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Full text of "Collection of United States patents granted to Thomas A. Edison, 1869-1884"

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WILLIAM J. HAMMi 
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From the 

WILLIAM J. HAMMER 
Scientific Collection 



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N.' PETERS, PHOTO-UTHOGRAPMEP.. WASHINGTON, 0. C. 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF 
AND DEWITT 0. EOBEETS, OF SAME PLACE. 

IMPROVEMENT IN ELECTROGRAPH IC VOTE- RECO RDER. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 90,646, dated June 1, 1869. 



all whom it may concern: 
Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Boston, in the county of Suffolk and State of 
Massachusetts, have invented a new and use- 
ful apparatus named " Electrographic Vote 
Eecorder and Begister," of which the follow- 
ing is a full, clear, and exact description, ref- 
erence being had to the accompanying draw- 
ing, which represents a plan view of the appa- 
ratus, aud to the letters of reference thereon. 

The object of my invention is to produce an 
apparatus which records and registers in an 
instant, and with great accuracy, the votes of 
legislative bodies, thus avoiding loss of valua- 
ble time consumed in counting and registering 
the votes and names, as done in the usual man- 
ner ; aud my invention consists in applying an 
electrographic apparatus in such a manner 
that each member, by moving a switch to 
either of two points, rej)resenting an affirma- 
tive and opposing vote, has his name imprint- 
ed, by means of electricity, under the desired 
head, on a previously-prepared paper, and at 
the same time the number of votes is indicated 
on a dial-plate by the operation. 

Beferring to the drawings, in the central 
portion of the plate a a is secured a block, Tc, 
upon which are set, in metallic types, two col- 
umns of names, n n', the one being headed by 
the word " no," the other by " yes," each col- 
umn containing the name of every voter, and 
the like names standing opposite each other, 
as Mann under head " no" opposite to Mann 
under head 11 yes," &c. The types are sepa- 
rated by intervening spaces. 

Along two sides of the block Jc, and parallel 
with the two columns n n', are two rails, jj! t 
composed of any good insulating material, as 
hard rubber. 

Opposite the intervening spaces between 
two names the upper faces of the rails jf are 
intersected by metallic strips o o o o' o' o'. 

On the rails jf are mounted two rollers, q 
q 1 , insulated from one another, and insulated 
from and surrounded by the cylinder p, in such 
a manner that the rollers q q' project beyond 
said cylinder^ and rest immediately upon the 
rails. These rollers are metallic, and the lar- 
ger one, j), is of such a size as to come in con- 
tact with a chemically-prepared paper placed 



upon the types, and is, furthermore, in com- 
munication with battery b by means of con- 
ducting- wire rr, or in any other suitable man- 
ner. 

The rollers q q' communicate with the two 
magnets v v" by the wires s s', and through 
them operate the armatures v' v"', the escape- 
ments w w' and the pointers x cc', which latter 
show the numbers of votes on the dial-plates 
marked with as many figures as there are 
voters. 

The battery b, with the two poles c and d, 
is connected with and operates the apparatus 
in the following manner : The pole c is in con- 
stant communication with the metallic types 
I m, representing, respectively, "no" and " yes," 
by means of the conducting-wires y z ; but the 
pole c is connected by the wires & c" c", with 
as many switches e e' as there are voters. 

From the points//' g <j the conducting- 
wires * i' h h' pass to the metallic strips o o o' 
o', and from thence to the nearest metallic 
type, or they may pass first to the types and 
then branch back to the respective strips, as 
seen in the column to the left. 

From the pole d of battery b communication 
is established with the cylinder p by the wire 
r r, and from the same pole by the wire u u t 
to the two magnets, where the aforesaid con- 
ducting-wires s s' lead to the two insulated 
rollers q q'. 

The apparatus is placed before the record- 
ing clerk's desk, and a paper, which is previ- 
ously chemically prepared for printing by 
electricity by saturating it in any known so- 
lution for that purpose, is placed upon the 
types, and covering the two columns and their 
heading. 

Every voter is also provided with a switch, 
e, and moves the same ad libitum, as the occa- 
sion may require, on the point / or g. Thus 
an electric current is established between the 
pole c of the battery, the switch e e', and the 
types I m, and the clerk then rolls the rollers 
q q' with cylinder p on the paper upon the 
types. As soon as the cylinder p comes on the 
type of the headings the circuit becomes com- 
pleted through the paper, (as the wires y y 
connect the pole c with the types, and the 
wire r the pole d with the cylinder^,) and de- 



90,646 



composes the chemicals, thereby discoloring 
the paper in contact with the types, and thus 
produces the printing. 

When the cylinder p comes over the two 
names — Mann, Mann — the current from pole 
c through switch e and wire i to the types bear- 
ing the name on the left becomes completed 
through the paper, with cylinder^, wire r, and 
pole d, and, discoloring the paper, produces 
the name Mann on the paper ; but there is no 
connection of the other name Mann to the 
right with the switch and pole c; consequently 
no decomposition takes place, and no name 
shown. 

The roller p passing on and leaving the 
types the circuit becomes broken ; but as soon 
as the rollers q q' come in contact with the 
metallic strips o o' the circuit from pole c 
through the switch e, wire i i", strip o', and 
through roller q', magnet v", wire t and u to 
pole c7, becomes closed, the armature v'" at- 
tracted the escapement w', and with it the 
pointer x' moved forward, and here one nega- 
tive vote recorded, &c. 

Thus, it will be seen, the names of all the 
voters are printed on their respective heads, 
and also the whole number of votes counted 
in an instant, or as long as it will require time 
to roll the cylinder p over the types containing 



the list of all the names in metallic types, with 
more dispatch and accuracy than it can pos- 
sibly be done in any other way. 

Having thus fully described my invention, 
what I claim as new, and desire to secure by 
Letters Patent, is — 

1. The combination of a switch or switches 
e e', types and cylinder^, with an electric bat- 
tery, connected and operating substantially as 
and for the purpose set forth. 

2. The combination of switch e, strips o o', 
types, and the separated and insulated rollers 
q q', magnets v v", armature, escapement, 
pointer, and dial - plate, with the battery &, 
connected and operated substantially as and 
for the purpose above described. 

3. The combination of switch, types, cylin- 
der p, rollers q q', strips o o', and insulators j 
f, magnets v v", armature, &c, constructed in 
the manner and for the purpose above speci- 
fied. 

In testimony whereof I have signed my 
name to this specification in the presence of 
two subscribing witnesses. 

THOMAS A. EDISON". 

Witnesses : 

Carroll D. Wright, 
M. S. G. Wilde. 



No. 4,166. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Printing Telegraph, 



4 Sheets— Sheet 2. 



Reissued Oct. 25, 1870. 







N.PETERS, PHOTO-LITHOGRAPH EH, WASHINGTON, D. C. 



No, 4,166. 



T. A. EDISON. 4 Sheets-Sheet 4, 

Printing Telegraph. 

Reissued Oct. 25, 1870. 




N.PETERS, PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHER, WASHINGTON, 0. 0. 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR, BY MESNE 
ASSIGNMENTS, TO THE GOLD AND STOCK TELEGRAPH COMPANY. 

IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forimtig part of Letters Patent No. 91,527, dated June 22, 1869 ; reisstie No. 4, 166, dated 

October 25, 1870. 



To all ivhom it may eon64Yn: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, 
now of Newark, in the county of Essex and 
State of New Jersey, nave invented an Im- 
provement in Printing -Telegraphs, and the 
following is declared to be a correct descrip- 
tion of the same. 

This invention relates to a printing-telegraph 
in which an electro-magnet is employed for set- 
ting the type-wheel by a step-by-step move- 
ment, and another magnet is used for giving 
the impression upon the strip of paper; the 
special feature of my invention consisting in 
the combination of the foregoing parts with a 
circuit-changer actuated by the polarity of the 
current, so that the instrument at the receiv- 
ing-station is under the control of the operator 
at the transmitting-statiou, and, when pulsa- 
tions of one x>olarity are sent, the circuit- 
changer causes said pulsations to operate to 
set the type -wheel, the printing- magnet and 
its branch-circuit being cut out; and, when a 
pulsation of the opposite polarity is sent, the 
circuit -changer is moved so that the branch- 
circuit to the printing -magnet is closed and 
the circuit to the type -wheel magnet is ren- 
dered inoperative. By this means one wire 
may be used for operating the printing -tele- 
graph, and several machines in one main line 
may be simultaneously operated, and no at- 
tendants are required at the receiving-stations ; 
av eights, springs, and clock-work are not re- 
quired, and each current acts with its full force 
upon the electro-magnet to which it is directed 
in the branch circuit, so that local batteries or 
relay -magnets are rendered unnecessary. I 
also make use of a double-acting escapement 
with a type- wheel printing mechanism and 
electro-magnet, operated by the main circuit, 
whereby both the breaking and closing stroke 
of the armature assist in the movement of the 
type- wheel. 

In the drawing, A represents the frame of 
the apparatus, to which is attached an electro- 
magnet, B B, of the usual construction. C is 
a type-wheel, whose periphery is provided with 
suitable letters or other characters, which re- 
volve upon a stud or shaft, I: The armature 
b of the electro-magnet B is attached to a lever, 
c ) suspended upon an arbor, d. The lower end 



of the lever c is bifurcated, as seen in Figures 
1 and 2, the two arms e f carrying pawls g A, 
which engage at opposite points upon the pe- 
riphery of the ratchet-wheel *, which is fixed 
upon the same shaft as the type- wheel C, and 
revolves with it. It will be understood, by 
reference to Fig. 2, that each vibration of the 
lever c backward or forward will cause the 
ratchet-wheel i to advance in its revolution 
the distance of one tooth in the same direction. 
The type -wheel C receives its supply of ink 
from the roller D in any well-known manner. 
The electro-magnet E is similar to the electro- 
magnet B, and is attached to the frame A. 
The armature H, Fig. 3, is attached to the 
lever G, Figs. 1 and 3, which swings upon its 
axis at j, and is provided at its opposite ex- 
tremity with a roller, i 4 , which occupies a posi- 
tion immediately beneath the type -wheel C. 
The strip of paper upon which the communi- 
cations are to be printed is led from a suitable 
reel, not shown, over the roller i 4 , upon which 
it is held with a sufficient degree of friction by 
a spring-arm, 7, provided with an open slot, on, 
so that, when the roller i A is raised by the ac- 
tion of the electro-magnet E upon the lever G, 
the strip of paper is brought in contact with 
whatever letter or character may at that time 
be opposite upon the type - wheel C, thereby 
printing the impression of said letter or char- 
acter upon the paper. When the action of the 
electro-maguet E ceases, the lever G is drawn 
back to its original position by a spring, 6. 
After each impression has been made, the 
strip of paper is moved forward by means of 
a pawl, n, which, when the lever G is drawn 
back, engages with the teeth of a ratchet- 
wheel, o, Fig. 3, which is secured to the roller 
i 4 , causing the said roller to revolve and draw 
the paper forward a sufficient distance to pro- 
duce the required space between the letters. 
The edges 7 of the roller i 4 are roughened to 
prevent the paper from slipping during the 
movement. 

The arrangement of the electrical connec- 
tions, and the manner in which either of the 
electro-magnets B or E may be operated while 
the other is caused to remain inactive, will now 
be described, reference being had particularly 
to Figs. 1, 4, and 5. 



1,166 



I and K are two voltaic batteries, which may 
be of any suitable construction. The positive 
pole of the battery I and the negative pole of 
the battery K are shown as connected to ground 
or earth wires/' and their opposite poles to 
a key, r, which is so arranged that either the 
positive pole of K or the negative pole of I 
may be placed in connection with the line-wire 
s at pleasure. 

The apparatus just described is supposed to 
be situated at the transmitting- station, and 
the line -wire s to extend to the receiving -sta- 
tion, where the printing apparatus is supposed 
to be placed. 

The arrangement of the connection at the 
receiving -station is as follows: L is a small 
electro-magnet, with a circuit-changer or per- 
manently-magnetized bar, it. pivoted in such 
a position that one of its extremities is free to 
vibrate as acted upon by the poles 1ST W of 
the electro-magnet L, its movement, however, 
being limited by the contact-screws v and w. 
The circuit -changer or bar u is to be made of 
magnetized steel or of soft iron, of a charac- 
ter to be moved by the change in the polarity 
of the electro-magnet. By a well-known law 
of magnetic action, when an electric current 
passes through the helices of the electro-mag- 
net L, the bar u will be attracted by one of its 
poles and repelled by the other; and when the 
said current is reversed, or, in other words, 
changed from positive to negative, or from 
negative to positive, the bar will be attracted 
by the opposite pole, and repelled by the 
pole which in the first place attracted it. 

The manner in which this action is applied 
to the operation of the apparatus will now be 
explained. Referring to Fig. 4, suppose the 
battery I to be placed in connection with the 
line-wire s by means of the key r, the current 
from the negative pole p passes, as indicated 
by the arrows, by the wire q to the key r; 
thence, by the line- wire s 1 through the electro- 
magnet L; thence, by the wire a?, to the point 
S, where a branch, a, goes to the contact-point 
?r; but as the circuit is interrupted at this 
point, the current goes through the electro- 
magnet B, which actuates the type-wheel. Af- 
ter passing through B two routes are open to 
the current, one by wire c', electro-magnet E. 
and wire H, and the other by wire cV, bar or 
"switch" «, contact -point v, and wire e'. As 
the latter route offers a verv small resistance 
compared with that through E, the current 
will take this route in preference, as shown by 
the arrows, and the electro-magnet E will re- 
main inoperative. 

The circuit, after being completed as above 
described, may be alternately broken and 
closed by means of an ordinary transmitter 
(not shown,) for the purpose of 'operating the 
armature &, and thereby rotating the type- 
wheel 0, the mechanism connected with which 
is so arranged that the circuit requires to be 
closed and broken once in order to move the 
wheel C a distance equal to that between two 
successive letters or characters. This insures 



the circuit being open whenever a, letter is 
brought into position to allow of its impres- 
sion being taken off upon the strip of* paper. 

When the type-wheel has been rotated (by 
operating the transmitter) until the desired 
letter or character has been brought into posi- 
tion opposite the roller i 4 , the current is re- 
versed by shifting the key r into the position 
shown in Fig. 5, which disconnects the battery 
1, and causes the cYirrent from the positive 
pole cj' of the battery K to pass through the 
line-wire s. Upon reaching the receiving-sta- 
tion it will, for an instant, take the same course 
as before: but its action upon the electro-mag- 
net L being reversed, the bar or circuit-changer 
u will be attracted to its opposite pole, so as 
to come in contact Avith the point tt\ instead of 
the point v, as in Fig. 5. The action of an 
electro-magnet upon a polarized or perma- 
nently-magnetic bar being much quicker than 
upon an ordinary armature of soft iron, the 
lever u will be shifted from the point v to the 
point w before the electro-magnet B has time 
to act. As soon as the bar or circuit-changer 
it comes in contact with the point w, the cur- 
rent will pass, as indicated by the dotted lines 
and arrows, Fig. 5, by the wires W f e< %' to 
the electro-magnet E of the printing-hammer, 
and thence ( instead of passing through the elec- 
tro-magnet B) by the shortest course through 
the Avires d (V, to the tongue u; thence, by 
the contact-pin w and wires, a' a? to the electro- 
magnet L, and by the wire s, key r, and wire 
¥, to the zinc-pole of the battery K, complet 
ing the circuit, and causing the armature H to 
be attracted to the magnet E, raising the le- 
ver (1, and bringing the paper into" contact 
Avith the letter on the type-wheel, as required, 
The key r is then moved back into position,, 
(seen in Figs. 1 and 4,) which again reverses 
the current and causes it to take the course 
first described through the electro - magnet B 
of the type- wheel, but not through the electro- 
magnet E, the armature of which ceases to be 
attracted, when the lever (J, with the roll i, is. 
drawn down by the spring G, and the paper fed 
forward to receive the next impression, as re- 
quired, when the operation continues as before. 

i t will thus be seen that, by the employment 
of a circuit-changer, as above described, either 
one of the electro -magnets B or E may be 
brought into action, and the other cut out of 
the circuit at pleasure, by the reversal of the 
Current, which enables me to greatly simplify 
the construction of printing -telegraphs, and 
reduce their cost. 

The above-described invention is designed 
particularly for transmitting intelligence from 
a central station to a number of receiving-sta- 
tions included in the circuit, in which case no 
batteries or operators will be required at the 
receiving-station ; but if messages are to be 
sent from each station, as well as received, 
then each instrument will require to be pro- 
vided with a transmitting -instrument, a bat- 
tery, and an ordinary SAvitch, connected with 
a ground wire. 



3 



I claim as my invention — 

1. A circuit-ch anger, in combination with an 
electro - magnet and the type-wheel, and an 
electro-magnet and the printing mechanism, 
substantially as set forth, whereby the current 
is directed through either magnet, according 
to the polarity of the current, substantially as 
set forth. 

2. A polarized bar, permanent magnet or 
circuit-changer, and an electro-magnet to move 
the same, in combination with an electro-mag- 
net placed in the same circuit, and brought 
into or thrown out of that circuit, according 
to the polarity of the current and the conse- 
quent position of the said permanent magnet, 
substantially as set forth. 

3. The combination of a polarized bar or cir- 
cuit-changer with two electro-magnets, oper- 



ated by a main circuit, substantially as speci- 
fied, whereby either of the two electro-magnets 
maybe brought into action at pleasure, by the 
use of a positive or a negative current, the other 
electro-magnet being at the same time inoper- 
ative, substantially as set forth. 

4. Two or more printing-telegraph instru- 
ments placed in one main circuit, and operateel 
simultaneously by pulsations of electricity, the 
type- wheel being set by pulsations of one po- 
larity, and the printing being effected by pul- 
sations of the opposite polarity, substantially 
as set forth. 

Dated this 6th day of September, A. D. 1870. 

THOMAS A. EDISOK. 

Witnesses : 

Chas. H. Smith, 
Geo. T. Pinckney. 



No. 96,681. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Telegraph Switch. 



Patented Nov. 9, 1869. 




N. PETERS. Photo-LHhographer, WmWngton, D. C. 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEW YORK, N Y. 
AUTOMATIC ELECTRICAL SWITCH FOR TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 9€,6§1, dated November 9, 1SG9. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it knoAvii that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
the city, county, and State of New York, have 
invented a new and useful Improvement in 
Automatic Electrical Switches; and I do here- 
by declare the following to be a full, clear, and 
exact description thereof, which will enable 
those skilled in the art to make and use the 
same, reference being had to the accompany- 
ing drawing, forming part of this specifica- 
tion, in which drawing — 

Figure 1 represents a plan or top view of 
this invention. Fig. 2 is a longitudinal sec- 
tion of the same. 

Similar letters indicate corresponding parts. 

This invention relates to a certain novel ar- 
rangement of branches of one line of wire, in 
combination with a vibratory armature and 
its polarized switch -magnet, in such a manner 
that by passing a current through the coils of 
the switch -magnet in either direction, i. e., 
positive or negative, the polarity of one of the 
poles thereof is neutralized, and the other is 
augmented and attracts and holds the vibra- 
tory armature, so that one of the branch wires, 
or sets of branch wires, is automatically 
switched out of the circuit, and the whole 
current is made to pass with undivided and 
undiminished force through the other branch 
wire or wires, whose connection is formed and 
maintained by the armature, and thus one 
single current, by reversal, can be made to 
pass, without any diversion or loss, indiffer- 
ently through one branch wire, or set of branch 
wires, and another, at the will of the operator. 
For instance, one branch may be used for op- 
erating a type-wheel, and the other for print- 
ing therefrom in a printer, or for operating 
two different machines, or for effecting ad- 
vance and retrograde movements in the same 
machine, and in a great variety of other ways, 
so that one circuit has, in many useful respects, 
the power of two ordinary ones. 

The " polarized switch-magnet," which I use 
in carrying out my present invention, is simi- 
lar to the "polarized relay," described in Let- 
ters Patent for a printing-telegraph, granted 
to me June 22, 1809, and numbered 01,527. 

The polarized switch-magnet consists of a per- 
manent magnet, A,bentin the form of theletter 
L- On the horizontal shank of this L-shaped 
magnet are secured the cores of two electro- 



magnets, B B', while the upright shank of the 
permanent magnet forms the bearing for the 
vibrating armature 0, which extends through 
between the ends of the electro-magnets B B', 
and is so arranged that it can freely vibrate 
between said ends or poles and be attracted 
by either one or the other, as will be presently 
explained. 

From the armature extends an arm, a, 
through between the posts b b', which carry 
adjusting-screws c c', and to the sides of the 
arm a are secured weak springs d d', so that 
if the armature is in a central position said 
springs will be in contact with the points of 
both the screws c c'; but as soon as the arma- 
ture, attracted by either core of the electro- 
magnet, passes this central point in its transi- 
tion, the contact between one of the springs 
d or d' and the corresponding screw a or c' 
will be broken. 

It is obvious that if the upright shank of 
the permanent magnet represents the north 
pole, and the horizontal shank the south pole, 
the polarity of both soft-iron cores of the elec- 
tro-magnet will also be south, while the po- 
larity of the soft-iron vibratory armature will 
be north; but if an electric current is passed 
through the electro -magnet B B', which, by 
its own action, would convert the core of B 
into the north pole, and the core of'B' into the 
south pole, the polarity of the core B received 
from the permanent magnet will thereby be 
neutralized and the polarity of the core B' in- 
creased, and the armature C will be attracted 
by the core B', and the spring d will be thrown 
and kept out of contact with its screw c, as 
long as the current operated with continues 
to be of the same polarity. 

The polarized switch-magnet connects, by a 
wire, 10, with two keys, K K', one of which 
will throw upon the line a positive and the 
other a negative current from the battery. 
The wire 10 is secured in the post e from which 
a wire, 11, extends to one end of the helix of 
the electro-magnet B B'. The other end, 12, 
of this helix is connected with and continues 
the circuit through the vibrating armature. 

The posts I) b', which carry the adjusting- 
screws c &, connect, by wires 13 and 11, with 
posts //', and from these posts extend the 
branch wires 15 and 16, which unite into one 
wire, 17, that leads back to the battery. 



2 



96,681 



Instead of only two branches, 13 and 14, of 
the line 17, the currents at the points c c', re- 
spectively, may be divided into a number of 
branches by arranging the contact-points and 
springs therefor. 

Suppose the armature so placed that the 
springs d cl' will rest against both the points 
6 c', then a positive current (represented by 
full line-arrows) from the battery will pass 
through the wires 10 and 11 to the electro- 
magnet B B'; thence through the wire 12 aud 
the armature C, posts h wires 13, 14, 15, 
10, and 17 back to the battery. The arma- 
ture will immediately be attracted by the core 
B', the contact between the spring d and screw 
c will be broken, and the whole current passes 
from the armature through wires 14, 16, and 
17 back to the battery. The branch wire 15 
is thus entirely switched out of the circuit. 
In actual working under battery the armature 
will always rest and remain against the 
pole to which it is last attracted till the cur- 
rent is reversed, when it will instantly pass 
to the opposite pole. The design of the springs 
d d' is to preserve the continuity of the cir- 
cuit in the transition of the armature from 
one pole to the other of the switch-magnet B 
B' on reversal of the circuit. In such transi- 
tion, as the double contact is only momentary, 
no effect will follow from it in the branch be- 
ing switched out. 

By depressing the key K' the armature is 
attracted by the core B, the current (repre- 
sented by the dotted arrows) is made to pass 
through the wires 13, 15, and 17, and the 
branch wire 16 is switched out of the circuit. 
. I distinctly disclaim in this present applica- 
tion for a patent everything shown and de- 
scribed in my Patent l^o. 91,527; but I will 
here remark that by my new arrangement I 
am enabled to cut either of the branch Avires 
entirely out of the circuit, so that the current 



passes with undivided and undiminished force 
through the other branch wire or wires. 

In the former case the current is taken from 
either magnet by a simple cut-off or shortened 
circuit. The magnet is left inactive by virtue 
of presenting greater resistance than the cut- 
off; but there is more or less flow of current- 
power through the continuous circuit of the 
magnet thus cut out. 

In the present case the effect is produced, 
not by a cut-off, but by an absolute break of 
that branch of the circuit to be left out. The 
current is automatically absolutely switched 
from one branch or set of branches to an- 
other by simply reversing the poles of the 
battery. Besides, if, in the former case, the 
tongue or armature should strike between the 
points out of contact with either, the magnets, 
all being in the same circuit, would all act 
simultaneously. If the spring d d' be held in 
connection with both points c c', the current 
of the line would divide between the branches 
and their magnets. In the former case, if both 
switch-points were connected at the same time, 
all the magnets would be entirely cut out. 

Having thus fully described my invention, 
wdiat I claim as new, and desire to secure by 
Letters Patent, is — 

1. An electro-mechanical switch , constructed 
substantially as described, in combination with 
two or more electro-magnets, placed in two or 
more distinct branches, 15 and 16, of the cir- 
cuit containing said switch, all connected and 
operated substantially as described. 

2. The springs d d', in combination with the 
vibrating armature and the points c c', for 
maintaining the continuity of the same circuit, 
substantially as set forth. 

THOMAS A. EDISOX. 

Witnesses: 

W. Hatjff, 

E. F. Kasteniiuber. 



No. 96.567. 



T. A. EDISON. 

Printing Telegraph. 



2 Sheets— Sheet 1. 
Patented Nov. 9 1869. 




United States Patent Office, 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF HEW YOBK, N. Y., ASSIGNOR TO SAMUEL S. LAWS; 

OF SAME PLACE,. 

IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 96,567. dated November 9, 1869. 



To all tvhom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
the city, county, and State of New York, have 
invented a new and useful Improvement in 
Electrical Printing-Instruments; and do here- 
by declare the following to be a full, clear, and 
exact description thereof, which will enable 
those skilled in the art to make and use the 
same, reference being had to the accompany- 
ing drawing forming part of this specification, 
ill which drawing — 

Figure 1 represents a side elevation of this 
invention, showing the printing mechanism. 
Fig. 2 is a front view of the unison mechanism 
detached. Fig. 3 is a side elevation of my in- 
strument, showing the mechanism for impart- 
ing to the type-wheel a step-by-step movement 
in either direction. Fig. 4 is a plan of the pa- 
per-feed mechanism detached. Fig. 5 is a front 
view of the same. 

Similar letters indicate corresponding parts. 

This invention relates to certain improve- 
ments in that class of instruments for which 
Letters Patent were granted to S. S. Laws 
December 31, 1867, and March 24, 1868, and 
also described in an application for a patent 
filed by said S. S. Laws in the Patent Office, 
January 4, 1869. 

My present improvements consist in the ar- 
rangement of two dogs, pawls, or clicks, piv- 
oted to two armature-levers, and acting on a 
star-shaped or double ratchet - wheel, in com- 
bination with stationary pins, which are not 
connected with the ratchet or pawls, and which 
act on the pawls in such a manner that by one 
set of pins the pawls are thrown out of* gear 
with the ratchet, and by the other set of pins 
said pawls are locked in gear with the ratchet, 
and that by the action of the two pawls a uni- 
form step-by-step movement can be imparted to 
the ratchet in either direction with ease and fa- 
cility, the mechanism required for this purpose 
being exceedingly simple, and not liable to get 
out of repair, and the type- wheel or ratchet is 
held in position, when at rest, by means of a 
graduated or adjustable friction, instead of 
holding -pawls. The invention consists also 
in the arrangement of a separate magnet, in 
combination with the unison-lever, in such a 
manner that the operator has absolute control 
over the unison-stops of all the instruments in 



the line without danger of disturbing the power 
of any of the other magnets. 

In the drawings, the letter A designates a 
bed-plate, from which rises an arm, B, which 
may be cast solid with, or otherwise rigidly at- 
tached to, said bed-plate. The outer end of 
this arm B is bored out to form a bearing for 
a shaft, a, on one end of which is mounted the 
type- wheel C, while on its other end is mounted 
the ratchet-wheel D, said shaft being fitted in 
its bearings so that it turns freely therein; but 
sufficient friction is secured by adjusting the 
position of the type- wheel to retain it in any 
position into which it may be brought. This 
friction may be obtained and regulated by the 
pressure of an adjustable spring upon the 
ratchet-shaft, or some part carried around 
thereby. The ratchet-wheel D is star-shaped 
or double acting, and it is acted upon by two 
pawls or clicks, b c, which are pivoted to levers 
E F, extending from the armatures G- H of 
two electro-magnets, I J. Said levers have a 
common fulcrum on the pivot or stud d, whch 
is rigidly secured in the arm B, and their 
armatures and electro-magnets are arranged 
in such relation to said levers and to the 
ratchet-wheel that, by alternately closing and 
opening the circuits through said electro-mag- 
nets, thelevers E F are caused to oscillate in op- 
posite directions, and that, by the action of one of 
the clicks, the ratchet-wheel assumes a step-by- 
step movement in one direction, while the other 
click produces a step-by-step movement of the 
ratchet- wheel in the opposite direction. The po- 
sition of the clicks in relation to the teeth of the 
ratchet-wheel is governed by two sets of pins, 
e /, g Ji, which are secured in a disk, K, that 
is rigidly attached to the end of the arm B. 
The pins e and / act on projections on the in- 
ner edges of the clicks b and c, and if the levers 
E and F are forced back by the action of their 
springs i and j, said pins lift and hold the 
points of the clicks out of the path of the 
ratchet-teeth ; and if either of the armatures 
is attracted, and its lever caused to move, the 
pawls, being released of the pins e and /, are 
thrown in gear with the ratchet-teeth by the 
action of their springs, and the stop-pin g or h 
acts against the outside edge of the corre- 
sponding click, and holds it in gear, and 
locks it with the ratchet-wheel, causing the 



same to stop at the distance of one tooth. 
The stop-pins g and h might be combined into 
one pin, serving the same purpose for each of 
the pawls. By this arrangement a step-by- 
step movement can be imparted to the ratchet- 
wheel, governed" by the action of the station- 
ary pins ef g h on the projections on the edges 
of said clicks, the friction of the type-wheel 
arbor being made sufficient to prevent the 
ratchet from moving when the lever-paw Ls are 
drawn back from the teeth. 

It is obvious that the effect of the two clicks 
will be the same, if they are made to engage 
with two ratchet-wheels on the same arbor 
with teeth facing in opposite directions, such 
ratchets being a mechanical equivalent of the 
star -shaped ratchet shown in the drawing. 
The electro-magnets I and J are fastened to 
the arm B, so that they straddle said arm, and 
easy access can be had to them and to their 
connections. 

In order to throw all the instruments on a 
line in unison, a "unison -lever," L, is used, 
such as described in the application of S. S. 
Laws for a patent on printing-telegraph, filed 
in the Patent Office January 4, 1869. This 
unison-lever is hinged to a bracket, R, which 
is firmly secured to the main arm B, and to 
said lever is attached the armature I of a sep- 
arate electro-magnet, M, which is secured to 
the bracket E. The lower end of the unison- 
lever L forms a hook, (see Fig. 1,) and if the 
circuit through the electro-magnet M is closed; 
this hook is thrown in the path of a pin, m, 
which projects from the shaft a, (see Figs. 1 
and 2,) so that the motion of said shaft is stop- 
ped as soon as the pin m comes in contact with 
the unison-lever. The pins m on the several 
instruments in a line are made to correspond 
in position to a certain type or character on 
the several type- wheels; and, consequently, by 
working all the instruments round in either 
direction, until the several pins m are brought 
in contact with the several unison -levers, all 



the type- wheels are arrested in the same posi- 
tion, and all the instruments are thrown into 
unison. 

The object of working the unison-lever by 
a separate magnet is to enable the operator 
to control the position of said unison-lever 
without disturbing any other part of the mech- 
anism, and particularly without diminishing 
the power of the main magnets, as when the 
unison-lever is operated by secondary arma- 
tures from either or both of the main magnets. 

The strip of paper Z is carried through be- 
tween the platen ~N and the type-wheel by 
the feed mechanism O. A roller, r, presses 
the strip of paper against one of the serrated 
rims or flanges o of the feed- wheel, and, as 
the platen-lever oscillates by the combined 
action of its electro-magnet and its detaching- , 
spring, the ratchet of the feed -drum acts 
against the click q and receives. an intermit- 
tent rotary motion, so that for' each oscillation- 
of the platen-lever the strip of paper is moved 
a sufficient distance to make room for a sub- 
sequent impression. The pressing-roller r is 
situated on the inside of the feed-drum, and 
consequently the letters and characters printed 
on the strip of paper are not at all concealed 
by it, while the strip passes through the feed 
mechanism, and said characters remain open 
to view from the time when they have been 
printed. 

Having thus described my invention, what 
I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters 
Patent, is — 

1. The stationary pins efg h, in combina- 
tion with the clicks b c, actuated by the arma- 
ture-levers E F, and acting on the ratchet D, 
substantially as and for the purpose described. 

2. The combination of a separate electro- 
magnet with the unison-lever L, substantially 
as set forth. 

Witnesses: THOMAS A. EDISON. 
W. Haupf, 
E. F. Kastenhuber. 




N. PCTERS, Photo-Lithographer, Wa.hir.glon, D. C. 




lo-Lithographer. Washington, D. C 



United States Patent Office 



THE GOLD AND STOCK TELEGRAPH COMPANY, OP NEW YORK, N. Y., ASSIGN- 
EES, BY MESNE ASSIGNMENTS, OP THOMAS A. EDISON. 

IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPHS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 96,567, dated Noven ber 9, 1869 ; reissue No. 3,820. dated 

February 1, 1870. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that 'Thomas A. Edison, of 
the city, county, and State of New York, did 
invent a new and useful Improvement in Elec- 
trical Printing-Instruments ; and the following 
is hereby declared to be a full, clear, and ex- 
act description thereof. 

Figure 1 represents a side elevation of this 
instrument, showing the printing mechanism. 
Pig. 2 is a front view of the unison mechan- 
ism detached. Pig. 3 is a side elevation of my 
instrument, showing the mechanism for im- 
parting to the type-wheel a step-by-step move- 
ment in either direction. Pig. 4 is a plan of 
the paper-feed mechanism detached. Pig. 5 
is a front view of the same. 

This invention relates to certain improve- 
ments in that class of instruments for which 
Letters Patent were granted to S. S. Laws 
December 31, 1867, and March 24, 1808; and 
also described in an application for a patent 
, filed by said S. S. Laws in the Patent Office 
January 4, 1809. Before this invention, a 
type- wheel had been moved in either direction 
with a step-by-step motion, and a pawl or click 
liad been used hi other machinery to run be- 
neath a stop and block the further movement 
of the ratchet-wheel. 

In printing-telegraphs, it is necessary to stop 
the character -wheel with great accuracy, so 
that the impression may be properly made. 
To effect this object, the stop that acts to block 
the pawl or click and type-wheel is adjustable, 
so as to compensate wear or inaccuracy of 
workmanship; and by making clicks to act in 
opposite directions, by levers and electro-mag- 
nets, the type- wheel can be moved progress- 
ively in. either direction, and stopped accu- 
rately, the clicks and stops limiting the move- 
ment of the lever, armature, ratchet-wheel, 
and character- wheel. 

The invention consists in the arrangement 
of a separate magnet in combination with the 
unison-lever, in such a manner that the oper- 
ator has absolute control over the unison-stops 
of all the instruments in the line without dan- 
ger of disturbing the power of any of the other 
magnets. 

In the drawings, A designates a bed-plate, 
from which risos an arm. B, which maybe cast 



solid with, or otherwise rigidly attached to, 
said bed-plate. At the outer end of this arm 
B is a bearing for the shaft a, on one end 
of which is mounted the type- wheel C, while 
near its other end is the ratchet-Avheel D, said 
shaft being fitted in its bearings so that it turns 
freely, but sufficient friction is provided to 
steady the type -wheel hi any position into 
which it may be brought. This friction may 
be obtained and regulated by the pressure of 
an adjustable spring upon the ratchet-shaft, 
or otherwise. The ratchet-wheel D is star- 
shaped or double-acting, and it is acted upon 
by two pawls or clicks, b c, which are pivoted 
to levers E P extending from the armatures 
G H of two electro-magnets, I J. Said levers 
may have a common fulcrum on the pivot or 
stud d, and their armatures and electro-mag- 
nets are arranged in such relation to said le- 
vers, and to the ratchet -wheel D, that the 
levers E P are caused to oscillate in opposite 
directions when their respective magnets are 
charged; and, by the action of one of the 
clicks, the ratchet-wheel assumes a step-by- 
step movement in one direction, while the 
other click produces a step-by-step movement 
of the ratchet-wheel in the opposite direction. 
The position of the clicks in relation to the 
teeth of the ratchet-wheel is governed by two 
sets of stops, efgh, winch are secured in a 
disk, K, at the end of the arm B or other rigid 
support. The stops e and /act on projections 
on the inner edges of the clicks 6 c, respect- 
ively; and when the levers E and P are forced 
back by the action of their springs i and j, 
said pins lift and hold the points of* the clicks 
out of the path of the ratchet- teeth; and if 
either of the armatures is attracted, and its 
lever caused to move, the pawl, being released 
of the pin e or/, is thrown in gear with the 
ratchet-teeth by the action of its spring, and 
the stop - pin g or h acts against the outside 
edge of the click, and holds it in gear and 
locks it with the ratchet-wheel, causing the 
same to stop at the distance of one tooth; and 
this is effected with accuracy by adjusting the 
stop g or h. The stop g or h might be com- 
bined into one pin, serving the same purpose 
for each of the pawls. By this arrangement, 
a step-by-step movement can be imparted to 



2 



3, §20 



the ratchet- wheel, and it is governed by the 
action of the stops e f g h on the clicks, the 
friction applied to the type-wheel or arbor be- 
ing sufficient to prevent the ratchet from mov- 
ing when the lever-pawls are drawn bach from 
the teeth. 

It is obvious that the effect of the two clicks 
will be the same if they are made to engage 
with two ratchet-wheels on the same arbor, 
with the teeth fading in opposite directions, 
such ratchets being a mechanical equivalent 
of the star-shaped ratchet shown in the draw- 
ing, and each ratchet-wheel, click, and adjust- 
able stop acting in the manner aforesaid. 

The pairs of electro-magnets I J may be fast- 
ened to the arm B, so that said arm comes be- 
tween them, and easy access can be had to 
them and to their connections. 

In order to throw all the instruments on a 
line in unison, a unison-lever, L, is used, sub- 
stantially such as described in the application 
of S. S. Laws for a patent on printing -tele- 
graph, filed in the Patent Office January 4, 
18G9. This unison-lever is hinged to a bracket, 
II, which is firmly secured to the main arm B, 
and to said lever is attached the armature I of 
a separate electro-magnet, M. The lower end 
of the unison-lever L forms a hook, (see Fig. 
1; ) and if the circuit through the electro-mag- 
net M is closed, this hook is thrown in the path 
of a pin, in, which projects from the shaft a, 
(see Figs. 1 and 2,) so that the motion of said 
shaft is stopped as soon as the pin m comes 
in contact with the unison-lever. The pins 
m on the several instruments in a line are made 
to correspond in position to a certain type or 
character on the several type- wheels, anil, con- 
sequently, by working all the instruments 
round in either direction until the several pins 
m are brought in contact with the several uni- 
son-levers, all the type- wheels are arrested in 
the same position, and all the instruments are 
thrown into unison. The object of working 
the unison -lever by a separate magnet is to 
enable the operator to control the position of 
said unison-lever without disturbing any other 
part of the mechanism, and particularly with- 
out diminishing the power of the main mag- 
nets, as when the unison-lever is operated by 



secondary armatures from cither or both of the 
main magnets. The strip of paper Z is carried 
through between the platen N and the type- 
wheel by the feed mechanism O. A roller, r, 
presses the strip of paper against one of the 
serrated rims or flanges o of the feed- wheel, 
and as the platen-lever oscdlates, by the com- 
bined action of its electro -magnet and its de- 
taching-spring, the ratchet of the feed -drum 
acts against the click q, and receives an inter- 
mittent rotary motion, so that for each oscilla- 
tion of the platen-lever the strip of paper is 
moved a sufficient distance to make room for 
a subsequent impression. The pressing-roller 
r is situated on the inside of the feed-drum, 
and consequently the letters and characters 
printed on the strip of paper are not at all con- 
cealed by it, and said characters remain open 
to view from the time when they are printed. 

What is claimed as the invention of Thomas 
A. Edison is— ■ 

1. The adjustable stop g or h, in combination 
with the click b or c and ratchet-wheel D, sub- 
stantially as specified, whereby the position of 
the wheel D, when blocked and stopped, can 
be adjusted by the stop gov 7i, substantially as 
set forth. 

2. The adjustable stop g or h, click b or e, 
ratchet- wheel D, and lever E or F, in combi- 
nation with the type or character wheel and 
an electro-magnet to give motion to the lever, 
substantially as and for the purposes set forth. 

3. The clicks b c, levers E F, magnets I J, 
and ratchet-wheel D, in combination with the 
stops e g f h, substantially as specified, for 
moving a type or character wheel with a step- 
by-step motion in either direction, substantially 
as specified. 

4. The unison-lever L, in combination with 
the type or character wheel and a separate 
electro-magnet, M, substantially as specified. 

Bated December 28, A. D. 1869. 

GEO. B. FIELD, President, 
II. S. HOTOHKISS, Secretary, 
The ({old and Stodc Telegraph Company. 

Witnesses : 

Chas. H. Smith, 
Geo. D. Walker. 



-2 



No, 102,320, 



POPE <fc EDISON, 
Printing Telegraph, 



Patented April 26, 1870, 




United States Patent Office. 



FRANK L. POPE, OF ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY, AND THOMAS A. EDISON, 

OF NEW YORK, N. Y. 

IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 102,320, dated April 26, 1870. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that we, Frank L. Pope, of 
Elizabeth, in the county of Union and State 
of New Jersey, and Thomas A. Edison, of 
the city, county, and State of New York, have 
invented certain new and useful Improvements 
in Printing - Telegraphs ; and we hereby de- 
clare that the folio wing is a full, clear, and ex- 
act description of the same, reference being- 
had to the accompanying drawing, which forms 
part of this specification. 

The nature of this invention consists in so 
arranging the parts of a telegraphic printing 
apparatus that the same is not only capable 
of receiving and recording communications in 
automatically- printed characters at a much 
greater speed than has been found practicable 
by the instruments in common use, but the 
same result is accomplished by the use of one 
wire without local batteries, which has hereto- 
fore required the use of two or more wires, or 
a local battery, or both, in connection with 
each instrument. 

In the accompanying drawings, Figure 1 is a 
side elevation of the receiving apparatus. Fig. 
2 is an end elevation of the same, the type- 
wheel being removed. Fig. 3 is a plan view 
of a portion of said apparatus. Fig. I is a 
detached view, showing the details of the es- 
capement in said apparatus. Fig. 5 is a plan 
view of the slotted presser; and Fig. 6 is a 
skeleton diagram, showing the arrangement of 
a number of instruments located at different 
stations, and placed in the same electrical cir- 
cuit, operated simultaneously in unison by a 
battery placed at one point in the circuit. 

Similar letters refer to like parts in the dif- 
ferent figures. 

E, Figs. 1, 2, and 3, designates a perpendicu- 
lar electro - magnet, composed of two cores of 
soft iron united below in the ordinary manner 
by a cross-bar, e, also of soft iron. The north 
pole of an angular bent permanent magnet, N 
S, is screwed to the cross-bar e, to which it 
communicates north polarity beyond the point 
of contact, and also to both the cores and 
poles of the electro-magnet E. The soft -iron 
tongue is supported upon a pivot, «, in a 
slot, 6, in the south end S of the permanent 
magnet N S, being secured in position by 
a screw, c. or otherwise, from which it re- 



ceives south polarity. The tongue C is so 
placed that it may vibrate in a lateral direc- 
tion between the north poles N' and N" of the 
electro - magnet E. It will therefore be seen 
that the north polarized ends N' and N" will 
each exert an equal attraction upon the south 
polarized tongue when the same is equidis- 
tant from each, and that the same will be at- 
tracted and firmly held by either N' or N" 
when placed in close proximity or contact with 
one or the other. An arm, D, projects from 
the end of the tongue 0, passing between 
screw-stops d and d', by means of which screw- 
stops its lateral vibration is controlled and 
limited. The arm D is constructed of brass 
or other non - magnetic metal, in order to pre- 
vent the inductive magnetic action from ex- 
tending beyond the poles N' N" of the electro- 
magnet E. The screw-stops d and d' are sup- 
ported by a brass standard, A. Upon this 
standard is secured a shaft, /, Fig. 4, upon 
which is arranged a sleeve, g, carrying a 
ratchet-wheel, H, and a type -wheel, T, upon 
the circumference of which type- wheel are en- 
graved such letters, numerals, or other char- 
acters as may be required. The characters on 
the type-wheel are supplied with ink by means 
of a fountain ink-roller, I, secured to a mova- 
ble arm attached to the standard A. The vi- 
brating arm D carries a curved bar, F, to the 
extremities of which are pivoted pawls h and 
li', which act, respectively, at opposite points 
upon the circumference of the ratchet-wheel 
H, as shown in Figs 2 and 4. The movement 
of said pawls, and consequently that of the 
wheel H, is limited by the adjustable screw- 
stops i i'j by the eud of the said pawls falling 
in the spaces of the wheel H and its upper 
beveled edge subsequently coming in contact 
with the stop i or i', which may be adjusted 
so as to allow of any desired amount of move- 
ment of the said pawls h and ///, and the pawls 
are kept in contact with the teeth of the 
ratchet-wheel by springs jf; but we will here 
remark that the pawls h and W may be made 
of spring steel, and so arranged as to auto- 
matically bear in the interdental spaces of the 
wheel I, in which case the springs jf may of 
course be dispensed with. By means of the 
above -described arrangement, the vibrations 
of the arm D may be caused to communicate 



102,320 



through the pawls a rapid intermittent rotary 
motion to the ratchet -wheel H, sleeve g, and 
type-wheel T in the direction shown by the ar- 
row marked thereon. The screw-stops d d' are so 
adjusted in reference to the stops i i', that when, 
the tongue (J is actuated by a powerful current 
tending to hcnd or otherwise disarrange the 
pawls 7? h', ratchet-wheel H, and their appur- 
tenances, the slightest deflection of the arm 
I), after the pawls h or W have come in con- 
tact with the stops i or i', will bring said arm 
D against one of the stops d or d', thereby re- 
lieving said pawls, ratchet -wheel, &c, from 
undue strain or pressure. The manner iu 
which the vibration of the tongue and arm 
D is made to revolve the ratchet-wheel PI will 
he understood more clearly by reference to 
Fig. 4. Suppose the arm d to be moved from 
its position, as shown, toward the left, carry- 
ing with it the bar F and the pawls h h'. The 
pawl M will engage with a tooth of the wheel 
II, and carry it forward in the direction of the 
arrow until its movement is arrested by the 
pawl coming in contact with the stop i'. At 
the same time the pawl h will slip over one 
tooth of the wheel without obstruction . When 
the armD, bar F, and pawls h 7*/, are moved 
from left to right, the operation of the respect- 
ive pawls is reversed, although the wheel H 
continues to he moved in the same direction 
as before. Each vibration of the arm D, either 
to the left or to the right, therefore advances 
the ratchet-wheel lithe distance of one tooth. 
The apparatus for taking the impression after 
Hie type- wheel has been brought to the de- 
sired position, may be described as follows : 
M, Figs. 1 and 3, is an electro-magnet of the 
usual form, its poles being united by the cross- 
liar m, which is secured to a lug, K. This lug 
is firmly secured to the south end S of the 
permanent magnet N S. This lug is made of 
brass, or any other non-magnetic metal, for the 
purpose of cutting off the magnetic induction 
winch would otherwise take place between the 
permanent magnet X S and the soft-iron cores 
of the electro-magnet M. The armature I of 
said electro-magnet is attached to a lever, L, 
one end of which is pivoted at O, and. which 
passes through a slot in the standard A. The 
lever L is capable of a vertical movement upon 
as its fulcrum , the extent of such movement 
being limited in one direction by the face of 
the type- wheel T, and in the other by the ad- 
justable screw -stop n. To the extremity of 
the lever L is attached a slotted adjustable 
standard, carrying a Wlieel, q, with a sharp 
serrated edge. Upon the same shaft with said 
Wheel q is a ratchet-wheel, r, actuated by a 
hook-shaped pawl, s, attached to the extremity 
of the type-wheel shaft/. A roller, t, of hard 
rubber, or other suitable material, is mounted 
upon a spring-axle, u, in such a manner as to 
be pressed firmly against the serrated edge of 
the wheel q. A ribbon of paper (not showm 
in the drawing) may be made to pass hori- 
/:;>iitalh across the lever L, and beneath the 
slotted pressor (). shown in plan in Fig. o. the 



edge of said paper passing between the ser- 
rated wheel q and the roller t in such a man- 
ner that the rotation of the wheel q will cause 
the ribbon, to be drawn forward from right to 
left. The slotted pressor Q serves to keep the 
paper from coining in contact with any por- 
tion of the type -wheel, except the letter of 
which the impression is desired. The two 
electro-magnets E and M are placed in the 
same electrical circuit, the connections being 
arranged as shown in Fig. 3. 

The maimer in which the above-described 
apparatus is actuated by means of electric 
currents is as follows: If a momentary cur- 
rent of electricity be sent from the positive 
pole of a battery through the electro-maguets 
E and M, its tendency would be to magnetize 
the pole K' of the electro-magnet E u north, 1 ' 
and the pole H" "south;" but as both poles 
were previously north by the inductive influ- 
ence of the permanent magnet N S, the effect, 
of this current is to strengthen the north mag- 
netism of W, and to w r eaken or entirely de- 
stroy that of W. The tongue C is therefore 
attracted to with double force, and remains 
on that side after the cessation of the current, 
being still attracted by the pole whose dis- 
tance from C is no w much less than that of X". 
If, now, a momentary negative current is sent, 
this effect is reversed. The pole W in turn 
attracts the tongue, and it moves to that side, 
remand ng until the polarity of the exciting 
current is again changed. Thus, by transmit- 
ting through the helices of the electro-magnet 
E a rapidly-alternating series of positive and 
negative currents, it w T ill readily be seen that 
the tongue 0, the arm D, and its attachments 
may be caused to vibrate to and fro with 
great rapidity, causing a correspondingly rapid 
revolution of the ratchet-wheel H and type- 
wheel T. It will be seen, therefore, that the 
type-wheel T may readily be brought to any 
required position simply by transmitting the 
requisite number of alternate positive and 
negative currents through the electro-magnet 
Ik When the type- wheel T is thus brought to 
its proper position, the impression of the re- 
quired letter is taken from the wheel, as fol- 
lows : 

The electro - magnet M, as heretofore ex- 
plained, is in the same electrical circuit with 
E. In operating said electro-magnet advan- 
tage is taken of the fact that currents of such 
short duration as not to sensibly affect an 
electro- magnet of the ordinary construction 
will operate perfectly a polarized or combina- 
tion magnet composed of' permanent and elec- 
tro-magnets placed in conjunction ; and also 
that the attractive force of an ordinary electro- 
magnet is the same, whatever may be the po- 
larity of the exciting current. Therefore, a 
succession of positive and negative currents 
may be sent through the wire 12 3, Figs. 1 
and 3, of such short duration as not to affect 
in any manner the electro-maguet M, while by 
the action of the polarized electro-magnet E 
the type-wheel T may be revolved until the 



102,320 



(tasked letter upon its circumference is brought 
opposite the impression-lever L. Tlie dura- 
tion of the final current is then prolonged, re- 
gardless of its polarity, until the electro-mag- 
net M has time to act, when its attraction 
raises the lever L and brings the paper ribbon 
in contact with the type upon the wheel T, the 
same having been previously inked by the 
fountain-roller I, When the attraction of the 
electro-magnet M ceases, the lever L returns to 
its original position. At the same time the 
hooked pawl s catches a tooth of the ratchet- 
wheel v and causes it, together with the wheel 
(/, to revolve a short distance, thus drawing 
tli e paper ribbon forward, and leaving a clear 
space in readiness for the next impression. A 
click, a?, prevents the ratchet-wheel r, and con- 
sequently the wheel r/, from revolving in the 
opposite direction. The downward movement 
of the lever L may be assisted by a retracting- 
spring, if necessary. 

It will be seen from the above description 
that this apparatus is actuated entirely by 
electro-magnetic power derived from the bat- 
tery at the transmitting-station, without the 
assistance of local or secondary batteries, or 
of mechanical power derived from any source 
other than the said battery at the said trans- 
mitting-station, and that any required number 
of such apparatus may be placed at various 
points included in the same electric circnit, 
and operated simultaneously in unison by the 
action of a single battery placed at the" trans- 
mitting-station, This will be more clearly un- 
derstood by reference to Fig. 0, where we have 
given a skeleton diagram, illustrating an ar- 
rangement of instruments in connection with 
a main battery and circuit-breaker, whereby 
an operator can at one point form a connection 
with a main battery, so as to complete an elec- 
tric circuit in such manner that the current of 
said battery shall pass through as many in- 
struments on a main line unprovided with 
local batteries as desired, and record simul- 
taneously in printed characters at each instru- 
ment the same message. For instance, at a 
point lettered X there may be located a circuit- 
breaker of any suitable construction, and at 
the point lettered Y a main battery of suffi- 
cient power, or in lieu thereof a number of 
small main batteries, located at such point or 
elsewhere in the main circuit, that a current 
may be caused to pass from the main battery 
or batteries through the electro-magnets of in- 
struments I, IT, III, &c. Hence it will be un- 
derstood without further explanation that a 
communication may be printed simultaneously 
at as many different stations as may be de- 
sired without the use of local batteries, or of 
mechanism, such, for instance, as weights or 
springs, for operating each instrument. In 
such cases the action of such local batteries or 
mechanism is simply controlled by the action 
of the main electrical circuit. It is obvious 
I that another electro-magnet can be placed in 
the same circuit tor effecting other useful pur- 
poses, such as striking a bell to call attention, 



&c, which may be actuated by increasing the 
strength of the electric current which operates 
the printing mechanism. It is also obvious 
that a local battery may he employed to bring 
into action a magnet not in the same circuit 
by insulating one of the stops d d' upon the 
standard A, and connecting it with the local 
circuit in such manner that the rapid vibrations 
of the arm D will not alio w it to rem ain in contact 
with the stop long enough to permit the local 
or secondary battery to charge its electro-mag- 
net } but when the vibrations are made to cease 
by the action of the transmitting-operator, or 
otherwise, the arm D will remain in contact 
Avith the stop d' a sufficient time to allow the 
secondary electro-magnet to become changed. 

We do not confine ourselves to the particu- 
lar form and arrangement of parts shown in 
the drawing. There are numerous and well- 
known means of producing the vibratory move- 
ment of a lever by the use of alternate positive 
and negative currents, in combination with a 
permanent and an electro magnet acting upon 
each other, and of applying the same to the 
movement of a type-wheel. Neither do we wish 
to confine ourselves to any particular method 
of producing or transmitting alternate posi- 
tive and negative currents for the purpose 
specified. 

We have shown in Fig. G the main line pass- 
ing through both magnets of each instrument, 
this being the simplest and most convenient 
way of operating; but it is obvious that two 
main lines or wires may be employed, one run- 
ning through one magnet of each instrument 
and the other through the other magnet of 
each instrument. In this latter case one line 
or wire is worked to revolve the type-wheel in 
proper position, and the other to cause the 
impression. 

We are aware that it is not new to construct 
and operate one or more automatic printing- 
telegraph instruments in one or more circuits 
which derive all their motive x>ower from elec- 
tro-magnets, or to operate such instruments 
by the use of a single battery placed at some 
convenient point, in conjunction with mechan- 
ical power applied to each instrument sepa- 
rately. We are also aware that automatic 
printing-telegraph instruments have been op- 
erated by means of two or more distinct main 
Circuits, in which case the impression or print- 
ing magnet of each instrument is placed in 
one of the said circuits, and one or more mag- 
nets for operating the type-wheel of each in- 
strument is placed in one or more additional 
main circuits, as shown and described in the 
patent granted to E. A. Calahan on the 21st 
of April, 1868. 

We believe to be new the arrangement of a 
number of automatic telegraphic "printing in- 
struments of any suitable construction con- 
nected by a single electric circuit, all the parts 
of said instruments being actuated exclusively 
by electrical power derived from one or more 
main batteries placed in and forming part of 
such circuit, without the aid of local batteries. 



4 103, 

What we claim as our invention, and desire 
to secure by Letters Patent, is — 

1. The combination of a number of automatic 
printing-telegraph instruments arranged in one 
main circuit, and operating simultaneously in 
unison, when the electro motive-power used in 
operating the same is derived exclusively from 
one or more main batteries placed in such main 
circuit without the aid of secondary or local bat- 
teries, or of mechanism actuated by springs or 
otherwise, substantially in the manner and for 
the purpose set forth. 

2. The combination of a polarized magnet 
with an electro - magnet placed in the same 
electrical circuit, and operated substantially 
as described, and for the purpose set forth. 

3. The combination of the ratchet-wheel I, 
bar F, pawls h h', stops % i', and type-wheel T, 
arranged and operating substantially as and 
for the purposes herein specified. 

4. The combination of an electro - magnet 
with the ratchet-wheel, bar, pawls, stops, and 
polarized magnet, substantially as and for the 
purposes herein specified. 

5. The arrangement of the permanent mag- 



320 



net 1ST S, polarized magnet E, electro-magnet 
M, tongue C, arm D, bar F, pawls h h', stops 
% V, springs jf, ratchet-wheel H, type-wheel T, 
and standards A K, all constructed, arranged, 
and operating substantially as and for the pur- 
pose herein specified. 

6. The roller t, serrated wheel pawl s., 
ratchet-wheel r, click x, and standard p, in 
combination with the polarized magnet E and 
the electro - magnet M, and their appurte- 
nances, for the purpose set forth. 

7. The screw-stops d d' upon the standard 
A, in combination with the type- wheel T, sub- 
stantially as herein specified. 

8. The arrangement of the tongue C in the 
slot b of the permanent magnet K S by means 
of a pivot, a, and screw c, whereby the induct- 
ive magnetic influence of the permanent mag- 
net 1ST S upon the tongue is greatly increased, 
substantially as herein set forth. 

FEANK L. POPE. 
THOMAS A. EDISON". 

Witnesses: 

M. M. Livingston, 
T. B. Beecher. 



P. L. POPE I T. A. EDISON. - 

Assignors by mesne assignments to the Gold and Stock Telegraph Company. 



PRINTING TELEGRAPH. 
No. 7,621. c Reissued April 17, 1877. 




n. peters, photo- Lithographer, Washington, d c 



United States Patent Office, 



FRANK L. POPE, OP ELIZABETH, AND THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PAEK, 
NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNORS, BY MESNE ASSIGNMENTS, TO THE GOLD AND 
STOCK TELEGRAPH COMPANY. 

IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 102,320, dated April 26, 1870; reissue No. 7,621, dated 
April 17, 1877 ; application filed March 21, 1877. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that we, Prank L. Pope, of 
Elizabeth, in the county of Union, and Thom- 
as A. Edison, now of Meulo Park, in the 
county of Middlesex, both iu the State of New 
Jersey, have invented certain new and useful 
Improvements iu Printing-Telegraphs, which 
improvements are fully set forth in the follow- 
ing specification, reference being had to the 
accompanying drawings : 

Our invention relates to that class of print- 
ing-telegraph instruments iu which the type- 
wheel is caused to rotate by means of a step- 
by-step escapement actuated or controlled by 
the armature of an electro-maguet in the main 
circuit, and when any desired character upon 
the type-wheel has been brought round to a 
given point an impression of such character 
may be printed by bringing into action a sec- 
ond armature controlled by the same circuit. 

Our improvements consist, first, in a meth- 
od of imparting to the type-wheel an inter- 
mittent rotary motion by the action of suc- 
cessive alternate positive and negative cur- 
rents of short duration, and of locking the 
type- wheel at any point, and at the same time 
printing a letter or character by prolonging 
the duration of the final current, whether the 
same is positive or negative ; second, in the 
combination of a type-wheel, actuated or con- 
trolled by a polarized armature, under the 
influence of alternate reverse currents of short 
and uniform duration, with a device for giv- 
ing the impression which is actuated or con- 
trolled by a non polarized or neutral armature, 
the arrangement being such that the type- 
wheel may be locked, and the neutral arma- 
ture brought iuto action to effect the printing 
when the type- wheel has been brought to the 
required point by prolonging the duration of 
the final current, without reference to its 
polarity ; third, iu certain improved combina- 
tions of the mechanism of the several parts of 
the apparatus, whereby the efficiency and re- 
liability of its action are materially increased. 

In the accompanying drawing, Figure 1 is 
a side elevation of the receiving apparatus. 
Fig. 2 is an end elevation of the same, the 
type-wheel being removed. Fig. 3 is a plan 



view of a porfciou of said apparatus. Fig. 4 is 
a detached view, showing the details of the 
escapement in said apparatus. Fig. 5 is a 
plan view of the slotted presser, and Fig. 6 is 
a skeleton diagram, showing the arrangement 
of a number of instruments located at differ- 
ent stations, and placed in the same electric 
circuit, operated simultaneously in unison by 
a battery placed at one point in the circuit. 

Similar letters refer to like parts in the dif- 
ferent figures. 

E, Figs. 1, 2, and 3, designates a perpen- 
dicular electro-magnet, composed of two cores 
of soft iron, united below in the ordinary 
manner by a cross-bar, e. also of soft iron. 
The north pole of an angular permanent mag- 
net, N S, is screwed to the cross-bar e, to 
which it communicates north polarity beyond 
the point of contact, and also to both cores 
and poles of the electro-magnet E. The soft- 
iron armature C is supported upon a. pivot, a, 
in a slot, 6, in the south end S of the perma- 
nent magnet N S, from which it receives south 
polarity, being secured in that position by a 
screw or otherwise. The said slot is situated 
at a short distance from the end of the mag- 
net, exactly at the point of greatest magnetic 
intensity, so that the pivot end of the arma- 
ture is completely surrounded by the mag- 
netic mass, and becomes subject to the great- 
est possible amount of inductive influence. 

The armature is so placed that it is free 
to vibrate to aud fro iu a lateral direction be- 
tween the poles W and N" of the electro- 
magnet E. When this is arranged, it is ob- 
vious that the north polarized ends N' aud 
N" will each exert an equal attraction upon 
the south polarized armature when the same 
is equidistant from each, but that it will be 
attracted aud firmly held by either N' aud W 
when placed in close proximity or contact 
with one or the other. An arm, D, projects 
from the end of the armature C, passing be- 
tween screw-stops d and d', by means of which 
its lateral vibration is controlled and limited. 
This arm is constructed of brass or other non- 
magnetic metal, in order to prevent the in- 
ductive magnetic action from extending be- 
yond the poles N' N" of the electro-magnet E. 



8 



The screw-stops d and dl are supported by 
a standard, A. Upon this standard is secured 
a shaft, /, Fig. 4, upon which is a sleeve, g, 
carrying a ratchet-wheel, H, and a type- wheel, 
T, upon the circumference of which type-wheel 
are engraved such letters, numerals, or other 
characters as may be required. The charac- 
ters on the type-wheel are supplied with ink 
by means of a fountain ink-roller, I, secured 
to a movable arm attached to the standard A. 
The vibrating arm I) carries a curved bar, E, 
to the extremities of which are pivoted pawls 
h and h'. which act respectively at opposite 
points upon the circumference of the ratchet- 
wheel JQ, as shown in Figs. 2 and 4. 

The to-aud-fro movement of the pawls, as 
well as each successive step in the forward 
movement of the wheel H, which is driven by 
them, is limited by the adjustable stops % and 
The pawls are pressed against the teeth 
of the wheel by springs j f; and when the arm 
D vibrates to and fro, the pawls alternately 
fall into the interdental spaces of the wheel H 
and push it forward until the movement of 
the pawl, and consequently that of the wheel, 
also, is arrested by the stop i or which may 
be adjusted so as to allow of any desired 
amount of movement of the pawls* h and W. 
But we will here remark that the pawls li and 
h' may be made of spring-steel, and so ar- 
ranged as to automatically bear in the inter- 
dental spaces of the wheel H, in which case 
the springs jf may, of course, be dispensed 
with. 

By means of the above-described arrange- 
ment the to-aud-fro vibrations of the arm D 
may be caused to communicate, through the 
pawls, a rapid intermittent rotary motion to 
the ratchet-wheel H, sleeve g, and type-wheel 
T in the direction shown by the arrow marked 
thereon. The screw stops d d' are so adjusted 
in reference to the stops i %' that when the ar- 
mature is acted upon by a powerful current, 
tending to bend or otherwise disarrange the 
pawls h h', ratchet-wheel H, and their appur- 
tenances, the slightest deflection of the arm 
D, after the pawls h or Ji' have come iu con- 
tact with the stops * or i 7 , will bring said arm 
D against one of the stops d or d 1 , thereby re- 
lieving the mechanism from undue strain or 
pressure. 

The manner in which the vibration of the 
armature and arm D is made to revolve the 
ratchet-wheel H will be understood more 
clearly by reference to Fig. 4. Suppose the 
arm D to be moved from its position, as shown, 
toward the left, carrying with it the bar F 
and the pawls Ji h', the pawl W will engage 
with a tooth of the wheel H, and carry it for- 
ward in the direction of the arrow until its 
movement is arrested by the pawl coming in 
contact with the stop ¥; at the same time the 
pawl h will slip over one tooth of the wheel 
without obstruction. When the arm D, bar 
F, and pawls h h' are moved from left to right 
the operation of the respective pawls is re- 
versed, although the wheel H continues to be 



moved in the same direction, as before, Each 
vibration of the arm D either to the left or to 
the right therefore advances the ratchet-wheel 
H the distance of one tooth. 

The apparatus for taking the impression af- 
ter the type-wheel has been brought to the 
desired position may be described as follows: 
M, Figs. 1 and 3, is an electro magnet of the 
usual form, its poles being united by the cross- 
bar m, which is secured by a lug, K, to the 
south end S of the permanent magnet 1ST S. 
This lug is made of non-magnetic metal, for 
the purpose of cutting off the magnetic induc- 
tion which would otherwise take place be- 
tween the permanent magnet N S and the 
soft-iron cores of the electro-magnet M. 

The armature I of this electro magnet is of 
soft iron, and attached to a lever, L, one end 
of which is pivoted at O, and which passes 
through a slot in the standard A. The lever 
is capable of a vertical movement upon O as 
its fulcrum, the extent of such movement be- 
ing limited in one direction by the face of the 
type-wheel T, and in the other by the adjust- 
able screw-stop n. 

To the extremity of the lever L is attached 
a slotted adjustable standard, E, carrying a 
wheel, q, with a sharp serrated edge. Upou 
the same shaft with said wheel q is a ratchet- 
wheel, r, actuated by a hook-shaped pawl, s, 
attached to the extremity of the shaft/. A 
roller, t, of hard rubber or other suitable ma- 
terial, is mounted upon a spring-axle, u, iu 
such a manner as to be pressed firmly against 
the serrated edge of the wheel q. A ribbon 
of paper (not shown in the drawing) may be 
made to pass horizontally across the lever L 
and beneath the slotted presser Q, (shown iu 
plan in Fig. 5,) the edge of said paper passing 
between the serrated wheel q and the roller t 
in such a manner that the rotation of the 
wheel q will cause the ribbon to be drawn 
forward from right to left. The slotted presser 
Q serves to keep the paper from coming iu 
coutact with any portion of the type-wheel, 
except the letter of which the impression is 
desired. The two electro-magnets E and M 
are placed in the same electrical circuit, the 
connections being arranged as shown in Fig. 3. 

The manner in which the above-described 
apparatus is actuated by means of electric 
currents is as follows: 

If a momentary current of electricity be 
sent from the positive pole of a battery 
through the electro - magnets E and M, its 
tendency would be to magnetize the pole W 
of the electro-magnet E "north" and the pole 
W " south," but as both poles were previously 
north by the inductive influence of the perma- 
nent magnet if 8, the effect of this current is 
to strengthen the north magnetism of W and 
to weaken or entirely destroy that of 1ST". 
The armature is therefore attracted to 1ST' 
with double force, and remains on that side 
after the cessation of the current, being still 
attracted by the pole F', whose distance from 
is now much less than that of W. 



3 



If, now, a momentary negative current is 
sent, this effect is reversed. The pole W, in 
turn, attracts the armature, and it moves to 
that side, remaining until the polarity of the 
exciting-current is again changed. 

Thus, by transmitting through the heMces 
of the electro-magnet E a rapidly-alternating 
series of short positive and negative currents, 
it will readily be understood that the arma- 
ture C and its attachments may be caused to 
vibrate to and fro with great rapidity, causing 
a correspondingly rapid revolution of the 
ratchet-wheel EL and type-wheel T, and that 
the latter may readily be brought to any re- 
quired position simply by transmitting in suc- 
cession the requisite number of alternate posi- 
tive and and negative currents through the 
electro-magnet E. These alternate currents 
of short duration necessarily traverse the coils 
of the electro-magnet M, which is included in 
the same circuit, but the armature of the lat- 
ter is not affected by them. The reason of 
this is, that a polarized or permanently mag- 
netic armature responds much more promptly 
to the attraction of an electro-magnet than a 
non-polarized or neutral armature, other con- 
ditions being the same, and therefore the 
polarized armature of the magnet E re- 
sponds perfectly to the short alternate cur- 
rents, while the more sluggish non-polarized 
or neutral armature I remains at rest. 

In order, therefore, to print an impression 
of any desired character upon the type- wheel, 
a succession of alternate positive and nega- 
tive currents is sent through the wire 12 3, 
Figs. 1 and 3, of such short duration as not 
to affect in any manner the neutral armature 
I of the electro-magnet M, while by the action 
of the polarized armature C of the electro- 
magnet E, the type-wheel T may be revolved 
until the desired character upon its circum- 
ference is brought opposite the impression- 
lever L. The duration of the final current is 
then prolonged, the effect of which prolonga- 
tion is to cause the type-wheel to be firmly 
locked in its position (the pawl h or h' being 
wedged between the point of the stop i or i' 
and a tooth of the wheel H,) and to allow suf- 
ficient time for the neutral armature I of the 
electro-magnet M to act, which raises the 
lever L, and brings the paper ribbon in con- 
tact with the type upon the wheel T, the same 
having been previously inked by the fountain- 
roller I. 

The armature I being of soft iron and neu- 
tral, it is immaterial, so far as the result is 
concerned, whether the prolonged terminal 
current is positive or negative, as it responds 
with equal certainty in either case. When 
the attraction of the electro-magnet M ceases 
the lever L falls back to its original position. 
At the same time the hooked pawl s catches 
a tooth of the ratchet-wheel r and causes it, 
together with the wheel to revolve a short 
distance, thus drawing the paper ribbon for- 
ward and leaving a clear space in readiness 
for the next impression. 



A click, x, prevents the ratchet-wheel r, and, 
consequently, the wheel from revolving in 
the opposite direction. 

The downward movement of the lever L 
may be assisted by a retracting - spring, if 
necessary. 

It will be understood from the above descrip- 
tion that this apparatus may be actuated en- 
tirely by electro-magnetic power, derived from 
the battery at the trausmitting-station, with- 
out the assistance of local or secondary bat- 
teries, or of meehauical power derived from 
any source other than the said battery at the 
said transmitting -station, and that any re- 
quired number of such apparatus may be 
placed at various points included in the same 
electric circuit, and operated simultaneously 
in unison by the action of a single battery 
placed at the transmitting-station. 

This will be more clearly understood by ref- 
erence to Fig. 6, where we ave given a skele- 
ton diagram illustrating an arrangement of 
instruments in connection with a main battery 
and circuit breaker, wherebj^ an operator can 
at one point form a connection with a main 
battery, so as to complete an electric circuit, 
in such manner that the curient of said bat- 
tery shall pass through as many instruments 
on a main line unprovided with local batteries 
as desired, and record simultaneously, in 
printed characters, at each instrument the 
same message. 

For instance, at a point lettered X there 
may be located a circuit-breaker of any suit- 
able construction, and at the point lettered Y 
a main battery of sufficient power, or in lieu 
thereof a number of small main batteries, lo- 
cated at such point, or elsewhere in the main 
circuit, that a current may be caused to pass 
from the main battery or batteries through 
the electro magnets I, II, III, &c. 

It is obvious that other electro-magnets can 
be placed in the same circuit for effecting other 
useful purposes, such as striking bells to call 
attention, &c, which may be actuated by in- 
creasing the strength of the electric current 
which operates the printing mechanism. It 
is also obvious that a local battery may be 
employed to bring into action a magnet not in 
the same circuit, by insulating one of the stops, 
d d', upon the standard A, and connecting it 
with the local circuit in such manner that the 
rapid vibrations of the arm D will not allow 
it to remain in contact with the stop long 
euough to permit the local or secondary bat- 
tery to charge its electro-magnet; but when 
the vibrations are made to cease by the action 
of the transmitting-operator, or otherwise, the 
arm I) will remain in contact with the stop d' 
a sufficient time to allow the secondary electro- 
magnet to become charged. 

We do not confine ourselves to the particu- 
lar form and arrangement of parts shownin the 
drawings. There are numerous and well-known 
means of producing the vibratory movement 
of a lever by the use of alternate positive and 
negative currents, in combination with a per- 



i 



7,621 



manent and an electro-magnet acting upon 
each other, and of applying the same to the 
movement of a type-wheel. Neither do we 
wish to confine ourselves to any particular 
method of producing or transmitting alternate 
positive and negative currents for the purpose 
specified, as there are many well-known ap- 
pliances for these purposes, which have here- 
tofore been used in connection with other 
printing instruments, and may be employed 
in like manner with advantage in connection 
with our improved apparatus. 
We claim as our invention — 

1. The method, substantially as herein speci- 
fied, of operating a printing-telegraph by first 
moving the type wheel into any required posi- 
tion by the action of alternate positive and 
negative currents of short and uniform dura- 
tion, and then locking the type-wheel in such 
position and at the same time causing the 
printing to be effected by prolonging the dura- 
tion of the current last sent, irrespective of 
its polarity. 

2. A type-wheel actuated or controlled by 



the to-and-fro movements of a polarized arma- 
ture, under the influence of alternate positive 
and negative currents of short duration, in 
combination with an impression device actu- 
ated or controlled by a neutral armature, when 
the arrangement is such that the type-wheel 
may be locked at any required character, and 
the neutral armature brought into action to 
effect the printing of such character, by pro- 
longing the normal duration of one of the said 
alternate currents, whether positive or nega- 
tive. 

3. The combination of the safety-stops d d' 
with the stops i i' and armature-lever D, sub- 
stantially as and for the purpose specified. 

In testimony that we claim the foregoing 
we have hereunto set our hands this 21st clay 
of February, 1877. 

FRANK L. POPE. 
THOS. A. ED [SON., 

Witnesses: 

John 0. Hubbard, 
Randolph Hukry. 



No. 103,035, 



T. A, EDISON. 
Printing Telegraph, 

Patented May 17, 1870. 




^^^^ Tnvejilor 



N. PETERS. Photo-Lithographer, Washington. D. C. 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEW YOBK, N. T. 
IMPROVEMENT IN ELECTRO-MOTOR ESCAPEMENTS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 103,035, dated May 17, 1870. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
the city of New York, in the county and State 
of New York, have invented certain new and 
useful Improvements in Electro-Motor Escape- 
ments; and I do hereby declare that the follow- 
ing is a full, clear, and exact description there- 
of, reference being had to the accompanying 
drawing, which forms part of this specification. 

The object of this invention is to provide a 
novel and efficient means whereby an inter- 
mittent rotary motion in one direction maybe 
communicated to a wheel and shaft by the vi- 
brations of the armature of an electro-magnet, 
while at the same time, by simply suspending 
the action of the electro - magnet, the said 
wheel and shaft may be securely held at any 
desired point in its revolution. 

In the accompanying drawing, which is a 
front elevation of my invention, A designates 
a wheel mounted upon a shaft, a f and pro- 
vided with ratchet - shaped teeth upon its 
periphery. B is a forked lever, which is mov- 
able upon the pivot or arbor b, and is provided 
with two spring pawls or clicks, and D, 
which engage with the teeth of the wheel A 
at two opposite points or sides of its periph- 
ery. E and F are stops secured to or formed 
upon the forked lever B, and these stops are 
so arranged as to act alternately at opposite 
points upon the teeth of the wheel A, as will 
be hereinafter described. G- is an electro- 
magnet, the armature H of which is secured 
to the lever B. S is a retracting-spring, which 
retains the lever B in the position shown in 
the drawing when the electro-magnet G is 
not in action. 

