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Full text of "CBRN, March 2-3, 2010"

CBRN APPROVAL INTERPRETATIONS 



Personal Protective Technology Program Stakeholder Meeting 

Session 4 
Terrence K. Cloonan 

March 3,2010 



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OVERVIEW 



•Advocacy of use 

• Excluded workers 

• Federal synergy 

• Model comparison 

• Interpretations 

• Pathways to compliance 
•Assistance sources 




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ADVOCACY of USE 

Strong user support in private & 
public sector workplaces 

What is the criteria for approved or 
functional use of a CBRN respirator? 

Industrial respirator selection logic 
precedence exists 

"CBRN selection logic" standards? 

Lack of standards lead to user 
misinterpretations? Un-intentional 
nonconformance use? Intentional 
nonconformance adaptation? 

Can a NIOSH national respiratory 
protection program (RPP) training 
standard enhance correct NIOSH 
approved configuration use? 




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EXCLUDED WORKERS 



• Federal OSHA regulations 
apply to private workplaces 

• Public workers (responders) 
are excluded in several states 

• Exclusion: Result is a lack of 
common safety standards? 

• Partial or no RPP policies 

• Onus is placed on local 
jurisdiction to devise adequate 
occupational safety policies 

• OSHA requires use of NIOSH- 
certified respirators 

• NFPA 1981 requires CBRN 




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FEDERAL PRECEDENCE 



OSHA 29 CFR 1910.120 - HAZWOPER 

OSHA 29 CFR 1910.134 - Respiratory Protection 

OSHA 29 CFR 1910.146 - Confined Space 

OSHA 29 CFR 1910.156 - Fire Brigade 

OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1025 - Lead 

EPA 40 CFR 311 - Worker Protection 

DOD US Army, AR 11- 34, The Army RPP 

DHHS PHS CDC NIOSH/MSHA 42 CFR 84 - RPD 

OSHA/NIOSH CBRN PPE Selection Matrix Guidance 

FDA, ORA Laboratory Manual, Vol. Ill, Sectl, EH&S 





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FEDERAL SYNERGY DRIVES COMPLIANCY 



DHS 

OSHA 

NIST 

DOD 

EPA 

NIJ 

DOJ 

USSS 

ATF 




National Institute of 
Standards and technology 



EDGEWOOD 

CHEMICAL BIOLOGICAL CENTER 
^ A U.S. Army RDECOM Laboratory 




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HOW do USERS DETERMINE COMPLIANCY? 

NOT REQUIRED: Lowest level of trained user does not 
assess compliancy. It is not a requirement to perform 
work. Told to train, don, use, survive, and maintain. 

REACTIVE: Question current compliancy only after a loss 
time injury or LODD 




FREE MARKET: Rely on specifications 
of a competitive bid marketing process 

GRANTS: Compliancy is pre-determined by local 
jurisdiction or grant funded purchase criteria 



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• RPP: Federal/State written respiratory protection program 

• LOCAL: Best practices, SOP, SOG, Insurance policy, etc. 



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COMPARISON to DETERMINE COMPLIANCY 



Model #1: 

NIOSH CBRN SCBA/NFPA 1981: 1997 ed. 

Model # 2: 

NIOSH CBRN SCBA/NFPA 1981: 2002 ed. 

Model # 3: 

NIOSH CBRN SCBA/NFPA 1981: 2002 ed. 

Model # 4: 

NIOSH CBRN SCBA-APR-PAPR 

NFPA 1981: 2007 edition 




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RECOGNITION and USE of CBRN SCBA 

1) Locate the labels: How do you know you have a federally compliant NIOSH- 
approved CBRN respirator? 

2) Verify authenticity of labels: If it is NIOSH-approved CBRN, how do you 
recognize CBRN protection? Can you tell the difference between NIOSH, 
NFPA, and manufacturer markings? Are the 1997, 2002, & 2007 NFPA 1981 
labels alike? Are any of the decal labels counterfeit? Do the labels have 
watermarks, copyrighted logos, or other trademarks to prevent replication? 
Are they permanently affixed? What if there are no labels? 

3) Know the User Instructions (Ul): Now thatyou know you have a NIOSH- 
compliantCBRN SCBA, whatare its use limitations? Read and use the Ul. Is 
the cylinder compliant to DOT requirements? What is its production date ? 
Has the respirator been "flow tested" per approval holder/NFPA 
requirements? What indicates that the respirator has been flow tested? What 
fittest & fit factor are specified in the Ul? What if there is no Ul available? 

