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Its Origin, Mission, and Destiny, and the 
Christian 's Relation To It 







Please note: 

The page numbers for this 158-page 1913 edition are inserted 
between double slashes. They mark the top of each page. 

I 111 I 



Chapter I: The Origin, Mission, and Destiny of Civil 
Government and the Christian's Relation to It 

Chapter II: The New Testament and Civil Government 

Chapter III: Summary of Preceding Chapters 

Chapter IV: Early Church Writings and History 

I 1311 


The writer of the following pages was early in life impressed with the idea that God as the 
Creator, and preserver of the world, was its only rightful law-maker and ruler. And that all 
the evil that afflicted humanity and the world, had arisen from a failure on the part of man to 
whom the rule of the earth had been committed by God, to maintain in its purity and 
sovereignty the authority and dominion of God as the only rule of this world. From the Bible 
he learned man had sinned against God, that an element of discord and confusion had hence 
entered into the world and that the world was out of harmonious relations with God and the 
universe. This being true, it early occurred to his mind, that the one sure and sovereign 
remedy for these evils was the absolute submission to God on the part of man, and a 
restoration of his authority and rule in all the domains of the world. In the study of the Bible, 
he saw the one purpose of God, as set forth in that book, was to bring man back under his 
own rule and government so to re-establish his authority and rule on earth, that God's will 
"shall be done on earth as it is in Heaven." 

To this end, man's duty is to learn the will of God, and trustingly do that will, leaving results 
and events with God. It became a fixed principle with him that in religion man must in faith 
do what God has ordained he should do, what he has declared would be well-pleasing to him; 
and then leave all in the hands of him who overrules the universe. 

While I failed to see then, as I now see, that religion embraced every duty and every relation 
of man and moulds every thought, purpose and action of his being, the feeling would creep 
into my mind that even in political affairs man should do only what God commanded him. 
Finally the years of sectional strife, war, bloodshed, destruction and desolation swept over 
our land, and the spectacle was presented, of disciples of the HAH Prince of Peace, with 
murderous weapons seeking the lives of their fellowmen. Brethren for whom Christ died, 
children of him who came to heal the broken-hearted, to be a father to the fatherless and a 
husband to the widow, were found imbruing their hands in the blood of their own brethren in 
Christ, making their sisters widows and their sisters' children orphans. It took but little 
thought to see that this course is abhorrent to the principles of the religion of the Savior, who 
died that even his enemies might live. He had plainly declared that his children could not 

fight with carnal weapons even for the establishment of his own Kingdom. Much less could 
they slay and destroy one another in the contentions and strivings of the kingdoms of this 
world. It took but little thought to see that Christians cannot fight, cannot slay one another or 
their fellowmen, at the behest of any earthly ruler, or to establish or maintain any human 
government. But if he cannot fight himself, can he vote to make another fight? What I lead or 
influence another to do, I do through that other. The man who votes to put another in a place 
or position, is in honor, bound to maintain hum in that position, and is responsible for all the 
actions, courses or results that logically and necessarily flow from the occupancy and 
maintenance of that position. A man who votes to bring about a war, or that votes for that 
which logically and necessarily brings about war is responsible for that war and for all the 
necessary and usual attendants and results of that war. 

But some may say, "It is a Christian's duty to vote against war and against that which will 
produce war." Yes, but how can he know which course will, or will not bring about war? 
Many men voted for secession of the States South, with a view that that was the only way to 
prevent war. Some thought separation, as between Abraham and Lot's families, would end 
the strife that would be interminable within the Union. Others thought, argued and voted, if 
the Southern States show a united front there will be no war. If we are divided the division 
will invite war. So [they] voted for secession to avoid war. 

With these difficulties, inconsistencies and troubles lying in the way, I determined to take the 
Bible and as a wholly new question study the origin of human government, its relations to 
God, to man, to the church of Jesus Christ, and the connection of the Christian therewith and 
his duty to it. It did not take 1 151 1 me long to reach a conclusion, which is given in the 
following pages. The study and constant review of the subject, the criticisms made of my 
writing on the subject have strengthened the conclusion, and leave me not a doubt as to its 

The substance in this book was published in the GOSPEL ADVOCATE in the years 1866-67 
- and again in Christian Quarterly, of current year. With the request that each reader will 
carefully and prayerfully examine the Scriptures of sacred truth, to see if these things are true, 
and if true accept the truth and courageously maintain it, the writer commends this volume 
and those who read it to the God of all grace and love. 

David Lipscomb. 







We use the term "CIVIL GOVERNMENT" in this book as synonymous with HUMAN 
GOVERNMENT, in contradistinction to a government by God, or the DIVINE 
GOVERNMENT. The design in writing this book is to determine definitely the origin, 
mission, and destiny of human governments, their relation to God, and the relation the 
Church and the individual Christian sustain to them. 

In the beginning God created the earth and all that therein is. Over the material world and all 
the lower creation, he gave man control. 

"Let us make man in our own image, after our own 
likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the 
sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, 
and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing 
that creepeth upon the earth." (Gen. i: 26.) "And the 
Lord God commanded the man." (Gen.ii:10.) 

Without reference to what the command was, this indicates that while God committed the 
government of the under-creation to man, he reserved to himself the right and prerogative of 
governing man. God would govern and guide man; man would govern the under-creation, 
and so the whole world would be held under the government of God, man immediately and 
the under-creation through man. 

But, man refused to be governed by God. First as an individual he violated the specific 
command of God. "A //8// little leaven leaveneth the whole lump." This leaven of 
disobedience wrought the rejection of the Divine government, and was transmitted from the 

individual to the family, to the tribe, to the race. "While men slept, his enemy came and 
sowed tares among the wheat and went his way." When man was off his guard the enemy of 
God and man implanted the seeds of distrust and disaffection, and the heart, the mind and the 
life of man became disloyal to God. 

"The serpent said unto the woman, ye shall not surely 
die; for God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, 
then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods 
knowing good and evil." (Gen.iii:4,5.) 

The act of individual disobedience culminated in the effort of man to organize a government 
of his own, so that he himself might permanently conduct the affairs of earth, free from the 
control of God, and independent of God's government. The first account we have of 
organized human government, is (Gen.x:8.) 

"And Cush begat Nimrod, he began to be a mighty one in 
the earth. ... The beginning of his kingdom was Babel, 
and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar." 

Nimrod was the grandson of Ham, and the founder of the first government organized outside 
of the family institution, ordained by God from the beginning. Nimrod made other families 
tributary to himself, and established a kingdom of which he was the head. The declaration, 
"Let us build us a city and a tower whose top may reach unto heaven, and let us make us a 
name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the earth," (Gen.xi:4), shows the animus 
and the spirit of the movement, and that it was intended to resist the purpose of God to 
govern them and to distribute them over the face of the earth, and to maintain themselves in a 
government of their own organizing. The effort to unite themselves more closely that God's 
rule united them, resulted in the confusion of their language and their division 1 191 1 and 
dispersion. The design and purpose of this beginning of human government on earth was to 
oppose, counteract, and displace the government of God on earth. 

The institution of human government was an act of rebellion and began among those in 
rebellion against God, with the purpose of superseding the Divine rule with the rule of man. 
Its founder was Nimrod, the grandson of Ham, whose family was accursed. In accordance 
with a well-defined principle of God's over-ruling providence, the family of this founder has 

been the greatest sufferer by the institution which he originated. Josephus, with whatever 
credit he may be entitled to in reference to matters so remote, says that "Nimrod, the founder 
and leader, appealed to them that it was too humiliating and degrading for wise human beings 
capable of forming governments of their own, to submit to the government of another." 
Josephus B. 1 ch. iiii says, 

"When they flourished with a numerous youth, God 
admonished them to send out numerous colonies, but 
imagining that the prosperity they enjoyed was not 
derived from the favor of God, did not obey him. Now it 
was Nimrod who excited them to such affront and contempt 
of God ... He also gradually changed the government 
into tyranny, seeing no other way of turning men from the 
fear of God, but to bring them into a constant dependence 
on his own power." 

This is quoted to show the government existed before Nimrod, else he could not CHANGE it. 
Undoubtedly the government instituted by God - the family government - existed. He 
changed this by subjugating a number of families and tribes into one government under 
himself. The quotation so far as Josephus is authority in the matter, shows that the human 
government and dependence upon that government for good - was the means adopted to wean 
them away from fidelity to God and his government, and it was instituted for the purpose of 
supplanting God's government. 

It is clear that human government had its origin in the rejection of the authority of God, and 
that it was intended //10// to supersede the Divine government, and itself constituted the 
organized rebellion of man against God. This beginning of human government God called 
BABEL, confusion, strife. It introduced into the world the organized development and 
embodiment of the spirit of rebellion, strife and confusion among men. God christened it 
BABEL. It soon grew into the blood-thirsty, hectoring Babylon, and subjugated the 
surrounding families, tribes and kingdoms to its dominion, and became the first universal 
empire of the earth, and maintained its sway until the days of Daniel. 

When we consider that God and the early inhabitants of the earth named things, persons, and 
institutions from their chief and distinguishing characteristic, it cannot be doubted, that God 

intended in calling this first government established by man "confusion," and in so speedily 
confusing the language of its founders, to foretell that the chief and necessary results flowing 
from the displacement of the Divine will and the establishment and perpetuation of human 
government, would be confusion, strife, bloodshed, and perpetual warfare in the world. The 
results have vindicated the truth of the prophecy couched in the name. The chief occupation 
of human governments from the beginning has been war. Nine-tenths of the taxes paid by the 
human family, have gone to preparing for, carrying on, or paying the expenses of war. 

All the wars and strifes between tribes, races, nations, from the beginning until now, have 
been the result of man's effort to govern himself and the world, rather than to submit to the 
government of God. I am not intimating in this, that human government is not necessary, I 
believe that it is necessary, and that God has ordained it as a punishment to man for refusing 
to submit to the government of God and it must exist so long as the human family or any 
considerable portion of it refuses to submit to the III III government of God. Human 
government originated in the rebellion of man against his Maker, and was the organized 
effort of man to govern himself and to promote his own good and to conduct the affairs of the 
world independently of the government of God. It was the organized rebellion of man against 
God and his government. The essential character of this government, as portrayed by God 
will be given here- after. 

Babylon, the first universal empire of earth, growing out of this rebellion of man against God, 
continued until overthrown, displaced and superseded by the Medo -Persian Empire. This 
Babylonish empire, with all its possessions, conquests, and honors, "was left" to the Medo- 
Persian. The Medo -Persian exercised universal dominion until overthrown by the Grecian 
power, to whom it "was left" with all of its glories, honors, and possessions. The Grecian 
succeeded the Medo-Persian, and continued until subdued by the Roman, to whom "were 
left" its power and possessions. The Roman continued until broken in pieces by the little 
stone cut out of the mountain without hands. The fragments of this Roman empire remain 
until the present day. All the human governments of earth are the broken fragments - or the 
offshoots of these - of the Roman empire. We emphasize this line of descent of the human or 
civil governments of earth, because it is usually claimed that the civil governments of this day 
are successors and offshoots of the Mosaic dispensation, or of the government God ordained 
among the Jews. 

They clearly run back through the Roman, the Grecian, the Medo-Persian, the Babylonian, 
and for its origin to Babel of Nimrod on the plains of Shinar. The connecting links are few 
and there can be no doubt as to the line of succession. 

On the other hand, God has always kept on earth a IIYlll government of his own, in contrast 
and in conflict with these. In Eden the government was direct, individual and personal. God 
spoke directly to man and gave specific commands to be obeyed. 

Men multiplied into families. God gave the law to the father and made him the law-giver, the 
mediator, and priest to his family. When the family of Abraham grew into the proportions of 
a nation, God gave it laws suited to a national existence. Moses became the law-giver of this 
nation. He is sometimes called the law-maker. This is a mistake; God was the law-maker. He 
gave the law to Moses, and Moses gave it to the people. God has never authorized any being 
or power beneath his own throne to make laws to govern his own people. This is the 
prerogative he has reserved to himself. God is the only law-maker of his people, the only 
rightful law-maker of the universe. 

This government of God among the children of Israel was corrupted and perverted, but some 
of the Jews were schooled by it, and trained, as were others, not Jews, by the providence of 
God, for service in a higher and more perfect kingdom of God. God then took the Jewish 
national government out of the way, and superseded it with the kingdom of heaven - the 
Church of God, which was fitted for the service of individuals - few or all - in all nations, and 
aspires to universal and eternal dominion on earth. It is to embrace all people, all nations, 
kindreds and tribes, and to mingle and mould them into one universal brotherhood, to break 
in pieces and destroy all earthly kingdoms and dominions, and fill the whole earth and stand 
forever. The mission of this Church is to rescue and redeem the earth from the rule and 
dominion of the human kingdoms, from the rebellion against God, and to reinstate the 
authority and rule of God on earth through this own kingdom. Through and in it Christ must 
reign until he shall have //13// "put down all rule, and all authority and all power." Then will 
he deliver up the kingdom to God the Father, and himself be subject to God, that God ruling 
in and through his restored kingdom on earth, may be all and in all, the only ruler of the 
heavens and of the earth. These two lines of government, the Divine and the human, reaching 
from the beginning down to the present day, have been kept distinct and separate by God, 
often commingled and dove-tailed one into the other by men, with what relations and results 
to each other we will examine. 


We have called attention to the origin of human government. It originated among the enemies 
of God, animated by a spirit of rebellion against God. The human and the Divine each passed 
through the same stages in reaching its culmination: the individual, the family, the nation, the 
universal dominion. Abraham, first after the flood, was set apart to raise a holy family to 
God, and so became the father of a people loyal to God, and furnished a people that would 
maintain the government of God on earth. He was required to separate himself from his own 
family and kindred, from the land of his nativity, and from the home and friends of his 
childhood, and to go forth, a stranger among strangers, in a strange land. He was not to 
affiliate, or his children to inter-marry with the people of this land. He was to start a family 
that should be a separate, distinct, and peculiar people among the nations of earth, 
consecrated to the establishment and maintenance of the government of God among and over 
men. That it might have no family ties to draw it into alliance with the peoples who sustain 
the human government, Abram married his own sister. Isaac's wife was the daughter of his 
mother's brother who lived in a foreign land. Jacob's wives were the daughters of his uncle. 
From these kindred they were //14// widely separated. Jacob left the father of his wives under 
circumstances that forbade future affiliation. Isaac was the only child of his mother; and 
while yet youth's enmity was engendered between Jacob and Esau that separated their 
families forever. God was severing natural ties, and overruling blood relations that might 
militate against the separation and exclusiveness of his people. The family was then cemented 
together and separated from all other people by four hundred years of a common and cruel 
slavery, and a forty-year journey through the wilderness in which all persons who were 
matured at the exodus from Egypt died to free them from all the influences, habits, and love 
of Egypt. This was done to gain a favorably separated point for starting them on their mission 
of consecration to the upbuilding of the Divine Government; that in them he might find a 
people with no love for, and no ties to lead them into affiliation with other peoples, or into the 
service of the human governments, but that they should be wholly consecrated to the 
upbuilding and maintenance of the Divine Government. God's special commission to them 
was to destroy all the nations inhabiting the land, all the nations with which they came in 
contact. The mission imposed upon them was perpetual enmity, the work to which they were 
called was a war of extermination against all people maintaining a human government. This 
war was waged against the people not as individuals or families, but as members and 
supporters of human governments. If individuals and families seem to have been special 

objects of destruction, it was because those families had been especially sinful in maintaining 
the human government, and were hopeless in their enmity to the rule of God. But at any and 
every period of time the way was open for these families, and every member of them, to pass 
out of the II15II families devoted to human government, and for their entrance into the family 
devoted to the government of God. And whenever one passed from under the human into the 
Divine, the obligation to destroy was changed into the requirement to protect, nurture, and 
support as a member of the household and family of God. The law was, 

"Thou shalt not be affrighted at them: for the Lord thy 
God is in the midst of thee, a great God and a terrible. 
And the Lord thy God will cast out those nations before 
thee, by little and little: thou mayest not consume them 
at once, lest the beasts of the field increase upon thee. 
But the Lord thy God shall deliver them up before thee, 
and shall discomfit them with a great discomfiture, until 
they be destroyed. And he shall deliver their kings into 
thine hand, and thou shalt make their name to perish from 
under heaven: there shall no man be able to stand before 
thee, until thou have destroyed them." (Deut.vii:21-24.) 
"When the Lord thy God shall deliver them up before thee, 
and thou shalt smite them; then thou shalt utterly 
destroy them; thou shalt make no covenant with them, nor 
show mercy unto them: neither shalt thou make marriages 
with them; thy daughter thou shall not give unto his son, 
nor his daughter shalt thou take unto thy son." 

Notwithstanding these fearful denunciations and prohibitions, they took their wives from 
them from the beginning, and the way was always open for the adoption of any of them into 
the family of Abraham who might wish to serve and honor the God of Abraham. Rahab was 
married to an Israelite. She abjured her nation and the human government, and through fear 
of the Lord God, accepted his rule, and cast her lot with his people Israel. The Scriptures 
mention as honored among the Israelites, many of them serving in the Temple, Doeg, the 
Edomite, (1 Sam. xxi:7); Uriah, the Hittite, (2 Sam. xi:3); Araunah, the Jebusite, (2 Sam. 

xxiv: 18); Zelek, the Ammonite, (2 Sam. xxiii: 37); Ithma, the Moabite, (1 Chron. xi: 46); and 
Ruth, the Moabitess, besides many others. A number of these entered into the line from 
which the Savior sprung. In the days of Solomon, the number of these among the laboring 
people amounted to over 153,000. 


'And Solomon numbered all the strangers that WERE in the 
land of Israel, after the numbering wherewith David his 
father had numbered them; and they were found an hundred 
and fifty thousand and three thousand and six hundred. 
And he set threescore and ten thousand of them TO BE 
bearers of burdens, and fourscore thousand TO BE hewers 
in the mountain, and three thousand and six hundred 
overseers to set the people at work." (2 Chron. ii: 17, 

These examples show that while the law was inexorable in requiring them to destroy the 
members of these sinful families while upholders of these human governments, yet when any 
of them entered the family of Abraham to build upon the government of God, the law for 
their destruction was abrogated with reference to them. This shows, too, that there never was 
a time when the door of God's kingdom was closed against any being desiring to serve him. 
At no time has he been a respecter of persons, but at all times "whosoever feareth him and 
worketh righteousness is accepted of him." In those days all who obeyed him must identify 
themselves with his people, the Jews. The true and real aim was to destroy the human 
governments that stood against God; and the people were destroyed only as the destruction of 
the governments and punishment for treason against God demanded the destruction of those 
upholding and wedded to them. 

The subjects of his government were clearly forbidden all affinity, affiliation or alliance with 
the earthly governments, or those sustaining them. Before they entered Canaan, God, through 
Moses, told them, 

"I will deliver the inhabitants of the land into your 

hand, and thou shalt drive them out before thee. Thou 
shalt make no covenant with them, nor with their gods. 
They shall not dwell in thy land, lest they make thee sin 
against me: for if thou serve their gods, it will surely 
be a snare unto thee." (Ex. xxiii: 31-33.) 

The same warning and admonition is repeated on almost every occasion of instruction. See 
Ex. xxiv: 12, and Deut. vii: 2: 


"Thou shalt smite them and utterly destroy them. Thou 
shalt make no covenant with them: nor show mercy to 

When these nations in Canaan has been destroyed, save a remnant, God still admonished 

"Else if ye do in any wise go back, and cleave unto the 
remnant of these nations, even these that remain among 
you, and make marriages with them, and go in unto them, 
and they to you; know for a certainty that the Lord your 
God will no more drive these nations from out of your 
sight; but they shall be a snare and a trap unto you, and 
a scourge in your sides, and thorns in your eyes, until 
ye perish from off this good land which the Lord your God 
hath given you." (Joshua xxiii: 12, 13.) 

These laws and warnings might be quoted to weariness. Solomon violated these laws and 
married those not desirous of serving God or promoting his government, and who were 
idolaters. Notwithstanding his wisdom and greatness and favor with God, his heart was 
turned away from God, and resulted in the rending the kingdom from his family. 

"Wherefore the Lord said unto Solomon, forasmuch as this 
is done of thee, and thou hast not kept my covenant and 
my statutes, which I have commanded thee, I will surely 

rend the kingdom from thee, and will give it to thy 
servant." (1 Kings xi: 11.) 

This shows the difference between marrying one who sought union with the family of 
Abraham from a desire to serve God and to maintain his government, and marrying strangers 
who were not servants of God. The one weaned the heart of even Solomon from God; the 
blood of the other flowed into the veins of the Son of God. 

Another example we find in Isaiah xxxix: 6. Hezekiah was a true servant of God. He had 
been sick and had recovered. The king of Babylon sent messengers with presents to 
congratulate Hezekiah upon his recovery. Hezekiah, flattered by the friendly attentions of this 
mighty king, in a friendly mood showed these messengers all the wealth of the king's house, 
and the wealth and sanctified vessels of the Lord's house. For this, God said: 

Behold, the days come, that all that is in thine house, 
and that //18// which thy fathers have laid up in store 
until this day, shall be carried to Babylon; nothing 
shall be left, saith the Lord. And of thy sons that shall 
issue from thee, which thou shalt beget, shall they take 
away; and they shall be eunuchs in the palace of the king 
of Babylon." 

They were carried captive, as thus foretold; after a long period of slavery, as punishment for 
their friendly overtures to the king of Babylon, they are disposed to turn to God and serve 
him as loyal subjects. They had in their captivity married ungodly wives of the people among 
whom they were living. So inexorable was the law of God, that husband and wife, parent and 
child, must separate in obedience to its behest, before God would deliver them. 

"Now therefore let us make a covenant with our God to put 
away all the wives, and such as are born of them, 
according to the counsel of my lord, and of those that 
tremble at the commandment of our God; and let it be done 
according to the law." (Ezra x: 3.) 

God could not accept or bless them while in affinity or alliance with those not submitting to 
his government. 


into the likeness of the human was not admissible. The subjects of God's Government were 
forbidden all affiliation or alliance with the human governments. It was a still more heinous 
sin to pattern the Divine after the human, or dovetail the human into the Divine. This 
changed, corrupted, and perverted the Divine. Even when the appointments and institutions 
ordained by God to secure justice and maintain righteousness between man and man, were 
perverted into instruments of injustice and oppression, and those selected to administer 
justice took bribes and perverted judgement, and the elders and children of Israel sought 
relief in a kingly government which seemed to them to be working well among the nations, 
and to their "sanctified common sense" seemed good to them, God pronounced it a fearful 
rebellion against him and his government. 

"And it came to pass, when Samuel was old, that he made 

his sons judges over Israel. And his sons walked not in 

his ways, but turned aside after lucre, and took bribes, 

and perverted judgement. Then all the elders of Israel 

gathered themselves together, and came to Samuel unto 

Ramah: and they said unto him, Behold, thou art old, and 

thy sons walk not in thy ways: now make us a king to 

judge us like all the nations. But the thing displeased 

Samuel, when they said, Give us a king to judge us. And 

Samuel prayed unto the Lord. And the Lord said unto 

Samuel, Hearken unto the voice of the people in all that 

they say unto thee: for they have not rejected thee, but 

they have rejected me, that I should not be king over 

them. According to all the works which they have done 

since the day that I brought them up out of Egypt even 

unto this day, in that they have forsaken me, and served 

other gods, so do they also unto thee. Now therefore 

hearken unto their voice: howbeit thou shalt protest 

solemnly unto them, and shalt show them the manner of the 
king that shall reign over them." (1 Sam. viii: 9.) 

Samuel warned and protested, 

"This will be the manner of the king that shall reign 
over you: he will take your sons, and appoint them unto 
him, for his chariots; and he will appoint them unto him 
for captains of thousands, and captains of fifties; and 
HE WILL SET SOME to plow his ground, and to reap his 
harvest, and to make his instruments of war, and the 
instruments of his chariots. And he will take your 
daughters to be confectionaries, and to be cooks, and to 
be bakers. And he will take the tenth of your seed, and 
of your vineyards, and give to his officers, and to his 
servants. And he will take your men-servants, and your 
maid-servants, and your goodliest young men, and your 
asses, and put them to his work. He will take the tenth 
of your flocks; and ye shall be his servants. And ye 
shall cry out in that day because of your king which ye 
shall have chosen you; and the Lord will not answer you 
in that day. But the people refused to hearken unto the 
voice of Samuel; and they said, Nay; but we will have a 
king over us; that we may also be like all the nations; 
and that our king may judge us, and go out before us, and 
fight our battles. And Samuel heard all the words of the 
people, and he rehearsed them in the ears of the Lord. 
And the Lord said to Samuel, Hearken unto their voice, 
and make them a king." (1 Sam. viii: 11-22.) 

In this it is clearly taught: (1) To seek to change an 1 1201 1 appointment of God even when 
perverted by bad men to wicked ends, is a grievous sin, a rejection of God, a following 
another God. (2) God ordains for men what they persistently desire, even if it is an institution 
that displaces his appointments and overthrows his rule. (3) He ordains it as a punishment for 
rejecting him and his government. As a way through which they are made to "eat the fruit of 

their own way and be filled with their own devices." (4) All of God's ordinances are not 
necessarily good or desirable for his children, but are good for the end and work for which he 
appoints them. (5) He ordains one class of institutions through which to bless his obedient 
servants; he ordains a different class for punishing the disobedient. Each is good for the work 
for which it is ordained. Each is equally the ordinance of God. Please remember these. 

God ordained the Jews a king, not because he saw it was best for them, or promotive of their 
good, but to punish them. They rebelled against him, were reckless and persistent in that 
rebellion, and he ordained the kingdom as a punishment for that rebellion. The king was 
given as they desired, but God warned them that he would be a burden and a punishment to 
them for their sin in desiring to change the laws and appointments of God. Their kings, 
despite an occasional good one, led them further from God, deeper and deeper into sin and 
rebellion; led them into idolatry, involved them continually in war and strife, brought them 
into frequent alliances with the rebellious and idolatrous nations of earth that supported 
human government, all of which brought upon them the desolation of their country, the 
consuming of their substance, the destruction of their cities, the slaughter of their armies the 
captivity and enslavement, in foreign lands, of their people. When these afflictions, instead of 
driving them back to God and to his institutions, led them farther from 1 1211 1 him, more and 
more to forget him, and made them more and more rebellious against him, he took from them 
their king and country, left them without a head, and destroyed them as a nation. In view of 
these things, Hosea (xiii; 9-11) exclaims: 

"O Israel, thou has destroyed thyself; but in me IS thine 
help. I will be thy king: where is ANY OTHER that may 
save thee in all thy cities? and thy judges in whom thou 
saidst, Give me a king and princes? I gave thee a king in 
mine anger, and took HIM away in my wrath." 

This plainly teaches that to supplant the Divine with the human, to copy after the human, or 
to add the human to the Divine, was to reject God, to incur his anger and to bring upon 
themselves the destruction of God's fierce wrath. He tolerated them for a time so as to give 
them an opportunity to return to him. When the afflictions brought upon them failed to do 
this he took from them their earthly head, their king, destroyed them as a nation, and 
"scattered them among all people, from the one end of the earth even to the other." They did 
not cease to worship God. They were still very zealous in that service but they had introduced 

the human government into the Divine Institution, and divided their fealty between God and 
the human government. This was their destruction. 

God's dealings with the Jews farther prove that he often ordains and regulates institutions 
which he does not approve or ordain for the good of his people or for his own glory, but 
which he tolerates or ordains and directs for the punishment of rebellion and rejection of him, 
and often out of this while destroying the wicked, he brings good to his faithful children. He 
so overrules that the ordinance that works evil to the rebellious, brings good to the faithful. 
But the point before us is, that God neither permitted the subjects of his government to form 
alliances, or affiliate with the human governments, or consort with their 1 1221 1 subjects, not to 
participate in their affairs to sustain and uphold them; nor did he permit them to introduce the 
human order into his government. Every alliance with, participation in, or adoption of the 
human into the divine met with the stern condemnation and punishment of God. Isaiah (xxx: 
1-4) says: "Woe to the rebellious children, saith the Lord, that take counsel, but not of me; 
and that cover with a covering, but not of my spirit, that they may add sin to sin; that walk to 
go down into Egypt, and have not asked at my mouth; to strengthen themselves in the 
strength themselves in the strength of Pharaoh, and to trust in the shadow of Egypt! 
Therefore, shall the strength of Pharaoh be your shame, and the trust in the shadow of Egypt 
your confusion." And verse 7, reads: "For Egypt helpeth in vain, and to no purpose; therefore 
have I called her Rahab that sitteth still." That is, whenever God's children sought the alliance 
of a human government or institution for help and for good to them, that help became the 
means of their confusion and the occasion of their shame. It was a distrust of God who 
proposed to be their strength, their "shield and their exceeding great reward." And God was a 
jealous God, and would not permit his children to seek other help than his own, and in and 
through his own government. The remainder of this chapter and the 31st, repeat and enforce 
this truth so clearly taught, and where God gives no direction, his children should sit still - do 
nothing. Indeed this lesson is indelibly stamped on every page and chapter of the record of 
God's dealings with the Jewish people. 

The one great purpose of God's dealings with the children of Israel, was to teach them to 
serve him in his appointments, to trust him implicitly and faithfully: to have no part nor lot in 
the kingdoms and institutions of man's make and build, and that in doing thus the omnipotent 
strength of the living God was pledged to their defence and 1 1231 1 success. That when they 

trusted the institutions and kingdoms of man's make, they always brought to them confusion 
and ruin. 


In this description given by Samuel of what this human government would be and do to the 
Jews, God clearly describes what it does and is to all people. Every human government uses 
the substance, the time, the service of the subjects to enrich, gratify the appetites and lusts, 
and to promote the grandeur and glory of the rulers. And it is not true that in democratic or 
any other kind of governments the people themselves are rulers. They choose the rulers, at 
the instigation of a few interested leaders, then these rulers rule for their own selfish good and 
glory as other rulers do. The picture here drawn is not that of the worst and most despotic 
forms of governments, among the ignorant and degraded, but as it would and did exist among 
the Jewish people, with the best rulers that could be found. The substance of the people is, 
under forms of law taken now for the personal gratification and the display of our rulers just 
as Samuel told it would be in the Jewish nation. The licentiousness, the lewdness, the wars 
growing out of rivalry of different aspirants to rule, and of the desolation and bloodshed 
growing out of national rivalries are not mentioned by Samuel. He gave a picture of the 
mildest and best human governments as contrasted with the Divine. The rulers of the human 
oppress the subjects for their own benefit. The ministers of the Divine government deny 
themselves for the good of the subjects. 

Jesus declares this: "Ye know that the princes of the 
Gentiles exercise dominion over them (their subjects) and 
they that are great exercise authority upon them. But it 
shall not be so among you; but whosoever will be great 
among you, let him be your servant: even as the Son of 
man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister and 
to give himself a ransom for many." Mat. xx. 25. 

Here the inherent distinction between the two governments is marked and emphasized. Man 
in setting aside the government of God and forming one of his own, cut himself off from the 
blessing, the service, the strength, the help that God bestows on the subjects of His 
government, and took on himself the burdens and oppressions and oppressors imposed by the 

human governments. But it is a decree of the Almighty that when man chooses his own way 
he shall eat of the fruit of that way. 