The manner in which this device operates 
is as follows : When a current of electricity 
passes through the coil of the electro-magnet 
G its attraction for the armature H causes the 
lever B to be moved toward said magnet. 
The pawl or click D engages with a tooth of 
the wheel A, and causes it to revolve in the 
direction shown by the black arrow until its 
motion is arrested by the stop E coming in 
contact with another of its teeth, as shown in 
the drawing. The click D at the same time 
slips over one tooth of the wheel A. 

When the electric current is interrupted, 
the attractive force of the electro-magnet Gr is 



no longer exerted upon the armature H, and 
the spring S causes the lever B to return to 
its normal position. 

During the latter movement a reverse ac- 
tion takes place by means of the click D and 
the stop F, the effect of which is to advance 
the wheel A still farther in the same direction 
as before. This action may be repeated in- 
definitely, and an intermittent rotary motion 
communicated to the wheel A by the vibration 
of the armature H of the electro-magnet G. 

When the lever B is at rest at either ex- 
tremity of its vibration, one of the stops, E or 
F, rests between two teeth of the wheel A, thus 
holding it in the desired position until the 
lever is again moved. 

The ratchet-wheel and escapement, when 
arranged as described, may be placed upon a 
shaft midway between the bearings of said 
shaft without necessarily being placed close 
to the frame in order to accommodate the 
stops. In the construction and operation of 
printing and dial telegraphs this is often a 
great advantage. 

This improved escapement has several im- 
portant advantages over those employing rigid 
pawls or clicks pivoted or hinged to the lever 
of the armature, and having screw-stops at- 
tached to the frame. For instance, the jarring 
and vibrating caused by the rapid movements 
of the lever in such above-referred-to devices 
has a tendency to continually loosen the pivots 
or screws by which the pawls or clicks are at- 
tached to the lever, and the same effect is pro- 
duced upon screw-stops when arranged upon 
the frame, thereby throwing the apparatus 
out of proper adjustment. 

By the use of spring pawls or clicks perma- 
nently attached to the lever, and by arranging 
the stops upon the lever so as to form a part 
thereof, as iu my present escapement, all dan- 
ger of the apparatus beiug thrown out of ad- 
justment by the loosening of any of the parts 
is entirely obviated. 

Having thus described my invention, what 
I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters 
Patent, is — 

1. The combination of the click C, stop E, 
lever B, and toothed wheel A with the elec- 
tro-magnet G- and armature H, substantially 
as and for the purposes herein specified. 



103,035 



2. The combination of the click D, stop F, 
lever B, and toothed wheel A with the elec- 
tro-magnet G- and armature H, substantially 
as and for the purposes herein specified. 

3. The combination, with an electro-magnet, 
G, of a vibrating lever, B, provided with the 
stops E F, one or both, and clicks D, one or 
both, arranged and operating substantially as 
herein specified. 



4. The combination of the clicks and D, 
stops E and F, lever B, spring S, toothed 
wheel A, armature H, and electro-magnet G-, 
substantially as and for the purpose herein 
specified. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

M. M. Livingston, 
Frank L. Pope. 



2 Sh-eets- - Sheet 1, 
F. L . POPE & T. A. EDISON. 

Printing Telegraphs. 

103924. Patented Jun 7,l810- 




2 Sheets — Sheet 2. 



F. L . POPE & T. A. EDISON. 
Printing Telegraphs. 

108924. Patented Jim 7,1870- 




N.PETERS. PHOTO- LITHOGRAPHER. WASHINGTON. C. 



United States Patent Office, 



FRANK L. POPE, OF ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY, AND THOMAS A. EDISON, 

OF NEW YORK, N. Y. 

IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 103.924, dated Jane 7, 1870. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that we, Frank L. Pope, of 
Elizabeth, in the comity of Union and State 
of New Jersey, and Thomas A. Edison, of 
the city, county, and State of New York, have 
io vented certain new and useful Improvements 
in Printing-Telegraphs; and we do hereby de- 
clare that the following is a full, clear, and ex- 
act description of the same, reference beiug 
had to the accompanying drawing, which forms 
part of this specification. 

The object of this invention is to furnish a 
telegraphic instrument, by means of which 
communications may not only be recorded au- 
tomatically in printed characters at one or 
more distant points, at the pleasure of the 
transmitting operator, but by which this result 
maybe accomplished .with greater certainty, 
and in a much more simple manner, than by 
the apparatus hitherto used for this purpose. 

The principal features of this improvement 
relate, first, to the placing of the electro- 
magnet which, rotates the type-wheel, in the 
same electrical circuit with a second electro- 
magnet which operates the printing mechan- 
ism, and so arranging them, in connection 
with an electrical cut-off of a novel construc- 
tion, that the printing mechanism can only 
act after the type- wheel has been brought to 
its desired position ; second, to the use of an 
electrical cut-off, which we term the unison 
cut-off, and by means of which any number of 
printing-telegraph instruments may be brought 
into correspondence with the transmitting-in- 
strument at the pleasure of the transmitting 
operator; third, to the use of an electro-mag- 
netic switch of peculiar construction, which is 
employed for the purpose of placing the unison 
cut-off in circuit, and which may also be made 
useful for other purposes in connection with 
printing-telegraph instruments ; fourth, to an 
imp roved xiaper-feeding mechanism for print- 
ing-telegraph instruments ; fifth, to the plac- 
ing of certain duplicate figures or characters 
in a peculiar position upon the type- wheel, for 
purposes hereinafter specified. 

The arrangement of the various parts of 
this invention will be more fully understood 
by reference to the accompanying drawings, 
in which — 

Figure 1 represents a plan view of the re- 



ceiving and recording apparatus. Fig. 2 is a 
side elevation of the same. Fig. 3 is a sec- 
tional front view of a portion of the apparatus 
taken through the line x x'. Fig. 2. Fig. 4 is 
a detached front view, showing the device for 
moving the jiaper forward beneath the type- 
wheel. Fig. 5 is a sectional view, showing the 
details of the unison cut-off. Fig. 6 illustrates 
the manner in which numbers and fractions 
are printed by the apparatus. Fig. 7 is a the- 
oretical diagram, designed to show the elec- 
trical connections of the various parts of the 
apparatus, and their relations to each other, 
whereby the desired results are obtained. 

Similar letters and marks of reference indi- 
cate like parts in the different figures. 

A (see Figs. 1 and 2) designates a metallic 
frame or standard, which is firmly secured to 
the pedestal or base B, and which serves as a 
Support to the different portions of the receiv- 
ing-instrument. An electro-magnet, C, is se- 
cured, preferably, in an upright position uxion 
the lower portion of the frame A, and a sec- 
ond similar electro-magnet, D, is placed in a 
preferably inverted position upon the upper 
portion of the said frame. The armature c of 
the electro-magnet C is attached to a lever E, 
which moves upon pivots e e fixed in the up- 
per extremity of the frame A. A pawl, F, 
Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4, is pi voted at ft to the cross- 
head E', at or near the end of the lever E. 
This pawl engages with the teeth of a ratchet- 
wheel, G, as shown in Fig. 3. The ratchet- wheel 
O, and also the type - wheel H, are mounted 
upon a sleeve, /, which revolves upon a sta- 
tionary spindle, g, projecting from the stand- 
ard I, which latter is supported by the frame A. 
This arrangement will be clearly understood 
by reference to Figs. 1, 2, and 3. The cross- 
head E', Fig. 3, is also provided with a sec- 
ond pawl, F', which is pivoted at a', and is 
provided at one end with a hook, which acts 
upon the opposite side of the wheel G-. A stop, 
S, is permanently secured to the cross-head 
E' midway between the pawls F and F'. The 
pawls F and F' are kept in contact with the 
face of the wheel G by means of a spiral spring, 
K, or in any other suitable manner. 

By reference to Fig. 3 it will readily be un- 
derstood that a downward, movement of the 
lever E and the cross-head E', caused by the 



103,924 



attraction of the electro-magnet 0, will cause 
the pawl F to engage with a tooth of the 
ratchet-wheel G, arid cause the latter to rotate 
the distance of half the depth of a tooth in the 
direction of the black arrow, when its move- 
ment is arrested by the stop 8 coming between 
the teeth of the wheel G. The pawl F' has, 
meantime, passed one tooth of the wheel G, 
and when the lever E returns to its former po- 
sition it engages with the said tooth, and ro- 
tates the wheel the distance of half the depth 
of a tooth farther, when its motion is arrested 
by the stop J. Thus each movement of the 
lever E in both directions advances the wheel 
G one tooth in the direction of the black ar- 
row, and an intermittent rotary motion is im- 
parted to said wheel G by the vibrations of 
the lever E under the influence of the electro- 
magnet C. This . intermittent rotary motion 
is imparted to the sleeve / and the type- 
wheel JEL 

The ratchet-wheel G is provided with a num- 
ber of teeth corresponding to the number of 
letters, figures, or characters upon the circum- 
ference of the type-wheel G, so that the latter 
may be brought to any desired position by 
transmitting the appropriate number of elec- 
tricalpulsations through the electro-magnet 0, 
each pulsation advancing the wheel G one 
tooth, and the type-wheel H one character, 
through the medium of the armature c, lever 
E, and pawl F, as hereinbefore explained. 

The electrical connections between the dif- 
ferent portions of the apparatus are only par- 
tially seen in Figs. 1 and 2, but are fully shown 
in Fig. 7, which will be hereinafter explained. 

The apparatus for taking the impression of 
any desired letter, when the type-wheel has 
been brought to the proper position, is con- 
structed and operates as follows : 

Underneath the electro-magnet D, Fig. 2, is 
a horizontal lever, L, to which its armature d 
is attached. This lever is capable of a slight 
vertical motion upon the pivots 1 7. The lever 
L passes between the helices of the electro- 
magnet C, and through an aperture in the 
standard I. The strip of paper j j, Fig. 4, 
passes over the extremity of the lever L and 
underneath the type- wheel H. When the elec- 
tro-magnet D becomes sufficiently excited by 
the passage of the electrical current, its at- 
traction will be exerted upon the armature d, 
thereby raising the lever L and bringing the 
strip of paper j j forcibly in contact with the 
character irpon the type- wheel H, which is over 
it at the time. The characters upon the type- 
wheel having been previously inked by means 
of an ink-roller, or other suitable device, an 
impression of the said character is made upon 
the paper. Upon the cessation of the electric 
current in the coils of the electro -magnet D, 
the lever L is drawn back to its original posi- 
tion by means of the spring V. 

The device for moving the paper forward, 
after each impression has been made, is con- 
structed and operates as follows : 

Upon the end of the lever L there is secured 



a slotted bar, M, Figs. 1, 2, and 4, which moves 
vertically with said lever L. To the upper 
portion of this bar there is attached a feeder, 
by means of adjustable set-screws o and o', 
which allow of its being secured at any de- 
sired point upon the bar M. The feeder 1ST is 
placed in an inclined position, as shown in 
Fig. 4, its lower extremity being serrated, or 
provided with spurs q', and resting upon the 
strip of paper j j, which, at that point, is sup- 
ported by the bed-plate O. The feeder K is 
kept in contact with the paper by means of a 
spiral spring, q. A second feeder, W, is at- 
tached in the same manner to the lower part 
of the bar M, so as to rest against the under 
side of the strip of parier at q', which paper 
passes underneath the plate 7 , as shown in 
Figs. 1, 2, and 4. 

By an inspection of Fig. 4 it will be under- 
stood that, when the lever L' and its bar M de- 
scends after an impression has been made, the 
lower end of the feeder N is thrust to the left, 
and the paper is pushed forward by its spurs 
q. When the lever L is again moved upward 
the feeder W in the same manner advances the 
paper still farther to the left. By this arrange- 
ment the feeders N and W may be so adjusted 
that a comparatively slight vertical movement 
of the lever L will cause a considerable hori- 
zontal movement of the strip of paper jj, and 
the amount of this movement may be regu- 
lated at pleasure by altering the position of 
the set-screws o and o' upon the bar M. 

The manner in which the several parts of 
the apparatus are electrically connected and 
operated will be understood by reference to 
Fig. 7, which is a theoretical diagram, show- 
ing the various parts heretofore described in 
relation to each other, and with their proper 
electrical connections. 

In Fig. 7, Q represents a voltaic battery of 
any suitable construction, the positive and 
negative poles of said battery being distin- 
guished m the drawing by the signs + and — . 
P is a key or circuit -breaker, which may be of 
any suitable construction. The battery Q and 
key P it is to be understood are situated at the 
transmittin g-station . By means of th e circuit- 
breaker P a series of successive pulsations 
may be transmitted through the conducting- 
wires and the electro-magnets of the receiving 
apparatus. Starting from the positive pole of 
the battery Q, the circuit may be traced to the 
anvil 1 of the key p; thence through the elec- 
tro-magnet R B', for purposes which will be 
hereinafter explained, to the point 2, and thence 
to the point 3. From the point 3 to the point 
4 two routes are open to the current — one 
through the helices of the electro-magnet D, 
and the other through the screw h and flat 
spring t. The latter route being much the 
shortest, and offering little or no resistance to 
the passage of the current, the electro -magnet 
D will not be perceptibly affected by the pas- 
sage of the current as long as the branch cir- 
cuit through Ji and t remains uninterrupted. 
From the point 4 the current passes through 



103 



,924 



the helices of the electro -magnet C to the 
point 5, and thence, by G and 7, to tlie other 
pole of the battery Q. When the lever E is 
drawn down by the action of the electro-mag- 
net Oj an insulated pin, w, Fig. 7, strikes the 
spring t jnst before the movement of the 
former is arrested, and breaks the electrical 
contact between it and the screw //. The en- 
tire current is therefore momentarily thrown 
through the helices of the electro-magnet D at 
each vibration of the lever E ; but when these 
vibrations are performed with considerable 
rapidity, the electro-magnet D is not kept in 
circuit long enough to become completely mag- 
netized. When the circuit remains closed for 
a longer time, the electro-magnet D becomes 
fully magnetized and attracts its armature d, 
thereby raising the lever L and bringing the 
strip of paper j j against the type upon the 
type-wheel H. 

It will therefore be understood from the 
above explanation that the impression of any 
given character upon the type- wheel H niay 
be produced upon the paper),/ by an operator 
stationed at a distant point, as, for example, 
at P, (see Fig. 7,) simply by transmitting the 
proper number of electrical impulses of short 
duration by means of a properly-constructed 
circuit - breaker, which will cause the type- 
Avheel H to revolve without sensibly affecting 
the impression device, When the desired, 
character is brought opposite the impression- 
lever L the duration of the final current is 
prolonged, and the electro-magnet D becomes 
fully magnetized, and therefore an impression 
of the letter or character upon the paper is 
produced, in the manner hereinbefore de- 
scribed. 

When a number of automatics printing-tele- 
graph instruments is situated at different 
points, and operated simultaneously in one 
circuit, it is desirable that some suitable means 
maybe provided whereby the transmitting-op- 
erator may be enabled to bring the type-wheels 
of the several receiving or recording instru- 
ments into correspondence at pleasure. 

This is effected by the following device: 
Upon the sleeve /, which carries the type- 
wheel H and ratchet-wheel CI, is secured a 
collar, v, Figs. 2, 5, and 7. This collar is com- 
posed of some suitable insulating material. 
We will here observe that in all the figures 
the non-conducting material employed to in- 
sulate one portion of the apparatus' from an- 
other is represented in deep black color. A 
metallic spring, i, fixed upon an insulating 
support, Figs. 5 and 7, presses against this 
collar as it revolves. A metallic pin or stud, 
w, is inserted into the sleeve/ passing through 
the insulating collar, as shown in Figs. 5 and 
7, in such a manner as to form an electrical 
connection between the sleeve /and the spring 
I whenever the pin or stud ic is brought in con- 
tact with said spring by the revolution of the 
sleeve/. This arrangement is clearly shown 
iu Figs. 5 and 7. By reference to Fig. 7, in 
winch the electrical connections are shown in 



dotted Hues, it will be understood that this 
connection forms a short circuit between, the 
point 2 and the point 5, cutting off nearly all 
the electric current from the electro-magnets 
C and D, and thereby arresting their action. 
This short circuit may be brought into action 
at the pleasure of the transmitting operator, 
by means of the device we will now describe. 
II E', Figs. 2 and 7, designate the helices of a 
small electro-magnet whose poles are shown 
at T' and T", the opposite ends of the cores 
being screwed into the soft-iron bar T. A per- 
manently-magnetized steel-bar, n s, is pivoted 
to the bar T at y, its opposite extremity being 
free to vibrate between the screws s and 
In consequence of a well-known law of mag- 
netic action, w r hen a current from the battery 
Q passes through the helices of the electro- 
magnet R Ii/ in one direction, the south end s 
of the magnetic bar n s will be attracted by T' 
and repelled by T", w hile a current in the op- 
posite direction will produce the reverse effect. 
One pole of the polarized bar n s being in mag- 
netic contact with the mass of soft iron formed 
by the bar T and its attachments, its magnet- 
ism cannot be weakened or reversed, as is 
often the case with magnetized armatures, 
which are not in magnetic contact with the 
soft iron of the electro -magnet. From this 
explanation, and by reference to Fig. 7, it will 
be readily understood that the transmitting 
operator, by employing the circuit-breaker W 
instead of P, can send a series of electrical 
pulsations through the circuit in the opposite 
direction, which will cause the south end s of 
the bar n s to be deflected tow 7 ard T', so as to 
come in contact with the stop z. As it is a 
matter of indifference in which direction the 
current passes through the electro-magnet 0, 
in order to operate it, the type-wheel of each 
instrument will continue to revolve by its ac- 
tion, as usual, until the pin or stud w comes 
in contact with the spring when a short cir- 
cuit will be formed from 2, Fig. 7, through n, 
s, and 2, to the metallic frame of the instru- 
ment, and thence through sleeve/, pin or stud 
?r, and spring i to the point 5, and thence by 
the usual route, The principal part of the cur- 
rent will take the shorter route just described, 
and the action of the electro-magnet C, and 
consequently the movement of the type-wheel 
H, will be attested, Each instrument in the 
circuit will therefore stop automatically at the 
same point in the revolution of the type-wheel 
II and sleeve/. When this has been accom- 
plished the electric current is again reversed, 
and the operation of the apparatus proceeds 
as usual. 

When the instrument hereinbefore described 
is intended to be used for reporting cpiotations 
of markets, &e., wherein the amounts to be 
represented fluctuate by eighths of one per 
cent., three duplicate figures or characters are 
placed upon the periphery of the type-wheel 
H in such a position as to impress themselves 
upon the strip of paper lower than the line of 
the other figures or characters upon the wheel, 



103,924 



which may be used, in combination with the 
ordinary numerals, to indicate fractional quan- 
tities. The arrangement of these characters 
upon the type-wheel is shown in Fig. 1, and 
the manner in which their impressions upon 
the paper are combined with those of the numer- 
als to represent fractional quantities is shown 
in Fig. G. 

By means of this device, the total number 
of characters upon the type-wheel may be con- 
siderably reduced and the speed of transmis- 
sion correspondent^ augmented. 

It is obvious that letters as well as other 
characters may be placed upon the type- wheel, 
in a different circumferential plane, in the same 
manner as the figures just referred to, and in 
such cases the letters, figures, or characters in 
the one circumferential plane would be orjpo- 
site blank spaces in the other circumferential 
plane, and hence no two letters, figures, or 
characters would be in the same axial plane. 

This arrangement of letters, figures, or char- 
acters upon the type- wheel of a printing-tele- 
graph we believe to be new. 

We do not claim, distinctively, the placing 
of an electro-magnet for operating the type- 
wheel of a printing-telegraph instrument in the 
same circuit with the electro-magnet that act- 
uates the printing mechanism j nor do we claim , 
in general, the use of a device for bringing the 
transmitting and receiving apparatus into uni- 
son from the transmitting-station, as this is 
shown in the patent granted to Charles Kirchof, 
April 15, 1856, and also in the patent granted 
to S. S. Laws, January 25, 1870. 

What we claim as our invention, and desire 
to secure by Letters Patent, is — 

1. In a printing-telegraph instrument, the 
arrangement of two electro -magnets in the 
same electrical circuit, one being employed to 
rotate the type-wheel and the other to actuate 
the printing mechanism, when the action of 
the latter is controlled by that of the former, 
by means of a branch or short circuit and a 
mechanical cut- off or its equivalent, constructed 
and operated substantially as described. 

2. An improved cut-off', winch we term an 
electrical unison cut-off, whereby, at a given 
point in the revolution of a ratchet or type 
wheel , a shunt or branch circuit m ay bebrought 



into action, and the electrical current diverted 
from the electro-magnet controlling the move- 
ment of the said ratchet or type wheel, so that 
the said movement may be arrested at such 
given point, the same being constructed and 
operated substantially as specified. 

3. The electro-magnet E W and soft-iron bar 
T, in combination with a polarized steel bar, 
n s, so arranged that said steel bar will be in 
magnetic contact with the said soft-iron bar, 
substantially as herein specified. 

4. The bar M, feeders N and K', (either or 
both,) spurs q and q', (either or both,) bed- 
plates o and o', (either or both,) combined, ar- 
ranged, and operating substantially as de- 
scribed, and for the purpose specified. 

5. The combination of the lever E, pawls F 
and F', stops S and J, and ratchet-wheel G-, ar- 
ranged and operated substantially as described. 

G. The combination of the pawl F, stop S, 
and ratchet-wheel Gr, substantially as and for 
the purpose specified. 

7. The electro-magnets E B/, soft-iron bar T, 
and polarized-steel bar n s 7 in combination 
with the spring % insulated collar v, and pin 
or stud w, in the manner described, and for 
the purpose specified. 

8. The combination, with an electro-magnet, 
in a telegraphic printing apparatus, of a type- 
wheel whose periphery is provided with inte- 
gral numbers so arranged upon said type- 
wheel that fractions of numbers may be printed 
upon the paper, thereby decreasing the num- 
ber of characters upon the type- wheel, and in- 
suring great rapidity in recording, substan- 
tially as herein shown and described. 

9. In a printing-telegraph, a type- wheel pro- 
vided with letters, figures, or characters, which 
are arranged in two different lines drawn 
around the periphery of said wheel, and in 
such manner that the said letters, figures, or 
characters in the one line shad be opposite 
blank spaces in the other line, substantially as 
herein specified. 

FRANK L. POPE. 
THOMAS A. EDISOK 

Witnesses : 

M. M. Livingston, 

T. B. BEECHES. 



2 Sheets — Sheet 1. 
F. L. POPE & T. A. EDISON. 

Printing Telegraphs. 

No. 5,523. Reissued August 5, 1873. 




AM.PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHIC CO. NX(OSBORN£S PROCESS:) 



2 Sheets--Sheet 2. 



F. L. POPE & T. A. EDISON. 
Printing Telegraphs. 

No, 5,5 23. Reissued August 5, 1873, 




AM. PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHIC CO.N.Y/OSBORHES Pfrofiess) 



United States Patent Office. 



FRANK L. POPE, OF ELIZABETH, AND THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, 
NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNORS, BY MESNE ASSIGNMENTS, TO THE GOLD AND 
STOCK TELEGRAPH COMPANY, OF NEW YORK CITY. 

IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 103,924, dated June 7, 1870; reissue No. 5,523, dated 
August 5, 1873; application fded June 19, 1873. 



To all tchom it may concern: 

Be it known that we, Frank L. Pope, of 
Elizabeth, in the county of Union and State of 
New Jersey, and Thomas A. Edison, former- 
ly of the city and State of New York, now of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented Improvements in 
Printing-Telegraphs, of which the following 
is a specification: 

The object of this invention is to furnish a 
telegraphic instrument by means of which com- 
munications may not only be recorded auto- 
matically, in printed characters, at one or 
more distant points, at the pleasure of the 
transmitting-operator,but by which this result 
may be accomplished with greater certainty, 
and in a much more simple manner, than by 
the apparatus hitherto used for this purpose. 

The principal features of this improvement 
may be stated as follows: First, to the placing 
of the electro-magnet which rotates the type- 
wheel in the same electrical circuit with a sec- 
ond electro-magnet which operates the print- 
ing mechanism, and so arranging them that 
the printing mechanism will act in conse- 
quence of a pause when the type-wheel has 
been brought to its desired position. Second, 
to a shunt applied in the circuit that passes 
to the printing and type wheel electro-mag- 
nets, to intensify the action of the printing- 
magnet after the type- wheel has been set, 
whereby the rapidity of the instrument will 
be promoted without necessarily increasing 
the power of the battery. Third, to the use 
of an electrical cut-off, which we term the uni- 
son cut-off, and by means of which any num- 
ber of printing-telegraph instruments may be 
brought into correspondence with the trans- 
mitting instrument at the pleasure of the 
transmitting-operator. Fourth, to the use of 
an electro-magnetic switch of peculiar con- 
struction, which is employed for the purpose 
of placing the unison cut-off in circuit, and 
which may also be made useful for other pur- 
poses in connection with printing-telegraph 
instruments. Fifth, to an improved paper- 
feeding mechanism for printing-telegraph in- 
struments. Sixth, to the placing of certain 



duplicate figures or characters in a peculiar 
position upon the type-wheel, for purposes 
hereinafter specified. 

The arrangement of the various parts of 
this iuveution will be more fully understood 
by reference to the accompanying drawing, in 
which — 

Figure 1 represents a plan view of the re- 
ceiving and recording apparatus. Fig. 2 is a 
side elevation of the 'same. Fig. 3 is a sec- 
tional front view of a portion of the apparatus 
taken through the line x x ( , Fig. 2. Fig. 4 is 
a detached front view, showing the device for 
moving the paper forward beneath the type- 
wheel. Fig. 5 is a sectional view, showing 
the details of the unison cut-off. Fig. 6 illus- 
trates the manner in which numbers and frac- 
tions are printed by the apparatus. Fig. 7 is 
a theoretical diagram designed to show the 
electrical connections of the various parts of 
the apparatus and their relations to each 
other, whereby the desired results are ob- 
tained. 

A (see Figs. 1 and 2) designates a metallic 
frame or standard, Avhich is firmly secured to 
the pedestal or base b, and which serves as a 
support to the different portions of the receiv- 
ing instrument. An electro -magnet, C, is 
secured, preferably in an upright position, 
upon the lower portion of the frame A, 
and a second similar electro -magnet, D, is 
placed, in a preferably inverted position, up- 
on the upper portion of the said frame. 
The armature c of t he electro - magnet C is 
attached to a lever, e, which moves upon piv- 
ots e e fixed in the upper extremity of the 
frame A. A pawl, F, Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4, is 
pivoted at a to the cross-head E' at or near 
the end of the lever E. This pawl engages 
with the teeth of a ratchet-wheel, G-, as shown 
in Fig. 3. The ratchet-wheel O, and also the 
type- wheel H, are mounted upon a sleeve,/, . 
which revolves upon a stationary spindle, g, 
X)rojecting from the standard I, which latter 
is supported by the frame A. This arrange- 
ment will be clearly understood by reference 
to Figs. 1, 2, and 3. The cross-head E', Fig. 
3, is also provided with a second pawl, F', 



2 



5,523 



which is pivoted at a', and is provided at 
one end with a hook, "which acts upon the op- 
posite side of the wheel G. A stop, S, is per- 
manently secured to the cross-head W midway 
between the pawls F and F'. The pawls F 
and F' are kept in contact with the face of 
the wheel G by means of a spring, K, or in 
any other suitable manner. 

By reference to Pig. 3 it will readily be un- 
derstood that a downward movement of the 
lever E and the cross-head E', caused by the 
attraction of the electro-magnet 0, will cause 
the pawl F to engage with a tooth of the ratch- 
et-wheel G, and cause the latter to rotate the 
distauce of half the depth of the tooth in the 
direction of the arrow, when its movement is 
arrested by the stop S coming between the 
teeth of the wheel G. The pawlF' has mean- 
time passed one tooth of the wheel G, and 
when the lever E returns to its former posi- 
tion it engages with the said tooth and rotates 
the wheel the distance of half the depth of a 
tooth farther, when its motion is arrested by 
the stop J. Thus each movement of the lever 
E, in both directions, advances the wheel G 
one tooth in the direction of the arrow, and 
an intermittent rotary motion is imparted to 
said wheel G by the vibrations of the lever E 
under the influence of the electro-magnet C. 
This intermittent rotary motion is imparted to 
the sleeve /and the type-wheel H. The ratch- 
et-wheel G is provided with a number of teeth 
corresponding to the number of letters, figures, 
or characters upon the circumference of the 
type-wheel G, so that the latter may be brought 
to any desired position by transmitting the 
appropriate number of electrical pulsations 
through the electro-magnet C, each pulsation 
advancing the wheel G one tooth, and the 
type-wheel H one character, through the me- 
dium of the armature c, lever E, and pawl F, 
as hereinbefore explained. 

The electrical connections between the dif- 
ferent portions of the apparatus are only par- 
tially seen in Figs. 1 and 2, but are fully 
shown in Fig. 7, which will be hereafter ex- 
plained. 

The apparatus for taking the impression of 
amy desired letter, when the type-wheel has 
been brought to the proper position, is con- 
structed and operates as follows: Underneath 
the electro-magnet D, Fig. 2, is a horizontal 
lever, L, to which its armature d is attached. 
This lever is capable of a slight vertical mo- 
tion upon the pivots I I. The lever L passes 
between the helices of the electro-magnet C, 
and through an aperture in the standard I. 
The strip of paper jj, Fig. 4, passes over the 
extremity of the lever L and underneath the 
type-wheel H. When the electro-magnet D 
becomes sufficiently excited by the passage of 
the electrical current its attraction will be ex- 
erted upon the armature d, thereby raising the 
lever L and bringing the strip of paper jj for- 
cibly in contact with the character upon the 
type-wheel H, which is over it at the time. The 
characters upou the type- wheel having been 



previously inked by means of an inking-roller or 
other suitable device, an impression of the said 
character is made upon the paper. Upon the 
cessation of the electric current in the coils of 
the electro-magnet D the lever L is drawn back 
to its original position by means of the spring I'. 

The device for moving the paper forward af- 
ter each impression has been made is construct- 
ed and operates as follows : Upon the end of 
the lever L there is secured a slotted bar, M, 
Figs. 1, 2, and 4, which moves vertically with 
said lever L. To the uprjer portion of this bar 
there is attached a feeder, if, by means of ad- 
justable set-screws o and o', which allow of its 
being secured at any desired point upon the 
bar M. The feeder if is placed in an inclined 
position, as shown in Fig. 4, its lower extrem- 
ity being serrated or provided with spurs q' 
and resting upon the strip of paper jj, which 
at that point is supported by the bed-plate O. 
The feeder if is kept in contact with the paper 
by means of a spiral spring, q. A second feed- 
er, if', is attached in the same manner to the 
lower part of the bar M, so as to rest against 
the under side of the strip of paper at q', which 
paper passes underneath the plate O', as shown 
in Figs. 1, 2, aud 4. By an inspection of Fig. 4 it 
will be understood that when the lever L and 
its bar M descend, after an impression has been 
made, the lower end of the feeder if is thrust 
to the left, and the paper is pushed forward by 
its spurs q. When the lever L is again moved 
upward the feeder if' in the same manner ad- 
vances the paper still farther to the left. By 
this arrangement the feeders if and if' may be 
so adjusted that a. comparatively slight verti- 
cal movement of the lever L will cause a con- 
siderable horizontal movement of the strip of 
paper j;', and the amount of this movement 
may be regulated at pleasure by altering the 
position of the set-screws o and o upon the bar 
M. 

The manner in which the several parts of the 
apparatus are electrically connected and oper- 
ated will be understood by reference to Fig. 7, 
which is a theoretical diagram showing the va- 
rious parts heretofore described, in relation to 
each other and with their proper electrical con- 
nections. 

In Fig. 7, Q represents a voltaic battery of 
any suitable construction, the positive and neg- 
ative poles of said battery being distinguished 
in the drawing by the signs + and — . P is a 
key or circuit-breaker, which may be of any 
suitable construction. The battery Q and key 
P, it is to be understood, are situated at the 
transmitting-station. By means of the circuit- 
breaker P a series of successive pulsations may 
be transmitted through the conducting-wires 
and the electro-magnets of the receiving appa- 
ratus. Starting from the positive pole of the 
battery Q, the circuit may be traced to the an- 
vil 1 of the key P, thence through the electro- 
magnet B E, (for purposes hereinafter ex- 
plained,) to the point 2, and thence to the point 
3. From the point 3 to the point 4 two routes 
are open to the current., one through the hel- 



5,593 



3 



ices of the electro- magnet D and the other 
through the screw % and flat spring t. The lat- 
ter route being much the shortest and offering 
little or no resistance to the passage of the 
current, the electro-magnet D will not he per- 
ceptibly affected by the passage of the current 
as loug as the branch circuit through ft and t re- 
mains uninterrupted. From the point 4 the 
current passes through the helices of the elec- 
tro-magnet to the point 5, and thence by 
and 7 to the other pole of the battery Q. 
When the lever E is drawn down by the ac- 
tion of the electro-magnetO an insulated pin, w, 
Fig. 7, strikes the spring * j list before the move- 
ment of the former is arrested, and breaks the 
electrical contact between it and the screw h. 
The entire current is therefore momentarily 
thrown through the helices of the electro-mag- 
net D at each vibration of the lever E; but 
when these vibrations are performed with con- 
siderable rapidity the electro-magnet D is not 
kept in circuit long enough to become com- 
pletely magnetized. When the circuit re- 
mains closed for a longer time the electro-mag- 
net D becomes fully magnetized and attracts 
its armature d 3 thereby raising the lever L and 
bringing the strip of paper j j against the type 
upon the type-wheel H. 

It will therefore be understood from the 
above explanation that the impression of any 
given character upon the type-wheel H may 
be produced upon the paper j j by an opera- 
tor stationed at a distant point — as, for exam- 
ple, at P (see Fig. 7)— simply by transmit- 
ting the proper number of electrical impulses 
of short duration by means of a properly-con- 
structed circuit-breaker, which will cause the 
type-wheel H to revolve without sensibly af- 
fecting the impression device. 

When the desired character is brought op- 
posite the impression-lever L the duration of 
the final current is prolonged, and the electro- 
magnet D becomes fully magnetized, and 
therefore an impression of the letter or char- 
acter upon the paper is produced in the same 
manner hereinbefore described. 

When a number of automatic printing-tele- 
graph instruments are situated at different 
points and operated simultaneously in one cir- 
cuit, it is desirable that some suitable means 
may be provided whereby the transmitting-op- 
erator may be enabled to bring the type- wheels 
of the several receiving or recording instru- 
ments into correspondence at pleasure. This 
is effected by the following device: Upon the 
sleeve /, which carries the type- wheel H and 
ratchet-wheel G-, is secured a collar, v, Figs. 
2, 5, and 7. This collar is composed of some 
suitable insulating material. We will here ob- 
serve that in all the figures the non-conduct- 
ing material employed to insulate one portion 
of the apparatus from another is represented 
in black. A metallic spring, *£, fixed upon an 
insulating - support, Figs. 5 and % presses 
against this collar as it revolves. A metallic 
pin or stud, ir, is inserted into the sleeve /, 
passing through the insulating - collar, as 



shown in Figs. 5 and 7, in such a manner as 
to form an electrical connection between the 
sleeve /'and the spring i whenever the pin or 
stud w is brought iu contact with said .spring 
by the revolution of the sleeve /. This ar- 
rangement is clearly shown in Figs. 5. and 7. 

By reference to Fig. 7, in which the elec- 
trical connections are shown in dotted lines, 
it will be understood that this connection 
forms a short circuit between the point 2 and 
the point 5, cutting off nearly all the electric 
current from the electro-magnets and D, 
and thereby arresting their action. This short 
circuit may be brought into action at the 
pleasure of the transmitting- operator by 
means of the device next described. E li', 
Figs. 3 and 7, designate the helices of a small 
electro-magnet, whose poles are shown at T 1 
and T 2 , the opposite ends of the cores being 
screwed into the soft -iron bar T. A per- 
manently-magnetized steel bar, n s, is piv- 
oted to the bar T at y, its opposite extremi- 
ties being free to vibrate between the screws 
Z and Z ; . 

In consequence of a well- known law of 
magnetic action, when a current from the 
battery Q passes through the helices of the 
electro-magnet B B/ in one direction the south 
end s of the magnet-bar n s will be attracted 
by T 1 and repelled by T 2 , while a current in 
the opposite direction will produce the re- 
verse effect. One pole of the polarized bar n 
s being iu magnetic contact with the mass of 
soft iron formed by the bar T and its attach- 
ments, its magnetism cannot be weakened or 
reversed, as is often the case with magnet- 
ized armatures which are not in magnetic 
contact with the soft iron of the electro-mag- 
net. 

From this explanation, and by reference to 
Fig. 7, it will be readily understood that the 
transmitting-operator, by employing the cir- 
cuit-breaker P' instead of P, can send a se- 
ries of electrical pulsations through the cir- 
cuit in the opposite direction, which will cause 
the south end s of the bar n s to be deflected 
toward T 1 , so as to come in contact with the 
stop z. 

As it is a matter of indifference in which 
direction the current passes through the elec- 
tro-magnet in order to operate it, the type- 
wheel of each instrument will continue to re- 
volve by its action, as usual, until the pin or 
stud w comes in contact with the spring i, 
vrhen a short circuit will be formed from 2, 
Fig. 7, through n, s, and #, to the metallic frame 
of the instrument, and thence through sleeve 
/, pin or stud to, and spring i, to the point 5, 
and thence by the usual route. The principal 
part of the current will take the shorter route, 
just described, and the action of the electro- 
magnet O, and, consequently, the movement 
of the type-wheel H, will be arrested. Each 
instrument in the circuit will therefore stop 
automatically at the same point iu the revolu- 
tion of the type-wheel H and sleeve /. When 
this has been accomplished the electric cur- 



4 



5,523 



rent is again reversed, and the operation of 
the apparatus proceeds as usual. 

When the instrument hereinbefore de- 
scribed is intended to he used for recording 
quotations of markets, &c, wherein the 
amounts to be represented fluctuate by eighths 
of one per cent., three duplicate figures or 
characters are placed upon the periphery of 
the type- wheel H in such a position as to im- 
press themselves upon the strip of paper lower 
than the line of the other figures or characters 
upon the wheel, which may be used in combi- 
nation with the ordinary numerals to indicate 
fractional quantities. The arrangement of 
these characters upon the type- wheel is shown 
in Fig. 1, and the manner in which their im- 
pressions upon the paper are combined with 
those of the numerals to represent fractional 
quantities is shown in Fig. 6. By means of 
this device the total number of characters up- 
on the type-wheel may be considerably re- 
duced, and the speed of transmission corre- 
spondingly augmented. 

It is obvious that letters as well as charac- 
ters may be placed upon the type-wheel in a 
different circumferential plane in the same 
manner as the figures just referred to, and in 
such cases the letters,. figures, or characters 
in the one circumferential plane would be op- 
posite blank spaces in the other circumferen- 
tial plane, and hence no two letters, figures, 
or characters would be in the same axial plane. 
This arrangement of letters, figures, or char- 
acters upon the type- wheel of a printing-tele- 
graph we believe to be new. 

No claim is made to an electro-magnet for 
operating the type-wheel of a printing-tele- 
graph instrument in the same circuit with 
the electro-magnet that actuates the printing 
mechanism; nor to the use of a device for 
bringing the transmitting and receiving ap- 
paratus into unison from the transmitting-sta- 
tion, as this is shown in the patent granted to 
Charles Kirchof, April 15, 185G, and also In 
the patent granted to S. S. Laws, Jatmarv 25, 
1870. J ' 

What is claimed as the invention of said F. 
L. Pope and T. A. Edison is— 

1. In a printing-telegraph instrument, the 
arrangement of two electro-magnets in the 
same electrical circuit, one being employed to 
rotate the type- wheel and the other to actuate 
the printing mechanism, when the action of 
the latter is controlled by that of the former 
by means of a branch or short circuit and a 
mechanical cut-off, or its equivalent, con- 
structed and operated substantially as de- 
scribed. 

2. An improved cut-off, termed an electric- 
al-unison cut-off, whereby, at a given point in 
the revolution of a ratchet or type wheel, a 



shunt or branch circuit may be brought into 
action, and the electrical current diverted 
from the electro-magnet controlling the move- 
ment of the said ratchet or type wheel, so that 
the said movement may be arrested at such 
given point, the same being constructed and 
operated substantially as specified. 

3. The electro-magnet E B' and soft-iron 
bar T, in combination with a polarized-steel 
bar, n s, so arranged that said steel bar will 
be in magnetic contact with the said soft-iron 
bar, substantially as herein specified. 

4. The bar M, feeder 'E or W, spurs q or q', 
bed-plates O or O', combined, arranged, and 
operating substantially as described, and for 
the purposes specified. 

5. The combination of the lever E, pawls F 
and F', stops S and J, and ratchet-wheel G, 
arranged and operating substantially as de- 
scribed. 

G. The combination of the pawl F, stop S, 
and ratchet-wheel G-, substantially as and for 
the purposes specified. 

7. The electro-magnet B B', soft-iron bar T, 
and polarized-steel bar n s, in combination 
with the spring i, insulated collar v, and pin 
or stud w, in the manner described, and for 
the purposes specified. 

8. The combination, with an electro-magnet 
in a telegraphic-printing apparatus, of a type- 
wheel whose periphery is provided with in- 
tegral numbers, so arranged upon said type- 
wheel that fractions of numbers may be print- 
ed upon the paper, thereby decreasing the 
number of characters upon the type-wheel and 
insuring great rapidity in recording, substan- 
tially as herein shown and described. 

9. In a printing-telegraph, a type- wheel pro- 
vided with letters, figures, or characters, which 
are arranged in two different lines around the 
periphery of said wheel, and in such manner 
that the said letters, figures, or characters in 
the one line shall be opposite blank spaces in 
the other line, substantially as herein speci- 
fied. 

10. A printing -telegraph instrument with 
the metallic circuit of the main line passing 
through both the type- wheel and the printing 
electro-magnets, in combination with a shunt 
circuit or switch that operates to energize the 
printing-magnet during a pause after the type- 
wheel has been set. 

•Signed this 16th day of June, A. D. 1873. 
MABSII ALL LEFFEBTS, 
President the Gold and Stock Telecjrcwh Co. 
NOKMAN C. MILLER, 

Secretary. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. Pinokney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



No. 111,112, 



T. A. EDISON, 
Electro-Motor Governor, 

Patented Jan. 24, 1871. 




Sittiteft State I! a tot #f&t 



THOMAS A. EDISON OF NEWAEK, NEW JEESEY, ASSIGNOE TO HIMSELF, ELISHA W. 
ANDEEWS, GEORGE B. FIELD, AND MAESHALL LEFFERTS, OF NEW YORK, N. Y. 

Letters Patent No. 111,112, dated January 24, 1871. 



IMPROVEMENT IN GOVERNORS FOR ELECTRO-MOTORS. 



The Schedule referred to in these Letters Patent and making part of the same. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of New- 
ark, in the couuty of Essex and State of New Jersey, 
have invented an improvement in Eiectro-Motor Gov- 
ernors, and the following is declared to he a correct 
description thereof. 

Electro-motors have heretofore heen made by re- 
volving armatures and stationary electro-magnets, 
and also by revolving electro-magnets and stationary 
armatures. 

My invention is designed for regulating the speed 
of a revolving electro-magnetic motor by breaking 
the circuit through one or more of the magnets in 
case the speed increases beyond the set limit, so as to 
lessen the power of rotation. 

This is effected by a spring or yieldiug rotary fly 
acting against the air, but keeping the circuit through 
it closed, except when the speed, of rotation is such that 
the resistance of the at mosphere causes the arm of the 
fly to move and. break the electrical circuit, so that 
one or m pre of the revolving magnets are not charged 
untikthe speed lessens sufficiently to allow the fan to 
close the circuit. 

In the drawing — 

Figure 1 is an elevation endwise of the revolving 
shaft that carries the electro-magnets ; and 

Figure 2 is a side view of the said shaft and parts 
connected therewith. 

The shaft a is mounted to revolve in suitable bear- 
ings, b 1), and carries a series of electro-magnets, c c 
d d. I have shown two pairs of such raaguets, but 
the number may be increased. 

The stationary permanent magnet e is shown, with- 
in which the magnets c c d d revolve, and said per- 
manent magnet e, by the attraction and repulsion of 
the respective poles of the electro- magnets, produces 
the rotation of the shaft a and maguets c c d d, as 
heretofore well known. 

I here remark that stationary armatures might 
take the place of the magnet e, and that the circuits 



of the magnets c c dd are opened and closed by the 
revolution of the shaft a. 

The insulated blocks ii, in the hub 1c, are connected 
by wires with the coils in the respective magnets ccd d, 
and the springs li li, that impinge upon the periphery 
of the hub li, are connected with a proper battery, 
either directly or by wires passing through other ma- 
chinery, or to a distant station. 

The blocks i are connected in pairs, two on oppo- 
site sides, having wires 2 2 leading to the electro- 
magnets d d, the helices of which magnets d d are 
conuected. 

The other pair of blocks i i are connected, the wire 
5 passing to the insulated adjusting-screw 3, and 
yielding-fan I, thence by the "wire G to the magnets c c, 
and through them to the other or opposite block i, 
upon the hub li. 

It will now be understood that the screw 3 can be 
adjusted so that when the revolving shaft a reaches 
its maximum speed, the circuit through the wires 5 
and G, screw 3, and fan Z, will be broken, and the 
power of the motor he lessened by the magnets c c 
ceasing to act, and so soon as the speed of the motor 
is lessened, the yielding fly again closes the circuit. 

By means of the alternate closing and breaking of 
the circuit according to the speed, a nearly uniform 
velocity of the motor is insured ; hence two or more 
instruments can be propelled at almost the same 
speed, even at distant stations, the regulation of the 
speed being by the screw 3. 

I claim as my invention: — 

A yielding fly rotating against the atmospheric re- 
sistance, and so arranged as to break or close an elec- 
trical circuit, in combination with a revolving electro- 
magnetic motor, substantially as and for the purposes 
set forth. 

Signed by me this 29th day of June, A. D. 1870. 
Witnesses: THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Ohas. H. Smith, 

Geo. T. Pincknbt. 



t * rm^i, 2 Sheets-Sheet I. 

T. A. EDISON, 

Printing Telegraph. 

Patented March 28, 1871. 





N. PETERS, PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHER, WASHINGTON. D. 0. 




M. PETERS, PH0TO-UTHOQRAPH6R, WASHINGTON, D O. 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK", NEW JEESEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. f 13,033, dated March 28, 1871. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented and made a new 
and useful Improvement in Telegraph Appa- 
ratus, and the following is declared to he a 
correct description of the same : 

The object of this invention is to operate a 
local circuit, and one of two electro-magnets 
therein, from a distant station, over one wire, 
by means of pulsations of one polarity operat- 
ing one electro-magnet in the said local circuit, 
and pulsations of the opposite polarity oper- 
ating the other electro-magnet in the said lo- 
cal circuit. Several stations on one line, each, 
having its own local circuit, can be operated in 
imisou, and I apply to the said magnets means 
for actuating a type- wheel and a printing-lever 
at the proper times by reversing the polarity 
of the current, and I arrange the type- wheel 
characters in such a manner that the printing 
of fractions in the quotations of gold, stocks, 
or market-prices is greatly facilitated. 

My present invention relates especially to 
a polarized bar or switch that, in a normal 
condition, is maintained in a central position 
between two circ nit-closers by the action of a 
spring, or its equivalent, and adjacent to this 
polarized bar or switch are the coils and cores 
of an electro-magnet, one on each side thereof, 
so that when pulsations of one polarity are 
sent through the helices the polarized bar or 
switch, is attracted to one side, and makes and 
breaks eacb pulsation the circuit of a local 
battery, and thereby actuates one electro-mag- 
net, and when the pulsations in the first-named 
electro-magnet are of a different polarity the po- 
larized bar or switch works on the other side 
to make and break the local circuit through a 
second magnet arranged in that local circuit. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is an inverted plan 
of my telegraph- instrument. Eig. 2 is a plan 
of the same. Fig. 3 is a section at the line x 
,r, aud Fig. 4 is an edge view of the ty pe-wheel 
separately. 

The line wires are connected with the bind- 
ing-serews a b, and from these the wires pass 
to the helices c d of the soft-iron cores forming 
an electro-magnet. Between these helices is 
the polarized bar or switch that is made so 
that it can swing between the poles of the elec- 
tro-magnet. At one end this bar or switch is 



connected by a screw, (or it might be by a 
spring-tongue,) and the other end, in its nor- 
mal condition, is midway between the poles 2 
2 of the electro-magnet c d, and also between 
the circuit-closers g Ji, and it is held in that 
position by the thin spring-tongue e', or an 
equivalent yielding centering device. The 
local -circuit wires come from the battery to 
the binding-screws 4 4. The wire 5 connects 
tlie switch e to one of these screws 4; the cir- 
cuit-closer g, wire G, electro-magnet m, and 
wire 7, connect with the other battery-screw 
4, so mat when pulsations of one polarity pass 
through the electro-magnet c d the tongue e 
closes the local circuit through g, and incites 
the electro-magnet m, but when pulsations of 
the opposite polarity are sent the magnet m 
is not incited, but the electro-magnet n is ren- 
dered operative by the local circuit being con- 
nected through the screw 4, wire 5, switch e, 
circuit-closer h, wire 8, magnet n, wires 9 and 
7, and binding-screw 4. 

Eacb positive pulsation of electricity in the 
main line gives a pidsation in one of the mag- 
nets in the local circuit, and these pulsations 
can be repeated to whatever extent desired, 
because the switch e returns to a central or 
normal position each pulsatiou, and when the 
polarity of the main current is changed so as 
to be negative, then the other magnet in the 
local circuit will be similarly incited each, pul- 
sation in the main circuit. 

By these means the local circuit at a distant 
station or the local circuits at more than one 
distant station are made to operate different 
magnets according to the polarity of the cur- 
rent sent, and hence one magnet or set of mag- 
nets in the distant local circuits or circuits 
will be incited to perform one operation, and af- 
terward the other magnet or magnets to per- 
form a different operation. I have shown these 
magnets m and n in connection with the print- 
ing-telegraph, mechanism. The armature I of 
the magnet in has a forked lever, 10, upon one 
arm of which is a wedge-shaped tooth, 11, and 
upon the other arm is the pawl 12. Upon the 
shaft o of the type-wheel p are two ratchet- 
wheels, r and s. The pawl 12 acting upon the 
teeth of s gives motion to the type- wheel ^, and 
its end runs under the adjustable stop t and 
blocks the parts so that the momentum will not 
cause the type-wheel to turn too far. The swing- 



113,033 



ing pawl 13 takes the teeth of s, preventing any 
back movement,, and as the armature Z recedes 
by the action of the spring 14 the tooth 11 takes 
into the teeth of the wheel r, and by the inclined 
wedge-acting end completes the movement of 
the type-wheel necessary for bringing the next 
character into place for printing, and holds said 
type- wheel firmly in place. The pawl 12 draws 
back to take another tooth of s as the tooth 11 
comes up against r. The type-wheel is inked 
by the roller u that is mounted upon arms and 
the shaft v. The printing-lever ic swings upon 
the shaft 18, and is actuated by the armature 

19 of the magnet u and said lever w carries the 
printing-pad w', The paper is fed along by 
clamps. The lever 20 and segment 21 move 
together upon the cross-bar 22, and the lever 

20 carries a clamping-pawl, 23, the end of which 
is contiguous to the segment 21. These parts 
are duplicated on the other side of the strip of 
paper, and motion is given to one clamp to seize 
and carry forward the paper as the other clamp 
draws back, this movement being effected by 
slots in the ends of the printing-lever inclined 
in opposite directions and acting upon pins that 
project from the respective levers 20. 

The type- wheel is made with letters and fig- 
ures and a hyphen or fractional sign, so that 
the name of the article can be printed and the 
price in figures and fractions, and in quotations 
of market- values it is usual to reckon in eighths, 
quarters, or halves. I, therefore, arrange the 
figures that will be employed as numerators, 
such as 1 5 7 3, in the first portion of the line 
of figures, and then place a hyphen and the 
other figures thereafter, so that the numerators 
can first be impressed, tlien the hyphen or frac- 
tional sign, then the denominators. Thereby a 
saving in time is effected, because the fraction 
entire can be printed in less than a rotation of 
the type-wheel, thus : 1-8 1-4 3-8 1-2 5-8 3-4 
7-8. 

I am aware that in H. and E. Ilighton's Eng- 
lish patent No. 12,039, a horseshoe-magnet is 
pivoted to swing between two electro magnets 
to make and break local circuits ; but this de- 
vice is not adapted to a rapid movement, and 
acts in a different manner to my polarized bar 
or switch. In my apparatus the spring acts 
instantly to bring the switch to a central posi- 



tion and break the local circuit simultaneously 
with the break in the main circuit. I am also 
aware that a bar has been polarized by the 
main currents to act as a switch, and direct 
the local current to one of two magnets ; but 
said bar was moved only by a change in the 
polarity of the current. 
I claim as my invention — 

1. A polarized bar or switch and connections 
acting as a relay to electro-magnets placed in 
a local circuit, in combination with an electro- 
magnet in the main line acting upon such pol- 
arized bar or switch to complete the local cir- 
cuit through one of the two electro-magnets, 
according to the polarity of the current sent, 
substantially as set forth. 

2. A local circuit, two electro -magnets, a 
type-wheel, and impression mechanism, in com- 
bination with the polarized bar or switch and 
electro-magnet, substantially as and for the 
purposes set forth. 

3. A series of polarized relays worked in one 
main circuit and controlling local circuits that 
operate either type-wheel magnets or printing- 
magnets, substantially as set forth. 

4. A polarized relay having its tongue or 
switch centered between the poles of an elec- 
tro-magnet and betAveen the circuit - closers 
when in a normal condition, substantially as 
set forth. 

5. A type-wheel having letters, figures, and 
fractional signs arranged in groups for numer- 
ators and for denominators on opposite sides 
of a fractional sign, substantially as set forth, 
to print letters, figures, and fractions, as speci- 
fied. 

G. A type-wheel with figures arranged on 
each side of a hyphen or fractional sign, as 
and for the purposes set forth. 

7. The type- wheel motor composed of a vi- 
brating arm and pawls 12 and 13 combined 
with a wedge-acting tooth, in the manner and 
for the purposes set forth. 

Signed by me this 17th day of November, A. 
D. 1870. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Ohas. II. Smith, 
Oeo. T. Pincicney. 



No. 113,034. 



T. A, EDISON. 
Printing Telegraph. 



2 Sheets— Sheet 1. 
Patented March 28, 1871. 




N. PETERS, PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHER, WASHINGTON, D. C. 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JEESEY, ASSIGNOR TO THE GOLD 
AND STOCK TELEGRAPH COMPANY, OF NEW YORK CITY. 

IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 113,034, dated March 28, 1871. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, nave invented an Improvement 
in Printing-Telegraphs, and the following is 
declared to be a correct description thereof. 

This invention is made for printing from 
one of two type-wheels at pleasure, by chang- 
ing the printing-pad from the line of one wheel 
to that of the other. 

By this means a printing-telegraph or a 
number of instruments in one circuit can be 
worked with one wire, and the impressions be 
taken from either the letter-wheel or the fig- 
ure-wheel, and the impression given by revers- 
ing the circuit. 

If, therefore, the telegraph is required for 
priuting letters, the same can be done without 
the loss of time incident to passing over fig- 
ures, as in the type-wheels that contain both 
letters and figures ; and when figures or frac- 
tions are to be printed, that can be done re- 
gardless of tbe contiguous wheel containing 
letters. 

The pressure-pad is shifted in the impres- 
sion-lever by a movement derived from the 
motion of the printing-lever at the time the 
blank spaces of the type-wheels are contigu- 
ous to the pad. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a plan of the 
machine. Fig. 2 is a sectional elevation. Fig. 

3 iis a detached plan of the printing-pad. Fig. 

4 is a detached elevation of the type-wheels 
and pad shifting device. Fig. 5 is an in- 
verted plan of the machine. 

The bed a is provided with frames b, that 
carry the mechanism, and within the bed a 
are the electro magnets c and d. 

The magnet c acts upon the amature e to 
give motion to the lever e', pawls i, ratchet- 
wheels/, shaft I; and type- wheels g, g', and h; 
and the magnet d acts upon the armature I of 
the printing-lever V. 

The polarized switch m directs the current 
through either the magnet c or the maguet d, 
according to the polarity of that current, and 
these magnets and connections, being substan- 
tially similar to devices heretofore secured to 
me, (see Patent No. 4,166, reissue,) need not 
be herein described. 

The printing-lever V, paper-feeding clamps 



n, and rollers n' are similar to the lever and 
its connections shown in my Patent No. 4,166, 
except in the devices next described. 

The impression-pad o is mounted upon a 
slide, 2, that passes across the lever V and 
beneath the type-wheels, and a small shield, 
3, is attached to this slide, and has an open- 
ing above the pad o, so as to interpose between 
the paper and the type- wheel, except directly 
over the pad o. 

Near one end of the slide 2 is an arm upon 
the printing-lever, carrying the fulcrum of the 
shifting-dog s, that is made of a T shape, the 
lower end being slotted and taking a pin that 
projects from the slide 2 ; and upon the type- 
wheel shaft 7c are two figures, 5 and 6, that 
are so placed relatively to the blank spaces of 
the type-wheel that the figure 5 comes over 
one end of the dog s as one blank space of the 
type-wheel comes over the pad ; hence, if the 
impression-lever is moved at this time, the 
pad will be shifted by the dog s being pressed 
up against the finger 5, and if the type-wheel 
is moved another notch the finger 5 passes 
beyond the dog s, and the figure 6 comes over 
the other arm of said dog, and in this position 
the pad will be shifted the other way by the 
movement of the printing-lever. 

It is now to be understood that when the 
printing-pad is beneath the number-wheel g 
the impression will be made from the same, 
and there will be no impression from the other 
or figure-wheel, and vice versa; hence, either 
wheel can be made use of for an indefinite 
period, the same as any ordinary printing- 
telegraph; and when it is desired to bring 
the other type-wheel into action it is only 
necessary to turn the type- wheel around until 
the finger 5 or 6 is brought over the elevated 
arm of the dog s, and then reverse the electri- 
cal current to move the impression-lever, which 
gives a motion to change the impression-pad 
laterally and bring it under the other type- 
wheel g' or g, and then the type-wheels can 
be moved around to bring the proper letter 
of the letter-wheel or figure of the figure-wheel 
into position for impression, so that, although 
two types are in position, an impression only 
is taken from the one beneath which is the 
pad o. 

In order to prevent any risk of the pad o 



113, 034 



shifting by the vibration of the parts, I pro- 
vide an inclined holder, t, on the end of the 
slide 2, and a disk, u, upon the shaft 1c. 

This disk is notched at one side to allow 
the pad to be shifted either way, and when 
the type-wheel is revolved the disk u passes 
either one side or the other of the holder t, 
and, if the pad o and its slide has not been 
fully moved either one way or the other, this 
disk completes that movement by acting 
against the incline of the holder t. 

The transmitting instrument may be a dial 
and revolving arm with two blank spaces, one 
denoting the point at which to stop and move 
the printing-lever to change from letters to 
figures, and the other to change from figures 
to letters. 

A spring, v 7 with a pin, 8, maybe employed 
to take against a pin, 9, on the disk u, to 
afford an indication, when depressed, of the 
place at which to stop in changing the instru- 
ment. Said pin also answers for bringing the 
instrument into unison where there are several 
in the same line. This unison stop-lever will 
be operated by the attendant at each station 
when it becomes necessary to set his instru- 
ment, by preventing the movement of the 
type-wheel until the wheel at the transmit- 
ting-statiou is brought to the same zero-point. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. A shield, with an opening adjacent to 
the pressure-pad and moving with the same, 



in combination with two contiguous type or 
character wheels and mechanism for actuating 
the same in a printing-telegraph instrument, 
substantially as set forth. 

2. A movable pressure-pad, mounted upon 
the printing-lever, and two contiguous type- 
wheels on one shaft, in combination with two 
electro-magnets and armature, and a circuit- 
changer, substantially as set forth, whereby 
the type-wheels are set by one electro-magnet, 
and the pressure-pad is either changed in posi- 
tion or the printing effected by reversing the 
polarity of the electrical current, substantially 
as set forth. 

3. The movable pad, mounted upon a trans- 
verse slide in the impression-lever, in combi- 
nation with the shifting-dog s, and fingers 5 
and 6 upon the type-wheel shaft, substantially 
as set forth. 

4. The notched disk u and inclined holder 
t, in combination with the shifting-pad o, sub- 
stantially as and for the purposes set forth. 

5. The unison-stop lever v, in combination 
with the shifting-pad and two contiguous type- 
wheels, substantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 10th day of January, A. 
D. 1871. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Ohas. H. Smith, 
Geo. T. Pinckney. 



THOMAS A. EDISON. 
Improvement in Telegraphic Transmitting Instruments. 

No. 114,656. Patented May 9,1871. 




AM. PHOTO-LITHOeRAPHIC CO. NX (oSBQRNtS PROCESS.) 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON", OF NEWAEK, PW JERSEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN TELEGRAPHIC TRANSMITTING-INSTRUMENTS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 114,656, dated May 9, 1871. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented and made an Im- 
proved Telegraphic TransmittingJnstruinent; 
and the following is declared to be a correct 
description of the said invention. 

In telegraphing, a perforated strip of paper 
has been employed to make and break the 
electrical circuit in transmitting the message. 
In transinitting-instruments adapted to said 
paper there is a small disk or wire brush that 
closes the metallic circuit through the perfora- 
tions, and the circuit is broken by the paper 
when the imperforated portion intervenes be- 
tween the roller or plate and the disk or wire 
brush. 

The transmission of pulsations of electricity 
being very rapid in this system of telegraph- 
ing, there is a difficulty that sometimes arises 
from the wire not clearing itself, and the pul- 
sations are attenuated and do not distinctly 
reach the distant station. 

My invention consists in arranging the con- 
nections and portions of the instrument in 
such a manner that a reverse current shall be 
thrown upon the wire of the circuit by a mo- 
tion derived from the thickness of the paper 
when the same is drawn in between the plate 
or roller and the brush or disk. 

In the drawing, the device in question is 
represented by a side view. 

Let a represent a plate, roller, or metallic 



surface, over which the strip of perforated pa- 
per s is drawn, and b represent a wire brush, 
stilus, or roller, these parts beingof any known 
character, for sending pulsations of electricity 
to a distant receiving-instrument. The bat- 
tery is represented at c, and the ground- wire 
at d and the line-wire at/. The current will 
therefore be sent, when the circuit is closed, 
through the perforation of the paper; and 
when the imperforated portion of thje paper is 
beneath the brush or stilus b the end is lifted 
sufficiently to touch, or nearly so, the point *, 
that is adjustable and mounted in any con- 
venient manner. By the said movement the 
battery 7c is brought into action by closing the 
circuit between i and b, and a reverse current 
is thrown upon the telegraph-line, thereby pre- 
venting the attenuation of the previous pulsa- 
tion, clearing the wire, and causing the mark 
at the receiving-station to be clear and dis- 
tinct. 

I claim as my invention — 

A circuit-closer operated by the movement 
of the perforated paper in a telegraph trans- 
mitting-instrument to throw a reverse circuit 
on the line, substantially as set forth. 

Sigued by me this 22d day of June, A. D. 
1870. ' 

THOMAS A. ED1SOK 

Witnesses : 

Chas. H. Smith, 
Geo. T. Pinckney. 



THOMAS A. EDISON. 
I mprovement in Relay Magnets for Telegraph- Instruments. 

No. 114,657. Patented May 9, 1871. 




M. PHOTO LITHtHSRAPHK CO. HX { GSBO*N£S f/<OC£SSj 



United States Patent Office, 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWAEK, NEW JEESEY, ASSIGNOE TO HIMSELF 
AND MAESHALL LEFFEETS, OF NEW YOEK CITY. 

IMPROVEMENT IN RELAY-MAGNETS FOR TELEGRAPH-INSTRUMENTS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 114, 657, dated May 9, 1871. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in tke county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Electro-Magnets; and the following is de- 
clared to be a correct description thereof. 

The object of this invention is to produce an 
electro-magnet that can be operated with great 
rapidity and accuracy, and capable of being- 
used as a relay or repeater for a chemical tele- 
graph operated by punched paper and a stilus 
or brush circuit-closer, or for a time-repeater 
in astronomical or other observatories, or for 
a relay or repeater to a Morse telegraph-instru- 
ment, or wherever great rapidity or accuracy 
of movement is required. 

I make use of a soft-iron core to a short sin- 
gle-spool electro-magnet, and this is mounted 
upou one end of a permanent magnet, and the 
other end of said permanent magnet is near 
the core of the electro-magnet, and has a small 
hinged tongue, so that the tongue is attracted 
to the core by the polarity due to the induced 
magnetism of that core and tongue, and the 
coils of the helix are so wound as to make the 
core, by a pulsation, an electro-magnet of an 
opposite polarity to what it was by the in- 
duced magnetism. 

The attraction from the induced magnetism 
is almost counterbalanced by a spring; hence 
the slightest current of electricity that will 
neutralize the induced magnetism will produce 
a motion of the tongue and close or break a 
secondary local relay, or other electrical cir- 
cuit; and the core being very short and the con- 
nections direct, the magnet frees itself rapidly 
and can be operated by the most minute pul- 
sation. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a vertical sec- 
tion of the instrument at the line x x of Fig. 
2, which is a plan of said instrument. 

The permanent magnet a is sustained upon 
the bed b, and is magnetized so that one end 
of it is a north polarity and the other south. 
They are marked N. S. 

Upon the pole N of the permanent magnet a 
is a soft-iron core, c, surrounded by a helix, d, 
and this helix is wound in such a manner and 
so connected to the insulated binding-screws 
fg that the pulsation of electricity will make 



the soft-iron core cof a different polarity from 
what it is by the induced current, so that if the 
core c is upon the north pole of o, then the in- 
duced current will make the core c a magnet 
of northern polarity, and the pulsation of elec- 
tricity in the helix will neutralize that induced 
magnetism, making or tending to make the 
soft-iron core an electro -magnet of southern 
polarity. 

At the end s of the magnet a a small iron 
tongue, e, is hinged, so as to vibrate with the 
moving end over the core c, and to this tongue 
a spring is applied and made adjustable in any 
suitable manner. 

I have shown the arm o, spring s', and ad- 
justing-rod r, and the power of the spring is 
adj usted so as uot to be sufficient to raise the 
tongue e, the attraction between e and c from 
induced magnetism being just sufficient to 
keep the parts e and c in contact. 

Above the tongue e is an adjustable circuit- 
closer, I, that is insulated and connected to the 
binding-screw m; and the tongue e is connect- 
ed, through the magnet a and base &, with the 
other binding-screw m. 

A primary circuit is connected with the bind- 
ers/and g, and, where a local or secondary 
circuit or relay is operated by this device, the 
wires thereof are connected to m and n, and 
the said local or secondary circuit is closed by 
the rising of the tongue e, when the pulsation 
through f,g, and d sufficiently neutralizes the 
induced magnetism in c and e to allow the 
spring to separate them. 

In consequence of using a short single helix, 
with short connections and a short tongue, 
having but a small movement, there is noth- 
ing to interfere with the movement being very 
rapid; and, the circuit-closer of the local or sec- 
ondary circuit being immediately over the elec- 
tro-magnet, there is no loss of time or motion 
in making the connections of the secondary 
circuit. 

The electro -magnet operates to repel the 
tongue e at the time the tongue is in contact; 
hence, there being no intervening space, the 
magnetic action is more instantaneous. than it 
would be if a space intervened, as with an or- 
dinary armature. 

In consequence of the features aforesaid, all 



114 



,65Y 



acting to promote rapidity of action, this elec- 
tro-magnet is capable of repeating with a sec- 
ondary or relay circuit the pulsations given by 
punched paper drawn through a transmitting- 
machine at ordinary rate, and to properly pro- 
portion the dots, dashes, and spaces; and this 
speed and accuracy of movement are available 
for other purposes in electrical appliances. 

I do not claim a magnet with a single helix 
and core; neither do I claim a polarized mag- 
net in which a permanent magnet and tongue 
are employed. I have discovered that, in or- 
der to obtain a rapid electro - magnet that is 
adapted to a relay or repeater in automatic 
telegraphs, the vibrating tongue must, in a 
normal position, remain in contact with the 
core by induced magnetism and be repelled 
by the electro-magnetism, or else the space 
intervening between the core and tongue will 
interfere with the rapidity of action; and the 
electro-magnet must not be more than an inch 
in length to free itself of the electrical pulsa- 
tion with sufficient rapidity; and, the tongue 
swinging upon an axis at right angles to the 
core of the electro-magnet, the said tongue will 
vibrate in the line of the magnetic action, and 



more rapidly than the polarized magnets, in 
which the tongue swings on an axis parallel 
to the core of the electro-magnet. 
I claim as my invention— 

1. A permanent magnet, an electro-magnet, 
and a vibrating tongue, arranged substantially 
as set forth, so that the tongue will be repelled 
from its contact with the core of the electro- 
magnet by the electric pulsation , substantially 
as specified. 

2. An electro-magnet of less than an inch in 
length, with a permanent magnet and swing- 
ing tongue to make and break the circuit in 
an automatic telegraph, substantially as and 
for the purposes set forth. 

3. The electro-magnet, permanent magnet, 
and a tongue that swings toward and from the 
end of the core of the electro-magnet upon an 
axis at right angles to such core, as and for 
the purposes set forth. 

Dated September 6, 1870. 

T. A. EDISOK 

Witnesses: 

Ohas. H. Smith, 
Geo. T. Pinckney. 



T, A. EDISON, 
Electro Magnets for Telegraph Instruments. 
No, 114,658, Patented May 9, 1871. 




Wtittlt States §atet iffkt 

THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF 
AND MARSHALL LEFFERTS, OF NEW YORK CITY. 

Letters Patent No. 114,658, dated May 9, 1871. 

IMPROVEMENT IN ELECTRO-MAGNETS FOR TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 

The Schedule referred to in these Letters Patent and making part of the same. 



To all ivhom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of Few- 
ark, in the county of Essex and State of Few Jersey, 
have invented and made a new and useful Improve- 
ment in Electro-Magnets for Telegraphs, &c; and the 
following is hereby declared to be a correct description 
thereof. 

This improvement relates to a means for rendering 
an electro-magnet inoperative when a current of one 
polarity is used, and operative when a current of the 
opposite polarity is employed so that two different 
operations may be performed in a telegraph or other 
machine with only one wire. 

The invention consists in a blocking-finger or stop, 
that prevents the movement of tbe armature, said 
stop being operated according to the polarity of the 
electro-magnet. 

In the drawing — 

Figure 1 is a plan of a double magnet, and 

Figure 2 is a vertical section. 

The magnets a a' and i V are of any ordinary or 
desired construction, and are connected with tbe line- 
wires of a telegraph of tbe electrical circuit in any 
usual manner, c c representing the binding-screws, and 
the connections are substantially as sbown, so that the 
pulsations of electricity pass through the magnet or 
magnets. 

Between tbe poles of the magnet a finger, d, is fitted 
to swing on the fulcrum e, and the end is continuous 
to the armature /, and there is a block or equivalent 
device, as at i, so that when the fiuger d is swung 
toward the pole a the armature/ will be free to vibrate ; 
but when said finger d is swung toward tbe pole «' the 
armature will be locked, so that it cannot vibrate. 

The locking action may be of the character shown, 
so that the armature may be kept away from the 



magnets, or in the form of a hook, to keep the arma- 
ture toward the magnet. 

The electro-magnets are provided with the lateral 
arms h h', and these become polarized, according to 
the positive or negative polarity of tbe current; hence 
the fiuger d is attracted or repelled, and swung to one 
side to block the armature, or to the other side to 
release the same. 

This construction may be availed of to render op- 
erative or inoperative one electro - magnet in any 
machinery. I, however, have represented a double 
magnet constructed and connected so that one arma- 
ture,/', can be locked and rendered inoperative by the 
finger d', while the armature / is operative, in con- 
sequence of the finger d being swung out of action, 
and vice versa, the operations being reversed by chang- 
ing the polarity of tbe currents, the pulsations always 
going through the magnets ; and in these particulars 
this present invention is to be distinguished from those 
heretofore made by me, iu which the polarity of the 
current operates devices that divert the current from 
one maguetic coil into another. 
I claim as my invention — 

1. A finger or stop operated by electro-magnetism, 
and arranged so as to block or release the armature 
according to the polarity of the electrical current pass- 
ing through the magnet, substantially as specified. 

2. Tbe double electro-magnet, armatures, and stops, 
arranged substantially as specified, so that a current 
of one polarity shall allow one armature to vibrate and 
block the other, and the reverse, as set forth. 

Signed by me this 22d day of June, A. D. 1870; 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Ohas. H. Smith, 
Geo. T. Pincknby, 



(50.) 3 Sheets-Sheet 1. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 



Machinery for Perforating Paper for Telegraphic Purposes. 

■No. 121,601. Patented Dec. 5, 187,1. 




AM. PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHIC CO N. Y (OSBORNC'S PHOCSSS.J 




Alii. PHOTQ-UTHQCftAPXIC CO. A > Y. ( GSBORNES PROCESS. /. 



(50.) 



3 Sheets-Sheet 3.. 



THOMAS A. EDISON. 
Machinery for Perforating Paper for Telegraphic Purposes 

No. 121,601. . Patented Dec. 5, 1871. 



OOOO OOO OOG o oo 

o o o 



4m 




4JL 




cm, 



AM. PMOZa-LITMOSaAPHIC CO. N.Z I OSBOKHtS PftOCCSS. I 



121,601 

United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JEESET, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF AND 
GEORGE HARRINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

IMPROVEMENT IN MACHINERY FOR PERFORATING PAPER FOR TELEGRAPHIC PURPOSES. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 121,601, dated December 5, 1871. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented and made an Im- 
provement in Perforating- Machinery for Tele- 
graphic Purposes; and the following is declared 
to be a correct description thereof. 

This machinery is for perforating strips of pa- 
per employed iu transmitting telegraphic mes- 
sages, the perforations in the paper allowing the 
circuit to be closed, as heretofore well known. 
A range of Anger-keys is provided, and also a 
range of slide-plates operating upon punches. A 
presser-lever is connected by a cam with each 
finger-key, and contiguous thereto are projections 
upon such of the slide-plates as are to be actu- 
ated by the said Anger-key; thereby on striking 
the Anger-key the proper punches are actuated 
to punch the perforations necessary for the letter 
complete; and on releasing the Anger-key the pa- 
per is drawn along the proper distance by a pe- 
culiar feeding mechanism, and the perforations 
are made in two lines, so that where three or 
more perforations are placed triangularly a long 
pulsation may result from the metallic connection 
being made through those perforations succes- 
sively, the contact being made through the sec- 
ond perforation before ceasing through the first, 
and so on. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a plan of a portion 
of the instrument with the paper-feed in section. 
Fig. 2 is a vertical section at the finger-keys. 
Fig. 3 is an elevation of the paper-feed and dies. 
Fig. 4 is a separate view of the cam that actu- 
ates the presser-lever. Fig. 5 is a cross-section 
of the punches and dies, and Fig. 6 is a modifi- 
cation of the device that connects the finger-key 
and presser. 

