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Full text of "The Adirondack black spruce: from the Annual report of the N. Y. Forest Commission for 1894"

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THE GIFT OF 



RETURN TO 
ALBERT R. MANN LIBRARY 



Cornell University Library 
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The Adirondack black sprucerfrom the Ann 




924 002 983 298 



The Forest Commission, State of New York. 



1 ntl 



ADIRONDACK BLACK SPRUCE 



•ry\r 

WTT T TAM 1^ "FOX 

Superintendent State Forests. 



FROM THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE FOREST COMMISSION FOR 1894. 



ALBANY : 

JAMES B. LYON, PBINTEB. 
1895. 



JL XV. JC-f X JrjL v-*- X2j» 



The following article is from a report made to the New York 
State Forest Commission in 1894. No claim or pretension is 
made to any original researches of a botanical nature. The 
report aims rather to furnish information of a general character 
concerning this, the leading merchantable species in the great 
forest of Northern New York. At the same time it is hoped that 
there may be something in these few pages which may be of 
interest alike to the botanist, forester and lumberman. 

WILLIAM F. FOX. 
Albany-, N. Y., January 15, 1895. 



The Adirondack Black Spruce. 



PIOEA NIGEA, Link, 

Black, Double, or Eed Speucb. 
Fr., Efinette noire;^ Grer., SohwartBtanne; Sp., Aheto negro. 

Leaves dark green, needle-shaped, four-sided, about one-half inch in length, 
and set thickly on all sides of the branches; flowers in May, the cells of the 
antlers opening lengthwise. Nodding cones, persistent for several years, 
from one to one and one-half inches long, ovate in shape, recurved, with thin, 
rigid scales having a characteristic broken or slightly jagged edge, the cones 
hanging on the end of short branches. Bark thin, of a dark-brown color 
somewhat tinged with gray, covered with roundish scales. 

While the principal habitat of this species is to be found in 
New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine and Canada, it 
extends northward to Hudson Bay, and southward as far as North 
Carolina, although it grows but sparsely in Pennsylvania. It is 
found also as far west as Wisconsin. Years ago it formed a large 
part of the forest which covered the Catskill mountains, but 
was rarely found in the western part of this State. 

In New York it attains a common height of 80 feet (24.38 m.), 
with a common diameter of 18 inches (45.7 cm.) ; and a maximum 
height of 106 feet (32 m.), with a maximum diameter of 36 
inches (91.4 cm.). It prefers a hilly and mountainous region with 
an altitude ranging from 1,200 to 1,800 feet, and while it is found 
at its best on mountain slopes it grows readily in low, swampy 
vaUeys. 

It furnishes a light softwood of medium strength, with a 
straight close grain. The heartwood has a tinge of red ; it is 
very often white. The sapwood, which is generally of a lighter 
shade, or a pure white, is about two inches deep in trees which 
have attained a diameter of 20 inches or more. The smaller 
trees have a thicker sap proportionately. It has a specific gravity 
of 0.5 !J4; percentage of ash, 0.27; average tensile strength, 

* The French Canadians caU it JBJpinette a la bt^re. 



6 Thjs Ajdibondack Black Spruom. 

10,000 pouEds to the square inch. It weighs about 28 pounds to 
the cubic foot, and when perfectly dry, 25 pounds. Spruce pulp- 
wood cut on high land, partly seasoned, will weigh about 3,800 
pounds per cord ; that cut on low or swampy land about 4,200 
pounds. 

It is the leading merchantable species of the New York 
forests, the white pine having, substantially, been removed many 
years ago. In 1893 the total product of all the mills which ob- 
tained their stock of logs from the Adirondack forests was as 
follows : 

Feet. 

Spruce 24:1 , 581 , 824 

Hemlock 77,910,654 

Pine .,. 27,844,222 

Hardwood 7,713,828 

Total 355,050,528 



The production was still greater in 1892, owing to the low 
water during the previous year; but the figures given here for 
1893 will fairly represent the average annual product of this 
region. In addition to the 241,581,8:i4 feet of spruce sawed in 
1893, the pulp mills consumed in that year 92,135,707 feet, B. M., 
all of which was used in the manufacture of paper. 

Spruce lumber is used for various purposes, but principally for 
house building, a large amount of it being made into flooring and 
ceiling, for which use it takes the place largeiy of white pine. A 
large share of the product is also sawed into joists, scantling, 
square timber and dimension stuff. In market value it is cheaper 
than white pine, but dearer than hemlock. The value of the 
logs in the tree, or " stumpage," is about 35 cents per market 
log, or $1.75 per 1,000 feet, the price varying somewhat more or 
less in proportion as the timber is accessible or within hauling 
distance of streams which will permit the floating or " driving " 
of logs to the mills. The value of the logs when delivered on 
the banks of these streams is about $1.30 per market, or $&.60 
per 1,000 feet. The bark has no commercial value. It is peeled 
from standing trees, occasionally by woodmen, guides or sports- 
men, who use it for covering the roof or sides of their shanties. 



Tme Adirondack Black Spruce, 7 

In the Albany lumber market the log run brings about $14 per 
I5OOO feet. There is very little clear stuff to be sorted out ; a 
small percentage of clear inch, however, is generally selected 
which sells for $23 per 1,000 feet. For this market it is sawed 
largely into nine inch boards, and into two-inch planks, nine 
inches wide ; also into 2 by 10-inch planks. Shingles made from 
spruce are of inferior quality, and not durable ; hence it is seldom 
used for this purpose. The wood decays rapidly when exposed 
to the weather, but when protected it will compare favorably 
with other softwoods in durability. The trees of this species 
growing in a dense forest furnish tall tapering trunks, free from 
branches, with an elastic, straight-grained timber, which makes 
it very desirable for spars and piles. One j&rm of lumbermen in 
the Adirondack region ships annually a large quantity of this 
timber '4n the round," the full length of the tree, for this pur- 
pose. It is used in boat building, the base of the tree and princi- 
pal roots furnishing knees, while the best quality of the straight- 
grained planks taken from the butt logs are manufactured into 
oars. In the southern part of the Adirondack forest the best 
trees are selected, from which the clear butt logs are taken for 
the manufacture of sounding boards for pianos. Only choice 
logs are used for this purpose and these are "quarter sawed" 
into boards five-eighths of an inch thick. This class of lumber is 
worth $35 per 1,000 feet at the mills. The logs cut for this pur- 
pose are known in the trade as " fiddle butts." 

Mention should be made here, also, of the resinous gum which 
exudes from the tree trunks of this species, and which, after 
undergoing a slight preparation, is sold for chewing gum. A 
large number of men known as gum pickers follow this industry 
during the winter months, obtaining a good livelihood from this 
peculiar work. Years ago a favorite drink known as spruce beer 
was made by boiling the young branches and evaporating the 
infusion, but its place as a beverage has been so largely taken by 
other drinks that now one seldom sees or hears of the old- 
fashioned " spruce beer." This decoction of the spruce twigs 
has valuable medicinal properties, and is a well-known antidote 
to the form of scurvy prevalent among^ seamen while on long 
voyages. 

The wood furnishes an inferior quality of fuel, giving out little 
heat comparatively, and, owing to the air contained in it, causing 



8 Tee Adirondack Black Spruce. 

a continual snapping, wMch makes it dangerous when burned in 
open fire-places. 

Occasionally, this species grows thickly in masses, or what the 
lumbermen term "clumps," but, as a general thias^, it is distrib- 
uted quite evenly through the forests in which it is found. 
Throughout the Adirondack woods it forms on an average from 
In to 15 per cent, of the timber. The Adirondack forests, as a 
whole, are composed principally of hardwoods, the deciduous 
trees including about 7u per cent., am(mg which the remaining 
30 per cent, of conifers are, as a general thing, somewhat evenly 
distributed. The black spruce is here found in company with the 
maple, beech, and yellow birch, among which there is a further 
but small admixture of ash, cherry, elm, basswood, and ironwood. 
The conifers ass< 'ciated with the spruce are composed of hemlock, 
balsam {Abies halsamea), tamarack and white cedar, the various 
species of pine having been nearly all removed by the lumber- 
men years ago. Michaux makes the statement that this species 
" often constitutes a third part of the forests by which they are 
uninterruptedly covered." One of our leading text-books on 
botany states that " dark-mountain forests are often wholly com- 
posed of it." "While this statement may possibly be true of other 
localities, there is certamly no such composition in the Adiron- 
dack forests, aside from the occasional but small clumps of spruce 
previously referred to. 

In some localities there are large areas along the mountain 
slopes covered with a heavy proportion of evergreens whose 
sombre hues might give rise to such an impression to a distant 
spectator, but a closer examination of such forests discloses a 
large admixture of other conifers, together with a good propor- 
tion of broad-leafed trees which are apparent only in summer, 
and which even then are liable to be overshadowed and hidden 
by the overtopping or dominant crowns of tall conifers. 

In its habit the black spruce has very little of attraction or 
beauty in its appearance. When growing in ma^^ses, all its 
branches fall off, leaving groups of columnar, tapering shafts, 
each of which is surmounted by a small, sparsely-limbed and 
irregular crown ; and this is also the case, to a considerable extent, 
where it is distributed among the hardwoods with plenty of 
surrounding space. When growing in openings, weU removed 



^m 



'^^- 



BLACK SPRUCE. 

Habit when grown in the Forest. 



G. H. Rison, Photo 




^^\ 



BLACK SPRUCE. 

Habit ^vhen grown in the open. 



G. H. Risen, Phot^j. 



Tffjs Adirondack Black Bfrucb. 9 

from other trees, its branches are persistent and cover the trunk 
from the ground to the crown, forming a pyramidal-shaped tree 
with a conical head whose regular and symmetrical outlmes elicit 
praise from some, while the primness and exactness of shape is 
objectionable to others. 

In growing it attains height by the annual increase of one lead- 
ing terminal shoot, which adds to its height 10 to 15 inches each 
year. From the base of th^'s terminal shoot there is formed each 
year a whorl of branches which graciually shorten in passing 
from the lower to the upper ones, the lower ones having each 
one more year of growth than the one above it. The branches, 
which are in whorls of four or more, are horizontal with a slight 
tendency to an upward direction. As the trees increase in age 
the whorls become less distinct, owing to the decay and falling 
off of the branches. 

The black spruce derives its name from the very dark hue of 
its foliage which, when massed on some mountain slope, is of such 
a sombre color that it appears to be black rather than green. 
The name is also used in distinction from the white spruce, whose 
leaves are of a pale or glaucous hue. In many of our manuals 
the black and white spruce are designated respectively as the 
double and single spruce, but the reason for this peculiar distinc- 
tion is not readily apparent. 

These two species bear such a resemblance that it is not always 
easy to identify them, the cones, which differ but slightly in size 
and shape, furnishing the principal distinctive feature when the 
flowering season has past. The white spruce is far less abundant 
throughout the Adirondacks, being rarely seen outside of Essex 
county. It is a much smaller tree, and its branches are more per- 
sistent, most of the trees being covered with limbs from the py ra- 
midal apex down to the ground. The difference between these 
species is best described by Mr. Charles H. Peck, State Botanist, 
who in referring to their resemblance says: 

" The resemblance between the white spruce and some forms of 
the black spru -e is so close that it is not always easy for an un 
skilled person to sepante them. The descriptions of these trees, 
as given in the manual, indicate bat a part of their distinctive 
features, and the characters there ascribed to the edges of the 
cone scales do not in all cases hold good. Having compared 



10 Tme Adirondack Black Spruck, 

these trees at flowering time the following characters seem to me 
to be the most available ones for distinguishing them. 



WmTE Speuoe. 

Young branchlets glabrous. Leaves 
six to eight lines long. Cones oblong 
or cylindrical, deciduous before next 



Black Spruce. 

Young branchlets pubescent. Leaves 
four to seven Imes long. Cones ovate 
or oblong, still on the tree at next 



flowering time. Sterile aments pale, ^ flowering time. Sterile aments tinged 



supported on slender whitish pedicels 
exaerted from the basal cup of scales. 
Fertile aments eight to ten lines long. 
Young leaves visible at flowering time. 



with red, sessile in the basal cup of 
scales. Fertile aments five to six lines 
long. Young leaves not yet visible at 
flowering time. 



" These trees are in flower at the same time in the same locality. 
They were in bloom the past season in the vicinity of Elizabeth - 
town the last week in May." 

The white spruce of the Adirondacks seems to be an inferior 
type of its kind. Prof. Charles S. Sargent, in his " Report on the 
Forescs of North America/' tenth United States census, in de- 
scribing this species says: 

" A tree 16 to 50 meters in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.90 
meter in diameter; low, rather wet soil, borders of ponds and 
swamps ; most common north of the boundary oJt the United 
States, and reaching its greatest development along the streams 
and lakes of the Flathead region of northern Montana, at an ele- 
vation of 2,500 to 8,500 feet ; the most important timber tree of 
the American subarctic forests north of the sixtieth degree of 
latitude, here more generally multiplied and of larger size than 
the allied P. Nigra with which it is associated." 

There is also a tree known as the red spruce which is occasion- 
ally found in the Adirondacks, but more plentifully in Canada. 
At one time this tree was described as a distinct species {AUes 
Tubra)^ but latterly it is held to be a variety of the black spruce. 
It has larger cones, and a reddish, softer wood, the latter feature 
being attributed by Michaux to some influence of the soil. 

Prof. N. L. Britton, of the Department of Botany, Columbia 

College, in an article on "New or Noteworthy North American 

Phanerogams"^ says: 

*' I have lately been much interested in the spruces, and have 
observed them closely on the Blue Eidge in southwestern Vir- 
ginia, where I became familiar with two species, one of which 
1 supposed to be the white spruce, Floea Canadensis. The same 
two species occur on the slopes of Mounts Marcy and Mcintyre, 
in the Adirondacks, but neither of them is P. Canadensis, which 
species i did not see. It is reported from northern New York, 
but I did not encounter it. 

* Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Oiub, Vol. 31, No. 1, Jan., 189i. 



Fiq.l. Cone and leaves natural size. 
Fig. 2, A seed. 




f 



j^mencan Sylva. 



Black Spruce 
Pice a. niqra^ 



~-o Co 



/, Cone and leaves, natural size. 
^\^.2, A seed. 




-^jfmertcan Syiva. 



WTiite Spruce 
Picea alba. 



The Adisojsdack Black Spbuojsj, H 

" The two species of the Blue Eidge and the Central Adiron- 
dacks are the black spruce, P. Mariana, and the red spruce, 
P. rubra. By most recent authors the latter has been regarded 
as a variety of the former, but this view has been ably attacked 
by Prof. George Lawson in a paper on *Eemarks on the Dis- 
tinctive Characters of the Canadian Spruces,' published, I think, 
in 1888. He there maintains that the red spruce is distinct from 
the black, and I am in entire accord with this opinion. The 
white spruce is very different fiom either of the others by its 
eloBgatld cones, entfrely glabrous and glaucous twigs and ste'rig- 
mata, and very light-green leaves. P. ruira differs from P. 
Mariana by its very slender twiffs, which are sparin2:ly pubes- 
cent, the sterigmata nearly or quite glabrous, its very slender 
light-green, nearly straight, very acute leaves, and its oblong 
cones, which are deciduous at the end of the season, the scales 
lacerated or two-lobed. P. Mariana has stout, very pubescent 
twigs and sterigmata, stout and thick, merely mucronate, dark- 
green, incurved leaves, and ovate, larger cones, which are per- 
sistent for two or more years, their scales entirely or merely 
erose. P. rubra, according to my observations, reaches a much 
greater altitude on Mclntyre than does P. Mariana, and this 
agrees with oar collections in the Blue Eidge of Virginia. The 
very slender twigs of P*. rubra and its light-green leaves give it 
a much more graceful aspect than is exhibited by P. Mariana,'^^ 

A noticeable peculiarity of the Adirondack spruce is the large 
number of defective trees scattered through the forest, which are 
known as " seamy trees," this defect or " seam " rendering them 
unfit for lumber. The seam appears to be a crack which extends 
up and down the trunk, varying in length and extending in some 
cL from .h. butt l4 Jthe lower branches of the orown. 
These openings vary in depth, but sometimes the crack reaches 
to the heart. The edges of the seam are thickly coated with the 
resinous substance known as spruce gum, which exudes and then 
hardens, the larger and cleaner masses being gathered by the 
" gum pickers " who earn a livelihood by this work. The seams 
are mostly perpendicular, but in trees where the grain of the 
wood is not straight, the seam winds upward obliquely as it 
follows the grain. The cause of this defect has never been satis- 
factorily explained, although various reasons have been suggested. 

These seamy trees are not as observable now as before the 
great blight which, within the last 20 years, destroyed a 
large proportion of the spruce throughout the Adirondack 
forests. The seams were confined mostly to mature trees, as the 



12 Tmb Adiboisdack Black Sfeucjs, 

blight seldom attacked trees under 12 inches in diameter. 
The younger spruces which were spared, and which form a large 
part of the forest to-day, afford now comparatively few specimens 
of seamy timber. 

About 25 years ago, the black spruce throughout the great 
forest of northern New York began to show signs of blight, 
the first appearance of which was noticed in 1868. During the 
next 10 years this blight spread through most of the forest, 
only a few localities remaining untouched. Competent authori- 
ties who had made a study of the matter on the ground, esti- 
mated that at one time one-third to one-half of the matured 
spruce in the Adirondack region was dead. In some townships 
there was a recurrence of the evil after an interval of 25 years, 
the time of the first appearance being fixed by some observers at 
a date earlier than 1868. 

When the trees were first attacked by this scourge, the leaves 
commenced falling while they were j et green. The foliage 
remaining on the tree soon turned to a reddish-brown, whose 
hues made the mountain slopes and forest areas of the valleys 
appear as if a scorching fire had swept over them. About 1884 
there was a noticeable cessation in this destruction of timber, 
and since that time there has been no recurrence of the evil. The 
dead trees have mostly fallen, although here and there some tall 
^' stubs " remain as reminders of the calamity. The young trees, 
which everywhere escaped, now display their green foliage where 
the brown dead leaves of the blasted spruces were seen, and but 
little evidence remains of the blight that wrought such a wide- 
spread destruction in this class of property. 

The cause of this decay or death of the spruce has been the 
subject of much discussion, various reasons for it having been 
advanced. Some — among them, men who had been close 
observers of the blight from its beginning — attributed the death 
of the trees to drought ; but this reason was hardly satisfactory, 
because the disease killed the timber growing in damp, moist 
places and swamps, as well as in localities where drought might 
have affected them; also, on northern as well as on southern 
slopes. Moreover the alleged drought did not affect in any way 
the other species, both deciduous and coniferous, which were 
growing in company with the dibeased spruces. 




'^.liES 



G. H. Rison, Photo 



BRANCH OF THE BLACK SPRUCE 

Not quite natural size. 




G. H. RiK>n, Photo 

BRANCH OF THE BLACK SPRUCE. 

One-third natural size. 



The Adirondack Black Sjpbvcb, 13 

Some claimed that this premature decay was due to the agita- 
tion of the trees by high, winds, but the blight attacked also the 
timber standing in sheltered and protected situations. 

It was suggested that the evil might have been due to a hard 
winter, to some period of intense cold, or to some late and severe 
frost occurring after the sap had started in its vernal flow ; but 
there is no record of any such unusual weather, and no reason 
why all the other species, some of them closely allied to the 
spruce, should not have been injured by the same cause. 

Others, including dendrologists as well as woodsmen, held 
stoutly to the theory that the spruce was a short-lived species, 
and that the trees died of old age. There was some ground for 
this theory in the fact that the smaller trees — those under 12 
inches in diameter or thereabouts — were uninjured. But, in 
reply, it has been shown that the spruce is not a short-lived tree ; 
that it is a hardy species which resists the extremes of altitude 
and latitude ; that, where it grows subject to natural forest con- 
ditions, it is the slowest m growth of all the native trees of our 
State, and that there are live spruces standing in the Adirondacks 
which are nearly four centuries old. Spruces of equal diameters 
often vary 100 years in age, owing to difference in environment. 
But these trees died in masses or clumps, the same as when scat- 
tered, irrespective of the fact that, though of equal size, they 
differed a century or more in age. If the trees which died had 
all been planted at the same time, were all of the same size, 
diameter and age, and, furthermore, the limit of maturity had 
been ascertained and determined, then the theory of death from 
old age might be entertained. 

In view of the prevalence of insect blight elsewhere it seems 
strange that this cause should have been overlooked or summar- 
ily dismissed without consideration. Some investigators asserted 
that they had looked carefully for insects, both on the leaves and 
under the bark, and failed to find any. This proves nothing, 
however ; the entomologists found them when they took up the 
investigation. 

From statements made by Mr, Peck, the State Botanist, who 
first discovered the insect at work, and reports of entomologists 
whose observations justify his conclusions, there seems to be 
good ground for attributing the death of the Adirondack spruces 



14 Tee Adirondack Black Sfruck. 

to the work of a small beetle known as the Hylurgus Tufipen- 
m$, Kirby. Mr. Feck found both the mature insect and its 
larvae in countless numbers under the bark of the diseased trees. 
These insects excavate a passage between the bark and the wood, 
eating away a part of both, and thus, practically, girdling the 
tree, their numerous galleries forming an intricate network of 
furrows which traverse the most vital part. Woodsmen are apt 
to claim that worms or insects are found only in dead or fallen 
timber, and entomologists have often expressed a doubt as to any 
borer attacking a live tree. But both Mr. Peck and Dr. Packard, 
in their investigations of the Adirondack spruce blight, found 
these beetles in live spruces, trees in which the wood was full of 
sap and on which the leaves were fresh and green. 

Mr. Peck mentions having found dead beetles in a 10-inoh tree. 
In this case the insects had commenced work, but the resin - 
which is so plentiful in the young spruces - oozed from the 
wounds, obstructing their passage, and the insects becoming 
embedded in gum were found dead, each in its furrow. The 
older and larger trees having less resinous matter, oJBfered no such 
obstruction, which may account for the fact that only the mature 
trees perished — a much more plausible theory than the one of 
old age. 

The reason for the sudden cessation of the blight has been a 
subject of discussion as well as the origin. The complete disap- 
pearance of these insects has been attributed, with good reason, 
to the woodpeckers, which were observed at work in many places, 
the dead trees having been pecked at by these birds in search of 
insect food until the bark had turned to a reddish hue. 

It 3s not at all improbable that there may be a recurrence of 
this blight, and another wholesale destruction of merchantable 
timber from this cause . If so, the timber as fast as it is attacked 
should be cut and marketed instead of allowing it to be wasted 
and lost. Unfortunately the State law will not permit any such 
economic action. The sale of any timber in the Forest Preserve, 
not only the matured but the dead and fallen trees as well, is 
specifically prohibited. Neither can the law be repealed or 
amended, for the persons who are responsible for this remarkable 
legislation succeeded in having it incorporated in the Constitution 
itself. 



BARK ON BLACK SPRUCE. 

Tree 1 2 inches in diameter. 



G. H. Rison, Photo. 



v»i' 




G. H. RisoD, Photo 

BARK ON BLACK SPRUCE. 

Tree 28 inches in diameter. 

Note.— Unlike many other species the bark on the large, old trees undergoes little change, and re- 
tians its characteristic appearance. » 



'^. 



Thjs AmRONDACK Black Spruce. 15 

Since the organization of the Forest Commission, 10 years ago, 
not a tree has been cut on State land with the consent of the 
Commission, and, under the new Constitution, 20 years must 
elapse before any such permission can be given. But on the lands 
owned by the clubs or used as private preserves, which include 
one-third of the Adirondack forest, timber cutting for revenue 
and also for forest improvement will always be carried on. 
Where the cutting is done with reference primarily to forest 
improvement, the trees are take, irrespective of size or species ; 
but where the thinning is done with reference to forest revenue 
rather than improvement, the cutting will probably be confined 
to one or two merchantable species, with some further restrictions 
to prevent the cutting of small trees or those which have not 
attained a mature size. 

Except in a few localities the hardwood timber, which con- 
stitutes over 70 per cent, of the average forest, is not cut, 
while from the remaining evergreens only two^ species are 
taken to any extent. There is little or no white pine left 
in northern New York. Hemlock is valuable only for its bark, 
owing to the low market price for that kind of lumber, and is 
not cut for bark except where there is a short haul or easy ship- 
ment to some tannery. Balsam, cedar, and tamarack have so 
small a place in the lumber market that these species are seldom 
removed. But the black spruce, which forms from 5 to 10 per 
cent, of our northern forests is a merchantable species in great 
demand, and forest owners desirous of obtaining a revenue from 
their property can take the matured trees of this species without 
any serious injury to existing conditions. In fact, so few spruce 
trees are cut to the acre on a well-managed job that their absence 
would be noticed only by those familiar with the business, there 
being no apparent diminution in the density of the forest or 
quantity of foliage. Of course, such a system, however closely 
restricted, would not fill the requirements for forest improve- 
ment; but it does not necessarily imply forest injury, much less 
forest destruction, as recently claimed by some very good but 
very stupid people. 

Laying aside the question of cutting timber with reference to 
forest improvement, the cutting on the private preserves of 

* spruce and hemlock 



1 6 Tejs Adirondack Black Spmvck. 

matured spruce for revenue only, still involves a discussion of 
certain points closely connected with forestry principles. 

N"o matter how well our people may become educated in the 
tenets of scientific forestry, or how amply provided our land- 
ovvners may be with skillful, professional foresters, the system 
under which the Adirondack forest must be managed for years, 
well or poorly, will be the one known as that of " selection." This 
is indicated by various conditions. Our forests are already grown, 
and the market price of their product wiU not warrant anything 
in the line of planted forests other than some experimental work. 
Moreover, as only one merchantable species is accessible, the cut- 
ting will be limited for a long time to that one species, — the 
black spruce. In order to insure a future and permanent supply 
the selection will be farther confined to the matured trees, so far 
as the problem of tree-growth and interest account will permit. 

AaB OF THE Spexiob. 

Here arises the question, what constitutes a matured spruce in 
the Adirondack forests? How old must it be when it grows 
under natural conditions? How large, how tall, and what must 
its diameter be ? Tinder any system, whether the thinning be 
done for improvement or revenue, this point is one of the first to 
be determined. 

For the purpose of obtaining definite information on this sub- 
ject the Forest Commission instituted some researches, the result of 
which is here submitted. Acting under definite instructions from 
the Superintendent some of the foresters, specially detailed for 
this work, went to different localities in the Adirondack forest, 
where, by counting the annual rings of tree-growth as revealed 
by the stumps and cross sections of the trunks, they accumulated 
a mass of data and statistics which furnish satisfactory informa- 
tion on this point. In counting the rings on the stumps the for- 
esters used large magnifying glasses, which were necessary owing 
to the slow growth of the spruce and crowded condition of the 
annual rings. In many cases it would be impossible to count 
these rings, or " grains '' as the woodsmen term them, with the 
naked eye. The rings were counted on the line of the js:reatest 
diameter, a^dfroMth, cente, aloB« the longest radiatog «- 
Small pins were inserted at every inch, and the rings in each 



The Adirondack Black Sfeuce. 17 

inch counted and recorded separately. By the latter arrange- 
naent the amount of eccentricity in the growth is apparent in 
each case. In the black spruce the heart is seldom found in the 
exact center of the tree, this lack of concentricity in the rings of 
annual growth being a noticeable feature. 

The statistics offered first are based on the work done by 
Forester Humes, in St. Lawrence county, who examined and 
counted the rings on 237 spruce trees with reference to estab- 
lishing the facts as to age and maximum size only. The statistics 
showing number of years for each successive individual inch of 
diameter, together with amount of eccentricity, are ffiven in 
other and subsequent tables. ' 

3 






The AmnoNBACK Black Sprvcb. 



TABLE I. 



SPBCIMEEnT 
NUMBER. 



1 , 
3 . 

a. 

4. 

5 . 

6 . 

7 . 

8 . 

9 . 

10 . 

11 . 

12 . 

13 . 
14. 

15 . 

16 . 

17 . 

18 . 

20 ! 

S3 \ 

24: , 

25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 

32 
83 

35 
86 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 

45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
58 
r54 



Diameter 

of stump, in 

inches. 



Number of 

rmgs on 

stump. 



30 


325 


30 


289 


30 


315 


30 


275 


30 


2^1 


29 


333 


29 


298 


29 


321 


29 


287 


29 


312 


29 


310 


29 


273 


28 


278 


28 


293 


28 


273 


28 


247 


28 


301 


28 


300 


28 


271 


27 


281 


27 


302 


27 


298 


27 


258 


27 


259 


27 


316 


27 


273 


27 


301 


27 


298 


27 


294 


27 


284 


27 


294 


27 


274 


27 


278 


27 


304 


27 


293 


27 


278 


27 


301 


26 


301 


26 


302 


26 


293 


26 


284 


26 


354 


26 


291 


26 


274 


26 


271 


26 


285 


26 


290 


26 


258 


26 


291 


26 


231 


26 


261 


26 


293 


25 


219 


25 


291 



*Length of 

shaft, in 

feet. 



72 

68 

54 

54 

58 

58 

54 

54 

58 

54 

54 

54 

58 

58 

54 

58 

60 

54 

54 

58 

54 

58 

54 

54 

54 

58 

54 

54 

58 

58 

54 

54 

58 

54 

58 

54 

58 

54 

58 

54 

54 

65 

54 

54 

54 

58 

54 

64 

58 

54 

54 

58 

58 



Diameter 

at top, in 

Inches. 



Number 

of rings 

at top. 



Total 
height of 

tree, 
in feet. 



11 


98 


93 


9 


105 


87 


12 


123 


82 


11 


104 


91 


12 


116 


92 


13 


112 


81 


10 


100 


79 


9 


97 


75 


12 


103 


87 


14 


188 


91 


13 


106 


83 


11 


94 


80 


10 


100 


70 


13 


118 


76 


10 


84 


70 


8 


99 


68 


7 


93 


72 


12 


68 


70 


10 


123 


70 


12 


103 


68 


11 


98 


76 


10 


99 


69 


9 


107 


80 


13 


156 


78 


10 


121 


71 


11 


99 


81 


12 


186 


69 


14 


134 


86 


12 


123 


80 


10 


118 


71 


14 


119 


64 


11 


100 


80 


11 


87 


67 


11 


101 


70 


11 


112 


71 


10 


97 


68 


10 


80 


68 


13 


155 


84 


12 


102 


74 


12 


138 


69 


13 


138 


80 


9 


102 


94 


12 


129 


81 


13 


154 


83 


10 


98 


80 


13 


128 


69 


10 


102 


78 


9 


100 


80 


12 


91 


63 


10 


62 


70 


8 


92 


80 


12 


102 


88 


10 


61 


71 


11 


100 


81 



* Not including crpwn or stump. Th© stumps average 32 incl^ea in height. 



Tee Adirondack Black Spmuce. 



19 



Table I — {Continued) . 



SPEHTMEN 
NUMBER. 



55 

56 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
76 
77 
78 
79 
80 
81 
83 
83 
84 
85 
86 
87 
88 
89 
90 
91 
93 
93 
94 
95 

m 

97 

98 
99 
100 
101 
103 
103 
104 
105 
106 
107 
108 



Diameter 
of stump, 
in inches. 



Number of 

rings on 

stump. 



35 


281 


35 


271 


35 


219 


35 


283 


35 


261 


35 


300 


25 


300 


35 


281 


25 


300 


25 


800 


25 


291 


25 


195 


35 


308 


35 


303 


25 


271 


25 


284 


25 


293 


35 


273 


35 


284 


35 


274 


25 


281 


25 


258 


25 


274 


25 


271 


25 


198 


25 


291 


25 


267 


34 


269 


24 


264 


34 


274 


34 


261 


24 


291 


24 


272 


24 


281 


24 


300 


24 


271 


34 


299 


34 


301 


34 


291 


34 


254 


34 


239 


24 


267 


24 


281 


34 


178 


34 


267 


34 


271 


23 


256 


23 


300 


23 


278 


33 


283 


33 


291 


33 


283 


23 


283 


^3 


300 



Length of 
shaft, in 

X63t. 



54 
54 
48 
58 
54 
58 
54 
57 
58 
54 
54 
4B 
54 
58 
54 
58 
54 
54 
54 
58 
54 
54 
58 
54 
54 
56 
48 
64 
54 
58 
54 
58 
64 
58 
62 
54 
54 

m 

64 
54 

54 
66 
58 
64 
54 
58 
54 
48 
64 
65 
64 
48 
68 
53 



Diameter 

at top, 
in inches. 



Number 
of rings 
at top. 



Total 
height of 

xree, 
in feet. 



11 


81 


62 


10 


94 


80 


12 


99 


62 


10 


73 


61 


9 


51 


73 


11 


91 


71 


11 


98 


61 


12 


162 


71 


14 


152 


67 


11 


92 


61 


13 


100 


62 


11 


76 


57 


8 


80 


64 


10 


103 


71 


12 


94 


67 


13 


151 


71 


10 


102 


71 


13 


103 


72 


9 


182 


71 


12 


93 


61 


14 


153 


75 


11 


124 


91 


10 


119 


82 


14 


120 


92 


10 


104 


81 


12 


161 


91 


15 


126 


65 


14 


130 


82 


11 


101 


71 


18 


121 


73 


11 


104 


80 


13 


100 


69 


11 


93 


71 


12 


126 


60 


11 


158 


86 


14 


132 


71 


13 


121 


70 


10 


141 


80 


14 


132 


65 


n 


91 


71 


13 


106 


61 


14 


123 


74 


12 


m 


80 


U 


74 


68 


11 


124 


71 


13 


100 


69 


13 


92 


67 


13 


120 


70 


11 


100 


78 


12 


98 


71 


14 


141 


70 


11 


104 


80 


11 


106 


n 


15 


161 


80 



20 



Tbe Adirondack Black Sprucjsj, 



Table I — ( Continued ). 



SPECIMEN 
NUMBER. 



109 
110 

111 

112 
113 

115 
116 
117 
118 
119 
120 
121 
122 
123 
124 
125 
126 
127 
128 
129 
130 
131 
132 
133 
134 
135 
136 
137 
138 
139 
140 
141 
142 

144 \ 

145 , 
146, 

147 , 

148 , 

149 . 
150. 

151 . 

152 . 

153 . 
154. 

155 . 

156 , 

157 . 

158 . 

159 . 

160 . 

161 . 

162 . 



Diameter 
of stump, 
in inches. 



23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

22 

22 

22 

22 

23 

22 

22 

22 

22 

^% 

22 

22 

22 

22 

22 

22 

22 

22 

22 

21 

21 

21 

21 

21 

21 

21 

21 

21 

21 

21 

21 

21 

21 

21 

20 

20 

20 

20 

20 

20 

20 

20 

20 

20 

20 

20 



Number of 
rings on 
stump. 



291 

281 

271 

217 

253 

219 

271 

189 

314 

263 

281 

283 

261 

345 

204 

215 

253 

251 

261 

201 

281 

107 

271 

201 

265 

261 

198 

256 

201 

251 

251 

242 

201 

199 

291 

271 

236 

281 

261 

271 

199 

283 

200 

201 

261 

206 

213 

204 

208 

199 

189 

201 

194 

204 



Length ot 

shaft, in 

feet. 



54 

58 

54 

54 

54 

54 

58 

48 

54 

54 

54 

54 

54 

58 

54 

58 

54 

54 

58 

48 

54 

54 

54 

54 

54 

58 

54 

48 

54 

48 

54 

54 

48 

fi4 

54 

56 

54 

54 

54 

54 

54 

58 

54 

48 

54 

54 

48 

64 

54 

48 

54 

54 

52 

48 



Diameter 

at top, 
in inches. 



12 

11 

13 
12 
11 
10 
12 
12 
13 

10 

9 

10 

8 

11 

9 

7 

9 

12 

9 

8 

12 

7 

11 

13 

9 

8 

11 

11 

13 

7 

10 

14 

10 

12 

10 

12 

8 

11 

14 

11 

9 

12 

10 

11 

8 

7 

9 

8 

11 

9 

1^ 



Number 
of rings 
at top. 



103 

127 

97 

85 

132 

116 

121 

79 

155 

152 

121 

82 

99 

152 

91 

100 

89 

93 

80 

78 

121 

91 

89 

101 

97 

99 

75 

100 

76 

103 

99 

121 

100 

78 

123 

99 

100 

104 

123 

100 

103 

99 

101 

99 

89 

99 

100 

87 

82 

100 

100 

102 

99 

132 



Total 
height of 

tree, 
in feet. 



69 
70 
69 
70 

71 

62 

73 

62 

73 

73 

80 

76 

71 

69 

70 

67 

70 

71 

75 

60 

64 

65 

71 

67 

69 

72 

64 

63 

61 

73 

71 

74 

71 

80 

76 

70 

69 

76 

80 

76 

71 

81 

68 

67 

70 

71 

69 

72 

69 

70 

78 

71 

70 

60 



Th:b! Abironback Black Spruce. 



21 



Table I — {Continued), 



SPECIMEN 
NUMBER. 


Diameter 
of stump, 
in inches. 


Number of 
rings on 
stump. 


Length of 

shaft, in 

feet. 


Diameter 

at top, 
in inches. 


Number 
of rings 
at top. 


Total 
height of 

tree, 
in feet. 


16S 


20 

20 

20 

19 

19 

19 

19 

19 

19 

19 

19 

19 

19 

19 

19 

19 

19 

19 

19 

19 

19 

19 

19 

19 

19 

19 

18 

18 

18 

18 

17 

17 

17 

17 

17 

17 

16 

16 

16 

16 

16 

15 

15 

15 

15 

14 

14 

14 

14 

14 

14 

14 

14 

14 


203 

207 

289 

230 

193 

208 

283 

194 

209 

209 

238 

189 

218 

201 

231 

273 

194 

201 

194 

204 

207 

201 

184 

200 

201 

199 

183 

173 

200 

179 

182 

200 

156 

200 

192 

172 

171 

200 

178 

201 

167 

178 

203 

174 

183 

275 

182 

156 

157 

200 

145 

175 

161 

182 


54 

54 

54 

46 

54 

54 

62 

54 

54 

48 

54 

54 

48 

54 

54 

58 

54 

54 

56 

54 

54 

48 

54 

48 

54 

54 

54 

46 

54 

44 

46 

54 

46 

48 

50 

44 

50 

54 

54 

50 

44 

46 

42 

48 

50 

27 

48 

44 

44 

54 

40 

50 

48 

42 


10 
8 

10 

11 
9 
8 
7 

13 

10 
8 

14 

12 
9 

11 
6 

10 
9 

10 

12 
8 

11 

12 
6 
5 
9 
8 
7 
9 

10 
8 
6 

10 
8 
7 

10 
6 
5 
9 
8 

11 
9 

10 

9 

6 

5 

11 

11 

7 

7 

5 

8 

9 

11 

12 


99 
124 
124 
ISO 
105 
99 
136 
100 
100 
100 
96 
121 
129 
99 
76 
141 
100 
99 
101 
78 
121 
103 
78 
100 
89 
89 
101 
90 
100 
92 
78 
89 
100 
89 
102 
78 
79 
121 
79 
99 
100 
97 
87 
78 
100 
155 
108 
89 
99 
78 
88 
98 
103 
99 


68 


164 


71 


165 


74 


166 

167 


78 
70 


168 


68 


169 

170 


82 
70 


171 


72 


172 


67 


173 


72 


174 


69 


175 

176 


74 
67 


177 


65 


178 


76 


179 


70 


180 


80 


181 


71 


182 


67 


183 


71 


184 

185 


69 
67 


186 

187 

188 


65 
70 

71 


189 

190 


72 
70 


191 


71 


192 


69 


193 


65 


194 


65 


195 


70 


196 


67 


197 

198 

199 

200 


71 
68 
66 
73 


201 


69 


202 


70 


203 

204 


62 

68 


205 


71 


206 

207 

208 


68 
70 

74 


209 


68 


210 

211 

212 

213 


65 
69 
64 
60 


214 

215 


70 
67 


216 


59 



22 



Tme Adirondack Black Sprjjck 
Table I — {Gonduded). 



speoim:en 

NaMBEB. 