"Because I called, and ye refused; I have stretched out 
my hand, and no man regarded; but ye have set at nought 
all my counsel, and would none of my reproof; I will 
laugh at your calamity, I will mock when your fear 
cometh; when your fear cometh as desolation, and your 
destruction cometh as a whirlwind; when distress and 
anguish cometh upon you. Then shall they call upon me, 
but I will not answer; they shall seek me early but they 
shall not find me: for that they hated knowledge, and did 
not choose the fear of the Lord: they would none of my 
counsel; they despised all of my reproof. Therefore shall 
they eat the fruit of their own way, and be filled with 
their own devices." Prov. i. 24. 

So long as men refuse the rule of God, God ordains they shall be ruled by their own 
governments and eat the fruit of their own ways and be filled with their own devices. 
Showing clearly that when men turn from the government of God to their own inventions and 
governments, then God ordains these governments as means of punishing them for their 
rebellion, and while this punishing them, they are God's ordinances for this work and none 
should resist them. In doing so they are resisting the ordinance of God. 

But it is not in man to form government in which the selfish element will not prevail, and 
which will not be used to tax and oppress the ruled for the glory and aggrandizement of the 


and the destiny of each is presented clearly by Daniel. 1 1251 1 Israel was then in captivity in 
Babylon as a penalty for the sins of Hezekiah for too great affiliation with the messengers of 
Nebuchadnezzar in showing them all the treasures of the king's house. The sons of the blood 
royal and the princes of the house of Israel were servants in the king's palace, placed there "to 
be taught the language and learning of Babylon," that they might teach these to their brethren, 

that Israel might be led to forget God. The promises of God seem about to fail; his 
government seems at an end; his people are helpless slaves in a foreign land. The prospect is 
gloomy. The night is dark. Often, when to human sight the prospects of the success of God's 
people and his cause seem darkest, then to the trust of faith come the clearest revelations, 
giving the strongest assurance of the fulfilment of all God's promises. So it was at this time. 

Nebuchadnezzar, the great king, saw the vision that proclaimed his downfall and the downfall 
of all human governments. Daniel, the slave, interpreted the vision for the king, and it was 
also for the strengthening of the faith of God's people. The image was that of a man, 
indicating the human origin of the governments typified by the image, in contrast with the 
Divine origin of the kingdom typified by the little stone cut out of the mountain without 
hands. Daniel interprets: the head of gold represents the kingdom of Babylon of which 
Nebuchadnezzar was head; the silver, the Medo- Persian; the brass, the Grecian; the iron, the 
Roman. The little stone cut out of the mountain without hands, represents the kingdom of 
God. It is not originated, shaped, or put into motion, or maintained by human power. It is 
God's government. The lesson taught is, that the human governments must, one and all, be 
destroyed; and in their destruction, one after another, each became the prey of, or "was left" 
with all its strength, its riches, and its glories to the destroyer. It became the 1 1261 I heritage of 
those who overthrew it. The last kingdom having received the riches, power, and strength of 
all those preceding it, the little stone cut out of the mountain without hands, smote the iron, 
but broke in pieces the brass, the silver, and the gold, because the strength and the power of 
all were transmitted to and concentrated in this last one. In taking these kingdoms that 
attained to universal dominion, these mighty kingdoms that seemed to have destroyed all 
opposition, and to have left no power that could possibly come against them or destroy them; 
but had combined and concentrated all the power of all the earthly human kingdoms in 
themselves, to show that they must be destroyed, must be left to other people, the God of 
heaven certainly taught what must be the destiny of all human governments and all 
institutions of man's make. One common destruction awaits them all. 

"They became like the chaff of the summer threshing 
floor, and the wind carried them away, that no place was 
found for them. And the stone that smote the image became 
a great mountain and filled the whole earth." (ch. ii: 


In contrast, we read, verse 44, 

"In the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set 
up a kingdom which shall never be destroyed, and the 
kingdom shall not be left to other people, but it shall 
break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it 
shall stand forever." 

Many prophecies, types, and illustrations in this prophecy of Daniel teach that this kingdom 
of God shall be for a time weak, feeble, and unpromising. It will be prevailed against, 
overrun, brought to the verge of ruin, to the jaws of death - to the very gates of hell itself - yet 
it shall never be destroyed. God gives evidence, clear and unmistakable of his will and power 
to overthrow all these mighty kingdoms of earth, even by the weakest of his children, when 
faithful. The mighty kingdom of Babylon is arrayed against its own slaves, but who are the 
servants of God. The result of the conflict is told by Nebuchadnezzar: 


"I blessed the Most High, and I praised and honored him 
that liveth forever; for his dominion is an everlasting 
dominion, and his kingdom from generation to generation; 
and all the inhabitants of the earth are reputed as 
nothing; and he doeth according to his will in the army 
of heaven, and among the inhabitants of the earth; and 
none can stay his hand, or say unto him, what doest 
thou?" (Dan. iv: 34, 35.) 

In the overthrow of Babylon, Daniel and his fellows, as slaves, passed to the conqueror. The 
Medo-Persian empire came in contact with the Divine government in the persons of these 
slaves. God joined issue with each government at the point at which it claimed the greatest 
strength. The result of the conflict with the Medo-Persian is told by Darius the king, in Daniel 
vi: 26. 

"I make a decree, that in all the dominion of my kingdom 
men tremble and fear before the God of Daniel; for he is 

the living God, and steadfast forever, and his kingdom 
that which shall not be destroyed, and his dominion shall 
be even unto the end." 

God, in the darkest hour of his kingdom, when represented only by the slaves in bondage, 
showed to these kings that had subdued the whole earth, and through them to all nations and 
peoples for all time, that these human kingdoms must all be destroyed, must come to nought, 
that the mission of his kingdom is to break in pieces and destroy all these kings and kingdoms 
of human origin; but that the kingdom that he sets up shall never be destroyed. His kingdom 
shall not only break in pieces these kingdoms, but it shall CONSUME them, the last vestige 
of them. 

"The judgement shall sit, and they shall take away his 
dominion, to consume and to destroy it unto the end. And 
the kingdom and the dominion, and the greatness of the 
kingdom under the whole heavens shall be given to the 
people of the saints of the Most High, whose kingdom is 
an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and 
obey him. Here [hitherto or this] is the end of the 
matter." (Dan. vii: 27.) 

That is, the end of all the conflicts and strifes of earth, will be the complete and final 
destruction, the utter consuming of the last vestige of human governments and institutions, 
and the giving of the dominion, and power, and //28// authority of the whole earth to the 
people of the saints of the Most High. Then, and only then will peace and quiet prevail on 
earth, and union, harmony, and good will reign among men. God and his people are not to 
conquer and possess the kingdoms as one human kingdom overthrows and possesses another 
- that is to displace the rulers and officers appointed by the human and to rule in and through 
their organizations. That would be to acknowledge man's institutions preferable to his own. 
All these kingdoms are to be broken in pieces, and CONSUMED. They are to be destroyed 
and supplanted by the kingdom which the God of heaven shall set up. They are to become as 
the dust of the summer's threshing-floor, that is driven before the wind, no place is to be 
found for them, but the little stone cut out of the mountain without hands is to become a great 
mountain, and fill the whole earth. The mission of the kingdom of God is to break into pieces 
and consume all these kingdoms, take their place, fill the whole earth, and stand forever. How 

could the individual citizens of the kingdom of God found, enter into, and become part and 
parcel of - upbuild, support, and defend, that which God's kingdom was especially 
commissioned to destroy? We find, then, beyond a doubt, that the commission given by God 
to the Jews to destroy the kingdoms of Canaan, to make no affinity, alliance, or confederation 
with them, is through Daniel extended to the everlasting kingdom of God, and its commission 
so widened and enlarged as to break in pieces and consume all the kingdoms of the earth. 

God hath a controversy with the nations of the earth. 

"A noise shall come even to the end of the earth; for the 
Lord hath a controversy with the nations, he will plead 
with all flesh; as for the wicked he will give them to 
the sword, saith the Lord. Thus saith the Lord of hosts, 
Behold, evil shall go forth from nation to nation, and a 
great tempest shall be raised up from the uttermost parts 
of the earth. And the slain of the Lord shall be at that 
day from one end of the earth even unto 1 129 1 1 the other 
end of the earth: they shall not be lamented, neither 
gathered nor buried; they shall be dung upon the face of 
the ground." (Jer. xxv: 31-33) 

The conflict between the human and the Divine is irrepressible, eternal, and must continue 
unto the complete and final destruction of the one, and the universal and final triumph of the 


We have found that God ordained institutions of evil when his people desired those that he 
did not approve as good for his people, to punish them, for forsaking the institutions that he 
ordained through which he chose to govern them, and through which he proposed to bring 
good to them. These institutions as in the case of the kings ordained in Israel, not only 
punished them, but often became the means of their deeper corruption, and wider departure 
from his service. This is in accord with the principle announced in Isaiah lxvi: 3, 

"Yea, they have chosen their own ways, and their soul 
delighteth in their abominations; I also will choose 
their delusions, and will bring their fears upon them; 
because when I called, none did answer; when I spoke, 
they did not hear; but they did that which was evil in 
mine eyes, and chose that wherein I delighted not." 
Or Prov. i: 29, 30, 31, "For that they hated knowledge, and 
did not choose the fear of the Lord; they would none of my 
counsel; they despised all my reproof; therefore shall they 
eat of the fruit of their own way, and be filled with their 
own devices." 

In other words, God ordains that men shall have the institutions that they choose in 
preference to his appointments, and that they shall reap the results of their choosing. The 
result always is punishment, and if the evil course is persisted in, their final destruction. But 
these institutions ordained to punish the sins and iniquities of his children, were God's 
ordinances for this purpose, and they were good for the end for which they were established - 
//30// the punishment of rebellion. They were not necessarily good for his children, nor were 
they, because ordinances of God, necessarily legitimate institutions for the affiliation and 
fellowship of God's children. Because the institutions that were especially ordained for 
punishing the rebellious are the institutions his subjects were forbidden to use, rely upon, or 
make alliance with, or participate in. Then God's children were not permitted to affiliate with, 
or participate in, use, or rely upon, all the ordinances of God. 


"For a Tophet is ordained of old; yea, for the king it is 
prepared; he hath made it deep and large; the pile 
thereof is fire and much wood; the breath of the Lord, 
like a stream of brimstone, doth kindle it." (Isa. xxx: 


Whether or not this refers to hell, the Gehenna of everlasting destruction, or to its earthly 
type, it is true that hell, the vortex of eternal ruin, is an ordinance of God for the final 
punishment of rebellion. God ordained institutions for governing, controlling, and blessing 

his faithful children; with these God's children could affiliate, could work in and through 
them. There were also ordinances of God to punish his rebellious children, to destroy his 
obdurate enemies. Into these God's children could not enter, affiliate with, could not support 
or direct, and on them they could not rely for help. Not only were these evil institutions God's 
ordinances, but wicked men who directed them were recognized as his servants. They 
constituted the constituency or the subjects of these Divine institutions because God used 
them to accomplish his work of punishing sin, and destroying his enemies. In this sense, God 
ordained all the institutions of earth, and used the vilest sinners of earth as his servants. He 
used the rebellious and the wicked to punish his disobedient children, and to destroy others 
whose measure of wickedness was full; then in turn, he punished the wicked individuals and 
peoples //31// that he had used, for doing the very work he had used them to accomplish, 
because they did it from a wicked, selfish, and cruel spirit. 

"The Lord made the wicked for the day of evil." (Prov. 
xvi: 4.) 

Take as an example, the king and kingdom of Babylon and Assyria. Their character as a 
wicked, rebellious, impious king and nation, has been clearly presented to us. Yet, Isa. x: 5- 
13, says: 

"Ho Assyrian, the rod of mine anger, the staff in their 
hand is mine indignation! I will send him against a 
hypocritical nation, and against the people of my wrath 
will I give him a charge, to take the spoil, and to take 
the prey, and to tread them down like the mire of the 
streets. Howbeit he meaneth not so, neither doth his 
heart think so; but it is in his heart to destroy, and 
cut off nations not a few. For he saith, Are not my 
princes all of them kings? Is not Calno as Carchemish? is 
not Hamath as Arpad? is not Samaria as Damascus? As my 
hand hath found the kingdoms of the idols, whose graven 
images did excel them of Jerusalem and of Samaria; shall 
I not; as I have done unto Samaria and her idols, so do 
to Jerusalem and her idols? Wherefore it shall come to 
pass, then when the Lord hath performed his whole work 

upon Mount Zion and on Jerusalem, I will punish the fruit 
of the stout heart of the king of Assyria, and the glory 
of his high looks. For he hath said, By the strength of 
my hand I have done it, and by wisdom; for I am prudent; 
and have removed the bounds of the peoples and have 
robbed their treasures, and I brought down as a valiant 
man them that sit ON THRONES." 

This clearly reveals these truths: (1) The Jewish people were rebellious; (2) God used the 
Assyrians, an idolatrous, cruel nation, to punish them; (3) that he calls this wicked nation the 
"rod of mine anger," the rod which he would use to punish Jerusalem and Judea that needed 
chastisement. He calls Judea a hypocritical nation, pretending to serve him, yet not doing it, 
and says: 

I will send him [the Assyrian] against this Judah to 
punish him. 

He was to take the spoil, the prey, and tread them down as the mire in the streets. "Howbeit 
he meaneth not so." It is not in his heart to go, because God bids him, nor for 1 1321 1 the 
purpose of carrying out the will of God; but he is a blood-thirsty, ambitious tyrant, thinking 
only to conquer and destroy nations to gratify his own ambition and greed. So far from doing 
it to please God, he thinks the God of the Jews not so great as the images and idols of other 
countries that he has conquered. He boasted that of his own wisdom, strength, and valor he 
had conquered these nations. So God says: 

"When the Lord has performed his whole work upon Mount 
Zion and Jerusalem, [has fully punished them for their 
sins], I will punish the fruit of the stout heart of the 
king of Assyria, and the glory of his high looks." 

God overrules this proud, cruel, domineering spirit of the wicked nation, to punish his 
disobedient children, and then punishes the nation for doing this work. He claimed that he 
would permit only so much punishment on Judea as he purposed, so absolute was this 
overruling control that he exercised over Nebuchadnezzar that he speaks of him as an axe or a 
saw in his hand. 

"Shall the axe boast itself against him that heweth 
therewith? Shall the saw magnify itself against him that 

Assyria is an axe in the hand of God with which he hews down wicked nations. These 
exemplify two other Scripture truths. 

The wicked are the sword of the Lord. 

"Deliver my soul from the wicked WHICH ARE thy sword; 
from men, WHICH ARE thy hand." (Ps. xvii: 13.) 

God overrules the wicked to punish his people and destroy his enemies. The other truth is: 

"Surely the wrath of man shall praise thee: the remainder 
of wrath shalt thou restrain." (Ps. lxxvi: 10.) 

That is, God will so overrule the wrath of man as to accomplish his praise; whatever wrath 
would go beyond this God will restrain, as is exemplified above; it was to God's praise that 
rebellious Jews should be punished; God directed the bitter wrath and cruelty of Assyria so as 
to punish the 113311 Jews just so far as that punishment would reflect honor and praise on God. 
He restrained the wrath of Assyria that it should not go beyond that point. 

It was not to God's praise that his chosen people should be wholly destroyed; hence, 

"Hath he smitten him as he smote those that smote him?" 
(Isa. xxvii: 7.) 

Again, "For I will make a full end of all the nations 
whither I have scattered thee, but I will not make a full 
end of thee; but I will correct thee with judgement, and 
will in no wise leave thee unpunished." (Jer. xxx: 11.) 

But other nations sustaining openly and fully a rival government to his, when there was no 
hope of their turning to him in subjection to, and support of his government were destroyed 
unto the end, 

"For the nations that will not serve thee shall perish; 
yea those nations shall be utterly wasted." (Isa. lx: 

When a rebellious nation was for a time exalted and seemed to prosper, it was in order that 
the destruction might be sudden and marked, to be seen of all men as a warning. 

When the wicked spring as the grass, and all the workers 
of iniquity do flourish, it is that they may be destroyed 
forever." (Ps. xcii: 7.) 

But as we follow up this history of Assyria and Judah, we find in Jeremiah (xxv: 8-14,) 

"Because ye have not heard my words, behold, I will send 
and take all the families of the north saith the Lord, 
and I WILL SEND unto Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylon, 
my servant, and will bring them against this land, and 
against the inhabitants thereof, and against all these 
nations round about; and I will utterly destroy them, and 
make them an astonishment, and an hissing, and perpetual 
desolation. ... And these nations shall serve the king 
of Babylon seventy years. And it shall come to pass, when 
seventy years are accomplished, that I will punish the 
king of Babylon, and that nation, saith the Lord, for 
their iniquity, and the land of the Chaldeans; and I will 
make it desolate forever. And I will bring upon that land 
all my words which I have pronounced against it, even all 
that is written in this book, which Jeremiah hath 
prophesied against all the nations. For many nations and 
great kings shall serve themselves of them, even of them: 
and //34// I will recompense them according to their 
deeds, and according to the work of their hands." 

Now, follow this history up to the 50th and 55th chapters of Jeremiah, and read there the 
terrific appeal God makes to marshal the nations against this Babylon for the crimes 
committed by Nebuchadnezzar, "my servant." 

"For, lo, I will stir up and cause to come up against 
Babylon an assembly of great nations from the north 
country; and they shall set themselves in array against 
her; from thence she shall be taken. ... Set yourselves 
in array against Babylon round about, all ye that bend 
the bow; shoot at her, spare no arrows; for she hath 
sinned against the Lord: ... for it is the vengeance of 
the Lord; take vengeance upon her; as she hath done, do 
unto her." 

This was all done because she had been the servant of the Lord in punishing Israel, and in 
cutting off and destroying nations not a few. 

"Howbeit he meaneth not so, neither doth his heart think 
so; but it is in his heart to cut off and destroy nations 
not a few." 

The end of this fearful marshalling of the nations to the destruction of Babylon, by this 
vengeance of the Lord, was: 

"Babylon shall become heaps, a dwelling place for 
dragons, an astonishment, a hissing, without an 
inhabitant." (Jer. li: 37.) Read the whole of chapters 50 
and 51. 

Yet of all that mighty host of nations, summoned by God to spoil and destroy Babylon, not 
one knew the Lord God, and each in its turn was doomed to destruction for the cruel, blood- 
thirsty spirit that led it to war upon Babylon. Yet God said of this cruel horde: 

"The Lord hath opened his armory, and hath brought forth 
the weapons of his indignation; for the Lord, the Lord of 

hosts hath a work to do in the land of the Chaldeans." 
(Jer. 1: 25.) 

This wicked horde of idolatrous and degraded nations constituted the armory of the Lord, 
from which he drew the weapons that would execute his indignation on those who established 
governments of their own, in opposition to the government of God. God had a work, a work 
of destruction to do in the land of the Chaldeans, and he used 1 1351 1 these wicked people 
drawn from his armory of rebellious nations, to destroy the Chaldeans. The end was, 

"Therefore the wild beasts of the desert with the wolves 
shall dwell there, and the ostriches shall dwell therein; 
and it shall be no more inhabited forever, neither shall 
it be dwelt in from generation to generation." 


is presented to us as another idolatrous king whom God uses, not to punish his people for 
their rebellion, but to deliver them from their captivity, and to restore them to their own land. 
He united the Medes and Persians, and strengthened and so combined and directed the power 
of weaker nations, as to overthrow and destroy Babylon. He found the Jews in bondage in 
Babylon, and ordered their freedom and restoration to Judea, and the building of their temple. 
God, through Isaiah, (xliv: 28, and xlv: 1-6), says of Cyrus, 

"HE IS my shepherd, and shall perform all my pleasure; 
even saying of Jerusalem, she shall be built; and t the 
temple, thy foundation shall be laid. Thus saith the Lord 
to his anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have 
holden, to subdue nations before him, and I will loose 
the loins of kings to open the doors before him, and the 
gates shall not be shut; I will go before thee, and make 
the rugged places plain; I will break in pieces the doors 
of brass, and cut in sunder the bars of iron; and I will 
give thee the treasures of darkness, the hidden riches of 
secret places, that thou mayest know that I am the Lord, 
which shall call thee by thy name, even the God of 

Israel. ... I have surnamed thee though thou hast not 
known me. I am the Lord, and there is none else; beside 
me there is no God; I will gird thee though thou hast not 
known me, that thou may know from the rising of the sun 
and from the west, that there is none beside me. I am the 
Lord and there is non else." 

God called Cyrus, "My shepherd, mine anointed," and told that he led him, called him by 
name before he was born; told what should be his work and fortune; that by his order his 
people should return to Judea; that Jerusalem and the temple should be rebuilt; and yet Cyrus 
knew not God, but was a wicked, idolatrous king. Clearly he 1 1361 1 did it with no view of 
honoring God. It was done to make friends of those who were oppressed and enslaved by 
Babylon. His course was that of a scheming, ambitious king seeking to circumvent and 
strength himself against his enemies. He neither was seeking the good of the Jews, nor the 
honor of God. He knew not God. Yet God called him, "My shepherd," because he overruled 
his wicked ambition to deliver and carry back to Judea his scattered sheep, and his anointed, 
because through him his temple was rebuilt. 

While Cyrus was this gathering to their own land as a shepherd, the scattered flock of God, 
and ordering the rebuilding of the Temple, God permitted no affinity with his people, or 
dependence upon his government for help or support. It was at this return to Jerusalem, that 
they were required to put away their wives and their children that they had married and 
begotten in their captivity. When they were on their way back to Judea beset by their 
enemies, Ezra says, (viii: 22, 23): 

"For I was ashamed to ask of the king a band of soldiers 
and horsemen to help us against the enemy in the way: 
because we had spoken unto the king, saying, The hand of 
our God is upon all them that seek him, for good; but his 
power and his wrath is against all them that forsake him. 
So we fasted and besought our God for this: and he was 
entreated of us." 

Clearly indicating that it was a distrust of God to seek or rely for help upon the human 
government, even when God was overruling the wicked ambition of this ruler to deliver his 

people, and to bring them back to their land, and to rebuild the Temple of God. The king 
ordered gold and silver supplies to a certain amount, with all the sacred vessels that had been 
taken from Jerusalem to be given to them. This was doubtless a return for the spoliation made 
upon them, when they were taken captive, and as necessary to the accomplishment of his 

This shows that all ordinances of God are not fit to be Willi used by the children of God, and 
all servants or ministers of God are not his children. 

"Who maketh the winds his messengers, his ministers a 
flaming fire." 

Only those ordinances which are ordained for his children are fitted for the service of his 
children, and only those servants or ministers who voluntarily seek to do his will because 
they know him, and in order to honor him, are the accepted and approved servants who will 
receive his blessing. God clearly overrules the wickedness of men to accomplish his 
purposes, and in so using their wickedness, he calls them his ministers or servants, his 
shepherds, or his anointed, according to the work he uses them to do. He overrules this 
wickedness so as to accomplish his purposes and ends, both with reference to his children, 
punishing or delivering as they deserve, and in punishing or destroying his enemies according 
to his purposes, and yet so overruling, that in the end the wicked persons or nations which he 
uses shall reap the bitterest fruits of their sin and crime. 

In illustrating this principle of God's dealings with men, we have at some length dwelt upon 
the facts presented in the cases of Nebuchadnezzar and Cyrus, as the principle is so clearly 
set forth in these cases that none need mistake. But the same principle is manifest in his 
dealings with Pharaoh and Egypt, with the nations in Canaan. God said in his first promise to 
drive out the nations before Israel: 

"I will send hornets before thee, which will drive out 
the Hivite, Canaanite and the Hittite from before thee. 
I will not drive them out from before thee in one year, 
lest the land become desolate, and the beasts of the 
field multiply against thee. By little and little I will 

drive them out before thee, until thou be increased and 
possess the land." 

These tribes were left to aid the children of Israel by preserving the land in a state of tillage 
and preventing the //38// country being overrun with wild beasts, until the Jews would so 
multiply as to fill the land. But the children of Israel intermarried and affiliated with these 
nations and they became a chief curse to the children of Israel. The children of Israel, instead 
of destroying them, made them pay tribute, and made alliances and treaties with them. God 
(Judges ii: 2,) reminds them that his law was: 

"Ye shall make no league with the inhabitants of this 
land; ye shall throw down their altars, but ye have not 
obeyed my voice; why have ye done this? Wherefore, I also 
said, I will not drive them out before you; but they 
shall be as thorns in your sides, and their gods shall be 
a snare unto you." 

This proved to be true. The book of Judges is but a recounting of Israel's sins, they are 
delivered into the hands of their enemies, to punish them; a deliverer in turn arises to destroy 
their enemies who punished them. 

Hell is an ordinance of God for the punishment of the obdurately rebellious. In punishing the 
rebellious, it is a terror to evil works and a minister of good to the children of God. It 
ministers good to them by discouraging sin and weaning them away from sin. In the same 
sense, the devil is the servant or minister of God to execute wrath and vengeance on the 
enemies of God. The devil is the chief and leader of all rebels against God. God so overrules 
his rebellion as to make his domain, his home, a fit place for the punishment of the perversely 
rebellious. God uses the devil as his servant, his minister to inflict punishment on all those 
who are finally impenitent. God so overrules the devil while inflicting punishment on other 
rebels, himself, as the chiefest sinner, suffers the fullest measure, the most excruciating 
torments of this home of the damned. 

Another thought, is, God declared he would drive out those nations before Israel, if Israel 
would be faithful to him as the only governor of the world. He would go I 1391 1 before them, 
send his angel before them, send hornets before them, and drive their enemies out. Many such 

expressions indicate that had the Jews been faithful to him, the deliverance would have been 
without suffering or loss to them. This principle is laid down in Isaiah xxvi:3: 

"Open ye the gates that the righteous nations that 
keepeth the truth may enter in. Thou wilt keep him in 
perfect peace, WHOSE mind IS stayed ON THEE." 

And Proverbs xvi: 7, 

"When a man's ways please the Lord, he maketh even his 
enemies to be at peace with him. 

So in these wars, when the children of Israel pleased the Lord he delivered their enemies into 
their hands without suffering or loss to them. When they sinned, God imposed war upon 
them, their victories were at the cost of suffering and bloodshed. When they sinned 
grievously, when they joined affinity with the human government, defeat and disaster befell 
them. Continued alliance with and dependence upon human governments, brought captivity 
and slavery in foreign lands upon them and finally their dispersion and destruction as a 
nation. This indicates that the necessity of war and conflict was laid upon them as a 
punishment for sin and rebellion against God, as a warning and training for a more perfect 
trust in God. Had they fully trusted God, and had they been faithful to him, God would never 
have used them as his sword to execute vengeance on his enemies. They were only used to 
punish others as a punishment to themselves. 

It is clear that the influence upon man, that arose from forming and conducting human 
governments, was to wean man from the government of God, make him feel independent of 
that government and of his Maker. It inspired his heart with the idea that man is more than a 
servant. He naturally magnifies his own works and his own institutions, so that but few men 
give their time and service to //40// the human government, but that they soon come to think 
the human much more essential to the world's well-being, than the Divine government. The 
introduction of human additions into the Divine institution has the same tendency. Men who 
introduce, operate and support human additions to the government of God, soon come to so 
magnify these human additions, that they esteem them of more importance to the well-being 
of the servants of God, than any of the God-ordained appointments of his institution. This is 
but the working of human nature. A proper understanding of these principles and manners of 

God's working among, and dealings with the world, is essential, in any just understanding of 
the origin, mission, and destiny of human governments, their relation to God, and of the 
relation that the Christian and Church of God sustain to them. 

We have made this partial summary of the illustrations God gives us of the spirit which 
originates human governments, and of the dealings with them and their subjects who refuse 
his government so as to maintain the governments of man. It has been only a partial 
summary. The examples on each point might be multiplied ten-fold; and the writer does not 
believe there is an example in the Old Testament that antagonizes the conclusions to which 
these examples point. 

These conclusions may be re-stated as follows: 

1 . God created man as his own servant, to govern and control him; and in pursuance 
of this design has at all times kept in existence a government of his own, changing it 
to suit the changed condition and character of those willing to submit to him, reaching 
from the beginning until the present time. 

2. That institution gave room for no human legislation; God is the sovereign and sole 
law maker for it and he has ruled in it to guide and bless his children. 

II Mil 

3. Man, in the spirit of rebellion against God and with the view of living free from the 
control of God, and independent of his authority, instituted governments of his own, 
and those governments in their changing forms have existed from the days of Nimrod 
to the present time. 

4. God, from its beginning, recognized this human government as rebellion against 
him, and as the organized effort to throw off his authority and to conduct the affairs of 
the earth free from God's rule and dominion. 

5. Regarding them thus, God always forbade that his subjects should join affinity or 
affiliate with the subjects of the human government, or that they should make any 
alliance with, enter into, support, maintain and defend, or appeal to, or depend upon, 
these human governments for aid or help. 

6. That alliances with these human governments or their supporters arose from 
distrust of, and were sins against, God, and without exception were punished. That 
these alliances were sources of corruption to the children of God, weaned them from 
God, from his service, and from fidelity to his appointments, and brought weakness, 
shame, and disaster, instead of strength, security, and safety. 

7. That the copying after the human, or dovetailing it into the Divine government was 
a rebellion against God, and a rejection of him as their ruler; was the destruction and 
corruption of his government, a transforming of the Divine into the human. 

8. That God ordained the human government to punish those who rebelled against his 
government by choosing the human, and he used and overruled this human 
government to punish his rebellious children, and to destroy his enemies. For this 
purpose God ordained and used it, and for these ends it was the ordinance of God. It 
was good for the purpose for which he ordained it. 


9. The builders, rulers, and supporters of these governments were wicked, rebellious 
men. God overruled their wickedness to punish the rebellious children, and to destroy 
his enemies. In this work he called them, "my servants," "my shepherd," "mine 
anointed," yet when he had used them in accomplishing this work, he so directed that 
those used by him as his ministers of vengeance, themselves were destroyed for their 
wicked, revengeful, and rebellious spirit. 

10. God's government was his medium for receiving the service of his loyal children, 
and was his instrumentality through which he bestowed blessings upon them. While 
his servants were faithful to him in this government, he permitted no evil to befall 
them, fought their battles for them, delivered them from their enemies, and kept "in 
perfect peace those whose heart was stayed on him." 

11. God had two classes of ordinances: (1) His own government for the maintenance 
of his authority, the spread of his kingdom and the promotion of virtue and holiness, 
and the protection, blessing and salvation of his children, and (2), human government, 
his sword, his battle axe, his armory, to punish his disobedient children, and to 

execute wrath and vengeance on, and to destroy his enemies. Corresponding to these 
were the two classes of servants, his loyal and obedient children, and the wicked 
spirits who set at defiance his authority, build up institutions to supersede his 
government, which were overruled by God to punish wickedness, and in turn to be 
destroyed for their wickedness. In these diverse and contrary senses and characters, 
heaven and hell, Jesus Christ and the devil are ordinances and servants of God, to 
accomplish the diverse works. 

