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Full text of "Chronological Dictionary of Sindh"





(From Geological Times to 1539 A.D.) 


M. H. Panhwar 



Institute of Sindhology 
University of Sind, Jamshoro 

All rights reserved. 

Copyright (c) M. H. Panhwar 1983. 

Institute of Sindhology Publication No. 99 

First printed — 1983 

No. of Copies 2000 

40 0-0 

Pric e ^Pt&AW&Q 

Printed at Educational Press 
Dr. Ziauddin Ahmad Road, Karachi. 


Published By Institute of Sindhlogy, University of Sind Jamshoro, 

in collabortion with Academy of letters Government of Pakistan, 

Ministry of Education Islamabad. 




Institute of Sindhology is engaged in publishing informative material on 
Sind under its scheme of "Documentation, Information and Source material 
on Sind". The present work is part of this scheme, and is being presented 
for benefit of all those interested in Sindhological Studies. 

The Institute has already pulished the following informative material 
on Sind, which has received due recognition in literary circles. 

1. Catalogue of religious literature. 

2. Catalogue of Sindhi Magazines and Journals. 

3. Directory of Sindhi writers 1943-1973. 

4. Source material on Sind. 

5. Linguist geography of Sind. 

6. Historical geography of Sind. 

The "Chronological Dictionary of Sind" containing 531 pages, 46 maps 
14 charts and 130 figures is one of such publications. The text is arranged 
year by year, giving incidents, sources and analytical discussions. An elaborate 
bibliography and index: increases the usefulness of the book. 

The maps and photographs give pictographic history of Sind and have 
their own place. Sindhology has also published a number of articles of Mr. 
M.H. Panhwar, referred in the introduction in the journal Sindhology, to 
make available to the reader all new information collected, while the book 
was in press. This would make this text upto date to 1983. 

It is earnestly hoped that the information in this book will open new 
venues for research.. 

August 15, 1983 

Prof. Dr. G. A. Allana 

Prof. Incharge Institute of Sindhology 

Sind University, J amshoro. 

















1 -392 

after Page 392 

Page 1-65 

Page 1-70 











(3.5 Billion years ago to present times). 


(Early, Middle and Late Stone age, sea level changes 

and Mesolithic period). 

(7000 B.C. to 3500 B.C.). 

(3500 B.C. to 1000 B.C.). 

(3000 - 2350 B.C.). 

(2350 -1750 B.C.). 

(1750 B.C. -1000 B.C.). 

(1300 -519 B.C.). 


(1050 -850 B.C.). 


(519 B.C.). 

(329 - 324 B.C.). 




(324 - 187 B.C.). 


(187 -80 B.C.). 

(80 B.C. to 46 A.D.). 













(46 - 78 A.D.). 





(65 - 283 A.D.). 

(283 - 499 A.D.), 

(499-641 A.D.) 

(641 -712A.D.). 



(711 -714A.D.). 


(749 - 854 A.D.). 

(835 - 854 A.D.). 


(854- 1010 A.D.). 

(1010 - 1026 A.D.). 

(1026-1351 A.D.). 

(1333- 1351 A.D.). 


(1347 - 1351 A.D.). 

(1351- 1368 A.D.). 

(1368 - 1388 A.D.). 















207 < 









1. Geological Map of Sind, showing formation of Sind. 
3.5 Billion years ago to the present time. (MAP) 

Opposite Page 


2. 2500 - 1000 B.C. 

The extent of early, mature and declining 
Indus Civilization. (MAP) 

3. 4500 - 800 B.C. 

Expansion of Copper and Bronze Working (MAP) 

4. 2000 B.C. - 1226 A.D. Drying up of Hakra 
(The lost river of the Indian Desert and the 
Rann of Cutch). (MAP) 

5. 1000 B.C. -1226 A.D.* 

The Crook of Cutch Making Cutch as 
Bridge between Sind, Kathiawar and Western 
Gujrat. (MAP) 

6. 1000 -50 B.C. 

Expansion of Iron Working. (MAP) 

7. 1000 -500 B.C. 

Expansion of Iron in the Sub-continent and 

600 - 500 B.C. 

16 Principalities or Mahajanpadas. (MAP) 

8. 640 — 325 B.C. Sind Principalities and Contemporary 
Achaemenians (Chart) 

9. 519 B.C. -1524 A.D. 

Routes of Invasion of Sind By Achaemenians, 
Macedonians, Bactrians, Scythians, Parthians, 
Kushans, Sassanians, and Arghoons, from Central 
Asia through Afghanistan. 

10. 519 B.C. 
Empire of Darius I 
The Achaemenian 

1 1. 450 B.C. The first world Map showing Sind by Herodotus. 
(Adopted from Michael Grant). % 

12. 323 B.C. 

Empire of Alexander 

1 3. 326 - 324 B.C. 

Alexanders' Conquest of Sind and Retreat. 














(1388-1524 A.D.). 

(1512-1521 A.D.). 

(1522- 1536 A.D.) 












323 - 187 B.C. 

Mauryan Empire to its Largest Extent in 250 B.C. 

324 -187 B.C. 

Mauryans and their Contemporaries. 

301 B.C. 

Greek Empire of Alexander's Successor's and 

Mauryan Empire (Sind became part of Mauryan 


200 B.C. - 200 A.D. 

Trade Routes between Sind and the Western World. 



184-70 B.C. 

Bactrian Greeks and their contemporaries. 

187 - 184 B.C. 

Route of Conquest of Sind by Bactrian Greeks 

(Demetrius and Menander}. 

174 B.C. 

Indo — Greek Roman and Hellenic Empires in 174 B.C. 

145 B.C. 

Trade Routes Parthian and Greek Empires. 

74 B.C. 

Empires of Parthians and Scythians (Including Sind). 

70 B.C. - 46 A J). 

Scythian Rulers and their Contemporaries. 




46 - 78 A.D. 

Parthians and their Contemporaries. 

65 - 283 AJX 

Kushans and their Contemporaries. 

100 - 750 A.D. 
Cities of Sind. 

150 A.D. The World According to Ptolemy 
(Adopted from Michael Grant). 

150 A.D. Map of Sind and Adjoining Territories 
according to Claudius Ptolemy (Based on McCrindle 

176-499 A.D. 

Sassanids and their contemporaries in Sind and 
adjoining areas. 







30. 138A.D. 
Khusan, Parthian and Roman Empires. 112 

31. 230A.D. 
Ardasir's Empire, Trade and Trade Routes. 112 

32. 400 A.D. 
Vahlikas of Sind and the Gupta Empire. 112 

33. 499 - 640/41 A.D. 
Rai Dynasty of Sind and Their Contemporaries. 120 

34. 640 A.D. 
Rai Sehasi - II 's Sind, Harasha Empire and 
Contemporary Sub - continents. 120 

35. 641 - 662 A.D. 
Chach's Sind and its Division as Hieun Tsang saw them. 128 

36. 640/41 - 725 A.D. 
Contemporaries of Brahman Dynasty. 128 

37. 711- 714 AJ). 
Conquest of Sind by the Arabs. 136 

38. 712-751A.D. . , . 
Umayyad Governors of Sind and their Contemporaries. 136 

39. 751 - 854 A.D. 
Abbasid Governors of Sind and their Contemporaries. 1 84 

40. 854- 1011 AX). 

Habaris of Sind and their Contemporaries. 184 

41. 925 A.D. 

Indian Sub - continent in 925 A.D. and Habari 

Kingdom of Sind. 1 84 

42. 854- 1011 A.D. 

Habaris and Adjoining Local Arab 

Kingdom in 951 A.D. ' 184 

43. 951 A.D. Istakhri's Map of Sind (Modern names in 
Brackets). Northern Frontier of Sind was about 
50 Miles Noth of Multan, Lasbela, Part of Makran 

upto Kej, Kalat, Sibi, and Gandova formed part of Sind. 184 

44. 976 A.D. Ibn Haukal' s Map of Sind (Based pn Elliot (1867). 184 

45. 1025 A.D. 

Khafif Soomra and Contemporary Sub-continent. 224 


46. 1011 - 1351/52 A.D. 

Soomras of Sind and their Contemporaries. 

47. 1150 A.D. the Sind and the Neighbouring Territories 
from Al-Sharif Al-Idrisi. Based on seventh section of 
the second clime (Bodleian Library, MS— Greaves). 




1236 A.D. 

Indian Sub-continent in 1236 A.D. on death of Atlatmish. 

1333 AJ). 

Ibn Batuta's Routes. To Janani, Sehwan and Lahri Bandar, 

and Return Route to Multan and Delhi. 

Sind in 1351 A.D. 

Muhammad Tughlaq's Invasion of Sind and 

Taghi's flight to Sind. 

1000 - 1525 A.D. 

Soomra — Samma Cities, of Sind. 

1352- 1524 A.D. 

Sammas of Sind and their Contemporaries. 

1441 A.D. 

Indian Sub-continent Around 1441 A.D. 

1508 AJ). 

Indian Sub-continent as Portugese saw. 

1508 A.D. 

Sind Boundaries under Jam Nizamuddin and 

Areas under his active influence. 









Human Races of the Sub-continent. 

1517-1523 A.D. 

Shah Beg's Military Operations in Sind. 



1524- 1554 A.D. 

Shah Hasan's Military Operations in Sind. 



1500- 1700 A.D. 

Tribal Map of Sind and the Communication Routes. 



1608- 1700 A.D. 
Administrative Map of Sind. 




8. 23000 - 1700 B.C. Saddle-quern and muller stone found from Mohenjo 

9. 3000 - 2500 B.C. Painted pot from Amri, presently at Mohenjo Daro 

10. 2800 - 2300 B.C. General view of Kot Diji Excavations. 

11. 2700 - 2400 B.C. Nal ware and tools from Baluchistan. 

12. 2800 B .C. Kot Dijian ware. 
13 Shahi Tump ware. 

14. 2300 — 1700 B.C. General view of excavations of Mohenjo Daro. 

15. Typical Indus culture objects. 

16. Zhob ware. 

17. 2300 - 1 700 B.C. A well inside a house at Mohenjo Daro. 

1 8. 2300 - 1 700 B.C. A low street at Mohenjo Daro, 

19. 2300 - 1700 B.C. 30 feet wide main street Mohenjo Daro. 

20. Kuli Ware from Baluchistan. 

21. 2200 - 2100 B.C. The great bath at Mohenjo Daro, reconstructed. 

22. 2200 - 2100 B.C. The great bath, Mohenjp Daro. 

23. 2300 - 1700 B.C. Interior of a typical house at Mohenjo Daro 



1. Rampithecus, who lived 14 million years ago. 

2. 7 — 5 million years old set of teeth found in 1930, at Siwalik hills. 

3. 1.6 — 1.5 million years old. Advanced Australopithecus. 

4. Fossil men. 

5. 10,000 B.C. to 2500 B.C. Microlithic fishig tools. 

6. 10,000 B.C. to present times. Primitive drill machine, to bore holes 
into stone. 

7. 10,000 B.C. to present times. Ancient quern and saddles evolved by food 
gathering tribes. 


24. 2300 — 1700 B.C. Reconstruction of grannary at Mohenjo Daro. 

25. 2300 — 1700 B.C. An axonometric reconstruction of a house at Mohenjo 

26. 2300 - 1 700 B.C. Chert flakes and polished cores from Mohenjo Daro. 

27. 2300 — 1700 B.C. Bronze and copper tools and implements from 
Mohenjo Daro. 

28. 2300 - 1800 B.C. Bead necklace from Mohenjo Daro. 

29. 2300 - 1 700 B.C. Stone and gold bead necklaces from Mohenjo Daro. 

30. 2300 - 1700 B.C. Fayence bracelet from Harappa. 

31. 2300 - 1700 B.C. Terracotta toy bull cart from Mohenjo Daro. 
3 2. Bullock cart of modern Sind. 

33. Separate harrowing and sowing by tubes in the field. 

34. 2300 - 1800 B.C. Stone weights from Mohenjo Daro. 

35. 2300 - 1800 B.C. Figurine of mother goddess from Mohenjo Daro. 

36. 2300 - 1800 B.C. King priest from Mohenjo Daro. 

37. 2600 — 2300 B.C. Copper wand surmounted by our camel from Khurb 

38. 2300 - 1700 B.C. Bronze statue of dancing girl from Mohenjo Daro. 

39. 2300 - 1700 B.C. Predecessor of the game 'Chess' from Mohenjo Daro. 

40. 2300 — 1700 B.C. Steatite seals and their impressions with script and 
animal design from Mohenjo Daro. 

41. 2300 - 1700 B.C. Gods and their motifs carved on the'Indus seals. 

42. i. 2300 - 1700 B.C. Indus Seal showing a boat, 
ii. 2300 — 1700 B.C. Indus Seal showing sacrifice and three horned god 

in a pipal. 
iii. 2300 — 1700 B.C. Indus seal showing a bullman killing a horned 

43. Indus Seals and Mythology. v 

44. 550 — 325 B.C. Punch marked Coins of pre- Alexandrian Era. 

45. Comparative table of symbol on Indus valley seals and punch marked 


46. 1 750 - 1 700 B.C. Cemetry-H Cultural ware of the declining Indus 

47. 1750 — 1700 B.C. Jhukar ware produced during the early period of 
declining Indus Culture. 

48. 1 100 — 900 B.C. Jhangar ware produced during the late declining Indus 

49. day baked sling stones Mohenjo Daro. 

50. Present day potter and his wheels. 

51. Head of Darius — I from relief art Bistun. 

52. Darius — I, giving audience. 

53. The hall of audience at Persipolis. 

54. Winged bull, from the gate way of tomb of Xerxes at Bistun. 

55. Naqsh-i-Rustam: Rock Tombs of Achaemenian Kings and fire altar. 

56. 333 - 323 B.C. Alexander from a coin. 

57. First century B.C. Alexander in the battle of Issus. 

58. 326 B.C. Medal struck by Alexander to celebrate the defeat of Poros. 

59. Ptolemy - I (d. 280 B.C.). 

60. Coin of Selukus, general of Alexander. 

61. 323 — 184 B.C. Punch marked coin of Mauryan or early Sungan 

62. 323 — 231 A.D. Punch marked Coins of first three Mauryan emperors, 
Chandragupta, Bindusara and Asoka. 

63. 3rd century B.C. Mauryan column found at Pataliputra. 

64. i. Evolution of Hebrew Script from Cananite and South Arabian 

Evolution of Greek and Hehrew Scrints from Phoenician Srrint. 

ii. Evolution of Greek and Hebrew Scripts from Phoenician Script, 
iii. Kharoshthi Script on Silver scroll, 
iv. Brahmi script from Girnar rock. 

65. 180-160 B.C. Coin of Menander. 

66. Coin of Demetrius. 

67. Parthian horseman. 








End 1st Century A.D. Coin of Kujula Kara Kad phises — I the Kushan. 

Second century A.D. Coin of Kamshka. 

l. 144 - 150 A.D. Another coin of Kanishka - I. 
ii- 150-162 A.D. Coin of Huvishka Kushan. 

Kushan plough with vertical and curved yoke pole. 

Coin of Kadphises — II, in Kharoshthi script. 

1st century B.C. — 1st century A.D. Scytho-Parthian pottery from 

Sassanian coins. 

Pahlavi — Sassanian script. 

Crowns of Sassanian Kings. 

590 — 628 A.D. A Sassanian King in an armour, on a horse back. 

4th — 7th century — Brahma in brass from Bahmanabad. 

Stupa at Mirpurkhas restored. 

Development of a dome. 

Marble door jamb. Gori temple — Tharparkar. 

Signature of emperor Harasha from a copper plate. 

711 — 714 A.D. A type of catapult or 'Manjanique'. 

General plan of Jami Masjid Banhore (Debal). 

Banbhore (Debal) citadal fortification. 

Earthen ware can, decorated with Sassanian type moulded frieze of 
animals from Banbhore (Debal). 

Pre-Muslim period pottery mould from Banbhore (Debal). 

Inscribed glazed pottery from Banhore. 

Pot shreds with Dev-Nagri inscriptions, from Banbhore. 

907 A.D. Kufic inscriptions of Habari period from Banbhore. 

Excavations of Siva temple at Banbhore. 


92. 5th — 8th century A.D. Siva lingum from temple in situation at 

93. Friday mosque at Isfahan. 

94. Masoleum of Oljeilu, the Mongol King at Sultania. 

95. Coin of Mahmood of Ghazni. 

96. Coin of Masaud of Ghazni. 

97. Muhammad Bin Sam's coin struck, at Kanauj. 

98. 608 A.H. (1213 A.D.) coin of Altatmish. 

99. Cold coin of Ghiasuddin Balban. 

100. 729 A.H. (1330 A.D.) Gold coin of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq. 

101. Brass coin of Muhammad Tughlaq (forced currency). 

102. Soomra period clay vessel with engraved patterns. 

103. Soomra period. 9-wick oil lamp. 

104. i. Hindu diety of carved stone. 

105. i. 11th — 13th century Bronze die for casting, from Tharri. 
ii. Another die from Tharri. 

106. 11th — 14th century. Floral geometrical pattern on clay tiles. 

107 (i) 15-16th century. Carved tomb stone showing a cavalryman and 
infantry man armed with sword sheild bow and arrows from pir 

(ii) 15- 16th century carved tomb stone showing in relief three horsemen 
armed with swords shields and arrows from Pir Patho. 

108. Tomb of Murki Bibi and Mughali Bibi from Ahmadabad (Gujarat). 

109. Tomb of king Fateh Khan's sister. 

110. Inscription on the grave of Tajuddin and Mian Fateh Khan. 

111. First or second quarter 16th century, Tomb of Shaikh Jiyo at Makli. 

112. Tomb of Jam Nizamuddin Interior view. 

113. Interior view of Tarn Nizamuddin 's tomb; (Mehrab). 

114. Mehrab of the tomb of Jam Nizamuddin (out side view). 


115. Fine engraving in stone from tomb of Jam Nizamuddin, Makli. 

116. Grave of Darya Khan with inscriptions. 

117. Enclosure the Tomb of Darya Khan (Mubrak Khan) 

118. Inscription on the southern gate of tomb of Darya Khan in Naskhi 

119. Humayun seated on throne. 



In my book 'Ground water in Hyderabad and Khairpur Divisions', 
published in 1964, I have explained how I used history of the river Indus, 
history and historical geography, archaeology and anthropology, geology and 
geophysics, metereology and hydrology, fauna and flora and soils and geogra- 
phy of Sind, to locate fresh ground water in the region. In the said study, 
which I started in 1951, I read and collected a large number of books and 
articles on the above subjects and simultaneously studied contemporary and 
historical maps. In order that this material, collected with great efforts may 
not be lost to posterity, I compiled the same, and Institute of Sindhology, 
University of Sind, published it in 1977 as 'Source Material on Sind'. 

Inspite of the fact that, unlike conventional bibliographies, this book 
^ gave descriptions, albeit briefly, of contents of many books, and in the notes 

the sources of some fifty two important subjects were also given, I felt that 
the small bits and pieces of material that were available bounteously in various 
sources, were bound to gp un-noticed for decades to come, and these may 
therefore be put together in some rational order for scholars as well as 
laymen, so as to cut down time and efforts on researches they do from time 
to time. 

In 1966, I came across extracts from Caetani's 'Chronographia Islamica', 
which gave me an idea that the plentiful bits and pieces of information thus 
available on various aspects of Sind's past, could be put in a chronological 
order, on similar lines, with description in brief of incidents and sources. I 
set to do this in 1970, making out cards for various years. While I was almost 
through with the work, in 1974, in Brasov (Romania), I came across the book 
'Chronological History of Romania', in English language. Giurescu, the direc- 

Itor, had started the chronology from Palaeolothic i.e. Early Stone Age 
(1000,000 years ago) and had incorporated in it important writings and travel- 
lers experiences in Romania. Unlike Caetanei, the author had given some 
details of incidents, but no sources. I had enough information to start chrono 
logy of Sind from Geological times rather than the Early Stone Age, and 
could give not only the sources but also my own views on relevant matters 
and issues. That way the 'Chronology' on Sind would become more useful 
than the works, which had so beneficently motivated me. The 
work thus went under complete revision. In the next three years the draft 
of the present work which extends to 1539 A'.D. was ready. I had to use this 
as cut off year, because historical and other records of post 1539 A.D. are 
easily available and it woul not need much of an effort and search to prepare 
follow-up volumes on similar lines. 

Once the new work was in hand, a lot of interesting and surprising 
m information came afloat. I had neither anticipated nor planned for it and new 

facts helped to correct misunder-standings created by many classical writings 
and texts. A few note worthy examples^are : 

— 60,000 years back Sind was submerged into sea, which started receding 
only from its northern borders about 12000 years back. It was not until 
9000 years ago that the sea was near Hyderabad. This delayed Mesolithic 
period in Sind but its presence has already been proved. 


Neolithic revolution in Sind lagged behind that in Egypt and Mesopotamia 
for the same reason, and had Sind not been under the sea Neolithic and 
Mesolithic periods would probably have preceded the other two civili- 
zations, as is proved by Mehrgarh excavations near Sibi dating back to 
6000 B.C. 

The Indus civilization in Sind from Amrian times onwards was the 
result of knowledge of the behaviour of the river Indus and skill at 
growing winter crops on preserved moisture in the active flood plains. 
Its Maturity in the Mohenjo Daro times was a consequence of develop- 
ment of elaborate irrigation system and its Decline, the result of change 
of the main course of the river Indus, destroying the irrigation system. 

The rig-Vedic Aryans did not come to the Sub-continent until after 
1050 B.C., and to Sind only after 850 B.C. They could not have des- 
troyed Mohenjo Daro. Their official language, which also came so late, 
could not be mother of the then existing local languages. 

The Bactrian Greeks, Scythians and Parthian ruled Sind for nearly 
300 years. During their rule Barbarican (Banbhore) became the leading 
port of the East including the Sub-continent. Ranikot Fort too was 
built then. Around that period also flourished the town of Brahmanka, 
which later on became Brahamanabad. 

— Sassanids ruled Sind only for a brief period from 238 to 356 A.D. and 
not for some three centuries as was hiterto believed. 

— A powerful dynasty of Vahlikas ruled Sind at the end of the fourth 
and the early 5th century A.D., and Gupta never had any hold on Sind. 

— Rais of Sind were neither governors of Sassanids nor were of Hun origin. 
They were of local non-Rajput clan. The Rajputs categorised them as low 
caste or Sudras, but in Sind they won and held a respected social positon 
which lead them, albeit briefly, to status of rule in the country. J* 

— A major change in the course of the river Indus in the Southern Sind at 
the end of 7th century, brought about a major migration of population 
from that area to Cutch and Kathiawar, deserting of the area, and 
consequently weakening of Brahman dynasty's hold over this land so 
much, that Arabs simply had to march over the area and this facilitated 
the Arab conquest. 

Local Arab Habaris rule of Sind from 854 to 1011 A.D. could be cons- 
tructed and fully indicated. 

— Same way, the reconstruction of Soomra and Samma dynasties has been 
accomplished without using un-realiable folk-lore which was only created 
and composed in 15th century and afterwa/ds. 

— The decline and fall of Samma power in Sind was caused by Sind's 
involvement in fueds of Samma dynasty of Cutch and Rao Khengar's 
avenging pressures on Feroz Shah. In the end even Khengar's compen- 
satory efforts to restore Sind to Feroz Shah from Arghoons failed. 


The new material in this chronology so made available and further 
encouraged me to explain and elaborate some controversical or unknown 
issues and I wrote a number of articles, which are complimental as well 
supplimental to this book. The readers may wish to refer to some of these 

— Sind Cutch Relations. 

— Ranikot fort, its unique location. 

— Brahmanka, Bralimanva, Brahmano, Bahmanabad and Mansoora. 

— Stone Age in Sind, 

— International trade of Sind, from its port of Barbarican, 200 — B.C. — 
200 A.D. 

— Languages of Sind, 4000 B.C. — 1000 A.D., based on archaeological 

— 5000 years of Irrigation in Sind. 

— Failure of a gate of Sukkur Barrage, a lesson from history of Sind. 

— Pre-Neolithic Food Resources, and Hunting Tribes of Sind, 6000 — 
3500 B.C. 

Since the book was in the press for nearly seven years, new writings and 
findings on Sind's past needed to be added to this book, specially th? excava- 
tions of Jerring at Mehrgarh and Allchin's location of Stone Age sites at 
Rohri, Shahan Shah Baloach (actually Ubhan Shah) and Nawab Punjabi 
(Actually Unar farm and Unar house). There was also a very important finding 
of Dr. Rafique Mughal that there was a continuation of the same civilization 
from Amrian times to Jhangar culture i.e 3500 B.C. — 900 A.D., and he 
categorizes it as Early, Mature and Declining Indus culture. Being un-aware of 
the work, this book categorises the three periods as different cultures by 
different groups of people. This version of mine should be considered as 
superceded, no change other than this is called for in the chronology. The 
above articles of mine have utilized all new material made available in the past 
1 years. 

I have used Radio-carbon dates in the toxt. A word about the Radio- 
carbon eating therefore is essential. Many archaeologists in the past have been 
too critical of this method. Some have rejected it and others have accepted it 
only provisionally. I have considered it a very scientific method and watched 
its critics ultimately surrender. In practie it consists of verifying the Radio- 
active carbon- 14 content, in the samples of carbon found from the archaeolo- 
gical sites. There is carbon dioxide present in upper atmosphere which 
becomes radio-active by interaction of cosmic rays. This Radio-active carbon 
dioxide alongwith the other carbon djpxide available in lower atmospheric 
layer is absorbed by plants to form carbon. In 5730 years the Radio-active 
carbon decays to half. Thus by checking the percentage of Radioactive 
carbon in charcoal, wood„straw, linen, ropes, grain or other plant material 


from the sites, it is possible to find the date when that sample was removed or 
harvested from the field. The results by this method have shown inaccuracies 
with older samples. For example, the Amrian sample would show less 
life by 500-600 years. Research carried out over period of past 30 years has 
now given a satisfactory answer to the effect that, Radioactivity in the at- 
mosphere has not been uniform over the centuries. It has fluctuated some 
what, and was less some 5500 years ago and therefore Amrian samples would 
show some inaccuracies. From the living samples of 8000 year old trees found 
in U.S.A, their actual life based on number of rings and Radio-active carbon 
in each ring, the corrections for various dates have been worked out. In the 
text I have gone by Radio-carbon dates wherever available and invariably 
given MASCA correction to arrive at the calenderial dates. In general Radio- 
carbon dates are shorter by 500-600 year when samples show 3000 B.C., and 
shorter by 100 years for samples of 1000 B.C. Since the beginning of Chris- 
tian Era they need no correction, meaning thereby that Radio-activity in 
upper atmosphere has remained constant in past 2000 years. 

The text includes 46 maps and 14 charts. About 150 historical maps of ^- 

Sind and adjoining area, have been drawn under my supervision by two 
draughtmen's between 1977 and 1983. There are no copies of any map 
previously drawn, except in casa of five maps of Herodotus, Ptolemy, Haukal, 
Istakhri and Idrisi. The maps were originally intended to be published as A 
Historical Atlas of Sind and Adjoining Areas. These maps supercede all 
historical maps of Sind and adjoining areas hitherto produced by other 
authorities. The fourteen charts give the dynastic rulers of, not only Sind but 
important relevant areas, dynasties and powerful contemporary kingdoms of 
the period. This way, the past of Sind is revealed and brought out from 
isolation and projected in correct perspective. 

Besides the maps, some 130 photographs also form part of the book. 
Many of these appear for the first time in Pakistan or the Sub-continent. 
These photographs are from author's own collection, to be printed separately 
as 'Sind's Past in Pictures". 

A detailed geographical index given at the end would make the book an 
easy reference work. More than 750 books form the bibliography. In the next, 
reference is generally given by name of the author, unless a book is known 
better by its title, like Tuhfat-ul-Kiram. The readers would not find it difficult 
to get full particulars of books under such reference from the bibliography. 
To avoid confusion abbrivates have been avoided except in a few cases. 

After reviewing full text a new chronology of Sind has been established 
and for ready reference it is reproduced below : 

1. Middle Stone Age in Upper Sind. - 500,000 years ago - 35000 B.C. 

2. Late Stone Age in Upper Sind. - 35000 B.C. - 9000 B. C. 

3. Hunting and fishing tribes. - 9000 B.C. - 3500 B.C. 

4. Mesolithic period. - 6000 - 4000 B.C. -x 

5. Mesolithic/Neolithic at Mehrgarh. - 60Q0 - 4000 B.C. 

6. Neolothic Period in Sind. - 4000 B.C. - 3500 B.C. 

7. Chacolithic Period. 

(Indus Culture). - 35000 B.C. - 900 B.C. 










a) Amri. — Early Indus Culture 

(b) Kot Diji 

(c) Mohenjo Daro Mature Indus 

(d) Ccmentry H. ) 

(e) Jhukar. ) Declining Indus 

(f) Jhangar ) Culture 
Coming of Rig-Vedic Aryans 

Coming of Aryans to Sind. 

Composition of Rig-Veda. 

Composition of later hymns of Rig. 

Veda and writting of other 3 Vedas. 

Writting of Brahmanas. 

Painted Grey ware at Lakhiyaro 


A new wave of Indo-Europeon 

migration at Swat. 

Later Brahmana period. • 

Sutra Period. 

Earliest Upanishads. 

16 Mahapadhayas (Kingdoms) of the 

Northern Sub-continent. 

Pali as the official langauge of 



Sind Principalities. 

Alexander and his successors. 

Maury ans. 

Introduction of Buddhism in Sind. 

Bactrian Greeks. 



Kushans (Upper Sind). 

Parthians (Lower Sind and the whole 

Sind after 175 A.D.). 

S ass an i ans. 


Sind principalities. 

Huns of Malwa. 




Umayyad Governors. 


Abbasid Governors, 












- 3500 - 2300 B.C. 

- 2800 - 2300 B.C. 

- 2300 - 1650 B.C. 

- 1750- 1350 B.C. 

- 1650 - 1350 B.C. 

- 1200.B.C. -900 B.C. 

- 901000 B.C. in Swat, 

900 - 800 B.C. in Baluchistan, 
800 B.C. 

- 1000 B.C. 

- 1000 - 800 B.C. 

- 800 - 600 B.C. 

- 800 B.C. 

- 713 -440 B.C. 

- 700 B.C. 

- 600 - 200 B.C. 

- 600 - 500 B.C. 

- 600 - 500 B.C. 

- 550 B.C. - 2nd century of 
Christian era. 

- 5 19 -450/400 B.C. 

- 450 - 400 - 325 B.C. 

- 325 - 323 B.C. 

- 321 - 187 B.C. 

- 272 B.C. 

- 184 -70 B.C. 

- 70 B.C. - 46 A.D. 

- 46 A.D. - 78 A.D. 
-78- 175 A.D. 

- 78 - 283 A.D. 

- 283 - 356 A.D. 

- 356 - 415 A.D. 

- 415 -'475 A.D. 

- 475 - 499 A.D. 

- 499 - 641 A.D. 

-641 - 711 whole of Sind, 
715-725 A.D., 
Eastern Sind. 

- 711 -750 A.D. 
- v 751 -854 A.D. 

- 854- 1011 A.D. 

- 1011 - 1351 A.D. 
-1351- 1524 A.D. 

- 1524- 1554 A.D. 

- 1554- 1591 A.D. 


43. Mughal Governors. 

44. Kalhoras. 

45. Talpurs. 

46. British 

47. Government of Pakistan. 

- 1587 - 1591 A.D Upper Sind 
-1591 - 1700 A.D. Whole of 


1700 - 1736 A.D & Lower 


- 1700- 1783 A.D. 

- 1783- 1843 A.D. 

- 1843 - 1947 A.D. 

- 1947 - To date 

It is hoped that this book will provide a handy reference matiral on 
Pre-history and History of Sind not only to scholars, research workers and 
teachers, but also to students and laymen interested in the subject. 






54-D, Block-9 

Clifton Karachi. 

Tele: 534105 









Thanks are due to the following individuals and organizations, for their 
kind permission to make use of their personal and official libraries, collec- 
tions of photographs, museum objects, and for their periodic comments on 
this work, while it was kindly being serialized over a long period of 8 years by 
Syed Ghulam Mustafa Shah in his esteemed Journal, Sind Quarterly; to 
Muhammad Ishtiaq Khan, Director, Archaeology, Government of Pakistan, 
for permission to reproduce photographs from their various published works; 
to Mr. M.M. Baig, librarian, Department of Archaeology, Pakistan, to lend me 
a large number of books for reference; to Dr. Rafique Mughal, whose 
scholarly work established for the first time that the Indus Civilization and 
Culture consisted of Early, Mature and Declining phases, embracing periods 
from Amri to Jhangar, enering a total of about 2500 years; to Mr. Halim 
whose excavations at Mansura confirmed historical records on its 
destruction; to Mr. Khursheed Shaikh for discussions on various archaeologi- 
cal sites; to Mr. S.A. Sidiqi photographer of Department of archaeology, for 
photographs reproduced from various sources. 

To the publishers i.e Vice-chancellors, Shaikh Mubarak Ayaz for autoris- 
ing publication, and Mr Elias Abro for granting various financial and adminis- 
trative sanctions; to Dr. G. Allana, Director, Institute of Sindhology, for 
volunteering to publish this book, and also his permission to photo copy 
certain books and objects from the Institute's Museum; to Prof. M.A. Siddiqi 
Director General Pakistan Academy of Letters for contribution of funds 
for this publication; to Mr Ham id Akhoond and Zafar Kazmi for loaning 
many pieces from Sind Museum for photographing and drawing; to Dr. 
N.A.G. Khan for going through the manuscript, getting it retyped and correc- 
ted; to draughtsmen Zaheer and Aslam, for wroking more than 6 years to 
produce 150 maps and charts, of which 60 are reproduced here; to Late Syed 
Hassamuddin Rashdi for pointing out some important new sources; to Dr 
Riazul-Islam for allowing me to make use of his important material on Samma 
period of Sind; to Muhammad Aijaz Sidiqi for reading proof of the text and 
of the maps reproduced herein; to Muhammad Ibrahim Joyo for reading 
through and setting the text in order for the press and also for reading proof 
of its first 48 pages; to Mr.Israr of Screeno for the design of the cover, to Mr. 
Feroz of Educational Press, Karachi, who was invariably helpful and co-opera- 
tive, to Mr. Allah Rakhio Butt for preparing a detailed subject index for the 
book; and finally to Mrs. Mehtab Rashdi for taking keen interest in pushing 
through the finalization of book in shortest time, «ince her taking over as the 
director Institute of Sindhology. 



« ..-.. 










International Boundary 

Divisional Boundary. 

River Indus 

Railway Line _ 

Lale Eolian sand._ 

Rann of cutch or flat mu« 

Tidal mud deposits 

Piedmont deposits 

Coarse detrital or sub-piedr 
Flood plain- deposits (Lower 

F I ood p la i n- deposits 

Late Streambed and meandc 
Early Streambed and meande 
Late Deltaic flood-plan dc| 
Early Deltaic flood-plan d< 
Late Tidal delta- march depo 
Early Tidal delta-march de 

Braided- stream deposits 

Early Eolian sand _..., 

Pelistocene sedimentary rock 

Alluvium _ 

Late Eocene sedimentary ro 
Early Eocene sedimentary i 
Pliocene and Miocene sedimi 
Miocene sedimentary rocks 
Late Oligocene and Eocene s 
rocks._ _ 

Early Oligocene and Eocene 
rocks_. _ 

Paleosene sedimetary rocks... 
Cemplex dunes, relief more thi 
Eolion sand extinct stream 
Loess and flood-plain depos 

m iddle terr ace 

Longjtudenal sand dunes ai 

ing playalike deposits 

Pre-camprian Nagar Parkci 
metamorphic rocks 





International Boundary _ 

Divisional Boundary 

River Indus 

Railway Line _ _ 

Late Eolian sand._ _ _ 

Rann of cutch or flat mud _ 

Tidal mud deposits 

Piedmont deposits J 

Coarse detrital or sub-piedmont deposits. 

Flood plain - deposit slower terrace) 

Flood plain- deposits _. 

Late Streambed and meander-belt deports 
Early Streambed and meander-belt deposits- 
Late Deltaic flood- plan deposits 

Early Deltaic flood- plan deposits. 

Late Tidal delta- march deposits 

Early Tidal delta-march deposits 

Braided- strea m deposits _.., 

Early Eolian sand 

Pelistocene sedimentary rocks 

Alluvium _ « 

Late Eocene sedimentary roks 

Early Eocene sedimentary roks 

Pliocene and Miocene sedimentary rocks- 
Miocene sedimentary rocks 

Late Oligocene and Eocene sedimetary 
rocks._ _ 

Early Oligocene and Eocene sedimetary 
rocks.. _ _ 

Paleosene sedimetary rocks 

Cemplex dunes, relief more than 100 feet. 

Eolion sand extinct streams 

Loess and flood-plain deposits of the 

middle terrace _ 

Longjtudenal sand dunes and interven- 
ing playalike deposits. 

Pre-camprian Nagar Parker granite 
metamorphic rocks .-_.., 











2500-1000 B.C. 














SO WO BO 200 Kilomet/re. 
I I l =J 




3,500,000,000 or 3.5 billion years ago or 
even earlier: 

Pre-Cambrian rock formations of Nagar 
Parkar Hills. 

No life existed then except algae. 

Some scientists are now of the opinion 
that these rocks may be 5 billion years 
old; others put it about 190 to 300 mil- 
lion of years. 






62,000,000-48,000,000 years ago or 62-48 
million years back: 

Formation of Ranikot Series opposite 
to Sann, Manjhand, Budhapur, and etc., 
containing fossilized trees. 

The type of animal life that had deve- 
loped since Pre-Cambrian rocks and ex- 
isted at this time consisted of insects, 
fish (Choncrich), thyes (Cartialihous) 
and bony fish. Birds were evolving. 
Mammals had not reached full stage of 
development. Man did not exist then. 
In plant life, fungus, algae, mosses, 
ferns, club mosses, pewer grasses, palm 
ferns, (Gymnospermae) were all existing 
as to-day, but Angiospermae had just 
started its development. 



47,000,000-39,000,000 years ago or 47 
to 39 million years back: 

Formation of the Laki lime-stone series, 
opposite to Laki and extending upto 
Jhimpir, etc 



Same type of life as in Ranikot Series 
continued, except that bone fishes were 
more developed, and so were the birds. 

The mammals had also reached a higher 
stage of development. 

Same vegetative types existed as in Rani- 
kot, but Angiospermae kept developing. 

39,000,000-37,000,000 years ago or 39-37 
milljon years back : 

Formation of the Tiyon Series near 
Thano Bu!a Khan. 

Same types of animals and plants exist- 
ed as in Laki Series but evolution pro- 
cess was continuing. 

36,000,000-33,000,000 years ago or 36-33 
million years back: 

Formation of the Khirthar Range of 

Same type of life as in the Tiyon Series 
continued to exist. 

27,000,000-18,500,000 years ago or 27- 
18,5 million years back: 

Formation of the Nari Series of Hills. 

Same type of animal and plant life exist- 
ed as in the Khirthar Series. 

Angiospermae in a better stage of deve- 
lopment, which continue upto the 
present times. 


Earlier geologists, Blanford and others, 
had classified them among the Khirthar 
rocks, which are younger to these series. 

8*-£d w ©5,a ■ 


8©h»2 . 

The range commonly known as Khirthar, 
bordering Dadu and Larkana Districts 
with Kalat District, contains all the 5 
ranges, namely: Laki, Khirthar, Nari, 
Gaj and Manchhar. At the foot of these 
hills lies the sub-recent formation called 



18,500,000-12,000,000 years ago or 18.5 
to 12 million years back: 

Formation of the Gaj series. 




Life and plants of same type as in the 
Nari Series continued to exist. 

2,000,000-100,000 years ago or 2 million 
years-one hundred thousand years back: 

Formation of the Manchhar Series. 

Life and plants were same as in the Nari 

25,000 yeais ago to the present times: 

Recent formations. 



It applies to the Indus alluvium, most of 
which lies in the irrigated command of 
3 barrages, as per reports of the geolo- 
gists, but rising of level of sea by 137 
meters about 20,000 years back has left a 
recent layer of sand between the present 
and past pedmonts. 



2,000,000 to 1,000,000 years ago: 


1,000,000-10,000 years ago 

The Palaeolithic. 

1,000,000-1,00,00 years ago: 

Early Palaeolithic Period or Early Stone 

100,000-40,000 years ago: 

Middle Palaeolithic Period or Middle 
Stone Age. 

40,000-10,000 B.C.: 

Late Palaeolithic Period or Late Stone 

10,000-5500 B.C.: 

Mesolithic or EPI-Palaeolithic. 


Some scientists assign 1,000,000-30,000 
years B.C. to early Stone Age in the 

For the Sub-Continent 30,000-10,000 
years B.C. has been assigned to this Age. 

10,000 B.C. to 2,000 B.C. has also been 
assigned to this Age in the Sub-Continent. 

Some times it is called Early new Stone 
Age, but this term is usually not accepted 
by the scientists. 


3500-2300 B.C.: 

The Neolithic and Encolithic Period 
(New Stone Age) and the South Indian 
Neolithic period. 


Transition from Neolithic to full Chal- 
colithic or Copper-Bronze-Age in Sind. 

1800-800 B.C.: 

Full Bronze-Age. 

1000-800 B.C.: 

Transition to Iron Age in the Sub-Con- 

600,000 B.C. to 10,000 B.C. : 

The Pleistocene Age. 
Geologically it is divided in the Glacial 
(cold) and Inter-glacial (Mild) Periods 
as under: 

1. 600,000 to 540,000 B.C. First Ice 
Age (Gunz). 

2. 540,000 B.C. to 480,000 B.C. First 
Inter-glacial Period (Gunz-Mindel). 

3. 480,000-430,000 B.C. Second Ice 
Age (Mindel). 

4. 430,000-240,000 Second Inter-glacial 
Period (Mindel-Riss, the Great Inter- 

5. 240,000-180,000, Third Ice Age 

6. 180,000-120,000. Third Inter-glacial 
Period (Riss-Wurm). 

7. 120,000-19,000 B.C. Fourth Ice Age 

The period 3500 B.C.-1500 B.C. is being 
assigned to Pakistan Neolithic. This 
ofcourse includes the Chalcolithic Period. 

It is also called the Late Neolithic Iron 
Age. The date is tentative. Further 
exploration and excavations in Sind 
may put the date further back. 

For Sind 800 B.C. is more probable 
date as discussed under that entry. 

Zeuner, pp. 341-346, puts Pleistocene 
glacials as 825,000 to 115,000 years old. 
Ericson's work places the beginning of 
Pleistocene to about 2 million years back. 
Emilliani puts it at 300,000 to 425,000 
years back. The above are the geological 
glacial periods of Alps, the earliest pre- 
600,000 B.C. is being called Donan. The 
work done by de-Terra in Kashmir and 
Porter in Swat does not show the Donan 
Period in the Sub-Continent and, there- 
fore, has toen eliminated. On the Indian 
side the work of Embleton and King as 
well as of Krishna Swamy supports the 
above four glacial periods with slight 

The latest compromise is to consider 
pre-Glacial Pleistocene about 1 to 1.5 
times Pleistocene itself. 

Zoologically the 3 groups show presence 
of some Hominid finds, namely: 


8. 19,000 B.Con-wards: (a) The Upper Pleistocene 

Fourth Post-Glacial period. 


(1) Ngandong as Homo E rectus or 

(2) The Homo-Sapiens of the period 

Monts, Circeo, Gibralter. Engis 
Spy, La Chapelle, La Berrasia, 
Lake Eyasie Tabun, Krapina. 
Saccopastores and Ethringsdf. 

(3) Mt. Carmel and Fontechevades 
were among the Homo speciei. 

(b) Middle Pleistocene 


(1) Chu Koutien, Trinil, Casablanca 
Ternifine, Rabat, Montmaurin 
Mauer, Modjokerto and Oldovavi 
were among the Homo Erect us. 

(2) Neanderthal was among the 

(c) Lower Pleistocene 


Australopithecus in China and 
South Africa. 

In the Sub- Continent, detailed work on 
Pleistocene Is lacking though a lot of work 
has been done in Europe. This applies 
particularly to the Upper and Middle 
Pleistocene periods. 

In Sind, virtually little or no work has 
been done on Lower Pleistocene. 







Archaeologically the Pleistocene is also 
divided in the following three periods: 

1 . 600,000-100,000 B.C. Lower Palaeo- 
lithic (Older Old Stone Age). 



100,000-40,000 B.C. Middle Palaeo- 
lithic (Middle Old Stone Age). 

40,000-10,000 B.C. Upper Palaeo- 
lithic (Upper Old Stone Age). 

At the end of Pleistocene period i.e. 
10,000 B.C., major human races namely : 

Mongoloids (Asia), Negroids (Central 
Africa), Caucasoids, and Australoids 
were in existence. 

'.be • 

t»ii* ■ 



During Pleistocene Period, the human 
specie (Pithecanthropus or Homo erectus) 
is associated with early hand-axe indus- 
tries. The earliest evidence comes from 
China which indicates that they knew 
the use of fire. The earliest tools in the 
Older Stone Age were made from lumps 
of stone or pebbles. This flint in turn 
served to work up wood and bones. 
These three raw materials i.e. stone, 
wood and bone further served as weapons. 
Thus ancient Man or Homo Erectus 
Animal lived in groups on simple hunting 
and gathering wide range of vegetable 

They lived in caves. Religion probably 
existed for hunting cults. There was 
no concept of the Creator. 

If pre-glacial Pleistocene is accepted to have 
lasted 1 to 1 .5 times the glacial pleistocene, 
then the existence of Horn > Erectus goes 
back 1,200,000, to 1,500,000 years. 

Pleistocene Mammal Palaeonology is in its 
infancy in the Indo-Pak Sub-Continent. 

During the period, Bosnamadicuss (wild 
cattle) grazed in this Sub-Continent. 

Zeuner suggests that Zebu may have 
descended from the above cattle. 

The humpless bull (Bosprimigenius) on 
seals of Mohenjo-Daro appears to be 




ancestor of the variety still available in 
Sind, but it is of the Western Asian origin. 
When exactly it reached Sind is yet not 





1.000,000-5500 B.C. 

Elephas Namadiacus and Elephas Husu- 
dricus have been found associated with 
both the Early and Middle Stone Age 
tools in the Indian Sub-Continent. 

The bones of these animals alongwith 
stone tools have been found in the 
Narbada, Godavari and Bhima Valleys. 
A date of 120,000 to 60,000 years B.C. 
has been suggested by Khan in the Annals 
of the Geology Department, Aligarh 
University, Vol. IV, 1968. 

Unfortunately, there is lack of this type 
of work on Sind, mainly due to the rise 
of the Sea level about 20,000 years back. 


The Congress of the Asian Archaeology 
in New Delhi in 1961 decided that in the 
existing state of knowledge, the Stone 
Age may be divided into Early, Middle 
and Late Stone Ages. 

In Baluchistan and Sind, for some period 
of settled life, animal husbandry and 
some form of cultivation depended solely 
on the use of stone. These are supposed 
to constitute primary Neolithic phase or 
Mesolithic or EPI-Palaeolithic Phase 
during their last 4500 years (9500-5500 

Bridget & Allchin, p. 53. 

Lai B.B. (1956) has reported some early 
stone age tools from the valley of the 
Beas river. He has shown that pro- 
portion of chopping tools decreases 


1,000,000-100,000 years ago: 

Early Stone Age in the Sub-Continent. 

We have very little cultural information 
on this subject in the Sub-Continent, 
beyond that to be gained from stone 
tools themselves, including hand-axe in- 



dustries parallel to those of Western 
Asia, Europe and Africa. 

The tools include hand axe and cleaver 

core tools of discoidal and elliptical 

outline, and also chopping tools and 

Such tools have been and may really 

be the middle stone age tools rather than 

the early stone age tools. 

The earliest stone age was connected 
with simple hunting and food gathering, 
but no provision for future require- 
ments. The men lived in small groups- 
always in danger of extinction, high rate 
of mortality and low life expectancy. 

This was the period of great hand axe 
culture in the Old World; but substan- 
tial material has not betn discovered in 
the Sub-Continent. This continued till 
middle Pleistocene. 


100,000 years B.C. to date: 

The Sea level rise in relation to present 
level in meters during the period has 
been as under: — 

rapidly as one moves to south-west or 
south-east from the Punjab i.e. towards 
Sind or Bikanir. This isoue has been 
examined in details under sea eve! 
changes in next entry. 

Early stone age tools definitely classified 
from Soan are: 

Chopping tools, hand-axes and cleaver 
as shown by de Terra and Paterson. 

Finding of Early Stone Age tools from 
the Luni river near Nagar Parker raises 
an interesting question of types of tools 
used in Sind and Punjab then, which 
now lie buried many feet under the 

Gorden, p. 6. 

Patterson: Wor'd Correlation of Pleis- 
tocene, p. 395. 

Shepard and Curray, Oceanography, 
Vol. IV, 1967, pp. 283-291 . 

5,000 years back 3 meters 
10,000 years back 37 meters 
20,000 years back 

over 120 meters 
30,000 years back 30 meters 
40,000 years back 90 meters 
50,000 years back 

over 1 30 meters 

60,000 years back 90 meters 

52 meters 

30 meters 

1 5 meters 


70,000 years back 

80,000 years back 

90,000 years back 

10,0000 years back 


Zeuner, The Pleistocene Period. 

The statement clearly shows that the 
Indus Plains must have been flooded 
upto 125 contour lines 10,000 years back 
and if the Sind plains have risen by 13 
feet since Mohenjo-daro, it would mean 
that the sea touched the contour of 1 60 
feet in the year 10,000 B.C. i.e. it was 
near the present city of Larkana. Tn 
11,500 B.C. or 95,00 B.C., the sea must 
have touched the present Ruk Stat 1 on. 
Multan area remained submerged upto 
20,000 B.C. In a situation like this, 





any settlement of Early or Middle Stone 
Age in the Indus Plains and Thar must 
lie buried by many score feet. Any 
stone industries surviving in hilly country 
have to be 450 feet above the present sea 
level. 20,000 years back the whole of 
the Indus alluvial plains upto Multan. 
the whole Thar desert and the western 
part of Rajistan must have been under 
the sea. 

In the East, Bangladesh, West Bengal, 

Bihar and large parts of Uttar Pradesh 

must have been under the sea. There is 

possibility that the Eastern and the 

Western Gulfs may even have joined 

together for some centuries. This must 

have caused migration of people from 

Sind and other affected areas to the 

Deccan Plateau. The next 10,000 years 

may have helped in developing racially the 

Dravadian people, who still pre-dominate 


About 12,000 years back the sea started 
receding from the Upper Sind. The 
mesolithic man depending mostly on 
fishing from the Indus, trapping birds 
from the Indus forests and also hunting, 
must have moved probably from the 
Deccan and often from the Punjab and 

The Messrs Hunting in the Report of 
Mohenjo-daro state that the sea level 
rose to present Multan by about 1 1, 500 
years B.C. This is incorrect. 

While drilling for water, I came across 
charcoal and stone pieces from depth of 
bpto 100 feet and even more This 
collection along with the data of the site 
was kept at Tando Jam Workshop and 
appears to have been lost now Messrs 




Hunting Technical Services were also 
able to find some pieces of stone while 
drilling. The stone did not appear to 
have originated from the Western Hills 
of Sind. 

9000 years back, the sea coast must have 
been north of Hyderabad, and possibly 
near Hala. The Indus fish and forests 
must have attracted large number of 
Mesolithic fishermen and hunters by this 
time. Sind was capable of supporting 
higher density of population than any 
other part of the Sub-Continent under 
conditions existing then. It was prob- 
ably during this time that crude raft 
boats and fishing hooks were evolved. 
Skin floats and nets for fishing, would 
probably have come a little later. 


100,000-40,000 years B.C. : 

Middle Stone Age in the Sub-Continent 
falls between 47,000-27,000 B.C. 

Radio carbon dating for Middle Stone 
Age deposits for the Peninsular India, 
fall within this period. Parallel dates 
for the West Asian Stone Age in Israel, 
Syria, Lebanon and Iraq are 54,000 to 
38,000 B.C. In Afghanistan the Mous- 
terian assemblage has been dated 32,000 

Sanghao in N.W.F.P. is the Earliest 
Stone Age site in the Sub-Continent. It 
could belong to the Middle Stone Age 
or be even earlier as it has not been 
given Radio carbon testing. 

No other Ear.y or Middle Stone Age 
site was known in the Indian Sub-Conti- 
nent until resent report of Fairservis, 

Agarwal and Kusumgar, pp. 42-44. 

Fairservis, Roots of Ancient India, 
New York, 1971, p. 76. 

Bridget and Allchin, pp. 53, 57 and 68. 

A large number of Middle Stone Age 
tools have been un-earthed by de Terra & 
Patterson at Soan. 

The Report on Sanghao Cave Excava- 
tions by Dr. Dani has done less justice to 
this unique site; in spite of competent 
excavation, as stated by Bridget and 
Allchin. In this case, bone and charcoal 
found are not given Radio-carbon state 
and, therefore, it has not be^n dated 
properly. Professor Rauf has located a 
number of stone Age Sites in Khadeji, 
Mol, Jerrando, Thadho and Wattenwari 




which places only one site in Sind near 
Jherrick in the Middle Stone Age. 

In the Middle Stone Age, man adopted 
his life to local need and unlike the earli- 
est stone age, the hunting and food 
gathering methods were improved and 
some provision was made for the next 
few days. It differed from the Late 
Stone Age in which hunting and food 
gathering methods were more efficient 
and there was some provision for future 
needs but not self-sufficiency. 

It was not until the Neolithic & Chalco- 
lithic cultures under which self-suffi- 
ciency in food producing economy was 
achieved with reserves for future. 

In the Middle Stone Age, industries 
based on flake tools developed from 
those of the early Stone Age. Principal 
tools were scrapers of flakes together 
with other flake tools and core. These 
have been found in some cases like the 
Sanghao Cave in West Pakistan. Sind 
caves have never been examined, though 
there are a few in Sehwan and Kotri 
Talukas. The Luni river in Rajistan 
close to the Nagarparkar Taluka has 
shown Middle Stone Age tools in addi- 
tion to Early Stone Age tools. 

river Catchments m Sind Kohistan, but 
he has not published his data. 



40,000 to 10,000 years ago: 

Tools show signs of continuity with 
those which preceded them. The chief 
character of these tools is microlith. 

Such tools have been found in Sind by 
Carter and others but not thoroughly 

Bridget and Allchin, p. 83. 

Late Stone Age or the Mesolithic industries 
. of the Sub-Continent must be associated 
with people like modern tribal groups 
who lived by hunting and food gathering 
and some times are in contact with 



The tools are small parallel side blades 
from carefully prepared core. The 
blades are small and both the bulbs of 
percussion upon them and the scars left 
upon core by their removal are very 
shallow. Blades were struck off by in- 
direct percussion i.e. by means of a bone 
or hard wooden point placed on the core 
and struck with hammer as cold chisel, 
as it is used today. 

Rohri flint was used for this purpose. 
A classified list of tools published by 
Sankalia ( 1966 ) throws very little 
light on Rohri cores and flakes. . 

In general the Late Stone Age excava- 
tions by de Terra and Patterson and 
Sankalia show animal bones like domes- 
ticated dog (Canis familiarities), Indian 
humped Cattle (Bos indicus), water buf- 
falo (Bubalus Babalis), goat (Capra hir- 
cus aegargrus), domestic sheep (Covis 
Orientalis Vignei Blyth race domesticus) 
and pig (sus Scrofa Cristatus). In addi- 
tion many wild animal bones like 
Sambar, Barasingha, spotted deer, hare, 
porcupine and monitor lizard have also 
been found. 

15,000 to 10,000 B.C. : 

Coarse pottery made by cave man found 
at Tangi-i-Pabda in the Bakhtiari Moun- 
tains of Iran is the earliest example of 
pottery. It was deep black in colour, 
due to increased use of smoke in firing. 
Similar pottery was also found in the 


aJqoeq . 


oi bn* 

the Neolithic or Chalcolithic neighbours. 
They used bow and arrow for hunting. 

The exact end of the Late Stone Age for 
Sind is not yet determined due to lack 
of excavations. The Neolithic that suc- 
ceeded it started in the Middle East 
between 10,000 and 6000 B.C. The 
exact date for Sind is disputed due to 

limitation of excavations. Some authori- 
ties state that dog was domesticated later 
in the next millennium i.e. 8000-7000 B.C. 

See that entry. 


Ghirshman, pp. 28-29. 

Soon afterwards, to hand made pottery was 
added a new red ware with black patches 
caused by fire. A new art thereby deve- 
loped at Siyalk in Iran. Until then. 
meat v cut by slicing slabs was cooked in 
lined roasting pits like Tandur of to-day. 
Cole, p. 2. 



10.013-5,5000 B.C. (Tentative): 

Neolithic revolution started in the Mid- 
dle East, as shown by excavations at 
Jarmo, Jericho and Catal Huyuk. By 
about the end of 6 millennium B.C. or 
5100 B.C. it spread to Iran. 

These explorations were done in 1950 
by Fairservis. Radio Carbon Dating 
was done in 1966. 

The considerable time lag of food pro- 
ducing revolution between the Middle- 
East, Iran, Baluchistan and "Sind is not 
reconciliable and further explorations are 
necessary. At 3700 B.C. asses, sheep, 
goats and oxen were domesticated and 
houses of mud brick or hard packed 
clay (Odikey) were constructed. The 
pottery was plain hand made. Accord- 
ing to Ross, there is no evidence of the 
presence or domestication of horse, but 
semi-ass was probably domesticated. 

The start of New Stone Age is recogniz- 
able by a type of tool called Microlith 
i.e. a small stone artifact made from a 
flake blade, some times tiny and often 
geometric in shape. Microlithic are 
the tools, and Mesolithic is the way of 
life. Everywhere it is only the extension 
of the Upper Palaeolithic. 

Fishing hooks, harpoons, nets and bird 
or animal traps were developed then. 
Cooking was done in lined (stone or 
mud) roasting pits. Ultimately at high 
temperature, the mud turned into soft 
but burnt brick lining. Cooking in 
this fashion may have remote antiquity 
but evidence is not available. 

Bridget and Allchin, p. 100. 
How and exactly when it reached Sind 
and Baluchistan is not known due to 
lack of archaeological exploration in thi 

The earliest Neolithic settlement in West 
Pakistan so far excavated is not older 
than 3700 B.C. as shown by Radio 
Carbon dating, is a period I of Kile Gul 
Mohammad near Quetta, analysed in 

Cole, pp. 2 & 3. On pp. 21, 25 and 28, he 
states that sheep was the earliest known 
domesticated animal in 8900 B.C. Cattle, 
pigs, etc., came slightly later in the Nor- 
thern Iraq. Wild sheep Urial (Oivigeni) 
roamed in the Upper Sind, the Punjab, 
and U.P. between 8200 and 5600 B.C. 

Wild cattle (Bos Pimigenius) was domesti- 
cated in Greece and Crete by 6000 B.C. 
and in Khuzistan by 5000 B.C. The exact 
date for Sind is not known. 

Libby, W.F., Radio Carbon Dating, 
Chicago, 1955, p. 79, quoting Braidwood, 
takes Jarmo to 6100 B.C. 


Miss Kathleen Kenyon, the excavator of 
Jericho has assigned 6800 B.C. to it, 
basing the conclusions on Radio Carbon 
Dating, as reported in "Digging up 
v Jericho", London, 1957, pp. 51-57. 



Harvesting of wild cereals was also done 
in Mesolithic time which could have 
contributed to a significant diet then. 

Microlithic tools were employed by 
Neolithic farmers and continued to be 
used right into the Bronze Age. 

The best Microlithic tools were found 
in South India (Kandivili and Wadi 

Adequate work has not been done in 
Sind, though surface collections from a 
number of sites in Karachi District and 
in the vicinity of Hyderabad, show -the 
existence of Mesolithic hunting- and 
food gathering communities in Sind, 
probably to much later date. 

Thus whereas in some countries it was 
Meso ithic Period, in others the Neolithic 
and Ecnolithic period, had already start- 
ed. The Upper and Lower limits of the 
period are only tentative, at present. 

? to 3100 B.C. : 

The exact start of this age in Sind is not 
known. Important innovation of the 
period is transition to farming as a way 
of life, thereby to produce economic life 
with planted agriculture and animal 
husbandry. Some authorities include in 
it the Copper and Bronze Age, starting 
around 2300 B.C. ; but at Mohenjo-daro 
it is included in the Chalcolithic Age. In 
general, wheat, barley, millet, etc. were 
grown and many animals like sheep, 
goat, pig and ass were domesticated. 

People settled in villages and later on in 
cities whic'i some times were fortified. 

Cole, p. 4. 

Mujamdar, Exploration in Sind pp. 20-21. 

Gordon, D.H., p. 16. 

Definite work in this field in Sind is 
lacking except flint factories at Rohri 
and some sites in Western Hills around 
the Manchhar lake as well as near 
Karachi. These suggest that settlements 
were generally of small groups and the 
camp was shifted quite often, some times 
to exploit seasonal foods. Man probably 
lived in bush-wood huts and some times 
rubble masonry structures covered with 

The date of transition from Mesolithic 
to Neolithic is not known for Sind yet. 










Tho earliest city in the Middle East was 
Jericho (8000-6000 B.C. ). Jewellery was 
made from shells and stone. The pot- 
tery was first produced in Iran, later on 
painted pottery and finally potters wheel 
was also invented in Iran, as discussed 
by Ghirishman. It reached Sind at 
Amri around 3000 B.C. according to 
Radio Carbon Dating. 

Advanced civilization arose along the 
Nile in Egypt and in Mesopotamia along 
the Tigris and the Euphrates. 

In Sind, civilization must have contemp- 
oraneously arisen which lies in»the deep- 
er layers of Mohenjo-Daro and other 
sites and cannot be explored due to 
water-logging. In China, parallel Civili- 
zation arose along the Hwang Ho 
river. The crop, grown in Sind then, 
was wheat. Maize was grown in Ame- 
rica, and rice in China and South India. 
The oldest Maize came from Peubla 
(Mexico) dating 5000 B.C. as per Radio 
Carbon Dating. 

8000-7000 B.C. : 

Domestication of dogs in the Sub-Con- 
tinent including Sind. The pariah dogs 
of India were derived from the Indian 
wolf. The domestication of dogs in 
Europe in about 7500 B.C., was inde- 
pendent of Asia. In America, dog was 
domesticated around 8400 B.C. 

Sonia Cole, Neolithic Revolution, British 
Museum, 1970, pp. 2 and 22. 

Sheep was domesticated about the same 

8000-6500 B.C. : 

Mesolithic Period of Asia. 

Fishing introduced by means of hooks, 
harpoons, nets and traps. Cooking in 

€ole, p. 3. 

As stated earlier, this invention must have 
attracted large number of Mesolithic 



stone or brick lined pots had already 

been practised. 


7000 B.C. : 

Non-Ceramic Neolithic levels at Ghari 
Mar (Afghanistan), marked by flint 
tools, sickle blades cores, side scrapers, 
paints, backed blades, burins and polish- 
ed bone points. Sheep and goat were 
also domesticated. 



population in Sind. See also entry 
100,000 years B.C. for "The sea level 

Agarwal and Kusumgar, p. 64. In Sind, 
little work has been done in this field, but 
it is expected that the sites in Sind would 
be younger by about 1000 years, as the 
Khyber Pass does not seem to have been 
used by the Ancients. They always 
seemed to avoid mountains and take 
route along the South-East Iran, and 
Makran to Sind via passes in the Lower 
Sind or the Mula Pass. 


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5. 10,000 B. C. to 2500 B. C. Microlithic fishing tools. 


6. 10,000 to present times Primitive drill machine, to bore holes into stone. Such drills 
modified for one man operations are still in use for wood working. 




7. 10,000 B. C. to present times. Ancient quern and saddles evolved by food gathering tribes 

8. 2300- 1700 B. C. Saddle-quern and muller stone found from Mohenio Daro. 




7000 B.C. to 3500 B.C. : 
Neolithic stage of culture in the Middle 
East and possibly in Sind. It was 3000- 
1 800 B.C. in Britain and upto 1000 A.D. 
in New-Zealand. 

6800 B. C : 

The earliest pottery known in any part of 
the World coming from Catal Huyuk. 
Field peas from the same site date 
6500 B.C. From here they migrated to 
Sind during the Neolithic times. 

6000-5000 B.C. : 

Man starts the domestication of cattle. 
Its proof comes from the Middle East 
and Central Asia. Goat was domesti- 
cated a little before 6000 B.C.. but sheep 
was the first. 

4500-4000 B.C. : 

Wild purple-pea was distributed from 
the Mediterranean to the Sub-Conti- 
nent. It was grown at Catal Huyuk by 
6500 B.C. ; in Iraq and in Egypt by 4500 

4800 B.C-3000 B.C. : 

Microlithic sites at Bagor in Rajistan. 

Sind should show similar pattern but 

adequate excavations have not been 


Cole, p. 65. 

The Lower Indus plains were suited to the 
Neolithic environments more than Egypt 
and Iraq due to peculiar regime and 
behaviour of the Indus, flowing on the 
ridge and inundating about 20-30 mile 
wide belt along the either bank. Also 
see 3100-3000 B.C. 

Cole, p. 65. 

This statement is not acceptable to 
Ghirshman, who thinks that the earliest 
pottery was made by the cave man in 
Iran around 15,000-10,000 B.C. See also 
entry 15,000—10,000 B.C. 

Cole, pp. 24 and 28. 


Cole, p. 18. 


It must have reached Sind by at least 
phase IA of Amri and probably earlier. 

Agarwal and Kusumgar, pp. 56, 63. 


Microlithic Rajistan should serve as an 

example for explorations in the Thar 



desert of Sind where the period should 
normally show advance of 500 years 
merely on account of more rainfall, and 
better opportunities for gazing. The 
southern Thar specially needs special 

Similar Radio Carbon dates for Ghari 
Mar and Darra in Afghanistan are: 
7000-5300 B.C. and 7800-3000 B.C. 

The two sites show the beginning of 
stone age of the Neolithic, having flint 
tool, sickle blades, core scrapers and 
polished bone points. 

attention in this respect. 

4000 B.C. : 

The Iranian potters introduced black 
paint on dark red background consist- 
ing of rows of animals, birds, boar 
and leaping ibex. This was unique in 
the old world. 

By the end of this millennium, potter's 
art spread to Seistan, Baluchistan and 
reached the Indus valley. To the north 
it reached Marv and possibly Bactria. 

Sometime during this millennium a 
crude potter's wheel was invented at 
Siyalk III. It was a tournette, a simple 
slab of wood laid on the ground and 
turned by an assistant. This moved 
slowly to the Indus valley. 

In early phases of Kot Diji, majority of 
pottery was hand-made, but slowly the 
wheel turned pottery started replacing 
it. At Amri it reached during its phase 
1 A i.e. just soon after its start, where 
too it replaced hand-made pottery. 

Radio Carbon dating of Kile Gul 
Muhammad pre-Chalcolic-Neolithic 

dates between 4000-3000 B.C. the West- 
ern Sind should show similar trends 
with a short lag, but explorations 
are lacking. 

Ghirshman, p. 44. 




The oldest known pottery turned on 
wheel belonging to 3250 B.C. is excavat- 
ed from Ur. 

Since the wheel was introduced by the 
Iranians, this development may have 
taken place around 3350 B.C. 

3500 B.C. : 

The Neolithic culture characterised by 
chert and bone tools and domestication 
of animals and plants in Kile Gul 
Muhammad near Quetta based on 
Carbon Dating. 

3600-3300 B.C. : 

Possib'y, the first evidence of the use of 
pottery in the Sub-Continent at Kile 
Gul Muhammad near Quetta. The 
general use of pottery in Iran goes back 
to the late 5th millennium B.C. as per 
findings by Ghirshman. In Sind, en- 
ough excavations have not been done 
except those by Mujamdar. Kile Gul 
Muhammad pottery had mat marked 
shreds and crude geometrical designs, 
which may belong to 3400-3300 B.C. 




3100 B.C. or earlier- «3000 B.C. : 

People in Sind understood the annual 
behaviour of the river Indus in the area 


Agarwal and Kusumgar, p. 65. 

.. ■ ■ ' i i 



Fairservis, W.A., "Excavations in Quetta 
Valley", pp. 334-5. American Museum 
of Natural History, New York, 1956. 

The Radio Carbon Dates for Kile Gul 
Muhammad are : 
(i) 3310±60(3468±83)B.C. 
(ii) 3524±83 (3688±85) B.C. 
(iii) 3547±500(3712±515)B.C, as re- 
ported by Bridget and Allchin, p. 336. 

Gordon, p. 27 estimated it at 3100 B.C. 

Fairservis' estimate was 3200 B.C. 

Piggot (1950) stated that cultural changes 
took place *in north and central Balu- 
chistan probably due to arrival of new 
people. It has now been concluded that 
these people were from the South- West 
Iran, who finally established the earliest 
settlements at Amri. The Amrians were 

not Dravadians. 




below Panjjnad to the sea, which inun- 
dated vast areas in summer depositing 
rich alluvium on which without much 
effort crops like wheat, barley, oil seeds, 
etc., could be planted in fall and harves- 
ted in the next spring. Barley was found 
in grain godowns of Egypt in 4500 B.C., 
and in Europe in late Neolithic. 

In suitable areas, where annual floods 
could be controlled by dikes and water 
courses, cotton and sessum could be 
grown as Kharif summer crops. Even 
field peas, lentils and flax may have been 
developed then. The earliest finding 
of cotton is from Mohenjo-Daro but it 
simply means that it was already being 
grown and used in Sind. Rice which 
was grown in South India soon reached 
Sind, as it simply involved water control 
by dikes. The manner of plant raising 
could be the same as used by the Jatts 
of Lower Sind in coastal areas for grow- 
ing red rice without much effort even to 

On the elevated areas, settlements were 
built. This should be considered as the 
most important single discovery leading 
to expansion of population and deve- 
lopment of urban life in coming cen- 
turies in Sind, parallel to those at the 
Nile, Euphrates and Tigris and, Hwang 
Ho rivers. The oxen drawn ploughs 
were used in the Middle East by 3000 
B.C. and appeared in Europe only in 
1500 B.C. 

Sorghum came from the tropical Africa 
south of the Sahara in low rainfall areas, 
and travelled to Sind via Arabia but at 
much later date. 

Mujamdar "Explorations in Sind" exca- 
vated Amri and Osman Ji Buthi, two 
such sites preceding the Harappan 
Culture. This was further confirmed 
by J.M. Casal who excavated Amri to 
lower levels and published his findings 
in Fouilles d'Amri in 2 volumes at 
Paris in 1964. 

According to D.D. Kombi, plough was 
not used in Sind upto the end of the 
Harappan times i.e. about 1750 B.C 
but it was^a light toothed harrow identi- 
fied from ideogram of the Harappan 



3600 B.C. or earlier to 3200 B. C. : 

Hunting forest cultures of Sind and 
Punjab, coinciding with Kile Gul 
Muhammad phase I & II. The mat 
marked pottery of Makran appeared on 
the scene around 3200 B.C., lasting a 
100 years and lagging behind Kile Gul 
Muhammad by about 100-200 years. 




Bridget and Allchin, pp. 101-104. 

Gordon records 3400 B.C. for this period 
Radio Carbon dating for this period of 
Kile Gul Muhammad pertains to 3600- 
3300 B.C., and here, the dates have been 
adjusted accordingly. 

Hunting forest cultures of Sind and 
Punjab may be much older as discussed 
by Lambrick in History of Sind, Vol. II. 
In all probability they would go back to 
8000-6500 B.C. Also refer 100,000 years 
B.C. to date, sea water level changes. 

The river could supply fish, and forest 
provide hunting, vegetative fruits, grains 
and vegetable food. This would be 
most ideal area even for early stone age 
people, but information is destroyed by 
rising of sea level between 100,000 years 
B.C. to 3000 B.C. and by annual floods 
resulting into silting of stone age sites 
by a few hundred feet. 

Explorations at the Tharro Hill near 
Gujo, Shah Hussain (Thatta District), 
Kafir Kot and Budhjo Takar (Near 
Tando Muhammad Khan) suggest that 
there were flint chopping workshops at 
these sites in the 3rd millennium B.C. 



3500 B.C. to about 1000 B.C. (approximate): 

Use of copper at Mandigak, Kile Gul 
Muhammad, pre-Harapan Kot Diji and 
Amri phase IA. 

The exact date of the use of bronze is 
not certain though it was found in lower 
level of Mohenjo-Daro i.e. about 
2300 B.C. In upper levels, it is more 
common. Its source was Rajputana as 
chemical analysis showing presence of 
nickel and arsenic indicates. 

3250 B.C. 

The oldest known pottery turned out on 
potter's wheel from Ur. 


Cole, p. 46 

The statement is incorrect. Potter's wheel 
was invented in Iran in later half of the 
4th millennium B.C. 

3100-3000 C.B. : 

The Neolithic (Late Stone Age Agri- 
culture) and Chalcolithic ( Use of copper 
and bronze in agriculture) started in the 
valley of the Indus and its tributaries. 

Ghirshman, Iran, p. 44. 

3000 B.C. : 

Wheel in general use in Middle East. 

Bridget and Allchin, pp. 1 1 2-3. 

The date has been adjusted in view of 

Radio-carbon dating. 

Shreds of pottery found at Karachi be- 
long to much earlier settlement than 
any so far excavated in Sind and must 
belong to the period much before 
3100 B.C. But detailed explorations have 
not been done. 

Cole. p. 42. 

It had migrated to Sind. probably during 
the same century, if Radio carbon dating 
of Amri is acceptable. 




3000 B.C. or earlier: 

Hexaploid wheat was grown in Sind. 
It reached China by 2000 B.C. 
Oxen drawn ploughs were also used. 
These were introduced in Europe 1500 
years later. 


Proto Elamites from Susa who had 
spread to Persian, Makran and Seistan 
broke up. This resulted in eastward 
migration of farmers through Seistan 
and Makran, finally to Sind, bringing 
with them potter's wheel and advanced 
Neolithic culture. This is the earliest 
migration of the South Western Iranians 
in Sind so far proved. 

3000 B.C. to 2900 B.C. (tentative) : 

The settlement at Kile Gul Muhammad 
came to an end, but sequence is taken 
by Damb Sadaat only 10 miles south, 
excavated by Fairservis. There are 
three phases of occupation giving Radio 
Carbon dates for various samples as: 

Phase I: 2625, 2425 and 2220 B.C. 

In Phases II and IN animal humped bull 
with painted decoration was note- 

De Cardi found contemporary sites near 
Kalat. The fine red ware with 
painted designs and friezes of animals 
was named as Togau by him. The 
Damb Sadaat Radio Carbon results 
show following chronology : 

Cole, pp. 11 *nd 14. 

This is, of course, a conjecture but 
acceptable in spite of lack of archaeolo- 
gical evidence. 

See also entry 3100 B.C. or earlier — 

3000 B.C. 


Cordon, p. 37, puts it 2900-2800 B.C. 
Since Amri flourished around 3000 B.C.. 
these peasants must have migrated a 
little earlier. Pottery of phase 1A at 
Amri was hand-made., but wheel-made 
pottery was also introduced in Phase 
1A i.e. during this century. 
At Kot Diji we find mostly wheel-made 
pottery after initial hand-made one. 

See also entry 3600-3300 B.C. 

There is a dispute that these immigrants 
were not Elamitesbut Ancient Scythians. 
In any case they were not Dravadians. 




The earliest of 2673 B.C. for Phase I; 
2570 B.C. for Phase II; and 2351 B.C. 
for Phase III or earlier. Kulli culture 
in South Baluchistan is a link between 
Iraq, Iran and the Lower Indus. The 
Kulli culture continued well into the 
Harappan times. 

3000 B.C. (tentative): 

While inhabitants of the Indo-Pak Sub- 
continent were in Mesolithic hunting 
and food gathering stage of develop- 
ment, the farmers from the South-East 
Iran started their settlement in Sind with 
knowledge of agriculture and potter's 
wheel. This may have taken place bet- 
ween 3100-3000 B.C. and may have been 
responsible for settlement of Amri. 

3000-2000 B.C. or later: 

The establishment of Mari-time rela- 
tions between Mesopotamia and the 
Indian Sub-Continent, but it flourished 
and reached the peak only between the 
7th and 6th century B.C. In this, the 
Dravadians took the leading part though 
the Indo-Europeans (Aryans as they 
are misnamed) of Sind also had some 
share in it. On the western side, it was 
neither Egyptian nor Sumerians who 
took the lead. It was Phoenicians who 
made the modest beginning. 

The Phonenician ships were 100 feet 
long and 26 to 33 feet wide having capa- 
city of 400 tons. 

3000-2900 B.C. : 

Phase 1A of Amri, the contemporary of 
early Kile Gul Muhammad's late Phase 
III to early Phase IV and Mundigak's 
Phase II; while at Mohenjo-Daro, Kot 
Diji and Chanhudaro there probably 


Gordon thinks agriculture started bet- 
ween 3000-2800 B.C. but radio carbon 
dating by Agarwal and Kusumgar has 
put the beginning of Amri at 2900^1 15 
B.C. or earlier. 


R.K. Mookerjee, Indian Shipping, Bom- 
bay, 1957, p. 62. 

Toussant, p. 24. 


The latest thinking is that Rigvedic 
Aryans came between 10502 and 700 B.C. 
and are termed as Indo-Caspians. 
These earlier emigrants from Amrian 
times were Ancient Scythians, an earlier 
branch of the Indo-Europeans. 

In the opinion of recent writers the 
excavation of lower layers of Mohenjo- 
Daro could possibly be older than Amri. 
When excavation becomes possible the 
whole choronology may change, bringing 




was the Late Stone Age. Harappa and 
Kalibangan in the Punjab were also 1n 
the Late Stone Age. 

Mundigak (Afghanistan) and Kile Gul 
Muhammad near Quetta had come out 
of the Late Stone Age just before 
3700 and 3600 B.C. respectively, and by 
this lime, Kile Gul Muhammad had al- 
ready passed through Phases I, II and 
in. Mundigak had passed three of the 
6 stages of its Phase I. Even Zhob 
(Periano Ghundai) had come out of the 
Stone Age by 3500 B.C. and had passed 
through Phases I and II. 

By the end of Phase I at Mundigak, 
grains of club wheat (Triticum Com- 
pact urn), one of the 3 ancient varieties 
probably native to this region, Had come 

The same site shows presence of sheep, 
goat, cattle and Indian Jujube (Zizyphus 
Jujuba or boar). The bull figures at the 
end of Phase I and onwards occurred on 
pottery at this site and it is possible that 
the bull was domesticated. 

The Pre-Harrapan Amri is divided in 
two periods, the first is further divided 
into 4 Phases classified as 1A, IB, 1C 
and ID. 

The second period is divided into 
Phase II A and Phase II. B. 

Phase I— A showed no structures, but 
showed mostly hand-made pottery, 
storage jars and shreds having bichrome 
and monochrome decorations including 
Togau C-ware making it contemporary 
of Anjira IV. Wheel-made pottery also 
appeared alongwith hand-made pottery 
which was dominant. 

the Lower layers of Mohenjo-Daro close 
to Mundigak and Kile Gul Muhammad. 
Radio Carbon dates for Kile Gul 
Muhammad Phase I and II are 3688±85 
and 3468±82 B.C. The corresponding 
MASCA dates are 4388 B.C. and 4168 B.C. 

Bridget and Allchin, p. 21. 

Russian agronomists' studies show that 
wheat had first originated in Afghanistan. 


• i 

Approximate date would be 3100-2900 
B.C., as per Archaic evidence. 


Phase 1—5 showed continued mud 
brick building with bricks of irregular 
size and sometimes with stone founda- 
tions. Pottery showed improvement with 
wider range of motifs, and chert blades 
and bone tools continued similarly as 
in Phase 1— A. 

Phase 1— C was the climax of the Amri 
culture and has four structural phases. 
Houses of mud brick and stone were 
constructed. Pottery was mostly wheel- 
made against that of Phase 1-A where it 
was mostly hand-made. Potter's wheel 
was just introduced in Phase 1-A; 
pottery has larger variety of motifs- 
geometrical, plain and polychrome 
styles, brown, black, ochre (orange 
upon pink) in colour. 

Phase 1— «D is continuation of Phase 
1— «C but pottery shows humped Indian 
bull, quadrupeds like cheetah, dog and 

Phase 1-D is contemporary of Mandi- 
gak III and Kot Diji due to a few Harap- 
pan shreds. 

Amri Period II is divided in two 
phase.: Phase IIA and phase IIB. 
The two phases show the Harappan 
shreds along with Amrian. The period 
is, therefore, transitional between purely 
Amrian culture Phase I and Harappan 
Phase III. Cross dating of pottery of 
Period II are with Mundigak IV 1 ; Damb 

Its approximate date would be 2900 B.C. 
—2800 B.C. 

Its approximate date would be 2800- 
2700 B.C. or later. 

Its approximate date would be 27(0 
B.C.-2500 B.C. Radio Carbon date 
2670±113 to 2900±133 B.C. has been 
assigned to it and as per MASCA correc- 
tion the date is 3600—3320 B.C. 

According to Bridget and Allchin, Phase 
1A and IB has links with Kile Gul 
Muhammad phase III and IV and Mandi- 
gak HI. 

Its approximate date would be 2700- 
2500 B.C. 

The approximate dates of Phase IIA are 
2500-2300 B.C. and that for Phase II 
2300 B.C. to 2200 B.C. 

However^ continuation of pre-Harappan 
shreds in the beginning of centuries 
shows merging of two cultures and 
people after the first destruction of Amri. 





Sadaat II, as well as with Kot Diji. The 
Radio Carbon dates of Damb Sadaat 
Phase II are 2655±202 to 2200±76. 
The last date of Damb Sadaat is also 
beginning of its Phase III. Amri was 
burnt at the end of the period i.e. 
around 2200 B.C. and entered in Phase 
III a, b andc, lasting upto about 1750 
B.C. This was its Harappan period. 
Contemporaries of Amri Phase I are 
Tharro (Tharri Gujo), Kotras Buthi 
(South of Amri), Wahi Pandhi and 
Ghazi Shah. Animal remains atAmri's 
Phase I are same as in Baluchistan with 
the addition of ass which may have been 
domesticated in Sind between 3600 
B.C. and 3000 B.C. 

3000-2750 B.C.: 

Bull pottery of Loralai II, bichrome 
ware of Kechi Beg, Amri and Loralai III 
spread over these large areas in a period 
of about 250 years. At Amri and Lora- 
lai 1 (I it spread later than at Kechi Beg 
possibly between 2850 B.C. to 2750 B.C. 


Gordon, pp. 42-44 puts it 2900-2750 B.C. ; 
but dates have been adjusted in view of 
Radio Carbon dating available for Amri. 







3000-2700 B.C. : 

Settled village and appearance of poly- 
chrome and bichrome pottery in 
Afghanistan, Baluchistan and -Sind— 
similar to those at Amri. 

This period is classified by Dales as 
Phase D. 

3000-2700 B.C. (2900±113 to 2670± 
113 B.C.): 

Amri Culture flourished as shown by 
Radio Carbon dating. 

3000-2000 B.C. : 

A rise of 10 feet in the sea level. The 
sea coast then must have been close to 
the present Tando Muhammad Khan 
or even Hyderabad The rise in water 
must have submerged the whole Nagar 
Parkar and some coastal belts of Thar. 
Water must have headed up around Laki 
Hills, where there would be delta-head 
then. This may have caused frequent 
floods in Mohenjo-Daro in its earliest 
unexcavated phases. 

3000-1700 B.C. : 

Stone nodules of fine flint worked at 
Rohri were exported to Kot Diji, Amri, 
Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro, Lothal, Rang- 
pur and Kalibangan for manufacture 
of tools. The transportation may have 
been by the river Indus, the Gulf of the 


Agarwal and Kusumgar, p. 86, 
basing on Radio Carbon dating. The 
MASCA corrections for only two avail- 
able samples of Amri from Mound A 
take it 3600 B.C.— 3320 B.C. for its 

early levels. 

Agarwal and Kusumgar, p. 88. 

The corresponding MASCA years would 


Agarwal and Kusumgar, Pre-Historic 
Chronology and Radio Carbon Dating, 
pp. 47-48. 

The Rann of Cutch was a sea creek. 

The little Rann to the south and east of 
Cutch, made it an island. The lost river 
of the Indian desert, Sarswati, then flowed 
through the bed of Ghaghar, Raini, 

Hakra and the present Eastern Nara 




Rann of Cutch, and along the Kathia- 
war sea coast. 

It was definitely the site for flint even 
in Late Stone Age and probably sup- 
plied flint to Baluchistan sites establish- 
ed after 3500 B.C. 

The process of making blades for various 
purposes consisted in heating suitable 
stone and shattering it with mild and 
careful blows from above. There may 
have been other sites between Laki and 
Thano Bulla Khan. On the top of the 
Khirthar ridge there is 300 feet thick 
basalt layer most suitable for axes. 
Adequate explorations in Kohistan valley 
may give clue to the use of it, if any. 
Rohri does show presence of regular axe 
factories, but they were flaked and not 
ground at the site. For grinding, suit- 
able stone is available in Kohistan, but 
there is lack of evidence of the process. 

2900-2800 B. C. : 

Phase IB of Amri contemporary to 
Phase III of Kalat, early Phase IV of 
Kile Gul Muhammad and end of Phase 
II of Mundigak. Rest of Sind and 
Punjab were then still in the Stone Age. 

The Phase III of Kile Gul Muhammd 
which had ended between 3000-2900 
B.C., deteriorated to Phase IV but a 
new settlement at Damb Sadaat 10 miles 
south of Quetta took up the sequence. 
Radio Carbon date for Damb Sadaat 
Phase I is 2510±70 B.C. Its start co- 
incides with the end of Phase 1 B of Amri, 
and MASCA correction would put it 
to 3060 B.C. 

Dr. Khan puts the beginning of the 
Amri Culture i.e. Phase IA contem- 

Canal bed, to the Koree Creek via the 
Eastern Puran. 

Communications with Kathiawar and 
Cutch were easy and safe via the two 
rivers, the Indus and the Hakra through 
the Rann of Cutch. 


The situation can reverse only if lower 
strata of Mohenjo-Daro after excavation, 
prove otherwise. 

F. A. Khan, "Indus Valley and Early Iran," 
pp. 62-63. 



porary to early Dynasty II of Meso- 
potamia; but his opinion is not accept- 
able in view of Radio Carbon Dating 
even without MASCA correction which 
takes it back to 3600 B.C. 

2800-2700 B.C. : 

Phase I-C of Amri, contemporary of the 
end of Phase III and early start of Kalat 
(Anjira) Phase I of the Damb Sadaat 
near Quetta and Phase III of Mundigak 
(Afghanistan). Nothing can be said 
about Mohenjo-Daro as lower levels 
have not been excavated. 


Radio Carbon dating for the 1st Phase 
of Damb Sadaat shows dates of 2625 
B.C. and 2528 B.C. It, therefore, must 
have started around 2700 B.C. 

2350-2000 B.C. : 

Kulli-Mehi culture equated contempo- 
rary of some stages of pre-Harappan cul- 
ture at Kot Diji and Amri and also of 
early and Intermediate Mohenjo-Daro. 

2700 B.C. : 

Amri was already maturing. Nal, 
though began earlier than Kulli, but 
was still in infancy. Zhob was in Phase 

2700-2600 B.C. : 

Early occupation of Kot Diji a pre- 
Harappan culture. Radio Carbon dat- 
ing for Kot Diji takes its beginning to 
2605±145 B.C. and earlier. 

Bridget and Allchin, p. 1 17-123, De Cardi 
on Anjira. 

MASAC correction takes Damb Sadaat 
to 3060 B.C. 

F. A. Khan, "Indus Valley and Early Iran," 
p. 71 , states that it was contemporary of 
the Harappan culture. This is unaccept- 
able. Its beginnings have been traced as 
contemporary of Damb Sadaat III 
and Mundigak IV. Former is dated as 
2201 ±165 B.C. 

F. A. Khan, "Indus Valley and Early Iran " 
pp. 62-63. 

Radio Carbon dates for Kot Diji based 

on life of 5370 years are: 

2605±145 B.C. 

2335±155 V B.C. 

2255 ±140 B.C. 


Of these, the last one is Harappan. 





2700-2500 B.C. : 

Phase I-D at Amri, contemporary of 
Nal Nundara, late Phase III and early 
Phase IV at Kalat, end of Damb 
Sadaat Phase I at Quetta and end of 
Phase HI-4 at Mandigak. Kot Diji en- 
ters pre-Harappan age. Radio Carbon 
dating for it is 2600±145 B.C. Radio 
Carbon dateing for Damb Sadaat 
Phase I is 2510±73. 

2700-2400 B.C. or 2605—1*45 B.C. to 
2255—140 B.C. : 

Kot Diji existed as pre-Harappan settle- 
ment. The four Radio Carbon dates 
available for Kot-Diji are:— 

Citadel lower level, 2605 ±145 B.C. 
Lower city level, 2335±156 B.C. An- 
other lower city level 2255±140 B.C. 

An upper level date for late Pre-Harap- 
pan Period is 2090 + 140. 

The last date belongs to the decayed 
period of Kot-Diji and is less important 
for true Harappan Kot Diji. 

2600-2500 B.C. : 

The early Nal, Nundara and Amri con- 
tacts. The first peasant farmers, who 
settled in the Indus Valley carried bich- 
rome pottery with them to the plains. 
This pottery is called Amri-ware and is 
wholly different from the Harappan. 
Amri as well as Nundara show bands of 
sigmas, lozengos, chovrons and cheque- 
red board panels. 

The MASACA equivalents are 
2885, 2590 and 2805 B.C. 


Bridget and Allchin, p. 110. 

Dales in "Chronologies in old World" has 
assigned 2538—361 B.C. to Damb Sadaat, 
Phase I. 


Agarwal and Kusumgar, p. 86, give 
Radio Carbon dating for Kot Diji. This 
would mean 2750 to 2330 B.C. at the 
extreme ends. 

Radio Carbon dates could also be in- 
accurate within a limit of 200 years. Tho 
samples belong neither to the beginning 
nor to the end of the city. This is another 
error of this method. 

MASCA correction puts the above four 
dates for Kot Diji as 3155, 2885, 2805 
and 2590 B.C. 

Gordon, pp. 44 & 49 puts it at 2700-2600 

This has been readjusted in view of the 
Radio Carbon dating for Amri. Nal 
Nundara coincided with Amri Phase 1-D 
which approximates to 2700-2500 B.C. 

Amri belongs to the much earlier period 
tbsD Nal and Nundara. 



2605—145 B.C. : 

The Pre-Harappan Early Period of Kot 
Diji Sind as per Radio Carbon dating of 
the University of Pennsylvania. 

2600-2300 B.C. : 

Khurab Cementry contemporary of Ear- 
ly Dynastic HI and some stage of Pre- 
Harappa (i.e. Amri or Kot Diji). 

2600-2200 B. C. : 

The three phases of Damb Sadaat show 
flake blades, described as being of tan 
chert, saddle querns, stone chisels 
made from cherty flint imported from 
Rohri Sind. 

Dr. Khan, F.A., "Kot Diji Excavations." 

Khan, F. A. "Indus Valley and Ear y Iran," 
p. 68, thinks that it was contemporary 
with Harappa. This may not be correct 
as Harappa began around 2350 B.C. 

Gordon, pp. 45 and 49, puts the date as 
2600-2100. This has been corrected in 
view of Radio Carbon dates of Damb 
Sadaat being 2655±202 to 2200±76. 
Dales puts its earliest period to 2538 — 

361 B.C. 

2500 B.C. : 

Use of bichrome ware of Kachi Beg — 
Amri style persisted in Sohab. 

2500 B.C. (tentative) : 

Microlithic site near Lyari river, 7 miles 

W.N.E. of Karachi, centre of the city, 

shows the use of cherty flint from Rohri. 

They make some link with the Harappan 


A number of microlithic sites have been 
discovered by Professor Rauf, along the 
rain-fed streams of Sind Kohistan. but 
data have not been published. 

2500 (tentative) : 

Ground and polished stone axe found 
from Orangi, near Karachi, is the only 
true type of axe found in Sind. Four 
axe like objects unearthed at Mohenjo- 
Daro are not true axes but either plough 
shares or wedges. 

Gordon, p. 51, puts this date 100 
years after founding of Mohenjo-Daro 
in 2600 B.C. i.e. a century after 2600 B.C., 
and has been corrected. 

Todd, K.R.U., Microlithic Industries of 
Bombay, Ancient India, No. 6 and 
Palaeolithic Industries of Bombay, J.R. 
Anthropological Institute, Vol. XIX. The 
date is doubtful as enough explorations 
have not been done. It may be Pre- 
Harappan and may even belong to much 
earlier a date. 

Some authors have assigned the date of 
2500—2000 B.C. to it. 

Gordon, p. 31, puts the date as 2500-2000 

The information on this site is only 
exploratory and the site may belong to 
the later or even earlier periods. 




9. 3000-2500 B.C. Painted pots from Amri. 


12. 2800 B. C. Kot Dili Ware 



II. 2700- 2400 B. C. Nal and Damb Sadat 
ware and tools from Baluchistan. 

13. Shahi Tamp and Quetta Ware 


14. 2300- 1700 B. C. General view of excavations of Mohenjo Daro. 

' 16. Zhob ware. 

15. Typical Indus culture objects. 








2500-2400 B.C. : 

Phase II A of Amri, contemporary of 
Rana Ghundai Phase III A, beginning of 
Damb Sadaat Phase II and Phase in. 5 
at Mandigak. 

Kot-Diji which had already entered into 
pre-Harappan age continued to thrive. 

Phase II of Amri follows without the 
cultural break whether it is Phase A II 
or Phase II B (2400-2300 B.C.) but shows 
shreds of the Harappan type along with 
the Amrian. 

Tharri Gujo, Kohtras Buthi, Wahi Pan- 
dhi and Gazi Shah were contemporary of 
Amri belonging to its pre-Harappan 
period of Phase II A or II B. 

At Kot-Diji painted pottery bichrome 
with cream slip and red had parallels with 
Mudigak III. 5 and VI and also has 
similarities with Damb Sadaat Phases II 
and III. 

2400 B.C. : 

Beginning of Shahi Tump. 

Harappa already developing, contem- 
porary of mature phase of Kulli.last days 
of Nal, Sohab still in phase RG III, 
Anaujinthe beginning of Phase III, GAP 
Phase of Sialk, Hissar in the beginning 
of Phase 3A and Akhad of Mesopota- 
mia. Shahi Tump ended by about 
2000 B.C. as shown by ce.netry. 

2400 B.C. : 

Age of a fine wheel-made globular vessel 
bearing shallow grooves round the belly 
and painted black on face with incurred 
horns exactly as the vessel from Kot Diji. 


Bridget and Allchin, pp. 110, 117. 

Radio Carbon date of Damb Sadaat for 
this phase is 2200±76. The phase I of 
Damb Sadaat goes back to 2510±70 
being contemporary of Amri phase I C. 

The MASCA readings for Damb Sadaat 
for the Phases I & II are 3060 and 
2900 B.C. 


F. A. Khan, "Indus Valley And Early 
Iran," pp. 62-63. 

Bridget and Allchin, pp. 145-146, put its 
end at 1800 B.C. 

Agarwal and Kusumgar, p. 104, put 
cemetry at Shahi Tump at 2000-1900 
B.C. It has yet to be ascertained whether 
this site survived for 500-600 years. It 
was built on abandoned Kulli site. 

Agarwal and Kusumgar, p. 69. 




2400-2300 B. C. : 

Phase II B at Amri contemporary of 
Phase (b) of Rana Ghundai. Damb 
Sadaat Phase II continues and end of 
Mundigak Phase III 6. Kot Diji in pre- 
Harappan Phase. 

Radio Carbon date of 2335±155 B.C. 
for this period of Kot-Diji is available. 
Some shreds of the Harappan alongwith 
the Amrian are found and may be called 
transitional between pure Amrian and 
Harappan which starts with Amri Phase 


2371-2316 : 

Rule of Sargon Agade in Mesopotamia 
and its contacts with Meluhha i.e. the 
Indus Civilization as believed so far, 
could have been with Amri and Kot- 
Diji rather than Mohenjo-Daro and 
Harappa, unless they were with lower 
unexplored phases of Mohenjo-Daro 
which may to Kot-Dijian or Amrian. 

Bridget and Allchin, pp. 110, 114. 

In Kalibangan (East Punjab) pre-Harap- 
pan (Kot-Dijian) settlement established 
for which the earliest Radio Carbon date 
goes back to 2370± 1 1 5 B.C. Its MASCA 
corrected year is 2920 B.C. 

Damb Sadaat Phase II. Radio Dates 
assigned to it are 2559±202 and 2200±76 
B.C. or with MASCA correction 3109 to 
2700 B.C. 

The MASCA date for this phase of Kot- 
Diji is 2885 B.C. 


Bridget and Allchin, p. 322. 




2350-2300 B. C. : 

Founding of Harappa ; showing Periano 
affinities in the beginning and contacts 
between the two. Soon after their 
arrival at Harappa they built a citadel. 

The founding is associated with major 
migration of new people in Punjab via 
northern Baluchistan. 

2350-2250 B. C. : 

Structural remains lower than 38 below 
datum—or Mackay's early Phase III of 

2350 B.C. onwards to 1000 B.C. : 

In Sind and Baluchistan, subsequent 

to Neolithic Phase, copper and bronze 

were used. This is called Chalcolithic 

period to separate Stone Age Neolithic 

from Metallic Neolithic. 

2335±155 B.C. : 

Pre-Harappan late period of Kot Diji 
as par Radio Carbon dating of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. The site was 
soon burnt and Harappan culture super- 
imposed after an overlap of about 100 


Gordon, p. 51, puts the date as 2450-2300 
B.C. Radio Carbon datings for Harappa 
are about 2300 and archaeologists now 
do not put it beyond 2350 B.C. However, 
pre-Harappan founding of Harappa 
may be pushed back to about 2400 B.C. 
Radio Carbon dates of Mohenjo-Daro 
(Upper Layers) cover period of 2083±66 
to 1760±115. MASCA correction puts 
it between 2583-2060 B.C. 

Under present circumstances the Radio 
Carbon dating of already excavated area 
cannot be done and these dates therefore 
represent only a few samples of top 
layers and not the already excavated area. 

Gordon, p. 63, puts it as 2600-2500 B.C. 
and has been corrected. 

The MASCA correction date for it 
would be 2885 B.C. 





2370±115 to 1825±110 B.C. : 

Kalibangan flourished as pre-Harappan, 
Kot Diji-Sethi cultural site. 

2350 B.C. : 

Beginning of the Harappan Culture in 
peripheral areas i.e. Moheno-Daro and 

2232±100 to 1820±115 B.C. : 

In Kalibangan Rajistan, Harappan Cul- 
ture flourished as shown by Radio 
Carbon dating. Its lower strata were 


2350-2000 B.C. : 

The Harappan Culture flourished in 

nuclear regions (Harappa and Mohenjo- 


2300 B.C. (tentative) : 

Red ware decorated in black with de- 
signs of animals, humans, ibex heads and 
hook patterns appears in Kalat, Kakh- 
shan, early Nal and Sind followed by 
Harappan shreds. Similar ware (Togau 
as is called) is also found at Damb Buthi, 
Gazi Shah, Pandhi Wahi, and is contem- 
porary of the middle Amri and the earli- 
est Nal. The date may be regarded as 
founding of lower layers of Mohenjo- 
Daro's excavated areas. 

MASCA correction 
2920-2125 B.C 

would put it as 


Agarwal and Kusuragar, p. 100, 

Agarwal and Kusumgar, p. 88. 

MASCA correction puts its period at 
2782 B.C.— 1865 B.C. 

Agarwal and Kusumgar, p. 100. 

Mujamdar, Explorations in Sind, pp. 15, 
32 and 37, and Plates XXV, XXVII and 
XXVIII. Also Gordon, Pottery in- 
dustries of Indo-Iranian Border in 
"Ancient India," Nos. 10 and 11, pp. 163- 

Gordon states it as 2600 B.C. which is 
not acceptable in view of the Radio 
Carbon dating of Mohenjo-Daro. MAS- 
CA correction can put it back to 2583 
B.C. on the basis of present samples, but 
these are samples from upper layers. 
The founding of Harappa about the same 
time or slightly earlier than Mohenjo- 
Daro, shows migration of Indo-Iranian, 
partly via* Zhob, along the Zhob river, 
to the Punjab, but the major portion of the 
same people migrated to Sind, via Makran, 
by avoiding mountains. 



2300 B.C. and onwards : 

Use of gold for ornaments, etc., proved 
by the Harappan sites. Use of gold in 
pre-Harappan period of Sind (3000 B.C. 
— -2300 B.C.) is not certain due to lack of 
adequate excavations. 

Same is the case with silver which was 
more abundant than gold. It was used 
for manufacture of ornaments as well as 

2300 B.C. : 

Zebu cattle domesticated at Mohenjo- 


2300-2200 B.C. : 

The oldest known cotton fibre from 
Mohenjo-Daro, was not a primitive 
un-cultivated type: but was a developed 

; ■ 

2300-2200 B.C. : 

Kot Diji Phase II B pre-Harappan cul- 
ture flourishing. A Radio Carbon date 
of 2255±140 B.C. is available for this 
Phase. Kalibangan (East Punjab) also 
had pre-Harappan Culture from at least 
2370±115or2232±100B.C. as shown 
by the Radio Carbon dating. In this cen- 
tury it had reached its maturity at this 
site. In spite of close affinities, the two 
sites are not identical 



Cole, p. 31 puts it at 2500 B.C. 

This is the earliest evidence. Excavation 
of pre-Harappan sites may push this 
date further up. The possibility is that 
it may go to early Amrian times. 

Cole, p. 48 has put the year as 2500 B.C., 
about 100 years after the establishment 
of Mohenjo-Daro according to him. The 
date has been corrected in view of the 
Radio Carbon dating of Indus culture 
sites. It is possible that cotton was 
grown by Amrians, as man had under- 
stood the behaviour of the river Indus, 
latest by about 3100 B.C. and under- 
stood growing of kharif (summer crops) 
by putting levies or embankments and 
allowing controlled quantities of water in. 

Kalibangan pre-Harappan (Kot-Dijian± 
Sothi Culture) continued from 2370± 
115 B.C. to 1825±110 B.C. i.e. MASCA 
2920-2125 B.C. Its Harappan culture 
lasted from 2232±100 B.C. to 1610±110 
B.C. the equivalents are: 2782-1658 B.C. 

Thus, there is overlap of many centuries 
of pre and post-Harappan between the two 



The Amri pottery reflects ties with Balu- 
chistan pottery with pre-dominance of 
geometric patterns. But that of Kot 
Diji and Mohenjo-Daro differs from it 
and virtually stands apart. They have 
used plain bands of colours or wavy 
lines and limited use of plain band and 
other motifs. Similar pottery is found 
in Baluchistan but with heavy decora- 
tion. The Kalibangan pottery is also 
named as 'Sothi' but archaeologically 
accepted, as "Kot-Dijian". A composite 
term Kot Diji-Sethi is now assigned to it. 

The Stone Age continued in the Penin- 
sular India upto 2300 B.C. as per^rcha- 
eological information so far collected, 
as no bronze or copper tools so far exca- 
vated, date earlier than this. The 
MASCA corrected dates for mature 
Kot-Diji pre-Harappan period have been 
worked out as 2920 B.C. to 2608 B.C. 
According to this correction Kalibangan 
began 200 years after Kot-Diji in its pre- 
Harappan phase. 

2300-2200 or 2150 B.C.: 

The end of Phase II B and beginning of 
Phase III A at Amri which is in fact 
Harappan. The Phase II of Amri ends 
about 2200 B.C. and the settlement is 
destroyed by fire. 

The Mehi Culture which had come to 
its maturity in south Baluchistan and 
started probably around 2200 B.C. al- 
ready came to its end around 2050 B.C. 
Mohenjo-Daro was in its early stages, 
though its date is highly controversial. 
Some authorities believe that it lasted 
from 2350 to 2000 B.C. in Nuclear re- 

That Amri and Kot-Diji maintained 
pre-Harappan Culture along with Harap- 
pan Culture at Mohenjo-Daro and later 
on violent occupation of Kot-Diji and 
Amri by Harappans, by setting them to 
fire, but all the same the over-lapping 
period of the two cultures for a century 
or so shows merging of the two cultures 
of two peop'es, who most probably mig- 
rated along the same route and probably 
belonged to the same racial-group. 

Pre-Indus Kot Diji sites have been found 
almost in the same area as Indus Culture 
site. Recent additions are Jalilpur in Mul- 
tan District and Sarai Khola near Taxila. 

It is interesting to note that pre-Harappan 
(Amrian-Kot-Dijian) Culture occupied 
almost the same area as Harappan (Indus 
Valley) Culture. There is pressure from 
the Indian archaeologists to call it as 
Harappan Culture rather than the Indus 
Valley Civilization. 

Their argument that Kalibangan, Lothal 
and Rangpur in Kathiawar fall outside 
the Indus Valley is incorrect. Kalibangan 
is on the dried bed of the Sarswati (Ghag- 
har, Hakra, Raini & Nara) river of Indus 
Valley, now dried up. Lothal and Rang- 
pur were connected to Sind by the Rann 
of Kutch, then a gulf of the se?., making 




gions (Sind and Punjab) and from 2200 
to 1 700 B.C. in peripheral regions of the 
Sarswati-Hakra river and Kathiawar. 
The Radio Carbon dating puts it about 
2100-1750 B.C. with ±50 years. Chan- 
hu-Daro probably started pre-Harappan 
shreds along with Mohenjo-Daro, 
though evidence has still not come 
up. Harappa too was in pre-Harappan 
Phase. The date of its start is not 
certain. In Kalibangan mature pre- 
Harappan (Kot-Dijian) Culture started 
around 2150 B.C. or shortly afterwards. 
Rest of the Sub-Continent still was in 
Stone-Age except Gujrat where, Lothal 
developed Harappan Culture. 



2300-2000 B.C. : 

Nuclear Harappan Culture. 

Cutch an island and connected to Kathia- 
war by this shallow sea with uniform 
culture, similar ethnological background 
of Amrian, Kot-Dijian and Harappan. 
They probably spoke the same language. 
Even today Cutch is totally Sindhi speak- 
ing population. Kalat, Las Bela, Sibi, 
Kachhi too are Sindhi speaking. Sindhi 
receded from Southern Punjab in the 
historical times. The Culture therefore 
is truly that of the Indus Valley Civiliza- 

Archaic date for Shahi Tump and Kulli 
is given an earlier date due to affinities 
with Bampur (Iran) which is being dated 
2500 B.C. Kulli Culture ware also appears 
at Karchat, Shahjo Kotiro and Chanhu- 
Daro in the Indus Valley. It developed 
at Sialk III-5 and Hisar MIL In Iran 
it is conjured to have travelled from 
Mesopotamia of Jamdat Nasr period 
which is dated 3100-2900 B.C. by the 

Kusumgar, p. 103. 


2300 B.C. to 1800 B.C. : 

The earliest proof of copper and bronze 
tools in Sind gdes back to 2300 B.C. 
and comes from Mohenjo-Daro, • 

though it developed in the Near East 
around 3500 B.C. and later on travelled 
to Europe and the Middle East. Copper 
was used for making metal tools and 
ornaments. Later on more complex 
bronze developed. The process of hard- 
ening copper and bronze metal tools is K 
now lost. The lack of copper from pre- 
Harappan sites is simply due to lack of 
adequate excavations. 



2300 B.C. - 1730 B.C. : 

Most probable period of the Indus Civili- 


In 1931 Marshall had estimated it as 
3250-2750 B.C. The proof was based on 
contacts with Mesopotamia. Gadd 
showed trade contacts >between the Indus 
Culture and Mesopotamia, between 
2350-1770 B.C. 

In 1966 Wheeler examined and found 
trade relations to exist between the Indus 
Valley, Iran (Hissar Giyan, etc.) in 2300- 
2000 B.C. and suggested the period of 
Indus Civilization as 2500-1500 B.C. 

In 1956 Fairservis basing on excavations 
in the Quetta Valley suggested the date 
of the Indus Culture between 2000-1500 
B.C. This was based on Radio Carbon 
dating of Quetta Valley excavations 
at Damb Sadaat. 

In 1964 Agarwal basing on the Radio 
Carbon dates of the whole period from 
Kot Diji to the end of Indus cities in- 
cluding Lothal gave it a date of 2300-1750 

Bridget and Allchin, p. 140 have sug- 
gested Harappan period between 2250- 
1750 B.C. 

Further Radio Carbon dating carried out 
at the Tata Institute and published in 
1974, puts the date as 2300 or earlier, to 
2000 B.C. for Nuclear regions and 2200- 
1700 B.C. for Peripheral regions. 

These dates give mature Harappan period 
as 2154-1864 B.C. 

Since Radio^ Carbon dates err by± 100 
years or more, the archaeologists accept 
the period of Harappan culture between 
2300-1750 B.C. 





2300-1750 : 

Chanhu-Daro in the early Harappan 

There is a possibility of pre-Harappan 
Culture in its lowest levels going back 
another century or a little more. 

2300 B.C.— 1750 B.C. : 

The period of the Indus Civilization 
according to Radio Carbon dating. 
Even this is approximation because the 
civilization existed before the earliest 
samples, which have been given Radio 
Carbon testing. During the period of 
its maturity the population of Mohenjo- 
Daro could not have been more than 
35000 people which was the population 

of Shikarpur a century ago. 


2255—140 B.C. : 

The Pre-Harappan Late Period II of 
Kot Diji as per Radio Carbon dating of 
Kot Diji. 

2250 B.C. : 

The Indus Valley script is presumed to 
be transitional and imitation of the Sum- 
erian, though it has not been deciphered. 
The contact between the two cultures 
was by sea via Bahrein. 

MASCA correction factor takes Harap- 
pan or Indus Civilization from 2782-1865 
B.C. for Kalibangan, which would put 
Mohenjo-Daro from 2900-1650 B.C. 

F.A. Khan, "Industry And Early Iran", 
p. 68, assigns 2400-1600 B.C. to it. 

Lambrick, Geographical Journal, 1967. 


2250-2200 B.C. : 

The stone mat pots carved with highly 
naturalistic representation of the mat- 

The MASCA correction date would put 
it to 2805 B.C., but this figure is not 
reconcilable at present, as the earliest 
MASCA date for Mohenjo-Daro is not 
available due to lack of Radio Carbon 
testing. Kalibangan's MASCA date is 
2782 B.C. Mohenjo-Daro, therefore, may 
have its Harappan beginning around 
2900 B.C. or earlier. 

Colin Mc Evedy. 

The Penguin Atlas of Ancient History, 
London, 1975, p. 26. This is disputed by 
most of the authorities. 

Gordon, p. 48, puts the date as 2500-2450 
i.e. 100 years after the founding of 



ting walls and reed bundle door ways of 
Mesopotamian huts imported to Mo- 
henjo-Daro, found from its lowest 

2255±140 B.C. : 

The Middle Kot-Dijian (Layer 5) ac- 
cording to Radio Carbon dating of the 
Pennsylvania University. 

2200 B.C. : 

The colonization of the Sai swat i* river 
by Harappan people begins. The Gait 
rule in Iraq cuts contacts with the Indus 

2200 B.C. (tentative) : 

The founding of Chanhu-Daro, contem- 
porary of Periano H. At Mohenjo- 
Daro, structural depth of 28 feet to 35 
feet below datum with rubble filling 
accounting for rapid accumulation of 
debris, called Mackay's Early Phase II. 

2200-2100 B.C. (tentative) : 

Building of citadel and granary at Mo 
henjo-Daro. Mackay's Intermediate 
Phase III at depth of formation 20 ft. and 
the founding of Harappan city, classi- 
fied as Harappan period If. Throughout 
Mohenjo-Daro period, Harappans used 
Rohri flint for stone tools at almost all 
sites. Granary needed transport system. 
Camel was yet not domesticated. Bull- 

Mohenjo-Daro according to his view: 
the date has been corrected. 

Bridget and Allchin think that the 
Mesopotamian contacts could have been 
with Amri— see 2371-2316 B.C. The 
Mohenjo-Daro contacts may be of later 

Its MASCA equivalent is 2805 B.C. 

Gordon's date of 21C0 B.C. has been 
changed in view of the Radio Carbon 
Dating of Peripheral sites of Harappa. 

The earliest Radio Carbon date for 
Kalibanganis 2232±100B.C. MASCA 
correction factor puts it to 2782 B.C. 

Gordon, p. 63, puts the year as 2500-2400 
B.C. about 100-200 years after Mohenjo- 
Daro was established, but reasonable gap 
probably would be a maximum of 100 
years. Unless lower levels of the two 
are excavated, this question cannot be 


Wheeler, 'Harappa', Ancient India, No. 3, 
New Delhi, 1946, p. 85. 

Gordon's date is 2350-2250 B.C. The 
above tentative date requires re-verifica- 
tion, v 

Toy carts too were found from Kot Diji 
by F.A. Khan in 1957-58 excavations. 




carts were evolved. Tracks of full size 
carts have been found with wheel width 
of 3'-6" and the same is the wheel width 
of oxen-carts of the Upper Sind of 

2200-2100 B.C.: 

Building of great bath at Mohenjo-Daro 
and enlargement of granary. 

Harappan occupation of Dabarkot 
and Harappan period at climax. At 
Mohenjo-Daro, Mackay's Intermediate 
Phase II, depth possibly about 18 feet. 

2200-2000 B. C. : 

Early incised mat pots at Mohenjo- 
Daro. Formative period of the Harap- 
pan Civilization occupation. 

At Mohenjo-Daro depth was 28 feet and 
is called Mackay's Early Phase I. The 
incised pots flourished at the early Dy- 
nasty III, contemporary with Royal 
graves of Ur for which 25th century 
B.C. has boon accepted. 

2200-1700 B.C. : 

The Harappan Culture in Peripheral 
Regions. (Hakra, Rajistan, Gujrat, East 

Punjab, etc.) 


2255±140B.C. : 

The Pre-Harappan late period III of Kot 
Diji as per Radio-Carbon dating of 
University of Pe nsylvania. 

It shows much earlier origin of cart in 
pre-Harappan period of Sind. 

Gordon's (p. 73) date of 2350-2200 B.C. 
has been corrected. 

Bitumen for sealing the Great Bath was 
obtained from local sources in Sind, or the 
Sind-Baluchistan border or the Punjab, 
as chemically it is different from Tel 
Asmar and Ur asphalt, but knowledge 
of asphalt as water proofing material 
may have come from Mesopotamia bet- 
ween 2300-2250 B.C. possibly via Amri 
with whom Mesopotamia may already 
have contacts. 

Gordon dates it at 2400-2300 B.C. The 
date has been corrected and requires 
further verification. 


Agarwal arjd Kusumgar, p. 100. 

MASCA correction would put it 2750- 
1800 B.C. 

The latest period as per Radio Carbon 
dating is 2255±140 B.C. but citadel's 
upper levels show the date of 2030±140 

MASCA corresponding correct years 
would be 2805 and 2590 B.C. 



2150 B.C. (tentative) : 

The vase at Periano m in Zhob shows 
parallel with that at Kulli and Pandhi 
Wahi (Taluka Johi Sind). 


2150 or slightly earlier and onwards: 

The bulls of Kulli Culture pottery and 
tethered objects which later on became 
sacred standard of the Harappan .Cul- 
ture and are in themselves akin to Wahi 
Pandhi pottery. These are earlier con- 
tacts with the Kulli Culture. 

2150 B.C. and before : 

All earlier contacts of the Middle East 
were not with the Harappans but with 
the pre-Harappan Amrian Culture of 
the Lower Indus. 

If this is accepted as true then it was not 
Aryans but pre-Aryans who destroyed 
Amri and Kot Diji and introduced the 
Harappan Culture there. The continu- 
ity with older shreds and a long period 
of overlap again shows the merging of 
two cultures and possibly the peoples 


Hargreaves, "Explorations in Baluchistan," 
Plate XXL p. 15. 

Stein, Archaeological tour in Gedrosia, 
p. XXI. Deva and McGrown, Further 
Explorations in Sind, Plate VII, P. 74, in 
Ancient India No. 5 New Delhi 1949. 
The date has been corrected from 2500 
B.C. as was believed by earlier explorers, 
but lately rejected. 

Gordon, p. 52, puts the date as 2500 B.C. 
onwards, which has been corrected. 

Bridget and Allchin, p. 114, suggest that 
such evidence of movement of Indo- 
Europeans in Asia Minor associated with 
Minyan ware happened around the same 

The long awaited analysis of human 
skeleton, skulls and carnial indices of 
the Harappan, Hissar and Indus Valley, 
which now has been published by Sarkir, 
concludes that the Indus Valley Skulls sho- 
wing carnial index of 71 are extension of 
Tape Hissar, (4b00 B.C.), covering Kot- 
Diji, Amri, Harappan and Junkar periods. 
In Phast III of Hissar i.e. after the 
fall of the Indus cities, it were probably 
the Ancient Scythians who arrived from 
Ukraine and Central Russia. They may 
be connected with the Junkar people. 
They migrated in different waves as is 
represented at Stratum I of cemetery at 
Harappa and the other at G. site. He 
suggests the use of the word Indo- 




Caspians instead of Indo-Aryans, for tho 
last phase of migration. 

He rejects Guha and Sewell's opinion that 
they were proto-Australoids or Dravi- 
dians. The proto-Australoidian theory 
has raised serious controversy on the 
origin of Sindhi language. 

Identification of Tape Hissar people with 
the Indus Valley people and according to 
Kappers, the former people's (Hissar) 
ethnic relationship with Chuhra and 
Sikh (Eickstedt 1920-21) of the Punjab 
open a new chapter. Sarkar, Races of 
Baluchistan, Sind and Punjab, pp. 72-94. 

There are further studies that the Sikhs 
belong to the Jatt population of Sind and 
Punjab. This opens a new question: 
when did Sanskrit enter the Sub-Con- 
tinent, and is the Sindhi language derived 
from it ? 

2150-2050 : 

Patterns found, at Gazi Shah and Wahi 
Pandhi in Sind indicate strong Kulli 
influence. Tnese consist of tethered 
bulls, small ib^x figures, comb patterns, 
angular sigmi forms, dotted circles zig- 
zag bands, small ibex. The Final Phase 
of the K.u li Culture showing copper 

Chachnama states that the Jatts included 
Lakhas, Sammas and Lohanas. 