Diameter 
of stump, 
in inches. 


Number of 

rings on 

stump. 


Length of 

fchaft, In 

feet. 


Diameter 

at top, 
in inches 


Number 
of rmgs 
at top. 


Total 
height of 

tree, 
in feet. 


217 

218 


13 
13 
13 
13 
18 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 


176 

180 
157 
150 
200 
138 
162 
172 
192 
200 


48 
36 
43 
28 
44 
40 
84 
27 
38 
44 


4 
6 

I 

10 
4 
6 
8 
7 
9 


35 
50 
60 
76 

102 
59 
87 

103 
96 

186 


59 
61 


219 


57 


220 

221 


57 
66 


222 

223 


58 
60 


224 


61 


225 

226 


70 
72 







Mr. Humes subsequently forwarded some additional notes 
wMcli are intended to show the maximum size and age of the 
spruce. Thus far our foresters have been unable to find any 
black spruce over 36 inches in diameter on the stump. The 
stumps average about eSO inches in height, and in measuring 
standing timber the girth is taken at about the same height. 
The maximum size of the Adirondack black spruce is indicated 
in the following figures : 

Ti A "DT T? TT 
JLilxSIjJii XX. 



gPECIMEN 
NUMBER. 


Diameter 
of stump, 
in inches 

36 
36 
84 
84 
84 
83 
33 
81 
31 
31 
81 


Number 

of riDgs 

on stump. 


Length of 

shaf c, tn 

feet. 

90 
84 
86 
91 
72 
68 
70 
60 
73 
68 
71 


Diameter 

at top, 
in inches. 


Number 
of rings 
at top. 


Total 

height of 

tree, 

in feet. 


1 


350 
326 
302 
874 
815 
285 
290 
293 
231 
276 
290 


12 

8 
10 

5 
11 
13 

6 
14 

7 
10 


102 

87 
100 

67 
134 
165 

80 
125 

80 
100 

98 


110 


2 

3 

4. 

5 


90 
93 
99 

87 


6 

7 


89 
81 


8 


80 


9 

10 


82 
67 


11 


70 



Statistics showing the age, size or other characteristics of 
any particular species should be accompanied by some further 
information regarding the various kinds of trees which are grow- 
ing on the same ground. To this end Forester Humes, in 



Tme Adirondack Black Spmucm. 23 

accordance with instructions from the Superintendent, meas- 
ured off a tract of four acres, situated in the forest in which he 
made the measurements and other memoranda embodied in Tables 
I and 11, and noted all the other trees growing there in company 
with the spruce. These notes are embodied in Table III. This 
forest is located in the south part of Township 14 (" Bloomfield "), 
Town of Pine, St. Lawrence county. It stands on the north 
slope of a hill, the spruce being thickly interspersed with hard- 
woods — maple, beech^ and yellow birch {Betula luted). The 
land on which the timber stands has an elevation of about 1.800 
feet above the sea. 

The four acres which furnish the statistics in the following 
table represent the maximum yield of spruce per acre, the tim- 
ber being far above the average in size, height and quantity. 
The spruce on this piece of four acres — not including trees less 
than twelve inches in diameter — will yield 60,000 feet of logs, 
or 15,000 feet to the acre. This is a remarkable exhibit ; and, in 
addition to the spruce, the figures indicate 18,000 feet of hemlock 
on these four acres, or 4,500 feet per acre. The average quan- 
tity of spruce per acre throughout the Adirondack forests, on 
large tracts, is estimated at 3,000 feet per acre, and some town- 
ships have yielded as low as 2,500. 



Mr. Fremont Fuller, of Duane, Franklin county, N. Y., reports 
a black spruce, 10 feet 3 inches in circumference, or about 41 
inches in diameter, outside the bark, breast high above the 
ground. This tree, which is sound and healthy, is standing in a 
clump of spruces with six other large ones near it, and overtops 
the surrounding forest. It stands on the IS". W. \ of Town- 
ship 15, on Lot 3, about two miles from the hotel at Meacham 
Lake. 






Tme AmBONDACK Slack Spruos. 



Table III — {Continued), 



DIAMETBa — Inches, 


Spruce. 


Hemlock. Maple. 


Birch. 


Beech. 


Total. 


24.. 


5 

4 
6 

4 
6 

2 
2 

i 


2 

i . 

2 ; 

i .. 

2 . 

i *. 

1 . 


1 

2 


3 
*2 

3 

1 

i 




11 


S5 


6 


26 


9 


27 


4 


28 


8 


29 


5 


30 


3 


31 

32 

33 

34 


1 
3 

1 


35 

86 


i 

202 


1 
2 








58 


81 


101 


132 


574 



TJie average diameters are 



Spruce, 17i inches; hemlock, 
17 inches; maple, 14f inches; yellow birch, 16|. inches, 
and beech, lij inches. This average does not include trees 
of less than nine inches in diameter. Number of trees to the 
acre (nine inches or more in diameter), 144, or less than one to 
each square rod.^ 

The statistics in the next following table are based on measure 
ments and counts made by Foresters Olmsted and Sanford, who 
were instructed to measure and count the rings of tree growth 
on 1,000 trees. Of this number the first TOO were examined on 
Lots 33 and 34, Township 20, Town of Santa Clara, Franklin 
county. This piece of forest is situated about four miles west of 
the Upper Saranac lake and lies between Floodwocd and Long 
X oncLS. 

The 203 specimens next following were examined in St. Law- 
rence county on Lots 34 and 35, Township 3, Town of 
Hopkinton. 

The remaining 97, embracing specimens 903-1,000, were 
measured and counted on Lots 50 and 63, Township 3, Town of 
Hopkinton, St. Lawrence county. 

Each locality was coYered by a virgin forest, the trees 
examined being the first that had been cut in that vicinity. The 



* Not including the young trees under nine inches in diameter, of wMcli there was tlie usual 
number intermixed with the undergrowth. 




BLACK SPRUCE FOREST 

Side-hill gpowtln. 



G. n. Rison, Photo. 



Tme Adirondack Black Sjpeuok 25 

foresters were directed to confine their examinations to trees 
which were 12 inches or more in diameter on the stump, 
although the lumbermen were cutting the spruce there as low as 
10 inches and occasionally smaller. "With the exception of the 
trees under 13 inches in diameter, the foresters examined 
every spruce stump and top within the area selected until the 
required number had been measured. 

In counting the rings of growth in these trees note was made 
of the number at each inch of the radius with a view to deter- 
mining the annual increase in diameter. 

In the following tabulation. Table IV, the first column con- 
tains the specimen number, the next the diameter inside the bark 
of the tree on the stump ; then follows the number of rings per 
inch on the stump, counting from the heart outward, and along 
the line of what might be termed the longest radius ; the last or 
right-hand column on the left-hand page shows the total number 
of rings, or age of the tree, as indicated at the height of the 
stump. 

On the right-hand page the statistics for each tree are continued, 
following the same specimen number, which, as before, is found 
in the first column ; the next column shows the diameter of the 
shaft at the top, or at the small end of the top los; : then come 
the nun^ber of Igs per inch at the top, counting o'utward fron, 
the heart; the next column shows the heii^ht of the stump ; the 
next the combined length of the logs into which the trunk was 
cut, each log being as a rule 13 feet 4 inches long; the next 
shows the length of the tree top or deader" left by the lumber- 
men, and the last column the total height of the tree as indicated 
by the combined figures of the three preceding ojlumns. 

The short dash or hyphen-mark, which appears occasionally in 
connection with the last figure in a line, indicates that the radius 
terminated in a fractional inch and, consequently, a smaller 
number of rings. 

4r 



26 



Teb ADmoNJDACK Black Sprucje. 



m A "DTT? TTT 



s« 


^ 






Measurements on Stump. 




SS 


It 

as 

C3 QQ 








P 


Soa 








l>» 




Number of rings per inch on stump, counting from the heart outward. 




QQ 


Q 








< 


1 


1'6' 
1 2 
1 2 
1 1 
1 2 
1 1 


38 
26 
28 

27 
28 
2ri 


8 
22 

5i5 

98 
18 
22 


10 
23 

18 

6 

16 

15 


10 
19 
24 
15 

15 

7 


12 
19 
lu 
17 
4% 
9 


18 
20 
16 
20 
19 
10 


12 
18 
11 
16 
19 
11 


18 

10- 

9 


10 


20 


16 














172 


2 














157 


3 




















136 


4 


















13^ 


5 


17 
6- 


















154 


6 


.... 


• « . • 


' • . » 




^ 




« ■ * • 




a . a a 


108 


7 


1 2 
1 8 
1 5 
1 2 


!i7 
16 
20 
20 


23 

22 

29 


19 
20 
30 
jO 


16 
17 
17 
22 


13 

7 
14 
10 


17 

8 

12 

14 


14 
16 
18 
10 






















129 


8 ... 


12 

10 

9 




















121 


9. 


7 
5- 


















14S 


10 


* • 1 . 


1 . . a 




» . « a 







...a 




149 


It...... 


1 
1 
1 2 
1 


2i 
20 
21 
22 


22 

2a 

23 
26 


20 
20 

15 
20 


15 
17 
21 
19 


18 

18 
17 
24 


16 
16 
16 
17 


12 

10 

12 

» . » k 






















120 


12 ..... 






















123 


13 






















lsi8 


14 


a . . • 


.... 


. • . . 


a . . a 




.... 




.... 


.... 


.... 


128 


15 


1 


27 


SO 


81 


18 


17 


^2 


• . • 


- » . . 


.... 


• . . • 


^ ^ 




a a . a 




a . . . 




a . . a 


1.S5 


16 


1 1 


2.^ 


20 


22 


20 


26 


22 


11- 


. . . • 


.... 


• • . . 


• . . » 




. . 




a . a • 


• • • » 


...» 


144 


17 


1 1 
1 1 
1 2 
1 1 
1 1 


21 

28 
20 
15 
18 


23 
26 

21 
21 
29 


25 
21 
25 
26 
31 


19 
22 
20 
13 

26 


17 
23 
19 

15 

21 


13 
19 
20 
14 
16 


6- 
10 
16 

17 
7- 






















124 


18...... 






















149 


19 






















141 


20. 


• . • . 


.... 


•* 


.... 




J a 










121 


21 






.... 




143 


22 


1 1 
1 


83 
30 


32 

HI 


25 
32 


20 

25 


12 

15 


10 
13 


8 


6- 




















145 


23 


.... 


.... 


.... 




.... 




... 






146 


24 


1 2 
1 2 


19 

28 


21 
16 


25 

18 


21 
22 


9 
26 


9 

26 


8 
23 


11 
12™ 


.... 


.... 


.. 














123 


25 














171 


26 


1 3 


2i 


34 


28 


23 


19 


10 


15 


9 


7>. 


• • • • 


♦ . « < 




^ J 




.... 


.... 




171 


27 


i 2 


26 


34 


SO 


18 


18 


12 


t * h 


10 


5- 


^ 


,. .. 




, , , , 








a. .. 


153 


28 


1 8 


2<} 


24 


22 


^0 


16 


12 


18 


17 


14 


6- 










.... 


.... 


.... 


165 


29 


1 3 


17 


85 


23 


21 


27 


20 


16 


16 


14 


. . a t 










.... 


.... 


...a 


189 


30 


1 2 
1 2 


38 
20 


23 
24 


23 

26 


17 
18 


25 
13 


25 
11 


19 
12 


17 


21 


















197 


31 


... 


.... 




... 










124 


33 


t 4 
1 4 
1 1 


2U 
19 

2^ 


al 
27 
34 


30 
20 
24 


33 
25 

27 


18 
18 
•22 


9 
10 
13 


12 

8 

10 


9 
9 


6 
5- 
• . . . 


7 


aa.. 




a. a 










164 


33 










141 


34 ..... 


... a 
















158 


85 


1 2 
1 1 
1 t 
1 2 


20 
24 

25 
30 


25 
17 
26 
30 


27 
41 
23 
29 


30 
82 
18 
16 


20 

35 

17 

9 


13 
13 
15 
10 


18 
12 






















158 


36 






















134 


87 






















124 


88 


8 


9 


6- 


• • . • 






.... 








.... 


146 


89 


1 
1 


36 


86 
40 


26 
30 


24 

17 


14 

7 


15 
8 


23 

7 






















169 


40 


• . « . 


.... 


!.!. 


.... 




.... 










145 


41 


1 1 
1 


30 

16 


30 

38 


28 
25 


12 
U 


11 
10 


11 
9 


10 






















132 


42 


• • . . 


. 


a . . a 
















112 


43 


1 3 
1 3 
1 3 


26 
26 
84 


28 
28 
23 


30 
23 
30 


U 
22 
24 


14 
15 
15 


8 

13 

9 


7 

12 

8 


7 
6- 

8 


7 


















151 


44 


















144 


45 


a . . k 


.... 
















146 


46 


1 


30 


2b 


19 


iO 


17 


14 


7- 


. * « * 




a... 
















145 


47...... 


1 


28 


30 


19 


20 


18 


6 






.... 


... 
















131 


48 ..... 


1 2 
1 2 
1 2 


16 
24 
20 


16 
18 
23 


24 

18 
24 


20 

17 
23 


28 
14 
21 


25 
13 
18 


18 
18 


14 




















160 


49 




















111 


50 


10- 


..*. 


r « . • 


.... 














152 


51 


1 1 


38 


30 


24 


23 


3 


n 


11- 




• . . • 








• ». . 










161 


53 


1 I 


20 


18 


i.'4 


28 


80 


26 


28 








.... 




.««. 










174 


63 


1 6 


26 


33 


30 


24 


17 


8 


17 


19 


18 


17 


.... 














209 


54 


1 2 

1 1 


32 
30 


24 
22 


siO 
5f3 


21 

27 


12 
^5 


11 
IB 


18 


15 




















153 


55. 


.... 


a « < . 


... 














145 


58 


1 


24 


86 


26 


20 


15 


12 


7- 


• • *» 




.... 


. .. 














140 


57 


1 


4t 


60 


21 


14 


13 


•2 


• » • • 


« » « * 


> . . . 


a • . t 
















154 


58...... 


1 2 


46 


31 


28 


26 


10 


11 


12 


11 


.... 


















170 


59 


1 6 


23 


21 


24 


25 


23 


21 


17 


18 


27 




.... 














IS-ft 


60 ..... 


1 7 
1 


2« 
26 


36 

87 


35 

23 


25 

18 


15 
20 


9 
22 


12 


10 


11 

* • * * 


10 

* * * ft 


9 














ft CO 


61 














146 


62 


1 2 


20 


33 


30 


27 


20 


17 


18 


6- 




















166 


63 


1 1 


25 


32 


80 


25 


16 


11 


2* 






















1f^8 


64 ..... 


1 3 
1 3 


34 
31 


16 

18 


21 
21 


15 
16 


16 
16 


12 

17 


15 
20 


22 

24 














.... 


.... 


a... 


151 
170 


65 • . . ■ . 


7- 










66 


1 2 


20 


24 


36 


18 


22 


26 


23 


27 


. • • . 


t * f « 


.;.. ...al 












196 


67 


1 2 


80 


36 


30 


25 


2& 


16 


16 


14 


. « » • 


















190 


68...... 


1 


25 


34 


80 


20 


10 


10 


> • • » 


• * t • 




















1S^9 


6d 


1 2 
1 
1 2 


^4 
25 
28 


30 
2i 
26 


26 
18 
25 


29 
14 
14 


18 

14 

8 


16 
13 
10 


30 






















359 


70 

71 


"e- 


. » . * 
* • • « 


* * ■ « 

* • » » 


• . • . 

• » » » 


. « « . 
. * . . 


» t • » 




• « « a 


. * . • 
t « « * 


. . • a 
.... 


112 
129 



Tme Adirondack Black Sprxjce. 



27 



TABLE IT. 



•8 

IxJPO 
32 



7 

8 

<7 a * « e • 

10 

11 

13 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 .,.. 
22...... 

23 

24...... 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

32 

33 

34 , 

35 

36,.... 

37 

38 

89 

40 

41 

42 

43 

44 

45 

46 

47 

48 

49 

50 

5i 

52 ..... . 

00 I a • • . 

54 

55 « • • • • 

56 

57 

58 * t • . < 

59 

60 

61 

62 

U , 

64...... 

65 

66 

67 

68 

69 .... 
70,.... 
7i»»»« • 



"1.2 

a 

C8 o 



83^ 
u 

10 

9 
10 

9 

8 

11 

11 

9 

9 

8 

9 

8 

9 

10 
10 

9 

9 

8 

9 

9 

8 

9 

8 

9 

8 
10 

9 

9 

8 

8 

9 

9 

9 

8 

9 
10 

8 

8 

8 

8 

8 

9 

9 

8 

8 

8 

10 

8 

8 

9 

8 

9 

9 

7 

8 

8 

10 

10 
8 
9 
8 

10 
8. 
6 
i 
8- 

10 
9 

10 



Top Mbiisuremknts. 



Number of rings per inch at top, c junting 
from, ^lie heart outward. 



16 


15 


12 


13 


10 


13 


16 


16 


12 


11 


9 


9 


9 


8 


21 


15 


11 


33 


14 


11 


13 


14 


10 


13 


7 ' 


8 


18 


23 


15 


16 


12 


15 


U 


11 


11 


13 


10 


7 


12 


11 


13 


15 


14 


11 


l\ 


13 


13 


14 


9 


13 


13 


13 


14 


12 


15 


12 


13 


15 


13 


14 


13 


13 


13 


14 


13 


12 


13 


16 


16 


14 


14 


12 


17 


14 


13 


13 


14 


14 


15 


16 


tl 


13 


12 


10 


12 


15 


13 


12 


11 


13 


12 


13 


13 


12 


13 


13 


14 


14 


12 


14 


14 


14 


11 


14 


16 


11 


13 


14 


14 


14 



12 14 
15 18 

13 12 



15 
15 
13 
15 
16 
20 
15 
16 
19 
16 
18 
15 



10 
12 
12 
14 
13 
15 
14 
12 
16 
16 
16 
12 



11 
15 
26 
19 
15 
9 
7 
8 
13 
15 
15 
1^ 
13 
26 
23 
18 
13 
12 
13 
12 
9 
13 
13 
36 
15 
12 
\X 
13 
12 
14 
14 
14 
14 
11 
14 
13 
11 
12 
10 
11 
15 
14 
14 
14 
15 
14 
12 
14 
15 
15 
l^ 
14 
13 
15 
13 
1^ 
16 
13 
10 
11 
13 
14 
12 
16 
14 
^4 



17 I 18 



15 
12 
18 
17 
16 



H 

18 

14 

15 

16 

9 

7 



16 

H 

26 

11 

18 

30 

21 

19 

13 

12 

14 

14 \ 

11 

13 

14 

12 

18 

U 

11 

18 

13 

12 

13 

13 

10 

13 

12 

10 

9 

14 
13 

X.A 

18 
10 
13 
14 
14 
18 
16 
17 
10 
12 
15 
12 
15 
13 
14 
12 
17 
13 
14 
13 
13 
12 
14 
18 
12 
8- 
10 
13 
15 
19 
16 



10 

31 
4 

13 

14 
9 
9 

18 

13 

10 
6- 
5- 
8- 



10- 



6- 



11 
5 



18 

7- 
13 
14 

7- 
12 

4 

7- 
12 



8- 
14 
13 
13 

7- 



12 

« « 

11 



13 

11 



6- 

8- 



11 



10 



13 
15 



13 
10 



12 

'is' 



18 
15 
18 
12 



11 



12 



15 

14 



7- 



18 
13 



• ft* 



o p^ 
he 53 

irt -lii^ 



3 

3 

2 

2 

2 

3 

2 

3 

3 

2 8 

2 8 

2 9 

2 

2 10 

3 2 

2 6 

3 1 
3 10 
3 4 



M 

S> O 



o 

■M 






3 


1 


3 


2 


3 


4 


2 


8 


3 





2 


8 


3 





3 





3 


1 


3 





8 


2 


8 


6 


3 


1 


3 





3 


2 


3 


6 


4 





3 


8 


3 


2 


3 





2 


8 


2 


4 


8 


2 


3 


2 


3 





3 


1 


2 


4 


3 


3 


2 


8 


3 





2 


11 


3 


4 



3 
2 
2 
2 
8 
2 
3 
3 
2 
2 
2 
3 
3 



2 10 
2 8 

2 

3 8 

2 2 



53' 4' 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
16 8 
26 8 
40 
S6 8 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
*.0 
£6 8 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
5* 
40 
40 
40 
40 
26 8 
40 
40 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
26 8 
XQ 8 
1-6 8 
26 8 
40 
40 
40 
•^6 8 
26 8 
40 
26 8 
40 
S6 8 
26 P 
40 
40 
S6 8 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
53 4 
53 4 
26 8 
40 
40 
40 
^3 4 
53 4 
40 
26 8 
40 
26 8 
26 8 



Sr 0" 
42 



38 
SO 



30 

5 

26 

26 

32 

30 
34 

31 

26 

27 



31 
37 
33 



32 9 
27 6 

29 
31 7 

33 8 
27 
36 6 
24 9 

30 
24 9 
21 6 
27 
24 9 
20 
30 6 



26 
34 



4 

33 7 

29 

30 6 
38 
81 8 



30 
24 
25 
30 
84 
39 



36 

29 6 

27 4 

S8 

27 8 

24 8 

24 7 

23 6 
38 6 
31 

27 

25 6 
21 8 
80 4 
84 6 

24 8 
35 8 
33 7 

28 8 
21 6 
13 
S6 
10 
83 8 
40 4 
32 6 



o 
H 



87' 0' 
72 
67 8 



59 
59 
54 



55 8 

55 

75 1 

59 8 
63 4 
69 4 
53 9 
55 8 

60 6 
66 10 
62 9 
62 6 



71 
72 
61 



63 6 
57 
6) 10 
67 9 
86 8 
67 9 

64 6 
70 1 
67 9 
49 10 
74 

69 5 
63 8 
63 5 
59 2 
61 2 

76 8 
61 6 
59 8 

53 8 

54 
73 6 

77 7 
82 

65 9 
58 6 

70 7 
67 4 
70 3 
54 8 
54 7 

66 8 
76 1 
62 
56 2 



55 
64 



87 

91 

58 8 

78 

76 1 
73 

77 10 
69 2 

78 8 
58 8 
56 4 
69 4 
61 4 



28 



Tmm Adirondack Black Spruce, 



Table IV — {Continued), 



§03 


■g 






Measttrements on Stump. 


i 


























9^. 


is 










.3 


gfe 


1- 


Number of rings per inch on stump, counting from the heart outward. 


9 


m 


Q 










< 


72 


1 4 
1 5 
1 

1 1 

1 2 

1 7 
1 5 


24 
2i 
24 
24 
SJ6 
29 
20 
42 


24 
27 
32 
23 
30 
29 
17 
35 


19 
3d 
85 
24 
22 
24 
19 
25 


15 
19 
2i 

16 
29 
25 
18 
18 


12 
16 
14 
14 
18 
16 
15 
10 


13 
21 
15 
13 
20 
12 
14 
7 


29 
21 
16 
11 
8 
11 
28 
14 


8- 
18 
15 




















144 


73 


14- 
2i 


















191 


74..... 


9- 
















?on 


75 








« • • u 








15^4 


76 


7» 

9 
24 
10 










160 


77 


6- 
26 
13 


















161 


78 


6- 
















181 


79 
















169 


80 


2 3 


28 


20 


25 


22 


14 


9 


9 


10 


10 


10 


9 


11 


8 


14 


16 






S26 


81 


1 5 
1 6 


24 

28 


81 
31 


80 

25 


82 

21 


16 
81 


14 

18 


9 

L16 


12 
16 


16 
19 


29 
8« 
















212 


82 


• ■ • * 














203 


85 


2 8 
1 4 


34 
30 


25 

28 


18 

27 


7 
18 


8 
16 


20 

34 


31 

18 


6 
22 


10 


8 
. • . . 


16 


14 


16 


24 








217 


84 








173 


85 


1 6 

1 6 

2 8 


3-3 

21 
21 


25 
20 
2-3 


33 

19 
18 


26 
18 
20 


21 
32 
14 


15 
24 

17 


5 
21 

12 


6 

17 
18 


10 
18 

18 


9 
13 
17 


14 
12 
15 


6- 












201 


86 .... 












?06 


87 


18 


"18 










244 


88 


1 1 
1 3 
1 1 
1 2 
1 
1 2 
1 3 
1 4 
1 1 
1 1 
1 6 
1 
1 6 
1 
1 1 
1 2 
1 4 


26 
SO 
16 
24 
24 
17 
24 
15 
21 
24 
23 
18 
18 
24 
26 
23 
14 


28 
34 
28 
23 
26 
28 
32 
22 
£9 
28 
24 
22 
17 
20 
26 
28 
24 


25 
20 
14 
19 
!i:7 
24 
31 
80 
80 
26 
21 
19 
15 
20 
30 
18 
18 


14 
24 
21 
18 
18 
22 
17 
28 
27 
19 
20 
2J 
13 
30 
21 
13 
18 


15 
25 
24 
16 
19 
10 
10 
19 
20 
20 
10 
16 
12 
29 
18 
15 
16 


6 
12 
19 
14 
16 
14 
11 
10 
18 
30 
13 
20 
13 
19 
16 
14 
14 


12 
16 
28 
13 
22 
10 
9 
10 
14 


6- 
15 

'28* 

17* 

15 

13 




















132 


89 
















166 


90..... 




















150 


91 


















154 


93.... 




















15^ 


9» 


7„ 
8- 
14 


















149 


94 


















157 


95..... 


15 
















176 


96.... 
















159 


97 






















147 


98 


12' 
11- 
12 
• . « • 
14 
18 
35 


12 


27 










161 


99 


















1«9 


100 


12 
16 " 


11 


13 


16 


14 












166 


101 












14^ 


102 
















169 


103 




















1V8 


104 


18 


8 


.... 
















145 


105 


1 4 
1 


18 
24 


22 

23 


18 

23 


14 
20 


14 
20 


14 
17 


14 


18 
• . . . 


22 


















354 


106 


.... 
















182 


107 


1 
1 4 
1 1 
1 3 
1 
1 4 
1 4 
1 4 


80 
24 

28 
37 
29 
18 
23 
3* 


23 
23 

30 
24 
21 
22 
20 
82 


17 
18 
26 
26 
20 
16 
18 
26 


13 

14 
27 
20 
18 
17 
20 
18 


19 
18 
S3 
80 

ts 

18 
11 
15 


28 
11 
26 
16 
22 
15 
17 
16 
























180 


108..... 


17 
15 
17 
10- 
8 
15 
15 


15 
















139 


109 




















174 


110 


23 




















173 


Ill 




















188 


112 


14 
21 
16 


10- 


















188 


113 .... 


















144 


114 


» # • f 


















170 


115 


1 2 


29 


27 


19 


18 


20 


14 


15 


11*. 




















14? 


116..,.. 


1 2 
1 2 

1 4 


28 

S8 
23 


24 
28 
30 


24 

21 
19 


20 
19 
22 


14 
14 
20 


12 
16 

17 


14 

m 

22 






















181 
147 
153 


117 






















118 J 






















119 


1 4 


28 


20 


19 


27 


24 


26 


18 


20 


18 


.... 
















200 


120 


1 7 


27 


81 


29 


28 


17 


14 


8 


8 


15 


11 
















188 


121 


1 6 


23 


20 


24 


26 


24 


11 


11 


12 


22 


















172 


122.... 


1 6 
1 2 


22 

22 


26 

2t 


23 

23 


18 
20 


20 
19 


16 

18 


16 
15 


18 
17 


16 
13 


















375 


128 


12 
















ifio 


124.... 


1 


28 


80 


29 


20 


17 


26 


• • « . 






















150 


126 


1 1 


30 


33 


28 


21 


11 


20 


30 


I . . 


.... 


















178 


126.... 


1 1 
1 

1 1 


21 
24 
23 


26 
28 
26 


27 
80 
25 


22 
14 
18 


17 

7 

14 


20 

1? 


15 

8 

17 


14 
19* 


15 

» * • ft 


11 


20 














208 


127.... 
128 














11 R 
160 


129 


1 2 


24 


20 


30 


32 


17 


16 


9 


11 




















359 


130.... 


1 4 


18 


24 


22 


10 


14 


24 


26 


25 


18 


13 
















194 


181 


1 


28 


80 


20 


14 


8 


13 


12 


6- 




















181 


132. .... 


1 


30 


84 


29 


23 


11 


12 


11 


6- 




















156 


183 


1 


82 


29 


27 


11 


14 


10 


10 






















18H 


134 


1 4 


80 


36 


26 


17 


15 


9 


14 


15 


12 


10 
















184 


135. , . . 

136 

137 


1 1 
1 1 
1 1 


80 
38 
85 


88 
34 
42 


22 
19 
85 


22 

5:9 
88 


28 
18 
23 


19 

18 

8 


8 
19 
13 


14 

« « • • 

16 


18 

« * • « 


. • • . 


. • • • 














194 
175 
210 


138 


1 2 


24 


kt 


£2 


16 


10 


9 


8 


18 


9- 


















148 


189 

140 


1 2 
1 1 


20 

24 


21 

20 


17 
22 


18 
15 


21 
9 


18 
10 


12 
16 


23 


. f * • 


.... 


» « » ♦ 














149 
116 


141..,., 
142 


1 2 

1 t 


28 
80 


27 
84 


19 
17 


16 
29 


18 
20 


7 
18 


8 
19 


14 
• * *f 


15 

« t »• 


* • * « 

• « • • 


. * • • 


« • t « 




« * * t 


♦ t f » 






142 
167 



Tmb Ai>moiwACK Black 8prvc£. 
Table IY — {Continued), 



29 






72. 
73. 
74. 

75 

76..., 

77..., 

78..., 

79..., 

80... 

81... 

82... 

83... 

84... 

85... 

86... 

87... 

88... 

89... 

90... 

91.. .. 

93 

93. 
94. 
95. 
96. 

97 

98 

99 

too 

101 

103.... 

10? 

104 

105 

106 

107 

108 

109.... 
110..., 

Ill 

112 

118 

114 

115 

116 

117 

m:;:; 

119..... 

l!20 

121 

122. ... 

123 

124. . . . 
125. . . . 

126 

127. 
128. . . 

129 

180... 

131 

I'i2. . . . 
133.... 
134.... 
135.... 

136 

137 ..., 
138. .. 

139 

140 

141.... 



0)4=] 

5-2 



11 

8 
10 

8 

9 
11 

8 

8 
10 

8 

8 
9 

8 

9 
13 

8 
11 

9 

8 

8 

8 

9 

to 

8 
10 

8~ 
8 

7™ 

8- 
7 
9 

lo- 
ll 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
7 
7 
9 
6-- 
8 
8 
9 
7- 
11 
7 
5 
8- 
9 
9 
9 
11 
8 
8 
9 
11 
9 
8 
8 
10 
6 
8- 
7- 

8 
9 
8 
9 



Top Mbasxtbembnts, 



Number of rings per inch at top, counting 
from the heart outward. 



Idi2%t««. 8 



16 

14 

17 

12 

14 

13 

16 

19 

18 

15 

16 

18 

16 

13 

17 

14 

13 
17 
18 

16 
17 
16 
<9 
17 
19 
19 
17 
14 
18 
18 
19 
16 
19 
21 
16 
19 
21 
14 
15 
9 

16 
21 
19 
18 
14 
16 
19 
10 
16 
12 
16 
17 
16 
19 
16 
14 
13 
16 
15 
12 
16 
13 
14 
17 
19 
16 
15 
17 
12 
16 
16 



17 

12 

18 

14 

16 

17 

13 

15 

13 

14 

16 

.9 

17 

16 

19 

16 

14 

19 

12 

14 

34 

10 
11 
18 
17 
19 
19 
17 
16 
18 
12 
21 
39 
9 
10 
12 
16 
13 
16 
14 
17 
16 
18 
11 
15 
12 
12 
9 

30 
11 
19 
13 
12 
16 
14 
17 
9 
32 
17 
12 
14 
36 
12 
10 
16 
17 
12 
14 
14 
14 
19 



19 
16 
18 
14 
16 
15 

17 

11 

12 

15 

15 

10 

11 

12 

11 

16 

12 

13 

17 

12 

12 

14 

12 

12 

14 

11 

15 

14 

10 

12 

14 

13 

12 

33 

14 

13 
9 

17 

39 

17 

12 

33 

30 

15 

17 

12 

16 

15 

15 

16 

13 

14 
14 
12 
10 
11 
19 
14 
14 
17 
35 
12 
16 
12 
18 
15 
16 
13 
16 

' 14 



23 
19 
12 
12 
12 
15 
9 

12 
12 
16 
12 
16 
10 
14 
16 
19 
9 

13 
17 
16 
15 
15 
18 
13 
19 
17 
10 
18 
12 
15 
10 
13 
12 
16 
17 
14 
It 
12 
10 
13 
12 
12 
12 
21 
12 
10 
10 
15 
9 



IS 



14 

14 
15 



14 



13 



11 



12 
20 
7- 
12 
18 



lo- 



ll- 
16 



12 
17 



12 

ie 

12 

16 



24 



14 



12 



15 



16 
19 



8- 



10 



8 
9 
10 
16 
12 
13 
14 
18 
36 
14 
10 
14 
14 
7- 
10 
12 
21 
11 
18 
It 
12 



17 



23 



16 



13 

16 

18 
8 

18 
7- 
8- 

12 

10 

11 

"9' 

14 



12 



16 



9 
7« 

16 

7- 






W 8" 
2 6 



2 10 
2 8 



2 10 
2 9 



2 9 

2 11 

3 
8 30 
3 2 

2 6 

3 1 

2 8 

3 3 
a 10 
3 



2 
2 
3 
2 
3 
2 
3 
2 
2 
3 
2 
2 
2 
3 



3 

2 6 

3 4 

3 3 

4 
3 2 

2 10 

3 
3 2 
3 

2 10 
8 I 

3 4 
3 1 
3 
3 4 

2 10 

3 
2 8 
2 10 
2 10 



<t3 5* 



40' 0" 

40 

40 

26 8 

26 8 

26 8 



58 

40 



66 8 



53 
53 
66 
40 
53 
53 



4 
4 
8 

4 
4 

66 8 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
26 8 



40 
40 



28 8 

40 

26 8 

.^3 4 

28 8 

66 8 

26 8 

40 

26 8 

30 

26 8 

26 8 

40 

40 

40 



53 
40 
40 



25 8 
53 4 
40 
40 
40 
53 4 

26 8 



53 
53 
53 
40 



26 8 

23 8 

40 

26 8 

40 

26 8 

40 

26 8 

i6 8 

26 8 

40 

40 

40 

40 

40 

40 

40 

40 

t 40 



fi( 
o 

■4-» 

o 

bo 

fl 



86' 0" 

41 6 

23 6 

33 8 

34 
43 6 
23 



26 
24 



25 6 



29 
15 

34 
21 
28 



23 9 
30 
33 8 
7 
4 



87 
28 
24 
27 11 
31 8 
34 6 
26 8 
31 5 
24 10 

23 6 
16 10 

36 

24 7 
26 9 

37 
4 
9 
7 
4 



38 

27 
21 
28 

20 10 

21 8 
27 6 



24 
39 



21 
27 3 
27 8 

25 
19 
41 6 
17 10 
29 
38 10 

26 8 
31 
37 5 
81 8 

27 6 

26 6 

36 4 

37 6 
23 

27 6 

25 10 
'9 
18 
29 6 

28 8 

26 7 
92 4 
26 8 

29 6 

30 



•a 



e 



78' 8' 

84 
6S 6 
62 8 

62 11 

73 2 
79 5 

68 8 
94 4 
81 6 

85 9 
84 9 

76 11 

77 9 
84 9 
93 7 

59 8 

63 2 
67 

70 10 
53 9 

71 3 

74 9 

64 2 

69 4 

60 10 
81 1 
53 2 
87 4 

65 10 
67 1 
56 6 
69 8 



68 3 
57 3 
64 7 
70 8 
63 6 
78 

69 8 

67 10 
m 3 
77 4 
69 7 

69 10 

68 4 

74 11 

70 10 
73 6 
85 7 

75 2 

69 2 
61 
67 4 
75 8 



57 
69 
66 



80 8 

57 8 

57 

55 7 

62 4 

61 ^ 

72 6 

67 

69 5 

65 4 

69 4 

72 4 

1 72 10 



30 



Tms Adirondack Black Sprucm, 



Table 1Y — {Continued). 






143 

144 

l^Dii > • • 

146 

147...., 

148.... 

149...., 

150.... 

151. .». 

152.... 

153 

154... 

J OD • * . . • 

15S.... 

157 

158.... 
159.... 
160.... 
161.... 

162 

163 

164 

165 

166... 
167..... 

168 

169 

170..... 
171.,.. 

17a 

173. . • « 
174.... 

175 

176 

177.... 
178.... 

119 

180... 

181... 

18^. .... 

183... 

184..... 

185.... 

186.... 

187..,. 

188.... 

189.... 

190.... 

191..., 

I0O. .... 

193...., 

194.... 

195.... 

196 

197 

198 

199 

200 

201 

202..... 

203..., 

204.... 

2C5 

2(j6..... 

S07 

208.. 

209.. 

210.,,.. 

2lt..... 

212. • . . • 

213.. 



o 

® d 



vr 



Measueements on Stump. 



1 



1 

1 1 
1 
1 

1 1 



1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 6 
1 1 



Number of rings per incli on stump, counting from tbe heart outward. 



