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CATERPILLAR 



® 



FORM NO. SENR7591-01 

FOR USE IN SERVICE MANUALS: 

D4 TRACTOR, REG00632 

DAE TRACTOR, SENR7624 

D4 SA TRACTOR, REG00784 

D4E SA TRACTOR, SENR7636 

NO. 112F MOTOR GRADER, REG00885 

120G MOTOR GRADER, REG01654 

130G MOTOR GRADER, SENR3215 

225 EXCAVATOR, REG01578 

518SKIDDER, REG00971 

920 & 930 WHEEL LOADERS, REG00514 

941 TRACK-TYPE LOADER, REG00527 

950 WHEEL LOADER, REG00548 

951 TRACK-TYPE LOADER, REG00783 
955 TRACK-TYPE LOADER, REG00634 
955L TRACK-TYPE LOADER, SENR7364 
955L TRACK-TYPE LOADER, SENR7672 





w^M 




3304 Vehicular Engine 




43V1-UP 
46V1-UP 
48V1-UP 
78P1-UP 
9Z1-UP 



7Z1-UP 
12Z1-UP 



A WARIMIIMG 



IMPORTANT SAFETY NOTICE 



^ 



Proper repair is important to the safe and reliable operation of a machine. This 
Service Manual outlines basic recommended procedures, some of which require 
special tools, devices or work methods. Although not necessarily all inclusive, a list 
of additional skills, precautions and knowledge required to safely perform repairs is 
provided in the SAFETY section of this Manual. 

Improper repair procedures can be dangerous and could result in injury or death. 

READ AND UNDERSTAND ALL SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND 
WARNINGS BEFORE PERFORMING REPAIRS ON THIS MACHINE 

Basic safety precautions, skills and knowledge are listed in the SAFETY section 
of this Manual and in the descriptions of operations where hazards exist. Warning 
labels have also been put on the machine to provide instructions and identify 
specific hazards which if not heeded could cause bodily injury or death to you or 
other persons. These labels identify hazards which may not be apparent to a trained 
mechanic. There are many potential hazards during repair for an untrained 
mechanic and there is no way to label, the machine against all such hazards. These 
warnings in the Service Manual and on the machine are identified by this symbol; 



A WARIMIIMG 



"^ 



Operations that may result only in machine damage are identified by labels on the 
machine and in the Service Manual by the word CAUTION. 

Caterpillar cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a 
potential hazard. The warnings in this Manual are therefore not all inclusive. If a 
procedure, tool, device or work method not specifically recommended by 
Caterpillar is used, you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and others. You 
should also ensure that the machine will not be damaged or made unsafe by the 
procedures you choose. 

IMPORTANT 

The information, specifications and illustrations in this book are on the basis of 
information available at the time it was written. The specifications, torques, 
pressures of operation, measurements, adjustments, illustrations and other items 
can change at any time. These changes can effect the service given to the product. 
Get the complete and most current information before you start any job. Caterpillar 
Dealers have the most current information which is available. For a list of the most 
current modules and form numbers available for each Service Manual, see the 
SERVICE MANUAL CONTENTS MICROFICHE REGI139F. 



67200X2 



3304 VEHICULAR ENGINE 



INDEX 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 



Air Inlet and Exhaust System 31 

Air Inlet and Exhaust System 31 and 32 

Timing Gears 33 

Turbocharger 32 

Valves and Valve Mechanism 33 

Basic Block 4Q 

Crankshaft 40 

Cylinder Block and Liners 40 

Pistons. Rings, and Connecting Rods 40 

Cooling System 38 

Coolant for Air Compressor 39 

Electrical System 41 

Charging System Components 41 

Electrical System Schematic 45 

Other Components 44 

Starting System Components 43 

Fuel System (Scroll-DI) 27 

Fuel Injection Pump 27 

Fuel System Timing 27 

Governor (Hydra-Mechanical) 28 

Injection Nozzles 30 

Introduction 27 

Fuel System (Scroll-PC) 24 

Fuel Injection Pump 24 

Fuel Injection Valve 26 

Fuel System Timing 24 

Glow Plugs 26 

Governor Operation 25 

Introduction 24 

Fuel System (Sleeve Metering) 6 



Adjustments To The Sleeve Metering Fuel System 18 

Fuel Flow/ After Engine Stops Running 16 

Fuel Flow Using The Priming Pump and Bleed Valve 15 

Fuel Flow With Engine Running 7 

System With Constant Bleed Valve 9 

System With Siphon Break 7 

System With Siphon Break and 

Constant Bleed Valve 13 

System Without Siphon Break or 

Constant Bleed Valve 11 

Fuel Injection Pump Operation ■ 17 

Fuel Injection Valve— PC 23 

Fuel Injection Valves 6 

Fuel Priming Pump 15 

Fuel Ratio Control 22 

Fuel System Operation 18 

Fuel System Timing 6 

Fuel Transfer Pump 15 

Glow Plugs— PC 23 

Governor 20 

Injection Nozzle — Dl 23 

Introduction 5 

Non-Adjustable Dashpot Governor 21 

Siphon Break 15 

Water Separator 6 

General Information 5 

Engine Design 5 

Fuel System Usage Chart 5 

Lubrication System 34 

Oil Flow In The Engine 36 

Oil Flow Through The Oil Filter and Oil Cooler 36 



3304 VEHICULAR ENGINE 



INDEX 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



Air Inlet and Exhaust System 107 

Ctiecking Inlet Manifold Pressure At Torque 

Converter Stall Speed 108 

Compression 109 

Crankcase (Crankshaft Compartment) Pressure 109 

Cylinder Head 109 

Glow Plug and Precombustion Chamber Removal 

and Installation 110 

Measurement of Exhaust Temperatures 109 

Measurement of Pressure in Inlet Manifold 107 

Procedure for Measuring Camshaft Lobes 112 

Restriction of Air Inlet and Exhaust 107 

Turbocharger 108 

Valve Clearance Ill 

Basic Block 122 

Connecting Rod and Main Bearings 122 

Connecting Rods and Pistons 122 

Cylinder Block 124 

Cylinder Liner Projection 122, 123 

Counterbored Block 122 

Spacer Plate Block 123 

Flywheel and Flywheel Housing 124-127 

Oil Pump Installation 127 

Piston Ring Groove Gauge 122 

Cooling System 115 

Checking Coolant Temperature 115 

Checking Fan Speed 117 

Checking Radiator Air Flow 117 

Filler Cap and Pressure Relief Valve 119 

Gauge for Water Temperature 119 

Pressure Cap 118 

Testing Radiator and Cooling System for Leaks 118 

Testing the Cooling System 115 

V-Belt Tension Chart 121 

Visual Inspection of the Cooling System 115 

Water Temperature Regulators 120 

Electrical System 1 29 

Battery 129 

Charging System 129 

Starting System 132 

Flexible Drive Coupling 128 

Checking Flexible Drive Coupling Alignment 128 

Fuel System 60 

Adjustment and Cleaning of 7N449 Fuel Injection 

Nozzles 70 

Checking Engine Cylinders Separately 60 

Checking Engine Timing With 6V3100 Diesel 

Engine Timing Indicator Group 74 

Engine Speed Measurement 73 

Finding Top Center Compression Position for 

No. 1 Piston 75 



Flow Checking Fuel Injection Pump Timing 

(PC Engines Only) 76 

Fuel Injection Lines 72 

Fuel System Inspection 60 

Start-Up Procedure 73 

Test Sequence — Precombustion Chamber (PC) 

Fuel Nozzle 62 

Testing 7N449 Fuel Injection Nozzles 63 

Testing Capsule-Type Fuel Injection Nozzles 60 

Troubleshooting of 7N449 Fuel Injection Nozzles 69 

Fuel System (Scroll-DI) 99 

Checking the Fuel Injection Valves 99 

Checking the Plunger and Lifter Washer of an 

Injection Pump 99 

Fuel Injection Pump Timing Dimension Setting: 

Off Engine 103 

Fuel Injection Timing Check (Timing Pin Method) 102 

Fuel Rack Setting 104 

Fuel System Adjustments 101 

Injection Pump (Install) 100 

Injection Pump (Remove) 99 

Fuel System (Scroll-PC) 91 

Checking the Fuel Injection Valves 91 

Checking the Plunger and Lifter Washer of an 

Injection Pump 91 

Fuel Injection Service 91 

Accessory Drive Shaft Timing 95 

Checking With 8S462G Gauge 93 

Checking With 8S7167 or 5P4158 Gauge 94 

Fuel Injection Pump Timing Dimension Setting: 

Off Engine 94 

Fuel Rack Setting 96 

Injection Pump 91 

Injection Pump Installation 91 

Injection Valve (Capsule-Type Nozzle) 91 

Governor Adjustments 97 

Fuel Ratio Control Setting 98 

Fuel System (Sleeve Metering) 79 

Fuel Injection Service 79 

Fuel Pump Calibration 86 

Fuel Ratio Control Setting 85 

Fuel System Adjustments 80 

Fuel System Setting 83 

Governor Adjustments 82 

Lubrication System 113 

Oil Pressure is High 114 

Oil Pressure is Low 113 

Too Much Bearing Wear 114 

Too Much Oil Consumption 113 

Troubleshooting 46-59 



NOTE: This book has been completely changed from the former issue. 

SPECIFICATIONS 



NOTE: For Specifications with illustrations, make reference to SPECIFICA- 
TIONS for 3304 VEHICULAR ENGINE, Form No. SENR7590. If the 
Specifications in Form SENR7590 are not the same as in the Systems 
Operation and the Testing and Adjusting, look at the printing date on the 
back cover of each book. Use the Specifications given in the book with the 
latest date. 



GENERAL INFORMATION 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 



GENERAL INFORMATION 



ENGINE DESIGN 



^°''® 4.75 in. (120.7 mm) 

^"■°'^® 6.0 in. (152.4 mm) 

Number of Cylinders . 

Cylinder Arrangement "in-line 

Firing Order (Injection Sequence) ^ 3 4 2 

Direction of Rotation 

(when seen from flywheel end) Counterclockwise 

*No. 1 Cylinder Is Opposite Flywheel End. 



EXHAUST VALVES 




2 3 

INTAKE VALVES 

CYLINDER AND VALVE IDENTIFICATION 



FUEL SYSTEM USAGE CHART 


MODEL 


•FUEL SYSTEM APPLICATIONS 


Scroll 
(PC) 


Sleeve Metering 
(PC) 


Sleeve Metering 
(Dl) 


D4, D4 (SA) 

D4E*', D4E (SA) 

120G, 130G 

112F 

225 

518 

920, 930, 950 

941. 951, 955 

955L 


Earlier 
Japan 

All 

Earlier 
Earlier 
Earlier 


Later 
Earlier 
Earlier 

Earlier 

Intermediate 

Later 

Later 

All 


Later 
Later 

Later 
Later 


*See the appropriate PARTS BOOK for effective Serial Numbers. 
"Later ENGINES built in Japan are (Dl) with a scroll fuel system. 



SLEEVE METERING FUEL SYSTEM 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 



SLEEVE METERING FUEL SYSTEM 



INTRODUCTION 

The Sleeve Metering Fuel System is a pressure 
type fuel system. The name for the system is from the 
method used to control the amount of fuel in the fuel 
injection charge. This system has an injection pump 
and an injection valve for each cylinder. The injec- 
tion pumps are in the fuel injection pump housing on 
the right side of the engine. The injection valves are 
in the precombustion chambers for PC engines and 
in adapters in the cylinder head for DI engines. 

The drive gear for the fuel transfer pump is on the 
front of the camshaft for the injection pumps. The 
carrier for the governor weights is bolted to the rear 
of the camshaft for the injection pumps. The injec- 
tion pump housing has a bearing at each end to 
support the camshaft. The camshaft for the sleeve 
metering fuel system is driven by the timing gears at 
the front of the engine. 

The injection pumps, lifters and rollers, and the 
camshaft are all inside of the pump housing. The 
pump housing and the governor housing are full of 
fuel at transfer pump pressure (fuel system 
pressure). 

CAUTION 

Diesel fuel is the only lubrication for the moving 

parts in the transfer pump, injection pump 

housing and the governor. The injection pump 

housing must be full of fuel before turning the 

camshaft. 

FUEL SYSTEM TIMING 

Injection timing before TC (top center): 

Sleeve Metering-PC: 

(fuel pump serial numbers 

thru 44,899) 12° 30' ± 1° 

(fuel pump serial numbers 

44,900 and up) 13° 30' ± 1° 

Sleeve Metering-DI: 

Engines with turbocharger 23 ± 1° 

Engines without turbocharger 29 ± 1° 

FUEL INJECTION VALVES 

Fuel, under high pressure from the injection 
pumps, is sent through the injection valves. The in- 
jection valves change the fuel to the correct fuel 
characteristic (spray pattern) for good combustion 
in the cylinders. 

The fuel injection valves are installed in the pre- 
combustion chambers in engines equipped with pre- 
combustion chambers. An adapter takes the place of 
the precombustion chamber in engines equipped 
with direct injection. The precombustion chambers 
or adapters are installed in the cylinder heads. 



WATER SEPARATOR 

Some engines have a water separator. The water 
separator is installed between the fuel tank and the 
rest of the fuel system. For efficiency in the action of 
the water separator, the fuel flow must come directly 
from the fuel tank and through the water separator. 
This is because the action of going through a pump or 
valves before the water separator lowers the effi- 
ciency of the water separator. 

The water separator can remove 95% of the water 
in a fuel flow of up to 33 gph (125 liter/hr) if the 
concentration of the water in the fuel is 1 0% or less. It 
is important to check the water level in the water 
separator frequently. The maximum amount of 
water which the water separator can hold is 0.8 pt 
(0.4 liter). At this point the water fills the glass to 
3/4 full. Do not let the water separator have this 
much water before draining the water. After the 
water level is at 3/4 full, the water separator loses its 
efficiency and the water in the fuel can go through 
the separator and cause damage to the fuel injection 
pump. 

Drain the water from the water separator every 
day or when the water level gets to 1/2 full. This 
gives the system protection from water in the fuel. If 
the fuel has a high concentration of water, or if the 
flow rate of fuel through the water separator is high, 
the water separator fills with water faster and must 
be drained more often. 

To drain the water separator, open the valve in the 
drain line and the valve at the top of the water 
separator. Let the water drain until it is all out of the 
water separator. Close both valves. 




A5741 4X2 



SLEEVE METERING FUEL SYSTEM 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 



FUEL FLOW WITH ENGINE RUNNING 
System With Siphon Break 




SCHEMATIC OF FUEL SYSTEM 



1. Governor housing. 2. Fuel injection pump. 3. Fuel Injection pump housing. 4. Bypass valve. 5. Bleed valve. 6 Fuel tank 
7 Check valve. 8. Fuel supply line. 9. Water separator (if so equipped). 10. Drain valve. 11. Vent valve. 12 Fuel filter I3' 
Check valve. 14. Priming pump. 15. Check valve. 16. Fuel transfer pump. A. Siphon break orifice 




FUEL SYSTEM INSTALLED 

2. Fuel injection pump. 5. Bleed valve. 8. Fuel supply 
line. 12. Fuel filter. 14. Priming pump. 



SLEEVE METERING FUEL SYSTEM 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 




GOVERNOR AND FUEL INJECTION PUMP 

1. Governor housing. 3. Fuel injection pump housing. 16. 
Fuel transfer pump. 



When the engine is running fuel transfer pump 
(16) pulls fuel from fuel tank (6) through fuel 
supply line (8). The fuel goes through water 
separator (9) (if so equipped), fuel filter (12) and 
into channel (17) behind cover (18). 



From channel ( 1 7) the fuel goes through prim- 
ing pump (14) into passage (D) to the fuel transfer 
pump (16). 




FUEL INJECTION PUMP HOUSING 

4. Bypass valve. 7. Check valve. D. Passage to fuel transfer 
pump. 



A59818X 




FUEL INJECTION PUMP HOUSING COVER 
14. Priming pump. 17. Channel. 18. Cover. 



From fuel transfer pump ( 1 6) fuel under pres- 
sure fills fuel injection pump housing (3). Pressure 
of the fuel in housing (3) is controlled by bypass 
valve (4). Pressure of the fuel at full load is 30 ± 5 
psi (205 + 35 kPa). If the pressure of the fuel in 
housing (3) gets too high, bypass valve (4) will 
move (open) to let some of the fuel return to the 
transfer pump (16). 

Fuel injection pumps (2) send fuel, under high 
pressure, out of housing (3) into the fuel injection 
lines during injection. The fuel goes through the 
Unes to the fuel injection valves in the precombus- 
tion chambers. 



I 



SLEEVE METERING FUEL SYSTEM 



System With Constant Bleed 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 




SCHEMATIC OF FUEL SYSTEM 

1. Governor housing^ 2. Fuel injection pump. 3. Fuel injection pump housing. 4. Bypass valve. 5. Bleed valve. 6. Fuel tank 
7. Check valve 8^ Fuel supply line. 9. Water separator (if so equipped). 10. Drain valve. 1 1 . Vent valve. 12. Fue fHte 1 
Check valve. 14. Pr.m.ng pump. 15. Check valve. 16. Fuel transfer pump. B. Fuel return line. C. Constant bleed valve 



3. 




I 



FUEL SYSTEM INSTALLED 

8. Fuel supply line. 12. Fuel filter. 14. Priming pump. 19. 
Plug in hole for constant bleed valve (C). 



SLEEVE METERING FUEL SYSTEM 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 




GOVERNOR AND FUEL INJECTION PUMP 
16. Fuel transfer pump. C. Constant bleed valve. 

When the engine is running fuel transfer pump 
(16) pulls fuel from fuel tank (6) through fuel 
supply line (8). The fuel goes through water 
separator (9) (if so equipped), fuel filter (12) and 
priming pump (14). From priming pump (14) the 
fuel goes through line (8) to eonnection (X) on the 
governor housing. The fuel goes through passages 
(Y)and (Z) to passage (D). 




FUEL INJECTION PUMP HOUSING 

4. Bypass valve. 7. Check valve. D. Passage to fuel transfer 
pump. 



Fuel injection pumps (2) send fuel, under high 
pressure, out of housing (3) into the fuel injection 
lines during injection. The fuel goes through the 
lines to the fuel injection valves in the precombus- 
tion chambers. 




FUEL FLOW THROUGH HOUSINGS 

X. Connection for fuel supply line (8). Y. Passage. Z. 
Passage. 



The fuel goes through passage (D) to fuel 
transfer pump (16). From fuel transfer pump (16) 
fuel under pressure fills fuel injection pump hous- 
ing (3). Pressure of the fuel in housing (3) is 
controlled by bypass valve (4). Pressure of the fuel 
at full load is 30 ± 5 psi (205 ± 35 kPa). If the 
pressure of the fuel in housing (3) gets too high, 
bypass valve (4) will move (open) to let some of 
the fuel return to the transfer pump (16). 



The constant bleed valve (C) lets approximately 
9 gal./ hr. (34. 1 liter/ hr) of fuel go back to the tank 
through return line (B) when the pressure in the 
housing is 25 to 32 psi (170 to 220 kPa). This now 
takes air and heat away from the housing. 




A06759X3 



CONSTANT BLEED VALVE 
C. Constant bleed valve. 



SLEEVE METERING FUEL SYSTEM 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 



System Without Siphon Break 
Or Constant Bleed 




11 12 13 14 15 

SCHEMATIC OF FUEL SYSTEM 

1. Governor housing. 2. Fuelinjection pump. 3. Fuelinjection pump housing. 4. Bypass valve. 5. Bleed valve. 6. Fuel tank. 
7. Check valve. 8. Fuel supply line. 9. Water separator (if so equipped). 10. Drain valve. 11. Vent valve. 12. Fuel filter. 13. 
Check valve. 14. Priming pump. 15. Check valve. 16. Fuel transfer pump. 




FUEL SYSTEM INSTALLED 

1. Governor housing. 2. Fuel injection pump housing. 5. 
Bleed valve. 8. Fuel supply line. 12. Fuel filter. 14. 
Priming pump. X. Connection for fuel supply line. 



11 



SLEEVE METERING FUEL SYSTEM 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 




;?Cite^ 





A99809X 



GOVERNOR AND FUEL INJECTION PUMP 
16. Fuel transfer pump. X. Connection for fuel supply line. 

When the engine is running fuel transfer pump 
(16) pulls fuel from fuel tank (6) through fuel 
supply line (8). The fuel goes through water 
separator (9) (if so equipped), fuel filter (12) and 
priming pump (14). From priming pump (14) the 
fuel goes through fuel supply line (8) to connec- 
tion (X) on the governor housing. The fuel goes 
through passages (Y) and (Z) to passage (D). 





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11 (^^^^H 


S 99/40X4 


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The fuel goes through passage (D) to fuel 
transfer pump (16). From fuel transfer pump (16) 
fuel under pressure fills the fuel injection pump 
housing (3). Pressure of the fuel in housing (3) is 
controlled by bypass valve (4). Pressure of the fuel 
at full load is 30 ± 5 psi (205 ± 35 kPa). If the 
pressure of the fuel in housing (3) gets too high, 
bypass valve (4) will move (open) to let some of 
the fuel return to the transfer pump (16). 



1 



t 



A 5 y rt 1 9 X 




-^▼jr*~^ 



FUEL INJECTION PUMP HOUSING 

4. Bypass valve. 7. Check valve. D. Passage to fuel transfer 
pump. 



Fuel injection pumps (2) send fuel, under high 
pressure, out of housing (3) into the fuel injection 
lines during injection. The fuel goes through the 
lines to the fuel injection valves in the precombus- 
tion chambers. 



FUEL FLOW THROUGH HOUSINGS 

X. Connection for fuel supply line (8). Y. Passage. 
Passage. 



Z. 



12 



I 



SLEEVE METERING FUEL SYSTEM 



System With Siphon Break 
and Constant Bleed 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 




A6t 500X1 



SCHEMATIC OF FUEL SYSTEM 



1. Governor housing. 2. Fuel injection pump. 3. Fuel injection pump housing. 4. Bypass valve. 5. Bleed valve. 6. Fuel tank. 
7. Check valve. 8. Fuel supply line. 9. Water separator (if so equipped). 10. Drain valve. 11. Vent valve. 12. Fuel filter. 13. 
Check valve. 14. Priming pump. 15. Check valve. 16. Fuel transfer pump. A. Siphon break orifice. B. Fuel return line. C. 
Constant bleed valve. 




FUEL SYSTEM INSTALLED 

(Fuel filter and priming pump fastened 

to the injection pump housing.) 

2. Fuel injection pump. 14. Priming pump. 19. Plug in hole 
for constant bleed valve (CI. 



13 



SLEEVE METERING FUEL SYSTEM 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 




A07746X3 



GOVERNOR AND FUEL INJECTION PUMP 
(Fuel filter and priming pump fastened separately) 

16. Fuel transfer pump. C. Constant bleed valve. E. Fuel 
pressure connection. F. Cover. X. Connection for fuel 
supply line (8). 

When the engine is running fuel transfer pump 
(16) pulls fuel from fuel tank (6) through fuel 
supply line (8). The fuel goes through water 
separator (9) (if so equipped), fuel filter (12) and 
into channel (17) behind cover (18). 



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- "4 


^^^^ (is) 


' AS9818XlV ^^1 


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FUEL INJECTION PUMP HOUSING COVER 
14. Priming pump. 17. Channel. 18. Cover. 

From channel (17) the fuel goes through prim- 
ing pump (14) or cover (F) into passage (D) to the 
fuel transfer pump (16). 



From fuel transfer pump (16) fuel underpres- 
sure fills fuel injection pump housing (3). Pressure 
of the fuel in housing (3) is controlled by bypass 
valve (4). Pressure of the fuel at full load is 30 ± 5 
psi (205 + 35 kPa). If the pressure of the fuel in 
housing (3) gets too high, bypass valve (4) will 
move (open) to let some of the fuel return to the 
transfer pump (16). 

Fuel injection pumps (2) send fuel, under high 
pressure, out of housing (3) into the fuel injection 
lines during injection. The fuel goes through the 
Unes to the fuel injection valves in the precombus- 
tion chambers. 

The constant bleed valve (C) lets approximately 
9 gal./ hr. (34. 1 liter/ hr) of fuel go back to the tank 
through return line (B) when the pressure in the 
housing is 25 to 32 psi (170 to 220 kPa). This flow 
takes air and heat away from the housing. 




A06759X3 



CONSTANT BLEED VALVE 
C. Constant bleed valve. 




FUEL INJECTION PUMP HOUSING 

4. Bypass valve. 7. Check valve. D. Passage to fuel transfer 
pump. 



14 



SLEEVE METERING FUEL SYSTEM 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 



FUEL FLOW USING THE PRIMING PUMP 
AND BLEED VALVE 

When the priming pump handle is pulled out, 
negative air pressure in the pump makes check valve 
(13) open and pulls fuel from the tank. Pushing the 
handle in closes check valve (13) and opens check 
valve (15). This pushes air and/or fuel into the 
housing through a passage and check valve (7). 
More operation of the priming pump will pull fuel 
from the tank until fuel supply line (8), fuel filter 
(12) and housing (3) are full of fuel. At this time the 
fuel flow from the bleed valve (5) will have no air 
bubbles. 

FUEL PRIMING PUMP 

The priming pump is on the cover of the sleeve 
metering fuel system. The purpose of the pump is to 
fill the fuel system with fuel. Operation of the pump 
with bleed valve (5) open will remove air from the 
fuel injection pump housing. 

SIPHON BREAK 

Ihe siphon break is used on vehicles which have 
the fuel tank below the fuel injection pump housing. 
When the engine stops running, the fuel stays where 
it is in the housing. 




A04157X2 



FUEL PASSAGE IN COVER 
1. Hole. 2. Cover. 




dr 



99940X2 



When the engine is running, the pressure in the 
housing holds some air in the fuel in a mixture. When 
the engine stops, the air comes out of the fuel and 
goes to the top of the housing. The air goes out of the 
housing through hole (1) in cover (2) and into a 
passage in housing (3) to passage (4). From passage 
(4), the air goes under disc (5) through scratch (6) 
and follows the fuel back to the tank. 

The siphon break is located in the fuel filter base. 
The air goes out of the fuel transfer pump housing 
through hole ( 1 ) in the cover and into passages (7) 
and (1 0) in the filter base. The air goes under disc (5) 
through scratch (6) and down through passages (II), 
(8), (9). Then the air goes through the top of the 
filter and follows the fuel back to the tank. The 
remainder of the fuel slays in the housing and filter. 




SIPHON BREAK HOUSING 
1. Hole. 7. Passage. 8. Passage. 9. Passage. 




^fl /^ 



A04130X7 





SIPHON BREAK 
3. Housing. 4. Passage. 5. Disc. 6. Scratch. 



SIPHON BREAK FUEL FILTER BASE 
5. Disc. 6. Scratch. 10. Passage. 11. Passage. 



When the engine starts the next time, the fuel in 
the housing and in the filter will be the supply for the 
engine until the transfer pump pulls the fuel from the 
tank. 



FUEL TRANSFER PUMP 

The fuel transfer pump is on the front end of 
housing for the fuel injection pumps. The output of 



15 



SLEEVE METERING FUEL SYSTEM 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 



the pump is more than the engine needs for combus- 
tion. Camshaft (4) for the fuel injection pump turns 
drive gear (3) in the transfer pump. Two lip-type 
seals (6) on the camshaft keep the fuel in the transfer 
pump apart from the engine oil in the compartment 
for the timing gears. The area between the two seals 
in connected to transfer pump drain (8). The drain 
has two functions. One function is to be an outlet for 
fuel or lubrication oil leakage. The other function is 
to give a visual indication of seal or bearing failure 
before the failure can be a cause for any other 
failures. 



FUEL FLOW AFTER ENGINE STOPS RUNNING 

When the engine is running, the pressure in the 
housing holds some air in the fuel in a mixture. When 
the engine stops, the air comes out of the fuel and 
goes to the top of the housing. The air goes out of the 
housing through hole ( 1 ) in the cover and into pas- 
sages (2) and (5) in the filter base. The air goes under 
disc (7) through scratch (6) and down through pas- 
sages (8), (3), and (4). Then the air goes through the 
top of the filter housing and the fuel stays in the 
housing and filter. 

When the engine starts the next time, the fuel in 
the housing and in the filter will be the supply for the 
engine until the transfer pump pulls the fuel from the 
tank. 




FUEL TRANSFER PUMP 

1. Seal. 2. Driven gear. 3. Drive gear. 4. Camshaft for the 
fuel injection pump. 5. Drive sleeve. 6. Lip-type seals. 



SIPHON BREAK HOUSING 
1. Hole. 2. Passage. 3. Passage. 4. Passage. 



A04I89XS 





A04I30X6 



FUEL TRANSFER PUMP BODY 

7. Outlet for lubrication oil. 8. Transfer pump drain. 9. Inlet 
for lubrication oil. 



SIPHON BREAK FUEL FILTER BASE 
5. Passage. 6. Scratch. 7. Disc. 8. Passage. 



16 



SLEEVE METERING FUEL SYSTEM 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 



FUEL INJECTION PUMP OPERATION 

The main components of a fuel injection pump in 
the sleeve metering fuel system are: plunger (7), 
barrel (3), and sleeve (8). The plunger moves up and 
down inside the barrel and sleeve. The barrel is sta- 
tionary while the sleeve is moved up and down 
around the plunger to make a change in the amount 
of fuel for injection. 

-1 -2 .3 ^4 




FUEL INJECTION PUMP OPERATION 

1. Reverse flow check valve. 2. Chamber. 3. Barrel. 4. 
Spring. 5. Fuel inlet (fill port). 6. Retainer. 7. Plunger. 8. 
Sleeve. 9. Fuel outlet (spill port). 10. Sleeve control le- 
ver. 11. Lifter. 12. Camshaft. 



The plunger, barrel, and sleeve are a fitted set and 
they must be kept together. Lifter (11) and plunger 
(7) are lifted through a full stroke by each revolution 
of the camshaft (12). The force of spring (4) on 
plunger (7) through retainer (6) holds the lifter 
against the camshaft through the full stroke cycle. 




on? 



I 



^i 



FUEL INJECTION PUMP OPERATION 

2. Chamber. 3. Barrel. 5. Fuel inlet (fill port). 7. 
Plunger. 8. Sleeve. 9. Fuel outlet (spill port). 11. 
Lifter. 12. Camshaft. A. Before injection. B. Start of injec- 
tion. C. End of injection 



Before Injection 

Before the engine can start or run correctly, the 
housing and fuel injection lines must be full of fuel 
and the sleeve (8) must be high enough on the 
plunger to close the fuel outlet (9) (spill port) during 
part of the stroke cycle. Chamber (2) fills with fuel 
through the fuel inlet (5) (fill port) which is under 
the level of the fuel in the housing. 



Injection 

Injection starts after the rotation of the camshaft 
lifts plunger (7) far enough into barrel (3) to close 
fuel inlet (5). At this time, both the fuel inlet and fuel 
outlet are closed. As more rotation of the camshaft 
lifts the plunger farther into the chamber of the 
barrel, the fuel in the chamber is put under more and 
more pressure. This pressure is felt by reverse flow 
check valve (1) and the fuel injection valve. When 
the pressure is high enough to open the fuel injection 
valve, injection starts. Injection stops when the rota- 
tion of the camshaft has lifted the plunger far enough 
to open fuel outlet (9). This puts the fuel outlet above 
the top of sleeve (8). 



17 



SLEEVE METERING FUEL SYSTEM 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 



When the fuel outlet opens, it lets pressure off of 
the fuel in the chamber. The pressure of the fuel in 
the line closes the reverse flow check valve ( 1 ). With 
no more flow of fuel, injection valve at the other end 
of the line closes. This makes the injection complete. 
The volume of fuel in the injection charge is equal to 
the volume of the plunger which is lifted into the 
barrel between the start of injection and the end of 
injection 

After Injection 

After injection has stopped, the camshaft lifts the 
plunger the rest of the way to the top of the stroke. 
The plunger is pushed out of the chamber by spring 
(4). The fuel in the housing fills the space in the 
chamber through the fuel outlet (9) until the sleeve 
closes it on the down stroke. More rotation of the 
camshaft lets the spring push the plunger down 
farther which opens fuel inlet (5). Fuel fills the rest 
of the chamber through the fuel inlet (5). Then the 
stroke cycle starts again. 

SLEEVE POSITION 

The position of the sleeve on the plunger controls 
the amount of fuel for injection. When the position of 
the sleeve on the plunger is low enough that it does 
not cover the fuel outlet during any part of the stroke, 
the pump can not make pressure for injection. This is 
the "fuel off position for the sleeve. 

If the sleeve is in a higher position on the plunger, 
the pump can make pressure for injection. This is the 
"fuel on" position. As the sleeve position is made 
higher, more fuel is put into the injection charge. 



ADJUSTMENTS TO THE SLEEVE 
METERING FUEL SYSTEM 

Fuel Pump Calibration 

For good engine performance, it is very important 
to make the setting of all of the injection pumps be 
the same. The procedure for this is called Fuel Pump 
Calibration. See the Testing and Adjusting section of 
this book. 



Fuel System Setting 

The maximum injection charge is controlled by 
the Fuel System Setting. The correct procedure and 
tooling lists for adjustments to the fuel system are in 
the Testing and Adjusting section of this book. The 
correct measurement for the fuel system setting is in 
FUEL SETTING INFORMATION. 



FUEL SYSTEM OPERATION 

Engine Running 

When the engine is running, any movement of the 
governor control shaft (1) makes a change in the 
speed of the engine. Counterclockwise movement 
(A) causes an increase in engine speed until the 
movement is held by the high idle stop (2). Clockwise 
movement (B) makes a decrease in engine speed 
until the movement is held by the low idle stop (3). 
More clockwise movement (B) moves the linkage 
beyond the detent (4) in the control. Still more clock- 
wise movement (B) causes the pumps to stop injec- 
tion and, because no fuel goes to the cylinders, the 
engine stops. 




FUEL SYSTEM OPERATION 

1. Governor control shaft. 2. High idle stop. 3. Low idle 
stop. 4. Detent. A. Counterclockwise movement. B. 
Clockwise movement. 



© ® 





AOO 179X2 

GOVERNOR CONTROL SHAFT 

1. Governor control shaft. 5. Groove. 6. Tooth. 7. Lever. 8. 
Edge of lever (7). 9. Lever. 

Governor control shaft ( I ) has a groove (5) which 
fits a tooth (6) in lever (7). Any movement of shaft 
(1) moves lever (7) in the same direction. If the shaft 
and lever have counterclockwise movement (A), an 
edge (8) of lever (7) comes into contact with lever 
(9). 



SLEEVE METERING FUEL SYSTEM 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 



•^ 



-.^nt 



A05420X2 




10 11 12 13 

FUEL SYSTEM OPERATION 



10. Seat. 11. 
Riser. 


Washer. 


12. Governor 


spring. 


13. Seat. 14. 


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B 


F~"^ 


2. 




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fm 






iu) 


/^ 


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K 






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A03739Xt 


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M 


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I 


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FUEL SYSTEM OPERATION 

13. Seat. 15. Load stop. 16. Load stop pin. 17. Lever. 18. 
Lever. 




FUEL SYSTEM OPERATION 
18. Lever. 19. Hole. 20. Pin. 

More counterclockwise movement (A) pushes le- 
ver (9) against seat (10), washer (11), governor 
spring(12), seat (13), and riser (14). The movement 
of seat (13) pushes against lever (17) which works 
like a bellcrank and pushes load stop pin ( 1 6) up. The 
load stop pin (16) can be pushed up until it is in 
contact with the load stop (15). This is the limit for 



the movement toward maximum fuel for injection. 
At the same time the lower end of lever ( 1 8 ) is in the 
groove in riser (14). As the riser moves, lever (18) 
works like a bellcrank and moves pin (20) which is in 
the top end of the lever. The pin (20) which is in the 
top end of the lever. The outer end of pin (20) has the 
shape of a ball. It fits in a hole ( 1 9) in the bottom part 
of lever (23). The turning of lever (23) makes lever 
(24) turn the fuel control shaft (21) through spring 
(22). This makes an increase in the fuel for injection 
to the cylinder. 




FUEL CONTROL SHAFT 

19. Hole. 21. Fuel control shaft. 22. Spring. 23. Lever. 24. 
Lever. 25. Pin. 

Starting the Engine 

When starting the engine, the governor control 
shaft is in the middle position. The linkages in the 
housing work in almost the same manner as when the 
engine is running. The only difference is in the func- 
tion of a spring (C) which is between seat ( 1 3) and 
riser (14). When the engine is running, the force 
from the weights in the governor is enough to cause 
compression of spring (C) until the seat (13) and 
riser (14) are in contact. For starting, the force of 
spring (C) is enough to push the riser to the full fuel 
position. This lets the engine have the maximum 
amount of fuel for injection for starting. 




99741X3 



FUEL SYSTEM OPERATION 



10. Seat. 11. Washer. 12. Governor spring. 13. Seat. 14. 
Riser. C. Spring. 



19 



SLEEVE METERING FUEL SYSTEM 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 



Before the speed of the engine is up to low idle 
speed, the governor weights make enough force to 
push spring(C) together and riser (14) and seat (13) 
come into contact. From this time on, the governor 
works to control engine speed. 

Stopping the Engine Manually 

Maximum clockwise movement (B) of the govern- 
or control shaft stops the engine. If the governor 
control shaft ( 1 ) is not at the low idle position, clock- 
wise movement (B) lets lever (9) move back away 
from the governor spring (12). Less compression in 
governor spring (12) lets riser (14) and seat (13) 
move away from the weight end of the shaft. The 
lower end of lever (18) is in the groove in riser (14). 
As the riser moves, lever (18) works like a bellcrank 
and moves pin (20) which is in the top end of the 
lever. The outer end of pin (20) has the shape of a 
ball. It fits in a hole ( 19) in the bottom part of lever 
(23). The turning of lever (18) makes lever (23) push 
against lever (24) which turns the fuel control shaft 
(21). 

This makes a decrease in the amount of fuel for 
injection to the cylinder. 

When the governor control shaft ( 1 ) is in the low 
idle position, more clockwise movement (B) makes 
pin (27) in the end of lever (28) move against lever 
(26). Lever (26) works as a bellcrank. As it turns 
from the pressure of pin (27) the other end of the 
lever (26) moves against the pin (25) in lever (24). 

Lever (24) is tight on the fuel control shaft (21) 
and more movement in that direction causes the 
pumps to stop injection and, because no fuel goes to 
the cylinders, the engine stops. 



GOVERNOR 

1 2 




FUEL SYSTEM OPERATION 

1. Governor control shaft. 9. Lever. 12. Governor 
spring. 26. Lever. 27. Pin. 28. Lever. 29. Shalt. B. Clock- 
wise movement. 

Pushing the governor control lever past the detent 
manually stops the engine. 




A48064X 



GOVERNOR 

1. Seat. 2. Washer. 3. Governor spring. 4. Seat. 5. 
Riser. 6. Tachometer drive shaft. 7. Race. 8. Bearing. 9. 
Race. 



The governor for the Sleeve Metering Fuel System 
is of the mechanical type. It works to keep the speed 
of the engine from changing when there is an in- 
crease or decrease in load when the engine is running 
with governor control shaft stationary. 




^^:s;T^"»-jr.»^»»rrr-T-.ae^,-^- 



iSii 



GOVERNOR WEIGHTS 

6. Tachometer drive shaft. 10. Weight. 11. Pin. 12. Car- 
rier. 13. Slot. 14. Pin. 

Carrier (12) for weights (10) is held on one end of 
the camshaft by bolts. Tachometer drive shaft (6) is 
through the center of the governor parts. The shaft 
has a radial hole through the driven end. A pin ( 14) is 
through this hole and fits into slot ( 1 3) in the carrier 
on both sides of the shaft. 



20 



SLEEVE METERING FUEL SYSTEM 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 



Weights ( 1 0) are connected to carrier ( 1 2) by pins 
(11). Weights (10) and pins (11) work like bell- 
cranks and pivots. When the camshaft and carrier 
(12) turn, the outer parts of weights (10) move out 
from the center. The inner parts push against race 
(9), bearing (8), and race (7) (thrust bearing). The 
thrust bearing removes the turning movement but 
puts the thrust against the shoulder of riser (5). Riser 
(5) is against seat (4) which is against governor 
spring (3). 