12. The government of God and those of man were antagonistic and rivals of each 
other, each contending for the rule and dominion of the world. Between them there 
was an irrepressible conflict. God especially commissioned his local government to 
drive out and destroy the human governments and their subjects that inhabited the 
country they possessed. That this war of extermination was waged against the human 
governments and their subjects, not against them as individuals or families. 

Daniel's prophesy foretells that God's government would be extended to the dominion of the 
whole world just as his local government would be extended to the dominion of the land of 
Canaan. This prophesy projects the lines of separation, and the conflict between the human 
and Divine, into the illimitable future, and especially commissions this universal and 
everlasting kingdom to break in pieces and consume all the kingdoms of earth, all the 
kingdoms and institutions of man's make, and to possess and fill the whole earth, and itself to 
stand forever. 

According to this clear prophesy, the conflict will know no cessation, will be unto the end, till 
one is destroyed and consumed, and the other brings the whole earth into subjection to the 
King of kings. The end, as foretold by Daniel: 

"The kingdom and the dominion and greatness of the 
kingdom under the whole heavens shall be given to the 
people of the Most High, whose kingdom is an everlasting 
kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey him." 

With this conflict thus projected into the future, we will follow the stream of revelation, and 
in the New Testament seek to learn the relation of these kingdoms to the perfect kingdom of 
God, the Christian's relation to them, and their final destiny. 




In the former chapter we showed that civil or human government originated among the 
rebellious portion of the human family; that it was recognized as the effort to live without 
God and his government; that a conflict was kept up through the entire period of the Old 
Testament dispensation; that the special commission of the children of Israel was to destroy 
these governments in the land of Canaan, and to establish in their stead the government of 
God; that in the destruction of these governments all who clung to and upheld them were to 
be destroyed. There was an irrepressible and perpetual conflict between the Divine and the 
human. A war of extermination was declared by God against the governments of earth. God 
ordained the human institutions to punish the rebellion of man. So long as man rebels, these 
institutions that arise out of the rebellion must perish. The subjects of the Divine government 
could not participate in the human, could not form affiliation or alliance with the subjects of 
the human, nor inject or dovetail the human into the Divine. They were necessarily and 
essentially antagonistic, and fealty to both could not be maintained by the same person. We 
showed that Daniel (ii:42) in prophecy projected that conflict into the illimitable future and 
extended it to all the kingdoms of earth; that "the God of Heaven shall set up a kingdom that 
shall never be destroyed; it shall break in pieces and consume all these (human) 1 1451 1 
kingdoms, and it shall stand forever." These human kingdoms "shall be destroyed and 
consumed unto the end," or to a complete and everlasting destruction. This idea of the 
essential antagonism and irrepressible conflict between these kingdoms was impressed by 
God, through the patriarchal and Jewish dispensations, indelibly upon the minds and lives of 
His people. Not only was it impressed upon the Jews, but it was accepted as true by the rulers 
and subjects of the human governments. 

The prophecies of the Old Testament caused the Jews to look forward to the coming of a 
Divine Deliverer to rescue them from the rule of the human power under which they were 
living and to re- establish the rule of God on earth. The rulers of the human government had 
accepted the truth of this coming of one sent from God, and instinctively felt the result of his 

rule would be the overthrow of their authority and rule, hence their effort to destroy him at 
his birth. 

"Now, when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea, in the 
days of Herod, the king, behold wise men came to 
Jerusalem saying, where is he that is born king of the 
Jews? For we saw his star in the East and are come to 
worship him. And when Herod, the king, heard it, he was 
troubled, and all Jerusalem with him. ... Then Herod, 
the king, privily called the wise men and learned of them 
carefully what time the star appeared, and he sent them 
to Bethlehem and said, go and search out carefully 
concerning the young child, and when ye have found him 
bring me word, that I also may come and worship him. ... 
They came into the house and saw the young child with 
Mary, his mother, and they fell down and worshipped ... 
and being warned of God in a dream that they should not 
return to Herod, they departed into their own country by 
another way. ... An angel of the Lord appeared to 
Joseph in a dream, saying, Arise and take the young child 
and his mother and flee into Egypt and be thou there 
until I tell thee, for Herod will seek the young child to 
destroy him. ... Then Herod, when he saw that he was 
mocked of the wise men, was exceeding wroth, and sent 
forth and slew all the male children that were in 
Bethlehem and in all the borders thereof, from two years 
old and under, according to the time he had carefully 
learned of the wise men." (Mat. ii: 1-16.) 


Christ thus was recognized from before his birth as coming as the enemy of, and to make war 
upon the human government, and the rulers sought from his birth to kill him. 

Christ came as the anointed of God to establish and build a kingdom that should break in 
pieces and consume all the kingdoms of earth, and that should fill the whole earth and stand 
forever. As in the beginning of the typical institution of Judaism, God sought favorable 
conditions for launching his kingdom, free from temptation to entangling alliances, and 
affiliations with human governments, so He now chooses a period when the human 
government adopted into Judaism, was destroyed and the nation with it. (Hosea, xiii: 9.) 

The Jews themselves were in oppressive bondage to the Roman government. At this juncture 
the Gospel of the Kingdom of God as preached, "Repent ye, for the kingdom of God is at 
hand," could only have been understood as referring to that kingdom which the God of 
Heaven should set up, whose mission was to destroy all other kingdoms, and to fill the whole 
earth. To him who thus claimed to be of God, the Jews, in their oppression, gladly gave heed 
as to one by whom they expected deliverance from Roman bondage. Jesus was acknowledged 
by God as "my Son, the Beloved, in whom I am well pleased." 

He soon meets the Devil who had seduced man the ruler, and with him the world from its 
loyalty to God, and who held it in bondage to himself as the ruler of the world. The 
significant point of the advent of the Son of God into the world is that Christ and the devil 
met here in person to lead in the conflict for the mastery of the world. Christ came to rescue 
the world from the dominion and rule of the evil one into which it had fallen, and to bring it 
back to its primitive and pristine allegiance to God his Father. 1 1 All I This was his mission to 
earth. Having received from his Father his commission he entered upon his work. The devil 
met him in person as the leader of the hosts. A test of power between the personal leaders is 
first made. The earth is the battlefield and on the result of this conflict depends the eternal 
future of the world. 

The devil was in possession of the world. It had been transferred to him by man to whom 
God had committed the rule, under himself, of the world. Christ came to rescue it from his 
dominion, to bring it back under the authority of God, and to restore it to its normal position 
in the universe under the rule of God and to bring it into harmony with laws governing the 

Jesus could accomplish this work only through a life of self- denial, of persecution and 
sorrow, ending in the shameful death of the cross. Then when the work should be completed, 
he must surrender the redeemed and regenerated kingdom up to the Father, and himself be 

subject to the Father, or he must be second in position in the rule of the kingdom he has 

The fierceness of the conflict, the cost to himself, the suffering and anguish of the cross, the 
anticipation of which made great drops of bloody sweat ooze from his brow and fall down to 
earth, he had fully foreseen and appreciated. He was "as a lamb slain from the foundation of 
the world." 

"Who was verily foreordained before the foundation of the 
world, but was manifested in these last days for you who 
by him do believe in God." (1 Peter i: 20.) 

These sufferings and sorrows, the death of cruelty and shame had been fully laid open to him. 
His sensitive nature felt the shame and suffering and the degradation of the grave more 
keenly than any human being could feel it, and he recoiled from it with a keener sense of 
anguish, than human hearts, dulled and blunted by sin and fleshly lust and passion could ever 
feel, and in deepest humiliation //48// and agony cried, "Father if it be possible let this cup 
pass from me." 

With a full realization of all this strife, sorrow and suffering, ending in the degradation of the 
grave, pressing upon his soul, in the beginning of his ministry he was led of the spirit into the 
wilderness to be tempted of the devil. 

The devil realizing the conflict before him, determined to seduce Jesus from his loyalty to 
God, and to induce him to enter his service. When Christ was hungered, depressed with 
bodily weakness and the afflictions before him, overwhelmed with the herculean task he had 

"The devil taketh him up into an exceeding high mountain 
and showeth him all the kingdoms of the world and the 
glory of them, and saith unto him, all these will I give 
thee if thou wilt fall down and worship me." Jesus saith 
unto him 'Get thee hence, Satan,' for it is written, thou 
shalt worship the Lord thy God and him only shalt thou 

Then the devil left him, and angels came and ministered to him. Luke records, (iv: 5): 

"The devil taking him up into a high mountain showed unto 
him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time, 
and said unto him, all this power will I give unto thee 
and the glory of them; for that is delivered unto me, and 
to whomsoever I will, I give it. If therefore thou wilt 
worship me, all shalt be thine." 

It is needful to observe (1) the devil claims the kingdoms of the earth as his. They had been 
delivered into his hands, and to whomsoever he willed he could give them. 

That the devil possessed the kingdoms of the world is often denied. He here says, "they were 
delivered unto me." This was done certainly when man, having been entrusted with the rule 
and dominion of earth, betrayed the trust, hearkened to and obeyed the devil instead of God. 
Man the ruler transferred his allegiance, and with his own, that of the earth he ruled, from 
God to the devil. Satan was in possession, then, of these kingdoms and the glory of them, he 
claimed the power to bestow them upon whom he would; he proposed to give them to Christ 
Jesus, if he IIA9II would fall down and worship him. The mission of Jesus Christ proves this 
claim of the devil to be true. He came to rescue the world from the possession and rule of the 
devil and to destroy the power of the evil one. It is objected. 

"God made no attempt to abolish civil government; he 
attempted to be the law-maker for one nation, and made 
his law their civil law. He never tried to force those 
laws upon other nations, or to legislate for them. There 
is not one word of condemnation of any civil government 
in the Bible unless that government enacted laws contrary 
to natural equity, or was led by an unprincipled ruler." 

God never attempts to do anything. He always does it or he does not do it. He did make laws 
and hence was the LAW-MAKER for his people, the Jewish nation. He neither attempted nor 
forced his laws upon any people, neither the Jews nor other. All must voluntarily accept them 
or he will not be their God and law-giver. God was no respecter of persons. He revealed 
himself and his will to all alike in the beginning and as Paul, Rom. i: 21, says, 

"Because when they knew God they glorified HIM not as God 
neither were thankful; but became vain in their 
imaginations, ... professing themselves to be wise they 
became fools ... and worshipped and served the creature 
more than the Creator." 

Imagined they could make governments better than God, and served the creature by honoring 
their own in preference to God's government. Everyone who honors and serves the human 
government and relies upon it, for good, more than he does upon the Divine government, 
worships and serves the creature more than he does the Creator. 

For THIS cause God gave them up to be a law unto themselves, or to make their own 
governments and to work their own ruin. In the beginning, God gave his law to all alike. 
When all save one family turned away, he gave his law to this family. No nation with a 
human government was ever accounted the people of God. And his children were forbidden 
affiliation with them. But any and all persons 1 1501 1 of every national and family could 
become of his people by submission to his government. 

The first fundamental principle of natural equity, was and is, that people created and 
preserved by the God of Heaven and earth, should submit to the government of their Creator 
and preserver. To establish another government is to violate this, hence all who established 
other governments violated the principles of natural justice, and are condemned by God, to 
destruction unless they repent. God has at no time in the world's history accepted a people 
with a human government as his people, save the Jews who added the human to the Divine. 
This was recognized as a rejection of God as their ruler that resulted in their rejection by God 
and their destruction as the people of God. 

Jesus knew who held possession of the kingdoms of the world and whether he had the power 
to bestow them. Unless the devil possessed these kingdoms and had power to bestow them, 
the offer could have been no temptation to Christ. It was a temptation, and he "suffered being 

It is objected that if the statement of the Devil be true, 

"The devil had possession by the will of God, the 
language demands this, for it hath been delivered unto 
me. And Christ came to rescue it from his dominion by the 
will of God. A seeming conflict in the purpose of God." 

The language "it hath been delivered unto me" does not demand that it should have been 
delivered by the will of God. The history shows man delivered it at the suggestion of the 
devil and God punished him for it. But it is true it was and is God's will that when man sinned 
he and the world which he rules should be given over to the rule of the devil to punish him 
for his sins. God uses the devil to rule and punish sinners. Just as it is God's will the persistent 
sinner shall be given over to the rule of the II51II devil in hell forever. It is also true that God 
desires Jesus Christ should deliver man and with man the world committed to his rule from 
the rule of the devil, both in this world and in the world to come. But not that he should 
deliver them while yet in sin. But that he should turn them from sin, and so rescue them from 
the devil. There is not even a seeming conflict in the purposes of God. Again it is objected, 

"If it be meant that civil government and nations were 
under the control of the devil, and that Christ come to 
rescue them from him, then Christ has failed, because we 
all know, civil government and nations are now more 
nearly universal than ever before, and that every 
disciple of Jesus is a subject of some nation and is 
subject to civil government." 

How civil government is now more universal than heretofore we do not understand, inasmuch 
as from the days of Nimrod civil government has extended over all the families of the earth. 
Rebellion against God has been universal from the beginning; civil government has been co- 
extensive with it. But it is not true that civil government is honored and feared and that men 
stand in awe of it and reverence its rule as they did in past ages. They now under the 
enlightening rays of Divine truth understand government is for the people and not the people 
for the government and that rulers are men - selfish, wicked, corrupt men, with no more 
rights than others and human government is losing its hold on the affections of men. But this 
objection is made in a misapprehension of the order of God. Suppose we were to say God 
declared a war of extermination against sin six thousand years ago and sin is as universal now 
as it ever was, therefore God has failed in his war upon sin. This is just as true as that the war 

against human government has failed. The infidel can set aside the whole idea of Divine rule 
with this very argument. But the truth is this. It is God's will that human government shall 
exist so long as man and/or considerable 1 1521 1 portion of the human family refuses to be 
governed by God. He ordained human government as a punishment for rejecting his 
government. Wherever and so long as man rejects God's rule, he must be ruled by men, or as 
here developed he must be ruled by the devil. But Christ came to destroy human government 
by calling man back from sin to the rule and service of God. Man must come voluntarily at 
the call of Christ. Then Jesus proposed to destroy human government only as he destroyed sin 
and rebellion against God. If there has been a failure it is not in destroying human 
government, but in destroying sin and rebellion since he proposed to destroy that only as 
these were destroyed. "The soul that sinneth it shall die." He wishes human government to 
continue so long as man continues to sin. It is not wrong for the government of the devil to 
exist so long as men rebel against God and prefer to serve the devil. The wrong is in the 
rebellion that produces these governments and then, that those who have ceased to rebel 
against God and have taken the oath of fealty to him, should still support and strengthen these 
governments that have grown up as the fruit of this rebellion. Jesus Christ desires to destroy 
these governments only as he destroys sin which necessitates them. Only as his own 
government increases to fill the earth, just as God desires hell to exist so long as sin exists. It 
is right hell should exist so long as sin is in the universe to punish sinners and deter from sin. 
But it is wrong for the servants of God to enter into, become subjects and managers of the 
institution of hell. 

Then Christ recognized the claim of the devil to the possession of the kingdoms of the world 
as true, and the devil is henceforth called in the Bible the Prince or ruler of this world. 

The special point of the temptation is this: Christ had 115311 come to rescue the world from the 
dominion of the evil one, and to bring it back to God. 

He is to rescue it through suffering, persecution, reproach, the death of the cross, the 
degradation of the grave, and after it shall be rescued he must surrender it up to God and 
himself occupy a secondary place in the rule of the world. Now, says Satan, but worship me, 
do obeisance to me, acknowledge my supremacy, instead of God's, and without suffering, 
persecution, sorrow, the cross or the grave, all shall be yours, and you will then have the 
same dignity and honor under me without suffering, as you will have under God, when you 
shall have endured all. Christ felt the temptation most keenly. 

The condition of the world proclaims the evil rule of the world, the degraded condition of 
humanity, the suffering, sorrow, death that reign here all proclaim that he who reigns is not 
the All wise Creator and ruler of the universe. 

God created the world free from sin and from evil. 

"The Lord planted a garden eastward in Eden, and there he 
put the man whom he had formed. And out of the ground 
made the Lord God to grow every tree that is pleasant to 
the sight, and good for food, the tree of life also in 
the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of 
good and evil. And a river went out of Eden to water the 

In this earth-home of man there was nought to mar his happiness, to disturb his peace, or to 
detract from his full enjoyment of life. No briars, no thistles, no thorns, no noxious weeds 
grew. The Spirit of God brooded over all, and impregnated every breath of air with his own 
life-giving, life-perpetuating and health-inspiring tonic. Sickness did not enter, nor death 
spread its dark pall over this paradise of God; but perennial youth, drinking fresh vigor, from 
life-giving fountains, and inhaling exhilarating breezes from the throne of God, was the 
heritage of every living creature. With God's Spirit brooding over all, and pervading every 
breeze, no fierce passions raged, no venomous II5AII serpent hissed, no beasts of prey 
prowled through this garden of love, no pitiless storms beat, no fierce tornadoes desolated 
this joyous and peaceful abode. 

To man, a prince of his realm, bearing his own image, God entrusted this fair dominion, as a 
home and a possession, to be ruled in the interest and for the honor and glory of God. To 
promote the honor of God - the ruler was to increase the good and glory of the whole 
universe and of every being in this universe. 

In this beautiful home, man knew no toil, no weariness, no care, no anxiety, no pain, no 
sickness, no sorrow. In this home no envious spirits, nor evil desires dwelled, no wicked 
passions raged in human hearts. This earth of ours was the outer court of the Heaven of 
Heavens, the home of God, the Father of the universe. 

God had entrusted this world with the power and glory of it, to man as his servant. Man 
betrayed the trust, rejected the rule of God and transferred his allegiance and the allegiance of 
the world from the God of Heaven to the devil. Hence the Devil said, 

"It has been delivered unto me, and to whomsoever I will, 
I give it." 

The result of this treason and transfer was, God ceased to be the ruler and the devil became 
the god of this world. The Spirit of God refused to dwell in the defiled temple on the polluted 
earth and withdrew in grief to the home of God in Heaven. The devil as the Prince of this 
world infused his subtitle spirit and poison of death into the fountains of waters and into 
every breeze that floated over land and sea. This earth was changed from a nursery of life and 
joy into a charnel house of death and sorrow, a whited sepulcher without, "within full of dead 
men's bones and all uncleanness." Briars, thistles and thorns grew spontaneously from this 
garden of God. The paradise of God 1 1551 1 became a dried and parched waste - a desert of 
noxious weeds. Toil, pain, sickness, anxiety, care, sorrow, mortality and death became the 
heritage of humanity. 

By this treason of man the evil one became the ruler; "the god of this world," "the prince of 
the power of air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience" (Eph.ii:2) 
showing that the evil spirit took up his abode in and so tainted the air we breathe, that the 
spirit of rebellion and the poison of death are inhaled with every breath we draw. Man was 
separated from God, "became carnal, sold under sin." 

He found "another law in his members warring against the law of his mind, and bringing him 
into captivity to the law of sin which is in his members." Man was helpless under this 
bondage to sin and sank downward to continually deeper depths of woe. 

Mental decay and inactivity quickly followed spiritual stupor. With spiritual and mental 
torpor came the degrading rule of unbridled lust and passion. Paul drew a fearful picture of 
the depths of degradation to which man bearing the image of God descended, under this 
transfer of his allegiance from God to the evil one. 

"Because that knowing God they glorified him not as God, 
neither gave thanks; but became vain in their reasonings, 

and their senseless (insensate) heart was darkened. 
Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools, and 
changed the glory of the incorruptible God for the 
likeness of an image of corruptible man, and of birds, 
and four-footed beasts, and creeping things. Wherefore God 
gave them up in the lusts of their hearts unto 
uncleanness, that their bodies should be dishonored among 
themselves: for that they exchanged the truth of God for 
a lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than 
the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen. For this cause 
God gave them up unto vile passions: for their women 
changed the natural use unto that which is against 
nature: and likewise also the men, leaving the natural 
use of the woman, burned in their lust one toward 
another, men with men working unseemliness, and receiving 
in themselves that recompense of their error which was 
due. And even as they refused to have God in THEIR 1 1561 1 
knowledge, God gave them up unto a reprobate mind, to do 
those things which are not fitting; being filled with all 
unrighteousness, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; 
full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, malignity; 
whisperers, back-biters hateful to God, insolent, haughty, 
boastful, inventors of evil things, disobedient to 
parents, without understanding, covenant-breakers, 
without natural affection, unmerciful; who knowing the 
ordinance of God, that they which practice such things 
are worthy of death, not only do the same, but also 
consent with them that practice them." (Rom. i: 21-32.) 

This is given as the result of man's transfer of his allegiance from God to the devil. With this 
torpor of the soul and stupor of the mind and reign of lust, the body is enfeebled, diseases 
preyed upon the body, and plagues and pestilences swept the human family from the earth. 
War with its desolation and bloodshed and bitter cruelty, was the normal condition of 
humanity, thus distorted and perverted by the spirit of the devil. 

With this degradation of man, the entire under creature subject to his rule sympathized. "For 
the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him who hath 
subjected the same, in hope", and "the whole creation groaneth and travaileth in pain until 

The earth shared the curse of this rule of the devil. It became barren and desolate, producing 
only briars, thistles, thorns and noxious weeds, and became "a hold for unclean beasts and 
foul birds." 

It is a slander upon Almighty God to say, his rule and dominion of the world, brought this 
condition of affairs. The devil's rule and dominion brought these terrible evils to man and to 
all that is subject to him. To deliver the world from the rule of the devil and from this terrible 
condition produced by his rule, was the end and purpose of the mission of Christ Jesus, into 
this earth. 

If the world is not under the rule and dominion of the devil the mission of Christ is 
meaningless. He came to rescue and redeem the world and to destroy the Devil and all his 


"Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh 
and blood, he also himself likewise took part of the 
same; that through death he might destroy him that hath 
the power of death, that is, the devil." (Heb. ii: 14.) 

The point fully and clearly developed in this, is, that Christ Jesus recognized the kingdoms of 
this earth and the glory of them as belonging to the devil. The earth had been delivered unto 
him as ruler and prince, and all these institutions, kingdoms, governments, had grown up 
under his rule and authority, and they constitute the institutions and organizations through 
which he has governed man and the world, and in which he rewards his servants. 

The devil is the "prince of the world," 

"Now is the judgement of this world: now shall the prince 
of this world be cast out." (Jno. xii: 31.) 

"Hereafter I will not talk much with you: for the prince 

of this world cometh, and hath nothing in me." (Jno. xiv: 30.) 

Of judgement, because the prince of this world is judged." 

(Jno. xvi: 11.) 

"Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course 

of this world, according to the prince of the power of 

the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of 

disobedience." (Eph. ii: 2.) 

He is the prince of the world because they have been delivered into his hands, and he has 
built up the kingdoms of the world that he may rule through them. 

Christ having resisted successfully these tempting offers of the devil, and having shown his 
true loyalty to God, the angels of God came and ministered unto him. He then lays down the 
principles that must govern in his kingdom. They are epitomized in 5th, 6th, and 7th chapters 
of Matthew. These principles are diverse from and antagonistic to the principles that have 
obtained and must ever obtain in all human governments. No human government can 
possibly be maintained and conducted on these principles laid down for the government of 
Christ's subjects in his kingdom. The spirit that prompts the practice of the principles is 
opposed to the spirit needful for the maintenance //58// of human governments. The two 
spirits cannot dwell in the same heart, nor the same temple, or institution. A man cannot be 
gentle, forgiving, doing good for evil, turning the other cheek when one is smitten, praying 
"for them that despitefully use and persecute" him, and at the same time execute wrath and 
vengeance on the evil-doer, as the human government is ordained to do, and as it must do to 
sustain its authority and maintain its existence. In recognition of this antagonism Christ, in 
giving the platform of principles, (Matt, vi: 21,) says: 

"No man can serve two masters, for either he will hate 
the one and love the other, or else he will hold to the 
one and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and 

Mammon as the God of this world rules in the kingdoms of the world. God can be served 
only in the "kingdom which the God of heaven shall set up." The God of this world is served 

in the kingdoms of this world. Christ plainly declares a man cannot serve in both. He 
concludes this platform of principles by the warning, 

"He who hears these sayings of mine and does them shall be 
likened unto a wise man who built his house upon the rock." 

It shall stand forever. He who hears these sayings and does them not, builds on the sand, to be 
overwhelmed in destruction. 

This carries the idea that the institutions ordained of God will stand forever; those not 
founded in his word, hence of human origin, must be destroyed and will engulf in the same 
destruction, those who serve in them. 


Christ, from this time onward, preached the coming kingdom. It was the burden of his 
thought, the theme of every discourse. His disciples were taught to pray that it come. His 
parables, his teachings, all presented some thought, some feature, or relationship of that 
kingdom. Its spirit toward its own subjects, the faithful and 1 1591 1 unfaithful, toward the 
subjects of human governments; the time of its complete organization, its mission, its 
relationship to human government, its end, final destiny, and its relation to himself and to 
God, the Father, are carefully presented, exemplified, and enforced. It is true that when Christ 
was in person here on earth, the devil was also here. It is true that when God has exercised 
wonder-working power on the earth, He has permitted the same character of manifestation to 
the devil. When Christ bestowed miraculous power on others, the devil did the same. There 
was always the clear line of distinction kept up between the Divine and the demoniac. The 
Divine spirit dwelling in man uplifted and blessed him and made him a blessing to others. 
The demoniacal possession afflicted and cursed the possessor, and made him a curse to 
others. Jesus, in his work, showed his power over the evil one by casting out demons and 
relieving those afflicted by them. All disease, sickness, mortality and death came upon man 
as the result of the transferred allegiance of man and the world, from God to the devil. Christ, 
in healing the maladies and afflictions of humanity, and in restoring life to the dead, 
manifested His power over the devil. In this was a conflict between Christ and the devil. But 
it is of his teaching in reference to the relations and contact of His kingdom with the 

kingdoms of earth that we desire to inquire. (Matt, xv: 13.) In speaking of practices not 
ordained of God he lays down this broad truth: 

"Every plant which my Heavenly Father hath not planted 
shall be rooted up." 

This is a declaration that all institutions and organizations not planted by God shall be 
destroyed. This truth is far reaching. The material, moral and spiritual world have all been 
blighted by the rule of the devil. The 1 1601 1 poison of death and ruin has infected the whole 
realm of nature. The declaration is that every evil - material, moral, or spiritual, every 
influence that has been put in operation by the devil, shall be antagonized and counteracted 
and destroyed by Christ Jesus. Especially is it true that every institution, organization or 
kingdom established under the rule of the evil one shall be rooted up and destroyed. Christ's 
mission is to destroy the works of the devil, and all these kingdoms and governments of earth 
are the works of the evil one. 

(Matt, xvi: 13.) When Peter confessed that Jesus is the Christ the Son of God, Christ 

"Blessed art thou, Simon, son of Jonah, for flesh and 
blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father, who 
is in heaven, and I say unto thee that thou art Peter, 
and on this rock I will build my church and the gates of 
hell shall not prevail against it. And I will give unto 
thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatsoever 
thou shalt bind on earth, shall be bound in heaven, and 
whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in 

Undoubtedly this is a repetition of the prophecy of Daniel, 

"In the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set 
up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed. It shall 
not be left to other people, but it shall break in pieces 

and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand 

Here it is called a church against which the gates of hell shall not prevail, the kingdom of 
heaven, the terms of entrance into which shall be ratified in heaven. 

But Jesus in declaring that the gates of hell shall not prevail against this kingdom or church 
implied that they must prevail against every other kingdom or institution of earth. If there are 
other institutions or kingdoms against which "the gates of hell shall not prevail," there is 
neither point nor force in saying they shall not prevail against this kingdom or church built by 
Christ. Whatever else may be meant by "gates of hell prevailing against," it carries the idea of 
the destruction of what is prevailed against. 


The expression necessarily declares that every institution, kingdom, and organism of earth, 
save this kingdom of the God of heaven, this church built by Jesus Christ, shall be engulfed 
in the vortex of everlasting ruin. This church or kingdom alone shall never perish. All these 
kingdoms of earth shall be broken in pieces and consumed by the kingdom of God which 
alone shall stand forever. Jesus spent his life after his recognition as the Son of God, in thus 
teaching and manifesting the superiority of his kingdom over the earthly kingdoms. His life 
was a continual conflict. The rulers of the earthly governments came in contact with him only 
to persecute. But he saw the final conflict must come. 

"The kings of the earth set themselves and the rulers 
take counsel together, against the Lord, and against his 

When he turned his face toward Jerusalem for the last time, he realized that the final fierce 
conflict was at hand. He exclaimed (John xii: 23-27.) 

"The hour has come that the son of man should be 
glorified. ... Now is my soul troubled, and what shall 
I say? Father, save me from this hour? But for this 
purpose came I unto this hour. Father glorify thy name. 
Then came a voice from heaven saying, I have both 

glorified it and will glorify it again. The people who 
stood by said it thundered; others said an angel spoke to 
him. Jesus answered, ... Now is the judgement of this 
world; now shall the prince of this world be cast out, 
and I, if I be lifted up, will draw all men after me. 
This said he signifying what death he should die." 

In the final conflict between the Savior and the devil, Jesus felt sure of triumph, the casting 
the devil out of his position as a ruler of the world. Yet the conflict, the anguish, the lifting up 
on the cross, oppressed him sorely. The prince of this world was coming in the person of the 
rulers of human governments. Again, in Jno. xiv: 30. 

"Hereafter I will not talk much with you, for the prince 
of this world cometh and hath nothing in me." 

He was coming in the person of the ruler his earthly kingdom, had nothing in Jesus or his 
work, hence would II62II so persecute him that Jesus would not have opportunity to talk 
much with his disciples. Again, (John xvi: 13), in declaring the mission of the spirit, "he will 
convince the world of judgement, because the prince of this world is judged." In judging the 
ruler of this world, and overcoming him, he would show the world that all his subjects and 
institutions would be overthrown. 

The conflict with the devil, ending in the triumph of Jesus Christ, was a judging, a 
condemnation, an overthrow of the devil, an assurance that he would be destroyed and all his 
servants judged and condemned. 

But the truth clearly revealed in these things, is, that the civil power and the rulers engaged in 
the work of persecuting the Son of God, are the ministers of Satan, doing his work. Through 
these, his ministers, Christ is arrested, buffeted, scorned, spit upon, beaten, crowned with 
thorns, nailed to the cross and killed; He was carried down by these powers of darkness to the 
grave, the prison-house of the devil, the ante-chamber of hell, where the devil held 
undisputed reign. Bound in the fetters of death, in the dark dungeon of the grave, betrayed of 
man and forsaken of God, within the personal power and domain of the devil he makes the 
final struggle with "him that hath the power of death, that is the devil." In the grave the battle 
was fought, in the grave the victory was won for man's redemption. Jesus overcame the devil 

in his own home, triumphed over death, hell, and the grave, and came forth the glorious 
conqueror. In this conflict, reaching from the cradle to the grave, between Jesus and the devil, 
the civil power was the minister and instrument of the devil. 

The rulers sought his life at his birth, desolated the homes around Bethlehem by the 
destruction of every male child "two years old and under." The civil power dogged his 
pathway through life and nailed him to the cross 1 1631 1 in his death. "The prince of this world 
hath nothing in me." 


