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Full text of "China and the U.S.A."

Chu Teh, commander-in-chief of the Anti-Japanese National 
Revolutionary Army. With Mao Tse-tung, Chu Teh shares the 
command of the large army force which is today throwing back the 
invading Japanese armies. 



PUBLISHED BY WORKERS LIBRARY PUBLISHERS, INC. 
P. O. BOX 148, STATION D, NEW YORK, N. Y. 
209 OCTOBER, 1917 






library 

Uniwrrity of Texas 

Austin, Texas 



CHINA AND THE U.S.A. 



in 



BY EARL BROWDER 



FRIENDS AND COMRADES: 
Tonight I want to talk especially about China. We 
know, and the larger part of the American people are coming 
to know, that the bombs that are dropping on Shanghai 
today and blowing into bits tens of thousands of women and 
children, as well as men, that the inhuman and bloody un- 
provoked attack upon the Chinese people about which we 
read every day, is something that affects our lives here in 
New York and in Kings County just as much as the threat 
of Tammany does. 

Our lives in America cannot be separated from those of 
the people of China. Just as we recognized our close relation- 
ship with the Spanish geople when Hitler's and Mussolini's 
airplanes began to rain bombs upon Madrid, just so we have 
to recognize our close connection with our Chinese brothers 
now that they are suffering from the same enemy. 

This attack upon the peace of the world by Italian and 
German fascism and Japanese militarist-fascism is not alone 
upon those who suffer today at this moment. Let us not have 
any illusions that America can be separated from the world. 



*-< 



666076 



The worst enemy that America has today is the one who 
would lull you into thinking that America can be kept 
separated, can be isolated, that these are troubles only of the 
rest of the world, that we should just keep out of it, that it 
doesn't concern us. 

We Communists have been shouting this warning from 
the house-tops for the past several years. We are glad to see 
that slowly but surely the whole country is coming to under- 
stand that there can be no security for us in America from 
the horrors of war unless we take deeper and more active 
interest in preserving the rest of the world from these 
same horrors. 

Wc have been given several general expressions of this 
truth by official leaders of the American people. The official 
spokesman of the United States, Secretary of State Cordell 
Hull, addressing the Pan-American Conference in Buenos 
Aires, a few months ago, stated this very aptly and excellently. 
He said:' 

"It is now as plain as mathematical truth that each nation in 
any pare of the world is concerned with peace in every part of 
the world." 

If we are concerned with peace in every part of the world, 
we certainly have to be concerned with war, the absence of 
peace. In China today there is a terrible war being waged 
against a people which stands before the whole world as the 
very symbol of peacefulness. 

The Chinese people have been too peaceful. The Japanese 
imperialists have found, however, in the past couple of weeks 
that even an extremely peaceful people can be driven too far, 
that finally they will turn and defend themselves. One of the 

4 



most glorious pages in world history is the news that the 
Chinese people have begun to defend themselves effectively, 
that the Japanese imperialists have been cracking their shins 
against the defense in Shanghai. 

But let us have no illusions! While the resistance of the 
Chinese people, which is only beginning, will surely bring 
the Japanese imperialists to grief finally, a great deal depends 
upon what we and the rest of the world do with regard to 
this struggle. If we allow Japanese imperialism, with all of its 
modern implements of warfare, to proceed unhampered 
against the Chinese people, while we of America actually 
join in this Japanese aggression, we are preparing trouble for 
America. The United States is accepting the blockade of 
China. We continue to allow scrap iron from the United 
States to be shipped from the docks of Brooklyn every week. 
Scrap iron from Brooklyn is going to Japan to be made into 
shrapnel and bombs to be dropped on the Chinese people! 
Washington issues orders that American ships shall stay 
away from Shanghai. But Washington doesn't issue any 
orders that all ships shall stop carrying shrapnel from Brook- 
lyn to Japan. 

It is here that we begin to understand that we Americans 
have a duty, a responsibility towards the Chinese people, 
and that that duty and responsibility are exactly the same as 
our duty towards world peace, our duty to ourselves. We 
cannot protect the peace of America, the peace of New York, 
the peace of Brooklyn, if we allow scrap iron from Brooklyn 
to destroy the peace of the Chinese people. 

America had to go through a long revolutionary war to 
establish itself as an independent nation. Modern China is 
going through its war of independence today. When we had 

5 



our war of independence, we found friends from other parts 
of the world who came to help us. It is an established part of 
American history that we won our war of independence 
largely because of the help of our friends from other parts 
of the world. 