A03739X3 



FUEL SYSTEM OPERATION 

4. Seat. 15. Load stop. 16. Load stop pin. 17. Lever. 18. 
Lever. 



Governor spring (3) and washer (2) are in 
compression between seat ( 1 ) and seat (4). Seat ( 1 ) 
is held in position by the lever on the governor control 
shaft. There is a balance between the forces from 
weights (10) and governor spring (3) as long as the 
load on the engine does not change. 

When there is a decrease in the load on the engine 
the engine starts to make an increase in speed. The 
weights in the governor turn faster causing the outer 
parts of weights to move out farther. This puts more 
force against the thrust bearing. The thrust bearing 
pushes riser (5) which puts more compression on 
governor spring (3). At the same time the lower end 
of lever (18) is in the groove in riser (5). 

The movement of riser (5) moves lever (18) to 
make a decrease in the amount of fuel for injection. 
With less fuel, the engine has a decrease in speed. 
The governor has this action again and again until 
the governor is in balance. When the governor is in 
balance the engine speed will be the same as it was 
before there was a decrease in load. 

If there is an increase in the load on the engine, the 
engine starts to make a decrease in speed. The 
weights in the governor turn slower. The thrust from 
weights against the riser will be less, so the spring 
pushes the riser to the right. 



The movement of riser (5) makes lever (18) move 
the fuel control shaft to make an increase in the 
amount of fuel for injection. With more fuel, the 
engine runs faster. The governor has this action 
again and again until the governor is in balance. 
When the governor is in balance, the engine speed is 
the same as it was before the engine had an increase 
in load. 



"NON-ADJUSTABLE DASHPOT" GOVERNOR 

The "non-adjustable dashpot" governor gets its 
name from the function of some of the parts in the 
governor. These parts work together like a "dash- 
pot" or shock absorber to make the rpm of the 
engine steady. Governor piston (6) moves in 
cylinder (3) which is filled with fuel. The move- 
ment of piston (6) in cylinder (3) either pulls fuel 




6 7j 

NON-ADJUSTABLE DASHPOT GOVERNOR 

1. Orifice. 2. Hole in bottom of cylinder. 3. Cylinder. 4. 
Governor spring. 5. Weights. 6. Piston. 7. Dashpot 
spring. 8. Seat. 9. Riser. 

into cylinder (3) or pushes it OLit. In either 
direction the tlow of fuel is through hole (2) in the 
bottom of cylinder (3) and through orifice ( 1) to 
the inside of the housing. The restriction to the 
tlow of the fuel by orifice ( 1 ) gives the governor its 
"dashpot" function. The fixed size of orifice (1) 
makes the "dashpot" function non-adjustable. 

When the engine has a decrease in load, the 
engine starts to run faster. The governor weights 
push against riser (9). Riser (9) pushes against 
governor spring (4) with more force. The addition- 
al force starts to move riser (9). This puts more 
compression on governor spring (4) and starts to 
put dashpot spring (7) in compression. 

Dashpot spring (7) is in compression because the 
fuel in cylinder (3) behind piston (6) can only go 
out through hole (2) in the bottom of cylinder (3). 
The rate of flow through hole (2) and orifice (1) 
controls how fast piston (6) moves. As the fuel 



21 



SLEEVE METERING FUEL SYSTEM 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 



fitfnrrsr 



i n'tv**^! '5 



^4,.- >x,,i..MJtm4mi,mmmA-im^A: y 




DASHPOT GOVERNOR PISTON 
6. Piston. 7. Dashpot spring. 8. Seat. 

goes out of cylinder (3), piston (6) moves into tlie 
space from the fuel. This lets compression off of 
dashpot spring (7) gradually. 




fA066 67 - 1X1. 



NON-ADJUSTABLE DASHPOT 
GOVERNOR CYLINDER 

2. Hole in bottom of cylinder. 3. Cylinder. 

When governor spring (4) and dashpot spring (7) 
are both in compression, their forces work together 
against the force of the governor weights. This 
gives the effect of having a governor spring with a 
high spring rate. A governor spring with a high 
spring rate keeps the engine rpm from having 
oscillations during load changes. When the engine 
rpm and the engine load are both s*~.'iay, governor 
spring (4) works alone to keep the engine rpm 
steady. This gives the engine more sensitive rpm 
control under steady load conditions. 

When the engine has an increase in load, the 
engine starts to run slower. The governor weights 
push against riser (9) and seat (8) for governor 
spring (4) with less force. Governor spring (4) 
starts to push seat (8) and riser (9) to give the 
engine more fuel for injection. Seat (8) is connect- 
ed to piston (6) through dashpot spring (7). When 
seat (8) and riser (9) start to move, the action puts 
dashpot spring (7) in tension. Piston (6) has to pull 



fuel into cylinder (3) from the governor housing to 
take its space so that it can move. This makes the 
movement of seat (8) for the governor spring (4) 
and riser (9) more gradual. 

During this condition, dashpot spring (7) is 
pulling against governor spring (4). This gives the 
effect of a governor spring with a high spring rate. 
A governor spring with a high spring rate keeps the 
engine speed from having oscillations during load 
changes. It lets the engine have just enough fuel for 
injection to keep the engine speed steady. 

Tlie functions of the other parts in the governor 
housing are the same as in the standard governor. 



FUEL RATIO CONTROL 

The fuel ratio control is on the fuel system as a 
limit for the amount of fuel for injection during an 
increase in engine speed (acceleration). The purpose 
is to keep the amount of smoke in the exhaust gas at a 
minimum. 

When the engine is running, air pressure from the 
inlet manifold is in chamber (1) of the control. The 
combination of the force from the air pressure and 
spring (2) makes a balance with spring (3). The 
balance controls the position of bolt (4). When the 
governor control is moved to make an increase in 
engine speed, the linkage moves to turn the fuel 
control shaft to put more fuel into each injection. 




FUEL RATIO CONTROL 
1. Chamber. 2. Spring. 3. Spring. 4. Bolt. 

When the adjustment of the fuel ratio control is 
correct there will be enough increase in the fuel for 
injection to make the engine accelerate rapidly. If the 
adjustment is correct, there will not be too much 
smoke in the exhaust when the engine accelerates. 



22 



SLEEVE METERING FUEL SYSTEM 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 



FUEL INJECTION VALVE-PC 

Fuel, under high pressure from the injection 
pumps, is sent through the fuel lines to the fuel 
injection valves. When the fuel under high pressure 
goes into the nozzle assembly, the check valve inside 
the nozzle opens and the fuel goes into the precom- 
bustion chamber. The injection valve changes the 
fuel to many very small drops of fuel. This gives the 
fuel the correct characteristics for good combustion. 




CROSS SECTION OF THE PRECOMBUSTION 
CHAMBER AND FUEL INJECTION VALVE 

1. Fuel injection line. 2. Nut. 3. Glow plug. 4. Body. 5. Noz- 
zle assembly. 6. Precombustion chamber. 



GLOW PLUGS-PC 

Glow plugs are an aid for cold weather starting. 
During cold weather starting, the pressure in the 
cylinders made by the compression stroke is not en- 
ough to start combustion of the fuel injection charge. 
Activating the glow plugs for the correct length of 
time heats the precombustion chambers to the tem- 
perature which is necessary for combustion when the 
engine is turned for starting. After combusiton starts 
and the starter motor is no longer necessary to keep 
the engine running, more operation of the glow plugs 
heats the precombustion chambers until the engine is 
running smoothly. 

INJECTION NOZZLE-DI 

The fuel inlet (5) and nozzle tip (14) are part of 
the nozzle body. Valve (7) is held in position by 
spring force. The force of spring ( 1 1 ) is controlled by 



pressure adjustment screw (3). Locknul (10) holds 
pressure adjustment screw (3) in position. The lift of 
valve (7) is controlled by lift adjustment screw (2). 
Locknut (9) holds lift adjustment screw (2) in posi- 
tion. Compression seal (6) goes on the nozzle body. 

Compression seal (6) goes against the fitting of the 
fuel inlet (5) and prevents the leakage of compres- 
sion from the cylinder. Carbon dam (13), at the 
lower end of the nozzle body, prevents the deposit of 
carbon in the bore in the cylinder head. 




7N449 FUEL INJECTION NOZZLE 

1. Cap. 2. Lift adjustment screw. 3. Pressure adjustment 
screw. 4. 0-ring. 5. Fuel inlet. 6. Compression seal. 7. 
Valve. 8. Orifices (nine). 9. Locknut (for lift adjustment 
screw). 10. Locknut (for pressure adjustment screw). 11. 
Spring. 12. Diameter. 13. Carbon dam. 14. Nozzle tip. 



Fuel, under high pressure from the fuel injection 
pump goes through the hole in fuel inlet (5). The fuel 
then goes around valve (7), fills the inside of the 
nozzle body and pushes against diameter ( 12). When 
the force made by the pressure of the fuel is more 
than the force of spring (11), valve (7) will lift. When 
valve (7) lifts, fuel under high pressure will go 
through the nine .0088 in. (0.224 mm) orifices (8) 
into the cylinder. When the fuel is sent to the cy- 
linder, the force made by the pressure of the fuel in 
the nozzle body will become less. The force of the 
spring will then be more than the force of the pres- 
sure of the fuel on diameter ( 1 2). Valve (7) will move 
to the closed position. 

Valve (7) is a close fit with the inside of nozzle tip 
(14). This makes a positive seal for the valve. 

When the fuel is sent to the cylinder, a very small 
quantity of fuel will leak by diameter ( 12). This fuel 
gives lubrication to the moving parts of the fuel 
injection nozzle. 



23 



SCROLL FUEL SYSTEM-PC 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 



SCROLL FUEL SYSTEM 




29387-4X1 



SCROLL FUEL SYSTEM SCHEMATIC 

1. Fuel priming pump. 2. Fuel transfer pump bypass valve. 3. Fuel filter. 4. Fuel injection pump. 5. Precombustion 
chamber. 6. Fuel supply line. 7. Primary fuel filter. 8. Fuel transfer pump. 9. Fuel injection pump housing fuel manifold. 



INTRODUCTION 

The scroll fuel system is a pressure type system. 
There is one injection pump and injection valve for 
each cylinder. The injection pumps are in the pump 
housing. The injection valves are in the precombus- 
tion chambers. 

The transfer pump (8) pulls fuel from the fuel tank 
through primary filter (7). It sends the fuel through 
the priming pump ( 1 ), main filter (3), and to mani- 
fold (9) of the injection pump housing. The fuel in 
manifold (9) of the injection pump housing goes to 
the injection pumps. The injection pumps are in time 
with the engine and send fuel to the injection valves 
under high pressure. 

Priming pump ( 1 ) is used to fill the system with 
fuel and to remove air from the fuel filter, fuel lines 
and components. 

The transfer pump has a bypass valve. The bypass 
valve controls the maximum pressure of the fuel. The 
extra fuel goes back to the inlet of the pump. 



FUEL SYSTEM TIMING 

The timing of this Engine is 13° 30' ± 1° before 
TC (top center). 

FUEL INJECTION PUMP 

Injection pump plungers (5) and lifters (8) are 
lifted by cams on camshaft (9) and always make a 
full stroke. The force of springs (6) hold the lifters 
(8) against the cams of camshaft (9). 

Fuel from fuel manifold (1) goes through inlet 
passage (2) in the barrel and then into the chamber 
above plunger (5). During injection, the camshaft 
cam moves plunger (5) up in the barrel. This move- 
ment will close inlet passage (2) and push the fuel 
through the fuel lines to the injection valves. 

The amount of fuel sent to the injection valves is 
controlled by turning plungers (5) in the barrels. 
When the governor moves fuel rack (7), the fuel rack 
moves gears (4) that are fastened to the bottom of 
plungers (5). 



24 




SYSTEMS OPERATION 



T77627 



FUEL INJECTION PUMP 



1. Fuel manifold. 2. Inlet port. 3. Check valve. 4. Gear seg- 
ment. 5. Pump plunger. 6. Spring. 7. Fuel rack. 8. 
Lifter. 9. Camshaft. 

GOVERNOR OPERATION 

The accelerator pedal is connected to the control 
lever on the engine governor. The governor controls 
the amount of fuel needed to keep the desired engine 
rpm. 

The governor has governor weights (11) driven by 
the engine through drive gear (7). When the engine is 
running, the rotation of weights (11) makes a force. 
The difference in the force of weights (11) and spring 
(4) controls the movement of valve ( 1 2). Valve ( 1 2) 
sends engine oil to either side of piston (13). Piston 
( 1 3 ) will move the rack to increase or decrease fuel to 
the engine. 

When engine load increases, engine rpm de- 
creases. The speed of rotation of weights (11) be- 
comes less. Weights (11) move toward each other 
and make less force. Governor spring (4) can move 
valve ( 1 2) forward. As valve ( 1 2) moves forward, oil 
passage (6) around valve (12) opens to pressure oil. 
Oil is sent through passage (6) and fills the chamber 
behind piston (13). The pressure oil pushes piston 
(13) and the rack forward. This increases the amount 
of fuel to the engine. Engine rpm increases until the 
force from the rotation of weights (11) makes a 
balance with the force of governor spring (4). 

When engine load decreases, engine rpm in- 
creases. The speed of rotation of weights (11) in- 
creases. Weights (11) move apart and make more 




HYDRAULIC GOVERNOR 
(Later Governor Shown) 

1. Collar. 2. Lever assembly. 3. Seat. 4. Governor spring. 
5. Thrust bearing. 6. Oil passage. 7. Drive gear (weight 
assembly). 8. Cylinder. 9. Bolt. 10. Spring seat. 11. 
Weight. 12. Valve. 13. Piston. 14. Sleeve. 15. Oil 
passage. The governor valve is shown in the position when the 
force of the weights and the force of the spring are balanced. 

force against governor spring (4). Valve (12) moves 
backwards and sends the oil behind piston (13) 
through a drain passage, opened at the rear of piston 
(13). The pressure oil in the chamber between sleeve 
( 1 4) and piston (13) pushes piston ( 1 3) and the rack 
backwards. This decreases the amount of fuel to the 
engine. Engine rpm decreases until the force from 
the rotation of weights (11) makes a balance with the 
force of governor spring (4). 

On earlier engines, when the engine is started, the 
speed limiter plunger restricts the movement of the 
governor control linkage. When operating oil pres- 
sure is reached, the plunger in the speed limiter 
retracts and the governor control can be moved to the 
HIGH IDLE position. 

When engine rpm is at LOW IDLE, a spring- 
loaded plunger in lever assembly (2) comes in con- 
tact with a shoulder on the adjustment screw for low 
idle. To stop the engine, pull back on the governor 
control. This will let the spring-loaded plunger move 
over the shoulder on the low idle adjusting screw and 
move the fuel rack to the fuel OFF position. With no 
fuel to the engine cylinders, the engine will stop. 

Oil from the engine lubrication system gives lubri- 
cation to the governor weight bearing. The other 
parts of the governor get lubrication from "splash- 
lubrication" (oil thrown by other parts). Oil from the 
governor runs down into the housing for the fuel 
injection pumps. 



25 



SCROLL FUEL SYSTEM— PC 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 



FUEL INJECTION VALVE 

Fuel, under high pressure from the injection 
pumps, is sent through the fuel lines to the fuel 
injection valves. When the fuel under high pressure 
goes into the nozzle assembly, the check valve inside 
the nozzle opens and the fuel goes into the precom- 
bustion chamber. The injection valve changes the 
fuel to many very small drops of fuel. This gives the 
fuel the correct characteristics for good combustion. 




CROSS SECTION OF THE PRECOMBUSTION 
CHAMBER AND FUEL INJECTION VALVE 

1. Fuel injection line. 2. Nut. 3. Glow plug. 4. Body. 5. Noz- 
zle assembly. 6. Precombustion chamber. 



GLOW PLUGS 

Glow plugs are an aid for cold weather starting. 
During cold weather starting, the pressure in the 
cylinders made by the compression stroke is not en- 
ough to start combustion of the fuel injection charge. 
Activating the glow plugs for the correct length of 
time heats the precombustion chambers to the tem- 
perature which is necessary for combustion when the 
engine is turned for starting. After combustion starts 
and the starter motor is no longer necessary to keep 
the engine running, more operation of the glow plugs 
heats the precombustion chambers until the engine is 
running smoothly. 



26 



SCROLL FUEL SYSTEM-DI 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 



SCROLL FUEL SYSTEM 




29387-4X1 



SCROLL FUEL SYSTEM SCHEMATIC 

1. Fuel priming pump. 2. Fuel transfer pump bypass valve. 3. Fuel filter. 4. Fuel injection pump. 5. Injection nozzle. 6. Fuel 
supply line. 7. Primary fuel filter. 8. Fuel transfer pump. 9. Fuel injection pump housing fuel manifold. 



INTRODUCTION 

The scroll fuel system is a pressure type system. 
There is one injection pump and injection nozzle for 
each cylinder. The injection pumps are in the pump 
housing. The injection nozzles are in the adapters. 

The transfer pump (8) pulls fuel from the fuel tank 
through primary filter (7). It sends the fuel through 
the priming pump ( 1 ), main filter (3), and to mani- 
fold (9) of the injection pump housing. The fuel in 
manifold (9) of the injection pump housing goes to 
the injection pumps. The injection pumps are in time 
with the engine and send fuel to the injection nozzles 
(5) under high pressure. 

Priming pump ( 1 ) is used to fill the system with 
fuel and to remove air from the fuel filter, fuel lines, 
and fuel pump housing. 

The transfer pump has a bypass valve. The bypass 
valve controls the maximum pressure of the fuel. The 
extra fuel goes back to the inlet of the pump. 



FUEL SYSTEM TIMING 

Engines without turbocharger 27 ± 1° 

FUEL INJECTION PUMP 

The injection pumps are located in the injection 
pump housing. There is one injection pump for each 
cylinder. The operation of each is similar. The injec- 
tion pumps send fuel through the injection lines to 
the injection nozzles. 



Injection timing is controlled by the relationship 
between the fuel pump drive gear and the front gear 
train. The fuel pump drive gear is fastened to the fuel 
pump drive shaft. A tang on the rear of the fuel pump 
drive shaft engages in a slot on injection pump cam- 
shaft (9). This arrangement drives the injection 
pump camshaft at 1/2 engine rpm. 

When plunger (4) is down, fuel in manifold (1) 
goes through inlet passage (7) and fills the chamber 



27 



SCROLL FUEL SYSTEM-DI 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 



above plunger (4). As camshaft (9) turns, lifter (5) 
and plunger (4) move up. The plunger closes off inlet 
passage (7). The pressure of the fuel in the chamber 
above the plunger increases. At 170 psi (11 70 kPa) 
check assembly (2) opens. Fuel flows to the injection 
nozzle until plunger (4) moves up enough to open 
inlet passage (7) to the pressure relief passage cut in 
the plunger. The pressure in the chamber above the 
plunger decreases and check assembly (2) closes. 

If the pressure in the injection line is above 1000 
psi (6900 kPa), a small check valve at the center of 
check assembly (2) opens. This lets fuel pressure in 
the injection line go down to 1000 psi (6900 kPa). In 
between injections the injection line pressure goes 
down to manifold pressure through a scratch on the 
face of check assembly (2). 




CROSS SECTION OF FUEL INJECTION PUMP 
AND HOUSING 

1. Inlet manifold. 2. Check assembly. 3. Pressure relief 
passage. 4. Plunger. 5. Lifter. 6. Gear. 7. Inlet passage. 8. 
Fuel rack. 9. Camshaft. 

Governor movement of fuel rack (8) causes rota- 
tion of gear (6) that is fastened to plunger (4). Pres- 
sure relief passage (3), on the plunger, is designed so 



that when fuel rack (8) is moved in the fuel on 
direction the period during which inlet passage (7) is 
closed increases. The longer the inlet passage is 
closed, the larger the amount of fuel which will be 
forced through check assembly. 

GOVERNOR (HYDRA-MECHANICAL) 
Mechanical Operation 



) Aa- 




ATKH-JVO * • ^ 




RIGHT SIDE OF ENGINE 
A. Governor. 

Governor (A) is fastened to the rear of the injec- 
tion pump housing. A gear on the rear of the injection 
pump camshaft drives a gear that is part of weight 
assembly (4). Flyweights (12) are fastened to the 
weight assembly by pivot pins. The centrifugal force 
caused by the rotation of the weight assembly causes 
the flyweights to move out. This action of the 
flyweights changes the centrifugal force to axial 
force against governor spring (3). There is a thrust 
bearing between the toes of the flyweights and the 
seat for the governor spring. Movement of valve (9) 
is controlled by the action of the flyweights against 
the force of the governor spring. 

The engine is at the governed (desired) rpm when 
the axial force of the flyweights is the same as the 
force of compression in the governor spring. When 
lever assembly ( 1 ) is against the high idle stop, the 
governor weights are out. The engine runs at high 
idle rpm. 

As load is put on the engine the flyweights slow. 
They move in because they have less centrifugal 
force. This causes valve (9) to push rack (18) to the 
right. There is more fuel to the engine to carry the 
load. The centrifugal force and spring force balance 
at the governed (desired) rpm. 

As load is removed from the engine the flyweights 
increase speed. They move out because they have 
more centrifugal force. This causes valve (9) to pull 
piston (6) to the left. The piston is connected to rack 
( 1 8). There is less fuel to the engine. The centrifugal 



28 



SCROLL FUEL SYSTEM-DI 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 



force and spring force balance at the governed (de- 
sired) rpm. 

When engine rpm is at low idle, a spring loaded 
plunger in lever assembly (1) makes contact with a 
shoulder on the adjustment screw for low idle. To 
stop the engine pull back on the governor control. 
This will move the spring loaded plunger over the 
shoulder. Spring (11) will move the rack to the fuel 
off position. With no fuel to the engine cylinders, the 
engine will stop. 

After the engine has stopped, a small force from 
spring (2) moves rack (18) to the right. When the 
governor control is moved forward to start the engine 
this gives the engine full fuel. Spring (2) is extended 
only when the engine is stopped during start. During 
normal operation, the force of the flyweights and the 
governor spring keep spring (2) in compression. 

Hydraulic Operation 

The hydraulic action of the governor helps give 
smooth governor operation. 

B14464X2 < _-<rT>.^ 9 



Engine oil under pressure goes into the governor 
through passage (17). The oil flows around sleeve 
(15). Part of the oil goes through passage ( 1 4) to give 
lubrication between cylinder ( 1 6) and weight assem- 
bly (4). The rest of the oil flows into chamber (7), 
through two passages (8) in piston (6), between the 
piston and valve (9), then out between the piston and 
valve at the left end. This oil gives splash lubrication 
(oil thrown by other parts) to governor components. 
Oil in the governor housing drains into the injection 
pump housing. 

NOTE: Chamber (5) is filled with oil through two 
small passages (8) in piston (6). 

When the force of compression in the governor 
spring increases (operator calls for more rpm) or the 
axial force of the flyweights decreases (load on the 
engine increases), valve (9) moves to the right. The 
flow of oil between the left end of valve and piston (6) 
stops. Oil flows through passage (8) into chamber 
(5). This pressure oil helps move the piston and rack 
(18) hydraulically. The engine gets more fuel. 

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 




15L_1L 



nJ 18 



12 13 

GOVERNOR CROSS SECTION 
1. Lever assembly. 2. Spring. 3. Governor spring. 4. Weight assembly. 5. Chamber. 6. Piston. 7. Chamber. 8. Passage 9 
Valve. 10. Torque spring. 11. Spring. 12. Flyweight. 13. Passage. 14. Passage. 15. Sleeve. 16. Cylinder. 17. Passage. 18. Rack. 



29 



SCROLL FUEL SYSTEM-DI 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 



When the force of compression in the governor 
spring decreases (operator calls for less rpm) or the 
axial force of the flyweights increases (load on the 
engine decreases) valve (9) moves to the left. This 
stops the flow of oil between the right end of the valve 
and piston (6). Pressure oil in chamber (7) pushes the 
piston and rack to the left. The engine gets less fuel. 

INJECTION NOZZLES 

The fuel injection nozzles are located in the cy- 
linder head. There is one injection nozzle above each 
cylinder. The operation of each is similar. 




10 11 12 13 

FUEL INJECTION NOZZLE 

1. Cap. 2. Lift adjustment screw. 3. Pressure adjustment 
screw. 4. Locknut (or pressure adjustment screw. 5. O- 
ring seal. 6. Fuel inlet. 7. Compression seal. 8. Valve. 9. 
Orifices (four). 10. Locknut for lift adjustment screw. 11. 
Nozzle body. 12. Carbon dam. 13. Nozzle tip. 

Fuel inlet (6) and nozzle tip (13) are parts of 
nozzle body (11). Valve (8) is held in position by 
spring force. The force of the spring is controlled by 
pressure adjustment screw (3). Locknut (4) holds 



pressure adjustment screw (3) in position. The lift of 
valve (8) is controlled by lift adjustment screw (2). 
Locknut (10) holds lift adjustment screw (2) in posi- 
tion. Compression seal (7) goes on nozzle body (11). 

The compression seal goes against fuel inlet (6) 
and prevents the leakage of compression from the 
cylinder. Carbon dam (12), at the lower end of noz- 
zle body (11) prevents the deposit of carbon in the 
bore for the nozzle. 

Fuel, under high pressure from the fuel injection 
pump goes through the hole in fuel inlet (6). The fuel 
then goes around valve (8), fills the inside of nozzle 
body (11) and pushes against the valve guide. When 
the force made by the pressure of the fuel is more 
than the force of the spring, valve (8) will lift. When 
valve (8) lifts, fuel under high pressure will go 
through the nine .0088 in. (0.224 mm) orifices (9) 
into the cylinder. When the fuel is sent to the cy- 
linder, the force made by the pressure of the fuel in 
the nozzle body will become less. The force of the 
spring will then be more than the force of the pres- 
sure of the fuel in the nozzle body. Valve (8) will 
move to the closed position. 

Valve (8) is close fit with the inside of nozzle tip 
(13), and this makes a positive seal for the valve. 

When the fuel is sent to the cylinder, a very small 
quantity of fuel will leak by the valve guide. This fuel 
gives lubrication to the moving parts of the fuel 
injection nozzle. 



30 



SCROLL FUEL SYSTEM-DI 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 



AIR INLET AND EXHAUST SYSTEM 

AIR INLET AND EXHAUST SYSTEM 
(Engines With Turbochargers) 

2 




46992—1X1 



AIR INLET AND EXHAUST SYSTEM FOR ENGINES WITH A TURBOCHARGER 

1. Exhaust manifold. 2. Inlet manifold. 3. Engine cylinder. 4. Turbocharger compressor wheel. 5. Turbocharger turbine wheel 6 
Air inlet. 7. Exhaust outlet. 

The air inlet and exhaust system components are: 
air cleaner, inlet manifold, cylinder head, valves and 
valve system components, exhaust manifold and 
turbocharger. 

Clean inlet air from the air cleaner is pulled 
through the air inlet (6) of the turbocharger by the 
turning compressor wheel (4). The compressor wheel 
causes a compression of the air. The air then goes to 
the inlet manifold (2) of the engine. When the intake 
valves open, the air goes into the engine cylinder (3) 
and is mixed with the fuel for combustion. When the 
exhaust valves open, the exhaust gases go out of the 
engine cylinder and into the exhaust manifold (1). 
From the exhaust manifold, the exhaust gases go 
through the blades of the turbine wheel (5). This 
causes the turbine wheel and compressor wheel to 
turn. The exhaust gases then go out the exhaust 
outlet (7) of the turbocharger. 




AIR INLET AND EXHAUST SYSTEM 
1. Exhaust manifold. 2. Inlet manifold. 8. Turbocharger. 



31 



AIR INLET AND EXHAUST SYSTEM 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 



TURBOCHARGER 

The turbocharger is installed on the exhaust mani- 
fold. All the exhaust gases from the engine go 
through the turbocharger. 

The exhaust gases go through the blades of the 
turbine wheel. This causes the turbine wheel and 
compressor wheel to turn which causes a compres- 
sion of the inlet air 

12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .10 




12 13 14 15 16 



TURBOCHARGER 
(Typical Illustration) 

1. Air inlet. 2. Compressor housing. 3. Nut. 4. Compres- 
sor wheel. 5. Thrust plate. 6. Center housing. 7. Lubrica- 
tion inlet port. 8. Shroud. 9. Turbine wheel and shaft. 10. 
Turbine housing. 11. Exhaust outlet. 12. Spacer. 13. 
Ring. 14. Seal. 15. Collar. 16. Lubrication outlet port. 17. 
Ring. 18. Bearing. 19. Ring. 

When the load on the engine goes up more fuel is 
put into the engine. This makes more exhaust gases 
and will cause the turbine and compressor wheels of 
the turbocharger to turn faster. As the turbocharger 
turns faster, it gives more inlet air and makes it 
possible for the engine to burn more fuel and will give 
the engine more power. 

Maximum rpm of the turbocharger is controlled 
by the fuel or rack setting, the high idle speed setting 
and the height above sea level at which the engine is 
operated. 



The bearings for the turbocharger use engine oil 
under pressure for lubrication. The oil comes in 
through the oil inlet port and goes through passages 
in the center section for lubrication of the bearings. 
Oil from the turbocharger goes out through the oil 

outlet port in the bottom of the center section and 
goes back to the engine lubrication system. 

The fuel system adjustment is done at the factory 
for a specific engine application. The governor hous- 
ing and turbocharger are sealed to prevent changes 
in the adjustment of the fuel or rack setting and the 
high idle speed setting. 



AIR INLET AND EXHAUST SYSTEM 
(Engines Without Turbochargers) 



A WARIUIIMG 




A440t4Xt 



if the high idle rpm or the fuel system setting is 
higher than given in the FUEL SETTING INFOR- 
MATION (for the height above sea level at 
which the engine is operated), there can be 
damage to engine or turbocharger parts. 



AIR INLET AND EXHAUST SYSTEM FOR 
ENGINES WITHOUT A TURBOCHARGER 

1. Exhaust manifold. 2. Inlet manifold. 3. Engine cylinder. 

The air inlet and exhaust system components are: 
air cleaner, inlet manifold, cylinder head, valves and 
valve system components and exhaust manifold. 



32 



AIR INLET AND EXHAUST SYSTEM 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 



When the engine is running, each time a piston 
moves through the inlet stroke, it pulls air into the 
cylinder. The air flow is through the air filter, inlet 
manifold, passages in the cylinder head and past the 
open intake valve into the cylinder. Too much restric- 
tion in the inlet air system makes the efficiency of the 
engine less. 

When the engine is running, each time a piston 
moves through the exhaust stroke, it pushes hot ex- 
haust gases from the cylinder. The exhaust gas flow 
is out of the cylinder between the open exhaust valve 
and the exhaust valve seat. Then it goes through 
passages in the cylinder head, through the exhaust 
manifold and out through the exhaust pipe. Too 
much restriction in the exhaust system makes the 
efficiency of the engine less. 

TIMING GEARS 

The timing gears are at the front of the cylinder 
block. Their cover is the housing for the timing gears. 
The timing gears keep the rotation of the crankshaft, 
camshaft and fuel injection pump in the correct rela- 
tion to each other. The timing gears are driven by the 
crankshaft gear. 



VALVES AND VALVE MECHANISM 

The valves and valve mechanism control the flow 
of air and exhaust gases in the cylinder during engine 
operation. 

The intake and exhaust valves are opened and 
closed by movement of these components; crank- 
shaft, camshaft, valve lifters (cam followers), push 
rods, rocker arms and valve spring. Rotation of the 
crankshaft causes rotation of the camshaft. The 
camshaft gear is driven by, and timed to, a gear on 
the front of the crankshaft. When the camshaft 
turns, the cams on the camshaft also turn and cause 
the valve lifter (cam followers) to go up and down. 
This movement makes the push rods move the rocker 
arms. The movement makes the push rods move the 
rocker arms. The movement of the rocker arms will 
make the intake and exhaust valves in the cylinder 
head open according to the firing order (injection 
sequence) of the engine. A valve spring for each valve 
pushes the valve back to the closed position. 

Valve rotators cause the valves to have rotation 
while the engine is running. This rotation of the 
valves keeps the deposit of carbon on the valves to a 
minimum and gives the valves longer service life. 




TIMING GEARS 

1. Drive gear for fuel injection pump. 2. Idler gear for fuel 
injection pump. 3. Camshaft gear. 4. Crankshaft gear. 5. 
Balancer shafts. 6. Idler gear for oil pump. 7. Drive gear 
for oil pump. 



33 



LUBRICATION SYSTEM 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 



LUBRICATION SYSTEM 

4 




A4I89IXt 

LUBRICATION SYSTEM SCHEMATIC 
(For Engines With Turbocharger) 

1. Oil pressure connection. 2. Piston cooling orifices. 3. Oil supply for turbocharger. 4. Oil passage 
through rocker shaft to rocker arms. 5. Oil pressure connection. 6. Camshaft bores. 7. Oil manifold. 8. 
Filter bypass. 9. Turbocharger (if so equipped). 10. Oil filler. 11. Oil cooler. 12. Oil sump. 13. Oil pump. 
14. Oil cooler bypass. 15. Balancer shaft bores. 



The lubrication system has the following compo- 
nents: oil pan, oil pump, oil cooler, oil filter, oil 
passages in the cylinder block, and lines to engine 
components and attachments. 

NOTE: Most engines without turbochargers do not 
have an oil cooler (I 1). If a turbocharger is installed 



on the engine, be sure to install an oil cooler (II) 
and orifices (2). If the engine has an oil cooler (11) 
and no turbocharger. be sure to install orifices(2). If 
the engine does not have an oil cooler (II) or a 
turbocharger, plugs must be installed in the holes for 
orifices (2) in the cylinder block. 



34 



LUBRICATION SYSTEM 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 




B44737X1 



LUBRICATION SYSTEM SCHEMATIC 
(For Engines With Oil Cooler and Without Turbocharger) 

1. Oil pressure connection. Piston cooling orltices. 4. Oil passage through rocker shaft to rocker arms. 5. Oil pressure 
connection. 6. Camshaft bores. 7. Oil manifold. 8. Filter bypass. 10. Oil filter. 11. Oil cooler. 12. Oil sump. 13.011 
pump. 14. Oil cooler bypass. 15. Balancer shaft bores. 



35 



LUBRICATION SYSTEM 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 



OIL FLOW THROUGH THE OIL FILTER 
AND OIL COOLER 



With the engine warm (normal operation), oil 
comes from the oil pan (6) through the suction bell 
(9) to the oil pump (7). The oil pump sends warm oil 
to the oil cooler (10) and then to the oil filter (4). 
From the oil filter, oil is sent to the oil manifold ( 1 ) in 
the cylinder block and to the oil supply line (2) for the 
turbocharger. Oil from the turbocharger goes back 
through the oil return line (3) to the oil pan. 




FLOW OF OIL (ENGINE WARM) 

1. Oil manifold in cylinder block. 2. Oil supply line to turbo- 
charger. 3. Oil return line from turbocharger. 4. Oil 
filter. 5. Bypass valve lor the oil filter. 6. Oil pan. 7. Oil 
pump. 8. Bypass valve for the oil cooler. 9. Suction 
bell. 10. Oil cooler. 




FLOW OF OIL (ENGINE COLD) 

1. Oil manifold in cylinder block. 2. Oil supply line to turbo- 
charger. 3. Oil return line from turbocharger. 4. Oil 
filter. 5. Bypass valve for the oil filter. 6. Oil pan. 7. Oil 
pump. 8. Bypass valve for the oil cooler. 9. Suction 
bell. 10. Oil cooler. 



OIL FLOW IN THE ENGINE 

There is a bypass valve in the oil pump. This 
bypass valve controls the pressure of the oil coming 
from'the oil pump. The oil pump can put more oil into 
the system than is needed. When there is more oil 
than needed, the oil pressure goes up and the bypass 
valve opens. This lets the oil that is not needed go 
back to the oil pan. 



PRESSURE OIL 



A87922X1 



With the engine cold (starting conditions), oil 
comes from the oil pan (6) through the suction bell 
(9) to the oil pump (7). When the oil is cold, an oil 
pressure difference in the bypass valve (installed in 
the oil filter housing) causes the valves to open. These 
bypass valves give immediate lubrication to all com- 
ponents when cold oil with high viscosity causes a 
restriction to the oil flow through the oil cooler (10) 
and oil filter (4). The oil pump then sends the cold oil 
through the bypass valve for the oil cooler (8) and 
through the bypass valve for the oil filter (5) to the oil 
manifold ( 1) in the cylinder block and to the supply 
line (2) for the turbocharger. Oil from the turbo- 
charger goes back through the oil return line (3) to 
the oil pan. 

When the oil gets warm, the pressure difference in 
the bypass valves decreases and the bypass valves 
close. Now there is a normal oil flow through the oil 
cooler and oil filter. 

The bypass valves will also open when there is a 
restriction in the oil cooler or oil filter. This action 
does not let an oil cooler or oil filter with a restriction 
prevent the lubrication of the engine. 




ROCKER ARM OIL SUPPLY 
(Engines without spacer plate) 



36 



LUBRICATION SYSTEM 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 



NOTE: The later oil pumps have a different kind of 
spring in the bypass valve in the oil pump. These 
bypass valves are not adjustable. 

The output of the oil pump goes to the oil manifold 
in the cylinder block. The oil manifold is the source of 
oil under pressure for the engine and its attachments. 

From the oil manifold in the cylinder block, oil 
is sent through drilled passages in the cylinder block 
that connect the main bearings and the camshaft 
bearings. Oil goes through drilled holes in the 
crankshaft to give lubrication to the connecting 
rod bearings. 

On engines with turbochargers and/ or an oil 
cooler oil goes out through piston cooling orifices 
in the block. These orifices are between cylinders 
1 and 2 and between cylinders 3 and 4. near the main 
bearings. This oil cools the pistons and helps lubri- 
cate the pistons, piston pins, cylinder walls and 
piston rings. On engines without piston cooling 
orifices oil thrown by other parts lubricates the 
pistons, piston pins, cylinder walls and piston rings. 

Oil is sent through passages to the rocker arm 
shaft. Holes in the rocker arm shafts let the oil give 
lubrication to the valve system components in the 
cylinder head. 

The oil supply passage for the rocker arms is in a 
different location in the engine w/spacer plate. En- 
gines w/o a spacer plate have an oil passage from the 
rear of the cylinder block to a head bolt hole in the 
block. The oil flows around the head bolt, up through 
the cylinder head and rocker arm shaft bracket, to 
the rocker arm shaft. 

Engines w/spacer plate have an oil passage from 
the rear of the cylinder block that goes below the 
head bolt hole and connects with a drilled passage in 
the cylinder block to the oil passage in the head. The 
spacer plate has a hole with a counterbore on each 
side that the hollow dowel goes through. An 0-ring is 
in each counterbore to prevent oil leakage around the 
hollow dowel. Oil flows through the hollow dowel 
into a vertical passage in the cylinder head to the 
rocker arm shaft bracket. The rocker arm shaft has 
an orifice to restrict the oil flow to the rocker arms. 
The rear rocker arm bracket also has an 0-ring that 



seals against the head bolt. This seal prevents oil 
from going down around the head bolt and leaking 
past the head gasket or spacer plate gasket. The O- 
ring must be replaced each time the head bolt is 
removed from the rear rocker arm bracket. 

All the timing gear bearings get lubricant under 
pressure from the oil manifold through connecting 
drilled passages. 



^^^. > ,. 




A78923X2 



ROCKER ARM OIL SUPPLY 
(Engines w/spacer plate) 

Oil goes to the components and attachments on 
the outside of the engine through supply lines which 
connect to the oil manifold. These components and 
attachments are: turbocharger, air compressor and 
others. 

After the lubrication oil has done its work, it goes 
back to the engine oil pan. 