Ill 
1 6 
1 5 
1 2 



30 
21 
31 
23 
30 
83 
16 
24 

as 

24 
26 

24 
25 
)ii5 
25 

30 
18 

16 
17 
24 

29 
24 
21 
23 
24 
32 
32 
23 
28 
16 
18 
24 
22 
18 
25 
20 
28 
26 
20 
20 

n 

16 

17 

80 

19 

20 

24 

81 

21 

80 

28 

22 

18 

18 

16 

18 

18 

22 

23 

14 

28 

26 

22 

24 

26 

20 

18 

18 

18 



34 

85 

SO 

20 

28 

19 

17 

30 

27 

24 

23 

^5 

24 

26 

18 

27 

32 

16 

23 

i6 

17 

30 

28 

25 

22 

86 

21 

18 

31 

31 

30 

18 

16 

25 

24 

23 

18 

80 

21 

22 

26 

22 

18 

20 

22 

23 

20 

24 

31 

21 

20 

28 

21 

24 

2i 

5:2 

17 

22 

56 

24 

20 

18 

80 

28 

18 

2 

19 

2i 

22 

26 

28 



S3 


25 


18 


11 


36 


16 


9 


14 


f5 


16 


15 


20 


29 


19 


17 


15 


26 


22 


37 


19 


14 


33 


19 


16 


fe3 


14 


18 


17 


fO 


21 


11 


14 


2i 


14 


7 


17 


23 


25 


85 


18 


14 


14 


10 


18 


12 


6 


8 


10 


16 


11 


10 


7 


80 


22 


12 


12 


22 


28 


18 


17 


22 


17 


16 


23 


34 


U 


9 


9 


20 


14 


12 


8 


19 


55 


2i2 


7 


18 


13 


IS 


13 


17 


16 


12 


12 


26 


12 


12 


13 


24 


16 


13 


9 


29 


16 


36 


15 


15 


14 


14 


8 


20 


22 


24 


12 


22 


10 


13 


12 


13 


34 


12 


21 


26 


16 


18 


9 


23 


35 


15 


16 


19 


27 


18 


12 


20 


14 


13 


11 


15 


22 


29 


23 


20 


21 


13 


10 


23 


17 


7 


8 


22 


18 


15 


13 


16 


16 


19 


10 


25 


20 


15 


18 


27 


11 


15 


17 


21 


11 


12 


13 


17 


15 


8 


9 


26 


17 


16 


16 


17 


18 


19 


11 


2) 


14 


12 


13 


17 


15 


13 


12 


21 


13 


14 


18 


17 


20 


8 


9 


17 


14 


17 


12 


30 


18 


18 


14 


19 


16 


14 


16 


24 


23 


19 


19 


23 


12 


16 


21 


25 


9 


13 


6 


16 


14 


10 


11 


21 


16 


16 


10 


30 


20 


18 


20 


19 


14 


18 


17 


21 


16 


13 


11 


24 


n 


19 


10 


16 


u 


20 


17 


22 


18 


12 


20 


2^ 


17 


15 


13 


23 


19 


9 


11 


80 


21 


9 


24 


2i 


14 


9 


14 


25 


24 


18 


16 


20 


16 


11 


17 


12 


17 


10 


13 


16 


23 


17 


8 


19 


17 


14 


13 


20 


21 


19 


14 



11 

10 
21 
6- 
26 



14- 

15 
11 

'ii" 

13 
7 
8 

12 



9 
10 



13^ 



10 

18 

13 

14 

19 

22 

17 

16 

19- 

18 

8- 
11 
17 
18 
16 
14 
17 
15 

7 

5- 
12 
14 

9 

8 

16' 
11 

'el 

9 

11 

8 
17 
12 

6 
9 



18 
22 

18 

'is' 

14 

'16* 

18- 

8 

10 

12 
8 

12 



6- 
12 
14 

9 
13 
Il- 
ls 
19 



8- 



28 

9 

11 

24 

"f 
8 



15 
10 
17 

18 
16 



8 
16 

'is 

5 



8 
12 
It 
22 



11 
8 



16 
11- 

6 

4- 



K_ 



10 
14 
27 

18* 

8- 



12 

'io 



6 
14 
22 



16 

:o 



15 



20 
10 



20 



4 
10 



20 



14 



...! 



CO 



be 



18 



10- 



171 

157 

16t 

128 

168 

184 

ll9 

158 

126 

157 

114 

106 

111 

148 

140 

180 

132 

104 

150 

176 

133 

149 

152 

160 

129 

1S6 

128 

118 

143 

167 

170 

150 

17ii 

130 

129 

1'8 

109 

145 

114 
103 
117 
114 
118 
96 
120 
102 
115 
200 
178 
182 
180 
189 
180 

m 

128 
128 
12i 
127 
164 
315 
158 
189 
188 
111 

i-e 

117 
163 

149 
148 
154 



TsE AmnoisBAGK Black Sprtice. 



31 



Table IV — {Gontinued). 



nidi 



4:3 -I 

CO w 



143 

Ut. .. 

145 

146 

147 

148..... 
149.... 

150 

151 

15-2 

153 

154 

155 

166.... 

157 

158 

160! *.'.;* 

161 

162 .... 

163 

16i 

165 

166 

167 

168 

169 

170 

It I . • . . • 

172 

173 

174 

175 

176 

177 

178 

179 

180 

181 

182 

183 

184 

185 

186 

187 

188. * • • t 

189 

ISO 

191 

192 

193 

194.... 

195 

196 

197 

198..,. 

X9lT. • » « • 

200 

201 

202 .... 
203..... 
204...., 

205 

206.... 
507.... 
208. . . . 
209.... 
210..., 
211.... 
21<« . * * . 
21i • • . . 



8 
9 
9- 
8 
6 
8 
8- 
8 
8 
10 

8 
9 

9 

9 
7 
8 
7 
7 
9 
9 
7 
7 
8 
9 
9 
8- 
8 
9 
8 
14 
7_ 

9 
10 
7 
7 
7 
8 
9 
8 
9 
8 
8 
8 
8 
9 
9 
9 

9 

8- 

8 

6 

9 

8 

6 

r 8 

8 

6- 

7 

9 

7 

9 

9 

9 
10 
9 
9 
9 



Top Measuekmknts. 



Number of rings per inch at top, counting 
from the hearC outward. 



14 
16 
17 
16 
14 
18 
16 
19 
16 
27 
19 
14 



11 
16 
11 
12 
17 
16 
19 
14 
16 
24 
18 
14 



15 ' 16 



16 


16 


17 


19 


.13 


19 


16 


16 


16 


12 


17 


16 


19 


12 


16 


16 


16 


19 


7 


13 


13 


12 


36 


16 


13 


^6 


21 


17 


16 


16 


18 


17 


19 


19 


16 


18 


11 


14 


17 


11 


16 


17 


18 


38 


16 


11 


.... 


15 


15 


14 


16 


12 


19 


16 


11 


11 


16 


12 


12 


10 


8 


13 


16 


14 


11 


12 


12 


16 


13 


15 


17 


19 


12 


16 


10 


14 


14 


14 


16 


17 


18 


13 


20 


18 



19 19 



12 

21 

20 

15 

17 

21 

19 

19 

17 

17 

^9 

20 

19 

21 

20 



15 
16 
19 
14 
15 
20 

18 
18 
14 
17 
11 
17 
17 
20 



14 
12 
14 
12 
12 
13 
14 
17 
16 
18 
14 
17 
8 

12 
12 
12 
IS 
17 
10 
16 
12 
12 
16 
15 
17 
16 
17 
13 
11 
15 
38 
10 
11 
18 
38 
34 
10 
16 
11 
12 
21 
15 
17 
11 
33 
16 
13 
12 
8 
13 
16 
33 
11 
35 
16 
12 
15 
13 
16 
14 
9 
17 
32 
20 
2t 
15 
21 
8 
36 
12 



16 
10 
9 
11 
9- 
14 
14 
12 
11 
15 
10 
21 
11 
12 
10 
32 
11 
32 
18 
36 
13 

16 

15 

34 

19 

11 

13 

11 

16 

32 

13 

18 

»3 

10 

34 

37 

16 

12 

34 

14 

11 

14 

15 

12 

17 

14 

11 

14 

11 

12 
10 
9 
9- 
11 
15 
8- 
13 
12 
18 
17 
32 
12 
12 
15 
16 
12 
7 
15 
13 



15 
15 
10- 



7~ 



8 

9- 
18 
13 

13 
1^ 
13 
16 



11 



10- 



12 



Il- 
ls 
13 
13 
9- 
8- 
13- 
12 



12 
15 

12' 



15 



13 

12 
11 



10 



12 



12 

13 

14 

12 
9- 
8- 



11 



12 



7_ 



7- 



16 



35 
16 

38 
22 

13 
16 



12 I 15 1 17 K... .... 



24 



_2 A 

M si 
0. ax 



0" 

4 





6 



2 8 
2 10 
2 10 
2 8 
2 8 
2 10 
2 6 

2 10 

3 1 
3 3 
2 10 

2 6 

3 4 
3 1 
3 6 
3 
2 8 

2 6 

3 
2 6 
2 6 



2 11 
2 8 
2 7 
2 8 
2 9 
2 8 
2 9 
2 11 
2 7 
2 10 

2 7 

3 

2 7 

3 
2 6 



00 

m^ be 

IP .2 
p 

3) 



2 8 

2 10 

3 1 

2 11 

3 

2 2 

3 3 

2 11 

3 8 
2 6 
2 10 

2 11 

3 2 
3 
3 6 
3 



40' 0" 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
26 8 
13 4 
£6 8 
40 
m 8 
40 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
56 8 
40 
26 8 
40 
53 4 
40 
26 8 
40 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
40 
26 8 
66 8 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
£6 8 
40 
40 
26 8 
26 8 
IS 4 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 



P4 

CD 



2S' 8" 

33 4 

21 6 

3 4 

8 8 

59 



26 

27 
25 
26 



53 4 

53 4 

40 

26 ft 

40 

f 40 

26 8* 

26 8 



31 8 
33 8 

37 10 
24 10 
40 6 
S4 8 
31 
31 8 

20 6 
15 

24 6 

38 8 

25 
24 6 
27 8 
33 
81 6 
35 7 
27 10 

29 4 

26 9 
42 8 
S6 

31 4 

39 

21 6 

27 8 
21 6 
12 2 

30 

32 8 
35 10 

31 4 
30 8 



30 
26 
34 
36 



£3 


4 


39 


40 





27 4 


40 





23 10 


53 


4 


19 8 


26 


8 


S5 


53 


4 


27 


40 





22 4 


'*6 


8 


39 


26 


8 


48 2 


40 





39 6 


40 





24 8 


53 


4 


23 10 


53 


4 


23 8 


40 





31 7 


40 





29 10 



26 9 
23 10 
32 10 
29 
31 
82 
»4 

27 6 



bo 
o 



71' 8- 

62 4 

51 2 

61 

62 2 



58 
56 
70 
54 
42 
61 
76 
67 



67 11 
70 5 



64 
60 



61 8 



63 

75 



67 6 

68 
67 6 
&0 10 
70 2 



62 

74 
64 
57 
72 
70 
72 
94 
60 
68 
U 
56 
64 
55 
E9 
U 
53 
61 



2 
2 
7 
1 
4 
2 
3 
4 
7 
4 
8 
7 
3 
1 
3 
2 
d 




69 11 
59 8 



55 
6^ 

6« 
1.3 

80 



75 11 
58 2 
73 8 

65 1 
63 2 
f6 10 
7.5 3 
70 5 

66 9 

76 
63 30 



83 
65 
68 



72 4 



62 
67 
60 



80 
75 1 

72 10 



32 



TsM Adirondack Black 8prvcii. 



Table IY — {Gontimied ). 



SB 

02 



214. 
235. 
216, 
217, 
218. 
219. 
220. 
221. 
223. 
223. 
224. 
225. 
2^6. 
237. 
228. 
239. 
230. 

2ai. 

232. 

233. 

234. 

235. 

236. 

237. 

2?8. 

239. 

240. 

241, 

242. 

243. 

244. 

245. 

240. 

247. 

248. 

249. 

250. 

2il, 

252. 

253. 

2^4. 

256, 

256. 

257. 

^8. 

259. 

260. 

261. 

262 

2o8. 

284. 

265, 

266, 

267, 

268, 

269. 

270, 

271 

272. 

273. 

2?'4. 

275. 

276. 

277, 

2?8. 

2:9. 

280. 

S^^l, 

282. 

283., 

284., 



<H 





U P4 


© c 


+3 P 


CD p 


i^ 


S3 


ft 


i'S" 


1 2 


1 


1 


1 2 


1 2 


1 


1 ) 


1 0. 


1 6 


1 


1 4 


1 2 


1 4 


1 4 


1 4 


1 8 


1 8 


1 2 


1 8 


1 6 


1 6 


1 6 


110 


1 4 


1 1 


1 2 


1 7 


1 6 


1 2 


1 4 


1 2 


1 


1 2 


1 1 


I 6 


1 1 


1 


1 


1 8 


1 4 


1 6 


1 4 


1 1 


! 4 


1 4 


1 3 


1 2 


1 


1 


1 1 


1 2 


1 


1 


1 3 


1 4 


1 5 


1 5 


1 2 


1 5 


1 6 


1 


1 


1 4 


1 4 


1 2 


1 5 


1 4 


1 8 


1 6 


1 



Measurements on Stump. 



Number of riogs per inch on stump, counting from the heart outward. 



26 


30 


34 


23 


14 


14 


8 


7- 




















i2 


IB 


21 


15 


33 


14 


14 


12 


'16' 








.... 




«... 


. . . . 




14 


18 


20 


39 


17 


14 


9 


, , , , 


> • > t 






.... 






. . a ■ 


.... 




23 


21 


25 


22 


17 


12 


.... 


, , , , 


. • • I 






• . • 






« . • • 






28 


30 


32 


26 


23 


20 


13 


6- 


«... 


















S;8 


20 


19 


22 


20 


38 


21 


• • • • 


< • • • 
















24 


24 


22 


23 


18 


39 


• • • ■ 


.... 


• • • . 














.... 




23 


19 


21 


2u 


12 


17 


9- 


> • • t 


» • t « 


















26 


82 


5i2 


27 


17 


84 


1 • • t 


« • • • 
















... * 




32 


30 


£0 


16 


17 


15 


15 


7 


23* 














.... 




30 


83 


18 


25 


18 


18 


14- 


• • • • 


• * • « 














.... 




28 


24 


n 


27 


19 


12 


14 


11 


7- 


















19 


2/ 


21 


24 


20 


16 


18 


12 


• • ♦ 














.»•• 




22 


21 


17 


11 


36 


39 


13 


14 


10 














• • • > 




15 


26 


21 


14 


39 


20 


34 


13 


. t • > 














• • » . 




24 


24 


17 


13 


19 


•10 


30 


13 


10 














.... 




23 


21 


5i0 


17 


17 


21 


22 


19 


13 














..1. 




19 


82 


28 


19 


17 


13 


17 


13 


16 














.... 




24 


32 


28 


23 


26 


22 


16 


• • • • 


H • « 














.... 




24 


28 


19 


9 


9 


38 


14 


14 


20 














.t .. 




30 


30 


13 


16 


11 


39 


22 


20 


7- 


















feS 


30 


34 


24 


11 


8 


33 


16 


16 


















16 


24 


34 


13 


15 


11 


15 


18 


27 














.... 




14 


18 


22 


15 


10 


17 


15 


37 


11 




*i2' 


7— 












22 


2b 


21 


23 


16 


38 


J7 


25 


. . « . 


















14 


li 


17 


21 


39 


20 


22 


30 


. • • . 


















14 


23 


21 


28 


25 


24 


17 


37 


. • • • 


















23 


20 


39 


19 


33 


36 


11 


13 






"n 


'20' 












>Q 


24 


^^6 


f7 


17 


14 


37 


21 


'14' 


















40 


36 


23 


2S 


21 


Sil 


17 


• • • • 




















38 


SO 


lsi8 


3D 


17 


12 


12 


11 


. 1 1 • 


















^2 


21 


n 


19 


35 


31 


30 


11 


« • • « 


















20 


24 


25 


80 


20 


24 


10- 


• « • 


« • 1 • 


















19 


11 


17 


k3 


30 


86 


,2 


... 


• • • • 


















IZ 


38 


10 


li 


J5 


6 


17 


Z^ 




















23 


30 


fc6 


16 


17 


17 


12 


16 


'14' 


















17 


20 


3a 


2) 


21 


25 


20 


23 




















26 


27 


14 


14 


8 


13 


10 


5- 


,,,, 


• •It 
















24 


19 


16 


23 


24 


30 


20 


25 




















21 


25 


23 


£0 


23 


13 


9 


33 


'is* 






* 


• • • . 










16 


35 


U 


17 


18 


19 


13 


23 










.... 










18 


*.5 


24 


j;o 


15 


13 


8 


13 


'12* 


















32 


35 


27 


25 


2i) 


16 


7 


13 


« • fe ■ 


















26 


20 


21 


19 


18 


15 


16 


» • . 




















^% 


28 


23 


26 


18 


11 


18 


'li 


» • • 


















24 


26 


38 


25 


16 


18 


16 


17 


4 • • • 


















18 


36 


16 


18 


15 


11 


16 


34 




















16 


36 


28 


25 


21 


2\ 


20 


10 


f •«■ 


















27 


19 


18 


16 


36 


12 


33 






















)8 


26 


n 


21 


24 


18 


7- 


• • < 




















15 


18 


16 


15 


12 


15 


12 






















2(5 


18 


15 


36 


iO 


10 


14 


12' 




















24 


35 


IJ 


13 


12 


*4 


• < • t 


.... 


> t • * 


















30 


82 


23 


22 


17 


13 


• • • t 


.... 




















26 


2t 


28 


2J 


19 


16 


22 


'32 




















22 


22 


23 


18 


35 


8 


16 


18 


2V 


















24 


29 


2J 


17 


11 


14 


9 


14 


IS 


















21 


26 


21 


22 


35 


7 


6 


10 


15 








* ' 










22 


38 


16 


M 


13 


14 


14 


6- 




















22 


21 


35 


13 


32 


12 


10 


14 


'16' 


















18 


38 


17 


17 


18 


17 


15 


10 


* f V * 


















29 


S> 


24 


)9 


15 


2 




s ■ « * 


* t • • 


















18 


22 


20 


16 


20 


27 


. • • < 


» t « • 


* • 4 * 


















14 


20 


17 


16 


18 


36 


17 


32 




















19 


38 


17 


36 


13 


20 


36 


18 




















16 


29 


28 


2t 


22 


19 


36 
















***" 






26 


82 


22 


84 


23 


2r 


20 


27 


'ill 












'**' 


***' 




28 


2J 


^6 


20 


18 


20 


18 


22 


14- 












»*.. 






22 


2i 


21 


20 


28 


24 


18 


39 


18 


'is' 












t » • ♦ 




17 


19 


17 


20 


9 


10 


13 


23 


30 


12 


26* 








*"' 






26 


.20 


21 


28 


26 


20 


19 


r » • ♦ 


« « • • 


• 1 1 • 


• » • « 








ff • • • 


» • • * 





i 



9 



156 
189 
111 
119 
178 
143 
ISO 
127 
168 
174 
155 
160 
357 
148 
142 
151 
173 
lU 
165 
179 
168 
180 
152 
175 
166 
155 
169 
394 
170 
186 
358 
338 
158 
168 
143 
181 

317 
180 
173 

168 
175 
185 
160 
160 
124 
165 
121 
386 
308 
121 
118 
187 
167 
162 
162 
148 
337 
135 
380 
128 
328 
329 
187 
149 
221 
174 
194 
196 
160 



Tms Ajdironback Black Sfrucjs. 



33 



Table IV — {Oontinued\ 







Top Mbasukkhbkts. 


«M 


BQ 

1% 


% 
o 

5 

I 


i 

W3 


SPEOIM 
NUMB! 


Ntimber of rings per inch at top, counting 
from the heart outward. 






9 

9 

8 

8 

9 

6- 

8 

8 

8 
12 

6- 

9 
10 
10 

9 
10 
10 

9 

9 

7 

8 

8 
10 

8 

7 

9 

7 

8 

8 

8 

8 

9 

7 

8 

8 

8 

9 

8 

7 

8- 
10 
10 

8 

7 
10 
10 

7 

8 

9 

10 

9 

a- 

7 

10 
8 

10 
8 
8 
7 
7 
7 
8 
8 
8 
8 

10 

10 
9 

U 
8 


22 

21 

19 

19 

19 

18 

19 

18 

£4 

24 

16 

20 

21 

23 

20 

19 

2 

19 

21 

15 

18 

20 

18 

16 

16 

19 

18 

16 

18 

21 

19 

22 

18 

16 

18 

16 

12 

19 

19 

21 

22 

19 

21 

19 

18 

21 

16 

19 

17 

21 

16 

17 

19 

18 

21 

16 

17 

19 

19 

16 

18 

16 

19 

21 

16 

12 

18 

19 

16 

21 

16 


17 

21 

20 

17 

19 

16 

19 

)9 

21 

24 

15 

19 

2 

iiO 

20 

19 

20 

20 

20 

18 

18 

19 

19 

37 

16 

20 

17 

17 

17 

39 

20 

13 

19 

12 

18 

19 

19 

12 

16 

20 

16 

12 

16 

18 

22 

21 

19 

20 

19 

20 

15 

14 

19 

30 

21 

19 

22 

19 

14 

14 

17 

17 

19 

19 

21 

21 

22 

19 

17 

39 

19 


17 

16 

17 

19 

16 

12 

17 

16 

19 

)9 

16 

18 

17 

20 

17 

19 

17 

18 

20 

10 

16 

19 

17 

19 

U 

12 

17 

19 

16 

13 

20 

16 

15 

23 

20 

19 

16 

18 

15 

17 

32 

22 

19 

U 

37 

14 

15 

17 

16 

16 

19 

11 

13 

16 

19 

19 

17 

12 

16 

16 

36 

19 

32 

U 

21 

13 

17 

21 

2i 

19 

19 


16 
16 
13 
16 
16 
13 
35 
36 
17 
19 
14 
17 
12 
16 
18 
17 
17 
37 
18 
36 
14 
22 
18 
12 
17 
14 
12 
18 
14 
12 
16 
38 
16 
15 
14 
12 
19 
16 

'if 

19 
38 
16 
16 
12 
11 
12 
12 
16 
14 
23 
21 
18 
21 
11 
17 
21 
19 
17 
19 
12 
16 
17 
16 
12 
19 
12 
16 
13 
' 12 
' 15 


12 
15 
9- 














%' 6" 
3 
2 8 
8 

2 8 
8 1 

3 

2 11 

3 10 
3 2 

2 8 

3 1 
3 
3 6 
3 

2 10 

3 3 
3 4 

3 2 

4 
8 6 
8 4 
3 8 
3 2 

2 10 

3 4 
8 
3 1 
2 10 
2 8 
2 30 
2 10 
2 6 

2 6 

3 
2 11 
2 10 
2 6 

2 10 

3 
2 10 
2 11 

2 8 

3 
3 
3 2 
3 3 
3 
3 1 

2 11 

3 5 
2 8 
2 6 

2 8 

3 
3 
3 3 
8 
3 4 

2 8 

3 6 
2 10 

2 8 

3 2 
3 
3 2 
8 
2 10 
2 6 
2 8 
2 4 


40' 0' 
40 
26 8 
40 
40 
53 4 
40 
40 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
40 
40 
53 4 
40 
40 
58 4 
53 4 
40 
.'3 4 
53 4 
53 4 
40 
66 8 
t3 4 
26 8 
40 
53 4 
40 
40 
33 8 
40 
40 
40 
26 8 
53 4 
40 
26 8 
40 
66 8 
40 
53 4 
40 
53 4 
40 
40 
53 4 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
26 8 
40 
26 8 
53 4 
40 
53 4 
53 4 
53 4 
5S 4 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
40 
40 
53 4 
40 
^3 4 
40 
26 8 


30 '6' 
83 10 
87 

22 4 

27 

23 
26 10 

25 
89 4 
40 6 
19 7 
22 5 

24 

25 7 
40 
36 10 
32 8 

26 9 

28 4 

27 4 
19 3 

22 7 

36 8 
19 6 

23 7 
34 8 

23 7 
21 10 

26 6 
2? 7 

37 
30 2 
21 

27 

24 9 

25 8 

30 6 

29 4 
24 7 

26 10 
34 8 
21 9 
29 6 
IS 4 

26 10 

27 4 

23 

80 2 

81 
29 6 

28 4 

29 7 

31 4 
21 
29 8 

27 6 

28 

19 8 

20 6 

21 6 

24 4 
19 6 

22 7 
24 8 

21 8 

22 
19 4 
27 6 
22 7 
21 6 

1 24 2 


73/ tf 


215 














76 30 
66 4 


216..... 














217 














65 4 


218 


10- 














69 8 


219 














78 5 


220 .... 


6- 
10- 














69 10 


221 














67 11 


822 














69 10 


228 


12 


16 












70 4 


224 












62 8 


225 


17 
13 
16 
12 
14 
39 
17 
16 














65 6 


226 














67 


227. .... 














82 5 


228 














83 


229 

280 


'T 


1 « . 


.... 


.... 


.... 


» • • t 


79 8 
89 3 


231 












83 5 


232 














71 6 


233 














84 8 


23i 


8- 














76 1 


235 ,,,. 


• * . . 












79 S 


286 

237..... 


16 


.... 


.... 


> • . . 


.... 


• . • • 


* . • • 


80 4 
59 4 


238 
















79 9 


239 


16 














64 8 


240 














66 7 


241 
















78 8 


242 
















69 4 


243,,.,. 


10- 

8- 
12 














66 3 


244 








.... 






73 6 


245..... 














73 


246 










.... 


.... 


63 6 


247..... 


10- 
6- 
8- 

12 
7- 

30 

12 

17 

12 
9- 














69 6 


248 














54 5 


249..... 














81 11 


250 






• •«. 








73 4 


251.,,,. 














58 & 


252 






..., 








67 5 


253...., 














96 6 


254...,. 














77 6 


255.,... 














78 


256 














72 2 


257 














74 8 


258 

259 


16 
12 

12 
37 
21 
11 


.... 


.... 


. • . . 


• • I f 


.... 


. . . > 


69 10 

70 6 


260 

261 

262..... 


« * . < 


• • • 4 

» * • 1 


. . I 1 
t . • • 


> . . • 


.... 


. • t 


79 7 
69 10 
60 9 


263 














59 1 


264 














58 5 


265 














72 3 


266.,,.. 














60 6 


267 














63 8 


268 


11 
7- 
10 


6- 












59 4 


269 












83 10 


370. . . . . 














66 3 


m\ 














76 


272 


8- 














77 2 


278 














77 6 


274 

275. . . . . 


. . • • 


• . . . 


. . ■ « 


... 


« * • . 


• * • . 


.... 


81 2 
49 


276 
















51 11 


277. . . . . 


7_ 
8- 
7- 

19 

}3 

13 

13 
6- 














67 10 


278 














64 8 


279 .... 














65 2 


280..... 














75 8 


281 














70 4 


282. . . . . 














78 5 


283,.... 


16 

4 « . « 












64 2 


284 


1 . • • 


a , • . 


• « • . 


«• 1 » 


( * • 1 


1 53 % 



34 



Tmm Adirondack Black Sfmucx. 



Table IY — {Continued ). 



SB 05 



285.,. 
286 

ssr... 

288... 

289 

290.,... 

292.. ♦ 

293. , . 

294... 

2«>5... 

296... 

297... 

298..... 

299... 

500... 

301... 

302., , 

303 

3l>4.,. 
805... 
306... 
307... 
4J08... 
iO}... 
310... 

ail... 

312... 
3 3... 
314... 
315,, . 
316... 

317 

818... 
319... 
ocQ. .... 
321... 
322... 

823 

324... 
3^5... 
326... 
327... 
3*8« »••• 

xiivt > • . t 

380 

331..... 

332 

833..... 

334 

335 

836..... 

337 

388 

389 . • • . 
340...,. 

3*1 

343...., 
343...., 
3H..... 
345...., 
846...., 
347..... 
348...., 
349...., 

350 

351,..., 
352...., 
858...., 

854 

355 






Measttbemknts on Stump. 



Number of rings per inch on stmnp, counting from the heart outward. 



VZ" 


25 


20 


^8 


19 


I 4 


24 


36 


2. 


15 


1 


22 


30 


26 


16 


1 4 


22 


24 


30 


2i 


1 2 


26 


23 


20 


16 


1 


20 


18 


18 


16 


1 5 


83 


42 


21 


14 


1 5 


29 


26 


17 


14 


1 


81 


20 


23 


25 


1 


30 


16 


18 


17 


1 


32 


30 


25 


19 


1 1 


19 


27 


17 


20 


1 5 


SO 


26 


20 


16 


1 2 


24 


2i 


34 


23 


1 


20 


18 


10 


13 


1 


83 


28 


22 


18 


1 1 


27 


16 


20 


12 


1 2 


16 


12 


13 


14 


1 3 


16 


18 


16 


16 


1 2 


2t 


20 


38 


17 


1 4 


18 


14 


58 


18 


1 4 


29 


34 


19 


19 


1 1 


20 


24 


22 


15 


1 1 


17 


22 


16 


21 


1 1 


22 


18 


17 


9 


1 1 


26 


SO 


28 


16 


1 1 


30 


22 


34 


18 


1 1 


^ 


26 


21 


15 


1 


23 


18 


15 


14 


1 


30 


24 


14 


12 


1 2 


16 


2J 


20 


13 


2 


24 


26 


16 


12 


1 5 


28 


26 


2t 


21 


1 6 


19 


)7 


22 


18 


1 6 


24 


18 


13 


12 


1 1 


24 


22 


24 


23 


1 1 


20 


18 


22 


17 


1 


27 


28 


22 


17 


1 


24 


30 


24 


14 


1 2 


18 


26 


30 


12 


1 


26 


32 


26 


11 


1 1 


22 


24 


17 


24 


1 1 


36 


33 


g7 


22 


110 


18 


20 


17 


18 


1 1 


24 


27 


18 


IS 


1 2 


28 


80 


22 


17 


1 


22 


18 


18 


15 


1 4 


24 


20 


13 


18 


1 4 


21 


30 


21 


17 


1 4 


23 


25 


17 


15 


1 9 


21 


21 


18 


14 


1 2 


24 


15 


13 


16 


1 2 


SO 


20 


18 


18 


1 8 


20 


19 


17 


18 


1 4 


17 


22 


18 


17 


1 2 


35 


23 


18 


14 


1 3 


U 


30 


25 


26 


1 6 


2i 


22 


2i 


27 


2 


15 


2i 


18 


12 


1 2 


18 


24 


12 


11 


1 5 


24 


28 


28 


21 


1 1 


80 


28 


24 


9 


1 8 


28 


17 


16 


17 


110 


23 


25 


80 


28 


110 


23 


23 


24 


20 


2 


23 


36 


85 


12 


1 


30 


24 


27 


24 


1 6 


28 


81 


33 


18 


1 


21 


2$ 


12 


18 


1 


2a 


25 


28 


14 


1 2 


;o 


3^ 


20 


27 



23 

18 

12 

13 

14 

18 

12 

16 

21 

34 

18 

20 

16 

15 

12 

13 

17 

14 

13 

14 

14 

30 

13 

14 

10 

21 

9 

7 

17 

15 

11 

10 

12 

16 

14 

12 

11 

13 

10 

11 

to 

20 
25 
11 
10 
12 
12 
24 
17 
16 
10 
17 
14 
14 
14 
14 
17 
14 
12 
35 
7 
12 
18 
19 
12 
30 
26 
12 
18 
20 
17 



30 

2t 

H 

13 

15 

18 

14 

13 

16 

18 

22 

18 

25 

17 

14 

7 

9 
15 
13 
14 

8 
38 
11 
10 
15 
30 
20 
14 
15 

8 
11 
11 

7 
20 
32 
18 
10 
14 

6 
12 
30 
14 
18 
16 
14 
15 
10 
27 
12 
15 
13 
21 
12 
13 
20 
18 

7 
14 
12 
14 
Iz 
15 
10 
15 
18 
13 
21 
14 
23 
23 
13 



20 
18 
11 
20 
24 
14 
16 
6 



30 
2i 
24 

12 



7 

16 
14 
16 

9 
12 
19 
19 
18 

8 
15 

9 



8 
10 

9 

12 
2' 
18 
19 
12 
13 

7 

10 
10 
18 
12- 
13 
10 
14 

8 
23 
24 
18 

8 
18 
12 
13 
10 

12 
11 
11 
27 

8 
23 
20 
18 
17 

8 
33 
18 
10- 
15 

8 



25 
20 



20 



15 
10 



26 
18 
14 



6- 

9 

12 
10 

4 



16 
10 

6 
19 
15 

9 



4- 
20 

8 
24 



12 
13 
12 
7 
13 
17 
24 
13 

"9- 

10 

9 

20 
10 



9 
7- 
19 
10 
12 
10 



25 



6- 



14 
6 



11 



16 



12 



10 
10 
8 
24 
18 



13 



10 



12 



18 

7 

16* 

28* 

17 

12 

7 

16 



. . . . . . . 



10 
8 



14 



16 



t . • . 

10 



7- 
12 

'is* 

'88* 
18 
15 
13 

'10' 
• • . > 

« * . . 
« • • . 



... ... 



15 



16 



18 



13 



16 



16 
12 
10 

5- 



• . . • « * . 






* . * I 

• • . < 

• • . I 



10 

* « • * 

« * » « 

* * « • 

10- 

. • • « 

15 

« • • 4 

* « « » 

* « * 



14 



» * • I 

* • * I 



7- 



. • * ( 
. • • . 
• • . « 



« t < • » . 



17- 

« « * • 
. . * * 

t » • r 

* * « . 

• . * • 



« « . • 

« * • I 

. . • • 

. . * « 



. • • « 
. f » t 



. . * * 
. « * . 



. * . . 

» • « * 



• * . . 
« . . * 

• •«• 
« • * » 

• « 4 * 






183 

sot 

128 
169 
137 
122 
191 
187 
135 

146 

151 

189 

186 

113 

119 

108 

106 

115 

131 

116 

145 

324 

128 

103 

li9 

148 

114 

101 

111 

128 

181 

152 

176 

139 

146 

110 

134 

119 

139 

141 

163 

178 

162 

129 

150 

162 
159 
162 
166 

183 
164 
127 
112 
161 

m 
121 

166 

147 

181 
S26 
185 
193 
120 
161 
164 



Tkm Adironback Black Spruce. 



35 



Table IY — (Continued). 






285 

286 

237 

288 

289 

290 

291 

292 

293 

294 

295 

296 

£97 

298 

299 

SOO 

301 

302 

303.... 
304...., 
305.,.. 
806.... 
307 



309 

3.0 

211 

312..... 

313 

314 

815 

816..... 

817 

318* > • . . 

8'9 

820 

o«l . • * * * 
322 . » * * * 

323 

82» 

8S5 

826 

827 

838 

329 

3B0 

331 

333 

83 3. * * . * 

384 

835 

336 

887 

83S ..... 

339 

840 

34t 

342 

343 

844 

845 

346 

347 

348 

849 

850 

851, ..I. 
852.,... 

858 

864 • • « * . 
856« ««•• 



to 

to Q 



8 
11 

8 
11 
10 

7 
10 

8 

7 

6 

7 

8 

9 

8 

5 

6 

7 

8 

8 

7 

8 

8 

7 

8 

8 

7 

8 

8 

9- 

9 

10 

11 

10 

8 

10 
9 

10 
8 
8— 

10- 
8 



7 
7 
8 
9 
8 
11 
7 
9 
10 
8 
9 
7 
8 
10 
9 
8 
10 
8 
9 
7 
8 

n 
It 

10 
8 
9 
9 
8 
8 



Top Measuekments. 



Number of rings per inch at top, cotinting 
from the heart outward. 



18 
19 
14 
21 
23 
12 
17 
16 
19 
16 
21 
19 
19 
20 
16 
17 
16 
38 



21 

20 

16 

21 

17 

59 

21 

16 

18 

H 

21 

16 

19 

19 

17 

11 

16 

18 



19 17 



16 

17 

18* 

17 

19 

18 

16 

22 

19 

16 

19 

16 

23 

16 

18 

19 

17 

20 
16 
16 
19 
16 
19 
19 
16 
16 
19 
16 
19 
17 
19 
19 
17 
20 
17 
17 
16 
18 
20 
18 
16 
19 
38 
17 
7 
16 

19 
12 
16 

18 
IC 



19 
17 
18 
28 
21 
20 
20 
16 
19 
19 

20 

19 

19 

13 

16 

16 

16 

39 

21 

20 

19 

20 

18 

12 

14 

18 

18 

18 

16 

19 

16 

16 

18 

39 

16 

19 

18 

19 

19 

19 

18 

19 

17 

15 

14 

18 

18 

19 

17 

19 

20 



17 

20 

19 

18 

15 

16 

39 

20 

17 

11 

16 

16 

16 

12 

12 

16 

17 

19 

18 

17 

20 

14 

15 

18 

16 

37 

18 

20 

20 

12 

£2 

20 

12 

17 

13 

21 

17 
10 
19 

21 

10 

18 

18 

15 

14 

20 

15 

13 

15 

16 

17 

15 

16 

12 

19 

15 

17 

16 

32 

U 

17 

21 

10 

16 

14 

16 

35 

16 

21 

20 

18 



14 
17 
19 
]4 
19 
16 
17 
19 
13 
9- 
11- 
20 
13 
12 

'9- 

19 

12 
4 

15 

16 

19 

16 

17 

16 

14 

17 

16 

16 

21 

14 

13 

21 

17 

20 

11 

12 

17 

14 

17 
16 

16 
18 
13 
16 
17 
12 
17 
12 
11 
14 
15 
15 
13 
13 
12 
15 
12 
11 
12 
11 
)1 
19 
21 
19 
18 
12 
9 
U 
13 
14 



5- 

18 
7- 
15 
17 



18 
7- 



7- 
15 
8 



5- 
12 

8 

9 
16 
17 



12 

7- 

13 



10 
12 



12 



14 

7- 
16 



14 
15 



12 



7 
12 
15 

7- 

8 

8- 
12 



15 



12 



6- 



6- 
24 

11 

26 
8- 

15 

12 
8- 
6- 



12- 
8- 



o oct 



w 



2' 0" 
8 
2 10 
8 1 



2 10 

3 1 

2 

3 2 
2 8 

2 6 

3 2 
3 
3 

2 10 

3 I 
2 8 



2 10 
2 10 
8 4 
8 1 

2 10 

3 1 



2 8 

2 4 

3 1 

2 11 

3 
3 2 
2 10 
2 4 



H.4 bfl 



2 10 

3 1 
3 4 
3 3 

3 2 

4 
3 10 

2 4 

1 8 

3 

2 
2 1 



40' C 

40 

26 8 

40 

4U 

26 8 

40 



53 
40 
40 



26 8 
26 8 



40 
40 
40 



40 
26 8 



40 
40 
53 
40 



26 8 



40 
40 



26 8 

40 

40 

16 8 



13 
13 



26 8 



53 
40 
53 
40 



26 8 
13 4 
26 8 



13 
40 



26 8 

13 4 

40 

f6 8 

26 8 

26 8 

40 

40 « 

66 8 

40 

66 8 

26 8 



40 
53 
40 



26 


8 


40 





53 


4 


63 


4 


48 





40 






40 
66 8 



^3 

53 



s 

o 

"So 



23' 0" 

42 3 

31 2 

29 8 

28 6 



66 8 

40 

53 4 

26 8 

26 8 

I 40 



22 
82 
S2 

S5 
20 
28 
31 



27 6 
21 6 
21 7 
19 10 



21 
23 
26 
18 
27 
82 
22 

24 2 

26 5 

21 6 
S5 3 
2^ 
4410 
29 8 

22 6 

18 
28 8 
21 10 
24 10 

28 4 
39 

29 7 
86 
34 8 

19 9 
88 4 

27 
12 
38 8 



36 

28 



30 6 

15 3 

24 8 

25 6 
81 4 

34 7 
25 9 

21 
43 8 

35 
18 6 

23 4 

22 
PI 9 
80 
18 6 

26 7 
25 4 
22 

27 6 
2-3 8 
30 7 

24 
1 27 6 



■a 

•5! 