It was only a few weeks ago that the President of the 
United States acknowledged this truth in a speech that he 
made on the occasion of the unveiling of a monument in 
France to the American soldiers who died in the world war. 
President Roosevelt said: 

"We, of this country, have not forgotten, nor could we ever 
forget, the aid given us by France in the dark days of the 
American revolution." 

If it was correct for France to give us aid in the dark days 
of our revolution, is it not correct for America to give aid 
to the heroic Chinese people in the dark days of their revo- 
lution? 

But now Congress has decided that in the United States 
we are going to remain neutral. Neutrality is a strange word. 
It means that we shall "not take sides,'* we shall merely join 
in the blockade of China, and give Japan the freedom of the 
American markets. That's what neutrality means it seems. 
The damnable consequences of the application of this false 
and hypocritical neutrality to Spain brought about the com- 
plicity of America in the fascist destruction of world peace. 
The same thing is happening in regard to China. 

The bombs on Madrid and the bombs on Shanghai are 
surely going to bring bombs on New York and San Francisco, 
unless America changes this policy, and clasps hands with 

6 




Mao Tse-tung, Chinese Communist, is one of the beloved leaders 
of the Anti-Japanese National Revolutionary Army which, in the 
terms of agreement with the Nanking Government, is sending its 
tremendous force of well-trained and equipped troops against the 
invading Japanese. Mao Tse-tung is one of the best-known of 
Chinese Communists and is himself the son of peasants. 






the peace-loving peoples of all the world, to remove this fas- 
cist, militarist menace from the world. 

Comrades and friends, China is no small nation. If we 
could possibly think that after all we could, for the time 
being, abandon some small nations to the aggression of the 
fascists, and still think that America might keep out of the 
mess — we still could not apply such reasoning to China. 
China is no small corner of the world. China has a popula- 
tion of 450,000,000, three and a half times as many as in the 
United States. Here is a people that has been exploited and 
oppressed by the Western capitalist nations ever since they 
"opened up" China, as they called it, with warships, some 
hundred years ago. 

The Western capitalist world smashed the old social and 
economic system of China by forcing the Chinese people to 
open up their doors to the machine-made goods of the West. 
The Chinese people have been suffering from that ever since, 
because no matter how backward their old system may have 
been, it was at least a system and was their own. But Western 
capitalism, Western imperialism, forced the products of the 
capitalist nations of the West on this great people, and at 
the same time prevented the Chinese people from developing 
their own capitalism. 

The Japanese have learned the lessons of our Western 
imperialism with all of its worst trimmings. Now they are 
trying to apply the same imperialist methods, especially as 
exemplified by the brutal assault on the body of China. 

If the Chinese people are not able successfully to resist 
this attack; if this great country and people are really forced 
by superior military power to submit to Japanese domination, 
let us have no illusions that this is something that will not 

8 




affect us. Can you imagine what it will mean for the future 
of America if the Japanese militarists and imperialists are 
able to harness the great continent of China and 450,000,000 
people to their particularly backward form of modem im- 
perialism? 

The peace of the whole world will be shattered and 
America will really be faced with a peril,. a million times more 
real than that old bugaboo that Hearst used to trot out, the 
"yellow peril," the peril of the East. Since the peril of fas- 
cism in Asia has become real, Hearst has forgotten about the 
"yellow peril" and has become an open apologist of fascism, 
as it really menaces the future of America. 

And that is significant, because Hearst represents the de- 
velopment of fascism in the United States. We will not be 
able to prevent fascism from seizing our country unless we 
help to prevent fascism from seizing Spain and prevent it 
from seizing China. 

The Chinese people will have to do the biggest part of that 
job. They are organizing themselves to do it. It was five years 
ago that plans for uniting the Chinese people to save their 
country from the Japanese aggression were formulated and 
published by the Communist Party of China. The Commu- 
nist Party of China has been, from that day down to this, 
moving forward to mobilize the whole Chinese nation for its 
salvation and independence. 

During most of these five years the Chinese Communist 
Party, leading the Chinese Soviet government and the 
Chinese Red Army, has been suffering from the military at- 
tacks of the Nanking Kuomintang government. Within the 
past year, however, under the continued Japanese aggressive 
attacks, the Chinese people have awakened to the fact that 

9 



it was the voice of the Communist Party which showed them 
the only road to their salvation. 

Under pressure of this awakening consciousness, the Chi- 
nese masses have forced their Kuomintang government to 
stop their war against the Chinese Soviets and Red Army, 
to enter into negotiations for the establishment of a united 
national front against Japan, When the latest hostilities 
broke out in China there was already the beginning of the 
united front of the Chinese people, looking towards, very 
soon, the amalgamation of the Chinese Red Army into the 
Chinese Anti-Japanese National Liberation Army of the 
Chinese People. 

