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Full text of "Chandogya Upanishad with Shankara Bhashya - English Translation Part 2"

THE 

Gbba'nbogga 
UPANISHAD 

AND 
SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 

TRANSLATED BY 

GANGA'NA'TH JHA,' M.A.. F.T.S. 



PUBLISHED BY 



V. C. SESHACHARRJ, B.A., EX., M.R.A.S. 
Vakil, High Court, Madras 



FOURTH VOLUME 



>BAS 
THE INDIA PRINTING WORKS 

1923 




(fa*-** /f * 



Dr. ANNIE BESANT. 
President, Theosophical Society, Adyar, Madras, S. 



Hbe Gbba'nboa^a 



SECOND PART, 



CONTENTS. 



PBEEAOE 

Fifth Adhya'ya 

Sixth ., 

Seventh 

Eighth 



Page. 

1 

. 221 



PBEFAOE. 



THE encouragement which the first three 
volumes of this series have received at the hands 
of the public and the request of many of my friends 
to have the second part of the ChMndogya 
publised as soon as possible hare induced me to 
get the present volume through the pre^s within a 
short space of time. 

I am glad I am in a position to announce that 
the translation of the Brihad&ranyaka Upanishad 
which was in the hands of Pandit Ganga Nath Jh& 
has been completed and it will shortly be issued in 

parts* 



> Madbas, 1 
May, 1023 J 



Y. C. SESHACHABRI, 

Publisher, 



Wot <Cbba*nbo0\>a IHpattisbab 



ADHYA'YA V. 



KHANDA I. 

% % % ^i ^m^M 3%sr r %%^ mm wit 

He who knows the oldest and the best becomes 
the oldest and best. Breath indeed is the oldest 
and the best. (1) 

Com. — The northern way of the philosophy of 
the conditioned Brahman has been explained. 
Now, in the fifth Adhyaya, after having explained 
the same way, with regard to the knowers of the 
Five Fires, and to such house-holders and celibates 
as are devotional in their nature and endowed with 
other sciences, — what is to be described is another 
way, the Southern, characterised by " Smoke '' and 
the rest, which belongs to those who perform 
sacrifices alone, and which is in the shape of 
frequent returns, a way of metempsychosis, much 
harder than the previous one. Such explanation, 
being for the purpose of creating dispassion in the 
minds of men, is now begun. " Breath is the best,** 



2 THE CHHA'NDOG-YA UPANISHAB 

among speech '&c. This Breath has been fre- 
quently mentioned in the foregoing sections : 
"Breath is Samvurga" &c, &c. "But how is 
Breath the best among Speech &c, when the cha- 
racter of functioning conjointly belongs equally to 
all of them ; and whence follows its meditation ?" 
In order to establish the fact of Breath being the 
best, the present section is begun. Any one, who 
knows that which is the oldest in age, and the 
best in quality, becomes the oldest and the best. 
Having attracted the listener by mentioning the 
result, the text lays drwn that "Breath is the 
oldest " in age, among speech and the rest ; 
because, while the child is in the womb, the Breath 
attains its functioning stage, before speech and 
the rest, and it is by this prior functioning of the 
Breath that the foetus grows; while it is only 
after' the organs of sight &c, have been developed 
in the foetus, that speech &c«, begin to function ; 
hence, Breath becomes the oldest in age. The fact 
of Breath being the best will be explained by the 
instance of the Suhaya (horse) &c„ &c. Hence, in 
this aggregate of causes and effects, Breath is the 
oldest and best. 

*ft § % ^^5 ^ 3I%ST £ ^Flf *ftfa ^RR 3fe 

II ^ II 

He who knows the richest, becomes the 
richest of all his own. Speech is the richest (2) 

Com. — "One who knows the richest" — i.e., the 
best coverer, the most endowed with wealth — 
himself being the richest among all his own 
relations. It is explained what the richest is : 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 3 

• * 

^'Speech is the richest," — since eloquent persons 
suppress others, they are the most endowed with 
wealth ; and hence speech is the richest. 

^rspk %fmt if \ I! 

He who knows firmness, becomes firm in this 
world and also in the other. The eye is firmness (3) 

Com. — He who knows firmness, becomes firm 
in this world, and also in the other. It is explained 
what firmness is : "The Eye is firmness" — inas- 
much as it is only by seeing with the Eye, that 
one remains firm on even as well as on rough 
ground ; the Eye is firmness. 

*fr i[% ^^ ^ h-ftf^ ww- ^?ph "W«* m*tpnm 
m to *ro 1! s II 

One who knows prosperity, — all his desires 
prosper, both divine and human. The Ear is 
prosperity. (4) 

Com,* — One who knows prosperity, — all his 
divine and human desires prosper. It is explained 
what this prosperity is : "The Ear is prosperity," 
— since it is by the Ear that the Vedas are heard, 
and their meaning understood, whereby, sacrifices 
are performed, whence proceed all desirable 
things ; therefore, the Ear being the means of the 
prosperity of desires, it is iirosperity. 

sn^cFR II <\ II 

One who knows the home becomes the home 
of his people. Mind is the home. (5) 



4 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

• » 

Com. — One who knows the home becomes the 
home, i.e., the support — of all his people. It is 
explained what the home is :—"Mind is the home," 
—since mind is the substratum of the objects,™ 
cognised by the senses for the sake of the person, 
in the shape of perceptions ; therefore, mind is said 
to be the home, or substratum. 

qsftft I! \ II 

Now, the five senses quarrelled together, as to 
who was the best — saying 'I am better'. '1 am 
better.' (6) 

Com. — Now, the senses, described above with 
their qualities, quarrelled together — every one of 
them saying ' I am better,' ' I am better,' and thus 
contradicting one another. 

$rg |fcf ii vs ii 

The senses having gone to Prajdpati, their 
father, said to him : ' Sir, who is the best amongst 
us' ? He said to them : ' He on whose departure, 
the body looks the worst, that amongst you is the 
best.' (7) 

Com. — Thus quarrelling among themselves? 
and desiring to decide as to who among them was 
the best, they went over to fheir progenitor, 
Prajdpati, and asked him : "Who among us is the 
best in quality?" The father replied: "from 
amongst you, he, on whose departure, this body 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 5 

looks the worst,— even though living, yet appear- 
ing like dead, and looking worse than a corpse, 
unclean and untouchable— that amongst you is the 
best." He replied in this round about way 5 in order 
to avoid giving pain to any of them. 

€ ^ IU II 

The Speech went forth ; and having stayed 
away for a year, it came back and asked : ' How 
have you been able to live without me V ' Just like 
the dumb not speaking, but breathing with the 
breath, seeing with the eye, hearing with the ear, 
and thinking with the mind.' Speech entered. (8) 

Cow.—- Having been thus addressed by their 
Father, from among the senses, speech went forth; 
and having stayed away for a year, — i.e., ceased to 
exercise its function, — and then having comeback 
asked the other senses : "How were you able to 
hold your own during my absence ?" They replied: 
"just as the dumb &c— ue., just as in the ordinary 
world, the mute, not speaking with speech, live all 
the same. In what way does he live ? '*' Breathing 
with the breath, seeing with the eye, hearing with 
the ear, and thinking with the mind,"— just per- 
forming the functions of all the other senses. In 
the same manner, did we manage to live, Having 
thus realised the fact of itself not being the best 
among the senses, Speech entered into the body i.e. 
began to exercise its function. 



6 THE CHHA'NDOG-YA UPANISHAD 

TpftW^ ws^n 3tm^' smr- m^ ^% 

II p . II 

sierras ^mft wm q^TRr^ ^ws# 

II MI 



The Eye went forth ; and having stayed away 
for a year, it came back, and asked : ' How have 
you been able to live without me ? ' ' Just like the 
blind, not seeing, breathing with the breath, speak- 
ing with the speech, hearing with the ear, and 
thinking with the mind.' The Eye entered. (9) 

The Ear went forth ; and having stayed away 
for a year, it came back and asked : ' How have 
you been able to live without me ? '. ' Just like 
the deaf, not hearing, breathing with the breath, 
speaking with the speech, seeing with the eye, and 
thinking with the mind.' The Ear entered- (10) 

The Mind went forth; and having stayed 
away for a year, it came back and asked : ' How 
have you been able to live without me ?'. ' Just as 
children, without mind, breathing with the breath, 
speaking with the speech, seeing with the eye, and 
hearing with the ear.' The Mind entered. (11) 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 7 

Com^-The rest is similar to what has gone 
befdre. The eye went forth, the ear went forth, 
the mind went forth, &c. &c. &c. " Children with- 
out mind"—ue. % with undeveloped minds. 

Now the Breath, just as going to depart, tore 
up the other senses—just as a spirited horse might 
tear up the pegs to which he is tethered. They 
gathered round him, and said : ' Sir, prosper, you 
are the best of us ; do not depart.' (12) 

Cow?.— When speech &c, had all been ex- 
amined, the Breath in the mouth, just as he was 
going to depart— z'.e., just as he thought of going 
away — did this : just as in the ordinary world, a 
spirited horse, when struck by Mb rider by a whip 
with a -view to test him, might tear up the pegs to 
which he is tethered, — so did Breath tear up the 
other senses, speech and the rest. And these 
senses, having been thrown from their places, 
and not caring to live there, gathered round the 
Breath in the mouth, and said : ' Sir, prosper,' — be 
you our lord— because / you are the best amongst 
us ; and do not depart from this body.' 



8 THE CHHA'KDOGYA UPANISHAD 

Then speech said to him : 'If I am the richest, 
you are the richest.' Then the Eye said to him : 
4 If I am firmness, you are firmness.' (13) 

Then the Ear said to him : 'If I am prosperity, 
you are prosperity '; Then the Mind said to him : 
4 If I am the home, you are the home.' (14) 

Com. — Now speech and the rest, confirming, as 
it were the superiority of Breath, said — just like 
people recognising the authority of the king by 
making presents to him. Speech said: 'If I am 
the richest, you are the richest' — i.e., the property 
of being the richest, which belongs to me, is yours. 
Or, it may mean, that this property is in reality 
your own ; it was through ignorance that I mistook 
it for my own. The same interpretation is appli- 
cable to the cases of the Eye, the Ear and the 
Mind. 

And people do not call them ' speech,' ' eye,' 
4 ear,' or 'mind' ; they call them ' Breath ' for Breath 
is all these. (15) 

Com. — The assertion of the text that the speech 
said so to the breath in the mouth is true ; because s 
in ordinary parlance, the senses are not called 
either 'speech,' or 'eye,' or 'ear/ or 'mind,' but 
'Breath. Because Breath is all these senses ; there- 
fore, what the speech &c, told the Breath was only 
a fact. " "Well, how can this be ?" It is only 
sentient persons that can quarrel among them- 
selves, as to who is the best of them. Nor is it 
possible for the Eye, &c, to speak, without speech*" 



WITH SEI SAWKAEA'S COMMENTABY 9 

« • 
nor is it possible for them to depart from the body; 
then again, to enter in it, go to Brahman, or eulogise 
the Breath. True: but the sentient character of 
speech and the rest is based on Scriptures, inas- 
much as they are presided over by the deities of 
Fire &o. If it be urged that this theory of a 
multiplicity of sentient agencies in a single body 
militates against the nydya doctrine, — we deny 
this ; because, they hold God to be the efficient 
cause (of the body) ; and those that admit such 
a God, also hold that it is always through 
the supervision of God, that any functioning 
is possible, for the internal and external organs, 
mind and the rest. And we too do not hold the 
intelligent deities of Fire &c, to be the inner 
enjoyers (personal agents) ; but as a matter of 
fact, we admit a God, only as supervising over 
these deities, — having in themselves the causes 
and effects, being only different manifestations of 
the single deity of Prdna, and serving only as 
prototypes of the millions of differentiations into 
the Physical, Supernatural, Divine, and the like. 
And this God is without any organs, — as declared 
in such texts as : " without hands and feet, he runs 
and holds, he sees without eyes, and hears with- 
out ears." and the SvetCisvatara reads : " Look upon 
Hiranyagarbha being born" ; " He brought forth 
Hiranyagarbha, first of all" and so forth. We are 
going to explain later on that the Enjoy er is the 
Jiva, connected with the results of actions, and as 
such, differing from the aforesaid God. The 
conversation of speech and the rest is a mere 
assumption, — meant to establish, for the wise, the 



10 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

superiority of Breath, both by means of negative 
and affirmative reasonings. Just as in the world, 
certain persons, quarrelling on the point of the 
superiority among themselves, ask a wise person 
as to who among them is the best,— and being told 
in reply that one who accomplishes such and such 
a task is the best, they go forth and each of them 
tries to fulfil the condition laid down, and thereby 
ascertain the superiority of one amongst them- 
selves; — so, exactly the same process the text has 
applied, by assumption, to the case of speech and 
the rest. The wise one is to ascertain the 
superiority of Breath, on the ground of the fact 
that the body was seen to live, in the absence of 
speech and the rest, while it ceased to live on the 
departure of breath. As says the text of the 
Kaushitaki also : "one lives devoid of the Speech : 
we see the dumb ; one lives devoid of the Eye : we 
see the blind ; one lives devoid of the Ear : we see 
the deaf ; one lives devoid of the Mind : we see the 
children ; one lives when the arm is cut off ; one 
lives when the thigh is cut off," and so forth. 

Thus ends the First Khanda of Adhydya V. 



ADHYATA V. 



KHANDA II. 



He said : ' what shall be my food?'. They 
replied : ' whatever there is, from the dogs to the 
birds'. This is the food of the Breath ; his name is 
distinctly ' Ana.' For one who knows this, there is 
nothing that is not food. (1) 

Com. — The Breath in the mouth said: "what 
shall be my food ?" Having assumed the breath to 
be the questioner, the text assumes the speech and 
the rest to be the repliers ; and the reply given is : 
"whatever is known as food, in this world, includ- 
ing even dogs and birds, that will be your food." 
And in order to show that Breath is the eater, and 
that everything is food for Breath, the text adds 
its own independent testimony, apart from the 
assumed story : whatever food is eaten by living 
beings, in this world, is really of Ana, Breath, i.e., 
all food is eaten by the Breath alone. And in order 
to show that it pervades over activity of all kinds, 
the name of Breath is distinctly " Ana " ; the prefix 
" Pro" only specialising the motion (signified by 
the root ' Ana '). The distinct utterance of the 



12 THE CHHA'NDOGYA TJPANISHAD. 

name "Ana" constitutes an utterance of the 
name of the eater of all foods ; i.e., the name 
" Ana " directly denotes the ' eater of all foods.' 
One who knows this — i.e., knows himself to be 
Breath, as residing in all beings, and as the eater 
of all foods — , for such a one, there is nothing that 
is not eatable ; i.e., for such a knower, everything 
becomes food ; since the knowing Person is Breath 
itself ; — as declared in another text : having begun 
with "It is from Breath that it rises, it is in Breath 
that it sets", it finishes with ' from the knower of 
this does the sun rise, in the knower of this does it 
set.' (1) 

^#fw- <pari iqRsiiifi: qfc^fa <?wpi ^ tot 

He said : 'What shall be my clothing ?. ' They 
said 'water'. Hence, it is that while eating, people 
cover it, both before and after, with water. He 
thus obtains clothing, and is no longer naked. (2) 

Com. — The Breath said again, — the assumption 
being as before : "what shall be my clothing ?". 
Speech &c, replied "water." And because water 
is the clothing of Breath, therefore, when going to 
eat, and also after having eaten, the learned 
Brdhmanas do this. What is it that they do ? 
Before eating, and after having eaten, they cover 
up the Breath with water, as if with cloth. Then 
he becomes capable of being clothed, — i.e., obtains 
clothing, and ceases to be naked. Since the 
absence of nakedness is signified by the mere 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY. 13 

presence of the cloth, the addition of " ceases 
to be naked'' must be taken to mean that he 
also obtains a wrapper. What is meant here 
is that the sipping of water, done before and 
after food, must be simply looked upon as 
being the clothing of Breath ; and the " covering 
by water" is not a third sipping. Because, what is 
meant by the preceding mantra is that whatever 
food is actually eaten by living beings is to be 
looked upon as belonging to the Breath ; so too, 
in the present case, the questions — what will be 
my food, and what will be my clothing — and the 
replies given being exactly similar. Otherwise, if 
the present passage be taken to signify the per- 
forming of an independent sipping — apart from 
what is ordinarily performed, then, in the former 
case too, the food ordained for Breath would come 
to include even such insects &c, as are not 
ordinarily eaten. For, the question and the reply 
in the two cases being exactly similar, and being 
for the sake of knowledge, and as such, the section 
being simply for the sake of knowledge, it can 
never be right to interpret them by halves. There 
is an objection that the ordinary sipping is for the 
sake of preparation—- readiness for food, and as 
such cannot be for the second purpose of clothing 
the Breath. But this objection does not hold : since 
we do not assert the sipping to have both the ends; 
all that we mean is that the water, that is sipped 
for the sake of readiness, is to be looked upon as 
the clothing for Breath—this is what is enjoined 
by the passage ; and as such, the objection to the 
double purpose of the sipping falls to the ground. 



14 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISIJAD. 

If it be urged that it could be so looked upon, only 
if the water were for the purposes of clothing, — we 
deny this ; because in a sentence, which is meant 
to have the sole purpose of knowing the clothing, 
if the meaning be taken to be the laying down of 
an indpendent sipping for the sake of clothing, 
and also the injunction of looking upon it as not 
naked,-— there would be a split of the sentence ; and 
there are no grounds for holding the sipping to 
have both the purposes. 

WETFftfa II \ ll 

Satijakuma Jdbula, having explained this to 
Oosruii the son of Vyaghrapad, said to him: ' if one 
were to tell this to a dry stick, branches should 
shoot forth, and leaves would sprout out from 
it-' (3) 

Com.— -The aforesaid philosophy of Breath is 
eulogised. Batyakuma Jdbdla, having explained 
this philosophy of Breath to Gosruti, the son of 
Vyaghrapad, said to him something else, that 
follows : 'If even to a dry stick, one knowing the 
Breath were to explain this philosophy, from that 
stick would shoot forth branches, and leaves would 
sprout out. "What then would be the result, if it 
were explained to a living man ?" 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY. 15 

« » 

If one desire to reach greatness, then having 
performed the initiatory rite on the Amdvasya and 
on the Paurnamdsi night, having stirred up with 
curd and honey, the mash of all the herbs, he 
should pour 'a libation of ghee into the fire, 
saying ' Svuha to the oldest S Svdhd to the best !' ; 
and then he should throw the remnant into the 
mash. (4) 

Com. — The text now lays down the action of 
mashing, for one who knows the Breath as des- 
cribed above. Now, after this, if one wish to reach 
greatness, then he should perform the following 
action. Greatness is followed by wealth ; and the 
wealthy person possesses treasures ; and these 
treasures are the means of the performance of 
actions, whence becomes possible either the path 
of the Gods or that of the Fathers. And with a 
view to this end, if one desires greatness, he should 
perform this action, which is not for one who 
desires merely a sensuous enjoyment of objects. 
And it is for such a one that the restrictions of 
time &c, are laid down. Having been initiated on 
the Amdvasya night,— i.e., having observed the 
restrictions of sleeping on the ground and per- 
formed the penances of speaking the truth, 
observing strict celibacy and the like. The initia- 
tory rite itself, however, does not make up the 
whole action ; because, the action of mashing does 
not form part of it. From another text — Upasad- 
vrati &c" — one also observes another restriction of 
drinking milk alone. On the Paurnamdsi night, 
he begins the action proper. Having collected all 
sorts of herbs — those found in the villages, as well 



16 THE CHHA'NDOGYA TTPAEISHAD. 

as those in the forests ~, in quantities either large 
or small, he should thrash them, and make them up 
into a pulp, and then having put the pulp into a 
vessel or a cup made of udambara wood — in accord- 
ance with an injunction occurring in another text 
— he should mash it up with curd and honey ; and 
then having placed the whole thing before him, he 
should pronounce " Svdhd to the oldest ; Svdhd to 
the best 1" and pour a libation of ghee into the 
ordinary fire, and throw the remnant, attaching to 
the Sruve, into the mash. 

l^cfr t& wmm^Ri w <\ it 

Saying ' Svdhd to the richest ', he should pour 
a libation of ghee into the fire, and throw the 
remnant into the mash. Saying ' Svdhd to firm- 
ness ', he should pour a libation of ghee into the 
fire, and throw the remnant into the mash, Saying 
* Svdhd to prosperity', he should pour a libation of 
ghee into the fire, and throw the remnant into the 
mash. Saying ' Svdhd to the home', he should pour 
a libation of ghee into the fire, and throw the 
remnant into the mash. (5) 

Coot.— The rest is similar to what has gone 
before. He should throw the remnant after having 
poured the libation, saying, in each case ' Svdhd to 
the Richest, to Firmness, to Prosperity, and to the 
Home \ 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 1?- 

mm^ sr H 1%: Mr T^rsWcf: g- jit ^gq - *' 

fer* ^r^wr^Tc^? w?c£#%^ flTOTtftfcf I! s 11 

Then, moving away, and holding the mash in 
his hand, he recites : "Thou art 'Am a' by name, as 
all this resrs with thee. He is the oldest and best, 
the king and sovereign. May he lead me to the 
oldest age, to the best position, to kingship and 
sovereignty. May I be all this." (6) 

Com.- Then, moving a little away from the 
Fire, and holding the mash in his hand, he recites 
the following Mantra: "Thou art Amu by name"-- 
Ama is the name of Breath ; and inasmuch as 
Breath moves in the body, by means of food, the 
mash, being a food of Breath, is eulogised, as 
being Breath itself : "Thou art Ama by name". 
Why ? Because all this universe rests with thee-, 
in the character of Breath. And the mash, as- 
Breath, is also the oldest and best ; and hence also 7 
" King,"— effulgent, and " Sovereign "-~i.e , one 
who extends his protection to all things. May 
this mash lead me to its own qualities — oldest age 
and the rest. " May I be all this "—world, — like 
the Breath, The particle *W signifies the end of 
the mantra. 

2 



18 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

Then he eats with the following verse, at each 
foot: saying, 'we ask for Sctvitris,* he takes a 
little ; saying ' the God's food ', he takes a little ; 
saying ' the best and all-sustaining,' he takes a 
little ; saying ' we meditate upon the quick of the 
God ' he drinks up all ; and having cleansed the 
vessel or cup, he lies down behind the fire, either 
on a skin, or on the ground, in silence, peacefully. 
Now if he sees a woman, he must know that his 
business has succeeded. (7) 

Com.-— After this, at each foot of the following 
yerse, he takes a little of the mash. That is, he 
takes a morsel at each foot of the verse " That food 
of SuvitrV of the progenitor, which includes both 
the 'Breath and the Sun' — "we asked for" — this 
food being in the form of the mash ; the meaning 
being "by eating of which food of the Sun* we shall 
attain to the form of the Sun." "Of the God"— of 
the Sun — refers to "Saiitri" gone before. "Best" of 
all the foods. "All-sustaining"— the greatest 
Sustainer, or the Creator, of the 'whole world. Both 
of these qualify the "food". "Quick" — i.e., of quick 
form,— of the Sun, "we meditate upon"— we think 
of, after having our hearts purified and duly 
-prepared by the excellent food. Or, the meaning 
may be: ''we performed this sacrifice with a view 
to attaining to greatness, the cause of 'Bh&ga* 
(Riches); and it is this that we think of." "He 
drinks up all", that is left of the mash. And 
having cleansed the vessel or the cup of udumbara 
wood, and having washed his mouth after eating, 
he lies down behind the fire, with his head towards 
the East, either on a skin, or on bare ground, in 



WITH PRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 19 

» 

silence (not speaking) ; — '"in peace" — i.e., having 
his mind under such control as not to be troubled by 
evil dreams. Then, if he sees, in his dream, a woman, 
he must understand that his business in hand has 
succeeded. 

?f^q mil *ej q% ^f% im ^$m% q^ m~ 

And there is this verse to the effect: 'If during 
such sacrifices as are performed with a definite end 
in view, one should see a woman in dreams, — in 
such dream- vision, he should recognise success ; 
yea ! in such dream- vision.' (8) 

Com. — To this effect, there is this verse: if, 
during the performance of such sacrifices as are 
performed with certain definite ends in view, one 
happens to see a woman, during his dreams, then 
he should recognise success ; i.e., he should know 
that success would surely result. "In that dream- 
vision"— i.e., in that vision of a woman, in a dream. 
The repetition is meant to indicate the end of the 
sacrifice. 



Thus ends the Second Khanda of AdhyCiya V. 



ADHYA'YA V. 



KHAN DA III. 



Svetakefu, the grand-son of Aruna, went to the 

assembly of the Panchcdas. Praidhana Janali 

asked him : 'Boy, has thy father taught thee?' 'Yes. 

Sir.' (1) 

Com. — For the purpose of creating dispassion 

in the minds of those desiring Liberation, various 

ways have to be explained — ways beginning from 

Brahman and ending down to the tuft of grass* 

"With a view to this, the next story follows : 

Si&taketu, by name, — the grand-son of Aruna, went 

to the assembly of the PanchCda people. And when 

he had reached the assembly, Pravahana, the son 

of Jivala, asked him : '0 Boy, has thy father taught 

thee?' — meaning thereby — "What hast thou been 

taught by thy father ?" Being thus asked, the boy 

replied : "Yes, Sir," — meaning "Yes, I have been 

taught by my father." 

3c*T ^Tsfa SOT smfifc! ?T m^ im lc*T 9*JT 



WITJi SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 21 

'Dost thou know where men go to, from hers?' 
s No, Sir.' 'Dost thou know how they return?' 'No, 
Sir.' 'Dost thou know the diverging point of the 
two paths — the path of the Gods and the path of 

the Fathers ? ' 'No, Sir'. 

Com. — He said to him : " If thou hast been 
taught, dost thou know the place where men go to, 
after baring gone up from this world?" The other 
replied "No, Sir"— "I know not what you ask." 
" Then dost thou know by what means they 
come back?" He replied : "No, Sir." 'Dost thou 
know the point of divergence of the two partly 
contiguous paths"-— j'.e., the place from where the 
persons destined for the two paths, having gone 
together for some distance, separate from one 
another. 'No, Sir.' 

II \ II 

'Dost thou know why that world is never 
filled ?' 'No Sir.' Dost thou know how in the fifth 
libation, water comes to be called Man V 'Indeed, 
Sir, no.' (3) 

Com. — " Dost thou know why that world of the 
Fathers — from where people come back — is not 
filled with the ma ny men that are passing thither?" 
He replied: "No, Sir." "Dost thou know how, 
in what order, when the fifth libation has been 
poured, the water, that is poured as the sixth 
libation, comes to be called 'Man* "7 He replied*. 
" Indeed, Sir, I know not any of these things." 



22 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

sp4?3 i^gflTsi^iw qi g\mfa ^ fencer* ?3ts- 

§f|l5T f#Tf^ e ^TSSq^f: f^rg^T fix li^pqn^- 

'Then, why didst; thou say thou hadst been 
taught ? One who does not know these things, how 
can he declare himself instructed ?' Troubled in 
mind, he came to his father's place, and said to 
him : * Sir, without having taught me, you told me 
that I had been taught.' (4) 

Com. — "'Thus then, being totally ignorant, 
wherefore didst thou say thou hadst been taught t 
One who knows not the things that I have asked* 
how can he declare among the wise, that he is. 
instructed ? " Thus troubled in mind, by the King, 
Svetaketu came to hip father's place, and said to 
his father: "Sir, without having taught me, you 
told me, at the time of finishing my studies, that 
you had taught me." 

?r ^ q^jfta^rH wti a ^wrfafrj II \ IS 
^cqp% cnwraiwk *r ^ftfa ^r f <p^t w^ II ^ II 

'That fellow of a Kshatriya asked me five 
questions, and I could not understand even one of 
them,' The father said : ' As you told me these 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 23 

questions, I did not understand any one of them- 
If I had known these, why should not I have told 
them to you ?' (5) 

Then Gautama went over to the King's place, 
and when he reached the place, the King tendered 
him proper respects. In the morning, he went 
over to the King in his assembly. The king said 
"Gautama, ask a boon out of such things as belong 
to the world of men.' He replied : 'Let such thing® 
as belong to the world of men rest with thee. Speak 
to me the same speech that thou didst speak to my 
boy.' He was perplexed. (6) 

Com. — Because five questions did the "fellow of 
a Kshatriya" — one whose relatives are Kshalriyas 
he himself being a wicked person — put me; and out 
of these questions I could not understand the 
meaning of even one of them. The father replied: 
'' Just as you came, you repeated these questions 
to me, and I could not understand a single one of 
them. Thus then, from your own ignorance, you 
should infer my ignorance also. That is to say, 
just as you do not know these questions, so, I too 
do not know them. Therefore, do not think 
otherwise (ill) of me, because I do not know them* 
had I known them, for what reason should I not 
have told them to you, my dear child, at the time 
of your finishing studies. " Having thus consoled 
his boy, Gautama— i.e., the Rishi of the family of 
Gautama — went over to the place of the king 
Jaivali. And to him, the king offered proper 
respects. And being thus entertained by the king;. 
Gautama went over to him in the morning, as he' 
was sitting in his assembly. Or, " Sabhdga u may 



24 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

mean " being duly respected" by others, Gautama 
came to the king. The king said to Gautama; ''Ask 
for a boon out of such things as belong to the 
human world" — i.e., such things as villages and the 
like. Gautama replied : " king, may such human 
-wealth rest with thee. Thou must speak to me the 
same speech, full of questions, that thou didst 
speak to my boy." Having been thus addressed by 
Gautama, the king became perplexed, as to how he 
could do what he was asked to do. 

He commanded ' stay here for a long time'. 
Then he said to Lim : 'As to what you have told 
me, Gautama, before you, this knowledge did not 
go to the Brdhmcnia ; and therefore, among all the 
people, it was only to the Kshairiya that the 
teaching of this belonged.' Then he began. (7) 
Corn.— He was perplexed, because he could 
not deny the request of the Bruhmana\ and so 
thought it his duty to explain the philosophy to 
him ; and he 'commanded him to stay for a long 
time. The king hinted at the philosophy, and then 
ordered him to say, — for this he apologises, by 
giving an explanation of his conduct. The king 
said : Though equipped with all knowledge, yet, 
through ignorance of this particular philosophy, 
you have asked me, in such a way, to explain to 
you the philosophy, that I am declaring it to you. 
But there is something to be said on this point, — 



WIT£ SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 25 

-that prior to you, this knowledge did not go to the 
Brahmanas ; nor did the Brdhman&s teach this 
Science. And it is for this reason, an universally 
recognised fact that it was to the Kshairiya caste 
alone that the business of teaching this Science to 
pupils belonged. And it is through a line of 
Ksliatrhjas alone that this science has been handed 
down up to this day. However, I am going to 
impart it to you ; and henceforth it will go to the 
BrahmunCis. Therefore you will excuse me for 
what I have said." Having said this, he, the king, 
explained the Science' to him. 

Thus ends the Third Khanda of Adhydya V. 

ADHYA'YA V. 

KHANDA IV. 

' That world, Gautama, is the Fire ; the Sun 
Is its fuel, the rays are the smoke, the day is the 
flame, the Moon is the embers, and the Stars are 
the sparks.' (1) 

Cow.-— The question that is taken in hand first 
Is about the water in the fifth libation ; because, 
an explanation of this would make easier the 
explanations of the other questions. The beginning 
of the two libations of the Agnihotra have been 
•described in the Vdjasaneya ; and the questions 
s-ef er to that. The starting up of the libation is the 



26 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAp 

Way, the satisfaction is Firmness, and the rise is 
the Return into the world. The explanations of 
these have also been given in the same book : 
"These two libations, on being poured, start up ;. 
and they enter the sky ; they make the sky the 
A'havaniya Fire ; they make the Air fuel, the rays 
the white libation ; then they satisfy the Sky ; and 
then rise up &c, &c. Similarly do they satisfy 
the Heaven ; and thence they return ; and then 
having entered into this earth, and satisfied it, 
they enter into the man ; then finally having 
entered into the woman, they rise up in the world."' 
And what is shown here is that the mere commen- 
cement of the two libations of Agnihotra is made 
in the said manner. Whereas, what is meant to be 
laid down here is the means of attaining to the 
northern path, in the shape of worshipping, as 
Fire, the aforesaid cornmencement, in the shape of 
the Apurva of the Agnihotra sacrifice, after having 
divided this latter into its five component parts. 
With this view, it is declared : " That world, 
Gautama^ is the Fire, &c\ What is meant here is that 
the morning and evening libations of the Agnihotra,. 
poured by means of milk &c, accompanied by due 
devotion, duly endued with the A'havaniya Fire, 
Fuel, Smoke, Light, Embers and Sparks, as also- 
with the agencies of the doer and the like, — having 
gone up through the sky, enter into the Heavenly 
Region, and thus become etherealised, come to be 
connected with water, and hence called by the 
name " water," and also by the name " Faith"; and 
the Fire is the substratum of these. The fuel &c, 
connected with them are nest described: The idea of 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY %1 

Fire in the libations is also pointed out in the same 
manner: "That world is the Fire, Gautama— -just 
as in the case in question we have the A'havaniya 
Fire, the substratum of the Agnihotra. And of 
this Fire, named " the Heavenly Region", the Sun 
is the fuel ; as that world shines only when lighted 
up by the Sun ; therefore, on account of lighting up r 
the Sun is the fuel. The rays are the smoke, 
because they rise from it ; as it is from the fuel 
that smoke rises. The Day is the Flame,— because* 
of the similarity of being bright, as also of being 
the effects of the Sun. The Moon is the embers, 
—because it is only when the Day has ceased that 
it becomes visible ; just as it is only when the Flame 
is extinguished that the embers become visible* 
The stars are the sparks,— because these are also 
besprinkled about, like parts of the Moon (just as 
sparks of the embers). 

clftjfiFffaffift ^j?: 3TSJ life! cR^FT STTIcT: $m 

;crt tmm II \ II 

In this Fire, the Gods pour the libation of 
Faith; and from this libation, king Soma is born,(2) 

Com.— In the Fire described above, the Gods— 
the sacrificer's Prdnas, in the shape of Fire &c, 
with regard to the Gods— pour the libation of 
"Faith"— the ether ealised waters, in the shape of 
the various modifications of the Agnihotra libation, 
endowed with Faith, are called u Faith." Specially 
as in the question it is mentioned that "in the fifth 
libation the water comes to be called ' Man' ",— 
which points to water as being the object poured'as 
libation. And it is also ordinarily known that 



28 THl CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

» 

'Faith is water' and that 'it is only after Faith has 
been taken up that people start a work.' This 
5< Faith" in the form of water, they pour as libation ; 
and from this libation is born Soma, the king 
who is a modification of waters called '"Faith" that 
are poured into the Fire of the Heavenly Region. 
Just as it has been described that the waters bring 
about in the Sun certain effects in the shape of the 
Red &c, when they (waters) are in the form of the 
honey of the flowers of Rigveda, carried along by 
the bee of Hik, — so, in the present case, these 
waters, forming integral parts of the Agnihotra 
libation, in their subtle etherealised forms called 
" Faith," enter into the Heavenly Region, and 
bring about their effect in the shape of the Moon, 
as the fruit of the two Agnihotra libations. And the 
sacrificers too, performing the Agnihotra, — becom- 
ing identified with the libations, imbued with the 
thoughts of the libation, attracted by action in the 
shape of the libations, and bearing an inherent 
relation with the '"Faith" — waters,— enter into the 
Heavenly Region, and become the Moon. For, it 
was for this sake tbat they performed the Agni- 
hotra.Wh&t is meant to be explained here is,not the 
way of the sacrificers, but the modification of the 
libations, which are explained in the proper order 
of sequence, of the five Fires, as the chief factor 
for purposes of meditation. The way of the 
ignorant will be explained later on, in the order 
of "smoke See", — as also the way of the wise, 
..brought about by knowledge. 

Thus ends the Fourth Khanda of Adhydya V. 



ADHYA'YA V. 



KHANDA V. 



q|pqj era ^cfm^Fcf^ ?$3 ®$m fft %3[f%~~ 

Parjanya, Gautama, is the Fire. Of this 
Air is the Fuel, the Cloud is its Smoke, the 
Lightning its flame, the thunder its embers, and the 
thunderings its sparks. (1) 

Com. — The meaning of the synonym of the 
second libation is explained. "O Qautama% 
Parjanya is the Fire", — Parjanya being a 
particular Deity presiding over Rain. Of this, Air* 
is the fuel, — since the Fire of Parjanya is flared up 
by Air, rains being found to follow on the strength 
of the preceding wind. The cloud is the smoke,— 8 
the cloud originating in smoke, and also looking 
like it. The Lightning is its flame,— -because of the 
common character of being bright. The thunder 
is its embers,— because of hardness, and of the 
connection with lightning. The thunderings are the 
sparks, — because they are spread oyer the clouds. 

afafelf^ft ^: €m ^m life? WW sn§%- 

w^rofcf II \ if 

In this Fire, the Gods pour the libation of 
Soma, the King. From this libation is born 
Bain. (2) 



30 THE OHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

» 

Com. — As before, in this Fire, the G-ods pour 
the libation of Soma, the King. From this libation 
is born Rain. The waters named ''Faith" having 
developed into the form of Soma, when offered into 
the second libation into the Fire of Parjanya, 
develop into Rain, 

Thus ends the Fifth Khanda of Adhydya V. 



ADHYA'YA V. 
KHANDA VI. 

dsflrtfetef FT 3Tcn?rFfeTr f^3#WT: 11 \ II 

The Earth, Gautama, is the Fire. Of this, 
year is the fuel, A'kCisa its smoke, night its flame, 
the quarters its embers, and the intermediate 
quarters its sparks. (1) 

Com, — '' The Earth is the Fire" — as before. Of 
this Fire, named ''Earth," the year is the fuel,— 
because it is only when the Earth is fully developed 
through ihe time of the year, that it becomes 
capable of producing corn. The AkCtsa is its smoke 
—since the A'kdsa appears as if rising from the 
Earth, just as smoke from Fire. The night is its 
flame, — the night being similar to the Earth, which 
is of a non-illuminative character, — just as the 
Flame is exactly like the Fire. The quarters are 
its embers, — because of the common character of 
being calm. The intermediate quarters are the 



WITH SBI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 31 

* 
sparks.— because of the common character of 
smallness or insignificance. 

Sffa 11 \ II 

In this Fire the Gods pour the libation of Bain; 
from that oblation is born food. (2) 

Gom.— "In this Sec." as before. From that 
oblation is born food — the corns, barley &o. 



Thus ends the Sixth Khanda of Adhydya V. 



ADHYA'YA V. 
KHANDA VII. 

g«qr c^-m ^mm?m mm hftcRtdtt ^ r% r- 

The man, Gautama, is the Fire. Of this, 
speech is the Fuel, Breath its Smoke, the Tongue 
its flame, the Eye its Embers, and the Ear its 
Sparks. (1) 

Com. — "The man, O Gautama, is the Fire". 
Speech is its fuel, — because, it is by speech that 
man is raised, while a mute person is not. Breath 
is its smoke, — because, it proceeds from the mouth, 
like smoke. The Tongue is its flame — on 
account of redness. The eye is ite embers, — because 
it is the substratum of light. The Ear is its sparks, 
—-because, of the common character of being 
spread over. 



33 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

* 

In this Fire, the Gods pour the libation of 
Food. From that oblation is born the semen. (2) 

Com. — The rest as before. They pour the 
libation of Food ; and from that oblation is born 
the semen . 

Thus ends the Seventh Kliunda of Adhyuya V. 

ADHYA'YA V. 

KHANDA VIII. 

IS \ II 

The woman, Gautama, is the Fire &c. &c. ... 
(1) 

Com,— The woman is the Fire, O Gautama, 
&c. &c, 

From that libation is born 

the foetus. (2) 

Com. — "In this Fire, the Gods pour the libation 
of semen ; and from that oblation is born the 



WITH SE1 SANEARA'S COMMENTARY 33- 

foetus." Thus, it; comes to this : that through the- 
intermediate grades of Faith, Soma, Rain, Food 
and Semen, it is water itself that has developed 
into the foetus. And inasmuch as it is water that 
is directly connected with the libations, water is 
the predominant element here ; and thus it is that 
water comes to be called '* Man ", in the fifth. 
libation. But water alone by itself does not produce 
the effects, Soma and the rest ; nor does water 
exist, apart from its three-fold constitution. Even 
when objects have three-fold constitutions we find 
them named, as "Earth", "Water", "Fire", though 
the excess of one or other of the constituents (i.e., 
though water is made up of Water, Earth and Fire, 
yet it is called "Water" because there is an excess 
of watery element in it). Therefore, the fact is 
that it is an agglomeration of various elements — 
in which the water is the predominating element — 
that brings about the effects, Soma &c; and hence, 
these are stiid to be brought about by water ; (and 
the predominance of the watery element is appa- 
rent from the fact) that we find an excess of fluidity 
in all these effects — Soma, Bain, Food and Semen ; 
though the earthy body too abounds in fluidity. 
Thus then, in the fifth oblation, Water, in the, 
shape of semen, develops into the foetus. 



Thus ends the eighth Khanda of Adhyuya V. 



ADHYA'YA V, 
KHANDA IX. 



• IF 



1S1 n^f ^ snf ^ sit rimFRf- #^t sfrasrsq ^f# 



Thus, in the fifth libation, Water comes to be 
called ' Man.' This foetus enclosed in the 
membrane, having lain inside for ten or nine 
months, more or less; comes to be born. (1) 

Com. — Thus, in the fifth libation, Water comes 
to be called ' Man' — one question has been 
explained. And by the way, it is also explained 
here — what has been declared in the Vajasaneija : 
— viz., that the two libations having returned from 
Heaven to this Earth, rising to this world, after 
having in due course entered into the Earth, the 
man and the woman. The first question was : 
'' Dost thou know whither men go, from this 
world V And it is a consideration of this that 
is now commenced: "This foetus" — a particular 
modification of the water named " Faith," 
and being directly related to the • libation, 
— .''Enclosed in the membrane," having lain in the 
womb of the mother "for ten or nine months, more 
or less, comes to be born.'* The mention of the 
fact of being enclosed in the membrane is for the 



WITH SSI SANEARA'S COMMENTARY 35 

» 

purpose of creating a feeling of disgust : e.g., A 
great trouble it, is for the foetus to be lying in the 
mother's womb, full of urine, bile and other 
humours* and being besmeared with these, encased 
within the membranous covering, having for 
its seed the unclean bloody semen, growing with 
the addition of the essences of the 'food and drink 
taken by the mother, and all the time having its 
own power, strength, virility and splendour 
mercilessly suppressed. And still more trouble- 
some is the painful exit therefrom, through the 
uterus, which constitutes Birth. All this is meant 
to- create a feeling of disgust. When a single 
moment of such existence would be unbearable, 
what, when one has to lie in that condition for ten 
or nine months ! 

Having been born, he lives up to the life's span. 
When he is dead, they carry him, as appointed, 
to the Fire, whence he came* and whence he 
sprang. (2) 

Com* — ''Being born, he lives up to the life's 
span," performing actions, for the purpose of frequent 
coming and going, like the pulley, or, for that of 
going round and round in a cycle, like the potter's 
wheel — till such time as is fixed by his own deeds. 
And, when at the end of his life, he is dead, they 
take the dead body as appointed, — in a manner that 
is determined by his own actions ; i.e., if during his 
life, he has been entitled to Vedic rites or to Know- 
ledge, then the priests or his sons carry the body 



38 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

r 

from the village to the funeral fire, for the due 
performance of his obsequies,— the Fire being that, 
from whence he came, in due course through the 
various grades of libations ; and from whence, the 
five-fold fire, he sprang ; to this Fire, they carry him "•> 
i.e., they make him over to his own source. 

Thus ends the Ninth Khanda of Adhydya V. 
ADHYA'YA V. 



KHANDA X. 



^m ^g^TSfFH^p % ^Fm *m$m %qm: v&n 
frail ^u 

Those who know this, and those who in the 
forest meditate upon Faith and Penance, go to Light* 
from Light to Day, from Day to the bright half of 
the month, from the bright half of the month to 
those six months, during which the Sun rises 
northwards ; (1) 

From these months to the year ; from the year 
to the Sun, from the Sun to the Moon, from the- 
Moon to Lightning, There is a person, not human : 



WITH SRI S ANKARA'S COMMENTARY 37 

He carries them to Brahman. This is the path of 
the Gods. {%) 

Com. — The question that presents it self to ba 
met is — " Dost thou know the place to which men 
go from here." Now, among such house-holders as 
aspire towards a higher world, " those who know 
this " — that is, those who know the philosophy of 
the live Fires, and who realise the fact of their 
having been produced from the Fires, themselves 
being of the nature of Fire. " How is it known that 
the clause ( those who know' refers to the house- 
holders alone ?'' Because, it will be declared later on 
tha,i from among house-holders, those that do not 
know this, and are given to the establishment of 
charitable institutions, repair to the Moon, by the 
path of smoke &c. And again, those among the 
people living in the forest — Taikhdnasds and the 
Parivrdjakds — who meditate upon Faith and 
Penance, will also go over to Light &c, together 
with " those who know this,"— -as will be declared 
later on. Both these classes of men, being spoken 
of later on, the only class that could be referred to 
here is that of the house-holders. '* Inasmuch as 
the religious student is not included either among 
the villagers or among the foresters, how can the 
house-holder alone be accepted as the only remaining 
class ?" This does not affect the question. On the 
ground of the Pur anas &c 5 it is a pretty known 
fact that for the celibate and the religious student, 
the path is that of the Sun &c. Hence, these too are 
to be taken with the foresters. The "ZTpakurvd- 
nakcis" form a class by themselves for the purpose 
of getting up the Veda ; and as such, are not fit for 



38 THE'OHHA'ITDOGYA UPANISIUD 

separate treatment. "If celibacy be accepted as 
the means of proceeding by the northern path, on 
the ground of Pur anas '&c, then the 'knowledge of 
this,' referred to here, would be purposeless." Not- 
so : since such knowledge has its purpose for the 
house -holders. Such house-holders as are not endowed 
with this knowledge, are well known to be destined 
for the southern path of smoke, — hence, those 
among the house-holders who know this, — whether 
they perform their obsequies or not, — they always 
go, by themselves, by the northern path of Light. 
"Well, the celibate and the ho use -holder, both 
belonging to the same ordor, it is not proper that the 
northern path should belong to the celibate and not 
to the ordinary house-holder, specially when in the 
former, there is an excess of such actions as the 
Agnihoira and the like." This does not touch our 
position ; because, these latter are not purified ; since 
they are imbued with aversion and attachment, due; 
to relations with enemies and friends, as also with 
virtue and vice, due to kindness and slaughter ; and 
again, for them there are many ineradicable impuri- 
ties, such as slaughter, untruth, sexuality and the 
like. Hence, they are impure : and being impure, 
they cannot proceed by the northern path. The 
others, on the other hand, have their selves purified 
by the removal of the impurities of slaughter &c, 
as also by the eradication of the aversion and 
attachment for enemies and friends, having all 
their foulness removed ; and as such, it is but 
proper that they should proceed by the nor- 
thern path. Say the Puranas : " Those irresolute 
ones, who sought after children, attained death 



WITH SRI SANKABA'S COMMENTARY 39 

while those resolute ones, who did not seek after 
children, attained immortality." Under the circum- 
stances, the house-holders knowing this and the 
foresters having the privilege of proceeding by the 
northern path, such knowledge comes to be of no use 
to the fore&ters ; and thence, a contradiction of 
scripture texts : 'the southerners go not there, nor do 
such persons &s perform penances but are ignorant' 
and ' not knowing this he does noc enjoy it.' And 
here is a contradiction." JNTot so ; what is meant by 
'* immortality," in the above quotation, is continuance 
till the chs-ohiiion of the elements: as say th© 
Pur anas: " continuance till the dissolution of ele- 
ments is called Immortality (Vishnu Parana). 
Whereas, it U Ahsoluto Immortality that is referred 
to by the parages "the southerners go not there 
&c ,'' And henee, there is no real contradiction. If 
it be urged th;v: " there is a contradiction with such 
texts as ' they return not,' ' they return not to this 
whirl of humanity 5 and the like", — we deny this ; 
the specification ' to this whirl of humanity' denotes 
that there is no return to this whirl alone ; if absolute 
non-return were meant, then any such specification 
would be useless. If it be urged that " this &c. ,'* 
is to be taken merely as denoting class, this cannot 
be ; since the mere word " non-return" being capable 
of signifying eternal non-return, any such assumed 
denotation of class would be purposeless. Therefore ? 
in order to make some use of the specification *' to 
this whirl", we assume the return of such people, to- 
some other condition. And again, for one who has a 
firm conviction of Brahman as "Existent, one 
alone without a second", there is no going by the 



-40 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

upper artery, through the path of Light &o ; because 
of hundreds of such texts as—" Being Brahman 
He goes to Brahman" " Therefore, He became 
everything", " His Breaths do not go forth", " They 
become dissolved in this", and so forth. If it be 
urged that " we shall assume these tests to mean the 
Breaths of such people do not go away, but they go 
•with themselves",— this cannot be ; since, in that 
case there would be no meaning of the specification 
5t they become dissolved here"; and also because a 
-going away of the Breaths is pointed out by the 
passage " all the Breaths depart. " Therefore 
that the Breaths go forth is beyond doubt. Even 
in the case of the theory — that ' Liberation being 
something quite different from the paths of the 
metempsychosis, the Breaths do not go away with 
the Life and hence they do not depart at all,' — there 
would be no meaning for the specification " they 
become dissolved here." Nor is any motion or life 
possible for one who has been deprived of the 
Breaths. If scriptural texts have any authority, it 
cannot be assumed that there is any life or motion 
for the Real Self, apart from the Breaths ; because 
this Self, being all-pervading and impartite, the 
relation with Breath alone is the sole cause of its 
differentiation into Jiva,— just like the spark of fire. 
"Nov can it be assumed that Jiva being an atomic 
part of the Supreme Self, goes forth, leaving a hole 
in it. Therefore the passage ' going above by that, 
one reaches immortality," must be interpreted as 
Indicating the fact of the worshipper of qualified 
Brahman going upwards together with his Breaths ; 
and "immortality" must be taken as only compa- 



WITH SEI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 41 

i 

native immortality, and not as direct absolute 
Liberation. Having declared that " that is the 
unoonquered city," " that is the bliss-intoxicating 
tank " &c. &c, the Sruti directly specifies that " for 
them alone is this region oi Brahman." Therefore 
the meaning must be accepted as being that such 
house-holders as know the five Fires, and such 
Foresters, Ascetics and Religious Students, as medi- 
tate upon Faith and Penance &c, — i.e., including 
such devoted persons as faithfully perform penances 
&c. &c. ; [the word "meditate" = are given to, or are 
endowed with, just as in the sentence "IshtapiirU 
dottamifyupuste"] So also in another Sruti passage : 
One who meditates upon true Brahman named 
'ffiranyagarbha', — all these reach the Light — that 
is, the Deity p residing over Light. The rest is 
simihr to what has been explained in connection 
with the fourth Path. Thus has been explained the 
Path of the Gods, — ending in the Satyaloka, outside 
the artery, — as says the mantra ' Between the father 
,and mother &c. &c.' 

m q s$ sift WW ^fa3TOcr $ fwf^rof^ 

And those who living in villages, perform Sacri- 
fices and works of public utility, and give alms, — 
they pass on to smoke, from smoke to night, from 
night to the dark half of the month, from the dark 
half of the month to the six months during which 
the sun rises southwards, from there they do not 
reach the year. (3) 



43 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

Com. — "And'* Indicates the beginning of a ne^ 
subject. Those house-holders, who, 'liviag in villages' 
— this qualification serving to exclude such house- 
holders from those that live in the forest. Just 
as in the case of the Ascetic, the Foraitar &3., the 
qualification ' living in the forest' servos to exclude- 
the house-holier'?. "Sacrifices and works of public 
utility" — , sacrifices are the Agnihotra and sue 
other actions prescribed in the Veda ; "works of;' 
public utility " are the making of wells, tanks, 
gardens and the like ; " alms" consists in the giving, 
outside one's house, whatever lies in his power, to 
beggars. Those who follow such conduct, (the 
particle " iti " signifying " such,") being devoid of 
real vision, pass over to " smoke," i.e., the Deity 
presiding over smoke. And carried on by that Deity 
they reach, the Deity of Eight ; from Night to the 
Deity of the dark half of the month and from the.' 
dark half of month they pass over to the Deity 
presiding over the sis months, during which the Sun 
rises southward. The plural number in " Mdsdn " 
is due to the fact of the Deities of these six months 
always moving" together. These sacrificers do not 
reach the Deity presiding over the year. Was there 
any possibility of such reaching the year, that it is 
separately denied. Yes ; the Northern and Southern 
declensions of the Sun are both parts of one and the 
same year ; and it has been described that those that 
pass by the path of Light pass on to the year from 
the six months of the Northern declension ; and 
hence, having heard of the sacrifice!" reaching the 
six months of the Southern solar declension, people 
may be led to infer from analogy that he too will' 



WITH SRI SAKEARA'S COMMENTARY 43 

pass on to the year ; for this reason, such passing on 
is expressly denied : " These do not reach the year." 