The appetite for blood being whetted by the death of the Master, the blood of his followers is 
demanded to satiate its greed. Stephen soon falls a victim, and the first church, both men and 
women, are scattered abroad everywhere by the bloody hand of the civil power. Saul, 
breathing out threatenings and slaughter against the disciples of the Lord, made havoc of the 
church, and is commissioned to "hale any he found of this way, men and women, to prison." 

"King Herod stretched forth his hand to vex certain of the 
church, and killed James, the Lord's brother, and because he 
saw it pleased the Jews, he proceeded further to take Peter 
also and cast him into prison, intending after the Passover to 
bring him forth to the people." 

God opened the prison doors, and delivered him. Paul and Barnabas were assaulted at 
Iconium, stoned at Lystra, fled through Derbe and the cities of Lycaonia, were beaten and 
cast into the dungeon and their feet made fast in the stocks at Philippi, and persecuted at 
Thessalonica. The remainder of the Acts of the apostles tells of the persecutions, trials, 
strifes, stonings, bonds and imprisonments of Paul to the end. He had the testimony 
continually with him that "in every city bonds and afflictions abide me." His prison was often 
his church-house, the prison-box his pulpit, and much of his evangelistic labor was done 
wearing a chain. 

This life of strivings, conflicts, and persecutions was ended by death at the hands of the civil 
rulers. The other apostles had much the same history. All, it is believed, like the Master, 
ended their lives by the sword, the stonings, the cross, the fire and fagot of the civil power. 

Every inch of ground gained and held by Christ and his apostles II6AII was gained and held 
against the fierce persecutions or more hurtful temptations of the civil power. 

The civil power sought to throttle the church, as it sought to destroy its founder, in its 
infancy. The life of his physical body was a type of the life of his spiritual body, the church. 

The relationship of Christ and his church to civil power is plainly declared in his own 
teachings and actions. 

"When they came to Capernaum they that received tribute money 
came to Peter and said, Doth not your Master pay tribute? He 
saith yes. And when he was come into the house, Jesus 
prevented [anticipated] him, saying, What thinkest thou, 
Simon? Of whom do the kings of the earth take tribute, of 
their own children or of strangers? Peter saith to him, Of 
strangers. Jesus saith unto him, Then are the children free? 
Notwithstanding lest we should offend them, go thou to the sea 
and cast a hook and take up the first fish that cometh up, and 
when thou hast opened his mouth thou shalt find a piece of 
money, that take and give unto them for me and thee." 

This indicates that Christ's teaching had raised the doubt with the Jews, whether he would 
count himself a child or a stranger under the civil government. Although born a citizen, Jesus 
apprehending the questionings of their mind, solved it, refused to claim the exemption of a 
child, and once and forever places himself and his disciples among the strangers to these 
governments. Some may think this hardly required by the context. A pondering of all the 
parts necessitates the conclusion. 

Besides one of the oldest manuscripts has added as the close of the last sentence, "seeing we 
are strangers to the kingdoms of earth," as a reason why they should pay it. While we do not 
hold this as a part of the genuine text, it shows us that this was understood from a very early 
date to be the meaning of the passage. And this meaning was much more likely to have come 
down from the early apostolic age, when the cruel rulers were persecuting Christians, than to 
have been added at a later date when the church was in affiliation with civil government. 
Then it 1 1651 1 must be construed to mean that Christ intended to teach, that he and his servants 

were not children of civil government. He and his servants constituted the government of 
God in contradistinction to the human governments of earth, which the Savior clearly teaches 
were the governments of "the prince of this world, who hath nothing in me." 

No clearer evidence could be furnished that it was well understood by the enemies as well as 
the friends of Christ, that his mission was to destroy the governments of earth than the record, 
Matt, xxii: 15, Mark xii: 14, Luke xx: 20. Knowing this they sought to commit him against 
the lawfulness of giving tribute to Caesar and thus find ground for accusation to secure his 

"Then went the Pharisees and took counsel against him how 
they might entangle him in his talk, and they sent unto 
him the lawyers with the Herodians, saying, Master, we 
know thou art true and teachest the way of God in truth, 
neither carest thou for any man, for thou regardest not 
the person of man. Tell us therefore, what thinkest thou? 
Is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar or not? But Jesus 
perceived their wickedness, and said, Why tempt ye me, ye 
hypocrites? Show me the tribute money, and they brought 
him a penny. And he saith unto them, Whose is this image 
and superscription? They say unto him, Caesar's. Then 
saith he unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar the 
things that are Caesar's and to God the things that are 
God's. When they heard these words, they marvelled, and 
left him and went their way." 

This clearly shows that it was well understood that Christ was to destroy the kingdoms of 
earth. These lawyers under the guise of friendship sought to entrap him into expressions that 
would convict him of treason, that they might secure his condemnation. He not only thwarted 
their purpose, but taught the lesson in an empathic way of the Christian's duty to human 
kingdoms. Tertullian, who was probably born within a half century after the death of the 
apostle John, gives this explanation of this saying of the Savior: 


"The image of Caesar which is on the coin is to be given 
to Caesar, and the image of God which is in man is to be 
given to God. Therefore thou must indeed give thy money 
to Caesar, but thyself to God, for what will remain to 
God if all be given to Caesar?" 

No better explanation has ever been given of the Savior's words. It teaches what the Savior 
taught: pay your tax, but you are not children or servants of the earthly governments. Give 
your personal service and your bodily powers to God. Tertullian not only gives this as the 
meaning of the Savior, but he shows what was the prevailing impression of the teaching of 
the Savior and the apostles, within the first century after the establishment of the church. 
These ideas must have come down from the days of the apostles. They could not have 
originated after the church found favor with the civil power. 

John, xviii: 33, Pilate asked Jesus, 

"Art thou the king of the Jews? Jesus answered him, 
Sayest thou this thing of thyself, or did others tell it 
thee of me? Pilate answered, Am I a Jew? Thine own nation 
and the chief priests have delivered thee unto me. What 
hast thou done? Jesus answered, My kingdom is not of this 
world; if my kingdom were of this world then would my 
servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the 
Jews, but now is my kingdom not from hence." 

Christ disavows the earthly character of his kingdom; declares that it is of a nature so 
different from all worldly kingdoms, that his servants could not fight for his kingdom; if they 
could not fight for his kingdom, they could not fight for any kingdom, hence in this respect 
could not be members and supporters of the earthly kingdoms. This is also a declaration that 
he does not belong to the Jewish nation. He was born a Jew, and the Jewish people anxious to 
regain their nationality, were willing to follow any leader that would promise them freedom 
from the Roman yoke, and a restoration of the earthly kingdom of Judaism. The Roman 
governors were sensitive toward all such, as disturbers of the peace and quiet of the people, 
and 1 1611 1 exciters of insurrection. Hence Pilate, the representative of the Roman government, 
asked Jesus, "Art thou the king of the Jews?" He replies, "Do you ask this of yourself, or did 

others make the charge?" Pilate refers him to his own Jewish nation and the priests. He 
responds, "my kingdom is not of this world." I am not a member of the Jewish worldly 
government. I seek no earthly throne. My subjects cannot fight. This candid answer quieted 
the fears of Pilate, and he testified, "I find no fault in him." Yet to please the Jews he 
scourged him and delivered him to them to be buffeted and abused. They demand his death 
because he claims to be the Son of God. Pilate trembles with fear at such an idea, and seeks 
to let him go. The Jews cry, "If thou let this man go, thou art not Caesar's friend." Pilate 
fearing to be charged with treason to Caesar, signed the death warrant of the Son of God and 
delivered him to be crucified. All showing that he claimed, and that his enemies recognized 
that he claimed, to be a child of no earthly kingdom, but that the kingdom he came to 
establish was unlike and separate from any and all earthly kingdoms. Yet that he was in 
antagonism to Caesar, was the ground on which his death warrant was extracted from Pilate. 

The Savior said to his disciples, 

"He that hath no sword let him sell his garments and buy 
one. ... They said Lord here are two swords, and he 
said unto them it is enough." (Luke xxii: 36.) 

This is seemingly out of harmony with the Savior's teaching. What does it mean? We can 
only tell what was done with the swords. Judas and his band came against the Savior, 

"With lanterns and torches and weapons. ... Then Simon 
Peter having a sword drew it and smote the servant of the 
high priest and cut off his right ear. ... Then said 
Jesus unto Peter: Put up thy sword into the sheath; the 
cup which my Father hath given me shall I not drink?" 
(John xviii: 3-10.) 


He here taught his disciple could not use the sword of violence to prevent the suffering 
brought on us through obeying the will and fulfilling the commands of God. Matt, xxvi: 52, 
Jesus says, 

"Put up again the sword in its place; for they that take 
the sword shall perish by the sword." 

The only use made of it was to teach these lessons, both seeming to prohibit the use of the 
sword, and this last teaching, not that every individual who used a sword would necessarily 
perish by the sword, but that all institutions built by the sword or by violence, must perish by 
the sword or violence. All human governments are built by the sword, therefore must perish 
by the sword. Christ's church must be so built as to stand forever, therefore it cannot be built 
by the sword. It would seem that the sword was used to teach, that even though in the power 
and possession of the children of God they are not permitted to use it. 

The apostles were imprisoned and punished for preaching the gospel, and were forbidden to 
preach any more in the name of Christ; they respond: 

"Whether it be right in the sight of God to hearken unto 
you more than unto God, judge ye, for we cannot but speak 
the things which we have seen and heard." 

And this was the spirit that guided the apostles in all their preaching. They paid taxes and 
treated the human rulers with respect, when they did not interfere with their duty to God. 
When they did this, all Christians, as Christ had done, disobeyed the human ruler and obeyed 
the God of heaven. They showed in this that they were subjects of the kingdom of God and 
only in a secondary sense of a human ruler. 

"No man can serve two masters. He will love the one and 
hate the other, or he will hold to the one and despise 
the other. Ye cannot serve God and Mammon." 

The first of all commandments is, 


"Shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and 
all thy soul, and all thy mind and with all thy body." 

To love a ruler is to serve him from the heart. Ye cannot serve God and the ruler of this 
world. All the powers of the soul, mind and body must be devoted to the service of God. 

The letter to the Christians at Rome was written by the apostle Paul, during the reign of Nero, 
the most cruel and wicked persecutor of the church of God, as well as the most depraved in 
personal character, that ever sat upon the throne of the Roman empire. His residence was in 
Rome where these Christians dwelt. They were the special objects of Nero's hatred. He 
accused them of setting fire to the city as an excuse for gratifying his own ferocious spirit. 
Renan says: 

"Never before had such refinements of cruelty been 
witnessed. The usual punishment of such unfortunates was 
to be thrown to wild beasts, or to be burned in the 
amphitheater, with an addition of cruel scourging." 
"Poor, timid maidens, with modest gestures veiling their 
nudity, were tossed by a bull and torn in pieces on the 
pebbles of the arena." 

They were put to death, not for the public good, but to gratify the cruelty of one man. These 
Christians at Rome, enduring these things, were liable to be excited to take vengeance in their 
own hands and rise up and slay or burn out their cruel persecutors. But Paul writing to them 
admonishes them, 

"Recompense to no man evil for evil. Provide things 
honest in the sight of all men, if it be possible, as 
much as lieth in you, live peaceably with all men. Dearly 
beloved, avenge not yourselves, but rather give place 
unto wrath; for it is written: Vengeance is mine, I will 
repay, saith the Lord. Therefore if thine enemy hunger 
feed him, if he thirst give him drink: for in so doing 
thou shalt heap coals of fire on his head. Be not 
overcome of evil, but overcome evil with good. Let every 
soul be subject unto the higher powers, for there is no 
power but of God. The powers that be are ordained of God. 
Whosoever, therefore, resisteth the power, resisteth the 

ordinance of God, and they that resist shall receive to 
themselves damnation, for rulers are not a terror to good 
works but to the evil. Wilt thou not then be afraid of 
the power. Do that which is good and thou shalt have 
praise of the same. For he is the minister of 1 1101 1 God, 
a revenger to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil. 
Wherefore ye must needs be subject not only for wrath, 
but also for conscience' sake. For this cause pay ye 
tribute also; for they are God's ministers attending 
continually upon this very thing. Render to all, 
therefore, their dues; tribute to whom tribute is due; 
custom to whom custom; fear to whom fear; honor to whom 

This is the most complete statement of the Christian's relation to the civil government found 
in the New Testament, accepting as we do that the higher powers here refer to the civil 

Many hold that this passage refers to church authorities, but this application involved 
difficulties to my mind inexplicable. So I believe that the higher powers refer to civil 

The Holy Spirit then warns these Christians that they must not avenge themselves, they must 
suffer wrong, for it is written: "Vengeance is mine, I will repay, saith the Lord." Christians 
are forbidden to take vengeance, God will avenge their wrongs. The higher powers are 
immediately introduced as God's agency through which he will take vengeance and execute 

We found that he so used the wicked nations under the Old Testament dispensation. This 
higher power is a revenger to execute wrath on him that doeth evil. The Christian has been 
clearly forbidden to take vengeance or execute wrath, but he is to live peaceably with all men, 
to do good for evil. Then a Christian cannot be an officer or executor of this higher power. 
Human governments, we found in the Old Testament, as Babylon, Assyria, and others, were 
ordained of God, and used to punish other wicked nations. Kings and rulers were used as "my 
servants" to punish wicked people. 

"But God maketh the wrath of man to praise him; the 
remainder of wrath will he restrain." (Ps. lxxvi: 10.) 

God uses the wrath of man to promote his own praise, for the greatest good of his people. 


Wrath that would go beyond this, God will restrain. With these thoughts, this higher power is 
ordained of God as all human government is, to punish those who refuse to obey God. The 
civil ruler is a minister of wrath, whom God uses to punish wickedness and rebellion. The 
government which he here calls his ordinance, is the Roman, in direct line of descent from 
that of Babylon, through that of Medo -Persia, and of Greece. He whom he calls the minister 
of God is the vile persecuting Nero, with his subordinates. How can he be said to be a 
"minister to thee for good?" In the same sense that "all things work together for good to them 
that love the Lord;" in the same sense that he makes the wrath of man to praise him, while the 
remainder of wrath, which would inflict more punishment than would redound to his praise, 
he restrains. So much of wrath as promotes the true good of God's children, he permits to 
come upon them; all that would go beyond that, God restrains. In the same sense that 
Nebuchadnezzar was his servant - that Babylon was his battle axe. Then all the persecutions 
that came upon the Christians, even in the days of Nero, were needed by the children of God, 
to promote their true and eternal welfare. All the afflictions that were to come upon them 
were for their good. They are for their good in the courses they pursue - in the position in 
which they place themselves. In different courses, they would not be needed for their good. 
One chief good was to wean them from love of the kingdoms of the world. How can this 
wicked ruler be a terror to evil works and not to good? Because if God permits only so much 
punishment to come upon his children as will promote their true good, all the evil that comes 
upon them is intended by God, to restrain and deter them from sin, and to encourage them to 
do good. Besides it is true that the essentials to all quiet, stable government are such as to 
make 1 1121 1 even evil men in authority prefer goodness, forbearance, quiet and industry, The 
qualities inculcated by the Christian religion, to the turbulent, disorderly and rebellious spirit, 
the concomitant of sin and godlessness. And it is only when there is animosity toward good 
men on account of fidelity to principle, or to parties that are offensive, and that are persecuted 
for their principles, that even wicked and tyrannical rulers would not encourage and reward 
the orderly, quiet spirit in preference to the disorderly and wicked. And God overrules the 

most wicked government to the destruction of the wicked. All government then is a terror to 
evil-doers and not to good. This is true of hell itself. 


Hell, in our former essay we found, was an ordinance of God to punish wickedness. The 
devil, the ruler over hell, is God's minister to execute wrath and vengeance in the unseen 
spirit land. Ruled by the devil who seduces men to sin, it is overruled by God to punish sin 
and sinners, and so to deter from sin, and encourage to good. It is a terror to evil-doers. Hell 
itself ministers good to the obedient servant of God. To seek to resist or overturn hell as the 
institution of God for punishing sinners and destroying sin, would be to resist the ordinance 
of God, and would bring swift damnation to the inhabitant of the spirit land that would dare 
such a thing. So, too, human government is God's ordinance to punish sinners. So long as 
sinners are in rebellion against God and his authority and refuse to be his servants, so long 
would it be resisting the ordinance of God to resist the human government and seek to 
overthrow or destroy it. It is God's ordinance for punishing sin and sinners, and as such it is 
right and good for the end for which God ordained it. 

Because hell is an ordinance of God is no reason that his 1 1131 1 true servants, the angels, and 
"spirits of the just made perfect," should seek to enter it, guide and direct its operations and 
partake of its spirits and its rewards. No more is the fact that civil government is an ordinance 
of God, a reason why his children on earth should enter into and carry forward the operations 
of civil government; drink into its spirit and partake of its rewards. It was not ordained for 
them, but for the "lawless and disobedient." 


In the spirit land there are two institutions or ordinances of God, heaven and hell. They are 
equally ordained of God. One to foster and reward fidelity to God, the other to punish sin and 
rebellion against God, and in doing this be a terror to evil-doers and not to the good. They are 
ruled over by two different beings, both ministers of God. One his own son, who so rules in 
heaven as to encourage and reward fidelity to God. The other, Satan, rules in hell, so as to 
punish sin and rebellion against God, and in doing this to deter from evil works. These two 
institutions have their counterparts in this world. The church of Jesus Christ embodying the 
true servants of God, and so ruled, as to promote fidelity in God's children, by the Lord Jesus 

Christ. The other, human government, the embodied effort of man to rule the world without 
God, ruled over by "the prince of this world," the devil. Its mission is to execute wrath and 
vengeance here on earth. Human government bears the same relation to hell that the church 
bears to heaven. 

God always selects servants or ministers to do his work, that in character are fitted for the 
work to be done. For example, Christ must needs die. God selected the money-loving, cold- 
hearted, calculating, Judas Iscariot, to betray him, because he was in character suited for the 
diabolical work. When the mother of our Lord was to be cared for, 111 All He chose the gentle, 
tender, loving John. God without doing violence to his own character and the eternal 
harmony of his laws could never have selected John to betray the Savior. He was unfitted for 
it. He could not choose even Peter. Peter, impulsive and rash, could rush forward and involve 
himself in difficulties, that would lead him to deny his master, but there was nothing of the 
cold-blooded traitor in his character. So in the unseen state he selected Jesus to rule over 
heaven and receive the fullness of its joy in bestowing joy and happiness on others. God 
could not choose Christ to minister wrath in hell. Recognizing fully the righteousness and 
justice of the punishment of the rebellious in hell, it would yet have been inflicting the 
torments of hell upon Jesus to require him to stir up the fires of wrath, and execute vengeance 
in hell on the wicked. God chose the devil, one fitted in character for this work, and so 
overrules that in inflicting wrath on others, the devil as the chiefest sinner, suffers the most 
excruciating horrors of hell. So in the institutions here on earth. In his church or kingdom, the 
best, truest, most faithful men are chosen to encourage and promote virtue and loyalty to 
God. And it is of his kingdom of loyal subjects that it is said, 

"When the righteous are in authority the people rejoice, 
but when the wicked bear rule the people mourn." (Prov. 
xxix: 2.) 

This is spoken of God's people, those under his government, not of human governments. 
Abraham, Moses, David, Hezekiah, Samuel, Daniel, Peter, James, John and Paul, are samples 
of those chosen to rule in God's kingdom, who always brought gladness of heart to the 
people. The wicked who attained the rule among God's people brought sorrow. Oh the other 
hand, Nebuchadnezzar, Pharaoh, Darius, Nero, are the ministers of God to rule over the I II 51 1 
kingdoms of this world, to execute wrath on the evil-doer. Daniel said, 

"The MOST HIGH ruleth in the kingdom of men and giveth it 
to whomsoever he will and setteth up over it the basest 
of men." 

So in the kingdoms of the world, God often chooses as his ministers to execute wrath, the 
basest of men; those in character fitted to perform the work of vengeance to be done; and to 
resist them as rulers of the kingdoms of earth would be to resist the ministers of God. 

To return to the Scripture quoted: In view of the fact that civil government is an ordinance of 
God, even the infamous Nero, a minister of God, we must be subject, not only for wrath (fear 
of punishment) but also for conscience sake. That is, as a duty we owe to God, we must 
submit to them in the place, God has put them. "For this cause [as a duty you owe to God] 
pay ye tribute also;" for they are God's ministers attending continually upon this very thing - 
"executing wrath." This is exactly what Christ did; paid tax, although in doing so he classed 
himself as a stranger and not a child of human government - the same government concerning 
which Paul now writes to the Christians at Rome. As God appoints ministers having 
characters fitted to do the work for which he appoints them, and Nero was a chosen minister 
to do this work, it is clear that a true humble faithful Christian could not be chosen to do the 
same work. The relation Christians bear to this government is expressed by the words "be 
subject." The same relationship and the duties required by it are presented in (1 Tim. iii: 1,) 

"Put them in mind to be subject to principalities and 
powers, to obey magistrates, to be ready to every good 

Again, "Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the 
Lord's sake; whether it be to the king as supreme; or unto 
governors, as unto them that sent by him for the punishment of 
evil-doers and for the praise of them that do well. For so is 
the will of God, that with well doing you may put to shame the 
II16II ignorance of foolish men. As free and not using your 
liberty as a cloak of maliciousness, but as the servants of 
God. Honor all men. Love the brotherhood. Fear God. Honor the 
king." (1 Pet. ii: 13.) 

Here the end for which human government was ordained and the special conditions of the 
people under these governments are kept constantly in view by the apostle. When writing to 
those at Rome directly under the rule of the king he told them to be subject to the king as 
supreme; in the provinces distinct from Rome, to which governors were sent he says to them 
"be subject to governors as unto them sent for the punishment of evil-doers." The human 
governments of the New Testament dispensation were but a continuance of those of the Old 
Testament, and of precisely the same nature. The people of God must needs occupy 
something of a different position to them, now, as their existence under the old dispensation 
was national and limited to certain territories, hence the limits were local and territorial lines. 
Now God's kingdom is spiritual and universal. It can exist in and under any and all the 
kingdoms of the earth, but it is of none. While existing in them it is as essentially distinct and 
separate from all as the kingdom of Israel was distinct and separate from the human 
governments by which it was surrounded and whose destruction it sought. 

"Be subject to," "submit to," both translated from one word are the terms that the spirit of 
God uses to define the Christian's connection with, and prescribe the duty he owes to these 
governments. Submit means "to yield one's person to the power of another, to give up 
resistance, to surrender." It carries the idea that the person or body that submits, is entirely 
distinct and separate from and in antagonism to the person or body to which it submits. The 
Christian then is not part of the body to which he submits, or to which he brings himself 
under subjection. He is I 111 1 1 distinct and separate from it. We cannot be said to submit to 
ourselves, or to a body of which we are a part and parcel, and with which we are in harmony, 
and which we aid to conduct or manage. Submission carries the idea of antagonism and 
opposition which are restrained and held in abeyance. This is the relationship everywhere 
defined as that which connects the Christian with the governments under which they live. 
They are to submit to the powers that be, not the powers they prefer, not the powers they may 
believe constitutional or best, but those they are under. It is argued against this, that we are 
commanded to submit to God - children to their parents, wives to their husbands, and the 
members to the elders. Therefore antagonism is not involved in the expression. Antagonism 
in all these relationships is the ground of the admonition. Were there none, there would be no 
need of the admonition. And the admonition requires only a submission without active 
participation. But in these relations to God, to the parents, to husbands, to elders, still other 
terms as love, honor, are added. To submit is to restrain that antagonism that it shall not grow 
into active resistance by the party in subjection. If no further command was given to regulate 

these relations than to submit, all that could be required would be, not to let this difference 
and the antagonism grow into active conflict. But we are told not only to submit to God but to 
love him with all the soul and the mind and the body, this leads to active, hearty, soul-felt 
participation in carrying forward his government. So the child is commanded to love the 
parent, the wife her husband, and all the members of the church must have a care one for 
another, they were to be members one of another, and to labor together for their mutual good, 
the advancement of their common cause, to love as brethren and be true children of God. 
When in a state of separation and //78// rebellion the command, first is, submit, do not 
actively antagonise or rebel, then from that they are to grow up in these closer relations and 
work to full-hearted participation, fellowship, oneness in each of these relations. It is the 
obligation of oneness in these higher relations that require and involves the joint support and 
participation. But as no higher or closer relation than submission is required toward civil 
government, all the Christian can do in that relation, is to refrain from active antagonism and 
conflict, and to quietly and passively submit within the prescribed limits, but no intimation of 
obligation or license to participate in or in anywise fellowship and support is found. 

This rule affords the Christian the only safe guidance amid the strifes and conflicts of the 
kingdoms of earth for supremacy. He is to submit to whatever one he may fall under; he is to 
become the partisan, the supporter, the defender, of none. Daniel clearly acted on this 
principle. When under the government of Babylon he submitted to Nebuchadnezzar and was 
faithful and true to him as his slave. When Babylon was overthrown by the Medo -Persian he 
submitted to Darius, and served him with equal fidelity. This submission to the human was 
always modified and limited by the highest obligation to obey God. Hence Daniel, 
trustworthy as a slave in all things that did not conflict with duty to God, went into the lions' 
den rather than disobey him. So with Christ, so with Peter, James and John, and all true 
Christians. But they are to submit - be subject to, - not participate in the governments under 
which they live. Luke xxii: 24, Christ, when there was strife among the disciples, said: 

"The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them, 
and they that exercise authority upon them are called 
benefactors. But ye shall not be so; but he that is 
chief, as he that doth serve. For which is greater, he 
that sitteth at meat or he that serveth. Is not he that 
sitteth at meat? But I am among you 1 1191 1 as one that 

serveth. Ye are they that continue with me in my 
temptations, and I appoint unto you a kingdom as my 
Father hath appointed unto me; that ye may eat and drink 
in my kingdom and sit on thrones, judging the twelve 
tribes of Israel." 

His disciples certainly could not serve in the earthly kingdoms, where the principles of 
service were in direct antagonism to the principles that must govern his servants in his 
kingdom. He places in contrast to the earthly kingdom, this kingdom he appoints to them, as 
his Father had appointed to him. This kingdom would be governed by the principles he 

"Finally, my brethren, be strong in the Lord and in the 
power of his might. Put on the whole armor of God, that 
ye may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil. 
For we wrestle not against flesh and blood; but against 
principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the 
darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in 
high places!" 

Here the human governments are placed among the powers of the wicked one, and their 
entire work was against the church, and the Christian must needs clothe himself with the 
whole armor of God, that he might withstand them and fight against them as enemies of God. 

"The friendship of the world is enmity with God; 
whosoever will be a friend of the world is the enemy of 
God." (Jas. iv: 4.) 

Friendship to the world means friendship to its institutions and governments. 

"I exhort therefore that first of all, supplications, 
prayers, intercessions and giving of thanks, be made for 
all men, for kings and for all that are in authority; 
that we may lad quiet and peaceable lives in all 
godliness and honesty." 

This Scripture admonishes us to pray for kings, for rulers and those who have authority over 
us, and the question comes in, Can we pray for the rulers, if these kingdoms are organized in 
opposition to the kingdom of God, and by those in rebellion against God? Again it is said, 
what we pray for, we must work for. If we pray for rulers, and for good rulers we must work 
to obtain them, encourage and sustain them. It is true, that we should work for that //80// for 
which we pray. Look at the teaching of this Scripture again. Prayers, supplication, 
thanksgiving, for rulers and all that are in authority; - for what? That they may be strong and 
prosper, and be permanent as rulers? Nay! but that we Christians, within the domain of those 
in authority, "may be able to lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty." Not 
that their kingdoms may be blessed, prospered, strengthened or built up, but that God's 
children may be blessed. The prayer is not for the good of the human ruler, but of the 
Christian subjects. We find precisely a similar case in Jer. xxix: 7. The Jews were in captivity 
in Babylon, were sent there on account their wickedness. God intended, as was shown in a 
former article, in a few years, to destroy Babylon as the most corrupt and wicked of all 
nations of earth. It was to be cursed, blighted forever on account of its wickedness. Yet 
Jeremiah writes to those Jews in Babylon, 

"Seek the peace of the city whither I have caused you to 
be carried away captives, and pray the Lord for it, for 
in the pace thereof ye shall have peace." 

There was no thought of good to Babylon, but of destruction and ruin, yet while you are in 
the wicked city seek the peace of the city because in its peace ye shall have peace. In seeking 
the peace of the city, they were not to strengthen or build it up or identify themselves with 
Babylon. Jeremiah the prophet warned the people to do no violence in order to be freed from 
a hated rule, but if they would pursue that course of submission, that will bring peace to the 
wicked and doomed city, while it remains, their own peace and quiet will be promoted. 
Again, this teaches that servants of God need not do violence to deliver themselves from the 
power of wicked rulers, for if they will live quietly, use no violence, they will find favor and 
peace, and God will use other wicked nations to overthrow their oppressors and so bring 
deliverance to them. "The //81// wicked are the sword of the Lord." To pray for rulers that we 
many lead peaceable lives does not involve a participation in the affairs of government. This 
would destroy the peace and quiet of life, the thing to be sought. 

Paul says, Col. ii: 13, 

"And you, being dead in your sins, and the uncircumcision 
of your flesh, hath he quickened together with him, 
having forgiven you all trespasses, blotting out the 
handwriting of ordinances, that was against us, which was 
contrary to us, and took it out of the way, nailing it to 
his cross, and having spoiled principalities and powers, 
he made a show of them openly, triumphing over them in 

Here his resurrection from the dead and the open and declared triumph over the devil in the 
resurrection, is called, the spoiling and triumphing over the powers and principalities of earth. 
It is a recognition that to triumph over the devil, was to triumph over, spoil and destroy his 
kingdoms or principalities on earth. Christ triumphed over him in the grave. 

"For as much then as the children are partakers of the 
flesh and blood, he also, himself likewise took part of 
the same, that through death, he might destroy him that 
had the power of death, that is the devil; and deliver 
them who, through fear of death, were all their lifetime 
subject to bondage." (Heb. ii: 14.), 

It may be questioned, if Christ triumphed over the devil, overcame him in the grave, how is it 
that he still exerts an influence and dominion over earth? God committed the rule of the 
world to men. "The gifts and callings of God are without repentance." That is, God having 
committed to man the rule of the world, he will not turn from it and destroy man or take from 
him the rule of the world and give it to another class of beings. Hence the world and the 
whole under-creation must share man's destiny, whatever that may be. God does not force 
man to follow him. He showed to man his superiority to the devil, conquered him in his own 
dominion, "led captivity [death] captive and gifts unto men." Yet man slowly, reluctantly 
accepts //82// the rule of God, and although death was conquered, and the way of man's 
escape made plain, deliverance can come to the world only as man chooses to resist the devil 
and obey God. He still has the power to serve the devil and in face of all that God has done to 
deliver him from the evil dominion, the world is still under bondage; still refuses freedom 
from sin. Deliverance comes, but it comes slowly. Because man is unwilling to serve God, he 
still serves in the human kingdoms instead of the kingdom of God. 