The finger-keys a a are mounted upon a ful- 
crum-shaft, b, and the second range of keys a' 
swing on the shaft b 1 , this arrangement facilitat- 
ing the construction and allowing the keys to be 
'arranged compactly, and at the same time thev 
are convenient for fingering. The vertical bars 
I e slide in supports d, and are jointed at their 
lower ends to the keys a a', or otherwise connect- 
ed. These supports cl form part of a frame, with 
end pieces d 1 that inclose the key -levers and con- 
nected parts, and also sustain the shaft v' that is 
employed for actuating the paper-feed, the paper 
and mechanism that act upon the same being 



outside the end piece &' of said frame. The 
presser-levers e e are connected by screws orpins 
2 on the frame or bar e' so as to swing horizon- 
tally, and are each actuated by a cam, /, upon the 
bar c, as in Fig. 6; or by a swinging cam upon a 
sleeve surrounding the stationary bar g, as shown 
in Figs. 1, 2, and 4; said swinging cams being 
provided with jaws 4, in which the pins 5 of the 
bars c slide as the latter are depressed by the 
finger-key. These cams / are shaped so as to" give 
a definite movement to the levers e and slide- 
plates Jc sufficient to operate the punches, and 
then the levers e are relieved to allow the springs 
of the punches to throw them back out of the 
paper, the presser e and punch or punches being 
operated as the key is depressed, and as the key 
is relieved the movement of the cam / in the other 
direction insures the drawing back of' the presser- 
lever e. Each finger-key is raised by a spring, 
h, and there are to be as many finger-keys and 
parts operated by each as there are letters or sep- 
arate characters employed in telegraphing. Be- 
neath these pressers e are the slide-plates li fc, cor- 
responding in number to the punches employed. 
The punches i i are round steel rods sliding in 
the heads I m, and acting against the dies n to 
punch the paper that is introduced between m 
and and the rear ends of these punches should 
be made smaller, as shown at i', in order that 
there may be room for the ends of the slide- 
plates Tc to pass between the adjacent punches 
and only act upon its own punch. The ranges 
of springs o enter notches in the punches i and 
throw the punches back, and the punches are po- 
sitioned in two lines, as seen in Fig. 5, the dis- 
tance between the punches being less than the 
diameter of the punch, and the punches of the up- 
per rauge are above the spaces between the lower 
punches; thereby, if three contiguous punches 
are simultaneously actuated, the perforations will 
be equivalent to a dash, and cause a long pulsa- 
tion from the transmitting instrument and pro- 
duce a dash at the receiving instrument. Upon 
the slide-plates frare projections 8, contiguous to 
the pressers e, and these projections 8 are to be 
upon only such of the slide-plates as are required 
x to be moved by the presser to which thev are 
contiguous, so that only those slides will be 
moved upon depressing a finger-key that oper- 
ates the punch or punches that make the perfo- 
rations for the corresponding character; hence 



121,601 



2 



the necessary perforations can be made in the 
strip of paper for composing- the message by dots 
and dashes, the dashes at the receiving station 
being of any desired length, according to the 
number of consecutive perforations in the two 
lines of perforations made in the paper. 

By this arrangement any desired character of 
alphabet or code of signs can be adopted within 
the scope of the instrument; and I remark that 
the number of punches may be increased at pleas- 
ure, and also the number of finger-keys. 

By boring the holes in I in n for the punches 
all at the same time they will all be properly in 
line with each other, and the punches being 
round parallel wires notched for the ends of the 
springs, are easily made or replaced. The cut- 
ting end of each punch is to be a conical or con- 
cave hole, and the sharpening is to be effected 
by deepening this hole by a proper tool. These 
punches will cut the paper with less power and 
more reliably than the Hat-ended punches here- 
tofore used. 

The parts m n are to be hinged together at. r 
to allow the die-plate n to be swung open in re- 
moving any obstruction. The clip r> holds the 
die in place when shut. The paper-carrier t is 
moved back toward the punches i each time a 
finger-key is depressed, and during the time that 
the paper is being punched and the feed takes 
place as the key rises. The backward movement 
is to be the distance required for the character 
that is simultaneously punched. The mechanism 
for giving this motion may be of any suitable 
kind. The device which I employ for this pur- 
pose is next described. 

A rack-bar, ft, swinging upon the screw 15, is 
provided, and in the lower edge are inclined or 
cam-shaped teeth, and upon the carrier t is a 
pawl, u, with an inclined finger, 9; hence as the 
carrier i is moved back the pawl u is lifted from 
the paper by finger 9 turning upon the teeth of 
the rack-bar v, and the carrier and pawl can be 
moved back any requi red distance and the paper 
remain unacted upon, and is held by the spring- 
pawl 10; but as soon as the carrier \ commences 
to move in the other direction the inclined finger 
9 slips into the first opening between the inclined 
teeth of the rack-bar, allowing the end of the 
pawl u to approach the paper and clamp it 
against a thin carrier-plate on t that is in front of 
the fence s, and as the carrier t moves aloug the 
paper is drawn through between m and n until 
the carrier t reaches its extreme movement and 
the fiuger 9 clears the last tooth on the rack-bar 
v. During this movement the pa wl 10 has been 
entirely raised from the paper by the end of the 
rack-bar v acting thereon while the finger 9 has 
traveled between said rack-bar and the paper. 
It will be thus seen that the paper is very firmly 
held while being moved, and that there is noth- 
ing that is moving in contact therewith and tend- 
ing to injure the paper as the carrier draws back, 
and that the feeding motion can lie to any desired 
extent. The motion given to the sliding carrier 
is shown as derived from the rock-shaft v 1 and 
arm Upon the rock-shaft v' are forked cams 



s', contiguous to the slide-bars c. The pins J 5 
on the slide-bars e enter the fork as the keys are 
depressed and give the required motion to the 
rock-shaft to move the sliding carrier back. The 
spring 10 acts to move the paper forward as the 
key rises. By positioning the pin 15 higher up. 
or lower down it will be brought into action later 
or sooner in the movement of the key, and hence 
move the carrier t to a greater or less distance, 
and the amount that is required for the charac- 
ter or letter perforated by the depression of that 
key. 

It will be apparent that when a key is struck 
the appropriate punches will be operated and in- 
stantly retracted, and that simultaneously the car- 
rier and paper-feeding mechanism will be thrown 
back without acting on the paper. The inertia 
of the parts will carry the slide t slightly fur- 
ther back, and the spring u brings it forward be- 
fore the key is relieved sufficiently for the finger 
9 to enter between the teeth of the rack-bar and 
place the parts ready to move the paper as the 
key is liberated. The movement given to the 
paper-feed is fourfold : First, it is relieved ; sec- 
ond, it draws back clear of the paper; third, it 
comes upon the paper and clamps it; and fourth, 
it moves with the paper. The paper is drawn 
along suddenly as the feed takes place ; hence the 
paper -reel is suddenly moved and the paper 
thrown off the reel in a bow or loop. I construct 
iny roller so as to prevent this occurrence. The 
reel b 2 , Fig. 7, is made in the usual manner and 
mounted upon a vertical axis, and around the 
base of the reel I provide vertical projecting pins 
c 3 , close to but not touching the said base of the 
reel, so that upon the sudden rotation of the reel 
the paper coil will be thrown out but cannot pass 
beyond these pins; thereby the paper will be held 
in place, and will draw off easily to the perforat- 
ing-machiiie, as required. 

The transmitting-machine is to be provided 
with a wire or spring brush to close the circuit 
through the perforations; and if the end of this 
brush were diagonal the long pulsation would be 
produced from the two lines of perforations even 
if the perforations were nearly in line transversely 
of the strip of paper. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. Two ranges of punches for perforating tele- 
graphic paper with holes representing dashes, or 
dashes and dots, substantially as set forth. 

2. A strip of telegraphic paper perforated in 
two lines, with the perforations arranged so that 
the long pulsation in transmitting is obtained from 
perforations in both lines, substantially as set 
forth. 

3. A series of perforating-punches arranged in 
two or more lines and supported in heads that 
are perforated in the line of the opening in the 
die, substantially as set forth. 

4. The die-plate w, hinged so as to be opened, 
in combination with the punches, for the pur- 
poses set forth. 

5. The springs o combined with the punches-i, 
and arranged in the manner specified to retract 
the punches from the die-plate n, as set forth. 



121,601 



6. The combination of the sliding punches and 
sliding- plates Je with the actuating-levers e, sub- 
stantially as set forth. 

7. The punches % reduced at the end next the 
slide-plates fc, for the purposes set forth. 

8. The finger-keys a a', in combination with the 
bars c, .slide-plates 7c, and levers e, substantially 
as and for the purposes set forth. 

9. Mechanism actuated by one movement of a 
key, substantially as specified, for punching in 
two rows telegraphic characters consisting of 
dots and dashes. 

10. The finger-keys, cam-rods, levers, and cams 
arranged between the frames (V, in combination 
with the punching and feeding mechanism oper- 
ating upon the strip of paper running parallel or 
so with the finger -keys, as set forth. 

11. The paper-feeding mechanism having a re- 
ciprocating movement of varying length, accord- 
ing to the character perforated, and acting to 
grasp the paper and carry the same forward, but 
not to catch or hold such paper on the return 
movement, substantially as set forth. 

12. The paper-feeding clamp t moving upon 
the slide s, in combination with the pawl u and 
mechanism for reciprocating such clamp, sub- 
stantially as set forth. 

18. The rack-bar v with inclined teeth, in com- 
bination with the pawl u and finger 9, substan- 
tially as and for the purposes set forth. 

11. The holding-pawl 10 operated by the rack- 
bar v, substantially as set forth. 

15. The clamp t, pawl u, and fence s, in combi- 
nation with the rack-bar v and pawl 10, substan- 
tially as set forth. 



1G. A reciprocating paper-feed in which the 
clamping device is lifted off the strip of paper on 
the backward movement and pressed upon the 
same on the forward movement, substantially as 
set forth. 

17. The combination of a reciprocating paper- 
feed with finger-keys that operate the punches, 
and with mechanism connecting the said finger- 
keys to the paper-feed in such a manner that the 
movement given to the paper will be the amount 
required for the letter or character perforated, 
substantially as set forth. 

18. The slide-rods e, pins 15, and cam-fork s', 
in combination with the rock-shaft v' and recip- 
rocating paper-feed, substantially as set forth, 
for varying the feed according to the position of 
the pins 15 or their equivalents. 

19. In an instrument for punching paper for 
telegraphic purposes, a series of cams each adapt- 
ed to operating the mechanism that moves the 
punches and then releasing such punches dur- 
ing the downward movement of the key, sub- 
stantially as set forth, so that said punches may 
be out of the paper before the feed takes place. 

20. The paper-reel in combination with the sur- 
rounding stationary pins contiguous to the base 
of the reel, for the purposes set forth. 

Signed by me this 16th day of August, A. D. 
1871. 

T. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Ohas. H. Smith, 

Harold Seebell. (109) 



4 Sheets-Sheet 1. 

THOMAS A. EDISON, 
improvement in Telegraph Apparatus. 




•«* PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHIC CO. .'J. Y. I OSBOHKtS motets. 




AM, PHQTO- LITHOGRAPHIC CO, HY ( OSSORNe'S'^HQCCSS- / 



THOMAS A. EDISON. 4 Sheets 
mprovement in Telegraph Apparatus. 

No. 123,005, Patented Jan. 23, 1872. 




JMfHOTO-LITHOCmPHIC CO N. Y. f OSBORH CS P&OCCSS. i 




AM. PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHIC CO. N.Y. I OSBOHNE's PROCESS. 



133,005 

United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JEESEY, ASSIGNOR TO "THE GOLD 
AND STOCK TELEGRAPH COMPANY," OF NEW YORK CITY. 

IMPROVEMENT IN TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 1-23,005, dated January 23, 1872. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented and made an Iin- 
provenientin Printing-Telegraphs ; and the fol- 
lowing is declared to be a correct description 
thereof. 

This instrument I term the "Universal Print- 
ing-Telegraph f and it is intended as a trans- 
mitting and as a receiving instrument. When 
used as a transmitting instrument a small mag- 
netic motor, driven by a local battery, makes 
and breaks the main circuit, and the pulsations 
operate through a magnet in thetransmitting- 
machine, and also in the receiving-machine or 
machines, to rotate the type-wheel by a step- 
by-step movement, and the type- wheels, hence, 
move in harmony. When a finger-key at the 
transmitting - station is depressed the type- 
wheel of that machine is stopped, when an arm 
upon its shaft comes in contact with the said 
key. This causes the simultaneous stoppage 
of pulsations over the main line, arresting all 
the type-wheels at the same point. The im- 
pression is now made simply in consequence of 
the pause that ensues, for the arm that oper- 
ates the type- wheel pawls closes the circuit of 
the transmitting instrument through its own 
printing-magnet and the other printing-mag- 
nets of the line, and the impression is taken. 
The movement of the impression-lever breaks 
its own circuit, so that the pad is drawn in- 
stantly back by the spring of the impression- 
lever, and the circuit to the printing-magnet 
remains broken until the type-wheel is set in 
motion again, which throws a switch that again 
closes the circuit to the printing-magnet. The 
rapidity of movement, however, of the type- 
wheel lever is such that the printing-magnet 
does not have time to become sufficiently 
charged to move the printing-lever before the 
circuit to said magnet is again broken; hence 
the printing-magnet is not brought into action 
except when the pause takes place upon stop- 
ping the type- wheel. The circuit through the 
printing-magnet may either be the main circuit 
or a local. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a plau of the in- 
strument. Fig. 2 is an inverted plan. Fig. 3 
is a partial side view. Fig. 1 is a plan of the 
motor and connections, and Fig. 5 is a section, 



showing the loose sleeve and incline that op- 
erate the stop for revolving pulsator. 

The bed A is provided with a shaft, b, upon 
which is the type-wheel c. This shaft b is the 
center of the semicircular ranges of keys d d', 
the number of which corresponds to the divis- 
ions upon the type-wheel ; and they should be 
marked with similar characters arranged prop- 
erly for the type- wheel. Upon the bed A is a 
magnetic motor, made of a pair of magnets, e 
e, armature 2, and spring circuit-closers 3 4, 
connected with the binding-screws 5 and 10 
and a local battery, by means of which the 
armature 2 will be rotated with rapidity. The 
armature 2 is on a vertical shaft in the frame 
/', and upon this shaft is the pulsator g and a 
friction-spring that causes the necessary power 
to be applied to rotate the pulsator, but allows 
the motor to continue when the pulsator is ar- 
rested. This pulsator g is made cylindrical, 
but of alternate conducting and non-conduct- 
ing materials, and a spring, h, rests against 
the side thereof, and is supported by a column 
of non-conducting material, h'. The metal- 
lic connection from the main-line battery is 
through the binding-screw 10 to the bed of the 
machine, through the shaft and conducting- 
surface of the pulsator g, spring h, and wire 11, 
to the magnet k that moves the type-wheel; 
thence to the binding-screw 12, main line, and 
distant instrument. At the distant instrument 
the switch I is moved to the insulated anvil 13, 
and connects the bed and screw 10 of the ma- 
chine with one of the wires of the magnet k, 
the other wire of the magnet going to the 
binding-screw 12, and the pulsator of the re- 
ceiving-machine is instantaneously stopped, so 
that all the instruments in the line may be 
moved by the pulsator at the sending-station 
only. Upon the pulsator g there are catches, 
15, and an arm, 16, upon a vertical sliding 
shaft, is raised by the finger 17 of the switch 
/ so as to be in the path of one of the catches 
15, to arrest the further revolution of the pul- 
sator of the receiving-machine at a point when 
the arm 16 is upon the non-conducting surface. 
Thereby the circuit through the jmlsator is 
broken, but connected through the switch I, 
as aforesaid. The motors at the receiving-sta- 
tion may continue to revolve, but are not oper- 
ative. All the magnets k in the line are oper- 



123,005 



ated in unison by pulsations from the pulsator 
of the transmitting-machine, and in each ma- 
chine the armature h' swings on the shaft 20 
and operates the lever n, that carries the pawls 

21 and stops 26, to the ratchet-wheel n', upon 
the shaft b of the type- wheel c; hence all the 
type-wheels will move around in unison with 
a step-by-step motion; and when the pulsator 
at the sending-station is stopped all the type- 
wheels in the circuit stop, and they stand at 
the same points. 

I next proceed to describe how the pulsator 
is stopped at the sending-station when its type- 
wheel and all others in the circuit are in posi- 
tion to have letter impressed corresponding to 
the finger-key d or d' that is acted upon. The 
type- wheel shaft carries a sleeve, o, with fingers 

22 and 23 on opposite sides, and one below the 
other. The keys d d' being in semicircular 
ranges, each key has an arm below the bed A, 
extending radially toward the shaft b. The 
arms p are upon the keys d, and act with the 
fingers 22, and the arms p' are upon the keys 
d' and act with the fingers 23. 

In the normal position the fingers 22 and 23 
revolve clear of the arms p p ! , but when a key 
is depressed the arm of that key stops the fin- 
ger 22 or 23 and sleeve a. In this sleeve o is 
an inclined slot with a pin, 24, from the shaft 
b therein, and a slight spring, 25, yields as 
the sleeve is stopped, and the shaft b continues 
to move sufficiently to give the sleeve o a 
downward movement by the pin 24 in the in- 
clined slot, and by the lever o 2 lift the vertical 
sliding rod m and arm 16, stopping the pulsa- 
tor and all the type-wheels with the types cor- 
responding with the depressed key in position 
ready for printing. 

I next describe the means for giving the 
impression. The printing-lever t is upon the 
shaft r, that is operated upon by the armature 
r' of the electro-magnet q. The paper passes 
from the reel q' in frout of the impression-pad, 
and then between the roller-segments s s' and 
clamps 32. These roller-segments are upon a 
stationary stud, 30, that is adjustable by the 
slotted frame and screw 31, and upon the re- 
spective roller-segments s s' are arms 33, car- 
rying the feeding-clamps 32, and slotted ends 
to the arms 33 are acted upon by pins in the 
prin ting-lever t. The parts are in reverse po- 
sition, so that one clamp acts to pull the pa- 
per along as the printing-lever moves one way, 
and the other clamp acts as the lever moves 
the other way, thereby moving the paper along 
each impression. By this arrangement the 
printing - lever acts to better advantage to 
swing the feeding-clamps than in the devices 
heretofore employed. A spring, 38, draws 
back the printing-lever. A circuit-closer, v, 
comes in contact with the type-wheel lever n 
every pulsation, but the contact is so instan- 
taneous that the electro - magnet q has not 
time to act against its tension-spring to give 
the pulsation; but the moment the pulsator 
stops, and the type- wheel also stops by the 
circuit of the pulsator being broken, the con- 



tact of v and n closes the circuit from the 
screw 10, and bed of the machine through the 
lever n, closer v, lever v 1 , insulated plate v 2 , 
iincl wire to the magnet q, thence to the bind- 
ing-screw 42, and this circuit may be part of 
the main line, or a local circuit at each sta- 
tion. The closing of this circuit gives the im- 
pression and feeds the paper, and also breaks 
its own circuit, for as the printing-lever comes 
up to give the impression the insulated arm x 
projecting from the printing-lever t moves the 
lever v 1 off the plate c; 2 , and breaks the cir- 
cuit through the printing-magnet so that the 
printing-lever is instantly drawn back by its 
spring. 

As soon as the operator at the transmitting- 
station raises his finger from the depressed 
letter-key that key is raised by its spring, the 
sleeve o is turned back by its spring 25, the 
sliding rod m and arm 16 drop, and the pul- 
sator is again revolved by its motor, and all 
the type- wheels start off upon their rapid step- 
by-step rotation in harmony, until another key 
is depressed and the operation is repeated. 
The arm 39 from the lever n replaces the switch- 
lever v 1 in contact with the plate v 2 , the first 
movement of the lever of the type -wheel 
hence the circuit connection is restored ready 
for the next printing operation. 

I claim as my invention— 

1. A pulsator driven by friction, and act- 
ing to make and break an electrical circuit 
in which are the magnets, operating two or 
more type- wheels in unison, substantially as 
set forth. 

2. The pulsator constructed substantially 
as set forth, in combination with a magnetic 
motor and the type- wheel and its magnet, sub- 
stantially as set forth. 

3. The pulsator g and its arm 16, in combi- 
nation with the switch I and the metallic con- 
nections, substantially as set forth, for stop- 
ping the pulsator at the receiving-station and 
completing the electric connections to the type- 
wheel magnets. 

4. The type- wheel shaft b and type-wheel c, 
in combination with the sleeve o and its in- 
cline for giving an end movement to the sleeve 
when its rotation is arrested, substantially as 
set forth. 

5. The arms 22 and 23 and sleeve o, in com- 
bination with the keys d d' and the pulsator 
stop 16, and pulsator </, substantially as and 
tor the purposes set forth. 

6. The feeding- roller segments s s' and pawls 
32, arranged substantially as shown, and op- 
erated by the printing-lever t acting upon the 
arms 33, substantially as shown. 

7. The printing-lever magnet in an electric 
circuit that is closed by the movement of the 
lever that operates the type-wheel, substan- 
tially as set forth, so that the printing-magnet 
is brought into action by a pause in the rota- 
tion of the type- wheel. 

8. The lever or switch u 1 , in combination 
with the impression-magnet and printing-le- 
ver, substantially as set forth, for breaking 



123,005 



s 



the circuit automatically to the printing-mag- 
net. 

9. The printing-lever t and magnet in com- 
bination with the type-wheel lever n, arms x 
and- 39, and switch-lever v 1 , substantially as 
and for the purposes set forth. 

10. A type-wheel moved with a step-by-step 
movement, an electro-magnet for the same, 
and a pulsator, in combination with a second- 
ary circuit to the printing-magnet operated 
automatically, substantially as set forth. 

11. A series of printing -telegraph instru- 
ments arranged in one main electrical circuit 
and operated by the pulsator of any one ma- 
chine in that circuit acting as a transmitter, 
and all the machines acting in harmony as 



receiving-machines, the pulsation in each re- 
ceiving-machine being stopped or thrown out 
of action, substantially as set forth. 

12. A printing - telegraph instrument con- 
taining a pulsator, type- wheel, type- wheel mag- 
net, a switch, and letter-keys, substantially 
as specified, so as to act as a receiving or 
transmitting machine by the movement of the 
switch, as specified. 

Signed by me this 26th day of July, A. D. 
1871. 

T. A. EDISOK. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



133,006 

United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO "THE GOLD 
AND STOCK TELEGRAPH COMPANY, » OF NEW YORK CITY. 

IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 123,006, dated January 23, 1872. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented and made an Im- 
provement in Printing-Telegraphs; and the fol- 
lowing is declared to be a correct description 
of the same. 

In Letters Patent No. 113,034 a printing-tel- 
egraph is shown with a shifting pad that takes 
an impression from one of two type-wheels up- 
on a shaft rotated by a ratchet aud lever. My 
present invention is a modification of and im- 
provement upon the said invention, and relates 
to devices for moving the type- wheel upon the 
shaft and thereby bringing one wheel into po- 
sition for printing and throwing the other one 
out of action. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is an elevation of 
the said machine. Fig. 2 is a plan of the 
shield for the impression-pad, and Fig. 3 is the 
stationary guard -ring to prevent the type- 
wheels moving except at a given point. 

The type- wheel shaft a is actuated by pawls, 
a lever, armature, and magnet, not shown in 
the drawing, but which maybe of any desired 
or known character, the pawls acting upon the 
ratchet-wheel b. The type-wheels c d are inked 
by the drum e, as usual, aud the impression- 
lever / is operated by a magnet in the usual 
manner. The type-wheels c d are attached up- 
on a sleeve, i, that slides freely upon the shaft 
a, and the extent of motion is determined by 
the collars h h or other stop, and there is either 
a feather or polygonal shaft to insure the rota- 
tion of the type- wheels with the shaft, or else 
the projecting rods I are employed, passing at 
opposite sides of the arm n projecting from the 
shaft. I prefer this last-named device, as most 
free from friction. The arm o projects from 
the sleeve i, and has a V-cam at the end run- 
ning at either one side or the other of the sta- 
tionary ring m, and hence holding the wheels 
with the sleeve in contact with either the stop 
h or W) but in this ring m is a notch that al- 



lows the V-cam to pass at the point where the 
type-wheel can be shifted. An arm, r, attached 
to the shaft a carries a T- lever, w, one arm 
of which is connected by a slot and pin with 
the arm o ; the other arms are in the path of 
the finger s and t upon the printing lever/. A 
shield, u, covers the impression -pad v, but has 
openings through which the impression can be 
made. If the type- wheel is turned so that the 
lever w is stopped over the finger s and then 
the impression-lever moved there will be no im- 
pression, there being a blank iu the type-wheel 
at that point, and the finger will act upon the 
lever to and shift the type-wheel so as to bring 
the other type-wheel into position over the 
opening in the shield, the shield preventing 
an impression from the other type-wheel. The 
finger t acts in a similar manner when brought 
in contact with the lever w to shift the type- 
wheels to the position shown in the drawing. 
The portion of the shield between the openings 
v v coming beneath the type-wheel that is not 
in use prevents an impression therefrom. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. Two type -wheels fitted to slide endwise 
of their shaft, in combination with mechanism 
substantially as specified, to give such end 
movement to the said type-wheels, and a shield 
to prevent an impression from more than one 
of the type-wheels, substantially as set forth. 

2. The lever w connected with the type- wheel 
shaft and type- wheels, in combination with the 
fingers that are moved by the impression - le- 
ver, substantially as set forth. 

3. The stationary notched ring m, in combi- 
nation with the type- wheels c d fitted to slide 
endwise of the shaft a, substantially as set 
forth. 

Signed by me this 26th day of July, A. D. 
1871. 

T. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Chas. H. Smith, 
Geo. T. Pinckney. 




AM PHOTO-UTHOSRAPHIC CO.H.YI OSBORHtS PP.OCSSS. f 



THOMAS A. EDISON. 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 

Improvement in Telegraph Apparatus. 





AM. PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHIC CO. H.<£ I OSBOHHE's PROCESS., 



123,984 

United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF 
AND GEORGE HARRINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, D. 0. 

IMPROVEMENT IN TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 123,984, dated February ^7, 1872 ; antedated February 17, 1872. 



To all ivhom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Telegraph Apparatus; and the following is 
declared to he a correct description thereof. 

The object of this invention is to give the 
operator at the sending station the opportu- 
nity to adjust the instruments on the line in 
such a manner as to bring into action the re- 
ceiving instrument at any desired station in- 
dependently of the operator at that station. 

This invention is primarily adapted to the 
transmission of messages automatically by per- 
forated paper, and their reception upon chem- 
ically-prepared paper; but the said invention 
may be employed in other telegraphic appara- 
tus. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a plan of the in- 
strument complete. Fig. 2 is a section at the 
line x x. Fig. 3 is an elevation of the locking- 
wheel and its magnet, and Fig. 4 is an eleva- 
tion of the motor. 

The bed a is of suitable size, and carries the 
magnets b 6, revolving armature c, shaft d, 
and worm-pinion e, forming a motor for the 
shaft/ and transmitting or receiving roller g. 
li is the transmitting brush, roller, or pen, or 
the receiving stylus or pen is substituted for 
the same. The perforated paper or the receiv- 
ing-strip passes through the trough k, and 
the brush I applies to the same the required 
friction to keep the paper in position. The 
binding-screws 2 and 3 are for the main-line 
wire, one connecting to the stylus and the 
other to the roller g through the metallic bed. 
The binding-screws 4 and 5 connect a local 
battery to the magnets b b. 

I remark that the magnets b b and armature 
simply form a well-known motor for the ma- 
chine, and that any other motor may be ap- 
plied to revolve the roller g, and that this 
roller g and the parts connected therewith may 
be of any desired character and adapted to 
the automatic reception or transmission of tel- 
egraphic messages. 

My special feature of improvement relates 
to an actuating mechanism applied to each 
machine, wmich, when brought into operation 
by the party at the transmitting station, causes 
the machine at the receiving station to become 
operative. 



The roller i is mounted upon a lever, m, at 
the other end of which is a lock- wheel, n, hav- 
ing one notch. When this wheel n is turned 
around, so that the lever m or roller at its end 
passes into this notch, the roller i presses the 
paper upon the roller g by its own weight, or 
the force of a spring, sufficient to cause the 
paper to be drawn along between the rollers 
g and i; but when the roller i is raised by the 
circular portion of the lock- wheel n acting up- 
on the lever m 1 the instrument is thrown out 
of action, aud this movement of the lever m 
may also be made to switch the current away 
from its machine or direct it through the re- 
ceiving or transmitting portions thereof. Upon 
the shaft o of this lock-wheel n is a hand, p, to 
the dial and also a ratchet-wheel, r, for the 
pawl s of the lever t. The armature u and 
and magnet v are employed to actuate the 
ratchet r and lock- wheel n. This magnet v is 
in a separate main telegraph-circuit with a 
line-wire independent of that leading to the 
transmitting or receiving apparatus, or else it 
is placed in a shunt and the spring of the lever 
t set up, so that this apparatus will not be op- 
erative by the ordinary rapid pulsations in 
telegraphing. There are as many teeth in the 
ratchet r as there are stations on the line and 
on the dial q. The names or numbers of the 
stations are placed, and the position of the 
notch in the lock-wheel n is such in relation to 
the hand p that the notch w r ill receive the le- 
ver m when the hand indicates the particular 
station; hence the operator at the transmit- 
ting station, by a dial or linger key, turns his 
own i>oiiiter to the name or number of his own 
station, then holds the lever t by his hand or 
a lock, and proceeds to manipulate the key 
until the station is indicated to which the 
message is to be sent; all the dials in the line in- 
dicating that same station, only the instrument 
at that station will be locked into action by the 
lever m and roller i; and hence the machines 
at the transmitting and receiving stations are 
in position for the message to be sent and re- 
ceived. The strip of paper may be prepared 
with long perforations of the proper numbers 
at the commencement and end, so as to move 
the lock-wheels of the instruments and deter- 
mine the instrument at which the message is 
to be received, and the long perforations at 
the end of the strip will bring the lock- wheels 



123,984 



and indexes around to the nonius or starting 
points. 

In this manner the operator at the receiving- 
station does not have to attend to the recep- 
tion of the message, and the party at the trans- 
mitting station only has to set the dials, and, 
rfter sending the message, work his own in- 
strument by hand around so that his index 
corresponds with the others in the line. 

In place of long perforations for setting the 
instruments of the line, the speed of the trans- 
mitting motor might be made sufficiently slow 
to allow the pulsations to be of the required 
intensity. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. The lock- wheel n, lever m, and roller i, 
operated by an electro-magnet, substantially 
as set forth, for bringing into action the re- 
ceiving instrument. 



2. The roller g and transmitting or record- 
ing stylus or brush and the roller i, to press 
upon the paper and cause the movement there- 
of, in combination with mechanism, substan- 
tially as specified, for throwing the receiving 
instrument out of action by releasing the 
pressure of said roller i, as set forth. 

3. A series of automatic telegraph instru- 
ments in one main telegraph-line, with lock- 
ing mechanism and indicators, operated by 
electro-magnets, and arranged, substantially 
as set forth, so as to throw into action the de- 
sired receiving instrument, as specified. 

Signed by me this 26th day of July, A. D. 
1871. 

T. A. EDISOK 

Witnesses : 

Chas. H. Smith, 
Geo. T. Pinckney. 



T. A. EDISON. Improvement in Telegraphic Recording Instruments. 




JH. PHOTO-LITtlOeKAPMIC CO. MY. I OSBORHt, rXOCESS. f 



134,800 

United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JEESET, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF 
AND GEORGE HARRINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, D. C. 

IMPROVEMENT IN TELEGRAPHIC RECORDING INSTRUMENTS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 124,800, dated March 19, 1872. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Telegraphic Ink Recording Instruments; 
and the following is declared to be a correct 
description thereof. 

This invention is made for marking upon a 
strip of paper in dots and dashes in ink at the 
receiving-station to correspond with the mes- 
sage composed in a strip of paper by perfora- 
tions, and employed for producing pulsations 
at the transmitting -station. The present im- 
provement relates to a roller vibrated by a 
magnet between thepaperandaninking-wheel, 
said inking-wheel moving with sufficient ve- 
locity to apply ink to the periphery of said 
roller when in contact. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a side view of 
the motor and the parts moving the inking ap- 
paratus, and Fig. 2 is an elevation of the ink 
recording device. 

The motor which I prefer and employ con- 
sists of four helices, a a, acting upon a revolv- 
ing armature sustained by the shaft b 7 the 
electrical pulsations to the magnets passing 
through the circuit-closing springs d d from a 
local battery, and the fan e and point/ acting 
to regulate the speed, as in my patent No. 
111,112, granted January 24, 1871. 

The inking-wheel h is driven at a rapid speed 
by the gearing h to the shaft 2, and said wheel 
h is in contact with the ink-in g-drum Wj that 
has an elastic surface, saturated sufficiently 
with ink to keep the edge of the wheel h in 
proper condition. This wheel h is, by prefer- 
ence, made of hard rubber. The strip of pa- 
per passes around the roller n, being kept in 
contact by the pulleys and spring q, and the 
roller n is driven at a sufficiently slow speed 
by the pinion 3 gearing into the wheel r on the 
shaft 1 of said roller n. The pulsations of 



electricity to be recorded pass through the 
electro-magnet s, either directly on the main 
line or through a branch circuit or local relay. 

The armature o is upon the lever t, and the 
weight is balanced by a spring, u, or otherwise, 
and at the end of the lever t is the ink record- 
ing-roller v. In the normal position the sprin g 
u keeps this roller v in contact with the wheel 
h, but a pulsation of electricity in the magnet 
draws down the roller, making a mark upon 
the paper, and according to the duration of 
the pulsation so the ink -mark will be a dot or 
a dash. The periphery of the roller v should 
be of as great length as the longest dash, and 
the moment the magnetism ceases to hold 
down the roller v the same flies up into contact 
with the wheel h to receive more ink, and the 
speed of the wheel li should be such as to re- 
volve the roller v once each time it comes in 
contact therewith, no matter how rapidly the 
pulsations are sent. An inking band might 
interpose between the roller v and paper, but 
I prefer the device shown. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. A roller raised and lowered by the action 
of an electro-magnet, and acting to impress 
ink upon a strip of paper in dots and dashes, 
substantially as set forth. 

2. The inking-wheel li, in combination with 
the roller -v and electro-magnet s, substantially 
as set forth. 

3. The inking-wheel Ji and roller v, in com- 
bination with the electro-magnet s, for moving 
said roller v, and the magnetic motor for actu- 
ating the wheel h and paper-roller n, substan- 
tially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 12th day of August, A. 
D. 1871. 

T. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Harold Serbell, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, 
improvement in Type-Wheels for Printing-Telegraphs 

No. 126,528, Patented May 7, 1872. 




AM.PHOTO-UTH08RAPHIC SO.N. Y. (OSBQRNl's PKOCSSS.) 



126,528 



United States Patent Office. 

THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JEBSEY, ASSIGNOB TO GOLD AND 
STOCK TELEGRAPH COMPANY, OF NEW YORK CITY. 

IMPROVEMENT IN TYPE-WHEELS FOR PRINTING-TELEGRAPHS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 126,528, dated May 7, 1872. 



To all wlwm it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented and made an Im- 
provement in Printing -Telegraphs, and the 
following is declared to be a full and correct 
description of the same. 

In an application for Letters Patent of like 
date herewith, the type-wheels of a printing- 
telegraph instrument are shown, constructed 
so that they can be expanded and contracted 
in order that the larger wheel may be printed 
from without impressing from the smaller or 
contracted wheel. 

My present invention is a modification of 
the devices above mentioned; and the same 
consists of type- wheels with hubs fitting loose- 
ly upon the type- wheel shaft, but connected 
by screws and slots to disks secured to and 
revolving with said shaft. Conical - ended 
sleeves are also upon the type-wheel shaft, 
and they are arranged and operated so that 
when one sleeve is within the hub of one 
wheel, said wheel will be concentric with its 
shaft, and may be printed from; but the 
other sleeve will be out of the hub of its 
wheel, and allow a spring to act upon the 
lower portion of the wheel, and raise it suffi- 
ciently to prevent an impression while the 
other wheel is being printed from. A lock- 
ing-bar, moving with the sleeves, locks the 
wheel, which is concentric with the shaft. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is an elevation of 
a type-wheel shaft with the wheels in section. 
Fig. 2 is a section at the line x x; and Fig. 3 
is a plan of a portion of the printing-lever. 

a is the type-wheel shaft, mounted in the 
side frames b b, and this shaft is to be re- 
volved by a step-by-step motion, as usual, e 
e are disks secured to the shaft a] and revolv- 
ing with the same; and to these disks c e the 
type- wheels c d are loosely connected by the 
screws and slots at i i that keep the type- 
wheels in contact with the disks, but allow of 
free lateral motion. Each type- wheel is made 
with a hub, 2, surrounding the shaft a, but of 
larger diameter, so that a conical-ended sleeve, 
/t, may enter said hub to center the wheel and 
bring it concentric with the shaft a. There 



are two of these sleeves Ji upon the shaft a, 
and connected to each other by the rods 3 and 
I, the latter being also a locking-bar to pre- 
vent any lateral movement of the wheel, which 
is concentric with the shaft a. This locking- 
bar is made with a small portion in the mid- 
dle, so that it will allow the free movement of 
the wheel that is not locked, but will fill up 
the hole in the wheel that is locked, and there- 
by keep it in position. These sleeves are ar- 
ranged as shown in Fig. 1, and are moved by 
the T- lever p } which is connected to one of 
the sleeves by the link o, and this lever p is 
moved by one of the pins s t on the upward 
movement of the printing-lever u when the 
type-wheel is at the blank point. 

It will now be understood that when one of 
the type-wheels is upon its sleeve h, it is con- 
centric with the shaft a, and may be printed 
from; the other wheel is off of its* sleeve, and, 
if not otherwise provided for, w r ould hang 
loosely upon the shaft and blur the paper 
when an impression was made from the other 
wheel. To prevent this I provide springs V 
t', that may be secured to the printing-lever u, 
and these springs take against flanges 6 upon 
the respective type-wheels e d, and the wheel 
which is loose" upon the shaft is kept up by 
the spring t 1 in the position shown in Figs. 1 
and 2, so that the lower portion of the wheel 
is higher than the lower portion of the other 
wheel, and cannot make an impression upon 
the paper. A spring-finger, ft, is employed to 
keep the strip of paper in contact with the 
impression-pad w and prevent blurring. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. The type-wheels c d, each connected to 
the disk e, but allowed to move laterally, in 
combination with the sliding sleeves h 7i, sub- 
stantially as specified. 

2. The locking-bar 4 and springs V tf r in 
combination with the laterally-moving type- 
wheels, substantially as and for the purposes 
set forth. 

Signed by me this 23d day of January, A. 
D. 1872. ' 
Witnesses : T. A. EDISON. 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 

Chas. H. Smith, 



THOMAS A, EDISON. 
Improvement in Type-Wheels for Printing-Telegraphs 

No. 126,529. Patented May 7, 1872. 





FHOTO-UTHOGRAPHK CO. KY. I OSBQftfiES PROCESS.) 



126,539 



United States Patent Office. 

THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO GOLD AND 
STOCK TELEGRAPH COMPANY, OF NEW YORK CITY. 

IMPROVEMENT IN TYPE-WHEELS FOR PRINTING-TELEGRAPHS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 126,529, dated May 7, 1872. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented and made an Im- 
provement in Printing -Telegraphs; and the 
following is declared to be a full and correct 
description of the same. 

In Letters Patent heretofore granted to me 
printing-telegraph instruments are shown with 
two type-wheels upon a revolving shaft and 
fitted so that either of them may be printed 
from without impressing from the other type- 
wheel — shifting type- wheels and shields are em- 
ployed for this purpose. 

My present invention is to accomplish the 
same object by the use of different means. I 
employ two type-wheels, each divided radial- 
ly into sections and each section connected by 
screws and slots to a disk secured upon the 
type-wheel shaft so that the sections can be 
moved away from or toward said shaft to in- 
crease or decrease the diameter of the wheel. 
For this purpose I employ sleeves sliding free- 
ly on the type- wheel shaft and provided with 
conical ends to enter the divided hubs of the 
wheels, and said sleeves are arranged so that 
when one sleeve enters the hub of its wheel 
the other sleeve will be withdrawn from the 
hub of its wheel, by which means the first 
wheel will be increased in diameter and its 
periphery be concentric with its shaft and 
may be printed from, but the second wheel 
will be contracted in diameter and cannot im- 
press the paper while the other wheel is being 
printed from. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is an elevation of 
a type-wheel shaft with the type-wheels in 
section. Fig. 2 is an elevation of a type- wheel 
as expanded, and Fig. 3 is a similar view of 
the wheel contracted. 

a represents the type-wheel shaft, supported 
in bearings in the side frames b b, and this 
shaft is to be revolved by a step-by-step mo- 
tion, as usual, c d are the type-wheels, each 
divided radially, as seen in Figs. 2 and 3, so 
as to form a sectional hub, 2, disk 3, and 
flange 4, the latter being provided with let- 
ters or numbers upon its outer surfaces. I 
have shown the type-wheels as each divided 
into three sections, and the sections compos- 
ing the wheel c or d are connected by slots 
and screws h li to disks e e, which are secured 



to the type-wheel shaft and revolve with the 
same. The slots are radial with the shaft a, 
and the screws h li guide and limit the sec- 
tions in their movement, i i are sleeves, slid- 
ing freely upon the shaft a and connected to 
each other by the rods I Z, which pass through 
openings in the disks 3 3 and e e. Each of 
these sleeves is made with a conical end to 
enter the hub of the type-wheel and move the 
sections away from the shaft «, so as to in- 
crease the diameter of the wheel and make 
its periphery concentric with the shaft a so 
that the same may be printed from. These 
sleeves * * are arranged, as shown in Fig. 1, 
so that one sleeve is within its hub 2 and the 
wheel expanded, while the other sleeve is out 
of its hub and the wheel contracted by the 
rubber spring 6, which encircles the divided 
hub 2 and draws the sections toward the shaft. 

To move the sleeves * % so that either wheel 
may be increased in diameter and printed 
from, I make use of the link n connected to 
one of the sleeves i and to a T-lever, o, which 
latter is moved by the pin s or t upon the up- 
ward movement of the printing-lever when 
the type- wheel is at the blank point. The pin 
s is slightly in advance of the pin t, and the 
operation of these pins and T-lever is the 
same as in my previous patents where the 
type- wheel or pad is shifted. 

With a type- wheel constructed in three sec- 
tions there will be three openings between the 
said sections, but the types may be close to 
the edges of these sections so as to be equi- 
distant when the type-wheel is expanded. 

The wheels are to be placed so that the 
sleeves may be shifted when a blank space is 
over the impression-pad, so that an impres- 
sion will not be made when the sleeves are 
shifted by the upward movement of the print- 
ing-lever. 

I claim as my invention — 

The type- wheels, each divided into sections 
and connected to the disk e, in combination 
with the sliding sleeves i i for expanding the 
wheel, or allowing of its being contracted, for 
the purposes, and substantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 23d dav of January, A. D. 
1872. ' 

Witnesses : T. A. EDISON. 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



THOMAS A. EDISON. 
Improvement in Printing-Telegraphs. 

No. 126,530. Patented May 7,1872. 




AM. PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHIC GO H. Y. COSBOHHC's PROCtSS.) 



126,530 

United States Patent Office 

THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JEESEY, ASSIGNOR TO GOLD AND 
STOCK TELEGRAPH COMPANY, OF NEW YORK CITY. 

IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPHS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 126,53fl, dated May 7, 1872. 



To all -whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented and made a new 
and useful Improvement in Printing -Tele- 
graphs; and the following is declared to be a 
full and correct description of the same. 

My present invention consists of a printing- 
telegraph instrument in which the type-wheel 
is revolved and the printing and feeding mech- 
anism operated by a movement communicated 
from the same armature of an electro-magnet. 
I make use of a type-wheel revolved by a step- 
by-step movement derived from the vibration 
of the armature of an electro-magnet, and be- 
tween lateral arms from the cores of said elec- 
tro-magnet is a swinging polarized bar, which, 
when attracted toward one of said arms by 
magnetism induced by a current of one polar- 
ity, allows the armature to be vibrated by pul- 
sations of the same polarity and the type- 
wheel to be revolved; but a stop on said bar 
setting over a projection on the armature lim- 
its the upward movement of the armature and 
prevents the printing and feeding mechanism 
acting until the current is reversed, which then 
throws the polarized bar to the other pole of 
the electro-magnet, disconnectingthe stop from 
the armature and allowing the same to have 
its full upward and downward movement to 
effect the printing and feed of the paper. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a plan of my 
improved instrument. Fig. 2 is an elevation 
of the same with the type- wheel removed, but 
its position shown by dotted lines. Figs. 3 
and I are detached views illustrating the de- 
vice which limits the movement of the arma- 
ture, and Fig. 5 is a sectional view of a por- 
tion of the feeding device. 

The electro-magnet a a 1 is supported in a 
frame, a 2 , upon the base b, and the armature 
c of said magnet is secured to the lever c', 
which swings upon the screw-centers d d. The 
spring e gives the upward movement to said 
lever c' and the parts connected to it. h is the 
type-wheel, upon a sleeve fitted to revolve 
freely on a gudgeon extending from the frame 
« 2 , and to this sleeve is secured the ratchet- 
wheel i, which is turned, to rotate the type- 
wheel, by the pawl I pivoted upon the vertical 
bar m. This bar m is connected at its upper 



part by a joint, 2, to the lever e', which allows 
a free vertical movement to the bar, and it is 
guided by the pin and slot 3. This bar is 
made with an opening so as to pass around 
the gudgeon and sleeve of the type-wheel, and 
said bar carries the impression-pad-??, and pa- 
per-feeding dog or clamp o. p is the polar- 
ized bar between the lateral arms of the cores 
of the magnet a a 1 , and it swings upon the 
center 15. At the top and upon one side of 
the bar is a stop, 5, and upon the under side 
of the armature c is an L-shaped projection or 
stop, 6. When a pulsation of one polarity is 
sent through the magnet a the bar p is re- 
pelled from the core or arm of the magnet a 1 . 
and attracted to the position shown most 
clearly in Fig. 3, where the stop 5 is immedi- 
ately over the stop 6, and in this position the 
armature can be vibrated by pulsations of that 
polarity and the type-wheel revolved by the 
lever c', bar m, pawl I, and ratchet ?*, to bring 
the desired letter in position for printing; but 
an impression will not be made, because the 
stops 5 and 6 limit the motion of the arma- 
ture and prevent the lever c' and connected 
parts receiving the full upward movement nec- 
essary for printin g. When the polarity of the 
current is reversed the bar p is attracted by 
the magnet a 1 , which disconnects the stops 5 
and 6 and allows the spring e to give the full 
upward movement to the lever c', bar m, and 
impression-pad n, and effect the printing be- 
fore the accumulation of force in the magnet 
a a 1 is sufficient to draw down the armature 
and feed the paper at the same time that the 
type-wheel is moved. The full downward 
movement of the lever c' and bar m actuates 
the dog o and feeds the paper the proper dis- 
tance. The polarity of the current is now re- 
versed, and the bar p will be moved to its nor- 
mal position with the stop 5 over the projec- 
tion 6; but there is sufficient play to allow the 
armature c to be vibrated so that the neces- 
sary movement is given to the lever c', bar m, 
and pawl I to rotate the ratchet-wheel i and 
type-wheel h as before. A pin, t, upon the 
frame a 2 takes against the under side of the 
pawl I and lifts it from contact with the teeth 
of i, when the full downward movement is 
given to the bar m, and prevents said wheel 
being turned more than one tooth by such 



2 126, 

downward motion of the bar. u is a set-screw 
to determine the downward movement of the 
bar m and stop the rotation of the ratchet i 
and type-wheel 7t, and v is a pawl to prevent 
the ratchet i turning backward. The paper 
passes over the table w and beneath the spring- 
fingers 8 8, and in this table is an opening to 
allow the pad n to press the paper against the 
type- wheel and make the impression. The 
feeding-dog o is, at the outer end of an arm, 
12, pivoted to the bar m, and at the side of 
this dog o is a pin, 9. When the type-wheel 
is being rotated the pin 9 slides up and down 
a yielding incline, 10, (see Fig. 5,) which keeps 
the dog o off of the paper; but upon the full 
upward movement being given to the bar I to 
effect the printing the pin 9 is moved np over 
the top of 10, and falls to the rear of said in- 
cline, bringing the dog in contact with the pa- 
per, and upon the full downward movement 
of the bar m the pin 9 slides under this incline 
10, and the dog o feeds the paper forward the 
required distance. This incline 10 is at the 
outer end of an arm, 13, that is kept to the 
table w by the spring 14 so as to be raised by 
the pin 9 running beneath it, and then said 
pin 9 plays upon the surface of 10, keeping 



530 

the dog o from contact with the paper while 
the type-wheel is being moved. 
I claim as my invention — 

1. The bar p and stops 5 and G to regulate 
the extent of motion allowed to the armature 
c of an electro-magnet, substantially as set 
forth. 

2. A type-wheel rotated by a step-by-step 
motion and an impression-pad moved simulta- 
neously, in combination with an electro-mag- 
net and mechanism for regulating the extent 
of motion of the armature for moving the 
type- wheel or effecting the impression, sub- 
stantially as set forth. 

3. The yielding incline 10 and paper-feeding 
pawl o, brought into action by an increased 
movement of the armature of an electro-mag- 
net, substantially as set forth. 

4. An impression-pad moved by a spring to 
give the impression when the current is broken 
in an electro-magnet, in combination with a 
type-wheel, substantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 14th day of February, A. 
D. 1872. 

Witnesses : T. A. EDISON. 

Chas. H. Smith, 
Geo. T. Pinckney. 




AM. PHOTO lirKCGHAPHIC CO-N. r. (0S3QRNZS FRCCE.SS ) 





I.PHOW-UTHOORAPHIC CO. N. Y. (OSBOPNC's PROCtSS.) 



126,531 

United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO GOLD AND 
STOCK TELEGRAPH COMPANY, OF NEW YORK CITY. 



IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 126,531, dated May 7,1872. 



To all idiom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented and made an Im- 
provement in Printing- Telegraphs, and the 
following is declared to be a correct descrip- 
tion of the same. 

This invention relates to mechanism oper- 
ated by the printing-lever or magnet for mov- 
ing a bolt that connects the type-wheel lever 
with one of two levers that give motion to one 
of two type- wheels by a step-by-step motion. 
In my present improvement a lever is acted 
upon by lateral cores from the printing-mag- 
net, and this moves a bolt endwise, and the 
same is held by a latch. This movement can 
only be given at the time both type-wheels 
are at the zero or unison- points. The type- 
wheel that is locked by the bolt is revolved, 
and, as it moves the last step, in completing 
the revolution, the latch is unlocked, and the 
bolt drawn by a spring to unlock the connec- 
tion to one type- wheel and lock the lever to 
the other type-wheel, and that can be oper- 
ated and impressions taken therefrom until the 
printing electro-magnet is charged at the zero- 
point of both type- wheels, when the said bolt 
is shifted to lock the other type-wheel. 
_ In the drawing, Figure 1 is a section ver- 
tically of the machine. Fig. 2 is a sectional 
plan with the type-wheels removed. Fig. 3 is 
an elevation of the type- wheels, levers, lock- 
ing-bolt, and latch. Fig. 4 shows the screw- 
unison for the type- wheel and the levers there- 
of; and Fig. 5 is a side view of the bolt-actu- 
ating lever. 

The bed a, frames b, type-wheels c d, type- 
wheel magnet e, impression-magnet /, print- 
ing-lever g, paper-feeding clamps h, aiid roller 
are similar to devices shown in patents here- 
tofore granted to me, with the exception that 
the type-wheels are separate from each other, 
and actuated by independent step -by- step 
movements; and I remark that this improve- 
ment may be used with one line- wire and a po- 
larized switch be employed to direct the cur- 
rent into either of the electro-magnets. The 
armature/ and its lever Jc swing on the ful- 
crum I, and so also do the levers c' d', and be- 
tween these and their respective type-wheel 
shafts or sleeves are the usual ratchet-wheels, 



pawls, and stops, forming step-by-step move- 
ments, to rotate the type-wheel. These may 
be of any desired character. I make use of a 
bolt, i, sliding in the lever 7c, and connecting 
either the lever c' or the lever d' to said lever Jc, 
and hence moving whichever lever is so con- 
nected, and also the type-wheel with which it 
is employed. The spring 3 moves the bolt i 
into the lever c', except when otherwise acted 
upon. Hence the letter-wheel c will be oper- 
ated in the usual manner, and must be brought 
to a zero or blank before the bolt can be un- 
locked from & and bolted into d'. To insure 
this, the disk n is employed, with one notch in 
it, into wdiich the arm 4 of the lever m can 
pass; but, at other times, this lever m will be 
kept from moving by the arm 4 taking the 
edge of the disk n. The lever m is actuated 
by an araiature, «*, contiguous to lateral poles 
6 from the printing-magnet /. When this le- 
ver m is allowed to move, it acts upon the 
right-angle lever o, and slides the bolt i, draw- 
ing one end out of the lever c', and entering 
the other end into the lever d', and in this po- 
sition it is held by a latch, s. The other type- 
wheel, which is the figure or character-wheel 
d, is now locked, and can be moved step by 
step. Upon the sleeve of this type- wheel d is 
a cam, 7, that, as the type-wheel is moved its 
last step to the zero-point, acts upon the lever 
8 and its arm 9 to lift the latch s and allow the 
spring 3 to throw the bolt * the other way. 
The cam 7 then clears the end of 8. Hence, 
if the printing-magnet is charged at this time, 
the levers m and o will again throw the bolt 
into d' r but otherwise the letter- wheel c will 
be rotated. When the type- wheel d is being 
rotated the lever m will not be fully moved 
when the printing-lever is being moved by its 
magnet, because the end of the arm 10 will 
take against the edge of the disk n\ and this 
disk n 1 is notched, and the notch comes oppo- 
site this arm 10 when the type- wheel is at the 
zero-point. The bent lever u upon the print- 
in g-le ver g is moved by the lever m, and thrown 
into the path of the stud m* upon n 1 , and this 
is located so as to be moved by that stud as 
soon as the type -wheel d is moved. Thereby 
the lever m' will be moved downward, and the 
arms 4 10 freed from the notches in n n l even 
if the armature should be attracted bv anv 



126,531 



lingering magnetism in the electro-magnet /. 
The screw w on the type-wheel shaft, stop-le- 
ver w 1 , and relieving-lever w 2 , actuated by the 
lateral core of the electro-magnet jT, are sub- 
stantially the same as the parts shown in an ap- 
plication heretofore made by me for a patent, 
and allowed. 

I claim as my invention— 

1. The lever m and armature n 2 , contiguous 
to the lateral poles 6 of the printing-magnet, 
for actuating the bolt i, in combination with 
the arm 4 and disk n, substantially as set 
forth. 



2. The disconnecting -lever 8, operated by 
the cam 7, in combination with the lever on, 
armature w 2 , the latch s, bolt i, and levers for 
the respective type- wheels, the parts being ar- 
ranged and acting substantially as set forth. 

3. The bent-lever u on the printing-lever, in 
combination with the stop m 2 , lever m, and 
armature w 2 , substantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 17th day of January, A. 
D. 1872. 

Witnesses : T. A. EDISON. 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 




AM PHOTCH /THOSRAPHIC CO. A/.Y. (oSBOKNe's PflOClSS.) 




^ a. to 



ens 



AM.PHOTOVTHOeSflPHK CO. NX loss or he's fftocj-ss.} 



126,533 

United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO GOLD AND 
STOCK TELEGRAPH COMPANY, OF NEW YORK CITY. 

IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPHS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 126,532, dated May 7, 1872. 



To all tchom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented and made certain 
Improvements in Printing-Telegraphs, and the 
following is declared to be a full and exact de- 
scription of the same. 

In an application for Letters Patent dated 
July 26, 1871, and allowed August 18, 1871, 
a printing- telegraph instrument is shown in 
which two type-wheels are employed upon a 
revolving shaft, said type-wheels being upon a 
sleeve that slides upon the shaft, and is moved 
by a connection from the printing -lever to 
bring either type- wheel into position for print- 
ing. A shield between the paper and type- 
wheel is employed to prevent an impression 
from the type- wheel that is not in use. 

In an application for Letters Patent dated 
November 13, 1871, and allowed December 15, 
1871, a unison device is shown, consisting of 
a stop upon the type-wheel, a worm upon the 
type- wheel shaft, and a hinged and swinging 
arm, with one end resting on the worm, and 
operated by a connection to the impression- 
magnets, so that the swinging-arm is kept from 
contact with the stop upon the type -wheel 
except when these wheels are continuously 
turned for bringing all the machines in the 
line into unison, in which case the swinging 
arm comes into contact with said stop. 
. My present invention relates to modifica- 
tions in the construction and arrangement of 
the parts employed in the before-named tele- 
graph instruments, whereby the machine is 
rendered more compact, the parts adjusted 
with greater accuracy, and the working of the 
apparatus rendered reliable in all respects. 

My improvements relate as follows: First, 
to the manner of mounting the type -wheel 
shaft in adjustable screw-bearings. Second, to 
shifting the type- wheels by a link and connec- 
tions to the printing-lever. Third, to the ink- 
roller, made of disks of cloth or other woven 
material. Fourth, to the ink-roller fitted so 
that it can shift with the type-wheels. Fifth, 
to a pin inserted in the shaft to act as a stop 
for the unison arm to take against, instead of 
the stop being on the type - wheel. Sixth, to 
making the upper end of the unison tripper 
of a forked shape to limit the motion of the | 



unison arm. Seventh, to the paper- feeding 
mechanism that operates upon the upward 
movement of the printing-lever, and a holding 
device to prevent back movement of the pa- 
per and allow of the printing being observed. 
Eighth, to the type-wheel and impression-mag- 
nets, sustained and adjusted with reference to 
their respective armatures. Ninth, to the arms 
for the paper-reels, affixed upon the cross-bar 
which sustains the ink-roller. Tenth, to the 
impression -shield, made as an open spring- 
plate to keep the paper in contact with the 
impression-pad and away from the type-wheel. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a plan of the 
machine complete. Fig. 2 is a vertical section 
of the same; and Fig. 3 is an elevation of the 
apparatus with the bed in section at the line 
x x. 

a is the bed of the machine, and secured to 
it are the side frames b b, of usual character. 
c is the type- wheel shaft, mounted in the screw- 
bearings e e, and revolved by the ratchet-wheel 
/, lever g, armature h, and electro - magnet i. 
The screw-bearings e e allow of the shaft c be- 
ing adjusted longitudinally to accomodate the 
position of other parts; and to prevent the 
screws e e working loose by the jar or con- 
cussion of the apparatus I clamp them firmly 
by the screws It k, which enter the frames b b 
at right angles to the screws e e. The type- 
wheels I m are upon a sleeve sliding freely on 
the shaft c, and to shift said type -wheels so 
that either can be printed from I make use of 
the pins 2 3 upon the printing -lever to move 
the T-lever n. Instead of employing this T- 
lever to act by a slot and pin to move the sleeve 
as in the application for Letters Patent before 
referred to, I make use of a link, o, connected 
to the sleeve and lever n, by which a very easy 
motion is obtained, and one in which there is 
but little friction. The fulcrum of the lever n 
is upon an arm extending from the collar p 
upon the shaft c, and said collar is provided 
with a second arm, q, which acts as a guide 
for the pin r extending from the type-wheels, 
and insures the rotation of the type -wheels 
with the shaft e, and of their being kept in 
their proper position. The disk 12 and cam 
13 prevent the type-wheels being accidentally 
shifted; these correspond to parts in before- 
named applications. The ink-roller I 6 is made 



2 136,533 



of a number of disks or washers of woven cloth, 
secured upon the hollow axis of the roller and 
between the heads thereof. The surface of the 
roller thus formed is dressed smooth by burn- 
ing or otherwise, and such surface will wear 
smooth, and not become torn or injured by the 
sharp edges of the letters on the type - wheel, 
as is apt to be the case when the roller is 
formed of layers of cloth wound upon the axis 
of the roller." This roller is also much better 
than a roller formed of felt, because the line 
fibers thereof are not closely connected to- 
gether, and hence they wear off and clog the 
type-wheels. The ink-roller is upon the shaft 
s, that is supported by the arms 1 1 from the 
cross-bar w, and I make this shaft s of such 
length that the ink-roller may slide upon the 
same as it is moved by and with the type- 
wheels as they are shifted, and thus prevent 
the type -wheels scraping the ink from the 
roller, as they now do with the fixed roller. 

The " unison" device is a worm, upon the 
shaft c, a stop, to, projecting from the shaft c, 
a hinged aud swinging arm, a 2 , and the trip- 
per & 3 , connected to or moved with the print- 
ing-lever. The operation of this unison.is the 
same as in the application before referred to, 
except that the tripper is moved by the print- 
ing-lever, instead of by the printing -magnet, 
to bring the arm a 2 to its normal position away 
from the stop lb; but I make the upper part of 
said tripper-bar b 3 of the forked form shown, 
so as to limit the upward and lateral move- 
ment of the arm a 2 and keep it in its proper 
position relatively to the worm v. To feed the 
paper along I make use of the roller c 3 upon 
the stationary shaft c 4 , the feeding-pawl d 2 , 
the slotted lever e 3 , and the pin e*, on the 
printing - lever p. The printing - lever f 2 is 
moved by its magnet h 2 , as usual; but the po- 
sition of the slotted lever e 3 and pin e i is such 
that the feed of the paper takes place during 
the upward movement of the printing -lever 
by the direct action of the printing -magnet 
through the printing-lever, and not by the ac- 
tion of a spring, as is the case when the paper 
is fed by the downward movement of the lever • 
consequently this spring W can be made light- 
er, aud not so much power will be required to 
operate the printing-lever. Upon the shaft or 
bar c 4 is a stationary arm and plate, c 5 , and 
connected to this arm is the spring -holding 
pawl e 5 . The paper (one side of the strip) passes 
under this plate, and is prevented from mov- 
ing back by the pawl e 5 , and as this plate re- 
quires to be but very narrow, it does not hide 
the printing upon the strip of paper, but leaves 
it visible at this point. The printing and type- 
wheel magnets W i are each mounted in and 
connected to a yoke or frame, 1A and said 
frame is suspended and adjusted by the set- 
screws and nuts ¥ W. Guide-pins ¥ ¥ are 
employed for guiding and steadying the frame 



¥. This arrangement allows of the magnets 
being adjusted to suit the position of their re- 
spective armatures. l A Z 4 are arms secured to 
the bar u by the screws I 3 V s , and formed at 
their upper ends with the bearings m 2 for the 
shaft of the paper -reel. The paper - reel thus 
located is not in the way of other parts of the 
machine, aud avoids the nse of a standard or 
support for the reel separate from the machine 
itself. The shield p 2 , which prevents an im- 
pression from the type -wheel not in use, is a 
three-sided or open spring-plate, as shown in 
Fig. 1, and connected by the screws t 2 1 2 to the 
printing - lever. The paper passes from the 
paper-reel under the axis f 3 of the printing- 
lever, and thence beneath the rouuded end 7 
of said plate p 2 and over the impression-pad 
i 3 , to the paper-feeding device, and this spring 
plate or shield keeps the paper in contact with 
the impression - pad and away from the type- 
wheel that is not in use; hence it prevents 
blurring of the paper by the type. 
I claim as my invention — ■ 

1. The type -wheel shaft c, sustained at its 
ends in the screw bearings e that are clainped 
by the screws fc, as specified. 

2. The link o and T-lever w, in combination 
with the type-wheels I m and sleeve sliding on 
the shaft c, as set forth. 

3. The inking - roller I 6 , made of disks of 
woven cloth clamped between heads, as set 
forth. 

4. The inking - roller sliding upon its shaft, 
in combination with the pair of type-Avheels 
also sliding upon their shaft, as set forth. 

5. The unison stop w, made of a pin passing 
into the type-wheel shaft, in combination with 
the worm v and swinging arm a 2 , as and for 
the purposes set forth. 

G. The unison tripper Z> 3 , made as a fork, in 
combination with the arm a 2 and screw v, as 
and for the purposes set forth. 

7. The paper -feeding mechanism, consisting 
of the dog and lever e 3 , moved by the up- 
ward motion of the printing -lever and the 
holding-dog e 5 , and acting near the respective 
edges of the paper, as set forth. 

8. The type-wheel and impression-magnets, 
sustained and adjusted by the yoke ¥ aud 
screws ¥ that pass up through the bed a, as 
set forth. 

9. The arras t for the paper -reel, sustained 
upon and above the cross-bar u that receives 
the arms of the ink-rollers, as set forth. 

10. The impression-shield, made as an open 
three -sided spring-plate, attached to the im- 
pression-lever, as and for the purposes set 
forth. 

Signed by me this 3d day of January, A. D. 
1872. 

Witnesses: T. A. EDISON. 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



126,533 

United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JEESEY, ASSIGNOR TO GOLD AND 
STOCK TELEGRAPH COMPANY, OF NEW YORK CITY. 

IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming pari of Letters Patent No. 120,5:53, dated May 7, 1872. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the couDty of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have made a new and useful Iin- 
provenientin Printing-Telegraphs; and the fol- 
lowing is declared to be a full and correct de- 
scription of the same. 

This invention relates to a printing-telegraph 
instrument of the same general character as that 
set forth in an application for Letters Patent 
dated January 3, 1872; and this improvement 
consists of a locking device for preventing any 
instrument in the circuit receiving an impres- 
sion of a message being sent except that one 
which the operator at the transmitting-station 
unlocks and brings into unison with his own 
instrument. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a vertical section 
of a printing - telegraph instrument with my 
improvement applied. Fig. 2 is an elevation of 
the type-wheel shaft and its parts, together 
with a portion of the printing-lever, said parts 
being in position so that an impression cannot 
be made from the type-wheel; and Fig. 3 is an 
elevation of the same parts in position for print- 
ing. 

a represents the bed, and b b the side frames 
of the machine, c is the type-wheel shaft, re- 
volved by a step-by-step motion derived from 
the electro-magnets d, armature and lever e, 
and ratchet/, g are the electro-magnets for 
the impression-lever h. These parts are all of 
usual character, as is also the paper-feeding 
device, i is a sleeve sliding freely upon the 
shaft c, but turning with it, and secured to this 
sleeve is the type- wheel Je, and also a disk, I, 
with one notch, m", in its periphery. (See Fig. 
1.) Upon the printing-lever h is an arm, m, 
and the upper part of this arm is made as a 
fork to receive the edge of the disk I when 
the parts are in the position shown in Fig. 2, 
and in this position an impression cannot be 
taken from the type- wheel, because the edge 
of the disk I acts as a stop to limit the move- 
ment of the impression-lever and prevent said 
lever and its pad h' rising high enough for that 
purpose. When the parts are in the position 
shown in Fig. 3 the disk I is free from the fork 
of m and the instrument is in condition for re- 
ceiving and printing a message. The mechan- 
ical means for shifting the sleeve i and its disk 



and type- wheel are the same as in aforesaid 
application for shifting the sleeve and type- 
wheel, viz., by a link, o, connected at one end 
to the sleeve i and at the other end to a T-le- 
ver, p, pivoted to an arm on the type-wheel 
shaft; and this lever p is moved by the pins s 
and t on the printing-lever to shift the sleeve 
in either direction ; but the shaft c has first to 
be rotated until the notch in' in the disk I co- 
incides with the arm m before said sleeve can 
be shifted. This notch m' is differently locat- 
ed upon each instrument. 

I will now proceed to describe the manner 
in which the operator at the transmitting-sta- 
tion unlocks the desired instrument in the cir- 
cuit and brings the same in unison with his 
transmitting-instrument; but it is first to be 
understood that all the type-wheels k have the 
same letters and correspond with those on the 
transmitting-dial, and also that there may be 
as many instruments in the circuit as there 
are letters upon said dial, and that each ma- 
chine is known by a particular letter. The op- 
erator, by pulsations sent through the magnets 
d 7 first rotates all the type- wheel shafts until 
each shaft is arrested in its revolution by the 
arm 3 and stop 4; but the type- wheels are not 
in unison with each other nor with the trans- 
mitter, but stop on different letters — one on 
A, another on B, another on 0, and so through 
the alphabet. If the operator now desires to 
unlock the C machine, he turns the hand of 
the transmitting-dial until it is over the letter 
C, and then closes the circuit, through the mag- 
nets g, so as to throw up the printing-lever h and 
disconnect the arm 3 from the stop 4 of each 
instrument and allow all the type-wheels to be 
revolved, when pulsations are sent through 
the magnets d. There is sufficient space be- 
tween the edge of the disk I and the bottom of 
the notch or fork m to allow of the limited 
movement of the printing-lever necessary to 
operate the arm 3, but not sufficient to allow 
of an impression being made. The C machine 
(the machine which stopped at the letter C) 
is now in unison with the transmitter, and to 
unlock said disk I from the notch of m it is 
necessary to turn the hand of the transmitter 
to that part of the dial which indicates that 
the notch in I is over and in line with the fork 
m. When the hand is brought to this point 



2 



126,533 



the circuit is to be closed through the magnets 
<7, which moves the impression-lever and brings 
the pin s in contact with the T- lever p, mov- 
ing the same so as to slide the sleeve % and free 
the disk I from to. The machine is now iu con- 
dition for receiving and printing a message. 
When this machine is no longer required for 
use the operator turns the hand of the trans- 
mitter to that point which indicates that the 
notch in I coincides with the fork to, and, by 
closing the circuit through the magnets g, the 
lever h is raised, and the pin t shifts the sleeve 
and disk, and the machine is again locked. I 
prefer that the sleeve i be shifted by the pin s 
to unlock the disk I, when the current is closed, 
through the type-wheel magnets d, and locked 
by the pin t when the circuit to said magnets 
is open. The disk I and type-wheel may be 
fixed upon the shaft and the stop m moved 
transversely of the printing-lever, the stops s 
and t projecting from the type-wheel shaft. 



The type- wheels might be all set at unison with 
each other, and the disk I and shifting devices 
changed to different positions, so that they all 
could be unlocked and the message sent to all 
the machines, which is not the case now. 
I claim as my invention — 

1. A locking mechanism, actuated by the 
movement of the printing-lever, for prevent- 
ing an impression, in combination with the 
type-wheel and its actuating mechanism that 
controls the movement of the said locking 
mechanism. 

2. A type-wheel and unison mechanism, in 
combination with a locking and unlocking 
mechanism for preventing or allowing an im- 
pression, substantially as specified. 

Signed by me this 14th day of February, A. 
D. 1872. 

Witnesses : T. A. EDISOK 

Chas. H. Smith, 
Geo. T. Pinckney. 



2 Sheets-Sheet 2, 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 
Improvement in Printing-Telegraphs. 

No. 126,534. Patented May 7,1872. 

|'i j I 





126,534 

United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO GOLD AND 
STOCK TELEGRAPH COMPANY, OF NEW YORK CITY. 



IMPROVEMENT IN PR IN TING -TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent Ko. 126,534, dated May 7, 1872. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement in 
Printing-Telegraphs j and the following is de- 
clared to be a correct description of the same. 

This telegraph is made for printing from one 
of two type- wheels. The type- wheels are con- 
tiguous, and revolved by separate ratchets 
and pawls, or step-by-step motions, and a mag- 
net is employed to operate a bolt that connects 
one of the step-by-step movements with the 
lever and armature of an electro- magnet, and 
a latch holds the parts thus connected. This 
latch is- lifted every rotation of the locked let- 
ter type- wheel, hence is unlocked, and a spring 
causes the bolt to connect the armature-lever 
to the step-by-step motion of the number or 
character wheel, hence that will be rotated ; 
but should it be desired to continue the rota-- 
tion of the letter- wheel, a pulsation of oppo- 
site polarity operates iu the impression-mag- 
net, and through a connection to the locking- 
magnet, and relocks the letter- wheel and dis- 
connects the figure- wheel. "At all times, except 
when the letter and figure wheels are at the 
zero or nonus points, the locking-magnet is 
prevented from acting when an impression is 
made by a circuit- closer that gives a shorter 
and more direct route for the electricity, and 
hence cuts out the locking-magnet. This cir- 
cuit-closer is opened by a non-conducting arm 
revolving with the type- wheel at the zero point. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a vertical sec- 
tion of the instrument. Fig. 2 is a general 
plan. Fig. 3 is an .inverted plan ; and Fig. 4 is 
apian of the locking-magnet, bolt, and levers. 

Upon the bed a are the frames b b, sustain- 
ing a shaft that carries the type- wheels c and 

the type- wheel c having letters, and the 
wheel d figures and fractions, or other charac- 
ters adapted to the use for w r hich the instru- 
ment is intended. The lever e' is provided 
with the necessary pawls and stops to act up- 
on the ratchet of the letter- wheel c, and move 
the same with a step-by-step motion, and d' is 
the lever, with similar devices to form a step- 
by-step motion for the figure-wheel d, These 
step-by-step motions, being of ordinary char- 
acter, do not require further description. The 
levers & d' move upon a fulcrum or shaft, e, 



which is also the axis for the lever/, and arm- 
ature of the electro-magnet g, designated here- 
in the type- wheel magnet. The bolt i slides 
in the lever /, and when moved toward the 
lever d' by the spring 2, that end of the bolt 
i connects the lever d' with /, and they move 
together, "and the lever c' is disconnected. 
When the bolt i is moved the other way the 
lever d' is disconnected from / and the lever 
c' connected by the other end of i, and in or- 
der to hold the bolt i a latch, o, is employed 
that springs into a notch in i. A lever, o', be- 
neath the end of the latch o, extends upward 
contiguous to a cam, 3, moving with the type- 
wheel c, so that at each revolution of c the latch 
o is lifted and the bolt i drawn from & by the 
spring 2. The bolt % is moved toward V by 
the armature ft of the locking-magnet ¥. The 
printing-lever m moves upon the fulcrum 6, 
and carries the armature 7 of the printing- 
magnet n. The impression -pad p, feeding- 
clamps q, and actuating cam-slots 37 are of any 
usual character. The polarized circuit-changer 
r, swinging upon the fulcrum 8, and moved in- 
to contact with the circuit screw-connections 
9 and 10, according to the polarity of the cur- 
rent, is substantially similar to devices shown 
in patents heretofore granted to me, in which 
the current is directed either through the print- 
ing-magnet or else through the type -wheel 
magnet, according to its polarity. The spring 
circuit-closers s and t are near the type-wheel 
shaft, and upon the sleeves or shafts of the 
respective type-wheels there are arms u, with 
non-conducting pins projecting from the sides, 
and passing in their revolution between the 
ends of the circuit-closing springs s or t, re- 
spectively, and opening them break the circuit, 
and these pins and arms are located so as to 
separate these springs s t when the type- wheels 
arrive at the zero points. The line-wires con- 
nect with the binding-screws 11 and 11. 

The operation of this instrument is illus- 
trated as follows: Suppose letter-wheel c at 
zero point and the circuit-springs s separated, 
and the bolt i connecting / and d', the pulsa- 
tion of electricity entering by 10 goes by wire 
12 to magnet g; thence, by wire 13, to bed a, 
and by 8 and r through 9, wire 15, and to the 
line-screw 14. The pulsations, therefore, will 
act in the magnet g upon the step- by-step mo- 



126,534 



tion to set the wheel d. When the polarity of 
the current is reversed to effect the printing, 
the same enters at 14, passes through wires 
16 and 17, springs t, wires 18 and 19, to the 
printing-magnet n; thence, by 20, to bed a, 
and by 8, r, and 10 to the line- wire from 11. 
To operate the letter- wheel c it is necessary 
to move the wheel d to the zero point, break- 
ing the circuit at t; then reverse the pulsa- 
tion, which then cannot go by 16, 17, 18, 19, 
&c, as before, because t is open; but it has 
to pass through 21 to the locking-magnet ¥, 
which throws the bolt i, unlocking d' and lock- 
ing c'. The pulsation then goes, by 22. 19, 
through n, 20, a, 8, r, 10, and 11. The latch 
o holds the bolt i, and upon reversing the po- 
larity of the current the letter-wheel can be 
moved around by the step-by-step motion and 
the printing done as before; but the pulsations 
in the type- wheel magnet pass from 11 through 
12, g, 13, a, 8, r, thence by 9 and 15 to 14. 
When the impression is made on the letter- 
wheel c the pulsation comes through 14, 16, 
24, 25, 19, n, 20, a, 8, r, 10, to 11, and if the 
letter- wheel c is to be revolved more than once, 
a reverse pulsation must be made upon the 
arrival of c at the zero point, because the cam 
3 has in its last step unlatched o and allowed 
the spring 2 to draw the bolt i back from c'. 
This pulsation, as it cannot go through either 
s or t, has to go through the magnet 7c 1 , and, 
by the armature ¥, move and relock the bolt 
* to <■), In order to prevent the armature ¥ 
remaining in contact with ¥ by any residual 
magnetism, I make the movement of the arm- 
ature close the circuit between 32 and the in- 
sulated screw 33, so that there is a connection 
made from 22 through 35, 33, 32, to the bed a. 
The circuit at 32 33 is again broken as the 
armature is drawn back by the spring 30. A 
fine wire, 36, between r and 20, prevents the 
circuits being broken if the polarized switch 



r should not touch either 9 or 10. The lock- 
ing-magnet ¥ might be operated by a separate 
line- wire; and either of the circuit-springs s or 
t may be employed with the pin on the type- 
wheel shaft for cutting out an electro-magnet, 
or compelling the circuit to pass through the 
same when the non-conducting pin intervenes 
between the springs. 
I claim as my invention — 

1. Two type- wheels, actuated by separate 
levers and step-by-step movements, in combi- 
nation with an actuating electro-magnet, arm- 
ature, and bolt that locks either of the levers 
with the actuating- armature, substantially as 
set forth. 