From the months they go to the Region of the 
Fathers, from the Region of the Fathers ro J'kdsa. 
from A'kus-i to the Moon. That is Soma, the king. 
That is the food of tho Gods. This the Gods eat. (4) 

Com, — From the months they go to the Region of 
the Fathers* from there to A'kusa, from A'ktfia to the 
Moon. Now what is it that is got at by these ? It is 
the Moon that is seen in the sky, So?no, the king of 
the Bi'uhmanus. That is the food of the Gods ; and 
this k'oma, the food of the Gods, the Gcds eat. Thus 
then tho sacrifices, having reached the Moon by the 
path of smoko, come to bo eaten by the Gods. " But, 
in that case the performance of sacrifices and works 
of public utility would be resulting in trouble, if in 
the end, such people were to be eaten by the Gods. 15 
This does not affect the case. By " Food " is only 
meant an accessory, an appurtenance ; and they 
are not literally swallowed up by the Gods : 
the fact is that they become the appurtenances 
of the Gods, in the shape of women, cattle and 
the like. We have often seen the word u Anna '' 
used in the sense of " Appurtenance " e.g., 
" For the king, the women are food, cattle are 
food, the Vaisyas are food Sec, &c." Nor can it be 
denied that the enjoyed, the women &c, do not 
themselves experience any pleasure. Therefore even 
though the sacrificers are the objects enjoyed by the 
Gods, yet they themselves enjoy pleasure, in the 



44 THE CHHA'NDGG-YA UPANISHAD 

company of the Gods. And an aqueous body for 
them, capable of sensing pleasures , is prepared in 
the lunar Regions ; as has been declared above, that 
" The water called faith, when poured into the fire 
of Heaven, becomes Soma, the king." This water, 
followed by the other elements, having reached the 
Heavenly Region, becomes the Moon, and thence 
becomes the origin of the bodies for those that have 
performed sacrifices, &c« When the last libation of 
the body is poured into the fire, and the body is 
burnt down, the water issuing from it goes up with 
the smoke, and there having encompassed the 
sacrificer, and th-m reaching the lunar Region, they 
become the origin of the exterior body, just like 
grass, clay, &c. And it is in these aqueous bodies 
that they experience the pleasures resulting from 
their sacrifices, &c. 

WWTOII&F4 ^1%^T *p Wei %m W^^ ^ 

II Ml 

Having dwelt there till the falling off, they 

-return again by the same path as they came, to 

A'kasa ; from A'kdsa to Air ; and having become the 

Air, they become smoke ; and having become smoke, 

they become mist. (5) 

Qom. — The time that is taken in the consuming 
of all the actions that are bearing fruit, is called the 
time of "falling off" and till such time, having 
dwelt in the lunar orb, they return by the path 
mentioned below. The mention of " again" indicates 
that there have been various goings to and returns 



WITH SRI SANEARA'S COMMENTARY 45 

from the lunar orb. Therefore, having laid by many 
sacrifices, &c, one goes to the lunar orb ; and when 
that action has been consumed in fruition, he returns 
from there, not being able to stay there even a 
moment longer ; because of the consumption of 
the action that caused the stay ; just as the lamp 
goes out when the oil is all consumed. " But then, 
is it after the actions that led him to the lunar orb 
have all been completely consumed, that there is the 
downfall, or is it, while a portion of the action is still 
remaining ? " What do you mean by the question ? 
" If there is a complete destruction of all actions, 
then there is Liberation in the lunar orb." All right ; 
let there be Liberation there, what then ? '" Well, 
then, it is not possible for him to come back to the 
world and have fresh bodies and experiences ; and 
there would be a contradiction of such SmriHs as lay 
down the next body to be caused by the remnants of 
past deeds." But, apart from the Sacrifice &c, 
there are many actions in the world of men, which 
lead to the taking of bodies and esperiences 5 and 
these are not fructified in the lunar orb ; and hence, 
these are not consumed ; those that are consumed are 
only such actions as have led the person on to the 
lunar orb ; and hence there is no contradiction. The 
" remaanf' mentioned in Smrltis too refers to actions 
of all sorts ; and as such there is no contradiction on 
this score either. Hence, the assertion that there 
would be liberation then does not touch our position ; 
because, it is possible for a single animal body to be 
caused by several cations, bringing about the es> 
periences of various species of animality ; nor is it 
possible for all actions to be consumed in the cours© 



46 THE OHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

of a single life ; such actions as the killing of a 
Brdhmana and the like being mentioned as bringing 
about results during several lives. Those that have 
reached the inanimate stage, and are completely non- 
intelligent, can have no actions that would lead them. 
further up : and (if there were no remnants of action) 
no birth could be possible for the foetus, which would 
fall away as soon as it was conceived- Therefore, it 
must be admitted that in a single life, all actions 
cannot; boar fruit (and bo consumed). Some people 
hold that, as a rule, it is only when, at death, the 
substratum of all actions has been destroyed, they 
bring about another birth. But in that case, it could 
not be possible for some actions to be lying inoper- 
ative, while others would bring about the birth. If 
it be explained on the ground of Death being a 
xnanifester of all actions (which would lead to the 
nest birth),— just like the lamp which manifests only 
tho«?e object? that are within its range, then the next 
birth would be regulated by only such actions as 
have been manifested at the last death ; this is not 
correct; because, it has been declared (in the "Honey 
Section' 5 ) that the whole becomes identified with 
the whole ; because when the whole is identified with 
the whole, inasmuch as it is controlled by the limits 
of time, space. &c, it is not possible either for the 
whole to be completely destroyed, or for the parts 
to be manifested as the whole. The same would be 
the case with actions and their substrata. Just as 
the contradictory and multifarious tendency of the 
pre-experienced lives of Man, Peacock, Ape, &c„ is 
not destroyed by that action alone, which leads to the 
birth of the Ape ; in the same manner, it is only 



WITH SRI SAHARA'S COMMENTARY 47 

proper that such Actions as are productive of other 
births should not be destroyed. If all pre-natal 
experiences were destroyed by that Action which 
leads to tho birth of the Ape, then it would not 
he possible for the Ape, just as it is born 
to hang io its mother's breast, while the 
mother is jumping from tree to tree ; be- 
cause, such capability has never been learnt in its 
present life. Nor can it be positively asserted that 
in its immediately preceding birth, it was an Ape ; 
because of the Sruii: ''Knowledge and Action follow 
him, as also intuition." Therefore, like tendencies, all 
actions too can never be completely destroyed ; and 
as such, a remnant of actions becomes possible. And 
since this is so, it is just possible that births may be 
brought about by the remnants of consumed actions ; 
and there is no contradiction in this. Now what is 
that path by which they return ? " As they came" — 
ue.y the Fame path by which they came. " The path 
of coming has been said to be — from the months to 
the Region of the Fathers, thence to A'kasa, thence 
to the Moon ; while the return is not in this way,— 
the return being described as from A'kasa to Air, and 
so forth ; hence, how is it that the Sruti says ' as 
they came.' * This does not touch the case ; because 
the reaching of A'kasa and Earth is exactly the same 
in' both cases. Nor is there any such restriction in 
the text, as that " they return invariably and 
precisely by the same way ;" the only necessary part 
being the repeated goings and returns. Therefore 
" as they came " is only meant to point out, in 
general, the way of return. Therefore, the meaning 
is that they reach the elemental A'kasa. The water 



48 TH3 CHHA'NDOGYA UPASISHAD 

that; brought about the aqueous body in the lunar 
orb, became disintegrated on the destruction of such 
actions as were the source of the experiences there- 
in. Just as a lump of butter is dissolved, on contact 
with fire, so the water fascame dissolved, and in its 
subtle state continued to exist as A'kusa in sky. 
And from the sky, it became Air ; that is, residing 
in the Air, they became identified with Air, and are 
wafted hither and thither ; and one whose actions 
have faded off, becomes Air, together with the water- 
Having become Air, he becomes smoke, again, to- 
gether with the water ; and having become smoke. 
he becomes mist — ?>., a form which only looks like 
being iilled with wa;er. 

to m % mpfa m^-. m^ rf^q ^ mfh \\ $ \\ 

Having become mist, he becomes the cloud ; 
having become the cloud, he rains. Then they are 
born as rice and barley, herbs and trees, sesamum 
and beans. Henceforth, the exit becomes extremely 
difficult ; for, whoever eats the food, and who sows 
the seed, he becomes like unto him. (6) 

Com. — Having become the mist 5 he comes to be 
cloud, capable of besprinkling ; and having become 
the cloud, he rains down upon high regions ; i.e., one 
who has a residue of actions falls down in the shape 
of a shower of rain. And they are born as corn, &c» 
The plural number in " they" is due to the fact of 
the multiplicity of those of consumed actions ; while 
in the case of the cloud, these, being one only, were 



WITH-^SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 49 

spoken of In the singular. And inasmuch as those 
that fall down as rain happen to be located in 
thousands of such places as, a mountain side, 
unnavigable rivers, oceans, forests and deserts, — an 
exit therefrom becomes extremely difficult. Because, 
being carried by water-currents from mountains* 
they reach rivers, and thence the sea, where they 
are swallowed : up by alligators, &o. These again 
are swallowed by others ; and then together with the- 
alligator they become dissolved in the sea, and 
together with the sea-water, are again drawn up by 
the clouds, to fall down as rain upon deserts, or 
inaccessible stony grounds ; and while there, they 
are drunk up by serpents and deer, and eaten up by 
other animals ; these again are swallowed by others ; 
and so on, they would go on, in an endless round, At 
times, they may be horn, among inanimate objects, 
not capable of being eaten ; then, they dry up 
then and there. Even they are born among 
such inanimate objects that may be eaten ; their 
connection with a procreating agent becomes ex- 
tremely difficult, on account of the number of 
inanimate things being so large. For these 
reasons, exit from this state becomes extremely 
difficult. Or, the meaning may be that exit (or 
escape) from this condition is much more difficult 
than the state of the corn &c. ;— in this case a second 
ta will have to be supplied,— the construction in this 
case being— exit from the condition of the born, &c, 
is extremely difficult ; still more difficult is tbe exit 
from the connectioo with procreating agents* 
Because, if these happen to be eaten by celibate 
persons or children, or by impotent and old men, they 
4, 



50 THE CHHA'HDOGYA UPANISJIAD 

are destroyed in the middle (without chance of 
birth) ; because, the eaters of food are many and 
diverse. If by chance, they happen to be eaten by 
procreating persons, then, having become identified 
with these procreating agents, their actions take 
shape and obtain an existence. How ? Whenever a 
procreating agent, who eats the food connected with 
the latent individuality, and sows seed in the womb, 
at the proper time,— -he becomes like unto him ; i.e., 
the latent individuality lying in the mother's womb, 
in the shape of the father's seed, becomes very much 
similar to him in shape; since the seed is impressed 
with the shape of the procreating agent ; because of 
another text, which declares : ' the virility proceeding 
from all the limbs;" therefore the seed is of the same 
form as the procreating agent. Hence, it is, that 
from man is born a man ; from a cow, a cow, and 
no other animal. Hence, it is true that 'he becomes 
like unto him.' Those other individualities that, 
without getting to the lunar orb, at once reach the 
condition of the corn, &c M through their execrable 
sinful deeds, and then subsequently again reach 
the human state, — for these persons, exit is not so 
very difficult ; because, they have been born as the 
..corn, by way of punishment for their sinful deeds ; 
and so, they remain in that state, till the results 
of the evil deeds are over; when their body of corn 
falling off, they take to other bodies like that of 
the caterpillar, &c, in accordance with their deeds* 
with them, in this state, consciousness is present, 
as declared in the text: "He is conscious, he 
passes over as a conscious being." Though, as a 
matter of fact, they assume another body, after 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 51 

having gathered within themselves all their organs, 
yet they are found to take to other.bodies, endowed 
with full consciousness due to the dream-like 
impressions left by those actions which impelled 
him to the particular new body; hence, the passing 
over by the paths of Light and Smoke is accom- 
panied by a dreamy consciousness ; 'because, such 
passing is due to actions that have taken shape, 
Such however is not the case with those indi- 
vidualities that are born as corn &c, in their 
descent ; these have no consciousness of their con- 
nection with the procreating agents ; nor is it 
possible for conscious beings to live in the corn, 
when they are being cut, thumped and ground. 
Objection : " In that case, even for those that des- 
cend from the lunar orb, the taking to a new body 
being exactly similar to the above case, it is only 
proper that these two should be all along equipped 
with consciou.'-ness, like the caterpillar. And in 
that case, for the performers of sacrifices and works 
of public utility, there is a terrible experience of 
hell, beginning from their descent from the lunar 
orb down to their birth, again as Br ah mana <&c. 
And in that case, the injunction of such sacrifices 
&c, would be only for the sake of trouble, whereby 
the Veda would lose its authority, actions enjoined 
therein leading to such terrific results." Reply : It 
is not so ; there is a difference between the two 
cases (of ascent and descent) — just as in the case 
of climbing a tree and falling from it. For one 
who is moving along from one body to the other, 
the aotions have already taken shape in these 
hodies, and as such, it is but proper that these 



§2 THE OHHA'FDOGYA UPANISHAD 

# 
should, be endowed with such consciousness asjs 

brought about by the actions ; just as one who is 

climbing up a tree to pluck a fruit is fully equipped 

with consciousness. In the same manner, conscious- 

ness would b« present in the case of those who are 

passing on upwards, by the path of Light ; as also 

for those that are ascending to the Moon by the 

path of smoke. But, such could not be the case 

with those that are descending from the Moon, — 

just as there is no consciousness in one who is 

falling down from the top of the tree. Just as we 

find a total absence of consciousness in such 

persons as have been struck down by a mace or 

such other instrument, and having all their organs 

of sensation benumbed by the pain caused by the 

stroke, are being carried along from one place to 

another ; so, also in the case of those that are 

descending from the Moon down into other bodies, 

who have their organs benumbed on account of 

their aqueous bodies having been destroyed by the 

exhaustion of their actions in the experience of 

the pleasures of heaven. Therefore, the fact is 

that these persons, being as if rendered conscious 

by the water which served as the seed of the body 

which they have not yet renounced, descend by 

the way of Akdsa' &c, and become attached to 

such inanimate bodies as are ordained by their 

deeds, being all the time unconscious, on account 

of having all their organs benumbed. Thus too, he 

continues unconscious ail through the processes of 

cutting, thrashing, grinding, cooking, eating, 

digesting, modifying into the seed, and its sowing; 

because, during all this time, the action bringing; 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S OOMMENTAKY 53 

about the nest body has not yet taken shape. 
Through all these states, he continues to exist in 
connection with the water that found his lunar 
body ; and hence, the absence of consciousness in 
him is no contradiction, as it is in the caterpillar 
(which is already endowed with an animate body). 
In the interim, his unconsciousness is like that in 
the comatose state ; and as such-is not open to any 
discrepancy. ISFor is it possible to infer that Vedic 
rites, being accompanied by animal slaughter, 
bring about double results (pleasures of heaven and 
pains of hell); because, such slaughter is authorised 
by the scriptures ; "not killing animals apart from 
sacred places". And the slaughter that is authoris- 
ed by the scriptures can never be held to lead to 
evil consequences. Even if such wore accepted, the 
mantras accompanying it could easily remove the 
taints of sin, like the removal of poison by mantras% 
and as such, there would be no efficiency left in 
any agency of evil, that may have cropped up, as 
the cause of future troubles, during the perfor- 
mance of Vedic rites ; just as there is all potency 
in the poison removed by a due recitation of 
mantras* 

%ft m ^mimnn 3T li ^ II 

Those whose conduct here has been good, will 
quickly attain some good birth — the birth of a 
Brtihmana, the birth of a Kshatriya or the birth of 



S4 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

a Vaisijn. And those whose conduct has bean bad-, 
will quickly* attain some evil birth -the birth 
of a dog, 1he birth of a hog, or the birth of a 
ChancUda. (?) 

Pom, — Now among the pernors concerned, 
thope whose conduct in this world has been good — 
i.e.. those whose actions have been virtuous, 
accumulating good residue — this qualification indi- 
cating such persons as have been free from cruelty, 
untruth, deceit and the like : — these persons, 
through the remnant of the residue of actions 
enjoyed in the lunar regions, quickly attain to 
some good birth, free from cruelty &e. — the birth 
of a Brahma an. Kshtttrvja, or a Vmsya, in accord- 
ance with their deeds. On the other hand, those, 
whose conduct has been bad, and the residue of 
whose actions has been evil. — such persons quickly 
attain some evil birth, a birth which is devoid of 
all tinge of virtue, and is disgusting — the birth of 
a dog, of a ho:? or of a Cliothhlht, in accordance 
with their deed-. Those twice-born ones, whose 
conduct has been good, who have always lain in 
the path of their duty, performing sacrifices &c„ 
such persons f recently go and return by the path 
of smoke &c, like a pulley. If however they 
attain knowledge, then they pass away by the path 
of Light &c, 

*pft mF$ ^TTO ftW^aw#q* S4H foffift &m 

On none of these two ways are those small 
creatures continually revolving ; they die and are 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 55 

born. This is the third place. Thus it is that that 
world is never filled. Hence, one should have a feel- 
ing of disgust. To this end there is this verse. (8) 
Com.-— When they do not pursue knowledge, 
nor perform sacrifices, &c, they do not proceed by 
any of these two paths of Light and Smoke. These 
become the small creatures — flies and mosquitoes 
&c. — that are continually revolving. Hence having 
fallen from both the paths, they go on being born 
and dying endless number of times. And in imit- 
ation of their series of deaths and births, it is said 
! die and be born ' — this injunction being assumed 
to be addressed by the God to such people. For 
such people, all time is past in births and deaths 
and not in any sacrifices or in enjoyment of the 
result's of these. This is the third state, that of the 
small creatures, — third in comparison with the two 
paths. Because, those that proceed by the southern 
path return again : and because, those that 
are not entitled to either knowledge or action, do 
not even go there; therefore, that world is not filled. 
The fifth question has already been answered by 
the explanation of the science of the five Fires. 
The first question — that with regard to the point of 
divergence of the southern and northern paths — 
has been answered by the assertion that the throw- 
ing into fire being common to both classes of men, 
the difference is that (1) one class proceeds by the 
path of Light, whereas the other class having 
proceeded by the path of Smoke to the sis months 
of the sun's southern declension, returns again ; 
and (2) one class passes on, from the months to the 
year, while the other proceeds from the months to 



xjtiis GHHA'NDOGYA UPANI5HAD 

the Begion of the Fathers. The return too, from 
the lunar, orb, by way of A'kasa, has been explain- 
ed, as being in the case of those whose residuum of 
actions has been consumed. The non-filling of 
that world has been directly explained by the text 
itself: "Hence is that world not filled." And 
because the ways of the world are so full of troubles, 
therefore, one should cultivate feelings of disgust 
towards it. And because, small creatures, having 
all their time taken up by experiences of the pains 
of birth and death, are thrown into an illimitable 
terrific darkness, as if in an unfathomable and 
unnavigable ocean, hopeless of crossing it over, — 
therefore, one should cultivate a feeling of disgust 
towards 'such worldly processes : — /,<?,, he should 
pray that he may not fall into this terrible ocean 
of the metempsychosis. To this effect, there is a 
verse, in praise of the philosophy of the five Fires. 

A Man who steals gold, who drinks wine, who 
dishonours the Teacher's bed, and who kills the 
Bruhmana — these four do fall, and also the fifth, 
one who associates with these. {%) 

Com.—{l) One who steals gold from a Br&h- 
mana, (2) the Brahmuna who drinks wine, (3) who 
dishonours the Teacher's wife, and (4) who kills a 
Brdhmana, — these four fall ; as also the fifth, one 
who associates with these. 

t&a$r i?: gti: jpq£i# ^j!r q ^ M q v$ ^ \\\ o h 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 57 

One who knows the five Fires, he is not 
touched by sin, even though he associates with 
them. He becomes pure and clean and reaches 
blessed worlds, one who knows this, — yea one who 
knows this. (10) 

Com. — Xow, one who knows the five Fires as 
explained above, — even though he be associating 
with them, he is not touched by sin ; he continues 
pure ; and by the science of the live Fires, he is 
also made clean ; and because he is clean, he 
reaches blessed worlds— i.e., worlds like those of 
I'fftjapaii and the like, — one who knows this, i.e., 
the philosophy of the five Fires, as expounded by 
questions and answers. The repetition is meant 
to denote the end of the treatment of the questions. 

Thus ends the Tenth Khanda of Adhyuya V. 



ADHYA'YA V. 



KHANDA XL 



Prdchiiiasala the son of Ujximanyu, Saiyayagna 
the son of Pulusha, Indradywnna the grandson of 

JBhallai i, J ana the son of Sarkaraksha, and Budila 
the son of Ascaktraiva — these great house-holders 

and great theologians having come together, held 



58 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

a discussion, as to 'who is the Self, Vhat is 
Brahman\ (1) 

Com. — Those that proceed by the southern path, 
have been said to become food ; and it has been 
said that the Gods eat them ; and it has also been 
said that for them there is a troublesome course 
of births and rebirths among the smaller animals. 
And with a view to the removal of both these dis- 
crepancies, and for tha fulfilment of an identifi- 
cation with Vm'sidnaru, the eater, the nest section 
is commenced ; as is indicated by such passages 
as "thou eatest food, and seest the dear ones fee.™ 
The story is meant to facilitate the compre- 
hension of the subject, as also for the purpose of 
showing the line of transmission of the philosophy. 
Pruclu nasal n, — by name — the son of Upamawju, 
Satyinjarjhu — by name — the son of Pulusha, Indra- 
dyumna — by name — the son of Bhallavi, Jana—by 
name — the son of SarkartVcsha, BudiJa — by name 
—the son of Asvataraiia, — all these five " great 
house-holders" — possessed of large houses — "great 
theologians" — having the occupation of teaching 
the Ted. i — "having come together" somewhere 
" held discussion," as to " who is our Self, and 
what is Brahman" The words ** Self " and "Brah- 
man" qualify one another, — the word " Brahman' 1 '' 
precluding the bodily Self, and the word " Self " 
precludes the worshipability of such Brahman as 
is characterised by the Sun and the like. Thus it 
comes to be established that Self is identically the 
same as Brahman, and Brahman is the Self, — ' the 
Universal Self, the Vaisvdnara, Brahman, that is 
Brahman" ; because of such passages as " Your 



WITH SPJ SANEAKA'S COMMENTARY 59 

head will fall off, and you shall be blind &c„, &c." 

IR I! 

They at last solved the difficulty ; 'Sirs, Udda- 
laka, the son of Aruna knows, at present, the 
Vai svanara Self ; let us go to him.' They went 
over to him. (2) 

Com. — Dismissing over the point, they at last 
solved the difficulty by finding a teacher. Uddalaka 
by name,— -O revered sirs — the son of Aruna, at 

present, knows fully well, this Fat si ft nam Self, 
that which we want to know. Let us go over to 
him. Having thn^ decided, they went over to the 
aforesaid, son of Aruim. 

II \ II 

He thought : ' These great house-holders and 
great theologians will question me ; and I cannot 
tell them all ; therefore, I shall speak to them of 
another ' (3) 

Com. — Just as he saw them, he knew the pur- 
pose for which they had come ; and so thought : 
'These great house-holders and great theologians 
are going to question me with regard to the Vais- 
vdnura Self; and I cannot make up my mind to tell 
them all about it ; therefore, I shall speak to them 
of another teacher. 



<60 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

He said to them : ' Sirs, at present Asvapati 
Kaikeya knows the Vaisvdnara Self ; let us go to 
him.' They went over to him. (4) 

Com. — Haying thought thus, he said to them : 
Sir, Asvapati—by name— the son of KSkaya — 
knows well the Vaisvdnara Belt &c, &c, &c., as 
before. 

^ &jfqs^fa tfft % gj^j j| ^ || 

When they had arrived, he made proper res- 
pects to be paid to each of them separately. The 
next morning, having risen, the king said to them: 
4 In my Kingdom, there is no thief, no miser, no 
drunkard, no man without the sacrificial fire, no 
ignorant person, no adulterer, —whence then an 
adulteress ? I am going to perform a sacrifice, sirs ; 
%nd as much wealth as I give to each priest, I 
shall also give you, sirs ; please stay. * (5) 



WITH SEI SANEABA'S COMMENTARY 61 

They said : * The purpose for which a man 
comes that he ought to give out, At present you 
know the Vaisvdnara Self ; tell us that. ' (6). 

He said : ' To-morrow will I give you an 
answer. ' Early in the morning, they approached 
him, taking fuel in their hands ; .and without 
having performed the initiatory rites, he said to 
them. (7). 

Com, — When they had arrived, the king had 
proper respects ,paid to each of them, by his'priests 
and servants. The next day, rising in the morning, 
the king approached them with reverence, and 
asked them to accept riches from him. Having 
been refused by them, he thought that they con- 
sidered him to be too sinful to receive gifts from ; 
and hence with a view to show his right conduct, 
he said to them : 'In my kingdom, there is no thief, 
no miser — among those who can afford to give — , 
no drunkard — among Bra,hm,anas — , none without 
a sacrificial fire — having a hundred cows, no ignor- 
ant person — in accordance with his own class— -no 
adulterer, — whence then is an adulteress possible ? 
Then being told them that they did want riches, he 
considered that they thought what he had offered 
to be too little ; and hence he said to them ; ' I am 
going to perform a sacrifice for some days ; and I 
have set aside plenty of wealth for that purpose ; 
out of this, whatever wealth J will give to each 
priest, that will I give to each of you also ; so 
please stay and watch my sacrifice. ' Having been 
addressed thus, by the king, they said : " With 
whatever purpose a man goes to another person, 
that he should declare to him— saying that I come 



62 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

to you for such and such a purpose ; such is the 
rule observed by all good people ; we have come, 
seeking after a knowledge of the Vaisvdnara Self. 
And at present, you know this Vaisvdnara Self ; 
therefore telJ that to us." Then he said to them : 
* To-morrow I will give you an answer.' They, 
knowing the king's intention, approached him, 
early the next morning, with fuel in their hands. 
Inasmuch as such great house-holders and great 
theologians, giving up the pride of being 
Brdhmana house-holders, and taking bundles of 
fuel in their hands, approached with respect the 
King, one lower in caste, for the purpose of learn- 
ing, — all other people, desiring learning, should 
behave in this manner. The king too imparted to 
them the learning, without performing the 
initiatory rites, — and as he imparted the knowledge 
to capable persons in this way, so should others also 
impart knowledge ; — such is the meaning of the 
story. "He said to them " the Vaisvdnara Self, 
explained below. 

Thus ends the Eleventh Khanda of Adhydya V. 
ADHYA'YA V. 



KHANDA XII. 

' Aupamanyava, whom do you meditate upon, as 
■the Self ? ' 'The Heaven. O revered king ! ' This 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 63 

Self that you meditate upon is the Vaisvanara Self, 
the Luminous ; therefore in your family is seen the 
Buta-libation, as also the Prasuta and A'suta- lib a- 
tions.' (1) 

Com. — It is explained what the king asked. " O 
Aupamanyava, what is that Vaisv&nara Self which 
you meditate upon?". "But is it not against all rules 
that the Teacher should question the pupil," This 
is no discrepancy ; because we also find such a rule 
as that "tell me what you already know, and I 
will teach you beyond that" ; and elsewhere too we 
come across such questions, meant to arouse the 
latent intuitions of a dull pupil, — as in the case of 
Ajdtasatru : " Where did it exist then, and whereto 
did it go ?," " I meditate upon Heaven as the 
" Vaisv&nara Self, O revered king " — so said 
Aupamanyava. " This is the Luminous " — i.e., 
that whose light or brightness is good, — this is the 
Vaisvanara Self known as the " Luminous ; " and 
this is only a part of the Self — this on whom you 
meditate ; — and hence in meditating upon this, you 
meditate on a part ; therefore since you meditate 
upon the Luminous {Sutejas) Vaisv&nara Self, in 
your family is seen the " Suta-libation " of Soma 
poured out at sacrifices, as also the il Prasuta'"' — 
the excellently poured Libation and the " A'suta " 
the libation to the A'harganas. That is to say, the 
members of your family are excellent sacrificers. 



64 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

You eat food and see what is pleasing. He 
eats food and sees what is pleasing and in his 
family is Brahmic glory-one who thus meditates 
upon the Vaisvdnara Self. But this is only the 
head of the Self ; and your head would surely have 
fallen off, if you had not come to me. 

Com.-" You eat food" with a good appetite, 

and see what is pleasing, and desirable— sons and 

grandsons &c, &c Others too eat food and see 

what is pleasing and in their family are seen the 

Suta Prasuta and A'suta " &c.,-the marks of 

sacrifice, Brahmic glory " those who meditate 

upon the aforesaid, Vaisvdnara Self. However 
this is the only head of Vaisvdnara, and not the 
complete Vaisvdnara. Therefore, inasmuch as you 
mediatate upon his head alone, as the complete 
Vaisvdnara, your head would surely have fallen 
off— since you accept what is contrary to truth— if 
you had not come to me. Therefore, you did well in 
coming to me. 

Thus ends the Twelfth Khanda of Adhydya K 



ADHYA'YA V. 



KHANDA XIII. 



w$ Cicrre wmi %ft jjt^nikt ^ c=wichm&mt- 

II \ It 

Then he said to Satyayagna Paulushi : ' 
Prdchinayogya, what is that on which you medi- 
tate as the Self?' He replied: 'The Sun, O 
revered king.' This is the Visvartipa Vaisvanara 
Self, on whom you meditate as the Self ; therefore, 
in your family are seen many and various articles. 

Co?n> — Then he said to Satyayagna : ' Pra- 
chinayogya, on what do you meditate as Self.* He 
replied : " On the Sun, O revered king 1" The Sun 
is said to be Visvarftpa " because of its having 
many colours, and as such being many-coloured " 
or " Multiform ",— -or because the Sun has all 
forms within itself ; or since all forms belong to the 
Sun, therefore it is Visvarupa " and from medita- 
tion thereon follows the possession of many and 
various articles of comfort, here and elsewhere. 



66 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

Ready is the car with mules, female slaves 
and jewels ; you eat food and see what is pleasing. 
One who thus meditates upon this as the 
Vaisvanara Self eats food and sees what is pleasing, 
and in his family is found Brahmic glory. That 
however is only the Eye of the Self/ You would 
have been blind, if you had not come to me. (2) 

Com. — And further, for you, are ever ready the 
car with a pair of mules attached, and also female 
slaves together with jewels ; you eat food <&c, as 
before. The Sun however is only the Eye of 
Vaisvanara ; and hence by meditating upon this as 
the complete Vaisvdnara, you would have become 
blind — deprived of your Eye — if you had not come 
to me &c, as before. 

Thus ends the Thirteenth Khanda of Adhydya V. 

ADHYATA V. 

KHANDA XIV. 

%3TO 4 r*TO*nq?ps% ^?nw frosq wfca 

Then, he said to Indradyumna Bhdllaveya: 
* Vaiyaghrapadya, on what do you meditate as the 
Self?' He replied : 'On the Air, O revered king ! ' 
This is the Prithagvartmd Vaisvdnara Self, on 
which you meditate as the Self. Hence come to you, 



WITH SBI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 67 

offerings in various ways, and rows of oars follow 
you in various ways. (1) 

Com. — Then he said to Indradyumna 
Bhallaveya: ' Vaiycighrapadya, on what do you 
meditate as the Self V as before "Prithagvartmd" is 
that which has various courses ; and as Air has 
many courses, upwards and downwards, this way 
and that, therefore Air is " Prithagvartmd* There- 
fore, from the meditation of the Prithagvartmd 
Vaisvunara Self follows the result that to you come, 
from various sides, various offerings of food, cloth- 
ing &c ; and also that various rows of cars follow 
you. 

f & 3? 'Trf^rqrcqM %^FRgqivn mmfci mm ^ 

You eat food and see what is pleasing. One 
who thus meditates upon the Vaisvdnara Self eats 
food and sees what is pleasing. That, however, is 
only the breath of the Self. Your breath would 
have departed, if you had not come to me. (2) 

Com. — "You eat food &c," as before. That is 
the breath of the Self; and your breath would have 
departed &c, &c. 



Thus ends the Fourteenth Khanda of AdhyCiya V*. 



ADHYA'YA V. 
KHANDA XV. 

Then he said to Ja?j« Scvrkarakshya : ' Sdrka- 
rakshya, on what do you meditate as the Self ?' ' On 
A'kasa, venerable king.' ' That Self which you 
meditate upon is the Bahula Vaisvanara Self. 
Therefore, you are full of offspring and wealth. (1) 

Gom. — " Then he said &c, &c." as before. 
" This is the Bahula Self." The A'kasa is said to 
be "Bahula" (Full), because it is all-pervading, and 
because it is meditated upon, as endowed with the 
property of fullness. You are full of offspring- 
sons and grandsons- -and wealth — gold &c. 

You eat food and see what is pleasing. One 
who thus meditates upon the Vaisvcmara Self eats 
food and sees what is pleasing, and in his 
family is found Brdhmic glory. That, however, is 
only the trunk of the Self. Your trunk would have 
been torn, if you had not come to me. (2) 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY, 69 

Com. — This is the " middle trunk" of Vaisvd- 
nara. The root " dih " = accumulate ; and since 
the Body is an accumulation of flesh, blood, bone, 
&e., therefore, the word " SancUha " = Body. Your 
trunk would have been torn asunder, if you had 
not come to me. 

Thus ends the Fifteenth Khanda of Adhydya V, 



ADHYA'YA V. 
KHANDA XVI. 

^Ef ^m ^r wm ;owfl# frm%^% *£rott %w$t 
*? Tmtm&n^ mw&^rf^^RFtfs H \ if 

Then, he said to Budila A'svatartisvi t 
* Vaiyaghrapadya, on what do you meditate as the 
Self ? " On water, O revered king.' This is the 
Rayi Vaisvanara Self, on which you meditate as the 
Self. Therefore, you are endowed with wealth and 
strong body.* (1) 

Com.—He said to Budila &c, &c, — as before, 
"This is the Rayi Vaisvanara Self" — the Self in the 
shape of wealth; because from water proceeds food, 
and thence wealth. Therefore you are wealthy and 
strong in body, — strength being due to good food. 



70 THE CHHA'NDOGYA TTPANISHAD 

You eat food and see what is pleasing. One 
who thus meditates upon the Vaisvdnara Self, eats 
food and sees what is pleasing, and in his family- 
is found Bralimic glory, But that is only the bladder 
of the Self. And your bladder would have burst, 
if you had not come to me. {%) 

Com. — " That is the bladder of the Self Vais- 
vdnara; and your bladder would have burst, &c, 

Thus ends the Sixteenth Khanda of Adhydya V, 



ADHYA'YA V. 
KHANDA XVII. 

II I If 

tmm wrf% wivrn wrfe &4 h^i^ sm$- 

Then he said to TJdddlaka A'runi : * Gautama^ 
on what do you meditate as the Self ? ' He replied: 
* On the earth, O revered king.' He said : 'That 
which you meditate upon as the Self is the Pratish- 
thd Vaisvdnara Self. Therefore, you stand firm 
with offspring and cattle." (i) 



WITH SEI SANKARA'S COMMEFTAEY 71 

You eat food and see what is pleasing. One 
who thus meditates upon the Vaisvanara Self eats 
food and sees what is pleasing, and in his family is 
found Brahmic glory. However, those are only the 
feet of the Self. Your feet would have faded away, 
if you had not come to me. (2) 

Com. — Pie said to Udddlaka &c, &c, as before* 
" On the earth" &o. "This is the Pratishthti, the 
feet of Vaisvanara." " Your feet would have faded 
away" — become dull and benumbed — if you had not 
come to me. 



Thus ends the Seventeenth Klmnda of Adhydya V. 

ADHYA'YA V. 
KHANDA XVIIL 

*% % #1 ^i%i *f% *$% €^<mzmfri II ? B 

He said to them : ' All of you, knowing the 
Vaisvanara Self, as if different, eat your food. 
But one who meditates upon the Vaisvdnara Self as 
" Pradisa-matr 'a "and' Abhivimdna,' eats food in 
all worlds, in all beings, in all selves.' (1) 

Com* — He said to them, endowed as they were 
with the aforesaid philosophies of Vaisvanara : 
" All of you" — " Khalu " is a meaningless word, — 
** knowing the one Vaisvanara Self, as if different, 
eat your f ood,"«.e., all of you have ideas of the 



1% THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

Self as limited — and the difference in your ideas 
is just like the difference of the idea that the 
born-blind have of an elephant. One who knows 
the one Vaisvdnara, with Heaven as His head and 
the Earth as His feet, — a,a"Prddesa-mdtra" — this 
compound meaning (1) that which is recognised 
bodily, through Heaven as the head and Earth as 
the feet ; or (2) that which is recognised in the 
mouth &c, as being the eater ; or (3) that which is 
measured by a measure extending from the 
Heaven to the Earth ; or (4) that whose extent are 
the Heavenly Region &c, which are declared in 
the Scriptures ; or (5) in other theories, the Self is 
said to measure only a span, extending from the 
head to the chin ; but this last is not what is meant 
here ; because, the treatment concludes with " of 
this Self &c," As "Abhtvimdna" — i.e., identical with 
himself. " Vaisvdnara"— (1) He who leads men to the 
states ordained in accordance with their virtuous 
or vicious deeds; or (2) the Universal Man, the All- 
Self ; or (3) He who is recognised by all men, after 
being differentiated into their counter-selves. One 
who thus meditates upon this Vaisvdnara, eats 
food in all the worlds — Heaven &c. — , in all beings 
— animate and inanimate*—, in all Selves — i.e., in 
the body, the sense-organs, Mind and the Intellect; 
since, it is by all these that creatures name the Self. 
The knower of Vaisvdnara, being the All-Self, eats 
food ; and not like the ignorant person, who knows 
the physical mass alone. 

^: snor. wrote* ^ ^*feta #p sfe*r 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 73 

Of this Vaisvdnara Self, the head is SutSjas, the 
Eye is Visvarilpa, breath is the Priihagvartmd Self, 
the trunk is Bahula, the bladder is Rayi, the feet 
are the Earth, the chest is the altar, the hairs are 
the sacred grasses, the heart is the Qdrhapaty a fire, 
the Mind is the Anvdhdryapachana fire, and the 
mouth is the Ahdvaniya fire. {%) 

Oom. — Why is it so ? Because of this Vaisvd- 
nara Self, the head itself is Sutejas, the eye is 
Visvarilpa, the breath is Prithdgvartmd Self, the 
trunk is Bahula, and the feet are the Earth. Or 
the meaning of those explanations may be that 
such ^Vaisvdnara Self is to be meditated upon. 
Next, with a view to show that one, who knows 
the Vaisvdnara, performs the Agnihotra sacrifices 
while eating, it is added. Of this Vaisvdnara, 
the eater, the chest is the altar — because of the 
similarity in shape ; the hairs are the sacred 
grasses — because the hairs appear as being strewn 
over the chest, just as the grass over the external 
altar ; the heart is the Gdrhapatya Fire, — because 
the mind, as created out of the heart, becomes 
centralised; and for the same reason, the mind is 
the Anvahdryapachana Fire ; the mouth is the 
A'havaniya Fire, — because the food is poured into 
the mouth, just as the libation is poured into this 
fire. 



Thus ends the Eighteenth Khanda of Adhydya V. 



ADHYAYA V. 



KHANDA XIX. 



Therefore, that food which may come first is 
an object of libation. And the first libation that 
one offers, he should offer, saying ' Svdhd to 
Prdna' ; and thereby Prdna is satisfied. (1). 

Com. — Such being the case, the food that, at 
the time of eating, may first come to a man for 
eating, ought to be offered as a libation. What is 
meant here is only the full accomplishment of the 
Agnihotra sacrifice, and not the detailed mention 
of the processes of the parts of the Agnihotra. 
And the first libation that the eater offers, he 
should offer, saying { Svdhd to Prdna*; i.e., uttering 
this Mantra, he should throw in some food, the 
quantity of which should be exactly the same that 
is thrown into the Fire. And by this, Prdna is 
satisfied. 

5? %*m s*ns[^%%fcr 11 ^ 11 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 7& 

Prdna being satisfied, the eye is satisfied ; the 
eye being satisfied, the Sun is satisfied ; the Sun 
being satisfied, Heaven is satisfied ; and Heaven 
being satisfied, whatever is under Heaven and 
under the Sun, is satisfied. And through the 
satisfaction thereof, he himself is satisfied, also 
with offspring, cattle, health, brightness and 
Brahmic glory. (2) 

Com. — Prdna being satisfied, the eye is satis- 
fied; and so do the Sun, the Heaven &c ; and 
whatever is under — ?.<?., supervised—by the Sun 
and Heaven, becomes satisfied. And all this being 
satisfied, he himself becomes satisfied, with the 
food that he then eats, and also with offspring &c. 
" Brightness " of the body, or of speech and intelli- 
gence ; " Brahmic glory " — glorious brightness 
resulting from a properly accomplished study of 
the Veda. 

Thus ends the Nineteenth Khanda of AdhydyaY. 



ADHYA'YA V. 
KHANDA XX. 

sqftf II \ 8 

The second libation that he offers, he should 
offer, saying ' Svdhd to Vydna* Then Vydna is 
satisfied. (1) 



76 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

^ ^=^T^TMcI#cf cfxFffcf cJF?ig cfftf cptfcT W?T 

Vydna being satisfied, the ear is satisfied ; ear 
being satisfied the Moon is satisfied ; the Moon 
being satisfied, the Quarters are satisfied ; and the 
Quarters being satisfied, whatever is under the 
Quarters and under the Moon, is satisfied. And 
through the satisfaction of this, he himself is 
satisfied, also with offspring, cattle, health, bright- 
ness and Brahmic glory. (2) 

Thus ends the Twentieth Khanrfa of Adhydya V* 



ADHYA'YA V. 



KHANDA XXI. 



cqlcr in It 

The third libation that lie offers, he should 
offer, saying 'Svrihu to Apdna '; then Apdna is 
satisfied. (1) 

W^i $M npqfo ^m ^«Fcqt qfee? *tfM\ ^#- 
%mt ®mm%\ I! H II 



WITH SRI SAHARA'S COMMENTARY 7? 

Apdna being satisfied, Speech is satisfied ; 
Speech being satisfied, Fire is satisfied ; Fire being 
satisfied, the Earth is satisfied ; the Earth being 
satisfied, whatever is under the Earth and Fire is 
satisfied. Through the satisfaction of this, he 
himself is satisfied, also with offspring, cattle, 
health, brightness and Brahmic glory." (2) 

Thus ends the Twenty-first Khcmcla of Adhydya V, 



ADHYATA V. 



KHANDA XXI I. 

i^mM^m^^^m ^qrg grf& ?mm ®*m qgf*?- 
wm ^r mmmm I! ^ D 

The fourth libation that he offers, he should 
offer saying ' SrdJid to 8amcma % \ and thence Sam&na 
is satisfied.' 

Samdna being satisfied, the Mind is satisfied ; 
the Mind being satisfied, Parjanya is satisfied ; 
Parjanya being satisfied, Lightning is satisfied ; 
Lightning being satisfied, whatever is under 
Lightning and under Parjanya is satisfied. And 



78 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

through the satisfaction of this, he himself is 
satisfied, also with offspring, oattl hea ^ S 
brightness and Brahmic glory, $ 

Thus ends the Twenty-second Khanda of AdhydyaV. 



ADHYA'YA V. 



KHANDA XXIII. 



ft IH 1! 

The fifth libation that he offers, he should offer 
saying <£i>«M to Uddna'; and thereby Uddna is 
satisfied. ,^, 

ZTtfdrca being satisfied, the skin is satisfied" 
the skin being satisfied, the Air is satisfied • the' 
Air being satisfied, A'kdsa is satisfied; A'kdsa being 
satisfied, whatever is under the Air and under 
A'kdsa is satisfied. And through the satisfaction 
of this, he himself is satisfied, J also with offspring, 
cattle, health, brightness and Brahmic glory. (2).' 

Thus ends thelTwenty-third Khanda of Adhydya V. 



ADYA'YA V. 



KHANDA XXIV. 

If without knowing this, one were to offer the 
Agnihotra, it would be just as if a man were to 
remove the live-coals and pour the libations on 
dead ashes. (1) 

Com. — If some one, without knowing the 
aforesaid philosophy of VaisvCinara, were to offer 
the well-known Agnihotra, — it would be exactly 
as if some one were to remove all the live-coals 
capable of libations being poured in, and pour his 
libations in the dead ashes left behind. The 
difference between the Agnihotra of one who knows 
the Vaisvmiara, and that of one who knows it not, 
is just the same as between pouring libations in 
fire and that in ashes. By this deprecation of the 
ordinary Agnihotra, the Agnihotra of one who 
knows the Vaisvdnara, is praised. 