Hellpusch and West-phal's study of the 
Jatts of Pakistan shows that considerable 
portion of Sind and Punjab's people 
descended from them. As late as 712 
A.D. the Jatts occupied the Sind Coast, 
river banks? Kaikan (Kalat) and the 
Bolan Pass. 

Gordon, pp. 44, 46 and 49, assumes the 
period as 2500-2200 years B.C. The 
corrected date should be 2150-2050 B.C. 
or 2200-2000 B.C. at the extremes. The 
mirror found from the upper layers may 
belong to 2100 B.C. 



objects, copper mirrors goes to later 
date and is contemporary of Harappan. 

2150-1900 B.C. (tentative) : 

At Gazi Shah in Sind existed strong Kulli 
influence. Animals with resemblance to 
that of Kulli, conventional arrowheads, 
shreds decorated this way appear at 
Amri 32.3 feet below datum to 25.7 feet. 
They are overlapped by the Harappan 
pipal trees at 28.8 feet and more normal 
types at 27.2 feet. 

2100-2000 B.C. : 

Mohenjo-Daro still in early stage. The 
pre Harappan and Harappan overlap at 
Kol-Diji. Chanhu-Daro in Phase I A. 
At Harappa, the mature Phase starts 
and so at Kalibangan. The last date of 
pre-Harappan Radio Carbon dating of 
Kalibangan is 2100 B.C. But there are 
six other dates between 2100-2000 B.C. 
showing beginning of the Harappan 
period. Some thing similar had been 
taking place at Kot-Diji. At Kot 
Diji like Amri there is evidence 
of destruction of towns by fire coincid- 
ing with the emergence of the Harappan 
culture. This could be considered the 
violent end. But continuity from the 
pre-Harappan to Harappan at Kot Diji 
and Amri in the Harappan civilization 
must derive from the pre-Harappan cul- 
ture in the whole Indus Valley. This 
could as well apply to population and 
language, inspite of the fact that this 
change took place coinciding with an 
attack from outside. This should also 
be considered as second migration of 
people to Sind via Baluchistan from 
South-East Iran. 


Mujamdar, 'Explorations', pp. 95-101. 
Deva and Mc Gown, Further Exploration 
in Sind, Plate VI and Plate VII, also 
pp. 70 and 76. 

Gordon, p. 47, puts the date as 2500-2300 
B.C. The exact dates of Kulli have not 
been determined, though reasonable 
period of Kulli succeeding Mehi should 
fall within these limits. 

Bridget and Allchin, p. 118. 

■ . 



In latter levels of Kot-Diji many charac- 
teristics of the Harappan forms occur. 
A Radio Carbon date of 2090± 140 B.C. 
for Kot Diji shows great conflagration. 
This is just before Kot-Diji turned 
Harappan. It may, therefore, be con- 
sidered that Kot-Diji culture came to an 
end in this century. A coincidence took 
place at Kalibangan where Radio Car- 
bon dates show beginning of the Harap- 
pan culture between 2100-2070 B.C. 
Similar date of Lothal culture is 2082 ± 
1 30B.C. Lothal came to an end by 1 810± 
140 B.C. 

2100-1900 B.C. : 

The second wave of Mesopotamian 
trade with the Indus Valley^ began with 
King Ur Nammu and continued for 
200 years until the Larsa period. The 
possible route of trade could have been 
from Baluchistan via Mula pass follow- 
ing Johi to the Manchhar Lake or lake 
Garee near Karchat, Lake Phusi and 
Lake Ruhel to Wahi Pandhi and Tando 

2065±110B.C. : 

Nindovari Domb near Kalat flourished 

as shown by Radio Carbon dating. 


Equivalent MASCA corrected dates for 
Kot Diji would be 2590 B.C. 

At Kalibangan similar MASCA date 
would be 2600-2570 B.C. 

For Lothal MASCA dating would be 
2582 B.C. 

Lothal came to an end around 21 10 B.C. 
as per MASCA correction. 

F.A. Khan, Indus Valley And Early 
Iran: p. 17 and p. XXII. 

These dates supersede any Radio Carbon 
dating as historical records confirm it. 

Textiles and spices had been the Sub- 
Continent's chief exports since the Roman 
times and possibly from Sind and the 
Punjab even since the Harappan times. 

Bridget and Allchin, p. 45. 

Agrawal and Kusumgar, p. 99. 

Its equivalent MASCA correction would 
be 2565 B.C. 

2030±140B.C. : 

The late Kot Dijian according to Radio 
Carbon Dating of Pennsylvania Univer- 

Kulli settlement evacuated while it had 
developed sophisticated patterns of 

This with MASCA correction would be 
2590 B.C. 

Gordon, pp. 47 and 49. 



wares with winged lions, monsters, poly- 
chrome, use of red, blue and green paint, 
as found from the Nal burials. Around 
that period, Mehi type (another name for 
Kulli according to some authorities) 
incised pots were common in the 
Harappan culture. 

The earliest approach of tribes that fi- 
nally sacked Mohenjo-Daro comes from 
the axe discovered at Khurab in the 
Persian Makran. These tribes moved 
to Shahi Tump in Kej Valley of Makran. 

This is considered as the third migra- 
tion from South-East Iran or the Persian 



The date may be acceptable within a 
margin of 50 years. 

In absence of Radio Carbon dating this 
could vary between 2050-1900 B.C. 




Gordon, pp. 78 and 94. 

These tribes (until recently termed as 
Aryans) came via Iranian plateau or 
Russian Turkistan and South Russian 
steppes. No matter where they were 
from, they came from Iran partly from 
the North via Herat and Kirman via 
Qila Bist converging on Kandhar, and 
partly via Shahi Tump from the Iranian 
Makran, avoiding mountain ranges and 
far wide regions of Kabul. The likely 
line of approach would have been Tochi, 
Gomal and the Kurram Valley or possibly 
from the Persian Makran to Pakistanian 
Makran and then to Manchhar region of 
Sind via the Mula Pass or even via 
Karachi and the Lower Sind. 

Gordon's statement is only partly 
true. The tribes probably preferred the 
Makran route. He accepts Tochi, Gc- 
mal and Kurram route as the last two 
names appear in Rig Veda and it became 
convenient to him to prove that the 
tribes were Aryans. 

2000 B.C. : 

Advent of Bronze Age in Iran. 

Ghirshman, p. 71. The statement shows 
that bronze which was used in Mohenjo- 
Daro prior to 2000 B.C., was an in- 
dependent development in the Sub-Con- 
tinent and was not brought by pre- 
Harappans or Harappans from outside. 







18. 2300- 1700 B. C. A low street at Mohenjo Daro. 




20. 2200-2000 B.C. Kulli ware fror 



21. 2200-2100 B.C. The Great Bath, Mohenjo Daro, Plan reconstructed. 






23. 2300- I7C0 B.C. Interior of a typical house at Mohenjo Daro (reconstructed 
floor, wooden beams and rafter on the roof (After Marshall, 1931 ). 

the brick tiled 

9: :» 

— o 

< £ 

it n 

3 s ■ S 

O. «" It 

> g ^ 

















I ) 





t > 








29. 2300- 1700 B. C. Stone and gold bead necklaces from Mohenjo Daro. 


30. 2300- 1700 B.C. Fayence bracelet from Harappa. 

32. Bullock cart of modern Sind, still a common site on many roads ( From Wheeler above cited 



33. Seperate horrowing and sowing by tubes in the field still practiced today, as was in Indus 
civilization 2300- 1700 B. C. (After D. D. Kosambi ) 










35. 2300- 1800 B.C. Figurine of mother godess from Mohenjo Daro (National Museum. 
Karachi ) 




a s £ - 

i >-l 

IS £ I 



38. 2300- 1700 B.C. Bronze Statue of dancing girl from Mohenjo Daro. 

39. 2300 - 1700 B. C. Predecessor of the game ' Chess ', from Mohenjo Dj 

n|0 \Jiro. 


40. 2300- 1700 B.C. Steatile seals and their impressions with script and animal designs from 
Mohenjo Daro. 


41. 2300- 1700 B. C. Gods and their motifs carved on the Indus seals. These seals prove 
that the religious of Upinshads. Buddhism and Puranas had their roots in the Indus 
Culture. ( From D. D. Kosambi ). 


I ] 

42. i) 2300- 1700 B C. Indus Seal showing a 
boat with sail, cars, aitd rudder or 
steering "car: Such a- -boat was built 
by - and he travelled from mouth of 
Euphrates to Karachi in 1975, proving 
that such communication was possible 
between the Indus and Mesopotamian 

ii ) 2300- 1700 B.C. Indus seal showing sacri- 
fice and three horned god in a pipal. 
Animal at the back is Chimera with horns 
of goat, tail of a fish, body of ram and 
clawed feet ( From D. D. Kosambi ). 

iii ) 2300 - 1 700 B.C. Indus seal showing a bullman 
killing a horned tiger ( D. D. Kosambi ). 


43. Indus Seals and Methology, which influenced later religions ( D. D. Kosambi). 
i ) Anamaic hero strangling two tigers like Gilgames Mesopotamia. 
ii ) Indus Seal representing man tiger from which developed man lion incarnation of Vishnu 

( nasimha ). * 

iii ) Seal from Mesopotamia, from which developed fish incarnation of Vishnu. 












S 2 

* «- 



* 2. 
2 > 

2" 2 








2000 B.C. : 

TJie Mature Harappan culture ended. 

2000 B.C.: 

The domestication of horse. 

2000 1900 B.C. : 

The Kull« Culture at Shahi Tump in 


2000-1800 B.C. : 

Mohenjo-Daro in Intermediate Phase. 
Amri in Phase III B and IQ C, each last- 
ing about 100 years. At Kot-Diji, the 
Harappan Culture takes over. There 
was overlapping of the pre-Harappan 
and Harappan for at least a century i.e. 
2100-2030 B.C. The Harappan culture 
shows at Kalibangan in East Punjab. 
Chanhu Daro was in Phase B and C. 

Agarwal and Kusumgar, p. 100. 

Bridget and Allchin, p. 144. 

The theory that horse was domesticated 
in Ukraine, Kazakistan and Central Asia 
around the fourth and fifth millennium 
B.C., is rejected by Zeuner who states that 
this animal was half ass (Hemoiones) 
and not a true horse. 

Agarwal and Kusumgar, p. 104. See 
also 2150-1900 B.C. 


1900 B.C. (tentative) : 

The shaft hole axe, unknown until 
1800 B.C. in the Indian Sub-Continent 
originated in Maikop and Tarakaya in 
South Russia. 

1800 B.C. or shortly after : 

Shahi Tump burial with compartment 
seals, shaft hole axe of copper and 
archaistic pottery of Iranian origin, 
tripod bowl, etc., show that the tribes 
from Khurab in the Persian Makran had 
occupied Shahi Tump in Kej Makran. 

Bridget & Allchin, p. 145. It may have 
been brought by Junkar people and may 
have to be antidated by a 100 years to 
1900 B.C. for Maikop. 

Gordon, pp. 79 and 80. 
There is further evidence that painted 
pottery culture of Kulli, Nal and Periano 
HI, also came to an abrupt end possibly 
at the hands of this new tribe. Probably 
th,e same tribes later on moved to Sind 
and the Punjab. These people, now 
called Junkar, drove out the Harappans 




1850-1800 B.C. : 

Contacts with Mohenjo-Daro renewed 
by the first Dynasty of Babylonia. 
Depth at Mohenjo-Daro according to 
Mackay is 10 feet. Adze-axe and dirks 
having parallels with those in Syria and 
Palestine in 2000-1900 B.C. were bro- 
ught by the traders to Mohenjo-Daro. 

2800-1750 B.C. : 

Pre and post-Indus Civilization flour- 
ished in Cutch which was an island form- 
ing a bridge between Sind and Kathia- 
war. The same civilization penetrated 
Kathiawar via the island of Cutch. 

from Junkar, Lohamjo-Daro and Chan- 
hu Daro. Shaft hole axe similar to 
that found at Shahi Tump was found at 
Chanhu-Daro. In addition, there are 
other proofs. 

Piggot, Ancient India, No. 4, 'Notes on 
certain metal pins and maced head.' 

Gordon, p. 63. 

Gordon, "Early Use of Metal in India 
and Pakistan". J.R.A. S.,Vol. XXX, p.57. 
Gordon's date of 1900-1800 B.C., may be 
accepted with a margin of about 50 
years, say 1850-1800 B.C. 





1800-1600 B.C. (tentative) : 

The late Phase at Mohenjo-Daro and at 
Amri the end of Phase HI B. By about 
1800 B.C. Chanhu-Daro Phase C ends. 
By 1750-1700 B.C. Harappa and Kali- 
bangan also come to an end. 

During the period, bufallo (Bos bub- 
alois) whose bones appear in upper 
layers of Mohenjo-Daro may probably 
have been domesticated. The elephant 
and camel bones too occur. The for- 
mer may have been domesticated. 
Camel was domesticated in Arabia by 
1300 B.C. and possibly was not the 
beast of burden at Mohenio-Daro. 


Since the Jat tribes are associated with 
raising of bufalloes and as the pro- 

Harappan and Harappan skulls represent 
these races as Jats, the bufallo may 
have been domesticated earlier by the 

Harappans or Amrians. 

Bones of pig (Sus Cristaus) are also 
found, but it is not sure whether it was 
domesticated. For the domestication of 
pig, evidence comes from Ranpur IIA 
site in Gujarat. Pig was domesticated in 
Middle East in the early Neolithic times. 

1760±115B.C. : 

Radio Carbon date for the last phase of* 
Mohenjo-Daro. Still it does not prove 
that Mohenjo-Daro was destroyed latest 
by 1645 B.C. as the sample belongs to 
the period when it had yet not perished. 

Around 1750 B.C. : 

Junkar occupation of Lohamjo-Daro. 
calleJ Late Phase III by Mackay, exist- 
ing at depth of 7 feet. It is also named 
as Phase IV of the Harappan Culture. 

The MASCA re-adjusted date would be 
2060 B.C. 

Gordon's date 1800-1700 B.C. has boat 
corrected but needs further revision 



1750 B.C. : 

The possible period of invasion of the 
Indus cities as is shown by Trihni ware 
found at Lai Chatto mound near Trihni 
at Shah Hasan and Lohri around the 
Manchar Lake and at Chanhu-Daro. 
These wares show similarity or affinities 
to Ravi ware, developed on the fall 
of Harappan city at ; the hands of the 

Junkar was succeeded by Jhangar, the 
pottery of which is incised grey ware and 
also bichrome ware with simple painted 
, decorations which are contemporary of 
grey ware. Jhangar pottery was ftfco 
found high upon the Chanhu-Daro site, 
the types found include a peculiar form 
of triple jar of the kind found at Shahi 
Tump, Sialk VI and Shah Tape in Iran 
associated with the invasion. 

1750 B.C. : 

The Harappan culture broke up— in 
Sind due to (i) flooding as felt by Mac- 
kay and Marshal!, (ii) the change of 
the course of the Indus as suggested by 
Lambrick and M.H. Panhwar, and (iii) 
the Tetanic movements down streams 
causing lake formation, flooding and 
silting of the area as suggested by 

But all these theories do not answer for 
'he outside invasion proved by corpses 
lying in the streets, buried treasures and 
jewellery, copper shaft-axe-edge whose 
Iranian and Russian parallels are discus- 
sed under 1800 B.C. 

For the past 45 years, the popular 
theory was the Aryan invasion of the 

Mujumdar, Explorations in Sind. 
Mackay, Chanhu-Daro. 
Gordon, pp. 88 and 82. 
Gordon's statement putting the whole 
period as 1750-1300 B.C. is incorrect. 
Jhangar is now considered around 

Agarwal &n8 Kusumgar, p. 104. 
Ghirshman dated the Assyrian seal 
found with triple Jar at Sialk Necropolis 
a», 900 B.C. A compromise date of 
1100 B.C. may be more acceptable for 
the Jhangar people. 


This theory is now rejected. Rig Vedic 
Aryans are considered to have risen 





Indus cities. It stated that the Harap- 
pans (Dasas or slaves) were dark snub- 
nosed, worshippers of phallus, rich in 
cattle and lived in fortified strongholds 
01? Pufar. Another tribe Pani, which 
was also wealthy in cattle and treasures, 
though fought the Aryans but also joined 
against Dasas and set to fire tfhctr cities. 
The Aryans first settled in Sapta Sindhu 
(Land of seven Indus Rivers), where 
their stay was not entirely peaceful. 

1 750-1500 B.C. or even 1450 B.C. 
The end of Harappa around 1750 B.C., 
and subsequent establishment ef cemetery 
H Cultures at its site. The pottery has 
affinities with wares from Iran, Meso- 
potamia, and Djamshid II, which are 
dated 1550-1400 B.C 

The pottery of cemetery H at Harappa 
shows continuity- with preceding cul- 
ture showing that the same population 
lived together, side by side with attac- 
kers. The presence of motifs with pipal 
leaves shows influence of the conquer- 
ors and may have come from Giyan or 
Djamshid II in Iran. 

It was fusion of the Harappan traits 
with new traits from Iran and must have 
taken place with the fusion of popula- 
tion too and may be considered second 
post-Harappan migration after Junkar 
people, if the two were not the part of 
the same migration. 

1750-1450 B.C. (Approximate) : 

Development and use of Linear-A 
Script in Crete while latter was at the 
height of its culture. 

around 1100-1000 B.C. Keter mat entr>. 



v Leonard Cottrel, Lost Worlds, Vol I, 
p. 8. In this script each sign repre- 
sented the syllable of a word. 



1750-1450 B.C. : 

Junkar Occupation of Phase II of 
Chanhu-Daro. The date of its end is 
yet uncertain. Limited weapons of ■ 
foreign origin brought by traders or 
mercenaries called late IB and late II by 
Mackay. The depth of the late II 
period is about 5 feet 

The previous theory that city life came 
to an end in the Sub-Continent with the 
fall of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, is 
now rejected. A great deal survived 
due to occupation of cemetery H at 
Harappa, Junkar-jo-Daro and Chan- 
hu-Daro in Sind. Mohenjo-Daro may 
have not been re-occupied due to change 
in the course of the river Indus or annual 
flooding for many decades. 

The Jhangar occupation after Junkar 
further shows that city life continued, 
though in a very much deteriorated 

1650 B.C. : 

Junkar which may have started 50 years 
earlier in small settlement of Sind, 
continued for another about 150 years. 

1650-1600 B.C. : 

Sacking of Mohenjo-Daro called late 
I Period by Mackay. Harappa was 
sacked earlier than Mohenjo-Daro pro- 


F.A. Khan, Indus Valley and Early 

Iran, pp. 62-63. 

Agarwal and Kusumgar date it 1900 B.C., 

and put 1800-1700 B.C. for Lohamjo- 


Mackay considers it around 1750 B.C. 
for Chanhu-Daro. 

Bridget and Allchin put the date at 
1750-1500 or 1450 B.C. The dates are 
difficult to reconcile in absence of Radio 
Carbon dating. 

Gordon, p. 63. 

It is assumed that Junkar people took 






1600-1550 B.C. : 

Phase III at Amri. Mohenjo-Daro was 
already burnt and non-existant. At 
Chanhu-Daro, Junkar Phase II was 
established. At Harappa cemetery H 
was established. Harappan culture 
continued in Gujarat even after 1600 
B.C. and ended by 1500 B.C. 

Junkar culture at Chanhu-Daro conti- 
nued upto about 1 350 B.C. and was suc- 
ceeded by Jhangar culture at Chanhu- 

The Junkar invaders used chariot as 
fighting vehicle vis-a-vis foot soldiers of 
the east, and the present Pakistan area. 
Piggot was first to point this out. 

1550-1400 B.C. : 

Double headed animal pin, found at 
Kaban cemeteries in the style of the 
Harappan pin. 

1400 B.C : 

Knowledge of smelting of and forging 
iron invented and improved but was 
kept a secret by the Hittians. 

1500-1100 B.C. (tentative) :. 

The Second post- Harappan wave of 
migration from Iran to Sind and the 

over small towns of Sind and Baluchistan 
first and possibly allied themselves with 
citizens of Mohenjo-Daro, against the 
tribes of the North who had already 
sacked Harappa and occupied the Ravi 
valley. If this is assumed as correct, 
the Junkar people and the cemetery H 
people were of two separate migrations. 
Mohenjo-Daro, when it fell was never 
occupied again, until Kushans built stupa 
there in 2nd century A.D. 

Gordon thinks it continued upto 1350 
B.C. The latest thinking is that Jhangar 
established itself around 900 B.C. 

Bridget and Allchin date Jhangar around 
1000 B.C. pp. 146-147. 


C.F. A. Schaveffer. Stratigraphic Com- 
paree, etc., p. 533 quoted by F.A. Khan 
in the Indus Valley And Early Iran, p. 38. 

Bridget and Allchin, p. 314. 

The first wave is associated with cemetery 



Punjab associated with copper hoards, 
Ochre coloured hoards and Ochre 
coloured pottery. 


1380 B.C : 

A treaty of the Hittian king Subiluliuma 
and Mitannian king Mattiwaza, men- 
tions the names of Mitra, Varuna, Indra 
and Nasatya, the gods of the Rig- Vedic 
Aryans. The migration of people of 
such religion to the Sub-Continent took 
another 300 years. There were' no 
Aryans in the Sub-Continent before 
1050 B.C., if we consider^he Rig- Vedic 
people as the first Aryans. 

13 00 B.C. 

The Indus-Valley turned illiterate. Such 
was not the case in Western Iran, Baby- 
lon, Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Hittie, 
Greece etc., Crete. Cyprus and Sinai, 
where the scripts used were Hittian, 
Mitannian, Elamite, Amorite, Assyrian, 
Akkadian, Cypro-Minnoan, Cretan, 
Linear, Byblos, Sinai, Egyptian Hiero- 
glyphs, Egyptian Hieratic, and Ugritic. 

1450-1200 B.C. : 

Development of linear-B script in Crete. 
just at the time of Myceneans rule 
there. Its use continued upto 1200 

1300 B.C. : 

Camel domesticated in Arabia. The 
exact date of its domestication in Sind 
has not been ascertained. 

H at Harappa, and the Junkar people, 
if the Junkar and the cemetery H people 
came in the wave of migration between 
1500-1100 B.C. 

Ghirshman, Iran, p. 62, 

McEvedy, pp. 36, 37. The Indus 
Valley may actually have become illiterate 
with the fall of Mohenjo-Daro by about 
1650-1600 B.C. 

Leonard Cottrel, Lo9t Worlds. Vol. I, 
pp. 8 and 226. 

The linear A and B scripts were further 
developed and finally into present al- 
phabet. Hebrew alphabets developed 
by about 1000 B.C. from which Greek 
alphabets were adopted and subsequently 
the alphabetic system spread to the Old 

McEvedy, pp. 44-45. 

Also see entry 825 B.C. and 700 B.C. 






1300-1000 B.C. : 

A now wave of irrigation from the west 
to the Peninsular India, bringing foreign 
bronze and eventually iron. This is 
termed as the fourth wave. The earliest 
one was with, intrusive objects intro- 
duced during the Harappan Period and 
the second one was in the post Harap- 
pan Phase, called the Junkar. Then the 
Third wave was from Iran to Sind 
and the Punab in 1500-1 100 B.C. 



Bridget and Allchin, p. 323. 







1300-519 B.C. : 

Proto-histoiy perihd of Sind, based on 
classical literature of Rig Veda. 

If Rig-Vedic people migrated around 
1050 B.C. and afterwards, the date 
has to be adjusted after further evidence. 


1200 BC : 

With the breaking up of the Hittian Em- 
pire, the iron working technique spread 
to the Western Asia, Caucasus. Eastern 
and Qentral Europe but not to the 
Indian Sub-Continent. 

1200-1000 B.C. : 

A new movement (Number 5) of the 
people of Iran or the Caucasian origin 
into the Sub-Cqntinent took place, as is 
proved from Gian I, Sialk bowl, copper 
hoard at Fatehgarh and Bithur in U.P.,. 
swords of copper, etc., and hilt from 
Chandoli in Maharashtra. 

1100 B.C. : 

The Jhangar culture which probably 
started 100 years earlier, became well- 
established around Manchhar. It gets 
its name from .neighbouring village 
called Jhangara. 

1100 B.C. : 

Iron starts superseding bronze on the 
Iranian plateau as shown at the Sialk 

Ghirshman, p. 62. Also see entry 1 380 B.C. 
Since Rig-Vedic Aryans are assigned 
1050-700 B.C. This date would need 


Bridget and Allchin, p. 153. Ghirshman. 
p. 67. 

F.A. Khan, Indus Valley and Early 
Iran, pp. 62-63, assigns 1500 B.C. to it. 
Jhangar may be considered as the 6th 
wave of migration from the West. 
Agarwal and Kusumgar assign the date 
of 900 to it. See en tr y 1 100-900 B.C. 







1100-1000 B.C. : 

Rann of Cutch navigable to small craft 
allowing Lothal and Rangpur to be in 
touch with the Indus valley. 


1100-900 B.C. : 

The pottery of Rangpur II and III, re- 
sembling the Ravi (successor of Harappa) 
designs particularly in the figures of 
antelopes and may be contemporary of 

Trihni and Jhangar. 


1100-900 B.C. : 

The probable date of Trihni. The Jhan- 
gar culture in the Manchar Region, sub- 
sequent to that of lake dwellers of Trihni 
and Shah Hasan. 

1100-750 B.C. : 

Smelting of iron reaches NWFP, Balu- 
chistan and Sind. The date for Pirak 
in Kachhi District near Sind border 
as shown by Radio Carbon dating is 
800 B.C. In Swat graves it goes back 
to 1000 B.C., and in Cairn graves of 
Baluchistan to 900-800 B.C. 

Independent smelting reached- South em 
India around 1000 B.C. 

Gord on, p. 31. 

The Rann of Cutch completely dried up 
between 1025 and 1350 A.D. Mahmud 
of Ghazni found it as a shallow creek but 
not as a desert. Feroze Tughlaq's army 
perished in it as it had turned into a 

Dikshit, M.G., 1950. 

Excavation at Rangpur, 1947, in the 
Bulletin of the Deccan College Research 
Institute. Gordon, p. 91, puts the date 
as 1250 B.C. 

Mujumdar, Explorations in Sind, dated it 
as 1400-1200 B.C. Jhangar is now con- 
sidered the earliest at 1050 B.C. 

Agarwal and Kusumgar, p. 1 53. Smelting 
of iron developed in the Asia Minor, 
(Turkey) between 1800-1200 B.C. Hitties 
kept it a secret, but due to the break up 
of the Hittian power it spread to Iran 
by about 1200 B.C. to 1000 B.C., as shown 
by Necropolis A & B at Sialk, and studied 
by Schaeffer. Cairn pottery of Balu- 
chistan has designs with Caucasian c'etails 
and it is presumed that the process 
reached Baluchistan from Caucacus via 
Iran, between 1000-750 B.C. At Swat 
it may have come via Central Asia. 

The date of 800 B.C. for Sind would be 
the latest in the absence of exploration, 
as nearly all principal Chalcolithic sites 
in Sind and the Punjab were abandoned 
Excavations in Rajistan and dry sites 



1075±80 toT75±105 : 

Iron Age Pirak in the Sibi District on 

Sind border. 

1050 B.C. : 

Jhangar occupation of Chanhu-Daro .* 

(As noted above, the word Jhangar 

was coined by Mujamdar from location 

of the site near Jhangara village 20 
miles west of Sehwan on the Manchhar 

along Sarswati-Ghaggar or Hakra sy-s 
tem, show the Grey Ware connected with 
Iron Age. It seems to have reached 
there by about 535 B.C. as per Radio 
Carbon evidence of the Tata Institute. 

Radio Carbon Dating of Pirak excava- 
tions under • Casal, puts the date as 
785±105 B.C. i.e 900— 700 B.C., as re- 
ported in Pakistan Archaeology, No. 
7, p. 96. 

Agarwal and Kusumgar's 800 B.C. on 
p- 122, would bd more acceptable as 
suggested by Casal. 

Bridget and Allchin, pp. 146-147. 

Agarwal and Kusumgar put the date 

of the Jhangar Culture at 900 B.C. 

F.A. Khan assigns a much earlier date 
to it. It was migration of the 7th wave 
of people from Iran. 



• l 



1050-700 B.C. (tentative): 

Painted Grey Ware pottery and intro- 
duction of iron showing the eighth 
post-Harappan wave of migration. 

Radio Carbon Dating reported by Agar- 
wal shows presence of iron in Balu- 
chistan Cairn graves and Pirak and Iron 
Age on Sind border from 900-800 B.C. 
In Swat it goes back to 1000 B.C. 


Bridget and Allchin, p. 324, report tha 
the Vedic Aryans should be associated 
with this wave of migration called 
Painted Grey Ware. 

Ghirshman, p. 73, records immigration 
of Indo-Europeans in Iran in the begin- 
ning of the first millennium B.C.; asso- 
ciated with the use of iron. 

000 B.C. : 
Composition of Earlier Hymns of Rig- 
Veda. This work gives namss of geo- 
graphical places, the River Indus and 
its tributaries and other information on 
Sind. The Sanskrit language used in it 
differs from the classical language as 
much as 16th century Sindhi differs 
from its 20th century version. The 
hymns were composed by priestly 

1000 B.C : 

The Iranians of the Trarisoxian region 
of Asia found that a skilful rider could 
manage his horse on the battlefield. 
The discovery ultimately put an end to 
the Chariot as useful war weapon. It 
was soon introduced in the Sub-Con- 

1000 B.C. : 

The Hindu caste system first described 
in Purusha Sukta of Rig- Veda, dividing 


CHI.. Vol. I, p. 100, puts it 12-1000 B.C. 
Basham, p. XIX, puts early and later 
hymns of Rig- Veda between 1500-900 



McEvedy, p. 40. 

The discovery led to the rise of Parthians 
in Eastern Persia, which they held for 
many centuries. 



Bridget and Allchin, p. 48. / 

Also see 1050-700 B.C. for migration 



society into four major groups: Braha- 
man, Khatriya, Vaisha and Sudra. It 
was never so harsh in the beginning as 
after the challenge to it by the Buddhists 
and later on by the Muslims in the 12th 

1000-800 B.C. 

of Aryans. It appears that Rig-Vedic 
Aryans came around 1000 B.C. and 
Rig- Veda cannot be considered to have 
been composed earlier or at least to the 
antiquity assigned to it. 

Composition of later hymns of Rig- 
Veda and trn other 3 Vedas i.e. Sama 
Veda, Yajur Veda and Athar Veda. 


From the Rig-Veda's description, it 
appears that the Vedic people had 
reached the Lower Sind and knew the 
sea and its tides and possibly hac^trade 
relations with the outside World. 

900 B.C. : 

Mahabharata War, in which Jaydrath 
the ruler of Sind was an ally of Kaurus. 

By this time Aryans had expanded to 
whole of Northern Sub-Continent in- 
cluding Sind, Qandhar, Gujarat and 

CHI. Vol. I, pp. 100 and 225. Puranas 
place the war between Kaurus and 
Pandvas around 1000 B.C.. but Maha- 
bharata puts it at much later date. 
Basham, p. XIX, puts this war around 
900 B.C. 

Pusalkar, 'Aryan Settlements in India,' 
HCIP, Vol. I. pp. 247-48. 

Basham. p. XIX. 

According to Aihole inscription of Pula- 
kesin II (7th century A.D.), the Bharata 
War took place in 3102 B.C. Another 
School of Hindu astronomy puts it 653 
years after the Kalyug (Iron age or 
machine age) i.e. 2449 B.C. But these 
statements have to be discounted in the 
presence of archaeological information. 
Fleet, JRAS, 1911 pp. 479ffand 675ff. 
Brihat Samhidta XIII, p. 3. 
Stein Rajatarangini, Vol. I. pp. 48-56. 
HCIP, Vol. I, p. 273 puts it between 
1400-1000 B.C*. Since Rig-Vedic Aryan 
came after 1050 B.C., this too is to be 

825 B.C. : 

With the domestication of camel around 
1300 B.C. in Arabia, a contact was 
established with the Tndian Sub-Conti- 
nent in the next centuries. By 825 B.C. 
Urban life was revived in the Gangetic 
plains, but we know nothing of it as of 

McEvedy, pp. 44-45. 

For the first 200 years of its domestica- 
tion, cornel was used only for purpose of 
War, but after 1100 B.C., it became the 
beast of burden, replacing ass which had 
to move from water hole to water hole. 





the Indus Valley, due to lack of archaeo- 
logical explorations. The Indus mouth 
and Sind must have played an import- 
ant part in trade transfers from Ninevah 
(Nimrud), Susa, Ur, Babylon and even 
Tyre, Spain and Memphis. 

810-805 B.C : 

Semiramis is reported to have invaded 
Sind, but Satauro-bates, the king of 
Sind, repelled the invaders. 
Here Sind means Makran. 

800 B.C. : 

The knowledge of iron spread to the 
whole of the Eastern Europe and the 
Western Asia and also reached the Sub- 
continent, replacing bronze and copper, 

which no longer were economic pro- 

800-700 B. C. : 

The Assyrians undertook gigantic irri- 
gation works for the purpose of agri- 
culture in the whole of their empire 
which included most of Iran. 

800-^00 B.C. : 

Period of Brahmmas. 

800-600 B.C. : 

Marine trade between India and Baby- 
lon flourished and it was in the hands 
of Dravadians, who may have been the 
ancestors of the present Mohanas, 
Machhi and other Dravadian tribes of 

South Arabians found land routes to 
Egypt and the Mediterranean coast, ex- 
porting by land goods of Sind to the West 
until the end of 1 5th century, when Port- 
ugese dis-covered the sea route to the 

In Dr. Nabi Bakhsh Qazi's opinion name 
of Sindhi King was Veersen and Sthavar- 
pati was his title— MEHRAN, Vol. 17, 
No. 4, 1968, p. 99. This statement is how- 
ever doubted by most authorr ties. 

Ghirshman, Iran, p. 93. During the 
next few centuries, the system reached 
Sind. At the time of the Mauryans 
(321-184 B.C.), the water supply to farmers 
was controlled through orifices and 
sluices and every farmer's quota of water 
was fixed, as is reported by Smith in 

Rapson, Ancient India, p- 102, puts it 
800-600 B.C. This would include later 
Brahmana period too. 

Mookerji, Indian Shipping, p. 62. 


800-350 B.C. : 

The beginning of Painted Grey Ware 
at Lakhiyopir in Sind around 800 B.C. 

750 B.C. : 

Iron swords found in excavation at 
Damba Koh Gatt, Jiwanri, Zangian, 
Khuzdar, Wadh and etc. in Baluchistan. 
Iron must have been well established in 
Sind then, as these sites are well connect- 
ed with Sind through a number of small 

725—150 B.C. : 

Iron Age in Rajistan. 


713-440 B.C. : 

A new and 9th post-Harappan wa>e of 
the Indo-Europeans as proved by Dr. 
Dani's exploration at Thana in Swat and 
Timurgara in Bajaur. 

700 B.C. : 

One -humped camel of Arabia appeared 
for the first time in the arid districts 
(Thar), to the east of Indus, and made 
Sind famous for camel breeding. 

700 B.C. : 

Later Br ah man a period. Introduction 
of cotton plant from Indus Valley into 
Assyria by Se inacherib. 

Agarwal and Kusumgar, pp. 127, 131 
and 153. 

Grey Ware is associated with the Iron 
Age as well as with the Aryans by some 
authorities. The Grey Ware associated 
with it covers most of the area associated 
with the early settlements of the Aryans. 

Steins, Gedrosia. 


Agarwal and Kusumgar, p. 122. 

Iron Age in Sind could be computed 
from Pirak (107±580 to 775±105) and 
Rajistan, as about 800 B.C., though it 
became more significant in the Sub- 
Contine.it between 600-500 B.C. 

Bridget and Allchin, p. 1 52. 


Hellbush and Westphal, 'Jats of Pakistan*, 
p. 43. This statement may not be correct, 
as camel was domesticated in Arabia in 
1300 B.C. and won't take 600 years to 
reach Sind. 

CHM, p. 100. 

W. King, Proceedings of Society for 

Biblical Archaeology- 1909, pp. 339-43. 


■ ■ ;■>*» i.yi 











i»ONC. M 



D- ■> 







1 1 1 1 

1 1 I 
I I 






45. Comparative table of symbol on Indus valley seals and punch marked coins (Marshall- 1931 ). 



46. 1750- 1700 B. C. Cemetry-H Cultural 
ware of declining Indus Culture. 


47. 1650- 1300 B. C. Jhukar ware produced 
during early period of declining Indus 


48. I 100 - 900 B. C. Jhangar Ware produced 
during the late declining Indus Culture. 











50, Present day potter and his wheel, identical to as it was in 3000 B. C. 


51. Head of Darius-I from relief art Bistun (.From Art of Ancient Iran by Edith Porada ). 



52. Darius-I, giving audience. Bas relief from treasury at Persepolis. 

53. The hall of audience at Persepolis, which could accommodate 10,000 people. 





54. Winged bull, from the gate way of tomb of Xexzes at Bistun. 

55. Naqsh-i-Ruttam : Rock Tombs of Achaemenian Kings and fire alter. 





56. 333 - 323 B. C. Alexander from a coin. (Vincent, Voyage of Nearchus London 1797). 





U . S S.R 






1000-500 B.C. 



600-500 B.C. 












8 Q0 b:c. 


Cost line In COO- 500 B 










































_ 800 B.C. 



P R A S 

U M 



640-325 B.C. 









1(0 — 519 





- too 

- s»o 


- 57 


-- 550 

.._ sto 

-- 510 

-- 520 



- tto 










CYRUS - 1 




SI 9 "(50/(00 


•00-SS9 B£. 

9 - I4< B.C. 

55(-(93 B.C. 



550-510 BC 


BARDITA 5 22 B.C. 


S22-m ac. 



S1t-(50/(00 B.C 







(91-(»2 B.C 

(•«-(»S/G( BC 

— *to 

(S5- (25 B.C. 






(62-A30 B.C 

- (to 





- 390 


- 170 

- 1(0 


— 3(0 

- - 330 — 
- 310 





(50/(00-125 B.C 










IE ) MOERIS 11 . 









(50/(00-2*0 BjC 








(a) AMBHI (Ta.ilo) 
(c) POROS (Jihkml 
M) SAUBHUT (Salt Ronge) 
(c) SlBOi {Tnb of Jhana) 
(f)MALLOI (Multan.) 
(f)OXYORAKAI (Lahore) 

450/«0O- 127/325 B.C. 





(30 - }t( B.C . 

(2(-(0( B.C. 

t0(-]S9/SI B.C. 



- 7. 



3t(-221 B.C. 


ARSES -HI ll«-33*av. 

DARIUS- 111 33S-330BC 
IRAN IN 110 B.C 

IN I2f B.C. 



700-600 B.C. : 

Housing Peshdadia (Also Peshalad) 
invaded Sind but was repelled. 

668-626 B.C. : 

Word 'Sindhu' appearing in the tablets 
of library of Assurbanipal means 'Indian 
cotton. This may have been exported 
from Sind, though contact of Sind with 
outside world was lost after 1400 B.C. 

660-585 B.C. : 

Zoroaster lived then. He founded the 
religion of Zoroastrianism. 

Early Upanishads written. 

600 B.C. : 

Zoroaster who is thought to have been 

born in Media, lived in Ox us region 

towards the end of the same century. 

Here he was killed and buried on the 

top of a hill. Cyrus is reported to 

have visited his grave. 

( 00- SO B.C. : 

The later stages of the Tron Age in the 
Sub-Continent and the early Historic 
Period. Plain unpainted pottery be- 
came more in fashion in the Sub-Con- 
tinent, except the Harappan areas of 
Sind and the Punjab and also in Rajis- 
tan, where it is found to this day. 

Middle of 1st Millennium B.C. or 600- 
500 B.C. : 

The start of the Historical Times. The 
leaders or early historians were the 

MEHRAN, Vol. 17, No. 4, p. 99. 



Gordon, p. 164. 

The author is mistaken. Shipping from 
Sind coastal area, probably continued in 
the hands of the Dravadians before his- 
torical times. 

CHI, Vol. I, pp. 100 and 131. 

Mc Evedy, p. 48. 

Mazdian religion reformed by Zoroaster 

was spread by Achaemenians throughout 

the Empire. The Zoroastrian temples 

survived in Sind upto the 11th century. 

Ghirshman, p. 161. 

Dr. Daudpota basing on Arab travellers' 

writings reports the existence of the 

Zoroastrian temples in Sind. 

Bridget and Allchin, p. 302. 

Considerable drop in the prices of crude 
ores occurred in this century, partly due 
to more economical methods of smelting 
iron, better, communication and more 
security after coming up of the Achae- 
menian Empire. Ships upto 200 tons 
were built to navigate the rivers like 
Nile, Tigirs and Euphrates (Possibly the 
Indus too). Ghirshman, pp. 87-88. 

■ ■ 



600-550 B.C. 

Early Upanishads. 

600-400 B.C. : 

The volume of the Eastern trade reached 
un-precedented proportions due to land 
routes built and maintained by Darius, 
and use of money as medium of ex- 
change. The trade was in the hands of 
Phoenecians or Arabs. 



| • 

600-232 B C. : 

Pali used as official Buddhist language, 
but there is lack of evidence of its influ- 
ence on Sindhi and even there is lack of 
evidence that Buddhism had spread to 
Sind. The pillar inscriptions at Shahbaz 
Garhi and Mansahra (Asoka's pillars 
nearest to Sind border) show that the 
Pali itself had come under th; influence 
of local languages and had absorbed 
large number of local words. 
600-200 B.C. : 

Sutra period of Indian literature. 
600-550 B.C. : 

Earliest Upanishads written. Upanishads 
represent intellectual phase of religion 

CHI, Vol. I, pp. 100 and 131. 

Toussant, pp. 26 ana 27. 



land routes were developed by 

Darius I connecting Egypt, Mesopota- 
mia, Iran, Afghanistan and present Pak- 
istan. Skylax under him connected 
present Pakistan (Peshawar to the mouth 
of Indus) to the Red Sea, via the Indus 
and the Arabian sea. 

Aramaic and not Pahlavi (Persian) was 
introduced as official state language by 
the Achaemenians. 

All this resulted in commercial develop- 
ments. Ghirshman, pp. 14-46 and 163. 

At this time trade to Iran included ivory 
from Sind and timber from Gandhara, 
transported via Indus to the Persian Gulf 
for building Persepolis. Ghirshman, 
p. 166. 

Sind and the rest of Pakistan must have 
had thick forests, in which eephants 

u u.H j 

CHI, Vol. I, pp. 97 and 100. 

CHI, Vol. I, pp. 100, 131. Basham tninics 
later Vedas Brahmanas and early Upam- 



coming or Ric.-vnnic Aryans 


and were outcome of the influence of 
Indus religion on Rig-Vedic Aryans. 

599-527 B.C.: 

Vardhamana Jnatapura, the founder of 
Jainism lived during this period. 

566 B.C. : 

Probable date of Buddha's birth. His 
name was Sidharta, and belonged to the 
ruling tribe of Khatris of Sakaya, who 
ruled over a district now known as 
Western Tarai of Nepal. 

566-486 B.C. : 

Buddha who lived then gave his preach- 
ings not in Sanskrit but in Pali, an an- 
cient language spoken by common man. 
Sanskrit was known only to the Braha- 
mans. Pali was the language of the 
Western Bengal. Bihar and Orissa area. 
In due course of time it became Prakrit. 

558-530 B.C. : 

Cyrus the Great annexed Seistan, Ghazni 
and Gandhara but he never invaded 



shads were written between 900-500 B.C. 
which is more acceptable view. P. XIX. 
Campbell, the Masks of Gods, pp. 172-179. 

Munshi, CHI, Vol. II, p. 700. 
Rapson, pp. 152, 153, 278 assigns 563-481 
B.C., as the period of his life. 

■ *.- 
Bhirumal, p. 57. 

Mujumdar ,HCIP, Vol. II, pp. 39-40. 
His conquests of Erythrean Sea would 
mean part of Makran coast only. CHI. 
Vol. I p. 162. 









(519-325 B.C.) 

550-476 B.C. : 

552-486 B.C. : 

Darius lived then. Greek geographer 
Hecateus lived during his reign. 

Hecateus, a Greek historian and geo- 
grapher lived. 

540-468 B.C. : 

Varhamana, the Mahavira (the great 
hero) and Jino (the victor), the Prophet 
of Jain religion lived. 

Jainism could not compete with Buddh- 
ism in Sind, though there are a few tem- 
ples in Thar area and a few in the rest 
of Sind. 

522-486 B.C. : 

Darius-I ruled Iran. For the first time in 
the World History, Darius constructed 
roads at the Government cost and even 
connected various countries conquered 
by him. 

519 B.C. and afterwards : 

The Karazes (Water galleries or sub- 
terranean canals) introduced in Persia 
on a large scale and brought to Balu- 
chistan by Darius I. 

In Sind, no Karazes exist today but the 
Kachho along the foot of hills specially 
Wahi Pandi to Naing appears to have 
great potential and Karezes may have 
been put in there. 

Rapson, CHI, pp. 301, 354. 

Darius is Greek version of Darayous, as 

he was known in Persia. 



Mujumdar, HCIP, Vol. II, p. 40. 
Plough with the seed drill attachment, 
developed by Babylonians, was brought to 

Iran by Elamites during the rule of Cyrus. 

It must have come to Sind. after the 

conquests of Darius. 

• Mazh^ar-i-Shah Jehani" confirms the 
existence of Karezes in Kachho in the 
17th century. 



519 B.C. Onwards : 

Under Darius I, the use of money as a 
means of exchange became general and 
it made commercial operations easier. 
Its use was introduced by the Sumerians, 
but due to incessant wars that raged in 
Mesopotamia it did not spread till the 
arrival of Achaemenians. 

Since ths rule of Cyrus, the Achaemen- 
ians gave great autonomy to the con- 
quered peoples. This helped in pre- 
serving of ancient cultures. Though 
this was admired by the Egyptians, 
Summerians and Indians (present 
Pakistan), it brought quick fall of the 


519 B.C. onwards : 

The Achaemenians introduced Aramaic 
as a state language, and adopted its al- 
phabets against their own language, the 
ancient Pahlavi. Under its influence 
in the Sub-Continent, the oldest known 
Indian alphabet Kharoshthi was deve- 

The people of Punjab and Sind then 
were using a Devnagri type alphabet, 
which the Iranians called Khar-Washti 
i.e. the lips of the donkey. The Aramaic 
script disappeared from the Sub-Con- 
tinent by about the 3rd century A.D. 

Toussant, p. 26. 

Ghirshman, p.. 128. 

Darius I (522-486 B.C.) also linked the 
whole of the Empire by means of roads 
from Egypt and Babylon to India via 
Susa to Kabul and the Indus. After 
Skylax's 30 months survey of Indus to its 
mouth, he planned to connect the Red 
Sea with the Nile, a forerunner of the 
Suez Canal, to connect Egypt, Sind and 
the Punjab. 

Ghirshman, pp. 145 and 146. 

Ghirshman, p. 240. 

Bherumal thinks that the word 'Kharoshthi' 
is Khar-Ashthi i.e. donkey's lips, a name 
given to the Indian alphabets by the 

Persians, due to its complicated script 

looking like lips of a donkey. 

Rapson, Ancient India. 

Achaemenians' custom of loyalty was to 
offer one's daughter to a noble-man, a 
ruler, or other king. This custom was 
introduced in the Sub-Continent by the 
Delhi Sultans and the Moghals. Same way 
the Moghal custom of bestowing the 
ruje of a Suba, District or Province to a 
noble, yet keeping him in the court as 
security for good conduct, or retain his 
whole family in the capital was an 

Achaemenian custom. 



519-518 B.C : 

Skylax of Caryanda in Caria took voy- 
age down the Kabul and the Indus rivers 
by a flotilla, to open water route with 
the Persian Empire, along the Arabian 
coasts to the Red Sea. Skylax returned 
in 514 B.C. The flotilla was probably 
built near Peshawar. The exploration 
was sponsored by Darius-I. 

519-518 B.C 

Herodotus, Book IV, p. 44, puts voyage 
prior to annexation of Sind, which is 

Woodcock, pp. 17-19 puts it as 51 7 B.C. 
Toussant thinks it was around 510 B.C. 
Sykes puts it as 512 B.C. and Jairoz- 
bhoy 509 B.C. 

Munshi, HCIP, Vol. If J p. 700 puts it 517 
B.C. and Rapson, CHI-I, p. 300 agrees. 

Inscriptions at Persepolis and Nakhsh 
Rustom dated 518 and 515 B.C. respect- 

Darius Hystaspes annexed Sind and 
Cutch to the Persian Empire. • 

ively and engraved in Cuneiform, put 

He introduced Daric currency in silver 
and gold throughout his empire which ex- 
tended from the Upper Nile to the Indus 
rivers and from Oxus to both the Ara- 
bian and the Mediterranean seas. The 
Empire was divided into satrapies, each 
headed by a Governor and its defence 
under a separate General, both being 
independent and directly responsible to 
Darius. Sind, the Southern Panjab and 
Baluchistan formed the 20th satrapy, 
the income from which was 360 talents 
of gold — 25 pe r cent of the Empire's 
total revenue, though area-wise it 
was 5%. 

514 B C. S^on after : 

Skylax, a Greek (and not a Persian) was 
the first European to have sailed down 
• the Indus and the Arabian Sea. He 
entered the Indus near Kaspapyrus 
(Kasyapura or Peshawar) and completed 
the journey in 2£ years arriving at 
Arsinoe in the Gulf of Suez. The result 
of this voyage was that Darius was per- 
suaded to restore Necho FI's plan to 
connect the Nile with the Red Sea. 

Gandhara, Punjab and Sind as part of 
Darius' dominion. Memoirs Archaeo 
logical Survey of India 1925; also Journal 
Royal Asiatic Society. Vol. x. p. 294: Bili- 
moria, JSHS, Vol. VII p. 132. The Behistan 
inscription of 520 B.C. mentioned Gand- 
hara as province ot Dara's Kingdom, 
showing that Sind was annexed in late 
520 or 519 B.C. Munshi HCFP-II, p. 41, 
EHI, pp. 40-41, in. 1. 
Without annexing Cutch. tho Ind is delta 
of that period could not have been effect- 
ively controlled by the Persian fleet 
under Skyiax. 





512 B.C. : 

Pari Nagar, a port established on the 
coast of Rann of Cutch, while the latter 
was a sea creek. 

500-400 B.C. : 

Ctesias of Cindas, the personal physi- 
cian of Artaxerxes of Persia, lived. He 
wrote a history of Persia in 23 books, 
which were utilized by Plutarch, Dio- 
dorus and Siculus. He also described 
India in a separate book. These were 
abridged by Photius. 

500 B.C : 

Hecateus, of Miletus the first Greek 
geographer wrote his geography Peri e- 
gesis around that year. Hecateus col- 
lected information through Skylax and 
states that a tribe called Opiai lived on 
the left bank of the river Indus. They 
had a strong fortress, where Darius-I 
had stationed his troops. May be 
it was Bahmanabad. On its east was 
the great (Indian) desert. 

Herodotus seems to have collected in- 
formation from Skyiax and Hecateus. 

500 B.C. : 

First book in strictly classical Sanskrit, 
Yaska's Ninukta or Vedic difficulties, 

500 B.C. : 

Maritime relations re-established bet- 
ween India and Mesopotamia via Sind 
ports. The maritime relations between 
the Indus and Mesopotamia were much 
older, but were cut-off for many cen- 


Fragments of Ctesias, Gilmore, London, 


Hecateus, 'Fragments' edited by C. 

Muller, Paris, 1841. 

Sykes, Persia. 

L. Pearson, Early Ionian Historians, 

London, 1939. He is regarded as the 

earliest composer of prose stylo. 


Rapson, Ancient India, p. 6. At that 
time three well defined types of Sanskrit 
existed, first old Vedic, second language 
of bards, and third newly developed 
classical, vhich has remained un-altered 
in 2500 years. Mujamdar, HCIP, Vol. II, 
pp. 40-43. 

Brian Doe, Southern Arabia, pp. 51-55. 



500-400 B.C. : 

Like Skylax (originally a Greek of Car- 
yanda), the Persian Captain Sataspes, 
sailed beyond Gibralter (Pillars of 
Hercules). This resulted into Greek, 
Phoenician and Arab mariners, main- 
taining connections between the Indian 
Sub-continent, Persian Gulf, Babylonia, 
Egypt and the Mediterranean ports. 

500-400 B.C. : 

The blacksmiths of the Sub-Continent 
invented Wootz process of making steel. 
The process consisted of lightly packing 
pieces of iron, rice husks, leaves of as- 
clepias gigantea or convolvulus lauri 
folia, and wood of cassia auriculata as 
carbunizing materials. Crucibles were 
heated at high temperature of charcoal 
fire for 24 hours with the help of bellows 
and at the end, these were broken and 
cakes of steel extracted. 

486-465 B.C. : 

Xerxes ruled Persia. 

486-468 B.C. : 

Xerxes' war with the Greeks. His army 
included soldiers from 46 nations in- 
cluding Sind and Punjab and was com- 
manded by 29 Generals all of whom 
were Persians. The other nations includ- 
ing Meds (of Persia Sind, and Punjab) 

held only sub-ordinate positions. 


486 B.C. : 

Probable date of Lord Buddha's death. 

486-485 B.C. : 

Tomb of Darius-I son of Hystaspes 
at Naqsh-i-Rustam completed with ins- 
criptions stating that Sind was a part 
of Achaemenians even then. 


Ghirshman, p. 185. 
Also see entry 519. A.D. 


The Indus played an important part in 
transport of goods from the whole of the 
North Western parts of undivided India 
since Harappan Period. 

Forbes R.J. Metallurgy 
pp. 437-8, Leiden, 1950. 

in Antiquit 


Also Hunt, EH. Jour. Hyderabad Arch. 
Society, p. 211, July 1961. 

• • 
Since Ktesia's swords came from North- 
ern parts of the Sub-Continent, this 
process must have been in vogue in Sind. 

■ ' i 



Ghirshman, p. 191. 

Munshi HCIP, Vol. II, p. 700. Rapson, 
CHI, Vol. I puts it at 483 B.C. and 
Charpentier at 477 or 478 B.C. 


India, 1928. 
Rawlinson, 'Herodotus', 
and Vol. IV, p. 207. 

Survey of 
Vol. II, p. 403 










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484-431 : 

Herodotus, the early Historian lived. 
He describes Darius' conquest of Sind, 
Skylax vovage, sugarcane cultivation in 
Sind and Sind-Persian relations. 


Xerxes in war against Greece used 
cotton clad Indians from Indus Valley 
and Gandhara. They used bows and 
arrows with steel point, and made use 
of elephants which were used for the first 
time on the European soil. This was 
also for the first time that Sindhis 
fought on the European soil. Xe/xes 
suffered defeat in 469 B.C. at Plataea. 

483 B.C. : 

Writing in Brahmi alphabet appeared 
for the first time in Indo-Pak. Sub-Con- 
tinent. Prior to this there was no 
regular writing of books. 

476 B.C. : 

Hecataeus the geographer died. 

425-400 B.C. : 

Peacocks exported from Sind were do- 
mesticated in Iran and Greece. 

400-300 B.C. : 

Period of Mahabharata which describes 
Sind ruler Jayrath's kidnapping of 
Drupadi etc. 

400 B.C. : 

The earliest example of punch marked 
coins from Bhir Mound (Taxila) in the 
Sub-Continent. In Europe they go 
back to 700 B.C. They have similarity 
with the script of Indus Culture. 

400-200 B.C. : 

Period of Ramayana, an early Sindhi 
translation of which was done in 11th 
century A.D. 


Selincourt thinks that he was born 
between 490 and 480 B.C. Book m of his 
Histories, describes the eonquests of 


Josaphus, Jewish Antiquities, p. 340. 
Mujumdar HCIP, Vol. II, p. 42. Wood- 
cock Greeks in India p. 20, Herodotus, 
VII, p. 65 and P. Neogi, Iron in Ancient 
India, Calcutta, 1914. 

8 £Vfc 

Hiranandani Popti, Bharati Bhasha, pp. 



Jairozbhpy, p. 81. 

Cunningham, p. 43 has assigned 1000 B.C. 
to the coins of Ancient India. 



398 B.C. : 

Ktesia wrote 'Indica'. He resided' at 
the Persian court for 17 years as physi- 
cian to Darius II and Artaxerxes Mine- 
mon, probably from 41 5-398 B.C. The 
work is lost but fragments are preserved 
and also the abridgement by Photius 
in 9th century A.D. 

387 B.C. : 

Second Buddhist Council met. Some 
Sindhi Bikshus also participated. 

375 B.C. : 

Brahmi and Kharoshthi scripts evolved 
from Aramaic and Phoenician scripts. 
The Greek, Itallic, Etrusean Illyrian, 
Garian and Lycian alphabets were also 
evolved from the same source. The 
evolution of the Kharoshthi scripts was 
the result of the Persian conquests of 
present Pakistan. Brahmi had been 
evolved earlier due to spice trade. The 
vowe's were added later on. This was 
an Anatolian achievement- 

350 B.C. : 

Sind had already become independent 
after Xerxes death and was ruled by 
locaji chiefs. 

367/6—283/2 B.C. : 

Greek historian and General Ptolemy 
son of Lagus, a close friend of Alexan- 
der, whom he accompanied in the cam- 
paigns and wrote a most reliable history, 
lived. On Alexarder's death he be- 
came the Governor of Egypt and later 
on declared himself the King, laying 
foundation of Ptolemaic dynasty, which 
ended with Cleopatra. He was in Sind 


Mujumdar, HCIP-Age of Imperial Unity, 
pp. 378-379. 

McEvedy, p. ,56. 

McEvedy, pp. 52 and 53. 

Xerxes diei in 465 B.C. Sind miy have 
become independent by about 450 B.C. 
rather than 375 B.C. as stated by 

His history now extinct, was used by 








356 B.C. : 

Alexander III, later on named the Great, McCrindle. Alexander, p. 15. 
son of Phillip II and Olumpias, was born 

at Polla. 

336 B.C. : 

Alexander ascended the throne after the 
death of his father Phillip. 

334 B.C. : 

Alexander crossed Hellenspont on his 
great expedition against Persians. 

331 B.C. : 

Sindhi troops along with Persian.forces 
fought Alexander in the battle of 
Arbella but Persians fell to Macedonian 
King. Sindhis used light bows, and 
arrows with steel points, chariots and 

330 B.C. : 

Darius III, collected troops and ele- 
phants from his Indian domain in- 
cluding Sind to fight Alexander. Same 
year Alexander defeated him and burnt 
his capital Persepolis. 

Alexander pursued Darius after the latter 
lost the final battle. Darius was murde- 
red by his own officers during this 
persuit. Here he decided to conquer 
and annex all Persian satrapies. In 329 
B.C. he occupied Bactria. 



McCrindle, Alexander, p. 1 7. 

McCrindle, Alexander, p. 19. 

Arrian, Anabasis, Vol. Ill, p. 8. 


. ■ 

Arrian, Anabasis, Vol. Ill, pp. 6, 8-1 3. 
McCrindle, p. 4. 

A. T. Olmsted, in The History of the 
Persian Empire (Achaemenid Period), 
Chicago 1948, discusses the highlights 
of their rule of the provinces stating that: 
The Achaemenian Kings were not 
despots, but like the Western 'King in 
Colincil'. They celebrated birth-days, and 
were hospitable to the strangers. They 
were the firs't to evolve Provincial Gov- 
ernment, with its autonomy and the 
first to provide net work of roads con- 
necting the remote provincial cities, a 
predecessor of Roman roads. They 
also established the first world currency 
against the local coinage of Anatolians, 
having figure of the king with a boy*. 
They introduced Aramaic as cff.cial 
language, though use of Avasi, the 
ancient Persian, became widespread. 


(329-324 B.C.) 

329 B.C. : 

Alexander conquered Qandhar. For 
the first time he encountered Indian 

327 B.C. : 

Alexander crossed Hindukush Moun- 
tains enroute for India. In June he 
was at Nikaia (Jalalabad). Hephaistion 
his General captured Astes (Hasti) 
Fort in August. In September he mas- 
sacred 7000 Indians at Massaga of 
Assakenians. Sieged Aornos in Novem- 
ber and captured it in December. 

327-26 B.C. : 

Alexander nominated O.iici Kratius 
to collect information on the Indus 
people of his times. The latter reported 
that Buddhist monks or Bikshus were 
very powerful in Sind. Multan and Alore 
(in upper Sind?) had Sun-god temples 
and Sehwan and Patala were Buddhist 
centres. The Brahmans attempted to 
set rulers aid populace against Greeks 
as well as the Buddhists. The rebellion 
of Sambife was the result. At Hingloj 
human sacrifice w as in vogue. 

32* B.C. July : 

Mallians collapsed to Alexandar. 


326 B.C. May : 

Defeat of Poros. 

Arrian, Anabasis, Vol. in, p. 27. 
Smith. EHI. p. 119. 

Bunbury, History of Ancient Geography, 
p. 351. 

EHI, p. 104. 

■ ! 
Keith, JRAS, 1909, p. 567. 

HO, p. Vol. H, p. 700. 

Diodoms Siculus, Bibliotheca Historica, 
Vol. XVII, pp. 98-100. Arrian, Vol. HI, 
p. 14. Strabo XVI, p. 6, Smith, J.R.AS. 
Oct. 1903. 





326 B.C. October : 

Alexander marched to southern Punjab 
and defeated two principalities of Mai li 
and Oxydraki and by November at day 
break King standing in the sight of allon- 
prow of his vessel poured from golden 
bowl liberation of river Hydaspes, Ace- 
sines and Indus. His Naval fleet con- 
sisted of 2000 war ships. 

12fi R C end • 

Musicanus chief of upper Sind includ- 
ing Bahawalpur paid homage to Alexan- 
der and to avoid onslaught from the 
conqueror presented the gifts of highest 
value and elephants. Alexander desig- 
nated Peithon as the Governor of Sind 
below Panjunad. It must have been 
from Upper Sind that he dispatched 
Krateros with army via Bolan Pass; 
after fortifying the capital of Musicanus. 

326 B.C. end : 

Sambus the ruler of Mountain tract of 
Western Sind submitted to Alexander 
and was appointed Viceroy. His capital 
Sindimitu is recognized as Sainduwan 
or Sehwan. 

Justin, Historica Phillipica, Vol. XV, p. 4. 


Smith, EHI, p. 89. 

McCrindle, Alexander, pp. 144-155, 
basing on Arrian, and pp. 322-251, 
translation of Curtius. 

Mc Crindle, Alexander by Curtius, p. 253 ; 


Arrian, tr. Selincourt, p. 207. 

326 BC. end-early 325 (Winter season): 

Sa nbus seeing that Musicanus his ene- 
my had won favour of Alexander, re- 
belled against the conqueror. Oxykanus 
(Porticanus) another subordinate ruler 
of Upper Sind whose country formed 
an Island between branches of River 
Indus, took stand against Alexander, 
but was defeated, captured and killed 
after 3 days siege of his strong fortress; 
booty distributed among the soldiers, 
elephants retained for future wars and 
Porticanus' men sold as slaves. 

Whether the capital of the Upper Sind was 
Alore or Mahota is un-settled in absence 
of archaeological explorations. Mahota 
may have been the capital of Oxykanus. 
Diodorus' Sogdoi is considered as Alore. 

: ■*■::■■ 

Arrian, tr. Selincourt* p. 201. Curtius, 
tr. McCrindle, pp. 254-55, 

Smith, EHI, p. 199. 

McCrindle, Alexander, p. 159, basing 
on Arrian. Cunningham, pp. 263-266. 

Arrian, tr. Selincourt, p. 211. 
Smith, EHI, *p. 119. 

McCrindle, Alexander, pp. 158-61, basing 
on Arrian. Alexander had interview with 
ten Indian gymnosophists or yogis in the 
country of Sambus according to Plutarch. 
Curtius, tr. McCrindle, pp. 253-55. 




Alexander moved, occupied Sambus' 
territories city by city including his 
capital Sindimana (Sehwan?) and an- 
other city whose Brahmins were res- 
ponsible for rebellion, and put all of 
them to death. 

Simultaneously Musicanus like Sam- 
bus, possibly at the instigation of 
Brahmans rebelled . He was defeated, 
captured by Peithon, and put to death; 
his cities razed to ground and inhabi- 
tants reduced to slavery. The Brah- 
mans here too were executed. 


Smith, EHI, P. 119. 

McCrindle, Alexander, p. 159, basing 
on Arrian and p. 255 basing oncurtius. 
Diodorus (McCrindle, p. 292 states that 
Sambastai (Sambus) collected 60000 foot 
soldiers, 6000 horses and 500 chariots from 

his cities which had democratic form of 
Government. This figure of soldiery 
from present Dadu and Larkana districts 
seems gross exaggeration. Alexander put 
80,000 of Sambus' men to the sword. 
According to Plutarch (McCrindle, 
pp. 313-14), it was at Sehwan, that he 
interviewed logymnosophists (yogis or 
Brahmans), who had made Sambus to 

Narain, Indo-Greeks, pp. 39-42 and 67-68. 
McCrindle, Alexander, p. 160, basing on 

Arrian and Diodorus, p. 293. 

325 B.C. second quarter : 

While still in Musicanus' country, Al- 
exander broke his army in 3 units, the 
first was to proceed back via Karachi, 
Sarwan and Seistan, under Krateros. 
The others accompanied him to Patala. 


325 B.C June, July / August : 

Alexander proceeded from Musicanus* 
country to Patala by the river and the 
main body of troops under Aephaestion 
and Peithon was to march along left 
and right banks of the river respectively. 
Patala*s ruler had paid submission to 
him, while he was busy in reducing 
Sambus. But as soon as Alexander 
moved south, Moeris the ruler and the 
inhabitants of Patala abandoned the 
capita! en masse. On reaching Patala 
in August, Alexander found the city and 


EHI, p. 119. 
McCrindle, Alexander, p. 100. It seems 
that after departure of Krateros from the 
Upper Sind towards Bolan pass, he was 
recalled due to rebellions in Sind. This 
became the second departure of Kra'eros 


EHI, 119. • 

McCrindle, Alexander, pp. 160-61, bas- 
ing on Arrian and p. 256 basing on 
Curtius. According to Aristobolus, quoted 
by Strabo, the voyage from Nikalia on 
Hydaspes to Patala took 10 months. 
Diodorus (McCrindle, p. 293), calls 
Patala ^area as the country of Brah- 
mans (Bahamanabad) and its capi- 
tal city as Harmatelia. He states that 
the fort was surrendered after a fight in 
which many of Alexander's men lost 





the country side equally deserted. The 
native guerillas attacked Alexander's 
working parties busy in digging wells, 
but were repulsed with heavy losses to 
themselves. Alexander took great 
booty of sheep and cattle and grains. 


325 B.C. August, September : 
Alexander constructed harbpur and 
dockyard at Patala and proceeded to 
explore the most suitable river branch 
to the sea. Greeks were unfamiliar 
with sea tides of the Lower Sind, which 
first pushed back the ships and in 
receding process dumped them on the 
dry banks of river causing heavy losses. 

325 B.C. September : 

Alexander dispatched his naval fleet un- 
der Nearchus via Western branch of the 
Indus to the sea, and on 1st September 
started his back home journey from 
Patala via Arabiti (possibly present 
Karachi and Thatta talukas) halting at 
Hab river. Nearchus entered the sea from 
Killuta (Aban Shah) near the mouth of 
Indus on October 2, 325 B.C., after 
having spent 24 days at the Island. Al- 
exander then surveyed the Eastern 
branch of the river Indus, which then 
discharged into Gulf of Cutch or the 
Rann of Cutch. He found this branch 
better suited for navigation. 

325 B.C.— 1200 A.D. : 

The Eastern Branch of the river Indus 
dischanged into the Sea via Koree 

their lives due to poisonous arrows anoint- 
ed with deadly tincture made from body 
juices of certain snakes. Among those 
wounded was Ptolemy, but was cured by 
an antidote revealed to Alexander in a 
dream. When the city fell and inhabi- 
tants submitted, they were left without 
exacting any penalty. 
Strabo, XT, chapter, II. p. 1 
Narain, pp. 122, 181, 178. 
It is doubtful if wells could be constructed 
around Patala where water is brackish. To 
the north and west of it water is potable. 

Narain, Indo-Greeks, pp. 123, 181. 

Diodorus (McCrindle, p. 296) calls 
Patala as Tauaia. 

McCrindle, Alexander, pp. 163-165 and 

Smith, EHI, p. 119. 

Lambrick has recognized Aban Shah 
for Killuta, as it is the- "mly rocky 
island inside the then sea. The only 
other guesse^ are Keamari and Manora 
as islands, out they do not fit into the res- 
pective distances from Patala as well as 
from the mouth of the river Indus. Plutarch 
(McCrindle, p. 316) calls this island as 
Skilloustis, and others Psiltoukis. Justin 
(McCrindle, p. 326) states that as monu- 
ment of his achievements, Nearchus 

built the city of Barce (Barbariken) in 

these parts. 


Strabo, XV, p. 25. 

Woodcock, p. 41, thinks that guerilla 
activities in Sind wore started by Chand- 
ragupta's followers. This is doubtful as 
latter had no influence in Sind until SOS- 
SIM B.C. Nearchus, a Greek from 
Crete was a close frie.id of Alexander, 
and Successfully completed his voyage 
from the Indus delta to the head of 
the Persian Gulf. 

Creek, forming a Sweet water lake near 
Lakhpat. During this period the rela- 
tions be'ween Sind and Cutch were 
most intimate. 

325 B.C September (end) : 

Immediately after Alexander's departure 
revolt manifested in Patala. Nearchus 
avoided conflict so as not to delay his 
departure. Shortly before this, the river 
had changed its course for Greeks saw 
more than 1000 deserted villages in 
South East Sind, as reported by Aristo- 
bolus to Alexander. 

325 B.C. October : 

Alexander marched to Orietai (Las B;la 
district) to subdue a long independent 
tribe and found a city at Rhambakia 
(possibly Las Be!a). The tribal chiefs 
submitted and were treated with con- 
sideration. Hephaistion was left be- 
hind to colonize and govern Las Bela 
and Alexander marched back via Gad- 
rosian desert, where he lost considerable 
part of his army. 

325 B.C. October 3 : 

Nearchus fleet anchored at Stura, a 
creek on the sea, only 6 miles from 
Killuta(Aban Shah) and halted there 
until October. 

325 B.C. October 6 : 

Nearchus reached 1 mile from Koreatis, 
but further movement of fleet was 
checked by sea tide. 

325 B.C. October 8 : 

Nearchus fle^t reached Krokala after 
ha ing travelled 9 miles from Koreatis. 
The floit ha teJ there until the next day. 

Arrian, Anabasis, tr. Selincourt, p. 214. 
McCrindle, Alexander, pp. 168-169 
basing on Arrian. Diodorus (McCrindle 
pp. 296-97) states that at Oritis, Alexan- 
der divided his army in 3 units, one under 
Leonnatos, other under Ptolemy and 
third under himself for home-ward 

Nearchus, p. 170. 

Nearchus' work no longer exists, but 

is quoted frequently by Arrian in 

Anabasis of Alexander. 


Nearchus, p. 171. 

bsaol *H 

Nearchus, pp. 171-172. 





58. 326 B. C. Medal struck by Alexander to celebrate the defeat of Poros. 

59. Ptolemy-I ( d. 280 B.C.). Alexander's brother, his trusted general and founder of his own 
dynasty 323-30 B.C. In Egypt 10 1/4 Inch statue In NY Earlsberg alyptolek Copenhagen). 

60. Coin of Selukus, general of Alexander. He 
ceceeded Baluchistan, N V W. F. P. and parts of 
Afghanistan to Chundragupta Maurya in 303 B. C. 

61. 323 - 184 B. C. Punch marked 
Coin of Mauryan or early 
Sungan dynasties. 

3& A 

oto *ffc | 




62. 323-231 A. D. Punch marked Coins of first three Mauryan Emperors, Chandragupta, 
Birdusar.i and Asoka. 

63. 3rd century B. C. Mauryan column found at Patalipatra shows heavy Achaemenian influence In 
its side volutes and central palmOlers. 

c O 

3- g 

> I 


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64. ( iii ) Kharoshthi Script on Silver Scroll. Kharoshthi was derived from Aramaic and written from 
right to left. If may have been introduced by Achaemenians. 



! »&VuU ^uxo^l^; <xVt .fX^VWI* 
v Ji U > 6 1 ix l 1 1 > c 1 1 . * jj^p; + s |, 

fax* <>^ *a*U^"i £ a I a<u uxjTCCAfd 

64. (iv) Brahmi Scriptjrom Girnar Rock. 

65. 180- 160 B. C. Coin of 

Menander, King of Sialkot, 
who ruled Sind too. 

66. Coin of Demitrius 





67. Parthian horseman. 



68. End 1st Century A. D. Beginning 2nd Century. Coin of Kujula-Kara-Kadphises-I a 
member of great Yuch-Chi Tribe later on called Kushans. 


Second century A. D. Coin of Kanishka with helmet and spear, sacrifying at an alter. 

70. (i) 144- 150 A. D Another 
Coin of Kanishka-I, Kushan. 

70. (ii) 150- 162 A. D. Coin of 
Huvishka Kushan. 

71. Kushan plough with vertical and curved yole pole. Gandhara relief, (Lahore Museum). 








^* / ii : 




323-187 B.C. 


IN 250 B.C. 










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• ©MIRATH ^ 





n .&lva75? =--.. ynm 





t .. KOSAM 

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fSOPARA) ^^ ^t' 

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(323-298 B.CJ W 323 B.C 




GUPTA IN 302 B.C = ♦ r ♦ 


(298-272 B C.) x K * * 


IN 260 B.C • • • » 













jr. SINUS 



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NOTSi - 







325 B.C. October 9 : 

Nearchus left Krokala and proceeded 
west, towards Cape Monze. 

325 B.C. October 10 : 

Nearchus reached the mouth of the Hab 
river and due to monsoon camped there, 
for next 24 days. 

325 B.C. November 3 : 

Nearchus left Cape Monze for west- 
ward journey covering. 4 miles and 
halting at an island called Domac. 

325 B.C. November 4th & 5th : 

Neirchus left Domic and after cr>\'er;iv 
19 miles reached Saranp-i on fl»a '°- r c 
evening 5th N number. 

325 B.C. November 6 : 

Leaving Sarangrt on 6th November 
Nearchus' fleet reached Sakala on the 
same day after covering 19 miles. 

325 B.C. November 7 : 

Neirchus reached the Harbour of Moron- 
tobara and stayed there until November 
8th. Morontobara was at the mouth of 
the river Arabis (Hab). 

325 B.C. November 9 : 

Nearchus fleet left Morontobara and 
proceeded 12-1/2 miles to Pagal along 
the coast, stopping only to collect water 

325 B.C. November 10 : 

Sailing another 19 miles Nearchus fleet 
reached Kabana, a desolate place in the 

325 B.C. November 11 : 

Leaving Kabana, Nearchus reached 
Kokala 12 miles from the former and 
came to the shore for rest. Here he met 


Nearchus, p. 174. 

Nearchus, p. 773. 

Nearchus. p. 1 78. 

Nearchus. p. 1 7 9. 

a9 ) .->.« WK 

Nearchus, p. 17S. 

Nearohui, p. 183. 

Nearchus, p. 185. 

Nearchus. p. 185. 

Nearchus, p. 186. 




Leonnatus who had. been left by Alexan- 
der to fight Oritae (Las Bela) tribes. In a 
battle, the latter lost 6p00 men, against 
1 5 of Leonnatus. 

325 B.C. November 21 : 

Having stayed at Kokala another 10 
days, Nearchus' fleet left, covering 31 
miles to the river Tomerus, where he 
spent 5 days. 

225 B.C. November 27 : 

Nearchus fleet after leaving the mouth of 
Tomerus and covering 19 miles reached 




Nearohus, p. 193. 

Nearchus, p. 193. 

3C5 B.C. (end) : 

Assassination of Philippus, Satrapa in 
the Upper Sindhu Valley due to jealousy 
between Greeks and Macedonians. 
Alexander came to know of this incident 
at the capital of Gedrosia in January 
324 B.C. 

324 B.C. January : 

Alexander arrived at Poura (Bampur), 
the capita! of Gedrosia (Makran), and 
after spending a month there marched 
to Karmania, reaching Susa in Persia 
at the end of April or early May. 
In his journey through Gedrosia, in 60 
days, he lost many of his horses and 

323 B.C. February : 

Nearchus reached Dindotis on the Per- 
sian Gulf. 

323 B.C. June : 

A.exander died at Babylon. The Empire 
was divided between his generals, but 
Sind continued to be governed by Pei- 
thon. News of his death was received 

Mookerjee, HCIP, Vol. II, pp. 57-58. 
Jairozbhoy thinks, it was in 324 B.C., and 
on his death Eudamas and Taxiles were 
made incharge of Taxi la region and 
Poros incharge of Sind, p. 61 . 
McCrindle, Alexander, p. 177, basing 
on Arrian. 

Smith EHI, p. 120. 
Plutarch (McCrindle), p. 316. 


Smith EHI, pp. 120-22. 
Hitti, History of Syria, p. 235. 
Holditch Gates of India, p. 122 








in India in August, but rebellions did 
not start till end of monsoons and be- 
ginning of cold climate in October. 

The main reason for his success was, 
that his army came from many nations 
specializing in the tactics of war. For 
example, Macedonians were the best 
arrow shots, Greeks excellent swords 
men, Persians good at lance, Turanians 
fastest riders and Phoenicians and 
Egyptians were master sailors and 
builders. His Greek army also was 
scaling the fort walls. 

323 B.C. to 30 A.D. : 

Ptolemy's rule of Egypt. 

During the three centuries Greco-Egypt- 
ians systematically explored the Eryth- 
raean Sea, which included the Red 
Sea and the Arabian Sea. 

324-80 B. C. : 

Accsieratei penetration of various ele- 
ments of Greek civilization in Sind, 
under various forms including religious 
arts which were not due to Alexander's 
conquest, but due to the Bactrian 
Greeks, Scythians and Parthians 
conquests. The latter two had also been 
influenced by the Bactrian Greeks. 

323-322 B.C. : 

Revolt of the Punjab against Greeks 
under Chandragupta Maurya. By the 
beginning of 322 A.D. Macedonian 
Authority was almost at the end, except 
small remnants outside Sind. 

Alexander was sporting with his doctrine 
of East and West assimilation. Almost 
all Greek soldiers were married to Persian 
and Indian brides of noble families, but 
on his death nearly all Greeks put them 

. t B • 


Toussant, pp. 32 and 33. 

: .3.8 Itt 

Smith, EHI, pp. 206, 122-123. 



324-297 B.C. : 

Reign of Chandragupta Maurya. He 
appointed Viceroys for different pro- 
vinces. In his regime he maintained spe- 
cial Irrigation Department to measure 
lands, regulate sluices and levy water 
rates. The name Maurya is derived 
from ruler's mother Mura. 

321-184 B.C. I 
Maurya Dynasty. 

321 B.C. : 

Two years after Alexander's death, a 
revised division of Empire was made at 
Triparadisus. Peithon was made in- 
charge of the Western Frontier of India 
i.e. area west of the Indus and Poros 
got the most of it down to the sea. In 
this partition, the provinces east of the 
Indus were ignored. 

321 B.C. : 

Eudamus killed Poros after Eudamus, 
Poros and Chandragupta's joint expedi- 
tion against Magadha and its fall. 
Chandragupta annexed Sind as far as 
Eastern Geirosia (almost the boundary 
of Las Bela with Mekran) to his empire. 
Peithon finally abandoned India and 
withdrew to Arachosia, one year after 
Eudamus departure from the Lower 
Punjab in 317 B.C., to aid Eumenes in 
his struggle against Anligonus. 

321-299 B.C. : 

Chandragupta Maurya having learnt 
from the Greeks the advantages of navy, 

Uft Vol. I, pp. 424-425. 
Jain authorities give the year of his acces- 
sion as 314-313 A.D. CHI, Vol. 5, p. 

Smith, EHI, pp. 136, 139. 
HCIP, Vol. II, p. 700 assigns his rule in 
324-300 B.C. 

Rapson, CHI, Vol. I, pp. 424-462. 

Tarn, W.W., Alexander the Great, Vol. 
H, pp. 310, 312-13. 

Diodorus, ch, XVIII, p. 39 and ch. XIX, 
p. 14.8. HaP, Vol. II, p. 58. 


Smith, pp. 160-161 

Mookerjee, HCIP, Vol. 

thinks that Chandragupta started the war 

of independence probably in 323 B.C. or 

even earlier. 

Woodcock, p. 41. 
Mookerjee, HCIP, II. p. 59, thinks that 
Eudamus left India without challenging 
Chandragupta, who had ruthlessly put to 
sword every Macedonian. 

Toussant, p. 72. 

II, p. 58, 




built battle fleets under the Board of 
Admiralty, with a Superintendent of 
ships as its head. 

320 B.C. : 

Death of Aristobolus, a Greek 
historian, who accompanied Alexander 
in his campaign and wrote a history that 
was used by Arrian and Strabo. 

320-298 B.C. : 

Chandragputa Maurya introduced Pali 
as the official language in the Empire. 
Asoka's pillar inscriptions are also in 
Pali. # 

The inscriptions in the Gandhara 
(Qandhar) Province are in the local Pali 
having some similarities with Kashmiri, 
Sindhi and Siraiki. 

Pali had 3 different forms known in the 
North- West India; first in Sind and 
Rajputana; other in Gujarat and Maha- 
rashtra and the third in Central India. 

312 B.C. : 

Death of Nearchus. 

312-260 B.C. : 

Patracles, an officer of Seleucus and An- 
tichus sailed to India and passed in- 
formation to Eratoshenes, who wrote 
a geography describing correctly the 
Indus as well as rhomboid shape of the 
Indo-Pak Sub-Continent, its climate, 
rains etc. 

305 or 304 B.C. : 

Invasion of India by Seleucus of Syria, 
his compromise with Chandragupta and 
sesossion of large part of Ariana by 
Seleucus, passing Las Bela, Gandhara 
and the western parts of Arachosia and 
Geirosia (area bounded between the 

Mookerjee gives detailed account. Indian 


Bhirumal, pp. 44-45. 

Refer entries 325 B.C. 

Strabo, Vol. I, ch. I, p. 22 and ch. XV, 
pp. 11 aid 14. 


Plutarch: Lives, Ch. LXII. 
Smjth, pp. 45, 206. Tarn Greeks in Bac- 
tria and India, p. 100 and note 4. Wood- 
cock puts it as 306 B.C. which is incorrect. 
P. 47. Smith puts the invasion in 305 or 
304 and the defeat in 303 B.C. 



Indus and north-south line from Jalal- 
abad, Quotta, Kelat to Porali), to Chan- 
dragupta in return for 500 elephants. 
This put Chandragupta in possession 
of the whole of Sind (which at that time 
included parts of Lasbela) within 18 
years of its conquest by Alexander. With 
these elephants Seleucus was able to 
defeat Antigonus at Ipsus in 301 B.C. 

302 B.C. or after : 

Seleucus— Nicator concluded a treaty 
with Chandragupta Maurya, and his 
subjects made voyages to Indian Sub- 
Continent to procure spices. Such at- 
tempts were discouraged by the attacks 
of un-subjugated people, the inhabitants 
of Kuwait and adjoining territories. 
Seleucus kept fleets in the Gulf to 
protect the navigation. 

302-288 B.C. : 

Megasthenes, the Seleucus" ambassador, 
lived in India in Chandragiipta's court 
and wrote about Indian administration, 
caste system, commerce, customs, re- 
ligion etc. The work as comes down 
to us, was written by Arrian and called 
Indica. Numerous fragments of it have 
beei quoted by other writers. 

300-200 B.C. : 

During the Mauryan rule, Lakhshan 
wrote the grammar of Prakrit. It has 
been translated into English by Dr. 

300-65 A.D. 

Greak regained lingua franca of diplo- 
macy and commerce from the Bactrian 
Greeks to the Kushans. All these 
rulers adopted Gresk script which was 
in use in parts of Iran upto 8th 

His hold on Sind must have been nominal. 
It was his grandson Asoka who annexed 
Sind. Chandragupta is called Sand- 
rokottos by the Greek writers and is 
recognized from the Sanskrit historical 
play , the Mudra-Raksbasa. 

Toussant, p. 32. 

Ghirshman p. 320 

Pliny reports two expeditions against 

Gerrha (in Kuwait), one by Antiochus III 

in 205 and the other by Antiochus IV in 

165 B.C. 


The Sind ports were used for the export 
of products of the whole of the North- 
western Sub-Continent. 

CHI, Vol. I, pp. 389, 425. 
McCrindle, 'Megasthenes,' Calcutta, 
1877, EHI, p. 211. 

Bhirumal. p. 36. 

Ghirshman, p. 267. 

This applies more to Iran than to Pak- 
istan. Greek language does not seem to 
have influenced Sindhi and Punjabi. 
However, coins of the kings of the above 



century A.D. In the present Pakistan 
area, Kharoshthi script was used along 
with the Greek, on the coins after 
Bactrian Greeks. 

298 B.C. : 

Chandragupta probably abdicated after 
12 years famine, lived as Jain ascetic 
and ultimately committed suicide by 
starvation. His son Bindusara became 
the Mauryan King. Antiochus Sorter 
(280-261 B.C.), successor of Seleucus 
sent Daimachus as an ambassador to 
Pataliputrain296 B.C. 

period have Greek script. Bactrian 
Greeks conquered Sind in 187 B.C. 

275-195 B.C. : 

Greek geographer Eratosthenes of 
Cyrene lived. Educated at Athens, he 
joined Alexandrian Museum under 
Ptolemy-III, and in 225 B.C. became the 
librarian. He was the first scientist 
to hold that post. His writings are lost 
but mudh of his geographical material 
was used by Ptolemy and Strabo. His 
geography mentioned Sind in greater 

273 „r 272 B.C. : 

Accession of Asoka Vardhana as em- 
peror of India after the death of his 
father Bindusara. He had a governor at 
Taxila for the present East and West 
Punjab, NWFP, Kashmir, parts of 
Baluchistan and possibly Sind. 

269 B C • 

Asoka coronated. Sind was a part of 
his domain. 

259 B.C. : 

Hunting abolished by Asoka. 

Smith, pp. 154, 147. 
E. B. Havel, p. 91. 

He was called Amitrochates (Sanskrit 
Amitraghata or the killer of foes) by the 
Greek sources. Daimchus wrote an 
account of the Sub-Continent, 'Indica', 
now lost, but reported by Strabo 
as the best account.* Ptolemy Philadel- 
phus, the king of Egypt (185-247 B.C.), 
also sent Dionysius as his ambassador to 

Sorton, H.S. George, A History of 
Science, Cambridge (Mass.), 1953-1959, 2 
Vols. Toussant, p. 34 puts him between 
240-195 B.C. 

CHl, Vol. I, p. 453. 

Smith, EHI, pp. 206, 164 & 172. 

Smith, EHI, p. 206. 

Cftl, Vol. I, p. 453, puts it as 270 B.C. 

HCIP, Vol. II, puts it as 273 B.C. 

Smith, EHI, p. 206. 



257 B.C. : 

Publication of Minor Rock Edicts I, III 
and IV of Asoka. 

256 B.C. : 

Publication of complete series of 14 
Rock Edicts by Asoka. These are 
written in Kharoshthi in the North 
Western parts of his Empire and in 
Brahmi in the rest of his Empire. Kharo- 
shthi was written from right to left and 
Brahmi from left to right. Both scripts 
were of Semitic origin. Brahmi was 
probably derived from Phoenician wri- 
ting represented by Moabite stone in- 
scription (890 B.C) and may have been 
brought to the Sub-Continent by Meso- 
potamian merchants via Sind. 

253 BC • 

Buddhist Council met at Pataliputra. 

251 B.C : 

As per Ceylonese chronology the 2nd 
Buddhist Assembly met. Smith is of the 
opinion that it was during last 10 years 
of Asoka's rule i.e. 242—232 B.C. 

232 B.C. : 

Asoka died and was succeeded by 
Dasartha. The break of Mauryan em- 
pire started. His death proved a deci- 
sive blow to the United Indian hege- 
mony and brought ultimate fall of 
the Mauryan Empire. 

224 B.C. (approx) : 

Sangata became the Mauryan King. 

216 B.C. (approx) : 

Salisuka became the Mauryan King. 

206 B.C. : 

Somisarman became the Mauryan King. 

Smith, EHI, p. 206 

Smith, EHI, p. 207. 

Rapson, 'Ancient India', p. 9. 

Brahmi is the parent stock from which 

all Indian alphabets have been derived. 

Kharoshthi is a variety of Aramaic 

script brought to the Punjab and Sind 

by Darius-I. 


Rapson, CHI. Vol. I, p. 453. 

Smith, EHI, p. 169 and 206. 

Smith. EHI. 207. 

Mookerjee, HCIP, Vol. II. p. 92 puts it 

as 236 B.C. 

I - 

Smith, EHI, p. 207. 
Smith, EHI, p. 207. 


Smith. EHI. p. 207. 

324 -187 B.C. 

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230 BC 




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(Barbartcan^-x^^ y/ 

Jarbancan)-w^ ft yf\ )-o\ ) (Sharhut)^. X^oO^W 1 

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barborican is the same 
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?100 200 300 400 500 60 
r r i i i i 


187-184 B.C 





C \anurogrammon 






























'r -1 






200 B.C. : 

Silisuka became the Mauryan King. 


200-58 B.C. : 

Yavana princes of the house of Euthy- 
damus ruled. 

200-25 B.C. : 

Bilingual coins struck by the Bactrian 
Greek princes which give clue to deci- 
pherment of Brahmi and Kharoshthi 

199 B.C. : 

Satadhanwan became the Mauryan King. 

197 B.C. : 

Antiochus III the Greek ruler of Bactria 
was hopelessly involved in struggle with 
the West. Euthydemus extended sway 
over the southern Afghanistan and North 
West India but his rule in India was 
not established in his life time . 

191 B.C. : 

Brihadratha became the Muaryan King. 

190-160 B.C. : 

Demetrius the Indo-Greek King ruled 
after the death of his father Euthy- 
demus. Appollodotus and Menander 
were his contemporaries. 

187 B.C. : 

Army General Pushyamitra Sunga, 
killed his master, the last Mauryan King 
Brihadratha and thus ended the Maur- 
yan Dynasty, giving place to Sunga 

Mookerjee, HCIP, Vol. II, pp. 103-105. 
Rapson, CHI, Vol. I, pp. 488-516. 

Rapson, Ancient India, p. 10. 

Smith, EHI, p. 207. 
Munshi, HCI, Vol. II, P. 105. 


Smith, EHI, p. 207. 

CHI, Vol. I, pp. 399-402. 

HCIP, Vol. II puts it as 190-165 B.C. 

Mookerjee, HCIP, Vol. II. p. 90. 
Smith, EHI, p. 207 puts it as 185 B.C. 
and Rapson, 'Ancient India', p. 58, as 
184 B.C. He bases Mauryan rule of 
1 37 years, on five of Puranas. 




187-184 B.C. : 

Demetrius I son of Euthydemus con- 
quered Eastern Gedrosia and Patalene 
(Sind Delta) and his Lieutenant Apollo- 
dotus conquered Surashtra (Kathiawar) 
and Sagardiva (Cutch), after the collapse 
of Magadha. He established a city Deme- 
trias, probably at the site of Patala. They 
returned to Taxi la leaving Sind to be 
ru led by a military Viceroy . Demetri u s 
entered. India at Qandhar and Bolan 
pass, and after conquest of Baluchistan, 
marching along Makran coast reached 
Patala. Though he acquired large 
areas in the Sub-Continent, he lost his 
own kingdom of Bactria to his rival 



Strabo, ch. XII 1, p. 1. 

Tarn, pp. 152, 175-77, 174, 141-42-92. 

Woodcock, pp. 74,78. 

Narain, Indo-Greeks, pp. 35-42, 68, 92, 

122-125, 181, rejects the above theory 

that Demetrius or Menander conquered 



I{ is possible that for the conquest of 
Gujarat and Kathiawar, they may have 
explored the sea-coast and even ma'de use 
of the Indus, like Skylax. Since the 
Rann of Cutch was not dry, the Cutch 
district acted, as a bridge between Sir.d on 
one side and Kathiawar on the other side. 

165 B.C. : 

Death of Demetrius, who was succeeded 
by his son Agathocles. During the 
lattoi's rule of 5 years he conquered 
Gujarat, Khambat and Kashmir. 

165 B.C. to 160 B.C. : 

Agathocles conquered Gujarat, Khambat 
and Kashmir. Sind was already in his 

160 B.C. : 

Agathocles died leaving his daughter 
Agathocleia as the only heir to tho 
throne. She married Menander. the 
Governor of Kabul, who thus became 
the ruler of Sind, the Punjab, Kashmir 
and Gujarat. 

Woodcock. Greeks in India, pp. 78-86. 
Basham, p. 58, states that after Demetrius, 
another usurper, Eucracticles established 
himself at Bactria, but Sind and other 
territories were being controlled by 
Demetrius' family. 

See above. 




Menander appointed Appollodotus, his 
son from a former wife, as the Gover- 
nor of Patala to control Sind, Cutch, 
Gujarat, Kathiawar, Khambat etc. 

150-145 B.C. : 

Menander, a general of Demetrius, who 
after the conquest of Sind by the latter 
was responsible for the conquest of 
North India, died at an advanced age. 
His Kingdom included Sind. The Em- 
pire extended from Mathura to Broach 
and the whole Northern India and 
Afghanistan. He was succeeded 
by his minor . son Strato-I and 
his mother Agathocleia became care- 
taker. Sind was however governed by 

145 B.C. (latest) : 

On Menander's death Queen Agatho- 
cleia ruled his Kingdom on behalf of h«.r 
minor Son Strato-I. Appollodotus, son 
of Menander from 1st wife, kept ruling 
Sind, Makran, Cutch and Gujarat. 

140 B.C. : 

The process of Indianization of the 
Indo-Greeks began, soon after the death 
of Menander. 

140 B C. and after : 

Bactrian Coins go over to square 
shape, with motifs of the Sub-Continent 
on the reverse and also introduction of 
Indian scripts and titles on the coins. 

137 B.C. : 

A deputation of Sindhi Bikshus went 
from Patala to Ceylon, at the order 
of Menander— a Sindhi Bikshu Sangh 
left Patala with the deputation. 

Woodcock, Greeks in India, pp. 78-H7. 


Mookerjee, HCIP, Vol. II, Imperial 

Unity, pp. 85-100. 


Tarn pp. 141-42,226. 

Woodcock p. 113, puts the date of his 

death as 130 B.C. 


Tarn. pp. 141, 142 & 266. 

Woodcock, pp. 113-114. thinks he died 

in 130 B.C. 



Woodcock, pp. 94, 104, 113-114. 
He thinks Menander was alive then, and 
lived upto 130 B.C. The deputation in 
fact may have been sent by his successors, 
if he died in 145 B.C. 


128 B.C. : 

Yueh-chi defeated Scythian tribes of 
Bactria with a force of 700,000 horse 
archers, uprooting all Greeks. 

123-88 BC. : 

Mithradates IT Gre it. King, ruled Parthia. 

120fc.C. t» 100 B.C. : 

Scythian tribes of Seistan after their 
defeat during the reign of Mithiridates 
the Great, at hands of Yueh-chi, moved 
via Qandhar, Bolan and Mulla Pass into 
Sind, taking possession of Abiria, or the 
Upper Sind, thereafter Patalene and 
eventually Cutch and Kathiawar. The 
first invasion of the northern" Sind 
started in 120 B.C. and there was a halt 
before their movement to the south. 

120 B.C. : 

Eudoxus began his 1st voyage from 
Alexandria to India. 

119 B.C : 

During the rule of Ptolemy VIII, Eure- 
getes U's (146-117 B.C.), coast guards 
brought a man from a wrecked ship, half 
dead from thirst and hunger to the 
King's Court, where geographer 
Eudoxus of Cyzicus was also present. 
The man told them that he was from 
India and offered to guide Eudoxus 
there. The latter made his first trip to 
the Indian Sub-Continent in 119 B.C. 
and the second in 114 B.C. Eudoxus 
became the second Greek to have travel- 
led between Egypt and the Sub-Conti- 
neit. The first wis Skylix who also 
was a Cretean Greek and was patronized 
by Darius-T. 

1 17 81 B.C. : 

Ag.it Karchides, tutor of Ptolemy VIII 
Sorter IT King of Egypt, wrote descrip- 


Tarn, pp. 300-301. 

CHI, Vol. I, p. 512. 

CHI, Vol, I, pp. 

563, 567; 

Narain, pp. 140, 


Tarn, pp. 232-501. 

Woodcock, p. 140. 

Toussant, p. 34. 





Toussant, p. 34. 





tion of the Erythraean Sea. It has re- 
ferences on Sind's trade with the Sub- 
Continent and Egypt. 

115-110 B.C. : 

Eudoxus returned from his second 
voyage of India to Alexandria, convinc- 
ing Greek mariners that direct trade 
with India was possible and as a result of 
this in the early part of 1st century B.C., 
Greeks crossed mouth of Persian Gulf 
and sailed down shores of Makran, 
Indus delta and Gujarat. 

110-80 B.C. : 


'Saca Kingdom' or 'Ptolemy's King- 
dom' of "Indo-Scythia" established 
from Abiria to Patala, Cutch and 
Kathiawar, extended to Gujarat. 

100 B.C. : 

King Strabo-I handed over the Kingdom 
to Appollodotus, his step brother, the 
Governor of Sind and became Bikshu, 
like his father Menander. Appollodotus 
ha /ing taken over the charge, movod to 
D.I. Khan to repel Anticalcidas a rebel 
chief who had occupied Khyber and 
Taxila since 110 B.C. and re-conquered 
the lost territories from Anticalcidas. 


Woodcock, p. 140-141. 

Tarn, pp. 23 , ,320. Ptolemy calls these 
provinces as Patalene (Deltaic region), 
Abiria (to the north of it) and Surastrene 
(roughly corresponding Cutch and 
Kathiawar). McCrindle's Ptolemy, pp. 

Woodcock, pp. 120-122. 

Percy Gardner puts this incident in 

95 B.C. 


90 B.C. : 

Appollodotus died. By the time of his 
death he had conquered all territories 
of his step brother and his ancestors. 
His Kingdom extended in north from 
Afghanistan to the Ganges valley and in 
south to Gujarat. Soon after his death 
Scythians started their movement towards 
Sind. He was succeeded by his son. 

Woodcock, pp. 122-127. 

Percy Gardner puts his rule as 115-95 




90 to 80 B.C. 

On hearing of Appollodotus' death, 
Scythians invaded Sind. Three sons of 
Appoliodotus namely Zoilus. Dionysius 
and AppoIJophanes, and their cousin 
perished fighting the invaders in 



Woodcock, pp. 123-124. 
Scythians came to Sind from Seistan 
through Qandhar over the Boian Pass. 
Percy Gardner pp. 122-127. puts the rule 
of the three brothers in 95-80 B.C. 


1 jni-M 








80 to 58 B.C. : 

Maues moved from the Upper Sind and 
advanced to the valley of Indus. Scy- 
thians were already settled in Cutch and 
Kathiawar. Sind was then named as 
Sakadripa by the Indians. 
Scythians' or the Sakas' strength lay in 
armoured cavalry, whose main weapon 
of war was a long lance used with a 
tremendous dash. 

Sakas retained the form of Greek coin- 
age with Greek legend on the obverse 
and Prakrit translation in Kharoshthi 
script on the reverse. 

80 B.C. : 

Sakas (Scythians) advanced from Abiria 
(Hilly tract of Sind) northwards first 
to Taxi la and then to Punjab. 

Strato-II still a minor, grandson of 
Strato-I on the death of his uncles be- 
came the ruler of Sind and the Greek 
Empire in India. Old Strato-I who had 
ruled until 100 B.C. and had become 
Bikshu, was brought down and made the 
care-taker of Strato-II. 

77 B.C. : 

Maues occupied Taxi la. 

70 B.C. : 

Strato-II was killed in fight with Scy- 
thians, who seem to have Sind under 
their control by then. Hippostratus 
grandson of Menander with the help of 


From a chart in Percy Gardner's, Greeks 
and Bactnan Kings, p. XXXIII. 
Narain. pp. 45. 48, to 57 CHI. I, p. 564. 
W. Tarn. pp. 322, 400. 
J.I.H , 1933, p. 19. puts date of Maues" or 

Moga's rule from 20 B.C. to 20 A.D. 

HCIP. Vol. II. p. 127. 


• ■ . 
Tarn, p. 233. 

Woodcock, pp. 123-125. 
Percy Gardner, p. I. 


Tarn, p. 501. 

Munshi puts date of his rule as 20 B.C. 

to 22 A.D. 

Woodcock, pp. 124-127. 

Percy Gardner, p. a. puts Strato-I Is 
rule along with Strato-I aS 80-75 B.C. 




Hazara tribes and Hermaues head of 
Kabul tribes jointly controlled Khyber 
Pass until 30 B.C. when they too were 
over-powered by the Scythians. 

70 B.C.-50 A.D. : 

The oldest Dravidian language literature 
'Sangam Poems' in Tamil. No attempt 
has yet been made to assess Sindhi and 
Brauhi words from this literature. 

60 B. C. : 

Soon after this year Maues conquered 

60-30 B.C. : 

Sicilian born Diodorus Siculus a Greek 
historian wrote: "Library of the history 
of the World" in 46 volumes. Though a 
person of little critical ability, his 
sources on the wars that followed 
Alexanders death are reliable. 

60 B.C. to 19 A.D. : 

Strabo the historian, who wrote about 
Alexander, lived during this period. 

58 B.C. : 

Maues died and Vonones a Parthian, kin 
of King, and the ruler of the Eastern 
Tran assumed power over latter's king- 
dom. He continued to accept suzerainty 
of Spalyris, the ruler of Arachosia and 
Kabul for some time, but Sind was 
governed by Azes-I. 

58 B.C. 

Initial year of Vikrama Era. which also 
marks the establishment of Saka 

The date 

of Strato-I's death is not 



Tarn, pp. 403-501. 
Loeb, CH. Old father, 2 vols. 1933. 

Munshi. CHIP, Vol. II, assigns his life 
between 54 B.C. to 24 A.D. 


Tarn, pp. 349, 345. 

Rapson assigns reign of Azes-I to this 
period and founding of Vikrama Bra, 
which also began in 58 B.C. 
CHI, Vol. Il, # pp. 515, 516 and 520. 
Munshi assigns date of Maues death as 22 
A.D. HCIP. Vol. IV Rapson is also of 
the view that Azilises reigned first in 
association with Azes-I, then alone and 
finally in association with Azes-11. He 
further thinks that Gonodophares was 
successsar of Azes-II. 

Rapson. CHI, Vol. I, p. 516. 
Mujamdar thinks the Vikrama Era marks 

70 B.C-46 A.D. 




6 S 
3 5 
2 5 
1 5 



2 5 

3 5 



70 - 58 


58-15 B.C. 

15-10/5 B.C. 

10/5 B.C.- 10 A 




UP TO 46 AD- 




10- 46 AD 



58-15 ac. 

15-10/5 B.C. 


10/5 B.C-10AD. 





20/21 AD. TO 


10—43 A.D. 










15-10/5 B.C 

10/5 B.C.- 10 A.D. 


10- 46 AD 



75 — 66 B.C. 

66 - 52 BC 

52 - 40 B.C. 

40 -32 B.C. 

46-78 A.D 
















IS — - 






19 - 50 



— to 





10 -»5 








SS -It A.D. 






(Scythian) Suzerainty of Azes-I. 

the enthronement of Vonones as King 
of Iran. HCIP, Vol. II, pp. 128, 154. 

There is another version by Rapson 
(Ancient India, p. 104) that the Era 
marks the defeat of Sakas in Malva 
by a king who is known as 

53-52 B.C. (Winter) : 

Vonones (Parthian) gained independence 
from Spalyris the Governor of Aracho- 
sia and Kabul. Sind continued to be 
governed by Azes. 

50 B.C. : 

Buddhist Sculpture of the Sub-Conti- 
nent under heavy Greek influence. 

40 B.C. : 

Vonones still ruled and peace existed 
since his taking over power 13 years 

31-30 B.C. : 

Spalyrises seized the eastern Empire of 
Vonones' successors; took title as Great 
King, conferring the same on his 
son Azes. 

31 or 30-15 B.C. : 

Azes a Scythian King ruled Sind, Kathia- 
war etc. His father-was joint ruler with 

During the struggle, Cutch suffered 
badly from the Saka raiders, who carried 
off women, children, cows and grain. 

Rapson, GHI, Vol. I, p. 517. 


The relations of Parthian (family of 
Vonones) to Scythians (family of Maues) 
is uncertain but the two people had been 
associated for centuries in Seistan and 
Qandhar, and therefore they are con- 
sidered as closely related. 


Tarn, pp. 3, 6; HCPI, Vol. II, p. 702. 
Munshi. thinks that Vonones's career 
ended in 1 8 B.C. having been succeeded 
by his brother or step brother Spalyrises. 

Tarn, pp. 346, 347. 

j 01 

Percy Gardner, Greek & Scythian Kings, 
p. XXXIII. Mujamdar, HCIP, Vol. II, 
Age of Imperial Unity, p: 127, puts the 
rule of Azes (Aya) 15 B.C. to 30 A.D 
He probably was son of Spalyrises and 
son-in-law of Maues (Moga), according to 
the same source. Munshi, HCIP, Vol. H, 
gives the date of Aze's rule as 5 A.D. to 
30 A.D. 



24B.C. : 

Strabo during his visit to Egypt found 
120 ships sails each year from Myos 
Horms to India. 

20 B.C. : 

Utilization of Monsoon for sailing 
ships between Arabian Peninsula and 
the Sub-Continent. 

The phenonmenon of Monsoon was 
known to the Easterners much earlier. 
The Greek sailors knew it for the first 
time in 20 B.C 

Woodcock, p. 141 



15 B.C. to later part of the century : 

Azilises ruled Sind, Kathiawar and other 
parts of North Western India (present 
Pakistan), possibly jointly with his father 
as his father had shared the crown with 
his father. 

Later part of century to 10 A.D. : 

Spalyrises ruled Sind and Kathiawar. 

10 B.C. : 

Death of Trogus. Pompelus, a Gaul 
and son of Caesar's secretary. He wrote 
a work on history of non-Roman world, 
which was epitomised by Justinus. 

Approx. 10 A.D.-19 A.D. : 

Azes-II ruled Sind, Kathiawar and other 
territories of Parthians upto NWFP. 


Toussaut, p. 9. 


Percy Gardner, Greek and Scythian 
Kings, p. XXXIII. Tarn, p. 348. 

According to Mujamdar, HCIP, Vol. II, 

p. 127, Azilises was son of Azes-T and 

ruled from 28 to 40 A.D. 

Percy Gardaner, Scythian Kings, p. 

XXXin. Tarn. p. 305. 
Mujamdar, HCIP. Vol. II, Age of Impe- 
rial Unity, does not think that Spalyrises 
ruled. According to him Azes-T was his 

He is main source of Justinus' history of 
Alexander tin Great. 


Tarn, p. 498. 

Mujamdar, HCIP, Vol. II, p. 127, 
puts date of his rule as 35-79 A.D. Munshi 
puts date of Azes-II's rule from 35 A.D. 
to 79 AD. and Azilises from 28 A.D. 
to 40 A.D. 







17 A.D. : 

Strabo started final revision of "The 
Geography". He was contemporary of 
Togus who compiled history of Macedo- 
nians which was abridged by Justi- 
nus, a Latin writer, in the 4th or 5th 
century A.D. 

19 A.D. : 

Thi Parthian king, Gondophares ascend- 
ed the throne after his predecessor Azes- 
II. Gondophares brought Saka (Scythian) 
dominions in India directly under his 
own rule, which hitherto were indirectly 
ruled from Seistan at least in name. 
Parthians are known as Pahlvas in 
Sanskrit literature. 

19 A.D. to 50 A.D. : 

The Parthian king Gondophares ruled 
Sind and Kathiawar with his capital at 
Minagara. His fame in the West is said 
to have brought St. Thomas to the 
people of the Indus Country as apostle. 


23-79 A.D. : 

Pliny the elder (Gains PliniuS Secundus) 
lived and wrote his Natural History 
in 37 volumes. It describes animals, 
plants, minerals etc. of the Sub-Con- 
tinent. The work lacks scientific spirit. 

Woodcock, 142. 

Strabo describes Sind and Cutch. He 
describes Bactrian temples, altars and 
fortifications of Tejarashtra (Cutch), 
with Tejor Tahij (Bhuj) as capital. 

Tarn, 344. 

Woodcock, p. 1 30, thinks that Gondo- 
phares took over Sind from Scythians 
in 46 A.D. 

Parthians had heavy cavalry like Scyth- 
ians and in addition, light cavalry, whose 
riders could shoot arrows at gallop in 
any direction and even backwards. 

Percy Gardner, Greek and Scythian 
Kings, p. XXXIII. 
Tarn, pp. 498 and 235. 
Rapson, CHI, I, p. 5I9. thinks he ruled 
at least upto 45 A.D. Smith, EHT, puts 
the start of his rule at 20 A.D. Munshi, 
HCIP, Vol., II, p. 702, puts date of 
Gondophares' • rule from 21 A.D. to 
50 A.D., p. I8l. 

Jairozbhoy, p. I8l, agrees with Munshi. 
Rapson. Ancient India, p. 76. mentions 
St. Thomas' visit. 

Munshi, HCIP. Vol. II, p. 702, puts date 
of Natural History as 71 A.D. The 
Greek text entitled Historicorum roman- 
orum reliqt-iac, ed. Peter H.R. first two 
volumes, 1906 and other 11 vols. ed. 



24 A.D : 

Strabo died. 

41-45 A.D : 


Reign of Claudius, during which Curtius 
Rufus wrote on the exploits of Alexan- 
der, the Great. The Work is praised 
more for its literary merit than historical 

42 A.D. : 

AppolloniusofTyana,aGreek philoso- 
pher visited the sub-continent to learn 
the Indian philosophy and to see the cjties 
and altars left by Alexander. He spoke 
to Gondophares in Greek. He seems 
to have access to certain points, which 
are confirmed by modern researches. 

He was a neo-Phythagorian sage, who 
wandered in India, Persia and Egypt, to 
learn of mystics and their meditations. 

45 A. D. : 

Having observed pattern of the monsoon 
winds, Greek mariner Hippalus, shortly 
before destruction of Ptolemaic King- 
dom by Augustus, sailed from Aden to 
Indus delta and back, without touching 
any port. This produced great revolu- 
tion in trade with India and Sind. 
Even prior to this there was interchange 
of goods of Sind and the rest of Sub- 
continent with Alexandrian Ptolemians, 
by land route via Tadmir. 

46 A.D. : 

Tne Parthian King Gondophares who 
started from Khurasan (Parthia) in 21 
A.D., conquered Kabul and Gandhara 
in 43-44 A.D. and later on Sind in 
46 A.D. 

Rackrman, H; Jones, W.H.S; and Eich- 
holz, are in progress since 1938. 

Woodcock, p. 142. 


Charpentier, Travels of Appollonius of 

Tyana, p. 58. 

Smith, EHI, p. 13. doubts if he visited 

the Sub-Continent. 

Marshal, Guide 10 Taxila, Calcutta, 1918, 

pp. 15 and 91. 

Loeb's Philostratus ed. F.C. Conbearc, 
2 vols., 1912, contains lite and letters of 
this visitor. 

Woodcock, p. 141. Tarn, p. 368, thinks 
that voyage between Patala and Syagros 
was as early as 90-80 B.C. Jairozbhoy, p. 
114. thinks that it could be between 40 
B.C. and 1 A.D. 
Also refer entry 20 B.C. 

Strabo, Geographia, Ed. by A. Meincke, 
Leipzig, 1866-67 A.D., p. 118. 

Woodcock, pp. 129-132. 
Smith, EHI, puts it as 48 A.D. 
Also see entry 19 A.D. 





46— 127 A.D. : 

Plutarch who wrote Lives of Famous 
Men of Greece and Rome, lived then. 
He was born at Chaeronea in Bocotia 
and died in Re me. 

70 or 71 A.D. : 

The Periplus of Erythraean Sea, a Roman 
treatise, was written as a guide book for 
trade and sea travel from the Red Sea to 
the Eastern Indies with names of Barabi- 
can, port at the mouth of Smithus (In- 
dus) and main town Minnagara possibly 
Bahmanabad, held by Parthians, and 
Sind's imports of figured linen, topaz, 
coral storax, frank incense, glass vessels, 
silver, gold etc. and exports indigo, 
cotton, silk, furs, nard, gum. perfumes 
etc. The book states that the country 
of Sind was called Scythia or the land 
of Scythians. 



English translation of his works, ed. 
Perrian, B. in 11 volumes, London, 1914- 
1926. Penguin Classics have published 
3 volumes. Lord jn 1958, 1960 and 1964. 
He describes Alexander in Sind. 

Kennedy, JRAS, 1918, p. 112. Scoff, 
p. 15 puts it as 60 A.D. McCrindle Ind. 
Ant, Vol. vm, 1879, pp. 108-151 puts it 
as 80 to 89 A.D. If this is accepted then 
the chronology of HCIP, Vol. II, is more 
correct for the rule of Azes-I, Azilises 
and Azes-II. Sircar puts it as 70-80 A.D. 
HCIP, Vol. II, Age of Imperial Unity, 
pp. 136-138. Jairozbhoy, pp. 115, 140. 
puts it as 110-115 A.D. 
CHI, Vol. I, pp. 563-64 states that the 
Lower Sind was called Sicadipa. 






65 A.D. 

Kushans drove out the Parthian King 
Pacores, the successor of Gondophares 
from Gandhara, and thus ended the real 
Hellenic intrusions upon the Sub-Con- 
tinent. These had started with the 
Bactrians and continued during the 
Scythians and Parthian rule. 

50 A.D : 

Death of Curtis Rufus Quintus, a 
Roman historian, who wrote history of 
Alexander in 10 volumes of which the 
first two and parts of others are lost. 

65—78 A.D. : 

Kadphises-II, the Kushan, who ruled 
during this period conquered the 
whole of the Indus valley. 

70 or 71 A.D. : 

Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, a work 
of Greco-Egyptian and not Roman, 
describes Barbaricum (Bhanbore?) and 
the products sold and purchased by the 
Roman shippers at this port of Sind. 
The same port exported products of the 
whole Nor ►Western parts of the Sub- 
continent, and these reached Barbari- 
can on the Indus delta, via the Punjab 

78 A.D. : 

Kanishka became the king of Kushan 
Empire, which included Sind. 

78 A.D.-123 A.D. 

Kanishka-f annexed Sind. 

Sircar, HCIP, II, Age of Imperial Unity, 
pp. 130-131. 

T.A. Dorey, ed. H. McQueen's Latin 
Biography, London, 1967. Extracts 
pertaining to Sind are in McCrindle's 


Sircar, HCIP, Vol. II. Age of Imperial 
Unity, p. 143. 

Scoff, p. 68. 

The lower levels of Bhanbore go back 
to the 1st century A.D. 

Sircar. HCTP. vol. II. pp. 141, 143. 
Rapson, Ancient India, p. 77. 

Smith, EHI. p. 259. 



70 A.D. : 

Parthian rule continued in Sind. 


90 A.D. : 

Birth of Arrian. the famous historian Also refer 150 AD. 
of Alexander. He died during the reign 

Sircar, HCTP. vol. TT. basing on Periplus 
dated 7 0-80 A.D., states that ruler of 
Sind was a Parthian. Scoff puts the date 
of writing of Periplus as 50 A.D. He fur- 
ther states that Kadphises-II son of 
Kadphises-I conquered the whole of 
Indus valley. 

of Roman Emperor Morcus Aurelius 
(161-180 A.D.) and wrote Anabasis of 
Alexander and also another book, 
'Indica', based on Magasthenes. 

90 A.D. : 

Kanishka the Great calls forth Buddhist 

100 A.D. : 

Curtis Rafus wrote on Alexander, 
basing, it on writings of Ptolemy, son 
of Lagos, who also accompanied 
Alexander and also of Kleitarchos con- 
temporary of Ptolemy and Timageness, 
who flourished in the reign of Augustus. 
The work is inferior to that of Arrians. 

101-102 A.D. : 

Kanishka-I gave up the throne and 
became a Bikshu. 

102-106 A.D. : 

Vasishka-I ruled th: Kushan Empire. 

106-138 A.D. : 

Hurishka ruled the Kushan Empire. 
He ruled jointly with Vasishka and the 
latter's son Kanishka-Il. 

119-145 A.D. : 

Kanishka-Il (title Kaisara) joined 

Hurishka to govern the Kushan 

HCIP, vol. II, p. 702, puts the period 
of his reign as 78-101 or 102 A.D. 

Some authorities put the year as 41-54 
AD., during the reign of Claudius. 
McCrindle, Alexander, p. 11. 

Sircar. HCIP, vol. II, p. 144. 

Sircar. HCIP, vol. II, p. 150. 
Sircar HCIP, vol. II, pp. 150-151. 

Sircar. HCIP, vol. II. p. 151. 




Empire. He built large number of 
stupas between 138 and 145 A.D, 

120 A.D. : 

A deputation of artists from the Indus Mihran, vol. 17 part IV. 
valley went to China. 

123 A.D. : 

Kanishka-1, while still a Bikshu, died. 

140 A.D. : 

Tne date of writing of Ptolemy's 
geography, which states that Sind was 
ruled by Kushans then. 

Smith, EHI, p. 269. 

Ptolemy (Claudius Ptolemaeus), the 
Greek astronomer and Geographer born 
in Egypt spent most of his life in Alex- 
andria. His work the Geography in 8 
books laid down the principles of the 
construction of the World "map, which 
shows Sind and many of its towns. 
130-131 A.D. : 

Rudradaman-I belonging to Karda- 
makas tribe of Scythians became the 
ruler after his grandfather Chashtana, 
who previously was the governor of the 
South Western part of Empire (Juna- 
gadh,- Cutch, Gujarat etc.), and had 
become independent. After, becoming 
the ruler Rudradaman added Cutch, 
Marwar, Sind (Western Lower Sind), 
Sauvira (Eastern Lower Sind) and Raj- 
putana up-to Aravali hills to his 
domain. However -their hold on Sind 
must have been short lived as Ptolemy 
saw Kushans ruling Sind. 