2. An electro-magnet for operating the lock- 
ing-bolt, in combination with the said levers, 
step-by-step movements, and type-wheels, sub- 
stantially as set forth. 

3. The latch o for holding the bolt i un- 
latched by the cam 3 upon the type-wheel 
shaft, in combination with the armature and 
levers to actuate the type-wheels, substan- 
tially as set forth. 

4. The circuit-closing springs s or t, sepa- 
rated by the non-conducting pin upon the type- 
wheel shaft, in combination with an electro- 
magnet for directing the pulsation through 
that magnet when the pin is between the 
springs, substantially as specified. 

5. The arrangement of circuit-connections, 
substantially as set forth, for actuating either 
of three electro-magnets in one main telegraph 
line, for moving one of two type-wheels and 
effecting the printing, substantially as set 
forth. 

Signed by me this 17th day of January, A. 
D. 1872. 

T. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. D. Waeker, 
Geo. T. Pinckney. 



126,535 

United States Patent Office. 

THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO GOLD AND 
STOCK TELEGRAPH COMPANY, OF NEW YORK CITY. 

IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPHS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 126,535, dated May 7, 1872. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, liave invented and made an Im- 
provement in Printing-Telegraphs; and the 
following is declared to be a correct descrip- 
tion of the same. 

In my present invention I make use of two 
type-wheels, revolving with their shaft, and 
employ an impression-pad with a sliding shield, 
in which is an opening. This shield can be 
changed at certain points in the rotation of the 
type-wheel, so as to allow the impression to be 
made from one of the type- wheels through the 
opening in the shield, while the other is pre- 
vented from impressing the paper by the in- 
tervening shield. I also make use of an uni- 
son mechanism that is brought into action by 
two or more rotations of the type-wheels, but 
thrown out of action by the act of moving the 
pressure-lever or charging its magnet. By 
this means, if pulsations are sent through the 
line sufficient to rotate the type- wheels twice 
or more times without an impression being 
taken, the type-wheels will be moved around 
until the stop is operative, and then the same 
will be stopped and the pulsations may be con- 
tinued, for the purpose of bringing into uni- 
son other type-wheels,|in the same electric cur- 
rent, that may not be correctly set; and as 
soon as the circuit is reversed, or the impres- 
sion or other magnet charged, all the unison 
devices in the circuit are simultaneously lib- 
erated; and this unison mechanism is not op- 
erative each rotation of the type-wheel ; hence, 
as an impression is usually made each rota- 
tion, or nearly so, of the type-wheel, the uni- 
son mechanism will not come into play except 
when the rotation is continued for effecting 
that unison. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a vertical section 
of my instrument. Fig. 2 is a plan of the type- 
wheels and unison; Fig. 3 is a plan of the pad 
and shield; and Fig. 4 is an elevation of the 
device for moving said shield. 

The bed a, frames b b, type- wheel magnet c, 
impression-magnet <Z, and the connections to 
the main line are to be of any desired charac- 
ter; and where the printing-magnet is made 
operative by reversing the polarity of the cur- 
rent, the devices for directing said current may 



be such as shown in patents heretofore grant- 
ed to me. The impression-lever e, armature 
/, and feeding-clamps g 7 for the paper, may 
also be of any desired character. The type- 
wheels h i are upon the shaft 1c, and they are 
moved by a step-by-step movement actuated by 
the armature I and lever m. n is the ratchet- 
wheels for the pawls on the lever mj these 
parts do not constitute any part of my pres- 
ent invention. Upon the shaft Jc is a disk, o, 
revolving with such shaft, and notched atone 
side ; and upon the impression -lever is a slide, 
r, carrying the shield s above the pressure- 
pad t. Upon the end of the slide r is a cam, 
2, that can pass through the notch in the disk 
o; but this can only be done when the type- 
wheel is at a certain point ; hence the shield s 
will be held by this cam and slide, with the 
opening in such shield under one or other of 
the type -wheels. A T-shaped lever, v, is 
mounted upon a pivot, 4, upon the lever e, 
and, by a slotted end, acts upon this slide r; 
and there are two pins, 5 and 6, projecting 
from the shaft li and contiguous to this T- le- 
ver v, so that, if the impression-lever is moved 
when one pin, 5, is over said lever v, the slide 
and shield will be moved one way; audit the 
type- wheel is turned one space further, so as 
to bring the other pin, 6, over this levers, the 
movement of the slide and shield will be the 
other way; hence the operator can bring the 
shield so as to print from one wheel or the 
other by simply rotating the type -wheels 
around to the proper point, and then giving 
motion to the impression-lever. There is a 
screw-thread, 7, upon the shaft Jc, and a tooth 
upon the lever 10 takes therein; there is also 
a block or stop, 8, upon the type-wheel. The 
spring 9 draws the lever 10 away from 8 each 
time the tooth is lifted out of the screw 7 ; hence, 
according to the number of turns of the screw- 
thread so the type-wheels will have to be rotat- 
ed before the end of the lever w will be brought 
up far enough to arrest the stop 8; and each 
time the lever w is raised, it is drawn back to 
the beginning of the screw-thread; hence, if 
there is a connection between w and the im- 
pression-lever, or the impression-magnet, the 
stop 8 and lever w will not come into contact 
when the instrument is being employed in 
printing; but when the pulsations are contin- 



2 126. 

ued through the type- wheel niaguet, all the 
type-wheels in the circuit will be stopped at 
the same point, as before mentioned. The le- 
ver x and armature 10 at the side of the core 
of the magnet, form a convenient means for 
lifting the lever w and its tooth out of the 
screw 7 j and this may be made to operate by 
a feeble pulsation, so as not to move the im- 
pression-lever. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. The sliding shield actuated by the T- le- 
ver v and pins 5 and 6, on the shaft Tc, in com- 
bination with the two type-wheels, substan- 
tially as set forth. 

2. The re volving disk o and the cam 2, in com- 



,535 

bination with the shield s and type-wheels, 
substantially as set forth. 

3. A unison stop actuated by a screw upon 
the type- wheel shaft, substantially as set forth. 

4. The lever x and armature 10, at the side 
of the core of the magnet d, in combination 
with the unison-lever w, for moving the same, 
substantially as specified. 

Signed bv me this 13th day of November, 
A. D. 1871. 

T. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Chas. H. Smith, 
Geo. T. Pinckney. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Improvement in Printing-Telegraphs. 

No. 128,604. Patented July 2, 1872. 




PHOTO- LITHOGRAPHIC CO. H.Y. ,OSBOKHtS FROCKS.) 



138,604 

United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPHS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 128,604, dated July 2, 1872. 



To all whom it may concern; 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Printing-Telegraphs; and the following is 
declared to be a correct description thereof. 

This invention relates to combining with 
the printing-lever an air-cushion that acts as 
a detainer to the printing mechanism so as to 
prevent it operating, except after the type- 
wheel has been set by the pulsations in the 
main line, and the circuit is kept closed while 
the air-cushion is sufficiently displaced to per- 
mit the impression. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a plan, and Fig. 
2 an elevation, of this improvement. 

The type- wheel magnet a and printing mag- 
net 1) are in the same electric circuit. The 
pulsations in the magnet a operate to set the 
type-wheel e by a step-by-step movement, but 
they do not move the impression-lever / suf- 
ficiently for printing, because the spring g is 
acting upon the same, and the air-cushion in 
the cylinder Jc formed between the piston and 



said cylinder arrests any sudden movement, 
and the spring g acts between the. pulsations 
to keep the piston from gradually forcing the 
air out of the cylinder 1c; but when the circuit 
is kept closed at the transmitting station the 
printing-lever / is allowed to move and give 
the impression as the rod % moves the piston 
and displaces the air-cushion sufficiently to 
allow of this movement. The piston may have 
a valve to open as the lever descends, so as to 
allow the printing-pad to move rapidly away 
from the type- wheel. 

I claim as my invention — 

The air-cushion applied to and combined 
with the printing-lever and its magnet in a 
printing-telegraph instrument, in the manner 
and for the purposes specified. 

Signed by me this 26th day of April, A. D. 
1872. 

T. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Improvement in Printing-Telegraphs. 

No. 128,605. Patented July 2, 187*. 




"HOTO-UTHOSfiAPHIC CO. HY.( OSBORN tS SACCttSj 



128,605 

United States Patent Office, 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OP IEWAEK. NEW JEKSEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPHS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 128,605, dated July 2, 1872. 



To. all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Printing-Telegraphs; and the following is 
a correct description thereof. 

This instrument is provided with two com- 
pound magnets — one to move the type-wheel, 
the other to move the printing-lever. One 
spool of each magnet is in a local constant cir- 
cuit, and the other spools or helices are in the 
main line, and these are wound so that a pos- 
itive current on the main line neutralizes the 
magnetism from the local constant battery in 
the printing-magnet and intensifies the mag- 
netism in the type-wheel magnet; hence the 
type- wheel can be set by a current of one po- 
larity, and, when the polarity of the main-line 
current is reversed, the magnetism in the type- 
wheel magnet is neutralized, and that in the 
printing-magnet intensified to give the impres- 
sion. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a plan of the in- 
strument, and Pig. 2 is a side view with one 
of the standards or frame removed. 

The type-wheel a on the shaft b, supported 
in the frames or staudards c, is to be revolved 
by a step-by-step motion applied to the ratch- 
et-wheel d, and the impression is given by the 
printing-lever e; and I remark that these parts 
may be, of any desired character, as my inven- 
tion may be employed with single or compound 
type-wheels and with any desired step-by-step 
movement. The printing-magnet is composed 
of the usual cores within the double spools or 
helices h 1c, and the type-wheel magnet is also 
compound, having the helices /, m. The hel- 
ices h and I are in a local constant circuit, 3 
4 5, from the battery o, and the helices Jc m 
are in the circuit 6 7 8 connected to the main 



line. The keys or pulsators p and q may be of 
any desired character, such as a transmitting- 
dial, or other means for making and breaking 
the main-line circuit. 

The parts are arranged and the helices wound 
so that when a current of one polarity is sent 
over the main line the printing-magnet will be 
inoperative, in consequence of the current in 
the helices Tc tending to produce polarity in 
the cores the reverse of that produced by the 
constant circuit in the spools h. At the same 
time the type-wheel magnet will be sufficient- 
ly energized to overcome its resistance or 
spring, in consequence of the current in both 
helices I m producing the same polarity in the 
cores; but when a pulsation of the opposite 
polarity is sent the type- wheel magnet will be 
inoperative, and the printing-magnet energized 
to give the impression. 

In this manner a printing-telegraph instru-. 
ment can be operated by one Una-wire without 
any switch or polarized circuit-changer, the 
local constant battery being employed with 
each instrument. 

I claim as my invention — 

The compouud type-wheel magnet and the 
compound printing-magnet in a printing-tele- 
graph instrument, in combination with a local 
constant circuit connected to one set of spools 
in such magnets, and the main-line current 
connected to the other spools of such magnets, 
to be operated substantially in the manner and 
for the purposes set forth. 

Signed by me this 26th day of April, A. D. 
1872. 

T. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. Pijnckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



2 



T. A. EDISON. 
Improvement in Printing-Telegraphs. 

No. 128,606. Patented July 2, 1872. 

I - 





PHOTO -UTHOQXAPH 10 CO. H.Y.f OSBO/U/tS PKOCCSS.J 



128,606 

United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JEESEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPHS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 128,606, dated July 2, 1872. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented and made an Im- 
provement in Printing-Telegraphs; and the fol- 
lowing is declared to be a correct description 
thereof. 

In printing-telegraphs considerable time is 
lost in actuating the step-by-step movement, 
because there is no opportunity to move the 
type-wheel more than one letter at a time. 

My invention is made to promote rapidity in 
actuating the type- wheel. Said invention con- 
sists in a multiplied motion from a step-by-step 
movement applied to the type-wheel, so that 
one pulsation on the line will give a motion to 
the type-wheel equal to two or more letters. 
The parts are constructed and arranged so that 
either the multiplied movement can be given, 
or the single step-by-step motion, according to 
the letter to be brought into position for print- 
ing. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a plan of my 
instrument, and Fig. 2 is an elevation of the 
same. 

The type-wheel a and figure- wheel b are 
shown as upon the shaft c, sustained in suit- 
able frames or bearings d, and I remark that 
these type- wheels may be of any desired char- 
acter, and either single or double, and the im- 
pression mechanism may be of any available 
character. The magnet e, armature /, pawl g, 
ratchet /«, and stop i are of any ordinary or 
desired character, and act to move the type- 
wheel around one letter at a time by a step- 
by-step movement. The gear-wheel I, upon 
the shaft m, takes into the pinion n upon the 
type-wheel shaft <?, and 'these two gears are 



proportioned so that the wheel I contains, say, 
six times the number of teeth in the pinion ; 
thereby the type-wheel will be revolved six 
times for one revolution of the shaft m. Upon 
this shaft m is a ratchet-wheel, p, operated by 
the pawl r," lever s, armature t, and magnet u. 
If the ratchet-wheels li and p have the same 
number of teeth, and the proportion of gearing 
aforesaid was used, then for each pulsation in 
the magnet u the type- wheel will move six 
letters or spaces, and complete a revolution in 
either four or five pulsations of the magnet u, 
according to the number of characters upon 
such type-wheels. In this manner great rapid- 
ity can be obtained, because the long intervals 
and numerous pulsations required between im- 
pressing one letter and the next are lessened. 
The magnet u may be energized by a reversal 
of the current operating in the magnet e, or 
by a separate line-wire. The transmitting 
dial or instrument may be of any desired char- 
acter adapted to these two magnets, and the 
currents to them. 

I claim as my invention — 

A type-wheel in combination with two ac- 
tuating magnets and connections, substantial- 
ly as set forth, one for operating a step-by- 
step motion one letter or division at a time, 
and the other for moving the type-wheel two 
or more letters or divisions at a time, substan- 
tially as specified. 

Signed by me this 26th day of April, A. D. 
1872. 

T. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Ohas. H. Smith. 



T. A, EDISON. 
Improvement in Printing-Telegraphs. 

No. 128,607. Patented July 2, 1872. 



Ufa 




Y.f OSBORNtS PROCESS.) 



128,607 

United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWAEK, NEW JEKSEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPHS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 128,607, dated July 2, 1872. 



To all idiom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Printing-Telegraphs; and the following is 
declared to be a correct description of the 
same. 

In this instrument the magnet that gives 
the impression is in the main-line circuit as 
well as the type-wheel magnet, but the former 
is " cut out " by a shunt or short circuit that 
is closed when the instrument is not working, 
and during the pulsations that set the type- 
wheel; but when a pause occurs with the cir- 
cuit closed this short circuit is broken by a 
gradually-operating spring or weight controlled 
by an air-cushion, so that the electricity is 
forced to pass through the printing-magnet 
and gives the impression, simply in conse- 
quence of keeping the circuit closed when the 
letter to be printed has arrived in position for 
the impression. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a plan, and Fig. 
2 an elevation, of the instrument. 

The finger-key a is introduced to illustrate 
any suitable apparatus for opening and clos- 
ing the electric circuit from the battery b. 1 
represents the line- wire, and 2 the ground or 
return circuit. The type- wheel c is moved by 
any suitable step -by -step motion. I have 
shown the ratchet-wheel d and lever e, operat- 
ed by the armature / and spring 4. The print- 
ing-lever g may also be of any desired character. 
The type-wheel magnet li is connected with 
the line-wire 1, and from this the wire 5 leads to 
the printing-magnet t, and thence the circuit 
returns by the wire 2. If this alone was used, 
both magnets would be energized each pulsa- 
tion ; therefore, to prevent this, I employ the 
short circuit or shunt, composed of the wire 7 
leading to the screw i, and the wire 9 leading 
to the tongue o. The air-cushion is made of 
the cylinder w, within which is a piston, and 



the rod r of the same rests at its lower end 
upon the tongue o, and the parts are adjusted 
so that the circuit between i and o is closed 
when the parts are at rest, because a collar, 
s, on the rod r rests upon the type- wheel lever 
e and holds the rod r up against the spring u. 
When the type-wheel lever g is vibrated in set- 
ting the type-wheel, the movement is suffi- 
ciently rapid to keep pressing the rod r up 
against the action of the spring u 7 and the air- 
cushion prevents its return with rapidity; but 
when a pause takes place in the pulsations, 
and the circuit is kept closed, the rod r de- 
scends and moves the tongue o, breaking the 
shunt-circuit through 7, i, o, and 9, and com- 
pelling the electricity to pass through the mag- 
net t and produce the printing. The parts re- 
turn to the position of inactivity with magnet 
t cut out by the circuit 7 i o 9, when the cir- 
cuit is broken at the transmitting station, and 
I remark that there might be a finger upon the 
printing-lever g to lift the rod r, in which case 
the impression-lever would drop back instant- 
ly, as the circuit would be closed again through 
7, ij o, and 9; and in this manner a second or 
third impression of the same letter, number, 
or character would be given by keeping the 
circuit closed at the transmitting station to al- 
low sufficient time for the rod r to descend 
again and open the shunt at o L 

I claim as my invention — 

Two electro-magnets, one for operating the 
type- wheel lever, the other for giving the im- 
pression, both in the main circuit, in combina- 
tion with a "shunt" or " cut-out" circuit and 
a shunt-breaker, substantially as and for the 
purposes set forth. 

Signed by me this 26th day of April, A. D. 
1872. 

T. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



2 Sheets — Sheet 1. 

T. A. EDISON. 




4M. PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHIC CO. MY, f OSBOM 'E'S PROCESS.) 




AM. PHOTO- LITHOGRAPHIC CO. MX foSBOHHtS f/tBCesS.J 



138,608 

United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JEESET. 
IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 128,608, dated July 2, 1872. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented and made a new 
and useful Improvement in Printing- Tele- 
graphs, and the following is declared to be a 
correct description thereof. 

Printing-telegraphs have been constructed 
to work upon a single wire by means of two 
electro-magnets and one polarized magnet, so 
combined with each other that a current of one 
polarity is made to act upon one electro-mag- 
net and an opposite current upon the other 
magnet by arranging cut-offs upon the electro- 
magnets and rendering them active or inact- 
ive, as the case may be, by the polarized mag- 
net. My present invention consists of a com- 
pound electro-magnet, constructed in such a 
manner that when a current of one polarity 
enters both parts of the magnet the polarity of 
the current acting upon the devices of the com- 
pound magnet determine which part shall be- 
come active or magnetic, thereby dispensing 
with a third magnet. In this manner two op- 
erations, distinct from each other, can be per- 
formed with the use of only one line-wire. I 
also provide a unison connection, so that the 
act of transmitting pulsations from the send- 
ing station can be availed of to set all the type- 
wheels of the several instruments placed in one 
electrical circuit at a zero-point at each com- 
plete revolution of the type- wheel, thereby in- 
suring accuracy in transmission in consequence 
of the frequent unison action. 

In the drawing, Fig. 1 is a plan. Fig. 2 is 
an inverted plan. Fig. 3 is a vertical section, 
and Fig. 4 is a diagram illustrative of the con- 
nections. 

The base a contains within it the compound 
magnet b c, and upon said base are the frames 
d, carrying the respective shafts and axes. 
The part b of the compound magnet acts upon 
the armature e of the printing and paper-feed- 
ing mechanism, and the portion c acts upon 
the armature / and lever f to operate the type 
wheel. The type- wheel is made of two rings 
upon arms, the one ring h having figures, 
signs, or fractions, and the other ring, i, has 



letters or similar characters, so that either one 
or the other can be printed at will, because the 
characters on one wheel come opposite a blank 
space on the other wheel, as illustrated in the 
drawing, in which the figures and fractions 
come between the terminal letters of the al- 
phabet, facilitating the construction and set- 
ting of the wheel, and allowing the letters to 
be printed on one line and the figures and frac- 
tions on another, and there is a portion of the 
type- wheel where there are not any characters, 
and at this part the unison connection is made 
to operate. The lever/ 7 is on a fulcrum, 2, and 
the spring 3 acts to draw the armature from the 
magnet when the electrical circuit is broken. 
The lever/' has arms carrying the spring-x>awls 
4 and 5, that have hooked ends acting upon 
the wheel I so as to move the said wheel I one 
tooth at each vibration of the lever/', the pawl 
4, upon the return movement of the armature, 
giving a partial movement to the type- wheel 
so as to insure the catching of the pawl 5 over 
the next foot and lessen the amount of play of 
the escapement-lever. The lever/ 7 has stop- 
spurs, 7 and 8, acting with the reverse ratch- 
et-teeth of the wheel I' to check the movement 
and prevent the momentum carrying the type- 
wheel more than one letter at a time. The stop, 
spurs 7 and 8 are arranged so that the hold- 
ing-faces are at right angles to lines drawn 
from the center of motion 2, so that the lock- 
ing will be of the most reliable character, 
there being no tendency to move the spurs by 
the concussion of the wheel against them in 
stopping. 

The printing or impression is effected by the 
pad m upon the lever w, that is mounted upon 
the axis or fulcrum n' and actuated by the arm- 
ature e to the magnet b. The paper is fed 
along by the movement of the impression-le- 
ver. The roller t is mounted upon an axis that 
has upon each side of the roller sleeves that 
carry crank-arms 15 and spring-pawls or points 
16, and in the ends of the two portions of the 
lever n that pass contiguous to these arms 15 
are diagonal slots placed in opposite positions 
and taking pins that project from the arms 15, 
so that as the lever n rises one pawl, 16, will 



138,008 



bind the paper to the roller t and carry both 
forward, and the other pawl will be drawn 
back, so that as the lever n descends the first- 
named pawl 16 is drawn back and the other 
pawl made to operate in feeding the paper. 
Thus the paper can be moved along with fa- 
cility, as there are two movements to each im- 
pression of the letter or type; consequently 
but one-half the motion of the lever is required 
as would be the case if only one feed-pawl was 
used. The ink is supplied to the types by 
means of a hollow perforated drum,?/, or roller, 
into which the ink is introduced, and around 
this roller a cloth or felt surface is attached, 
as seen in Fig. 3, to rest upon the types of the 
type-wheel. The ink gradually passes through 
the perforations and the surrounding cloth, and 
thus the quantity necessary for the types is fur- 
nished. The roller u is upon arms swinging 
upon the shaft w 1 , so that the ink-roller lies 
constantly in contact with the type- wheel. The 
connections for the compound" magnet are il- 
lustrated in the plan, Fig. 2; and diagram, 
Fig. 3. The battery at w 2 is divided, a con- 
nection, passing from near the center to the 
ground. The wire w passes to the finger-key 
w', and from the other end of the battery the 
wire x passes to the transmitting instrument 
y; thence to the line- wire z, uniting with a wire 
from the finger-key and passing to the bind- 
ing-screw 30 of the instrument. The wire z 
passes from the binding-screw 31 of one instru- 
ment to the screw 30 of the next, and so on 
through as many instruments as there are in 
the line, and then connecting to the ground at 
32, beyond the last instrument. Between the 
helices b b and c c of the compound magnet are 
steel tongues 33 34, hinged at one end and 
swinging freely horizontally. The polarity of 
b and c will, with a positive current, attract by 
means of the arms at the ends of the soft-iron 
magnet the tongue 34 to the circuit-closer 36, 
and repelling the tongue 33 from 35. By chang- 
ing the currents the reverse movements take 
place of the tongue. The transmitting-dial y 
is made in any usual manner, so as to give the 
pulsations through the wire z and screw 30, 
and the current being positive the compound 
magnet as charged connects 34 and 36 and 
breaks 33 and 35 by the reversed polarity: 
hence the current will be directed through the 
helices c, the base-plate forming a part of the 
circuit, to operate the type-wheel by the arma- 
ture/and lever/'. The current passes from 
the helix e to the bed a of the instrument ; 
thence through the tongue 34, (which is in me- 
tallic contact with the base,) circuit-closer 36, 
to the screw 31 of the line or ground wire, re- 
turning by 32 and v. If the finger-key w' is 
closed when the circuit through y is broken the 
direction of current is instantly changed and the 
compound magnet b c is altered in its polarity, 
o4 and 36 separating and 33 and 35 closing, so 
that the magnet b is made fully operative to 



effect the printing; the current passing from 
31 to the magnet b, thence to the base a, switch 
33, closer 35, binding-screw 30, to the key w'j 
and battery, and vice versa. 

In order to insure unison of movement in 
the type-wheels of several machines in one 
line or circuit, I provide two or more blank 
spaces on each type-wheel, and employ an arm, 

38, on the type-wheel shaft, which, when a 
given one of these blank spaces is opposite 
the impression-pad, comes in contact with the 
insulated circuit-closing spring 39, so that a 
direct current passes through this spring, the 
type-wheel shaft, and the bed of the machine 
instead of the magnet c; hence the magnet 
ceases to be operative, although the current 
proceeds to other machines and operates upon 
the same, bringing them to the same position 
should they not be in that position. tJpon re- 
versing the current through w' the impression- 
magnet b operates the lever w, lifts the spring 
from contact with the arm 38, breaking the 
current through 39, and simultaneously the 
stud 41, coming against the end of the arm 38, 
prevents the movement of the lever n suffi- 
ciently to impress or feed the paper ; the spring 

39, being slightly under strain by the arm 38, 
clears the same, as the parts resume their nor- 
mal position. These parts are shown more 
clearly in Fig. 5. 

By having an arm upon the transmitting 
instrument, as shown at 42, and locating the 
same so as to close the circuit between w and 
z, at the period in the rotation of the dial when 
the machines are to be brought to a normal 
position, the machinery becomes self-operat- 
ing without the use of the finger- key, and ap- 
plies a correcting movement to all t]ie type- 
wheels in the electrical circuit every rotation 
of the type- wheel, hence insuring great accu- 
racy. 

I do not claim a hollow perforated inking- 
drum, as the same is shown in the patent of 
S. S. Laws, No. 99,273. 

I claim as my invention— 

1. A compound magnet provided with steel 
tongues that direct the force of the electrical 
current through one portion of the magnet or 
through another portion, according to the di- 
rection in which the current passes to said com- 
pound magnet, substantially as specified. 

2. The double-acting pawls 4 5, stops 7 8, 
and lever/', combined with the ratchet and 
type-wheel, as set forth. 

3. Two type-wheels on one shaft parallel to 
each other, and arranged so that the blank 
spaces upon one wheel come opposite to the 
characters on the other, and vice versa, sub- 
stantially as set forth. 

4. The hollow perforated inking-drum sur- 
rounded with a surface of fibrous material, and 
arranged so that the said surface is in contact 
with the type -wheel, as and for the purposes 
specified. 



128,608 



5. The pawls 16 16, and crank-arms actuat- 
ed by the lever n to feed the paper, in the man- 
ner specified. 

6. The arrangement of the magnets that op- 
erate the type- wheel and printing mechanism 
within the bed of the machine, as set forth. 

7. The circuit-closing spring 39 and arm 38, 
arranged, substantially as set forth, to stop 
the action of the magnet b, for the purpose of 
bringing several machines in one main circuit 
into unison, substantially as set forth. 



8. The combination of the compound mag- 
net, the type- wheel, and actuating mechanism 
with the printing and paper-feeding mechan- 
ism, substantially as set forth. 

Signed this 24th day of May, A. D. 1870. 

THOMAS A. EDISOK 

Witnesses : 

Harold Serrell, 
Geo. T. Pinckney. 



THOMAS A. EDISON. 
Improvement in Printing-Telegraphs. 





AM. PHOTO -LITHOGRAPHIC GO. N.Y.f OSSORVfS PROCESS.) 



128,131 

United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWAEK, NEW JEESEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPHS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 128,131, dated June 18, 1872. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Magnetic Telegraphs, and the following is 
declared to be a correct description of the 
same. 

The ordinary magnetic telegraph is provided 
with a lever and point, the latter being held in 
contact with the paper to make a mark there- 
in. In this case the magnetic energy must be 
sufficiently powerful to give the required press- 
ure of the point on the paper. 

My invention is made for giving a record by 
embossing the paper in a waving or zigzag 
line, by pressure between a rigid and an elastic 
roller, by means of a cord or chain that is po- 
sitioned by the action of an electro -magnet. 
When the magnet is not charged the cord or 
chain will give a straight embossed mark; 
when the magnet is energized by a short pul- 
sation the cord or chain will be moved out and 
back to produce a short undulation or V-formed 
embossing,- and when the pulsation is longer 
the undulation will be of greater length, thus 
indicating dots and dashes. A comparatively 
feeble current can be employed, and yet the 
embossing will be so bold that the communi- 
cation might be read by the touch, or the strip 
of paper might be used in an automatic ma- 
chine to actuate mechanism for printing or 
otherwise preparing the message for delivery, 
a device for this purpose being contemplated 
by me. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a plan, and Fig. 
2 an elevation, of the apparatus, the rollers 
being in section. 

The electro-magnet a is of any usual char- 



acter, and is energized by pulsations in an 
electric circuit. The finger -key & illustrates 
the means for opening and closing this circuit. 
The armature c swings with the lever d upon 
the fulcrum e, and is retracted by the spring 
/, or drawn back or repelled in any suitable 
manner. The amount of motion to the lever 
d is determined by the screw-stops h. At the 
end of the lever d is a small roller, i, or open- 
ing, through which passes the endless chain 
or cord Jc, that is suspended or guided by the 
rollers I, and passes through between the roll- 
ers m and n. These rollers m and n are re- 
volved constantly, while the machine is in ac- 
tion, by any suitable mechanism, and the roller 
n should have an elastic covering, and the 
paper pass in between said roller n and the 
chain or cord ~k. As the rollers m n revolve 
and draw the paper along, the chain ~k will 
emboss or indent the paper in a straight line ; 
but when the magnet a attracts the armature 
the chain will be drawn off and produce a zig- 
zag line, as shown in Fig. 3, the long undula- 
tions representing dashes and the short ones 
dots, as indicated by the corresponding line of 
telegraphic characters. 

I claim as my invention — 

A chain or cord under control of an electro- 
magnet, and pressed into contact with the sur- 
face of the paper to produce a telegraphic 
character by embossing, substantially as set 
forth. 

Signed by me this 26th day of April, A. D. 
1872. 

T. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Improvement in Electro-Magnets. 

130,795. Patented Aug. 27, 1872. 




ATTY. 



AM. PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHIC CO. V.Y. foSBORHES 



p.iocessj 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN ELECTRO-MAGNETS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 130,795, dated August 27, 1872. 



To all wlwm it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Electro-Magnets; and the following is de- 
clared to be a correct description of the same. 

If two magnets of equal power act in oppo- 
site directions and at the same distance from 
a swinging armature, said armature will not be 
moved; but by removing one magnet further 
from the armature the other will be free to ex- 
ert on that armature a force equal to the dif- 
ference between the effective force of one mag- 
net and the other. I avail of the foregoing 
features, and, instead of employing an adjust- 
able spring to draw the armature back, I use 
a weight or spring of uniform power, and I 
provide a balancing-pole energized by induced 
magnetism from the core of the electro-mag- 
net, and use an adjustment, so that the power 
of the electro-magnet and the induced magnet 
are balanced in their action on the armature ; 
thus, when the electro-magnet is energized by 
a powerful current the induced magnetic pole 
will act with a proportionate power in the op- 
posite direction, or may be adjusted so as to 
leave only sufficient surplus of force in the 
electro - magnet to overcome the spring or 
weight; hence the armature will respond very 
rapidly, because the opposing forces neutral- 
ize each other instantly upon the circuit through 
the electro-magnet being broken. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a plan, and Fig. 
2 is a side view, of this improvement as applied 
to a relay-magnet. 

The electro-magnet a is of usual character. 
The armature I is shown as on the swinging 



lever c that opens and closes the local circuit 
at <?, and a spring or weight at e acts to draw 
back the armature. These parts are to be of 
any usual or desired character, according to 
the work for which the instrument is to be em- 
ployed. The iron yokes h are connected with 
the cores i i of the electro-magnets, and they 
extend around to the balancing-poles 7c 1c that 
pass through these yokes, and are made of iron, 
and hence are magnetized with the same po- 
larity as the cores i i by induction. These poles 
7c are to be adjusted to stand at the proper dis- 
tance from the back of the armature, and for 
this purpose an}' suitable means may be em- 
ployed — such as the cross-bar I and screw m — 
which must not be of iron, or the proper polar- 
ity of the poles 1c would be interfered with. 

It will be apparent that the attraction of the 
poles 1c is acting up the armature o in the op- 
posite direction to that of the cores i, hence 
that the relative distance of the poles from 
the armature must be such that the proper 
force will be exerted to move the armature 
when the electro-magnet is energized. If the 
current is powerful the poles Jc should be closer 
to the armature, and if feeble the poles should 
be further removed. 

I claim as my invention — 

The balancing-poles 7c, energized by induced 
magnetism from the cores i of the electro-mag- 
net, and acting in opposite direction to such 
electro magnet, substantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 9th day of May, 1872. 

T. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



2 Sheets — Sheet I. 

T. A. EDISON. 
Improvement in Rheotomes or Circuit-Directors. 

No. 131,334. J, Patented Sep. 17, 1872. 




AM.PHOTO'UTHOaKAPHIC CO.N.YlOSBORNES PROCESS;) 



2 Sheets — Sheet 2. 

T. A. EDISON. 
Improvement in Rheotomes or Circuit-Directors. 

No. 131,334. Patented Sep, 17, 1872. 




*m. Haro-uTHoe/iAriic CQ.H.KosaoKNt's proccss.) 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWABK, NEW JERSEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN RHEOTOMES OR CIRCUIT-DIRECTORS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 131,334, dated September 17, 1872. 



To all whom, it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improved 
Eheotonie or Circuit-Director ; and the follow- 
ing is declared to be a correct description of 
the same. 

This invention is for selecting from a num- 
ber of telegraphic circuits the particular one 
to which a message is to be communicated. 
For instance, a connection from the sending- 
station, say at New York, may pass to this 
improved instrument located, say at Phila- 
delphia, and by operating said instrument at 
Philadelphia by a negative current, a connec- 
tion may be opened with a line to Beading, 
Harrisburg, Baltimore, or any other desired 
point, and communication be made direct or 
through a relay by pulsations of positive po- 
larity, the rheotome instrument at Philadel- 
phia remaining passive until again operated 
by a current of the opposite polarity. 

I make use of a circuit-closing arm revolved 
in contact with the circular range of insulat- 
ed circuit-closing pins by a step-by-step move- 
ment actuated by an electro-magnet upon an 
armature that is polarized, and the circuit is 
closed through one of said pins to the distant 
station, or to a relay -magnet to the distant 
station, and the step-by-step movement is act- 
uated by pulsations of one polarity; but if 
the opposite polarity is employed there will 
not be any movement of the rheotome, be- 
cause the polarity of the electro-magnet is 
such as to repel the polarized armature. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a plan of the 
machine adapted to relay -magnets in local 
lines. Fig. 2 is an elevation of the said rhe- 
otome, and Fig. 3 is a diagram illustrative of 
the connections. 

The vertical shaft a is revolved by a step- 
by-step movement of any desired character. 
1 have shown the lever b and a ratchet-wheel. 
This lever b carries a polarized armature, c, 
that is operated by the electro - magnet or 
magnets d in the main-line circuits, and e and 
/ are finger-keys, by means of which pulsa- 
tions of positive or negative polarity can be 
sent over the main line from the battery g to 
the magnet or magnets d. The shaft a is 



also in the main-line circuit and carries the 
selecting -arm h, the end of which moves 
around in contact with the pins or conductors 
i in the rheotome-plate Jc. The conductors i 
are connected to the wires I, that lead to ei- 
ther distant magnets by line-wires or to relay- 
magnets m n o p, that are constructed in any 
desired manner to operate local or relay cir- 
cuits, or perform any other desired operation. 
The end of the arm h must be wide enough 
to reach from one of the conductors i to the 
next while being moved around, otherwise 
the circuit will be broken, and the hand re- 
main stationary, and I remark that the rhe- 
otome is adapted to a large number of cir- 
cuits ; but may be used with only three or 
four, and a wire, s, is employed to connect all 
the conductor-pins i that are not otherwise 
connected to local or relay circuits, so that 
the selector-hand may be revolved all the way 
round in making any selection desired. 

The operator energizes the magnet i with 
pulsations that will cause the polarized arma- 
ture c to be attracted, say, of positive polar- 
ity, and the current passes from the battery 
g through /, d 1 a, 7t, i, and I through one of 
the electro-magnets m, n, o, or p, and by the 
ground back through e to g, and according to 
the number of pulsations, so the arm h will 
stop over one or the other of the pins i and 
make the connection through the same to its 
magnet. When the key e is operated and 
pulsations of opposite polarity sent, the arm 
h will not be moved because the polarized 
armature c will remain unacted upon. The 
electric pulsations passing on through Ji i I 
may act in an electro-magnet to affect any 
object at m p o, Fig. 3. These electro-mag- 
nets are shown as at a distant station. They 
might, however, all be near the rheotome, as 
illustrated at n, to operate relay or local cir- 
cuits. The wire s insures a circuit connection 
through either of the pins * that is not con- 
nected to a local or relay circuit. 

Instead of using a single magnet, d, there 
might be a double one, and the armature vi- 
brate between the cores; in this instance a re- 
tractile spring to the armature is rendered un- 
necessary, and the rheotome will be set by 
alternate pulsations of opposite polarity, and 



2 131 

the rheotorae will not be moved by a repeti- 
tion of pulsations of one polarity, and these 
will act at the distant magnet. 
I claim as my invention — 

1. The rheotome, formed of the arm h and 
conductor-pins i, in combination with the mag- 
net d and polarized armature, substantially as 
and for the purposes set forth. 

2. The wire or conductor s, connecting the 



,384 

circuit-pins i i of the rheotome, in combina- 
tion with the arm h, magnet d, and polarized 
armature, substantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this Cth day of May, A. D. 
1872. 

T. A. EDISON". 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Oiias. H. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON, 
improvement in Printing-Telegraphs. 

No. 131,335. Patented Sep. 17, 1872. 

f 




W PHOTO-UTHOCRAPH1C CO.N.Y.I OSBORHiS .'ROCKS 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWAKK, NEW JEESET. 
IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPHS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 131,335, dated September 17, 1872. 



To all ivliom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement in 
Printing-Telegraph Instruments; and the fol- 
lowing is hereby declared to be a full and cor- 
rect description of the same. 

This instrument is of that class in which 
two type- wheels, rotated by separate step-by- 
step movements, are employed to print in two 
lines upon one strip of paper. My improve- 
ment relates to employing an auxiliary lever 
and ratchet-wheel in connection with each of 
the usual type-wheel levers, and these auxil- 
iary levers are so arranged that when either 
of the type-wheel levers is vibrated by its mag- 
net to rotate the type-wheel the other type- 
wheel is rotated and brought to unison by 
means of the auxiliary lever acting upon its 
ratchet-wheel, and rotating said wheel until 
its pawl or pallet ceases to turn said wheel, 
in consequence of a tooth being removed from 
the same. The space where the tooth is re- 
moved from the ratchet-wheel is at a place in 
such relation to the zero or unison point of the 
type-wheel that when said ratchet-wheel stops 
revolving the type- wheel is at zero, and is in 
unison with the transmitter, and so remains 
ready to be brought into action by that instru- 
ment. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a plan of my 
improved instrument, and Fig. 2 is a sectional 
elevation of the same. 

a a' are the type -wheels secured to the 
sleeves b b', which revolve upon the station- 
ary shaft c, when actuated by their respective 
electro-magnets d d', through the armatures 
and levers e e' and ratchet-wheels//'. The 
magnets d d' are in independent electric cir- 
cuits, and either type-wheel maybe revolved, 
stopped, and printed from, according to which 
magnet is energized, as heretofore usual, h h' 
are the auxiliary levers upon the shaft or ful- 
crum », and I V are their respective ratchet- 



wheels secured to the sleeves b b'; and from 
each wheel I V a tooth is removed, as at 2. 
These levers h ¥ are contiguous to the levers 
e e', and pins m m' project from the same and 
rest upon said levers h h'. When either type- 
wheel is in use — say the wheel a' — its lever 
e' is vibrated by the magnet d', and its pin 
m' will vibrate the auxiliary lever li', and, 
through the shaft i, will vibrate the lever h' 
and rotate the ratchet-wheel I and its sleeve 
and type -wheel a; and said wheel I will be 
rotated until the pawl or pallet of li arrives 
at the space 2, where the tooth is removed ; 
and said pawl will then move up and down in 
said space without turning the wheel I, if the 
lever h continues to be vibrated. The type- 
wheel a is now at zero and in unison with the 
transmitter, ready to be brought into action 
by that instrument. The wheel a, when in 
use, acts, by its lever e and pin m, to vibrate 
the lever Ji' 7 to rotate the ratchet-wheel V and 
bring -the type-wheel a' to unison. 

The printing-lever and its magnet are not 
shown in the drawing. They may be of any 
desired character, and the magnet may be in 
a separate electric circuit or in a circuit to the 
magnets d or d'. Ordinarily the change in 
operating the type-wheels will take place at 
the zero-points; hence the levers h h' will not 
be operative unless there has been a loss in 
the movement of the type- wheel that is thrown 
out of action. 

I claim as my invention — 

Two type-wheels separately revolved by a 
step -by- step motion, in combination with a 
separate lever or levers operated by the mech- 
anism that is moving one type-wheel to set the 
other type-wheel, substantially as specified. 

Signed by me this 15th day of June, A. D. 
1872. 

T. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pincknet, 
Ohas. H. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Improvement in Printing-Telegraphs. 

No. 131,336. Patented Sep. 17, 1872. 




I. PHOTO- LITHOGRAPHIC COM. Y. {OSBORNE'S PROCESS.) 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWAEK, NEW JEESEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPHS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 131,336, dated September 17, 1872. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Printing-Telegraph Instruments; and the 
following is hereby declared to be a full and 
correct description of the same. 

In this instrument there are two type-wheels 
— one a letter- wheel, the other a figure- wheel — 
both revolving upon a shaft, and each sleeve 
or shaft and its wheel is actuated by a sepa- 
rate step-by-step movement. 

My invention relates to two type- wheel le- 
vers connected to each other by yielding or 
spring arms, so that when one type- wheel le- 
ver is vibrated by its magnet and armature to 
rotate its type-wheel, its spring-arm will act 
to vibrate the other type-wheel lever and ro- 
tate its type-wheel until said wheel is brought 
to the zero-point and arrested by a yielding 
unison stop, when the spring-arm will yield, 
not being of sufficient strength to move said 
lever against the resistance offered by the uni- 
son stop. By this arrangement of parts, if 
the type-wheel that has been in use is not in 
unison, the other type- wheel moves it forward 
until it reaches the zero-point, and is, in uni- 
son with the transmitter, ready to be brought 
into action by that instrument. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a plan of my 
improved instrument, and Fig. 2 is an eleva- 
tion of the same. 

a is a stationary shaft sustained in the stand- 
ards b b, and upon this shaft are sleeves c 6', 
to which are secured the type- wheels d d' and 
ratchet-wheels e e', respectively; or two short, 
shafts may be employed with a central sup-' 
port. The type- wheel d is rotated in its step- 
by-step movement by the electro-magnet h, ar- 
mature and lever/, and wheel e, and the type- 
wheel d' is rotated by the magnet h' t armature 
and lever/ 7 , and wheel e, and these magnets 
h W are in separate electric circuits, or other- 
wise rendered operative upon their respective 
armatures, g is a spring-arm secured to the 
lever t) and at its outer end resting upon the 



lever/', g'is a second arm secured to the le- 
ver,/', and resting at its outer end upon the 
lever /. % % are the unison arms upon their 
respective sleeves c c', and I V are yielding 
stops for said arms to take against in their 
movement. 

If the type-wheel $! is in use, and its lever 
/' vibrated by its magnet ¥, the lever/ will 
also be vibrated by the spring g' pressing up- 
on the same, and it will continue to actuate 
said lever and rotate the type-wheel d until 
the arm i takes against the stop as shown 
in Fig. 2, and stops said wheel at zero. The 
spring g' now ceases to move the lever /, but 
yields each time the lever /' is drawn down 
by its magnet, said arm not having sufficient 
strength to move the lever / and turn the 
ratchet e one tooth to carry the arm i past the 
yielding stop I. The arm g acts in a similar 
manner when the lever / is vibrated and the 
type- wheel d is in use, and brings the type- 
wheel d' to zero. 

It is to be understood that the wheel being- 
printed from is not stopped by the arm % or %' 
taking against the stop I or V, because the 
magnet is sufficiently powerful to overcome 
the resistance of the spring-stop and carry the 
arm i or V past said stop. 

The printing may be effected in any desired 
manner, such as by a printing lever and pad 
actuated by an electro-magnet in a circuit sep- 
arate from the magnets h or /</, or in any of 
the known modes. 

One spring attached at both ends might be 
employed, instead of the two springs g g'. 

I claim as my invention — 

Two type- wheels actuated by separate step- 
by-step movements, in combination with a 
spring arm or arms extending from one lever 
to the other, and a yielding unison stop for 
each type- wheel, substantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 15th day of June, A. D. 
1872. 

Witnesses: T. A. EDISON. 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



2 Sheets--Sheet'l. 

T. A. EDISON. 
Improvement in Printing-Telegraphs. 

No. 131,337. Patented Sep, 17, 1872. 





AM. PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHIC COMX/ OSBOftHfS PROCCSS.) 



2 Sheets — Sheet 2, 

T. A. EDISON. 
Improvement in Printing-Telegraphs. 

No. 131,337. Patented Sep. 17, 1872. 




<. KOrO-UTHOOIUr'HtcaO.H.Y.roSBOKNCS PKOCtSS.) 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OP NEWARK, NEW JERSEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPHS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 131,337, dated September 17, 1872. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
. in Printing-Telegraphs ; and the following is 
declared to be a correct description thereof. 

This invention is for shifting the type- wheels 
lengthwise of the shaft so as to bring one into 
action and move the other out of action. This 
has been accomplished by me at certain points 
in the revolution of the type-wheel by pins 
upon the printing-lever acting upon a T-lever. 
I now dispense with the T-lever and provide 
for means for shifting the type-wheels at any 
letter. The escapement I employ receives 
motion from a magnet, and the type- wheels 
are rotated half of the space between one let- 
ter and the next when the circuit is closed, 
and the other half by the movement of the 
lever when the circuit is open ; and the two type- 
wheels are so applied that the characters on 
one are in line for printing with the closed 
circuit and the other in line for printing with 
the open circuit. Notched wheels are applied 
at the sides of the type- wheels, and projec- 
tions are moved by the printing-lever, so that 
if the type- wheel to be printed from is not in 
position the parts will be moved in the act of 
operating the printing-lever. It is to be un- 
derstood that this printing instrument is op- 
erated by two line-wires on separate circuits, 
one through the printing-magnet and the other 
through the type-wheel magnet, and that a 
number of instruments can be used in the 
same circuits. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is an elevation, 
with the bed in section, of my instrument. 
Fig. 2 is a view of the notched wheel and lev- 
er endwise of the shaft. Fig. 3 shows the 
type-wheels, shaft, and notched wheels in a 
modified form ; and Fig. 4 is a view endwise 
of the shaft, showing the notched wheel and 
actuating tooth. 

The bed a, frame &, type-wheel shaft c, and 
type-wheel magnet d are of usual character. 
The armature e moves the step-by-step escape- 
ment or wedge-acting pallets of the lever /so 
as to move the wheel g and shaft c progres- 
sively half a letter space as the magnet d is 
energized, and the other half space when the 
magnet is discharged. The type-wheels h h 
are placed upon the sleeve i, that can slide 



endwise upon the shaft c, and is guided by 
the rod 3 and arm 4, and the position of these 
type -wheels is such that a plane passing 
through the center of a letter on the wheel h 
will pass midway between two letters or char- 
acters on the wheel 7c; hence the characters 
on li will be in line with the impression-pad I 
for printing when the circuit through d is kept 
closed, and the characters on the wheel Jc will 
be in line for printing with the circuit open. 
In order to print from only one of the type- 
wheels it is necessary that either the type- 
wheels should be moved endwise or that the 
printing-pad should be moved from beneath 
one wheel to the other. I accomplish this by 
means of wheels o and s, that are notched 
around their edges with as many notches as 
there are type or letter spaces in the wheels; 
and these are placed in such position to the 
type-wheels that they control the impression. 
In Figs. 1 and 2 there are levers q and r, that 
are moved by the links 6 that connect with 
the printing-lever v; hence, each time the 
printing-lever is actuated the upper ends of 
these levers q andr swing outwardly. If the 
type- wheel requires to be shifted to print on an 
open circuit (when it had been printing on a 
closed circuit) the end of the lever r will come 
in contact with the projection of the wheel s 
and slide the type-wheels endwise andbringthe 
type-wheel li into line for printing, and at the 
same time the end of the lever q will pass 
through one of the notches in o. The reverse 
movement will take place when the printing- 
lever is actuated while the type- wheel is held* 
by its magnet on a closed circuit, so that the op- 
erator can select either type-wheel and impress 
a character from either the one or the other. 
The same end movement is given to the type- 
wheels by the mechanism shown in Figs. 3 
and 4, in which the faces of the wheels o s are 
conical and are acted upon by the inclines q or r 
that take the place of the levers in Figs. 1 
and 2; and it will be evident that if the print- 
ing-pad was mounted so as to be shifted end- 
wise in a transverse slide upon the printing- 
lever it might be done by either of the move- 
ments aforesaid, and in that case the type- 
wheels and wheels o and s would remain sta- 
tionary upon the shaft c and the printing-pad 
slide beneath them. A shield of thin sheet 
metal, with an opening through which the 



181,; 



337 



impression is made, may also be employed, 
and either slide with, the printing-pad or this 
shield alone may he moved transversely by 
the aforesaid mechanism to allow of the print- 
ing being from only one of the type- wheels at 
a time. 
I claim as my invention — 

1. The notched wheels o s, in combination 
with the type- wheels h /.-, and mechanism, sub- 
stantially as set forth, for moving the type- 
wheels or the printing-pad, or shield to select 
the type- wheel from which the impression is 
to be made, substantially as set forth. 

2. Two type- wheels, with the characters of 
one in line with the spaces between the char- 
acters on the other, and a step-by-step move- 
ment that is operative when the electric cir- 
cuit is both closed and opened, in combination 
with the notched wheels o and s, and mechan- 
ism for selecting the type- wheel to be printed 
from, substantially as set forth. 

3. The conical-faced notched wheels o s, in 



combination with, the inclined stops q r and 
type- wheels li and Tc, substantially as set forth. 

4. The swinging levers q and r, actuated by 
the printing-lever v, in combination with the 
type- wheels h and ft and notched wheels o s, 
substantially as set forth. 

5. The combination of two type-weels and 
a printing-lever, with mechanism moved by 
the printing-lever, substantially as set forth, 
for printing from one type-wheel when the 
type- wheel circuit is open and from the other 
when that circuit is closed, substantially as set 
forth. 

6. A shifting movement derived from the 
printing-lever, operating in one direction with 
a closed circuit and in the other direction with 
an open circuit, substantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 10th dav of June, 1872. 

T. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Improvement in Printing-Telegraphs. 

No. 131,338. Patented Sep. 17, 1872. 




MPHOTO-UTHOSRAPHIC CO.tlY.tOSBOHNa P/WCKSj 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWAEK, NEW JEESEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPHS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 131, 33§, dated September 17, 1872. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Printing-Telegraphs; and the following is 
declared to he a correct description of the 
same : 

The printing-lever is made in two parts, with 
a pad to each ; the electric pulsation passes 
through the two magnets that operate these 
printing-levers, hut there is not any impres- 
sion from one of the two type-wheels, hecause 
the movement of its lever is arrested hy a pro- 
jection on the printing-lever coming against 
one of the teeth of a wheel that is moved with 
the type- wheels j the other type-wheel is 
printed from because the space between the 
teeth is in line with the projection on the 
printing-lever, and hence does not check its 
movement. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a plan of my im- 
proved instrument; and Figs. 2 and 3 are de- 
tached views of the same. 

The shaft g of the type-wheels I V is sus- 
tained by the frames /' on the bed/, as usual. 
The type-wheel magnet h is energized by pul- 
sation through the line- wires connected at 26. 
The lever /*' and pallets i act to rotate the* 
toothed wheel k and shaft g 7 as in other print- 
ing-telegraphs, and the screw-unison o 5 and 
stop 50 are similar to those in patents here- 
tofore granted to me. The magnets m m 4 are 
in the electric circuit from the wires 27, either 
by passing through all the helices or by di- 
viding the current so that half passes through 
each magnet. The drawing shows by dotted 
lines the connections arranged so that the cur- 
rent is divided between m and m 4 , and both 
magnets will be energized when an electric 
circuit is completed through 27. The type- 
wheels Z I' are placed, as shown, with the spaces 
in one opposite the types in the other, hence 
the types in I will be in line for impressing, 
with a closed circuit, and those in V in line for 



impressing with an open circuit. The notched 
or toothed wheels r 2 r 3 are positioned similarly 
to the type- wheels I V) and upon the levers m 1 
m 2 are projections r r l j hence, with a closed 
circuit through h the wheels r 2 r 3 will be in 
such a position that the projection r will pass 
into the notch in r 2 , and the lever m 2 and its 
pad p 6 be moved freely and give the impres- 
sion ; but an impression will not be given by 
the lever m 1 because its projection r 1 is stopped 
by one of the teeth on r 3 . If the circuit through 
27 is closed when the circuit through h is 
broken, the wheel V will be printed from, as 
its projection r 1 will pass into one of the 
notches in r 3 , as seen in Fig. 3, and the im- 
pression will not be made from because the 
stop r of m 2 comes in contact with one of the 
teeth of r 2 . The guide-wires and frame o are 
held by a bracket to the bed / and keep the 
strip of paper in position relatively to the type- 
wheels. The feeding-pawls n act against the 
turning segments v, and they are actuated by 
the levers v 1 and the respective printing-levers 
m 1 m 2 when either one is moved, and one pawl, 
n, holds the paper as the other draws back. 
I claim as my invention — 

1. The wheels r 3 r 4 , projections r r\ and 
levers m 1 m 2 , in combination with the type- 
wheels I I', substantially as set forth. 

2. Two separate printing-levers and their 
respective magnets in the same or branch cir- 
cuits, in combination with two type-wheels, 
positioned as specified, and mechanism sub- 
stantially as set forth, for preventing an im- 
pression from one of the type-wheels while the 
other is being printed from, substantially as 
set forth. 

Signed by me this 29th day of June, A. D. 
1872. 

T. A. EDISOK 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Improvement in Printing-Telegraphs. 

NO. 131,339. Patented Sep. 17, 1872. 




*X. PHOTO-LITHOeMPHIC CO.//.Y. (OSBOtlXtS PJIOCCSS.) 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON", OP NEWAKK, NEW JERSEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPHS,* 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 131,339 dated September 17, 1872. 



To alt toJiom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the comity of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Printing-Telegraphs ; and the following is 
declared to be a correct description of the 
same. 

In this telegraph there are two type-wheels, 
two printing-levers, and contiguous printing- 
pads, and there is a separate magnet to each 
printing-lever. The step-by-step movement re- 
volves the type- wheel, and there is a half space 
moved by the pallets when the circuit to the 
printing-magnet is closed, and the other half 
space is moved at the reverse movement of 
the. armature away from the magnet. The 
type-wheels are positioned so that the letters 
in one are in line with the spaces between the 
letters in the other. An arm is provided that 
vibrates with the armature of the type-wheel 
magnet, and acts as a circuit-closer, so that 
when the type-wheels are stopped with the 
armature drawn toward the type-wheel mag- 
net this circuit-closiug arm will complete the 
circuit to the magnet that acts upon the proper 
printing-lever. The circuit to the other print- 
ing-lever is closed by the rising of the arma- 
ture from the type-wheel magnet. This in- 
strument is adapted to printing letters from 
one type-wheel, and numbers and fractions 
from the other wheel, and either can be brought 
into action at any time, the letters being in 
position with a closed circuit, and the num- 
bers in position with the open circuit through 
the type-wheel magnet, or the reverse. Two 
line-wires, of course, are required to operate 
a number of instruments ; one goes through 
the type- wheel magnets and the other through 
the printing-magnets. The general character- 
istics of this machine are the same as those 
heretofore described by me in other applica- 
tions for patents, except in the particulars 
hereafter described. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a plan, and Eig. 



2 is a detached sectional view of my improved 
instrument. 

The type-wheel magnet h is in the electric 
circuit to the line -wires 26. Its armature V 
acts upon the levers h' and pallets ito move the 
toothed wheel Tc, shaft g, and type-wheels I I 1 
half a space on the type-wheels as the circuit 
is closed through /t, and the other half as the 
circuit is broken and the armature retracted 
by a spring. The spring-arm 45 is upon the 
shaft 6, and moved at the same time as the 
armature I, and plays between the circuit-clos- 
ers 3 and 4. When the circuit through li is 
closed one character on the type-wheel I' will 
be in line for printing, and the spring 45 will 
close the circuit from 27 through the magnet 
m, closer 4, spring 45, shaft 6, frame/', bed /, 
and binding-screw 28 to the line ; hence, the 
lever m 1 will be operated to impress from the 
type-wheel I 1 , and by the clamp and pawl u 
v and lever v l to feed the paper as soon as a 
pulsation is sent through 27. If the type- 4 
wheels are stopped with circuit through h brok- 
en, the circuit-closer 45 will be in contact witli 
3 ; hence, a pulsation through 27 will pass by 
the magnet m 4, closer 3, spring 45, shaft 0, 
frame and bed/' / to 28, and operate the print- 
ing-lever m 2 and give an impression from the 
type-wheel I, and by the clamps and pawls v 2 
u z and lever v 2 feed the paper. By this ar- 
rangement either type-wheel can be printed 
from at pleasure, and there are not any parts 
to shift or change. 

I claim as my invention — 

The circuit-closing arm 45 and connections 

3 4 to the respective magnets m m\ in combi- 
nation with the printing-levers m 1 m 2 , type- 
wheels I I 1 , and actuating mechanism, sub- 
stantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 29th day of June, A. D. 
1872. 

Witnesses: T. A. EDISON. 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 




AM. PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHIC CO. NX (oSaORNtS PHOC£SSj 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWAEK, NEW JERSEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPHS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 131,340, dated September 17, 1872. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the State of New Jersey, have in- 
vented an Improvement in Printing-Telegraph 
Instruments; and the following is hereby de- 
clared to be a full and correct description of 
the same. 

In this instrument an electro-motor gives ro- 
tation to a vertical shaft, and upon this shaft 
is a pulsator which makes and breaks the cir- 
cuit to the type- wheel magnet, and, by the pul- 
sations transmitted, revolves the type -wheel 
and its shaft by a step-by-step motion. 

The present improvement relates to means 
for arresting the rotation of the pulsator, when 
a finger -key is depressed, so as to break the 
circuit to the type-wheel magnet of the distant 
instrument or instruments in the circuit, and 
stop the type- wheels so that the desired letter 
may be printed by an electro -magnet that is 
brought into action by the act of arresting the 
movement of the type- wheel. 

Upon the type -wheel shaft is an insulated 
arm, and when a key is depressed one end 
thereof is brought into the path of this arm, 
and stops the movement of the shaft and closes 
a circuit through a magnet which draws down 
an armature and lever, and brings the outer 
end of the lever in the path of a pin upon the 
pulsator, stopping the same upon the open cir- 
cuit of the type -wheel magnet, and hence ar- 
resting the movement of all the type -wheels 
in that circuit; at the same time a local cir- 
cuit to the printing-magnet is closed and the 
printing is effected. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a sectional plan 
of said instrument, and Fig. 2 is a detached 
view of the pulsator and its stop -lever and 
magnet. 

a represents the bed of the machine, and in 
suitable steps or bearings are mounted the pul- 
sator and type-wheel shafts b and c, respect- 
ively. The shaft b is revolved continuously by 
suitable power, such as the electro-motor, com- 
posed of the helices e e, armature /, and con- 
nections (not shown in the drawing) from the 
springs e' to a battery, and upon this shaft is 
the pulsator g, composed of alternate conduc- 
tors and non-conductors, and said pulsator re- 
volves with said shaft b by frictional contact 
derived from the spring h. This pulsator g 



makes and breaks the circuit to the battery i 
through the type-wheel magnet I, moving its 
armature and lever m, and communicating, by 
the pallets 4 4 and ratchet-wheel 5, the neces- 
sary step-by-step movement to the shaft c and 
its type- wheel p. This circuit from the bat- 
tery I is from the battery i, by wire 5, to said 
magnet I, thence, by wire 6, to the bed of the 
machine, and by shaft b, pulsatory, spring-arm 
7, and wire 8, to distant instrument, and by 
return wire or earth, back to battery. 

When it is desired to stop the type-wheel at 
a particular letter and impress the same, the 
pulsator g must be arrested in its movement, 
and with the spring -arm 7 upon a non-con- 
ducting part of g, so as to break the circuit 
to the type -wheel magnets Z and close a local 
circuit at 10 to the printing-magnet q from the 
battery r. 

I arrest the movement of the pulsator as 
follows: tt is an electro -magnet in a circuit to 
the battery u, and when said magnet is charged 
its armature is attracted and the lever v drawn 
down to the position shown by dotted lines in 
Fig. 2, bringing its outer end "into the path of 
one of the pins 12 12, which project from the 
non-conducting portions of the pulsator g, 
thereby stopping its movement. 

When one of the range of finger-keys is de- 
pressed its outer end 14 is moved into the path 
of the insulated arm 15 on the type- wheel shaft 
c. This stops the revolution of that shaft o with 
the designated letter in position for printing, 
and at the same time closes a circuit through 
the hub of 15 and insulated spring 16, wire 17, 
magnet t, to the battery u; thence, by the bed 
a and finger-key arm 14, to the arm 15. The 
magnet t attracts its armature and brings the 
outer end of the lever v into the path of the 
pin 12, so as to take against one of said pins, 
as aforesaid, and stop the revolution of the 
pulsator. 

The pins 12 are so located that when the 
pulsator is stopped the spring arm 7 is upon 
an insulated part of g; hence the circuit to the 
magnet I is broken and the armature and lever 
m are drawn away from the magnet I by the 
spring 18. This brings the arm 19 in contact 
with the screw 10, closing the circuit to the 
battery r, and the current from the same passes 
by 10, 19, m, c, a } and wire 21 to the magnet q 



131,340 



to charge the same and attract the armature 
26, and effect the impression by the lever 23 
and pad 24 

When the finger is removed from the de- 
pressed key w said key rises and the circuit is 
broken at 14 15 to the magnet t, and the lever 
v is drawn up by its spring 28, liberating the 
pin 12, and the pulsator again revolves with 
the shaft b, and makes and breaks the circuit 
to the magnet I, as aforesaid. 

It is to be understood that the contact of 19 
and 10 is so momentary that when the type- 
wheel shaft c is being revolved the magnet q 
does not become sufficiently charged to effect 
the printing. 

It is also to be understood that the finger- 
keys are to be extended to form a semicircular 
range, or otherwise positioned to include all 
the characters, and that the other parts may 
be arranged in relation to each other in the 
most convenient positions. The paper -feed 
may be of any desired character. 

I claim as my invention — 



1. The pulsator, acting to make and break 
the circuit to the printing-magnet I, in combi- 
nation with the arm 15, electro-magnet t, and 
connections for arresting the pulsator simulta- 
neously with the stopping of the type- wheel, 
substantially as set forth. 

2. An electric circuit closed by the contact 
of the revolving arm 15 with the finger-key 
stop 14, in combination with the type -wheel 
and actuating mechanism, substantially as 
set forth. 

3. The arm 19, moved by the escapement- 
lever m, and acting to close the circuit to the 
printing -magnet q, in combination, with the 
pulsator g, magnet t, and circuits, substantial- 
ly as set forth. 

Signed by me this 10th day of June, A. D. 
1872. 

T. A. EDISOK. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Improvement in Printing Telegraph Instruments. 




f. /•HOTO-UTHOeiUfWIG CO./V.XfOSBOKAlts PROCESS.) 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWABK, NEW JEBSEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 131,341, dated September 17, 1872, 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
. Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey., have invented an Improvement 
in Printing-Telegraphs, and the following is 
declared to be a correct description of the 
same. 

Before my present invention the printing- 
lever magnet had been placed in the same cir- 
cuit as the type-wheel magnet, and the former 
had been prevented from giving an impression 
each pulsation by a spring acting upon the 
printing-lever; but unless the pulsations that 
set the type-wheel lever were very rapid, the 
printing-lever would be moved more or less. 
If the spring is under considerable tension, so 
as to prevent an impression until a pause oc- 
curs after the type-wheel has been set, the 
printing-magnet accumulates sufficient force 
to overcome said spring; but the impression is 
not reliable, because the spring prevents the 
pad giving a blow, and the said spring accu- 
mulates resisting power to the action of the 
magnet as the printing-lever is moved. 

My present invention is made for effecting 
the printing by a blow resulting from the mo- 
tion -of a weighted lever. The weighted lever 
resists the action of the printing-magnet, so 
as not to move until the force of the electro- 
magnet is sufficient, and then the inertia of 
the moving weight insures a sufficiently-pow- 
erful blow to print from the type- wheel. In 
this manner a series of printing-telegraph in- 
struments can be worked successfully in a one- 
wire circuit, and all polarized switches and 
electrical circuit-changers are dispensed with. 
I also make use of a mechanism for turning 
the type- wheel partially around upon its shaft, 
to bring one range of letters or figures into 
position and take out of action the interme- 
diate figures. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a longitudinal 
section of the said machine, and Figs. 2, 3, 
and 4 are detached views of the type-wheel 
shifting mechanism. 

The base a, frame b, type- wheel c, shaft d, 
ratchet-wheel e, and pallets f) moved by the 
lever g, are of usual construction, and the 
type- wheel magnet h and printing-magnet 
are of ordinary character, and may be either 
in one electric circuit, or in separate circuits, 
although especially designed for use in one 



electric circuit, as represented in Fig. 5. The 
printing-lever and pad I are also of ordinary 
construction with the exception that the 
weight m is attached to said lever Jc, in order 
that it may prevent the printing-lever acting 
when the magnet i is only slightly energized; 
but when said magnet is sufficiently powerful 
to move the weight and lever, said weight 
gives the necessary blow to effect the printing 
much more perfectly than can be done with 
the same electric current and a spring to re- 
store the printing-lever to a normal position. 
The type- wheel c is to be made with the de- 
sired letters or characters in two ranges — for 
instance, numbers may be placed between the 
letters to alternate with them, or the numbers 
may be upon a separate type- wheel, the char- 
acters of one coming opposite the spaces of 
the other, and the step-by-step motion is suffi- 
cient to move the type-wheel from one letter 
or character to the next in either range; hence 
one of the ranges will be out of action and the 
other in position; and to change so as to print 
from the range that had been out of action re- 
quires that the type- wheel or wheels shall be 
rotated upon the shaft a distance equal to half 
the movement given by one of the step-by- 
step motions. I effect this by the movement 
next described. Across the shaft c is the 
spring-locking bolt o, having a T- head, and 
upon , the sleeve carrying the type- wheel or 
wheels is an arm having notches, r, at one 
end for the T-head of the bolt o and at the 
other end a fork, s, for the stud t upon the im- 
pression-lever I: A plate, u, upon the impres- 
sion-lever acting upon the bolt o, raises its T- 
head out of one of the notches r, and at this 
time the type-wheel can be partially rotated. 
If the position of the parts is such that the 
stud t acts against the fork s, the type-wheel 
will be moved either one way or the other, 
according to which side of the fork said in- 
clined stud t takes against as the printing-le- 
ver rises, the bolt o being disconnected, and 
upon the printing-lever falling, the T-head of 
the bolt secures the parts in iiosition by enter- 
ing one of the notches r, 

It is to be understood that the operator at 
the transmitting-station can shift all the type- 
wheels at once in the various machines in the 
electric circuit by bringing them around to 
the point where the stud of the printing-lever 



2 



131,341 



will operate upon the proper inclined side of 
the fork s, and. then actuating the printing- 
lever to disconnect the bolt o and then turn 
the type- wheel or wheels c to bring one range 
of types into action and turn the other range 
around, so that the impression-pad will not 
act against either of the types therein; but it 
will be below the space between the types in 
one range of type, and impress from the types 
of the other range of types. 
I claim as my invention — 

1. The printing-lever and weight, in com- 
bination with the type- wheel and an electro- 
magnet, for the purposes and as set forth. 

2. The bolt o, notches r, and fork s, in com- 
bination with a type- wheel or wheels having 
two ranges of figures or letters and the print- 



ing-lever and stud t, as and for the purposes 
set forth. 

3. The combination, in one electric-circuit, 
of two or more type-wheel magnets, and two 
or more printing-magnets, and two or more 
weighted printing-levers, substantially as set 
forth, whereby the printing will be effected by 
the same pulsation used to bring the type- 
wheel to place, but only when the printing- 
magnet has accumulated sufficient force to 
give a blow by the weighted printing-levers, 
substantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 28th day of May, A. D. 
1872. 

Witnesses: T. A. EDISOK 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



2 Sheets — Sheet 1. 

T. A. EDISON. 
Improvement in Printing Telegraph Instruments. 

No. 131,342. Patented Sep. 1 7, 1872. 





AM. PHOTO- LITHOGRAPHIC- CO. N Y. (OSBORNE'S process.) 



2 Sheets — Sheet 2. 

T. A. EDISON. 
Improvement in Printing Telegraph Instruments. 

No. 131,342. Patented Sep. 17, 1872. 





f. PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHIC CO. MY. (OSBORNE'S P*OC£SS,J 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON", OF NEWAEK, NEW JERSEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 131,342, dated September 17, 1872. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Printing-Telegraphs; and the following is 
declared to be a correct description of the 
same. 

The present invention applies to improve- 
ments applicable with other printing - tele- 
graphs heretofore made and patented by me. 

I make use of two type-wheels sliding end- 
wise of the actuating-shaft, the one having 
figures or fractions, or both, and the other let- 
ters, and these are positioned so that when 
the circuit to the type- wheel magnet is closed 
and held during the energizing of the print- 
ing-magnet by a separate electric circuit, the 
letter-wheel will be drawn by a magnet into 
position for printing, and when the circuit is 
broken the figure-wheel will assume its posi- 
tion over the paper to be impressed. The mag- 
net that gives endwise movement to the type- 
wheels, not being energized, allows a spring 
to give the reverse movement. By this means 
the letter and type wheels are moved around 
to the required point ; and if a letter is to be 
impressed, the circuit is kept closed ; or if a 
figure, the circuit is broken before impression, 
or the reverse. In this manner circuit-chan- 
gers and polarized bars can be dispensed with 
and the end movement of the type - wheel is 
independent of any unison or changing points, 
as either wheel can be brought into or removed 
from action at any point of the revolution. 

In the drawing, Fig. 1 is an elevation; and 
Fig. 2 is an inverted plan of the instrument. 

The type -wheels a b are connected by a 
sleeve and slide freely endwise of the shaft c, 
and are guided by the rod 2, that also serves 
to communicate to the wheels the rotary mo- 
tion of the shaft. The step-by-step movement 
of the type- wheels is given by the pallets d, 
acting upon the ratchet-wheel e, and /is the 
type- wheel magnet, the armature g of which 
moves the lever and pallets d. The printing- 
magnet h is in a separate circuit from the type- 
wheel-magnet, so that the printing is effected 



independently of the type-wheel magnet, but 
switches or polarized bars might be employed 
to direct the current through the magnet em- 
ployed to shift the type-wheel, if desired. The 
type- wheel shifting-magnet I is provided with 
an armature and lever, m, the upper end of 
such lever being connected with the type- 
wheel sleeve by a fork and groove or other 
convenient means. When the magnet I is en- 
ergized it shifts the type- wheels in one direc- 
tion by sliding them endwise of the shaft, but 
when the electro-magnet I is not energized the 
spring n returns the parts to their former po- 
sition. The magnets I and / are shown in the 
same electric circuit, and the magnet I, acting 
the most slowly, may hold the parts in posi- 
tion while the type-wheel is being set. Hence 
the impression will be on the letter-wheel a, 
with a closed circuit ; but if the circuit of I is 
opened the type- wheels will be moved endwise, 
and bring the figure-wheel b into position for 
printing. If the ratchet and pawls forming 
the step-by-step movement are constructed to 
move one-half a tooth at each vibration in op- 
posite directions, then the types on one wheel 
will have to be in line with the spaces in the 
other. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. Two type- wheels, sliding endwise of the 
shaft, in combination with an electro-magnet, 
to move such type- wheels in one direction, and 
a spring, or its equivalent, to return the type- 
wheels to their former position, substantially 
as set forth. 

2. An electro-magnet in the same circuit as 
the printing-magnet, and operating to give end 
motion to two type- wheels when the circuit is 
closed, in combination with a magnet in a sep- 
arate circuit, to give the impression, substan- 
tially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 9th day of May, A. D. 
1872. 

T. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



2 Sheets — Sheet 1. 

T. A. EDISON. 
Improvement in Transmitters and Circuits for Printing-Telegraphs. 

No. 131 343. Patented Sep. 17, 1872, 




©•©-<§> ® 




AM. "HOTO-LITHOCHAPHi; CO. H.Y. (OSBORNE'S HIOCESl.. 



2 Sheets — Sheet 2. 

T. A. EDISON. 
Improvement in Transmitters and Circuits for Printing-Telegraphs 

No. 131,343. Patented Sep. 1 7, 1872. 




United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF KEWAEK, NEW JEESEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN TRANSMITTERS AND CIRCUITS FOR PRINTING-TELEGRAPHS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 131,343, dated September 17, 1872. 



To all ivhom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas Alva Edison, 
of Newark, in the State of New Jersey, have 
invented an Improvement in Prin ting-Tele- 
graphs, and the following is declared to be a 
correct description of the same. 

The first part of this improvement relates to 
a machine that is termed a "transmitter," in 
which there are finger-keys or stops that are al- 
loted to the respective characters employed. 
There is also in this instrument a "pulsator," 
that makes and breaks an electric circuit pass- 
in g through a range of relay-magnets and opens 
and closes these until the pulsator is stopped 
by the depression of one of the finger-keys. 
The second part of this invention relates to the 
arrangement of the respective electric circuits 
that connect this transmitter with the relay- 
magnets and the circuits that are operated by 
those relay- magnets and pass through the 
printing-telegraph instruments, a number of 
these instruments being placed in each circuit, 
so that one transmitting instrument will op- 
erate in unison any number of printing-tele- 
graph instruments to the extent of hundreds, 
and in case of defect in anyone local circuit the 
other circuits will not be disarranged. 

In Figure 1 a plan of the transmitter is shown, 
also a diagram representing the circuits to the 
relay-magnets and printing instruments, in 
which two wires axe employed, one wire and cir- 
cuit to the type- wheel magnets, the other to the 
printing-magnets. In Fig. 2 a diagram is shown 
of the transmitter and circuits to printing-tele- 
graph instruments, operated by one wire and 
electric circuit ; and Fig. 3 represents the trans- 
mitting instrument by a vertical section. 