^5 ^Ntc^ §c? mfa H \ ll 

But he who, knowing this, offers the Agnihotra, 
his libations fall upon all worlds, all beings and all 
selves. • (2 



80 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

Com. — Therefore, the Agnihotra of the knowing 
person is of superior quality. Why ? Because one, 
who knowing this, offers the Agnihotra, the liba- 
tions of such a person, who knows the aforesaid 
Vaisvdnara, fall upon all the worlds &c, &c, as 
explained above, ' the falling of libations' and 
' eating of food' being synonymous. 

Just as the soft fibres of the Ishika reed would 
burn, when thrown into the fire, in the same 
manner, are burnt she evils of one, who knowing 
this offers the Agnihotra. (3) 

Com.— -And just as the soft fibres of the Ishika 
reed would burn away quickly, when thrown into 
fire, so, for one, who knows this and is the All-Self 
the eater of all food, are completely destroyed all 
the evils — virtue and vice — "accumulating through 
many births, and being produced in the present 
life, prior to and consecutively with the appear- 
ance of knowledge. What is burnt is all the evil, 
except that which is destined to operate towards 
the making up of the next material body of 
the individual ; because, these are not burnt, being, 
as in the case of the liberated ones, already 
operative towards its effect. This is for one, who 
knowing this offers the Agnihotra— i.e., eats his 
food. 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 81 

Therefore, if one who knows this were to offer 
the remnant of his food to a Chanddla, it would be 
offered in his own Vaisvdnara, Self. Hence, is this 
verse. (<£)• 

Com. — If the knowing one were to offer the 
remnant of his food to a Chanddla, who does not 
deserve such offer — i.e., even if he were to dispose 
of the remnant against ordinances — , it would be- 
offered into his own Vaisvdnara Self, as located in 
the Chmidalds body; and thus, such an act would, 
not be sinful. By this, it is the knowledge of 
Vaisvdnara that is eulogised. In the sense of such 
praise, is the following vedic verse. 

f^fmpra f^it5?3WtT ^fcf ii <\ ii 

As here, hungry children wait upon their 
mother, so do all beings wait upon the Agnihobra. 
Yea, they wait upon the Agnihotra. (j) 

Com.— Just as in this world hungry children 
wait upon their mother— expecting when the 
mother would give them food, so do all beings, that 
eat food, wait upon the Agnihotra, as offered by one 
who knows the above,— z.e., they wait in expecta- 
tion of the eating of the knowing person ; waiting 
to see when he would eat and feed them ; the fact 
being that the whole universe is satisfied by the 
eating of the knowing person. The repetition is 
meant to indicate the end of the Adhijuya. 

Thus ends the Twenty-fourth Khanda of Adhydya V. 
Thus ends the Fifth Adhydya. 

6 



^be Cbbanbog^a THpanfebab. 

ADHYA'YA VI. 



KHANDA I. 



Harih Om I There was one SvStaketu, the 
grandson of Aruna. His father said to him : 
SveiaMtu, go and live a religious student ; for, there 
is none of our family, my dear, who has not 
studied the Veda, and who is Br&hmana, only by 
Ibirth ? (1) 

Com* — The connection of the Adhydya 
* l Sv£taMtu, &c." is this : It has been declared above 
that "all this is Brahman, rising in It, dissolving 
in It, and living in If ; and now it has to be 
shown how the universe is born from It, how it is 
dissolved into It, and how it lives in It. And again, 
it has also been declared that when a single 
knowing person has eaten, the whole world is 
satisfied ; and this could be possible, if the Self in 
all creatures were one ; and not, if this Self were 
diverse ; and this sixth Adhydya is begun with a 
view to show that the Self in all is one. The story 
of the father and son is for the purpose of showing 
the gravity of the philosophy. " Sv6taMlu " by 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY ' 83 

name. " Hai " indicates tradition. " A'runSya— 
the grandson of Aruna. To Mm said his father, 
Arwri, finding him to be a fit person for knowledge 
and seeing the time of his initiation approaching; 
" Well Sv§tak$tu find a guru, fit for y our family, go 
to him and live as a religious student. Because it 
is not proper that one born in our family should not 
know the Veda, and should be a Brdhmana, only by 
birth" — i.e., one, who only calls Brdhmands his 
relatives, and does not himself behave like a 
Brdhmana. 

q*J #%£ mmj ST^FRFft ^s^FS^T cWI^PWI^T: 

IR H 

Having gone when twelve years old, he came 
back, when he was twenty-four of age, having 
studied all the Vedas, greatly conceited, considering 
himself well-read, and arrogant. His father said 
to him : "Svitdkitu, since thou art so conceited, 
considering thyself well-read, and arrogant, — didst 
thou ask for that instruction?" (2) 

Com* — It seems that the father himself was 
away from his home; whereby, though himself 
fully endowed will all necessary capabilities, he 
did not initiate his son. Having been thus directed 
by his father, SvStaketu, twelve years old, went 
over to his Teacher until he was twenty-four years 
of age, — when, having read the VSdas and learnt 
their meaning, and being "greatly conceited"— i.e., 
not considering anybody to be his equal — , inclined 



84 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UTANISHAD 

to consider himself well-read, and arrogant, came 
back to his home. Seeing his son unlike himself, 
arrogant and conceited, the father said to him, 
with a view to teach him proper manners : " "Well 
8vitaketu, as thou art so conceited, proud of your 
learning and arrogant, what great thing hast thou 
obtained from thy Teacher ? Or, didst thou ask 
him about that " instruction " — i.e., that by which 
is taught the supreme Brahman, which can be 
comprehended only by means of instructions." 

Sfri^ 33 toto q?i*#fm %rafti% *m 5 

By which the unheard becomes heard, the un- 
perceived becomes perceived, and the unknown 
becomes known ? ' How can there be such an 
instruction, Sir ?' (3) 

Com. — The "Instruction" spoken of is described: 
That instruction, by which all that is unheard be- 
comes heard, all that is unperceived—t.e., unth ought 
of — becomes perceived, and the unknown becomes 
definitely known. What is signified by the story 
is that even after one has read all the vedas, and 
having understood everything else, if one does not 
know the truth with regard to Self, his ends are 
still unaccomplished. Having heard this wonderful 
account of the instruction, and thinking any such, 
by which the unknown becomes known, to be 
impossible, SvMalcetu asks : " How" — in what way 
— " can there be such an instruction ?" 

*m f^fiTCt *uT#t Sfa^fa ^Tr^ 1 1 « II 



WITH SEI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 83 

Just as, my dear, by a single clod of clay all 
that is made of clay becomes known, — all modi- 
fication being only a name based upon words; the 
truth being that all is clay. (i) 

Com. — " Just listen to me, how such instruc- 
tion is possible, my dear ". Just as in the ordinary 
world, when a single clod of clay— the material 
cause of the jar &c.,— is known, all other modifica- 
tions of clay become known by it. " But how can 
all the effects be known by the knowledge of the 
cause, in the shape of the clod of clay ? " This 
does not touch our position ; because the effect is 
non-different from the cause. You think that the 
knowledge of one thing cannot lead to the know- 
ledge of another ; and this would be true with 
regard to the point at issue, if the cause were 
something different from the effects. But as a 
matter of fact, it is not so. " Then how is it that 
there is an idea prevalent among men, that such a 
thing is the cause, and that such and such a thing 
is its effect ? " Just listen how that is ; all 
modification is only a name (the affix " dMya " has 
a reflexive meaning), based on mere words. That 
is, it is only a name based upon words, and there is 
no such reality as modification. In reality, the only 
reality is the clay. 

^$$wm tad ?rp#f q5t^r%t w*fl i K n 

And just as, my dear, by a single ingot of gold, 
all that is made of gold becomes known ,—all 
modification being only a name based on words, 
the truth being that all is gold. (5) 



86 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

Com.— Just as, my dear, by the knowledge of 
a single ingot of gold, all modifications of gold- 
crown, bracelet &c— become known ; — ' only a 
name * &c. &c. as before. 

^s^n&r wftfa II ^ 11 

^rf^lcf wrr^^sr ft spftf^rfo cf&n ^ftfa ium 

li ^9 IS 

And just as, my dear, by a single pair of 
nail-scissors, all that is made of iron becomes 
known, — all modification being only a name based 
upon words, and the truth being that all is iron ; 
thus, my dear, is that instruction. (6) 

' Surely, those venerable men did not know 
this ; for, if they had known it, why should not 
they have told it to me ? Please sir, tell it to me. ' 
'So be it. my dear.' (7) 

Com. — Just as, by a ''single pair of nail-scissors''* 
— which indicates any single piece of iron — all 
modifications of iron become known, &c. &c. as 
before. The citing of many instances is with a 
view to including all the various phases of the 
Reality to be explained, and also to bringing about 
a firm conviction in the mind of the listener. 
"Thus, my dear, is the instruction, spoken of by 
me." When the father had said this, the son 
replied : "The venerable men, my Teachers, surely 
did not know this, that you have said ; for, if they 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 87' 

had known this Reality, why should not they hav© 
told it to me, who was duly qualified, being devoted 
and obedient to the Teacher ? Hence, I conclude 
that they did not know it." The son made this 
assertion, even though it was deprecatory to bias- 
Teachers, simply because he was afraid of being 
again sent away to the Teacher, to learn the truth. 
"Therefore, please sir, tell that to me, which, being- 
known, would make me omniscient." Thus 
requested, the father said; "So be it, my dear." 



Thus ends the First Khanda of Adhydya VI. 
ADHYA'YA VI. 



KHANDA II. 

In the beginning, my dear, this was pure 
Being, one, without a second. Some say that in 
the beginning this was non-being alone, one, with- 
out a second ; and from that Asat, the Sat was 
born. (t) 

Com. — " Sat " denotes pure Being which is 
extremely subtle, undefinable, all-pervading, one, 
taintless, indivisible, pure consciousness. That 
which is explained by all the Vedantas. The 
word " Eva " has a definitive force. What is 
it ascertained to be ? " This, " — the universe, 
which is found to be differentiated into name 



"88 THE CHHA'NDOGYA ITPANISHAP 

and form, "was Pure Being ",— thus "Pur© 
Being " being connected with " was ". When 
was this Pure Being alone ? " In the beginning * 
— i.e., prior to the creation of the universe. 
**' Is not this Pure Being even now, that it is 
specified as being so in the beginning ?" No. 
Wherefore the specification then ? At the present 
time also, this is Pure Being,— but differentiated 
into Names and Forms, the object of the notion of 
4t this "; while, before creation, this was only- 
amenable to the idea of " Pure Being " ; hence, it 
is specified " in the beginning this was Pure Being." 
Prior to creation, no object could be cognised as 
*' this '*, as differentiated into Name and Form ; 
just as it is not so cognised during deep sleep. 
Just as on waking from deep sleep, one recognises 
mere Being — that during deep sleep, the only 
object was Pure Being, — so also prior to creation. 
Such is the import of the text. Just as, in the 
ordinary world, in the morning, one sees the potter 
gathering clay for the making of the jar &c. ; and 
then having gone away to some other place, and 
returning in the evening, he finds in the same place 
various such articles as the jar, the cup and the 
like ; and then, the idea in his mind is that " all 
this jar &c, was only clay in the morning "; in the 
same manner, we have the present assertion. — ' 
In the beginning, this was " Pure Being. " " One 
•alone " — i.e., there is nothing besides Its own 
eff ects, " Without ' a second " — in the case of the 
jar, we find certain other "co-operating agencies — 
in the shape of the potter who is the efficient 
cause, and so forth — apart from the clay itself ; 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 80 

;and it is all such extraneous agency that is preclu- 
ded from the* case in question — in the case of 
"Being, there being no other auxiliary agencies. 
The meaning is that apart from Itself, no other 
object exists. Objection : " In accordance with the 
Vaiseshika theory too, the co-existence of all things 
-with Being, is quite possible, — the notion of Being 
pervading over all substances and qualities ; inas- 
much as the substance has Being, the quality has 
Being, the Action has Being &c, as declared by the 
Vaisishikas ". All this would be quite true, as 
.appertaining to the present time; but the Vai- 
sSshikas do not admit the fact of the effect having 
.a Being, prior to its production ; inasmuch as they 
hold that prior to production, the effect is non- 
existent. Nor do they admit of the reality of a 
single Being, without a second, prior to creation. 
'Therefore, it is something quite different from the 
Being held by the Vaiseshikas, that is here spoken 
.as the cause, the " Pure Being, " explained by 
means of the example of the clay, &c. 

Now, at the time of the consideration of reali- 
ties prior to creation, " some "—i.e., the Nihilists— 
say, while considering such realities, that, prior to 
creation, this was non-being, i.e., a non-entity, — 
this universe being, at first, one without a second. 
The Bauddh&s say that prior to creation, the only 
-reality was the negation of Being ; and they do not 
admit of any other reality, opposed to Being ; as 
the JSfaiydyikas hold that the reality is both Being 
and Non-being, meaning thereby respectively, the 
Object as it exists, and its contradictory. " If the 
INihilist holds that prior to creation, there was a- 



90 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPAFISHAD 

mere negation of Being, how is it that they speak 
of it as existing prior to creation, and being one 
only, without a second, — thereby asserting its rela- 
tions with time and number f True ; no such 
assertion is proper, for those that admit of the 
mere negation of Being. The theory of the exis- 
tence of pure Non-being too is untenable ; because- 
that would be denying the existence of the theoriser 
himself, — which is impossible. If it be urged that 
"the theoriser theorises at the present time and not 
prior to creation ", — this cannot be ; because, there 
are no grounds for believing in the negation of 
Being, prior to creation ; which absence of grounds 
invalidates any such assumption as that " prior to> 
creation, this was pure ISFon-being." " Inasmuch 
as words signify counterpart realities in the- 
objective world, how can there be any meaning in 
the sentence, 'this was Eon-being, one, &c.' And' 
any meaning being impossible, the ^sentence loses 
all authority." This does not touch our position ; 
because the sentence refers merely to the cessation' 
of any cognition of Being. The word "Being" 
signifies a counterpart objective reality ; the words. 
" one," and " without a second " too qualify — {lit,,, 
are co-existent with) — the word " Being " ; so also 
the word "was ". And the negative, used in the 
sentence speaking of "Being", only serves to- 
preclude, from the object spoken of, by such 
sentence, the notion expressed in the sentence — • 
this notion being that "this was one alone* 
without a second " — such preclusion being based 
upon the sentence treating of " Being " itself ; just 
as the person riding a horse, while taking his seat; 



WITH SRI SANKABA'S OOMMENTAEY 91 

(based) upon the horse, turns the horse away from 
the object in its front. And the sentence with th© 
negative does not directly denote the negation of 
Being. Therefore, the sentence "this was Non- 
being &c," is put forward simply with a view to 
set aside all mistaken notions from the minds of 
men. It is only when a mistaken idea is clearly 
expressed, that people can be warned against it; 
and in this lies the use of the sentence beginning 
with " Non-being ** ; hence this sentence comes to 
be endowed with full vedic authority. And therefore, 
the objection urged above falls to the ground. "From 
this Non-being" — i.e., from the negation of all 
things—" Being"— all that is seen to exist—" was 
born." The deletion of the last vowel in " Jayata" 
is a vedic form. 

'But how, my dear, could it be so ?' said he ; 
'how could Being be born from Non-being ? In fact 
it was Being alone that existed in the beginning, 
one, without a second ;' (2) 

Com. — Having thus put forward the view of 
the great Atheist, the text next proceeds to deny 
it : " How" — on what grounds — " my dear, could it 
be so" ? — i.e., how could it be possible for Being to' 
be born from Non-being ?" Though the sprout is 
found to appear from the destruction of the seed— a 
negation — yet, even this is opposed to their theory. 
How ? Because the parts 'of the seed, that go to 
make up the complete seed transfer themselves into 
the sprout ; and they are never destroyed in the 



92 



THE CHHA'NDOGYA TIFANISHAD 



appearance of the sprout. And again, the shape 
of the seed is not held, even by the Atheists, to be 
anything apart from the constituent parts of the 
seed ; and as such, there is no portion of the seed 
that could be said to be destroyed at the appearance 
of the sprout. If it be held that there is some- 
thing apart from the constituent parts, then that 
goes against the Atheistic theory. If it be held 
that " what is destroyed of the seed is the shape of 
the seed, held by mistake— samwiti— {to be apart 
from the^ parts)"— then, we ask—what is this, 
mistake"? Is it an entity, or a non-entity ? If a 
non-entity, then you have no example whereby to 
prove its existence. If, on the other hand, it be an 
entity, then the birth of the sprout is not from a 
non-entity ; the fact being that the sprout is born 
out of the parts of the seed. If it be urged that 
even the constituent parts of the seed are destroyed 
this cannot be ; because, the impossibility of 
destruction applies equally in the case of the parts- 
just as according to the Atheists there is no such 
complete whole, as has the shape of the seed, so also 
are the parts no wholes ; and as such cannot be 
destroyed. Because the parts too will have their 
parts ; these latter again will have their own ■ and 
as this series could never stop, no destruction 
could ever be possible. On the other hand, for One 
who holds the existence of Being, the notion of 
existence going on ever so long, the fact of Being 
never ceases ; and, as such, the production of an 
entity becomes established. Whereas, for those 
that hold to Non-being, there can be no example of 
the production of Being from Non-being. For 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 93 

the former theorists, there are found many- 
examples — such as the production of the jar 
out of clay, the jar existing only while the clay 
exists, and never otherwise. If it were only from 
non-entity that the jar were to be produced, then 
one desiring to make a jar would not take up the 
clay ; or the jar, &c , would all be followed by 
notions of Non-entity. None of these however is 
found to be the fact ; hence, Being can never be 
bom from Non-being. It has been asserted that the 
idea of the clay is the cause of the idea of the jar j 
while there is no such reality as either the clay or 
the jar ; but in this case too, it is only an existing 
idea of clay that is the cause of the existing idea 
of the jar *, — whence too, there can be no production 
of Being from Non-Being, If it be urged that "the 
ideas of clay and the jar, standing in the relation 
of means and consequence, have mere sequence 
between them, and no casual relation," — this 
cannot be ; because, even in the matter of the 
sequence of ideas, the Atheists can have no 
instances to substantiate their case. Therefore, the 
father said~ u How could it be thus ? In what 
manner could Being be born from Non-being? " 
That is to say, there are no instances to show the 
production of an entity from a non-entity. Thus 
having upset the theory of Non-being, the text sums 
up : " Being alone, my dear, existed in the begin- 
ning "—which has been established as the orthodox 
view. Objection : " Even -for one who holds Being, 
there is no instance showing the production of an 
entity from another entity; since from one jar 
another jar is not found to be produced." True it 



94 THE OHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

is that from one entity no other entity is born, — the 
fact being that it is Being alone which subsists in 
another form ; just as the serpent coiling itself 
round into a ring, and as the clay-dust subsists in 
the forms of the jar &c. " If, in this manner, 
Being alone has all sorts of shapes, how is it that 
it is declared that in the beginning this was Being 
alone"? Have you not heard the word " eva " which 
has a definite meaning with reference to the 
denotation of the word " this " — which signifies the 
effect ? " But then, in that case, it follows that in 
the beginning there was non- entity, at first there 
being no this, while at the present time this has 
appeared/' Not so; It is Being itself which subsists 
in the form of that which is denoted by the word 
"this," — just as it is the clay which subsists in the 
form' of that which is denoted by the words " jar " 
&cg. " But just as the clay is a reality in itself, so 
too are the jar &c. ; because these too are, like it, 
the objects of notions, other than that with regard 
to Pure Being ; and hence, all effects would be 
realities different from the Being,— just as the 
cow from the horse." This cannot be ; because, 
though the various effects lump, jar &c, differ 
among themselves, yet they are the same 
with regard to the clay. Though the jar differs 
from the lump, and so does the lump from the jar, 
yet both the lump and the jar do not differ from 
the clay ; hence, both the lump and the jar are 
pure clay. Whereas, the horse differs from the cow, 
and the cow from the horse. Therefore, the jar &c, 
are only different forms of clay. In the same 
manner is all this only a form of Being ; hence, it 



WITH SEI SANKARA'S COMMENTAEY 95 

is only proper to say that "in the beginning, this 
was Being alone," — all forms of modifications 
being merely in name. "It is declared in the sruti 
that the Purusha is indivisible, inactive, calm, 
faultless, taintless, divine and incorporeal, the 
inner and outer unborn ; and as such how could the 
indivisible, incorporeal Being be modified into 
■different shapes?" This does not touch our 
position ; just as the parts of the serpent ara 
assumed from the parts of the rope, so it would be 
possible for the shapes of modifications to proceed 
from the assumed parts of the Being, because says 
the sruti "all modification" is only a name based 
on words ; and the only truth is that it is clay" 
and thus the only truth is the Being. "One, 
without a second," as a matter of fact, even at the 
time of the cognition of this (when the one-ness 
ceases only apparently). 

It saw, 'may I be many, may I grow forth'. It 
created fire. The fire saw, may I be many, may I 
grow forth'. It created water. Therefore whenever 
a man is hot and perspires, it is water produced 
from fire. (3) 

Com. — The Being "Saw" — i.e., did the seeing. 
It follows from this that the cause of the universe 
is not Pradhana of the sdnkyas ; because, they hold 
the Pradhana to be non-intelligent; while the Being 
spoken of here is intelligent ; because, It sees. 



96 THE OHHA/ffDOOYA UPANISHAD 

How did It see ? "May I be many, and may I grow 
forth 1'* Just as the clay becomes many in the- 
shape of the jar &c, or as the rope grows forth 
into the shape of the serpent, assumed in the mind, 
"In that case all that is seen to be is a non-entity, 
because the rope as the serpent is a non-entity.'" 
Not so ; because it is Being itself that is mistaken 
for dualities and diversities,— and there is no non- 
existence of anything anywhere. The JSfaiyayikas 
assume a reality other than Being ; and then they 
declare that prior to creation, this is destroyed; 
whence they assert its subsequent non-existence. 
But we do not assume any name or thing, other than 
Being. It is Being alone which names, and is named r 
as other things ; just as, the rope that is named 
serpent by the notion of a serpent ; or again, just 
as the lump, the jar &c, being mistaken for some 
thing other than the clay, are named as a lump*,, 
"jar' &c ; while those that know the rope set aside 
the name and idea of serpent, and those that know 
the clay set aside the names and ideas of the lump, 
the jar &c ; in the same manner, those that have a 
discriminative knowledge of Being, set aside all 
words and ideas with regard to the modifications, — 
assay the Srulis: "Whence speech desists, not 
reaching It even by the mind." "That which can- 
not be named &c, &c." Having seen (thought) 
thus, "It created fire." "It has been declared in 
another Sruti that from Lhe Self was produced 
A'kasa, from A'hdsa, Air, and from Air, Fire, — thus 
Fire being the third in order of production ; then, 
how is it that in the present passage it is mentioned 
as the. first creation, and Alcdsa Is said to follow 



WITH SRI SAHARA'S COMMENTARY 9? 

from it ; thus then, there is a contradiction between 
two parts of the Sruti." This is no fault ; because,, 
even in the present case, it can be assumed that the 
Being created Fire, after having created A'kdsa and 
Air. Or, the fact may be that the text has no eye 
to the order of creation; all that is meant to be- 
shown being that all things being the effect of 
Being, this latter 'is one, without a second'; because,, 
the instances cited are those of clay and the like,. 
Or, it may be that what is aimed at is an exposition 
of "Trivitkarana" (the intermixture of three 
elements); and hence the creation of only three — 
Fire, Water and Food— is described, 'Fire' is that 
which is known as that which burns, cooks, 
lightens, and is red. Having been created, the Fire 
willed as before, 'may I be many, may I grow 
forth' ; and 'it created Watar' ; — by 'Water' being 
meant all that is known 'to be fluid and white. 
Because, Water is the effect of Fire, therefore, 
whenever a person is hot and perspires, it is only 
Water that is being produced from Fire. 

aT r ^FF \%F3 ^m : HUT SRT%*?ClpT cFT s^W^- 

spt mq% II 2 if 

The Water willed 'may I be many, may I grow 
forth' ; it created food. Therefore, whenever it 
rains anywhere, then is most food produced ; as 
from Water alone is eatable food produced. (4) 

Com. — 'The Water willed,' as before, the Being, 
in the form of Water, willed' 'may' I be many, and 
may I grow [forth.' 'It created Food' — by 'Food' 
7 



:98 THE CHHA'NDOGYA tTPANISHAD 

being meant the Earth ; because Food is of the 
nature of the Earth. Because Pood is produced from 
Water, therefore, whenever it rains at any place, 
there the greatest quantity f Food is produced ; 
hence, it is from Water that all eatable Food is 
produced. In the first sentence it was said simply 
'Food was produced,' where the earth was meant ; 
here it is said ' eatable food,' meaning thereby the 
various corns, barley &c. 'Food' is all that is heavy, 
firm, nutritious, and dark in colour. ' We do not 
find any intelligent will in the case of Fire &c; in- 
; asmuch as the killing of these is not prohibited, 
and as in them we do not find any such traits of in- 
telligence, as fear and the like; then, how is it that 
" the Text asserts that the Fire willed. This is no fault; 
Fire &c, being modifications of the real source of 
intelligence, and the intelligent one bringing about 
effects in a fixed order, it can be reasonably said 
•that ' Fire willed,'' meaning thereby that, 'It willed, 
■as it were' 'Well, then is the intelligence of Being 
only assumed?' No, by no means ; the seeing of the 
Being being amenable only to words, it could 
never be assumed. The willing by Fire, &c, 
however, is inferred ; and as such, there being an 
absence of real primary will it is only proper that 
it should be assumed, (in accordance with infer- 
ence). ' The Being too being the cause of clay, 
may be inferred to be non-intelligent ; and in that 
case the willing may be assumed as belonging to 
the non-intelligent S&nkhya pradk&na' on the 
ground that the Being is for the sake of intelli- 
gence, and brings about effects in keeping with 
a fixed time and order. In the ordinary world too, 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY. 99 

we come across cases where the non-intelligent is 
used as intelligent— e.g., 'the bank of the river 
wishes to fall' ; similarly could it be with the non- 
intelligent Being.' This cannot be ; because, the 
Being is declared to be the Self ; ' It is the true, It 
is the Self.' If it be urged that ' the declaration of 
its being the Self is also assumed, — just as there 
is an imposition of the name Self on the non-Self, 
as in the case ' my Self is Bhadrasena,' — this can- 
not be ; because, in the sentence ' the delay for him 
is only so much, &c.,' the Sruti declares Liberation 
for one who has a true knowledge. ' I am Sab.' If 
it be urged that this too is only assumed, — all 
declaration of Liberation being only assumed, even 
in the ease of the theory that one who knows the 
Prad.liQ.na to be his Self, is close to liberation; 
just as, starting for a village, one might say ; ' I 
have reached the village', with reference to the 
speed with which he is going; — this cannot be; 
because, the section has begun with the declaration 
* a knowledge of which makes the unknown known 
&c.' It is only when the Being is known that all 
things become known ; because, all things are non- 
different from It, because It is declared to be ' one 
without a second.' There is nothing else left to be 
known— which is either directly mentioned in the 
Sruti, and which could be inferred from any 
premises — whereby the declaration of liberation 
might be assumed. If the whole Adhydya were 
said to be assumed, then it would be so much 
labour lost for nothing ; because the fact of this Adh- 
ydya explaining things leading to the final end of 
Man is got at, by means of argument. Therefore, 



100 THE CHHA'HDOGYA UPANISHAD 

inasmuch as tlie Veda is authoritative, it is not right 
to ignore the directly denoted meanings (and assume 
secondary indirect ones). Therefore, it is established 
that the cause of the universe is intelligent. 

Thus ends the Second Khanda of Adhydya VI. 



ADHYA'YA VI. 



KHANDA III. 

cW '^% E rf '*ItfHT 5ftQ%F sjkrfa *icFcqTiJi^ sffasr- 
gftsfftft li \ II 

Of these living beings, there are only three 
origins : bora from an egg, born from a living being, 
born from roots. (1) 

Com. —Of all living beings, Bird &c, — because 
" eshum " is added we must take it to refer to the 
living, and not to Fire &c«; because the three-f oldness 
of these has yet to be spoken of, and before it has 
been spoken of, they cannot be referred to as "these"; 
and secondly, because we find the word * Deity' used 
with regard to Fire &c. "These three Deities fee" 1 
Therefore, of these living beings, the Bird &c, there 
are only three origins, not more. It is explained 
which ones these three are : (1) That born from the 
Egg — the Bird &c. : the Bird and the Serpent are seen 
to be born from the Bird and the Serpent ; hence a 
Bird is the origin of another Bird, and so on. "Inas- 
much as 'Andaja' is that which is born from an Egg, 
th e origin is the Egg, and not the Bird ; and as such, 



WITH SRI SAFKABA'S COMMEUTABY 101 

how is it that what is born of an egg is spoken of as 
the origin *?" It would have been so, only if the Sruii 
was dependent upon your wish ; but inasmuch as the 
Sruti is independent, ife has declared that the origin is 
that bom from the egg, and not the egg; and as a matter 
of fact also, we find that the absence of the Bird 
— and not that of the egg — brings about the absence 
of any future brood of that species. Therefore, that 
which is bom from the egg is the origin of the andaja 
class. Similarly " that is bom of a living being*' — i.e., 
that which is born from the womb — , the man, cattle 
and the like. So also, that which is *' born from 
roots *' — i.e.) all that proceeds from that which shoots 
out, namely the immoveable objects; or "udbhid** may 
be taken as seed or root ; and that which is born of 
these is the origin of all immoveable beings. Those 
born in perspiration &c, are included in the " egg- 
born " &c. Hence is the number limited to " three " 
only. 

This Deity willed : 'Well, may I enter into all 
those three divatds by means of this Living Self 
(jivatma) and shall appear under different names 
and forms.' (2) 

Com. — " This Deity ", — the one treated of here, 
named " Being ", source of Fire, Water and Food — 
willed, as before—" May I be many &o. " I nasmuch 
as the purpose of becoming many has not yet been 
fulfilled, the Deity based its further desire upo n that 
purpose. What did the Deity will : " Well, may I 
enter into these three divatds^ Fire, Water and 



102 THE OHHA'NDOGYA TJPANISHAD 

Food, by means of this living self '"-by this lasfe 
clause referring to the process of living experienced 
by the Deity, during the previous creation, the 
meaning being 'by means of that Self which keeps 
the Breath' &c, meaning thereby the Self, partaking 
of the character of Intelligence, and as such, not 
differing from the Real Self. " May I enter " i.e., 
may I, having obtained, specific consciousness, by 
contact with Fire, Water and Food, manifest under 
various names and forms ; that is to say, clearly 
distinguish that such is the Fame and such is the 
Form. " The non-worldly omniscient Deity being 
independent, it is not possible that It should consci- 
ously determine to enter, and positively enter into 
the Body, which is the receptacle of hundred and 
one troubles, and by such entrance, actually 
undergo the troubles." True; this would not be 
possible, if the Deity were to determine to enter and 
undergo troubles, in its pristine undifferentiated 
form ; but, as a matter of fact, such is not the case ; 
since it is clearly stated "having entered by means of 
this living self-the living self being only a shadow 
of the Deity, a mere reflection of the Real, Self, 
in the mirror consisting of contact with Buddhi and 
the rudimentary elements ; just like the reflection of 
the sun in the water. The contact of the Deity possess- 
ed of unimaginable, endless powers with Buddhi &c 
produces a shadow of Intelligence, through the non- 
discrimination of the Real Form of the Deity; and this 
shadow is the origin of various such notions, as 
I am happy,' 'lam unhappy 1 am deluded' and 
the like. Inasmuch as it is in its mere shadow that 
the Deity has entered, It is not, in itself, connected 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 102 

■with pain, and pleasure. Just as the man, the sun 
&g., reflected in the water, are there only in their 
shadows, and as such, are not touched by the faults- 
of the reflecting surface ; so also this Deity. '* Just 
as the Sun being the Eye of all the world, is- 
not touched by the external discrepancies of 
the Eye ; so also, the inner self of all beings- 
being apart from the world, is not touched: 
by the discrepancies of the world ;" and also* 
" It is like A'kasa, all-pervading and eternal " as 
declared in the Katha Upanishad ; " as if thinking 
&c., " as in the Vdjosanei/a. " If the living self is a 
mere shadow, it must be false ; and so also must be 
its being in this world and the nest, &o. " That does 
not affect the case ; because it is held to be true, in 
its character of the Real Self. All Name and Form 
is true, *on!y in its nature of the Real Self — all 
modification by itself, being false ; as declared before 
" all modification is mere name &c. "; so also with 
the living self. There is a well-known maxim that 
' the offering is in keeping with the character of the- 
elemental to which it is offered ' ; and it is in accord- 
ance with this maxim that all worldly modifications- 
are true, in their character of Real Self, and false, in 
all other cases, and as such, the JSfaiydyika cannot 
raise any objections against this ; because we can 
always explain away discrepancies by saying that 
all assertions of duality, contradicting one another,, 
are mere fancies of one's own intellect, based upon 
unrealities. 



104 THE CHHA'NDOaYA UPAHISHAD 

Saying 'may I make each of 'these three tri- 
partite', the Deity entered into those three d6vai&$, 
by means of this living self, and differentiated Names 
and Forms. (3) 

Oom."- U Having entered into these three divattis, 
in their original state, with Names and Forms un- 
differentiated, — may I differentiate their Names and 
Forms " — having thought so, and also that, — " each 
of these three, may I make tri-partite " — in which 
process one element is the principal and the other 
two being secondary constituents, — 'otherwise, it 
would become like the rope with all its three consti- 
tuent threads of equal importance. The three elements 
are separately rendered tri-partite, but only within 
themselves. Thus Fire &c., come to acquire their 
separate names— that this is Fire, this Water and 
this Food. And the purpose that is served by the 
recognition of the separate names of these is the 
accomplishment of all usage with regard to them. 
Having thought thus, the Deity entered these three 
(ttvatas, by means of the aforesaid ii\ T »ng self, — 
entering inside like the reflection of the Sun — , 
entering first the body of the Virtii, and then the 
bodies of the Gods &c, finally came to differentiate 
Names and Forms, in accordance with its previous 
resolve — distinctly differentiating that such is the 
Name, and such the Form, and so forth. 

It made each of these tri-partifce ; and how each 
of these three dSvatds becomes tri-partite, learn that 
from me, my dear. (4) 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 105 

Com. — If; made each of these dSvatds tri-partite 
— in accordance with the comparative excess of the 
one with regard to the other two. You may, for the 
time being, lay aside the fact of the bodies of the 
Gods &c, with their Names and Forms differentiated, 
being tri-partite, as consisting of Fire, Water and 
Food ; just learn from me first, how each of these 
three devatds — exterior to those bodies, — comes to 
be tri-partite ; I will explain this by means of 
examples. 



Thus ends the Third Khanda of Adhydya VI. 



ADHYA'YA VI. 
KHANDA IV. 

qj&faSfa mm^ i \ \\ 

Of Fire, the red colour is the colour of Fire, the 
white is of the Water, and the black is of the Earth. 
Thus vanishes Fieriness from the Fire, being only a 
modification, which is merely a name, based upon 
words ; the only truth being that there are the three 
colours. (1) 

Com. — The tri-partition of the dSvatds is ex- 
emplified. An example is cited with a view to explain 
the whole by exhibiting only a part. Of the tri- 
partite Fire, what is known as the red colour is the 



106 THE CHHA'NDOG-YA TJPAHISHAD 

colour of the pre-tripartite Fire ; so also, the white- 
colour of the Fire is the colour of the pre-tripartite 
Water ; and the black colour is that of the Earth, 
prior to tri-partition. Such being the case, there 
vanishes what you think to be Fire apart from the- 
three colours. Prior to the correct understanding 
of the three colours, you had the notion of Fire, 
as an independent entity ; this notion as also the 
word Fire, vanishes. Just as when rock-crystal 
is seen over a red surface, the idea that people 
and the words that they use is that " it is a ruby "' 
— prior to the discrimination of the surface and 
the crystal, after which, however, the notion of 
ruby, as well as the word 'ruby' disappear. " Why 
should you bring in the idea and the word in 
the present explanation ? The explanation should 
be ' prior to the discrimination of the three colours, 
it was Fire ; and as soon as the three colours were 
properly recognised, it ceased to be Fire ; just as- 
when the threads have been drawn away, the cloth 
ceases to be.' Not so ; because Fire is cognised only 
by means of the idea and the word ; because it is de- 
clared that " It is a mere modification, being only a 
name '' — " Fire " — " based on words." For the same 
reason the idea of Fire is also false. The only truth, 
that is there, is that there are the three colours — i.e., 
apart from the three colours there is not an atom 
that is true. (I) 4 

sof ^^.qn-t^jTiT^^j^if^^f crrcTTsswrf fart ^m- 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 107 

Of the Sun, the red colour is the colour of Fire r 
the white is of Water, and the black is of the Earth. 
Thus vanishes Sunness from the Sun, being only a 
modification, which is only a name, based on words ; 
the only truth being that there are three colours. (2)' 

^^mrwm^jwm zmsswm tad m§4 sft- 
f&i ^qroftc^r w$f{ H \ II 

Of the Moon, the red colour is the colour of 
Fire; the white is of Water; the black is of the Earth. 
Thus vanishes Moonness from the Moon, being only 
a modification, which is a mere name, based on 
words ; — the only truth being that there are three* 
colours. (3) 

tflpt dft^ ^T %^T^15 sf^p TOT 3?f>aT" 

cF^WTqFnflf^ f^T ^t^tsstotot fern ^M 

sfojft ^qMl^ Wm II 8 II 

Of the Lightning, the red colour is the colour of 
Fire ; the white is of Water ; the black is of the 
Earth; thus vanishes Lightningness from the Light- 
ning, being only a modification, which is a mere- 
name based on words ; — the only truth being that 
there are three colours. (4) 

Corn. — Similarly of the Sun, the Moon, and the 
Lightning, &c, &c, as before. " It was promised 
above ' Learn from me how each of these divatds 
becomes tri-partite ; ' while in all the four cases, 
it is only the tri-partite character of Fire that 
has been shown, and no examples have been; 



108 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

cited to show the tri-partite character of Water 
and Earth." This is no fault; what is meant by 
the text is that in the same manner examples may- 
be added to show the similar tri-partite charac- 
ter of Water and Earth also. The examples 
in connection with Fire are simply meant to point 
out the nature and method of exemplification,— it 
being chosen on the ground of its being coloured, and 
as such, being more easily and clearly compre- 
hensible. Odour and taste have not been taken up 
in the example ; because the three were not possible ; 
as in tire, odour and taste do not exit. Touch and 
sound have not been taken up, because they are in- 
capable of being shown apart from their substrata. 
If the whole universe is tri-partite, then, as in the 
case of Fire, the only truth would be the three 
colours, and like the fieriness of fire, the universeness 
of the universe would also vanish. Similarly too, 
earth being only an effect of water, the only truth 
would be the water, and earth would be a mere name. 
So too, the water being an effect of fire, would be a 
mere name ; and the only truth would be the fire. 
Fire too, being an effect of Being would be a mere 
name, the only truth being the Pure Being. This is 
what is meant by the text. "Air and A'k&sa, not being 
tri-partite are not included in Fire &c ; and these are 
still left as being true ; and so also, do odour, taste, 
sound and touch remain behind ; and as such, how 
could the mere knowledge of Being, make all things 
unknown ? for, certainly, there must be some inde- 
pendent method of knowing, these latter that have 
been left behind." This does not touch our position ; 
because all things are included in the * coloured 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 109 

substance.' How? In Fire, which has colour, we also 
find sound and touch, and from this fact we infer the 
presence therein of A'kasa and Air, whose specific 
properties are sound and touch ; similarly "Water and 
Earth are included in taste and cdour respectively. 
The three coloured substances— Fire, Earth and 
Water—having been shown to be tri-partite, all that 
*s included in them is only a modification of Being ; 
and as such, in truth there being only the three 
colours, all is meant by the text, is that everything 
is known by the knowledge of Being. Ether, Air, and 
A'Msa or their specific qualities, touch and sound, 
are never cognised apart from coloured substances* 
Or, another explanation may be that the tri-partite 
character of the coloured substances too is shown 
only with a view to point out the way in which 
the others may also be shown to be similarly tri- 
partite. Just as in the case of tri-partition s 
the only truth is the three colours, — so, the 
same rule is applicable to the case of the five- 
fold partition of the elements. Thus then, all things 
being only a modification of Pure Being, the know- 
ledge of this makes all things unknown ; hence it is 
established that Being is " one only, without a 
second". Hence it has been only rightly said that 
"by the knowledge of one, all things become known"* 

It was on knowing this, that the ancient great 
house-holders and great sacrificers said : ' For us, 
there is nothing now that is unheard, unthought or 



108 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

cited to show the tri-partite character of Water 
and Earth." This is no fault ; what is meant by 
the text is that in the same manner examples may 
be added to show the similar tri-partite charac- 
ter of Water and Earth also. The examples 
in connection with Fire are simply meant to point 
out the nature and method of exemplification, — it 
being chosen on the ground of its being coloured, and 
as such, being more easily and clearly compre- 
hensible. Odour and taste have not been taken up 
in the example ; because the three were not possible ; 
as in fire, odour and taste do not exit. Touch and 
sound have not been taken up, because they are in- 
capable of being shown apart from their substrata. 
If the whole universe is tri-partite, then, as in the 
case of Fire, the only truth would be the three 
colours, and like the fieriness of fire, the universeness 
of the universe would also vanish. Similarly too, 
earth being only an effect of water, the only truth 
would be the water, and earth would be a mere name. 
So too, the water being an effect of fire, would be a 
mere name; and the only truth would be the fire. 
Fire too, being an effect of Being would be a mere 
name, the only truth being the Pure Being. This is 
what is meant by the text. "Air and A'kctsa, not being 
tri-partite are not included in Fire &c ; and these are 
still left as being true ; and so also, do odour, taste, 
sound and touch remain behind ; and as such, how 
could the mere knowledge of Being, make all things 
unknown ? for, certainly, there must be some inde- 
pendent method of knowing, these latter that have 
been left behind." This does not touch our position ; 
because all things are included in the ' coloured 



110 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

unknown which, people will talk of ;' and they knew 
it from these. (5) 

Com. — Knowing this, the ancient great house- 
holders and great sacrificers said : what did they 
say ? " For us", — for our family — " there is nothing 
now unheard, unthought or unknown, which people 
will talk of," — that is to say, all our descendants 
knowing the Pure Being, all things will be known to 
them. But how did these people know It ? They 
knew It from these colours, — having known them as 
tri-partite, they knew all things else. And because 
they knew this, they knew all, — they were 
omnisci&xit. Or, it may mean that they knew all 
things from "these", Fire, &c., that have been cited 
as exai&ples. 

%FfT ^™ <F$ teFfWfel II V9 ll 

Whatever appeared red, they knew it to be the 
colour of Fire ; whatever appeared white, they knew 
it to be the colour of Water ; whatever appeared 
Black, they knew it to be the colour of Earth. (6) 

Whatever appeared to be unknown, they knew 
it to be a combination of these devatds. Now learn, 
my dear, from me, how, on reaching the man, each 
of these dSvatds, becomes tri-partite. (7) 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 111 

Com. — How did they know ? In such objects as 
the pigeon and the like 5 which appeared to be some- 
thing else — what appeared red to those ancient 
Brahman-knowers, they knew it to be the colour of 
Fire- Similarly what appeared as white, they knew 
it to be the colour of Water, and the Black to be the 
colour of the Earth. In the same manner, whatever 
happened to be infinitely subtle and not particularly 
cognised, — they knew this to be a combination — an 
aggregate — of the same three devatds. Thus have 
all the external things, Fire, &c, been known; now, 
my dear, learn from me, how each of these aforesaid 
divatds, on reaching the man — as made up of the 
head, feet &c, and as being an aggregate of means 
and consequences — i. e., on being connected with 
man, becomes tri-partite. 



Thus ends the Fourth Khanda of Adhyaya VI. 



ADHYA'YA VI. 



KHANDA V. 



Food when eaten, becomes three-fold : its 
grossest part becomes fceces, its middle part flesh, 
and its subtlest part mind. (1) 

Com. — Food when eaten, and digested by the 
Fire in the stomach, becomes divided into three 



112 THE CHHA'NDOCYA I7PAKISHAD 

parts : of the food time divided, the grossest part is 
excreted as foeoes ; the middle part— gradually 
changing from the liquid condition, ends in becoming 
flesh ; and the subtlest part, reaches upward to the 
Heart, and thence entering the arteries called the 
" Hitti" and thereby bringing into existence the 
aggregate of the organs of speech &., finally develops 
into the mind ; i. e., being changed into the form of 
the mind, it increases the mind. And thus the mind 
being increased by food it is material (lit. elemental); 
and not impartite and eternal, as held by the 
VaisesMkas. Though it will be declared later on 
that <s mind is his divine eye," yet that does not 
refer to its eternality, but only to the fact of its 
pervading over all the senses and all their objects 
whether subtle, or near, or far. And we shall explain 
how the eternality of the mind in eompari-on to the 
objects of other senses, is purely Comparative, (and 
not absolute) ; because, it has been distinctly declared 
that) " Being alone is one, without a second." 

Water, when drunk, becomes three-fold : its 
grossest part becomes urine ; its middle part blood 
and its subtlest part is Prdna. (2) 

Com. — So also water when drunk becomes three- 
fold : its grossest part being urine, its middle part 
being blood and its subtlest part becoming Prdna, as 
will be declared " Prdna consists of water as "of 
one who is drinking water, Prdna will not be 
separated." 



WITH SBI SANKAEA'S COMMENTARY 113- 

M\sfm fen Mi^ c^q w ^#gr Hr^rf^f, 

Fire, when eaten, becomes three-fold : its grossest ~ 
part becomes bone, its middle part marrow and its 
subtlest part Speech. (3) 

Com. — Fire when eaten in the shape of oil, , 
butter &c, becomes thrse-fold ; its grossest part 
becomes bone, its middle part becomes the marrow — 
the fatty substance encased in the bone; and its 
subtlest part becomes speech, — it being well knowit 
that by eating oil, butter &c, speech becomes clear, 
and capable of speaking. 

ctct qFn" w#^if??M^ cp-tt rn^rn iw^ IS 8 IS 

* Thus, my dear, mind consists of Food, Pruna of 
water, and Speech of firs.' 'Teach me, again, Sir.' 
1 So be it, my child.' he said. (4) 

Com.— Such being the case, my child, " Mind 
consists of Food, Prana of Water, and Speech of 
Fire." " But those that eat only food, such as the 
rat &c, are found to have life and speech ; and so 
also those that live upon water alone, such as the 
denizens of the Sea, Fish &o„ are found to have 
mind and speech ; and so too may be inferred the 
fact that those who live upon mere oils, have life 
and mind. And then, how is it that mind is said to 
consist of food only ?" This is no discrepancy ; 
since everything being tri-parfcite, all the three 
elements exist in everything. One never eats any 
un-tripartite food, or drinks any un-tripartite water, 
or eats any un-tripartite fire. Hence it is no» 



114 THE CHHA'KDOGYA UPA3SISHAD 

contradiction of our theory, to find that the rats 
that eat only food, have speech and life. Having 
been thus convinced of the truth of the theory 
Svetak&tu said : " Teach me again, Sir*' — i.e., 
explain to me still further by means of fresh 
examples, the theory that the mind consists of food 
&c ; because, even now, I have not been able to 
definitely grasp this theory ; for, if; is really hard 
to realise that the food, water and oils falling in the 
body — which itself is not distinct from fire, water 
and earth — . develop by means of their subtlest 
parts, into mind, pruna and speech, without 
relinquishing their own innate properties." When 
•.the son had said this, the father replied: ''So be 
it — just listen to an example, which will show how 
what you ask is quite possible". 



Thus ends the Fifth Khanda of Adhyaya VI. 



ADHYA'YA VI. 

KHANDA VI. 

^rfq&rfci IS \ II 

Of the curd when churned, my dear, that which 
is subtle rises upwards ; it becomes butter (1) 

Com* — Of the curd, when churned, my dear, 
that which is subtle, gathers up and then rising to 
the top as cream, becomes butter. 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 115 

<?Ml tRTO spfftf II \ If 

Iii the same manner, my dear, of the food that 
is eaten, that which is the subtle part rises up- 
wards ; and it becomes mind. (2) 

Com. — As in the instance cited, so too, my dear, 
of the food, rice &c, that is eaten, — and which is 
churned by the fire in the stomach helped by the 
wind, as if it were by means of a churning rod — 
that which is the subtle part rises upwards, and 
becomes mind ; i. e., being joined to the part s of 
the mind, helps to its growth. 

SPTl mfH I! \ || 

Of the water that is drunk, my dear, that which 
is the subtle part rises upwards, and becomes 
Prima (3) 

Com. — Similarly, of the water that is drunk, 
that which &c, &c. 

Of the fire that is eaten, my dear, that which is 
the subtle part rises upwards, and becomes 
speech. (4) 

Com. — In the same manner, mj dear, of the fire 
that is eaten, &C-, &c. 