37 



COOLING SYSTEM 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 



COOLING SYSTEM 

3 4 




B46596X1 



COOLING SYSTEM SCHEMATIC 
1. Filler cap. 2. Radiator. 3. Inlet line lor radiator. 4. Water temperature regulator. 5. Engine oil cooler. 6. Cylinder head. 7. 
Cylinder block. 8. Inlet line lor water pump. 9. Water pump. 10. Internal bypass. 11. Bonnet. 12. Transmission oil 
cooler. 13. Cylinder liner. 



Water pump (9) is on the left front side of the 
engine. It is gear driven by the timing gears. Coolant 
from the bottom of radiator (2) goes to water pump 
inlet (8). The rotation of the impeller in water pump 
(9) pushes the coolant through the svstem. 

When an engine is equipped with a direct drive 
transmission, all of the coolant flow from water 
pump (9) goes through engine oil cooler (5). Bonnet 
( 1 1 ) on the outlet side of engine oil cooler (5) con- 
nects to the side of cylinder block (7). 



Engines with power shift transmissions have an 
additional oil cooler ( 1 2). A different bonnet ( 11 ) is 
on engine oil cooler (5). This bonnet (11) sends the 
coolant flow through the other cooler (12) which is 
for the torque converter. The flow goes through one 
side on the way into cooler (12). At the bottom of 
cooler ( 1 2) the flow turns and goes back up through 
the other side and into bonnet (11) again. Then 
bonnet (11) sends the coolant into cylinder block (7). 

Inside cylinder block (7) the coolant goes around 
cylinder liners (13) and up through the water direc- 



38 



COOLING SYSTEM 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 




COOLING SYSTEM 

3. Inlet line lor radiator. 4. Water temperature regulator. 5. 
Engine oil cooler. 8. Inlet line for water pump. 9. Water 
pump. 11. Bonnet. 12. Transmission oil cooler. 



tors into cylinder head (6). The water directors send 
the flow of coolant around the valves and the pas- 
sages for exhaust gases in cylinder head (6). The 
coolant goes to the front of cylinder head (6). Here 
water temperature regulator (4) controls the direc- 
tion of the flow. If the coolant temperature is less 
than normal for engine operation, water temperature 
regulator (4) is closed. The only way for the coolant 
to get out of cylinder head (6) is through internal 
bypass (10). The coolant from this line goes into 
water pump (9) which pushes it through the cooling 
system again. The coolant from internal bypass (10) 
also works to prevent cavitation (air bubbles) in the 
coolant. When the coolant gets to the correct temper- 
ature, water temperature regulator (4) opens and 
coolant flow is divided. Most of the coolant goes 
through the radiator (2) for cooling. The remainder 
goes through internal bypass ( 10) to water pump (9). 
The amount of the two flows is controlled by water 
temperature regulator (4). 

NOTE: The water temperature regulator is an im- 
portant part of the cooling system. It divides coolant 
flow between the radiator (2) and the internal bypass 
( 10) as necessary to maintain the correct operating 
temperature. If the regulator is not installed in the 
system, there is no mechanical control and most of 
the coolant will follow the path of least resistance 
thru the internal bypass (10). This will cause the 
engine to overheat in hot weather. In cold weather, 
even the small amount of coolant that goes thru the 
radiator (2) is too much and the engine will not get to 
normal operating temperature. 



The internal bypass (10) has another function 
when the cooling system is being filled. It lets the 
coolant go into cylinder head (6) and cylinder block 
(7) without going through water pump (9). 

Radiator (2) has a pressure relief cap or a relief 
valve and filler cap. The pressure relief cap or valve 
keeps the pressure in the cooling system from getting 
too high when the engine is running. It also lets air 
come into the system when the pressure in the system 
is less than atmospheric. 



Water Pump 

The centrifugal-type water pump has two seals. 
One prevents leakage of water and the other prevents 
leakage of lubricant. 

An opening in the bottom of the pump housing 
allows any leakage at the water seal or the rear 
bearing oil .seal to escape. 

Fan 

The fan is driven by two V-belts, from a pulley on 
the crankshaft. Belt tension is adjusted by moving 
the clamp assembly which includes the fan mounting 
and pulley. 

COOLANT FOR AIR COMPRESSOR 




COOLANT FLOW IN AIR COMPRESSOR 

(Typical Example) 

1. Outlet hose. 2. Air compressor. 3. Inlet hose. 



The coolant for the air compressor (2) comes 
from the cylinder block through ho.se (3) and into 
the air compressor. The coolant goes from the air 
compressor through hose ( 1 ) back into the front of 
the cylinder head. 



39 



BASIC BLOCK 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 



BASIC BLOCK 



CYLINDER BLOCK AND LINERS 

On later engines a steel spacer plate is used 
between the cylinder head and the block to eliminate 
liner counterbore and to provide maximum liner 
flange support area (the liner flange sits directly on 
the cylinder block). 

Engine coolant flows around the liners to cool 
them. Three O-ring seals at the bottom and a filler 
band at the top of each cylinder liner form a seal 
between the liner and the cylinder block. 

PISTONS, RINGS AND CONNECTING RODS 

The piston has three rings; two compression and 
one oil ring. All rings are located above the piston 
pin bore. 1 he two compression rings seat in an iron 
band which is cast into the piston. Pistons in some 
engines use compression rings with straight sides. 
Pistons in other engines use compression rings 
which are of the KEYSTONE type. KEYSTONE 
rings have a tapered shape and the movement of 
the rings in the piston groove (also of tapered shape) 
results in a constantly changing clearance (scrub- 
bing action) between the ring and the groove. This 
action results in a reduction of carbon deposit and 
possible sticking of rings. 



The oil ring is a standard (conventional) type and 
is spring loaded. Holes in the oil ring groove provide 
for the return of oil to the crankcase. 

The piston pin bore in the piston is offset (moved 
away) from the center of the piston .030 in. (0.76 
mm). The full floating piston pin is held in the piston 
by two snap rings which fit into grooves in the piston 
pin bore. Also the piston pin end of the connecting 
rod is tapered to give more bearing surface at the 
area of highest load. The connecting rod is installed 
on the piston with the bearing tab slot on the same 
side as the "V" mark on the piston. 

The top of the pistons for engines with direct injec- 
tion have a different shape than the pistons for en- 
gines with precombution chambers. 

CRANKSHAFT 

The crankshaft changes the combustion forces in 
the cylinders into usable rotating torque which 
powers the machine. There is a timing gear on the 
front of the crankshaft which drives the respective 
timing gears. 

The bearing surfaces on the crankshaft get oil for 
lubrication through passages drilled in the 
crankshaft. 



40 



ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 



ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 



The electrical system can have three separate cir- 
cuits: the charging circuit, the starting circuit and 
the low amperage circuit. Some of the electrical 
system components are used in more than one circuit. 
The battery (batteries), circuit breaker, ammeter, 
cables and wires from the battery are all common in 
each of the circuits. 

The charging circuit is in operation when the en- 
gine is running. An alternator makes electricity for 
the charging circuit. A voltage regulator in the cir- 
cuit controls the electrical output to keep the battery 
at full charge. 

The starting circuit is in operation only when the 
start switch is activated. 

The starting circuit of a PC engine can have a glow 
plug for each cylinder of the diesel engine. Glow 
plugs are small heating units in the precombustion 
chambers. Glow plugs make ignition of the fuel ea- 
sier when the engine is started in cold temperature. 

The low amperage circuit and the charging circuit 
are both connected to the same side of the ammeter. 
The starting circuit connects to the opposite side of 
the ammeter. 

CHARGING SYSTEM COMPONENTS 

Alternator (Delco-Remy) 

The alternator is driven by V-type belts from the 
crankshaft pulley. This alternator is a three phase, 
self-rectifying charging unit, and the regulator is 
part of the alternator. 

This alternator design has no need for slip rings or 
brushes, and the only part that has movement is the 
rotor assembly. All conductors that carry current are 
stationary. The conductors are: the field winding, 
stator windings, six rectifying diodes and the regula- 
tor circuit components. 

The rotor assembly has many magnetic poles like 
fingers with air space between each opposite pole. 
The poles have residual magnetism (like permanent 
magnets) that produce a small amount of magnet- 
like lines of force (magnetic field) between the poles. 
As the rotor assembly begins to turn between the 
field winding and the stator windings, a small 
amount of alternating current (AC) is produced in 
the stator windings from the small magnetic lines of 
force made by the residual magnetism of the poles. 
This AC current is changed to direct current (DC) 
when it passes through the diodes of the rectifier 



bridge. Most of this current goes to charge the bat- 
tery and to supply the low amperage circuit, and the 
remainder is sent on to the field windings. The DC 
current flow through the field windings (wires 
around an iron core) now increases the strength of 
the magnetic lines of force. These stronger lines of 
force now increase the amount of AC current pro- 
duced in the stator windings. The increased speed of 
the rotor assembly also increases the current and 
voltage output of the alternator. 




6N9294 ALTERNATOR 

1. Regulator. 2. Roller bearing. 3. Stator winding. 4. Ball 
bearing. 5. Rectifier bridge. 6. Field winding. 7. Rotor as- 
sembly. 8. Fan. 

The voltage regulator is a solid state (transistor, 
stationary parts) electronic switch. It feels the vol- 
tage in the system and switches on and off many 
times a second to control the field current (DC cur- 
rent to the field windings) for the alternator to make 
the needed voltage output. 

TW905X1 




5S9088 ALTERNATOR 

1. Regulator. 2. Fan. 3. Roller bearing. 4. Rotor. 5. Stator 
windings. 6. Ball bearing. 



41 



ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 



Alternator (Prestolite) 

The alternator is driven by two V-type belts from 
the fan pulley. It is a 24 volt, 19 ampere unit with a 
regulator which has no moving parts (solid state) 
installed on the side opposite the pulley. The alterna- 
tor is made up of a head assembly on the drive end, 
rotor assembly, stator assembly, rectifier and heat 
removal assemblies, brush and holder assembly, 
head assembly on the ring end and regulator. 

The rotor assembly has the field windings (wires 
around an iron core) which make magnet like lines of 
force when direct current (DC) flows through them. 
As the rotor turns, the magnet like lines of force are 
broken by the stator. This makes an alternating cur- 
rent (AC) in the stator. The rectifier has diodes 
which change the alternating current (AC) from the 
stator to direct current (DC). Most of the direct 
current (DC) goes to charge the battery and make a 
supply of direct current (DC) for the low amperage 
circuit. The remainder of the direct current (DC) is 
sent to the field windings through the brushes. 




PRESTOLITE ALTERNATOR 

1. Brush assembly. 2. Stator. 3. Rotor. 4. Roller bear- 
ing. 5. Slip rings. 6. Ball bearing. 



Alternator Regulator (Prestolite) 

The voltage regulator is a solid state (transistor, no 
moving parts) electronic switch. It feels the voltage 
in the system and gives the necessary field current 
(current to the field windings of the alternator) for 
the alternator to make the needed voltage. The vol- 
tage regulator controls the field current to the alter- 



nator by switching on and off many times a second. 
There is a voltage adjustment screw on the back of 
the regulator. This voltage adjustment screw is used 
to meet different operating needs at different times 
of the year. An increase or decrease by 0.5 volts from 
the normal (N) setting is made by removing the 
regulator and changing the position of the adjust- 
ment screw. An increase to the voltage will be made 
by moving the screw to the "H" position. 

Alternator (Robert Bosch) 

The alternator is driven by two V-type belts. It 
has a three phase full wave rectified output. The 
alternator is brushless. 

The rotor (4) and the bearings are the only moving 
parts. The alternator output is 35 amp. 

The main parts of the alternator are the stator 
(2) which has three phase windings, the rectifier (3) 
which changes the three phase AC to DC and pro- 
vides excitation current. 

The field winding ( 1 ) is a stationary coil assembly 
that provides the magnetic field. 

The rotor provides the north and south poles 
which cut the magnetic field between the stationary 
field winding and the stator (2). North and south 
poles are separated magnetically by a non-magnetic 
ring (5). 
K 




6N9294 ALTERNATOR 

1. Winding. 2. Stator. 3. Rectifier. 4. Rotor. 5. Non- 
magnetic ring. 

Generator 

The generator is belt driven by the diesel engine 
The generator keeps the batterj' charged and 
supplies current to operate the electrical com- 
ponents. 



42 



ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 




CUTAWAY VIEW OF A GENERATOR 
1. Brush assembly. 2. Field. 3. Commutator. 4. Armature. 



T89408<1 




4 5 

GENERATOR REGULATOR 



Generator Regulator 



1. Cutout relay. 2. Current regulator. 3. Voltage regu- 
lator. 4. Battery terminal. 5. Generator terminal. 6. Field 
terminal. 



The generator regulator controls the output of 
the generator. The regulator incorporates three 
controls: the cutout relay, the voltage regulator 
and the current regulator. Each control has contact 
points which are operated by electromagnets. 

Springs hold the cutout relay points open and 
the voltage regulator and current regulator contact 
points closed. The spring tension for each unit is a 
force opposing the force of the electromagnets. 

The cutout relay prevents the battery from 
motorizing a generator that is not producing 
enough voltage. Generator voltage approximately 
equal to battery voltage will close the cutout relay 
points. This closes the circuit between the gener- 
ator and the battery. The generator can now 
supply the battery and the components of the 
electrical system with power. 

The voltage regulator prevents the generator 
from producing damaging high voltage. Generator 
voltage slightly higher than battery voltage opens 
the regulator points causing the generator output 
voltage to lower. Low generator voltage allows the 
spring to close the regulator points and generator 
voltage is again high. The action of the voltage 
regulator points, opening and closing, controls the 
output voltage of the generator. The points can 
open and close as often as 200 times per second. 

The current regulator limits the current pro- 
duced by the generator to allow the generator to 
continue producing voltage equal to battery volt- 
age. When the generator produces current equal to 
the current regulator setting, the regulator contact 
points open. Open points lower the generator 
current. Low current allows the spring to close the 
points and generator current is again high. The 
opening and closing of the current regulator points, 
limits the current produced by the generator. The 
points can open and close as often as 200 times per 
second. 




REGULATOR WIRING SCHEMATIC 
(Typical "A" Circuit illustratedl 

1. Battery. 2. Cutout relay. 3. Current regulator. 4. 
Voltage regulator. 5. Generator. 6. Ammeter. 7. Battery 
terminal. 8. Generator terminal. 9. Field terminal. 



When generator electric loads are low and the 
battery requires very little charging, the VOLT- 
AGE REGULATOR contact points are operating. 
When electric loads are high, the CURRENT 
REGULATOR contact points are operating. The 
contact points of the two units, vnU never open at 
the same time. 

STARTING SYSTEM COMPONENTS 
Starter Motor 

The starter motor is used to turn the engine fly- 
wheel fast enough to get the engine running. 

The starter motor has a solenoid. When the start 
switch is activated, electricity from the electrical 
system will cause the solenoid to move the starter 
pinion to engage with the ring gear on the flywheel of 
the engine. The starter pinion will engage with the 
ring gear before the electric contacts in the solenoid 
close the circuit between the battery and the starter 



43 



ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 




T89388X1 



STARTER MOTOR 

1. Field. 2. Solenoid. 3. Clutch. 4. Pinion. 5. Commuta- 
tor. 6. Brush assembly. 7. Armature. 

motor. When the start switch is released, the starter 
pinion will move away from the ring gear of the 
flywheel. 



Solenoid 




SCHEMATIC OF A SOLENOID 

1. Coil. 2. Switch terminal. 3. Battery terminal. 4. Con- 
tacts. 5. Spring. 6. Core. 7. Component terminal. 

A solenoid is a magnetic switch that uses low 
current to close a high current circuit. The solenoid 
has an electromagnet with a core (6) which moves. 

There are contacts (4) on the end of core (6). The 
contacts are held in the open positon by spring (5) 
that pushes core (6) from the magnetic center of coil 
(1). Low current will energize coil (1) and make a 
magnetic field. The magnetic field pulls core (6) to 
the center of coil ( 1 ) and the contacts close. 



Magnetic Switch 



A magnetic switch (relay) is used sometimes for 
the starter solenoid or glow plug circuit. Its opera- 
tion electrically, is the same as the solenoid, its 
function is to reduce the low current load on the 
start switch and control low current to the starter 
solenoid or high current to the glow plugs. 

OTHER COMPONENTS 

Circuit Breaker 




T89119X1 5 

CIRCUIT BREAKER SCHEMATIC 

1. Reset button. 2. Disc in open position. 3. Contacts. 4. 
Disc. 5. Battery circuit terminals. 

The circuit breaker is a safety switch that opens 
the battery circuit if the current in the electrical 
system goes higher than the rating of the circuit 
breaker. 

A heat activated metal disc with a contact point 
completes the electric circuit through the circuit 
breaker. If the current in the electrical system gets 
too high, it causes the metal disc to get hot. This heat 
causes a distortion of the metal disc which opens the 
contacts and breaks the circuit. A circuit breaker 
that opens can be reset after it cools. Push the reset 
button to close the contacts and reset the circuit 
breaker. 



44 



ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 



SYSTEMS OPERATION 



ELECTRICAL SYSTEM SCHEMATIC 




A310O8X1 



CHARGING SYSTEM WITH ELECTRIC 
STARTER MOTOR AND GLOW PLUGS 

1. Heat-Start switch. 2. Ammeter. 3. Glow plugs. 4. Bat- 
tery. 5. Starter motor. 6. Alternator. 




CHARGING SYSTEM WITH ELECTRIC 
STARTER MOTOR 

1. Start switch. 2. Ammeter. 3. Alternator. 4. Battery. 5. 
Starter motor. 



COLOR CODE 


MAXIMUM RECOMMENDED 
TOTAL BATTERY CABLE LENGTH 


WIRES MARKED =#X 


B - Black 
W - White 
R- Red 
- Orange 
BR - Brown 
LTGN- Light Green 
PU - Purple 
W/bI [White with 
W/sJ [Black Stripe 

X3560-1X1 


CABLE 
SIZE 


ELECTRIC 
STARTING 


CHARGING UNIT 
OUTPUT 


WIRE 
SIZE 



00 
000 
0000 


12 VOLT 

4.0 FEET 
5.0 FEET 
6.0 FEET 
7.5 FEET 


24-32 VOLT 

15.0 FEET 
18.0 FEET 
21.0 FEET 
27.0 FEET 


0-1 8 amps. 
19-30 amps. 
31 -45 amps. 
46-65 amps. 


#14 
=#=10 
=#= 8 
* 6 


NUMBER FOLLOWING COLOR 
CODE IS 
RECOMMENDED WIRE SIZE 



45 



TROUBLESHOOTING TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



TROUBLESHOOTING 



Troubleshooting can be difficult. The TROUBLESHOOTING INDEX 
gives a list of possible problems. To make a repair to a problem, make reference 
to the cause and correction on the pages that follow. 

This list of problems, causes and corrections will only give an indication of 
where a possible problem can be, and what repairs are needed. Normally, more 
or other repair work is needed beyond the recommendations in the list. 

Remember that a problem is not normally caused only by one part, but by the 
relation of one part with other parts. This list is only a guide and can not give all 
possible problems and corrections. The serviceman must find the problem and 
its source, then make the necessary repairs. 



46 



TROUBLESHOOTING 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



Item 



Problem 



Item 



Problem 



1 . Engine Will Not Turn When Start Switch is On. 

2. Engine Will Not Start. 

3. Misfiring or Running Rough. 

4. Stall at Low rpm. 

5. Sudden Changes In Engine rpm. 

6. Not Enough Power. 

7. Too Much Vibration. 

8. Loud Combustion Noise. 

9. Loud Noise (Clicking) From Valve 
Compartment. 

10. Oil In Cooling System. 

1 1. Mechanical Noise (Knock) In Engine. 

12. Fuel Consumption Too High. 

13. Loud Noise From Valves or Valve Operating 
Components. 

1 4. Little Movement of Rocker Arm and Too Much 
Valve Clearance. 



15. Valve Rotocoil or Spring Lock is Free. 

16. Oil at the Exhaust. 

17. Little or No Valve Clearance. 

18. Engine Has Early Wear. 

19. Coolant In Lubrication Oil. 

20. Too Much Black or Gray Smoke. 

21. Too Much White or Blue Smoke. 

22. Engine Has Low Oil Pressure. 

23. Engine Uses Too Much Lubrication Oil. 

24. Engine Coolant Is Too Hot. 

25. Starter Motor Does Not Turn. 

26. Alternator Gives No Charge. 

27. Alternator Charge Rate Is Low or Not Regular. 

28. Alternator Charge Too High. 

29. Alternator Has Noise. 

30. Exhaust Temperature Too High. 



1. ENGINE CRANKSHAFT WILL NOT TURN WHEN START SWITCH IS ON 
C3"se Correction 

Battery Has Low Output Make Reference to Item 26. 

Make Reference to Item 26. 



Wiring or Switches Have De- 
fect 

Starter Motor Solenoid Has A 
Defect 

Starter Motor Has A Defect 

Inside Problem Prevents En- 
gine Crankshaft From Turning 



Make Reference to Item 25. 



Make Reference to Item 25. 

If the crankshaft can not be turned after disconnecting the driven equip- 
ment, remove the fuel nozzles and check for fluid in the cylinders while 
turning the crankshaft. If fluid in the cylinders is not the problem, the 
engine must be disassembled to check for other inside problems. Some of 
these inside problems are bearing seizure, piston seizure, or wrong pistons 
installed in the engine. 



Cause 

Slow Cranking Speed 

No Fuel In The Housing For 
The Fuel Injection Pumps 

Dirty Fuel Filter 
(Cont. next page) 



2. ENGINE WILL NOT START 

Correction 

Make Reference to Item 25. 

Fill the housing for the fuel injection pumps with fuel with the priming 
pump. Remove the air with the bleed valve. 

Install new fuel filter. 



47 



TROUBLESHOOTING 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



Dirty or Broken Fuel Lines 

Fuel Pressure Is Low (Sleeve 
Metering Fuel System) 



Fuel Pressure Is Low (Scroll 
Fuel System) 



2. ENGINE WILL NOT START (Cent.) 

Clean or install new fuel lines as necessary. 

Make sure there is fuel in the fuel tank. Look for leaks or bad bends in the 
fuel line between fuel tank and fuel transfer pump. Look for air in the fuel 
system. Check fuel pressure. The outlet pressure of the fuel transfer pump 
must be as follows: 

High Idle 30 ± 5 psi (205 ± 35 kPa) 

Low Idle 18 ± 5 psi (125 ± 35 kPa) 

Cranking 2 psi (14 kPa) minimum 

If fuel pressure at high idle is lower than 20 psi (140 kPa), install a new 
filter element. If fuel pressure is still low, install a new fuel transfer pump. 

Check if pressure relief valve is working correctly. 

Check fuel supply line for leaks or kinks, air in fuel system, sticking, 
binding or defective fuel bypass valve. Replace fuel filter. Check fuel 
pressure. Fuel transfer pump should supply fuel to engine at the following 
pressures: 

Full Load: minimum of 25 psi (170 kPa) 

High Idle: minimum of 30 psi (205 kPa) 



No Fuel To Cylinders 

Bad Quality Fuel 

Fuel Has "Cloud Point" 
Higher Than Atmospheric 
Temperature ("Cloud Point" 
= Temperature Which Makes 
Wax Form In Fuel.) 

Wrong Fuel Injection Timing 

Over Fuel Spring Not Installed 
(Sleeve Metering Fuel System 
Only) 

Slipping Fuel Injection Pump 
Drive (Scroll Fuel System 
Only) 



Put fuel in fuel tank. "Prime" ( remove the air and/or low quality fuel from 
the fuel system). 

Remove the fuel from the fuel tank. Install a new fuel filter element. Put a 
good grade of clean fuel in the fuel tank. 

Drain the fuel tank lines, and fuel injection pump housing. Change the fuel 
filter. Fill the tank with fuel which has the correct "cloud point" and 
remove the air from the system with the priming pump and bleed valve. 



Make adjustment to timing. 
Install over fuel spring. 



The fuel injection pump is driven by the accessory drive gear through a 
tapered sleeve. If this sleeve is not tightened properly the accessory drive 
shaft will not rotate. Check this by removing the fuel transfer pump, 
cranking the engine and observing through the fuel transfer pump mount- 
ing opening to see if the shaft rotates. If the shaft fails to rotate, remove the 
small cover from the front of the timing gear cover and tighten the 
accessory drive gear retaining nut. If tightening eliminates the slipping, 
time the fuel injection pump to the engine before starting. 

If the accessory drive shaft rotates during above step, it is possible that the 
tapered sleeve has slipped. Reset the accessory drive shaft timing. 



48 



TROUBLESHOOTING 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



Cause 

Air In The Fuel System 



Fuel System Not Timed Cor- 
rectly to Engine 

Fuel Pressure is Low (Sleeve 
Metering Fuel System) 



Fuel Pressure is Low (Scroll 
Fuel System) 



Leak or Break In Fuel Line 
Between Injection Pump and 
Injection Valve 

Defect in Fuel Injection 
Valve(s) or Injection Pump(s) 



Wrong Valve Clearance 

Bent or Broken Push Rod 

Constant Bleed Valve 

Fitting Stays Open, Too 

Much Fuel By-passed, Not 

Enough Fuel Pressure For 

Starting 

(Sleeve Metering Fuel 

System) 



3. MISFIRING OR RUNNING ROUGH 

Correction 

Find the air leak in the fuel system and correct it. Loosen each fuel line nut 
at the injection pumps and open the manual bleed valve. (On sleeve 
metering fuel systems, also loosen the bolt in the hole for the timing pin. 
This will let out any air that is in the governor housing. ) Work the priming 
pump or turn the engine with the starter motor until there are no more air 
bubbles in the fuel coming from these places. Tighten the timing pin bolt 
and fuel line nuts according to the SPECIFICATIONS. Close manual 
bleed valve. 

Make adjustment to timing if necessary. 

Make sure there is fuel in the fuel tank. Look for leaks or bad bends in the 
fuel line between fuel tank and fuel transfer pump. Look for air in the fuel 
system. Check fuel pressure. The outlet pressure of the fuel transfer pump 
must be as follows: 

High Idle 30 ± 5 psi (205 ± 35 kPa) 

Low Idle 18 ± 5 psi (125 ± 35 kPa) 

Cranking 2 psi (14 kPa) minimum 

If fuel pressure at high idle is lower than 20 psi (140 kPa), install a new 
filter element. If fuel pressure is still low, install a new fuel transfer pump. 

Check if pressure relief valve is working correctly. 

Check fuel supply line for leaks or kinks, air in fuel system, sticking, 
binding, or defective fuel bypass valve. Replace fuel filter. Check fuel 
pressure. Fuel transfer pump should supply fuel to engine at the following 
pressures: 

Full Load: minimum of 25 psi (170 kPa) 

High Idle: minimum of 30 psi (205 kPa) 

Install a new fuel line. 



Run engine at rpm that gives maximum misfiring or rough running. Then 
loosen a fuel line nut on the injection valve for each cylinder, one at a time. 
Find the cylinder where loosening the fuel line nut does not change the way 
the engine runs. Test the injection pump and injection valve for that 
cylinder. Install new parts where needed. 

Make adjustment according to the Subject, VALVE CLEARANCE. 

Replacement of push rod is necessary. 

Install a new orifice check valve. 



49 



TROUBLESHOOTING 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



4. STALL AT LOW RPM 



Cause 

Fuel Pressure is Low (Sleeve 
Metering Fuel System) 



Fuel Pressure is Low (Scroll 
Fuel System) 



Idle rpm Too Low 

Defect in Fuel Injection 
Valve(s) 

Defect in Fuel Injection 
Pump(s) 



Correction 

Make sure there is fuel in the fuel tank. Look for leaks or bad bends in the 
fuel line between fuel tank and fuel transfer pump. Look for air in the fuel 
system. Check fuel pressure. The outlet pressure of the fuel transfer pump 
must be as follows: 

High Idle 30 ± 5 psi (205 ± 35 kPa) 

Low Idle 18 ± 5 psi (125 ± 35 kPa) 

Cranking 2 psi (14 kPa) minimum 

If fuel pressure at high idle is lower than 20 psi (140 kPa), install a new 
fuel filter element. If fuel pressure is still low, install a new fuel transfer 
pump. 

Check fuel supply line for leaks or kinks, air in fuel system, sticking, 
binding, or defective fuel bypass valve. Replace fuel filter. Check fuel 
pressure. Fuel transfer pump should supply fuel to engne at the following 
pressures: 

Full Load: minimum of 25 psi (170 kPa) 

High Idle: minimum of 30 psi (205 kPa) 

Make Adjustment to governor so idle rpm is the same as given in the 
FUEL SETTING INFORMATION. 

Install a new fuel injection valve. 



Install new parts if needed. 



5. SUDDEN CHANGES IN ENGINE SPEED 



Cause 

Air In The Fuel System 



Broken Torsion Spring on 
Sleeve Control Shaft (Sleeve 
Metering Fuel System Only) 

Linkage In Governor Does Not 
Move Freely 

Governor Springs Not Fully On 
Spring Seat 



Correction 

Find the air leak in the fuel system and correct it. Loosen each fuel line nut 
at the injection pumps and open the manual bleed valve (On sleeve 
metering fuel systems, also loosen the bolt in the hole for the timing pin. 
This will let out any air that is in the governor housing.) Work the priming 
pump or turn the engine with the starter motor until there are no more air 
bubbles in the fuel coming from these places. Tighten the timing pin bolt 
and fuel line nuts according to the SPECIFICATIONS. Close manual 
bleed valve. 

Install new parts as needed. 



Clean all linkage and inside of governor housing. Install new parts for 
those parts that have damage. 

Put springs fully on spring seat. 



50 



TROUBLESHOOTING 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



6. NOT ENOUGH POWER 



Constant Bleed Valve Stays 
Open or Closed 
(Sleeve Metering Fuel 
System) 

Air In The Fuel System 



Bad Quality Fuel 

Fuel Pressure is Low (Sleeve 
Metering Fuel System) 



Fuel Pressure is Low (Scroll 
Fuel System) 



Leaks in Air Inlet System 



Governor Linkage 



Wrong Valve Clearance 

Defect in Fuel Injection 
Valve(s) or Fuel Injection 
Pump(s) 



Wrong Fuel Injection Timing 

Fuel or Rack Setting Too Low 

Turbocharger Has Carbon De- 
posits or Other Causes of Fric- 
tion 



Install new parts if needed. 



Find the air leak in the fuel system and correct it. Loosen each fuel line nut 
at the injection pumps and open the manual bleed valve. (On sleeve 
metering fuel systems, also loosen the bolt in the hole for the timing pin. 
This will let out any air that is in the governor housing.) Work the priming 
pump or turn the engine with the starter motor until there are no more air 
bubbles in the fuel coming from these places. Tighten the timing pin bolt 
and fuel line nuts according to the SPECIFICATIONS. Close manual 
bleed valve. 

Remove the fuel from the fuel tank. Install a new fuel filter element. Put a 
good grade of clean fuel in the fuel tank. 

Make sure there is fuel in the fuel tank. Look for leaks, or bad bends, in the 
fuel line between fuel tank and fuel transfer pump. Look for air in the fuel 
system. Check fuel pressure. The outlet pressure of the fuel transfer pump 
must be as follows: 

High Idle 30 ± 5 psi (205 ± 35 kPa) 

Low Idle 18 ± 5 psi (125 ± 35 kPa) 

Cranking 2 psi (14 kPa) minimum 
If fuel pressure at high idle is lower than 20 psi (140 kPa), install a new 
fuel filter element. If fuel pressure is still low, install a new fuel transfer 
pump. 

Check fuel supply line for leaks or kinks, air in fuel system, sticking, 
binding or defective fuel bypass valve. Replace fuel filter. Check fuel 
pressure. Fuel transfer pump should supply fuel to engine at the following 
pressures: 

Full Load: minimum of 25 psi (170 kPa) 

High Idle: minimum of 30 psi (205 kPa) 

Check the pressure in the air intake manifold. Look for restrictions in the 
air cleaner. 

Make adjustment to get full travel of linkage. Install new parts for those 
that have damage or defects. 

Make adjustment according to the Subject, VALVE CLEARANCE. 

Run engine at rpm that gives maximum misfiring or rough running. Then 
loosen a fuel line nut on the injection pump for each cylinder, one at a time. 
Find the cylinder where loosening the fuel line nut does not change the way 
the engine runs. Test the injection pump and injection valve for that 
cylinder. Install new parts where needed. 

Make adjustment to timing. 

Make reference to the FUEL SETTING INFORMATION. 

Make inspection and repair of turbocharger as necessary. 



51 



TROUBLESHOOTING 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



Cause 

Loose Bolt or Nut Holding 
Pulley 

Pulley Has A Defect 



7. TOO MUCH VIBRATION 

Correction 

Tighten bolt or nut. 

Install a new pulley 



Fan Blade Not in Balance 



Engine Supports Are Loose, 
Worn, or Have a Defect 

Misfiring or Running Rough 



Loosen or remove fan belts and operate engine for a short time at the rpm 
that the vibration was present. If vibration is not still present, make a 
replacement of the fan assembly. 

Tighten all mounting bolts. Install new components if necessary. 



Make Reference to Item 3. 



Cause 

Bad Quality Fuel 



8. LOUD COMBUSTION NOISE (KNOCK) 

Correction 

Remove the fuel from the fuel tank. Install a new fuel filter element. Put a 
good grade of clean fuel in the fuel tank. 



Defect in Fuel Injection Install a new fuel injection valve(s). 
Valve(s) 

Defect in Fuel Injection Install new fuel injection pump(s). 
Pump(s) 

Wrong Fuel Injection Timing Make adjustment to timing. 



9. LOUD NOISE (CLICKING) FROM VALVE COMPARTMENT 



Cause 

Damage to Valve Spring(s) or 
Lock(s) 

Not Enough Lubrication 



Too Much Valve Clearance 
Damage to Valve(s) 



Correction 

Install new parts where necessary. Locks with defects can cause the valve 
to slide into the cylinder. This will cause much damage. 

Check lubrication in valve compartment. There must be a strong flow of 
oil at engine high rpm, but only a small flow of oil at low rpm. Oil passages 
must be clean, especially those sending oil to the cylinder head. 

Make adjustment according to the Subject, VALVE CLEARANCE. 

Make a replacement of the valve(s) and make an adjustment as necessary. 



52 



TROUBLESHOOTING 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



10. OIL IN COOLING SYSTEM 



Cause 

Defect In Core of Oil Cooler 
Defect in Head Gasket 



Correction 

Install a new core in the oil cooler. 
Install a new head gasket. 



11. MECHANICAL NOISE (KNOCK) IN ENGINE 



Cause 

Failure of Bearing For Con- 
necting Rod 

Damage to Timing Gears 

Damage to Crankshaft 



Correction 

Inspect the bearing for the connecting rod and the bearing surface on the 
crankshaft. Install new parts when necessary. 

Install new parts where necessary. 

Make replacement of the crankshaft. 



12. FUEL CONSUMPTION TOO HIGH 



Cause 

Fuel System Leaks 

Fuel and Combustion Noise 
(Knock) 



Correction 

Large changes in fuel consumption may be the result. Inspect the fuel 
system for leaks and make repairs as necessary. 

Small increases in fuel consumption may be the result of fuel nozzles with 
defects, rough running, or factors causing loss of power. See Item 3 and 
Item 6. 



Wrong Fuel Injection Timing Make an adjustment to fuel injection timing. 



13. LOUD NOISE FROM VALVES OR VALVE DRIVE COMPONENTS 



Cause 

Damage to Valve Spring(s) 
Damage to Camshaft 
Damage to Valve Lifter 

Damage to Valve(s) 



Correction 

Make replacement of parts with damage. 

Make replacement of parts with damage. Clean engine thoroughly. 

Clean engine thoroughly. Make a replacement of the camshaft and valve 
lifters. Look for valves that do not move freely. Make an adjustment to 
valve clearance according to the Subject, VALVE CLEARANCE. 

Make a replacement of the valve(s) and make an adjustment as necessary. 



53 



TROUBLESHOOTING 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



14. LITTLE MOVEMENT OF ROCKER ARM AND TOO MUCH VALVE CLEARANCE 



Cause 

Too Much Clearance 
Not Enough Lubrication 



Rocker Arm Worn at Face 
That Makes Contact With 

Valve 

End of Valve Stem Worn 



Worn Push Rods 



Valve Lifters Worn 



Damage to Valve Lifters 



Worn Cams on Camshaft 



Correction 

Make adjustment according to the Subject, VALVE CLEARANCE. 

Check lubrication in valve compartment. There must be a strong flow of 
oil at engine high rpm, but only a small flow at low rpm. Oil passages must 
be clean, especially those sending oil to the cylinder head. 

If there is too much wear, install new rocker arms. Make adjustment of 
valve clearance according to the Subject, VALVE CLEARANCE. 

If there is too much wear, install new valves. Make adjustment of valve 
clearance according to the Subject, VALVE CLEARANCE. 

If there is too much wear, install push rods. Make adjustment of valve 
clearance according to the Subject, VALVE CLEARANCE. 

If there is too much wear, install new valve lifters. Make adjustment of 
valve clearance according to the Subject, VALVE CLEARANCE. 

Install new valve lifters. Check camshaft for wear. Check for free move- 
ment of valves or bent valve stem. Clean engine thoroughly. Make adjust- 
ment of valve clearance according to the Subject, VALVE 
CLEARANCE. 

Check valve clearance. Check for free movement of valves or bent valve 
stems. Check for valve lifter wear. Install a new camshaft. Make adjust- 
ment of valve clearance according to the Subject, VALVE 
CLEARANCE. 



15. VALVE ROTOCOIL OR SPRING LOCK IS FREE 



Cause 

Damage to Locks 

Damage to Valve Spring(s) 



Correction 



Locks with damage can cause the valve to fall into the cylinder. This wil 
cause much damage. 

Install new valve spring(s). 



16. OIL AT THE EXHAUST 



Cause 

Too Much Oil in the Valve 
Compartment 

Worn Valve Guides 

Worn Piston Rings 

Running Engine Too Long At 
Low Idle 



Correction 

Look at both ends of the rocker arm shaft. Be sure that there is a plug in 
each end. 

Reconditioning of the cylinder head is needed. 

Inspect and install new parts as needed. 

Don't let the engine run for long periods of time at low idle. 



54 



TROUBLESHOOTING 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



17. LITTLE OR NO VALVE CLEARANCE 



Cause 

Worn Valve Seat or Face of 
Valve 



Correction 



Reconditioning of cylinder head is needed. Make adjustment of valve 
clearance according to the Subject, VALVE CLEARANCE. 



18. ENGINE HAS EARLY WEAR 



Cause 

Dirt in Lubrication Oil 

Air Inlet Leaks 

Fuel Leakage Into Lubrication 
Oil 



Correction 

Remove dirty lubrication oil. Install a new oil filter element. Put clean oil 
in the engine. 

Inspect all gaskets and connections. Make repairs if leaks are present. 

This will cause high fuel consumption and low engine oil pressure. Make 
repairs if leaks are present. Install new parts where needed. 



19. COOLANT IN LUBRICATION OIL 



Cause 

Failure of Oil Cooler Core 

Failure of Cylinder Head Gas- 
ket 

Crack or Defect in Cylinder 
Head 

Crack or Defect in Cylinder 
Block 

Failure of Seals for Cylinder 
Liners 



Correction 

Install a new core for the oil cooler. 

Install a new cylinder head gasket. Tighten the bolts holding the cylinder 
head, according to the Specifications 

Install a new cylinder head. 
Install a new cylinder block. 



Make a replacement of the seals. 



20. TOO MUCH BLACK OR GRAY SMOKE 



Cause 

Not Enough Air For Combus- 
tion 

Bad Fuel Injection Valve(s) 

Wrong Fuel Injection Timing. 

Defect in Fuel Ratio Control 



Correction 

Check air cleaner for restrictions. Check inlet manifold pressure. Inspect 
turbocharger for correct operation. 

Install new fuel injection valve(s). 

Make adjustment to timing. 

Make adjustment to or install new control. 



55 



TROUBLESHOOTING 


TESTING AND ADJUSTING 




21. 


TOO MUCH WHITE OR BLUE SMOKE 




Cause 


Correction 


^ 


Too Much Lubrication Oil in 
Engine 


Remove extra oil. Find where extra oil comes from. Put correct amount of 
oil in engine. Do not put too much oil in engine. 