3 



65' 10^ 
85 8 
60 8 
72 9 



71 

52 



74 11 



78 
68 
63 
58 
61 
70 



4 


1 
1 
7 

63 6 

64 9 

63 6 
50 6 

65 2 

69 3 
74 11 

70 3 
61 9 

65 5 

66 10 

56 1 

64 fi 

67 11 
52 
61 
45 10 
52 6 
74 5 

71 6 
78 8 
67 10 

57 
54 8 



58 
51 

5r 



4a 9 
53 9 

70 
82 
62 8 
65 8 
70 4 
73 7 
84 10 
67 8 
95 4 
60 10 
76 11 



81 
63 
71 
';5 
75 



5 

4 
8 
2 



84 8 
72 10 
74 10 
78 4 

68 8 
88 1 
82 8 
92 

69 10 
77 S 
60 3 
62 8 
69 7 



36 



Ts:e Adirondack Black Sfbuce. 



Table IV — {Gontvnued), 



i« 


•M 


MKUBXraBMBNTS ON Stump. 


m 


o 




SSI 


H 




<p 


gn 




>> 


^S 


2s 
P4 r^ 




B 




§« 


Number of rings per inch on stump, comiting from the heart outward. 


& 


02 


ft 




<J 


356 


I'S" 
1 4 
1 6 
1 2 
111 
1 
1 
1 2 
1 6 
1 
1 5 
1 4 
1 8 
1 8 
1 
1 8 


26 
U 
85 
37 
21 
30 
88 
25 
30 
36 
35 
25 
28 
15 
80 
18 


32 
31 
45 
37 
81 
86 
31 
23 
88 
25 
24 
20 
£0 
19 
34 
17 


20 
13 
24 
16 
86 
82 
20 
23 
14 
18 
25 
21 
26 
15 
19 
17 


17 
21 
27 
30 
20 
22 
17 
25 
11 
20 
28 
13 
13 
16 
18 
12 


20 
17 
21 
28 
17 
21 
)8 
24 
10 
19 
13 
13 
13 
17 
20 
12 


26 
14 
13 
17 
18 
15 
18 
23 
15 
24 
12 
12 
10 
12 
24 
9 


18 
18 
10 
14 

8 
10 
11- 
28 
16 

8- 

8 
18 
11 
18 






















169 
360 
191 
179 
234 
165 
148 
196 
173 
130 
177 
146 
184 
127 
145 
158 


857 


16 
6 


6- 
10 


















358.»... 


















359. . . . . 


















260 


9 


15 


20 


24 


20 












S61..... 












862 






















368 


17 
16 


8" 
23 


















864 


















865..... 


















366 


18 
24 
12 
15 


14 


















867 


















368 


12 


16 


18 














S69 














870 .... 




















871 


10 


9 


14 


12 


28 


t . . > 


• . a > 


. . . • 




ft i ft 4 




872 


1 4 


28 


25 


12 


11 


9 


17 


20 


2d 


6- 




... 




• » . . 


. a • . 








151 


873 


1 6 
1 3 
1 4 


26 
18 
16 


22 
27 

17 


17 
25 
35 


16 
24 

17 


13 
15 
23 


11 
12 
12 


10 
18 
16 


8 
11- 

17 


13 


11 


6- 


.... 












152 
160 
181 


374 












375 


18 


30 
















376 


1 
1 


20 

fe8 


18 

2a 


20 
23 


17 
13 


8 
10 


10 
9 


9 

U 






















102 
3?-0 


377 


7- 


^ • • 9 


















378 


1 4 
1 8 


46 
36 


i4 
14 


20 
18 


16 
18 


14 
22 


16 
18 


20 
18 


30 
19 




















185 
153 


379 






.... 














380 


1 
1 5 

1 4 

2 


13 
18 
28 
19 


31 
36 
26 
39 


24 
23 
3J 

23 


38 
21 
20 
15 


24 
20 
12 
11 


2Z 

7 
12 

17 
























153 
167 
169 
208 


381 


7 
13 
10 


15 
28 
10 


10 


















383 .... 


















883..... 


6 


11 


6 


8 


11 


8 


12 


10 


12- 


884 


1 6 


19 


42 


2r 


11 


12 


U 


10 


13 


13 


22 
















1RJ 


885 


1 4 
1 2 
1 4 
1 


20 
18 
23 

17 


28 
25 
19 
30 


32 
22 
80 
20 


38 
17 
35 
38 


19 

9 

23 

U 


16 

11 

8 

20 


20 

13 

9 

18 


16 




















169 
316 
178 
184 
164 
i67 
141 
186 
219 
179 
182 
169 
193 
142 
351 
218 
142 
125 
349 


^SQ 


















ft • ftt 


887.* •$* 


6 


9 


11 
















388 
















889 


1 2 
1 6 
1 1 


29 
20 
SO 


2t 

19 
83 


£0 
IS 
16 


18 
16 
25 


22 
16 
13 


16 
19 
16 


23 

18 
8- 


12- 
9 

» • « • 




















890 


11 


13 


8- 














891.... 














892.,,.. 


1 

2 
1 8 
1 2 


36 
86 
82 
19 


25 
2^ 

27 

2? 


13 
37 
20 

18 


?5 
36 
20 
36 


20 

8 

12 

17 


17 

9 

13 

19 
























393 


10 

8 

30 


14 
9 
5- 


SO 
8 


36 
12 


15 
18 


26 












894 












395 














896. ... 


1 4 


23 


27 


24 


22 


18 


12 


13 


2Z 


8- 


• . . » 
















897 


1 7 


a5 


21 


i7 


21 


14 


1^ 


35 


17 


17 


22 






.... 










398 


1 1 


24 


80 


22 


18 


11 


6 


IS 


13 




















899 


1 1 


20 


18 


27 


2!i 


21 


17 


2) 


» • • » 




















400 


2 1 


n 


"41 


18 


17 


25 


14 


14 


14 


18 


15 


1^ 


12 


26 










401...., 


1 3 


3i 


26 


16 


It 


15 


13 


31 


9 


4- 


. • .. 
















402 


1 


21 


21 


21 


37 


13 


23 


9 






















403..... 


1 4 


28 


28 


2t 


17 


W 


13 


18 


13 




. • • > 








* • t • 








404 


1 2 


27 


45 


14 


26 


17 


IS 


13 


21 


10- 


t . » • 
















186 
174 
198 
388 
195 
227 
203 
187 
185 
188 
124 
125 
141 
126 
1S8 
148 
198 
150 
160 
138 
158 
lOfi 
188 


405.. »,, 


1 4 


26 


28 


80 


19 


16 


16 


19 


20 




*. 
















406 


1 8 


S3 


24 


24 


15 


18 


13 


12 


14 


H 


12 


26 












.... 


407 


1 5 


iJO 


28 


1% 


32 


19 


22 


37 


34 


27 


















408 

409 

410 

411 


110 
1 9 
1 8 
X 7 


22 
36 
25 
40 


24 
42 
22 
27 


29 

31 
27 


12 
11 
18 
16 


13 
11 
12 


35 

6 

13 

14 


15 

11 

12 

9 


14 
8 

16 
8 


14 
32 
20 
10 


17 
18 
23 
34 


26 
11 
11- 
10 


» * . . 


* « « • 

19 

• a . « 


* « • • 

• • ■ » 


* ft • « 
t ft « ft 

• ft ft • 


. . * . 

. t •* 
« * t * 


. • * . 

a « a « 
a • . . 


412 

413 


1 6 
1 6 


80 
26 


26 
30 


24 
??6 


14 
15 


18 
11 


16 
12 


6 
14 


15 

8 


8 

7 


18 
15 


*14 


.... 


• • ♦« 


.... 


ft ft ft 1 


• * . . 


* * » t 


414 

415 


1 1 
1 5 


26 
22 


SO 

38 


22 

16 


17 


36 

n 


8 

12 


7 
10 


8 
9 


1 . . « 

5- 


• . « . 


• . • . 


1 . 1 1 


• . * • 


.... 


ft ft « ft 


. • . * 


a • * > 


416 

417 


1 1 
1 2 


80 
23 


84 
18 


21 
19 


33 

3« 


12 
17 


23 

13 


8- 
9 


"pi 




k .« . 


. • * • 




. • « • 


• * • « 


ft ft ft # 


at. 
» . * t 


• » a . 


418 

419..... 
420 


1 2 
1 2 
1 5 


23 
24 
3i 


26 
^3 
34 


)6 
2t 
27 


15 
£0 
21 


35 
16 
16 


18 
16 
18 


14 
10 
10 


11 
13 
20 


» . • « 

IB 


» . . « 
« t . . 


. . * . 

• « * . 


( * • • 


1 . a « 
. • « . 


« » • * 

• ft * ft 


• • ft i 


• * * m 

• • * . 

• » . . 


t * » * 
a « . . 


421 


1 


?4 


32 


19 


22 


17 


IB 


10 


to 






'*** 








ft ft ft « 


a • . • 


» a a * 


4S2 


1 1 


24 


80 


32 


30 


24 


13 


7 














» # ft * 


ft ft ft ft 


*• *• 


♦ • ♦ • 


423 


1 


24 


26 


20 


21 


18 


14 


10 




* * * 






1 * • . 


* • a . 


t » ft • 


ft ft ft * 


• a » * 


• « • • 


424 

425 


1 2 
1 1 
1 1 


30 
20 
27 


80 
26 


^1 
23 

18 


12 
16 
27 


15 

I 


9 
JO 

18 


16 
9 

15 


13 
10 


6- 
» * . < 
• « . « 


< « • * 
. •« « 
»*• • 


I * • a 
• • • • 
. • • « 
t f tt 


. • * » 

» » • . 
1 1 « » 


> • * « 

» . • . 
. « . a 


• • « 4 
» « ft ft 
» • * • 


ft i ft ft 
# # ft ft 
ft * ft ft 
If «i 


. • » * 

a... 


• • • a 

» » a • 
Iff* 



Tss Adirokdack Black Sprxtce. 



37 













Table IV- 


-{Continued), 










is o 


Top Measurements. 


*S CO 


1 


1 

t 


t 




Nnmber of rings per inch at top, conntiiig 
jfrom the heart outward. 


1 


356..... 


8 

8 

8 

8 
10 

7- 

8 

8 
11 

8 

9 

8 

8 

9 

8- 

8 
11 
10 

9 

8 

8- 

8 
10 

8 

8 

8 

9 
11 

9 

7 

8 

8 

9- 

7- 

10 

9 

8 
22 

9 

8 

8 
10 

9 

7- 
14 

9 

8 

8 

8 

10- 
10- 

9 

9- 

9 
11 

9 
10 

8 

7 

9 

7 

8 

9 

8- 

9 

8 

8 

8 
12 

8 


12 
16 
17 
19 

8 
16 
17 
21 
21 
16 
10 
12 
17 
19 
21 

6 
19 
16 

9 
2 
J6 
17 

9 
12 
20 
20 

8 
16 

8 
17 
10 

9 

i 

22 

18 
13 
21 
12 
14 
10 
15 
11 
16 
14 
16 
18 
12 
17 
9 
8 
21 
11 
12 
11 
16 
12 
16 
10 
18 
18 
16 
13 
36 
11 
13 
16 
12 
16 
12 
17 


22 

39 
20 
19 
18 
12 
21 
16 
22 
9 
16 
19 
21 
16 
11 
12 
23 
20 
23 
12 
19 
%l 
2} 
?1 
39 
16 
22 
12 
20 
17 
18 
17 
16 
15 
39 
21 
19 
13 
1? 
36 
21 
11 

'34* 
9 
21 
17 
19 
19 
16 
12 
18 
20 
17 
20 
18 
20 
39 
13 
12 
21 
M 
21 
17 
23 
39 
9 
21 
28 
16 
17 


21 
20 
13 
12 
S:0 

9 

23 
12 
17 
%l 
23 
39 
11 
21 
20 
20 
2i 
2i 
17 
19 
21 
lU 
27 
19 
26 
19 
15 

8 
2i 
22 
20 
13 
24 
28 
12 
23 
24 
12 
23 
19 
22 
23 
21 
19 
30 
23 
19 
19 
23 
21 
16 
\% 
21 
23 
23 
21 
22 
17 
19 
2S 
18 
19 
23 
26 
26 
12 
17 
19 
20 
IH 
22 


17 
20 
35 
16 
23 
14 
11 
13 
11 
13 
15 
16 
18 
1 

55 
27 
38 
19 
12 
15 
12 
12 
34 
^2 
15 
13 
17 
12 
8 
11 
19 
19 
13 
21 
15 
15 
12 
14 
21 
19 
12 
19 
17 
17 
12 
12 
20 
21 
13 
23 
22 
20 
17 
24 
19 
18 
18 
22 
14 
19 
17 
14 
16 
17 
17 
24 
19 
21 
22 
20 
14 


10- 














2' S" 
2 

1 8 

2 
2 8 

2 

3 
2 8 
2 8 
2 6 
2 4 

2 3 

3 
2 8 

2 6 

3 10 

2 4 

3 
2 10 
2 8 
2 4 
2 5 
2 
2 8 

2 10 

3 
3 1 
2 8 
2 4 
2 8 
2 3 
2 6 

2 2 

3 6 
3 
2 4 
2 8 
8 2 
2 4 
2 6 
2 8 
2 9 
2 4 
2 8 
2 10 

2 8 
8 

3 3 

2 8 

3 2 
2 10 
2 5 
2 6 

2 8 

3 
2 10 
2 8 
2 7 
2 2 
2 2 
2 6 
2 5 
2 4 
2 6 
2 8 
2 2 
2 6 
8 1 
8 10 
2 10 
2 11 


4f/ 0" 
53 4 
53 4 
53 4 
66 8 
26 8 
lt6 8 
40 
40 
40 
53 4 
53 4 
53 4 
26 8 
26 8 
66 8 
2'J 8 
40 
40 U 
53 4 
13 4 
2) 8 
26 8 
40 
2« 8 
40 
40 
40 
53 4 
53 4 
40 
40 
26 8 
58 4 
40 
26 8 
26 8 
*13 4 
40 
26 8 
53 4 
55 4 
26 8 
40 
53 4 
40 
23 8 
40 
40 
40 
53 4 
53 4 
53 4 
53 4 
40 
53 4 
<0 
53 4 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 
26 8 
40 
26 8 
H 4 
40 
26 8 


24' 8" 

26 8 

19 4 

24 

38 6 

27 4 

25 7 

35 10 

39 9 

28 6 

21 

24 8 

25 6 

26 
52 10 
18 6 
86 

33 10 
52 6 

22 
ai 6 

27 5 
>7 4 
22 7 

20 10 
18 
25 4 
42 6 

28 4 
20 4 
3i 
15 8 

80 
12 

34 4 

39 

37 6 
75 
33 
33 4 

36 6 

24 8 
?2 6 

30 
;-9 10 

31 
27 6 
22 8 

25 

38 4 
25 7 

31 8 

24 4 

25 8 

40 6 

26 7 

25 4 

27 

28 7 

32 8 
£8 6 

26 10 
26 10 
82 4 

81 
30 8 

33 10 

29 8 
52 8 
22 6 
29 6 


66' 11' 


357 














83 


358 .... 


7„ 
6- 
19 














74 4 


359..... 














79 4 


860 

861 


.... 


> • . 


• * • t 


• « 


.... 




87 S 
56 


862 
















55 3 


863 


7- 
13 

7- 
12 

6- 

9- 
12 
10- 
11- 
32 
14 
16 














78 6 


864 


9- 












82 5 


865..... 












66 


866 














76 8 


867 














80 3 


368 














81 10 


869 














55 4 


870 












52 


371..... 




.... 










89 


872. .... 


11- 












65 


873..... 












76 10 


874 














65 4 


875 














78 


376 


8- 

5- 
23 

7- 














47 2 


377 














56 6 


878 














66 


879 

380 


. * « « 


.... 


.... 


•> « , • 


# • . . 




65 8 
50 4 


381 
















61 


382 


16 
\^ 
13 

**8^ 
6- 

12 

36 

12 
9 

'13* 
33 
16 
l^ 
12 
12 

*37* 
12 

'/9I 








( 






68 5 


383,.... 


18 


19 


20 








85 2 


334 








84 


885 

386 


• • . • 


> . • • 


.... 


• * 


. a . . 




76 4 
75 8 


387 

888 


• . . » 


.... 


.... 


t . . . 


...» 




58 2 
58 10 


889..... 














66 10 


890. . . . . 














77 4 


891 

892 

898...,. 
894 


t . • < 

'is* 


• • t » 

'is 


ie' 


.... 


'22* 


28 


68 
66 5 
91 6 
75 4 


395 














61 


896 














72 6 


397 

898 


"9- 
'12' 


t . . . 


.... 


... 1 


.... 




82 9 
61 6 


399 

400 


'is* 


'23' 


.... 


.... 




72 8 
96 


401..... 








73 8 


402 

403 


.... 


.... 


* . . 


.... 


.... 




57 2 
65 11 


404. .... 














67 8 


405 


19 
23 
23 
17 
9- 
12 
23 
16 


7- 

27 












81 6 


408 












8( 9 


407 

408 


.... 


• * . . 


t A • 


.... 




87 
80 2 


405> 

410 

411 


'is* 


I * . 1 


• . . 


% « ■ • 


. • . . 




81 8 
&3 6 
83 9 


412 














66 


418 






<• .. 








82 11 


414 
















t5 9 


415 

416.,,.. 


12 


.... 


.... 


.... 


f • « » 


.... 




74 10 
71 


417 
















69 3 


418 


9- 
12 
12 

"C 

24 

9- 














69 2 


419 














74 10 


420. .... 














73 8 


421..... 

422 

423. .... 


. a > 


. • « • 


.... 
< * . . 


1 • * * 

t t • « 


» • 




59 1 
75 4 
59 6 


424 

426 


21 


> . » 


. * . ■ 


.... 


.... 




69 10 
65 4 


426.. «.. 


. • . . 


<.<* 


.... 


J « . . 


« « . . 




5» 1 



38 



Tbe Adirondack Black Spjrvce. 













Table IY- 


-{Continued). 














SB 05 


* 




Mkasurbments on Stump. 


# 


E» 








\k 


AfiQ 






Mm 


Is 






^ 


02 


ft 


Number of rings per inch on stump, counting from the heart outward. 




^ 


487,... 


I'O" 


18 


20 


26 


28 


23 


19 








.... 




.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


• t « • 


• • • • 


134 


488.... 
429 


1 2 
1 


17 


20 


17 


18 


18 


11 


8 


9 


5- 


















118 


16 


80 


36 


10 


11 


13 


12 








.... 


. . . i 


... 


... I 


.... 


• i « t 


.\\. 


128 


480.... 


1 1 


20 


23 


S8 


SiO 


17 


12 


6- 


, . .. 


... . 




a . . . 


... I 


.... 


... a 


.... 


• « • i 


a . . . 


126 


431 


1 4 


28 


17 


18 


15 


8 


18 


17 


13- 


^ 




. . 


.... 


.... 


.... 


«... 


* • • ■ 


... 


129 


4S2 


1 5 


25 


13 


14 


18 


16 


15 


19 


11 


10 


.... 


. .. . 


.... 


.... 


a . . * 


.... 






141 


483 


1 1 


%i 


15 


12 


1? 


27 


22 


16 






.... 




. . • a 






.... 


• • • » 


.... 


181 


434..... 


1 2 
1 1 


20 
22 


16 
17 


18 
15 


17 
18 


18 
15 


11 
17 


18 
20 


12 

7- 




















1^ 


» » ft * 




.... 


... a 


.... 


.... 


.... 


• «. ft • 


.... 


126 


486 

487 

488 

439 


1 1 
1 
1 
1 6 


30 
14 
20 
14 


20 
15 
22 


21 
20 
14 
16 


14 
24 
18 
12 


14 
21 

12 
10 


12 
14 
22 
11 


16 


20 




















147 




















108 


10- 

12 






















113 


14 


12 


11 




a . . t 


. * * . 










130 


440 

441 

442 

448.... 

444 

445 

446 


1 1 
1 4 
1 6 
1 1 

1 6 

2 
1 


26 
14 
19 
30 
19 
15 
13 


20 
14 
15 
23 
19 
19 
19 


11 
16 
12 
28 
13 
13 
25 


11 
16 
14 
14 
15 
14 
19 


16 
13 
19 
17 
12 
12 
22 


15 
15 
16 
15 
15 
14 
24 


18 
16 
15 
12 
16 
11 
84 






















117 


24 
22 

9- 
15 
13 


9- 
24 


















137 


11- 
















167 
















148 


10 
11 


16 

12 

• . . , 


14 

13 
» . . « 


10 
16 

* « « I 












174 












163 


... a 


.... 








156 


447 

448 

449 .... 


1 2 
1 
1 6 
1 2 
1 6 
1 
1 1 
1 1 
1 6 
1 8 
1 4 
1 
1 S 
1 4 
1 4 
1 6 
1 5 
1 2 


13 

14 
20 
12 
16 
18 
24 
17 
13 
16 
14 
19 
15 
17 
23 
20 
16 
19 


18 
17 
19 
18 
16 
25 
22 
17 
17 
16 
18 
17 
14 
12 
20 
16 
18 
18 


19 
16 
21 
17 
20 
23 
20 
15 
15 
13 
11 
24 
15 
13 
16 
12 
17 
18 


14 
14 
28 
18 
18 
84 
16 
16 
18 
11 
10 
23 
18 
18 
17 
14 
15 
20 


13 
13 
17 
18 
16 
30 
22 
35 
14 
12 
14 
21 
17 
16 
15 
8 
12 
15 


19 
17 
10 
15 
14 
28 
20 
12 
8 
7 
15 
15 
18 
13 
15 
11 
17 
16 


23 
10- 
16 
10 

12 


8~ 




















127 




















101 


17 

10- 

12 


11 
'26' 


13 
10- 
















172 


450 

461 

452 

453 

454 
















113 
















154 
















158 


10- 
2^ 

9 
10 

9 

5- 
18 
18 
17 
12 
12 
17 






















184 






















114 


455..... 


18 

9 

15 


22 

8 
23 


18- 

n 
10- 
















147 


456..... 
457 


9 


11 












188 












184 


458..... 
















124 


459. . * • . 


16 
16 
21 
16 
22 
23 


7- 
23 
19 
11 
13 

6- 


















188 


460,.... 


9- 
















144 


461 
















162 


462..... 


25 


8- 














153 


468 














187 


464 


.... 


.... 


...» 


... 


... a 


* • ft I 


» • • • 


... 


162 


465 


1 1 
1 s , 
1 4 
1 5 
1 2 
1 8 
1 4 
1 3 
1 
1 6 
1 6 


XO 
18 
16 
19 
^^0 
20 
20 
82 
16 
13 
14 


17 
16 
14 
19 
15 
25 
16 
23 
20 
36 
23 


14 
17 
14 
16 
15 
17 
17 
17 
19 
16 
20 


19 
16 
15 
16 
14 
10 
12 
13 
16 
15 
14 


19 
17 
19 
10 
14 
12 
12 
11 
18 
10 
14 


15 
18 
18 
9 
15 
11 
10 
12 
21 
13 
12 


9 
12 
18 

9 
19 
15 
2D 

9 

9- 

9 
11 






















113 


466..... 


7- 
15 
15 
12 
26 
21 

8 


..., 


















121 




12 
22 


6- 
14 
















140 


468 
















149 


469.. ... 
















124 


470..... 




















136 


471..... 


14 
6- 


















142 


472 


















129 


478..... 


















lid 


474..... 


18 
16 


80 
10 


















160 


475 


11 


8- 


• . . 


• • . . 


.... 


* * • t 


.... 




153 


476 


1 2 
1 


22 
82 


20 
24 


24 

16 


22 

17 


17 
13 


18 
14 


19 
18 


14 
. . . . 






^ ^ 














IBS 


477..... 


.... 


. . . • 


.... 


.... 


. » a • 


.... 


• • • ■ 


.ft.. 




184 


478 


1 2 


18 


22 


12 


13 


10 


14 


15 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


... a 


... 




• t •• 




104 


479 


1 
1 2 


23 
24 


22 

19 


22 

15 


27 

18 


19 
18 


23 
36 




1 . 




















1M 


480 


17 


9 


7- 


. • . • 


t . . . 


> . . > 


.... 


... a 








143 


481 


1 2 
1 
1 


SO 

18 
18 


24 
24 

21 


36 
17 
20 


13 
18 
23 


12 
21 
18 


11 
22 
22 


9 


6- 


1. . 


















120 
120 
135 


482 




















483 


13- 




• . . . 


. . . . 


... 




.... 










484 


1 4 


26 


24 


23 


14 


12 


15 


10 


16 


12 


5- 


.... 


» . * > 


• . > a 


a . . . 


• » • • 


ft * ft • 




157 


485 


1 1 


27 


18 


17 


17 


17 


11 


10 


. . . * 


• * • • 


. . a • 


. . • . 


• . a , 


. . t . 










117 


486 


1 J 


18 


22 


16 


14 


15 


11 


10 


. . • . 


• > • . 


.... 






. . . . 










106 


487 


1 2 


24 


26 


16 


15 


12 


n 


9 


7 


10 


. . « . 


• . . . 














130 


488 


1 


25 


20 


17 


14 


14 


11 


11 


. . ■ . 


. . . . 


. . . . 


« . • • 


. . . * 












112 


489 


1 1 


33 


80 


20 


n 


10 


12 


12 


6- 


. . . . 


. . • . 




* . . * 












185 


490 


1 1 


27 


24 


20 


15 


12 


16 


19 


• . . « 


. a » . 


. * . • 


• . . 


» * • f 


r * a . 










183 


491 


1 


27 


20 


S6 


21 


18 


16 


• • t , 


1 . . . 


.. . f 


• . « . 
















15?ft 


492 


1 


32 


30 


24 


It 


16 


15 


» » . 


, , , , 


.. . . 


* « . * 


• * 


. * a a 


a . . . 


« . . a 








128 


498..*.. 


1 2 


29 


26 


19 


16 


15 


16 


15 


10 


• a , 


. . . « 
















146 


494 


1 3 


29 


29 


13 


12 


12 


13 


19 


18 


* * . * 


t . , * 


, . . a 


. * . . 


. • . a 










145 


495..... 


1 1 


17 


20 


17 


13 


13 


22 


18 


. . . . 


. . . . 


. . . . 


« • . . 


. • . . 


• • • . 


.« « . 








120 


49o. * * . • 


1 4 


26 


82 


20 


17 


13 


20 


14 


• . . ■ 


. . . • 


. * . « 


• • . . 


a . . . 


. . * . 


.« • , 








142 


497 


1 1 


26 


21 


21 


16 


20 


22 


13 


* . . . 


« * 1 . 




*t • . 


♦ f •» 


* t t • 


. *■• 


« f « » 


« • ft ft 


f •« ft 


im 



The Adirondack Black Spruce. 



39 













Tablbj IY- 


-{Gontinuedy 








gas s 


4 

•225 


Top Mtcasuremknts. 


T-bi 


1-2 


1 

o 

s 

3 


i 




Number of rla?:* per inch at top, counting 
from the heart outward. 




437 .... 


8 

:o- 

8 

8 

8- 
10 

9 
10- 

8- 

8 

8 

9 
10- 

9 

8- 

8 

8- 
11 
12 

8 

8- 

8 

8 

8 

9 

8 

9 

8 
13 
11 

8 

7 

8 
10 
10 

n- 

10 

8 

9 

9 
10 
11 
10 
10 

8 

8 

7~ 

8 

8 

7 

8 

8- 

9 

9 

9 

8 

8- 
10 

9 
10 
10 

9 

9 

9 

8 

8 

9 
10 
10 

8 
10 


16 
21 
12 
19 
12 
17 
20 
16 
10 
12 
18 
16 
20 
17 
19 
13 
17 
H 
10 
12 
14 
13 
9 
18 
16 
JO 
12 
It 
12 
18 
18 
18 
8 
8 
16 
14 
11 
10 
16 
12 
15 
14 
36 
U 
12 
11 
8 
12 
18 
11 
10 
12 
14 
13 
13 
10 
13 
14 
U 
16 
16 
17 
14 
16 
18 
14 
16 
14 
16 
16 
16 


19 
23 

16 

11 

20 

23 

20 

24 

17 

19 

12 

21 

19 

17 

12 

16 

2i 

24 

14 

16 

20 

19 

17 

16 

20 

14 

16 

13 

16 

10 

18 

20 

19 

21 

2a 

19 
20 
17 
12 
19 
21 
18 
20 
18 

!9 

16 
18 
19 
16 
13 
16 
19 
14 
19 
21 
17 
16 
19 
^7 
21 
20 
19 
21 
17 
10 
16 
15 
38 
16 
19 
18 


to 

10 
23 

17 
19 
20 
12 
17 
21 
20 
19 
11 
12 
14 
21 
19 
20 
19 
14 
12 
17 
17 
23 
16 
23 
19 
21 
26 

9 

14 
19 
12 
19 
20 
18 
21 
17 
19 
14 
21 
12 
20 
19 
24 
20 
19 
18 
23 
14 
19 
21 
19 
20 

9 
17 
12 
21 
23 
20 
12 
10 
15 
17 
20 
19 
16 
19 
20 
19 
17 

18 


24 

17 

16 

12 

10 

11 

14 

11 

15 

17 

10 

23 

16 

U 

17 

19 

11 

20 

)6 

16 

11 

13 

15 

20 

19 

19 

17 

12 

17 

18 

13 

15 

16 

12 

19 

21 

19 

28 

20 

15 

17 

12 

17 

12 

16 

23 

20 

21 

21 

23 

17 

10 

11 

18 

16 

20 

12 

17 

14 

18 

13 

2t 

16 

12 

^0 

17 

11 

14 

12 

13 

17 
















i/ 0' 
3 2 

2 6 

3 
8 10 

4 
2 6 
2 10 
2 3 
2 8 

2 6 

3 
3 4 

2 10 

3 

3 

2 3 

4 4 

3 6 

4 2' 
3 6 
3 2 

3 

4 
4 8 

2 2 

3 

3 10 

4 2 
8 4 
4 8 
3 2 
3 2 

2 4 

3 1 

4 
3 4 

2 8 

3 

3 
8 4 
2 4 
8 
8 1 
8 8 
8 
2 2 

4 3 
8 1 

2 10 

3 
8 6 
8 
8 1 

4 4 
2 2 
2 4 
2 8 
2 8 
2 10 
2 8 

2 7 

3 2 

2 6 

3 

2 4 

3 2 
3 8 
2 8 
2 8 
8 1 


28' 8* 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
40 
i6 8 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
96 8 
26 8 
40 
26 8 
40 
53 4 
26 8 
40 
53 4 
40 
40 
26 8 
53 4 
40 
66 8 
26 8 
f6 8 
26 8 
40 
40 
53 4 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
40 
40.0 
40 *0 
40 
26 8 
40 
40 
40 
26 8 
40 
53 4 
40 
26 8 
53 4 
53 4 
40 
26 8 
40 
26 8 
40 
40 
23 8 
26 8 
40 
26 8 

25 8 
2*5 8 

26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
26 8 
40 
40 
40 
40 
26 8 


21' 10' 
86 8 

24 4 
23 7 

80 
38 8 
37 4 

34 10 
29 7 

35 

81 4 

22 6 
37 9 
3^. 6 

25 7 
21 6 

26 3 
34 7 
34 6 
26 8 
21 4 

26 10 

27 9 

23 9 

26 4 

24 6 

27 4 
24 
37 6 
40 4 

23 8 

20 10 

27 4 
34 4 
80 6 

31 10 
29 8 

21 9 

24 8 
26 4 

28 6 
83 3 

36 

29 6 

23 5 

24 8 

21 6 

22 4 

26 8 
21 6 

32 10 
21 8 

83 
34 6 

30 8 
20 10 

23 6 

27 4 
89 8 
34 7 
87 10 
80 7 
34 7 

31 4 
*^6 7 
29 

84 5 
31 6 
86 
26 6 

37 4 


50' 6* 


428..*.. 


12 


19 












66 6 


429..... 












£3 6 


430 .... 


9- 
I'S 
18 
18 
16 
12 

• 4 i « 














53 8 


431 

482 

433 














73 10 














8a & 














66 6 


434 


10- 












64 4 


435 

436 

437 












58 & 


« ♦ ♦ . 


. . . « 


• * « • 


. • • . 


. * . • 


* . * . 


77 S 
60 6 


438 .... 


10- 
16 
17 
12 
&~ 
16 
17 
16 

10 

7- 














52 % 


439..... 


12- 












81 1 


4i0 

441 












62 0^ 














68 7 


442..... 














77 V> 


443 














55 2r 


444 


10- 
14 












78 11 


445 ..... 












91 4: 


446 












70 10^ 


447 














64 10 


448..... 














56 $ 


449 














84 1 


450 


8~ 
12 














67 » 


451 














97 » 


453..... 














53 4t 


453 


11 

5- 

8 
21 

7- 








• • • • 






67 


454 














54 & 


455 


16 

8- 




.... 








81 » 


456..... 












88 & 


457..... 












80 $• 


453 














50 a 


459 
















57 ^ 


460 


19 
17 
11 
19 














76 ®. 


461 














78 r 


482 .... 


14 












75 lO* 


483 












73 0- 


464. .... 














64 & 


465 


10- 
14 
18 
19 
12 
18 
9- 














54 4 


466 














69 4 


467.... 
468 


'ii* 


.... 


.... 


... 


. • • • 


• • « t 


71 10 
75 7 


469 












65 8 


470.... 




• ... 










73 r 


471 

472 


< . • • 


■ . » • 


.... 


.... 


. • • . 


. • • . 


80 £► 

67 » 


473 .... 
















50 4 


474 

475 


• . • • 


.... 


• • • 


.... 


t . I • 


... 


. • • • 


79 11 
83 1 


476 
















64 4 


477..... 






''*'»■'"■ 








63 & 


478 

479 


13 

2 

20 


< . . . 


. • « . 




* » 1 


1 • • . 


• • . • 


65 2 

63 8 


480 

481..,,, 


* a 1 


» . . • 




. . t . 


.... 


* • . > 


77 7 
75 


483 












f * . 


49 B' 


483 


14 
11 
12 
10 
11 
8 
IC 
13 












51 6> 


484 














70 


485..... 














69 


486..... 














64 1 


487 

488..... 


. « . . 


. * • . 




. . . . 


. • « • 


4 • • 1 


67 2 

59 la. 


489..... 














64 5 


490 














60 6, 


491,.... 














69 7 


492 
















58 0» 


493..... 


12 

9 

15 














77 r 


494 

495..... 














•JS ^ 














78 8 


496 














69 2' 


497 


16 


• • • • 


• • • > 




• • • < 


• « 1 1 


* • • . 


67 1 



40 



Tmb Adirondack Black Sprucs. 
Table IY — {Gontinued). 



■S5- 




• 

MajLSUBBMENTS ON STTJMP. 2 




Nximber of rings per inch, on stump, counting from the heart outward. 


B 

< 


498 

499 

600 .... 


IT 
1 
1 2 
1 
1 
1 4 
1 2 
1 4 
1 4 
1 3 
1 3 
1 
1 2 
111 
1 1 
1 4 
1 3 
1 
1 
1 4 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 4 
1 4 
1 2 
1 1 
1 1 
1 1 
1 4 
1 
1 1 
1 2 
1 
1 1 
1 1 
1 1 
1 
1 
1 4 
1 2 
1 9 
1 8 
1 3 
1 8 
1 1 
1 8 
1 2 
1 
1 1 
1 2 
1 
1 1 
1 3 
1 
• •••..•. 


23 
25 
31 
25 
21 
25 
28 
24 
25 
20 
23 
20 
26 
26 
25 
2? 
22 
30 
22 
15 
24 
32 
29 

2r 

30 

2a 

t6 

17 
31 
31 
H 
28 
20 
27 
33 
3t 
28 
86 
27 
26 
28 
24 
17 
21 
80 
27 

27 
30 
16 
28 
38 
27 
24 
36 
24 

20 
20 

21 
12 
11 
28 
16 
20 
14 
21 
16 
25 
18 
16 


14 
23 
27 
26 
19 
26 
20 
28 
27 
18 
26 
24 
29 
18 
36 
24 
16 
iS 
40 
20 
20 
24 
21 
27 
23 
80 
28 
24 
23 
29 
34 
27 
16 
19 
26 
26 
21 
33 
21 
22 
16 
20 
14 
22 
18 
25 

Id 

19 
25 

18 
19 
27 
16 
23 
83 
12 


17 
19 
22 
22 
18 
20 
18 
12 
18 
21 
20 
18 
18 
20 
21 
18 
14 
28 
"30 
81 
19 
34 
19 
23 
20 
26 
19 
26 
25 
19 
23 
20 
19 
16 
19 
24 
14 
18 
26 
20 
12 
H 
26 
18 
18 
14 
12 
16 
19 
13 
17 
19 
19 
29 
20 
26 


17 
16 
19 
12 
18 
28 
16 
IS 
26 
18 
18 
26 
16 
16 
18 
20 
13 
20 
23 
18 
20 
21 
19 
23 
17 
11 
12 
28 
13 
16 
25 
24 
27 
15 
11 
18 
18 
18 
13 
14 
16 
16 
15 
16 
17 
13 
SO 
23 
12 
18 
12 
12 
13 
16 
14 
12 


14 
17 
18 
16 
19 
19 
16 
13 
13 
15 
12 
25 
18 
11 
20 
15 
14 
21 
24 
13 
21 
19 
17 
15 
85 
35 
14 
31 
10 
13 
18 
20 
24 
23 
17 
25 
15 
11 
18 
16 
20 
11 
13 
It 
14 
15 
23 
Sc4 

8 
12 
H 
17 
12 
17 
17 

7 


12 
14 
17 
32 
17 
13 
20 
16 
15 
17 
16 
30 
14 
12 
17 
16 
15 
12 
12 
11 
18 
15 
22 
18 
11 
18 
15 
12 
17 
17 
19 
14 
U 
21 
18 
19 
36 
16 
17 
13 
13 
14 
14 

9 
10 
16 
21 
37 

9 
18 
11 
13 
11 
38 
26 
18 


12 
5- 
15 

7- 






















109 






















119 


15 




















164 


501 




















120 


502 






















112 


603 


li" 

16 

15 
13 
14 

8 

7- 

8 

7 
20 
13 
14 


13 

6- 
11 
18 
14 

8 


14 


















163 


504 


















140 


605 . . . 


8 
13 


7- 
















146 


.506 
















168 


507.,,., 


















137 


608.. •.» 


4- 


















135 


509 


















150 


510.,... 


7 
8 




















131 


611 


12 


7 


8 


4- 












149 


5ia 












1,17 


^J13 


12 
15 




















140 


514. , . , . 


11 


11 
















145 


,515 
















133 


516 
























151 


517 


18 


16 




















142 


^18 




















122 


519 
























145 


520 


Il- 






















138 


521 






















133 


520 


ls 
17 
13 

7- 
11 
12 
22 

7- 
18 
19 
12 
12 
12 
12 


13 

7 
9 




















161 


623 


11 

8 


















152 


524 


6 
















140 


525 
















145 


>626 






















130 
























137 


628 


17 


7- 


















157 


629 

.530 


.... 