116 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

Thus, my dear, mind consists of food, pruna of 
water and speech of fire. * Teach me more Sir.' 
' So be it, my dear,* said he. (5) 

Com. — Thus it is only proper, as I said, that 
the mind consists of food, prana of water and 
speech of fire. " All this may be right enough as 
with regard to water and fire ; but I have not quite 
grasped the fact of the mind consistirg of food ; 
therefore, sir, explain to me this fact of the mind 
consisting of food, by further illustration." The 
father replied : "So be it." 

Thus ends the Sixth Khanda of AdliyCiya VI. 



ADHYA'YA VI. 
KHANDA VII. 

5fl55wn mm * mil $r%?>m #r in ll 

Man, my dear, is made up of sixteen parts. 
For fifteen days do not eat anything ; drink as 
much water as you like ; since prtina consists of 
water, it will not be cut off, if you drink 
water. (1) 

Com. — The subtlest part of the Food eaten, 
added strength to the mind ; and this strength of 
the mind, increased by the food, is divided into 
sixteen parts ; and it is these that are called* the 
sixteen parts of the man. The man, equipped with 
the sixteen-fold strength of the mind increased by 



WITH SBI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 117 

food, and endowed with the Jiva in a body which is 
an aggregate of means and consequences, is called 
"one of sixteen parts ;" and it is only when this 
strength exists that the man can see or hear, or 
think or understand, or do or know, being capable 
of all actions ; while on the waning of which, he 
loses all his capabilities. It will also be explained 
later on that " It is by the approach of Food, that 
one sees &c, &c," The capacity of all causes is 
due to the mind alone. Only such people as are 
endowed with the strength of mind, are found to 
be really strong ; as are those people whose food is 
contemplation*— /oorZ consisting of everything. 
Hence the strength of mind brought about by food, 
constitutes the sixteen parts of the man. And if 
you want to prove this assertion, do not eat 
any food for fif teen days, but you may drink as 
much water as you like ; because, if you drink 
water, your prdna will not be cut off from you, in- 
asmuch as prdna consists of water ; and without 
the impulse of the cause, the effect cannot stay in 
its permanent form. 

For fifteen days, he did not eat ; and then he 
approached him, and said ' Sir, what shall I 
say T 'The Biks, the Tajus and the Samas,' 'They 
do not occur to me, Sir.* (2) 

Com. — Having heard this, with a view to prove 
the fact of the mind consisting of food, he took no 



118 THE CHHA'HDOGYA TJPANISHAD 

food for fifteen days; on the sixteenth day, he 
approached his Father, and said to him : ' well 
what may I say T The Father, replied : ' Repeat 
the Rik, the Tajus and the Suma.' Being thus asked 
by the Father, he said ' these Rik, &c, do not 
occur to my mind, Sir.' 

He said to him : { Just as, my dear, of a great 
lighted fire, if a single coal, of the size of the fire- 
fly, he left, it would not burn more than that; thus, 
my dear, of thy sixteen parts, only one part is left; 
and hence by this thou dost not remember the 
Vedas. Now eat, then thou wilt understand 
me.' (3) 

Com. — When the son had said this, the Father 
said to him : ' just listen to what is the cause of 
your non-remembrance of the Veda. Just as, in 
the ordinary world, of the fire that has been lighted 
up by the adding of much fuel, a single coal of the 
size of a fire-fly may be left in the end, when the fire 
has gone out ; and by means of this coal, it would 
not burn any more than its own size ; in the same 
manner, of thy sixteen parts, made up by foods 
only one part has been left ; and hence, by means 
of this small part, resembling the size of the fire. 
fly, thou dost not remember the Vedas. Now go 
and eat, and then thou wilt rightly understand 
what I say.' 



WITH SEI SANKABA'S COMMENTARY IW< 

sm$ ii « it 

Then he ate and approached his father. What- 
ever he asked him he knew it all. (4) 

Cow.— Then, he went and took his food ; and 
again approached his father, with a desire to listen 
to his teachings. And when he had gone near 
him, whatever of the Mile, &c, the father asked 
him,— -either the repeating of words or the explana- 
tion of passages — , he knew them all. 

li <k\\ 

He said to him : ' just as, my dear, of a great 
lighted fire, if a single coal, of the size of a fire-fly, 
is left, if people blaze it up by adding grass to it, it 
would burn much more.' (5 

Com. — The father said to him : 'Just as &c, — 
as before. If people blaze up the single remaining* 
coal, of the size of the fire-fly, by adding grasses 
to it, then the blazing coal would burn much more 
than before.' 

pet m <m\m: mmMwft mfafti $%m f^nfafo 
tefiMi li 5. it 

Thus, my dear, of the sixteen parts, only one' 
part was left to thee ; and that being lighted up 



120 THE CHHA'FBOGYA UPANISHAD 

with food, blazed up ; and by that, thou remem- 
berest the Vedas. That the mind consists of food, 
prana of waters and speech of fire, he understood — 
yea he understood it. (6) 

Com* — In the same manner, my dear, of the 
sixteen parts of thy power, only one was left to 
fchee — when thou didst not eat for fifteen days ; 
and this part being lighted up by the Food that 
thou hast taken, has blazed up. The long vowel 
being a peculiar vedic form. Another reading is 
'PrujvaliV ; the meaning being that being lighted 
up, it blazed up of itself ; and it is, by means of 
this blazing part, that thou now rememberesfc the 
Vedas. Thus, both by negative and positive illus- 
trations, has it been shown that the mind consists 
of food ; hence he sums up : 'The mind consists of 
food &c,„* — the meaning being that all these facts 
have been proved. This fact of the mind &c, 
consisting of food &c, as explained by the father, 
SveiakStu understood. The repetition is meant to 
point out the close of the section on tri-partition. 

Thus ends the Seventh Khanda oi Adhydya VI. 



ADHYA' YA VI. 



KHANDA VIII. 



Udddluka, the grandson of Aruna, said to his 
son Svetakitu : "learn from me, my dear, the true 
nature of sleep ; when a man is said to sleep, then, 
my dear, is he united with pure Being and gone to 
his own. Hence people say : 'he sleeps (svapiti) 
since he is gone to his own. 5 

Com. — It has been understood that the mind 
•consisting of food, has become joined to prdna 
and speech, consisting of water and fire respec- 
tively,— the mind being that, wherein the supreme 
Deity entered by its Jiva Self, just as the man 
enters into the mirror by his reflection, and the sun 
&c, in the water. And that, consisting of which 
and resting on which, the human Self becomes 
fitted for thinking, seeing, hearing &c, — when that 
substratum ceases, then alone does It reach the 
positive form of the Deity ; as has been explained 
in another Sruti : " As if thinking and sporting, 
endowed with Intelligence, having become sleep, 
transcend the worlds — that verily is the Self, 



m THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPAFISHAD 

Brahman, consisting of knowledge, of mind, &c. , M 
and also, ' by sleep the body &c.,' ' while Hying, the 
prana ' and so forth." And when the mind has 
ceased, it is through this cessation that the human 
Self residing in the mind, and having come to be 
known by the name of mind, becomes free from all 
attachment to the object of sense, and then returns 
to the supreme Deity ; and it is this Return that 
Udddlaka wishes to explain to his son ; and with 
this view, he said to him : 'SvupndnUV may be ex- 
plained as the middle portion of dream-vision, i.e.* 
deep sleep ; or, it may be explained as the true 
nature of sleep—- that too conies to be deep sleep 
only, because of the assertion he is gone to his 
own ; for, apart from deep sleep nowhere else do 
the knowers of Brahman declare the Jiva to have 
gone to Ms own ; just as, on the removal of the 
mirror, the reflection of the man in the mirror 
reverts to the man himself,— in the same manner, 
on the cessation of the mind, the supreme Deity 
that had entered in the shape of the reflection of 
Intelligence, as the Jiva Self, for the purpose of the 
differentiation of names and forms, reverts to Its 
own Self, having renounced its form of the Jiva. 
as denoted by the name mind. Therefore it appears 
that the word * Svapnanta ' means deep sleep ; that 
sleep, during which one dreams, is connected with 
pleasure and pain ; as such, it is the effect of virtue 
and vice, as it is well-known that it is virtue and 
vice alone that bring about pleasure and pain ; and 
the capability of virtue and vice also, to bring 
about such effects as pleasure and pain &c, is due 
only to the impulse of ignorance ; hence, dreamy 



WITH SEI SAKKARA'S COMMENTARY 123 

sleep is connected with all the effects of ignorance,- 
which are the seeds of birth and rebirth ; and as 
such, during this, one does not return " to his 
own,"—'" not followed by virtue, not followed by 
vice, passed beyond all the sorrows of heart, is 
he," — " this is his freedom, this his supreme 
Bliss"— say the Srutis. It is now explained that 
I will show to you the real form of the Deity, 
free from the taint of human life, as found 
during deep sleep : "Learn from me, as I explain 5 - 
the true nature of sleep," i.e., understand it 
clearly. " But, when is there deep sleep ?" 
When, at which time, the man is said to sleep — 
i e., when people say 'you sleep," the meaning 
being that the name <s sleeping" is only indirect — , 
then, at that time, he is united — becomes identified 
with — Pure Being, the Deity spoken of here. That 
is to say, having renounced the human form, as 
brought about by contact with Mind &c, through 
Its entrance thereinto, It reverts to Its own 
pristine form of True Pure Being and it is on 
account of this that people say " he sleeps"' 
(Svapiti) ; since during the time he is " gone to his 
own Self" ; that is to say, even ordinary talk points 
to Its return to Its own self. " How could the 
return to self be known to ordinary people ?" 
Because, people say, that sleep is brought about 
by hard labour during the waking state. During" 
the waking state, one becomes tired through an 
experience of various troubles in the shape of 
pleasures and pains brought about by virtue and- 
vice ; and then there follows a cessation of the' 
over- worked organs from their activities.— as says 



tU THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

the Sruti " Speech retires, Vision retires," and 
tt Speech is with-held, Vision is with-held, Condi- 
tion is with-held, the Mind is with-held &c," — all 
the senses having been drawn in by the Pr&na, 
which alone lies awake in the nest of the Body ; 
and then it is that for the purpose of shaking off 
the fatigue, the human Self returns to its own Self, 
the Deity. Inasmuch as the fatigue could not be 
shaken off hy any other means, than the rest 
within its own Self, it is only proper that people 
should say " he is gone io his own." Since it is 
seen in the ordinary world, that wh&n people are 
suffering from diseases, like the fever &c, when 
they are free from the disease, they rest within 
their own houses. So would the case be in the 
present instance also ; as also declared by the Sruti 
" just as the kite, or the supama, having flown 
along, becomes tired &c, &c, &c." 

ft $m m ffi 11 \ II 

Just as a bird tied by a string, having flown in 
-various directions, and finding no resting place 
elsewhere, settles down at the place to which it is 
fastened ; — so also the mind, my dear, flying in 
-various directions and finding no resting place 
elsewhere, settles down at Prtina ; because, my 
dear, the mind is fastened to Pr&na. (2) 

Com. — In support of the above, there is this 
.example. As a bird, fastened by means of a string, 



WITH SRI SANKARA*S COMMENTARY 125 

to the hand of the bird-catcher, — wishing to be free 
from the bondage, — flies in various directions ; but 
not finding any resting place anywhere else, save 
the hand to which it is bound, returns and settles 
down to the hand to which it is fastened ; exactly 
in the same manner, also the *' mind," — spoken of 
here as made up of sixteen parts, and increased by 
means of Food,— by which, here, is indicated the 
human soul that has entered into the mind, just like 
the " creaking of the bedsteads." The meaning of 
the sentence thus being that the human soul as 
limited by the mind, flies about in various 
directions, in the shape of pleasure and pain, 
actuated by desires and actions based on Ignorance, 
during the waking and dreaming states, — i.e., ex- 
periences all these joys and sorrows, and not 
finding any other resting place, save the Self of 
Pure Being, settles down at " Prana" — by "Prana" 
being meant the supreme Deity of Being, as being 
the substratum of all causes and effects ; as says 
the Sruti H The Prana of Prana, with Prima for his 
body, of form effulgent &c." The soul settles down 
in the Supreme Being. Because, the mind is 
fastened to Prana — i.e., the mind being the 
substratum of the Deity pointed to, by Prana; — tfct» 
mind indicates the human soul. 

^nwssq tTcj effect w% cra^rr %n%wqr: ^Fm 

torn *m& ifotffo ■ \ « 



126 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

Learn from me, my dear, what Hunger and 
Thirst are. When the man is to be desirous of 
eating, water is carrying away whatever has been 
eaten by him ; hence, just as they speak of the 
cow-carrier, the horse-carrier and the man-carrier, 
so they speak of water as food-carrier. Therefore, 
know this offshoot, my son, to have sprouted out 5 
it could not be without a root ; (3) 

Com. — Having shown to the son the fact of 
the true form of the human soul being the root of 
the universe, by means of the name * Svapiii', — he 
now proceeds to show the same by a series of 
causes and effects, beginning with Food. "Learn 
from me of Hunger and Thirst" — i.e., learn from 
me what the true nature of these is. At the time 
that the man is said to be desirous of eating, why 
is the man said to be so ? Because, at that time, 
whatever solid food had been eaten by the man 
and whatever liquid has been drunk by him, all this 
is liquified by water, and " carried away" — i.e., all 
the food is digested. Then is the man said to be 
"hungry" which applies to the man, only seconda- 
rily. It is a well-known fact that all creatures wish 
to eat, only when what they have eaten has been 
digested. Therefore, since water carries away the 
food, it is known as " asandya" (food-carrier) ; just 
as the cow-herd that carries the cow is called the 
cow-carrier, and the groom is called the horse- 
carrier, and the leader of men is called the man- 
carrier, a king or the general of an army. So 
people call water, the food -carrier (deleting the 
visarga from the end). Such being the case, this 
Body, made up of the food digested into the form 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 127 

of the various substances of the body, is like the 
offshoot of a Vata seed ; and as being an "offshoot," 
an effect, called the " Body," it must be known 
to have sprouted out, like the offshoot of the Vata, 
But what is to be understood from this ? Simply 
this — that being an offshoot, it cannot be without a 
root. Being thus addressed, Svetaketu said what 
follows. 

?q gf q- ^R^#cf^ wh^> #%u: mil mi', w- 
*rrp Hester* 11 8 ll 

And where could its root be, except in food ? 
In the same manner, my dear, from food as an 
offshoot, infer water as its root ; from water as an 
offshoot, infer fire as its root ; and from fire as an 
offshoot, infer the Being as its root. All these 
creatures, my dear, have their root in Being, they 
reside in Being, and rest in Being ? (4) 

Com. — If this body is an offshoot, like that of 
the Vata, and has a root,— what is its root ? Being 
thus asked by his son, the father replied : 'Where 
could its root be, save in food, i.e., it has its root in 
food.' How ? The food that is eaten is liquified by 
water and digested by the inner fire, changes into 
the different humours in the body ; from the 
humour proceeds blood, from blood flesh, from 
•flesh fat, from fat the bones, from the bones 
marrow and from marrow the semen. Similarly, 
the food eaten by women gradually develops from 
the fcomours to the ovule. And it is by the 



128 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

conjunction of these two, ovule and*" semen,-— as- 
daily added to, by means of the food that is eaten 
—is the offshoot of the body made up, just like the 
wall made up of daily accumulations of clay put 
over it. Now the root, from which the body grows 
out, as an offshoot, having a beginning and being 
perishable, must also have a root ; and with a view 
to this, it is added. Just as the body has its rcot 
in food, so too from the food, as an effect, infer the 
existence of its cause in water. Water too having 
a beginning and end, is also like an offshoot ; 
hence, from water as the effect, infer its cause in 
fire. Fire too having a beginning and end 
is an offshoot ; and from fire as the effect, infer 
its cause in Being, the True, the one without a 
second, — wherein are attributed all modifications, 
which are unreal, being mere names based on 
words ; just as the character of the snake is 
attributed to the rope. Hence, That is the root of 
the Universe ; and all these creatures — moveable 
and immoveable — have their root in Being ; and 
not only have they their root in Being, but during 
their continuance too, they reside in Being, — as 
apart from the clay 3 the jar has no existence ; 
therefore, like the clay, the Being being the root of 
the creatures, they are said to reside in Being. And 
in the end too, they rest in Being — i.e. t they end or 
become resolved into Being. 

WJ Wfc^: fw^l TO ?ta ^ cE*fM ^fcT 3?T- 

sjT 3TRf%^^ gWF? %$® 3%3 ^Vm 3^fcf 

II \\\ 



WITH SEI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 129 

When the man is said to be desirous of 
drinking, then Fire is carrying away what has 
been drunk by him. Hence, just as they speak of 
the cow-carrier, the horse-carrier, the man-carrier^ 
so they speak of Fire as the water-carrier. Thus, 
my dear, know this offshoot to have sprouted out ; 
it cannot be without a root. (5) 

Com, — It is now explained how the fact of 
Being being the root is to be followed up from water 
as an offshoot. When a man is said to be desirous 
of drinking, — this too applying to the Man only 
secondarily, like the name 'Hungry.' The water,, 
which carries away the liquified food, wets the- 
offshoot of the body, and would thereby render it 
dull through an excess of water, if the water were 
not dried up by fire. And so when the water has 
all been dried up by the fire, and assimilated in the 
body* then the man wishes to drink, and is said to 
be thirsty. Then, fire is carrying away the water 
that has been drunk, — i.e., modifies it into the 
Blood and Life in the body. And just as they 
speak of the cciu-carrier &c, as before, so is fire 
called the water-carrier, the form udanya being a 
Vedic form. Of water too, this body is the offshoot 
and none else. The rest as before. 

v&s-x® ^rar wm ij^t ^F^??#qro^ w^i\ f?t%rr : 
mi- mr- ®mm< wnfmi mi 3 m sp&nfereft 

$m #q ^m mil mw^ sq^ ^ : m% w- 



130 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

And where could its roots be, except in water ? 
From water as an offshoot, infer fire as its root ; 
from fire as an offshoot, infer Being as its root. 
All these creatures, my dear, have their root in 
"Being, they reside in Being ; they rest in Being. 
And how each of these three deities, on reaching 
Man, become tri-partite, has been explained before. 
"When, my dear, the man departs from hence, his 
speech merges in mind, the mind in Prdna, the 
Prdna in fire, and the fire in the Highest Deity. (6) 

Com. — From the force of the meaning it appears 
that of fire too, this body is an offshoot. Then, 
from the body as an offshoot we infer water as its 
root- From water as the offshoot we infer fire as 
its root. From fire as the offshoot, we infer Pure 
Being as its root. Thus then, of the offshoot in the 
shape of the body, consisting of fire, water and 
food — which is a mere name based upon words, — 
-the root is the highest Truth, Fure Being, fearless, 
•and free from bothers ; and infer this as the root. 
Having thus explained this to his son, by means of 
the well-known facts of Hunger and Thirst, he 
points out that whatever else has got to be explain- 
ed in this section, — with regard to the fact of fire, 
water and food, as used up by the man, making up 
the offshoot of the body, which is an aggregate of 
causes and ejects, without intermixing, — has 
already been explained above. How each of these 
three deities, fire, water and food, becomes tri- 
partite, on reaching man, has already been explain- 
ed — tide" food when eaten becomes three-fold," - 
&c ; where, it has been explained how the middle 
substances of the food &c, that are eaten go to 



WITH S3I SANJLARA'S COMMENTARY 131 

make up the body, which consists of seven substan- 
ces; — the middle substances making up the flesh, 
blood, marrow and bone and the subtlest substances 
making up the mind, Prdna, speech, which consti- 
tute the inner organ of the body; as declared above, 
" It becomes the mind, it becomes Prdna, it be- 
comes speech-" Now when the body is broken up, 
this aggregate of Prdna and the organs, controlled 
by the human soul go over to another body ; and 
the method of this transference is this : " when the 
man departs from hence, speech merges in the 
mind "—i.e., is gathered up in the mind ; when the 
relations say "He speaks not"; because the function 
of speech is preceded by the mind, as declared in 
the Sruti " Whatever one thinks in the mind, 
that he speaks." So when speech has become 
merged in mind, the mind continues to exist by 
the simple function of thinking, when mind is 
also taken up, it merges in Prdna as during deep 
sleep, when the relatives surrounding the man 
say *' He knows not." When Prdna too rises 
up in the up-breathing — taking up within itself 
all the external organs — throws away the 
hands and feet &c, (as explained in the section on 
"Samvarga"), pierces through the vital points of the 
body, and then becomes finally merged in Fire ; 
when the relatives say " he moves not" ; and then 
doubting as to whether the man is living or dead, 
they feel the body, and finding it warm, they say 
" he is warm, he is living". Then at last the Fire 
is also taken up, and this merges into the Highest 
Deity. In this manner, when mind has become 
merged into its root, the human soul resi dent 



tn THE CHHA'JSTDOGYA UPANISHAD 

therein, becomes withdrawn by the withdrawing of 
the means of his existence; and if It is withdrawn, 
intent upon the True, then It reaches Pure Being 
and does not migrate into another body, like one 
rising from sleep. Just as in the ordinary world 
one who having somehow gone to a place full of 
dangers, returns to a safe place, so, does the Soul 
return to Being. While if it be ignorant of the 
Self, rising from the same root — like one rising 
from de^p sleep — after death, again enters into the 
meshes of the physical body. The root being that 
rising from which the Soul enters into the body. 

??f% %$m\ m *jq v$ m wvwfcm mfNfcr m\ m~ 

'Now, that which is the subtle essence,— in 
That, has all this its Self; That is the Self; That 
is the True ; That thou art, Svetaketu.' ' Please, 
Sir, explain to me further.' 'So be it, my dear/ 
said he. (?) 

Co???.— The subtle essence, that has been 
described as " Being," the root of the Universe, — in 
That, has all this its Self ; that is, everything has 
its self in this Self alone ; and not any other, 
belonging to the world ; as declared in the Sruti r 
*' apart from this, there is no seer, no hearer &c." 
And that in which all this has its Self, is what is 
called "Being," the cause of the Universe, the 
True, the Supreme Being. Hence that is the self— 
of the Universe— in Its counter-part, which is of Its 
nature and is real ; the simple word " A'tma ,ft 



WITH SB1 SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 133 

without qualifications being directly denotative of 
the counter-Self, like any ordinary word '' cow'% 
Therefore " That thou art, Svetaketu". Being thus 
convinced by the father, the son said again: 
"Explain this to me further, sir" — i.e., I am not 
yet quite sure of what you say, seeing that every 
day all creatures, during deep sleep, reaching Pure 
Being do not know that they have reached the 
Being: therefore please explain it to me by further 
illustrations. The father replied ' so be it \ 

Thus ends the Eighth Khanda of Adhydya VI. 



ADHYA'YA VI. 
KHANDA IX. 



WFOT£T#^clT*v t$ *Wj$x{ II \ II 

Just as, my dear, the bees make honey, by 
collecting the juices of distant trees, and then 
reducing the juice to one form, (1) 

Com. — You ask 'how is it that people every day 
reaching Pure Being, do not know that they have 
reached the Being ? Well, just listen to the follow- 
ing examples : just as, in the ordinary world, the 
honey-bees, 'make honey' — Howl— "by collecting 
together the juices of the trees scattered in various 
directions and then reducing them to the single 
form of honey." 



134 THE OHHA'NDOGYA TTPANISHAD 

1^? wrs^fTc^^" irg #%n" : m\: mr- €% w& 

And as those juices have no discrimination as \T 

am the juice of this tree, lam the juice of that tree' ; 

in the same manner, my dear, ail these creatures, 

having reached the Being, do not know that they 

have reached the Being. (2) 

Com.— Those juices, reduced to the single form 

of honey, have no discrimination in the honey, as 

that 'I am the juice of the jack-tree' or 'I am the 

juice of the mango-tree', — as there is among men, 

when there is vast concourse of people, each of 

them knows himself to be the son or the nephew of 

some other man, and thus recognising themselves 

they do not become mixed up ; but there is no such 

discrimination among the juices of various trees — 

even though some of them are sweet, some sour, 

some bitter, and so on, — when they have all been 

reduced to honey ; and in that condition, they can 

no longer be distinguished as sweet, sour See. 

Exactly in the same manner, though all these 

creatures daily reach Pure Being during deep sleep, 

yet they are never conscious of having reached the 

Being. 

wr 3i ex* err ^ m *&&fa $m^ u \ n 

And whatever these creatures are here, — a 
tiger, or a lion, or a wolf, or a boar, or a worm, or 
an insect, or a gnat, or a mosquito, — that they 
become again. (3) 



WITH SRI SAHARA'S COMMENTARY 135" 

Com. — And because they reach Pure Beings 
without being conscious of their own selves 
being of the nature of the Being ; therefore 
whatever they are in this world — i.e., to what- 
ever species they may have been delegated in 
accordance with their own past deeds, — they 
become impressed with the notions " I am a 
tiger," " I am a lion &c" ; and hence even though 
they enter into Pure Being, yet they again 
become the same animals, on their return from the 
Being, — becoming either a tiger, or a lion, or a 
wolf, or a boar, or a worm, or an insect, or a gnat, 
or a mosquito, becoming exactly what they were- 
before. That is to say, they become the same thing 
again and again— the impression left upon the 
worldly creature being never effaced therefrom, as 
declared in another sruti : '' Births are in accord- 
ance with knowledge." 

?#t wmii #i '^r <^r m wr?f^mf^rf% ^t m- 

'That which is the subtle essence,— in That, has 
all this its Self ; That is the Self ; That is the True; 
That thou art, O Svetaketu'; 'explain to me further, 
sir* ; ' so be it, my dear,' he said. (4), 

Cora.-— That, entering into which the creatures- 
come again, and that subtle essence of true Self,, 
entering which those attached to truth, do not 
return — in That all fchis has its self &c, as ex- 
plained before. *' Just as in the world, one who is- 
asleep in his house rises and goes to another 
Tillage, knows that he has come away from his 



136 THE CHHA'NDOGYA ITFANISHAD 

own home, — why should not the creatures, In the 
same manner, be conscious of the fact of their 
having come from Pure Being ? " * Explain this to 
me further, Sir *; the father replied :' so be it.' 



Thus ends the Ninth Khanda of Adlnjttya VI. 



ADHYA'YA VI. 
KHANDA X. 

i^f^qim*ra5^fr% II \ II 

These rivers, my dear, run along ; the eastern 
ones to the east, and the western ones to the west; 
from the sea, they go to the sea } and they become 
e sea. And just as these rivers while there, do 
know I am this river or that. (1) 

re «£bm. — Listen to an illustration. These rivers 



S.° ^JjP 11 ^ *^ e eastern ones, the Ganga &c, run- 

xa ^ y he east; and the western ones, the Indus 

\ing to the west ; from the sea — i.e., water 

^ e . *jp by clouds from the sea, and then rained 
erag. jjk egG r | verSj &n & then they go to the sea 

?f fly become indeed the sea itself. And just 
rs- these rivers do not know 'I am Ganga/ 'I am 
Yamuna', &c 






WITH SRI SANKARA*S COMMENTARY 137 

^m#3 u \ u 

fr fi^f II ^ II 

In the same manner, my dear, all these crea- 
tures, coming from Pure Being, do not know that 
they are coming from Being. Whatever they are 
here, whether a tiger, or a Hon, or a wolf, or a 
boar, or a worm, or an insect, or a gnat, or a 
mosquito, — that they become again. {%) 

' That which is the subtle essence,— in That, 
has all this its Self. That is the Self ; That is the 
True ; That thou art, O Suctaketu* 'Explain to me 
further, Sir.' 'Be it so s said he. (3) 

Com. — In the same manner, my dear, all these 
creatures coming from the Being, reaching which, 
they were not conscious of having reached It — do 
not know that they have come from the Being. 
"And whatever they are here &c*'— as before. "In 
the world we have seen that in the water, the 
various modifications, in the shape of ripples, 
waves, foam, bubbles and the like, rise up and then 
disappear in the water becoming destroyed, while 
the human egos are not destroyed even though 
every day during deep sleep, at death and at the 
universal dissolution, they are merged in their 
cause, Pure Being." 'How is that ? Please explain 
this to me, sir, by further illustrations.' Thus 
Tequested, the father said, "so be it." 

Thus ends the Tenth Rhonda of Adhydya VI. 



ADHYA'YAVI. 



KHANDA XL 

Of this large tree, my child, if some one were 
to strike at the root, it would bleed, but live ; if one 
were to strike it in the middle, it would bleed, but 
live ; if one were to strike it at the top, it would 
bleed, but live. Pervaded by the living Self, 
it stands firm, drinking in nourishment and 
rejoicing (1) 

Com.- -Well, my dear, listen to an illustration: 
of this tree, large and full of many branches, 
standing before us, — (pointing to the tree) — , if 
one were to strike at the root with an axe but 
once, it would not dry up but continue to live, 
though & little of its sap will ooze out. Similarly, 
if one we-a to stride in the middle, or at the top, it 
would live, thwicra bleoi. This tree, at present, is 
pervaded by the living Self, and hence stands firm, 
drinking in the sap of the earth and other nourish- 
ment by means of its roots, and rejoicing. 

st&m m w^ 3tftai sr^w-r *cr ifm m ^fn% 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 13$ 

But if the life leaves one of its branches, the 
branch withers ; if it leaves the seconcL the 
second withers ; if it leaves the third, it withers ; 
and if it leaves the whole tree, the whole tree 
withers. Understand this to be similar, my 
son. (2) 

Com.— If the life takes away its presence from 
one of its branches, struck by disease or by an axe, 
then that branch withers. The life permeates 
speech, mind, Prm/o and the organs, and when 
these are withdrawn, life is also withdrawn. It is 
only when the living Self together with Prdna 
eats and drinks, that what it eats and drinks 
becomes the sap which goes to add to the 
growth of the living body of the tree ; and 
which thus becomes the mark of the presence 
of the living self in the tree. By food and drink 
alone does the living Self stay in the body, and 
these foods and drinks depend upon the living Self. 
And when some action presents itself which leads 
to the disjunction of a certain member of the whole 
member of the body, then the living Self withdraws 
itself from its branch, and then that branch withers. 
Inasmuch as the existence of the sap depended up-- 
on that of the living Self, it ceased to enliven the 
branch, when the living Self withdrew itself from 
it, and on the cessation of the sap, the branch 
withers. Similarly, when the living Self leaves the 
whole tree, then the whole tree withers. The tree 
is known to be living by the continuation of the 
processes* of the flowing and sucking of the sap ; 
and from the Sruti in illustration, it follows that 
trees are also endowed with consciousness ; and. 



140 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UFANISHAD 

hence, the text distinctly points out that the 
theory of the BauddMs and VaisSshikas-— that 
trees are insentient is without any substratum of 
truth. 

1U I 

'Being left by the living Self, this dies ; the 
living Self does not die. That which is the subtle 
essence, — in That, has all this its Self ; That is the 
Self ; That is the True. That thou art, O SiciakctuS 
' Explain this to me further, Sir.' ' So be it.' Said 
he, (3) 

Com. — Just as in the instance cited, the tree, 
while endowed with the living Self, and having 
the actions of taking in sap &c, is said to be 
alive ; and it dies when left by the living Self ; 
understand the same with regard to the case of 
man. Bereft of the living Self, this Body dies, 
while the living Self dies not ; because we rind that 
when a man has fallen asleep leaving some work 
unfinished, when he wakes up, he remembers that 
he had left the work unfinished ; and also just 
because creatures are born, they immediately 
evince a desire to suck the breast, and terror <&c, 
therefore, it follows that they remember the 
sucking of the breast, and the pains experienced 
in the previous birth ; and thirdly because such 
vedic actions as the Agnihotra &c, have a purpose, 
the living Self cannot be said to die. *' That which 



WITH SRI SANKABA'S COMMENTARY 141 

is the subtle essence &c.," — as before. " How does 
this gross universe, consisting of the earth &c, 
with Names and Forms duly differentiated* 
proeeed from the extremely subtle Pure Being, 
devoid of all Name and Form ?, Please explain 
this to me by means of an illustration. Being 
thus requested, the father said-—" So be it.*' 

Thus ends the Eleventh Khanda of Adkydya VI. 



ADHYA'YA VL 



KHANDA XII. 

sjfa firm q^cfirqosq ^m >tri ww &&mwti fit 
*^ife fwi wr 1% Tm^i ^\%m\$i ?r fepr vm ^ 

il \ \\ 

' Bring a fruit of that Nyagrodha tree. ' ' Here 
it is sir.' 'Break it ;' ' It is broken sir ;' ' What 
dost thou see there ? ' ' Thesa extremely small 
seeds, sir. * ' Break one of these, mj dear. ' ' It is 
broken, sir. ' ' What dost thou see there ? * 
' Nothing, sir' (1) 

Com. — If you want to see how this is, bring a 
fruit of this large Nyagrodha tree. Being told this, 
he brought the fruit, and showed it to his father, 
* Here it is, ' The father said : ' Break it open. ' 
The other said, ' It is broken. ' The father said to 
him : * What dost thou see there ? ' He replied i 



143 THE CHHA'NDOGYA TTPAMSHAD 

1 These extremely small seeds I see, sir, ' ' Break 
open one of this, my dear. " He said. 'It 
is broken sir. ' ( If the seed is broken, what dost 
thou see inside the seed ? ' He replied, ' I see 
nothing sir. * 

He said to him : 4 My child, the subtle essence 
which thou dost not see, — it is from that subtle 
essence that this large Xyag^odha tree grows up. 
Believe me, my son. ' (2) 

Com.— Then the father said to the son : ' On 
breaking the seed of the Vat a, thou dost not see the 
subtle essence ; but it is there all the same ; and it 
is from that subtle essence that this large tree, 
supplied with all these, large trunks branches, 
twigs, leaves and fruits was produced and grows 
up. The prefix Ut has to be supplied to the verb 
" Tishthati. " Believe me, my son, that in the same 
manner does the gross universe with all Names and 
Forms differentiated, proceeds from the subtle 
essence of Pure Being. Though the subject has 
been established by means of arguments and valid 
authorities, still people's minds being entirely 
taken up with gross external objects, any clear 
conception of subtle ultimate truths is almost 
impossible without proper faith ; hence he adds 
" Believe me. " When there is faith, the mind can 
be easily concentrated on the subject to be 
understood ; and then the understanding quickly 
follows. ' I had mind elsewhere ' as declared in 
ather Srutis. 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 143 

#r %cMt |f!? ^ ^ w wm^imfc^ mt ii- 
*%& %m^ 1! \ ll 

4 That which is the subtle essence, — in That, 
has all this its essence ; That is the True ; That is 
the Self; That thou art, O Soetaketu* ' Explain this 
to me further, sir.' ' So be it ' said he. (3) 

Com. — *' That which is &c." — as before. * If the 
Pure Being is the root of the universe, wherefore 
is it not perceived. Explain this to me by an 
illustration.' The father said : ' so be it.' 



Thus ends the Twelfth Khanda of Adhyuya VI. 



ADHYATAVI. 



KHANDA XIII. 



wm ?r f^ ii \ || 

'Having put this salt in water, come to me in 
the morning V He did so. The father said to 
him : ' Bring the salt, my dear, which you put in 
the water, last uight. Having looked for it, he 
found it not, as it had melted. (1) 

Com. — Though an object exists, it is not seen, 
though it is perceived by other means — as you will 
see by the following example. If you wish to see 



144 THE CHHA'NDOGYA TJPANISHAD 

it for yourself, throw this lump of salt into water, 
and come to me to-morrow morning. With a view 
to examine what the father had said, he did as he 
was told. The next day, the father told him : 
'Bring the salt which "you threw into the water 
last night.' With a view to bring that salt, he 
looked for it in the water, did not find it, because 
it was melted and was hidden in the water, though 
existing there all time. 

^mfmi¥A^s ^iwtt^t |Ih ^ mi ^hk ^fs^cst- 

' My child, taste it from the surface ; how is 
it V i It is salt.' ' Taste it from the middle ; how is 
it V ' It is salt.' ' Taste it from the bottom ; how is 
it ?' ' It is salt.' ' Throw this away, and come to 
me.' He did so ; 'it exists for ever.' Then the 
father said to him. ' Here also, forsooth, thou 
dost not perceive the Pure Being ; but there It is 
indeed.' {%} 

Com* — Though you do not see the melted salt 
and though you do not feel the lump by your hand 7 
yet it exists in the water all the same, and is per- 
ceived by other means. And in order to convince 
the son of the truth of this, he said to him : ' Taste 
this water from the surface ' and when the son had 
done this, he asked : * How do you find it ? ' The 
other replied. * It tastes like salt.' * Take the 
water from the middle and taste it ; how do you 



WITH SRI SANK ABA'S COMMENTARY 145 - 

find it?' ' It is salt.' So too 'take the water from the 
bottom, and taste it ; how do you find it ?' * It is 
salt.' Leave off that water, wash your mouth, and 
come to me. The son threw away the salt and 
came to his father, saying ' the salt is ever there' — 
i.e., ' it exists there ever and always.' When he 
had said this, the father said to him : ' Just as this 
salt was perceived at first by sight as well as by 
touch, but when melted in the water it ceased to be 
perceived by these two, though it existed there all 
the same, as perceived by the sense of taste ; in 
the same manner, in this offshoot of the Body, as 
made up of fire, water and food, thou dost not per- 
ceive the Pure Being, which is the cause of the 
offshoot of the body, just like the seed of the vata 
tree — " Vuva kila" being indeclinables are meant to 
show that the sentence forms part of the instruction 
imparted by the Teacher to his disciple. Just as 
in this waiar, though the salt was not perceived by 
sight and touch, arid yet thou didst perceive it 
by taste, so too, in the Body, thou wilt perceive the 
Pure Being by other means, just like the subtle 
essence of the salt. 

' That which is this subtle essence, — in That, 
has all this its self ; That is the True ; That is the 
Self ; That thou art, O Svetakeiu ' ' Please explain 
this to me further, sir f * So be it,' he said. (3) 

Com- — " That which is &c„" — as before. * If like 
the subtle essence of salt, Pure Being as the cause 
10 



146 THE CHHA'NDOGYA TJFANiSHAD 

of the Universe, is capable of being perceived by 

other means, though It is 'not perceived by the 
senses, by the perception of which I would have 
my ends fulfilled, and without the perception 
whereof, I would have them ever unfuiailed ;-— 
what is the means of perceiving This ? Explain that 
to me please, still further, by means of an illustra- 
tion.' Thus requested, the father said : ' So be it.' 

Thus ends the Thirteenth Khanda of Adhyuya VL 

ADHYA'YA VI. 
KHANDA XIV. 

Just as, my dear, some one, having brought 
away a person, from the Gmdkciras, with his eyes 
covered, might then leave him in a place where there 
are no human beings ; and as that person would 
shout towards the east or the north, or the south or 
the west, J have been brought here with my eyes 
covered and left with my eyes covered. ( I) 

Com -—Just as in the world, my dear, some 
thief might lead a person, with his eyes covered* 
from a village* and might leave him, with eyes 
covered and hands bound, in a forest or in a place 
where there are no human beings ; and this person, 
not being able to distinguish the quarters, might 
turn to the east or to the west or to the north or to 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY U1 

the south, and shout oat : " With my eyes covered 
have I been brought away from the Gantfharas by 
thieves, and have been left here with my eyes still 

covered. " 

And as thereupon some one might loosen his 
bandage and tell him — the Gandhdra is in this direc- 
tion go this way, — whereupon asking his way from 
village to village, and becoming informed and capable 
of judging for himself, he would arrive at Gandhdra, 
In the same manner does one, who has a Teacher, 
know ; and for him the delay is only so long as he is 
not liberated ; and then he will reach perfection. (2) 

Com. — And just as some sympathetic person 
may hear his cry and loosening his bandage, may tell 
him " Gandhdra is to the north from here, go in this 
direction"; and he, having his bandage removed by the 
sympathetic person, goes along asking his way from 
village to village, being duly informed— i.e., having 
been rightly advised—and capable of judging for him- 
self,-—*". <?•, capable of understanding the road pointed 
out by the people for reaching his own village 
— reaches Gandhdra, and no other place, like some 
foolish person, anxious to see other places ; just as in 
the example cited, the person is earried away by 
thieves from his own country, GaiutMra, with his 
eyes covered and hence unable to discriminate the 
direction of his place, being troubled by hunger and 
thirst —and is carried away into a forest, full of all 



148 THE CHHA'HDOGYA TJPAH1SHAD 

sorts of dangers in the shape of tigers, robbers and 
the like, crying in his sore trouble, waits for the 
loosening of his bandage ; and being found in tins- 
position by some sympathetic person, who removes 
his bandage and points out the way to his country r 
whereby he reaches his place and is happy ; — exactly 
in the same manner, the ego is carried away by 
thieves in the shape of virtue, vice, &c, from Pure 
Being, the Self of the Universe, into the forest of the 
Body, — consisting of fire, water and food, filled 
with wind, bile, phlegm, blood, fat, flesh, bone, 
marrow, semen, worms, urine and feces, and full of 
all sorts of pairs of opposites, like heat and cold, — 
having his eyes bandaged by delusion, — fastened by 
the noose of a longing for wife, son, friend, cattle* 
relatives and other "visible and invisible objects of 
sense, — shouting out in thousand such exclamations, 
as thai, " This am I, this is my son, these my rela- 
tions, I am suffering pain, and feeling pleasure, I am 
in delusion, I am learned, I am ignorant, I am 
righteous, I have many relations, I am born, I am 
born, 1 am dead, I am old, my son is born, my riches 
have been destroyed, Ah S I am done for ! How shall I 
live ! what shall be my fate ! what my protection 1"; — 
and then by some stroke of good fortune due to some 
of his past good deeds, he finds a sympathetic person, 
knowing the true Self Brahman, and having his own 
bandage removed, and as such resting in Brahman ; 
and this kindly person shows him the way of recogni- 
sing the discrepancies in this world, when the ego 
loses all affection for wordly objects, having the 
bandage of .illusion removed by means of such 
exhortations, as — " you are not of the world, the son 



WITH SRI SANKABA'S OOMMENTABY 149 

&o. s do not belong to you, you are Pure Being, that 
Thou art &c, &c„" finally reaches the True Self of 
Being like the inhabitant of Gandhum, and becomes 
happy and peaceful. This is the meaning- sought to 
be conveyed by the declaration " one who has a 
Teacher knows"; and for this person, with a Teacher, 
the delay in reaching the True Self is only so long as 
he is not liberated. " Vimokshye " in the first 
person, is to be taken as third person ; because 
such is the force of the meaning. That is to say, 
until the body, reared up by his past deeds, falls of, 
on the exhaustion of the impressions of these deeds 
by experience. "Then he will reach perfection." "Sam- 
paisy& , \ as before, being taken as " SampatsyatS" 
In fact there is no difference of time between the 
reaching of True Self and the reaching of per- 
fection; ard as such the word M atha" (then) does 
not signify sequence. 

£i Just as the reaching of True Self and the fall- 
ing off of the body do not follow immediately after 
the knowledge of Pure Being, — because of the 
remnant of the tendencies of past deeds — in the same 
manner, there may yet be certain deeds of the life 
prior to the accomplishment of knowledge, left un- 
fructified; for the fruition of which, there may be yet 
another body to come into existence, even after the 
present body falls off. And further, even after 
knowledge has been attained, the person will be 
performing actions that are enjoined, as well as those 
that are prohibited; and for the experiencing of the 
effects of these actions too, another body will have 
to be brought about; then too will follow further 
actions, and so on; knowledge at last coming to be of 



150 THE OHHA'NDOGYJl tTPANISHAD 

no use, since the fruition of actions is irresistible. If 
it be urged tbat for one who has obtained knowledge* 
all actions fall off, and simultaneously -with the ap- 
pearance of knowledge it leads to the attainment of 
the True, when Liberation directly follows, and the 
body falls off, — then, in that case, there is no place 
for the Teacher; and then, there can be, no meaning 
to the sentence "one having a Teacher knows*, and 
also the possibility of an absence of Liberation, even 
after knowledge has been obtained; or it may come 
to this, that, like the advice with regard to the way 
leading to a certain place, knowledge too may not be 
absolute as to its result. 

This cannot be; because with regard to actions, 
there is a difference as to their being already turned 
towards fruition or otherwise. It has been said that 
certain actions that have not begun fruition being 
yet left unfructified, another body will have to come 
about, for the experiencing of the results of the 
actions. But this is not correct; because for the 
knowing one, 'the delay is only so long &c.,' as 
declared by the authority of the Veda itself. "But 
even such Srutis as that 'one becomes good by good 
deeds and bad by bad deeds' are also authoritative 
declarations of the Veda. True, it is so; but still 
there is a difference between actions that have begun 
fruition, and those that have not. How? Those 
actions that have begun fruition, and which have 
been instrumental in bringing about the present body 
of the knowing person, can fall off only by fruition ; 
just as the arrow that has been shot off, at the 
target can come to a stop, only when the 
momentum imparted to it has passed off ; nor is 



WITH SRI SAKKARa'S COMMENTARY 15 1* 

there any absence of its final result; simultane- 
ously with the hitting of the target. The other 
set of actions that have not begun fruition,—-* 
those performed before and after the obtaining of 
knowledge during ether lives -are burnt off by the 
knowledge, just as tbty are by expiatory rites, as- 
declared in the Sruti : ' The fire of knowledge burns 
off all actions,' and also in the Atharvana, ' His 
actions fall off, on the sight of the Highest of the* 
High.' Therefore though for the person who knows 
Brahman, there is no further use of life, yet? 
inasmuch a 4 ? it is absolutely necessary for the 
experiencing of the results of such actions as have 
begun fruition, the body continues — like the passing* 
of the arrow even after the striking of tho target, — - 
and the ' delay for him is only so long.' Hence the 
above explanation is quite right, there being no 
room for the objections urged above. After the 
appearance of knowledge, there is an absolute- 
cessation of all actions, for the knower of Brahman, 
as we have already explained, in connection with 
the passage s one resting in Brahman reaches- 
Immortality ;' and you can certainly recall what 1 
said there. 

'That which is this subtle essence, — in That 
has all this its Self ; That is the Self ; That is the 
True ; That thou art, O Svetaketu.' * Sir, Teach me 
still more.' ' So be it, my dear,' he said. (3 } 



152 THE CHHA'NDOGYA TJPANISHAD 

Com.— "That which is &c."— as explained above. 
*' Please explain to me, by further illustrations, the 
method by which one with the Teacher reaches True 
Being." He said " Be it so, my dear." 



Thus ends the Fourteenth Klmnda of Adhyaya VI. 

ADHYA'YA VI. 
KHANDA XV. 

The relatives of a sick man assemble round 
him, and ask—' Do you know me ? Do you know me.' 
He knows them as long as Speech is not merged 
into Mind, Mind into Prdncu Prana into Fire and 
Fire into the Highest Deity. n\ 

Com.— The relatives of a man laid up with fever 
&c, assemble round him and ask : " Do you know 
me, your father ? Do you know me, your son * or 
your brother r And as long as of the dying man 
Speech is not merged into Mind, the Mind into 
Prana, the Prdna into Fire, and Fire into the 
Highest Deity, he knows them. 

^ And when Speech merged into Mind, the Mind 
into Prdna, Prana into Fire, and Fire into the 
Highest Deity, then he knows them not. (2) 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 153 

Com. — The method of dying of the wordly man 
is the same as the method of getting at Pure Being, 
of the knowing person ; with a view to show this, it 
is added — when Fire is merged into the Highest 
Being, then lie knows them not. The ignorant person 
on coming back from Pure Being, again enters into 
the form of the tiger &c, or to that of Man or God 
&c. While the knowing person enters into the 
True Self of Brahman, as manifested by the light of 
knowledge, brought about by the instructions of 
proper Teachers, and never returns from there ; such 
is the method of reaching Pure Being. Some people 
assert that the knowing persons pass through the 
cranial artery, and then pass on, by the way of the 
Sun, to Pure Being. But this is not true ; because, 
the passage is found to be regulated by a full cogni- 
tion of the final result, with due regard to time and 
place. For one who cognises the unity of the True 
Self and as such is attached to Truth, there is not 
possible any false attachment to results as pertaining 
to time and place ; for such falsity would be self- 
contradictory. Such means of " going " — as Ignor- 
ance, Desires and Actions — being burnt off by the 
fire of True knowledge, no " passing " is possible in 
this case. For one whose desires are all fulfill- 
ed, one who has realised the Self, " all desires 
disappear here " as declared in the Atharvana, 
and as is shown by the instance of the rivers and 
the sea. 

3=^ mr$ II \ If 



154 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UFAMSHAD 

* That which is the subtle essence, — in That? 
has all this its Self. Thai; is the True. That thou 
art, O Swfluketu.' ' Explain this to me further, sir.' 
1 So be it ' said he. (3) 

Com. — " That which is &c, &c," — as before. 
' When the method of reaching Pure Being is the 
same, for one who \b dying and for one who is going 
to be liberated. — ihen how is it that the knowing 
persofi, reaching Pure Being, does not return, while 
the ignorant person returns again ? ' ' Explain to 
me the reason of this, Sir. Being thus requested, 
the father said 'So be it'. 

Thus ends the Fifteenth Kliandaol Adkyciya VI. 