Misfiring or Running Rough 


Make Reference to Item 3. 




Wrong Fuel Injection Timing 


Make adjustment to timing. 




Worn Valve Guides 


Reconditioning of cylinder head is needed. 




Worn Piston Rings 


Install new piston rings. 




Failure of Turbocharger Oil 
Seal 


Check inlet manifold for oil and make repair to turbocharger if necessary. 




22. ENGINE HAS LOW OIL PRESSURE 




Cause 


Correction 




Defect in Oil Pressure Gauge 


Install new gauge. 




Dirty Oil Filter or Oil Cooler 


Check the operation of bypass valve for the filter. Install new oil filter 
elements if needed. Clean or install new oil cooler core. Remove dirty oil 
from engine. Put clean oil in engine. 




Diesel Fuel in Lubrication Oil 


Find the place where diesel fuel gets into the lubrication oil. Make repairs 
as needed. Remove the lubrication oil that has diesel fuel in it. Install a 
new oil filter element. Put clean oil in the engine. 


^ 


Too Much Clearance Between 
Rocker Arm Shaft and Rocker 
Arms 


Check lubrication in valve compartment. Install new parts as necessary. 




Oil Pump Suction Pipe Has A 
Defect 


Replacement of pipe is needed. 




Relief Valve for Oil Pump Does 
Not Operate Correctly 


Clean valve and housing. Install new parts as necessary. 




Oil Pump Has A Defect 


Make repair or replacement of oil pump if necessary. 




Too Much Clearance Between 
Camshaft and Camshaft Bear- 
ings 


Install new camshaft and camshaft bearings if necessary. 




Too Much Clearance Between 
Crankshaft and Crankshaft 
Bearings 


Inspect bearings and make replacement as necessary. 




Too Much Bearing Clearance 
for Idler Gear 


Inspect bearings and make replacement as necessary. 




Orifices For Piston Cooling 
Or Plugs Not Installed 


Install the correct parts. 

NOTE: Make reference to Oil Lines in the parts book to find this 

information. 


- 


56 







TROUBLESHOOTING 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



23. ENGINE USES TOO MUCH LUBRICATION OIL 



Cause 

Too Much Lubrication Oil in 
Engine 

Oil Leaks 

Oil Temperature is Too High 

Too Much Oil In Valve Com- 
partment 

Worn Valve Guides 

Worn Piston Rings and Cyl- 
linder Liners 

Failure of Seal Rings in Turbo- 
charger 

Worn Piston Rings in Air 
Compressor 



Correction 

Remove extra oil. Find where extra oil comes from. Put correct amount of 
oil in engine. Do not put too much oil in engine. 

Find all oil leaks. Make repairs as needed. 

Check operation of oil cooler. Install new parts if necessary. Clean the core 
of the oil cooler. 

Make Reference to Item 16. 



Make Reference to Item 16. 
Install new parts if necessary. 

Check inlet manifold for oil and make repair to turbocharger if necessary. 
Repair or replace air compressor as necessary. 



24. ENGINE COOLANT IS TOO HOT 



Remove all restrictions to flow. 



Cause 

Restriction To Air Flow 
Through Radiator or Restric- 
tion To Flow Of Coolant 
Through the Radiator 

Not Enough Coolant in System Add coolant to cooling system. 



Correction 



Pressure Cap or Relief Valve 
Has A Defect 

Combustion Gases in Coolant 

Water temperature Regulator 
(Thermostat) or Temperature 
Gauge Has A Defect 

Water Pump Has A Defect 

Too Much Load On The 
System 

Wrong Fuel Injection Timing 

Torque Converter or Transmis- 
sion Not Operating Correctly 
Causing an Increase in the 
Coolant Temperature 



Check operation of pressure cap or relief valve. Install a new pressure cap 
or relief valve if necessary. 

Find out where gases get into the cooling system. Make repairs as needed. 

Check water temperature regulator for correct operation. Check tempera- 
ture gauge operation. Install new parts as necessary. 

Make repairs to the water pump as necessary. 
Make a reduction in the load. 

Make adjustment to timing. 

Make corrections for torque converter or transmission running too hot. 



57 



TROUBLESHOOTING 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



25. STARTER MOTOR DOES NOT TURN 



Cause 

Battery Has Low Output 

Wiring or Switch Has Defect 

Starter Motor Solenoid Has a 
Defect 



Correction 

Check condition of battery. Charge battery or make replacement as 
necessary. 

Make repairs or replacement as necessary. 
Install a new solenoid 



Starter Motor Has a Defect Make repair or replacement of starter motor. 



26. ALTERNATOR GIVES NO CHARGE 



Cause 

Loose Drive Belt For Alterna- 
tor 

Charging or Ground Return 
Circuit or Battery Connections 
Have A Defect 

Brushes Have A Defect 

Rotor (Field Coil) Has A De- 
fect 



Correction 

Make an adjustment to put the correct tension on the drive belt. 



Inspect all cables and connections. Clean and tighten all connections. 
Make replacement of parts with defect. 



Install new brushes. 
Install a new rotor. 



27. ALTERNATOR CHARGE RATE IS LOW OR NOT REGULAR 



Cause 

Loose Drive Belt For Alterna- 
tor 

Charging, Ground Return Cir- 
cuit or Battery Connections 
Have A Defect 

Alternator Regulator Has A 
Defect 

Alternator Brushes Have A De- 
fect 

Rectifier Diodes Have A De- 
fect 

Rotor (Field Coil) Has A De- 
fect 



Correction 

Make an adjustment to put the correct tension on the drive belt. 

Inspect all cables and connections. Clean and tighten all connections. 
Make replacement of parts with defects. 

Make an adjustment or replacement of alternator regulator. 
Install new brushes. 

Make replacement of rectifier diode that has a defect. 
Install a new rotor. 



58 



TROUBLESHOOTING 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



28. ALTERNATOR CHARGE TOO HIGH (AS SHOWN BY LIGHTS BURNING 
OUT, BATTERY NEEDS TOO MUCH WATER) 



Cause 

Alternator or Alternator Reg- 
ulator Has Loose Connections 

Alternator Regulator Has A 
Defect 



Correction 

Tighten all connections to alternator regulator. 

Make an adjustment or replacement of alternator regulator. 



29. ALTERNATOR HAS NOISE 



Cause 

Drive Belt For Alternator is 
Worn or Has A Defect 

Loose Alternator Drive Pulley 



Drive Belt and Drive Pulley For 
Alternator Are Not in Align- 
ment 

Worn Alternator Bearings 

Armature or Rotor Shaft is 
Bent 

Rectifiers in the Alternator Are 
Shorted 



Correction 

Install a new drive belt for the alternator. 

Check groove in pulley for key that holds pulley in place. If groove is worn, 
install a new pulley. Tighten pulley nut according to Specifications. 

Make an adjustment to put drive belt and drive pulley in correct 
alignment. 

Install new bearings in the alternator. 
Make a replacement of the component. 

Make a replacement of the diode assembly. 



30. EXHAUST TEMPERATURE IS TOO HIGH 



Cause 

Air Inlet System Has A Leak 

Exhaust System Has A Leak 

Air Inlet or Exhaust System 
Has A Restriction 



Correction 

Check pressure in the air inlet manifold. Look for restrictions at the air 
cleaner. Correct any leaks. 

Find cause of exhaust leak. Make repairs as necessary. 

Remove restriction. 



Wrong Fuel Injection Timing Make an adjustment to the timing. 



59 



FUEL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



FUEL SYSTEM 



Either too much fuel or not enough fuel for com- 
bustion can be the cause of a problem in the fuel 
system. 

Many times work is done on the fuel system when 
the problem is really with some other part of the 
engine. The source of the problem is difficult to find, 
especially when smoke comes from the exhaust. 
Smoke that comes from the exhaust can be caused by 
a bad fuel injection valve, but it can also be caused by 
one or more of the reasons that follow: 

a. Not enough air for good combustion. 

b. An overload at high idle. 

c. Oil leakage into combustion chamber. 

d. Not enough compression. 

FUEL SYSTEM INSPECTION 

A problem with the components that send fuel to 

the engine can cause low fuel pressure. This can 

decrease engine performance. 

1 . Check the fuel level in the fuel tank. Look at the 

cap for the fuel tank to make sure the vent is not 

filled with dirt. 

2. Check the fuel lines for fuel leakage. Be sure the 
fuel supply line does not have a restriction or a 
bad bend. 

3. Install a new fuel filter. Clean the primary fuel 
filter, if so equipped. 

4. To remove air from the fuel system, use one of 
the procedures that follow for the correct 
application: 

PC Engines: 

(a) Use the priming pump to remove air from 
the low pressure side of the fuel system. 

(b) Loosen (one at a time) the fuel injection line 
nut one-half turn at the cylinder head. Use 
the priming pump until fuel without air 
flows from the loose connections, then 
tighten the nut. Repeat the procedure for 
each fuel injection line. 

Dl Engines: 

(a) Use the priming pump to remove air from 
the low pressure side of the fuel system. 

CAUTION 
When fuel injection lines are loosened or 
tightened on the fuel injection nozzles, two 
wrenches must be used. The nozzle must be 
held with a wrench or damage to the nozzle 
can result. 

(b) Loosen one-half turn the fuel injection line 
nuts at the adapter in the cylinder head. Use 
the starter motor to turn the engine until 
fuel without air flows from the loose connec- 
tions. Tighten the nuts. 



NOTE: Because of the check assemblies in the injec- 
tion pump outlets for the DI engine, the priming 
pump will not give enough pressure to remove air 
from the fuel injection lines. 

5. Inspect the fuel bypass valve to see that there is 
no restriction to good operation. 

CHECKING ENGINE CYLINDERS 
SEPARATELY 

An easy check can be made to find the cylinder 
that runs rough (misfires) and cause black smoke to 
come out of the exhaust pipe. 

Run the engine at the speed that is the roughest. 
Loosen the fuel line nut at a fuel injection pump. This 
will stop the flow of fuel to that cylinder. Do this for 
each cylinder until a loosened fuel line is found that 
makes no difference in engine performance. Be sure 
to tighten each fuel line nut after the test before the 
next fuel line nut is loosened. Check each cylinder by 
this method. When a cylinder is found where the 
loosened fuel line nut does not make a difference in 
engine performance, test the injection pump and in- 
jection valve for that cylinder. 

Temperature of an exiiaust manifold port, when 
the engine runs at low idle speed, can also be an 
indication of the condition of a fuel injection valve. 
Low temperature at an exhaust manifold port is an 
indication of no fuel to the cylinder. This can possibly 
be an indication of an injection valve with a defect. 
Extra high temperature at an exhaust manifold port 
can be an indication of too much fuel to the cylinder, 
also caused by an injection valve with a defect. 

TESTING CAPSULE-TYPE FUEL INJECTION 

NOZZLES 

Precombustion Chamber Engines (PC) 

Tools Needed: 

5P4150 Nozzle Testing Group 

5P4720 Fitting 

5P8744 Adapter or 

5P4717 Adapter 
8S2270 Fuel Collector 
FT1384 Extension 
8S2245 Cleaning Kit 

CAUTION 

Be sure to use clean SAE J967 Calibration oil 
when tests are made. Dirty test oil will damage 
components of the fuel injection nozzles. The 
temperature of the test oil must be 65 to 75° F 
(18 to 24°C) for good test results. 

Order calibration oil by part number, in the quan- 
tities needed, according to the information that 
follows: 

Kent-More Tool Division 

29784 Little Mack 

Roseville, MI 48066 



60 



FUEL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



Order: 

J-26400-5 [5 U.S. gal. (18.9 liter)] 
J-26400-15 [15 U.S. gal (56.7 liter)] 
J-26400-30 [30 U.S. gal. (113.5 liter)] 
J-26400-55 [55 U.S. gal. (208.2 liter)] 

Viscosity Oil Company 
3200 South Western Ave. 
Chicago, IL 60608 

Order: 

Viscor Calibration Fluid 
1487C-SAE J-967C 

Available in 30 U.S. gal ( 1 1 3.5 liter) or 55 U.S. gal. 
(208.2 liter) drums. 




A66777X1 



5P4150 NOZZLE TESTING GROUP 

A. 5P4721 Tube. B. 5P4146 Gauge, to 1000 psi (0 to 6900 
kPa) used to test PC capsule-type nozzles. 0. 2P2324 
Gauge, to 5000 psi (0 to 34 500 kPa) used to test Dl 
capsule-type nozzles and pencil-type nozzles. D. Gauge 
protector valve for 5P4146 Gauge (B). E. Gauge protector 
valve for 2P2324 Gauge (C). F. On-off valve. G. Pump iso- 
lator valve. H. 5P4720 Fitting. J. 5P8744 Adapter for cap- 
sule-type nozzles. K. SP4244 Adapter for pencil-type 
nozzles. 




EXTRA VALVE 

L. Gauge protector valve (must be in open position at ail 
times). 

The test procedures that follow will give an indic- 
tion of nozzle condition. A nozzle that has a defect is 
not always the only cause for a specific engine 
problem. 



A WARIMIIMG 



When fuel injection nozzles are tested, be sure 
to wear eye protection. Fuel comes from the 
orifices in the nozzle tip with high pressure. 
The fuel can pierce (go thru) the skin and cause 
serious injury to the operator. Keep the tip of 
the nozzle pointed away from the operator and 
into the 8S2270 Fuel Collector and FT1384 
Extension. 



Nozzle Tester Preparation 




ILLUSTRATION I 

1. Test nozzle (welded orifice). 2. Bottom part of 5P8744 
Adapter (J). J. 5P8744 Adapter. M. FT1384 Extension. N. 
882270 Fuel Collector. 

Find an old capsule-type fuel nozzle and weld the 
orifice closed. Keep the fuel nozzle with the tester 
group for use in the future. 

NOTE: Do not weld the fuel nozzles that are to be 

tested. 

Illustration I shows the latest 5P8744 Adapter. 
Illustration II shows the former 5P4717 Adapter. 
Unless some indication is made, the procedure is the 
same for use of either adapter. 




A 10072X1 



ILLUSTRATION II 

1. Test nozzle (welded orifice). 2. Bottom part of 5P4717 
Adapter (J). J. SP4717 Adapter. 



61 



FUEL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



1 . Install the top part of adapter (J) that holds the 
capsule nozzle. 

2. Put test nozzle (1) (with welded orifice) in the 
bottom part (2) of adapter (J) that holds the 
capsule nozzle. Install and tighten bottom part 
(2) to top part of adapter (J). 

3. Closeon-off valve (F). Open pump isolator valve 
(G). Open gauge protector valve (E). 

4. Operate the tester pump until a pressure of 3500 
psi (24 000 kPa) is read on 2P2324 Gauge (C). 
Now, close pump isolator valve (G). 

5. Check all connections for leaks. Tighten connec- 
tions to stop any leaks that are found. 

6. Open on-off valve (F) and remove test (welded) 
fuel nozzle (I). 



A WARIMirUG 



Do not loosen the bottom half of the adapter to 
remove fuel nozzle until on-off valve is opened 
and no pressure is read on the gauge. Unless 
the high pressure is released in the pump, the 
fuel discharge from the adapter can cause in- 
jury to the operator. 

NOTE: To prevent fuel leakage, the top surface of 
the test (welded) nozzle, and all other nozzles that 
are to be tested, must be free of scratches or burrs 
(sharp edges). The procedure for NOZZLE TES- 
TER PREPARATION must be done each time any 
of the conditions that follow exist: 

a. The complete 5P8744 or 5P4717 Adapter is 
removed and installed again. 

b. Before and after a series of tests. 

c. There is an indication of a problem with the 
nozzle tester. 

TEST SEQUENCE — 

PRECOMBUSTION CHAMBER (PC) FUEL 

NOZZLE 

To test PC capsule-type fuel nozzles, use the se- 
quence that follows: 

I. Nozzle Installation 

II. Pressure Loss Test 

III. Valve Opening Pressure (VOP) Test 

CAUTION 
Do not use a drill or a reamer on the orifice of a 
nozzle. Do not use a steel brush or a wire wheel 
to clean the tip of the nozzle. The orifice and the 
valve can be damaged easily. 



1. Nozzle installation 

1 . Put one of the nozzles to be tested in the bottom 
part (2) of adapter (J). Install and tighten bot- 
tom part (2) to top part of adapter (J). 




A66783X1 



AIR REMOVAL FROM TESTER 
2. Bottom part of adapter (J). J. 5P8744 Adapter. 

2. Close on-off valve (F). Open gauge protector 
valve (D) one-half turn. Open pump isolator 
valve (G) one-half turn. 

3. Bleed (remove) air from the tester as follows: 

a. Loosen bottom part (2) of adapter (J) one- 
half turn. 

b. Operate the pump until clear test oil (free of 
air bubbles) leaks past the threads at top of 
adapter (J). 

NOTE: With some 5P8744 Adapters, pressure may 
start to increase before there is an indication of clear 
test oil. To correct this condition, do Step C. 

c. Tighten bottom part (2) of adapter (J). 

NOTE: The 5P8744 Adapter makes its own seal, and 
normally needs very little force when turned on bot- 
tom part (2) of the adapter. 



IL Pressure Loss Test 




dy^ 


^ 




JD 


ay 




'^^'^W^^^^^ 






® 


T^ ^ 


A 10065X1 



TESTER NOMENCLATURE 

B. 5P4146 Gauge, to 100 psi (0 to 6900 kPa). D. Gauge 
protector valve. F. On-off valve. G. Pump isolator valve. 



62 



FUEL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



1 . Open gauge protector valve (D) an extra amount 
of one-half turn (the total amount is now one 
turn open). 

2. Operate pump to increase pressure slowly to 
300 psi (2050 kPa), and close pump isolator 
valve (G). Now turn gauge protector valve (D) 
to adjust pressure again to 300 psi (2050 kPa). 



3. 



After 30 seconds, take a pressure reading from 
the gauge. The pressure at this time must not be 
below 100 psi (690 kPa) reading on the dial face 



PRESSURE LOSS SPECIFICATION.*; 


Time Period 


Maximum Loss 


30 seconds 


200 psi 
(1380 l<Pa) 




1000 

PSI 



A75076X1 



PRESSURE LOSS RANGE FOR GOOD NOZZLE 

4. If the pressure loss is not in the 200 psi (1380 
kPa) range as shown, stop the test sequence. Do 
not use the fuel nozzle again. 

5. If the nozzle is in specification range, see 
VALVE OPENING PRESSURE (VOP) 
TEST. 

III. Valve Opening Pressure (VOP) Test 




A 10065X1 



TESTER NOMENCLATURE 



B. 5P4146 Gauge, to 1000 psi (0 to 6900 kPa). D. Gauge 
protector valve. F. On-off valve. G. Pump isolator valve. 



Open pump isolator valve (G) one-half turn. 



A WARNIIUG 



When fuel injection nozzle is to be tested, keep 
the tip of the nozzle pointed away from the 
operator and into the FT1384 Extension and 
8S2270 Fuel Collector. Fuel from the orifices in 
the tip of the nozzle is under high pressure and 
can cause injury to the operator. 

2. Operate the pump to increase the pressure slow- 
ly until test oil comes from the nozzle tip. 

3. The pressure reading on the gauge at this time 
must be in the pressure range as follows: 



VOP 
SPECIFICATIONS 



400 to 750 psi 
(2750 to 5200 l<Pa) 



400 




750 



r,o, 1000 
PSI 



A75074X1 



4. 



VALVE OPENING PRESSURE (VOP) RANGE 
FOR GOOD NOZZLE 

If the valve opening pressure (VOP) is not in the 
400 to 750 psi (2750 to 5200 kPa) range as 
shown, do not use the fuel nozzle again. 



TESTING 7N449 FUEL 
INJECTION NOZZLES 

Direct Injection Engines (Dl) 

Tools Needed: 

*5P4150 Nozzle Testing Group. 

5P7448 Adapter. 

8S2270 Fuel Collector. 

FT1384 Extension. 

8S2245 Cleaning Tool Group. 

2P8279 Adapter. 

8S2258 Brass Wire Brush. 

8S2250 Nozzle Holding Tool. 

8S2252 Carbon Seal Installation Tool. 

5P4813 Socket. 

1F1153 Needle Nose Pliers. 

5/64" Hex Wrencti. 

5V2171 Tube Assembly. 

*Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7292. 



63 



FUEL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



CAUTION 

Be sure to use clean SAEJ967 Calibration Oil 
when tests are made. Dirty test oil will damage 
components of fuel injection nozzles. The tem- 
perature of the test oil must be 65 to 75° F (18 to 
24° C) for good test results. 

Order calibration oil by part number, in the quan- 
tities needed, according to the information that 
follows: 

Kent-Moore Tool Division 
29784 Little Mack 
RoseviUe, MI 48066 

Order: 
J-26400-5 [5 U.S. gal. (18.9 liter)] 
J-26400-15 [15 U.S. gal (56.7 liter)] 
J-26400-30 [30 U.S. gal. (113.5 liter)] 
J-26400-55 [55 U.S. gal. (208.2 liter)] 

Viscosity Oil Company 
3200 South Western Ave. 
Chicago, IL 60608 

Order: 

Viscor Calibration Fluid 
1487C-SAE J-967C 

Available in 30 U.S. gal (1 13.5 liter) or 55 U.S. 
gal. (208.2 liter) drums. 




5P4150 NOZZLE TESTING GROUP 

1. 7N449 Nozzle Assembly. A. 5P7448 Adapter. B. 5P4146 
Gauge, to 1000 psi (0 to 6900 kPa). 0. 6V2171 Tube As- 
sembly. D.2P2324Gauge,0toS000psi(0to34 500kPa). E. 
Gauge protector valve for 2P2324 Gauge. F. FT1384 Exten- 
sion. G. Gauge protector valve for 5P4146 Gauge. H. On- 
off valve. J. 882270 Fuel Collector. K. Pump isolator valve. 




8157X1 



EXTRA VALVE 

L. Gauge protector valve (must be in open position at all 
times). 

To test a pencil-type fuel injection nozzle, all five 
steps of the test procedure must be completed, and 
the step sequence must be as follows: 

I. Valve Opening Pressure Test. 

II. Flush the Nozzle. 

III. Tip Leakage Test. 

IV. Orifice Restriction Test. 

V. Cap Leakage Test. 

NOTE: Do all tests before the nozzle is disassembled 
for cleaning, or before any adjustments are made to a 
nozzle. A test can show that the nozzle must not be 
used again. 



Nozzle Preparation for Test 

Before fuel injection nozzle ( 1 ) can be tested, all 
loose carbon around the tip of the nozzle must be 
removed with the 8S2258 Brass Wire Brush (M). 



CAUTION 

Do not use a steel brush or a wire wheel to clean 
the nozzle body or the nozzle tip. Use of these 
tools can cause a small reduction of orifice 
size, and this will cause a large reduction in 
engine horsepower. Too much use of the 
8S2258 Brass Wire Brush will also remove the 
coating that is on the nozzle for protection. 



64 



FUEL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 




A75640X1 



REMOVING CARBON DAM 
(Typical Example) 

1. Fuel injection nozzle. 2. Carbon dam. 3. Seal. Remove 
carbon dam (2) with needle nose pliers and remove seal 
(3) from the nozzle. 



Clean the groove for carbon seal dam (2) and the 
body of the nozzle below the groove with the 8S2258 
Brass Wire Brush (M). Remove the carbon, but be 
sure not to use the brush enough to cause damage to 
the body of the nozzle. 

NOTE: A change in color in the area below the 
groove is normal and does not effect the body of the 
nozzle. 




I 



8S2245 CLEANING KIT 

M. 8S2258 Brass Wire Brush. N. 8S22S2 Carbon Seal 
Tool. P. 8S2250 Nozzle Holding Tool. 



I. Valve Opening Pressure Test (VOP) 

1. Install 6V21 71 Tube Assembly (6) on the tester. 

2. Install 7N449 Fuel Injection Nozzle with 
5P7448 Adapter (A) on tube assembly (6). Posi- 
tion the nozzle tip down into FT 1384 Extension 
(F) and 8S2270 Fuel Collector (J). 



A WARIMIIMG 



When fuel injection nozzles are tested, be sure 
to wear eye protection. Fuel comes from the 
orifices in the nozzle tip with high pressure. 
The fuel can pierce (go thru) the skin and cause 
serious injury to the operator. Keep the tip of 
the nozzle pointed away from the operator and 
into the 8S2270 Fuel Collector and FT1384 
Extension. 



B34S0X1 




NOZZLE READY FOR TEST 

E. Gauge protector valve. H. On-olf valve. G. Pump isola- 
tor valve. 



CAUTION 

Put a shop towel around the top of the nozzle 
(pressure screw end) to take in any fuel 
leakage. 



3. Close on-off valve (H). Open pump isolator 
valve (G). 

4. Open gauge protector valve (E). Operate the 
pump to make a slow increase in pressure until 
the valve in the fuel injection nozzle just starts to 
open. Read the maximum gauge pressure at the 
instant fluid flows from the tip. 

NOTE: It is possible for the pressure reading of the 
gauge to go down fast if the valve makes a noise 
(chatters) when it opens. It is also possible for the 
pressure reading of the gauge to be almost constant 
when the valve in the fuel injection nozzle opens. 

NOTE: The valve in the fuel injection nozzle can be 
good and still not make a noise (chatter), or not have 
a very fine vapor (spray) from the orifices in the tip of 
the fuel injection nozzle during Step 4. 



65 



FUEL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



VALVE OPENING PRESSURE (VOP) SPECIFICATIONS 



1 500 to 2600 psi 
(10 300 to 1 7 690 kPa) 



If the opening pressure is less than 1500 psi (10 
300 kPa), do not use the fuel injection nozzle again. 



II. Flush the Nozzle 

1. Close gauge protector valve (E). Close on-off 
valve (H). Open pump isolator valve (G). 

NOTE: Make sure nozzle extends inside and below 
the top of FT1384 Extension (F). 

2. Operate the pump rapidly for three full strokes. 
III. Tip Leakage Test 

1 . Remove all fuel from the nozzle tip and body 
with a cloth. 

2. Put a clean cloth around the top of the body of 
the fuel injection nozzle (pressure screw end) to 
take in the leakage and prevent any fuel leakage 
to drain down to the tip of the nozzle. 



B34S0X1 




CLOTH ON TOP OF NOZZLE 

E. Gauge protector valve. H. On-ofI valve. G. Pump isola- 
tor valve. 

3. Open gauge protector valve (E). Be sure the 
nozzle tip is completely dry. 

4. Make and hold for 1 5 seconds a pressure of 200 
psi (1380 kPa) less than the opening pressure 
measured in VOP Test II. 

5. If nozzle is not within specification, DO NOT 
USE THE NOZZLE. 



TIP LEAKAGE SPECIFICATION 



No more than 20 drops can fall in 15 seconds. 



IV. Orifice Restriction Test 

1 . Close gauge protector valve (E) and on-off valve 
(H). Open pump isolator valve (G). 




NOZZLE INSTALLED AT 15° ANGLE 

2. Point the tip of the fuel injection nozzle into the 
8S2270 Fuel Collector and FT 1 384 Extension at 
a 15° angle. 

3. Make a slow increase in pressure and look at the 
orifice discharge pattern (shape of discharge) 
when fluid begins to flow through the fuel injec- 
tion nozzle. The discharge must be the same 
through all nine orifices. Any change, either ver- 
tically or horizontally, is an indication of a bad 
nozzle. 




B9143X1 




GOOD NOZZLE 
(USE AGAIN) 



B9144X1 





TYPICAL DISCHARGE PATTERN FOR ORIFICE 

WITH A RESTRICTION 

(RECONDITIONING OR REPLACEMENT 

NECESSARY) 



66 



FUEL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



I 



B9145X1 





3. Install cap (4) and tighten to 1 10 to 120 lb. in. 
(12.4 to 13.6 Nm) 



B3487X1 



TYPICAL DISCHARGE PATTERN WITH 

HORIZONTAL DISTORTION 

(RECONDITIONING OR REPLACEMENT 

NECESSARY) 




B9146X1 




Ji 



'^^^ 




I 



TYPICAL DISCHARGE PATTERN WITH 

VERTICAL DISTORTION 

(RECONDITIONING OR REPLACEMENT 

NECESSARY) 



TIGHTENING CAP 
P. 8S2250 Nozzle Holding Tool. 

CAUTION 

Do not tighten the cap more than torque shown 
or the new 0-ring seal will be damaged. 



V. Cap Leakage Test 

1 . Remove fuel injection nozzle ( 1 ) from the 
5P4 1 50 Nozzle Tester and put it in 8S2250 Noz- 
zle Holding Tool (P). 




4. Put fuel injection nozzle ( 1 ) on the 5P4 1 50 Noz- 
zle Tester with the nozzle tip in the 8S2270 Fuel 
Collector and FT 1384 Extension. 

5. With gauge protector valve (E) open, pump the 
tester until cap (4) is completely full of fuel and 
the pressure on the gauge is 4000 psi (27 500 
kPa). 



NOTE: 15 to 20 strokes of the pump can be neces- 
sary for the pressure to reach 4000 psi (27 500 kPa) 



NOZZLE CAP INSTALLATION 
1. Fuel injection nozzle. 4. Cap. 5. 1H1023 O-ring Seal. 

2. Install new 1H1023 O-ring Seal (5). 



CAP LEAKAGE SPECIFICTION 



There must be no leakage between the cap and the body of fuel 
injection nozzle. 



If there is leakage, make a replacement of 
1H1023 O-ring Seal (5) and inspect cap (4) for 
cracks. Test the nozzle again. If there is still 
leakage, replacement of fuel injection nozzle is 
necessary. 



67 



FUEL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 




INSTALLING CARBON DAM 
(Typical Example) 

2. Carbon dam. 3. Seal. N. 8S2252 Carbon Seal Tool. 

7. If no fuel leakage is found, fuel injection nozzle 
is acceptable. Slide new seal (3) into position 
over the nozzle. Install new carbon dam (2) in 
nozzle groove with 8S2252 Carbon Seal Tool 

(N). 



68 



FUEL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



TROUBLESHOOTING OF 7N449 FUEL 
INJECTION NOZZLES 

Use the guide that follows to troubleshoot for pro- 
belms with the fuel injection nozzles. 



NOZZLE ASSEMBLY TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE 


PROBLEM 


CAUSE 


CORRECTION 


Opening Pressure Not Correct 


1 . Adjustment wrong 

2. Parts are bad 


1 . Make adjustment. See ADJUSTMENT 
OF 7N449 FUEL NOZZLES 

2. Make replacement of nozzle assembly 


Nozzle Will Not Open 


1 . Orifices not open 

2. Adjustment of lift not correct 

3. Valve is bad 


1 . Clean orifices 

2. Make adjustment. See ADJUSTMENT 
OF 7N449 FUEL NOZZLES 

3. Make replacement of nozzle assembly 


Tip Leakage 


1 . Deposits in seat area 

2. Seat for valve bad 

3. Parts have failed 

4. Crack at tip of nozzle 


1. Disassemble and clean nozzle. See 
Special Instruction Form No. 
SEHS7292 for cleaning procedure 

2. Make replacement of nozzle assembly 

3. Make replacement of nozzle assembly 

4. Make replacement of nozzle assembly 


Orifice Discharge is Not Correct 


1 . Orifices have a restriction or are bad 

2. Crack at tip of nozzle 

3. Debris inside nozzle at bottom of tip 

4. Adjustment of lift screw not correct 


1 . Clean orifices, if orifices are bad, make 
replacement of nozzle assembly. See 
Special Instruction Form No. 
SEHS7292 for cleaning procedures 

2. Make replacement of nozzle assembly 

3. Clean nozzle. See Special Instruction 
Form No. SEHS7292 lor cleaning pro- 
cedures 

4. Make adjustment. See ADJUSTMENT 
OF 7N449 FUEL NOZZLES 



69 



FUEL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



ADJUSTMENT AND CLEANING OF 7N449 
FUEL INJECTION NOZZLES 

For the procedure to clean the nozzles, see Special 
Instruction Form No. SEHS7292. 

NOTE: Do not clean or adjust a nozzle with a valve 
opening pressure (VOP) less than 1500 psi (10 300 
kPa). 

Valve Opening Pressure (VOP) Adjustment 

K 2 3 




B9230X2 



4 5 

FUEL INJECTION NOZZLE 



1. Fuel injection nozzle. 2. Locknut (for pressure adjust- 
ment screw). 3. Pressure adjustment screw. 4. 1H1023 O- 
ring Seal for cap. 5. Locknut (for lift adjustment screw). 6. 
Lift adjustment screw. 

1. Remove fuel injection nozzle (1) from the 
5P4150 Nozzle Tester and put it in the 8S2250 
Nozzle Holding Tool (P). 




LOOSENING LOCKNUT 

1. Fuel injection nozzle. 7. 2P8279 Adapter. P. 8S2250 Noz- 
zle Holding Tool. 

2. Loosen locknut (5) that holds lift adjustment 
screw (6). Turn lift adjustment screw (6) coun- 
terclockwise two turns. 



CAUTION 

If the lift adjustment screw is not turned coun- 
terclockwise two turns, the valve can be bent or 
the seat for the valve can be damaged when the 
pressure adjustment screw is turned. 

3. Hold lift adjustment screw (6) with a 5/64" hex 
wrench (8) and remove locknut (5). 




REMOVING LOCKNUT 

5. Locknut (for lift adjustment screw). 8. 5/64" hex 
wrench. 




LOOSENING LOCKNUT 
7. 2P8279 Adapter. 

4. Loosen locknut (2) that holds pressure adjust- 
ment screw (3). 

5. Put fuel injection nozzle ( 1 ) on the nozzle tester. 
Turn pressure adjustment screw (3) clockwise 
with 5P4813 Socket (9). Each one-fourth of a 
turn will increase the opening pressure approxi- 
mately 250 psi (1720 kPa). 



70 



FUEL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 




OPENING PRESSURE ADJUSTMENT 
9. 5P4813 Socket. 

6. Turn pressure adjustment screw (3) clockwise 
until the valve opening pressure is within 
specifications. 



VOP 
SPECIFICATIONS 



2400 to 2600 psi 
(16 545fol7 690kPa) 



NOTE: If nozzle CAN NOT be adjusted to specifi- 
cations, make a replacement of the nozzle. 




TIGHTENING LOCKNUT 
7. 2P8279 Adapter. 9. 5P4813 Socket. 

7. Hold pressure adjustment screw (3) and tighten 
locknut (2) just enough so that pressure adjust- 
ment screw (3) will not turn. 

8. After the opening pressure adjustment is made, 
install locknut (5) that holds lift adjustment 
screw (6). Make the valve lift adjustment. See 
VALVE LIFT ADJUSTMENT. 



Valve Lift Adjustment 

1. With the valve opening pressure correct, pump 
test oil through the fuel injection nozzle. At the 
same time, hold locknut (5) and slowly turn lift 
adjustment screw (6) clockwise until the pres- 
sure starts to increase above the opening 
pressure. 

2. To be sure the valve is on the seat, increase the 
pressure 200 to 500 psi ( 1 380 to 3450 kPa) more 
than the opening pressure. 

CAUTION 

Do not bend the valve or damage the seat by 
turning lift adjustment screw (6) with too much 
force. 



NOTE: Some test oil can be at the tip of the fuel 
injection nozzle, but a constant flow of drops (drib- 
ble) must not be seen. 




TIGHTENING LOCKNUT 
7. 2P8279 Adapter. 8. 5/64" Hex Wrench. 



3. Turn lift adjustment screw (6) counterclockwise 
3/4 ± 1/8 of a turn. 

4. Hold lift adjustment screw (6) with 5/64" hex 
wrench (8) and tighten locknut (5) just enough 
so that lift adjustment screw (6) will not turn. 

Tightening Locknuts and Cap 

1. Remove fuel injection nozzle (1) from the 
5P4 1 50 Nozzle Tester and put it in 8S2250 Noz- 
zle Holding Tool (P). 



71 



FUEL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 




B9230X2 4 5 

FUEL INJECTION NOZZLE 

1. Fuel injection nozzle. 2. Locknut (for pressure adjust- 
ment screw). 3. Pressure adjustment screw. 4. 1H1023O- 
rlng Seal for cap. 5. Locknut (for lift adjustment screw). 6. 
Lift adjustment screw. 

2. Tighten locknut (2) that holds pressure adjust- 
ment screw ( 3) to 70 to 80 lb. in. (8.0 to 9. 1 Nm) 



B3488X1 




TIGHTENING PRESSURE SCREW LOCKNUT 



3. Tighten locknut (5) that holds lift adjustment 
screw (6) to 35 to 45 lb. in. (4.0 to 5.1 Nm). 




4. Install new 1H1023 O-ring Seal (5). 

5. Install the cap and tighten to 1 10 to 120 lb. in. 
(12.4 to 13.6 N-m) 



CAUTION 

Do not tighten the cap more than torque shown 
or the new O-ring seal will be damaged. 



B3487X1 





TIGHTENING CAP 
P. 8S2250 Nozzle Holding Tool. 

With the adjustments and tests complete, check 
for 'eakage between the cap and the body of the fuel 
injection nozzle. See Cap Leakage Test in section 
TESTING 7N449 FUEL INJECTION 
NOZZLES. 

FUEL INJECTION LINES 

Fuel from the fuel injection pumps is sent through 
the fuel injection lines to the fuel injection valves. 




TIGHTENING VALVE LIFT SCREW LOCKNUT 



TIGHTENING THE NUT OF A FUEL 
INJECTION LINE 
(Typical Example) 

1. 5P144 Fuel Line Socket 



72 



FUEL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



Each fuel injection line of an engine has a special 
design and must be installed in a certain location. 
When fuel injection lines are removed from an en- 
gine, put identification marks or tags on the fuel lines 
as they are removed, so they can be put in the correct 
location when they are installed. 

The nuts that hold a fuel injection line to an injec- 
tion valve and injection pump must be kept tight. Use 
a torque wrench and the 5P144 Fuel Line Socket ( 1 ) 
to tighten the fuel line nuts to 30 + 5 lb. ft. (40 + 7 
N-m). 

START-UP PROCEDURE 

Use the following procedure when starting an en- 
gine for the first time after work is done on the fuel 
injection pump or governor. 

I. Remove the air inlet elbow and piping from the 
air inlet of the turbocharger. 




i r V* 

AIR INLET PIPE 



2. Remove the air cleaner leaving the air mlet pipe 
open as shown on engines without 
turbochargers. 

3. If the engine starts to run too fast or does not 
react correctly to the controls, immediately put 
the steel plates against the air inlet to the turbo- 
charger or to the air inlet pipe to the engine and 
the engine will stop. 





A58iaiX1 



STOPPING THE ENGINE 
(Engines Without Turbochargers) 

ENGINE SPEED MEASUREMENT 

Tools Needed: 

5P2150 Engine Horsepower Meter or 
6V3121 Multltach Group or 
1P5500 Portable phototach group. 




5P2150 ENGINE HORSEPOWER METER 



The 5P2150 Engine Horsepower Meter can mea- 
sure engine speed from the tachometer drive on the 
engine. Special Instruction Form No. SMHS7050 
has instructions for its use. 




STOPPING THE ENGINE (Typical Example) 
(Engines With Turbochargers) 



1P5500 PORTABLE PHOTOTACH GROUP 



73 



FUEL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



The 1P5500 Portable Phototach Group can mea- 
sure engine speed from a tachometer drive on the 
engine. It also has the ability to measure engine 
speed from visual engine parts in rotation. Special 
Instruction Form No. SMHS7015 has instructions 
for its use. 




B1 9988X1 



6V3121 MULTITACH GROUP 



1. Carrying case. 2. Power cable. 3. Tachometer genera- 
tor. 4. Tachometer driver group. 5. Multitach. 

Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7807 is with 
the 6V3 1 2 1 Multitach Group and gives instructions 
for the test procedure. 

CHECKING ENGINE TIMING WITH 
6V3100 DIESEL ENGINE TIMING 
INDICATOR GROUP 

Tools Needed: 

6V3100 Diesel Engine Timing Indicator Group. 





