find C. gracilis Pall, and C. coarctata Dej., leaving it for the genus Ctenostoma of King (Caris 
of Fischer), while by means of Euprosopus 4. notatus Lat. we approximate to Megacephala. 

SYNOPSIS GENERUM COGNITORUM. 

1. Ctenostoma Klug. 

2. Cicindela Lin. 

3. Euprosopus Lat. 

4. Megacephala Lat. 

5. Platycldle.* Manticora. Fab. 

6. Therates Lat. 



Mentum apice emarginato 
medio dentato. 



Mentum apice emarginato 

medio haud dentato. 1 7 " Colliuris Fab - 
_8. Tricondyla Dej 

By recollecting the approximation of the extremities of this series, we have all the Cicin- 
delidce with long cylindrical bodies placed together. M. Latreille founds his primary division of 
the CicindelidcB on the comparative length of the penultimate joint of their palpi : a consideration 
so vague, that we can scarcely be surprised that he should, as he says, have found it impossible to 
arrange them according to their affinities. The above distribution of the family has, however, 
the advantage of combining all the considerations upon which the two arrangements given in the 
" Coleopteres a" Europe 1 '' are founded, and nevertheless, avoids the glaring inconsistency of 

separating 

* Genus PLATYCHILE Nobis, Manticora Fab. 

AnteniuE cylindrical, articulo tertio secundo fere triplo longiore. 

Labrum transversum, medio antice bidentato. 

Mandibul<e exsertae, arcuatas, tridentatas, dentibus apice nigris. 

Palpi maxillares articulo ultimo obconico crassiore praecedente breviore. 

Palpi labiates articulis duobus primis brevissimis, penultimo longo fere cylindrico, ultimo securiformi. 

Mentum emarginatum medio unidentatum. 
Caput magnum planum. Thorax planus in medio canaliculars, angulo postico utrinque porrecto subspinoso. Abdomen 
insecti dimidii longitudine, sessile, cordiforme, thorace latius, elytris supra convexis haud connatis tectum. Pedes ante- 
riores, in maribus saltern, tarsorum articulis tribus primis dilatatis, quarto brevissimo processuque laterali, ultimo tenui 
unguibus acutis. Tibice omnes apice spinosae. 
PALLIDA. P. laivis tota pallida capite bipunctato elytris sub lente vaiiolosis : variolarum centro eminente. 

Manticora pallida? Fab. Syst. Eleuth. 1. p. 167. 

Habitat ad Caput bonae spei. Mus. Macleay. 

Obs. This curious insect connecting Manticora with Megacephala, only differs from the Manticora pallida of 
Fabricius in not having connate elytra. 

c 



10 ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 

separating Ctenostoma from the long-necked Cicindelidcz, as the first does; or of placing 
Ctenostoma near Iterates, as in the second. It is a curious proof of the value of the table given 
in Horse Entomologies, pt. 1. p. 4, that an arrangement may thus be found, which will keep 
together the insects of a similar formation of palpi, and which may nevertheless not be grounded 
on the consideration of these organs. 

The voracious insects which compose this family are all extremely active in their perfect state, 
and inhabit sandy districts, as it is in the sand that the artful and wary larvae dig cylindrical pit- 
falls for their prey. 

I shall now proceed to the description of such species of this most natural family as Dr. 
Horsfield collected in Java. They all belong to the three genera Colliuris, Therates, and Ci- 
cindela, and eight out of fourteen of them are quite new. The length of their body, as well as 
that of the other insects described in this work, is always measured in inches or parts of an inch. 

Genus. COLLIURIS Fab. 

1. Diardi. C. ccerulea antennis clavatis : clavd cinereo-fusca, femoribus rufis tibiis tarsisque cyaneis, his 

albopubescentibus. 

C. Diardi. Lat. & Dej. Col. d'Europe, p. 67. 

Long. corp. J 
Caput labro quadrato septemfido, dentibus aequalibus, mediis obtusis, lateralibus acutis. Palpi articulo 
ultimo obconico apice subtruncato. Antenna breves filiformes clava sex-articulata. Thorax nee 
abrupte constrictus nee transverse striatus. Elytra apice truncata fere laevia. 

2. Emarginata. C. ccerulea thorace subvilloso, antennarum articulis tertio quarto quintoque medio rufis sex ultimis 

cinereo-Juscis. 

C. longicollis. Lat. Gen. Crust. & Ins. t. 1. tab. 6. fig. 8. 
Long. corp. fere •& 
Caput labro subsemicirculari septemfido, dentibus aequalibus subacutis. Palpi articulis ultimis obconici:- 
abrupte truncatis apice securiformi. Antennce mediae filiformes vix clavatae. Thorax baud abrupte 
constrictus vel transverse striatus. Elytra apice dentibus acutis. Pedes femoribus rufis, tibiis tarsisque 
cyaneis, his, posticis praesertim, albo pubescentibus. 

'i. Tuberculata. C. ccerulea thorace bis abrupte constricto, antennarum articulis tertio quartoque apice rufis 
quinque ultimis cinereqfuscis. 

Long. corp. & 
Caput labro subsemicirculari septemfido. Palpi articulis ultimis obconicis apice rotundatis. Antennce 
vix clavatae longas filiformes. Thorax constrictione anteriore arctissimaet sic fere tuberculatus. Pedes 
postici femoribus ferrugineis, tibiis cyaneis apice ferrugineis, tarsorumque articulis cinereis villosis, 
duobus ultimis nigris. 

i. Arnoldi. C. viridiccerulea thorace transverse substriato antennis haud clavatis pallidis : articulo prima 
subcyaneo. 

Long. corp. -g- 
Caput labro subsemicirculari, dente laterali minuto reliquis cequalibus. Palpi pallidi articulis ultimis 
ovatis. Antennce longissimae filiformes. Thorax fere glaber haud abrupte constrictus. Elytra apice 
sutura maculaque media ferrugineis. Pedes pallidi tibiis posticis ferrugineis, apice tarsisque albis. 
M.S. Josephi Arnold, M.D. natures indagatoris peritissimi. 

5. HORSFIELDII. 



ANNULOSA JAVANICA. n 

5. Horsfielbh. C. carulea thorace transversa striata antennis haud clavatis t articulis tertie et quarto apice, 

reliquis basi pallidis. 

Long. corp. ft -f 
Caput labro semicircular! septemfido, dente lateral! minore reliquis aequalibus. Palpi articulis pallidis 
ap.ce mgns ; ultimis ovatis. Antennce longissimae filiformes. Thorax haud abrupte constrictus. 
Pedes postici femoribus rufis, tibiis cyaneis apice albis, tarsorumque articulis primis albis sed penul- 
timo ad apicem ultimoque nigris. 

Genus THERATES. Lat. Evrychile Bon. 

6. Hvmebalis. T. atroviridis eeneus, elytris punctatis basiplicatis testaceis apice bispinosis pedibus testaceis. 

Long. corp. I + 
Capttfatroviride nitidissimum laevissimum oculis magnis nigris ; labro testaceo octofido, dente laterali dis- 
tincto majore reliquis aequalibus. Mandibulce nigrae. Palpi testacei. Antennce nigra? basi testace*. 
Thorax atroviridis nitidissimus laevissimus subcylindricus subcanaliculatus antice posticeque constrictus. 
Elytra atroviridia nitidissima basi testacea plica depressa sutura nigra, apice dehiscentia bidentata, 
dente apicali majore acuto nigro. Corpus subtus nigrum ano rufo. Pedes testacei tarsorum articulis 
ultimis nigris. 

Obs. M M. Latreille and Dejean have figured two other Javanese species of this genus, 
which they name ccBrulea and spinipennis. T. humeralis seems to come between the two ; but is 
evidently most closely allied to T. spinipennis. The genus itself undoubtedly approaches to 
Cicindela in affinity. 

Genus CICINDELA,. 

7. Versicolor. C. atrocceruleus thorace bis constricto elytris atris, apice violaceis ; margine maculis tribus 

viridiceneis. 

Long. corp. & + 
Insectum nitidum generi praecedenti proximum. Caput atrocaeruleum rugis striatum fronte depresso oculis 
magnis prominentibus. Labrum viride. Mandibulce testaceae apice nigra?. Palpi testacei articulis duobus 
ultimis viridibus. Antennce nigrae basi caeruleae. Thorax theratis latere posticeque viridis. Elytra 
trimaculata maculis viridibus marginalibus ; humerali elongata postice latiore, media transversa, pos- 
ticaque triangulari. Corpus subtus casruleum. Pedes atrocaerulei. 

8. Quadripunctata. C. cyanea nitida labro linea media albidd, elytris punctis duobus pone medium niveis. 

C. 4— punctata. Fab. Syst. Eleuth. vol. I. p. 239. 
Long. corp. •& 

9. Analis. C. cenea, elytris punctatis : margine cyaneo, antennis Jiiscis, ano pedibusque rufis. 

C. analis. Fab. Syst. Eleuth. vol. 1. p. 236. 

Long. corp. J + 

10. Heteromali.a. C. subcylindrica cuprea, elytris punctis albis ; tribus marginalibus aliaque parva media. 

Long. corp. -& + 
Caput cupreum rugis striatum, facie viridi ; labro carinato cupreo, apice quinque-dentato nigro. Palpi pallid! 
articulis duobus ultimis nigris. Antennce nigrae basi cupreae. Thorax rugis striatus cupreus cylindricus 
antice vix constrictus, lateribus lineaque transversa postica viridibus. Elytra punctata cuprea sutura 

C 2 elevata 



12 ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 

elevata maculis quatuor, humerali minima, mediarum duarum marginali majore posticaque triangulari. 
Corpus subtus atrocaeruleum. Pedes femoribus tibiisque subpiceis. 

11. Semifittata. C.atra, thoracis margine pectoreque aureis, elytris vitta submarginali abbreviata punctisque 

quinque albis. 
C. semivittata. Fab. Syst. Eleuth. vol. 1. p. 237. 

Long. corp. a 

12. Aurulenta. C. cyaneo auroque variegata, elytris punctis quatuor albis : intermedio lunato. 

C. aurulenta. Fab. Syst. Eleuth. vol. 1. p. 239. 

Long. corp. f 

13. Funerea. C. atrocuprea elytris punctis tribus marginalibus primo humerali lunulaque apicis clavata albis. 

Long. corp. -w 
Caput post oculos rugosulum punctis duobus subviolaceis. Labrum nigrum. Palpi atrocuprei apice 
caerulei. Antennae nigra? basi cupreae stipite aureo. Thorax canaliculars lineis duobus transversis. 
Scutellum violaceum. Elytra punctata. Corpus subtus atrocaeruleum lateribus pectoris aureis. Pedes 
femoribus cupreis, geniculis tibiarum apice tarsisque atrocaeruleis. 

14. Tsemebunda. C. olivacea-subcenea, elytris margine laterali interrupto lunula humerali clavata apicahqur 

dentata strigaque media recurva clavata. 

Long. corp. — fere § 
Species C. trisignatce Dej. affinitate proxima. Caput cupreo-aeneum rugis striatum, labro albo palpisque 
testaceis articulo ultimo viridi. Antennce nigrae basi cupreae stipite aureo. Thorax cupreo-aeneus 
canaliculars lineis duobus transversis, lateribus pilosulis. Elytra subpunctata punctis vix elevatis 
striga media incumbente et clava fere separata. Corpus subtus viridiaeneum, lateribus pilis albis hirsutis. 
Pedes viridisenei albo-hirsutuli, femoribus cupreis. 

Fam. 2. CARABIDtE. 

The collection does not contain any insect very near the type of this family, the character per 
excellentiam of which, is to have the maxilla; without any articulated unguis at the apex, and the 
anterior tibiae without any emarginaticn on their inner side. In receding from the genus Carahm. 
which is the type of tire groupe, and advancing to meet the Harpalidce, the first appearance of 
the tibial emargina'cion msiy be traced at the apex by an oblique linear canal in some insects, 
which nevertheless truly belong to the family. This canal, however, in some cases, does not 
advance so far as the anterior face of the tibia. 

When irritated, this family of insects posse>ses, in a remarkable degree, the property of spirt- 
ing out from the anus an exceedingly acrid and volatile fluid. 

Genus. PANAG^US Fab. 

1.5. Cereus. P. niger clypeo glabro, occipite thoraceque prqfunde punctatis, elytris striis punctatis maculisque 
duabus undatis melleis : anlica latiori marginali. 

y Long corp. A -f- 
Caput punctis scabriusculum clypeo labroque glabris. Thorax suborbicularis punctis profundis scabri- 
usculis. Scutellum minimum triangulare. Elytra striis decern impressis punctatis, scutellari brevis- 



ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 13 

sima ; maculisque duabus cereo-flavis, antica, subhumerali a quinta stria ad marginetn et postica 
versus apicem a quinta stria ad nonam undulatis. Corpus subtus atronitidum. Pedes nigri. 

Subgenus LISSAUCHENIUS Nobis. Panagjeus Wiedemann ? Carabus Fab. 
Lahrum transversum antice baud emarginatum. 
Mandibulee acuta?, sinistra majore. 

Palpi maxillares elongati articulo quarto obconico apice truncate. 
Palpi labiales articulo ultimo magno securiformi. 
Mention dente shifts simplice. 

Subgenus Panageeo certe affine. Collum distinctum. Os acutum. Thorax canaliculars 

marginatus nitidus subquadratus utrinque rotundatus antice posticeque angulatus. Corpus 

alatum. Tarsi maris antici articulis tribus dilatatis. 

Obs. This genus differs from Panagceus in having the labrum not emarginate, the last joint 

of the maxillary palpi not triangular, the middle tooth of the mentum simple and the thorax 

neither suborbiculate or entire, and scarcely wider than the head. The antennae are mutilated 

iu the only specimen of the genus which Dr. Horsfield has brought to England. 

16. Ruftpemor/itus. L. ater capite thoraceque viridianeis, elytris sidcatis punctatis macula postica Jlava. 

$ Long. corp. & 
Caput laeve labro palpis antennisque nigris, his basi subpiceis. Thorax punctatus ovatus antice posticeque 
truncatus lateribus marginatis. Elytra convexiuscula atronitida stria prima ad scutell urn brevissima. 
Corpus subtus nigrum. Pedes nigri femoribus runs. 
Obs. This insect comes very near to the description of Carahus posticus in Fabricius, the 
only difference being that the latter insect has the " thorax Icevis" and the " pedes fulvi." The 
Pana<rceus chalcocephalus of Wiedemann, which is also a Javanese insect, may possibly belong 
to the same subgenus. 

Fam.3. HARPALTD.E. 

We know comparatively so little of the exotic species of this most numerous family, that it is 
impossible for me at present to give its natural distribution with any degree of certainty. This 
is, indeed, my only apology for the want of regularity, which the Entomologist cannot fail to 
discover in the order of the following genera, which, moreover, I am quite unable to distinguish 
from the subgenera. The inability to separate genera from subgenera, is the unavoidable con- 
sequence of not knowing the natural distribution of the family. 

Genus CHLiENIUS Bon. 

1 7. Cinctus. C. capite thoraceque subceneis elytris atroviridilms : margine testaceo pedibus testaceis corpore nigro. 

C. Cinctus Fab. Ent. Syst. 1. p. 138.— 61. 

C. Xanthocrus Wiedemann, Zoologisches Magazin. Band. 2. st. 1. p. 68. 

j Long. corp. vix J 
Caput vix thorace angustius cupreum laeviusculum, facie viridiaenea, labro testaceo, mandibulisque piceis. 
Antenna; testaceaj. Palpi testacei articulo ultimo haud truncato. Thorax marginatus punctulatus. 