.... 


.... 


• * . . 


.... 


. • . . 


a . . . 


.... 


140 
136 


681 






















140 


632 






















136 


4533 






















158 


534 

585 


« * « • 


t « « * 


< « * . 


t « . . 


.... 


.... 


• • * . 


. • « * 


• « . * 


.... 


122 
144 


636 






















122 


537..,.. 
























110 


688 


15 
15 
11 
12 
16 
12 

'19' 
19 

"9I 

10 

8 

12 
17 
17 


10 

27 
14 
11 
14 
22 

'21' 

8- 

.... 


9 
0- 
23 

18 


















139 


539-.,,. 
540 


'is 
20 


• . « . 


« • . . 


• • a 1 


«... 


.... 


« * i t. 


.... 

, « • * 


150 
165 


541 


16 














173 


542 














137 


643 


8- 
• . • • 


















152 


644 

645 


( • • . 


■ . . . 


.... 


• * • . 


• . « . 


.... 


«... 


... * 


127 
166 


646 

647 

548 


« . • . 


. * . ■ 
. * • . 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


. • • • 


. • • . 


130 
95 

105 


549 

550 

551 


11 
< « « , 


• • . • 


.... 


< . . . 


. « . . 
• * • . 


...» 


. . f 


tt « » 


< • * . 


* 4 > « 
.... 


142 
106 
139 


552 


11 
. . . • 




















174 


553 

55i 


. . • * 


. • * . 


• • . . 


. . . . 


.... 


.... 


.... 


• . . 


, • , t 


116 


555 

556 

657 

568 

569 


1 4 
.1 1 
1 
1 5 
1 2 
1 1 

no 

1 4 
1 
1 
1 2 
1 2 
1 2 
1 4 


30 

21 
12 
14 
16 
19 
6 
28 
21 
18 
18 
19 
19 
21 


13 
17 
33 
18 
19 
15 
6 
15 
18 
17 
11 
12 
10 
12 


11 
16 
16 
11 
17 
17 
8 
12 
14 
17 
15 
14 
12 
10 


14 
17 
18 
14 
18 
12 
11 
15 
19 
21 
12 
9 
14 
IS 


15 
21 
18 
15 
20 
17 
13 
17 
25 
13 
11 
16 
16 
12 


31 
23 

'is' 

80 

14 

11 

9 

• * • . 

t . . • 

16 

14 

16 

14 


21 
• • * • 

'ii' 


10 
• * « , 

'is 


4 . 1 
. • . . 


• . ■ . 
1 . • . 


• • • f 
« * • I 

* . i . 
. . tt * 


.... 
• t • « 

... 


... * 
. • « t 
» * i • 

» . » . 


• k . . 
■ • . . 

* • . < 


. • . . 


.... 
. » » • 


145 
184 

98 
1?4 
131 


560 






















1*^2 


561 

562.,... 

56S 

564 

565 

566 

667 

568,t*i« 


12 
9 

is* 

7- 
7- 

14 


32 

6- 
• » • t 

* « , . 
• • • ■ 

. « t . 

• . * • 

12 


10 

« • « » 

« « • • 
» • • « 
t • * » 


14 

* « a • 
« 4 * * 

• • * • 


16 

• » • » 

• * > * 

• * • . 

* « • . 


20 

. . . . 

• . « . 
• . * . 
. . « * 
. . * . 
* » * • 


14- 
. • . • 

. « * . 
. • • ■ 
. . * • 
* . • . 
« . * . 
• » • t 


• * . . 

« • • 
1 • • . 

• • • • 
< t . < 

• • • . 
f • t • 


. » « « 
«... 
. « » . 
. • . * 

.... 

* • • . 

* • * • 


* * . • 

. • » 

* • . • 
« • • 

. * a . 

. • . • 

* • * . 

« • . * 


168 
125 
111 
107 
114 
116 
112 
13^ 



Tes Adirondack Black Spruck. 



41 













Table IY~ 


- ( Oontin'ued). 








ill 


4 

1 ^ 

S o 


Top Measurkmknts. 


■Sd 

li 




1 


* 


ixjpo 


Number of rings per Inch at top, counting 
from the lieart outward. 




I 


498 


8 

8 

11 

8 

8- 

8- 
10 
10 
30 
10 
10 

8 

8 
12 
11 
10 

8 

8 

8 

9 

8 

8 

8 

8 

7 

8 

8 
30 
10 
11 

9 

8 

9 
10 

9 

9 

9 

8 

9 
10 
10 

8 

9 

8- 

9 

9 

9 

8 

7 
11 
10 
10 

9 

8 

8 

8- 


12 
10 
36 
12 
16 
17 
12 
16 
14 
36 
17 
12 
36 
7 
18 
16 
32 
13 
10 
10 
10 
11 
10 
13 
30 
11 . 
12 
16 
34 
16 
37 
18 
13 
19 
18 
16 
16 
14 
38 
16 
17 
18 
18 
16 
17 
12 
16* 
19 
21 
23 
24 
12 
14 
16 
18 
12 


20 
16 
38 
16 
14 
19 
20 
19 
14 
19 
17 
19 
,7 
7 
20 
20 
16 
18 
12 
32 
14 
16 
17 
16 
10 
36 
34 
12 
18 
16 
17 
21 
19 
24 
12 
16 
18 
19 
18 
t9 
18 
23 
19 
£0 
22 
17 
19 
14 
17 
21 
17 
19 
33 
17 
19 
16 


16 
14 
21 
19 
20 
12 
17 
19 
12 
38 
19 
32 
21 
11 
16 
8 
19 
17 
20 
14 
18 
16 
17 
20 
13 
19 
20 
15 
80 
19 
21 
17 
16 
18 
23 
19 
22 
11 
16 
16 
20 
21 
22 
21 
16 
17 
12 
17 
36 
16 
31 
17 
11 
10 
2J 
19 


19 
18 
22 

19 
16 
18 
19 
12 
23 

m 

22 

n 

20 
9 

18 
12 
16 
21 
i2 
18 
18 
23 
21 
20 
17 
15 
20 
IS 
12 
22 
20 
18 
16 
32 
19 
17 
21 
23 
16 
18 
17 
16 
17 
19 
23 
24 
17 
12 

8- 
12 
10 

8 
19 
14 
17 
20 
















2' 8* 
3 
3 2 
3 2 

2 3 

3 
3 2 
3 3 
3 1 

2 10 

3 1 

2 6 

3 2 
3 
2 10 

2 8 

3 2 

2 6 

3 1 
3 4 
2 6 

2 8 

3 
3 

3 3 

4 

2 10 

3 2 

2 8 

3 
2 8 
2 10 

2 11 

3 4 
3 

3 3 

4 
3 

2 10 

3 

3 1 

4 2 
4 
3 4 
3 
3 2 
8 7 
3 4 
3 9 
3 6 
3 1 
3 8 
3 6 
8 3 
3 1 
2 10 


26' 8" 
40 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
53 4 
40 
40 
40 
26 8 
40 
40 
40 
40 
13 4 
40 
53 4 
26 8 
40 
40 
90 
40 
40 
40 
53 4 
53 4 
40 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
26 8 
26 6 
40 
40 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
26 8 
53 4 
58 4 
40 
40 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
40 
63 4 
40 
40 
40 
26 8 
26 8 

40**6* 
40 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
40 
53 4 
26 8 
26 8 
23 8 
26 8 
23 8 
28 8 
I 26 8 


31' 7" 

21 4 

30 

35 4 
SO 6 

22 7 

31 10 

36 8 

32 6 
41 3 
40 2 

36 6 

27 4 

40 6 
43 7 
H 4 
24 6 

21 5 
26 10 
31 7 

22 6 

23 4 

23 7 

21 6 

22 4 

30 

28 6 

41 7 
43 4 
26 8 

31 

37 3 

28 4 
SO 6 

29 6 
34 
31 6 
28 4 
39 

26 10 
31 6 
19 10 
22 6 
36 4 
34 8 

27 4 
31 6 
83 2 

26 4 
31 6 

27 4 
31 7 

27 4 
31 4 

ro 4 

3i 10 

33**6* 

28 4 
26 
3^ 8 

24 10 
31 4 
34 6 
48 6 
48 8 
28 4 
37 10 
34 5 
87 6 
41 4 


60' ir 


499 
















64 4 


£00 .... 


17 

"9- 
10 
11 
17 
20 
16 
18 


12 












59 10 


501 

502..... 


« . • 


.... 


* . . . 


.... 


.... 


65 2 
59 5 


503 














78 11 


504 














76 


505 














79 11 


506 .... 














75 7 


607 

508..... 


. . . . 


• . . • 


. . . . 


• . 


... 


» . * a 


70 9 
83 3 


509 














79 


510 
















70 6 


511 

512 


16 
18 
17 


13 

14 


18 


.... 


... 


• . . < 


• . * . 


83 6 
59 9 


513 












77 


614 .... 














81 


515 .... 
















50 7 


516 
















69 11 


517 


22 














74 11 


518 .... 














65 


519 .... 
















66 


6 JO .... 
















66 7 


581 .... 
















64 6 


522 .... 
















78 11 


523 .... 
















87 4 


624 

525 .... 


*i6* 

17 
15 
12 
6- 
11 
16 
17 
20 
10- 


1 * * t 


.... 


■ * . 1 


.... 


> * . • 


.... 


71 4 
71 5 


526 .... 














72 8 


527 .... 














69 8 
















60 4 


520 














66 7 


630 














71 3 


531 














73 10 


582 ... 














69 £ 


583 

684 ... 


.... 


• . « . 


• « . . 


.... 


.... 


.... 


63 11 
75 6 


635 .... 














58 


536 .... 


15 
21 
18 














68 6 


537 














69 10 


538 ... 














61 8 


639 . . . 














77 4 


640 ... 


17 
12 
13- 
11 
11 
6- 














79 10 


641 ... . 














79 8 


542 














77 8 


543 

544 














67 2 














61 8 


545 .. 














63 2 


546 














70 1 


547 .... 


9 
16 
13 
21 

7- 


6- 












75 


64 < ... 












83 9 


549 


5- 












75 3 


650 












70 10 


551 ..., 














74 7 


552 . . . 














60 1 


653 ... 


8- 














61 4 


554 
















555 ,.,, 


10- 

7 

8 
10- 

8 

8 
11 
11 

8- 

8- 
10 
10 
11 
12 


17 

16 

18 

10 

8 

9 

7 

10 

8 

12 
10 
12 
18 
i 


19 
14 
15 
12 
10 
31 
10 
li 
13 
12 
14 
12 
12 
^ 10 


23 
19 
17 
17 
13 
19 
16 
12 
12 

9 
21 

7 
2) 
17 


19 
22 
19 
22 
19 
17 
39 
23 
19 
17 
20 
2'^ 
^2 
19 


10 

t . * * 


11 
.... 












2 10 

3 

2 10 

3 
2 10 

2 6 

3 7 
3 4 
8 1 

2 8 

3 4 

2 6 

3 2 
3 


75 10 


663 

557 - 


• • « . 


« . . » 


. . . * 


.... 


. . . . 


71 4 
55 6 


658 . . 


20 
12- 


19 












69 4 


559 ^, 












67 8 


580 














73 10 


561 .,,. 


22 

21 
13 
8- 
13 
36 
16 
24 


17» 
8- 
. . . 












91 7 


582 .... 












78 6 


563 

564 


> t • . 


» . • 


* . > 


.... 


* t • . 


73 6 
67 8 


585 -. 














67 10 


568 . . . 














63 7 


567 

668..... 


16 
1/ 












67 4 


. • . . 


. . . . 


• . . . 


1 . • . 


. » . . 


71 



6 



42 



Tme Ai>iR0isfj)AOK Black Sprvcm. 



Table IV — {Continued), 



g<^ 


% 




li" 




® a 

1* 


04 z: 


m 


A 


tm 


Vh' 


570 


1 5 


571 


1 2 


57i 


1 6 


57a...,. 


1 8 


574 


1 8 


575 


1 4 


576 


1 2 


6,7 


1 1 


678 


1 2 


579 


1 2 


5S0 


1 3 


681 


1 


683 


1 4 


583 


1 3 


584 


1 


585 


1 2 


58S.».« 


1 4 


587 


1 


588 


1 2 


Sp*)***.' 


1 1 


5S0 


1 1 


691 


1 2 


592 


1 3 


593..... 


1 6 


594 


1 2 


595 


1 


59'3 


1 2 


597 


1 4 


6^8 


1 


599 


1 4 


600 


1 8 


601 


1 1 


60^ 


1 


603 


1 


604 


1 


605 


1 


606 


1 2 


607 


1 3 


608..... 


1 


609 


1 2 


610.,... 


1 5 


611 


1 4 


612 


1 2 


613 


1 


614 


1 4 


615 


1 1 


616 


1 8 


67 


1 4 


6t8 


1 5 


619 


1 6 


620 


1 3 


621 


1 1 


6?2 


1 


623..... 


1 


624 


1 


625 


1 


626 


1 


627..... 


1 2 


628 


1 1 


6>9 ... 


1 


630 


1 


631 


1 1 


632 


1 5 


633 


1 1 


634..... 


1 3 


635 


1 1 


636 


1 6 


637 


1 1 


638 


1 3 


639 


1 8 













Measurements 


OK Stump. 












Number of rings per inch on stump, counting from the heart outward. 


IS 


% 
11 
11 
6 
6 
16 
17 
19 

24 
22 
22 
21 
16 
22 
^Q 
;6 
8 
18 


9 
24 
15 
7 
6 
16 
14 
25 
26 
22 
23 
18 
19 
18 
2^ 
21 
22 
11 
13 


13 

14 

13 

7 

5 

16 
22 
17 
13 
14 
16 
18 
18 
16 
17 
23 
16 
14 
16 


£4 

8 
13 
10 

5 
16 
22 
15 
12 

9 
19 
21 
20 

9 
19 
15 
18 
19 
15 


18 
9 
18 
13 
7 
14 
13 
20 
12 
11 
J5 
16 
20 
14 
19 
16 
20 
18 
18 


10 
16 
14 
18 
12 
12 

8 
17 

9 

9 

SO 
10 
22 
15 
23 

9 
19 
20 


14 
19 
£2 
17 

12 

8 

22 

4> 

9 
19 
17 


15 
18 


11 
















13 
















14 


















^9, 


20 

20 

11 

8 


22 
24 
5- 
















9 


14- 














SO 














17 
















14 


















20 




















20 


4_ 


















14 


















16 


13 


















21 


















13 


18 
21 


28 


















17 


















20 




















12 


18 
21 




















11 


12- 
. 1 . . 


















25 


*< 


• • . . 


.... 


.... 


.... 


• « • » 






15 


40 
26 
18 

9 
56 
12 
26 
17 
18 
24 
27 
12 
16 
24 
16 
17 
J4 
16 
14 
14 
14 
13 
11 
14 
16 

9 
18 
16 
&8 


24 
87 
26 

8 
24 

8 

25 
28 
20 
15 
US 

9 

12 
21 
20 
j8 
16 
13 
36 
28 
%i 
18 
13 
15 

14 
19 
17 
i6 


12 

2L 

2i 

14 

23 

18 

2^ 

26 

15 

14 

24 

10 

13 

18 

J6 

20 

24 

15 

16 

2t 

22 

17 

15 

17 

17 

24 

20 

20 

19 


14 

12 

£5 

24 

27 

19 

13 

22 

20 

12 

18 

12 

12 

18 

13 

14 

16 

18 

U 

16 

2) 

11 

12 

14 

?0 

2u 

14 

22 

14 


17 
22 
22 
28 
19 
19 
22 
34 
21 
13 

6 
16 
11 
14 
&2 
15 
11 
24 
)4 
14 
24 

9 
17 
14 
18 
26 
23 
12 
13 


19 
.^0 
18 
30 
21 
18 
28 


20 




















14 




















12 


12 




















14 




















(2 


30 
15 
14 




















12 


20 


28 
















16 
















16 




















15 


18 
16 

6 

24 
10 
)2 
12 

9 
H 
28 
12 
12 
26 
18 
18 
21 
2i 


13 
14 


















.... 


%2 


4- 


















18 


















15 


21 
11 
11 


18 
18 


















iO 


16 


10 














14 














18 




















18 


9 


















.... 


14 




















18 






















2i 


14 
14 




















13 


14 
















. .. . 


18 


















19 


12 

19 
16 
6- 




















14 


33 

18 

• • 


'1*2* 


'e- 














16 














36 














13 


















15 


20 

58 

t7 


16 
22 
15 




















17 


"is 


"6 
















2 


15 


19 


18 


.... 


« » 






17 


13 


19 


17 


14 


22 


17 


18 


# • • • 


• * « * 
















10 


14 


13 


15 


Vi 


14 


8 


16 


20 


















9 


6 


9 


U 


19 


19 


10 


15 


18 


12 


12 














10 


11 


14 


M 


20 


19 


16 


18 


16 


















2 


12 


17 


19 


18 


15 


12 






















18 


15 
17 


26 
20 


22 

23 


19 
15 


9 
15 


16 






















15 






















19 


23 


21 


80 


24 


19 


« « 




■ • • * 


1 # • » 


> • • • 


. * « . 


.... 










22 


ti9 


26 


U 


19 


:i2 




« « • « 




















23 
20 


21 
16 


18 
2) 


21 

15 


22 
3^ 


17 
14 


16 


13* 


's- 


k « * 


• • • > 


• . * t 




.... 


« ■ i * 


.... 


• • • « 


18 


17 


14 


2J 


17 


15 


12 






















24 


SO 


19 


17 


8 


9 


8 




















• «.. 


!i:3 


21 


18 


16 


15 


17 






* • « • 


• * 9 - 


♦ • • 


. • « < 












13 


11 
19 


16 
23 


17 
18 


12 
18 


17 
13 


23 

15 


7_ 
12 


'is 


















V> 


tt * tt • 
















16 


15 


16 


17 


13 


14 


14 


20 


7- 




.... 














2) 
35 
16 


80 
22 
16 


24 
21 
19 


19 
28 
18 


13 
19 


15 
16 

16 


13 
12 
13 


13 

"is* 


a • • < 

22' 


« • • • 

• « < 


» ♦ • t 

... * 


< • • a 


• « * « 

• • « * 


* 4 • 4 

* • • * 


ft • * )• 


* * . • 

♦ ♦ . f 




19 


14 


19 


24 


)6 


27 


36 




















. ... 


21 


17 


28 


24 


12 


18 


16 


13 


16 


















U 


19 


16 


13 


18 


21 


18 


2D 


18 


25 


28 


.... 




« « 1 Ik 


« » II ft 


.... 


. • » > 



bo 



131 
l\i7 
120 
Ui 

137 
129 
149 
1 
U4 
148 
161 
141 
147 

leo 

130 
140 
1&7 
105 
161 
1f2 
167 
127 
171 
174 
167 
143 
140 
134 

m 

137 
144 
132 
117 
120 
309 
182 
1^1 
146 
152 
117 
153 
163 
141 
K6 
144 
14 1 
280 
187 
121 
141 
)3i 
•'05 
123 
105 
135 
182 
122 
)49 
116 
105 
110 
118 
151 
132 
147 
167 
158 
1% 
160 
2iS 



TSB AjOIBONDACK BLm.OK SfBUOB. 



4a 



Table lY -{ConUnued). 





.a <5 


Top Measubeubnts. 


£uD9 


If 


1 

Hi 


i 


§3^ 


Number of rings per Incli at top, coiinting 
from the heart outward. 


s 

3 


E69. .... 


11 
10 
10 

9 

9 

8 

9 

8 

8 

8 

8 

8 

7- 

8 

8- 

8 
10 

8 

7 

9 

8 

7 

8 

8 

8 

8 

8 

8- 

8 

8 

9 

8 
11 

8 

8 

8 

8 

8- 

9 

9 

8 

9 
10 

8 

8 

8 

8 

9 

11 

10 

10 

8 

8 

8 

8 

8 

8 

10 
8- 
8 
8 
8 

10 

8 

10 

8 

8 

8 

10 

10 


7 

10 

11 

12 

12 
8 

16 

11 

12 

16 

12 

13 

14 
8 

10 

14 

t6 

10 

14 

16 

17 

16 

12 

13 
8 

12 

12 

14 

14 

12 

11 

10 

17 
8 

10 

12 

16 

10 

10 

11 

11 

U 

12 

12 

8 

9 

8 

13 

35 

16 

16 

14 

9 

10 
10 
11 
10 
H 
11 
13 
14 
9 
8 
11 
11 
10 
10 
10 
13 
32 
36 


13 
12 
14 
17 
14 
13 
10 
12 
10 
11 
16 
15 
12 
11 
12 
12 
16 
12 
11 
20 
39 
12 
9 

17 
11 
13 
14 
14 
19 
9 

13 
4 
16 
11 
10 
12 
13 
10 
13 
13 
12 
32 
14 
9 
11 
9 

14 
14 
15 
17 
18 
34 
11 
18 

n 

11 
17 
10 
12 
11 
12 
11 
10 
14 
11 
12 
12 
10 
16 
17 
19 


16 
12 
i2 
19 
17 
16 
21 
17 
19 
9 

20 
19 
17 
14 


36 
21 
17 
21 
19 
22 
14 
21 
10 
9 
13 
16 
117 

10 


21 
22 
19 
23 
19 


18 












8' 5" 

3 4 

4 1 
4 1 
4 2 
2 10 
2 6 
2 8 

2 6 

3 10 
3 8 
2 7 
2 1 
2 8 
2 6 

2 9 

3 3 

4 
3 1 

2 2 

3 4 
2 8 
2 3 
2 10 

2 6 

3 

2 8 

3 2 
2 8 

2 8 

3 1 

4 
3 6 
3 2 

2 6 

3 
3 1 

2 11 

3 3 

2 4 

3 6 
3 2 

2 10 

3 1 
2 11 

2 7 

3 4 

2 8 

3 
3 2 
2 8 
2 30 

2 9 

3 
2 10 
2 10 

2 9 

3 2 
3 

2 8 

3 

2 4 

3 10 
3 2 
3 10 
2 8 

2 10 

3 
. 2 8 
, 2 8 
. 4 


40' 0" 
40 
26 8 
40 
53 4 
40 
26 8 
40 
26 8 
40 
4U 
40 
40 
53 4 
40 
26 8 
26 8 
53 4 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
40 
40 
40 
53 4 
53 4 
i£6 8 
40 
40 
26 8 
53 4 
53 4 
13 4 
40 
26 8 
40 
26 8 
40 
40 
£6 8 
40 
40 
26 8 
40 
&6 8 
40 
40 
S3 4 
26 8 
40 
40 
53 4 
26 8 
26 8 
S!6 8 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
40 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
40 
40 
40 
53 4 
40 
40 
53 4 


86' 30" 
28 6 
43 
36 2 
27 8 
21 6 
83 6 

21 

25 4 
24 6 

27 

23 4 
16 3 

22 6 

28 7 

24 10 

26 3 
20 7 

22 4 

20 7 

21 4 

23 4 

27 6 

28 4 

18 8 
21 4 

24 7 
21 6 

19 8 
23 3 
27 10 
23 9 
48 2 
21 6 

27 

28 6 
80 4 
&9 6 
80 4 

27 6 
21 4 
26 6 
80 4 
23 6 

21 9 
19 8 

25 10 

22 8 
38 10 
34 11 

28 8 
25 10 
80 
Zl 3 

31 7 
30 
30 4 
27 8 

32 

33 6 
84 8 

23 6 
36 4 
3t 8 
27 6 
84 4 
£6 10 
21 6 

24 10 
36 7 
33 


80' 3" 


570 












71 10 


571 














73 9 


572 














80 3 


573 














85 2 


574 














64 4 


575 


11 














61 8 


576..... 














63 8 


577 
















64 6 


578..... 
















68 4 


579..*.. 
















70 8 


580.,, .. 
















65 11 


581 . , , . . 
















58 4 


583.,... 
















78 6 


583 

584 


16 10 

17 11 


8 


* • • ft 


• , , ' 


« • 


• . . . 


« a , . 


• • « 


71 1 
64 3 


685 


19 

17 

13 

14 

17 

18 

21 

16 

19 

21 

14 

21 

17 

21 

19 

23 

21 

17 

34 

12 

10 

36 

14 

16 

14 

17 

16 

14 

16 

23 

36 

16 

11 

34 

It 

16 

17 

16 

£0 

17 

19 

16 

33 

^6 

13 

17 

11 

18 

15 

16 

11 

76 

39 

17 

12 


33 

32 
9 

34 

36 

13 

17 

16 

12 

31 

19 

20 

14 

12 

16 

17 

18 

12 

14 
9 
8 

13 

13 

13 

36 

17 

36 

17 

12 

11 

16 

21 
34 

14 

10 

35 

16 

13 

16 

17 

16 

15 

14 

35 

34 

12 

15 

11 

36 

19 

17 

36 

12 

14 

16 


9 














56 2 


686,.,.. 














77 11 


587.,... 
















f2 1 


688 


12 














49 5 


539 














64 S 


590 .... 
















66 


591 
















69 9 


1592 
















71 2 


593 
















74 6 


594 
















77 8 


595 .,,. 
59Q 


1 • * • 


• ■ • • 


* , * « 


. • * . 


« , • 


a * , > 


. • • . 


53 11 
64 8 


597 . - • . . 
















63 4 


69?..... 
















62 7 


599 .... 


10 
6- 

18 














84 3 


600..,.. 














81 1 


601 . 


13 












65 


602..... 












64 8 


603 

604 .... 


• • * • 


• < • • 


, , • . 


.... 


. . , • 


* * , * 


. • . . 


56 2 
71 6 


605 

606..... 


> , • . 

9 

13 

16 

*t9* 
10 


• , « . 


.... 


, , • . 


• « , . 


t * * 


. . « . 


60 1 

73 5 


607 

608 

609..... 
610 


• * • 
« * * « 
t » , . 


. , , . 
. • • . 


. , , t 
, , , . 
« * , . 


. • , • 
• « « . 

. . * • 


.... 

« » , t 


. • • • 
, , t > 


73 7 
S6 6 
64 10 
69 8 


611 














f9 10 


6 2 .... 














66 7 


613 .... 
















51 4 


614.<... 
















62 a 


615 

616 

617 

618 .... 


1 . « • 
Vi 
36 
12 
14 

. 1 . • 


, » f . 


.... 
"9- 


. • , 1 
. , , • 


«... 
. • , . 


. . , . 


. * • > 
. * « t 


69 2 

78 8 
68 6 










78 1 


619 .... 














71 4 


620 

621 .... 


• • • « 


.... 


. • . • 


• * , 


.... 


. , » . 


82 
59 5 


622 .... 
















61 11 


623 .... 
















6t 1 


624..... 
6i5 .... 


> , • • 


* • « ■ 


t , , 


. • , • 


.... 


. . , . 


• t . > 


59 6 
69 9 


626 .. . 


17 
8 














57 6 


627 .... 














75 


628 .... 














15 2 


629 ... 
















64 4 


630 

631 

633 

A33 


16 

17 

7- 

10 




.... 


.... 


... 


.... 


• , < . 


5a 6 
66 10 


k « • 4 


• • , 


.... 


> > . t 


» . • 


, * ( < 


74 5 
70 4 


684 ... 














77 


635 

6S6 

637 

638 

639 














69 8 


• « « 

i2 

1 8 


« ft • 


... 


• « . 
. * 


... 


... 


... 


77 10 
67 6 
79 » 


"7. 


"1 • . « 


. ... 


• « . • 


.L.. 


. • • . 


90 4 



44 



The Adirondack Black Spruck. 



Table IV — {Continued). 





^ 




Mbastjrkmknts on Stump. 


* 


So? 


o 






8 


S3 








S^ 


a^ 








.S3 


Number of rings per inch on stump, coxznting from the heart outward. 


.s 




P 




* 


^ 


640 


1 2 

1 4 

2 
1 6 
1 6 
1 4 
1 4 


14 
16 
16 

8 
14 
18 
12 
14 


20 

i^ 

16 
7 
8 
9 
9 
U 


23 

14 

15 

7 

9 

8 

10 

10 


22 
£4 
38 
8 
14 
15 
15 
16 


18 
20 
13 
8 
12 
36 
14 
20 


£0 
20 
16 
32 
12 
35 
15 
18 


2^ 
36 
16 
13 
11 
13 
19 
19 






















145 


641 . . 


34 
34 
33 
17 
16 
23 
22 




















la6 


642 .... 


8- 
17 
20 
24 
31 
30 


















131 


643 .... 


14 

28 
15- 


19 
10 


22 












180 


644 .... 










145 


645 














157 


646. .... 
















166 


647 




« . • t 












158 


6i8 


1 6 
1 4 
1 6 
1 
1 2 
1 3 
1 4 
1 
1 
1 
1 4 
1 8 
1 5 
1 4 
1 8 


16 
15 
32 
18 
14 
10 
10 
20 
27 
25 
18 
12 
12 
18 
26 


11 
12 
13 
17 
22 
13 
5 

21 
15 
20 
17 
2J 
18 
24 
30 


30 
12 
19 
18 
20 
25 
7 
21 
20 
21 
17 
10 
19 
28 
20 


19 
14 
14 
36 
15 
9 
11 
38 
19 
38 
37 
14 
14 
17 
35 


15 
16 
30 
16 

12 
8 
17 
17 
38 
16 
14 
11 
16 
36 
34 


16 
21 
14 
35 

12 
16 
32 
19 
19 
13 
14 
14 
15 
33 
34 


16 
22 

12 

*i8 

15 
16 


19 
30 
20 


25 


16- 
















163 


649..,.. 
















142 


660..... 


21 






* * * 












135 


651 


















98 


652...,, 


1 

14 




















122 


653..... 


25 

81 


















146 


654 


11- 
















384 


655 
















119 
185 


656,.... 


17- 
7^ 

10 
20 
13 
16 
10 


... 




















657.... 
















... . 




120 


658 


15 
16 
13 
31 
9 


35 


















157 


659.,... 


















117 


660 


11 


















131 


«61 


















188 


66« 


8 


10 




. • . » 












156 


663 


1 


24 


21 


23 


38 


2* 


28 


, , , , 


* a . • 


< • • . 


.... 




« « . . 












137 


664 


1 1 
1 2 
1 1 
1 1 
1 1 
1 


26 
84 
33 
25 
14 
24 


2i 

26 
28 
21 

28 

2« 


23 
22 
fe2 

15 

24 
S9 


38 
17 
32 
38 
27 
21 


18 
24 
23 

22 
26 
26 


19 

yo 

23 
i4 
23 
24 


15 
26 
25' 

2^ 
H 
14- 


7- 
24 
23 


• • • • 


















150 


6R5 




















isa 


666 




















188 
153 


667...., 




















688 






















1 5 


669.... 


«... 


. . < . 


, • . 




.... 












166 


670 


1 2 
1 6 


18 
20 


29 
39 


8J 
10 


2' 
31 


83 

10 


22 

38 


16 
30 






















160 


671 


11 


14 


14 


'23 


.... 












1.55 


672 


1 


28 


27 


27 


24 


23 


16 


14 


• . • . 


It « t « 


> * • . 




» • • < 












153 


673 


1 
1 
1 5 


21 
20 

22 


24 

18 
84 


^0 
23 

16 


30 
12 


13 
13 
12 


15 

19 

9 




^ 




















108 
182 
146 


674 


10 
32 




















... 


•6 6 


15 


14- 


.... 




* * . . 












676 


1 2 
1 6 
1 2 
1 1 
1 4 
1 6 


S3 
23 
21 
39 
26 
25 


17 
25 
26 
17 
37 
26 


38 
39 


16 
16 
14 
15 
2^ 
12 


14 
14 
16 
16 
18 
16 


16 

16 

9 

10 
16 
U 


21 
18 

6 

6- 
20 
33 


38- 

10 

11 




















147 
157 


677 


7 


















678 


















12il 


679 




















118 
168 


680 


14 

8 










... 










681 


12 


20 
















174 


6S8 


1 2 


Zi 


27 


42 


30 


17 


38 


14 


23 


10- 


... 




. « > 


• ••. 










2i4 


68a 


1 3 


33 


30 


24 


15 


35 


12 


17 


13 


8 


















167 


684..... 


1 1 
1 8 


40 

26 


35 

18 


25 
15 


18 
9 


12 
10 


14 
9 


14 
13 


9- 

20 




















167 


685 


19 


.... 
















139 


686 


1 5 


22 


29 


15 


10 


J2 


6 


8 


30 


16 


I2I 
















140 


687 


2 
1 2 
1 1 
1 6 


24 
32 
28 

2* 


20 

22 
18 
22 


23 

18 

28 

8 


15 
21- 
16 

8 


H 
39 

13 


8 

22 
19 
10 



19 
16 
19 


14 

8- 


11 


15 


14 


12 












195 


688 










161 
187 

153 


689 




















690 


17 


21 


11 
















691 


1 1 


26 


13 


15 


21 


17 


36 


17 






















15^5 


693 


1 3 
1 8 


11 
23 


8 
24 


10 

21 


11 
16 


17 
15 


17 
19 


21 
11 


20 
9 


.. 


















115 


693..... 


8 


8 
















158 


6t4 


1 8 


37 


44 


29 


17 


X5 


S6 


24 


15 


« » * « 


« * * * 
















217 


695 


1 8 


i34 


18 


28 


17 


16 


10 


1< 


19 


17 


20 


30 














210 


696 


1 1 


18 


16 


15 


16 


11 


13 


10 


6 




... t 
















105 


697 


1 1 


28 


24 


26 


2i 


18 


13 


9- 




* • • * 


*i. 
















142 


698 


1 


28 


26 


21 


21 


19 


U 


.... 


• A » « 


• • « * 


.... 
















1SW 


699.,... 


1 2 


22 


20 


18 


21 


13 


35 


7 


1? 


• • * • 


• . » » 
















128 


709 


1 4 


23 


26 


18 


19 


38 


11 


9 


8 


8 


8 
















14ft 


701 

702 


1 8 

1 1 


40 
25 


20 
23 


11 

17 


16 
16 


17 
18 


11 
24 


9 
2J 


19 

» . . * 


6- 






« « < k 


.... 










148 
145 


703 


1 8 


16 


20 


24 


12 


9 


16 


12 


35 


36 


19 


5- 














164 


704 


1 6 


28 


25 


13 


14 


30 


14 


19 


16 


12 


9 


9 














169 


705 

706 


1 
1 9 


17 
24 


14 
28 


18 
10 


19 
36 


38 

18 


15 
16 


* * « It 

16 


• « * . 

14 


f • , . 
16 


'W 


'10' 


♦ » # • 


.... 










101 
189 


707 


1 2 


2) 


22 


28 


26 


82 


29 


19 


n 




















187 


703 

709 

710 


1 1 
1 2 
1 4 


30 
32 
22 


21 
18 


19 
26 
16 


36 
16 
20 


13 

37 
14 


9 

11 

14 


30 
12 
10 


6- 

*16' 


. • • • 
> • * . 

7 


* « ■ « 


, • . 

. • • * 
* • t , 


• • « « 

« * t » 
« • • • 


.... 
. • • • 










126 
385 
1S7 



Tme Adironback Black Sfruce. 



45 



Table IY — (Continued). 




697 

693 

699 

7O0 

TOl 

702 

703 

704.*.. 

705.... 

706.... 

707. 

708 

70". . * . • 

710. » ♦ » • 



46 



Tme Adirondack Black Spruce. 



Table IV — {Continvsd ). 







Mbasubements on Stump. 



Number of rtags per inch on stump, counting from the heart outward, 



21 


21 


25 


22 


13 


n 


24 


16 


14 


23 


25 


34 


23 


21 


24 


22 


40 


30 


34 


23 


17 


30 


18 


16 


25 


16 


16 


21 


16 


18 


26 


30 


27 


24 


20 


21 


30 


23 


21 


Hi 


"0 


20 


2S 


2r 


S.2 


21 


22 


19 


23 


30 


24 


80 


16 


17 


S3 


16 


15 


85 


2a 


21 


36 


Zl 


25 


S2 


15 


le 


84 


80 


22 


24 


23 


15 


20 


17 


18 


80 


21 


21 


84 


15 


13 


21 


18 


28 


88 


26 


18 


25 


34 


19 


26 


18 


18 


20 


18 


17 


22 


S8 


19 


8,; 


40 


20 


82 


24 


28 


36 


21 


24 


16 


16 


20 


8S 


14 


16 


20 


80 


25 


24 


28 


17 


40 


19 


20 


19 


16 


21 


27 


22 


25) 


18 


21 


20 


21 


80 


£6 


27 


14 


12 


83 


16 


20 


85 


26 


31 


82 


25 


18 


25 


24 


15 


86 


^8 


21 


80 


88 


28 


U 


33 


17 


86 


29 


24 


17 


15 


29 


%% 


26 


32 


17 


27 


20 


24 


27 


22 


17 


14 


19 


22 


20 


21 


43 


84 


23 


83 


23 


22 


j?6 


22 


25 


2J 


17 


26 


23 


26 


19 


32 


88 


80 


81 


16 


Id 


80 


20 


24 


S6 


16 


14 


20 


19 


15 


28 


19 


24 


14 


18 


17 



11 
10 
18 
SO 

u 

21 
23 
22 

17 
13 
14 
21 
24 
21 

Its 
17 
15 
19 
27 
S7 
16 
23 
15 
17 
15 
12 
26 
18 
18 
15 
21 
88 
27 
26 
19 
23 
22 
13 
16 
26 

9 
17 
15 
27 
12 
23 
15 
15 
14 
11 

9 
11 
17 
80 
10 
16 
14 
10- 
18 
14 
30 
ZO 
87 
12 
24 

23 

16 
16 
1« 
13 



It 
11 
16 
29 
12 
20 
12 
18 
15 
16 
13 
24 
20 
21 
23 
11 
16 
17 
17 
13 
20 
14 
23 
17 
12 
15 
15 
28 
12 
It 
19 
14 
21 
10 
14 
12 
19 
16 
8 

14 
17 
15 
16 
15 
16 
11 
21 
10 
16 
12 
16 
11 
18 
14 
83 
10 
12 

la 

It 

9 

11 

14 
25 
18 
13 
8 
20 
16 
15 
16 
14 



9 
17 

18 
10 
20 
18 
20 
11 
14 
10 
31 
24 
25 
10 

9 
10 
14 
14 
15 
11 
16 
20 
15 

9 
36 
17 
26 
•*6«- 
17 
15 
14 
14 
10 

9 
U 
12 
16 
14 
16 

9 
15 
15 
11 
23 
IS 
13 
10 
17 
12 
20 
18 
11 
15 
30 
14 
16 
14 
11 
11 
10 

8 
22 
15 
20 

9 
25 
14 
16 

11 
14 



14 

Si7 
8 



11 

2t 

17 

15 

9 

8 

9 



1% 



13 
15 
16 
18 
18 

9 

5- 
16 



11 

12 
12 
13 

*6r- 

11 

11 

15 
12 
11 
U 
15 
19 
19 
• * « < 
14 
9 
18 
16 
13 
19 
12 
18 
11 
19 
14 

28 
10 
18 

I • • « 

8 
27 
13 
16 
•^ 
80 
> * * * 
11 
15 

9 



15 
12 
17 
13 
7 
12 
10 



20' 

8 

16 



15 
■ • I • 

12 
15 
13 

> » • • 
IS 
10 

10 

21 
15 

I • • ^ 

19 
11 

13 
8 
13 
19 
18 
9 

16 
16 
18 

14 
13 

r • • « 

10 

I • • • 

14 

► • » « 
31 

I I • • 
12 
16 

7 



15 
II 
14 
11 
7 
20 



20 



12 



17 

7 

11 

*io* 

i » t » 



12 
11 

• • * • 
19 
18 

• • * • 

• t • * 



11 



6- 
18 

8 

9 
14 



22- 



18 
15 
16 



20 
10 

8 



10- 



25 
13 
12- 



« • • • 
• « * • 




• • • • 




• » * • 




• • • • 

6- 




• • • • 




• « • • 

11 




'20* 
15 


'17* 


* • t « 




<• 1. 