6V3100 DIESEL ENGINE TIMING INDICATOR GROUP 

1. Engine timing indicator. 2. TDC magnetic trans- 
ducer. 3. Pipe adapter. 4. Injection transducer. 5. 5P7437 
Adapter. 6. 5P7435 Tee Adapter. 7. 5P7436 Adapter. 

Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7742 is with 
the tool group and gives instructions for the test 
procedure. 



CAUTION 

The engine must be stopped while the timing 
indicator is being connected. 








TRANSDUCER IN POSITION 
(Typical Example) 

4. Injection transducer. 8. Fuel injection line for No. 1 
cylinder. 

1 . Make reference to Operation Instructions inside 
the lid of the 6V3100 Diesel Engine Timing 
Indicator (1) for complete instructions and 
calibration. 

2. Loosen all fuel line clamps that hold No. 1 fuel 
injection line and disconnect fuel injection line 
(8) for No. 1 cylinder at the fuel injection pump. 
Slide the nut up and out of the way. Put the 
5P7436 Adapter (7) in its place and turn the 
5P7436 Adapter (7) onto the fuel pump bonnet 
until the top of the bonnet threads are approxi- 
mately even with the bottom of the "window" in 
the 5P7436 Adapter (7). 

3. Put the 5P7435 Tee Adapter (6) on the injection 
transducer (4) and put the end of the 5P7435 
Tee Adapter (6) in the "window" of the 5P7436 
Adapter (7). 

4. Put fuel injection line (8) on top of the 5P7435 
Tee Adapter (6). Install 5P7437 Adapter (5) 
and tighten to 30 lb. ft. (40 Nm). 

5. Remove plug and install the pipe adapter (3) 
into the TDC static pin timing hole and tighten 
just more than finger tight. 

6. Push the TDC magnetic transducer (2) into the 
pipe adapter (3) until it makes contact with the 
flywheel. Pull it back out .06 in. (1.6 mm) and 
finger tighten the knurled locknut. 

7. Connect the cables from the transducers to the 
Engine Timing Indicator. Calibrate and make 
adjustments. For calibration procedure refer to 
Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7742. 



74 



FUEL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 




1. Remove starter motor. 

2. Install tooling as shown. 



TRANSDUCER IN POSITION 
2. TDC magnetic transducer. 

8. Start the engine. With engine at operating tem- 
perature, run the engine at 800 rpm and check 
engine timing. Increase engine speed and check 
timing at 1800 rpm. 

The Timing Chart gives the acceptable dynamic 
(engine in motion) timing range as read on the Tim- 
ing Indicator Group. The Timing Chart lists all of 
the static (engine stopped) timing angles used by 
these machines. 



TIMING CHART 


Static 
Timing 
Angle 


Indicator Reading at 


800 rpm 


1800 rpm 


12 30' 


12,1 to 14,5' 


13,1 to 15,5 


13 30' 


13.1 to 15.5 


14.1 to 16.5 


23 


22.6 to 25 


23.6 to 26 


27 


26.6 to 29 


27.6 to 30 


29 


28,6 to 31 


29.6 to 32 



Make reference to Fuel Injection Timing Check 
(Timing Pin Method) for the correct procedure for 
checking and changing the timing. 

FINDING TOP CENTER COMPRESSION 
POSITION FOR NO. 1 PISTON 

Tools Needed: 5P7307 Engine Turning Tool Group. 



No. 1 piston at top center (TC) on the compression 
stroke in the starting point for all timing procedures. 

NOTE: The engine is seen from the flywheel end 
when direction of crankshaft rotation is given. 





JS) ^ 


w^ 




^■k X A42404Xt 



ENGINE TURNING TOOLS INSTALLED 
1. 5P7306 Housing Assembly. 2. 5P7305 Gear. 

3. To find top center (TC) compression stroke for 
No. 1 piston, first turn the flywheel clockwise 
(opposite the direction of engine rotation) ap- 
proximately 30 degrees. The reason for making 
this step is to be sure the play is removed from 
the timing gears when the engine is put on top 
center. 

4. Remove the plug. Turn the flywheel counter- 
clockwise until a 3/8" - 16 NC bolt can be 
installed in the flywheel through the hole in the 
flywheel housing. The No. 1 piston is on top 
center. 

NOTE: If the flywheel is turned beyond the point 
where the 3/8"-16 NC bolt can be installed in the 
flywheel turn the flywheel back (clockwise) a mini- 
mum of 30° before turning counterclockwise toward 
alignment again. 




LOCATING TOP CENTER 
3. Bolt. 



I 



75 



FUEL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



5. To see if No. 1 piston on the compression stroke, 
look at the valves of No. 1 cylinder. The valves 
will be closed if No. 1 cylinder is on the compres- 
sion stroke. You should be able to move the 
rocker arms (4) up and down with your hand. 




LOCATING TOP CENTER 
Plug in hole for timing bolt (3). 




LOCATING TOP CENTER 
3. Bolt. 



*Qi 



Mlm^ 



A073S4X1 M ^k I 



VALVE COVER REMOVED 
4. Rocker arms. 



6. If No. 1 piston is not on the compression stroke, 
remove the 3/8"- 16 NC bolt and turn the fly- 
wheel 360° counterclockwise. Install the 3/8"- 
1 6 NC bolt as before. The No. 1 piston is now at 
top center on the compression stroke (TCI). 



FLOW CHECKING FUEL INJECTrON 
PUMP TIMING (PC Engines Only) 

Tools Needed: 

1P540 Flow Checking Tool Group. 

5P6524 Engine Timing Indicator Group. 

5P7265 Adapter. 

9S215 Dial Indicator. 

3P1565 Collet. 

3S3264 Rod, 7.12 in. (180.9 mm) long. 

3S3269 Contact Point. 
5P7307 Engine Turning Tool Group. 
6V2023 Adapter Group. 

CAUTION 

DO NOT use the Fuel Flow Method of Fuel Injec- 
tion Pump Timing on Direct Injection engines. 

Travel of piston (7), from point of closing inlet 
port (6) to top center, can be found by using the 
procedure that follows: 

NOTE: The fuel system timing has a tolerance of ± 
1°. 

1. Put No. 1 piston at top center (TC) on the 
compression stroke. Make reference to FIND- 
ING TOP CENTER COMPRESSION POSI- 
TION FOR NO. 1 PISTON. 




MEASURING PISTON TRAVEL 

1. 3P1565 Collet Clamp. 2. 98215 Dial Indicator with Con- 
tact Point. 3. 5P7265 Adapter. 4. Precombustion 
chamber. 5. 3S3264 Rod, 7.12 in. (180.9 mm) long. 6. Inlet 
port. 7. Piston. 



76 



FUEL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



I 



2. Remove the fuel nozzle from the precombustion 
chamber for No. 1 cylinder. 

3. Put a small amount of clean oil on 3S3264 Rod 
(5) and put the rod in adapter (3). 

4. Put 5P7265 Adapter (3) in precombustion 
chamber (4) and tighten the adapter finger 
tight. 

CAUTION 

Do not use a wrench to tighten the adapter. 
There will be damage to the nozzle seat if the 
adapter is too tight. 

5. Put the correct Contact Point and 3P 1 565 Collet 
Clamp on 9S215 Dial Indicator. 

6. Put the assembled indicator into adapter (3). 
Position the dial indicator (up or down) so small 
pointer is on + .300 in (7.62 mm) (black 
numbers) and tighten collet (1). 

CAUTION 

Do not tighten collet too much or damage to the 
dial indicator can result. 



7. Loosen the screw that locks the dial face. Move 
the dial face until the large pointer is on "0" 
(zero) and tighten the lock screw. 




TIMING INDICATOR GROUP INSTALLED 
2. 9S215 Dial Indicator. 3. 5P7265 Adapter. 

8. Turn the crankshaft a minimum of 30° in the 
CLOCKWISE direction (when seen from the 
flywheel end of the engine). 

9. Turn the crankshaft in the COUNTER- 
CLOCKWISE direction (when seen from the 
flywheel end of the engine) until the dial indica- 
tor gives an indication of maximum piston tra- 
vel. Make an adjustment to the dial indicator, if 
necessary, to put both points of the dial indicator 
on "0" (zero). 



1 0. Disconnect the fuel line for No. 1 injection pump 
at the injection pump housing. Put the 6V2023 
Adapter Group on No. 1 injection pump. 

a. Turn fitting (8) so that less than .2 in. (5 mm) 
of pin (14) is extended. 

b. Remove tube (13). Put the adapter group in 
position on No. 1 injection pump. Tighten nut 
(11) to 30 lb. ft. (40 Nm) maximum. 

c. Push washer (10) against adapter (12). 
Tighten nut (9) finger tight. Install tube ( 13) 
on the adapter group. 




6V2023 ADAPTER GROUP 



8. Fitting. 
Tube. 14. 


9. 
Pin 


Nut. 


10. Washer. 11. Nut. 


12. 


Adapter. 


13. 








T. 

r4^ 














/Aj^LAv 








(SX. 


s 


( 


w 


I 


i^ 




- 




^s 


'*'*-^^^^ 




A1 7539-1X2 







11. 



1P540 FLOW CHECKING TOOL GROUP 
15. SJ4634 Hose Assembly. 16. Tank assembly. 



Disconnect the fuel line at the fuel filter. Use an 
adapter to connect 5J4634 Hose Assembly (15) 
to the fuel line. Disconnect the fuel return line 



77 



FUEL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



from the outlet elbow on the fuel manifold across 
the injection pump housing. Install a plug in the 
outlet elbow. 

12. Turn the crankshaft approximately 45° in a 
clockwise direction (when seen from the fly- 
wheel end of the engine). 

1 3. Put 1 U.S. gal. (4 liters) of clean fuel in the tank 
assembly (16). Move the governor lever to full 
"fuel-on" position. Put 15 psi (105 kPa) of air 
pressure in the tank by using the hand pump or 
shop air. 



CAUTION 

If shop air is used, be sure to make an adjust- 
ment to the regulator so there is only 15 psi (105 
kPa) air pressure in the tank. 



14. Hold a pan under the free end of tube (13) for 
the fuel that comes out. 

15. Turn the crankshaft slowly in direction of nor- 
mal rotation (counterclockwise when seen from 
the flywheel end of the engine). Do this until the 
flow of fuel coming from the end of the tube (13) 
is 6 to 12 drops per minute [point of closing inlet 
port (6)]. 

1 6. Stop rotation of the crankshaft when the flow of 
fuel is 6 to 12 drops per minute. Take a reading 
of the measurement on the dial indicator. 

17. To check for correct timing of the fuel system, 
make a comparison of the measurement on the 
dial indicator with the measurements in one of 
the charts that follow. 

18. If the reading on the dial indicator (2) is the 
same as the chart, the timing of the fuel system is 
correct. If the reading on the dial indicator (2) is 
different from the chart by more than 1 °, make 
adjustment to the timing. Make reference to 
Checking Timing By Timing Pin Method for the 
correct method for adjusting the timing of the 
fuel system. 



Timing Angle ± 1° 
(Degrees Before 


Indicator 


Reading 






Top Center) 


in. 


mm 


10.5° 


.070 


1.77 


11.0° 


.077 


1.95 


11.5° 


.084 


2.13 


12.0° 


.092 


2.33 


•12.5° 


.099 


2.51 


13.0° 


.107 


2.71 


**13.5° 


.116 


2.94 


14.0° 


.124 


3.14 


14.5° 


.133 


3.37 


15.0° 


.142 


3.60 


15.5° 


.152 


3.86 


*4N431 2 Camshaft. 






**6N6567 Camshaft. 







TIMING CHART FOR 3304 ENGINES 



(B) 

IDENTIFICATION 

NUMBER 

ON HOUSING 

1 to 44899 



44900-Up 



PART NUMBER 

OF CAMSHAFT 

IN THE FUEL 

INJECTION PUMP 

AND GOVERNOR GROUP 



4N4312 

(original camshaft) 



6N6567 

(replacement for 

4N431 2 camshaft) 



6N6567 



TIMING DEGREE 
BEFORE TC 
(top center) 



12.5 + r 



13.5 ± 1° 



13.5 ± r 




74262-2X6 



IDENTIFICATION MARKS 



A. Part number of fuel injection pump and governor group. 

B. Identification number on housing. C. Location of part 
number marks on camshaft. 



78 



SLEEVE METERING FUEL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



SLEEVE METERING FUEL SYSTEM 



Engines with the sleeve metering fuel system can 
be either Precombustion Chamber (PC) or Direct 
Injection (DI) type engines. Both types are covered 
in this section. 

FUEL INJECTION SERVICE 

Injection Valve (Capsule-Type Nozzle) 

Check the fuel injection valves for: 

1 . Too much carbon on the tip of the nozzle or in 
the nozzle orifice. 

2. Wear of the orifice. 

3. Nozzle screen being dirty or broken. 

If a fuel injection nozzle has been removed from 
the precombustion chamber, test the nozzle before it 
is again installed in the precombustion chamber. See 
TESTING CAPSULE-TYPE FUEL INJECTION 
NOZZLES. 

Check the seat of the nozzle and the seat in the 
precombustion chamber before installing the fuel 
injection valve. It is important to keep the correct 
torque on the nut that holds the fuel nozzle in the 
precombustion chamber. Tighten the nut to 105 ± 5 
lb. ft. (140 ± 7 N-m). There will be damage to the 
nozzle if the nut is too tight. If the nut is not tight 
enough, the nozzle can leak. 

Injection Valve (Direct Injection Nozzle) 

If a fuel injection nozzle has been removed from 
the head, test the nozzle before it is again installed in 
the head. See TESTING 7N449 FUEL INJEC- 
TION NOZZLES. 



Injection Pump 

When injection pumps, sleeves and lifters are re- 
moved from the injection pump housing, keep the 
parts of each pump together so they can be installed 
back in their original location. 

Be careful when disassembling injection pumps. 
Do not damage the surface on the plunger. The 
plunger, sleeve and barrel for each pump are made as 
a set. Do not put the plunger of one pump in the 
barrel or sleeve of another pump. If one part is worn, 
install a complete new pump assembly. Be careful 
when putting the plunger in the bore of the barrel or 
sleeve. 

Be sure that all the sleeves are installed correctly 
on the plungers. When an injection pump is installed 
correctly, the plunger is through the sleeve and the 
adjustment lever is engaged with the groove on the 
sleeve. The bushing that holds the injection pump in 
the pump housing must be kept tight. Tighten the 
bushing to 70 ± 5 lb. ft. (95 ± 7 N-m). Damage to 
the housing will result if the bushing is too tight. If 
the bushing is not tight enough, the pump will leak. 



A WARIMIIMG 



If the sleeves on one or more of the fuel injec- 
tion pumps have been installed wrong, damage 
to the engine is possible if cautions are not 
taken at first starting. When the fuel injection 
pumps have been removed and installed with 
the fuel injection pump housing on engine, 
refer to the topic, START-UP PROCEDURE. 



79 



SLEEVE METERING FUEL SYSTEM 


TESTING AND ADJUSTING 


FUEL SYSTEM ADJUSTMENTS 


6. If the boll does not go into the hole in the fly- 


Checking Timing By Timing Pin Method 


wheel, remove cover (4) from the front housing. 



Tools Needed: 8S2264 Puller Group. 

(two) % "— 24 NF bolts, 3V2 " long. 

(two) %" Flat washers. 

8B7560 Step Plate. 

3P1544 Timing Pin. 

FT1644 Adapter. 

(two) %"— 24 NF bolts, 1" long. 



1. Put No. I piston at TC 1 compression position. 
Make reference to FINDING TOP CENTER 
COMPRESSION POSITION FOR NO. 1 
PISTON. Remove the 3/8" - 16 NC bolt from 
the flywheel and turn the flywheel approximate- 
ly 30° clockwise as seen from the flywheel end. 

2. Remove bolt (2). 

3. On earlier engines remove timing pin (I) from 
the cover of the governor housing. For later 
engine use 3P1544 Timing Pin. 



7. Loosen bolt (5) holding the drive gear for the 
fuel injection pump to the drive sleeve for fuel 
injection pump. 




INSTALLING TIMING PIN 
1. Timing pin. 3. Hole (or timing pin. 




TIMING PIN 
(Earlier Engine Shown) 

1. Timing pin. 2. Bolt. 




1 r 



f 



"^ 



4. Put the timing pin in hole (3). Turn the flywheel 
slowly in a counterclockwise direction, as seen 
from the flywheel end, until the timing pin 
goes into the notch in the camshaft. 



CAUTION 

The flywheel must be turned slowly so that 
damage is not done to the fuel system when the 
timing pin goes into the notch in the camshaft. 



5. Put a 3/8" - 16 NC bolt in the timing hole in 
the flywheel housing. If the bolt can be installed 
in the hole in the flywheel, the timing of the fuel 
injection pump is correct. 




DRIVE GEAR FOR THE FUEL 
INJECTION PUMP 

5. Bolt. 



80 



SLEEVE METERING FUEL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 




PULLER TOOLS INSTALLED 

6. 8S2264 Puller Group. 7. 8B7560 Step Plate. 8. 3/8"-24 NF 
bolts, 3 1/2" long. 9. 3/8" I.D. Flat washer. 

Install tools as shown and loosen the drive gear 
for the fuel injection pump from the drive sleeve 
for the fuel injection pump. 




TIMING BOLT INSTALLED 



10. Bolt. 




TIMING BOLT INSTALLED 
10. Bolt. 

9. Remove the 3/8" 16 NC bolt (10) from the 
flywheel. Turn the flywheel clockwise at least 
60° beyond the point where the 3/8" —16 bolt 
(10) can be installed. 

10. Tighten the bolt (5) finger tight. Be sure that the 
timing pin (1) is in the notch in the camshaft. 
Turn the flywheel counterclockwise until the 
3/8" —16 bolt (10) can be installed in the 
flywheel. 




B38446X1 



ADAPTER INSTALLED ON TIMING GEAR 
11. FT1 644 Adapter. 



Install FT1644 Adapter ( I I ) on the timinggcar. 
Use two Ki"-24 NF bolts, 1.0 in. (25.4 mm) long 
to fasten the spanner to the puller holes in the 
timing gear. 




B38447X1 



TIGHTENING DRIVE GEAR BOLT 
(TYPICAL EXAMPLE) 



12. Hold a torque of (45 to 50 lb. ft.) (60 to 70 N'm) 
on adapter (II) in a clockwise direction, and 
tighten bolt (5) that holds the drive gear to 
110± 5 lb. ft. (149 ± 7 N-m). 

13. Remove the timing bolt from the flywheel and 
timing pin (I) from the fuel pump camshaft. 

14. Rotate the crankshaft counterclockwise two 
revolutions. If the timing bolt can be in.stalled 
in the flywheel and the timing pin can be in- 
stalled in the fuel pump camshaft, the liming 
is correct. 

15. If either the timing pin or the timing bolt can 
not be installed, do Steps 7 through (14) again. 



81 



SLEEVE METERING FUEL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



GOVERNOR ADJUSTMENTS 

CAUTION 

A mechanic that has the proper training is the 
only one to make the adjustment of low idle and 
high idle rpm. The correct low idle and high idle 
rpm, and the measurement for adjustment of 
fuel setting are in the FUEL SETTING 
INFORMATION. 

Check engine rpm with a tachometer that has 
good accuracy. If the low idle or high idle rpm needs 
an adjustment, use the following procedure: 

1. Remove cover (3). 

2. To make an adjustment to the high idle rpm, 
loosen locknut (2) and turn adjustment screw 
( 1 ). Turning the screw in makes the engine run 
slower. Turning the screw out makes the engine 
run faster. Hold screw (1) and tighten locknut 
(2) after adjustment procedure is done. 




LOCATION OF IDLE ADJUSTMENT 
SCREWS 

1. High idle adjustment screw. 2. Locknut. 3. Cover. 4. 
Low idle adjustment bolt. 

3. To make an adjustment to the low idle rpm, turn 
bolt (4). Turning the bolt in makes the engine 
run faster. Turning the bolt out makes the en- 
gine run slower. Grooves in cover (3) hold bolt 
(4) and keep it from turning after adjustment is 
done and the cover is installed. 

4. After each idle adjustment is made, move the 
governor lever to change the rpm of the engine. 
Now move the governor lever back to the point of 
first adjustment to check the idle adjustment. 
Keep doing the adjustment procedure until the 
low idle and high idle rpm are the same as given 
in the FUEL SETTING INFORMATION. 



Checking Balance Point 

Checking the Balance Point of the engine is a fast 
way to make a diagnosis of engine performance. 

The balance point for the engine is: 

1. At 20 rpm above full load speed. 

2. The point where the load stop pin is against the 
load stop or torque spring. 

3. The point where the engine gets the maximum 
amount of fuel. 

4. The point where the engine has the most horse- 
power output. 

5. The point where an increase in load on the en- 
gine puts the engine in a lug condition (a condi- 
tion in which a small increase in load makes the 
engine speed get much less). 

Procedure for Checking Balance Point 

1 . Connect a tachometer which has good accuracy 
to adapter ( 1 ) on the end of the fuel injection 



pump. 




CHECKING BALANCE POINT 
1. Adapter. 

2. Connect a continuity light (2) to the brass ter- 
minal screw (3) on the cover for the load stop. 
Connect the other end of the light to a place on 
the fuel system which is a good electrical 
connection. 

3. Start the engine. 

4. With the engine at operating temperatures, run 
the engine at high idle. 

5. Make a record of the speed of the engine at high 
idle. 

6. Add load on the engine slowly until the contin- 
uity light just comes on. This is the balance 
point. 

7. Make a record of the speed at the balance point. 



82 



SLEEVE METERING FUEL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 




A55B58X 1 



CHECKING BALANCE POINT 

2. Continuity light. 3. Brass terminal screw. 4. Tacho- 
meter drive shaft. 



8. Repeal Step 6 several times to make sure that 
the reading is correct. 

9, Stop engine. Make a comparison of the records 
from Steps 5 and 7 with information from the 
FUEL SETTING INFORMATION. 



AS-*?! ; - 





k 


^S." 


ft, 



V 



FUEL SYSTEIVI SETTING 
1. Torque control cover. 

The procedure that follows for fuel system setting 
can be done with the housing for the fuel injection 
pumps either on or off the engine. 

1. Disconnect the governor control linkage. 

2. Remove the torque control cover (I). 

3. Remove the air-fuel ratio control (if so equipped). 



10. If the full load speed is not correct, adjust the 
HIGH IDLE speed to make a change in the full 
load speed. 

1 I . If the high idle speed is out of tolerance and the 
full load speed is correct, look for a weak govern- 
or spring or the wrong governor spring. Both the 
full load speed and the high idle speed must be in 
the tolerance given in the FUEL SETTING 
INFORMATION. 




FUEL SYSTEM SETTING 

Tools Needed: 5P4203 Field Service Tool Group or 
3P1550 Field Service Tool Group. 
8S4627 Circuit Tester. 

Special In.struction Form No. SMHS70I3 is with 
this group and has instructions for its u.se. 



INSTALLATION OF PIN 
2. Spring. 3. Pin. 4. Hole. 

4. Install the 5P299 Pin (3), with 19.2831 on it in 
hole (4). 

5. Put 3J6956 spring (2) on pin (3). Install 5P6602 
or 5P4226 Adapter (10) from the 5P4203 Tool 
Group or 2P833I Cover (5) from the 3 PI 550 
Tool Group with bolts. 



83 



SLEEVE METERING FUEL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 




INSTALLATION OF SETSCREW 

5. 2P8331 Cover. 6. 5P4205 Wrench 7. 8S7271 Setscrew. 

6. Install 8S7271 Setscrew (7) with 5P4205 
Wrench (6). Lightly lighten the setscrew until 
pin (3) is against the pump housing. 

7. Put collet (9) in cover (5) or adapter (10). Put 
3P1569 Magnetic Point or 5P4809 Point on 
indicator (8) and install indicator (8) in collet 
(9). 

NOTE: if the indicator automatically goes to the 
extended position, use the 5P4809 Point. If the 
indicator does not automatically go to the extended 
position, use the 3PI569 Magnetic Point. 

8. Turn the governor control shaft to full load 
position. Hold the shaft at full load position. 




FUEL SYSTEM SETTING 
(With 5P4226 or 5P6602 Adapter) 

8. Indicator. 9. Collet. 10. Adapter. 

9. Make an adjustment to put both dials of the dial 
indicator (8) at zero. 



10. Connect the clip end of circuit tester (II) to a 
good electrical ground. Put the other end of 
circuit tester (II) in contact with the contact 
(12) as shown. 




FUEL SYSTEM SETTING 
6. Wrench. 11. 8S4627 Circuit Tester. 12. Contact 

11. Turn the8S727l Screw counterclockwise. Turn 
it slowly until the continuity light just goes on. 

12. Make a record of the reading on the dial indi- 
cator (8). 

13. Do this procedure several times to make sure 
that the reading is correct. 

14. Make a comparison of this reading and the 
FUEL SYSTEM SETTING from FUEL 
SETTING INFORMATION. If the reading is 
not the same, make sure the governor control 
shaft is in the full load position. Then do Steps 
6 through 13 again. 

15. If the reading on the dial indicator is not cor- 
rect, do the following: 



Load Stop Adjustment: 

a. Put the 3P22I0 Socket on locknut (14). 
Loosen the locknut and turn the torque 
control screw (13) with a screwdriver until 
the reading on the dial indicator (8) is cor- 
rect. Tighten the locknut (14). 

b. Check the adjustment by doing Steps 6 
through 13 again. 



84 



SLEEVE METERING FUEL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 




n n 



^ 





be 



ADJUSTMENT FOR FUEL SYSTEM SETTING 

13. Torque control screw. 14. Locknuf. 15. Load stop pin 
or coll spring torque spring. 



c. Remove the tooling and install cover {!). 

Leaf Type Torque Spring: 

a. Write down the dimension that is on the 
dial indicator. 

b. Write down the dimension given in the 
FUEL SETTING INFORMATION. 

Remove the test tools from the injection 
pump housing. 

Install or remove shims at location (16) to 
get the correct dimension as given in the 
FUEL SETTING INFORMATION. The 
difference between the dimensions in (a) 
and (b) is the thickness and amount of shims 
to remove or install to get the correct setting. 



c. 




77290X7 



LEAF TYPE TORQUE SPRING 



15. Load stop pin. 16. Location of shims. 17. Stop bar. 
18. Leal type torque spring. 19. Shims. 

e. install correct amount of shims (19), 
torque'spring (18), and stop bar (17) on the 
injection pump housing. Install the test tools 



on the injection pump housing and do the 
test procedure again. Remember the tester 
light must come on when the correct dimen- 
sion is on the dial indicator. 

Do the test procedure until the dimension 
on the dial indicator is the same as the 
dimension given in the FUEL SETFING 
INFORMATION. After fuel system setting 
is correct, remove the fuel system setting 
tools and install cover ( I ). 



FUEL RATIO CONTROL SETTING 
(Engines So Equipped) 

NOTE: The following procedure can be done with 
the fuel system either on or off the engine. In either 
way, damage to the fuel system can be the result if 
dirt gets into the fuel system. 

The adjustment of the Fuel Setting must be cor- 
rect before making checks or adjustments to the Fuel 
Ratio Control. 

Make reference to Fuel System Setting for the 
correct procedure for checking and making adjust- 
ments to the Fuel System Setting. 

1. With the tooling still installed from the proce- 
dure Fuel System Setting, turn the 8S727I 
Screw in until the 5P299 Pin is against the fuel 
injection housing. 

2. Make an adjustment if necessary to make the 
reading of both dials on the dial indicator be 
zero. 



3. 



Turn 8S727 1 Screw out 6 or more turns. Move 
the governor control shaft to the full load posi- 
tion. The reading on the dial indicator must be 
the same as the Fuel Ratio Control Setting in 
FUEL SETTING INFORMAI ION 



NOTE: The reading on the dial indicator has a toler- 
ance of ±0.10 mm. This tolerance is for the turning 
of bolt ( I ) for the alignment of the bolt holes in the 
cover (2). 

4. If the reading is not correct, remove the cover 
(2). Turn the bolt ( 1 ) with the cover (2) until the 
reading on the dial indicator is correct. Be sure 
that the governor control shaft (4) is turned to 
the full fuel position. 

5. Install cover (2). 



85 



SLEEVE METERING FUEL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 




MAKING ADJUSTMENT TO FUEL 

RATIO CONTROL 

(Typical Example) 
I.Bolt. 2. Cover. 3. Body. 4. Governor control shaft. A. 
Direction for full fuel position. 

NOTE; If the bolt holes in the cover (2) are not in 
alignment with bolt holes in the body (3), turn the 
boll ( 1 ) with the cover (2) to put the bolt holes in the 
cover in alignment with the nearest holes on the body 
(3). 

6. Remove the tooling and install cover (5) and 
governor control linkage. 




FUEL SYSTEM 
5. Cover. 



FUEL PUMP CALIBRATION 

Tools Needed: 3P2200 Tool Group 
8S2243 Wrench* 
5P6602, 5P4226 Adapter* or 

2P8331 Cover* 
5P4205 Wrench* 
5P4206 Wrench* 
1D4533 Boll* 
1D4538 Bolt* 
5P4209 Gauge* 
8S7271 Screw* 
2P8264 Socket** 
6V190 Clamp** 
5P7253 Socket Assembly** 

*Part of 5P4203 Tool Group 
**Not part of a Tool Group 




3P2200 TOOL GROUP 

1. 3P1540 Calibration Pump. 2. 4N218 Bushing. 3. 1P7379 
Microgage. 4. 3P1568 Dial Indicator v»ith 3P2226 Collet. 5. 
5P6510 Box. 6. 3P1545 Calibration Pin with 17.3734 on it, 
(in line engines). 7. 3P1546 Calibration Pin v»ith 15.9410 
on it (Vee engines). 8. 1S9836 Wrench. 

NOTE: 3P1540 Calibration pump must have the 
5P6557 Spring installed instead of the 1P7377 
Spring. 



Checking Fuel Pump Calibration 

The following procedure for fuel pump calibration 
can be done with the housing for the fuel injection 
pumps either on or off the engine. 

CAUTION 

Before doing any service work on this fuel 
system, the outside of the injection pump 
housing and all parts connected to it must be 
clean. 

1. Remove plug (11) from the cover (10) of the 
housing for the fuel injection pumps. 

2. Hold a container under the pump hoousing for 
the fuel that comes out of the hole for plug (11). 




REMOVAL OF COVERS 

9. Cover. 10. Cover for injection pump housing. 11. 
Plug. 12. Spring for bypass valve. 13. Bypass valve. 



86 



SLEEVE METERING FUEL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



3. Remove the fuel ratio control (if so equipped), 
cover (9), and cover ( 10). 

NOTE: Cover ( 1 0) has a bypass valve { 1 3) and spring 
(12) behind it in the injection pump housing. 

4. Put the 3P1545 Calibration Pin. (6) with 
17.3734 on it, in calibration hole as shown. 




INSTALLING CALIBRATION PIN AND ADAPTER 

6. 3P1545 Calibration Pin with 17.3734 on it. 14. 5P6602 
Adapter. 15. Hole. 



NOTE: 5P6602 Adapter is a replacement for 
5P4226 Adapter and 2P8331 Cover. Either adapter 
or the cover can be used for this procedure. 

5. Install the 5P6602 Adapter ( 14) as shown. Fas- 
ten it in position with a 1D4533 Bolt and a 
1D4538 Bolt. 

6. Put the 8S7271 Screw (setscrew) in the hole 
(15) over the calibration pin (6). Tighten the 
setscrew to 20 to 25 lb. in. (2.3 to 2.8 N-m) with 
the 2P8264 Socket. 

7. Install a lever if necessary, and turn the governor 
control shaft (16) to the full load position (fully 
counterclockwise) and fasten it in this position. 

8. Use the 8S2243 Wrench and remove the fuel 
injection pump to be checked. 

9. Clean the barrel and plunger of calibration 
pump ( 1 ). Put clean diesel fuel on the calibration 
pump ( 1) for lubrication. 




INSTALLING CALIBRATION PUMP 

1. 3P1540 Calibration pump. 16. Governor 
Shalt. 17. Flat place on plunger. 18. Lever. 



control 




CALIBRATION PUMP INSTALLED 

1. 3P1540 Calibration pump. 18. Lever. 19. Tang. 20. 
Spring. 



10. Put the calibration pump ( i ) in the place of the 
pump to be checked with the flat place (17) on 
the plunger toward the tang (19) on lever (18). 
When the calibration pump ( 1 ) is all the way in 
the bore, turn it 180° in either clockwise or 
counterclockwise direction. The tang (19) on 
lever (18) is now in the groove of the calibration 
pump (1). Then install the 4N218 Bushing (2) 
using the 8S2243 Wrench and a torque wrench 
to tighten it to 70 ± 5 lb. ft. (95 ± 7 N-m). 

NOTE: Turning calibration pump (1)1 80° gives the 
same reference point for all measurements. 

NOTE: Use the 4N21 8 Bushing (2) and the calibra- 
tion pump ( 1 ) together. The contact surfaces of the 
standard bushing, fuel injection pump and the hous- 
ing for the fuel injection pumps are sealing surfaces. 
Keep them clean and free of scratches, to prevent 
leaks. 



87 



SLEEVE METERING FUEL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



^ 



A35SI4XI 





CJ 



5P6557 SPRING 



1P7377 SPRING 



NOTE: Be sure that spring (20) on calibration pump 
(!) is the 5P6557 Spring instead of the 1P7377 
Spring which was installed on earlier calibration 
pumps. 




|74208Xt 



PUTTING DIAL INDICATOR ON ZERO 



3. 1P7379 Microgage. 4. 3P1568 Indicator with 3P2226 
Base. 21. Lockscrew. 



11. Put dial indicator (4) on microgage (3) and hold 
them together tightly. Loosen lockscrew (21) 
and turn the face of dial indicator (4) to put the 
pointer at "0". Tighten lockscrew (21). 

Remove dial indicator (4) from microgage (3). 
Look at the face of dial indicator (4) and put dial 
indicator (4) on microgage (3) again. The pointer 
must move through one to one and one half revolu- 
tions before stopping at exactly "0". If the number of 
revolutions is not correct, loosen the locknut on the 
3P2226 Collet, and adjust the position of the 3P2226 
Collet until the pointer has the correct number of 
revolutions. Then do the check again. When the ad- 
justment is correct do Step 12. 

CAUTION 

If the locknut on the 3P2226 Collet is too tight, it 
can cause interference in the operation of the 
dial indicator. 




6V190 CLAMP INSTALLED 
(Typical Example) 

1. Calibration pump. 22. 6V190 Clamp. 23. Shaft. 

12. Put 6V190 Clamp (22) in the position shown, 
next to the transfer pump end. 6V190 Clamp 
(22) pushes shaft (23) down against the bottom 




DIAL INDICATOR POSITION 
(Typical Example) 

1. Calibration pump. 4. Dial indicator. 18. Lever. 



23. Shan. 



of its bearing. The other end of shaft (23) is held 
down against its bearing by 3P1545 Calibration 
Pin (6) which is held by 8S7271 Screw. The 
combination of forces from 6V190 Clamp (22) 
and 3P1545 Calibration Pin (6) is necessary to 
hold shaft (23) in its normal operating position 
against the lifting force from spring (20) in cali- 
bration pump (1 ). 

13. Put dial indicator (4) on the calibration pump 
( 1 ) as shown. Hold it tightly in place. Move shaft 
(23) toward the governor end to remove end 
play. Push on lever (18) as shown (toward shut- 
off) several times. This removes any clearance in 
the linkage. Then look at the reading on the dial 
indicator (4). 

14. If the dial indicator (4) reading is more than ± 
0.050 mm from "0.000" (outside the TOTAL 
TOLERANCE), do steps 16 to 20, ADJUST- 
ING FUEL PUMP CALIBRATION. 



88 



SLEEVE METERING FUEL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



If the dial indicator (4) reading is near either end 
of the TOTAL TOLERANCE, check another 
pump. If the next reading is outside the TOTAL 
TOLERANCE or if the two readings have a differ- 
ence of 0.050 mm or more, do the Steps 16 to 20, 
ADJUSTING FUEL PUMP CALIBRATION. 

NOTE: The mechanic doing the checking must 
make the decisions of which and how many pumps to 
check according to the symptoms of the fuel injection 
pump being tested. 




DIAL INDICATOR READING 

Desired reading for all pumps is "0.000". 

Maximum permissible tolerance for all readings is ± 

0.050 mm. 

Maximum permisible difference between any two pumps 

is 0.050 mm. 

TOTAL TOLERANCE shows the maximum permissible 
range of pointer positions which are acceptable. If the 
reading is outside the range of TOTAL TOLERANCE, do 
ADJUSTING FUEL PUMP CALIBRATION for all pumps. 

BAND is an example only. It shows a 0.050 mm range. This 
range shows the maximum permissible difference 
between any two readings for all the pumps. If any two 
readings are farther apart than the 0.050 mm range, do 
ADJUSTING FUEL PUMP CALIBRATION for all pumps. 

NOTE: For troubleshooting purposes, if the dial in- 
dicator (4) reading is "0" or near "0", the calibration 
of the other pumps is probably in the tolerance. 

15. If dial indicator (4) readings for all the pumps 
are within the limits in step 14, the calibration is 
acceptable. Remove the tooling, and install the 
parts which were removed. 

Adjusting Fuel Pump Calibration 

16. Remove all pumps with 8S2243 Wrench. 

1 7. Install calibration pump ( 1 ) in the place of one 
of the pumps according to the procedure in Steps 
9 and 10. 

18. Loo.sen bolt (24) with IS9836 Wrench (8) or 
5P4206 Wrench. Turn the lever (18) on shaft 
(23) enough to move the top of plunger (25) of 




ADJUSTING FUEL PUMP CALIBRATION 
(Typical Example) 

4. Diallndicator. 8. 1S9836 Wrench. 18. Lever. 22.6V190 
Clamp. 23. Shaft. 24. Bolt. 

calibration pump ( 1 ) below top surface (26) of 
calibration pump(l). Tighten bolt (24) just en- 
ough for lever (18) to hold plunger (25) 
stationary. 

NOTE: When bolt ( 24) has the correct torque, push- 
ing with a small amount of force on lever (18) 
through the wrench moves plunger (25) up in cali- 
bration pump ( 1 ). 

19. Move shaft (23) toward the governor to remove 
end play. Then push down on lever (18) through 
the wrench until top of plunger (25) is almost 
even with top surface (26) of calibration pump 
( 1 ) as shown. 

20. Check dial indicator (4) according to Step 1 1. 
Then put dial indicator (4) in. place over the 
center of calibration pump ( 1 ) and hold it there 
tightly. Now move plunger (25) of calibration 
pump (1) by pushing on lever (18) through the 
wrench. Stop moving the plunger when the dial 
indicator is at approximately 0.000 mm. Tighten 
bolt (24) to 24 ± 21b. in. (2.8 ± 0.2 Nm) using 
the 5P7253 Socket Assembly. 




PLUNGER POSITION 
(Typical Example) 

1. Calibration pump. 25. Plunger. 26. Top surface of 
calibration pump. 



89 



SLEEVE METERING FUEL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



NOTE: When moving plunger (25), make sure that 
the last direction of plunger (25) movement is in the 
up direction. If plunger (25) goes up too far, move 
plunger (25) down to a position below that desired. 
Then move plunger (25) up to the desired position. 

NOTE: The action of tightening bolt (24) usually 
changes the reading on dial indicator (4) by approxi- 
mately 0.010 mm. Stop moving plunger (25) up at 
the necessary point to get the reading on dial indica- 
tor (4) at 0.000 ± 0.010 mm after tightening bolt 
(24). 




ALIBRATION 
TOLERANCE 



± 0.010 mm CALIBRATION TOLERANCE 

Move shaft (23) toward shutoff several times to 
remove clearance in the linkage. Dial indicator (4) 
reading must be 0.000 ± 0.010 mm as shown. 

When the pump calibration is correct make a re- 
cord and then do the same procedure for all of the 
other pumps. 