The shaft a of the transmitting instrument is 
preferably revolved by magnetism. For this 
purpose two stationary magnets are used, one 
of which, a 1 , is seen in Fig. 3 ; and there are 
three armatures, 2 2 2; and upon the shaft a is 
a circuit-breaker, 3, of alternate conducting 
and non-conducting material, that opens and 
closes the circuit to the magnets a 1 alternately, 
so as to attract the armatures successively and 
revolve the shaft a. The battery a 2 operates 
this motor, the wires being connected at 4 to 
the bed 6 of the machine, and at 5 to the in- 
sulated binder, and from that to the magnets 
a 1 and to the lever and roller 6 of the respective 
pulsators, thence through the shaft a and bed 



b to 4. Upon the shaft a are governor-balls 
that rise by increased speed and bring the 
flange 7 of the sliding sleeve into contact with 
the adjustable insulated arm 18, Fig. 3; and 
from this a wire connects with 5, thereby tbe 
electricity will be "short circuited," passing 
through 4, b 1 a, 7, 18, and 5, instead of going 
through the electro-magnets a 1 , thus lessening 
the power and the speed, and maintaining 
uniformity in the revolution of the motor. By 
the gearing 8 9 10 the shaft c is revolved with 
the desired speed. It has two arms, c 1 c 2 , on 
opposite sides, one above the other, and these 
act in connection with the two semicircular 
ranges of finger-keys d d l . Beneath the bed b 
these finger-keys have arms d 2 d? converging 
toward the center of c, and when one of the 
keys d 1 is depressed . its arm d? stops the arm 
c 2 , shaft c, and gears 8 9 10. The gear 8 is 
driven by friction, hence the motor and shaft 
a continue to revolve; but connected with the 
gear 8 is a pulsator, e, made of alternate con- 
ducting and non-conducting surfaces, and these 
open and close the circuits to the distant print- 
ing instruments or to the relay-magnets. By 
bearing in mind that the parts are made so 
that the pulsator e transmits the necessary 
number of pulsations to make a complete rev- 
olution of the type- wheels at the distant in- 
struments by a step-by-step movement, each 
complete revolution of the shaft c, it will be 
understood that the shaft c and the type- wheels 
revolve in harmony, and that when the shaft 
c is stopped by one of the keys d or d 1 the type- 
wheels of the distant instruments are stopped, 
and the position of the characters on the type- 
wheels must be in harmony with the arrange- 
ment of the keys d d 1 , and when the key is lib- 
erated the shaft c and pulsator e resume their 
revolution, and the distant type-wheels also 
resume the synchronous movement. The 
printing-telegraph machines illustrated at A A 
are operated by two wires. Those shown at 
B B, Fig. 2, are operated by one wire; hence 
with two- wire instruments two rangesof relay- 
magnets, e 1 e l and e 2 e 2 , will be required, while 
only the range e 1 of relay-magnets will be 
needed with one- wire instrument. When two 
ranges of relay-magnets are used there are two 
rollers, 12 and 13, on insulated spring-levers. 
One is connected to the binding-screw 14, the 
other to the binder 15, and the parts are po- 



,343 



sitioned so that tlie pulsator e, as it revolves, 
opens and closes the circuit from the battery 
e 4 through the relay-magnet e l to make and 
break the circuits at 16, from the batteries e 5 
through the type-wheel electro-magnets in the 
distant instruments A. The relay-magnets c 2 
will not respond although the circuit is closed 
by the roller 13, because the springs of the arm- 
atures of the electro-magnets e 2 are under con- 
siderable tension ; but when the pulsator e is 
stopped by depressing one of the keys the 
roller 12 rests upon a non-conducting surface, 
breaking the circuit through e\ and the roller 
13, resting on a conductor, closes the circuit 
through the relays e 2 , causing them to close the 
circuits at 17 of the batteries e 5 ; hence they 
act. in the distant instruments A in the electro- 
magnets that effect the printing. The pulsa- 
tor e, when employed with the single range of 
relay-magnets e l , as in Fig. 2, causes the pul- 
sations to be repeated at 16 from the batteries 
e 5 to the distant instrument, and when the print- 
ing is effected by a pause on a closed circuit, 
the pulsator e is stopped with the roller 12 in 
contact with the metallic portion of the pul- 
sator; but if the printing is effected by a pause 
upon an open circuit the roller 12 is in contact 
with a non-conducting portion of the pulsator 
e. I have shown the battery e 5 in three sec- 
tions connected with the respective relay-mag- 
nets and with three relay-circuits. In each of 



these relay-circuits there may be any desired 
number of printing-telegraph instruments, and 
the circuits are completed through the ground 
connections. The circuits to the transmitting 
instrument and the relay -magnets may be 
disconnected by a switch at e 6 , that may be 
turned around to throw both batteries out of 
action, and the circuits from the batteries e 5 
will also be broken at the relay-magnets. 
I claim as my invention — 

1. The pulsator e, driven by friction, in com- 
bination with the ranges of finger-keys and 
the arms c 1 e 2 , substantially as and for the pur- 
poses set forth. 

2. The revolving pulsator e in combination 
with the relay-magnets and connections of the 
local and. main-line circuits, substantially as 
set forth, for actuating the printing-telegraph 
instruments in their respective circuits, sub- 
stantially as set forth. 

3. The governor V and flange 7, in combi- 
nation with the circuit connections to the mag- 
nets of the motor, substantially as and for the 
purposes set forth. 

Signed by me this 10th day of June A. D. 
1872. 

T. A. EDISOX. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Ohas. H. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Improvement in Unison-Stops for Printing-Telegraphs. 

No. 131,344. Patented Sep. 17, 1872. 




more-UTHouuMie co.h.y. <osbox/vSs process.. 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWAEK, NEW JEESET. 
IMPROVEMENT IN UNISON-STOPS FOR PRINTING-TELEGRAPHS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 131,344, dated September 17, 1872. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in tlie county of Essex and State 
of New Jersey, have invented an Improve- 
ment in Printing-Telegraphs; and the follow- 
ing is declared to be a correct description of 
the same. 

This invention is devised for rotating the 
type-wheel around to a unison -point by the 
action of a wedge-shaped tooth on the print- 
ing-lever operating upon a toothed wheel on 
the type -wheel shaft; thereby a number of 
machines in an electric-circuit are brought to 
a unison-point by pulsations through the print- 
ing-lever. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a section show- 
ing the type-wheel and wedge-acting escape- 
ment, and Fig. 2 is a detached view of the 
unison- wheel and tooth. 

The bed /, type-wheel I, shaft g, printing- 
magnet m, type-wheel magnet h, and printing- 
lever m', are of the usual character. The 
wedge-acting pallets i i of the type- wheel lever 
h' act upon the ratchet-wheel k, and give the 
type- wheel I a progressive movement, step by 
step, the pallets i being placed so that the 
type-wheel is moved half a space as the mag- 
net h is energized, and the other half space is 
moved by the spring s acting upon the lever 
h', when the pulsation in h is arrested. Upon 
the printing-lever m' is a pallet or tooth, CO, 
and upon the type- wheel shaft g is a toothed 
wheel, A; 4 , with one tooth removed at the point 
where the type-wheels will be brought into 
unison. 

The operation is as follows : Ordinarily the 
impression from the type-wheel by the printing- 
pad^ will be made when the circuit through 
h is broken, and the parts in the position shown 
in Fig. 1, in which case the tooth 60 moves in 
between the teeth of ¥ without acting to turn 
the same ; but when the machines are to be 
brought to unison, the circuit through h is kept 



closed, and the pallet % moves the type-wheel 
I and wheel ¥ half a space, so that the latter 
is in the position to the tooth 60, shown in Fig. 
2; the printing-magnet mis then energized by 
a series of pulsations, and as the printing-lever 
m' moves, the tooth 60 rotates the wheel ¥ and 
type- wheel I around until the space 10, formed 
by the removal of one of the teeth of Tc*, 
reaches the tooth 60, and hence there can be 
no further motion of the type- wheel, because 
the tooth 60 has nothing to act against, and 
thereby the type-wheels of the various print- 
ing-telegraph machines in the line will all stop 
when they arrive at the unison-point, even 
though the levers m' are still operated to bring 
into unison any type-wheels that may not have 
arrived at that point. During these motions, 
the upper pallet i yields as the shaft g and 
wheel k are turned, and this pallet i acts as a 
pawl to prevent a reverse movement. The 
type- wheel will not be printed from in these 
movements, because the pad p is brought up 
at the space between one type and the next, 
the pallets i being in the reverse position to 
that occupied by them when the printing is 
effected. 
I claim as my invention — 

1. The wheel ft 4 and tooth 60, actuated by 
the printing-lever m', in combination with the 
type-wheel I, wheel A:, and pallets i, substan- 
tially as and for the purposes set forth. 

2. Adjusting the type-wheel to the unison- 
point by the movement of the printing-lever 
while the type-wheel pallets are in the oppo- 
site position to that which they occupy when 
the type-wheel is being printed from, substan- 
tially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 29th day of June, A. D. 
1872. 

T. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. D. Walker, 
Geo. T. Pinckney. 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWAEK, NEW JEBSEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN PAPER FOR CHEMICAL TELEGRAPHS, &c. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 132,455, dated October 22, 1872. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Preparing Chemical Paper or other mate- 
rial for telegraphic purposes; and the follow- 
ing is declared to be a correct description of 
the same. 

Before my invention iodide of potassium 
had been employed in the preparation of 
chemical paper for receiving telegraphic com- 
munications by dots and dashes, and starch 
had been mixed with this solution of iodide 
of potassium to cause its adhesion to the pa- 
per. In receiving telegraphic communications, 
while the paper remained damp, this operated 
very well, but when the paper became dry the 
starch was liable to crack and peel off. 

My invention is made to avoid the before- 
named difficulty, by using a vehicle for the 
iodide of potassium that will not crack or scale 
off the paper when dry. In order to make use 
of the starch in the solution, it is necessary to 
use hot water or to boil the same, otherwise 
the starch will not remain with uniformity 
throughout the solution during the soaking 
operation to which the paper is subjected. 



I have discovered that a very thin paste 
made of flour and water will retain the iodide 
of potassium uniformly in solution during the 
soaking operation to which the paper is sub- 
jected; it will not make the paper hard or 
brittle, but will penetrate the fabric, and no 
portion of the surface will crack or scale off 
when the paper becomes dry. Furthermore, 
during the time that the paper is kept moist 
ready for use, there is but little tendency to 
deteriorate or become injured by atmospheric 
influences, especially if kept in tin cans or 
jars, and if the paper becomes too dry it can 
easily be remoistened. 

I prefer that the flour and water be mixed 
together while the water is warm, and, I re- 
mark, that fine wheat flour is the best, but 
rye or other flour may be employed. 

I claim as my invention — 

The chemical paper for telegraphic purposes, 
prepared in the manner specified. 

Signed by me this 10th day of April, A. D. 
1872. 

T. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



2Sh 

T. A. EDISON. 




AM. PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHIC QO.H.r, ( OSBORN ?S PROCESS.) 



2 Sheets — Sheet 2. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Improvement in Apparatus for Perforating Paper for Telegraphic Use. 



No. 132,456. 



Patented Oct. 22, 1872. 



coo o 

0:000000 O O O 



o o o o 




t-PHOTH-UTHOOMPHIC CO. MY. (OSBORNE'S PROCESS, 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF 
AND GEORGE HARRINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, D. 0. 

IMPROVEMENT IN APPARATUS FOR PERFORATING PAPER FOR TELEGRAPHIC USE, 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 132,456, dated October 22, 1872. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thoimlas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Telegraphic Perforating-Machiues, and the 
following is declared to be a correct descrip- 
tion of the said invention. 

The strip of paper is perforated by this ma- 
chine for use in transmitting telegraphic mes- 
sages. The machine is made with keys that 
perforate either a single dot or three openings 
to form a dash, one of the three openings be- 
ing larger than the others so as to produce a 
longer pulsation. The paper is fed the proper 
distance each perforation, and word - spaces, 
pauses, and sentence-spaces are produced by 
keys, and these keys are arranged in a small 
compass, and the instrumentis compact, cheap, 
and adapted to local offices or to individual 
use. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a vertical sec- 
tion centrally of the machine and in line with 
the strip of paper; Fig. 2 is an elevation of 
the spacing -bars for words and sentences; 
Fig. 3 is an elevation of the spacing-bars for 
the letters and pauses ; Fig. 4 is a sectional 
plan at the plane of the paper; and Fig. 5 shows 
a piece of the perforated paper. 

The bed a carries the standards b c and frame 
d. The die e is made with three openings, as 
in Fig. 4, for the three punches 2 3 4 that are 
raised by springs and depressed by the key- 
lever/ so as to punch the three holes at once, 
or when the key-lever g is depressed only the 
punch 4 is moved. In Fig. 1 it will be seen 
that the lever/, acting on the upper end of 2, 
carries that down, and by the arm 5 and pin 
the punches 3 and 4 are also moved, but the 
pin 6' being below the arm 5 the punch 4 can 
be moved down separately. The perforation 
from the punches 2, 3, and 4 represents a dash, 
and in consequence of the punch 2 being the 
largest it removes sufficient paper to insure a 
, metallic contact of the brush or trausmitting- 
stylus between one of the smaller perforations 
and the other, thereby producing a dash-mark. 
Upon each depression of the key/ or g the 
paper-feeding mechanism is operated so that 
as the key is raised the feed takes place suffi- 
ciently to produce the required space between 
one letter and the next. The paper h passes 



above the die e and through the slotted stand- 
ard b between the feed-roller lc and holding- 
roller I. The roller It is made with the ratchet- 
teeth 8 in the middle, and m is the stop-pawl; 
n, the actuating- pawl on the lever p ; and o is 
the stop or blocking pawl on the lever p taking 
the second range of reverse ratchet-teeth. The 
lever p has its fulcrum at 10, and receives more 
or less vibration according to the amount that 
the paper is to be fed. The yoke q and springs 
r serve to raise the lever p to its full height, 
as determined by the stops 11 on the rods 12, 
and these rods 12 extend to the key s that 
gives motion to the lever p sufficient to space 
off between one word and the next, as at a 
pause. The movement of the lever p is ar- 
rested by the notched slide t, see Fig. 3, and 
this slide t is moved endwise to bring a deeper 
notch below the lever p and allow greater mo- 
tion when the dash key-lever /is depressed, 
because the pin 15 upon the slide-rod 16 run- 
ning down the incline 17 on t moves the same 
endwise against the action of the spring 18, 
when the said key-lever/ is struck. When the 
dot key-lever g is struck the slide 20 moves the 
lever j? and feeds the paper the same distance 
as when the space-key s is depressed. The 
slide u, with a knob at its upper end, has a 
movement limited by the stop 21 and by the 
pin 24, moves the lever p and paper only a 
short distance, sufficient to separate one word 
from another, but the slide v with its pin 23 
acting upon the incline 17, and also upon the 
yoke q of the lever p, depresses the latter to 
its full exteut and feeds the paper a distance 
to denote the end of a sentence. In case the 
lever p should be depressed its full extent and 
it is desired to shorten the length of paper- 
feed the pawl n is lifted out of the ratchet- 
teeth 8 by the swinging finger and pin x that 
is actuated by the slide and key iv, so that as 
the lever p rises the pawl will go forward and 
take the ratchet-t^eth, but only move the feed- 
roller a short distance. 
I claim as my invention — 

1. Perforations for dashes in telegraphic 
transmitting-paper composed of two small and 
an intermediate large perforation, as specified. 

2. A perforating mechanism composed of 
three punches in combination with two keys, 
arranged substantially as specified, so that all 



2 132, 

three punches will be actuated by one key and 
only one by the other key, as set forth. 

3. A feeding-roller actuated by a lever and 
pawl in combination with the perforating- 
punches and keys, and intervening mechanism 
for regulating the movement of the lever in 
proportion to the length of feed -movement 
required for the paper. 

4. The notched slide * in combination with 
the lever p and keys for spacing the distance 



456 



between the perforations, substantially as set 
forth. 

5. The finger x actuated by the key w in 
combination with the pawl n and paper-feed- 
ing lever p, substantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 15th day of March, 1872. 

T. A. EDISOX. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 




AM. PHOTO-IITMGBAPHIG COM K fOSBOfMSLS PROCESS.) 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWAEK, NEW JEESEY, ASSIGNOB TO HIMSELF 
AND GEOEGE HAEEINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, DISTBICT OF COLUMBIA. 

IMPROVEMENT IN ELECTRICAL PRINTING-MACHINES. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 133,019, dated Norember 12, 1872. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Electrical Printing-Machines ; aud the fol- 
io wing- is declared to be a correct description 
thereof. 

This invention is intended for printing- upon 
a strip or sheet of paper by a type-wheel, so 
that messages, instead of being written, can 
be printed off by touching finger-keys. The 
machine is also available for printing copies 
of documents or composing and printing in- 
stead of writing. 

I make use of a type- wheel upon a shaft that 
also carries an, armature and circuit-breaker 
that is driven by a magnetic motor, the said 
armature propelling the said shaft by Motional 
contact. Upon the shaft is an arm that is 
stopped by one of a range of keys, these being- 
positioned so that the type- wheel, with the cor- 
responding type, will be stopped at the position 
to be impressed. The depression of the finger- 
key completes a circuit to a magnet that gives 
the impression. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a general plan 
of the machine ; and Fig. 2 is an elevation, par- 
tially in section, of the same. 

The type-wheel a is upon a shaft, &, in suit- 
able bearings in the bed c and frame d. Af- 
fixed to this shaft b are also the arm or arms d' 
and the armature/and circuit-breaker e to the 
springs g; and this armature and circuit-break- 
er are connected to the shaft by a friction- 
coupling, so that they can easily revolve the 
shaft when free ; but when the shaft is stopped 
the armature will continue to revolve. The 
electro-magnets li and the connections from the 
battery Jc to form, with the armature/, an elec- 
tro-motor are known, and do not require fur- 
ther description. The finger-keys I are ar- 
ranged so as to move a projection, i, to each 
key into the path of the arm d', so as to arrest 
the movement of the arm and type- wheel when 



the former comes into contact with the projec- 
tion i of the depressed key. These proj ection s 
i are arranged circularly, and, if positioned in 
a circle, then only one arm, d', will be required. 
If positioned in a half circle, they must be in 
two rows, one above the other, and two arms, 
d', will be required, as shown. The printing- 
lever m is on a fulcrum, n, and is operated up- 
on by the magnet p, the connection for this 
magnet from the battery q being completed by 
the depression of the finger-key, causing the 
slide-rod of said key to stop upon the insulated 
plate », one pole of the battery being connected 
therewith by the wire or wires 7, and the other, 
by the wire 8, to the magnet p; and from the 
latter there is a connection, 3, to the metallic 
plate y carrying the keys I. The impression- 
lever is made with any suitable feeding device 
for moving a strip of paper along or present- 
ing a sheet, line after line, to the type-wheel. 

It will now be understood that the mag- 
netic motor maintains a rapid rotation of the 
type-wheel until one of the keys is depressed, 
which arrests, by its projection i, the arm d' 
and type- wheel, the latter having a correspond- 
ing letter opposite the impression -pad, and in- 
stantly the impression is given by the action 
of the electro-magnet p. 

A stop-pawl, r, prevents any risk of rebound 
when the arm is arrested by the stop i. 

I claim as my invention— 

1. The type-wheel and shaft, revolved by 
friction from the armature of an electro-motor 
placed upon the type-wheel shaft, substantial- 
ly as set forth. 

2. The finger-keys I and electro-magnet p, 
connected as set forth, in combination with 
said type-wheel and the impression-lever, sub- 
stantially as specified. 

Signed by me this 18th day of April, 1872. 

T. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 




A M. PHOTO LITHOGRAPHIC CO. NX (OSBOfTNES PPOCESS.) 



3 Sheets — Sheet 2. 

I. A. EDISON. 
Type Writing-Machine. 

No. 133,841. Patented Dec. 10, 1872. 




/. PHOTO LITHOGRAPHIC CO.N.YIOSBORNES P/iOCESS.) 



3 Sheets — Sheet 3,' 

T. A. EDISON. 
Type Writiiu) - Machine* 

lo. 133,841. //' Patented Dec, 1 0,1872. 





AM PHOTO-LlTHQGffAPHIC CO.N.XCOSB0RNCS PROCESS,) 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF 
AND GEORGE HARRINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, D. C. 

IMPROVEMENT !N TYPE-WRITING MACHINES. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 133. 841, dated December 10, 1672. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented and made an Im- 
provement in Prin ting-Machines ; and the fol- 
lowing is declared to be a correct description 
of the same. 

. This invention is for printing by a type- 
wheel in a line upon a sheet or web of paper 
and then moving such paper along so as to 
print upon the line below. This invention is di- 
vided into the following principal features: 
First, mechanism for arresting a revolving 
type-wheel with the designated letter in posi- 
tion to be printed; second, the means for 
moving the type-wheel along between one im- 
pression and the next; third, mechanism for 
bringing the type-wheel back from the end of 
one line so as to commence at the beginning 
of the next; fourth, the devices for impress- 
ing the paper on the type -wheel; fifth, the 
feeding devices that move the paper the dis- 
tance between one line and the next. 

By moving the type -wheel along the line 
and across the paper the parts are simplified 
and rendered more compact than in those ma- 
chines in which the paper has been moved ; 
hence a roll or web of paper can be employed, 
and a telegraphic message printed thereon by 
hand, and cut off, instead of writing out the 
same, as now usual. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a plan of the 
operative parts of the machine and part of the 
keys. Fig. 2 is a section at the line x x, near 
the type-wheel. Fig. 3 is a section at the line 
y y, representing the keys. 

The type-wheel a is upon a sleeve that can 
be slipped endwise upon the shaft b. The 
guide-rods c c that are secured to heads upon 
the shaft &,and are paralled to such shaft, pass 
through holes in the type- wheel, and serve to 
rotate the type -wheel, but they do not inter- 
fere with the movement of the type-wheel and 
its sleeve endwise of the shaft" by the means 
hereafter stated. The shaft b is of any de- 
sired length so as to pass over the range of 
finger-keys, and this range of finger-keys has 
the letters or characters corresponding to those 
on the type- wheel, and also. the necessary keys 
for spaces between words and for moving the 
paper along from one line to the next. A 
pulley, continuously revolving by competent 
power, is applied to the shaft b, and an inter- 



posed friction allows the wheel to continue its 
revolution while the shaft and type-wheel are 
stopped. Upon the type -wheel shaft b are 
projecting pins or blocks 2, arranged spiral- 
ly, or positioned so that when the stop-pin 3 
is brought into the path of such block 2 the 
shaft b will be arrested by such pin 3, with 
the letter or character corresponding with the 
key depressed in position for printing. 

The means for moving the pin 3 by the key 
might be varied; but I have shown the key d 
as acting upon a vertical bar, d\ that has a 
pin acting in a cam -jaw, 4, upon the shaft c 
that carries such pin 3 ; hence, upon the de- 
pression of any one key the pin 3 connected 
with that key will be moved into the path of 
the block 2 upon the shaft b, and properly stop 
the type- wheel. 

Springs d? are employed for raising the keys, 
and the key will rise slightly without liberat- 
ing the block 2, in order that there may be 
time for the paper to be drawn away from the 
type, as hereafter described, before the type- 
wheel is again revolved. The finger-keys, for 
convenience, may be in two ranges, as shown. 
Beneath the range of finger -keys is a bar,/, 
supported by arms from the shaft f l , so that 
when any one of the finger-keys is depressed 
the bar /will be moved, and, by the arm and 
pin 6, operate the feeding-bar g, which is made 
as a forked inclined pawl, 8, (see Figs. 2 and 
4,) at the upper end, that is pressed between 
the spacing-pins 7 on the rack-bar h, and moves 
such rack -bar and the type -wheel along one 
space each time a key is depressed, and a 
spring, 9, allows this pawl 8 to yield as the 
bar g descends, and then springs back so as 
to take behind the next spacing -pin. (See 
Fig. 4.) The lever g' is placed above, as a 
finger-key, or connected with the bar/ so that 
the pawl 8 can be operated to move the rack- 
bar and type-wheel between one word and the 
next without striking either of the letter-keys 
d. The rack-bar h is made to slide in the fram es 
a' a', and is provided with a forked arm, h', 
that sets over the edges of a disk, 10, that is 
connected with the type-wheel a, so that said 
type- wheel a will be free to revolve, but will 
be moved along upon the shaft b, as aforesaid, 
by the rack-bar h. This rack-bar h carries, also, 
the inking -roller or wheel 1c that supplies the 
necessary ink to the type. In the surface of 
the rack-bar 1i are notches, and a spring-pawl, 



133,841 



/, is provided to take into these and hold the 
rack-bar as moved along by the pawl 8. (See 
detached view, Fig. 4.) At one end of the 
rack - bar % a cord or chain, 14, is attached, 
passing over a pulley to a weight, and this 
weight is sufficient to" draw the rack-bar and 
type-wheel along when the pawl i is raised. 
As the type- wheel reaches the end of the line 
a projection, 16, on the rack-bar h slides a 
wedge, ?, nnder the pawl i, lifting the same 
and allowing the weight to draw the. rack-bar 
and type-wheel back to the commencement of 
the line, and as this movement is finished the 
projection 17 moves the wedge I away from 
the pawl i, allowing said pawl to become again 
operative. This wedge I can be operated by 
the hand-lever V so as to return the type-wheel 
to the beginning of the line between one par- 
agraph and the next. The device for giving 
the impression consists in a padded bar, n, 
beneath the type- wheel, and set in a frame, m, 
that is hung on centers 18, and carries the 
armature o of the electro-magnet an( i this 
electro-magnet gives the impression whenever 
the type- wheel is stopped by the depression 
of a key. The electrical connections for this 
magnet consist of a break-wheel, r, revolved 
with the type-wheel a, and having as many 
conducting and non-conducting spaces as 
there are spaces on the type-wheel, and the 
spring-tooth s rests upon the same, and is in 
the electric circuit. This circuit passes, also, 
through the magnet, as shown in Fig. 1, and 
to the insulated post s'; and upon the end of 
the bar / there is a spring-finger, 24, that 
touches the end of this post «' when the key 
is depressed; hence the circuit will be closed 
at this point, but the electro-magnet p will 
not become charged until the type-wheel stops, 
because the break-wheel r opens and closes 
the circuit too rapidly ; but when the type- 
wheel stops, the tooth s being on one of the 
conductors of that break-wheel, the circuit 
remains closed long enough for the magnet p 
to act and give the impression. The shaft b 
and bed of the machine form part of the elec- 
tric circuit to the spring-finger 24. The cir- 
cuit will be broken at s' as the key rises and 
before the type-wheel is allowed to revolve, so 
that the spring 25 may draw away the impres- 
sion-bar and paper and prevent the printing 
being blurred. A suitable stop limits the mo- 
tion. The feeding device that moves the pa- 
per along from one line to the next consists 
in the spring-pawls 28, hinged to a frame, t 
that swings on the shaft 29, and said pawls 
hold the paper against the swinging segments 
27 in moving such paper, but draw over the 
surface m the backward movement, the pa- 
per being held at this time by the pawls 22 
against the stationary table or shield 30. The 
key w, connection 31, and lever u' are used 
for moving the frame t and feeding the paper 
forward from the reel or drum a*, and a spring 
32,- returns the parts to their normal position 
An alarm-bell, v, is employed to call the oper- 
ator s attention to the line being finished, said 



bell being struck at the last or nearly the last 
movement of the rack-bar h, by a projection, 
33, moving the tail of the hammer 34. The 
operator moves the paper forward at the prop- 
er time by depressing the key u; or it might 
be done automatically by a connection from 
the rack -bar as the type-wheel is drawn along. 
In order to cut off a piece of paper upon which 
the printing has been done I provide a sta- 
tionary shear, w, and swinging shear w\ the 
latter being kept open by a spring so as not 
to interfere with the paper as it is fed along. 
A rack or stand, w 2 , should be supported 
above the finger-keys on the frames a' a', to 
hold the manuscript to be copied from, and 
a grooved bar, w 3 , Fig. 3, may also be provided 
in which a strip of paper may lie, this strip 
having upon it telegraphic characters in dots 
and dashes, either indented in the paper or 
made in colors in chemically-prepared, paper, 
so that this may be drawn along in said bar 
as the message is printed. 
I claim as my invention — 

1. A type-wheel moved along in the line of 
its axis by a progressive movement between 
one impression and the next so as to print 
from such type-wheel in a line, substantially 
as set forth. 

2. The rack-bar h and spacing-pins 7, ill 
combination with the spring-pawl 8, key d, 
and type- wheel a, substantially as set forth. 

3. The pawl 8, in combination with the rack- 
bar h, disconnecting device i /, and stops 16 
and 17 upon such rack-bar h, substantially as 
and for the purposes specified. 

4. The lever I' and disconnecting device i 7, 
iu combination with the rack-bar h and type- 
wheel a, substantially as set forth. 

5. A pressure-bar sustaining the paper to 
be impressed below the line of printing, in 
combination with a type-wheel moved end- 
wise of the axis, progressively, between one 
impression and the next, substantially as spec- 
ified. 

6. The break-wheel r, spring-finger s, and 
electric circuit and circuit- breaker 24 s f , in 
combination with the type-wheel, impression- 
bar, and electro-magnet, substantially as and 
for the purposes set forth. 

7. The paper- feeding pawls 28 swinging with 
the segments 27 upon the shaft 29, in combi- 
nation with the pawls 22 and stationary bed 
30, as and for the purposes set forth. 

8. A type- wheel and mechanism for moving 
the same in the direction of its axis between 
one impression and the next, in combination 
with impression mechanism and with a paper- 
feed actuated between one line of printing 
and the next, substantially as specified, so 
that printing can be done line after line across 
a roll or web of paper, substantially as set 
forth. 

Signed by me this 13th day of November, 
A. D. 1871. 
Witnesses: T. A. EDISON. 

Chas. H. Smith, 
Geo. T. Pinckney. 



1 5 



I. A. EDISON. 
Printing Telegraph Instruments. 

134,866. Patented Jan. 14, 18 73. 




AM. PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHIC CO. N.Y.(0SB0BNES PROCESS) 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 134,866, dated January 14, 1873. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented certain Improve- 
ments in Telegraph Instruments, of which the 
following is a specification : 

This instrument is adapted to receiving and 
transmitting; and the transmitter is somewhat 
similar to that shown in Letters Patent grant- 
ed to me January 23, 1872, No. 123,005, there 
being a pulsator upon a revolving shaft to 
open and close the main circuit as in said 
patent, and the pulsations operate through a 
magnet in the transmitter, and also in the re- 
ceiving-machines to rotate their respective 
type-wheels by a step-by-step movement. 

My present improvement relates only to the 
transmitting portion of the instrument; and 
the same consists of means for arresting the 
movement of the pulsator, when a finger-key 
is depressed for the purpose of breaking the 
circuit to the type- wheel magnets, and stop- 
ping the type- wheels at a letter corresponding 
with the depressed key. 

I make use of a stop-arm vibrated by the 
type-wheel lever to arrest the movement of 
the pulsator, and this stop - arm is vibrated 
clear of a pin upon the pulsator each time the 
pulsator opens the circuit to the type-wheel 
magnets, while said circuit is being opened 
and closed to send pulsations to rotate the 
type-wheels; but when a finger -key is de- 
pressed to stop said type-wheels, this stop- 
arm is kept in the path of the pin and stops 
the pulsator with a circuit - closer upon its 
non-conducting portion, which breaks the cir- 
cuit to the type-wheel magnets, and arrests 
all the type-wheels at the same point. When 
the key is liberated the type-wheel lever, by 
its spring, moves the stop-arm from the pin, 
and allows the pulsator to revolve with its 
shaft and open and close the main circuit, as 
before. 

It is to be understood that in the receiving- 
machines this pulsator is stationary, the -pul- 
sations passing direct to the type- wheel mag- 
nets, energizing the same, and giving the step- 
by-step movement to rotate the type- wheels, 
and that the devices herein described are 
brought into action for transmitting from the 
machine sending the message. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a sectional plan 



showing my improvements; and Fig. 2 is an 
elevation of the same. 

The vertical shaft a is rotated continuously 
by the electro-motor, composed of the electro- 
magnets b b, armature c, circuit breakers and 
arms d cV, and connections to the battery e, 
all of which are of usual character, g is the 
pulsator, revolving by frictional contact with 
the shaft a, through the agency of the spring 
2, and said pulsator is made with the conduct- 
ing and non-conducting portions, as shown 
most clearly in Fig. 1; and / is a pin project- 
ing from said non-conducting portion of g. 

At each revolution of the pulsator g the cir- 
cuit is opened and closed once to the type- 
wheel magnet h, the circuit being closed when 
the insulated arm i is in contact with the con- 
ducting portion 3 of the pulsator, and the pul- 
sations pass by the wire 4 to said magnet h, 
and thence, by the wire 5, bed a', shaft a, pul- 
sator g, insulated arm i, and wire 6, to the in- 
sulated binder 7, to which the main-line wire 
is connected, and by this wire the pulsations 
pass to and through the type-wheel magnets 
of the receiving-machines at the distant sta- 
tions, and return by the earth portion of the 
circuit. These pulsations act in the magnet 
h of the transmitter, and also in the same 
magnets of the receiving-machine, to rotate 
the type-wheels r by a step-by-step movement, 
by means of the lever ?, pallets 8 8, and toothed 
wheel 9 upon the shaft q. 

I will now describe how the pulsator is ar- 
rested in its movement to break the circuit to 
the type-wheel magnets and stop the type- 
wheels. 

The finger-keys are in a semicircular range 
or ranges, as in aforesaid patent, and concen- 
tric with the shaft q; one of said keys is shown 
at v by dotted lines, w is an arm upon the 
shaft q. s is an arm upon the axis t of the 
lever I, and the outer end of said arm is con- 
tiguous to the pulsator g during each half 
revolution of said pulsator, when the circuit 
is closed to the type-wheel magnet h, and is 
moved away from the same by the back move- 
ment of the lever I during the other half revo- 
lution, when the circuit is broken to said 
magnet; hence said arm does not obstruct the 
movement of the pulsator while the circuit to 
the magnet Ji is being opened and closed to 
rotate the type-wheels. When a finger-key 



2 134, 

is depressed its arm, 16, is brought in the 
path of the arm w, whose movement it arrests 
and stops the shaft q. The arm w is located 
with reference to the position of the teeth of 
9, so that when said wheel is stopped it holds 
the lever I in the position shown in Fig. 1, 
with the stop-arm s in the path of the pin /, 
and said arm stops the pulsator with the cir- 
cuit-closer i upon the non-conducting portion 
of the same, which breaks the circuit to the 
magnet h, and also to all the type-wheel mag- 
nets of the receiving-machines in the circuit, 
stopping their type-wheels at the same letter 
as the wheel r, and corresponding with the 
key depressed. 

When the key is liberated the spring 10 
completes the backward movement of the 
armature, type-wheel lever I, and pallets 8, 
giving a slight movement to the wheel 9, and 
also moving the stop-arm s sufficiently to lib- 
erate the pin / and allow the pulsator again 
to revolve with its shaft, and open and close 
the circuit to the type- wheel magnets, as be- 
fore. 



§66 

The printing lever and magnet are not 
shown in the drawing, but they may be of 
usual character, either for the transmitter or 
receiver, and be operated in any desired man- 
ner to effect the printing when the type- wheels 
are stopped. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. The stop-arm s, connected with the lever 
I and pallets 8, in combination with the pul- 
sator g, and stop /for arresting the movement 
of the pulsator, substantially as set forth. 

2. The type-wheel magnet h, in the circuit 
that is opened and closed by the pulsator g, 
in combination with a stop that arrests the 
movement of the pulsator when the circuit is 
broken, and a spring, or its equivalent, that 
liberates the pulsator upon completing the 
backward movement of the armature and pal- 
lets, substantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 16th dav of October, 1872. 

T. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pincknet, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Automatic Telegraph Instruments. 

No. 134,867, Patented Jan. 14, 1873, 




AM.PKOTG-LmoeRAPHIC CO N.Y(oSBOJfKS PKOCESsj 



United States Patent Office 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF 
AND GEORGE HARRINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, D. C. 

IMPROVEMENT IN AUTOMATIC TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 134,867, dated January 14, 1873. 



To all ivhom it may concern; 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Chemical Telegraphs ; aud the following is 
declared to be a correct description of the 
same. 

In chemical telegraphs difficulty arises in 
preventing the earth currents marking the 
paper aud interfering with the sharpness of 
the dot and dash marks. 

In my present invention I neutralize the 
earth currents, and also prevent the stylus be- 
ing destroyed by the action of the acid in the 
chemical paper while the circuit is broken on 
the main line or the instrument is not in ac- 
tion. 

I employ a rheostat to regulate the action 
of a battery that supplies a very feeble con- 
stant current to neutralize earth currents, and 
a focal constant current is brought into con- 
tact with the surface of the chemical paper to 
pass across the paper near the stylus and pre- 
vent, by polarizing such paper, the action of 
the acids upon the iron stylus or pen, thereby 
preventing injury to the same during the time 
that the instrument is not in use. 

The diagram in annexed drawing illustrates 
this invention. 

The transmitting-roller a is mounted and ro- 
tated in any usual manner, and b b represent 
the transmitting stylus, brush, or spring roll- 
er or rollers. The receiving-roller d is pro- 
pelled in any convenient manner, and the pa- 
per is drawn along in the ordinary way. The 
stylus e or marker is of iron or other material 
to make a mark upon the chemical paper when 
the electric current passes through such pa- 
per. The spring-conductors i i are of platinum, 
and rest upon the chemical paper at each side 
of the stylus e. The main battery/ is con- 



nected, through the wire 2, stylus b, roller a, 
line- wire 3, to the stylus e; thence by the wire 
4 or earth connection, so as to mark the paper 
as usual. The battery I is connected to the 
rheostat m, and by the wire 5 to the line 3 and 
the wire 6 to the earth line 4, so that a very 
feeble current, adjustable by m, is thrown on 
the line and earth connections in the reverse 
direction to the earth currents, so as to neu- 
tralize the same. The battery^ is connected 
by the wires 8 and 9 with the spring-conduct- 
ors % i so that a current will pass across the 
chemical paper resting upon the roller d. The 
main-line current from the stylus gives to the 
particles an electric condition ; that condition 
continuing tends to prolong the mark after 
the pulsation ceases ; the cross or counter cur- 
rent neutralizes this electric condition or po- 
larity, and prevents attenuation of the mark; 
it also prevents injury to the stylus or pen by 
the action of the acids in the paper, because 
the current passing between the conductors i 
i is superior to any ground currents and neu- 
tralizes their action. 
I claim as my invention — 

1. The circuit from the battery I connected 
with the earth and line in a chemical telegraph 
instrument and adjusted by the rheostat m to 
neutralize earth currents, substantially as set 
forth. 

2. The conductors i i connected with the 
battery p, in combination with the stylus e of 
a chemical receiving instrument, for the pur- 
poses and substantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 8th day of May, A. D. 
1872. 

T. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Electro-Magnetic Adjuster. 

No. 134,868. Patented Jan. 14, 1873. 




AM. PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHIC CO. N.Y.( OSBORHES PROCESS.) 



United States Patent Office, 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWABK, NEW JEBSEY, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF 
AND GEOEGE HAEEINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, D. C. 



IMPROVEMENT IN ELECTRO-MAGNETIC ADJUSTERS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 134, §6§, dated January 14, 1873. 



To all wlwm it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Electro-Mag- 
netic Adjuster; and the following is declared 
to be a correct description of the same. 

This invention is available with an electro- 
magnet made of two helices and cores, and is 
intended to vary the power of the electro-mag- 
nets without changing the intensity of the 
electric current, and thus rendering it unnec- 
essary to adjust the spring that draws back 
the armature, because the power of the mag- 
net itself is adjusted so as to maintain uni- 
formity in the same, and, consequently, pre- 
serve the proper relations between the force of 
the spring and the power of the magnet. 

1 make use of a variable connection be- 
tween the rear ends of the cores, and thereby 
vary the magnetic power of those cores. If 
the two cores are entirely separated, so that 
induced magnetism is checked, there will be 
but little power in the core, even when the 
helix is properly charged; but when the cores 
are connected by a proper iron bur the entire 
force of the magnetism is developed. I make 
use of these known features of magnetism to 
vary the power of the electro-magnet by less- 
ening the conductor that unites the cores at 
their rear ends. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a plan of a mag- 
net with my improvement, and Fig. 2 is a side 
view of the same, partially in section. 

The electro-magnets a b are made of helices . 



around cores in the usual manner, and the 
armature c is hung on centers to vibrate as 
usual, and may be employed as a relay, or in 
any other electrical apparatus. The spring d 
exerts a uniform retractile force, and does not 
require to be adjusted for varying its power. 
The iron bar e, at the back end of the magnet, 
is united to the cores as usual, but instead of 
being continuous it is divided, and the ad- 
juster h applied between the parts. This ad- 
juster is shown as a lever upon a fulcrum, 7c, 
and moved by a set-screw, I, so that the end 
of the lever makes a full contact between the 
ends of the bars e, as shown by full lines, or 
only a partial contact, as illustrated by dot- 
ted lines in Fig. 2; and hence the power of the 
electro-magnet will be varied according to the 
position of the adjuster. The same effect is 
produced in the modification illustrated in 
Fig. 3, the bars e e being hinged to the cores 
and adjusted more or less into contact with 
each other by the screw I. 

I claim as my invention — 

The adjustable connection applied at the 
rear end of an electro-magnet, between the 
cores thereof, to vary the power of such elec- 
tro-magnet, substantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 8th dav of May, A. D. 
1872. " 

T. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



T. 

Circuits for 

135,531. 



A. EDISON. 
Chemical Telegraphs. 

Patented Feb. 4, 1873.- 





AM. PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHIC CO N.Y.(OSB0mes PROCESS) 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWAEK, NEW JEESEY, ASSIGNOE TO HIMSELF 
AND GEOEGE HAEEINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, D. 0. 

IMPROVEMENT IN CIRCUITS FOR CHEMICAL TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 135,531, dated February 4, 1873. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Circuits for Chemical Telegraphs, of which 
the following is a specification : 

Before this invention telegraphic circuits 
had been arranged with a rheostat to regulate 
the portion of the electric pulsation passing to 
the chemical paper, and allowing the other 
portionsof thepulsation to pass along upon the 
main line, or to go to the earth as a leakage. 
In these cases the rheostat did not produce 
any counter current, and served only to direct 
portions of the electrical waves through the 
chemical paper, but the tailing and the atten- 
uation of the mark was not avoided, and upon 
long lines these marks usually ran together, 
because there was not suflicient time for the 
electric action to cease, or the line to free it- 
self before another pulsation succeeded and 
the line became surcharged. In all cases it 
has been desired to obtain the most perfect 
insulation of the line to avoid the use of pow- 
erful batteries and to lessen atmospheric in- 
fluences. It has, however, been found that 
when the insulation is impaired by atmospher- 
ic influences, the marks upon the chemical 
paper are more distinct, because the surplus 
electricity finds vent in currents to the earth, 
lessening the tailing. 

When an electro-magnet is charged by a 
pulsation the electric action, in the circuit of 
which the helix of the magnet forms a part, is 
augmented ; but when the main or line current 
is broken the magnet, in discharging itself of 
the magnetism that has been induced, sets up 
momentarily a counter current or one of oppo- 
site polarity. I avail myself of these various 
conditions, and arrange the circuits in such a 
manner that the electro-magnets which are en- 
ergized by the pulsation that makes the mark 
on the chemical paper, serve to intensify the 
electric action upon that paper; but that the 
counter current, set up when the primary cir- 
cuit is broken, shall neutralize the tailing or 
attenuation of the current by the discharge of 
the magnetism from the electro-magnet, there- 
by allowing for the use of very feeble currents 
and rendering the marks upon the chemical 
paper sharp and clear ; and I furthermore em- 



ploy upon long lines one or more earth con- 
nections, in which are placed one or more elec- 
tro-magnets, with or without rheostats to reg- 
ulate the proportion of currents passing to the 
earth, such connections and electro-magnets 
serving to free the line from surplus electricity 
and by the reverse polar action, as the electro- 
magnet discharges itself, to free the line from 
any attenuation of the primary pulsations. 

With long lines it is preferable to employ 
long electro-magnets; and the reverse, in order 
that the time occupied by the magnet in dis- 
charging its magnetism may be proportioned 
to the attenuation or tailing of the main cur- 
rent that is increased by the length of line. 

In the diagram annexed I have illustrated 
my improvement by four stations, New York, 
Washington , Lynchburg, and Charleston. The 
message is being sent from Charleston to New 
York by the battery a, and any suitable trans- 
mitting instrument at c, such "as a stylus and 
perforated paper, or a finger-key or other de- 
vice. The battery may be connected with 
either the positive or the negative pole to the 
instrument, and the other to the earth wire. 
At New York is any suitable receiving instru- 
ment, at d, such as a drum and stylus, for the 
chemical paper. If intermediate connections 
are not required they may be dispensed with 
and the message will be received only at New 
York. 

I provide a secondary or local circuit con- 
nected with the main circuit at both sides of 
the receiving instrument and in this I place 
the electro-magnets h. These and the others 
spoken of may be of ordinary character; but 
as quantity rather than intensity is required, 
large wires may be used for the helices, and 
solid bars, bundles, or tubes for the cores, and 
many of these may be employed, or a large 
number may be provided, and more or less 
may be brought into action by switches or a 
commutator. The helices might be of iron 
wire wound in several layers, and cores be dis- 
pensed with, the inner portions of the coils 
forming the electro-magnets. 

When the circuit is closed and a pulsation 
passes in the main line, a local circuit will 
thereby be set up through the electro-magnets 
and connections in the same direction as that 
of the main line, and thereby intensifying the 



135 



,531 



action upon the chemical paper, but as^ soon 
as the main-line circuit is broken the electro- 
magnets in discharging themselves set up a 
local circuit in the opposite direction through 
the stylus and chemical paper, neutralizing 
any tailing and causing the mark to be' clear 
and distinct. The same effect is produced 
where the connections are arranged as at the 
station marked Washington, in order that a 
drop copy may be taken at that point. 

At the station marked Lynchburg the elec- 
tro-magnets h are placed in a branch or ground 
circuit, and the amount of the leakage regu- 
lated by the resistance of the magnets them- 
selves, or of arheostat,thereby conveying away, 
designedly, the proper portion of the current 
intermediately between the sending and the 



receiving station; and when the circuit of the 
main line is broken the electro-magnets set up 
a counter-current in the line as they discharge 
themselves, thereby freeing the line at one or 
more places, as circumstances require. 
I claim as my invention- 
One or more electro-magnets, arranged in a 
local or branch circuit, substantially as set 
forth, in combination with a chemical tele- 
graphic receiving instrument, for the purposes 
set forth. 

Signed by me this 9th day of November, 
1872. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. D. Walker, 
Geo. T. Pinckney. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Printing Telegraphs. 

No, 138,869. Patented May 13, 1873. 




AM. PHOTO -LITHD GRAPHIC CO. N. Y.(OSBORNES PROCESS.) 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWABK, NEW JEBSEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPHS. 

Specification forming partof Letters Patent No. 138,869, dated May 13, 1873; application filed 

October 22, 1872. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Printing-Telegraphs, of which the follow- 
ing is a specification: 

This invention relates to modifications of 
and improvements upon the printing - tele- 
graph machines heretofore patented by me. 
The features of improvement relate, first, to 
a unison mechanism that operates after two 
or more revolutions of the type- wheel, but is 
liberated and restored to a normal position 
each time the printing-lever is moved ; second, 
to a peculiar paper-feeding mechanism that 
throws a tooth or pawl upon the paper, and 
then moves the same, and liberates the pawl 
from the paper before the return movement 
of the parts ; third, to a means for partially 
rotating the type- wheel upon its axis to bring 
into position for use one set of characters, and 
throw out of use the alternate characters. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a vertical sec- 
tion, and Fig. 2 is a partial front view, show- 
ing my present improvements. 

The type-wheel magnet h acts through the 
armature and lever W to set the type-wheel I, 
by a step-by-step movement given through 
the pallets i, escapement or ratchet wheel Jc, 
and shaft g. To insure greater rapidity in 
the discharge of the magnetism induced in 
the cores of the electro -magnet h, the said 
cores are grooved longitudinally, as shown 
in Fig. 3, which with a printing-telegraph is 
highly advantageous, because of greater ra- 
pidity, and avoiding the risk of inaccuracy 
arising from a sluggish backward motion in 
the armature. The inking-roller 21 is pressed 
toward the type- wheel I by the spring 22, upon 
the paper-reel arms 20, so that the sudden ro- 
tation of the type- wheel I will not swing said 
inking-roller away from contact with the types. 
This spring 22 can be turned aside when the 
Jnking-roller is to be lifted. Upon the shaft 
g is a tooth, o 7 , that comes into contact suc- 
cessively with the teeth 54, and moves the 
arm o 4 down gradually until the end thereof 
is in the path of the stop 50, thereby arrest- 
ing the type- wheel at a unison-point after the 



type- wheel has made two or more revolutions 
without the impression - lever m' being oper- 
ated; but whenever the impression -lever is 
moved, the arm o i is raised by the finger 53 
acting beneath it. In this manner the unison 
is prevented from coming into action except 
when the type-wheels are rotated with special 
reference to bringing a number into unison. 
The finger o 4 is sustained by a sleeve around 
the cross-bar a, and there is a spring, b, to 
apply the required friction to hold the parts 
in the position to which they are moved. The 
type-wheel I is upon a sleeve, o, surrounding 
the shaft g. The cam-bar 36 is sustained in 
guides upon the shaft g, and can be moved 
endwise by the T-lever o 1 ; and the shape of 
the cam 36 is such that it acts upon the sleeve 
o and type-wheel, to turn the same the extent 
of the distance from one character to the next ; 
hence, where the step -by -step motion turns 
the type-wheel the distance occupied by two 
characters (for rapidity) the aforesaid cam 36 
will bring into action one set of characters 
and throw out of action the other set of char- 
acters placed alternately around the type- 
wheel. The movement is given endwise to 
the cam 36 by the pin 30 or 31, upon the print- 
ing-lever coming into contact with the T-lever 
o 1 , when the type-wheel is rotated around to 
the proper point for bringing such lever o l 
over the pin 30 or 31, after which the printing- 
lever is moved. The feeding-pawl u is upon 
an arm, ¥ 7 and its lever is connected by a link, 
68, to the printing-lever m f , and the arm v', is 
connected also to~m', but by a slotted link, so 
that as the lever m' rises, the strip of paper 
is first seized between the roughened end of 
u and the roller v; then the link 62 swings all 
the parts together. On the return movement 
the slot in 62 allows the pawl it to be lifted 
off the paper before the arm v' is swung back 
by the link 62. 
I claim as my invention — 

1. The tooth o 7 and stop 50 upon the shaft 
g, in combination with the arm o*, teeth 54, 
and finger 53, moved by the printing-lever on', 
the parts being arranged and operated sub- 
stantially as set forth. 

2. The pawl n upon the arm fl', and con 



138,869 



nected by the link 68 with the lever m', in 
combination with the slotted link 62, that 
swings the lever v' to feed the paper, substan- 
tially as specified. 

3. The cam 36 moved by the T-lever o 1 and 
pins 30 31 upon the printing-lever, in com- 
bination with the type- wheel I and sleeve o, 
substantially as and for the purposes set forth. 



Signed by me this 16th day of October, 
A. D. 1872. 

T. A. EDISOK 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Printing Telegraphs. 

No. 138,870, Patented May 13, 1873. 




AM PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHIC CO. N.Y.( OSBORNES PROCESS) 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JEESEY, ASSIGNOR TO THE GOLD 
AND STOCK TELEGEAPH CO., OF NEW YOEK, N. Y. 

IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPHS, 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 138,§'2'0 > elated May 13, 1873; application filed 

March 13, 1873. 



To all ivhom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Printing-Telegraph Instruments, of which 
the following is a specification: 

This instrument is a combined transmitter 
and receiver, and the pulsator (which opens 
and closes the circuit to the type-wheel mag- 
nets) and the type-wheel are Upon the same 
shaft, and this shaft is revolved continuously 
by an electro-motor or other device. 

The pulsator and type-wheel are both re- 
volved by friction al contact with their shaft; 
but the type-wheel only moves with said shaft 
as the pallets of the type-wheel lever allow 
the escapement-wheel that is connected to the 
type-wheel to turn by a step-by-step move- 
ment. This lever is vibrated by its magnet 
and spring each time the pulsator opens and 
closes the circuit to said magnet; hence said 
type-wheel is moved by the step-by-step es- 
capement each pulsation of electricity. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a plan of my 
improved instrument, and Fig. 2 is an eleva- 
tion of the type- wheel magnets, levers, and 
escapement. 

The shaft a is supported in suitable sup- 
ports or standards on the bed b, and is re- 
volved continuously by the electro-motor, com- 
posed of the electro-magnets cc. revolving arm- 
ature d', circuit-breaker e', contact-springs//, 
and connections to a local battery, all of usual 
character ; and it is to be understood that the 
shafts a of the distant receiving-instruments 
are each revolved by an electro-motor or oth- 
er device, and about in unison with the shaft 
of the transmitter, e is the pulsator, and 12 
its contact-roller for opening and closing the 
circuit to the type-wheel magnets h, and said 
pulsator revolves with the shaft a by friction 
of the spring 3. 

The operation of this pulsator in opening 
and closing the circuit to said magnets li is the 



' same as that set forth in Letters Patent No. 131,- 
313 granted to me, and the means for stopping 
the pulsator and impressing from the type- 
wheel I are substantially the same as in said 
patent, the pulsator being arrested when a 
finger-key, d, is depressed and its arm brought 
in the path of a stop upon a shaft connected 
by gearing to a pinion, 8, that moves with 
the pulsator. The type- wheel I and its escape- 
ment-wheel m are upon a sleeve or otherwise 
connected, and they are upon said shaft a and 
move with it by friction through the spring 2 
when permitted by the type-wheel lever n. 
The pulsations from e through the main line 
and magnets h at the distant stations vibrate 
the armatures %' and levers n in unison, letting 
off the teeth of the escapement-wheels and 
allowing the shafts a to revolve the type- 
wheels by a step-by-step motion. 

The connections for the transmitter are 
shown by full lines in Fig. 1, the current en- 
tering by the binder 10 and passing through 
the pulsator e, shaft a, and magnets h, and by 
the binder 11 to the line and the distant re- 
ceiving-instruments. Each instrument is pro- 
vided with a switch at t, and the connections 
for the distant receiving-machines are shown 
by dotted lines in same figure. 

The mechanism for impressing the letter 
and printing, when the type ? wheels are 
stopped, may be of any desired character, 
and do not form part of this invention. 

I claim as my invention — 

The type-wheel and pulsator both upon the 
same shaft and revolved by friction, in combi- 
nation with the type- wheel lever, escapement, 
and electro-magnet, substantially as and for 
the purposes set forth. 

Signed bv me this 7th day of March, A. D. 
1873. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Printing Telegraphs. 

139,128. Patented May 20, 1873. 




AM. PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHIC CO. NX(pSBORNES PROCESS) 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWAEK, NEW JEESEY, ASSIGNOE TO THE GOLD 
AND STOCK TELEGEAPH COMPANY, OF NEW YOEK, N. Y. 

IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 139, 128, dated May 20, 1873 ; application filed 

February Id, 1873. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Printing-Telegraph Instruments, of which 
tbe following is a specification : 

In this instrument there are three electro- 
magnets, all in the main-line circuit, and they 
are so adjusted that the pulsations act in one 
of the magnets to set the type- wheel ; but the 
other two magnets, discharging more slowly, 
act to hold down the printing-lever. When the 
circuit is broken ami a pause ensues the elec- 
tro-magets all discharge, allowing a spring to 
the armature of one to draw back a hook and 
allow the printing-lever to fly up by a spring. 
The next pulsation energizes all the magnets, 
drawing down the priutiug-lever and holding 
it ; then the other pulsations set the type- 
wheel. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a plan repre- 
senting the improvement, and Fig. 2 is a side 
view of the instrument. 

The magnets a b c are in the main-line cir- 
cuit, as seen in Fig. 1, so that the pulsations 
energize all the magnets; the magnet h, how- 
ever, is small, and so made as to rapidly dis- 
charge ; hence the pulsations act to move the 
armature d, lever e, and pawl % % and set the 
type-wheel /. I remark that the dog 3, shown 
by dotted lines in Fig. 2, blocks the ratchet- 
wheel to prevent it turning too far by the in- 
ertia, and the pawl 4 prevents motion in the 
wrong direction. The magnet a acts upon the 
armature //-and hook i' to hold down the print- 
ing-lever fc, and the magnet c is sufficiently 
powerful to draw down that lever 1c against 
the action of the spring I. 

When the circuit is broken and a pause en- 
sues the magnets a c discharge themselves, 
and the spring m draws back the hook i', 
allowing the spring / to throw up the print- 
ing-lever h and give the impression. When a 
pulsation is sent again the three magnets ab c 



areenergized,theprinting-leveris drawn down 
by c and latched by the hook V until another 
pause on an open circuit occurs. The strip of 
paper passes between a sliding pawl, s, and a 
plate, r, upon the printing-lever, and this 
pawl s slides in a turning-stud, u, that is 
drawn back by a spring, o. Upon the shaft 
of the type- wheel /' is a snail-wheel, *, shown 
by .dotted lines in Fig. 2, the periphery of 
which is notched, of different distances from 
the center of the shaft, in accordance with 
the distance the paper is required to be fed 
for the letter impressed. As the printing- 
■ lever h rises, the end of the sliding pawl s 
comes into contact with this snail- wheel, and 
the other end, clamping the paper, slides it 
upon the incline or surface r until the print- 
ing is effected. At the reverse movement the 
spring o draws the sliding pawl back to the 
normal position. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. Three magnets in the main-line circuit, 
operating as set forth, in combination with 
the type-wheel lever, printing-lever Jc, spring 
I, and latch i', substantially as and for the 
purposes set forth. 

2. The sliding pawl s, in combination with 
the snail-wheel upon the type-wheel shaft, and 
the printing lever k, substantially as set forth, 
for feeding the paper. 

3. A printing-lever and an electro-magnet 
arranged in connection with the type-wheel 
and its magnet, substantially as set forth, so 
that the printing-lever is drawn away from 
the type- wheel by the electro-magnet,- and 
the printing is effected by breaking the circuit 
to the electro-magnet. 

Signed by me this 21st day of Januarv, A. 
D. 1873. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



No. 139,129 



T. A. EDISON. 
Printing Telegraphs. 

Patented May 20, 1873. 




1. PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHIC CO. NX(OSBORNES PROCESS.) 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWAEK, NEW JEESEY, ASSIGNOE TO THE GOLD 
AND STOCK TELEGEAPH COMPANY, NEW YOEK, N. Y. 

IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 139,129, dated May 20, 1873; application filed 

February 18, 1873. 



To all idiom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, 
of Newark, in the county of Essex and State 
of New Jersey, have invented an Improve- 
ment in Transmitting-Instrnuieuts for Print- 
ing-Telegraphs, of which the following is a 
specification : 

In this instrument there are two electro- 
magnets in a main-line circuit, in which, also, 
is the key or other instrument for opening 
and closing the circuit. The relay-magnets 
are provided with armatures and circuit- 
closers, and the retractile springs of the arma- 
tures are of different tensions,"so that the re- 
lay, working a local circuit through the type- 
wheel magnet of the printing-instrument, en- 
ergizes the same each pulsation in the main 
line. The local circuit of the printing-magnet 
remains broken, because the armature of that 
relay-magnet is kept toward the magnet by 
the residual magnetism until a pause in the 
transmission occurs sufficient to allow the 
printing relay-armature to recede and close 
the relay circuit to the printing-magnets. In 
this mauntr it is only necessary to pulsate 
the main -line circuit and pause to effect the 
printing when the type-wheel has been set. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 shows a printing- 
telegraph instrument of any desired charac- 
ter, a representing the type -wheel magnet, 
and b the printing- magnet. Fig. 2 is a plan 
of the relay-instrument. 

The magnets d and e are in the main- 
line circuit from the battery /, and g is a 
finger-key or other closer at^the distant sta- 
tion to pulsate the current through d e. The 
armatures h and i are drawn back by springs 
of different tension, the spring of h being 
the most powerful, so that the armature h 
will respond to each pulsation of g, and close 
and open the local circuit h to the fype- 



I wheel magnet a in the various printing-in- 
struments; thereby the type-wheels will be 
set by such pulsations. During these pulsa- 
tions the armature i will be held toward the 
electro-magnet e, because of the residual mag- 
netism and slight tension of the retractile 
spring of the armature; but when a pause 
occurs the magnet e discharges itself, the 
armature i is drawn away, and the relay cir- 
cuit I closed to the printing-magnets so as 
to give the impression. If the printing is to 
be effected when the local circuit Jc is closed, 
the connection will be made to the screw 3 
instead of the screw 2. With circuits ar- 
ranged as in the diagram, Fig. 3, only one 
local battery will be required, the connections 
and operations corresponding with those be- 
fore described. The magnet d may be used 
for setting the typ< -wheel by direct action of 
the armature on pallets, and the armature of 
the magnet e be used to close the local circuit 
to the printing-magnet 6, as before. 
I claim as my invention — 

1. Two relay-magnets in the main circuit, 
with retractile springs to the armatures of 
different tensions,*in combination with relay 
circuits to the type-wheel and printing electro- 
magnets, respectively, of a printing-telegraph 
instrument, substantially as and for the pur- 
poses set forth. 

2. Two relay-magnets in the main circuit, 
with armatures adjusted differently, in combi- 
nation with a local circuit effecting distinct and 
different operations, according to the length 
of pause between pulsations in the main line, 
substantially as specified. 

Signed this 13th day of February, A.D. 1873. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



2 Sheets — Sheet 1. 

T. A. EDISON. 
Printing Telegraphs. 

NO. 140,487. Patented July 1, 1873. 




AM. PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHIC CO. NX. (oSBORmS PROCESS) 



2 Sheets — Sheet 2 

T. A. EDISON. 
Printing Telegraphs, 

No. 140,487, Patented July 1, 1873, 




- AM. PHOTO-LfTHOGRAPHICCO. NX (OSBORNES PROOES&, 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OE NEWABK. NEW JEBSEY, ASSIGNOB TO THE GOLD 
AND STOCK TELEGEAEH COMPANY, OE NEW YOEK, N. Y. 

IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 140,489', dated July 1, 1873 ; application filed 

February 18, 1873. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edisojn", of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented Improvements in 
Printing- Telegraphs, of which the following 
is a specification : 

la this improvement the transmission is ef- 
fected by pulsations through a break- wheel, 
relay-magnet, and main line; and as the pul- 
sation energizes the relay-magnet it closes a 
local circuit to a type-wheel magnet that acts 
upon pallets to rotate the type-wheel and the 
break-wheel, and in so doing breaks the main- 
line circuit, and allows the main line to break 
the local, and the spring of the type-wheel ar- 
mature to draw the latter back, and by the 
pallets move the type-wheel and break-wheel 
around further, and reclose the main circuit, 
and repeat the operations before described. 
These connections are resorted to to prevent 
too rapid movement. The main -line pulsa- 
tions act in all the instruments of the line to 
set the type-wheels through the local circuits. 
The trausmittiug-iustrument is stopped at a 
point when both circuits are broken, and in 
each receiving-instrument the pallet-lever, be- 
ing drawn back by a spring, closes a local cir- 
cuit to a magnet that operates the priutiug- 
circuit and energizes the printing-magnet. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a plan repre- 
senting portions of the instrument and the 
circuit-connections, and Fig. 2 is a side view 
of part of the instrument. 

The type-wheel a is upon a shaft, &, that has 
a pallet- wheel, c, operated by a pallet-lever, d, 
the armature e of which is moved by the mag- 
net /, that is in the circuit 2 2, from the bat- 
tery g. A break-wheel, h, upon the shaft &, 
and a contact-spring, k, of suitable construc- 
tion, are in the circuit 3 from the battery I, in 
Avhich circuit is the relay-magnet m, the lever 
n of which opens and closes the circuit 2. 

The operation of these parts is, that when 
m is energized the lever n closes the circuit 2 ; 
this energizes the type- wheel magnets /', and 
by the pallet-lever d the type-wheel is moved 
half a space. This at the transmitting-instru- 
ment breaks the circuit 3 by one of the non- 



conducting segments of the wheel h coming 
under the endof Jc. The circuit 3 being broken, 
the lever n falls back, breaking the circuit 2, 
and the magnets m f\ discharging, allow the 
spring 4 to draw back the pallet-lever d, mov- 
ing the break-wheel h far enough to close the 
circuit 3 again, and the operations are repeat- 
ed, thus producing an automatic opening and 
closing of the circuits 2 and 3, and the speed 
of movement can be regulated by the tension 
of the armature-springs. 

If the circuit 3 is the main line, then the 
circuit 2 will be local at the transmitting and 
receiving stations ; but if the circuit 3 is local 
the circuit 2 may be the main line, and the 
circuit 3 will not be in use while receiving. 

If a Anger-key is depressed the arm r upon 
the shaft b is arrested by the lever t of the 
finger - key S, (a few only of these keys are 
shown, but they are of usual character,) and 
the parts are in the position shown ; but both 
circuits 2 and 3 are broken, and the spring u 
closes the circuit 8 from the battery 9 to the 
local magnet q, the armature-lever^ of which 
closes the printing - circuit 10, that passes 
through the printing-lever magnets iv, so that 
a pause at the transtnitting-instrument allows 
time for the energizing of the respective mag- 
nets to and the printing of the letter by the 
levers x. 

The printing maybe effected with one local 
circuit, if the spring u forms part of the cir- 
cuit 10 ; and in cases where these instruments 
are used with two line wires the line-wire forms 
part of the circuit 10 to the printing-magnet 
of the distant instrument or instruments. As 
the finger-key is raised the spring 4 draws the 
pallet-lever d, and turns the wheel h sufficiently 
to close the circuit 3, and the pulsations are 
set up as before. The time that the spring u 
is in contact with the circuit-screw 14 is mo- 
mentary, except when there is a pause by de- 
pressing one of the keys; hence the printing- 
magnets will only be energized at that time. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. The combination of the type- wheel, pal- 
let-wheel, circuit-wheel h, and pallets with the 
circuits 2 and 3 and electro-magnets m and/, 



140,48? 



substantially as set forth, for automatically 
opening and closing the respective circuits 
and rotating the type-wheels, as set forth. 

2. The printing-circuit closed by the spring 
u of the pallet-lever when the circuits 2 and 3 
are broken, and the movement of the type- 
wheel arrested by the depression of a finger- 
key, in combination with the pallets that are 
moved by the spring and close the type-wheel 



circuit when the finger-key is released, sub- 
stantially as set forth. 

Signed bv me this 13th day of February, A. 
D. 1873. 

THOMAS A. EDISOK 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 




AM, PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHIC CO HX ossomes prochss.i 




A.M. Ph 070-11 TfiOGRAHHI C CO K Y. ■ OSBQRHtS PROCESS. 



3 Sheets — Sheet 3. 

T. A. EDISON. 
Printing Telegraphs. 

No. 140,488. Patented July 1, 1873. 




I PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHIC CO, tl.Yi OSBORNts 



United States Patent Office, 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWAEK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO THE GOLD 
AND STOCK TELEGRAPH COMPANY, OF NEW YORK, N. Y. 

IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 14©,4§§, dated July J, 1873 : application filed 

May 1G, 1873. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Printing-Telegraphs, of which the following 
is a specification : 

In this machine there is a circuit-breaker 
driven by an electric engine, and this pulsator 
makes and breaks the circuit of the main line 
and causes all the type-wheels in the circuit 
to revolve in unison through the agency of an 
electro-magnet and step-by-step mechanism. 
When a key at the transmitting-station is de- 
pressed it stops the circuit-breaker and arrests 
the movement of the type-wheels. At each 
station is a local battery that is brought into 
action by the cessation in the movement of 
the type-wheel lever closing the circuit and 
throwing the current into the printing-mag- 
net. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is an inverted plan, 
representing the principal portions of the mech- 
anism. Fig. 2 is a vertical section, showing 
the operative portions of the machine ; and 
Fig. 3 is a general plan view on a smaller scale, 
representing the connections. 

The bed a of the machine is of suitable size 
and shape, and around on one side is a range 
of finger-keys, b, occupying one-third of the 
circle, and these are connected" with the bars 
|' ( beneath the bed a, that stand radially 
around the wheel Ji 4 that is in the middle of 
the bed, and is hereafter referred to. The 
type- wheel & is revolved by a step-by-step 
movement from the lever <7, electro-magnet d 1 , 
and spring 3. The unison mechanism e and 
the printing-lever e l and magnet e 2 are similar 
to those in my patent No. 120,532. The feed- 
ing mechanism for the paper is similar to that 
in my patent No. 126,532, and there is a pawl 
and retaining-clamp, 4, to prevent the paper 
drawing back, as in said patent. The motor con- 
sists of the electro-magnets//', vertical shaft 
g, and governor-balls g\ and the speed is reg- 
ulated by short-circuiting the battery-connec- 
tion by the collar 5 and finger 6, as in my int- 
ent No. 131,313. The connections are "made 
as shown in Fig. 3; the binding-screws 7 and 
8 are the line-connections, or line and earth. 
The connection 9 is to the engine, and 10 to 



the printing-magnet, and 11 is the return-con 
nection to the local battery g % . The motor 
drives the wheel h by the pinion 13, and this 
communicates motion to the pinion 11 and a 
wheel, h l , to which is attached a ratchet-wheel, 
7c. The wheel h 4 is loose upon the same shaft 
as the wheels h l and fc, and it is rotated by a 
pawl, 15, that is upon the wheel h 4 , and takes 
the teeth of the ratchet-wheel h. The arms 
m, three in number, project from a hub around 
the shaft ¥. One of them is contiguous to a 
knuckle on the pawl 15, so that when one of 
the finger-keys b is depressed, and one of the 
arms m comes into contact with the bar b' of 
the depressed key, then the arms m are arrest- 
ed, and the wheel h\ moving slightly by the 
pawl, brings the knuckle of the pawl into con- 
tact with said arm on, and throws the pawl 
out from the ratchet-wheel 1c, thereby allowing 
the ratchet-wheel lc and w 7 heel h 1 to continue 
to revolve, but stopping the wheel h 4 and the 
parts deriving motion from it. In this man- 
ner the circuit-closing wheel o is stopped, said 
wheel receiving motion from the pinion o 2 , and 
as soon as the finger-key is raised the spring 
o 3 throws the pawl 15 back into contact with 
the ratchet-wheel 7c, and the motion of the cir- 
cuit-closing wheel is renewed. The lever s is 
operated by cam-projections on the wheel o, 
and, by the contact -points 20 and 35, and 
springs 21, the circuit nest described is opened 
and closed. There is an insulated block, t, 
upon which the springs 22, 23, 21, and 25 rest, 
and in it are conducting-blocks. When a knob 
above the bed of the machine is turned to the 
word " take,' 7 the circuit is closed through the 
springs 22 and 23. When it is turned to the 
word " send,' 7 the circuit is closed through 21 
and 25. The parts are so timed that the num- 
ber of times the circuit is opened and closed 
during each revolution of the wheel h 4 equals 
three times the number of the keys b, and 
hence that the pulsations acting in the Hue 
make three revolutions of the type-wheel, the 
pulsations passing by the binder 7, wire 37, 
screw 36, metallic frame and lever s, contact- 
points 20 35, springs 21, and connection to the 
binder 33, wire 32, magnet d 1 , wire 31, and 
binder 8, and thence along the line to the dis- 
tantinstruments,andsettingtheirtype-wheels, 



2 140 



and when the revolution of ¥ is stopped by de- 
pressing a key, tbe letter of the type-wheels 
corresponding to that on the depressed key 
is in position for printing. At the receiving 
instrument the block it is turned to take, and 
the circuit-closer is no longer included iu the 
circuit, hut the pulsations go direct through 
the magnet d 1 to set the type- wheel, the route 
being by binder 7, wire 37, binder 36, wire 38, 
spring-arms 22 and 23, wire 39, binder 33, wire 
32, magnet d l , wire 31, and binder 8 to line or 
earth connection. While the type-wheel lever 
d is vibrating the spring d? thereon does not 
remain in contact long enough with the anvil 
d 4 to energize the printing-magnet e 2 ; but so 
soon as the pulsation in the type-wheel mag- 
net ceases the circuit is closed through d 3 and 
d 4 , the current passing by binder 10, wire 40, 
magnet e 2 , wire 49, anvil at 4 , spring d 3 , lever e 1 , 
frame and bed a, and binder 11 back to bat- 
tery g 2 , and the printing effected. The ful- 
crum of the printing-lever e v is to be loose in 
its bearings, so that the momentum may carry 
the lever and its pad up to the type and produce 
the impression, and then fall away to prevent 
blurring theletterwhenthetype-wheelis again 
revolved. The brass screws e 6 passing through 
the armature of the lever e 1 , coming into con- 
tact with the cores of e 2 , prevent adhesion be- 
tween the surfaces and adjust the blow of the 
impression-pad. A ratchet-wheel, m 5 , upon 
the governor-shaft g is provided, and a spring- 
pusher, m 6 , is used to start the governor and 
motor in the right direction when the machine 
is put into motion. The contact-points 20 and 
spring contact-points 35 are in pairs, as seen 
in the detached view, Fig. 4, and two of the 
points touch before the other two, the object 
being to lessen the risk of false or defective 
pulsations, because the intensity of the spark 
between the contact-points produces oxidation 
that sometimes prevents the transmission of 
thepnlsation. This sparkis between thepoints 
that first come into contact 5 but if the spark 
fails between these it passes between the sec- 



,4§8 

ond pair of contact-points, and because this 
second pair is so seldom exposed to the action 
of the spark, their surfaces remain free from 
oxidation a very long time. 

Stop-pawls have been used to prevent the 
type-wheel turning back, but they have been 
employed in connection with spring-pawls or 
on a separate ratchet-wheel. I employ the 
pawl e 7 and spring e 8 in connection with the 
wedge-acting pallets shown, and such pawl is 
so constructed that it prevents the type-wheel 
being turned the wrong way by holding the 
type-wheel in place when the pawls are not in 
contact with the ratchet-wheel, but are moving 
from one side to the other. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. The circuit-breaking wheel actuated by 
the wheel h 4 , in combination with the pawl 15, 
ratchet-wheel ft, arms m, and range of finger- 
key bars b', substantially as and for the pur- 
poses set forth. 

2. The switch-block t, circuit-springs 22 23 
24 25 and their connections, substantially as 
set forth, in combination with the circuit-closer 
0, line-connections and type-wheel magnets d 1 , 
substantially as set forth. 

3. The starting mechanism, consisting of the 
pawl m 6 and ratchet-wheel m 5 , in combination 
with the governor and magnetic motor, sub- 
stantially as set forth. 

4. The screws e 6 applied to the armature of 
the printing-magnet, for the purposes set forth. 

5. The stop-pawl e 7 , in combination with the 
type-wheel, wedge-acting pallets, andratchet- 

1 wheel, for the purposes set forth. 

6. The double pairs of spring circuit-closing 
points 20 and 35, one pair set to come into con- 
tact before the other pair, for the purposes set 
forth. 

Signed by me this 23d day of April, A. D. 
1873. 

THOS. A. EDISOK 

Witnesses: 

Chas. H. Smith, 
Geo. T. Pinckney. 




AM. PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHIC CO NX( OSBOmies PPQCESSJ 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO THE GOLD 
AND STOCK TELEGRAPH COMPANY, OF NEW YORK, N. Y. 

IMPROVEMENT IN CIRCUITS FOR PRINTING-TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 140,4§9, dated July 1, 1873; application filed 

February 18, 1873. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Circuits for Printing - Telegraph Instru- 
ments, of which the following is a specifica- 
tion : 

In this instrument two relay-magnets are 
in a main-line circuit and their cores or arma- 
tures are polarized. The electro-magnets are 
so made that a pulsation of one polarity will 
attract one armature and repel the other, and 
the reverse when a current of opposite polar- 
ity is sent. The armatures of these electro- 
magnets open and close the circuits of a local 
battery, in which is placed the type-wheel and 
printing-magnets of a printing-telegraph in- 
strument. When pulsations of one polarity 
act in the relay-magnets the type-wheel mag- 
net of the printing-telegraph will be operated, 
and when a reverse polarity is sent through 
the relay-mt gnet the printing-circuit will be 
operated. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a plan of the 
relay-magnets, and Fig. 2 represents the print- 
ing instrument aud the circuits in which it is 
connected. 

I remark that the printing instrument is to 
be of any desired character adapted to use 
with two circuit-connections, a b, such circuits 
passing, respectively, through the printing- 
magnet d and type-wheel magnet e. c repre- 
sents the battery for the circuits a b, and this 
is connected with the circuit-closing levers / 
and g, upon which are the polarized armatures 
h i of the relay-magnets Jc I. These magnets Jc 
I are in the main circuit from the battery wi, 
and when the key n at the distant station is 



depressed the pulsation passing through the 
magnets Jc I will be of negative polarity, and 
when o is depressed will be of positive polarity. 

The electro-magnets Jc I are so made that 
when the key or pulsator o is operated, the 
magnet Jc will be operative upon its armature 
Ji to close and open the circuit b to the type- 
wheel magnet e and the armature % will be re- 
pelled; but when the type-wheel has been set 
the key n is to be depressed and the polarity 
reversed to act upon the armature i, and close 
the circuit a through the printing-magnets d 7 
repelling the armature Ji. 

By this transmitting mechanism the circuits 
a b can be operated at the distant station or 
stations with reliability and facility over a 
single line main circuit. 

I remark that a pulsator-wheel and index- 
hand corresponding with the type-wheel may 
take the place of the keys n o. 

The polarization of the electro-magnets may 
be effected by permanent magnetism in the 
core or armature, or in any convenient man- 
ner. 

I claim as my invention — 

Two polarized electro-magnets in a main 
circuit, in combination with two local circuit- 
connections to the magnets of a printing instru- 
ment, and a mechanism for opening and clos- 
ing the main circuit aud reversing the polar- 
ity of the current, substantially as and for the 
purposes set forth. 

Signed by me this 13th day of February, 
A. D. 1873. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



Circuits for 

No. 141,772, 



T. A. EDISON. 
Automatic or Chemical Telegraphs. 

Patented August 12, 1873.. 