Elytra 



14 ANNULOSA JAVAN1CA. 

Elytra striata stria prima ad scutellum brevissima. Corpus subtus atronitidum abdominis margine 

testaceo. 
Obs. This appears to be the Carabus cinctus of Fabricius, but is not the Carabus ductus 
of Olivier, which is European, and has had a new specific name given to it by Duftschmidt. 
The true C. cinctus above described seems to be found throughout India, for there is not sufficient 
difference in Wiedemann's description of his C. Xanthocrus to separate it from our insect. 

18. Apicaljs. C. niger capitis thoracisque lateribus cupreis, elytris obscuro-nigris macula apicalipedibusquejlavis. ^ 

Long. corp. fere il 
Caput thorace paulo augustius labro palpis antennisque piceis. Thorax marginatus postice punctatus. 
Elytra striata stria prima ad scutellum brevissima. 

19. Quadkicolos. C. niger capite thoraceque cupreis, elytris obscuris ore antennis pedibusque rufit. 

Carabus i-color. Fab. Syst. Eleuth. vol. 1. p. 180. 

Oliv. Ins. 35. tab. 10. fig. 111. 

$ Long. corp. f 
Obs. The only difference that appears between the unique specimen in Dr.Horsfield's collection, 
and the description of Fabricius is, that the latter's insect has the head and thorax viridiaeneous 
instead of cupreous. From his C. tenui-collis, onr insect differs in having a rounded, instead of 
a narrow thorax. 

20. Micans. C. elytris auro micantibus, apice macula testacea, pedibus riifis. 

Carabus micans Fab. Ent. Syst. 1. 151. 115. 
Carabus analis Oliv. Ins. 35 t. 10. fig. 115. 

3 Long. corp. ^ 
Obs. Although Olivier gives Senegal as the habitat of his C. analis, it nevertheless seems to be 
the same with the C. micans of Fabricius and our insect. If Olivier's species should prove different, 
it is, at least, clear that he has not sufficiently characterized it. 

21. Flaviguttatvs- C. capite thoraceque viridiceneis elytris obscuro-nigris striis quarto quintaque ante maculam 

transversam interruptis. 

Long. corp. f 

Caput viridiasneum labro mandibulisque nigris, palpis antennisque nigro-piceis his basi illis apice tes- 

taceis. Thorax subquadratus marginatus lateribus convexis punctatus subcupreus margine viridiaeneo. 

Elytra atra obscura punctulata striata stria prima ad scutellum brevissima, quarta et quinta medio- 

interruptis et ante maculam posticam marginalem subcruciatam flavam confluentibus. Corpus subtus 

atro-nitidum. Pedes femoribus flavis geniculis tibiisque nigris, tarsis piceis. 

Genus CATASCOPUS— Kirby. 
Aniennce articulis secundo et tertio fere aequalibus. 
Labrum oblongo-quadratum arcuatum, antice angustius et profunde emarginatum, lobis 

rotundatis singulo setis tribus instructo. 
Mandibular edentulae acutas crassae breves incurvae. 

Palpi 



ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 15 

Palpi breves crassi articulo ultimo ovato apice subtruncato. 

Labium obconicum convexum setis terminalibus instructum. Paraglossce labio duplo lon- 

giores magna? rotundatae. 
Mentum dente medio vix conspicuo. 

Caput haud thorace latius. Thorax convexiusculus truncatus obcordatus antice latior late- 
ribus sinuatis. Elytra margine postico unidentato convexiuscula lateribus parallelis. 
Obs. Mr. Kirby has published so excellent a description of this genus in the 14th vol. of the 
Linnean Transactions, that the above generic character may appear superfluous ; and, indeed, it is 
only here given for the purpose of comparing the species more readily with the following genus 
Pericalus, to which they approach very near in affinity. Both genera have their elytra praemorso- 
truucate at the posterior margin. 

22. Elegans. C. viridiaureus labro mandibulis palpis antennis pedibusque nigris, elytris sulcato-striatis siriit 

lateralibus punctatis latere aureo. 
C. elegans. Fab. Syst. Eleuth. 1. p. 184. 76. 
Elaphrus elegans Weber Obs. Ent. p. 45. 
Tachys elegans Schdn. Syn. Ins. 1. p. 221. 

Long. corp. £ 
Caput pone oculos nigros punctatum collo laevi. Thorax linea antica transversa curva aliaque media 

longitudinali fossulaque utrinque postica impressus. Scutellum nigrum. Elytra marginata lateribus 

aureis stria scutellari brevissima. Corpus subtus atronitidum. 

Obs. Fabricius takes no notice of the emargination at the apex of the elytra, which is a 
character of the genus. The Carabus elegans of Olivier belongs to quite another genus. 

23. Quadrimaculatus. C. viridiaureus labro palpis antennisque piceis, pedibus rufis, elytris striatis ; maculis 

duabusjtavis. 

Long. corp. £ 
Obs. This last species differs in several important respects from Catascopus elegans, which 
comes nearer to the species described by Mr. Kirby, and named by him C. Hardwickii. The 
Carabus splendidulus of Fabricius, also belongs to the genus which thus contains four described 
species. 

Subgenus PERICALUS Nobis. 

Antennae articulo tertio elongato. 

Labrum oblongum distinctum antice emarginatum. 

Mandibulae porrectse subparallelae. 

Palpi mandibulis vix longiores tenues cyliudrici. 

Mentum bidentatum medio piano truncate. 

Caput thorace latius collo distincto. Oculi globosi valde prominuli. Thorax depressiuseulus 
obcordatus profundi canaliculars, antice emarginatus angulis subporrectis acutis, antice 
latior lateribus sinuatis subreflexis. Elytra marginata postice unidentata. Abdomen 
depressiusculum antice angustius. 

Obs. 



] 6 ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 

Obs. This genus is in some respect or other connected with Sphodrus, as may be seen on 
examining the elongate mandibular, cylindrical palpi, long third joint of the antennae, and 
obcordate form of the thorax. The specimen in the collection of the East India Company 
being unique, I am unable to give more than external characters. 

24. Cictxdeloides. P. cyaneus facie labro pedibusque nigris antennis piceis elytris striatis. 

Long. corp. fere ■& 
Caput pone oculos rugis striatum collo glaberrimo. Mandibula: nigrae. Palpi ferruginei. Antenna 
apice pubescentes. Thorax lateribus rugosulis, linea postica transversa impressus. Elytra fere sulcata 
sulco scutellari brevissimo et ad apicem pilis paucis raris longis instructa. Corpus subtus atronitidum. 
Pedes trochantere ferrugineo. 

Genus REMBUS Lat. 
Obs. The synopsis of the family of Carabiques given in the work of MM. Latreille and Dejean, 
ought to be consulted for the characters of this genus. It is, however, easily to be known 
by the deep semicircular emargination of its short transverse labrum. It seems to come near 
both to Licinus and Badister ; from the former it differs in having the three tarsi of the anterior 
feet less dilated in the males, and from the latter in the labrum, mentum, and palpi. 

35. Politus. R. ater nitidus labro antennarumque articulis basalibus nigro-piceis ; his apice pubescentibus 
pallidioribus. 
Carabus politus Fab. Syst, Eleuth. vol. 1. p. 189. 
Carabus indicus Herbst. Arch. p. 1G3. n. 21. p. 29. fig. 11. 

<y Long. corp. -| + 
Obs. The specific character given to this insect by Fahricius is so vague, that 1 have deemed it 
necessary to make a new one as above. 

Subgenus DIROTUS Nobis. 
Antennae versus apicem pubescentes, stipite minimo globoso, articulo primo obconico 
crassiore tertio aequaiised secundo duplo longiore, articulis ultimis aequalibus filiformibus 
apicali subulate 
Labrum quadratum, antice sex setis ciliatum, vix emarginatum, angulis subacutis. 
Mandibula: acutissimse porreetse attenuatae apice arcuatae basi vix unidentatae. 
Maxilla: longae tenues falciformes compressae, latere interno spinis hrevibus acutis arniato, 
angulo basali setis armato ; proccssu dorsali articulo basali longo tcimissiino, secundo 
praecedtnte fere triplo breviore cylindrico. . > 

Palpi maxillares articulo stipitali mining Iseclundoicrasso subovato, tertio tenuissimo vix 
obconico praecedentibus simul sumptis longiore, ultimo subconico breviore. 
:-iuii^«^Vflf*i(«^«M^l^lp«imQjC|i-%^©*(ite^indiuatiS breviy secundo brevissimo globoso, tertio 
•r J i.Mh?iia?pedentibus 1 ;iSinvuJ l igu.i A a i ptisiX0rei lt luplo ; ax>ngiore tenui obconico, ultimo subobconico 
AM^^^iJtf.eviore apice ( o,btufi©,,o!] nUiv.VpiiAi; ■. ■ \-V 

Labium subquadratum apice truncato setis duabus terminalibus. Paraglossa utrinque 
J " membranacea 



ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 57 

membranacea, tenuis, cylindrica vel potius subulata, labio multo longiore. 
Mentum tridentatum dente sinus simplice. 
Thorax longior quam latior, eonvexus, marginatus, medio canaliculars. 

Ods. This subgenus has the habit of Dolichus, from which it is not fat- in affinity. 

26. Svbiridescens. D. atronitidus palpis antennis tarsisque piceo-rufis, tkorace brevissimo, elytris striatit atro- 

iridescentibus. 

Long. corp. | + 
Caput totum laevissimum. Elytra stria prima ad scutellum brevissima, sculptura marginali irregulari. 
Corpus subtus atronitidum pedibus nigris. 

Subgenus COLPODES Nobis. 
Antenna articulo tertio elongato seu duorum priinorum simul sumptorum Iongitudine ; 

articulis tribus primis nitidis, reliquis pubescentibus. 
Labrum transversum quadratum integrum. 
Mandibulce elongatae trigonae, apice acutae incurvse. 

Palpi maxillares articulo tertio tenui obconico, quarto aequali cylindrico-ovali vix truncate. 
Mentum sinu simplice. 
Caput fere Iongitudine thoracis. Thorax obcordatus, antice emarginatus, postice truncatus, 

lateribus rotundatis baud sinuatis, marginibus subreflexis. Corpus convexiusculum 

elytris striatis postice sub- emarginatis. Peefesantici $ tarsorum articulis omnibus dila- 

tatis, penultimo bilobato lobo anteriore majore. 

Obs. This subgenus has some connexion with the genera Sphodrus and Anchomenus ; from the 
former it may easily be distinguished by its thorax ; and from the latter by its antenna?. The 
posterior sinuation of the elytra seems to indicate a relation to Catascopus. 

27. Brunxeus. C. atrobrunneus concolor nitidus orejerrugineo, antennis apice rubris, geniculis tarsisque piceis. 

Long. corp. 1 + 
Caput laeve facie media elevata lateribusque rugosulis. Antennce articulis ultimis octo rubris pubescenti- 
bus apice ciliatis. Thorax linea antica transversa, media longitudinali, fossulaque utrinque postica 
impressus. Elytra stria suturali brevissima. 

Subgenus OMASEUS Zieg. 

Obs. The following species differs from the type of the subgenus which, according to German 
catalogues, is the Carabus melanarius of Illiger, or C. leucophthalmus of Fabricius, in having the 
last joint of the maxillary palpi securiform. I do not, however, think it necessary to separate it 
generically from that insect. 

28. ViRioicoLLis. O. niger capite viridi: clypeo oreque nigris, thoraceviridi; margine nigro, elytris atropurpureii 

J Long. corp. 1 -fc 

D Genus 



18 ANNULOSA JAVAN1CA. 

Subgenus CATADROMUS Nobis. 

Antenna setaceee articulis septem ultimis pubescentibus, articulo tertio pnecedentibus 
simul sumptis breviore. 

Labrum breve, latum, trans versum, antice subemarginatum, medio quatuor setis instructo, 
angulis rotundatis. 

Mandibular validissima? capite paulo breviores, subtrigonae, extus convexae intus concavae, 
basi unidentatae, apice acutissimae incurvse. 

Maxillee subtrigonae intus setis ciliatae, apice ungue acuto armaio; processus dorsalis arti- 
culo basilari obconico, apicali subcylindrico incurvo vix subulate 

Palpi maxillares articulo stipitali brevissimo ovato, secundo et tertio aequalibus boc obco- 
nico illo incurvo subcylindrico apice subcrassiore, articulo quarto vel apicali breviore 
obconico apice obtuso. 

Palpi labiales quasi mento affixi, stipite minimo tuberculiformi, articulis primo subobconico 
et secundo subgloboso quasi articulum unum albo-annulatum versus apicem con- 
stricturn formantibus, articulo tertio obconico intus setis duabus instructo, articulo 
ultimo breviore seta una instructo, obconico, apice obtuso. 

Labium stipite occulto, obconicum lateribus subsinuatis, margine antico emarginato, angulis 
setis duabus terminalibus instructis. Paraglossce vix labii longitudine, utrinque dis- 
tinctae, membranaceae, tenues, subclavatae, apice obtusae. 

Mention tridentatum dente sinus simplice acuto. 

Elytra apice sinuata vel potius emarginata. $ Tarsi anteriores articulis tribus dilatatis. 

Obs. This subgenus differs from Omaseits in having the elytra emarginate at the apex and the 
middle tooth of the mentum simple instead of emarginate. It approaches also to Platysma 
nigra in affinity, and has some relation to Cepkalofes Bon. (JBroscus Panz) ; but this is much 
less remarkable than the former affinity. 

29. 1'enbbriowbs. C. atronitidus viridi-marginatus elytris sulcutis : sulco a suturd secundo bvpundato mar- 
gineque viridi-punctato. 
Carabiistenebrioides. Oliv. Ins. N". 35, p. 17. 8. 

Long. corp. 2^ 

Obs. This insect, of which a wretched figure is given by Olivier, is the largest and hand- 
somest of the Javanese Adephaga. A piceous variety in my father's collection is the vcrv 
specimen from which Olivier took his description and figure. Its identity, therefore, with the 
above species is completely ascertained, and its nigropiceous colour in all probability merely 
results from its having been a young insect when taken. 

Genus DICLELINDUS Nobis. 
Antenna setaceae thorace longiores articulis primo et tertio aequalibus, ultimis octo 
pubescentibus. 

Labrum transversum quadratum. 

Mandibular 



ANNULOSA JAVAN1CA. 19 

Mandihulae ut in Diccelo. 

Palpi maxillures articulo penultimo et ultimo sequalibus, hoc cylindrico ovali. 

Mentum dente sinus bifido. 

Thorax transverso-quadratus lateribus rotundatis marginatis, antice emarginatus, postice 

truncatus, medio canaliculars, fossula lineari utrinque postice impressus. 
Corpus valde depressum elytris striatis. Pedes antici maris tarsorum articulis duobus 

dilatatis. 

Obs. The affinities of this genus would be very difficult to discover were it not for a Brazil 
insect, which I believe forms M. Latreille's genus Microcephalus,* and which clearly connects it 
with Diccelus. This Brazilian insect has the subquadrate mentum of Diccelindus, and the securi- 
form palpi of Diccelus. It may also be worth while to compare our insect with Amara 
and Dinodes. 

30. Felspjticus. D. nigro-iridescens lavissimus labro antennis tarsisque piceis, elytris septemstriatis : margine 
exarato postice subcatenulato. 

Long. corp. ^ 
Caput atronitidum, postice subiridescens, facie bifossulata, labro quadrato piceo. Antennce articulis basa- 
libus nitidis piceis, reliquis pubescentibus rufis. Thorax politissimus iridescens. Scutelhim minutissimum. 
Elytra sicut Felspath politissima. Abdomen subiridescens. Pedes nigri tarsis ferrugineis. 