90 



SCROLL FUEL SYSTEM-PC 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



SCROLL FUEL SYSTEM 



CHECKING THE FUEL INJECTION VALVES 

Check the fuel injection valves for: 

1 . Too much carbon on the tip of the nozzle or in 
the nozzle orifice. 

2. Wear of the orifice. 

3. Dirty nozzle screen. 

If a fuel injection nozzle has been removed from 
the precombustion chamber, test the nozzle before 
it is again installed in the precombustion chamber. 
See TESTING CAPSULE-TYPE FUEL INJEC- 
TION NOZZLES. 

CHECKING THE PLUNGER AND LIFTER 
WASHER OF AN INJECTION PUMP 

Checking timing dimension for the fuel injection 
pumps. Make an adjustment if necessary, with the 
pump housing off the engine. When an adjustment to 
the timing dimensions is done correctly, fuel injec- 
tion in the cylinder will be at the correct time. If the 
timing dimension is too small, fuel injection will be 
early. If the liming dimension is too large, fuel injec- 
tion will be late. 

When there is too much wear on the pump 
plunger, the lifter washer may also be worn and there 
will not be good contact between the two parts. To 
stop fast wear on the end of a new plunger, install 
new lifters in the place of the lifters that have 
washers with wear. 



If the length of the plunger is shorter than the 
minimum length (worn) dimension given in the 
chart, install a new pump. 



I 




T335)2 

WEAR BETWEEN LIFTER WASHER AND PLUNGER 

Fig. A illustrates the contact surfaces of a new pump 
plunger and a new lifter washer. In Fig. B the pump plunger 
and lifter washer have worn considerbly. Fig. C shows how 
the flat end of a new plunger makes poor contact with a 
worn lifter washer, resulting in rapid wear to both parts. 

An injection pump can have a good fuel flow com- 
ing from it but not be a good pump because of slow 
timing that is caused by wear on the bottom end of 
the plunger. When making a test on a pump that has 
been used for a long time, use a micrometer and 
measure the length of the plunger. 



FUEL PUMP PLUNGER 



Length (new) . . . 2.5934 + .0015 in. (65.872 i 0.038 mm) 
Minimum length (worn) 2.5869 in. (65.707 mm) 



Look for wear at the top part of the plunger. Check 
the operation of the plunger according to the instruc- 
tions for the Fuel Injection Test Bench. 

FUEL INJECTION SERVICE 

Tools Needed: 5P144 Wrench (for fuel line nuts) 

8S4613 Wrench (for injection pumps) 

8S2244 Extractor 

9S240 Rack Positioning Tool Group 



Injection Valve (Capsule-Type Nozzle) 

Check the seat of the nozzle and the seat in the 
precombustion chamber before installing the fuel 
injection valve. It is important to keep the correct 
torque on the nut that holds the fuel nozzle in the 
precombustion chamber. Tighten the nut to 105 ± 5 
lb. ft. (142 ± 7 N-m). There will be damage to the 
nozzle if the nut is too tight. If the nut is not tight 
enough the nozzle can leak. 

Injection Pump 

Use the 8S4613 Wrench and the 8S2244 Extrac- 
tor to remove or install the injection pumps. 

When injection pumps, spacers and lifters are re- 
moved from the injection pump housing, keep the 
parts of each pump together so they can be installed 
back in their original location. 

Be careful when disassembling injection pumps. 
Do not damage the surface on the plunger. The 
plunger and barrel for each pump are made as a set. 
Do not put the plunger of one pump in the barrel of 
another pump. If one part is worn, install a complete 
new pump assembly. Be careful when putting the 
plunger in the bore of the barrel. 

Installation of Injection Pump 

Before the fuel injection pumps can be installed, 
the rack must be in the center or zero position and the 



91 



SCROLL FUEL SYSTEM-PC 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



lifter must be at a low point. The rack can be set in 
the center position with the 9S238 Rack Positioning 
Bracket Group. (Part of 9S240 Rack Positioning 
Tool Group.) 

1. Disconnect the governor control linkage so the 
governor control lever moves freely through its 
complete length of movement. 

2. Remove the rear cover of the governor, and the 
fuel rack cover and gasket from the front of the 
flange of the accessory drive housing. 

3. Install 9S238 Rack Positioning Bracket Group 
(3)and9S215 Dial Indicator (2) over the open- 
ing for the fuel rack cover on the front flange of 
the accessory drive housing. 




held against rod (C) and rod (C) held against 
spacer (A), adjust the dial on indicator (2) to 
read zero. 

5. Tighten nut holding indicator in place and re- 
move spacer (A). 

6. Turn governor lever in fuel on direction until dial 
just starts to move (rack makes contact with 
indicator). 

Use the 8S4613 Wrench and the 8S2244 Extrac- 
tor (4) to install the injection pumps. 




PARTS OF 9S240 RACK POSITIONING TOOL GROUP 

1. 8S4627 Circuit Tester. 2. 9S215 Dial indicator. 3. 9S238 
Rack Positioning Bracket Group. A. Spacer. B. Hole at- 
tachment. C. Rod. 

4. With the rack held in shut-off position, put 
spacer (A) between the shoulder on rod (C) and 
hole attachment (B). With hole attachment (B) 




INSTALLING 9S238 RACK POSITIONING 
BRACKET GROUP 
(Typical Example) 

2. 9S215 Dial indicator. 3. 9S238 Rack Positioning Bracket 
Group. A. Spacer. B. Hole attachment. 



ALIGNMENT OF PARTS FOR INSTALLATION 
OF INJECTION PUMP 

4. 8S2244 Extractor. 5. Groove in barrel. 6. Space in gear 
segment. 



Put the groove in the barrel of the pump (5) in 
alignment with the space in the gear segment (6). 
Look inside the bore of the injection pump housing to 
find the dowel. Put the groove in the barrel (5) in 
alignment with the dowel and put the injection pump 
straight down into the bore. If the pump is in the 
correct position, the bushing will turn into the 
threads of the injection pump housing with the 
fingers until it is even with the top of the housing 
(except for the pump that is in the firing position). 
When the bushing is installed correctly, tighten the 
bushing to 150 ± 10 lb. ft. (205 ± 14 N-m). When 
all the pumps have been installed except the one in 
the firing position, turn the flywheel until this lifter is 
in a low position and install this pump. 

NOTE: Damage to the housing will be the result if 
the bushing is too tight. If the bushing is not tight 
enough, the pump will have leakage. 



92 



SCROLL FUEL SYSTEM-PC 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



The total amount of fuel rack travel is approxima- 
tely .800 in. (20.32 mm). This measurement must be 
made with the governor, including the piston and 
valve mechanism, removed. If the pump is installed 
wrong (center tooth of gear segment is not in correct 
notch of fuel rack), total fuel rack travel will be less 
than .800 in (20.32 mm) as shown in the chart. The 
injection pump will have to be removed and then 
installed correctly. 



EXAMPLE OF RACK TRAVEL 


TEETH 
OFF 


TOTAL 
RACK TRAVEL 


TRAVEL FROM 
CENTER POSITION 


TOTAL TRAVEL 
REDUCTION 


in. 


mm 


in. 


mm 


in. 


mm 




1 


.8 
.6 


20.3 
15.2 


.4 
.3 


10.2 
7.6 



.2 


0.0 
5.1 


Similar results can be obtained for 2 & 3 teeth off, however, 
reduction in rack travel is greater but not proportional. 



CAUTION 

If one or more of the fuel injection pumps have 
been installed wrong, it is possible for the en- 
gine to run out of control when started. When 
any of the fuel injection pumps have been re- 
moved and installed with the fuel injection 
pump housing on the engine, refer to the topic, 
START-UP PROCEDURE. 

Checking With 8S4620 Gauge 

Tools Needed: 8S4620 Gauge. 

885417 Timing Fixture Plate. 
884613 Wrench 
882244 Extractor. 

1. Put No. 1 piston at top center (TC) on the 
compression stroke. Make reference to FIND- 
ING TOP CENTER COMPRESSION POSI- 
TION FOR NO. I PISTON. 

2. Remove No. 1 fuel injection pump with 8S4613 
Wrench and 8S2244 Extractor. Install fuel 
pump lifter gauge ( 1 ) in bore of fuel pump. 

3. When fuel pump lifter gauge ( 1 ) is in the bore of 
fuel pump (4), the upper face of plunger (2) 
must be a little above the top surface of gauge 
body (3). The lower face of the plunger must be 
just below the lop surface of the gauge body. 




FUEL PUMP LIFTER GAUGE INSTALLED 
(Typical Example) 

1. 8S4620 



NOTE: If plunger (2) of gauge ( 1 ) is in the correct 
position, turn the crankshaft counterclockwise 
(when seen from the flywheel end of the engine) and 
check the direction of movement of plunger (2). 
Plunger (2) must move up. If plunger (2) does not 
move up, make reference to ACCESSORY DRIVE 
SHAFT TIMING. 




FUEL PUMP LIFTER GAUGE INSTALLED 

1. Fuel pump lifter gauge. 2. Plunger. 3. Gauge body. 4. 
Fuel pump bore. 

\. If plunger (2) is not in the correct position, check 
the accessory drive shaft timing. Make reference 
to ACCESSORY DRIVE SHAFT TIMING. 

\ If the accessory drive shaft timing is correct and 
lifter gauge plunger (2) position was not correct, 
make an adjustment to the pump timing dimen- 
sion. See FUEL INJECTION PUMP TIMING 
DIMENSION SETTING; OFF ENGINE. 



93 



SCROLL FUEL SYSTEM-PC 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



Checking With 8S7167 or 5P4158 Gauge 

Tools Needed: 5P4165 Dial Indicator Group. 
6F6922 Depth Micrometer. 
8S4613 Wrench. 
8S2244 Extractor. 

1. Put No. 1 piston at top center (TC) on the 
compression stroi<e. Matie reference to FIND- 
ING TOP CENTER COMPRESSION POSI- 
TION FOR NO. 1 PISTON. 

2. Remove No. 1 fuel injection pump with 8S4613 
Wrench and 8S2244 Extractor. Put gauge (4) 
into the fuel pump housing. 

3. Put 3P1 565 Collet Clamp (2) and 5P41 56 Base 
(3) on 8S3158 Indicator (1 ). Put 5P4163 Con- 
tact Point (5) on the indicator. Install the indica- 
tor assembly through 5P4158 Gauge (4). 

4. The correct on engine timing dimension setting 
using dial indicator (1) is 4.2216 ± .0020 in. 
(107.229 ±0.051 mm). 



NOTE: The on engine timing dimension can also be 
checked using the 8S7167 Gauge and the 6F6922 
Depth Micrometer. 




CHECKING TIMING DIMENSION 

1. 8S3158 Indicator. 2. 3P1565 Collet Clamp. 3. 5P4156 
Base. 4. 5P4158 Gauge - 2 in. (50.8 mm). 5. 5P4163 Contact 
Point. 

5. If the timing dimension setting is not correct, 
check the accessory drive shaft timing. See 
ACCESSORY DRIVE SHAFT TIMING. 

6. If the accessory drive shaft timing is correct and 
the timing dimension setting is not correct, the 



timing setting must be corrected. See FUEL 
INJECTION PUMP TIMING DIMENSION 
SETTING: OFF ENGINE. 

Fuel Injection Pump Timing 
Dimension Setting; Off Engine 

Tools Needed: *2M5218 Shaft. 
*1P7420 Pointer. 
*1P7410 Plate. 

5P4165 Indicator Group. 
*S509 Bolt, 3/8"-16 NC, 3/4 in. (19.1 mm) 

long. 
♦S1617 Bolt, 5/16"-18 NC, 3/4 in. (19.1 

mm) long. 
*2S6160 Washer. 

8S4613 Wrench. 

8S2244 Extractor. 

*Part of 5P6600 Off Engine Lifter Setting Tool Group. 

The off engine setting makes an adjustment for 
wear of components in the injection pump housing. 
Adjustment of the accessory drive shaft timing gives 
compensation for wear in the timing gears, accessory 
drive shaft, and fuel pump camshaft coupling. 

1. Use the 8S4613 Wrench and 8S2244 Extractor 
to remove the injection pumps. 

2. Fasten 1 P7420 Pointer to the pump housing us- 
ing the 3/8^' 16 NC bolt. 

3. Fasten the 2M52 18 Shaft to the 1P74 10 Timing 
Plate with the 5/16"— 18 NC bolt and the 
2S6160 Washer. 

4. Install the lP74iOTiming Plate on thf drive end 
of the camshaft. 





t 


49B46X1 



%^%%m 




TIMING PLATE AND POINTER INSTALLED 
(Typical Example) 

1. 1P7410 Plate. 2. 1P7420 Pointer. 



94 



SCROLL FUEL SYSTEM-PC 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



5. Make reference to the lifter setting chart for the 
timing plate degrees for the lifter being checked. 
To use the timing plate, turn it counterclockwise 
until the degree setting for the lifter being 
checked is in alignment with the pointer. 

6. The correct off engine timing dimension for ad- 
justment of the lifter, using the 5P4158 Gauge 
and the 5P4165 Indicator Group is 4.2675 ± 
.0020 in. (108.395 ± 0.051 mm). 

NOTE: The off engine timing dimension can also be 
checked using the 8S7167 Gauge and the 6F6922 
Depth Micrometer. 



LIFTER SETTING CHART (OFF ENGINE) 


Turn Timing Plate 

Counterclockwise To 

(degrees) 


Lifter Number 


179° 

89° 

269° 

359° 


1 
2 
3 

4 



7. To change the timing dimension, the spacer of 
each injection pump must be changed. Make 
reference to the spacer chart for spacer 
thickness. 



SPACER CHART 


SPACER PART NO. 


SPACER THICKNESS 


9N6496 




161 in. (4.12 mm) 


9N6495 




166 in. (4.22 mm) 


5M2697 




170 in. (4.32 mm) 


2M4208 




174 in. (4.42 mm) 


2M4209 




178 In. (4.52 mm) 


2M4210 




182 in. (4.62 mm) 


2M4211 




186 in. (4.72 mm) 


2M4212 




190 in. (4.83 mm) 


5M2691 




194 in. (4.93 mm) 


5S7189 




198 in. (5.03 mm) 


4N9839 




203 in. (5.16 mm) 


4N9840 




207 in. (5.26 mm) 



NOTE: The accessory drive shaft must have the 
correct position with the engine crankshaft before 
the fuel injection pump housing is installed. 

Accessory Drive Shaft Timing 

Tools Needed: 8S5417 Timing Fixture Plate. 
8S2264 Puller Group. 
8S8375 Sleeve. 
8B7561 Step Plate. 



1 . Put No. 1 piston at lop center (TC) on compres- 
sion stroke. Make reference to FINDING TOP 
CENTER COMPRESSION POSITION FOR 
NO. 1 PISTON. 

2. Remove the injection pump housing from the 
engine. 

3. Install the 8S5417 Timing Fixture Plate on the 
back face of the accessory drive housing. Make 
an alignment of the dowels and install the bolts 
as shown. 




8S5417 TIMING FIXTURE PLATE INSTALLED 
(Typical Example) 

NOTE: If the timing fixture plate can be installed, 
the accessory drive shaft timing is correct. If the 
timing fixture plate can not be installed, make an 
adjustment to the accessory drive shaft timing as 
follows: 

4. Loosen the alternator and remove the belts from 
the alternator pulley. 

5. Remove the small cover from the front housing. 

6. Remove the nut and washer that hold the acces- 
sory drive gear on the accessory drive shaft. 



:^ 



\ 




TOOLS INSTALLED 
(Typical Example) 

Tools Needed: 8S2264 Puller Group, 8S8375 Sleeve, 8B7561 
Step Plate, two 3/8 in. 24-NF Bolts, 3.50 in. (88.9 mm) long 
and two flat washers. 



95 



SCROLL FUEL SYSTEM-PC 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



7. Make the accessory drive gear loose on the shaft 
with the tooling as shown. 

8. Remove the puller tools and turn the accessory 
drive shaft to the correct position so that the 
8S5417 Timing Fixture Plate can be installed. 

9. With the 8S54 1 7 Timing Fixture Plate installed, 
put the washer on the accessory drive shaft with 
the large diameter against the gear. Install the 
nut and tighten to 103 ± 10 lb. ft. (139 ± 14 
N-m). 

1 0. I nstall the cover on the front housing and remove 
the 8S5417 Timing Fixture Plate. 

1 1 . Turn the camshaft of the injection pump so it is 
in alignment with the end of the accessory drive 
shaft. Install the injection pump housing on the 
engine. 

1 2. The injection pump camshaft is now timed to the 
No. 1 cylinder. 

1 3. Make all necessary connections and installation 
of components that were removed or 
disconnected. 



Fuel Rack Setting 

Rack Positioning Tool, Dial Indicator and Circuit Tester 
Method: 

Tools Needed: 9S240 Rack Positioning Tool Group. 
4B9820 Wrench. 

The 9S238 Rack Positioning Bracket Group 
makes it possible to measure rack position during 
normal operation of the engine. The ability to see 
rack position during operation can give most of the 
information needed to find true horsepower output 
and to make a diagnosis of the cause of loss of power. 



CAUTION 

Do not start to adjust rack setting with engine 
running. Engine must be stopped before mak- 
ing an adjustment to the rack setting. 

1. Refer to the FUEL SETTING INFORMA- 
TION for the correct rack setting dimension. 

2. Disconnect the governor control linkage so the 
governor control lever moves freely through its 
complete length of movement. 



NOTE: On earlier engines, the speed limiter restricts 
rack travel until the plunger is manually depressed. 

3. Remove the fuel ratio control from the rear of 
the governor and/or the rear cover, then remove 
the fuel rack cover and gasket from the front 
flange of the accessory drive housing. 

4. Install 9S238 Rack Positioning Bracket Group 
(3) and 9S215 Dial Indicator (2) over the open- 
ing for the fuel rack cover on the front flange of 
the accessory drive housing. 




PARTS OF 98240 RACK POSITIONING 
TOOL GROUP 

1. 8S4627 Circuit Tester. 2. 9S215 Dial Indicator. 3. 9S238 
Rack positioning Bracket Group. A. Spacer. B. Hole at- 
tachment. C. Rod. 

). With the rack held in shut-off position, put 
spacer (A) between the shoulder on rod (C), and 
hole attachment (B). With hole attachment (B) 
held against rod (C) and rod (C) held against 
spacer (A), adjust the dial on the indicator to 
read zero. Remove spacer (A). 




INSTALLING 9S238 RACK POSITIONING 
BRACKET GROUP 
(Typical Example) 

2. 9S215 Dial Indicator. 3. 9S238 Rack Positioning Bracket 
Group. A. Spacer. B. Hole attachment. 



96 



SCROLL FUEL SYSTEM-PC 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



6. Before starting the engine, be sure the raek 
moves freely through its complete length of 
movement. On earlier engines, the speed limiter 
will restrict rack travel until the engine is oper- 
ating with proper oil pressure, or the plunger 
is pushed in. 

7. Connect one end of circuit tester ( 1 ) to the brass 
screw on the outside of the governor housing and 
the other end to a good ground on the housing. 

8. Move the governor control lever toward the fuel- 
on direction until the tester light comes on. 

9. Slowly, move the governor control lever toward 
the shut-off position until the light goes out. 

10. Again, slowly move the governor control lever 
toward the fuel-on position, until the tester light 
just comes on; adjusting screw in rack collar is 
now just in contact with the stop bar or torque 
spring. Rack setting dimension is read directly 
from the 9S215 Dial Indicator. 

1 1 . To adjust the rack setting, stop the engine. Then 
loosen locknut (5) and with wrench (6) adjust 
screw (4) to get the correct rack setting dimen- 
sion. Rack setting dimension is read directly 
from the dial indicator. 







UK 



ADJUSTING RACK SETTING 
(Typical Example) 

4. Adjusting screw. 5. Locknut. 6. 4B9820 Wrench. 

NOTE: Turn screw (4) clockwise to decrease rack 
movement. Never adjust rack by an addition or re- 
moval of shims. 



2. After the rack has been adjusted, tighten lock- 
nut (5) to9 ± 3 lb. ft. (12 ± 4 N-m). 



GOVERNOR ADJUSTMENTS 
CAUTION 

A mechanic that has the proper training is the 
only one to make the adjustment of low idle and 
high idle rpm. The correct low idle and high idle 
rpm, and the measurement for adjustment of 
fuel system setting are in the FUEL SETTING 
INFORMATION. 

Check engine rpm with a tachometer that has 
good accuracy. If the low idle or high idle rpm needs 
an adjustment, use the procedure that follows: 

1 . Remove cover at the back of the governor. 

2. To make an adjustment to the high idle rpm, 
turn high idle adjustment screw (2) clockwise to 
make the engine run slower. Turn high idle ad- 
justment screw (2) counterclockwise to make 
the engine run faster. 




GOVERNOR ADJUSTMENTS 
(Typical Example) 

1. Low idle adjusting screw. 2. High idle adjusting screw. 

3. To make an adjustment to the low idle rpm, turn 
low idle adjustment screw ( 1 ) clockwise to make 
the engine run slower. Turn low idle adjustment 
screw ( 1 ) counterclockwise to make the engine 
run faster. 

4. After each idle adjustment is made, move the 
governor lever to change the rpm of the engine. 
Now move the governor lever back to the point of 
first adjustment to check the idle adjustment. 
Keep doing the adjustment procedure until the 
low idle and high idle rpm are the same as given 
in the FUEL SETTING INFORMATION. 

When the cover is installed on the governor, the 
idle adjustment screws fit into holes in the cover. The 
holes keep the idle adjustment screws from turning 
after idle adjustment is done and the cover is 
installed. 



97 



SCROLL FUEL SYSTEM-PC 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



Fuel Ratio Control Setting 

Tools Needed: 9S240 Rack Positioning Tool Group, 
4B9820 Wrench. 

The fuel rack must be set correctly before setting 
the fuel ratio control. 

1 . Remove the rack cover from the front of the fuel 
injection pump housing, and cover (4) from the 
rear of the fuel ratio control. 

2. Engage slot in cover (4) with cross-dowel in 
adjusting bolt and turn the adjusting bolt in as 
far as possible. This prevents the head of the bolt 
from limiting the travel of the fuel rack. 

3. Install 9S238 Rack Positioning Bracket Group 
over the front end of the fuel rack and 9S215 
Dial Indicator in the bracket. 

4. Remove the plug from the bottom of the govern- 
or and install plug (2). Through opening in plug 
(2) use rod (3) to push in (retract) the speed 
limiter plunger. Tighten plug (2) just enough to 
hold rod (3) in place (speed limiter depressed). 

NOTE: Speed limiter is not used on later engines. 




RETRACTING SPEED LIMITER PLUNGER 
(Earlier Engine Shown) 

1. Governor control lever. 2. 9S8518 Plug. 3. 9S8521 Rod. 

5. Center the rack and set the dial indicator on 
zero. Remove the spacer. 

6. With the speed limiter plunger held in, move 
governor control lever ( 1 ) to FULL LOAD posi- 
tion. Hold the lever in the FULL LOAD position 
while making the adjustment. 



7. Turn adjusting bolt out with cover (4) until the 
proper dial indicator reading is obtained. The 
proper reading is listed in the FUEL SETTING 
INFORMATION. 

8. Turn cover (4) clockwise the amount necessary 
to align the bolt holes and install cover (4). 

9. Remove the 9S238 Rack Positioning Bracket 
Group, 9S21 5 Dial Indicator and install the rack 
cover. 

10. Install the standard plug in place of plug (2). 




SETTING FUEL RATIO CONTROL 
(Typical Example) 

4. Cover. 



NOTE: Before starting the engine, make certain the 
governor control lever will move the governor to the 
SHUTOFF position and that all parts operate freely. 

With the above initial adjustment made, a further 
adjustment while the engine is running can be made 
if necessary to improve engine performance. To re- 
duce exhaust smoke during acceleration, turn cover 
(4) out (less fuel) 1/2 turn at a time until satisfac- 
tory. When exhaust smoke is acceptable but acceler- 
ation is sluggish, turn cover (4) in (more fuel) 1/2 
turn at a time until satisfactory. 

NOTE: Some exhaust smoke is likely to appear at 
maximum acceleration. 

NOTE: If acceleration is sluggish and full engine 
power seems to be lost, inspect the air line to the 
cover and the cover gasket for air leaks. If no air leaks 
are apparent, inspect the diaphragm. A damaged 
diaphragm will not allow the fuel rack to open com- 
pletely, acceleration will be sluggish and full engine 
power cannot be obtained. 



98 



SCROLL FUEL SYSTEM-DI 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



SCROLL FUEL SYSTEM 



CHECKING THE FUEL INJECTION VALVES 

Check the fuel injection valves for: 

1. Too much carbon on the tip of the nozzle or in 
the nozzle orifice. 

2. Wear of the orifice. 

3. Dirty nozzle screen. 

If a fuel injection nozzle has been removed from 
the head, test the nozzle before it is again installed in 
the head. See TESTING 7N449 FUEL INJEC- 
TION NOZZLES. 

CHECKING THE PLUNGER AND LIFTER 
WASHER OF AN INJECTION PUMP 

Check timing dimension for the fuel injection 
pumps. Make an adjustment if necessary, with the 
pump housing off the engine. When an adjustment to 
the timing dimensions is done correctly, fuel injec- 
tion in the cylinder will be at the correct time. If the 
timing dimension is too small, fuel injection will be 
early. If the timing dimension is too large, fuel injec- 
tion will be late. 

When there is too much wear on the pump 
plunger, the lifter washer may also be worn and there 
will not be good contact between the two parts. T^" 
stop fast wear on the end of a new plunger, install 
new lifters in the place of the lifters that have 
washers with wear. 




T33512 



WEAR BETWEEN LIFTER WASHER AND PLUNGER 

Fig. A illustrates the contact surfaces of a new pump 
plunger and a new litter washer. In Fig. B the pump plunger 
and lifter washer have worn considerably. Fig. C shows 
how the flat end of a new plunger makes poor contact with 
a worn lifter washer, resulting in rapid wear to both parts. 

An injection pump can have a good fuel flow com- 
ing from it but not be a good pump because of slow 
timing that is caused by wear on the bottom end of 
the plunger. When making a test on a pump that has 
been used for a long time, use a micrometer and 
measure the length of the plunger. If the length of the 
plunger is shorter than the minimum length (worn) 
dimension given in the chart, install a new pump. 



FUEL PUMP PLUNGER 



Length (new) . . . 2.5934 ± .0015 in. (65.872 t 0.038 mm) 
IVlinimum length (worn) 2.5869 in. (65.707 mm) 



Look for wear at the top part of the plunger. Check 
the operation of the plunger according to the instruc- 
tions for the Fuel Injection Test Bench. 

INJECTION PUMP (REMOVE) 

Tools Needed: 

5P6577 Fuel Setting Tool Group. 

3P1544 Pin. 

8S2244 Extractor. 

8S4613 Wrench. 



CAUTION 

The fuel rack must be in the center position 
before the injection pumps are removed. There 
will be damage to the lifter and injection pump 
if the rack is not in the center position. 




GOVERNOR AND INJECTION PUMP HOUSING 
1. Control lever. 2. Plug. 3. Cover. 4. Stop collar. 

1. Remove cover (3). Turn stop collar (4) 180°. 

2. Remove plug (2). Move governor control lever 
( 1 ) to shutoff (fully clockwise). 




INJECTION PUMP HOUSING 
5. Bushing. 6. Seal. 



99 



SCROLL FUEL SYSTEM-DI 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



3. Install the 3P1544 Pin in the hole for plug (2). 
Move the governor control lever in the fuel on 
direction (counterclockwise). The pin will stop 
the rack at the center position. 

4. Remove the fuel injection line from the injection 
pump. 

5. Use the 8S4613 Wrench to remove bushing (5). 
Remove seal (6). Use the 8S2244 Extractor to 
remove the injection pump assembly. 

Be careful when injection pumps are disassem- 
bled. Do not damage the surface on the plunger. The 
plunger and barrel for each pump are made as a set. 
Do not put the plunger of one pump in the barrel of 
another pump. If one part is worn, install a complete 
new pump assembly. Be careful when the plunger is 
put in the bore of the barrel. 

INJECTION PUMP (INSTALL) 

Tools Needed: 

5P6577 Fuel Setting Tool Group. 

3P1544 Pin. 

8S2244 Extractor. 

8S4613 Wrench. 

1 . Make sure the fuel rack is in the center position. 
See INJECTION PUMP (REMOVE). 

2. Put 8S2244 Extractor ( 1 ) on the injection pump. 

3. Put slot (2) of the bonnet and slot (3) of the 
barrel in alignment with slot (4) of gear segment 
(5). 




ALIGNMENT OF INJECTION PUMP PARTS 

1. 8S2244 Extractor. 2. Slot in bonnet. 3. Slot In barrel. 4. 
Slot in gear segment. 5. Gear segment. 

1. Look inside the bore for the injection pump to 
find dowel (8). Put slot (3) of the barrel in 
alignment with the dowel. Put the injection 
pump straight down into the bore. 



100 




INJECTION PUMP HOUSING 
6. Bushing. 7. Seal. 8. Dowel. 9. Small dowel. 

5. Install seal (7). Put bushing (6) in position. Push 
down on the extractor (hand force only). If the 
injection pump is in the correct position and the 
lobe of the injection pump camshaft is not up, 
the fingers can be used to turn the bushing until 
it is even with the top of the housing. When the 
bushing is installed correctly, tighten it to 1 54 ± 
11 lb. ft. (205 ± 15 N-m). 

CAUTION 

Damage to the housing will be the result if the 
bushing is too tight. If the bushing is not tight 
enough the pump will have leakage. 

A check for correct installation of each injection 
pump can be made. 

a. Remove the governor weight assembly. 

b. Measure the total amount of rack travel. It 
must be approximately .800 in. (20.32 mm). 
If the travel is less than this, the pump is not 
installed correctly. 

NOTE: One tooth off will cause a reduction in travel 
of .2 in. (5 mm). 

c. If a pump was installed wrong, remove it. 
Check to make sure small dowel (9) in the 
lifter assembly is not broken. Carefully follow 
Steps 1 through 5 again. 

CAUTION 

If one or more of the fuel injection pumps have 
been installed wrong, it is possible for the en- 
gine to run out of control when started. When 
any of the fuel injection pumps have been re- 
moved and installed with the fuel injection 
pump housing on the engine, refer to the topic, 
START-UP PROCEDURE. 



SCROLL FUEL SYSTEM-DI 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



FUEL SYSTEM ADJUSTMENTS 
Checking With 8S4620 Gauge 

Tools Needed: 

8S4620 Gauge. 

8S5417 Timing Fixture Plate. 

884613 Wrench. 

8S2244 Extractor. 

1. Pul No. 1 piston at lop center (TC) on the 
compression stroke. Mai<e reference to FIND- 
ING TOP CENTER COMPRESSION POSI- 
TION FOR NO. 1 PISTON. 

2. Remove No. I fuel injection pump with 8S4613 
Wrench and 8S2244 Extractor. Install fuel 
pump lifter gauge (I) in bore of fuel pump. 

f < 




FUEL PUMP LIFTER GAUGE INSTALLED 
(Typical Example) 

1. 8S4620 Gauge. 

3. When fuel pump lifter gauge ( 1 ) is in the bore of 
fuel pump (4), the upper face of plunger (2) 
must be a little above the top surface of gauge 
body (3). The lower face of the plunger must be 
just below the lop surface of the gauge body. 

NOTE: If plunger (2) of gauge (1) is in the correct 
position, turn the crankshaft counterclockwise 
(when seen from the flywheel end of the engine) and 
check the direction of movement of plunger (2). 
Plunger (2) must move up. If plunger (2) does not 
move up, make reference to ACCESSORY DRIVE 
SHAFT TIMING. 




4. If plunger (2) is not in the correct position, check 
the accessory drive shaft timing. Make reference 
to ACCESSORY DRIVE SHAFT TIMING. 

5. If the accessory drive shall liming is correct and 
lifter gauge plunger (2) position was not correct, 
make an adjustment to the pump liming dimen- 
sion. See FUEL I N.I ECTION PUMP TIMING 
DIMENSION SETTING; OLE ENGINE. 

Checking With 5P4158 Gauge 

Tools Needed: 5P4165 Dial Indicator Group. 
8S4613 Wrench. 
8S2244 Extractor. 

1. Pul No. 1 piston at top center (TC) on the 
compression stroke. Make reference to FIND- 
ING TOP CENTER COMPRESSION POSI- 
TION FOR NO. 1 PISTON, 

2. Remove No. 1 fuel injection pump with 8S46i3 
Wrench and 8S2244 Extractor. Put gauge (4) 
into the fuel pump housing. 

3. Pul 3P1565 Collet Clamp (2) and 5P4156 Base 
(3) on 8S3158 Indicator (1). Pul 5P4163 Con- 
tact Point (5) on the indicator. Install the indica- 
tor assembly through 5P4I58 Gauge (4). 

4. The correct on engine timing dimension setting 
using dial indicator ( 1 ) is 4.1294 ± .0020 in. 
(104.888 ± 0.051 mm). 




FUEL PUMP LIFTER GAUGE INSTALLED 

1. Fuel pump litter gauge. 2. Plunger. 3. Gauge body. 4. 
Fuel pump bore. 



CHECKING TIMING DIMENSION 

1. 8S3158 Indicator. 2. 3P1565 Collet Clamp. 3. 5P4156 
Base. 4. 5P4-l58Gauge-2in. (50.8 mm). 5. 5P4163 Contact 
Point. 

'•>. If the liming dimension selling is not correct, 
check the accessory drive shaft timing. See 
ACCESSORY DRIVE SHAFT TIMING. 

). If the accessory drive shaft timing is correct and 
the timing dimension selling is not correct, the 
liming setting must be corrected. See FUEL 
INJECTION PUMP TIMING DIMENSION 
SETTING; OFF ENGINE. 



101 



SCROLL FUEL SYSTEM-DI 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



FUEL INJECTION TIMING CHECK (TIMING PIN 
METHOD) 

Tools Needed: 

SP6577 Fuel Setting Tool Group. 

3P1544 Pin. 
5P7307 Engine Turning Tool Group. 
3/8" — 16 NC Bolt. 

1 . Put No. 1 piston at top center on the compression 
stroke. Make reference to FINDING TOP 
CENTER COMPRESSION POSITION FOR 
NO. 1 PISTON. Remove the 3/8" — 16 NC 
bolt from the flywheel. Turn the flywheel ap- 
proximately 30° clockwise, as seen from the 
flywheel end. 

2. Remove plug ( 1 ). Put the 3P1 544 Pin in the hole 
for plug ( 1 ). Turn the flywheel slowly counter- 
clockwise, as seen from the flywheel end, until 
the pin goes into the notch in the injection pump 
camshaft. 

CAUTION 

The flywheel must be turned slowly so that 
damage is not done to the fuel system when the 
pin goes into the notch. 






FUEL PUMP DRIVE HOUSING 
1. Plug. 

3. Put the 3/8" - 16 NC bolt in the timing hole in 
the flywheel housing. If the bolt can be installed 
in the hole in the flywheel, the timing of the fuel 
injection pump is correct. If it can not be in- 
stalled see ACCESSORY DRIVE SHAFT 
TIMING. 

4. If the accessory drive shaft timing is correct and 
the timing dimension setting is not correct, the 
timing setting must be corrected. See FUEL 
INJECTION PUMP TIMING DIMENSION 
SETTING; OFF ENGINE. 

Accessory Drive Shaft Timing 

Tools Needed: 885417 Timing Fixture Plate. 
8S2264 Puller Group. 
888375 Sleeve. 
8B7561 step Plate. 



1 . Put No. 1 piston at top center (TC) on compres- 
sion stroke. Make reference to FINDING TOP 
CENTER COMPRESSION POSITION FOR 
NO. 1 PISTON. 

2. Remove the injection pump housing from the 
engine. 

3. Install the 8S5417 Timing Fixture Plate on the 
back face of the accessory drive housing. Make 
an alignment of the dowels and install the bolts 
as shown. 




8S5417 TIMING FIXTURE PLATE INSTALLED 
(Typical Example) 

Tools Needed: 882264 Puller Group, 888375 Sleeve, 8B7561 
step Plate, two 3/8 in. 24-NF Bolts, 3.50 in. (88.9 mm) long 
and two flat washers. 

NOTE: If the timing fixture plate can be installed, 
the accessory drive shaft timing is correct. If the 
timing fixture plate can not be installed, make an 
adjustment to the accessory drive shaft timing as 
follows: 

4. Loosen the alternator and remove the belts from 
the alternator pulley. 

5. Remove the small cover from the front housing. 

6. Remove the nut and washer that hold the acces- 
sory drive gear on the accessory drive shaft. 

7. Make the accessory drive gear loose on the shaft 
with the tooling as shown. 

8. Remove the puller tools and turn the accessory 
drive shaft to the correct position so that the 
8S5417 Timing Fixture Plate can be installed. 

9. With the 8S54 1 7 Timing Fixture Plate installed, 
put the washer on the accessory drive shaft with 
the large diameter against the gear. Install the 
nut and tighten to 103 ± 10 lb. ft. (139 ± 14 
N-m). 

1 0. Install the cover on the front housing and remove 
the 8S5417 Timing Fixture Plate. 



102 



SCROLL FUEL SYSTEM-DI 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



\ 




TOOLS INSTALLED 
(Typical Example) 

Tools Needed: 882264 Puller Group, 8S8375 Sleeve, 8B7561 
Step Plate, two 3/8 in. 24-NF Bolts, 3.50 in. (88.9 mm) long 
and two flat washers. 



1 1 . Turn the camshaft of the injection pump so it is 
in alignment with the end of the accessory drive 
shaft. Install the injection pump housing on the 
engine. 

1 2. The injection pump camshaft is now timed to the 
No. 1 cylinder. 

1 3. Make all necessary connections and installation 
of components that were removed or 
disconnected. 



FUEL INJECTION PUMP TIMING 
DIMENSION SETTING; OFF ENGINE 



Tools Needed: 

5P6600 Off Engine Lifter Setting Tool Group. 
1P7420 Pointer Assembly. 

S1617 Bolt, 5/16 " — 18 NO, .75 in. (19.1 mm) long. 
6V3066 Shaft Assembly. 
1P7410 Timing Plate. 
2S6160 Waslier. 

S509 Bolt, 3/8" — 16 NC, .75 in. (19.1 mm) long. 
5P4165 Indicator Group. 
8S3158 Indicator. 
3P1565 Collet Clamp. 
5P4159 Gauge Stand. 
5P4165 Base. 

5P4163 Contact Point, 4.75 in. (120.7 mm) long. 
5P4157 Gauge, 4.00 in. (101.6 mm) long. 
5P4158 Gauge, 2.00 in. (50.8 mm) long. 
8S4613 Wrench. 
8S2244 Extractor. 

NOTE: A 6F6922 Depth Micrometer with a 4 to 5 
in. ( 1 02 to 127 mm) rod can be used in place of the 
dial indicator. 



This method of adjustment corrects for wear of 
components in the injection pump housing. 

1 . Put 1 P7420 Pointer Assembly (2) in position, as 
shown, on the pump housing. UseS1617 Bolt (1) 
to hold it in place. 

2. Slide 6V3066 Shaft Assembly (3) onto the cam- 
shaft. Make sure the key on the shaft assembly is 
fully engaged in the timing notch. Tighten the 
screw that holds the shaft assembly in place. 




B6983X1 



GOVERNOR AND INJECTION PUMP HOUSING 

1.S1617Bolt. 2. 1P7420 Pointer Assembly. 3. 6V3066 Shaft 
Assembly. 

3. Install 1P7410 Timing Plate (4), 2S6160 
Washer (5) and S509 Bolt (6) as shown. 

4. Move the governor control shaft to the fuel on 
position. Use the 8S4613 Wrench to remove the 
bushings that hold the injection pumps in the 
housing. Remove the washers and seals. 




5P6600 OFF ENGINE LIFTER SETTING TOOL 
GROUP INSTALLED 

4. 1P7410 Timing Plate. 5. 2S6160 Washer. 6. S509 Bolt. 



103 



SCROLL FUEL SYSTEM-DI 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



5. Use the 8S2244 Extractor to remove the injec- 
tion pumps. 

6. Put the 3P1565 Collet Clamp in the 5P4165 
Base. Put the 8S3 1 58 Indicator with the 5P4 1 63 
Contact Point through the collet clamp. 