145-176 A.D. r 

Vasudeva Kushan king ruled th; Indus 
Valley and after his death the Kushan 
governors assumed independence in 
their own provinces. The Lower Sind 
probab'y became independent fust. 

Sircar, HOP, vol. II, p. 135 and vol. nr„ 

pp. 204, 275. 

McCrindie, Ptolemy, p. 

E. H. Bunbury,. History of Ancient 


His sources include earlier, writings and 

the statements of travellers, who grossly 

over-estimated the distances. His other 

work 'Almagest', was equally important. 

Sircar, HCIP, vol. II, p. 184. 

Smith puts it as 128 A.D. EHI, p. 232. 



Smith, -_ EHI, p. 272, puts it as 140-173 
AD., HCIP-II, p. 151, assigns his reign 
to 45-176 A.D. 



65-283 AD. 










i If 


















2 OS 





2 30 



2 45 


S I N-D 












6 5-78 








ALONE 138 -US 



226 - 239 

239 - 246 


? -MO' 7 

150- 395 ? 










!i'V ! i'l ; 
id 1 1 1 .i.ii 

-- — 


. - jp-ul -yuap 


— »**- 

1 45 



1 OS- 

2 OS 
24S • 

2 55 

2 60 . 

2 05 










FROM 119 AD. 

ALONE 130-145 







S I N D 




226 -219 

239 - 248 




? - 150 ^ 

150- 195 ? 

■ ; j n 




100-750 A.D 












Kol Nathclo 
CotelLinc in 750 A.D. 






50 100 



150 MUES 




Rush an rule and development op buddhist architecture 

145 A.D. : 

Vasudeva-I, the Kushan King was 
converted to Hinduism. 

145-176 A.D. : 

Vasudeva-I ruled Kushan Empire in- 
cluding Sind. His coins were found 
from the upper layers of Mohenjo-Daro. 
After him the Kushan power declined, 
and the Scythian satraps started ruling 
as independent monarchs. Mohenjo- 
Daro Stupa constructed by the Kus- 
hans goes back to earlier years of 
the Kushan rule. 

150 A.D. (approx.): 

Date of Junagadh (Girnar) inscription, 
which states that Rudradaman the Saka 
ruled over Konkani, Kathiawar, Cutch, 
Sindhu and Sauvira. Sakas ruled Cutch 
for more than a century after his death. 

150 A.D. 

Arrian wrote Indica. It is based on 
the Indica of Magasthenes and the 
voyage of Nearchus. 


150 AD. : 

Vasudeva-I's coins (found by Binnerjee) 
at Buddhist buildings of Mohenjo-Daro 
prove that by this time at least the Upper 
Sind was under the Kushan rule. At 
Junkar similar evidence was collected 
by Mujamdar. 

200-300 A.D. 

Jatts of Sind were moving along the 
Persian Gulf, grazing their buffaloes. 


Smith, EHI, p. 272. This was the begin- 
ning of the rise of Hinduism in the 
North- Western Sub-Continent. 

Sircar, HOP, vol. II, p. 151. 


Epigraphia Indica, Vol, IH, p. 42. The 
local chiefs Parthians or Scythians in Sind, 
may have accepted suzerainty of Rudra- 
daman, but the latter was not directly go- 
verning Sind. Also see entry 130-133 AD. 
As a result of this, probably for the 
first time Cutch's relations with Saura- 
shtra became more close than with Sind. 

Mushsi, HCIP, Vol. II, p. 701. 
He used the works of Ptolemy Sorter 
(367/6-382/3 B.C.), Aristobolus (d. 320 
B.C.) and Eratosthenes (275-194 B.C.). 
These original sources are main reason 
for his accuracy. He also used Magasthe- 
nes, hut the latter had not visited Sind. 

Annual Report of Archaeological Survey 
of India, 1922-23, A.D., pp. 102—104. 
Memoir Archaeological Survey India 
No. 4, p. 7. 

Hellbusch & Westphal, Jats of Pakistan, 
p. 102. 


200-300 A.D. 

Kharoshthi script used on Asoka's 
pillar Inscriptions and later on used in 
Afghanistan, the Punjab and possibly 
parts of Sind disappeared. 

Rapson, Ancient India, p. 1Q. 

200-500 A.D. 

Revision of Markandeya Brahamanda 
and Vayu Puranas. 

226-41 A.I). 

Adasir, the first Sassanian King of 
Persia conquered Kushan principali- 
ties to the north of Hindu Kush, and 
they accepted to pay tributes. Adasir 
may have conquered Turan and Makran 
but not Sind. 

230 A.D. 

The Kushan Empire broke into several 
principalities. The Sassanids appear to 
have rapidly established ascendancy over 
those areas nearest to Persia, but on re- 
mote countries like the Oxus and Indus, 
their claim reflected neither influence 
nor authority. Sind must have been 
divided into small independent princi- 

Dr. Harza, Studies in the Puranic Re- 
cords on Hindu Rites and Customs, pp. 

Cambridge Ancient History, vol. XLT,. 

p. 110, 

Elliot, vol. VI, p. 557. 

palities then. 
226 A.D : 

Beginning of the rule of Kanishka-IU 
of the Kushan Empire. 

239 A.D : 

Vasdev-II was ruling the Kushan Empire. 

During his rule the Sassanian King Ard- 
ashir Babagan (226-241 A. D.), conquered 
Khurasan, Balkh, Kabul, Khyber, 
Punjab and reached Sutlej. Vasdev-II 
sent friendly delegation to China in 
230 A.D. to seek assistance against 
the Sassanians. 




Under the Kushans, trade with Roman 
Empire was fuyy established. 

Sircar, HCIP, Vol. II, pp. 151, 152, 

' off! let 







239 A.D. : 

Kanishka-IV becomes ruler of the 
Kushan Empire. 

Sircar, HOP, Vol. II, p. 151. 

248 A.D. : 

Vasdev-IV ruler or the Kushan Empire 

248 A.D. : 

Kanishka-V became the emperor. 

278 A.D : 

Kanishka-VI became the Kushan 

• ,fti 

Sircar, HCIP, Vol. II, pp. 151, 152. 

• I 
Rapson. Indian Coin*. 



Rapson, Indian ceini. 


>. MX. 




283 A.D. : 

Hormazd rebelled against his bro- 
ther Bahram Gor-II and was sup- 
ported by both the Sakas (Scythians) 
and the Kushans but Bahram-II re- 
conquered the lost territories including 
Seistan, Makran and Sindhu Valley. 
Local Sakas probably became his re- 
tainers. He also added Kachchha, 
Kathiawar and Malwa to his domain. 

M3 A.D. : 

Narsih son of Shapur-I, successfully 
rebelled against Bahram-IT and occu- 
pied the throne. He was congratulated 
by the vassals and the chiefs of Mak- 
ran, Paradan and Abhiras (Thar and 
Parkar Districts extending to Marwar). 
It is evident that Sind was also one 
of the Vassals. 

300-500 A.D. : 

Writing of 5 old versions of Siddhanta, 
which was later on translated into 
Arabic by a Sindhi scholar in the 9th 
century at Baghdad, from whero it 
travelled to Europe via Spain. 

301 A.D. : 

Vasdev-VI's daughter was married to 
Scythian King Harmazd (301-310 A.D.). 

302-09 A.D. : 

Harmazd, the Sassanian King ruled 
Persia, and possibly Sind still formed 
part of his kingdom. 

Hertzfeld, Paikuli, pp. 35-51. 
Ray Chaudhry, North India, p. 510. 
R.C. Mujamdar, HCIP, Vol. II, pp. 52-53, 
believes that there is no valid ground to 
assume that Kathiawar, Cutch, Malwa, 
and Gujarat were his vassal states. 

Hertzfeld, Paikuli, pp. 35-31. 

R.C. Mujumdar, HCIP, vol. Ill, p. 322. 

Rapson, Indian Coins. 

BHI, p. 274. 







309-79 A.D. : 

Shapur-H, the Sassanian King ruled 
Persia and the Eastern Empire, includ- 
ding Sind, but by about 367-68 A.D., 
Kidra, the Kushan, defeated Shahpur- 
II in two battles and in one of them, he 
fled from the battlefield, seceding Kabul 
and Upper 'Sindhu Valley (NWFP and 
the Northern Punjab). Sind probably 
became independent. He had many In- 
dian scientific works taken from present 
Pakistan area and translated into 

310-311 A.D. : 

Pahlavi inscription from Persepolis writ- 
ten about Shapur-II (309-379 A.D.), by 
his elder brother Shapur Sakanshah, 
gives latter's title as the minister of min- 
isters of Sind, Sakastan and Tukharistan. 

320-380 A.D. : 

Samudra Gupta ruled over the whole of 
the North India with the exception of 
Kashmir, Western Punjab, Western Raj- 
putana, Sind and Gujarat. Orissa and 
the Eastern Coast of South India were 
also parts of his Empire. It was during 
this period that revival of Hinduism 
reached full force in most of the Sub- 
continent, but not in Sind, where 
Buddhism still flourished. 

345-415 A.D. : 

Reign of Chandra Gupta- II of the 
Gupta Dynasty. He annexed all terri- 
tories north of Narbada but possibly 
not Sind. 


346 A.D. : 

Vasdev-VII was ruling the Kushan 
Empire, which extended from North 

Martin, Coins of Kidra Kushans, 
Numismatic Supplement, JRASB, vol. 
LVIT, pp. 32-33. 

Siege warfare originally developed by the 
Greeks and the Romans and maintain- 
ed by the Parthians, received great im- 
petus under this king and his succes- 
sors and it was the reason for expansion 
of their Empire. 
Girshman, pp. 292, 294 and 313, 

Herzfeld, Kushano-Sassanian Coins, 
pp. 35-36. 

Mujumdar, HCIP, Vol. HI, p. 12. 

Smith, EHI, pp. 286, 354 and 355. 

Mehran, Vol. 17. No. 4. 


Western Province upto Mathura. He 
ordered collection of poetry of Sind. 

350-500 A.D. , 

Mirpurkhas stupa (Kahu-jo-Daro) was 
constructed. Same date is assigned to 
Thul Mir Rukan, Depar Ghangro, 
Bahmanabad and Sudheran-jo-Daro 
P • 



Percy Brown, Indian Architecture, Bud- 
dhist period, p. 52, and also plate XXX, 


Cousens, Antiquities of Sind, p. 96, puts 
it earlier than 400 A.D. He thinks that 
these stupas may have been built on the 
site of ruined stupas of Asoka. Bhan- 
darkar has assigned the beginning of the 
Christian era to Sudheran-jo-Daro (A.S.T. 
Annual Report 1916-17, pp. 41-47) i.e. 
Kushan rule, 65-140 A.D. 


becomes the 


360 A.D. ; 

Shapur-n (309-379 A.D.), with the help 
of Indian elephants and the Kushan 
troops seized Amida on the Tigris, then 
a territory of Roman Empire. The 
victory of Amida was result of this help 
from the experienced King. Until then 
Sassanians probably had some title 
over the Indus Valley. 

Vasdev-II probably was the last Kushan 

379-383 A.D. : 

Ardasir-II ruled over the Persian Em- 
pire. (It is not certain whether Sind was 
still part of Persian Empire). 

397-417 A.D. : 

Yezdegird-I regained Sind. His coins 
with the head dress of King bearing 
crescent and star appear at Jhunkar. 
Probably these coins were specially 
struck for circulation in Sind. 

Rapson, Indian Coins. 

Smith, EHI, p. 255. 

Rapson thinks that Kanishka was the 
Kushan Emperor. 


Smith, EHI, pp. 286, 354 and 355, thinks 
that he conquered Sind, but this state- 
ment is doubtful. 

Martin, pp. 34-48. 

Cousens, Antiquities of Sind, p. 183. 




383-88 A.D. : 

Shapur-III ruled Persia. Sind probably 
was independent, as Yazdegird-I (397- 
417 A.D.) had to reconquer it. 

388-399 A.D. : 

The Sassanians ceased to exercise any 
authority on the Indian frontier after 
Bahram-IV. Sind seems to have been 
independent after 367-68 A.D., though 
some parts of Baluchistan were still in 
their possession, until Vahram-IV. 

395 A.D. : 

Chandragupta-II Vikramaditya, bro- 
ought to end, the Saka rule in Gujarat, 
Cutch and Kathiawar. He was opposed 
by Vahlikas of Sind and in order to 
cross the seven mouths of the Indus, he 
had to seal the fate of Sakas in Cutch, 
Kathiawar and Gujarat. However the 
conquest of Sind never took place. 

400 A.D. : 

Justinus, Frontinus, the author of 'De 
Historis Philippies' lived. His work 
describes Alexander and Chandra- 

404 A.D. : 

Fifteen Chinese monks led by Che- 
mong, started for Indo-Pak Sub-Con- 
tinent. Nine of them returned from 
Pamirs, one died, and the remaining 5 
reached the Sub-Continent and made 
collection of Buddhist texts. Three died 
on the return journey and Che-mong 
reached China with only one compa- 
nion. Since Sind was a flourishing cen- 
tre of Buddhism, they may have visited 


Fahein visited India, but not Sind. 

Martin, pp. 34-38. 

Martin, pp. 34-38. 

Williams, pp. 63-67. See entry 130 A.D. 
For the period 150 A.D.-395 A.D., 
Cutch was under the jurisdiction of 
the Imperial Governor of Saurashtra. 


McCrindle, Alexander, p. 8$. 


Giles, p. X, Shanghai, 1877. Reprint 


400-450 A.D. r 

Sind was centre of buffalo breeding 

under Jat tribes. The breeds Nilli & 
Ravi were raised in the Punjab and 
Kundi in Sind. Mura was bred in 
East Punjab. 

414 A.D. : 

Fahein returned to China. 

420 A.D. r 

Fayong, with 25 Chinese monks came to. 
the Sub-Continent via Central Asia. 
They toured most of the northern areas 
of the Sub-Continent and possibly Sind 
and returned by a sea route. 

420^38 A.D. r 

Emperor Bahrain Gor, son of Yazdegird 

bin Shapur, Sassanid of Persia 

travelled incognito into India, taking an 

Indian bride and dower of Makran and 

adjoining parts of Sind, from its Indian 


He ruled from 442-465 A.D. 

420-440 A.D. r 

Bahram-V (Bahram Gor) ruled Persia. 
Sind (Debal and Makran) was seceded 
by its Indian Ruler to Behram Gor. 
According to Firdausi he visited Kanuj 
in disguise and his visit was honoured 
by Shangal ruler of Kanuj by giving the 
former his daughter and made return 
visit, being accompanied by rulers 
of Kabul, Sind, Hind, Sandal, Jandal, 
Kashmir and Multan. 

456 A.D. : 

Founding of Pari Nagar (near Pabi 
Virawah) by Jeso Parmara of Barmir. 

465 A.D. : 

Huns (of Tatar origin from Oxus region) 
defeated Persian King Feroz, who also 

Hellbusch A Westphal, Tho Jatts of 
Pakistan, pp. 69-72^ 

.-**«2 od'i 


Ibn Balkhi, Furs Nama. 
Padruk, Sassanian Coins, p. 105. Rap- 
son rejects this story. During this period 
Sind definitely was independent. This 
statement can only be true if the King 
of Sind gave him these parts in dowry. 

Baloch, N.A., JSHS, Vol. 7, No. 2, 

pp. 74-75. 

Tabri, Vol. I, p. 686. Jairozbhoy putsiiis. 

rule in 420-438 A.D. 

Warner, Firdausi, chapter VII, pp. 112, 




I.G.I., Provincial Series, Bombay Pre- 
sidency, Vol. II, p. 187. 

pp. 8—9. 


A.S.I. No. 48 



72. Coin of Kadphises-ll, in Kharoshthi script. 

73. 1st century B. C.-lst century A. D. Scytho-Parthian, pottery from Banbhore. 

74. Sassanian Coins. s 

(a) 224-241, Silver Drachma of Ardashir-I 

(b) Reverse of above. 

(c) 241 - 272 A. D. Silver coin of Shapur-I 

(d) 590 - 628 A. D. Gold denarius of Khusraw-ll 
(From American Numismatics Society New York) 


nS^C^mfc- 33 fro* T-fc^^fc*^ >J 

— ^~* 

75. Pahlavi-Sassanian script. 

Ardashir.J Shaftur I 

Bahram I 



Shafmr II 

Ardashir II 

Ptrozl ' 

rtzdtgrt 1 III 

76. Crowns of Sassanian Kings. (From Arc of ancient Iran by Edith Porada). 



77. 590 - 628 A. D. A Sassanian King in an armour, on a horse back ( From Taq-i-Bustan \. 





78. 4th - 7th century - Brahma in brass from Bahamanabad 
(National Museum Karachi). 


176-499 A.D 


* 0. 






1 1 0, 

— »»s 






178 - 283 





IK - 115 ? 

224 - 281 



23S - ?*« 

241 - 272 

2 SS 


2 85 

270 i 

2 7S 


- 2IS- 



JOO 1 


- no 









3 55 

- i to 

J 85 

3 70 

1 75 



3 SO 

39 5 



4 1 

4 15 


4 2 5 

4 30 

4 15 




4 5S 



, 470 


4 10 


i 4 90 

4 5 5 - 


- SOS 

- 5 1 


- 520 



2 70-120 

BAHRAM-I 273-278 


278- 383 



2 93-302 




120- ISO 

ISO -1*0 








SHAHPUR-III 383-188 




490 -> 





UP TO 475 A.D. 

415 - 455 





HORMiOZ-lll 6*7-4*1 

457 - 414 

447 -477 

475 -499 


BALASH 464-466 

K A V A 0-:i 
468 S3I 

490 _ 500 



RAi . rr 
5" -&<,cV 





died the same year. Hun Chief Tour- 
mana established himself as the Mo- 
narch at Ma'.wa and probably annexed 
Sind, as shown by a large number of 
Terracotta seals and coins of his son 
Mihiragula recovered at Jhunkar. 

495 A.D. : 

Founding of Mathelo town by Jam 



Mirchandani, B.D.. Sind and White Huns, 
JASB, 1964, pp. 61-85. 
The annexation may have been short 
lived and possibiy a raid of no conse- 
quence, but all the same he struck his 
coins showing Sind as part of his Empire. 

Abbot, Sind, p. 105. 







Jairozbhoy quoting Hodiwalla & Hoernle 
pi 159. He considers that Yasodharman's 
rule is doubtful and is interpreted from 
play of Kalidas the Rghu Vasma. 

499 A. D. : 

Sassanian King Kakobad while assisting 
Huns, lost Sind to an Indian king, 
whose name is given as Yasodhara by 
some / authorities. 
It must be the beginning of Rai Dynasty. 
The Sassanian controlled all areas west 
of the Indus upto the sea for about 
two centuries. * 

499 A.D. : 

Beginning of the Rai Dynasty, which 
ruled 137 lunar years or 133 solar years 
upto 632 AD. The founder of this 
Dynisty was Rai Dewaji a Buddhist. 

500 A.D and afterwards : 

Buddhists and Jains adopted the use of 
Sanskrit in their texts and thus it became 
lingua franca of religion. 

500 A.D : 

Western parts of the Sindhu valley wjre 
already in the possession of the Persian 
Empire under the Hun king Tourmana 

Chachnama. pp. 15-16. 
If Chach ascended the throne around 
640 A.D. , the beginning of this dynasty- 
would b; in 507 A.D. Huen Tsang 
states that ruler of Sind in 640 A.D. 
(a descendant of Dewaji) was a Sudra. 
Chachnama on tiie other hand considers 
Rais as of Rajput origin and from 
Chitor The relationship with Chitor 
and Kashmir was continued by their 
successor the "Brahman Dynasty." 

The 5 kings of Rai Dynasty who ruled 
Sind for 133 solar (137 lunar) years were 
Rai Dewaji. Rai Ssharas. Rai Sehasi-J, 
Rai Seharas-H and Rai Sehasi-II. with 
the capital at Alore. 

Rapson, Ancient India, p. 8. 

Sircar, HCIP, Vol. IF, p. 153. 


(500-510 A.D.). Sind was not under 
their control. 

500-700 A.D. : 

Revision of Matsya Purana. 

510-540 A. D. : 

White Hun Mihiragula on the death of 
his father Tourmana, became the king 
of Persia. Both of them had carried out 
advance raids in parts of India and 
possibly Sind. Mihiragula was a great 
tyrant. He was defeated by confederacy 
of local kings (probably Sind included) 
and retired to Kashmir. 

527-565 A.D. : 

Reign of Emperor Justinian and the 
climax of territorial expansion of the 
Roman-Byzantine Empire, coinciding 
with the climax of the power of the Sas- 
sanids in Iran. 

528 A.D. : 

Joint forces of Indian rulers threw out 
white Hun Mihiragula across Khyber 

531-579 A.D. : 

Reign of Khusrau-I (Naushirwan) and 
the climax of Sassanid power in Persia. 
The Rai Dynasty had already estab- 
lished before this period. The theory 
that the Rais probably were satrapies 
of White Hun Mihiragula, the king of 
Persia from 510 A.D., is not correct. 
Persian Empire included areas west of 
the Indus, as reported by Cosmas In- 
dicopleustes, may apply to NWFP and 
North Western districts of the Punjab. 

Naushirwan's personal physician Bur- 
zoyah took from Sind, a book Aam'cd 
Panchtantra, which was translated in 
Persian and called Kalilah wa Dimnah. 


Smith, EHI, p. 319. 

Since Rai Dynasty came into existence 
around 510 A.D., it is clear that Hun 
menace had very little effect on Sind. 


The highlight of the period was the 
building of Hagia Sofia at Constantinople 
in 547 A.D. This Church later on be- 
came the source of inspiration for Muslim 
religious architecture. 

It is probable that Rais of Sind also 
joined this expedition. 

McCrindle, Translation of Christian 

Dr. N.A. Baloch, J.S.H.S., Vol. rf, No. 
2, pp. 74-75, states that Rai Dynasty 
started as vassals of Khusrau-I and paid 
a small tribute. His view is probab.y 
based on Raverty who in Mihran of 
Sind (J.A.S.B. 1892) has expressed the 
same opinion, but is not correct. 

Tabqat-al-Umam reports this incident. 


535-547 A.D. 


Writing of 'Christian Topography' by 
Cosmas Indicopleustes, an Alexanderite 
Greek. The book states that the river 
Phison (Indus) separates the country 
and the Huns from all countries of In- 
dia. The statement clarifies the position 
for the period 525-535 A.D. It is 
possible that Sind was never governed 
by the Huns, and the conjecture that the 
Rais of Sind were the vassals of the 
Huns is not correct. In the 5th century 
the Huns had only temporary success in 
NWFP and the Punjab. 

540 A.D. : 

Death of White Hun Mihiragula, which 
probably brought more stability for Rai 

570 A.D. : 

Birth of Prophet Muhammad (peace be 
upon him) at Mecca. 

589-620 A.D. : 

The reign of Khusrau-II and the beginning 
of the Sassanid troubles, which brought 
their down-fall and the rise of the Arabs 
within 20 years of his death. 

590-600 A.D. (end of the century) : 

Prabhakatra Vardana, father of 
Harsha and Raja of Thanesvar waged 
an unsuccessful war against the King of 
Indus land, (author meant Sind). 

McCrindle, Christian Topography (Eng- 
lish translation), London, 1897. Cosmas 
describes trade articles of Sind like 
musk, cotton and textiles. 

600 A.D. : 

Birth of Hiuen Tsang. 

600 AD. (soon after) : 

King Seharas-11 lost his life in a fight 
with the King of Nimruz, who had inva- 
ded his country and entered Makran 
from Kirman. The Persian army was. 



. : 

Cowell, Bana, Harsacarita, p. 101. Sind 
then was ruled by Rai Dyansty. It was 
probably a raid of no consequence. 

Chachnama, pp. 15-16. 
This year is based on the chronology of 
Chachnama which is untrustworthy, as 
Chach ascended throne after 640 A.D. and 




however, defeated. He was succeeded by 
his son Rai Sehasi-II, who took over the 
battle-field near Kich. Since shortest 
route from Nimruz to Makran is not 
via Kirman the Iranian King may have 
marched by a direct route covering 
only 280 miles, against 830 miles of 
Kirman route. Jats formed the majority 
of the population of Makran. 

606-646 or 647 A.D. : 

Harsha rose to power. He made un- 
successful attempts to conquer Sind 
(having pounded the King of Sindhu 
and appropriated his fortune). Since 
Harsha fought his battles between 600- 
612 A.D. and again 620-630 A. D., the 
military campaign on Sind may have 
taken place b3tween 620-630 A.D. 
Harsha's stables were filled with horses 
from Vanaya, Sind, Persia, etc. 
To attack Sind, he had 'first to subdue 
Cutch, then a part of the Kingdom of 
Valabhi, who also ruled Malwa and 
Gujarat. Valabhi defeated and repelled 
him. Since the Rann of Cutch was a 
shallow sea creek, the easiest route to 
Sind was via Cutch. 

695-647 A.D. : 

Bana the author of Harsacarita (Sans- 
krit) lived in the court of Harsadeva, 
the King of TnaneSvar. Tne book is 
hisrory of accession of his patron and 

Rai's rule of 133 solar years would date 
the beginning of Rai Sehasi's rule around 
507 A.D. But if Chachnama's chronology 
is considered correct, Rai Seharas started 
his rule in about 599-600 A.D. and by 
about 607 A.D. if Chach ascended the 
throne in 640 A.D. 

Cowel, Harasha, pp. 50 and 91 . Rai Sehasi 
II, was the king of Sind then. 
Cowel has based this on Bana's statement 
that Harsha was burning fever to be 
the King of Sindhu. But it in fact means 
that Harsha was an enemy of Sind with 
potential threat. It is probable that 
states like Gandhara, Huna and Sindhu 
in the north and Lata, Malwa and 
Gurjara in the south were all on 
hostile terms with Harsha and faced 
latter's threat jointly. Similar view is 
expressed by R.C. Mujamdar in the 
Journal ot the Department or Letters, 
Calcutta University, Vol. X, p. 1. 
Hieun Tsang saw Sind a strong and 
independent country. Obviously, Har- 
sha's military campaign bore no fruit. 
The date of campaign is discussed by 
Tripathy in the "History of KanauT, 
Vol. Ill, p. 360 published by Annals 
of Bhandarkar Institute, and also Pro- 
ceedings of the Indian History, Vol. II, 
p. 596. Williams, pp. 63-68. 

Valabhi ruled Malwa, Gujarat and Cutch 
approximately since 500 A.D. 

Trte text tr. by E.B. Cowel and F.W. 
Thomas was published from London in 


describes the latter's relations with Sind. 
Its value is limited by the obvious defer- 
ence Bana pays to Harsha. 

609 A.D. : 

Birth of Islam. 

610-626 A D. : 

Khusru Parvez stamped silver and gold 
coins at Multan in 610-626 A.D. At 
the time at least Multan was under 
Sassanid Persia. Similarly a coin of 
Sri Vasudeva dated 627 with bilingual 
inscription would suggest rule of a 
Persian satrap. Vaser is called Persian 
satrap of Bahaman ( Bahmanabad ), 
Multan, Zabulistan and Rajputana. 


622 A.D. : 

Hijrat of Prophet Muhammad (peace be 
upon him) from Mecca to Madina and 
start of Hijri calendar. 

622 AD.-l AH. : 
The kingdom of Rai Seharas consisted 
of Alore as capital and 4 provinces 
namely Bahmanabad (Lower Sind), 
Si wi stan (South Western Sind and Wes- 
tern Hills), Iskanda (probably Uchh), 
and Multan. 

622-738 A.D. : 

Expansion of Islam. 

624-25 A.D. : 

Khusru, King of Persia, received an 
Embassy from Pulakesin-II, the Chaul- 
kaya king of Maharashtra. He had 
developed good relations with Sind too. 

*27 AD. : 

Hiuen Tsanc starts for India. 

St. Paruck, 'Sassanian Coins', p. 125. 
Rapson, Indian Coins, pp. 30 and 109. 
Sind was independent and Rai Sehasi- 
II. The Rai seems to have acquired 
Multan before 622 A.D. and put his. 
Governor there. 


Chachnama, pp. 14-17. Hieun Tsang 
saw the same situation in 640 A.D., but 
Makran, Kaikan, and Sibi were added 
later on either by Rai Seharas-II or by 
Chach. See entry 640 A.D. 

Tabri mentions the incident. 
Mujumdar reports the name of the 
king. H.C.I.P. IV. 

Khusru ruled from 590-628 A.D. Ajanta 
caves furnish evidence of his good rela- 
tions witji Chaulkayas. 
His personal bodyguards were Sindhis 
and Balochis. 




617 A.D. December: 

Roman Emperor Heraclius (610-641 
A.D.) defeated the Persian Emperor 
Khusru Parvez at Nainva and at the 
time of celebrations the king of Sind 
sent his ambassador with a congratu- 
latory message to Constantinople. 

630 A.D. : 

Conquest of Mecca by Prophet 
Muhammad (May peace of God be on 

630-644 A.D. : 

Hiuen Tsang travelled in the Sub-Con- 
tinent. In 630 A.D. he saw Sind's 
bordering bank to, the north west. This 
consisted of 4 states. 

(a) Sind proper. 

(b) Atien-po-chih-lo. 

(c) Pito-Shih-to, and 

(d) A-fantu. 

These 4 states formed the whole area 
between the then Panjnad and the sea, 
with Multau on left bank and Banu on 
the right bank of the Indus. To the west 
of Sind was the country of Lang-Kie-lo 
roughly corresponding to Makran and 
Kirman both of which in 630 A.D. were 
subject to Persia. 

Homo (Ormuz) was the border town 
b^tw :en Makran and Kirman. To the 
north ofMakran and west of Banu was 
Ki-Kiang-na (Kaikan). It had no chief 
but was divided between local tribes. 

630 A.D. : 

The tribes living in the Western hills of 
Sind then, were probably of the same be- 
haviour as thty were only a few decades 
back. Hieun Tsang states that they were 
ferocious, used to taking life as their 



Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman 
Empire, vol. VIII, p. 157. 

Watters, Vol. I, p. 226. Chachnama, pp. 
14-17, however states that Multan, Mak- 
ran and Kaikan were all dependencies 
of Sind. It may be true that shortly after 
accession of Chach, the out-lying provin- 
ces had declared independence as Hieun 
Tsang may be telling, but Chach soon 
annexed them. 

Hiuen Tsang reports that each King- 
dom in the Sub-Continent had its own 
official for maintaining written records, 
giving good and evil elements with 
calamities as well as fortunate occurrences. 
These chronicles unless raised to the 
status of Rajatarangini (History of Kash- 
mir), or the sacred works like Puranas, 
were not likejy to survive the fortunes 
of the dynasty, whose history they re- 
corded. The information of Chachnama 
may have come from such documents 
for Rai and Brahman dynasties. 

According to Williams, Cutch was a 
part of Sind ar d Kita or Kicha a part of 
Va'abhi Kingdom. Kita is now in 
Kai r a district. Hieun Tsang travelled 
267 miles South of Alore to reach Kote- 



occupation, raised cattle, recognized no 
organized government, and although 
they were Buddhists and looked like 
them, but this face of theirs was 
only apparent, as otherwise they were 
cruel and wicked. He saw Buddhism in 
Sind, but Buddhist priests were dis- 
honest and luxuriant. 

632 A.D. : 

Death of Prophet Muhammad (May 

peace be on him). 

Hazrat Abu Bakar became the first 


634-644 A.D. 7 

Caliphate of Hazrat Umar after the 
death of Khalifa Abu Bakar. 

635-36 A D.— 14 A.H. 

Due to the initial defeat at the hands of 
the Arabs, in the war of Zatul-Sila-Sal, 
the Emperor of Persia Yazdegird bin 
Shaharyar bin Parvez, sought help from 
all quarters. The King of Sind sent 
troops and elephants including his per- 
sonal white elephants. In 3 days and 
nights war, the maximum damage to 
Arabs was caused by the e'ephants of 
Sind. The white elephants which caus- 
ed great damage were killed after 3 days. 

636 A.D. : 

Battle of Cadesian in which the Persian 
Empire was laid low by the Arabs. 
Throughout their occupation of Sind, 
the Persians had recruited the Jats of 
Sind and. the Punjab in their army. After 
the defeat of the Persian army, the Jats 
joined Arab forces under acceptance 
of some terms. During Ca'iphate 
of Hazrat Ali, the Jats were 
settled in Basra in 637 A.D. Later 
they were appointed by Usman bin 

shvar near Lakhpat a town of Sind 
then. Valabhi ruled Cutch from about 
500 A.D., but on the decline of their 
power Rai seems to have occupied it. 
Without Cutch, with Rann an active sea 
creek, defence of Sind would have been 


In this war, the Jats of Sind fought with 
chains tied to their feet and therefore 
the battle is named as war of chains. 



Tabri's translation by Murgotton gives 
full details. Shibli Nu'amani, in Al- 
Farooq, Vol. II, p. 214 confirms that the 
Persian Emperor's palace contained arms 
of the ruler of Sind. 




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Hunayf Ansari the Governor of Kufa to 
protect treasury in Battle of Djamal, due 
to their honesty, loyalty and bravery. 
Within another 8 years the whole Per- 
sian Empire as far as Herat was annexed 
to the Arab Empire. 

636-644 A.D. : 

Whole of Persia as far as Herat annexed 
to the Arab Empire. 

637 A.D.— 15 A.H. : 

The first Arab naval expedition against 
Sub-Continent at Barwas (Broach) and 
Thana near Bombay, under Al-Hakam 
Bin Abi-Al-As, brother of Usman, the 
Governor of Baharain, took place. His 
other brother Mughirah penetrated in 
the Bay of Debal, but without result. 


Muir, Caliphate, p. 46. 

Biladhuri, (Leiden), pp. 431-432; and 
(Cairo), p. 438. Elliot, pp. 155-166 and 

N.A. Baloch, Islamic Culture, July 1948. 
Chachnama does not record the first 
event. Regarding Mughirah's raid, 
Chachnama, p. 33, records his defeat and 
death, but Dr. N.A. Baloch basing on 
Biladhuri, has shown that he was not 
killed. Khalifa Umar disapproved the 
action of Usman the Governor, stating 
that it was too risky to send troops on 
high seas. The second incident may have 
taken place in 21 A.H. 

639 A.D. 

Arab conquest of Egypt. 

640 A.D. or soon after: 

Due to confusion in the Persian Em- 
pire, Chach or Rai-Sehasi decided to 
extend his kingdom in that direction 
and subdued Makran, Jalwan, Gandava 
and etc. fixing his border at a stream 
separating Kirman from Makran. 

This may have caused the First Arab 
invasion ofSindin the form of a naval 
raid, or Khalifa Usman's expedition 
against Debal, as the Arabs had consid- 
ered Makran a part of the Persian Empire 
and, therefore, part of their domin- 
ion. These territories, at one time under 

Chachnama, pp. 35-47. 


the Sassanid control, were virtually inde- 
pendent in 637 A.D., at the time of 
the fall of the Persian Empire. 

640 A.D. : 

Hieun Tsang, a Buddhist master of law, 
visited Sind and found a Sudra ruling 
it. Probably, the Rai Dynasty still 
ruled Sind and therefore, Chachnama's 
chronology is incorrect. He found 
10,000 Buddhist monks in Sind, who 
did no work and indulged in debauch- 
ery. Hieun Tsang saw 3 empires in the 
north-western Indo-Pak Sub-Continent 
including Afghanistan, Kapisi* in the 
north (Afghanistan), Sindhu or Sind in 
the south, and Tsao-Kuta or Tsao-lo 
between the two (Gandhara) and to the 
west of Sindhu, tie kingdom of Lang- 
Kie-lo (Makran and Kirman), which 
was under Persian subjection and so 
was Ki-Kiangna (Kaikan). 


He found Buddhism as the religion of the 
majority, but on the decline. He found 
similar situation in the Western Hills 
(Kalat). The reason for this was that 
the war-like aristocracy of Huns and 
Kushans mingled with the local war-like 
aristocracy both culturally and by blood. 
The off springs calling themselves 
Khatri, as in the Hindu tradition, wor- 
shipped Hindu deities and asserted for 
power in Sind and Cutch. The Rai 
dynasty's origin may be typical of this 
type. Same time Jainism started spread- 
ing in Sind and Cutch. Williams, p. 67. 








640 A.P. or soon after 10 A.H. : 

Accession of Chach to the throne of 

The version of Chachnama or Biladhuri 
or Tuhfat ai-Kiram putting the year of 
his accession as 602, 622 or 632 A.D., 
is incorrect as Hieun Tsang saw a Sudra 
(Raf* Dynasty) ruling Sind in 640 A.D. 
Rana Mahrat, the ruler of Chitor and a 
kinsman of Sehasi, hearing of Rai Seh- 
asi's death and treacherous killing of all 
his heirs and relatives and usurping of the 
throne by Chach, invaded Sind, but was 
killed by the latter in single combat. 

640-644 A.D. : 

Shortly after the accession of Chach all 
the four outlying provinces which Hieun 
Tsang saw as parts of Sind, declared 
independence. Since he saw a Sudra 
ruling Sind, Chach may have ascended 
the throne after 640 A.D. and the four 
provinces rebelled on his usurpation. 
Besides, he was a Brahman and the 
population including its rulers was Bud- 
dhist. Chach proceeded in person against 
Fskanda and Multan first and then 
against the Governors of Sewistan and 
Bahmanabad and subdued them all. 
The Multan division included the whole 
of the eastern and southern Punjab upto 
the Kashmir border, but not the north 
and north-west Punjab. He planted a 
tree on a stream called Panj-Mahiyat 
(Panj-Nahiyat) which is close to the 
Kashmir hills in East Punjab. 
Sewistan or Sehwan included Arab 

Chachnama, pp. 23-28. 


Chachnama. pp. 27-28, puts the dat/e 
as 10 A.H. or 632 A.D., Which is wrorig 
in view of Hieun Tsang's statement. 

Kalich, Chachnama, pp. 27, 30 and 192. 
Among the tribes, which raised this 
rebellion, Chachnama mentions Sama, 
Sahta, Channa, Lohana and Jats. It 
seems that the rebellion was subdued by 
winning over Buddhist priests (Shamanis), 
as Arabs saw most of forts held by them 
in 711 A.D. The powerful Governor of 
Bahmanabad, Aghin (Agham or Agha- 
mani?) Lohana was defeated and killed. 





geographers' Arma-bel (Las Bela), 
Makran, Rojhan and Western hills upto 
Gandava. It was the capital of Budhia. 

642-43 A.D.— 21 A.H. : 

Khalifa Umar*sent a naval expedition 
against Debal under Mughirah in which 
the Arabs were defeated and their leader 
was killed by the Governor of Chach 
at the battle of Debal. The Khalifa sent 
another army to Makran and Kirman, 
but on the advice of the Governor of 
Iraq that the king of Sind was very 
powerful, further expeditions to Sind 

were abandoned. 


Biladhuri reports that Khalifa was told 
that approach road to Sind had scanty 
water, bad fruits, and arrogant thieves. 
If small force was sent, it would be 
wiped out by robbers and if large army 
was sent, it would die of thirst. This 
was the correct reflection of Makran 

643 A.D.— 22 A.H. : 

Abdullah Bin Amar. Bin Rabi invaded 
Kirman, penetrated Seistan, Sijistan and 
advanced towards Makran. Its ruler 
Rasil was killed in a battle in which 
the king of Sind had sent him help in 
the form of men and equipment, 
[t is doubtful if Arabs gained victory. It 
may have been an unsuccessful raid not 
on the Eastern Makran which was part 
of Sind, but on the Western Makran, 
which was not a part of Sind. 

Chachnama, pp. 72-73, puts the date as 
11 A.H.; but it is a mistake for Biladhuri 
(Cairo), pp. 38, records the Muslim 
victory at Debal in 21 A.H. Murgotton, 
p. 209. 

Tarikh-i-Guzida, p. 181, states that the 
Arabs on this occasion conquered Mak- 
ran, Kirman and Sijistan and the rulers 
of Sind helped the chief of Makran. Has- 
san Bin Muhammad Shirazi adds that the 
ruler of Makran called Zahbil was also 
the king of Sind and was killed. Tabri 
and Habibu-s-Siyar(Translation by Price), 
Vol. I, p. 138, also refers to this expedition. 
Authority of Chachnama is considered 
correct as Makran and Sijistan were con- 
quered much later. 
Biladhuri is silent on the expedition. 
Chachnama, pp. 73-74. states that 
Chach had ruled for 35 years, when 
this expedition took place. This may 
not be . correct. It may have been the 
first few years of the beginning of his 
rule or more possibly the rule of Rai 

Chachnama, pp.« 74-76. 
Raverty,* in the Notes on Afghanistan, 
states that this is the same incident as that 
of 600 A.D., wherein through mistake 
the king of Nimroz is mentioned against 
the Arabs. This view is difficult to be 
accepted as the two incidents are men- 
tioned bf the same authority. 
Rasil no doubt was vassal of Chach. 
EHTs statement that the Arabs defeated 
the king of Sind is far from the truth. 




645 A.D. : 

Hieun Tsang returned to China. 

650 A.D. : 

The northern frontier of the Arab Em- 
pire advanced upto the Oxus and all 
countries between the Oxus and Hindu- 
Kush formed part of it. 

650 A.D. : 

The Governor of Basra sent a force to 
Sijistan (Seistan) on Indian frontier. This 
gained some success and advanced along 
Helmand river as far as Bust, but soon 
had to return losing all that had been 

650-651 A.D.—30 A.H. : 

Caliph Usman sent Hakim Bin Jabalah- 
Al-Abdi to Sind and Hind, but the 
latter made an unfavourable report and 
the plan to send expedition to Sind 
was dropped. 

On similar report Caliph Umar had 
dropped idea of conquest of Sind in 
643-44 A.D. 

651 A.D. : 

Death of the last Sassanid king, 
and the complete Arab control over 
the Persian Empire, took place. 

658-660 A.D.— 38-39 A.H. : 

During the Caliphate of Hazrat Ali 
a great expedition was sent against the 
Indo-Pak Sub-Continent under Haris 
Bin Abdul Kais. The army advanced 
without any opposition upto Kaikan 
(Mountain region in Baluchistan 
around Kalat), which was a part of Sind. 
The leader Haris Bin Abdul Kais was 
killed together with all but a few follo- 
wers in 42 A.H. (663 A.D.). 


Muir,, Caliphate, Its Rise, Decline and 

Fall, p. 51. 

Biladhuri (Leiden), p. 432. 
Ibn Asir (Cairo), Vol. m, p. 22. 


H Id* 

Biladhuri (Murgotton), pp. 209-10. 
Chachnama, pp. 74-77. 


Biladhuri, p. 432. 




Chachnama states that the Muslim 
forces won tho victory but returned back 
due to the murder of Hazrat Ali. Chach- 
nama puts the date as 80 A.H. 
Which is incorrect. 

Chachnama's authority is Amir son of 
Haris son of Abdul Kais, the son of 
defeated or victorious leader and there- 
fore the statement may be doubtful. 
According to Biladhuri the leader of 
expedition was Haris Bin Marah. Ac- 
cording to Chachnama the booty col- 
lected by the Arab army included 1000 

662 A.D.— 42 AH. r 

Chach died and was succeeded by his 
elder brother Chandur son of Selaj. 
Mankad thinks that Chach ruled Kash- 
mir but was deposed. His chronology 
of Chach is: 

632-35 A.D. 

Ruled in Kashmir. 

636-38 AD. 

Wa ndered. 

638 A.D. : 

Met Ram, the Vazierof Rai Sehasi. 

638-48 A.D. : 

Worked his way up. 

648-88 A.D. : 

Ruled Sind and married Rani 
Soonhadi. the widow of Rai Sehasi, 
in 648 A.D. 

695-712 A.D. : 

Dahar ruled Sind. 

Chachnama, p. 77. 

Athir, Vol. Ill, pp. 321-22. 

Elliot, Vol. I, pp. 421-22. 

Biladhuri (Leiden), p. 432 and (Cairo), 

p. 438. 

Chachnama, pp. 49-50 puts it as 662 A.D. 
It is doubtful if Chach ruled for 40 years. 
He may have ruled maximum for 22 
years only. 

Mankad, J.S.H.S., Vol. VII, Parts 1 and 
2, pp. 7-13. 

Chachnama, pp. 49-50. 

Soonhadi recognized as Soonhan Devi, 
or goddess of beauty. 







" < 





662 A.D. : 


During the second year of the reign of 
Muawiya efforts were made to conquer 
Kabul and Zabulistan. Forces under 
Abdul Rahman Bin Sainurah, Governor 
of Sijistan, proceeded to Kabul, and 
stormed it after a few months' siege. 
From Kabul, he proceeded to Zabul 
and conquered it. Soon he was recalled 
and the tribes of Kabul and Zabul drove 
out the conquerors. The new Governor 
concluded a treaty under which the two 
chiefs paid a sum of money. 

662 A.D. : 

Jats of Kikanan or Kaikan (area 
around Kalat) rcsisied the Arab raids 
separately attempted under Abdul 
Rahman Bin Samurah, and Rashid Bin 
Amai. These intrusions were resisted. 

664 A.D. : 

Death of Hieun Tsang. 

664-665 A.D. —41 A.H. : 

Amir Muawiya sent the first expedition 
to Sind from the side of Kabul under 
Muhlib Bin Abi Sufrah. He raided 
Kaikan (Kalat District), Bannah (Banu) 
and Anwar (Lahore), but was killed in a 
battle near Lahore. 

664-665 A.D.— 46 A.H. : 

Under Muawiya's Caliphate, Abdullah 
Bin Amir sent Abdullah Bin Sawwar- 
Al-Abdi to make expedition against 
Kaikan (Kalat District), then part of 

Biladhuri, p. 396. 
Yaqoobi, p. 258. 




Ibn Asir, Vol. Ill, pp. 320-2!. 
Biladhuri, p. 432. 
Elliot, Vol. I, pp. 116, 422. 

Athir, Vol". Ill, pp. 372-73. 

Biladhuri, (Leyden), pp. 432-433 and 

(Cairo), p. 438. 

Elliot, Vol. I, pp. 116-117. 

Finshta (Briggs). 

Murgotton, p. 201. 


Ibn Asir, Vol. Ill, p. 366. 

Biladhuri (Leyden), p. 433. and (Cairo) 

p. 439. 




Sind. In the first raid he Was successful 
and collected large amount of booty in- 
cluding horses, which were sent to 
Muawiyah, but in the second raid he 
was defeated and killed. This was the 
second raid under Muawiya. 
During the first raid a mirror called 
"the World revealing mirror", was sent 
to the Khalifa, which survived in Umay- 
yad treasury, until the take over by 
Abbasids in 750 A.D. 

Under Caliph Muawiya, Ziad Bin 
AJ-Hadli, dispatched his deputy Sinan 
Bin Salamah Bin-Al-Mah Abbtq-Al- 
Madhli as Governor to Makran, which 
then was ruled by Chach's brother 
Chandur. He was dismissed the same 
year and replaced by Rashid Bin Amar- 
Al-Judaydi-Al-Azdi. Rashid was killed 
in an expedition against Kaikan and 
Meds. Sinan Bin Salamah al-Hadhli was 
re-appointed as the next Governor and 
this time he remained in Makran for 2 
years, when he was killed by the Jats 
and Meds of Budha, the hilly tracts of 
Kachhi. Jacobabad and Larkana 

666-683 A.D. : 

After the setback of Kaikan in 666 A.D., 
Umayyads sent 6 expeditions against 
this frontier post of Sind during the next 
20 years, without any permanent im- 
pression. However, a part of the 
western Makran fell in their hands. 

667-668 A.D.— 47 A.H. : 

Expedition of Abdullah Bin Sawwar-Al- 
Abdi to Kaikan (Kalat District, then 
part of Sind). Abdullah was killed by 
Turks (probably his own troopg). 

Murgotton, p. 211. 
Chachnama, pp. 78-79. 
Chachnama does not mention the initial 
success, but gives more detailed informa- 
tion on the disaster and states that Mua- 
wiya had given specific, instructions 

to send him horses. 




Asir, Vol. HI, p. 377. 
Biladhuri, pp. 397, and 433-434. 
Chachnama, p. 83. 


: A 

HA U ±1& 

■ i 

Biladhuri, p. 433. 
Yaqoobi, Vol. II, p. 278. 







</>l % 

h-l < 

—I <J) 

di o 

ND | 















3 3 



79. Stupa at Mirpurkhas restored from Percy Brown, Indian Architecture-Buddhist and Hindu 
period, based on Hency Counsen's Antiquities of Sind. 






-♦.♦••••A A 

Squinch arches; 


1. Pendentivev 

2. Drum 

3. Dome 

4. Lantt'rn 



80. Development of a dome, orldially a Byzantine Roman Invovation, 
completely absorbed in Muslim architecture. See also Stupa at 



82. 628. Signature of Emperor Harasha from a copper plate. Signature was put on the plate in 
ink. the inked portion cut into plate by an engraver and filled with chemicals (From 
Epigraphia Indica vol. IV p. 210). 


83. 711-714 A. D. A type of catapult or • Manjaniflue', which was used by Arabs during 
the seige of Oebal. It was a Greek invention, developed and perfected by Romans, 
copied by Parthians and Sassanians of Iran and operated by army recruited by 
Mohammad Bin Qasim from Iraq and Iran. 



84. General Plan -of Jami Masjid Banbhore (Debal) 


668-669 A.D. : 

On hearing of the news of the death of 
Abdullah Bin Sawwar, the Governor of 
Khurasan, Ziyad, sent Si nan Bin 
Salmah to replace the former. 

He subdued the rebels of Makran, but 
was replaced by Rashid Bin Umer 
Jadidi, who later on attacked Kaikan 
(Kalat), recovered arrears of tribute 
for 2 years and proceeded to Seistan via 
Bolan Pass, where he was attacked by 
50,000 Meds and killed. 

Sinan Bin Salmah was again reinstated. 

668-669 A.D.— 48 A.H. : 

Chandur son of Sehlaj II Brah- 
man King of Sind, died after 7 years 
rule. His kingdom was divided. The 
Upper Sind with its capital at Aiore 
went to Dahar and the Lower Sind with 
capital at Bahmanabad, to Duraj son 
of Chandur. 

669-670 A.D. : 

Khalifa Muawiya transferred several 
families of Jats from Basra and 
Antioch and to other towns on the 
sea-coast, in Syria. In third century 
A.H. Antioch had a quarter known as 
"Jat Quarter". The Jats were settled 
on the sea-coast, to resist any raids by 
Byzantine Romans. 

669-670 A.D. : 

Daharsiah, the elder son of Chach, 
ousted Duraj and occupied Bahman- 
abad. Since then Dahar ruled from Alore 
with Iskandah, Multan and possibly the 
Sibi, Kachhi and Bolan Pass areas under 
him, and Daharsiah ruled the whole of 
the Lower Sind, Sehwan, western Hills, 


The statement of attack by 50,000 Meds 
is an exaggeration as the surrounding 
area does not have a population of this 
size even to this day in spite of scientific 

Biladhuri, p. 433. 
Murgotton, p. 212. 
Chachnama, pp. 81—83. 
Yaqoobi, Vol. H, p. 278. 

Chachnama, pp. 58-60. Chandur, was 
impressed by the Buddhist teachings and 
had appointed learned men and priests 
to the state administration. These ad- 
ministrators must have been Buddhists, 
as Arabs found many forts being ruled by 

G. P. Tate, Seistan, basing on Bilad- 
huri, pp. 377-378. See also entry 834 A.D. 

Chachnama, pp. 59-63. 

Jats were captured in the war with the 

Iranians in 635-36 A.D. 



Makran and Bahmanabad. He accept- 
od the suzerainty of Dahar, but 
possibly in name only. 

669-70 AJ>.— 49 A.H. : 

Dahar started tour of the whole of his 
kingdom for mass contact and to win 
the confidence of his people. 

670-700 A.D. : 

Daharsiah ruled from Bahmanabad, the 
Lower Sihd, Sehwan and Makran, and 
Dahar ruled the upper Sind, Multanand 
the Kachhi hills. 

670-700 A.D. : 

Dahar had no control over the southern 
parts of Sind as it came into his possess- 
ion only a few years before its conquest 
by Arabs. This is probably the reason 
why Nirunkot and Siwistan (Sehwan), 
the two main strongholds in Sind, open- 
ed their gates to the Arabs without any 
resistance in 71 1 A.D. 

670-700 A.D. 

The Arab penetration in Sind via Bolan 
Pass (FCaikan or Kalat) had been suc- 
cessfully opposed for over 50 years. 
But as Dahar had no control over the 
Lower Sind and Makran for 30 years, 
this had weakened his position to 
the extent that the Makran-Debal route 
was virtually unopposed in 711 A.D. 


670 A.D.— 50 A.H. : 

Daharsiah moved to Rawar fort found- 
ed by his father Chach who had left it 
incomplete. He completed the fort. 

Chachnama, pp. 39-63. 

Chachnama, pp. 59-65. 

Mujumdar, H.C.I.P., Vol. m, p. 173. 
See entry 668-669 A.D. Williams, p. 68. 
Williams, p. 68, thinks that during this 
period Sind's control over Cutch (which 
was part of it, most probably since the 
end of 6th century due to weakening of 
power of Valabhi and was occupied by 
Rai Seharas), weakened, due to internal 
factions, and due to increasing raids of 

During the period the Kathi tribesmen 
from Sind began to move to Cutch, on 
their way to what is now called Kathia- 
war, which got its name from them. 
They became overlords in Southern 
Cutch and Kathiawar. 
Dahar must have lost control over Cutch, 
whose pirates may have looted the Arab 
Williams, p. 68. 

Chachnama, p. 50. 






<?71-95 A.D. : 

I-tsing travels in the Sub-Continent. 

671 A.D. 

First Arab voyage to Canton. It is not 
known whether the Sind ports were tou- 
ched. There were the years when there 
was complete peace on the borders of the 
Sub-Continent. The ships must have 
touched Sind then. 

671 A.D.— 51 A.H. : 

Mundhir Bin Jarud-Al-Abdi captured 
tCaikan (Kalat District) and Kuzdar 
(IChuzdar). Later on he died, while 
on his way to Khuzdar. After the 
death of his father Hukum bin Mudhir 
(Munzir) was appointed as commander 
and held frontiers for 6 months when he 
was re-called. The command then was 
taken by Ibn Haris who subdued 
Khuzdar and collected much booty. 
Kaikan probably was not subdued. 

672 A.D.— 52 A.H. : 

Daharsen intended to attack Alore. 
His brother Dahar diplomatically avoid- 
ed the conflict. Daharsen died outside 
Alore after 4 days sickness. After a 
month Dahar married his deceased 
brother's widow, the daughtor of Loha- 
na, the Governor of Agham. Daharsiah 
Bin Chach succeeded Daharsen. 

671 A.D.— 51 A.H. : 

Probable date of Dahar's 'marriage' 
With his sister Bai. 

678-679 AD. : 

Raja of Rama! (Rawal) invaded Sind. 
After occupying Bupijia. he attacked 


Chachnama calls him Munzir and puts 
the date of his campaign as 61 AH., 
which is incorrect. 

Chachnama, pp. 50-54 and 54-68. 


Chachnama. p. 68. The story of this 
marriage is considered fake by many 
authorities, as there is no such precedent 
in Hindu Society, though it was common 
among the Phar*uns of Egypt. 

Chachnama. pp. 70-80. 

Chachnama's Sindhi translation, p. 425 



Rawar in the Lower Sind but Dahar de- 
feated him with the help of the troops 
of Muhammad Bin Haris Alfi. 

679 A.D.— 60 A.H. or earlier: 

Ibn Hurri Bahli was made the comman- 
der of Sind- Makran frontiers. Hurri was 
still Governor of Makran when Muawi- 
ya died on 22nd Rajab. 60 A.H. 

683 AD. : 

Kabul revolted against the Arabs, and 
in a battle at J unzah the Arabs lost. The 
Governor Yazid Ibn Ziyad and leading 
leaders were killed. 

684-85 A.D.— 65 A.H. : 

Abdul Malik Bin Marwan became 

684-85 A.D.— 65 A.H. : 

Alans (or Alvis?) rebelled against 
Umayyads, fled to Sind and sought pro- 
tection of Dahar, who treated their 
leader Muhammad Bin Haris Alan* kind- 
ly and admitted him into his service. 

685 AD. : 

Zabul declared war against the Arabs, 
but inspite of initial success the rebellious 
leader Ratbil was killed and his army 
routed. His son Ratbil IT the successor, 
compelled the Arab General to con- 
cede. The former paid a sum of money 
and latter agreed not to raid his country 
under this agreement. Khalifa disapprov- 
ed the treaty and dismissed the General. 

(based on Fufutul Baldan, p. 425) puts 
the incident at 85 A.H. 

It is doubtful whether Alafis worked in 
the employment of Dahar as early as 
678 A.D. The date seems to be in- 
correct. Alafi is not mentioned by any 
other historian. 



Chachnama, pp. 70, 85, 89 and 100. No 
other history deesribes Alafis' flight to 
Sind. It appears that it is one of the 
many of the author's romantic fictions 
added to the history. For further in- 
formation on Alafis see Chachnama, 
pp. 138, 140, 175 and 224. 

Elliot, Vol. II. p. 4I6. has wrongly put the 
year as 683-84 A.D. or 64 A.H. 
See Biladhuri (Murgotton), p. 149 and 
Le Strange. Land of Eastern Caliphate, 
p. I50S Biladhuri does not discuss it fully. 





687-688 A.D. : 

Coins in Pahlavi characters minted by 
Umer Bin Ubaid Ullah Bin Ma' mar. 

Caetani Leone, Chronographis Islamica; 
quoting ZDMG— Vol. IV, pp. 507-1850. 

694-695 A.D.— 75 A.HL 

Hajjaj Bin Yousuf permitted 

694-95 A.D.— 75 A.H. : 

Hajjaj was appointed as the Governor 
of Eastern Empire of Umayyads. 

Jats of 

Sind to settle town in Kaskar (Iraq), 
along with their families and buffaloes. 
They were joined by slaves, Mawali of 
Bahilah (?) and Khawlah, and became 
thieves, robbing caravans and boats on 
rivers and canals of Iraq. • 

694-695 A.D.— 75 A.H. : 

Khalifa Abdul Malik sent Said Bin 
Aslam Bin Zurah Kalabi to govern Sind 
and Makran but Muawiya Bin Haris 
and Muhammad Bin Haris Alafi re- 
belled and murdered Said Bin Aslam. 
Hajjaj despatched Mujjjah Bin Sir-Al- 
Tamimi, to reconquer the lost territories 
on the Sind border. Mujj ih subdued 
Qandabil(Gandava) but died in Makran 
after a yfcir in 697-97 A.D. 

695-696 A.D.— 75 A.H. : 

After the death of Mujjah; Hajjaj appo- 
inted Harun Bin Dhira-Al-Namari as 
Governor of Indian frontiers. 
The Med pirates of Debal looted the 
Arab ships returning from Sarandeep 
and carried away Muslim Women. 
Hajjaj sent several expeditions against 
them. Two of the-n being under 
Ubaidullah Bin Nabhan and Budail Bin 

Biladhuri, p. 375. 

Ibn Asjr, Vol. Ill, p. 309. 
Biladhuri, p. 435. 
Chachnama, pp. 85-86. 
Biladhuri (Leyden), p. 435. 
Chachnama states that Alafis were settled 
by Dahar in Mekran. On hearing the 
news, Hajjaj had Suleman Alafi, the 
tribal head murdered. Alafis immediately 
left Makran and took shelter with Dahar 
in Sind. This contradicts Chachnama's 
own statements (See entries 694-85 A.D. 
and 678-79 A.D.). Makran was not 
under Dahar's control until 700 A.D. 
and therefore Dahar could not have 

settled the Alafis in Makran. 


Biladhuri, p. 435. 
Yaqoobi, Vol. II, pp. 330-331. 
Elliot Vol. I, pp. 118, 119. 
Chachnama, p. 89. 

Meds were most feared pirates of the 
Arabian sea. Due to their activities, the 
Sassanids built a fortress at Abla a sei- 
port, as stated by Yaqoot Hamvi, 




Jahfah. All suffered defeat. 

695 A.D. : 

Hajjaj, Governor of Iraq soon after 
his appointment sent Ubaidullah to 
subdue Kabul. The kings of Kabul and 
Zabul combined and inflicted severe 
defeat on the Arabs. The retreat was 
also blocked. The Arab army faced 
thirst and hunger and Ubaidullah died 
of grief. The survivors were allowed to 
retire after paying a ransom. 

704 A.D. : 

A ship carrying Muslim women from 
Ceylon was captured by Med pirates off 
the Sind coast near Debal. Hajjaj asked 
Raja Dahar to set women free. Dahar 
replied that he had no control over 
pirates. As a result, fresh hostility 
arose. Hajjaj made renewed efforts to 
conquer the country which had defied 
seven attempts of 637 & 663-683 A.D. 
Hajjaj seat Ubaidullah Bin Nibhan to 
raid Debal but he was defeated aid 
killed. His grave is at Clifton and po- 
pularly called Abdullah Shah's tomb. 
The exact date is not mentioned. 
The pirates included Jats, and therefore, 
on the conquest of Sind, they were 



7J5-706 A.D.— 8~ A.H. : 

Hajjaj Bin Yusuf appointed Muhammad 
Bin Qasiin Governor of the Sind fron- 

Mu'ajamu-ul Baldan (Cairo), Vol. I, p. 8 
and Vol. E, p. 196. 

Al-Beruni, India, p. 102. Buzrig Bin 
Shaharyar, (Cairo edition), p. 114. 

Elliot, Vol. II, p. 416. 
Also Tarikh-i-Alafi. 


Raverty in 'Notes on Afghanistan', p. 62, 
assigns this incident to the year 79 A.H., 
or 698-99 A.D. 
Le-Strange, The land of Eastern Cali- 

phate, p. 151. 

Chachnama, pp. 85-92. 
Biladhuri (Leiden), p. 435 and (Cairo), 
p. 441. 

This would have been before the death 
of Abdul Malik in 86 A.H. i.e. 705 A.D. 
As regards Ceylon, Chachnama mentions 
Sarandeb and Biladhuri the Island of 
Rubies. Chachnama states that pirates 
belonged to the tribe of Naghmaroh. 
Dr. Daudpota has discussed the back- 
ground of Abdullah Shah's grave. 
Chachnama, p. 91 and notes p. 255. 
Hellpusch & Westphal, Jats of Pakistan, 
p. 101. 

Masumi gives a different version regard- 
ing causes of expedition on Sind, but it 
seems to be author's own fabrication. 
The real cause may be, desire to expand 
Arab Empire and to collect funds for the 
depleted treasury caused by Kharjite 
troubles. Similar expeditions were sent 
to Kabul, Oxus, Chinese Turkistan 
(Kashgar), Makran and Spain. 

Biladhuri, p. 436. 

Chachnama, pp. 93, 94, 96-100. 



tiers. Latter had shown extraordinary 
ability in suppressing rebellion in Iraq 
and also subduing Kurds. 

705 A.D.-86 A.H. : 

Khalifa Abdul Malik died. 

705 A.D.— Shawal, 86 A.H. 

After the death of Khalifa Abdul Malik, 
his son Walid occupied the throne. 

708 A.D. : 

The King of Ramal invaded Sind, but 
was defeated and repulsed by Dahar. 

TAQ \ Ti 

After the defeat and death of Ubaidullah 
at Debal, Hajjaj sent Budail Bin Tuhfa 
by way of sea from Oman to raid Debal. 
He was reinforced by troops sent by 
Muhammad Ibn Haroon from Makran. 
Budail was defeated by Dahar 's son 
Jaisina and killed in a pitched battle 
which lasted a whole day near Debal. 
This was the 9th Arab attempt to con- 
quer Sind. 

In this battle Budail had 3300 horse- 
men and Jaisina had 4000 men and 4 

709 AD • 

After the defeat of Budail at Debal, 
Sunder, the Buddhist Governor of 
Nerun fearing Arab retaliation, sent a 
delegation to Hajjaj, accepting Jazia 
against protection. 

710-11 A.D.— 92 A.H. : 

Muhammad Ibn Haroon died near 
Armabil (Las Bella). 

Elliot, Vol. I, pp. 428-29. 
Muhammad Bin Qasim's sturdy ex- 
peditions in Iraq and Kurdistan show 
that he could not have been a lad of 17, 
when he had already established his 


Chachnama, pp. 69-70. 

Chachnama, pp. 92-93. 
Biladhuri (Leyden), p. 436, reports that 
Budail was killed by the Buddhist troops 
of Dahar. 

Chachnama, p. 93. 

The fear of Buddhists confirms Bilad- 
huri's story that Budail was killed by 
Buddhist troops of Dahar. 

Biladhuri, pp. 435-436. 



711 A.D. : 

Hajjaj made elaborate preparation for 
the conquest of Sind under his son-in- 
law Muhammad Bin Qasim, providing 
him lavishly the arms, soldiers, food pro- 
visions and 6,000 Syrian soldiers fully 


equipped With Roman War Machines 
of the latest types, stone-throwers (Man- 
janique), machines for scaling fort walls, 
flame throwers, etc. The equipment 
was sent by sea. At Shiraz, 
Muhammad Bin Qasim was joined by 
6000 horsemen, 6000 camel men and 
3000 load-camels. 

711 A.D. : 

Muhammad Bin Qasim, after leaving 
Shiraz, conquered Kanazbur (Panjgur) 
after a siege of many months, and after- 
wards Armail or Annabel (Las Bela) 
and came by land to Debal. 

711 A.D.— 92 A.H. : 

Muhammad Bin Qasim, having assem- 
bled the siege machines which had arri- 
ved by sea, stormed Debal, which capi- 
tulated after the Standard on the top of 
the temple (probably Buddhist) was des- 
troyed by catapults. 4000 Muslim colo- 
nists were settled at Debal and a quarter 
of city was marked for them. The temple 
was partly defiled, 700 beautiful women 
were captured and massacre was allow- 
ed for 3 days. A mosque was built and 
Hamid Ibn Wada al Najdi appointed as 

M.H. Panhwar, Razi and His Times. 

Chachnama, pp. 96-102. 

There is a dispute on the year. Tabri, 

Vol. I & H, p. 1200 puts it as 90 AH. 

i.e. 708-09 A.D. 

Elliot puts it as 93 A.H. (711-12 A.D.). 

Biladhuri (Leiden), pp. 435-36, ha*'; put 

it as 707-708 A.D. Ibn Asir (Cairo), Vol. 

IV, p. 257 agrees with Biladhuri. 

Masumi considers 710-11 A.D. as 

year of occupation of Armabil (Las Bela) 

and Qatarpun. 

In Sind, Chachnama's version is accepted. 

Chachnama, pp. 99-100, 104. 

Biladhuri (Leiden), p. 435 and Cairo, 

p. 442. 

Ibn Asir (Cairo), Vol. IV, p. 257. 

Chachnama has put the date of his arrival 

near Debal on Friday, Ramzan 93 A.H. 

Here he has mistaken it for 92 A.H. 


Chachnama, pp. 10O-109. 
Biladhuri, p. 436, states that the army 
entered the city by scaling walls (instead 
of destruction of the Standard by Manr 
janiq, as stated by Chachnama). Ibn Asir 
(Cairo), Vol. IV, p. 258, supports Bilad- 
huri's version. 




Arab geographers have called it Sindu- 

712 A.D. z 

Chandram Halah, the displaced Gover- 
nor of Sehwan drove away the Arabs 
with the help of Jats; but Muhammad 
Bin Qasim's Lieutenants in turn re- 
captured Sehwan and took 4000 Jats as 

712 A.D. : 

Muhammad Bin Qasim halted on the 
right bank of the river Indus for 2 
months and reinforced himself with 2000 
select horses, with the help of Moka so© 
of Wasaya of Jahm and built a boat 
bridge on the Indus. Dahar gallantly 
allowed him to cross the river Indus to 
show his chivalry. The place of crossing 
is identified near Talhar. Raja Rasil 
who was posted to oppose the Arab 
crossing of the river, probably connived 
at it as on the fifth day of the war Rasil 
joined the Arabs to fight Raja Dahar. 

July 2nd 712 A.D.— 10th Ram/an, 93 AH. 
Dahar's death at the hands of Arab 
army near Rawar — after he ruled 42 
years, the first 30 years over a part of 
Sind and the last 12 years over the whole 
of Sind. He left behind four sons namely: 
Jasina, Gopi, Vikiyo, and Daharsina. 
For the first time fire throwers developed 
by Sassanids and Byzantine Romans, 
were used in the Sub-Continent in this 
war, which lasted for 5 days, starting 
from 6th Ramzan. The head of Dahar 
along with the heads of other Rajas 
who fought with Arabs were sent to al- 
Hajjaj at Kufa. 

712 A.D. : 

Muhammad Bin Qasim the Governor of 
Sind, sent many thousand buffaloes and 

Chachnama, p. 146. 

Biladhuri, p. 437. 

Various names used for Sehwan are 

Sahban, Sadusan, Siwistan, etc. 

Chachnama's year 711 is inaccurate. 

Chachnama, pp. 150, 159 and 165. 
Biladhuri, p. 438. 

Tabri, Vol. U, p. 1200, gives the year as 

Biladhuri (Murgotton), p. 210. 
Chachnama, pp. 174-183 puts his rule 
as 43 lunar years, which is equivalent to 
42 solar years. 

Tuhfatul Kiram puts his rule as 32 years, 
which is a mistake. Haig suggests that 
Rawar's location would be in the neigh- 
bourhood of Fateh Bagh. 
For war machines, refer entry 309-79 A.D. 


Biladhuri, pp. 1 67-168. 

Biladhuri puts the year as 707-708 A.D., 



Jats to Hajjaj. These were then dis- 
tributed in the forests of Kashkar in 
Iraq where Jats of Sind had already 
bssn settled. The Jats ware occupying 
the Sind coast, river banks, jungles and 
villages. They consisted of many tribes 
like Lohanas, Lakhas, Sammas etc. 

712 A.D. : 

Khalifa Walid sent the Jats of Sind and 
other war prisoners and captives sent to 
him. by Muhammad Bin Qasim, to 
Antioch, to join those sent in 670 A. D. 

713 A.D. : 

On the death of Dahar, his son Jaisina 
retreated to Bahmanabad fort and the 
widow of King Dahar defended Alore. 
Jaisina also made preparation to pro- 
tect Alore. Muhammad Bin Qasim 
attacked Alore. The queen Mayain 
bravely resisted and when conditions 
became hopeless she along with other 
royal ladies performed Sati, leaving the 
fort to the conquerors. 

Nov. 712 A.D.— Safar 94 A.H. : 

Conquest of Dahlila while on way to 

712-713 A.D. : 

Muhammad Bin Qasim killed Susah 
(Musah?) Bin Dahar. 

713 AD.. May 2nd, Monday — 
Monday 1st Rajab 94 A.H. : 

The siege of Bahmanabad started. 

Sept. J— 713 A.D. : . 
End Zil-Haj— 94 A.H. . 

Jaisina's Vazier deserted him. After b 
months siege in which some citizens 

but since the conquest of Sind took 
place in 7J1 A.D., the year 712 is more 
probable. Chachnama gives details of 
Jat settlements and their castes and 

Biladhuri, p. 162, puts it as 707-8 A.D., 
but it is incorrect. It seems that still a 
large number of Jats remained in Iraq. 


Chachnama, pp. 194-204. 
Biladhuri, p. 439. 
The conquest of Bahmanabad and Alore 
after 6 months seige, must have taken 
place in 94 A.H. or 713 A.D. and not 93 
A.D or 712-13 as recorded by Chach- 

Tuhfatul- Kiram states that Queen Rani 
Bai married Muhammad bin Qasim. 
This is not supported by any other 

Chachnama, pp. 198-199. 

Caetani— quoting Dhahab-i-Tarikh and 
Mahasin, Vol. I. p. 252. This incident 
is not reported by Chachnama or Bila- 
dhuri. The name Susah is also not men- 
tioned by any other historian. 

Chachnama, pp. 199-201. 

Biladhuri (Leiden), p. 438 : and (Cairo), 
p. 444. 



entered into secret alliance with the 
Arabs. Bahmanabad fell to the con- 
querors. Jaisina, Gopi, and Vikio, the 
three brothers took shelter in Naz 
Walah Sandal in Jitor (Chitor). When 
the fort finally fell, the garrison consist- 
ing of 3000 soldiers was put to sword, 
and its populace reduced to bondage. 

September 713 A.D.: 

Zil-Haj 94 A.H. : 

Jaisina returned from the country of 
king Ramal and started raids on the 
Arab Army, but was repulsed to the 
desert, wherefrom he left for Chitor 
and instructed his brother Gopi to 
protect Alore. 

September 713 A.D.: 

End Zil-Haj 94 A.H. : 

On the fall of Bahmanabad after a siege 
of 6 months by the Arab forces, Queen 
Ladi along with other women of the 
palace committed Sati. 

713 AD. : 

Spain conquered by Arabs. 

September 29, 713 A.D. : 

Friday night. Muharram 3, 94 A.H. : 

Muhammad Bin Qasim left Bahman- 
abad for Alore where Dahar's son Gopi 
was organizing forces to fight the Arabs. 
Gopi escaped to Kiraj (Chitor) after a 
siege of the city, which surrendered on 
the condition that life of all citizens will 
be protected, no massacre allowed, and 
the Buddhist temple shall not be 

Chachnama, p. 86. 

During the siege, Jaisina wrote letters to 
various Rajas for help. Of these, those 
belonging to Chach's family were: Gopi 
Bin Dahar at Alore; Chach Bin Dahar- 
Sin at Bhatia or Bhatinda; Dhawal Bin 
Chandur at Kaikan (Kalat). 

Chachnama, pp. 203-4, Biladhuri, p. 438 
states that he left Chitor for Kashmir, to 
collect forces for re-conquest of Sind, 
He succeeded in his mission. See entry 
year 715 A.D. 

Biladhuri, pp. 439 and 185. 
Chachnama, pp. 88 and 207-212 states 
that Ladi was taken as prisoner and then 
married Muhammad Bin Qasim. This 
is just one of the many romantic stories 
of Chachnama. 

Hodiwalla puts it as 29th Zil-Haj, 
94 A.H. or 25th September 713 against 
Chachnama's 93 A.H. 


Biladhuri, p. 439. 
Chachnama, pp. 221-226. 
The name of city was Roar. Arab his- 
torians and geographers added Al to it, 
making it^AI-Roar; which finally became 
Alore. Hodiwalla, Vol. I, p. 96, states 
that the year was 95 A.H. This is incor- 
rect in view of other dates preceding it. 





714 A.D. : 

Muhammad Bin Qasim conquered 
Barham, Baghrur, and Dalilah, etc. on 
his way to Multan. 

714 A.D. : 

After the fall of Alore, Muhammad Bin 
Qasim conquered Babiah (or Bhatia) 
Golkonda, Sakkah and laid a siege on 
Multan, which surrendered after the 
source of water supply of the town was 
cut off by the Arabs. 

714 A.D.— 95 A.H. : 

Muhammad Bin Qasim conquered Mul- 
tan which was governed by Korsiah 
(Gur-Sen), son of Chander, brother of 
Dahar. On surrender of the city 6000 
soldiers of the vanquished army were 
put to sword and their dependents taken 
as prisoners. The gold recovered from 
the city as booty was 230 maunds of 
gold bricks and 13200 maunds of its 
powder, thus totalling 13,430 
maunds. A golden statue was also re- 
covered. This was sent to the treasury 
at Damascus. Korsiah escaped to 
Kashmir to seek help to fight the Arabs. 

714 A.D.— 95 A.H. : 

Muhammad Bin Qasim sent a message 
to Rai Harchandar Jahsal, King of 
Kanuj to submit. On latter' s refusal, he 
mad j preparation for expedition, but 
hearing of Hajjaj's death in May 714, he 
gave up the plans. However, on his way 
back, he reduced Sursuit and Nilma, the 
strongholds of Jat and Med robbers. 

Chachnama, pp. 197, 198-201, 235. 

Biladhuri (Leiden), p. 439 and (Cairo), 
p. 445. 

Biladhuri, (Murgotton), p. 272. Chach- 
nama, pp. 202, 235-241. The reason for 
surrender of Multan due to cut-off of its 
water supply is improbable, as there is 
virtually inexhaustible ground water 
reservoir in the city. It is also doubtful 
if the city was dependent- on the river 
as a source of its water supply. The 
story is similar to Cyrus' draining of the 
river to conquer Babylon. 

Biladhuri, pp. 439-40. 
Chachnama, pp. 237-241. 
Jasina and Korsiah, both went to Kash- 
mir to seek help of the king of that coun- 
try. This shows intimate relations between 
the kings of Sind and Kashmir. It could 
just be that Chach was displace^ king of 
Kashmir. See entry: 662 AD. (42 A.H.) 
for Chach's rule of Kashmir. 
Istakhari, p. 56, also confirms recovery 
of gold from this temple. The gold 
from Sind reimbursed the Damascus 
treasury depleted by Kharjite rebellion. 

Chachnama, p. 241. 
Jahsal, probably was Jaso-Varman, who 
sent embassy to China to gain support 
agajnst the Arabs, as is discussed sub- 

Biladhuri (Leiden), p. 440, and (Cairo), 
p. 446. 


714. A.D.: 

Muhammad Bin Qasim completed his 
conquest of Sind (of Chach). 


August 714 A.D.— Ramzao 95 A.H. : 

Hajjaj Bin Yousuf the Governor of 
Basra, and father-in-law of Muhammad 
Bin Qasim died. 

714 A.D.— 95 A.H. : 

O/i hearing Haijaj's death Muhammad 
Bin Qasim returned from Multan to 
Alore and Baghror. 
He captured Bayloman? and also took 
expedition against Kiraj and defeated 
Dawhar. Mandal and Kiraj however 
remained unconquered. 

March 715 A.D.— Jamadi II % A.H. : 

Sulaiman bscame the Umayyad Khalif 
of the Arab Empire, after the death of 
his brother Walid Bin Abdul- Malik. 

714-715 A.D.— 96 A.&. : 

After the death of Hajjaj, Muhammad 
Bin Qasim was dismissed and Yazid Bin 
Abi-Kabashah Saksaki was appointed 
as the second Governor of Sind, but 
only after 18 days of his arrival he died. 
Yazid sent Muhammad Bin Qasim in 
chains to Iraq. 

715 A.I). : 

After the death of Hajjaj, Ratbil II the 
ruler o( Zabil. refused to pay the annu- 
al tribute and it was only Abbasids 
who finally subdued Zabil. 


Asir, Vol. IV, p. 460. 

Tabri, Vol. II, p. 1256. 

For the Arab conquest of Sind, the real 

hero behind the scene was Hajjaj, who 

organized very efficient system of the swift 

horses carrying his detailed orders and 

instructions in three days. 

Muir, Caliphate, its Rise, Decline and 
Fall, p. 354. 

Asir, Vol. IV, pp. 464-5. 
Biladhuri, p. 440. 


Tarikh-i-Guzida. p. 276. 

Masumi puts it as Jamadi- 1, which date 

is incorrect. 

Athir. Vol. IV, pp. 465-466. 

Biladhuri, p. 440. 




Biladhuri (Murgotton). p. 155. 




714 A.D. 

The death of Hajjaj and that of Khalifa 
Walid brought evil days for Muham- 
mad Bin Qasim. The new Khalifa 
Sulaiman was enemy of Hajjaj and took 
vengeance on Hajjaj's family. Muham- 
mad Bin Qasim was recalled to Iraq, 
imprisoned and put to death by torture. 




Biladhuri (Leiden), p. 440, (Cairo), p. 440. 
Biladhuri (Murgotten), p. 225. 
Chachnama's version of the story of 
Dahar's daughters connected with 
Muhammad Bin Qasim's death is a 
fiction, p. 207. 
Yaqoobi (Leiden), Vol. I, p. 356 and 

Vol. II, p. 447. 









715 AD.— 96 A.H. : 

Zaid Bin Abi Kabasha Saksaki came as 
the second Governor of Sind after Muh- 
ammad Bin Qasim, but died on the 18th 
day of his arrival in Sind. He was re- 
placed by Aamir Bin Abdullah but the 
latter too died within a few months. 
Jaisina started occupying territories lost 
by his father. 

715-717 A.D. : 

Arab soldiers who had accompanied 
Muhammad Bin Qasim wanted to re- 
turn back, but Khalifa Sulaiman Bin 
Abdul Malik issued a firman asking 
them to settle in Sind, become agricul- 
turists (Jagirdars) and tillers of soil, to 

715 A.D. : 

The recall of Muhammad Bin Qasim 
and death of Hajjaj induced the chiefs of 
Sind to regain independence. Dahar's 
son Jaisina re-occupied Bahmanabad. 
The Khalifa deputed Habib to subdue 

715-716 A.D.— 97 A.H. : 

Habib Bin Al-Muhalab Bin Abi Safra 
came to Sind as third Arab Governor 
of Umayyads and was dismissed after 
2 years, in 99 A.H. 

Biladhuri, p. 441. 

Tabri (Leiden), Vol. II, p. i 75. The 

Jagirdari system was developed by the 
Sassanids, copied by the Arabs, and 
introduced in Sind and elsewhere. It 
was bfbught to the rest of the Sub-Con- 
tinent by Delhi Sultans, reached its full 
development under the Mansabdari system 
of Akbar and attained its maximum stage 
of exploitation under Shah Jehan, when 
farmers deserted the land, rather than 
cultivate it, as is described by Mazhar-i- 
Shah Jehani. 

Biladhuri (Leiden), pp. 440-441 and 
(Cairo), p. 446, puts year as 95 A.H. i.e. 
714 A.D., which is incorrect. 
Asir (Cairo), Vol. IV, p. 282. 

Biladhuri, p. 440. 
Asir, Vol. IV, pp. 464-465. 
Ibn Khaldun, Vol. Ill, p. 66. 
Tarikh-i-Sind (Nadvi), p. 124. 


85. Banbhore (Debal) citadel fortification. 

86. Earthens ware can. decorated with Sassanian type moulded frieze of animals from Banbhore 
( Debal ). National Museum Karachi. 



87. Pre-Muslim period pottery mould from Banbhore ( Debal ) Moulded pottery was 
also common upto Samma period I.e. ISth^century. 


88. Inscribed glazed pottery from Banbhore, belonging to Abbasid period or later. 

89. Pot shreds with Dev-Nagri inscriptions used for measurement of volume of some commodities, 
from Banbhore. 
















715 A.D.— 96-97 A.H. : 

Dahar's son Jaisina recovered a large 
portion of his father's dominion and 
established himself at Bahmanabad. 
Habib Bin Al-Muhlab, the 3rd Arab 
Governor, failed to interfere with his 

715-717 A.D.- 97-99 A.H. : 

Habib Bin Al-Muhlab Bin Abr Safra 
attacked Alore. It had gained inde- 
pendence after the departure of Muham- 
mad Bin Qasim, but capitulated on 
agreeable terms. 

He also sent expeditions to various 
tribes of Sind, which probably had dec- 
lared independence. These tribes dwelt 
near the Mihran (Indus) river. The 
revolt of armies of Muhammad Bin 
Qasim and their being forced to return 
to camps also occurred simultaneously. 

3rd Oct. 717 A.D.— 20 Safar 99 A.H. : 

The Khalifa Sulaiman Bin Abdul Malik 
died and his cousin Umer Bin Abdul 
Aziz became the next Khalifa. He dis- 
missed and imprisoned Habib Bin 
Muhlab the Governor of Sind, and his 
brother Yazid Bin Muhlab on the 
charges of misappropriation and law- 
lessness in Sind. In place of Habib, he 
appointed Amro Bin Muslim Bahli as 
the fourth Governor of Sind. 

717-718 A.D.— 99 A.H. : 

On his taking over as Khalifa, Umar Bin 
Abdul Aziz invited the Indian kings to 

Athir, Vol. IV, p. 283. 
Biladhuri, pp. 441 & 446. 

He was brother of Yazid Bin Muhalab, 
the new Governor General of Iraq, and 
son of Muhalab, who had attacked 
Kaikan, Banu and Ahwazia in earlier 


Athir, Vol. IV, p. 283. 

Biladhuri, pp. 440-41. 

Yaqoobi, Vol. II, p. 336. 
Biladhuri puts year as 95 A.H., which is 

It appears that he did not interfere with 
the authority of Jaisina, who had occupied 
the left bank of the river Indus. 


Athir, Vol. IV, p. 283. 
Biladhuri (Leiden), p. 441 and (Cairo), 
p. 447. Qani mentions Asmir Bin Abdullah' 
as the Go\*ernor of the same period 
(Khalifa Sulaiman Bin Abdul Malik's rule) 
as stated in the Tuhfatul Kiram, Vol. III. 
p. 23. This is incorrect. His source is 
Masumi and is dis-proved by original 
Arabic works. 


Athir (Leiden), IV, p. 466 and (Cairo), 
p. 283. 



accept Islam. He restored or confirmed 
the dominion of Dahar to his son Jaisina, 
who had accepted Islam and had re- 
covered these territories between 97 & 
99 A.H. i.e. September 715 to August 
717 A.D. 

He also addressed the chiefs of Sind, 
and the heads of tribes, informing them 
that if they accepted Islam, they would 
be allowed to retain their lands. Dahar's 
son Jaisina was the first to accept Islam 
and many others followed suit. Even the 
masses taking example of Jaisina and 
other leaders accepted Islam. The whole 
of Sind became independent thereby, 
and the Arab Empire receded to 
Kandabil (Gandava). 


717-719 A.D.- 99-101 A.H. : 

Amro Bin Muslim Bahli, the Governor 
of Sind made successive expeditions 
against different parts of the country 
(except that of Jaisina, son of Dahar 
who had become Muslim), and recon- 
quered it for the Umayyads. It ap- 
pears that all the areas conquered by 
Muhammad Bin Qasim were recovered 
by the local chiefs within three years of 
his departure from Sind. 
He is also reported to have conquered 
Cutch and annexed it. 

719-20 A.D.— 101 A.H. : 

The Khalifa Umer Bin Abdul Aziz died, 
and Yazid Bin Abdul Malik became the 
next Khalifa. 

719-20 A.D.— 101 A.H. : 

Amro Bin Muslim-Al-Bahli, the fourth 
Governor of Sind, was dismissed due to 
the rebellion of Habib and Yazid Bin 

Biladhuri (Leiden), pp. 441 and 442 and 
Cairo edition, p. 447. 
Elliot, Vol. I, p. 440. 
Biladhuri asserts that on becoming Mus- 
lim, Jaisina adopted Arabic name Jalisa. 
He seems to have held all areas on the 
left bank of the river Indus, excepting 
the Alore territories, in the Upper Sind. 
Among the tribes which accepted Islam 
were many chiefs of Rajput origin, and 
whose official title Jam is connected with 
Jamshed, the Iranian Emperor, whose 
tributaries they may have been to start 
with. Some Samma chiefs, who continued 
the Hindu faith began to develop closer 
relations with Chawra, Vaghela and 
Solanki Rajput tribes of Cutch, with 
whom they also contracted marriage 
alliances. Williams, p. 71. 

Athir, Vol. V, p. 40. 
Biladhuri, p. 447. 

Conquest of Cutch if correct, may only 
have been temporary, as Valabhi the 
ruler of Kathiawar and Northern Gujrat. 
whose territories included Cutch was still 
powerful and must have recovered it 
soon afterwards. 

Williams, p. 71, mentions that effect of 
Arab conquest of Sind, was to destroy 
Alore's authority over Cutch. Among 
those who accepted Islam were many 
chiefs of Samma Rajputs. 


Biladhuri, p. 442. 
Athir, Vol. V, p. 64. 





Muhlab, his predecessor and the Gover- 
nor of Sind from 97-99 A.H. 
Hilal Bin Ahooz-Al-Tamimi was ap- 
pointed as the fifth Governor of Sind in 
place of Amro. 

720-721 A.D.— 102 A.H. : 

Bukayr Bin Mahn a missionary who 
had come to Sind earlier returned to 

719-20 A.D. to 723-24 A.D.— 

101-105 A.H. : 

During the period, Yazid Bin Muhlab, 
the brother of the ex-Governor of Sind, 
dismissed and imprisoned by Umer Bin 
Abdul Az«z, escaped from prison and 
came to Sind along with his family and 
started a rebellion. 

Hilal Bin Ahooz Tamimi was deputed to 
chase them. He captured Mudarik 
Bin Muhlab at Gandava. Muhlab's other 
sons, Mufazil, Abdul Malik, Ziad and 
Marwan too were captured and killed 
Among those killed was Muawya Bin 
Yazid who had tortured Muhammad 
Bin Qasim in his captivity at Wasin Jail. 

24th February, 724 A.D.— 

25 Shahban— 105 A.H. : 

The Khalifa Yazid Bin Abdul Malik 
died.Hisam Bin Abdul Malik took over 
as the new Khalifa in • the month 
of Ramzan of the same year. He 
appointed Umar Bin Habira as the 
Governor General of Iraq. The latter 
sent Junaid Bin Abdul Rahman Al-Amri 
as the Governor of Sind, dismissing 
Hilal Bin Ahooz Al-Tamimi, the 
Governor since 101 A.H. 

725-72* A.D.-107 A.H. : 

Junaid Bin Abdul Rahman, the Gover- 


Yaqoobi, Vol. II, p. 380. 


Biladhuri, p. 442. 
Athir, Vol. V, p. 64. 

Biladhuri, p. 442. 


Athir, Vol. IV, p. 446 and Vol. V, p. 101. 



nor of Sind made a campaign against 
Kiraj and captured it. 

725 A.D.— 107 A.H. : 

Junaid the new Governor of Sind reach- 
ing Debal, advanced in the interior and 
having camped on the western bank of 
the Mihran, sent a message to 
Jaisina, the son of Dahar, requiring 
him to pay a tribute. The latter 
refused on the ground that he was 
now a Muslim and the territories were 
confirmed on him by Umar Bin Abdul 
Aziz the late Khalifa and therefore 
won't pay the tribute. On insistence of 
Junaid, he is reported to have abjured 
Islam and prepared to fight but in a 
naval battle on the lake Sarki, he was 
defeated, taken captive and beheaded. 
His cousin, Daharsia's son Chach, escap- 
ing from the battle, made preparations 
to report to the Khalifa about breach of 
faith of the Governor, but he was 
treacherously captured by Junaid and 
put to death. 

725-729 A.D.— 107 A.H. : 

Junaid reconquered all important towns 
of the valley (which seem to have gained 
indepedence within 10 years, after the de- 
parture of Muhammad Bin Qasim), one 
by one, and conducted successful 
expeditions against Gujarat and Nilma. 
(The latter statement is not corrobo- 
rated by any other evidence from 
Tndian records). He also took expedi- 
tion against Ujjain and returned back 
with large amount of booty, of which 
4000 million dirhams were sent to the 
Central Treasury. 

725-738 A.D. : 

The Arab Governor of Sind Junaid and 

his successors over-ran Chitor (Kiraj), 

Biladhuri, p. 442. 

Yaqoobi, Vol. II, pp. 379-380. 
Biladhuri, (Leiden), pp. 440-442, and 
(Cairo), p. 447. 

Athir (Leiden), Vol. IV., p. 446. and 
(Cairo), Vol. X, p. 64. 
If Jaisina had abjured Islam, Chach would 
not have prepared to go to the Khalifa for 
justice. It appears that his abjuring of 
Islam was a made up story. 
Haig thinks that lake Sarki was the Rann 
of Cutch (Indus Delta Country). The 
Rann of Cutch is too far away from 
Bahmanabad. This lake may have been 
Chotiari, close to Bahmanabad, and 
probably connected with both the Indus 
and the Hakra. 



• J 

% **A m'M, ■ n 

p. 448. 

Athir (Cairo), Vol. IV, p. 283. 
R. C. Mujumdar, Gujrara Prathihaves 
(Jour. Deptt. of Letters), Calcutta Uni- 
versity, p. 20. 9 ' 
Yaqoobi (Cairo), Vol. Ill, p. 50, puts the 

booty as 8000 million Dirhams. 



HOP, Vol. Ill, pp. 158-159. 






when the Mauryas or Moris were ruling 
it. The Mauryas succumbed to the 
raids, and Rawal Bappa (Khummana-I), 
a neighbouring chief of Guhila, who 
was able to resist the Arabs, seized 
Chitor. According to Todd he had ex- 
pelled the Malechchas (Non-Hindu for- 
eigners). Guhila a small state was prob- 
ably over-run by the Arabs. 

725-738 A.D. : 

Junaid conquered Bailaman (Vallaman- 
dla). Jurz and his lieutenants proceeded 
as far as Ujjain, Marmod, Mandal, Dah- 
naz, Cutch, Barwas (Broach) and Malibah 
(Malwa); i.e. they over-ran Rajputana, 
Malwa and Broach. Indian records con- 
firm that the Arabs defeated the Kings 
of Saindhavas, Kachchellas, Saurashtra, 
the Chavotaches, the Mauryas and 
Gurjaras and advanced as far as south 
of Navsari. 

725-735 A.D. : 

The Arabs under the lieutenants of 
Junaid, the Governor of Sind, and his 
successors over-ran Mandor in Rajpu- 
tana, Malibah (Malwa), Surast (Gujarat), 
Baras (Broach), the island of Cutch and 
theKathiawar Peninsula. The setback 
came when Chaulakaya, the king of 
Lata and Prathihara, the king of 
Malva, repulsed them. Valabhi re- 
cords of Gurjara mention that King 
Jayabhata-IV of Broach, inflicted a 
defeat on Tajjiks (Arabs) in the city of 
Valabhi. The result of this was that the 
Valabhi 's Empire started breaking and 
he lost the southern part of Kathiawar. 
The last King of the Valabhi Dynasty 
ruled upto 766—67 A.D. 




Ibn Asir, Vol. IV, p. 449. 
Biladhuri, p. 448. 

Annals of Bhandarkar Oriental Research 
Institute, Poona, Vol. X, p. 31. 
The two accounts agree, except that 
the Muslim records do not mention 
Saurashtra, the Valabhi Kingdom. 

Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XXIII, p. 151. 
Ibn Asir, Vol. IV, p. 466. 
Biladhuri, p. 442. 
Yaqoobi, Vol. II, pp. 379-80. 
Indian Antiquary, Vol. XII, p. 155. 
Bombay Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part I, pp. 87 
and 137. • 

Al-Beruni records that a rich citizen of 
Valabhi had quarrelled with the King 
and fled to Sind. By presenting gifts he 
persuaded the Arab Governor of Sind to 
attack the Valabhi Empire. The Arabs 
made a night attack, destroyed the town 
and lulled the King (vide Sachau, Vol.1, 
p. 192); This is of course a folk-lore. The 
town survived upto 758 or 776 A.D., when 
it was destroyed by the Arabs. 



727-28 A.D.— 109 A.H. : 

Possible date of completion of the 
mosque at Debal, by Ali Bin Musa as 
per inscription. 

729-30 A.D.- 111 A.H. : 

Junaid Bin Abdul Rehman Al-Amri was 
dismissed from Sind's Governorship, 
but as he joined the insurrectionary 
movement against the Umayyad Khalifa, 
Hasham appointed him Governor of 

Tamim Bin Yazid Al-Utbi was 
appointed Sind's seventh Governor in 
Junaid's place by Khalid Bin Abdullah 
Al-Qasri, the Governor General of Iraq 
and the Eastern Provinces. 

728-29 A.D.— 110 A.H. : 

Tamim sent to Damascus 18,000,000 
Tatari dirhams, which Junaid had left in 
the treasury at Sind; it was loot from 
Sind and also booty from the Indian 
territories over-run by Junaid. 

73031 A.D. -112 A.H.: 

There was great local uprising against 
the Arabs in which many of them were 
killed and Tamim had to abandon Sind 
after many battles. During his escape 
Tamim Bin Zaid al-Utbi died near Debal. 
Khalid Bin Abdullah Al-Qasri the Gover- 
nor General of Iraq and the Eastern 
Provinces dispatched Hakam Bin 
Awanah Al-Kalbi to reconquer Sind 
and parts of Hind all of which except 
Qassah, were lost to the Arabs. 



F. A. Khan, Bhanbhore, 1963, p. 76. 

Biladhuri, p. 442. 

Ibn Asir, Vol. V, p. 93. 

Tabri and Yaqoobi have also corroborated 

this behaviour of Junaid. 

Yaqoobi, Vol. II, pp. 380, 399-400. 
Biladhuri, p. 444. 

Junaid is reported to have sent 600,000 
prisoners of war and 8 crore Dirhams 
to Damascus, while still in Sind. Also 
see entry 725-29 A.D. 

Biladhuri (Leiden), p. 442. 
Yaqoobi, Vol. II, pp. 399-400. 
Cutch was occupied by a Sindhi clan 
Kathi, who had migrated to Cutch bet- 
ween 670-700 A.D. Hindu Sammas of 
Sind had developed marriage alliances in 
Cutch, after 712 A.D. It was therefore 
easy to create a local uprising with 
the Cutchi help. Cutch being an island 
at the delta of the Indus, made communi- 
cations easy, and the sea pirates and 
seamen of Cutch were better than the 
Arab sfeamen of the time. They continued 
to be so even in the 16th century, when 
they were the only competitors of Por- 
tuguese in the Indian O^ean. 





Al-Hakam Bin Awana Al-Kalbi was 
appointed the eighth Governor of 
Sind by Khalifa Hasham in place of 

The Arab power in Sind got a setback 
and quick decline started. Arabs started 
migrating from Sind to other places of 

730-32 A.D.— 112 or 113 A.H. : 

Biladhuri, pp. 442-442. 
Yaqoobi, pp. 384—86. 

Hakam Ibn Awanah Al-Kalbi on his 
arrival as the Governor of Sind invaded 
and conquered some of the lost territories 
after many bitter fights. He also invad- 
ed Cutch. In 1 13 A.H., he built a place 
of refuge for Muslims, calling it 
Mahfuza. He also built Mansura on 
the other side of lake (in fact the river 
Indus). It later on became capital of 
the Governor of Sind. (The last named 
place was Bahmanabad, renamed as 
such. Mahfuza was on the other side of 
the river Indus, the old course of which 
is visible even today). 

725-740 A.D. : 

Kathis of Sind, settled in central and 
southern Cutch 30 years earlier, spread 
east-wards and established themselves 
in Wagad with capital at Kanthkot. 

730 A.D.— 112 A.H. : 

Accompanying Hakam, Mundhar Ibn 
Zuhayr, Ibn Abdul Rahman Ai-Habari 
came to Sind. (The descendants of the 
latter founded an independent kingdom 
in Sind 110 years afterwards. 

730-739 A.D.— 112-121 A.H.: 

During the rule of Tamim Bin Yazid, a 
greater portion of the province was re- 
conquered by natives, expelling the 
Arabs. The first task of Al-Hakam the 


Biladhuri (Leiden), p. 442 and (Cairo), 
p. 448. 

Biladhuri (Murgotton), pp. 228-229. 
Ibn Asir (Cairo), p. 283. 
S. S. Nadvi, in AAHKT, p. 335, states 
that Mansura may have been built bet- 
ween 110 and 120 A.H. i.e. 728-738 

Williams, p. 71. 

Biladhuri .(Cairo), p. 450 and (Leiden), 

p. 444. 

Yaqoobi, Vol. II, p. 389. 

Btfadhun, pp. 444-449. 

Yaqoobi (Leiden), Vol. Ill, p. 50 and 

p. 58 (Cairo). 

Ibn Asir, p. 283. 



new Governor, therefore, was to found 
a new town Mahfuza for safety of the 
Arabs and his aide Amar Ibn Muham- 
mad Bin Qasim (who came with him) 
found another town Mansurah in com- 
memoration of victory against the locals 
in 120 A.H. (737-38 A.D.). 




731-32 A.D.—113 A.H. : 

Hakam Bin Awanah, the new Governor, 
collected Arabs from all over Sind and 
settled them on the right bank of the 
Indus in the newly founded city of 

There is now an evidence that Bahman- 
abad was renamed as Mansura and made 
the capital, at present called the ruins of 
Dilu Rai in Sanghar district, about a 
mile south of crossing of Jamrao canal 
with Shahdadpur-Jhol road. 
Masudi, Murawiju-Zahab, Paris edition, 
Vol. I, pp. 390-391 and Baghdad edition, 
p. 42, states that Mansura owes its 
name to Mansur Ibn Jamhur al-Kalbi, 
the Governor of Sind (746-750 A.D.). 
Zakariya Qazwini in Atha'ar-al Bilad, 
p. 38, states that it was built during the 
reign of Abbasid Khalifa Abu Jafar 
al-Mansur (754-775 A.D.). Yaqoob 
Hamavi agrees with Zakariya and states 
that it was built by Mansur's Governor 
Amar Bin Hafs al-Muhalabi (760-766 A.D.) 
as stated in Mujam al-Baldan (Cairo), 
Vol. VIII, p. 177. It appears that Bah- 
manabad was re-named as Mansura 
between 760 and 767 A.D. Hamavi con- 
firms that Vahmanabad/Bahmanabad 
was re-named as Mansura. Istakhri in 
Al-maluk wal Mamalik (Leiden), pp. 
171-173 and Haukal, Surat al-Ard, 
(Leiden), p. 320, also give the same ver- 
sion. Beruni (Kitab al-Hind, p. 100) 
calls Mansura as Bamanva or Bahmanva. 
Idrisi- wrote when Mansura was not 
existant. Other writings on this subject 
are untrustworthy. 

Recent excavations at Dilu Rai confirm 
that it is the site of Bahmanabad, re- 
named as Mansura and a Mosque wa* 
built at the remains of a stupa. 







731 A.D. 




Yasovarman, King of Kanauj, sent his 
minister, the Buddhist monk Puta Sin 
(Buddasen) as an ambassador to China, 
with a purpose to fight jointly against 
the Arabs of Sind, (who under Junaid 
had started spoilatory campaigns) and 
also possibly against the Tibetans. After 
the conquest of Sind, the Arabs had 
sent an expedition against Kanauj but 
without any success. The defeat of Para- 
sikasby Yasovarman refers to the Arabs. 

732 A.D. : 

The progress of expansion of the Arab 
Empire in the West was checked by the 
victory of Charles Martel between 
Tours and Poitiers. 

735 A.D. : 

The first colony of the Parsee immi- 
grants in the Sub-Continent at Sajan, 
District Thana in Gujarat. 

735-36 A.D.— 116 A.H.: 

Junaid, the ex-Governor of Sind and 
then the Governor of Khurasan, was 
dismissed for marrying Fazia. daughter 
of Yazid Bin Muhalab. Soon afterwards 
he died in Marv. 

735-740 A D. : 

Gujar Prathra King Nagabhatal defeat- 
ed Junaid's successor. (Possibly 
Hakam Bin Awanah Kalbi). 

736 A.D.: 

Lalitaditya, King of Kashmir, sent an 
Embassy to China and referred to Yaso- 
varman of Kanauj who had also sent 
such an Embassy in 731 A.D. Both 
Kings sought the Chinese help against 
the Arabs and Tibetans. The Arabs after 

HCIP, Vol. Ill, p. 130. 

Refer also entry 736 A.D 


Smith, EHI, p. 444. 


Refer entry 717 and 723-24 for Yazid 
Bin Muhalab. 

HCIP, Vol. IV, p. 20/ 

HCIP, Vol. II, p. 130. 

Stein, Sir Aurel, English tr. of Raja- 

tarangini, Part IV, p. 134. 

The Governor of Sind then was Hakam 

Bin Awanah who had started expedition 

in some areas, which his predecessor 



the conquest of Sind had sent an expedi- 
tion against Kanauj but without any suc- 
cess. Kashmir too was threatened. 

737-38 A.D.— 120 A.H. r 

The Governor of Sind, Hakam Bin 
Awanah, on hearing the news of cruelty 
on Khalid Bin Abdullah's lieutenants, 
invaded the territory but was killed. 
Amar Bin Muhammad Bin Qasim 
Thaqafi took over the command of the 

His leadership was challenged by Ibn 
Arar. The Governor of the Eastern Pro- 
vinces, Yusuf Bin Umer supported 
Amar and Arar was put into prison. 
There was a local revolt. The Arab 
army took shelter in Mahfuza, which 
the enemies besieged. It was not until 
4000 troops from Iraq had arrived that 
the siege was raised and the Arabs scored 
victory in 121 A.H. (738-39 A.D.). 

738 A.D. and soon after : 

Junaid's successor Hakam Bin Awanah 
or Amar Bin Muhammad Bin Qasim 
was defeated by king Nagabhata 
and the Chaulukaya ruler of Lata 
(South Gujarat), Avani Janasraya Pula- 
Kesiraja. The Gurjara King Javabhala- 
IV of Nandipuri also claims to have 
defeated the Arabs. 

Hakam Bin Awanah had conquered Kiraj 
or Kira near the frontiers of Kanauj and 
Kashmir. Tne ruler of Kashmir had 
sought Cninese help which was not re- 
ceived, but both Yasovarman King of 

Junaid had raided. The confirmation 
comes from th Indian sources. See 
entry years 725-735, 725-728, 729, 
725-738, 7^, 738-740 and 739 A.D. The 
provocation was that the rulers of 

Chitor, Marwar, Cutch and Gujarat helped 
internal rebellions in Sind and many 
times they took part in direct wars with 

Arab troops. 

Biladhuri, p. 446. 
Yaqoobi, n, pp. 389-390. 
The local uprising may have been helped 
from Marwar, Cutch and Gujarat as is in- 
dicated by the entry for the year 738 A.D. 
Biladhuri states that Khalid Qasri, Go- 
vernor General of Iraq, was dismissed 
and replaced by Yousif Bin Umar Thaqafi, 
who started replacing all the nominees 
of Khalid. Hakam, the nominee of 
Khalid, decided to show some chivalry 
to please Yousif, and to put down a local 
rebellion, he fought to death in 121 A.H. 
(739 A.D.). 

Annals of Bhandarkar Oriental Research 
Institute, Poona, Vol. X, p. 31. 
It is also admitted that under Junaid's 
successor Tamim, the Arabs lost almost 
all the conquered territories and fell back 
upon Sind. It is possible that a period 
of chaos in the last days of Umayyads also 
witnessed the decline of Arab power in 
Sind. Entry year 737-38 mentions great 
revolt^ and chaos. 

Stein, Rajatarangini, Vol. IV, pp. 34, 130. 
See entries, 736, 739 and 738-740 A.D. 





Kanauj and Lalitaditya King of 
Kashmir were able to repulse the Arabs 
by their own efforts. 

738 A.D.— 121 A.H. : 

The Sindhis rebelled against the Arab 
Governor, Hakam Bin Awanah who was 
killed while fighting against them. He 
was replaced by Amar son of Muham- 
mad Bin Qasim. Amar imprisoned 
Yazid Bin Arar, an Arab official whose 
name alongwith that of Amar had been 
recommended for the Governorship of 
Sind by the Governor General of Iraq, 
Yousif Bin Umar Thaqafi. Hakam ruled 
for 9 years. During this period there 
were continuous wars from within and 

738-740 A.D.: 

Dantidura son of Indra-I Rushtrukuta of 
Gujarat (South Gujarat) is said to have 
conquered Lata and Sindhu but this is 
doubtful as he may only have aided an 
uprising in Sind against Hakam Bin 
Awanah and Amar Bin Muhammad Bin 
Qasim and helped Sindhis as well as the 
local Arabs. 

739 A.D. : 

The Arabs of Sind invaded the kingdom 
of Saindhavas (Khathiawar and Gujraat), 
during the rule of Pushyadeva of Saind- 
hava Dynasty also called Jayadratha 

739 A.D.— 121 A.H. : 

On the death of Hakam Bin Awanah 
Kalbi, his two lieutenants, Amar Bin 
Muhammad Bin Qasim Thaqafi and 
Yazid Bin Arar, contested for the 
Governorship of Sind. Khalifa Hasham 
appointed Amar Bin Muhammad Bin 


Biladhuri, p. 446. 
Yaqoobi, Vol. II, p. 738. 



Mujamdar, HCIP, Vol. HI, p. 157, 
Yaqoobi, Vol. II, p. 390, records an 
uprising under a local Raja in Sind. The 
Arab invasion of Saindhavas (Kathiawar 
& Gujarat) is also recorded in year 739 

HCIP, Vol. IV, p. 99. 

Yaqoobi, Vol. II, p. 390. 

Biladhuri, p. 440. 

See entries, 738 and 738-40. 



Qasim as the ninth Governor of Sind. 
Immediately on taking over, the latter 
put Yazid Bin Arar in prison. Due 
to this confusion there were local up- 
risings under a Raja and also disorder in 
the Arab camp. 

739-743 A.D.— 121 A.H. : 

Civil war broke out in Sind between 
the Arab tribes and natives. The Go- 
vernor, Amar Bin Muhammad Bin 
Qasim, was defeated and his capital be- 
sieged, but he was rescued by time'.y 
help of Yousif Ibn Umar-Al-Thaqafi, 
Governor General of Iraq. Even then, 
the Arab tribes under the leadership of 
Marwan Bin Yazid Bin Muhalab re- 
belled against Amar. 
Amar put Marwan to death after over- 
powering the rebel Arab tribes. 

740 A.D.: 

Due to Junaid and his successors' 
(Hakam, Amar Bin Muhammad Bin 
Qasim and others) attacks on the Hindu 
rulers of Cutch, Gujarat, Marwar, Rajis- 
tan, East Punjab and Kashmir, between 
725 and 739 A.D., the Hindu rulers 
joined together, defeated the Arabs and 
also helped in local rebellions and up- 
risings in Sind. This stopped the Arab 
expansion in the East. Since then their 
control over Sind also weakened and 
the next 100 years saw local uprisings, 
Arab feuds and poor administration. 
.OVE q * 

Biladhuri, pp. 447-8 (Leiden). 
Yaqoobi, Vol. II, pp. 397-98. 
The local uprising must have been sup- 
ported by the rulers of Cutch, Marwar 
and Gujarat as mentioned under entries 
738 and 738-740 A.D. 
The Raja who laid seige on Mansura, 
may have been from the neighbouring 

See entries under years: 













739, and 

739-40 A.D., 

and also entries under years : 



735-36 A.D. , 

for Junaid's ambitions. 



February 6th, 743 A.D. : 

Rabi II 6th, 125 A.H. : 

Hisam Bin Abdul Malik died and was 
succeeded by Walid Bin Yazid in Rabi 
II, 125 A.H. 

743-44 A.D.— 125 A.H. : 

Amar Bin Muhammad Bin Qasim, the 
ninth Governor of Sind was dismissed 
by Khalifa Walid Bin Yazid and Yazid 
Bin Arar Al-Kalbi was appointed as the 
tenth Governor. Amar committed 
suicide while in Sind. Yazid made 18 
expeditions against the infidels (rebels). 
It was during this year that the "capital 
of Sind was transferred from Alore to 

Ibn Asir, Vol. V, p. 93. 
Yaqoobi, Vol. H, pp. 399-400. 
Biladhuri, p. 450. 
Chach Nama (Sindhi), p. 375. 

April 744 A.D.— Jamadi II, 126 A.H. : 

Khalifa Walid II was assassinated. 
Ibrahim Bin Walid Bin Abdul Malik 
became the next Khalifa, but was de- 
posed after beginning of 127 A.H. (or 
after October 744 A.D.) and replaced 
by Marwan-II. 

Among the assassins of Walid-II was a 
Sindhi named Ibn Ziad Bin Abi Kabsha, 
as reported by Ibn Asir, Vol. V, p. 340. 

746 A.D.— 129 A.H. : 

Yazid Bin Arar Al-Kalbi, the tenth 
Arab Governor of Sind, was killed by 
Mansur Bin Jamhur Al-Kalbi, a rebel 
of Damascus who had come to Sind 
from Iraq. Mansur became indepen- 
dent ruler of Sind. He appointed his 
brother Manzoor as Governor of the 
Western Sind i.e. Gandava, Debal 
etc. Previously Mansur Bin Jamhur 
was the Governor of Iraq and was 
dismissed. He came to Sind where 
Yazid Bin Arar, a relative of his, was 
the Governor, but conflict arose bet- 

Yaqoobi (Leiden), II, p. 407 and (Beirut), 

Vol. HI, p. 56. 

This incidents corroborated by Tabri. 



ween the two. Mansur besieged Man- 
sura, took Yazid as captive and had 
him buried alive in a pillar. 

749 A.D.^132 A.H. : 

Abu Atta Sindhi a famous poet, who 
composed his poems in Arabic died. 








(749-^854 A.D.) 

October 30th, 749 A.D. : 
Rabi 1, 13th, 132 A.H. : 

Appointment of the First Abbasid 
Khalifa Abdul Abbas Abdullah Sifah, 
due to the conquests of Abu Muslim 



July-August, 750 A.D. : 

Zil-Haj, 137 A.H. : 

The last Khalifa Marwan-II was assassi- 
nated. Thereby came the end of the 
Umayyad Dynasty and their replace- 
ment by the Abassids. 

750-51 A.D.— 133 A.H. : 

Abu Muslim Khurasani, the Governor 
of the Eastern Abbasid Empire, deput- 
ed Abu Muslim Abdul Rehman Bin 
Muslim Muflis Abdi to Sind. Mansur 
Al-Kalbi's brother, Manzoor, Governor 
of the Western Sind was killed at 
Debal. Mansur Al-Kalbi encountered 
Abu Muslim's forces near Mansura, 
where Abu Muslim Abdi was defeated. 

750-800 A.D. : 

Kathis of Sind, who had migrated to 
Cutch in 725-740 A.D. and had estab- 
lished their principality in Wagad, were 
defeated by Chawras, who now occupied 
their capital town, Kanthkot. Chawras 
were displaced by Solankis (a branch 
of Chaulakayas) after two centuries 
around 1000 A.D. 



Ibn Asir, Vol. V, p. 17. 

Yaqoobi (Leiden), Vol. II, p. 449 and 

(Beirut), Vol. Ill, p. 66. 

Biladhuri (Leiden), p. 443 and (Cairo), 

p. 449. 

Williams, pp. 69-70. 



751 A.D.— 133 A.H. : 

Fall of the Umayyads and rise of the 
Abbasids with active help of the Persian 
elements, specially Abu Muslim Khura- 

751-52 A.D.— 134 A.H. 

Abu Muslim Khurasani, Governor of 
Khurasan and the Eastern Abbasid 
Empire, on hearing of the defeat and 
death of Abu Muslim Abdi, attacked 
Sind. Mansur Bin Jamhur, rebel ruler 
of Sind since 129 A.H. (746 A.D.), was 
defeated but escaped to the Thar desert 
where he died due to thirst. 

751-52 A.D.— 134 A.H. : 

After the death of Abu Muslim Abdul 
Rehman Bin Muslim Muflis Abdi in 133 
A.H. (750-51 A.D.), Musa Bin Ka'ab 
Al-Tamim was appointed as the first 
Abbasid 'Governor of Sind. He enlarg- 
ed the mosque and carried out repairs 
to the city of Mansura, which had 
suffered badly during operations of Abu 
Muslim Khurasani. 

754 A.D.-136 A.H. : 

Abu Jafar Mansoor became Khalifa. 

June, 10th, 754 A.D.: 

Zil-Haj 13th, 136 A.H. : 
The first Abbasid Khalifa Sifah died. 
This happened 3 days after a Sindhi 
deputation apprised him of the problems 
of Sind. 

754-755 A.D. : 

The Governor of Sind is reported to 
have conquered Kashmir, which is 
doubtful as the latter was at the climax 
of its power under Lalitaditya Mukta- 

Biladhuri (Leiden), p. 443 and (Cairo), 
p. 449. 

Biladhuri (Murgotton), pp. 229-30. 
Ibn Asir, Vol. V, p. 347. 
Yaqoobi, Vol. 2, p. 429 and Vol. Ill, p. 80, 
reports that he was arrested and then put 
to death. This statement is more prob- 
able than the death due to thirst as Thar 
desert is intercepted by chain of wells 
not more than 10 miles apart. 

Biladhuri (Leiden), p. 442. 
Biladhuri (Murgotton), p. 230. 
Yaqoobi, Vol. Ill, p. 80. 
Ibn Asir, Vol. V, pp. 17-18. 

A. bo 

Ibn Asir, Vol. V, p. 387. 

Biladhuri (Murgotton), p. 231. 


91. Excavations of Siva temple at Banbhore. destroyed after Its fall in 711 A. D. 







92. 5th-8th century A. D. Siva lingum from temple in situation at Banbhore. 


94. Masoleum of Oljeilu the Mongol King at Sukania. The dome is a great feat of 
structural engineering and was copied by Mughals of Central Asia and 
sub-continent. This type of structure was introduced In Sind by Tarkhans. 







pida (733-769 A.D.). 

Stein's Rajatarargini states that Lalita- 
ditya Muktapida thrice defeated a ruling 
chief of the Arabs. There may have 
been an Arab raid on Kashmir. 

757-58 A.D.— 140 A.H. : 

Musa Bin Kaab Al-Tamimi, the first 
Abbasid Governor of Sind, returned 
to Baghdad, after handing over the 
charge to his son Ainia, due to ill health 
and died in 141 A.H. (758-59 A.D.). 

757-767 A.D.— 140-151 A.H. : 

Abdullah Bin Muhammad Al-Shattar 
Alvi, a direct descendant of Ali, visited 
Sind, while Amar Bin Hafs was ruler 
of Mansura, Sind. The former was a 
Shiite and came for Tabligh and publi- 
city of Islam as well as support of Ahl- 
bait (Descendants of Prophet Muham- 
mad). The Governor of Sind, Amar 
Bin Hafs, became his disciple and gave 
him protection by sending him to a 
Hindu Raja's capital, where he spent 10 
years. Khalifa Mansur deputed Hi sham 
Bin Amar to recover Abdullah from the 
Raja. He attacked- the Raja and won 
the battle. Abdullah al-Shattar was 
assassinated in Sind by Hisham at the 
instructions of the Khalifa Mansur in 767 
A.D. (151 A.H.). His wife and minor 
son were sent to Baghdad, the same 
year. In spite of this, Al-Shattar was 
successful in introducing Shiaism in 

HOP, Vol. IV, p. 126. 

Biladhuri, p. 200. 

■ \ 

Ibn Asir, Vol. V, pp. 283, 455. 
Ibn Khaldun, Vol. ILL, p. 198. 
The Raja's name is not known but his 
territories lay between desert and Arab 
Sind (Mansura and its dependencies) along 
a river. From this description it is clear 
that his kingdom was on Hakra in Sukkur 
or Khairpur district, and may possibly be 
Alore. During the same period Kharjis 
were quietly active in anti-Abbasid cam- 
paign in Sind. In 142 A.H. (759-60 A.D.) 
Hisan Bin Mujahid Hamadani Kharji 
came to Sind to seek Amar Bin Hafs' 
support, but the latter did not co-operate. 