* In protesting against the slovenly mode lately adopted by some continental naturalists, of publishing generic names 
without defining the genera to which they are applied, I must express my regret at seeing it now resorted to by those 
who have most powerfully appealed against it. Because they are themselves well acquainted with the insects to 
which they assign certain names, they fancy that others must also know them, forgetting that the general adoption of 
the name must always depend on the accurate definition of the relation which exists between it and the insect. At least 
I hope, that it is this species of oversight which alone occasions the grievous inconveniences of which Entomology has 
to complain ; for I can scarcely suppose that naturalists, to whom the science owes so much in other respects, would 
condescend to confuse it, or thwart its progress for the mere sake of securing, by a doubtful priority, so trifling an 
advantage as a generic name, and so miserable a fame as must depend upon such priority. Certain it is, however, that 
inextricable confusion must arise from this course of proceeding, unless it be now at once firmly resisted; and unless 
Entomologists resolve to abide by the maxims laid down on this subject by Linnaeus and Fabricius. Proceeding 
on the principles laid down by these great authorities, who have both declared characters absolutely necessary, 
in order that genera may be known, I am sure that the reader will consider me justified in considering no name as 
secure, unless it be accompanied with a character. In these pages all names of mere catalogues, whether generic or 
specific, shall be as much overlooked as if they never had existed. In some few cases, perhaps where the names like 
Rembus, Omaseus, are assigned to described insects, and the meaning of the author is thus, in some measure, ascer- 
tained, I may choose not to increase the confusion by refusing to adopt them, although M. Latreille has most truly said, 
that even such names without characters, " ne sont que de simples indications et n'imposent aucune loi." 

I ought here to observe, on my own part, that it may possibly be found that M. Wiedemann has published in the 
pages of his Zoologisches Magazin, some few of the species here described; and of course, his names in such cases 
must be adopted as having the right of priority. Although I have long been in expectation of receiving the work 
complete, I unfortunately, at present, only possess some loose sheets of it, which I owe to the kindness of Dr. Escholtz. 
In every instance, however, where I could obtain M. Wiedemann's names, I have carefully adopted them, for his 
descriptions are not only detailed, but very accurate. 

D 2 



20 ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 

Genus TRECHUS Clairv. 

31. Convexu?. T. atronitidus pedibus antennisque piceis, his ad basin palpisque pallidioribus, elytris substriatis. 

Long. corp. J- 
Insectum Cephalotis habitu parvulum alatum vix huic generi associandum. Caput nigronitidum latitudine 
thoracis. Antenna articulis subajqualibus primo duobus sequentibus simul sumptis breviore, articulis 
quatuor ultimis crassioribus, apicali longiore ovato. Palpi maxillares articulo ultimo subulato cum 
tertio breviore quasi articulum unum fusiformem formante. Thorax convexus marginatus obcor- 
dato-truncatus, basi angustior, latior quam longus, medio vix canaliculato. Elytra striis sub lente 
distinctis, prima ad scutellum brevissima. 

Obs. Although I have assigned this little insect to the genus Trechvs, I am aware that it differs 
from it in many respects. The only specimen however in the collection is so mutilated, that I 
cannot venture to found a subgenus upon it, and therefore present as full a description of it as its 
being pasted down on paper will permit me to make. It agrees with the characters of Trechus 
given in the, Regne Animal of M. Cuvier ; but these have been too vaguely drawn up to enable 
a beginner to form a correct idea of the genus. 

Subgenus GNATHAPHANUS Nobis. 

Antenna articulis fere Eequalibus secundo breviori. 

Labrum transverso-quadratum, angulis anticis rotundatis. 

MandibulcB sub clypeo fere occultee ; sinistra ad basin solum apparente. 

Palpi maxillares articulo ultimo subsubulato, tertio obconico breviori. 

Palpi labiales articulo ultimo preecedente breviore, subulato, acuto. 

Menlum breve, transversum, dente sinus minimo simplice. 

Caput transverso-quadratum, latius quam longurn, antice truncatum facie brevissima. 
Thorax ut in Harpalo, sed fossula lineari brevi utrinque postice impressus. Corpus 
oblongum. Elytra striis irregularibus punctisque discalibus, apice emarginata ve! 
excisa. 

Obs. To this subgenus the Harpalus Thunhergi, of Schonherr appears to belong. It differs, 
however, from the following species, in being pubescent. 

32. VuLNEitiPENms. G. ater, elytris decem-striatis : strid secundd brevi spatioque inter strias tertiam et quartam 

septem punctata. 

Long. corp. -k + 
Insectum nitidiusculum. Caput linea transversa antica utrinque fossulata. Palpi articulo ultimo piceo 
Antenna obscure pubescentes. Thorax lateribus posticeque marginatus, medio canaliculate Sen 
tellum mconspicuum. Elytra marginata stria secunda cum prima ad scutellum confluente • striis 
quarta et quinta, sextd et septima apice confluentibus, spatio inter septimam et octavam bi-vel-tri- 
punctato, illoque inter decimam et striam marginalem punctato scabroso. Pedes nigri. 

Genus HARPALUS Lat. 

33. PomTILABBis H : niger antennis apice rufo-pubescentibus, labri limbo antico brunneo scxpunctato facie 

transverse-hneata. l ■' 

Long. corp. i 

Caput 



ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 21 

Caput linea transversa angulis deflexis. Thorax laevissimus marginatus margine subrugosulo, linea 
media longitudinali, fossulaque utrinque postice inconspicua. Elytra striata stria secunda ad scutellum 
brevi. 

Obs. The following description of an insect unique in the collection is taken from so mutilated a 
specimen, that although I am almost sure it is not a true Harpalns, I cannot venture to assign 
it to any other subgenus. Although it has a punctured thorax the habit is rather that of Gna- 
thaphanus than of Ophonns -Dej. 

34. Punctulatus. H. niger, totus subtilissime punctulatus, elytris pubescentibus striatis, pedibusjlavis iarsisque 

piceis. 

Long. corp. js 
Caput labro transverso quadrato subemarginato. 

Subgenus AMARA Bon. 

35. Tricolor. A. nigra elytris ceneis, labro nigro, palpis antennis pedibusquejerrugineis. 

Long. corp. 3 
Caput linea faciali transversa utrinque fossulata. Thorax convexus, marginatus, laevissimus, vix canalicu- 
lars sed fossula postice utrinque impressus. Elytra striata stria secunda ad scutellum inconspicua. 
Corpus subtus nigrum. 

36. Subolifacea. A. nigronitida labro femoribusque piceis, antennis pedibusquejerrugineis, elytris ceneo-olivaceis 

viridibus vix nigris. 

Long. corp. & + 

Caput nigronitidum latum transversum labro semicirculari. Thorax planus, lateribus posticeque margi- 
natus, vix postice utrinque impressus. Elytra striata margine punctato, stria secunda brevi tertiaque 
versus apicem punctis aliquot raris. 

37. Submnea. A. nigronitida labro piceo, antennis basi pedibusque rufis, thorace postice utrinque impresso, elytris 

nigro-ceneis. 

Long. corp. vix. w 
Pra;cedente paulo minor differt antennis basi' solum rufis, thorace sulcis tribus postice distinctis, femoribus 
nigris elytrisque haud viridibus. 

Subgenus DIGRYCHE Nobis. 
Antenna lineares, pubescentes, articulo tertio duobus prsecedentibus s.s. brcviore. 
Labrum transverso-quadratum angulis rotundatis. 
Mandibulce breves. 

Palpi maxillares articulo quarto subulato, precedente obconico breviore. 
Palpi labiales articulo ultimo acuto sub-subulato. 
Mentum sinu simplice angusto. 

Caput facie emarginata. Thorax latus; punctatus, marginatus, canal iculatus, obcordato- 
quadratus, antice emarginatus. Elytra striata, apice sinuata vix emarginata. 

38. Torta. D.atronitida antennis Jerrugineis, pedibusjlavis, elytris nigro-ceneis : striisterti& sextaque punctahs. 

Long. corp. i + 

Caput 



22 ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 

Caput labro piceo palpisque ferruginei*. Thorax postice creberrime punctata. Elytra stria secunda ad 
scutellum brevi, spatio inter strias tertiam et quartam, quintam et sextam punctato. Coxa ferrugineae. 
Obs. The Carabus flavilabris of Fabricius perhaps comes near to this insect, if not to the 
subgenus Colpodes. 

Subgenus HYPH^EREON Nobis. 

Antennae pilosulse vel pubescentes articulo tertio secundo duplo longiore. 

Labrum quadratum. 

Mandibulce longiusculae acutse. 

Palpi maxillares articulo ultimo elongato tenui obconico. 

Palpi labiales articulo ultimo breviori subulato. 

Mentum dente sinus simplice parvo acuto. 

Caput oblongum glabrum, facie lateribus subparallelis utrinque fossulatis. Thorax laevis, 
nitidus, canaliculars, subquadratus, lateribus rotundatis, antice marginatus, marginibus 
lateralibus subpunctatis subreflexis, posticoque subpunctato, fossula utrinque vix con- 
spicua. Elytra stria secunda ad suturam brevi. 

39. Reflexvs. H. atronitidus antennis oreque piceis, pedibus obscuris ;femoribus testaceis, thorace postwe punch* 

scabroso. 

Long. corp. J + 

Caput mandibulis nigris palpisque rufis. Antenna obscuro-piceae apice pallidiores. Elytra striis pro- 

fundis. Corpus subtus atronitidum, ano obscuro. 

Subgenus HYPHARPAX Nobis. 

Antennas longitudine thoracis, apice crassiores, [>ubescentes, articulis secundo et tertio 
sequalibus. 

Labrum quadratum. 

Mandibulce longiusculae acutse. 

Palpi maxillares articulo ultimo elongato, tenui, obconico. 

Palpi labiales articulo ultimo breviori subulato. 

Mentum tridentatum. 

Caput triangulare inter oculos bifossulatum glabrum. Thorax brevis, convexiusculus, la?vis- 
simus,transverso-quadratus lateribus rotundatis ; linea media longitudinal! baud marginem 
anticum attingente fossulaque postica utrinque lineari. Elytra striata striis sequalibus. 

40. Lateralis. H. atronitidus ore antennis pedibusqueferrugineis, clytris striis lateralibus creberrime punctu- 

latis apiceque ferrugineo. 

Long. corp. fere i 
Caput atronitidum labro piceo, palpis ferrugineis. Thorax postice trilineatus. 

Genus ANAULACUS Nobis. 
Antennce moniliformes, crassse, vix capite longiores, articulis secundo et tertio fere sequalibus. 
Labrum breve, latum, transverso-quadratum, angiitis obtusis, antice vix emarginatum. 
Mandibulce lata? trigone latere externoincurvo. 

Palpi 



ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 23 

Palpi maxillares articulo ultimo brevi cylindrico apice vix tenuiore. 

Paraglossce distinctaa tenues cylindricee membranacere. 

Mention trilobum. 

Caput triangulare laevissimum inter oculos baud bifossulatum. Thorax duplo latior quam 
longus, antice emarginatus, postice vix convexus, laevissimus canaliculatus. Corpus totum 
depressiusculum latum abdomine sessili. Scutellum indistinctum. Elytra submarginata. 
Pedes quatuor postici spinosuli. 

41. Seeicipennis. A. atronitidus ore antennis pedibusque ferrugineis, elytris lavissimis nigrosericeis : maculis 

duabus rufis. 

Long. corp. fere | 
Caput atronitidum labro piceo, mandibulis palpisque ferrugineis. Thorax atronitidus lateribus pilis paucis 
ciliatis. Elytra atra sericea macula sagittiformi rufa ad humeros alteraque securiformi ad apicem. 
Corpus subtus atronitidum. 

Obs. This is one of those singular and apparently anomalous forms which occur not un- 
frequently among the Harpalidce. 

Subge?ms ^EPHNIDIUS Nobis. 

Antenna; capite duplo longiores, apice crassiores pubescentes moniliformes, articulo secundo 
et tertio fequalibus. 

Labrum transverso-quadratum, antice vix emarginatum. 

Mandibular latae trigonas latere externo incurvo. 

Palpi maxillares articulo ultimo elongate tenuiore subsubulato. 

Menti sinus simplex. 

Caput triangulare laevissimum, inter oculos haud bifossulatum. Thorax marginatus, duplo 
latior quam longus, antice emarginatus, fere sinuatus, postice lobatus laevissimus canalicu- 
latus utrinque postice vix fossulatus. Corpus totum depressiusculum oblongum abdomine 
pediculato. Elytra submarginata striata stria prima scutellari brevi indistincta. Pedes 
quatuor postici spinosuli. 

42. Adeliowes. JE. atronitidus labro pedibusque nigro-piceis, antennis palpisque Jerrugineis, elytris holosericeis 

atris. 

Long. corp. | 

Subgenus C/ELOSTOMUS Nobis. 
Antennae articulis ultimis novem pubescentibus, subaaqualibus, secundo breviore. 
Labrum tranversum, ad basin latius, margine antico pubescente emarginato sex setis dis- 

tinctis, lobis rotundatis. 
Mandibulce subinaequales crassse arcuatae, apice obtusae, crenatae, sub labro latentes. 
Palpi brevissimi ; maxillares articulo ultimo longo subulate acuto. 
Labium minimum, paraglossis fere duplo longioribus laminam membranaceam subqua- 

dratam, antice bilobatam, basi augustiorem formantibus. 
Mentum in ore concavo deflexum, dente sinus minimo acuto vix conspicuo. 

Caput 



24 ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 

Caput laevissimum facie subemarginata. Thorax circuli segmentum majus for mans, mar- 
ginatus, convexus baud canaliculars, suborbicularis, margine antico truncato 
lineaque transversa impresso. Elytra apice subsinuata, striata, stria prima ad scutellum 
brevissima. 
Obs. The affinity of this subgenus seems to be towards Liciuus and Badister. 

43. Picipes. C. atronitidus antennis obscuris : articulis duobus primis pallidioribus, pedibus pallido-piceis, elytrit 

apice subpiceis. 

Long. corp. vix \ 

Caput laevissimum labro nigro, mandibulis corporeque subtus nigropiceis. 

Fam. 4. SCARITID^. 

The typical character of this family, which appears more numerous in the new world than in 
the old, consists in the broken antennae, the pedunculated abdomen, the semilunar thorax, 
and digitated anterior feet. 

MM. Latreille and Dejean, in their late work, Coleopteres d' Europe, seem to regard the 
Sc.aritidae as animals not carnivorous. But against this opinion, so contrary to what might 
have been judged from analogy, we have the authority of two accurate observers, MM. Olivier 
and Lefebre de Cerisy. The latter naturalist, who, from his residence at Toulon, possesses many 
facilities for studying their economy, has made some most interesting observations on the Genus 
Scarites, and particularly the S. Gigas of Olivier. He rinds them to be nocturnal insects of 
prey. During the day, they lurk almost without motion in the holes which they dig in the earth, 
but at night they sally out and prey on the various Melolonthidce, &c. which may happen to fall 
in their way. 

The only three species of the family which Dr. Horsfield found in Java belong all to the 
typical part of it. 

Genus CLIVINA Lat. 

44. Sabulosa. C. nigro-brunnea capite lined anticd transversali : vertice hand impresso, elytrorum striis fere 

crenatis. 

Long. corp. ^ + 
Insectum Clivind arenaria Lat. angustius, corpore minus convexo. Caput frontis medio haud puncto 
impresso. Thorax lateribus truncatis vel saltern quam in C. Arenaria haud tarn convexis. 

Genus SCARITES Fab. 

45. Semicircularis. S. mandibulis canaliculatis, thorace postice rotundato, elytris punctato-striatis : strid tertid 

unipunctatd. 
An Scarites punctum, Wiedemann, Zool. Mag. Band 2. s. I. p. 38 ? 