United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWAEK, NEW JEESEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN CIRCUITS FOR AUTOMATIC OR CHEMICAL TELEGRAPHS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 141,'7'72, dated August 12, 1873; application filed 

November 9, 1872. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement in 
Telegraphic Circuits, of which the following 
is a specification : 

In chemical telegraphs it often happens that 
the pulsations of electricity that reach the 
paper are too powerful ; and hence there is an 
elongation or attenuation of the mark upon 
the paper, causing the characters to be indis- 
tinct or to run into each other. 

The present invention is to prevent this dif- 
ficulty by regulating the quantity of the cmv 
rent passing to the chemical paper, and then 
bringing in an adjustable reverse current to 
neutralize any tailings. 

In the annexed diagram the peculiarity of 
arrangement of circuits and instruments is 
illustrated. 

A battery, a, is connected through the trans- 
mitting instrument b to the line -wire c, and 
the earth connection d is of the usual character. 
At the receiving-station the instrument e is to 
be of ordinary character for presenting the 
chemical paper to the action of the stylus and 
current. Eheostats have been used between 
the main-line and receiving instrument, and 
also in a shunt or branch circuit connected 
with the earth, and a battery has been placed 
in the shunt or branch circuit. I employ a 
rheostat, /, in a shunt connection between 
the parts of the main line, through which a 
portion of the electric pulsation passes, the 
rheostat being sufficient to counteract the re- 



sistance of the chemical paper, and cause the 
proper proportion of current to pass through 
said paper. The battery h is placed in the 
main or branch line with its poles in a posi- 
tion to cause the electricity to circulate through 
the local circuit composed of 1, e, 2, /, and 3, 
in a direction opposite to that in the main line, 
so that any attenuation of the mark may be 
prevented by the reverse action of the cur- 
rents. If the before-mentioned parts only 
were employed, the local battery h might be 
sufficient to neutralize the electric pulsations 
in the main line. I therefore introduce a 
rheostat, I, between the poles of the battery h, 
and the same should be variable or adjustable 
to allow the action of the battery h to be 
varied, and only so much of the reverse cur- 
rent directed through the local circuit and the 
chemical paper as will prevent the attenua- 
tion or tailing of the mark upon the chemical 
paper, leaving that mark clear and distinct. 

I claim as my invention — 

The rheostat I applied to the battery h in 
the local circuit to regulate the action there- 
of, in combination with the rheostat / in the 
branch circuit, and the receiving instrument 
in the main circuit, substantially as and for 
the purposes set forth. 

Signed by me this 5th day of November, 
A. D. 1872. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. Pincknby, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Circuits for Automatic Telegraphs. 

No. 141,773. Patented August 12, 1873, 




AM. PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHIC CO. N.Y. (OS30RNES PROCESS.) 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF 
AND GEORGE HARRINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, D. 0. 

IMPROVEMENT IN CIRCUITS FOR AUTOMATIC TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 141,773, dated August 12, 18/3 j application filed 

January 15, 1873. 



lo all ivJiom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented Improvements in 
Circuits for Chemical Telegraphs, of which 
the following is a specification: 

This invention is intended for rendering the 
reception of the message more reliable and 
free from blurring or tailings upon the chem- 
ical paper. The line is kept statically charged 
by a battery, the circuit of which is inter- 
rupted with immense rapidity by an electro- 
magnetic engine or other device. At the re- 
ceiving end there is a shunt with an electro- 
magnet in it. The electric tension is adjusted 
by a rheostat at the transmitting-station, so 
that ordinarily there will not be any mark at 
the receiving-station in consequence of the 
electro-magnet and shunt; but when the ten- 
sion in the line is increased by the current 
going through the perforations of the paper 
at the transmitter and directly to the line, so 
as to cut out the rheostat, then a mark is made 
at the receiving-instrument, but there will not 
be any attenuation of the pulsation to pro- 
duce tailings. 

At the receiving-station I employ two or 
more styluses or pens, all connected with the 
main line, and to each is a shunt-circuit and 
an electro-magnet. The magnets are of vary- 
ing character or power; hence they will act 
differently upon the stylus, and one will be 
sure to make a legible mark, although the 
electric conditions may vary from time to 
time or during the reception of the message, 
and the operator will be able to read the mes- 
sage reliably upon one of the two or more cor- 
responding lines of marks on the strip before 
him. 

In the diagram I have illustrated my im- 
provement. 

The battery a, rheostat b, and rapid contact- 
breaker c are in the main line or circuit. The 
rheostat, which may be adjustable, only al- 
lows the immensely rapid pulsations from c to 
pass sufficiently upon the line to keep the 
same statically charged to the required ex- 
tent. The transmitting-instrnment d is in a 



shunt that connects with the line on both 
sides of the rheostat; hence the pulsations 
through the paper reach the line direct and 
increase the electric tension sufficiently to op- 
erate the receiving-instrument. The receiv- 
ing-instrument li may be of any suitable char- 
acter ; but I find that there should be either 
an electro-magnet in a shunt-circuit to neu- 
tralize the static electricity by the counter- 
current as the magnet discharges, or else a 
battery and rheostat with the polarity of the 
shunt or local circuit the reverse of that of the 
main line. I, however, prefer to use two or 
more styluses or pens, i i, connected to the main 
line and to shunt-circuits, in which are placed 
the electro-magnets ft ft. 

The tailings from the pulsations are neu- 
tralized by the reverse currents set up in the 
shunt-circuits as the electro-magnets discharge 
themselves; and by employing magnets of 
different powers or qualities there will be 
greater certainty of the record being clear 
and legible in one of the two or more lines of 
marks upon the strip of chemical paper, be- 
cause the coils of the magnets are of differ- 
ent resisting power to vary the currents pass- 
ing to the paper; and the secondary current 
induced iu the magnet is more or less active as 
it is discharged. 

Where a drop copy is desired it may be ob- 
tained upon the line by placing the two ends 
of the wires in a glass of water, m, and also 
the two poles of a local circuit, in which is a 
chemical-receiving instrument, I. By adjust- 
ing the proximity of the ends of the main-line 
wires to those of the local circuit the neces- 
sary division will be made for producing the 
record without materially interfering with the 
main line. At intermediate stations a branch 
connection, o, may be made to the earth with 
a resistance-coil, r, therein, and one or more 
of these coils may be brought into action by 
a switch, and these coils may form parts of 
electro-magnets, or a separate electro-magnet, 
s, be introduced, and a drop copy may be 
taken in a shunt- circuit, in this branch 
earth -circuit, by the electro-magnet acting up- 
on a circuit-closing lever. 



The magnet s inay be made to operate a re- 
lay or sounder or a receiving-instrument at 
the local station, indicated at u. 

I am aware that liquid rheostats or resist- 
ances have been made use of 5 but I am not 
aware that the ends of the line and of a shunt- 
circuit have been introduced in a liquid, and 
the four ends so varied or adjusted in position 
as to proportion the shunt and main-line cur- 
rents. 

I claim as my invention — 

1, The resistance b and transmitting-instru- 
ment d, arranged in connection with the line, 
the battery a, and the rapid circuit-breaker c, 
as and for the purposes set forth. 



2. Two or more styluses or pens connected 
with the main line and with shunt-circuits, in 
which are differing magnets for operation up- 
on the chemical-receiving paper, as set forth. 

3. The vessel of liquid receiving the two 
ends of the shunt-circuit and the two ends of 
the main line to vary the strength of the shunt- 
circuit according to the relative positions of 
such circuit ends, as set forth. 

Signed by me this 12th day of December, 
A. D. 1872. 

THOMAS A. EDISCXN". 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



No. 141,774. 



T. A . EDISON. 
Chemical Telegraphs. 

Patented August 12, 1873. 




United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF AND 
GEORGE HARRINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

IMPROVEMENT IN CHEMICAL TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 141, dated August 12, 1873 ; application filed 

March 13, 1873. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented Improvement in 
Chemical Telegraphs, of wbich the following 
is a specification : 

My invention relates to a chemical telegraph 
in which the paper is moistened as it runs 
through the machine, and receives the mark 
from the electric action upon the chemical in- 
gredients employed. I make use of a trough 
or pen similar to a paper-ruling pen, and I 
supply to the same the chemical solution by 
a siphon, or otherwise, so that the strip of 
paper is moistened in a line immediately be- 
fore or at the time that the mark is made, and 
the electrodes or contact-points are applied to 
the surface, either contiguous to the place 
where the liquid solution issues upon the pa- 
per, or more or less remote from the same. 
Thereby the decomposition of the liquid will 
be effected just as the same issues from the 
pen upon the paper, or after the solution has 
reached the paper and before it becomes en- 
tirely dry. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a plan of the 
instrument, and Fig. 2 is a side view of the 
same. 

The strip of paper a is drawn along by the 
rollers 1) in any of the known modes employed 
in automatic telegraphy. The solution is ap- 
plied to the surface of the same by a ruling- 
pen, such as used by draftsmen, or in paper- 
ruling machines. 

I have shown the pen c as a trough-shape, 
tapering down to the end that rests upon the 
paper, aud into this trough the chemical solu- 



tion is either placed or supplied from a foun- 
tain or reservoir, e, by a siphon, /, or other- 
wise. 

The wires i I, that are in the telegraphic 
circuit, and through Avhich the electric pulsa- 
tions pass, are connected to two points or elec- 
trodes, o o, that are sufficiently close together 
to act upon the moist solution and decompose 
the same and leave the mark upon the paper, 
and these are placed where they will act up- 
on the solution itself just as it issues from the 
pen upon the paper, or else upon such solu- 
tion in the paper while it remains in a moist 
condition, thus insuring the proper mark and 
employing but a small quantity of solution. 

I am aware that the strip of paper has been 
moistened in a narrow line by a roller im- 
mersed in the chemical solution, so as to ap- 
ply the same to the paper before coming into 
position to receive the mark ; but the paper 
offers a great resistance to the current, not 
being moistened entirely through by the time 
it reaches the stylus. By employing circuit- 
points at the surface at opposite sides of the 
moistened line this is avoided. 

I claim as my invention — 

The circuit-points or electrodes o o, connected 
with the wires i I and applied at each side of 
the line of chemical solution upon the surface 
of the paper, substantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 7th day of March, A. D. 
1873. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



- 



2 Sheets — Sheet 1 



T. A. EDISON. 
Perforators for Automatic Telegraphs. 



No. 141,775. 



Patented August 12, 1873,. 




PHOTO-L, THOGRAPHIC CO N. Y. ( OSBOmES PROCESS! 




AM PH0T01ITH0SRAPHICC0. f/.M0SB0RNES PROCESS * 



States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWABK, NEW JEBSEY, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF 
AND GEOKGE HABBINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, D. 0. 

IMPROVEMENT IN PERFORATORS FOR AUTOMATIC TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 111,775, dated August 12, 1873 ; application filed 

March. 13, 1873. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it; known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Machines for Perforating Paper for Use in 
Automatic Telegraphy, of which the following 
is a specification: 

In Letters Patent No. 121,001, granted to 
me, a device is shown for perforating paper 
in which the punches are moved by power 
applied to finger-keys acting through cams 
and slide-bars. 

My present invention relates to employing 
electro-magnetism as the motor to project the 
punches, so as to render the work of operat- 
ing the machine less fatiguing to the hand 
and arm of the operator than if the power to 
move said punches is applied by the hand to 
the keys ; and by this improvement I dispense 
altogether with the cams and slide-bars of 
aforesaid patent. 

I employ an electro magnet or magnets to 
actuate each punch through an armature and 
lever, and the connections to the magnets are 
arranged so that by depressing a finger-key 
the circuit is closed to the proper magnet or 
magnets, and they, by their levers, move the 
punch or punches, and the paper is perforated 
with the character corresponding to that of 
the depressed finger -key. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a plan, and Fig. 
2 is a vertical section, of my improved ma- 
chine. 

a a represent the punches (and of these 
there should be ten) for making the charac- 
ters composing the Morse alphabet. I have 
shown but six to avoid duplication of parts, 
and for the same reason only three keys of 
the horizontal range of finger-keys b b are rep- 
resented. The punches a a are placed in two 
rows, and move vertically in the die c and 
guide-plate c', and are kept raised from off 
the strip of paper d by the springs 2 2 when 
not acted upon by the levers li h of the electro- 
magnets e e. 

The paper is drawn through an opening in 
the die c, beneath the punches, by any suita- 
ble feeding device ; but, as this forms no part 



of my invention, it is not represented in the 
drawing. 

The electro-magnets e e for actuating the 
punches are supported upon the bed of the 
machine, and are preferably arranged in a 
circle, with their levers h h radiating from the 
group of punches, as shown in Fig. 1, so as 
to economize space and allow of said levers 
acting upon their respective punches without 
risk of interfering with each other. Each le- 
ver is provided with an armature, *, and 
moves upon a fulcrum, 3 ; and said lever may 
either rest upon its punch a or be connected 
to it by a pin and slot. Beneath the range of 
finger-keys b b there is a range of metallic 
bars or rods, 1 1, supported and insulated iu the 
frames V I'; and there is the same number of 
bars I as there are punches a. Each bar I is 
in metallic connection with its magnet e by 
the wire 4, and the battery v is connected to 
all the magnets e by the wire 5 and branches 
C 6. The finger-keys b b are pivoted upon the 
rod or shaft m; and upon the under side of 
each key there are one or more projections, 
each contiguous to a bar, Z; and these projec- 
tions are different in number and position up- 
on the various keys, and arranged so that 
when a key is depressed and its projections in 
contact with the bars I the circuit is closed to 
such magnets e as actuate those punches that 
produce a character corresponding with that 
of the depressed key. Thus the key shown 
depressed in Fig. 2 is provided with four pro- 
jections, % and the circuit is closed to the four 
magnets that actuate the punches marked 11, 
12, 13, and 14, and the character made is 
three perforations in one line and one in the 
other line, the whole representing a long dash 
and dot. 

When a key, b, is depressed the current from 
the battery v passes to the magnet or mag- 
nets e e by the wire 5 and branch or branches 
6 6, and from said magnets, by the wire or 
wires 4, to the bar or bars I, finger-key b, 
shaft m, and wire 15, back to the battery. 

By this arrangement of mechanism the 
punches are operated by the power of elec- 
tro-magnets, and the finger -key only performs 



the duty of closing the circuits through said 
magnets. 

The arrangement of the electro-magnets 
may be varied, and they may be more or less 
direct acting upon the punches, and positioned 
according to the arrangement and number of 
the punches. 

I claim as my invention — 

A group of punches for perforating tele- 
graphic paper, actuated by a separate electro- 
magnet to each punch, in combination with 



the circuit-bars I and a range of finger-keys, 
for selecting the circuits that are to be closed 
to perforate the paper in accordance with the 
character upon the key, substantially as set 
forth. 

Signed by me this 7th day of March, A. D. 
1873. 

THOMAS A. EDISOK 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Circuits for Automatic Telegraphs. 

No. 141 776. Patented August 12, 1873, 




AM.PMOTO-UTHQGRAPHICCO. NX{OSBORSrS PROCESSJ 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OP NEWARK, NEW JEESET, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF AND 
GEORGE HARRINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

IMPROVEMENT IN CIRCUITS FOR AUTOMATIC TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 441,^76, dated August 12, 1873; application filed 

January 15, 1873. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Telegraphic Circuits, of which the following 
is a specification: 

In automatic telegraphing the speed of the 
pulsations is such that the line becomes sur- 
charged, and the mark upon the chemical pa- 
per is attenuated to such an extent that ODe 
mark runs into another, or dots appear like 
dashes. The chemical paper is now made very 
sensitive, and a very feeble current is sufficient 
for making the mark; but in long lines the 
difficulty in clearing the line of the static elec- 
tricity has been so great as to reduce the speed 
of transmission in order to obtain legible char- 
acters. 

My present invention has been devised and 
successfully employed for effecting the clear- 
ing of the line without injury to the transmis- 
sion of the pulsations. 

Leaks and ground-connections have before 
been employed. My invention, therefore, does 
not relate thereto. 

I make use of a battery, or a number of bat- 
teries, at a distant station, or distributed along 
the line, such battery or batteries being much 
weaker than the sending -battery, and con- 
nected in such a manner to the main line as to 
direct upon the same a current of opposite po- 
larity, which has to be overcome by the pulsa- 
tions from the sen ding-station; but these are 
always sufficient, and the slight reverse cur- 
rent, acting in detail upon the line-wires, keeps 
them free from any attenuation in the trans- 
mitting pulsations, thereby increasing the ra- 
pidity of automatic telegraphing, especially on 
long lines, and rendering the writing clear and 
sharp. 

In the diagrams on the drawing, a repre- 
sents the line; b, the transmitting-battery; c, 
thetransmittingdnstrument; and d, the receiv- 
ing-instrument. In the former a strip of per- 
forated paper and stylus are employed; in the 
latter a strip of chemical paper and a stylus. 

In Figure 1 there are several branch circuits, 
/, in which are placed rheostats or resistances 
r, that may be adjustable, and also batteries 
6-, that are of the proper power, and placed 



with the opposite pole to the line to that of 
the battery 6, so that the line is operated upon 
in detail, at suitable distances apart — say every 
one hundred miles, more or less — and the line 
freed from tailing; and the same is opposed to 
the main current, but not sufficiently power- 
ful to neutralize the same or to interfere with 
the transmission. These batteries s are so pro- 
portioned or adjusted as to be equal to the 
static electricity or current generated by the 
passage of the main current. The rheostats 
or resistances r are sufficient to prevent the 
battery b being short-circuited through the 
various branch-circuit connections to the earth, 
and to cause the proper proportion of said 
battery-current to reach the receiving-instru- 
ment. 

In Fig. 2 the same parts are employed ; but 
the opposition batteries * are placed in the 
main line, and distributed along the same. 
The branch circuits to the earth, with resist- 
ances, act with the local opposition batteries 
to establish currents counter to the main cur- 
rent. 

In Fig. 3 the effect produced is the same as 
before described ; but in place of rheostats 
there are condensers £, and the opposition lo- 
cal batteries s, acting upon the condensers, es- 
tablish an opposite polarity on the plates of 
the condenser that are connected with the 
line to the polarity of such plates when influ- 
enced by the transmitting-battery, thereby 
neutralizing the tailings by charging the line 
statically in opposition to that from the main 
current. 

The condensers may be connected with the 
opposition local batteries, in the manner seen 
in Fig. 4, so that the plates that are connected 
to the line-wire will also be connected to one 
pole of the battery, and the other plates of the 
condenser will be connected with the earth 
and the other pole of the battery, the opera- 
tion being similar to that before set forth. 

In Fig. 5 the parts are the same in their op- 
eration as those before described ; but instead 
of ordinary batteries, cups n, containing pla- 
tina or carbon strips and acidulated water, are 
employed, so that when the pulsation on the 
main line ceases to charge such cups a mo- 
mentary reverse current is established to neu- 



2 141 

tralize the tailing by instantly freeing the line 
of any electric charge. 

In Fig. 6 the line-battery s is introduced at 
the receiving-station, to neutralize any local 
current that may leak from one insulator to 
another upon the poles v, and tend to charge 
the line sufficiently to produce a light contin- 
uous mark upon the paper, the battery s not 
being sufficient to interfere with the pulsa- 
tions for the message, although its poles are 
opposed to the same. 

The electro-magnets, at h, are in a shunt, 
connected at both sides of the receiving-in- 
strument, to neutralize any tailings at the in- 



strument, as in my application No. Gl, dated 
November 9, 1872. 

I claim as my invention — 

The use of an opposition or secondary bat- 
tery of weak power at one or more points, to 
act in the main line in opposition to the pulsa- 
tions from the transmitting-instrument, to free 
the main line of surplus or static electricity, 
substantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 12th day of December, 
1872. 

Witnesses: THOMAS A. EDISON. 
Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Ohas. H. Smith. 



No. 141,777 



T. A. EDISON. 
Relay Magnets. 

Patented August 12, 1873. 




AUPHOTO-WHOGRmUC CO. N.Y.iOSBOMES PROCESS.) 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWABK, NEW JEESEY, ASSIGNOB TO HIMSELF AND 
GEOEGE HABBINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, DISTEIOT OF COLUMBIA. 

IMPROVEMENT IN RELAY-MAGNETS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 111,7*7, dated August 12, 1873; application filed 

March 13, 1873. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Telegraphic Instruments, of which the fol- 
lowing is a specification: 

Belay-magnets are employed to a large ex- 
tent in various telegraphic operations. It is, 
however, found that the adjustment of the 
springs that draw hack the armature and 
the burning of the contact - points by the 
spark are sources of constant annoyance. 

My present invention is made for prevent- 
ing the points burning out, and for avoiding 
adjustment of the retractile armature-springs. 

I make use of metallic contact-points within 
a liquid, such as glycerine or water, so that 
the motion of one contact -point nearer to or 
farther from the other raises and lowers the 
electric tension in the telegraph-line, and op- 
erates a distant magnet without forming a 
spark or breaking the circuit. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a side \ T iew of 
the relay-magnet with the circuit-cup in sec- 
tion, and Fig. 2 is a side view of the distant 
magnet. 

The finger-key a is in a circuit from the bat- 
tery b; so also are the coils of the relay-mag- 
net c. The armature d and its lever / are 
moved by the spring e in one direction, and 
by the magnet c in the other. The circuit-cup 
g is made to contain water, glycerine, or other 
suitable liquid. In the bottom is the screw or 
point i, connected with the circuit-wire k, and 
the movable point or screw I passing through 
the lever /is connected with the other circuit- 
wire m, extending to the distant magnet 11. 
The battery r is in the circuit to the magnet 
n; and it will now be understood that by ad- 



justing the point I nearer to or farther from i 
the proportion of current passing to the mag- 
net n can be adjusted so that, when the point 
I is moved by the magnet c nearest to i, the 
current from r will be sufficiently powerful to 
energize the magnet n and draw down its 
armature u; but when the circuit to the mag- 
net c is broken at the key a, or otherwise, the 
movement of the point I away from i will 
lessen the tension in the circuit k m by the 
resistance of the intervening liquid, and 
weaken the power of the electro-magnet n, so 
that its spring or weight t will draw away its 
armature. 

The movement of the armature u may be 
made operative in effecting any desired tele- 
graphic operation to which it is adapted. I, 
however, employ the same especially as a 
sounder, and in that case the battery r and 
circuit k m are local. 

I am aware that contact-points within a liq- 
uid, such as oil or glycerine, have been em- 
ployed in the circuit- breaker of an electric en- 
gine. In my improvement the circuit is not 
broken, but the relay -magnet or sounder is 
operated by rise and fall of tension, and the 
contact-points are adjustable instead of vary- 
ing the armature-spring of the magnet. 

I claim as my invention — 

The adjustable contact-points acting within 
a liquid, in combination with the helix, arma- 
ture, and spring of a sounder or relay, as set 
forth. 

Signed by me this 7th day of March, A. D. 
1873. 

THOMAS A. EDISON, 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Electrical Regulators for Transmitting Instruments. 

No. 142,688. Patented September 9, 1873, 




United States Patent Office, 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO THE GOLD 
AND STOCK TELEGRAPH COMPANY, OF NEW YORK, N. Y. 

IMPROVEMENT IN ELECTRICAL REGULATORS FOR TRANSMITTING-INSTRUMENTS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 142,688, dated September 9, 1873 ; application filed 

March 13, 1873. 



To all wJiom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Telegraph Transmitting- Instruments, of 
which the following is a specification : 

This invention relates to means for regulat- 
ing the speed of the pulsator-shaft in that 
class of transmitting-instrumeuts in which 
said shaft is revolved by an electromotor, 
weight, or spring. 

My improvement consists in employing an 
electro-magnet with its cores contiguous to 
the pulsator-shaft to check the speed of said 
shaft when it exceeds its maximum or deter- 
mined rate by the magnetism of the cores at- 
tracting said shaft and retarding its move- 
ment. 

The circuit to the electro- magnet is closed 
by the governor on the shaft rising by the in- 
crease of speed and bringing a flanged sleeve 
in contact with an insulated post, and opened 
when their contact is broken by the slight 
diminution in speed of the shaft, and conse- 
quent fall of the governor and its sleeve, when 
the electro-magnet ceases its action upon the 
shaft. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is apian, and Fig. 
2 is a section of part of a transmitting-instru- 
ment sufficient to illustrate my improvement. 

b represents the bed of the instrument, and 
beneath this is a train of gearing for revolv- 
ing the pulsator-shaft a, said gearing beiug 
operated by a weight at the end of the cord 
or rope h; or my improvement is equally 
available where the pulsator-shaft is revolved 
by an electromotor, or by a spring and gear- 
ing. 

The pulsator e upon the shaft a acts with 
the circuit-closing lever or spring 12 to open 
and close the main-line or local circuit, as in 
my patent No. 131,343, and a reference is 
hereby expressly made to the same for the 
action of this pulsator, and for the construc- 
tion and operation of the finger-keys d d', \ 



shown by dotted lines in Fig. 1, as the afore- 
said patent sets these parts forth and the ob- 
jects accomplished. 

The electro - magnets I for regulating the 
speed of the shaft a are placed with their 
cores contiguous to an iron or steel hub on 
said shaft, as shown in Fig. 1, and the en- 
largement of the shaft at this point gives am- 
ple metallic surface for the magnetism of the 
cores to act upon. These magnets I are in a 
local circuit, 2 3, connected with the shaft a, 
and also to the insulated post 18. b' is the 
governor revolving with the shaft a, and pro- 
vided with a sleeve, upon which is a flange, 7, 
as in aforesaid patent. As the governor rises 
by increase of speed, the flange 7 comes in 
contact with the end of the insulated post 18, 
aud closes the circuit to the magnets I, which, 
by their attraction upon the shaft a, retard its 
speed. This slight diminution of speed causes 
the governor-ball to fall and breaks the cir- 
cuit at 7 18, and upon Jhe speed again in- 
creasing the circuit is again closed by 7 and 
18 coming in contact, and the speed is checked, 
as before. 

In the aforesaid patent the contact of 7 and 
18 by increased speed lessens the current to 
the motor. In the present instance the mag- 
netic brake formed by the magnets I checks 
the speed. The cores of these magnets might 
be loose within the helices ; or the magnets 
might be upon a spring-arm, so as to be brought 
into contact with the shaft by the attraction, 
if desired. 

I claim as my invention — 

The speed-regulator consisting of the elec- 
tro-magnet I, shaft a, and governor, in combi- 
nation with the circuit-closer and pulsator, 
substantially as and for the purposes set forth. 

Signed by me this 7th day of March, A. D. 
1873. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



No. 142,999. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Galvanic Batteries. 

Patented September 23 ,1873. 




United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWABK, NEW JEESEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN GALVANIC BATTERIES. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 142,999, dated September 23, 1873; application filed 

November 5, 1872. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, In the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Galvanic Batteries, of which the following 
is a specification : 

Galvanic batteries Lave been made with a 
plate of copper at the bottom of the glass jar 
in which the zinc is suspended. The zinc has 
been attached adjustably by arms, and the 
copper in some instances has been a plate 
placed edgewise in the bottom of the cell. In 
all instances the sulphate of copper has been 
placed around and above the copper plate, 
and in practice it is found that the zinc be- 
comes discolored and its efficiency is injured 
by a coating or deposit from the blue vitriol. 
I have discovered that when the sulphate 
of copper is placed below the copper pole of 
the battery the zinc pole will remain more 
efficient and free from deposit, that the blue- 
vitriol solution in the liquid of the cell will 
not extend above, or but little above, the cop- 
per plate, and that the battery will not re- 
quire replenishing as rapidly as now usual, 
and will remain at a more uniform intensity. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a vertical sec- 
tion, and Fig. 2 is a sectional plan, at the line 
x x, of my said battery. 

The cup or cell a, zinc &, suspending-rod c, 
arms d, and clamp are to be of any usual char- 
acter. 

In carrying out my improvement, I support 
or suspend the copper pole e at a short dis- 



tance from the bottom of the cell, say one 
inch, more or less. To effect this, the copper 
pole may have legs, /, resting upon the bot- 
tom of the cell, or the same may be suspended 
by non-conducting material, such as hard rub- 
ber, from the edges of the vessel a, or from 
the zinc pole or its support. The sulphate of 
copper is to be supplied below the copper pole, 
either by inserting the same before introduc- 
ing the copper, or it may preferably be sup- 
plied through the tube h that passes by the 
copper pole, so that the sulphate of copper in- 
troduced through the same remains below the 
copper and the metallic copper is deposited, 
and the zinc is acted upon by the acid that is 
liberated without the deposit of foreign mat- 
ter resulting from the direct contact of the 
sulphate of copper with the zinc. 

I do not claim a copper pole resting on short 
projections that serve to keep the same above 
any impurities iu the cell. 

I claim as my invention — 

The arrangement, in a galvanic battery, of 
the horizontal copper plate above the sulphate 
of copper and its solution, and below the zinc 
pole and the liquid surrounding the same, for 
the purposes and substantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 31st day of October, A. D. 
1872. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 




1 



No. 146,812 



T. A. EDISON. 
Teleg raph Sig nal-Boxes. 

Patented Jan, 27, 1874. 




AM. PHOW LITHOGRAPHIC Co. M. Y. lOSBORNES PPOceSS, 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWABK, NEW JEBSEY, ASSIGNOB TO AMEBICAN 
DISTRICT TELEGRAPH COMPANY, OF NEW YORK, N. Y. 

IMPROVEMENT IN TELEGRAPH-SIGNAL BOXES. 



Specification formiDg part of Letters Patent No. 140,812, dated January 27, 1W4 : application filed 

December 3, 1872. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, 
of Newark, in the county of Essex and State 
of New Jersey, h<?ve invented an Improve- 
ment in Telegraphic Alarm and Signal Ap- 
paratus, of which the following is a specifica- 
tion : 

Before my invention, an alarm appara- 
tus and local telegraph had been invented 
for communicating from several houses or 
buildings in a telegraphic circuit with the cen- 
tral station, for calling police, messenger, or 
other service, as seen in Letters Patent No. 
327,841, granted to E. A. Calahan. My in- 
vention is an improvement upon the same, 
and a modification of Letters Patent No. 
129,526 ; and consists in an adjustment to the 
springs that close the circuit, whereby the V- 
shaped ends are properly positioned, and the 
power of the springs regulated. Also, in ar- 
ranging the magnet, armature, and adjusta- 
ble stops in relation to the clock-work so that 
the parts are easy of access, and the sound 
from the moving armature will be uncon- 
lined. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is an elevation 
with the bed in section ; and Fig. 2 is a 
plan with the clock-work or train of gearing 
removed. 

The base a is made circular, and adapted 
to receiving a glass shade to protect the ma- 
chine from dust j and the base is sustained by 
a bracket, &, that can be screwed to a window 
or door frame, or other convenient support. 
The plates c c are connected to the base a, 
and carry the spring-barrel and train of gear- 
ing, of any usual character, to rotate the shaft 
i and brake- wheels d and e. There is a stop- 
pin, 2, upon the wheel d that is arrested by 
the lever /, which lever / is mounted upon 
the insulated cross-shaft 3, and provided with 
a finger-key, /', ouside the base, so that, by 
depressing the said key /' the lever / is 
moved, the pin 2 liberated, and the train of 
gearing allowed to move, and revolve the 
wheels d and e. The same movement breaks 
the electric circuit that ordinarily passes from 
the binder 4, through the insulated switch 5 
and Avire, to the lever /; thence, through the 
pin 2 and clock-work and bed, to the binder 6. 



In the brake-wheels d e are notches, posi- 
tioned to give indications upon a suitable in- 
strumentat thecentral receiving-station — such 
as a bell-magnet, armature, and hammer — to 
designate, by the strokes on the bell, the num- 
ber allotted to the wheel or to the wheel e, 
and, in so doing, indicate the station at which 
the instrument is placed containing such num- 
bers ; and, also, what is wanted — such as po- 
lice or messenger. 

The switch A- is employed to direct the cir- 
cuit through either the wheel d or the wheel 
e, according to what is to be indicated at the 
receiving-station. I remark that the contact- 
blocks 10 and 11 of the switch are suffi- 
ciently near each other for the circuit not to 
be broken in the act of moving the switch from 
one contact-block to the other. 

The circuit-closing springs I n are upon in- 
sulated blocks, and connected by clamping- 
screws passing through slots, so that the V- 
shaped ends of such springs can be adjusted 
in their position vertically ; and also in the 
force with which they press against the re- 
spective wheels d or e. There are insulated 
stops r s provided to limit the movements of 
the springs I n, and prevent the V ends of 
the springs moving too far into the slots in 
the circuit - wheels d e, thereby insuring the 
proper length of pause between the pulsations. 

The electro -magnet m is in an opening in 
the base a below the clock-work, and it is pro- 
vided with an armature, p, and lever t, hav- 
ing a limited motion between the adjusting- 
screws 13 14, and the retractile spring 15 is 
adjusted by the shaft 16, that passes through 
the frames c. This arrangement renders the 
parts very compact, gives access to the mag- 
net from below, and brings the moving end of 
the armature-lever where it can be seen, and 
the sound thereof against the screws 13 14 will 
not be confined. 

The connection from the binder 4, through 
the insulated switch 5 to thele ver /, ordinarily 
remains closed, and forms a shunt to the main 
line, cutting out the electro-magnet ; but, when 
broken at 5, the current is compelled to go 
through the electro-magnet m, producing a mo- 
tion of the armature, and sound. This switch 
5 is, therefore, only employed by an operator 



2 146 



to ascertain whether or not the line is in use 
by any. other instrument,, by compelling any 
pulsation to pass through his magnet, and if 
the electro-magnet is not vibrated the line is 
clear, and his own instrument can be started, 
and, by the electro-magnet responding, it will 
become apparent that the line is in proper con- 
dition. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. The circuit-springs I ii, attached by slots 
and screws, so as to be adjustable in their 
length and power, as set forth, in combination 
with the wheels d e. as specified. 



,812 

2. The combination of the electro-magnet m 
beneath the clock-work, the adjusting arma- 
ture-lever, screws 13 14 outside the clock-work, 
and the shaft 16, for adjusting the spring 15 
above the lever and through the clock -plates 
c o, all arranged as and for the purposes set 
forth. 

Signed by me this 26th day of November, 
1872. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. TL Smth. 



No. 147,311 



T. A. EDISON. 
Electric-Telegraphs. 

Patented Feb. 10, 1874. 




United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWAEK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOE TO HIMSELF 
AND GEOEGE HAEEINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, I). 0, 

IMPROVEMENT IN ELECTRIC TELEGRAPHS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 147,311, dated Foluuaiy 10, 1874; application filed 

July 29, 1373. 

Case 82. 



To all whom it map concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Electric Telegraphs, of which the following 
is a specification: 

In cables and long telegraph-lines there is 
a limit to the speed with which perfect signals 
can be transmitted and received, whether the 
receiving -instrument consists of an electro- 
magnet, a galvanometer, a relay, or a chemical- 
telegraph instrument. This limit in speed arises 
from the fact that the moment the line or cable 
is charged by the battery being connected, a 
static charge is instantly set up, which is in 
an opposite direction to the dynamic charge, 
and the tendency is to defer the reception of 
th« signal at the distant station, and at the 
moment of breaking the battery-connection, 
the static charge disperses by dividing at the 
center of resistance, and going in both direc- 
tions, one part going to the ground at the trans- 
mitting station in a direction opposed to the 
battery, and the other part going toward the 
receiving-instrument in the same direction as 
the previous current from the battery. This 
electrical condition is of sufficient duration to 
render the signals unintelligible at the receiv- 
ing-instrument after a certain speed is attained. 
The time of discharge is directly proportioned 
to the resistance at the points of discharge at 
the ends of the line, and the result is that the 
speed of the instruments is limited to the speed 
with which the line will free itself through the 
channels aforesaid. 

My invention relates to the discovery of a 
method of neutralizing the effects of the'static 
charge in any length of line or cable, by bal- 
ancing the electric forces, and the discovery of 
a point of no electric tension or zero, as re- 
gards the static charge, so that the receiving- 
mstrament, when located at that point, will be 
operated by the rise of tension produced by 
a pulsation that is connected at such receiving- 
instrument, and made as instantly and defi- 
nitely operative as the pulsation given at the 
transmitting station. 

I obtain this point of no tension by form- | 



ing at the receiving end an artificial line, hav- 
ing an equal or nearly equal resistance and 
electro - static capacity, or capacity for pro- 
ducing static charges, as that of the cable or 
land line, and connect this with the line or 
cable, and place between the cable and the 
artificial line the receiving-instrument, which 
hence is in the center of resistance and static 
accumulation. When this balance is obtained, 
the signals are received perfect, and the ra- 
pidity is governed only by the strength of the 
battery. 

The artificial line is made with an adjusta- 
ble rheostat; liquid in a tube is preferable. I 
connect, between the receiving-instrument and 
the earth, one or more condensers, or other 
accumulators of static electricity, which are- 
made adjustable by having thorn hi sections, 
and bringing one or more sections in or out by 
a switch, so as to increase or decrease the 
static charge from the artificial cable. It may 
also be done by placing a very high adjusta- 
ble resistance-coil between one leaf of the con- 
denser and the artificial line. I maintain a 
very low resistance between the line and the 
ground at the transmitting station, so as to 
discharge the static current at this end as 
rapidly as possible. 

The mode which I prefer is to keep my 
transmitting -battery in circuit at all times, 
and include in the same circuit another bat- 
tery of equal power with opposite poles, so 
that, when both are. in, there is no current 
generated, and the resistance of the wire to 
earth is no more than the resistance of the 
battery. The transmission of a pulsation is 
made, when the circuit is closed, through the 
perforation in the paper, or otherwise, so as to 
short-circuit or shunt the neutralizing battery, 
and send a current upon the line. The cur- 
rent at the receiving-paper is shunted through 
a resistance, so as to preserve a constant and 
equal resistance, which the chemical receiving- 
paper does not give, owing to being more damp 
in one place than another. In balancing the 
resistance and static current, the resistance of 
the instrument is to be added to the line, and 
the resistance of the two equalized by the 



14 7,31.1 



Same amount of resistance in tlic urtiJicial 
cable or line. If the receiving-instrument is 
Out of the center of resistance toward the line, 
the pulsations will be weakened by the static 
charge acting against the pulsation; but if 
the instrument is toward the artificial cable 
on the other side of the zero-point, the signals 
or characters will be slightly prolonged, owing 
to the t static charge discharging in the same 
direction as the current. It is at this point 
that I prefer to place the instrument, because, 
by placing an electro-magnet in the shunt of 
the receiving - instrument, I obtain enough 
counter-discharge from that magnet to cut off 
this prolongation locally, and this discharge 
from the magnet will not interfere with the 
line, but has only a local effect on the receiv- 
ing-instrument to prevent tailing on the chemi- 
cal paper. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 illustrates my in- 
vention in the form that I find most generally 
available. The batteries a and b are oonnec ted 
in opposite positions, the positive poles being 
toward each other, and the negative poles con- 
nected to the ground ry and line 7, respectively. 
The transmitting-instrument c is in a circuit, 
d, to the battery b, in which circuit d is a re- 
sistance, e. When the circuit d is broken, the 
two batteries a b neutralize each other, and 
there is no charge sent on the line; but when 
the circuit d is closed through a perforation in 
the paper, or by a key, or otherwise, the bat- 
tery b is short-circuited, and the battery be- 
ing unbalanced, sends a pulsation on the line. 
The artificial line between the receiving-in- 
strument/ and the earth ij> is made by intro- 
ducing a resistance or rheostat at r, prefera- 
bly a tube containing liquid, with adjustable 
points. This rheostat is made to balance or 
equal, or nearly so, the resistance of the line I, 
and the instrument/ and the condensers, or 
other accumulator of static electricity, is of a 
capacity to about equal that of the line : hence 
the receiving-instrument will occupy a zero or 
neutral point in regard to the static charge, 
trom which the static charges will discharge 
both ways to g and ff. The condenser or ac- 
cumulator s should be in sections, to bring in 
a greater or less number of sections by switches. 
When the receiving-instrument is" chemical, 
the paper is preferably prepared by dipping it 
in a solution of at least one pound of iodide of 
potassium in one gallon of water, to which is 
added a small quantity of flour. This paper 
cannot be maintained at uniform moisture; 



hence its resistance to the passage of electricity 
varies. This is compensated for by the shunt- 
circuit t, in which is a resistance, w, sufficient 
to direct the necessary amount of electricity 
to the 'paper to make the mark, and allow the 
remainder to pass to the artificial line. Thus 
the varying condition of the paper does not 
change the resistance of the liue. 

I have discovered that when an electro-mag- 
net is energized, and the circuit broken, a pul- 
sation is set up in the opposite direction to 
that passing into such magnets. I avail of this 
to prevent tailing upon the chemical paper, 
and at v I have shown an electro-magnet for 
this purpose. It will be seen that this electro- 
magnet will discharge itself within a short lo- 
cal circuit containing the receiving-instrument, 
and that the reactionary current therefrom, 
moving in the opposite direction to the main 
current, frees the receiving-instrument from 
the tailing caused by the discharge of static 
electricity, and this magnet v may be employed 
in many places to effect the object before 
named, even when there is not an artificial 
line. In some instances with very long lines, 
there may be intermediate artificial lines, ar- 
ranged as aforesaid, or reactionary magnets 
with branch circuits to the earth, to either re- 
ceive drop copies in such branch circuits or to 
free the line of static electricity, and aid in ob- 
taining the signals perfectly at the last re- 
ceiving station with the greatest rapidity. Figs. 
2 and 3 represent the same parts as before de- 
scribed; but in Fig. 2 only a single battery is 
shown, and the resistance e is between the 
line and the earth, to regulate the proportion 
of electricity sent over the line, by adjusting 
such rheostat to prevent too great return to 
the battery through such rheostat. In Fig. 3 
a condenser, %, is introduced in addition to 
this rheostat, that it may react between the 
pulsations of electricity on the main line to aid 
in clearing such line of the static charge. 

I claim as my invention — 

An artificial lino between the receiving-in- 
strument and the earth, to balance the resist- 
ance and static charge, or nearly so, at both 
sides of the receiving -instrument, substan- 
tially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 23d dav of April, A. D. 
1873. 

TIIOS. A. EDISON. 

"Witnesses: 

Geo. 1). Walker, 
Geo. T. Pinckney. 



2 Sheets — Sheet 1. 

T. A. EDISON. 
Perforators for Automatic Telegraphy. 

No. 147,312. Patented Feb. 10, 1874. 




AM, PHOTO-LITHOSKAPHIC Co.NXfosaoxites process; 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF 
AND GEORGE HARRINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, D. C. 

IMPROVEMENT IN PERFORATORS FOR AUTOMATIC TELEGRAPHY. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 147,3124 dated February 10, 1874; application filed 

July 29, 1873. 

Case 75. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Machinery for Perforating Paper for use in 
Automatic Telegraphing, of which the follow- 
ing is a specification: 

This invention is an improvement upon that 
set forth in Letters Patent No. 121,G01, grant- 
ed to me December 5, 1871, and a reference is 
hereby expressly made to said patent for a 
more full and complete description of those 
parts which are herein only generally referred 
to. 

My present improvement relates to the pa- 
per-carrier which feeds the paper, and to the 
means for giving the feed-motion to said pa- 
per-carrier. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a plan, partially 
in section, of a portion of my machine. Fig. 
2 is an end elevation of the paper -feed and 
dies; and Fig. 3 is a detached section, show- 
ing one of the cams and slide-bars for giving 
the feed-motion, and also showing the cam for 
actuating the presser-lever. 

The finger-keys a, a' are in two ranges, and 
mounted on the fulcrum -shafts b and to 
these keys the vertical slide-bars c c are jointed. 
The cams / /' are secured to said slide-bars, 
and they actuate the presser-levers e e and 
slide - plates Jc l; which latter operate the 
punches ?, that perforate the strip of paper in 
the die m n, and these parts thus far described 
are similar in construction and operation to 
the corresponding parts set forth in aforesaid 
patent. The rock-shaft r', which gives motion 
to the paper-carrier, is mounted in the frame 
c?', and upon this shaft are the cams s', one for 
each slide-bar c, and each cam is made with 
the arms 12 and 13, and is upon a hub champed 
to said shaft by a set-screw. The roller 15 
upon the slide-bar c takes against the arm 12 
of s', and gives a partial rotation to the shaft 
when the bar c is moved by a finger-key 
being depressed, and the amount of motion 
given to said shaft is determined by the arm 
13 of s', which comes against the rear of the 
0am plate /on o, as shown in Fig. 3, or against 



the bar c itself, and acts as a stop to prevent 
the shaft being turned beyond the point neces- 
sary for giving the proper motion to the paper- 
carrier t. 

These cams s' are easily adjusted upon the 
shaft v', and each cam is positioned so that 
when a finger-key is depressed, said shaft is 
only turned the amount required for moving 
the carrier t, and feeding the paper for the 
character that is perforated by the depression 
of that key. 

The rock-shaft v' gives motion to the paper- 
carrier t by the arm u', and this carrier is 
made with a thin metal plate, which moves 
in front of the fence s, and to this plate t l the 
paper is clamped by the pawl u when said pa- 
per and carrier are moved forward, and said 
pawl is turned and lifted from off the paper 
and plate when the carrier is moved back- 
ward. 

To operate this pawl u, I employ the spring- 
arm t? and rack r, and this arm is secured to 
the pivot upon which the pawl u turns. As 
the carrier t moves backward, the end of the 
arm enters between two of the teeth of v, and 
said arm being diagonal to said rack v, the 
arm yields to accommodate itself to the move- 
ment of the carrier, and in so doing acts as a 
lever and swings the pawl u off of the paper 
to the position shown by dotted lines in Fig. 
1. The pawl u is kept in this position by the 
end of the arm tr riding over the teeth of the 
rack during the entire backward movement of 
the carrier. Upon the carrier moving forward, 
the spring-arm swings the pawl u and brings 
it in contact with the paper, and clamps it 
firmly to the plate t\ and said paper is fed or 
carried forward by said plate and pawl, the 
spring riding t 2 over the ends of the teeth and 
holding the pawl to the paper. The spring f 
keeps the strip of paper in its proper position 
against the fence s, and, by its friction, pre- 
vents the paper being carried by momentum 
after the carrier stops. 

The operation of this machine, as before 
mentioned, is similar to that set forth in afore- 
said patent, the punches i perforating the pa- 
per during the time the carrier is moving back- 



'2 I 1* 

ward, and this backward movement is a dis- 
tance equal to the space for the character that 
is perforated and the intervening distance. 
The spring 16 returns the parts to their nor- 
mal position, and I remark that by this con- 
struction the adjustment of the paper-feed is 
very easily made, and the parts are light and 
not liable to become injured or disarranged. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. The stops 13 and cam-arms 12 upon the 
shaft v', in combination with the finger-keys a 
a', slides c, rollers 15, and paper-feeding mech- 



,312 



anism, substantially as and for the purpose j 
set forth. 

2. The spring-arm t 2 upon the pawl u, in 
combination with the rack v and reciprocating 
mechanism, substantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 24th day of March, A. D. 
1873. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pincknby, 
Ohas. H. Smith. 



No. 147,313 



T. A. EDISON. 
Chemical Telegraphs. 

Patented Feb. 10, 1874. 




AM. PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHIC Ca M Y. I OSBORNE'S PROCESSJ 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OP NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF 
AND GEORGE HARRINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, D. C, 

IMPROVEMENT IN CHEMICAL TELEGRAPHS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Paieut No. 14^,313, dated February 10, 1874 ; application filed 

July 29, 18/3. 

Case H, 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in tlie county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Chemical Telegraphs, of which the following 
is a specification: 

In Letters Patent granted to me February 
4, 1873, and numbered 135,531, a helix or mag- 
net is employed in a shunt or derived circuit 
to neutralize the attenuations of the pulsations 
in the main circuit, and prevent the tailing 
upon the chemical paper. 

The object of the present invention is to ad- 
just the counter or reacting force of the mag- 
nets or helices at the receiving station, and 
also to adjust the reacting force of the mag- 
nets or helices at the transmitting station, so 
as to vary the action of the helices to suit the 
battery or the conditions of the pulsations at 
the transmitting and receiving stations. 

In the annexed diagram, a is the transmit- 
ting -instrument, in. which the strip of perfo- 
rated paper is employed to make and break 
the circuit, b is the receiving-instrument for 
the strip of chemical paper, c is the main 
line; d, the main battery; e <?, the ground-con- 
nections, /is a branch circuit to the earth, in 
which the induction-coils or magnets g are in- 
troduced, as in aforesaid patent, h are the in- 
duction-coils at the receiving station, and the 
action of the same corresponds with that set 
forth in said patent. I, however, employ sev- 
eral electro -magnets or induction-coils, con- 
nected together through the contact-pins 2 2, 
and these are arranged in the arc of a circle, 
of which the fulcrum 3 of the switch Jc is the 
center, and to this center 3 one of the shunt- 
wires 4 connects. By moving this switch 7,', 
one or more of the helices is placed in the 
shunt - circuit, and the reactionary effect in 
clearing the line or instrument of tailing is 
thereby increased or decreased, as required. 

At the transmitting- station the shunt-circuit 
5 is provided with the resistance or rheostat 



m, and the electro-magnets or induction-coils 
/<, switch 7.:, and contact-pins 2 2, so that there 
may be more or less reactionary effect of the 
helices h to cut off the tailings upou the main 
line, because, when the circuit is closed at the 
transinitting-instrument a, a large portion of 
the battery-power passes through the shunt 5, 
switch 1{, coils h, and rheostat, and there is an 
accumulation of energy in the helices h, ami as 
soon as the circuit through the instrument a is 
broken, the magnets h discharge themselves 
with more or less power, according to the num- 
ber of said helices that are brought into the 
circuit; and this discharge, being in an oppo- 
site direction to the current of the battery, acts 
to clear the line of any surplus or static elec- 
tricity, and prevent tailing. 

It will be evident that the reactionary effect 
of the induction-coil or magnets in the° shunt- 
circuit at the transmitting station is to neutral- 
ize static electricity, or to bring the line to a 
normal electric condition instantly, thereby 
greatly promoting the rapidity of action. 

Either the positive or the negative of the 
transmitting - battery may be to the line, and 
the other pole to the earth ; but the connections 
of the receiving -instrument must be made ac- 
cordingly. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. A shunt or derived circuit at the trans- 
mitting station, into which an adjustable re- 
sistance and one or more electro-magnets are 
introduced, as and for the purposes set forth. 

2. The combination, with a chemical tele- 
graphic receiving-instrument, of several elec- 
tro-magnets and a switch, Ti 9 to connect more 
or less of said magnets in a shuut-circuit, for 
the purposes set forth. 

Signed by me this 23d day of April, A. D. 
1873. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. PmcK^EY. 
Chas. H. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Circuits for Chemical Telegraphs. 

No. 147,314. Patented Feb. 10. 1874. 




United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWAEK, NEW JEESEY, ASSIGNOE TO HIMSELF 
AND GEOEGE HAEEINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, D. 0. 

IMPROVEMENT IN CIRCUITS FOR CHEMICAL TELEGRAPHS. 

Specification forming pari oi Lettc rs Patent No. 147,314, dated February 10, 1874 ; application filed 

July 29, 1873. 

Case 77. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Circuits for Chemical Telegraphs, of which 
the following is a specification: 

This invention is for use in automatic tele- 
graphing in which perforated paper is em- 
ployed in transmitting, and chemical paper in 
receiving, the message. 

The receiving and transmitting instruments 
are in shunt-circuits from the main line, and 
in each circuit there is a battery. These bat- 
teries act in opposition to each other, and pro- 
duce no effect at the receiving-instrument when 
the shunt-circuit is broken at the transmitter. 
When this circuit is closed, the current from 
the battery of the transmitter is short-cir- 
cuited, and does not pass over the line. This 
destroys the balance of electrical tension, and 
the battery at the receiving end of the line 
acts upon the chemical paper and makes the 
mark. 

In the diagram, the transmitting-ius-trument 
is represented at a, and the receiving-instru- 
ment at &, and these are of usual character 
for transmitting by perforated paper, and re- 
ceiving by chemical paper. The transmitter 
is in the circuit 3 to the battery e, and the re- 
ceiver is in a circuit, 4, to the battery d, and 
the main line 2 is connected to these circuits, 
3 and 4. The poles of the batteries c d are 
placed so that said batteries oppose each other, 
and when the strip of perforated paper inter- | 



venes between the stylus and drum of the 
transmitter the circuit 3 is broken,* and the 
current from the battery c, over the line 2, and 
through th e recei ving-instr urn ent b to the earth , 
is equaled by the current from the battery <7, 
and hence no mark is made upon the chemical 
paper of the receiving-instrument b. The rheo- 
stat e is introduced in the shunt-circuit 4, and 
should be adjustable, so that the electric en- 
ergy from the battery d may balance that from 
the line 2, and prevent decomposition in the 
chemical paper. 

When the stylus or roller of the transmitter 
enters a perforation in the strip of paper, then 
the short circuit 3 from the battery c is closed, 
and the electricity passes but little upon the 
line 2. The battery d is now unbalanced, and 
its current, passing by the circuit 4 through 
the stylus of the receiver, makes the mark 
upon the chemical paper. 

I claim as my invention — 

The circuit 4 from the battery d, in which 
the recei viug-instrument b is placed, in combi- 
nation with the opposing-line circuit 2 and the 
shunt-circuit 3 at the receiving-instrument, in 
which are placed the transmitting-instrument 
and battery, as and for the purposes set forth. 

Signed by me this 24th day of March, A. D. 
1873. 

THOMAS A. EDISON, 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pincknet, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Duplex-Telegraphs. 

No. 147,917. Patented Feb, 24, 1874. 




AM.PHWO-UTHOGIIAPHIC CoM )'.{ Osborne's process.) 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWABK, NEW JEKSEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN DUPLEX TELEGRAPHS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 14?', 913', dated February 24, 1874 ; application filed 

June 27, 1873. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the comity of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented Improvements in 
Circuits for Duplex Electric Telegraphs, of 
which the following is a specification: 

This invention is for enabling the operators 
at both stations to receive simultaneously, and 
that without the receiving-instrument being 
a ffected by the signals transmitted from the 
same station. I accomplish these objects by 
arranging the batteries, circuits, and magnets 
so that the receiving portion of the instrument 
will only respond to the pulsations from the 
distant instrument. 

In the accompanying diagram, the line a is 
connected, through the electro-magnets bed, 
to the key e, and the battery/ is divided, half 
being at each station, as usual, g is a rheo- 
stat, to prevent the current being short-cir- 
cuited, but always to maintain a connection 
of the line to the earth, even when the key e 
may be open. The batteries Jc and I are of 
equal power, and are connected in the circuit 
3 in opposition to each other, and in that cir- 
cuit is the sounder m, or other indicating-in- 
strument or call. The battery Jc is connected 
with the armature circuit-closer operated by 
the magnet c, and the battery I with the ar- 
mature circuit-closer of the magnet d. In the 
circuit 3 is a rheostat, n, of sufficient resist- 
ance to insure the electricity from the battery 
o passing through the sounder m when the cir- 
cuit-closer of I) is operated. The instruments 
at both ends of the line are the same and the 
ad j ustments correspond. 

The armatures of b c d are adjusted to dif- 
ferent tensions. Suppose, as an illustration, 
that the magnet d is operated by an electric 
energy of 50, the magnet c by an energy of 100, 
and the magnet b by an energy of 150, and that 



the power of the battery /is 100, but the sig- 
nal received from one station at the other is 
only represented by 50. If, now, the operator 
closes key e, both the magnets d and c, by the 
power of/, respond, and make and break the 
circuits to the batteries I and Jc, and there is 
no action on the sounder m or the magnet b. 
If the operator at the distant station closes 
his key when the key e is closed, the electric; 
tension is increased by the increased energy 
represented by 50; hence the magnet b re- 
sponds by the joint current from both ends, 
and operates the sounder m by the battery o ; 
but if the key e is open, the magnet d responds 
to the pulsation from the distant station and 
short-circuits the battery I, allowing the bat- 
tery 1c to be unbalanced and to operate the 
sounder m. Thus the signal can be received 
from the distant station whether the key e is 
open or closed, and the operator can also hear 
the click of his own magnets c d without act- 
uating the sounder m. 

By this arrangement the operators at both 
ends of the line can be receiving and sending 
over one wire, and the sounder or receiving-in- 
strument is only operative from the distant 
station, and it is operative as well when the 
key e is open as when it is closed, and vice 
versa. 

I claim as my invention — 

The batteries Jc I o and circuits and circuit- 
closers of the electro-magnets b c d, in combi- 
nation with the electro-magnetic sounder or 
call m and key e, the parts being adjusted to 
operate substantially in the manner specified. 

Signed by me this 23d day of April, A. D. 
1873. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Ohas. H. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Telegraph Belays, 

No. 150,846. Patented May 12, 1874. 




AM.moro-irrmsHAP.HIC Com Y. (ossowse/tocessj 



United States Patent Office 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OP NEWAEK, NEW JEBSEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN TELEGRAPH-RELAYS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 150,846, dated May 12, 1874; application filed 

June 27, 1873. 

Case 81, 



To all tvhom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in tlie county of Esses and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement in 
Telegraph Instruments and Circuits, of which 
the following is a specification : 

In the most usual way of arranging the cir- 
cuits for telegraphing, the main-line batteries 
are nearly equal, and connected in the same 
line at the two stations, and the circuit com- 
posed of these batteries, the line, the instru- 
ments, and the earth, is broken or closed at 
either end to operate the instrument at the 
other end. In j>ractice, this ordinary mode of 
arranging the circuits is found very trouble- 
some, because the leaks from the line, espe- 
cially in wet weather, return to one station, 
and hence the magnet of the sounder or other 
receiving-instrument is often powerfully ener- 
gized when the circuit is broken at the distant 
station. 

My invention is to overcome this difficulty ; 
and consists in connecting, with the electro- 
magnet, a reverse - acting circuit, that shall 
neutralize the effect of the escaping current 
when the instrument is at rest, and thereby 
maintain the electro-magnet in a condition to 
respond to the rise of electric tension when 
the main circuit is closed. 

By adjusting the reverse-acting current, the 
magnet is maintained in the proper condition 
without resorting to the usual expedients of 
adjusting the spring, or the relative positions 
of the core and magnet, and deranging the 
conditions most favorable for rapid and relia- 
ble action in the magnet. 

The diagram, Figure 1, in the accompany- 
ing drawing, represents the said improvement, 
and Figs. 2 and 3 show modifications. 

The battery a and finger key b connect with 
the line-wire c, through the helices d and 6, by 
the wires 2, and the cores of these helices act 
upon the armatures i and o of the lever/, and, 
being at opposite sides of such lever and its 
fulcrum, the pairs of magnets can be made 
smaller, and act with greater rapidity upon 
such lever /, either to opeu and close another 



circuit at or perform any other duty. The 
battery Tc is provided with an adjustable rhe- 
ostat, I, that is in the circuit 3, leading through 
the secondary helices m n of the electro-mag- 
nets d e, and to the anvil 4. The battery ~h 
acts in opposition to the current of the bat- 
tery a. and hence tends to neutralize its action 
in the magnets d e; but the rheostat I is ad- 
justed so that the current thereof only neu- 
tralizes any excess resulting from escape-cur- 
rents. 

The key b is to be kept closed when not 
in use, so that the circuits 2 and 3 will botli 
be closed, and the reverse circuit from Tc, 
acting in m n, will only neutralize any mag- 
netism resulting from the electricity escaping 
from «, through e and d, due to the defective 
insulation of the line; but, when the circuit 
is opened and closed at the distant station, 
the magnets d e will respond with j>ronipt- 
ness and. accuracy by the rise in tension or 
energy. 

By adjusting the rheostat I, it becomes un- 
necessary to adjust the tension of the arma- 
ture-spring, or the relative position of the 
armature and core. 

When the key b is employed in transmit- 
ting, the circuit 3 is opened and closed, as 
well as the circuit 2, to the main line; thereby 
the armatures will respond, and not be held, 
as they would by the action of the battery k 
and circuit 3, if that were not broken. 

It will be apparent that the electricity of 
the reverse battery 1c and circuit 3 might be 
applied to the magnet e by a connection be- 
tween the line and the key, as seen in Fig. 2, 
and the adjustment be made by the rheostat 
I, as before, or a coil, n, may surround the he- 
lix e of the magnet, wound in reverse direc- 
tions, so that a portion of the main current 
passing through a shunt - circuit, 3, and ad- 
justed by a rheostat, /, may react to neutral- 
ize the escape-current. The diagram, Fig. 3, 
shows this character of connection. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. The magnets d and e, arranged to oper- 
ate at opposite sides of the armature-lever /, 



2 



150,846 



in combination with the battery Jc, circuit 3, 
rheostat I, key 1), and connections 2 thereto 
from the main line c, and the circuit 3, as set 
forth. 

2. An electro-magnet connected in a circuit 
with a battery at both stations, combined with 
a rheostat and counter -current, to neutralize 
the effect in the magnet of a current arising 



from leakages in the line, substantially as 
specified. 

Signed by me this 23d day of April, A. D. 
1873. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H.. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Receiving Instruments for Chemical Telegraphs. 

No. 150,847. Patented May 12, 1874. 






ui./>Horo-iimompmc co.jv. Kfosscmes process.) 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWAEK, NEW JEBSEY, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF 
AND GEOBGE HAEEINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, D. 0. 

IMPROVEMENT IN RECEIVING-INSTRUMENTS FOR CHEMICAL TELEGRAPHS* 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 150,84?, dated May 12,1874; application filed 

July 29, 1873. 



Case 72. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Keceiving'-Instruments for Automatic Tele- 
graphing-, of which the following is a specifi- 
cation : 

In automatic telegraphing', where perforated 
paper is employed for transmitting, and the 
message is received upon chemical paper, the 
marks made upon said chemical paper are of- 
ten more or less blurred or tailed together 
when the speed of transmission is very rapid ; 
and this is caused by the static charge or sur- 
plus electricity on the line acting upon the pa 
per after the circuit is broken by the transmit- 
ter. 

My present invention is made to lessen this 
blurring or tailing of the marks upon the 
chemical paper; and I accomplish this result 
by employing a stylus which is vibrated with 
great rapidity to make and break contact with 
the paper as the same is drawn along beneath 
such stylus. 

This vibrating stylus offers no impediment 
to the electric wave or pulsation when the cir- 
cuit is closed by the tranmitter; hence the mark 
is made upon the paper; but when the circuit 
is broken the surplus electricity on the line is 
not sufficiently powerful to produce any tailing 
to the mark, because the vibrating stylus is 
not long enough in contact with the paper for 
this weak portion of the current to decompose 
the chemical substances in the paper. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a plan, and Fig. 
2 is a side view, of a device which may be used 
for vibrating the stylus. 

a represents the drum or roller of a receiv- 
ing-instrument, and over this drum the strip 
of chemical paper is drawn, as usual. The 
stylus b is upon a lever, c, and this lever moves 



upon the fulcrum 2, and is vibrated very rap* 
idly by the notched or toothed wheel e acting 
upon a projection or tooth upon said lever. 
The spring 3 aids in giving the downward 
movement to the lever and stylus, and insures 
the stylus touching the paper. An adjustable 
stop, 4, limits this downward movement of the 
lever and stylus. The wheel e may receive its 
rapid movement from gearing e', operated by 
a weight, spring, or electro-motor, or the lever 
may be provided with an armature, r, and vi- 
brated by an electro-magnet, s, (shown by dot- 
ted lines,) the circuit to which is opened and 
closed by the movement of the lever c. 

When the circuit is closed at the transmit- 
ter by the stylus or roller entering a perfora- 
tion in the paper, the electric pulsation or wave 
passes over the line to the stylus b and makes 
a mark upon the chemical paper, and the vi- 
bration of said stylus causes no material differ- 
ence in the appearance of the mark made, be- 
cause the current is strong so long as the cir- 
cuit is closed, and it acts through said stylus 
the same as though it were resting on the pa- 
per all the time. When the circuit is broken 
at the transmitter, the surplus current which 
remains on the line prevents this portion of 
the current passing to the chemical paper; 
hence the tailing is not made to the mark. 

I claim — 

A stylus for a chemical receiving-instrument, 
in combination with mechanism for communi- 
cating to such stylus a rapid vibration toward 
and from the paper, for the purposes set forth. 

Signed by me this 24th dav of March, A. D. 
1873. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas H. Smith. 




AM.PHOTO-LITHOGflAPHIC Co./V. Y ( OSBORNE'S PSOQESS.) 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JEESEY, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF 
AND GEOEGE HARRINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, D. 0. 

IMPROVEMENT IN CHEMICAL OR AUTOMATIC TELEGRAPHS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 150,84.8, dated May 12,1874; application filed 

January 15, 1873. 

Case 64. 



To all iti%om it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Esses and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Telegraphic Circuits, of which the following 
is a specification : 

It is at ell known that in the induction-coil 
of an electro -magnet or primary helix a sec- 
ondary current is induced or set up, and that 
this can be conveyed over a wire, and will 
pulsate with the primary current through the 
magnet-helix. 

In chemical telegraphs great rapidity can 
be obtained upon short lines, while upon long 
lines the speed is rapidly diminished by in- 
creasing the distance. The current required 
in chemical telegraphs and cables is compara- 
tively weak. I therefore make use of the 
secondary current from an induction-coil of 
an electro-magnet or primary coil as a relay 
for continuing the transmission of the mes- 
sage in long lines, and that without lessening 
materially the rapidity, and without blurring 
the message, as received, by tailings resulting 
from surplus or static electricity in the line, as 
now usual in long lines. 

By the means before mentioned, all me- 
chanical devices and movements, such as ar- 
matures, levers, and relay circuit-closers, are 
dispensed with, and the electrical operation 
alone relied upon, and I am able to operate 
chemical-telegraph lines with a rapidity here- 
tofore unsurpassed. I divide the line up into 
sections of suitable lengths — say, about four 
or five hundred miles each — employing a line 
from the transmitting-station as long as can 
be used to advantage, and then introducing 
an induction-relay, either reaching to the re- 
ceiving-station or to the next induction-relay. 
In some instances I make use of the induc- 
tion relay in operating local or branch circuits. 

In the drawing, a is the transmitting-instru- 
meut; b, the battery; c, the line- wire of the 
main circuit. 1c is the induction-relay, and e 
is the receiving-instrument. 

The induction-relay is preferably of large 
wire with a large number of convolutions, so 



as to obtain an increased quantity in the in- 
duction-current. One coil may be outside the 
other coil, as shown in Figure 1, or the induc- 
tion-coil i may be separate upon the same core, 
as the primary helix 7c, as seen in Fig. 2. Tbe 
primary or main circuit passes through the 
helix 7c; thence to the earth. The secondary 
or induction circuit is connected from the coil 
i to line- wire and distant instrument, and also 
to the earth. 

In Fig. 1 the entire line is represented as di- 
vided into three sections, the first one being 
operated by the primary current, and the 
second section by the induced current, which, 
in turn, operating in the second induction-re- 
lay, operates in the third circuit that extends 
to the receiving-instrument. The number of 
circuits operated by induced magnetism may 
be increased, and I remark that, in conse- 
quence of the instantaneous action of the in- 
duced current, the transmitting - machine 
has to be worked with great rapidity, and 
that the dot-alphabet is preferable to the dot- 
and-dash alphabet. 

In Fig. 3 a single primary circuit is shown, 
with an induction-circuit to operate the re- 
ceiving-instrument. A rheostat or adjustable 
rheostat may be employed to regulate the pro- 
portion of current passing to the chemical 
paper. 

In Fig. 4 a battery, t, is applied to the line 
near the induction-relay, of less power than 
the transmitting-battery, and with the oppo- 
site pole to the line, so as to clear said line, 
with rapidity, of static electricity or attenua- 
tion in the pulsations. In this case the in- 
duced or secondary current is produced by the 
increase and decrease of the current. 

In Fig. 5 the transmitting-instrument is il- 
lustrated as being at New York, and working 
to Washington, and at Philadelphia and Bal- 
timore primary and secondary coils, so that 
the induced circuits set up at these places can 
work to Cincinnati and Pittsburg; and atHar- 
risburg an induction-coil that sets up a second 
induction-circuit to Buffalo. 

At any of the receiving-stations there may 



2 150, 

be an electro magnet in a local circuit to set 
up a counter-circuit when the pulsation ceases, 
to prevent tailing, as shown at d. 

If required, there may be branch circuits, 
resistances, and connections to the earth from 
either the primary or the secondary circuits, 
to aid in clearing the line of surplus electricity. 

In rapid automatic telegraphy the second- 
ary current, although but momentary, is of 
greater intensity when the primary current is 
prolonged, (as with a dash,) so that the differ- 
ence between dots and dashes is apparent in the 
chemical paper; and in cases where the differ- 
ence is not sufficiently apparent the dot-alpha- 
bat will bs us d. 



,§48 

I do not claim the secondary circuit acting 
in a magnet to produce a signal. 
I claim as my invention — 
A circuit for chemical telegraphs, composed 
of the primary circuit operated by the trans- 
mitting-instrument, and an induction-relay 
coil to act in the receiving-instrument by a 
secondary circuit, substantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 12th day of December, 
1872. 

THOMAS A. EDISOK 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON. 



2 Sheets — Sheet 1. 



Automatic Telegraphy and Perforators Therefor. 

No. 151,209. Patented May 26, 1874. 




AM.PH0T0-U7H0EMPHIC Co.N. Y. ( osaosms tuocessj 



T. A. EDISON. 



2 Sheets — Sheet 2, 



Automatic Telegraphy and Perforators Therefor. 

No. 151,209. Patented May 26J874. 



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y^c&Sw^a ft J&t-ie&L- 



AM.PHOTO-LITH06RAPHICCO.N. Y:(osBORNts process.) 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN AUTOMATIC TELEGRAPHY AND IN PERFORATORS THEREFOR. 

.Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 151,209, dafc-.d May 26, 1S74; application filed 

September 2, 1873. 

Case S3. 



To all ichom it may concern : 

Beit known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Automatic Telegraphing ; and the following 
is declared to be a correct description of the 
same. 

In the Morse system of telegraphy the op- 
erator frequently receives the message by 
sound, and writes the same out as received. 
In the printing-telegraph system, the printed 
strip itself is usually delivered as received. 
In the ordinary automatic system, the paper 
has to be punched or composed; and, at the 
receiving-station, the message on the chemical 
paper has to be translated and written out by 
hand, or printed by a key printing-instrument. 
Each system has its defects or disadvantages. 
The Morse system is slow, and requires a large 
number of wires. The printing-telegraphs are 
expensive, liable to inaccuracies and injury, 
and limited in speed to the fingering of the 
keys. The automatic system is rapid on the 
line, but the composing of the message and the 
writing of it out at the receiving-station are 
comparatively slow operations. 

The object I have in view is to print the 
message chemically. Thereby the message, 
as received upon a strip of paper, is ready to 
be folded and sent to its destination; andthe 
rapidity is equal to any automatic transmission. 
I accomplish this 'Object by perforating the 
strip of paper used for transmitting with 
groups of holes, representing by each group 
a letter or character, the perforations being 
arranged to produce, as nearly as possible, the 
block or Roman letters or characters. 

The transmission of the message by the line- 
wires may be in the usual manner, by a roller 
or stylus, and a line-wire to each row of per- 
forations, so that, if there are five rows of per- 
forations, there will be five stylus-points or roll- 
ers, each connected to a line- wire, and, at the 
receiving-instrument, there will be five pens 
or stylus-points near together, and the letter 
received will be in dots corresponding to the 
position of the perforations in the transmit- 
ting-paper, and, by their aggregation in groups, 
the letters will be clearly delineated, and 



formed almost as perfectly as printed charac- 
ters, so that the strip of chemical paper can 
be delivered, and the rewriting or printing of 
the message dispensed with. The message, as 
received, being the counterpart of that trans- 
mitted, the perforated paper at the transin it- 
ting-station becomes a perfect record of the 
message, and the line can be worked up to its 
utmost capacity, because the paper can be per- 
forated for transmitting about as rapidly as an 
ordinary printing - telegraph can be operated, 
and as many perforating operators and ma- 
chines can be used as are necessary for the 
work that is to be done on the lines. 

I have herein indicated the mode of using 
this improvement with five line- wires ; but I 
contemplate to use the transmitting-paper, per- 
forated as herein described, with transmitting 
and receiving mechanism that will operate 
with only one line - wire, and are to form the 
subject of a separate application. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 represents a piece 
of paper with perforations, and adapted to use 
in transmitting. Fig. 2 shows the chemical 
paper with the same word printed thereupon 
by the dots running together, or being suffi- 
ciently close to each other to show the respect- 
ive letters. Fig. 3 is a plan of a portion of 
the perforating - machine. Fig. I is an eleva* 
tion endwise of the punches, and Fig. 5 is a 
partial section longitudinally. 

I find that five lines of perforations are the 
most convenient for producing perforations in 
imitation of block letters or characters, and 
have shown and described such ; but I am not 
limited in that respect. 

Reference is hereby made to Letters Patent 
No. 121,601, granted to me December 5,1871, 
for a machine for perforating paper for tele- 
graphic puriwses, which, with the modifica- 
tions herein set forth, is adapted to punching 
the characters in the strip of transmitting-pa- 
per. 

Instead of having two lines of punches, i i, as 
in aforesaid patent, these punches i i are twen- 
ty-five in number, positioned in a square of 
five each way, and as close together as con- 
venient. Each punch is connected with its 
slide-plate 7,-, and these slide-plates % are side 



2 151 

by side, and supported in the frame of the ma- 
chine, so that they can be moved endwise with 
facility, and actuate the punches to which they 
are connected, respectively. The punches slide 
in the plate m; and n is the die-plate, as in 
said patent. There might be a spring to each 
slide-plate 1c and punch i; but 1 have shown 
a lever, F, passing through mortises in the 
plates lc, and provided with a spring to draw 
all the punches and slide-plates back to their 
normal position after they have been actuated. 

If the punches are separate from the slide- 
plates, each row maybe provided with a lever, 
I, and spring o, to return or draw back the 
punches ; and said levers I act within notches 
in the punches, as shown. 

The shoulders or projections 8 are provided 
upon the slide-plates Jc, contiguous to the re- 
spective pressers e, and these projections 8 
are only upon such of the slide-plates that 
require to be moved by the presser to which 
they are adjacent, to operate the punches 
i eqnired to perforate the letter corresponding 
to the one on the finger-key a that is con- 
nected to the particular presser e, as in afore- 
said patent; and I remark that the slide-bars 
o and connecting-cams/, or forks to move the 
pressers e by the finger-keys a, maybe similar 
to those shown in said patent, and the lever 
u', feeding - clamp t, pawl «, rack - bar n, and 
pawl 10 are similar to the parts shown, and 
they operate in the manner described in the 
aforesaid patent, and therefore do not require 
farther description. 

From the illustration given in Fig. 1, the 
general character of the groups of perforations 



,209 

will be apparent, and, in the square of twen- 
ty-five punches, the proper ones can easily be 
selected to perforate any given letter or char- 
acter, sufficiently like block letters to he relia- 
bly read, at the receiving-station, on the chem- 
ical paper. 

I am aware that types have been used in tel- 
egraphing characters, and also that letters 
have been made by iranching slots and circu- 
lar holes ; but this mode of perforating could 
not be accomplished by one group of punches 
to perforate any letter by selecting punches 
from that group. Furthermore, the slots un- 
der the paper are liable to tear. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. A strip of telegraphic transmitting-paper 
perforated with holes of uniform size, grouped 
together to represent ordinary letters or fig- 
ures, substantially as set forth. 

2. The mechanism for making groups of per- 
forations in a strip of paper in imitation of let- 
ters or characters, the same consisting of 
punches massed together in a square, or 
nearly so, and mechanism intervening between 
such punches and the finger-keys, for select- 
ing from such mass of punches those that are 
required for perforating characters correspond- 
ing with the characters upon the respective 
finger-keys, substantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 25th day of August, A. 
D. 1873. 

THOMAS A. EDISOK 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON. 
District Telegraph Signal-Boxes. 

No. 154,78 8. Patented Sept. 8, 1874. 




United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISOK, OF KEWABK, NEW JERSEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN DISTRICT TELEGRAPH SIGNAL-BOXES. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 154,7§8, dated September 8, 1874 ; application filed 

May 11, 1874. 