758 A.D. : 

Closing of Canton to foreign merchants 
(which was re-opened in 792 A.D). 
Sind ports must have been touched. 



758-59 A.D.— 141 A.H. : 

Musa Bin Kaab Al-Tamimi, the first 
Abbasid Governor of Sind, died in 

759 A.D. : 

The Governor of Sind sent Amru Bin 
Jamal with a fleet of barks to the coast 
of Brada (Kathiawar and Gujarat) 
during the rule of Krishanaraja, son of 
Pushyadeva, who had fought the Arabs 
in 739 A.D. The Arabs were routed. 
Later on, Hisham Bin Amar led another 
fleet himself, probably in 766-67 A.D., 
and conquered Gandhar near Broagh. 
He built a mosque there. 

759-60 A.D.-.142 A.H. : 

Hisan Bin Mujahid Hamadani, a leader 
of the Kharjis, came to Sind for preach- 
ing his sect, but was not successful. 

759-60 A.D.— 142 A.H. : 

As Ainia Bin Musa Al-Tamimi, the 
Second Governor of the Abbasids in 
Sind, was a weak administrator, he 
was replaced by Amar Bin Hafs Ataki, 
but the former instead ofrhanding over 
the charge, rebelled. Amar captured 
Mansura, arrested Ainia and sent him 
as a prisoner to Baghdad but was assas- 
sinated on the way. 

762 A.D. : 

Baghdad became the capital of Abbasids 
and the baginning of a large scale Per- 
sian influence in political and cultural 
life of the Arab Empire commenced. 

767 A.D.— 151 A.H. : 

Amar Bin Hafs, the third Governor of 
Abbasids in Sind, was transferred to 

HOP, Vol. IV, p. 99, puts the year as 
756 A.D. Zafar Nadvi, AAHKT, p. 17 
puts it as 759 A.D. (140 A.H.). The 

latter incident is not confirmed by tho 


Indian sources. 

Hissamuddin Rashidi, Mihran, Vol. 10, 
No.l, 1961. Also see entry 757-767 A.D., 
for another version of the same mission. 

Jbn Asir (Leiden) Vol. V, p. 388 and 
(Cairo), p. 281. 
Yaqoobi, Vol. II, p. 448. 
Biladhuri (Murgotton), pp. 231-3. Ainia 
rebelled, as he was pro-Nizaris (Hijazis) 
and Khalifa hearing of this determined to 
sack him. The former got this informa- 
tion from the chief of police at the 
Abbasid court, named Musib Bin Zubair 
and determined not to leave Sind. 

Yaqoobi, Vol. II, p. 449 gives 144 A.H. 
(761-62 AD), as the year of Amar's 






Africa due to his pro-Shiite tendencies 
and possibility of giving shetter to 
Abdullah Bin Muhammad Al-Shatar, 
but all the same he was promoted and 
made Governor of Africa, and Hisham 
Bin Amar Taghlibi appointed as the 
fourth Abbasid Governor of Sind, with 
special instruction to capture Al-Shattar, 
even if it became necessary to attack the 
Raja under whose protection former 
was living. Al-Shattar resisted advance 
of Safin brother of Hisham, but was de- 
feated and killed. This did not satisfy 
Khalifa Mansur, who anticipated upris- 
ing of Al-Shattar's 400 body, guards, 
under leadership of Al-Shattar's minor 
son, so he ordered attack on Raja's terri- 
tories to eliminate his followers and 
capture the minor boy. 

767-773 A.D.— 151-157 A.H. : 

Hisham Bin Amar Taghlibi conquered 
Multan which had become independent 
after Muhammad Bin Qasim's recall 
in 96 A. H. He over-powered the re- 
bellious leaders of Qandabil (Gandava) 
and reconquered the valley west of the 
Indus, lost to the Arabs. 
He also led a fleet to Broach, conquered 
a town near it and built a mosque on the 
site of a Buddhist temple destroyed by 
his fleet. 

768-772 A.D.: 

Hisham Ibn Amar Al-Taghlibi, the Arab 
Governor of Sind, raided Kashmir and 
secured many prisoners and slaves. The 
Kashmir ruler then was Vajraditya, who 
is said to have sold many men to 
Malechhas (non-H»ndu-foreigners) and 
introduced many customs which befitted 
only Malechhas. 

transfer. Ibn Asir, Vol. V, pp. 456 and 
281, assigns year 151 A.H. to his transfer. 
Ibn Khaldun, Vol. HI, p. 19$. 
Biladhuri states that Hisham was a 
predecessor of Amar Bin Hafs. This 
does not fit into the chronological order, 
specially Al-Shattar's incidents. Also see 
entry 757-767 A.D. 


Ibn Asir, V, pp. 281-82 and 457. 

See entry 759 A.H. 

Biladhuri, p. 445. 

The town mentioned is Gandhar a port in 

Kathiawar, where the Arab fleet reached 

by the river Indus and sea coast. 



HCIP, IV, pp. 115, 126. 
The conquest of Kashmir is doubtful as 
it was at the climax of its power then. It 
may have been a raid on that territory. 
See also entry 754 A.D. 



770 A.D.r 

Sindhi Bhikshus who had migrated dur- 
ing Brahman rule of Sind to Gujarat 
and from there went to Bengal to 
preach, were threatened expulsion by 
the king Dharmpal, but the latter was 
stopped by his advisers. 

773 A.D.— 157 A.H. : 

A deputation ot Sindhis waited upon 
Khalifa Mansur. Among the members 
were some scholars, including a Pandit, 
who was a scholar of Sanskrit language 
and presented Siddhanta to Khalifa. It 
was translated into Arabic with the help 
of Ibrahim Fizari. 

773 A.D.-157 A.H. : 

Indian numerals were introduced in 
Baghdad by a Hindu Pandit of Sind 
who took Siddhanta in the court of 
Khalifa Mansur. These numerals travel- 
led to Europe via Spain. Siddhanta in 
its Arabic translation was called Al- 
Sindh-Hind. Since then Indian nume- 
rals are being called Arabic numerals. 

773 A.D.- 158 A.H. : 

Khalifa Mansur awarded the Governor- 
ship of Kirman in addition to that of 
Sind to Hisham Bin Amar as a reward 
for h^s conquests and ability to 
govern Sind. 

773 A.D.-157 A.H. : 

Hisham Bin Amar Taghlibi. the fourth 
Abbasid Governor of Sind, returned to 
Baghdad on leave and his brother 
Bistan Bin Amar Taghlibi acted as the 
fifth Governor for some months. 

Majumdar, Age of Imperial Unity, p. 



Akhbar-ul-Hukma Qatti (Cairo) 

p. 177. 

To gn. 

j -j 


Encyclopaedia Bnttanica, under Nume- 
rals . 

The Arabic version of Indian numerals 
was adopted by Munajjam Al-Khwarizmi 
(780-840 AD.) a courtier of Ma'amoon. 
The Indian Arithmetic was further ela- 
borated into Arabic by Ali Bin Ahmed 
Naswi (980-1040 A.D.). 
Bu Ali Sina, the famous anatomist and 
philosopher learnt Indian arithmetic 

during Naswi's times. 


Ibn Asir, Vol. VI, p. 6. 
Yaqoobi. Vol. JI. p. 449. 

Yaqoobi, Vol. II, p. 449. 

Biladhyri, Ibn Asir, and Tabri have also 

reported the incident. 





Hisham Bin Amar Taghlibi died in 
Baghdad. Bistam Bin Amar his brother, 
and the fifth Governor, was replaced 
by Ma'abid Bin Khalil Tamimi as 
the sixth Governor of Sind. 

Oct-775 A.D.— Zil-Haj, 158 A.H.: 

The Abbasid Khalifa Abu Jaffar Mansoor 
died and his son Mahdi took over as the 
next Khalifa. Latter invited Rajas of 
his domain to accept Islam. There was 
response from 1 5 Rajas. One of them 
was a Raja from Sind and the otr er was 
called Maharaja, a descendant of Poros. 

773-76 A.D.-^139 A-H. : 

Ma'abid Bin Khalil Tamimi, the sixth 
Abbasid Governor of Sind died at 
Mansura and was replaced by Ruh Bin 
Hatim. During the tenure of the latter, 
there were Jat uprisings in the Western 

775-776 A.D.— 159-160 A.H. : 

Ruh Bin Hatim Muhlabi, the seventh 
Governor of the Abbasids in Sind, 
was transferred within a few months of 
his arrival due to the Jat uprising and 
was replaced by Bistam Bin Amar, 
brother of Hisham Bin Amar Taghlibi, 
as he had gained experience in Sind dur- 
ing his brother's tenure. 

776-77 A.D.— 160 A.H. : 

Birth of Abu Usman Amir Ibn Bahr al- 
Jahiz of Fukhaymi al Basri who wrote 
Kitab al Bayan wal-Tabiyin. 
It describes some Sindhi scholars who 
visited Abbasid court. The author was 
an Abyssinian. 

776-77 A.D.— 160 A.H. : 

The Arab Governor of Sind sent a naval 
expedition under Ar-Rabi Ibn Subh-Al- 


Yaqoobi, Vol. II, p. 479. 

Ibn Asir, Vol. VI, p. 71. 
Ibn Asir, Vol. VI, p. 71, 77. 

Text was published from Cairo in 1 367 


Biladhuri reports the first version. HCIP, 
Vol. IV, p. 100. 



Fakih against Baroda, They captured a 
city but withdrew due to an epidemic. 
This town has been identified as Ghumli. 
The Indian sources, however, state that 
the Arabs were defeated by Agguka I, 
son of Krishna Raja, son of Pushyadeva. 
The father and grandfather had fought 
the Arabs in 759 A.D. and 739 A.D. 

776 A.D.: 

The Second Arab expedition under 
Abdul Malik against Baroda (Porban- 
dar) near Baroach succeeded in taking 
the town, but as sickness broke among 
the troops, they left without permanent 
result. Possibly in the expeditions of 
758, 767-72 A.D. or 776 A.D., Valabhi, 
the capital city too was destroyed. The 
Arab naval expedition may have been 
aided by internal revolution against 
Valabhi's successors. 

776-778 A.D.— 160-161 A.H. : 

Bistam Taghlibi, the Governor of Sind, 
was dismissed and Ruh Bin Hatim was 
again appointed as the Governor of Sind 
a second time. He once again failed to 
show results and, therefore, was dis- 
missed and replaced by Nasar Bin 
Muhammad Bin Asha'at Khazai. Even 
he was dismissed in less than a year and 
in his place Muhammad Bin Suleman 
Bin Ali Hashmi was appointed as the 
Governor of Sind. Hashmi did not 
come to Sind but deputed Shuhab 
Musmai to rule on his behalf. He was 

Also see entries 739 A.D. and 756 A.D. 
Ibn Asir, Vol. VI, p. 31, reports that 
this expedition was sent by Khalifa Mahdi 
under Abdul Malik bin Shubab Musmai 
and RaW was one of his officers. 
After capturing a city Bahar Bhut (8 
miles west of Baroda), they withdrew due 
to an epidemic. Further setback came 
when most of their troops and boats were 
destroyed by a cyclone in Persian Gulf. 
The dismissal of Abdul Malik after 18 
days Governorship of Sind shows that 
epidemic and cyclone may be a made- 
up story and Khalifa on finding the truth 
dismissed him. 

IHQ, Vol. TV, p. 467. 
Some scholars believe that the destruc- 
tion of the city of Valabhi may have taken 
place during the Arab raids of 725-735 
A.D., but this is doubtful as the city 
continued even in the fifties and the 
sixties. It may have been destroyed in 

767-72 A.D. 


b « id 


Ibn Asir, Vol. VI, p. 71. 

Yaqoobi, Vol. II, p. 479-80. 






removed after 20 days and Nasar Bin 
Muhammad Asha'at Khazai was appo- 
inted as the Governor of Sind a second 
time. He in turn was dismissed again 
and replaced by Zubair Bin Abbas, but 
the latter did not come to Sind and 
ruled from Baghdad. Mahdi there- 
fore, sent Musabih Bin Amar Taghlibi, 
brother of Hisham Taghlibi, as the 
Governor of Sind. 

776-777 A.D.— 160 A.H. : 

Death of Abu Hafs bin Rabi, a Taba 
Tabin and a reliable Muhadis in Sind, 
and probably the first person who wrote 

777-78 A.D.— 161 A.H. : 

The Governorship of Musabih Bin 
Amar Taghlibi. During this period 
there were serious fights between the 
Hijazi and the Yamani Arabs. Musabih 
was, therefore, dismissed and replaced 
by Nisar Bin Muhammad Bin Al-Sha'at 
for the third time. 

777-78 A.D— 161-62 A.H. : 

Nasar Bin Muhammad Al-Sha'at was 
appointed as Sind's Governor for the 
third time and became the twelfth 
Abbasid Governor. These changes in 
the Governors of Sind in about two 
years caused confusion and local up- 

780-81 A.D.- 164 A.H. : 

Nasar Bin Muhammad Al-Sha'at, the 
twelfth Abbasid Governor of Sind 
died at Mansura. 

Satiah Bin Umar Taghlibi was appoint- 
ed as the thirteenth Governor of Sind 
and in his absence Khalifa Mahdi 's 


Zubaid, p. 12. 


Ibn Asir, Vol. VI, p. 71. 

Ibn Asir, Vol. V, p. 457 and Vol. VI, p. 42. 

Biladhuri, p. 445. 

Ibn Asir, assigns 163 A.H. to his death. 



slave, Laith Bin Tarif ruled as the thir- 
teenth Governor. The Jats organized 
a rebellion against the government. 

781-82 A.D.— 165 A.H. : 

As Laith Bin Tarif, thirteenth Abbasid 
Governor of Sind could not control the 
Jat rebels of Sind, the Khalifa sent 
troops from Baghdad to crush the up- 

1st September, 786 A.D. : 
Rabi-1 14th, 170 A.H. : 

Death of Mahdi in 169 A.H., rule of his 
son Musa Hadi for 14 months and on his 
death taking over of Haroon-Al-Rashid 
as Abbasid Khalifa. 

786-808 A.D.: 

Reign of Abbasid Khalifa Haroon-Al- 

786-87 A.D.— 170 A.H. : 

Laith Bin Tarif was dismissed and re- 
placed by Salim Younisi as fourteenth 
Governor of Abbasids in Sind by 
Haroon Al-Rashid. 

786-87 A.D.— 170 A.H. : 

Abu Maashar Sindhi who was taken as 
a captive in a war and sold as slave to 
Uma Musa, daughter of Khalifa Mansur 
and had risen to become a great scholar, 
died. The funeral prayers were offered 
by the Khalifa Haroon-Al-Rashid him- 

Another Sindhi poet Abu-Dila who 
composed in Arabic, lived in Abbasid 
court during this time. 

787 A.D.: 

The Chinese Emperor made an alliance 
with (he Khalifa of Baghdad and some 

Ibn Asir, Vol. VI, p. 71. 


Yaqoobi, Vol. Ill, p. 117. 


Wafai Din 


Musha'ahir-i-Sind, p. 16. 
S. S. Nadvi, AAKHT, p. 303, states 
that Khalifa Mahdi offered the funeral 
prayers. Since Mahdi also died in 
170 A.H. it would be one of two Khalifas, 
Mahdi or Haroon who led the prayers. 

Sastri : Foreign Notices, p. 17. 






Indian Kings for security against the 
Tibetans. (A century and half later 
Ibn Haukal and Istakhri called Bay of 
Bengal as Tibetan seas showing Tibet- 
an influence in Bengal). 

787-88 A.D.— 171 A.H. : 


Death of Shaikh Abu Turab, who had 
made some conquests in the Upper 

790-91 A.D.^174 A.H. : 

Salim Younisi, the fourteenth Governor 
of Abbasids, transferred and Ishaque 
Bin Suleman Bin Ali Hashml was ap- 
pointed as the fifteenth Governor of 
Sind. He died in Sind during the same 
year and was replaced by his son Yousif 
Bin Ishaque temporarily as the sixteenth 
Governor. The latter was transferred 
and Tayfur Bin Abdullah Bin Mansur 
Al-Hamiri became the seventeenth 

791-800 A.D.— 175 A.H. : 

The struggle between the Arab tribes 
of Mudarites and Yamanites in Sind 
developed into a civil war. Tayfur being 
Yamanite himself supported the latter 
group. Even after his dismissal in 175 
A.H. and during the tenure of the next 
six governors, the situation remained 
out of control. Jabir Bin Asha'ath Tai 
became the eighteenth governor of Sind 
and Makran. 

792-93 A.D.-176 A.H. : 

Jabir Bin Asha'ath Tai, the eighteenth 
Abbasid Governor was not able 
to control the tribal uprising and 
was, therefore, removed and replaced 
by Saeed Bin Muslim Bin Qataiba who 

T. K. Sindhi, states that he conquered 
Bakhar fort. This place did not exist 
then. He must have been one of Arab 
chiefs in Sind. Also see entry 108 A.H. 

Yaqoobi, Vol. m, p. 117. 

and Vol. II, p. 494. 

Ibn Khaldun, Vol. HI, p. 218. 

Yaqoobi, Vol. IE, p. 117. 

Yaqoobi, Vol. in, p. 117. 



sent his brother Kathir Bin Muslim as 
nineteenth Abbasid Governor of Sind. 
On his arrival in Sind he indulged into 
luxuries and forgot the state affairs. 

794-95 A.D.— 178 A.H.: 

As Kathir Bin Muslim Qataiba, the 
Governor, was not able to improve the 
law and order situation in Sind, Issa Bin 
Jaffar Bin Mansur Abbasi was appoint- 
ed as the twentieth Governor of Sind but 
he nominated Muhammad Bin Adi 
Saalabi in his place. The latter reached 
Sind in 179 A.H. (795-96 A.D.). 


796-97 A.D.—180 A.D. : 

Birth of Abu Tamim Habib Awas, whose 
Diwan al Hamasah, gives extracts 
from Abu Ata Al-Sindhi's poetry. 

797-798 A.D.— 181 A.H. : 

Having failed to restore peace among 
the Arab tribes of Sind, and having been 
defeated by them, Muhammad Bin Adi 
Saalabi shifted to Multan, but Multanis 
shut doors to him, gave him a battle and 
defeated him. Later on he was dismiss- 
ed and Abdul Rahman came as the 
twenty-first Abbasid Governor of Sind. 
He also failed to improve the law and 
order situation. 

798 A.D.— 810 A.D. (Approx.). : 

An important Samma chief of Hindu 
branch, Lakho Ghurano son of Lakhiar 
Bad of Sind died leaving eight sons, four 
from a Cutchi wife Gaud Rani daughter 
of Gohel chief of Kera and other four 
from another Cutchi wife Baudhi 
daughter of Vagham, a Chawra chief of 
Patogh. The eldest son Unar born of 
Gaud Rani succeeded him but was mur- 
dered by his step brothers Mod and 


Yaqoobi, Vol. K P- 494, 



• a • 

Tex published from Deoband in 
1353 A.H. 

benrteo*!* esw lattxi 
Yaqoobi, Vo. n, p. 494. 

■ . 

l dm A 


Williams, pp. 73-75. 

The first Samma dynasty ruled a part of 
Cutch between 810-985 A.D. During the 
same period rest of Cutch was ruled by 
Chawras. The first Samma dynasty 
maintained relations with Sind seeking 
assistance whenever there was an emerg- 

Lakho Fulani is different from Lakho 






Manai. Gaud Rani managed the success- 
ion of her grandson and therefore Mod 
and Manai escaped to Cutch with a few 
followers and took refuge with their 
Chawra maternal uncle at Patogh (6 
miles West of Lakhpat, now in ruins). 
Finding an opportunity they killed him 
and seized his city and surrounding 
territories with the help of their clans- 
men from Sind. They then subdued 
Guntn, which was ruled by Vaghelas. 
Finally they annexed Anahilapataka. 

The grandson of assassinated Unar 
called Lakho went to Cutch and estab- 
lished the second Samma dynasty 
named as Jareja Dynasty in 1 147 A.D. 

798-99 A.D.— 182 A.H. : 

Abdur Rehman the twenty-first Abba- 
sid Governor of Sind was removed and 
replaced by Ayub Bin Jaffar Bin Sule- 
man as the former could not maintain 

800 AD— 184 A.H. : 

Ayub Bin Jaffar Bin Suleman, twenty- 
second Governor of Sind, was removed 
due to the same reason and was 
replaced by Daud Bin Yazid Bin 
Hatim Muhlabi, who sent his brother 
Mughira Bin Yazid Muhlabi, as 
governor in his own place. 

801 A.D.— 185 A.H. : 

As Mughira Bin Yazid Muhlabi, the 
twenty-third Abbasid Governor of 
Sind failed to bring peace among the 
Arab tribes of Sind, Daud Bin Yazid 
Bin Hatim Muhlabi, Mughira's brother, 
was appointed as the twenty-fourth 
Governor. He came and crushed revolt 
of the local Arab tribes 'Nazari' 

-turn jbQ 


: . lot 

Yaqoobi, Vol. II, p. 494. 

Yaqoobi, Vol. II, p. 494. 

Yaqoobi (Leiden), Vol. II, p. 494, and 
Yaqoobi (Beirut), Vol. Ill, p. 152. 



(Hijazis) and Mudarites, who formed 
majority of Arab tribes of Sind. Nazaris* 
plan was to throw out Qahtanis 
(Yamanites) and divide Sind in three 
parts, one each for Qureshis, Qais and 
Rabiahs tribes, all of them from Hijaz. 
They had already defeated Mughira and 
stopped him from entering Mansura. 
He, therefore, went to Multan, where 
doors were shut to him. Settlements 
of Nizaris were completely destroyed by 
Daud. During the operations the mas- 
sacre of population of Mansura lasted 
for 20 days and a great portion of the 
city's population was killed. 
The result of these operations was the 
destruction of Arab settlements in Sind. 

801 A.L>.: 

Arrival of Iranian immigrants (Parsees) 
at Diu. 

801-808 A.D.: 

Manek translated Susruta, a medical 
work into Arabic at Baghdad. 

807—808 A.D.: 

Khalifa Haroon Al-Rashid became sick 
and sent for Sindhi Ved (Physician) 
Manek. The Khalifa was cured and 
Manek was appointed in Darul- 
Hukma for translation of Sanskrit 
books into Arabic. He helped Abu 
Hatim Balkhi in translation of Al- 




HCIP, Vol. IV, p. 353 quoting Quissa-i- 
Sanjan. The descendants are present 
Parsees of the Sub-Continent. 



Tarikh-al-Tibba, Vol. H, pp. 32-34. 
Tabri states that Haroon could not re- 
cover from disease, but left a will to 
send Manek back to his homeland and 
the will of»the Khalifa was carried out. 
This statement is doubtful in view of Ma- 
nek's being associated with Darul- 
Hukma for many years. Besides, the 
above book was translated into Persian 
by Manek for Yahya Bin Khalid Barmaki 
who was not in good books of the Khalifa 
for many years before Khalifa's death in 
193 A.H. (809 A.D.) Manek must have 
come to Baghdad by the end of the eighth 
century A.D. or at least by 801 A.D. 






801-821 A.D.— 185-205 A.H. : 

The cultural exchange of talent from 
Sind to Baghdad took place. 

Kanka or Ganga a Sindhi Physician 
treated Haroon-Al-Rashid. Another 
Physcian Manek (Mannika) was recruited 
to work in Baghdad Bayt-al-Hikmat, the 
Institute of Scientific knowledge. A 
third one Saleh Ibn Bahra cured 
Ibrahim, husband of the Khalifa's sister 
Abasah. Manek also translated an In- 
dian book on medical plants into Arabic 
for Suleman Bin Ishaque. Besides this, 
Maneck with the help of Abu Hatim 
Balkhi translated an Indian treatise on 
poisons into Persian for Yahya Bin 
Khalid Barmaki. 

807 AD.- 191 AH. : 

The date on the tomb of Shaikh of Abu 
Turab, an Arab Jagirdar of Sakro. 

809 A.D.- 193 A.H. : 

Khalifa Haroon-Al-Rashid died and his 
son Muhammad Amin became the next 

809-813 A.D.— 193-198 A.H. : 

Due to Civil War between Amin and 
his younger step brother Mamun, Daud 
did not send annual tribute (Khiraj) to 

810-985 A.D. : 

Most of Cutch except Wagad ruled by 
Samma Rajputs of Sind. They practis- 
ed Hindu faith, but maintained rela- 
tions with the Sammas of Sind. The 
latter were both Hindus and Muslims. 
The former sought assistance from 
Sind, in case of all emergencies. 

Ibn Abi Usaybiah, pp. 22-35. 
Ibn Nadeem, Fihrist, p. 303. 
Yaqoobi, Vol. in, p. 105. 
The treatise on poisons was re-translated 
into Arabic by Abbas Bin Saeed Johri 
for Khalifa Mamoon in 218 A.H. (838 
A.D.), as is reported in Tabqatul-Tibba, 
pp. 33 and 317. 

The present tomb on his grave was 
built in the 15th century. Also 
see 787-88 A.D. 

Williams, pp. 71-78. 



813 A.D.— Muharam 198 A.H. : 
Khalifa Amin was killed and Mamoon, 
primarily with Persian assistance, 
became the next Khalifa. Both his 
mother and queen were Persians. 

813-821 A.D.— 198 A.H. : 

Abu Samaah, a freed slave of Kundah, 
arrived in Sind, due to disturbances on 
account of civil war between Mamoon 
and Amin, which had spread to the 
whole of Empire. 

813-842 A.D.— 198-227 A.H. : 

Abu Samaah's slave Fazal Bin Mahan 
and his family, established a kingdom in 
Sindan, a part of Sind. This kingdom 
came to end due to family feuds. 

820-21 A.D.— 205 A.H.: 

Daud Bin Yazid Muhlabi the twenty- 
fourth Governor died at Man- 
sura and his son Bashar Bin Daud Al- 
Muhlabi was appointed as the twenty- 
fifth Governor of Sind. He appointed 
his younger brother as ruler of Makran. 

820-827 A.D. : 

During Mamun's rule, Arab Governor 
of Sind, Bashar, attacked western part 
of Pratia Thara Empire, but Nagabhata 
II with the help of feudatories Govinda 
Raja-I and Khommana-II succeeded in 
repulsing him. 

826-27 A.D.— 211 A.H. : 

Bashar Bin Daud Muhlabi the twenty- 
fourth Governor of the Abbasid Khalifa's 


Biladhuri, p. 445. 

Biladhuri, p. 446. 

Sindan is reported to be a seaport at a 
distance of 120 miles from Mansura as 
well as Debal and about 1/2 farsang 
(4 miles) from the sea coast. Its prob- 
able location accordingly would be on 
Koree Creek. Sindhree a town that 
sunk in 1819 A.D. may have been Sindan. 
(Mu'ajmul-Baldan (Cairo), Vol. V, 
p. 151, and Taqweemul-Baldan, p. 359. 

Ibn Asir, Vol. VI, p. 256. 


HCIP, Vol. IV. p. 106. 



Yaqoobi, Vol. II, p. 153. 







was" to send an annual tax of one 
million Darhams to the latter. As he 
refused to remit the amount and rebel- 
led, Hajib Bin Saleh was appointed as 
the Governor by Mamoon. Hajib was 
defeated by Bashar. Then Ghusan Bin 
Ibad Muhlabi and the latter's brother 
Muhammad Bin Ibad were sent by 
Khalifa to replace Bashar. 

826 A.D.— 211 A.H. : 

Birth of Ibn Khurdadba. 

828-29 A.D.— 213 A.H. : 

Ghusan Bin Ibad Muhlabi twenty- 
fifth Governor of Abbasids in Sind and 
his brother Muhammad Bin Ibad defeat- 
ed Bashar and took him as prisoner to 
Baghdad in 213 A.H. (831-32 A.D.). 
Khalifa excused Bashar. Ghusan took 
about 3 years to improve the law and 
order situation and handed over the 
Governorship to Musa Barmaki. 
During his stay in Sind, he did not miss 
to eat peacock meat with every meal. 

831 A.D.— 216 A.H.: 

Ghusan Bin Ibad Muhlabi, the twenty- 
6fth Governor of Abbasids in Sind was 
transferred to Baghdad. Musa Bin 
Yahya Barmaki, grandson of Haroon- 
Al-Rashid's famous Vazier Khalid 
Barmaki, replaced him as twenty-sixth 
Abbasid Governor. 

831-836 A.D.— 216-221 A.H. : 

Musa Bin Yahya Barmaki, Governor 
of Sind, kept sending to the central 
treasury at Baghdad one million dir- 
hams as yearly tribute. 

831-833 A.D.— 216— 218 A.H. : 

Musa Bin Yahya Barmaki attacked a 
Sindhi Raja Bala Chunder who had in- 


Also see entry 250 A.H. and 300 A.H. 

Yaqoobi (Leiden), Vol. II, p. 558 and 
(Beirut) edition, Vol. m, p. 158. 
Akhbar-ul-Hukma (Cairo), p. 53. 

Yaqoobi, Vol. II, p. 558. 

Yaqoobi (Leiden), Vol. II, p. 558. 
Biladhuri (Leiden), p. 445. 


suited Ghusan Bin Ibad by calling him 
to his court. Bala Chunder was defeat- 
ed and taken prisoner. He offered 
a ransom of dirhams 500,000 but Musa 
rejected the offer and got him killed. 

833-34 A.D.—218 AH. : 

The Jats of Sind settled in Iraq rebelled. 
It took Mamoon and his successor 
Mu'tasim Billah 20 years to quell the 


Ibn Khurdadba (Leiden), pp. 57, 62-69. 










833-34 A.D.-218 A.H. : 

The Khalifa Mamoon died and Mu'tasim 
Billah became the next Khalifa. With 
Mamoon's death started the decline of 
Arab power in far off provinces including 
Multan and Sind. Gandava too became 
independent under Muhammad Bin 
Khalil, though he was later subdued. 

9X\ An* 

Sind and Multan remained part of the 
Arab Empire from 711—833 A.D. until 
the end of the rule of Mamoon. The 
Empire now weakened to such an extent 
that the Sind and Multan governors 
declared independence whenever the 
Khalifa was weak. 

834 A.D. : 

The rebellion of Jats in South Iraq con- 
tinued and 27000 Jats (of whom, 12000 
were armed) were deported to Syria. 

833-842 A. D.— 218-227 A.H : 

Khalifa Mu'tasim's rule. During this 
period, part of temple of Debal was 
converted into a jail by Musa Bin Yahya 



836 A.D.— 221 A.H. : 

Musa Bin Yahya Barmaki, the twenty- 
sixth Governor of the Abbasids in Sind 
died at Mansura and his son Imran Bin 
Musa Barmaki took over as twenty- 
seventh Governor. Civil war broke 




Bi lad hurt, p. 445. 

Tate. Seistan. p. 377-378 

r.1 JL • 4-,-t 

Biladhuri, p. 437. 


Biladhuri, pp. 435 and 446 (Leiden). 
Yaqbobi, Vol. Ill, p. 153 (Beirut). 
Biladhuri, (Brill Leiden 1886), p. 445 
Dr. N.A. Baloch thinks that this bund 
was near Rohri & Alore and name of 



out between the Arab tribes of Nizari 
and Yamanites. The former tribe had 
recovered from the loss inflicted on them 
by Daud Muhlabi. The Jats and Meds 
also joined hands in the rebellion, creat- 
ing confusion all over Sind. Imran had 
also to make expedition against the Jats 
and Meds of Kaikan (Kalat). The 
Kaikanites (Kalatis) protected Bolan 
Pass and made any advances from the 
north-west on Sind difficult. The con- 
tinuous subduing of them was necess- 
ary for the Arab army. Imran crushed 
rebellion at Gandava and then fought a 
battle with the Meds in the Upper Sind, 
where 3000 of them were killed. He 
revived the old customs, ordering Jats, 
always to take a dog with them. He then 
attacked the Meds of the Lower Sind. 
The Meds were getting water supply 
from a lake. This was connected by a 
channel with sea and turned brackish. 
Mean-time there was a tribal warfare 
between the Yamanites and Hijazis and 
Imran supported the Yamanites. He 
also built a dam for agricultural pur- 
poses and called it Sikar-al-Med or 
Med's Bund. 

836-37 A.D.: 

Imran Barmaki founded a new city 
Bayd.iau in Budh district to suppress 
the Jat rebellions of this District as woll 
as of Kaikan (Kalat) District. This 
military cantonment was at Booqan 
and was renamed as Baiza. 

838-923 A.D.: 

Tabri, the Persian historian born at 
Amul in Tabristan, on the south of the 
Caspian Sea lived and wrote in Arabic, 
'The History of Prophets and Kings 

Sukkur is derived from Sakar-al-Med. 
This is of course incorrect as contours 
of area would not permit flow of water 
from Alore to Sukkur. 
Meds were sea pirates settled on Makran, 
Sind and Kathiawar coasts. Longworth 
Dames in 'Baloachees' has recognized 
them with fishermen of Makran coasts. 
The same stock is settled in Karachi as 
well as Thatta districts and are known 
as Machhi, Medha or Mohanas. Raverty 
in Notes on Afghanistan, p. 670, dissusses 
Sikar-al-Med and argues that Sikar may 
be Sukkur; whereas Med in Arabic 
means dyke, in Hindi too Mend means 
dyke. Dr. Baloach has accepted this view, 
but it is improbable as contours of the 
area won't allow water from Hakra to 
flow to Sukkur, Bakhar and Rohri. 
Origin of Barmakis has been traced back 
to Kashmiri Buddhists by S.S. Nadvi in 
AAHKT. Barmaki is considered to 
originate from Sanskrit Parmukh mean- 
ing a leader. 

Biladhuri, p. 442, calls the city Baiza. 
Booqan could be in Kachhior Sibi 
district, as is suggested by its similarity 
with names of that area, like, Bolan, 

Jalwan, Sarawan, Kharan and Makran, 

all in Kalat Division. Booqan survived 

up to 279 A.H. (89-293 A.D.). 

De Ooeje: Tabri, Introduction. 
Biladhuri, p. 442, calls the city Baiza. 

Urdu tr. of the text has also been printed 

from Karachi. 








Upto Year 915 A.D.' Tabri throws 
some light on the rule of the Arab Gov- 
ernors of Sind. Its Persian translation 
was started by Abu-Ali Bal'ami in 963 

832-33 A.D.— 217 A.H. : 

Abu Tahir Qarmati occupied Aman. 
Abu Samaah had old relations with 
Sind (see 279-286 A.H.) and exercised 
great influence in it. His slave Fazal Bin 
Ma'ahan and the latter's relatives, who 
were settled in Sind, ruled Sindan from 
the times of Mamoon to Mutawakil 
(possibly 813 A.D. to 842 A.D.). His 
power was destroyed by family "feuds. 
Fazal Bin Ma'ahan had obtained Sanad 
from the Khalifa Mamoon and Khutba 
in Sindan was also read in the name of 

836-840/41 A.D.— 221/222 A.H.: 

Imran Bin Musa Barmaki sent a depu- 
tation of Sindhi scholars to Khalifa at 
Baghdad, and these scholars were ad- 
mitted in Bayt-al-Hikmat (Institute ot 
Philosophy) for the translation of works 
of Indian origin. The scholars whose 
names have survived in corrupted form 
are: Bahla (Bulo), Kank (Ganga) Raja 
Bajahrai (Raja Bajarai), Dhano etc. 
He also sent Indian texts namely: Surya 
Sidhanta, Arya Bhat, Brahamgupta, 
Khanda Khandek, Mahabharta and 
Arthra Sutra. 

840-41 A.D.-226 A.H. : 

In the warfare between the Yamanites 
and Hijazis, Imran Bin Musa Barmaki 
the twenty- seventh Governor of Sind 
was killed at Mansura by Umar Bin 
Abdul Aziz Habari, head of a Sindhi- 
Arab tribe from Hijaz. Aiyatakh Turki 


Biladhuri, p. 446. 




Murawiju-Zahab (Baghdad), Vol. I, 
p. 143. 

Yaqoobi (Leiden), Vol. II, p. 585. 
Biladhuri (Leiden), pp. 446-7. 
Ibn 4sir, Vol. VI, p. 339. 
Biladhuri states that Ambasah's appoint- 
ment was made during Mu'tasim rule, 
but Yaqoobi assigns at during Wasik's 



was made the next Governor of Sind. 
He nominated Ambasah Bin Ishaque 
Al-Zabal as Sind's Governor on his 
behalf. The latter reached Mansura in 
227 A.H. 

841-42 A.D.-227 A.H. : 

Fazal Bin Maahan's brother, ruler of 
Sindan attacked the Meds in a naval ex- 
pedition. In his absence, his brother 
occupied Sindan and these feuds 
brought to end the Arab power in 

841-42 A.D.— 227 A.H. : 

Ahmed Ibn Yahya Ibn Jabir Al-Biladhuri 
of Iranian stock and author of Arabic 
History Futuh-i-Buldan (The Book of 
Conquests), was born. 

841/42 A.D.— 227 A.H. : 

On the death of Mu'tasim Billah. the 
Abbasid Caliphate became too weak to 
have any de-facto control over Sind. 

842 A.D.— 227 A.H. : 
Mu'tasim Billah died. Abu Jaflar 
Haroon Mulqab or Wasik Billah be- 
came the Khalifa. Since then Multan 
became virtually independent of 
Abbasid Caliphate. 

844-848 A.D.: 

Persian born Ibn Khurdadba, son of the 
Governor of Tabristan and working as 
Post Master in Iraq completed The 
Bjok of Roads and Countries', based 
on the information collected due to 
nature of his post. It gives information 
on Sind and Multan. 

rule. Since Sind was assigned to Aiyatakh 
for his services in crushing Babak Khurmi, 
a rebellion of Khurasan, in 223 AH., the 
statement of Biladhuri appears to be 

more reliable. 

Biladhuri (Leiden), p. 444. 

See also entry 198-227 A.H. 

Sindan, possibly was Sindhuri, a town 

that sunk underground in the earthquake 

of 1819 A.D. 

Its location along Rann of Kutch, shown 

by Ibn Haukal in his map reproduced 

by Elliot, leaves us with no other altor- 


S. S. Nadvi, AAHKT, p. 305, assigns mid- 
third century A.H. to separation of 
Multan from Sind and its independence. 
Multan had formed part of Sind since 
Darius-I's times. 

The book Kitab al-Masalik wal Mamalik 
was published by De Goeje from Brill 
(Leiden) in 1889. A French translation 
was published in Journal Asiatique in 
1865. Portions pertaining to Sind have 
appeared in Elliot and Dowson's Vol. I. 
Urdu ^translation of extracts pertaining 
to the Sub-Continent has been done by 
Masud Ali Nadvi. Also see entry 
844 A.D. 





Ibn Khurddaba describes Jewish mer- 
chants who spoke Persian, Greek, Latin, 
Arabic, Frankish, Spanish and Slav 
languages, and carried from the West 
(Europe) eunuchs, female slaves, boys, 
silk, furs etc., entered the Red sea 
and went to Sind and India, wherefrom 
they took in exchange musk, aloes, cam- 
phor, cinnamon, spices etc. This seems 
to have continued upto the twelfth cen- 
tury as per later findings. 

It was during the same period (331-337 
A.H.) that another traveller Abu Dulf 
Musar Bin Muhlubilu Yonbui came 
to Multan and Sind. 

May, 24th— 846 A.D. : 

Ramzan 22nd— 231 A.H. : 

Hafiz Abu Muhammad Bin Sulaiman, a 
Sindhi slave taken from Sind, who had 
become a wellknown Muhadith, died in 
Baghdad at the age of 69. His pupils 
included Imam Ahmed Bin Hambal. 

846-47 A.D.-232 A.H. : 

Khalifa Wasik Bilah died and Mutawakil 
became next Khalifa. 

849-50 A.D.— 235 A.H. : 

As Khalifa Mutawakil Billah arrested 
Aiyatakh Turki patron of Ambasah Bin 
Ishaque Al-Zabi the twenty-ninth Go- 
vernor Of Sind, the latter was dis- 
missed and returned to Baghdad. He 
was replaced by Haroon Bin Abi Khalid 
Morozi as the thirtieth Governor in 
name only, though the Abbasids no 
longer had any hold over Sind. The 
Governor may have protected some 
frontier posts. 

Ambasah had spent his total tenure in 
suppressing the local revolts and most 

The trade with Sind goes back to prfr. 
historical times. 

arikh-Khatib Baghdadi, Vol. 8, p. 329. 
Tazkirat-Ul-Hafiz, Vol. LL p. 65. 
Tahzeeb-Al-Tahzeeb, Vol. II, p. 252. 
Bashari Muqadisi, Vol. Ill, p. 77. 


Yaqoobi (Leiden), Vol. II, p. 585 and 
(Beirut), Vol. Ill, p. 177. 
Biladhuri, p. 437. 


of Sind had already passed into the 
hands of the local Arab tribes. 

After 850 A.D. : 

Death of Mod and Manai, the Samma 
brothers of Sind who had established 
their principality at Patgodh and Guntri 
in Cutch. Sad son of Mod succeeded 
then and made Kanthkot his capital. 
His father-in-law Dharan Vaghela to 
rid himself of Samma intruders had Sad 
poisoned, when latter's son Ful was only 
six months old. Ful was brought to 
Sind by maidservant Boladi, who re- 
portedly exchanged her son for the 
prince and sacrificed former's life^ to 
save royal Successor. Ful was brought 
up in the court of Muslim Sama prince 
Dhulara. When Ful reached fighting 
age, he returned to Kutch to challenge 
his maternal grandfather Dharan 
Vaghela to combat. Old man pacified 
him by giving him a kinswoman in marri- 
age, and returning his father's terri- 
tories to him But at first opportunity 
Ful had his maternal grandfather assa- 
ssinated and his corpse flayed. Later 
on he tricked his wife to sit on the skin 
of her murdered kinsman, but instead 
she committed suicide. An unborn boy 
was rem >ved from her body and named 
as Ghao (Born of th^wound). 

Ful ruled the territories of his ancestors 
as warrior probably until mid-second 
quarter of 10th century when he was 
succeeded by his son Lakho Fulani. 

851 AD.— 237 A.H. : 

Sulaiman Tajir wrote his book Silsilat- 
Al-Tawarikh which is the first guide to 
navigation of the Arabian sea after 
The Periplus of the Erythrean Sea, 


Williams, pp. 75-76. 
Lakho Fulani is different from Lakho 
Ghuraro of 9th century and Lakho 
Lakhia of 12th century. 





Silsilat-Al-Tawarikh was first published 
from Pahs in 1811 A.D., pp. 21, 50-58. 
Elliot-Vol. I, p. 200, gives English trans- 
lation of extracts pertaining to the Sub- 




written nearly 1000 years before him. 
The book was a source for all Arab tra- 
vellers who wrote after him. He may 
have visited ports of Sind as he made 
many trips to the Sub-Continent and has 
described it. The work was continued 
after Sulaiman and completed in 880 
A.D., by Abu Zaid, who died in 934 
A.D. Abu Zaid added many maps to the 
work. It describes Mansura and Mul- 
tan, trade of Sind and special details of 
rhinoceroes horns from Sind and their 
use in China, as aphrodiasiac. 

Continent. Masud Ali Nadvi has done 
the same in Urdu. 

Reinett published its French translation 
from Paris in 1854 and G. Ferrand's 
French translation, Paris 1922. 
Author's year of birth and death is 
not known. 





(854—1010 A.D.) 

854-55 A.D.-240 A.H. : 

Umar Bin Abdul Aziz Habari a head 
of local Arab tribe had Haroon Bin Abi 
Khalid Marozi the thirtieth and the last 
Abbasid Governor of Sind assassinated, 
but due to declaration of allegiance to 
the Khalifa Al-MutWakil, he was 
accepted as an independent ruler of 
Sind, on condition that he would recite 
the name of Abbasid Khalifa in 
Friday congregations. He stayed in 
Bartia or Baiza (a small town at short 
distance from Mansura) though he had 
conquered Mansura. 

854-55 A.D.— 240 A.H. : 

Umer Bin Abdul Aziz Sami descendant 
of Habar Bin Aswad usurped the pro- 
vince. Khalifa Mutawakil accepted his 
request for Governorship and he con- 
tinued to administer it well. 

855 A.D. : 

Byzantines attacked Ainzarba in Syria 
where Jats were deported in 834 A.D. 

Yaqoobi, Vol. II, 585, 599 (Leidon). 
and Vol. HI, p. 117 (Beirut). 
Biladhuri, p. 437. 
Ibn Haukal, Elliot's translation. 

Yaqoobi. Vol. II, p. 599 (Leiden). 
Yaqoobi's view that Umer Bin Abdul 
Aziz was descendant of Saumah Bin Loi 
is incorrect. He was descendant of 
Abdul Aziz Habar Bin Aswad who was 
descendant of Kab Bin Loi as per state- 
ment of Ibn Khaldun, Vol. II, p. 327, 
(Cairo Edition). Habaris had become the 
independent rulers of Sind. but Yaqoobi's 
statement shows that even then the 
approval of Khalifa was taken which had 
remained merely a formality. 
Yaqoobi's statement that Haroon died 
a natural death is contradicted by 
Biladhuri ( p. 437), who states that he 
was killed in an uprising. 

Tate's Seistan, p. 377-78. 

Toynbee, A Study of Histor\, Vol. VII. 

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WEEN 8W-905 AD. 




Northern Frontier of Sind was about SO miles North 
ot Multan. Lasbcla,part of Makran up to Kcj,Kalat 
Sibi.and Gandava formed part of Sind. 







976A.D. ibn haukal's map of sind 


> jfgf*fj» < 



































They captured all Jats and took them 
to Byzantine along with their women 
and buffaloes. It is a conjecture that 
this detachment of Jats was the adva- 
nce guard of Gypsies in Europe. 

858-59 A.D.— 244 A.H. : 

Abu Abdul Malik, a Sindhi slave, who 
was sent to Baghdad and was a great 
scholar, died at age of 99 years in 

862-63 A.D.-248 A.H. : 

Syedna Ibrahim Shahid who came to 
Sind during the rule of Khalifa Muta- 
sim-bi-Allah for preaching religion died 
at Nerunkot. 

863-64 A.D.— 249 AH.: 
Yaqoob Bin Ishaque Kandi wrote a 
book on the religions of the Sub-Conti- 
nent based on reports of a team sent by 
Yahya Bin Khalid Barmaki to study 
religions and botany of the Sub- 
continent. It describes Multan temple. 

863-930 A.D.- 279 A.H. : 

Rise of Banu Samaah to power in Amar 
and establishment of a kingdom by Abu 

864 A.D. — 250 A.H. : 

Death of Ibn Khurdadba, a Persian and 
son of the Governor of Tabristan. He 
wrote Kitab-Al-Masalik-wa-al-Mamalik, 
which describes Kaikan, Makran, Bana, 
Med, Khuzdar, Gandava, Kunz- 
pur, Armabil (Las Bela), Debal, Sidusan 
(Sehwan), Roar, Multan, Mansura, etc., 
and also castes, tribes, trade and agri- 
culture. He was an official in the Postal 
Department of the Khalifa Mutamid 
and was in touch with tourists and 

J.A.S.B. has published articles on Gypsie 
language, which has many Sindhi words. 
Bhasham has also listed a few such 
words in appendix XII of Wonder that 
was India. 


Tarikh Khatib-Baghdadi, Vol. Ill, p. 326. 


Tuhfatul Kiram. (Sindhi). 


■ ' 

Reported by Ibn Nadeem in Al-Fihrist, 
(Cairo), p. 484-87. 



Text published by Goeje from Leiden 
in 1889. Extracts pertaining to the Sub- 
continent in Elliot and Dowson and 
Urdu translation of extracts by Akhtar 



869 A.D.— 255 A.H. : 

Death of Haijique, a philosopher and 
writer who mentions that Sindhis were 
well known accountants, engaged by 
every establishment in Baghdad, due to 
their proficiency and honesty. 

869 A.D.—255 AH.: 

Abu Al-Samaah came as Abbasid 
Khalifa's Governor of Sind. He was 
killed within a few months and Umar 
Bin Abdul Aziz Habari continued to 
govern Sind as an independent ruler. 

870 A.D.-256 A.H. : 

Death of Imam Bukhari the author of 
Kitabul Adab Almufarid, in which he 
mentions that Hazrat Aiysha became 
sick and was treated by a Jat physician, 
brought by her nephews. 

870-71 A.D.—257 A.H.: 

Khalifa At-Mutamid, in order to divert 
Yaqoob Bin Layth Safari's intention to 
attack Iraq, conferred upon him Sind, 
Balkh (Bactria) and Tabristan, in addi- 
tion to Kirman and Seistan which he 
had already occupied. Yaqoob 
rejected the offer, attacked Iraq, but 
having been defeated, had to flee to 
Sijistan. He took no interest in Sind 
nor in Multan. Habaris, therefore, 
ruled, undisturbed. 

870-93 A.D.- 256 A.H. : 

Even though Habaris were independent 
rulers of Sind, the Abbasid Khalifas 
claimed suzerainty over it, as in 257 
A.H. (870-71 A.D.), Yaqoob Bin Layth 
Safari was appointed as the Governor 
of the Eastern Empire to include Turk- 
istan, Sijistan, Kirman and Sind. Again 
in 261 A.H. Mu'tamid allotted Sind and 

Risala-i-Fakhru-Sudan Abial Bayzan, 
p. 81, (Cairo), 1324 A.H, 




Kitabul Adab Almufarid (Cairo), p. 35. 

.<J.A ! 


Ibn Asir, Vol. VIII, p. 96. 
Ibn Khaldun (Cairo), Vol. in, p. 343, 
and Vol. II, p. 327, gives genealogical 
tree of Habaris as, Umer Bin 
Abdul Aziz Bin Munzar Bin Zubair Bin 
Abdul Rahman Bin Habar Bin Aswad. 
The last one Aswad accepted Islam in 
8 A.H. or 630 A.D. This makes the whole 
family tree improbable, as in 250 years 
there would be at least 12 generations. 

Tbn Khaldun (Cafro), Vol. Ill, p. 343. 



other Eastern Provinces to his brother 

872-73 A.D.-*259 A.H. : 

A Sindhi Raja accepted Islam and sent 
a golden chain with diamond work on 
it for deposition in Kaba. Khalifa 
Mu'tmad after examination sent it to 

874-75 A.O.— 261 A.H. : 

The Khalifa Al Mutamid conferred upon 
his brother Muwaffiq, the authority to 
rule the Eastern Provinces including 
Sind, though, in practice the^Habaris 
were ruling Sind independently. 

875-76 A.D.— 262 A.H. : 

Abu Zaid Serafi, visited the Sub-Con- 
tinent and also Sind and wrote his travels. 
He describes temple at Multan. 

875 A.D.: 

Yaqoobi, the historian wrote his work. 

878-79 A.D.— 265 A.H. : 

The Khalifa Mutamid entrusted the 
Eastern Empire to Amar Bin Layth but 
he could not occupy Sind which was 
governed by an independent ruler of the 
Habari tribe. 




Alam Baitul-Haram (Cairo), p. 42, 


Ibn Khaldun, Vol. Ill, p. 343. 

Habaris, however, seem to have ruled 

undisturbed in spite of this order. 


The text was published from Paris in 
1811 AD. Reineu published its French 
translation in 1845 from Paris. 


Raverty in Nasiri, Vol. I, p. 23, narrates 
that in the same year Khalifa excommuni- 
cated Amar son of Layth from Pulpit at 
Baghdad and when Amar sent an agent 
to the Khalifa, the latter cursed him. 

878-79 A.D.— 265 A.H. : 

Yaqoob Bin Layth Safaii died in 

Ibn Khaldun, Vol. II, pp. 316 and 337. 
Asir, Vol. Ill, p. 96. 

879-80 A.D.— 265 A.H. : 

Multan became independent of Abbasid 

883-84 A.D-270 A.H. : 

Abdullah Bin Umar Bin Abdul Aziz 

Habari ruled Mansura; and a Hindu (Leiden), p. 3. 

Ajaibul-Hind by Buzrig Bin Shaharyar 



Raja named Mahrok Bin Raik was 
ruling at Alore. 

This Hindu ruler of Alore, Sind (he pro- 
bably ruled upper Sind) wrote to Abdul- 
lah Bin Umar Habari to send him a 
book in Sindhi on Islamic beliefs and 
education. A book on the subject writ- 
ten in poetry by an Iraqi scholar resid- 
ing in Mansura was sent to the Raja who 
asked Abdullah to send him also the 

883-887 AD.— 270-273 A.H.: 

A scholar sent by Abdullah Bin Habari 
to the court of Raja Mahruk, the Hindu 
ruler of Alore (Alra) in Upper Sind, 
translated the Holy Quran into Sindhi 
prose, at the Raja's request. During 
the period the Raja acted as host to this 

883-884 A.D.-270 A.H. : 

Umar Bin Abdul Aziz Habari died in 
Mansura. His son Abdullah took over 
as an independent ruler of Sind. During 
the last year of his rule Imam Abdullah 
Al-Mahdi, sent Hashim an Ismaili Dai, 
to Sind for preaching this faith. 

888-89 A.D.—175 A.H. : 

Ahmed Bin Muhammad Bin Haroon, a 
well known commentator of the Holy 
Quran and Hadith wrote his work. 

892-899 AD.— 279-286 A.H. : 

Rise of Banu Samaah, descendants of 
Loi Bin Ghalib, a Quresh tribe in Aman. 
They had old trade relations and con- 
tacts with Sind. 


This statement proves that Sindhi was a 
written and spoken language in Sind in 
the 9th century, and not Prakrit as stated 
by Bhirumal. 


Ajaibul-Hind of Buzrig Bin Shaharyar, 
Leiden Edition, p. 4. The text puts Alra 
(Alore?) between Kashmir and Punjab 
which is not probable as Sindhi language 
may not have been known there. 

Buzrig Bin Shaharyar, (Leiden), p. 3. 
Shaharyar saw Abdullah ruling Sind. It 
is not known for certain when Umar Bin 
Abdul Aziz died. In 271 A.H. Musa Bin 
Abdul Aziz Al-Habari sent gifts to 
Abbasid Khalifa Mutamid as reported, 
by Dhakhair wal-Tuhf, pp. 24-25, show- 
ing that Umar and Abdullah both ruled 
for 30 years in aggregate. 


India's contribution to the studies of 
Hadith literature, p. 35. 

S. S. Nadvi, AAHKT, p. 301. 







892-93 A.D— 279 A.H. or 

Ibn Faqih Hamdani wrote Kitab Al- 
Baldan. He describes rhinoceroes, poul- 
try, elephants, peacocks, scents, coconuts 
etc. of Sind. 

892-93 A.D. —279 A.H. : 

Samaah, the son of a freed slave of Banu 
Kundah Abdul Samaah who with 
Umer Bin Hafiz Abbasi and other 1000 
persons had migrated to Sind in the be- 
ginning of 3rd century Hijra. establish- 
ed himself in Sind as an independent 
ruler at Mansura, but Abdullah Bin 
Umar Habari soon recovered the town 
and restored order. 

Since then Abdullah shifted his head- 
quarters from Bania to Mansura. 

Shawwal, 280 A.H. : 
893-94 A.D. : 

An earthquake combined with ava- 
lanche took place at Debal in which 
many houses collapsed and 1 5 lac people 
were buried alive in the town. There 
were 5 shocks of high intensities which 
destroyed the whole town. 

892-93 A.D.- 279 A.H. : 

Kha'ifa Mutamid Billah sent Ahmed 
Bin Khafi Demli, a mathematician to 
the Sub-Continent (i.e. Sind which was 
governed by Habaris), to investigate 
some scientific facts. 

892-1000 A.D- 279-389 A.H : 

Samanid rule in Iran. Under them, the 
Persian language started replacing 

The work was published by Geographical 
Society London in 1885. 

Biladhuri, p. 445, written in 279 A.H. 
See entey 240 A.H. (854-55 A.D.) for 
Bania. Samaahs seem to have moved 
to Multan where they established them- 
selves as rulers in 290 A.H. 
Ibn Khaldun, Vol. I, p. 324 and Vol. IV, 
p. 93, states that Samaah was not a 
Qureshi as claimed. Istakhari, p. 175. 


Ibn Asir. Vol. VII, p. 323. 
Sayuti, Tarikh-Khulfa, A.S.B. Calcutta, 
p. 380. 

The figure of deaths is a hyperbolic 
exaggeration. The total population of the 
whole of Sind could not have been more 
than 10 lacs then. Bhanbore now 
accepted as Debal is within active seismic 
zone. It could have been destroyed part- 
ly. An avalanche to the river side is 
also possible. 

AAHKT, p. 147. 



Arabic as the court as well as the liter- 
ary, language. 

892 A.D.— 279 A.H. : 

The author of Futuh-Al-Baldan (The 
Book of Conquests), Ahmed Ibn Jabir 
of Iranian stock known as Biladhuri 
and attached to the courts of the two 
Khalifas Mutawakil and Mustaim, died. 
His History contains a chapter on Sind 
with a remarkable precision, correcting 
some errors of the local history, Chach- 
nama, and also giving information on 
the Governors of Sind. 

May, 896 A.D.- -Rabi-TI, 283 A.H. •+ 

Muhammad Bin Abi Shorab was appo- 
inted as Qazi of Mansura. He died 
after 6 months. His descendants stayed 
in Mansura and one of them 'Hamza' 
was Qazi of Mansura in 300 A.H. 
They intermarried in the ruling family. 

Nov.-Dec., 896 A.D.— 283 A.H. : 

Qazi Muhammad Ibn Abi Shorab, a 
relative of the ruler of Mansura died 
after having served 6 months as Chief 

897 AD- 284 A.H. : 

Birth of Abul Al Faraj Ali Ibn Hussain 
Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ahmed at Isfahan. 
He wrote Tarikh-i-Aghani. 

897 A.D.— 284 A.H. : 

Ahmed Ibn Abi Yaqoob Ibn Jafar Ibn 
Wahab Ibn Wadith al Katib al-Abbas, 
died. His World History known as 
'Yaqoobi' extends upto 259 A.H. (872 
AD). He has described many Arab Go- 
vernors of Sind and other incidents of 
the period. The work was completed in 
284-87 A.H. 

Arabic text edited by De Goeje, published 
from Leyden in two volumes in 1866, 
and a revised edition from Cairo was 
issued in 1901 A.D. 

The name of Biladhuri is disputed by 
many authorities, some call him Abu 
Bakar Ali, others name him as Abu 
Jaffar, but Abu-al Hasan Ahmed Bin 
Yahya Bin Jabir bin Daud Al Baghdadi 
is accepted by D. Goeje. 

Masudi, Vol. I, p. 377. 
Ibn Asir, Vol. VII, p. 334. 


Ibn Asir, Vol. VII, p. 191 and Vol. IJJ, 

p. 185. 

Masudi, Vol. I, p. 142. 

See entry 356 A.H. 

According to S. S. Nadvi. AAHKT, 
p. 98, he died in 287 A.H. or 900 A.D. 
Yaqoobi was printed from Leiden in 
2 volumes in 1883 A.D. Beirut edition is 
divided ir^ 3 volumes instead of two. 

Recently a Cairo edition has been issued. 





897 A.D.— 284 A,H. : 

Abu Ubaida Walid Bin Abdul Bahatari, 
a renowned poet and contemporary of 
poet Abu Tamim came to Sind, 

900-1000 A.D.: 

Sindhi language acquires its own pecu- 
liar features developing independently 
from other Prakrit languages. 

900-1000 A.D.: 

Dinar was the only coin commonly used 
throughout the countries bordering 
Indian Ocean, including Sind. 

900-1000 A.D.: 

Persian wheels were used for irrigation 
in Sind. 

902-03 A.D.— 200 A.H. : 

Multan, ruled by Samaah Bin Loi's 
descendants, calling themselves Banu 
Munbah. They read Khutba in the 
name of the Abbasid Khalifa. 

903 A.D.- 290 A.H. : 

Ibn Rusta wrote Kitab A!-Allaq-Al- 
Nafisia, in which he states that Banu 
Munbah, descendants of Samaah Bin 
Loi, ruled Multan independently and 
read Khutba in the name of the Khalifa 
of Baghdad. 

Mujamul-Baldan, p. 51, 

Bherumal, Sindhi Boli. Basing on 
Grierson Literary History of Bengali 
language, he has reached this conclusion. 
But there is information and evidence that 
Sindhi was at least 1500 years, if not 
more, older than Sanskrit of Rigveda, 
which was first known in the Sub- 
continent around 1100-1000 B.C. Sindhi 
translation of the Holy Quran and other 
religious works were done in the 9th 
century. See entry years 883-84 and 

Toussant, p. 57. 

■ . 
Masudi, Vol. II, p. 80. 

S.S. Nadvi, AAHKT, pp. 306-309; quoting 
Ibn Rusta. 

Banu Munbah took over from Amanis, 
who had established themselves in Multan, 
soon after recall of Muhammad bin 

Qasim as independent rulers. 


Ibn Rusta (Leiden), p. 138 (1892 edition). 
This statement is confirmed by Masudi 
who^ saw descendants of Samaah Bin 
Loi Bin Ghalib ruling Multan 10 years 
later. The ruler then was Abu Al-Lubab 
Bin Asad Qarshi Saami. Muruju- 



Multan and its temple was also desert- 

906-07 A.D.— 294 A.H. : 

Possible date of renovation of the 
mosque at Debal by Amir Muhammad 
Bin Abdu (?), as per inscription, which 
so far is the earliest in Sind. 

At the gate of mosque and elsewhere 
'lingums' have been buried to be trodden 
by the Muslims on way to the mosque. 
Lingum worship seems to be popular 
before conquest of Sind. 

900-10 A.D.— 297 A.H. : 

The Fatmid Caliphate established by 
Ubedullah Bin Muhammad Al-Habib 
at Africa in competition with the Persian 
dominated Abbasid Caliphate of 
Baghdad. Its head-quarter was shifted 
to Cairo in 361 A.H. (971-72 AD). 

912-13 A.D.— 300 A.H. : 

Buzrig Bin Shaharyar, a ship owner, 
who plied vessels from Persian Gulf to 
China and Japan via the Indian coasts 
wrote his book Aja'ibul Hind or Won- 
ders of India. It has references on 

He gives the name of Habari ruler of 

912-13 A.D.- 300 A.H. : 

Abdullah Bin Umar Habari, the second 
independent ruler of Sind died at Man- 
sura and his son Umar Bin Abdullah 
became the next ruler of Sind. 
In 303 A.H. (915-16 A.D.), Masudi 
found Umar Bin Abdullah ruling Man- % 

sura and the whole of Sind from A lore 
to the sea. The revenue of Sind was 10 
lac dirhams. 

Zahab (Paris), Vol. I, pp. 375-76. 
The date of birth and death of Ibn Rusta 
is not known. 

F. A. Khan, Bhanbhore, 1963, p. 16. The 
mosque was originally completed by 
727-28 A.D. 

The origin of Lingum worship goes back, 
to Mohenjo-daro, wherefrom such 
objects have been un-earthed. Lingum 
worship was practised at the tombs of 
some Muslim saints by the Hindus. 

The original text with French translation 
was printed from Leiden in 1886. Cairo 
edition was published in 1908. The date of 
birth and death of the author is not 
known. A French translation by J. Sau- 
vaght was published in 1959. There is a 

Wew edition from Damascus in 1954. 
A Russian translation by Eibrich, R. I. 
was published in 1959. 

Masudi, Murujul-Zahab, Vol. I, pp. 377- 


Kitabul-Ikhraj (Leiden), p. 242. 





912-13 A.D.— 300 A.H. : 

Death of Persian born Abu-Al-Qasim 
Ubaidullah Bin Abdullah Bin Khurdadba, 
the author of Kitab-Al-Masalik Wal 
Mamalik (Book of Roads and Kingdoms) 
describes Multan, Mansura, Makran, 
Debal, Nerun, Alore, etc. He also 
describes agricultural products; truits 
and distances between places. 

912-13 A.D.— 300 A.H. or soon 

Abdullah bin Umer Habari, the second 
independent ruler of that dynasty 
died at Mansura and his son Umer bin 
Abdullah became the nexl * ruler 
of Sind. 

912-13 A.D. 303 A.H. : 

Umer Bin Abdullah Bin Umer Bin 
Abdul Aziz Habari ruled Mansura. The 
languages spoken at Mansura were 
Sindhi and Arabic. 

915-16 A.D.— 303 A.H. 

Abdul Hassan Ali known as Masudi, 
a geographer, visited Mansura finding 
whole Sind from the sea to the north 
of Alore under the suzerainty of Umer 
Bin Abdullah who ruled with pomp and 
dignity and there was general peace. He 
also found judicial matters conducted by 
the Chief Qazi of Mansura. The latter 
was from the family of Abu Shorab 
who had died in 283 A.H. He visited 
Multan and has described it. This geo- 
grapher spent 25 years in travels and 
visited Iraq, Syria, Armenia, Byzantine 
Empire, Africa, Sudan, China, India, etc. 
His "Muruj-ul-Zahab" or "Meadows 
of Gold" is an Encyclopaedia of know* 

The text has been published from Leiden, 
1889 A.D. 

Ibn Haukal, Muruj-ul-Zahab. 

Masudi, Vol. I, pp. 377—340 (Paris 
edition) and also, Baghdad edition, Vol. 
I, p. 129. 

Text was published from Iraq in 1 238 A.D. 
An earlier edition was issued from Paris 
in 1871 A.D. Masudi, Muruj-ul-Zahab 
(Paris), pp. 372, 389, 376 etc. 
English translation by Sprenger, London, 
1807 and 1841. The number of villages 
in Sind is complete exaggeration, but all 
the same it reflects on high stage of 
agricultural and irrigational development. 
From the description it is also clear that 
Chach's Sind of 644 A.D., was now divid- 
ed in six principalities namely: 
1 . Mansura, consisting of present Sind, 
Lasbela, parts of Bahawalpur Divi- 
sion, ruled by Umer Bin Abdullah 




ledge. He visited Sind in 915-16 A.D. 
and wrote his book in 943-44 A.D. in 9 
volumes. It has been published many 
times from Cairo and Paris. At Multan 
he found Abu-al-Lubab Manbah Bin 
Asad Qarshi Saami, descendant of 
Samaah Bin Loi, ruling. Mansura was 
in constant war with the Meds (a race 
of Sind), and other tribes on the front- 
iers of Sind. He found Mansura a 
strong kingdom in which the common 
language was Sindhi. Khutba was 
still read in the name of the Abbasid 
Khalifa. Masudi describes Budh coun- 
try lying between Makran, Mansura 
and Multan having capital at Gahdava. 
Budh approximates present Jacobabad, 
Sibi and Kachhi Districts. There were 
3 lac villages in Sind (Mansura terri- 
tories). Majority of Jats had become 
Muslims, but not the Meds. 

916 A.D. : 

Birth of Abu Zaid Hassan of Siref an 
Arab who compiled the text geogra- 
phical work Silsilatul-Tawarikh of 
Suleman Merchant with additions by 
him in 951 A.D. 

920 A.D.— 976 Sambat :• 

Birth ofLakoFuIani from Ful Samma r s 
marriage with Rabari, a gipsy girl of 
great beauty and remarkable intelli- 
gence. In his manhood he quarrelled 
with his father and left Sind forCutch to 
seek shelter with Chawra ruler of 
Anahilapataka and gained fame as a 
gallant soldier and astute politician. 

922-23 A.D.— 310 A.H. : 

Tabri, author of Tarikh Al-Tabri or 
Kitab Akhbar Al-Rusul wal-Muluk. 






Multan, with capital at Jindor ruled 
by descendants of Samaah Bin Loi 
named Abul-Luhbab Munbah Bin 
Asad Qarshi. 

Makran with capital at Kej ruled 
by Isa Bin Ma'adan. 
Budhia, with capital at Gandava, 
ruled by a Hindu Raja. 
Turan with capital at Kaikan (Khuz- 

dar), ruled by Mughir Bin Ahmad. 
Indus Delta ruled by Jat and Med 
tribes, who owed allegiance to none. 


Williams, pp. 75-7&. 


The text has been published from Leiden 
in twelve and half volumes. French and 





< — 

died. The history .ends upto 302 A. H. 
(915 A.D.). He was born in Tabristan 
(Tran) in 833 A.D. 

925-926 A.D.— 213 A.H. : 

Death of Ibn Hi sham, the author of 
Sirat-al-Nabaviyah at Fustat. This is 
a recension oflbnlshaq's work Kitab 
Sirat-al-Rasul and gives information 
on Mansura as well as background of 
Banu Asad tribe. 

935-1020 A.D. : 

Firdausi Mansur (?) Abul Qasim, 
the poet and composer of Shahnama 
lived then. 

935-36 A.D. : 

Three sects of Shias developed. They 
were known as Qarmatis, Jsmailis and 
Mulhids. Ismailis first appeared in Africa 
in 296 A.H. (908-09 A.D.) and came to 
Egypt in 356 A.H. (666-77 A.D.). Hassan 
Bin Sabah's group started in Khorasan 
in 483 A.H. (1090-91 A.D.). In 361 
A.H. (971-72 A.D.) Fatmids estab- 
lished, in Egypt. Fatmid Dais came to 
Sind, to preach as well as to organise 
rebellion against Sunnite Abbasids in 
270 AH. (883A-H.). 

940-996. A.D. : 

Rule of Mularaja Chaulakaya a 
Solan ki Prince. 

He attacked and killed Samant Sing 
Chawra King of Anihilapataka, his 
own uncle and adopted father. At that 
time Lakho Fulani Samma was at the 
Chawra court, who were over-lords of 
his father. This may have caused enemity 
between Mularaja and Lakho Fulani 
(Samma). but latter finally must have 

Urdu translations are available. 


Text has been published from Cairo in 
4 volumes in 1335 A.H. 







accepted to become former's Vassal, 
at least nominally. 

Lakho recognised Ghao his half 
brnther's son Punvaro as heir after his 
own death. 

During Lakho's rule, Raj Solanki of 
Gujarat visited his court and married 
his sister Rayaji by whom she had a son 
named Rakaich. In a court function 
over a dispute Lakho had Raj Solanki 
and his companions slain. Rayaji 
committed Sati and her son was brought 
up by Lakho and used as figure head 
for intrigues against Mularaj. 

In 979 A.D. Mularaj in order 
to extendhis territories attacked 
Junagadh, whose chief Graha Pipu, 
was close fried of Lakha Fulani. 
Lakho Fulani crossed little Rann. 

to aid his friend and with him took 
powerful army of Sindhu Raja whose 
kingodom was on the ocean. Sindhu 
Raja is recognized as Samma chief of 
Sind coast. This attempt was being 
made to secure Anhilwada for his own 
branch of Sammas thereby gaining 
control over the whole island, but in 
the battle with Mularaja he was killed 
in Kathiawar. 

941 A.D.—330 A.H. : 

Ibn Faqih Hamad a ni wrote Kitabul 
Baldan. He did not visit Sind, and des- 
cribes its products, cities, geography 
and specially the spices, animals and 

941-42 A.D.- 330 A.H. : 

Umer Bin Abdullah Habari, ruler of 
Sind, died and was replaced, by his son 



Williams, pp. 75-78. 



The text has been published from Leiden 
in 1885 A.D. 

This is an approximate date, adopted by 
Dr. Daudpota in Masumi. 



Muhammad Bin Abdullah Al-Habari. 
Masudi states that Muhammad Bin 
Umer and Ali Bin Umer became rulers 
of Mansura after Abdullah Bin Umer 

He also states that the Habari ruler 
maintained a fleet of 80 elephants ,and 
each elephant was supported by 500 

942-43 A.D.- 331 A.H. : 

Abu-Dulf Masar Bin Muhalhil Yan- 
bui, probably the first Arab traveller of 
the Sub-Continent who came by land 
via Central Asia, visited Mulran and 
Sind. He describes Hindu temple of 
Multan in great details in his travels 
called Hudud-al-Alam. 

942-959 A.D.— 331-358 A.H. : 

Ibn Haukal, a merchant, travelled in 
Asia. He came to Sind in 340 A.H. 
(951 AD.), and found an independent 
Habari king. The Khutba was how- 
ever, read in the name of the Abbasid 
Khalifa in the territories of Mansura 
(i.e. from Alore to the sea). He was the 
first geographer who produced an ex- 
clusive map of Sind, which was reprint- 
ed by Elliot and Dowson. He describes 
Mansura, Alore, Debal, Qandabil 
(Gandara), Kamhil, the people, etc. 
This map of Sind is the first map of any 
province of the Sub-Continent. He 
describes Multan, Alore, Nerun, 
Ka'ari, Khuzdar, Mansura, Gandava, 
Kaikan, the rivers of Sind and the 
Punjab, Makran, etc. in great details. 

943-44 A.D.- 332 A.H. : 

Masudi, a native of Persia completed 
his travels of Asia, the Indo-Pak Sub- 
Continent and the East Africa, and 



Muruj-ul-Zahab (Baghdad), Vol. I, p. 

Extracts published from Berlin in 1845, 
described by Nadvi, S.S. in Arab wa 
Hind Ke-Taalluqat, p. 34. 



Extracts of his book Surat-ul-Ardh in 
Elliot and Dowson, Vol. I. 
Suratul Ardh was printed from Leiden 
in 1938 A.D. He saw Chach's Sind 
being ruled in the same manner as 
Masudi saw 25 years earlier, i.e. Sind 
divided in 6 principalities of which Budhia 
was ruled by a Hindu Raja and the rest 
by same Muslim families as in 915 A.D. 
He also found Arabic and Sindhi being 
spoken in Mansura and Multan. 



The book was first translated into English 
in 1807 A.D. Extracts have been 
translated by Elliot. The text was pub- 


wrote Muruj-ul-Zahab or the Golden 
Meadows. He visited Sind, Multan 
and other places and describes them an.1 
names the rulers, etc. 

943-44 A.D.-332 A.H. : 

Abdul Jafar of Debal wrote commentary 

on the Holy Quran. 

Persian-wheels and leather buckets for 

irrigation became quite popular in the 


950 AD. : 

Sindhi was already spoken in Mansura, 
Multan and Sind. Another language 
called Varchada Upbharnish by gra- 
mmarians of later period was also used 
and was considered as the most corrupted 
language and finally became Siraiki by 
about 1100A.D. 

951 A.D.-340 A.H. : 

Abu Ishaq Al-Istakhri, a native of Per- 
sepolis (Iran) who wrote Kitabul-Aqalim 
and Kitab Masalik-Al-Mamalik (Routes 
of the Countries), the two treatises on 
geography. He visited Sind and also 
met Ibn Haukal in Sind in the same 
year. He describes in details Multan, 
Mansura, Alore and Indus and the 
distances. The ruler of Multan then 
was Qarshi (Qureshi, a descendant 
oPSamaah Bin Loi. Khutba was read 
in the name of the Abbasid Khalifa of 

951 A.D. : 

Completion of Suleman Merchant's 
Silsilatul-Tawarikh by Abu Zaid Hassan 
of Siref. 

lished from Pans in 1871. Its French 
translation a'i»o appeared from Paris. 
A number of Arabic *xts have been 
published from Cairo. 

?nd'a's Contribution to the study of 
Haetith literature, by Muhammad Ishaque. 
p. 35. 
Epigraphia Indica. Yo\ XIX, p. 182. 

Bherumal, p. 79. The latter statement is 
incorrect. See entries 900-1000 A.D. 
and 915-16 A.D. 


He produced a map of Sind. His two 
books namely Kitab-ul-Aqa'im and 
Masalik-Al-Mamalik were printed in 
1839 and 1870 respective.y from Leiden. 
Elliot, Vol. I, p. 16. 

The dates of birth and death of this 
author are not known. 

Text published from Paris in 1818 A.D. 
Extracts pertaining to the Sub-Continent 
in Elliot and Dowson, Vol- I. 









952-53 A.D.— 341 A.H. : 

The date of erections of Tomb of 
Khawaja Khizr on an island near 

954-55 A.D.— 341 A.H. : 

Ibn Haukal wrote Surat-ul-Ardh, and 
Kitab Al-Masalik-wal-Mamalik. 

952-975 A.D. : 

The reign of Fatmid Khalifa Muiz in 
Egypt. During his reign Ibn Al •Hay- 
tham was incharge of Qarmati (Ismaili) 
movement in Sind. He ultimately 
succeeded in establishing his power in 

954-55 A D.— 343 A.H. : 

Ahmed Ibn Abdullah Al Debali, a 
Sindhi scholar, died at Nishapur. 

957-58 A.D.— 346 A.H. : 

Masaudi a Persepolian (Iran) geogra- 
pher, and author of Muruj-ul-Zahab 
and Al Tanbih Wa-Al-Ashraf, died in 
Egypt, where he had settled in 345 A.H. 

964-976 A.D. : 

K.hi-nine, a Chinese pilgrim with 300 
monks, left for the Sub-Continent and 
stayed 12 years, here. His writings have 
been lost except a few pages. Buddhism 
still existed in Sind and it is possible that 
they visited it too. 

966-67 A.D.— 356 A.H. : 

Beginning of the Ismaili sect in Iraq 
and the Persian Gulf, and its movement 
to Egypt. 

Raverty, Notes on Afghanistan, p. 676. 
This is also considered the possible date 
of change of course of the river Indus, 
through Bakhar gorge. The date is 
doubted by many authorities. Cousens. 

Al-Masalik has been published from 
Leiden in 1872 and Surat-ul-Ardh from 
Leiden in 1938. The date of writing of 
the latter work is 951 A.D. 

Hoi lister, John Norman, Shias of India. 
Ivanow, too has described Ismaili 

Al-Samani, pp. 137 and 138. 

The book is also known as Muruj-ul- 
Zahab wa Maadan Al-Jawahir (Mead- 
ows of Gold and Mine of of Jems). It was 
first translated into English by Sprenger 
in 1841. 

Stanislas Julian, Introduction to Hieun 
Tsang's French translation. 



November 20th, 967 A.D.: 
Zil Hij 14th, 365 A.H. : 

Persian born Abu Al Faraj, the author 
of Kitab al-Aghani died at Baghdad. 
Vol. XVI of it has details of life of a 
Sindhi poet Abu Ata-al-Sindhi. 

968-1171 A.D. : 

The Fatmid Dynasty established in 
Egypt (909-10 A.D.). They exercised a 
great influence on Sind and Multan, 
then known as Sind. 

970-71 A.D.—360 A.H. i 

Muhammad Bin Abdullah, the fourth 
independent ruler of Sind belonging to 
the local Arab tribe Habari, died at 
Mansura, and his nephew Ali Bin Umer 
Al-Habari took over the kingdom. 

973-1048 A.D. : 

Al-Beruni, a Persian was born in the 
suburbs of Khwarizm on the eastern 
shores of the Caspian sea. 

973-1171 AID. : 

Fatmid Khalifas rule in Egypt. They 
controlled northern Africa, Syria and 
Mediterranean islands. During the same 
period Hasan bin Sabah's Nizari group 
spread from Khorasan to Seistan, and 
Druze sect of Ismailis developed in 
Syria. Druzians are the followers of 6th 
Fatmid Khalifa of Egypt, Hakim Bin 
Amarullah and their beliefs are cross 
between Christianity and Islam. Druze 
was started in 470 A.H. (1077-78 A.D.), 
when above Khalifa declared that he had 
direct talks with the God. Druze also- 

Text printed from Leiden in 1885 in 20 

Ismaili sect was born in Africa in 297A.H. 
They shifted their capital from Africa to 
Cairo in 361 A.H. (971-72 A.D.). This 
was the beginning of the confflct of 
Abbasid and prorFatmid states. It finally 
caused sacking of Multan, Sind and 
Khuzdar by Mahmud of Ghazni. 

Ahsan-ul-Taqaseem , 










. I 


developed in Lebanon where today 
they number about 300,000. 

973-74 A.D— 363A.H. : 

Translator of Tabri's Tarikh Al-Rasul 
wal-Muluk or Tarikh-i-Tabri into 
Persian. Abu All Muhammad Bilummi, 
Vazier of Mansur Bin Nuh Samani died. 

976-77 A.D.— 366 A.H. : 
Ibn Haukal completed his work 
Kitabul Masalik wal-Mamalik in con- 
nection with his travels 331-358 A.H. 
(943-968 A.D.). The book also called 
Ashkalul-Bilad, is an account of his 
travels in India and Asia. He was the 
first to have produced a map of Sind 
and this was the first map of any 
province in the Sub-Continent. 
During the same year Subkatgin sub- 
dued Khuzdar. 

977-78 AD.—3ff7 A.H. : 

The Habaris still ruled Mansura, 
though the Khutba was read in the 
name of the Khalifa of Baghdad. 

979 AD. : 

Death of Ful (a Samma of Sind), the 
ruler of Cutch in the battle of Alkot 
in Kathiawar against Chawras. 

982-983 A.D.—372 AH. : 

An unknown geographer wrote Hudud- 
al-Alam in Arabic. It describes Sind 
and Multan and states that Banu 
Munbah ruled Multan. 

This was the period when Arabic was 
giving its place to Persian in the Courts 
as well as literature. 

Text published by Brill, Leiden, 1872 
A.D. Elliot, Vol. I, pp. 32 and 33. 
See entries, 942-43; 942-959 and 954-55 


Ibn Asir, Vol. VHI, p. 504. 
Elliot, Vol. I, pp. 32-35. 

Williams, p. 76 


The book has been published in 1352 Sh. 
from Tehran. Its Urdu translation by 
Farooqi has been published from India, 
under the title: Islam i Dunya Dasween 
Sadi Hijri Meen. 

English translation by Chauba Ramkumar 
has been published from India. 




982-83 A.D.— 372 A.H. : 

Multan was captured by the Qarmatis 
(Ismailis), under Jalam Ibn Shahban. 
TheKhutba was read in the name of 
the Fatmid Khalifa of Egypt. The popu- 
lation was Shiite. 

Ismaili Imam Aziz Billah sent Jalam 
with troops to capture Sind and Multan. 
He most probably came via Khurasan, 
an Islamili strong-hold and destroyed 
the temple of Multan. 

985-88 A.D.— 375 A.H. : 

The approximate date of the death of 
Ali Bin Umer Al-Habari, and succession 
of his son as the next ruler. 

985 A.D. : 

A sect known as Mulhida, after their 
overthrow from Iraq, Bahrein and Al- 
Hasan, came to Sind in large numbers. 

985 AD.: 

On the death of Punvro the Samma, 
Ahivanraj Chawra, the grandson of 
Samant Sing destroyed the Cutchi capi- 
tal town Padhragah to break the power 
of Sindhi Sammas settled in Cutch, and 
established an independent principality 
with the help of his Chawra kinsfolk. In 
this action he was so successful that the 
rule of first Samma dynasty of Cutch 
disappeared entirely, until the establish- 
ment of the second Samma Dynasty 130 

years later. 

985-86 A.D.— 375 A.H. : 

Bashari Muqaddisi,who had earlier visit- 
ed Sind in 350 A.H. (961-62 A.D.), wrote 

Beruni's India, p. 56. Muqaddisi, p. 485, 
corroborates this statement but in the 
year 375 A.H. The Khutba was read 
in the name of the Fatmid Khalifa of 
Egypt, p. 485. Also see entry, 985-86 A.D. 
Ibn Haukal who had visited Multan only 
8 years earlier does not mention Karmati 
rule. The Karmatis must have establish- 
ed themselves between 367 and 375 A.H. 
or 977-986 A.D. 

Tabqat-i-Nasiri (Calcutta), p. 8. Jalam 
also closed down the Mosque built by 
Muhammad Bin Qasim, as is also re- 
ported in "India" of Al-Beruni. 

Siddiq Namah by Brigadier Nazir Ali Shah- 

Ahsan ul-Taqaseem Fi Ma'arfat Al-Aqalim* 
of Muqaddisi Bashari, pp. 485 & 479-485. 









Ahsau-ul-Taqaseem Fi Ma'arfat Al- 
Aqalim. According to him the Habaris 
ruled Sind independently. They were dis- 
ciples of Abu Daud Tahir Muhadis, but 
the Shiite influence which had reached 
via Baluchistan had also spread in Sind 
considerably. Then Khutba was still 
read in the name of the Khalifa of Bagh- 
dad, though sometimes it was also read 
in the name of Azdul-Daula, the Buwahid 
Prince of Shiraz. Muqaddisi had also met 
the envoy of Sind at Shiraz, showing 
the Shia influence. The city of Mansura 
as seen by him, approximately 1 mile 
long and 2 miles wide was surrounded 
by the river and had a fort having 4 
gates. It was the capital city of the 

Ali Bin Umer Habari, the fifth ruler 
of that dynasty died at Mansura 
during that year. He was replaced by 
his son, whose name has not been ascer- 

At Multan the Khutba was read in the 
name of the Fatmid Khalifa of Egypt, 
showing that they had turned Qarmatis. 
Multan became Fatmid between 366 
and 375 A.H. The Ismailis established 
power in Egypt in 358 A.H. 

987-88 AD.- -377 A.H.: 

Muhammad Bin Ishaque also known 
as Ibn Nadeem was a Librarian at 
Baghdad and wrote his book Al-Fihrist. 
He states that Sindhis have many langu- 
ages (dialects), religions and 100 differ- 
ent alphabets. He also describes 
numerical systems. He died at Bagh- 
dad in 375 A.H. (985-86 A.D.). 

This description tallies with the present 

ruins of Bahmanabad. 

Mujamul Baldan, Vol. VIII, p. 201 

(Cairo edition). 

Bashari found Chach's Sind divided in 5 

principalities, somewhat different from 

what Masudi and Ibn Haukal saw 

in 915 and 942 A.D. respectively. 

1. Multan was ruled by a Fatmid ruler. 

2. Mansura was ruled by Habaris and 
was on way to switching over from 
Sunnism to Fatmid Ismailism. 

3. Budhia was still ruled by a Hindu 

4. Makran had turned Fatmid and had 
annexed Las Bela. 

5. Khuzdar, capital of Turan was ruled 
by an independent Arab tribe. 

6. Indus Delta is not mentioned. 

His book was printed from Leiden 
in 1886 A.D. and the last 
chapter of it pertains to Sind. He 
describes Vahand, Mansura, Multan, 
Turan etc. He describes the Idol 
at Multan, which Muslims always threat- 
ened to destroy in case of threat of 
attack from neighbouring Hindu rulers. 
This is confirmed by Istakhri as well as 

The text was printed from Leiden in 
1877 and 1900A.D. 

Al-Fihrist edited by Fluedgel, Leipzig, 
1871. The text was also published 
from Cairo in 1348 A.H. (1930-31 A.D.). 
This large number of alphabets was 
used by different Hindu businessmen 
until 1947 and even to-day their alphabets 
differ v from district to district. These 
are used for account purposes only. 
Captain Stack has described some such 



995 A.D.— 385 A.H.: 

Death of Ibn Nadeem. 

996 AD.: 

Nagarparkar and Amarkot then, were 
under the possession of Raja of 

996-1021 A.D.—386-411 A.H. : 

Birth of Druze, a Shia sect, close to 
Israailis and Mulhid or Batinia sect. 

997-98 A.D.— 387 A.H.: 

Sultan Subaktgin died and Mahmood 
of Ghazni succeeded him. 

1000-1100 A.D.: 

Ramayana translated into Sindhi 

Thar Meen Meeran Ja Qilla by Sarup- 
chand 'Shad', Mihran, No. 2, 1959, pp. 
139-150, Nos. 1 and 2, 1958, pp. 140- 

1000 A.D.: 

The Eastern Branch of the Indus was 
still discharging into Koree Creek 
since 519 B.C. Cutch was an island 
with close connection with Sind. 

1000 A.D. : 

Solanki Chaulkayas ruled Cutch. 

1000 A.D.— -soon afterwards: 

Little Rann south of Cutch dried up 
cutting of Kathiawar from Cutch due 
to marshy land. Water cf Hakra re- 
duced. The Eastern Branch of river 
Indus also took less supplies of water 
resulting into difficulties of navigation 
of Rann of Cutch. The situation con- 
tinued in the 11th and 12th century 
when river Indus desei ted its eastern 
bed and shifted westwards. 

HCIP, Vol. V. 

Bherumal, p. 72, reports that during 
this century Sindhi and Hindi separated 
from Prakrit. This statemont is wrong. 
The Holy Quran and other books were 
translated into Sindhi in the ninth 






Rann then was getting water from the 
sea and Luni river. 

1000-1300 A.D.: 

From 750 A.D. to 1000 A.D. Western 
or Sauraseni Apabhramsa came in use, 
from which between 1000 A.D. to 1300 
A.D. Punjabi, Sindhi, Bengali and all 
other Vernaculars of Northern India 
and also Marhati evolved. 

1003 A.D. : 

Mahmud ofGhazni took by assault 
Bhatia, a very strong place that offered 
obstinate resistance and in which its 
king Raja Biji Rai was killed. " 
The reason for assault on Bhatia was 
that Biji Rai of Bhatia, Rajpal of Lahore 
and Daud of Multan had formed a trio 
against Mahmud and all the three had 
to be reduced. 

1005 A.D. (Winter)— 396 A.H.: 

To avenge plundering of his baggage in 
Summer 1005 A.D. Mahmud of Ghazni 
marched against Abdul-Fath Daud, 
ruler of Multan. Daud offered a yearly 
tribute of 2,00,000 golden dirhams and 
abjuration of Ismaili faith. The terms 
were accepted due to invasion of Turks 
of Transoxiana by Abdul Hussain of 
Bokhara, which necessitated Mahmud's 
early return. 

Mahmud also exacted 2 million dir- 
hams from the population of Multan by 

1009-10 A.D.—400 A.H. : 

Al-Beruni during his visit to Multan 
found the Hindu temple non-existing. 

HCIP, Vol. V, p. 351. 

This statement which is based on Hem- 

chandra (1088-1172 A.D.) is incorrect 

because Sindhi was a spoken and 

written language before 1000 A.D. as 

reported by Arab geographers and 


Firishta (Bombay), Vol. I, p. 33. 
Firishta (Naval Kishore), Vol. I, p. 36. 
Bhatia has beon recognized as Bhatinda, 
a place midway between Sind and Multan, 
now in Indian Republic. 
S. S. Nadvi, AAHKT, pp. 217-32. 

Zainul-Akhbar, pp. 65-66 and 70. 

Firishta (Naval Kishore), Vol. I, pp. 24-25. 

Utbi states that annual tribute fixed was 

2 crore dirhams and not 2 lac dirhams 

as is reported by Gardaizi. Tuhfat-ul- 

Kiram reports it as one hundred 

thousand dirhams. 

The main reason for attacking Multan 

was the formation of Anangpal-Bajra- 

Daud trio against Mahmud since 1002 


It was his first expedition against Multan. 

Reason given for it was that its ruler and 

population had become Qarmatis or 

Ismailis. S. S. Nadvi, AAHKT, pp. 


Since Bashari Muqaddisi saw it in 315 

A.H. (985-86 A.D.), it may have been 

destroyed by Mahmud of Ghazni. 



1009-10 A.D.— 400 A.H. : 

Completion of Shah Nama by Firdausi 
at the age of 80 years. The work must 
have started in 367 A.H. (977-78 A.D.). 
This puts his birth date around 322 
A.H. (934 A.D.) and beginning of Shah- 
nama at the age of 45 years. He reach- 
ed the court of Mahmud of Ghazni in 
397 A.H. (1006-07 A.D.) and in next 
3 years revised the work. Its first 
edition was dedicated to Amin Ahmed 
Bin Abi Bakar Khan Lanjan in 
389 A.H. (999 A.D.). 

1010-11 A.D.-«401 A.H.: 

In spite of the treaty of 1005 A.D. 
Mahmud of Ghazni made a second 
expedition against the Ismailis of 
Multan in which he arrested the Qarmati 
ruler of Multan named Abdul Fateh 
Daud. He was released on denounc- 
ing of the Ismaili faith and acceptance 
of Sunnism. 

Masumi states that Mahmud deputed 
General Abdul Razaq to subdue Sind, 
but this is mis-statement as none of the 
generals or Vaziers of Mahmud was 
named Abdul Razaq. 

Firishta, Vol. I, pp. 24-27. Zainul-Akhbar 
(Naval Kishore), pp. 67-68. Nadvi 
thinks that Abdul Zafar Fateh Daud and 
his predecessor had joined the Hindu 
rulers of Bhatia and Punjab against 
Subkatgin, Alaptagin and Mahmud 
and, therefore, subjugation of Multan 
had become a necessity. AAHRT, 
pp. 217-231. 
Masumi, p. 32. 
Mira'at-i-Masudi confirms this. 









1010-1011 A.D.— 401 A.H. : 

Last Habari ruler, the son of Ali Bin 
Umer, the fifth Habari king of Sind, 
died at Mansura. Khafif became next 
ruler. (It seems that Khafif Soomro the 
founder of Soomro Dynasty took over 
the kingdom peacefully). 


Soomra Dynasty— 1011-1351 A.D. : 

The Soomras originally were a local 
Hindu tribe who had accepted Islam 
soon after the Arab conquest of Sind. 
Even after conversion they retained their 
old Hindu customs. 

Ibn Batuta saw them settled on the 
banks of the Indus and in the big beauti- 
ful cities of Janani and.Sehwan. Masumi 
who is quite un-reliable on the Soomra 
and Samma periods, states that they had 
intermarried with local Arab land- 
owners and thus had acquired groat 
influence and power. 

Daudpota on the authority of Tarikh- 
i-Mubarak Shahi, calculates Janani to 
be three miles south of Sehwan towards 
Thatta. This city must have been ero- 
ded by the river Indus. 

Syed Suleman Nadvi quoting Druze 
instance of 425 A.H. (1033 A.D.) thinks 

Firishta (Bombay), Vol. II, pp. 313-14. 
Farrukhi, p. 74, mentions the name, 
but does not mention whether Khafif was 
a Soomro. It appears that on the fall of 
Multan and massacre of its population 
by Mahmud of Ghazni, the people mig- 
rated to Mansura and helped Khafif in 
overthrowing Habaris. Mira'at-i-Masudi 
clearly states that on the fall of Multan, 
many courtiers moved to Uch. Zainul- 
Akhbar (Tehran), p. 132. Asir, Vol. II, 
p. 243. 

Rehla, Vol. II, pp. 4-6. 


Masumi, p. 289. 
Mubarak Shahi, p. 43. 

AAHKT, pp. 325-26. 



that they were Qarmatis. His version 
is incorrect as Muqtana of Syria had 
been inviting Shaikh Ibn Soomar, Raja 
Bal of Multan, to accept Druzism. It 
is, therefore, apparent that they belong- 
ed to the Ismaili sect organized -by the 
Fatmid Khalifas of Egypt, Imam Zahir 
and Mustansir. The Qarmati dissenti- 
ent movement or the early Ismaili sect 
had never gained ground in Sind, but 
somehow most of the early Sunni 
writers considered Ismailis as Qarmatis. 

The Soomras practised a lot of Hindu 
customs in 1471 A.D., when Mahmud 
of Begra tried to suppress them and 
convert them to Islam i.e. Sunnism. 
Ibn Batuta states that they were 
of Arab stock and descendants of Hajjaj 
Bin Yousif Al-Thaqafi. This is incor- 

The early Soomra rulers were 'Fatmid' 
Ismailis. They owed allegiance to 
Fatmid Khalifas of Cairo, sent them 
presents and read their name in the 
Friday Khutba. On the death of Imam 
Mustansir at Cairo in 487 A.H. (1094 
A.D.), the Fatmid Dawa had been divid- 
ed in two sections. The first one 
Mustalian Dawa had headquarters at 
Yaman in the beginning, and later on 
in Gujrat; the other one called Nizari 
Ismaili Dawa had headquarters at Al- 
mut in Persia under Hasan bin Sabbah 
and it supported the cause of Imam 
Nizar bin Mustansir and his descend- 
ants. The Soomras drifted away from 
these two rival Dawas. Ismailis got 
great set back between 1171-1187 A.D., 
starting with the fall of their Caliphate 
in Cario at the hands of Sultan Salah- 
uddin Ayubi, then in Iraq at the hands 

Mira'at-i-Ahmedi, English translation, by 
Syed Nawab Ali and C.N. Seddon, 
Baroda, 1924. 

Abbas, H. Al-Hamdani, pp. 15-16. 
Al-Beruni writing in about 424 A.H. 
(1032 A.D.) states that Qarmati (Tsmaili) 
sect arose 100 years before his times i.e. 
around 930 A.D. 






of Saljuqi Turks, and in Multan by 
Mohammad Ghori's campaigns. 
According to Hamdani, Yamanite or 
Gujarati Dawa exercised heavy Arab 
influence, which is apparent in the 
names of people as well as Arabic litera- 
ture. The Soomras in general had 
local Sindhi names and therefore they 
could not have originally belonged to 
this sect of Ismailis. The Ismailis of 
Gujarat who attached themselves to 
Yamanite and Gujarati Dawa are 
known as Bohris. 

The Nizari sect was active in the North- 
ern Sub-Continent. Pir Shams "Sabz- 
wari, looking like a Jogi, came to 
Multan, where he got considerable fol- 
lowing. He may have b^3n active in 
Sind, but as he came during the time of 
Imam Qasim Shah 1310-1369 A.D. and 
in the last days of the Soomra rule, it 
becomesdoubtful if they could be Nizari 
Ismailis too. Pir Sadruddin who died 
near Uch in 876 A.H./1471 A.D. was 
also a Nizari missionary and there is 
evidence that he exercised influence in 
Sind. Nizaris got set back in Iraq when 
Halaku's forces in the mid 13th century 
destroyed their strong-hold in Alburz 

Mir Masum basing on hearsay, con- 
siders the Soomras of Hindu origin. 
Tarikh-i-Tahiri clearly mentions that 
the Soomras were of Hindu origin, but 
all the same they ate buffalo meat. Mun- 
takbab-ut-Tawarikh of Mohammad 
Yousif agrees with Masumi but gives 
some additional names of their rulers 
and some of these appear to be Muslim 
names. Tuhfat-ul-Kiram's statement 
that they were from the Arab stock of 
Samira and came to Sind in 8th century 



Masumi, pp. 31-33. 
Tuhfat-ul-Kiram, pp. 67-68. 
Tahiri, pp. 32-35. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari,Vol. II, pp. 512, quoting 

Ma'athir-i-Rahimi, Vol. Ill, pp. 260-262, 
has given word by word the same des- 
cription of the Soomras as by Masumi. 



A.D. is incorrect. Tarikh-i-Tabqat-i- 
Bahadur Shahi states that they were des- 
cendants of Tamim Ansari. This is also 
a mis-statement. 

TheSindhi historians are also largely unre-. 
liable on the Soomra period of the history 
of Sind. All of these were written in 
the 17jh century except Tuhfat-ul-Kiram 
which was written in 18th century. Their 
information is based on hearsay and 
folk-lore rather than on any earlier writ- 
ings. The ballads based on Dodo- 
Chanesar conflict and Allauddin Khilji's 
intervention are considered a true his- 
tory by Dr. Daudpota. Dr. Balooh 
also considers all ballads and folk-lore 
of Samma-Soomra period a true his- 
tory. Dodo-Chanesar folk-lores are 
eulogies of the same genre as those of 
Gujarati and Rajput works of 16th 
century. The latter works too describe 
the valiant fight put up by Kanhan- 
dev of Jalor against Allauddin. Ham- 
mir Raso describes a similar story of 
Hammir of Ranthombore's resistance 
to Allauddin. Mandalik Karaya gives 
another similar story ot resistance offer- 
ed by Raja Mandalik ot Junagadh 
against Sultan Mahmud of Begra in the 
15ta century. Even the Cutchi Charans 
sing ballads about the rescuing of Royal 
ladies of Soomras from Allauddin's 
forces. Such stories have to be taken 
more as folk-lore than historic data. 

The Soomra Dynasty started with a 
definite and rigid law ot succession, un- 
like the contemporary Ghazni and 
Delhi Sultanates which always faced 
trouble and where sword was the natural 
method of deciding the right of succes- 
sion. The Soomra rule, therefore con- 

Dr. U. M. Dandpota. Dark Period in 
the History of Sind, Pakistan Historical 

Record and Archives Commission, 1954 

and 1957 A.D. 

Baloch, Dr. N. A., Sindhi Lok Adab, 

40 volumes. Sindhi Adabi Board, 
Hyderabad (Sind). Panhwar M.H., 

'Source Material on Sind', pp. 436-437. ' 

Firishta, pp. 609, 610 and 613, accepts 

similar views as Ibn Batuta. 

Folio ving contemporary Sultans of Delhi 

were remoyed by force: 

Aram Shah, 1210 A.D. 

Rukunuddin Ferozshah, 1235-1236 A.D. 

Razia Sultana, 1236-39 A.D. 




tinued uninterrupted for about 350 years 
and their territories were never annexed 
though they acted as the vassals of Delhi 
for some time. 

1011-12 A.D.— 402 A.H. : 

Mahmud's third expedition against 
Multan, in which Abul Fateh Daud Bin 
Nasir, the ruler was arrested and impri- 
soned in the Fort of Ghaur (Ghorak), 
where he died. The Qarmatis were 
severely punished. The reason given was 
that they had again turned Qarmatis, 
but the actual reason was the Anangpal- 
Bajra-Daud trio. 

Mahmud re-opened Mohammad Bin 
Qasim's mosque and closed down 
Jalam Bin Shaban's mosque. 

1012-13 A.D.— 403 A.H. : 

On hearing of the fall of the pro-Fatmid 
(the Qarmatis) kingdom of Multan at 
the hands of Mahmud, Hakim Abu 
Ali Mansur, the Fatmid Khalifa of 
Egypt, sent an envoy to Mahmud of 
Ghazni. The latter considering him 
as an impostor had him arrested and 

1019-20 A.D.—410 A.H. : 

Al-Beruni visited northern India. His 
Kitab-ul-Hind (Sachau, Al-Beruni's 
India), describes the Indus and some 
geographical names of Sind. His 
works give a number of Sindhi words 
pertaining to sea-faring, medicine and 
other trades. 

1020 AD. : 

Death of Firdausi (Mansur?) Abul 
Qasim, the poet and composer of 

Muizzuddin Bahram, 1239-1241 A.D. 
AUauddin Masud, 1241-1264 A.D. 
Muizzuddin Kaiquabad, 1287-1290 A.D. 
Jalaluddin Feroz-II, 1290-1295 A.D. 
Ghiasuddin Tughlaq, 1320-1325 A.D. 

Zainul-Akhbar, (Naval Kishore), pp. 66 
-70. Zainul-Akhbar, (Berlin), pp. 67-68. 
lbnAsir (Leiden), Vol. XT, p. 132. 
S.S. Nadvi, AAHKT, pp. 217-235. 
Firishta, pp. 25-27. 

Zainul-Akhbar, (Berlin), p. 71. 

The book along with its English transla- 
tion was first published by Sachau from 
London in 1888. It has been reprinted 
from New Delhi and Lahore. 



1020-21 AD.- 411 A.H. : 
Abu Nasar Muhammad Bin Abdul 
Jabar Utbi, courtier of Mahmud 
of Ghazni wrote Tarikh-i-Utbi or 
Tarikh-i-Yamini in Arabic, which des- 
cribes events of Subaktgin. 
It was contemporarily translated into 

1024 AD. (end). : 

Mahmud of Ghazni marched through 
Bahawalpur and Rahimyar Khan dis- 
tricts, on his way to Sind, and Somnath, 
and crossed the Sutlej near Uch. 

1025 A.D.: 

Fall of Somnath. 

1025 A D. : 

Mahmud left Somnath within a fort- 
night of its conquest as Bhima, the 
Chaulkaya King made preparations for 
war. He returned via Mansuraandnot 
via desert as Paramdeva a Hindu King, 
stood in the way. He went to Multan 
via Mansura sacking the latter, and also 
punishing the Jats of the Upper Sind 
who came in his way. Many of his 
soldiers lost lives due to lack of water 
and opposition of these Jats of Sind. 

Text printed from Delhi in 1847 A.D. by 
Sprenger. Its German translation was 
published from Vienna in 1857 A.D. and 
Persian translation published from Tehran 
in 1272 Sh. Renal's English translation 
appeared in 1858 A.D. 

Siddiq Namah by Brigadier Nazeer Ali 
Shah. This statement is only partially 
correct. He marched through Bahawal- 
pur to Somnath via the Indian desert 
and not Sind. He did not enter Rahimyar 
Khan district. Only on his return from 
Somnath, he marched through Sind, 
Rahimyar Khan and Bahawalpur districts. 


Firishta states that Mahmud returned 

via Anahilapataka. 

Abul Fazal records the same story in 

Ain-i-Akbari, Vol. II, p. 268. 

Mirat-i-Ahmadi accepts the same version 

(Bailey's English translation, p. 33). 

Jackson and Indraji reject this version 

(Bombay Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part i. 

p. 168, f.n.z.). 

Hodivala agrees with the last two in his 

studies in Indo-*Muslim History, Vol. I, 

pp. 238-39. 

Indian Historical Quarterly, Vol. IX, 

pp. 941-42 describes the return route via 


Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, Vol. I, p. 82, states that 

on his return, having been forced to 

accept an Indian as guide, he was led to 

waterless desert, where his army suffered. 

From there his army was harassed in 






1025 A.D.—416 A.H. : 

The rulers of Sind who were Sunnis in 
375 A.H. (985-86 A.D.), had become 
Qarmatis during the intervening period. 

1025 A.D. (beginning) : 

The fall of Somnath to Mahmud Ghazni. 

1025 A.D.— 416 A.H. : 

Mahmud of Ghazni on return from 
Somnath attacked Mansura as its ruler 


had given up Islam (Sunnism and had 
become Shiite or Ismaili). On ap- 
proach of Mahmud its ruler Khafif 
escaped to forests. Mahmud chased him 
and many of latter's men were killed 
and others were drowned in water. The 
Jats and Meds of Sind attacked him at 
the instigation of Sind's ruler. 
Mansura, the capital, is said to have 
b32n destroyed by an earthquake in the 
mid-lOth century. This is untrue. It 
seems to have b33n sacked by Mahmud 
of Ghazni. 

During mid-December same year he 
reached Multan, after throwing out the 
Governor of Al-Qadir Billah from Uch. 
This statement itself shows that Sind 
was not subdued in 401 A.H. or 1010- 
101 1 A.D. as stated earlier. 
Ibn Asir clearly states the massacre of its 
populace and drowning of others who 
tried to swim across the river. 
That Sultan took the Rann of Cutch and 
Mansura route, while returning from 
Somnath was to avoid conflict with 
Parmadcva of Abu is confirmed by 
entry 1026 A.D 

the rear by the Jats till he reached Mul- 
tan, and on 2nd April, 1026 A.D. (10th 
Safar, 417 A.H.) he reached Ghazni. 
Nazimuddin does not seem to have access 
on original sources of this incident.' 

Ibn Ask-, Vol. IX, p. 243. Also see entry 
375 A.H. 

Masumi, p. 31. 

Ibn Asir, Leiden. Vol. IX, p. 243. 

Ibn Khaldun, (Cairo), Vol. II, p. 327, 
asserts the end of Arab Kingdom of 
Mansura by Mahmud. It appears 
plausible that he destroyed Mansura as 
its population had turned Qarmatis 
(Ismaili). Diwan-i-Farrukhi, p. 74 gives the 
name of Sind's ruler as Khafif. He was 
also founder of Soomra Dynasty. It is 
possible that b3tween 335 A.H. (985-86 
A.D.), and 396 A.H. (1005-6 A.D.), after 
the arrest of Shaikh Abdul-Al-Fateh Daud 
Bin Nasar, the Soomras overthrew 
Habaris and established themselves at 

Farrukhi states that in a naval battle (in 
which Jats helped), Khafif was 
drowned in tne river. (Kabul edition, 
p. 74). Cousens suspected Mansura 's des- 
truction at the hands of Hindu con- 
querors and Muslim historians deliberate- 
ly not recording it. Raverty's Tabaqat-i- 
Nasiri, p. 82, confirms that Mahmud 
took % a route via Sind and Mansura. 
Gardaizi, p. 87, and Bombay Gazetteer 
Vol. I, part I, clearly state that the des- 
truction of the idol of Somnath had 



agitated the Hindus and Raja Paramdeva 
of Abu and oth-r Hindu chiefs decided 
to give Mahmud a batile and therefore 
he took an easterly route through Cutch 
and Sind. Farrukhi confirms the same. 
Tarikh-i-Behaqi (Tehran), 1342 

Sh, p. 218, also states that he returned 
to Ghazni via Sind and Mansura. Asir, 
( al-Kamil— fit— Tarikh, Tornberg ), 
p. 243. and Zainul-Akhbar (Tehran), 
p. 132 also state that he came via Sind 
and Mansura. That he safely reached 
Sind via Rann of Cutch (a shallow sea 
creek then), is reported by Farrukhi. 
Tabaqat-Nasiri (Calcutta), p. 82, Futuh- 
• al — Salatin, and Bombay Gazetteer, 

Vol. V; p. 14, agree with this view. 
The only exception is Firishta (written 
600 years later), which takes Sultan via 
Anhilwara and Rajistan desert as re- 
ported in Vol. L, on p. 33, (Bombay) 
and Vol. I, p. 36, (Naval Kishore). 

That Sultan marched on Mansura, and 
its Qarmati (actually Ismaili but wrongly 
called Qarmatis by most Sunni historians) 
ruler Khafif (possibly Khafif Soomro) 
fled across the river and took refuge in a 
date palm forest is reported by Farrukhi. 
He is the only author to report the name 
of ruler of Mansura. Asir, p. 242, 
also confirms his expedition on Mansura, 
and sending his officers after its ruler and 
putting many of his followers (Ismailis) 
to death. Gardaizi, pp. 87-88, further 
states that from here Sultan marched to 
Multan along the river Indus, where he 
was attacked by Jats inhabiting that 
area, losing many of his men, baggage 
and animals. He reached Ghazni on 10th 
Safar 417 A.H. (2nd April, 1026 A.D.), 
as is reported by Asir, p. 243. 





. : 


■ ' • 










• .-'"■. 





Al-Beruni (Sachau, Vol. n, p. 104), 
states that thase Jats were worshippers 
of Lingam. Elliot and Dowson, Vol. II, 
p. 477, state that they were inhabitants of 
Salt Range. This statement is incorrect 
as they inhabited area between Mansura 
and Multan. The shortest route to Ghazni 
from Multan would be via Bolan Pass 
and not Khybar Pass. Burgess (Archaeo- 
logical Survey of Western India, Vol. II, 
p. 194), states that they were Bhatias 
of Bhatnair (possibly Bhatinda or Bhatia 
of the Arab geographers), who had 
migrated to Sind. 

This leaves us beyond any doubt about 
the sacking of Mansura by Mahmud 
of Ghazni. 

A large number of 'Alid' community was 
settled in Mansura as is reported by Ma- 
sudi (Entry 300 A.H.). It is likely that 
Mansura had become centre of Ismaili 
activity after Multan was sacked by 
Mahmud of Ghazni. (Entries, 1005, 
1010-1 1, and 101 1-12 A.D.). They con- 
centrated in Mansura, and may even have 
helped in overthrow of Habari ruler 
and his replacement by Khafif Soomro. 
Cousens clearly states that from 
scattered copper coins and lack of 
precious metals it is clear that the city was 
sacked, looted and its populace put to 
sword. At his time above facts were 
not known, so he thought that some 
Hindus had destroyed Mansura. 

Ibn Khaldun, Vol. H, p. 327 (Cairo edi- 
tion), basing on hearsay states that 
Mabmud sacked the last Habari ruler, 
and the statement is being used to sup- 
port the view that Khafif was Habari but 
the same is obviously incorrect. 


Multan and Sind were not the only two 
Muslim (though Ismaili) countries sacked 
by Mahmud. He sacked following 
other Muslim states : 

March 998 A.D. 

Ismail, ruler of Ghazna. 

May 6th, 999 A.D. 

Defeat of Abdul Malik at Marv and 
occupation of Khurasan. 

1015 A.D. 

Attack on Khwabin. 

1015-16 A.D. 

Attack on B?lkh. 


December 999 A.D. 

Investment of fort of Ispahbud. 

November 1000 A.D. 

Capturing of some forts near Lamaghan. 

1001 A.D. 

Wathiqi captured and imprisoned. 

1001 A.D. 

Defeat of Muntasir by Nasar, a General 
of Mahmnd. 

1002 A.D. 

Fall of Seistan and taking of Khalaf as 
a prisoner. 

1003 A.D. 

Defeat of rebels of Seistan. 

1011 A.D. 

Attack on Ghur and taking Ibn Suri as 

1011 A.D. 

Attack on Qusdar and submission of its 



• ' 


1025-26 A.D.— 416 A.H. : 

Beruni wrote Kitab-ul-Hind. 

1026 A.D. or soon afterwards: 

The Soomra tribe of the Lower Sind 
collected at Tharri (in M atli Taluka) and 
nominated Soomar as the independent 
king of Sind. (Mansura was no longer 
in existence and Tharri was the new ca- 
pital). He may have been Soomar-I, 
who was the father of Shaikh Rajpal to 
whom Muqtana addressed a letter in 
1033 A.D. Rajpal had died without 
issue, and for succession nomination 
had to be made. 

1017 A.D. 

Defeat of army of Khwarizm. 

1019 A.D. 
March on Afghans. 

1020 A.D. 

Sacking of valleys of rivers of Nur and 

1020 A.D. 

March on Tabin Ghur and submission 
of its ruler. 

1025 A.D. 

Israil bin Seljuk defeated and imprisoned. 
Syed Suleman Nadvi in AAHKT, pp. 
255-257, states that his victims included 
more Muslims than non-Muslims. Of 
the 35 expeditions, 17 were against 
Muslim states of Central Asia and Iran, 
3 against Multan, 2 against Sind and 13 
against non-Muslim Hindus of the Sub- 

Sachau, AI- Beruni 's India, London, 1887. 

Elliot, Vol. I, p. 344. 
Masumi, pp. 33-34. 
See entry 1033 A.D. 

Tuhfat-ul-Kiram, pp. 95-96, basing on 
Muntakhab-ul-Tawarikh of Muhammad 
Yousif assigns the year 445 A.H. (1053 
A.D.), as the beginning of Soomra rule. 
Masumi assigns it during the rule of 
Sultan Abul Rashid Bin Mahmud of 
Ghazni (441-44 A.H. or 1047-1053 A.D.). 



(1026—1051 A.D.) 

1026-1351 A.D. or later: 

The Soomras ruled as an independent 
power in the Lower Sind. The Delhi Sul- 
tanate's rule was confined to the Upper 
Sind only and that also intermittently. 
After 1351 A.D., Soomras were over- 
thrown by another tribe, the Sammas. 


Bhima, the Chaulkaya king of Gujarat, 
who had made preparations to fight Sul- 
tan Mahmud of Ghazni after the fall of 
Somnath, probably following Mahmud's 
retreating army, marched on Sind. Ac- 
cording to Hemachandra, Hammuka 
the king of Sindhu was a mighty mon- 
arch, who had defeated king of Sivasana, 
and instead of proclaiming Bhima's 
fame had defamed him. On hearing of 
Bhima's advancing army and his cross- 
ing the river Indus by a stone bridge, 
Hammuka offered him a battle, in which 
the latter lost and had to submit to 

The people of Sind who came in contact 
with the Kachcha forces were not angry, 
but brought them horses and bulls. 

Hammuka may have been a Soomra 
chief of some part of Sind or he may 
have been the chief of a small Hindu 
principality in Upper Sind, which was 
sacked by Bhima. In either case the 
route of Bhima must have been through 
the Indian desert, rather than the Rann 
of Cutch and Sind. 

Jamini Mohan Banerjee, History of 
Feroz Shah Tughlaq, p. 36. 

Dvyasrayakpva of Hemachandra, Vol. 
VIII, V, pp. 40, 49, 52, 58, 66, 63, 72, 74, 
97-108 and 1 17-124, quoted by Mujumdar 
in "Chaulukayas of Gujrat", pp. 47-49. 
Merutunga's Prabandhachintamani trans- 
lated by Tawney, p. 32, gives the same 
version. Ray, H.C., in Dynastic History 
of Northern India, p. 591, also repeats 
the same incident. But there is another 
version that the country was not Sind 
but the Western Kathiawar, ruled by the 
Saindhara family up to 919 A.D., and 
Bhim a probably subdued Hammuka and 
the chief of this family. This is doubted 
as Saindharas ruled 100 years before 
Bhima. A.S. Alterkar, Six copper plates 
of Saindhara, tpigraphia Indica, Vol. 
XXVI, pp. 185-226. 

Dryasraya, quoted by Indian Antiquary, 
Vol. IV, p. 72. 







1026 A.D. or afterwards : 

Bhima made a second attempt to con- 
quer Sind. 

1026 A.D.— 117 A.H. : 

Mahmud of Ghazni deputed his vazier, 
Abdul Razaq to conquer Sind. He 
sacked Bakhar, Sehwan (Siwistan), and 
Mansura (Text put it as Thatta which 
then did not exist) and expelled majority 
ol Arabs from Sind. 

1026 A.D.- 417 AH. : 

Abul Hassan Al« Bin Muhammad Al- 
Jil, translated an old Sanskrit history 
in Persian and named it Majma- 

1027-28 A.D.-418 A.H. : 

To avenge on Jats of Sind, who had 
made guerilla attacks on him during his 
march to Multan after the conquest of 
Mansura in 416 A.H. (1025-26 A.D.) 
and had helped Khafif, Mahmud 
Ghaznavi reached Multan, ordered to 
build 1400 boats with steel spears and 
knives on the front and sides. He then 
put 20 soldiers with bows, arrows and 
shields in each boat and advanced on 
the Jats by the river Indus. His main 
body of troops marched along both the 
right and left banks of the river. The 
Jats put their families on island and 
faced Mahmud with 4000-8000 boats. 
Mahmud set their boats to fire with 

'Mujumdar* in Chaulukayas of Gujrat, 
p. 52, quoting Prabandhachintamani of 
Merutunga (Edited by Janarijaya Muni), 
p. 32, describes this incident in the words, 
"Sindhudesa rijaya Vyaprite Sri Bhima". 

Masumi, p. 31, gives the year as 401 A.H. 
Nazim, p. 120, thinks it was 416 A.H. and 
the Qarmati ruler Khafif Soomro after 
crossing the river hid himself into a date 
palm forest. The troops of the Sultan 
chased him and killed many of his officers. 
There was no General named Abdul 
Razaq in the army of Mahmud Ghazni. 
This fact falsifies Masumi's version. It was 
he himself who came and sacked the Upper 
Sind in 1027-28 A.D. Refer that entry. 

Elliot, Vol. 1, p. 100. 