Long. corp. fere |. 
Insectum totum atronitidum. Caput vix bisulcatum sed lateribus striatis. Thorax tevissimus, mar<n- 
natus, canali medio lineam anticam transversalem impressam attingente haud ultra progrediente. 
Elytra marginata striis punctatis impressis punctoque striae a sutura tertise versus apicem impresso. 

Obv. 



ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 25 

Obs. This species, if not a variety of a Bengal insect described by Wiedemann under the 
name of S.punctum, comes exceedingly near it. 

46. Indus. S. mandibulis substriatis, thoracc postice subtruncato, elytris lineato-striatis stria tertia bipunctata. 

Scarites indus Oliv. Ins. 2. no. 36. tab. 1. fig. 2. 
Long. corp. & 
Insectum S. subterraneo Fab. affine, totum nigronitidum. Caput sulcis duobus rugosulis impressum. 
Thorax lasvissimus marginatus, canali medio lineam anticam transversalem impressam attingente haud 
ultra progrediente. Elytra marginata striis impressis ; stria a sutura tertia punctis duobus mediis 
hoc apicem versus illo basin versus impressa. 

Obs. This species was confounded by Fabricius with his S. subterraneus, an American insect, 
which would have been an Attelabus with Degeer. 

Fam. 5. BRACHINID^. 

In this family, as well as in the last, we have rarely, if ever, that dilatation of the tarsal joints, 
which often marks in so extraordinary a manner the difference of sex among the Harpalidcc 
and Carabidce. 

The typical insects of the family are gregarious, and well known for the detonating mode 
ot defence which they employ against their enemies. This curious property results from the 
rapid volatilization when exposed to the air of an acrid liquid analogous to that which we have 
already noticed in the Carabidce, but which in the Carabidce retains its liquid state on being 
ejected from the anus. The construction of the two sacs which gecrete this fluid is explained by 
Cuvier in the Rkgne Animal. 

Each of the three first insects to be described in this family might have been assigned to new 
subgenera, as they do not accurately coincide with Bonelli's characters for the genera Dromius, 
Lamprias and Lebia; but as their place in the system is visible at first sight, I have judged it 
unnecessary to multiply subgeneric names. 

Genus DROMIUS Bon. 

47. Tetbaspilotus. D. nitidus, capite nigro, thorace nigropiceo, elytris atris striatis : maculis duabusjlavis. 

Long. corp. vix ^ 
Caput nigrum labro oblongo quadrato antennis palpisque piceis. Thorax obcordatus latior quam longus 
depressiusculus canaliculars lateribus subreflexis, Elytra maculis duabus hac basali ilia posticali. 
Corpus subtus pedesque picei. 

Obs. This species has the middle tooth of the mentum indistinct, and thus to a certain degree 
leaves Dromius. Carabus notulatus, of Fabricius, appears to come near to our insect, which, 
with the following species, has the elytra very little truncated, if at all. 

Genus LAMPRIAS Bon. 

48. Ruficeps. L. rufa nitida, elytris cyaneis striatis medio depressiusculis : striis profundioribus, oculis genicu- 

lisque nigris. 

Long. corp. is 

Obs. This species appears to be more common on the continent of India than in Java. 

E Genus 



26 ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 

Genus LEBIA Lat. 
49. Splendidula. L. rufa, oculis albis, thorace marginato, elytris striatis viridianeo-marginatis apice 
truncatis. 
An Lebia marginalis, Wiedemann Zool. Mag. Band. 2. s. 1. p. fiO ? 

Long. corp. -h 

Insectum omnino splendidulum corpore subangusto. Caput rufum clypeo inter antennas fossulato, labro 

magno quadrato, mandibulis latis inermibus apice acutis. Mentum lobis latis sed maxillarum basin 

haud tegentibus. Antennce articulo tertio brevissimo. Thorax truncato-obcordatus rufus medio 

canalicular. Scutellum inconspicuum rufum. Elytra abbreviata abrupt^ truncata pulcherrima. 

Corpus subtus nitidissimum rufum. Pedes rufi. 

Obs. This species comes so near to a Bengal insect described by Wiedemann as L. marginalis, 

that I must leave the separation of them to the entomologist who may have it in his power to 

examine both. 

Subgenus ORTHOGONIUS Dej. 

Antennce breves crassiusculse. 

Lahrum transverso-quadratum, antice emarginatum lobis rotundatis, singulo setis tribus 

antice instructo. 
Mandibula inBequales', subtrigonss, lata?, superne convexse, angulatse, subtus concavag, basi 

subdenticulatse, apice acutissimse incurvee. 
MaxillcB sinuatse apice latiores, latere interno rnembranaceo ciliato haud spinuloso vel 

setoso, processu dorsali articulo ultimo oblongo tenui ovato vel fusiformi; dorso pone 

palpos duobus tuberculis setigeris instructo. 
Palpi maxiltares articulo primo brevissimo, secundo maxinio crasso obconico subincurvo, 

tertio obconico, quarto conico, his duobus quasi articulum unum oblongum ovatum 

formantibus, ultimo tertio breviore. 
Palpi labiales articulo basilari (labii stipiti affixo) brevissimo lato, articulo secundo brevi ob- 
conico vix subgloboso, tertio obconico prsecedentibus simul sumptis longiore, quarto 

prascedente breviore subconico vel potius subulato. 
Labium angustum subcylindricum apice clavatum setis duabus instructum. Paraglossce 

labio haud longiores latse angulis rotundatis membranaceis ; Stipes labii magnus semicir- 

cularis menti sinum fere implens. 
Mentum sinu edentulo seta utrinque instructo angulisque acutis. 

Caput facie antica setis sex instructa. Pedes unguibus subtus denticulatis tarsorumque 
articulo penultimo bilobato. 

Obs. As M. Dejean has assigned a name to this subgenus in a manuscript catalogue, I have 
thought proper to adopt it, although the genus is now for the first time characterized. It agrees 
with the three former genera in having the ungues of the tarsi denticulated beneath, and the 
elytra subtruncated at the apex ; but in most other respects of external appearance it differs 
widely from the Brachinida; in general. It has the habit of a Nebria, and possibly approaches 
to this genus or to Blethisa in affinity. Judging from the ciliated membranaceous maxilla?, 
I suspect that this genus is not very carnivorous in its habits. 

50. PlClLABRIS 



ANNULOSA JAVAN1CA. 27 

50. Picilabris. 0. nigro-brunneus capite nigro, tkorace sulco transverso postice impresso, elytris striis sub- 

punctatis. 

Long. corp. § + 
Caput nigrum Iabro palpisque piceis. Antenna piceae, apice pilosulse obscuree. Thorax canaliculars antice 
haud marginatus, duplo latior quam longus, lateribus subreflexis, quadra media impressa, angulis 
fossulatis. Elytra stria secunda ad scutellum brevi. Corpus subtus piceum. Pedes picei tibiis 
nigris. 

51. Bsunnjlabbis. O. brunneus capite thoracis disco elytrorumque limbo nigris, thorace anchora dorsali 

impressa mar gineque ■pallida, elytris striato-punctatis. 

Long. corp. fere & 
Caput labro palpis antennisque brunneis, his apice obscuris hirsutis. Thorax canaliculars, duplo latior 
quam longus, fossula utrinque postice impressus. Elytra stria prima et secunda ad scutellum brevi 
confluentibus. Corpus subtus brunneum. Pedes nigriusculi femoribus brunneis. 

52. Alternans. O. niger thorace sulco transverso postice impresso, elytris striis vix geminatis, interstitiis alterna- 

tim punctulatis. 

Plochionus alternans, Wiedemann, Zool. Mag. Band. 11. s. 1. p. 52. 
Long. corp. | + 
Caput palpis brunneis labro antennisque nigris, his apice pubescentibus. Thorax antice marginatus cana- 
liculars duplo latior quam longus, fossula utrinque postice impressus. Elytra stria secunda ad sen- 
tellum brevi cum prima confluente. Corpus subtus nigro-brunneum pedibus nigris. 

Obs. The above-mentioned three species come very near to the genus Plochionus of Dejean, 
and accordingly Wiedemann appears to have referred all the species of the genus Orthogonius 
with which he was acquainted, to Plochionus, viz. hisP. duplicatus, P. acrogonus, and P. alternans. 
Plochiomts, however, has a more western geographical situation, no species being, to my know- 
ledge, found farther east than Bordeaux, while America appears the metropolis of the genus. 
Some species of the genus Plochionus may be expected to occur in the south of England or 
Ireland, particularly the P. Bonsjilsii of Dejean. 

Genus DRYPTA Fab. 

53. Lineola. D. rufa elytris punctatostriatis pubescentibus : vitta media rufa, pedibus nifo-testaceit ; genitalis 

piceis. 

An Drypta lineola, Meg. apud Dej. Catal. p. 2. ? 

Long. corp. & 
Caput rufum convexum punctatum oculis albis, mandibulis maxillisque apice piceis, palporum maxillarium 
ruforum articulo ultimo ovato. Antenna rufae articulo secundo longissimo apice piceo. Thorax 
punctatus subcylindricus haud capite longior, truncato-obcordatus, postice marginatus, medio canali- 
culars. Elytra apice vix truncata nigra, striis decern, scutellari brevissima, vittaque media longitu- 
dinali rufa haud basin sed suturam ad apicem attingente. Abdomen subtus atro-viride. 

Obs. This species varies, or at least the D. lineola which comes from the continent of India 
is so near to it, that it is scarcely possible to assign distinct specific characters to them. A 
New Holland Drypta, which I have named " Australis," differs also from the above only in 

having 

E 2 



28 ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 

having the palpi, antennae and feet black, the coxse and base of the femora being rufo- 

testaceous. 

54 Unidentata. D. cyaneus femoribus sanguineis, elytris postice unidentatis : decern striis punctorum inter- 

stitiisque punctatis. 

Long. corp. in 

Caput CEEruleum punctatum oculis albis, mandibulis piceis, palpis maxillaribus longissimis runs articulo 

ultimo ovali sericeo-albicante. Antennce rufae articulo basilari conspicuo, secundo ad apicem quartoque 

ad basin piceis. Thorax capite multo longior punctatus subcylindricus medio haud canaliculars. 

Elytra apice abrupte truncata vel unidentata pubescentia. Corpus subtus nigro-cyaneum. Pedes 

coxis testaceis, femoribus rufis, geniculis tibiisque piceis, tarsis rufescentibus. 

Ors. In Bn. Dejean's catalogue we find a manuscript-name " longicollis" assigned without any 
description by Megerle to an Indian Drypta. As I conceive this entomologist may only have 
obtained a knowledge of such Indian insects as were collected by M. Fichtel, I account his 
D. longicollis, although the name will equally apply to the above Javanese insect, to be a native 
of the Continent. Drypta longicollis differs in that case from D. unidentata, in being atro- 
cyaneous with yellow femora, in having truncated but not dentated elytra, and in having the 
fourth joint of the antennae altogether rufous. Drypta flavipes of Wiedemann, a Bengal insect, 
seems to be still another distinct species. 

Subgenus APTINUS Bon. 

55. Occipitalis. A. alatus ater capite flavo : vertice nigro, thorace bimaculato, elytris sidcatis Jlavo bimaculatis. 

J Long. corp. f 
A. bimaculato Lat. et A.fulminanti Fab. affinis sed alatus. Caput flavescens postice punctatum macula 
media nigra campanulata. Antennce flavescentes articulo basilari nigro. Thorax niger marginatum 
subcanaliculatus macula utrinque ferruginea. Elytra atra sulcis haud striulatis striis elevatis ad apicem 
pallidis, macula humerali rotunda strigaque media abbreviate flexuosa clavata transversa valde an£ulata 
flavis. Corpus nigrum. Pedes flavi geniculis nigris. 

Obs. Bonelli has separated the genus Brachinus from Aptinus, on no other account than that 
the latter is apterous. If, however, we reckon B- sclopeta Fab. to be the type of one genus, and 
B. ballisla, 111. of the other, the insect above described, although winged, will come nearer to 
the latter than to the former. The fact is, that Aptinus has not yet been properly separated 
from Brachinus. 

M. Dejean appears to be acquainted with other Javanese species of the genus than the one 
mentioned above. 

Genus PLANETES Nobis. Hellvo Dej. 
Antenna: articulo primo et quarto aequalibus et hoc secundo tertioque simul sumptis 

longiore. 
Labrum quadratum antice vix emarginatum. 
Palpi maxillares articulo secundo duobus ultimis simul sumptis sequali, tertio obconieo, 

quarto oblongo crasso apice obtuso. 
Palpi labiates articulo ultimo securiformi sed vix tertio crassiore. 
Mentum tridentatum. 

Caput 



ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 29 

Caput ut in genere Taro Clairv. Thorax subquadratus canaliculars postice angustior angulis anticis 
rotundatis. Corpus valde depressum. 

Obs. This genus is intermediate between Tarus Clairv. (Cymindis Lat.) and Helluo, Bon.; 
from the latter it differs in the labruni not being acuminate, and from the former in the shape of 
the maxillary palpi and thorax. 

36. Bimaculatus. P. ater labro palpis antennis pedibus elytrorumque macula media ferrugineis elytris sulcato- 
striatis. 

Long. corp. \ 
Caput atronitidum transverse punctatum facie laevi bipunctata antice truncata. Thorax atronitidus punc- 
tatus. Elytra atra depressiuscula sulcata, sulcis profunde striatis macula versus basin ovali ferru- 
ginea. Corpus subtus atrum. 

Obs. This species may perhaps be found too near the Carabus Stigma of Fabricius, but cer- 
tainly is not the same with the Helluo distactus of Escholtz, described as a Javanese insect in 
Wiedemann's Zoological Magazine ; although I suspect the latter to be also a Planetes, from 
what Dr. Escholtz says of the thorax being proportionally longer than in his Helluo impictns, a 
species found in Bengal. Helluo distactus, differs from Planetes bimaculatus in being striated and 
having each stria marked with two rows of points. None of these species, however, are true 
Helluones, and the mistake has arisen from the continental entomologists being so little ac- 
quainted with the original Helluo of Bonelli, Helluo costatus, which is a New Holland insect. 

Stirps. 2. HYDRADEPHAGA. Hybrocanthabi Lat. 

In the Geodephaga the binary subdivision of the groupe is not very distinct, because the cha- 
racteristic marks of each subdivision insensibly pass into each other. In this stirps of aquatic 
carnivorous insects it is however different, for the binary subdivision is remarkably distinct, 
and I know as yet of no insect which can satisfactorily fill up the hiatus that occurs between 
the Gyrini of Linnaeus and his Dytisci. 

The larva? of the Hydradepluiga differ from those of Geodephaga in being truly aquatic, and 
therefore breathing by tracheal branchiae. Their prothorax also, or that segment of the body 
which corresponds with what is usually called the thorax of the perfect insect, is not of a 
more corneous texture than the other segments. 

I shall not at present attempt to divide the Hydradephaga into families, but content myself 
with giving the following approximation to a natural arrangement. The genus Hoplitus of 
Clairville seems to form the type of a family which I have not here ventured to designate. 

Hydradephaga. Families. 

1 . Normal groupe, r 

Pedes antici longi, J — ] ■ Gynmia. 

Antennas breves. j 

Gyhinds Lin. (_ 

2. Aberrant groupe. , 3. * * * 

Pedes antici breves, | 

Antennae setaceaa lineares. \ 4. Di/tiscidtn. 

Dytiscus Lin. ( c * # # 

Fam. 



30 



ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 



Fam. 1. GYRINID^E. 

Degeer, in his immortal work, has observed, " Les Tourniquets approchent beaucoup des 
Scarabes-'d'eau ou des Dytisques ;" but the remark was neglected by Latreille until lately. In 
his Genera Crustaceorum et Insectorum he placed the Gyrini and Parni in the same family, 
named by him Otiophori, thus confounding a relation of analogy with one of affinity. 