Christ's mission into the word is presented in 1 Cor. xv: 24, 

"Then cometh the end when he shall have delivered up the 
kingdom to God, even the Father. When he shall have put 
down all rule and all authority and power. For he must 
reign till he hath put all enemies under his feet. The 
last enemy that shall be destroyed is death. For he hath 
put all things under his feet. But when he saith all 
things are put under him it is manifest that he is 
excepted which did put all things under him. Then shall 
the Son also himself be subject unto him, that God may be 
all and in all." 

This declares that everything that is in the world, that exercises rule, authority or power, save 
as that rule, authority and power come directly from God, and are used under his direction, to 
promote the rule and dominion of God, is an enemy of God, and his Son Jesus Christ, and 
must be destroyed by the rule and dominion of the Son before the kingdom and dominion of 
the world can be delivered up to the Father. Jesus Christ came into the world to fulfill the 
law, to take it out of the way, to offer it up to God on the cross, a fulfilled law. His first work 
was, with his winnowing fan to purge out all the corruptions of the law and all additions 
thereto, and then to fulfill the pure perfect law as it came from God. This he did. So now he 
came to rescue the world from the dominion of the evil one, and to destroy everything that 
exerts power or authority or //83// dominion in the earth, and to establish the kingdom if God 
on earth. When that work is done he will deliver the redeemed kingdom up to God the Father, 
and himself be subject to the Father, that God may be all and in all, the only sovereign and 
ruler of the universe. Every being then will render homage and obedience to God. Then, and 
only then, will peace and harmony and good will dwell among men, and then every being in 
the universe will realize that his happiness will be promoted, by promoting the happiness of 
every other being, and all guided by one law will work in unison and harmony to the 
promotion of the glory of God and the good of men. 

But before that consummation can come "every plant not planted of God shall be rooted up." 
Every institution or organization of earth that exerts rule or authority or power must be 

destroyed. This earth in the material, moral and spiritual world must become again a garden 
of God's own planting. Not a brier, or thistle, or thorn, can grow in the material, moral, or 
spiritual world. Only those plants planted by the Father's hand and nurtured by the Father's 
love will grow in that redeemed and rescued Eden of God. Jesus Christ must put down and 
destroy all the powers and dominions of earth. He must reign until this is done. He reigns in 
his church; and his church is the kingdom established by God, which shall break in pieces 
and consume all earthly kingdoms, and which shall fill the whole earth, and itself stand 

Christ's mission - the mission of his kingdom - is to put down and destroy all these kingdoms, 
and to destroy everything that exercises rule, authority or power on earth. How can the 
servants of Christ and the subjects of his kingdom, enter into, strengthen, and build up that 
which Christ and his kingdom are commissioned to destroy. How can a Christian enter into 
and serve the human, how can //84// he divide his fealty, his love, his means and his time, his 
talent between the kingdom of God and the kingdom of the evil one? Death came with the 
rule of the devil. All that came with him must be destroyed by Christ; must be rooted out as 
not planted by the hand of God. 

"Jesus conquered death. Why then does he permit it to run 
riot on all that pertains to earth?" 

Death came as a result of sin. It results from sin, yet is the boundary line of sin. Beyond death 
active sin cannot go. Death must remain then until man ceases to sin, else man would be a 
sinner on earth, forever. But when all sin and rebellion, all the institutions of the evil one 
have been destroyed, then death as the last enemy itself shall be destroyed. When death is 
destroyed the mortal will be "clothed with immortality and death will be swallowed up in 
victory." This passage from 1 Cor. xv: is so in harmony with the prophecy of Daniel, the 
teaching of Christ, and the constantly declared end of Christ's mission on earth, that its 
meaning cannot be mistaken. Christians cannot support, participate in, be a part of that which 
Christ commissions them to destroy. 

"See that ye refuse not him that speaketh. For if they 
escaped not who refused him that spoke on earth, [Moses] 
much more shall not we escape if we turn away from him 
that speaketh from heaven; whose voice then shook the 

earth; but now he hath promised saying: Yet once more I 
shake not earth only but also heaven. And this word, yet 
once more, signifieth the removing of those things that 
are shaken, as of things that are made, that those things 
which cannot be shaken may remain. Wherefore, we, 
receiving a kingdom which cannot be moved, let us have 
grace whereby we may serve God acceptably with reverence 
and godly fear; for our God is a consuming fire." (Heb. 
xii: 25.) 

Here is a promise of removing all things save the true kingdom which cannot be moved or 
destroyed. Our God is a consuming fire, - to consume what? Not his own kingdom that 
cannot be moved; but all these earthly kingdoms that have grown up under the dominion of 
the evil one. //85// These will be destroyed by the consuming fire of Divine wrath. The 
exhortation of the apostle is, seeing these things are true, "let us have grace whereby we may 
serve God acceptably with reverence and godly fear." The ground of this exhortation is, if we 
serve these earthly kingdoms we shall be destroyed with them. We must share the destiny of 
the kingdom we serve. If a man identifies himself with an earthly kingdom, sustains and 
upholds it he must share its destiny. 

Of the same purport precisely is the language, 2 Peter iii: 5, 

"For this, they are willingly ignorant of, that by the 
word of God the heavens were of old, and the earth 
standing out of the water and in the water, whereby the 
world that then was, being overflowed with water, 
perished. But the heavens and the earth, which are now, 
by the same word are kept in store, reserved unto fire 
against the day of judgement and perdition of ungodly 
men. ... But the day of the Lord will come as a thief 
in the night; in which the heavens shall pass away 
with a great noise, and the elements shall melt with 
fervent heat, and the earth also, and the works that are 
therein shall be burned up. Seeing then that all these 
things shall be dissolved, what manner of persons ought 

ye to be, in all holy conversation and Godliness, looking 
for and hastening the coming of the day of the Lord, 
wherein the heavens being on fire shall be dissolved and 
the elements shall melt with fervent heat. Nevertheless 
we, according to his promise, look for a new heaven and 
a new earth, in which dwelleth righteousness. Wherefore 
beloved, seeing ye look for such things, be diligent that 
ye be found of him in peace without spot and blameless." 

The earth and the works therein "shall be burned up." What works? Not God's works. Not the 
kingdom which cannot be moved, and that shall stand forever; but the works, the institutions 
that have grown up under rule of the devil in this world. They are to be destroyed, to be 
burned up, while the kingdom of God as the ark of safety will ride the sea of fire, bearing all 
committed to its keeping into the new heavens and to the new earth wherein dwelleth 

We think to those who will study these things, there can //86// be no possible doubt but that 
the kingdoms of the world, the human kingdoms, were formed by man in rebellion against 
God. That God determined to destroy these governments, and that in destroying them he will 
destroy all those who sustain and uphold these governments and become identified with 
them. Daniel declared that the kingdom of God should break in pieces and consume all these 
kingdoms, and that it should fill the whole earth and stand forever. Christ recognized the 
kingdoms of the earth as the kingdoms of the devil, and that they should all be rooted up, that 
all the institutions of earth, save the kingdom of heaven, should be prevailed against by the 
gates of hell. Paul declared the civil ruler was ordained of God for the punishment of evil- 
doers; a work which he expressly declared Christians could not do but which the kingdoms of 
the evil one were ordained to do. He declared the exercise of the civil authority, to be a 
bearing the sword to execute vengeance and wrath, he told the disciples they could not 
execute vengeance, and that "the weapons of our warfare are not carnal, but mighty, through 
God, to the pulling down of strongholds," 2 Cor. x: 4, showing clearly that the Christians 
could not use these civil powers to promote righteousness, morality, or good to humanity. 
Christians cannot use them? They are to serve God in earnestness and loving loyalty and in 
the spirit of meekness and love to obey him, and he will so bless us. 

"All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, 
and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, 
for correction, for instruction in 
righteousness, that the man of God may be 
perfect; thoroughly furnished unto all good 

Under this Scripture we may expect, if not specific precepts, at least general directions for 
man's guidance in all the relationships of life. We do find directions for guiding Christians, as 
parents and children, as husbands and //87// wives, as masters and servants, as neighbors and 
strangers as friends and enemies, as those who do wrong and those who suffer wrong, 
guidance is given Christians in every possible relationship into which a Christian may enter, 
except that of civil ruler or manager of the affairs of the governments of earth, if it be 
admissible for him to be this. The Christian's duty, as subject of earthly governments, is 
definitely revealed; but neither a word, nor an example is given as to his duty, or the rules 
that should govern him as a manager or ruler in human governments. And yet this is the most 
important relationship, involving the weal or woe of a greater number of human beings than 
any other relationship into which he may enter, if it be lawful for him to enter this. Why this 
failure to prescribe duty here, except on the ground that these earthly kingdoms are of the evil 
one, and have grown up in rebellion against God, and the mission of the church and the 
children of God is to displace and destroy them with the Divine government? They are 
ordained of God to punish evil, to execute wrath and vengeance, and for the government and 
punishment of those who refuse to be governed by God, [and] themselves in turn to be 
destroyed together with those who are indissolubly wedded to them. It is the duty of the 
Christian to submit to the human government in its office and work and to seek its destruction 
only by spreading the religion of Christ and so converting men from service to the earthly 
government to service to the heavenly one, and so, too, by removing the necessity for its 
existence and work. No violence, no sword, no bitterness or wrath can he use. The spread of 
the peaceful principles of the Savior will draw men out of the kingdoms of earth into the 
kingdom of God. But "no man can serve the two masters. He will love the one and despise 
the other." Two distinct and antagonistic spirits dwell in the two //88// institutions. A man 
must drink of the spirit of the institution which he serves. 

The great weakness of the church to-day is that the children of God enter into the kingdoms 
of this world, imbibe the spirit of those kingdoms, bring that spirit into the church of God, 
defile the church and drive out the spirit of Christ. The spirit of self- aggrandizement, reliance 
upon human wisdom, human devices, and institutions, ambition for worldly honor and glory, 
bitterness and wrath are as prevalent in the church as in the world. The spirit of gentleness 
and meekness under trials, insults and persecutions, is as seldom found in the church as in 
this world. The reason is that Christians enter the human governments, imbibe their spirit, 
participate in their works, and bring this spirit into the church of God. The spirit of Christ is 
driven out of the church and the distinction between the church and the world is destroyed. 

The talent to which the church is entitled is now devoted to the service of the civil 
government. Nine-tenths of those devoted to the support and upbuilding of the human 
governments in civilized nations are men, or children of men, claiming to be citizens of the 
Divine kingdom. Nine-tenths of those who, in civilized countries, engage in war and shed the 
blood of their fellow-men, are of the same class; those who have pledged themselves, their 
lives, their talents, their all to the upbuilding of the kingdom of God. Nine-tenths of the rulers 
and officers of all the civilized governments of the world are citizens or children of citizens 
of the Divine government. Nine members of the church of Christ seek service in the human 
government where one devotes himself to the service of God in the Divine government. The 
citizens of the Divine government give nine dollars to advance the honor and glory, and the 
building up of parties to control the governments //89// of the evil one, where they give one 
dollar to carry forward the work of the Divine government. J. M. Barnes, in a little church in 
Alabama, found five candidates for civil offices - but not one desirous of doing the work of a 
bishop in the church of God. This is a fair sample of the spirit of those who enter the church, 
to say nothing of the thousands raised by the church who for the sake of earthly glory never 
enter it. 

The young, the children of the church, saved by the moral and religious training of the 
church, from wrecking their ability and their talent in paths of dissipation and degradation, 
give their talent, their strength, and their life to the upbuilding of the earthly kingdoms, while 
God's kingdom languishes and suffers for want of true, earnest faithful men to carry forward 
the work God has committed to it. As in all compromises between right and wrong, wrong is 
benefited, and right suffers, the kingdoms of the evil one are built up by the material prepared 
by the church of God. 

The kingdoms of the world originated in rebellion against God. For four thousand years God 
constantly schooled his children against reliance upon or affiliation with these human 
governments or their subjects in any way. Every act of affiliation, partnership, friendship or 
treaty with them was regarded and punished as treason against God. The spirit of complete 
antagonism, and the wide separation between the two, were marked, emphasized and fostered 
by Almighty God. 

At the end of the Jewish age, Christ, commissioned from heaven, came to earth in person to 
lead in the final conflict. The devil in person takes command of the opposing hosts. The 
kingdoms of the world are recognize by Christ as the kingdoms of the devil. Christ's subjects 
are in the world but not of it. His kingdom is not of this 1 1901 1 world; his subjects cannot fight 
with carnal weapons. Their citizenship is in heaven, the weapons of their warfare are not 
carnal, but mighty through God to the pulling down of strongholds. His children are pilgrims 
and strangers in the earthly kingdoms. They seek a city which hath foundations, whose maker 
and builder is God. They are not to seek for earthly honors; not to fear him who is able to 
destroy only the body; but to fear him who hath power to destroy both soul and body in hell. 
They are to "submit, be subject to, the powers that be." This line of connection with and 
separation from the human government, is carefully defined, but in all the Book of God, we 
fail to find a single expression or example indicating that the child of God may engage in, 
carry on, upbuild or uphold a kingdom of earth. How can God's children uphold and upbuild 
that which is in rebellion against God, and which God has especially commissioned his Son 
and his church to destroy. 

None can doubt that the final end will be the destruction of all earthly kingdoms, that they 
may give place to the reign of the Divine kingdom. How can this be when the children of the 
Divine kingdom give their lives to uphold the earthly kingdoms? As things now go, every 
individual in the world might be converted to Christ and yet the earthly kingdoms would 
remain in all their present strength and vigor, and the spirit of the world would be cherished 
in the church of God. But if every man converted to Christ withdrew from the support of the 
earthly kingdoms, these kingdoms would weaken and fall to pieces, for lack of supporters; 
"little by little" giving way before the increase and spread of the kingdom of God. It would no 
more do to destroy them suddenly, lest the wild beasts of ruin and destruction and anarchy 
possess the land, than it would have done to suddenly destroy the 1 1911 1 inhabitants of Canaan 
on the advent of the children of Israel lest the wild beasts multiply in that land against the 

people of God. God must in the police regulations of the world retain his institutions ordained 
to execute wrath until his own children possess the earth. God has two processes continually 
going forward, by which he world is to become the possession of the "saints of the most 

1. The work of conversion goes forward taking men, one by one, out of the service of the 
earthly kingdoms and transferring them to the service of the Divine kingdom. 

2. He uses one wicked nation, one earthly government to destroy another nation or people, 
hopelessly given over to sin and rebellion. The compromises of the children of God with the 
human governments, that obtain now, thwart both these processes. 

1. Conversion to Christ does not take the person out of the kingdoms of the evil one. It does 
not weaken the kingdoms of this world. It does not consecrate the talents, the means, the 
strength, the life of the converts to the support and spread of the kingdom of God. It does not 
separate them from the spirit of the kingdoms of the world, it does not bring them under the 
guidance of the kingdom of Christ. Conversion to Christ now does not weaken the kingdoms 
of the devil. It does not strengthen the church of God, but oftener, by bringing in an evil 
spirit, weakens it. 

2. The children of God are so mixed and mingled with the kingdoms of the world, that God 
cannot destroy the wicked kingdoms, without destroying his own children. Hence the call of 
God is: 

"Come out of her my people that ye be not partakers of 
her sins and that ye receive not of her plagues." (Rev. 
xviii: 4.) 

This is spoken of the Babylon of human government. We cannot find one word of ground, in 
all the New Testament, for the children of God participating in the 1 1921 1 kingdoms of the evil 
one. The practice weakens the church of God; deprives it of the service, the talent, time and 
devotion of its children, gives its strength to the building up of what God proposes to destroy. 
It brings the spirit of the world kingdoms into the church of God, corrupts the church, drives 
out the spirit of God, destroys the sense of dependence upon God, causes the children of God 
to depend upon their own wisdom and devices, and the arm of violence, and the institutions 

of earth rather than upon God and his appointments; weans them from trust and faith in God, 
and from service in his kingdom, diverts their minds, means and service from the church to 
the kingdoms of the world, and so defiles and corrupts the church that God cannot bless that 

What the church needs now is a consecrated membership that will sanctify the man, - soul, 
mind and body, to the service of God. That will consecrate the talent, the time, the means of 
God's people to the service and advancement of God's kingdom; that will cause every 
Christian father and mother, like Hannah of old, to accept children as the gifts of the Lord, to 
be consecrated to his service from childhood. Now the mothers and fathers in Christ, oftener 
than otherwise, object to their children devoting themselves to the service of God. They 
prefer that they should do service and gain honor in the earthly governments. It is all folly 
and delusion to think of converting the world to God, with the present affiliation between the 
church of God and the kingdoms of the devil, and this giving the means and service due the 
church, to strengthen and upbuild her enemy. There can be no hope for the conversion of the 
world, until these two kingdoms be recognized in their true, antagonistic spirit, mission and 

On the passage Matt, xvii: 24, (see page 64) in reference to the tribute money the Diatessaron 
of Tatian which 1 1931 1 is usually credited to the latter part of the second century, gives the 
following translation: 

"And when Cephas had entered the house, Jesus prevented 
him, saying to him: What seems to thee Simon? From whom 
do the kings of the earth receive tribute and custom: 
from their own sons, or from aliens? Simon said to him, 
From aliens. Jesus said to him, Therefore the children 
are free? Simon says to him, Yea. Jesus said to him, Then 
do thou also give as being an alien to them. But lest we 
be brought into straits go thou to the sea and cast a 

While we do not even claim with assurance that this work belongs to the second century, it 
does undoubtedly belong to a very early date. Whether the expression "as an alien to them" is 
a part of the original text or not, it shows beyond a doubt what was the prevailing 

understanding of the meaning of this text at the date of the publication of this work. It is also 
much more probable that this idea came down from the days of the apostles than that it 
originated after civil offices were opened to the Christians and many of them were holding 

i mil 



We directed attention in the first chapter, on this subject, to the fact that civil or human 
government originated among the rebellious and was the embodied effort of man to live free 
from the control and government of God; and that the whole of the Old Testament history is a 
record of the establishment and perpetuation by God of a government of his own, whose 
mission was to destroy these earthly governments and to bring all people to submit to this, his 
own government. It is said that human government "is a part of man's nature. God in creating 
man with his peculiar nature became by that act the author of civil government." It grew out 
of man's nature only after that nature had been perverted to the service and brought under the 
dominion and corrupting influences of the evil one. All the sin and the corruption and the 
rebellion of the world have come up as a part of and result of the same nature perverted and 
defiled by the service of the evil one. If God, by creating man, became the author of all that 
has grown out of his perverted and corrupted nature, he then is the author of all the sin and 
rebellion of the world. The truth is, man's nature was defiled and whole being corrupted by 
sin. Out of this corrupted nature has grown the evils of the universe. All the institutions and 
evil influence of earth have sprung from this polluted fountain. All the institutions that grew 
out of this sinful fountain are necessarily evil. A depraved human nature can produce only 
corrupt and sinful institutions. It acting in 1 1951 1 and through these institutions is more and 
more defiled by them. Hence "evil men and seducers wax worse and worse." All the 
institutions of God have been established with a view of counteracting and destroying these 
productions of a corrupted human nature, and of cleansing and purifying that nature itself, 
that it may be fitted for service in the Divine institutions, and that it may cease to be a prolific 
source of evil plants. The fact that human government is an outgrowth of perverted human 
nature, is a sure guarantee that its essential elements are evil, and that it is founded in a spirit 
of rebellion against God, 

"Because the carnal mind is enmity against God, for it is 
not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can it be." 

The carnal, natural mind before it is brought into harmony with the will of God, by the 
regenerative power of the Holy Spirit by the implanting of the Divine seed, cannot be subject 
to the will of God, and can produce no fruit acceptable to God. 

All the dealings of God with man, all the messengers and messages that God has sent to man, 
were intended to implant the word of God in the heart of men and so change that heart, from 
its rebellious spirit and life, and so eradicate and destroy the institutions and influences of 
earth that have grown out of that polluted soil, as to make the heart and the life flowing out of 
that heart pure and holy, and to build up institutions in which God's Spirit would dwell, and 
that the nature of man once purified, in these Divine institutions might find an atmosphere of 
purity and love, in which man could develop a life in spiritual strength and holiness, and that 
his life might bear as fruits the graces so helpful to man and pleasing to God. Verily, the truth 
that human government is an outgrowth of human nature, is no evidence that God is its 
author, or that it is well pleasing to God, or that the children of 1 1961 1 God should sustain, 
support, perpetuate it, and drink into its spirit. But just the contrary. 

It not only originated among the rebellious, but God from the beginning treated it as an out 
growth and development of rebellion against him, and its authors and supporters as his 

God did not tolerate affiliation or affinity between the Divine and the human, nor between the 
subjects of the one and those of the other; and that prophetically this conflict, irrepressible 
and uncompromising was projected into the future, and extended to the limits of the world. 
The earthly kingdoms, that had the impress of their builder - man - upon them, were one and 
all to be broken in pieces and consumed by the kingdom which "the God of heaven shall set 
up, and which shall fill the whole earth and stand forever." In this old dispensation the 
conflict was between the subordinates, the servants of God and the subjects of the evil one, 
but in the New, Jesus Christ who had undertaken to rescue the world, and the devil meet in 
fierce personal conflict. In accord with this, the kingdoms of the world, both by the devil and 
by Christ Jesus, are declared to be the possession of the devil and in his hands, to be disposed 
of as he saw fit. Christ had come specifically to rescue the world from the rule of the evil one, 
and to destroy all institutions that had grown up under his care, and to bring the world back to 
the dominion of God the Father, and to restore it to harmonious relations with the entire 
universe, ruled over by God. 

Of these conclusions it seems there can be no doubt. Take these truths as the key notes out of 
the Old and New Testaments and they are without point or meaning. The end of this conflict 
is thus described: 

"Then cometh the end, when he shall have delivered up the 
kingdom to God, even the Father. When he shall have put 
down all rule and all authority and power. For he must 
reign till he 1 1911 1 hath put all enemies under his 
feet." ... "And when all things shall be subdued unto 
him, then shall the Son also himself be subject unto him, 
that God may be all and in all." 

There can be no doubt of the destruction of all that exercises authority, power, or dominion 
on earth, by the reign of Christ. 

Rev. xi: 15, declares as a future consummation of this conflict on earth, 

"The kingdoms of this world have become the kingdoms of 
God and his Christ." 

Many insist that this means, the conquest will be brought about by the conversion of all the 
people, and the civil governments will then be manned by Christians, and so will be Christian 
governments by having only Christian rulers and officers. But the declaration was, 

"It shall break in pieces and consume all these and it shall 
fill the whole earth and stand forever." 

These kingdoms were to be broken in pieces, and become as "the chaff of the summer's 
threshing floor and the wind carried them away that no room was found for them." For God 
to adopt them and rule through them, would be for God to displace the servants of the evil 
one, and in and through the institutions of the evil one to govern the world. God will overrule 
the kingdoms and governments of the world to the destruction of each other, that they may 
give way for his government, but he could not rule in, and exert his dominion through the 
governments of the evil one. To do so would be to proclaim to the universe the superiority of 
the institutions of the evil one. Besides, "these shall be moved," "shall be burned up." 

"Every plant not planted by my heavenly Father shall be 
rooted up." 

God overrules these to the destruction of those institutions and punishment of the people that 
are not pleasing to him. But these human governments shall be "moved" and "burned up," 
while his kingdom "cannot be moved," //98// but with "a new heavens and a new earth," shall 
be the dwelling place of the righteous forever. 


The term Babylon is used almost from the beginning to the close of the Bible. It had in the 
beginning, a clear and well defined meaning. It preserves the same meaning to the end. In the 
beginning of the human race persons, things, institutions, were named according to the 
leading quality or characteristic of that which was named. The first human government was 
called "Babel," which means confusion. 

It was clearly so called, because man's effort to govern himself brought confusion and strife. 
The effort by man to live without God, and to govern the world, resulted in confusion and 
strife from the beginning. It brings strife, war and desolation still. The people of Maine and 
Texas, of England and India, could never become enemies or be involved in strife and war, 
save through the intervention of human government to spread enmity and excite to war. 
Individuals in contact might, through conflict of interests, or personal antipathy, become 
embittered, and engage in war with each other, but distinct nations or peoples could have no 
strife save as they should be excited and carried on by these human governments. 

All the wars and conflicts of earth, all the desolation, ruin and blood- shed, between separated 
nations, or distinct peoples, are the fruits of human government. The government of God 
breaks down divisions among those who accept it, and brings peace and complete union to all 
who submit to his rule. Whatever tends to wean men from this government of God, and to 
substitute other governments for it, brings confusion and strife. 

Then, in every way, the introduction of human government brought confusion, division, 
strife. This, its chief 1 1991 1 result, its characteristic fruit, gave to it the name Babel, Babylon. 
As all human governments sprang, in some sense, from this first, Babylon became a 
patronymic, and is so used in the Scriptures, of human government. The term, Babylon, then, 

in the Scriptures, always refers to the original human government or to human government in 
general. It is never bestowed upon the Divine government or any corruption of it. The Divine 
government, or the church, is frequently in Scripture represented by a woman. The corrupted 
church, by a lewd woman. The pure church, by a virtuous, faithful woman. 

We rely but little upon interpretations of unfulfilled prophecy, yet there are some unfulfilled 
prophecies in such perfect harmony with those that have been fulfilled and with the leading 
purpose of God as declared in the whole Bible, that we may venture to say that they do not 
teach certain things. They probably do teach others. 

"And the great city was divided into three parts, and the 
cities of the nations fell. And great Babylon came in 
remembrance before God, to give unto her the cup of the 
wine of the fierceness of his wrath." 

Here a city of nations is spoken of. A city of nations must be a multitude of nations viewed 
together. Then Babylon came in remembrance before God to give to her the cup of the 
fierceness of his wrath. What is Babylon? The seventeenth chapter, first verse, 

"I will shew unto thee the great whore, that sitteth upon 

many waters, with whom the kings of the earth have 

committed fornication, and the inhabitants of the earth 

have been made drunk with the wine of her fornication. So 

he carried me away in the spirit into the wilderness: and 

I saw a woman set upon a scarlet-colored beast, full of 

the names of blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns. 

And the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet color, 

and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, 

having a golden cup in her hand full of the abominations 

and filthiness of her fornications: And upon her forehead 

was a name written - MYSTERY - BABYLON THE GREAT, THE 



The points we wish to bring out are these: The whore is the corrupted church. The waters, the 
spirit declares, are peoples and multitudes and nations and tongues; the beast a human 
government. Babylon typifies the human governments of earth. The kings of the earth had 
committed fornication with the church. All affiliations on the part of the church, or members 
of the church, with human governments are characterized as fornication or adultery. 

These kings of the earth had been in alliance and affiliation with the church. The woman was 
carried by a bloody human government, "a scarlet colored beast full of names of blasphemy." 

"The woman (church) was arrayed in purple and scarlet and 
decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having 
a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and 
filthiness of her fornications." 

These were the rewards of her alliance with the kings and kingdoms of earth. The 
superscription on her forehead was descriptive of her character. She, the Mystery, dwelt in 
Babylon. She was the mother of those who committed fornication with the governments of 
the earth. Babylon and the woman who was allied with Babylon certainly were not the same. 
She was joined in alliance with the kingdoms of the earth, and supported by the human 
governments. This false church, bad woman, was drunken with the blood of saints, and with 
the blood of the martyrs of Jesus. This blood she had shed through her alliance with the 
earthly kings, and by the use of carnal weapons. What shall be the end? These kings that 
carry the bad woman will come to hate her and will finally destroy her. 

"The ten horns which thou sawest upon the beast, these 
shall hate the whore and make her desolate and naked and 
shall eat her flesh and shall burn her with fire. For God 
shall put it into their hearts to fulfill his will, and 
to agree and give their kingdom unto the beast - until 
the word of God be fulfilled. And the woman which thou 
sawest is that great city which //101// reigneth over the 
kings of the earth." 

Which we take to teach that God will use these human governments with which the church 
has committed fornication to destroy the corrupted church. Those she used to punish others 

will destroy her. This will be another exemplification that God uses the wicked to punish the 
rebellious, and that those who take the sword shall perish by the sword. It is wrong for 
Christians to persecute, to use violence in opposing the false churches that maintain 
themselves by alliance with or by use of the civil power; still God will use these human 
governments to destroy the churches that have sought alliance with them. But the point 
especially before us, is, that Babylon was, and is, not the false church, but it is the civil or 
human governments of earth, and in this instance united with, and supporting the false 
church. This great Babylon, the human governments that have grown up in rebellion against 
God, he first uses to punish and destroy the false church that has been in alliance with the 
civil power, then Babylon itself, having subserved its end, comes in remembrance before 
God, to give unto her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath. 

"Thus with violence shall that great city Babylon be 
thrown down and shall be found no more at all." 

The result of that judgement is presented in the 18th chapter of Revelations. "I saw another 
angel come down from heaven, having great power and the earth was lightened with his 
glory," and he cried mightily with a strong voice, saying, 

"Babylon the Great is fallen, is fallen, and is become 
the habitation of devils, and the hold of every foul 
spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird." 

This was certainly the human governments that have held universal sway over the peoples of 

It was of this Babylon of human government that another angel cried, saying, 


"Come out of her my people, that ye be not partakers of 
her sins." 

The result of this downfall of all these human governments and churches in alliance with 
them, that had enjoyed the power and protection of human governments, is presented, also 
the rejoicing the true saints who always suffered at their hands. 

"In her (the false church) was found the blood of 
prophets and saints and of all that were upon earth." 

The 19th chapter declares, of the destruction of these governments of earth which are the 
possession of the evil one, 

"After these things I heard a great voice of much people 
in heaven saying, Alleluia, salvation and glory and power 
and honor unto the Lord our God." 

The remainder of the book of the Revelation is taken up with the final triumph of the church 
or government of God after the destruction of this government of man that has been the 
enemy of God and his government from the beginning. 

Protestants habitually refer this language concerning the lewd woman that is in Babylon to 
the Romish church. But if the Romish church be the mother of harlots, who are the harlot's 
daughters. "Like mother, like daughters." All affiliation of the government of God, or of the 
subjects of that government with the human government, or its subjects, was declared by 
God, from the beginning, to be adultery. Then the church that joins affinity with human 
government is guilty of adultery - is a harlot. The church that led the way in it is the mother, 
the others who follow in that affiliation are the harlot's daughters. What is the difference 
between those which like the church of Rome, or the other state churches, make alliance with 
the civil power, and those churches which, while not supported by the state, yet rely upon the 
state for protection, and through their membership serve and support the human 1 11031 1 
government? The non-state churches just as much support the state, train their children to 
serve the state, give their brightest children to the state in preference to the church as fully as 
the state churches do. 

The difference is, the one gets support from the state, in turn, the others support the state, 
deprive themselves of the service and devotion of their own children in order to support the 
human government, but get no support from the state in return. The difference between them 
is presented in the type of harlot who is guilty of lewdness for hire, and the wife who shares 
her bed with another, without hire. One is hired to commit adultery by her lovers, the other 
hires her lovers to come in to her. The state churches get support for the service to the state, 
the non-state churches serve the human government, and get no pay. 