7. Use 5P4157 Gauge, 4.00 in. (101.6 mm), and 
the 5P4159 Gauge Stand, set both dials on the 
indicator at zero. 




8' Vba&2LJUd 9 

TYPICAL TIMING DIMENSION MEASUREMENT 

7. 5P4158 Gauge, 2.00 in. (50.8 mm). 8. Spacer. 9. Timing 
dimension. 

8. Turn the timing plate counterclockwise to the 
degree setting given, in the LIFTER SETTING 
CHART (OFF ENGINE), for number 1 lifter. 
The lifters are numbered in firing order from the 
timing plate end of the injection pump. 

9. Use the dial indicator assembly and 5P4158 
Gauge (7), 2.00 in. (50.8 mm), to measure tim- 
ing dimension (9). The correct timing dimension 
is 4.2675 ± .0020 in. (108.395 ± 0.051 mm). 

NOTE: Add 4.00 in. ( 1 01 .6 mm) to the dial indicator 
reading to get the timing dimension. 



10. If the timing dimension is not correct change 
spacer (8). Make reference to the SPACER 
CHART. 

11. Turn the timing plate counterclockwise, check 
the timing dimension for each lifter at the given 
setting. Change spacers (8) as necessary. 



LIFTER SETTING CHART (OFF ENGINE) 


Lifter 
Number 


Turn Timing Plate Counterclockwise 
to Degree Setting Shown 


1 


239.0 


3 


329.0 


4 


59.0 


2 


149.0 



12. Make reference to INJECTION PUMP (IN- 
STALL) to install the pumps in the housing. 



SPACER CHART 


SPACER PART NO. 


SPACER THICKNESS 


9N6496 


.161 in. (4.12 mm) 


9N6495 


.166 in. (4.22 mm) 


5M2697 


.170 in. (4.32 mm) 


2M4208 


.174 in. (4.42 mm) 


2M4209 


.178 in. (4.52 mm) 


2M4210 


.182 in. (4.62 mm) 


2M4211 


.186 in. (4.72 mm) 


2M4212 


.190 in. (4.83 mm) 


5M2691 


.194 in. (4.93 mm) 


5S7189 


.198 in. (5.03 mm) 


4N9839 


.203 in. (5.16 mm) 


4N9840 


.207 in. (5.26 mm) 



NOTE: The 1P7420 Pointer Assembly holds the 
rack at zero position when the governor is in the fuel 
on position. 



FUEL RACK SETTING 

Tools Needed: 

5P6577 Fuel Setting Tool Group. 

3P1544 Pin. 
8S4627 Circuit Tester. 

1C569 Bolt, 5/16" — 18 NC, .50 in. (12.7 mm) long. 
9S228 Rack Position Tool Group. 

8S2283 Dial Indicator. 

9S225 Bracket Assembly. 
5P7335 Rack Adjusting Tool. 



1. Disconnect the governor control linkage at the 
governor lever. 

2. Remove plug ( 1 ) and cover group (2) from the 
governor. 



104 



SCROLL FUEL SYSTEM-DI 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 





^^ P 



|ji>erss5r^^jf',i*l 




INJECTION PUMP HOUSING 
(Typical Illustration) 

1. Plug. 




GOVERNOR 
(Typical Illustration) 

2. Cover group. A. Stop collar cover. 

3. Turn stop collar (5) 180°, so that stop screw (3) 
will not be able to make contact with torque 
spring (4). 




A69863X2 



4. Move the governor lever to shutoff (fully 
clockwise). 

5. Install the 9S225 Bracket. Put the 8S2283 Dial 
Indicator with 9S8883 Contact Point in position 
so that the indicator will measure movement of 
the stop collar. 

6. Put the 3P1544 Pin in the hole for plug (1). 
Move the governor lever counterclockwise to the 
full fuel position. Pull stop collar (5) softly, to 
remove end clearance, and set both dials on the 
indicator at zero. 



B6993X1 




GOVERNOR AND INJECTION PUMP HOUSING 
3. Stop screw. 4. Torque spring. 5. Stop collar. 



BRACKET AND DIAL INDICATOR INSTALLED 

7. Move the governor lever clockwise to low idle 
position. 

8. Remove the 3P1544 Pin. Turn stop collar (5) so 
that stop screw (3) will be able to make contact 
with torque spring (4). 

9. Connect the 8S4627 Circuit Tester to the brass 
terminal on the governor and a ground on the 
governor. 

10. Turn the governor lever in the fuel on direction 
(counterclockwise) until the light in the tester 
goes on. Turn the governor lever clockwise until 
the light goes off. Slowly turn the governor lever 
counterclockwise until the test light has a mini- 
mum light output. In this position, stop screw (3) 
is just in contact with torque spring (4). Read the 
measurement of the dial indicator. 

11. Look in the FUEL SETTING INFORMA- 
TION to find the correct measurement for rack 
setting. 

NOTE: Negative ( — ) rack is when stop screw (3) 
makes contact with torque spring (4) before both 
dials on the indicator reach zero. 

1 2. To make an adjustment of the fuel rack setting, 
loosen the locknut and turn stop screw (3). A 
clockwise turn will make a reduction to the rack 
setting. 



105 



SCROLL FUEL SYSTEM-DI 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



NOTE: One full turn of the stop screw changes the 
rack setting approximately .035 in. (0.89 mm). 

1 3. After the adjustment is made tighten the locknut 
to9 ± 3 lb. ft. (12 ± 4 N-m). 

14. Do Step 10 again to check the rack setting. 

Alternate Method 

NOTE: This method can only be used if the desired 
result is a positive rack setting. 

Tools Needed: 

Same except for bolt and contact point, use: 
5P6531 Contact Point 2.25 in. (37.2 mm) long. 
1D4538 Bolt, 5/16" — 18 NC, 2.25 in. (37.2 mm) long. 

1. Disconnect the governor control linkage at the 
governor lever. 

2. Remove plug ( 1 ) and stop collar cover (A) from 
the governor. 

3. Move the governor lever to shutoff (fully 
clockwise). 

4. Install 9S225 Bracket Assembly (6). Put the 
8S2283 Dial Indicator with 5P6531 Contact 
Point in position so that the indicator will mea- 
sure movement of stop collar (5). 




5. Put the 3P1544 Pin in the hole for plug (1). 
Move the governor lever counterclockwise to the 
full fuel position. Pull stop collar (5) softly, to 
remove end clearance, and set both dials on the 
indicator at zero. 

6. Move the governor lever clockwise to low idle 
position. 

7. Remove the 3PI544 Pin. 

8. Connect 8S4627 Circuit Tester (7) to the brass 
terminal on the cover group and to a ground on 
the governor. 

9. Turn the governor lever in the fuel on direction 
(counterclockwise) until the light in the tester 
goes on. Turn the governor lever clockwise until 
the light goes off. Slowly turn the governor lever 
counterclockwise until the test light has a mini- 
mum light output. In this position, stop screw (3) 
is just in contact with torque spring (4). Read the 
measurement on the dial indicator. 

10. Look in the FUEL SETTING INFORMA- 
TION to find the correct measurement for rack 
setting. Negative ( — ) rack measurements can 
not be made accurately by this method. 

1 1 . To make an adjustment of the fuel rack setting, 
use the 5P7335 Rack Adjusting Tool. Loosen 
the locknut and turn stop screw (3). A clockwise 
turn will make a reduction to the rack setting. 

NOTE: To use the 5P7335 Rack Adjusting Tool, it is 
necessary to pivot the bracket assembly to one side. 
One full turn of the stop screw changes the rack 
setting approximately .035 in. (0.89 mm). 

12. After the adjustment is made, tighten the lock- 
nut to9 ± 3 lb. ft. (12 ± 4 N-m). 

13. Do Steps 3 thru 9 again to check the rack setting. 



TOOLS INSTALLED 
(Typical Illustration) 

6. 9S225 Bracket Assembly. 7. 8S4627 Circuit Tester. 



106 



AIR INLET AND EXHAUST SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



AIR INLET AND EXHAUST SYSTEM 



RESTRICTION OF AIR INLET 
AND EXHAUST 

There will be a reduction of horsepower and effi- 
ciency of the engine if there is a restriction in the air 
inlet or exhaust system. 

Air flow through the air cleaner must not have a 
restriction of more than 30 in. (762 mm) of water 
difference in pressure. 

Back pressure from the exhaust (pressure differ- 
ence measurement between exhaust outlet elbow and 
atmosphere) must not be more than given in chart. 



ENGINES WITH 
TURBOCHARGERS 


ENGINES WITHOUT 
TURBOCHARGERS 


27" H2O 
(686 mm) 


34" H2O 
(864 mm) 



MEASUREMENT OF PRESSURE 
IN INLET MANIFOLD 

By checking the pressure in the inlet manifold the 
efficiency of an engine can be checked by making a 
comparison with the information given in the FUEL 
SETTING INFORMATION. This test is used 
when there is a decrease of horsepower from the 
engine, yet there is no real sign of a problem with the 
engine. 

The correct pressure for the inlet manifold is given 
in the FUEL SETTING INFORMATION. Deve- 
lopment of this information is done with these condi- 
tions: 29.4 in. (746.7 mm) of mercury barometric 
pressure, 85°F (29°C) outside air temperature and 
35 API rated fuel. Any change from these conditions 
can change the pressure in the inlet manifold. Out- 
side air that has higher temperature and lower baro- 
metric pressure than given above will cause a lower 
horsepower and inlet manifold pressure measure- 
ment, than given in the FUEL SETTING INFOR- 
MATION. Outside air that has a lower temperature 
and higher barometric pressure will cause a higher 
horsepower and inlet manifold pressure 
measurement. 

A difference in fuel rating will also change horse- 
power and the pressure in the inlet manifold. If the 
fuel is rated above 35 API, pressure in the fuel inlet 



manifold can be less than given in the FUEL SET- 
TING INFORMATION. If the fuel is rated below 
35 API, the pressure in the inlet manifold can be 
more than given in the FUEL SETTING INFOR- 
MATION. BE SURE THAT THE AIR INLET 
AND EXHAUST DO NOT HAVE A RESTRIC- 
TION WHEN MAKING A CHECK OF PRES- 
SURE IN THE INLET MANIFOLD. 

Use the 6V3150 Engine Pressure Group to check 
the pressure in the inlet manifold. 




6V3150 ENGINE PRESSURE GROUP 

1. Diflerentlal pressure gauges. 2. Zero adjustment 
screw. 3. Pressure gauge to 160 psi (0 to 1100 kPa). 4. 
Pressure tap. 5. Pressure gauge to 60 psI (0 to 415 kPa). 

This tool group has a gauge to read pressure in the 
inlet manifold. Special Instruction Form No. 
SMHS7851 is with the tool group and gives instruc- 
tions for the test procedure. 




POSITION FOR PRESSURE TEST 
A. Remove elbow and install a tee for testing. 



107 



AIR INLET AND EXHAUST SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



CHECKING INLET MANIFOLD PRESSURE AT 
TORQUE CONVERTER STALL SPEED 

Inlet manifold pressure at torque converter stall 
speed provides a convenient engine performance test. 

The torque converter stalling capacity, and the 
hydraulic system can be used to temporarily load the 
engine. 

NOTE: On engines equipped with an air com- 
pressor, disconnect the air compressor air inlet line 
at the diesel engine cylinder head. 

I . Connect the inlet manifold pressure gauge to the 
opening in the cylinder head and connect the rest 
of the 6V3150 Engine Pressure Group 
components. 

NOTE: The air compressor will be in operation, but 
air that Is not clean will go into the air system. Do 
not operate for a long period of time with dirty air 
going into the air system. 

2. With the torque converter at operating tempera- 
ture, load the hydraulic system. 

3. Use the brake to keep the vehicle stopped. Shift 
to the highest forward gear and move the gover- 
nor control to the HIGH IDLE position. 
Engine speed will increase until the hydraulic 
system and the torque converter stall. At this 
point, engine speed stabilizes. 

NOTE: It may be necessary to reduce the load on the 
hydraulic system to maintain FULL LOAD 
SPEED. 

CAUTION 

Do not leave the converter in a stall condition 
for a prolonged period of time; only that neces- 
sary to record engine speed and boost pres- 
sure. Observe the temperatures of the torque 
converter oil and cooling system. Do not allow 
to overheat. 



4. Record the engine speed and inlet manifold 
pressure. 

5. Return the governor control to LOW IDLE po- 
sition, move transmission control lever to NEU- 
TRAL and remove the load from the hydraulic 
system. 

6. Compare the recorded engine speed and inlet 
manifold pressure with the values in the FUEL 
SETTING INFORMATION. If both values 
are within their specified limits engine output is 
within expected limits. 



If stall speed is within limits, but boost is not, 
determine why and correct. 

If boost and/or stall speed are outside their li- 
mits, determine cause as either a converter or 
engine malfunction and correct. 



TURBOCHARGER 

Every 7200 hours or if any unusual sound or vibra- 
tion in the turbocharger is noticed, a quick check of 
bearing condition can be made without disassem- 
bling the turbocharger. Remove the piping from the 
turbocharger and inspect the compressor impeller, 
turbine wheel and compressor cover. Rotate the 
compressor and turbine wheel assembly by hand and 
check for too much end play and radial clearance. 
The rotating assembly must rotate freely with no 
rubbing or binding. If there is any indication of the 
impeller rubbing the compressor cover or the turbine 
wheel rubbing the turbine housing, recondition the 
turbocharger or replace with a new or rebuilt one. 

End clearance is best checked with a dial indica- 
tor. Install a dial indicator with the indicator point on 
the end of the shaft. Move the shaft from end to end 
making note of the total indicator reading. 

End play for 3LK, E, F and 4LF Model Turbo- 
chargers is .003 to .006 in. (0.08 toO. 16 mm) and .002 
to .005 in. (0.05 to 0. 13 mm) for 3LM Turbocharg- 
ers. End play for TI2 Turbochargers is .006 to .01 i 
in. (0.15 to 0.27 mm). End play for T04 Turbo- 
chargers is .001 to .004 in. (0.03 to 0.10 mm). 




CHECKING TURBOCHARGER 

ROTATING ASSEMBLY END PLAY 

(Typical Example) 

If end play is more than the maximum end play 
rebuild or replace the turbocharger. End play less 
than the minimum end play can indicate carbon 
build up on the turbine wheel. Disassemble for clean- 
ing and inspection. 



108 



AIR INLET AND EXHAUST SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



A more reliable check of bearing condition can be 
made only when the turbocharger is disassembled 
and the bearings, shaft journal and housing bore 
diameters can actually be measured. 



1 ( 


Jts-i 


»» 








tBIKKW^^"^ f ^^B 



CHECKING TURBOCHARGER RADIAL 

CLEARANCE 

(Typical Example) 

Radial clearance can also be checked with a dial 
indicator. Remove the oil return line from the turbo- 
charger. Install a dial indicator with an extension 
indicator point long enough to contact the shaft 
through the oil return hole. Make sure the contact 
point is centered on the shaft (highest indicator 
reading). Raise both ends of the shaft all the way 
then push down in the opposite direction. Total 
movement of the indicator for all turbochargers 
except the T04 Turbochargers must be between .004 
in. (0.10 mm) and .009 in. (0.23 mm). If radial clear- 
ance is more than .009 in. (0.23 mm) or minimum 
clearance is less than .004 in. (0.10 mm), the turbo- 
charger must be disassembled and the bearings 
checked. Radial clearance for the T04 B is .003 to 
.006 in. (0.08 to 0.1 5 mm) and for the T04 the radial 
clearance is .003 to .007 in. (0.08 to 0.18 mm). 

NOTE: Care must be taken not to cock the shaft or a 
false reading will be obtained. 



CRANKCASE (CRANKSHAFT 
COMPARTMENT) PRESSURE 

Pistons or piston rings that have damage can be 
the cause of too much pressure in the crankcase. This 
condition will cause the engine to rfln rough. There 
will also be more than the normal amount of fumes 
coming from the crankcase breather. This crankcase 
pressure can also cause the element for the crankcase 
breather to have a restriction in a very short time. It 
can also be the cause of oil leakage at gaskets and 
seals that would not normally have leakage. 

Normal crankcase pressure with a clean crankcase 
breather is 2 in. (50.8 mm) of H;0 or less. 

MEASUREMENT OF EXHAUST 
TEMPERATURES 

Use the 1P3060 Pyrometer Group to check ex- 




1P3060 PYROMETER GROUP 

haust temperature. Special Instruction Form No. 
SMHS7179 is with the tool group and gives instruc- 
tions for the test procedure. 

COMPRESSION 

An engine that runs rough can have a leak at the 
valves, or have valves that need adjustment. Use the 
test that follows for a fast and easy method to find a 
cylinder that has low compression, or does not have 
good fuel combustion. Find the speed that the engine 
runs the roughest, and keep the engine at this rpm 
until the test is finished. Loosen a fuel line nut at fuel 
injection pump to stop the flow of fuel to that cy- 
linder. Do this for each cylinder until a loosened fuel 
line is found that makes no difference in engine 
performance. Be sure to tighten each fuel line nut 
after the test before the next fuel line nut is loosened. 
This test can also be an indication that the fuel 
injection is wrong, so the cylinder will have to be 
checked thoroughly. Removal of the head and in- 
spection of the valves and valve seats is necessary. 

NOTE: The test that follows cannot be used with 
engines that have pistons with keystone rings. 

A cylinder leakage test that uses air pressure in the 
cylinder can be used to indicate the condition of the 
piston rings, valves and valve seals. Make reference 
to Special Instruction Form No. GMG00694 for a 
list of tools needed and the test procedure. Removal 
of the head and inspection of the valves and valve 
seats is necessary to find those small defects that do 
not normally cause a problem. Repair of these prob- 
lems is normally done when reconditioning the 
engine. 

CYLINDER HEAD 

The cylinder head has valves, valve seat inserts, 
and valve guides that can be removed when they are 
worn or have damage. Replacement of these com- 
ponents can be made with the tools that follow: 



109 



AIR INLET AND EXHAUST SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



Valves 

Valve removal and installation is easier with use of 
the 5P 1 330 Valve Spring Compressor Assembly and 
5S1322 Valve Keeper Inserter. 

Valve Seat Inserts 

Tools needed to remove and install seat inserts are 
in the 9S3080 Valve Insert Puller Group. Special 
Instruction Form No. GMG021 14 gives an explana- 
tion for this procedure. For easier installation, lower 
the temperature of the insert before it is installed in 
the head. 



GLOW PLUG AND PRECOMBUSTION 
CHAMBER REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION 

Tools Needed: 5P127 Socket (for glow plugs) 
5F8353 Wrench (for precombustlon chambers) 

Glow Plugs 

Use a 5P127 Socket to remove and install glow 
plugs. Before installing a glow plug, put 5P393I 
Anti-Seize Compound on threads of the glow plug. 
Tighten the glow plug to 1 20 ± 24 lb. in. ( 1 3.6 ± 2.8 
N-m). 



Valve Guides 

Tools needed to install valve guides are the 7S8858 
Driver Bushing and 7S8859 Driver. The counterbore 
in the driver bushing installs the guide to the correct 
height. Use a I P745 1 Valve Guide Honing Group to 
make a finished bore in the valve guide after installa- 
tion of the guide in the head. Special Instruction 
Form No. SMHS7526 gives an explanation for this 
procedure. Grind the valves after the new valve 
guides are installed. 

Checking Valve Guide Bore 

Use the 5P3536 Valve Guide Gauge Group to 
check the bore of the valve guides. Special Instruc- 
tion Form No. GMG02562 gives complete and de- 
tailed instructions for use of the 5P3536 Valve Guide 
Gauge Group. 




Precombustlon Chamber 

Use a 5F8353 Precombustlon Chamber Wrench 
to remove and install precombustlon chambers. 

Before installing a precombustlon chamber, put 
liquid soap in the bore and on the O-ring seal. 

Put 5M2667 Gasket, with "2C" on it, on the pre- 
combustlon chamber. Put 5P393I Anti-Seize Com- 
pound on the threads of the precombustlon chamber. 
Install the precombustlon chamber in the cylinder 
head and tighten to 150 ± 10 lb. ft. (205 ± 14 Nm). 
If the opening for the glow plug is not in the "A 
range", remove the precombustlon chamber and 
5M2667 Gasket. If the opening for the glow plug was 
in the "B range" use 2S8959 Gasket with "2S" on it. 
If the opening for the glow plug was in the"C range" 
use 2S8960 Gasket with "2X" on it. Put 5P393I 
Anti-Seize Compound on the threads of the precom- 
bustlon chamber. Install the precombustlon chamber 
with the correct gasket and lighten the precombus- 
tlon chamber to 150 ± 10 lb. ft. (205 ± 14 Nm) 





Cyl. Nos. 1, 2, and 3* 
Cyl. Nos. 1 thru 4" 

'Engines with counterbored blocl<. 
"Engines with spacer plate. 



Cyl. No. 4* 



5P3536 VALVE GUIDE GAUGE GROUP 



110 



AIR INLET AND EXHAUST SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



VALVE CLEARANCE 

NOTE: Valve clearance is measured between the 
rocker arm and the valves. 



EXHAUST VALVES 



VALVE CLEARANCE CHECK: ENGINE STOPPED 

Exhaust 022 to ,028 in (0-56 to 0.71 mm) 

Intake 012 to 018 in, (0,30 to 0.46 mm) 



NOTE: When the valve lash (clearance) is checked, 
adjustment is NOT NECESSARY if the measure- 
ment is in the range given in the chart for VALVE 
CLEARANCE CHECK: ENGINE STOPPED. If 
the measurement is outside this range, adjustment is 
necessary. See the chart for VALVE CLEARANCE 
SETTING: ENGINE STOPPED, and make the set- 
ting to the nominal (desired) specifications in this 
chart. 




VALVE CLEARANCE CHECK 



VALVE CLEARANCE SETTING: ENGINE STOPPED 

Exhaust 025 in (0,64 mm) 

Intake 01 5 m (0 38 mm) 



Put No. 1 piston at top center (TC) on the 
compression stroke. Make reference to FIND- 
ING TOP CENTER COMPRESSION POSI- 
TION FOR NO. 1 PISTON. 

Make an adjustment to the valve clearance on 
the intake valves for cylinders I and 2. Make 
an adjustment to the valve clearance on the 
exhaust valves for cylinders I and 3. 




2 3 

'6363X1 INTAKE VALVES 

CYLINDER AND VALVE IDENTIFICATION 

3. Turn the tlywheel 360° in the direction of en- 
gine rotation. This will put No. 6 piston at lop 
center (TC) on the compression stroke. 

4. Make an adjustment to the valve clearance on 
the intake valve for cylinder 3 and 4. Make an 
adjustment to the valve clearance on the ex- 
haust valves for cylinders 2 and 4. 

5. After valve adjustment is correct, tighten the 
nuts for the valve adjustment screws to 22 ± 3 
lb. ft. (28 ± 4 N-m). 




VALVE ADJUSTMENT 



HI 



AIR INLET AND EXHAUST SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



PROCEDURE FOR MEASURING 
CAMSHAFT LOBES 

To find lobe lift, use the procedure that follows: 

A. Measure camshaft lobe height (B) on one 
exhaust and one intake lobe. 

B. Measure base circle (C) of one exhaust and 
one intake lobe. 

C. Subtract base circle (STEP B) from lobe 
height (STEP A). The difference is actual 
lobe lift (A). 

D. Specified camshaft lobe lift (A) is .3300 in. 
(8.382 mm). 

Maximum permissible difference between actual 
lobe lift (STEP C) and specified lobe lift (STEP D) is 
.010 in. (0.25 mm). 




CAMSHAFT LOBE 
A. Lobe lift. B. Lobe height. C. Base circle. 



12 



LUBRICATION SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



LUBRICATION SYSTEM 



One of the problems in the following list will 
generally be an indication of a problem in the 
lubrication system for the engine. 

TOO MUCH OIL CONSUMPTION 

OIL PRESSURE IS LOW 

OIL PRESSURE IS HIGH 

TOO MUCH BEARING WEAR 

TOO MUCH OIL CONSUMPTION 

Oil Leakage on Outside of Engine 

Check for leakage at the seals at each end of the 
crankshaft. Look for leakage at the oil pan gasket 
and all lubrication system connections. Check to see 
if oil is coming out of the crankcase breather. This 
can be caused by combustion gas leakage around the 
pistons. A dirty crankcase breather will cause high 
pressure in the crankcase, and this will cause gasket 
and seal leakage. 

Oil Leakage Into Combustion 
Area of Cylinders 

Oil leakage into the combustion area of the cy- 
linders can be the cause of blue smoke. There are 
four possible ways for oil leakage into the combus- 
tion area of the cylinders: 

1 . Oil leakage between worn valve guides and valve 
stems. 

2. Worn or damaged piston rings or dirty oil return 
holes. 

3. Compression ring not installed correctly. 

4. Oil leakage past the seal rings in the impeller end 
of the turbocharger shaft. 

Too much oil consumption can also be the result of 
using oil with the wrong viscosity. Oil with a thin 
viscosity can be caused by fuel getting in the crank- 
case, or by the engine getting too hot. 

OIL PRESSURE IS LOW 

An oil pressure gauge that has a defect can give an 
indication of low oil pressure. Check the gauge with a 
test gauge. 

Use the procedure that follows to check engine oil 
pressure. Do the procedure exactly or the pressure 
measurements are not good for comparison with the 
chart. 

1. Be sure that the engine is filled to the correct 
level with either SAE 10 or SAE 30 oil. If any 
other viscosity of oil is used, the information in 
the engine oil pressure chart is not good. 




OIL MANIFOLD 
1. Pressure Test Location. 

2. Find a location on the engine oil manifold to 
install a tee. The easiest method is to remove the 
sending unit for the present gauge and install a 
tee at this location. Install a probe from the 
9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group in one 
side of the tee. Connect an 8 M 2744 Gauge from 
the 5P6225 Hydraulic Test Box to the other side 
of the tee. 

3. Run the engine to get the engine oil temperature 
at 210°F(99°C). 

NOTE: A 5°F (3°C) increase in temperature gives 
approximately 1 psi (7 kPa) decrease in engine oil 
pressure. 




A3065SXI 





SP622S HYDRAULIC TEST BOX 

Keep the engine oil temperature constant. With 
the engine at the rpm from the chart, read the 
pressure gauge. Make a comparison between the 
pressure reading on the test gauge and the mini- 
mum permissible pressure from the ENGINE 
OIL PRESSURE CHART. If the pressure 
reading on the test gauge is below the minimum 
permissible pressure, find the cause and correct 



113 



LUBRICATION SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



it. Operation of the engine with low oil pressure 
can be the cause of engine failure or of a reduc- 
tion in engine life. 



ENGINE OIL PRESSURE CHART 




MINIMUM PERMISSIBLE 
PRESSURE 


TEST 
rpm 


SAE NO. 
OF TEST OIL 


psi 


kPa 


1500 rpm 
or above 


10 


20 


140 


30 


24 


165 


600 to 800 

rpm 


10 


6 


40 


30 


7 


50 



or oil cooler has a restriction, a reduction in oil 
pressure can be the result. To correct this problem, 
install a new Caterpillar oil filter. 

Too Much Clearance at Engine Bearings or 
Open Lubrication System (Broiten or 
Disconnected Oil Line or Passage) 

Components that are worn and have too much 
bearing clearance can cause oil pressure to be low. 
Low oil pressure can also be caused by an oil line or 
oil passage that is open, broken or disconnected. 



Crani(case Oil Level 

Check the level of the oil in the crankcase. Add oil 
if needed. It is possible for the oil level to be too far 
below the oil pump supply tube. This will cause the 
oil pump to not have the ability to supply enough 
lubrication to the engine components. 



Oil Cooler 

Look for a restriction in the oil passages of the oil 
cooler. If the oil cooler has a restriction, the oil 
temperature will be higher than normal when the 
engine is running. The oil pressure of the engine will 
not get low just because the oil cooler has a 
restriction. 



Oil Pump Does Not Work Correctly 

The inlet screen of the supply tube for the oil pump 
can have a restriction. This will cause cavitation (the 
sudden making of low pressure bubbles in liquids by 
mechanical forces) and a loss of oil pressure. Air 
leakage in the supply side of the oil pump will also 
cause cavitation and loss of oil presusre. If the bypass 
valve for the oil pump is held in the open (unseated) 
position, the lubrication system can not get to maxi- 
mum pressure. Oil pump gears that have too much 
wear will cause a reduction in oil pressure. 



Oil Filter and Oil Cooler Bypass Valves 

If the bypass valve for the oil filter or oil cooler is 
held in the open position (unseated) and the oil filter 



OIL PRESSURE IS HIGH 

Oil pressure will be high if the bypass valve for the 
oil pump can not move from the closed position. 



TOO MUCH BEARING WEAR 

When some components of the engine show bear- 
ing wear in a short time, the cause can be a restriction 
in an oil passage. A broken oil passage can also be the 
cause. 

If the gauge for oil pressure shows enough good oil 
pressure, but a component is worn because it is not 
getting enough lubrication, look at the passage for oil 
supply to that component. A restriction in a supply 
passage will not let enough lubrication get to a com- 
ponent and this will cause early wear. 



114 



COOLING SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



COOLING SYSTEM 



The engine has a pressure type cooling system. A 
pressure type cooling system gives two advantages. 
The first advantage is that the cooling system can 
operate safely at a temperature that is higher than 
the normal point where water changes to steam. The 
second advantage is that this type system prevents 
cavitation (air in inlet of pump) in the water pump. 
With this type system it is more difficult for an air or 
steam pocket to form in the cooling system. 

The cause for an engine getting too hot is generally 
because regular inspections of the cooling system 
were not done. Make a visual inspection of the cool- 
ing system before testing with testing equipment. 

VISUAL INSPECTION OF THE COOLING 
SYSTEM 

1 . Check coolant level in the cooling system. 

2. Look for leaks in the system. 

3. Look for bent radiator fins. Be sure that air flow 
through the radiator does not have a restriction. 

4. Inspect the drive for the fan. 

5. Check for damage to the fan blades. 

6. Look for air or combustion gas in the cooling 
system. 

7. Inspect the pressure cap and the sealing surface 
for the cap. The sealing surface must be clean. 

8. Look for large amounts of dirt in the radiator 
core and on the engine. 



TESTING THE COOLING SYSTEM 

Remember that temperature and pressure work 
together. When making a diagnosis of a cooling 
system problem, temperature and pressure must 
both be checked. Cooling system pressure will have 



an effect on cooling system temperatures. For an 
example, look at the chart to see the effect of pres- 
sure and the height above sea level on the boiling 
point (steam) of water. 



COOLING SYSTEM PRESSURE 



A28417-1XI 



ALTITUDE 

FEET METERS 






2 

Id 


4 
25 


6 8 
40 55 


10 12 
70 85 


14 PSI 

9S kPa 




\ 


\ 


\ 


\ * 


v\^ 


\ 






N 


s \ 


^ Ns 


\ 


\\ 


\\ 








\ 


\, ^ 


\ \ 


\^ 


\\ 




6,000 I BOO 




\ 


\ 


\/ 


\\ 


\\\ 








\ ^ 


. \. 


\\ 


\v 




2.000 600 
SEA LEVEL 






\^ 


\^ 


v\ 


\V 


\ 






\ 


^\ 


\\ 


\\ 


w 



FAHRENHEIT 
CENTIGRADE 



BOILING POINT OF WATER 

Checking Coolant Temperatures 

Tools Needed: 9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group. 

The 9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group is 
used in the diagnosis of overheating (engine running 
too hot) or overcooling (engine running too cool) 
problems. This group can be used to check the differ- 
ent parts of the cooling system. The complete testing 
procedure is in Special Instruction Form No. 
SMHS7140. 




9S9102 THERMISTOR THERMOMETER GROUP 



15 



COOLING SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



The locations for making the temperature checks 
with probe are listed below: 




Fig. 1 Fig. 2 

(Typical Illustration) 

Fig. 1. Ambient (air temperature away from the macliine 
and not in direct sunliglit). 

Fig. 2. Top tanl( (in a pipe plug location in the top tank of 
the radiator and in the housing for the regulators or in the 
water manifold). 



ilJ~ 



Fig. 3 
(Typical Illustration) 




Fig. 4 
(Typical Illustration) 



Fig. 3. Bottom tank (in the drain outlet for the radiator or 
the pipe plug location in the lower elbow of the radiator). 

Fig. 4. Torque converter (in a pipe plug location of the oil 
outlet for the torque converter). 



PROBE LOCATIONS 


TEMPERATURES 


PROBLEM 


CHECK FOR 


Top Tank (Fig. 2) and 


Maximum 110"F (61 "C) difference. 


Overheating 


Wrong Gear Selection. 




Ambient (Fig. 1) 






Radiator Core with Restriction to Air Flow. 
Bent Radiator Fins. 
Low Fan Speed. 
Damaged Fan Guard. 
Wrong Blade Position. 




Top Tank (Fig. 2) and 


Maximum 15° F (9° C) difference. 


Not enough 


Defect in Water Pump. 




Bottom Tank (Fig. 3) 




Water Flow/ 


Collapsed Hoses. 

Restriction in Radiator Core Tubes. 

Low Coolant Level. 




Top Tank (Fig. 2) and 


Under normal conditions, temperature 




Wrong Gear Selection. 




Torque Converter 


difference maximum 40° F ( 22° C). 




Engine Operated with too Great a Load. 




Oil Outlet (Fig. 41 


At stall conditions, normal temperature 


Overheating 


Leakage Inside Torque Converter. 






of torque converter oil 270 F (132'C) 




Low Oil Flow From Torque Converter to Coo 


er. 




for any extended period of time. 








Top Tank (Fig. 2) and 


Maximum 2°F (1"C) difference with 


Overcooling 


Temperature Regulator will not Close. 




Regulator Housing (Fig. 2) 


regulators open. 


Overheating 


Regulator Seals Leaking. 

Coolant Flow Past the Regulator Flange. 

Low Ambient Temperature with Light Loads. 

Temperature Regulators will not Open. 





Be sure the probe is installed in the liquid of the system being tested. 

CAUTION 
Do not tighten the probe to more than 30 lb. ft. (40 N-m) torque. 

Check temperatures in the locations listed in the chart and make a comparison of these temperatures. Look at 
the chart to see if these comparisons are within the range in the chart. Make the needed checks if the 
temperatures are not within the ranges. 

NOTE: To get the correct reading make a measurement of the temperatures during working conditions. 



116 



COOLING SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



Checking Radiator Air Flow 
Tools Needed: 9S7373 Air Meter Group. 

The 9S7373 Air Meter Group is used to check the 
air flow through the radiator core. Overheating can 
be caused by installing the wrong fan guard, low fan 
speed, or a restriction in the radiator core (clogging). 
The meter will give aid in finding a restriction in the 
core. The testing procedure and the correct readings 
are in Special Instruction Form No. SMHS7063. 



Ml BHI'II.I.MR 




13671X1 




^V^'jv 



9S7373 AIR METER GROUP 



A WARIMIIMG 



When mai(ing the checks fasten the transmis- 
sion in neutral, put the parking brakes on and 
lower all equipment. Make all checks at engine 
LOW IDLE and on the side of the radiator oppo- 
site the fan. Wear eye protection. 




CHECKING AIR FLOW IN CROSS AND 

DIAGONAL LINES 

(Typical Illustration) 

Take readings in a cross and diagonal pattern. 
Make a comparison of the readings in each line the 
same distance from the center of the fan. Permit 
differences for restrictions such as guards, braces 
and engine components which will cause a change in 
the rate of air flow. 

NOTE: All readings are taken at engine LOW 
IDLE. 




AIR FLOW 
(Typical Illustration) 

1. Fan hub area. 2. Fan blade area. 3. Area outside fan 
blade. 



I 

I iz4etx 




INSPECTING RADIATOR CORE FOR RESTRICTION 
(Typical illustration) 

If the readings are not within the ranges, stop the 
engine, put a strong light behind the core and inspect 
for a restriction. If the restriction is from dirt remove 
by steam cleaning. If the restriction is from bent fins 
use 2H1822 Radiator Fin Comb to make the fins 
straight. 

Checking Fan Speed 

Tools Needed: 1P5500 Portable Phototach Group. 

If the radiator core does not have a restriction, 
check the fan speed with the 1 P5500 Portable Photo- 
tach Group. The complete testing procedure is in 
Special Instruction Form No. SMHS7015. 




1P5500 PORTABLE PHOTOTACH GROUP 



17 



COOLING SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



Pressure Cap 

One cause for a pressure loss in the cooling system 
can be a bad seal on the pressure cap of the system. 
Inspect the pressure cap carefully. Look for damage 
to the seal or the sealing surface. Any foreign mater- 
ial or deposits on the cap, seal or sealing surface must 
be removed. 

To check the pressure cap for the pressure that 
makes the pressure cap open, use the following 
procedure: 

1 . Remove the pressure cap from the radiator. 




m)oo(m(X)</mmyxmmmA 



SCHEMATIC OF PRESSURE CAP 
A. Sealing surface of cap and radiator. 



2. Put the pressure cap on the 9S8140 Cooling 
System Pressurizing Pump Group. 

3. Look at the gauge for the exact pressure that 
makes the pressure cap open. 

4. Make a comparison of the reading on the gauge 
with the correct pressure at which the pressure 
cap must open. 

NOTE: The correct pressure that makes the pressure 
cap open is on the pressure cap and is also in the 
SPECIFICATIONS. 

5. If the pressure cap is bad, install a new pressure 
cap. 



Testing Radiator and Cooling System for Leaks 

To test the radiator and cooling system for leaks, 
use the procedure that follows: 



A WARNIIMG 



A WARIMIIUG 



Always stop the engine to inspect the cooling 
system. Loosen the pressure cap to the first 
stop and let the pressure out of the cooling 
system, then remove the pressure cap. Hot 
coolant and steam can cause personal injury. 
Let coolant become cool before it is drained. 



Always stop the engine to inspect the cooling 
system. Loosen the pressure cap to the first 
stop and let the pressure out of the cooling 
system, then remove the pressure cap. Hot 
coolant and steam can cause personal injury. 
Let coolant become cool before it is drained. 




9S8140 COOLING SYSTEM PRESSURING 
PUMP GROUP 



1. Remove the pressure cap from the radiator. 

2. Make sure the coolant is over the top of the 
radiator core. 

3. Put the 9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing 
Pump Group on the radiator. 

4. Get the pressure reading on the gauge to 3 psi 
(20 kPa) more than the pressure on the pressure 
cap. 

5. Check the radiator for outside leakage. 

6. Check all connections and hoses of the cooling 
system for outside leakage. 

7. If you do not see any outside leakage and the 
pressure reading on the gauge is still the same 
after 5 minutes, the radiator and cooling system 
does not have leakage. If the reading on the 
gauge goes down and you do not see any outside 
leakage, there is leakage on the inside of the 
cooling system. Make repairs as necessary. 



118 



COOLING SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



Filler Cap and Pressure Relief Valve 

The 9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump 
Group is used to test pressure relief valves and to 
pressure check the cooling system for leaks. 




9S8140 COOLING SYSTEM PRESSURIZING 

PUMP GROUP 

A. Release valve. B. Adapter. C. Hose. 

One cause for a pressure loss in the cooling system 
can be a bad seal on the radiator filler cap (2). 




TYPICAL PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE SYSTEM 

1. Pressure relief valve. 2. Radiator filler cap. 3. Pressure 
test plug. 



A WARIMIIMG 



If the engine has been running and the coolant 
is hot, loosen the filler cap slowly and let the 
pressure out of the cooling system, then re- 
move the filler cap. 

Inspect the filler cap carefully. Look for damage to 
the seal or to the surface that seals. Any foreign 
material or deposits on the cap, seal or surface that 
seals, must be removed. 

Use the procedure that follows to pressure check 
the cooling system: 

1. Make sure the coolant level is above the top of 
the radiator core. 

2. Install and tighten the filler cap. 

'3. Remove hose (C) from adapter (B). 