I know not whether I am quite right in considering these insects as belonging to the normal 
groupe of Hydradephaga ; but certainly, both in their perfect and larva form, they are farther 
distant from the Carabi than Dytiscus. As however it is imposible to proceed naturally in 
a linear series of description, I begin with this Hydradephagous family, which is known to every 
entomologist by its gregarious sportive nature and its auriform antennae. 

The larva? of Gyrinidee are exactly Scolopendrce in appearance, the tracheal brancbise 
auswering to the false feet of the Chilopoda. The perfect insects are almost the only Hydra- 
dephaga that possess a metallic lustre. 

Genus DINEUTUS Nobis. Gyrinus Lat. 
Antenna brevissimae apice subacutas. 
Labrum semicirculare hand eiliatum. 
Palpi clavati. 

Pedes antici fere corporis longitudine. 
Obs. These few characters, although merely external, will sufficiently separate this genus 
from Gyrinus. M. Latreille has observed that, the exterior biarticulated lobe of the maxillae. 
or (as it is more commonly called) the internal maxillary palpus becomes evanescent in the 
exotic Gyrini, as well as in certain exotic genera of Geodephaga such as Therates. 

57. Politus, D. nigro-ceneus Icevissimus, clypeo nigro-piceo angidis rugosulis aureis, pedibws anticis piceis posticis 

pallidis. 

Long. corp. | 

Genus GYRINUS. 

58. Dentipennis, G. niger vix ceneus elytris postice unidentatis apice truncato-sinuatis piinctulatis substriatis. 

Long. corp. -fr + 
Labrum nigrum. Corpus subtus nigro-aeneum vix cupreum ano hirsute Pedes antici picei posticis- 
quatuor rufis. 

Obs. I am uncertain whether this species be sufficiently distinct from the Gyrinus Lulus of 
the supplement to the Ent. Syst, a species which Fabricius afterwards abandoned in the Syst. 
Eleutheratorum. 

59. Limbatus. G . elytris apice truncato-sinuatis striatis ad suturam tzneis, vitta medi& sub-ctiprea marginequt 

viridi. 

Long. corp. vix. iir. 
Caput viride vertice subcupreo labrique margine viridi. $ Caput punctis duobus sub-impressis. 

Fam. 



ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 31 

Fara. 4, DYTISCIDCE. 

The larvee of these insects have not the lateral branchial appendages of the Gyrinidce, and 
are therefore much less scolopendriform. Indeed their sub-convex and rather conical body 
with various other circumstances might, on a first view of them, make us place them out of 
their natural situation ; but their obvious analogy to the larva? of Hemerobii, as well as to the 
larva? of Geodephaga, will serve to make them known to the practical entomologist. 

There are few insects so voracious as the Dytiscidce, and their power of moving at will either 
in the water, in the air, or on the earth, gives them ample means of satisfying then- 
rapacity. 

I may in this place make the remark, that aquatic insects do not among themselves differ so 
much in form as terrestrial insects. It is not merely that they are fewer in species, and therefore 
may be expected to form fewer genera, but that the tropical genera of aquatic insects are much 
the same with our own, or at least are not so different from each other as the tropical and Euro- 
pean Geodephaga. Another remark to be made is, that aquatic insects are in general as large 
or larger with us than they are within the tropics. I know of no Hydrophilidce larger than our 
Hydrophilus piceus ; and the largest of the Dytiscidce, that has ever come under my notice, is 
the D. latissimus of Sweden. The only exception to this remark among the Hydradephaga 
occurs in the Gyrinidce, as for instance in the genus Dineutus above described. 

Genus COLYMBETES Clairv. 

60. Octodecim-maculata. C. niger capite maculis tribus, thorace marginali, elytris vitta marginali maculisque 

novem Jlavis. 

Long. corp. & 

Caput maculis tribus mediis Thoraxque macula marginali flavis. Elytra striis tribus punctorum obso- 

letissimorum, vitta marginali nee basin nee apicem attingente, maculis flavis tribus basalibus, 

quatuor mediis fasciam fere formantibus et duabus apicalibus. Corpus subtus nigrum abdominis late- 

ribus rufo-maculatis. Pedes quatuor antici flavi. 

61. Fabricii. C. collo nigro, thorace riifo, elytris cinereo-ritfoque striatis. 

Dytiscus varius. Fab. Syst. Eleuth. i. p. 267, 48. 

Long. corp. § 

Obs. Fabricius described an insect in the Ent. Syst. which he found in the Banksian cabinet, 
and called it D. varius. Afterwards he confounded a Sumatra insect, which he found in Daldorff s 
cabinet, with his D. varius, and altered the original specific character to suit his new insect, 
which I here call D. Fabricii. 

62. Suturalis. C. elytris cinereo-nigroque variegatis : stiiis tribus punctorum impressis sutura nigra lineaque 

utrinque rubra. 

Long. corp. 1 

Caput obscure ferrugineum punctis duobus impresses medio utrinque nigrum, ore palpis antennisque 

testaceis. Thorax glaber lavis marginatus subcanaliculatus rufus macula media transversali nigra. 

Elytra punctis numerosissimis approximatis nigris cinereisque variegatis, striis punctorum obsoletis. 

margine exteriore rubro. Corpus subtus nigrum, pedibus quatuor anticis femoribusque posticis piceis. 

63. VlTTATUS- 



32 ANNULOSA JAVANICA, 

63. Vittatvs- C. ater lavis elytris vittd sub-mar ginalifiava : macula baseos atra. 

Dytiscus vittatus, Fab. Ent. Syst. i. 190 14. 

, Oliv. Ins. 40. tab. i. fig. 5. 

Long. corp. \ 

Obs. The black spot on the yellow vitta in this species varies exceedingly. 

64. Fasciatvs. C. elytris flavis : fasciis duabus sutura punctoque apicis nigris. 

Dytiscus fasciatus. Fab. Ent. Syst. 1. 189,9. 

, Oliv. Ins. 40, tab. 2, fig. 19. 

Long. corp. i + 

Genus DYTISCUS. Lin. 

65. Gmsevs, D. cinereus thorace punctis duobus nigris elytris fascia dentata nigra. 

Dytiscus griseus, Fab. Ent. Syst. 1, 191, 16. 

, Oliv. Ins. 40. tab. 2, fig. 12. 

Long. corp. £ + 

Obs. This species appears to be very generally dispersed over the warmer latitudes, a? it 
oecurs in my father's collection from Bengal, Bombay, Italy, Spain, France, and even from the 
Island of St. Bartholomew, in the West Indies, where it was collected by Dr. Forstrom. This 
West Indian specimen only differs from the rest in wanting the black spots on the thorax, which 
spots are also evanescent in European varieties of D. griseus. 

66. Rugosus. D. nivro-viridis, clypeo thoracisque margine laterali flavis, elytris medio rugosulis vitta marginali 

interrupta. 

Long. corp. l T v 
Caput atrum clypeo labroque flavis antennis palpisque pallidis. Thorax nitidus striis duabus laterali- 
bus aliaque anteriori transversa leviter punctulatis. Elytra nigra limbo laevissimo nitido, striis tribu? 
punctulatis exaratis, vitta marginali flava postice fracta apicem elytrorum haud attingente. Corpus 
piceum lateribus pedibusque anticis pallidis. 

67. Limbatus. D. olivaceus thoracis elytrorumque margine Jlavo, abdomine atro : maculis lateralibus testaceis. 

Dytiscus limbatus. Fab. Syst. Eleuth. 1, p. 258, 2. 
Dytiscus aciculatus. Oliv. Ins. 13, 6. tab. 3, f. 3(3. 
Long. 1 1 

Stirps. 3. PHILHYDRIDA. 

Entomologists in general, with the exception of M. Latreille and his followers, have allowed 
a close affinity to exist between this stirps and the Hydradephaga, and nothing but the difficulty 
of making this affinity accord with the other parts of his system could ever have made so acute an 
entomologist as M. Latreille to doubt so obvious a truth. Originally both these stirpes were 
known under the common denomination of Hydrocanthari, and Linnaeus comprized all the 
species under the generic name of Dytiscus, separating the groupe into two sections which cor- 
respond with our stirpes Hydradephaga and Philhydrida. To these sections, in process of en- 
tomological investigation, he gave the names of Dytiscus and Hydrous, but finally for this last 
groupe adopted the word Hydrophilus, which had been already appropriated to them by Geof- 

frov 



ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 33 

froy. Still, however, the Bytisci and Hydrophili were kept close to each other as neighbouring 
groupes by Linnaeus, Geoffroy, Fabricius, and Olivier, until M. Latreille thought proper to 
separate them. 

Olivier seems to have well remarked that Degeer's opinion as to the number of joints in the an- 
tenna? of Hydrophilus piceits being only nine, is founded rather on appearance than on truth, and 
that the real number corresponds with that of the Bytisci, namely eleven, the only difference 
being that the eighth and tenth joints are here very minute. Their place is marked by the dis- 
tances which intervene between what are commonly considered the second and third, and the 
third and last joints of the clava. The fact however is, that the number of joints in the antennae 
is in these two stirpes subject to some variation from the typical number, which in Coleoptera 
is eleven. 

I have already alluded to those two divisions of the maxilla in Hydrophilus of which one cor- 
responds with what is usually termed the internal maxillary palpus in Adephaga, although it now 
ceases to be palpiform. In some genera however, such as Spercheus, which come nearest to 
the Hydradephaga, the outer process of the maxilla is long, slender, and truly palpiform. Fabri- 
cius accordingly, when he instituted the genus Spercheus assigned six palpi to it, as well as to 
Bytiscus. The feet, indeed, of the Philhydrida, as well as other points of their external anatomy, 
their larvae and their habits, all prove their affinity to the Hydradephaga. 

The larva of Hydrophilus piceus is long and somewhat conical, and bears great resemblance to 
that of a Bytiscus, the body being terminated in both by two filiform processes, which seem useful 
for the respiration of the insect. One grand difference between them, as Lyonnet has shown in 
contravention of a curious fancy of M. Frisch, is that the head of the larva of Hydrophilus being 
adapted to its habit of preying on small mollusca as they float in the water, is inclined towards 
its back, whereas in the other it has its usual inclination towards the belly. Both larvae are thus 
carnivorous, quit the water when full-grown, and having made an oval cocoon, undergo meta- 
morphosis in the earth. 

The Philhydrida appear, when arrived at their perfect state, to be in some degree herbivorous, 
or at least to lose in a great measure the carnivorous habits of the Hydradephaga ; they seem 
therefore to indicate an approach towards insects truly herbivorous. Perhaps Hydrophilus piceus 
is as voracious an animal as belongs to the stirps ; yet we may learn how inferior it is in voracity 
to an Adephagous insect, from the anecdote recorded by Clairville, on the authority of Dr. Es- 
per, who having confined an insect of this species in a glass of water with a Bytiscus marginalis, 
not more than half its size, soon found it yield itself an easy prey to the latter, which having 
detected a vulnerable part between the head and thorax, greedily devoured it. M. Miger, also, 
who observed so well the singular manners of this family, and who has given so detailed an ac- 
count of them in the fourteenth volume of the Annates du Museum, ascertained that the greatest 
part of the food of the perfect insects is derived from aquatic plants. 

I shall offer the following arrangement of the Philhydrida as an approximation to the natural 

one : 

p Philhydrida 



34 ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 

pHILEYDltlVA. 

1. Normal groupe? (1. Heteroceridce ? 

Palpi antennisbreviores \% Parnidce, (analogous to the Gyrinidce.) 

2. Aberrant groupe ? f3. HelophoridcE. 

Palpi antennis longitudine < 4. HydropHlidm, (analogous to the Dytiscida.) 

saltern Eequales. ^5- Sphmrididts? 

In this table, although the affinity of Sphcerididce to Hydrophilidcc, and of Heteroceridce to Par- 
nidcc is incontestable, I have thought proper to mark the place of the Sphceridida and Heteroce- 
ridce with doubt, as their connection is not very distinct. The fore tibiae, however, in both 
families are spinous ; and the tetramerous genus Georissus seems to be of some use in uniting 
these discordant groupes. 

Fam. 1. HETEROCERID.E. 

The type of this family is tetramerous, but its affinity to the Parnidoe has never been con- 
tested. Dr. Horsfield has brought no insects from Java that can be safely assigned to the 
groupe. 

Fam. 2. PARNIDJE. Parnidea. Leach. 

In the Genera Insectorum et Crustaceorum M. Latreille has placed the type of this family or the 
true genus Parnus in the same family with Gyrinus, and has called the whole group Otiophori. 
He thus mistook a very obvious relation of analogy for one of affinity ; and accordingly, in 
the Considerations Generates and the third volume of the Rtgne Animal, we find that he sepa- 
rates Parnus and Gyrinus, giving them their proper affinities, but taking little or rather no notice 
of the analogy which exists between them. The genus Potamophilus of Germar (Hydera of 
Latreille) appears to lead off to Octhehius of Leach, and other insects of the next family. 

Subgenus DRYOPS. Leach. 
68. Hardwicku. D. olivaceo-fuscus aut nigricans, tomentosus, elytris punctorum impressorum lineis octo tar- 
sisque omnibus rufescentibus. 

Long. corp. J. 
Obs. This subgenus is characterized by Dr. Leach in the third volume of his Zoological 
Miscellany, page 88, and may be easily known from Parnus by its -wanting the thoracic longitu- 
dinal fossulse of the latter genus. Dryops Hardiuickii differs from the type and only other 
known species of the subgenus, (that is from B. Dumerilii, which is a South of Europe insect,) 
in having a darker colour, and the points of the elytra impressed instead of elevated. I have 
named this new species after Major-General Hardwicke, a gentleman to whom every naturalist 
is indebted for the zeal and science he has displayed in the prosecution of the several depart- 
ments of Oriental Zoology. 

Fam. 3. HELOPHORID^S. 

There are no species of this family among Dr. Horsfield's insects. The groupe is remarkable 
among the Philhydrida for the metallic lustre which generally characterizes tlie insects which 

compose 



ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 35 

compose it, and which only again occurs in the contiguous family of HydrophiHdce. They 
appear to lead naturally to Berosus, and such other genera of the next family. 

Fam. 4. HYDROPHILIDiE. 
The analogy between the larger insects of this family composing the genu. Hydrous and 
the larger Dytisci is too striking to escape the notice of the most cursory observer. 
Their manners, their larvae, the singular dilatation at the extremity of the anterior tarsi of their 
males may all serve to shew us how Linnaeus came to name the type of this family DuHscm 
piceits. 

The most singular habit known of this insect is that the female spins out of her abdomen a 
gummy matter, which forms an envelope for her eggs, and these, disposed symmetrically in 
their oval receptacle, float about on the surface of the water until the larvae are hatched. 
It is not known how many other genera of the family possess this curious economy. 

The insects of this family which come from tropical climates prove, by their near affinity to 
European insects, how much fewer typical forms there are of aquatic insects than of terrestrial. 

Subgenus BEROSUS. Leach. 

69. Pvlchellus. B. griseo-Jlavescens, capite scutello thoracisque macula media divisa nigris, elytris striatis : 

maculis tribus. 

Long. corp. 1. 

Insectum supra pimctulatum. Elytra maculis tribus obscuris striisque nigris impressis, interstitiis crebre 
punctatis, punctis nigricantibus. 

Obs. This genus often retains some of the metallic lustre of the Helophorida : 

Genus ENHYDRUS. Meg. 

70. Pallens. E. albicans nitidus punctulatus, thorace maculis quatuor obscuris transverse dispositis elytrisque 

obsolete striatis. 

Long. corp. s \. 

Genus SPERCHEUS. Fab. 