ADHYA'YA VI. 



KHANDA XVI. 






My child, they bring a Man, holding him by the 
hand, saying. ' He has taken something, he has 
committed a theft, heat the axe for him. ' If he has 
committed the theft, then he makes himself a liar ; 
and being addicted to untruth, and covering himself 
by a lie, he grasps the heated axe,— he is burnt, and 
he is killed, (1 



WITH SRI SAFKARA'S COMUEFTARY 155 

Com. — Just; listen, my son, how this is : The 
police bring some one who is suspected of having 
committed theft for testing his guilt with his hands 
bound up. And being asked — ' what has this man 
done ? ' they say, ' He has taken the wealth of this 
man. ' ' Weil, is he to be punished for only taking 
it T Then a man who has received a gift is also 
liable to punishment. Hence, they add ' he has 
committed a theft * i.e., s he has stolen the wealth* ' 
Being accused thus, the thief hides his guilt, saying 
' I did not do it. ' They retort : ( you did steal the 
property of this man ' and if he continues to deny its 
they say ' Heat the axe for him, let him prove him- 
self to be free from guilt. * Now if he has really 
committed the theft, though he hides his guilt, he 
makes himself appear what he is not — i, e., a liar ; 
and thus ' being addicted to untruth, and covering 
himself by a lie, ' ii by sheer foolishness, he 
grasps the heated axe, he is burnt and is then killed 
by the police, by means of his own untruthful 
character. 

?r mfcq *p£r ii \ is 

If, however, he has not committed it, then he 
makes himself true ; and being attached to truth, 
and covering himself by truth, he grasps the 
heated axe, he is not burnt ; he is let off and 
delivered. (2) 

Com. — If however he has not committed the 
theft, then he makes himself true, then, covering 




156 THE CHHA'HDOGYA UFANISHAD 

himself by truth — u e., by the non-committing of the 
theft — he grasps the heated axe, and being attached 
to truth, he is not burnt, being protected by truth ; 
and then he is let off and delivered from his false 
accusers. Though tbe contact of the hand with the 
heated axe is exactly the same in both cases, yet out 
of the real thief and the innocent person, the one 
who Is a liar i« burnt, and not the other who is 
truthful. 

'And as he is not burnt, — in That, has all this its 
Self ; That is the True ; That is the Self ; That thou 
art, O Svetakeiu.' Then he understood it of him, — 
yea he understood it. (3) 

Com. — 'And as the truthful person is not burnt by 
the heated axe, because he is protected by truth ; in 
the same manner, out of the two persons — one who is 
attached to the truth of Pure Being, and one who is 
not so attached, — though the reaching of Being on 
the falling off of the body, is similar in both cases, yet 
it is the knowing person alone who, having reached 
Pure Being, does not return to the body of the tiger 
&c; while the ignorant person, attached to the 
unrealities of modifications, returns to the condition 
of the tiger, or to that of the gods, in accordance with 
his actions and studies. Now That Self, attachment 
or non-attachment to which brings about Liberation 
or Bondage respectively,— and which is the root of 
the universe,— in which all creatures reside and rest, 
—which is the Self of everything,— and which is 
unborn, immortal, fearless, auspicious, one without a 



WITH SBI SANKABA'S COMMENTARY 157 

second —That is the True, That is thy Self, and That 
thou art, O Svetaketu* This latter part of the 
sentence, which has been often repeated, has already 
been explained. 

Now who is this Si etaketu, the danotation of the 
word 'Thou V Ife is I, Svctakefu, the son of (Tddalaka, 
who knows the Self, on having heard, thought over 
and understood that Instruction, whereby the unheard 
becomes heard, the unthought becomes thought, 
and the unknown becomes known, — the Instruction 
whereof he had questioned his father : *' Sir, how 
is that Instruction ?" Such is the person who is 
entitled to receive the Instruction, — he too being 
identical with the' Supreme Deity that entered into the 
body which is an aggregate of causes and effects; just 
as the human body enters into the mirror, or the Sun 
in the reflecting water, all this entrance boirg in the 
form of reflection. He, Svctaketu, prior to his receiv- 
ing the Instructions from his father, did not know the 
Self, in the form of Pure Being, the Self of all, apart 
from all causes and effects. Now, having been taught 
and awakened to the reality of the Self, by his father, 
by means of arguments and illustrations, he under- 
stood himself to be Pure Being, as explained by his 
father. The repetition is meant to point out the end 
of the Adhijdya. 

"What is the result accruing to the Self, from 
the declarations made in this sixth Adhyaya'i" We 
have already explained this result to be the cessation 
of the notion of Self being entitled to action, and 
also of the notion of the cognition of the Self being 
the enjoyer, The capability of hearing and knowing 
the denotation of the word "Thou" has its result in the 



158 THE CHHA'ffDOGYA UPAN1SHAD 

knowing of the unknown. Prior to the Instruction 
one has such notions with regard to himself—-" I 
shall perform these actions, the Agnihotra <&c";" I 
am entitled to these";" I shall experience the results 
of these actions in this and the next world ; * and 
having performed these actions,' I will have all my 
duties accomplished";— thus there being with regard 
to the Self, the notions of its being entitled to actions 
and being the enjoyer of their consequences; and all 
these notions cease for one who is awakened, by 
means of the sentence "That thou art," to the reality 
of Pure Being, the root of the universe, the one 
without a second. Because all notions of the doer 
are contrary to the reality of Pure Being; and when 
one Self without a second, is recognised as one's 
own Self, then there is no possibility of any such 
notions, as " I am this, that is, something else, to be 
done by me; having done this, I will enjoy its results," 
and other such notions of diversity. Therefore it 
is only proper that all notions of the human soul be- 
ing a modification should cease on the appearance of 
the true cognition of the True Being, the Self with- 
out a second. 

"In this sentence' That thou art' ono is instruct- 
ed to have the idea of Being with regard to the ob- 
ject denoted by the word' Thou'; just as one is 
instructed to have the notion of Brahman with regard 
to the Sun, the Mind &c; and just as one is taught 
to have the notion of Vishnu with regard to the idol. 
And it cannot be taken to mean that 'Thou art 
really the Being itself; for, if Svetaketu were the 
Being itself, then how could he not knowhimself,and 
need the instruction 'That thou art'?" This is not the 



WITH SEI SANKARA'S COMMENT ABY 159 

-case; because the present sentence differs from the 
sentence speaking of the Sun &c. In the case of 
the sentence " the Sun is Brahman," there is the 
intervention of the word HtV (the Sim as Brahman), 
which implies that the Sun is not exactly the same 
as Brahman. The Sun is not Brahman^ because of 
its having a form; and A'kdsa and Mind are not 
Brahman, because of the intervention of the word 
HtV\ whereas in the case of the present sentence 
the text has shown the entering of Pure Being 
itself, and then declares " That thou art," directly, 
and without a hitch, pointing to the identity of 
the " Thou " with the Self of Pure Being, " The 
sentence ' That thou art ' may have only a 
secondary signification, like the sentence 'thou art a 
lion, ' which indicates only the presence in the 
person of courage &c. " That cannot be ; because 
it is distinctly taught that Being is one without a 
second, just like clay. If the declaration of identity 
were meant to be taken only secondarily, then the 
reaching of Pure Being could not be declared as 
following upon such cognition, as it is declared in the 
sentence ' for him the delay is only so long &c, ' ; 
because all secondary cognition is fdlse ; e.g., ' you 
are Indra l Yama ' and the like. Eor can the sentence 
be taken as mere praise; because Svetakitu m not an 
object of worship (to his father); nor can Being 
be said to be praised by being spoken of as 
SvHaMtu ; for, the king cannot be said to be praised 
by being spoken of as the servant. Nov is it proper 
to restrict the universal Self to any single place — • 
as the enquirer takes the sentence " That thou art " 
to mean ; as that would be like telling the JUmpero? 



160 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UFANISHAD 

of a country that he is the lord of a village. Nor 
is it possible to interpret the sentence in any 
other way, save as declaring the identity of "Thou" 
with the Self of Pure Being. If it be urged that 
' what is enjoined here is ®nly that one should medi- 
tate upon himself as Pur© Being, and not that one is 
the Pure Being which is hitherto unknown ' ; then, 
some might urge in reply that * in that view too, it 
is not possible for the unheard to be heard' ; and this y 
the former questioner denies, saying that * the 
enjoining of the notion of one's Self being the Pure 
Being is meant as praise. ' But this cannot be ; 
because of the direct assertions — { oiib with a Teacher 
knows * and ' the delay for him is only so long &c/ 
If the notion of one's Self being the Pure Being were 
only enjoined to be meditated upon, — and the 
sentence were not meant to convey the notion of the 
denotation of the word 'Thou' being identical with 
Pure Being, — then, there could be no such declara- 
tion of the means, as that s one with a Teacher knows."" 
For, in that case the presence of the Teacher would 
be a foregone fact, as in the case of the injunction — 
' one should perform the Agmhotra sacrifice '; nor. 
in that case, would it be proper to declare the 
* delay ' to be ' only so long &c.,' because in that 
case, even when the real nature of the Pure Being of 
Self is not known, Liberation would follow by medita- 
ting only once upon one's Self as Pure Being. As soon 
as the sentence ' That thou art ' has been uttered, it 
cannot be said that there appears any such strong 
appears any such strong idea as ' I am not Pure 
Being' which would set aside the notion 'I am Pure 
Being, — which latter is brought about by th© 



WITH SRI SANKABA'S COMMENTARY 161. 

authoritative assertion 'That thou art '; because, all - 
passages of the Upanishads have their end in point- 
ing to the same truth— 'I am Pare Being.' Just as 
in the case of the sentences laying down the 
Agnihotra, it cannot be said that there appears any 
notion of the non-performability of such actions, 
which would set aside the notion of the advisability 
of performing the Agnihotra. If it has been ques- 
tioned— 'being identical with the Self of Pure Being, . 
how is it that one does not know himself V Well,, 
that does not affect our position ; when we find that 
living beings do not even recognise themselves to b& 
the doer and the enjoyer, the soul, apart from the 
body which is an aggregate of causes and effects, — 
then it is no wonder that one does not realise the 
fact of his being identical with Pure Being. 'But 
how is this cognition of identity with Pure Being 
possible f Well, how, — I ask — is it that, even when 
there is a cognition of one's Self being apart from the 
body, notions of the doer and the en j oyer are possible,, 
and are actually met with ? In the same manner, 
inasmuch as one thinks the body &c, to be his Self, 
h© cannot have any knowledge of the Self of Pure 
Being. Thus, it is established that the sentence 
* That thou art' serves to set aside all notions of Self, 
with regard to the human soul attached to the 
unrealities of modifications. 



Thus ends the Sixteenth Khanda of Adhyaya VI. 
Thus ends the Sixth Adhyaya, 



11 



Ube <Ebba'n&og\>a Hlpattisbab. 

ADHYA'YA VII. 
KHANDA I. 

& sqeftd WW |fcT liq^RTR; TOf^FC ?TK^r^ 



N&rada approached Stmatkumara, saying — 
* Teach me, Sir.' He said : ' What thou already 
knowest tell me that ; then beyond that I will teach 
thee.' He replied. (1) 

Com. — The Sixth Adhyay a, given chiefly to in- 
struction with regard to the Supreme Truth, is use- 
ful, only so far as the ascertainment of the unity of 
the True Self; and in it have not been explained the 
modifications following after the Real. Hence, with 
a view to point out in due order, the Name &c, and 
then by means of these to show the highest truth, 
called the ' Great,' — just as, to show the Moon, one 
points out the branch of a tree behind which the 
Moon is shown, — the Seventh Adhy&ya is begun. Or 
in case the Real only were explained, and the subse- 
quent modifications were left unexplained, then some 
people might think that there may be something yet 
-unknown; and in order to remove this doubt, the 
modifications are explained. Or, Name, &c, may be 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 163 

explained, with a view that, like the mounting of a 
stair-case, beginning with gross matters, the expla- 
nation would proceed gradually to subtler and subtler 
truths, and thence would follow the installation in 
the kingdom of Heaven. Or, Name, &c, may have 
been introduced simply with a view to eulogise the 
excellent 'Great ' Truth, by pointing out all those 
gradually batter realities and then showing the Great 
Beality to exceed all these in excellence. The story 
is introduced simply with a view to eulogise the 
Supreme Philosophy. How ? Ndrada, the Supreme 
Divine sage, having fulfilled all his duties, and being 
endowed with all knowledge, was still in painful 
reflection, through his ignorance of Self; and then 
what can be said of those little creatures who have 
little knowledge, and who have not accumulated 
any large amount of virtuous deeds ! Or, with a 
view to show that apart from the knowledge of 
Self, there is nothing else that can accomplish 
supreme and absolute good, the story of Sanat- 
kumara and NCirada has been introduced. The 
fact, — that supreme good was not attained by 
JSFtirada, even though he was endowed with the 
faculties and capabilities of all knowledge, and that 
for this reason, having renounced all his pride of 
excellent lineage, knowledge, conduct and capabili- 
ties, like any ordinary person, he approached 
Sanatkumara, for the purpose of attaining supreme 
good, — shows that the knowledge of Self is the only 
means of attaining absolute and supreme good^ 
Saying * Teach ,me, Sir," he approached him* 
4 AdMhi Bhagava ' is a mantra. NCirada approached 
Sanatkumdra t the Master of Yogis and knowing 



164 THE OHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

Brahman. And being thus duly approached, he 
said to him : ' Whatever thou knowest with regard 
to the Self, tell me that ; then beyond your know- 
ledge I will teach thee.' Being told thus, JSfdrada 
said. 

^#iot ^sff gufeit ^ftsif ^P?er! ^??te^ 

4 Sir, I know the JRig*veda t the Yajur-veda, the 
Scima-veda, Atharvana the fourth Veda, as the fifth 
the ItiMisa-Purdna, the Veda of the Vedas, the 
rites of the fathers, Mathematics, the science of 
portents, the science of Time, Logic, Ethics and 
Politics, Etymology, the science of the Veda, the 
science of the Elementals, the science of War* 
Astronomy, the science of Snake-charming and the 
fine arts. All this, I know, Sir. (2) 

Com. — ' Sir, I know the Big-veda ' — ' adhyimi T 
— I know ; because the question was with regard to 
what he knew. The Yujur-veda, the Sama-veda, and 
the Atharvana as the fourth Veda : the Itihdsa- 
Purdna is the fifth Veda, — because the mention of 
' fifth ' is with regard to Veda ; Veda of the Vedas 
with the Mahdbhdrata for their fifth — i. e. t grammar,. 
as it is only by means of grammar that the Vedas 
are known as such, through a proper knowledge of 
words and their .meanings <fec; 'Rites of the Fathers * 
— i.e., the chapters on Srdddha; ' JRdsi' is the 
science of numbers, Mathematics ; ' science of 
portents ', of evil ; 'science of time ' — such as that of 



WITH SEI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 165 

mah&k&la &c. ; ' Logic \ the science of reasoning ; 
4 Ethics and politics f ; 4 Etymology ', — Mrukta ; 

* science of the Veda \ JRik, Yajus and Sdma—i. e., 
the Sikshdkalpa, Ceremonials and Prosody ; 5 science 
of Elementals * — i. e., the secrets of the Elemental 
kingdom ; * science of War ' — i* e,, of archery ; 

* Astronomy ' — science of the Stars, including Astro- 
logy; the ' science of Serpents '—the Garuda science; 
and the fine arts— e. e., the arts of dancing, music, 
vocal and instrumental, and other technical arts ; all 
these. Sir, I know. ' 

wm^ 11 \ I! 

Tj0j; ^m ^pjf ^: $&% ^i^m Pfy<i\£\qm§m- 
*r %^m mfcou '^m m$m ^=#m m\4^i- 

But, sir, I am only like one knowing the words, 
and not a knower of Self. It has been heard by me 
from people like you, that one who knows the Self 
passess beyond sorrow. So I am in grief ; Sir, please 
carry me beyond the grief. He replied : * Whatever 
thou hast studied is only a name,' (3) 

Mg-veda is a Name; and so is Yajur-veda, 
S&ma-veda and Atharvana as the fourth, and as the 
fifth Itih&sa-Pur&na, the Veda of the Vedas ; the 
rites of the fathers, Mathematics, the science of 



166 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPAEISHAD 

portents, the science of Time, Logic, Ethics and 
Politics, the science of Etymology, the science of 
the Vedas, the science of Elementals the science of 
War, Astronomy, the science of snake-charming, 
and the fine arts ; all this is mere Name. Meditate 
upon the Name. (4) 

Com.— Though I know all this, I am like one 
knowing only the word, i.e., one who knows the mere 
outer meanings of words; all words are mere denota- 
tion ; and all denotation is included in the mantras. 
'Knower of words (mantrasY means one who knows 
mere sacrifices, since it will be declared further on 
that ' sacrifices are in the mantras ;' and I am ' not a 
knower of Self ' — i.e. , I do not know the Self. ' Since 
the Self is also explained in the m antras, how is it 
that knowing the mantras one knows not the Self ?* 
Not so; because, the processes of denotation and the 
objects of denotation are modifications : while the 
Self is not held to be a modification. ' But the Self 
too is denoted by the word Self ?' No ; since ' Speech 
desists from It,' as says the Sruti ' where one sees 
nought else &c.' ' Then how is it that the Self is 
signified by the word Self as used in such sentences 
as ' the Self below &c,,— that is the Self &c. ?' That 
does not touch the position ; the word ' Self ' is used 
with regard to the embodied counter-self, the object 
of differentiations ; and then the fact of the body &c, 
being the Self being denied categorically, it follows 
that what is to be understood by the word * Self 1 is 
that, which is apart from these body and the rest, 
and which is a Reality, in Itself, beyond the 
reach of words. Just as when an army with 
the king is seen, though a sight of the umbrellas t 



WITH SE1 SANKARA'S COMMENTARY UT 

fiags and other emblems of royalty points to the pre- 
sence of the King, yet, the king himself is not seen ; 
even then people assert that 'the king is there'; then 
follows a particular search for the king—' where is 
the king r—and then gradually setting aside all the* 
other objects and persons seen in the procession s 
people would have an idea of the presence of the kings 
even though he may not be seen. Exactly the same 
is the case with the point at issue. Thus then, 'I am 
like one knowing the mantra, ue. t sacrifices alone* ; 
* and all modifications being effects of sacrifices, 'I 
know the modifications ; and I do not know the real 
nature of the Self.' It is with this view that it has 
been said * One having a Teacher knows ' ; and also 
such Sruti as ' wherefrom Speech desists &c, &o.* It 
has been heard by me— I have a traditional know- 
ledge based upon scriptures-from people like yourself 
that one who knows the Self passes beyond the sor- 
row of the heart, based upon unfulfilled ends; hence 
not knowing the Self, I am in sorrow, pained by a 
cognition of unfulfilled ends ; therefore, please carry 
me beyond the ocean of sorrow by means of the boat 
of Self-knowledge — i.e., create in me a feeling of con- 
tentment, carry me to fearlessness. When Nurada- 
had said this, Sanatkum&ra said to him : { all this 
that thou hast studied is merely a Name — i. e„ all 
that thou hast known is only a Name; as says the 
Sruti: * a mere differentiation in word, a modification*. 
a mere Name.* The Rig-veda is a mere name, and 
so is Yajurveda &c, &c, as before. Meditate upon 
Name as Brahman, — i.e, think of the Name as Brah- 
man, and meditate upon It, just as people worship 
the idol, thinking it to be Vishnu Himself. 



168 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

One who meditates upon the Name as Brahman, 
becomes independent so far as the Name reaches ; 
one who meditates upon the Name as Brahman, 1 ' Sir 
is there anything greater than the Name?' ' There is 
something greater than the Name.' 'Tell that to 
me, Sir.' (5) 

Com. — 'One who meditates upon Name as Brah- 
man,' listen to the results that accrue to such a one; 
4 so far as Name reaches,' — i.e., so far as is amenable 
to Name, to that extent of namability, such a person 
is independent,— like a king within his own kingdom 
'One who meditates &c.,' is a summing up of the 
whole thing. 'Sir, is there anything which is greater 
than the Name,' which is capable of being thought of 
as Brahman*? 

Sanatkum&ra replied : ' Yes ; certainly there is 
something greater than the Name.' Being told this, 
Ndrada said : ' If there be such a thing, tell it to 
me, Sir.' 



Thus ends the First Khanda of Adhyaya VII. 



ADHYA'YA VII. 
KHANDA II. 

toff ^f^t ^¥\ tot w%i ftOTfa ^ife 
^w^tnwr ^4ftfc^H3TT°t w ^f?t M, ftm**. 
yjf% %f fqfir EnTOi¥#RTO ^rfW «nlW ^^rt 

^iss^Tfr ^m ^s? ^n^ ^ %«i®tf*^ zm^z% mi^ 

^ ?F §3jqft ^Tp^ft ^wlcfc^f RimfcT SfT^fT- 

Speech is greater than Name. Speech, makes 
known the Eig-veda, the Yajur-veda, the Sama-veda 
the fourth Atliarvana, the fifth Itikdsa- Pur ana, the 
Veda of the Vedas, the Rites of the Fathers, Mathe- 
matics, the science of portents, the science of Time, 
Logic, Ethics and Politics, Etymology, the science of 
the Vedas, the science of the Elementals, the science 
of "War, Astronomy, the science of Snake-charming, 
and the fine arts, Heaven, Earth, Air, Akdsa, Water, 
Fire, the Gods, men, animals and cattle, grasses and 
trees, beasts down to worms and ants, virtue and 
<?ice, the true and the false, the good and the bad, the 



170 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

pleasant and the unpleasant. If there were no- 
speech, neither virtue nor vice could be known ; 
neither the true nor the false ; neither the good nor 
the bad ; neither the pleasant nor the unpleasant* 
Speech makes known all this. Meditate upon 
Speech. (1) 

Com. — Speech &c, — -'Speech 1 is the organ of" 
speech — located in the eight parts of the body, the 
root of the tongue &c. — which serves to give expres- 
sion to letters ; and the letters constitute the Name :, 
therefore Speech is greater than Nam: ; as, even in 
the ordinary world, the cause is greater than the 
effect, as the father than the son. But how is it that 
Speech is greater than Name ? Because, it is Speech 
that makes known the Rig-veda — that such 
and such is the Rig-veda, so also the Yajur- 
veda &c. &c, as before. * Pleasant , — that 
which pleases the heart ; and the reverse of this is 
' unpleasant.' If there were no Speech, these could 
not be known, — i.e., in the absence of Speech, there 
would be no study ; and in the absence of study, there 
would be no knowledge of the meaning of the Vedas ; 
and in the absence of such comprehension, there 
could be no knowledge of virtue, vice, &c. Therefore, 
it is Sppech alone which, by giving utterance to 
letters, makes all these known ; therefore is Speech 
greater than Name; hence meditate upon Speech. 

One who meditates upon Speech as Brahman? 
becomes independent, so far as the Speech reaches? 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 171 

one who meditates upon Speech as Brahman. 
1 Is there anything greater than Speech ?' ' Yes f 
there is something greater than speech.' 'Tell me 
that Sir.' {%) 

Com. — Same as before. 

Thus ends the Second Khanda of Adhyaya VII. 



ADHYA'YA VII. 



KHANDA HI. 



^m II ? 11 

Mind is greater than Speech. Just as the closed 
fist holds two A'malaka, or two Kola or two Akslw 
fruits, so does the Mind hold Speech and Name. And 
when one is minded in his mind to read the Veda, he 
reads it ; when he is minded to perform actions, he 
performs them ; when he is minded to desire sons 
and cattle* he desires them ; and when he is minded 
to wish for this world and the next, he wishes for 
them. Mind is indeed the Self, mind is the world, 
mind is Brahman. Meditate upon the mind. (1) 

Com. — 'Mind* — the internal organ endowed 
with reflection—' is greater than Speech' because, 



172 THE GHHA'NDOGYA UPAN1SHAD 

the Mind, by its function of reflection, urges Speech 
towards the object of speaking; thus, Speech 
becomes included in the Mind. And that which 
includes another thing, is more pervasive than it, 
and as such is greater than that. Just as in the 
ordinary world, two A'malaka fruits or two plums, 
or two AhsJia fruits are held in th© closed fist ; so, 
just like these fruits, Speech and Name are held in 
the Mind. And when a person is * minded in his 
mind' — being ' minded' is having determined — to 
read the Veda, he reads it ; so having determined 
to perform actions, he performs them ; having 
determined to desire — u e., having desired to obtain 
—sons and cattle — by a proper fulfilment of the 
means to such acquirement, he obtains them ; 
similarly, when he is determined to obtain by the 
-proper means this world and the next, he obtains 
them. ' Mind is the Self' — it is only while the mind 
exists that the man has the character of the doer 
and the enjoy er. ' Mind is the world' — because it 
is only while the Mind exists that worlds, are 
obtained, and the means to such acquirement are 
fulfilled. And because the Mind is the world, 
therefore ' Mind is Brahman' And because it is so, 
therefore meditate upon the Mind. 

' One who meditates upon the Mind as Brahman 
•becomes independent as far as the Mind reaches- 
he who meditates upon the mind as Brahman," ' Is 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 173 

there anything greater than the mind?' 'Yes, 

there is something greater than the Mind.* ' Tell 

that to me sir.' (2) 
Com. — ' One who' &c#, &c, as before. 

Thus ends the Third Khancla of Adhydya VII. 



ADHYA'YA VII. 

KHANDA IV. 

^p#i II $ || 

Will is greater than the Mind. For when one 
wills, then he reflects, then he utters Speech, and 
then he utters it in Name. In the, Name, the 
mantras become one ; and in the mantras, the 
sacrifices become one, (1) 

Com.—' Will is greater than the mind ' : ' Like 
Reflection, -volition is also a function of the internal 
organ, — the function which does the determining of 
doing or not doing certain actions. When this 
determining has been done, then the wish to do, 
follows on the wake of reflection. How ? For when 
one wills—determines the actions to be performed 
or otherwise— then he reflects or thinks of doing it; 
' May I read &c.' , then * he utters Speech ' in the 
repeating of mantras ; and ' he utters Speech in the 
Name' — L e„ he utters Speech, after having thought 
of pronouncing the Name. All mantras— particular" 



174 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

forms of Speech — ' become one ' i.e., become inclu- 
ded— -* in the Name ;' since the particular is always 
included in the general. ' The sacrifices are one 
with the mantras * — since the sacrifices performed 
are only those that have been pointed out by th® 
mantras, and there are no sacrifices without mantras. 
Only such sacrifices are performed, as derive their 
force laid down by mantras, and which are directly 
laid down to be performed by the Brdhmana, fox the 
attainment of such and such a result. The appear- 
ance of sacrifices found in the ' Brahmanas ' too, is 
only a distinct exposition of only such actions as 
have had their shape laid down by the mantras. For, 
we do not find any such action, as has not been 
pointed out by mantras appearing in the ' Brdh- 
mana.* And it is also a fact well known that all 
sacrifices are laid down in the ' Triad ; ' and the 
word ' Triad ' denotes only the Rik, Yajus, and 
Banna ; and as is declared in the Atharvana : ' The 
sacrifices that the wise ones saw in the mantras.' 
Thus, it is true that sacrifices are included in the 
mantras. 

^ JjfcliBffifa SF? m\ TOI$M TOwSfaf HfT3^ISS£RT- 
JTMHn^c^ q?5[T: ^<FeT %1QTI^ STf^f sp#T 

m^F^ mm^$f=& #&•• mm$ $&m $wp<& %- 

Indeed these centering in the will and consist- 
ing in the will, abide in the will. The Heaven and 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 175 

"Earth willed ; the Air and A'kdsa willed ; the 
Water and Fire willed. Through the will of these, 
Eain wills ; through the will of Bain, Food wills ; 
-through the will of Food, the Breaths will; through 
the will of the Breaths, the mantras will ; through 
the will of the mantras the sacrifices will ; through 
the will of the sacrifices, the world wills ; through 
the will of the world, all things will. This is Will- 
Meditate upon Will. (2) 
Com. — 'These* — Mind and the rest — centering 
in the Will ;* i.e., the one point to which they all go 
is the Will; 'consisting in the Will '—'during 
origination; 'abide in the Will' — during continu- 
ance. The Heaven and Earth willed : by 'Heaven 
and Earth' are meant the immoveable things ; 
similarly Air and A'kdsa also willed. So did Water 
and Fire will — in their immoveable forms. Because, 
by the will of these, Heaven, Earth &c, Bain, wills 
— i.e., produces itself. So by the will of Bain, Food 
wills — because it is from Bain that food proceeds. 
By the will of Food, the Breaths will — since the 
Breaths consisting of food, owe their movements 
to Food; as says the Sruti ' Food is the string.' By 
the will of these breaths, the mantras will — because 
it is only one who has strong breaths and not one 
who is weak, that studies the mantras. By the will 
of the mantras the sacrifices, Agnihotra &c, will, — 
because it is only when these are performed accord- 
ing as they are pointed out in mantras, that they 
are capable of bringing about appropriate results. 
Hence the world — the result of sacrifices, — wills, 
i-e., accomplishes its object through its connection 
with the action and the agent. By the will of the 



176 THE CHHA'NDOGYA TJPAMTSHAD 

world, all things — the whole Universe — wills, for 
an accomplishment of its full form. Thus then, the 
whole universe, ending with the sacrificial results,, 
has its origin in "Will ; hence, of great excellence 
is Will. Therefore, meditate upon Will. The results 
accruing to such a Meditator are nest described. 

One who meditates upon Will as Brahman, he 
being permanent, accomplished, and undistressed, 
obtains the permanent, renowned and painless 
worlds appointed for him. And so far as the Will 
reaches, he is independent— one who meditates 
upon Will as Brahman. 'Is there anything greater 
than Will ?' 'Yes, there is something greater than 
Will.' 'Tell that to me, sir.' (3) 

Cow.— One who meditates upon Will, thinking- 
it to be Brahman, obtains the worlds appointed 
for him by God ; — the knowing one being 
himself permanent obtains such ' permanent 
worlds'. If the inh abitant of the world were not 
permanent, then the assumption of the per- 
manence of the world would be useless. He 
obtains the ' accomplished worlds ' — the worlds 
equipped with all articles of comfort — himself be- 
ing fully accomplished, endowed with cattle* 
children and other articles of comfort for himself, 
as is declared in the Scriptures. He obtains the 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 17? 

* painless worlds ' — the worlds free from all fear of 
the enemy <&o— , he himself being undistressed.- 
He obtains all these by himself. And so far as 
Will reaches— i. e, t so far as is amenable to Will ; , 

* he is independent ' t. e., with regard to his own 
Will, and to that of others ; because that would 
militate against subsequent results. ' One who 
meditates upon Will as Brahman ' &c., &c, as 
before. 

Thus ends the Fourth Khimda of AclhyOya VII. 



ADHYA'YA VII. 

KHANDA V. 

Intelligence is greater than Will When one 
understands, then he wills, then he reflects, then he 
utters speech, he utters it in Name ; in the Name, 
the mantras become one ; and in the mantras, 
sacrifices. (2) 

Com.—' Intelligence is greater than Will : * 
' Intelligence ' is the faculty of realising things at 
the proper moment, and also the faculty of ascer- 
taining the purposes of past and future events ; 
and this faculty is greater even than Will. How t 
When an object approaches a man, and he realises 
its approach, then he wills as to whether he is to- 
la 



"178 THE CHHA'NDOG-YA UPANISHAD 

-give it to some one or throw it away ; ani tten he 
- thinks &c, &c, &c, as before. 

^4 %% q^T m fzm^mferi' ^fe^r ^qf^iiw- 
&m %$m f^rr*p^fcf 1 1 \ 1 1 

All these, centering in Intelligence, and 
• consisting in Intelligence, abide in Intelligence. 
Therefore, even if a man be possessed of much 
learning, if he happens to be unintelligent, people 
i say of him he is nothing, know however he may ; 
for if he were learned, he could not be so unintelli- 
gent. And if a man not possessed of much learning 
be intelligent, to him people listen gladly. Intelli- 
gence is the centre of all these, Intelligence their 
■Self, and Intelligence their support. Meditate 
«pon Intelligence. (2) 

Com. — These, Will and the rest, ending with 
the results of sacrifices ; ' centre in Intelligence,' 
means ' consist in Intelligence,' i.e., originating in 
Intelligence and 'abide in Intelligence' i.?., rest on 
Intelligence, as before. And there is a further 
greatness of Intelligence. Because, Intelligence is 
the source of Will &c. ; therefore, even though a 
man be possessed of much learning — having a 
knowledge of the Scriptures &c, — 'if he happens 
to be unintelligent/ Le., devoid of the faculty of 
realising facts in due time — then, capable people 
say of him, 'He is nothing' —i.e., though existing, 
he is as good as a non-entity ; whatever little of 



WITH SRI SANKABA'S COMMENTARY 179 

the Scripture <&c, lie knows is also useless for him; 
because, if he were really learned, he could not be 
so unintelligent ; therefore, even if he has learnt 
something, it is as good as not learnt. On the 
other hand, even if a person knowing but little be 
intelligent, people gladly listen to what he may 
say. Therefore, Intelligence is the centre of all 
these, Will &c, as before. 

One who meditates upon Intelligence as Brah- 
man, he himself being permanent, accomplished, 
undistressed, obtains permanent, renowned and 
painless worlds, prepared for him. And so far as 
Intelligence reaches, he is independent, — one who 
meditates upon Intelligence as Brahman. ' Is there 
anything greater than Intelligence ?' £ There 
is something greater than Intelligence.' 'Tell that 
to me, sir.* (3) 

Com. — ' Prepared ' for him, and accumulating 
with all the qualities of an intelligent person. He 
the meditator of Intelligence, being permanent, 
obtains the permanent worlds &c, as explained 
before. 

Thus ends the Fifth Khanda of Adhyaya VII. 



ADHYA'YA VII. 
KHANDA VI. 

$ft % VRffz&( %S^qT: SR^f|?f: f^TT ^Rl^^T ^* 

$mi zmmm^i #r ?r *f#ci s*rragqm^fo il ? ft 

Contemplation is greater than Intelligence, 
The earth contemplates as it were ; and thus does 
contemplate the Sky, the Heaven, Y/ater, the 
Mountains, Gods and Men. Therefore he, who 
among men attains greatness, seems to have 
obtained a share of contemplation. And while 
small people are quarrelsome and abusive and 
slandering, great men appear to have obtained a 
share of contemplation. Meditate upon contem- 
plation. (1) 

One who meditates upon contemplation as 
Brahman, becomes independent, so far as contem- 
plation reaches — one who meditates upon 
contemplation as Brahman. s Is there anything 
greater than contemplation.' ' There is something 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 181 

greater than contemplation.' ' Tell that to 
me, sir. ' (2) 

Com. — ' Contemplation is greater than Intelli* 
gence 1 — By ' contemplation' is meant a continuous 
uninterrupted concentrated reflection of certain 
Duties &c, mentioned in the Scriptures ; this is 
what is called ' Concentration.' The greatness of 
contemplation is actually seen in its results. 
How ? The Yogi, in contemplation, becomes steady 
and firm, when the result of contemplation is 
attained. Hence too, the earth appears to be firm, 
only as if it were "contemplating ; and so does the 
sky, &c, &c, &c. * Devamanushyah' may mean 
' godrf and men' or * god-like men' — men endowed 
with calmness of mind Sec, are not devoid of divine 
qualities. Inasmuch as contemplation is so 
excellent, therefore, whoever, among men in this 
world, attains greatness, either through wealth, 
learning, or other qualities — i. e., obtains wealth 
&c, which are means to greatness, — they 
appear to have partaken of the effects of 
contemplation. That is, they appear firm and 
steady, and fickle and small. On the other hand, 
the small people, that have not obtained the 
slightest greatness caused by wealth &c, are 
always given to quarrelling, abuse — the picking of 
other's faults — , and slander — giving utterance to 
other people's evils — as if these had happened 
before their own eyes. While those that have 
attained greatness through wealth &c„ are great — 
lords of other people, as being Teachers, kings, or 
gods — and appear to have partaken of the effects 
of contemplation, as explained above. Thus we 



182 THE CHHA'NDOGYA TTPAK1SHAD 

find the greatness of contemplation in its effects ; 
hence, it is greater than Intelligence ; therefore, 
meditate upon contemplation, as explained above. 

Thus ends the Sixth Khanda of AdhyCtya VII. 



ADHYA'YA VII. 
KHANDA VII. 



^^SFTT^fe ^ ^a^^q^>pq^?qj5{fHq^fqq r if%c5 
^ ^.^ ^ ^ _^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^> _^_ 

Knowledge is greater than contemplation. It is 
bj knowledge that one knows the Rig-veda, the 
Yajur-veda and the Sama-veda, the fourth Athar- 
vana, and the fifth Ihhdsa-Purdna, the Veda of the 
Vedas, the Rites of the fathers, Mathematics, 
science of portents, science of Time, Logic, Ethics 
and Politics, Etymology, the science of the Vedas, 
the science of the Elementals, the science of 
War, Astronomy, the science of Snake-charming, 
and the fine arts of the attendants of the Gods, 
Heaven, Earth, Air, A'kdsa "Water, Fire, the 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 185 

Gods, men, cattle, birds, grasses and trees, beasts- 
down to ants and worms, virtue and vice, the true' 
and false, the good and bad, the pleasant and un- 
pleasant, the food and the taste, this world and the 
next ; all this is known by knowledge. Meditate 
upon understanding. (1) 

Com. — Knowledge is greater than contemplation : 
— ' Knowledge ' is that of the meaning of the 
scriptures : and this being the cause of contempla- 
tion, is ' greater than contemplation.' Whence its. 
greatness ? Because, it is through knowledge that 
one knows the Rig-veda, — the knowledge of tha 
meaning of this as authentic, being the cause of 
contemplation ; similarly, the Yajurveda &c, &c.» 
as also animals &c, virtue and vice as mentioned 
in scriptures, good and bad, as known by men, or as 
ordained in smritis, and in fact, all things, not 
visible, are known through knowledge. Hence, it 
is true that knowledge is greater than contempla- 
tion. Therefore, meditate upon Knowledge. 

One who meditates upon knowledge as Brah- 
man obtains the worlds of the knowing and the- 
wise ; and so far as knowledge reaches, ho- 
is independent, — one who meditates upon know- 
ledge as Brahman. ' Is there anything greater- 
than knowledge ? ' * Yes, there is something 
greater than knowledge.' ' Tell that to me, sir,' (2) 



184 THE OHHA'jSTDOGTA TTPANISHAD 

Com.— Listen to the result of such meditation. 
He obtains those worlds, in which there are know- 
ledge and wisdom. ' Knowledge ' is that of the 
meaning of the scriptures, and ' wisdom ' is clever- 
ness with regard to other things ; and the person 
obtains such worlds as are inhabited by people 
possessed of such knowledge and wisdom. So far 
as knowledge reaches &c, &c, as before. 



Thus ends the Seventh Khanda of Adhyuya VII. 



ADHYA'YA VII. 



KHANDA VIIL 

m%i q^^rorr ^rar^q^n^^r ^w\ $\m mfa 
^Fcfr mfa %r ^rafci ?m\ m$i fesrM ^rfcf ^\ 

Power is greater than Knowledge. A single 
man of Power shakes a hundred men with Know- 
ledge. When a man has Power, he rises ; rising, 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 185 

lie serves ; serving, he approaches nearer ; 
approaching nearer, he sees, hears, reflects, under- 
stands, acts and knows. It is by Power that the 
Earth stands ; by Power, the Sky ; by Power, the 
Heaven ; by Power, the Mountains ; by Power, the 
Gods and Men ; by Power, the cattle, birds, grasses 
and trees, the beasts, down to ants and worms ; 
and by Power does the world stand. Meditate upon 
Power. (1) 

One who meditates upon Power as Brahman, 
becomes independent so far as Power reaches- 
one who meditates upon Power as Brahman. c Is 
-there anything greater than Power.' 'Yes, there is 
something greater than Power.' 'Tell that to me, 
sir.' (2) 

Com. — 'Power is greater than knowledge' — By 
'Power' is meant the intuitive faculty of the Mind, 
brought about by the use of food ; as declared by 
the sruti 'Since I am fasting, I do not understand 
the JRig-veda. &c.' In the body too, it is the Power 
of rising, &c. Because, even a single powerful 
man shakes a hundred men with Knowledge. Just 
as an intoxicated elephant shakes off a hundred 
men, even though these come together. And since 
such is the Power born of the use of food, there- 
fore, when a man has power, he rises ; and rising, 
he serves his superiors and his Teacher, — i.e., 
attends on them ; serving, he approaches nearer — ■ 
i.e., comes in closer contact, comes to be dear to 
them ; and coming closer, with his mind concen- 
trated, to his Teacher or some other instructor, 
lie sees ; then he hears what the Teacher says ; 
-then he reflects— 'reasons over what they have 



186 THE CHHA'NDOGYA ITPANISHAD 

taught ; having reflected, he understands that 
such and suoh is the truth ; having deci ded this, he 
comes to act, — i.e., follows in practice what the 
Teacher has said ; and then he knows — u e,, experi- 
ences the results of such action. The further 
greatness of Power is that it is by Power that 
the Earth stands, &c, &c.,— the meaning of which 
is clear. 

Thus ends the Eighth Khandaof Adhydija VII. 



ADHYATA VII. 



KHANDA IX. 

% £3T *R# $m -£TO ?RfT Xftfo %T Wffa *m m- 

fci Pmm m<m%m^$i !? \ 11 

fcf m%m m <$m& ^^t^rto m$( %^i sir 
m-^m^i it \ 11 

Pood is greater than Power. Therefore, if one 
does not eat for ten days, even if he lives, he is 
unable to see, to hear, to reflect, to understand, to- 
act, or to know. And when he obtains food, he is 
able to see, to hear, to reflect, to understand, to act 
and to know. Meditate upon Pood . (I)- 



WITH SRI SANKABA'S COMMENTARY 187 

One who meditates upon Food as Brahman 
obtains the worlds that are supplied with Food and 
Drink ; and so far as Food reaches, he is in- 
dependent — one who meditates upon Food as 
Brahman. ' Is there anything greater than Food ?' 

* Yes, there is something greater than Food ?' 'Tell 
that to me, sir. ' (2) 

Com. — ' Food is greater than Power ' — because 
it is the cause of Power. It is explained how Food 
is the cause of Power : it is because Food is the 
cause of Power, that if a man does not eat for ten 
days, all his Power due to the use of food being 
destroyed, he dies ; even if he does not die — even if 
he lives — as we do find people living, even after a 
month's fasting — , he is unable to see, even his own 
Teacher : and thence, he is unable to hear, &c.,— 
all the effects of Power being reversed. Now, when 
having fastud for many days, he finds himself in- 
capable of hearing &c, he takes some Food. t A'ya > 
is the ' reach ' of Food ; and one whom the Food 
reaches, is the ' dyi. ' If the reading is 4 ciya ', that 
is to be taken as ' dyi \ changing the last vowel. 
■Even if the reading is ' Ctyd ', the meaning is the 
same ; because the result that is said to follow is 

* capability to see, &c.' (which follows upon the 
taking of Food), no such capability arising in one 
who has not partaken of Food. Therefore meditate 
upon Food. The result accruing therefrom is that 
one obtains such worlds as are fully supplied with 
large quantities of food and drink. The rest is as 
before. 



Thus ends the Ninth Khanda of Adhy&ya VII. 



ADHYA'YA VII. 



KHANDA X. 



*crf^q#qrq%r #m^T ?zm^$ mnfa ^ m- 
wsrfe ii ? ii 

w^rniS^ il ^ il 

Water is greater than Food. Therefore, when 
there is not sufficient rain, the vital spirits are in 
trouble, and there will be less Food. While, when 

-there is sufficient rain, the spirits rejoice, and 
there will be much Food. It is Only Water that 

"has taken different forms, which is earth, sky, 
heaven, the mountains, gods and men, cattle and 

"birds> grasses and trees, beasts down to ants and 
worms. All these are forms of Water. Meditate 

-upon Water. (1) 

One who meditates upon Water as Brahman 

obtains all wishes, and obtains satisfaction ; and so 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 18£ 

far as Water reaches, he is independent, — one who 
meditates upon Water as Brahman. 'Is there any- 
thing greater than Water ?' ' Yes, there is some- 
thing greater than Water.' ' Teil that to me, 
Sir/ (2) 

Com. — 'Water is greater than Food' — because 
it is the cause of Food. Because it is so, there- 
fore, whenever there is no rain sufficient for 
the crops, the vital spirits become troubled; 
because, they think ' this year we shall have 
less Food. ' When however there is sufficient 
rain the spirits — i.e., all living creatures — rejoiee s 
that 'we shall have plenty of food.' Because, 
Food, which has form, is produced by Water, there- 
fore the earth, the sky, &c, — all these are only 
Water, modified into different forms. And since all 
these are only different forms of Water, therefore 
meditate upon Water; and the result of such medita- 
tion is that one who meditates upon Water as 
Brahman, obtains all desires, — i e., all objects of 
desire, that have any form. And since satisfaction 
follows from Water, therefore, one meditating upon 
Water obtains satisfaction. The rest is as before. 



Thus ends the Tenth Khanda of AdhyayaVIL 



ADHYA'YA VII. 
KHAN DA XL 

?rtss||^^ terffc qf¥m m m ^m ^ <m$ 

^tsq5$RR^n^fes# ^£tot tic! mm wrt- 
wm wiffi q^M ^^qr^sf^ ^ro^wr ^ ^ 

Fire is greater than Water. Having held the 
Air, it warms up the A'kusa; then people say 'it is 
hot, it burns, it will rain.' It is Fire that having first 
shown (itself) creates Water. And again fchunderings 
go on, together with lightnings flashing upwards 
and across the sky; then peeple say 'Lightnings are 
flashing, and it is thundering, it will rain.' It is Fire 
that, showing itself at first, creates Water. Meditate 
upon Fire. (1) 

One who meditates upon Fire as, Brahman, 
being resplendent himself, obtains resplendent worlds, 
full of light, and free from darkness ; and so far as 
Fire reaches, he is independent, — one who meditates 



WITH SKI SANKABA'S COMMENTARY 191 

upon Fire as Brahman. 'Is there anything greater 
than Fire.' 'Yes, there is something greater than 
Fire.' 'Tell that to me, Sir.' (2) 

Com. — 'Fire is greater than Water' — because 
"Fire is the cause of Water. It is explained how Fire 
is the cause of Water: It is because Fire is the cause 
of Water, that it, haying bred the Air — i.e. holding it 
fast within itself, and thereby making it immoveable, 
— warm up the A'Msa ; and then people say — * It is 
hot, in a general way, ' it burns ' the body, and 
therefore ' it will rain \ It is a fact well known in 
the world thai; seeing the cause appear, people have 
an idea of the effect.' Fire, having shown itself at 
first, subsequently creates Water ; thus being the 
creator of Water, Fire is greater than water. And 
further, it is Fire that becomes the cause of rain, 
through thunderings. How? Thunderings appear 
together with lightnings flashing upward and across 
the sky ; and seeing this, people say 'lightnings flash, 
it thunders, it will rain as explained above. There- 
fore meditate upon Fire. And the result following 
from the meditation of Fire is that one becomes res- 
plendent, and also ' obtains resplendent worlds'. ' full 
of light '. — i.e., luminous — 'and free from darkness* — 
i.e., whence has been removed all ignorance with 
regard to the external world* The rest is plain 
enough. 



Thus ends the Eleventh Khanda of Adhyaya VII. 



ADHYA'YA VII. 



KHAN DA XII. 



^m^g^^Rr II ? II 

A'kdsa is greater than Fire. In the A'kdsa 
exist the sun and the moon, the lightning, stars and 
Fire. It is through A'kdsa that people call ; it is- 
through A'kdsa that they hear : it is through A'kdsa 
that they hear back. It is in A'kdsa that people 
rejoice ; it is in A'kdsa that they rejoice not. In 
A'kdsn are all things born ; and it is towards A'kdsa 
that all things grow. Meditate upon A'kdsa. (1). 

Com. — ' A'kdsa is greater than Fire ' — Since it 
is the origin of Fire together with Air. Air has 
been mentioned together with Fire. ' Having held 
the Air &c ' — ; hence it is not mentioned separately 
from Fire. The cause is always found by people 
to be greater than the effect; as the clay, than 
the jar &c ; and A'kdsa is the cause of Fire with 
A'kdsa ; and as such, it is greater. How ? Because, 
it is in A'kdsa that exist the sun and the moon, the 
two forms of light, as also lightning, the stars and 
Fire, — all different forms of light. And that which 
exists within another is naturally smaller and the 



WITH SE1 SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 19$ 

other is greater. And further, through A'kdsa^ 
people call another ; and being called, it is through 
A'kdsa that one hears ; and it is through A'kdsa 
that one hears back the reply uttered by another 
person. In A'Msa, people rejoice — play and enjoy 
one another's company, and again it is in A'kdsa 
that they rejoice not — because separations from 
wife &c, occur in A'kdsa and not by the interrup- 
tion of solid objects, and it is upwards, towards 
A'kdsa that all things — sprout, &c, — grow up, and 
never downwards. Therefore, meditate upon 
A'kdsa. 