Zainul-Akhbar, pp. 88-89. 
Taqbaqat-i-Akbari, Vol. I, pp. 17-18. 
Behaqi, Vol. I (Tehran), pp. 275-76, 
299 and 371. 

Mahmud of Ghazni had a fast cavalry 
which was ^able to overpower clumsy 
elephants on the land, in all his battles 
of the Sub-Continent. The ingenuity 
shown in this naval battle is remarkable. 
Masumi, p. 31, states that Mahmud set 
right the affairs of the Jats of Bakhar. 




the help of oil immersed fire-arrows. 
Boats of Jats were also destroyed by 
spears fitted in Mahmud's boats. 
Those who swam to the shore, were kill- 
ed by Mahmud's land forces. Finally 
he laid hands on the families of the Jats 
in the island (possibly Bakhar) and took 
them as prisoners. 

418 A.H. (end): 

Mahmud returned to Ghazni from the 
Sind expedition. 

1039 A.D.-420 A.H. : 

Al-Beruni left India and later on, died in 
Ghaani in 1048 A.D. 

1030-31 A.D.-<421 A.H. : 

Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni died and was 
succeeded by his son Sultan Masud. 
The latter blinded his brother Muham- 
mad. Uch where many Amirs and 
richmen of Multan had settled after its 
fall in 1010-11 A.D. was attacked by 
Salar Masud Ghazi and looted. Its 
ruler was Anand Pal. He may have 
been a Soomra, a relative of Shaikh 
Ibn Soomar Raja Bal, an Ismaili. 

1031-35 A.D. : 

Al-Beruni wrote Qanoon-i-Masudi. 

1032 A.D.—423 A.H. : 

Shaikh Ibn Soomar Raja Bal, a Qar- 
mati (actually an Ismaili), was ruling 
Multan showing that Mahmud Ghazni 
had failed to subdue Ismailis of 
Multan or Sind completely. It also 
shows that Soomra-I had died before 
423 A.H. Raja Bal may be Raj Pal and 
Anang Pal ot entry 421 A.H., may also 
have been a Soomra. 

Fiiishta, Vol. I, pp. 36-38. 

Masumi, pp. 31-32. 

Mara'at-i-Masudi. See entry 1033 A.D. 
Raverty in Nasiri, p. 88, states that tho- 
ugh the coins of Mahmud show Ghazni, 
Zabulistan, Khurasan, Khwarizm, Chag- 
hanian, Tabristan, Isphahan, Kanauj, 
Multan, Naharwala, Somnath, Umman, 
Kuzdar, Sind as far as Siwistan, Kirman, 
Kij and Makran as parts of his Empire, 
his authority in good many of these 
places must have been just nominal. 

Elliot, Vol. I, p. 491. 

Nadvi, S. S., AAHKT, pp. 325-26. 






1033 A.D.-—425 A.H. : 

Muqtana of Syria invited Raja Bal 
(Rajpal), son of Shaikh Soomar of 
Multan, to accept Druzism and also 
help in expansion of it. 

1033 A.D.— 425 A.H. : 

Kutch and Kathiawar became great 
shelters for sea pirates. 

1036 AD. 

Abu Nasar Muhammad bin Muham- 
mad Al-Jabar, Al-Utbi, the Historian 
living in the court of Ghaznavis in Af- 
ghanistan and writer of Al-Kitab-al- 
Yamini (Arabic), died. It is an import- 
ant source of Ghaznavids and Mahmud's 
expeditions to Sind and Multan. The 
book was written in 427 A.H. (1035 

1037-38 A.D.— 429 A.H. : 

Death of Abul Hasan Ali Bin Jalagh 
Farrukhi, the poet who mentions 
Mahmud of Ghazni's attack on Sind 
and Khafif's escape. 

1038-39 A.D.— 430 A.H. : 

Beruni worte Qanoon-i-Masudi. It 
has information on religion, philosophy 
literature, geography, chronology, as- 
tronomy, astrology etc., of the Sub- 
continent and describes Sind too. Some 
Sindhi words also have been noted in 
his book. 

S. S. Nadvi, AAHKT, pp. 325-26. 

Sachau, Al-Beruni's India, p. 120. The 
Cutch population was drawn from Sind. 
They belonged to Samma tribes. 

The book edited by Sprenger was publish- 
ed from Delhi in 1847 and from Cairo 
in 1870. Its Persian translation of 582 
A.H. by Abul Sharaf Nasih of Jabar- 
dican appeared from Tehran in 1272 Sh; 
and English translation of Persian version 
done by Reynolds was published from 
London in 1857 A.D., and reprinted, 
Lahore, 1977. 

1040 AD. : 

Sultan Masud having been defeated by 
the Saljuks, retired towards India. His 
blind brother Muhammad, who then 
was restored to the throne pardoned 

Masumi, p. 32, puts it as 433 A.H. (1041- 

42 A.D)). 

Lane Poole puts it as 432 A.H. (1040-41 




Masud, but soon afterwards, Ahmed, 
son of Muhammad, put Masud to death. 

1040-48 A.D.— 432-40 A.H. : 

Sultan Masud's son Maudud having 
occupied Ghazni, sent Abu Nasar Bin 
Muhammad Bin Ahmed as Governor of 
Lahore. The latter took an expedition 
against Sind, but on his return Sind 
and Multan revolted. 

1048-49 A.D.- 440 A.H. : 

Sultan Maudud of Ghazni appointed his 
son Abul-Qasim Mahmud as Governor 
of Punjab and Sind and sent him to 
Lahore. The same year his Kotwal 
Abu Ali crushed rebellions in Sind, Mul- 
tan, Peshawar and Kashmir. Abul 
Hasan, a general seneschal of Ghazni was 
sent to subdue Mathila and Bhatia, the 
ruler of which, Ahannin, took to flight. 

1048-49 A.D.— 440 A.H. : 

Abu Saeed Abdul Hayee Gardaizi wrote 
Zainul-Akhbar. It deals with Ghaznavi 
— Sind relations. 

1049 A.D., 22nd December : 

Maudud died and in accordance with 
his will his son Masud, aged three, was 
nominated as the king, but Maudud's 
brother Ali Abul Hassan deposed the 
infant and became Sultan. 

1050 A.D. : 

Conquest of Baghdad by the Seljuk 
Turks. Since then, Abbasid Caliph's 
power was limited to a small area 
around Baghdad and he was reduced to 
nominal religious head-ship for the 
purposes of Khutba and issue of Sanads. 

The statement shows that Sind was not 
subdued after Mahmud's expeditions of 
1025 and 1026 A.D. 

It simply shows that Ghazni's control 
over Sind since the sacking of Mansura 
in 1025 A.D. had not been enforced and 
the expeditions of Masud and Maudud 
were simply raids of no consequence. 

Text published from London, in 1928. 







1050 A.D. : 

Abdul Hayee-Bin-Al-Dahhak-Bin-Mah- 
mood Gardaizi, the Persian geographer, 
wrote his book Zainul-Akhbar "The 
jewel of Histories". It has references 
pertaining to Sind specially Jayratha,, 
the Rai Dynasty, Persia — Sind .conflicts 
and also Ghaznavid raids. 

The date of its writing is some where 
between 1049-1053 A.D. The text was 
published from Berlin in 1928, the Iranian 
edition has been issued from Tehran in 
1342 Sh. 




1051 A.D.— 443 A.H. or soon 

Sultan Abdul Rashid Ghaznavi appoint- 
ed Navishtagin Kharki as the Governor 
of his territories in India (the Punjab 
& NVVFP). Sind enjoyed complete in- 
dependence under the Soomras, after 
its fall to Mahmud of Ghaznavi in 1025 
A.D. The Soomras seem to have ruled 
independently for another 200 years, 
until the raids of Altatmash who sub- 
dued them and made them vassals. 

Uch and part of Northern Sind, how- 
ever, had come under Delhi's control 
during Qutubuddin's rule, when 
Qabacha conquered these areas. 

Sind, which had evaded paying tribute 
regularly to Ghazni since Mahmud's 
conquest in 416 A.H., was virtually in 
dependent although Ghaznavids kept 

According to Masumi, p. 59; in the 
beginning of the rule of Sultan Abdul 
Rashid bin Masud, a weak and in- 
efficient ruler, the Soomras assembled 
at Tharri and nominated Soomra as 
independent king of Sind. This Soomra 
married the daughter of a powerful Arab 
rich chieftain Sa'ad and thus over-came 
opposition. Bhoongar was born out of 
this wedlock. 

Masumi's information can only be con- 
sidered partially correct as Ghaznavids 
had virtually no control over Sind since 
the sacking of Mansura and suppressing 
of the Jats in 1025 and 1026 A.D. res- 
pectively. Their governors at Lahore 
had never attempted to control Sind 
except possibly undertaking raids a 
couple of times. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, pp. 95-96 puts year of 
Soomra's independent rule from 446 A.H. 
or 1054 A.D. but Tuhfat-ul-Karam is 
equally undefendable on Soomra period. 

Khafif Soomra had already established 
his rule over the whole of Sind since 
401 A.H. (1010-1011 A.D.) which was 
interrupted only for a short while by 

Masumi, pp. 31-33. 

Masumi has tried in vain to show 
that Sind formed part of the Ghaznavid 
Empire. It is therefore fair, to assume 

1011-1351/52 AD. 




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95. Coin of Mahmood of Gazni having in 
Dev-Nagri script *' Abyaktamek • 
Muhammad Avatar Nripti Mahmud " 
( The Invisible one, Muhammad incar- 
nation. King Mahmud ). The margin is 
in the same script stating " In the name 
if Invisible this Tanka struck at 
Mahmoodpur Samavt 418 ". Reverse has 
legend in Arabic as well as Hijri year. 
Bilingual coins existed in Scythian, 
Parthian and Kushan .Era too. ( From 
Thomas : Pathan Kings of Delhi ), 

96. Coin of Masud of Ghazni, showing a 
cavalryman and king's name in Kufic 
script ( From Thomas: Pathan Kings 
of Delhi ). 

97. Muhammad Bin Sam's coin struck at Kanauj. Obverse: copy of Kanauj coins having the goddess 
Lakshmi seated. Reverse: Sri Muhammad Bin Sam in Dev-Nagri script. These coins may have 
been struck for local use in their most acceptable form, to the newly conquered public. ( From 
Thomas : Pathan Kings of Delhi ). 

98. 608 A. D. Gold Coin of Altalmish 

Obverse : Cavalryman above and ( Muhammad ) Rasul-u-Allah in the margin. 
Reverse : Al-Sultan, Al-Muizam Shamul-Duniy wa Din Abu Al-Muzafaral Shans Al-Qutbi 
Bazaman Amir-ul-Mummin, 
From : Thomas Pathan Kings of Delhi. 

99. 680 A. H. Gold Coin of Giasuddin Balban 
From Thomas Pathan Kings of Delhi. 

100. 729 A. H. Gold Coin of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq (From Thomas: Pathan Kings of Delhi). 

101. Brass Coin of Muhammad Tughlaq 
( Forced Currency.from Thomas ). 

102. Soomro period clay vessel with engraved patterns. Similar engraving work on 
copper vessels was common upto m'dfiftees of this century (Courtesy of 
Institute of Sindhology ). 



103. Soomra period. 9-wick oil lamp. (Courtesy Sind Museum Hyderabad). 





claiming it as part of their empire for the that the Soomras ruled un-interrupted 
next 130 years. since Khafif s taking over Sind in 1010-1 1 


1052 A.D.: 

As Ali Abul Hassan was a weak ruler, 
Mahmud of Ghazni's sixth brother 
Rashid, till then in prison, was released 
by the courtiers. He deposed his 
nephew and became Sultan. 

There is no evidence that between 1028- 

1052 A.D., the Ghaznavids or their Pun- 
jab Governors exercised any influence 
in Sind. The tribute, if paid, must 
have been irregular. There were a few 
raids on Sind between 1040 and 1049 

1053 A.D.: 

The Ghaznavids lost hold on Upper Sind 
(Uch, Bhatia and Multan). Probably, 
the Ismailis (Qarmatis of historians) had 
again established themselves as Muha- 
mmad Ghori had to subdue them in 
Multan, Uch and Bhatia in 1175 A.D. 





Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, p. 116. Tabaqat-i-Ak- 
bari, Vol. I, p. 16. Ghaznavids never had 
any hold on Sind except the four raids 
in 1025, 1026, 1040-1048 and 1048-49 
A.D., which they carried. 

1054-55 A.D-* 446 A.H. : 

Boongar Soomro ascended the throne Muntakhab-ul-Tawarikh of Muhammad 

after the death of Soomra and ruled for Yousif, quoted by Hussamuddin, T.K., 

15 years upto 461 A.H. (1068-69 A.D.). pp. 95 and^484-486. 


Daulat-i-Alviya gives his name as Asim- 
uddin Boongar and assigns the date of 
his rule from 448 A.H. or 1064-65 A.D. 
The authority of this work is doubtful. 

Daulat-i-Alviya written in Sindhi in 1929 
A.D. by Maulvi Abdullah Shaiq is based 
on some Soomra family genealogies and 
Maulvi Abdul Rahim Soomra's history, 
Gulzar-i-Sind. It is an unreliable piece 
of history. The names of the rulers 




1066-67 A.D. to 1070 A.D. : 

Billhana, the great Kashmirian court 
poet of Vikramaditya-VI, who for some 
time resided in the court of the Chau- 
lukaya ruler Karana of Gujarat, and 
wrote his drama "Karnasundari", men- 
tions in it that Kama conquered Sind 
and had romantic marriage with a 
princess Mayanalladevi. This story 
though a fiction, reflects on the condi- 
tions in Sind then. 

1067 A.H.: 

The visit of Ismaili missionary Abdullah 
to Sind. 

1068-69 A.D.— 461 A.H. : 

Boongar Soomro died and Dodo-I 
ascended the throne. 

given in this history appear to be oriented 
with Delhi rulers names, usually ending 
with ud-Din and appear to be forged. 

Mujamdar, Chaulkayas of Gujarat, p. 60. 
This story is now considered as pure # 

fiction and not a historical fact. 



Arnold, Preachings of Islam. 

Muntakhab-ul-Tawarikh of Muhammad 
Yousif, quoted by Hussamuddin, T.K., 
pp. 95-96 and 484-486. 

Daulat-i-Alviya names the latter as Asam- 
ud-Daula Doda, and states that he abdi 
cated in 481 A.H. (1088-89 A.D)., and 
lived a retired life. His daughter 
(Zenab) Tari ruled on behalf of her minor 
brother and handed over the rule to the 
latter (Sanghar) in 491 A.H. (1098 A.D.). 

According to Masumi, Dodo-I extended 
his domain upto Nasarpur, and died 
when still young. This statement is 
unacceptable due to 22 years rule o 
Dodo-I. The extension of territories 
upto Nasarpur is equally doubtful as 
Tharri and Nasarpur would hardly be 
30 miles ap^rt. By the time of Dodo-I, 
there was no power strong enough to 
stop Soomra expansion to the whole of 
Sind, right upto Uch, specially in view 





1070 A.D.— 462 A.H.: 

Death of Qazi Saeed Andlusi, who 
wrote that Sindhis were extremely sharp 
in Mathematics. 

1070 A.D.— 462 A.H. : 

Qazi Rashid Bin Zubair wrote Kitab 
Al-Zakhair wa al-Tuhf. 

The book gives some information on 
Arab governors of Sind, namely : Junaid, 
Musa bin Amar bin Abul Aziz (271 
A.H.), Hashim bin Amro Taghlibi, Imra 
bin Musa bin Yahya bin Khalid etc. 

1071 A.D. Sept.-463 A.H. Zil-Haj ; 

Death of Hafiz Abi Bakar Ahmed Ibn 
Ali Ibn Thabit Ibn Mahdi al-Katib al- 
Baghdadi. He wrote Tarikh-i-Baghdad 
which gives information on Sindhi scho- 
lars settled in Baghdad. 

1072 A.D.: 

Death of Ali-bin-Usman-al-Hujwairi, 
founder of Sufi cult in the Sub-conti- 
nent. He is also known as Data Ganj 
Bakhsh and his tomb is at Lahore. His 
book Kashf-al-Mahjub is a popular 
text for Sufis of Sind and the rest of the 

1077-78 A.D.— 470 A.H. : 

Death of Abul Fazal-bin-Hassan Behaqi 
who wrote the history of Ghaznavis also 
called Tarikh-i-Behaqi. It describes 
Ghaznavi adventures in Sind, including 
Mahmud's expedition against the Jats 
of the Upper Sind. The book was 
known as Tarikh-i-Sabktagin to Minbaj 
Siraj, and Hamadullah Mustavafi and 
Rieu call it Tarikh-i-Masudi. 

of the fact that as early as 1032 A.D. 
Soomra Rajpal Shaikh ruled Multan. 

He lived in court of Fatmids of Egypt. 

The author was born on 3rd Jamadi-al- 
Sani, 392 A.H. i.e. 1002 A.D. 

The book has been published from 
Tehran in 1342 Sh.The earlier edition was 
published by A.S.B. Calcutta, in 1892 
A.D. An earlier Tehran edition came out 
in 1313 Sh. 

Behaqi was born in 390 A.H., and came 
tovGhaznavid court in 412 A.H.. at the 
age of 22 years. He worked as Diwan- 
i-Risalat for 29 years and was removed 



1077-1126 A.D. : 

Vikramaditya-VI ruled Gujarat and 
Deccan and is said to have conquered 
Gujarat, Dahla^ Abhira (Thar desert of 
Sind), Nepal, Sindhu and Kashmir, etc., 
as shown by the inscriptions. 

These may have been raids or mere 
panegyrics rather than conquests, as the 
Soomra line ruled the Lower Sind un- 
interrupted during this period. 

1079-80 A.D.— 462 A.H. : 

Syed Nooruddin Satgur Noor, an Ismaili 
preacher, came to Sind under the orders 
of Shah Mustansir Billah (18th Imam) 
and preached in poetry. He is reported 
to have studied Hindi, Gujarati, Sindhi, 
Multani and Bahawalpuri languages and 
dialects and composed his poetry in 
those languages. His Hindi poetry has 
survived and resembles Sindhi in many 

1088-1172 A.D.: 

Hemchandra who lived during the 
period wrote Kumarapala-Charita, a 
grammar of Prakrit dialects like Saura- 
seni, Magadhi Paisachi and Apa- 
bhramsa. He lived in Maharashtra and 
had no contacts with Sind or Sindhi 
language but remarked that one of the 
Prakrit languages was Apbhramasa, a 
language of Abhira (those who raise 
cattle) and Sind's Abhiras sang songs 
and composed poetry in that language. 
This statement is totally doubtful as 
Sindhi was already a spoken and written 
language by about 850 A.D. as reported 
by the Arab sources. 

by Ibrahim Bin Masud (451-492 A.H. 
or 1059>1099 A.D.). 

Mujamdar, H.C.I.P., Vol. V, p. 167, 
Ganguly, H.C.I.P., Vol. V, p. 177. 



DeLacy O'Leary, A short History of 
Fatmid Caliphate, (Kegan Paul, London, 
1923), p. 203. 

Abhiras occupied the Thar desert of the 
Eastern Sind. 

Bherumal, pp. 56-58, has wrongly accept- 
ed Hemchandra's version. 






1088 A.D. : 

Raja Kesar Dev who ruled a part of 
Kirati Garh in the Eastern Sind 
(Desert), having been defeated by 
Soomra ruler of Sind fled to Cutch, and 
from there his descendants Harpal Deva 
went to Gujarat, whose ruler Raja 
Karan Deva assigned lands to him in 
Patri. He gained power and established 
independent State. Mangu and Sodho 
were important rulers of this family. 

1090-91 A.D.— 483 A.H. : 

Hasan-bin-Sabah established the Ismaili 
sect called Nizari in Khurasan. This 
sect did not spread to Sind immediately, 
but in the 13th century it exercised 
great influence in Sind. The Soomras 
were Ismailis from the beginning, but 
accepted Nizari 's sect of the Ismailis 
in the end of the 13th century or 
probably early 14th century. 

The Nizaris in general allowed their 
followers to maintain some of the old 
customs and names, and this is true 
about the Soomras, whose names have 
been Arabianized by Daulat-i-Alviya, 
probably a forged work. 

1092 A.D.— 485 A.H. : 

Dodo-I, Soomra died and his sister Tari 
ruled on behalf of her minor brother. 
She ruled well and handed over to 
Sanghar when he came of age. Daulat-i- 
Alviya states that (Zenab) Tari handed 
over the rule to her brother Sanghar in 
491 A.H. (1098 A.D.). It further states 
that Dodo-I had abdicated in 481 A.H. 
(1088-1089 A.D.). to live a retired life. 
She ruled for 10 years and in 491 A.H. 
handed over to her brother (Shahab- 
uddin) Sanghar. 

Jhala Vanish Yardh Kara of Nathu 
Ram, quoted by Gangaram Samrat, 
Sindhology, January 1973, p. 68. 

Muntakhab-ul-Tawarikh of Muhammad 

Yousif, quoted by Hussamuddin, T. K., 

pp. 95-96 and 484-486. 

H.C.I.P., Vol. VI, p. 222, accepts this 


The names Zenab and Shahabuddin 

appear for the first time in Daulat-i- 

Alviya and may have been forged. 



This version is more acceptable. It 
puts Dodo-I's rule to 12 years and also 
supports Masumi's version of early 
death of Dodo-I. 

Sanghar was a brave ruler like his father. 
He extended his domain to Makran; 
and to Nanakani according to Tuhfat- 
ul-Karam, and to Halakandi accord- 
ing to Masumi. 

1094 A.D.—487 A.H.: 

Abi Abid Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz 
wrote Al-Mujam Md'a-ist-Ajam a book 
that has references about Debaland Sind. 

1099 A.D.: 

Birth of Idrisi, the Indonesian geogra- 
pher, who settled in Cordova and com- 
pleted his geographical work Nuzhatul 
Mushtak Fi Ikhti (Enjoyment for the 
Seeker) in 1154 A.D., in the court of 
Roger-II, the Norman king of Sicily. 
For this king, he also made a round 
table out of silver, on which he engraved 
the map of the world as was known 

1100-1200 A.D. 

A major change took place in the course 
of river Indus through Bakhar Gorge, 
but part of the river water still passed 
through Sind Dhoro, Ruk and Lahano 
Dhoro. Complete waters of river passed 
through Bakhar by about 1250 A.D. The 
year 952 A.D. assigned to this change is 
now discarded. In addition to this 
change, seismic activity in Cutch as well 
as in the Rann, which surrounds it to 
the north, east and south raised 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, p. 68. Masumi, p. 60. 
Masumi's statement is doubtful, as there 
was no power in the Northern Sind to 
stop their expansion upto the present 
Sind border and beyond during this 

Masumi was under the misconcept that 
Ghaznavis held most of Sind during the 

Translation of text pertaining to the Sub- 
continent by Dr. Maqbool Ahmed has 
been published from Leiden in 1961. It 
describes Sind. Some authorities assign 
1150-51 A.D. to the writing of this work. 









the bed of Rann making it difficult 
and treacherous to be crossed. Thus 
Cutch was cut off from Sind, Kathiawar 
and Gujarat with whom it was 
connected for many milleniums. The 
influence of Sind which is clear from a 
number of pre and post Indus sites in 
Cutch and Kathiawar decreased con- 
siderably. However communications 
between the people of middle and lower 
classes continued un-interrupted until a 
decade back. Even today Jats of Sind 
have common chief or Malik and un- 
authorised seasonal migration and trade 
between the two countries has survived. 
Cutchi language itself is a dialect of 
Sindhi. In Kathiawar there is substantial 
population speaking the Cutchi or 
Memoni language. 

1106-7 A.D.— 500 A.H. : 

Sanghar Soomro died without a heir 
and Khafif-II, brother of his wife, as- 
cended the throne. During his rule 
Khafif conquered a part of Cutch. 

H.C.I.P., Vol. VI, p. 22 states that he 
was succeeded by his wife Hamun. 

Muntakhab-ul-Tawarikh of Muhammad 
Yousif, quoted by Hussamuddin, pp. 95- 
96 and 484-486. 

Masumi, p. 60 agrees with H.C.I.P. 
Masumi states that his wife Hamafe. ruled 
from Wagha Fort and her two brothers 
from Muhammad Tur and Tharri. This 
statement is unacceptable as the three 
Soomra capitals rose due to hydrological 
changes in the river Indus and could not 
have existed simultaneously. The ruins 
of these sites have not been explored and 

Daulat-i-AIviya puts the date of the 
death of (Shahabuddin) Sanghar as 503 
A. H. (1 109-10 A.D.). The same autho- 
rity states that Sanghar was replaced by 



1116-17 A.D.— 510 A.H. : 

Ibn Balkhi wrote Faras Nama. 

1116-17 A.D.— 510 A.H., 22nd MuWam: 

Syed Muhammad Maki bin Muhammad 
Shuja bin Abi Al-Qasim bin AH Al- 
Mukarram Muhammad bin Al-Saghir 
presently buried in Shah Maki Fort, 
Hyderabad, was born. 

Between 1126—1138 A.D. : 

Jayasimha Siddharaja defeated Sindha- 
raja, who has been identified with a 
Soomra chief (not the king). 

Somesvera has described the same in- 
cident stating that Siddharaja defeated 
the Lord of Sindhu and captured him. 

Merutunga has described that the am- 
bassador from Malechcha king (Muslim 
ruler of Sind) arrived (probably to ask 
for explanation of the above expedi- 
tion), but Siddharaja seems to have 
avoided retaliation of the Soomra ruler 
showing to these ambassadors, that he 
had the support of all the Chaulkaya 
and other kings and had made adequate 
preparation for retaliation. The am- 
bassadors perceiving this gave suitable 
presents and retired to their country. 

(Fakhurul Malak) brother of Hamun, 
and he ruled for one year. The latter 
was succeeded by Sirajuddin Fateh Khan 
who died in 511 A.H. (1117-18 A.D.). 
Fateh Khan was succeeded by Imam- 
uddin Khafif who died in 536 A.H. 
(1141-42 A.D.). This date of the daeth 
of Khafif is accepted by Tuhfat-ul 
Karam. The names Fakhurul Malak, 
Sirajuddin Fateh Khan and Imam- 
uddin have been reported for the first 
time by Daulat-i-Alviya. 

Mihran, No. 3, 1963, pp. 132-147. 

Ray, H. C, Dynastic History of Nor- 
thern India, Vol. II, p. 972, basing on 
Dohad inscription. 

Hemchandra in Devyastrayakava des- 
cribes the same incident adding fiction to 
it as quoted by*Mujamdar in 'Chaulkayas 
of Gujarat', pp. 81 and 446. In historical 
facts Hemchandra is very un-reliab!e 
specially in case of his masters (Chaul- 
kayas) vis-a-vis others. 







Ganguly has identified Sindharaja with 
Parmar king of Malwa. Ray identifies 
him with one of the successors of Habari 
Dynasty of Mansura (i.e. Soomras). 
The possibility of his being Sindhi is 
greater as Sind fcrmed the western 
boundary of the Chaulkaya's Empire 
and there was hostility between the two 
since Ghamandaraja's rule (1053-1086 

1114-42 A.D.— 536 A.H. : 

Khafif died and was succeeded by his 
brother Umer-I, who died in 1180-81 
or 576 A. H. 

Daulat-i-AIviya gives a different chro- 
nology for this period. 

(Jalaluddin) Umer: 536-556 A.H. 1 Hi- 
ll 60 A.D. 

(Salahuddin) Huju : 556-570 A.H. 1160- 

(Ghiasuddin Daud) 
1174-1203 A.D. 

570-600 A.H. 

The folklore of Umer and Marvi is 
associated with this king and is nothing 
more than a fiction. His capital was 
Tharri in Matli Taluka and not Umer- 
kot, which was known as Amarkot then. 

1143-44 A.D. to 1252 A.D. : 
538-650 A.H. : 

Usman Marandi or Lai 
Marandi lived then. 


He was from Marand, a place in Azar- 
baijan and left it in 624 A.H. or 1226 
A.D., when Ali Ashrafi conquered it. 

Khwarizm Shah's governor Shafarul 
Malak soon reconquered it and killed 

Dr. Ganguly, Parmara, pp. 79-80. Ray, 
Dr., H. C, Vol. II, p. 429. 


Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh of Muham- 
mad Yousif, quoted in Tuhfat-ul Karam, 
by Hussamuddin, pp. 95-96 and 484-486. 
The names of the rulers in the brackets 
are not mentioned by any of the his- 
torians, except Daulat-i-Alviya and ap- 
pear to be forged. 



Professor Muhammad Shafi, p. 20 and 
Gazetteer of the Larkana District, 
pp. 46-52. 

He is called Raja Bhartari by the Hindus. 
Tod supports this theory. His contempo- 
rary Pir Patho is called Raja Gopichand. 
by the Hindus. 



many people. Usman must have left 
Marand then. 

1145-1234 A.D. : 

Shaikh Shahabuddin Umer Suharwardi, 
the founder of Suharwardi sect of Sufism 

1147-1948 A.D. : 

Cutch ruled by second Samma Dynasty 
of Sind. They are called Jareja Sammas. 

1150 A.D. or earlier : 

Destruction of Ghazni by the Ghoris 
and the migration of the Iranian Blue 
(Kashi) tile to Sind, the earlist evidence 
of which comes from the tomb of Shah 
Yousuf Gardezi. d. 1 152 A.D. 

1150 A.D.— 549 A.H. : 

Idrisi wrote Nuzhatul Mushtaq Fi 
Akhtarul Aafaq (The delight of those 
who seek to wander through the regions 
of the world). It describes Sind, its 
cities, rivers, ports, trade routes, etc. 

1160 A.D. : 

Ibn-al-Asir, the historian and writer of 
Tarikh-i-Kamil was born in Iraq. 

It was originally written in Arabic and 
later on rendered into Persian. It des- 
cribes the Arab Governors of Sind, 
Mahmud Ghaznavi's conquest of Man- 
sura after return from Somnath and 
many other incidents from the history 
of Sind. The book covers incidents 
upto 1230 A.D. 

1165-66 A.D.— 561 A.H. : 

The probable date of birth of Qalandar 
Shahbaz (Muhammad Usman Mar- 

The text edited by Dr. Maqbool Ahmed 
has been published by the Aligarh Uni- 
versity. Portions pertaining to the Sub- 
continent, translated in English by the 
same author, have been published from 

The Arabic Text has been published from 
Leiden and Cairo. The Persian transla- 
tion has been published from Tehran. 


Tuhfat-ul-Karam, Sindhi. 

There is not sufficient evidence of his 







He died in 673 A.H. at the age of 1 12 
years which makes his birth date as 
561 A.H. 

Ibn Batuta saw his Khanqah at Sehwan 
in 1333-34 A.D. He was probably at 
Multan, when in 1237 A.D. the 
Ismailis of Sind, Punjab and North 
India collected at Delhi and massacred 
a Friday congregation, though the date 
assigned to his arrival in Multan given 
by Tuhfat-ul-Karam is 1264 A.D. when 
he was 99 (solar) years old. 

1166-67 A.D.-562 A.H. : 

Samani wrote Kitab-al-Ansab. 

1175 A.D. : 

Lakho, a Jareja Samma of Sind captured 
Kanthkot, capital of Wagad in Eastern 
Cutch. The whole Cutch was 
united and ruled by this dynasty, which 
continued its rule of this province upto 
June 1948. 

1175-1215 A.D. : 

After his father Lakho's death Cutch 
was ruled by Rayadhan Jareja Samma. 
He enlarged his territories to embrace 
whole island of Cutch as well as the 
islands to the north. He also subdued 
Muslim Jats (of the Lower Sind), who 
had migrated from Sind to Cutch. As 
per local tradition, the Rann of Cutch 
dried up during his regime; a 
process caused by seismic activity 
on the one hand (rising level of the bed 
of Gulf of Cutch), and by drying up 
of Hakra (Sarswati-Wahind-Hakra 
system) on the other hand. 

1175 A.D. : 

Muhammad Ghori married a Hindu 
princess of Uch.the ruler of which was 

being at Multan in 1235 A.D. But he 
could not have come to Multan at the 
age of 99 years in 662 A.H. 

There is a conjecture that he may have 
been connected with Ismaili preachers. 

Williams, p. 94. 

Williams, pp. 94-95. Rayadhan appears 
to be a typical Samma name. Cutch had 
two other Rayadhan rulers, who ruled 
from 1666-1698 and, 1778-1785 A.D. 
The Sind Rayadhan ruled from 1454 
to 1461 A.D. 



CHI, Vol. Ill, p. 38. 

Mubarak Shahi, p. 5 mentions Ghori's 




a petty Raja of Bhatti tribe. Uch and 
Multan like Sind, were the Ismaili 
(Qarmati) strong-holds. 

It appears that there were a number of 
Hindu principalities near Uch and 
Multan which Muhammad Ghori had 

1175-76 A.D.— 571 A.H. : 

Sultan Shahab-ud-Din Muhammad bin 
Sam Ghori attacked Bhatia. 

1175-76 A.D.—571 A.H. : 

Sultan Shahab-ud-Din (Muizz-al-Din) 
bin Sam Muhammad Ghori during the 
rule of his elder brother Ghiasuddin 
(569 A.H.— 599 A.H. or 1173-1202 
A.D.), reduced Sind (by Sind, Upper 
Sind with capital at Uch is meant). 

He appointed general Ali Kirmakh to 
look after Multan and Uch and crush 
Ismailis. The rulers of Sind and Mul- 
tan then were Ismailis or Qarmatis as 
some historians call them. 
Hearing of this Muhammad Bin Ali, the 
ruler of Almut,the Paradise of assassins, 
asked Bhim Dev Solanki-II (1179- 
1242 A.D.) of Gujarat to attack Sind 
(meaning thereby Ali Kirmakb's terri- 
tory in the Upper Sind). As a consequ- 
ence Muizzuddin Ghori attacked Debal 
in 575 A.H. (1179-80 A.D.), to cut off 

conquest of Uch, Thatta and Multan in 
569 A.H. (1173-74 A.D). The state- 
ment is incorrect as Thatta did not exist 
then and also for the next 160 years. The 
conquest may have been limited to Uch, 
which was capital of the Upper Sind. 

Mubarak Shahi, p. 6 puts Thatta instead 
of Bhatia which is not correct as Thatta 
did not exist in 1175 A.D. 

Masumi, pp. 33-34, assigns year 591 A.H. 
to it, which is wrong. It further states that 
Muhammad Ghori conquered Multan 
and Uch, while Sind was sacked by Qut b- 
ud-Din Aibak in three months. The latter 
appointed Sailul-Maluk to look after 
Sind's affairs. The statement is doubtful 
as Qutubuddin was not one of the 
generals of Shahabuddin then and 
Saiful-Maluk is also not mentioned in 
other histories. 

Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, p. 116. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari, Vol. I, p. 16. 

Mubarak Shahi, pp. 5 and 6. 

The statements shows that the Qarmatis 
were not completely suppressed by 
Mahmud of Ghazni. 
CHI, Vol. II, p. 523. 





Soomras from Bhim Dev and also to 
cut off the sea route of the Fidais of 
Almut who were coming via the Persian 
Gulf to join Bhim Dev. 

1175-76 AD.: 

Muizzuddin Ghori wrested Multan and 
Uch from the Ismaili (Qarmati) rulers. 

He came via the Gomal Pass which was 
an easier route and sacked the nearest 
kingdoms. He avoided the Khyber Pass 
which besides being a difficult route was 
bound to be vehemently contested by 
the Ghaznavis and the Hindus. 

Abbas, H. al-Hamdani, in the Beginnings 
of the Ismaili Dawa in Northern India', 
p. 12 states that it is likely that of the 
Soomra brothers, Khafif or Umer may 
have been ruling Multan then. Basing 
on Tuhfat-ul-Karam, pp. 95-96, that Do- 
da-II on assuming the leadership of Soom- 
ra s from his fortress of Wagha marched 
against the brothers and killed them, 
Hamdani assumes that the remnants of 
the ruling Soomra tribes (then being 
defeated at Multan, Uch and elsewhere 
by advancement of Muhammad Ghori) 
gathered at Debal and elected Doda-II 
as their next ruler. But Ghori occupied 
Debal in 578 A.H. and swept through 

Hamdani's statement is a conjecture. 
Ghori raided Debal and the coastal area 
(probably Makran coast) and returned 
back, without substantial results as the 
Soomras continued to rule most of Sind. 

Masumi, p. 34 states that his military 
commander Qutubuddin Aibak subdued 
Sind in three* months. 

Masumi's statement about the conquest 
of Sind by Qutubuddin Aibak (whose 
name first appears in Ghori's conquests 
in 488 A.H. or 988 A.D.) is incorrect. 

However Tabaqat-i-Akbari, Vol. I, p. 117 
states that Shahabuddin Ghori took an 
expedition towards Debal and having 
conquered the coastal areas returned to 


1175-76 A.D.-571 A.H. : 

The Ismailism survived in Multan in 
spite of Mahmud of Ghazni's sacking it 
thrice. Sultan Muizzuddin Ghori if 
reported to have delivered Multan from 
the hands of the Qarmatis (actually 
Ismailis but wrongly called Qarmatis 
by most of the Sunni Muslim historians). 

1175-76 A.D.— 571 A.H. : 

The Sankuran tribe raised rebellion 
against Sultan Muizzuddin Ghori. The 
latter attacked them in 572 A.H. and 
put large number of them to sword. 

1077-1166 A.D. : 

Shaikh Mohiyuddin Abdul Qadir of 
Gilan lived and founded the Qadiri sect 
of Sufism. 

1178 A.D. : 

Mulraj-II, the Chaulkaya king of 
Gujarat, defeated a minor expedition of 
Muslims (Turushkas). 

There are conjectures that this may have 
been a Soomra expedition, but is im- 
probable as during the same years Muiz- 
uddin Ghori was threatening their 
northern frontiers of Uch and Multan, 
in spite of the fact that the Chaulkayas 
of Anahilvada were frequently in 
conflict with the rulers of Sind. 

Ghazni with a large booty. Even this 
statement does not prov esubduing of 
independent rulers of Sind, i.e. the 

Also refer Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, pp. 120 and 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari, Vol. I, p. 38 and 
Tarikh-i-Mubarak Shahi, p. 10. 

Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, Calcutta edition 1864, 
pp. 116 and 189. 

According to Mirat-i-Jahan Numa quoted 
by Raverty (Nasiri, pp. 450-51), the above 
was the Bhatti tribe, whose Raja held 
large parts of Upper Sind. 

Reported by Somevera in Kitikanmudi, 
Vol. II, pp. 47-48 and also quoted by 
Mujamdar in Chaulkayas of Gujarat, 
pp. 131-133. 

Mubarak Shahi, p. 6 mentions Ghoris 
expedition on Gujarat and defeat of Raja 
Bhim Dev. The statement is incorrect as 
Bhim Dev was contemporary of Mahmud 
of phazni and not of Ghori. Mubarak 
Shahi is not a contemporary history and 
for this period it is only a secondary and 
less reliable source. 





It could not have been the main army of 
Muizzuddin Ghori, as firstly he was very 
well organized, secondly no records 
mention his expedition to those remote 
areas, when he had not been satisfied 
with raids on Debal and the sea coast. 
The other possibility is that raiders be- 
ing Turushkas (Turks) could mean a 
small army of Muizzuddin Ghori under 
a minor officer. 

1178 A.D. or soon afterwards : 

The Soomra chief Pithu of Nagar Parkar 
conquered the whole of Cutch and 
reached the city of Bhadresvara, which 
he destroyed and returned back to 
Nagar Parkar 

In retaliation, the Chaulkaya King, 
Bhim Dev-II (1178-1241 A.D.), sent an 
expedition against Pithu who fled. 

1180-81 A.D.— 576 A.H. : 

Umer Soomro died, and was succeeded 
by Doda-II who continued to rule upto 
590 A.H. (1194-1195 A.D). 

Mir Masum does not mention the rule 
of Khafif-II, but instead that of Hamun, 
and according to the same source she 
was succeeded by Phatu. This may 
simply be a conjecture. 

G. Buhler, Indian Studies, Vol. I, basing 
on Jagaducharita, Vol. V, pp. 3-41, gives 
the name of Parkar ruler as Pithadeva 
and Buhler identifies this with Pithu. 

The Sind historians writing 450 years 
later assign this period to the rule of 
Umer Soomro in Sind. 

Masumi, p. 60. 

The Indian sources mention Pithu or 
Phatu, a Soomra chief of Nagar Parkar. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, pp. 69 and 486 men- 
tions the rule of Phatu after the death of 
Dodo in 590 A.H. (1 194 A.D.) and lasting 

upto 623 A.H. (1226 A.D.). 


The two Phatus can be different persons 
or this Phatu could be a grandson of 
Phatu, the chief of Nagar Parkar. 

Boongar-II was a successor of Doda-II. 
From the above chronology it is clear that 
Dodo-II ruled when Ghori attacked 
Upper Sind and Debal. Since Dodo-II 
was not contemporary of Allauddin, the 
Sindhi folklore may be pertaining to 



1181 A.D.— 577 A.H.: 

Sultan Shahabuddin Ghori marched on 
Debal and after capturing areas along 
the sea coast, returned to Ghazni with 
a large booty. 

1182 A.D.— 578 A.H. : 

The birth of Shaikh-ul-Islara Zakariya 

1186 A.D.— 582 A.H. : 

Rendering into Persian of Utbi's Kitab- 
al-Yamini by Abul Sharaf of Jabardican. 

1193 A.D.: 

The birth of historian Minhaj Siraj at 
Ferozkoh. His history 'Tabaqat-i-Nasiri' 
covers the period upto 1258 A.D. 

1194-1199 A.D.— 590-595 A.H. : 

Writing of Imam Saghani's travels in 
the Sub-continent including Sind. He 
visited the Sub-continent again from 
606-610 A.H. (1209/10-1213 A.D.) and 
613 to 615 A.H. (1216/17-1218-19 A.D.). 
Khalifa Naziruddin sent him as an amba- 
ssador to the court of Altatmash in 616 
A.H. (1219/20 A.D.). He died in 650 
A.H. (1252/53 A.D.), while writing his 
book," Al-AbabAl-Zakhir Wa Al-Lu- 
babal Fakhir" in which he describes 
Sind and the pirates of Debal who paid 
regular tribute to the amirs and rulers 
of Debal for their protection. 

Ghori-Soomra conflict rather than Alla- 
uddin-Dodo conflict. 

Daulat-i-Alviya does not mention Dodo's 
name during this period but it is con- 
sidered a forged piece of history. 

Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, pp. 120-129. 

This is more probable than controversial 
statements of Masumi for the years 571 
and 575 A.H. It seems to be simply an 
organized raid on Sind and Makran 
coasts. Also refer entry 1175 — 76 A.D. 

See entry 1036 A.D. 

See entry 1258 A.D. 

Journal Ma'arif, No. 3, Vol. 83, p. 222. 




I f J 5 

































. Q 

















































Arabian Sea 
LrsUt^v- WEST 

Al-Jara-al-Sabi Minaqlim- 
al-thani ^q^i ^.U'v-rf 1 


XiVT* r 





1194 A.D.— 590 AjH. : 

Boongar-II, Soomro, a descendant of 
Podo-I became king of Sind in place of 
Dodo-JI who died. 

1200-1206 A.D.: 

Sultan Qutubuddin Aibak captured the 
fort of Kanthkot in Anhilvada.most 
probably from Rayadhan Jareja, 
Samma ruler of Cutch. The success must 
have been temporary as the Central and 
the Western Cutch remained in Samma 
hands and on Aibak's death in 1210 
A.D., civil strife arose between Qaba- 
cha and Altatmash resulting into re- 
capture of Eastern Cutch by the Samma 
Jareja s. 

1200-1229 A.D.: 

Kumarapala ruled Gujarat. His empire 


Sambhar, Saurashtra and 

Muntakhab-ul-Tawarikh of Muhammad 
Yousif, quoted by Hussamuddin, T.K., 
pp. 95-96 and 484-486. 

Tuhfat-ui-Karam states that Dodo-II 
was succeeded by Phatu (Fateh Khan). 

Daulat-i-Alviya does not mention Dodo- 
II and instead gives the rule of Ghiasuddin 
Daud from 570-600 A.H. or 1 174-1203/04 
A.D. and Daud being succeeded by 
Allauddin Khairo Ghunero. 


Williams, p. 94. 

Mujamdar, Chaulkayas of Gujarat, p. 1 17. 

This is an exaggerated account of the 
extent of his empire by Hemchandra in 
Kumarapalacharia or Prakrit Devyasraya, 
that the king of Sindhu (Soomro) devoted 
himself to the service of Kumarapala and 
kings of Uwa, Vanarasi, Maghadha 
Gauda, etc., sent him horses, elephants, 
gems and waited on him. All this is in 
fact an eulogy to please the masters in 
whose service Hemchandra remained 
and npt a historical fact. Reliability of 
his grammar of Prakrit languages would 
be equally good. 



1203-04 A.D.-600 A.H. : 

The birth of Zakariya Qazwini, author of 
Athar-al-Bilad-wa-Akhbar-al-Ibad or 
'An account of cities and ports of the 

1201 A.D.-598 A.H. : 

Pir Shamsuddin Sabzwari, an Ismaili 
preacher and a well-known poet, came 
to Sind and continued his preaching for 
the next 76 years upto 675 A.H. or 1267 
A.D. in Multan. He composed his prea- 
chings in Multani as well as in Sindhi 

1205-6 A.D.-602 A.H.: 
Hassan Nizami commenced the writing 
of Taj-ul-Maasir, "A History of Qutub- 
uddin Aibak". It describes Qabacha's 
death at Bakhar while Altatmash's 
forces laid siege to it. 

1206 A.D.— 602 A.H., 3rd Shaban : 

Muhmmad Ghori was assassinated by 
an Ismaili Khokarat Demak in District 
Jhelam. His nephew Mahmud pro- 
claimed himself as the successor. How- 
ever, his three generals Qutubuddin, 
Nasiruddin Qabacha and Yalduz, as- 
sumed independent power in Delhi, 
Sind, Multan and Uch, and Ghazni 

Mahmood, who was enthroned in 
Ferozkoh, sent Khilat to Qutubuddin 
Aibak making him the ruler of all Ghori 
territories in the Sub-continent. Ac- 
cordingly Aibak was enthroned in Zil- 
Qad 602 A.H. or 1207 A.D. 

See entry 683 A.H. Portions pertaining 
to Sind have been translated in Elliot and 
Dowson, Vol. I, pp. 93-99. 

Ghulam AH Allana, Soomran Jay Daur 
Ji Sindhi Sha'ari, Mihran No. 1 and 2, 
1960, pp. 130 and 51. 

It contradicts Masumi's statement, pp. 
33-34 that Qutubuddin, the general of 
Muhammad Shahabuddin Ghori had 
subdued Sind. 

Masumi, p. 34. 

Lane Poole, p. 294. 

Raverty, Nasiri, p. 403, states that on 
the death of Muizzuddin, the Ghori s 
became vassals of Khwarizm sovereigns 
who annexed the whole of Ghoris' 
territory as far as the Indus and Jhelam. 
It was this claim, that brought Jalaluddin 
Khwarizm Shah to Lahore and Uch 
in 1221 A.D. , after his defeat at the hands 
of Changiz Khan. 

Firishta, Vol. II, pp. 609-10. 




Qabacha nominally accepted the suze- 
rainty of Aibak, his father-in-law. He 
occasionally visited Delhi court too. 

1205-1215/16 A.D.— 602-612 A.H. : 

Sadardin Munmmad Bin Hasan 
Nizami Nishapuri wrote history of 
Qutubuddin Aibak known as Tajul- 

1210 A.D— 607 A.H. : 

Sultan Qutubuddin Aibak died. His 
son Aram Shah, the new Sultan, was a 
weak ruler. Taking advantage of this, 
Qabacha after the conquest of the rest 
of Upper Sind and Multan, declared 
independence and issued his own coins. 

Tajuddin Yalduz, the ruler of Ghazni, 
made several expeditions against Qaba- 
cha and succeeded in occupying Multan 
and Uch for a short time after taking 
possession of Lahore. Soon after- 
wards Altatmash defeated, imprisoned 
and killed Yalduz and became Sultan of 
Delhi. This gave Qabacha a chance to 
recover the lost territories. 


1215 A.D. : 

Death of Rayadhan Samma Jareja, ruler 
of Cutch whose father had migrated 
from Sind and established a kingdom. 
On his death the kingdom was divided 
between his four sons Dadar, Otha, 
Gajan and Hotha who got Wagad, Lak- 
hiarvira, Bara and Punar respectively. 

1216 A.D — 613 A.H. : 

AH bin Hamid bin Abu Bakar Kufi 
started translation of an Arabic work 

Qabacha had married two daughters of 
Aibak, one after the other. The third 
daughter was married to Altatmash, 
Governor of Badaun. 

This history shows that Sind was not 
conquered by Aibak. 

Firishta, Vol. II, pp. 609-10. 
Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, pp. 56-57. 

Masumi, pp. 34 and 532. 

Tabaqat-i-Nasiri states that Qabacha con- 
quered Sind upto Debal. This may not be 
correct as the Soomras ruled the Lower 
Sind un-interrupted for these years. 
The Soomras surrendered only to Sultan 
Balban (1265-1287 A.D.). Mubarak 
Shahi, p. 16 confirms his conquest of the 
Upper Sind upto Sehwan. 

Tabqaat-i-Akbari, pp. 142-143 states ttha 
Qabacha conquered Multan, Uch, Bakhar 
and Sewistan (Sehwan). There is no 
mention of the Lower Sind. 

Williams, pp. 98-99. 

Daudpota, Chachnama, p. 3. 



into Persian and called it Chachnama. 
It was dedicated to Sardar-i-Jahan 
Ain-ul-Mulk Hussain, Vazier of Nasir- 
uddin Qabacha, the ruler of Upper Sind 
(Uch and Bakhar). During the* same 
year (1216 A.D.), Kufi visited Bakhar 
and Alore to collect material on the 
Arab conquest of Sind. 

1216-1296 A.D. : 

The first three sons of Rayadhan who 
were assigned Wagad (capital at Kanth- 
kot) areas surrounding Lakhiarvira 
and Bara near Tera in Western Cutch 
and their descendants ruled independent- 
ly of each other, but joined hands to 
drive Kathis (a clan of Sind who had 
migrated to Cutch) to area now 
named after them as Kathiawar. 
His fourth son Hotha from another 
wife who was given twelve villages near 
Punariwas reduced to the level of a big 
Zamindar and not a ruler. The descend- 
ants of Dadar, Otha and Gajan ruled 
up to 1510 A.D., when Khengar, des- 
cendant of Otha subdued whole the 
Cutch and started a new dynasty. 

1217-18 A.D.— 614 A.H. : 

Nasiruddin Qabacha, the ruler ofMul- 
tan, Uch and Northern Sind, captured 
Lahore and the present N. W. F. P., but 
soon was defeated by Altatmash and 
retreated to Multan. Lahore and 
N. W. F. P. were under Tajuddin 
Yalduz, who was defeated by Altatmash 

Professor Hardy thinks that Chachnama 
was translated and re-shaped to advice 
Delhi Sultans and their Amirs, how to 
govern India and, therefore, has 
a lot of additions and alterations to the 
original Arabic text. 

Hardy, 'Chachnama'. An article read 
in the seminar, Sind Through the Cen- 
turies, Karachi, 1975. 

Ain-ul-Mulk Fakhr-ud-Daula-wa-Din, 
Hussain, Vazier of Qabacha was son of 
Sharaful Mulk who also was Vazier of 

Williams, pp. 100-114. 



Firishta, Vol. II, pp. 609-10. 










in 1210-11 A.D. (607 A.H.) and impri- 
soned in Badayun, where he died. 

Raverty states that Qabacha had appro- 
priated Multan, Upper Sind, Bakhar, 
Siwistan and areas north east as far as 
Sursuti and Khuram. He made Uch as 
his capital; to be more secure than at 

Raverty further states that afterwards 
Qabacha extended his domain upto 
Debal and the sea coast. But this is 
disproved by the fact that Chanesar 
Soomro continued to rule Debal when 
in 1221 A.D. Khwarizm Shah attacked 

Yahya Sirhandi states that on the death 
of Qutubuddin, Qabacha occupied Mul- 
tan, Uch and Bakhar. 

This shows that the Lower Sind was not 
subdued by either Muhammad Ghori 
or Qutubuddin Aibak. 

1221 A.D.-618 A.H. : 

Jalaluddin Khwarizm Shah having 
been defeated by Chengiz Khan on the 
right bank of the Indus, crossed the river 
and sought help from Altatmash and 
Qabacha both of whom refused. He 
reached Lahore, collected 10,000 of his 
dispersed troops, defeated the Khokars 
of Salt Range and then married the 
daughter of their ruler Rai Khokar 
Sangeen, an enemy of Qabacha, and 
sent 7,000 troops after the latter, who 
was defeated near Uch and escaped and 
took shelter in the Bakhar fort. Uzbek 
Tai, Jalaluddin's general who had de- 
feated Qabacha's 20,000 troops near 
Uch, reached the camp and captured 
some of the latter's soldiers. Qabacha 

Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, pp. 529 and 532. 
Mubarak Shahi, p. 16 confirms Qabacha's 
conquest of Sind upto Sehwan, but not 
the Lower Sind. 

Mubarak Shahi, p. 16. 


Firishta, Vol. II, pp. 604-605 and 614. 

Raverty, Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, Vol. I, p. 294. 

Tarikh-i-Jehan Gusha Juwaini, Vol. II, 
pp. 146-148 and 143. 

The statement about Debal is incorrect. 
The mosque was built by the Arabs and 
this city was burnt by Jalaluddin 
Khwarizm Shah. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam mentions the rule of 
Fathu'from 590-623 A.H. (1194-1226 
A.D.), which is incorrect in view of 

Juwaini's statement that Chanesar was 

ruling Sind then. 



escaped to Multan, while the Shah came 
and camped near Uch and sent envoy 
to Qabacha to return the son and 
daughter of Malik Amin who had es- 
caped in the battle of the Indus with 
Chengiz. They were returned and a 
request was made that the Shah would 
not destroy the country-side. Later on 
due to non-payment of tribute by Qaba- 
cha, Khwarizm Shah attacked Uch and 
burnt it. He also attacked Sehwan. Its 
governor Fakhur Salari surrendered and 
asked for peace which was granted. The 
Shah then moved to Debal and Darmil- 

la. The ruler of the Lower Sind, Chane- 


sar escaped in a boat to the sea. The 
Shah built a mosque on the site of a 
temple at Debal. His general Khasi 
Khan attacked Naharwallah and cap- 
tured many camels. During the expedi- 
tion most of the towns and countryside 
of Sind was burnt. 

1222-23 A.D.— 619-20 A.H. : 

In order to stop entry of Sultan Jalal- 
uddin Khwarizm Shah Mangbarni 
into Iran, Chengiz Khan deputed his son 
Uktae towards Ghor. The latter fixed 
his camp between Feroz Koh and 
Ghazni and sent out bodies of forces to- 
wards Kich (Makran) and Sind to devast 
those countries. 

Uktae could not encounter Jalaluddin 
who moved from Sind in 621 A.H. (1224 
A.D.) so he returned to Ghazni after 
marching through the valley of the 
Indus (from Makran to the Lower Sind 
and then via the Upper Sind and the 
Bolan Pass to Ghazni). 

No details are available but it is certain 
that most of the cities of Sind must have 

Daulat-i-Alviya states that Gunero was 
ruling Sind then, but the version of 
Juwaini is more authentic. It would 
therefore, appear that chronologies of 
Tuhfat-ul-Karam, Daulat-i-Alviya and 
Masumi are not reliable. 

Raverty in Nasiri, p. 290 states that 
Jalaluddin being too weak before Chengiz 
set out for the Punjab and Sind because 
he laid claim on these territories as the 
successor of Shahabuddin Ghori, whose 
possessions were annexed to their Em- 



Raverty, Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, pp. 1073-1075. 

Khwarizm Shah Dynasty had ruled 
Persia from 490 A.H.— 628 A.H. 
(1097-1231 A.D.). 








been destroyed both by Jalaluddin and 
Uktae in succession. 

1223-24 A.D. : 

Bhanbhore (Debal) settlement came to 
a sudden end by violent disturbances 
in the 12th or 13th century. (The city 
was actually burnt by Khwarizm 
Shah in 1223-24 A.D. after a bitter 
fight into streets as shown by archaeo- 
logical excavations). 

1224 A.D. : 

Jalaluddin Khwarizm Shah after des- 
troying Debal left for Kirman. • 

Jalaluddin also devasted Pari Nagar and 

some areas of Northern Gujarat before 

leaving for Kirman; thus amassing 

treasures sufficiently big to reach Iraq 

and re-establish himself. 

Khwarizm Shah who set out for Iraq 
from Sind via Makran reached there, 
but like Alexander before him, lost a 
number of his followers due to un- 
healthiness of climate and lack of water. 

1224-26 A.D. : 

After the departure of Khwarizm Shah 
Mangbarni from Debal via Makran, he 
left two of his officers Hassan Qarlugh 
and Uzbek Pai who having been pressed 
inexorably by the Mongols from west 
steadily fell back on central Sind 
(Sehwan territories), a thorn in Qaba- 
cha's side. 



F. A. Khan, Bhanbhore Excavation; 



Raverty, Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, pp. 539-40. 

Juwaini, Tarikh-i-Jehan Gusha, Vol. n, 
p. 140. 

Howorth, History of Mongols, Vol. I, 
p. 90. 

Nessawi, Sirat-i-Jalaluddin Mangbarni, 
edited by Scheffer, pp. 83-84. 

Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, Asiatic Society Bengal, 
p. 144. 

See entry 1226 A.D., for Pari Nagar. 
Raverty, Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, p. 295. 


Nessawai, Sirat-i- Jalaluddin, Mangbarni 
(edited by Scheffer), pp. 83-84. 

Habibullah, Foundations of Muslim Rule 
in India, pp. 191-97. 
Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, pp. 171 and 293. 



1224-25 A.D.— 621 A.H. : 

Yaqoot Hamavi born of Greek parents, 
wrote Mu'ajamul Baldan (Encyclopaedia 
of Geography). Born in 1179 A.D. in 
Eastern Roman Empire he was taken as 
prisoner in a war and sold in Baghdad. 
He wrore this Encyclopaedia at Merv, 
after failure in a love affair. The book 
gives information on Sind. He died in 
1229 A.D. 

1225 A.D— 622 A.H. : 

Syed Usman Marandi Qalandar Shah 

Baz came to M ultan. 

1225-1293 A.D. : 

Juwaini, the historian and governor of 
Almut, the Paradise of Assassins, since 
its fall at the hands of Haiaku in 1256, 
lived and wrote the history of the World 
Conqueror (Tarikh-i-Jehan Gusha-i- 
Juwaini). It describes Khwarizm Shah's 
defeat, his flight to Sind, Chanesar 
Soomro's panic and former's sacking of 
Debal. It also throws light on the 
Ismaili Smites, Fatmids and terrorist 

1226 A.D.— 623 A.H. : 

Boongar-II died and Gunero ascend- 
ed the throne. He was descendant of 

Juwaini names the ruler as Chanesar 
(Chanitar) during this period; and this 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, (Sindhi), p. 249. Had 
he been a colleague of Syed Jalaluddin 
Makhdoom Jehanian of Uch, who lived 
in Feroz Tughlaq's time some 75 years 
later, he would not have come to Multan 
then. However his presence in Multan 
after 1265 A.D. is confirmed by Rami 
and therefore he could not be a colleague 
of Makhdoom Jahanian. Also see entry 
1165-66 A.D. 

The work has been published by the 
Royal Asiatic Society, London in 3 
Volumes in 1912, 1916 and 1936. Its 
English translation by Boyle has also been 
published from London. 

Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh of Muhammad 
Yousif, quoted by Hussamuddin, T. K., 
pp. 95-96 and 484-486. 

Tuhfatul-Karam mentions Phatu's (prob- 
ably Fateh Khan's) rule from 1194 to 





is a more reliable statement. Incident- 
ally. Juwaini was also born in 1226 A.D. 
or 623 A.H. 

1226-27 A.D.— 623 A.H. : 

Khilji tribes under Malik Khan of Khilji 
took shelter in Sehwan. They were 
Khilji Turks who were settled in Ghazni, 
a province of Khwarizmi State and 
after its fall to the Mongols, had taken 
flight to Sind for shelter where their 
Sultan Khwarizm Shah had spent some 
months. Their route was via Bolan 
pass to Siwistan Sarkar. 

1226 A D.—523 A.H. : 

Malik Khanan Khilji, one of the Gene- 
rals of Khwarizm Shah, captured the 
Pargana of Siwistan (Sehwan). Nasir- 
uddin Qabacha gave him a battle in 
which the Malik was killed, but the rest 
of the Khiljis fled to Delhi, and sought 
protection of Altatmash, the rival of 
Qabacha. Altatmash making Khilji 
cause as an excuse asked Qabacha to 
pay a tribute failing which Altatmash 
attacked Qabacha in 1228 A.D. 

1226 AD. : 

Destruction of Pari Nagar (Established 
in 512 B.C.). 

1226 A.D. Both the sources agree that 
the successor was Gunero. 

Jehan Gusha-i-Juwaini, Vol. II, pp. 


Boyle's translation of Juwaini, p. 416, and 
for his life Vol. I, p. xxiii. See entry 
1221 A.D. 

Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, p. 143. 
Raverty, Afghanistan, pp. 573-74. 

Firishta states that Altatmash with the 
help of these Khiljis defeated Qabacha. 

Masumi, p. 35. 

Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, pp. 56-57. 

Raverty, Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, Vol. I, p. 539. 

He is also known as Malik Khilji Khan 

Sobhraj, J. S. H. S., Vol. V, p. 136, thinks 
that it was destroyed by the Delhi troops. 
There is a strong possibility of its des- 
truction in 1223-24 A.D., by Khwarizm 
Shal^ who looted Sind and Kathiawar 
coast to collect wealth. 

It may have been weakened due to drying 
up of Hakra about that time. The Delhi 



1226-27 A.D.— 624 A.H. Jamadi-I : 

Minhaj Siraj, the author of Tabaqat-i- 
Nasiri who came from Khorasan due 
to Mongol invasions and reached Uch 
in April 1227 A.D. was made incharge 
of Firoei College of Uch by Qabacha. 

1228 A.D.— 625 A.H. Rabi-II : 

Jalaluddin Khwarizm Shah's and later 
on, Uktae's expeditions into Sind and 
the burning of its cities and the country- 
side weakened Qabacha's hold on his 
territories. Altatmash attacked Qaba- 
cha's possessions. Qabacha removed all 
treasures from Uch to the Bakhar fort 
under his Vazier Ain-ul-Malik. Altat- 
mash occupied Uch, and sent his Vazier, 
Nizam-ul-Mulk Muhammad Bin Asad 
to lay siege on the Bakhar fort, where 
Qabacha had taken shelter. On ap- 
proach of Nizam-ul-Mulk, Qabacha 
committed suicide by jumping into the 
river Indus from the Bakhar fort on the 
22nd Jamadi-I. Nizam-ul-Mulk sent all 
treasures of Qabacha to Altatmash and 
deputed his lieutenants to subdue the 
rest of Sind right upto Debal. Qabacha 
had ruled the Upper Sind for 22 years. 

Raverty mentions that Malik Sana- 
uddin Habash (Chanesar) who ruled 
(Lower) Sind and Debal that time, ac- 
cepted to actas the Vassal of Altatmash. 
According to Dr. Daudpota, Chanesar 
accompanied Nizam-ul-Mulk Junaydi 
to Delhi. This is the first time that the 
Soomras of the Lower Sind became 
Vassals of Delhi. 

troops had not reached the Lower Sind 
until then as is discussed by M.H, 
Panhwar in Ground Water, p. 35. 

Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, p. 143. 

Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, p. 84. 
Firishta, Vol. H, p. 614. 

Masumi, p. 634, puts the year as 624 A.H., 
which is incorrect. 

Raverty, Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, p. 123. 

Daudpota, 'Dark period in history of 
Sind', Pakistan Historical Conference, 
Peshawar, 1953. 

Tuhfat-ui-Karam, pp. 95-96 and 484-486. 

Taj-ul-Ma'asir states that 12 strong 
forts between Sehwan and Luk (Laki?) 





According to Daulat-i-Alviya, Saifuddin 
Tai Soomro was the ruler of Sind from 
619 to 638 A.H. (1222-1241 A.D.), 
which apparently is incorrect. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam states that the ruler of 
Sind from 623 A.H.— 639 A.H. was 
Gunero. The last two sources are not 

May, 1228 A.D. : 

Jamadi-II-19th, 625 A.H. : 

Sind's ruler Sanauddin Chanesar per- 
sonally paid homage to the court of 
Altatmash. • 

Kazlaq Khan was given Uch under his 
governor-ship, until his death in 629 
A.H. (1232-33 A.D.). After his death, 
Saifuddin Aibak was appointed the 
Governor of Uch in 629 A.H. 

Sind certainly continued to be ruled by 
Soomras possibly by paying some tri- 
bute. Tabaqat-i-Nasiri puts the name 
of the ruler of Sind as Jashan instead 
of Janesar (or Chanesar). 

A detailed chronology of Altatmash's 
campaign against Qabacha is as under: 

a. 1st Rabi-I, 625 Altatmash reached 
A.H. (1227 A.D.). the walls of the 

fort of Uch. 

b. 28th Jamadi-I, The Uch fort sur- 
Tuesday, 625 A.H. rendered. 

c. 22nd Jamadi-I. 

Suicide of 

November 1228 A.D.— 625 A.H. end : 

After the fall of Bakhar and Sind, 
Altatmash appointed Malik Kazlak 
Khan as the Governor of Uch and the 

and the sea which had never been acquired 
before (by Qabacha and Ghori) were 
taken. This proves that Soomras were 
definitely independent upto this period. 

Raverty, Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, p. 123. 

Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, p. 237. 

Raverty, Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, pp. 610-615, 

Raverty's Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, pp. 232-233. 


surroundings. The Lower Sind remained 
under the rule of Chanesar Soomro. 

Ain-ul-Mulk Hussaini, the Vazier of 
Altatmash was pardoned and made 
Vazier of his son Rukunuddin Feroz at 

1228 A.D.— 625 A.H. : 

Junaydi, the general of Altatmash 
attacked the Lower Sind, which hitherto 
had maintained independence, but was 
weakened by expeditions of Khwarizm 
Shah and Uktae. 

Malik Sinanuddin Chanesar Soomro 
submitted to Junaydi, became a vassal 
of the Delhi Sultan and was allowed to 
retain his territories. 

1228 A.D.— 625 A.H. : 

Altatmash ordered his Vazier, now 
Governor of Uch and the Upper Sind 
(possibly upto Sehwan) to shift his capi- 
tal from Uch to Bakhar, which was a 
more central place. 

1228 A.D. : 

Nooruddin Muhammad Ufi, the his- 
torian wrote Jami-ul-Hikayat in the 
reign of Sultan Shamsuddin Altatmash, 
(1210-1236 A.D.). It gives a detailed 
description of Qabacha's suicide by 
jumping from the Bakhar fort into the 
river Indus in 1228 A.D. and removes 
all misunderstandings created by other 
historians as he was present at Bakhar 

1228 A.D. : 

Syed Muhammad Maki Bakhri reached 

Tabaqat-i-Nasiri,p. 123. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, pp. 95-96 and 484-486 
puts the rule of Gunero from 623-639 
A.H. (1226-1242 A.D.), and Daulat-i- 
Alviya that of Saifuddin Tai from 619-638 
A.H. (1222-1241/42 A.D.) These two 
sources are incorrect. 






1229 A.D. : 

Death of Sam'ani who wrote a geo- 
graphical work Kitab-al-Ansab in which 
he describes Sind and also Debal. He 
was born in 1179. A.D. 

1229 A.D.— 626 A.H. : 

Death of Yaqoot Hamavi, author of 
Mu'jam-ul-Baldan, a geographical work, 
which has references on Sind in its 
volumes IV, VIII, and IX. 

1229-30 A.D.— 627 A.H. : 

A Khilat from Abbasi Khalifa Mustan- 
sir arrived in Delhi. Decorative.doors 
and niches (Mihrabs) were erected in 
town to celebrate the occasion. 

1230-31 A.D.—628 A.H. : 

Ibn Asir completed his History Kitab- 

1230-1398 A.D. : 

The Mongol raids between 1230 A.D. 
to 1398 A.D. Most of the early raids 
were not via the Khybar Pass but via the 
Bolan and Gomal Passes resulting into 
direct attacks on Multan and Uch. 
Later on, they came via the Khybar 
Pass too, and raided Lahore. No year 
passed when they did not come and 
plunder villages and cities. 

This situation left Delhi's outpost of 
Uch in a precarious condition and stop- 
ped further expansion of the Delhi 

The text was published from Cairo in 
1324 A.H. (1906-07 A.D.). 

Mubarak-Shahi, p. 19. Muhammad 
Tughluq borrowed the idea of celebra- 
tion from this incident. 

The original Arabic text has been printed 
from London and its Persian translation 
from Tehran. 

The Cairo edition was published in 
1301 A.H. 

The book has been published by the 
Royal Asiatic Society, London under the 
Gibb Memorial Series. 

Barni, pp. 50-51. 

Tabaqat-i-Na§iri uses the word Mongol. 
Barni (pp. 532-36) called them as Mughul, 
meaning thereby the unclean warriors 
of the Chengizi stock. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari has chosen the word 
Maghul and discarded the term Mughul 
(Vol. 1, p. 225). 

Badauni (Vol. I, p. 243) used the word 
Maghul as well as Mughul. 



empire south of the Uch province result- 
ing in the Soomras ruling free from 
interference and virtual independence, 
except for short periods during the 
rule of Altatmash and Balban and pos- 
sibly Allauddin Khilji when the Soomras 
were made to pay some tribute. 

1231-33 A.D.— 629 A.H. : 

Malik Tajud-Din Sangar or Malik 
Kazlak Khan, governor of Uch died. 
Altatmash appointed Saifuddin Aibak 
as the next Governor. 

1232-32 A.D.— 630 A.H. : 

Nizam-ul-Mulk, then Governor of the 
Upper Sind was recalled from Sind and 
Noor-ud-Din Mahmood was appointed 
as the next Governor. 

1234 A.D.-630 A.H. : 

Ibn Asir, author of Kftab-al-Kamil-fi- 
al-Tarikh, died at the age of 74 years. 

1235-36 A.D.— 633 A.H. : 

Nizam-ul-Mulk, Governor of Sind 
having put Sind (Upper Sind upto 
Sehwan as the Lower Sind was con- 
trolled by the Soomras) under order, 
handed over the administration to 
Nooruddin Muhammad and returned to 

1236 A.D. April : 

633 A.H. Shaban-26, Monday. : 

Altatmash died and his son Rukunuddin 
Feroz Shah became the next Sultan but 
due to mal-administration was made to 
abdicate and was replaced by his 
daughter Razia as Sultana. 

The Mongol raided every year, however 
the more important expeditions occurred 
in 1221, 1241, 1246, 1260, 1291, 1298, 
1304, 1317, 1341, 1358, 1396, 1429, 1520 
and 1524 A.D. All these attacks were on 
the Punjab, which as a result got depopu- 
lated except the fortified military 

Raverty's Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, pp. 617-18 
and 727-728. 

Masumi, p. 36. 
Barni, pp. 50-51. 

Masumi, p. 36, assigns Shaban 26th,- 
633 ^\.H. to her accession. Mubarak 

Shahi, p. 23 assigns 18th Rabi-I, 634 to 
accession of Razia Sultana and 8th 
Ramzan, 637 A.H. to the accession of 
Sultan Muizuddin. 






Altatmash was the greatest of all the 
slave kings. Debal and Sind coasts were 
run over earlier by Shahabuddin Ghori 
but control on them was never organi- 
zed. Soomras in the Lower Sind were 
virtually independent until Altatmash 
made them vassals. 

1235-1295 A.D. : 

The rule of Bhima-II and Tribhuvana- 
pala. During the rule of Bhima-II, 
Cutch was invaded by Pithadeva of Para 
(Nagar Parkar) who destroyed the whole 
country, occupied Bhadrevar for some 
time and demolished its ramparts, before 
returning back to Sind. 

Jagadu, a merchant from Bhadrevar, 
complained to the Chaulkya king of 
Lavanaprasada of Anahilapataka, who 
sent army under Jagadu and defeated 

1236 A.D. : 

The Governors of Sind (Uch and pos- 
sibly Sehwan) voluntarily tendered their 
allegiance to Queen Razia. 

It is not certain whether the Soomras 
of the Lower Sind also tendered their 
allegiance then, but if they did, they 
must have declared independence after 
rebellion of Ayaz in 1239 A.D. 

1237 A.D.— 5th March, Friday : 

Under the influence of the teachings of 
Nuruddin,a Turk, the Ismailis, mostly 
from Sind and Gujarat and also from the 
banks of the Ganges and the Jamuna, 
collected at Delhi and fell on a congre- 
gation of Friday prayers. Many fell to 
their swords and the others were killed 
by pressure of those who attempted to 

Mujamdar, "Chaulkyas of Gujarat", 
pp. 160 and 462-63. 

Pithadeva has been identified by Buhler 
with the Soomro chief Pithu, Pattu or 
more probably Phatu, and Para has been 
identified with Parkar. 

Some authorities state that it was Jalal- 
uddin Khwarizm Shah Mangbarni's 
raid, but this is improbable, as that took 
place in 1224 A.D. before Bhima-II. 

CHI, Vol. m, p. 58. 
Raverty, Nasiri, p. 641. 

CHI, Vol. HI, p. 59. 

Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, Calcutta, pp. 116 and 



Meantime the Turkish nobles assembled 
their troops and helped many of their 
co-religionists, who had reached the 
roof of the mosque. Then alone the 
Ismailis were slaughtered to the last 

The Soomras of Sind were Ismailis and 
the participation of Sindhis in this type 
of terrorist movement shows that the 
Soomras may have inspired them and 
given up allegiance to L»elhi after 
Altatmash's death. 

1239 A.D.— 637 A.H. : 

Kabir Khan-i-Ayaz was removed as 
fief of Lahore by Razia Sultana when he 
was at Multan. He declared independ- 
ence and extended territories upto Uch, 
which he governed independently upto 
his death in 1241-42 A.D., and was suc- 
ceeded by his son. 

Tajuddin Abu Bakar brought under his 
authority Sind (possibly Uch to Bakhar) 
in 639 A.H. or 1241-42 A.D., and several 
times attacked Multan. Uch could not 
be subdued by the Delhi Sultanate until 
after the death to Tajuddin in 643 A.H.,. 
when it surrendered to Balban more 
than 25 years later. 

Since Uch was independent, the Delhi 
Sultanate could not have controlled 
Sind and the Soomras must have been 

1239-40 A.D.— 637 A.H. : 

Sultana Razia, having been defeated by 
rebel leaders, was sent as a captive to 
Malik-al-Tunia. She married the latter, 
raised an army of Hindu Jatts and 
Gaghars to capture Delhi, where her 
brother Bahram Shah was made the new 


Raverty, Nasiri, pp. 657 and 668. 


Raverty, Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, pp. 647-48. 


Mubarak Shahi, p. 29, assigns Rabi-I 
25th, 638 A.H. to her death. 








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Sultan, but was defeated near Khethal. 
She made a bid to escape but on the way 
she and Malik-al-Tunia were killed by 

1241-42 A.D.--639 A.H. : 

Muhammad Tur Soomro ascended the 
throne on the death of Gunero. He 
probably was son of Gunero. 

1241-1246 A.D. : 

The Soomras shifted their capital from 
Than to Mohammad Tur, or Mohatam 
Tur, or Shah Kapur, the ruins of which 
are in the Taluka Bathoro on the Gun- 
ghro, an old branch of the river Indus, 
and 5 miles away from Jati town. 

This happened due to change of course 
of the river Indus from Thari west- 

1242 A.D.— 639 A.H., Zil-Qad 18 : 

Sultan Bahram Shah (Muizuddin) was 
assassinated and Rukunuddin Feroz 
Shah's son Allauddin, who until then 
was in prison, was made the new Sultan. 

Ghiasuddin Balban, a courtier, wanted 
to capture Delhi. To please him, Mar- 


Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh of Muhammad 
Yousif, quoted by Hussamuddin, pp. 95- 
96 and 484-486. 

Daulat-i-Alviya does not mention his 
rule from 639-654 A.H. (1241-1256 A.D.) 
but instead puts the rule of Shamsuddin 
Bhoongar-n from 638-676 A.H. (1240- 
1279 A.D.) after the death of Saifuddin 
Tai. The author eliminates the rule of 
Muhammad Tur in whose name a new 
capital was built on the Gunghro Channel 
of the river Indus, after the decay of 
Tharri and Wighia-kot due to hydrolo- 
gical changes. This version, therefore, 
is not acceptable. 

Tahiri, p. 289, puts the year as 700 A.H. 
or 1300 A.D. 

According to Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh, 
Muhammad Tur ruled from 639-654 A.H. 
(1241-1256 A.D.) and therefore, this 
date of Tahiri is not acceptable. 

Ain-i-Haqiqat Nama, Vol. I. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari, p. 27 and p. 468 
assigns Saturday, the 13th Zil-Qad to his 

By Sind, the historians of this period 
mean the Upper Sind. 


war, Ajmer and Sind were given in his 

Jagir by Allauddin. 

1243 A.D., July— 643 A.H., Safar : 
The Mongols crossed the river Indus 
and laid siege on Uch. Sultan Masud 
Shah hearing of this made preparations 
for a counter-attack. On hearing this 
the Mongols left for Khurasan (Eastern 
Persia via flakhar). 

It seems that the Mongols had not 
established themselves directly in Balu- 
chistan until then and their feudatory 
Kara Khitai, ruler of Kirman also pos- 
sessed Malcran as far as the frontiers of 
Sind, but in the last half of this century 
they had occupied the Quetta Division 
and probably destroyed all Junipar 
forests there. Today there is no Juni- 
par tree in Quetta-Ziarat valley which 
may be more than 600-700 years old. 

1246 A.D., June 2nd : 

644 A.H., Muharram 15 : 

Nasiruddin Muhammad bin Altatmash 

ascended Delhi's throne. 


1244-45 A.D.— 643 A.H. : 

Monguta, the Mongol, led an army from 
the borders of Tukharistan into the 
territories of Uch and the Upper Sind. 

Every Amir or Malik at Delhi showed 
indecision, but Malik Ulugh Khan 
organized an army and sent letters to 
Uch, some of which fell into the hands 
of Mongols who fearing large army 
from Delhi, raised the investment of 
the fortress of Uch. 


Masumi, p. 3$. 



Masumi, p. 36. 

The eldest son of Altatmash was named 
as Nasiruddin. After the death of the 
latter, former named his newly born son 
by the same name. 










1245 A.D. : 

The Mongols under the leadership of 
Muizuddin captured Lahore and re- 
mained in possession of it until the 
accession of Allauddin Masud and for 
some time afterwards. 

Due to this victory they made fresh 
incursion on Uch. 

1245 A.D., July— 643 A.H., Safer : 

The news of Mongol army's laying siege 
on Uch under Manguta reached Delhi. 
Sultan Masud Shah moved with his 
army to Uch. On hearing the pews of 
his arrival, the Mongols left for Khora- 
san via Bakhar. After reaching 
Bakhar, Masud Shah dismissed Noor- 
uddin Mohammad, the Governor of 
Upper Sind and appointed Malik 
Jalaluddin Hassan as the new Gover- 

1245-47 A.D.--643-44 A.H. : 

Malik Saifuddin Hassan, the Qarlugh, 
held Multan and Hindu Khan, Mihtar- 
i-Mubarak, the Kazi (treasurer) was 
made ruler and Governor of Uch. The 
latter put his Deputy Khwaja Salih the 
Kotwal, incharge of the Uch fort. 
Monguta who was head of the forces of 
the Mongol troops at Tukharistan, 
Khatlan and Ghazni attacked the Sind 
territories (Multan and Uch) on the 
orders of Uktae, son of Chengiz Khan 
and latter's successor. On his arrival, 
Malik Saifuddin Hassan abandoned the 
city of Multan and proceeded towards 
Siwistan and Debal. 

Monguta invested Uch, destroyed the 
neighbourhood of that city, but could 
not capture it. 

Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, pp. 194-196. 


Masumi,p. 36. 

Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, pp. 196-198. Its author 
Minhaj Siraj had accompanied the 
Sultan during this expedition. 

Raverty, Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, p. 1 1 53-55 and 

It is surprising that the Mongols always 
attacked Uch and Multan. It is certain 
that by this time they were in full control 
of Quetta-Ziarat and Loralai and they 
took the nearest route to Multan and 
Uch. They totally destroyed Junipar 
forests of Quetta-Ziarat valley. Today 
no Junipar tree in the valley is more than 
700 years old. Their route was via the 
Khojak Pass to Quetta and then via 
Ziarat and Duki to Dera Ghazi Khan 
and^ Multan. 

By this time the Mongols were in pos- 
session of whole of Asia and the Indian 
Sub-continent as far as Bias. This creat- 


1246 A.D. : 

The Mongols attacked Multan. Its 
Governor Hassan Qarlugh fled to the 
Lower Sind. Ulugh Khan, who later on 
became Sultan Balban, drove the Mon- 
gols out of the frontiers of the Delhi 

1246 A.D. June, 2nd : 

644 A.H., Muharram 15 : 

The courtiers forced Sultan Masud to 
abdicate and his uncle Nasiruddin 
Mahmood bin Altatmash was made the 
new Sultan. After eight days, Sultan 
Masud was arrested and imprisoned. 
He died in jail. 

1250 A.D. : 

The river Indus eroded the Bakhar 
gorge fully and its total waters were 
carried through this gap. 

1250-51 A.D.— 648 A.H. : 

Sultan Nasiruddin Mahmood sent 
Balban Buzrig to Upper Sind, which 
was made his Jagir. Latter rebelled 
after a year. Sultan then sent Sher 
Khan, the ruler of Multan to crush the 
rebellion. Sher Khan laid siege on Uch, 
and Balban Buzrig was compelled to 
surrender the fort of Uch to the former. 

ed a situation whereby the Soomra 
could rule independently. 

CHI, Vol. HI, p. 65. 

Masumi, pp. 36-37. 

Raverty, Tabaqat-i-Nasiri. 



1250-51 A.D. : 

Kishlu Khan Nagar asked Balban to 
bestow Multan and Uch to him. Balban 
permitted this though there was diffi- 
culty in ousting out Ikhtiyar-ud-Din 
Kargiz, who had expelled the Qarlughs 
from Multan and Uch. 

Raverty, Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, pp. 784-88 

and 792. 





1251 A.D. : 

649 AH., Shawwal 22nd, Monday : 

Sultan Nasiruddin left Delhi to visit 
Lahore, Multan, Uch and Bakhar. 

He appointed Sultan Safar as the Go- 
vernor of the areas from Multan to 
Bakhar and Sehwan. 

1253 A.D.— 651 A.H. : 

Sultan Nasiruddin Mahmood appointed 
Arslan Khan as the Governor of Sind 
(Upper Sind only) but after a few days 
he was replaced by Malik Aza-al-Din 
Khan also known as Kishlu Khan. 
During this year Mongols attacked 

1256 A.D.— 654 A.H. : 

Muhammad Tur Soomro died and 
Gunero-II became the ruler of Sind. 
He ruled upto 657 A.H. or 1259 A.D. 

Daulat-i-Alviya calls Gunero as 
Allauddin Khairo. Masumi also men- 
tions Khairo as ruler of Sind after Phatu. 
Masoomi's Khairo was probably 
Gunero-I, not mentioned by Daulat-i- 

Masumi, p. 38. 

The statement about Qutlagh Khan 
having been made Governor of the areas 
from Bakhar to Debal with capital at 
Sehwan is doubtful. He may have been 
appointed Governor of the northern 
Sind only, as the Soomras continued their 
rule of the Lower Sind and must have 
declared independence after Altatmash's 
death. Masumi has tried to prove Delhi's 
rule of Lower Sind without any evidence. 

Raverty, Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, p. 704. 
Mubarak Shahi, pp. 36-37. 

Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh of Muhammad 
Yousif, quoted by Hussamuddin, T. K. t 
pp. 95-96 and 484-486. 

Masumi, p, 34. 

1254 A.D.— 652 AJL : 

Ulugh Khan succeeded in ejecting 
Imaduddin-i-Rayhan from power. 
After a year, he was sent to Badaun and 
Malik Balban -Kishlu Khan got Uch 
and Multan again in 1255 A.D. 

Raverty, Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, p. 78 and 



1255 A.D. : 

Having taken possession of Uch and 
Multan, Malik Balban became disloyal 
to the Delhi Sultan and sent his 
son in pledge to Halaku Khan, to seek 
Moghal help for capturing Delhi. This 
move was accepted and the Mongol help 
was organized. 


1257 A.D.— 655 A.H. : 

Kishlu Khan (Malik Balban) a Mongol 
protege holding Upper Sind (with head- 
quarters at Sehwan) marched his troops 
along the Beas to attack Delhi jointly 
with Qutlugh Khan, but retired as 
Sultan Nasiruddin resolved to defend 
the city and deputed Ulugh Khan (later 
on Sultan Balban) for the job. 

1257-58 A.D.— 655 A.H. : 

The Sindhis (of Multan and Uch) re- 
belled against the Delhi government. 
Sultan Nasiruddin marched on Multan 
and Uch but returned back due to some 
political reasons. Sher Khan advanced 
to crush uprising but was defeated. 

1258 A.D.— 656 A.H. : 

Even after making an attempt to seize 
Delhi, Malik Balban (Kishlu Khan) 
was pardoned and reinstated at Uch 
and Upper Sind. Meanwhile Malik 
Sher Khan ousted the Qarlughs from 
Multan. Due to proximity of Multan 
and Uch, contention arose between 
Malik Balban (Kishlu Khan) and Sher 
Khan on several occasions. During this 
period Malik Balban held the territories 
as Mongol protege. 

Ravertyy, Nasiri, pp. 784-85. 

During the Delhi Sultanate period, the 
provincial governors had absolute powers 
as well as army and treasury. It was not 
unusual for them to rebel or make an 
attempt to usurp the Delhi throne. Such 
attempts at Multan and Uch helped the 
Soomras and later on the Sammas to 
maintain independence during the period. 

Raverty, Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, p. 787 and 
f.n. 4, also pp. 784 and 785. 
Mubarak Shahi, pp. 37-83 
Tabaqat-i-Nasiri (Calcutta), pp. 123-124. 



Raverty, Nasiri, pp. 792 and 859, and 
also notes on Afghanistan, p. 575. 
Barni has ignored an important fact that 
Malik Balban Kishlu Khan who held 
Multan, Uch and Upper Sind upto 1258 
A.D. was in league with the Mongols 
against the Delhi Government, and had 
not only made a trip to Iraq to seek 
assistance of Halaku Khan but had also 
sent his son to the Mongol court. 




These circumstances left the Lower Sind 
independent under the Soomras. 

1258 A.D.— 656 A.H. : 

The Mongol army invested Multan and 
Uch. Sultan Nasiruddin moved against 
them but they left the area before his 

1258 A.D. : 

Halaku finding the failure of Qutlugh 
Khan and Malik Balban (Kishlu Khan) 
to capture Delhi, refused to help further 
adventures, and ordered the Mongol 
forces stationed in Sind (probably at 
Sehwan) under Sali Bahadur to destroy 
the Multan fortification but not to cross 
the Delhi frontiers. This way Delhi 
lost most of the Punjab and Upper Sind. 

1259 A.D.— 657 A.H. : 

Gunero-II, the Soomro king, died and 
was succeeded by Dodo bin Gunero-II. 
He ruled upto 671 A.H. or 1272-73 A.D. 
and was succeeded by Tai bin Dodo. 

Tai ruled upto 695 A.H. or 1295-96 


Raverty, p. 863 further states that Malik 
Balban (Kishlu Khan) could not act 
independently and that the Moghal 
Shahinshah (Intendant) must have been 
in the control of the affairs of Uch 
upto the end of his governorship of Uch 
and Upper Sind. 

At that time the whole of the West and 
East Punjab upto the river Beas was 
under the Mongol control. With Uch 
under their vassal Kishlu Khan (Malik 
Balban), the Delhi Sultanate could not 
be controlling Sind. 

Masumi, p. 37. 

Epigraphia Indo-Muslimica, pp. 214, 
217, 270, 271, 314 and 322. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, p. 485. 

Daulat-i-Alviya gives his name as Saif- 
uddin Tai and rule from 619 to 638 A.H. 
(1222-1240 A.D.). 

This version is un-acceptable as during 
Jalaluddin Khwarizm Shah's attack 
on Sind in 1224 A.D. Chanesar was 



1260 A.D., 16th November— 
658 A.H., 8th Zil-Haj : 

Syed Muhammad Maki presently buried 
at Shah Maki Fort, Hyderabad, died 

1260 A.D.— 658 A.H. : 

Minhaj Siraj completed Tabaqat-i-Nasiri. 

1260 A.».— 658 A.H. : 

Allauddin Juwaini, the ex-Governor of 
Almut, the paradise of assassin terror- 
lists, wrote Tarikh-Jahan Gusha-i- 

1261 A.D., November— 660 A.H. I 

Khalifa Mustansir-Billah was killed 
by Halaku Khan. 

1 262-63 A.D.— 661 A.H. : 

Death of Shaikh-ul-Islam Bahauddin 
Zakariya Multani. He was a Sindhi and 
lived in the Sukkur district in which he 
was rehabilitated by the King of the 
Lower Sind, Muhammad Tur Soomro, 
before destruction of his capital Tur. 
The Shaikh came from the family of the 
Habari Arab rulers of Sind. 

He had a large following in territories 
between Multan and Uch. 

1263 A.D.— 661 A.H. : 

Zakariya bin Muhammad bin Mahmud 
al-Kazwini wrote Asar-ul-Bilad Wa 
Akhbar-uI-Ibad or 'Monuments of 
Countries and Memories of Men.' 

Mihran, No. 3, 1963, pp. 132-147. 

Also see entry 1 193 A.D. 

The author was born in 623 A.H. (1226 
A.D.) and died on the 4th Zil-Haj, 681 
A.H. (March 5, 1283 A.D.). The wor 
was in progress since 651 A.H. 

Jahan-Gusha-i-Juwaini, Vol. I, pp 
XXm, XLVn and LXY. 

Zainul-Akhbar, p. 26. 

Barni, p. 348. 

Firishta, (Naval Kishore edition), 
Vol. H, p. 404, puts the date as 666 A.H. 
Tahiri, pp. 25, 151 and 264. 

His Khalifa Jalaluddin Surkh converted 
many Soomras to Sunni faith, but a large 
majority remained Ismaili until the mid- 
fourteenth century, when due to influence 
of Makhdoom Jahanian of Uch man 
gave up this sect. 

Elliot. Vol. I, gives translation of por- 
tions pertaining to Sind, pp. 93-99. 











1264 A.D.— 662 A.H. : 

Qalandar Shahbaz reportedly came to 
Multan, though there is every probability 
that he was in Multan since 1235 A.D. 

1266 A.D.— 664 A.H., 13th Jamadi-I : 

On the death of Sultan Nasiruddin, on 
Jamadi-I, 11th, Ghiasuddin Balban, a 
Turkish slave of Altatmash was nomi- 
nated as the Sultan of Delhi Sultanate 
by the courtiers. He had remained go- 
vernor of various provinces for 20 years 
and was also Vazier under Sultan Nasir- 
uddin Mahmood who had given him the 
title of Ulugh Khan. 

1266-67 A.D -665 AH. : 

Muhammad Ufi travelled in Sind and 
Gujarat and later on wrote Jami-ul- 
Hikayat. He describes hospitality of 
Sindhis specially keeping a guest for one 
to three days depending on if he was 
healthy or sick. 

1266-1287 A.D. : 

In the days of Balban, the postal system 
was perfected. Post runners were sta- 
tioned at every 1/2 mile, running with a 
hell in their hands. In the days of 
Muhammad Tughluq as reported by 
Ibn Batuta, it took 5 days for post to 
reach from Sind to Delhi. 

1268 A.D.-666 A.H. : 

Death of Pir Patho. His tomb is on 
the hill of same name, 14 miles south of 
Thatta on old bed of Baghar branch of 
the river Indus. 

1269-70 A.D.— 668 A.H. : 

Mahmood Ka-Aan appointed Go- 
vernor of Sind (Uch) and Multan by his 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam states that Sultan 
Muhammad met him at Multan. But 
the latter came as Governor in 668 A.H. 
Refer entry 1165-66 A.D. 

Mubarak Shahi, p. 39. 

Isami, in Futuh-ul-Salatin puts the date 
as 665 A.H. which is wrong. Even Barni's 
date of 662 A.H., on p. 25 is incorrect. 

Rehala (Mahdi Hussain), pp. 3-4 
Masalik (Otto Spies), p. 53. 

Tahiri, p. 310. Pir Patho is called Raja 
Gopichand by the Hindus. 


Barni, pp. 67-68 mentions this meeting 
with Shaikh Bahauddin Zakariya (who 




father Ghiasuddin Balban and designat- 
ed as Sultan Mahmood. The latter met 
Shaikh Usman Marandi (Qalandar 
Shahbaz) and Shaikh Bahauddin 
Zakariya in Multan and listened to their 


1272-73 A.D.— 671 A.H. : 

Dodo-II bin Gunero-II Soomro died 
and Tai bin Dodo became the ruler of 

1275 A.D. February : 

673 AH. 1st Shaban : 

Syed Usman Marandi, Shamsuddin Lal- 

Shahbaz, died at the age of 112 years, 

had died in 1262 A.D.) in 1269-70. At 
this time Qalandar Shahbaz would also 
be 104 solar years old. It makes the 
statement doubtful. 

Mubarak Shahi, p. 43. 

Masumi, p. 39, puts the year as 664 A.H., 
which obviously is wrong. 

Mubarak Shahi, p. 34. 

Isami, in Futuh-ul-Sa latin puts the date 
as 665 A.H. which is wrong. Even Barni's 
date of 662 A.H. on p. 25 is incorrect. 

See also entries 1165 -66. 

Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh of Muhammad 
Yousif, quoted by Hussamuddin, T.K., 
pp. 95-96 and 484-486. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam does not mention the 
rule of Dodo bin Gunero between 
1266-1272/73 A.D. but instead puts the 
rule of Tai from 1266 A.D. Since Tai 
was son of Dodo-II, he could not have 
inherited the kingdom directly from his 
grandfather, unless there was no other 
heir to the throne, which again is improb- 
able due to the existence of polygamy 
among the Muslims, provided that the 
Soomras being new converts and Ismailis, 
still stuck to the monogamy practised 
among the Hindus. This again is dis- 
puted as Rajput rulers were polygamous 
and the Soomras must have adopted it 
either from the Muslims or the Rajputs. 


Mahboob Ali Channa, 'Sehwan Sharif 
Mihran, No. 2, 1962, pp. 136-147. 





SOOMRA dynasty 


at Sehwan2 years after his arrival there 
from Multan,. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, Sindhi, pp. 295, 349, 
355, 359 and 445-46. 

Maqalat-us-Shuara . 

Lub-i-Tarikh-i-Sind, pp. 6-9 puts it as 
650 A.H. but all these were written 
500-600 after the death of Qalandar and 
could not be authentic. Equally errone- 
ous is his birth date. 


1275 A.D.— 675 A.H.: 

Zakariya bin Muhammad bin Mah- 
mood Kazwini from the town of Kazwin 
in Persia wrote Ajaib-ul-Makhlukat wa 
Gharaib-ul-Maujudat i.e. "Wonders of 
Things created and Marvels of Things 
Existing". Another work Asar-ul-Bilad 
Wa Akhbar-ul-Ibad i.e. Monuments 
of countries and description of people 
was written in 661 A. H. (1263 A. D.). 
The books describe some towns of Sind, 
and show existence of Zoarastrian 
temples in Sind and Baluchistan in his 

1276 A.D. : 

During the rule of Sultan Balban when 
Soomras became Vassals of Delhi, 3000 
horses and mules carrying tribute from 
Sind were looted by Raja Rawal Jainsi 
of Jaisalmir. 

1276-77 A.D.— 675 A.H. : 

Pir Shamsuddin Sabzwari, an Ismaili 
preacher, came to Sind and kept pre- 

Hadiqat-ul-Auliya, pp. 39-45 gives the 
date of his death as 21st Shaban, 673 A.H 

Ma'athir-ul Karam also gives same date 
as Hadiqat-ul-Auliya. 

Also see entry 1165-66. 

Portions pertaining to Sind have been 
translated into English by Elliot and 
Dowson, Vol. I. 

Hughes Buller, Gazetteer of Makran, 
under Language. 

Todd, Vol. II, Ch. Ill, pp. 327-344. It 
is not sure whether the tribute was from 
Northern Sind or the Lower Sind. 

Journal, Bombay Branch of Asiatic 
Society, VoL 12, pp. 32, 1936. 



aching his faith for the next 65 years. 
His teachings in Sindhi poetry have 
survived to this day. He was deputed 
by Imam Qasim Shah. 29th Imam of 
Nizaris in 1310-11 A.D. to the Punjab 
and Sind, where he converted Lohanas 
to a new sect called Noor Bakhshi. He 
also converted many thousand people 
at Debal. 

1283-84 A.D.— 682 A.H. : 

Tai Soomro died and was succeeded by 
Chanesar, who continued to rule upto 

700A.H. (1300-1301 A.D.). 


Zafar Khan, the general of Allauddin, 
came to Sind in 1297-98 A.D. Accord- 
ing to folk-lore Dodo was the ruler of 
Sind and Chanesar invited Allauddin 
who is said to have come in person to 
over-throw Dodo and instal Chanesar 
in his place. 

This chronology of Tuhfat-ul-Kiram 
turns Dodo-Chanesar ballads into a 
pure fiction. It is also certain that 
Allauddin did not come to Sind. Zafar 
Khan may have helped Chanesar in a 
local rebellion. 

1284-84 A.D.— 683 A.H. : 

Death of Kazwini (also spelled as 
Zakariya Qazvini), author of the 
geographical work Asar-ul-Bilad wa 
Akhbar-ul-Bilad. The towns of Multan, 
Mansurah, Debal and their local con- 
ditions are described in this work 

Shamsuddin died at Multan in 757 A.H. 
(1355 A.D.). His ancestors had migrated 
with Imam Hadi from Cairo to Almut. 
He produced 28 Bhajanas in the praise 
of Imam Qasim. Debal was already in 
ruins then. By Debal the Lower Sind 
is meant. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, pp. 69 and 486. 

Masumi, pp. 42-43 puts Nasir Khan 
as the general of Allauddin in Sind 

Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh puts Tai's 
death and Chanesar's accession in 
695 A.H. (1295-96 A.D.) and his rule 
upto 713 A.H (1313-14 A.D.). 

Daulat-i-Alviya states that (Kamaluddin) 
Chanesar was thrown out in 696 A.H. 
(1296-97 A.D.) and may have sought 
Allauddin (Zafar Khan's) help. But 
same source shows Dodo's rule upto 
1300-1301 A.D., again proving that Dodo 
was not killed while fighting Allauddin's 
troops, but rather survived and con- 
tinued to rule. However Daulat-i-Alviya 
is not considered an authentic history 
The name Kamaluddin is also this 
author's invention. 

The text was published from Wustenfeld 
in 1848 A.D. See entry 1203-04 and 
1275 A.D. 





1285 A.D.-684 A.H. : 

Birth of Ziauddin Barni, the author of 
Tarikh-i-Feroz Shahi. 

As per his own statement, he was 74 
lunar years or 12 solar years old when 
he wrote his history in 1357 A.D. It is 
an important source on Sind and Delhi 
relations from 1264 to 1357 A.D. 

Unfortunately, this historian, a genius 
of his age, died in 1359 A.D. in such an 
extreme poverty that no shroud of 
cotton was available for his coffin, and 
he had to be buried in a coarse matting. 
He lacks in chronological order of 
events which are obtained from con- 
temporary sources. 

1287 A.D.—686 A.H. : 

After the death of Sultan Balban, the 
courtiers in 1287 A.D. appointed his 
grandson Muizuddin Khaikobad, son 
of Nasiruddin Bughra, as new Sultan. 
Nasiruddin Bughra then was the Go- 
vernor of Bengal. Kaikobad, fearing 
that he may be replaced by his cousin 
Kaikhusru, Governor of Multan and 
Sind, called the latter to the court at 
Delhi and had him assassinated near 

Masumi. p. 40. 


1285-85 A.D.— 683 A.H. : 

The Mongol generals Qutlagh and 
Timur invaded the Lahore area. Sultan 
Balban's son. Sultan Mahmood, the 
Governor of Multan and the Upper 
Sind. gave him a battle with 30,000 
soldiers in which in spiie of his being 
killed the Mongols took to flight. 
Balban appointed Kaikhusro, Sultan 
Mahmood's son as the new Governor 
of Multan and Sind. 


Barni. pp. 473 and 602 
p. 312. 

Amir Khurd, 

Some authorities put it as 1286 A.D< 

Masumi, p. 40, and Barni, p. 122, have 
assigned 685 «A.H. to his death which is 
incorrect. Mubarak Shahi, p. 52 and 
Futuh-us-Sa latin, p. 185 confirm that 
Kaikobad became Sultan in 686 A.H. 
Amir Khusru in Qiran-al-Saadin confirms 
the date of 686 A.H. 



1289-1325 A.D.— 688-725 A.H. : 

Amir Khusru, the poet composed Mas- 
navis which contain historical material 
on the Sub-continent and reflect that 
Delhi Sultante had hardly any control 
on the Lower Sind. The Masnavis were 
composed as under: 

(i) 688 A.H. (1289-90 A.D.) Qiran-al- 
Saadin, describes the conditions 
after the death of Balban and 
during the rule of Kaikobad. 

(ii) 690 A.H. Miftah-ul-Futuh, des- 
cribes four battles of Jalaluddin 

(hi) 711 A.H. (1311-12 A.D.)Khazain- 
ul-Futuh or Tarikh-i-Alai covering 
the period of first seventeen years 
of Allauddin's rule. 

(iv) 715 A.H. (1315-16 A.D.) Dewal 
Rani-Khizr Khan a semi-historical 
romance, written to please Khizr 

(v) 718 A.H. (1318-19 A.D.) Noh 
Siphar, describes first three years 
rule of Qutubuddin Mubarak 

(vi) 725 A.H. (1325 A.D.) Tughluq 
Nama, describes fall of Khilji Dy- 
nasty and the taking over by 
Ghfasuddin Tughluq. 

1290 A.D., 1st February : 
689 A.H.. 19th Muharram I 

The courtiers had Sultan Kaikobad, 
grandson of Balban, assassinated, thus 
bringing to an end the 84 years rule of 
the Slave Sultans of Delhi. They nomi- 
nated Jaaluc'din Feroz Khiiji as the 
next Suitan. 


Barni, pp. 201 and 202. 

Masumi describes Ghazi Malik Tughluq 
as Governor of Multan and Upper Sind 
before he became Sultan. 







Tughluq came to Sind in a miserable 
condition during the reign of Allauddin 
Khiiji. when his brother Ulugh Khan 
(Almas Beg) was Governor of Upper 
Sind. Tughluq entered the services of 
Ulugh Khan and from initial services as 
a shepherd of a merchant rose to the 
position of a great Amir called 'Malik 

Ibn Batuta saw an inscription on a 
mosque at Multan constructed at 
Tughluq's order showing that he had 
fought twentynine battles with the 
Tatars (Mongols) and had defeated 

1290 A.D.— 689 A.H. : 

Jalaluddin Khiiji occupied the Delhi 

1290 A.D.— 689 A.H. : 

Pir Sadaruddin, a well known Ismaili 
preacher was born. He preached in 
the Sindhi language and Sindhi poetry, 
parts of which have survived to this day. 
He a. so invented a new script for Sindhi 
language having 40 letters, which was 
being printed from Bombay until re- 
cently. This scrips p known as Khawja- 
Ki-Sindhi or Khoiki. 

Amir Khusru. Tughluq Namah. p. 63. 

Firishta, pp. 230-31 states that he came 
during the reign of Balban and married 
into a local Jatt family and that the King 
Ghiasuddin was a fruit of this marriage 
is more acceptable. 

Mubarak Shahi, p. 59, assigns this date to 
Kaikobad's death. Masumi puts 688 A.H 
which is incorrect. Barni assigns 

688 A.H. to Jalaluddin's accession, hut 
this is disproved by Amir Khusrus 
Masnavi in Miftah-ul-Futuh, which as- 
signs 3rd Jamadi-II, 689 to this occasion. 
Mubarak Shahi. p. 62, assigns Rabi-II, 

689 A.H. to it. Amir Khusru's date 
would be more reliable as the poem was 
composed for the occasion. 

Barm, p. 202. 

Masumi, p. 41 puts it as 688 A.H. 
which Dr. Daudpota, p. 277 consi- 
ders as wrong. 

The Khojki Script is based on some old 
Sindhi script as is found at Bhanbhore 
destroyed in 1226 A.D. 



1296 A.D.-695 A.H. : 

Sultan Jalaluddin Khilji on arrival at 
Lahore appointed his son Arkali Khan 
as Governor of Multan and Uch and 
probably Zafar Khan as Governor of 
Upper Sind. The income from Sind 
was to go to Arkali "Khan towards his 


1296 A.D.— 695 A.H., 17th Ramzan : 

Sultan Jalaluddin Khilji was assassi- 
nated by his nephew and son-in-law 
Allauddin, who later on became Sultan 
himself. The wife of Jalaluddin Khilji 
installed her youngest son Rukunuddin 
Ibrahim as the Sultan of Delhi. The 
eldest son Arkali Khan, disapproving 
her mother's action prepared for assault 
on Delhi. Allauddin too prepared to 
take over the Government. 

Rukunuddin Ibrahim left Delhi and 
took shelter with Arkali Khan at Mul- 
tan. Allauddin on reaching Delhi brib- 
ed all the courtiers who forgot the trea- 
chery and then he coronated himself 
on Zil-Haj 19th, 695 A.H. and sent his 

Masumi, p. 41 puts the year as 939 A.H. 
(1294-95 A.D.), and Nusrat Khan instead 
of Zafar Khan. 

Nusrat Khan's appointment as the Go- 
vernor of Sind is not mentioned by any 
other historian. 

See entry 1297-98 A.D. for Zafar Khan' 
expedition to Sind. 

Masumi, p. 42 thinks that Nusrat Khan 
built Nasarpur town, which w." c actually 
built after 1351 A.D. when I jz Shah 
appointed Amir Nasar as the Governor 
of the territories on the Eastern Puran. 

See entry 1351 A.D. 

Masumi also states that Nusrat Khan 
was to work under the administrative 
and financial control of Arakli Khan and 
Arkali Khan invaded Sind twice and 
crushed rebellions. This is not sup- 
ported by any other history. 

Barm, pp.-238 and 242. 

Masumi, p. 42 puts 3 months siege. 

Mubarak Shahi, pp. 71-72. 

Masumi, wpngly states that Nusrat 
Khan was given 10,000 troops to govern 
Multan, Uch, Bakhar, Sehwan «ind 
Thatta and suppress rebellion. Thatta 
did not exist then. 

The Lower Sind at the time was being 
ruled independently by Soomras. It was 
Zafa* Khan who took expedition to 
crush Mongols in Upper Sind in 
1297-98 A.D. and not Nusrat Khan. 




brother Almas Beg or Ulugh Khan with 
40,000 troops to capture Multan, which 
capitulated after two months siege, as 
the Multanis betrayed and joined Ulugh 
Khan. Arkali Khan and Rukunuddin 
Ibrahim were captured, blinded and 
imprisoned at the Gwalior fort in spite 
of Shaikh Rukunuddin having acted as 
an intermediary in the surrender. 
Malak Harnimar was appointed as the 
Governor of Multan and Upper Sind 
in place of Arkali Khan. Malak 
Nusrat, was given the title of Nusrat 
Khan, as he seems to have supported 
Allauddin against Arkali Khan.* 

Ulugh Khan probably became the Go- 
vernor of Upper Sind (Multan, Uch 
and Bakhar). 

1297-98 A.D.— 697 A.H. : 

After defeating the Mongols near Jalan- 
dhar, Allauddin Khilji sent 10,000 
horse-men under Zafar Khan to subdue 
any rebellion in Multan, Uch, Sehwan 
and Thatta (Thatta probably did not 
exist then). 

The Mongols under Nu-Yan Saldo in- 
vaded Sehwan, and Chehldev, a Raja of 
Sehwan, became independent with the 
help of these Mongols. Zafar Khan 
laid siege to the Sehwan fort. Chehldev. 
his brother and Mongols retaliated by 
powerful arrows, which made Sehwan 
un-approachable even by birds, but it 
finally fell. Chehldev, his brother and 
all the Mongols with their families 
were sent to Delhi as prisoners. 

Zafar Khan conquered the Sehwan fort 
without scaling ladders, stone thrower 

Barni, p. 294. 

Firishta, Bombay, Vol. I, pp. 174-180 and 
189. Date of Allauddin's coronation 
comes from Mubarak Shahi. 

Same source states that he entered the 
royal palace on Zil-Haj 22nd, 695 A.H. 


Barni, pp. 263-64. 

Masumi, p. 43 puts the name of the 
general as Nusar Khan which is incorrect, 
and so is its year 698 A.H. 

There is not enough evidence that Zafar 
Khan invaded the Lower Sind after the 
fall of Sehwan, excepting the Sindhi 
ballads, which talk of Allauddin's conflict 
with Dodo-IJ, to instate Chanesar in his 
place. Besides this Barni, p. 323 mentions 
the names of 19 Provinces and their 
Governors in 1307-8 A. D. Maiik Kafur 
is mentioned as the Governor of Multan 
and Siwistan, but the Lower Sind is not 

Masumi, pp. 42-43 puts name of the 
Governor of Sehwan as Nusrat Khan 
which is incorrect as in the third year of 



engines, or hurling missiles and other 
war machines but simply by axes and 
arrows, showing that Sehwan fort had 
neither high walls nor strong 
structure as stated by Masumi. 

Zafar Khan may have taken expeditions 
to the Lower Sind and Cutch. Cutchi 
tradiions make a mention of migration 
of Sammas as well as Soomras from 
Lower Sind to Cutch when chased by 
Allauddin's Imperial troops, but Abda, 
the great grandson of Gajan son of 
Rayadhan son of Lakho, Jareja Samma 
of Sind, attacked and defeated the Im- 
perial troops and rescued the Royal 
ladies of Soomra House of Tur (capital 
of Sind on Gungro branch of the Indus) 
as per Cutchi tradition. This tradition 
like Gujaraii, Sindhiand Rajistani bal- 
lads may have been written in the 1 5th 
century and may not be a historical fact. 
Another tradition states that in this 
battle Abro Samma, a Cutchi chief lost 
his life, but saved the ladies. 

1297-98 A.D. : 

Allauddin Khilji's General (probably 
Zafar Khan) captured Anhilwara, the 
capital of Gujarat. Cutch accepted the 
suzerainty of the successors of old 
masters and probably paid tribute to 
maintain the Jareja Samma rule. It is 
certain that Delhi could not have 
exercised effective control in this thinly 
populated country of Jarejas, whose 
three branches controlled the province 
independent of each other. Since 
Samma religious practices were a curi- 
ous mixture of Hinduism and Islam and 
were under the influence of Sindhi Sam- 
ma they could easily adjust with a 
Muslim Governor of Gujarat. 

Allauddin's rule he had Ulugh Khan 
appointed to capture Gujarat. 

Barni, p. 253, and Tabaqat-i-Akbari, Vol. 
I, p. 142 put the name of Zafar Kfcan as 
the general deputed to subdue Sind. 

According to Khusru, in Khazain-ul- 
Futuh, Nusrat Khan left Delhi for Gujarat 
on Jamadi-I 20th, 698 A.H. (Feb. 23. 
1299 A.D.) and started, campaign in 
Gujarat along with Ulugh Khan, whereas 
Barni puts it as 1298 A.D. 

Firishta, p. 103 assigns 1297-98 to it. 

Badauni and Yahya Bin Sarhandi put 
698 A.H. or 1299 A.D. 

Williams, pp. 100-101. 

Wiliams, pp. 100-101. 




J297-98 A.D.— 697 A.H. : 

After the defeat of the Mongols, Zafar 
Khan's troops returned to Bakhar. 
Meantime, on Allauddin's orders Ulugh 
Khan took half of the troops from the 
(Upper) Sind to invade the Jaisalmir 
fort and proceeded to capture Gujarat. 

1300 A.D. : 

The Ismailis survived in Upper Sind and 
Multan upto Allauddin's times and 
Multan ironically enough served as 
refuge zone for Muslim heretics perse- 
cuted in their lands. 

Allauddin found enough heresy in 
Multan to undertake a purification cam- 



1300 A.D. : 


Sindhi speech derived from old Var- 
chada Apabhramsa of Sind. 

The Varchada Apabhramsa had deve- 
loped from Western Apabhramsa by 
about 900 A.D. 

The Western Apabhramsa was a Prakrit 
embracing the North Western Punjab 
and Sind around 500 A.D and may be 
named as Madra, Gandhara or Sindu 
(Saindhavi) Prakrit. 

Around 500 A.D. there were eight 
Prakrits in the Sub-continent. 

(i) Eastern or Magadhi. 
(ii) Central or Ardha Magadhi. 
(iii) Northern or Khasa or Himalayan. 

(iv) Samraseni or Middle, current in 
Western U. P., parts of the East- 
ern Punjab and parts of Rajistan. 

Barni, pp. 249-50. 

The Soomras in Sind were still Ismailis. 

HOP, Vol. VI, pp. 491-95. 



(v) Western Rajistan, Saurashtra and 

(vi) Malavian. 

(vii) Maharashtrian. 

(viii) North-Western Punjab and 

1300 A.D. (Approximate) : 

Taj-ul- Malik Kafur appointed as Go- 
vernor of Multan and Sehwan after sub- 
duing of Cheldev. 

1300-01 A.D.— 700 A.H. : 

Chanesar bin Tai Soomro died and was 
succeeded by Bhoongar-II, who ruled 
for 15 years upto 715 A.H. (1315 A.D.). 

1300-1416 A.D.— 700-819 A.H. : 

Pir Sadaruddin bin Pir Shahabuddin 
lived then. Born in Sabzwari, he died 
at Uch in 819 A.H. He was an Ismaili 
preacher and preached in local langu- 
ages including Sindhi. He learnt Sans- 
krit, adopted a Hindu name and wrote 
the book 'Dosa Qatar*. In this book he 
called Prophet Muhammad as Brahama. 
Ali as Vishnu and Adam as Shiva. He 

Barni, pp. 269-270. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, pp. 95-96 assigns 
682-700 A.H. (1283-1300/1301 A.D.) to 
his rule. 

Daulat-i-Alviya assigns the same year to 
Asad-al-Millat Dodo's death and 
calls the successor as Zaheeruddin 
Bhoongar, who according to this source 
continued his rule upto 740 A.H. (1339- 
40 A.D.) 

Muntakhab-ul-Tawarikh continues Chane 
sar's rule upto 713 A.H. (1313-14 A.D.). 

Daulat-i-Alviya mentions that Kamal- 
uddin Chanesar-II ruled upto 1396-97 
A.D. (696 A.H.), when he was removed 
and replaced by Asad-al-Millat Dodo, 
who ruled upto 700 A.H. (1300-1301 A.D.) 

Arnold, Preachings of Islam, p. 225. 
Maulvi Najamul Ghani, Mazhab-i-Islam, 
p. 334. 






called his followers as Khawaja (Persian 
wordV for artisans, educated people, 
businessmen and doctors), which later 
on became Khoja or Khawajo. His 
followers called him Harish Chandur 
or Soha Deva. He is buried at Uch. 

1307-1383 A.D.— 707-781 A.H. : 

Makhdoom Jahanian of Uch lived then. 
He probably was the fief of Sehwan in 
the days of Feroz Tughluq as per in- 
scription now on Qalandar's grave, 
showing that he built a tomb on the 
grave of Waliullah Allaul-Haq Ali 
Baghdadi on 7th Safar 758 A.H. 
(1357 A.D.). 

1310 A.D.— 710 A.H. : 

Rashiduddin Fazlullah-Hamdani com- 
pleted Jami-ul-Tawarikh or History of 
Mongols. Author was born in Ham- 
dan in 645 A.H. (1247 A.D.), became 
Vazier of Ghazan Khan, the Mongol 
King of Persia, and died in 718 A.H. 
(1318 A.D.). ^ 


1310 A.D.— 711 A.H. : 

Amir Khusro composed Tarikh-i-Alai, 
the history of Allauddin Khilji. The 
book does not mention Alia uddin's ex- 
pedition on Sind and Dodo-AUauddin 

1314-15 A.D.— 715 A.H. : 

Bhoogar bin Chanesar bin Tai Soomro 
died and his son Khafif became the next 

Professor Muhammad Shafi, p. 
Akhbar-ul-Akhyar, p. 72. 


The recent text edited by Dr. Bahman 
Karimi has been published from Tehran 
in 1338 Sh. The portions pertaining to 
the Sub-continent were copied from 
Beruni (970-1048 A.D.) and these have 
been reproduced by Elliot and Dowson 
in Vol. I. The earlier texts were pub- 
lished from Paris in 1861 and 1901 A.D. 

Muntakhab-ul-Tawarikh of Muhammad 
Yousif quoted by Hussamuddin, T. K., 
pp. 95-96 and 484-486, puts Chanesar's 
rule upto 713 A.H. or 1313-14 A.D. 
This version is doubtful. 


Daulat-i-Alviya calls him Zaheeruddin 

Bhoongar, his death in 740 A.H. (1339-40 



1316-17 A.D.— 716 A.H., 6th Shawwal : 

Sultan Allauddin died. Tarikh-i-Mu- 
barak Shahi states that he was poisoned 
by Malik Kafur, one of his generals. 
Malik Kafur installed Allauddin's son 
Shahabuddin aged 5 or 6 years, as the 
new Sultan, but he was killed 35 days 
after Allauddin's death and another son 
of Allauddin, Qutubuddin Mubarak 
Shah Khilji, was appointed as the new 
Sultan in 717 A.H. (1317-18 A.D.) by 
Taj-ul-Malik Kafur. 

On his death, the control of Delhi was 
lost on Sind and Cutch. 



A.D.) and his successor Fakhruddin 
Umer-I, who retired in 775 A.H. (1373-74 
A.D.). This version is also un-accept- 
able as Soomra rule ended by the over- 
throw of Hamir soon after 1351 A.D. 
when the Sammas started ruling the 
Lower Sind as confirmed by Shams 
Siraj Afif. 