.*•* 




» • * • 
10 




» » t # 




* • • • 




»• • * 




« • * • 




« • • « 




» •*> « 


• #•• 


* # • « 


# • » • 



t • • < 
« t 1 1 



i 






115 
111 
10 
148 
117 
179 
285 
178 
197 
162 
164 
194 
147 
161 
181 
97 
137 
108 
114 
159 
167 
161 
178 
159 

ni 

123 
121 
147 
115 
187 
105 
128 
210 
185 
188 
147 
185 
140 
182 
128 
168 
159 
146 
127 
141 
181 
1€0 
190 
162 

168 
166 
144 
169 
189 
186 
164 
142 
145 
167 
188 
127 
205 
148 
16i 
142 
198 
126 
124 
1«9 
180 
10« 



Tmm Adibokdack Black Spruce, 



47 













Tatoe IV - 


-{Continued). 










* 

i| 


Top Measubkments. 


%4 


1 


1 

1 


t 

•a 




Number of rings per inch at top, counting 
from tli^ heart outward. 


•3 


711..... 

712 


8- 

8 

9 

9 

9 

9 
11 

9 
10 

9 

8- 
10 

8 

8 

8 

8 
10 

m 

8 

8 

7- 

9- 

7 

8 

9 

8 

8 

8 

1^ 

8 
10 
10 
10 

% 

10 
10 
10 

9 

9 

9 

8 

8 

8 
10 

9 

9 

8 

8- 

8 

8 

8 

9 

8 
12 

8 

9 
10 

9 

8 

8 

11 

8 

8 

9 

8 

8 

9 

10 

9 

8 


16 
11 
10 
13 
15 
14 
8 
8 
10 
11 
12 
18 
13 
14 
14 
11 
11 
11 
13 
11 
10 
13 
12 
16 
11 
12 
12 
14 
13 
14 
10 
U 
13 
16 
10 
12 
14 
12 
13 
14 
10 
17 
12 
13 
8 
16 
13 
16 
10 
18 
13 
19 
18 
21 
17 
19 
11 
16 
14 
16 
12 
14 
17 
16 
18 
16 
19 
16 
14 
16 
18 
18 


18 
14 
8 
•6 
16 
38 
14 
9 
9 
12 
12 
12 
12 
10 
16 
14 
11 
10 
11 
14 
10 
12 
16 
17 
18 
12 
34 
18 
17 
16 
11 
18 
16 
15 
14 
16 
18 
14 
16 
14 
17 
21 
13 
16 
11 
21 
16 
11 
14 
14 
15 
17 
12 
32 
16 
12 
15 
12 
16 
16 
12 
12 
19 
8 
14 
19 
22 
12 
19 
16 
14 
20 


15 

15 

15 

23 

19 

38 

23 

17 

16 

14 

12 

16 

12 

13 

18 

14 

16 

15 

12 

14 

18 

14 

14 

16 

17 

14 

15 

10 

16 

36 

17 

16 

14 

12 

11 

16 

12 

16 

14 

16 

15 

31 

16 

10 

17 

17 

19 

11 

18 

15 

19 

12 

14 

16 

18 

16 

16 

14 

15 

12 

10 

15 

15 

t6 

15 

12 

16 

18 

16 

11 

12 

11 


16 
16 
13 
20 
21 
17 
21 
24 
20 
17 
16 
18 
16 
13 
12 
14 
17 
18 
16 
16 
12 
16 
14 
12 
11 
15 
16 
19 
13 
12 
13 
13 
16 
13 
16 
35 
15 
12 
16 
16 
8 
12 
15 
14 
16 
16 
11 
15 
12 
13 
16 
11 
14 
16 
14 
16 
12 
12 
15 
14 
16 
15 
17 
16 
15 
16 
13 
14 
12 
18 
12 
i 18 


7- 


* • . . 


. * . < 


. « • . 


# » t . 




< , . • 


2' £• 
2 1 
1 8 
1 10 

1 6 

2 2 
2 6 

2 6 

3 
3 
2 4 
2 8 
2 

1 6 

2 

1 10 

2 
2 8 
2 6 
2 4 

1 8 

2 8 
2 4 
2 6 
2 6 

1 10 

2 3 

3 2 
2 
2 4 
2 

2 1 
8 3 

3 1 

2 4 

3 8 
8 
2 8 
2 4 
110 
110 
S 1 
2 
2 4 
2 1 
2 6 
2 8 
8 
2 
2 6 
2 2 
2 8 
2 10 

2 30 
8 
8 2 

4 2 
8 2 
8 1 

3 4 
2 3 
2 4 
8 3 

2 8 

3 2 
8 1 
2 10 
2 6 
2 4 
2 6 
8 1 
2 2 


26' 8' 
31 8 
26 8 
13 4 
13 4 
40 
53 4 
53 4 
66 8 
t6 8 
66 8 
53 4 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
26 8 
40 
40 
53 4 
26 8 
13 4 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
53 4 
26 8 
40 
53 4 
58 4 
5? 4 
26 8 
47 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
26 8 
66 8 
40 
40 
86 8 
53 4 
n 4 
53 4 
53 4 
40 
40 
40 
40 
53 4 
63 4 
'^6 8 
66 8 
26 8 
45 
53 4 
26 8 
40 
26 8 
26 8 
53 4 
26 8 
53 4 
^6 8 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 


8S' 4- 

22 6 
42 6 

45 10 

46 4 
32 7 

27 

28 

21 4 

23 6 

22 8 

24 
80 

80 8 
S3 9 

81 4 

39 10 

40 

87 8 

27 6 

29 4 
34 10 

82 6 
24 
86 10 
48 6 
84 9 

28 4 

29 

26 6 
28 
81 10 

30 2 
36 8 

88 

27 6 
34 8 

89 
86 7 
84 4 
S3 8 

23 4 

24 10 

80 

28 9 
26 6 

21 8 

23 10 

25 6 
28 4 
S6 6 

24 4 

26 8 

22 8 

27 4 
84 10 
19 10 

81 8 

28 6 
80 6 
28 4 

26 10 
45 7 
41 6 

27 6 
39 
26 8 
36 10 
38 4 
34 3 
SO 
83 7 


67' 2* 
56 8 


713 


12 
16 
10- 
12 
20 
23 
24 
17 
19 
9 














70 10 


714 














61 


715..... 














61 2 


7J6 














74 9 


717 


19 
11- 












82 10 


718 












81 10 


719 












91 


720..... 














93 2 


721 














91 8 


722 














80 


723 








;;::'::::i 




53 8 


724 
















58 10 


725 
















62 5 


726 
















59 10 


727..... 


14 

7- 














68 6 
















69 4 


729 














66 10 


780. t , . . 
















69 10 


731...,. 
















57 8 


73? 

783 


9- 


... * 


. * I . 


.. • 


.... 


.... 


* • . , 


77 6 
74 10 


734...., 




.... 












79 10 


785 


9- 














f6 


736 














63 8 


737 




... 
.... 












63 8 


738 

















r8 2 


759..... 


8- 














57 8 


740 













• *.. 


82 2 


741..... 
















56 8 


742..... 
743 


12 
33 
13 


.... 


• * « • 


.... 
.... 


. < , . 


.... 


...' 


73 11 
£6 9 


744 














98 1 


745 






" 








88 8 


746 
















67 10 


747..,.. 


13 

8 
16 
12 
11 

9- 














84 8 


748 














es 4 


749 






,,.. 








65 7 


750 














76 2 


751 














62 2 


753..... 
763 


'.!'l 


« , , » 


• * . • 


«... 


• . , • 


i « . • 


93 1 
66 10 


754 
















72 4 


755 
















57 6 


756 


12 
8- 
12 














82 4 


757 

758 


. * , . 


.... 


.... 


• * . . 


« , , t 


. , » . 


77 8 
80 2 


759..,., 














80 10 


76i 


8- 
13 














70 10 


761 














67 8 


763 














67 


763 

764 


'ii' 


» . » « 


• » , • 


• , « . 


.... 


. . * . 


» * t . 


69 e 

78 10 


765 














83 8 


766 


19 


8 












64 8 


767 












90 8 


76=i 


8- 
10 
14 














61 6 


769 














76 7 


770. . , . . 














87 2 


771 














57 8 


772. . , . . 
















69 2 


773 

774. . , . , 


12 
12 


* . • . 

15 


> . • « 


• * , < 


. . . , 


. * . • 


. . . . 


76 6 
70 10 


776.,... 












84 


776 


10 














68 9 


777..... 














82 10 


778 

779...., 


, « , • 

18 

U 

10 

5- 


« • • • 


• . • 4 


, . . . 


. . • . 


..ft 


. * • . 


66 

67 4 


780 














63 6 


781 














59 9 


782 




I * I . 


. . • • 


. . . • 


* . * « 


« • • « 


62 5 



48 



Tbe Adirondack Black Spsvce. 



TiBLE lY — {Contirmed). 



g« 


'S 


MEASUEBMBNTa ON StXJMP. 


i 


gs 


It 




>> 


g« 






a-i 
s 


Number of rings per inch on stump, counting from the heart outward. 


d 

mimt 


QC» 


o 




< 


783 

784 ... 


I'O" 
1 8 
1 
1 2 
1 6 
110 
110 
1 
1 2 
111 
1 
1 1 
1 1 
1 2 
1 8 
1 8 


38 
14 
30 
80 
22 
22 
20 
ItO 
82 
28 
14 
J8 
27 
25 
32 
17 


21 
18 
16 
25 
24 
32 
20 
17 
29 
23 
24 
24 
19 
18 
33 
19 


18 
13 
24 
19 
20 
.6 
24 
16 
16 
21 
24 
15 
22 
16 
23 
26 


13 

14 

15 

17 

21 

15 

13 

14 

16. 

12 

20 

11* 

19 

18, 

18 

19 


19 
16 
26 
19 
14 
11. 
12- 
25- 
20 
13. 
11- 

Il- 
ia 
11- 

12 
19 


15 
10 
21 
14 
13 
8 
20 

2a 

9 
17 
18 
11 
15 
16 
34 
21 
























324 


11 


10 


8 


















3U 


78s .... 


















1^1 


786 .. 


10 
15 
35 
15 






















134 


787 


6 
9 

13 


'7 
13 
14 


7 
14 
12 
















349 


788 


24 

15 














390 


789...,. 


12 












391 


790 












314 


791 


20 
17 
17 
12 
19 
9 
9 
17 


21 


















363 


792 


is" 


15 


13' 


'12" 












19» 


793.,... 












12^ 


794 






















IC'2 




8- 
8 
8 
15 




















143 


796.,... 


9 

6- 

9 


















IJ^O 


797 


















15^ 


798..... 


15 


15 


7„ 


• * 


.... 








199 


799 


1 8 
1 6 
1 8 


18 
28 
19 


16 
26 


17 
18 
20 


24' 

19 

U 


18 
17 
12 


12 
13 

15 


12 
12 
33 


13 
13 
16- 


9 

U 

^15 


1 14 
7- 
12 


15 


16 


18 










s^r8 


800...,. 










}55. 


801 


37 


36 


. • . . 


... 








19 i 


802.»... 


1 6 
1 8 
1 1 
1 8 
1 6 
1 1 
1 2 
1 
1 5 
1 4 
1 1 
1 3 
1 4 
1 4 
1 4 


18 
35 
42 
22 
2i 
18 
SO 
20 
28 
16 
20 
18 
83 
14 
22 


39 
82 
iO 
20 
24 
24 
24 
30 
24 
20 
14 
32 
19 
28 
16 


16 
s>9 
39 
13 
16 
27 
17 
24 
23 
27 
22 
21 
23 
17 
14 


13 
12 
25 
21 
19 
25 
14 
1*5 
26 
22 
27 
24 
18 
13 
19 


12 

n 

17 
18 
15 
22 

14 
21 
18 
17 
28 
11 
2^ 
32 
14 


9 
14 
18 
14 
34 
24 
10 
16 
25 
20 
25 
12 
22 
14 
17 


14 
8 
19 
14 
16 
22 
7 


15 


•10 
10 


13 

8 


14 

14 


7- 
11 












lt-0 


SOS 


20 






!6?13 


804 










171 


805 


9 

la 

18- 

7 


17 
18 


18 
















lee 


806 
















16,^ 


807 


















180 


SOS 




















323 


809..... 






17 














12a 


8 


20 

25 

34 

8 

16 
16 
14 


16 
22- 


18 
23 


23 

20 














9m 


8U 














212 


812 
















IfB 


813 


11 

15 

9 

18 




















lb7 


814 


10 

10- 


13- 
















193 


815 
















329 


816 


"k . . • 


.... 


. , . > 


* • » • 


< . . • 








144 


817 


1 6 
1 6 


14 
14 


18 
38 


58 
17 


15 
22 


18 

2a 


13 

17 


16 
17 


■ 16 


20 

19 


20 

10- 
















16S 


8i8 


.... 


,,. 












172 


819 


1 2 
1 3 

1 1 

2 


88 
21 
40 
82 


16 
21 
23 
30 


13 
16 
30 
22 


19 
'4 
29 
10 


23 
21 
3L 

8 


34 

16 

7. 


16 > 

9 

6- 
12 






















159 


820 


11 


10 


















189 


821 


















li5 


822 


30 


12 


18 


14 


U 


30 


9 








2'8 


823 


1 5 
1 
1 6 
1 2 
1 2 


32 
34 
19 
25 

80 


18 
23 
19 
36 
32 


18 
18 
25 
23 
20 


8i 

17 
27 
19 
17 


22 
20 
30 
19 
19 


24 

24 
14 
10 
17 


18 


14 


18 


















198 


824 


















336 


825 


15 

9 

18 


14 
13 


10 


14 


15 


7- 












209 


826 












140 


837...,. 


.... 


«... 






.... 










166 


8i8..,.. 


1 1 


24 


32 


19 


14 


23. 


14 


4- 


t . , • 


< , . ■ 






.... 












130 


829 


1 2 
1 1 


23 
87 


26 

27 


24 

23 


23 
23 


18 
19 


22 

22 


23 

11 






















158 


sao 


, 




t » « 


1 ft • • 














n2 


8S1 


1 6 


SO 


n 


23 


18 


20 


16 


34, 


17 


28 






. 












38B 


882 


2 2 
1 8 
1 2 


23 
19 
fi6 


13 
26 
18 


21 
25 


20 
20 
19 


12 
17 

35 


11 
13 
14 


15 
31 
13 


13 
19* 


12 
18 


7 
19 


21 


13 


10 


6 








19' 


8i8 








389 


884 


.... 














I'^O 


835 


1 


S3 


26 


S") 


24 


18 


15 


7^ 


. . . • 


• . . . 




.... 


.... 












168 


886 


1 


27 


20 


19 


14 


15 


17 


, , 


« . . . 


• « 


• . • « 


... * 


♦ ♦ » . 












112 


837 


1 7 


27 


28 


23 


20 


14 


i5 


10 


13 


32 


25 


«... 














187 


838 


1 6 


28 


22 


20 


23 


16 


14 


17. 


13 


21 


16 


^ 


». 












190 


8S9 


110 


29 


23 


30 


28 


9 


9 


8 


8 


10 


7 


32 


12 












180 


840 


1 8 


25 


17 


18 


16' 


11 


10 


U 


17 


21 


24 




« • . • 












17 


84}..,,. 


1 8 


27 


19 


28 


17 


14 


10 


16. 


15 


15 


20 


18 














)99 


Hi 


1 1 


17 


24 


20 


21 


38- 


28 


23- 








. . , • 














1f,0 


843.... 


1 4 


80 


30 


25 


17 


16 


15 


17 


5:0 


38- 


. . . . 




t . . . 












\h^ 


844 


110 


31 


23 


15 


19 


16 


17 


16 


17 


21 


21 


19 




»f •« 










215 


845...,. 


1 


18 


19 


28 


22 


21 


7 


. . • « 


• • «" 


I > • • 


* • • • 


• * • • 




.«•. 










^5 


846 


1 6 


21 


21 


21 


14 


12 


13 


10 


8 


-12 


11 


12 






,., . 








165 


S47..... 


1 


28 


2S 


22 


28 


15 


10 




, 




, , . . 








.... 








124 


848 .... 


1 2 


19 


22 


24 


15 


18 


80 


38 


.10 


• . • • 


. • • . 


. . . . 


«... 




.»., 








156 


849 .... 


1 4 


26 


30 


17 


11 


7 


11 


17 


20 


11 


5- 




* * . « 












1^5 


850 ,.., 


1 3 


23 


88 


21 


18. 


18 


38 


16 


12 


11 


• • . 


. f • 4 














175- 


861 .... 


1 3 


22 


19 


13 


16- 


16 


37 


36 


18 


\»** 


. . • • 


1 . * . 


, t • . 


« f . . 


. <» . . 








im 


852 


1 2 


36 


21 


28 


n" 


20 


23 


20 


f • • * 


« « • . 


. « f . 


* • • 


• t * • 


t • * * 


• * , . 








149- 


853 


1 2 

1 4 


26 

28 


25 
28 


28 
28 


19- 
88' 


28 
12 


24 


26 


11 




















176 


854 


14 8 


» • t * 


• • » . 


t • * , 


.« »* 




. • 1 « 








167 


855 


1 


28 


17 


17 


18" 


14 


80 


....1 


. • • • 


. . * . 


« • . . 


• . • • 


t« ♦» 


• « • t 


• ■ 1 1 








124 



Tbe Adirondack Black Spmucis, 



49 



Table IY — {Continued). 



iil 




Top Measurements. 




5° 


P. 
o 

o 

g 






Kumber of rings per inch at top, counting 
from the heart outward. 


■4-1 
O 

H 


783.... 


8 

8 

8- 

9 

8 
14 

9 

8 

8 
14 

8- 

9 

8 

8 

10 
10 

la 

8~ 
10 
10 

9 

9 

9 

8 

8 

8 

9 

8 

8- 

8 

8 

8 

8 
10 

9 
10 

8 

8 

8 
14 

9 

fi 

10 

8 

9 

9 

9 

9 
13 
11 

8 

8- 

8 
11 
10 

8 
10 
10 

8 

9 

9 

8 
10 

8 

9 

8 

8 
10 

8 

8 
10 
10 


12 
U 
16 
16 
18 
18 
10 
(2 
16 
18 
16 
12 
14 
16 
18 
14 
16 
14 
16 
14 
16 
11 
12 
14 
13 
16 
14 
16 
15 
16 
14 
Id 
19 
14 
U 
11 
16 
14 
18 
33 
13 
13 
14 
J6 
If 
16 
7 

16 

13 

14 

16 

14 

15 

14 

13 

13 

14 

16 

16 

14 

16 

16 

14 

14 

16 

1-2 

12 

14 

16 

14 

13 

14 


17 
17 
16 
18 
12 
16 
14 
14 
15 
17 
17 
18 
16 
12 
19 
17 
18 
12 
16 
11 
9 

12 
i6 
12 
16 
15 
18 
17 
14 
17 
16 
15 
12 
16 
18 
12 
16 
15 
20 
18 
14 
16 
13 
14 
li 
14 
15 
12 
14 
14 
12 
I'i 
13 
12 
15 
12 
14 
8 
14 
12 
13 
14 
13 
15 
15 
15 
14 
16 
18 
14 
14 
17 
i6 


14 
14 
19 
17 
10 
21 
19 
14 
15 
15 
12 
14 
16 
20 
14 
10 
14 
17 
14 
16 
13 
14 
11 
17 
15 
t2 
12 
11 
11 
12 
12 
12 
14 
19 
12 
14 
14 
12 
13 
15 
16 
i6 
15 
13 
16 
11 
12 
16 
14 
12 
14 
11 
11 
14 
11 
16 
12 
14 
14 
2 
15 
12 
12 
11 
12 
12 
17 
14 
12 
15 
16 
15 
15 


15 
15 
12 
17 
19 
20 
11 
15 
1? 
14 
14 
16 
17 
8 
10 
12 
10 
15 
15 
U 
12 
18 
14 
10 
1 J 
17 
li 
14 
10 
9 
12 
U 
10 
14 
15 
14 
12 
17 
14 
14 
12 
10 
15 
12 
12 
13 
IS 
18 
13 
13 
11 
15 
14 
18 
38 
14 
14 
12 
12 
17 
16 
t\ 
H 
i6 
16 
18 
10 
11 
12 
32 
19 
12 
11 
















£' 2" 
3 2 
S 4 
2 8 

2 11 

3 2 

4 
2 

2 6 

3 8 

4 2 
3 2 
3 
3 6 

2 8 

3 
3 1 

3 3 

4 
3 8 
8 8 
2 8 

2 11 

3 

4 6 

2 6 

3 
3 
3 4 
a 2 

2 8 

3 2 
3 2 
3 4 
8 
2 8 
2 10 
2 10 

2 6 

3 
2 10 

2 10 

3 2 
3 6 

2 6 

3 2 

3 3 
2 

2 10 

4 

3 4 
8 
2 5 

2 8 

3 
8 2 

4 
3 8 
2 10 

2 8 

3 4 
3 1 
2 8 
2 10 

2 8 

3 
2 10 

2 8 

3 2 
3 1 
2 10 
2 8 
2 4 


26' 8" 

40 

S6 8 

26 8 

^0 

40 

5i 4 

26 8 

40 

40 

26 8 

26 8 

40 

40 

26 8 

53 4 

53 4 

53 4 

58 4 

40 

53 4 

40 

53 4 

53 4 

40 

40 

13 4 

53 4 

53 4 

40 

40 

53 « 

53 4 

40 

53 4 

40 

40 

40 

26 8 

40 

£3 4 

26 8 

53 4 

26 8 

40 

26 8 

40 

26 8 

53 4 

53 4 

53 4 

40 

26 8 

26 8 

40 

40 

66 8 

58 4 

40 

40 

n 4 

66 8 

26 8 

40 

26 8 

40 

53 4 

40 

ye 8 

40 
53 4 
26 8 

1 13 4 


ZW 4" 

26 6 
34 8 
31 4 
24 8 
40 4 
34 3 
31 10 
24 
38 4 
34 8 

33 6 
24 6 

27 4 

34 7 

26 5 
33 

27 6 
26 10 

36 « 
26 2 
31 4 

81 
19 30 
24 6 

26 4 
38 8 
21 4 
24 4 

27 

23 6 

24 6 
27 4 

29 10 
24 4 

30 

26 10 
24 4 

31 6 
42 7 

27 4 
33 6 

33 9 
42 10 
21 7 
38 4 

28 6 

34 4 

27 11 
30 4 

82 8 

28 4 

30 

31 4 
38 7 

37 4 

27 10 
31 8 
36 4 

26 tt 

28 10 
21 3 
31 5 

83 7 
34 3 
31 6 

27 6 
ii6 10 
48 4 
26 7 
36 8 
42 4 
44 10 


61' 2' 


784 
















69 8 


785 


7~. 
12 

6- 
17 
10 








. ...1 






63 8 


766.,... 














60 8 


787.,,.. 














67 7 


788 


16 


8 


6- 








83 6 


789 








91 7 


790 


... 












60 6 


791 












66 6 


793 


12 

7- 
10 


16 


8 










82 


793 










65 6 


794 














63 4 


795 














67 6 


796 


6- 

8 
11 
16 
10 
12 
10 

7- 
10 
15 














70 10 


797. ... 














63 11 


•?98 














82 9 


799 


9 












89 5 


800 












84 1 


801 














84 2 


803 














79 8 


803 














83 2 


804 














74 


805 














87 3 


806 














76 2 


807 

80S 


... 


.... 


• • • > 


< . « . 


... 


• • a ■ 


• . * • 


69 
68 10 


809 


14 














55 


810 














77 8 


811 


12 
6- 








' 






81 


812. .... 














70 2 


813 














66 2 


814 
















81 C 


815 
















83 10 


816 


10 
10 
11 














73 2 


817 














80 8 


8!8 














72 8 


819..,.. 














69 8 


820..... 


5- 

* * « 4 

13 

12 
8- 
6- 

12 














67 2 


821 

8:2 


15* 


'if 


*i4' 


* • . > 


* « • p 


« . • > 


60 8 

85 7 


823...,, 








83 6 


834. .. 














63 


825 














90 3 


826. -. 














73 


82i' 














66 1 


838 


12 
12 
13 
14 
14 
13 














68 2 


829 














71 9 
63 


830.... 














831 


12* 

11 


12 










84 1 


832 










87 8 


833..... 










89 4 


8H..... 












71 4 


835 


10 














59 1 


836 














60 8 


837. .... 


13 
10 














81 7 


838 














80 6 


839 














98 6 


840 


12 
15 














88 8 


84t .,.. 














79 2 


842. ... 
















6^ 2 


8*3 


^9, 














85 6 


844..,.. 


12 














91 


845 














60 9 


846 


12 

"8* 
6- 














76 5 


8^7 

818 


> . . I 


» » . . 


* . * « 


.... 


,... 


.... 


63 7 
74 6 


849..... 














83 8 


850 














69 6 


851 .... . 


10 
6- 














73 2 


852 














69 8 


85B,.... 














92 10 


854..... 


14 
U 














71 8 


866 


• . . , 


• . » « 


... I 


• fl • I 


.... 


.... 


60 6 



I'T* 



50 



TsJB Adironi>ack Black Sfbxtcs. 













Table IV- 


- {Oontinued). 


















Mbastjremunts on Stump. £ 

9 


gcq 




r> 


Ec)D 


(d3 


Number of rings per incli on stump, counting from the heart outward. 


d 


02 


fl 




<d 


%^Q 


re- 

1 7 
1 2 
1 2 

1 1 

1 5 
1 
1 
1 3 

1 1 

1 2 
I 8 
1 
1 4 
1 8 
1 8 
1 2 
1 
1 2 
1 1 
1 2 
1 1 
1 8 
1 1 
1 6 
1 2 
1 1 
1 2 
1 5 
1 2 
1 


20 
17 
27 
22 
22 
20 
24 
23 
20 
86 
18 
80 
35 
25 
25 
23 
24 
80 
25 
17 
29 
20 
28 
86 
24 
Ji6 
30 
28 
80 
28 
2a 


22 

9 
26 

24 
23 
24 
28 
23 
15 
23 
18 
29 
30 
20 
27 
80 
S9 
15 
13 
18 
17 
19 
34 
2i 
22 
27 
17 
35 
26 
21 
23 


11 
6 

19 
30 
30 
24 
24 
2' 
17 
15 
30 
26 
3a 
16 
20 
24 
18 
16 
13 
23 
16 
24 
39 
18 
14 
15 
18 
22 
28 
17 
21 


14 
10 
20 
20 
28 
18 
15 
16 
20 
17 
SI 
18 
25 
15 
15 
16 
15 
21 
13 
14 
13 
19 
16 
18 
15 
11 
15 
11 
20 
11 
15 


14 
6 

18 
15 
22 
13 
36 
14 
10 
6 

17 
23 
10 
17 
12 
18 
36 
16 
1^ 
14 
10 
9 
11 
15 
18 
13 
7 
7 
U 
14 
11 


14 
6 

17 
11 
18 
31 
75 
16 
19 
14 
17 
16 
9 

14 

12 

16 

15 

14 

10 

11 

9 

10 

13 

8 

15 

8 

8 

8 

12 

6 

18 


16 
17 
25 
20 
25 
7 
14 


12 
6 


18 

7 


17 
5 
















355 


857 


6- 














95 


858..... 














15"3 


8 9 


16 




















158 


860. . . , 




















ifS 


861. . 


6 


8 


















}3I 


86^.... 


















136 


883..... 






















113 


864.... 


17 
15- 
24 
16 


14 


















.... 


132 


SB'S.... 
















136 


866... 


18- 
11 




















Ifi'i 


867 


16 


15 
















200 


8B8.... 
















141 
137 


869 


14 
13 
15 
23 


16 

14 

9 

19 




















870.... 


30 
12 


16 
15 


12- 

21 














176 


871 














198 


872 














1*9 


873 




















112 


874..... 


17 
10 

8 
8 
8 

11 
7 

11 
9 
8 

13 
9 


8- 




















110 


876 




















107 


876 


4- 




















106 


877 




















109 


878 


13 


9 


7 


6- 














164 


679.... 














128 


880. .. . 


7 


11 














... 


. . . . 


ta8 


881.... 














111 


883 


10 




















114 


883 




















119 


8B4 


8 
14 


16 


















164 


885 


















118 


8P6.... 




















115 


887 


1 1 
1 
1 i 
1 6 
1 
1 4 
1 1 
1 4 


30 
20 
30 
20 
20 
20 
30 
25 


28 
13 
26 
2^ 
23 
24 
28 
?0 


20 
12 
16 
19 
S:2 
24 
16 
20 


38 
12 
16 
21 
15 
28 
13 
17 


14 
14 

8 

15 
17 
23 
10 

7 


20 
16 
13 
11 
22 
22 
6 
9 


19- 
9- 

15 
8 

*i9' 
5 

8 






















142 


88S 


14 
11 




















96 


mQ 


18 
13 


15 
10- 
















169 


890 
















j50 


891.... 
















118 


892 


7- 
9 


















.... 


167 


893 




















117 


89i 




















1 6 


895.,.. 


1 1 
1 
1 
1 5 
1 3 
1 8 


26 
24 
20 
28 
24 
21 


44 
28 
24 
24 
fcO 
28 


22 
S?2 
28 
24 
17 
20 


14 
16 
22 

20 
16 
12 


7 6 
14 15 


7 
8- 




















*•# . 


126 
127 


89fi 


















.... 




697..... 


24 

2a 

13 
10 


SO 


















.... 


.... 


148 


898 


15 


12 


19 

8 
11 


16 

10 

9 
















178 


899 


17 
10 


8 
8 
















133 


900 


13 


14 














156 


901 


1 


22 


14 


16 


18 


24 


8 


12- 


.... 




















124 


90) 


1 
1 8 
1 7 
1 5 


28 
23 

18 


84 
28 
16 
24 


16 
24 
15 
19 


9 
12 
15 
12 


32 

13 
14 
13 


13 
14 
17 
13 
























112 
156 


903 


10 
16 
15 


16 
19 
14 


17 

24 
21 
















... 


904 


















lf4 


905..... 


















150 
151 
101 
127 
190 
134 


906 


1 
1 
1 1 
1 8 


22 

16 
19 
18 


24 
15 
22 
20 


24 
16 
20 
22 


24 
17 
28 
32 


3J 
16 
19 
24 


27 
21 
10 
34 
























907 

908 


'ii 

8 


• « « • 


* * 


* * * » 




.... 


• « • . 


.... 


.... 


* . * 


. . . * 


909 


11 


10 


81 
















910. .... 


1 


26 


28 


12 


17 


24 


27 






















*.. 


911 


1 7 


U 


26 


23 


80 


21 


15 


14 


18 


14 


6- 
















191 
191 
186 
168 
125 
147 
188 
117 
139 
163 
156 
169 

m 

120 
152 
104 
126 
18ft 


012 

913..... 
914...:. 


1 6 
1 8 
1 2 


27 
19 
25 


30 
26 


24 
13 
23 


27 
22 
20 


22 
80 
22 


7 
17 
20 


11 
14 
19 


10 
16 
14 


18 
14 


15 
25 




* • . . 
• « * . 


. * « • 
» • « * 


« • • 


» • . . 


* « 4 

* * 4 « 


* * . • 

• » • 


915 


1 


82 


21 


16 


20 


16 


14 


6 












..«. 


.«.. 


«... 


* * * * 


* * • ' 


916..., 


1 2 


24 


80 


28 


14 


10 


18 


18 


10- 


















• • . • 


917 


1 2 


16 


24 


80 


21 


15 


16 


fi 
















* • 






918 


1 6 


26 


26 


17 


22 


18 


14 


7 


13 


13 


14 












* * * ' 




919 


1 6 


22 


20 


27 


14 


17 


10 


20 


9 










*• • 


«•« ■ 








920 


1 8 


19 


26 


25 


15 


30 


14 


12 


13 


16 


18 








* . . ft 


• * » f 


• fl « • 


• • . « 


931 


1 2 


22 


24 


22 


15 


24 


9A 


93 


4-. 
















« » * « 


• * « < 


923 


1 2 


26 


80 


24 


12 


31 


13 


14 


18 


It 










• . . 


• t « « 


« • » » 


• . . « 


923 

9ai..... 


1 6 
1 


80 
24 


33 
24 


22 
21 


18 
18 


17 
16 


11 
12 


9 

5- 


18 


26 


t • • « 




» • • . 


* . * * 


• • • » 


• * • • 


*..* 


• • * f 

• • • > 


925 


1 2 


20 


24 


18 


22 


24 


14 


22 


8- 




« « « . 




. 1 . . 


. i • * 


• • * . 


• §»• 


• « * * 


• ♦ • » 


926 

987..... 
928 


1 1 
1 2 
1 2 


18 
20 

18 


21 
18 
24 


14 
19 
22 


9 
16 

14 


14 
16 
16 


11 
14 

14 I 


11 
16 
12 I 


6- 
10 1 


» • « * 


» • * • 
« * • • 
• • « * 




* * * t 

. • . • 

. » » . 


* • k . 
» • • t 

• • •• 


9 » . . 

• » » » 

• « • t 


• t • « 
»« • • 
» • • . 


• * • • 
« t «» 

• t • . 

• • • ■ 


• • • . 

• • « • 

• • • * 



J!fljff Adirondack Black Sprucs. 



51 













Table IY- 


- {Oontiniied). 








ill 


55 

fa 

•1^ 


Top Measurements. 


Op. 
.2* 


bZ 


1 

o 


i 


1x3 tDO 

CUSS 


Number of rings per inch at top, counting 
from the heart outward. 




856 


9 
?J 
9 
8 
9 
8 
8 
8 
8 
9 
10 
9 
8 
12 
10 
9 
9 
8 
10 
8 
8 

8- 

10 

9 

8 

8 

8 

8- 

10 

9 

7- 

9 

8 

9 

*0 

8- 

9 

8 

8- 

8 

9 

8 

12 

8 

10 

8 

7- 

9 

9 



8 

9- 

9- 

8 

10 

9 

9 

10 

9 

8 

9 

8 

13 

9 

10 

10 

9 

10 

9 

1^ 

10 

8 


14 
14 
14 
16 
12 
H 
16 
14 
10 
9 
12 
12 
16 
10 
14 
16 
14 
16 
12 
14 
16 
14 
16 
14 

to 

14 
16 
6 
16 
.4 
12 
16 
11 
17 
14 
14 
12 
16 
14 
18 
16 
14 
16 
19 
19 
14 
16 
13 

it 

11 
14 
2 
13 
12 
16 
16 
14 
12 
13 
14 
16 
14 
4 
14 
)3 
16 
12 
14 
12 
)S 
2 

15 


15 
10 
16 
15 
13 
13 
12 
16 
16 
It 
11 
16 
11 
16 
17 
14 
15 
13 

n 

14 
12 
)7 
12 
19 
16 
U 
14 
12 
16 
11 
14 
16 
I'Z 
11 
16 
11 
19 
12 
14 
12 
14 
17 
16 
12 
10 
14 
U 
14 
14 
12 
16 
14 
13 
14 
15 
U 
11 
13 
16 
16 
11 
U 
2 
12 
16 
33 
14 

n 

13 
U 
13 
14 
13 


12 
11 
13 
12 
17 
12 
15 
.0 
16 
17 
12 
17 
14 
11 
'8 
12 
10 
11 
10 
14 
11 
13 
12 
li 
10 
12 
10 
11 
12 
15 

9 
10 
18 


10 
15 
11 
13 

7 
14 
15 
17 
18 
12 
17 
13 
14 

4 

14 

10 

12 

15 

2 

9 

8 

12 

3 

14 

12 

12 

1\ 

14 

13 

13 

12 

i4 

14 

11 

14 
14 
11 
11 


12 
13 
10 
13 
14 
14 
11 
18 
12 
12 
16 
10 
10 

11 
U 
17 
14 
17 

9 

8 

10 
17 
15 
18 
11 

9 
11 
13 
10 
11 
12 
10 
14 
10 
16 
14 
14 
13 
10 
10 
14 
12 
14 
12 

9 
16 

i7 
12 

9 
14 
12 

14 

10 

9 

10 

n 

14 
i6 
13 
13 
14 
11 
12 
12 
12 
13 
6 
16 
15 
10 


16 














3' 4" 
3 6 
3 4 
3 6 
3 2 

2 8 

3 
2 
2 8 
2 6 

2 8 

3 

2 2 

3 4 
8 2 
3 
2 10 
2 7 
2 5 
2 6 

2 8 

3 4 
2 11 
2 2 
2 10 
2 8 

2 4 

3 1 
8 10 
2 3 
2 1 

2 3 

1 11 

4 

3 '0 

2 4 
2 4 
2 2 
2 4 
2 6 
2 2 

2 2 

3 
2 8 
8 1 
2 4 
2 4 
2 6 

2 8 

3 

1 10 

2 

2 4 

3 

2 8 

3 
8 2 
8 

4 2 
3 

3 2 

4 4 
4 1 

3 10 

4 2 
4 
4 2 
4 4 
4 
8 10 
2 8 
2 6 
2 10 


53' 4" 
66 8 
^0 
53 4 
26 8 
53 4 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
40 
26 8 
53 4 
26 8 
26 8 
53 4 
6t^ 8 
40 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
26 8 
40 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
40 
S6 8 
40 
23 8 
53 4 
5} 4 
13 4 
40 
26 8 
2i 8 
26 8 
13 4 
26 8 
26 8 
53 4 
66 8 
S;6 8 
26 8 
40 
53 4 
40 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
66 8 
26 8 
53 4 
53 4 
53 4 
^0 
40 
3t 8 
53 4 
40 
5J 4 
53 4 
26 8 
40 
40 
26 8 
86 8 
49 
26 8 
, 40 


28' 3' 

22 7 
27 6 
26 5 

33 8 
2a 4 
36 
32 6 

36 11 

34 9 
45 4 

32 10 
3t 7 

33 
n 4 
26 10 

34 3 
42 8 
34 11 

37 3 
34 8 

32 5 

26 10 
31 6 
80 8 

27 4 

26 

27 6 

24 7 

26 

27 
29 3 
39 6 

25 8 
27 6 
45 10 

23 6 
27 4 
29 3 
21 8 

42 10 
31 4 

43 8 

24 3 
21 10 

41 2 
34 10 
88 
27 

33 7 
31 2 
36 

21 6 

19 10 
80 

22 6 

21 4 
SO 8 

34 11 

20 7 
29 

22 10 

42 4 
31 8 
29 8 

41 6 
34 10 

43 
43 6 
40 8 
82 7 

42 6 
29 8 


84' 11 


857.... 