71. Platycephalus. S. infra nigricans, supra scabriuscidus cinereus, elytris lineis quatuor elevatis ; dorso 

bituberculato, pedibus subferrugineis. 

Long. corp. / 2 -. 

Obs. This curious little insect is truly a Spercheus, and thus becomes the second species of the 
genus that is known to entomologists. 

Genus HYDROUS. Lin. Leach. 

72. Pallidipalpis. H. olivaceo-niger, elytris striis punctorum tribus, margineque vage punctulato. 

Long. corp. 1±-. 
Hoc Insectum ab alio Americano (H. Fuscipalpe mihi) ex Insula Sanctae Trinitatis simillimo differt cor- 
pore convexiore breviore, colore dilutiore, palpis crassioribus, et antennarum articulo sexto prseceden- 
tibus simul sumptis multo breviore. 

F 2 73. Bilineatus. 



36 ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 

■73. Bilineatus. H.nigropiceus, eiytris sulculis punctorum duobus obsoletis, linea medid punctorum vagomm, 
aliisque marginalibus* 

Long. corp. 1^. 
Insectum praecedenti simillimum, sed difFert corporis longitudine, elytrorum sculptura lineisque punctorum 
vagis marginalibus tribus vel quatuor, femorilms brunneis, articul'o palporum ultimo brevi crassiore 
subsecuriformi. 

Fam. 5. SPH^ERIDIDiE. 

It is not my intention to attempt at present the accurate determination of the natural place 
and boundaries of this family, because it would require a more minute and detailed investiga- 
tion than the limits of a local Fauna will admit. The remarkably close connexion, however, 
which exists between M. Latreille's Hydrophilii and Sphmridiota both in construction and eco- 
nomy, induces me to describe in this place the only two species of Sphceridium which are to be 
found in Dr. Horsfield's collections ; and, indeed, although I would not by any means be supposed 
to lay down my arrangement as certain, or for the present attempt to give more than a general 
statement of the near affinity which exists between this family and the last, yet I cannot forbear 
calling the attention of the entomologist to the circumstance of the genus Spliceridium possess- 
ing those two processes to their maxilla;, which form so prominent a character of the Philhydrida 
as a stirps. 

This family is less aqnatic than any of the four preceding, and I agree with Fabricius in think- 
ing that such genera as Phalacrus, Agathidium, &c, may safely be assigned to it. It is true that 
Latreille has separated them from Sphczridhmi, because they are tetramerous ; but by parity of 
reasoning, ^ince I-Ieterocerus and Georissus are also tetramerous, he ought to have separated the 
first from the vicinity of Parnus and the other from that of Elmis. It is the evil, however, of 
half-artificial systems like that which is founded on the number of joints in the tarsi, that while 
they are at utter variance with natural affinities, they do not even answer the humble pur- 
poses of a catalogue. 

The similarity of certain species of this family to Petalocerous insects has often been re- 
marked, and in tact it is from these insects that a transition is made to the Chilognatkomorpha 
or Coleoptera having larvae which resemble Chilognatha. 

Genus SPH^RIDIUM. Fab. 

74. Hydeophiloides. S. atronitidum punctulatum, palpisantennistarsisthoracisquelateribiisnigro.ru/escm. 

tibus, elytris punctorum striis impressis. 

Long. corp. ^. 
Obs. This species indisputably proves the close affinity of Sphceridium to the last family. 

75. Marginatum. S. elytris immaculatis maculisve obsoletis, thoracis elytrorumque margine extemo pedibusque 

ferrugineo-lutescentibus. 

Sphwridium Scarabaoides, Var. D. Lat. Gen. Ins. et Crust, vol.. ii. p. 72. 
Sphceridium marginatum, Fab. Syst. Eleuth. vol. i. p. 93. 

Long. corp. fa. 
Obs. Without attempting to decide the question, whet'her all those insects which Illiger consi- 
st, as varieties of Spharidium Scarabccoidcs be really distinct species, I shall merely say, that the 

above 



ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 3? 

above described Javanese insect will be found to differ from the European S. marginatum in no 
respect, except perhaps that of size. With respect to the general affinities of the genus Sphas- 
ridium, it may be sufficient to mention, that this insect would have been a Dermestes with Lin- 
naeus and Geoffroy, and an Hister with Degeer. 

Stirps 4. NECROPHAGA. Lat. 
We now come to a stirps so close in affinity to the Philhydrida, that Dumeril has combined 
them in one groupe, to which he has assigned theuameof Helocera, from the antennae in 
both being in a similar manner clavated. 

The Necrophaga, however, of Latreille, as this stirps is characterized in the Genera Tnsectorum 
et Crustaceorum, vol. i. p. 239, is a most natural groupe, distinguished from the Philhydrida by 
their habits being less aquatic, their mouth being prominent, and mandibles generally ex- 
serted. The first joint of the maxillary palpi is also evanescent in this stirps, so that these organs 
may in general be described as three-jointed. Indeed it is only theDermestidce, or fifth family of the 
Necrojihaga, which retains any character of the Sphcerididce, and the Dermestidce are also among 
the least Chilopodomorphous insects of the tribe, being closely allied to the Byrrhidce, and so 
leading to the Chilognathumorpha. Linnaeus and Geoffroy both observed the affinity existing be- 
tween the Dermestidce and Sphcerididce, and have even described the S. scarabceoides as a Dermes- 
tes. It is from insects, situated between the types of these two families, that the Byrrhidce take 
their rise, and lead us to the tribe of insects havingChilognathiform larvce or Chilognathomorpha. 

Although the stirps of Necrophaga comprizes many herbivorous insects, we find that each 
family composing it, has not merely a disposition to feed on animal matter, but retains, more- 
over, many vestiges of the predaceous habits of the more typical insects of the tribe. Thus 
among the Silphida;, the Silpka ^.-punctata climbs the oak for the purpose of devouring the 
caterpillars, of which so many species infest this tree. Several other Silphce attack live terres- 
trial Mollnsca, just as we have seen the neighbouring stirps of Philhydrida prey on certain aqua- 
tic animals of the same sub-kingdom. The disposition of many of these insects to feed on fungi, 
is in accord with a general remark to be made on carnivorous Coleoptera, namely, that as the 
aberrant insects of any groupe leave the living animal food, which forms the entire subsistence 
of the normal part of the same groupe, they prey on dead animal matter, or, in preference to 
other vegetable matter, on fungi. 

With respect to the affinities which connect the families of this stirps, I shall, according to my 
usual practice, avail myself of the argumentum ad verecundiam, in explaining them. True it is, 
indeed, that no naturalist has yet thought of combining these observations, and the consequence 
has been, that M. Latreille, among others, has never, in his various works, given the same 
arrangement of the stirps twice. 

M. Latreille has shewn the affinity of the Dermestidce and Scaphididce, in what perhaps is 
the most able of his works, I mean the Histoire Ge.ne.rale des Insectes, etc. vol. ix. p. 190 and 233, 
where he has made one family of them, and thus adopted an opinion of Degeer. 

In his Considerations Generates, p. 176, as well as the Histoire Generate, Latreille has more- 
over shewn the affinity of the Scaphididce to the Silphida, thus adopting an opinion of Linnaeus 

and Geoffrov. 

In 



g 8 ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 

In his Genera Insectorum et Crustaceorum, vol. ii. p. 2 and 8, Latreille has proved the affinity 
of the SilphidcB to the Nitidulidce, thus adopting another opinion not only of Linnaeus, but of 
Degeer and Olivier. 

In the same Histoire Generate, and Genera Insectorum et Crustaceorum, Latreille thinks the 
affinity of the Nitidulidce and Engidce so close, that he makes only one family of them, thus 
adopting an opinion of Geoffroy and Fabricius. 

Finally, in the Histoire Generate, vol. x. p. 16, M. Latreille acknowledges that the Engidce 
have, "beaucoup de rapport avec les Dermestes,'" thus adopting an opinion of Linnaeus, Scopoli, 
Geoffroy, Fabricius, and Olivier. 

Now these various affinities have never yet been supposed to lead to any general consequence, 
and nevertheless if connected, which, as was before said, they never yet have been, they pro- 
duce the following symmetrical table of the stirps : 

Necrophaga. 
1. Aberrant groupe? e 5. Dermestidw. 

Antennarum clava brevis articulis solummodo duobus J 
vel tribus ? j 

Dermestes Lin. ^3. Nitidulida:, (leading by Micropeplus to the Brachelytra.) 

2. Normal grovpe ? C 

Antennarum clava elongata valde perfoliata quatuor J 2. Silphidts. 

vel quinque articulis. J 

T . I 1 . Scaphididcs. 

SlLPEA Lin. v r 

The Necrophaga thus comprize almost all those insects which Linnaeus called either Der- 
mestes or Silphae. So close indeed is the affinity of these two Linnasan genera, that of the 
modern genus Nitidula we find one species assigned by the Swedish naturalist to his genus 
Silpha, and another to his genus Dermestes. 

The Nitidulida lead, by means of Cercus and Micropeplus, to the Brachelytra. That Micro- 
peplus is an insect which leaves the typical Necrophaga, is clear from its different antennae, and 
from its having been described as a Staphylinus by so many authors. 

Many, if not the greatest part, of Latreille's Taxicornes belong to this stirps, which, however, 
has too few Javanese species in it to induce me at present to investigate it accurately. I shall 
therefore now content myself with saying, that Latreille's groupe of Clavicornes, as given in 
the Dictionnaire d' Hist. Naturelle, is altogether artificial. It is a heterogeneous collection, that 
is not only inferior to all his former groupings of this family, but is even inferior to what M. 
Dumeril had already done in characterizing his Helocera. 

* 
Fam. 1. SCAPHIDIDtE. 

The first thing which strikes us in the appearance of this family is the remarkable relation of 
analogy which it bears to the Mordellidce, the place of which, in their own circle of affinity, is 
thus pointed out. Mr. Spence has, among other pertinent remarks on the genus Cholera, in 
the 11th volume of the Linnsean Transactions, justly observed, that the resemblance between 
Mordella and Choleva is merely superficial. So also is the relation between Scaphidium and 

liipiphorus, 



ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 39 

Ripiphorus, which last genus is not nearer in affinity to Mordella, than Scaphidium is to CJw- 
leva. M. Latreille, however, in the Itbgne Animal, has sufficiently proved the very obvious and 
close affinity of Scaphidium to Choleva, which it is rather surprising that so acute an en- 
tomologist as Mr. Spence should ever have doubted. A more than sufficient recompense, 
however, for the above error is, that Mr. Spence saw that Choleva had an affinity both with 
Dermestes and Silpha. He has also shewn the relation between it and the genus Anisotoma of 
Knoch, and thus proved his being no servile follower of the Tarsal system. In short, I would 
recommend the study of his excellent Monograph on Choleva to all who may wish to understand 
something of this family, which seems to be, as he observes, more common in Europe than in 
the other quarters of the globe. Dr. Horsfield found none in Java. 

The external process of the maxillae in the genus Choleva, although not distinctly articulated, 
is always linear or sublinear, and thus affords some ground for Herbst's describing one species 
as a Carabus, if indeed Mr. Spence be correct in suspecting him to have done this. 

Fam. 2. SILPHID^. 

That Dr. Horsfield should have brought from Java none of the typical insects of this family, which 
are also those of the stirps, I attribute rather to their rarity than to there being no Silpha ovNecro- 
phori on the island. The disgusting nature of the substances in which such insects are to he found, 
and their peculiar habits, give them often an opportunity of escaping the eye of an observer, even in 
these temperate climes ; and we can easily conceive how the same habits should give them tenfold 
security in tropical countries, where the putrid effluvia of dead carcases are as dangerous as 
offensive. That Silpha may be found in the Indian Archipelago I conclude from their being 
ascertained to exist in New Holland and on the continent of India. 

The larvae of Silphidce possess a flat elongate body, terminated laterally by a somewhat sharp 
angle, and having the last segment provided with two conical appendages. They enjoy that 
activity which is the general character of Chilopodiform larvae, and know how to search out 
fresh food for themselves, when they have consumed that which the parent insect had provided 
for them. When fully grown they bury themselves in the earth, and there undergo meta- 
morphosis. 

Th« abbreviated elytra of Neerophorus mark the typical insects of the groupe, and shew the 
strong relation of analogy which they bear to Creophilus, and the other corresponding genera of 
the contiguous stirps of Brachelytra. 

Genus PELTIS. Fab. Thtmalus Lat. 
76. Ovalis. P. ovata mstanea limbo dilutiore, thorace elytrisque punctis impressis. 

Long. corp. | 4 . 
Insectum P.ferrugineee Fab. quodammodo affine, at corpore minus convexo minusque oblongo. Elytra 
punctata lineis sex impressis punctulatis, serieque punctorum excavatorum in interstitiis disposita. 

Obs. This genus has certainly an affinity to Colobicus, and possibly therefore to Eledona. It is 

at the extremity of the family. 

Fam. 



40 



ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 



Faro. 3. NITIDULID^E. Nitwularije Lat. 

The larvae of this family resemble those of the last very closely, as may be seen on inspect- 
ing the figure of the larva of Nitidula varia Fab. (Silpha grisea Lin.) given by the late Mr. 
Curtis, in the second volume of the Linnaean Transactions. This larva seems to live on putrid 
vegetable matter. 

The perfect insects of the family are to be found in almost all substances, some inhabiting 
flowers, and others carrion. They differ from the Silphidce by their mandibles being biden- 
tate at the apex, and in general by their anterior tarsi having the three first joints dilated. 
From the Engidce they may be distinguished by their more peltate form and transverse thorax. 

Genus NITIDULA. Fab. 

77. Picta. N. ovalis, Jronte bipunctata, clypeo truncato, elytris punctulatis : striis elevatis setigens. 

Long. corp. ^. 
Obs. Species N.grisece Lin. (N. varim Fab.) simillima, at brevior et convexior. Caput ferrugineum punc- 
tulatum fronte utrinque fossula impressa, clypeo antice truncato, labro emarginato. Thorax ferrugineus punc- 
tulatus pilis albis raris vestitus. Elytra nigro ferrugineoque varia. 

Fam. 4. ENGID^. 

The typical insects of this family differ in general from those of the last by their elongate form, 
or by the semi-lunar termination of their maxillary palpi, and minuteness of the penultimate joint 
of their tarsi. In the genus Cryptophagus the sexes may be distinguished by a difference in the 
number of joints of their posterior tarsi. And if Mycetophagus, and even Triplax, belong to this 
family, as I suspect they, with their immediate affinities, will be found to do, then tetramerous 
insects belong to the stirps of Necrophaga as well as to the Philhydrida. Accurate examination, 
however, seems to prove that such insects are not truly tetramerous ; the penultimate joint of 
the tarsi, which is so minute in Engis, becoming in Triplax only more evanescent. The manner 
in which this change is effected, becomes manifest on comparing the genera Ips, Engis, Triplax, 
and Erotylus. The connexion existing between these, no one can doubt, and, indeed, M. La- 
treille long since remarked it. I am not however prepared to say, that the Erotyli fall into 
this tribe ; but if they should eventually be proved to have this situation in nature, it will be 
another instance of that manifest relation which exists between the stirps of Necrophagous 
insects and the Linnaean genera Cassida, Chrysomela, and Coccinella. It is, perhaps, by the 
Erotyli that the opposite points of the circle of Coleoptera meet, for I do not think that this genus 
will go well among the true insects with anopluriform larvae. As to the Erotyli being tetra- 
merous, it is a circumstance to which little importance ought to be attached, since the five 
articulations of the tarsi are visible in several species, and other insects which are close to the 
genus, such as Mr. Kirby's genus Spheniscus, are heteromerous. 