See also entries 1365-1369 A.D. The 
names Zaheeruddin and Fakhruddin 
are also not known to other historians. 

Mubarak Shahi, p. 81 puts it 6th Shawwal, 
715 A.H. Masumi, p. 43 puts the date 
of his death as Shawwal 6, 717 A.H. 

Barni, p. 381, puts it as 6th Sahwwal with- 
out mentioning the year. Firishta puts 
it 6th Shawwal, 716 A.H. 

Confirmation comes from Amir Khusru's 
Naha Siphar. 

Masumi, p. 45 states that these parts 
were given in the Jagir of Malak Ghazi. 
This statement is incorrect as Barni, a 
contemporary historian, p. 323, states 
that Multan and Uch were given in the 
Jagir of Taj-ul-Malik Kafur. 

The Sassanids were the first nation who 
enslaved free peasants by creation of 
Feudal-elite or Jagirdars, a feudal re- 
volution that affected all countries of 
Europe and Asia. 

This system was copied by the Arabs, the 
Salves-Russians and Central Asians, as 
reported by Girshman, p. 345. 

It was brought to the Sub-continent by 
the Arabs, but it reached its advanced 
stage under the Delhi Sultans. 







1317-1320 A.D.— 717-720 A.H. : 
The Soomras shifted capital to Thatta. 
Simultaneously they threw off the yoke 
of Delhi Government. 

The river Indus seems to have changed 
the course between 1300-1340 A.D. 
Kalri, north of Thatta became the main 
branch and Baghar south of Thatta, the 
secondary stream. The bifurcation took 
place about 10-12 miles east of Thatta, 
which was between Jhok and Bulri in the 
previous century. Ren branch kept flow- 
ing as usual but Gungro on which 
Soomra capital Tur stood seems to 
have lost much of its waters bringing 
the end of the city of Tur. 

In the central Sind below Bakhar gorge 
river flowed about 16 miles east of pre- 
sent channel. Nasarpur township was 
built on this course by Feroz Shah 
Tughluqin 1351 A.D. 

Debal was deserted by the river and 
a new port Lahri Bunder was established 
on the new Kalri branch. The Eastern 
and Western Purans too were deserted 
for good. 

1320 A.D.. April : 
720 A.H., 5th Rabi-I : 

Khusru Khan, a Hindu slave who was 
captured at Malva, converted to Islam 

In the grab of Mansabdars (who were 
both Hindus and Muslims) it reached 
the climax of its exploitation under the 
Mughals, and a new class of feudals 
evolved. The Khatri class of Rajputs 
willingly joined the Mughals all through 
from Akbar to Aurangzeb (1556-1707 
A.D.) as it suited their traditional pro- 

Masumi, p. 46 states that they rebelled 
and captured Thatta. 

The Soomras were founders of Thatta. 
They may have shifted the capital from 
Muhammad Tur to Thatta due to hydro- 
logical changes in the course of the river 
Indus. The rebellion coincided with the 
death of Allauddin Khilji and the chaos 
created at Delhi subsequently. 

They most probably were subdued and 
made to pay tribute by Allauddin's 
general Zafar Khan in 1297-98 A.D. and 
on his death might have declared in- 

Except Masumi no other historian has 
quoted the incident. Mir Masum is 
most un-reliable on the Soomra and 
Samma periods and has based his 
information on heresay, folklore and 
the assumption that the Soomras and the 
Sammas were* subordinate to the Ghaz- 
navis, Ghoris and Delhi Sultans. 


Ain-i-Haqiqat Nama, Vol. I, p. 298. 




and had risen to the rank of the Go- 
vernor of all the provinces of Deccan, 
got Sultan Qutubuddin Mubarak Shah 
Khilji assassinated and became Sultan 
on the next day i.e. the 6th Rabi-I, 
calling himself Sultan Nasiruddin. 

1320 A.D.— 720 A.H., Rajab. : 

After Khusru Khan had Sultan Qutub- 
uddin Mubarak Shah murdered and 
strengthened his party, which mainly 
consisted of Parwari of Gujarat (Khusru, 
a Hindu convert, was from tribe of 
Barwar or Parwar), and some rebel 
Muslims, Malik Fakhruddin Dawal re- 
lated to his father the atrocities of 
Khusru Khan. On this Malik Ghazi 
(Tughluq) asked his private Secretary to 
draft letters to Amir Muglatti, the Go- 
vernor of Multan, Muhammad Shah, 
the Governor of Siwistan, BahramAiba, 
the Governor of Uch, Ain-ul-Mulk 
Multani, Yaklakhi, the Governor of 
Samana, and Hoshang, the Governor of 
Jalor desiring all of them to assist him 
in retaliatory war to avenge the death 
of the Sultan. No letter was addressed 
to the Soomras of the Lower Sind 
showing that they were independent. 

This is further confirmed by the fact that 
the son of Muhammad Shah, Governor 
of Siwistan (Sehwan) who had been 
thrown in prison by noblemen before 
the arrival of this letter was released on 
the condition that Muhammad Shah 
would join Ghazi Malik. He agreed to 
do so but the war ended before his 
arrival. Tughluq Nama and Tarikh-i- 
Mubarak Shahi also confirm that Ghazi 
Malik looted the convoy carrying horses 
and taxes from Multan and Sehwan and 

Elliot, Vol. Ill, p. 211 for Parw&ri. 
Tughluq Nama of Amir Khusru, Hy- 
derabad (Deccan), verses 843-896, and 
also pp. 45-48 and 54-62. 

Futuh-ul-Salatin confirms the views of 
Tughluq Nama. 

Tarikh-i-Mubarak Shahi, pp. 88-90. 

Ain-i-Haqiqat Nama, Vol. I, pp. 298-99. 




used this wealth to defeat Khusru Khan. 
The soldiers were given 2 years advance 
salaries. The success was mainly due to 
troops from Sind and Multan. 

In all these sources there is no mention 
of the Soomras of the Lower Sind. 

Malik Ghazi became the next Sultan 
calling himself as Ghiasuddin Tughluq. 

1320 A.O., 7th September: 

720 A.H., Shaban 1 : 

Malik Ghazi (Tughluq) ascended the 

throne of Delhi. 

Mubarak Shahi, p. 92 puts the year as 
721 A.H. which is incorrect. 

Tughluq Namah, pp. 132-134 and 144 
gives the date of 721 A.H. which is not 

Masumi, p. 45. 



1320 A.D. or soon afterwards : 

Ghiasuddin Tughluq on ascending the 
throne in 1320 A.D. awarded titles and 
honours to his comrades and kinsmen. 
To Bahram Khan Aiba he gave the title 

Isami, Futuh ul-Salatin confirms the same 
date. Firishta assigns 1321 A.D. 
(721 A.H.) to thisjncident but the version 
of the first two sources is more accept- 

Tughluq is spelled differently by various 

Ibn Batuta writes it as Tughluq. 

Moreland puts it as Tughlaq. 

Lane Poole states it as Tughlak. 

Sir Aurel Stein writes it as Taghlik. 

Sir Wolseley Haig, records it as adopted 



of Kishiu KJian with the government of 
(Upper) Sind and Multan under him. 
He also honoured him by addressing 
him as brother. 

It was at the same time that he honoured 
his eldest son Malik Fakhruddin Juana 
by declaring him heir apparent and 
awarding the title of Ulugh Khan. All 
the courtiers were made to take the oath 
of allegiance to him. 

1320 A.D. : 

Sammas who had helped Soomras to 
rise to power, but were later on driven 
out by Soomras to Cutch, and had 
taken shelter with Chawras of Gujarat 
established their kingdom in Cutch. 
Sammas of Sind accepted Islam but 
those who had left for Cutch remained 

1320-1325 A.D. : 

Ghiasuddin Tughluq ruled from Delhi. 
In 1320 A.D. while Ghiasuddin Tughluq 
(Malik Ghazi) was on march to Delhi, 
the Soomras who ruled the Lower Sind 
occupied more territories in the Upper 

1325 A.D., July : 

Death of Ghiasuddin Tughluq due to 
collapsing of a huge wooden palace con- 
structed by his son Muhammad Tughluq 
to receive his father. Muhammad 
Tughluq asked permission to caparison 
elephants ride past in procession which 
was granted. On approach of elephants 
the structure collapsed burying the 




CHI, Vol. Ill, under Sind. 

Masumi, p. 46. 
Rehla, pp. 391-95. 
Barni, p. 452. 
Tabaqat-i-Akbari, p. 198 ff. 

Badauni, Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh, pp. 






Ibn Batuta states that it was organized 
by Muhammad bin Tughluq. The 
Sultan died after 4 years and 10 months 
rule as stated by Mahdi Hussain quot- 
ing memoirs of Muhammad bin 
Tughluq. Sir Wolseley Haig fixes this 
date as February 1325 A.D., which does 
not appear to be correct as this happen- 
ed during the burning heat of the time. 

Barni does not consider Muhammad 
Tughluq as patricide and states that it 
was due to storm that the wooden palace 
came down burying in the Sultan. He 
also thinks that it was due to stroke of 
lightning. • 

Sir Wolseley Haig states that Barni did 
did not tell the truth for the fear of in- 
curring the wrath of Feroz Shah. 

Later histories like Tabaqat-i-Akbari 
and Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh, though 
secondary sources state that Ulugh Khan 
(Muhammad Tughluq) deliberately built 
this frail structure to cause his father's 

Firishta considers Ulugh Khan's leaving 
the palace before its collapsing a mere 
coincidence. But this too is a secondary 
source. Of all these, Ibn Batuta would 
be more reliable, as the book was writ- 
ten in far off land, after he had left 
Sultan Muhammad Tughluq's court, 
holding responsible posts under him and 
being under the Sultan's patronage. 

1326-27 A.D.— 727 A.H. : 
The skins of rebellious Ghiasuddin 
Bahadur Bura and Bahauddin Gurshasp 
who were killed and skinned at the 
orders of Muhammad Tughluq reached 
Sind. Kishlu Khan, the Governor of 

Firishta (Bombay), p. 235. 

Sir Wolseley Haig, JRAS, July, 1922. 

Rehla of Ibn Batuta, pp. 95-96. 



Multan and the Upper Sind ordered 
both of them to be buried. 

Ibn Batuta names him Bahauddin 
Gushtasp, son of Ghiasuddin's sister, 
but Firishta names him Bahauddin 
Gurshasp, son of Muhammad Tughluq's 
uncle and a leading Amir. He had re- 
fused to swear allegiance to Muhammad 
Tughluq, and a large force was sent 
against him under Khwaja Jehan, who 
with the help of Hindu Rajas defeated 
and captured Gushtasp. He was flayed 
alive, his flesh cooked with rice and 
placed before elephants. His skin was 
then filled with straw and was sent all 
over the Empire for exhibition. 

1326-27 A.D.—727 A.H. : 
Bahram Aibiya, titled as Kishlu Khan 
and adopted brother of Muhammad 
Tughluq, was appointed as the Gover- 
nor of Multan, Uch and the Upper Sind 
by Muhammad bin Tughluq. 

Soon after taking over he rebelled. 
Firishta states that the reason for the 
rebellion was his being compelled to 
send his family to the new capital Dau- 

It is argued that he was dis-satisfied at 
the execution of Malik Bahadur Gur- 
shasp, who had refused to go to Dau- 
latabad and as a consequence rebelled 
and met his fate. 

Ibn Batuta states that the reason for the 
rebellion of Kishlu Khan was that Mu- 
hammad Tughluq had the skin of his 
own nephew Gurshasp removed and 
filled with grass and sent it over the Em- 
pire for exhibition. When it reached 
Sehwan, Kishlu Khan got it buried. 

Firishta, p. 241 . 

This is also confirmed by Isami. 

Mubarak Shahi, p. 99 names him Malik 
Bahadur Gurshasp. Barni does not 
mention the whole incident. 


Tabaqat-i-Akbari, Vol. I, p. 192. 
Ain-i-Haqiqat Nama, Vol. II, pp. 282-283. 

Barni, p. 479. 

Masumi, pp. 46-48. It appears Kishlu 
Khan had no influence in Sind. 

Rehla, Vol. HI, pp. 318-323. 






Ma su mi's statement that Kishlu Khan 
made Bakhar as his headquarters is 

Barni states that on hearing of the rebe- 
llion, Muhammad Tughluq returned to 
Delhi, and sent troops to subdue Kishlu 
Khan. The latter was defeated in a 
battle near Multan, arrested and be- 
headed. Kishlu Khan's army consisted 
of Multanis and, therefore, Muhammad 
Tughluq determined to allow massacre 
of Multan, but by the timely interven- 
tion of Shaikh Rukunuddin, this action 

was dropped. 


Masumi also states that Kishlu Khan 
had the support of Multanis and Balo- 
chis. The statement about Balochis is 

1327-28 A.D.— 728 A.H. : 

After the suppression of Kishlu Khan's 
rebellion at Multan, Sultan Muhammad 
Tughluq appointed suitable and trust- 
worthy Governors at Multan, Bakhar 
and Sewistan and returned to the capital 
at the end of the same year. 

1327 A.D. : 

The Mongols under Changatia Chief 
Tarmashirin (Dharmasri) of Transoxi- 
ana, a Buddhist, who had accepted Islam 
attacked the Sub-continent. After sub- 
during Multan, he proceeded to Delhi. 
Muhammad Tughluq purchased peace 
by giving him huge quantity of wealth. 

Tarmashirin after having accepted gifts 
and money from Muhammad Tughluq 
returned to Transoxiana but on his re- 
turn he plundered Gujarat and Sind (Uch 
and Multan), taking away many pri- 


Shahi, p. 100 confirms the 

Masumi, p. 48. 

Mubarak Shahi, pp. 101, 113 and 118. 

Timur's Zafar Nama confirms it. 

Elliot and Dowson, pp. 377, 363 and 303. 

Barni gives the details of Mongol trea- 
chery nearThatta. 



sonersand sent his son-in-law Amir 
Nauroz and large number of Mongol 
chieftains to the court of Muhammad 
Tughluq. All of them joined Muham- 
mad Tughluq's army and Amir Nauroz 
remained in his service for 20 years 
until the Sultan's death at Sonda in 1351 
A.D., when these Mongols joined hands 
with the Soomras and looted the Im- 
perial army. 

1327-28 A.D.— 728 A.H. : 

Muhammad Tughluq appointed 
Qawamul Malak Maqbool as the next 
Governor of Multan. Qawamul Malak 
was a Hindu slave of Kanwar Rao Dev 
and was converted to Islam. He was 
to be assisted by the Commander Bahzad 
Khan and the Assistant Commander 
Shahu Lodhi (Afghan). 

There is no mention that he was the 
Governor of Sind too. 

1330-31 A.D. : 

Ibn Batuta reports that Imad-ul-Mulk 
Sartez was the Governor of the Upper 
Sind (Multan), when a man pretending 
to be Tarmashirin (the Mongol invader), 
arrived and some of the Amirs identi- 
fied him to be Tarmashirin. This Tar- 
mashirin stayed in Multan for some 
days and possibly moved with a follow- 
ing of his Mongol tribesmen in the 
neighbourhood of Delhi. 

From the statement it is clear that Imad- 
ul-Mulk Sartez was not Governor of 
Sind but of Multan. 

1329-30 A.D.—730 A.H. : 

Qazwini Hamidullah bin Abu Bakar bin 
Hamad bin Nasar Mastaufi wrote 
Tarikh-i-Guzida, which gives an account 


Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh, pp. 95-96 and 

Ain-i-Haqiqat Nama, Vol. II, p. 83. 

Tarmashirin after his invasion of the 
Sub-continent in 1327 A.D returned to 
Transoxiana, but was deposed, and fled 
to the Sub-continent to take shelter with 
Muhammad Tughluq. 




The text has been printed from London 
in 1910. English tr. by Browne, Lon- 
don, 1921. 












of the history of Sind, Persian and Arab 
raids, etc. 

1329-32 A.D.— 730-32 A.H. : 

Token currency issued by Muhammad 
bin Tughluq in circulation. 

1332-33 A.D.— 733 A.H. : 

Khafif bin Bhoongar bin Chanesar 
Soomro died and his brother Dodo-II 
bin Bhoongar became the ruler. 

By this time, the Soomra rule in the 
Upper Sind had become too weak and 
the decline had started, and finally 
Hamir, their last ruler, was eliminated 
by the Sammas. The Soomra's hold 
on Lower Sind remained undisputed 
until 1351 A.D. 

The way the Soomras dispersed and 
looted the forces of Muhammad bin 
Tughluq described by Barni shows that 
they were very powerful in the Lower 
Sind. In the Upper Sind, the river had 
taken a new course along the alignment 
of the western Nara, a shift of at least 20 
miles to the west, deserting the country 
and resulting into the loss of their power. 

The Sammas, occupying the Central 
Sind, had evolved good relations with 
Feroz Tughluq in the beginning. It 
was during these earlier days that the 
Sindhi girls of Samma family were sent 
to the Royal Harem at Delhi. 

1332-33 A.D. to 1352 or after : 

Rule of Doda, Umer and Bhoongar-IH 
Soomras. On the death of Bhongar-HI, 
Hamir became the ruler of the Lower 
Sind and was thrown out by the Sammas 
by about 1352 A.D. 

Ibn Batuta did not see Paper currency in 
circulation in Sind in 1333 A.D. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, pp. 69 and 486. 

Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh of Muhammad 
Yousif, quoted by Hussamuddin, T.K., 
pp. 95-96 and 484-486, puts the death 
of Boongar as 728 A.H. (1327-28 A.D.) 
and that of Khafif as 746 A.H. 
(1 345-46). This version is doubtful. 

From this time further, the dates of 
Tuhfat-ul-Karam, Daulat-i-Alviya and 
Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh are doubtful. 

Mahru's Letter No. 134, pp. 233-34. 

HCIP, Vol. VI, «tates that Banbhiniyo's 
daughter was married to Feroz Shah. 
This is based on translation ofDukhtar 
as daughter, which also means a girl. 


Tuhfat-ut-Karam puts the rule of these 
Kings as: 


733—780 A.H. 

(1332—1378 A.D.) 


780—793 A.H. 

(1378—1390 A.D.) 


793—803 A.H. 

(1390—1400 A.D.) 


803— A.H. 

(1400— A.D.) 

One interesting conclusion that can be 
drawn from this erroneous chronelogy 
is that it was Doda-II who chased 
Muhammad Tughluq's troops in 1351 
'A.D. and may be that the Ballads des- 
cribing Dodo-Delhi conflict refer to 
Muhammad Tughluq's expedition on 

Daulat-i-Alviya gives the following 
chronology of the same period. 

(Zaheeruddin) Bhoongar 
700—740 A.H. 
(1300—1339/40 A.D.) 

(Fakhruddin) Umer 
740—775 A.H. 
(1339/40— .1373/74 A.D.) 

(Qamaruddin) Tahir 
775—813 A.H. 
(1373/74—1410/11 A.D.) 


(Moeenuddin) Armil 
813—822 A.H. 
(1410/11—1419 A.D.) 

(Bahauddin Shah Mir) or Hamir 
822^-843 A.H. 
(1419—1439/40 A.D.) 






This chronology is equally erroneous 
and the names in the bracket appear to 
be forged. 

The Samma rule started on the whole of 
Sind soon after 1352 A.D. due to over- 
throw of Hamir. 

Masumi puts the beginning of the 
Samma rule to Allauddin Khilji's time. 
This may have been over a small part of 
Central Sind, but the Lower Sind con- 
tinued to be governed by the Soomras. 
Raverty puts the beginning of the 
Samma rule to 1342 A.D., when the 
anarchy caused by Muhammad 
Tughluq's actions brought the centri- 
frugal forces to the height. He is not 
correct as Jam Unar revolted against the 
Delhi empire first in 1333 A.D. and 
established his rule not at the capital of 
the central Sind, Sehwan, but at the 
headquarters of his tribe probably in 
the Nawabshah District. 

Tahir puts the beginning of the Samma Masumi, p. 22. 

rule in 843 A.H. or 1439 A.D., but he 
is incorrect as Afif saw the Sammas rul- 
ing Thatta in 1365 A.D. This is also 
confirmed by Sirat-i-Feroz Shahi and 

From this it can be concluded that 
Sammas rose in Allauddin Khilji's 
times, rebelled first in 1333 A.D. and 
overthrew the Soomras completely 
between 1 353-1360 A.D. as Mahru's 
letters indicate. 

Sammas were Rajputs of the Yadava 
stock as stated by Chachnama. Sirat-i- 

Raverty, Mihran, p. 325. 

Tahiri,pp. 148-51. 

Afif, p. 199. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, pp. 99-100. 
Mahru's letter No. 46, pp. 100-103. 

Elliot and Dowson, Vol. I, p. 496. 



Feroz Shahi recognized them as Mus- 

The letters of Mahru confirm that they 
were Muslims. 

Tuhiat-ul-Karam considers them as 
descendants of Nuh, which is a fabrica- 

Prior to 1333 A.D. : 

Debal replaced by Lahri Bunder due to 
abandoning of Gharo creek branch by 
the river Indus. This was followed by 
other major changes in the course of the 
river. Bakhar became an island which 
till then was connected to main land 6n 
Sukkur side. 

Insha-i-Mahru, letter No. 46, 99 and 134, 
pp. 100-103, 186-1 89, and 229-235. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, pp. 99-100. 






1333-34 A.D.— 734 A.H. : 

Jam Unar and Qaiser Rumi raised a 
rebellion against the Delhi government 
and killed Malak Rattan, the represen- 
tative of Delhi government at Sehwan, 
titled as Raja-i-Sind. 

Rattan was expert i n account matters. 
Sehwan was in his Jagir. Jam Unar 
looted the treasury and the rebels gave 
him the title of Malik Feroz and made 
him ruler of Upper Sind. He had 1800 
mounted soldiers who helped him in the 

His son Banhbiniyo defeated Hamir bin 
Dodo Soomro between 1351 and 1360 
A.D. and became the ruler of Sind. 
Hamir took shelter outside Sind. 

When the news of rebellion reached 
Multan, its Governor Sartez sent troops 
to crush the rebellion. Jam Unar being 
away from his own tribe left for his 
home. The rebels made Qaisar as their 
Amir, Amadul-Mulk Sartez's troops 
laid siege of Sehwan which was capitu- 
lated after 40 days and heavy punish- 
ments were inflicted on Qaisar's men 
and rebels. Jam Unar seems to have 
reached his tribe safely. 

Rehla, Vol. Ill, pp. 5-6. 

His name was Ferozuddin Jam Unar as 
per inscription on Jam Niazmuddin 

Insha-i-Mahru, letter No. 46, pp. 101-102. 

Rehla, above quoted, pp. 5-6. 

Masumi, p. 294, states that Jam Unar 
after reaching his tribe died of a drunken 
orgy. This is incorrect as shown by 
entry year 1335 A.D. 

Ibn Batuta saw the bodies of rebels 
nailed across the city ramparts. 

Ibn Batuta states that Unar was a 
Soomra. According to Dr. Daudpota 
(Masumi, p. 294) Jam Unar was selected 
as a leader jointly by the Soomras as well 
as the Sammas (of the Central Sind). Dr. 
Islam, in Islamic Culture, 1948, maintains 
that Unar (Wana) was a Soomro. His 



source is Ibn Batuta who has mistaken 
Soomra for Sarama. 

Malik Hushand rebelled at Daulatpur at 
the same time and when pursued by 
Sultan himself, he escaped to the terri- 
tory of a Hindu king in the Western 

Shahu Afghan revolted in Multan, killed 
the Naib, Bihzad, and occupied the city; 
but when the Sultan marched to Multan, 
he escaped to Afghanistan. 

At this time the Hindus in Sanam, Sam- 
ana, Kaithal and Kuhram too rebelled 
but were suppressed by the Sultan. In 
737 A.H. (1336 A.D.), Bengal under the 
leadership of Fakhruddin, the armour 
bearer of Bahram Khan, the former 
Governor of Sonagaon, rebelled and 
declared independence. The whole of 
Rajputana became independent. 

Since then there were continuous rebel- 
lions in Western Telegu, Tilingana, 
Tandi and Mandalam (Northern Mala- 
bar) by the Hindus and these continued 
upto the death of Sultan in 1351 A.D. 

Sind was the first area to raise rebellion 
in 1333 A.D. 

1333-1352/53 A.D. : 

Rule of Ferozuddin Shah Jam Unar bin 

Soomra's power in the Upper Sind 
waned due to hydrological changes of the 
river Indus and their leadership slowly 
passed in the hands of the Sammas of 
the Central Sind. 

J. R. A. S„ 1909, p. 673, and J. R. A. S„ 

1922, pp. 304, 341. 

Ishwari Prasad, 'History of Qarunah 
Turks', pp. 141-44, 152. 

Isami, Futuh-us-Salatin, pp. 451-52 and 
481-523, calls the Sultan as Kafir and 
urges a general revolt. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari, p. 205. 

Mubarak Shahi, pp. 99-1 16. 

Sastri, K. A. Nilkana, 'A History of 
South India', pp. 226-28. 

Rai Bahadur Gauri Shanker Ojha, 'His- 
tory of Rajputana, Vols. I and II, 
Ajmer, 1928. 


Muntakftab-ut-Tawarikh of Muhammad 
Yousif in Tuhfat-ul-Karam, p. 100, puts 
the date^of his death as 1337 A.D. 



1333 A.D., 12th September : 

734 A.H., 1st Mohan-sun : 

Ibn Batuta entered Sind. He had 
started his travels in 1325 A.D. and in 
8 years had visited Northern Africa, 
Arabia, Persia, the Levant and Cons- 
tantinople, from where he came to 
Sind. He reached Delhi on Rajab 
13,734 A.H. (March 20, 1334 A.D.) and 
was made Qazi by Muhammad Tughluq. 

Barni, the historian, was admitted in the 
court of Muhammad Tughluq the same 

Dr. N. A. Baloch, Tahiri, p. 307 puts 
his rule from 1348 to 1352 A.D. 

The statement is incorrect as this Jam 
came to power in the Central Sind 
in 1333 A.D., and may have ruled the 
Central Sind since then. Dr. Baloch has 
adjusted the date in view of Masumi's 
statement that Jam Unar ruled for four 

Rehla of Ibn Batuta, G. O. S., 1953. 
Also see entries 1286 and 1359 A.D. 

Batuta was born in 1304 A.D. He 
started his travel in 1325 A.D. and re- 
turned lo Morocco (his home) in 1349. 
Here he wrote his journal (Rehla) at 
the orders of Sultan Abu Inam and died 
at the age of 73 years in 1377-78 A.D. 

1333-51 A.D. : 

In the reign of Muhammad bin Tughluq, 
Mubarak bin Mahmud and Abu Safa 
Sirajuddin Umar visited the Sub-con- 
tinent and preserved their accounts in 
Masalik-ul-Absar — Fi — Mamalik-ul- 

Barni, p. 468. 
Rehla, Vol. H, 

Quartremere : Masalik-ul-Absar-Tomex 
II, p. 167 ff., quoted by Agha Mahdi 
Hassain in Muhammad bin Tughluq, 
p. 90. 

They have named 23 provinces of the 
Tughluq Empire which include Multan, 
Uch and Siwistan, but the Lower Sind 
is not mentioned. 

Recent text edited by Spies, Otto, has 
been published from Aligarh. Extracts 
in Elliot and Dowson, Vol. Ill, pp. 574- 



Barni lists only 12 provinces which do 
not include Sind. 

Ibn Batuta names 15 provinces and a 
number of towns in the Empire, which 
include Multan, Uch but not Sehwan 
which had revolted against Muhammad 
Tughluq in 1333-4 A.D. and was re- 
covered, but it is definite that Unar 
Samma (wrongly called Soomra by 
Batuta) must have occupied it soon 
afterwards and probably ruled it in- 

From this it is clear that the Lower Sind 
was being ruled independently by the 
Soomras. • 

1334-1400 A.D. : 

The single horned rhinoceroe which was 
native of Sind until 1400 A.D. probably 
disappeared. It is shown in Amri and 
Mohenjo-Daro seals. In 1333 A.D. 
Ibn Batuta reports its existence in 
Upper Sind. 

J333-1525 A.D. : 

The Samma Rule of Sind. 

1333-38 A.D. 

The revolt in Sind in 1333-34 A.D. by 
Jam Unar was not an isolated instance 
of rebellion against the Delhi sultanate 
of Muhammad Tughluq. In 1333-34 
A.D. (733 A.H.), Jalaluddin Ahsan 
Shah, the Governor of Malabar, revolted 
and established an independent Sultan- 
ate of Madura. 

A Mongol chief Haljaun assisted by 
Hindu Amir Gulchand rebelled at 
Lahore, but both were defeated by 
Khwaja Jehan. 

Barni, pp. 467-8. 

• ■ 
Rehla, Vol. II. 

Mahdi Hussain, Rise and Fall of Muh- 
ammad Bin Tughluq, p. 158. 









There are two important chronologies of this period by Hodivala (Studies in the 
Indo-Muslim History, Vol. I) and by Dr. N. A. Baloch, in Tahiri. These have 
been corrected in view of new evidence. 

Name of Ruler — Hodivala 



Jam Unar 

1335-1339 A.D. 

1348/49-1352 A.D. 

1333-1352 A.D. 

Jam Juna 

1339-1352 A.D. 

1352-1365/66 A.D. 

1352-1368 A.D. 

Jam Banhbiniyo 

1352-1367 A.D. 

1352-1365/66 A.D. 

1352-1368 A.D. 

Jam Tamachi 

1367-1379 A.D. 

1365/66-1375/76 A.D. 

1368-1370 A.D. 

Jam Juna (second 


— — 

1375/76-1389 A.D. 

1371-1883/89 A.D. 

Jam Tamachi 

(second time) 

— _. 

1389-1392/93 A.D. 

1389-1392 A.D. 

Salahuddin (usurper) 

1379-1389 A.D. 


Jam Nizamuddin 

1389-1391 A.D. 

1392/93-1403/04 A.D. 

1392-1404/05 A.D, 

Jam Ali Sher 

1304/05-1406/07 A.D. 

1404/05-1406/07 A.D. 

S/o Tamachi 

1391-1398 A.D. 

1406/07-1412/13 A.D. 

1406/07-1412/13 A.D 


1398 A.D. 

1412/13-1413/14 A.D. 

1412-1413 A.D. 


Jam Sikandar 

1413/14 A.D. 

1412-1413 A.D. 

Fateh Khan 

1398-1414 A.D. 

1413/14-1428 A.D. 

1412/13-1428 A.D. 



1414-1442 A.D. 

1428-1453 A.D. 

1428-1453 A.D. 


1442 A.D. 

1453 A.D. 

1453 A.D. 


1442-1444 A.D. 

1453-1454 A.D. 

1453-54 A.D. 


1444-1453 A.D. 


1453-1461 A.D. 

1454-1461 A.D. 

1454-1461 A.D. 


1461-1508 A.D. 

1461-1508 A.D. 

1461-1508 A.D. 


1508-1527 A.D. 

1508-1521 A.D. 

1508-1524 A.D. 

Insha-i-Mahru mentions that the 2nd and 3rd were joint rulers. 

1334/35-1350 AD. : 

Major changes in the course of river 
Indus took place. The river Indus 
shifted westwards, the Western Nara 
became an important channel. Larkana 
and Upper Dadu districts upto Sehwan 
became fertile, Western Puran was 




abandoned, Kalri became main branch 
and Baghar a less important branch of 
the Lower Sind. Thatta was established. 
Ghungro Branch declined and so did 
the Soomra capital Muhammad Tur. 

1335 A.D.— 736 A.H. : 

Accession of Jam Unar to power in 
Central Sind. He ruled for 17 years 
upto 1362 A.D. The Lower Sind was 
still ruled by the Soomras during this 
whole period. 

1338 A.D.: 

Due to decay of Pari Nagar, its business 
community left first for Bhodesar in 
1338 A.D., and then migrated to Jam- 

Qazwini Hamd-ullah bin Abu Bakar 
bin Hamd bin Nasar Mustaufi wrote 
Nuzhat-ul-Qulub (Delight of Hearts), 
a geographical work. It describes Sind. 

1340 A.D.— 741 A.H. : 

The Abbasid Caliphate re-established 
in Egypt. 

1341-43 A.D. : 

Muhammad Tughluq appointed Diwan- 
i-Amir-i-Kohi with instruction to im- 
prove agriculture. These Diwans were 
contractors who were advanced money 
to promote agriculture. The total pro- 
ject was a failure and not even one per 
cent increase in the agricultural output 
was achieved. 

Barni states that unless Muhammad 
Tughluq had died, which happened 
during his expedition to Sind, not even 
one of the under-takers would have 

Hodivla, Vol. I, p. 102. puts the years as 
1335, his rule upto 1339 and his brother 
Juna's rule from 1339 to 1352 A.D. 

Sobhraj, J. S. H. S., Vol. V, p. 136. 

The text has been published from Tehran 
in 1336 Sh. 







SIND IN 1351 AD- 



















■ I 

1342 A.D. : 

Ibn Batuta left Delhi on a mission to 
China. He returned to Morocco in 
1349 A.D. and at the court of Sultan 
Abu Inam, described his experiences in 
a journal called Rehla. He died in 
1377-78 A.D. 

1342-43 A.D.— 744 A.H. : 

Shahu Lodhi, assistant commander at 
Multan had Commander Bahzad 
Khan assassinated. He also expelled 
Qawamul Malik from Multan. It was a 
period of great famine in Delhi, Malwa 
and most of India inasmuch as that men 
resorted to cannibalism. 

Muhammad Tughluq himself led an 
expedition to Multan, but Shahu Lodhi 
fled to the western hills. Muhammad 
Tughluq reached Debalpur and appo- 
inted Amadul-Mulk as the Governor 
of Multan. 

There is no mention of any governor- 
ship of Sind. 

1343 A.D. : 

The Bania inhabitants of Bhodesar 
migrated to Nau Nagar due to disagree- 
ment with Raja Khan Jarjee. 

1344 A.D. : 

The arrival in Delhi of an envoy of the 
Abbasid Caliph Al-Hakam-II, from 
Egypt. Muhammad Tughluq had him- 
self written to the descendants of the 
Abbasid Caliphs, reported to be in 
Egypt, requesting them to send him a 
Sanad and accept him as the Sultan of 

CHI, Vol. UI, p. 161. 

Tarikh-i-Mubarak Shahi, pp. 106-107. 

Barni, p. 483, states that on hearing of the 
approach of Muhammad Tughluq, Shahu 
Lodhi sent an apologetic letter to Sultan 
requesting for permission for proceeding 
to Afghanistan and for appointment of 
his substitute. 

Sobhraj., J.S.H.S., Vol. VII, p. 136. 

Barni, pp. 491-496. 

The last Abbasid Caliph Mutasim was 
murdered in 1258. His uncle Ahmed 
escaped to Egypt then being ruled by 
the Mamluk Turks. The reigning King 
Zanir, welcomed Ahmed and installed 
him as Caliph. Thus began the revival 
of the Abbasid Caliphate in Egypt in 


From that date only the names of the 
Sultans of Delhi who had authority and 
confirmation of the Abbasid Caliphs 
were to be read in Khutba. Thus names 
from Balban to Ghiasuddin Tughluq 
were dropped from Friday Khutbas, 
throughout the Sultanate, which in- 
cluded some parts of the Upper Sind 

June 1261, three and half years after the 
murder of Mutasim in February 1258. 

It is believed that the Sultan sought this 
Sanad to attract masses in his tenet 
against the rebels who besides being 
Muslims were led by Ulemas, Kazis, 
Khatibs, Faqihs and Mashaikhs. 







1347 A.D. : 

Taghi, a cobbler and slave of Malik 
Sultani who was presented to Sultan 
Tughluq Shah by a group of merchants 
from Turkey and later on had risen to 
an important position under Muham- 
mad Bin Tughluq, rebelled. 

1347-48 A.D. : 

Taghi joined hands withQutlagh Khan, 
collected troops, reached Gujarat, 
and raised a rebellion. He was sup- 
ported by the Amirs of Sadah in his 

Muhammad Tughluq decided to teach 
him a lesson. 

1347-50 A.D. : 

Muhammad bin Tughluq was occupied 
mainly with the work of suppression of 
Taghi and preparation to invade Sind. 

1347 A.D., January-March— 747 A.H. : 

Rebellion led by Taghi against the 
Tughluqs developed in Gujarat. 

1347 A.D., April-May— 748 A.H., Safer : 

Muhammad bin Tughluq arrived in 
Broach from Daulatabad to crush 
Taghi's rebellion. Isanii thought that 

Barni, pp. 516-19, 525 and 531-34. 

Ishwari Prashad, 'History of Qarunah 
Turks, pp. 225-31. 

Sirat-i-Feroz Shahi, p. 2. 

Barni, pp. 515-516. 

Ain-i-Haqiqat Nama, Vol. II, pp 84-85. 

Mahdi Hussain, Muhammad Tughluq, 
p. 188. 

Barni, pp. 515-517. 


Maulana Isami. Futuh-us-Sa latin, Agra. 
1938, pp. 570-71. 

Hodivala, Vol. I, pp. 300-01. 

Agha Mahdi Hussain, p. 185. 

Barni, p. 516. 
Futuh-us-Salatin, pp. 571-72. 



he was a faithful official of Sultan and 
was driven to rebellion by the tyranni- 
cal behaviour of Sultan himself. 

1347 A D., August.— 748 A H. Jamadi-T : 

In the battle of Kadi, Taghi was defeat- 
ed by Muhammad Tughluq's armies. 

1343 A.D., September : 

748 AH., Jamadi-II i 

Taghi fled to Cutch. Muhammad Tugh- 
luq arrived in Patan. 

1347 A.D., September to 1348 A.D., June: 
748 A.H., Jamadi-n to 749 A.H.. Rabi-I: 
Muhammad Tughluq stayed in Patan tp 
reorganize the administration and 
prepare for chasing Taghi. 

1347 A.D.— 748 A.H. : 

Death of Hafiz Shamsuddin Ibn 
Abdullah also called Dhahabi, at Bagh- 
dad. He was author of Tazkirat-ul- 
Huffaz, which describes learned men of 
Sind who earned fame at Baghdad. 

1348 A.D.— 749 AH. : 

Shahabuddin Abdul Abbas Ahmed, au- 
thor of Masalik-ul-Absar-Fi-Mamalik- 
ul-Amsar, who later on visited Sind and 
wrote about it, was born. 

1349 A.D., June to October : 
Taghi fled from Girnar to Thatta. 

Taghi's route from Gujarat to Sind was 
I Cambay to Broach, Aswal, Nahrwala 
(Patan), Kanth Kot, Girnar, Gondal, 
Navalakhi, Lakhpat, Jati, Sujawal and 
Thatta. He was helped by the Jareja 
Sammas of Cutch en route. 

Muhammad Tughluq took the difficult 
and hazardous route from Cambay to 

Barni, pp. 520-21. 

Barni, p. 522. 
Hodivala, p. 302. 

Barni, p. 522. 


The text was published from Hyderabad 

Barni, pp. 522-23., 
Tabaqat-i-Akbari, Vol I, p. 222. 

Firishta (Nawal Kishore, 1884), p. 143. 



Mahdi Hussain in the map showing route 
of Muhammad Tughluq takes him from 





Aswal, Kadi, Patan. Girnar, Gondal, 
Nakni (Nagar Parkar), Diplo, Mithi, 
Dambherlo (Damrila), Digri, Thari, 
Tando Muhammad Khan, Mula Katiar 
and Sonda. He avoided the shorter 
route expecting to meet resistance from 
the Soomras on the Sind border if he 
crossed Rann of Cutch via Lakh pat. 
He was also expecting the arrival of 
boats as well as Mongol troops from 
the upstream side of the river Indus. 

1348 A.I), June to October : 
749 A.H., Rabi-T to Rajab : 
Muhammad Tughluq stayed in Mandal. 

1349 A.D. to 1349 A.D., June: 

749 A.H., Sh'aban to 750 A.H., Rabi-I : 

Muhammad Tughluq moved against the 
Saurashtra chieftain and summond re- 
inforcement from Delhi. 

1350 A.D, June to October : 

750 A.H., Rabi-r to Rajab : 

Taghi escaped to Thatta and took shel- 
ter with the Soomras, while Muham- 
mad Tughluq stayed in Gondal await- 
ing the arrival of troops from Delhi. 

Muhammad Tughluq made preparation 
for assault on Sind, while camping in 
Junagadh. . He summoned Maliks, 
Shaikhs and Ulma.s including Khuda- 
wandzadah and Makhdoomzadah with 
their followers, who also arrived. Boats 
were also summoned from Multan, 
Uch, Depalpur and Siwistan to attack 
Thatta, both by the river Indus as well 
as the land. He held court at Junagadh 
for making preparations to invade Sind. 

At Sultan's request the Mongol detach- 
ments under Altuna Bahadur also came 

Nagar Parkar to Islamkot to Mithi. 
This is erroneous, as Islamkot — Mithi 
road was built only a century back. 

Barni, p. 523. 

Barni, pp. 523-4. 


Masumi, p. 48. 
Barni, p. 523. 



from Farghana via Bolan pass, and met 
him, when the Sultan crossed the Indus. 

1349-50 A.D.— 750 AH. : 

Composing of Masnavi, Futuh-ul-Sala- 
tin by Khwaja Abdul-Malik Isami at 
the age of 40 (lunar years). This puts 
his birth date to 711 A.H. (1311-12 

This history starts with the reign of 
Mahmud of Ghazni and ends with Mu- 
hammad Tughluq. It describes Taghi's 
background. Its information about 
Muhammad Tughluq's expedition to 
Sind supplements that of Barni's and 
is useful for chronological order. 

1350 A.D., June to October : 
751 A.H., Rabi-II to Shaban : 
Sultan Muhammad Tughluq laid on sick 
bed and it was not until December 
that he was able to move to Sind. 

1350 A.D., December: 

571 AH., Shawwal ! 

Sultan Muhammad bin Tughluq left 

Gondal (north of Junagadh) with his 

massive army towards Sind. While at 

Gondal, he ordered boats to come from 

Depalpur, Multan, Uch and Sehwan. 

1350 A.I). : 

Birth of Shams Siraj Afif who wrote 
Tarikh-i-Feroz Shahi, which starts with 
Feroz's accession to throne at Sondha 
and gives details of Feroz's two expedi- 
tions on Sind. In the first expedition 
Afifs father was incharge of a flotilla of 
1000 boats, out of a total of 5000 deploy- 
ed for the purpose. 

Unfortunately, the work conceals the 
weaknesses of Sultan Feroz Shah and 


The work was started on 10th December, 
1349 A.D. and was completed on 14th 
May, 1350 A.D. 

The text edited by Agha Mahdi Hussain 
was printed from Agra in 1938. 


Barni, p. 523. 


Barni, pp. 524-25. 

It covers the period from 1351-1388 A.D. 
The work edited by Wilayat Hussain was 
published by the Asiatic Society of Bengal 
in 1891. Urdu translation by Fida Ali 
Talib is defective. 




depicts him as an orthodox and pious 
Muslim, and great admirer of religious 
men and saints. The Sultan's lack of 
military abilities is covered by his being 
too humanitarian and merciful. The 
details of the second Thatta expeditions 
have not been fully covered. The 
Sultan received a complete set-back 
until arrival and negotiations of Makh- 
doom Jehaniya of Uch. This has been 


The Makhdoom has been depicted only 
as a pious man. His role in setting right 
affairs on Sind in favour of the Sultan, 
at least three times, has been suppressed. 

1350 A.D. : 

Due to threat of Muhammad Tughluq's 
invasion of Sind, some Samma Muslims 
of Sind planned-.to migrate to Cutch, to 
take shelter with their tribes-men, the 
Jareja-Samma rulers of Cutch, but the 
migration was called on in March 1351 
due to sudden death of the Emperor. 

1350 A.D. : 

Ibn Batuta, who visited Sind in 1333 
A.D., wrote Rehla, a work considered 
to be Arabic Ulysses, curious, learn- 
ed, courageous and artistic. The book 
in its Vol. II has a chapter on Sind. 

1351 A.D., March 9 : 

752 A.H., Muharram 10 : 

Sultan Muhammad Tughluq took the 
fatal fish on breaking his fast. The fish 
is now considered a fake story to cover 
up the more important evidence of his 
death by poisoning. 

Williams, p. 101. 

A number of texts and translations are 
available, and of these Haig's article, 
'Ibn-e-Batuta in Sindh' in J. R. A. S., 
Vol. XIX, new series, 1887, pp. 393-412 
covers Sind fully. Recently a 4-volume 
translation of the work by Gibb has 
been published. 

Barni, pp. 524 and 529 puts the date 
as 751 AH., which is incorrect. 

Mahdi Hussain, p. 191. 



1351 A.D., March 20 : 

752 A.H., Muharram 21 : 

Sultan Muhammad bin Tughluq died at 

14 Kohs (28 miles) from Thatta. 

Badauni suspects poisoning. 

Sirat-ul-Auliya of Muhammad bin 
Mubarak states that Sultan sent for the 
Ulamas and Saints and among them was 
also Shaikh Nasiruddin Mahmood. On 
their arrival, he did not show respect 
for them and this miraculously caused 
his death. 

Badauni states that while Muhammad 
Tughluq was facing rebels in Gujarat, 
Feroz was installed as Sultan in Delhi 
by the Ulamas and specially Nasiruddin 
Mahmood, and, therefore, the Ulamas 
and Feroz were called by the Sultan. 
They reached Sonda before his death. 

Barni confirms that Shaikh Nasiruddin 
Mahmood and other Ulamas were 
brought (as prisoners) to his camp at 

That Feroz Tughluq also came with the 
Ulamas to Sonda leaves no doubts to 
Badauni's version. 

The death of Sultan Muhammad Tugh- 
luq is suspected by poisoning by Bada- 
uni, stating that Shaikh Nasiruddin 
Mahmood taking advantage of trou- 
bles of the Sultan, had installed Feroz 
as Sultan at Delhi. Hearing this news at 
Gondal, while on way to Thatta, the 
Sultan ordered that Feroz and Shaikh 
Nasiruddin Mahmood be brought as 
prisoners. When these prisoners arriv- 
ed at Thatta, the Sultan ordered their 
execution but shortly after this he died. 

Barni, p. 524. 

Firishta, Bombay Edition-II. p. 258 puts 
it as 20th Muharram. Mahdi Hussain 
located the place of his death as Sonda, 
22 miles from Thatta by land and it 
would be 28 miles from it along the river. 

Quoted by Mahdi Hussain in Tughluq 
Dynasty, p. 498. 

Badauni, Vol. I, p. 242 suspects that he 
was poisoned. 

Barni, p. 523-25. 

Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh, Vol. I, p. 242. 






Barni states that on his death bed the 
Sultan was reconciled to Feroz, but does 
not mention the causes of misunder- 
standings This reconciliation, there- 
fore, shows that Badauni's version is 
correct. Barni in spite of his hatred for 
the Sultan calls him Shahid, a title ac- 
corded also to those who are killed by 
poisoning. Barni has also suggested 
that best solution for the Sultan while 
in the midst of rebellions at Gujarat was 
to abdicate (in favour of Feroz). 
This version though rejected by Sir 
Wolseley Haig, appears to be closer to 
the truth than death caused by eating of 
palla fish. 

1351 A.D., March 22 : 
752 A.H., Muharram 23 : 

Accession of Feroz Shah Tughluq at 

Dr. Moinul Haq puts as Muharram 
24th or March 23rd. 

Barni is silent on the question of heirs. 
Isami states that he had a daughter born 
in the days of Ghiasuddin Tughluq. 
Isami also mentions a son who was 
raised to throne by Khwaja Jehan. 

Badauni mentions another elder son 
who accompanied him to his Sind ex- 

Feroz Tughluq born in 706 A.H. or 1305 
A. D. was 46 years of age then. 

1351 A.D. 

On death of Muhammad bin Tughluq, 
the Mongol auxiliary forces whom Amir 
Farghan had sent under the command 

Barni, pp. 521-25 and 515. 

(J.R.A.S., July 1922. 


Barni, p. 529, puts the date as 24 Mu- 
harram, 752 A.H., and has put 21st Mu- 
haram, 751 A.H. as the date of Muham- 
mad Tughluq's death. 

Urdu translation of Barni's Tarikh-i- 
Feroz Shahi. 

Futuh-us-Salatin Mubarak Shahi, p. 118 
assigns 23rd Muharram, 752 A.H. to Feroz 
Shah's accession, and Afif holds the 
same view. Firishta, Vol. II, pp. 258-59 
has copied Afif and Sirhandi. 

Badauni, p. 242. 

Arabic History ot Gujarat, Vol. Ill, p. 893. 
Afif puts his age as 45 lunar years or 44 
solar years at this time. 

Barni, pp. 107, 525, 531-35. 

Afif, p. 48. 



of Ultun Bahadur to help the Sultan, 
became rebels, joined the Soomras and 
looted and chased the Delhi forces. Mir 
Masum states that Taghi with the help 
of Soomras, Sammas and Jarejas (of 
Cutch), had attacked the Imperialists. 

To avoid further confusion, Feroz Shah, 
the new Sultan, in consultation with the 
leading Amirs paid huge sums of money 
and gifts to Ultun Bahadur and then 
alone the Mongols left for their country. 

Amir Nauroz Khan (son-in-law of 
Tarmashirin) the Mongol who for nearly - 
20 years was in the service of Sultan and 
also had deserted and joined the other 
Mongols and the Soomras, attacked 
the Imperial forces, which had departed 
from Sonda on the third day after Sul- 
tan's death., and had done only one or 
two kohs from there. The Soomras 
attacked from the rear and the Mongols 

from the front. 

The Mongols seized women, slave girls, 

horses, mules, clothes etc. Even 

villagers who had joined the Imperial 

army, now joined the Soomras in the 

plunder. They were about to seize the 

Royal Harem and treasury when the 

leaders and nobles approached Feroz 

Tughluq to become the Sultan. Under 

these pressures^he accepted the proposal, 

bribed Mongols and proceeded to 


In view of Muhammad Tughluq's death 
by poisoning, the version of the pre- 
ssures of Ulmas is a madeup story. 

While the Mongols were looting the 
imperial troop, Malik Tun, a slave of 
Vazier Khawaja Jchan fled to Delhi and 

Ishwari Parshad, History of Qarauna 
Turks, p. 305. 

Sirat-i-Feroz Shahi, pp. 1-4. 

Masumi, p. 48. 

The place would most probably be 
between 37th and 39th miles from 
Hyderabad, an alluvial depression bound- 
ed by hills on three sides and the river on 
the fourth or the eastern side. The river 
then would have been even closer to it 
than today. 




Q.A I8€t 

Barni, p. 539, denounces the boy as 





narrated the story to his master, who 
installed Mahmud, a young son of 
Muhammad bin Tughluq aged 6-7 years 
under the title Sultan Ghiasuddin Mu- 
hammad Shah. The Vazier Khawaja 
Jehan later on tried to make amends but 
he was put to death by Feroz Tughluq. 

1351 A.D.— 752 A.H. : 

Feroz Shah Tughluq soon after his acce- 
ssion at a distance of 3-4 miles from 
Sonda towards Sehwan had his coins 

1351 A.D.— 752 A.H. : 

Feroz Shah while on way from Sonda 
to Sehwan appointed governors for the 
different parts of Sind, Amir Nasar for 
(present) Nasarpur (which was built 
by Nasar), Malik Bahram for the pre- 
sent Northern Hyderabad, and South- 
ern Nawabshah Districts (the later 
built Bahrampur), Malik AH Sher and 
Malik Kafur at Sehwan, Malik Rukun- 
uddin his representive for Sind and Malik 
Abdul Aziz as Diwan of Sind. He also 
sent his agent to Ainul Malik Mahru in 
Multan and also to other places inform- 
ing them of his accession. 

Mahru states that the early Subedars 
of Sind like Bahram were so tyrant that 
the young and old of Sind were sub- 

1350-51 A.D.— 751 A.H. : 

Sultan Feroz ordered Amir Nasar to 
build a fort on Puran or Kalab Sanghra, 
and thus Nasarpur was found. Amir 
Nasar was posted there with a thousand 

Afif,n>- 51-52 and 57-80. 

Isami asserts that Sultan had no issue. 

Badauni, p. 242, states that he had 
another son who had accompanied him 
to Sind. 

Coinage and Metrology of Sultans of 

Delhi by Nelson Wright. 

These were most probably minted at 


Afif, pp. 53-55. 

Insha-i-Mahru, letter No. 134, p. 235. 
Mubarak Shahi, p. 119. 

Mubarak Shahi, p. 118. 
Tuhfa't-ul-Karam, p. 64. 
Masumi, pp. 49-50. 



The founding of Nasarpur on the 
Western Puran shows that the change 
of the course of the river Indus which 
took place some 25 years earlier had 
stabilized itself. 

This change of course was the main 
cause of the decay of the Soomra power 
and the rise of the Sanunas. 

1351 A.D.— 752 A.H. : 

Feroz Shah reached Sehwan, where for 
the first time the Khutba was read in 
his name. 

He entrusted the rule of Sehwan. to 
Malik Ali Sher and Malik Taj Kafur. 

This was the first appointment of the 
Governor at Sehwan after many years. 

The route followed from Sonda to Seh- 
wan was: Sonda, Tando Muhammad 
Khan, Nirunkot (Hyderabad), and 
Halakandi to Sehwan. 

1351 A.D. : 

Muhammad bin Tughluq was tempor- 
arily buried at Sehwan at the western 
side of Qalandar Shahbaz's grave. 

The belief that Nasarpur was founded 
by Allauddin's general Nusrat Khan is 
incorrect as the latter never came to 

Masumi. pp. 49-50. 
Mubarak Shahi, p. 118. 

Sehwan until then seems to have been 
controlled by the Samma chief Jam Unar. 

Professor Muhammad Shan, Oriental 
College Magazine, Vol. LT, No. 1, pp. 

Mubarak Shahi's statement on p. 119 
that the king's body was taken to Delhi 
on an elephant is incorrect as proved by 
inscriptions on his temporary burial. 
This tomb was bulldozed by the Depart- 
ment of Aufaq in 1967, for the face 
lifting of Qalandar's premises. How- 
ever, the inscriptions have been preserved 
by the Archaeological Department. 

Dr. N. A. Baloch in The Burial place of 
Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq', Islamic 
Culture, January 1948, states that this 




was temporary burial of the king and 
his body was removed later on in 1365 
A.D. by Feroz Tughlaq for final burial 
at Delhi. If this statement is correct 
then the body would have been removed 
in 1367 A.D. after the surrender of 

Dr. Mehdi Hussain (Tughluq Dynasty, 
pp. 499-500) basing on Sirat-ul-Aulya, 
states that his corpse was later on taken 
to Delhi and buried by the side of his 
father. The examination of the graves 
by him shows the indifference with which 
the Sultan was buried. This fact reveals 
that in spite of Afif 's claims to the con- 
trary, Feroz Shah had no respect for 
Muhammad Tughluq. 

1351 A.D. : 

Taghifled from Thatta towards Gujarat, 
where he was killed. The news of 
Taghi's death was communicated to 
Feroz Tughluq, while on his way from 
Sehwan to Delhi. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari, p. 227. 



1351 A.D. : 

According to Mir Masum, Feroz Shah 
on his way to Delhi stopped at Bakhar 
for 20 days and appointed Malik 
Rukunuddin as Naib-e-Hukumat. He 
was given the title of Ikhlas Khani 
and the control of the Upper Sind was 
also entrusted to him. Malik Abul 
Aziz Burid was appointed as the Diwan 
of Bakhar and given 80 soldiers to guard 
the Bakhar Fort. 

Mubarak Shahi states that Feroz Shah 
halted at Sehwan (which is more prob- 
able to arrange temporary burial of 

Masvmi, pp. 49-50, basing on hearsay 

Mubarak Shahi, pp. 119, 123. 


Barni mentions the arrival of Feroz 
Shah in Delhi at the end of Jaraadi-II, 
while Mubarak Shahi, and Firishta men- 
tion it as 2nd Rajab, 752 A.H. This 
means about 5$ months to march from 
Sonda to Delhi, a considerably long time, 
showmg long stay in Sehwan and Bakhar. 


Muhammad Tughluq) and appointed 
Maulana Ahmad and Maluk AH Ghauti 
as fiefs of Sind and were sent after Taghi 
and Thatta. (This is not probable as 
the Thattians had proved too powerful 
for the Imperial army). 








1351-52 A.D. : 

Jam Unar defeated Hamir bin Dodo 
soon after Muhammad Tughluq's death 
and established the Samma Dynasty, 
over most of Sind. 

At the time of Ibn Batuta's visit in 
1333-34 A.D., Unar had raised a rebel- 
lion in the Central Sind against the 
Delhi Government. He probably helped 
the Soomras against Muhammad Tugh- 
luq's invasion in 1351 A.D., but seems 
to have acquired enough strength to 
overthrow Hamir Soomro after settling 
the affairs with the Imperial army. 

Subsequently Ain-ul-Mulk made an 
appeal to Malik-us-Shariq Iftikhar-ul- 
Mulk, Sahib-i-Diwan (Prime Minister) 
to help in reinstating Hamir Soomro in 
place of Jam Banbhiniyo-H, the Samma 
ruler of Sind, who had joined hands 
with the Mongols and had attacked the 
Imperial territories in Multan and 

Insha-i-Mahru, Lahore, 1965, pp. 100-103. 

Masumi's version on p. 61, that Jam 
Unar died of drunken orgy is disproved 
by Mahru's letters. 

Masumi's statement that he died after 
a rule of three and half years is also 

The main reason for decay of Soorara 
power was changes in the course of the 
river Indus which resulted in the shifting 
of capitals a number of times. Finally in 
the mid- 14th century the river changed 
its course approximately along the 
western Nara-canal, deserting and 
turning into waste present Khairpur 
and Nawabshah districts, the strong- 
holds of Sammas, who then rebelled and 
usurped the power. 

1352-53 A.D.— 753 A.H. : 

Ferozuddin Shah Jam Unar died and 
his son Sadaruddin Jam Banbhiniyo-II 
and the former's brother Allauddin Jam 
Juna-I jointly ruled Sind. 

Hodivala, Vol. I, p. 102 puts his death 
in 1339 A.D. 

Masumi's* statement that he died after 
3>\ years rule since raising the rebellion 
in 1333 A.D. seems to be incorrect. 



1352-54 A.D. : 

Banbhiniyo, son of Jam Unar (the latter 
known for the sack of Sehwan in 1333 
A.D.) defeated Hamir bin Dodo Soom- 
ra in a single battle in spite of help from 
Ain-ul-Mulk Mahru, the Governor of 

He became ruler of the whole of Sind 
by about this period. 

1352-64 A.D. : 

Downfall of the Soomra rule. 

The exact date is not known but it would 
be between 1351 A.D. and 1364 A.D. as 
it was during this period that Ain-ul- 
Mulk Multani appealed to Sultan Feroz 
Tughluq to save the Soomra s from the 
Sammas, who were mixed up with the 
Mongols and had been encouraging 
them to attack the Delhi Sultanate's 

Dr. Riazul Islam maintains that the 
policy of Delhi after 752 A.H. (1351 
A.D.) was to support the Soomras as a 
counter-poise against the rising Sam- 
mas, who when they came to power 
resorted to another invasion from Delhi 
by Feroz Shah, and it involved a two 
years expedition to settle the matter. 

Somewhere between these years, Jam 
Unar, the Samma rebelled against the 
government of Hamir Dodo. His son 
Banbhiniyo, who succeeded his father 
probably the same year sought the help 
of the Mongols in his exploits, conquer- 
ed many forts. He also used the Mongols 
against the Delhi Government. Sultan 
Feroz Tughluq, therefore, determined to 
help Hamir Dodo and organized a full- 
fledged expedition against Thatta. 

Insha-i-Mahru, letter No. 46, pp. 100-103. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, p. 100 puts end of 
their rule in 752 A.H. 

The rise of the Sammas in Sind in Islamic 
Culture (1948), pp. 366-368. 












1352-1368 AD.— 753-768 A.H. : 

The rule of Sadaniddin Shah Jam Ban- 
bhiniyo-II bm Feroz Shah Jam Unar 
along with his uncle Allauddin Jam 
Juna-I bin Banbhiniyo-I. 

Masum assigns 13 years to the rule of 
Jam Juna. However, his statement 
about Jam Tamachi and Allauddin 
Khilji's conflict is based on hearsay and 
is not a historical truth. Masum also 
mentions the rule of Jam Khairuddin 
during the early days of Feroz Shah 
which too is not a historical fact. 

Dr. N. A. Baloch, Tahiri, p. 307 puts his 
ruleupto 1366/67 A.D. 

Dr. Daudpota (Masumi, p. 298) thinks 
that he was son of Jam Khairuddin, 
which is incorrect. 

Firishta (Bombay), Vol. II, pp. 319-20, 
considers Jam Juna-I, the successor of 
his brother Jam Feroz Shah Jam Unar 
and- the nominee of the latter and his 
rule for 14 years. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari, Vol. Ill, p. 513, states 
that he succeeded his brother Jam Unar 
and ruled for 14 years. Fiqshta considers 
Jam Bani (Banbhiniyo-II) as successor 
of Jam Juna and his rule for 15 years. 
Tabaqat-i-Akbari agrees with Firishta 
on 15 years rule of Banbhiniyo-II. 

Firishta gives 762 A.H. (1360-61 A.D.) 
as the date of Feroz Shah Tughluq's 
first expedition to Sind, which is also 

Masumi, pp. 63-64. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, p. 100 accepts Masu- 
mi's version. 

Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh of Muhammad 
Yousif puts the year of his death as 
697 A.H. which is incorrect. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, p. 100. 


Tuhfat-ul-Karam and Masumi put Ban- 
bhiniyo-II after Jam Tamachi and Taba- 
qat-i-Akbari puts him after Jam Juna. 

Qani copies Masum on the issue of Jam 
Khairuddin bin Tamachi. 




1352-68 A.D.— 753-768 AH. : 

Joint rule of Banbbiniyo son of. Jam 
Unar and his uncle Jam Juna of the 
most of Sind. Hamir Soomro having 
been defeated, had left Sind and was re- 
siding outside probably under the Delhi 
government's protection. 

Banbhiniyo in alliance with the Mongols 
had attacked Gujarat and Punjab several 
times. Ain-uI-Mulk Mahru, the Go- 
vernor of Multan appealed to Feroz 
Shah to help Hamir, and as a result, 
Feroz entrusted the job to Malik-ul- 
Umra Rukunuddin Amir Hassan, bro- 
ther of the Governor of Gujarat, with a 
view to free both Gujarat and Sind from 
the menace of Banbhiniyo bin Unar. 

This plan seems to have failed as Ban- 
bhiniyo ended the Soomra rule in Sind 
once for all. 

This finally brought Feroz Shah's in- 
vasion of Sind in 1365-67 AD. 

Banbhiniyo was aggressive and un- 
willing to submit to Delhi, whereas Jam 
Juna, an elderly person was weak and 

Afif, pp. 53-54 states that this Banbhiniyo 
remained in Delhi until the death of 
Feroz Shah Tughluq, when his successor 
Tughluq Shah sent him back to rule 
Sind, but he died on the way in 790 A. H. 
(1388 A.D.). 

Dr. Daudpota (Masumi, p. 229), thinks 
that Jam Khairuddin and his son Jam 
Banbhiniyo jointly ruled Sind and when 
taken by Feroz Shah to Delhi, Jam 
Juna, a second son of Jam Khairuddin 
and Banbhiniyo's brother Tamachi, joint- 
ly ruled Sind. This is also incorrect. 

Insha-i-MahAi, pp. 100-103, 186-188 and 

Riazml Islam, Rise of Sammas in Sind, 
Islamic Culture, Vol. XXII, pp. 359-382. 





wrote letters to Ain-ul-Mulk Mahru, the 
Governor of Multan showing willing- 
ness to submit to the Delhi Emperor. 
This may have been done through Syed 
Jalaluddin Bukhari of Uch as appears 
from Mahru 's letters. 

1352-1360 A.D. : 

A letter was addressed by the Governor 
of Multan to a military officer instruct- 
ing him about an expedition already 
sent against Sind where a rebellion had 
been raised by that time with the help 
of the Mughals (Mongols) and it was 
to be suppressed. m 

The letter whose author is called one of 
the Amirs of the Delhi Sultanate was 
written probably prior to Mahru 's ap- 
pointment as the Governor of Multan, 
or it was written when Mahru himself 
was Governor of Multan and this Amir 
had sent him a copy. 

1353 A.D.— 754 AH. : 

Raising of the dome over temporary 
burial of Sultan Muhammad Tughluq 
at Sehwan as is clearly evident from the 
inscriptions on it, now preserved by the 
Archaeological Department at Karachi. 
The mason whose services were employ- 
ed by the Royal Court, was named as 

1356 A.D.— 756 AH. : 

An inscription on the tomb of Qalandar 
Lai Shahbaz commemorating the cons- 
truction of the cupola and domes of it 
by Ikhtiyaruddin Malik, a local Go- 
vernor, in the reign of Feroz Tughluq. 

1356 AD.: 

A Patent (Sanad) arrives from the 
Abbasi Khalifa Al-Hakam in Egypt 

Insha-i- Mahru, letter Nos. 99 and 134, 
pp. 186-188, 229-235. 

Insha-i-Mahru, letter No. 8, pp. 19-21. 


Professor Muhammad Shafi, English 
Section, p. 39. 

Professor Muhammad Shafi, English 
Section, p. 39. 



confirming the whole Hindustan on 
Feroz Shah. 

1358 A.D. or 1359 A.D. : 

Death of Ziauddin Barni, author of 
Tarikh-i-Feroz Shahi, at the age of 74 
lunar years (equivalent to 72 solar 
years). His history covers the period 
from 1264-1358 and contains 23 pages 
on Muhammad Tughluq's expedition 
against Sind and its failure. In addition 
it has large number of references on 
Delhi and the Upper Sind contacts for 
94 years, for which period it is the only 
authentic source. 

1359 A.D., Soon After : 

Shirashamak who assumed the title of 
Shahabuddin, became the king of Kash- 
mir after the death of his brother Alla- 
uddin. He led an army to the border 
of Sind and is reported to have defeated 
the Jam, the ruler of Sind on the Indus. 

This may have only been a successful 
raid on the Upper Sind showing that the 
Sammas were in full control of the 
Upper Sind then. 

(i) The Jam had nothing to do with 
the Mongol raids. 

(ii) The Imperial troops sent from 

. Multan had looted the country and 

the public of Sehwan and Sukkur. 

(iii) In spite of provocations, Sind's 
army had avoided retaliation on 
certain occasions. 

This work was published by Asiatic 
Society of Bengal in 1862. Its Urdu 
translation by Dr. Moinul Haq has 
been published from Lahore in 1974. 
The book was written in 758 AH. or 
1357 A.D. 

CHI, Vol. Ill, p. 278. 
CHI, Vol. Ill, p. 501. 


The Chroniclers of Sind make no men- 
tion of the victory of Shahabuddin of 
Kashmir (1359-1378 A.D.). The authori- 
ties of Kashmir are vague and on this 
point worthless. 

1359 A.D.— 1364 A.D. : 

Jam Juna wrote a letter to Mahru, the 
Governor of Multan informing him 235. 

Insha-i-Mahru, letter No. 134, pp. 229- 



(iv) The Multan government had 
taken action against Sind on com- 
plaints of certain vested interests. 

(v) The Imperial army had Muslims 
(of Sind) arrested, declared as 
slaves and sold in the market. 

(vi) Sind had large and powerful army 
and if the Imperial troops had en- 
tered Sind again, they would face 
the consequences. 

(vii) Subedar (Muqatia) of Gujarat and 
Gumashita of Sehwan were un- 
necessarily blaming the Jams for 
any thing and every thing that went 
wrong in their administration. 

1359-1364 A.D.— 760-765 A.H. : 

In reply to Jam Juna's letter Ain-ul- 
Mulk, the Governor of Multan denied all 
his accusations and replied that on hear- 
ing the rumours of Feroz's death while 
on 2nd expedition to Lakhnauti or 
Bengal (in 1359 A.D.) the Jams of Sind 
had thrown off the yoke of submission 
which was brought about by Syed 
Jalaluddin Bukhari. He further argued 
that the Sammas had also used the 
Mongol troops against a Muslim coun- 
try and the Muslims of the Delhi Empire 
(Gujarat and Multan) and their relatives 
had usurped the Jagirs allotted to the 
representatives of the Sultan at Sehwan 
and using reconciliatory tactics to avoid 
retaliation by Sehwan's Faujdar, but 
attacking them unawares, and denying 
knowledge of it, though the Jams them- 
selves had a hand in this. He warned 
them to be as submissive as under 
Bakram Khan, (possibly the Sammas 
of Northern Hyderabad and Nawab- 




Insha-i-Mahru, letter No. 134, pp. 229- 





shah had submitted to Feroz Shah in 
1351 A.D.) and not to resort to rebell- 
ion when they had sent their girls to the 
Royal Harem. The Hindu Rajas after 
sending girls to the Royal Harem never 
rebelled, but Sindhis being treacherous 
like Raja Dahar's daughters were cap- 
able of it. The Imperial Government 
was not afraid of the Sind's army 
because the larger the number of the 
prey animals the bigger is the bag, etc. 

1360—1364 A.D., or earlier : 

Ain-ul-Mulk Mahru wrote a letter 
to Malik-us-Shariq Iftikhar-ul-Mulk 
Fariduddin Sahib-i-Diwan-i-Istifai Mu- 
malik (Prime Minister of Delhi Sultan- 
ate) that Hamir Soomro Dodo needed 
the latter's blessings (active military 
assistance) and may be nominated to 
defeat and replace Jam Banbhiniyo, a 
rebel, who having raised a Mongol army 
had once attacked Punjab and looted 
it, but was repelled by the Multan 
forces. He also had attacked and 
looted Gujarat a number of times and 
had brought infidels (Mongols who by 
that time had become Muslims) in the 
land of Islam, which fact was already 
known to the Prime Minister. 

The Governor of Gujarat Rukunuddin 
Amir Hassan had also been recommend- 
ing his (Hamir's) case and the author 
(Ain-ul-Mulk) hoped, that given the 
necessary assistance, Hamir Dodo 
would fulfil the necessary objective and 
save Punjab and Gujarat from the nui- 
sance of Banbhiniyo. 

The letter was written when Mahru was 
Governor of Multan and Rukunuddin 
Amir Hassan was the Governor of 


Insha-i-Mahru, letter No. 46, pp. ICO- 103. 












Gujarat. Hamir Soomro had most prob- 
ably taken shelter in Gujarat, to the 
Governor of which too, a letter had 
been addressed by Ain-ul-Mulk Mahru. 

1364 A.D.— 765 A.H. : 

The probable date of Ain-ul-Mulk Mul- 
tani's death. He administrated Multan, 
Bakhar, and Sehwan for Feroz Tughluq 
for some years. He entered political 
career in the days of Allauddn Khilji 
and held various posts at Dhar, Ujjain, 
Deogir, Ou^h, Zafarabad and Multan. 
He gained equal importance under 
Feroz as the Chief Minister did. 


Ain-ul-Mulk's letters clearly prove that 
while Sammas were busy in overthrow- 
ing Hamir, the last Soomra ruler, the 
former was vehemently advocating to 
Feroz Shah Tughluq to rescue Hamir 
from the Sammas. 

1364 A.D. : 

Feroz Shah determined to make an ex- 
pedition on Sind. Different opinions 
have been expressed for the motive of 
intervention in Sind by Feroz Tughluq. 

Afif states that it was to take vengeance 
upon Sindhis whom Muhammad Tugh- 
luq had failed to subdue owing to his 
sudden death. But Sind was not the 
only province where Muhammad Tugh- 
luq had suffered humiliation. In the 
South India too he had faced defeat, 
but Feroz Shah never attempted its 

Sirat-i-Feroz Shahi mentions that the 
objective underlying the expedition of 
Feroz Shah on Sind was the insolence of 
the Thattians who for many years ha«l 


Islamic Culture, Vol. XXI, 1948, pp. 359- 
368. His letters known as Insha-i- 
Mahru have been published from Lahore 
in 1965 A.D. 

Afif, pp. 191-92 puts the year as 1365 
A.D. which is wrong in view of Mahru's 
letter No. 99, pp. 186-89. 


' . 



remained hostile and had secured a safe 
abode in Dararilah. 

Mahm supports Sirat's view. Ain-ul- 
Mulk, writing to Malik-us-Shariq asks 
for Feroz Shah's assistance to crush 
Banbhiniyo, who in league with the 
Mongols, had carried out raids in 
Gujarat and the Punjab. 

Similar letters were addressed to Sultan 
Feroz by Ain-ul-Mulk, the fief holder 
(Jagirdar) and Governor of Multan. 

Surprisingly Sirat-i-Feroz Shahi re- 
cords the besieging and capture . of 
Thatta fort by Feroz Shah and Banbhi- 
niyo's recognition of the suzerainty of 
Sultan, but Afif contradicts it. If the 
Sirat was correct, Feroz would not 
have gone to Gujarat for the re-inforce- 
ments and the second expedition. 

Malik-us-Shariq Nasir-ul-Mulk was de- 
puted by Feroz Shah to check the raids 
of the Mongols who were mixed up with 
Jam Banbhiniyo in organizing them. 

Ain-ul-Mulk refers to the appointment 
of Khan-i-Azam Fateh Khan to the 
governorship of Sind, but Sind was 
then independent under the Sammas and 
in spite of two years expeditions of Feroz 
it was not annexed. It is, therefore, 
fair to conclude that Khan-i-Azam was 
Governor of Multan and Uch and pos- 
sibly some parts of Sind with headquar- 
ters at Multan. It is doubtful if Feroz 
had control over the Central Sind where- 
from the Sammas had risen to power 
in 1333-4 A.D. 

Insha-i-Mahru, pp. 100-103. 


, j 

Tarikh-i-Mubarak Shahi. 


Insha-i-Mahru, letter No. I, pp. 2-8. 









in _. 


o "* 

O A 

2 * 

n O 

c — * 


< O 





III. First or second quarter 16th century, tomb of SRaikh Jiyo at Makli. 







■ \ 

1364 A.D. 

The Governor of Multan in a declara- 
tion informed the populace of Chachkan 
(Badin and Southern Hyderabad Dis- 
tricts) that Jam Juna was honouring 
the treaty (with the Delhi Sultanate), 
but Jam Banbhiniyo had broken the 
treaty. The Shaikh-ul-Islam Sadar- 
uddin (Sadar-ul-Haq wa Sharaq-al-Din) 
and Syed Jalaluddin Bukhari had 
brought about a compromise treaty 
under which the income from Sind was 
to be spent on the (Sind's) army, which 
was to protect all the areas from Gujarat 
to Sukkur (the whole Sind and.Cutch) 
and Sind was to pay only a token tribute 
of 50 horses costing one lac Tankas a 
year, to the Delhi Sultan. 

As the treaty had been broken by some 
Thattians and no horses were sent, the 
Jams were to be punished. There was 
no retaliation from Delhi, until then as 
some of the Thatta and Chachkan Mus- 
lims had taken no part in it. But as 
Jam Banbhiniyo with the help of Mon- 
gols had destroyed Darul-Islam (Delhi 
Sultanate's territories) and had looted 
the Muslims, it was necessary to punish 
the mischief-mongers. 

If the Chachkanis repented and apolo- 
gized, they were to be protected, other- 
wise they would also come under heavy 
vengeance, their women and children 
arrested and sword would not spare 
them (the adult males). 

By this declaration the Chachkanis were 
therefore, informed^ that when the 
Islam's armies (troops of Delhi Sultan- 
ate) arrived at Sehwan and marched on 

Insha-i-Mahru, letter No. 99 pp. 186-189. 
This letter shows that Makhdoom Jaha- 
niyan of Uch (Syed Jalaluddin Bukhari) 
was actively involved in Delhi-Thatta 
politics even before Feroz Shah's expedi- 
tion to Thatta. The letter was written 
by Mahru before his death in 1364 A.D. 
but also on the eve of the expedition to 
Sind. Feroz Shah therefore must have 
prepared himself for this expedition in 
1364 A.D. 


Thatta they should join the Islam's 
army. Only then they would be par- 

1365 A.D., October— 767 A.H. Safer : 

Feroz Shah Tughluq issued orders to 
prepare an expedition to Sind. 

The Vazier Khan Jahan collected large 
army of ninety thousand horses, four 
hundred and eighty elephants and ar- 
ranged a fleet of five thousand boats to 
be requisitioned from Bakhar, Multan 
and Uch. The Sultan marched .to 
Bakhar via Ajodhan, from where the 
fleet floated down the Indus. AfiFs 
father was incharge of a flotilla of 1000 
boats. Jam Juna and Banbhiniyo 
were also ready with twenty thousand 
horses and four lac foot soldiers. 

From Mahru's letter No. 99, pp, 186-189, 
it is clear that preparations of expedition 
to Sind were in hand in 1364 A.D. This 
declaration was merely a formality. 

Sultan lost the battle and left for Gujarat 
to collect reinforcements. In this war 
the M ultanis led the midd'e wing of the 

Afif admits that during the retreat when 
only 20 miles away from Thatta the 
enemy (Sammas) fell on the rear of the 
Imperial army, capturing the boats and 
killing many of the Sultan's men. Fur- 
ther losses occurred in the Rann of Cu- 
tch due to shortage of food and water. 

The total strength of Feroz's army at 
Delhi was 80,000-90,000 horses. Thus 
he used the full strength of his army to 
conquer Sind, but the first attempt fail- 
ed. The flotilla of 500 boats was des- 
troyed by the Sindhi and Cutchi sea- 

Afif, pp. 194-207 gives the details. He 
does not admit Feroz's defeat but states 
that due to epidemic and fodder shortage 
the Sultan left for Gujarat to re-inforce 
himself. The court historian uses the 
epidemic as an excuse to cover defeats. 

The figure of Sind army is a gross exa- 
ggeration. Total population of Sind 
could not have exceeded IS lacs at that 
time, specially due to change of course 
of river Indus in first quarter of four- 
teenth century which must have brought 
famines and high rate of mortality. 

Mubarak Shahi, p. 131. 






Sirat-i-Feroz Shah makes a wrong state- 
ment that when the Imperialists were 
about to capture Thatta, Banbhiniyo 
came and surrendered. This is in- 
correct as the Sultan left for Gujarat 
and spent a year to make a fresh ex- 
pedition on Sind. 

Mubarak Shahi clearly states that Ban- 
bhiniyo retaliated with force and many 
of the Sultan's men perished due to 
shortage of food while still near Thatta 
and therefore under this helplessness, he 
departed for Gujarat. 

1365 A.D. October to March 1366 A.D.: 

On retreat from Thatta towards Gujarat, 
the Imperial army of Feroz Tughluq suf- 
fered series of calamities i.e., scarcity 
of grains, hunger and loss of the total 
number of his horses due to lack of 
fodder, salty marsh land of the Rann 
of Kutch (KLunchiran) and lack of sweet 
water, resulting into the death of most 
of animals and thousands of men. 
This lasted for 6 months. 

Williams, pp. 101-102, states that in this 
battle Sammas of Sind had also sought 
help from their own kinsmen, the Hindu 
Jareja Sammas of Cutch, and the Im- 
perial sea-men were no match for Sindhi 
and Cutchi mariners. During his retreat 
he wanted to punish Cutchi s but his 
large army perished and Cutch escaped 
the vengeance. Jareja s had migrated to 
Cutch in 1 147 A.D. 

Afif, pp. 205-219. 



On his arrival in Gujarat, Feroz Shah 
dismissed its Governor Amir Hassan 
Nizam-ul-Mulk for failure in sending 
supplies for his army on expedition. 

1366 A.D. March to July 1366 A.D. : 

Feroz Shah prepared for a second expe- 
dition on Thatta. The revenues of Gu- 
jarat amounting to 2 crore Tankas were 
spent on troops. The irregular troops 
(Ghair Wajahdars) received advance 
from Sultan for purchasing horses. The 
regulars (Wajahdars) also received loans 
to equip themselves. Vazier Khan 
Jahan sent supplies from Delhi. Seven 

Afif, p. 219. 

Afif, pp. 219-223. Also 
Shahi in Islamic Culture. 



lac Tankas were spent on the weapons 
of war. 

1366 AD. September to 

1367 A,D. September : 

Feroz Shah left Gujarat for Thatta. 
Large number of soldiers started desert- 
ing the Imperial army. On this the 
Sultan stated that if they were detained 
forcibly, it would mean inflicting punish- 
ment on them and therefore on their 
arrival back in Delhi, they should be 
given mild punishment (Tadaruk-i- 
Ma'nwi and no physical torture). 


He avoided Cutch, which had gained 
bad reputation for isolation, remoteness 
and treacherous routes. 

It was during these troublesome days 
of Feroz Shah that the Sindhis sang a 
Sindhi verse, "By the grace of Pir 
Pattho, one died and the other fled", 
meaning thereby that Muhammad 
Tughluq died and Feroz Shah took to 

1367 A.D. October to November : 

Feroz Shah Tughluq reached on the 
left bank of the Indus suddenly, during 
the harvest season of corn (Rice, Jowar 
and Bajra) and raided large number of 
villages to secure grain and took 4000 
Sindhi villagers as captives. The Sultan 
sanctioned proper quota of grain for 
them and ordered that as the captives 
were Muslims they should be treated 

Imad-ul-Mulk and Zafar Khan Lodhi 
(also called Zafar Khan-i-Buzrig) cross- 
ed the river and started operations 
against Sammas. The operations con- 

Afif, pp. 225-228 


Jam Juna had charged that Delhi forces 
were capturing Sindhi Muslims and sell- 
ing them as slaves, as is reported by 
Mahru's letter No. 134, pp. 229-235. 
Feroz Shah issued these orders to nullify 
these charges. 

Afif, pj\. 231-238. 

Afif, suppresses this second defeat of the 
Imperialists, which necessitated calling 





tinued until the Sultan sent orders to 
stop fighting to avoid terrible bloodshed 
of Muslims. Imad-ul-Mulk returned 
without any substantial gain. In fact 
they most probably were defeated even 
this time as Imad-ul-Mulk was ordered 
to go to Delhi and bring fresh inforce- 
ment and which Wazir Khan Jahan 
arranged from Badaun, Chanderi, Kan- 
auj, Sandila, Oudh, Jaunpur, Bihar, 
Tirbut, Mahoba, Iraj, etc. The troops 
accompanied Imad-ul-Mulk to 
Thatta. This must have taken a mini- 
mum of 8 months i.e. by about June 
1367 A.D. troops must have reached 
Sind for a third expedition on Thatta. 

Zafar Khan who first was left as the 
Governor of Gujarat, seems to have 
been called for this expedition. 

of troops from almost the whole of 
Empire then under the control of Feroz 



1368 A.D., Autumn : 

Arrival of fresh inforcement from Delhi 
under Imadul-Mulk at Thatta. Afif 
reports that as the Imperialists had 
seized the cultivated fields, Thattians 
were faced with famine and starvation 
and Banbhiniyo made overtures for 
peace through Sayyaid Jalaluddin to 
Feroz Shah and the latter accepted the 
request of the Sayyid: Later on, Jam 
Banbhiniyo arrived at the Imperial camp 
and submitted to the Sultan. At that 
time the Sultan was on a hunting ex- 
pedition. He was given the robe of 
honour and was made to accompany 
the Sultan to Delhi, but Sind was not 
annexed. Banbhiniyo's family ruled 
Sind on his behalf. Besides Banbhiniyo 
many others also came for submission 
and the Sultan bestowed on them many 
villages as Jagirs. 

Afif, pp. 237-46. 

Mediaeval Indian Quarterly, Vol. HI, p. 
133. The same article describes that this 
Sayyid used to come to Delhi and stay 
as a Royal guest. It was diplomacy than 
war that subdued Sind. 



In Malfuzat of Makhdoom Jehaniya 
while describing his miracles it is 
clearly stated that Feroz Shah on seeing 
the loss of the lives of the Muslims 
called Makhdoom Jehaniya (Jalaluddin 
Bukhari of Uch), who came and prayed 
to Shaikh Rukunuddin (his ancestor) for 
submission of Banbhiniyo to the Delhi 
Government. An oracle informed him 
that his prayer was accepted. When 
the army of Feroz Shah heard this, they 
became happy and it is due to this mir- 

Dr. Riazul Islam, Islamic Culture, 
October, 1948. 





aclc that the Jam submitted to Feroz 
Shah on 12th Rabi-II. 

From this it is dear that Feroz Shah 
called the Makhdoom for whom the 
Sammas had great reverence and sub- 
mitted as per his tactics. 

Qasida-i-Mutahar Kurhi considers this 
submission as a miracle in the Jehad of 
Feroz Shah. 

This happened after the arrival of fresh 
troops from Delhi and its eastern depen- 

Afif states that a compromise was 
arrived at on three points. 

(0 The Sammas will pay tribute. 

(ii) Banbhiniyo and Jam Juna will go 
to Delhi and stay in the Imperial 

(iii) Their descendants will rule Sind 
on their behalf and Sind will not be 

Makhdoom Jalaluddin Jehaniya of Uch 
visited Sind to bring peace between 
Jam Banbhiniyo Samma and Feroz 

In the Malfuzat of Makhdoom 
Jehaniya, it is stated that Feroz Shah 
called Makhdoom Jehaniya and the 
Makhdoom prayed for the submission 
of Banbhiniyo to the Delhi Govern- 
ment. Then a voice from heaven 
(oracle) informed him that his prayer 
was accepted. When the Imperial army 
heard this they became happy. 


Afif, pp. 231-38. 

Afif states that Jam Banbhiniyo seeing 
the strength of the Delhi army, sent for 
the above saint to bring a compromise, 
but letter number 99 of Malfuzat of 
Makhdoom Jehaniya makes it clear that 
it was at the request of Feroz Shah that 
Syed Jalaluddin Bukhari came to Thatta 
for this purpose as is reported by 
Muhammad Ayub Qadri "Munaqib-i- 
Makhdoom Jehaniya", p. 141. 

Even subsequently the same Syed came 
to suppress the uprising by Jam Tamachi. 
Dr. Riazuddin in Islamic Culture, Octo- 
ber, 1948, supports this view. 

Afif, pp. 114, 141-142, states that Jam 
Banbhiniyo called Makhdoom to bring 
about a compromise with the Sultan. 
This version is not acceptable in view of 
Malfuzat's 'statement, which clarifies 
that he was called by the Sultan and 
prayed for his success. 



It was due to this miracle that the Jams 
submitted to Feroz Shah on 12th 

1368 A.D., Autumn— 769 A.H. : 
Feroz Shah Tughluq in his entourage 
took Jam Juna and Sadaruddin Ban- 
bhiniyo from Thatta to Delhi and fixed 
two lac Tankas for their maintenance. 
This was equivalent to the tribute to be 
paid by Sind as per agreement. In the 
absence of Jam Juna and Banbhiniyo, 
the former's son and the latter's brother 
Tamachi, jointly ruled from Thatta. 

1368 A.D., end : 

Feroz Shah Tughluq left Sind for Delhi 
via Multan. On the way, in a boat di- 
saster, the children of Banbhiniyo were 
drowned. The names of the latter's sons 
are not known. Thus ended the two- 
year operations of Feroz Tughluq in 

While in Delhi, Banbhiniyo, Mangul 
Khan and Qazi Sadr Jahan (Qazi-ul- 
Quzat) used to sit at a short distance 
behind Khanjahan (Vazir) on a folded 
carpet. It was a prominent seat on a 
carpet in the Imperial court ji st behind 
the Sultan. 


Afif, pp. 254-260. 

Sirat-i-Feroz Shahi confirms that the 
operations in Sind lasted for two years. 
The same source describes the features 
of Sindhis. 

Afif, pp. 285,219. 

Futuhat-i-Feroz Shahi (Islamic Culture, 
Vol.15, 1941, p. 451). 

Qazi-ul-Quzat was an important post 
specially under weak sovereigns (like 
Feroz Shah). Allauddin had taken all 
powers of Juris ts in his hands by initiating 
and enacting laws himself ar d rejecting 
interpretations of the jurists. Muhammad 
Tughluq consulted them, but rarely 
accepted their advice. With Feroz Shah, 
Qazi-ul-Quzat was virtually second to 
Vazir or Prime Minister, (Ishwari Pra- 
shad, History of Qaraunah Turks, p. 257). 
Of course it was Feroz Shah who abolish- 
ed brutal punishments like mutilation 





End of 1368— End of 1370 A.D. : 

Rule of Rukunuddin Shah Jam Tama- 
chi bin Femzuddin Shah Jam Unar, 
along with Khairuddin Jam Togachi 
bin Allauddin Jam Juna, in the ab- 
sence of his brother Jam Banbhiniyo-II. 
His rule was peaceful, but he declared 
independence from the vassalship of 
Delhi Sultanate. 

of hands, feet, ear, and nose, and pluck- 
ing out of eyes, pouring molten lead 
down the throats of people, crushing of 
the bones of hands and feet, roasting 
alive in fire, driving of nails in the hands, 
feet and chest, flaying alive, etc. 

Dr. N. A. Baloch, Tahiri, p. 307 has 
put his rule from 1366-1375/76 A.D., but 
there is evidence that he was replaced in 
the end of 1370 A.D. by Jam Juna and 
sent to Delhi in the beginring of 1371 
A.D. See entry January, 1371 AD. 

Firishta (Bombay), Vol. II, p. 318, pits 
his rule as 13 years and some months. 
Briggs, Vol. Ill, p. 247, puts his rule from 
769-782 AH. (1367-1380/82 A D). His 
rule is considered peaceful. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari, Vol. Ill, p. 514, agrees 
with 13 years and a few months rule of 
this prince. 

Masumi, pp. 63-64, puts his rule during 
the last days of Allauddin Khilji which 
is not correct. Tuhfat-ul-Karam, p. 100 
gives the same version as Masumi. 

Masumi, also mentions the independent 
rule of Jam Khairuddin sdon after the 
death of Sultan Muhammad Tughluq, 
which is not a "historical fact. 

Nizamuddin and Masum put Jam Ban 
bhiniyo-II before Jam Tamachi. Firishta 
puts Jam Mani bin Jam Juna. Ma'athir- 
i-Rahimi, Vol. Ill, p. 265, puts Jam 
Tamachi as the son of Jam Unar, which 
is not correct. 

Dr. Daudpota, basing on Firishta 's 
statement about Jam Tamachi bin Jam 



1368 A.D., afterwards 

Ghariyal invented by Feroz Tughluq 
soon after his return from Thatta. It 
was placed on the top of Ferozabad 
palace wherefrom it announced the 
hours of the day and night. 

Afif describes its practical utility to reli- 
gion, i.e. telling time in cloudy weather 
and the exact time of prayers, making 
people observe proper times for fasting 
during the month of Ramzan, etc. 

1368 A.H., end : 

The attempts of Delhi Government to 
re-instal Hamir ended and Soomro 
Dynasty came to close. 

1369 A.D.— 770 A H. : 

Sultan Feroz Tughluq returned from 
Sind's expedition, taking along with 
him Jam Juna and Banbhiniyo. He 
fixed a stipend of 2 lacs Tankas for 
each of them, and a decent house. 
They attended court daily in the most 
costly costumes and sat to the left of 
the throne. 

Mubarak Shahi states that after Banbhi- 
niyo's stay in Delhi, Feroz Shah restored 

Mani thinks that Jam Khairuddin was 
also called Jam Mani. 

Afif, p. 247, does not name Khairuddin 
Togachi, but only mentions him as son 
of Jam. 

Islamic Culture, Oct. 1948 puts the 
date as 767 AH. which is incorrect. 

All the above sources except Afif are 
directly or indirectly based on Tabaqat-i- 
Bahadur Shahi, now lost and in presence 
of Siraj-al-Hidayat the period of 13 
years is to be reduced to only 3 years. 

Ghariyal is a Sindhi word. It was de- 
finitely not a Sindhi invention butknow- 
ledge about it may have reached Sind 
earlier, wherefrom the Sultan may have 

Afif, p. 281. . 

Mubarak Shahi, p. II. 



the government of Thatta back to him 
and gave him a warm send off. 

13*9-88 AD. : 

Sultan Feroz Tughluq exercised some 
control over the political life in Sind but 
soon after his death, Sind gained com- 
plete independence. 

1370-71 A.D.— 111 A.H. : 

An anonymous writer, who enjoyed the 
patronage of Sultan Feroz Shah, wrote 
Sirat-i-Feroz Shahi. It is based on per- 
sonal observations and starts witn the 
chaotic condition of Delhi troops on 
Muhammad Tughluq's death and also 
describes Feroz Shah's two expeditions 
to Sind. It is rich in chronological 
events, which Barm's and Afif's are not. 

1370 AD., end— 772 A H. : 

Rukunuddin Shah Jam Tamachi re- 
belled against the yoke of the Tughluqs. 
To suppress this, Allauddin Jam Juna 
along with Makhdoom Syed Jalaluddin 
Bukhari (Jehaniya), was deputed from 
Delhi. The Syed managed to replace 
Jam Tamachi by Jam Juna. This 
was the third time this Makhdoom was 
utilized to settle the Sind affairs. 

Afif gives no date of this incident, but 
Hadiqat-ul-Aulya quoted, by Dr. Riazul 
Islam states that on this occasion Jam 
Tamachi and his son Sultan Salahuddin 
Jam Unar-III, were sent to Delhi. On 
the recommendation of Shaikh (Hamad 
Jamli) they were released from Qaid-i- 
Hind (Delhi) and reached Sind. Jam 
Tamachi had left Thatta for Delhi in 
Rajab 772 or January 1 372. 

Abdul Ghafoor, Calligraphers of Thatta, 
pp. 3 and 4. Sind may have gained in- 
dependence earlier as the Sultan had 
become senile in his old age and in- 
capable to govern properly as reported. 
Afif, pp. 71-73. 

Afif, p. 254. 

Riazul Islam, Islamic Culture, October 
1948, quoting 'Siraj-ul-Hidaya'. 


Jam Juna along with his son continued 
to rule Thatta paying the annual tribute 
to Delhi. 

In the reign of Feroz Shah Tughluq 
Sayyid Shaikh Jalaluddin Bukhari 
(Makhdoora-i-Jahaniya) frequently went 
to Delhi and was kept as the state guest 
either in the Kush of Ferozabad or at 
the residence of Fateh Khan. 

He was responsible for the uncondi- 
tional surrender of Jam Banbhiniyo to 
Feroz Tughluq in 1367 A.D. 

Makhdoom Jahaniya was grandson* of 
Syed Jalaluddin Surkhposh, one of the 
disciples of Bahauddin Zakariya spon- 
sorer of the Suhrawardiya sect of sufism. 
During the reign of Feroz Tughluq, the 
Multan branch of Suhrawardi sect had 
lost its importance but Makhdoom 
Jehaniya enabled its Uch branch to gain 
importance. Due to his influence in 
Sind, he converted many Ismaili 
Soomras to Sunni faith. 

He made frequent visits to Delhi and 
was held in high esteem by the State 
officials. Once, Ain-ul-Mulk Mahru 
sought his help to realize Khiraj in Sind. 

It was the magic of his religious influ- 
ence which secured the submission of 
the Sammas to Feroz Tughluq at least 
on 3 occasions, first before 1364, next in 
1368 and lastly in 1371-72 A.D. 

1371 A.D., January— 772 A.H., Rajab : 
Jam Tamachi was sent to Delhi. 

1371-1388/89 A.D.— 772—790/91 A.H. ; 

Rule of Allauddin Jam Juna bin Ban- 
bhiniyo-I (Second time). 

Ain-i-Haqiqat Nama, Vol. n, p. 174. 

Mubarak Shahi, p. 11. 

Afif treats Jam and Babaniya as two 
different persons. Afif also does not 
mention Banbhiniyo's return to Sind 
but Masumi, p. 26 states that he returned 
and ruled Sind for 15 years. His return 
is also supported by Tarikh-i-Mubarak 
Shahi, Badauni-Ranking translation, 
p. 332 and Brigg's, Firishta, Vol. I, p. 455. 

Mediaeval Indian Quarterly, Aligarh, 
1957, Vol. Ill, pp. 109-49. 

Ibid, p. 114. 

Afif, pp. 141-42. 

Insha-i-Mahru, letter No. 99, pp. 186-188. 

Islamic Culture, October 1948, quoting 

Dr. N. A. Baloch, Tahiri, p. 307, puts 
the beginning of his rule in 777 A.H. or 





1373-74 A.D.— 775 A.D. 

Town of Samui founded. 

1374 A.D.— TO A.H. : 

Death of Fateh Khan son of Feroz 
Tughluq. He was assigned the Province 
of Sind in the early days of Feroz Shah's 
reign. This must have been prior to the 
death of Ain-ul-Mulk Mahru who died 
in 1364 A.D. 

Since the Sammas were controlling Sind 
and Banbhiniyo had even attached Pun- 
jab and Gujarat, the title of Fateh Khan 
on Sind must have been in name only, 
except for the early period when they 
governed the area upto Sehwan. 

1375 A.D.: 

Construction of the first Jain temple at 
Bhodesar. The second was constructed 
in 1449 A.D. 

1380 A.D. : 

Jam Allauddin Samma built a tomb over 
the grave of Shaikh Abu Turabi. The 
mason was Musa bin Shahjan. The 
use of Persian inscription shows that 
Persian had become accepted language 

775 A.H. which is incorrect. Firishtaand 
Tabaqat-i-Akbari do not mention his rule. 
Masumi, p. 65, states that due to his 
good conduct Banbhiniyo-II was re- 
assigned the Province of Sind by Feroz 
Tughluq. Masumi may have mistaken 
Juna for Banbhiniyo. Tuhfat-ul-Karam, 
p. 101, repeats Masumi's version. 

Mubarak Shahi, p. 131. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, p. 180, states that it 
was founded after the destruction of 
Muhammad Tur. Samui may have been 
found by the Sammas as a small town 
outside Thatta as a resort on the river. 

Insha-i-Mahru, letter No. 1, pp. 2-8 
states that Fateh Khan was given title of 
Khan-i-Azara wa Khaqani Mu'zam 
Humayun Fateh Khan. 

Syed Hussamuddin Rashdi, Makli Nama, 
p. 161, states that the assignment of Sind 
to Fateh Khan must have taken place 
after the surrender of Banbhiniyo in 1368 
A.D., but this is not correct as this title 
came in the collections of Mahru, before 
his death in 1364 A.D. 

Professor Muhammad Shafi, p. 9, thinks 
that it was during the rule of Jam Saiah- 
uddin and Jam Allauddin was a prince 
from the royal family. The inscription 

on the tomb raises him from a soldier 



as such on the tombs and monuments 
and Arabic was no longer used for the 
purpose. There is evidence of use of 
Sindhi in Devnagri Script during the 
Samma period. 

1381 A.D.: 

The Ottoman Turks push into Asia. 

1383-84 A.D.— 785 A.H. : 

Syed JaJaluddin Bukhari or Makhdccm 
Jehaniya of Uch, who was instrumental 
in Sind's surrender to FerozTughluq in 
1368 A.D. and had brought about com- 
promise between Sind and Delhi, in 
1359-64 and 1371 A.D., died at the age 
of 78 lunar or 76 solar years. 

1384-85 A.D.— 786 A.H. : 

Syed Muhammad and his son Syed 
Ahmed left Shiraz for Thatta via Qan- 
dhar, Sehwan and Samui. The great 
Persian poet Hafiz also accompanied 
them, but was sent back from Qandhar 
by Syed Muhammad to Shiraz, where 
he died in 791 A.H. 

The exact date of their arrival in Thatta 
is uncertain but Syed Ahmed left Syed- 
pur and settled permanently in Thatta 
only after the death of Syed Ahmed in 
800 A.H. (1397-98 A.D.). Soon after 
their arrival they were settled in the 
village of Murad Othi in the Manehhar 

1388 A.D. : 

The latest date of the completion of 
Futuhat-i-Feroz Shahi, which contains 
a brief summary of the reign of Feroz 
Shah Tughluq, who himself was its au- 

to Waliullah. Turabi was an Arab 
Amir who was assigned a Jagir near 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, Sindhi translation, p. 

Afif reports on his age and accordingly 
his birth date would be 1307-08 A.D. 

Risala-i-Ma'arif-ul-Anwar, pp. 1 10 and 
117 quoted by Hussamuddin in Maklv 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, Sindhi translation, p. 
185, states that they came to Sind during 
Jam Tamachi's rule, which appears to be 


Its translation has been published in the 
Islamic Culture, Vol. 15, 1941. It is also 
called Sirat-i-Feroz Shahi. One of the 
most important portfolios i.e. the body- 






thor. Since it covers first 20 years of 
Feroz Shah's reign, it may have been 
written in 772 A.H. 

His religious sentiments, expressed in 
the Futuhat, are contradicted by his 
waging war on the co-religionists like 
Haji Ilyas Shamsuddin of Bengal and 
Jam Banbhiniyo of Sind. In addition, 
he refrained from taking any action 
against the Hindus for their atrocities 
upon the Muslims of Mabar as des- 
cribed by Afif. 

1388 A.D., July— 790 A.H., Rajab 14 : 

Burhanuddin Qutub-ul-Alam, son of 
Syed Nasiruddin and grandson of 
Makhdoom Jehania of Uch, was born. 

1388 A.D.— 790 A.H. : 

Death of the poet Mutahar of Kurhi, 
who composed poetry in the praise of 
Feroz Shah Tughluq and Ainul Mulk 
Mahru Multani. 

In his poetry, he has passed derogatory 
remarks against Jam Banbhiniyo-II and 
calls them Rai Jam and Rai Tamachi, 
etc., depicting them as Hindus, to justify 
future action against them. 

guard of the Sultan, was held by Rai 
Bhiru who was a Hindu. 

Afif, pp. 99-100 and 261-67. 


Tuhfat-ul-Karam, Sindhi translation, p 




1388 A.D., 23 October : 
790 AH., 18th Ramzan : 

Sultan Fcroz Tughluq died. He had 
already nominated his grandson Ghias- 
uddin Tughluq Shah bin Fateh Khan 
as his successor and Sultan. 

The new Sultan Ghiasuddin Tughluq 
on accession allowed Jam Banbhiniyo 
and his brother Jam Rukunuddin as 
also latter's son Jam Salahuddin to re- 
turn to Sind. Banbhiniyo died en route; 
and Rukunuddin Tamachj became 
Sind's ruler for the second time around 
791 A.H. (1389 A D.). 

1388 A.D. : 

During his rule Feroz Shah improved 
the postal system by putting 2 chawkis 
at every 2 miles. The usual system was 
that 10 swift runners taking letters, etc., 
in one hand and a stick tied with ringing 
bells in the other hand, rushed from one 
chawki to other, where similar runners 
were kept in readiness for receiving the 
mail and rushing to the next chawki. 
These runners took the post for the 
Sultan only and they were not open to 
general public. 

1389 A.D.— 791 AH. : 

Jam Rukunuddin Shah Tamachi along 
with his son Jam Salahuddin Shah (Jam 
Unar-II) reached Sind. The two ruled 
one after the other. 

Masumi, p. 51. 
Mubarak Shahi, p. 140. 



Firishta assigns Ramzan 13th, 799 A.H. 
to his death, which is incorrect 

Afif, p. 254. 

Rehala (Edited by Mahdi Hussain), 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, p. 102. 

Afif, p. 247, calls Tamachi son of Jam. 








1389 A.D.— 791 A.H. : 

Ghiasuddin Tughluq Shah was assassi- 
nated by the Hindu slaves of Feroz 
Shah. Ghiasuddin ruled for 5 months 
and 3 days. 

1389 A.D., 19th February : 
791 A.H., 21st Safrr : 

On the assassination of Sultan Ghias- 
uddin Tughluq, the courtiers took out 
Abu Bakar bin Zafar Khan bin Sultan 
Feroz from the prison and made him 
the new Sultan. 

1389 A.D.— 791 A.H.: 

Darwesh Nooh Khaibrai, a sufl, who 
reared cattle for his living was alive 
then. He informed Jam Tamachi, who 
was on his way from Delhi to Thatta, 
that Jam Juna was still ruling over 

1389 A.D.— 791 AH. : 

Allauddin Jam Juna died. 

1389-92 A.D.— 791-795 A.H. : 

The rule of Sultan Rukunuddin Shah 
Jam Tamachi a second time. 

The folklore Noori-Tamachi is connect- 
ed with this king. 

1389-90 A.D.,— 792 A.H., 16th Ram/an 
After 18 months rule Sultan Abu Bakar 
bin Zafar bin Feroz Tughluq was re- 

Masumi, p. 52. 


Masumi, p. 52. 

Ain-i-Haqiqat Nama by Akbar Shah 
Khan Najib-Abadi, Vol. II, p. 86. 

Hadiqat-ul-Auliya, p. 56. 

His tomb is located 3 miles north of 
Khaibar near Sahata village and about 
25 miles north of Hyderabad. 

Dr. N. A. Batoch, Tahiri, p. 307. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari and Firishta do not 
mention his rule a second time. Accord- 
ing to Tuhfat-ul-Karam, pp. 102-103, 
the grave of Jam Tamachi (and Noori 
too) is towards the south of the grave 
of Shaikh Hamad, and enclosed in a 
dome. This makes the said grave of 
Noori, now in the Kinjhar Lake and 
preserved as a monument by the Irriga- 
tion Department, an archaeological for- 
gery of later times. 

Masumi, p. 56. 



moved by Ferozi slaves and Nasiruddin 
Muhammad Shah Tughluq was installed 
as the new Sultan. He was given the 
title of Muhammad Shah-III. 

After 1390 A.D.— After 792-93 A.H. : 

Jam Tamachi paid large sum of money 
to Shaikh Hamad, who built the Jamia 
Mosque at Makli from these funds. 

1392-1404/05 A.D.— 795-807 A.H. : 

The rule of Salahuddin Shah Jam (Unar- 
II) bin Sultan Rukunuddin Shah Jam 



Masumi also mentions the uprisings on 
the (Cutch) border as well as his attack 
on Cutch and collection of huge amount 
of booty. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, assigns 15 years to 
his reign, and quoting Hadiqat-ul-Auliya 
states that Jam Juna sent Jam Tamachi 
and latter 's son Jam Salahuddin as 
prisoners to Delhi, wherefrom they re- 
turned with the blessings of Shaikh 
Hamad, overthrew Juna and then the 
father and the son, ruled in succession. 

Hadiqat-ul-Auliya, pp. 49-60. 


Dr. N. A. Baloch, Tahiri, p. 307. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari, Vol. Ill, p. 514, also 
assigns 11 years and some months to 
this king. Firishta (Bombay), Vol. II, 
p. 318, puts him as a successor of 
Jam Tamachi and his rule of 1 1 years. 
Briggs, Vol. IV, p. 247, considers this 
period as 782-793 A. H. or 1380-1391 
A.D. Firishta has eliminated the second 
time rule of Allauddin Jam Juna bin 
Banbhiniyo, as well as that of Jam 

Masumi, p. 65 assigns his rule of eleven 
years and six months after Jam Tamachi, 
which is correct only if Jam Tamachi 
ruled second time. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, p. 102. 

Hadiqat-al-Auliya, pp. 49-60. The 
names of Tamachi and Salahuddin come 
from the inscription on Jam Nizam - 
uddin's grave. See entry 915 A.H. (1509- 




1395-96 A.D.— 798 A.H. : 

Due to his difference with Khizir Khan, 
who was ruler of Multan on behalf of 
Sultan Mahmud Shah II Tughluq of 
Delhi, Sarang Khan, the Governor of . 
Debalpur and Lahore, captured Multan. 

1397 AD., June— 799 A.H., Ramzan : 
Sarang Khan attacked Delhi. 

1397-98 A.D — 800 A.H., 10th 

Muharram : 

Death of Syed Muhammad Shirazi 
after having been in Sind for 14 years. 
His descendants, the Shirazi Syeds, were 
settled in Thatta and their graves are 
on the Makli Hills. 

1397-98 A.D.— 800 A.H. : 

Syed Nasiruddin son of Makhdoom 
Jehania of Uch and father of Burhan- 
uddin Qutubul Alam died. 

1397-98 A.D.— 800 A.H. : 

Mirza Pir Muhammad, grand-son of 
Amir Timur, laid siege to Uch for one 
month, but when Sarang Khan sent 4000 
horses under Tajuddin to the aid of 
Malik Ali, the governor of Uch, Pir 
Muhammad gave him a battle and de- 
feated Tajuddin. He then laid siege 
to Multan, the ruler of which Sarang 
Khan surrendered after a bitter fight of 
6 months. The Multan soldiers were 
taken as prisoners. 

1400-1500 A.D. : 

Mangho Pir flourished then. 

1398 A.D., 8th October— 
800 A.H., 15th Muharram : 

Sarang Khan was defeated by the Amirs 
of Delhi. 


Masumi, p. 58. 




translation, p. 




He is called Lala Jasraj by the Hindus. 


Masumi, p. 58. 




1398 A.D.— 801 A.H. : 

Amir Timur reached Multan and mass- 
acred all the soldiers, made captive by 
Pir Muhammad, his grand-son. Masumi 
thinks that Sind became independent 
after Timur 's attack of Multan. There is 
no evidence of Delhi's control on Sind. 
Since 1 388 A.D. Uch remained under the 
Delhi Sultanate's control upto its fall to 
Pir Muhammad. The local Governor of 
Uch that time was Malak Ali, a nominee 
of Sarang Khan, son of Zafar Khan 
Lodhi, Governor of Gujarat. Sarang 
Khan was responsible for bringing 
Nasiruddin Mahnrood to power and 
latter made him governor of Debalpur. 
With Amir Timur came Syed Hyder Bin 
Syed Mir Ali Hussaini to Multan and 
therefrom came to Halakandi (Sind) 
and married a lady from a Hala family. 
His descendants include Shah Abdul 
Karim of Bulri and Shah Abdul Latif of 
Bhit. They are called Mutalvi or 
Matiari Syeds. 


Masumi, pp. 59-60. 


1398 AD. : 

Amir Timur appointed Khizir Khan as 
the Governor of the Punjab and the 
Upper Sind (Uch and Multan). 

1398-99 AD.— 801 AH. : 

Shams-i-Siraj Afif completed Tarikh-i- 
Feroz Shahi, which covers 37 years reign 
of Feroz Shah from 1352-1388 A.D. 

1399-1400 A.D— 802 A.H. : 

12 years old Burhanuddin, grand-son of 
Makhdoom Jehania of Uch with his 
mother Hajra or Bibi Saadat Khatoon, 
reached Patan in Gujarat. 

CHI, p. 201. 

Mubarak Shahi. 

Firishta, (Bombay), Vol. I, p. 124. 

The text was published by A.S B. Cal- 
cutta in 1891 A.D. 

Tuhfat-u^Karam : Sindhi translation, p. 




1399-1400 A.D.— 802 AH. : 

Sultan Nusarat Shah Tughluq lost most 
of area between the Ganges and Jamuna 
to Iqbal Khan, but sent Khizir Khan to 
control Debalpur, Multan and Sind. 

1404/05—1406/07 A.D. 
807-809 A H. : 

Rule of Nizamuddin Jam I bin Sultan 
Salahuddin Shah Jam (Unar II, ?). 
He ruled well. 


1405-06 A.D.— 808 AH. : 

Pir Sadaruddin, a well known Ismaili 
preacher, a Sindhi poet, and inventor 
of probably the first Sindhi script of 40 
letters, died. 

1406-1412/13 A.D.— 809-815 A H. : 

Rule of Jam AH Sher bin Sultan Rukun- 
uddin Shah Jam Tamachi. 

Mubarak Shahi, p. 169. The proximity 
of places shows that by Sind, the Uch 
territory is meant. 

Dr. N.A. Baloch, Tahiri, p. 307. 

Firishta, (Bombay), Vol. II, p. 318 assigns 
two to three years to his reign. Briggs, 
Vol. IV, p. 247, calculates it as 793-796 
A.H. or 1391-1393 AD. 



his rule. 

Vol. Ill, p. 514 
assigns two years and some months to 

Masumi, pp. 65-66 states that he was 
nominated as the King by the chiefs of 
various tribes and on ascending the 
throne, he released his four uncles namely 
Malik Sikandar, Kiran, Bahauddin and 
A 'amir, These uncles intrigued against 
him and therefore, he escaped to Gujarat. 

Firishta and Nizamuddin state that he 
died a natural death while still at the 
helm of affairs in Sind. Their source is, 
Tabaqat-i-Bahadur Shahi, whereas Masu- 
mi 's source is hearsay. Tuhfat-ul- 
Karam, p. 103, repeats Masumi 's version. 

■ . 
Chunera Ali Muhammad, Noor-um- 
Mubin (Bombay), p. 496. 

Ghulam Ali Allana, Soomran jay Daur Ji 
Sindhi Shairi, Mihran, Vol. 9, No. 1 
and 2, J 960. 

Dr. N.A. Baloch, Tahiri, p. 307. 




1410 A.D. : 

Zafar Khan, the Governor of Gujarat 
who had declared independence of 
Delhi Sultanate and titled himself as 
MuzaffarShah in 1396 A.D. began to 
assert his power over the old dominions 
of Anhilwada and compelled Jareja 
Samma chief of Kandh Kot to submit 
to him. Rest of Cutch remained in- 
dependent under Gajan and Otha line. 
They kept good relations with Sind. 

1412-13 A.D.— 815 AH. : 

Sind under the rule of Jam Kiran bin 
Khairuddin Jam Togachi bin Allauddin 
Jam Juna-I. He died on the second 
day of his ascending the throne. 

Firishta considers him as son of Jam 
Nizamuddin bin Jam Salahuddin, and 
his rule extending to 6 years. 

He states that in his days the kingdom 
had achieved more respectable a position 
than his predecessors. Dr. Baloch con- 
siders him as a brother of Sultan Salah- 
uddin Shah Jam Unar II and uncle of 
Jam Nizamuddin I. Briggs, Vol. IV, 
p. 247, calculates his rule upto 812 A.H. 
or 1409 A.D. and does not account for 
the period between the death of Jam 
Nizamuddin-I to 806 A.H. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari, Vol III, P. 514 assigns 
six years and some months to his rule. 

Masumi, pp. 67-68 states that he wasted 
time'in luxuries and, therefore, was assa- 
ssinated by a group of people of Thatta. 
Nizamuddin and Firishta state that he 
died a natural death. . 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, p. 103, repeats 
Masumi 's version and like Masumi 
assigns seven years to his rule. 



Dr. N.A. Baloch, Tahiri, p. 307 assigns 
the year 816 A.D. to his accession. 
Firishta, (Bombay), p. 318, considers him 
as son of Jam Tamachi and so does 
Tabaqat-i-Akbari, Vol. Ill, p. 515. 









Masumi, pp. 65-67 considers him brother 
of the Jams, Malik Sikandar, Bahauddin 
and Amir, and states that he was enthron- 
ed with the help of his brothers, and as 
the amirs were against him, he wanted 
to have them eliminated, but instead they 
had him assassinated. 

The chief of this group was Fateh Khan 
bin Sikandar who was nominated to 
rule after the death of Kiran's brother 
Sadaruddin Jam Sikandar II. This Fateh 
Khan was then his nephew and son of his 
brother Sadaruddin Jam Sikandar Shah- 
I, the successor, as Fateh Khan 
was to follow his father. Tuhfat-ul- 
Karam, p. 103, repeats Masumi's version. 

1412-13 A.D.— 815-816 AH. : 

Sind under the rule of Sadaruddin Jam 
Sikandar Shah-II bin Khairuddin Jam 

1412-13 A.D.— 815-16 A.H. : 

The rule of Sadaruddin Jam Sikandar 
Shah bin Khairuddin bin Jam Togachi, 
is also confirmed from inscription at 

During the Samma period, inscriptions 
were engraved on wet bricks and then 

1412/13-1428 A.D.— 816-831 AH. : 

Sind under the rule of Jam Fateh 
Khan bin Sadaruddin Jam Sikandar 
Shah-I. He was nominated by the 
tribes of Sind. 

Dr. N.A. Baloch, Tahiri, p. 307 assigns 
the year 816 A.H. to his rule. 

Firishta, (Bombay), Vol. II, eliminates his 
rule and so do Tabaqat-i- Akbari, Masumi 
and Tuhfat-ul-Karam. 

Dr. N.A. Baloch, Sindhi Boli Ji Mukh- 
tasir Tarikh, p. 82. 

This inscription means that he may have 
ruled longer than one year. 

Dr. N.A. Baloch, Tahiri, p. 307. 


Firishta, (Bombay), Vol. II, p. 318 puts 
his rule as 15 years. Briggs, Vol. IV, 
p. 248 calculates his rule from 812 to 827 
A.H. or 1409-1423 A.D. 





1414 A.D., 22nd May.— 
818 A.H., 1st Muharram : 

Syed Ahmed Shirazi died and was buried 
in the Abbasi-Qazis' graveyard at Samoi. 

1418 A.D.— «21 A H. : 

Death of Abul Abbas Shahabuddin 
Ahmed Bin Ali Qalqashandi who wrote 
Subuh al Asha, a book describing social 
conditions in the Sub-continent includ- 
ing Sind. 

1418-19 A.D.— 821 A.H. : 

Quba-a-Mundrasa in the hermitage of 
Shaikh Hammad at the instructions of 
the eldest son of Jam Tamachi during 
the rule of Jam Tughluq Sikandar Shah 
by Darya Khan Rahu, a disciple of 
Shaikh Hammad. 

1421-1438 A.D.— 824-837 A.H. : 

The reign of Sultan Mubarak Shah of 
Sayyid Dynasty at Delhi. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari, Vol. Ill, p. 514, also 
assigns 15 years and some months to 
his rule. 

Masumi, pp. 67-68 states that he was 
an efficient administrator. He assigns 
the fall of Multan and Delhi to Mirza 
Pir Muhammad and Amir Timur during 
the rule of Jam Fateh Khan which is 
incorrect. He also states that on the 
fall of Delhi in 1398 A.D., Sind auto- 
matically became part of the Timuri 
Empire. This is not corroborate by 
any other history including 'Zafar Nam*. 
the Memoirs of Amir Timur. Sind in 
fact was an independent state. Masumi 
and Tuhfat-ul-Karam, p. 103 assign 15 
years to his rule. 

The Arabic text was published from 
Cairo in 1913-20. 

The ruler of Sind then was Jam Fateh 
Khan and Jam Tughluq succeeded him 
in 1428 A.D. 

Professor Muhammad Shafi considers it 
as 821 A.H. (p. 15, English Section). 