Case 86. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, haven ted an Improvement in Dis- 
trict Telegraphic Alarm and Signal Appara- 
tus, of which the following is a specification : 

Devices have heretofore been made in 
which a lever is depressed to send a telegraph- 
ic signal to a central office, and indicate a 
number that is allotted to the building send- 
ing the signal, and understood as a call for a 
"messenger," or another number by another 
lever for a call for "police" or for "fire." These 
devices are generally provided with electro- 
magnets, and are costly in construction and 
slow in operation, and contain a means for 
indicating whether the line is free. My im- 
provement is made to simplify the construc- 
tion of the signaling apparatus and render it 
very rapid in operation, so that a number of 
instruments can be safely connected in one 
circuit without risk of interfering with each 
other. The signals are received upon chem- 
ical paper. 

I make use of an instrument which I term 
a "domestic telegraph;" it is in a branch cir- 
cuit from the main line, and it contains two 
or more levers with circuit-closing segments, 
with alternate conducting and non-conducting 
materia], so as to make and break the circuit 
in the branch and thereby give a signal at the 
central office, either by numbers or letters, 
the meaning of which is pre-arranged, so as to 
know the location from which the signal is sent 
and the meaning of that signal. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a rear view of 
the instrument, with the case broken open to 
represent the interior parts ; and Fig. 2 is a 
section at the line x x. 

The case a, containing the operative parts, 
is, by preference, made of metal, and adapted 
to being screwed at b against a wall. The 
operative portions of the machine are upon 
the removable bottom <?, hence they will be 
protected from injury or dust by the case, and 
can be taken out by removing the pins or 
screws that pass into the edges of the bot- 
tom, as seen at e e. Each lever / is made with 
a finger-piece, g, projecting outside the oase, 
and a segment-head, h, that acts both as a 
weight to return the lever to place and a 
circuit-closer. The convex surface of the le- 



ver -segment is made with alternating con- 
ducting and non-conducting surfaces, to give 
the required pulsations. A convenient de- 
vice for this purpose is a strip of paper, per- 
forated at the required places, and attached 
' to the surface of the metal. The contact-roll- 
ers s are at the ends of spring-arms and bear 
upon the circuit-segments h, and these spring- 
arms are connected together by the plate t, 
that is in metallic connection to the insulated 
binding-screw v, and the wire from this leads 
to the line, and the binding-screw w is in me- 
tallic connection with the plate c and levers/!, 
and its wire leads to ground. The rollers 
s s, resting on insulating material in a normal 
position, the branch to the earth from the main 
line will remain broken, but as one of the 
levers is depressed and the segment thrown 
up into the position shown by dotted lines in 
Fig. 2, the circuit through the branch will be 
closed and pulsations sent, of the length and 
relative distance apart, according to the char- 
acter of the conducting surface on the seg- 
ment. These pulsations will be repeated in 
reverse as the lever falls, thus insuring accu- 
racy by the repetition of the signal, and the 
entire signaling occupying such a small time — 
not more than two or three seconds — the 
risk of a simultaneous signal from some other 
instrument is so small as to require no at- 
tention. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. A signal apparatus, composed of a lever 
with a segmental circuit-closing surface, a 
contact-roller, a finger-key and connections, 
substantially as set forth. 

2. A circuit-closiug segment and a weight at 
the end of a lever, in combination with a cir- 
cuit-closer and connections, substantially as 
set forth. 

3. A telegraphic alarm and signaling appa- 
ratus, formed of two or more levers with cir- 
cuit-closing surfaces contained within a box, 
with finger-pieces outside said box, substan- 
tially as specified. 

Signed by me this 2d day of April, A. D. 
1874. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. PlNCKNEYj 

Geo. D. Walker, 



i 



T. A. EDISON. 
Duplex Chemical Telegraphs. 

No. 156,8 43. Patented Nov. 17, 1874. 




United States Patent Office 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWAEK, NEW JEESEY, ASSIGNOE TO HIMSELF 
AND GEOBGE HAEEINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

IMPROVEMENT IN DUPLEX CHEMICAL TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 156,843, dated November 17, 1874 ; application filed 

March 13, 1873. 



Case 69. 



To all tchom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New J ersey, have invented an Improvement in 
Circuits for Chemical Telegraphs, of which the 
following is a specification: 

The object of this invention is to transmit 
two dispatches over the same wire at the same 
time by telegraphs employing perforated trans- 
mitting-paper and chemical receiving-paper. 

I make use of apparatus for transmitting 
by perforated paper, and receiving the mes- 
sages on chemical paper at the respective 
ends of the line, and employ batteries, resist- 
ances, and connections arranged in such a 
manner that the effect of the transmitting- 
battery shall be neutralized upon the receiv- 
ing-instrument at the same end by an equal- 
ization of tensions, and the receiver shall be 
at a point where the tension is equal to all the 
electric currents, except to that current which 
comes from the distant station. 

In the diagram, d e are the receiving, and 
b c the transmitting, instruments, m n are 
the main batteries, u and v are two batteries 
in the shunt-circuit opposing each other, and 
producing no effect upon the receiver, w x 
are batteries operating similar to u v. f g are 
resistance-coils, to increase and decrease the 
length of the shunt-circuits, h i are resist- 
ance-coils of nearly the resistance of the line. 
It I are the ground-plates, o p are the double 
contact-springs, one spring, o, cutting off or 
14 short-circuiting" the battery x, and the 
other spring, placing the main battery n 
upon the line. This main -battery current 
divides at d', part going on the line and part 
to the ground, this route or negative of the 
battery through the resistance i being in fact 
an artificial line, it being well known that a 
battery will supply several lines with an un- 
diminished quantity of electricity, and that 
the addition of a line decreases the total re- 
sistance of the battery's circuit, and produces 
an extra amount of electricity. 

To obtain the transmission of two messa- 
ges over the same wire at the same instant, 
it is only necessary that no effect shall be ob- 



tained upon the receiving-instrument by the 
putting on of the seudiug-battery at the same 
station. 

I will now describe how I produce this effect: 
When the paper of the message to be trans- 
mitted intervenes between the contact-springs 
q r and the drum Z>, no current passes upon 
the line, and the batteries u v, being balanced 
within the shunt - circuit, produce no effect 
upon the receiver d, and a current coming 
from a distant station passes down the shunt, 
and also through the receiver d, and produces 
the message in the usual manner. 

Supposing no current from the distant sta- 
tion was recording itself upon the receiver d, 
and it is desired to transmit a current to the 
distant station without producing any effect 
upon said receiver d, it is accomplished as fol- 
lows: 

When the contact-springs q r are in metal- 
lic contact with the drum b, by passing into 
a perforation in the paper being drawn over 
said drum, the current from the battery m 
passes by r over the line, but it splits in three 
directions at c', part passing to the ground, 
and part passing by two routes to the line, 
via the shunt and the receiver d. The pas- 
sage of the current through the receiver would 
give a large mark at the receiver were it not 
that at the same time that the contact-spring 
r placed the battery m upon the line the 
spring q short-circuited the battery v, which 
had been opposing the battery u in the shunt, 
hence allowing said battery u to have free ac- 
tion, and the current from this battery thus 
set free acts in a contrary direction through 
the receiving- instrument d to that of the 
battery m, and by means of a switch for put- 
ting in and out more or less cups the power 
of the batteries m and u are neutralized on 
the chemical paper at d ; consequently no ef- 
fect is produced at the receiver d when the 
battery m is placed on the line. 

Of course, while the battery m is on, if 
a current from the battery n is sent over 
the line it records itself in the usual man- 
ner upon the chemical paper on d. 

I claim as my invention — 



156,813 



The local batteries u and norw and x in 
a shunt from the main line and opposing 
each other, and a connection between them 
to the transmitting or receiving instrument, 
in combination with the main batteries, re- 
sistances, and circuits, arranged substantially 
as and for the purposes set forth. 



Signed by me this 7th day of March, A. D. 
1873. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



No. 15 8,78 7 



T. A. EDISON. 
Telegraph Apparatus. 

Patented Jan. 19, 1875 




United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWAEK, YEW JEESET. 
IMPROVEMENT IN TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 158, YSY, dated January 19, 187i^ application died 

August 13, 1874. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Telegraphs, of which thefollowingis a specifi- 
cation : 

In electric telegraphs motion has been ob- 
tained at a distance by a galvanometer and by 
an electro - magnet. Both of these are com- 
paratively slow, and hence chemical decom- 
position has been resorted to for recordiug the 
characters sent from a distant station. 

Heretofore there has been great difficulty 
in obtaining any means for repeating mes- 
sages with high rates of speed, and magnets 
or galvanometers in an electric circuit always 
produce more or less disturbance by the sec- 
ondary or induced current, and act to reduce 
the speed. 

My invention is dependent on mechanical 
motion and electrical action, and responds to 
the most feeble currents when properly ad- 
justed, and with very great rapidity; hence I 
term my invention the electric mot'ograph. 

The principles of its operation are that, 
when a moving surface is in contact with a 
slightly-yielding substance, the tendency is to 
move the latter by and with the former. If 
the circumstances of contact are varied the 
adhesion of the surfaces will be sufficient to 
cause the moving surface to move the yield- 
ing substance, or else to cause the yielding 
substance to slip more freely, and by its 
spring go in the opposite direction to the mov- 
ing surface. I have discovered that the pas- 
sage of electricity through the surfaces in 
contact will change the Motional adhesion, 
making it more or less according to the sub- 
stances employed; and by balancing the me- 
chanical forces so that when the surfaces in 
contact are not electrified the moving surface 
carries with it the yielding surface, and when 
electrified the yielding surface slips back over 
the moving surface, or vice versa, a mechan- 
ical movement is produced that is dependent 
on the electrical condition of the surfaces in 
contact ; hence mechanical motion is obtained, 
first one way and then the other, that is as 
unlimited in its speed as the pulsations of 
electricity that pass, unobstructed by mag- 



nets or other hindrances, over the telegraphic 
lines. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a plan of the 
apparatus, and Fig. 2 is a vertical section. 

The drum a is revolved by clock - work or 
other suitable means; and 1) is a roller to press 
a strip of paper into contact with the drum «, 
so that said strip is drawn along with regu- 
larity; and c is the frictional presser and yield- 
ing vibrator. This vibrator is at the end of 
an arm, d, that allows it to yield, and the ex- 
tent of motion should be limited by the ad- 
justing-screws e. I prefer to make this arm 
serve the purpose of a spring, although sepa- 
rate springs might be used to regulate the 
pressure of the vibrator on the moving sur- 
face, and the force applied to draw the vi- 
brator in the opposite direction to the move- 
ment given by the moving surface a, as illus- 
trated by the rubber spring at o. The spring- 
arm d is upon the block/, that may be slid 
endwise upon the rod g, to regulate the power 
of the spring iu moving the vibrator, and 
pressed down more or less to determine the 
friction between the vibrator and the moving 
surface. 

If the surface of a is moving in the direc- 
tion of the arrow 1 and the parts are properly 
adjusted, the friction will be sufficient to move 
the vibrator slightly in the direction of the 
arrow 2; but when the electric current passes 
through the surfaces of a and * the frictional 
contact will become less, so that the spring 
will overcome the friction and vibrate c in the 
other direction as-the current is broken. The 
friction increasing, the vibrator moves the 
other way. If the surfaces in contact are of 
such a character that the frictional contact 
will be intensified by the. electrical action, 
then the movements will be the reverse. 

It will now be evident that the movement 
of the vibrator can be availed of for any elec- 
trical or telegraphic purpose. 

By applying the spring r and circuit-clos- 
ing points t and u, and insulating these parts, 
the local or relay circuit of which the wires v 
and w form parts will be opened and closed 
simultaneously, and in harmony with the key 
y or other transmitter in the circuit that passes 
through the vibrator c and drum a. 



2 



158,787 



I do not limit myself to the use of any par- 
ticular chemical substances, for water will, un- 
der some circumstances, answer for moisten- 
ing the strip of paper or moving surface, or 
the moving surface may be of lead or other 
metal, and the surface of the vibrator be made 
of paper or other material, and moistened by 
preference. 

In my experiments I have discovered that 
paper moistened with bromo chloralum and a 
lead vibrator connected to the positive pole 
increases the friction. I presume that the 
electric decomposition produces an effect simi- 
lar to that resulting from the addition or re- 
moval of a lubricant, because, when the posi- 
tive pole is connected with the vibrator the 
apparatus is not operative; hence the result 
named cannot proceed simply from the sur- 
faces being electrified. Furthermore, the ef- 
fect of relieving friction is most apparent at 
the commencement of the electric action; 
hence there may be a decomposition of the 
metallic oxide formed on the surface by the 
hydrogen evolved at the negative pole. With 
hydrate of potassa the resistance of the moist- 
ened paper to the passage of the current is but 
little, and excellent results are obtained. 

My tests on different metals have shown 
that most all of the metals will operate to a 
greater or less extent with various solutions; 
but thallium and lead appear to be preferable, 
especially the latter, as acting with great deli- 
cacy where hydrogen is evolved by the de- 
composition; but I do not limit myself to any 
particular character of moving surface and vi- 
brator so long as the characters of such sur- 
faces are such that the frictional contact will 
be so changed when electrified as to cause or 
allow of the movement of the vibrator. 



Paper moistened with alcohol, even abso- 
lute alcohol, will operate with a lead vibrator. 
With sulphate of quinine and hydrate of am- 
monia a platina vibrator will operate with 
either positive or negitive pole connected to 
the vibrator. 

The motion of the vibrator may be made to 
record in ink dots and dashes by employing a 
small wheel inked by a fountain-wheel, and 
which is brought into contact with a moving 
strip of paper, or relieved therefrom by the 
movement of the vibrator. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. A moving surface in contact with a yield- 
ing vibrator, through which pulsations of 
electricity are passed when such surfaces in 
contact are of such a character that the friction 
will be varied by the electrical condition, sub- 
stantially as set forth. 

2. A vibrator, in combination with means 
for adjusting the pressure of the vibrator on 
the moving surface, and of the yielding force 
that moves the vibrator in the opposite direc- 
tion to that derived from the moving surface, 
substantially as set forth. 

3. The combination of a yielding vibrator, 
operated substantially as set forth, with a 
secondary circuit actuated by such vibrator, 
substantially as specified. 

4. A telegraph instrument with a vibrator 
that is controlled by electrochemical decom- 
position. 

Signed by me this 7th day of August, A. D. 
1874. 

THOMAS A. EDISOiST. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. II. Smith. 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JEESEY, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF 
AND GEORGE HARRINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, I). C. 

IMPROVEMENT IN SOLUTIONS FOR CHEMICAL TELEGRAPH-PAPER. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 160,402, dated March 2, 1875 ; application filed 

June 1, 1874. 

Case No. 78. 



To all ivhom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Chemical Telegraphic Paper, of which the 
following is a specification : 

Ferrocyanide, or yellow prussiate of potash, 
has been employed in the solution for the 
chemical paper used in telegraphing. This 
solution is not as sensitive as my improved 
solution. 

I make use of ferridcyanide of potassium, or 
red prussiate of potash in solution. This ma- 
terial may be prepared by using about one 
part of ferrocyanide of potash to sixteen parts 
of water, through which solution chlorine gas 
is passed until it assumes a greenish red tinge. 



The paper for the telegraphic receiving-instru- 
ment is to be immersed in this solution of fer- 
ridcyanide of potassium, and I prefer that 
chloride of calcium be added to the solution. 
An iron pen or stylus is used in the receiving- 
instrument. 

I claim as my invention — 

The solution for chemical telegraph -paper 
prepared with ferridcyanide of potassium, sub- 
stantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 29th day of September, 
A. D. 1873. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWABK, NEW JEBSEY, ASSIGNOB TO HIMSELF 
AND GEOEGE HAEEINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, D. 0. 

IMPROVEMENT IN SOLUTIONS FOR CHEMICAL TELEGRAPH-PAPER. 

Specification formiDg part of Letters Patent No. 160,403, dated March 2, 1875; application filed 

June 1, 1874. 

Case No. 84. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that 1, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Chemical Paper for Eeceiving-Telegraph 
Instruments, of which the following is a speci- 
fication : 

I employ tannin and hydrosulphuret of am- 
' monia in water, and prefer to add a small 
quantity of chloride of sodium to increase the 
conductivity of the parts. 

The tannin may be an extract of nut-galls, 
but pyrogallic acid or tannic acid may be em- 
ployed. 

1 find the tincture of nut-galls about one- 



half ounce, five drops of hydrosulphuret of 
ammonia, and a pint of water, filtered, form 
a very sensitive solution for moistening paper 
for a telegraphic receiving-instrument. 

I claim as my invention — 

The solution for chemical telegraph-paper 
prepared with tannin and hydrosulphuret of 
ammonia, substantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 29th day of October, A. 
D. 1873. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF 
AND GEORGE HARRINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, D. C 

IMPROVEMENT IN SOLUTIONS FOR CHEMICAL TELEGRAPH-PAPER. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 160,404, dated March 2, 1875; application filed 

June 1, 1874. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the count} 7 of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Chemical Paper for Receiving-Telegraph 
Instruments, of which the following is a speci- 
fication : 

I make use of a tincture of logwood to 
moisten the paper. I find that with an iron 
pen a mark is made upon the paper when the 
current passes. There is no mark when the 
electric circuit is broken. 

Logwood is peculiarly sensitive to color in 
the presence of iron, and the electric action de- 
velops the color. 

I find it advantageous to use chloride of so- 
dium in the solution of tincture of logwood to 
promote the conductivity of the paper, but 



muriate of ammonia is preferable for this pur- 
pose.- By adding to the aforesaid solution of 
logwood a small quantity of sulphate of iron, 
the solution is of such a light color that the 
paper remains nearly white, and the mark will 
be produced by a platina pen or stilus, to 
which the negative pole is connected. 

I claim as my invention — 

The solution for chemical telegraph-paper, 
prepared with tincture of logwood, substan- 
tially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 29th day of September, - 
A. D. 1873. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



m T. A. EDISON. 
Adjustable Electro- Mag net for Relays, & c . 

No. 160,405 Patented March 2, 1875. 




THE GRAPHIC C0.PHOT0.-LITH.39a.41 PARK PLACE, H.Y. 



United States Patent Office, 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF 
AND GEORGE HARRINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, D. 0. 

IMPROVEMENT IN ADJUSTABLE ELECTRO-MAGNETS FOR RELAYS, &c. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 160,405, dated March 2, 1875 ; application filed 

July 29, 1873. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
of Newark, in the county of Essex and State 
of New Jersey, have invented an Improve- 
vementin Adjusting Electro-Magnets, of which 
the following is a specification: 

With an electro -magnet employed for a 
sounder or receiving-instrument it is very dif- 
ficult to adjust the action, because the intens- 
ity of the current varies greatly, and frequently 
false currents reach the magnet and prevent 
its proper action. To provide for these va- 
rious circumstances, it is usual either to vary 
the tension of the retractile spring, or adjust 
the position of the armature and core in rela- 
tion to each other. 

My invention is made with reference to ob- 
taining a uniformity of current in the electro- 
magnet, and avoiding the adjustment of the 
magnet or the parts thereof I make use of 
a shunt or branch circuit connected at both 
sides of the electro-maguet, and in that shunt 
I place a regulator composed of several helices 
or resistance-coils connected to each other and 
to circuit-pins, and employ an arm that can be 
revolved upon a ceuter and briug into the 
shunt greater or less resistance, and thereby 
directing the proper proportion of the current 
through the electro-magnet and allowing the 
remainder to pass through the shunt. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a side view of 
the electro-magnet, and Fig. 2 is a plan of the 
shunt-regulator. 

The electro-magnet a is of ordinary charac- 
ter, and employed as a sounder or otherwise. 



The shunt-regulator contains the resistance- 
coils b b 7 connected to each other through the 
circuit-pins c c in the center of which is the 
pivot cl of the arm e. The line / is connected 
through the magnet a and by the shunt-wires 
g with the pivot d and first coil b. 

If the arm e is turned so as only to include 
one coil b in the shunt, the resistance will be 
but little, aud most of the current will pass by 
the shunt and but little through the electro- 
magnet «, and by turning this arm e any de- 
sired number of coils b will be included in the 
shunt, so that, as the resistance increases, so 
the proportion of current directed through the 
magnet a will increase also. 

1 do not claim a rheostat or adjustable re- 
sistance in a shunt-circuit, to regulate the cur- 
rent passing through a chemical receiving-in- 
strument. I do not claim a shunt around an 
electro-magnet with a resistance that is not 
variable and serves to lessen the injury to the 
contact-points. 

I claim as my invention — 

The variable resistance &, placed in a shunt- 
circuit, in combination with an electro- mag- 
net for equalizing action of the current in the 
electro-magnet and dispensing with the spring- 
adjustment, as set forth. 

Signed by me this 23d day of April, A. D. 
1873. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pincknby, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



tJnited States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDI SOX, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF 
AND GEORGE HARRINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, D. 0. 

IMPROVEMENT IN SOLUTIONS FOR CHEMICAL TELEGRAPH-PAPER. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 160,580, dated March 9, 1875; application filed 

June 1, 1874. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Solutions for Chemical Telegraphic Paper, 
of which the following is a correct descrip- 
tion : 

I make use of about five pennyweights of 
aurichloride of sodium (double chloride of gold 
and sodium) to a pint of water, and about an 
ounce of nitrate of ammonia. 

A small amount of bichloride of mercury 
increases the sensitiveness of the paper. This, 
however, may be omitted, and, in place of ni- 
trate of ammonia, any other salt may be em- 
ployed having a corresponding reaction with 
the aurichloride of sodium. 



When an iron pen is used with the above 
solution, the mark on the paper is of a bluish 
tinge, and with a tin pen or stylus the mark 
is purple of cassius. 

The above-mentioned solution is very sensi- 
tive to electric action, and is available in 
chemical telegraphs. 

I claim as my invention — 

The solution for chemical telegraph-paper 
prepared with aurichloride of sodium, sub- 
stantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 14th day of October, 1873. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



No. 162,633. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Duplex Teleg r a p h . 

Patented April 27, 1875. 




THE GRAPHIC C0.PHOT0-LITH.39&4! PARK PLACE.N. 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF 
AND GEORGE HARRINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, D. 0. 



IMPROVEMENT IN DUPLEX TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 162,633, dated Apiil 27, 1875; application filed 

April 26, 1873. 



To all wJtom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
the city of Newark, in the county of Essex 
and State of New Jersey, have invented anew 
and useful Improvement in Duplex-Telegraph 
Apparatus, of which the following is a specifi- 
cation : 

The invention has for its object the simul- 
taneous transmission of two different dis- 
patches or signals over the same line- wire from 
opposite directions, or in the same direction ; 
and the invention consists in the transmission 
of positive and negative currents over the 
line to effect the reception of one message, and 
the increase and decrease of the strengths of 
these currents, either positive or negative, to 
effect the reception of the other message. 

The accompanying drawings represent a 
plan view of my improved apparatus in this 
case, part of the apparatus being placed at 
one end of the line and part at the other end. 

A and B are electro-magnets of equal 
strength, and are placed at an equal distance 
from and on the opposite sides of the armature- 
lever L, pivoted between them. Both mag- 
nets are arranged with separate batteries. 
The battery M B is connected with the mag- 
net A, and with its positive pole to the line, 
and the battery M B' is connected with the 
magnet B, and has its negative pole to the 
line. The batteries M B and M B' are alter- 
nately placed into the circuit by the sounder- 
lever S L and the double-spring contact a, 
which is in contact with the earth. The key- 
lever S L is operated, as usual, by the local 
battery S B, key K, and magnet S. The mag- 
nets A and B are connected to the main -line 
wire and polarized relay by the wires m and 
m'. The polarized relay 0, being either at the 
same station or at tbe distant station, is op- 
erated by the positive and negative currents 
sent over the line. K' is a Morse key, and R 
a resistance- coil or rheostat, connected to the 
key K and earth E. 

The object of the key K' and rheostat R is 
to increase and decrease the strength of the 
current upon the line, so as to affect the lever 
of the relay A B. The increase and decrease 
in the strength of the line-current do not af- 



3H. 

feet the polarized relay C, as this is dependent 
for working upon the direction of the curreut 
or polarity, independent of its strength, so 
that signals may be transmitted by S L, bat- 
teries M B and M B', or by any. other battery- 
reversing device, and these currents, acting 
upon the relay 0, cause its tongue to be thrown 
to the right or left, according to the polarity 
of the curreu t transmitted. At the same time 
another set of signals may be sent over the 
same wire by the depression of the key K', 
which causes a decrease in the resistance of 
the line, and a consequent increase in the 
strength of the current on the line, and this 
increased strength of current produces suf- 
ficient magnetism in either A or B to overcome 
the attraction of its spring, and it is drawn 
toward the magnets. 

On closing the key K the magnet attracts 
the lever S L, throwing the battery M B' and 
magnet B out of circuit, and the magnet B and 
battery MB, with its positive pole, is placed 
in circuit and toward the line. In a like man- 
ner, when the key-lever is not attracted by its 
magnet, the magnet A and battery M B is 
thrown out of circuit, and the magnet B and 
battery M B', with its negative pole toward 
the line, is thrown in circuit, the armature- 
lever L remaining constantly attracted (if K' 
be closed) by either A or B, as the instantane- 
ous transfer of polarity permits no separation 
of the same. 

If both positive and negative currents were 
passed through one magnet only, a charge and 
discharge would be produced with a change 
of polarity in the iron cores, and the armature 
would be drawn away from the cores of the 
magnet for an instant by its retractile spring, 
at the moment when the cores were changing 
their polarity. In this arrangement the wires 
upon the magnets, connections, and arrange- 
ment of batteries are such that the polarity of 
both magnets are never changed. 

The polarized relay is self-adjustable, and 
follows the positive and negative currents, 
whether the tension of the same is suddenly 
increased or decreased. 

The polarized relay C can be placed at a 
number of stations on the line, aud each will 



162,633 



be able to receive the signals from the stations, 
transmitting positive and negative currents. 
The relay A B may also be placed at a num- 
ber of stations, if AorB bedispensed with, and 
other devices applied to prevent the mutila- 
tion of the signals by change in the polarity 
of its iron core. 

I claim as new and desire to secure by Let- 
ters Patent — 

1. The armature-lever L, pivoted between 
the magnets A and B, and operated by an in- 
crease and decrease in the tension of the line- 
current, in combination with the key K' and 
rheostat B, for the purpose set forth. 

2. The sounder-lever S L, double-spring con- 
tact a, and batteries M B and M B', arranged 



substantially as set forth, and for the purpose 
specified. 

3. The combination, with the main-line cir- 
cuit, of a receiving-instrument operated by 
changes in the polarity of the current inde- 
pendently of tension, with another receiving- 
instrument operated by changes of tension in- 
dependent of polarity, means of changing the 
polarity of the current, and means of chang- 
ing the tension of the current, substantially 
as and for the purpose specified. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Paul Goepbl, 
T. B. Mosher. 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWAEK, NEW JEESEY, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF 
AND GEOEGE HAEEINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, D. C. 

IMPROVEMENT IN CHEMICAL TELEGRAPHY. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 166,859, dated August 17, 1875 ; application filed 

July 25, 1874. 



Case No. 88. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Chemical Telegraphs, of which the follow- 
ing is a specification: 

The object of this invention is to record dots 
and dashes upon chemically-prepared paper 
by electric decomposition for telegraphing. 

The invention consists in forming the de- 
composing stylus or pen of tellurium and wet- 
ting the paper with water or any liquid con- 
ductor. I prefer water to which has been 
added a quantity of hydrate lime or potash. 

If the stylus, tipped with tellurium, is con- 
nected to the zinc end of a battery, and the 
drum or plate upon which the moistened paper 
rests be connected to the copper end of the 
battery, hydrogen is evolved at the point where 
the tellurium touches the paper. The hydro- 
gen combines with the tellurium to form hy- 
drotelluric acid, which has a red color, but is 
instantly decomposed in contact with the air, 
and forms a black pigment, which is perma- 
nent. I have found that this reaction is more 
delicate than that of iodide of potassium, which 
is the most delicate known in chemistry. This 



decomposition of tellurium has the peculiar 
characteristic over all other metals that it 
produces the mark with hydrogen, and also 
that the mark, at its first formation, is not a 
precipitate like the ferrocyanide of iron when 
an iron pen and ferrocyanide of potassium are 
used, which has a tendency to adhere to the 
stylus after the current has ceased, and pro- 
duce attenuation of the signals; but the per- 
manent color is formed by the action of the air 
after the decomposition has taken place : hence 
the signals will be much sharper. 
I claim as my invention — 

1. The method of recording telegraph or 
other signals by the electro -decomposition 
upon moistened paper or other material of a 
stylus of tellurium. 

2. A paper moistened with hydrates of lime, 
potash, or the cyanides of potassium, for use 
with a tellurium stylus, for the purpose set 
forth. 

Signed by me this 1st day of June, A. D. 
1874. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. Pinokney, 
ChAs. H. Smith. 



United States Patent Office, 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF 
AND GEORGE HARRINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, D. C. 

IMPROVEMENT IN CHEMICAL TELEGRAPHY. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 166,860, dated August 17, 1875; application filed 

July 25, 1874. 

Case No. 89. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Chemical Telegraphs, of which the follow- 
ing is a specification : 

The object of this invention is to record dots 
and dashes upon chemically prepared paper 
by electro-decomposition for telegraphic pur- 
poses, 

The invention consists in combining the 
sesquichloride of iron with the ferrocyanide 
of potassium, and using a stylus of tin, which 
is connected to the copper pole of the battery. 

The action is as follows: Nascent oxygen 
evolved at the point of the tin stylus com- 
bines with the stylus to form the protoxide of 



tin, which is a powerful reducing agent. This 
reduces the sesquisalt of iron to a protosalt 
of iron, and the ferrocyanide of potassium 
combines to form a precipitate of Prussian 
blue. The reaction is very delicate. Chloride 
of ammonium or sodium increases the delicacy. 

I claim as my invention — 

The combination of a sesquisalt of iron 
with the ferrocyanide of potassium, and a tin 
stylus, for the purpose set forth. 

Signed by me this 1st day of June, A. D. 
1874. 

THOS. E. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



United States Patent Office 

THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF 
AND GEORGE HARRINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, D. 0. 

IMPROVEMENT IN CHEMICAL TELEGRAPHY. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 166, 86 1, dated August 17, 1875 ; application filed 

July 25, 1874. 

Case No. 90. 



To all ivhom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Chemical Telegraphs, of which the follow- 
ing is a specification: 

The object of this invention is to record dots 
and dashes upon chemically-prepared paper 
by electro-decomposition for telegraphic pur- 
poses. 

The invention consists in combining a proto- 
salt of iron with the sulpho-cyanide of potas- 
sium, in which the paper is to be moistened. 
The recording-stylus is formed of platinum, or 
metal that is not oxidized by the nascent oxy- 
gen. 

The action is as follows: When the copper 
end of a galvanic battery is connected to the 
platina stylus, resting on the paper that is 
moistened in the above solution, and the zinc 
end is connected to the metal upon which it 



rests, oxygen is evolved at the platina point. 
This raises the protoxide to a sesquioxide or 
peroxide, when the sulpho-cyanide of potas- 
sium, which has no action on a protosalt of 
iron, combines with the higher oxide to form 
the blood-red sulpho-cyanide of iron. 

The reaction is very delicate. I prefer to 
use the protosalt of iron in the form of the 
protosulphate of iron. Chloride of sodium 
added to the solution increases the delicacy. 

I claim as my invention — 

The combination of a protosalt of iron, sul- 
pho-cyanide of potassium, and a non-oxidizable 
stylus, for the purposes set forth. 

Signed by me this 1st day of June, A. D. 
1874. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Printing-Telegraph. 

No. 168,004, Patented Sept. 21, 1875. 




N.PETERS. PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHER, WASHINGTON, 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO THE GOLD 
AND STOCK TELEGRAPH COMPANY, OF NEW YORK, N. Y. 

IMPROVEMENT IN PRINTING-TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 168,004, dated September 21,1875; application filed 

June 1, 1874. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Printing-Telegraphs, of which the follow- 
ing is a specification : 

Two electro - magnets operating upon an 
armature have been used, and the magnets 
have been charged with pulsations of alter- 
nate opposite polarity, ami the armature has 
acted to move the type-win el. 

My present invention relates to this class 
of printing-telegraphs; and consists in an ar- 
rangement of armatures, electro-magnets, type- 
wheel, and printing-lever, so that the print- 
ing is effected by the same magnets that set 
the type-wheel when a pause occurs in trans- 
mitting currents of alternate opposite polarity. 

In the drawing I have represented, by an 
elevation, the instrument as arranged by me. 

The electro-magnets a b are in the main-line 
circuits that connect with the binding-screws 
c d, and between the cores of these magnets 
is the armature e, that is by preference made 
double, and upon opposite sides of the lever 
/that has its fulcrum at g, and is provided 
with wedge-acting pallets i i, operating upon 
the ratchet-wheel l 7 shaft n ) and type-wheel m 
to rotate the same. The cores of the electro- 
magnets are extended laterally, as at s 8 f , and 
an armature,£, is provided upon thelever%, that 
is connected with the printing-lever v. The 
pulsations sent over the line are of alternate 
opposite polarity, so that the armature e will 
be repelled from the magnet, with which it 
is in contact, as the current of opposite po- 
larity enters the helix, and the armature and 
lever by their momentum (from repulsion) are 



thrown toward the opposite magnet, and the 
armature is attracted thereby. In this man- 
ner the type- wheel pallets will be moved with 
as great rapidity as the pulsations of alter- 
nating polarity can be sent. The armature t, 
however, will not be attracted because the 
magnetic energy of one polarity does not ac- 
cumulate sufficiently before the pulsation of 
opposite polarity is introduced ; but when a 
slight pause occurs on a closed circuit the ar- 
mature t is attracted, and the printing-lever 
is moved, and the impression made by the pad 
w, pressing the paper toward the type-wheel. 

The mechanism for moving the paper forms 
no part of my invention, and may be of any 
desired character. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. Two electro-magnets in the electric cir- 
cuit, with au armature moved between their 
cores in consequence of reversing the polarity 
of the pulsations, such armature actuating 
the lever and type-wheel, in combination with 
the lateral cores of the electro-magnet and 
the armature that operates the printing-lever, 
as set forth. 

2. The arrangement of the type-wheel lever 
and armature between two electro-magnets, 
and an armature and lever at one side of the 
type-wheel, operating an impression -pad at 
the opposite side of the type-wheel, substan- 
tially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 22d dav of Mav, A. D. 
1874. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pincknby, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWABK, NEW JEESET, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF 
AND GEORGE HARRINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, D. C. 

IMPROVEMENT IN SOLUTIONS FOR CHEMICAL TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. ION, 105, dated October 5, 1875 ; application filed 

January 15, 1875. 



Case 102. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Automatic Telegraphic Solutions, of which 
the following is a specification: 

I have found that if a colored salt of ani- 
line, preferably rosaniline, known in com- 
merce as magenta, which dissolves in water 
to a deep red, be treated with nitric acid, or, 
preferably, red fuming nitrous acid, it is oxid- 
ized to a nearly colorless solution. If a piece 
of paper is moistened in this solution and 
used in a chemical-telegraph recording-instru- 
ment, beautiful red marks are obtained when 
the positive pole of the battery is connected 
to the decomposing-pen, which is preferably 
of tin. The nascent oxygen in electrolysis 
combines with the tin pen to form protoxide 
of tin, which is a powerful reducing agent, 
and the colorless compound of oxidized rosani- 
line is decomposed, leaving it in its original 
state, viz., deep red. By the action of the air 
these marks soon become more apparent and 
of a deep violet. It is a very sensitive reac- 
tion, being as delicate as the iodide-of-potas- 
sium solution, but with the advantage of per- 
manent marks and economy. 



If an easily -decomposed chloride of any 
metal be added, the delicacy of the reaction 
is greatly increased, as the nascent chlorine, 
combining with the tin to form a protochlo- 
ride, is a more powerful reducing agent than 
the protoxide. The delicacy of the reaction 
is still further increased by adding an organic 
acid, preferably oxalic. 

A great number of the salts or compounds 
of aniline may be rendered colorless by oxida- 
tion and reduced to their original state, as set 
forth; but I prefer magenta, or rosaniline, on 
account of its superior coloring properties. 

I claim as my invention — 

A chemical solution for telegraphic paper 
containing auiliue in a colorless, or nearly col- 
orless, condition, substantially as set forth, in 
order that the mark may be made by electroly- 
sis, as specified. 

Signed by ine this 14th day of August, A. 
D. 1875. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



United States Patent Office, 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OP NEWARK, NEW JEESEY, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELE 
AND GEORGE HARRINGTON, OP WASHINGTON, D. C. 

IMPROVEMENT IN SOLUTIONS FOR CHEMICAL TELEGRAPHS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 168,466, dated October 5, 1875 ; application filed 

January 26, 1875. 

Case 106. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Preparing Paper for Chemical Telegraphs, 
of which the following is a specification : 

I have found that if a protosalt of iron be 
combined with vegetable astringents, such as 
tannin or its derivatives, gallic or pyrogallic 
acid, scarcely any coloration follows; but 
if a piece of paper be moistened with this 
solution and placed under the recording-point, 
the nascent oxygen due to electrolysis raises 
the protosalt of iron to a higher oxide, with 
which the vegetable astringents combine to 
form intense inky compounds. The addi- 
tion of nitrate of ammonia, or any salt which 
does not precipitate, increases the delicacy of 
the reaction, by reducing the resistance of the 
paper. The addition of a vegetable acid, such 



as oxalic acid, also increases the delicacy. I 
prefer to use a platina decomposing-point. It 
does not matter what the proportions of the 
various substances are as long as they are in 
excess of that necessary to produce the full 
amount of reaction. I prefer to use pro to- 
chloride of iron, pyrogallic acid, nitrate of 
ammonia, and oxalic acid. 
I claim — 

In a chemical solution for telegraphic paper, 
the combination of a protosalt of iron with a 
vegetable astringent and a conducting salt, 
substantially as set forth, in order that the 
mark may be made by electrolysis, as set forth. 

Signed by me this 18th day of January, A. 
D. 1875. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF AND 
GEORGE HARRINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

IMPROVEMENT IN RECORDING-POINTS FOR CHEMICAL TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 168, 46*7, dated October 5, 1875 ; application filed 

January 26, 1875. 



Case 

To all tvhoni it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the count} 7 of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Recording-Points for Chemical Telegraphs, 
of which the following is a specification : 

I have found that if the decomposing and 
recording point of a chemical telegraph be 
made of metallic ruthinium, and connected 
to the positive pole of the battery, a colo- 
ration is made upon nearly dry paper, which 
had been moistened with various chemical 
solutions, preferably ferro-cyanide of potas- 
sium and chloride of sodium. The reaction 



105. 

is of extreme delicacy, the marks being due 
probably to the finely-divided oxide of ruthini- 
um formed by the electrolytic oxygen. 
I claim — 

Arecording-point formed of metallic ruthini- 
um in a chemical telegraph, substantially as set 
forth. 

Signed by me this 18th day of January, A. D. 
1875. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



I 



T. A. E { S N . 
Transmitter and Receiver for Automatic Telegraphs. 

No. 168,242. Patented Sept. 28, 1875. 










t'o °Q . 
© <T q'c, 
























N. PETERS. PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHER. WASHINGTON. D C. 



United States Patee^ 1 Office, 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWAEK, IBW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF 
AND GEORGE HARRINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, D. 0. 

IMPROVEMENT IN TRANSMITTERS AND RECEIVERS FOR AUTOMATIC TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Eatent No. 168,242, dated September 28, 1875; application filed 

January 26, 1875. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Automatic-Telegraph Instruments, of which 
the following is a specification: 

This instrument is madefor drawing through 
perforated paper and transmitting pulsations, 
or for moving the chemical prepared strip of 
paper, and winding the same up ready for 
transfer to the copyist to write out or print 
the message. My improvement has special 
reference to the mechanism by means of which 
these operations of transmitting and receiving 
are performed in one instrument. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is an elevation of 
said instrument, and Fig. 2 is a plan of the 
same. 

Within the box a there is to be placed any 
suitable clock movement or mechanism, oper- 
ated by a weight or spring to propel the shafts 
b and c with the required velocity. This clock- 
work is not shown in the drawings, as it may 
be of any convenient character, and it should 
include stopping and starting mechanism. The 
drums e and / are loose upon the shaft b, "but 
there is between them a coupling, b', sliding 
upon a feather or key, and connecting either 
e or /to the shaft b, so that it will be revolved 
by and with such shaft; and this coupling is 
operated by a lever, c', at the lower end of 
which is a finger passing into the screw-cam 
d', (shown detached in Fig. 3,) that is con- 
nected with the button g and pointer g', so 
that by turning such button the drum e, for 
chemical paper, will be connected to the shaft 
and revolved, or the drum /, for perforated 
paper. The spring friction- brake/ holds the 
drum /from turning when the paper is not to 
be run through, and this brake also serves to 
keep the surface of the drum clean. The con- 
tact-rollers * and i' serve to press the perfo- 
rated paper to the drum /, so that it may be 
drawn through by the revolution of said drum. 
These rollers are on levers fc, that are acted 
upon by springs 3, and there is a guide- wire, 
4, that extends from a stud, 5, on 7;, beneath 
the rollers i i', and these rollers are grooved 



104. 

for its passage, and this wire serves to direct 
the advancing end of the strip of paper to the 
roller i. The troughs I Z', at opposite sides of 
the drum / serve to guide the paper as it is 
entered and passes away, and the rollers n 
upon spring -arm close contact through the 
holes in the strip to transmit the pulsations, 
as heretofore usual. The strip of chemical 
paper is passed beneath the stylus o. over the 
drum e, beneath the contact - roller m, and is 
wound upon the roller n 1 . The contact-roller 
m is upon an arm or lever, 6, that is provided 
with a spring, 7, and the stylus o is upon a 
spring-arm, 9, that is made with a stock that 
can be moved in a small head, s, and clamped 
by a screw, 10, so as to be adjusted length- 
wise, and this head s has a stem running into 
the horizontal column s', and clamped by the 
screw 12, to regulate the pressure of the stylus 
upon the paper. The cleaning-plate t, having 
a tongue passing into a groove in the drum e, 
prevents the paper sticking to the said drum. 
This has heretofore been used, and the end of 
the strip, coming into contact with the roller 
n 1 , is pressed to the same by the roller n 2 and 
spring - lever n 3 , and said paper is caused to 
adhere to the roller n x by small points that are 
upon its surface; hence the paper will be car- 
ried around and wound upon this roller n 1 , and 
the roller w 2 will yield as the roll of paper in- 
creases in size. As heretofore explained, the 
shaft c, upon which this roller n 1 is placed, is 
revolved by the clock-work, so that it will act 
to wind up the paper; but as the roll increases 
in diameter the speed of winding would in- 
crease. This, however, is allowed for by fric- 
tion between the surface of the shaft c and the 
interior of the central hole of said roller n\ as 
the roller is simply placed upon this shaft; and 
this construction allows the roller to be removed 
with the paper upon it when the message is 
finished, or the paper has accumulated in a roll 
of sufficient size. This removable roller and 
its paper are taken by the person who writes 
out or prints the message from the chemically- 
marked strip. 

The transmitting -roller being larger than 
the receiving-roller, and both making the same 



168 



,242 



number of revolutions, the perforated paper 
will be moved more rapidly than the chemical 
paper, so that the marks on the chemical pa- 
per will be contracted proportionately, and 
the length of the chemical paper lessened to 
the proper extent. 

The circuit- connections to the instrument 
are to be of any desired character. It is gen- 
erally preferable to connect the stylus o and 
the rollers n with the line and the instrument 
to the earth, and to throw back either the 
stylus or the rollers that are not in use. 

The switches t and pins t' serve to place 
upon the line greater or less resisting power 
under arrangements of circuits adapted to au- 
tomatic telegraphy. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. The transmitting -drum / and receiving- 
drum e upon the same shaft, in combination 
with the receiving and transmitting stylus or 



rollers n o and a clutch, b', for connecting 
either one drum or the other to the shaft b, as 
set forth. 

2. The two contact-rollers i and applied 
to the transmitting-drum, one at each side of 
the roller n or stylus, in combination with the 
wire 4, to guide the advancing end of the strip 
of paper, as set forth. 

3. The roller ri 1 , removable from the shaft 
c, and revolved by friction, and containing 
points, in combination with the receiving-drum 
e and yielding roller w 2 , substantially as set 
forth. 

Signed by me this 18th day of January, A. 
D. 1875. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



No. 168.243. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Automatic Telegraph. 

Patented Sept. 28, 1875. 




United States Patent Office 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWAEK, NEW JEESEY, ASSIGNOB TO HIMSELF 
AND GEOEGE HABBINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, D. C. 

IMPROVEMENT IN AUTOMATIC TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 168,243, dated September 528, 1875; application filed 

January 26, 1875. 



Case 

To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, iu the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, nave invented an Improvement 
in Automatic Telegraphs, of which the follow- 
ing is a specification : 

The object of this invention is to obtain 
more powerful action at the chemical receiv- 
ing-instruments, and to obtain a more power- 
ful compensation for the static currents of the 
line, and also to neutralize the reactionary or 
secondary currents from electro-magnets intro- 
duced in the line. 

It is well known that when a secondary 
battery, made of cells containing acidulated 
water and two metals of the same character, 
is introduced into a main circuit, the second- 
ary battery sets up a current in the same di- 
rection as a current passing through that sec- 
ondary battery from the main battery, thus 
intensifying the pulsations on the line; and 
that when the circuit to the main battery is 
broken, the secondary battery sets up a cur- 
rent in the opposite direction. The action of 
an electro-magnet is the reverse, as such elec- 
tro-magnet sets up a current opposed to the 
main current when the circuit is closed, and 
in the same direction when the circuit is in- 
terrupted or broken. 

I make use of an electro-magnet contigu- 
ous to the chemical receiving-instrument, for 
compensating or neutralizing the static dis- 
charge of the line, as set forth in my Patent 
No. 135,531, and I employ the secondary 
battery aforesaid iu addition, to insure more 
distinct pulsations at the receiving -instru- 
ment. With signaling electro - magnets or 
sounders placed iu the main line, I use the 
said secondary batteries to neutralize the ef- 
fects of such electro-magnets in the line when 
they discharge. 

In the diagram, the transmitter a is shown 
for perforated paper; but it may be of any 
desired character. The main battery b is 
connected with the earth and transmitter. 
The secondary battery c, of acidulated water 
in cells, also containing similar metallic poles, 
is placed in the main line, d is an electro-mag- 
net, which may be of a relay or sounder, and 
e is a resistance, which should be an adjust- 
able rheostat in a shunt around the receiv- 
ing-instrument and secondary battery. These 



103. 

parts are duplicated at c 1 , d', and e', and it is 
to be understood that they may be used at 
any number of intermediate stations. In 
each instance the secondary battery aug- 
ments the power of the pulsation sent from 
the main battery sufficiently to make up for 
the resistance of the magnets or line. 

The rheostat e or e' causes the proper pro- 
portion of current to pass through c d, and 
as the electro-magnet discharges, upon break- 
ing the main circuit, a path is provided for 
the same in the local circuit, so that it will 
not pass out upon the line and interfere with 
or mutilate the signals, and the discharge of 
the secondary battery neutralizes the static 
charge of the line and the discharge of the 
electro-magnet by opposing the same. 

By this arrangement intermediate relays 
and sounders can be introduced without in- 
terfering with the rapid pulsations on the 
main line. 

At the chemical receiving-instrument g the 
secondary battery c 2 is used to intensify the 
pulsation on the main line, and produce a dis- 
tinct mark, and also, by its discharge, to neu- 
tralize the static discharge from the line; 
and the electro - magnet I is introduced in a 
branch around the receiving - instrument to 
set up a secondary or reactionary current, to 
aid in neutralizing the static discharge from 
the line, as iu aforesaid patent. 

This magnet also serves as a resistance to 
direct a portion of the current through the 
chemical paper. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. The secondary battery, with poles of 
similar materials, applied iu the main circuit, 
containing the receiving-instrument, in com- 
bination with a shunt arouud the receiving-in- 
strument, containing a resistance or electro- 
magnet, for the purposes set forth. 

2. The combination, with the signaling elec- 
tro-magnet, placed in the line, of a secondary 
battery, also in the line, and a shunt around 
such instrument, containing a resistance, sub- 
stantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 18th day of January, A. 
D. 1875. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



No. 168,385. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Duplex Telegraph. 

Patented Oct, 5, 1875. 




United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OP NEWARK, NEW JEESET. 
IMPROVEMENT IN DUPLEX TELEGRAPHS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 168, 3§5, dated October 5, 1875; application filed 

January 26, 1875. 

Case 111. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, iii the State of New Jersey, have in- 
vented an Irnprovementin Duplex Telegraphs, 
of which the followiug is a specification : 

The object of tins invention is to more per- 
fectly balance and neutralize the static dis- 
charge of the line, so that there will not be 
any false pulsations. 

In the accompanying diagram the pulsation 
is given at the sendiug-station by the circuit- 
preserving key a, battery b, and connections 
c to the bridge-wires de between the line /and 
earth g. In the portion d of the bridge is the 
electro-magnet h and rheostat fc, and in the por- 
tion e is the electro-magnet I and rheostat m, 
and the receiving-instrument is placed in thecir- 
cuit 2 between the two portions d c of the bridge. 
Said receiving-instrument is made of two elec- 
tro-magnets, n o, that are placed at opposite 
sides and ends of the armature-lever j), so as 
to act thereon in unison with each other, and 
the cores of these electro-magnets are extend- . 
ed and surrounded with the additional helices 
rands, that are in a local circuit from the batte- 
ry t, and provided with a rheostat, u, the ob- 
ject of this being to set up a sufficient magnet- 
izing power in the helices of the local circuit 
to neutralize in the cores the magnetism that 
may result from permanent currents upon the 
line, thereby balancing such currents, and 
leaving the receiving-instrument free to re- 
spond to the pulsation from the distant in- 
strument. This local circuit and helices also 
serve to neutralize any residual magnetism in 
the cores. This arrangement "Of electro-mag- 
nets and helices in a local circuit is not herein 
claimed, and it is set forth in a previous appli- 
cation made by me. 



The electro-magnets Ji I set up in the trian- 
gular or bridge circuit d e 2 a secondary cur- 
rent when the circuit from b is broken, so as 
to neutralize the static discharge from the line 
/and artificial line g g'. 

In consequence of the differences of condi- 
tion between the actual line / and the artifi- 
cial line g g', it is difficult to adjust the rheo- 
stats Jc m g' so as to perfectly neutralize the 
static discharges, and equalize their action in 
the bridge d e, so that the receiving-instru- 
ment will be at a neutral point. To facilitate 
this operation we make use of a second artifi- 
cial line, formed of a rheostat, 12, earth-con- 
nection 13, and helices 14, around the cores of 
the electro-magnet I, so that, the pulsation from 
c dividing, a portion goes through 14, 12, and 
13, as well as through h and I, the result of 
which is that the cores of I are more highly 
energized than of h, and the reactionary or sec- 
ondary current set up in e by I is increased to 
whatever extent may be required to equal the 
static discharge from the line circulating 
through d aud the receiving-instrument. 

I claim as my invention — 
The electro-magnets h and ^ placed in the 
bridge-circuit between the seudiug-instrument 
and the line and artificial lines, respectively, 
in combination with the second artificial line 
12 13 and the helices 14 around the cores of 
the electro magnet I, for the purposes set forth. 

Signed by me this 18th day of January, A. 
D. 1875. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



No. 



T. A. EDISON & C. BATCHELOR. 

ELECTRIC SIGNALING-INSTRUMENT. 
169,972. Patented' Nov. 



16, 1875. 




1PETERS. PHOTO-UTHOQRAPHER, WASHINGTON. D. C. 



United States Patent Office, 



THOMAS A. EDISON AND CHARLES BATOHELOR, OF NEWARK, N. J. 
IMPROVEMENT IN ELECTRIC-SIGNALING INSTRUMENTS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 169.972, dated November 16, 1875; application filed 

March 23, 1875. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that we, Thomas A. Edison 
and Charles Batchelor, both of Newark, 
in the State of New Jersey, have invented an 
Improvement in Electric Telegraphs; and the 
following- is hereby declared to be a foil, clear, 
and exact description of the same. 

This telegraph apparatus is. made for local 
or private lines, and for alarms and messen- 
ger calls, and is known as the district alarm 
or domestic telegraph. 

An instrument adapted to such uses has to 
be simple, inexpensive, durable, not easily de- 
ranged or put out of working condition, and, 
withal, reliable in the signal sent. 

We make use of a segmental weighted le- 
ver with couductingand Hon conducting spaces 
upon its surface, so thai by moving the seg- 
ment in contact with a circuit-closing spring 
or roller, the signal will be given, and the 
same is received at the central station by taps 
on a bell or sounder, or upon chemical paper. 
An instrument of this general character is 
shown in Edison's Patent No. 154,788. We 
use, in connection with this district telegraph, 
chemical paper, upon which the mark is made 
by electrical decomposition, as heretofore 
well known; and we employ in that connec- 
tion automatic mechanism that sets the paper 
in motion, and peculiar devices for opening 
and closing the circuits in connection with the 
trau smittin g-segm ents. 

As an additional convenience, a simple fin- 
ger-key instrument is sometimes employed to 
spell out the communication letter by letter, 
especially upon local and private lines. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 represents one of 
the transmitting-iustrumeuts adapted to giv- 
ing a signal in one direction only as the key is 
restored, instead of giving it in reverse as the 
key is liberated, as in aforesaid patent. Fig. 
2 represents the signaling-instrument with a 
regulator to determine the speed of movement. 
Figs. 3 and 4 are a partial plan and side view 
of the finger-key transmitter, and Fig. 5 rep- 
resents the instruments at the receiving-sta- 
tion. 

These all are shown with circuit- wire con- 
nections to illustrate the manner in which the 
pulsations reach the central station without 
interfering with other instruments. 



The small box or case a is adapted to being 
hung or fastened up against a wall, door-post, 
or window-frame, and within it is the seg- 
mental weight b, that is made to swing upon 
the axis or shaft c, and is raised by the lever 
or key eZ, and drops by its own weight. At 
the curved edge of this segment there are 
pieces of non - conducting material, such as 
hard rubber, inserted, so as to opeu and close 
the circuit through the spring e when the 
segment is moved, and these conducting and 
non-conducting surfaces are such that the 
pulsations will be sent in the prearranged 
order and length to denote numbers or other 
signs at the receiving-station, and, in some 
instances, two or more of these transmitting 
segmental weights are employed side by side 
in the same instrument to send different pre- 
arranged signals. A lever-switch, /, is intro- 
duced between the line connections 4 and 5, 
so that the circuit will remain closed between 
4 and 5, and no pulsation will be made as the 
segment b is raised; but just as the segment 
reaches its upward movement, a pin, 6, lifts 
the switch/, and the electric circuit is broken 
between 4 and 5, so that the pulsations will 
be sent on the line as the segment b descends, 
and opeus and closes the circuit through b 
and e, and the signal will thus pass to the 
central station. A pin, 8, restores the switch 
/ to place as the segment b completes its down- 
ward movement. 

The same thing is effected by the instru- 
ment, Fig. 2; but the main line is tapped by 
a branch circuit passing to the earth. This 
circuit, in a normal condition, is broken by the 
switch /, and that switch is moved by the pin 
6 upon the extreme upward movement of the 
segment, so that the circuit will be complete 
through the spring e, segment &, and base of 
the instrument to the earth, and the pulsations 
will be made by the alternate conducting and 
non-conducting surfaces as the segment b falls. 
At the extreme downward movement the pin 
8 moves the switch and opens the branch cir- 
cuit to earth. 

In order to prevent a sudden movement of 
the segment b we apply on the same shaft c 
the ratchet-wheel I, that is only connected to 
the segment b through the spring 10, and a 
yoke, 11, upon this ratchet-wheel is formed 



169,972 



with a lever end, to be pressed upon by the 
finger or by a slide-rod, m, and there is a pal- 
let-escapement, n, and a pendulum-vibrator, 
o, which is operated by the ratchet-wheel as 
the segment b is forced up and as it falls, and 
prevents too rapid movement of the segment; 
but the spring 10 lessens the irregular move- 
ment of the segment b, which would result if 
the wheel? was firmly attached to the segment b. 

At the central receiving- station the instru- 
ment is provided with a drum, r, over which 
the strip of chemically-prepared paper passes, 
and upon this paper the stylus 15 rests, so that 
a mark will be made" by the electricity as it 
passes, and this drum is held from revolving 
by the armature-lever s and stop 16. 

When the circuit is closed at the sending- 
station the current first passes through the 
magnet t, attracting the armature and lever, 
and liberating the stop 10, so that the drum 
r is instantly set in motion by clock-work and 
a weight or spring, so that the paper will be 
moved along beneath the stylus 15, and be 
marked by the passage of the electricity. The 
spring 20 rests upon a non-conducting surface, 
so that when the drum r has made one revo- 
lution and stops with the pin 16 against the 
armature-levers, the circuit through the stylus 
is broken, thus compelling the first pulsation 
to act in the magnet t. The battery is shown 
at*'. 

The transmitting key-instrument (shown in 
Figs. 3 and 4) is made with a cylinder, u, the 
surface of which is provided with conducting 
and non-conducting substances in lines around 
the periphery, as has heretofore been used, and 
this is driven by clock-work when liberated by 
depressing one of the keys v. The key acts 
upon the swinging frame v' to move thattlown, 
and, by an inclined finger, 22, press back the 
spring-stop w, so that the cylinder u will be 



liberated and revolved by the clock-work, and 
then the stop springs back to place upon the 
upward movement of the frame v', and its fin- 
ger 22 passes behind a spring projection, 23, 
on w, (see Fig. 6,) so that the stop w remains 
in place to prevent more than one revolution 
of the cylinder u. 

One wire of the line passes to the journals 
of the cylinder u 7 and the other to the range 
of transmitting-springs x, and these are held 
up from the surface of the cylinder by the non- 
conducting studs 32 ; but when a key is de- 
pressed its spring x rests upon the surface of 
the cylinder, and as the latter revolves the 
pulsations of electricity are made to indicate 
the letter of the key. 

We claim as our invention — 

1. The combination, with the segmental cir- 
cuit-closing weight, of the switch /, for the 
purposes set forth. 

2. The combination, with the circuit-closing 
segmental weight, of the ratchet-wheel J, es- 
capement n, pendulum o, and spring 10, for 
the purposes set forth. 

3. The receiving-instrument, composed of a 
drum and stylus for chemical paper, and 
electro-magnet and armature-lever stop, and 
a circuit-closer insulated from the drum when 
the parts are at rest, for the purposes set forth. 

4. The combination, with the circuit-closing 
cylinder u and keys v, of the springs x, held up 
by the studs 32, and the stop w, actuated by 
the frame v\ substantially as set forth. 

Signed by us this 24th day of February, A. 
D. 1875. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 
OHAS. BATOHELOR. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Ohas. H. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON. 
TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 
No. 171,273. Patented Dec. 21, 1875. 





United States Patent Office, 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF 
AND GEORGE HARRINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, D. C. 

IMPROVEMENT IN TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 171, 213, dated December 21, 1875 ; application filed 

February 16, 1875. 

Case 110. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Telegraphic Apparatus, of which the fol- 
lowing is a specification : 

In the chemical telegraph it is usual to 
write out the messages either by hand or by 
a type-writing machine, and the person per- 
forming this work has to draw the strip along 
with one hand from time to time as the tran- 
scribing progresses. The same is true with 
the Morse system, where the message is not 
written out as it is received. With the damp 
chemical paper great inconvenience is expe- 
rienced in handling loose hanks and bunches. 

My improvements contemplate the use of a 
roll of paper. As the message is received the 
strip of paper is to be wound upon a roller, 
and then rewound to bring the commence- 
ment of the message outward upon the roll. 
The strip of paper is then drawn along in 
front of the operator at the average speed at 
which the copying can be effected, and the 
paper is wound upon a roller, so as to be in a 
compact lorm for storage, if it is necessary to 
keep them. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is an elevation, 
and Fig. 2 is a plan, of the improved appa- 
ratus. 

The roller a, upon which the strip of paper 
containing the message is wound, is placed 
upon a gudgeon or shaft supported by a 
standard, b, and the strip of paper is passed 
beneath the guide-loops c d, that allow such 
strip to be drawn along freely from right to 
left, and in front of the operator that tran- 
scribes or writes out the message upon the 
table or rest contiguous to such strip. The 
paper is drawn along by a train of gearing or 
clock-work contained within a suitable frame 
or box, /, and driven by a weight or spring, 
aud g is a drum moved by one of the shafts 
of such train of gearing, aud h is a yielding 
contact-roller, so that the strip of paper which 
passes between g and h will be moved along 
regularly, and a lever, fe, is provided to oper- 



ate a friction-clamp, by means of which the 
speed may be regulated to suit the operator. 
If desired, the strip of paper might be deliv- 
ered into a basket ; but I prefer to wind it au- 
tomatically by a roller, Z, that is placed upon 
the projecting end of one of the shafts and 
driven by friction, so as to wind upon itself 
the strip of paper as delivered. It is prefera- 
ble to employ a yielding contact-roller to press 
the paper upon the said roller, and if there 
are a few points upon the surface of this roller 
I the advancing end of this strip of paper will 
be caught and wouud up without requiring 
the attention of the operator. 

It will be apparent that the power employed 
for revolving the roller upon which the paper 
is wound may be derived from an electric en- 
gine, or from any other source, such as a 
treadle or other device worked by the foot. 

When the perforated strip of paper used at 
the transmitting end is introduced with the 
last end of the message first the message re- 
ceived will not require to be rewound, and 
will be in position for use. 

I am aware that mechanism has been em- 
ployed for moving a panoramic web and wind- 
ing the same upon one roller as it is unwound 
from another; but this is not adapted to a 
strip of telegraphic paper that is removable 
aud drawn through oidy once. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. The combination, with the rollers g h, 
actuated by a train of gearing, of guides for 
a strip of telegraphic paper, and a table or 
rest contiguous to such strip, upou which the 
message is transcribed, as set forth. 

2. The combination, with the rollers g h 
and the removable winding-roller I, of the 
guides for the strip of telegraphic paper, and 
the paper-roller a, substantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 11th dav of February, 
A. D. 1875. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Geo. D. Walker. 



: 



i 



T. A. EDISON. 

AUTOMATIC ROMAN-CHARACTER TELEGRAPH. 
No. 172,305. Patented Jan. 18, 1876. 





WWW 



N- PETERS, PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHER. 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF 
AND GEORGE HARRINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, D. C. 

IMPROVEMENT IN AUTOMATIC ROMAN-CHARACTER TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 172,305, dated January 18, 1876; application filed 

January 15, 1875. 



No. 

To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Automatic Telegraphs, of which the follow- 
ing is a specification : 

This improvement is available in transmit- 
ting block or Roman characters made by per- 
forations in a strip of paper, such as shown in 
my Patent No. 151,209, and receiving the 
same upon a strip of chemically-prepared pa- 
per. 

I make use of four transmitting-rollers and 
two line-wires, and I arrange the rollers to 
act in pairs, one slightly ahead of the other, 
and I arrange the circuits so as to send posi- 
tive or negative currents, and employ points 
or styluses in pairs, one of which is iron, the 
other tellurium, the decomposition in the 
chemical paper with one metal taking place 
with the positive current, and with the other 
metal with anegativecui rent; hence, although 
all four points are in contact with the chemical 
paper, only one on each line will be operative, 
according to the polarity of the current pass- 
ing over that line. 

In the diagram on the drawing, a represents 
the receiving roller, over which the chemical 
paper is drawn, as usual. 12 3 4 are the sty- 
lus-points, 1 and 3 being of iron. 2 and 4 are 
slightly in advance of 1 and 3. 

At the sending station the roller or drum e 
receives the paper, which is perforated with 
holes, indicating block-letters, as in said Pat- 
ent No. 151,209, and the paper is drawn along 
upou the roller e, as usual, and it passes be- 
neath the circuit-closing points or rollers 5 6 
7 8, and the rollers 6 and 8 are in advance of 
the rollers 5 and 7. There are four rows of 
perforations in the paper to compose the letters, 
so that to each row there is a circuit-closer. 
There are two batteries, g and h, connected to 
the line- wires Jc I, each line- wire being connect- 
ed to the middle of the battery, and ends n 
and j» leading to the respective circuit-closers 
5 6 and 7 8 ; the rollers or drums a and e, 



. 92. 

respectively, being connected to the earth, 
and the line-wires at the receiviug end being 
connected, one to 1 and 2, and the other to 3 
and 4. 

The operation is, that when either 6 or 8 
closes the circuit through the perforations in 
the paper, a positive current passes by the 
ground, and the return is through the line- 
wire, and the tellurium point 2 or 4 makes its 
mark, but the iron point does not make any 
mark; but wheu either 5 or 7 closes the circuit 
through the perforated paper the current 
passes over the line-wire, returning through 
the earth, and the iron point marks with this 
current, but the tellurium does not; hence, as 
the rollers that work with one line-wire are 
one in advance of the other sufficiently for cur- 
rents of opposite polarity to be sent by per- 
forations that are in line across the strip, the 
marks at the receiving-station will, in conse- 
quence of the movement of the paper, occupy 
their proper positions, and the aggregate re- 
sult will be a letter corresponding to that pro- 
duced by the perforations of the transmitting- 
strip. 

If three line- wires are employed instead of 
two, there may be six rows of perforations 
made use of in the letters. 
I claim as my invention — 
The combination of two or more transmit- 
ting points or rollers, arranged one in ad- 
vance of the other, and the connections to the 
batteries and line-wires, so as to transmit 
positive or negative currents by the perforat- 
ed paper, with stylus-points of different met- 
als, arranged one in advance of the other, so 
that one marks with a negative, and the other 
with a positive, current, substantially as set 
forth. 

Signed by me this 7th day of August, A. D. 
1874. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



No. 173,718 



T. A. EDISON. 

AUTOMATIC-TELEGRAPHY. 

Patented Feb. 22, 1876. 




United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWAEK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF 
AND GEORGE HARRINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, D. 0. 

IMPROVEMENT IN AUTOMATIC TELEGRAPHY. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 1Y3«'718, dated February 22, 1876; application filed 

January 15, 1875. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in tlie county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement in 
Automatic Telegraphs, of which the following 
is a specification : 

The object of this invention is to produce 
block characters on chemical paper by aggre- 
gation of dots, and the transmission is effected 
by a strip of perforated paper, the perfora- 
tions being grouped together to form the block 
letter, as in my Patent No. 151,209. 

I make use of four lines of perforations in 
composing the block letter, four rollers or 
stylus-points at both the receiving and trans- 
mitting stations. The first pair of rollers are 
in advance of the second pair, and one roller 
of one pair and another of the other pair are 
connected, and act with a positive current 
over the lines, and the other rollers of the 
other pair act with the negative current. This 
arrangement produces the record of the letters 
properly in succession in dots, forming block 
characters; but there are also produced some 
false dots between the letters, that are stopped- 
out or obliterated by hand at the receiving- 
station, so that only the true characters re- 
main visible. 

In the annexed diagram the receiving-drums 
a and b, at the transmitting and receiving 
station, respectively, are operated as usual, 
and draw along the strips of perforated paper 
c and chemical paper d. 

The receiving stylus-points 1 and 3 are con- 
nected to the earth -wire e, and the stylus- 
points 2 and 4 are connected to the line /, and 
between the line/ and ground-wire e a small 
electro-magnet, h,is placed, so as to act to neu- 
tralize the static or induced current in the 
line, as explained in my Patent No. 135,531. 

At the transmitting-station the rollers 5 
and 7 are connected to the positive pole of the 
battery I, and the rollers 6 and 8 to the nega- 
tive pole, the line- wire / being connected to 
the center of the battery, and the drum a 
being connected to the earth. 

Suppose, now, that four transverse perfora- 



tions, composing the letter "I," pass under the 
rollers 5 6 7 8; the roller 5 first sends a neg- 
ative pulsation through the ground through 

1 and 3, marking the paper, returning by 2 
and 4 to the line, and these points 1 and 3 
will mark, but 2 and 4, being a negative re- 
turn current, will not. No. 1 is a true mark, 
but 3 is a false mark, that is obliterated, as il- 
lustrated in Fig. 2. The roller 6 now sends a 
positive current over the line, which goes by 

2 and 4, and leaves by 3 aud 1. The mark 4 
is false, and is obliterated. The pulsation 
sent by 7 is next negative, and goes by 1 and 
3, and mark 3 is true, but 1 is false, and is 
obliterated, and then the roller 8 sends a posi- 
tive current over the Hue by 2 and 4, return- 
ing by 1 aud 3. The mark 4 is the true one, 
and 2 is the false one ; but, in consequence of 
arranging the pairs of points in advance of 
each other, as shown, the false marks are 
brought together between the respective char- 
acters, while the characters themselves stand 
out true aud correct. 

The character will be made by the pulsa- 
tions as indicated, according to the arrange- 
ment of the perforations representing that 
character, and the false marks, being between 
the character, are blotted out by a boy or at- 
tendant after the strip of paper is received 
from the machine, so as only to leave the 
characters themselves apparent between the 
blots, as illustrated in Fig. 2. 

I claim as my invention — 

Four transmitting stylus-points or rollers, 
connected in pairs to the positive and the 
negative of a battery, to which the line-wire 
is united at the center, in combination with 
two stylus-points connected to the line and 
two to the earth at the receiving-station, the 
parts being arranged and operated as set 
forth. 

Signed by me this 7th day of August, 1874. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinokney, 
Chas. H. Smith, 



No. 178,221. 



T. A. EDISON. 
DUPLEX TELEGRAPH. 

Patented May 30, 187( 



POLARIZED REUY . 



ARTIFICIAL LINE 





ElECTRO NIBONET 


[ 








N. PETERS,' PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHER, WASHINGTON, D C. 



United States Patent Office 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR OF ONE-HALF 
HIS RIGHT TO GEORGE B. PRESCOTT, OF NEW YORK CITY. 

IMPROVEMENT IN DUPLEX TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. I'7§,221, dated May 30, 1876; application filed 

September 1, 1874. 



To all ivhom it may concern; 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Duplex Telegraphs, of which the following 
is a specification: 

I make use of a compound induction-coil, 
through which" the currents pass, and those 
from the sending - station are balanced, but 
the current from the distant station is opera- 
tive. 

The helix a surrounds the central part of 
the core that passes through the electro-mag- 
nets b and c; hence a secondary or induced 
current is set up in the helix a only when 
there is an excess of current in one of the hel- 
ices b or c, because if the current acting in b 
is equal to that actiug in c, and the helices are 
properly wound, the magnetizing actions of 
the helices on the core will neutralize each 
other, and there will not be any secondary or 
induced current in a; but when the current in 
one helix is greater than that in the other, 
the core will be magnetized, and a secondary 
current set up in the helix a. 

I avail of this feature of the compound dif- 
ferential induction-coil to operate a' duplex- 
telegraph instrument, by causing the current 
at the sending-station, where this compound 
differential instrument is placed, to divide and 
act equally in both b and c; but when the cur- 
rent from the distant station increases the 
energy of the helix b, then the induction or 
secondary current set up in the helix a mag- 
netizes the core sufficiently to set up a current 
in a. 

The current in a operates in the polarized 
magnet / to open and close the local circuit g, 
in which is placed the receiving or sounder in- 
strument h. 

When the pulsation passing along the line 
Jc from the distant station ceases, the core of 
the helix b demagnetizes, and in so doing sets 
up a second induced current in a of opposite 
polarity to the first, and that acting in the po- 
larized magnet /instantly throws the contact- 
point of the armature the other way and opens 
the local circuit. 

_ These operations in the compound differen- 
tial induction-coil being borne in mind, it 
now becomes necessary to explain the man- 
ner of' sending through such coils without pro- 
ducing any action on the helix a. 



The key I in the local circuit to the magnet 
m operates the lever n, that contains an in- 
sulated spring-closer, 3, acting against the cir- 
cuit-point 4, and the hook end 5 of the lever 
n, so that when the key I is closed, the lever 
n moves the spring 3 into contact with 4, clos- 
ing the circuit from the battery o, through 4 
3 and the wire 6, to the helices b and c, and at 
the same time breaking the contact of 3 and 
5, and hence cutting out the ground-wire 8 
from the lever n; but the moment the lever n 
returns to its normal position by the demag- 
netizing of m, the spring 3 closes the circuit 
at 5, just before separating from 4; hence there 
is aiways a metallic circuit complete for the 
pulsation coming from the distant station, 
whether the circuit of the sendiug-battery o 
is opened or closed. 

In order to balance the action of the send- 
ing-current, that divides at 10, and passes 
through b and c, T introduce, in connection 
with the helix c, an artificial line equal in 
resistance and conditions to the line ft, hence 
compelling an equal current to pass through 
b and c. To effect this the resistance r is 
placed in the ground-connection from c, which 
resistance should be adjustable, so that the 
rheostat or resistance r equals the line ; and 
in order to set up in c a counter magnetism 
equal to that set up in b by the static from 
the line, I make use of the electro-magnet t, 
placed in a shunt that passes around c. 

By this construction of compound differen- 
tial induction-coil, and the arrangement of the 
connections, the inductive effects of pulsations 
from the sending-instrument are balanced and 
neutralized, while the pulsations from the dis- 
tant station operate the receiving-instrument. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. The compound differential induction- 
coils a b Cj in combination with the polarized 
relay/ and the circuit-connections, substan- 
tially as set forth. 

2. The artificial line, composed of the rheo- 
stat r and magnet t and ground-connection, 
in combination with the compound induction- 
coil and line-connections, substantially as set 
forth. 

Signed by me this 19th day of August, 1874. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Ohas. H. Smith, 
Geo. T. Pinckney, 



No. 178,222. 



T. A. EDISON. 
DUPLEX TELEGRAPH. 

Patented May 30, 1876. 





N. PETERS. PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHER. WASHINGTON, 0. 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWAEK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR OF ONE-HALF 
HIS RIGHT TO GEORGE B. PRESOOTT, OF NEW YORK CITY. 

IMPROVEMENT IN DUPLEX TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 178,222, dated May 30, 1876; application filed 

September 1, 1874. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, iu the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Duplex Telegraphs, of which the following 
is a specification : 

A balanced battery is used for transmit- 
ting when the balance is disturbed. An 
electro-magnet is used, through which both 
the received and transmitted pulsations pass, 
and the connections are made so that the ac- 
tion of the current sent is balanced, while 
that coming from the distant station is oper- 
ative, to work a balanced relay and local cir- 
cuit or sounder. 

In the accompanying diagram drawing, the 
battery a b is connected at an end to the line- 
wire c, at the other end to the closed key e, 
and in the middle to the ground. The con- 
nection 3, from the key e to the line c, passes 
through the induction-coil and core /, and 
there is a second induction-coil, </, around 
the coil /, that is in a shunt between the line- 
connection c and the branch h to the ground, 
iu which branch h there is a resistance, Jc, 
that is adjustable. 

The line-connection c bifurcates at i, pass- 
ing one way through the helix I to the ground- 
branch h,. and the other way through the 
helix m to the main line s. The electro mag- 
net I m, being wound in the usual way, will 
not respond when the connection is made in 
the middle, because the current passing from 
c goes one way through one helix, and the 
other way through the other, polarizing the 
cores, so that the armature r is not attracted. 

It is important that the resistance of the 
branch h and rheostaut k should be about 
the same as that of the main line s, so as to 
cause the current to divide equally at i. 

It will now be understood that any current 
from the distant station passiug through the 
niagnet m, in the usual direction, will cause the 
armature to respond, whether there is any 
current passing through the helices or not 
|om the sending- station, and this electro- 
magnet m and armature act as a relay to op- 
erate the local circuit s' and sounder i. 
The main battery, it will be seen, is in a 



local circuit when the key e is closed; hence, 
if both sides are equal, there is no current 
passing upon the main line; but when the 
key e is open the local circuit is broken, and 
the portion a of the battery sends the pulsa- 
tion through I and m, and upon the line s, 
to the distant station, where the pulsation 
passing through m operates the local and 
sounder or receiver, the portion through I re- 
turning to a through the branch h and ground. 

When the key e is closed the induction-coil 
/is charged, and it discharges when the key 
e is opened. The helix g, that has been charged 
by induction, also discharges, and sets up in I 
a current that equals that resulting from the 
static charge of the line, and the reverse cur- 
rents are produced in the induction-coils as 
the circuit is closed at e. Thus such induction- 
coils serve to neutralize or balance the effect 
of the static charge, and prevent any false 
pulsation on the main line resulting from the 
return static charge acting in m. 

It will be apparent that the closing of the 
key e and the connecting of the battery b with 
the line tends to set up in the line and to 
earth currents of opposite polarity to those 
resulting from the battery «, because the pos- 
itive of the one and the negative of the other 
are to the ground and line, respectively, and 
this local circuit (c a 3 eb) serves to maintain 
an unbroken connection, that offers but little 
resistance to the pulsation from the distant 
instrument passing to the earth, and the re- 
sistance is nearly uniform to the current re- 
ceived, whether there is a current that is be- 
ing sent or not. 