92 9 


858.... 


11 

io 














70 10 


8 9 














83 3 


860.... 














63 6 


861 

%^i 


... 


• * . 


.... 


.... 


.... 


,.., 


78 4 
65 8 


863..... 


6- 
14 
19 
10 

5- 














61 2 


864 














79 7 


865 














77 3 


866 

867.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


« « 4 


. • • t 


. . . • 


74 8 
89 2 


868 .... 














63 5 


889 














63 


870 


il 
10 

7- 
15 














87 10 


8ri 














96 6 


87^ 














77 1 


878 














71 11 


874 














64 


875 














66 5 


876 
















64 


877. ... 


7- 
11 
10 
.... 














62 f 


878 .... 














69 & 


879 














60 4 


890 

881. ... 


* • • • 


• • » . 


.... 


» » ft « 


.... 


> . * • 


73 t 
66 8 


8B2 

88' 


*io' 

9 

12 

'i7 


* • • • 


• • 


.... 


.... 


1 • t . 


.... 


55 (- 
67 3 


884 














67 5 


885..... 














64 3 


8«6 

887 

88S 


* « • • 


i • • » 


.... 


. • • . 


. • . « 


.... 


55 9 
71 6 
68 1 


889 


12 














83 


890 .... 














84 8 


891..... 














61 6 


89 * ... 


10 

« • . . 
7- 














70 10 


893. ... 
89t 


« ■ • « 


.... 


.... 




. . • 


... 


56 2 
58 S 


895. ... 














50 10 


896 

b97 


11 


« • » 


.... 


... 


. * • . 




• . » • 


58 4 
60 2 


838 

8^9. 


1^ 
10 


14 


7- 


.... 


.... 


.... 


• . . • 

• . . . 


73 4 
80 3 


900 














91 7 


90 . . 














70 2 


903 .... 








.... 








63 10 


9 8 .... 


10 
36 
15 














75 6 


904. ... 














83 


903 














76 7 


9' 6 .... 














59 8 


907 


12 
1^ 

6- 
11 

9 
10 

9 
10 














64 8 


90^ .. 












.... 


6S 10 


90 > 










89 6 


910.... 
9 I 


... 


» • 


. * » • 


. ♦ . . 


.... 


.... 


59 4 
78 10 


912. .. 
9n .... 

94 

9 5 .... 


.... 


.... 


• • * . 


• • • . 
■ * . . 


. • . 


.... 


77 10 
87 C) 
79 1 

72 7 


96 

917... 


10 

"n 

n 

12 

10 

15 

6 

12 


.... 


♦ » 


.... 


t * • . 


... 


.... 


f6 10 
80 6 


918 

919 .... 


10 


6- 


... 


.... 


... 


.... 


86 5 
88 10 


9i0 ... 














87 2 


931 .... 












( . » . 

■ . . . 
• . . . 

1 t * 


72 2 


933 

9>3 .... 
924. 

935 

92 1 ... 


6- 


.... 


. . * 


. • . . 
. . . . 


. . . . 
. . . . 


';9 

87 4 

74 2 
71 2 

75 8 


927 


10 


"q' 












.... 


71 8 


9«o* * t «» 


14 L..* 


. * * • 


. • • . 


..«.« 


. • « . 


• ft * . 


n. * • • 


72 6 



52 



Tmm Ajdiboiwack Black Sjpbucm. 



Table IV" — (Concluded). 



gca 


^ 


Measurembkts on Stump. 


i 


gw 


SB 




sl 


»CQ 




p** 


5g 




Number of rings per inch on stump, cou"otiag from the heart cutward. 


fl 


CD 


fi 




< 


929... 


V2" 
1 4 
1 2 
1 5 


18 
23 
23 
22 


22 

28 
'6 
24 


27 
22 
24 

25 


23 
19 
28 
25 


13 
17 
2t 
22 


17 
17 
80 
18 


18 
13 
18 
U 


18 
22 




















156 


930. . . 




















160 


931..,. 




















1E9 


93'.... 


22 


12- 


fl * « « 


.... 


« • » . 


^ 


.... 


.. 


..ft. 


.... 


184 


933.... 


1 
1 1 
1 2 
1 2 
1 
1 
1 4 
1 4 
1 5 
1 4 


23 
28 
14 
19 
18 
25 
24 
28 
98 
21 


26 
25 
16 
24 
24 
26 
30 
34 
24 
26 


23 
80 

18 
28 
24 
19 
24 
28 
14 
24 


18 
17 
10 
20 
16 
80 
26 
22 
16 
18 


^0 
18 
12 
13 
16 
12 
19 
25 
16 
82 


18 
20 
11 
17 
38 
88 
17 
19 
16 
16 
























127 


934.... 


9 

13 
20 




















141 


9^5 ... 


10 
8 




















104 


936. . . . 




















149 


93/.... 










• 










134 
130 


S38 .. 
















... . 






939.... 


20 
22 

16 
21 


17 


6- 














ft... 




182 


UO..,. 


















178 


941.... 


10 
12 


12 


















152 


942 ... 


















166 


943.... 


1 2 

1 6 
1 6 
1 8 
1 1 

1 g 
1 2 


17 
28 
20 
2i 
23 
24 
17 


22 
30 
19 
22 
26 
20 
22 


22 
26 

18 
22 
28 
19 
26 


20 
21 
26 
24 
24 
18 
25 


23 
22 

18 
i2 
24 
19 
24 


86 
22 

16 
18 
20 
19 
16 


11 
15 
14 
14 
9- 
18 
17 






















140 


944.... 


8 
12 
13 


11 

18 
12 


6- 

11- 
14 
















189 


945.... 
















170 


946..,. 


28 














211 


947.... 














153 


948.... 


16 

7- 


19 


88 












.... 


ft... 


200 


949.... 
















154 


960.... 


1 8 
1 4 
1 1 


2i 

26 
24 


23 
36 
26 


30 
23 
22 


28 
16 
18 


26 
11 
20 


16 

18 
18 


18 
•7 
15 


9 
13 


18 


17 


12 














221 


951.,.. 














160 


952.... 




















143 


963.... 


t 6 

1 8 


28 
18 


30 
20 


80 

20 


16 

18 


14 
14 


18 
18 


14 

11 


T3 

15 


9 

18 


















172 


954.... 


81 


12 














185 


955..,. 


1 1 
1 1 

1 ? 


28 

21 
18 


16 
16 
24 


20 
24 
28 


84 
22 
£8 


20 

17 
18 


■'7 
2i 
8? 


7- 
16 
19 






















127 
140 
158 


95S.... 














..ft. 


.... 


.... 


... 


957. . . . 












958 .. 


1 1 


28 


80 


26 


17 


15 


14 


15 


.. . 




















145 


959.... 


1 2 

1 3 

1 f 
1 3 

2 2 
1 ? 

1 4 


24 
18 
30 
86 
34 
24 
30 
36 


20 
19 
84 
30 
38 
22 
^ 
20 


19 
20 
19 
15 
2^ 
25 
34 
32 
18 


18 
23 
18 
IB 
17 
26 
17 
28 
20 


16 
22 

13 
11 
18 
25 
14 
86 
15 


14 
20 
10 
15 
13 
16 
12 
14 
15 


15 
14 
13 
18 
20 
12 
10 
18 
16 


8- 
4- 
9- 

8) 

13 

18 
9 

10- 

20 




















1.34 


960.,., 














" * * 


..ft. 


.... 


139 


961.,.. 














... 


... . 




146 


96a. . . . 
















,. 


.... 


170 


963.... 














175 


964. . . . 


18 16 












.... 




196 


965 ... 


10 


12 


i4 


18 












209 


966..,. 












184 
158 


967, .. . 


26 28 














'" * 




.... 


968. . . . 


1 2 

1 8 


30 24 


21 
28 
29 
38 


21 
11 
23 
19 


19 
12 
14 
17 


15 
12 
10 
15 


8- 
8 
11 
















. .. . 


** *' 


.... 


138 
171 


969. . , . 


S2 
86 
36 


36 
42 
42 


13 

12 


17 
12 


14 

7- 












• f • • 


ft • , . 


970 ... 
971.... 




.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


196 
167 
183 
120 
111 
183 
135 
138 
124 
1 4 
107 
144 
158 
176 
147 
150 
186 
148 
188 
147 


972. . . . 
973.,.. 


II 


24 

28 


S8 
29 


28 
15 


27 

21 


14 
13 


12 
10 


» . « . 

4 




> • * k 


.... 


• . . . 


.... 




.... 


.... 




... 


974. . , , 
975.... 
976.... 


4 


21 
24 
23 


26 
25 

17 


24 
14 

14 


19 
13 
81 


13 

8 

80 


8 
15 
13 


'ii' 

19 




.... 


« « . * 


• « » ♦ 
• , • • 


.... 


.... 


..ft. 


.... 


* ft , . 


... 


977.,.. 


1 2 

1 2 


20 
30 


19 
20 


23 

17 


81 
16 


20 
14 


SO 

18 


10- 
9 














.... 


• . • . 


• , ft « 


ft . « 


978 ... 
















• • * • 


* 


, » • 


979.... 


1 1 


18 


U 


18 


12 


18 


14 


20 












.... 


ft ft ft 


• . 4 


• ft ft • 


a . . 


980,... 


1 


18 


17 


16 


15 


20 


15 


6- 






.... 


. . . * 








. . • ■ 


. • ft t 


. a . 


931.... 


J 1 


28 


18 


16 


16 


18 


14 


17 


22 




.#.. 




* * * * 


" * ' 


. . . . 


« . . . 


ft ft ft • 


. . . 


982.... 


1 4 


21 


27 


20 


21 


17 


18 


16 


18 










.... 




. ft # . 


> ft • a 


a • • 


983.... 


1 6 


26 


2-5 


24 


22 


16 


34 


U 


16 


10 


9 


*'"' 


.... 


" * * * 


* « * 


. * . ft 


ft ft . . 


. . 


984.... 


1 1 


32 


24 


18 


16 


18 


f5 


14 


10 




..;. 1 


... . 


* * * * 


ft * • t 


* * * • 


. ft ft . 


1 • . 


985.... 


1 i 


21 


20 


20 


18 


17 


PM 


14 


18 








. • . . 


• » » . 


* ft, ft 


> ft ft » 


• ft ft a 


. . . . 


986.... 


1 8 


23 


26 


24 


16 


14 


16 


15 


20 


17 


15 




. , . . 


• « . . 


• a « . 


*••• 


.... 


• • • 


987, . , . 
988.... 


1 6 
1 ? 


24 
22 


2i 
28 


24 
23 


18 
16 


13 
15 


13 
20 


9 


12 


10 


9 




. , ft • 


ft . « . 


. ft . • 


ft • ft • 


..ft. 


.ft*. 


989.... 
990.... 


1 1 
1 


26 
30 


S8 
28 


28 
24 


16 

18 


20 

17 


16 
15 


13 


• * . « 








. * * . 


. • . . 


• ft. ft 


..* . 


I ft ft . 


... 










. *, . 


• . . # 




. . . . 




ft • . 


991... . 
992.,,. 
993.... 
994.... 


1 2 
1 6 
X 
I 


18 
24 
23 
22 


22 
20 
2i 
23 


22 
25 
15 
11 


24 
16 
15 

17 


14 
18 
14 
12 


16 

7 

15 

to 


17 
8 
8- 


1 * . « 
11 

* 4 * 


'13* 

• • * 


"ii* 




. . <■ * 

■ ft ft ft 

■ • ft * 
1 • • • 


* « ft , 


• . * . 


. » « • 


» ft • « 

» ft ft , 


ft t * . 


182 
1S3 
148 
114 


995.... 


1 1 


29 


SO 


31 


22 


17 


18 


^6 






( • « . 1 




■ .. > 


ft ft ft ft 


• fft ♦ 


. . • • 


> . • ft 


• • ft 


95 


908... 
997... 


1 « 
1 


25 

28 


28 
20 


24 
22 


18 
20 


14 

18 


88 

815 


14 


15 


13 


26 , 




.... 


« . 


.... 


ft ft a 


> ft « « 

> • ft . 


• ftft 


373 
2*0 


993,,. 


1 2 


26 


25 


18 


18 


2i 


80 


13 


10 


« > . 


► • • • 1 




* »■ at « 


» • • . 


i> « • 


» • ft . 


* • • * 


* ft • 


184 
164 
148 
154 


999... 


I 1 


24 


23 


21 


21 


13 


8 


8 


13 


17 






« • • 1 


ft ft . 


1... . 


• ft. 


• ft. 


> . ft > 


LOGO. . . , 


1 2 

- 


82 

1 


29 


31 


23 


13 


14 


8 


4- 




• « « « 




,,, 


1 « ft . 




ft * ft 


* ft . 


• ft ft 



Tme AmMONJDACK Slack Sprucm. 



53 



Table IY — {Conoluded). 





2S 

p4S 


Top MEAStrBBMENTS. 




BO 

tag' 


% 

O 

A 
a 

CD 

1-4 


* 




Number of rings per inchi at top, counting 
from ibie heart outward. 


CD 


939.... 


9 
11 

8 

8 

8 

9 
10 

8 

8 

8 

8 
11 

8 
11 

9 

9 
11 
12 

8- 

9 

9 
10 
13 

9 
10 
10 

8 

8 
10 

8 

9 

1^ 

11 

9 
12 
10 

8 

8 

8 
10 

9^ 

9 

8 

8^ 
9 

9^ 

9 

8 

^ 

8 

8 

9 
12 

9 
10 
12 

i^ 

8 

8 
10 

8 

8 

8 

9 
10 

9 

a 

8 
9 


13 

12 
12 
14 
11 
10 
14 
1^ 
13 
13 
]4 
12 
VI 
12 
14 
14 
14 
14 
16 
14 
18 
14 
16 
12 
32 
14 

16 
17 
13 
18 
11 
14 
6 
13 
7 
14 
13 
14 
19 
9 
16 
10 
9 
12 
17 
12 
16 
14 
14 
16 
16 
14 
16 
21 
19 
20 
19 
16 
11 
14 
)2 
14 
14 
6 
14 
19 
19 
2J 
11 
1?^ 


14 
12 
11 
13 
13 
11 
11 
14 
13 
14 
16 
13 
14 
12 
14 
10 
16 
16 
12 
14 
^2 
13 
4 

16 
16 
12 
16 
17 
19 
12 
11 
14 
15 

9 
11 

8 
16 
12 
16 
14 
21 
19 
18 

7 

le 

20 

19 
11 
13 
11 
11 
11 
13 
12 
17 
18 
14 
19 
16 
9 

16 
19 
16 
14 
12 
IS 
18 
21 
19 
17 
19 


10 
14 
10 
13 
12 
13 
10 
14 
16 
15 
16 
16 
14 
13 
14 
13 
14 
14 
10 
11 
13 
12 
14 
11 
12 
14 
12 
9 
11 
14 
13 
-14 
15 
14 
11 
to 
12 
17 
11 
10 
17 
It 
17 
12 
16 
13 
16 
15 
37 
18 
15 
13 
l8 
19 
12 
11 
19 
12 
10 
12 
j5 
13 
2 
19 
17 
19 
^4 
§0 
17 
16 
17 
19 


10 

9 

10 

11 
12 
11 
10 
9 
14 
14 
12 
14 
12 
14 
12 
13 
15 
13 
11 
13 
18 
5 
'6 
12 
13 
13 
10 
11 
10 
14 
12 
12 
10 
16 
17 
16 
19 
It 
9 
8 
12 
18 
U 
15 
11 
14 
10 
16 
11 
13 
12 
14 
10 
18 
14 
16 
11 
14 
15 
14 
12 
13 
32 
10 
11 
8 
10 
11 
8 
12 
14 


9 

8 














%' 8' 
3 
3 1 
3 4 

3 

4 4 
3 2 
2 10 
2 2 

2 4 

3 2 
3 1 

2 10 

3 4 
3 
3 
2 6 
2 10 

2 10 

3 6 
3 2 

3 2 

2 10 

4 
4 

3 6 
3 10 
3 4 
8 6 
3 2 
2 7 
2 8 
2 10 
2 6 

2 8 

3 
3 

2 4 

3 10 

2 8 

3 
3 
3 1 
3 4 
3 6 
2 

2 3 

3 4 

1 10 
3 4 
3 
111 

2 2 

2 8 

3 9 
2 4 
2 3 
2 10 

2 6 

1 4 

3 

2 10 
2 8 
2 9 

1 11 

2 2 
2 4 
2 6 
2 
2 3 
2 1 
2 


40' 0" 
53 4 
40 
5^ 4 
*6 8 
26 8 
40 
40 
26 8 
A^ 
66 8 
40 
53 4 
40 
40 
40 
40 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
40 
5'^ 4 
13 4 
26 8 
U 4 
53 4 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
40 
40 
J.'6 8 
40 
40 
53 4 
40 
40 
26 8 
&3 4 
<0 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
13 4 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
40 
26 8 
40 
40 
40 
,6 8 
26 8 
26 8 
26 8 
40 
26 8 
18 4 
26 8 
40 
13 4 
40 

25 8 

26 8 


2SM0' 
sjq 11 
26 4 
23 6 

32 7 
44 7 

33 8 
31 2 
36 7 
26 10 
21 7 

29 10 

23 4 
83 6 
31 4 
31 

80 4 

49 10 
31 4 
28 4 

26 10 

27 9 

50 4 

28 6 
26 4 
19 6 
33 2 

30 10 

38 3 
33 4 
26 8 

24 10 

39 3 
43 7 
SO 3 
28 U 

28 7 
19 10 
26 4 

25 
21 10 

33 6 

35 7 
30 

26 9 
43 8 

36 10 

39 

81 2 
36 10 
38 6 
84 9 

ys 6 

29 4 

40 3 

30 
18 6 
38 3 

34 4 

31 6 
40 4 

23 
y6 10 

27 6 
81 8 
36 
34 10 

28 6 
6i 2 

24 6 
81 4 
88 2 


71' 6' 


930.... 


9 












80 3 


931.... 










69 5 


932.... 
















79 2 


933.... 
















62 3 


934 ... 


10 
14 














75 7 


935.... 














76 10 


935.... 














74 


937.... 
















65 5 


938 ... 
















69 2 


939.... 
















91 5 


940.... 


11 














72 11 


941 ... . 














78 6 


942.... 


16 
10 
11 
10 
12 
12 
16 
10 
11 
10 
9 
11 
10 


8- 












76 10 


943 ... . 












74 4 


944.... 














74 


945.... 


10 
12 












73 10 


946.... 


14 










79 4 


94?.... 










60 10 


948.... 












71 lO 


949.... 














'lO 


95).... 














P4 3 


95t . . . . 


11 


8- 










66 6 


952.... 
953 ... . 


... 




.... 


. ♦ » . 


59 2 

83 8 


954.... 














^6 4 


955 ... . 














63 8 


956.... 
















eO 10 


957 ... . 


9 














68 5 


958 














63 3 


9")9 . . . . 
















69 3 


960.... 
961 ... . 


12 
13 
15 
14 
17 
11 


.... 


.... 


. • • • 




. * • . 


«... 


67 6 

72 1 


962 .... 


18 












71 9 


968.... 












7'3 11 


964 ... 


19 












71 11 


965.... 












84 11 


966.... 










.... 




62 3 


967 ... . 


&~ 














69 2 


968.... 


J 












54 4 


969.... 


8 

7- 

11 














78 3 


970.... 
971.... 


.... 


4 Ife < 


.... 


.... 


» ■ . 


.... 


75 6 
65 4 


972 ... 












59 


973.... 


8 

8 

10 

8 














55 11 


974.... 














57 7 


975.... 














65 8 


$•76.... 














68 


977 ... 














78 


9 8.... 


6- 














65 10 


979 ... . 














67 2 


980 .. 
















63 4 


981.... 


11 
18 
32 
10 
14 
12 














62 4 


982.... 


••g- 


« • • tt 


' 








72 


983.... 








62 11 


984.... 












59 


9<^5.... 






. 








70 9 


986.... 


10 












ai 1 


987.... 












76 JO 


98S.... 














59 6 


989 ... 
















70 


990 ... . 
















52 6 


991.... 


14 














56 2 


992.,.. 
993.... 


. • t . 


... 


., 


.... 


... 


* • • > 

« • • • 


70 8 
60 8 


994.... 












fl 6 


995.... 
998,. ». 


li" 


. * . • 


... 


... 


. • . » 


.... 


... 


63 10 
71 


997.... 














67 6 


998.... 
999.... 


... 


. . . . 




.... 


.... 


... 


.... 


66 9 
60 1 


1000.... 


16 


12 


kO 


16 


... 


" 






.... 


... 


66 10 



54 T^^ Abirondack Blagk Spmuvj^. 

In connection with the preceding tables it may be stated that 
all of the 700 trees first examined were found on Township 20, 
Franklin county, between two large ponds, Floodwood and Long 
Pond. The two main slopes on this land run north and south, 
with little or no difference in the timber on either slope. This 
township has an average elevation of about 1,600 feet above the 
sea. The spruce was above the average in quantity per acre, and 
in quality it was first class. The trees were thrifty, but few 
being found that were rotten at the stump. Not a tree had died 
within the past ten years, the absence of any dead spruce having 
been noted by the foresters. In size the trees were above the 
average diameter for Adirondack black spruce. 

On Township 20, in a few places where the spruce was stand- 
ing in "clumps," there was a yield of 40 standard logs (8,000 
feet, B. M.) per acre ; where it was scattered through the other 
timber, 15 standards (3,000 feet) would be a fair average. 

On Lots 34 and 35, Township 3, St. Lawrence county, the spruce 
growing in clumps measured, in two different places, 35 standard 
logs (7,000 feet) to the acre. Where it was scattered among other 
species, it measured 12 standards per acre on an average. 

On Lots 50 and 63, Township 3, St. Lawrence county, the 
spruce did not grow in clumps at all, but averaged 15 standard 
logs to the acre. 

The spruce in each case was growing either in small clumps or 
was scattered among hardwoods composed of beech, hard maple, 
and yellow birch, the beech predominating in number of trees, 
although of inferior diameter and height. The black spruce over- 
tops the hardwoods where its diameter exceeds 14 inches ; 
when standing in clumps it is taller than the scattered spruces oi 
the same diameter growing among the hardwoods. Where it 
grows in clumps the spruce has a small crown, the limbs being 
small and short ; but in a scattering growth the spruces, as soon 
as they overtop surrounding hardwoods, put out their limbs 
thickly and large. 

A spruce 20 inches in diameter growing in a clump of spruces 
will yield five logs, 13 feet 4 inches in length, while one of the same 
diameter in a scattered growth mixed with hardwoods wiU yield but 
four logs. In the one growing among hardwoods, after four logs 



The Adirondack Black Sprvcb. 55 

have been cut from its trunk, the diameter of the last or top log at 
its small end will be from 10 to 12 inches, but the limbs above this 
point will be so thick and large that the fifth log would not be 
over five or six inches at the top, and would not be accepted by 
the lumbermen. A tree of the same species and size growing in 
a clump will yield ^\q logs, because the shaft does not diminish 
in size so fast owing to the lighter growth of limbs that form its 
top. While the largest spruce> are found scattered among the 
hardwoods, the tallest ones of like diameters are found growing 
in the spruce clumps. 

A coarse, gravelly soil, with a southern or western slope, 
seems most favorable for the best development of this species. 
Before the axemen came into this locality there was an ample 
growth of yomg spruces or nurslings thickly scattered through- 
out the timber ; but where the spruce grew thickly, the felling 
of trees scarred and broke down most of the nurslings. Where 
the spruce was scattered through the hardwoods the young trees 
did not suffer so much from the careless felling of the axemen. 

The spruce blight of twenty years ago did not make its appear- 
ance in Township 20, on which the first 700 trees examined were 
growing. In fact, this locality is remarkable for its exemption 
from injury in that respect. 

There are but few balsams {Abies halsainea) growing among 
the spruces which furnished the specimens examined by the 
foresters, although many trees of this species are growing 
along the edges or shores of neighboring swamps and ponds. 
The balsam in this vicinity is small, ranging from three to 
seven inches in diameter near the ground. It is very scarce, 
however, in the vicinity of this spruce growth, there being many 
acres on which no balsam is found ; neither was there anv 
cedar. There are a few tamaracks {Larix Americana) on these 
lots, but they are all dead, having succumbed to the attacks of 
the sawfly {Nematus Erichsonii) which within a few years has 
destroyed all the tamarack in the Adirondacks. But little white 
pine was found among the spruce where these measurements 
were taken. On the north shore of East Pine Pond, there was a 
piece of timber composed almost wholly of that species, — nice, 
thrifty, sound timber of large size. The owner, Mr. Snell, said 



56 TsB Abironback Black Spruce. 

that he out 1,000 standards (200,000 feet, B. M.) of white 
pine logs on less than ten acres of land near the west end of East 
Pine Pond. There were a few black ash trees scattered through- 
out the timber where the spruce was growing, but no cherry. 

In Township 3, St. Lawrence county, a few elms were 
growing among the spruces and hardwoods, a species rarely 
seen in the Adirondack forest. 

A noticeable feature in the growth of the black spruce is that 
the annual accretion of wood in the trunk is not concentric, the 
total growth being considerably greater on one side of the heart 
than on the opposite side. The extent of this eccentricity is 
apparent in some of the figures given in Table lY, in which the 
diameter of each tree is not only given, but the number of inches 
and growth per inch of the longest radius. For instance, 
Specimen No. 1 had a diameter of 18 inches on the stump, but 
the figures showing the number of annual rinsrs for each inch in 
growth indicate that instead of nine inches, which would have 
been one half the diameter, there were eleven inches between the 
heart and the bark. Specimen No. 77 is fourteen inches in diame- 
ter, but the heart is nine inches from the bark. Specimen JMo. 
135, with a diameter of thirteen inches, shows that there 
were nine inches between the bark and the heart. In Specimen 
237 it will be seen that the heart was two inches nearer one 
side of the tree than the other. In No. 383 the radius is 17 
instead of 12 inches. This lack of concentricity, as measured 
by the abnormal length of the longest radius, varies from one to 
five inches. 

A remarkable feature of this one-sided growth is that it is 
mostly in one direction. The foresters who examined the trees 
in Township 20 were instructed to note carefully the compass 
point to which in each case the longest radius of tree growth 
pointed. Of 700 trees examined in Township 20, Pranklin 
county, (the first 700 specimens in Table lY,) this abnormal or one- 
sided growth was directed as follows : 



TsE Abironback Black Bfruce. 57 

Direction. Trees. 

North 471 

Northeast 81 

East 106 

South 1 

West 27 

Southwest 6 

Northwest 8 



700 



There seems to be no satisfactory explanation of this tendency 
of the black spruce to a one sided growth. After careful observa- 
tions in search of some reason, no regular conditions of slope, 
exposure or environment were found upon which to base any 
theory. It has been asserted frequently, however, that this 
uneven growth on either side of the heart was due to an uneven 
distribution of the roots ; and that the greater accretion in the 
tree trunk would be found on the side of the tree on which lay 
the largest roots. 

In the preceding tables the indicated age of the tree is based 
upon the number of rings revealed by the stump ; but in each 
case if the tree had been cut close to the ground a greater num- 
ber of rings would have been found and consequently a greater 
age indicated. This should be borne in mind in connection with 
the statistics referred to. The stumps varied in height from one 
to four feet, the height of the stump depending in each case upon 
the convenience of the axeman and the position in which he 
stood while at work. 

^One column of figures in Table IV indicates the length of the 
section taken by the lumbermen for their logs, and represents 
one, two, or three logs of 13 feet 4 inches each, that being the 
length cut by the log choppers in the Adirondack forests. For 
instance; in Specimen No. 6 (right-hand page), 26 feet and 8 
inches of trunk were taken, showing that two logs were obtained 
from that tree. Specimen 19 shows that a section of the trunk 
40 feet lorig was removed, from which it appears that this tree 
furnished three logs ; and specimen 60, that 53 feet and 4 inches of 

8 



58 Tme Adirondack Black Sprucm. 

the tree trunk, making four logs, were taken. Specimen 83 shows 
that five logs aggregating 66 feet and S inches were taken, the top 
log being only eight inches in diameter at the top or small end. In 
this tree it appears, from, the next column of figures, that only 15 
feet and 6 inches of top remained, indicating that this tree, which 
was 84 feet 9 inches high, was not only tall, but cylindrical and 
free from limbs nearly to its crow^. Specimen 87 was 93 feet 
and 7 inches high, and although taller than the one just men- 
tioned, furnished the same number of logs, the top log, however, 
being 12 inches in diameter at its small end. 

The tallest tree mentioned in Table IV is Specimen 839, which 
was h8 feet 6 inches high, and 2*3 inches in diameter on the stump. 
Specimen 832 was 26 inches in diameter, but only 87 feet 8 inches 
high, and furnished four logs instead of five. It will be noticed that 
many of the trees furnished only two logs and some only one, 
although they were of a fair height. The small number of logs 
obtained from a tree was due in some instances to rotten butts, or 
to the fact that there was too great a limb development at the 
top of the tree, the top measurements indicating in many cases 
that the trunk diminished in diameter, or "tapered " too rapidly. 

In Table IV" the figures showing the number of rings per inch 
indicate that the Adirondack black spruce when growing under 
natural conditions, where the trees are overcrowded and de- 
prived of light, requires on an average over 24 years for an 
increase of two inches in diameter ; but an examination of the 
figures shows that many of the trees, which had attained a height 
enabling them to dominate the surrounding ones, required from 
six to eight years only to gain two inches. Thus the tree repre- 
sented by Specimen 43 was 30 years in gaining the third inch 
of radius while it was only seven years in growing an inch after 
its crown had/reached to where it could gain proper nourishment. 
Specimen 456 evidently had the advantage of light and air from 
the time that it was a nursling, as is indicated by the compara- 
tively small number of years required in adding each inch to its 
diameter. 

From the measurements and notes made by Forester Humes — 
in Township 14, Town of Fine, St. Lawrence county — the fol- 
lowing deductions as to the average age of the spruce are 
made: 



TsE Adirondack Black Spruce. 



59 



TABLE V. 



DIAMETER IN INCHES. 


Nnmber 
of irees * 


Maximum and 
mmmnini ages. 


Average 
age. 


13 


10 

9 

4 

5 

6 

4 

23 

15 

15 

19 

16 

19 

29 

15 

18 

7 

7 

5 

4 

1 

1 

3 

2 


138—200 
145—275 
174—203 
167—201 
156—200 
173—200 
184—283 
189—^89 
199—291 
107-345 
189—300 
178—801 
195—302 
231—354 
258—316 
271—301 
273—333 
2-5—325 
231—293 
290—... 
285—... 
302—374 
326—351 


173 


14 


181 


15 


184 


16 


183 


17 


183 


18 


184 


19 


211 


20 


212 


21 


246 


22 


248 


23 


266 


24 


270 


25 


270 


26 


285 


27 


288 


28 

29 


281 
304 


30 


299 




272 


32 


290 

285 


34 


330 




338 








237 





* These trees do not represent any definite area or yield per acre, but were selected with 
reference to securing specinaens of each diameter. 



60 



TsE Adieondack Black Spruce. 



And from the measurements and notes made by Foresters 
Olmstead and ISanford in Township 20, Frankhn county, and 
Township 3 (" Atherton "), St Lawrence county, the following 
deductions as to the average age of the Adirondack spruce are 
made: 

TABLE VI. 



DIAMETER IN INCHES. 


Number 

of spruce 

trees 


Minimum and 
naaximum ages. 


Average 
age. 


12 


217 

177 

187 

71 

113 

53 

77 

17 

53 

4 

12 

4 

10 

1 

1 

3 


96—185 
102-210 
104 214 
114-217 
116—212 
121—236 
130—209 

95—200 
133—235 
156—227 
162—224 
149—234 
160—226 
213—... 
197 ... 
217—226 


128 


13 


139 


14 • 


143 


15 


151 


16 


154 


17 ,. 

18 


161 
154 


19 


174 


20 


184 


21 

22 


185 
189 


23 


186 


24 


195 


25 


213 


26 


197 


27 


222 








1,000 





We are unable to account satisfactorily for the difference in 
average age as indicated in the two preceding tables. It may 
be that if the figures in the first had included as large a number 
of trees and as wide a scope of territory as are embraced in the 
second table, that the two results would agree better. The aver- 
age age as indicated m Table Y corresponds substantially with 
that of the black spruce in Maine, as based upon measurements 
made by Mr. Austin Gary, whose report shows that the average 
age of the 12-inoh spruce is 171 years; the 13-inch, 174 years; 
the 14-inch, 189 years, and the 15-inch, 185 years. 

A remarkable feature in connection with the biology of the 
spruce is the exceedingly wide range of ages in trees of the same 
diameter. Thus, in Table VI it will be noted that of 187 trees 
all 14 inches in diameter on the stump, there is a difference of 
110 years in some of the ages. Some will readily explain this 



Tjsjei Abirojsdaok Black Sjpmucm qi 

wide divergence by claiming that in many cases there were two or 
more rings formed in single years owing to climatic effects, 
which is discussed later on. 

But, in view of the short season in the Adirondacbs during which 
the flow of sap is not checked, as might occur in trees which feel 
the influence of an early spring, only one ring could reasonably 
be expected for each year's growth. It is more reasonable 
to account for the rapid growth of some of the trees by 
the fact that these trees stood where they received more 
light and air; and for the slow growth of the others by the 
deprivation of the same. 

Although the black spruce is the slowest in growth of all our 
forest trees, it does not require the number of years to attain 
maturity that are indicated by the preceding statistics. It must 
be borne in mind that these tables indicate the age of the spruce 
when growing under natural conditions, where it is deprived of a 
proper amount of light and air during the greater period of its 
growth. Startmg as a seedling, the young tree struggles for 
many years in the cold and gloom of the underbrush, the first 
decade of its existence being merely a struggle for survival. 
This is evident from the figures in Table IV, in which so many 
trees show that over 30 years were passed in attaining their first 
inch of radius or two inches of diameter. Only through the sur- 
vival of the fittest do these nurslings struggle upward until by 
overtopping the surrounding growth they gain light and air, 
after wMck their increase in rapidity of growth is plainly 
noticeable. 

Now the black spruce of the Adirondacks does not require any 
such number of years to attain a merchantable size. On Lot 94, 
Township 21, in the Town of Long Lake, Hamilton county, there 
is at the present time a thick growth of spruce on a piece of land 
where the Eev. Hobert Shaw, a local clergyman, according to his 
statement, mowed grass 26 years ago. Many of the trees in this 
clump of spruce are over 30 feet high and nine inches in diame- 
ter. Emerson* mentions seven spruce trees of 31 years' growth, 
in the Botanic garden, which averaged 30 inches in diameter, or 
one-third of an inch annual growth in diameter. 

, . . I . In 

* Trees and shrubs oC Massachusetts, by (3^eorge B. Emerson. 



62 The Adirondack Black Spbtjce. 

In the oflace of the Forest Commission there are some carbon 
paper impressions showing growth rings taken from the stumps 
of spruce trees recently out by lumbermen — trees which were 
growing in a spruce forest that had been lumbered 24 years ago, 
at which time all the larger spruce was taken out. The acceler- 
ated growth of the young spruces which were left, due to the 
admission of light and air through the removal of the large trees, 
is plainly seen in the wider rings shown by the carbon impres- 
sions taken from the stumps. Up to and just preceding the time 
when the lumbermen first went into this forest these spruces 
were growing at a rate of 26 rings to the inch. Immediately 
after this thinninsr and interlucation there was an increased 
growth, as shown h'y the tapressio. paper, at the rate ot 11 rings 
to two inches. 

We regret exceedingly that we are unable to reproduce in print 
these impression papers of tree rings so as to furnish them with 
this publication, for they argue plainly and incontestably as to 
the increased product and revenue which can be derived from our 
spruce forests where the cutting is done under an intelligent 
system. 

That the number of rings disclosed by the cross-section of a 
tree-trunk indicates the years of age is a generally accepted fact. 
It is so taught in all text-books pertaining to the subject. Asa 
Grray states that " the trunk of an exogenous tree, when cut off 
at the base, exhibits as many concentric rings of wood as it is 
years old." 

Emerson* says of these tree rings that " a single circle attains 
maturity, in temperate regions, every year." 

Goodalef states that this '' development of the film of growth is 
usually continuous in a given season, but it may be interrupted, in 
which case it is possible to have two rings added to the wood in 
a single year, whereas, as everyone knows, there is usually only one 
new rmg for each yearh growths 

The " interrupted " growth just referred to is the result of a 
period of cold weather acting upon trees which in the same sea- 
son have felt previously the influence of an early spring. But in 



* Trees and shniba of Massachusetts, by George B. Emerson. 

t harden aad ^'orest, Vol. II, March 20, 1889: Principles of Pliysiological Bjtany, as appUed 
to Forestry; by G^eorge UncoUi Goodale. 



NATURAL SIZE 



ft.t«w. / "tlUET^ip' C -ViMcri tr 



^*"«'* ^>^. 



Cross section of Black Spruce, 115 years old, 12 inches in diametei 
on the stump From an impression made with carbon paper 
The gi eater thickness of the outer rings is due to mteriuca- 
tion made by lumbermen eighteen years ago 





THE LIpE HISTORY OF A TREE 



Albany Eng Co 



Tme Adieonback Black Sjpruck 63 

the cold, backward climate wMch prevails in the habitat of the 
Adirondack spruce there is no early spring, and no premature 
starting of the sap or liability to such interruptions. In that 
region spring is late in coming, and barely ushers in the summer. 

Hough * says : " The record of the seasons for a long period 
may be determined, at least in effect, by the width of the rings 
of annual growth. We sometimes find, at recurring intervals, a 
narrow ring, perhaps every third year, that may have been 
caused by the loss of leaves from worms that appear at that 
interval, and that have thus left their record when every other 
proof of their presence has perished. We have seen sections of 
trees in the museums of Schools of Forestry, in which these 
proofs were recorded through a century or more of time, and the 
years could be definitely fixed by counting inward from the year 
when the tree was felled. 

" When the bark and wood of a tree are cut or wounded by 
accident, as by the marking hammer of the forester, or the axe 
of a surveyor, the growth from the side will gradually close over 
the injury, and fill in the inequalities, so that, when afterward 
split off, it will often show in relief any depressions or cuts on the 
original trunk. Many Forest Academies in Europe have in their 
museums specimens of timbermarks thus cut or stamped into 
wood, with the cast taken by nature from the mold. The land- 
marks of surveyors have thus been found more than a hundred 
years afterward. Some scar, or, in coniferous trees, perhaps a 
gum spot, would be noticed upon the outside, and by cutting 
down through as many rings of growth as there had been years 
since the former survey, the marks of the ax would be found." 

It is no new idea. Over 400 years ago, Leonardo da Vincif, 
who was an observ^ant botanist as well as a great painter, wrote : 
" The rings of the branches of trees show how many years they 
have lived, and their greater or smaller size whether they were 
damper or drier. They also show the direction in which they 
were turned, because they are larger on the north side than on 
the south, and for this reason the center of the tree is nearer the 
bark on the south than on the north side." 