Phaleria and its affinities seem also to have a faint relation to these insects, as well as Cerj/lo/i 
Sylvanus,&ic. But without estimating the degree of importance that ought to be attached to such 
relations, I shall not at present attempt to do more than indicate them, since the true limits of 

this 



ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 41 

this most difficult family must depend in a great measure on our better acquaintance with their 
larvae. Perhaps it would be better for the present to consider the typical insects of the groupe as 
unascertained, and the propriety therefore of the family name Engidce as at least doubtful. It is 
observable, however, that ail these insects were Dermestes with Linnaeus and Fabricius; and, as 
in another part of the work I shall have to return to this subject, in<the mean time I shall merely 
remark, that from the Helopidce this groupe may easily be distinguished by their clavate antennae. 

Genus DACNE Lat. Engis Payk. 
M. Latreille, in his Precis de Genres founded the genus Dacne on the species of insect 
called by Herbst, Ips humeralis ; and soon after Paykull, in the Fauna Suecica, gave the generic 
ivame of Engis, with appropriate characters, to the same insect. Fabricius, in the Systema 
Eleutheratorum, adopted this genus with the name given to it by Paykull, and placed in it an 
American insect, the Erotylus bifasciatus of Olivier (Enc. Meth. Hist. Nat.), which insect is, 
however, sufficiently distinct, by its maxillary palpi having their last joint hammer-shaped, 
whereas the European insect (Ips humeralis of Herbst) has the same joint only obtusely subu- 
late. I leave, therefore, the original name of Dacne with the last-mentioned insect, and give 
the name of Engis to those exotic insects which coincide with Engis fasciata of Fabricius, in 
the above description of their palpi, ana which differ from true Erotyli, in having the 
penultimate joint of their tarsi visible, although very small. 

78. Sexnotata. D. antice angustior, nigrcnitida, thoracis angidis anticis, elytrorumque fasciis duabus 

transversis cruentis. 
Engis sexnotata, Wiedemann Zool. Mag. 2. 1. 131. 

Long corp. f 
Caput vertice concavo antennarumque clava tomentosa raurina. Thorax antice angustior, ad angulos 
subproductus lunulaque cruenta insignis, postice vix fossulatus. Scutettum nigrum. Elytra striis 
punctorum obsoletis, et maculis duabus transversis undatis cruentis, antica dentata humerum versus. 
Corpus atronitidum. Pedes nigri tibiis ad apicem tomento brunneis. 

79. Quadrimacula. D. nigronitida pubescens punctulata, elytris maculis transversis: humerali mediaque rufis, 

humero scutelloque nigris. 
Engis quadrimacula, Wiedemann Zool. Mag. 2. 1. 132. 

Long. corp. \ 
Antenna: nigra?. Thorax niger, antice subangustior. Elytra striis punctorum obsoletis, ad scutellum 
nigra, macula humerali utrinque excisa, media lunulata. Corpus atronitidum. Pedes nigri tibiis ad 
apicem tomento brunneis. 

Genus ENGIS. Nobis. 
The genus Oxypm-us among the Brachelytra has its labial palpisomewhat like those of this genus. 

80. Verticals. E. atra, verticis maculis duabus, thoracis annulo irregulari, elytrorum fasciis duabus apice- 

que rubris. 

Long. corp. 1^ 

Caput nigrum, vertice ad oculos bimaculato, antennarumque clava tomentosa. Thorax niger, marginatus, 
fossulis ad marginem posteriorem tribus minutis, annulo medio rubro ad angulos protento et lineam 

q dorsalem 



42 ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 

dorsalem versus obscuriori. Scutellum nigrum. Elytra nigra marginata punctorum lineis septem 
obsoletis, apice et fasciis dentatis tribus rufis, sutura et fascia; humeralis maculis duabus nigris. Cor- 
pus oblongum aterrimum. Pedes nigri tibiis plantisque tomento brunneis. 

81. Asnulata. E. nigro-nitida, tkorace postice subpunctato, elytris annidis duobus rufis, pedibus atropiceis. 

Long. corp. |l 
Caput palporum articulo maxillarium ultimo rufo antennarumque clava tomentosa. Elytra lineis punc- 
torum octo obsoletis, annulis basali et posticali runs. Scutellum nigrum. Corpus oblongo-ellipticum. 

82. Cbuenta. E. nigronitida, thorace utrinque macula longitudinali, elytris lunula basali maculaque postica 

sanguineis. 

Long. corp. f 

Caput bifossulatum. Thorax niger marginatus, fossulis tribus ad marginem posticum obsoletis, linea 
utrinque longitudinali postice subfurcata. Scutellum nigrum. Elytra nigra lunula humerali macula- 
que apicali rufis. Corpus oblongum aterrimum. Pedes nigri tibiis plantisque tomento brunneo. 

83. Lunulata. E. nigro-nitida, thoracis maculis tribus anticis, elytrorum cruce basali lunulaque postica 

sanguineis. 

Long. corp. ^ 

Caput subpunctatum. Thorax maculis tribus anticis linearibus brevibus rufis. Elytra lineis punctorum 
obsoletis, cruce humerali vel lunula caudata humerum amplectente et lunula posticali simplice san- 
guineis. Pedes nigri tibiis plantisque tomento brunneis. 

84. Litvrata. E. nigronitida, thoracis medio maculis annulato, elytris ad apicem litura marginali sanguinea. 

Long. corp. A 
Thorax maculis obscuris rufis annulum quasi in medio formantibus. Elytra lineis septem punctorum ob- 
soletis. Scutellum nigrum. Pedes nigro-picei. 

85. Subrotunda. E. nigronitida, capite thoraceque subpunctatis, elytris fasciis duabus lunulatis dent at is 

rubris : sutura nigra. 

Long. corp. | 
Elytra nigra, lineis punctorum octo obsoletis, lunulisque rubris, antica humerum, postica apicem am- 
plectentibus. Pedes nigro-picei. 

Obs. This species comes very near to the genus Erolylus, in general habit and the structure 
of the tarsi. 

Germs HELOTA. Nobis. 
Antennae, vix capitis longitudine, sub clypeo ad mandibularum basin insertae, undecim- 
articulatae, articulo basilari sub-obconico crasso, secundo subgloboso, tertio obconicc 
longiore ; clava crassa tomentosa compressa orbiculari tri-articulata. 
Labrum membranaceum sub clypeo occultum, margine lineari vix apparente. 
Mandibular subtrigonse, validae, corneae, extus rotundatas, apice acuta?, intus sub-emarginativ 

tenues. 
MaxillcB breves, ad basin corneae, subtrigonae, apice submembranacere, laminatre, truncata?, 

subquadrata?, 



ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 43 

subquadratse, ciliata? : procesau dorsali palporurn longitudine, basi subcorneo, apice 

membranaceo, ciliato. 
Palpi maxillares articulo primo obconico, secundo pateriformi, tertio vel ultimo prseceden- 

tibus simul sumptis fere longiore, subsubulato. 
Palpi labiales clavati, vix labio longiores, articulo primo subgloboso, secundo obconico, 

tertio vel ultimo maximo crasso cylindrico apice truncato perforato. 
Labium membranaceum, medio crassiusculum, apice emarginatum, lobis lateralibus rotun- 

datis ciliatis sub-diapbanis. 
Mentum breve, latum, corneum, transverso-quadratum. 
Caput horizontale subtrigonum clypeo antice rotundato. Thorax magnus subquadratus, 

supra convexiusculus, postice" lobatus. Scutellum minimum. Corpus depressiusculum 

coxis fere seque dissitis. Tarsi breves quinque-articulati, articulo primo minimo vix 

conspicuo, secundo tertio et quarto subtus setigei'is, ultimo aliis simul sumptis longiore 

infra longitudinaliter fossulato, fossula ad apicem inter ungues in processum setis 

duabus instructum desinente. 
Genus Bupreslidarum habitu quodammodo fruens. 

86. Vigobsii. H. supra viridiceneus picnctatus, thorace eminentiis Icevissimis, elytris geminatim striatis : lilura 
media Jlavo-bimaculata. 

Long. corp. tfj. 
Caput viridiaeneurn, antice et ad latera punctatissimum, oculis albis, collo subtus testaceo, antennis basi 
piceis apicem versus nigrioribus, et clavae obscuras articulo ultimo rufescente. Thorax viridiaeneus, 
punctatus, lineis duabus mediis postice confluentibus, et maculis duabus lateralibus nigris nitidis- 
simis eminentibus. Scutellum nigrum. Elytra viridiaenea, striis punctorum geminatis, et latera versus 
lineis elevatis ; litura media longitudinal! nigra maculis duabus magnis flavis laevioribus insigni. 
Corpus totum subtus testaceum nitidum. Pedes testacei geniculis et unguibus nigris. 
Hcsc species ab amico tarn rei entomologicce perito quam studioso N. A. Vigors Armigero nomen mutuatur. 

Obs. This insect presents perhaps one of the most curious and novel forms of the whole 
collection. Its brilliancy and variety of colour, its beauty of sculpture and its similarity at first 
siffht to the Linnean genus Buprestis, altogether render it a most extraordinary insect to be 
placed among the Necrophaga : yet it cannot be doubted that the true place of this curious 
insect is in this stirps. The only other insects to which it bears any similarity are the Buprestida;, 
and it will prove perhaps, by reason of the strong relation of analogy which it bears to this groupe, 
most useful in shewing their place in their own tribe. That it does not, however, belong to the 
Buprestidce clearly appears from its horizontal head, the lateral insertion of its clavate antenna?, 
the structure of the lower surface of its body, and above all from its organs of manducation. In 
all these particulars, on the other hand, it agrees with the general characters of the Necrophaga, 
some of which, such as the genus Languria, display a similar brilliancy of colour, and a form even 
more longitudinal. Near to this genus, therefore, and to Dacne I conceive HelotaVigorsii to come, 
since it also agrees with the latter in the form of its antennae and structure of mouth. The 
feet nevertheless are constructed differently from those of both these genera, for although our 
insect is with still greater difficulty detected to be pentamerous, the minute evanescent joint 

g 2 : s 



44 ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 

is not as with Dacne and Languria the fourth but the first. Languria and the insects imme- 
diately allied to it differ from the typical characters which I have ventured to attribute to the 
aberrant groupe of Necrophaga, inasmuch as the clava of their antennae is often composed of 
more than three joints and sometimes even of five. Helota, however, as before said, has its 
antennae and mouth similarly constructed with those of the more typical insects of the stirps or 
at least with Dame, to which it is much nearer allied than to Engis. 

The dorsal process of the maxilla is also in this genus beautifully distinct, and even presents 
a trace of being articulated. This circumstance of itself as well as the number of joints in the 
palpi separates Helota from the Rupreslida;, and places it in this family, for although other 
families in other tribes, as I have before shewn, may analogically present the bilobed maxilla, 
and thus approach to the typical structure of that organ, the pieces of the maxilla in all the 
Buprestidas, which I have dissected, are confluent and indeed present a very uniform cha- 
racter wholly different from that of our insect. Moreover the typical character of the maxillary 
palpi in Coleoptera is that they are quadri-articulate, but in the Necrophaga generally as well as 
in our insect, the first joint is evanescent, so that such palpi may be described as tri-articulate 
in which respect they differ wholly from those of the Buprestidce. 

Genus LANGURIA. Lat. 
This genus was established by M. Latrcille on the examination of an insect, L. bicolor, which 
was brought from North America by M. Bosc. The genus, however, has not been hitherto pro- 
perly characterized, since under a high lens it appears to be truly pentamerous, the penultimate 
joint of the tarsi being very minute, as in Engis. The validity of M. Latreille's generic character 
will, therefore, depend on his description of the clava of the antenna?, which lie considers as con- 
sisting of five articulations — a description which, if true, will exclude all the following Javanese 
species from the genus. The fact seems to be, that Languria is divisible into several subgenera, 
which may be made to depend on the form of the antennae. Thus from the West Indies and 
Brazil, M'e have Langurice with short antennae, and a very thick clava composed of five joints ; 
while from the continent of India, we have such species as Languria elongata Lat. {Trososita 
elongata Fab.), which have long filiform antennae, with a very indistinct attenuated clava, con- 
sisting of three joints. The form of L. bicolor Lat. seems common to Asia and America. 
Nevertheless as my object is not to make new genera, but to render new species sufficiently 
known, I shall leave the following species in the genus Lang-uria, of which I reckon the prin- 
cipal characters to be its linear body, clavate antennae, filiform maxillary palpi, and evanescent 
fourth joint of the tarsus. 

87. Pyramidata. L. nifa thoracis punctis tribus nigris, capite elytrisque viridi-ceneis, antennh chatubeis 
Jemoribusque testaceis. 

Long. corp. f 
Caput supra viridiseneum subtus nigrum, antennis chalybeis : clava quadriarticulata. Thorax rufus mar- 
gine antico et postico, puncto medio, alioque utrinque laterali nigris. Scutellum nigrum. Eh/tra 
pyramidata viridiaenea nitida ,striis punctorum impressa. Abdomen sublineare pyramidatum vel 
apicem versus gradatim attenuatum, subtus eonvexum rufum ; ano viridireneo. Pedes chalybei coxis 
nigris, femoribusque, geniculis exceptis, rufis. 

Obs. A 



ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 45 

Obs. A Javanese species described by Wiedemann under the name of L. splendens comes 
very near to this species, and his Languria tripunclata, a Bengal insect, scarcely differs from it 
except in size and in its feet being altogether of a greenish black colour. 

88. Morio. L. nigro-nitida, capite ihoraceque punctatis, hoc Jbssulis duabus linearibus, elytris atro-ceneis 

puncto-striatis. 

Long. corp. $ 

Caput nigrum punctatum labro piceo antennisque nigris. Thorax quadratus, punctatus, fossulis duabus 
brevibus posticis longitudinalibus impressus. Scutellum nigrum. Elytra atroaenea striis septem 
punctorum impressa. Corpus subtus pedesque nigri. 

89. Testacea. L. nitida, elytris punctato-striatis, antennis pedibusque nigris, coxisjemoribusque ad basin fer- 

rugineis, 

Long. corp. fere -^ 
Insectum supra ferrugineum. Caput subpunctatum, articulo antennarum basilari subferrugineo. Thorax 
laevissimus. Elytra vix obscuriora striis octo punctorum impressis. Corpus subtus ferrugineum. 
Obs. An insect which Fabricius describes from Sumatra, under the name of Trogosita jili- 
formis (Syst. Eleuth. 1, 152, 12), comes very near to the above species ; indeed only differs from 
it, according to the description there given, in that it has the elytra smooth. This, however, 
may be an error of Fabricius, as the insect I have described above, under the name of Languria 
testacea, appears to be widely dispersed, and occurring in my father's cabinet from the conti- 
nent of India, seems not unlikely to be also a native of Sumatra. 

This insect clearly shews that Cerylon and other genera of similar structure are most erro- 
neously placed by Latreille with the Bostrichidce, for it forms a most complete transition from 
Languria to Cerylon. 

Genus MEGAUCHENIA. Nobis. 
Antennce, capite subduplo longiores, thorace tamen breviores, undecim-articulatse, articulo 

secundo crasso obconico, tertio hrevi, quarto longo, reliquis ad clavam brevibus, subglo- 

bosis ; clava orbiculari compressa triarticulata. 
Labrum exertum, transversum, corneum, apice bilobum, angulis rotundatis. 
Mandibular vix exertee, depressee, trigonse, extus incurvaj, apice acutissimaj intus uni- 

dentata?, et basin versus ciliatse. 
Maxillae, basi corneas processu apicali magno membranaceo falciformi, intus ciliatae, pro- 

cessu dorsali inconspicuo. 
Palpi maxillares triarticulati, articulis basilaribus brevibus, obconicis, articulo ultimo 

oblongo ovali, apice subulate, preecedentibus simul sumptis longiore. 
Palpi labiates brevissimi articulo basilari inconspicuo, secundo et tertio obconicis. 
Labium membranaceum, apice bilobum, lobis subacutis. 
Mentum breve, corneum, basi retusum, apice subtrigonum. 
Corpus elongato-quadratum, fere parallelopipedum, depressiusculum. Thorax quadratus 

longior quam latior, ab abdomine pedunculo nullo disjunctus. Elytra corpore breviora. 