4. Remove the pressure test plug (3) from the ra- 
diator top tank. 

5. Install the end of hose (C) in the hole for the 
pressure test plug (3). 

6. Operate the pump until the pointer on the 
pressure gauge no longer increases. The highest 
pressure indication on the gauge is the point 
that the relief valve opens. The correct pres- 
sure that makes the relief valve open is 14 to 18 
psi(95 to 125 kPa). 

7. If the relief valve does not open within pressure 
specification, replacement of the relief valve is 
necessary. 

8. If the relief valve is within specifications, check 
the radiator for outside leakage. 

9. Check all connections and hoses for the cooling 
system for outside leakage. 

10. If you do not see any outside leakage and the 
pressure reading on the gauge is still the same 
after 5 minutes, the radiator and cooling system 
does not have leakage. If the reading on the 
gauge goes down and you do not see any outside 
leakage, there is leakage on the inside of the 
cooling system. Make repairs as necessary. 



A WARNING 



If a pressure indication is shown on the gauge, 
be sure to push release valve (A) to release ail 
pressure in the system before removal of hose 
(C) from radiator. 



11. Remove hose (C) from radiator test pressure 
location. 

12. Install plug in pressure test location. 



Gauge for Water Temperature 

Tools Needed: 9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer 

Group or 

2F7112 Thermometer and 6B5072 

Bushing. 



If the engine gets too hot and a loss of coolant is a 
problem, a pressure loss in the cooling system could 
be the cause. If the gauge for water temperature 
shows that the engine is getting too hot, look for 
coolant leakage. If a place can not be found where 
there is coolant leakage, check the accuracy of the 
gauge for water temperature. Use the 9S9102 Ther- 
mistor Thermometer Group or the 2F7 1 1 2 Thermo- 
meter and 6B5072 Bushing. 



119 



COOLING SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 




THERMOMETER INSTALLED 
1. 2F7112 Thermometer. 



A WARMING 



To help prevent an accident caused by parts in 
rotation, work carefully around an engine that 
has been started. 




THERMISTOR THERMOMETER GROUP INSTALLED 
(Typical Example) 

2. 9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group. 



For Gauges with Color Temperature Ranges 

Install the test thermometer. Get the coolant 
temperature at the test temperature (C) according 
to the test thermometer. The pointer of the gauge 
on the instrument panel must be on the tolerance 
mark (TT). 



POrNTER 
POSITION 



TEST READING 
TEMPERATURE 



227 TO 235 



108 TO 113 




453S2-3XI 



POINTER 
POSITION 


TEST THERMOMETER 
TEMPERATURE READING 


1 


F." 


C. 


/^^ormaTS^ 

T93180-2X1 


1 


209 TO 217 


98. 2 TO 102, 8 



POINTER 
POSITION 


TEST THERMOMETER 
TEMPERATURE READING 


1 

\\VvArEM^rEMp/y 

45352-2X1 


F. 


C. 


1 


219 TO 227 


103. 8 TO 108. 2 



For Direct Reading Gauges 

Install the test thermometer. Get the coolant 
temperature at 200° F according to the test ther- 
mometer. The centerline of the pointer of the gauge 
on the instrument panel must be .030 in. (0.76 mm) 
or less on either side of the centerline for the 200° 
mark. 

Water Temperature Regulators 

1. Remove the regulator from the engine. 

2. Heat water in a pan until the temperature is 
correct for opening the regulator according to 
the chart. Move the water around in the pan to 
make it all be the same temperature. 

3. Hang the regulator in the pan of water. The 
regulator must be belowthesurfaceof the water 
and it must be away from the sides and bottom 
of the pan. 

4. Keep the water at the correct temperature for 
10 minutes. 

5. Remove the regulator from the water. Im- 
mediately make a measurement of the distance 
the regulator is open. 

6. If the regulator is open to a distance less than 
given in the chart, install a new regulator. 



WATER TEMPERATURE REGULATORS 


Part No. 


Minimum 
Open Distance 


Temperature 




in. 


mm 


°F 


°C 


7N208 


.375 


9.53 


195' 


90' 


9S3808 
4H1991 


.310 


7.87 


185 


85 



120 



COOLING SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



V-BELT TENSION CHART 


BELT SIZE 


WIDTH 
BELT TOP 


WIDTH TOP 

OF PULLEY 

GROOVE 


BELT TENSION 
"INITIAL"* 


BELT TENSION 
"USED"" 


BORROUGHS GAUGE NUMBERS 


GAUGE READING 


GAUGE READING 


In. 


mm 


in. 


mm 


lb. 


N 


lb. 


N 


OLD GAUGE NO. 


NEW GAUGE NO. 


3/8 


.422 


10.72 


.380 


9.65 


100 ± 5 


445 ± 22 


90 ± 5 


400 ± 22 


BT-33-73F 


BT-33-95 


1/2 


.547 


13.89 


.500 


12.70 


120 ± 5 


534 ± 22 


90 ± 10 


400 ± 44 


BT-33-96-4-16 


BT-33-95 


5V 


.625 


15.88 


.600 


15.24 


120 ± 5 


534 ± 22 


90 ± 10 


400 ± 44 


BT-33-72-4-15 


BT-33-72C 


11/16 


.688 


17,48 


.625 


15.88 


120 ± 5 


534 ± 22 


90 ± 10 


400 ± 44 


BT-33-72-4-15 


BT-33-72C 


3/4 


.750 


19.05 


.690 


17.53 


120 ± 5 


534 ±22 


90 ± 10 


400 ± 44 


BT-33-72-4-15 


BT-33-72C 


15/16 


.938 


23.83 


.878 


22.30 


120 ± 5 


534 ± 22 


90 ± 10 


400 ± 44 


BT-33-72-4-15 


BT-33-72C 


MEASURE TENSION OF BELT FARTHEST FROM THE ENGINE 


•"INITIAL' BELT TENSION is for a new belt. 

■•"USED " BELT TENSION is for a belt which has more than 30 minutes of operation at rated speed of engine. A1 0232X5 



I 



121 



BASIC BLOCK 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



BASIC BLOCK 



PISTON RING GROOVE GAUGE 

(Pistons That Use Keystone Rings) 

Make reference to GUIDELINE FOR REUSA- 
BLE PARTS; PISTONS AND CYLINDER 
LINERS, Form No. SEBF8001. 

The 5P4812 KEYSTONE PISTON RING 
GAUGE GROUP is necessary for measuring these 
grooves. Put the pin end of gauge "2" in the groove at 
four places around the circumference. Do this to both 
grooves. The flat edge of the gauge must be between 
the grooves. If there is clearance between the flat 
edge of the gauge and the piston at all test locations, 
for both grooves, the piston is reusable. If the flat 
edge is in contact with the piston, at any of the test 
locations, the piston is not reusable. Install a new 
piston. 




SP4812 KEYSTONE PISTON 
RING GROOVE GAUGE GROUP 

(Pistons With Straight Sides 
in Ring Grooves) 

A 5P3519 Piston Ring Groove Gauge is available 
for checking ring grooves with straight sides. For 
instructions on the use of the gauge, see the GUIDE- 
LINE FOR REUSABLE PARTS; PISTONS AND 
CYLINDER LINERS, Form No. SEBF8001. 




CONNECTING RODS AND PISTONS 

Use the 7S9470 Piston Ring Expander to remove 
or install piston rings. 

Use the 5P3525 Piston Ring Compressor to install 
pistons into cylinder block. 

Tighten the connecting rod bolts in the following 
step sequence: 

1. Put engine oil on threads. 

2. Tighten both nuts to 30 ± 3 lb. ft. (40 ± 4 N-m). 

3. Put a mark on each nut and cap. 

4. Tighten each nut 90° from the mark. 

The connecting rod bearings should fit tightly in 
the bore in the rod. If bearing joints or backs are 
worn (fretted), check for bore size as this is an indica- 
tion of wear because of looseness. 

CONNECTING ROD AND MAIN BEARINGS 

Bearings are available with. 010 in. (0.25 mm), 
.020 in. (0.51 mm) and .030 in. (0.76 mm) smaller 
inside diameter than the original size bearings. These 
bearings are for crankshafts that have been 
"ground" (made smaller) than the original size. 

CYLINDER LINER PROJECTION 

(Counterbored Block) 

Tools Needed: 1P2394 Adapter Plate. 
Two 3H465 Plates. 

Crossbar (trom 8B7548 Push-Puller). 
Two 5/8"— 11 NC bolts, 5.5 in. (140 mm) 
long. 

Two 4B4281 Washers. 
1P5S10 Liner Projection Tool Group. 




CHECKING LINER PROJECTION 

1. Bolts (two). 2. Crossbar. 3. 4B4281 Washers (two). 4. 
1P2394 Adapter Plate. 5. 3H465 Plates (two). 



PISTON RING GROOVE GAUGE 



122 



BASIC BLOCK 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



Check liner height projection as follows: 



Make sure that the bore in block and the cyl- 
inder liner flange are clean. 

Put adapter plate (4) on top the cylinder liner. 
Put crossbar (2) on the adapter plate. Using 
bolts (1), washers (3) and plates (5), install the 
crossbar to the cylinder block as shown. Tighten 
bolts ( 1) in four steps to: 5 lb. ft. (7 Nm), 1 5 lb. 
ft.-(20 Nm), 25 lb. ft. (35 Nm) and then to 50 
lb. ft. (70 Nm). Distance from bottom edge of 
crossbar, to top of cylinder block, must be the 
same on both sides of the cylinder liner. 




ZEROING INDICATOR 
6. 1P2402Biock. MP2403 Diallndicator. 8. 1P5507Gauge. 

3. Put the dial indicator (7) on zero using the back 
of gauge (8) with the dial indicator (7) installed 
in block (6). 

4. Use a 1P5510 Liner Projection Tool Group to 
get a measurement of liner projection. Special 
Instruction Form No. SMHS7727 is with the 
tool. 

5. Make a measurement of the cylinder liner 
projection in at least four locations around the 
cylinder liner. Projection must be within .0020 
to .0056 in. (0.051 to 0.142 mm) and the four 
measurements should not vary more than .002 
in. (0.05 mm). The average projection between 
adjacent cylinders must not vary more than .002 
in. (0.05 mm). The average projection of all 
cylinder liners under one head must not vary 
more than .003 in. (0.08 mm). 

NOTE: if liner projection changes from point to 
point around the liner, turn the liner to a new position 
within the bore. If still not within spcifications, move 
liner to a different bore. 



NOTE: When liner projection is correct, put a tem- 
porary mark on the liner and top plate so when seals 
and band are installed, the liner can be installed in 
the correct position. 

6. Use the 8S3140 Counterboring Tool Arrange- 
ment to machine the contact face on block if 
needed. Special Instruction Form No. 
FM055228 gives an explanation of the use of the 
8S3140 Counterboring Tool Arrangement. 

ADJUSTMENT SHIMS FOR LINER PROJECTION 



SHIM THICKNESS, COLOR CODE, AND PART NUMBER 


.007 in. 
(0.18 mm) 


.008 in. 
(0.20 mm) 


.009 m. 
(0.23 mm) 


.015 in. 
(0.38 mm) 


.030 in. 
(0.76 mm) 


BLACK 


RED 


GREEN 


BROWN 


BLUE 


886045 


8S6046 


8S6047 


8S6048 


8S6049 



CYLINDER LINER PROJECTION 
(Spacer Plate Block) 

Tools Needed: 

1P5510 Liner Projection Tool Group 

1P2403 Dial Indicator 

1P5512 Contact Point .88 in. (22.4 mm) long 

1P2402 Gauge Body 

1P5507 Gauge 
1P2394 Adapter Plate 
8B7548 Push-Puller (crossbar only) 
3H465 Plates (2) 

S1589 Bolt 5/8—11 NC— 1.75 in. (44.5 mm) long 
1S379 Washer (copper) 

1D4595 Bolt 5/8—11 NC— 6.00 (152.4 mm) long 
2S736 Washer 

The correct cylinder liner projection is important 
to prevent a leak between the liner, cylinder head and 
block. Check cylinder liner projection above the 
spacer plate as follows: 

1. Be sure that the surfaces of the cylinder block, 
cylinder liner and the spacer plate are clean. 

2. Install the spacer plate gasket and spacer plate 
(4) on the cylinder block. Use SI 589 Bolts (1) 
with two 1 S379 Washers on each bolt to hold the 
spacer plate to the cylinder block. Put two bolts 
with washers on each side of the opening for the 
cylinder liner. Tighten the bolts evenly, in four 
steps; 10 lb. ft. (14 Nm), 25 lb. ft. (35 Nm), 50 
lb. ft. (70 Nm), and 70 lb. ft. (95 Nm). 

NOTE: To keep from moving bolts and washers as 
each liner is checked install two bolts with washers on 
each side of each cylinder liner, along the complete 
length of the spacer plate. 



123 



BASIC BLOCK 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



3. Install the cylinder liner without seals in the 
cylinder block. Put adapter plate (7) on the cyl- 
inder liner as shown. Install crossbar (2) with 
1D4595 Bolts (3), and 2S736 Washers, and 
3H465 Plates (5) as shown. Tighten the bolts 
evenly, in four steps; 5 lb. ft (7 N-m), 15 lb. ft. 
(20 N-m), 25 lb. ft. (35 N-m), and 50 lb. ft. (70 
N-m). The measurement from the bottom of 
crossbar (2) to the spacer plate, must be the 
same on both sides of the cylinder liner. 

4. Install the 1 P55 1 2 Contact Point on dial indica- 
tor (6). Put the dial indicator in the 1P2402 
Gauge Body. To adjust the dial indicator to zero, 
put dial indicator and gauge body on the 1 P5507 
Gauge. Move the dial indicator until the hand 
moves 1 /4 turn. Tighten boll on body to hold the 
dial indicator in this position. Turn the dial face 
until the zero is in alignment with the hand. 



5. 



Measure the cylinder liner projection as close as 
possible to the four corners of the adapter plate 
on the liner. The liner projection must be .00 1 3 
to .0069 in. (0.033 to 0. 175 mm). The difference 
between the four measurements must not be 
more than .002 in. (0.05 mm). The difference in 
the average cylinder liner projection of liners 
next to each other must not be more than .002 
in. (0.05 mm). The difference between the av- 
erage projection of all cylinder liners under one 
head must not be more than .003 in. (0.08 mm). 



A87917X1 




&—,' 



NOTE: If the liner projection changes from point to 
point around the liner, turn the liner to a new position 
in the bore. If the liner projection is still not to 
specifications, move the liner to a different bore. 

6. When the cylinder liner projection is correct, put 
a temporary mark on the liner and the spacer 
plate so at final installation the liner can be 
installed in the correct position. 

Cylinder liner projection can be adjusted by the 
removal of material from (machining) the contact 
face of the cylinder block with the use of 8S3140 
Cylinder Block Counterboring Tool Arrangement. 
The instructions for the use of the tool group are in 
Special Instruction Form No. FM055228. 

CYLINDER BLOCK 

The bore in the block for main bearings can be 
checked with the main bearing caps installed without 
bearings. Tighten the nuts holding the caps to the 
torque shown in the SPECIFICATIONS. Align- 
ment error in the bores must not be more than .003 
in. (0.08 mm). Special Instruction Form No. 
SMHS7606 gives instructions for the use of 1P4000 
Line Boring Tool Group for making alignment in the 
main bearing bores. 1 P3537 Dial Bore Gauge Group 
can be lised to check the size of the bores. Special 
Instruction Form No. GMG0098 1 is with the group. 




MEASURING CYLINDER LINER PROJECTION 

1. S1589 Bolt with two 1S379 Washers. 2. Crossbar. 3. 
1D4595 Bolt. 4. Spacer plate. 5. 3H465 Plates. 6. 1P2403 
Dial Indicator. 7. 1P2394 Adapter Plate. 



1P3537 DIAL BORE GAUGE GROUP 

FLYWHEEL AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING 

Installing Ring Gear 

Heat the ring gear to install it. Do not heat to more 
than 600° F (315°C). install the ring gear so the 
chamfer on the gear teeth are next to the starter 
pinion when the flywheel is installed. 

Face Runout (axial eccentricity) 
of the Flywheel Housing 

Tools Needed: 8S2328 Dial Indicator Group. 



124 



BASIC BLOCK 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



If any method other than given here is used, al- 
ways remember bearing clearances must be removed 
to get correct measurements. 

1 . Fasten a dial indicator to the crankshaft flange 
so the anvil of the indicator will touch the face of 
the flywheel housing. 




3. 



8S2328 DIAL INDICATOR GROUP INSTALLED 

Put a force on the crankshaft toward the rear 
before reading the indicator at each point. 

With dial indicator set at .000 in. (0.0 mm) at 
location (A), turn the crankshaft and read the 
indicator at locations (B), (C) and (D). 



mum permissible face run out (axial eccentri- 
city) of the flywheel housing. 



Bore Runout (radial eccentricity) 
of the Flywheel Housing 




1. 



8S2328 DIAL INDICATOR GROUP INSTALLED 

With the dial indicator in position at (C), adjust 
the dial indicator to "0" (zero). Push the crank- 
shaft up against the top bearing. Write the mea- 
surement for bearing clearance on line 1 in col- 
umn (C). 



TOP 




NOTE: Write the dial indicator measurements 
with their positive ( + ) and negative ( — ) nota- 
tion (signs). This notation is necessary for 
making the calculations in the chart correctly. 

C (TOP) 



CHECKING FACE RUNOUT OF THE 
FLYWHEEL HOUSING 

A. Bottom. B. Right side. C. Top. D. Left side. 

4. The difference between lower and higher mea- 
surements taken at all four points must not be 
more than .0 1 2 in. (0.30 mm), which is the maxi- 




A (BOTTOM) 

CHECKING BORE RUNOUT OF THE 
FLYWHEEL HOUSING 



125 



BASIC BLOCK 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



CHART FOR DIAL INDICATOR MEASUREMENTS 




Position of 
dial indicator 




Line 
No. 


A 


B 


C 


D 


Correction for bearing clearance 


1 











Dial Indicator Reading 


II 











Total of Line 1 & 2 


III 





«« 


♦ 


•* 


•Total Vertical eccentricity (out of round). 
**Subtract the smaller No. from the larger No. The difference is 
the total horizontal eccentricity. 

A1 0234X1 



9. On the graph for total eccentricity find the point 
of intersection of the lines for vertical eccentri- 
city and horizontal eccentricity. 

1 0. If the point of intersection is in the range marked 
"Acceptable" the bore is in alignment. If the 
point of intersection is in the range marked "Not 
Acceptable" the flywheel housing must be 
changed. 



2. Divide the measurement from Step 1 by 2. Write 
this number on line 1 in columns (B) & (D). 

3. Turn the crankshaft to put the dial indicator at 
(A). Adjust the dial indicator to "0" (zero). 

4. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the 
dial indicator at (B). Write the measurement in 
the chart. 

5. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the 
dial indicator at (C). Write the measurement in 
the chart. 

6. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the 
dial indicator at (D). Write the measurement in 
the chart. 

7. Add lines I & II by columns. 

8. Subtract the smaller number from the larger 
number in line III in columns (B) & (D). The 
result is the horizontal "eccentricity" (out of 
round). Line III, column (C) is the vertical 
eccentricity. 




Face Runout (axial eccentricity) 
of the Flywheel 

1 . Install the dial indicator as shown. Put a force on 
the crankshaft the same way before the indicator 
is read to be sure the crankshaft end clearance 
(movement) is always removed. 

2. Set the dial indicator to read .000 in. (0.0 mm). 

3. Turn the flywheel and read the indicator every 
90°. 

4. The difference between the lower and higher 
measurements taken at all four points must not 
be more than .006 in. (0.15 mm), which is the 
maximum permissible face runout (axial eccen- 
tricity) of the flywheel. 



1.002 1.004 J .006 1.008 1.010 1.012 in 

(0.051 (O.IOI (D.15I 10.201 (0.251 (0.301 mm 



GRAPH FOR TOTAL ECCENTRICITY 




CHECKING FACE RUNOUT OF THE FLYWHEEL 



126 



BASIC BLOCK 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



Bore Runout (radial eccentricity) 
of the Flywheel 

1. Install the dial indicator (3) and make an adjust- 
ment of the universal attachment (4) so it makes 
contact as shown. 

2. Set the dial indicator to read .000 in. (0.0 mm). 

3. Turn the flywheel and read the indicator every 
90°. 




CHECKING BORE RUNOUT OF THE FLYWHEEL 

1. 7H1945 Holding Rod. 2. 7H1645 Holding Rod. 3. 7H1942 
Indicator. 4. 7H1940 Universal Attachment 




CHECKING FLYWHEEL CLUTCH 
PILOT BEARING BORE 

The difference between the lower and higher 
mesurements taken at all four points must not be 
more than .006 in. (0.15 mm), which is the maxi- 
mum permissible bore runout (radial eccentri- 
city) of the flywheel. 

Runout (eccentricity) of the bore for the pilot 
bearing for the flywheel clutch, must not exceed 
.005 in. (0.13 mm). 



OIL PUMP IMSTALLATION 

The oil pump can be removed for inspection and 
service without removing the timing gear cover. 
With the cover in place, timing marks are not easy 
to see. Therefore, time both balancer shafts, with 
respect to No. 1 piston at TC or compression 
stroke, in the following steps. 

1. Rotate the crankshaft to bring No. 1 piston to 
TC on compression stroke. 

2. Drive dowel (7) back so it is flush with 
mounting face of oil pump mounting bracket. 

3. Rotate both balancer shafts so the flat portion 
is away from the oil pan plate. Install bolts (6) 
so they enter in countersunk holes in balancer 
shafts and limit shaft movement. 'Vhe bolts 
should not be tight against the shaft counter- 
sunk hole bottom. 

4. Position oil pump on bottom of engine block 
and install the mounting bolts loosely. 

5. Install shims if necessary, between pump 
mounting pads and cylinder block to adjust 
backlash to .002 to .006 in. (0.05 to 0.15 mm) 
between gear (4) and (5) and between gears 
(2) and (3). 

6. Drive dowel (7) back in place, through mount- 
ing bracket and into cylinder block. Tighten 
the mounting bolts. 

7. Remove bolts (6) and check to see that the 
countersunk holes are aligned with holes in oil 
pan plate when No. 1 cylinder is in TC 
position . 

Timing mark alignment information shown in 
the SPECIFICATIONS is to be used when the 
timing gear cover is removed. 




OIL PUMP INSTALLATION 
(Typical Example) 

1. Right side balancer shaft. 2. Right side balancer shaft 
gear. 3. Idler gear. 4. Oil pump drive gear. 5. Left side 
balancer shaft gear. 6. Bolt. 7. Dowel. 



127 



FLEXIBLE DRIVE COUPLING 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



FLEXIBLE DRIVE COUPLING 



CHECKING FLEXIBLE DRIVE 
COUPLING ALIGNMENT 

Position engine in mounting location within the 
...ain frame. Check for correct engine-to- 
transmission alignment as follows: 



mai 



1 . Remove the torque converter input flange. 

2. Fasten a 7H1942 Indicator (with a 7H1940 
Universal Attachment) to the torque converter 
input shaft using a 7H1948 Snug, 7H1945 
Holding Rod, 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) diameter rod 3 
in. (76.2 mm) long and a 1J9778 Hose Clamp. 

3. Zero the indicator on the outside diameter of 
engine output flange as illustrated. Take an 
indicator reading every 90° while rotating the 
torque converter input shaft one complete 
turn. 




CHECKING VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT 
(Viewed from left side of machine). 

Total indicator reading must not exceed .080 in. (2.03 mm). 
Correct any misalignment by adding or removing shims under 
engine rear supports. 



4. Remove the 7H1940 Universal Attachment. 
Position the anvil of the dial indicator between 
the bolt holes and the outside diameter of 
engine output flange as illustrated. 




CHECKING FACE ALIGNMENT 
(Viewed from left side of machine). 

Total indicator reading must not exceed .026 in. (0.66 mm). 
Move front of engine as necessary to obtain correct dimen- 
sion. 



5. Zero the dial indicator. Take an indicator 
reading every 90° while rotating the torque 
converter input shaft one complete turn. 

6. Recheck both settings and adjust if necessary. 
When alignment is correct, tighten engine 
mounting bolts according to the specifications 
for the machine in ENGINE MOUNTING 
BOLTS in specifications. 



Misalignment 

If it is necessary to shift the engine from one 
side to the other in the frame, loosen the hold- 
down bolts and shift the engine accordingly. 

If the holes for the hold-down bolts are en- 
larged, dowels should be installed to hold the 
engine in the proper location after it is bolted 
down. 

Extreme misalignment is probably the result of 
bent main frame channels. They should be straight- 
ened. Extreme wear in the engine front support 
will also cause misalignment. 



128 



ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 



Most of the tests of the electrical system can be 
done on the engine. The wiring insulation must be in 
good condition, the wire and cable connections must 
be clean and tight, and the battery must be fully 
charged. If the on engine test shows a defect in a 
component, remove the component for more testing. 

The service manual TESTING AND ADJUST- 
ING ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS, Form No. 
REG00636 has complete specifications and proce- 
dures for the components of the starting circuit and 
the charging circuit. 

BATTERY 

Tools Needed: 5P300 Electrical Tester. 
931990 or 1P7400 Battery Charger Tester. 
5P957 or 5P3414 Coolant and Battery Tester. 

NOTE: Make reference to Special Instruction Form 
No. SEHS7006 and to the instructions inside of the 
cover of the tester, when testing with the 5P300 
Electrical Tester. 



A WARMING 



Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or 
battery circuit cable from battery when the 
charging unit is operated. A spark can cause an 
explosion from the flammable vapor mixture of 
hydrogen and oxygen that is released from the 
electrolyte through the battery outlets. Injury to 
personnel can be the result. 



The battery circuit is an electrical load on the 
charging unit. The load is variable because of the 
condition of the charge in the battery. Damage to the 
charging unit will result, if the connections, (either 
positive or negative) between the battery and charg- 
ing unit are broken while the charging unit is charg- 
ing. This is because the battery load is lost and there 

is an increase in charging voltage. High voltage will 
damage, not only the charging unit but also the 
regulator and other electrical components. 

Load test a battery that does not hold a charge 
when in use. To do this, put a resistance across the 
main connections (terminals) of the battery. For a 
6,8 or 1 2V battery, use a test load of three times the 
ampere/ hour rating (the maximum test load on any 
battery is 500 amperes). Let the test load remove 
the charge (discharge) of the battery for 15 seconds 
and, with the test load still applied, test the battery 



voltage. A 6V battery in good condition will show 
4.5V; an 8V battery will show 6V; a 12V battery 
will show 9V. Each cell of a battery in good con- 
dition must show L6V on cither a 6. 8 or 12V 
battery. 

Make reference to Special Instruction Form No. 
SEHS6891 when checking the battery with a 
9S1990 or 1P7400 Battery Charger-Testers. 




9S1990 BATTERY CHARGER TESTER 

CHARGING SYSTEM 

Tools Needed: 5P300 Electrical Tester. 

NOTE: Make reference to Special Instruction Form 
No. SEHS7006 and to the instructions inside of the 
cover of the tester, when testing with the 5P300 
Electrical Tester. 

The condition of charge in the battery at each 
regular inspection will show if the charging system is 
operating correctly. An adjustment is necessary 
when the battery is constantly in a low condition of 
charge or a large amount of water is needed (more 
than one ounce of water per cell per week or per every 
50 service hours). 

Make a test of the charging unit and voltage reg- 
ulator on the engine, when possible, using wiring and 
components that are a permanent part of the system. 
Off the engine (bench) testing will give a test of the 
charging unit and voltage regulator operation. This 
testing will give an indication of needed repair. After 
repairs are made, again make a test to give proof that 
the units are repaired to their original operating 
condition. 

Before starting the on engine testing, the charging 
system and battery must be checked as given in the 
Steps below. 

1 . Battery must be at least 75% ( 1 .240 Sp. Gr.) full 
charged and held tightly in place. The battery 
holder must not put too much stress on the 
battery. 



129 



ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



2. Cables between the battery, starter and engine 
ground must be the correct size. Wires and ca- 
bles must be free of corrosion and have cable 
support clamps to prevent stress on battery con- 
nections (terminals). 

3. Leads, junctions, switches and panel instru- 
ments that have direct relation to the charging 
circuit must give correct circuit control. 

4. Inspect the drive components for the charging 
unit to be sure they are free of grease and oil and 
have the ability to operate the charging unit. 

Alternator Regulator (Delco-Remy) 

When an alternator is charging the battery too 
much or not enough, an adjustment can be made to 
the charging rate of the alternator. 

Earlier Delco-Remy 24V 50A (5S9088 Alternator) 

Remove the plug from the cover of the alternator 
regulator and turn the inside adjustment with a 
screwdriver. Turn the adjustment one or two notches 
to change the alternator charging rate. 

Later Delco-Remy 24V 50A (5S9088 Alternator) 

The later 5S9088 Alternator has a different loca- 
tion for the voltage adjustment screw than the early 
5S9088 Alternator. The voltage adjustment screw 
for the later 5S9088 Alternator is located under the 
end plate. 

To adjust the voltge setting on these alternators, 
use the procedure that follows: 

1. Remove end plate (2) and cover (3) from the 
alternator. 




2. Remove the rubber sealant from the adjustment 
screw (4). 

3. Use a voltmeter to measure alternator voltage 
output. 

4. Turn adjustment screw (4) counterclockwise to 
lower the vohage setting. Turn adjustment screw 
(4) clockwise to raise the voltage setting. 



HP 






A54937XI 




'^ 


^^H m^~ 





^- 



LOCATION OF COVER 
3. Cover. 



5. Put 3S6252 Rubber Sealant on adjustment 
screw (4) and install cover (3) and end plate (2). 



CAUTION 

Make certain that field wire (5) is not located 
over transistor pins (6). The pins can make a 
hole in the insulation of the wire. 




5S9088 ALTERNATOR 

1. Adjustment screw under plug (earlier regulator). 2. End 
plate. 



ALTERNATOR REGULATOR 

4. Voltage adjustment screw. 5. Field wire. 6. Tt-ansistor 
pins. 



130 



ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



Delco-Remy 24V 35A (6N9294 Alternator) 

No adjustment can be made to change the rate of 
charge on this alternator regulator. If rate of charge 
is not correct, a replacement is necessary. 




ALTERNATOR 



Cap Type 



When the alternator is either charging the bat- 
tery too much or not enough, an adjustment can 
be made to the alternator charging rate. To make 
an adjustment to the voltage output, remove the 
voltage adjustment cap (1) from the alternator, 
turn the cap 90°, and install it again into the alter- 
nator. The voltage adjustment cap has four posi- 
tions: HI, LO, and two positions between the high 
and the low setting. 




Alternator Regulator (Prestolite) 

The regulator components are sealed in an insula- 
tion of epoxy. The regulator is an electronic compo- 
nent with no moving parts (solid slate) and has an 
adjustment screw (1) on the back. This voltage ad- 
justment screw is used to meet different operating 
needs at different times of the year. An increase or 
decrease by .5 volts from the normal (N) setting is 
made by removing the regulator and changing the 
position of the adjustment screw and washer. An 
increase to the voltage will be made by moving the 
screw and washer to the "H" position (2). 




ALTERNATOR REGULATOR 

1. Adjustment screw. 2. High output position. 3. Green 
wire to field terminal of alternator. 4. Low output posi- 
tion. 5. Orange wire to field supply terminal. 



Delco-Remy Alternator; Pulley Nut Tightening 

Tighten nut holding the pulley to a torque of 75 ± 
5 lb. ft. (100 ± 7 Nm) with the tools shown. 




ALTERNATOR REGULATOR ADJUSTMENT 
1. Voltage adjustment cap. 



ALTERNATOR PULLEY INSTALLATION 

1. 8S1588 Adapter (1/2" female to 3/8" male). 2. 8S1590 
Socket (5/16" with 3/8" drive). 3. 1P2977 Tool Group. 
8H8555 Socket (15/18" with 1/2" drive) not shown. 



131 



ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



Generator Regulator 

When a generator is either overcharging or is not 
charging enough, a generator regulator tester can 
be used to determine whether the voltage regulator 
control, or the current limiter control, or both, 
require adjustment. To obtain an accurate test, the 
regulator cover must not be removed and the 
regulator must be ^farmed to operating tempera- 
ture. 

The voltage regulator and the current limiter 
controls in Delco-Remy regulators have spring 
tension adjustment screws. The Paris-Rhone con- 
trol uses a spring tension adjustment stop. To 
increase generator voltage or current, increase the 
spring tension on the respective control. Decrease 
spring tension to decrease generator output. After 
a regulator has been adjusted always test the 
generator output with the regulator cover installed. 




(Delco-Ramy) (Paris-Rh6ne) 

GENERATOR OUTPUT ADJUSTMENTS 

1. Spring. 2. Stop (adjust by bending stop). 3. Points. 

STARTING SYSTEM 

Tools Needed: 5P300 Electrical Tester 

NOTE: Make reference to Special Instruction Form 
No. SEHS7006 and to the instructions inside the 
cover of the tester, when testing with the 5P300 
Electrical Tester. 

Use a D.C. Voltmeter to find the starting system 
components which do not function. 

Put the DISCONNECT SWITCH in the ON 
position. 

Move the starting control switch to activate the 
starter solenoid. Starter solenoid operation can be 
heard as the pinion of the starter motor is engaged 
with the ring gear on the engine flywheel. 

If the solenoid for the starter motor will not oper- 
ate, it is possible that the current from the battery is 
not getting to the solenoid. Fasten one lead of the 
voltmeter to the connection (terminal) for the bat- 
tery cable on the solenoid. Put the other lead to a 
good ground. No voltmeter reading shows there is a 



broken circuit from the battery. More testing is 
necessary when there is a reading on the voltmeter. 



The solenoid operation also closes the electric cir- 
cuit to the motor. Connect one lead of the voltmeter 
to the solenoid connection (terminal) that is fastened 
to the motor. Put the other lead to a good ground. 
Activate the starter solenoid and look at the volt- 
meter. A reading of battery voltage shows the prob- 
lem is in the motor. The motor must be removed for 
further testing. No reading on the voltmeter shows 
that the solenoid contacts do not close. This is an 
indication of the need for repair to the solenoid or an 
adjustment to be made to the starter pinion 
clearance. 

Make a test by fastening one voltmeter lead to the 
connection (terminal) for the small wire at the solen- 
oid and the other lead to the ground. Look at the 
voltmeter and activate the starter solenoid. A volt- 
meter reading shows that the problem is in the solen- 
oid. No voltmeter reading shows that the problem is 
in the heat-start switch or wiring. 

Fasten one voltmeter lead to the heat-start switch 
at the connection (terminal) for the wire from the 
battery. Fasten the other lead to a good ground. No 
voltmeter reading indicates a broken circuit from the 
battery. Make a check of the circuit breaker and 
wiring. If there is voltmeter reading, the malfunction 
is in the heat-start switch or in the wiring. 

Fasten one lead of the voltmeter to the battery wire 
connection of the starter switch and put the other 
lead to a good ground. A voltmeter reading indicates 
a failure in the switch. 

A starter motor that operates too slow can have an 
overload because of too much friction in the engine 
being started. Slow operation of the starter motor 
can also be caused by shorts, loose connections 
and/or dirt in the motor. 

Pinion Clearance Adjustment (Prestolite) 

There are two adjustments on this type motor. 
Armature end play and pinion position. 

Armature End Play 

Adjust to .005 to .030 in. (0.13 to 0.76 mm) by 
adding or removing thrust washers on the commuta- 
tor end of the armature shaft. 

Pinion Position 

This adjustment is accomplished in two steps. 



132 



ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 




CONNECTIONS FOR ADJUSTING 
THE PINION POSITION 

1. Jumper lead flashing point. 



1 . To adjust the pinion distance, connect the solen- 
oid to a 12 volt battery as shown. 

Momentarily flash the jumper lead from the mo- 
tor terminal stud of the solenoid to the terminal stud 
at ( 1 ) in the commutator end head to shift the solen- 
oid and drive into the cranking position. 

Remove the jumper lead. 

NOTE: The drive will rema-in in the cranking posi- 
tion until the battery is disconnected. 

Push the drive toward the commutator end of the 
motor to eliminate any slack movement in the link- 
age and measure the distance between the outside 
edge of the drive sleeve and the thrust washer. The 
distance (3) must be .02 to .05 in. (0.51 to 1.27 mm). 

Adjust to this dimension by turning the adjusting 
nut (2) in or out as required. 



2. To test assembly of solenoid, it will be necessary 
to have an interference block cut to the dimen- 
sions shown. 



.50" 
(12.7 MM)" 



.9844" 
(25,003 MM) 



1.250" 
(31,75 MM) 



1.250" 
(31,75 MM) 



1.50" ^ 

* (38,1 MM) 

^ 1.00" [t* 
(25,4 MM) I 



.250" 
(6,35 MM) 



T 

.750" 
(19,05 MM) 



2.50" 
(63,5 MM) 



T 

.750" 
(19,05 MM) 

i 



INTERFERENCE BLOCK DIMENSIONS 

Connect the solenoid to 24 volts as shown. 

Position the .9844 in. (25.003 mm) side of the 
interference block against the pinion as shown and 
close the switch in the battery circuit. 

With the switch closed and the .9844 in. (25.003 
mm) side of the interference block in place, the test 
light must not light. Make sure the interference 
block is against the drive gear and not against the 
drive sleeve. 



X77a(l 




CONNECTIONS FOR TESTING SOLENOID 

4. Solenoid motor terminal. 5. Solenoid control switch ter- 
minal. 6. 12V Test lamp. 7. Switch. 




X 767-B 



PINION POSITION ADJUSTMENT 
2. Adjusting nut. 3. Distance. 



CAUTION 

Due to the amount of current being passed 
through the solenoid series winding, these 
tests should be made as brief as possible. 



if the test light lights, the solenoid has been assem- 
bled wrong. Remove the cover from the solenoid and 
check the contact component assembly. If the test 
light does not light, connect a carbon pile between 
the switch and battery and voltmeter to the terminals 
(4) and (5). 



133 



ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 



TESTING AND ADJUSTING 



Position the .50 in. ( 1 2.7 mm) side of the interfer- 
ence bloctc against the drive gear and adjust the 
voltage with the carbon pile. The test light must light 
before 16 volt reading. If the test light does not light, 
turn the adjusting nut (2) out until the light comes 
on. After all adjustments have been made, replace 
the plug and washer in the shift linkage cover. 




X767-IX) 



INTERFERENCE BLOCK IN POSITION 
8. Interference block. 



Pinion Clearance Adjustment (Delco-Remy) 
(Paris-Rh6ne) 



Whenever the solenoid is installed, the pinion 
clearance should be adjusted. The adjustment should 
be made with the starter motor removed. 




1. Install the solenoid without connector (I ) from 
the MOTOR terminal on solenoid to the motor. 

2. Connect a battery, of the same voltage as the 
solenoid, to the terminal (2), marked SW. 

3. Connect the other side of battery to ground ter- 
minal (3). 

4. MOMENTARILY Hash a jumper wire from 
the solenoid terminal marked MOTOR to the 
ground terminal. The pinion will shift into 
cranking position and will remain there until the 
battery is disconnected. 

5. Push pinion towards commutator end to elimin- 
ate free movement. 

6. Pinion clearance (6) should be .36 in. (9.1 
mm) for Delco-Remy motors and .039 ± .02 
in. (1.0 ± 0.5 mm) for Paris-Rhone. 




PINION CLEARANCE ADJUSTMENT 
(Delco-Remy) 

4. Shaft nut. 5. Pinion. 6. Pinion clearance. 




CONNECTIONS FOR CHECKING PINION CLEARANCE 

1. Connector from MOTOR terminal on solenoid to mo- 
tor. 2. SW terminal. 3. Ground terminal. 



PINION CLEARANCE ADJUSTMENT 
(Paris-Rhone) 

4. Shaft end. 5. Pinion. 6. Pinion clearance. 



Bench test and adjust the pinion clearance at in- 
stallation of solenoid as follows: 



7. Adjust clearance by removing plug and turning 
shaft nut (4). 



134 



CATERPILLAR® 



SENR7591-01 Printed in U.S.A (10/81)