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. f 

In the year Jamadi-I JuUjlillj ji^U j c 

Mongols crossed the river Indus and 
looted the territories of Lahore and 
Debalpur. They were repelled and 
Multan was kept under the Governor- 
ship of Al-Shariq Maluk Mahmood 

There is another version that King of 
Kashmir Shaikh Ali invaded the Lower 
Sind. He actually raided Tatta Kutia 
mountain pass in Kashmir or Tibet 
rather than Thatta in the Lower Sind. 

1422 A.D. : 

Yousufuddin, a sufi and descendant 
of Syed Abdul Qadir Jilani of Baghdad, 
came to Sind and converted many 
Lohanas to his faith. 

1422-1428 AD. : 

Jasrath, the leader of the Khokhars of 
Punjab seeking to become independent 
of the Syeds of' Delhi attacked Lahore. 
They had already asked Shaikh Ali, 
the Mongol, deputy Governor at Kabul, 
to attack Sind to divert Mubarak Shah 's 
army so that the Khokhars capture 

The plan did not materialize due to the 
setback he received during his attack 
of Lahore, in 1423 A.D. Shaikh Ali 
attacked Bakhar and Sehwan, but this 
raid was of no consequence. 

1428 A D.— Januaryl453— 

831-857 A.H., RabU : 

Sind ruled by Jam Tughluq (Juna-II) 

bin Sadaruddin Jam Sikandar Shah- 1. 

He was younger brother of Fateh Khan 

and developed friendly relations with 

the kings of Gujarat. 

Mubarak Shahi, pp. 194, 201-202, states 
that Bakhar and Sehwan were also kept 
under control of this Governor, which 
is incorrect as the Sammas were in full 
control of Sind since 1388 A.D. 

Preaching of Islam, p. 275. 

HCIP, Vol. VI, p. 131. 

Mubarak Shahi, pp. 217-226. The state- 
ment is doubtful as the Sammas were 
independently controlling Sind then. 
The attack may have been on Upper 
Sind territories of Uch, etc., and not 
on Bakhar, Sehwan and Thatta as men- 
tioned by this source. The attack on 
Bakhar and Sehwan may hve been 
motivated for booty. 


Dr. N.A. Baloch, Tahiri, p. 308. 
Firishta, (Bombay), Vol. II, pp. 318-19. 



Since the rule of this king, Sind and 
Gujarat developed good relations on 
account of inter-marriages and on alli- 
ance between them against internal or 
external aggression particularly that of 
Delhi. Jam Juna-II (i.e. Jam Tugh- 
luq) gave his two daughters Bibi Murghi 
(Murki) and Bibi Maghli in marriage to 
Shah Alam and Sultan Muhammad 

Murki gave birth to Fateh Khan who 
later on became Sultan Mahmud 

Masumi, states that Jam Tughluq ap- 
pointed his two brothers as Governors 
of Sehwan and Bakhar and suppressed a 
rebellion of the Balochis. 

He started building of the Kalan Kot 
Fort, which could not be completed in 
his reign. The fort seems to have been 
completed by his successors and was 
used later on by the Sammas and even 
by the Mughal Governor*. 

1427-28 A.D.— 831 A.H. : 

Muhammad Hussain or Pir Murad 
Shirazi was born. 

1434-35 A.D.— 838 A.H. : 

Writing of Tarikh-i-Mubarak Shahi by 
Yahya bin Ahmed bin Abdullah 

1436 AD. : 

Mosque at Bodesar built by Gujarat 's 

1437 A.D.— 841 A.H. : 

"Budhan Khan, a Sindhi from Uch and 
chief of the tribe of Langahs, occupied 
Multan after expelling Delhi Sultan's 
(Muhammad Shah-IV of Syed Dynasty) 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari, Vol. Ill, p. 516 putt 
his rule as 27 years. Briggs, Vol. FV, 
p. 248 calculates his rule from 827-854 
A.H. (1423-1450 A.D). 

Masumi, p. 69 assigns 28 years to Jam 
Tughluq 's rule of Sind, and further men- 
tions that he was nominated as King by 
his brother Fateh Khan, three days 
before the latter 's death. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, p. 104. 

Text published from Calcutta, 1931, ar.d 
Urdu Tr. from Lahore, 1976. 

HCn\ Vol. VI, pp. 141, 151, 152, 243 
and 246 quoting Tarikh-i-Haqqi, pp. 128- 
29, (Cambridge M.S.). 

s J 






Governor, Khan-i-Khanan. Bahlul 
Lodhi could not suppress him and later 
on his son Barbak Lodhi was defeated 
by Budhan Khan's grand-son Shah 
Hassan Langah who had occupied the 
Multan throne in 1460 A.D. 

Masumi and Nizamuddin's statement 
that Langah Chief named Rai Sahra 
drove out Shaikh Yousiif Qureshi from 
Multan is to be discounted. 

Tarikh-i-Shahi, pp. 20-21, refers to Ahmed 
Khan Bhatti's rebellion in Sind at this 
time and the appeal made by the Langahs 
of Multan to Bahlul for help is also not 
supported by any other history. The 
Langahs who were not reconciled to 
Bahlul and were strong enough to defeat 
his son and to repulse an attack from 
Malwa, could not have asked for help 
against Sind from the Lodhis, their 
sworn enemies. On the other hand, 
Sind too was equally strong at this time, 
and could have faced the Langahs. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari, Vol. Ill, pp. 522-25 
erroneously puts the conquest by Qutub- 
uddin son of Budhan Khan. The same 
source states that Shaikh Yousuf Qureshi, 
keeper of the Tomb of Bahauddin 
Zakariya (1 182-1262 A.D.) was made the 
Delhi Sultan's Governor of Multan 
which is also not correct. 

1437 A.D.— 841 AH. : 

A rare specimen of Taliq inscription 
from the tomb of Hammad Jamali. 

1439-1525 AD. : 

Mughal Arghoons of Qandahar, the 
protege of Mongol Sultan of Herat 
made their influence felt in Sind. The 
Sammas, therefore, sought to increase 
their power by alliance with Gujarat. 
Daughters were given in marriage to the 
Kings of Gujarat. 

Even when the last Samma king Jam 
Feroz was expelled from Sind by the 

CHI, Vol. Ill, p. 501. 



Arghoons, he found asylum in the 
court at Gujarat and gave his daughter 
in marriage to Sultan Bahadur of that 

1442/43-1443/44 A.D.— 346-47 A.H. : 

The probable date of marriage of the 
daughters of Jam Tughluq Juna-II, 
Bibi Mughli with Sultan Muhammad 
of Gujarat (846-855 A.H. or 1442/43-1454 
AD.) and Bibi Murki with Shah Alam 
(817-858 A.H. or 1388-1454). 

These marriages were prompted by 
political advantages the Sammas were 
to get against outside intervention, as 
per the advice of Maulana Muhammad 
Siddiq of Multan, who along with two 
princesses and two princes Jam Khair- 
uddin and Jam Salahuddin left for 
Gujarat. Bibi Murki was sent to marry 
Sultan Muhammad, but as Bibi Mughli 
was more beautiful, Jam Tughluq 's own 
men and most probably Maulana 
Muhammad Siddiq, Jam's Murshid, 
arranged the interchange of the girls. 

1443 A.D.— 847 A.H. : 

Birth of Sayyid Muhammad Yousuf 
S/o Sayyid Abdullah Jaunpur. He pro- 
claimed himself a Mahdi in 905 A.H. or 
1499/1500 A.D. either at Mecca where 
he went for pilgrimage or on his return. 
He was forced to leave Gujarat and from 
there came to Sind where too he was not 
welcomed. His boats were destroyed 
by Hyder Shah of Sann and he died on 
way to Khurasan in 910 A.H. on 1504 
A.D. at Farab. 

1445-46 A.D.— 849 A.H. : 

Bibi Mughli.wife of Sultan Muhammad, 
ruler of Gujarat and the daughter of 

Husamuddin, Makli Nama, p. 220. 
Maraat-i-Sikandari, p. 66. 

Abdul Ghafoor, Cailigraphers of Thatta, 
p. 6, considers the girls as daughters of 
Jam (Nizamuddin), which is erroneous as 
he would have been only a young boy at 
that time. Hussamuddin also puts the 
year 847-48 in the same source on p. 1 80. 




Maraat-i-Sikandari, pp. 45, 67 and 68. 




Jam Tughluq gave birth toFateh Khan 
who later on became Sultan Mahmud 
Begra, the ruler of Gujarat, the greatest 
ruler of his dynasty. 

1445 A.D., Oct. 3rd— 849 A.H. Rajab, 1st : 

Birth of Abul Fazal Abdul Rahman Ibn 
Ali Bakar Ibn Muhammad Jalaluddin 
al Kudayvi al Shafi also called Jalal- 
uddin Sayuti, author of Tarikh al 

1448-49 A.D.— 852 A.H. : 

Yahya Bin Ahmed completed Tarikh-i- 

Mubrarak Shahi. 


1449 A.D. : 

Construction of Second Jain temple at 
Bhodesar. The first was constructed in 
1375 A.D. 

1451 AD., February 22nd— 
855 A.D., 20th Muharram : 

On the death of Sultan Muhammad of 
Gujarat, Bibi Mughli, feeling that the 
life of her son Fateh Khan (later on 
Sultan Mahmud Begra), was in danger 
moved to her sister Bibi Murki's (wife 
ofShahAlam) house. 

His successor, Sultan Qutubuddin tried 
to have Fateh Khan assassinated but 
could not succeed as the child was 
under the protection of Shah Alam. 
After Qutubuddin 's death in 863 A.H. 
(1458-59), he was succeeded by his bro- 
ther Daud. The latter was removed 
the same year by the courtiers and Fateh 
Khan was installed as Sultan Mahmud 

1453 A.D. : 

Conquest of Constantinople by Otto- 
man Turks. 

The book describes earthquake of 
Debal. Arabic text was first published by 
A. S. B. Calcutta. A Cairo edition was 
published in 1892 A.D. 

Text edited by Hidayat Husain has been 
published by the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal, Calcutta, 1931. 

Imperial Gazetteer of India Series, Vol. 
II, Bombay Presidency, p. 313. 

Maraat-i-Sikandari, p. 64. 

Maraat-i-Ahmedi, Baroda, p. 560. Ma- 
raat Ahmedi, Bombay, p. 36. 


1453 AD- 357 AH. : 

Sind ruled by Jam Mubarak, a relative 
as well as Vazier of Jam Tughluq. He 
ruled for 3 days when he was deposed. 

He was the first usurper of the throne 
in the Samma dynasty and was thrown 
out in 3 days. All Samma rulers died 
a natural death. Succession to the 
throne seems to have been from among 
the family members with the approval 
of the tribes. 


-'. ■ ' 

1453-1454 AD, May 6— 
857-858 A.H., Jamadi-II 6th : 

Sind ruled by Sikandar Shah-II, Jam 
Muhammad also called Jam Unar-II 
bin Jam Fateh Khan bin Sadaruddin 
Jam Sikandar Shah-II and nephew of 
Jam Tughluq Juna-II. He was no- 
minated as king by the chiefs and the 
tribes of Sind after Mubarak was de- 

1450 A.D.— 858 AH. : 

Soon after the death of Bibi Murki in ab- 
out 857-58 A.H., Shah Alam married his 

Dr. N.A. Baloch, Tahiri, p. 308. 

Firishta, Vol. II, p. 319 states that he 
was deposed after 3 days. Tabaqat-i- 
Akbari, Vol. Ill, p. 516, agrees with this 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, p. 104 and Masumi, 
p. 69 state that Jam Tughluq was suc- 
ceeded by his son Jam Sikandar, a minor. 
Sehwan and Bakhar refused allegiance 
to this prince and the latter took an 
expedition against them. In his absence, 
Mubarak may have rebelled and usurped 
the Government, but the latter was 
deposed within 3 days and Jam Sikandar 
was reinstated by the people. 

Dr. N.A. Baloch, Tahiri, p. 308 has 
based this genealogy on a book Alzubdah 
by Maulana Allauddin Manglori. MS. 
in Sind University. The book mixes up 
Tamachi and Togachi and therefore 
leaves the question un-resolved. 

"Firishta, (Bombay), Vol. II, p. 319, who 
puts his rule as 1 8 months. Tabaqat-i- 
Akbari, Vol. Ill, p. 516 agrees with 
this version. Briggs, Vol. IV, p . 248 puts 
his (teath in 8$6 A.H. or 1252 A.D. 
Masumi, p. 69 states that he was son 
of Jam Tughluq, brother of Fateh Khan 
and Mubarak Khan's rebellion took 
place during his rule. Masumi and 
Tuhfatul Karam,p. 104 assign 18 months 
to his lule. 

Mara'at-i-Sikandari, p. 65. 






widowed sister-in-law Bibi Mughli. Her 
son Fateh Khan (later on Sultan 
Mahmud Begra) was 10 years old then. 
Bibi Murki was buried in the tomb of 
Jam Tughluq Juna-II near Ahmed- 
abad. Her son Shah Shaikan.(Beg 
Muhammad) was also buried there. 

Since Jam Tughluq Juna-II, had his 
daughters married in Gujarat, he 
built a fort for them called Malik Got 
(or Goth) or Malfk Kot. When he 
died, most probably in accordance with 
his will, his body was taken to Gujarat 
for burial. This Malik Goth was built 
near Qutubpur, on the Sabaramatt river, 
to the south of Ahmedabad. 

Marriage of Bibi Mughli with Shah 
Alam took place with permission of 
Jam Feroz-I, a third son of Sadaruddin 
Jam Sikandar Shah-I and uncle of Bibi 
Mughli and brother of Jam Tughlaq 

These two sources also reveal that Jam 
Tughluq had other two sons Jam Salah- 
uddin and Jam Khairuddin. 

1454 A.D., 6th May to 1461 A.D., 
29th December— 

858 AH., 6th Jamadi-I to 866 A H., 
between 23rd to 25th Rabi-I : 

Sind was ruled by Sultan Sadaruddin 
Shah Jam Sanjar also called Rayadhan 
bin Sultan Salahuddin Shah Jam 
(Unar-II), bin Sultan Rukunuddin Shah 
Jam Tamachi. He reigned with justice 
and due to his personal virtues was 
elected by the Sind tribes to rule. 

Masumi gives the date of his enthrone- 
ment and states that he was residing in 
Cutch, wherefrom he collected troops 

Mara'at-i-Ahmedi, p. 36. 

Fazlullah, English translation of Mara 'at- 
i-Ahmadi, p. 89. 

Husamuddin, Makli Nama, p. 127. 

Dr. N.A. Baloch, Tahiri, p. 308. 

Firishta, (Bombay), Vol. II, p. 319 puts 
his rule as 8 years. Briggs, Vol. IV, p. 249 
assigns his reign from 856 to 864 A.H. 
or 1452-1460 A.D. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, pp. 104-105 'repeats 
Masumi 's version. 


and on the death of Sikandar Shah, oc- 
cupied Thatta. Since there was no able 
person in Thatta, the Amirs accepted to 
make him the King of Sind. In the 
next 1$ years he extended his kingdom 
to Mathelo, Ubavro, Gajrelli and 
Kandhi . He ruled for 8$ years and was 
poisoned by one of his close friends Jam 
Sanjar. Masum considers Rayadhan 
and Sanjar as two different persons. 
According to him Sanjar was an able 
and honest ruler, fond of learned men 
and saints and died after 8 years rule. 

Ain-i-Akbari considers Sanjar or Raya- 
dhan as the same person. 

Dr. Daudpota (Masumi, pp. 301 and 
303) states that if Sanjar and Rayadhan 
were different persons, their chronology 
would be: 

Jam Rayadhan, 858-866 A.H. (1454-1461 

Jam Sanjar, 866-874 A.H. (1461-1469/70 

1456-57 A.D.— 861 A.H. : 

Malik Raj Bal Jam Salahuddin bin 
Malik Unar bin Malik Rahu bin Malik 
Rayadhan bin Rahu bin Feroz Shah 
Sultan (Jam Unar-I) Sultan built Quba- 
e-Mundrasa, which is near the tomb of 
Darya Khan (Mubarak Khan) on the 
Makli Hills. 

1459 A.D. : 

In spite of Sind 's good relations with the 
Sultans of Gujarat and their inter-marri- 
ages, the Sammas of Sind settled the 
Soomras, Sodhas and Balochis on the 
Thar, Cutch and Jodhpur borders. These 
irregular forces attacked Jodhpur and 
in .this war, Raja Jodha Rathor's son 
Santal was defeated and killed. 

1459 A.D., 20th May— 863 AH., Rajab 17th: 

Fateh Khan was installed as Sultan 
Mahmud Begra in Gujarat by the court- 
iers. He was 14 yeais old then. . In 
his youth he was guided by his mother 
Bibi Mughli, daughter of Jam Tughluq 
Juna-II Samma of Thatta and his step- 
father Shah Alam. 

Jam Nizamuddin, 874-923 A.H. (1469/ 
70-1517 A.D.). 

The above genealogy comes from the 
inscriptions in the Quba-e-Mundrasa, 

Professor Muhammad Shafi, p. 15 assign- 
ed 870 A.H. (1465 A.D. to it). 

Todd, Rajistan, Vol. II, p. 21. 

Mara'at-i-Sikandari, pp. 71-72. 






I 13. Interior view of Jam Nizamuddin's tomb Mehrab. 


114. Mehrab of the tomb of Jam Nizamuddin (outside view). 



115. Fine engraving in stone from Tomb of Jam Nizamuddin, Makli 




1459-1511 AD. : 

Gujarat was ruled by Sultan Mahmud 
Begra He was son of Bibi Mughli, the 
daughter of Jam Tughluq (Juna-II). 

1461 A D., 29th Dec.— 866 A H., 
25th Rabi-T : 

Sultan Sadaruddin Shah Jam Sanjar or 
Rayadhan probably abdicated and his 
son Sultan Nizamuddin-II, became 
Sind's ruler. 

Jam Sanjar after abdicating lived in 
Gujarat for a long time as his daughter 
was married to Sultan Muzaffar-TI of 
Gujarat in 924 A.H. (1518 A.D.). 

1461 A D , 29th Dec. to 1508/9 A.D.: 

Rule of Sultan Nizamuddin Shah Jam 
Nindo bin Sultan Sadaruddin Shah Jam 
Sanjar or Rayadhan. 

All historians consider him the ablest 
and the greatest of the Samma rulers. 

The inscription on Jam Nizamuddin 's 
grave puts his genealogy as under: — 

Nizamuddin Shah bin Al-Sultan 
Sadaruddin bin Al-Sultan 
Salahuddin bin Al-Sultan 
Rukunuddin bin Al-Sultan 

Feroz Shah. 

Under Jam Nizamuddin, Sind reached 
the highest, stage of prosperity in the 
middle ages. Abdul Rahim Khan-e- 
Khanan considers him as the most cul- 
tured person in whole of India. He 
collected learned people around him 
from all the surrounding countries. 

Abdul Ghafoor, Calligraphers of Thatta, 

p. 6, considers Mughli as p.aughter of Jam 

Nizamuddin, which is incorrect. 

Dr. Baloch calls him Rai-Dhan or 
Rai Dino. Hussamuddin accepts' this 
version. But since Cutch had three Samma 
rulers called Rayadhans, who ruled in 
1175-1215, 1666-1698 and 1778-1785 
A.D., Dr. Baloch 's name Rai Dino is 
not acceptable. In Sindhi this name is 
pronounced as O^'j and at least one im- 
portant town of that name has survived. 

Masumi, pp. 73-76. 

Dr. N.A. Baloch, Tahiri,p. 308. 

Firishta, (Bombay), Vol. II, pp. 319-20 
assigns 32 years to his reign. Briggs, 
Vol. IV, p. 250, calculates it from 864- 
894 A.H. or 1460-1492 AD. He obvi- 
ously means 896 A.H. and not 894 A.H. 
Abdul Ghafoor in Calligraphers of Thatta, 
puts the date of his ascending the throne 
as 18th April, 1452 A.D. which is 
incorrect. ? 

Tuhfat-ul-KLaram, p. 106, states that he 
shifted his capital from Samui to Thatta 
which is incorrect as Thatta was capital 
of Sind in 1349 A.D. when Taghi fled 
to it. Tuhfat-ul-Karam puts his rule 
between 43 and 50 years. Tabaqat-i- 
Akbari, Vol. Ill, p. 157, and Ma athir-i- 
Rahimi, Vol. Ill, p. 273, put his rule as 
62 years. 



His contemporaries were: 

Gujarat: Sultan Mahmud Begra. 

Delhi: Bahlool Lodhi. 

Mandavi: Ghiasuddin bin Mahmud 


Deccan: Sultan Mabmood Bahmani. 

Khurasan: Shah Hussain Baiqra. 

1465 A D.— 870 A H. : 

Jam Nizamuddin expelled two nobles, 
Jam Bayazid and Jam Ibrahim, from 
Sind. They were given shelter by 
Hussain bin Qutubuddin bin Buddhan 
Langah of Multan. The former was 
allotted fief of Shorkot and latter tfcat 
of Uch. 

1467 A.D., 4th Sept.— 872 A.H., 3rd Safar: 

Musa bin Subhan built the tomb of 
Shaikh Turabi at the instructions of 
Jam Allauddin* 

1471 A.D. : 

While on way to reduce Ghampaner, 
Sultan Muhammad Begra heard the 
complaints thai Muslims were being 
persecuted by the Hindus in Sind. He, 
therefore, crossed the Rann of Cutch, 
reached Thar and Parkar Districts with 
600 horses only and found an army of 
24000 horses of the enemy. The latter 
having no intention to fight entered into 
negotiations. They proved to be Sodas, 
Soomras and Kalhoras who told him that 
they were Muslims but knew nothing 
of the faith ar.d lived as Hindus and also 
intermarried among them. Begra in- 
vited them to Gujarat . Many agreed to 
enter his service, received Jagirs in 
Sorath, and were taught the faith of 
Islam. Of these Sammi and Virhai 
Jagirs remained in their possession as a 
Jagir till the end of British days. 

MakliNama,p. 112. 
Ma'athir-i-Rahimi, Vol. II, p. 273. 
863-917 A.H. (1458/59-1511/12 AD). 
855-894 A.H. (1451-1489 A.D.). 
873-906 A.H. (1468/69-1500/01 AD). 
887-924 A.H. (1472/73-1518 A.D.). 
863-912 A.H. (1458/59—1506/07 A D). 

HCIP, Vol. VI, p. 229. 

Professor Muhammad Shaft, Oriental 
College Magazine, No. 2, 1935. 

CHI, Vol. Ill, 306 G.B. Matleson. The 
Historical sketch of the Native states 
of India, Ch. XIV, London, 1875. 
Gazetteer of Bombay Presidency, Vol. V, 
Cutch Palanpur, Mahi Kanta, p. 91. 
As late as the end of last century, the 
Memons ot Cutch, professed to be Shias, 
but lived like Hindus and did not asso- 
ciate with Muslims. They did not eat 
beef, did not practice circumcision, and 
did not perform daily prayers or fast. 
The Baloochis so settled, were called 
Jatwar and Tarwar by the Gujarat is 








1472 A D. : 

There was a rebellion against Jam 
Nizamuddin in the Lower Sind. Mu- 
hammad Begra, whose mother was re- 
lated to Jam Nizamuddin, crossed the 
Rann of Cutch and dispersed 40,000 
rebels. Jam sent letter of thanks, gifts 
and also his daughter who was married 
to Qaiser - Khan, the grandson of 
Hassan Khan Iftikharul Mulk ofKan- 
desh, who had taken refuge in Gujarat. 

The same year Begra subdued whole 
Cutch i.e. brought Othaand Gajan lire 
of Jareja Sammas under his domain, by 
a small force of only 300 horses. This 
he achieved not by battle but by diplo- 
macy in confirming thteir possessions on 
them and acceptance of their cadets in 
their line in his court. He also took 
back daughter of Jareja Hamirji of 
L'khiarvira, the eighth descendant of 
Otha in his harem. Lakho, the eighth 
descendant from Gajan 's line was 
bestowed Amran and Gondal. 

1485-86 AD.— 890 AH.: 

In the days of Mongol, Sultan Hussain 
Mirza Baiqra, of Khurasan, on com- 
plaints of the merchants of Central Asia 
(Herat and Qandhar), that they were 
looted by Sir.dhis, the Sultan sent armed 
expedition to Sind border, which after 
ir itial raids returned back to their coun- 
try. A declaration of victory was 
issued in Herat in 892 A.H. (1487 A.D.). 
It states that the infidels (Sindhis) having 
come to know of Mongol movements, 
collected a large army and wanted to 
make a surprise attack but the Islamic 
forces (Mongols) came to know of it and 
made offensive attacks, killing many of 

Firishta, Bombay, pp. 195-96, states that 
they were Baluchis of Shia sect. 

Zafarul-Walih, states that they were 
pirates who dwelt on the sea coast and 
owed allegiance to none. They were 
well skilled in archery. 

Williams, pp. 102-104. 

Hussamuddin, Makli Nama, p. 179, 
quoting Sharaf of Khawaja Abdullah 
Marwand, pp. 101-105, Wiesbaden, 
1951, edited by Hana Robert Roemer, 
with the German translation. 

Masumi, p. 75, does not give the date. 

Ma'athir-i-Rahimi, Vol. II, p. 274. 

Firishta (Bombay), Vol. II, pp. 319-20. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari, Vol. Ill, p. 517 assigns 

899 A.H. to it. 



these Hindus (forces of Jam Nizam- 
uddin). As a result of this success dec- 
laration of victory was issued. 

This may have been an attack on Sird 
border without any results. Amir Zul- 
Noon Arghoon, then was Herat s Naib 
at Qan.dh.ar. He seems to have des- 
patched his son Shah Beg on this expe- 
dition- The latter captured the Sibi 
Fort from Jam Nizamuddin's agent 
Bahadur Khan and installed his brother 
Sultan Mohammad, who later on was 
defeated ard killed by Mubarak Khan 
(Darya Khan Dullah) near Jalwagir in 
Bolan Pass, close to Bibi Nani. 

Masumi, states that after this incident 
the Mongols did not turn up in Sind 
during the life of Jam Nizamuddin. 

Briggs, Vol. IV, p. 249. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, p. 106, states that 
Mongol troops had advanced as far as 
Chanduka, Sardecha and Kot Machhi, 
but after bei.-g expelled by Darya Khan, 
they never turned back ' during Jam 
Nizamuddin's life time. 

Firishta who is considered to be an 
unreliable historian states that to avenge 
the death of his brother Shah Beg sent 
Mirza Issa Khan to oppose Mubarak 
Khan (Darya Khan) and in the battle 
Darya Khan having been wounded, fled 
to the fortress of Bakhar. Shah Beg 
hearing of the success of his general came 
in person and made Qazi Qazan, the 
Gumashta of the Sammas for the Bakhar 
fortress, to submit. He put Fazil Beg 
Gokultash ir.charge of Bakhar fort and 
went to reduce Sehwan, where he put 
Khwaja Baqi Begincharge. After Shah 
Beg's return, Jam Nindo (Nizamuddin), 
made many attempts to recover the lost 
territories but was defeated every time 
and finally he died of heart-failure due 
to this shock. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari, Vol. IU, pp. 517-18, 
states that after the death of Sultan 
Muhammad, Mirza Issa Tarkhan was 
deputed to capture Sibi. After its fall to 
Mirza Issa, Shah Beg captured Bakhar, 
made Qazi Qazan to accept the terms of 
peace and later on captured Sehwan, 
where he put Khwaja Baqi Beg as in- 
charge. Jam Ninda sent troops to capture 
Sibi, but without results. 

The statements of Nizamuddin and 
Firishta are not acceptable as : 




\488 A.D.— 893 AH. : 

Syed Muhammad Hussain bin Syed 
Ahmed bin Syed Muhammad Urf Miran 
Muhammad Shirazi died and was buried 
at Thatta. 

1490 A.D.— 896 A.H. : 

Birth of Shah Hasan Arghoon, who 

(i) The incidents took place in 890 
AH. (1485-86 AD.) and Jam 
Nizamuddin died about 24 years 
later in 914 AH. (1508 AD.). The 
heart-failure would then must have 
been a made up story. 

(ii) Mirza Issa Tarkhan died in 973 
A.H. (1565-66 A.D.) and may not 
have been born in 890 A.H. (1485 
A.D.) and more so to lead the 
expedition, even if he had been 
born by about that time, his name 
as fighter for the first time appeared 
in 933 AH. (1526-27 A. D.). 

(iii) The ruler of Qandhar was Amir 
Zul-Noon, and not Shah Beg. Amir 
Zul-Noon 's name is absent in these 
two histories. 

(iv) Masumi and Tuhfat-ul-Karam being 
local histories should be better 

(v) Mazhar Shah Jehani has all praise 
for Nizamuddin and does not 
mention any kind of setback 
in his administration. 

(vi) The other Sind histories, Tahiri, 
pp. 54-56, Tarkhan Nama, and 
Beglar-Nama also do not contribute 

to these views. 


(vii) Qazi Qazan like Issa Tarkhan must 
have been a small boy then. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, Sindhi translation, 
p. 189. 


ruled over Sind for 31 years from 
1524 AD. 

1490 A.D., April-May— 895 A.H., 
Jamadi-I : 

Darya Khan (Mubarak Khan) built his 
own tomb at Makli as is proved from 
an inscription on it. The same year, 
Darya Khan defeated the Mughals 
(Arghoons) of al-Lahri and Qandahar 
(Shah Beg's forces in which the latter 's 
brother Sultan Muhammad was killed 
at Jalwagir near Sibi Nani 's grave in the 
Bolan Pass). The inscription gives the 
genealogy of Jam Nizamuddin as: 


Mubarak bin Nizamuddin Shah bin 
Sadaruddin Shah bin Salahuddin Shah 
bin Rukunuddin Shah. These inscrip- 
tions are earliest of Naskh and Thuluth 
in Sir.d. 

The calligrapher was Qutubuddin bin 
Mahmud Ahmad bin Darya Khan. 

1491 A.D.— 1548 Samba t : 

Inscription of Marwat Fort (Bahawal- 
pur District) on a brick in Sindhi langu- 
age stating that Jam Soomro, who was 
Malak of the Fort, repaired it on behalf 
of Samma. It has shreds of Siraiki and 
it can easily be categorised as Sindhi or 

Arabic probably continued to be used 
as the offcial largiage by the Soomras, 
but with the advent of Sammas, Persian 
was adopted as official language. The 
abo\e inscription shows that the use of 
Sii dhi in Devnagri script on state build- 
ings may have been in vogue for a long 
time and Sir.dhi alphabet in its Arabic 
script had not become popular until 

Makli Nama, pp. 110-111. 

Masumi, p. 74 wrongly calls the place of 
Arghoon's defeat as Jalwahgir. 

Mubarak Khan was the adopted son of 
Jam Nizamuddin. 

Professor Muhammad Shah, English 
Section, p. 16. 

Bahawalpur Gazetteer, Vol. XXXVI-A, 
1908 Edition, p. 373. 

The inscriptions were moulded on the 
wet bricks, before drying and burning 
them, a process probably common in 
those days in Sind, 




■ ■ 

1492-93 A D.— 898 AH. : 

Birth of Sultan Mahmud, an Arghoon 
who ruled the Upper Sird from Bakhar 
for 50 years. 

1492-1521 A D.— 898-928 A H. : 

Q jtubuddin S/o Mahmud Calligrapher 
practised Naskh and Thuluth at Thatta. 
He was commissioned to write inscrip- 
tions on the tomb of Darya Khan dur- 
ing this period. 

1494-1514 A.D.— 900 A.H. : 

Death of Sufi Qazi Sadho Jbn Hamad, 
Jamali. His tomb is in Vanheri. 

1494 A D. end— 900 A H. end : 

Renovation of the city of Thatta by Jan? 
Nizam uddin. 


Ma'athir-i-Rahimi. Vol. II, p. 335. 

Masumi, pp. 237-38 gives his birth date 
and also the date of his death at the age 
of 84 (lunar) years in 982 A.H. or 1574 

He could not have been 1 5 years of age 
in 928 A.H. when Shah Beg ordered the 
massacre of Dhareja tribal chiefs, as 
Masumi has wrorgly stated on p. 122. 

Abdul Ghafoor, Calligraphers of Thatta, 
p. 57. 

Also see entry 1490 AD. 

Mahboob Ali Channa, Mihran, Vol. 14, 
No. 4, 1964, p. 137, basing on Hadiqat- 
ul-Auliya, pp. 213-217. 

Masumi 's statement that Jam Nizam- 
uddin founded Thatta is wrong. Thatta 
existed in mid-I4th century as capital of 
Sind. Nizamuddin could only have re- 
novated it. 

Dr. N. A. Baloch, basing on Tahiri, 
pp. 51-53, is of the view that it was 
founded between 1340-1351 by the Sam- 
mas who were rising to power. This 
statement would be more reasonable 
if it is assumed that the Soomras found 
it after erosion of Muhammad Tur about 
the same period. The Samma city was 
Samui. Thatta may have been partly 
destroyed by floods and Nizamuddin 
may have re-built it. 



1494 A.D.— 900 AH. : 

Punyo Narejo, a sufi, died and was 
buried in the village of Raida on the 
Ren branch of the river Indus. 

1494 A.D.— 900 A.H. : 

Allavddin Bughio, a sufi, died and 
was buried in Dasht near Bahman- 

1494-1514 A.D.— 900 AH. : 

Death of Sufi Qazi Sadho Ibn Hamad 
Jamali. His tomb is in Vanheri. 

1495 A D.— 901 AH. 

Syed Yaqoob and Syed Ishaque Mash- 
hadi, sufis, came from Mashhad and 
settled in Samti. Syed Yaqoob died in 
922 A.H. (1516 AD.) and was buried 

at Samui. 

1495-96 A D.— 901 A H. : 

Syed Muhammad Jaunpuri who later 
on claimed himself as Mahdi, arrived in 
Thatta, to proceed for performing 
the Haj. 

1495 AD.— 901 A.H. : 

Two Syed brothers Yaqoob and Ishaq 
Mashhadi came from Mashhad in the 
days of Jam Nizamuddin and settled in 
Samui which had started dwindling due 
to neigbhourhood of Thatta. 

1497-98 A.D.— 903 AH. : 

Shaikh Pariyo Virdas, originally a Hindu 
Brahman, who left the civilized world 
ar d lived in hills and forests and finally 
settled at the foot of the Ganjo Takar 
Hills, died. 

Mahboob Ali Channa, Mihran, Vol. 14, 
No. 4, 1964, p. 137. 

Hadiqat-ul-Auliya, pp. 209-213. 

Mahboob Ali Channa, Mihran, Vol. 14, 
1964, p. 137. Tuhfatul-Karam (Sindih), 
p. 145. 

Mahboob All Channa, Mihran, Vol. 14, 
No. 4, 1964, p. 137, basing on Hadiqat- 
ul-Auliya, pp. 213-217. 

Mahboob Ali Channa, Mihran, Vol. 14, 
No. 4, 1964, p. 162. 

Tuhfat*ul-Karam, Sindhi Translation, 
p. 190. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam (Sindhi), p. 190. 
Hadiqat-ul-Auliya, pp. 231-235. 
Pariyo is a common name in Sind. It 
means 'old man' or 'a greyhair'. Some 
sources erroneously call him Bhiryo. 





The author of Hadiqat-ul-Auliya met 

him and listened to Ishaque Ahinger's 

Sindhi poems from him. 

He is buried at the foot of Ganjo Takar 


1498 A.D.: 

Vasco da Gama reached Calicut via 
Cape of Good Hope. 

1500 A D. and after : 

The use of nails for joining the planks 
of ships introduced in the Sub-Conti- 
nent, due to contacts with the Portu- 
guese. Previous to this, planks were 
sewn together by a special thread. 

1500 A D. : 

Substitution of Ocean for steppes or 
substitution of sea routes for land 
routes, a technological revolution of 
vast significance, was fully established. 
It swinged the balance in favour of the 

1500-1505 AD- 906 A.H. : 

Syed Muhammad Jaunpuri, who had 
declared himself Mahdi and was oppos- 
ed by Ulemas, left for Sind and arrived 
in Thatta via Nasarpur in 1504 A.D. 

He made many disciples, among them 
were Shaikh Sadaruddin Mufti, Darya 
Khan, Qazi Qazan, Syed Mubarak, 
Shaikh Jhando and a large number of 
Soomras who accompanied him to 

1500-1600 AD. : 

Two humped Bactrian camel which was 
favourite in countries west of Indus 
between 1100—1400 A.D. disappeared 
in this century. 

Hourani, Indian Seafaring, pp. 89-97. 




1501-1503 A.D.— 907-8 AH. : 

Syed Muhammad or Mahcii of Jaunpur 
having been expelled from Gujarat re- 
ached Nasarpur along with 360 of 
his followers. 

1503 A D. : 

Albi qierqi e came as Portuguese Viceroy 
to the Irdian Sub-Continent. 

1504 A D. : 

Venice formed an alliance with Sultan 
of Egypt ard the King of Calicut against 
the Portuguese. 

1504- 05 A.D. : 

Having beer expelled from Sind by Jam 
Nizamuddin ard having lost mary of 
his followers Mahdhi of Jaurpur left 
for Qar.dhar. 

1504-05 A D — 910 AH. : 

Two Syed brothers Ahmed and Muha- 
mmad Mashhdis having left Iran in 906 
A.H. (1500—01 A.D.), due to Shia 
uprisings, reached Samui and were 
settled in Mughalwara. 

1505 A D— 911 A.H. : 

Shaikh Mubarak Reli Sewistani, son of 
Shaikh Khizir and the father of Abul 
Fazal ard Faizi, was born at Rel, a 
village near Sehwan. He stayed in 
Sind, received his education, became a 
disciple of Shaikh Murid Bukhari and 
Shaikh Umar Thattavi and then left lor 

1505 A D. : 

Mahmud bin Muzaffar Shah captured 
Nagar Parkar from Soda Rajputs and 
built the present Mosque at Bhodesar. 

Siddiqi, (Dr.), M.H., Mahdi ol Jaunpur 
in Sind, Journal, Research Society of 
Pakistan, April 1965, pp. 101-110. 


cm m 



Siddiqi, (Dr.), M.H., Mahdi of Jaunpur 
in Sind, Journal, Research Society of 
Pakistan, April 1965, pp. 101-110. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, Sindhi Translation, p. 



-w faoi 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, Sindhi, p. 235. 

He migrated to Agra in 950 A.H., spent 
50 years there and wrote 500 volumes on 
various subjects. He died in 1001 A.H. 

Thar \feen Meeran Ja Qila by Sarup- 
chandur 'Dad'. 






1505-06 A D— 911 A.H. : 

Shah Khairullah also called Shah Khair- 
uddin son of Syed Ahmed Baghdadi was 
born at Baghdad. 

Mihran, No. 2, 1959, pp. 139-150 and 
No. 1 and 2, 1958, pp. 140-162. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, Sindhi Translation, p. 

1506 A D., 21st Feb. to 1590 A.D., 27th Sept. 

911 A.H., 27th Ramzan to 998 A.H., 
27th Zul Qad. : 

Makhdoom Nooh lived then. 

1507 AD. : 

Defeat of Mir Hussain's fleet by the 
Portuguese. The Portuguese defeated an 
expedition of Sultan of Gujarat and 
Mamluk Sultan of Egypt. Later on, 
only with 600 sailors, they defeated the 
joint naval expedition of the Sultan of 
Gujarat aid the Sultan of Turkey, who 
had 7000 Turk and 22,000 Gujarati 

1506 A D.— 911 A H. : 

Death of famous Arab historian 
Jalaluddin al-Suyuti. 

1507-08 AD -913 AH. : 

Shah Beg and Muhammad Muneem 
left Qandhar for the fear of Babur, and 
reached Shal (Quetta) and Mastung. 

In the subsequent year 914 A.H. (prob- 
ably on hearing of Jam Nizamuddin's 
death) he came and occupied Sibi. 

1507-C8 A D— 913 A.H. : 

Death of Amir Zul-Noon at the hands 

of the Uzbeks. 


1507-08 A D. : 

After the conquest of Kabul and Ghazni, 
Babur attacked Qandhar. Muhammad 

In this battle, Sind must have contributed 
men and boats. 

Beveridge, Babur Nama, Vol. I, p. 342. 

Masumi, pp. 104-05, puts the year of his 
movement from Qandhar as 913 A.H. 
but on p. 72*, he also states that as long 
as Jam Nizamuddin was alive the 
Arghoons did not put their foot on the 
soil of Sind since 890 A.H. (1485 AD). 

Masumi, p. 102. 

Masumi, pp. 102, 103, 112, 113, 192-196 
and 226-227. 



Muqeem and Shah Beg, both sons of 
Amir Zul-Noon, could not face him and, 
therefore, they took to flight. Babur 
appointed his brother Sultan Nazir as 
the Governor of Qandhar and among 
the captives took Mah Begum, the 
daughter of Muhammad Muqeem. She 
was married to Muhammad Qasim 
Koka and from this matrimony gave 
birth to Naheed Begum. 

After the departure of Babur, Shah Beg 
and Muhammad Muqeem recaptured 

1508 AD.— 914 A.H : 

Death of Jam Nizamuddin Samma after 
48 years rule of Sind and was succeeded 
by his son Nasiruddin Abul Fatah Feroz 

1508-1510 A.D. : 

Jareja Samma chief Hamirji was mur- 
dered by his cousin Rawal. Latter 
seized most of Cutch. Hamirji's son 
Khengar sought help of Mahmud Begra, 
while Rawal got help from Jam Feroz. 
This conflict spoiled Sind — Cutch rela- 
tions and Jam Salahuddin with help of 
Khengar attacked Sind twice. Conflict 
ended the Samma rule in Sind. 

1508—1524 A D. 

Sind ruled by Nasiruddin Abdul Fateh 
Sultan Feroz Shah bin Sultan Nizam- 
uddin Shah Jam Nizamuddin. 

She later on escaped from Kabul and 
married Mirza Shah Hassan and Mirza 
Issa Tarkhan in succession in 1 526 and 
1554 A.D. respectively. She rebelled 
against Mirza Baqi and was captured, 
imprisoned and allowed to die of starva- 
tion in 977 A H. (1569-70 A.D.) Nahid 
Begum's daughter Rajia Begum was 
married to Mirza Baqi and was killed in 
an encounter with Jam Baba. 


Daudpota in Masumi, p. 302 states that 
it was 917 AH. (1511 A.D). 

Tarikh-i-Tahiri, p. 56, puts it as 914 
A.H. (1508 A.D.). 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, p. 106, also agrees with 
this date and so does Beglar Nama. 
The inscription on his tomb gives 
the year of construction as 915 A.H. 
(1509-10 A.D.) and hence he may have 
died in 914 A.H. 

Williams, pp. 113-114. 

Refe* entry, September, 1524. 

Dr. N.A. Baloch, Tahiri, p. 308 assigns 
p. 528 A.D. as the end of his rule. 



1509 AD. : 

•Construction of Dabir Mosque at 
Thatta. It is one of the earliest ex- 
amples of Kashi tiles from kala or 
Sehwan. The tile body is made of hard 
baked terracotta unlik the Punjab tiles 
which are made ofsilicious sand with 
lime or other ingredients held together 
with some cementing material. Kashi 
is derived from Sindhi 'Kach' or glass 
o# glazed and not from Kashgar as 
Hala potters state, taking their ancestry 
to Sinkiang (China). 

1509 A.D. : 

The oldest Portuguese map of the 
Indian Ocean and the first scientific 
map, which also shows Sind, was pro- 

1509-10 A.D.— 915 A.H. : 

The inscription on the north entrance of 
Jam Nizamuddin's masoleum set up at 
the instructions of his son Feroz Shah 
the same year, gives the Samma 
genealogy as: 

Al-Sultan Feroz Shah Ibn Al-Sultan, 
Nizamuddin Shah bin Al-Sultan Sadar- 
uddin Shah bin Al-Sultan Salahuddin 

Firishta (Bombay), Vol. II, pp. 319-20, 
assigns 927 A.H. (1521 A.D.) as the end 
of his rule, putting the total period to 
13 years which is incorrect. Briggs 
calculates his rule from 896 A.H. 
(894 A.H. is probably a printing mistake) 
to 927 A.H. or 1492-1520 A.D. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari assigns year 1521 A.D. 
to the fall of Thatta and end of his rule. 

Masumi, p. 113, puts the end of Feroz 
Shah's rule as 1 1th Muharram, 926 A.H. 

Map in the Ducal library of Wolfen- 
buttel, published by Ulden in 1938. 

Professor Muhammad Shaft, Sanadid-i- 
Sind, English Section 17. 

This inscription gives the name of Jam 
Unar I as Feroz Shah, Jam Sanjar as 
Sadaruddin Shah. The tomb was started 
by Jam Nizamuddin himself and com- 
pleted by his son Jam Feroz in 1509-10 


Shah bin Al-Sultan Rukunuddin Shah 
bin Al-Sultan Fcroz Shah (Jam Unar-II). 

1509-10 A D.— 915 A.H. : 

Jam Feroz starts the construction of the 
tomb of his father Jam Nizamuddin, 
though the construction on the outside 
wall was started by Nizamuddin him- 
self in 895 A.H. (1490 A.D.) 

1509-1529 A.D. : 

The climax of Portuguese cartography 
marked by maps of great cartographers : 

Franciso Rodriquez (1513-15 A.D.), 
Lop Homen (1516 A.D.), Reinel Bros. 
(1519-22 A.D), and Diogo Ribeiro 
(1523-29 A.D.). 

Sind's maps by the Portuguese were 
used as guide for all the European na- 
tions until about 1830 A.D. The maps 
were remarkably superior to the all pre- 
vious ones. 

1510 A.D. : 

Portugese conquest of Goa. 

1510 AD. : 

Albuquerque sacked Calicut, and also 
captured Gova. Yousuf Adil Shah re- 
covered it but was expelled by the Por- 
tuguese the same year. 

In the following year Albuquerque es- 
tablished Portuguese factory at Calicut 
and conquered Malacca (near Singa- 
pore). By about this time they must have 
established their factory at Lahri Bunder 
in Sind with or without permission and 
must have retained control over it even 
if opposed. 

Armando Corlesac and Avelino Teizeira 
da Mota; Monuments and Portugal is, 
Cartographica, 4 Volumes, Lisbon, 1960, 
give some of the portions of these maps. 

■ • 







1510-1586 AD. : 

Rule of Cutch by Jareja Samma chief 
Khengar, as vassal of Gujarat from 
1510-1540 and independent rule from 
1540-1586. He united Cutch as one 

1511-12 A D.— Earlier than 917 A.H. : 

The marriage of Bibi Rani with Sultan 
Muzaffar (917-32 A.H. or 151 1/12-1525/ 
26 AD.) of Gujarat. 

Bibi Rani was grand daughter of Sultan 
Sadaruddin Shah Jam Sanjar and a 
cousin of Salahuddin, both born of Jam 
Sanjar 's second and third son who were 
brothers of Jam Nizamuddin-II. Most 
probably the family had shifted to 
Gujarat during Jam Nizamuddin's 

1511-12 A.D.— 917 A.H. : 

Jam Salahuddin Shah with the help of 
Sultan Muzaffar of Gujarat and Rao 
Khengar of Cutch conquered the 
Lower Sind, from Feroz Shah-II. 

Williams, pp. 113-14. 

He helped Jam Salahuddin and Jam 
Feroz in the Sind politics in 1512, 1521, 
and 1524 A.D. 

Zafarul Walih, p. 137 puts the date of the 
marriage as 924 A.H. (1518 A.D.) which 
is improbable as Sultan Muzaffar on 
occupying the throne showed interest in 
Salahuddin 's cousin. Her elder dau- 
ghter was married to Sultan Adil Shah 
Farooqi of Burhanpur (918-26 A.H.) 
and, therefore, the marriage must have 
taken place around 907 A.H. Ma'arat-i- 
Sikandri, pp. 206-7. 


1512 A D — 918 A.H., Mufaarram : 

Jam Salahuddin made his first attack 
on Thatta with the help of Sultan 
Muzaffar of Gujarat, who was married 
to the former's cousin Bibi Rani. At 
that time Jam Feroz had neglected the 
affairs of the state, refused the advice of 
Darya Khan, who had to retire to his 
Jagir in the village Ghaha (Kahan^near 
Sehwan and these failures brought his 
defeat at the hands of Salahuduin who 
thus became the ruler of Sind. Feroz 
Shah along with his mother Madina 
Machhani went over to Ghaha to Darya 
Khan, who at the request of Madina 
agreed to help, collected troops from 
Sehwan, but got the first set-back at the 
hands ot Haji, the Vazier of Jam Salah- 
uddin. As luck would have it the 
Vazier 's letter about the success of the 
initial battle addressed to Jam Salah- 
uddin fell in the hands of Darya Khan, 
who had it replaced, conveying Salah- 
uddin that the Vazier 's forces had been 
defeated and it was advisable for him 
to abandon Thatta. This was quickly 
done. Darya Khan then moved Feroz 
Shah to Thatta and installed him on 
1st Shawwal, 918 A.H. (1512 A D. 12th 
October). Salahuddin then returned to 
Gujarat. He had remained in posses- 
sion of Thatta for about eight months 
and must have collected a large sum of 
money from Thatta and organized an- 
other battle. 


Zafar-ul-Walih, p. 138. 

Husamuddin in Makli Nama, pp. 114- 
1 15, puts the year as 918-19 A.H. (March 
1512— Feb. 1514 A.D.) and period of 
Salahuddin's rule as 8 months. Salahuddin 
must have captured Thatta in Muharram 
(March) and vacated it in Ramzan 
(November 1512 A.D.) to be re-occupied 
by Feroz on the Idd day. 

Masumi, pp. 77-78 suggests the year 
soon after Nizamuddin's death i.e. 915- 
16 A.H. (April 1509-March 1511 A.D). 

This is incorrect -as Sultan Muzaffar 
could not have married Salahuddin's co- 
usin until 917 A.H. (1511-12 A.D). 

Salahuddin was son of a brother of Jam 
Nizamuddin and grand-son of Sadar- 
uddin Shah Jam Sanjar Raydhan. His 
cousin Bibi Rani, a daughter of another 
brother of Jam Nizamuddin was married 
to Sultan Muzaffar-II of Gujarat (917-932 
A.H. or 1511/12-1525/26 A.D.). 

It appears that these two brothers of 
Nizamuddin may have had differences 
with him and may have gone to Gujarat. 

It is also possible that Salahuddin may 
haveMeft Thatta for Gujarat soon after 
the accession of Feroz Shah, and may 
have been contestant for the throne. 




1508 A.D. 


NOTEi - 

Karachi harbour then 
was known as Kaurashi. J 






«. OLO BED OF HAKRA _ _ ,*, 







P SO ^00 ISO MikM 


WARE -t A" • • • 5A M M AJ • -OF- 




1524-1554 A. D. 


1. 10th Aujutt 1524, Shah H««oA coronation ol Naiarpur. 
2- 2nd Sept. 1524, March to Tatla and occupation ot Tatta at 

end Stat. 1524. 
3 F«b 1524. March towards Rahim-ki-Bazar. defeat of 

jam Feroi Shah and back to Tatta. 
4. Sept- 1525. Tatta to Bakhar »ia Mafarpur, Hala Kondi and 


5 March 1521 From Bakhar to Sibi. 

6 April 152«. Frorr- Sibi lo Bakhar via tahri and Chhatr- 
?. July 152*. March trom Bakhar to Multon. 

I 15th Jan. 1527 AD. On way to Multan tackina ot S«r*ahi, 

Bhutta Wohen, Dcrawar and uch 
». 1527. Attack on Rao Khcnjart territoriei in Cytch. 
10 153*. Tatta to Gujarat viaNatarpur, Najar Parkar, 

Radhanpur and Patan. 






3 ROUTES OF £XP.EDI.TiONS .. -*..,..»«. 



6 MODFRN TOWNS J ... Karachi 

























19. Humayun seated on throne. 






In this expedition he was helped by the 
Cutch. Cutch had two rival factions 
under Rawal and Khengar. The for- 
mer had the latter's father murdered in 
1 506 A.D. and latter had acquired parts 
of Cutch by 1512 A.D. Rawal was very 
powerful! at this period. Sird had 
good re'ations with Rawal and therefore 
Khengar helped Salahuddin Besides 
this Khengar was also vassal of the 
Sultan of Gujarat, as such granting 
passage to Sind was obligatory on 
Khengar, who also controlled the easiest 
approach to Sind. Sind in turn help- 
ed Rawal, Which caused rift withXhen- 
gar who then interfered in Sind affairs. 
This ultimately helped Arghoons. 

1512-13 A D.— 918 A.H. : 

Due to rebellion of Shah Ismail Safavi 
Makhdoom Abdul Aziz Muhadith 
Ubhari along with his sons, left Herat 
and came and settled in Ghaha (Kah»n 
near Seh wan. Hissors Athiruddin and 
Yar Muhammad wrote sone religious 
works after their arrival in Sind. 

1512-13 A.D— Between 918-919 A.H. : 

Jam Salahuddin, a descendant of Jam 
San jar, defeated Jam Feroz Samma and 
himself became the king for 8 months, 
when he was removed with the help of 
Darya Khan and Feroz was reinstated. 

Masumi states that due to misunder- 
standing, Salahuddin had left for Guja- 
rat. Darya Khan is reported to have 
engineered the plot for Salahuddin s 
leaving Thatta. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari. Vol. Ill, p. 518. 
William's pp. 113-117. 

Masumi, p. 76. 

It seems that Kahan had achieved an 
important position at the end of the 15th 
century and almost every person of some 
consequence passed through it. It was 
in the Jagir of Darya Khan and may 
be, he had up-graded the town-fhip. 

Masumi, pp. 76-78. 



Salahuddin's cousin Bibi Rani was mar- 
ried to Muzaffar of Gujarat, who be- 
came Sultan in 917 A.H. (151 1-12 A.D.) 
and helped Salahuddin to conquer Sind. 
This incident, therefore, may have taken 
place in 918-19 A.H. (1512-13 A.D). 

1511-13 A D.— 918 A.H. : 

Bidi-uz-Za.man Mirza who came to Sind 
from Astrabad, was well received by 
Jam Feroz and kept as state guest. He 
returned to Shah Ismail Safavi after 
one year's stay in Thatta. 

1513 A.D. : 

It appears that simultaneously 'with 
their activities, the Portugeuse had thre- 
atened Lahri Bandar and, therefore, the 
Sammas had to recede in land. By this 
time the Portuguese may have established 
a factory at Lahri Bunder with or with- 
out permission of Sind's ruler and may 
even have used force as they were doing 
in the whole of the Indian Ocean. 

1513 A D.— 919 A.H. : 

Jam Salahuddin Shah was defeated by 
Jam Feroz with the support of Shah 
Hasan Arghoon and the former fled to 

1517 A D— 923 A.H. : 

Babur's second expedition against 
Qandhar, in which he became seriously 
ill. Taking advantage of the situation. 
Shah Beg made an offer for peace which 
suited the other party too and was 
accepted. Shah Beg felt free for ad- 
ventures towards Sind. 

1517 A.D. : 

No person existed who could be called 
Khalifa on the ground of his descent 

Zafar-ulr-Walih, p. 137. 
Tabaqat-i-Akbari, Vol. Ill, p. 518. 

Firishta, Bombay, f. 460 a. 

Firishta (Naval Kishore), Vol. II, p. 511 



Masumi, pp. J 09- 1 10 and 309 puts the 
year as 921 AH., but Be vc ridge in Babur 
Nama, Vol. 1, pp. 365 and 431 proves it 
to be 923 A. H. Masumi 's chronology 
since this date falls behind by 2-3 years. 








from the Abbasid Khalifas after Sultan 
Salim's capture in Cairo. 

1517-18 A D.— 923-24 AD. : 

Shah Beg moved to Sibi and made it as 
his headquarters. Meantime, his son, 
Shah- Hasan, apparently having deve- 
loped uhcbrdial relations with his father, 
reached Babur's court at Kabul and 
stayed, there for two years. 

It is suspected that this was attempted 
with connivance of his father Shah Beg 
so as to keep him informed of Babur's 

1518 A.D.— 924 A.H. : 

Shah Beg lived in territories of Shal and 
Siwi under hardship and distress and 
decided to conquer Sind. 

1518 A D., 20th Nov.— 924 A.H., 
17th Zul Qad : 

Shah Beg attacked Ghana (Kahan) 
(which was Jagir of Darya Khan) and 
Baghban and laid waste the country 
around them. The booty among other 
items included 1000 camels which used 
to operate Persian wheels (fpr rabi crop). 
Of this booty he despatched fine horses 
to Babur as gift. Babur received this 
information through Shah Beg's am- 
bassador Qasil Tawachi in Qartu on 
25th Rabi-I, 920 A.H. or 30th March, 

1519 AD. 

The same year Babur captured Sawat, 
Bajwar, Bhera, and Khoshab. Mirza 
Shah Hasan (later on ruler of Sind) was 
with him on this expedition. 

1519-21 A.D. : 

Magellan's voyage around the World. 

Masumi, p. 111. 

Beveridge, Babur Nama, Vol. I, pp. 365 

and 430. 


Babur himself has stated that Shah Hasan 
had come to learn the techniques of 
administration and court procedures 
and etiquettes. 

Masumi, p. 112. 

All future actions of Shah Beg have to 
be viewed from this incident. Masumi 
has tried to justify his actions on flimsy 

Masumi, p. 110, puts the date as J 7th 
Zul Qad, 928 A.H. which is incorrect by 
3 years. Tarkhan Nama and Tuhfat-ul- 
Karam have copied Masumi's date. 

Beveridge, Babur Nama, Vol. I, pp. 395 
and 401 gives the date of arrival of the 

Babur Nama, Vol. 1 , pp. 384-401 and 



Between 1519-1528/29 A.D.- 925-935 A.H. 

Death of Shaikh Bhirkiyo Katiar, prob- 
ably on the 9th of the month of Shaban. 
He came from village Katiar (not Mulla 
Katiar) in Nasarpur Pargana. 

The tomb of this sufi is at Shaikh Bhir- 
kiyo, about 20 miles ESE of Hyderabad. 
His anniversary is being celebrated for 
3 days from the 9 to 1 1th of Shaban 
each year. 

926 A.H. : 

After spending 2 years in Babur's court, 
Shah Hasan left and joined his father 
at Sibi. 

1520 A.D., 21st Dec— 927 A.H., 
11th Muharram : 

Darya Khan (Dulla) or Mubarak Khan 
was killed by Mongols. He was a slave 
of Diwan Lakhidar and was adopted as 
son by Jam Nizamuddin. His real 
name was Qaboolo (or Qabool Muham- 
mad) Syed. He rose to become Madar- 
ul-Muham (Prime Minister) and was 
titled as Mubarak Khan. 

There are different versions about the 
last days of his life. 

Tahiri states that the courtiers being 
jealous of his power and position per- 
suaded Feroz Shah to crush him, but 
the latter finding himself incapable 
avoided any direct conflict; so they ap- 
proached Feroz 's mother Madina 
Machhar.i, ad\ising her to invite the 
Mo.igols and Arghoons to free Sind 
from the power of Darya Khan. Ac- 
cording to this plan Madina invited 
Srwh Beg from Q.indhar. Shah Beg 
took Baghban-Schwan route and 

Channa Mahboob Ali, Mihran, Vol.41, 
No. 4, 1964, pp. 131-32. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, Sindhi, and Hadiqat- 
ul-Auliya, p. 84. describe his life and 
mention that he was contemporary of 
Hala Kandi's Makhdooms Ahmed 
and Muhammad both of whom died in 
934 A.H. (1527/28 A D ). Mahboob Ali 
thiuks that he died in 930 A.H. (1523/24 

Masumi, p. 111. 

An inscription at the north oi Mubarak 
Khan's grave calls him Al Khanul Azam 
Wa Shahid Mubarak Khan Ibn Sultan 

Tahiri, pp. 6-59, 

The version has to be seen in the light of 
entries 922, 923, and 924 A.H. i.e. 
Babur's determination to capture Qand- 
har and Shah Beg's struggle to acquire 
a new land. 









encountered Darya Khan near 'Khan 
Wan' canal which he had himself built 
to irrigate the lands of village Sankorah 
(Sakro) and other areas (of Thatta and 
Sakro Talukas). Darya Khan was kill- 
ed while fighting bravely, when an arrow 
hit him in the throat. Feroz Shah kept 

Masumi on the other hand reports that 
some Mongols had migrated to Thatta, 
and entered the service of Jam Feroz 
who had assigned a separate quarter to 
them called Mongol Pura. One Mir 
Qasim Kaibakian Arghoon encouraged 
and induced Shah Beg to undertake the 
conquest of Thatta and, therefore, Shah 
Beg made preparations, and was first 
opposed near Talhati (Talti) by Matan 
Khan (Motann Khan) son of Darya 
Khan, but avoiding them Shah Beg 
reached Khanwah located 6 miles north 
of the city of Thatta (Masum wrongly 
puts 3 Kurohs south of the city of 
Thatta), crossed the river at a point 
where it was shallow and reached near 
Thatta. Darya Khan left Feroz Shah 
in the city and came out to fight a fierce 
battle, which he lost, and was captured 
by Tingari Birdi Qabtasal and put to 
sword along with the other Samma 
soldiers. Jam Feroz took to flight. 

Beglar Nama states that he was cap- 
tured and killed. 

Zafar-ul-Walih states that he was called 
by the Arghoons to discuss the terms of 
peace and treacherously murdered. 

Masumi, pp. 1 13-14. 


This version puts the blame of aggression 
on Shah Beg. It is possible that Mir 
Qasim too advised him to attack Sind 
and sent him detailed reports, but this 
must have been only after seeing Shah 
Beg's preparations. 

This version apparently is more plausible 
than Tahiri's version. Tahjri himself be- 
ing a Sindhi, must have been prejudiced 
against Machhis who are considered a 
low caste by some, till this day. 

The Kalri branch of the river flowing 
north of Thatta was no longer the main 
branch and, therefore, was shallow. 

Khan Wah existed till the opening of the 
Kotri Barrage. Kalri, an inundation 
canal after covering 26 miles bifurcated 
into the Kotri Buthro and Khan Wah. 
Latter continued and discharged into 
the Gharo Creek. 



1520 A.D , 22nd Dec.— 31st Dec. 

927 A.H. 11th Muharram— 20th Muharram: 

After the defeat and death of Darya 
Khan, Shah Beg allowed the plunder of 
Thatta ard disgraced the inhabitants. 
This was stopped after 10 days at the 
request of Qazi Qazan to Shah Beg. 

He also ordered giving of protection to 
the family of Feroz Shah who had taken 
shelter at Pir Ar. Tahiri states that the 
ill treatment to the populace is in- 


1521 AD., January-February — 
927 A.H End Safar : 

Shah Beg moved out his camp from 
Thatta. Jam Feroz came for submis- 
sion, which was granted. Sind parti- 
tioned, the Lower Sind south of Laki 
went to Jam Feroz, as Shah Beg 's Go- 
vernor and protege, and the Northern 
Sind was annexed, to be ruled by Shah 
Beg directly through his officers. As 
protege Feroz agreed to share a part of 
the lard revenue with Shah Beg. Due to 

Masumi, pp. 114-115, puts the date as 

926 A.H. but Tabaqat-i-Akbari, Vol. II, 
p. 51 puts the date as 927 A.H. The 
source used the chronogram in >&» ^j** 
or fall of Sind, which also gives the date 

927 A.H. 

Tahiri, pp. 58-59 also gives the same 
chronogram, but from it he has derived 
the date of Shah Beg's death and also 
Shah Hasan's driving out Jam Feroz 
from Sind. 

Badauni's Muntakhab-ut Tawarikh (Cal- 
cutta Edition) f. 75 b. copies Mir Masum 
and puts the date as 926 A.H. 

Ma'athir-i-Rahimi, Vol II, pp. 276-77 
and 290-91 copies from Misumi the year 
926 A.H. but copies chronogram from 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari and p its 929 AH. 
which is a mis-writing for 927 A.H. 

Since soon afterwards Jam Salahuddin 
attacked Thatta asecond time in 928 A.H. 
(1521-22 A.D.), when Jam Feroz is re- 
ported by Masumi to have sought Shah 
Beg's assistance, the date of 927 A H. 
appears to be acceptable. 

Masumi, pp. 115-416. 

Tahiri, p. 59. 





this Feroz lost respect and prestige 
among his own people. 

This partition gave six out of eight 
Sarkars, to Feroz though area-wise the 
two Sarkars of the Upper Sind were 
larger than 6 Sarkars of the Lower 
Sind. The most fertile Sarkar of the 
period, Sehwan, also went with the 
Upper Sind. These Sarkars were: 

Bakhar Sarkar with twelve Mahals; 
Bikhar, Uch, Mathelo, Ubarro, Alore, 
Darbelo, etc. 

Sehwan Sarkar with nine Mahals; Sen- 
war., Pat, Baghban, Kahan (Ghana), 
Lakhpat, etc. 

Chachkan Sarkar with eleven Mahals; 
Chachkan, Jun, Fateh Bagh, etc. 

Nasarpar Sarkar with seven Mahals; 
Nasarpur, Amarkot, Hala Kandi, 
Samma-vali, etc. 

Chakar Hala Sarkar with eight Mahals ; 
Chakar Hala, Ghazipur, etc. 

Thatta Sarkar with eighteen Mahals; 
Thatta, Lalri Bandar, Bathoro, Bahram- 
pur, Sakro, etc. 

1521 A D., Mid-February, Mid-March— 
92~ A H , End of Rabi-T, Beginning of 
Rabi-TI : 

After departing from Thatta Shah Beg 
reached Sehwan. 

The Santa (a branch of the Sammas 
some of whom were Muslims, the others 
Hindus even before independence) and 
Soda (a branch of the Parmar Rajputs 
who held the Thar area for many centu- 
ries and even to this day exercise influ- 
ence on both the sides of the border) 

Mazhar-i-Shah Jahani and Ain-i-Akbari 
give the details of these Sarkars. 




Tod, Vol. I, p. 85 a. gives a description 
of these tribes. 




tribes took pledge to fight the intruder 
till death. In spite of the resistance 
Shah Beg occupied Sehwan and put it 
in charge of his four officials belonging 
to Arghoon, Tarkhan and Beglar clans 
and also put a FCokaltash in charge of 
Bakhar, probably in order to win sup- 
port of these clans, who were losing 
faith in him due to pressure of Babur on 

Three days later, Shah Beg was inform- 
ed that two sons of Darya Khan, 
Mahmud Khan and Matan (Motann) 
Khan and also another Samma tribal 
leader Sarang Khan were ready to sub- 
mit but Makhdoom Bilawal was prevent- 
ing them and encouraging them to fight. 
Shah Beg, therefore, stormed Talti and 
captured and looted it. In the battle a 
large number of Sammas and Sodhas 
were killed. 

Makhdoom Bilawal was captured and 
punished (i.e. he may have been im- 
prisoned, tortured and allowed to die a 
slow death, if not crushed alive in oil 
expeller as is believed by the people of 
Sind specially of Baghban, where he is 

1520-21 AD— 927 A.H. 

The probable date of death of Makh- 
doom Jaffar of Bubak who was alive at 
the time of Shah Beg's campaign of 


Masumi, pp. 116 and 117. 

Masumi, pp. 198 and 99, Tuhfat-ul- 
Karam, Vol. Ill give biography 
and put his death in 919 AH. which is 
incorrect. According to Miyar, f. 426 a 
he died in 929 A.H. (1522/23 AD). 

Makhdoom Bilawal *s grave is near Bagh- 
ban, 6 miles r4w of the town of Dadu 
and there is a congregation held on the 
eve of the first Friday every month. It 
is not at Thatta as some historians state. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam puts it as 920 A.H., 
which is wrong as the first campaign 
of Shah Beg started in 926 A.H. 







1521 A D — 927 A.H. : 

Shah Beg promised Babur that he would 
surrender Qandhar to him, the follow- 
ing year i.e. 928 A.H. (1522 A.D.). 

Shah Beg's future actions in Sind were 
goverr.ed by Babur's pressure on Qand- 
har and his fear to lose it. 

This promise was made only a/ter he 
felt himself secure in Sind, and wanted 
a grace period of one year to complete 
the conquest of it and subdue the tribes 
as is proved by his very actions. 

1521 A.D.— 927 A.H. : 

Qazi Syed Shukurullah, son of Wajih- 
uddin son of Syed Na'amatullah son of 
Syed Arab Shah Hussaini Dastaki, un- 
der the orders of Shah Beg came to 
Thatta from Qandhar, where he had 
migrated from Herat in 906 A.H. (1500- 
1501 AD). 

1521 A.D., November— 927 A.H., End ; 

Jam Salahuddin collected 10,000 horse- 
men comprising of Jarejas (a sub-caste 
of the Sammas considered of Rajput 
origin, settled in Cutch and who had 
migrated there possibly due to differ- 
ences with the Soomras), Sodhas, Sam- 
mas and Khengars, and proceeded to 
capture Thatta. Jam Feroz fled to 
Sehwan. Salahuddin occupied Thatta. 
The Cutchi forces were supplied by 
Khengar who controlled most of 
Cutch then. 

Irskine, Vol. I, p. 355. 

Beveridge, Babur Nama, Vol. I, pp. 432- 

Dr. Daudpota in Masumi, p. 310 accepts 
the year as 927 A.H. against Masumi's 
year 922 A.H. in the text, p. 111. 

Masumi's version on causes of Shah Beg's 
attack on Sind is completely distorted. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, p. 193. 
Tahiri, p. 14. 

Masumi, pp. 117-118. 

The tribal background is given by 
Todd in 'The Annals and Antiquities 
of Rajistan', Vol. I, pp. 78-79. 

Burgess, Archaeological Survey of West 
India, Cutch and Kathiwar, p. 195. 

Gazetteer of Bombay Presidency, Vol. V 
Cutch etc., p. 57. 



Jam Feroz Shah now an Arghoon pro- 
tege informed Shah Beg's officials at 
Sehwan and requested for help. They 
informed Shah Beg of this. 

Jareja Samma chief Khengar had occu- 
pied Rahimki Bazar and Virawah, the 
two border posts on Southern Sind 
and was interfering in Sind's affairs, as 
Jam Feroz had helped Rawal, the ad- 
versary of Khengar in Cutch. Occu- 
pation of these border posts was with 
the purpose of stopping the help to 
Rawal from Sind. • 

1521 A.D , 14th December— 928 A.H., 
14th JVfuharram : 

To help Jam Feroz Shah against Salah- 
uddin, Shah Hassan on the orders of 
his father Shah Beg, left Shal (Quetta) 
and after 20 days reached Sehwan where 
he was opposed by Jam Sarang Khan, 
Rana Sodha and others who dug tren- 
ches near Talti, but Shah Hasan instead 
of fighting them avoided their path, pro- 
ceeded towards Thatta to fight Jam 
Salahuddin, who was encamped at Jun. 

Burnes James, 'Visit to the Court 
Sinde', pp. 147-235. 

Ranchodji Amarji, 'Tarikh-i-Sorath', 
English translation by Burgess, J. A., 
'History of Cutch and Gujrat ', Bombay, 
1882, pp. 240-41. 


Masumi, pp. 117-119 puts the year as 
927 AH. (December 1520 A J).), which 
is incorrect. 

Beglar Nama, puts 17th . Muharram, 

927 A.H. 

Ma'athir-i-Rahimi, Vol. II, p. 276 gives 

928 AH., but on pp. 292-3 follows 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari, Vol. Ill, pp. 518-519, 
puts 928 A.H. 

Zafar-ul-Walih also puts 927 A.H. 





1522 A D , early February— 

928 A.H , end Safar or early Rabi-I : 

Jam Salahuddin Samma was killed by 
Hamid Sarban in the battle with Shah 
Hasan Arghoon near Chelar. His son 
Haibat Khan (or Beg'ar Nama's Fateh 
Khan) after being captured was ordered 
to be killed by Mir Khushi Muhammad 
Beglar. Shah Hasan's men advised 
him to kill Jam Feroz too, but this was 
avoided for the time being. Feroz 
smelling that is reported to have escap- 
ed to Cutch at opportunate time, but re- 
turned soon afterwards. 

One effect of death of Salahuddin was 
normalizing of relations with Jareja chief 
Khengar who controlled most of Cutch. 
It is possible that Khengar gave protec- 
tion to Feroz Shah to win the Sind 
support against Rawal his adversary. 
Feroz Shah could not have easily escap- 
ed to Cutch along the land routes of 
Rahim ki Bazar and Virawah which 
were in Khengar 's occupation. By cut- 
ting off Sind's support to Rawal he 
quickly ousted him from his terri- 
tories, but latter remained in his fort 
until 1540 AD. when he occupied 
Nawar.agar and established a new Jareja 
Samma dynasty under the title Jam of 
Nawanagar, which ruled upto June 1948. 

Beglar Nama, pp. 12, 13, 17. 

Masumi, pp. 119-120 and 230. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari, Vol. Ill, pp. 518-19 and 
Vol. II, p. 35, puts the year as 928 A.H. 

Masumi, puts the name of the place as 
Jun but Beglar Nama's Chelar is more 
reliable as the author Khushi Muhammad 
Beglar, was the killer's own tribesman. 

Haibat Khan's wife was daughter of 
one of the Rajput wives of Muzaffar 
Shah. The two wives are named as 
Lakham Bai and Raj Bai. Salahuddin 
had also married the daughter of.Sultan 

Mirat-i-Sikandari, p. 218, on the other 
hand states that Fateh Khan was in 
Gujarat when his brother-in-law Sikandar 
was killed in, 932 A.H. (1525-26 A.D.), 
and those who refused to take the oath 
of allegiance to new Sultan Mar-mud 
included Fateh Khan. Beglar Nama puts 
Fateh Khan instead of Haibat Khan as 
the son of Salahuddin. 

Haibat Khan's wife Ruqayya was dau- 
ghter of Sultan Muzaffar and sister of 
Sultan Mahmud-I as stated by Mirat-i- 
Sikandari, ff. 177 b, 187 b, 188 b. 



1522 A.D., March— 928 A H., Rabi-H : 

After the defeat (and death) of Jam 
Salahuddin by Shah Hasan, Shah Beg 
arrived and camped near Baghban and 
summoned Shah Hasan there to show 
favours and distinction on him. He 
also ordered killing of the whole Machhi 
tribe residing on the out-skirts of Bagh- 
ban as they had become disobedient. 
Their properties and cattle were plun- 
dered and houses and castles were raised 
to ground. 

Shah Beg also communicated to Jam 
Feroz Shah that he intended to conquer 
Gujarat. (This was obviously to avenge 
on tribes of Cutch who helped Salah- 
uddin and also to avenge on Sultan 

A large number of Machhi tribesmen 
must have escaped Shah Beg's aggres- 
sion, as even today there are a number 
of Machhi villages around Baghban and 
Bahawalpur which lie two miles apart. 

Shah Beg was determined to evacuate 
Qandhar, as much as Babur was deter- 
mined to capture it. This act of Shah 

Zafar-ul-Walih, p. 138. 

Zafar-ul-Walih states that after the death 
of Sultan Muzaffar Feroz Shah captured 
some parts of Si d, but when Arghoon 
retaliated he took flight to Gujarat. He 
was well received by Sultan Bahadur bin 
Muzaffar. This happened in 935 A.H. 
(1528-29 A.D.). 

Masumi, on the other hand, states that 
Shah Hasan was very kind to Feroz and 
there was no intention of his removal. 
Circumstantial evidence is against this 

Masumi, pp. 121-120, puts the year as 
927 A.H. 

Even his subsequent actions show that he 
kept this aim in view, though not re- 
corded by Mas urn. 







Beg at Baghban must have been aimed 
as settling his men who had already 
arrived with the families there. 

1522 A D., April-May.— 928 AH, 
Jamadi-T, II. : 

Shah Beg arrived in Bakhar and ordered 
the execution of Lali Mahr and his men 
and also 47 Dhareja chiefs of various 
villages who had come to offer respects 
but had attempted to oppose his Gover- 
nor of Btikhar earlier. They were killed 
at night time and their bodies thrown 
down from the tower of the fort since 
then named as Khuni Burj (Bloody 

The Syeds occupying the fort were also 
ordered to be removed but allowed to 
settle in the Rohri town. 

The quarters within the fort were allotted 
to his nobles and officers. The fort of 
Alore was demolished and its bricks 
were utilized for renovating the Bakhar 
fort and the dwel'ings of the Sammas 
and Turks around the fort were also 
demolished for the same purpose . 

1522 A D , September 1—928 A.H., 
Shawwal 13 : 

Babur was handed over the keys of 
Qandhar by Shah Beg. 

1522 A D —929 A.H. : 

Death of Makhdoom Bilawal of Bagh- 
ban, where he is buried. He organized 
resistance against Shah Beg Arghoon. 

Masumi, pp. 112-124. 

The Syeds of Bakhar, were descendants 
of Syed Muhammad Maki who came 
from Yaman to Sind and founded 
Bakhar, where he died in 644 A.H. 
(1246-47 A.D.), as is stated by Tuhfat- 

Dharejas were Sammas and the massacre 
of these innocent men was done to terro- 
rise the populace which had risen 
against the Mongols. Shah Beg did not 
do any thing excepting killing and looting 
of powerful or innocent population for 
seven continuous years since he had 
occupied Sibi first. Psychologists would 
categorise him a sadist. 

Dr. Daudpota in Masumi, p. 310, accepts 
this year against Masumi 's 923 AH., 
stated on pp. Ill and 1 12. 

Beveridge, Babur Nama, Appendix, J. 
XXX, II. XXXV and Vol. I, p. 432, 
puts the year as 928 A.H. 

Makli Nama and Tuhfat-ul-Tahirin, 
wrongly state that he is buried near 
Shaikh Hamad Jamali at Makli. Masumi, 



His disciples included Hyder Shah of 

1523 A.D — 929 A H., Mid to end : 

Shah Beg sent a party of his soldiers 
from Bakhar to 42 villages of the 
Baluchis to stay with them in disguise 
and on an appointed day and hour 
to destroy the whole village. Thus 
people of these village were killed un- 

pp. 198-99, Tuhfat-ul-Tahirin, pp. 30-31. 
Hadiqat-ul-Aulya, pp. 79-81, and Tuhfat- 
ul-Karam, give his biography. The 
local tradition that he was crushed alive 
in an oil expeller by Shah Beg is not 
supported by any contemporary autho- 
rity. The Archaeological Department 
can be allowed to open up the grave for 
examination as the Russians did in the 
case of Timurlane and Ulul Beg to verify 
lame-ness and cutting off the head res- 

Hadiqat-ul-AuIiya confirms that he is 
buried at Baghban. 

Masumi, pp. 124 and 125. 

The names of vi'lages or the Sarkar are not 
mentioned. Mazhar Shah Jehani states 
that there was concentration of Balochis 
in the present Chanduka. The Jacob- 
abad District was settled by the Balo- 
chis only after the mid- 19th century. 
There were a few Balochi settlements 
to the north of Ubavro but in between 
Bakhar and these places lived Dahars 
and Mahrs who were yet to be subdued. 
The Balochi villages of Sibi Mahal 
were very scattered and definitely diffi- 
cult to be subdued by any foreigners of 
whom they are suspicious to this day and 
won't allow their entry. In the villages 
of Sind any body could get in, under 
the cloak of a 'Musafir' (traveller) and 
get shelter and as a last resort in a 
mosque. Shah Hasan had to make 
special trip to crush the Balochis of 
Kachhi and Sibi. The 42 Balochee 
villages destroyed, this time must have 
been in Chanduka. 





1523 A D.— 930 A.H. : 

Death of Makhdoom Ahmed, a sufi of 


1523 A.D , November— 930 A.H., : 

early Winter : 

Shah Beg while at Bakhar appointed 
Payirda Muhammad Khan as the 
Governor of Bakhar and moved south 
with a large army for the conquest of 
Gujarat and on way to Sehwan punished 
the tribes living on both sides of the 
river Indus. After staying for 15 days 
in Sehwan and inflicting punishment on 
the populace, he proceeded towards 
the Lower Sind. It took him 7 to 8 
months march upto Agham (Aghamani) 
30 miles SES of Hyderabad. 

He seems to have marched along the 
left bank of the river Indus (which re- 
mained a strong hold of the Sammas for 
the next 150 years), to subdue them. He 
may even have the intention of capturing 
Thatta by surprise and may have delibe- 
rately taken that route. The destruc- 
tion of the Samma strong holds may 
have been with intention of cutting of 
assistance to Jam Feroz. 

1524 AD, June 26—930 A.H., 
Shaban 22nd : 

Shah Beg died at Aghamani. The same 
night the nobles and chiefs swore allegi- 
ance to his son Mirza Shah Hasan. 
Three years later, Shah Beg's body was 
sent to Mecca for burial. 

His death occurred soon after he heard 
the news that Babur had arrived in the 

Hadiqat-ul-Auliya, p. 100, assigns 935 
A.H. (1527 A.D.) to it. Mahboob Ali 
Channa, Mihran, Vol. 14, No. 4, p. 35 
puts it as 930 A.H. 

Masumi, pp. 125-126. 


Mazhar Shah Jehani gives the details 
of these Samma strong holds and con- 
tinuance of their struggle for freedom 
even 1 1 years later. 

Based on chronogram, "^-^l^. Masumi, 
pp. 126 and 127 and 141 has worked out 
the year as 928 A.H. and has adjusted the 
preceding dates accordingly. 

Hodivala, Vol. I, p. 125 thinks that the 
year is 930 A.H. 



vicinity of Bhira and Khushab with in- 
tention of conquering Hind. 

This news upset him with the fear that 
Babur would make him vacate Si ad like 
Qandhar, with the Jesuit that he got a 
heart-attack which caused his death. 

1524 AD, August— 930 A.H., Ramzan: 

Jam Feroz Shah sent envoys to Shah 
Hasan the Arghoon, condoling his 
father's death. He also sent presents of 
submissiveness and assurance of good 
conduct. The two envoys were Hafiz 
Rashid Khus Navis (of Jam Nizam- 
uddin and Jam Feroz) and Qazi Haji 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari, Vol. Ill, p. 520, puts 
it as 930 A.H. 

Firishta, Vol. II, 
Nizamuddin's date. 

p. 621, follows 

Beveridge, Babur Nama, p. 437 also 
puts it as 930 A.H. He discusses it in 
JRAS (1914), pp. 293-08. 

Dr. Daudpota, p. 314 does not accept 
Masumi's version and accepts 930 A.H. 

Beglar Nama, p. 15. 

The two places were conquered in 925 
A.H. (Feb. 1519 A.D.) and Babur came 
back 5 years later to conquer India. He 
crossed the Jhelum in Rabi-I, 930 (22cd 
January, 1524 A.D.). 

Masumi, p. 142. 

Masum states that these envoys of Jam 
Feroz informed Shah Hasan in confidence 
that their mission was an outward 
pretence and the Jam was, in fact, pre- 
paring for war. 

This is improbable, as the populace of 
Sind had turned against the Jam for his 
submission to the Arghoons and he had 
become too we^k to fight a war. 

Beglar Nama, pp. 12 and 13 states that 
after the defeat and killing of Salahuddin 
and his son at Chelar in 928 A.H., Shah 
Hasan was advised to kill Jam Feroz 
Shah too. This advice was rejected that 
time because the whole of the Upper 
Sind was preparing to fight against the 
Arghoons as various incidents show 
and, therefore, action against Feroz 







1524 A D., 30th August— 930 A.H., 
1st Shawwal : 

Shah Hasan was coronated at Nasar- 

1524 A.D., 2nd September— 930 A.H., 
4th Shawwal : 

Shah Hasan started marching from 
Nasarpur to Thatta to crush Jam Feroz. 
Hearing of his approach, Jam Feroz 
abandoned Thatta (probably the same 
month) and crossed over the river. He 
was now between Baghar and Ren 
Branch of the river Indus. 

Shah was postponed. The envoys of 
such great reputation telling Shah Hasan 
in private, appears to be a made-up 
story either by Shah Hasan and his aides, 
or by Masum. 

Tahiri, pp. 59 and 66, states that Jam 
Feroz neither sent condolence nor a 
congratulatory message on Shah Hasan's 
accession and had decided to rebel. This 
resulted in Shah Hasan's attack on Sind. 
This is also in conformity with Zafarul 
Walih's statement vide entry February 
1522 A.D. 

Masumi, p. 142, reports that he expressed 
his unwillingness regarding Khutba to be 
read in his name and, instead, suggested 
that it may -be read in the name of 
Zaheeruddin Babur Badshah. This may 
be improbable, as Babur had not estab- 
lished himself in the Sub-Continent then 
and only 1 1 years earlier his father was 
forced to surrender the fort of Qandhar 
to Babur. 

His attitude towards Humayun also 
shows that he could not have shown this 
degree of sincerity to the Timurids. 
Masumi may have written this to please 
his masters, the descendants of Babur. 

Masumi, p. 142, states that Shah Hasan 
started after the Idd, which is normally 
celebrated for 3 days. 



1524 A.D., September— 930 A.H., 

Shawwa! '■ 

Shah Hasan crossed the river (Kalri 
Branch) and occupied Thatta. In the 
process of crossing Jam Feroz's son-in- 
law Mannek used a naval fleet to oppose 
the Argooons, but the fleet along with 
the leaders was either killed or drowned. 

Hearing this news Jam Feroz fled to 
Cutch to collect troops from the Samma 
tribes of that area. This time he could 
rely upon Jareja Samma chief Khengar, 
who also needed support of Sind against 
Rawal as well as to gain independence 
of Gujarat at opportune time. 

930 AH.: 

Soon after his accession, Mirza Shah 
Hasan married Gulbarg Begum, daugh- 
ter of Mir Khalifa, Vakil (Prime Minis- 
ter) of Babur. The engagement had 
taken place in 925 A.H. (1519 A.D.), 
with the permission of Babur, who sent 
her to Sind under protection of her 
brother Hussamuddin Mirak, who was 
given Districts of Pat and Baghban 
(present Dadu, Johi and parts of Kakar 
Talukas) as Jagir. 

The river Indus that time had three 
branches. The Ren, which separated 
from the main stream between Tando 
Muhammad Khan and Matli and flowed 
to Koree creek. The other two were Kalri 
and Baghar. The last one was the main 
stream and Kalri was a small shallow 
stream, from which Khan Wah had its 

Masumi, p. 147 gives no date but des- 
cribes the event after Babur 's conquest 
of Hindustan and that would be 932 A.H. 
which is incorrect. 

Beveridge in Babur Nama, Vol. I, p. 366 
as well as Humayun Nama, AppendU 
A, p. 230, give the date of engagement. 

Humayun Nama, pp. 37-129 and fn. 
159-230 states that the marriage was 
dissolved two years later and Gulbarg 
Begum seems to have been admitted in 
Humayun 's Harem either as a wife or as 
a mistress. 'This according to Mrs. 
Beveridge was reason of Shah Hasan's 
hostility to Humayun. 

1524 A.D. September end— 

930 AIL, Shawwal end or Zul Qad beginning : 

Shah Hasan entered Thatta and ordered Tahiri, pp. 68 and 62. 
a general massacre to the degree that 
the stomachs of pregnant women were 
ripped open and the embryoes were 





taken out with the point of arrows. No 
male member irrespective of age was 
spared. The majority of the Samma 
women and children due to the fear of 
the Mongols jumped into the river 
Indus and were drowned, and those who 
survived were imprisoned and humiliat- 
ed to the degree that according to Tahir 
Niyasi ; 'God should not show such a 
day to any believer or unbeliever'. 

1524 A D , December to 1525 AD., February— 
931 AH, Beginning : 

Havir.g left Thatta for Cutch, Jam Feroz 
collected 50,000 troops both horsemen 
and foot-soldiers belonging to the Sam- 
ma tribes of Jareja and others, equipped 
them well and reached the villages of 
Rahman (Rahim Ki Bazar, on the Koree 
Creek at the edge of the Rann of Cutch, 
30 miles south of Kadhan) and Chach- 
kan (Badin-Tando Bago area) to give 
Shah Hasan a battle. Shah Hasan also 
collected the troops and reached the 
place of battle, Khari Khabarlo. 

Feroz Shah's troops, a suicidal squad, 
got down from the horses, tied their 
turbans around the waists and again 
tied the corners of this cloth to each 
other and fought fiercely, but lost the 
battle with a total or 20,000 dead on 
both the sides. Shah Hasan stayed for 
three days at the battle site, to collect 
and distribute the spoils of war. Feroz 
Shah fled to Cutch. 

The suicidal squad is typical of Hindu 
Rajpoots. These soldiers must have 
been supplied by the Jareja Samma 
chief, Khengar of Cutch. He also con- 
trolled Rahim ki Bazar and Virawah. 

Masumi, pp. 143-144, states that he fled 
to Cutch, but other historians state that 
he fled to Gujarat. The latter version is 
improbable as Sultan Muzzffer Shfh 
had twice helped Salahuddin agairst him 
and so he probably took shelter in Cutch. 
The most suitable time to cross the Rann 
of Cutch would have been November to 
February and, therefore the battle might 
have taken place during those morths. 
It would also give Feroz Shah about 4 
to 6 months to collect 50,0G0 troops and 
equip them. 

Tuhfatul Karam, p. 115 and Ma'athir-i- 
Rahimi, Vol. II, pp. 297 and 98 state 
that he collected troops fiom Gujarat 
which is incorrect. His troops must have 
been drawn from Cutch, Chackhan and 
other parts of the Lower Sir.d. 

Haig, Indus Delta Country, pp. 88-90 
and fn. 109, identifies the site of battle 
as Khari Rhabarlo. 

Tark^ian Nama, p. 26 does not agree 
with Masumi and states that he went to 



To avenge on Khengar an expedition 
had to be taken to Cutch by Shah Hasan 
at a later date. 

1525 A D., March-September : 

Shah Hasan stayed in Thatta for 6 
months and settled in the fort of Tugh- 

Tahir Niyasi states that during this 
period he created terror among the Sam- 
mas (almost 70 per cent of ir.diger ous 
Sindhi population betorgs to the 
Samma tribe of Rajput origin). The 
respected and educated people, Sardars, 
and soldiers, were converted into pea- 
santry and others to marual and mean 
occupations. Thus they were given 
plough instead of sword, and bullocks 
instead of horses, depriving them of self- 
assertion and self-respect. If anybody 
resented this slavery, he was not allowed 
to stay alive. The terror reached the 
limits that women aborted on seeing 
the armoured Mongols. 

As a result of this there was large scale 
migration of Sindhi scholars, saints and 
businessmen to Cutch, Kathiawar, 
G jarat, Burhanpur and Arabia. 

1525 A D , September.— 931 AH. : 

Shah Hasan left Thatta for the Upper 
Sind to subjugate the tribes who were 
yet not under his control. He marched 
via Nasarpur and Hala Kandi (Old 
Hala which is 2 miles from New Hala 
ai d 36 mi'es north of Hyderabad) to 
Sehwan, where the Sahta tribe and other 
people of Darbelo (all of the Samma 
tribe) offered their allegiance and Mir 
Farrukh was imposed as jagirdar on 
them the very day. He then left for 
Bakhar via Babarlu. 

Tahiri, pp. 63 and 64. 

This fort was built by Jam Tughluq on 
the site of the Old Fort which was called 
Kala Kot said to be named after one 
Raja Kala, though the name may possibly 
have come from Kali Devi's shrire in a 
cave on the Makli Hills. It is located 
4 miles SWS of Thatta ard on a small 
hill in a depression which used to remain 
flooded with water most of the year until 
the mid-sixties of this century. No arch- 
aeological explorations have been done 
to find its antiquity, which may also give 
clue to the founding of Thatta. 

Panhwar, M. H., Sind's struggle 
against Feudalism, 1500-1843 A.D.; Sind 
Quarterly, September, 1976, pp. 27-28. 

Masumi, p. 144. 





1525 AD. : 

Mirkar Shaikh Mahmood Purani came 
to Sind from Qandhar, and settled at 
Thatta and later on was appointed as 

1525 A D., October-November — 

932 A H ,- Beginning: 

Rebellion of the Dahars and Machhis 
of Ubauro and Bhatti Wahan (located 
1 miles north of Rahim Yar Khan) and 
also of the Balochis of Sarwahi (8 miles 
north of Sabzal Kot), and heavy mass- 
ing of the Mahars of Mathelo, was re- 
ported to Shah Hasan. 

In the action which followed important 
offcials of Shah Hasan like Mir Abdul 
Fattah and Baba Ahmed bin Fazil 
Kokaltash lost theii lives before these 
tribes were subdued. 

Since the Sind tribes extended into Uch 
(Rahim Yar Khan and Bahawalpur) 
and Multan territories, and they had 
been continuously opposing the Ar- 
ghooas since 923 A.H., Shah Hasan 
after the overthrow of Jam Feroz in 931 
A.H., seems determined to capture the 
area upto Multan before subduing the 
Samma tribes of Cutch, who had helped 
Jam Salahuddin and Jam Feroz, and 
could still give him another battle. 

1526 AD., March-April— 932 A.H., 
Beginning : 

Shah Hasan while planning to conquer 
Multan, decided to make Sibi (Siwi) 
safe from any attacks of the Balochis. 
He reached Sibi (150 miles from Bakhar) 
with a thousand horsemen, strengthen- 
ed the fort quickly in a week, and on 

Masumi, p. 144. 
T. K. P. 

Masumi, pp. 144-146, puts the date as 
928 AH. (December 1522) which is in- 
correct as the same year he heard about 
Babur's conquest of Delhi and Agra. 


Tabaqat-i-Akbari, Vol. Ill, p. 540, reports 
that after occupying the Punjab, Babur 
asked Shah Hasan to capture Multan, 
but this is doubtful. Babur wanted to 
maintain cordial relations from the posi- 
tion of strength and Shah Hasan was 
suspicious of Babur. Shah Hasan left 
Thatta fully prepared for suppression of 
the Sind tribes of the Upper Sind. Babur 
Nama also does not make any reference 
to Shah Hasan being asked to capture 




the way back attacked Rind and the 
Bughti (or possibly Mangsi) tribes of 
Lahri and Chattar, 35 and 50 miles 
respectively south of Sibi in Kachi 
District, and brought them to obedience 
and subservience. 

Soon afterwards he heard the news of 
Babur's conquest of India, which took 
place in early 1526 A.D. 

1526 A.D., April 18—932 A.H., 
Rajab 8, Friday : 

Babur won the first battle of Panipat 
against Ibrahim Lodhi. He reached 
Delhi on Rajab 12th and on Rajab 21st 
entered Agra and became the Sultan of 
Delhi. This was the 5th attack of Babur 
on the Sub-continent. The campaign 
had started in Safar 932 A.H., i.e Nov- 
ember 1515 A.D. and ended in April 

1526 A.D. 

Shah Hasan, on hearing this news at 
Bakhar, sent e.woys with presents and 
memorandum to the court of Babur 
Badshah. This was before he marched 
on Multan. 

1527 AD., 15th January— 933 A.H., 
11th Rabi-I : 

Fall of Multan to Shah Hasan. He 
appointed Dost Mir Akhur and Kha- 
waja Shamsuddin Mehhuni to the Go- 
vernment of Multan before his de- 
parture for Bakhar by about 
March 1527 A.D. 

Masum reports that all males between 
the age of 7 to 70 at Multan were taken 
a s prisoners. The city was converted 
into hell due- to plunder and slaughter 
Even the people taking shelter in the 

Akbar Nama, Vol. I, pp. 196 and 239. 

Masumi, p. 147. 

Masumi, pp. 151 and 161. 

This statement reflects on general be- 
haviour of the Arghoons to the popu- 
lace of Sind. 





Khanqah of the great Shaikhs, were 
massacred and looted and the Khanqah 
was on fire 10 — 12 days after fall of the 


1527 AD. 

On the return from the conquest of 
Multan, Shah Hasan proceeded to 
crush the Kanghars of Cutch. There 
are two versions. Mas mm states that: 

On return from Multan to Bakhar 
possibly around end of April, Shah 
Hassan heard the news that Rana Kan- 
ghar ( a Jareja chief ) of Cutch was 
threatening to attack Thatta, oo the 
pleas that his brother Amar Amrani 
had been killed by the former's men 
(in the battle with Jam Salahuddin), 
but had waited for the arrival of Shah 
Hasan from Multan, as Rajput chivalry 
demanded delay until his return. 

Shah Hasan rushed to Cutch with four 
divisions under Sultan Mahmood Khan 
of Bakhar, Mir Farrukh and Shah 
Hasan Tajudari and Mirea Issa Tar- 
khan, who was also helped by Mir 
AUka and met Kanghar forces just 
after the Sind— Cutch border. The 
Kanghar troops, dismounted fiom their 
horses, tied their turban around their 
waists and the ends of the turbans with 
each other, then linked their shields 
to make an impregnable iron wall. In 
three hours battle the two front rows 
of the Cutch army were wiped out by 
Sultan Mahmood Khan and the rest 
fled from the field, but ma ny were killed 
by Mir Farrukh. A large booty consist- 
ing of horses, camels, cows, and cattle 
fell into hands of the Arghcon troops. 
Mirza Shah Hasan returned to Thatta. 




Tahir, on other hand, reports that while 
in Thatta Shah Hasan realized that the 
Sindhis of Thatta and Samui who had 
taken shelter in Cutch, would be a 
source of danger to his rule, he add- 
ressed a letter to Kanghar Samma 
Hindu Zamindar of Cutch asking him 
to bring the famous horses of Cutch for 
him, enter his service and settle in Sind, 
his mother-land and lead a peaceful 
life. Kanghar replied that they were 
living in poverty, depending on loot- 
ing and could not send horses but 
would not submit either. 

Though this excuse of insulting ,Sha a 
Hasan in this reply was inadequate, 
Shah Hasan marched on Cutch. The 
Rajput chief instead of meeting in an 
open battle adopted guerilla tactics, 
made night attacks and poisoned wells 
and ponds with dead animals and 
cactus. Shah Hasan started burning the 
villages and fields but finally peace was 
restored through intermediaries and 
Kanghar agreed to pay annual tribute. 

1527-28 A.D.— 934 AH. : 

Due to terrorism of Shah Beg and 
Shah Hasan Arghoons, Qazi Abdullah 
Bin Qazi Ibrahim of Darbelo, a scholar 
and sufi, migrated to Gujarat and from 
there left for Madina. where he died. 
It was the beginning of the mass mig- 

Tahri, pp. 64-67. 

Masumi does not record the final fate 
of Kanghar. Since he had challenged 
Shah Hasan, he should have fought 
to death but instead he invited the 
enemy, allowed him to kill his men and 
loot the country, which apparently is 

The attack on Cutch was motivated by 
inflicting punishment on the Jareja 
Sammas who had helped both Jam 
Salahuddin and Jam Feroz to attack 
Sind and also to loot and massacre. 
This object does not seem to have been 
achieved as the same Kanghar, son of 
Jam Hamir, with help ef Sultan Baha- 
dur of Allahabad made himself head of 
the tribe, and master of the whole pro- 
vince and also won title of Rao in 1540 
A.D. Until then he was a Zamindar. 
As Rao, he paid no regular tribute, but 
was liable to military service of 
dOOO horses. 

Jareja house of Kanghar ruled Cutch 

upto 1947 A.D. 


I.G.I. Provincial Series, Bombay Presi- 
dency, Vol. II, pp. 329-331. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, p. 141, since Jam 
Feroz Shah Samma had taken asylum 
in Gujarat many Sindhi immigrants also 
took shelter there. 






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ration of educated, well-to-do, saintly 
men and business community of Sind. 

1527 A.D. : 

Birth of Hamida Bano Begum who was 
to give birth to Akbar the Great 
1 5 years later. 

1529 AD., March— 935 A.H. Middle : 

Jam Feroz Shah with his 50 thousand 
troops tried to recover Sind but after 
being defeased by Shah Hasan Arghoon 
left for Gujarat. 

935 A H., Shawwal : 

Jam Feioz Shah reached Gujarat and 
sought shelter with Sultan Bahadur 
Bin Muzaffar (932-943 A.H.) who pro- 
mised him necessary help to reconquer 

1531 AD , May— 937 A.H., 4th Shaban : 
Syed Hyder of Sann who had opposed 
Arghoon 's intrusion in Sird died at 

1531-32 AD.— 938-39 A.H. : 

Sultan Bahadur of Gujarat married a 
daughter of Jam Feroz Shah, the last 
Samma ruler of Sind. 

1535-36 A.D.— 942 A.H. : 

Jam Feroz Shah Samma, while busy in 
collecting troops in Gujarat to attack 
Shah Hasan Arghoon, was captured by 
the Mughal forces in the war between 
Sultan Bahadur and Humayun Badshah, 
and was killed. 

1536 AD- 943 A.H. : 

Humayun issued a "farman" in the 
name of Mirza Shah Hasan asking him 

Ishwari Parshad, Huma>un, pJ02. 

Zafar-ul-Walih, p. 138. 

Tabaqat-i-Akbari, Vol. Ill, p. 211. 

Mira'at-i-Sikandri, English Translation, 
p. 162, Tabaqat-i-Akbari, Vol. II, p. 211 
and Zafar-ul-Walih, p. 138, state that 
Jam Feroz came for shelter during 
this year. 

Maului Shedai, 'Sindhi Buzirgan Jo 
Siyasat Men Hisso, Mehran, No. 3, 


Ain-i-Akbari, Vol. II, p. 347. 

Mira'at-i-Sikandri, f. 225. 
Ma'athir-i-Rahimi, Vol. II, p. 277. 
Zafar-ul-Walih, pp. 138. 

Tabaqat - i - AJibari, 

Vol. II, p. 35. 

He must have gone via Nagarparkar. 
Radhanpur is 34 miles east of Patan 



to proceed to Gujarat and report on 
reaching Patan. Shah Hasan started 
from Nasarpur by the way of Radhan- 

The fort of Patan was surrendered by 
Khizr Khan who held it on behalf of 
Sultan Bahadur of Gujarat to Shah 
Hasan, on the payment of 130,000 
Firuz Shahi Tankas. Shah Hasan then 
occupied this fort. The area all around 
upto Mahmudabad was plundered by 
the Arghoons. Soon afterwards, Shah 
Hasan fearing that his joining Huma- 
yun may result into people deserting 
him, or he may be forced to accept a 
subordinate role in Sird returned back 
on the false excuse that disorder had 
risen in Sind. He brought back vast 
riches, clothes and money exacted from 
rich Gujaratis. On his way back 
through Nagarparkar, he subjected the 
Jareja and Sodha tribes to great slaugh- 
ter and rapine. 

1536-37 A.D.-943 A.H. : 

After the death of Sultan Bahadur of 
Gujarat, Sultan Mahmood bin Lutuf 
Khan bin Sultan Muzaffar-li became 
the Sultan. His mother was daughter 
of Bah ram Khan Sindhi, a descendant 
of Tamim Antari. 

1537-38 A.D.— 944 A.H. : 

Syed Shah Abdul Karim of Bulri, an 
ancestor of Shah Abdul Latif, was 
born. He grew up to become a great 
Sufi and poet and composed in 
Sindhi language. 

1539 A.D.— 946 AH. : 

Shah Hasan sent Mir Alika Arghoon 
to the court of Humayun to congratu- 

which was known as Naharwala or 
Anhilvada in the days of the Tughluqs 
and is 60 miles North- West of Ahmed- 

Humayun attacked Gujarat after the 
fall on Chambanir in Safar 943 A.H. 
( July 1536 A.D. ) as stated by Tabaqat- 
i-Akbari, Vol. II, and, therefore, 
Shah Hasan may have started for Patan 
in the beginning of 943 A.H. 
Masumi's date of 942 A.H., p. 162 is, 
therefore, incorrect. He must have 
returned the same year in 945 A.H. at 

•stated by Masumi, p. 165. 


Mira'at-i-Sikandri, (Baroda), p. 329. 

Tuhfat-ul-Karam, Sindhi, p. 171. 


Masumi, p. 166. 






late him on the conquest of Gujarat 
and Mir Khush Muhammad Arghoon 
to Mirza Kamran to congratulate him 
on the conquest of Qandhar. These 
emissaries heard the news of the defeat 
of Humayun at the hands of Sher Shah 
while in Delhi. 

1539 AD.— 946 A.H. : 

On hearing of the defeat of Humayun 
at Chausa by Sher Shah from Mirza 
Alika, Shah Hasan decided to lay waste 
the whote of the country from Uch 
(then part of Sind) to Bakhar on both 
the sides of the river and destroy all 
the crops. • 

Shah Hasan must have been relieved on 
Jam Feroz Shah Samma's death and the 
emissary must have been sent to convey 
his gratefulness to Humayun. 


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Geographical Index 


Aban Shah See Killuta/Abhiras (Thar and 
Parkar District extending to Marwar): 
Vassals and chiefs congratulated Narish 

Abhira (Thar desert of Sind): Vikramadi- 
tya— VI conquered or raided 228. 

Abiria: Saca or Ptolemy's kingdom estab- 
lished from 93, Scythian tribe took 
possession of 92, Sakas (Scythians) 
advanced to Taxila and the Punjab 
from 95. 

Abla: a Sea port built by Sassanids 133. 

Aden: Hippalus sailed to Indus Delta from 

Afantu: One of the 4 states of Sind 119. 

Afghanistan: Abu Nasar Muhammad Al- 
utibi died 221, Apollodotus extended 
kingdom to 93, appearance of poly- 
chrome of bichrome pottery 28, begin- 
ning of stone age of the Neolithic 18, 
Euthydemus extended sway over 89, 
Hieun Tsang saw 3 empires including 
122, Kharoshthi script disappeared 106, 
land route developed by Darius 1-66, 
Menander Empire extended to 91, 
Monsterian assemblage at 10, Nasir gives 
notes on 262, Non-ceramic Neolithic 
levels at Ghari Mar in 16, Radio Carbon 
dates at Ghari Mar and Darra in 18, 
settled villages in 28, Shahu Afghan 
escaped to 292, Shahu Lodhi requested 
permission to proceed to 297, wheat 
harvest originated 25. 

Africa: Fatmid caliphate established in 
192, Fatmid dynasty shifted capital to 
Cairo from 200, Ismaili sect born in 200, 
Ism ail is first appeared in 195, Masudi 
visited 193, Sorgham goes to Sind from 
20, third Abbasid Governor in Sind 
transferred to 163. 

Africa, East: Masudi completed his travels 

Africa, Northern: Fatmid Khalifas con- 
trolled 200, Ibn Batuta visited 293. 


Africa, South: Lower Pleistocene 5. 

Agham (Aghamani): it took 7 to 8 months 
to Shah Beg to reach 383. 

Agham, Governor of: Dahar married his 
daughter 131. 

Aghamani: Shah Beg died at 383. 

Aghin (Agham or Aghamani): Chach pro- 
ceeded against and subdued 123. 

Agra: Babur entered 390, Shaikh Mubarak 
Reli Sewistani migrated to, spent 50 
years and wrote 500 volumes 362, the 
text of Masnavi, Futuh-ul-Salatin print- 
ed from 302. 

Agra, Babur's conquest of: Shah Hassan 
heard 389. 

Ahmedabad: Bibi Murki was buried in 
the tomb of Jam Tughlaq Juna-II near 
351, Malik Goth was built to the south 
of 351,Patan is 60 miles to the north 
west of 394. 

Ahwar (Lahore): Amir Muawiya expedi- 
tion raided 127. 

Ahwazia: Muhalab attacked earlier 145. 

Ainzarba: Byantines attacked 184. 

Ajanta Caves: furnish evidence of good 
relations of Khusra with Chaulkayas 

Ajmer: given as Jagir to Ghiasuddin Balban 

Ajodhan: Sultan Feroz marched to Bakhar 
via 322. 

Akhad (Mesopotamia): 33. 

Alburz mountains: Halaku's forces des- 
troyed Nizaris strong hold in 209. 

Alexandria: Eudoxus voyage to India from 
92 and his return from India to 93, 
Ptolemy spent most of life in 104. 

Aligarh: recent text of Masalik-ul-Absar-Fi- 
Mamalik-ul-Amsar published from 293. 

Aliga/h University: Idrisi's Nuzhatul Mush- 
taq Fi Akhtarul Aafaq published by 234. 

Alkot battle: Death of Ful ruler of Cutch 
in 201. " 

Al-Lahni Mughals (Arghoons): Darya Khan 

defeated 358. 

Allahabad, Sultan Bahadur of: Kanghar 
made himself head of the tribe with the 
help of 392. 

Almut: Nizari Ismaili Dounk had head 
quarters at 208, Shamsuddin Sabzwari's 
ancestors migrated with Imam Hadi 
from Cario to 268. 

Almut, ex-governor of: wrote Tarikh Jahan 
Gusha-i-Juwaini 264. 

Almut, FidaisrMuizzuddin Ghori attacked 
Debal to cut off their sea route to join 

Almut, the Paradise of Assassins: Juwaini 
lived in and wrote his history of the 
world conquerors 248. The ruler asked 
Bhim Dev to attack Sind 236. 

Alra (Alore?): Ajaibul-Hind puts it between 
Kashmir and the Punjab 188. 

Alore: Ali Kufi visited 244, Arab conquest 
of Sind destroyed its authority over 
Cutch 146, a bund near it 177* capital 
of Rai dynasty 114, capital of Rai Seha- 
ras 118, Capital of Sind transferred to 
Mansura from 157, capital of upper 
Sind 77, 129, conquest of 139, flow of 
(Indus) water to Sukkur from 178, 
Dahar ruled 129, Daharsen intended to 
attack and died 131, described by: Ibn 
Haukal 197, by Abu Ishaq Al-Istakhri 
198,Kitab-Al-Masalik -wal-Mamalik 193, , 
Diodorus Sogdi considered as 77, the 
fall of 141, gained independence after 
the departure of Muhammad Bin Qasim 
145, Gopi organized forces to fight the 
Arabs 140, Habib Bin Al-Muhalab Bin 
Abi Safra attacked 145, Hieun Tsang 
travelled south of 119, a Hindu 
Raja's- kingdom at 161, Holy Quran 
translated into Sindhi from Hindu Raja 
of 188, Jaisina instructed Gopi to pro- 
tect 140, Jaisina prepared to protect it 
139, Jaisina held areas excepting of 146, 
Mahruk Bin Raik ruled 188, Masudi 
found it under suzerainty of Umer Bin 
Abdullah 193, Masudi found Umer Bin 
Abdullah ruling whole of Sind from 
192, Muhammad Bin Qasim returned to 
142, Muhammad Bin Qasim left Bah- 
manabad for 140, Sun-god temples at 
76, was a Mahal of Bukhar Sarkar 375, 
widow of king Dahar defended 139. 

Alore, fort of : demolished and bricks used 
for renovation of Bukhar fort 381. 

AJore, Hindu ruler: wrote to Abdullah 
Habari to send him a book in Sindhi on 
Islamic beliefs and education 188. 

Al-Rore: finally became Alore 140. 

Aman: Abu Tahir Qarmati occupied 179, 
rise of Banu Samdah a Quresh tribe in 

Amar: rise of Banu Samaah to power 188. 

Amarkot: Umerkot known as 233, under 
possession of Raja of Marwar 204, was 
a Mahal of Nasarpur Sarkar 3 75 . 

Amida: Shahpur— II seized 110. 

Amran: bestowed to Lakho from Gajan's 
line 355. 

Amri: agriculture and Radio Carbon dating 
24, animal remains of 25-27, appearance 
of polychrome and bichrome pottery 28, 
ass domesticated 25-27, beginning of 
Phase— III 38, bichrome style persisted 
in Sohab 32, buffalo domesticated 51, 
bulk pottery spread 

25-27, burning of 25-27, contacts of it 
with: early Nal and Nundra 31, Mesopo- 
tamia 42, contemporary Togau ware 
found at 36, continuity from pre- 
Harappan to Harappan 46, Cotton 
grown at 37, culture flourishes 28„des- 
truction by: fire 46, pre-Aryans 44, dog 
domesticated 15, end of: phase B 51, 
phase II B 38, earliest pottery of 17, 
farmers from South-East Iran settled at 
24, Hand -made pottery at 23, introduc- 
tion of Harappan culture 44, merging of 
two cultures 25-27, painted pottery and 
potters wheel reaches 15, peasant mig- 
ration at 23, phase I B at 29, Phase I-C 
at 30, Phase ID 31, Phase II follows 
without the cultural break 33, Phase II 
A or II B 33, Phase II, B 34, Phase II, 
burnt and non-existent 55, Phase III B 
and III C 49, pottery different from 
Harappan 31, pottery motifs 25-27, 
pottery and potters wheel reaches 18, 
pottery reflecting ties with Baluchistan 
pottery 38, preceding Harappan culture 
20, pre-Harappan period 25, settled 
villages 28, settlement destroyed by fire 
38, strong Kuli influence at 46, shows 
bands of sigmas, lozengos, chovrons and 
chequered board panels 31, stone 
modules of fine flint worked at Rohri 
imported 28, use of copper and bricks 
with shred 22, water proofing material 
went to Mohen jo-Daro via 43. 

AmriS Seals: Singled horned rhinoceros 
shown in 294. 

America: maize grown in 15. 

Amul: Tabri born at 178. 

Anahilapataka: Firishta states that Mahmud 


returned via 212, Lakho Fulani sought 
shelter with Chawra ruler of 194, Mod 
and Manai annexed it 171. 

Anauj: beginning of Phase II 33. 

Anhilvada (Naharwala): Patan was known 
as 394, sultan Qutubuddin Aibak cap- 
tured fort of Kanthkot in 241. 

Anhilvada Chaulkayas: in conflict with 
Sind rulers 238. 

Anhilwada: Lakho Fulani attempted to 
secure it for his own branch of Sammas 

Anhilwada, dominion of : Zafar Khan 
began to assert power over 342. 

Anhilwara: Allauddin Khilji's General 
captured it 274, Firishta takes Sultan 
Mahmud via 214. 

Antioch: Jats and other prisoners of war 
sent to 139, Khalije Muawiya trans- 
ferred J at families from 129, known as 
"Jat Quarter" 129. 

Aornos: Alexander sieged and captured it 

Arabia: Camel domesticated 51, 56, con- 
tacts established with Indian sub- 
continent 62, Ibn Batuta visited 293, 
large scale migration of Sindhi scholars, 
saints and businessmen to 388, one 
humped camel appeared in arid dis- 
tricts (Thar) from 64, Sorgham comes 
to Sind via 20. 

Arabian coast: Skylax voyage to Red Sea 
along the 70. 

Arabian Peninsula: Utilization of Monsoon 
for sailing between it and sub-continent 

Arabian Sea: Dark currency in silver and 
gold introduced 70, Erythraean sea in- 
cluded 83, Meds were most feared 
pirates of the 133,Silsilat Al-Tawarikh 
was a guide to its navigation 182, Sky- 
lax sailed down to 70, Skylax under 
Darius-I connected present Pakistan to 
Red Sea via 66. .. 

Arabis river: Morontobara was at the_ 
mouth of 81. 

Arabiti (Karachi and Thatta Taluka): 
Alexander's home journey via 79. 

Arachosia: Peithon withdrew to 84, 
Vonones accepted suzerainty to the 
ruler of 96, Vonones (Parthians) gained 
independence from the Governor of 
97, western parts passed to Chandra- 
gupta 85. 
Aravali Hills: Rudradaman added to his 

domain 104. 
Arbella: Sindh troops alongwith Persian 

forces fought Alexander in the battle 
of 75, Sindhis used light bows and 
arrows, chariots and elephants in the 
battle of 75. 
Ariana: Secession of large part by 

Seleucus 85. 
Annabel (Las Bela): Arab geographers 
included it in Sewistan or Sehwan 124, 
described in Kitab-Al-Masalik-wa-al- 
Mamalik 185, Muhammad Ibn Haroon 
died near 135, Muhammad Bin Qasim 
conquered 136. 
Armenia: Masudi visited 193. 
Arsinoe: Skylax journey in the Gulf of 

Suez 70. 
Asia: Ashkalul-Bilad Ibn Haukal's account 
of travels in 201, creation of Feudal 
elite or Jagirdars affected all countries 
of 278, dog domesticated 15, end to the 
chariot as useful war weapon 6 1 , horse 
used on the battle field in 61, Ibn 
Haukal travelled in 197, Masudi complet- 
ed his travels in 197, Mongols were in 
possession of 259, Ottoman Turks, 
push into 334. 

Asia, Central: Abu-Dulf Masar Arab 
traveller came to sub-continent via 
197, domestication of horse rejected 
49, Fayong with 25 Chinese monks 
came to the sub-continent via 112, 
sheep and goat domesticated in 17. 

Asia, Central (Herat and Qandhar) mer- 
chants: Sultan Hussain Mirza Beiqra 
of Khurasan sent armed expedition to 
Sind border on complaints of 355. 

Asia, Central Muslim States: included in 
the victims of Mahmud 217. 

Asians, Central: system of Feudal elite or 
Jagirdars was copied by them from 
Sassanids 278. 

Asia Minor: movement of Indo-Europeans 
in 44. 

Asia (Western): Iron working technique 
spread to 58, smelting of iron developed 
59, stone tools from 7—8. 

Asoka Stupas: Cousens is of opinion that 
Mirpurkhas stupa is built on the site 
of 110. 

Assyria: introduction of cotton plant 
from Indus valley to 64. 

Astes (Hasti) Frot: Hephaistion the Gene- 
ral of Alexander captured 76. 

Astrabad: Badi-uz-Zaman Mirza came to 
Sind from 370. 

Aswal: Muhammad Tughlaq took difficult 
route from Cambay to 301, Taghi's 
route from Gujarat to Sind through 300. 

Aticn-po-Chih-Lo: One of four states of 

Sind 119. 
Azarbaijan: Usman Marandi came from 

Marand in 233. 


Babarlu: Shah Hassan left for Bakhar 
via 388. 

Babiah (Bhatia): Muhammad Bin Qasim 
conquered 141. 

Babur Badshah, Court of: Shah Hassan 
sent envoy with presents and memo- 
randum to 390. 

Babylon: Alexander died at 82, Cyrus 
draining of the river to conquer 141, 
did not turn illiterate 56, the Indus 
mouth and Sind played an important 
role in trade transfer from 63, linked 
by means of roads to India 69, marine 
trade flourshied between India and 63. 

Babylonia: contacts with Mohenjo-Daro 
renewed 50, Greek, Phoenician and 
Arab mariners maintained connections 

Bactria: Alexander occupied 75, Antiochus 
III, its ruler involved in struggle with the 
west 89, Demetrius I lost it to his rival 
90, Eucratides established himself at 90, 
potters art spread to 18. 

Bactrians: Hellenic intrusions upon sub- 
continent started with 102. 

Bactrian temples: Strabo describes 
them 99. 

Badaun: Ain-ul-Mulk Hussaini was made 
Vazier at 252, Ulugh Khan was sent to 
261, Vazir Khan Jahan arranged inforce- 
ment from 325. 