But these statements need not rest upon any botanical theory. 
In the course of our work we have often found it necessary to 

♦Elements of Forestry, by FranMin B Hough, Ph. D. 
ill Nwyt>o Qiornale Botanico Italiano : Vol. I, No 1, 1869. 



64 Tme Ajoimondack Black Spruce. 

re-establish the old boundary lines of various townships in the 
Adirondack forest. The surveyors have repeatedly cut blocks 
out of line trees in which the old original " blaze " was grown 
over with wood and hidden from sight ; but the number of tree 
rings outside the original but concealed scar of the blaze mark 
corresponded exactly with the number of years which had elapsed 
since the time when the surveyors first ran the line. This curious 
and interesting phenomenon has been observed so often in the 
course of our work that it has ceased to attract attention as a 
novelty. Many suits involving the title to or possession of land 
have been decided in courts on the evidence of some surveyor 
who proved the date of an old survey by introducing as evidence 
a block of wood cut from a line tree. 

In view of the general belief that the annular grains of tree 
growth are coincident in number with the years of age, it is 
interesting to note that this idea is strongly combated by some 
careful observers. "While we do not agree with the conclusions 
in the following article, it is reproduced here as an interesting 
contribution to the literature pertaining to this subject. The 
article is reprinted from the Saw-Mill Gazette : 

Growth Rings on Trees. 

Age said not to he indicated by them, 

'* There is an old landmark on the DeLarm farm that is of considerable 
interest. The farm is located on what is known as the * high road' to DuBois 
from Reynoldsville. The landmark, which is a notch in atree, locates a corner 
of the DeLarm farm, which is in Jefferson county. The landmark also locates 
the boundary line between Jefferson and Clearfield counties. When the 
notch was cut Clearfield and J-fferson counties had not been organized, 
and the line ran between two other counties. The line still remains, 
though it does not now mark the boundary of either of the original counties. 
The notch was cut into the tree in 1785, just 108 years ago. This fact 
is proven by the rings in the tree that are visible and which number 108. 
Sometimes parts of a tree containing a notch similar to this one, establishing 
a comer, are taken into court and are accepted as evidence. The date, 
designated by the number of rings, is also accepted." — Reynoldsville Volunteer, 
Pa. 

" The above item ig from a recent copy of a Pennsylvania journal, ands*^rves to show how 
tenaciously man clings to old fallacies . Of all silly notions this idea of rings being an indicator 
of the age of trees seems to be most senseless, and yet, according to the above authority, the 
rings of a tree are accepted as evidence in courts. 

If the determining of the age of a tree by the rings was one of those things that was 
difficult to controvert, then there might be some excuse for depending upon them, but when 
there are so many opportunities at hand to disprove the theory, to adhere to the fallacy is worse 
than ignorance —it becomes a species of bigotry. 



The AjomoNBACK Black Sfrucw. 65 

Just how the notch proves what is asserted is not made clear, as any cut into the side of 
a healthy tree is sure to fill up by the outer growths after a series of years, but somewhere the 
authority for the statement found 108 rings, and forsooth the notch was cut 108 years ago; logic, 
and as a matter of course, " a horss chestnut must be a chestnut horse." 

Had a section from an opposite side of the tree been cut there would have been found, with- 
out doubt, another number of rings, either less or more, or had the count been several feet 
above the notch the number would have been less, or below it a short distance there would 
have been found a greater number. 

If the believers in the rings are to tell us the age of a tree thereby, t>>ey must settle just at 
what point the count is to be made for beginning at the ground and going upwards, it is found 
that the number of rings grows less as you ascend. This must be so from the natural course 
of things, as new shoots put out from the top and continue the upward growth of the tree 
every year. We can see no way out unless we make our count at the ground, but here even we 
encounter another difficulty, and one that is serious, if the tree should be one that has grown 
where one side is fully exposed to the sun and the other shaded. la that case, counting from 
the heart, it will be found that on the exposed side of the tree the number of rings is greatly 
in excess of the number on the shaded side. 

A notable ease is called to mind of a second-growth white ash that grew in a hedge on the 
south side of a fence. This tree showed forty clearly defined rings upon the south side of the 
heart, and, by a liberal allowance, after examining with a magnifying glass, thirty was the 
most that could be defined on the north side, so that it was just as easy to prove the tree thirty 
as it was to prove it forty years old. The same butt was cut off eight feet above the cutting 
kerf, and the number of rings had been reduced to twenty and sixteen. Curiosity led to a fur- 
ther examination and the stump was cut close to the ground, where no difficulty was experi- 
enced in counting sixty and forty-five rings, respectively. 

A further proof was f urni<«hed by the recorded facts of the fence having been erected on that 
line thirty- five years before, as a boundary line between the estates of two brothers, being a 
part of a plot that was divided up between heirs, and the tree grew after the fence was built. 
Of course, such a case would uot count against the prejudice of ages, but it becomes a stub- 
born fact, nevertheless. 

Let anyone plant a number of seed— apple, peach or plum, something that grows quickly— 
care for the sprouts, and after three or four years cut them and count the growth-rings and 
thus satisfy himeelf . It is doubtful if two out of a dozen will contain the same number of 
rings, or if anyone will show a number corresponding with the age. The thriftier the shoot 
the greater the number of rings, and the more stunted and weak the specimen the less the 
number, and yet all may be of the same age and grown under similar conditions. 

All roots, those used for food as well as those ihat are not, are of a woody nature, and where 
the circumstanceaare unfavorable the least thrifty of the edible show a fibrous, woody compo- 
sition, and at times some are found that can not be cooked to make them fit for food. In all 
the growth rings are defined, but in none so clearly as in the beet. Not only does it show the 
rings, but it shows the porous state and medullary rays as well. These rings neither indicate 
days, months, moons or other time divisions. On a tender, thrifty root there may be a dozen 
or more rings, while a less thrifty one grown at its side may not show half that number. What 
will our seer tell us regarding the ages of these beets ? 

Leaving all other tests aside, there is a law of nature that upsets all this annular ring growth 
theory. Everything has its growing, ripening and decaying season. The tree, like the straw of 
wheat, grows to its full, ripens and then dies. A tree may be vigorous and put on wood, or, in 
other words, grow for one hundred years, but that hundred years does not mark its life; for 
fif ry or even a hundred more years the life sap may be sufacient to nourish and maintain the 
growth already made, but not enough to put on new wood, and another fifty or hundred years 
may pass, during which no new growth is made, and during which the vital fluid is sufficient to 
maintain the tree in full vigor, during which it slowly but surely dies. Here may be three 
hundred years of life, and yet, during two hundred years, not an ounce of new wood has been 
added, and yet, in face of all, men will assert that they can determine the age of a tree by its 
rings. 

What, then, are these rings and what do they determine ? The common-sense answer is, they 
are growth rinsrs — nothing more. One may be the result of a year, a month or a week or any 
other division of time; all depends upon circumstances. If an entire summer has been moist 

9 



66 TsE Adirondack Black Sfkuck 

and vegetation has suffered no drawback from drouth or cold, it is barely possible that the 
entire growth of that season will be represented by a single ring, but even this is doubtful, as 
it is the thin sap which flows nearest the bark that nourishes the growth, and if an extra large 
growth is formed the sugar and glutinous matter in the sap may thicken and impede the flow 
of the more watery portion, and by forcing it into the new inner bark cause a new growth; 
but if, after a growing period, there comes a drouth suflQcient to rob th« roots of the necessary 
moisture, the sap in the wood thickens and the more watery seeks the inner bark, through 
which it carries nourishment to the leaves. This is often insufficient, and many leaves fall and 
others wilt, but with a fall of rain the supply of vital fluid is increased, the leaves brighten up 
and the smaller ones grow. New life is imparted, and with this new life comes a new growth, 
another ring is formed, and so on through the entire season Who living in the north has not 
seen the leaves nipped by a frost after they were full and fall to the ground ? After a few warm 
days and a warm rain new leaves start and the tree is soon m full foliage, but there has been a 
check to growth and a new growth starts with the new leaf. Thus, one cause another checks 
one growth and invites another, making a ring each time entirely independent of years.'' — 
Saw-Mill Gazette. 

Mr. Austin Gary, of Bangor, Me., who, acting under instruc- 
tions from the National Forestry Bureau, has been engaged in 
the Maine forests in counting tree rings with a view to establish- 
ing the age of the black spruce in that State, calls attention in 
his report to certain facts which throw some light on this matter 
of variable or retarded tree growth : 

" While carrying out the field work, which is behind all these 
statements, facts were found proving the influence of the weather 
on the growth of trees. In May, 1893, while at work on the 
Androscoggin river, word came from Mr. J". A. Pike, of Berlin, 
N. H,, that record was to be seen in the spruces of a series of 
cold years which occurred in the early part of the century. This 
was richly worth examination, and I immediately set about in- 
vestigating the matter. Beginning the count of rings with the 
bark, it was found on the first log examined that a number of 
rings, being in that case the seventy-ninth to the eighty-third 
from the bark, were very distinctly thinned. Continuing the 
search, every tree was found to have a belt of thin rings in sub- 
stantially the same position, these being reduced in some cases 
almost to microscopic. 

" As soon as access could be had to books the history of the 
matter was looked up, and it was found that the years 1812 to 
1816 in Maine were very extraordinary years. The temperature 
was unusually low as an average, and in 1812, 1815 and 1816, at 
least, frosts or snows or both occurred in the summer. In 1816 
and 1816 crops through the State were very seriously impaired, 
land many people despairing of the agricultural prospects of the 




o 
<: 

Q 
2 


Q 
< 



X I 

2? 

o - 

Z i 

h— t 

J 

D 
< 
X 




J 



Trb Adirondack Black Spruck 67 

country emigrated to the Ohio valley. This severe weather 
then was without doubt the cause of the thin rings so regularly 
found in the spruce trees. 

" Since that time this zone of rings has been found in spruce 
trees in all parts of the State and in the northern portion of New 
Hampshire. Careful notes of its character and occurrence were 
taken, in the course of other study, and the facts observed and 
inferences drawn will be found in full in the publications of the 
United States Forestry Division. 

"This belt of thin rings can be seen by anyone who will take 
the trouble to examine carefully any good sized spruce log. It 
demonstrates the effect of inclement seasons on the growth of 
trees, and it is further of value in that while there is some varia- 
tion about it, the approximate regularity of its position, the close 
correspondence in number of the rings outside the thin belt with 
the seasons that have elapsed since the cold year, gives added 
confidence in the substantial regularity of ring deposit and con- 
sequently in the results of investigation which proceed on that 
assumption. 

" An instance of the effect Oi exposure on the growth of trees 
I am able to present through the mterestof Mr. "William Monroe, 
of Bangor. In the winter of 893-94 he scaled* a landing of 
spruce hauled into Silver lake in the Town of Katahdin Iron 
Worts, from a piece of ground o. the south slopes of Saddle 
Eock Mountain, which had never before been cut. The soil was 
a deep red loam, and the spruce was gathered along brook runs 
or scattered amongst the hardwood growth intervening. But 
the point is that the timber was divided between two separate 
slopes of the mountain, the upper one of wl ich was some 200 feet 
above the lower, and considerably more exposed. 

" The timber from each slope was yarded on the more level 
land at its base, and Mr. Monroe kept a separate scale of the two 
lots. A marked difference in the size of the trees is found. The 
logs cut on the upper and more exposed slope were 4,377 in 
number, and scaled 435,726 feet, B. M., or 991- feet to the piece. 
The lower lot numbered 2,598 sticks, and the total scale was 
320,811 feet, or 123| feet to the piece. The difference is 24 per 

* Measured. 



68 The Adirondack Black Sprucm, 

cent, of the smaller piece. I^o other cause for it being apparent, 
the difference in the size of the trees seems to be due to their 
greater or less exposure." 

FoEEST Composition. 

Throughout the entire forest, covering the Adirondack Plateau, 
where the altitude exceeds 1,300 feet, the hardwood growth 
accompanying the black spruce is in almost every locality made 
up of maple, beech and yellow birch. Here and there, but at 
widely separated intervals, are scattering specimens of the 
white and black ash, black cherry, elm, basswood, "hard- 
hack"* {Ostrya Virgimoa), and white birch. On burned 
areas or reforested clearings the poplars and "pin" cherries 
{Prunus JPennsyhanica) grow in abundance, but are seldom seen 
growing with the spruce in the primeval woods. 

In order to give some idea of the general composition of the 
Adirondack woods, the foresters were directed to measure off in 
different places an acre or more of ground and count each tree 
within the space, noting, also, its diameter and species. They 
were further instructed to take pains that the localities selected 
should be ones in which the growth had no unusual character- 
istics, and which would fairly represent the number and propor- 
tion of the various species per acre. 

Foresters Olmstead and Sanford accordingly selected four 
acres on Lot 39, Township 20, Franklin county^ in the immediate 
vicinity of the forest in which they examined the trees embraced 
in the first 700 specimens of Table lY. These four acres are 
situated about four miles west of the head of the Upper Saranac 
Lake, and near the line of the Adirondack division of the New 
York Central railroad. Their notes do not embrace the young 
trees of seven inches in diameter or less, of which there was the 
usual proportion standing among the others. The undergrowth, 
like that of all the Adirondack forests, was somewhat dense, 
being composed largely of " witch hopple " (Viiurmcm Ian- 
tanoides) and striped maple {Acer Pennsylvanioum). The moun- 
tain maple {Acer ejpicatum) was not plentiful, this species appa- 
rently seeking the roadsides or openings. 

* Local, for iron-woocl, 



Thjs Adirondack Black Sfjruck. 



69 



TABLE VII. 

ACBK No. 1. 

Lot 39, Township 20, FranUm County. 



DTAMETKR. 


Spruce 


Hemlock. 


Balsam. 


Birch. 


Maple. 


Beecli. 




8 inolies 


20 
6 
8 
4 
4 
7 
1 


8 
6 
2 
J. 
4 


2 
1 
2 

1 




1 


22 
1 

13 
5 

11 
3 
3 


53 


9 '' 

10 ** 

11 '' 

12 '' 

13 ' * 


19 


1 
1 


4 
1 
8 
3 
2 


30 
11 
29 
13 


14 < ' 






2 
2 
2 


8 


15 * < 






2 


16 * * 








5 


4 


11 


T7 t < 










18 ^ ' 










2 


2 


4 


1Q t t 












20 * ' 

91 ^ ^ 


1 


1 . 




3 


4 




9 








22 < < 










1 




1 


oo c < 












ZiO . . • t . • • • 
04. < « 




1 . 




1 






2 


55 * * 














26 * * . . 
















9.7 * * . . 
















98 ^ * 








1 






1 


iSO •••»•••• 
















51 


22 


6 


18 


31 


70 


193 



Average diameter, including eight inches and upwards : — 
Spruce, 10 inches; hemlock, lOi inches; balsam, ^^ inches; 
yellow birch, ITJ inches ; maple, 14| inches ; beech, 10^ inches. 



70 



The AmEONDAGK Black Sfmuce. 



TABLE VIII. 

ACEB No. 2. 
Lot 39, Township 20, FranMin County, 



DIA.^ETEa 


Spruce. 


Hemlock. 


Balsam. 


BirclL. 


Maple. 


Beech. 


Total. 


8 inclies 

9 " 


18 
3 
1 
6 
5 
5 
3 

1 
1 

1 
3 


13 
3 
4 
2 

11 
2 
3 


5 

2 


1 




16 
2 

8 

2 

10 


53 
10 


10 " 


3 


2 
1 


22 


11 « 


12 


12 " 

13 " 


1 


3 
3 
2 


31 
10 


14 " 


3 


1 


12 


15 '' 


1 


16 " 


1 






2 
1 


1 


5 


11 « 






2 


18 " 






1 


4 


19 " 












20 " 








2 






2 


















53 


39 


8 


15 


9 


40 


164 



Average diameter, including eight inches : Black spruce, lOf 
inches; hemlock, lOf inches; balsam, 8| inches; yellow birch, 
13i inches ; hard maple, 13f inches ; beech, 9^^ inches. 



The Adirondack Black Sprttce. 



71 



TABLE IX. 

Lot 39, Township 20, FranMin Gounty. 



DIAMETER. 


Spruce. 


Hemlock. 


Balsam. 


Birch. 


Maple. 


Beech. 


Total. 


8 inches 

9 '' 


18 
6 

11 
5 

14 
6 

11 
1 
2 


15 


2 


1 




25 


61 

'Mil. C! 


10 '' 

11 *' 


10 
2 
6 


"l" 


2 


1 


10 
3 
6 


mmf' 
40 

11 


12 .... ... 

13 '' 


8 
1 
3 
2 
2 
1 
2 


2 


36 

1 


14 *' 

15 * * 


2 
1 




1 


3 


20 

4 


16 '* 




3 


Y 


IT '' 






1 


18 ** 




1 




2 




5 


19 '' 






















21 "■ 


1 
1 












1 


22 '' 

23 * * 


1 






1 




3 


24 * * 

29 * * 


1 


2 
1 
1 






2 




5 
1 


33 ' * 












1 


















83 


42 


3 


22 


9 


50 


209 



Average diameter, iaoluding eight inches : Black spruce, llf 
inches; hemlock, 12^ inches; balsam, 9 inches; yellow birch, 
13| inches ; hard maple, 17-1^ inches ; beech, 9f inches. 



72 



The Abimondack Black Spruce, 



TABLE X. 

ACEB No. 4. 

Lot 39, Townshvp 20, Iranhlin County. 



DIAMETER. 


Spruce. 


Hemlock. 


Balisam. 


Birch. 


Maple. 


Beech. 


Total. 


8 inclies 


14 


9 


1 


1 




5 


30 


9 " 




10 " 


9 

5 
11 
4 
6 
3 


4 


1 


1 




5 
2 
5 


20 


11 « 


1 


12 " 


4 




4 

1 
1 
1 

3 


1 


25 


13 " 


5 


14 " 


2 




2 
1 


4 
2 
4 


13 


15 " 


8 


16 " 






8 


17 " 


2 
4 






2 


18 " 








1 




5 


19 '"^ , 










■*-*^ J 

20 " 








2 


1 
1 


.... 


3 


21 " 


1 
1 






2 


22 " 








1 


23 " 














24 " 












1 


1 


28 '' 




1 
1 








1 














1 
















60 


21 


2 


14 


1 


28 


132 



Average diameter, including eight inches : Black spruce, 11^%- 
inches ; hemlock, llf inches ; balsam, 9 inches ; yellow birch, 14 
inches ; hard maple, Iti-f inches ; beech, 12|- inches. 

The trees noted in the next table were counted and measured 
by Foresters Olmstead and Sanford on an acre located on Lot 31, 
Township 19, Town of Altamont, Franklin county. On this acre 
all trees above four inches in diameter were included in the for- 
ester's notes. Although in a different township and several miles 
to the westward it will be noticed that the composition of this 
piece of forest is essentially the same as that shown in the four 
preceding tables. 



Tee Adiboitdaok Blaok Spruce. 



73 



T A PT 1? ITT 

ACEB No. 5. 

Lot 31, Townshi^p 19, FranMin County. 



DIAMETER. 


Spruce. 


Hemlock. 


Balsam. 


Birch. 


Maple. 


Beech. 


Total. 


5 inches 

6 ** 

T *^ 


21 

7 
15 


1 
3 
2 
1 


13 
6 
4 

12 


1 


1 


1 
2 
1 

14 


37 

19 
14 


8 ** 

9 "• ..., 




1 


43 


10 *^ 

11 '' 


13 
2 

9 


2 
1 
4 
1 
4 
1 
4 




3 




5 
2 
15 
4 
3 
1 
2 


23 
5 


12 '' 

13 '' 


2 


1 


2 


33 
5 


14 '' 

15 ** 


3 




1 


1 


12 
2 


16 '* 

17 '' 


11 




4 


2 


23 


18 '' 


8 


2 








1 


11 


19 *' 




1 
2 




1 


20 '* 












2 


21 ** 




1 








1 


22 '' 


3 






1 




4 


23 '' 










24 '' 


2 






1 


1 




4 












101 


27 


37 


14 


9 


51 


239 



Average diameter, including five inches : Black spruce, 10^ 
inches ; henalock, 12-|- inches ; balsam, 6f inches ; yellow birch, 
14-^ inches ; hard maple, 14-|. inches ; beech, lOf inches. 

The general composition of the Adirondack forest is fairly rep- 
resented by the species shown in the five preceding tables. But 
in traveling through the wilderness exceptional forest tracts will 
be often noted. In some localities, as shown in Table XII, the 
hemlock predominates, and the spruce is of secondary importance. 
In others the white pine, which has nearly disappeared from the 
Adirondacks, is still to be found. Then, again, in some places 
only one of the three dominant hardwoods is growing. 

In illustration of these exceptional types of timber land we fur- 
nish here some tables based on notes and measurements made by 
Forester Frank 0. Parker, who was instructed to examine certain 
tracts in Essex county. 



n 



Tmb Adirondack Black Sfmuom. 



ACEB No. 1. 
Zot JVb, 12, Moaring JBrooJc Tracts Essex County, JST. Y, 



SPECIES. 



Black Spruce {Picea nigra) 
Hemlock (Tsuga Gana- 

densis) 

Yellow Bircli {JBetula luted) 
Hard Maple [Acer saechar- 

inum) 

Beech {Fagus ferruginea) . 
Basswood {Tilia Ameri- 
cana) 

Totals 



Trees. 



11 

35 

6 

5 
36 



94 



Diameters 
in inches. 



12—16 

12—40 

8- 30 

19—28 
10—24 

20— 



Standards * 


Feet, B. M. 


Cords. 


6.90 


1,262 


2 


92.00 


16,836 


..... 


98.90 


18,098 


2 



IToTES.— This acre was selected in a virgin forest, situated on a gentle slope, well watered, 
with an easterly exposure. Ground slightly rolling. A fair type of forest in which the hem- 
lock predominates. The altitude is ahout 1,700 feet. The land is owned by the State. 

TABLE XIII. 

AcEK IsTo. 2. 
ZotJSTo. 12, Roaring BrooJc Tract, Msex County, JV. Y, 



SPECIES, 


Trees. 


Diameters 
in inches. 


Standards. 


Feet, B. M. 


Black Spruce {Picea nigra) 

Hemlock ( Tsuga Canadensis) .... 

Balsam [Abies halsamea) 

White (^edar {Thuya occidentalis) 

Yellow Birch {Betula luted) , 

Beech {Fagus ferruginea) 


11 

n 

10 
13 
38 

7 


8—17 
16-28 

7-16 
10-20 
10-21 
12—20 


4.55 

12.08 

2.96 

9.13 


832 
2,210 

541 
1,671 


Totals 


86 





28.72 


5 254 







Notes.— On high land with an easterly exposure. The surrounding forest has the appear- 
ance of having been burned over at some previous time, many years ago. The original field- 
notes pertaining to the survey of this lot call for a corner on a burned hill. This corner is only 
a short distance from the strip on which these measurements were made. The hardwood 
has the appearance of a second growth, and some of the larger ones show the effects of fire. 



* A'* standard 'Uog Is 18 feet long and 19 inches in diameter at the smallest end, inside the 
bark, and contains 183 feet of lumber, board measure. In the Adirondack forests the lumber- 
men cut all their logs IB feet long. 



The Adirondack Black Spruce. 



75 



TABLE XIV. 

ACEB No. 3. 
Lot No. 12, Roaring BrooJc Tract, Essex County, K T. 



SPECIE3S. 


Trees. 


Biameters 
in inches. 


Standards. 


Feet, B. M. 


Cords. 


Black Spruce {Pieea nigra). 

Hard Maple {Acer sacchar- 

inum) 

Beecli (Fagus ferruginea) . 


28 
43 


8—21 

10—28 
7—21 


21.54 


3,942 


6 


Totals 


118 




21.54 


3,942 


6 







Notes— This acre is a primitive (crest in which the hardwoods predominate. It is on a 
piece of table land, well watered from slopes on either side. The maples and beeches are 
thrifty and tall, this acre being a good type of an Adirondack forest in which there is a good 
growth of spruce intermixed among the hardwoods. The undergrowth is composed largely of 
Mountain Maple (Acer spicatwm) and small Yellow Birch. 

TABLE XV. 

ACEE No. 4. 
Lot JSTo. 12, Roaring JBrooh Tract, Essex County, M Y. 



SPECIES. 



Black Spruce {Ficea mgra). 

Hemlock {Tsuga Canaden- 
sis) 

White Cedar (Thuya occi- 
dentalis) 

White Pine (Pinusstrohus). 

White Birch {JBetula papy- 
raoea) 



Trees. 



Totals 



73 

3 

46 
12 



Diameters 
in inches. 



145 



9—18 

12—30 

9—22 
24—37 

8—16 



Standards. 



Feet, B. M. 



37.00 

9.98 

18.24 
101.65 



6,771 

1,826 

3,338 
18,583 



Cords. 



12 



166.77 



30,518 






NoTKS-Thia acre represents a portion of virgin forest situated on rising ground, well 
watered, a small brook running through a portion of it. The slope has a westerly exposure. It 
is a fair example of the ridges on which the spruce predominates, and where it ^rows in com- 
pany with other conifers. 



76 



TsE AmEONDAOK Blaok Sprucm. 



TABLE -K V I. 

ACBB No. 5. 
Lot No. 12, JRoaring Brook Tract, Essex County, JST. T. 



SPECIES. 



Black Spruce {Picea nigra). 

Hemlock {Tsuga Cana- 
densis) 

White Cedar (Thuya oeci- 
dentahs) 

Hard Maple {Acer sacchar- 
inum) 

Beech {Fagus ferruginea) . 

White ^ Ash (_daxvrL 
Americana) 



Trees. 



36 

40 

6 

12 
43 



Totals 



Diameters 
in inches. 



138 



9—20 

8—26 

9—26 

11—28 
6—19 

20— 



Standards. 



15.49 

17.37 

6.60 



Feet, B. M. 



2,834 
3,178 
1,208 



39.46 



7,220 



Cords. 



4 



Notes.— This acre was selected m a primitive forest, growing on a " bench " or natural ter- 
race, well watered, with a northerly exposure. The undergrowth, in addition to the nurslings 
of the dominant species, was composed largely of Mountain Maple iAcer spicatuni), with 
occasional specimens of Striped Maple ^Acer Pennsylvanicum) The growth under and near the 
hemlocks was completely covered in places wiuh the American Yew or Ground Hemlock 
CTaxu$ Canadensis). 

TABLE XYII. 

Acre Ko. 1. 
Lot JVo. 206, Township 11, 0. M. Tract, JEJssex County, JSF, Y, 



SPECIES. 



Black Spruce (JPlcea nigra). 
Hemlock {Tsuga Cana- 
densis) 

Balsam (Abies balsamea) . . 
Yellow BirGh{Betula lutea) 
Hard Maple {Acer sacchar- 
inum) 

Totals 



Trees. 



52 
26 

37 



173 



Diameters 
in inches. 



5—16 

9—28 
7—16 
6—20 



Standards. 



20.00 
9.00 



43.49 



Feet, B. M. 



2,651 

3,660 
1,647 



7,958 



Cords, 



Notes —This lot (206, Township 11) was lumbered about 33 years ago by C, F. Norton, at 
which time the pine and spruce were cut ; but the spruces uoder 10 inches in diameter were 
not taken. Since then —about 16 years ago — it was cut over again, at which time some white 
ash and yellow birch was taken, as well as the larger spruce. 

This acre strip was measured off on level land, not low enough to be swampy, but a bench of 
table land. The crown covering is dense; and the timber, with the exception of the hemlock 
and some of the hardwoods, seems to be a second growth,— that is, it has been growing among 
firat-growth trees, and has made a rapid progress after the interlucation made by cutting out 
ha larger trees. 



The Adirondack Black Spbuck 



77 



TABLE XVill. 

ACEE No. 2. 
Lot Wo. 206, Township 11, 0. IL Tract, Essex Comity, K Y. 



SPECIE 3. 



Black Spruce(Picea 7in/ra), 

Hemlock ( Tsuga Gana- 
densls) 

Balsam {Abies balsamed) . . 

Tamarack [Larix Ameri- 
cana) 

Yellow Biroli {Betnla 
ut6oea) ••••.<••*•■ •••**» 

Soft Maple {Acer dasycar 
pum) 

Totals 



Trees. 


Diameters 
in inches. 

5—16 


Standards 


Feet, B. M. 


Cords. 


51 


20.00 


3,660 


1 


15 


10 — 24 


24.00 


4,^92 


• • • * * 


38 


1 -16 


10.00 


1,830 


. . w . 


5 


7—12 


• « • « tt 




. • • * 


30 


10—23 








14 


8—20 








153 




54.00 


9,882 


T 



NoTBS.— This acre was measured off at the*- xtreme end of a bench of table land extending 
toward a swamp The undergrowth is mostly small yellow birches and mountain maples, th« 
latter appearing only where the cutting had been severe, evidently places where the ground 
was originally cleared for skidways. 

X-A.Jt>ljJu AI-Al.. 
AcEE No. 3. 
JiOt 206, Township 11, 0. M. Tract, JEssex County, JV. Y. 



SPECIES. 


Trees. 


Diameters 
in mches. 


Standards 


Feet, B. M 


Cords, 


Black Spruce {Ficea nigra) 
Balsam {Abies balsamea). , 
Hard Maple {Acer sacchari- 

711071) 


15 
5 

30 
39 


8—22 
9—28 

'r— 20 


9.00 


1,647 


3 


Beech ( Fagus ferry ginea) 




Totals 


89 




9 00 


1,64T 


5 



NOTBSS.— This acre was selected on a hardwood slope with a northerly exposure. Inter- 
spersed with the larger trees there was a large number of small yellow birches and maples, and 
in places, groups of small balsams, all under five inches in diameter. Only a f w of the hard- 
wood trees had been cut by the lumbermen. 

The crown development was "dense, and the forest in good condition 



78 



Thm Adironback Black SFEncE. 



JiJxiyijEj JLJL. 

AcBS No. 4. 
Lot 206, Township 11, 0, M. Trac% Essex County^ M F. 



SPECIES. 


Trees. 


Diameters 
n inches. 


Standards. 


Feet, B. M. 


Cords. 


Black Spruce (JPloea nigra). 

Hemlock {Isuga Oanaden- 

sih) 


36 

30 
10 

27 
40 

3 


8-22 

12-27 
6-12 

7-2 i 
8-20 

6-20 


15 
20 

35 


2,745 
3,660 


5 


Balsam {Abies halsamea) . . 
Yellow Bircli {Betula latea) 
Beech (Fagus ferrugiHea) . 
Black Cherry [Brunus sero- 
tina) 








Totals 


146 


* <t * * 


6,405 


5 



Notes —This acre is on land sloping toward the east On this strip there is a cluster of 
spruces that have all the appearances of being a "first-growth,"" although the trees are not 
large. It is evident that at the time of the first cutting these trees were con-^idered too small 
for saw logs. 

In several instances the owners of spruce timber lands in 
northern New York have shown an encourae-ins: and commend- 
able tendency to manage their property with reference to sus- 
tained productivity. Instead of taking all the merchantable tim- 
ber available for immediate profit, they have restricted their 
cutting materially with the intention of securing further growth 
and further revenues in future. The cutting of small spruces for 
pulpwood has been prohibited on many large tracts, although the 
revenue derivable from this source is large and available at any 
time, furthermore, the cutting for lumber or saw-logs is 
restricted to trees 12 inches in diameter on the stump. 

Although this is a step in the right direction, and something of 
an improvement on previous methods, there is little in it worthy 
of the name of forestry. As an approach to scientiflc or even 
intelligent forestry methods it is a very slight advance indeed. 

It is true that spruce lands in our State have been cut over a 
second and even a third time, at intervals of 25 years or there- 
about, and that such cuttings have proved remunerative. But 
this was not rendered possible altogether by any increase in the 




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Tee Ajdiroi^dack Black Sfbucjs. 79 

rate of growth due to the interlucation resulting from a previous 
thinning of the trees ; nor in any great degree to the natural 
increase in size during the intervals. 

These successive crops of spruce were due for the most part to 
other reasons. In the first cutting only the larger and easily 
accessible trees were taken. Large trees were often left because 
it did not pay to cut roads to them, the roads being confined to 
the areas on which the timber ^rew thickly. In the second cut- 
ting roads were extended into these areas of scattered spruces, 
some slight increase in market price warranting this additional 
expense. The large trees left at the first cutting were then taken 
out, together with many others which had become large enough 
through this additional period of growth. The third cutting 
becomes feasible 25 years later by reason of increased market 
values, improYed means of access, and the demand for pulpwood 
— the latter demand alone making it profitable in many instances 
to cut over an old tract where the sawing timber by itself would 
not yield enough to pay the expense of 'Numbering" it. Of 
course, the younger spruces increase in size during the intervals 
between operations, and at each return the axeman finds some 
trees large enough for saw-logs which previously were too small. 
But too much stress has been laid on this factor in the question, 
while too many other and important points have been ignored. 

Assuming that our spruce forests are to be managed, for a 
period at least, under the well-recognized and accepted forestry 
method known as that of '^ selection," we will waive the all- 
important question of cutting for improvement, and turn to that 
of cutting for revenue — for future and continuous revenue as 
some of our well-intentioned forest owners are pleased to term it. 

This method, which for convenience may be termed cutting for 
revenue, can not secure the desired result — that of the perpetual 
maintenance of a merchantable species — unless the cutting is 
confined to mature trees only. Nothing short of this will answer. 
Now, it would be diflScult to say just what diameter should be 
assumed in defining a matured spruce. This is evident from the 
figures in the preceding tables. Moreover, this diameter must 
vary in different localities. Such diameter can not be ascertained, 
if at all, until working plans covering a century of improve- 
ment cutting, seeding or planting have been exploited. It would 
be idle to discuss it here. 



80 '^^^ Adirondack Black Sjpruck 

But if there is to be no improvement cutting, if our forest 
owners prefer to start with a fixed diameter as a basis for restric- 
tion in revenue cutting — "a rule of thumb," as Dr. Fernow calls 
it — such diameter can be fixed approximately in each locality ; 
and when thus determined, if it approximates closely the average 
diameter of the matured spruce, it may answer as a first step in a 
right direction. Such diameter need not be fixed at the maxi- 
mum. On the contrary, something should be subtracted to offset 
what is termed in forestry the interest account. A perfectly 
managed forest is one that will produce the greatest possible 
revenue and maintain it. It is evident that as a tree approaches 
maturity there comes a time in its slowly waning growth after 
which the increment will not equal in value the interest on the 
money obtainable if out at that time. Before felling a tree it is 
not necessary to wait for the signs of decay that announce the 
cessation of growth. The tree may be turned into money before 
that, and, in view of the interest account, thus yield a greater 
profit than to wait for its maximum development. 

It would be impossible to name any diameters here which 
should govern such cutting. But any owner of spruce lands can 
anive approximately at the proper size if the question is 
approached intelligently and honestly. Ceri ainly, the twelve inch 
Ifmit now m use Mis far below such requiremeMs. A tree six- 
teen inches in diameter yields twice as much lumber as one of 
twelve inches ; and one twenty inches yields four times as much. 

By harvesting matured trees only, the land owner receives the 
legitimate income from his property, and makes it a perpetual, 
interest-bearing investment ; by harvesting the timber before it 
attains its growth, he decreases the future productivity of his 
land, and, for the sake of immediate returns, makes a heavy draft 
upon the principal. Moreover, if he confines his cutting lor 
revenue to mature trees he not only preserves his principal intact, 
but by adding to his work some judicious improvement cutting 
he can increase the value of the principal and its corresponding 
productivity. 

Many owners of spruce lands have been encouraged by the 
^-epeated crops attainable from cutting on a basis of ten or twelve 
.nches in diameter on the stump to assume that such returns may 
be obtained perpetually. Even if this could be done the yield 




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The Adirondage Black Spruce. 81 

thus obtained must be inferior in quantity and value, like any 
crop that is gathered before it is ripe or has attained its full 
growth. 

It is maintained by experienced foresters, and with good rea- 
son, that the persistent cutting of any one species, especially 
where it is done before the trees have attained their full size, 
tends to the deterioration and, ultimately, to the extinction of 
such species. This ought to be evident without going into the 
technical reasons. 

It is not intended in this report to criticise unfavorably the land 
owners who are willing to accept pay for twelve-inch spruce. It 
is their property, and if they prefer the cash in hand to future 
payment they have the right to accept it without comment. In 
fact, many who advocate other methods would probably do the 
same if they were fortunate enough to own spruce timber lands. 
But the owners of woodlands who are able to hold them, and who 
may wish to manage their forest so that it will yield the greatest 
revenue, and are willing to waive immediate returns in favor of a 
permanent, revenue producing investment will do well to study 
this question carefully. 

The felling of immature spruce merely for revenue should be 
discontinued. Mature trees, however, should be converted into 
money. Part of this money could be set aside with advantage as 
a fund from which to pay the expense of improvement cuttings, 
through which the growth of desirable species would be fostered 
and inferior ones eliminated- The work of the axeman should 
not be limited to the mature trees which are cut for revenue, but 
should include the removal of all diseased trees and inferior 
species, large and small^ even though such timber does not yield 
one cent to pay for the work. Then, again, it might be necessary 
.often to allow sound, mature trees to remain, because their 
removal might influence surrounding conditions so unfavorably 
as to inflict a loss greater than their value. But to go further 
into this subject would involve the recital of technical details of 
management which are foreign to the scope of this article. 

Some mention should be made here of the natural tendency of 
the Adirondack spruce to reproduce itself, a fortunate character- 
istic that, under the guidance of skillful foresters, could be utilized 
with great advantage in the work of forest improvement. But 



82 Tbe Adjroi^bace Black Sfmvge. 

land owners who persist in cutting down to a small diameter on 
the stump should not relj on this natural seeding of the spruce to 
correct their faulty system. In the dissemination of spruce seed 
and starting of natural plantations, nature has proved whimsicals 
and while the young spruces generally succeed the poplars and 
bird cherries on the burned lands, they often fail to restock the 
lands of their own habitat which have been rendered bare by 
injudicious cutting. 

The thrifty landowner who would manage his spruce lands 
rightly should not only confine his cutting to sound methods, but 
should employ a skillful forester whose judicious, fostering care 
of the seedlings, together with some provision for the dissemina- 
tion of seed, will insure that future stability of income which is 
the main object and aim of intelligent, scientific forestry. 

The foregoiBg paragraphs have dealt solely with the question 
of the black spruce, because the other merchantable 
species in the Adirondack forests growing in company ^^ith it 
are seldom accessible. The white pine, except in few localities, 
was removed years ago. The hemlock is valuable mainly on 
account of its bark, and in many townships is not cut at all. The 
hardwoods, though merchantable near the borders of the forest, 
owing to their accessibility, are not marketable for the most part, 
as the logs can not be floated down the streams. 

Still, the roads -^nd railways which are penetrating the forest 
in increased numbers are fast rendering the hardwoods accessible. 
The time is near when most of the broad-leaved trees in the Adi- 
rondacks, as well as the conifers, will become merchantable spe- 
cies. The same provisions which should regulate the cutting of 
the spruce will apply to them also. The value and pro- 
ductivity of these timber lands will be correspondingly increased, 
and with the proper management of our woodlands American 
forestry will occupy its rightful place as a beneficent factor in our 
political economy.