' One who meditates upon A'kdsa as Brahman,. 
obtains extensive worlds, full of light, free from 
the troubles of over-crowding, wide and spacious ; 
and so far as A'kdsa reaches, he is independent* 
'Is there anything greater than A'kdsa, Sir ?' 'Yes, 
there is something greater than A'kdsa*' 'Tell that 
to me. Sir.' (2) 

Com. — Listen to the result that follows. ' The 
knowing one obtains extensive worlds— i.e., worlds 
spread far and wide — which are full of light' — - 
because the connection between A'kdsa and light 
is permanent — ' free from over-crowding' — 
'Sambddhtf is the pain caused by the pressure of 
men crowding together and these worlds are free 
from any such pain "and trouble — , 'wide and 
13 



194 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

spacious ' — i.e., where there is plenty of place to 
move about. *So far as A'k&sa reaches &e.,' as 
explained above. 



Thus ends the Twelfth Khanda of Adhydyd Til. 

ADHYA'YA VII. 

KHANDA XIII. 

Memory is greater than A'k&sa. Therefore, even 
when there are many persons, if they have no 
Memory, they would not hear any one, they would 
not think, they would not know. When they have 
Memory, they would hear, think and know. It is 
by Memory that one knows his sons and cattle. 
Meditate upon Memory. (1) 

* One who meditates upon Memory as Brahman 
becomes independent, so far as Memory reaches.' 'Is 
there anything greater than Memory, Sir V 'Yes, 
there is something greater than Memory.' 'Tell 
that to me, Sir.* (2) 



WITH SRI SANSABA'S COMMENTARY 195 

Oom. — Memory is greater than A'Msa f — 'Memory* 
means Remembrance^ a property of the internal 
organ ; and this is greater than A'Msa. The neuter 
gender in * bhilyah ' has to be taken as masculine, 
as qualifying the masculine noun ' smara. * It 
is only when the agent has remembrance that 
A'kdsa <fcc, are of any use to him ; because, all 
things are enjoyable only by one who has Memory. 
In the absence of Memory, even the things that 
exist would be as good as non-existing ; because, 
there would be no good resulting from such existence. 
~Eor, in the absence of Memory, is it possible to 
comprehend the existence of A'kdsa &c. ; therefore , 
Memory is greater than A'kdsa. It is seen in 
ordinary experience that Memory is really greater ; 
inasmuch as even though many persons be assem- 
bled together, and be talking to one another, — if they 
do not have any Memory, they would hear no words, 
nor could they think ; because, one could think only 
of an object which he could remember ; hence, in the 
absence of Memory they would not think ; and 
similarly, they would not know. When, however* 
they would remember, then they would hear what is 
to be heard, think what is to be thought and know 
what is to be known. In the same manner, it is by 
means of Memory that one recognises his sons and 
cattle to be his own. Therefore, since Memory is 
greater, meditate upon Memory. The rest has already 
been explained. 

Thus ends the Thirteenth JDianda of Adhydya VII , 



ADHYA'YA VII 
KHANDA XIV. 



Hope is greater than Memory. Fired by Hope 
does Memory read the mantras, perform sacrifices, 
wish for sons and cattle, wish for this world and the 
next. Meditate upon Hope. (1) 

Com*—-' Hope is greater than Memory" ''Hope'' is a 
desire for things not obtained, which is spoken of as 
synonymous with longing, wish, &c; and it is greater 
than Memory. Because, it is by means of Hope as 
residing in the internal organ, that one remembers 
what has to be remembered. And remembering the 
form of the object of Hope, one comes to be Memory 
as it were/ Hence, being fired by Hope, and becoming 
Memory itself, he remembers the mantras, the Bik^ 
Sec, and then reads them ; and having read them, 
and comprehended their meaning and the injunctions 
therein contained, by the help of the Brdhmaiias, he 
performs sacrifices, with hopes for results to follow 
from these ; and he wishes for sons and cattle, as 
results of the sacrifices; and it is through Hope that 
he works up the means bringing about these. And 
it is only when fired by Hope, and Memory, that he 
wishes for accumulations in this world; and it is also 



WITH SEI SANKABA'S COMMENTARY 19? 

fired by Hope that he remembers the other world, 
and wishes to attain these, by a due performance of 
the actions leading thereto. Therefore, in each, 
individual living being, the whole universe — from 
Name down to Memory and A'kdsa &c, — lies en- 
circled, bound in the fetters of Hope. Therefore, 
Hope is greater even than Memory. Hence, medi- 
tate upon'Hope. 

%rr ^ppnssfetfr mt*n mzjwtt m mm m&m- 

'One who meditates upon Hope as Brahman"*, by 
Hope are all his desires fulfilled; his prayers are 
never in vain; and so far as Hope reaches, he becomes 
independent, — one who meditates upon Hope as 
Brahman.' 'Is there anything greater than Hope, 
Sir?" Yes, there is something greater than Hope.' 
'Tell that to me, Sir.' (2) 

Com.™- 'Listen to the result accruing to one, who 
meditates upon Hope as Brahman. By Hope, duly 
meditated upon, all his desires are fulfilled — reach 
accomplishment; his prayers are always successful- 
whatever he asks for, he invariably gets. 'So far as 
Hope reaches &c, &c,' as before. 

Thus ends the Fourteenth Khanda of Adhydya VIL 



ADHYA'YA VII, 



KfiANDA XV. 



?#??m^ snksntffc w sri%r mfc mw- vm zsifa 
sfwrpr sstfa rnofr $ fw nMT men q-iwr srrar mv- 

f^TT S7T0T 3TT=3# SP?1 %mW- II $ II 

Spirit is greater than Hope. Just as the spokes of 
the wheel are fastened to the nave, so is everything 
fastened to the Spirit. Spirit moves by Spirit I 
Spirit gives Spirit, to the Spirit. Spirit is the father, 
Spirit the mother, Spirit the brother, Spirit the 
sister, Spirit the teacher, Spirit the Brdhmana. (1) 

Com. — Beginning from Name, and ending with 

Hope, everything stands in the relation of cause 

and effect, means and consequences, and as being 

greater than one another ; and having its existence 

based on Memory, and being fettered by the strings 

of Hope all round, like the lotus root with threads, 

is fastened to the Spirit ; and in this Spirit, which 

is all-pervading, and extends everywhere inside 

and out, everything is fastened and bred, as the 

beads in a thread. This Spirit is greater than 

Hope. It is explained by an example how this is 

greater ; just as in the world, the spokes of the 

cart-wheel are fastened to the nave of the cart,— so 

in the Spirit, which is an agglomeration of separate 

entities, — which consists of intelligence, and is the 

chiefest of all,-— in which the Supreme Deity entered 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 19§ 

like the reflection in a mirror, with a view to the 
differentiation of Names and Forms, — which, is the 
highest servant of the Lord, like that of a king, — 
which is talked of in the Sruti: *He created the Spirit, 
thinking that by the departure thereof he would 
depart, and by the staying of which he would 
stay \ — which follows the Lord, like a shadow, 
— and in which are .fastened all organs of con- 
sciousness, wherein are fastened the rudiments 
of elements, Just as the axle is fastened to the 
nave, and the spokes to the nave,— -which is 
declared by the Kcmslittakis to be the only consci- 
ous Self, — in this very Spirit, is everything, afore- 
said, fastened. Hence, this Spirit being independ- 
ent moves by the Spirit, i.e., — by its own force, 
its movements not being caused by anything else. 
All the different forms of actions, means and 
consequences exist in the Spirit, — there being 
nothing apart from the Spirit ; such is the import 
of the whole section. ' The Spirit gives the Spirit* 
— i.e., what it gives is its own self ; and he to whom 
it is given is also Spirit. For the same reason, 
father &c, are all different forms of the Spirit itself. 

ST ^ feC ^T 5RRR 5TT W^i 3tf S3RTR cjjSS^iR eft 

If one says something harsh to his father* 
mother, brother, sister, teacher or a Br&hmana, — • 
then people say 'Shame on thee ! Thou art a killer 
of thy father, thou art a killer of thy mother, thou 



200 THE CHHA'NDOGYA TJPANISHAD 

art a killer of tliy brother, thou art a killer of tliy 
sister, thou art a killer of thy teacher, thou art the 
killer of a Srdhmana.' (2) 

Com. — It is explained how the words ' father 
&c, signify the Spirit, and not what they are 
ordinarily known to signify : because, it is only 
while the Spirit exists that the words ' father ' &c», 
are used and which cease to be employed when the 
Spirit has departed. How is that ? If one says 
something harsh — unbecoming — to his father &c, 
— such deprecatory words as 'thou' and the like, 
then, the wise people near him say to him 'Shame 
rest on thee ? Thou hast killed thy father' &c. 

Whereas, after the Spirit has departed from 
them, even if one were to burn them together, by 
means of a poker, they would not say ' thou hast 
killed thy father, thou hast killed thy mother, thou 
hast killed thy brother, thou hast killed thy sister, 
thou hast killed thy teacher, thou hast killed the 
Brahmana.' (3) 

Com. — When however, the Spirit has departed 
from these persons, even if one were to shove them 
together and burn by means of the poker — i.e., 
even if he were to do such an apparently cruel deed 
as the shoving together and the burning — people 
would not tell him that he was a killer of his father 
&c. Thus, from both negative and affirmative 
instances, it follows that the names ' father &c„" 
-apply to the Spirit. 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 201 

FftfcF §SFsnwfl?t if 8 I! 

Spirit verily is all these- One who sees thus, 
thinks thus, and knows thus, becomes an Afivddi. 
And if some one were to tell him ' thou art an 
Ativadi' he should say ' Yes, I am an Ativadi,' and 
he should not conceal the fact, (4) 

Com. — Therefore, Spirit is ( all these ' — father 
&c, all that is moveable and immoveable. The 
knower of Spirit, ' seeing * as explained above,— 
i.e., realising it, in fact, — * thinking thus,' i.e., 
cogitating over the arguments connected with it — , 
and knowing thus— i.e., ascertaining by means of 
arguments its precise character — , the meaning of 
the scriptures is ascertained conjointly by Thought 
and Knowledge ; one seeing thus &c, becomes an 
Aiivddi — i.e., one who can talk of subjects 
transcending everything, beginning from Isfame 
down to Hope. A.nd if some one were to tell him, 
who sees everything from Name down to Hope to 
be Spirit, and who can talk of transcendental 
subjects, and who declares himself to be the Self of 
fehe whole universe, from Brahman to the tuft of 
grass — if one were to tell him ' thou art an Ativadi* 
he should say * Yes, I am an Ativadi ;' and he 
should not conceal the fact ; for, wherefore should 
he conceal it, — knowing as he does, the Spirit, the 
Lord of all, to be himself. 



Thus ends the Fifteenth Khanda of Adhydya VII. 



ADHYATA VII. 
KHANDA XVI. 

mm ^r M ii 

But in reality that person is an Ativddi who is 
an Ativadi by The True ? ' Sir, may I become an 
Ativddi, by The True ?' ' But one should desire to 
know The True.' ' Sir, I do desire to know The 
True.' (1) 

Com. — Having heard of the Spirit, the highest 
of all the series, as the self of all, Ndrada thought 
that there was nothing higher than that, and so 
kept quiet, and put his usual question, 'Sir, is there 
anything greater than Spirit ?' Seeing him thus 
satisfied with a false knowledge of Brahman in its 
modification, and seeing that he thought himself 
to, be a real Ativadi, the venerable Sanatkumara, 
with a view to turn aside a capable disciple from 
the path of Ignorance, proceeds to explain further: 
' the real Ativddi is one whom I am going to 
describe ; the knower of Spirit is not an Ativddi 
in reality ; this latter being an Ativddi, only in 
comparison with Name &o. He, however, who 
knows the highest Truth, transcending all the rest, 
to be true in reality, — he is an Ativddi.'' This is 
explained : ' In reality that person is an Ativddi 



' WITH SRI SANKABA'S COMMEHTABY 203 

who is an AtivMi by The True ' — i. e., who speaks 
of transcendental subjects, fully knowing the 
highest Truth. ' Sir, I have approached you now, 
may I become an Ativddi by The True ' — that is to- 
say, instruct me in such way that I may become 
an Ativddi by The True- ' If you really wish to. 
become an Ativadi by The True, you must first 
wish to know The True.' Thus addressed, Isfdrada 
said : • So be it then ; I wish to know The True,, 
sir' — i.e., I wish to learn The Truth from you. 

Thus ends the Sixteenth Khanda of Adhyttya VII. 

ADHYA'YA VII. 
KHANDA XVII. 



sfFOT m^ ^r#f fen ?%=r f^snfacisqfafcr m ft 

When one understands The True, then only 
does he declare The True. One does not declare 
The True without understanding It ; one declares 
The True, only when understanding It. This 
understanding one must wish to understand. ' Sir, 
I wish to understand this understanding.' (1) 

Com. — It is only when one really understands 
The True — ' such in reality is The True ' — then 
alone does one renounce all that is false, the 
modifications based on mere names, and then 
speaks of pure Being alone, which contains within- 



•204 THE OHHA'HDOGYA UPANISHAD 

Itself all the modifications ; and the speaking of 
this is real speaking. * But modifications are also 
true ; as declared in other passages : 'Name and 
Form are true ; and by these is Breath covered ; 
the Breaths are true ; and of these, This is the 
truest and so forth.' True ; the truth of the modifi- 
cation has been mentioned in other Sruti passages ; 
but this declaration was without reference to the 
Highest Truth ; it was only with reference to the 
consideration of the fact of certain objects being 
amenable to the senses, and others not being so 
amenable, — the two classes of objects being spoken 
of as 'Saf and HycC respectively (thus making up 
the word s satya ' True) ; and what is meant to be 
shown there is that it is by means of these objectsj 
that the Highest Real Truth is perceived ; as it has 
been said there that ' The Breaths are true ; and of 
these This is the truest.' And such comparative 
truth is, in the present case also, not undesirable. 
Because, in the present instance also, it is meant 
to carry Nurada higher than the truth, as cognized 
in the Spirit &o, up to the Real Truth, called the 
'Highest' which is particularly meant to be ex- 
plained. 'One does not declare The True, without 
understanding It\— one who speaks without under- 
standing takes the words 'Fire' &c, to signify the 
Fire &c-, as real truths, and speaks accordingly ; 
while, as a matter of fact, these three — Fire, &c. — 
hare no real existence, apart from the three forms ; 
hence, it is said ' one does not declare The True 
without understanding It. ' It is only when under- 
standing It, that one declares The True.' But 
the understanding of The True does not come 



WITH SRI SAHARA'S COMMENTARY 20& 

to one, unasked for; hence, it is added: 'one 
should wish to understand the understanding.' 'If 
it be so, then I wish to understand the understand- 
ing.' Thus in the case of The True fee, as ending 
with acting The True, the one that precedes is the 
cause of that which follows it. 

Thus ends the Seventeenth Khanda of Adhyuya VII. 



ADHYA'YA VIL 



KHANDA XVIH. 

II \ IS 

'When one thinks, then he understands ; with- 
out having thought, one does not know ; it is only 
after having thought that one understands; but 
one should wish to understand the Thought.' 'Sir, 
I wish to understand the Thought.' (1) 

Com.— 'When one thinks'— Thought is reason- 
ing, consideration of the object of thought. 

Thus ends the Eighteenth Khanda of Adhyuya VII. 



ADHYA'YA VII. 



KHANDA XIX. 



'When one has Faith, then he thinks ; without 
Faith, he does not think ; when he has Faith, then 
alone does he think. But one should wish to under- 
stand Faith.' 'Sir, I wish to understand Faith.' (1) 

Com.—* Faith ' is orthodoxy. 

Thus ends the Nineteenth Khanda of Adhy&ya VII. 



ADHYA'YA VII. 



KHANDA XX. 

% zmifa fist $® f2^nfiftras% fQ ^ ^. 
tnwffcf fi \ il 

'It is when one attends on his Teacher that he 

has Faith ; without attending, he has no Faith ; it 

is by attending that one has Faith. But one should 

wish to understand Attendance/ 'Sir, I wish to 

understand Attendance.' /-n 



WITH SRI SANKABA'S COMMENTARY 20? 

Com* — i Mshthd > is attending upon the Teacher ; 
when one is given to such attending, he obtains 
the knowledge of Brahman. 

Thus ends the Twentieth Khanda of Adhydya VII. 



ADHYA'YA VII. 
KHANDA XXI. 



v When one does his duties, then he has Faith ; 
without having done them, he has no Faith ; it is 
only after having done them, that he has Faith. 
But one should wish to understand Duty.' ' Sir* 
* I wish to understand Duty.' (1) 

Com. — ' When one does his duties ' — * Duty * 
consists in the control of the senses, and concen- 
tration of the Mind. It is only after these have 
been accomplished, that one has Faith and the 
rest, ending with understanding, as described 
above. 

Thus ends the Twenty-first Khanda of Adhydya VII. 



ADHYA'YA VII. 
KHANDA XXII. 

m % m ^ s *-r ^ ^ni# sssanr ^fo pr- 

' When one obtains Bliss, lie does his duties ; 
without obtaining Bliss, he does not do them ; it is 
only after obtaining Bliss that he does them. But 
one should wish to understand Bliss.' ' Sir, I wish 
to understand Bliss.' (1) 

Com. — The performance of duties too becomes 
possible when one 5 obtains Bliss ' — that is, when 
one determines that ' the highest Bliss, to be ex- 
plained below, will be mine.' Just as the perform- 
ance of duties is ordinarily seen to result in Bliss; 
so, here also, ' without obtaining Bliss, one does 
not do his duties ' — i.e., only after he has obtained 
the future result ; for, all activity is possible, 
only with regard to that. ISTow, when the perform- 
ance of duties &c, have all duly come about, 
one after the other, then The True renders 
itself manifest ; hence, no separate attempt is 
necessary for it. Hence, it is said ; 'One should 
wish to understand Bliss' <fec. &c, * I wish to 
understand Bliss.' When JSfdrada had thus become 
duly attentive, Sanatkumdra said : 

Thus ends the Twenty-second Khanda of 
Adhydya VII. 



ADHYA'YA VII. 

KHANDA XXIII. 

Wm ifvRFq- |% ^fffFT ¥FM f^j^f W §fo II \ 11 

'The Infinite (the Great) is Bliss. There is no 
Bliss in what is small (finite). The Infinite alone is 
Bliss* But one should wish to understand the Infi- 
nite.* s Sir, I wish to understand the Infinite,' (1) 

Com.—" Infinite,' ' Great,' * Highest,' ' Much * 
are all synonymous ; and this is Bliss. Everything 
below this is small ; hence ' there is no Bliss in 
what is small ; ' because what is small only serve? 
to whet the longing for more ; and longing is a 
source of pain ; what is a source of pain — fever, 
&c, — is never found to bring about Bliss ; hence, it 
is only proper to say that ' there is no Bliss in what 
is small.' Therefore ' the Infinite alone is Bliss,'— 
because in the Infinite, there is no chance for such 
sources of pain, as longing and the like* 



Thus ends the Twenty-thh'd Khanda of 
Adhydya VII* 



14 



ADHYA'YA VII. 



KHANDA XXIV. 

m *TF%M^rfc} ^ww^mm zn^f^mfa *r -<*psq 

'Where one sees nothing else, hears nothing 
else, understands nothing else, — that is the Infinite, 
Where, however, one sees something else, hears 
something else, understands something else, — that 
is the Finite, That which is Infinite is immortal 
that which is Finite is mortal.' 'Sir, in what does 
the Infinite rest ?' ' In its own greatness, — or not 
•even in greatness ?' (1) 

Com. — Of what sort is this Infinite ? It is such 
-that in this Infinity, there is nothing else that is 
seen by any other organ, nor is the seer anything 
apart; similarly, one hears nothing. All differences 
of objects being merged in Name and Form, it is 
only the two senses cognising these two (Name and 
Form) — the Ear cognising the Name, and the Eye 
the Form — are spoken of here ; and these two in- 
clude the rest. 'Thinking' is, to be inserted here : 
'One does not think anything else ;' because, under- 
standing is almost always preceded by thinking. 
In the same manner, 'one does not understand any- 
thing else. Such is the Infinite. 'The absence of 



WITH SBI SAHARA'S COMMENTARY 211 

sight that is here spoken of, with regard to the 
Infinite — is it fee absence of the sight of all known 
things *, or does all this mean that one sees nothing 
else, hut he sees the Self ? If so, what then V If the 
absence of all known things be meant, then what 
follows is that the Infinite is something quite 
different from all notions of duality. If, however, 
it meant to deny the sight of all other particular 
things, and to assert the presence of the sight of 
Self alonei — then what follows is that all differen- 
tiations of Action, Agent and Result would come 
to be held as inhering in the one (Infinite Self.) 
'But if such results were to follow, what would be 
the harm ?' Well, the great harm would be the non- 
cessation of metempsychosis ; because metempsy- 
chosis consists only of the differentiations into 
Action, Agent and Result. If it be urged that 'such 
differentiation when inhering in one Self, would be 
something different from metempsychosis,' — that 
cannot be ; because if the Self were unqualify- 
ingly held to be one, then the differentiation 
into the Action of seeing, Agent and Result* 
would be a mere word (with no meaning). Obj : 
i If the alternative of the negation of other 
sights, &c», be held to, then there would be no use 
for the two qualifications 'where* and 'sees nothing 
else, 1 But we do find in ordinary experience that in 
an empty house when it is said that 'one does not 
see any one else* it does not mean that he does not 
see himself and the pillars, &c, in the room. Such 
might be the explanation in the present instance.* 
Not so: Inasmuch as such sentences as 'That thou 
art' and the like, distinctly lay down unity, there is 



212 THE CHHA SDOGYA UPANISHAD 

no possibility of such differentiations as the 
container and the contained; as also it has been 
distinctly defined in the 6th Adhydya that 'Being 
alone, one, without a second, is the True.' And 
there is no possibility of any sight, &c, with regard 
to one's Self, because of snch Srutis, as 'In the 
invisible, &c.,' 'Its form is not within vision/ 
'whereby is one to understand the understander* 
and so forth. If it be urged that 'in that case the 
specification 'Yairti (in which) becomes useless,' 
— we deny this; because, it has reference to differ- 
entiations brought about by Ignorance ; just as 
even though Being is incapable of any number, &c, 
yet it is described as 'one, without a second,' with 
reference to the ordinary notions of 'truth, unity 
and secondlessness-' In the same manner, the 
qualification 'Yatra' belongs to the one Infinite, 
And since what is aimed at is to mention the seeing 
&c, of other things during the state of Ignorance, 
and then to explain the Infinite, as qualified by an 
absence of these; therefore ' we have the specifica- 
tion 'Sees nothing else: Thus, the upshot of the 
whole is that with regard to the Infinite, there are 
no wordly usages. On the other hand, in the other 
case, where, with regard to objects of Ignorance, 
one sees another by means of something else, 'that 
is the Finite' (Small),— *.e.» contemporaneous with 
Ignorance; just as objects dreamt of are, prior to 
the waking, contemporaneous with the dream. For 
the same reason, is the Finite 'mortal' — like the 
objects dreamt of; and opposed to this is the 
Infinite, which is 'immortal.' The word 'tat* refers 
to Immortality. 'Wherein does the aforesaid 



WITH SRI SAHARA'S COMMENTARY 213 

Infinite rest, Sir,* — said N'dradu; then Sanatkumdra 
replied: ' In its own greatness* — i.e., the Infinite 
rests in its own greatness; that is to say, if you ar© 
particular about there being some resting place for 
It; while if you ask the real fact, then It does not 
rest even in its own greatness. That is to say, the 
Infinite is without any rest, without any support. 

* IR II 

* In the world, they call, the cow and the horse, 
greatness, as also elephants and gold, slaves and 
wives, fields and houses. I do not mean this,' he 
said, ' because, in that case, one thing rests upon 
another. What I do mean is this.' (2) 

Com. — " When the Infinite rests in its own 
greatness, how is it that it is called * without a 
re>t ' V Just listen why it is so : The cow, horse 
&c, are called ' Greatness.' In ' goasvarn ' we have 
the Dvandva compound and hence the singular. 
The cow, horse, &c, are everywhere known as 

* Greatness,' And it is upon this that the pos- 
sessor, Chaitra, rests. But I do not mean to say 
that the Infinite, like Chaitra, rests upon anything 
apart from Itself ; the reason being that in the case 
of Chaitra, one thing, Chaitra, rests upon some- 
thing else, the possessions. Thus, the former 

* bravimi ' is to be construed with ' anyo Sec* What 
I do mean is this : ' 8a eva &c.' (in the % next 
Khanda). So said Saiiatkumdra. 

Thus ends the Twenty -fourth Khanda of 
Adhydya VII* 



ADHYA'YA VII. 
KHANDA XXV. 




I 11 

' That alone is below, That above, That behind, 
That before, That to the right, That to the left ; 
That is all this.' Next follows the explanation by 
'I': * The i alone is below, the I above, the /be- 
hind, the /before, the 1 to the right, the I to the 
left ; the lis all this. (1> 

Com. — It is explained why the Infinite does 
not rest in anything : because it is the Infinite 
itself, that is below, — there being nothing apart 
from It, whereupon It would rest ; similarly 'above' 
&c, in the same manner. If there were some- 
thing other than the Infinite, then alone could 
the Infinite rest upon that ; but there is no 
such thing ; the .Infinite itself being everything. 
Therefore, It does not rest in anything. Inasmuch 
as the idea of the container and the contained is 
contained in the passage * wherein he does not see 
anything else &c,' and the Infinite is spoken of in 
the present passage as — s That,' indicating a 
foreign entity, — people might be led to think that 
the Infinite is something other than the Jtva-Self, 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 215 

that sees ; hence in order to avoid the arising of 
any such idea, the Text nest proceeds to describe 
the Infinite as * L' With a view to point out that 
the Infinite is non-different from the seer, 5 It is 
described as 'I ' : 'the J below ' &c. &c. 

Next follows the explanation by 'Self : ' The 
Self alone is below, the Self above, the Self behind, 
the Self before, the Self to the right, the Self to 
the left ; the Self is all this. One who sees thus, 
thinks thus and understands thus, loves the Self, 
revels with the Self, enjoys the company of the 
Self, and rejoices in the Self; he becomes the 
8vardt; he becomes independent in all the worlds. 
While those that know otherwise, are ruled by 
others, and live in perishable worlds ; and they 
become dependent in all the worlds. (2) 

Com.— Indiscriminate people also describe the 
body as T ; hence, in order to set aside the doubt 
that it is the Body that is meant to be the Infinite, 
the Text proceeds to explain it as *Self.' The Self 
alone is all everywhere ; and one who sees the 
Self, as one, unborn, all-pervading like A'kasa, free 
from anything else,— and knowing this, one who 
thinks over and understands It,— such a person 



216 THE CHHA'FBOGYA TJPANISHAD 

' loves the Self * — i.e., all Ms love is centred In the 
Self alone ; so also, he * revels with the Self ', — in 
the world people revel with women and friends ; 
but the wise one does not do this ; but for him all 
revelry proceeds from a knowledge of the Self; 
'Mithund' is the pleasure of company ; this too, for 
the wise, is independent of any second ; so again 
he 'rejoices in the Self, — for the unwise, there are 
many pleasures due to sound &c, which do not 
belong to the wise, whose sole rejoicing proceeds 
from the Self, independently of any such extrane- 
ous accessories, as the body, life* experience, &c. 
Such a wise person, even while living, is installed 
as Svardt (King of Heaven, or Self-king) ; and 
•even when his body falls off, he continues to be 
Svardt ; and because such is the case, therefore 
he becomes independent in all the worlds. In the 
previous stages of the Spirit, &c, the independence 
of the person has been described as being limitedi 
which implies also the fact of his being ruled by 
others, inasmuch as there are varying degrees of the 
independence spoken of. In the present instance, on 
the other hand, the description of the kingdom of 
Self, and the consequent independence, serves to 
preclude the aforesaid degrees of limited independ- 
ence &c. On the other hand, ' those that know 
otherwise, ' than explained above, — i<e. t who either 
know what is contrary to it, or know the same 
truth, but not in the proper way, — such persons ' are 
ruled by others, and live in perishable worlds '; 
because the notion of diversity belongs to the Finite 
and the Finite has been declared to be mortal. 
Therefore, those that believe in duality live in perish- 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 21? 

able worlds, which is in keeping with their own 
belief ; and hence, for these, there is no independence 
in all the worlds. 



Thus ends the Twenty-fifth Kkawla of A»Uujaya VII. 



ADHYA'YA VII. 



KHAN DA XXVI. 
rm- SFPT r ^Wm 3n5TTSSrF|cf: W -"TOffi -*TO7F -*?Tc*I~ 

wmmwi ^m-hwm II $ l! 

For one who sees thus, thinks thus and under- 
stands thus, — ' Spirit springs from the Self, Hope 
springs from the Self, Memory springs from the 
Self, A'husa springs from the Self, Fire springs from 
the Self, Water springs from the Self, Appearance 
and Disappearance spring from the Self, Food 
springs from the Self, Power springs from the Self, 
Understanding springs from the Self, Contemplation 
springs from the Self, Consciousness springs from 
the Self, Will springs from the Self, Mind springs 
from the Self, Speech springs from the Self, Name 
springs from the Self, the Mantras spring from 
the Self, Sacrifices spring from the Self, — all this 
spring from the Self.' (1) 



218 THE CHHA'NDOGYA TTPANISHAD 

Com. — For such a one — the wise one who has 
attained to the Kingdom of Self — , prior to his know- 
ledge of the true Self, Spirit &c, down to Name, 
sprang from and disappeared into something other 
than the Self ; when, however, he came to know the 
true Self, the appearance and disappearance of all 
these proceeded from the Self alone ; so also every- 
thing else, for the knowing one, proceeds from the 
Self. 

fW H^fcl Wqff %m ^1W %T ^OT^ ^W ^Cf 

%&F®& ?T^«i^WN^ II \ II 

There is this verse ; 'one who sees this, sees not 
death, nor disease, nor pain ; he who sees this, sees 
all things, and obtains all things in every way. He 
being one becomes three, five, seven and nine ; and 
then he is said to be eleven, a hundred and ten, a 
thousand and twenty. On the purification of the 
A'hdra follows the purification of the inner nature ; 
on the purity of the inner nature, the Memory 
becomes firm ; and on the strengthening of Memory 
follows the loosening of all ties.' After the faults of 
N&rada had been rubbed out, the blessed Sanatku- 
mtira showed him beyond darkness. They call him 
Skanda,—"yea they call him Skanda. (%) 



WITH SKI SAKKABA'S COMMJSKTABT 219 

a ^~ T tf* UrtheT ' t0 thesam * ^ect, there is 
« verbe, liie wise one who « BO e *■» *u 

explained above, sees not Zl 2 % '^ "' 
&o.,— nor Dair, r>„ v * or dlBe ase,— fever 

in the Sett and th* JT „"" tUs SeeS a11 thiQ «* 
wav * „h' ' 6 ° bEaias OTer ytWng in every 

ore^io^ht ,"«"?• Pri0r to «>• differentiations of 

x n?j e trers; bu t subse ? uentiy difer »«- 

the tin,. „f !• ' be » m >ing with Mrea, at 

disso taSL. I. I 10 " 1 ' And agafa at th8 tim * <* 
»«i*», independently by himself. Thus, by eivine . 

S.oI t; l h ; nti0 p n hll °f ? h hr is ™' o8ised - »- 

tue mention of the means of the nroner 
cognition of the philosophy , Jnit as the puritfo 

!?'*- ■ 2 he P urifioat ion of the _4'M™'- 

er.ce of sound &c, which are ««fe„ in , for the 
e^pemnoe of the agent; and when this cognition 

obWt!l 1S pu f ed -«- **<»• the cognition of 
objects becomes free from all taint of aversion 
attachment, or delusion- then of one having such 
cognition, the "inner nature becomes pure'-free 

nZ T' "IT' Whe " the iMer naturs has ^come 
« T:^ en 0l W ! a fl ™ Mem «y-uninterrupted 
Z nf/T^ the Infinite Self ' 0n tte acqutei- 
Sl»^." 7, r 9 tte ''^-ningWes- 
1T4 h7v° t S ° f eV " dUe *° Wuioa, which 
n^Lt * D aooul ™ lat ™8. through the ex- 
5Sir * °™ erous births . «d re-births and 
which have their residence in the heart. Because 
one after the other, all this is based upon the purity 



%W THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

of A'hdra, it is this that should be attempted. 
Having detailed in full the sense of the Philosophy, 
the Text concludes the story. When all his faults 
of attachment, aversion, &c, — like colouring — per- 
taining to his inner nature, had been rubbed out, 
by the salt of Knowledge, Dispassion and Exercise, 
then did Sanatkumdra show to the capable Ndrada, 
the Highest Truth 'beyond Darkness' in the shape 
of Ignorance. "Who is Sanatkumdra ? He is the 
blessed : 'one who knows the origin, end, going and 
non-going of living beings, and also Ignorance and 
Knowledge, such a one is to be called Blessed ;' 
and endowed with these qualities is Sanatkumdra. 
People knowing him, call him ' Skanda,' The 
repetition is meant to indicate the end of the 
Adhyaya. 



Thus ends the Twenty -sixth Khanda of 
Adhyaya VII* 



Thus ends the Seventh Adhyaya. 



Zhc Gbba'nbog\>a Upanfsbab* 



ADHYA'YA VIII. 



KHANDA I. 






In this city of Brahman t there is a small lotus, 
(as) a palace ; therein is the small A'kasa. And 
what is in that is to be sought after, to be under- 
stood. (1) 

Com. — Though it has been fully comprehend- 
ed, in the 6th and 7th A^hyoyus, that all this is the 
Self alone, one, without a second, which isBrahman, 
free from all limitations of Space, Time, &o., yet 
ordinary people of dull intellects, have a firm con- 
viction that all reality is limited by Space and 
Time ; and this notion cannot be easily transferred 
to the Supreme True ; and without a comprehen- 
sion of Brahman, there is no fulfilment of the 
ends of man ; hence, for the sake of the duller 
comprehension of ordinary people, Brahman is 
now taught under the limitation of Space — that of 
the Lotus in the Heart. Though in reality, the 
Self-Principle is the sole object of the one true 
notion of Being, and as such free from qualities^ 



t%% THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

yet people of duller brains always look upon It as 
qualified ; hence for the sake of these people, such 
qualities, as ' truthfulness of desire * and the like, 
have to be described in connection with It. In 
the same manner, though for those people that 
know Brahman, there is a natural cessation of all 
longing for such objects of sense, as the woman 
and the like, — yet it is not a very easy matter to 
remove, at one stroke, all longing for objects of 
sense, brought about by an uninterrupted attend- 
ance upon such objects, through many lives ; 
hence, it becomes necessary to lay down particular 
means to its accomplishment, — such as the life of 
a religious student and the like. So also, for those 
that know the Self, there being no such differen- 
tiation as the goer, the going and the place to go to, 
&c., and there being an utter annihilation of all 
causes fostering the continuance of Tgnorance, all 
longings have an end within themselves, like the 
A'k&sa, like the wind produced by lightning, and 
like the fire with all its fuel burnt off ; for those 
minds are still coloured with the notions of the 
goer &c, who are given to meditating upon 
Brahman as, limited within the space of the 
hear!;; there is a process upwards through an artery 
in the head ; and it is with a view to explain 
this, that the eighth chapter is begun: The Brahman 
—which, in reality is a pure Being, one, without a 
second, free from all limitations of Space and Time, 
— appears, to people of duller comprehension, to 
be non-existing. And with regard to such people, 
the idea of the Text is this: 'let them come to the 
proper Path; later on, we shall make them eompre- 



WITH SE1 SANKABA'S COMMENTARY %%B 

hend the Real Truth.' Now, the Lotus in the Heart, 
to be explained below, is like a palace; because it 
is equipped with gatekeepers &c. "In this city of 
Brahmcm"~th.e city of the Supreme Brahman; fust 
as of the king, there is a city, inhabited by many 
sorts of subjects; so is this Body, equipped with 
various attendants of the master, such as the 
Sense-organs, the Mind, the Understanding &c. 
And, as in the city, there is the king's palace,— so, 
in this Body the city of Brahman, there is his palace; 
i.e., a place where Brahman is to be found; just like 
the Salagrama pebble is for Yishnu. And it has 
been explained that it was in this Body, the very 
top of His modifications, the Supreme Brahman, 
Pure Being, entered, as the Human Self, for the 
purpose of the differentiations of Name and Form. 
Therefore, the sense of the whole section is that 
Brahman is found in this palace of the Heart-Lotus, 
by such persons as have all their organs drawn 
within themselves, are free from all attachment to 
external objects, are particularly equipped with 
such aids as a Religious Life and the like, carry- 
ing on their meditations based on the qualities, to 
be hereafter described. In this small palace, there 
is a smaller inner A'kasa which is Brahman; as 
will be described below: l A'ktisa is Its name; this 
being based upon the fact of Its being, like A'kasa, 
immaterial, subtle, all-pervading. That which is 
within this A'kasa 'is to be sought after' and that 
is 'to be understood,' — that is to say, having been 
sought after by such means as having recourse to 
the Teacher, attentive listening to him and the like, 
It is to be directly perceived. 



224 THE OHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

cf %gqfeste?3if$: <^t ^tm for z$b$fm- 
f*# *r spcrji \ n 

If they should say to him: 'Now with reference 
to the small lotus, in this city of Brahman, which 
is as a palace, and the smaller A'kdsa within this, 
— what is it existing therein, which has to be 
sought after and to be understood', — he should 
reply: (2) 

Cora.— When the Teacher has said this, if the 
students might object that, 'in this city of Brahman 
itself being limited, and the small Lotus-palace 
lying within this, and smaller than this latter too 
being the A'kdsa inside it, — in the first place, what 
could there be in the Lotus-palace itself ? And 
then> how could there lie anything within the 
A'kasa that is said to be within that palace ? The 
meaning being that the A'kasa within this being 
smaller, what could exist in it ? Even if there do 
exist something of die size of a plum, what is the 
good of wishing to search for it. or even to know 
it ? Hence that which is neither to be sought after, 
nor to be understood, what is the use of such a 
thing ? When they may have raised this objec- 
tion, the Teacher 'should say this :' 



WITH SRI SAHARA'S COMXILX i'AXiY 235 

'As large as is this A'kosa, so large U tl.e 

A'kvse. within the Heart ; both Heaven and Earth 
are contained within it; both Fire arc! Afr, Loth the 

Sun and the Moon, the lightning as well as the 
Stars, and whatever there is in this world, of the 
Self and whatever is not, all is contained -with- 
in it." (3) 

Com. — Listen how it is : 'You assert that the 
A'kCsa within the Loins' being small, anything 
within that would be much &.malk;\ This is not 
true ; it was not with the idea that the A'kdsa 
within the Lotus is smaller than thu Lotua itself, 
that T said 'Small is the A'kCsa v. ithin it ;* all that 
1 meant wad that the Lotus Luln^ small, the 
internal organ in keeping with it is limited by the 
A'kd/Lu of the Lotus ; and jutt as in x ura water and 
in a clean mirror there is a clear reflect ion, so in 
the pure internal organ of the Toil, who has his 
senses drawn within himself, is found Brahman, 
the pure rc-lkction and essence of Jae light of Intel- 
ligence ; such was the meaning of tho assertion 
that small is the A'kdsa within it,' which distinctly 
referred to the limitations of the internal organ. 
In itself, the A'kusa within the heart is as large as 
the ordinary elemental A'kdsa ; and it is within 
this heart— A kasa— that there lies that which has 
to be sought after and understood. But even then 
what is really meant is not the exact equality of 
size ; but we have such a statement simply because 
there is no instance that could pibcisely exemplify 
Brahman, 'But why should not B'/ul mem be taken 
to be equal to A'kdsa V Simply because we have 
such Sruiis as — 'whereby 'are covered the A'kdsa. 

13 



228 THE CHHA'HDOGYA UPAMSHAD 

Com .—Being thus questioned by his students, 
the Teacher should say this, removing the afore- 
said mistaken notion from their minds. How ? By 
the old age of this Body, the Brahman, named the 
' Inner A'Msa—m which latter, all things are 
contained, — ' does not age,' — £, e„ docs not change* 
like the physical body. Nor by the death of this 
body — by means of weapons—is That killed, just 
like the ordinary A'kusa; the Brahmic A'hasa 
being even subtler than the ordinary A'hasa, and 
being beyond sound, beyond touch, and not affected 
by the discrepancies of the sense-organs, &c. 
Though this is the occasion for explaining why It 
is not affected by the discrepancies of the sense- 
organs &c, yi-fc this explanation is not taken up 
here ; since the Lhread of the principal argument 
would be broken; this explanation would be taken 
up in all its bearings, in connection with the story 
of Iiidra and Virochana, his is the true Brahman- 
city -i.e. , Brahman Itself considered as a city- The 
Body is Brahman's city, since it specifies the 
Brahman ; and as such it is only false ; as declared 
by the Sruti : ' all modification is mere name, based 
on words'. The assertion made above—- that Brah- 
man is found- in the'Body, which is the very top of 
Its illusory modifications, and hence the Body is 
Brahman-city, — was from the stand-point of the 
world; the true ^Brahman-city being Brahman Itself, 
which is capable of all usage. Hence, in this Brah- 
man-city, marked by the lotus, all desires — that you 
seek after — are contained in Itself, Therefore, try 
and act up to the means of attaining That, renoun- 
cing all hankering after external objects of sense. 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 229 

"This is the Self — the real Self of you all ; and 
listen to its definition: It is 'free from evil'--/.*?., from 
which a-11 evil, in the shape of virtue and vice, has 
been removed- -' free from old age,' and ' free from 
death' — as has been said before : 'By the death of 
this, That is not killed.' 'Then why should the same 
fact be repeated over again ?' The repetition is for 
the purpose of removing the doubt that That may 
be related, in some other manner, with old age and 
death, even though It is not connected with these, 
as they pertain to the physical body. 'Free from 
sorrow' — sorrow being the pain of mind, caused 
by separation from desired objects. ' Without 
hunger and thirst' — free from all desire for food and 
drink. ' The mention of freedom from evil implies 
the absence of all the rest, from old age down to 
sorrow, these being the direct effects of the former ; 
because all these proceed from Virtue and Vice. Or 
conversely, the negation of the effects, old age &c, 
would imply the negation of the cause, Virtue and. 
Vice, because in the absence of any effects, these 
would be as good as n on- entities ; hence the separate 
mention of the negation of both is useless.' True it 
is so ; but just as real Bliss is something different 
from the bliss caused by virtue &c, as found in the 
Lord, — as declared by the Sruti 'Brahman is consci- 
ousness, Bliss'; so also, it may be thought that the 
pain caused by old age &o„ may be only natural, as 
apart from the old age, &c, as brought about by 
Vice ; hence, with a view to set aside these doubts, it 
is only proper to deny old age &c, apart from Virtue 
and Vice. The mention of ' old age ' &c, is meant 
to include all kinds of pain. The forms of pain, 



230 THE CHHA'NDOGYA TTPANISHAD 

attendant upon Sin, being innumerable, and any- 
individual denial of these, being impossible, it is only 
proper to mention ' freedom from evil ' ' with a view 
to the denial of all kinds of pain.' ' With true 
wishes ' — i.e., one whose desires are always success- 
ful ; the desires of worldly people are false ; while 
those of the Lord are contrary to this. Similarly, 
the determinations, proceeding from true desires, are 
also true ; and one whose determinations are true is 
That. The wishes and determinations of the Lord 
proceed from th.e limitations of pure Sattva, — just 
like the epithet ' variegated cow ' (as applied to the 
owner)—, and th-ey do not proce-ed from Himself ; 
because the Sruti has declared, ' not this, not that \ 
It is the Self as described above, that is to be learnt, 
from Teachers and from Scriptures, by means of a 
desire to cognise the Self, by such people as desire 
the kingdom of heaven. ' If this were not known, 
what would be the harm ?' Listen to what there is, 
as explained by an example : just as, in this world 
1 the subjects follow '—act according to— orders ; 
i.e., as the subject accepts another person to be the 
master, follows whatever the commands of this 
master are ; and as they depend upon whatever 
country and whatever piece of land, they desire, in 
accordance with their own intellects ;-— such is the 
instance showing the harm in the experience of the 
results of one's virtuous deeds being dependent upon 
another person. 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 231 

*Fm 11 ^ II 

And just as, in this world, the world, obtained 
bf- means of actions, perishes, so also does perish 
the next world acquired by virtuous deeds. Those 
who depart from here, without knowing the Self 
and the true desires, become dependent in all the 
worlds. While those who depart from here, after 
having understood the Self and the true desires, 
become independent in all the worlds. (6) 

Com. — There is another instance to show the 
perishable character of the aforesaid, 'Just as &c' : 
Just as in this world, in the case of the aforesaid 
subjects obedient to their master's orders, — the 
world obtained by means of such acts as attending 
upon the master and so forth, depending *upon 
another's will for the fruition of its results perishes. 
The fact pointed to, by the above two examples, is 
now laid down : so does perish the next world, 
obtained by means of such meritorious deeds as 
the performance of the Agnilwtra, and the like,, 
and depending for the fruition of its results, upon 
something else. It is next pointed out the persons'. 
whom these harms affect : In this world, if those- 
capable persons who are entitled to Knowledge and* 
Action, — without having understood the Self, as. 
taught by the Teacher, (i.e., without having 
realised It in their own cognitions) — depart from' 
this body ; and if they depart from this body 
without having understood the true desires afore- 
said, as proceeding from the true will, and residing 
in the Self ; — then for these people there is no- 



232 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

independence in all the worlds ; just as for the 
subjects living in obedience to the king's commands. 
While those others, who, in this world, understand 
the Self as taught by the Teacher, and have realised 
It in their own cognitions, and then depart from 
this body, also after having understood the afore- 
said true desires, for such people, there is independ- 
ence in all the worlds ; just like the autocratic 
Emperor of the world. 



Thus ends the First Khanda of Adhydya VIII. 

ADHYA'YA VIII. 

KHANDA II. 



rasFcf eft ftrs^r mm *\t\^ !1 ? iS 

If he be desirous of the world of the Fathers, 
by his mere will, his fathers come to him ; and 
having obtained the world of the Fathers, he feels 
happy and great. (1) 

Com.— It is now explained, how one becomes 
independent in all the worlds : one who has realised 
the aforesaid Self in the heart, being fully equipped 
with such means as the life of a religious student, 
<&c, and knowing fully the true desires as pertain- 
ing to the Self,-— if such a one, after the falling off 
of the body, be desirous of the world of the Fathers, 
-—'Fathers ' are the progenitors ; and these are 
called * worlds,' since they bring about pleasant 
experiences for the person— i.e., one who desires 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 233 

-connection with the Fathers,— by his mere will, his 
Fathers come and connect themselves with him ; 
because he is of pure nature, and as such, has his 
will infallible, like that of the Lord ; and having 
obtained the world of the Fathers— i.e., being 
andowed with the pleasant experiences afforded by 
them— he becomes great, or prosperous—, i.e., he 
feels his own greatness. 

'fxlgFcf eft OT3^1%rr m^l *I^fa% II ^ II 

Rigfar c^r s^fo^ m^i 1^% ll 8 II 
srt qfe ^fcroft *jqfa ^R^n^n^r mR : w 

TrfST^cf eft ^1%31%^ WF$\ 1^% II <\ II 

m ^k ^cfqitef^^ *iqfci OT^qi^sn^r *ftct- 
srrf^^r *T§l%gcrecft *ffenfe$to sfa^r *#$r !i <^ 1! 

w qft fft^an^ *rcRf ^FOT^rrw ftra : ^3- 
fasfar ?ft ifi#nft ^ptft *$& II s> II 



234 THE OHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

And if he be desirous of the world of the 
Mothers,~-by his mere will, his Mothers come to 
him; and having obtained the world of the Mothers, 
he feels happy and great. (2) 

And if he be desirous of the world of the 
Brothers,— by his mere will, the Brothers come to 
him ; and having obtained the world of the Brothers, 
he feels happy and great. (3) 

And if he be desirous of the world of the Sisters,, 
— by his mere will, the Sisters come to him ; and 
having obtained the world of the Sisters, he feels 
happy and great. (4) 

And if he be desirous of the world of Friends, 
— by his mere will, the Friends come to him ; and 
having obtained the world of the Friends, he feels 
happy and great. (5) 

And if he be desirous of the worlds of Scents 
and Garlands, — by his mere will, Scents and 
Garlands come to him ; and having obtained the 
world of Scents and Garlands, he feels happy and 
great. (6) 

And if he be desirous of the world of Food and 
Drink, — by his mere will, Food and Drink come to 
him ; and having obtained the world of Food and 
Drink, he feels happy and great. (7) 

And if he be desirous of the world of Songs and 
Music—by his mere will, Songs and Music come to 
him ; and having obtained the world of Songs and 
Music, he feels happy and great. (8> 

And if he be desirous of the world of Women, 
—by his mere will, Women come to him ; and 
having obtained the world of Women, he feels 
happy and great. (9> 



WITH SEI SANKAEA'S COMMENTAEY 235 

Com.— The next as before. 'Mothers' — the past 
female progenitors, the agents of pleasant experi- 
ences ; for such is the implication of the word ; 
inasmuch as the pure-natured yogi can never desire 
any relations which such Mothers as were the 
agents of painful experiences — such fire, as the 
mothers that may have given him birth as a pig. 