Badaun, Governor of: third daughter of 
Aibak was married to 243. 

Badayun: Tajuddin Yarduz was imprisoned 
and died at 245. 

Badin — Tando Bago area: Jam Feroz 
collected 50,000 troops* from there and 
reached Chachkan village 387. 

Baghar: became less important branch 
of Lower Sind 296, became secondary 
stream 279, one of the three branches 
of Indus 386. 

Baghban: Makhdoom Bilawal's grave is near 
it 376, Shah Beg arrived and camped 
near it 380, Shah Beg attacked 371, 
there is a number of Machhi villages 
around 380, was a Mahal of Sehwan 
Sarkar 375. 

Baghban, act of Shah Beg Plundering: 
must have been aimed as settling his 
men 381. 

Baghban, District of: Hussamuddin Mirak 

was given as Jagir 386. 

Baghban, Makhdoom Bilawal of: death of 
382, he organized resistance against 
Shah Beg Arghoon 382. 

Baghban, Out-skirts: Shah Beg ordered 
killing of the whole Machhi tribe 
residing on the 380. 

Baghban, people of: believe that Makh- 
doom Bilawal was crushed in oil ex- 
pelled 76. 

Baghban — Sehwan route: Shah Beg took 
and encountered Darya Khan 372. 

Baghdad: Abbasid Caliph's power limited 
to small area 222, Ainia was sent there 
as prisoner 162, the author of Kitab-al- 
Aghani died at 200, Bashar 24th Gover- 
nor of Sind was taken as prisoner to 
175, became capital of Abbasids 162, 
Banu Munbah read Khutba in the name 
of Khalifa of 191, Chinese Emperor 
made alliance with the Khalifa of 168, 
conquered by Seljuk Turks 222, Cul- 
tural exchange of talents from Sind to 
173, death of Hafiz Shamsuddin at 
300, Daud did not send annual tribute 
(Khiraj) to 173, first Abbasid Gover- 
nor of Sind died in 161, 162, fourth 
Abbasid Governor of Sind returned to 
164, Ghusan 25 th Abbasid Governor in 
Sind was transferred to 175, Governor 
of Sind kept sending one million dir- 
hams yearly tribute to the central 
treasury at 175, 29th Governor of Sind 
was dismissed and sent to 181, Hisham 
died in 165, Imran sent deputation of 
Sindhi scholars to Khalifa at 179, 
Indian numerals were introduced at 164, 
Khalifa excommunicated Amar bin 
Layth from Pulpit at 187, Muhammad 
Bin Ishaque Ibn Nadeem died at 203, he 
was a librarian and wrote Al-Fahrist 
203, Manek came to 172, translated 
Susruta 172, worked in 173, Shah 
Khairullah. was born at 363, Sidhanta 
was translated into Arabic by a Sindhi 
scholar at 108, a Sindhi slave and 
scholar was sent and died there 185, 
a Sindhi slave who became well known 
Muhadith died in 181, Sindh's well 
known accountants were engaged by 
every engagement in 186, Tazkirat-ul- 
Huffaz describes learned men of Sind 
wiho earned fame at 300, Tarikh-i- 
Baghdad gives information on Sindhi 
scholars settled in 227, wife and son of 
Abdullah a direct descendant of AH 
were sent to 161, Yaqoot Hamavi was 



sold in 248, Zubair ruled Sind from 167. 

Baghdad, Khalifa of: Khutba was read, in 
his name 198, at Mansura 201 and in 
Sind 203, sent troops to crush the 
uprisings in Sind 168. 

Baghdad, Persian dominated Abbasid 
Caliphate: Fatmid caliphate was estab- 
lished at Africa in competition of 192, 

Baghdad, Syed Abdul Qadir Jilani of: his 
descendant Yousufuddin, a sufi came to 
Sind 345. 

Baghror: Muhammad Bin Qasim returned 
to 142. 

Baghrur: Muhammad Bin Qasim conquered 

Bagor: Microlithic sites in Rajistan at 17. 

Baghar Bhut : Arab expedition captured 
it 166. 

Bahawalpur: Mahmud of Ghazni marched 
through on his way to Sind and Som- 
nath 212, Sind tribes extended into and 
opposed Arghoons 389. 

Bahawalpur, chief of: paid Homage to 
Alexander 77. 

Bahawalpur District: Mahmud marched 
through on his return from Somnath 

Bahawalpur Division: Mansura principality 
consisted of parts of 193. 

Bahawalpur inscription: the rule of 
Sadaruddin Jam Sikandar Shah is con- 
firmed from 343. 

Bahawalpur (Sind): there is a number of 
Macchi villages around 380. 

Bahawalpuri language and dialects: Syed 
Nooruddin Satgur Noor an Ismaili 
preacher studied and composed his 
poetry in 228. 

Bahman (Bahmanabad): Vaser is called 
Persian satrap of 118. 

Bahmanabad: Allauddin Bughio a sufi 
did and buried in Dasht near 360, 
Chach proceeded against and subdued 
123, Chotiari was close to 148, con- 
quest of Dahlila while on way to 139, 
Daharsiah ruled it 130 and ousted 
Duraj and occupied 129, description 
of Muqaddisi about Mansura tallies 
with 203, date of Mirpurkhas stupa 
construction assigned to 110, fall 
of it by Arab forces 140, fell to con- 
querors 140, Jarisina conquered and 
returned to 139, he established himself 
at 145, he reoccupied 144, main town 
held by Parthians 101, Muhammad Bin 
Qasim left for A lore 140, renamed as 
Mansura 151, siege started 139, was 

the capital of Lower Sind 129, was a 
province of Rai Seharas Kingdom 118, 
was a strong fortress on the left bank of 
Indus 71, was too faraway from Rann 
of Cutch 148. 

Bahrampur: was a Mahal of Thatta Sarkar 

Bahrien: Contact of Indus and the Sume- 
rian Culture by sea via 41, Mulhida 
overthrown and came to Sind from 202. 

Bailaman (Vallamandla): J unaid conquered 

Bajaur: explorations at Timurgara in it 
prove 9th post-Harappan wave of the 
Indo-Europeans 64. 

Bajwar: Babur captured 371. 

Bakhar: Abdul Razaq Vazier of Mahmud 
of Ghazni sacked 219, after the defeat 
of Mongols Zafar Khan's troops return- 
ed to 275, Ain-Ul-Mulk Multani adminis- 
tered it 319, Ali Kufi visited it 244, 
Altatmash appointed Malik Kazlak 
Khan as Governor of Uch after the 
fall of 251, Altatmash ordered his 
Vazier to shift capital from Uch to 252, 
became an island 290, birth of Sultan 
Mahmud who ruled Upper Sind from 
359, complete waters of Indus passing 
through 230, Dahars and Mahrs lived 
between Ubavro and 382, did not come 
. under the control of Al-Shariq Malik 
Mahmood Hasan 345, erection of tomb 
of Khawaja Khizr on island near 199, 
Feroz stopped at, on his way to Delhi 
309, flow of water from Hakra to 178, 
long stay of Feroz Shah at 309, Masud 
Shah dismissed Nooruddin Mahmud on 
reaching 259, Mongols left for Khorasan 
via 259, Mongols of Kabul may have 
attacked it for booty 345, Nooruddin 
states Qabacha's jumping in Indus river 
252, Nusrat Khan was not given to 
govern it 272, Qabacha appropriated 
245, he conquered 243, he died and 
Altatmash forces laid siege 242, he 
occupied on the death of Qutubuddin 
245, Qutlagh Khan's appointment as 
Governor is doubtful 261, refused 
allegiance to Jam Sikandar 350, he took 
expedition against 350, Shah Beg 
appointed his Governor while in 383, he 
arrived and ordered the execution of 
Lali Mahr, his men and Dhareja chiefs 
j81, he captured 356, Shah Hassan 
appointed Governors of Multan before 
his departure for 390, he decided to 
lay waste country upto 395, he heard 

the news of threat of Rana Khangar 
at 391, he heard the news of Babur's 
success in Panipat battle at 390, he put 
Kokaltash as incharge of 376, he left for 
388, he reached Sibi 50 miles from 389, 
Shaikh Ali attacked 345, Sultan 
Nasiruddin left Delhi to visit 261, 
Sultan Feroz marched to 322, Sultan 
Safar was appointed as Governor 261, 
Syed Muhammad Maki Bakhri reached 
252, Vazier Khan requisitioned fleet of 
five thousand boats from 322, was a 
Mahal of Bakhar Sarkar 375. 

Bakhar, Divan of: Malik Abdul Aziz Burid 
was appointed as 309. 

Bakhar fort: Altatmash sent his vazier to 
lay siege on 250, conquered by Shaikh 
Abu Turab 169, Malik Abdul Aziz 
Burid was given 80 soldiers to guard the 
309, Qabacha committed suicide by 
jumping into river Indus at 250, 252, 
Qabacha removed treasures to 250, 
Qabacha took shelter in 245, Shah 
Beg made Fazil Beg Kakaltash incharge 
of 3.56, Shah Beg made Qazi Qazan to 
submit 356. 

Bakhar fortress: Mirza Issa Khan gave 
battle to Mubarak Khan (Darya Khan) 
who fled to 356. 

Bakhar fort, renovation of: bricks of Alore 
fort and dwellings of Sammas used 
for 381. 

Bakhar, founding of: by Syed Muhammad 
Makki who came from Yaman to Sind 

Bakhar gorge:, change of course of the 
river Indus through 199, Indus river 
changed its course through 230, the 
river Indus eroded fully 260, river Indus 
flowed in the central Sind below 279. 

Bakhar, Governor of: Jam Tughluq 
appointed his brother as 346, Shah Beg 
appointed Payinda Muhammad Khan as 
383, Shah Beg ordered execution of 
Alore who opposed 381, Sultan Muham- 
mad Tughlaq appointed suitable person 
as 285. 

Bakhar, Jats of: Mahmud set right affairs 
of 219. 

Bakhar Sarkar: consisted twelve Mahals 

Bakhar Sarkar, villages of: names not 
known which Shah Beg soldiers plunder- 
ed 382. 

Bakhar, Soldiers from: Shah Beg sent to 
destroy 42 villages of Baluchis 382. 

Bakhar, Sultan Mahmud of: Shah Hassan 

rushed to Cutch with four divisions 
under 391. 

Bakhar, Syeds of : were descendants of 
Syed Mohammad Makki who founded 
Bakhar 381. 

Bakhtiari Mountains (Iran): coarse pottery 
made by cave man found at Tangi-i- 
Pabda in 12. 

Balkh (Bactria): Khalifa conferred it upon 
Yakoob Sufari 186,' Muslim state 
sacked by Mahmud 216. 

Baluchistan: appearance of polychrome 
and bichrome pottery 28, Asoka's 
Governor at 87, conquest of Demetrius- 
190 , Copper and bronze used 35, 
domestic animals not reconcilable 13, 
existence of Zoarastrian temples shown 
at 267, food producing revolution not 
reconcilable 13, formed the 20th 
Satrapy 70, hand made pottery 13, 
imported flint from Rohri 29, iron 
sword found at 64, Junkar people took 
over small tpwns in 55, Karazes brought 
by Darius i— 168, Kulli culture at Shahi 
Tump in 49, Kuli culture in 24, Mehi 
culture matures in 38, Mesolithic 
period reaches 13, Mesolithic man 
moves to Sind from 13, migration of 
people from south-east Iran to Sind via 
46, Mongols not established directly in 
258, mud brick and clay houses were 
constructed 13, potter's art spread in 
18, pottery designs of Cacasion reached 
59, pottery reflects ties with Amri 38, 
presence of iron in Cairn graves and 
Pirak 61, settled life in 7, settled villages 
in 28, Shiite influence reached Sind via 
203, smelting of iron reaches 59, 
some part in possession of Sassanians 
111, trade route between Mesopotamia 
and Indus Valley 47. 

Baluchistan, Northern parts of: migration 
of new people to Punjab via 35. 

Bamanva or Bahmanva: Beruni calls 
Mansura as 152. 

Bampur (Iran): Archaic dates for Shahi 
Tump and Kulli has affinities with 39. 

Bana: described in Kitab-Al-Masalik-wa-al- 
Mamalik 185. 

Bangladesh: under the sea 9. 

Bania: Abdullah shifted headquarters to 
Mansura from 189, a small town at 
short distance from Mansura 184. 

Banhah (Banu): Amir Muawiya expedi- 
tion raided it 127, • 

Banu: Ki-Kiang-na (Kaikan) was to the 
west of 119, Muhalab attacked it ear- 


licr 145, was on the right bank of 
Indus 119. 
Bara: Gajan got it from Rayadhan's king- 
dom, Rayadhan's sons were assigned 
Barabican: products of whole North 
western sub-continent reached 102. 
Barabican port: was at the mouth of 

Smithus (Indus) 101. 
Barbaricum (Bhambore?): Periplus of Ery- 
threan sea describes it 102, products of 
the whole North western parts of the 
sub-continent exported from 102, 
products sold and purchased by Roman 
shippers 102. 

Barce (Barbarken): was built by Near- 
chus 79. 

Barham: Muhammad Bin Qasim conquer- 
ed 141. 

Barmir, Jeso Parmara of: founded Pari 
Nagar (near Pabi Virawah) 1 12. 

Baroda: Arab expeditions captured Bghar 
Bhut 8 miles west of 166, Arab Gover- 
nor of Sind sent expeditions against 166. 

Baroda (Porbander): second Arab expedi- 
tion against 166. 

Baroda coast: (Kathiawar and Gujarat): 
the Governor of Sind sent Amru to 
the 162. 

Baroda, Maraat-i-Ahmedi :mentions that 
Daud was removed and Fateh Khan was 
installed as Sultan Mahmud Begra 349. 

Barwas (Broach): first Arab expedition 
against 121, Jurz proceeded as far 
as 149. 

Basra: Hajjaj the Governor of died 142, 
Jats were settled in 120, Khalifa Mua- 
wiya transferred J at families in Syria 
from 129. 

Basra, Governor of: sent forces to Sijistan 
(Seistan) 125. 

Bathoro: a Mahel of Thatta Sarkar 375. 

Bathoro Taluka: ruins of Mohammad Tur 
on Mohatam Tur or Shah Kapur are in 

Batinia : See Mulhid. 

Bay of Bengal: See Bengal, Bay of. 

Bay of Debal: See Debal, the Bay of. 

Baydhan: Imran founded a city in Budh 
district 178. 

Bayloman: Muhammad Bin Qasim cap- 
tured 142. 

Bazia: Booqan renamed as 1 78. 

Beas: Kishlu Khan (Malik Balban) marched 
his troops along to attack Delhi 262, 
Mongols were in possession as far as 

Beas river: West and East Punjab under 

the Mongol control upto 263. 
Beas river Valley: early stone age tools 

from 7-8. 
Behistan inscriptions: mentioned Gandha- 
va and Sind in Jara's kingdom 70. 

Bengal: rebelled under Fakhruddin 292, 
Sindhi Bhikshus went to preach 164, 
Tibetan influence in 169. 

Bengal, Asiatic Society: Tarikh Feroz 
Shahi is published by 302, 316. 

Bengal, Bay of: Tibetan sea was called as 

Bengal, Governor of: his son was appointed 
as new Sultan 269. 

Bengal, Haji Hyas Shamsuddin of: religious 
sentiments of Feroz Tughluq were 
contradicated by 335. 

Bengal, west: was under the sea 9. 

3engal, Western: Pali was the language of 
the area 67. 

Berlin: extracts of Hudud-Al-Aram pub- 
lished from 197, text of Zainul-Akhbar 
was published from 223. 

Bhadrevar: Pithadeva occupied it 255. 

Bhadrevar merchants: Pithadeva was defeat- 
ed on their compl ,i 255. 

Bhadresvara: Soomra chief destroyed it 

Bhanbhore: accepted as Debal 189, identi- 
fied as Debal 137, Khojki script based 
on old Sindhi script found at 271, 
language spoken and written at 137, 
lower level at 102, settlement came to a 
sudden end 247.' 

Bhatia: Abul Hassan was sent to subdue 
222, Muhammad Ghori subdued Ismailis 
in 225, Mahmud of Ghazni took it by 
assault 205, recognized as Bhatinda 209, 
Sultan Salahuddin Muhammad bin Sam 
Ghari attacked 236, trio of Biji Rai, 
Rajpal and Daud against Mahmud 205. 

Bhatia, Hindu ruler: his predecessors join- 
ed Punjab ruler against Subkatgin, Alap- 
tagin and Mahmud 206. 

Bhatinda or Bhatia: 215. 

Bhatinda: Bhatia recognized as 205. 

Bhatti Wahan, Dahars of: rebelled against 
Shah Hassan 389. 

Bhatti Wahan, Machhis of: rebelled against 
Shah Hassan 389- 

Bhera: Babur captured 371. 

Bhirfc: Shah Beg died hearing the news of 
arrival of Babur in the vicinity of 384. 

Bhodesar: Business community of Pari 
Nagar left first for 296. 

Bhodesar, Bania inhabitants of: migrated 

to Nau Nagar 297. 

Bhodesar, Jain Temples: construction of 
first and second 333, 349. 

Bhodesar, Mosque: built by Gujarat rulers 
346, Mahmud bin Muzaffar Shah cap- 
tured Nagar Parkar and built it 362. 

Bihar: Pali was the language of area 67, 
Vazir Khan Jahan arranged inforcement 
from 325, was under the sea 9. 

Bihar mounds (Taxila): Punch marked 
coins from it the earliest example in 
sub-continent 73. 

Bikanir: chopping tools from 8. 

Bithur (UP): a new movement of people 
of Iran or Caucasian origin into sub- 
continent traced from copper hoard at 

Bocotia: Yueh-Chi defeated Scythian tribe 
of 92. 

Bokhara, Abdul Hussain of: invasion of 
Turks of Transoxiana by him necessitat- 
ed Mahmud 's early return from Multan 

Bolan: Scythian tribe moved into Sind via 
92, 94, similarity with Booqan 178. 

Bolan Pass: Alexander dispatched army 
from Upper Sind via 77, Demetrius 
entered India at 90, departure of 
Krateros towards 78, Kaikanites (Kalatis) 
protected it 178, Mongols detachment 
came at Sultan's request from Farghana 
via 301, Mongol raids were made via 
253, occupied by Jatts 45, possibly 
Dahar ruled the area 129, Rashid Bin 
Umer Jadidi proceeded to Seistan via 
129, route of Khilji Turks to Shvistan 
Sarkar via 249, shortest route of Ghazni 
from Multan via 215, Sultan Muhammad 
was killed at Jalwagir near Bibi Rani's 
grave in the 358, he was defeated and 
killed by Mubarak Khan (Darya Khan 
Dullah) 356. 

Bolan Pass (Kaikan or Kalat): Arab penet- 
ration in Sind via 130. 

Bombay: first Arab naval expeditions at 
Thana near 121, new script of Sindhi 
language invented by Pir Sadruddin an 
Ismaili preacher printed from 271. 

Bombay, Maraat-i-Ahmedi: mentions that 
Daud was removed &: Fateh Khan was 
installed as Sultan Mahmud Begra 349. 

Booqan: it could be in Kachhi or Sibi dis- 
trict 178, Imran's military cantonment 
was renamed as Bazia 178, similarity 
with Bolan, Jalwan, Sarawan, Khoram 
and Makran all in Kalat Division 178, 
survived upto 279 AH (892 - 293 A.D) 


Brahmanabad: renamed as Mansura 152. 

Britain: Neolithic stage of culture in 17. 

Broach: Jurz and his lieutenants over-ran 
149, Hisham conquered a town near 
163, he also conquered Gandhar near it 
162, Menander Empire extended upto 
91, Muhammad Bin Tughluq arrived to 
crush Taghi's rebellion 299, second 
Arab expedition against Baroda (Por- 
bandar) near 166, Taghi's route from 
Gujarat to Sind was through it 300. 

Broach, King of: he inflicted defeat on 
Tajjiks (Arabs) 149. 

Bubak, Makhdoom Jaffar of: probable date 
of his death 376. 

Budh Country: lying between Makran, 
Mansura and Multan having capital at 
Gandava 194. 

Budh district: Imran founded a city 
Baydhan in 178. 

Budha, Jats and Meds of: Governor of 
Makran killed by them 128. 

Budhapur: 1 

Budhia: consisted of Jacobabad, Kachhi, 
Sibi district and hilly tract of Larkana 
and Dadu Districts 137, Muhammad Bin 
Qasim chased Hindu Governor upto 
Sisam (Shah Hassan) in 137, principa- 
lity in Chach's Sind 194, Raja of Ramal 
(Rawal) occupied it 131, ruled by a 
Hindu Raja 194, 203, Sewiitan or 
Sehwan was its capital 124. 

Buddhist Sites: located in hilly tract of 
Larkana and Dadu districts 137. 

Budhjo Takar (near Tando Muhammad 
Khan): flint chopping workshop at 21. 

Bulri: the bifurcation of Kalri and Baghar 
took place 279. 

Bulri, Syed Abdul Karim of: an ancestor 
of Shah Abdul Latif was born 394. 

Burhanpur: large scale migration of Sindhi 
scholars, saints and businessmen due to 
Shah Hassan's terror 388. 

Burhanpur, Sultan Adil Shah Farooqi of: 

Bibi Rani's elder daughter was married 

to him 367. 
Bust: Governor Basra's force advanced 

to 125. 
Byzantine: Jats were captured and brought 

to 185. 
By^antina Empire: Masudi visited 193. 
Byzantine Romans: fire throwers used in 

Sub-continent were developed by 138, 
Jats settled on sea coasts resisted 

raids of 129. 



Cadesian, Persian Empire: was laid low 
by Arabs 120. 

Cairn graves: presence of iron 61, smelting 
of iron 59. 

Cairo: Ajaibul Hind published from 192, 
Arabic text of Masudi's book published 
from 198, Arabic text of Tarikh-i- 
Kamil published from 234, Arabic 
text of Subuh-al-Asha published from 
344, death of Imam Mustansir at 208, 
headquarters of Fatmid Caliphate shift- 
ed to 192, Kitab-al Yamani (Arabic) 
published from 221, Masudi's Muruj- 
al-Zahab published many times from 
194, revised edition of Futuh-Al-Bal- 
dan published from 190, Shamsuddin 
Sabzwari's ancestors migrated with 
Imam Hadi from 268, text of Kitab- 
al-Bayan wal-Tabiyin published from 
165, text of Mujam-ul-Baldan publish- 
ed from 253, text of Sirat-al-Nabaviya 
published from 195, Yakoobi issued 
from 190. 

Cairo, Caliphate fall of: Ismailis got set- 
back with the 208. 

Cairo, edition: Kitab-al-Kamil-fi-al- Tarikh 
published from 253. 

Cairo, edition of Tarikh al-Khulfa: was 
published in 1892 A.D. 349. 

Cairo, Fatmid dynasty: shifted their 
capital from Africa to Cairo 200. 

Cairo, Fatmid Khalifas: early Soomra 
rulers owed allegiance and sent them 
presents and read their names in Friday 
Khutba 208. 

Cairo, Sultan Salim's Capture: no person 
left to be called Khalifa after 370. 

Calcutta: Tabaqat-i-Nasiri published from 
225, Tarikh-i-Behaqi published from 
227, text of Tarikh-i-Mubarak Shahi 
published from 346. 

Calcutta, Asiatic Society of Bengal: Arabic 
text of Tarikh-al-Khulfa was first pub- 
lished by 349, Tarikh-i-Feroz Shahi 
published by 340, Tarikh-i-Mubarak 
Shahi published by 349. 

Calicut: Albuquerque sacked it 366, 
Vasco de Gama reached 361. 

Calicut, King of: Venice formed an allia- 
nce with him against the Portuguese 

Calicut Portuguese factory: was established 
by Albuquerque 366. 

Cambay: Muhammad Tughluq took the 
difficult route from 300,Taghi's route 
from Gujarat to Sind through 300. 

Canton: first Arab vovage to 131, was 
closed to foreign merchants 161. 

Cape Monze: Nearchus proceeded towards 
and left 81. 

Cape of Good Hope: Vasco de Gama 
reached Calicut via 361. 

Caria: Skylax belonged to Caryanda in 70. 

Caryanda: Skylax belonged to 70. 

Caucasus: Cairn pottery process reached 
Baluchistan from 59, iron working 
technique spread to 58. 

Caucasian Origin people : new movement 
of them to Indian Sub-continent 58. 

Caspian Sea, Eastern shores of: Al-Beruni 
was born in the suburbs of Khwarzim 
on the 200. 

Caspian Sea, south of: Tabri, the Persian 
historian was born at Amul in Tabristan 
on the 178. 

Catal Hayuk: earliest pottery came from 
17, field peas migrated to Sind from 17, 
neolithic revolution starts in 13, wild 
purple pea grown at 17. 

Central Asia: See Asia, Central. 

Central Cutch: See Cutch, Central. 

Central Russia: See Russia, Central. 

Central Sind: See Sind, Central. 

Ceylon: a deputation of Sindhi Bikhshus 
went there from Patala 91. 

Chachkan: Jam Feroz's troops must have 
drawn from 387, was a Mahal of Chach- 
kan Sarkar 375. 

Chachkan (Badin and Southern Hyder- 
abad District): Governor of Multan 
informed the populace that Jam Juna 
was honouring the treaty (with Delhi 
Sultanate) 321. 

Chachkan Muslims: took no part in break- 
ing treaty with Delhi Sultanate 321. 

Chachkan Sarkar: consisted of eleven 
Mahals 375. 

Chachkan villages (Badin-Tando Bago area) : 
Jam Feroz collected troops and reached 

Chaeronea: Plutarch was born at 101. 

Chaghanian: Mahmud's coins show it as 
a part of his Empire 220. 

Chakar Hala: was a Mahal of Chakar Hala 
Sarkar 375. 

Chakar Hala Sarkar: consisted of eight 
Mahals 375. 

Chambanir, fall of: Humayun attacked 
Gujarat after the 394. 

ChaA'deri: Vazir Khan Jahan arranged 
inforcement from 325. 

Chandoli, hilt from: prove a new move- 
ment of people from Iran or Cauca- 

sian origin in Sub-continent 58. 

Chanduka: Mazhar Shah Jehani states 
concentration of Balochis in 382, 
Mongol troops advanced as far as 
356, 42 Balochee villages destroyed 
by Shah Beg soldiers must have been 
in 382. 

Changatia Chief: Mongols attacked the 
sub-continent under him 285. 

Chanhu daro: founding of 42, in an early 
Harappan culture 41, its end is uncertain 
54, Jhangar occupation of 60, Jhangar 
pottery found 52, Junkar occupation 
of phase II 54, Junkar Phase II estab- 
lished, continued and succeeded by 
Jhangar culture 55, Junkar people 
drove out Harappans from 50, Kulli 
culture ware appears 39, late stone age 
24, limited weapons of foreign origin 
brought by traders or mercenaries 54, 
occupation of cemetery H 54, Phase 
I A 46, Phase B and C 49, Phase C ends 
51, pre-Harappan shreds in 39, shaft 
hole are found at 50, Trihni ware found 
there show invasion of the Indus cities 

Chattar, Bugti (or Possibly Mangsi) and 
Rind tribes of: Shah Hassan attacked 
them in Kachhi District 390. 

Chausa: Shah Hasan heard there the news 
of defeat of Humayun by Sher Shah 

Chavotaches, King of: Arabs defeated him 

Chelar: Jam Salahuddin was killed in the 
battle near 379, more reliable place of 
battle between Jam Salahuddin and 
Shah Hassan Arghoon 379, Shah Hassan 
killed Jam Salahuddin and his son at 

China: advanced civilizations arose in 
15, Buzrig Bin Shaharyar plied vessels 
from Persian Gulf to 192, Chemong a 
Budhist monk reached back 111, a 
deputation of artists from Indus valley 
went to 104, details of rhinoceroes 
horns from Sind their use as aphro- 
disiac in 183, Fahein returned to 111, 
Hexaploid wheat grown 23, Hieun 
Tsang returned to 125, Ibn Batuta left 
Delhi on a mission to 297, Jahsal sent 
an embassy to 141, King of Kanauj 
sent his ambassador to 153, King of 
Kashmir sent an embassy to 153, Lower 
pleistocene in 5, Masudi visited 193, 
rice grown 15, Vasdev II sent delega- 
tion to seek help against Sassanians 106. 

Chitor: Chief of Guhila seized it 149, 
Jaisina left for 140, Rais of Rajput 
origin were from there 141. 

Chitor (Kiraj): Junaid and his successors 
over-ran it 148. 

Chitor, ruler of: helped rebellions in Sind 
and took part in wars with Arab troops 
154, invaded Sind and was killed 123. 

Clifton: Abdullah Shah's tomb is located 
at 134. 

Coastal area (probably Makran toast): 
Ghori raided it without substantial 
results 237, Shahabuddin Ghori having 
conquered it returned to Ghazni 237. 

Constantinople: building of church Haiga 
Sofia at 115, conquest by Ottoman 
Turks 349, Ibn Batuta visited 293, 
Sind sent congratulatory message to 

Cordova: Idrisi settled there and complet- 
ed his geographical work 230. 

Crete: development and use of linear 
A script 53, and B script 56, height 
of culture at 53, wild cattle domesticat- 
ed at 13. 

Cutch: accepted the suzerainty of the 
successors 274, Amro conquered 146, 
annexed to the Persian Empire 70, 
Arab conquest of Sind destroyed 
Alore's authority over 146, attacked 
by Salahuddin Shah Jam (Unar II) 
338, to avenge Khengar Shah Hassan 
took an expedition to 388, Begra 
subdued whole of 355, bridge between 
Sind and Kathiawar 90, connected to 
Kathiawar 38, connected Lothal and 
Rangpur to Sind 38, cut off from 
Sind, Kathiawar and Gujarat 231, 
death of Ful (a Samma of Sind) its 
ruler 201, death of two Samma bro- 
thers of Sind there 182, defence of Sind 
by it 120, easiest route to Sind via 117, 
Feroz Shah avoided 324, he fled to 387, 
first rule, disappeared 202, first Samma 
dynasty ruled a part of it and rest was 
ruled by Chawras 170, Governor of 
Sind invaded 151, had three Samma 
rulers called Rayadhans 353, had two 
rival factors under Rawal and Khengar 
369, Harsha subdued it to attack Sind 
117, having Sindhi speaking population 
39, Hindu Sammas of Sind developed 
marriage alliance in 150, Indus and 
Hakra communication to 29, invaded 
by Pithadeva of Para 255, an island hav- 
ing close connection with Sind 204, 
Jrunism started spreading 122, Jam 




Feroz collected troops and left Thatta 
for 387, Jam Feroz could not have 
easily escaped along the land routes 
379, Jam Feroz fled to 386, Jam Feroz 
probably took shelter in 387, Jam 
Feroz smelting to be killed, escaped to 
379, Jam Feroz's troops must have 
drawn from 387, Jarejas migrated to 
323, Jareja house of Kanghar ruled it 
392, Jurz proceeded as far as 149, 
Kathis of Sind migrated to 159, Khafif 
conquered a part of it 231, Khatri 
asserted for power in 122, Khengar 
controlled most of it 377, Khengar 
subdued whole of 244, Khengar united 
it as one country 367, Khengar was 
interfering Sind's affairs and Jam 
Feroz helped Rawal his adversary in 
378, Kumar apara empire included it 
241, Lako Fulani left Sind for 194, 
large army of Feroz perished and 
escaped the vengeance 323,* large 
scale migration of Sindhi scholars, 
saints and businessmen to 388, little 
Rann dried up cutting Kathiawar from 
it 204, local uprising in Sind may have 
been helped from 154, local uprising in 
Sind was supported by its ruler 156, 
Menander appointed Apollodotus as 
Governor of Patala to control it 91, 
Mod and Manai escaped to 171, Mus- 
lim Jats (lower Sind) migrated to 235, 
normalizing of relations with Khengar 
who controlled most of it 379, occu- 
pied by a Sindhi clan Kathi 150, on 
Allaudin's death the control of Delhi 
was lost on 278, on its decline Rai 
occupied 120, pre and post Indus 
civilization flourished in 50, Raja 
Kesar Dev fled to 229, Rawal seized 
most of it 364, Rayadhan ruled it 
235, relations with Saurashtra 105, 
relations with Sind 80, remained inde- 
pendent under Gujan and Otha line 
342, Rudradaman added it to his 
domain 104, ruled by Apollodotus 91, 
ruled by second Samma Dynasty of 
Sind 234, ruled by Samma Rajputs of 
Sind 173, rule of Jareja Samma chief 
Khengar 367, Saca Kingdom was estab- 
lished upto 93, Saka rule 105, Saka 
rule ends 111, Salahuddin was helped 
in Thatta expedition by 369, Sammas 
as well as Soomras migrated from lower 
Sind to 274, Sammas driven out by 
Soomras to 282, Sammas established 
their kingdom in 282, Scythians set- 

tled in 95, Scythian tribe took its pos- 
session 92, sea pirates and seamen bet- 
ter than Arab seamen 150, second 
Samma dynasty named as Jareja dynas- 
ty was established 171, Seismic activity 
in 230, Shah Hassan marched on after 
receiving insulting reply of its Rajput 
chief 392, he rushed with four divisions 
to 391, Sind's control was weakened 
over it 130, Sindhi Samma power broke 
and Chawra principality was established 
in 202, Sindhis of Thatta and Samui 
took shelter there 392, Solanki Chaul- 
kayas ruled it 204, some Samma Mus- 
lims planned to migrate to 303, Soomra 
chief conquered whole of 239, Strabo 
describes it 99, suffered badly from the 
Saka raiders 97, Sultan Sadaruddin 
Shah Jam Sanjar resided there where - 
from collected troops and occupied 
Thatta 351, Taghi fled to 300, united 
and ruled by Jareja Samma of Sind 
235, Valabhi ruled it 117, 120, his 
territories included it 146, was a part 
of Sind 119, was not a Bahrain's vassal 
state 108, was under jurisdiction of the 
Imperial Governor of Saurashtra 111, 
Zafar Khan may have taken expedition 
to 274. 

Cutch army: two front rows wiped out 
by Sultan Mahmood Khan and the 
rest fled from field 391. 

Cutch, attack on: was motivated by 
inflicting punishment on Jareja Sammas 

Cutch border: the Sammas of Sind settled 
Sodhas on it 352. 

Cutch, central: remained in Samma hands 

Cutch, central and Southern: Kathis of 
Sind settled there 151. 

Cutch, Eastern: Lakho, a Jareja Samma 
of Sind captured capital of Wagad in 
235, recaptured by Samma Jarejas 241. 

Cutch, famous horses of: Shah Hassan 
asked Kanghar to bring to him 392. 

Cutch forces: were supplied by Khengar 
who controlled most of Cutch then 377. 

Cutch, Hindu Jareja Sammas: Sammas of 
Sind sought their help 323. 

Cutch, Hindu rulers of: Junaid, Hakam 
and Amar attacked them 156. 

Cutch, vHindu Zamindars of: Shah Hassan 
asked them to enter his service and 
settle in Sind 392. 

Cutch, island: Rayadhan enlarged his 
territories in whole of 235. 


Cutch, Jareja Sammas: Taghi was helped 

by them 300. 
Cutch, Jareja Samma rulers: Some Samma 
Muslims of Sind planned to migrate to 
Cutch and take shelter with them 303. 
Cutch, Kanghars of: Shah Hassan proceed- 
ed to crush them 391. 
Cutch, Memons: professed to be shias hut 
lived like Hindus and did not associate 
with Muslims 354. 
Cutch population: was drawn from Sind 
and belonged to Samma tribes 221. 
Cutch, pre and post Indus sites: clarify 

influence of Sind on Cutch 231. 
Cutch, Rajput tribes of: Samma chiefs 
developed relations with them 146. 
Cutch, Rana Kanghar (a Jareja chief) of: 
Shah Hassan heard the news of his 
threat of attack on Thatta 391. 
Cutch, Rao Khengar of: Jam Salahuddin 
Shah conquered lower Sind with his 
help 367. 
Cutch, Rayadhan rulers: two of them 

who ruled Cutch 325. 
Cutch, route: M ah mud took it to avoid 

battle with Hindus 214. 
Cutch, ruler of: helped rebellions in 
Sind and took part in wars with Arab 
troops 154. 
Cutch, Sammas of: remained Hindus 

Cutch, Samma Jareja chief: Hindu Rajput 
soldiers must have been supplied to Jam 
Feroz by them 387. 
Cutch, Samma Jareja ruler: death of 

Rayadhan who was the 243. 

Cutch, Samma ruler: Sultan Qutubuddin 

Aibak captured the fort of Kanthkot 

from him 241. 

Cutch, Samma tribes of: Jam Feroz fled 

collected troops from them 386, Shah 

Hassan determined to capture areas 

upto Multan before subduing them 389. 

Cutch, tribes of: Shah Beg intended to 

conquer Gujarat to avenge them 380. 

Cutch, Western: Rayadhan's sons were 

assigned areas in 244, remained in 

Samma hands 241. 

Cyzicus, Eudoxus of: a man from wrecked 

ship offered to guide him to India 92. 


Dabarkot: its Harappan occupation 43. 
Dadu: 2, the figure of soldiery of Sam- 

bastai (Sambus) 78. 
Dadu District: Budhia consisted of its 

hilly tract 137. 

Dadu District, Upper: became fertile 295. 

Dadu Taluka: Husamuddin Mirak was 
given as Jagir 386. 

Dadu, town of: Makhdoom BilawaTs 
grave is near Baghban 6 miles N.W. of 

Dahla: Vikramaditya VI conquered or 
raided it 228. 

Dahlila: its conquest while on way to 
Bahmanabad 139. 

D alii ah: Muhammad Bin Qasim conquered 
it on his way to Multan 141. 

Dahnaz: Junaid proceeded as far as 149. 

Damascus: gold recovered from Multan 
was sent to 141, Junaid sent there six 
lakhs prisoners and 8 crore Dirhams 
from Sind 150, new edition of Ajaibul 
Hind was published from 192, 
18,000,000 Tatari dirhams were sent 
there from Sind 150. 

Damascus, rebel of: tenth Governor of 
Sind was killed by him 157. 

Damascus, treasury of: gold from Sind 
reimbursed it 141. 

Damb Buthi: Tagau ware found at 36. 

Damba Koh Gatt: iron swords found at 64. 

Dambherlo (Damrila): Muhammad Tugh- 
luq took difficult route from Cambay 
via 301. 

Damb Sadaat: Cherry flint was imported 
from Rohri 32, dating by Fairservis 
excavations 40, new settlement took 
sequence 29, Phase 131, Phase II 27, 
33, phase II continues 34, settlement 
sequence as taken by Fairservis excava- 
tions 23, similarity of painted pottery 
at Kotdiji 33, three phases of occupation 
giving Radio Carbon dating 23. 

Damrilah: Thattians who were hostile 
towards Feroz Shah secured a safe 
abode in 320. 

Darbelo (all of Samma tribe): Offered 
allegiance to Shah Hassan 388, was 
a Mahal of Bakhar Sarkar 375. 

Darbelo, Qazi Abdullah bin Qazi Ibrahim 
of: migrated to Gujarat and then left 
for Madina due to terrorism of Shah 
Beg and Shah Hassan 392. 

D arm ilia: Khwarizm Shah moved to 246. 

Derra (Afghanistan): beginning of stone 
age of the Neolithic and Radio Carbon 
dates for 18. 

Darul-Hiikma: Manek, a Sindhi Ved was 
associated with it for many years and 
translated there Sanskrit books into 
Arabic 172. 

Darul-Islam (Delhi Sultanate's territories): 




was destroyed with the help of Mongols 

Darya Khan (Mubarak Khan) Tomb: 
Quba-e-Mundrasa was built on Makli 
Hills near it 352. 

Oasht: Allauddin Bughio, a sufi died and 
was buried in 360. 

Daulatabad: Kishlu Khan was compelled 
to send his family there 284, Malik 
Bahadur Gurshasp refused to go there 
284, Muhammad Bin Tughluq arrived 
in Broach to crush Taghi's rebellion 
from 299. 

Daulatpur: Malik Husband rebelled at 292. 

Debal: Al-Mujam Ma'aist-Ajam has refere- 
nce about it 230, battle near it 135, 
Bhambore accepted as 189, Bham- 
bhore is now identified as 137, Budial 
was sent to raid 135, burnt by Jalalud- 
din Khwarizm Shah 245, Chanesar 
Soomro continued to rule when Khwa- 
rism Shah attacked it 245' date of 
completion of the mosque 150, death 
of Ubaidullah at 135, defeat of Butail 
at 135, described in Kitab Al-Masalik 
wa-al-Mamalik 185,193, described by 
Ibn Haukal 197, destroyed by river 
279, Dodo-II ruled it when Ghori 
attacked 239, Ghori occupied it 237, 
Ghori raided without substantial results 
237, the Governor of Western Sind 
was killed at 159, Hajaj sent Ubaidul- 
lah to raid in 134, in ruins 268, Jalal- 
uddin Khwarizm Shah after destroying 

it left for Kirman 247, Junaid new 
Governor of Sind reached 148, Khalifa 
Umar sent naval expedition against 
124, Khalifa Usman sent expedition 
against 121, Khwarzim Shah left two of 
his officers there after his departure 
247, he moved to 246, Kitab-al-Ansab 
describes it 253, language spoken and 
written at 137, Malik Saifuddin Hassan 
proceeded to 259, meant lower Sind 
268, Med pirates looted the Arab ships 
133, Muhammad Bin Qasim came by 
land 136, he captured 700 beautiful 
women 136, he settled 4000 Muslims 
there 136, Muizzuddin Ghori attacked 
it 236, Nizam-ul-Mulk sent his lieute- 
nants to subdue upto 250, part of 
temple converted into Jail 177, Pir 
Shamsuddin Sabzwari, an Ismaili prea- 
cher converted many thousand people 
at 268, Qabacha conquered Sind upto 
243, he extended his domain upto 245, 

this is incorrect 245, Qutlagh Khan 
appointed as Governor of area from 
Bakhar upto with capital at Sehwan is 
doubtful 261, replaced by Lahri Bunder 
290, ran over by Shamsuddin Ghori 
but control was never organized 255, a 
ship carrying Muslim women was cap- 
tured by Med pirates near it 134, 
Simian a sea port 120 miles from 174, 
Soomras gathered there and elected 
Doda-H their next ruler 237, Sultan 
Shahabuddin Ghori marched on 240, 
Tamim died near it 150. 

Debal, Abdul J afar of: he wrote comment- 
ary on the Holy Quran 198. 

Debal, Amirs and rulers of: the pirates paid 
regular tribute to them for protection 

Debal, the battle of: Arabs were defeated 
at 124. 

Debal, the bay of: Mughirah penetrated 
in 121. 

Debal, earthquake of: it took place and 
buried 15 lac people alive 189, Tarikh- 
al-Khulfa describes it 349. 

Debal expedition: Shahabuddin Ghori took 
towards 237. 

Debal, Governor of: Ham id was appointed 
as 136, Manzoor was appointed as 157. 

Debal Mosque: Khwarizm Shah built it on 
the site of temple 246, Muhammad bin 
Qasim built it 136, possible date of its 
renovation 192, was built by Arabs 245. 

Debal pirates: paid regular tribute to the 
amirs and rulers for their protection 240. 

Debal raids: Muizzuddin Ghori was not 
satisfied with 239. 

Debal, ruler of : accepted to act as the 
vassal of Altatmash 250. 

Debal, sacking of: History of the world 
conquerors describes it 248. 

Debal, town of: is described in geographical 
work Asar-ul-Bilad wa Akhbar-ul-Bilad 

Debalpur: Muhammad Tughluq ordered 
boats to come from 302, he reached 
there and appointed Amadul Mulk as 
the Governor of Multan 297, he sum- 
moned boats from there to attack Thatta 
301, Sultan Nusarat Shah Tughluq sent 
Khizir Khan to control it 341. 

Debalpur, Governor of: captured Multan 
*due to his differences with the ruler 
339, Nasiruddin Mahmood was brought 
to power and made 340. 

Debalpur, territories of: Mongols crossed 


river Indus and looted 345. 

Deccan: Sultan Mahmood Bahmani was 
contemporary of Jam Nizamuddin in 
354, Vikramaditya VI ruled it 228. 

Deccan Plateau: migration of people from 
Sind to 9, was pre-dominated by Drava- 
dian people 9. 

Deccan Provinces: Khusro Khan rose to 
the rank of Governor 280. 

Delhi: according to Khusru, Nusrat Khan 
left for Gujarat 274, alliance of Sind 
and Gujarat against aggression of 346, 
Allauddin bribed courtiers and coro- 
nated himself 272, Allauddin Jam Juna 
was deputed from there to suppress 
Jam Tamachi 331, arrival of Feroz Shah 
in 309, arrival of fresh inforcement 
from 326, Babur reached 390, Bahlool 
Lodhi was contemporary of Jam Nizam- 
uddin in 354, Bambhiniyo remained 
there until the death of Feroz Shah 
Tughluq 314, he was aggressive and 
unwilling to submit to 314, body of 
Muhammad Tughluq was removed for 
final burial at 309, the above statement 
is incorrect 308, Chanesar accompanied 
Nizamul-Mulk to *250, Chaos was 
created there with the death of Allaud- 
din 279, control was lost on Sind and 
Cutch 278, could not exercise effective 
control on Jarejas 274, emissaries of 
Shah Hassan heard the news of Huma- 
yun defeat while in 395, envoy of 
Abbasid Caliph arrived there 297, 
failure of Qutlugh Khan and Malik 
Balban to capture it 263, Feroz Shah 
restored the Government of Thatta to 
Bambhiniyo after his stay in 330, 
Feroz Shah stopped at Bukhar on his 
way to 309, he left Sind via Mult an for 
328, he took Jam Juna and Bambhiniyo 
from Thatta to 328, Ghiassuddin Balban 
wanted to capture 257, Ghiasuddin 
Tughluq (Malik Ghazi) marched to 
Soomras from 282, he ruled from there 
282, great famine occurred in 297, Ibn 
Batuta left it on a mission to China 297, 
he reached there and was made Qazi 
293, Imadul Mulk was ordered to bring 
fresh inforcement from there 325, 
Ismailis collected there and fell on a 
congregation of Friday prayers 255, 
it outpost Uch was in precarious condi- 
tion 253, Jam Banbhiniyo accompanied 
Sultan to 326, Jam Juna alongwith his 
son paid annual tribute to 332, Jam 

Khairuddin and his son were taken to 
314, Jam Tamachi and his son were sent 
to 331, 332, he left Thatta for 331, he 
was informed that Jam Juna ruled Sind 
on his way from 337, a Khilat from 
Abbasi Khalifa arrived there 253, 
Khiljis fled to 249, Khokhars of Punjab 
attempted to divert attention of Feroz 
Shah's army to capture it 345, Kishlu 
Khan (Malik Balban) marched to 
attack it 262, Kitab-al-Yamani (Arabic) 
was published from 221, lost most of 
the Punjab and upper Sind 263, Mah- 
m ifli's three generals assumed inde- 
pendent power in 242, Makhdoom of 
Jahaniya made frequent visits to 332, 
Malik Balban attempted to capture it 
262, man pretending Tarmashirin 
moved in the neighbourhood of 286, 
Mongols after subduing Multan pro- 
ceeded to 285, Mongol army reached 
259, Mongols feared large army from 
258, Mongols with their families were 
sent as prisoners there 273, Muhammad 
Tughluq hearing rebellion returned 
there 285, he summoned reinforce- 
ment from 301, news of Taghi's death 
reached Feroz on his way to 309, 
Nizamul-Mulk returned to 254, no 
part taken by Thatta and Chachkan 
Muslims in breaking treaty with 321, 
policy to support Soomras against 
rising Sammas 312, post reached in 5 

days from Sind to 265, Razia Sultana 
attempted to capture it 265, Ruknuddin 
Ibrahim fled from 272, Ruknuddin 
Shah Jam Tamachi was sent to 329, 
Sarang Khan attacked it 339, Sayyid 
Jalauddin frequently went to 326, 332, 
a slave of Vazier Khawaja Jehan fled to 
while the Mongols were looting the 
Imperial troops 306, Soldiers were 
warned punishment on their arrival back 
in 324, Soomras acted as vassals for 
some time 211, they gave up allegiance 
256, first time they became vassals 250, 
status of Banbhinyo, Mangul Khan and 
Qazi Sadr Jahan (Qazi-ul-Quzat) 328, 
Sultan Nasiruddin left to visit Lahore, 
Multan, Uch and Bakhar 261, Tarikh- 
i-Feroz Shahi has large number of re- 
ferences on 316, it is an important 
source on relations with Sind 269, text 
of Tarikh-i-Utbi was printed from 212, 
total strength of Feroz's army at 322, 
Vazier Khan Jehan sent supplies from 





Delhi Amirs: Sarang Khan was defeated by 
them 339, showed indecision when 
Mongula laid an army into Uch and 
upper Sind territories 258. 

Delhi army: Jam Banbiniyo requested for 
compromise when he saw the strength 
of 327. 

Delhi assult: Arkali Khan prepared for 272. 

Delhi, Babur's conquest of: Shah Hassan 
heard the news about it 389. 

Delhi Control: there is no evidence of it on 
Sind 340. 

Delhi Court: Governor of Multan and Sind 
was called to and, assassinated 269, 
Qabacha accepted the suzerainty of 
Aibak and occasionally visited it 243. 

Delhi Empire: Jam Unar revolted against 
289, Mongol plundering of villages and 
cities stopped its expansion 253. 

Delhi Empire Muslims (Gujarat and Mul- 
tan): Sammas used Mongol troops 
against 317. 

Delhi Emperor: Jam Tamachi showed will- 
ingness to submit to 315. 

Delhi fall: Masumi assigns it to Mirza Pir 
Muhammad and Amir Timur 344, states 
that Sind became part of Timuri Empire 
on the 344. 

Delhi, Friday Congregation: Ismailis of 
Sind, Punjab and North India were 
collected at 235. 

Delhi Forces: Jam Juna charged capturing 
Sindhi Muslims and selling them as 
slaves 324, Mongol forces rebelled 
joined Soomras looted and chased them 

Delhi frontiers: Halaku ordered Mongol 
forces not to cross 263. 

Delhi Government: Banbhiniyo used the 
Mongols against it 312, its attempt to 
re-instate Hamir ended 330, Jam Unar 
and Qaiser Rumi raised a rebellion 
against it 291, Malik Balban Kishlu 
Khan in league with Mongols was against 
it 262, Makhdoom Jehaniya prayed for 
submission of Banbhiniyo before it 326, 
327, Sindhis rebelled against it 262, 
Soomras threw off the yoke 279, Unar 
raised rebellion against it 3 1 1 . 

Delhi Government's protection: Hamir 
Soomro left Sind residing outside under 
the 314. 

Delhi Government representative: he was 
Malak Ratan killed at Sehwan 291. 

Delhi Imperial Court: Banbhiniyo and Jam 

Unar went to stay there 327. 

Delhi invasion: Sammas restored to it when 
came to power 312. 

Delhi, Malik of: showed indecision when 
Monguta laid an army into Uch and 
Sind territories 258. 

Delhi prisoner: Jam Tamachi and his son 
were sent as 338. 

Delhi, Royal Harem of: Sindhi girls of 
Samma family were sent there 287. 

Delhi rule: Masumi tried to prove it on 
Lower Sind 261. 

Delhi rulers: Gulzar-i-Sind gives names of 
Soomra rulers oriented with 226. 

Delhi Seize: Malik Balban (Kishlu Khan) 
was pardoned even after making an 
attempt of 262. 

Delhi-Sind compromise, See Sind-Delhi 

Delhi Sayyeds: Jasrath the leader of 
Khokhars of Punjab seeking to become 
independent of them 345. 

Delhi, Sayyid Dynasty: reign of Sultan 
Mubarak Shah of 344. 

Delhi, Slave Sultans: were brought to an 
end 270. 

Delhi, Sultan of: Altatmash became the 
243, Babur became the 390, Chanesar 
Soomro became vassal of 252, Feroz 
was installed as 304, introduced marriage 
of daughter as a custom of loyalty 69, 
Jagirdari system was brought to sub- 
continent 144, Malik Balban became 
disloyal to 262, Mir Masum assumes 
that Soomras and Sammas were sub- 
ordinate to 279, names read in Khutba 
298, Rukunuddin Ibrahim was instal- 
led as 272, Shaikh Nasiruddin Mahmood 
installed Feroz as 304, Sind was to pay 
only a token tribute to 321, the system 
of Feudal-elite in the sub-continent 
reached its advanced stage under them 
278, were removed by force 210. 

Delhi Sultans and Amirs: Chachnama was 
translated and reshaped to advice them 
how to govern India 244. 

Delhi Sultan's Governor: was expelled 

from Multan 346. 
Delhi, Sultan Muhammad Shah II Tughluq 
of: Khizer Khan was ruler of Multan 
on his behalf 339. 
Delhi Sultanate: Could not have controlled 
Sind 256, faced troubles in succession 
2ft), Ghiasuddin Balban was nominated 
as Sultan 265, Governor of Gujarat 
declared independence of 342, Masnavis 
of Amir Khusru reflect any control on 


the lower Sind 270, provincial Gover- 
nors had absolute power during 262, 
revolt in Sind by Jam Unar against 294, 
Rukunuddin Shah Jam Tamachi declar- 
ed independence from the vassalship of 
329, Uch could not be subdued by 256, 
Uch under Kishlu Khan their vassal 
could not control Sind 263. 

Delhi Sultanate Amir: Letter to the military 
officer for expedition against Sind was 
written by 315. 

Delhi Sultanate's Control: Uch remained 
under the 340. 

Delhi Sultanate frontiers: Ulugh Khan 
drove Mongols out of 260. 

Delhi Sultanate rule: was confined to the 
Upper Sind 218. 

Delhi Sultanate territories: Sam mas were 
encouraging Mongols to attack 312. 

Delhi throne: Jalaluddin occupied it 271, 
Malik Ghazi (Tughluq) ascended 281, 
Nasiruddin Muhammad ascended 258, 
provincial governors usually rebelled 
against 262. 

Delhi troops: Banbhiniyo submitted to 
Feroz Shah after their arrival 327, did 
not reach Lower Sind 250, Muhammad 
Tughluq stayed in Gondal awaiting the 
arrival of 301, Sirat-i-Feroz Shahi 
starts with their chaotic condition 331, 
Sobhraj thinks that Pari Nagar was 
destroyed by them 249. 

Delhi-Thatta Politics: Makhdoom Jehaniyan 
of Uch was actively involved in 321. 

Delhi vassals'. Soomras became the 267. 
Demetrius: Appollodotus established it 90. 
Deoband: text of Dhvan al Hamasah was 

published from 1 70. 
Deogir: Ain-ul-Mulk Multani held various 

posts at 319. 
Depar Ghangro: date of Mirpur Khas 

stupa construction is assigned to 110. 
Dera Ghazi Khan: Mongol route to 259. 
Dera Ismail Khan: Appollodotus moved 

to 93. 
Dhar: Ainul-Mulk Multani held various 

posts at 319. 
Digri: Muhammad Tughluq route to 

Dilu Rai: recent excavations there confirm 

that Bahmanabad was renamed as 

Man sura 152, ruins are available in 

Sanghar district 152. 
Diodorus Sogdoi: considered as Alore 77. 
Diplo: Muhammad Tughluq took difficult 

route to Sonda via 301. 

Diridotis: Neachus reached it on the 

Persian Gulf 82. 
Diu: arrival of Iranian immigrants (Parsees) 

at 172. 
Djamal, battle of: Governor of Kufa 

appointed Jats to protect treasury in 

the 121. 
Djamshid II: motif with pipal shows that 

conquerors may have come from 53. 
Djamshid II ware: Harappan pottery has 

affinities with 53. 
Domac island: Nearchus halted there and 

left 81. 
Donan: its relationship with Kashmir, 

Swat and sub-continent 4. 
Ducal Library of Wolfenbuttel, See Wolfen- 

buttel, Ducal Library of. 
Duki: Mongol route to Dera Ghazi Khan 

and Multan was via 259. 


East; Arab expansion stopped in the 156. 

East Africa, See Africa, East. 

East Punjab, See Punjab, East. 

Easterns: Monsoon was known to them 98. 

Eastern Abbasid Empire, See Abbasid 
Empire, Eastern. 

Eastern Branch of Indus, See Indus, Eastern 
Branch of. 

Eastern Coast of South India, See India 
South, Eastern coast of. 

Eastern Empire: entrusted to Amar Bin 
Layth 187, Mutamid allotted it to his 
brother 187, Shahpur II ruled it 109. 

Eastern Empire of Umayyad, See Umay- 
yad, Easter Empire of. 

Eastern Gulf, See Gulf, Eastern. 

Eastern Indies, See Indies, Eastern. 

Eastern Makran, See Makran, Eastern. 

Eastern Nara Canal, See Nara Canal, Eastern. 

Eastern Provinces: Khalifa conferred upon 
his brother 187. 

Eastern Provinces, Governor of: he sup- 
ported Amar 154, Yakoob Safari was 
appointed as 186. 

Eastern Provinces, Governor General of: 
Hakam was despatched by him to re- 
conquer Sind and parts of Hind 150, 
Tamim was appointed as Sind's Gover- 
nor by him 150. 

Eastern Puran, See Puran, Eastern. 

Eastern Sind, See Sind, Eastern. 

Empire (Arab): was weakened 177. 

Egypt: Abbasid Caliphate was re-established 
there 296, advanced civilization arose 
along Nile in 15, Ahmed, the uncle of 
last Abbasid Caliph escaped to 297, 





Appollonius wandered to learn mystic 
there 100, Arab conquest of the 121, 
barely found in grain godowns 20, did 
not turn illiterate 56, an envoy of 
Abbasid Caliph arrived in Delhi from 
297, Eudoxus travelled to sub-conti- 
nent from 92, Fatmids established 
there 195, Fatmid Khalifas rule in 200, 
General Ptolemy became the Governor 
and King 74, Ismailis came to 195, 
land route developed by Darius-I 66, 
linked with India 69, Masudi died in 
199, movement of Ismaili sect to 199, 
Ptolemy (Claudius Ptolemaeus) was 
born at 104, Ptolemy's rule in 83, 
reign of Fatmid Khalifa Mirza in 199, 
sent ambassador to India 87, Sind's 
trade with 93, situated to the Neolithic 
environment 17, south Arabians found 
land routes to 63, Strabo visited 98, 
Skylax planned to connect it with 
Sind and the Punjab 69, wild purple-pea 
grown 17. 
Egypt, Abbasid Caliph of: an envoy 
arrives in Delhi from 297, Muhammad 
Tughluq wrote to the descendant to 
send him sanad 297. 
Egypt, Abbasid Caliphate of: revival 

began 297. 
Egypt, Abbasi Khalifa: a patent (Sanad) 
arrives from him confirming the whole 
Hindustan on Feroz Shah 315. 
Egypt, Fatmid Court of: Qazi Saeed 

Andlusi lived in 227. 
Egypt, Fatmid Dynasty of: was established 
and exercised great influence on Sind 
and Multan 200. 
Egypt. Fatmid Khalifa of: Druzians were 
his followers 200, Ismaili sect was 
organized by 208, Khutba at Multan 
was read in his name 202, sent an 
envoy to Mahmud of Ghazni 211. 
Egypt, Mamluk Sultan of: Portuguese 

defeated an expedition by 363. 
Egypt, ports of: Sataspes sailed beyond 
Gibralter resulting Greek, Phoenician 
and Arab mariners maintaining con- 
nection with 72. 
Egypt, Sultan of: Venice formed an al- 
liance with him against the Portuguese 
Empire (Abbasid): Civil war spread to 

whole of 174. 
Erythrean Sea: Agatharchides wrote des- 
cription of 92, conquest of Cyrus the 
Great 67, explored by Greco-Egyptian 

Euphrates: advanced civilization arose 15, 
settlement areas and urban life in 20, 
ships upto 200 tons were built to navi- 
gate the river 65. 

Europe: Barely found in grain godowns 
in 20, copper and bronze tools 39, 
creation of feudal elite or Jagirdars 
that affected all countries of 278, de- 
tachment of Jats was advance guard of 
Gypsies in 185, dog domesticated there 
15, Indian merchants travelled to 164, 
lower Pleistocene in 5, oxen drawn 
plough appeared in 20, 23, punch 
marked coins 73, Siddhanta travelled 
to 108. 

Europe (Central): iron working technique 
spread to 58. 

Europe, Eastern: Knowledge of iron 
spreads replacing bronze and copper 63. 

Europe, Western: knowledge of iron 
spreads replacing bronze and copper 63. 


Farghna: Mongol detachment came at 

Sultan's request 301. 
Fateh Beg: Rawar's location is in its 

neighbourhood 138, was a Mahal of 

Chachkan Sarkar 375. 
Ferozabad, Kush of: Makhdoom Jehaniya 

was kept as state guest in the 332. 
Ferozabad Palace: Ghariyal was placed on 

the top of it announcing hours of the 

day and night 330. 
Ferozkoh: the birth of historian Minhaj 

Siraj in 240, Mahmood was enthroned 

in 242, Uktae fixed his camp in 246. 
Fustat: death of Ibn Hisham in 165. 


Gadrosian desert: Alexander's march back 
via 80. 

Gaj: constituent of Khirthar range 2, 
existence of life and plants in 3, its 
formation 2. 

Gajrelli: Sultan Sadruddin Shah Jam 
Sanjar extended his kingdom to 352. 

Gandava: became independent 177, capital 
of Budh 194, Chach or Rai-Sehasi 
extended kingdom to 121, conquered 
by Hisham and mosque was built there 
162, described in Kitab-Al-Masalik-wa- 
al-Mamalik 185, described in the map of 
Sind by Ibn Haukal 197, Hilal Tamimi 
captured Mudarik at 147, Imran crushed 
rebellion at 178, Sewistan or Sehwan 
was upto 124. 

Gandava, Governor of: Manzoor was ap- 
pointed as 157. 


Gandhar: a port in Kathiawar the Arab 
fleet reached 163. 

Gandhara: annexed by Cyrus the Great 67, 
Gondophar^s conquered it lOO.Kushans 
drove out the Parthian King from 102, 
Maues conquered it 96, Seleucus passed 
it to Chandragupta in return of 500 
elephants 85, trade to Iran included 
timber from 66, was on hostile terms 
with Harsh a 117, was a part of Darius 
dominion 70, Xerxes in war against 
Greece used cotton clad Indians from 
there 73. 

Ganges: Sultan Nusrat Shah Tughluq lost 
most of area to Iqbal Khan between it 
and Jumuna 341. 

Ganges Banks, Ismailis of: collected at 
Delhi and fell on a congregation of 
Friday prayers 255. 

Ganges valley: Appollodotus extended his 
kingdom to 93. 

Ganjo Takar Hills: Shaikh Pariyo Virdas 

left civilized world and -finally settled 

at the foot of 360, he buried there 361. 
Gedrosia (Makran): Chandragupta annexed 

it 84, Demetrius I conquered it 90, 

Seleucus passed it to Chandragupta 85. 
Gedrosia (Makran) capital of: Alexander 

knew incident of assassination of Phi- 

lippes at 82. 
Ghaghar: Sarswati flowed through its 

bed 28. 
Ghaha (Kahan): Jam Feroz alongwith his 

mother went to Darya Khan at 368, 

Makhdoom Abdul Aziz Muhadith Ubhari 

left Herat and settled in 369, Shah Beg 

attacked it 371. 
Ghaha (Kakan) Village: jam Feroz refused 

the advice of Darya Khan who retired 

to his Jagir in 368. 
Ghari Mar (Afghanistan): Beginning of 

stone age 18, Radio Carbon dates 18. 
Gharo Creek: Khanwah continued and 

discharged into it 373. 
Gharo Greek Branch: Debal replaced by 

Lahri Bunder due to abandoning of it 

by river Indus 290. 
Ghat, Western: Malik Hushand escaped to 

Ghaur (Ghorak) Fort: Daud ruler of 

Multan was arrested and imprisoned 

and died there 211. 
Ghazi Shah: Contemporary of Amri 27, 

contemporary of Amri pre-Harappan 

period 33, Strong Kulli influence in 

45, 46, Togau ware was found at 36. 

Ghazipur: was a Mahal of Ghakar Hala 
Sarkar 375. 

Ghazna, Ismaili ruler: Muslim state sacked 
by Mahmud 216. 

Ghazni: Al-Beruni died at 220, annexed 
by Cyrus the Great 67, its destruction 
by Ghoris 234, Khilji Turks settled in 
249, Mahmud coins show it as part of 
his empire 220, Mahmud reached after 
Somnath expedition 214, Mahmud re- 
turned from Sind expedition 220, 
Mahmud's three generals assumed inde- 
pendent power in 242, Maudud occupi- 
ed it 222, Mongol troops there attacked 
Sind territories (Multan and Uch) 259, 
Shahabuddin Ghori returned with a 
large booty 238, 240, shortest route 
from Multan to 215, Sind had evaded 
paying tribute to 224, Uktae fixed his 
camp at 246, he returned to 246. 

Ghazni conquest: Babur attacked Qandhar 
after 363. 

Ghazni General: Abul Hassan sent to 
subdue Mathila and Bhatia 222. 

Ghazni ruler: made several expeditions 
against Qabacha and succeeded in 
occupying Multan, Uch, Lahore 243. 

Ghazni-Sind relations: Zainul-Akhbar deals 
with 222. 

Ghazni Sultanate: faced troubles in suc- 
cession 210. 

Ghor: Chengiz Khan deputed his son to- 
wards 246. 

Ghori territories: Khwarizm sovereigns 
annexed it 242. 

Ghumli: Arab expedition captured it 166. 

Ghur: Muslim state sacked by Mahmud 

Gibralter: Persian Captain Sataspes sailed 
beyond 72. 

Girnar: Muhammad Tughluq took difficult 
route from Cambay via 301, Taghi 
fled to Thatta from 300, his route from 
Gujarat to Sind was through it 300. 

Giyan or Djamshid II: Conquerors were 
coming from 53, new movement of 
people into Indian sub-continent 58. 

Goa: Portuguese conquered it 366. 

Gohel chief: Lakho Ghurano had four 
sons from the daughter of 170. 

Golkanda: Muhammad Bin Qasim con- 
K quered it 141. 

Gonial: was line of approach for Aryan 
tribes 48. 

Gomal Pass: Mongol raids were made via 
253, Muizzuddin came via it and sacked 


nearest kingdoms 237. 
Gondal: Muhammad Tughluq stayed there 
awaiting the arrival of troops from Delhi 
301, he ordered boats to come from 
Depalpur, Multan, Uch and Sehwan 
while at 302, he ordered that Feroz and 
Shaikh Nasiruddin Mahmood be brought 
as prisoners while his stay at 304, he 
took difficult route from Cambay via 
301, he left it towards Sind 302, Taghis' 
route from Gujarat to Sind was through 
it 300, was bestowed to Lakho, the 
eighth descendant from Gajan line 355. 
Gova: Albuquerque captured it 366, 
Yousuf Adit recovered it but was ex- 
pelled by the Portuguese 366. 
Greece: did not turn illiterate 56, peacock 
exported from Sind were domesticated 
there 73, wild cattle domesticated there 
13, Xerxes was in war against 73. 
Greece famousmen: Plutarch wrote their 

lives 101. • 

Greek Empire: Strato II became its ruler 

in India 95. 
Guhila: its chief seized Chitor 149, over run 

by Arabs 149. 
Gujarat: Ainul-Mulk hoped that Hamir 
would save it from Banbhiniyo 318, 
Aliauddin appointed Ulagh Khan to 
capture it 274, Appollodotus extended 
kingdom to 93, 104, Aryan expansion 
to 62, Banbhiniyo attacked it 318, 
333, he with Mongols attacked it several 
times 314, conquest of Demetrius 90, 
Cutch was cut off from it 23 1 , develop- 
ed good relations with Sind 346, Fateh 
Khan was there when his brother-in- 
law Sikandar was killed 379, he was ins- 
talled as Sultan Mahmud Begra in 352, 
Feroz Shah dismissed its Governor on 
his arrival in 323, Feroz Shah left for 
Thatta 324, Feroz went there for re- 
inforcement and the second expedition 
on Sind 320, first Parsee colony in the 
sub-continent at Sajan District Thana in 
153, form of Pali in use there 85, Greek 
mariners sailed down to 93, Hamir 
Soomro took shelter there 319, Harap- 
pan culture at Lothal in 39, Harappan 
culture continued 55, Harapal Dev 
descendant of Raja Kesar Dev went 
there 229, historians state that Feroz 
fled to 387, Humayun issued a farman 
asking Mirza Shah Hassan to proceed 
to 394, Humayun attacked it 394, 
imperial army of Feroz Shah Tughluq 
suffered series of calamities on retreat 

from Thatta towards 323, Jam Feroz 
Shah after being defeated by Shah 
Hasan Arghoon left for 393, he was 
captured by Mughal forces while collect- 
ing troops in 393, he reached and 
sought shelter of Sultan Bahadur Bin 
Muzaffar 393, Jam Nizamuddin's bro- 
thers may have gone there 368, his 
daughter was married to Qaiser Khan, 
the grandson of Hassan Khan who had 
taken refuge there 3 5 5, J am Salahuddin 
fled to 370, Jam Sanjar's family mig- 
rated to 367, Jam Tughluq Juna II had 
his daughters married there, he built a 
fort for them and was buried there 
351, Junaid conducted a successful 
expedition against 148, Kumarapala 
ruled it 241, large scale migration of 
Sindhi scholars, saints and businessmen 
388, local uprising was helped by 154, 
Maulana Muhammad Sidiq went there 
with two princesses and two princes 
348, Menander appointed Appollodotus 
as Governor of Patala to control it 91, 
Menander became the ruler 90, Mu- 
hammad Ufi travelled in 265 , Mustalian 
Dawa had headquarters at 208, Nizam- 
uddin Jam I escaped to 341, Nusarat 
Khan left Delhi for 274, one of eight 
Prakrits in the sub-continent was in use 
there 276, pig domesticated at Rangpur 
in 51, Qazi Abdullah bin Qazi Ibrahim 
of Darbello, a scholar and sufi migrated 
to 392, Raj Solanki from there visited 
Lakho 's court 196, rebellion against 
Tughluqs developed in 299, Saca King- 
dom extended to 93, Saka rule ended 
111, Salahuddin left for 369, he may 
have left Thatta for 368, he returned 
to 368, Sammas sought to increase 
their power by alliance with 347, 
Samudra Gupta ruled over whole of 
North India except 109, Sayyid Mu- 
hammad Yousuf Jaunpuri was forced 
to leave 348, Shah Beg communicated 
Jam Feroz to conquer it 380, Sind army 
was to protect it 321, Sindhi Bhikshus 
migrated to 164, Sultan Feroz departed 
for 323, he left for due to shortage of 
fodder 322, he left and spent a year 
there to make fresh expedition on Sind 
323, he lost the battle and left for 322, 
*> Sultan Mahmud Begra invited Sodhas, 
Soomras and Kalhoras to 354, he was 
contemporary of Jam Nizamuddin there 
354, Syed Muhammad or Mahdi of 
Jaunpur reached Nasarpur having been 


expelled from 362, Taghi collected 
troops and raised a rebellion in 299, he 
fled from Thatta towards 309, his route 
to Sind from 300, Tarmashirin plunder- 
ed it 285, Turkhan Nam a does not agree 
with Masumi and state that Jam Feroz 
went to 387, was not Bahrain's vassal 
state 108, was ruled by Sultan Mahmud 
Begra 353, Ulugh Khan took half of 
troops from the (Upper) Sind to capture 
it 275, Valabhi ruled it 117, Vikrama- 
ditya VI ruled and conquered or raided 
it 228, 12-year old Burhanuddin with 
his mother reached Patan in 340. 

Gujarat, Bhim Dev Solanki II of: was asked 
to attack Sind 236. 

Gujarat, Capital of: Allauddin's General 
(probably Zafar Khan) captured 274. 

Gujarat, Caulkaya King: he defeated minor 
expedition of Muslims 238. 

Gujarat, Chawras of: Sammas took shelter 
with them 282. 

Gujarat, campaign of: Nusrat Khan started 
alongwith Ulugh Khan 274. 

Gujarat, conquest of: Shah Beg moved 
south for 383, Shah Hassan sent Mir 
Alika Arghoon to congratulate Humayun 
on the 395. 

Gujarat Court: last Samma King found 
asylum in the 348. 

Gujarat, Ghori expedition of: Mubarak 
Shahi mentions 238. 

Gujarat, Governor of: called for a third 
expedition on Sind 325, declared 
independence of Delhi Sultanate 342, 
Feroz Shah entrusted the job to his 
brother to free it from the menace of 
Banbhiniyo 314, Feroz Shah dismissed 
him for failure in sending supplies for 
his army on Sind expedition 323, local 
Governor of Uch was nominee of 340, 
recommended Hamir's case 318, Ruk- 
nuddin Amir Hassan was the 318. 

Gujarat, Hindu ruler of: Junaid, Hakam, 
Amar attacked 156. 

Gujarat, Imperial territories: Samma rulers 
of Sind joined Mongols and attacked 

Gujarat, independece of: Khengar needed 
support of Sind to gain it 386. 

Gujarat, Ismailis of: attached themselves 
to Yamanite and Gujarati Dawa known 
as Bohr is 209, collected at Delhi and fell 
on a congregation of Friday prayers 255. 

Gujarat Kings: Jam Tughluq (J una II) 
developed friendly relations with them 
345, Samma daughters were given in 

marriage to them 347. 

Gujarat, Chaulkaya king of: made prepa- 
rations to fight Sultan Mahmud of 
Ghazni 218, following Mahmud's retreat- 
ing army, he marched on Sind 218. 

Gujarat, Muslim Governor of: Jareja 
Sammas could easily adjust with him 

Gujarat, Northern: Jalaluddin devastated 
some area of 247, Valabhi ruled it 146. 

Gujarat Parwari: Khusru Khan strength- 
ened his party which mainly consisted 

Gujarat, subedar of (Muqatia): blamed un- 
necessarily the Jam for wrong in his 
administration 317. 

Gujarat raids: Banbhiniyo carried out in 
league with the Mongols 320. 

Gujarat rebels: Feroz was installed as 
Sultan in Delhi while Muhammd Tugh- 
luq was facing them 304. 

Gujarat, rebellions: the best solution for 
Sultan Muhammad Tughluq was to 
abdicate in favour of Feroz while he 
was in midst of 305. 

Gujarat revenue: amounted to 2 crore 
Tankas and were spent on troops 323. 

Gujarat ruler: helped rebellion in Sind and 
took part in wars with Arab troops 154, 
his wife Bibi Mughli gave birth to 
Fateh Khan who later on became Sultan 
Mahmud Begra and the ruler 348, 349, 
mosque at Bodesar was built by them 
346, supported local uprising 156. 

Gujarat Soldiers: Portuguese defeated them 

Gujarat (South), Dantidura of: said to have 
conquered Lata and Sindhu 155. 

Gujaxat, Sultan of: Bibi Mughli moved to 
her sister Bibi Murki's house on the 
death of 349, Khengar was a vassal of 
369, Portuguese defeated joint naval 
expedition of him and sultan of Turkey 
363, Sind had good relations with 352. 

Gujarat, Sultan Bahadur of: the fort of 
Patan was surrendered to Shah Hassan 
by Khizr Khan who held it on behalf of 
394, married a daughter of Jam Feroz 
393, Sultan Mahmood became the 
Sultan after his death 394. 

Gujarat, Sultan Muhammad of: marriage of 
Bibi Mughli with him 348. 

Gujarat, Sultan Muzaffar of: Jam Salahud- 
din conquered Lower Sind with his help 
367, Jam Salahuddin made first attack 
on Thatta with his help 368, marriage 



of Bibi Rani with him 367, 368, 370. 

Gujarat, Vassal of: Samma chief Khengar 
ruled as 367. 

Gujarati ballads: traditions of J areja Samma 
of Sind written in 15th century like 274. 

Gujarat, Dawa: the Ismailis of Gujarat 
attached themselves to 209. 

Gujo (Thatta District): Tharro Hills sug- 
gested flint choppy workshop near it 
2 1 , was contemporary of Arari, 27. 

Gulf: Seleucus kept his fleets in 86. 

Gulf, Eastern and western: Joined with 
each other 9. 

Gulf of Cutch.See Rann of Cutch. 

Gulf of Suez.See Arsinoe. 

Gungro: lost much of its water on which 
Soomra capital Tur stood 279, ruins of 
Muhammad Tur or Mo hat am Tur or 
Shah Kapur in Taluka Bathoro are on 
it 257. 

Gungro Branch: declined 296. 

Gungro channel: Muhammad Tur new 

capital eliminated which was built 

on 257. 
Guntri: death of Samma brothers of 

Sind who established principality in 

182, Mod and Manai subdued it 171. 
Gupta Dynasty: reign of Chandra Gupta 

II 109. 
Gurjaras, King of: Arabs defeated him 

Gwalior fort: Arkali Khan and Rukunud- 

din Ibrahim were captured, blinded 

and imprisoned at 273. 


Hub river: Alexander halted there 79, 
Nearchus reached the mouth of 81. 

Hakra: dry sites show gray ware con- 
nected with Iron age 59, drying up of 
235, flow of water to Sukkur, Bakhar 
and Rohri from 178, Hindu Rajas 
Kingdom on 161, Pari Nagar weakened 
due to drying of 249, Sarki Lake was 
connected with 148, Sarswati flowed 
through its bed 28, water reduced 204. 

Hala: sea coast was near it 10. 

Hala family: Syed Hyder married a lady 
from 340. 

Hala, Kashi tiles of: construction of 
Dabir Mosque of Thatta one of ear- 
liest example of 365. 

Hala, New: Shah Hassan marched from 
Thatta to Upper Sind via Halakandi 
(Old Hala) 2 miles from 388. 

Hala, Old or Halakandi: Shah Hassan 
marched from Thatta to upper Sind 
via 388. 

Hala Potters: take their ancestry to Sink- 
iang (China) and state derivation of 
Kashi 365. 

Hala Kandi: a Mahal of Nasarpur Sarkar 
375, route followed by Feroz Shah 
from Sonda to Sehwan 308, Sanghar 
extended his domain to 230, Shah 
Hassan marched from Thatta to Upper 
Sind via 388, Syed Hyder Bin Syed 
Mir AH Hussaini came to 340. 

Halakandi, Makhdoom Ahmed of: his 
death 383. 

Halakandi, Makhdoom Ahmed and Mu- 
hammad of: Shaikh Bhirkiyo Katiar 
was their contemporary 372. 

Hamdan: author of Jami-ul-Tawarikh was 
born in 277. 

Harappa: buffalo domesticated 51, comes 
to an end 51, contacts of Sargon 
Agade in Mesopotamia were not with 
34, developing 33, first wave of migra- 
tion from Iran to Sind is associated with 
cemetery H at 56, in Pre-Harappan 
phase 39, its contacts with Mesopotamia 
34, its end and subsequent establish- 
ment of cemetery H culture 53, its 
founding and contacts with Persians and 
Citadel built 35, Khurab cemetery is 
thought contemporary -of 32, mature 
phase starts 46, pottery has affinities 
with ware from Iran, Mesopotamia and 
Djamshid II 53, pottery of cemetery 
H shows continuity 53, sacked earlier 
than Mohenjo Daro 54, stone nodules 
of fine flint of Rohri was imported 
to 28, was in late stone age 25. 

Harappa Cemetery: migration of ancient 
Scythians from Ukraine and Central 
Russia as presented at Stratum I of 44. 

Harappans: analysis of human skeleton, 
skulls and carnial incides by Sarkar 
44, bronze was not brought to Mohenjo 
Daro by them 48, contacts of Middle 
East were not with them 44, contempo- 
rary of Kulli culture showing copper 
objects etc 46, occupation of Dabarkot 
at Climax 43, people called Junkar 
drove them out from Junkar, Lohamjo- 
Daro and Chanhu Daro 49, were dark 
snubnosed, worshippers of Phallus, rich 
in cattle and lived in fortified strong- 
holds or Pura 53, were using Rohri 

^ flint for stone tools 42. 

Harappan City: founding of 42, Trihini 
ware show affinites to Ravi ware which 
developed on fall of 52. 

Harappan civilization: its formative period 



Harappan Culture: Amri and Osmanji 
Buthi preceded it 20, beginning of 
36, beginning at Kalibangan and Kot 
Diji 47, bull of Kulli culture pottery 
and tethered objects became sacred 
standard of 44, end of maturity 49, 
it was not Aryans but pre-Aryans who 
destroyed Amri and Kot Diji and 
introduced 44, Lothal in Gujarat 
developed it 39, Mehi type incised pots 
were common in the 48, Microlithic 
sites near Layari river make some link 
with 32, Neuclear 39, over lapping in 
it 49, shown at Kalibangan in East 
Punjab 49, takes over at Kot Diji 49, 
was in peripheral region 43, was super- 
imposed on Kot-Diji 35. 

Harappan overlap: was at Kot Diji 46. 

Harappan people: Colonization of the 
Sarswati river by them begins 42. 

Harappan Period: earliest waves of migra- 
tion were with intrusive objects during 
57, six dates showing its beginning 
46, suggested by Bridget and Alchin 
40, was at Climax 43. 

Harappan Pipal trees: shreds decorated 
with animals appear at Amri and over- 
lapped by 46. 

Harappan script: light loothed harrow 
identified from ideogram of the 20. 

Harappan shreds: pre-Harappan Amri Phase 
I D is contemporary of Mandigak II and 
Kot Diji due to 26, transitional between 
it at Amri an 34. 

Harappan Sites: use of gold for ornament 
is proved by 37. 

Harappan times: Kuli culture continued 
into 24, Plough was not used in Sind 
up to 20. 

Harappan traits: fusion with new traits 
from Iran 53. 

Harappan type, shreds of: Amri shows 
these alongwith Amrian 33. 

Harmatclia: was a capital city of Brahmans 

Hellenspont: Alexander crossed it on his 
expedition against Persians 75. 

Helm and river: Governor Basara forces 
advanced along 125. 

Herat: annexed to the Arab Empire 121, 
Makhdoom Abdul Aziz Muhadith Ub- 
hari left it and settled in Ghana (Kahan) 
369, Qazi Syed Shukurallah who had 
migrated from there under orders of 
Shah Beg came to Thatta 377, the tribes 
(termed as Aryans) came from Iran 

via 48. 

Herat, declaration of victory: was issued 
regarding armed expedition to Sind 
border 355. 

Herat, Mongol Sultan of: Mughal Arghoons 
of Qandhar were his protege and made 
their influence felt in Sind 347. 

Hijaz, Sindhi-Arab tribe of: 27th Governor 
of Sind was killed by 179. 

Hijaz, Qureshi, Qais and Rabiahs from: 
Nazaris planned to throw out Qahta- 
nis (Yamanites) and divide Sind into 
three parts for 172. 

Hind: Caliph Usman sept Hakim Bin 
Jabalah-Al-Abdi to 125, Hakam was 
despatched to conquer it 150. 

Hind, ruler of: Firdausi made return 
visit accompanied by 112. 

Hindukash: countries between Oxus and 
it formed part of Arab Empire 125, 
were crossed by Alexander enroute 
from India 76. 

Hindukash, north of: Adasir conquered 
Kushan principalities to the 106 

Hindustan: was confirmed on Feroz Shah 
by Abbasi Khalifa in Egypt 315. 

Hindustan, Babur's conquest: marriage 
of Mirza Shah Hassan with Gulbarg 
Begum took place after 386. 

Hingloj: human sacrifice was in vogue 
there 76. 

Hissar Giyan (Iran): analysis of human 
selection skulls and carnial 44, identifi- 
cation of people with Indus valley 
people 45 , Kulli culture ware developed 
there 39, trade relations with Indus 
valley 40. 

Hittian King, treaty of: mentions names 
of the gods of Rig-Vedic Aryans 56. 

Homo (Ormuz): border town between 
Makran and Kirman 119. 

Humayun, Court of: Shah Hassan sent 
Mir Alika Arghoon there to congra- 
tulate on the conquest of Gujrat 394. 

Humayun's Harem: Gulbarg Begum seems 
to have been admitted in 386. 

Hwang Ho River: advanced civilization 
arose there 15, settlements were built 
on the elevated area which led to 
expansion of population and develop- 
ment of urban life 20. 

Hydaspes: Alexander's march to 77, his 
voyage to 78. 

Hyderabad : coast was near it 28, Hala- 
kandi (old Hala) 36 miles north of 388, 
the place where Mongols and Soomras 
attacked Imperial forces would be 





37-39 miles from 306, sea coast was 
at its north 10, tomb of Darwesh 
Nooh is located 25 miles north of 337, 
tomb of Shaikh Bhirkiyo is about 20 
miles ESE of 372. 

Hyderabad, Northern: Malik Bahram was 
appointed Governor for 307. 

Hyderabad, Northern Sammas: Governor 
of Multan warned them to be sub- 
missive 317. 

Hyderabad, SES of: it took Shah Beg 
7 to 8 months march upto Agham 
(Aghamani) 30 miles to 383. 

Hyderabad, Shah Maki fort: birth of 
Shah Muhammad Maki who is buried in 
232, death of Syed Muhammad Maki 
who is buried in 264. 

Hyderabad, vicinity of: Surface collections 
from there show Neolithic hunting and 
food gathering communities in Sind 

Hyderabad (Dn): text of* Tazkirat-ul- 
Huffaz was published from 300. 


India: accession of Asoka as emperor 
87, Al-Beruni left 220, Alexander 
crossed Hindukash mountains enroute 
for 76, Appollonius of Tyana wander- 
ed there to learn mystic and medita- 
tion 100, Ashka-lul-Bilad is Ibn 
Haukal's account of travels in 201, 
Babur came to conquer 384, Chachna- 
was translated and reshaped to advice 
Delhi Sultans and Amirs how to govern 
it 244, Ctesias of Cindas described it 71, 

death news of Alexander reached there 
83, Demetrius entered it at Qandhar 
90, Egypt sent ambassador to 87, 
Emperor Bahram Gor travelled into 
112, Eudoxus convinced Greek mari- 
ners for trade with 93, his vovage from 
Alexandria to 92, Earthy-demus rule 
was not established in 89, Fahein visited 
111, Hippalus voyage produced revolu- 
tion in trade with 100, Hiuen Tsang 
started for 118, its invasion by Seleucus 
of Syria 85, Jewish merchants carried 
trade from the west (Europe) with 181, 
marine relations were re-established 
with Mesopotamia via Sind 71, Masudi 
visited 193, men resorted to cannibal- 
ism in 297, Megasthenes lived 86, 
Mihiragula and Tourmana carried out 
advance raids in 115, new wave of 
migration from West bringing foreign 
bronze and iron in 57, Patracles and 

Antichus sailed to 85, Saka (Scythian) 
dominions in 99, ships sailed each year 
from Myos Horms to 98, Sultan Masud 
defeated by Saljuk retired towards 221, 
Urdu and English translation of Hudud- 
al-Alam was published from 201, was 
linked with Darius I Empire 69. 

India, Babur's conquest of: Shah Hassan 
heard the news 390. 

India, Central: a form of Pali was in 
use there 85. 

India, Greek Empire in: Strato II became 
the ruler of 95. 

India, man from wrecked ship: guided 
Eudoxus in his trip to Indian Sub- 
continent 92. 

India, North: Al-Beruni visited 211, 
Menander conquered it 91, Samudra 
Gupta ruled over 109. 

India, North Ismailis: collected at Delhi 
and massacred a Friday congregation 

India, North West: Euthydemus extended 
sway over 89, Pali had 3 different forms 
there 85. 

India, North western: Azilises ruled there 
jointly with his father 98, Indus played 
important role in transport of goods 
from 72. 

India, Pariah dogs of: were derived from 
Indian wolf 15. 

India, Peninsular: Radio Carbon dating 
for middle stone age deposits for the 
10, stone age continues there 38. 

India (Punjab and NWFP): Sultan Abdul 
Rashid Ghaznavi appointed Navishtagin 
as Governor of his territories in 224. 
India, South: Microlithic tools were found 
14, Muhammad Tughluq faced defeat 
but Feroz Shah never attempted its 
recovery 319, rice grown 15, rice reach- 
ed Sind from there 20. 

India, South, Eastern Coast: was a part 
of Samudra Gupta Empire 109. 

India, Southern: independent smelling 
of iron reached 59. 

India, Sultan: Muhammad Tughluq request- 
ed descendants of Abbasid caliphs in 
Egypt to accept him as 297. 

India, Vernaculars of: evolved from west- 
ern or ■ Sauraseni Apabhransa 205 . 

|ndia, Western frontier: Peithon was made 
incharge and abandoned 84. 

Indian bride: Emperor Bahram Gor took 
her with dower of Makran and adja- 
cent parts of Sind 112. 


Indian coasts: Buzrig Bin Shaharyar plied 
vessels from Persian Gulf to China and 
Japan via 192. 

Indian desert: Mahmud of Ghazni did not 
return from Somnath via 212, he 
marched to Somnath via 212, route 
of Bhima the Chaulkaya king of Gujarat 

Indian frontier: Governor of Basara sent 
a force to Sijistan (Sewistan) on 125, 
Sassanian's authority was ceased on 111. 

Indian frontier, Governor of: Harun Bin 
Dhira Al-Namari was appointed as 133. 

Indian guide: Mahmud of Ghazni was 
forced to accept who led to water- 
less desert 212. 

Indian Ocean: Cutch seamen were only 
competitors of Portuguese in 150, Dinar 
was common coin throughout countries 
bordering it 191. Portuguese were 
using force to establish their .factories 
in the whole of 370. 

Indian Ocean, Portuguese map of: its 
production which shows Sind also 365. 

Indian Philosophy: Appollonius of Tyana 
visited the sub-continent to learn 100. 

Indian Republic: Bhatinda is now in 250. 

Indian ruler: Emperor Bahram Gor took 
Indian bride and dower of Makran 
and adjoining parts of Sind from him 

Indian territories: booty was sent to 
Damascus from 150. 

Indies, Eastern: The Periplus of Eryth- 
raen sea was written as a guide book 
for trade and sea travel to the 101. 

Indo-Caspians: opinion of Sarkar about 
them 44, Rigvedic Ayrans are termed 
as 24. 

I ndo -Europeans: Ancient Scythians were 
an earlier branch of them and were 
earlier emigrants from Amrian times 
and misnamed as Aryans 24, their 
movement in Asia Minor 44. 

Indo-Greek: their Indianization after the 
death of Menander 91. 

Indo- Iranians: their migration to the 
Punjab and Sind via Makran 36. 

Indonesian Geographer: birth of Idrisi 
who was an 230. 

Indo-Pak sub-continent: fifteen Chinese 
monks started for 111, Hazrat Ali 
sent a great expedition against 125, 
Hieun Tsang saw 3 empires in the north 
western of 122, Masudi completed his 
travels in 197. 

Indo-Pak sub-continent, see also Sub- 
Indus: Alexander marched 77, Aryan's 
invasion 52, change of course and 
lake formation 52, changed its course 
80, Daric currency in silver and gold 
was introduced 70, described by Abu 
Ishaq Al-Istakhri 198, deserted eastern 
bed and shifted westward 204, Erato- 
shenes described it 85, flooding 54, 
Hisham reconquered valley west of 
163, Kitab-ul-Hind describes it 211, 
marine relations with Mesopotamia 71, 
Mongol troops met Sultan Muhammad 
Tughluq when he crossed 301, Multan 
was on its left bank and Banu on right 
bank 119, one humped camel appeared 
in the arid district (Thar) to the east 
of 64, Persian Empire included areas 
west of the 115, played important 
role in transport of goods from 
India 72, Prabhakatra Vard ana's could 
not be successful against the king of 
land 116, Sassanid ascendancy over 106 
Sassanians controlled areas west of 114, 
Sarki lake was connected with 148, 
Skylax sailed down 70, Skylax surveyed 
it 69, Sultan Feroz marched to Bakhar 
from where fleet floated down the 322, 
trade to Iran from Sind and Gandava 
via 66. 

Indus alluvium: recent formation and 
rising of level of sea 3. 

Indus alluvium plains: were under the sea 
up to Multan and whole Thar desert 9. 

Indus, banks of: Ibn Batuta saw Soomras 
settled on 207. 

Indus, battle of: Khwarizm Shah sent 
envoy to Qabacha to return son and 
daughter of Mailk Amin who escaped 
in 246. 

Indus civilization: Gait rule in Iraq cuts 
contacts with it 42, most probable 
period of the 40, Radio Carbon dating 
and its maturity 4 1 . 

Indus country, people of: the fame of 
Gondophares in the west brought St. 
Thomas as apostle to them 99. 

Indus, countries West of: two humped 
Bactrian camel disappeared 361. 

Indus delta: Greek mariners sailed down 
93, Hippalus sailed down from Aden to 
100, not effectively controlled by the 
Persian fleet 70, not mentioned by 
Bashari 203, products reached Barba- 
rican from there 102, ruled by Jat and 



Med tribes 194, Voyage of Nearchus 
from 80. 

Indus, Eastern Branch: Alexander surveyed 
79, discharged into sea via Koree creek 
79, discharged into Koree Creek 204, 
took less supplies of water 204. 

Indus, left bank of: Feroz Shah reached 
there suddenly 324, Opiai tribe lived 
on 71. 

Indus mouth of: Nearchus entered sea 
near it 79, played an important part in 
trade transfers from Ninevah etc 63. 

Indus, seven mouths of: Chandragupta II 
crossed 111. 

Indus people: Alexander nominated Onici 
Kratius to collect information on 76. 

Indus Plains: early or middle stone age lie 
buried there 9, flooded 8. 

Indus Plains, Lower: were situated to the 
Neolithic environment more than Egypt 
and Iraq 1 7 . 

Indus religion: influence on «Rig-Vedic 
Aryans 67. 

Indus, right bank of: Hakam collected 
Arabs and settled in Mahfuza on 152, 
Jalaluddin Khwarizm Shah was defeated 
on 245, Muhammad Bin Qasim halted 
there and built a boat bridge on Indus 

Indus river: Bhima the Chaulkaya king of 
Gujarat crossed 218, Debal was replaced 
by Lahri Bunder due to abandoning of 
Gharo Creek branch by it 290, eroded 
the Bakhar gorge fully 260, fish and 
forests attracted Neolothic fishermen 
and hunters 10, Gandhar a port in 
Kathiawar where Arab fleet reached by 
163, had three branches when Shah 
Hassan occupied Thatta 386, inunda- 
tion and growing of crops 20, Khwarizm 
sovereigns annexed Ghori's territory as 
far as 242, Kulli culture 24, Mahmud of 
Ghazni advanced on Jats by 219, 
majority of Samma women and children 
jumped into it due to fear of Mongols 
386, Mokah supplied Arabs with boats 
for corssing it 137, Muhammad Tughluq 
expected boats as well as Mongol 
troops from the upstream side of the 
301, he summoned boats by land as well 
as by 301, Mongols crossed it and 
looted Lahore and Debalpur territories 
345, they crossed and laid siege on Uch 
258, new Soomra capital was built on 
Gunghro channel on 257, Qabacha com- 
mitted suicide by jumping into 250, 

252, ships upto 200 tons navigated it 
65, Sultan Mahmud marched to Multan 
along 214, transportation by it 28. 

Indus river, annual behaviour of: people of 
Sind understood it 19. 

Indus river, branches of: Oxykanus whose 
country formed an island between them 
too stand against Alexander 77. 

Indus river, Baghar branch: Pir Patho tomb 
is on a hill on old bed of 265, Shah 
Hassan crossed the river and was bet- 
ween Ren branch and the 385. 

Indus river, both sides of: Mahfuza and 
Mansura were on the 151, Shah Hassan 
punished tribes living on the 383, Shah 
Hassan decided to lay waste the country 
on the 395. 

Indus river, course of: changed through 
Bakhar gorge 199, 230, its change 
brought famine and mortality 322, major 
changes took place 295, reason of decay 
of Soomra power 311, stabilizing of 
308, seems to have changed 279, 
Soomras shifted their capital from Thari 
to Mohammad Tur due to change of 

Indus river, hydrological changes: Soomra 
capital rose due to 231, Soomra power 
in the upper Sind wanded due to 292, 
Soomras shifted capital to Thatta due 
to 279. 

Indus river, Kalri Branch: Shah Hassan 
crossed it and occupied Thatta 386. 

Indus river, left bank of: Jaisina occupied 
145, 146, Shah Beg seems to have 
marched along 383. 

Indus river, old branch of: ruins of Moham- 
mad Tur are on Gunghro the 257. 

Indus river, Ren branch: Punyo Narejo 
died and buried in the village of Raid a 
on 360, Shah Hassan crossed the river 
and was between Baghar and the 385. 

Indus valley: Culture conflict with Harappa 
38, deputation went to China 104, 
human skeleton, skulls and carnial 
indices by Sarkar 44, introduction of 
cotton plant into Assyria from 64, Kad- 
phises II conquered whole of 102, Kulli 
culture ware appeared 39, Lothal and 
Rangpur in touch with 59, Mauses 
advanced to 95, Neolithic and Chaleoli- 
thic periods of the 22, pre-Harappan 
culture in the whole 46, potter's art 
spread 18, potter's wheel moved 18, 
revival of urban life not known 62, 
Sassanians had title over it 110, script 


of the 41, second wave of Mesopotamian 
trade with 47, trade relations with Iran 
40, turned illiterate 56, Uktae returned 
to Ghazni after marching through 246, 
Vasudeva ruled it 104, Xerxes used 
cotton clad Indians from there in war 
against Greece 73. 

Indus valley, plains of: first peasant, farmer 
settlers carried bichrome pottery to the 

Indus, western bank of: Muhammad Bin 
Qasim reached 137. 

Indus, western branch of: Alexander dis- 
patched his naval fleet to sea via 79. 

Iprus: Seleucus defeated Antigonus at 86. 

Iraj: Vazir Khan Jahan arranged inforce- 
ment from there 325. 

Iran: advent of Bronze Age 48, Assyrians 
undertook irrigation works for agricul- 
ture in whole of their empire which 
included 63,Chengiz Khan deputed his 
son to stop entry of Khwarizm Shah in- 
to 246, climax of Sassanid power 115, 
Darius I ruled it 68, food producing 
revolution in 13, immigration of Indo- 
Europeans is associated with use of iron 
in it 61, iron starts suspending bronze 
there 58, Kulli culture in 24, land routes 
developed by Darius I 66, motifs with 
pipal leaves show conquerors from there 
53, mud brick and clay houses cons- 
tructed there 13, new art of pottery 
developed at Siyalk in 12, new move- 
ment of people into Indian sub-conti- 
nent 58, Neolithic revolution spread 13, 
peacock exported from Sind domestica- 
ted 73, plough with seed drill was 
brought to 68, potters introduced 
painted pictured pottery 18, pottery 
designs reached Baluchistan from there 
59, potter's wheel and painted pottery 
invented 15, Sassanid rule in 189, 
second post-Harappan wave of migra- 
tion to Sind and Punjab from there 55, 
seventh migration wave of people 60, 
smelting of iron spread to 59, third 
wave of migration to Sind and Punjab 
from there 57, trade included ivory 
from Sind and timber from Gandava 
66, trade relations with Indus valley 40, 
tribes termed as Aryans came from 48, 
triple Jar found at Shahi Tump, Sialk 
IV and Shahi Tape in 52, wheel intro- 
duced in 19, wheel invented 22. 

Iran, Bakhtiari mountain of: coarse pottery 
made by cave man found at 12. 

Iran, Eastern: Vonones assumed power 

over Mauses 96. 

Iran, king of: Vikrama Era marks enthrone- 
ment of Vonones as 97. 

Iran, Muslim states: included in the victims 
of Mahmud217. 

Iran, Shia uprising: two Syed brothers 
Ahmed and Muhammad Mashhadi left 
Iran due to 362. 

Iran, South East: migration of people to 
Sind from 46, routes were avoided along 
16, third migration of tribes from there, 
that sacked Mohenjo-Daro 48. 

Iran, ware from: Harappan Pottery has 
affinities with 53. 

Iran, Western: did not turn illiterate 56. 

Iranian Makran, see Makran, Iranian. 

Iranian Plateau: tribes termed as Aryans 
came via 48. 

Iranians, south western: their migration to 
Sind 23. 

Iraq: beginning of Ismaili sect in 199, 
Bukayr a missionary returned to 147, 
Ismailis got setback in 208, Jalaluddin 
amassed treasures to reach 247, Jats of 
Sind were distributed in the forests of 
Kashkor in 139, Jats of Sind settled 
there rebelled 176, Khalifa diverted 
attention of Yaqoob Safari to attack 
186, Khwarizm Shah was sent out for 
247, Kulli culture in 24, Kulli culture 
ware travelled there from Mesopotamia 
39, large number of Jats remained in 
139, Mailk Balban Kishlu Khan made a 
trip there to seek assistance of Halaku 
Khan 262, Masudi visited 193, Muham- 
mad Bin Qasim was recalled to 143, 
Mulhida sect after their overthrow in 
came to Sind 202, Neolithic environ- 
ments 17, Nizaris got setback in 209, 
Persian born Ibne Khurdahba was post 
master there and completed "the Book 
of Roads and countries" 180, troops 
arrived from there and Arabs scored 
victory 154, West Asian Stone Age 
in 10, wild purple pea grown in 17, 
writer of Tarikh-i-Kamil was born there 
234, Yakoob attacked it but was 
defeated 186, Yazid sent Muhammad 
Bin Qasim in chains to 142. 

Iraq, Gait rule: its contacts with the Indus 
civilization 42. 

Iraq, Governor of: advised Khalifa that 
Smd was powerful 124, Hijaj was ap- 
pointed as and he sent Ubaidullh to 
subdue Kabul 134, was dismissed 157. 

Iraq, Governor General of: Arab official 
whose name was recommended for 



Governorship of Sind by him was im- 
prisoned 155, Governor of Sind was 
rescued with his help 156, Hakam was 
dispatched by him to reconquer Sind 
and parts of Hind 150, Umar Bin Habira 
was appointed as 147, Yazid BinMuhalab 
was appointed as 145, was dismissed 

Iraq, Northern parts of: Pig comes in 13. 

Iraq, rebel from: tenth Governor of Sind 
was killed by 157. 

Iraq, rivers and canals of: Jats of Sind were 
robbing caravans and boats on 133. 

Iraq, South: Jat rebellion continued there 

Iraq scholar: a book in poetry was written 
in Sindhi on Islamic beliefs and educa- 
tion by him and sent to Hindu ruler 

Isfahan (Isphahan): author of Tarikh-i- 
Aghani was born at 190, Mahmud's 
coins show it as a part of bis empire 

Ishbha: Muhammad Bin Qasim conquered 
it 137. 

Iskanda: Chach proceeded against and 
subdued it 123, Dehar ruled it 129, was 
a province of Rai Seharas kingdom J 18. 

Islam Kot: route of Muhammad Tughluq 
from Nagar Parkar to 301. 

Island of Rubies , See Rubies, Island of. 

Ispahbud fort: a Muslim state sacked by 
Mahmud of Ghazni 216. 

Israil: West Asian Stone Age in 10. 

Itor: Muhammad Bin Qasim proceeded to 

Jacobabad: the hilly tract of Budha 128. 

Jacobabad, District: Budh approximates 
present 194, Budhia consisted of 137, 
was settled by Balochis after the mid- 
19th century 382. 

Jaisalmir Fort: Ulugh Khan took half 
of troops from Upper Sind to invade 
it 275. 

Jaisalmir, Raja Rawal Jainsi of: looted 
3000 horses and mules carrying tribute 
from Sind to Delhi 267. 

Jalandhar: Allauddin Khilji defeated Mon- 
gols near 273. 

Jalilpur: pre-Indus Kot Diji sites are 
found at 38. 

Jalor, Governor of: Malik Ghazi (Tughluq) 
wrote him for help 280. 

Jalwagir: Sultan Muhammad was killed 
at 358, he was defeated and killed by 
Mubarak (Darya Khan Dullah) near 356, 

wrongly called as the place of Arghoon's 

defeat 358. 
Jalwan: Chach or Rai — Sehasi subdued 

it 121, it has similarity with Booqan 

Jamal Bin Shahban's mosque: Mahmud of 

Ghazni closed down 211. 
Jam Nizamuddin grave inscription: names 

of Tamachi and Salahuddin come from 

338, puts the genealogy of Sultan 

Nizamuddin Shah Jam Nindo 353, 

puts the Samma geneology 365. 
Jam Nizamuddin tomb: construction work 

on it was started by Jam Nizamuddin 

and completed by his son Jam Feroz 

Jamnagar: business community of Pari 

Nagar migrated to 296. 
Jamrao Canal: ruins of Dilu Rai lie a 

mile south of 152. 
Jamuna: Sultan Nusrat Shah lost most of 

area there 341. 
Jamuna bank, Ismailis of: they collected 

at Delhi and fell on a congregation 

of Friday prayers 255. 
Janani: big beautiful city where Soomras 

were settled 207, Daudpota calculates 

it three miles south of Sehwan towards 

Thatta 207, must have been eroded by 

river Indus 207. 
Jandal, ruler of: Firdausi made return 

visit accompanied by him 112. 
Japan: Buzrig Bin Shaharyar plied vessels 

from Persian Gulf to 192. 
Jareja country: Delhi could not have 

exercised effective control in 274. 
Jarmo: Carbon dating 13, neolithic revolu- 
tion starts there 13. 
Jat Quarter: Antioch is known as 129. 
Jati: Taghi's route from Gujarat to Sind 

was through it 300. 
Jati town: ruins of Mohammad Tur are 

5 miles away from it 257. 
Jaunpur: Vazir Khan J ah an arranged 

inforcement from there 325. 
Jaunpur, Mahdi of: having been expelled 

from there left for Qandhar 362, reach- 
ed Nasarpur having been expelled from 

Gujarat 362. 
Jayadratha Dynasty: Saindhawa dynasty 

was also called as 155. 
Jericho: digging up of 13, jewellery was 
jnade of shells and stone there 15, 

Neolithic revolution starts 13, Radio 

Carbon dating 13. 
Jerrando: stone age sites are located 

there 10. 


J hangar: Junkar culture was succeeded 
by it 52, 55, occupation of Chanhu- 
Daro 60, was coined from location of 
the site near Jhangara village 60, Rang- 
pur pottery may be contemporary of 59. 

J hangar culture: became well established 
58, gets name from Jhangara village 58, 
is subsequent to lake dwellers of Trihni 
and Shah Hassan 59. 

J hangar pottery: found high upon Chan- 
hu-Daro 52. 

Jhelum: Babur crossed it to conquer India 
384, Khwarizm sovereigns annexed 
Ghori's territory as far as 242. 

Jhelum District: Muhammad Ghori was 
assassinated there 242. 

Jhimpir: 1 

Jhok: bifurcation of Kalri and- Baghar 

Jindur: was the capital of Multan 194. 

Jhvanri: iron swords were found at 64. 

Jodhpur: the irregular force of Sam mas 
of Sind attacked it 352. 

Jodhpur border: the Sammas of Sind 
settled Balochis there 352. 

Johi: was the trade route between Meso- 
potamia and Indus valley 47. 

Johi Taluka: Hussamuddin Mirak was 
given as Jagir 386. 

Jun: Jam Salahuddin was encamped 
there 378, place of battle between 
Jam Salahuddin and Shah Hassan 
Arghoon 379, was a Mahal of Chach- 
kan Sarkar 375. 

Junagadh: Muhammad Tughluq held court 
there for making preparation to invade 
Sind 301, Mularaj attacked it 196. 

Junagadh (Girnar) inscription, date of: 
states Saka rule over many places 105. 

Junkar: drove out Harappans 49, 50, 
it connection with Ukraine and Central 
Russain people 44, occupation of 
Lohunjo-Daro 51, occupation of phase 
II of Chanhu Daro 54, started in small 
settlement of Sind 54, Terracotta seals 
and coins recovered from there show 
annexation of Sind by Huns 113, 
Vasudeva coins prove Kushan rule 
in Upper Sind 105, was succeeded by 
Jhankar 52, wave of migration in 
the post-Harappan phase is called 57, 
Yezdgrid-I coins appear at 110. 

Junkar culture: continued at Chanhu-Daro 
and was succeeded by J hangar cul- 
ture 55. 

Junkar invaders: used Chariot as fighting 
vehicle 55. 

Junkar people: first wave is associated 
with 56, second post-Harappan migra- 
tion after them 53, shaft hole axe may 
have been brought to sub-continent 
by them 49. 

Junkar period: Indus valley Skulls are 
extension of 44. 

Junzah, battle of: Arabs lost Kabul at 132. 


Kaba: a Sindhi Raja sent a golden chain 
with diamond work for deposition in 

Kaban cemeteries: double headed animal 
pin is found at 55. 

Kabana desert: Nearchus reached 81. 

Kabul: Arab expedition was sent to 134, 
Aradashir Babagan conquered it 106, 
Darius I linked his Empire to 69, 
Gondophares conquered it 100, Hijjaj 
sent Ubaidullah to subdue it 134, Mah 
Begum escaped from there 364, Menari- 
der its Governor became ruler of Sind, 
the Punjab, Kashmir and Gujarat. 90, 
Muawiya's efforts to conquer it 127, 
revolted against Arabs 132, Shahpur II 
receded 109, Skylax voyage down to 70. 

Kabul, Babur's Court: Shah Hassan reached 

and stayed there for two years 371. 
Kabul conquest of: Babur attacked Qand- 

har after it 363. 
Kabul, Governor of: Vonones (Parthians) 

gained independence from him 97. 
Kabul, Deputy Governors of: were asked 

by Khokhars of Punjab to attack 

Sind 345. 
Kabul, king of: inflicted defeat on Arabs 

Kabul, mountain range of: tribes (termed 

as Aryans) came avoiding 48. 
Kabul, ruler of: Firdausi made return 

visit accompanied by 112, Vonones 

accepted his Suzerainty 96. 
Kabul, tribes of: drove out the conquerors 

Kachcha forces: people of Sind came into 

contact with them and brought horses 

and bulls 218. 
Kachchha: Bahram II added it to his 

domain 108. 
Kachchellas, King of: Arabs defeated him 

K^chhi: Alexander army proceeded via 78, 

Dahar ruled it 129, 130, is Sindhi 

speaking 39. 
Kachhi, Balochis of: Shah Hassan had 

to make special trip to crush them 382. 



Kachhi District: Budh approximates 
present 194, Budhia consisted of 137, 
date for Pirak in 59, Jats and Meds of 
Budha, the hilly tract killed the Gover- 
nor 128. 
Kachhi District, Rind and Bughti tribes of: 

Shah Hassan attacked them 390. 
Kacchi or Sibi District: Booqan could be 

in 178. 
Kachho: existence of Karazes in 68, sub- 
recent formation lying at the foot of 
Khirther range 2. 

Kadi: Muhammad Tughluq took difficult 
route from Cambay via 301. 

Kadi, battle of: Taghi was defeated by 
Muhammad Tughluq's armies 300. 

Kadhan: Jam Feroz collected troops and 
reached Rahim Ki Bazzar, 30 miles 
south of 387. 

Kafir Kot: flint chopping workshops 
at 21. 

Kalian (Ghaha): achieved an important 
position being in Jagir of Darya Khan 
369, was a Mahal of Sehwan Sarkar 

Kaikan (Kalat): added to Sind either 
by Rai Seharas II or Chach 118, capital 
of Turan 194, described in Kitab-Al- 
Masalik-wa-Al-Mamalik 185, described 
in map of Sind by Ibn Haukal 197, 
expedition of Abdullah Bin Sawwar-Al- 
Abdi to 128, Ibne Haris collected booty 
131, Hazrat Ali expedition advanced 
up to 125, Kalat District then part of 
Sind 128, Muawiya's second expedition 
against 127, Muhalab attacked it 145, 
Mundhir Bin Jarud-Al-Abdi captured it 
131, Rashid was killed in an expedition 
against 128, Rashid Bin Umer Jadidi 
attacked it 129, Umayyad set back 128. 

Kaikan (Kalat), Jats of Imran founded a 
city Baydhan in Budh District to sup- 
port them 178. 

Kaikan (Kalat), Jats and Meds of: Imran 
expedition against 178. 

Kaikanites (Kalatis): protected Bolan Pass 
and made advances from north west 
of Sind difficult 178. 

Kaira District: Kita or Kicha is now in 
it 119. 

Kaithal Hindus: rebelled against Sultan 
but were suppressed 292. 

Kakar Taluka: Hussamuddin Mirak was 
given as Jagir 386. 

Kakhshan: decorated red ware appears in 

Kalan Kot fort: Jam Tughluq started 

building but was completed by his 
successors and used by Sammas and 
Mughal Governors 346, Tughluq fort 
was built on old site of 388. 
Kalari: described in map of Sind by Ibn 

Haukal 197. 
Kalat: bordering Dadu and Larkana Dist- 
ricts . 2, De Cardi found sites near it 23 , 
decorated red were appears in 36, its 
early start is contemporary of phase 
I c of Amri 30, Nindovari flourished 
near it 47, occupied by Jats 45, Phase 
III there 29, is Sindhi speaking 39 
Kalat Division: Bolan, Jalwan, Sarwan 
Kharan and Makran all are in it 178 
Kalibangan: beginning of Harappan cul 
ture at 47, comes to an end 51, Harap 
pan culture at 49, Harappan culture 
flourished there 36, pre-Harappan cul- 
ture continued 37, Kot-Diji-Sothi pot- 
tery and term Kot Diji-Sethi is assigned 
to it 38, late stone age there 25, 
MASCA corrections 42, 47, mature 
phase starts 46, mature pre-Harappan 
culture started 39, on direct bed of 
Sarswati 38, pre-Harappan nourishment 
36, pre-Harappan settlements 34, Radio 
Carbon dates 34, stone nodules of fine 
flint worked at Rohri were imported 
to 28. 
Kali Devi's shrine: Kalakot name may 

possibly have come from 388. 
Kalri : became the main branch 279, 
296, inundation canal after 26 miles 
bifurcated' into the Kotri-Buthro and 
Khanwah 373, one of the three branch- 
es of river Indus 386, was a small 
shallow stream from which Khan-wah 
had its mouth 386. 
Kalri branch: a new port Lahri Bunder 
was established on 279, was no longer 
the main branch 373. 
Kamhil: described by Ibn Haukal 197. 
Kanauj: Arab expedition against it 153, 
154, embassy sent to China from 153, 
Firdausi visited and was honoured 
with ruler's daughter 112, Hakam 
conquered Kiraj or Kira near it 154, 
Mahmud coins show it as part of his 
Empire 220,Vazir Khan Jahan arrang- 
ed inforcement from there 325. 
Kanauj, King of: Muhammad Bin Qasirn 
sent him a message to submit 141, 
sent his minister as an ambassador 
to China 153, was able to repulse 
Arabs 155. 
Kanazbur (Panjgur): Muhammad Bin 


Qasim conquered it 136. 

Kandabil (Gandava): Arab Empire receded 
to 146. 

Kandhar: the tribes termed as Aryans 
came via 48. 

Kandhkot Chief: was compelled to sub- 
mit to Zafar Khan, the Governor of 
Gujarat 342. 

Kandhi: Sultan Sadaruddin Shah Jam 
Sanjar extended his kingdom to 352. 

Kandivili: Microlithic tools are found 
at 14. 

Kanthkot: Kathis of Sind established 
themselves in Wagad with capital at 
151, Lakho captured it 235, occupied 
by Chawras 159, Sad son of Mod made 
it his capital 182, Taghi's route from 
Gujarat to Sind was through it 300. 

Kanthkot fort: Sultan Qutubuddin Aibak 
captured it 241. 

Kapisi: Hieun Tsang saw 3 Empires includ- 
ing 122. 

Karachi: ground and polished stone axe 
found from Orangi near it 32, Seminar 
Sind through the centuries was held at 
244, shreds of pottery of earlier settle- 
ments found at 22, the tribes termed 
as Aryans came via 48, Urdu transla- 
tion of text of the History of Prophets 
and Kings upto year 915 AD is printed 
from there 178, use of cherty flint from 
Rohri 32. 

Karachi, Archaeological department: the 
inscriptions on the dome of Sultan 
Muhammad Tughluq are preserved by 

Karachi district: Med stock settled there 
are known as Machhi, Medha and 
Mohanas 178, surface collections there 
show mesolithic hunting and food 
gathering communities in Sind 14. 

Karchat: Kulli culture ware appeared 
39, trade route between Mesopotamia 
and Indus valley via Lak Garee near 
it 47. 

Karmania: Alexander marched to 82. 

Kashkar: Jats of Sind were permitted 
to setde town in 133. 

Kashkar, forest of: Jats of Sind were 
distributed in 139. 

Kashmir: Agathocles conquered it 90, 
Alra (Alore ?) is put between Punjab 
and 188, Arab raid on 161, Arab 
Governor of Sind raided it but the 
conquest is doubtful 163, Asoka had 
a Governor at 87, Chach ruled it but 
was deposed 125, Governor of Sind is 

reported to have conquered it which is 
doubtful 160, Hakam conquered Kiraj 
or Kira near it 154, had intimate rela- 
tions with Sind 141, Jaisina and Korsiah 
went there to seek help 141, Jaisina 
left for to collect forces 140, Menander 
became the ruler 90, Mihiragula retired 
to 115, relationship with Rais and 
Brahman Dynasty 114, Samudra Gupta 
ruled over whole North of India except 
109, threatened by Arabs 154, Vik- 
ramaditya VI conquered or raided it 

Kahsmir, border of: authorities are vague 
and worthless on leading army to and 
defeating the Jam 316, Multan division 
was upto the 123. 

Kashmir Hills: Chach planted a tree close 
to the 123. 

Kashmir, king of: raided Tatta Kutia 
mountain pass 345, there is version 
that he invaded the Lower Sind 345, 
Shirashamak became the 316, was able 
to repulse Arabs 155, sent an embassy • 
to China 153. 

Kashmir rebellions: Abu Ali Kotwal 
crushed them 222. 

Kashmir, ruler of: Firdausi made return 
visit accompanied by 112, sought 
Chinese help 154. 

Kashmir, Hindu ruler of:Junaid, Hakam, 
Amar attacked 156. 

Kashmiri: Pali having similarity with 85. 

Kashmiri Buddhist: Origin of Barm ak is 
is traced to 178. 

Kashmirian Court, Poet of Vikramaditya- 
IV: wrote his drama "Karnasundari" 
mentioning that Kama conquered Sind 
and had a romantic marriage 226. 

Kathiawar: Aryan expansion to 62, Azes 
ruled it jointly with his father 97,