The term "beast" is used in the Bible frequently and always refers to human government. 
When particular animals are mentioned, the unclean and beasts of prey represent the human 
kingdoms or kings, and the clean inoffensive animals, as the lamb, the sheep, the dove, 
represent the kingdom or servants of God. In all the historic accounts of the kingdom of God 
and human government no account is found of affiliation of the pure woman with human 
governments. No prophetic vision ever saw the beast carrying the pure woman, or supporting 
the true church, but always it supported and made alliances with the lewd woman. 


While these things are true beyond successful dispute, we are told the Scriptures show that 
God's children did participate in the management and support of the human government. 
Joseph and Daniel are instances in the Old Testament, and Cornelius, the Philippian jailor, 
and //104// Erastus in the New Testament. Joseph and Daniel served in their position only 
when in slavery, and did what service they rendered in these governments as slaves of their 
masters, and not as officers or rulers in the state. They did not seek to support, maintain, exalt 
or perpetuate the governments in which they served. Slavery then involved the right of the 
king to the life of the slave. Joseph was sold by the Ishmaelites to Potiphar, whom he served 
as his slave, faithful and trusted, but a slave. He was imprisoned by Potiphar as his slave; 
remained in prison over two years at the will of Potiphar; was brought to Pharaoh's attention 
when he had the dream. He showed he was under Divine guidance in the interpretation of 
Pharaoh's dream. Whether Pharaoh bought him of Potiphar we are not informed, but he went 
into Pharaoh's service as his slave, and so served through the fourteen years of abundance and 
of famine. Joseph gathered the harvest during the years of plenty as Pharaoh's slave, his 
personal slave. He sold the food as Pharaoh's slave. He sold the food as long as there was 
money and brought the money into Pharaoh's house. (Gen. xlvii: 14.) He bought the cattle 
then, and afterwards the land. "And Joseph bought all the land for Pharaoh." Then he bought 
the people. "Behold I have bought you and your land for Pharaoh." Joseph was a faithful and 
trusted slave, but only a slave. Had Gen. Jackson, while president, ordered one of his slaves 
to do any service, he would have done it as the slave of Gen. Jackson, and not as an officer of 
the government. So of Joseph. He was so far from being a voluntary officer of the 
government, seeking to build up and strengthen the government, that is was a service hated 
by him. He regarded it as a deep degradation to so serve. 

"Joseph said unto his brethren, I die, and God will 
surely visit you and bring you up out of this land unto 
the land which he swore unto Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, 
and Joseph took an 1 11051 1 oath of the children of 
Israel, saying, God will surely visit you, and ye shall 
carry up my bones from hence." 

Oh, no, Joseph was not a citizen of the kingdom of Egypt, nor an officer, supporter, or 
upholder of the Egyptian government. He was a slave in a foreign land; faithful as a servant 
of God should be to his master. He felt the humiliation and shame of this slavery so keenly, 
that before dying he took the oath of his brethren, that his bones should not be left in the land 
of his degradation and slavery. 

Daniel was situated as was Joseph. He was a slave first to the king of Babylon. God gave him 
favor with his overseer, then through his wisdom gained for his the respect and consideration 
of the king. He was faithful to the king as his slave, but faithful in bearing to him testimony 
of God against him. But he was a slave and not an officer or supporter of the Babylonish 
government. On the other hand he foretold its destruction, and the ruin of its king. When the 
government was overthrown by Darius, as the slave of the conquered king, he passed to the 
ownership of the conqueror and became the slave of Darius, to whom he was faithful as he 
had been to Nebuchadnezzar. He obeyed his master, served the new one as readily and 
faithfully as the old. He was no partisan, friend, supporter or officer of either government. As 
a slave he obeyed his master, and was faithful in all things, save when obedience to him 
involved disobedience to God - rather than obey then he was cast into the lions' den. 

If any think Daniel was a voluntary supporter and upholder of these governments, let them 
read the prophecy of ruin and destruction he spoke against them, and against all human 
governments. How his heart joyed in foreseeing their destruction and the triumph over them 
of the kingdom which the God of heaven should set up. Let them read the ninth chapter and 
see the deep humiliation 1 11061 1 and shame he felt in having to serve the ruler of this human 
government, when God's government by the sins of his people was subverted and in ruin. 

"In those days (when thus honored by the king) I Daniel 
was mourning three full weeks. I ate no pleasant bread, 

neither was flesh nor wine in my mouth, neither did I 
anoint myself at all." 

Certainly he regarded all this service an accursed slavery and a burdensome bondage from 
which he prayed deliverance. In the 9th chapter Daniel says, 

"I set my face unto the Lord God, to seek by prayer and 
supplication, with fasting and sack cloth, and ashes, ... 
we have sinned and have committed iniquity and have 
done wickedly, and have rebelled even by departing from 
thy precepts and from thy judgements; neither have we 
hearkened unto thy servants the prophets, which spoke in 
thy name to our kings, our princes and to our fathers, 
and to all the people of the land. O, Lord, righteousness 
belongeth unto thee, but unto us confusion of faces as at 
this day; to the men of Judah and to the inhabitants of 
Jerusalem and unto all Israel, that are near and that are 
far off, through all the countries whither thou hast 
driven them, because of their trespass, they have 
trespassed against thee. To the Lord our God, belong 
mercies and forgivenesses, though we have rebelled 
against thee; neither have we obeyed the voice of the 
Lord our God to walk in his laws, which he set before us 
by his servants the prophets. Yea all Israel have 
transgressed thy law, even by departing, that they might 
not obey thy voice; therefore the curse is poured upon 
us, and the oath which is written in the law of Moses, 
the servant of God, because we have sinned against thee." 

The chapter is full of these confessions, supplications, deprecations of the curse of God that is 
poured out upon them, unto this bondage and slavery they were enduring. Certainly Daniel 
was not a voluntary office-holder, or a supporter of human government. He was a slave in 
bondage for the sins of his people and prayed humbly and earnestly for deliverance. No 
encouragement or authority can be found for the voluntary holding of office in, or upholding 
the human government, now so common among servants of Christ. The only lesson taught by 

the cases of Joseph and Daniel is, that it is right for God's children, when slaves, //107// to do 
faithful service to their masters, not as eye servants, but they must do service "heartily, as 
unto the Lord." They teach the same lesson of duty that is taught in the New Testament, 
submission to the powers that be. When the power changes, the duty of the Christians 
changes with it. Submission to whatever power is over them, partisanship to none. When the 
requirements of the government are contrary to the law of God, refusal, even to the lion's 
den, or the fiery furnace, but no participation in, no support of, no affinity with human 
government is found. 


A number of those mentioned in the New Testament as converts to Christ held office. Among 
these were Matthew, the eunuch, Cornelius, Paul, the Philippian jailor, and as is supposed, 
Erastus. It is not said of any one of these that he gave up his office. Of these, we know the 
after lives of Matthew and Paul, only. We know that they gave up their offices, from the 
record of those lives. Those whose after lives are given, having surrendered their offices, 
creates the presumption that the others did so, too. It is not said that those who worshiped 
idols, ceased to worship them on their conversion to Christ. It is not said that those who stole 
or lied, or were habitual drunkards, or whoremongers, ceased to follow those sins; yet no one 
doubts they did forsake these sins, because it was well understood that the Christian religion 
demanded the cessation of such courses; and no declaration that they ceased the practices was 
needed. Now, if it was equally true that it was well understood by all, friend and foe, that a 
profession of the Christian religion involved a ceasing to support human government, it 
would no more need a declaration that an officer, on his conversion, ceased to hold his office, 
than that a rogue, on his conversion, ceased to steal. //108// The failure to mention one would 
be no more evidence of its approval than the failure to mention the other. All, both friend and 
foe, did understand this very thing. The long tutelage of Judaism in separation from human 
governments had impressed it. The Savior had declared he was not a citizen of even the 
Jewish government. His opponents understood it. This apprehension was the ground of the 
slaughter of the male children in and around Bethlehem. Christ, in the payment of the tax 
required of strangers, but not of the children, refused to claim that exemption, to which his 
birth entitled him, and placed himself among the strangers to human governments. It was on 
the clear apprehension of this truth by the Scribes and Pharisees and lawyers, that they based 
the effort to entrap him in reference to paying tribute to Caesar. It was clearly understood he 

was proposing to build a kingdom that would uproot and destroy Caesar's kingdom, and they 
thought he would forbid the paying of tribute to him and thus furnish them an accusation, to 
secure his condemnation. It was on this well understood truth, that he was in antagonism to 
the governments of earth, and so an enemy of Caesar, that his death warrant was extracted 
from Pilate. His disciples so understood, and asked: "Wilt thou at this time restore the 
kingdom to Israel?" It was so strongly impressed that the Holy Spirit must needs bid the 
disciples, "Be subject to the powers that be." "Submit to kings and governors." "Obey 
magistrates," etc. This general and well defined understanding of both friend and foe on this 
subject, taken together with the fact that those converted officers, whose lives are given, all 
gave up their offices, makes the presumption strong, that all did give up their offices, and 
certainly throws the necessity on those who would affirm the right of Christians to hold 
office, of finding a clear precept, or example for the same. Can it 1 11091 1 be found? While I 
have a right to demand the proof that they did hold office, I yield the vantage ground to 
which the position is entitled and affirm not one of them continued to hold office. The 
centurion and the jailor were officers in the Roman government. It was persecuting 
Christians. The work of the centurion at the crucifixion of Christ was to have him crucified, 
then to seal and guard the tomb. His duty was to arrest, scourge and place in the stocks, or 
execute men and women convicted of being Christians. It was the duty of the jailor to 
imprison Christians, place their feet in the stocks, lacerate their bare backs, cast them into the 
dungeons and keep them fast and safe. This work of arresting and imprisoning Christians, a 
Christian could not do. The escape of the Christian prisoners subjected the jailor to such 
torture, that he of Philippi preferred death by his own hand to incurring it. He was saved from 
this by Paul assuring him, "We are all here." His conversion caused him to lose them at once. 
Now, if their escape without his connivance involved such punishment, what must his wilful 
losing them bring on him? Yet he took them out and incurred the risk. Beyond a doubt the 
wonderful occurrence excused his course in the eyes of the magistrates on the ground, but as 
the governor was not present, was not so terror-stricken, and still continued the persecution, it 
is probable that greater wrath was excited against the jailor, aggravated by his becoming a 
Christian, and hence himself a criminal to be punished with death, and that he paid the 
penalty by torture and a dreadful death, unless he fled. 

Had we his later history, it would much more likely be III 10// of his death than of 
continuance in office. Then the government itself was seeking to destroy Christians. They 
were regarded as rebels and traitors to the government. It could not have tolerated Christians 

as its officers, had they been willing to continue in office. It is certainly true that neither 
Cornelius nor the jailor continued in his office. 

Erastus, it is claimed, at the time the letter to the Romans was written, was acting as treasurer 
of the city of Corinth. The ground for this is, Paul writing to the church at Rome from 
Corinth, said, 

"Erastus, the chamberlain of the city, Saluteth you and 
Quartus a brother." 

While the treasurer, or properly steward, of the city, may mean the treasurer to the city 
government, it may mean the steward for the church in the city. The whole context is so 
directly concerning church matters that this would seem the more reasonable, and as we shall 
find by further consideration more in harmony with what else we know of Erastus, and of the 
relations of the government to the church and to Christians. Some writers report that he held 
this same position in the church at Jerusalem at an earlier period. This letter was written 
during the intensity of the persecution of the church by Nero. It is morally impossible the 
government seeking to annihilate the church, should, in so prominent and influential a city as 
was Corinth, having constant communication with all parts of the empire, tolerate a Christian 
in so high and important an office as treasurer of the city. It is impossible that it should have 
tolerated so active, well-known, and earnest a Christian as was Erastus. 

Erastus is first introduced to us in Acts xix: 21. After Paul had left Corinth, and while at 
Ephesus, "he sent into Macedonia two of them that ministered unto him, Timotheus and 
Erastus; but he himself staid in Asia for a season." 


Erastus with Timothy was travelling with him on one of his missionary tours. This was in the 
year 59. Paul had left Corinth before this, and Erastus may have been converted during his 
years and six months stay at that city. But the report of his having been at an early day with 
the church in Jerusalem has been already referred to, and indicates the probability that he 
went with Paul to Corinth from Jerusalem as a missionary worker. But he sent Erastus with 
Timothy from Ephesus into Macedonia. We know not how long they remained on the 
Macedonian mission, but doubtless some time, as their trip seems to have been to supplement 

an intended visit of Paul which was, for the time, delayed. Macedonia was from three to five 
hundred miles both from Ephesus and Corinth. 

Paul remained in Asia for a season, doubtless through the winter and until the next season for 
navigation. But in the 20th chapter, after the escape of Paul from the Ephesian mob, we are 
told he followed on to Macedonia, where he doubtless joined Timothy and Erastus, whence 
he went to Greece, of which Corinth was the chief city. Timothy did not accompany him to 
Corinth, but Erastus most likely did. Paul remained three months at Corinth, and wrote the 
letter to the church at Rome during this stay, in the year 60. Erastus was then called the 
chamberlain. He was no nearer Corinth when in Macedonia than when in Ephesus. He 
doubtless spent some time in Macedonia. He would not have gone three or four hundred 
miles out of his way to Corinth, unless it had been necessary that he should remain with these 
Macedonian churches for a time. While at Corinth, in the year 60, Paul wrote the letter to the 
Romans, and then calls Erastus the chamberlain of the city. The case is this then. It is 
doubtful if Erastus had been a citizen of Corinth up to this time, but if he was, he had been 
absent with Paul two or more years, on a III 12// missionary tour through Asia and 
Macedonia. He reaches Corinth and within three months after his arrival Paul calls him 
treasurer of the city. Does anyone believe that after a two years' absence on a missionary tour 
preaching, he arrived at home and in this prominent city was so soon made its treasurer? 
Certainly not. 

Some years after this, Paul writing to Timothy, giving an account of those who had been his 
companions in labor, said: "Erastus abode at Corinth." This would hardly have been told if 
Corinth had been his original home, but it indicates that after travelling around as a 
missionary, he made his final stopping place at Corinth. Then Erastus was certainly not the 
treasurer of the city. If the expression means really the treasurer of the city organization, it 
must have been in consequence of having held that position before his conversion, as we call 
a judge by his title after the expiration of his office. But I think it simply means he was the 
steward of the church in the city of Corinth, as he is reported previously to have been in 

Some writers, seeing the impossibility of the travelling companion of Paul being the treasurer 
of the city, conclude that two different persons of the same name are mentioned, but 
circumstance indicates clearly that all the references are to the same person. It is impossible 
he should have been the treasurer of the city at the time the Roman letter was written. If he 

was not then, he could not have been for two or three years preceding this, for he was absent 
preaching with Paul. If he was a former citizen of Corinth, he must have been converted 
during Paul's eighteen months sojourn there, so could not have been the treasurer of the city 
after his conversion. This vanishes the last vestige of an example of a Christian holding office 
in the New Testament times. 



In the prison at Philippi, when the magistrates sent to let them go, Paul said unto them, 

"They have beaten us openly and uncondemned, being 
Romans, and have cast us into prison; and now do they 
seek to thrust us out privily? Nay, verily; but let them 
come and fetch us out. And the sergeants told these words 
unto the magistrates, and they feared when they heard 
that they were Romans, and they came and besought them 
and brought them out and desired them to depart out of 
the city." 

Paul (Acts xxi: 39), at Jerusalem was beaten by a Jewish mob, 

"They went about to kill him, when the chief captain took 
soldiers and centurions, and ran down unto them, and when 
they saw the chief captain they left off beating Paul. 
Then the chief captain came near and took and commanded 
him to be bound with two chains, and demanded who he was 
and what he had done ... Paul said I am a man which am 
a Jew of Tarsus, a citizen of no mean city, and I beseech 
thee suffer me to speak unto the people." 
"The chief captain commanded him to be brought into the 
castle and bade that he should be examined by scourging; 
that he might know wherefore they cried so against him, 
and as they bound him with thongs, Paul said unto the 

centurion that stood by: Is it lawful for you to scourge 
a man, that is a Roman and uncondemned? When the 
centurion heard that, he went and told the chief captain, 
saying: Take heed what thou doest, for this man is a 
Roman. Then the chief captain came and said unto him, 
tell me, art thou a Roman? He said yea. And the chief 
captain said, with a great sum obtained I this freedom. 
And Paul said, I was free born. Then straightway they 
departed from him, who should have examined him, and the 
chief captain also was afraid after he knew that he was 
a Roman and because he had bound him." (Acts xxii: 24.) 

After Paul had been taken in custody by the Roman officers, and by them tried and no evil 
found in him; forty Jews bound themselves under a solemn oath to "neither eat nor drink till 
they had killed Paul." To further this end, the high priest and the chief of the Jews requested 
Festus "that he would send him bound to Jerusalem, laying wait in the way to kill him. Festus 
was disposed to grant the favor and said to Paul: 

/l 14// 

"Wilt thou go up to Jerusalem and there be judged of 
these before me? Then Paul said, I stand Caesar's 
judgement seat, where I ought to be judged. ... I 
appeal unto Caesar." 

This claim of Paul to the privileges of Roman citizenship and the appeal to Caesar are 
regarded as authorizing Christians to engage in managing human government. 

We are all by birth or adoption subjects of the government under which we live, but that does 
not obligate us to actively participate in the affairs of government. Women in one sense are 
citizens, yet barred from active participation in the affairs of government. Paul claimed, 

"Men and brethren I am a Pharisee, the son of a Pharisee. 
Of the hope and resurrection of the dead, I am called in 

Yet he was not a member or an active supporter of the sect of the Pharisees, but the Pharisees 
were being used to persecute him, chiefly for the faith he had in common with them, and he 
used the fact of his agreeing with them to avoid persecution by them. When the Jewish mob 
was persecuting Paul without using the Romish government to aid them, he did not claim the 
protection of that government, but when the Romish authorities were used to persecute him, 
he used the rights and immunities guaranteed to him as a Roman citizen by that law to protect 
himself against oppression through the law. This did not indicate that he sustained and upheld 
that law. During the existence of the rebel government, when a loyal man's liberty or property 
was endangered by the officers of the rebel government, he did not hesitate to avail himself 
of the guarantees and rights that the rebel government granted him to avoid harm to his 
person or property. He did not in doing this recognize himself as under obligation to support 
that government, nor was it a recognition of its right to exist. Paul used the privileges the law 
guaranteed him to protect himself against the oppression that law was used III 15// to inflict. 
When the pretence of a trial in Jerusalem was urged as a means of delivering him to a Jewish 
mob, he took advantage of a privilege the law guaranteed him, to appeal to Caesar, and go to 
Rome instead of Jerusalem for trial. A Christian on trial would be justified in using any 
privilege the law guaranteed him to avoid the oppression inflicted on him through the law. 
When subjected to the penalties he is entitled to the immunities and privileges guaranteed by 
the law to avoid the inflictions, and punishments of the law. 

The whole drift, teaching and example of the Scripture, both of the Old and New Testaments, 
forbid the idea of the servants of God becoming participants in the government that 
originated in the rebellion of man against his maker. All of which Christ came to destroy, and 
which must be destroyed, consumed, before Jesus Christ the Savior delivers the kingdom up 
to God the Father, that God may be all in all. 

Then neither, Matthew, nor Paul, nor Cornelius, nor the Jailor, nor Erastus held office after 
becoming Christians. They could not have retained office; because, 1st. The end of the 
church of Christ, which they entered, and the principles of the religion which they embraced, 
forbade it. 2nd. The government in which they held office, was seeking through persecution 
to exterminate the Christians as private citizens, much less could it honor them as its 
representatives, and the executors of its laws. 3rd. They could not have held these offices, 
because the special duties they would have been required to perform were utterly abhorrent to 
the Christian. They would have been called upon to persecute, imprison, beat, and even put to 

death men and women, whose only crime was believing in Jesus as the Lord and Savior. No 
Christian could hold an office which imposed such duties. 

i men 



We now introduce some early writers in the church to show that the idea of separation from 
affiliation with civil government was inherited from the apostles. 

Justyn Martyr, A. D. 150, in his apology to the emperor in behalf of Christians, presented all 
the reasons he could to propitiate the favor of the emperor toward the Christians. He assured 
them, (apology 2nd), 

"Taxes and customs we pay the most scrupulously of all 
men, to those who are appointed by you, as we are taught 
of him," (Jesus.) 

This was given as the extent of their connection with the government. 

Tertullian lived about A. D. 200, born within fifty years of the death of John. He says, 

"The image of Caesar, which is on the coin, is to be 
given to Caesar, and the image of God, which is in man, 
is to be given to God. Therefore, the money thou must 
indeed give to Caesar, but thyself to God, for what will 
remain to God, if all be given to Caesar?" 

Showing the order as received from Christ was to pay taxes, but to give not personal services 
to the civil government. Tertullian said, 

"If He (Christ) would not even once exercise the right of 
dominion over his own, for whom he did the most menial 
services, if he, fully conscious as he was of his regal 
power, yet shrank from being made a king, he gave a 

perfect example to all his disciples to avoid all which 
is high and glorious in earthly rank and power." 

Tertullian says also, 

"The Caesars themselves would have believed in Jesus 
Christ III 111 I if they had not been necessary for the 
world, or if Christians could have been Caesars." 

This clearly means that Caesars in the sense of civil officers could not be Christians without 
surrendering their positions. 

Origen, in reply to Celsus, an able writer against Christianity, charging that Christians 
enjoyed the benefits, without contributing service to the government, said, 

"The Christians render greater assistance to their 
country than other men, inasmuch as they instruct the 
citizens, and teach them to become pious toward God, on 
whom the welfare of cities depends and who receives those 
whose conduct, in a poor and miserable city, has been 
good, into a Divine and heavenly city." 

Celsus argued it was their duty to perform the duties of magistrates in their native cities. 
Origen replied, 

"But we know that in every city, we have another country, 
whose foundations are the word of God, and we require it 
from those who are competent by their talent and pious 
lives, to take upon themselves the offices requisite for 
the maintenance of order in the churches." 

Then the talent of the church was devoted to the service and up-building of the church. Now 
the talent and character nursed and developed by the church, are, as a rule, devoted to 
building up and operating the human governments, while the church languishes and suffers, 
for lack of the services of its children, to manage its internal affairs or carry its truths to the 

We will let these quotations from these three prominent writers of the two first centuries 
suffice. We now give statements from some prominent historians of the early church. 

Neander says of the early Christians: 

"It was far from their imaginations to conceive it 
possible that Christianity should appropriate to itself 
the relations and offices of the state. The Christians 
stood aloof from the state, as a priestly and spiritual 
race, and Christianity seemed able to influence civil 
life only in that manner, which it must be confessed is 
the purest, by practically endeavoring to instil more 
and more of the holy feeling into the citizens of the 


Gibbon gave as the secondary causes of the wonderful progress of the Christian religion. 

1. "The inflexible, and if we use the expression, intolerant zeal of the Christians, 
derived it is true, from the Jewish religion, but purified from the narrow and unsocial 
spirit, which instead of inviting, deterred the Gentiles from embracing the law of 


2. The doctrine of a future life, improved by every additional circumstance which 
could give weight and efficacy to that important truth. 

3. The miraculous powers ascribed to the primitive church. 

4. The pure and austere morals of the Christians. 

5. The union and discipline of the Christian republic, which formed an independent 
and increasing state in the heart of the Roman Empire." Vol. 1 p. 505. 

"The Christians felt and confessed that such institutions (human governments) might be 
necessary for the present system of the world, and they submitted to the authority of their 
pagan governors." 

"This indolent or even criminal disregard of the public 
welfare, exposed them to the contempt and reproach of the 
pagans, who very frequently asked what must be the fate 
of the Empire, attacked on all sides by barbarians, if 
all mankind should adopt the pusillanimous sentiments of 
the new sect." Vol. 1 p. 552. 

But as the Christians increased in numbers they began to grow worldly. 

"The church still continued to increase its outward 
splendor as it lost its internal purity and in the reign 
of Diocletian, the palace, the courts of justice, and 
even the army concealed a multitude of Christians who 
endeavored to reconcile the interests of the present with 
those of a future life." Vol. 1 p. 586. 
"If we seriously consider the purity of the Christian 
religion, the sanctity of the moral precepts, and the 
innocent as well as austere lives of the greater number 
of those during the first ages who embraced the faith of 
the gospel, we should naturally suppose that so 
benevolent a doctrine would have been received with due 
reverence, even by the unbelieving world. That the 
magistrates instead of persecuting would have protected 
an order III 19// of men, who yielded the most passive 
obedience to the laws, though they declined the active 
cares of war and government." 

A. D. 284-300. "A sentence of death was executed on 
Maximilianus an African youth, who was produced by his 
father as a sufficient and legal recruit, but who 
obstinately persisted in declaring, that his conscience 
would not permit him to embrace the profession of a 

"On the day of a public festival Marcellus a centurion 
threw away his belt, his arms, and the insignia of his 

office, and exclaimed with a loud voice, that he would 

obey none but Jesus Christ the eternal king, that he 

renounced forever the use of carnal weapons, and the 

service of an idolatrous master. He was condemned and 

beheaded for desertion." Vol. 2 p. 60. 

"The Christians it was charged by Galerius renouncing the 

gods and institutions of Rome, had constituted a distinct 

republic." Vol. 2, p. 62. 

"The humble Christians were sent into this world, as 

sheep among wolves, and since they were not permitted to 

use force even in defence of their own religion, they 

should be still more criminal if they were tempted to 

shed the blood of their fellow-men in disputing the vain 

privileges or sordid possessions of this transitory 

life." Vol. 2, p. 255. 

"The Christian subjects of Armenia and Iberia formed a 

sacred and perpetual alliance with their Roman brethren. 

The Christians of Persia in time of war were suspected of 

preferring their religion to their country." Vol. 2, p. 


"The Christians after the conversion of Constantine, 

still resorted to the tribunals of the church to decide 

their claims and pecuniary disputes." Vol. 2, p. 280. 

Gibbon supposes there may have been Christians in the army of Marcus Antoninus, the 
thundering legion, but owns there is doubt about it. Lardner also thinks it doubtful. Gibbon, 
Vol. 2, p. 46. 

It is reported that Christians were in this army about to die of thirst and prayed to God, and a 
rain and thunder storm were sent in answer to prayer. The term Christian came quite early, to 
be loosely applied as it is now. Many who claimed to believe Christ divine, although they did 
not obey him, were called Christians. They belonged to families and communities that 
recognized Jesus as Lord. It was doubtless this class that was in the army. A.D. 361 - The 
apostle Julian the emperor "refused to 1 11201 1 

give the government of provinces to Christians because as 
he said, their law forbids the use of the sword for the 
punishment of such as deserve death. Julian not only 
deprived the Christians of magistracy and of all honors 
and dignities but of equal rights of citizens." (Lardner 
Vol.7, p.597.) 

Julian was raised a Christian, a man of learning and discrimination, knew perfectly the faith 
of the Christians, and what that faith had been from the beginning. He apostatised to pagan 
religion, and as the Christians had become popular and under Constantine had been 
encouraged to depart from the well known practise of the early church and to hold office, as 
he dismissed them from office or refused their applications he taunted them it was contrary to 
their law. 

Gibbon, vol 1 p. 550, says: "Their (the Christians') 
simplicity was offended by the use of oaths, by the pomp 
of magistracy, by the active contention of public life, 
nor could their humane ignorance be convinced that it was 
lawful on any occasion to shed the blood of our fellow 
creatures, either by the sword of justice or by that of 
war, even though their criminal attempts should threaten 
the peace and safety of the community." 
Again, vol.1, p. 557: "But while they inculcated the 
maxims of passive obedience, they refused to take any 
active part in the civil administration or military 
defence of the empire." "It was impossible that the 
Christians without renouncing a more sacred duty could 
assume the characters of soldiers or magistrates or 

We could greater multiply similar testimony to these. Accounts are given of the gradual 
participation of the Christians in civil government. But the so-called conversion of 
Constantine greatly accelerated and spread the custom. Prince Julian was raised in the 
Christian faith. He apostatized to paganism and became Emperor. Gibbon says: 

"The hopes of the future candidates (Christians) were 
extinguished by the declared partiality of a prince, 
(Julian), who maliciously reminded them that it was 
unlawful for a Christian to use the sword either of 
justice or war." 

Gibbon, vol. 2, p. 255, says of the Christians, 

"Faithful to the doctrine of the apostles, who in the 
reign of //121// Nero, had preached the duty of 
unconditional submission, the Christians of the three 
first centuries preserved their consciences pure and 
innocent of the guilt of secret conspiracy or open 
rebellion. While they experienced the rigor of 
persecution, they were never provoked to meet their 
tyrants in the field, or indignantly to withdraw 
themselves into some remote and sequestered corner of the 

Again, p. 256: "But the Christians, when they deprecated 
the wrath of Diocletian, or solicited the favor of 
Constantine, could allege with truth and confidence, that 
they held the doctrine of passive obedience, and that for 
three centuries their conduct had always been conformable 
to their principles." 

Mosheim, Murdock's Translation, vol. 3, p. 200, article, Anabaptist, says, 

"Prior to the age of Luther, there lay concealed in 
almost every country of Europe, but especially in 
Bohemia, Moravia, Switzerland and Germany, very many 
persons, in whose minds was deeply rooted that principle 
which the Waldenses, the Wickliffites and the Hussites 
maintained, some more covertly, others more openly, 
namely, that the kingdom set up on earth or the visible 
church, is an assembly of holy persons, and ought 

therefore to be entirely free, not only from ungodly 
persons and sinner, but from all institutions of human 
device against Sin." 

Again, same page: "This principle lay at the foundation 
of whatever was new and singular in the religion of the 
Mennonites, and the greater part of their singular 
opinion, as is well attested, was approved some centuries 
before Luther's time, by those who had such views of the 
nature of the church of Christ." 

On page 213, he gives these doctrines that were common for centuries before Luther, now 
brought into notice by Menno, 

1. "They should receive none into their church by the 
sacrament of baptism unless they are adults and have the 
full use of their reason. (2.) That they should not admit 
magistrates nor suffer their members to perform the 
functions of magistracy. (3,) That they should deny the 
justice of repelling force by force, or of waging war. 
(4,) That they should have strong aversion to all 
penalties and punishments, especially capital punishment. 
(5,) It forbids their confirming anything by an oath." 
As late as 270, Lardner, Vol. 2, p. 668, tells us, "Paul, 
bishop of Antioch, was tried by a council of bishops." 
Among the charges was, "He accepted secular dignities, 
and chose rather to be considered a judge than a bishop." 


The corruption and secularizing of the churches were I IX22II gradual and produced division. 
Those who maintained the purer faith were called Donatists and Novatians in the earliest 

"These Donatists in a council A. D. 41 1, at Carthage 
lacked only eight churches of being equal in 

representation to the Catholics. These and the Novatians 
maintained the church ought to be made up of just and 
holy men, or at least of those who are so in appearance, 
... They thought they ought to be kept separate from 
the world, a religious society voluntarily congregated 
together for pious purposes. They were very careful to 
remove from their places of worship everything that bore 
any resemblance to worldly communities." 

The controversy between them and the other party grew bitter, Constantine endeavored to 
settle it. The Donatists inquired, 

"What has the emperor to do with the church? What have 
Christians to do with kings? What have bishops to do at 

The Emperor persecuted them. Orchard, vol. 1 p. 88. 