4) Know the NIOSH limitations: Apply the NIOSH cautions & limitation 
statements and manufacturer special instructions. What if there is no RPP? 

5) Use: IAW OSHA/NIOSH interpretations, NFPA consensus, &TBD NIJ letters 



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WHY NFPA 1981 EDITION is KEY 

NFPA standard is updated every 5 years 

NIOSH standard published in 2001 using a three tier 
NIOSH-NFPA-NIOSH Special CWA-LRPL SCBA 
evaluation, testing, and certification process 

NIOSH CBRN SCBA approved model was compliant to 
the NFPA 1981 standard: 1997 edition, May 31, 2002 

Progressive NFPA 1981 editions produce progressive 
technical performance requirements every 5 years 

NIOSH CBRN protection was voluntary under NFPA 
1981: editions 1997 and 2002. Required in 2007 edition 

In the field, NIOSH & NFPA require the use of specific 
manufacturer designed adhesive labels to demonstrate 
systems evaluation compliancy 



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MODEL # 1: 1997 EDITION CBRN SCBA with 
INTEGRATED REMOVABLE PASS 

2 sets of SCBA Hardware - Same make and NFPA edition 

One functional. One non-functional. Both non-compliant 

Both models are NIOSH-approved, NFPA certified, but not 
NFPA or DOT compliant 

One is missing a cylinder 

Other has all subcomponents but is "Out of Hydro" 

Functional SCBA has recognizable and valid labels 

Non-functional SCBA shows signs of forced label removal 

User must find Ul for NIOSH CBRN "Q, R, T, & U" clauses 

Recognition in the field is "decal" label dependent 



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MODEL #2: 2002 Edition CBRN SCBA with 

HUD and RIT/UAC 

Model 2 is a functional SCBA: has all subcomponents 

All quality assurance adhesive labels are present. One is 
slightly unreadable. All are gray in color 

CDC/NIOSH logoed "CBRN Agent Approved" label visible 

HHS/NIOSH logoed"13F backframe/harness" label is 
visible. Indicates NIOSH first tier of "industrial" approval 

Cylinder missing DOT requalification hydrostatic stamp 

User must find Ul to know NIOSH CBRN "Q, R, T, & U" 

Multiple colors, styles, and sizes of "stickers" on different 
NFPA and non-NFPA models of CBRN & non-CBRN SCBA 



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MODEL #3: 2002 EDITION CBRN SCBA with 
AIRHATCH REGULATOR, HUD, & RIT/UAC 

• Significant amount of 2002 edition CBRN SCBA in field 

• Common edition for applying CBRN SCBA upgrade kit 

• Model # 3 is NIOSH-approved with CBRN Protections 
(OC/PD/CBRN), NFPA certified, DOT compliant, and has a 
NFPA annual flow-test passing grade data report 

• Cylinder band must be removed to see "Hydro-Stamp" 

• Numerous manufacturer unique "CBRN" markings on 
case, harness, and facepiece. Red color font indicators 

• Ul and "POSI-CHEK3" data present. NIOSH paper CBRN 
approval label insert is missing. Monthly maintenance 
checks are not recorded 



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MODEL #4: 2007 EDITION "MODE-of-USE" 
CBRN SCBA with NIOSH CBRN PAPR or APR 

• Three sets of respiratory protective device hardware. 3 Ul 

• One make of facepiece with integrated but distinct 
pressure-demand & negative air-pressure boundaries 

• Carries independent NIOSH-approvals for each class of 
CBRN respirator technology when correctly placed into 
operation by a trained user. Check cylinder production 
date DOT hydrostatic re-qualification is not due 

• NFPA 1981:2007 edition certified for CBRN SCBA mode- 
of-use configuration only. "CBRN Agent Approved" label 

• Industrial 13F backframe label is now a 13F CBRN 
backframe/harness label: shows "Q, R, T, & U" statements 



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MISREPRESENTATIONS OF APPROVAL 

X +Y^XY, = Z 

• Case # 1: Southern States, 2009. Impact: Law Enforcement 

-Field deployed non-CBRN SCBA +"CBRN Hardened" parts 
added = Intentional nonconformance. No approved upgrade kit 

• Case # 2: Midwest States, 2009. Users impacted: Fire Service 

-Field deployed non-CBRN SCBA +NFPA 1981:2002 upgrade kit 
+ NIOSH-approved CBRN upgrade (RETROFIT) kit without 
CBRN Agent Approved (Retrofit) adhesive label applied = 
Conforming configuration. Nonconforming quality assurance 

• Case # 3: North East, 2009. Impact: All trained users 

-CBRN SCBA withl3F CBRN backframe label but without NIOSH 
"CBRN Agent Approved" adhesive label = Conforming configuration. 