A mzmf*m$\ wfa 4 *m wd ^-q ^^t- 

^f ^gfrfBfcl ^r mw\ *T^faclf |J? ° II 

Whatever country he is attached to, and what- 
ever he desires,— by his mere will, all this comes 
to him ; and having obtained this, he feels happy 
and great. (10) 

Cojru—To whatever place he is attached,- -and 
whatever besides those enumerated, ho desires,— 
by his mere will, do all desirable places and things 
come to him ; and thereby having none of his 
wishes unfulfilled and having obtained all that he 
desires, he feels happy and great, — as explained 
above. 

Thus ends the Second lOianda of Adhyuya VIIL 



ADHYA'YA VIII. 



KHANDA III. 

?r ^ mr> tot m^'^i^^ *mht^ mm- 

These are the true desires, with a covering of 
untruth; though these are true, they have a 
covering of untruth. For, whoever, departs from 
here, him one cannot see again in this world, (1) 

Oom. — With a view to encourage the disciple 
towards acting up to the means of contemplating 
on the Self, the Sruii says, with compassion : It is 
really a great trouble that the true desires though 
lying within one's own Self, and being easily 
attainable, should be covered with untruth. Though 
they lie in one's own self, yet they have a covering 
of untruth i — i.e., a longing for external objects of 
sense, such as the woman, food, drink and the like, 
and the independence of conduct based on this 
longing, all of which is called an 'untruth' because 
it is brought about by false knowledge ; and due to 
this is the non-attainment of the true destees ; and 
hence, it acts as if it were their 'covering.' It is 
explained how the non- attainment of these is due 
to the covering of untruth : Because whoever of 
one's relations — a son, brother or friend— -departs 
from this world, even though this son, brother, or 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 237 

friend continues to exist in the A'kttsa, yet he 
does not get him back, even if he long to see him. 

Those of his relatives, who are living and who 
are dead, and whatever else there is which, though 
desiring, one does not obtain, — all this one finds, 
when he goes there. There are all those true 
desires, covered by untruth. And just as people 
who do not know the place walk over the ground? 
and do not know the golden treasure that is hidden 
under-ground, — so do all these creatures, though 
daily going into this world of Brahman, find it not, 
— being carried away by untruth. (%} 

Com. — Of the knowing one, those, son &o, 
that are living, and those that are dead, and 
whatever else, food, clothing, &c, that he 
desires, but does not obtain, — all i'heso he gets 
when he goes to the Brahman in tho A'kusa 
of the heart. Because it is in this heart A'kusa t 
that exist all the true desires, though covered 
by untruth. But how can this be? Jual as 
those people, that do not know by the help of 
the science of treasures, where the golden treasure 
is hidden — do not discover the treasure hidden 
under the ground, even though they walk over the 
place ; in the same manner, all these creatures, 
steeped in Ignorance, though daily, during deep 



•238 THE OHHA'NDOGYA UPANtSHAD 

sleep, going over the Brahman-woild in the A'kdsa 
of the heart, do not obtain it — i.e., do not know 
that ' I have reached the Brahman-woxld — ' being 
as they are, carried astray by the aforesaid Igno- 
rance of His own form &c. Hence, it is indeed very 
painful to find that one does not find the Brahman, 
though it resides in his own heart. 

f^w^r? ^f^sR ^r^fcf II \ ll 

This Self is in the heart. The etymological 
explanation is this : because It is in the heart 
(Hridi — ayamj, therefore is it called the Heart 
(Hridayam). One who knows this daily goes to 
the world of Heaven. (3) 

Com~-The word 'vaV points to the Self devoid 
of evil, the object of the present discourse. This 
Self in the Lotus of the Heart is called by the name 
of ' A'kdsa.' And the etymology of the word 
'Hridaya is'this, and none other. Because the 
Self resides in the heart, therefore it is called the 
'Heart ' ; that is to say even from the etymology of 
the word 'Hridaya* it follows that the Self resides 
in one's Heart. One who knows that the Self is in 
the heart, daily goes to the world of heaven — i.e., 
the Brahman in the Heart. ' But even one who 
does not know this does get at the Brahman in the 
Heart, during deep sleep ; as it has been declared 
that during deep sleep one is endowed with Pure 
Being.' Yes, it is so ; still there is a difference. 
Just as all living creatures — knowing or ignorant 
■—are real Brahman, yet it is the knowing one, 
alone, who is cognisant of the fact ' that thou art,' 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 239 

and so knows himself to be Pure Being, becomes 
Pure Being itself ; thus, in the same manner, 
though both the Knowing and the Ignorant reach 
Pure Being during deep sleep, yet it is one who 
knows this that is said to reach the world of 
Heaven ; because even When the body falls off, 
-the result of knowledge is sure to follow. Such 
is the difference between the cases of the Knowing 
and the Ignorant. During deep sleep the Knowing 
one being united with his own Self of Pure Being, 
becomes happy ; that is, renounces evil due to the 
connection of the senses with their objects, during 
the states of waking and of dream. 

Now this serene and happy being, after having 
risen from this body, and having got at the highest 
light, reaches his own true form ; that is the Self ; 
thus said he. This is the Immortal and the Fearlesu, 
this is Brahman ; and the name of this Brahman is 
the ' True ' (Satya), (4) 

Com.— Though the phrase ' sereno and happy * 
refers equally to all living creatures, yet, from the 
sentence * one who knows this reaches the world of 
heaven ' it follows that it is the knowing one that 
forms the object of discourse here ; and hence it ib 
this that is to be taken as referred to by the phrase 
'serene and happy 'being'. ' Such a one after having 
given up this body, and rising above it, i.e., renounc- 
ing all notion of Self with regard to the body;— and 



240 THE OHHA'NDOGTA UPANISHAD 

not that he rises from the body, as one does from &. 
seat; since it is distinctly defined ' in his own true 
form '; and one's true nature is not accessible from 
elsewhere, after having gone away from the body ; 
for even if some such were to be reached, it would 
not be one's 'true form '. Having got at the highest 
light of the Supreme Self— i.e., having got at peace 
within the Self, reaches his own true form, of the 
Self; prior to such reaching of the true, form, being led 
by Ignorance to think the body to be his high form ; 
and it is with reference to this mistake it :j said s his 
own true form'; since unembodiednes* is the form of 
the Self, which is got at, as the Highest light by the 
serene and happy being ; this is the Self. ' Thus he 
said ' i.e., one who is deputed to instruct his pupils, 
should say this. And further, this is the ' immortal 5 
undecaying — the Highest — also called the s fearless', 
because the Highest one having no second has 
no second; hence this is Brahman, And of this 
Brahman, the name is the 'True'— 'Saly r?,' ha it has 
already been described that 'That is the true,, 
the Self.' But why is this name of Brahr.ia.i given ? 
For the purpose of eulogising the injunction of Its 
meditation. 

3TH %. m ^tI% sffowrfor stftafafa a^TO^h 

These are the three letters — Sa, ti and yarn. 
The Sa is the immortal, ti is the mortal, and by the 
yam one binds both. Because by it one binds both* 
therefore it is yaw. 'One who knows this daily goes 
to heaven. (5) 



WITH SRI SAFKARA'S COMMENTARY 241 

Com.— -Those are the three letters making up 
the name of Brahman — so, ta and yam, the i and t 
(in it and sat) being added only for the sake of pro- 
nunciation ; the signification being accomplished 
by the short letters themselves. Of these, the letter 
m signifies the Immortal, true Brahman ; hence it is 
the Immortal that is spoken of as ' sa;' the letter 'ti' 
— i.e., 'ta' — signifies the mortal — and by the 'yam,' 
one binds both the immortal and the mortal, as 
denoted by the former two letters ;—' Binds' means 
controls, subjugates, by the Self. Because by this, 
one binds both, therefore it is "yam; since it is both 
these, as duly controlled, that are signified by 
*yam\ Even the very letters constituting the name 
of Brahman, have the great fortune of being 
endowed with the qualitites of Immortality fee- 
how much more then, of one who bears that name; 
thus is Brahman eulogised, as the object of medi- 
tation, by the etymological explanation of the 
name.— 'One who knows this—' Brahman as bear- 
ing the name 'True'— 'goes to heaven, every day' 
— as explained above. 

Thus ends the Third Khatida of Adhydya VIII. 



16 



ADHYA'YA Via 

KHAN DA IV. 



This Self is the bund, the embankment, for the 
non-destruction of these worlds. This bank is not 
reached by Day and Night, nor by old age, death 
or sorrow, nor by good and evil deed ; all evils turn 
away from it. For, this world of Brahman is free 
from all evil. (1) 

Com. — 'This Self <&c," of the serene and happy 
being described above, it is meant to describe the 
form and qualities, thereby eulogising it, for the 
purpose of connecting it with the means of accom- 
plishing Brahmic glory. This Self, described above, 
is 'the.bund, the embankment,' — as, it is by this that 
all this world is kept within proper limits, in keep- 
ing with the Creator, by means of certain restric- 
tions with regard to the actions, means and conse- 
quences, as pertaining to the different castes and 
conditions of men. If the universe were not kept 
within limits by the Lord, it would be destroyed ; 
hence It is the 'bund, the embankment,'— for the 
non-disruption, non-destruction, of these worlds^ 
the substrata of the Agent, Actions and Results. 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 243 

What are the properties of this 'bund' ? Even Day 
and Night, which limit ail that is born, do not pass- 
over this bund ; that is to say, all otherworldly 
things, are limited by Time, in the shape of Day 
and Wight ; but this bund is not limited by Time ; 
because 'it is down below that the year rolls round 
in days', as declared in another Srutu For the same 
reason, it is not reached by the old age, nor by 
Death nor sorrow, good deeds nor evil. ' Tarati', 
signifies reaching, and not crossing ; because the 
Self is the cause ; and the cause can never be 
crossed by the effect ; Day and Night are effects 
of Pure Being. One thing is crossed or got 
at, by something other than itself ; it can never 
cross itself ; the clay is neither reached nor crossed 
by the jar. Though even before all evil has been 
denied with regard to the Self in the passage 'this 
is the Self, free from evil &o. ' yet, in the present 
instance, also, a praticular phase of it, the access- 
ibility by evil, is what is denied ; and the absence 
of the old age spoken of is in its general phase. 
Day and Night have been mentioned ; all else that 
is not mentioned, and all evils, turn away from 
this Self, without reaching It at all. Because this 
world of Brahman is said to be free from evil. 

Therefore, having reached this bund, one who 
is blind ceases to be blind ; he who is hurt ceases to- 
be hurt ; he who is afflicted ceases to be afflicted. 
Therefore, when this bund has been crossed even. 



244 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPAHISHAD 

*he Night becomes Day ; for this world of Brahman 
Is lighted once for all. (2) 

Com. — Inasmuch as blindness &c, brought about 
by evil, would belong to one who has a body, and 
never to the unbodied one, — havingr each ed this bund 
»the bodied one who is blind ceases to be blind; simi- 
Marly, the bodied one who is hurt ceases to be hurt, 
when freed from the body ; in the same manner, 
one who is afflicted by the pains of the disease &c, 
ceases to be afflicted. And further, because there 
.are no Days and Nights on this bund, therefore 
when the bund is reached even the dark Night 
becomes Day— that is to say, for the knowing one, 
everything reverts to the form of the one Being, 
which consists of the pure light of conscious- 
ness, and as such, resembles the Day. Because 
the world of Brahman is ' lighted once for all ' — 
ever permanently lighted by its own nature. 

^n€$% $fc% wxfKt defter j j \ ii 

Those who reach this world of Brahman by 
continence, — to them belongs this world of Brahmani 
for there is independence in all the worlds. (3) 

Com. — Such being the case, those who, by means 
<t>f s continence ' — i.e., by renouncing all desire for 
women — reach this world of Brahman, in accordance 
with the instructions of the Teachers of Scriptures, — 
i.e., realise it in their consciousness — , to such people, 
as are equipped, with continence, and have a know- 
ledge of Brahman, this world of Brahman belongs ; 
and to no others who have a longing for women, 
even if they know Brahman. For these people, there 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 24S 

is independence in all the worlds. Therefore, conti- 
nence is the Supreme means, for the knowers off 
Brahman. 

Thus ends the Fourth Khanda of Adhydya VIII. 



ADHYA'YA VIII. 
KHANDA V. 

$rq *m w^ m*wn ^p^w ttar m imr 

$ f^cfsq ^2ftc^R# softer a^^qor ft%|TSS- 

Now that which they call i yajna' (Sacrifice) is 
only continence ; as it is only by means of conti- 
nence that the knower reaches That. And that 
which they call 'Ishttf is only continence ; because 
it is by continence that having worshipped, one- 
reaches the Self. (I)> 

Com> — The Self that has been eulogised as- 
being the bund <&c : — in order to reach that, the- 
Text lays down continence, as another means for 
the accomplishment of knowledge. And the Text 
eulogises it as being the 'sacrifice &c.,' with a view 
to declare the propriety of taking to it. Now that-, 
which people call 'yajncC—i.e., the particular means- 
for the accomplishment of the supreme end of man,, 
which is called 'Yajna,' Sacrifice, by the learned,-— • 
that only is continence. Inasmuch as the result 
obtained by means of sacrifices is also obtained: 
by means of continence, continence should. 



246 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

"be understood as being the same as sacrifice. 
It is now explained how continence is sacrifice. 
Because, it is by continence that one who knows 
reaches that world of Brahman, — which is also the 
result following indirectly from the sacrifice ; 
therefore, the sacrifice is continence. Sacrifice 
(yajna) is continence {Brahmacharya), also because 
of the letter l jna* occurring in 'jnata' and 'janya*. 
That which people call ' Ishta' is also continence. 
How ? Because it is by means of continence, that, 
one having worshipped the Lord,— or having wished 
for the Self— reaches the Self. And because of this 
wish, the ' Ishta' is also continence. 

What people call ' Satrayana' that is conti- 
nence ; because, it is by means of continence that 
one obtains the safety of his Self from the Sat. 
What people call 'maunc? is really continence; 
because it is by means of continence that, having 
found the Self, one meditates. (g) 

Com.— 1 What people call &c, ? because by 

means of continence one obtains the safety of his 
Self from the Supreme Self. Therefore the word 
* Satrdyana' is continence. 'What people call 
mauna is continence'— because it is only 
when equipped with continence that one knows the 
Self, with the help of the Scripture and the Teacher 
and then meditates upon It. Therefore the word, 
' mauna * also is continence. 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 247 

cflt ^q^^^^c^-. gteHwrcrto saw- 3^~ 

What people call ' Andsakdyana ' is indeed 
continence. For, that Self does not perish, which 
one finds by means of continence. And what 
people call ' Aranydyana ' is only continence ; for, 
Ara and Nya are the two oceans in the world of 
Bhahman, in the region of Heaven, whiph is the 
third from this ; and there is the Air am madiya lake 
and the Asvattha tree named ' Somasavana ' and 
there is also the Apar&jita city of Brahman, as also 
the golden hall built by the Lord.' (3) 

Com. — What is called ' Andsakdyana ' is only 
continence. The Self that one finds by means of 
continence—- i.e., the Self of one who i's equipped 
with continence — never perishes ; therefore the 
Andsakdyana is continence. What people called 

* Aranydyana ' is only continence. Because, one 
who is endowed with continence proceeds to the 
world of Brahman, where there are the two 
oceans. Ara and Nya, therefore continence is 

* Aranydyana ' — Just as it is yajna, because of the 
similarity of sound in * yajna * and ' jndta ' ; and it 
is Ishta, because of desiring ; it is Satrdyana, 
because of saving from the sat; it is Mauna, because 
of meditation ; and it is Andsakdyana, because of 
non-decay ; in the same manner because of proceed- 
ing to Ara and Nya it is ' Aranydyana '. Thus then 



248 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

continence, being eulogised as bringing about the 
highest ends of man, is the supreme cause of 
Knowledge, and as such it ought to be carefully 
kept by the knower of Brahman. There, in the 
world of Brahman, there are two oceans — or ocean- 
like lakes,— known as ' Ara ' and ' Jsfya \ in 
Heaven, which is the third region from this, this 
Earth and the Sky being the first and second. 
There is also the lake ' Air am madiya ', — * Aira ' 
is gruel, ' ira * being grain and that which is 
full of this gruel, and serves to intoxicate or 
exhilarate those that partake of it. is called the 
' Airam madiya*. There too, is the Aswattha tree, 
by name 'Somasavana* — that which showers down 
Soma or Nectar. In that same world of Brahman 
is the city of Brahman, Hiranyagarbha, the 
'Aparajita'— which is not won by any one besides 
those that are equipped with continence, as also 
the golden hall particularly built by the Lord, 
Brahman. 

Those who find the two oceans, Ara and N'ya, 
in the world of Brahman, by means of continence, 
— to them belongs the world of Brahman; for 
them, there is independence in all the worlds. (4) 

Com. — Those who find the two oceans, named 
'Ara and Nya? in the world of Brahman, by means 
of continence, — to them belongs the above- 
described world of Brahman. And for these 
Knowers of Brahman, who are equipped with 
continence, there is independence in all the 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 249 

worlds ; and never for those who are devoid of 
continence, and have their hearts attached to 
external objects. " As some big person is 
eulogised, as ' thou art Indra, Yama, Varuna, Sec'; 
such eulogy by means of the words 'Ishta' is not 
possible merely for abstinence from such objects of 
sense, as the women and the like; what is the fact 
is that Knowledge being the direct means to Liber- 
ation, it is this that is eulogised." Such is the 
view of some people. But this is not true ; be- 
cause, no Knowledge of the Self is possible for those 
who have their minds taken up by longings for the 
external objects, like the woman &c, because of 
hundreds of euch Sruti and Smriti passages, as- 
'The Self-born one threw out the outer A'kdsas, 
hence one sees only outside, and not the inner 
Self.' It is absolutely necessary to accomplish the 
cessation of all longing for the woman and other 
objects of sense, which aids the accomplishment 
of Knowledge ; and hence, it is only proper 
that such cessation should be eulogised. 'Since 
continence has been eulogised as the sacrifice &c, 
therefore it follows that the sacrifice &o M are 
the means for the accomplishment of the ends of 
man.' True ; such a conclusion does follow ; but 
continence has been eulogised here as the sacrifice 
not with a view to the fact of the sacrifice, &o„ 
leading to the world of Brahman, but simply with a 
view to the well-known fact of these being the 
means for the fulfilment of certain ends of man;- 
just as the king is eulogised as Indra, which does 
not mean that the action of the king is the same, 
and happens in the same place, as those of Indra. 



250 THE OHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

* These oceans of the world of Brahman, and the 
.experiences of the Father* &c, as brought about by- 
mere will, &c, — are these of the Earth and Water, 
as found here ? Are the oceans, tree, city and 
golden Hall like those of the Earth ? Or, are these 
only ideal ? If these were of the Earth and Water, 
being gross in form, then they could not be 
contained within the A'k&sa of the heart ; 
and it would contradict such statements in the 
Purdna, as that, * in the world of Brahman, the 
body &c., are only mental, ' as also the Srutis, 
' free from sorrow, free from cold &c, &c.' If it 
be urged that if these were taken as only mental, 
then that would go against such Puranic statements 
as that ' Oceans ' Rivers , Lakes, Tanks, Wells, 
Sacrifices, the Vedas, the Mantra &c, all these take 
form, and approach Brahman ; — (we reply) there is 
no such contradiction ; if these really took their 
known material forms, they could not possibly go 
-there ; therefore, it must be assumed that the ocean 
&c, proceeding to the world of Brahman, have 
some shape, other than the well-known material 
forms. And when the necessity of assumption is 
equal, it is much better to assume that the forms of 
the man, woman &c, are mental ones, because all 
the relations mentioned above are possible only with 
-regard to the mental body. For in dreams too, it is 
only the mental images of men, women Sec, that 
.are seen. " But these would be false ; and then these 
would be a contradiction of such Srutis, as 'these 
are the true desires &c." Not so ; because of the 
-possibility of the truth of the mental idea ; since 
jt is only the mental images of men, women 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 251 

<&c, that are seen in a dream. ' But the scenes 
of a dream are only the residues of the tenden- 
cies left by the waking state ; and there are 
not real images of men and women, in the 
dream.' In saying this, you say but little ; 
even the cognitions of the waking state are only 
accomplished by means of mental impressions ; 
since all objects of the waking state are made up 
of the Fire, Water and Food that are brought about 
by the thinking of Pure Being ; and it has already 
"been declared that worlds proceed from the Will, 
in the passage 'The Heaven and Earth willed Sec.'; 
and in all the Srutis, of the Counter-Self, the origin 
is in the Will, as also Its dissolution, and continu- 
ance — just like the spokes in the axle. Therefore, 
'between the external and mental objects, there is 
a mutual r elation of cause and effect, like that of 
the seed and the sprout ; though, as a matter of 
fact the external objects are mental, and tbJe 
mental obj ects are external ; yet no falsity ever 
attaches to them in the Self. 'But objects perceived 
in the dream become false for the awakened man.* 
True, it is so ; but the falsity is not by itself, but 
only in comparison with waking cognition ; and 
conversely too, the waking cognition is false in 
comparison with dream-cognition. As a matter of 
fact, all specific forms have their origin in 
mistaken cognitions — 'all modification being a, 
mere name based upon words, the only truth being 
the three colours.' But these too are false only in 
their character of specific forms ; in their character 
of Pure Being, these too are true. Prior to the 
recognition of the True Self, everything is true by 



252 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

itself, — like things seen in dreams ; and thus there 1 
is no contradiction. Therefore the 'Ara,' 'Nyd 1 &c.» 
of the world of Brahman, and also the desires with 
regard to the Father &c, proceeding from the Will,, 
are all to be taken as only mental (ideal). Being 
free from all impurities attaching to the experience 
of external objects, all these desires, proceeding 
from true Will, come to an end in absolute pleasure,, 
and become true for the Lords (Gods). When there 
ie recognition of the true Self of Being, all these 
revert to the pristine form of the True Self, like 
the notions of snake &c, in the rope ; and as such? 
in the character of the Self, they are all equally 
true. 



Thus ends the Fifth Khanda of Adhydya VIII* 

ADHYA'YA VIII. 
KHANDA VI. 

p^r ^^q tfarer ^ifl^^reft m snfe^ fqf <? ^ 
m ^ ^ ^ $R ^ ^tftcr: II \ || 

Now the arteries that belong to the Heart 
consist of the brown substance, of the white, of the 
blue, of the yellow, and of the red ; as is the sun 
hrown, white, blue, yellow and red. (1) 

Com. — One who, equipped with continence and 
free from all unreal longing for external objects,, 
meditates on the Brahman in the Lotus of the- 



WITH SEI SANKABA'S COMMENTABY 253 

"Heart, as described above, — for him there is a 
going upwards by the artery in the head, with a 
view to explain which, the present 'Artery-Section' 
is now begun. Those arteries, to be hereafter 
explained, that belong to the Heart, in the form of 
a Lotus, which is a place for the meditation of 
JBrahman, — the arteries, which, proceeding from the 
Heart, spread all over the body, just like the rays 
which proceeding from the sun, are filled with the 
essence of a substance of brown colour, appear to 
he themselves of a brown colour. In the same 
manner they are filled with substances, white, blue, 
yellow, and red. By the ray of the sun, called 
* Bile', which is manufactured in the body by a 
process of cooking, and by a little admixture of 
Phlegm the solar Eay called 'Bile' becomes brown ; 
the same becomes blue, through an excess of Wind, 
white through an excess of Phlegm, yellow when 
the quantity of Phlegm is equal, red when there is 
an excess of Blood. Or an explanation of the 
different colours may be looked for in works on 
medicine. But 'how do these colours come about ? 
The Text explains that it is by contact with the 
Sun that the different colours of the solar rays, as 
encased within the arteries, are brought about. 
How? As this sun is brown in colour, as also white, 
blue, yellow and red. 



254 THE CHHA'NDOGYA TJPAMSHAD 

Just as a long road goes to botli villages, this* 
as well as that, — so do the rays of the sun go to- 
both worlds, this as well as the other. They proceed 
from the sun, and enter into these arteries ; they 
proceed from those arteries, and enter into the 
sun, , (2) 

Com. — It is explained by means of an example, 
how the arteries become related with the body ' r 
just as in the world, a long wide-spreading road 
goes to both villages) 'this* — the village near at 
hand — as well as 'that' — the village at a distance. 
Just as this road enters into both villages, so do the 
rays of the sun enter into both worlds — 'that,' the 
solar orb, as well as 'this,' i.e., the man, — entering 
into both these ; just as the great road does. How 
does this come about? They proceed from the solar 
orb, and enter into these arteries in the body, ex- 
plained above as being brown &c; and again they 
proceed from these arteries in a series and enter 
into the sun. The word 'JRasnu' (Ray) is Masculine 
and Feminine ; hence they are mentioned as 'they 5 
{He), though at first mentioned as Feminine- 
{'Sriptdh'). 

Wl$$ Wlfo II \ II 

And when a man is sound asleep, at perfect 
rest, so that he knows no dreams, then he has 
entered into these arteries. Him no evil touches j 
for, he is endowed with light. (3) 

Com.— Such being the case, at a time when the 
jiva is asleep ; sleep being of two kinds, the epithet 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 255 

'sound' is added ; which signifies that he lies, the 
functioning of all his organs having ceased ; and 
thence from the absence of the impurities due to 
contact with the external objects, 'he is at perfect 
lest ;' and hence, does not know any dreams — i.e., 
has no dream-cognition of external objects. At the 
time when he is so fast asleep, he has entered into 
these arteries full of solar light ; that is to say, 
has entered into the A'kdsa of the heart, by way 
of these arteries. Because apart from reaching at 
Pure Being, there is no cessation of dream-cogni- 
tion ; therefore, from this fact, it follows that the 
Locative in 'N&dishu' is changed into the Instru- 
mental. Him, as having reached Pure Being, no 
evil, in the shape of virtue and vice, touches; 
because, at that time, the Self rests within its own 
nature. It is only one who is in contact with the 
body and the sense-organs, that is affected by 
pleasure and pain, brought about by evil ; while no 
evil is ever able to touch him, who has reached 
Pure Being, and is resting within his own nature; 
because, such a person is not amenable to evil ; as 
it is one thing which is amenable to another ; while 
there is no 'another' for one who has reached 
Pure Being. The fall of the Self from its own 
nature constitutes its coming to the waking 
state, which consists of an awakening of the 
seed of Ignorance, Desire and Action, with 
regard to external objects, brought about by 
its not being burnt by the fire of Brahman-* 
knowledge as we have explained in the 6th 
Adhydya, which is to be recalled here. When he 
is sound asleep, he is filled through and through 



256 THE OHHA'NDOGYA UJPANISHAD 

with the solar light, which has entered into the 
arteries ; hence, at that time, his organs cease to 
function by way of the eye &c> towards the enjoy- 
ment of external objects. Therefore, on account of 
the cessation of his organs, he rests in his own 
Self, and sees no dreams, as described above. 

m *$ft%*fam *ftm -mfo ^te ^n^ft^nr snistf- 

<\w$wm II « ll 

And when he is weakened, then those sitting 
around him say : ' Do you know me ? Do you know 
me ?' As long as he has not departed from this 
body, he knows them. (4) 

Com. — Such being the case, when a man is 
weakened by illness or by old age — i.e., when a 
certain person, Devadatta, is at the point of death 
—those relatives who surround him ask—' Do you 
know me, your son or your father &c, ' And as 
long as the dying man has not departed from this 
body, he recognises his son &c. 

sftfafa 3T Will Jfclcr tf ^fcS^TOm^feq *T3$^- 

When he thus departs from this body, then by 
these very rays, he proceeds upwards ; or goes up 
meditating on ' Om\ And while his mind is failing, 
he goes to the sun ; for, that is the door of the 
world ; the knowing ones pass through, while the 
ignorant ones are shut out. (5) 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 25?.' 

Com.— "When he thus — an adverb — departs from 
this world, then, by these very rays described . 
above, he proceeds upwards — just as the ignorant- 
person does towards the worlds earned by his. 
deeds. The knowing person, equipped with the 
aforesaid means, while meditating upon the Self 
by means of ' Om \ goes up, as before, — the know- 
ing one going up, while the other goes downward. 
And the knowing person, when going to depart,, 
while his mind is failing — i.e., during the time' 
that his mind would fall away— goes to the sun % 
that is to say, he goes away quickly. Wherefore 
does he go to the sun ? Because that is the well- 
known door of the world of Brahman— and it is by 
the door of the sun that the knowing one proceeds 
to the world of Brahman. Hence, for the knowing 
one, there is a passing over, by this door ; while 
for the ignorant ones there is a shutting out 
from the door of the sun. That is to say, ignorant: 
persons are shut up within the body by the solar 
light, and do not proceed upwards by the artery in 
the head ; because of the verse 'Vishvananya &c. 
&c.' 

Hence is this Verse: 'There are a hundred and" 
one arteries of the heart; one of them penetrates 
the head; moving by way of that, one reaches the 
Immortal, the others serving for departing in 
various directions.' (q\ 

17 



258 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

Com. — To the same effect, there is a verse: 'A 
hundred and one important arteries there are, in 
"connection with the heart — the lump of flesh 
known as such; these are the more important of 
the arteries, whose number is endless. Of these, 
one enters the head ; and by way of this, one pro- 
ceeds upwards to Immortality ; the other arteries, 
spreading, upwards and on all sides, serve for 
departing in various directions, — these leading to 
metempsychosis, and not to Immortality.' The 
jrepetition is meant to point out the end of the 
section. 

Thus ends the Sixth Khanda of Adhydya VIII. 



ADHYA'YA VIII. 



KHANDA VII. 
W TOW: SRqsNwq: tftSS%pq: ^ fafafrftffisq: 

'The Self which is free from evil, undebaying, 
undying, free from sorrow, free from hunger and 
without thirst, with true desires, true volition, — 
that is, what is to be sought after, which one must 
wish to understand ; one who has sought after this 
Self, and understands It. obtains all worlds and all 
desires' ;■— so said Prajapatu (1) 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 259 

Com. — It has been declared above that 'this 
Serene and Happy Being, having risen above this 
body, reaching the highest light, gets at its own 
true nature, — that is the Self ; so said he ; this is the 
Immortal, the Fearless Brahman'; now, what is this 
Serene Being, and how is it to be comprehended, — 
the Serene Being that rising from this body 
gets at the highest light, and reaches its own 
true nature ? And of what sort is the Self which 
He reaches as His own nature ? The Serene Being 
has other forms connected with the body — how 
does His own true form come to be something 
different from these ? These poinds have to be 
explained: hence, the following section is taken 
up. The introduction of the story is meant to show 
the method in which the instruction of the science 
is to be given, and also to eulogise the science ; just 
as with a view to praise the water, they say * this 
water is drunk by the king.' ' The Self which is 
free from evil &c. &o.,' — for the meditation whereof 
the Lotus of the Heart has been described, wherein 
are contained all true desires, covered by untruth, 
the meditation whereof is acompanied by 
continence as the chief means, and for a full 
comprehension of the result of whose meditation, 
the text has described the proceeding up, by way 
of the artery in the head, — this is the Self that is to 
be sought after, to be known by the instructions of 
Teachers, and it is this which one ought to try to 
understand particularly well,— i.e., this should be 
fully realised in, and identified with one's own 
consciousness. It is explained what follows from 
this seeking and wishing io understand ; He obtains' 



£60 THE CHHA'NDOGYA TJFANISHAD 

all words and all desires,— -one who seeks after the 
aforesaid Self in the said manner, and realises -It 
in his own consciousness, to such a one belongs 
the resulfe of obtaining all words and becoming 
everything ; so said Prajapati : ' should be sought 
after and should be understood' is a ' Restrictive" 
Injunction and not an 'Originative' Injunction, — 
the meaning being 'it is to be sought after and 
understood in this manner' ; because, the seeking 
and the understanding have a visible purpose ; this 
visibility of purpose will be shown repeatedly, later 
on : "I do not see herein an object of enjoyment" 
&c, when the Self, which is mistaken to be another 
form, through the qualities of the body &c, comes 
to be understood in its own true form, — there 
follows a distinct visible result, in the shape of the 
suppression of mistaken notions ; and as such, the 
Injunction is restrictive, and not originative, like 
those of the Agnihotra &c. 

m^ \^wj ^gf^ % dapper cTCTcfimN- 

Both the Divas and the Asuras heard this ; 
they said : ' Well, we shall search for that Self, by 
searching which all worlds and all desires are 
obtained.' Indra from among the Divas, and 
Yirochana, from among the Asuras, went; and both, 
without communicating with each other, approach- 
ed Prajapati, with fuel in their hands. {%) 

Com.— The purpose of the story has already 
been explained. Both the D6vas and Asuras heard 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 261 

what Prajdpati had said, — all that reaching their 
ears by tradition. And having understood what 
JPrqjdpati had said, they said to one another, the 
Devas saying to the DSvas, and tfhe Asuras to the 
Asuras ; 'if yon all agree* we shall search for the 
Self described by PrajdpaM, by searching which, 
one obtains all worlds and all desires.' Having 
said this, Indra, the king himself, from among the 
Divas, leaving all the paraphernalia of the kingly 
state with the other gods, by himself alone, went to 
Prajapati, — as did also Virochana, from among the 
Asuras. It is now shown how Teachers are to be 
approached by disciples, with humility, knowledge 
being even more important than the kingdom of all 
the worlds. Even such two persons, as the very 
kings of the DSvas and Asuras, accustomed to the 
highest comforts, went over to their Teacher, 
Prajapati. These two, without communicating 
with one another, thus showing their jealousy for 
each other, holding fuel in their hands, approached 
Prajapati. 

Mps^cti^R^fe ^ §fa$P ^TcHTSq^jqMT fed 

They dwelt there, as religious students, for 
thirty-two years. Then Prajdpati said to them : 
' With what end in viow, have you dwelt here?' 
They said: ' A saying of yours they repeat— vis., 



262 THE CHHA'KDOGYA TTPANISHAD 

the Self which, is free from evil, undecaying and 
undying, free from sorrow, free from hunger, and 
without thirst, with true desires and true volitions, 
that Self is to be sought after, to be understood,— 
and one who having searched this Self knows It, 
obtains all worlds and all desires; and it is with the 
purpose of knowing this that we have dwelt 
here V (3) 

Com. — Having gone there, they dwelt there for 
thirty-two years, as religious students, duly attend- 
ing upon their Teacher. Knowing their motives, 
Prajdpati said to them : 'with what purpose have 
you both dwelt here ?' Thus asked, they replied : 
"The learned people repeat a saying of yours,-— 
that 'This Self which is free &c, &c, — ; and it is 
with a view to learn this Self, that wo have dwelt 
here." Though before coming to Prajdpati, they 
were inspired with jealousy against each other, yet, 
on account of the extreme gravity of their common 
purpose of learning the science, both of them 
renounced all impurities of attachment, aversion, 
delusion and jealousy, and as such came to Prajd- 
pati, as religious students. This servos to show the 
extreme importance of the philosophy of the Self. 

m 5% ^to I! « ll 

'Prajdpati said to them : 'The Person that is 
seen in the eye, that is the Self that I spoke of ; 
this is the Immortal, the Fearless, Brahman.' 'Sir, 



WITH SRI SANKABA'S COMMENTARY 263 

He that is perceived in the water, and He that is 
perceived in the mirror,— which of these is That ? ' 
He said 'It is He that is perceived within all 
these/ (4) 

Com.— Prajdpati said to these two devotees, 
free from sins and capable: 'The person '—the 
Seer — 'that is seen in the eye '— , on closing the 
eyes, by Yogis whose impurities have been 
destroyed—, 'is the Self I spoke of,'— as endowed 
with freedom from evil &o., from a knowledge of 
which follows the attainment of all worlds, and 
desires ; this is the Immortal, called the 'Highest/ 
hence the Fearless, hence Brahman— -the most 
ancient. Thus having heard the assertion of 
Prajdpaii about 'the person that is seen in the eye,' 
Indra and Virochana understood the person to be 
of the form of a shadow ; and having understood it 
thus, to make sure of it, they asked Prajdpati : 
'Well sir, the person that is perceived in the water » 
and the reflection of one's Self that is perceived in 
the mirror, and other objects, like the polished 
sword &c, — which of these is the one spoken of, by 
you ; or is it the same in all these?' Thus asked, 
Prajdpati said : It is the same person, seen in the 
eye, which is perceived within all these.' How is 
it right for Prajdpati to permit such false concep- 
tions in the minds of his disciples, — he being a 
faultless teacher ? True ; but Prajdpati did not 
permit the misconception. How ? "Well it is a 
well-known fact that both Indra and Virochana 
assume themselves to be eminently learned, great 
and intelligent ;, hence, if they were distinctly told 
by Prajdpati— "jom are fools, understanding things 



■264 THE CHHA'HDOGYA TJPANISHAD 

wrongly" — ,they would be pained at heart ; and on 
account of this falling off of their minds, they 
would lose all energy, and could not question and 
understand things any further ; hence, Prajupati 
thinks of protecting his disciples from this predi- 
cament, the idea in His mind being/ they may 
think now as they choose, I will remove this 
misconception by the illustration of the cup 
of water.' But, in any case, it was not right for 
him to tell a lie, that ' It is he &c.' It was not a 
lie that was told. How ? The person in the eye 
•spoken of by Himself is more proximate to the 
mind, than the shadowy persons thought of by the 
disciples ; — as says the Sruti ; ! The inner most of 
all ; * and it wastthis-with regard to which he said : 
it is this &c, ' Hence, no lie was told by Praja- 
pati', in fact for the removal of their misconception, 
he adds the following. 



Thus ends the Seventh Rhonda of Adhydya VIII. 



ADHYA'YA VOL 
KHANDA VIII. 

iftf A in& sraStawr wm sh^ft y^tm vwaft- 

' Look at yourselves in a cup of water ; and 
then what you do not understand of the Self, come 
and ask me '. They looked at themselves in the 
cup of water. Prajapati asked them : ' what do 
you see ? ' They replied : ' Sir, we see ourselves 
as we are, even to the hairs and nails, a very 
picture*. (1) 

Com. — ' Cup of water '—i.e., a cup full of 
water. ' Look upon yourselves there, and thus 
looking upon yourselves, what you don't under- 
stand, come and ask me. * They looked at them- 
selves in the cup of water. Then Prajdpati said to 
them ' what do you see ? They had been told to 
ask him what they did not understand, on looking 
at themselves in the cup of water ; and yet before 
they asked him what they did not understand, 
Prajapati asked them what they saw in the cup of 
water, what is the meaning of this ? The meaning 
is simply this. They did not think that anything 
was unknown to them, as they were sure of the 
Self being only the shadow ; as it will be said '• 



266 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

* they went away ' with pacified minds ;' and no 
peace of mind is possible until the object sought 
after is fully understood ; hence, they did not tell 
him that they did not know it. And since disciples 
labouring under misconceptions are not to be dis- 
regarded, therefore, Prajupati himself asks them — 
' what do you see ? * and for the removal of the- 
misconception he will also add ' having adorned 
yourselves well &c, ' They replied : ' we see our- 
selves, as we are, even to the hairs and nails, a 
very picture ' — i.e., we see ourselves with the 
same body as we have ' and thus it is a very 
picture of ourselves that we see '. 

a 5 writer *n^# gro* ^A **- 

rm^Tjls^raicr ^ ^ q^nqfci^R f% ^m # 

II \ II. 

Prajupati said to them : ' Having adorned 
yourselves well, put on your best clothes, and 
having cleaned yourselves, look at yourselves in 
the cup of water'. They adorned themselves well* 
put on their best clothes, cloaned themselves, and 
then looked into the cup of water . Prajupati said 
to them : ' what do you see.' (%) 

Com.— Again Prajupati said to them with a 
view to remove their misconception of the Self as 
being the shadow: 'Having adorned yourselves 
well, and put on your best clothes, as in your 
house',— &,c, having dressed yourselves in the 
costliest apparel—, and ' cleaned yourselves '— i.& , 
having shaved your hairs and pared your nails,— 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 267 

look into the cup of water, again. And in this case 
he did not instruct them to tell him what they did 
not understand. ' But, how could their misconcep- 
tion of the Self as the shadow be removed by 
looking into the cup of water, after having 
adorned themselves Sec, &c.' The argument in 
Prajupati's mind is this : ' The ornaments and the 
dresses, that are yet to come, are reflected in the 
cup of water only when they are in contact with, 
the body ; so it follows that it was the body that 
produced the shadow in the first case. And again 
the nails and the hairs, which the disciples look 
upon as permanent, produced the shadow only, so 
long as they had not been removed from the body ; 
and as soon as these were removed, the shadow of 
the hairs and nails is not seen. Therefore, it 
is established that, like the hairs and nails, the 
body too ia liable to appearance and disappearance 
(or production and destruction) ; and hence also 
the shadow that is seen in the cup of water, as also 
the body which is the source of the reflection, are 
not the Self ; because, they are reflected in the cup 
of water, — like the ornaments and dresses &c» 
Not only this, but also that whatever is held to be 
of tho Self, — viz., pleasure, pain, attachment, 
aversion, delusion &c— -, all this is only tempor- 
ary like the hairs and nails ; as, such cannot be 
the Self. Thus then, the example of 'the ornaments 
&c ', having been brought forward by Prajdpati, 
with a view to remove all misconceptions, with 
regard to the Self, — even though they did look 
into the cup of water, after having done as they 
wero told to do, their misconception was not 



-268 THE CHHA'NDOGYA TTPANISHAD 

removed ; hence, it follows, that it was through 
some fault inherent'in themselves that Indra and 
Virochana had their discriminative knowledge 
-interrupted. And seeing them still convinced of 
their former view, he asked them again : * What 
do you see V 

I! ^ II 

They replied : * just as we are ourselves, welB- 
adorned, well-dressed and cleaned, so, are these 
also well-adorned, well-dressed and cleaned.' He 
said : ' That is the Self, the Immortal, the Fear- 
less, that is Brahman.'' They both went away with 
-their hearts satisfied. (3) 

Com. — They understood as before : ' just as we 
ourselves are, well-adorned &c, so too are these 
shadows '—such was the misconception under 
which they laboured. Because, their misconcep- 
tion with regard to the Self was not removed, even 
after the Self was defined as ' That which is free 
-from evil, &c.,' and then too wishing to know 
further particulars with regard to It, the Self was 
directly shown them as being the ' person that is 
seen in the Eye,' and lastly in order to remove all 
misconception with regard to it, the examples of 
the ' cup of water ' and the ornaments, &c, were 
brought forward ; therefore, from this, it follows 
that their capacity for realising discriminative 
knowledge was hindered by some innate fault of 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 26$ 

their own. Haying concluded this, Prajapati? 
thinking in his mind of the Self as he wished them 
to understand, said ' That is the Self, the Immortal, 
the Fearless, that is Brahman ' — as before ; which 
is not said with reference to the Self as understood 
by Indra and Virochanu. Prajtipati thought : 'These 
persons have their minds only purified by listening 
to the definition of the Self, to the declaration with 
regard to the person in the Eye, and to the argu- 
ment based upon the reflection in the cup of water; 
and the hindrance to their understanding will be 
gradually removed, as they ponder over my 
assertions ; when a due discrimination with regard 
to the Self will follow of itself '; having thought 
thus, and considering that the imposing on them 
of a further term of the life of religious student- 
ship, will give them much pain, he did not take 
any notice of them, even as they were going away. 
And those too 4 Indra and Virochana, with satisfied 
hearts — i.e., happy with the idea of their ends 
having been fulfilled, went away. ' Santa' does not 
mean peaceful; because, if they had attained peace* 
their misconception would have disappeared. 

^^F^ft^T q ; 5n^^T^T3q^-"57TSSrqFTff ; i : !#^ SR- 

gqft^ sTTcrmrss^ W% ^^ ^^ sttcrfi^ 

And Prajapati, looking after them, said: 'with- 
out having perceived and without having known 
the Self, they both go away ; and whoever of the? 



870 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPAN1SHAD 

two, the Devus and the Asuras will hold to this 
doctrine will be destroyed.* Now Virochana, with 
a satisfied heart, went to the Asuras, and preached 
this doctrine to them : ' The Self alone is to be 
worshipped; the Self alone is to be attended upon ; 
and it is only by worshipping the Self, and by 
attending upon the Self that one gains both 
worlds, this as well as the next.' (4) 

Com. — When the two kings, Indra and Viro- 
chana had gone away, Prajdpati thought that, 
being addicted to various enjoyments, they would 
forget his instructions, and hence with a view to 
remove the troubles to come, by means, as it were, 
of a direct assertion, he looked upon them as they 
were going away at a distance, and said, thinking 
that, like the definition of the Self as 'free from 
evil, &c.,' this warning of his would also reach their 
.ears : without having perceived and understood 
the Self, as defined above, and labouring under a 
misconception, both these, Indra and Virochana are 
going away. Hence, whoever, among these D&vas 
or Asuras, would hold to the doctrine as understood 
by these two kings, they would surely be destroyed, 
—i.e., be flung away from the path of progress. 
Of these two, as they were proceeding towards 
home, the king of the Asuras, Virochana, fully satis- 
fied at heart, went to the Asuras ; and having gone 
there, he preached the doctrine of the body being 
the Self. That is to say, he told them that the 
Father PrajCtpati, had declared the body alone to be 
the Self. Therefore the Self— i.e., the body— alone 
is to be worshipped, the body alone to be attended 
upon ; and it is by worshipping and attending upon 



WITH SRI SAEKARA'S COMMENTARY 271 

-the body that one obtains both this world and the 
next, — the ' two worlds ' including all worlds and 
all desires ; such is the sense of Viroch ana's 
preaching. 

cR K5 ®m S^£RU JF^cT li <\ II 

Therefore, even now, of one who does not give, 
who has no faith and who does not perform sacri- 
fices, they say * Oh ! he is of the Asura ' for such is 
the doctrine of the Asuras. They deck the body of 
the dead, with 'food,' dresses and ornaments ; and 
by this, they think they will gain the next world(5) 

Com. — Therefore, even now, follow the same 
line of thought : as, in this world, of one who does 
not give charities, who has no faith in the per- 
forming of good actions, and who does not perform 
sacrifices, the learned people say ' He is of the 
Asuras,' i.e., he has the nature of an Asura, adding 
4 Oh ' as evincing regret. For want of faith &c 
constitute the doctrine of the Asuras. And being 
impressed with this doctrine, they deck the body 
of the dead — i.e., the corpse — with 'food' — i.e., with 
perfumes, garlands and articles of food, — * dresses' 
• — i.e., covering it with pieces of cloth &c, — and 
* ornaments ' — i.e., with flags &c ; and by this 
decking of the corpse they think they will gain the 
next world. 



Thus ends the Eighth Klianda of Adl.yuya VIII. 