You may be interested to know that a few days ago I re- 
ceived some letters from the leaders of the Chinese Soviet 
government and the Chinese Red Army, written just before 
the Japanese invasion at Shanghai, on June 24, from the city 
of Yenan, in the province of Shensi, the headquarters of the 
Chinese Soviet government. They came from the three prin- 
cipal leaders of the Chinese Soviets, the organizers of the 
Chinese national liberation movement, the men who very 
shortly will be in the news cables as leaders of that great 
armed struggle of the Chinese people. With your permission, 
I am going to read these letters to you. The first letter is from 
the President of the Chinese Soviet Republic, Comrade Mao 
Tse-tung. He says: 

"My dear Comrade Browder: 

"Taking advantage of a comrade's visit, I am sending this 
letter to you, our respected Comrade Browder, good friend of 
the Chinese people and leader of the American people. 

"Both the Communist Party of China and the Communist 
Party of U.S.A. are confronted with a historic task, the task of 
resisting and overthrowing the aggressive policy of Japanese 

10 



imperialism. The Chinese Party is endeavoring to bring about 
an anti-Japanese national united front. Although our work is 
passing through a difficult period, we have already made prog- 
ress and we are doing our best to bring about the desired result. 

"From several American friends, and from other sources, we 
learned that the Communist Parry of the United States and 
the masses of the American people are deeply concerned with 
China's struggle against Japan and have given us assistance in 
many ways. This makes us feel that our struggle is by no means 
isolated and we are heroically assisted from abroad. At the same 
time we feel that when we achieve victory, this victory will be 
of considerable help to the struggle of the American people for 
liberation. The world is now on the eve of a great explosion. 
The working class of the world and all the peoples who desire 
liberation must unite for the common struggle. 
"Revolutionary greetings, 

"MAO TSE-TUNG." 

The second letter I want to read to you is from Chow En-lai, 
one of the greatest political thinkers, writers and organizers of 
the Chinese people. He writes on the same day: 

"Comrade Browder: 

"From the comrade who visited us we learned what concern 
you and the Communist Party of the United States have for 
the Chinese revolutionary movement and what enthusiastic 
assistance you have given us. This news gives us great stimu- 
lation. 

"Comrade, do you remember the Chinese comrades who 
worked with you in China ten years ago? I am among those 
who made your acquaintance at that time. Unfortunately 
Comrade Su Chao-chen, whom you knew best, is no more with 
us. He died of sickness in 1929, when he was working under 
the most difficult conditions. 

"Since the Sian incident, the Chinese Communist Party and 
the Kuomintang have again started negotiations. We are deal- 
ing with a new problem of the united front which is not exactly 

11 



Sditt^^tS t™, *£~*» and 
kind of cooperation wS^S'A 18 ,. 31 ^ Merent froni ** 
1924 a „d , 92 7. The olwl 7 ^ Kuo ™"g Ween 
Present time is to nl I™! ^ , United front at *■ 
at the present d ° e X ~ e ™ P "' ^ Tbm ' ia ^'^ 
united front and the ^ZtoT/^fc ^^ abou£ ^ 
«d complicated. As to X alt LT f T VT devious 

est— of * e a 4^ Iy itr^:^s 

opmion on out united front wo k ?L ° fi 7° U V° «" >™ r 
two patties on both sides of ^PaX £"' ^ With om 
*e devil of agression in the PacSfnd ft o* T^n 
aggressors, we will surely succeed overthrow all 

Enthusiastic Bolshevik greetings to you, 

"CHOW EN-LAI." 
And the last of these letters is from Phi, t i. l 
■*ta* genius of the Chinese Red X He ^ *"' 

States, the American wS.^fiT *%<*„* <***! 
fiends of the CJn nese nat " a I Si * ^ B,! Amerk ™ 

thusiastic greetings llbetatl011 » w «>«* our en- 

p-X e fe tr Sir :nr utmost ? ^ ** °^ 

U and strug P I P fo £ fc? g ° UC 4 J?"^ *np*Ufc 
In this struggle w! hop " w . 1 ^ W)e ? tion of China. 

assistance. & »^^^^ t *??* 

baric system of fascism. Our futuret iTl, If* , and br " 
be illuminated by the proVrLs ttt ! U g J Md , * hound * 
hemispheres. P g " that IS bound * shine in both 

pej:^ ^ ^ f*"* of the Chinese and the American 

11 



Library 

limvamty of Texas 

Austin, Texas 



wig live the victory of our struggle against fascism! 