Nonconforming QA. Unintentional nonconformance/Misuse of label 



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MISINTERPRETATIONS of CBRN APPROVALS 



• Case # 4: North East, 2009. Agency impacted: All users 

- CBRN SCBA + inspection upon receipt is missing the NIOSH 
CBRN paper matrix label, commonly located in the Ul = 
Nonconforming QA configuration 

- Unintentional nonconformance 

• Case # 5: North East, 2005. Agency impacted: Fire Service 

- NIOSH-approved industrial APR + NIOSH-approved industrial 
canister tested to MILS PEC CWA for use in WMD response = 

ncorrect configuration for use in CBRN environments 



- Intentional nonconformance. Purchase was prior to 2003. 



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APPLYING RESEARCH TO PRACTICE 

CBRN Respirator In-Use Life: CBRN SCBA contaminated 
with liquid chemical warfare agent (CWA) + 7 hours of 
continuous use = Use has exceeded NIOSH limitation "U". 
U = "The respirator should not be used beyond 6 hours 
after initial exposure to chemical warfare agents to avoid 
possibility of agent permeation/' 

Re-Use: CBRN APR contaminated with liquid CWA for 2 
hours are then "decontaminated" and same respirator 
facepiece is reused in a CBRN decontamination corridor = 
Re-use action violates NIOSH C&L "T" and "UU". No more 
than 2 hours of continuous use. Dispose of the respirator 
after decontamination. 



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INTEROPERABILITY and FUNCTIONAL USE 



• SCBA: Hardware "X" with cylinder "Y" = XY respirator 

• Ensembles: CBRN respirator with NFPA C/B ensemble 

• APR: CBRN APR facepiece "X" used with CBRN Cap 1 
Canister "Y" = Voided approval for respirator system 
"X". NIOSH recognized "functional" for CBRN crisis-use 
of respirator "XY" 

- Common connector. Emergency/crisis situation use only 

- Shortage of model "X" canisters but overage of "Y" canisters 

- NIOSH CBRN APR standard allows interoperability between 
different NIOSH CBRN facepieces and different NIOSH CBRN 
like canister media, provided all components are NIOSH- 
approved CBRN protected to the existing NIOSH standard 



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OBSERVATIONS of NON-EVALUATED USE 

• # 1: NIOSH conforming facepiece + non-NIOSH (MILSPEC) 
SCBA respirator = stakeholder unique driven use. 
Nonconforming configuration. Non-evaluated use. 

• # 2: NIOSH-approved CBRN SCBA + only medium size 
facepieces in use = Reliance on OC/PD CBRN protections 
of SCBA. TIL testing needed to assess anthropometrics. 

• # 3: NIOSH-approved facepiece for facial protection against 
paint-ball projectiles = non-evaluated use 

• # 4: Military unique Ul for use of NIOSH CBRN SCBA 

• # 5: Military "Take Three Deep Breaths - Hold Third Breath" 
technique to change a NIOSH CBRN APR canister 

• # 6: SCBA air-pressure boundary changes between modes- 
of-use respirator technologies in IDLH concentrations 



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NON-EVALUATED USE: CBRN APR & PAPR 



Canister change-out schedule development and use 

Lot number on contingency canisters is expired 

Faceblank is creased. Visor is discolored and distorted 

Training canister used in a real-time response 

PAPR air-flow meter is not used, broken, or missing 

Industrial PAPR canisters mounted on CBRN PAPR 

Incorrect battery use. Reduced PAPR power source 

Facepiece "X" is used on blower "Y" creating a 
non-approved configuration 

CBRN APR/PAPR used for IDLH entry 




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INTERPRETATION by LOCAL J URISDICTION 