ADHYA'YA VOL 



KHAN DA IX. 

in Hr*-7^r gr^o5f§T ^rm jprcft g^ra^ ^R 1 ^ 

jtffcgcl o^n^W&S^qT Wcl wft Wf: ufftl^r 

But Indra, without having got to the Devas? 
saw this difficulty : 'as when the body is adorned, 
It is adorned ; when the body is well dressed, It is 
well dressed ; and when the body is clean, It is 
clean ; in the same manner, when the body is 
blind, It would be blind ; when the body is one- 
eyed, It would be one-eyed ; when the body is 
crippled, It would be crippled ; and when the body 
perishes, It would also perish.' (1) 

Com, — But Indra, without having reached the 
Devas, being endowed with the divine qualities of 
charity &c, cogitated over the instruction of the 
Teacher, and while going along, saw this difficulty, 
with regard to the theory of the Self he had arrived 
at. Indra came to understand a portion of the 
argument with regard to which Projdpati had 
brought forth the example of the 'cup of water'; 
because, he came to see a difficulty in the view of 
the Self being the shadow. How? Just as when this 
body is adorned, this shadow-Self is also adorned ; 
when the body is dressed, this is also dressed, when 



WITH SRI SAHKARA'S COMMENTARY 273 

the body Is cleaned, this is also clean — i.e., by the 
shaving of the hair &c, the reflection also appears 
clean ; in the same manner, the nails and hairs &o. f 
also being only parts of the body> when the body 
becomes blind, by the removal of the eyes, the • 
reflection is also blind, and when this is one-eyed, 
that is also one-eyed — by the removal of one eye. 
Or 'Sr&ma' may be explained as s one whose eyes 
or the nose, are always flowing*. When that is 
'crippled' — i.e., with hands and feet destroyed — 
then the shadow-Self also becomes crippled; and sd 
also, when the body perishes, that is also destroyed. 

o^k m^&m m&&m *n# e^ mwt: tf&fi- 

% qftcqjS tfc$enqqfa«P%Ssft sftfa ^f$ ^ft: tfftgip5f 

'I see no good in this'; then with fuel in his 
hand, he came back. Prajdpaii said to him: 'well, 
Indra t as you went away, with Virochana, satisned 
in your heart, — for what purpose have you come 
back?' He replied: 'Sir, as when the body is 
adorned, this is adorned ; when the body is dress- 
ed, It is dressed ; when the body is cleaned,, 
It is cleaned ;— so, also, when the body is blind,, 
It would be blind; when ithe body is one-eyed, It 
would be one-eyed ; when the body'is crippled, It 
would be crippled ; and when this body perishes, It 

18 



?M THE OHHA'NDOGYA UPAFISHAD 

would also perish. Therefore, I see no good in 
•this.' (2) 

Com. — Therefore, I see no good in the philo- 
sophy of the Self as the shadow. Having ascer- 
tained this discrepancy in the said philosophy, 
Indra, with fuel in hand, came to Prajdpati to live 
as a religious student, Prajdpati said to him: 
''well Indra, you went away, with Virockana* 
-satisfied in your heart: for what purpose have you 
'Come again f Though he knew the reason of 
Indrds return, yet he asked him, just to make 
■clear Indra' s real motive ; Just as 'let me know 
•what you know already as said by Sanatkumdra 
to Naradaf 'Just as &c.' — as before, to all of 
which Prajdpati accords his assent. 'Prajdpati 
has described to both of them only the Person in 
the Eye ; then, how is it that Indra understood the 
Self to be the shadow, while Virockana took it to 
be the body V In reply to this, some people reason 
thus : For the matter of that, Indra remembered 
the declarations of Prajdpati with regard to ' the 
*cup of water,' and before he reached the Devas, he 
understood the Self to be of the form of the shadow, 
in accordance with the instructions of the Teacher, 
and then saw the difficulty in that theory ; while 
Virockana understood the body to be the Self, 
according to the first declaration of Prajdpati ; nor 
did he see any difficulty in this. In the same 
manner, the fact of Indra and Virockana under- 
standing the Self to be the shadow and the body 
respectively, must be explained as being due to 
the difference in degree of the strength of the 
obstacles to true knowledge in the case of the 



WITH SRI SANKABA'S COMMENT ABY 275 

two persons — the obstacles in the case of 
Virochana being much stronger than those in 
the case of Indra ; whence Indra took Prajdpati s 
assertion as to s that which is seen in the water,' 
literally, having a firm faith in the Sruii ; while 
Virochna put an indirect interpretation of his own, 
and taking the shadow to be produced by the body, 
he understood the body to be the Self; the 
reasoning in Virochana 's mind being that when two 
pieces of cloth — one blue and the other not blue 
— are reflected in the mirror, the one which is found 
to cast a blue shadow is considered more valuable, 
where the value is attached to the eloth casting the 
shadow, and not to the shadow ; so too, in the 
present case, it is the reflected body, and not the 
reflection, which is meant to be the Self. Even 
though the words heard were the same, yet the 
intepretation of the words was in accordance with 
the excellences or defects of the minds of the 
listeners; Just as in the case of 'Damyata 1 (control), 
'Datta (give), and 'Dayadhvam* (have mercy) — as 
declared above to be signified by the single letter 
4 Da\ as heard by different persons. Auxiliary 
causes too appear in accordance with one's own 
mind. 

ogro ^ CtaH" \\ \ II 

4 So it is, O Indra,' said Prajdpati — ' I shall 
explain It to you, further ; dwell here for another 
thirty-two years/ He dwelt there for another 
thirty-two years ; then Prajdpati said to him. (3) 




278 THE GHHA'tfDOGYA UPANISHAD 

Com. — So it is, Indra — i. e., you have -understood 

rightly in thinking, that the shadow is not the 
Self, Then, Prajdpaii said: 'That Self of 
which I have spoken to yon, I will explain to yon 
still further, than what I explained before. As, 
even though I explained It to you once, in a 
manner in which it would have been easily 
comprehensible to faultless people, yet you did not 
understand it; therefore it seems that your 
comprehending faculty is hindered by some 
weakness ; consequently in order to remove 
that weakness, dwell here for another thirty-two 
years.' Then after he had dwelt for thirty-two 
years, and had his weakness removed, Prajupati 
said to him. 

Thus ends the Ninth Khanda of Adhyaya VIII. 



ADHYA'YA VIII. 
KHANDA X. 



*mt\ mmm iM |?# 1! I II 

' He who moves about, attended upon, in 
dreams, that is the Self; and he said 'this, the 
Immortal, *he Fearless, this is Brahman* He went 
ip-way, satisfied in his heart ; but before he reached 
the Divas he saw this difficulty : 'though this is 



WITH SEI SANKABA'S COMMENTABY 277 

not blind when the body is blind; not one-eyed 
when the body is one-eyed ; nor Is it affected by the 
faults of the body.' (1) 

Com. — The 'Self free from evil,' which was des- 
cribed as the 'person in the eye,' is that which moves 
about in dreams, attended upon by women <&c, — 
i.e.) one who experiences the various kinds of 
pleasures in dreams. ' That is the Self — said he' 
&c. } &c M as before. Being told this, Indra went 
away satisfied in his heart ; but before he reached 
the Gods, he saw a difficulty as before in this also. 
How? Though it is true that when the body is blind, 
the dream-Self is not blind; when the body is one- 
eyed, It is not one-eyed : nor is the dream-Self 
affected by the discrepancies of the body. 

r{ c$-?rreq §?q% *rrcq w^m mm s#3 $im fc- 
^kWfftj^t^ w?fq dfcffc *w® $m w- 

^|S^q <ffiuj ^sqfcf S S \ IS 

^^m^^m^^mwm aftr c^i ft- 
^T^Rfftatfif#%^ w#r dfefct ^i5H5r urN wn#- 
^N *wfofo 5>i^ ^ % i& wwmm 
mm?j$\ ®^m 5p#jft% h frofoT sri^^S *#- 



278 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPA2TCSHAD 

' Nor is it killed by the killing of the body ; nor 
one-eyedfwhen the body is one-eyed, — yet they kill 
ft, as it were, and chase it, as it were ; it comes to 
be conscious of pain, as it were 5 and sheds tears ; 1 
do not see any good in this,* (2) 

4 "With fuel in his hand, he came back again ; 
and Prajupati said to him, *lndra t you went away, 
satisfied in your heart ; for what purpose do you 
come again ? ' He said : * Though this is not blind 
when the body is blind; nor one-eyed when the body 
is one-eyed ; nor is it affected by the discrepancies 
of the body ; (3) 

Nor is a£ killed when the body is killed; 
nor made one-eyed, when the body is one- 
eyed, — yet they kill it, as it were ; chase it, as it 
were ; and it becomes conscious of pain, as it were; 
and sheds tears ; I do not see any good in this. 4 
Prajdpati said : ' So it is, Indra 1 I shall explain 
this to you, further ; dwell here for another thirty- 
two-years." He dwelt there for another thirty-two 
years ; then he said to him. (4) 

Com.— It is not killed by the killing of the 
body, as the shadow-Self is ;nor is the dream-Self 
one-eyed, when the body is one-eyed. That, which, 
in the beginning of the said Adhydya, was simply 
declared, on authority not to become old by the old 
age of the body &c., is here introduced, with a view 
to have the same declarations provedby reasoning. 
This dream-Self is not affected by the discrepancies 
of the body, as the shadow-Self is ; but ' they kill it 
as it were,' ' Eva ' means * iva\ the meaning being 
'some people kill it, as it were, not that they really 
kill it ; especially as the following verbs are 



WITH SRI SANKABA'S COMMENTARY 219' 

followed by ' ivd." If it be urged that * since it has 
been specified that it is not killed by the killing of 
the body, the meaning should be that it is really 
killed ; ' — w e deny this ; because, inasmuch as he 
has recourse to the authority of Prajapaii, he could 
not possibly impute a falsehood to him. How could 
Indra, taking his stand upon Prajdpati's authority, 
falsify the declaration of Prajdpati that ' It is the 
Immortal &c* (by contradicting it and saying that 
it is really killed) ? " But with regard to the shadow- 
Self, though there was a similar declaration by 
Prajdpati of its immortality, yet Indra did say 
* this perishes when the body perishes * ; in the 
same manner, * he could do the same thing in the 
present instance also.' Not so. * Why ? * Because, 
in the former case, Indra thinks that by 'the person 
in the eye, ' Prajdpati does not mean the shadow- 
Self. Because, when he had asked about * the Self 
free from evil &c, if he had thought that Prajdpati 
really meant, the shadow-Self, how could he have 
gone, with fuel in hand, for further explanations, to 
Prajdpati, taking his stand, as he does, on Prajd- 
pati's authority ? But he did go to him. Therefore, 
it follows that he did not think that Prajapati 
really meant the shadow-Self. As has been 
explained, ' It is the seer that is seen in the eye 
&c.' ' So also, ' they chase it, as it were, * and ' It 
is conscious of pain " as brought about by the 
death of a, son &c, and ' It itself sheds tears '„ 
' As a matter of fact it is really conscious of pain; 
why should it be qualified by adding as it were *?' 
This qualification is not unnecessary ; because, if 
it were really conscious of pain, it could not 



280 THE QHHA'HDOGYA UPA1TISHAD 

possibly be spoken of as * the fearless ' ; and also 
because of another Sruti, where it is said ' it 
thinks, as it were ". If it be urged that in that 
case, there is contradiction of a fact of ordinary 
sense-perception ; — we deny this ; because, like the 
perception of the body as the Self, that perception 
may be mistaken. Well, let the question rest, — as 
to whether it is really conscious of pain, or only 
apparently so ; whatever that may be, — ' I do not 
see any good in this ' — that is to say, even from 
the knowledge of the dream-Self, I do not find any 
good results following. ' So it is ' — as you say ; 
because, what is meant is that the Self is immortal 
and fearless. And because even though I have 
explained it twice, Indra does not comprehend the 
truth, therefore, as befere, there is some obstacle 
in the way of his comprehension ; having thought 
so, with a view to the removal of the obstacle, he 
directed him to stay there for another thirty-two 
years, as a religious student. And when he had 
lived there for that period and had his fault 
cleared away Prajapati, said to him. 



Thus ends the Tenth Khanda of Adhy&yaVUI . 



ADHYA'YA VIII. 
KHANDA XI. 

€ prr^r ^tagq ^t ^ wrfr^ toot*! 

?FI^J5{ %q q^fflcf I! I IS 

' T bat which is full asleep, at perfect rest, 
seeing no dreams, — that is the Self '—he said-— 
£ that is t he Immortal, the Fearless, that is Brah- 
man '. He went away 5 satisfied in his heart but 
before he reached the Devas, he saw this difficulty. 
' In truth ; he does not rightly know himself, as 
this is 1, nor does he know these beings ; therefore, 
he has reached utter annihilation; and I see no 
good in this.' (1) 

Com. — As before, having said ' This indeed 
&c s ' the sentence ' that which is full asleep &c.,' 
has been explained. The person that is seen in the 
eye, he that moves about in dreams duly attended 
upon, — this, when he is full asleep T and at perfect 
rest, seeing no dreams, that is the Self, the Immor- 
tal, the Fearless, that is Brahman, meant by 
Himself. But Jndra saw a difficulty in this also* 
And it was this : In truth, the Self lying in deep 
sleep, does not rightly know himself, as this is J t 



282 THE GHHA'NDOGYA TJFANISHAD 

nor does he know the beings,-— as he does during 
dreams and during the waking state ; therefore, he 
has reached utter annihilations — to be taken as 
before. That is to say, during deep sleep, the Self 
is utterly annihilated, as it were. 

^ wr q$K wmmR ^^cWf^R^m % «#nfa 

With fuel in his hand, he came back again. 
ProjCtpati said to him, 'Indra ! you went away* 
satisfied in your heart ; for what purpose an you 
come again ? 5 He replied, ' Sir, he does not rightly 
know himself as this I am, nor does he know the 
beings ; he has reached utter annihilation ; and 1 
see no good in this'. (2) 

Com. — It is only when there is cognition that 
we infer the existence of the cogniser, and not 
when there is no cognition ; in the case of a man 
in deep sleep, we find no such cognition, therefore 
the cogniser must be taken as annihilated. But he 
does not accept the annihilation of the Self, wishing 
to preserve the authority of the assertion ' this is 
the Immortal &c, &c." 

^£$|q TORfcf imm $& tt -^sgsqFsqiFUft 

' So it is mdeed 3 0, Indra* said Prajdp ati 'this 
I shall explain to you, further ; and nothing other 



WITH SEI SANKAEA'S COMMENTARY 283" 

than, that ; dwell here for another five years'. He 
dwelt there for another five years. Thus they came 
to a hundred and one years, and it is with regard 
to this that they say ' For a hundred and one years 
did Indra dwell as a religious student, with Prajd- 
pati.'' He said to him. (3) 
Com. — Having said as before, Prajdpati says : 
' what I have already explained to you by means of 
three synonyms, that Self — and nothing other than 
That —-shall I explain to you again. The weakness 
left in your nature is but slight now ; so, in order 
to remove this, dwell here for another five years." 
Being thus advised, he did so. And Prajdpati ex- 
plained to Indra, whose faults had been washed off 
the true nature of the Self, free from all contact 
with the discrepancies of the three residences (the 
eye &c.,) and characterised by freedom from evil 
&c. These years reached the number of a hundred 
and one ; and it is with regard to this, that in the 
ordinary world, learned men, say ' For a hundred 
and one years did Indra live as a religious student, 
with Prajdpati ;' and it is this number of years that 
has been shown by instalments of thirty-fcwo &c. f 
and hence the Sruti mentions this common saying 5 
apart from the story itself. And by this, the Text 
eulogises the knowledge of Seif, — by expressing it 
as even higher than the position of Indra, obtained 
as it was, by Indra, only after he toiled and toiled 
for it, for a full hundred and one years, which 
shows that beyond this knowledge, there is no 
other end of Man. 



Thus ends the Eleventh Khanda of AdhyCujd VIIL 



ADHYA'YA VOL 
KfiAMDA XII. 

^Icf- 1 ^ IS 

l Indra ! mortal is the body, held by Death. It 
is the abode of that Immortal incorporeal Self. The 
corporeal one is held by pleasure and pain. For the 
corporeal Being, there is no freedom from pleasure 
and pain. But the Being without the body is not 
touched by pleasure and pain.' (1) 

Com. — ' This body is mortal' — i.e., capable of 
Death. You think that the Self, that I have des- 
cribed as located in the eye, and as being of the 
nature of serene bliss, is beyond destruction. Just 
listen to the reason for this : This body, that you 
see, is mortal — perishable. It is always held by 
Death. If it were said that it dies only at certain 
times, then the fear of Death would not be so 
great, as it is when it is said that the body is always 
held by Death, — which particular way of saying 
serves to remove all attachment to the body. 
Hence, it is said ' It is held by Death*' Being free 
from all attachment to the body, the ego returns to 
its own pristine purity. The ' body' spoken of here 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 285 

is meant to be taken together with the organs of 
sense, the mind, &c. f &c; and this body belongs to 
the Immortal serene Being, which is comprehended 
as located in three places, and which itself is free 
from death and other such like properties as 
pertain to the body, the mind and the sense-organs. 
Though the mere mention of 'Immortal' implies 
the absence of body, yet the separate mention of 
' incorporeal' is meant to show ' that It is not 
partite and corporeal' like Air. The body is the 
substratum of the experiences of the Self ; or, it 
may be said to be the substratum of the Self itself, 
the Thinker- in the order of —Fire, Water, Food 
&c. And since the body occupied by the Self is 
always held by Death, and affected by pleasure 
and pain, as being brought about by means of 
virtue and vice, — therefore the corporeal Self, 
occupying it, comes to be affected by these. The 
fact of the Self being corporeal consists in its 
mistaken identification of itself with the body ; 
hence ' the corporeal Self is held by pleasure and 
pain.' It is a well-known fact that for the Being 
that is corporeal, there is no freedom from — or 
removal of— the series of pleasures and pains, as 
brought about by connection with, or separation 
from, the external objects of sense, — the Self, all 
the time, thinking of such connection and separa- 
tion to belong to itself. When however the Being 
is free from the body — «,e., when its false notion of 
identity with the body is set aside by a proper 
recognition of its own true incorporeal character 
— , pleasure and pain do not touch It. The root 'to 
touch ' is to be taken with each member of the 



288 THE CHHA'HDOGYA UPAHISHAD 

compound. 'Pleasure does not touch ' and * Pain 
does not touch* being the two sentences oontained 
in the one ; just as in the passage * one should 
not converse with the mlechchha, impure and 
unrighteous people.' Pleasure and pain are 
the effects of virtue and -vice ; freedom from the 
body % is the real nature of the Self; and as such, 
there being no possibility of virtue and vice, very 
much less is the chance for any effects of these ; 
hence, ' Pleasure and pain do not touch it.* * If even 
pleasure do not touch the incorporeal Self, then it 
comes to what Indra had said — that ' in that case, it 
reaches utter annihilation. This does not affect the 
case; because, what is denied here is the existence of 
such Pleasure and Pain as are brought about by 
virtue and vice — f Pleasure and Pain do not touch 
the incorporeal Self/ Because the word 'touch' is 
always found tobeused'in connection with such 
things as are liable to appear and disappear ; 
e, g., cold touch, the warm touch &c.\ while 
the warmth and brightness which are in- 
herent in the Fire (and as such not appear- 
ing and disappearing), are not referred to by 
* touch.' Similarly, the Pleasure, in the shape of 
Bliss, which naturally belongs to the Self,— like 
-the warmth and brightness of the Sun — is not 
what is denied here (by the denial of touch) ; 
because, of such Srutis as ' Brahman is Conscious- 
ness, Bliss. ' * Bliss is Brahman ' and so forth ; 
and in this work too, it has been said ' the highest 
is Bliss. ' The highest and pleasure being one 
and the same,— there being no difference between 
the two, inasmuch as both are equally uncognis- 



WITH SRI SAHARA'S COMMENTARY 287 

able or cognisable only in their natural forms, — 
this cannot be what is desired by Indra ; because, 
he has already said that, ' then It does not know 
itself, as this is I, nor does It know these beings ; 
* it has reached utter annihilation, and I see no 
good in this '; which shows that, that which Indra 
wishes to know *is that which knows itself and 
also the living beings, which is conscious of no 
pain, and wh ich obtains all worlds and all desires 
by means of knowledge. ' It is true that such is 
what is desired by Indra, who thinks that ' these 
beings are separate from myself, all worlds and 
desires are other than myself, I being the master of 
all these ' ; but this is not what will do him any 
good; what is good ^for Indra is to be explained by 
Prajdpatu What Prajdpati means to explain is 
that what is good for Indra is the realisation of the 
Self, as being incorporeal, like the A'Msa, and which 
is the Self of all worlds and all desires, and not as 
something other than his own Self, like the obtaining 
of the kingdom by the king. Such being the case, when 
the Self is one, what could know what as s this is I* 
or that ' these are the living beings' ? But, in accord- 
ance with this theory all the Bruti passages, — which 
declare the equipment of the ego with ' women, con- 
veyances ', and the fact of his being ' desirous of the 
world of the Fathers &c.,' and lastly the fact of its 
being * one * &o., &c, — would not be explicable, JSTot 
so ; because there is no contradiction in the fact of 
the Self of all obtaining all the results ; just like the 
fact of all such substances as the Jar &c, belonging 
to clay. If it be urged that f if it be the Self of all, 
then it would be connected with pain also,* — we deny 



288 TH1 GHHA'NDOGYA TTPANISHAD 

this ; because pain too being the Self, there is no 
contradiction in this. As a matter of fact however* 
all pain is imposed upon the Self by the assumption 
of Ignorance, just as the imposition of the character 
of the serpent on the rope. And inasmuch as the 
Ignorance, the cause of pain, is destroyed by means 
of the cognition of the true nature of Self, there is not 
the slightest chance of any pain affecting the Self, 
On the other hand, such desires, as are duo to the voli- 
tion of pure sattva, and are resident in the mind 
alone, with regard to all objects, ha^e a connection 
with the body of the Lord. And the theory of the 
Vedfinta is that it is the Supreme One, which be- 
comes the enjoyer, through the limitations ; and 
consequently, all usages based upon Ignorance 
refer to the Supreme Self alone, and to nothing 
else. 'By speaking of the person that is seen in the 
eye* what was meant by Prajdpati was the 
shadow-Self, and it was something else that 
was spoken of in connection with dreams and 
deep sleep ; and none of these three mean the 
Supreme Self as characterised by freedom from 
evil &c.f' — such is the view held by some people, 
who explain, in the following manner, the pur- 
pose of the instruction of the Self in the shapes of 
the shadow &c : 'these are explained in lha begin- 
ning, with a view to avoid the confusion in the mind 
of the listener who is addicted to external objects of 
sense, by the hearing of an extremely subtle object, 
in the shape- -of the Supreme Self, which is highly 
incomprehensible. Just as, on the second day of the 
month, one who wishes to show the thin crescent of 
the moon to some one, begins with pointing to the 



WITH SEI SANKABA'S COMMENTARY 289 

branch of the tree in front of the moon : 'just look 
here, there is the moon, then he points to another 
higher object, such as the top of the hill, and going 
on in this manner, he points out the moon ; and then 
the other person sees the moon. In the same 
manner, it was not the Supreme Self, that was 
meant by Prajdpnti to be expressed by the three 
expressions, 'the person in the eye &c'; in the 
fourth expression, the listener is carried beyond the 
mortal body* to incorporeality, the form of pure 
light ; in which one becomes the best of men play- 
ing and enjoying the company of women &c« 
Well, certainly this explanation is very pleasing 
to the ear ; but such cannot be the meaning of the 
Text. 'Why V Because if such were the meaning, 
then, — after having begun with the ' person that is 
seen in the eye,' whereby the disciples comprehend- 
ed the Self to be the shadow, Prajdpaii thought 
this to be a miscomprehension on their part, and then 
with a view to remove this, he brought forward the 
example of the 'cup of water' and questioned them as 
to what they saw there &c„, &c, and then lastly 
explained them the instance of the 'adornment' <&e. } 
— all this would become meaningless, if Prajdpati had 
wished only to explain the nature of the Self as being 
that of the shadow — 'the person seen in the eye'. And 
further, when he himself would have declared a fact 
a reason would have to be given, as to why he 
wished to set aside that declaration ; and it would be 
necessary for himself to bring forward reasons for 
the removal of the conceptions of trie Self, as the 
Self in dream and in deep sleep: Bui no such 
reasons are given ; thence, we conclude that 
19 



WO THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

Prajupati did not mean to teach them the form of 
the Self to be the shadow in the eye. Secondly, if 
the declaration were in the form that ' it is the 
seer that is seen in the eye \ then the said inter- 
pretation would have been right, because having 
mentioned ' this itself ', what Prajdpati declares is 
the seer. If it be urged that * it is not the seer that 
has been mentioned in connection with the dream", 
— we deny this ; because the sentences that 
follow are qualified by * as it were '. in ' sheds 
tears as it were,' and 'is conscious of pain, as 
it were ' ; and it can be none other than the 
seer that moves about, in a dream, attended upon ; 
because, tbis fact is established by reasoning, 
in another Sruti passage : ' Therein, is the 
JPurusha self-luminous. ' Though during a dream 
the person is conscious, yet that consciousness 
does not serve as an organ for the perception of 
the dream experiences ; this consciousness being 
itself only perceptible, as the substratum of the 
impressions left by the waking state, just like a 
coloured piece of cloth ; and this does not go 
against the self-luminosity of the seer. Thirdly, 
both during the waking and the dreaming states, 
one knows the living beings and himself — as 
* these are living beings' and ' this is I '; and it is 
only when there is the chance of a thing, that 
there can be any denial of it, — such as ' it knows 
not &c* Similarly, it is only for a conscious 
being, who has a body, that there is no freedom 
from pleasure and pain due to Ignorance ; having 
said this, it is added that for the same conscious 
Being, when without a body, just as knowledge 



WITH SRI SAHKARA'S COMMENTARY 291 

appears, the contact of pleasure and pain, is 
denied, — the denial being only of such pleasure 
and pain as there was a chance of — by the 
sentence ' the incorporeal Being, Pleasure and 
Pain do not touch. ' And it is proved in another 
Sruti that ' one and the same Self moves along un- 
touched, in both the waking and the dreaming 
states, just like a large fish. ' It has been said that 
5 the Serene Being rising from the body, enters 
into something else, rejoicing with women <§ec, — 
and this something else, is apart from the Serene 
Being spoken of as its substratum, and this is the 
best Purusha. * But this is not true; because* even 
in the fourth explanation, it is explained as s This 
it is. ' If something else were meant, then Prajd- 
pati could never have expressed it as before, and 
thus told a lie : and further the charge of falsehood 
would also apply to the declaration. * That thou 
art, ' which has been addressed to one, who has 
entered into the body, which is a modification 
of his Self, after such entrance has been explained 
as belonging to Pure Being, the Creator, who 
is something other than Fire, Water and Food. 
For, the proper form of declaration would have 
been — ! In that, wilt thou be rejoicing with 
women &c./ — if the best Purusha were some- 
thing other than the serene and blissful Being. 
And again if the 'Highest' were something other 
than the human Self, then the instructions 
could never have concluded with 'all^ this is the 
Self alone/ after having taught that 'It is I tha 
am in the Highest." And also we have another 
Sruti passage declaring — 'There is no seer other 



292 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 

than this &c: s &c* Nor could the word, 'Self be 
used in all Srutis, with regard to the Supreme Being, 
if the counter-Self (ego) ef all creatures were not 
the Supreme Being itself. Therefore it is establish- 
ed that the Self, treated of here, is one only. Nor 
does worldliness belong to the Self; because, the 
world is simply imposed upon the Self, by Igno- 
rance. Just "as the misconceptions of serpent, 
silver and dirtiness with regard to the rope, the 
motber-o'-pear] and the sky, cannot be said to 
belong to these latter. By this has been explained 
the sentence that 5 for the bodied being, there is no 
freedom from pleasure and pain.' And it has also 
been established, as mentioned above, that it 
becomes 'conscious of pain- as it were' and not that 
it really becomes conscious of pain. It is only 
because such is the explanation, that in the case 
of all the four explanations, PrajapaM adds: 'this 
is the Self, the Immortal &o.'; even if 'Praj&pati' be 
taken as a hidden name of the Sruii, then too the 
declaration could not but be true; and it is not pro- 
per to assert this to be falsej on the ground of some 
false reasonings ; because there is no authority 
higher than the Sruii. If it be urged that 'it is an 
unmistakeable fact of perception that the Self is 
really conscious of pain &c, ! — we deny this; 
because such consciousness of pain too maybe 
explained as other sense-cognitions, such as 'I am 
free from old age, I am old, I am born, I am long- 
lived, I am fair, dark, dead and so forth.' If it be 
said that 'all these are true', — (We reply) the truth 
is really very hard to comprehend ; so much so 
that even the king of the gods, though instructed, 



WITH SRI SAKKAEA'S COMMENTARY 293 

by means of the instance of the cup of water, as 
to the imperishable character of the Self yet 
become confused, and said, 'It is really annihilat- 
ed. 5 And the greatly intelligent Virochaaa too, the 
■very son of Prajdpati himself, understood the body 
itself to be the Self. And it is in this ocean of 
Indra's fear with regard to the perishability of the 
Self, that the atheists hare been drowned. So too, 
the Sdnkhyas, even after they have comprehended 
the Seer to be something apart from the body, 
leave hold of the authority of the scriptures, and 
so stay behind in the regions of Death as charac- 
terised by other theories. So too, the other 
philosophers, Kandda and others, have busied 
themselves with purifying the substance of the 
Self as endowed with nine different properties of 
the Self, — just like the washing of the reddened 
cloth by means of different salts. So also the 
sacrificists — mtmdmsakas — having their minds 
withdrawn from the wordly objects, though resting 
upon the authority of the Veda, look upon the 
Supreme Reality of the unity of Self as annihilation, 
like Indra.) and so keep moving up and down by 
means of pulley, as it were. What then is to be 
said of other insignificant creatures, devoid of 
wisdom, who, by their very nature, have their 
minds conquered by the external objects of the 
world ? Therefore, the Supreme Reality of 
the unity of Self can be rightly compre- 
hended only by those Paramahansa — Renunci- 
ates, who have renounced- all desire for the 
external world* who have nothing else to fall 
back upon, who have accepted the highest 



294 THE CHHA'NDOGYA UPAKI8HAD 

state of life, who are engaged only with the 
conception of the V§danta, — the highly revered 
ones, following, as they do, the doctrine laid down 
by Prajdpati in the four aforesaid sections : and 
hence to-day too, it is only such revered ones, and 
none others, that teach this doctrine, 

^ I ^ ll 

* Unbodied is Air, A'k&sa, Lightning, and 
Thunder, — all these are without bodies. Now, as 
these, rising above that A'k&sa, and having 
reached the highest light, appear in their own 
form. (2) 

Com. — An example is brought forward to show 
how* after, rising above the body, the Self reaches 
its own form, — the Self being the incorporeal 
serene Being, being falsely identified through 
Ignorance with the body, and thus appearing as 
bodied. The Air is ' unbodied ', — i.e., without a 
body consisting of the head, hand &c. ' The A'k&sa 
Lightning and Thunder, — all these are without 
bodies.' And just as at the end of the purpose of 
these, in the shape of rain, rising above ' that 
A'k&sa ' — the Sruti on earth speaking in this 
manner of the A'k&sa of the heavenly regions — , 
these — A'k&sa and the rest— have been reduced to 
one form? not being recognised in their respective 
forms of air, &c, as being reduced to the one form 
of A'k&sa ; just as the serene Being, in the state of 
.Ignorance, is reduced to the state of the body ; 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 295 

these, A'Msa &c, rise above that A'k&sa of the 
Heavenly regions, for the purpose of the accom- 
plishment of rain. How is this accomplished ? 
When the winter has passed, they reach the 
' highest light * of the Sun — i.e., coming in contact 
with the heat of the summer Sun, they are 
separated, and thus appear in their own respective 
forms of the ' PurovaicC fee, relinquishing their 
former calmness ; the A'kfisa reverting to the state 
of the earth, the mountain, the elephant &c, the 
lightning to its own condition of streaks of light, 
the thunder to its state of thunderings and thunder- 
bolt, — all these appear in their own respective 
forms, on the approach of the rainy season. 

'Thus does this serene Being, rising above this 
body, and having reached the highest light, appears 
in its own form. That is the highest person ; there 
he moves about, laughing, playing and rejoicing, 
be it with women, or conveyances, or relatives-. — 
not minding the body in which he was born. Like 
the horse to the cart, so is the Pr&ng. attached to 
this body.' (3) 

Com. — Just as in the example cited, air and the 
rest are reduced to the form of A'Msa — so in the 
same manner, the serene Being, the human Soul, 



296 THE CHIJA'NDOGYA UPAHISHAD 

being reduced by Ignorance to identity with Self,— 
in the way of thinking * I am the son of that man, 
I am born, I am old* I shall die and so forth ' — , 
having been awakened to its reality, by such 
instructions as those imparted by Prajapati to 
Indra — as that ' you are not of the body or of the 
Menses? you are That, <&c, &c,' — , and thereby 
rising above this body, like Air above A'Msa, and 
recognising its own true nature, as lying apart 
from the body, renounces the notion of the body 
being his Self, and thereby ' appears in Its own 
form/ as explained above. * That is the highest 
person' : the person in the eye and that cognized 
in dreams are the manifested, while unmanifested 
is the person, asleep and at perfect rest, which is 
free from the body, and fully equipped in its own 
nature. Among all these the serene Being, resting 
in Its own nature, is the best, in comparison with 
the perishable and the Imperishable, the manifested 
and the Unmanifested. This serene Being is 
described in the Bhagavadgita. That serene Being, 
resting in its own nature of the universal Self, 
'moves about,' — sometimes as Indra &c, laughing*, 
or eating all desired foods, high and low, sometimes 
playing and rejoicing with women &c, only in the 
mind, these being created in the mind by the mere 
force of will, these women &c.,— -being those of 
the regions Of Brahman, or of this world ; not 
thinking the e body that is born of the connection 
of man and woman, or that which was born 
for himself — i.e., into which he was born ; as any 
thought of the body would only cause pain ; as the 
body abounds in pain. 'If he does not mind that 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 297 

which, has perceived, then he ceases to be 
omniscient.' That does not touch the position ; 

because the mistaken notions, though the body was 
born, have ail been destroyed by knowledge ; hence 
the body is as good as unknown, and as such the 
not thinking of it does not mean any lessening of 
his omniscience. For certainly* that which is 
experienced by the intoxicated person, or by some 
one under the byII influence of a planet, is not 
necessarily to be thought of, even after the 
intoxication, or the planetary effects have passed 
off. In the same manner, in the present case, that 
which is experienced by wordly persons, under the 
influence of Ignorance, does 'not affect the univer- 
sal Self free from the body ; because of the absence 
of Ignorance, the cause of these. Those true 
mental desires, covered by untruth, that are experi- 
enced by such persons as have washed off all taint 
of Ignorance, are connected with the aforesaid 
universal Self, inasmuch as they owe their mani- 
festation to Knowledge ; and hence these are point- 
ed out simply with a view to eulogise the Know- 
ledge of Self; hence, the explanation given is a 
very proper one: ' those in the world of Brahman* 
&c.' which means that wherever they may be, they 
turn out to be in Brahman alone, because Brahman, 
is the Self of all. 'Being only one,' — not seeing 
anything else, not hearing anything else, not 
knowing anything else, that being the highest — 
and yet rejoicing in seeing the desires of the world 
of Brahman and also those of this world, is a 
contradiction : the one not seeing anything else, 
and at the same time seeing something else.' This 



298 THE OHHA'NDOGYA UPAFISHAD 

is no fault ; because this objection has been met 
and set aside in another Sruti passage ; there being 
no destruction of the sight of the seer, he appears 
to be seeing ; and he is said to ' not see ', because of 
the fact of the non-existence of the desires apart 
from the Self. Though even in deep sleep, as in 
the liberated state, the absence of any second is 
common, — as it has been already declared — 'where- 
by would it see what ? ' And Prajapaii has also 
said how the Purusha in the eye appears, being as 
he is incorporeal and free from evil, &c, &c« And 
now begins the description of this Purusha as he is 
direetly seen in the eye. Now what is the cause 
of seeing him in the eye ? This is explained by 
means of an example : just as the horse, or the 
ox — the word 'Prayogya ' meaning that which is 
yoked — , is attached to the cart— the word ' A' char- 
ana 'meaning that by means of which one moves 
along — , for dragging it along ; so in this body, 
which takes the place of the cart, ' Prdna\ with 
its five-fold functions, together with the Mind and 
JBuddhi, — which means the Conscious Ego, with its 
Self covered over by the two faculties of cognition 
and action — is attached, for the purpose of experi- 
encing, the results of its past deeds. The Prana is 
appointed to the functions of seeing, hearing and 
motion by the Lord, just as the general manager is 
appointed to his functions by the king ; — the ideas 
working in theanind of the Lord, being 'where shall 
I go after death, wherein, during rest, shall I rest * 
as declared in anotber Sruti, And it is of this 
Prdna, that the sense of sight, the eye, is a part, 
being the means of perceiving colour. 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY %W 

^T^^§T4 %*%^ f^SPTTRF S 3T|?^ *FOT SfflWT 

5*, ^oj^Fftftf ^ «n^jj j^oift sjl^ II 2 II 

" Now where the eye has entered Into A'kQsa, 
that is, the person in the eye, and for his vision is 
the eye. He who knows, 'may I smell this', that 
is the Self, the nose being- the organ of his smell- 
ing. He who knows 'may I speak,' that is the Self, 
speech being the organ for his speaking. And he 
who knows ' may I hear this,' that is the Self, the 
ear being the organ of his hearing." (4) 

Com. — When the eye has entered into A'kdsa 
— ue,, the space in the black pupil of the eye in 
the body — ' then that is the unbodied person in the 
eye, which forms the subject of the discourse, and 
for his perception of colour, the eye is the organ. 
The Supreme Incorporeal One is perceived therein 
by means of sight, for the sake of whose vision the 
organ of vision is put in the body. The assertion 
of Prqj&pati that ! he is in the eye', refers to all 
the organs of sense ; since the' perceiver of all 
sense-objects is the same person ; the 'eye' being 
specially mentioned in the Srulis, simply because 
it is in the eye that he is seen most distinctly ; as 
says the Sruii ' what I have seen, becomes the 
true'. And again one who, in th^s body, knows 
' may I perceive good and bad smell,' that is the 
Self ; and for his perception of smell, the nose is 
the organ. One who knows ' may I say this speech', 
that is the Self ; and for the accomplishment of his 



300 THE OHHA'NDOGYA UPA1HSHAD 

action of saying, speech is the organ. One who 
knows ' may I hear', that is the Self ; and for his 
hearing the organ is the ear. 

One who knows 'may I think', that is the Self ; 
the mind is his divine eye. And it is by means of 
this divine eye of the mind, that he sees the desires 
and rejoices. (5) 

Com. — One who knows ' may I think this, 8 — 
i.e., think with the mind alone, free from any 
contact with the functions of the sense-organs — , 
' he who knows this, that is the Self ;' since such is 
the expression in every case, it follows that 
Knowledge, or Consciousness is the form of the 
Self. Just as when it is asserted that ! that which 
shines in front is the sun, that which shines 
to the south,, to the west, to the northj and 
upwards, is the Sun,' it follows that brightness is 
the nature of the Sun. The organs of sight &c„ the 
q/e'and the rest, are for fulfilling the functions of 
seeing and the rest ; this fact being inferred from 
the capability of the Self. While the fact of the 
Self being an agent of cognition is based upon its 
mere esse and not as its function ; just as bright- 
ness of the Sun is based upon its mere existence, 
and is not a function of it. Mind is the divine eye 
of the Self — divine means ' extraordinary,' — 
unlike the other organs ; and ' eye * means that by 
means of which one sees. All the other senses 
function only at the present time ; hence they are 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENTARY 301 

not divine ; while the mind is an organ of percep- 
tion extending over the three periods of time, free 
from discrepancies, and is the organ for perceiv- 
ing all subtle and distant; objects : and as such, it 
is called the ! divine eyp.' The Liberated One t 
having reached his own form, freed from the body 
and organs proceeding from Ignorance, having 
reached the state of the universal Self, becoming 
pure like the A'kasa, the Lord of all, with the sole 
limitation of the mind, sees all desires, by means 
of this Lord of the mind, whose vision extends 
like the light of the Sim, and thereby rejoices. 

'Those that are in the world of Brahman* 
The Devas meditate upon this Self. Therefore, all 
worlds and all desires are obtained by them. And 
he who knows this Self, and understands It, 
obtains all worlds and all desires ;' — Thus said 
Prajdpati, — yea Prajdpati said this. (6) 

Com- — It is now explained what these * desires* 
are : Those desires * that are in the world of 
Brahman * — hidden, like golden treasure, beneath 
the false attachment to external objects, — such 
are the desires that the Liberated One obtains. 
And because this Self was explained by Prajdpati 
to Indra, therefore the gods, having heard of It 
from Indm, even now, meditate upon that Self 



302 THE CHHA'HDOGYA UPANISHAD 

And because they meditate upon It, therefore, all 
words and all desires are obtained by them. The 
meaning is that the result for which Indra dwelt 
with Prajapati as a religious student, for a hundred 
and one years — that result was obtained by the gods. 
It may be urged that * such may be the lot of the 
lucky gods, but it cannot belong to human beings 
of the present day, because these latter have short 
lives, and little understanding ; ' hence it is added : 
He obtains all worlds and all desires, even now-a- 
days, — one who knows that Self, like Indra, &c, 
and understands It. Thus in general did Prajapati 
say. Therefore the knowledge of Self, and the 
acquiring of the results thereof, belong equally to 
all men. The repetition is meant to point out the 
end of the section. 



Thus ends the Twelfth Khanda of Adhydya VIII* 



ADHYA'YA VIII. 



KHANDA XI H. 



* From the Dark, I come to the Variegated ; 
from the Variegated, I come to the Dark ; shaking 
off all evil, as the horse shakes off its hairs, — and 
as the moon freeing itself from the mouth of 
Bdhitt — so shaking off the body, and having fulfill- 
ed all ends, I obtain the uncreated world of Brah- 
man ; — Yea, I obtain it.' ( I) 

Corn. — * From the Dark, &c.,' is a sacred mantra 
put down for repetition, or for meditation. s Dark' 
is any deep colour ; the Brahman in the heart, 
which is dark, as it were, because of its incompre- 
hensibility ; and having known this Brahman in the 
heart, by meditation, from that 'dark' I come to 
the ' variegated ' — i.e., the world of Brahman, 
which is, as it were, 'variegated'— the variegation 
being due to the world of Brahman mixed with 
numerous desires, with regard to the forest, 
<&c; that is I reach this variegated world of Brah- 
man, either in the mind now? or after the falling 
off of the body. Because from the variegated world 
of Brahman, with a view to the differentiation of 
Names and Forms, I am come to the dark state of 



304 THE CHHA'NDOGYA TTPANISHAD 

the Brahman in the heart. That is to say, for this 
reason, I come to the variegated Self, in its own 
natural form. It is next explained how 'I reach 
the variegated world of Brahman : Just as the 
horse, shaking off its hairs., removes its fatigue 
and also dust from hairs, and becomes clean,— so 
having bhaken off all evil in the shape of Virtue 
and Vice, by means of the Knowledge of Brahman 
in the heart; and as the Moon, freeing itself from 
the mouth of RQhu, becomes bright, in the same 
manner, having 'shaken off'— given up—the body, 
the receptacle of all evil, and having, by means of 
meditation, my ends fulfilled, I reach the 'uncrea- 
ted -eternal-world of Brahman. The repetition 
is for the sake of the closing of the mantra. 

Thus ends the Thirteenth Khawhi of Adhydya VIII. 

ADHYA'YA VIII. 



KHANDA XIV. 



jp,*? *m srsfftpf: *raTeflin srqtf qsjnsg mi$ m~ 
wrt mi mJ mft tert q^flsCTigsrrqfer * mi mmt 

If \ i 

That which is called A'k&sa is the revealer of 
Names and Forms; and that within which these 
are contained that is Brahman, the Immortal the 



WITH SEI S.OS ABA'S COMMENTARY 305 

Self. 1 come to the assembly of Prajapati, to the 
house. I am the glory of the Bralnnanas, the glory 
of kings, and the glory of the raisyas. 1 wish 
fco obtain that glory ; I am the glory of glories. 
May I never go to the red and toothless, though 
devouring, slippery abode,— yea, may 1 never came 
to it, ■ (1) 

Com.—'A'kastfw meant to point out the defini- 
tion of Brahman, for the purposes of meditation. 
*That Self, which is called in the Srutis i A'h1na\-- 
because like A'kdsa, it is incorporeal and 
subtle— that is the revealer or manifested, of 
the Fames and Forms that lie latent in 
It, which are the seeds of the world, and 
which are like the foam of water. And that 
Brahman wherein these Names and Forms 
are located, — that which is within these Names 
and Forms, untouched by these. —that is Brahman, 
different from Names and Forms, untouched by 
Names and Forms, and a revealer of these ; such 
is Brahman.. This it is that has been described in 
the llfaitreyi Brahmana, — the One all-pervading 
entity, buing Consciousness alone, It is always in 
tho form of Consciousness. Thus the two sections 
become reconciled. It is explained how this is 
understood. * That is the Self : The Self, of all 
creaturcb, the counter-consciousness, is self-cognis- 
able ; and it is in the form of this Self, that it is 
comprehended that ihe incorporeal and all- 
pervading Self, like A'kdsa, in Brahmlm. And that 
Self -Bruh man is immortal, never capable of death. 
Then follows a mantra, Prajapati here is the four- 
faced Brahma— 1 come to his assembly, his house 
SO 



306 



THE OHHA'NDOGYA UPANISHAD 



prepared by the Lord. And further, I am the glory 
-*.«., the 8elf-of the Brdhmanas ; since it is the 
Brahmanas that particularly meditate upon It 
therefore I am their glory ; so also of kings and 
vmsyas. bince these too are entitled to such medi- 
tation, therefore I am their Self. ' I wish to obtain 
that_ glory. I am the glory '-~Self~~<of the 
5°T T> of the ^Ives, in the shape 
L /„ ° d¥ \ the s ense-organs, the mind 

to this, &c, &c. May I never come to the * 8 u£ta' 
7 m colour resembling the ripe plum, *.*., red! 
adatka -tooth-less-and yet 'adatka'-devourinc 
female organ (which devours or destroys the glory 
strength, knowledge and virtue of those that are 
addicted to it)-, ' Undu ' slippery,-' syeta,' abode. 
ihe repetition is meant to show the extremely un- 
desirable character of the ' abode. ' (The meaning 
of the last sentence being ' may I never be born 
again.') 



Thus ends the Fourteenth Khanda of 
Adhyctya VIII. 



ADHYA'YA VIII. 
KHANDA XV. 



m% li ? u 

1 This Brahman declared to Prajapaii, Prajapati 
to Manu, and Manu to his children, one who ha 
studied the Veda at the place of a Teacher, accord- 
ing to the prescribed rule, during the time left, 
after performing the duties to the Teacher, and 
having obtained his discharge, settled in his house, 
studying the VMa in some sacred place, and has 
begotten virtuous sons, having withdrawn all his 
senses into the Self, never giving pain to other 
creatures, except at certain specially ordained 
places and times —one who behaves thus through- 
out his life, reaches the world of Brahman, and 
does not return,— yea, he returns not.* (i) 

Come- This Philosophy of the Self—with all its 
accessories-together with the eight-sectioned 
treatise beginning with an explanation of the 
syllable Om* and treating of ail its various medita- 
tions-Brahman, Hiranyagarbha, or the Supreme 
Lord, declared to Prajdpatt, i.e., to Kasyapa. 
Kasyapa declared it to Manu, his son, and Manu to 



308 THE OHHA'KDOGYA UPANISHAD 

his children. Thus then the Philosophy of the 
TJpanishad, having passed through alltksse sacred 
traditions has come down to this day. It may be 
urged that * as the science of the Self has been 
revealed in the 6th, 7th and 8th Adhydyas, as 
leading to a desirable result, it would seem that 
sacrifices have no use' ; and with a view to remove 
all notions of such uselessness, it is added how 
sacrificial actions, when performed by the learned, 
bring about exceptionally good results. ' Having 
studied the Voda, together with its meaning, at the 
place of a Teacher, according to the prescribed 
rules of study ': With a view to show that attend- 
ing upon the Teacher, is more important than all 
other duties laid down in the Srutis, it is added : 
'having studied the VMa during the time that is left, 
after the performance of the duties to the Teacher.' 
The Veda being thus studied by one, keeping 
strictly within the limits of prescribed conduct, 
brings about the results of a Knowledge of sacri- 
fices* which can never be obtained by any other 
means. ' Having been duly discharged ' — i.e., 
having finished all enquiry into the nature of 
duty, having returned from the Teacher's house 
— taking a wife in accordance with proper 
rules, — and then settling as a house-holder, duly 
engaged in the performance of all prescribed 
duties ; of all such duties, the study of the Vida 
is paramount --in order to show this it is added: 
'In a sacred place, which is secluded, sitting down 
properly and studying the Veda, repeating the Rik 
&c, and performing his daily rites, as much 
as lay in his power, having begotten virtuous 



WITH SRI SANKARA'S COMMENT AEY 309 

sons, and prepared virtuous disciples — , i.e., 
keeping them controlled within the limits of 
virtue — , having withdrawn all his senses within 
the Self, — i.e., the Brahman in the heart,— which 
also includes the renunciation of Actions — , not 
giving pain to any creatures, either moving or 
immoving, except at specially ordained times and 
places. ' All this belongs equally to all men, in 
whatever state they may be ; other srutis declaring 
the impropriety of giving pain to any creatures, 
except at the times and places specially ordained 
in the scriptures continuing a house-holder, and 
being entitled to, and. duly performing ail these 
duties,, throughout his life — i, e„ one who behaves in 
the aforesaid manner, all through his life, — reaches 
the world of Brahman on the death of the body ; 
and he does not turn to a body again; because such 
return is distinctly prohibited. That is to say? 
having reached the world of the caused Brahman 
by way of the 'Light' &c, he continues to live in 
that world, so long as that world lasts; and before 
this he does not return. The repetition is meant to 
point to the end of the Upanishad-Philosophy. 



Thus ends the Fifteenth Khanda of Adhydya VIII. 



Thus ends the Eighth Adhydya. 



Om Tat Sal. 



Peace to all Beings. 



Thus ends the Chhdndogya Uponishad. 



It has been the solace of my life. 
It will be the solace of my death. 

SCHOPENHAtm. 



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Prof. Max Muller :— -.Faithful trans- 
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£ taries on these Upanishads are translated in J" 

"k this book in an accurate and clear style, while i 

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an excellent sign of a living study of the 
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JM» m.a.,F.t.s., of Darbhanga, 

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The Madras Standard --The rendering 
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have looked into your work here and there 
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