Tibia; 



46 ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 

Tibiae ad apicem latiores, extus denticulatse. Tarsi articulis quinque primis subpulvil- 
latis vel apice setigeris, articulo quarto minimo. 

Obs. Megauchenia is a difficult genus, but appears to have a strong affinity to Languria and to 
Cerylon, indeed principally differs from M. Latreille's description of this last, according to what I 
have been able to observe, in having the clava of the antennae of three distinct joints with the 
labrum emarginate, and, in being pentamerous, in which last respect it agrees with Languria. I 
suspect, however, that the Xylophagi of Latreille (which at present form a most artificial assem- 
blage) are in general pentamerous, and that it is merely owing to the minuteness of the fourth 
joint, and to the small size of the insects themselves, that they have been placed by the entomolo- 
gists of the French school between the Linnean genera Curculio and Cerarnbyx — groupes be- 
tween which the transition is immediate and perfect. " Natura opifex rerum, non facit saltus." 

It is in this stirps, as has been before said, that we find the maxillae recede the farthest from 
their typical form; it is in this stirps therefore that of the whole tribe we find the most herbi- 
vorous insects. This is curious, certainly, but corresponds with afr observation to be made on 
the herbivorous tribes of Coleoptera, namely, that where in an herbivorous groupe such as the 
Petalocera, we meet with a family such as the Trogidce endued with an appetite for animal matter, 
we find its maxillae approaching in structure to those of the Adephaga,ov at least to be furnished 
with two processes. 

90. Setipwnis. M. atropkeus, capite thoraceque subsetigero punctato-striatis : striis altematim setigeris. 

Long. corp. ^. 
Caput clypeo antice marginato, antennis piceis clava tomentosa. Thorax marginatus lateribus rugosulis- 
Elytra punctorum seriebus striata setisque brevibus spiniformibus instructa. Corpus subtus Pedesque 
picei. Tarsi sub-pulvillati. 

Genus SYLVANUS. Lat. dermestes Lin. Fab. 
This genus is said to have some relation to Trogosita, but on the nature and value of 
such relation, I am not at present able to offer any decided opinion. It may, however, be 
observed, that M. Latreille has described Silvanus as having two processes to the maxilla?, and 
Trogosita as possessing only one. Such a remark may lead us to suspect a relation between Sil- 
vanus and the Cucujidce, which is not improbable ; but however this may be, I repeat that a great 
portion of doubt must still hang over this arrangement of Latreille's Xylophagi, inasmuch as 
we know not how many of them truly belong to the stirps of Necrophaga. No greater service can 
indeed be rendered to this part of entomology than by accurately dissecting these minute insects, 
of which so many genera and species are to be found in England ; I question, however, whether 
it may be advisable to attempt at present a natural arrangement of them, because so few of the 
exotic species are known, and such wide chasms appear between several of the known genera. 

91. Denticulatus. S.Juscus, thorace crenato punctulato : lineis duabus impressis, clytris punctato-striatis, an- 

tennarum clava quadriarticulatd. 

Long. corp. &. 
Insectum S. sexdentato majus. Caput clypeo punctulato utrinque ante oculos unklentato antennis fuscis. 

Thorax 



ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 47 

Thorax lateribus sexdentatis, dorso subcarinato, fossula utrinque longitudinal! antice posticeque 
profundiore. Elytra pallidiora punctorum seriebus striata. Corpus fuscum pedibus fuscis. 
Obs. The Dermestes sexdentatus of Fabricius, which is the same with his Colydium frumen- 
tarium and the Ips frumentaria of Olivier, but which appears different from the Corticaria fru- 
mentaria of the EntomologiaBritannica, comes so very near to our species that I have little doubt 
of its food being analogous. It probably infests rice, as other species of the genus are found in 
moist sugar. 

Genus TRIBOLIUM, Nobis. Colydium Herbst. 
Antenna: undecim-articulatae, sub clypeo ad mandibularum basin inserts, articulis basil- 
aribus octo globosis sub-aequalibus, apicem versus vix crassioribus, tribus ultimis clavam 
laxam efformantibus; articulis nono et decimo subpateriformibus, ultimo transverso ovali. 
Os sub clypeo piano transverso ad latera rotundato absconditum. 

Oculi clypeo fere cincti. Thorax transverso-quadratus submarginatus. Corpus depressius- 
culurn sublineare. Tarsi articulis quinque. 
Obs. This genus appears closely allied to Colydium and also to have some sort of relation to 
Colobicus. From the latter it differs in the antennae and form of body ; from the former in the 
form of head and in being pentamerous. I am indeed inclined to think that the Colydium rufum 
of Latreille {Gen. Insect, et Crust. Vol. 3. p. 21.) belongs to this genus, if it be not identical with 
our species ; but the description of the Colydium rufum by this entomologist is too vague to 
admit of certainty on the subject. 

As the specimen is unique in the collection of the East-India Company, I have been under the 
necessity of contenting myself with a generic description founded on external characters alone. 

Herbst has very justly remarked the strong connexion which exists between this genus and 
Dermestes, and there is indeed no doubt of its belonging to the stirps of Necrophaga, as its larva 
scarcely differs from that of Dermestes except in not being so hirsute. 
92. Castaneum. T.Jerrugineum, capite thoraceque subtilissime punctatis, elytris punctato-striatis. 
Colydium castaneum Herbst. 7. 282. tab. 112. fig. 13. E. 
An Colydium rufum, Lat. Gen. Ins. et Crust, vol.iii. p. 21 ? 
An Colydium rufum, Fab. Syst. Eleuth. 2. 557. 11? 
Trogositaferruginea, Fab. Syst. Eleuth. 1. 155. 23. 
Ips testacea, Fab. Ent. Syst. Suppl. 179. 14 ? 

Synonymia Trogositceferruginece apud Fabricium corrigenda, antennarum enim clava in Lycto navali 
Ent. Syst. 1. 2. 504. 10, est biarticulata. 

Long. corp. ^. 

Clypeus ante oculos depressus angulis truncatis. Antennce apice pallidiores. Thorax fossula utrinque 

ad marginem posticum impressa. Elytra seriebus punctorum inter strias duabus obscure impressa. 

Corpus subtus obscuro-piceum pedibus rufis. 

Obs. This insect is by Fabricius stated to be most destructive to rice, that is if it be the 

Ips testacea of the Supplement, but of this I have great doubts, as the description is so loose and 

vague that it might suit a Sylvanus. I have, however, found the Tribolium rufum alive among 

insects from India, and according to Herbst it is very destructive in such situations, he haying 

received 



48 ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 

received it as, he says, an uninvited guest in a collection of insects from the East-Indies. Fabri- 
ciuo says of his Trogosita ferruginea " Habitat in India utraque destruens animalia in Museis 
asservata, panem, aliaque." The name of Xylophagi given to this groupe of insects by Latreille, 
seems indeed to be one of the most inappropriate that he could have chosen, since I do not know 
that there is any ascertained instance of a species devouring wood. He grouped them, 
however, with the Bostrichidce, to which they have little or no immediate affinity, and which 
are true Xylophagi. Many of the present insects indeed are to be found under bark, but 
this residence may be owing to their taste for the fungi and dead animal matter which 
usually abound in such situations. Those with the habits of which we are acquainted 
devour fruits, corn, and decayed animal matters. Thus the celebrated Degeer ascertained 
that his Tenebrion du lard, which is a species of Latridius, in its larva state devours bacon. 
The figure and description of this larva proves satisfactorily that these insects are properly placed 
among the Necrophaga and near the Dermestidce. There appears moreover to be a strong rela- 
tion of analogy between the form of Latridius and certain species of the contiguous stirps of Phil- 
hydrida, such as for instance the Hydrcence among the Elophoridce. 

The Tribolium castaneum is often to be found in collections as an English insect, but is only, 
as I suspect, a visitor of our island. 

Fam. 5. DERMESTID^E. 

That this family was in the opinion of Linnasus closely connected with the last, sufficiently 
appears from the following sentence in his Biga Insectorum, " Unde patet genera insectorum 
nova admodum esse rara, nisi ante cognita quispiam vellet separata ut Hydroum a Dytiscis, 
Ipsidem a Dermestibus." In several genera of the last family the mandibles are short and thick, 
concealed under the clypeus, and in these insects the mandibles are always of this construction. 

Herbst has given an excellent magnified figure of the larva of the common Dermestes and 
this figure sufficiently proves that we are here at the very extremity of Chilopodiform larvae. 
It is indeed from this family that we proceed to the neighbouring tribe of Chilognathiform 
larva;. 

Genus DERMESTES. Lin. 

93. Vulpims. D. niger subtus albidus capite thoracisque lateribus cinereo-vtilosis, scuteUo testaceo-villoso, 

elytris submurinis. 
Dermestes vulpinus. Fab. Syst. Eleuth. 1. 314. 12. 

Long. corp. ^. 
Obs. This destructive insect appears to be very generally dispersed over the old world. It is at 
least too common in France, the whole of the south of Europe, Africa, aud India. In my 
father's collection there is also one marked as from Cayenne. The ubiquity, however, of such 
insects as these which inhabit skins, &c. may be owing to their attendance on man. 

Genus CHELONAR1UM. Fab. 

94. Villosum. C . nigropiceum nitidum subpunctatum, elytris substriatis, tarsis rufescentibus, antennarum 

articulis ultimis pallidis. 

Long. corp. i. 
Insectum totum villo denso cinereo obtectum. 

Obs. 



ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 49 

Obs. The occurrence in Java of genera like this, hitherto supposed to be peculiar to America, 
is a circumstance important in entomological geography, and which we shall frequently have 
occasion to allude to. In the mean time I shall observe that the antenna? of the only specimen 
in the East-India Company's collection have lost their last joints, having only two of that 
setiform part which so singularly distinguishes this genus from all others known. (Vide Lett. 
Gen. Ins. et Crust. Vol. 2. p. 44.) Such antennas agree in scarcely any respect with those of 
other Chilopodomorpha, and I am therefore by no means convinced of the propriety of placing 
this insect here, and must consider the matter as undecided until a more accurate investigation 
shall have been made from an unmutilated specimen. 

Stirps5. BRACHELYTRA. Lat. 
It is a singular circumstance that no insect of this stirps, which is the same as the Linnean 
genus Staphylinus was collected by Dr. Horsfield. This at all events proves the extreme rarity 
of such insects in Java. Of their existence in the island I have no doubt, since they have 
been brought both from New Holland and the Continent of India, and it would therefore be 
remarkable did they not occur in the intervening islands. When it is considered that the 
British species of this stirps are so numerous, it appears very extraordinary that not one should » 

have occurred in Java. But in this, as in all other tropical climates, the surface of the earth is 
almost exclusively occupied by ants, and according to Dr. Horsfield, where the common ants 
are not found the Termites or white ants possess the territory. These two tribes, which are 
constantly at war, or rather, which clear away and destroy each other as their numbers res- 
pectively predominate, have in a great measure divided the surface of the island among them- 
selves. From their incredible numbers, particularly of the common ant, little is left on the 
surface for other insects. Swarming on every spot, and incessantly in motion, they attack and 
devour whatever animal matter they meet with in a much shorter period than would be thought 
possible by a person who had not witnessed the fact. But nevertheless whenever in his excursions 
Dr. Horsfield observed the carcase of any animal, he and his assistants carefully examined it, and 
from the care they took in such labours, he is convinced that had Silphidce, Staphylinidas and 
such carrion-feeding families of insects occurred in any tolerable abundance, they could scarcely 
have escaped his researches. With respect to such genera of Brachelytra as inhabit flowers, 
he scarcely conceives, had they been common, that they could have escaped him, as he was in 
constant habit of collecting on plants and flowers. 

In the third volume of the Begne Jfnimul, M. Latreille has divided his groupe of Brachelytres 
into four sections, which he terms Fissilabres, Longipalpes, Applatis and Miwocep hales, all 
of which are apparently natural groupes. Now if to these we add his grand division of Dimerous 
insects, we have the whole of the Brachelytra, which may therefore be arranged thus : 

Brachelytra. 

2. Aberrant groupe ? 

Caput haud thoracis 

magnitudine. 

1. Normal groupe? 

Caput thoracis 

magnitudine. 

The 



5. 


Tachyporidce, 


vel 


Microcephales Lat. 


4. 


Pselaphidce, Leach 


vel 


Dimera Lat. 


3. 


Omalidce, 


vel 


Applatis Lat. 


2. 


Slenida:, 


vel 


Longipalpes Lat. 


1. 


Slaphylinida? , 


vel 


Fisiilabres Lat. 




H 







50 ANNULOSA JAVANICA. 

The apparently dimerous tarsi of the Pstlaphidae are not of themselves alone sufficient to throw 
these insects out of the stirps, for we may perceive the articulations of the tarsi to disappear 
in Oxi/telus and several genera of the neighbouring family, which the Tarsal System with its 
usual inconsistency, places widely apart from the Pselaphidce. 

From the Omalidce by means of the genus Lesteva, we return to the Geodephaga into which 
stirps we enter by Lebia „and other of the jBrachinidce, a family of which the distinguishing or 
typical character depends on an approach to the short truncated elytra of the Brachelytra. In 
Lesteva, moreover, and such other genera of this stirps as come nearest to the Geodephaga, the 
outer process of the maxilla is slender and palpiform. So it is that, whether nature be regarded 
at the root or at the extreme branches of her tree, we always find her pursuing the same plan, 
and constantly displaying as much unity as beauty. 



* 




This Work, which is intended to contain systematic Descriptions of all the Insects collected 
by Dr. Horsfield in Java, will be published in Numbers. The Species will be arranged, as 
nearly as possible, according to their natural affinities; and in order to make this, the 
important part of the Science, more clear, the Descriptions will be interspersed with such 
leading observations on the economy and anatomical structure of the Families, as may, it is 
hoped, render the work interesting to Naturalists in general, as well as to the Entomologist. 

The plan of the Author, however, will be best understood on a perusal of the first Number. 
The second Number is now in progress for publication, and will contain the whole of the 
Coleoptera having Iuliform Larvae. 

The Insects described are arranged in the Museum of the Honourable East-India Company, 
where they may be inspected under the regulations established at their Library. 



SPEEDILY WILL BE PUBLISHED, 

PLANTS JAVANICiE RARIORES, 

DESCK.IPT.ffi ICONIBUSQUE ILLUSTRATE, 

QUAS IN INSULA JAVA, ANNIS 1802-1817, LEGIT ET INVESTIGAVIT 

THOMAS HORSFIELD, M.D. S.L. et G.S. 

DESCRIPTIONES et CHARACTERES, 

E SICCIS ELABORAVIT, 
Nee non Observationes de earum Structure et Affinitatibus passim adjecit, 
ROBERTUS BROWN, S. R. et L. S., &c. &c. &c. 

In this Work will be given Figures and Descriptions of the more remarkable new or imperfectly known 
Plants, contained in a Herbarium of Two Thousand Species, collected in the Island of Java, by Dr. Hors- 
field, and deposited by him in the Museum of the Honourable East-India Company. 

The size of the Work will be a large Quarto. Each Plant will be figured on a separate Plate ; the 
subjects selected will not exceed One Hundred ; and the Work will appear in Numbers, containing 
Eight Plates. 

Both the Engravings and Descriptions are in a state of forwardness, and it is proposed to publish the first 
Number early in the course of the present season.