These dissenters from the dominant church, existed in all countries to a greater or less extent, 
and wore different names conferred upon them from the different locations or from some 
noted leader. Those in distant countries had no communication with each other. The 
uniformity with which those who rejected the Romish church held the doctrine of separation 
from civil governments shows that these things had a common origin in the beginning and 
spread from the one central head. 

Orchard vol. 1, p. 117, "The dissenters of the oriental 

(Asiatic) churches, refused oaths, remonstrated against 

penal sanctions, and denied the authority of magistrates 

over conscience." 

Page 145, Of the dissenters of Italy, Paterines, A. D. 

300, "The two edged sword was the only weapon this people 


Page 142, A. D. 750, "The public religion of the 

Paterines consisted of nothing but social prayer, reading 

and expounding the Gospels, Baptism once and the Lord's 

supper as often as convenient. Italy was full of such 

Christians. They said a Christian church ought to consist 

of good people only, a church had no power to frame any 

constitution, that is to make laws, it was not right to 

take oaths, it was not lawful to kill mankind, nor should 

he be delivered up to the officers of justice to be 

I 11231 I converted, faith alone could save a man, the 

benefit of society belonged to all its members, the 

church ought not to persecute, the law of Moses was no 

rule for Christians." 

Page 145, "The Paterines were become very numerous and 

conspicuous at Milan ... Nor had they any share in the 

state, for they took no oaths and bore no arms." 

Page 150, "Arnold presumed to quote the Scripture, 'My 

kingdom is not of this world.' The Abbots, the bishops, 

the pope himself must renounce their state or their 


Page 151, Arnold's friends were numerous, but a sword was 

no weapon in the articles of his faith." 

Page 234, A. D. 1207, "The Waldenses of Picardy and 

Bohemia executed no offices, and neither exacted nor took 

oaths. They bore no arms, and rather chose to suffer than 

to resist wrong. They professed their belief in Christ by 

being baptized, and their love to Christ and one another 

by receiving the Lord's supper. They aspired at neither 

wealth nor power, their plan was industry." 

Page 241, A. D. 1400, "It would appear the Vaudois, 

Waldenses, or Picards did not enter Ziska's army during 

the war. We know their principles were opposed to war, 

and they do not seem at any time to have borne arms. 

During such commotions, it is said of them that they were 

always coming and going. When persecuted in one city they 

fled to another." 

Page 261, The dissenters of Piedmont, (existing from the 

earliest days down to Luther) "Their rules of practice 
were regulated by a literal interpretation of Christ's 
sermon on the Mount. They consequently prohibited wars, 
law-suits, acquisition of wealth, capital punishments, 
self-defence and oaths of all king." 
Page 309, A. D. 1433, "A third party was called 
Waldenses, or Picards who interfered not in political 

Menno page 367, A. D. 1536, "Drew up his plan of doctrine 
and practice entirely from the Scriptures. He retained, 
indeed all the doctrines commonly received among them in 
relation to the baptism of infants, the millennium, the 
exclusion of magistrates from the Christian assemblies, 
the abolition of war, the prohibition of oaths, and the 
vanity as well as pernicious effects of human science." 
Page 309, "They are said to have lived as peaceable 
inhabitants, particularly in Flanders, Holland and 
Zealand, interfering neither with church (Catholic) or 
state affairs. Their manner of life was simple and 
exemplary. They like their ancestors sought to regulate 
their conduct by Christ's sermon on the Mount." 

The Munster rebellion in Germany, that has always been held as a reproach to the 
Anabaptists, to break down //124// man governments and establish the kingdom of God on 
earth, was a misguided and frenzied outburst of this same principle that had been perpetuated 
from the days of the apostles. 

There was at the time a feeling of discontent among the people on account of the oppression 
of the human government sanctioned by the state church. The dissatisfaction with the existing 
state of affairs was widespread. The laboring people naturally sided with the religious 
teachers who were declaiming against the tyranny of the priests. A few turbulent men failing 
to appreciate the spirit of the Christian religion and that its "weapons of warfare were not 
carnal," appealed to the idea that human governments were to be displaced by the 
government of God, and excited the populace to a war of destruction of human government. 

It was simply a misguided zeal and frenzy taking advantage of the old idea of the antagonism 
of the human and the divine government, to excite war upon the oppressive governments. I 
have quoted these extracts from Orchard recognizing that he is not always entirely reliable; 
either from a failure to go to original sources of information, or his judgement was warped by 
a party bias, in his effort to trace a regular succession of churches practicing immersion from 
the apostolic times to the present day, but the points here presented are outside of the field of 
modern religious controversy. Indeed they antagonize the practice of all the churches with 
which church historians affiliate, and they would have been inclined to suppress truths of this 
kind rather than give them prominence. All church histories corroborate these statements. 
Armitage in his history of the Baptists, while admitting that the Montanists held certain 
errors, says page 176. 

"The one prime idea held by the Montanists and in 
distinction from the churches of the third century, was, 
that membership in the churches should be confined to 
purely regenerate 1 1 125 1 1 persons; and that a spiritual 
life and discipline should be maintained without any 
authority of the state." 

And this corresponds with other accounts of the past and future history of these people. 

Page 195, As evidence of the corruption and apostasy of 
the churches in the 4th century, Armitage says, "They had 
become numerous and influential. In the great cities they 
had large and costly temples furnished with vessels of 
gold and silver; their faith was much the rising fashion; 
the army, the civil service, the court were filled with 
Christians, and the old Christ-likeness had gone." 

Their being in the army and civil service showed corruption. Of the Albigenses page 278. 

"They rejected the Romish church, and esteemed the New 
Testament above all its traditions and ceremonies. They 
did not take oaths, nor believe in baptismal 

regeneration; but they were ascetic and pure in their 
lives; they also exalted celibacy." 

As said elsewhere, in different places the development of the faith of the dissenters from 
Rome, was diverse and often mixed with error. These in Southern France, are said to have 
fostered celibacy. But this was not common. But all the purer bodies of them refused oaths 
and service in the state affairs. 

On page 280, "They sought no secular gain or earthly 


Page 281, "They take no oaths." 

"Hub-Meyer was the noblest of Swiss Baptists" Armitage 339. Our readers will note that 
Armitage and other baptist historians call all who immersed believers, baptist, albeit they 
refused to be called by any name save Christian. 

On page 355 "A very small party, those of Munster, 
believed in establishing Christ's kingdom by the sword at 
the cost of sedition and revolution. We have seen that 
the party represented chiefly by Hub-Meyer, believed in 
government, paid all taxes and obeyed all ordinances that 
did not interfere with the free exercises of 
religion. But, as a magistrate must bind himself by civil 
oath and use the sword, they held that a Christian could 
not be a magistrate, because the apostles knew nothing of 
church taxes imposed by the state, held no office and 
took no part in war. They thought civil government was 
necessary for the wicked, but their foes either could or 
would not understand them. Their modern enemies evince 
the same state of mind." 


It seems that later Hub-Meyer and a party with him, recognized Christians might act as 
judges, but a large party refused to go with him in this concession. 

On page 356, "Denk whom Haller calls the Appollo of the 
Anabaptists, says, "The Apostles treat earnestly that 
Christians must be subject to government. But they do not 
teach that they may be governors, for Paul says, 'What 
have I to do to judge them that are without?' He would 
have Christians withdraw from politics, and have 
unconverted men to wield the sword of the civil and 
military ruler as a thing entirely separate from the 

Page 374, Dryzinger only three years after the craze (Munster) was examined as to whether 
he and his brethren approved of these vile proceedings. He answered "we would not be 
Christians if we did." 

Another said, "We are daily belied by those who say we 
would defend our faith with the sword, as they of Munster 
did. The Almighty God defend us from such abominations." 

Another Martyr, Young Dosie, who endured cruel slaughter for his love to Christ, said to the 
Governor's wife, 

"No madam, these people greatly erred. We consider it a 

devilish doctrine to resist the magistrates by the 

outward sword and violence. We would much rather suffer 

persecution and death at their hands and whatever is 

appointed us to suffer." 

"A formal convention of their leaders at Augsburg 

discountenanced all political measures." 

Melancthon examined some of them, page 404, "He asked 

them of obedience to civil magistrates. They said, they 

needed none, they cleave to God alone, they did not 

condemn civil government for the world. If the 

magistrates would let them alone in their faith they 

would cheerfully pay their taxes and do as they were 


Page 414, Of the Waldenses of the Netherlands, 
"Halbertsma asks, 'How is it possible to find better 
citizens?' They brought into the treasury their thousands 
every year, and never took out a penny as officials (held 
no office.) They set fire to no property, but dug wells 
to put out fires. They fired no musket, but they nursed 
the wounded. They were not soldiers but furnished the 
sinews of war." (paid taxes.) 

Quotations from all church histories to the same purport might be made to weariness. 

Many nominal dissenters, those in sympathy with them, but not real members of the church 
engaged in war and //127// politics - and often corruption and departures worked their way 
among them and they took part in state affairs. 

The emigration to America was very much under the idea that none but Christians would 
compose the government, and the church government would be the only rule recognized. Yet 
the Puritans placed the sword in the hands of their rulers to enforce church censures, and 
discipline. Roger Williams and his associates had a clearer conception of the Bible teaching. 
But the temptations to take part in civil affairs were strong and all went into it. They 
persuaded themselves there was a difference between the despotic and republican forms of 

But that this principle was recognized still as held among those called baptists, we find from 
the decree of the General Court of Massachusetts, Nov. 13th 1644. 

"It is ordered and decreed, that if any person or 
persons, within this jurisdiction, shall either openly 
condemn or oppose the baptizing of infants or go about 
secretly to seduce others from the approbation or use 
thereof, or shall purposely depart the congregation at 
the ministration of the ordinance, or shall deny the 
ordinance of magistracy, or the lawful right and 
authority to make war or to punish the outward breakers 
of the first table, and shall appear to the court 

wilfully and obstinately to continue therein after due 
time and means of convictions, every such person or 
persons shall be sentenced to banishment." 

The first table here refers to the first half of the ten commandments, which were supposed to 
be written on one of the tables of Moses. Some had denied the right of the civil power to 
punish violation of these. They denied the right of Christians to be civil magistrates, and the 
lawfulness of Christians engaging in war. On this account they were condemned to 
banishment from the state of Massachusetts. 

Through the Old Testament this separation was taught. It was clearly maintained in the New. 
The church received the practice from the apostles, and maintained it with great uniformity to 
the close of the third century. //128// Corruption, worldly ambition and desire of power and 
place, worked their way into the church, but all through the dark ages, the purest and best of 
disciples of Christ, maintained the position. If the church ever attains to its primitive purity 
and efficiency it must be by a return to this clearly established principle of the separation of 
all its members from worldly governments, and the consecration of the affections, time, 
means and talents of all its members to the upbuilding of the church of God and the salvation 
of the world. 

We have noted these things from the days of the apostles down to one hundred years ago, to 
show that the idea of separation from the state and from all participation in civil affairs, was 
universal among Christians for the first two or three hundred years. That then they began to 
grow worldly, apostatized from fidelity to God, lost faith in him, formed alliance with the 
civil power, became supporters of human government and imbibed the spirit of the civil 
institutions with which they affiliated. Still there have been individuals among the Baptists 
and disciples who have held these views. 

The following petition was presented to the authorities of the late confederacy by a number of 
disciples in Middle Tennessee during the war of the rebellion, indicating their position on this 



WHEREAS, "A large number of the members of the churches 
of Jesus Christ throughout this and the adjoining 
counties of the State of Tennessee, feel a deep sense of 
the responsibility they are under to recognize the Bible 
in its teachings, as the only infallible guide of their 
life, and the supreme authoritative rule of action, and 
as being of superior authority to and more binding upon 
the subjects of the Kingdom of Jesus Christ, than the 
rules and regulations of any human government or power, 
they would respectfully represent. 

1. "That they are fully satisfied that God, through the 
I 11291 I Scriptures of Sacred Truth, demands of his 
servants that they should submit quietly, heartily and 
cheerfully to the government under which they may live, 
in all cases, except when compliance with the civil law 
would involve a violation of the law of God. They are 
deeply impressed with the truth that when there is a 
conflict between the requirements of worldly government 
and the law of God, the duty of the Christian, is, upon 
the peril of his well-being, to obey God first, let the 
consequences be to him what they may. 

2. "They are firm in the conviction of the truth, that no 
man who regards the authority of God, the spirit and 
letter of the Sacred Scriptures in their proper division 
and application, the life and teachings of the Son of 
God, or his Holy Apostles, as given for the guidance of 
his followers, can in any manner engage in, aid, foment, 
or countenance the strifes, animosities and bloody 
conflicts in which civil governments are frequently 
engaged, and in which they often involve their subjects. 

"The measure and limit of their duty to, and connexion 
with the governments under which they live, as laid down 
in the Sacred Scriptures, is not an active participation 
in its affairs to destroy or upbuild, but simply a quiet 
and cheerful submission to its enactments, in the payment 
of tribute and any demands on our property or time, 
modified only, but the first and highest obligation to 
obey God. 

"With these considerations of what our duty to God requires at 
our hands, the enforcement of the 'Conscript Act' for the 
purpose of raising and maintaining an army, for the carrying 
on of this unhappy war, in which our country is involved, 
cannot fail to work indescribable distress to those members of 
our churches holding these convictions. Some of them will be 
driven as exiles from their homes, for no political 
preferences, but because they dare not disobey the 
commandments of God. Others may be thrown into seeming 
opposition to your government, suffering imprisonment and 
punishment as may be inflicted on them. Others still by the 
pressure of circumstances, may be driven to a deeply sadder 
fate, the violation of all their conscientious convictions of 
duty to their Maker and Master, whom they have under the most 
solemn vows, pledged themselves to serve. 

"In view of these things, we are induced to make a 
statement of these facts to you, with the hope that some 
relief may be afforded to those of our members thus 

"We are the more encouraged, too, in this hope, from the 
fact that we perceive that the Congress of the 
Confederate States of America, with a commendable regard 
for the conscientious convictions of its subjects, made 
provision upon certain conditions for the exemption of 

the members of certain denominations of professed 
Christians, from the performance of requirements 
repulsive to their religious faith. With the view, too, 
that this 1 11301 1 law might not act invidiously with 
reference to individuals or bodies of individuals, not 
specially named in said act, the power was vested in the 
Honorable President, of making such further exemptions 
as, in his judgement, justice, equity or necessity might 
demand. We respectfully petition of you that those 
members of our churches, who are now, and have been 
striving to maintain a position of Christian separation 
from the world, its strifes and conflicts, may be 
relieved, on terms equitable and just, from requirements 
repulsive to their religious faith, and that they may be, 
at least, placed upon a footing similar to that in which 
denominations holding a like faith are placed." 

BEECH GROVE, Williamson county, Tenn., Nov. 13th, 1862. 

"This document was signed by the elders and evangelists 
of ten or fifteen congregations, and was the means of 
saving all those members of the church who would take 
this position, set forth above, and stand firmly to it, 
from service in the war through which we have passed. A 
petition of a similar nature varied only to suit the 
changed demands, was presented to the Federal 
authorities. We will publish this in our next week's 
issue. We publish these as historic accounts of the 
position assumed by the churches of Christ in Middle 
Tennessee in hours of fearful trial and trouble to 
Christians. We believe this position alone saved them 
from almost total ruin. Copies of these were filed with 
the then Governor, now President Johnson. Copies were 

also sent to the Review and Harbinger for publication, 
but neither of them published them." 

The following petition was presented to the Federal authorities when in power in the State. 


WHEREAS, A large number of the members of the Churches of 
Jesus Christ feel a deep sense of the responsibility they 
are under to recognize the Bible in its teachings, as the 
only infallible guide and authoritative rule of action, 
and as being of superior authority to, and more binding 
upon the subjects of the kingdom of Jesus Christ than any 
human rules or regulations, they would most respectfully 

1. "That they recognize the necessity for the existence 
of civil government, so long as a considerable portion of 
the human family fails to submit to the government of 

2. "That while God demands of his servants that they 
should submit cheerfully and heartily, to the government 
under which they may live, in all cases, except when 
compliance with the requirements of civil government, 
involves the violation of God's law, they are deeply 
impressed with the truth that when there is a conflict 
between the requirements of civil government and the law 
of God, the duty of the Christian is, upon peril of his 
//131// eternal well-being, to obey God first, let the 
consequences be to him what they may. 

3. "They are satisfied that the measure of their duty to 
civil government, as defined in the Bible, is to submit, 
not by personal participation in affairs of government, 

to uphold or destroy, pull down or upbuild, but simply, 
as a duty they owe to God, to submit, and in that 
submission, modified only as above to discharge the 
offices of good citizens in all the relations of life. 

4. "They are firmly impressed with the truth that no man 
who regards the authority of God, or of his Holy 
Apostles, as set forth in example and precept, for the 
instruction and guidance of his followers in the future 
ages of the world, can engage in, or in any way aid, 
foment or countenance the strifes, animosities and bloody 
conflicts in which civil governments are frequently 
engaged, and in which they involve their subjects. 

5. "The spirit of the Church of Christ and the spirit of 
civil government are different. The one is a spirit of 
force, as all history attests, that no civil government 
ever did arise except by force, violence and the 
destruction of life. So they must maintain that existence 
by force. We suppose the future, with but slight 
variations, will repeat the history of the past. But 
Christianity permits not its subjects to use force or do 
violence, even in defence of its own existence; its 
guiding spirit is one of love, 'peace on earth and good 
will toward man.' 

6. "This difference in the spirit of the two 

institutions, the government of God and the government of 
man, together with the diversity of the means essential 
to the prosperity and success of each respectively, 
necessarily, at times, involves a conflict in their 
respective requirements. We, therefore, in behalf of the 
churches of which we are members, respectfully petition 
of you that the requirements which, as we believe, 
conflict with our duties to God, may be remitted to those 

members of our churches who have been, and are now, 
striving to maintain a position of Christian separation 
from the world, its conflicts and strifes, as set forth 
in the preceding articles. 

7. "We firmly believe that the oaths of allegiance, and 
the oaths to support and defend the governments of the 
world, now imposed as necessary to the transaction of the 
common affairs of life, are contrary to the spirit and 
teachings of the Savior and his inspired Apostles, and 
involve, if strictly complied with, a violation of some 
of the plainest precepts of the Christian religion. We 
therefore, feel that in taking these oaths and 
obligations, and in performing those requirements that 
have an appearance of countenancing bloodshed and 
violence, we are violating the obligations of fealty we 
have taken to our Heavenly Master. We imperil the well- 
being of the church, dishonor God, and involve ourselves 
in eternal ruin. We, therefore, respectfully ask a 
release from the performance of these requirements, and 
others //132// of a similar character, assuring you 
again, that we recognize it as a solemn duty we owe to 
God, to submit to the government under which we may live, 
in all its requirements, save when that government 
requires of us something contrary to the letter and 
spirit of the Christian religion, as revealed in the 



'We, the undersigned, having been appointed a committee 
by an assembly of members of churches of Jesus Christ, 

met at Leiper's Fork, Williamson county, Tenn., to 
present to your Excellency their grievances, and in their 

and our behalf to petition of you a release from certain 

requirements made at their hands, would most respectfully 

represent that the mass of the members of the churches of 

Jesus Christ, in the counties of Davidson, Williamson, 

Maury and Hickman, and many scattered through other 

counties of Middle Tennessee, believe that all military 

service, or connexion with military service, is utterly 

incompatible with the spirit and requirements of the 

Christian religion. Believing this, they cannot comply 

with the requisition recently made of them in common with 

other residents of the State, for enrolling themselves 

for military service without a violation of their solemn 

conscientious convictions of duty to their Lord and 

Master, and a violation of their vows of fealty to him. 

We, therefore, in behalf of these churches and members of 

churches, respectfully petition of you, in the exercise 

of your authority, a release from those requirements, 

that are repugnant to their religious faith, upon terms 

that you may consider just and right. We desire to assure 

you in this request and movement, upon the faith and 

integrity of Christians, we are acting from no factious 

or political motive, but from the single desire of preserving our faith and profession of 

Christianity pure. Praying earnestly that your counsels and the counsels of the rulers of our 

country may be so conducted as to restore to our country a speedy and lasting peace, we are 

most obediently and respectfully yours. 


The Christian is to pay his taxes, and perform all duties laid upon him by the government, 

that involve no active support of the government, and that involve no violation of the 

commands of God and the spirit of the religion of Christ, as a part of his duties to God - as his 

religious duty. God has so ordained that he must. The cheerful performance of these duties 

must not depend on the character of government, nor upon his approval or disapproval of the 

government. //133// 

Christians are to be supporters and partisans of none. They are to be active opponents of 
none. Quiet submission to the requirements in all things not contrary to the will of God and 
then a quiet submission but persistent refusal to do the thing commanded, is the part of the 
Christian. A Christian can engage in active rebellion against no government. Neither active 
support or participation, nor active opposition. 


The effects of the affiliation is seen in the persecuting spirit. No church ever thought of force 
to repress error, or to uphold truth until it had first imbibed the spirit of the civil power. The 
civil power is founded on force, lives by it and it is its only weapon of offence or defence. 
Christians enter civil government, drink into its spirit, and carry that spirit with them into the 
church. All force in religious affairs is persecution. This spirit of force is antagonistic to the 
spirit of Christ. They cannot harmonize. They cannot dwell in the same bosom. "No man can 
serve two masters," or cherish two antagonistic spirits. The result of it is, that the spirit of 
Christ, the spirit of self-denial, of self-sacrifice, the forbearance and long suffering, the doing 
good for evil, so fully manifested in the life of and so fully taught by Jesus Christ and the 
apostles, are almost unknown to the Christian profession of this day. The sermon on the 
Mount, embraced in the fifth sixth and seventh chapters of Matthew, certainly contain the 
living and essential principles of the religion the Savior came to establish, those which must 
pervade and control the hearts and lives of men, without which no man can be a Christian. 
They are enforced by such expressions as these. 

"Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to 
them that hate you, and pray for them that despitefully 
use you, and persecute you; that ye may be the children 
of your Father which is in Heaven." 


And again, "Whosoever heareth these sayings of mine, and 
doeth them, I will liken him unto a wise man, which built 
his house upon a rock, ... Whoever heareth these 
sayings of mine, and doeth them not shall be likened unto 
a foolish man etc., which built his house upon the sand." 

THESE sayings of mine, refer to the sayings presented in this sermon of Jesus, which 
constitute the laws that must control the lives of his subjects, and must rule in his kingdom. 
They are given as principles to be practices, without which we are not and cannot be children 
of our Father which is in heaven. Yet the religious world of to-day both Protestant and 
Romish, believes these principles not applicable at the present day. The laws and the spirit of 
civil government are more looked to, to guide the church and regulate the lives of its 
members, than the teaching of the Bible. Indeed it is usually regarded that the church member 
may do anything the civil law allows and what it allows is not to be prohibited in the church. 
This comes from the members of the church going into the civil governments, imbibing their 
spirit, adopting their morality and bringing them both into the church of Christ. A man cannot 
cherish in his heart two spirits, one to rule his religious life, the other to rule his civil life. He 
cannot adopt two standards of morality, one for his church life, the other for his political life. 

"A man cannot serve two masters, he will love the one, 
and hate the other, or he will cleave to one and despise 
the other." 

That the political affairs, and the standard of general morality may be elevated by the 
affiliation, is possible, but the true spiritual life is destroyed by the affiliation. 

The antagonism between the principles laid down by Christ and those of civil government is 
so marked that in history, the statement, that they regulate their conduct by the sermon on the 
Mount, is equal to saying they take no part in civil affairs. 

The only people who claim to make the "sermon upon 1 11351 1 the Mount" their rule of life, 
are the small religious bodies, who take no part in civil affairs. Some bodies of Quakers, 
Mennonites, Nazarenes and Dunkards, and individuals among the larger brotherhoods. 

But who can study the New Testament, the life of Christ, his teaching through his mission, 
the admonitions of the Holy Spirit speaking through the apostles and for a moment doubt, 
that Christ specially gave this sermon to regulate the hearts and lives of his followers. He 
gave it at the beginning of his ministry that all might understand the life, to which they were 
specifically called. 

The apostle Paul Romans xii: 19, reiterated the principles of this sermon on the Mount. 

"Dearly beloved avenge not yourselves, but rather give 
place unto wrath: for it is written, Vengeance is mine, 
I will repay saith the Lord. Therefore if thine enemy 
hunger, feed him; if he thirst give him drink, for in so 
doing thou shalt heap coals of fire on his head. Be not 
overcome of evil, but overcome evil with good." 
1 Peter ii: 19, "For this is thankworthy, if a man for 
conscience toward God endure grief, suffering wrongfully. 
For what glory is it, if, when ye be buffeted for your 
faults ye shall take it patiently? But if when ye do 
well, and suffer for it, ye take it patiently, this is 
acceptable with God. For even hereunto were called: 
because Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an 
example that ye should follow his steps: Who did no sin, 
neither was guile found in his mouth: Who, when he was 
reviled, reviled not again; when he suffered, he 
threatened not; but committed himself to him that judgeth 
righteously: Who his own self bare our sins in his own 
body on the tree, that we, being dead to sins, should 
live unto righteousness: by whose stripes we were 

The spirit of Christ is driven out of the church and the spirit of the world takes its abode in it 
by this affiliation. 

So long as the idea prevails that it is allowable for Christians to enjoy the honors and 
emoluments, and engage in the contests for worldly glory and honor by managing the affairs 
of the civil or worldly governments, and yet enjoy the blessings of God, in this world and in 
that which is to come, so long will the young seek the service of the human //136// rather than 
that of the Divine. While they are taught they can satisfy the flesh and still enjoy the blessings 
of spiritual life, they will follow the way of the flesh. Along with displacing the spirit of 
Christ, in the church, with the spirit of the world, the world absorbs the talent, the time the 
means that belong to the church, and leaves the church devoid of the spirit of Christ, stripped 
of its strength and talent and left without means. 

Various difficulties are presented to the position here taken. Such as, If Christian give the 
government up to sinners and those rejecting God, what will become of the world? What will 
become of Christians? If all were converted to the Christian religion, we would still need civil 
government. How would the mails be carried? How could the affairs of Railroads, 
Manufactures, and the many large corporations needful to the well-being of society be 

To this last difficulty, it is responded, when all are converted to Christ, all dominion and 
power and rule on earth will be put down and destroyed, and the rule and the dominion and 
the kingdom under the whole heavens will be delivered up to God, the Father, that he may be 
all and in all. To the wisdom, and power and management, of him who created and rules the 
heavens we will cheerfully commit the adjustment and management of all things pertaining to 
the world, to man, and his well-being here or hereafter. And no true believer in God can have 
any apprehension of failure in ought that pertains to man's well-being here or hereafter. 

God was an immediate and ever present ruler to man as he was first created and placed in 
Eden. Man refused to obey God, chose the devil as his ruler, and with himself carried the 
world into a state of rebellion against God. God ceased to be an immediate and present guide 
to man. 1113111 "The voice of the Lord God" ceased to walk with, and guide him in his paths. 
The spirit of God forsook man and ceased to inspire his heart. Man's sin and rebellion 
separated between man and his God. But when man shall cease to sin - when man shall lay 
down the arms of his rebellion, when man shall come out of the earthly government of God, 
when "all rule and all authority and all power shall have been put down," then the kingdom 
shall be delivered up to God the Father, and he will be our God, the God of the human family, 
and of this earth - and shall again dwell there and they will be his children and walk under his 
guidance and direction. He will be all and in all. 

As to the other objections, while God does not rule in, as a present guide to man in this world 
while in rebellion against him, he does overrule the affairs of earth so as that no evil shall 
come to him that trusts in the Lord, so that "all things shall work together for good to them 
that love the Lord," so that he "will keep him in perfect peace whose heart is stayed on the 
Lord, because he trusted in him." Isa. xxvi: 3, so that "when a man pleases the Lord, he 
maketh even his enemies to be at peace with him." Prov. xvi: 7. So that "He maketh the wrath 
of man praise him, and the remainder of wrath he will restrain." Ps. lxxvi: 10. 

Then again Christian men, as has been heretofore presented, cannot be governed by Christian 
principles in civil government. Civil government rests on force as its foundation. The 
weapons of the Christian are not carnal, but spiritual. A ruler or an officer in civil government 
cannot carry into the execution of these laws, the principles of the religion of Christ. To 
forgive his brother seventy times seven, on repentance, would destroy all authority in //138// 
civil affairs. It is certainly true no Christian should go where he cannot carry the practice of 
the principles of the religion of Christ. The Savior presents the essential antagonism when he 
says, "ye know that the princes of the Gentiles exercise dominion over them (their subjects) 
and they that are great exercise authority upon them. But it shall not be so among you, but 
whosoever will be great among you, let him be your minister and whosoever would be chief 
let him be your servant: even as the son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to 
minister and to give his life a ransom for many." 

A man cannot be a follower of Christ and a ruler in the governments of earth. 

Again, Christian men out of place are as liable to do wrong as others. The protection and 
security of the Christian, is, that while he is doing his duty as a Christian, in the walks God 
has appointed him, 

"God will not permit him to be tempted above that he is 
able to bear." 

But when he steps outside of the paths God has marked out for him, he loses this protection. 
Hence we find religious men often falling victims to the snares and temptations of the world 
as others. It is because they step outside of the limits of the Christian walk, and so forfeit the 
protection of God. 

Again, the Christian spirit is a frank, open, unsuspecting one. A man that is suspicious of all, 
looking for evil in every one, is a poor Christian. An unsuspecting nature in political affairs 
will be imposed upon, taken advantage of and will be frequently used to carry out the aims 
and purposes of designing and corrupt partisans. There is but little doubt that Garfield's frank, 
confiding and unsuspecting nature, led him without evil intent, into connection with the 
Credit Mobiliar, which was a reproach to him. The very nature that was an ornament to the 
Christian 1 11391 1 so laid him open to the designs of the designing and corrupt, that some of his 
nearest friends think it was to the credit of his administration that he died early. While we 

have Garfield up as an example. It is well-known that in early life he was a preacher. In later 
life he turned aside to politics, and war, both essential to the conduct of civil government. 

After his experience through the war, it is said that he always refused to preach or to preside 
at the Lord's table. 

The reason was. His hands were stained in the blood of his fellowmen, and inasmuch as 
David was prohibited building in the material earthly temple on account of his hands being 
stained in blood, he could not take an active part in leading the hosts, or building up the 
spiritual temple of God. This shows a commendably sensitive conscience. But every man 
who voted to bring on or perpetuate that war, was just as guilty before God as the men who 
actively participated in it. Their souls were just as much stained in blood. 

This statement was published in the WATCHMAN, Boston, Mass., soon after Garfield's 
death, after it was in type we learn through Elder F. D. Power, the preacher in Washington 
city, that Garfield did after the war preside at the Lord's table and exhort his brethren, though 
he never entered the pulpit. 

He heard that God's agent heard God. He that gave a cup of cold water to the least disciple of 
Christ in the name of Christ did it to Christ himself. This establishes fully what we do 
through another or cause another to do, we ourselves do and are responsible for. 