• NIOSH "circa 1976" metal 13F Harness Label on SCBA 

-Used for fire fighting. NotNFPA 1981/1982 compliant 

• Non-CBRN SCBA NFPA 1981:1997 or 2002 models 

- Parts not available from manufacturer for legacy edition 
maintenance 

- Upgrade to NFPA 1981/1982: 2007 edition standards 
-Apply NIOSH-CBRN SCBA Upgrade (retrofit) Kit 

• NIOSH-approvals may be void if: gj 

- Introduction of non-approved part, or used beyond limitations 

- Cylinder not hydrostatically re-qualified. Respirator not flow 
tested annually per manufacturer Ul. Users are not medically 
evaluated or fit tested per NIOSH-recognized manufacturer U 




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PATHWAYS to COMPLIANCE 



Precedence: Know workplace specific standards 

RPP: Use OSHA 3352-02, 2009. Train and appoint a 
full time administrator and respirator technician 

Approvals: Use NIOSH CEL, FEMA RKB, & SEI 

Postures: Read NIOSH Publication No. 2008-132 

Foundation: Harmonize NFPA 472 & HAZWOPER 

CBRN: Evaluate/assess & define all expected uses 

Logic: Know OSHA/NIOSH CBRN PPE Selection Matrix 

Training: Apply NFPA 1404 standard: 2006 edition 
Decon: Adapt niosh/osha/uscg/epa Pub No. 85-115 



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ASSISTANCE SOURCES 



Commonwealth or State public portals 
State Department of Labor or equivalent 
State fire or law enforcement Training Academies 
OSHA State Plan offices 



OSHA Area offices 

OSHA Consultation Project sites 

OSHA RPP inspection procedures: 

http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show document?p table=DIRECTIVES&p id=2275 

NIOSH NPPTL Pittsburgh: 

http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npptl/default.html 

NIOSH Respirator Trusted Source webpage 

http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npptl/topics/respirators/disp part/RespSource.html 





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DISCLAIMER : The findings and conclusions in this 
presentation have not been formally disseminated by the National 
Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and should 
not be construed to represent any agency determination or policy. 
M ention of any respirator or personal protective equipment 
company, product, pol i cy or the i ncl usi on of any stakehol der 
reference does not constitute endorsement by N I OSH . 



Author: 

Terrence K. Cloonan 
tcloonan@cdc.gov 

(412) 386-6701 



National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory 

NIOSH 

P.O Box 18070 

Pittsburgh, PA 15236 

(412)386-6736 

www.cdc/qov/niosh/npptl 



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PURCHASING RESPIRATORS 



Bid Spec: NIOSH-approved industrial • NIOSH-approved CBRN. Know 
the difference and ask for a recognition demonstration. 

Purchase Standard: When state and local employees are excluded 
from federal oversight, what is the "standard" fire and police 
department PPE purchasers rely on to specify health and safety 
specifications for respirators? DHS, NIJ, FEMA RKB, NFPA, others? 

Want NIOSH CBRN SCBA for SWAT? Resistance to heat and flame is 
one of the technical requirements of a CBRN SCBA approval. Require 
NIJ or NFPA 1981 specs be adapted for tactical use. Do not request 
"NIOSH CBRN Hardened" parts be added, in lieu of NFPA, to make a 
"NIOSH CBRN Tactical SCBA". Relying on the integration of NIOSH- 
recognized CBRN individual parts could result in purchasing and 
using a respirator that is in a NIOSH non-approved configuration. 

Replacement Parts: When replacement parts are needed, contact the 
respirator manufacturer. Other suppliers claim to have like parts but 
using these parts void the NIOSH approval for the respirator in use. 



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SAMPLES of PUBLISHED RPP 



• Law Enforcement - State of Illinois: 

http://www.ileas.org/respirators/labor issues/matrix.pdf 

• Fire Service - State of Michigan: 

http://www.michiqan.gov/documents/cis wsh cet5731 90303 7.doc 

• Health Care Worker - State of Vermont: 

http://www.healthvermont.gov/hc/ems/documents/ModelN95respprotectproqram090619.doc 

• Private sector- Washington State (WISHA) 

http://www.lni.wa.gov/safety/basics/Programs/Accident/Samples/RespProtectguide2.doc 

• Insurance Fund - State of California: 

http://www.scif.com/safetv/losscontrol/Article.asp?ArticlelD=541 

• Private sector - EPA: 

http://www.epa.gov/dfe/pubs/auto/respirator/rpp.pdf 




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