"CHU TEH." 

Comrades, what can I say of these messages from our Chi- 
nese comrades? 

We have a great duty to perform. We must make the 
American people understand that the cause of the Chinese 
people is our cause, the defeat of the Japanese imperialism 
is our concern. We shall not allow America to be used as a 
base by Japan to make war against the Chinese people. We 
have to organize, first of all, to shut off the flow of all com- 
modities and credits from this country which help the Japa- 
nese imperialists. 

A good beginning would be to organize a few mass demon- 
strations around some of these Japanese scrap iron ships on 
the docks of Brooklyn. Most important of all, we must make 
our government in Washington understand that the will of 
the American people h to throw the moral influence and 
economic power of our country into the scales of battle to 
help the Chinese people. 

Can we afford that America shall do less than is being done 
by the Soviet Union? The Nanking government of China 
announced a few days ago that they had just signed a pact 
of mutual non-aggression with the Soviet Union. This gives 
serious pause to the Japanese imperialists, who understand 
this as of practical help to the Chinese people which will 
block their way to conquest; they cannot laugh it off. But 
when our good Secretary of State, Mr. Cordell Hull, gave a 
very valuable and excellent reminder to the world of the exis- 
tence of very solemn agreements — the Kellogg-Briand pact of 
Paris by which Japan had pledged itself to America and to 
China and to the rest of the world not to resort to war to 

13 



settle any disputes; and the Nine-Power pact, which guar- 
anteed the integrity of China— the answer that Mr. Hull got 
to this very valuable reminder was the word from the Japa- 
nese War Office that they didn't consider that this reminder 
required any answer at all, that it was not serious. The only 
kind of argument that the Japanese militarists are able to 
understand today is the argument that is backed up with 
economic and material action. 

The Chinese people are organizing the military side of the 
struggle, but if we want the word of America to have any 
influence on the future of world peace, we had better make 
use of American economic power, at least, if we want to 
influence world events. 

A necessary step for the honor of America, for the inter- 
ests of America, for the interest of world peace, is for America 
to sever all economic relations with Japan until Japan with- 
draws her armed force from China, and respects her solemn 
covenant with the United States to keep the peace of the 
world; her solemn pledge that she made when she signed 
the Kellogg-Briand pact and the Nine-Power pact. 

We further propose to the government of the United States 
that it begin to negotiate with all nations of the Pacific which 
want peace for a particular agreement to act together for that 
purpose. 

The American people are interested in peace, and we hope 
our government is. We know that the Chinese people want 
peace, and that they are all united now to fight for peace 
in that country. We know that that great Pacific power, the 
Soviet Union, wants peace. A pact for mutual defense of 
peace in the Pacific between China, Soviet Union and the 
United States will certainly guarantee peace in the Pacific. 

u 



If we want peace, we must strive to unite the peace forces 
of the world. Perhaps if we look at Europe, we might say 
this is very complicated and difficult. But when we look at 
the Far East — at the Pacific — it becomes much simpler. Three 
powers have it within their grasp. All that is required is an 
agreement to work together, and peace can be guaranteed. 

We propose to secure the peace of the Pacific and on the 
basis of that to develop a real world peace program for the 
United States. 

By helping our Chinese brothers and sisters, we can, at the 
same time* help the cause of peace throughout the world. 
We can hasten the day. of the destruction of the fascist and 
war-making governments, and the installation in their place 
of people's peace-loving governments. We can protect the 
interests of the American people, we can keep America out 
of war, by keeping war out of the rest of the world. 

The only alternative to this program is the speedy engulfing 
of America into the new world war. 

We say with the Chinese people — they shall not pass; with 
the Spanish people— they shall not pass; and here in America 
also, the war-makers and fascists shall not pass! 

The American people will unite their forces to control our 
government for democracy and progress; unite with the pro- 
gressive and peace-loving peoples of the whole world to de- 
feat the fascists and keep peace and progress for the peoples 
of every land. 



This pamphlet is the text of a speech delivered on September 
2 at the Coney Island Velodrome by Earl Browder } General 
Secretary of the Communist Party, at the opening of the 
Communist municipal election campaign. 



The News from China — 



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don't know the news from China. 

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some of the most important developments in that great country 
fighting for its freedom. 

The Daily Worker receives this news, collected by hundreds of 
devoted men and women, because it is not merely a purveyor of 
information — because the Dally Worker is a fighting newspaper, 
aiding in the struggles of the Chinese people as tt does in the 
battles of workers and progressive people everywhere, for peace, 
freedom and prosperity. 



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