Then again, he who maintains and supports an institution is responsible for the general results 
of that institution. The general and necessary results of human government //140// are war 
and the use of carnal weapons to maintain the government. Everyone then that actively 
supports human government, is just as responsible for the wars and bloodshed that grow out 
of its existence and maintenance as are the men who actively wage and carry on the war. 
Then everyone who voted to bring about and carry on the war was just as much unfitted for 
service in the kingdom of God as was Gen. Garfield or any other soldier in the army. The 
same is true of every man that supports and maintains human government. 

But religious men fail to make the best and fairest rulers in human government from other 
causes. The religious sentiment in man is the strongest, deepest, most permanent element of 
his nature. When this element is developed and cultivated and fully aroused it is 
uncompromising and unyielding. God never intended it should be aroused to use carnal 

weapons. Aroused and guided by the principles of love - and directed by the word of God, it 
is unyielding in self-sacrificing devotion to benefit and save man. But warped and perverted 
by the principles that control in civil governments and using the sword - it is implacable, 
unmerciful. In other words men with their religious natures developed, then perverted by 
personal ambition, as politicians, rulers and warriors, are the most intolerant, implacable and 
cruel of rulers. 

The worst despots of earth have been those that have commingled religious fervor with the 
ambitions and strifes of political rulers. The bloodiest paths, the most cruel desolation made 
in our country during the late war, were made by preacher- warriors. The most intolerant of 
rulers - those slowest to end the bitterness and strifes of the war are the religious bodies. The 
religious element in man is the permanent uncompromising enduring element of his nature. 
And the very qualities that make him a cruel and //141// unrelenting despot with carnal 
weapons in his hand, make him the self-sacrificing, devoted servant of God, willing to endure 
all things to save his enemies when clothed with spiritual weapons. Saul the vindictive 
persecutor, haling men and women to prison, and giving his voice for their death, with carnal 
weapons in his hand, and the Apostle Paul dying daily and willing himself to be accursed to 
save his brethren the Jews, shows how differently the same person under the differing 
conditions, acts. This shows that religion and devotion are only good in the path and for the 
ends for which God has fitted them. They are not in place ruling with the sword. 

Religious influence exerts a moralizing influence in society that benefits it and helps even 
civil government, but religion exerts its most benign effects as it influences persons and 
communities to adopt in their lives the precepts and principles of the religion of Christ Jesus 
and so leads the world to a higher standard of morality and virtue. 


There are requirements sometimes made of persons by the government that they have 
difficulty in determining whether they violate the law of God in doing them. Among them is 
jury service. The rule determined in the preceding pages, is, the Christian should take no part 
in the administration or support of the government. Jury service is a part of its administration, 
and frequently lays on the juryman the duty of determining the life or death of his fellowman, 
and leads into affiliation with the agencies of government. Some anxious for office say, a 
postmaster is not a political office. Hence he may hold it, that clerkship in the executive 

offices are not political - but they are part of the essential elements of the civil administration, 
and make the holder a supporter of the government. Yet there are employments sometimes 
given in carrying on government //142// operations that a Christian it seems to me might 
perform. The government builds a house. House building is no part of the administration of 
government. A mason or carpenter might do work on this building without other relation to 
the government than that of employee to the government. The government wishes a school 
taught. Teaching school is no part of the administration of the government. It seems to me a 
Christian might teach a government school as an employee without compromising his 
position. As a rule he may work as an employee of the government but may not be an officer 
or supporter. As a rule the government exacts an oath of its officers, to support the 
government but it does not of its employees. Its employees in building, in school teaching, in 
surveying, are frequently foreigners who do not owe allegiance to the government, in these a 
Christian it seems to me might work. This work constitutes no part of the government 
administration and requires no affiliation with or obligation to support the government. 

We find in primitive times Christians were prohibited engraving drinking cups, shields and 
ornaments for the god's, and making swords as encouraging that for which these things were 

Clement of Alexandria about A. D. 175, says, "For those 
men ought not to engrave idolatrous forms to whom the use 
of them is forbidden. Those can engrave no sword, and no 
bow, who seek for peace; the friends of temperance cannot 
engrave drinking cups." Neander p. 184. 

"Those who exercised trades contrary to the general and 
recognized principles of Christianity were not admitted 
to baptism, before they had pledged themselves to 
relinquish them. They were obliged to begin a new trade, 
in order to make a livelihood or in case they were unable 
to do so, they were received into the number of the poor 
of the church. Among these trades were reckoned all which 
had the smallest connection of any kind whatever with 
idolatry, and might contribute to its furtherance as 

artists and workman who made ornaments and images of the 
gods. Tertullian said, To obtain honor for idols, is to 
honor them yourself ... you offer up your own spirit to 
them //143// your sweat is their drink offering and you 
light the torch of your cunning in honor of them." 
Neander, p. 161. 

All which means that the Christians came into the church with their whole hearts, and 
tolerated no divided fealty and service in its members. The service of God, the conforming 
their lives to the teachings of God's word, the building up of his church, the spread of his 
kingdom, the teachings of his holy word to the world, were the leading purposes and business 
of all Christians. To this one end, all who came into the church devoted their talents, their 
time, and their means. Nothing counteracting this main work was tolerated. The man whose 
calling was not in harmony with this great work of the church, must give up that calling, or he 
could not be recognized as a member of the church of God. The consecration of all the 
powers of mind, body and soul, to the service of God on the part of every man, woman and 
child, was the rule of the church. A sedulous guarding against dividing the fealty and service 
with other institutions, and against the members remaining where they would imbibe a 
different spirit to bring into the church, is manifest. They sought first and only the kingdom 
of God and his righteousness. They were willing to sacrifice worldly honor, riches and glory, 
to the advancement of this work. Their children were trained for the service of God in the 

When Christians thus consecrated themselves to the service of God and rendered to him an 
undivided fealty, the word of the Lord multiplied greatly. It ran and was glorified among 
men. Multitudes at home and abroad were converted to Christ. 

The great weakness of the church to-day, is, when men are brought into the church they are 
not consecrated to the service of God and the upbuilding of his kingdom. The children of God 
devote more time, more talent to the service of earthly kingdoms and institutions than they do 
//144// to the church of God. What they serve most they love best. They drink into the spirit 
of the earthly institutions and bring that spirit into the church of God. They bring the habits of 
thought - the reliance upon human wisdom, and devices and inventions of men into the 
church of God. They drive out the spirit of God, substitute human wisdom and ways for the 

wisdom and power of God and in every way defile the church of God and work its ruin and 
the shame of our holy religion. 


Questions come up in the workings of society and before the voters of a country that involve 
moral good to the community. Such are the questions regarding the restriction of the sale of 
intoxicants, the licensing of race courses and gambling houses and places of licentiousness. It 
is strongly denied in such cases that the government that restricts and prohibits sin can be of 
the devil, and hence it is claimed a Christian should vote on all such questions of morality. 

To the first, it is replied, the devil has always been quite willing to compromise with 
Christians if he can induce them to divide their allegiance and to give the greater service to 
the upbuilding of his kingdom. He offered this compromise to the Savior when here on earth. 
Was quite willing the Savior should rule, and doubtless in his own way, and make things as 
moral and respectable as he desired them, if it only promoted the growth of his kingdom and 
extended and supported his rule and dominion. This very proffer that the Master rejected, his 
disciples accept and act upon in supporting human government. 

"The Holy Spirit warned Christians, that, false prophets 
would transform themselves into prophets of God and the 
devil himself into an angel of light." (2 Cor. xi: 13.) 

There is no doubt the devil is willing to turn moral reformer and make the world moral and 
respectable, if thereby his //145// rule and authority are established and extended. And it may 
be set down as a truth that all reformations that propose to stop short of a full surrender of the 
soul, mind, and body up to God, are of the devil. 

To the claim that a Christian is bound to vote, when he has the privilege, for that which 
promotes morality, and to fail to vote for the restriction and suppression of evil is to vote for 
it, we have determined that, to vote or use the civil power is to use force and carnal weapons. 
Christians cannot use these. To do so is to do evil that good may come. This is specially 
forbidden to Christians. To do so is to fight God's battles with the weapons of the evil one. To 
do so is to distrust God. The effective way for Christians to promote morality in a 
community, is, to stand aloof from the political strifes and conflicts, and maintain a pure and 

true faith in God, which is the only basis of true morality, and is as a leaven in society, to 
keep alive an active sense of right. To go into political strife is to admit the leaven of evil into 
the church. For the church to remain in the world and yet keep itself free from the spirit of the 
world, is to keep alive an active leaven of morality in the world. If that leaven loses its 
leaven, wherewith shall the world be leavened? or if the salt lose its savor wherewith shall the 
earth be salted or saved? God has told his children to use the spiritual weapons, has warned 
them against appealing to the sword or force to maintain his kingdom or to promote the honor 
of God and the good of man. When they do as he directs them, and use his appointments, he 
is with them to fight their battles for them and to give them the victory. When they turn from 
his appointments to the human kingdoms and their weapons, they turn from God, reject his 
help, drive him out of the conflict and fight the battles for man's deliverance with their own 
strength and by their own wisdom. Human government is the sum of human wisdom //146// 
and the aggregation of human strength. God's kingdom is the consummation of Divine 
wisdom and in it dwells the power of God. 

To use the human is to reject Divine wisdom and divest ourselves of Divine help. To use the 
Divine is to follow Divine wisdom and to seek and rest upon Divine help. There can be no 
doubt as to which is the Christian's duty. Then the Christian most effectually promotes public 
morality by standing aloof from the corrupting influences of worldly institutions and 
maintaining a pure religious morality. The same difficulty was propounded in the early 

Neander says, "The Christians stood aloof and distinct 
from the state, as a priestly and spiritual race, and 
Christianity seemed able to influence civil life only in 
that manner which, it must be confessed, is the purest, 
by practically endeavoring to instil more and more of 
the holy feeling into the citizens of the state." 
And Origen said, "The Christians render greater 
assistance to their country than other men, inasmuch as 
they instruct the citizens, and teach them to become 
pious toward God, on whom the welfare of cities depends, 
and who receives those whose conduct in a poor and 

miserable city has been good, into a divine and heavenly 

The same objections were made to the positions of the early Christians, that are made to-day 
to this position. They then beyond doubt held the same position we advocate. We make the 
same reply these early Christians made. We occupy the same position they did. Let us serve 
God with all our mind and strength and soul in his kingdom, and he will be our strength and 
our shield. 

And true faith in God will lead us to trust him do his will, use his appointments diligently and 
faithfully and leave results with him; knowing that when we obey him and so "work out our 
salvation with fear and trembling, it is God which worketh in us to will and to do of his good 
pleasure." And when Gods works in and through us, all good results must follow. 



THYATIRA, MISS., JULY 26, 1869. 

BRO. LIPSCOMB: - Who that has mingled in the society of 
the present day, but has had reason to think, and 
evidence to know that we greatly lack the zeal, purity 
and simplicity taught in the New Testament. By what badge 
or sign do we distinguish the professed Christian from 
the man of the world? Both thrown into the common 
whirlpool of secular affairs, it is often a difficult 
task to distinguish between them. Certainly we too often 
fail to realize our responsibility as professed followers 
of our Savior. Are we not commanded to be as a city set 
upon a hill, etc? Does Paul not admonish us to "let our 
conversation be as becometh the Gospel of Christ?" (Phil, 
i: 27.) 

Again, "Have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of 

darkness, but rather reprove them." (Eph. v: 11; also 
James iii: 13; 1 Peter i: 15, and Heb. xiii: 5.) 
Religion was designed by its divine author to keep the 
whole man in order, whether he be engaged in business, in 
keeping company, or devotionally. But how often do we 
witness long and animated conversations, in which almost 
every other interest is discussed, save the one eternal 
interest? "Whatsoever we sow, that shall we also reap." 
There is no medium ground; ALMOST a Christian is not a 
Christian at all. True we may live up to the forms and 
ceremonies of religion and show to outsiders a TOLERABLE 
EXTERNAL, and yet fall far short of the Christian 

Many of us act as though we believed that to conform to 
the teachings of the church, read the Bible occasionally, 
hear sermons when convenient, engage in benevolent 
enterprises when not too expensive, keep the Lord's day, 
receive the Lord's supper, etc., will suffice. But when 
we scrutinize our actions we must all confess that our 
course is pharisaical. 

We ought to examine ourselves, see our own weaknesses, 
acknowledge them, condemn ourselves on account of them, 
and repent by turning from them. But I did not set down 
to write an essay on Christian deportment, but to ask 
some information. 

In the 13th chapter of Romans, Paul says: "Let every soul 
be subject to the higher authorities, for there is no 
authority but from God, the authorities that are, have 
been appointed by God. Therefore, he that resisteth the 
authority, resists the appointment of God, and those who 
resist receive to themselves condemnation," (Anderson's 

trans.) Are we to conclude from this that God appoints 
the temporal government of the world? If so, in what 
sense is it to be understood? If He appoints them in the 
sense often advocated, it appears to me they would be 
more in harmony with his revealed word. Is there anything 
in the establishment and preservation of human 
governments above and beyond the capacity of man? But in 
their ever //148// changing unjust course without 
stability always on the QUI VIVE for something more, are 
they not peculiarly of men? 

When God appointed a government for the Jews, he did it 
in such a way as not to leave them in any doubt about it, 
and in it we see the wisdom of God. But may this passage 
not refer to the authorities of the church? 

R. W. L. 

We answered the above questions so frequently and fully 
a few years ago that we feel indisposed to answer them 
again, yet new readers make it necessary to repeat the 
truths on this subject as on every other. We hesitate the 
more to respond to them because we cannot answer them in 
as few words as we desire without being misunderstood. 
Many excellent brethren of sound and critical minds, have 
been disposed to refer this scripture to the church 
authorities. After a full, and we think thorough 
investigation of the subject, we are satisfied that it 
refers to the civil or political governments of the 

My first reason for thus believing is, God never ordained 
his true and faithful children for the performance of 
such a work. But that he always ordained the wicked to do 

the work here assigned these "Ministers of God." 
The object for which this minister is ordained is as an 
avenger "to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil." Now 
God never ordained one of his true, obedient and 
spiritual children as an avenger to execute wrath, either 
in this world or the world to come. In the world to come 
the devil is appointed to execute wrath on the evil 
doers. Christ and the holy angels are appointed to bless 
and render happy the well doer. In the preceding chapter 
the apostle tells the Christian he cannot take vengeance. 
"Avenge not yourself, but rather give place unto wrath. 
If thine enemy hunger, feed him; if he thirst, give him 
drink, for in so doing thou shalt heap coals of fire on 
his head. Be not overcome of evil, but overcome evil with 
good." Now God tells the Christian, you must not take 
vengeance, you must do good for evil. I will avenge the 
wicked, you cannot. Now the Christian was God's minister, 
ordained for doing good to men, of returning good for 
evil, and the minister of God for this work could not 
take vengeance. 

But God says vengeance is mine. I will repay, saith the 
Lord. But God acts through ministers. The Christian is 
his minister to do good and to bless; he cannot take 
vengeance, but God has other ministers, "the powers that 
be," that He so overrules in their wickedness and sin as 
to make them his ministers of wrath, his "avengers to 
execute wrath on him that doeth evil." 

The idea is common that all of God's ministers are good. 
This is an error. His ministers are in character fitted 
for the work he appoints for them to do. 


Thus Judas Iscariot was a wicked man. A money loving 
traitor at heart. In the providence of God for the 
salvation of the world, it is necessary that Jesus the 
Christ should be betrayed and crucified. God wants a 
minister to do this work. He did not chose the gentle and 
true-hearted John as his minister for this work. John was 
not in character fitted for it. John was in character 
fitted as a minister for another work. His gentle, kind, 
tender disposition made him a peculiarly well fitted 
minister to care for an old decrepit, heart-stricken and 
bereaved mother in Israel, and because of this fitness 
Jesus made him his minister to care for his own bereaved 
mother. Peter might in a moment of weakness and 
discouragement deny his master, but it took a different 
character to betray him. Hence Peter was chosen or 
ordained as a minister, but not as a minister of wrath 
and treason. Because Judas possessed this money loving, 
traitorous heart, God chose him as his minister to betray 
his Lord, and then damned him with endless infamy for his 
depraved and wicked character. 

"For Jesus knew from the beginning who they were who 
believed not, and who should betray him." "Have not I 
chosen you twelve, and one of you is a devil? He spoke of 
Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon, for it was he that 
should betray him, being one of the twelve." (John vi: 

Then Judas Iscariot was not made wicked or corrupt by God, but 
God seeing his money loving disposition, and knowing that when 
once the love of money gets a firm hold on the heart of an 
individual that it prepares that heart for treason to every 
principle of honor and virtue, chose him on account of this 

character as his minister to betray his son into the hands of 
his enemies. 

God in his providential dealings with man used such 
characters as his servants or ministers for effecting 
works of cruelty, that were necessary to be performed as 
parts of his government over the human family. When a 
nation or people is wholly given to wickedness, when it 
refuses to obey God, his honor requires that nation 
should be destroyed. When his servants and followers 
become disobedient, hard-hearted and rebellious, his 
honor and their good require their chastisement, that 
they may be humbled and brought back to God. In such work 
God has always chosen the wicked and corrupt as his 
ministers or servants, and then in the performance of 
this work secured their own punishment. 

The Jews disobeyed God - became fearfully rebellious. God 
determined to punish them. He chose a wicked nation with 
wicked and blood-thirsty rulers as his servants or 
ministers to do this work. 

(Jer. xxv: 8.) "Therefore thus saith the Lord of hosts 
because ye have not heard my words, Behold I will send 
and take all the families of the North, saith the Lord, 
and Nebuchadnezzar //150// the King of Babylon, my 
servant, and will bring them against this land, and 
against the inhabitants thereof, and against all these 
nations round about, and will utterly destroy them and 
make them an astonishment and an hissing and perpetual 
desolation. Moreover, I will take from them the voice of 
mirth, and the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of 
the bride, the sound of the millstones, and the light of 
the candle. And this whole land shall be a desolation and 
an astonishment, and these nations shall serve the King 

of Babylon seventy years. And it shall come to pass when 
seventy years are accomplished, that I will punish the 
King of Babylon and that nation, saith the Lord for their 
iniquity, and the land of the Chaldeans, and will make it 
perpetual desolations, And I will bring upon that land 
all my words, which I have pronounced against it. ... 
For many nations and great kings shall serve themselves 
of them also, and I will recompense them according to 
their deeds and according to the works of their own 

This shows that the Jews were rebellious. God determined 
to punish them with desolation and captivity. Other 
nations around were hopelessly corrupt. He determined to 
destroy them. He chooses a servant in character and power 
fitted to the work of slaughter and desolation. The 
people of Babylon are strong, are wicked, are depraved, 
would glory in such work. God chooses them as his 
instruments to accomplish the work, and calls their king 
Nebuchadrezzar, "my servant," to do this work. He does it 
from no love to God, no disposition to honor God, but 
from an ambitious and blood-thirsty spirit, to gratify 
his love of power, conquest and aggrandizement. He is 
unconscious that God is using him. He is wholly ignorant 
of the purpose of God. It is a case simply of God 
overruling human ignorance and human wickedness to 
accomplish his own purposes. It is a case in which the 
wrath of man is made to praise and glorify God." "Surely 
the wrath of man shall praise thee; the remainder of 
wrath shalt thou restrain." (Ps. lxxvi: 10.) 

But when God's purposes have been accomplished by the 

destruction of the nations, and the captivity of Judah 

for seventy years; when Babylon has completed the service 

which God accomplished through it, he says: "It shall 
come to pass when seventy years are accomplished, that I 
will punish the King of Babylon and that nation, saith 
the Lord, for their iniquity, and the land of the 
Chaldeans, and will make it perpetual desolations." It is 
a plain case of God using one wicked nation to punish 
another, and then destroying the one that is used. God 
called the wicked king "my servant," and the wicked 
nation "my battle axe to destroy nations, not a few." In 
the fiftieth and fifty-first chapters of Jeremiah may be 
found the account of the most fearful destruction of 
Babylon when her seventy years were accomplished. God 
sometimes used men not so wholly corrupt, but worldly, 
wicked men, and overruled their pride, liberality, 
ambition, love of applause to serve him in a //151// way 
less blood-thirsty and cruel, though still of a nature 
that his chosen servants could not perform. Cyrus was one 
of these. Isa. xlv: 1-5-7, says: "Thus saith the Lord to 
his anointed Cyrus whose right hand I have holden to 
subdue nations before him, etc." "For Jacob, my servant's 
sake, and Israel, mine elect, I have called thee by thy 
name. I have surnamed thee, though thou hast not known 
me. I have girded thee though thou hast not known me." 
Here God uses Cyrus, an idolatrous prince who knew not 
God; who was ambitious of power, place and renown; makes 
use of him and overrules this spirit of love of renown 
for magnanimity, to cause him to restore his people to 
their own land, and to enable them to rebuild the temple 
of God. Not because he desired to honor God, but because 
he desired the worldly honor of re-establishing the 
ancient and renowned temple of Jerusalem. God controls 
his ambition in this line to accomplish his purposes and 
calls him his "anointed" servant to do this. Yet he was 

an idolatrous, wicked, pagan prince, ambitious only of 
fame and glory for himself. 

Servants and ministers mean precisely the same in the 
Bible. God always uses or ordains those to do a work who 
are in character fitted for its performance, and then 
always rewards the work performed according to the 
character suited to its performance. A bloody, cruel work 
demands a bloody, cruel character to perform it. A 
bloody, cruel destiny is God's reward. "He that taketh 
the sword shall perish by the sword." A work of treason 
to holiness, to virtue, to purity, demands a treasonable 
heart, corrupted by the love of money. A work of love, of 
gentleness, mercy and good will, demands a character 
pure, gentle full of mercy, love and affection for the 
distress of humanity; the rewards are those of joy, peace 
and mercy from God. "With what measure you mete it shall 
be measured to you." 

God in the unseen world, ordained the wicked one; the 
enemy of truth and righteousness to execute wrath and 
vengeance on the finally impenitent. As his reward he is 
to share with them the woes of hell forever and ever. He 
ordained Jesus the merciful high priest of salvation, who 
was touched with a sense of our infirmities and bore the 
stripes of us all, as his servant to minister salvation 
to the humble and true in the world to come. As his 
reward he is to enjoy the most ineffable glories of the 
better land forever. He will occupy his throne at the 
right hand of the Father. 

God ordains in this world his humble and true followers 
as his ministers to do works of love, mercy, long 
suffering and tender pity, and receive the reward of 
mercy and love in return here and hereafter. 

The wicked, the corrupt, the rebellious, are his chosen 
ministers, "avengers to execute wrath on those who do 
evil," and in turn receive according to their works. The 
sharp sword of God's unquenchable wrath will repay. Then 
if man wishes a 1 11521 1 merciful reward he must so act as 
to form for himself a character suited for a minister of 
mercy and that will secure him a merciful reward, not a 
wrathful one. 

These civil powers were then God's ministers for 
executing wrath; they were wicked, corrupt and cruel. 
Nero, the prince of cruel, blood-thirsty demons, was the 
great ruler. The cruelty was so great there was danger of 
Christians resisting, striving by violence to overturn 
the government. He commands them to be subject to these 
authorities. God is using them as his ministers of 
vengeance to execute wrath on the evil doers." Of course 
they will reap the reward of wrath and vengeance from 
God. As they have done to others so shall it be done to 

But the difficulty is, They are said to be ministers of 
God to Christians for good. That Christians are told to 
do well and they shall have praise of these rulers. This 
is true in more senses than one. Persecutions to the 
church have been for good to the Christians. And yet the 
gentle spirit of Christian forbearance has extracted 
praise, respect and honor from the most cruel agents of 
persecution. "All things work together for good to them 
that love God, to them who are called according to his 

God permits persecution to come only so far as is good 
for the Christian, the remainder of wrath God 
restraineth. So these powers work for the good of the 

Christian even in their persecution of Christians as well 
as in their suppression and destruction of the evil doer. 
As God ordains ministers for wrath as well as for mercy, 
he ordains institutions of wrath as well as institutions 
of mercy. 

He ordains an institution of mercy - His Church - and 
asks the world to enter, do mercy and receive mercy. 
Those who accept the invitation act and live in it. It is 
ordained for them. But for those who refuse to enter and 
become ministers of mercy, he ordains institutions fitted 
for their rebellious character in which they work, while 
rejecting God's institution of mercy for his children. 
These institutions of wrath God ordains for wrath; they 
will be destroyed after serving their purpose here. 
People build them up unconscious that God is ordaining 
them for the destruction of the builders - of those 
refusing his government of mercy. 
God ordains for people just such institutions as they 
deserve. If they are obedient and submissive, his 
merciful government is their heritage. 

If they refuse to obey God's government, he ordains they 
shall be governed by the oppressive rule of man's own 
governments, of which the devil is the great head. Hence 
God ordains these governments of wrath for the children 
of wrath. They are not ordained for the purpose or the 
people for which God ordains his church, but for the 
wicked. See how God ordained a kingdom for the Jews. (1 
Sam. viii). He ordains a government not to bless but to 
punish for their rebellion in //153// refusing to submit 
to God's government that he had established for their 
good. So God ordains institutions to punish and destroy 

the wicked and rebellious, he brings through these, 
persecutions upon his children to humble and purify them. 

"Shall a trumpet be blown in the city, and the people be 
not afraid? Shall there be evil in a city and God hath 
not done it?" (Amos iii:6.) "I form the light and create 
darkness. I make peace and create evil. I, the Lord, do 
all these things." (Isaiah xlv: 7.) Evils of a physical 
nature are here spoken of and it is a declaration that 
God in his providence brings war, famine and ruin as a 
consequence of man's sins. 

The idea is then, the powers referred to here are civil 
or political powers. They are ordained of God as 
instruments of wrath for the children of wrath, to be 
conducted, and operated by the ministers of wrath and 
their destiny will be a destruct- of fierce wrath. That 
God's children must submit to them as such, not strive by 
violence to destroy them. When in the providence of God 
they are no longer needed, he will destroy them, cause 
them to destroy and eat up one another. No Christian then 
can become a partaker or participator or partisan of them 
lest he partake of their woes; quiet, passive submission 
that involves no violation of the laws of the spiritual 
kingdom, is the measure and limit of their connexion with 
them. God's kingdom of mercy - His Church - is his 
institution in which his children of mercy must operate, 
and in it receive the rewards of mercy. 

A number of our most studious and devoted brethren of the 
older class adopted and maintained this position. Among 
the older ones were T. Fanning, P. S. Fall and B. U. 
Watkins. We give the following article written for the 
GOSPLE ADVOCATE, for the year 1870, by B. U. Watkins. 


One of the signs of the great Apostasy, was the union of 
Church and State. Its chosen symbol was a woman upon the 
back of a seven headed and ten horned beast. It is almost 
uniformly admitted, among American Protestants, that this 
is a well chosen symbol to represent the absurd, and 
unnatural union of Church and State. It is generally 
conceded, that the woman represents the Church, and the 
beast the old Roman civil government. This being true, it 
would appear far more natural for her to be riding the 
beast, than for him to have his locomotion promoted by 
the help of the woman ! 

When the State comes forward and proffers its assistance, 
and the Church voluntarily accepts of such help, it might 
be a question, which would be the most to blame; the 
Church for //154// accepting, or the State for offering 
such assistance. But when the Church gives, unasked, her 
power to the beast, no excuse can reasonably be pleaded. 
If the State supporting the Church, is called an 
adulterous union, I am unable to see, why the union is 
not equally intimate, and criminal, when the Church 
supports the State, by participating in all its 
responsibilities. When the Church offers her fellowship, 
and co-operation in framing all the laws of the land, and 
in choosing its judicial and executive officers - when 
even her members refuse not to become legislators, and 
are even forward to fill all the offices of human 
governments, I cannot see, but the relation between 
church and State, is as intimate as ever, and just as 

Ezekiel chided the ancient Hebrews for seeking such union 
with the nations; and he compares Israel to a woman of 
the lowest infamy. 

It is exceedingly painful to me, to see how aptly these 
symbols of John and Ezekiel apply to modern professors. 
But how greatly would I rejoice, if the reformation of 
the 19th century would arise and put on her beautiful 
garments, and show herself to be the true spouse of 
Christ. May the good Lord grant that this noble 
brotherhood, that I so dearly love, may soon see the 
whole truth! 

But here, I am met with the objection, that these 
institutions are ordained of God. And he who resists them 
resists an ordinance of God, and shall receive 
punishment. Let me here pause, and remark, that I would 
sooner be understood as taking the popular view of this 
passage, rather than appear to countenance any kind of 
war. Nothing is further from my intention. 

But the fact of civil government being ordained of God, 
is no proof of Divine approbation. So long as it can be 
clearly shown that he has ordained that one sinner should 
punish another, so long as we read in Isaiah, that Cyrus 
was sent against Babylon, although he knew not God, so 
long as we find it not difficult to admit the application 
of the above passage, to civil government, whether such 
be its meaning or not. To make the admission saves much 
time, and leaves the argument much more compact. 
Something is gained and nothing lost by granting all we 
can to our opponents. 

That God can overrule sin, without being responsible for 

its commission, and without having any complicity with 
it, is a thing so plain, that to turn aside to explain it 
would almost be an insult to those for whom these columns 
are written. Let a hint suffice. Pharaoh was raised up by 
God for a certain purpose, although his behavior was far 
from being approved of God. 

With a few axioms I will close this article. 

Axiom 1 st . No man has the right of making laws for his 
own government. For such a right would include the double 
I 11551 I absurdity of making him independent of God, and 
responsible only to himself! 

Axiom 2 nd . A republican government is one in which power 
is thought to be delegated by the people to their rulers, 
in their act of voting. 

Axiom 3 rd . But a man cannot delegate a power he himself 
does not possess. 

Hence, INFERENCE 1 st . As man has no inherent legislative 
power, he cannot transfer it to another. 

Hence, INFERENCE 2 nd . Voting is therefore a deception, 
and a sham, making a deceiver of him, who votes, and a 
dupe of him who fancies himself the recipient of 
delegated power. 



I 11561 I 

We give the following extract from Pres. Fanning out of much that he wrote as 
indicating his position. 

"Our Savior came to earth to subjugate bloody and 
deceitful men. When it was in power 'to call to his aid 
more than twelve legions of angels,' he quietly submitted 
to death rather than violate the rule of action that 
governed his life. The early Christians, it cannot be 
denied, followed the example of their Master. They took 
'joyfully the spoiling of their goods' and submitted to 
death rather than employ the weapons of Satan for their 
protection. We are cheerful, however, to say that God has 
ordained means in the hands of violent men, for the 
protection of the faithful from violence; but the wicked 
are the sword of the Lord. If our readers will admit the 
existence of a class of persons on earth who are truly 
spiritual, there need be no further controversy on the 
subject. All the powers of the world are created by 
violence, and must necessarily be upheld by force; but 
the Lord established his kingdom by peaceable means - by 
love and kindness. Worldly governments are all under the 
prince of this world, and the government of Christians is 
administered by the Prince of Peace. These two characters 
of government are antipodal to each other. Spiritual 
government is to 'break in pieces and consume' all of 
Satan's principalities; but the great work is not to be 
accomplished by violence but by love. Christ was not of 
the world neither were his disciples, and Christians in 
the nineteenth century should not be instruments in the 
hands of the devil to carry out his purposes."