I claim as my invention — * 

The battery a & in a local circuit, connected 
to the line, in which is a circuit-breaker, a 
finger-key, in combination with the magnet I 
m, branch h, and resistance k, and the induc- 
tion-coils / g, the parts operating substan- 
tially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 19th day of August, A. 
D. 1874. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Ohas. H. Smith, 
Geo. T. Pinckney. 



No. 178,223. 



T. A. EDISON. 
DUPLEX TELEGRAPH. 

Patented May 30, 1876. 



MAIN LINE. 

IT 




N.PETERS, PKOT0.LITHOGRAPHER, WASHINGTON, 0, 0, 



United States Patent Office, 

THOMAS A. EDISON, OP NEWABK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR OE ONE - HALE 
HIS RIGHT TO GEORGE B. PRESCOTT, OF NEW YORK CITY. 

IMPROVEMENT IN DUPLEX TELEGRAPHS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 178,223, dated May 30, 1876; application filed 

September 1, 1874. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, 
of Newark, Essex county, New Jersey, have 
invented an Improvement in Duplex Tele- 
graphs, of which the following is a specifica- 
tion : 

The transmitting-battery is connected with 
the line by a lever that simultaneously breaks 
the earth-connection, so as not to interrupt 
the continuity of the circuit. The current 
sent divides and operates equally in two 
helices. In one helix there is a sliding core 
that moves with the armature of the other 
helix, and this latter responds to the pulsa- 
tion from the distant instrument and closes 
a local circuit to a sounder or other receiv- 
ing instrument, and there is a mechanical 
device that serves to compensate the attrac- 
tion in one of the magnets that is due to 
the reverse action of the static discharge, 
thereby causing the forces to be accurately 
balanced. 

In the diagram of the drawing, the trans- 
mitting-key a opens and closes the local cir- 
cuit of battery b to the helices of the electro- 
magnets c and d. 

The lever e, actuated by the armature of c, 
closes the line connection / from the battery g 
just before breaking the earth-circuit of the 
line at h, so that there is always a path for 
the pulsation from the distant station. 

The circuit from e bifurcates at 7c, and a 
portion of the pulsation sent passes through 
I and upon the line r, and an equal portion 
of the pulsation passes through m to the ar- 
tificial line composed of the rheostat s and 
ground - connection, said rheostat being ad- 
justed to equal the resistance of the line. 

The armature-lever o is inoperative by the 
current sent, because the action of the two 
magnets on the same is balanced, the at- 
tractive forces of such magnets being equal; 
and I make the core of the magnet m to slide 
in the helix, and attach it to the armature-le- 
ver o, so that the cores of I and m may be 
equally energized, and not influenced by the 
current sent, whether the armature is near the 



core of I or drawn back therefrom by the 
spring 3. 

It will now be understood that the lever o 
will not respond when the pulsation sent 
passes through I m, but that the armature- 
lever o will respond to the pulsation from the 
distant station, because the same only acts 
in I, and by this lever o a local circuit and 
sounder or other receiver is operated. 

The pulsation sent from g upon the line r 
is increased by the static charge, and upon 
cessation of the pulsation the static charge 
reacts and these operations might disturb the 
balance between Z and m. I therefore employ 
the mechanical compensator formed of the 
spring t and notched armature-lever u, to 
the magnet d; hence, when the current is 
closed at a, and the armatures of e and U 
are attracted, the motion of the lever u brings 
the notch at the end of such lever across be- 
neath the V-projection on the spring t. There- 
by the force of the spring t is relieved, and then 
again bent, and when relieved the spring 3 ex- 
erts its full power. And when the spring t is 
bent, its force lessens the power of the spring 
3 ; hence this spring 3 is able to resist the 
increase of magnetism due to the static con- 
dition of the line when the circuit is closed, 
and to compensate for the reaction of the 
static charge as the circuit at a is broken, 
thus leaving the magnet I entirely uninflu- 
enced by the current sent, and capable of 
the most delicate adjustment by the spring 3 
for receiving from the distant station. 

It is to be understood that the effect of 
the static electricity is apparent when the 
magnet I is charged and discharged, and 
that at that moment the notch in the end of 
u relieves tbe end of the spring t, allowing 
the increased power of the spring 3 to com- 
pensate for the static electricity acting in 
the magnet I. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. The magnets I m, through which the 
current sent passes to the line, and artificial 
line, in combination with the armature- lever 
o, and sliding core, substantially as specified. 



1*8,228 



2. The electro-magnets c d, in the local 
circuit containing the circuit-breaker a, in 
combination with the circuit-closing lever e, 
notched armature lever u, spring t, and ar- 
mature-lever o, substantially as set forth. 

3. The mechanical compensator, consist- 
ing of the spring t and notched lever u, for 
neutralizing the effect of the static charge 



in a duplex telegraph, substantially as set 
forth. 

Signed by me this 19th day of August, A. 
D. 1874. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Oh as. H. Smith, 
Geo. T. Pinckney. 




N. PETERS, PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHER, WASHINGTON, O 0. 



2 Sheets— Sheet 2. 

T. A. EDISON. 
AUTOGRAPHIC PRINTING. 
No. 180,857. Patented Aug. 8, 1876. 




N.PETERS. PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHER, WASHINGTON, 0. 0. 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF XEWABK, NEW JERSEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN AUTOGRAPHIC PRINTING. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 180,857, dated August 8, 1876 ; application filed 

March 13, 1.-576. 



; To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
f Newark, iu the comity of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Autographic Printing, of which the follow- 
ing is a specification : 

Patterns for embroidery and for fresco paint- 
ers have been made of paper, perforated with 
' numerous holes in the lines to be transferred, 
Rand the transfer Las been done by a fine col- 
J ored powder, dusted over and rubbed into such 
holes while the article is upou the surface that 
Receives such transfer. This is not adapted to 
ppritiug, because the color employed is not per- 
manent, aud no means has been devised that 
could easily be made use of in writing or draw- 
ing by hand with rapidity that rendered the 
operation practically available for autographic 
printing. 

I My improvement relates, first, to the instru- 
ment employed for puncturing the paper, 
whereby such instrument can be used by hand 
in the same manner as a drawing or writing- 
pen; second, to the method of printing by di- 
rect transfer iu permanent semi-liquid ink from 
the perforated sheet; aud third, to the press 
for holding such transfer-sheet, and the paper 
to be impressed. 

_ In the drawing, Figure 1 is a vertical sec- 
tekm of the pen or stylus, in a form that I have 
discovered to be very convenient in use. Fig. 
||_is a side view of the actuating-maguets. 
Big. 3 is a section of the press. Fig. 4 is a 
Iplan of the same, as open. Fig. 5 is a section 
of the paper-holding clamp. Fig. 6 is a sec- 
tion of the pen-holding stand in smaller size 
pan the pen Fig. 1. Fig. 7 is a plan of the 
battery, illustrating, also, the flexible connec- 
tion to the distant pen as in use. Fig. 8 is an 
elevation of the battery, partially iu sectiou ; 
and Fig. 9 is a section of the pole-supporting 
catch of the battery. 
The pen which I make use of consists of a 
■tube, a, tapering to a small point, b, and a 
■Sjeedle, c, within that tube, which needle is 
), reciprocated with great rapidity; aud when 
■pie needle-point c is projected it is sufficiently 
Hpng to reach through the paper upou which 
■he tube of the pen rests, and when retracted 



the needle is drawn within the tube, so that 
the small end thereof is free to be moved from 
place to place. 

The great rapidity iu the movement of the 
needle-point produces the punctures in the 
paper sufficiently close together to form lines 
when the pen is manipulated in writing or 
drawing; and, as nothing is removed from the 
paper, its strength is not materially injured 
by the punctures or perforations; and it will 
be apparent that any suitable device may be 
employed for reciprocating the perforating- 
needle; and as I have invented numerous de- 
vices for which I contemplate applying for 
Letters Patent hereafter, I have only shown 
herein the device which I prefer to use, viz : 
an electro - magnet and revolving - armature 
fly-wheel. 

The electro-magnet d is upon the frame e 
that supports the axis 2 of the fly -wheel f, 
aud this fly-wheel is connected with the ar- 
mature g. Upon the axis 2 there is an eccen- 
tric or a cam, with one or more arms acting 
upjn the stock 3 at the upper end of the 
needle-bar. It is preferable to employ a three- 
pointed cam, d 2 , as seen in Fig. 10, upon the 
axis 2, so as to give three up-and-down mo- 
tions to the needle-point each revolution of the 
axis 2. 

The commutator or circuit - closer to the 
electro - magnets is composed of the spring 
J, acted upon by the notched or flattened disk 
1 to open aud close the circuit through the 
screw 5, and thus actuate the electro-magnet- 
ic motor in the usual manner. 

The wires 6 and 7 lead to the battery shown 
in Figs. 7 and 8, iu which the glass cells m are 
in a metal stand, n, held by the standard o aud 
ring o'. The carbon-pole jp and zinc-pole q are 
connected with the cover r and cross-bar r', 
that are fitted to be raised or lowered upon the 
standard o, aud when raised out of use, as in 
Fig. 8, the parts are held up by the latch s 
passing into a notch in the standard o, as iu 
Figs. 8 and 9. The porous cups s' in the cells 
m are nearly half-cylinders, as shown. This 
construction of battery is very convenient for 
this autographic pen, because it occupies but 
little space and is easily transported and 



"brought into or put out of action. The liquids 
preferably employed in the battery are bichro- 
mate of potash and sulphuric acid. 

The tube of the pen screws into the frame 
e, and it is provided with a set-nut, 9, by means 
of which it can be clamped after the tube has 
been adjusted, so as to allow the needle to 
be drawn into the tube and projected by the 
motor as aforesaid. 

A stand, V, Fig. 6, is provided with a hole 
at the upper end, of a size to receive the tube 
of the pen and support the same, and protect 
the point from injury when entered within 
such stand. The conductor from the pen to 
the battery must be flexible, so as to allow the 
pen to be easily moved about in performing 
the writing. 

The mode of printing from the perforated 
sheet is to fill the holes with ink by means of 
a roller applied to the right side of the per- 
forated sheet; and then when said ink is well 
worked into the holes to place beneath such 
perforated sheet the paper upon which the 
impression is to be made, and then pass over 
the perforated sheet a roller that presses the 
ink through the perforations to the surface of 
the sheet below. 

As a convenient means for doing this print- 
ing, I make use of the bed t, to which the 
frame ti is hinged at 12, and at the comers of 
this frame n are the spring-plates 13, with 
holding-points; and these spring-plates are 
raised from the surface of the frame by turn- 
ing the cam-buttons 14, so that the perforated 
sheet can be placed between the frame and 
these clamping-springs; and then the cam- 
buttons 14, being turned the other way, al- 
low the springs to catch and firmly hold the 
comers of the perforated sheet. A sheet of 
paper is now laid down upon the bed % the 
frame v turned over upon it and secured by 
the clamping-button 16 being turned over the 
edge of this frame u. A roller, covered with 
felt or other similar material, and having ink 
upon its surface, is now rolled over the per- 
forated sheet until all the holes are filled and 
an impression made by the ink through such 
holes upon the surface of the sheet below. 
The hinged frame holding the perforated sheet 
may be lifted forinspectingthe impression, and 
closed down again if the impression is defect- 
ive at any part. After the holes are filled 
the impressions upon other sheets can be 
made in succession very rapidly, and a small 



quantity of ink is added from time to time. 
Printer's ink, thinned out with castor oil, may 
be employed, or aniline colors may be used, 
mixed with glycerine and molasses. 

Various forms of electro-magnetic motors 
may be employed to revolve the shaft that 
reciprocates the puncturing-ueedle, and the 
movement of a vibrating armature might be 
transferred directly to the needle, if desired. 

It is generally preferable to have the per- 
foratiug-needle perpendicular to the paper ; 
and, for convenience in holding the same, there 
may be a handle connected with the pen-tube 
a, and occupying an inclined position, as in- 
dicated by the dotted lines, Fig. 1. 

I claim as of my invention — 

1. The portable perforating instrument for 
writing or drawing, composed of a tapering 
tubular stock, adapted to be held and moved 
by hand, and provided with a perforating- 
needle and its reciprocating mechanism, sub- 
stantially as specified. 

2. The method herein specified of printing 
in permanent semi-fluid ink by puncturing a 
sheet of paper, or similar material, with nu- 
merous small holes, filling such holes with a 
semi-liquid ink, and pressing the same upon 
the surface to be printed, substantially as set 
forth. 

3. The swinging frame u and paper-holding 
clamps 13, in combination with the bed t, for 
receiving and holding the sheet of perforated 
paper, and the sheet to be printed, substan- 
tially as set forth. 

4. The combination with the revolving mag- 
netic motor, pen-holder a, and puucturing- 
needle c, of the cam d 2 , having three or more 
points, substantially as set forth. 

5. The combination, with the portable hand- 
perforating instrumenthaving an electro-mag- 
netic motor, of a flexible conductor and a 
battery, substantially as set forth. 

6. The portable galvanic battery composed 
of cells in a stand, with a pole-supporting 
rod, latch, and cross-head, in combination with 
flexible conductors, a magnetic motor, and a 
perforating-pen, substantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 7th day of March, A. D. 
1876. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



No. 180,858. 



T. A. EDISON. 

DUPLEX TELEGRAPH. 

Patented Aug. 8, 1876. 




N.PETERS. PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHER, WASHINGTON. 0. 0. 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR OF ONE -HALF 
HIS RIGHT TO GEORGE B. PRESOOTT, OF NEW YORK CITY. 

IMPROVEMENT IN DUPLEX TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 180,858, dated August 8, 1876; application filed 

September 1, 1874. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Duplex Telegraphs, of which the following 
is a specification : 

The main battery is in two parts connected 
in reverse in the line-circuit. In the same cir- 
cuit is the receiving instrument or relay, to 
which is connected a local circuit and sounder. 
One-half of the battery is short-circuited at 
the sendiug-station by the depression of the 
key. Simultaneously with this depression a 
local circuit is closed and a reverse current 
sent from a battery through the receiving- 
magnet, and in that circuit is a rheostat that 
is adjusted so that the effect of the battery on 
the line is neutralized in the receiving-relay 
at the sending* end ; but the battery at this 
distant end is free to act at the receiving-sta- 
tion. At the same time the effects from the 
static charge in the line are neutralized in the 
receiving-instrument by induction. 

In the diagram, a is the line passing through 
the electro-magnet b that operates a relay or 
sounder. The connection from b is through 
the batteries c d, or local circuit i lie, to the 
earth. The batteries c and d oppose each 
other, and, being equal, are not operative in b. 
The key e is in a local circuit, in which are the 
helices f g, and when the key is closed the 
electro-magnet g attracts the armature and 
lever h, closing the circuit i Tc to the center of 
the batteries c d, hence short-circuiting c, and 
allowing d to act in the line. In order to com- 
pensate the action of the battery d in b, the 



local battery I is used, and the local circuit 
from I, through the insulated spring m and 
rheostat to the line a, is closed simultaneously 
with the short-circuiting of c, and this rheostat 
r is adjusted so that the action of I in b equals 
the action of d in 6, and, being in reverse, the 
forces are neutralized. The helices / and g, 
being charged and discharged simultaneously, 
there is an inductive current set up in the core 
of / and the helix n, and that gives a secondary 
charge to the helix o that surrounds the core 
of &, and hence when e is closed the secondary 
effect in n neutralizes the static effect as the 
line is charged, and, as the circuit at the key 
e is broken, a reverse induction-current is set 
up in n, neutralizing the discharge of the 
static charge of the line, the helices being 
wound so as to produce this reverse and neu- 
tralizing effect in the core of the electro-mag- 
net b of the helix n. 
I claim as my invention — 

1. The local equating-battery I, and rheostat 
r, connected to the line a, and to the receiv- 
ing-maguet 6, in combination with the bat- 
teries c d, shunt i, and lever /t, substantially 
as and for the purposes set forth. 

2. The magnets gaud /, and induction-coils 
n o, in combination with the magnet b, bat- 
teries c d, and shunt-circuits, substantially as 
set forth. 

Signed by me this 19th day of August, A. 
D. 1874. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



No. 182,996. 



T. A. EDISON. 
ACOUSTIC TELEGRAPH. 

Patented Oct. 10, 1876. 




- JAMES R.OSGOOD & CO. BOSTON. _ 



United States Patent Office 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO THE 
WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH COMPANY. 

IMPROVEMENT IN ACOUSTIC TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 182,996, dated October 10, 1876 ; application filed 

May 16, 1876. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, 
of Menlo Park, in the county of Middlesex and 
State of New Jersey, have invented an Im- 
provement in Acoustic Telegraphs, of which 
the following is a specification : 

Two batteries are connected to the line and 
to the earth, and the. earth-couuection from 
one is direct, and in the earth-connection from 
the other are the tremolo circuit-closers of 
the reeds, and also finger-keys. When one 
tremolo is short-circuited by its key, the other 
tremolo only is operative in sending pulsations 
over the line, and the distant reed responds to 
the same. When both are operative in sending 
pulsations, both receiving-reeds at the other 
end respond. One battery is slightly stronger 
than the other, and when the short circuit of 
the stronger battery is broken the other bat- 
tery is operative upon the line, and when the 
other circuit is closed to the earth the weaker 
battery is overpowered and a weak pulsation 
sent upon the line, clearing it of its static 
charge. In this manner the pulsations from 
the tremolo circuit-closers can be very rapid, 
and, the batteries being connected with oppo- 
site poles to the line, the static effects are 
neutralized by the transmission of a slight 
contrary current, clue to the excess of one bat- 
tery over the other. 

The battery is made of the minor element 
a, and major element b, with zinc of a, and 
copper of b, to line. The battery a is connected 
to earth E through rheostat R, and from the 
battery b to earth there is a circuit- wire, in 
which are the tremolo circuit-closers 1 2 and 

3 4. The key ¥ short-circuits the tremolo 1 
2, and the key ¥ short-circuits 3 4. The reeds 
or other vibrating bodies «! e are operated and 
kept in vibration by the local circuits and elec- 
tro-magnets, the battery h, magnet I, and cir- 
cuit-closers 7 8 acting with the reed d, and the 
battery /, magnet g, and circuit-closers 5 and 
6 acting with the reed e. 

The operations of the transmitting portion 
of the instrument will be apparent. The reeds 
dand e being constantly vibrated, and vibrat- 
ing at different rates of speed, as in other 
acoustic telegraphs, the circuits at 1 2 and 3 

4 will be opened and closed in harmony with 



the respective reeds, and the pulsations will 
pass over the line from the battery a whenever 
the circuit of battery b is broken, the power 
of battery a being free to act and pass over 
the line; but when the circuit of b is closed 
an excess of current passes from the battery 
b into the line, to neutralize static effect and 
clear the line. When either key ¥ or ¥ is 
closed, the corresponding tremolo circuit-closer 
becomes inoperative on the line because of the 
continuous metallic connection short-circuit- 
ing the same. The other tremolo circuit-closer, 
however, may be fully operative. By this 
means the cessation of vibration of the receiv- 
ing-reed, or its equivalent, corresponds with the 
circuit-closing of the finger-key at the send- 
ing station, and the vibration denotes a state 
of rest of the finger-key. If the normal con- 
dition of the finger-key was a closed circuit 
through it, then the signal would result from 
the vibration of the reed at the receiving-sta- 
tion corresponding to the opening of the fin- 
ger-key circuit. 

At the receiving-station the line c divides, 
and one branch passes by the rheostat R 4 to 
earth. The other passes through electro-mag- 
nets o ]) q to 1 earth, and adjacent to these mag- 
nets are the vibrating reed-armatures toned 
to respond to the reeds of similar notes at the 
sending-station. There is a rheostat, R 3 , that 
is shunted by the condenser n', the object be- 
ing to avail of the discharge of the condenser 
to neutralize the static charge of the line. 
The rheostats are to be of proper resistance 
to effect this object. It is preferable to em- 
ploy four spools, or a double electro-magnet 
&tp, to operate upon the reed m, which is ad- 
vantageous upon reeds of a high note, as they 
require more power than those of a low note 
to vibrate them. The poles of the electro- 
magnets are preferably arranged so that the 
two north poles come next each other, or the 
reverse, so that the inductive effects upon the 
reed will be neutralized, and tendeucy to stick 
avoided. The reed I' is prolonged in the form 
of a very light strip of metal, 10, that is, by 
preference, corrugated, to render it stiff. By 
this means a greater range of motion is ob- 
tained to operate the circuit-closer 11 of the 
local circuit and sounder t. 



t 182 

The reed m operates at the end against the 
short end of a lever, u, which may be a bent 
lever, so that the long end has greater range 
of motion and operates more reliably as a cir- 
cuit-closer for the sounder u l in a local circuit 
than the reed itself. This lever u is positioned 
so that it is only operated by the reedm, when 
in full vibration; hence the local circuit-closer 
will not act when the magnet p ceases to op- 
erate upon the reed. The reed n opens and 
closes a local circuit passing through itself 
from the local battery u 2 , and there is a sec- 
ondary battery or acidulated cup, n 2 , in the 
same circuit. The rapid vibrations of the 
reed n induce a constant magnetism in the 
sounder v in consequence of the secondary 
battery prolonging the current and preventing 
magnet v discharging until the reed n pauses 
in its vibration; hence the sounder or receiv- 
ing-instrument v will be demagnetized and re- 
spond to the closing of the distant finger-key. 

If thesending-instrumentsare placed at an 
intermediate station, the batteries a b may be 
in branches or derived circuits in the main 
line. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. In an acoustic telegraph, two sections, a 
b, of the battery, in derived circuits from the 
mainline, in combination with resistances and 
a tremolo circuit-closer operated by the reed, 
or its equivalent, and placed in one of the bat- 
tery-circuits, substantially as set forth. 

2. In an acoustic telegraph, a battery, in two 
sections, connected to the line, and to derived 



,996 

circuits, in combination with tremolo circuit- 
closers, reeds operated by magnets, and keys 
to short-circuit the circuit-closers, substan- 
tially as set forth. 

3. The combination, with an acoustic tele- 
graphic reed, of an extension that is lighter 
than the reed, to operate circuit-closing devices, 
substantially as set forth. 

4. The combination, with an acoustic re- 
ceiving-instrument, of a derived circuit from 
the main line containing a condenser, and a re- 
sistance in the main line, substantially as set 
forth. 

5. The combination, with a vibrating reed 
in an acoustic telegraph, of four electro-magnet 
spools placed in the main line, substantially 
as set forth. 

6. The combination, with the vibrating reed 
m, of the lever u, and local circuit, arranged 
so that the lever u is only acted upon by the 
reed m when in full vibration, substantially as 
set forth. 

7. The combination, with an acoustic tele- 
graph, of a local circuit, a secondary battery, 
a receiving-instrument or sounder, and a cir- 
cuit-closer operated by the reed, substantially 
as set forth. 

Signed by me this 9th day of May, A. D. 
1876. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

J. D. Euss, 
Ohas. Batchelor, 



T. A. EDISON. 

ELECTRO-HARMONIC MULTIPLEX TELEGRAPH. 
No. 185,507. Patented Dec. 19, 18 76. 




THE GRAPHIC CO.N.Y. 



United States Patent Office 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO 
WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH COMPANY. 

IMPROVEMENT IN ELECTRO-HARMONIC MULTIPLEX TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 185,507, dated December 19, 1876; application filed 

Angnst 31, 1876. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it kuown that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, in the State of New Jersey, have 
invented an Improvement in Acoustic Tele- 
graphs, of which the following is a specifica- 
tion : 

The object of this invention is to subdivide 
a single telegraphic circuit into a number of 
independent sigualmg-circuits, each of which 
may be operated by means of the signaling 
apparatus in ordinary use, and signals trans- 
mitted upon each signaling -circuit without 
interfering with the others, and in either di- 
rection at pleasure. 

The invention consists, first, in a method 
and combination of apparatus for transferring 
a telegraphic line or circuit at two or more 
stations, either terminal or intermediate, suc- 
cessively from one set of signaling- instru- 
ments to several other sets of signaling-in- 
struments, by the use of tuning forks or 
reeds at each station, kept in continuous vi- 
bration, by electro-magnets, with such rapid- 
ity and in such a manner that the brief time 
during which the circuit is disconnected from 
any one pair of signaling-instruments and re- 
turned thereto is uot sufficient to interfere 
with the proper transmission of signals. 

Second, the invention further consists in 
placing in the same circuit two tuning-forks 
or equivalent devices, one of which, in respect 
to the number of its vibrations in a given 
time, is a submultiple of the other, so that 
the high forks shall subdivide the wire into 
two signaling-circuits, which latter, being con- 
nected to the low fork, are thereby again sub- 
divided into four signaling-circiiics. 

Third, the invention further consists in the 
method and combination of apparatus em- 
ployed to control and regulate the transferring 
forks or reeds by means of the other tuning- 
forks, reeds, or moving bodies following the 
law of the pendulum, which are actuated by 
electro-magnets placed in a second circuit, and 
arranged to close at each vibration the local 
circuit, by which the transfer-forks are kept 
in vibration. 

Fourth, the invention further consists in a 
method and combination of devices whereby 
the transferred circuit is momentarily con- 



nected to the earth during its passage from 
one set of signaling-instruments to another. 

Fifth, the invention further consists in the 
combination of transfer-reeds, together with 
their signaling-instruments, local circuit, and 
batteries, with the main-line reed or reeds, by 
which means the accurate transfer of the 
main circuit upon the several instruments is 
effected. 

Sixth, the invention further consists in the 
combination of signaling - instruments with 
the auxiliary or controlling circuit, in such a 
manner that it may be utilized for the trans- 
mission of signals, as well as for controlling 
the apparatus attached to the other line. 

Seventh, the invention further consists in 
the placing of several sets of electro -magnetic 
transfer forks or reeds in the same local cir- 
cuit at each of the differeut stations, whereby 
they are maintained in harmonious vibration 
with each other at all times. 

I will now describe the various devices. 
A is the fundamental fork, which may either 
be in the main circuit of the controlling-line 
B, or in a local circuit. I have shown it in the 
latter. The fork makes, say, thirty-six vibra- 
tions in each second. (I do not confine my- 
self to thirty-six, as twelve to five hundred 
will answer.) D is the contact devices, where- 
by the circuit in which the actuating-mag- 
nets are placed is opened and closed at each 
vibration, thus causing the reed to vibrate 
continuously. Upon the extreme ends of the 
prongs-are insulated contact-points E and E', 
which come in contact with springs F and F'. 
The contact of E and F serves to close and 
open the local circuit, in which the transfer- 
reeds H and K are placed, while the contact 
of E' and F' serves to close and open the con- 
trolling-circuit. This sets the fork L in mo- 
tion, which, in its turn, by means of M and 
N, closes and opens the local circuit in which 
the forks P and Q, are setting them in motion. 
Now, if the contact time of the various springs 
and points upon the controlling-forks A and 
L is the same, the forks H, K, P, and Q will 
vibrate exactly in unisou, and continue to do 
so, although a great variation may take place 
on the controlling- svire, in which A and L are 
placed. R and S are two signaling - instru- 



185,507 



merits, which are ordinary Morse apparatus, 
with tbe exception of the relays and keys 
having back points, the signaling - sounder 
closing when the circuit is opened by depress- 
ing tbe keys. 

I will mention that signaling may take place 
at the same time that the fork L is working 
witbout interruption to it, as it requires from 
fifteen to twenty-five seconds after the control- 
ling-wire is opened before its vibration becomes 
insufficient to open and close tbe. circuit of 
the forks P and Q, aud as a Morse signal Only 
requires a fraction of a second, these slight 
openings do not interfere Avitb the fork. 

I will here mention that the signaling might 
be done by cutting in and out resistance by 
the keys, or by the insertion aud withdrawal 
of au extra battery by the same means ; but I 
prefer to use the method shown. 

It is even possible to transfer the control- 
ling-circuit to the signaling-instrument E and 
S at that moment when the controlling-line 
is to be opened, the same effect as opening 
being obtained by polarizing the armatures 
upon the forks, so that they will respond to 
a positive current, and causing magnetic effect 
to cease by cutting in the circuit the signal- 
ing-instrument and a negative battery. 

The points M' and W of L may be used to 
opeu and close another local circuit contain- 
ing another set of forks, which can be used 
for another line, extra points of course being 
added to A to work a similar set or forks. 

Having now described my method of ob- 
taining a perfect synchronous vibration of the 
several forks at the terminals, I will now de- 
scribe how the second circuit is transferred 
upon the several signaling-circuits simulta- 
neously. 

The line to be transferred is connected first 
to the springs g of fork Q aud 13 of fork K. 
The springs 11 of Q and 15 of K are also con- 
nected to the line, when g and 13 rest against 
the limiting-points 10 and 14. The points 12 
of Q and 16 of K are in connection with the 
earth. When the forks Q and K are not in 
vibration, the springs g aud 11 of the former 
and 13 and 15 of the latter are not in contact 
with either c d of K or e/of Q, they being so 
adjusted that the prongs must reach a consid- 
erable amplitude before they are brought iu 
contact. This allows the wire to be put to 
earth at both ends— for instance, starting from 
the left, aud proceeding toward K, the line en 
ters the spring 13 ; thence, through to point 14, 
to spring 15 ; thence to point 16, to earth: 
from earth at the receiving-station to the point 

12 of Q; thence, via spring 11, to point 10: 
thence to spring g, to line, thus nutting the 
hue to earth each time that the forks Q and 
K vibrate, and at that period of the vibration 
when they are iu the position they would be 
it in a state of rest, If, now, both forks vi brate, 
c and e will be brought in contact with springs 

13 and g, thus disconnecting the line from 
earth, and throwing it to the forks H and P, 
whose action will be presently described. 



While this contact continues the other prongs 
of Q aud K recede from 15 and 11, and per- 
form no work. On the return of c and e, the 
springs g and 13 rest for a moment upon 14 
and 10, and as 15 aud 11 are, at the particular 
period, and for a time afterward, in contact 
with 16 and 12, the line will be put to earth 
in the manner before described, and will con- 
tinue in this way until the prongs d and / 
come in contact with the springs 15 and 11, 
separating them from the earth and connect- 
ing them to the reeds H and P. Thus it will 
be seen that the line is split in two parts and 
put to earth at that period of time when nei- 
ther H or P are in connection with it. 

Having now showu how the wire is split in- 
to two parts, I will now describe the method 
of still further subdivision. 

The wires from e and /of Q and c aud d of 
K proceed to springs 1 2 of H and 5 and 7 of 
P. g', 6, 8, and h of P are connected to the 
signaling-instruments VV XTZaiid their keys 
and battery M B', and the same connections 
are made with H. 

The operation is as follows : When g 1 of P 
is in contact with 5, 6 of h is in contact with 3. 
At the same instant that contact is thus made, 
the forks Q and K connect the wires from d 
and e with the line. Now, at the same time, 
h and 7 of P and a and 1 of H are iu contact, 
but do not receive a current while e of Q and 
b of II are in contact, but immediately they are 
separated the line is connected to /of Q aud a 
of H, and they receive a current. Xow, as 
both Z and Z' and W and W are connected 
at the same time with the splits, it would seem 
that the waves would mix ; but this is not the 
case, as the forks Q aud K make twice as many 
vibrations per second as P or H. Hence, 
when both Z Z' aud X X' at both ends are in 
connection with the splits z z z and % x x, these 
splits do not receive the line simultaneously — 
first one split receives a wave, immediately 
afterward the other split receives a wave. 
Thus a wave passes through the line aud sig- 
naling-instruments Z and Z', while no other 
instruments are receiving it. Immediately 
after another wave passes through X X', and 
no other instrument receives it. Xow, when 
tbe prongs of P and H pass to the opposite 
points, connected to W and Y, it is obvious z 
and y cannot receive a wave, while W and W 
will receive a wave, immediately followed by 
a wave, y y'. Thus the line is first connected 
toZ and Z', then to X and X', then to Y and Y', 
and, lastly, to W and .W, and so on, and, if 
the time of the various contact-points, as well 
as the forks, is the same, four series of waves, 
wheu all the keys are closed, will be sent over 
the wires, and each series will pass through 
its particular instrument, and through none 
other, and these, waves, producing sufficient 
magnetism in the cores of the relay-magnet, 
cause it to close, and when one key is opened 
one series of waves is dropped out, and does not 
go over the wires, and the corresponding in- 
strument at the distant station will receive no 



185,507 



I 



waves or electricity whatever. Hence its le- 
ver will be withdrawn from the face of the 
magnet by its retractile spring, and again at- 
tracted by closing the key and allowing the 
dropped series of waves to again pass over tbe 
line, and between each series of waves so sent 
the wire will be put to earth at both ends, 
and at several points along such wire way- 
stations are inserted immediately after the 
cessation of one set of waves and before an- 
other commences, thus allowing the wire to 
discharge its static inductive current, and pre- 
vent a mutilation of the signals. 

I do not wish to confine myself to any par- 
ticular form of signaling-instrument, as either 
magnetical or chemical may be used. Polar- 
ized relays may be substituted for common 
relays, and the keys arranged to transmit re- 
verse currents. Neither do I wish to confine 
myself to any particular shape of tuning-fork, 
or arrangement of contact-points, or method 
of keeping it in motion to accomplish this ob- 
ject, as innumerable combinations may be 
made by persons skilled in the art. Neither 
do I wish to confine myself to any particular 
method of signaling over the controlling-cir- 
cuit without affecting the forks A and L, as 
the same may be duplexed, or the forks worked 
by a rise and fall of tension, and signaling 
done by reversing the direction of the current, 
and in various other ways. Neither do I wish 
to confine myself to any particular method of 
putting the line to earth between each series 
of waves, as this can obviously be done in 
many ways — as for instance, connecting the 
line to earth at each end before it enters tbe 
forks by a resistance-coil, the resistance of 
the same being made as low as will admit of, 
and still allow signaling. Neither do I wish 
to limit myself to the creation of four signal- 
ing-circuits, as a multiple fork, making twice 
as many vibrations as K and Q may have the 
line pass to it first ; thence to K; then by the 
combination of two forks likeH, one with the 
wires leading to Z' Y', and the other with the 
wires leading to X' W. 

Eight series of waves may be made to pass 
over the wire, each series of which passes 
through its particular signaling- instrument 
and no other, the limit of subdivision being- 
only a question of battery -power, delicacy of 
signaling-instruments, and accuracy of adjust- 
ment. 

I will here mention that if ordinary relays 
are to be used they should be shunted, so as 
to cause their self-induction to circulate with- 
in its own wire, making the current more even 
for signaling. 

I will also mention that several sets of 
transfer-forks may be included in the same 
local circuits at all the stations, and worked 
by the reeds or forks of tbe controlling-line, 
thus enabling ine to split several lines in the 
manner described, by the use of only one con- 
trolling-line. 

Of course, the same object would be at- 



tained by using several contact-points and 
local circuits. 
I claim as my invention — 

1. The method, substantially as herein de- 
scribed, of subdividing a single telegraphic 
circuit into two or more independent signal- 
ing-circuits by means of vibrating tuning- 
forks or reeds. 

2. The method, substantially as herein de- 
scribed, of subdividing a single telegraphic 
circuit into two or more independent signal- 
ing-circuits by means of vibrating tuning 
forks or reeds kept in continuous vibration by 
electro-magnetism. 

3. The method, substantially as herein de- 
scribed, of subdividing a single telegraphic 
circuit into four or more independent signal- 
ing-circuits by means of a primary or funda- 
mental fork or reed, and one or more auxiliary 
forks or reeds, which latter are in respect to 
the number of their vibrations submultiples 
of the primary fork or reed. 

4. The method, substantially as herein de- 
scribed, of subdividing a single telegraphic 
circuit into a number of separate signaling- 
circuits by means of one or more sets of 
electro-magnetic tuning forks or reeds, each 
set being composed of one or more forks or 
reeds, when these are controlled and made to 
vibrate isochronously by means of a control- 
ling electro - magnetic tuning fork or reed, 
placed in another and independent circuit. 

5. The method, substantially as herein de- 
scribed, of connecting a telegraph-line to earth 
immediately after it is detached from one set 
of signaling-instruments, and of disconnecting 
it from tbe same before it is placed in con- 
nection with another set of instruments. 

6. A telegraphic circuit, subdivided at each 
station into an equal number of independent 
branehes, in combination with two or more 
isochronous tuning forks or reeds, when the 
latter are so arranged as to place the main 
line alternately or successively in simultane- 
ous connection with each pair of branches, 
substantially as set forth. 

7. A telegraphic circuit subdivided at each 
station into an equal number of independent 
branches, in combination with two or more 
isochronous tuning forks or reeds, and two or 
more sets of electro magnets for keeping the 
said forks or reeds in continous vibration, 
when the latter are so arranged as to place 
the main line alternately or successively in 
simultaneous connection with each pair of 
branches, substantially as set forth. 

8. A telegraphic circuit subdivided at each 
station into four or more branches or signal- 
ing-circuits, in combination with a primary 
turning fork or reed, kept in continuous vi- 
bration by the action of the electro-magnets, 
and one or more similarly-actuated auxiliary 
forks or reeds, which in respect to the num- 
ber of their vibrations are submultiples of 
the primary fork or reed, substantially as set 
forth. 



4 185 

9. A telegraphic circuit, subdivided at each 
station into two or more branches or signal- 
ing-circuits, by means of vibrating tuning forks 
or reeds, in combination with another and in- 
dependent circuit, in which are placed other 
electro-magnetic tuning forks or reeds, so ar- 
ranged as to control and render isochronous 
the vibrations of the tuning forks or reeds at 
the different stations upon the first-named 
circuit. ; 

10. The vibrating tuning fork or reed K, in 
combination with the contact-springs 13 15, 
contact-points c and d, and contact-screws .14 
16, when so arranged that the line will be 
momentarily connected directly to the earth 
while the fork is passing its center of oscilla- 
tion in either direction, substantially as set 
forth. 

11. The combination of the transfer-reeds 



,507 

and their signaling-instruments, local circuit, 
and batteries with the main-line reed or reeds, 
substantially as and for the purpose set 
forth. 

12. The tuning forks or reeds A and L, 
with their contact-springs, contact-points, and 
main battery, in combination with the signal- 
ing apparatus R and S, substantially as de- 
scribed, and for the purposes set forth. 

13. The combination, in one and the same 
local circuit, of several set of transfer- forks at 
each of the different stations, substantially as 
and for the purposes set forth. 

Signed by me this 16th day of August, A. 
D. 1876. ' 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. D. Walker, 
Geo. T. Pinckney. 



No. 



T . A. EDISON. 
ACOUSTIC ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. 
186,330. Patented Jan. 



16, 1877. 




United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PAEK, NEW JEBSEY, ASSIGNOR TO THE 
WESTEEN UNION TELEGEAPH COMPANY. 

IMPROVEMENT IN ACOUSTIC ELECTRIC TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Lettera Patent No. l§6,334>, dated January 16, 1877 ; application filed 

May 16, 1876. 



To all whom it may concern : 
' Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Meulo Park, iu the county of Middlesex ami 
State of New Jersey, have invented an Im- 
provement in Acoustic Telegraphs, of which 
the following is a specification : 

The object of this invention is to employ a 
main battery always in the close circuit of the 
main line, and to use a short-circuiting wire 
for that main battery, so arrauged with refer- 
ence to the vibrating reeds that the vibratious 
shall open and close the short-circuiting wire ; 
hence, the main battery will send its pulsa- 
tions on the main line when the short circuit 
is broken. 

In the drawing, A, B, and represent reeds 
that are vibrated by local circuits and electro- 
magnets, and they are of varying tones, so as 
to vibrate in different periods of time, and the 
vibrations of the reeds are made to open and 
close the local circuits. The reed A is pro- 
vided with an electro magnet, w, local circuit 
and battery n, and contact-points 20 21, that 
are opened as the reed is attracted by the 
electro-magnet; hence the vibrations will be 
continuous. 

The reed B is between .two magnets, m x m 2 , 
and these are connected in local circuits from 
the battery n l , and there are at opposite sides 
of the reed B the coutact-poiuts g h, and the 
wires are arrauged so that when the reed 
closes against g the circuit passes through B 
from n 1 , and by g through m 2 to n 1 , attracting 
the reed from g, and when the reed closes 
against h the current is thrown through mK 
This insures uniformity in the vibrations of 
the reed as the powers operating are equal 
upon both sides of it, and the movement will 
be equal each way from a state of rest, re- 
gardless of the power of the battery. The 
reed O passes through the helix r, and hence 
it is magnetized by the current from a local 
battery, ri 2 . The reed might be a permanent 
magnet ; but I prefer to magnetize it by a 
helix. These are two lateral cores from the 
electro-magnet P, at opposite sides of the 
reed C, and the battery n? is connected to the 
circuit-closing points / s, between which is 
the reed c, the middle of the battery con- 
nected to the magnet P, and thence to the 



reed 0. By this arrangement of circuits the 
current through P will be in first one direc- 
tion and then the other, and the polarity of 
the cores alternately changed to act by attrac- 
tion and repulsion equally, first one way and 
then the other upon the reed. This causes 
the vibrations of the reed to be, very regular 
and uniform, and prevents sluggishness by 
residual magnetism. 

The keys ¥, A; 2 , and ¥ are in branch wires 
of the short-circuiting wire x, and the normal 
position of these keys is open, and as the wire 
x would short-circuit the main battery M B, 
if the contact-points of the respective reeds 
were all closed there would not be any cur- 
rent sent upon the lffie; but a pulsation will 
be sent for each break made in the short-cir- 
cuiting wire x; hence, the pulsations will 
pass over the line- wire according to the times 
of vibration of the various reeds. Which- 
ever key ft 2 , or k 3 is closed the correspond- 
ing reed A, B, or will cease to send waves 
upon the line, as its contact-points will be 
short-circuited, and hence the corresponding 
reed, at the distant station, will come to a 
state of rest and close their local circuits, or 
otherwise produce the given signal. 

The rheostat r 2 is introduced to form a re- 
sistance in the short circuit and to lessen the 
sparks at the contact-points. The rheostat r 
4 and electro- magnet T are introduced in a 
branch from the main liue to the earth, either 
at the transmitting or receiving station to 
allow a portion of the current to pass to earth, 
and by the discharge of the electro-magnet to 
set up a counter-current that neutralizes the 
static charge of the line. 

The receiving -instrument D is provided 
with the reed 9, that is vibrated by the elec- 
tro-magnet d' in the main line, and there is a 
shunt-circuit containing a condenser, 6, which 
serves to neutralize the effect of the self-in- 
duction in the magnet, and to lessen the risk 
of the reed being affected by the currents that 
pass through the magnet, and pulsate at a 
different rate to the vibrations of this reed 9. 

I find in practice that in an acoustic tele- 
graph a condeuser acts, in connection with 
the magnet, to increase the length of vibra- 
tion of the reed, while under similar circum- 



1 §6,330 



stances a condenser used with an ordinary 
sounder causes it to stick and have a tardy 
movement. 

The levers 10 and 11 are applied at oppo- 
site sides of the vibrating end of the reed, aud 
increase the motion at the contact - points, 
which close and open the local circuit to the 
relay or sounder magnet 8. 

The reed E is between the cores of the elec- 
tro-magnets 12 and 13, and the helices of these 
magnets are both in the main-line circuit. The 
cores of one of these magnets is covered with 
a metallic tube, which causes a circulation of 
the self-induction currents of the magnet, and 
prevents the rapid demagnetization of the 
cores. This produces in the magnet 12, con- 
taining such tube, nearly a constant attractive 
force, and in the other magnet 13 will receive 
clear sharp impulses. This construction is ad- 
vantageous, because the electro-magnet 12 is 
a constant attractive force, that prevents the 
reed responding to pulsations in 13 that do 
not correspond with its time of vibration. 

The polarized reed P is between the two 
projections of the magnet 15, and 14 is an 
electro-magnet with its armature in contact 
with its cores, and this magnet is in the 
branch wire running through one of the spools 
of the magnet 15, and in the other branch 
wire passing through the other spools is a 
rheostat, r 8 . The current from the distant 
station produces no direct effect in 15, but 
the induced current set up in the magnet 14, 
reacting through the magnet 15, produces vi- 
brations of the reed when those pulsations 
harmonize with its period of vibration. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. The main battery M B, and short-circuit- 
ing connection x, both between the line and 
the earth, in combination with a series of 
reeds or vibrating transmitting-instruments 
and contact-points opened and closed by the 
reeds, substantially as set forth. 



2. The magnets m l m z , vibrating reed B, 
circuit-closers g and h, local battery n', and 
connections, arranged substantially as set 
forth, whereby the circuits, through the re- 
spective magnets, are entirely broken alter- 
nately by the vibration of the reed, as speci- 
fied. 

3. The combination, with a polarized vi- 
brating reed, of an electro-magnet and cir- 
cuits, substantially as set forth, whereby cur- 
rents of alternating polarity are passed through 
the electro- magnet by the circuit-closers that 
are ooerated by the reed, substantially as set 
forth! 

4. The combination, with the main battery 
and shunt between the line and earth, reeds, 
and contact-points, operated by such reeds, 
of finger-keys placed in short circuits around 
the circuit-closing points, substantially as set 
forth. 

5. In an acoustic telegraph receiving-instru- 
ment, the combination, with the receiving- 
magnet, of a condenser, in a shunt around 
such magnet, substantially as set forth. 

6. The combination, with the reed 9, of the 
levers 10 and 11, coutact-point3, local circuit, 
aud receiving magnet or sounder 8, substan- 
tially as set forth. 

7. The magnets 12 and 13, at opposite sides 
of the vibrating reed, and in the main-line cir- 
cuit, with tubes around the cores of one of the 
magnets, for the purposes set forth. 

8. The magnet 15, with its cores in brauches 
of the main line, in combination with the po- 
larized reed induction-magnet 14, and resist- 
ance B 3 , substantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 9th day of May, A. D. 
1876. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

J. D. Buss, 
Ohas. Batoheloe. 



2 Sheets— Sheet 1. 

T. A. EDISON. 

TELEGRAPHIC ALARM AND SIGNAL APPARATUS. 
No. 186,548. Patented Jan. 23, 187 7. 






o. 













N- PETERS, PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHER, WASHINGTON, [ 



2 Sheets-Sheet 2. 

T. A. EDISON. 
TELEGRAPHIC ALARM AND SIGNAL APPARATUS. 
No. 186,548. Patented Jan. 23/ 1877. 




N.PETERS, PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHER, WASHINGTON. D C. 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OP MENLO PARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO THE 
DOMESTIC TELEGRAPH COMPANY, OE NEW YORK. 

IMPROVEMENT IN TELEGRAPHIC ALARM AND SIGNAL APPARATUS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 186,548, dated January 23, 1877 ; application filed 

May 18, 1876. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, TnoMAS A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, in the county of Middlesex and 
State of New Jersey, have invented an Im- 
provement in District and Fire^ Alarm Tele- 
graphs, of which the following is a specifica- 
tion : 

The object of this invention is to provide a 
cheap and reliable alarm, adapted to small 
cities and towns, for giving fire-alarms or other 
signals. 

I make use of a central station, with one or 
more lines running to the respective signal- 
iustruments, which may be similar to those 
shown in Letters Patent No. 169,972, and are 
placed in a branch running to earth. When 
the signal-instrument is operated an alarm is 
given at the central station to call attention, 
a record is made of the signal upon chemical 
paper, and the operator, by a revolving circuit- 
breaker, rings a bell or bells in the engine- 
house, or wherever the alarm has to be sound- 
ed, giving the location by the number of taps 
of the bell, to show where the fire Is, or the 
call that requires to be answered. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a diagram illus- 
trating the circuit-connections from a central 
station to one distant signal-box ; and Fig. 2 
shows the circuits from the central station to 
the engine-house or other location to which 
the signal is to be sent ; and Fig. 3 is a plan 
of the instrument employed to signal such 
engine-houses or other station. 

The main battery a is connected to the earth 
and to the line-wire d, and from this one or 
more branches, d', pass to earth, and in each 
such branch there is a signaling-instrument, 
adapted to be operated for sending pulsations 
denoting numbers, and by operating this in- 
strument the circuit is closed and again broken 
when the signal has been given. An instru- 
ment of this general character is shown in the 
Patent No. 169,972, with the exception that 
the segment b has teeth upon it that operate 
the circuit-closing spring e, and when the seg- 
ment is being turned by pushing in the rodm 
the switch /is moved to close the branch cir- 
cuit to the spring e, and when the segment falls 
again, giving the pulsations through the cir- 
cuit-closer e, the switch /is moved back dur- 



ing the latter part of the movement of b and 
breaks the circuit of e, so that one set of sig- 
nals only will be given. The sigual is. received 
at the central station on chemical paper, the 
circuit passing, by 7, from the main line through 
the stylus 3, and drum 2, and back, by 8, to 
the line at the other side of the electro mag- 
net n. By this arraugement the resistance of 
w causes a portion of the current to pass through 
the chemical paper, and the discharge from the 
said magnet n, when the circuit is broken, sets 
up a current of opposite polarity, to render the 
marks on the chemical paper sharp and dis- 
tinct. The chemicaily-prepared paper is on a 
reel, which may be placed in a case, so as to 
keep it moist. The electro-magnet n operates 
an armature, i, that is in a local circuit from 
the battery 12, and in this is an electro-mag- 
net, 10, that operates the trip 13 of the clock- 
work used to revolve the drum 2 and move 
the chemical paper, so that as soon as the cir- 
cuit of n is closed and its armature attracted 
the local circuit from 12 is broken, the arma- 
ture of 10 falls back and releases the trip or 
stop of the clock-work, and the paper is moved 
by the drum to receive and record the pulsa- 
tions of the sigual. The magnet 15 in the cir- 
cuit from 12 operates the trembler 16, which 
is an armature-lever acting upon a dog, 17, in 
the screw 18 upon the shaft of spur-wheel 19, 
operating the hammer 20 of a bell, 21. The 
wheel 19 and screw 18 are revolved by clock- 
work for ringing the bell, and this ringing will 
continue until the circuit through 15 remains 
closed long enough to allow the screw to move 
the dog 17 endwise of the screw until it arrests 
by a stop the movement of the clock-work. The 
alarm-bell 21 is rung, as aforesaid, as soon as 
the circuit of d is closed, at the distant station, 
so as to call the attention of the attendant to 
the message received upon the chemical paper. 

At the central station the attendant has a 
clock-movement with a shaft, I, upon which are 
break- wheels I', with conducting peripheral pro- 
jections, and there are as many break- wheels 
as there are sigual-stations or characters of 
signals to be received at the central office. 
There is also a contact-spring, o, adjustable 
upon a rod, o', so that it may be moved along 
to come in contact with either of the break- 



3 1S6 

wheels. As soon as a signal is received the 
attendant moves the spring o along into con- 
tact with the wheel corresponding to the sig- 
nal received. A battery is in circuit with this 
wheel I', and the spring o leads to the line-wire 
that runs to an engine-house or other place 
where the signal is to be given, and there en- 
ergizes the electro-magnet q and gives pulsa- 
tions or taps upon a bell, q', corresponding, as 
to length of duration and intermediate pauses, 
with the break-wheel I', with which the spring 
o is in contact. I prefer and use a cam, r, that 
is revolved by clock-work and moves the bell- 
hammer, and the escapement v controls the 
revolution of this cam, such escapement being 
connected with the armature of the electro- 
magnet, and having a spring-finger, 30, at one 
end to arrest the arm 31 on. the cam-shaft, and 
thereby prevent a sudden stoppage of the mo- 
mentum of the cam and geariug. This spring 
yields as the arm passes it, so as to prevent 
concussion or rebound, and as the pallets of 
the escapement are moved by the electro mag- 
nets the cam of the bell is allowed to revolve 
and ring the bell, giving the proper number of 
taps, according to the number of the station 
from which the alarm proceeds. 

The solution used for moistening the chem- 
ical paper is preferably composed of a solu- 
tion of pyrogallic acid, chloride of sodium, or 
other conducting substance, and a salt of stron- 
tia. 



,548 

I claim as my invention — 

1. The segment 6, with points upon its edge, 
in combination with the circuit-closing spring 
e and switch /, operated by the movement of 
the segment, as set forth. 

2. The receiving-instrument, provided with 
a trip for the actuating- gearing, in combina- 
tion with the electro-magnet to move the trip 
and the roller 2 and stylus 3, substantially as 
set forth. 

3. The local circuit electro-magnets n and 
15, in combination with the call-bell 21, trem- 
bler 16, and chemical recording-instrument, 
substantially as set forth. 

4. The transmitting-instrument, provided 
with a revolving shaft and circuit-closing 
wheels corresponding to the signals of the va- 
rious signaling-instruments, aud a movable 
contact-spring, arranged and operating sub 
stautially as set forth. 

5. The bell signaling-instrument, construct 
ed with a revolving cam to operate the ham 
mer, a spring-stop upon the escapement, and 
an electro-magnet to operate the escapement 
substantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 9th day of May, A. D 
1876. 

THOS. A. EDISOK 

Witnesses: 

J. D. Buss, 
Ohas. Batohelok. 



T. A. EDISON. 

AUTOMATIC TELEGRAPH. 



No. 195,751. 



Patented Oct. 2, 1877 




N, PETERS, PHOTO- LITHOGRAPHER, V 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF IEWAEK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF AND 
GEORGE HARRINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

IMPROVEMENT IN AUTOMATIC TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 195,751, dated October 2, 1877; application filed 

January 27, 1875. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, hare invented an Improvement 
in Automatic Telegraphs, of which the follow- 
ing is a specification : 

This invention is for bringing into opera- 
tion condensers by alternately connecting aiid 
disconnecting them from the line by revolv- 
ing wheels having alternate conducting and 
non - con ducting surfaces . 

In the accompanying diagram the improve- 
ment is illustrated. 

At the sending-instrument the battery is di- 
vided, the part a being connected to the stylus 
b, and the part c to the stylus d and c, and 
these are so arranged for the purpose of Aveak- 
ening the middle portion of the dash, because 
the stylus b drops into the large perforations 
for a dash near the edge of that perforation, 
and remains a less time than the stylus d, and 
at that time throws into action a local circuit 
from the smaller battery a, that is opposed to 
that of the main battery c, and thus lessens the 
current in the middle of each dash-mark. 

X is an ordinary branch circuit at the send- 
ing end for the static discharge from the line. 

K K' are signaling Morse relays used along 
the line. The helices of these relays are not 
to exceed one inch in length, and the coils are 
shunted with a resistance equal, or nearly so, 
to the resistance of the coils on said relays, so 
as to provide a route for the induction set up 
in the coils to circulate without going out upon 
the line to mutilate the signals. 

The natural effect of this induction-current 
circulating within this circuit is to make the 
relay stick ; but I have found that by decreas- 
ing the length of the cores and coils, the in- 
duction is decreased to such an extent that 
this result does not follow. 

Two wheels or surfaces with alternating con- 
ducting and non-conducting surfaces / and g 
are employed in connection with the circuit- 
closing springs or points 4 5 6 7, and these 
wheels are revolved rapidly when the instru- 
ment is in work. 

The hubs of / and g are connected by the 
wires 8 and 9 with the condensers C 1 C 2 . The 



springs 5 and 6 are connected with the line, 
and 7 and 4 to the receiving-instrument r. 

The condensers C 1 C 2 are, by preference, con- 
densers in air without intermediate sheets of 
paper. 

The wheels/^/, in the act of rotating, connect 
the condenser C 1 in the circuit of the line at 
the same moment that the condenser C 2 is con- 
nected to the receiving-instrument. This is 
then disconnected and connected to the hue, 
and C 1 connected to the instrument. 

In alternately throwing these condensers, 
first on the line and then on the chemical re- 
ceiving -instrument, with great rapidity, sig- 
nals made on the line at the distant station 
charge these condensers, and the condensers 
transfer these charges to the receiver without 
it having any connection whatever with the 
line. 

As the condensers can be made to hold these 
charges for a length of time, it follows that by 
this method currents sent on one line may be 
transferred by condensers into another line, or 
to a short circuit containing a chemical receiv- 
ing-instrument. By this means the static ef- 
fects are nearly overcome, and perfect signals 
are recorded. 

I do not wish to confine myself to any par- 
ticular mechanism for operating the condens- 
ers; but 

I claim as my invention — 

1. The method herein specified of transfer- 
ring the signals of one electric circuit into an- 
other circuit by revolving circuit - closing 
wheels with conducting and non-conducting 
surfaces and connections to condensers, and to 
the chemical recording -instrument, substan- 
tially as set forth. 

2. The transmitting - instrument provided 
with a circuit-closing point and opposing bat- 
tery for lessening the battery -power in the 
middle portion of the pulsation for a dash, as 
set forth. 

Signed by me this 18th day of Januarv, A. 
D. 1875. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON. 
AUTOMATIC TELEGRAPH. 



No. 195,752. 



Patented Oct. 2, 1877 




\ C2^.^/ 



VI 


o 




\ O 


o 




I OGOG 


G 





N. PETERS, PHOTO-UTHOGRAPHtn, WASHINGTON, D. 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF AND 
GEORGE HARRINGTON, OF WASHINGTON, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

IMPROVEMENT IN AUTOMATIC TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 195,752, dated October 2, 1877 ; application filed 

January 27, 1875. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, hare invented an Improvement 
in Automatic Telegraphs, of which the follow- 
ing is a specification : 

The object of this invention is to transmit, 
over telegraphic circuits, dashes the first part 
of each of which is formed by a stronger cur- 
rent than the last, so as to prevent the wire 
from being fully charged statically ; also, in 
arranging in the main line at the receiving- 
station a condenser formed of plates separated 
by air only. 

' The invention consists in the method of ar- 
ranging the perforations and contact stylus or 
rollers to send a strong current by putting on 
the whole of the battery to form the first part 
of a dash, and immediately thereafter a second 
stylus closes the circuit through one of the 
holes intended for a dash, so as to preserve 
the continuity, but only to put on a portion of 
the battery. 

Figure 1 shows the arrangement of perfora- 
tions for the word « That," and Fig. 2 shows 
the arrangement of parts and connections. 

The first stylus, a, passing into the first hole, 
closes the circuit, and puts the whole battery 
d upon the line. Just at the moment it is 
leaving this hole the middle stylus or pen b 
falls into the second hole, preserving the con- 
tinuity of the circuit, but putting on only half 
of the battery. The third pen, c, puts on the 
whole of the battery, and forms the dots. 

If the ends of the stylus or pens are in line, 
one perforation will be in advance of the next 
to form the dash ; but if the point of one stylus 
is farther in advance than the next, the per- 
forations maybe in line with each other trans- 
versely of the strip, and two styluses in place 
of three might be similarly employed. 

R 1 is a branch to earth for the static dis- 
charge of the line. C is an ordinary condenser, 



shunted with a resistance, R 2 , the object of 
which is to give a more powerful compensation 
should the air-condenser C prove insufficient ; 
but generally the resistance R 2 is made nil or 
short - circuited, so that the condenser C is 
dispensed with. The first portion of a signal 
coming over the wire records itself on the 
chemically -prepared paper, and at the same 
time charges the condenser C. Now, when 
the signal ceases, the condenser C discharges 
a contrary current, which balances that from 
the line. 

The reason of sending a weaker current to 
form the last portion of a dash is to prevent 
the wire from being charged higher with a 
dash than a dot, thus preserving an evenness 
in the recorded dots and dashes which it is 
very hard to obtain on very long circuits. 

I use an air-condenser, C, so that it will dis- 
charge instantly, which is not the case with 
condensing-surfaces separated with a non-con- 
ducting material, the phenomenon of absorp- 
tion preventing their discharging quickly and 
reducing the speed. 

I believe I am the first to discover that an 
air-condenser applied to a chemical telegraph 
will promote rapidity of operation at the re- 
ceiving-instrument. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. The air-condenser inserted in the line at 
the receiving-station of a chemical telegraph, 
for the purposes set forth. 

2. In a chemical telegraph, the method speci- 
fied of forming dashes by transmitting, by 
means of perforated paper, a strong current 
followed by a weak current, substantially as 
set forth. 

Signed by me this 19th day of January, A. 
D. 1875. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Stencil-Pen. 

No. 196,747. Patented Nov. 6, 1877. 




N. PETERS, PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHER, WASHINGTON, C C, 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PABK, NEW JEBSEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN STENCI L- PENS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 196,'5'4 i y, dated November 6 ; 1877; application filed 

April 23, 1877. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, in the comity of Middlesex and 
State of New Jersey, have invented an Im- 
provement in Autographic Pens, of which the 
following is a specification : 

My present invention relates to a pen actu- 
ated by electricity, and adapted to perforating 
paper that is to be used in printing in the 
manner set forth in Letters Patent No. 180,857, 
granted to me. 

I reciprocate the perforating - needle with 
great rapidity by means of a reed or bar vi- 
brating with great rapidity, and acting to 
open and close a circuit to an electro -magnet, 
that serves to maintain the vibration of the 
said reed or bar ; and I employ an adjustable 
weight to vary the speed of vibration, similarly 
to a pendulum. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a side view of 
the pen, reed, and magnet; and Fig. 2 is a plan 
of the same. 

The tubular pen a and reciprocating needle 
b are similar to those in the aforesaid patent ; 
and the tube a screws into the frame c, and it 
is clamped by the lock-nut d after the tube has 
been adjusted to the proper position relatively 
to the point of the needle. 

Upon the frame c is an electro-magnet, /, 
the helix of which is connected at one end to 
the insulated adjusting-screw h, and at the 
other end to the insulated binding-screw m. 

The reed lc is secured at one end to the 
frame c, and the other end is free to act upon 
the spring I, and open and close the circuit be- 
tween said spring I and the adjusting-screw h. 

As the reed vibrates it opens and closes the 



circuit through the magnet. When the reed 
is attracted the circuit is broken, an d as it flies 
back the circuit is again closed through the 
binder m, helix f, screw h, spring /, and frame 
to the binding-screw s, the flexible battery- 
wires being connected to these binding-screws 
h and s, as in aforesaid patent. 

By this construction the speed of vibration 
will depend on the tone of the reed, and that 
may be altered and the vibration lessened or 
increased by moving the weight t along upon 
the reed and then clamping it by the screw 3. 

When the weight is moved toward the 
point of attachment of the reed, the reed will 
be free to vibrate ; but when moved toward the 
moving end of the reed the speed of motion 
will be lessened. 

The upper end of the needle-rod is connected 
to this reed; hence motion of the reed is given 
to the rod and needle to actuate the same in 
perforating the paper. 

The reed might be dispensed with, and a piv- 
oted lever and spring be employed ; but the 
speed and reliability are not as great as with 
the reed. 

I claim as my invention — 

The combination, with the electro-magnet 
and reed or lever vibrated by the same, of the 
perforating - needle, tubular pen, and circuit- 
breaker operated by the reed or lever, sub- 
stantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 18th day of April, A. J). 
1877. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. II. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Telephonic Telegraph. 

No. 198,087. Patented Dec. 11, 1877 




ay, 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO THE 
WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH COMPANY. 

IMPROVEMENT IN TELEPHONIC TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming j>art of Letters Patent No. 198,08 7, dated December 11, 1877; application filed 

May 16, 1876. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, in the county of Middlesex and 
State of New Jersey, have invented an Im- 
provement in Acoustic Telegraphs, of which 
the following is a specification : 

This invention relates to a series of revolv- 
ing circuit-closing break- wheels with varying 
contact teeth and notches, so that each wheel 
produces a different number of pulsations 
per minute from the others, in combination 
with finger -keys and an arrangement of 
circuits in which the main battery remains 
in the circuit of the earth and line, and is 
caused to produce pulsations by being short- 
circuited through the break-wheels. 

It also relates to an arrangement of finger- 
keys, in combination with the battery in the 
main line and the break - wheels, whereby, 
when all the keys are closed, the battery is 
short-circuited, and the revolving break- wheels 
are inefficient, and do not transmit waves over 
the wire ; but when either key is opened the 
short circuit is made to pass through the ar- 
ticular break -wheel connected to the key, 
and the pulsations are transmitted over the 
main line ; also to an electro-magnet, vibrating 
reed, and sounding-box or resonator of corre- 
sponding pitch, forming a receiving instru- 
ment; also, the combination therewith of a 
local circuit-breaking apparatus actuated by 
the vibrations of a column of air. 

In the drawings, the improvement is shown 
by a diagram of the apparatus and the cir- 
cuits. 

The shaft a is driven by any desired power. 
I have shown the same as actuated by an 
electric engine, P' P', and battery H, and the 
lever m upon the standard n is moved by two 
cams upon the shaft a, and the spring end of 
the lever is between the circuit-closing points 
7c I, the point Tt being connected in the circuit 
through one pair of magnets, and the point I 
being connected in the circuit through the 
other pair of magnets, so that the revolution 
is produced by the lever m closing the circuit 
through the electro-magnets alternately as the 
revolving armature is approaching the cores 
of such magnets. 



The governor a' is upon and revolved by 
the shaft a, and is a lever insulated from 
contact with the governor or shaft, but acting 
to close the circuit to the motor through con- 
tact-points r ; hence the speed of the engine 
will be regulated accurately, for when the ve- 
locity increases sufficiently to separate and 
r, the circuit to the engine will be broken and 
the reverse ; hence the circuit will be closed 
through and r, delicately, according to the 
speed. 

The circuit closing or break wheels e and/ 
are connected, and also g and h, but they are 
insulated from the shaft a ; the circuit-closing 
springs 41 51 61 71 are provided for these 
wheels respectively, and they are connected 
to the finger-keys 1, 5, 6, and 7, respectively, 
and the conductors 8 and 9 are in contact with 
the respective pairs of break - Avheels. The 
keys and break-wheels are in a short or de- 
rived circuit connecting from the line L to the 
earth E, to short-circuit the main battery. 

Premising that the teeth of the respective 
break-wheels efg h are at different distances, 
so that electric pulsations from each wheel 
will be different in number per minute from 
the pulsations of the other wheels, I remark 
that when all the keys 4 5 7 are closed the 
circuit from the line to earth is closed inde- 
pendent of the break- wheels efg h; hence the 
battery M B will be short-circuited; but if 
the key 4 is opened the short circuit is only 
closed through 41, e, and 8 ; and hence the 
break-wheel e will alternately short-circuit the 
battery M B, and alloAV the same to charge 
the line, and there will be as many electric 
pulsations sent upon the line, at the speed of 
the circuit-breaker e, as there are contact- 
points passing while the key 4 is open. 

If the key 5 is opened, the short circuit of 
the battery is, by 4 8 / 51 6 7, to earth, the 
break-wheel/and spring 51 giving the pulsa- 
tions. If the key is open, the circuit will 
be by 4 U 61 g 9 7, to earth, and the pulsations 
will be by the break-wheel g and spring 61. 
If the key 7 is open, the circuit will be by 4 5 
6 9 li 71 to earth, the pulsations being by 
break-wheel h and spring 71. 

By this arrangement each break-wheel is 



2 



198,087 



brought into action by opening the corre- 
sponding key, and two or more break- wheels 
can be brought into action without either one 
preventing the action of the others, so that if 
all the keys should be opened simultaneously 
all the break will be operative, the short cir- 
cuit being 41, e,f, 51, Gl, g, h, and 71. 

At the receiving-station, the main circuit 
from the line passes through the helices B 
D E F of the respective electro-magnets, and 
in front of the magnets B and C are reeds 15 
and 16, of a tone to vibrate by pulsations of 
the speed sent from two of the transmitting 
instruments. The reed 15 is in front of the 
telescopic - tube resonator, that is made of 
tubes ¥ ¥, one of which is movable by rack 
and pinion, or otherwise, so as to vary the 
length and quickly adjust the same to the tone 
of the reed or to the pitch required for the pul- 
sations that are being sent. This allows for 
adjusting the reed itself, or for adjusting a vi- 
brating body that is moved by the electro- 
magnet, whether the same is toned or not. 
. Thls sounding-box or resonator, being ad- 
justable, accommodates the receiving-instru- 
ment to variations in the pulsations that may 
result from inaccuracy in the speed of the 
transmitting-instrument. 

The reed 16, or its equivalent, is made with 
a valve at the mouth of the resonator V, so 
that the atmosphere therein will be vibrated 
by the corresponding pulsations acting in the 
electro-magnet, and from these resonators the 
signal may be ascertained by the ear applied 
to their small tubes. ' 

The sounding-box s has upon it the magnet 
1) and a reed or other vibrating body. The 
box is of such length as to respond to the vi- 
brations of a certain pitch, and in front of the 
box s is a sounder-box, t, by which the column 
ot air can be regulated and extraneous sounds 
kept from the box. 

The Helmholz resonator u is made of a hol- 
low iron shell, with fine wire wound around it 
forming the helix E, through which the cur- 
rent passes. 

The shell of the resonator becomes a mag- 
netized core, and attracts the reed u> causing 
the same to vibrate in front of it, ana by the 



expansion and contraction the air within is 
set in powerful vibration. The reed u may be 
made to operate a local circuit or to give' the 
indication by sound. 

The electro-magnet F, with a reed, v 3 , toned 
to the proper pitch, is used in connection with 
the air- tube v, that is a resonator of the proper 
pitch corresponding to the reed. 

A delicate contact-spring, v 1 , is applied at 
the opposite open end to the reed v 3 . It is 
preferably toned to the same pitch as the tube 
v and reed v 3 , and vibrates by the action of 
the air in v. 

The sounder v 2 is in a local circuit, of which 
the reed or spring v l forms a part; hence the 
sounder responds to the vibrations of the reed?? 3 . 

I do not claim a series of wheels revolved 
by mechanism and transmitting pulsations 
corresponding in time to vibrations of an 
acoustic receiving-reed. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. A telegraphic circuit and battery, a series 
of revolving break- wheels, and a series of fin- 
ger-keys, arranged in a derived circuit between 
the line and the earth, substantially asset forth, 
whereby the revolving break-wheels are short- 
circuited through the finger-keys, substantially 
as specified. 

2. The combination, in a telegraph, of an 
electro-magnet, a sounding box or tube con- 
taining a column of air, and a reed acting as 
a valve at the mouth of the tube, so that the 
column of air is vibrated by pulsations in the 
electro-magnet, substantially as set forth. 

3. An iron resonant tube or sphere, sur- 
rounded with a wire helix, and included in a 
telegraphic circuit, substantially as set forth. 

4. The combination of an electro -magnet, 
vibrating reed, sounding-box or resonator of 
corresponding pitch, and a local circuit-break- 
ing apparatus, actuated by the vibrations of 
a column of air in said resonator, substantially 
as set forth. 

Signed by me this 9th day of May, 1876. 

THOS. A. EDISON, 

Witnesses : ' 
J. D. Buss, 
Chas. Batchelor. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Telephonic Telegraph. 



No. 198,088 



Patented Dec. 11, 1877. 




United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO THE 
WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH COMPANY. 

IMPROVEMENT IN TELEPHONIC TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 198,0§8, dated December 11, 1877; application filed 

April 6, 1876. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Acoustic Telegraphs, of which the follow- 
ing is a specification : 

I make use, of two or more reeds, vibrating 
automatically and continuously, preferably by 
a local -circuit electro -magnet and circuit- 
breaker operated by the reeds; and these are 
connected to a circuit-changer placed between 
them and the main line, and operating to al- 
low the vibrations from only one of the reeds 
at a time to pass upon the line. This circuit- 
changer is operated with a speed much greater 
than that of either of the keys, but at a less 
speed than either of the transmitting-reeds, 
so that the pulsations from either of the reeds 
can be thrown upon the line by the finger -key ; 
but the pulsations from two reeds will not be 
sent upon the line by the circuit-changer at 
the same time, so that the pulsations at the 
distant receiving - station will be more dis- 
tinct. 

A, P>, and C are transmitting-reeds. The 
reed A is placed in one branch leading from 
the battery M E, while B is placed in another 
branch. The reed is in the circuit from the 
instrument B, between that and the main 
line. 

The reeds A and B transmit waves by just 
opening the circuit, while the reed alter- 
nately throws the waves from B and A into 
the main line. Reed makes but a few vibra- 
tions per minute, and it prevents the trans- 
mission of both series of waves over the wire 
at the same time. First, a series of waves is 
sent from A through 10 and 11 ; then A is dis- 
connected by 10 and 11 being separated, and 
a series of waves are sent from B, through 0, 
12, and 11; but owing to the rapidity with 
which the two series of waves are alternated 
into the line by the vibration of the reed 0, 
the break in the continuity of each series is 
scarcely felt on the receiving-reeds. 

It is obvious that several branches might 
be used, in each of which is placed a reed of 
different vibrating times, and each reed trans- 
mitting waves by simply closing the circuit, 
(just the opposite to the reeds A and B, which 



open the circuit,) and a circuit-changing de- 
vice, operated by 0, made to throw in and out 
of the main circuit each reed in succession, 
thus preventing the transmitting of but one 
series of waves over the wire at the same time, 
and thereby preserving an even adjustment 
of the receiving-reeds. 

It is not necessary that the reed should 
always have a constancy of vibrating time, 
as it is used solely as a circuit-changer; hence 
an electric engine may be used, its shaft pro- 
vided with a break- wheel and contact-points, 
whereby any number of vibrations or waves 
from different reeds may be allowed to pass 
into the line. 

K l and K 2 are keys used for the purpose of 
signaling by allowing or preventing the trans- 
mission of the waves. 

D is a receiving-reed actuated by an elec- 
tro-magnet, and it is set in motion by waves 
coming over the wire periodic with its vibrat- 
ing time. 

The extreme end of the reed is provided with 
a beveled edge, passing into but not touch- 
ing a V- recess in the local-circuit-closing le- 
ver e, which lever is provided with a platina 
point upon its end, which remains in contact 
with the screw 9, by the action of the spring 
22, when the reed is not vibrating ; but 
when the reed commences to vibrate, its bev- 
eled end strikes both sides of the V on the 
lever e, and keeps the lever from remaining 
in contact with 9 long enough to close the 
local circuit, in which I place a sounder and 
local battery, in the usual manner. 

The object of the double V is to cause the 
lever to receive a great number of vibrations, 
and causing the local circuit to be broken a 
great number of times, thus allowing the use 
of reeds having a low rate of vibration. 

The form of reed shown at E is adapted to 
vibrate by waves from one of the transmitting- 
instruments. 

The sounder consists of a reed, instead of 
those constructed in the ordinary manner. 

d is the main-line reed, operated by the mag- 
net d 2 in the main-line circuit, h and * are 
two contact - points, one connected to one 
pair of magnets on the local reed K, and the 
other point to the other pair of magnets. The 



2 



198,088 



other two ends of the magnets are joined to- 
gether, and connected to a local battery, d 3 , 
and thence to the reed d. 

When no vibrations haying a periodic time 
with d pass over the wire, both d and & re- 
main quiet ; but if the operator at the trans- 
mitting-station causes the proper waves to be 
sent, d is set in motion. This reed, making 
contacts on i and h, causes the reed Tc to vibrate 
very powerfully, and, hitting its two limiting- 
screws, makes a sound equal to that of an or- 
dinary sounder. 

The advantage of this form of reed is, that 
it may be worked on very long circuits, and 
does not require very fine adjustment. 

F represents a receiving-reed adapted to the 
tone and number of vibrations of the trans- 
mitting-instruments, and there is a local cir- 
cuit, in which the lever 4 is kept in contact 
with its contact-screw 6 by the spring 5 when 
the reed is not vibrating. ' This closes the cir- 
cuit of the repeating-sounder 2, which, in its 
turn, closes the receiving-sounder 3, the ob- 
ject of the intermediate or repeating sounder 
being to intercept any false dots, and prevent 
slight closing of the local from affecting the 
receiving-sounder 3. 

When the proper waves are sent the am- 
plitude of the reed F is sufficient to practically 
keep the lever 4 away from 6, thus opening 
both sounders ; but if the waves are made to 
cease, the lever 4 conies in contact with 6, and 
closes the locals, and indicates the signal given. 

G- is a polarized reed, provided with a circuit- 
breaker like F. The reed is permanently mag- 
netized, either by a coil and local battery or 
m the usual manner, and is adjusted equidis- 
tant from the two prongs of the magnet. 

When the current passes in one direction 
through the magnet, one prong has a magnet- 
ism the same as that of the reed; hence no at- 
traction takes place, while the other prong will 
receive a magnetism the opposite that of the 
reed; hence it will be attracted. If, now 
the current be reversed, the opposite action 
takes place, and the reed is attracted by the 
other pron g. This polarized reed is placed in 
the bridge-wireof aWheatstone bridge, formed 



of two branch wires, each containing a mag- 
net and resistance-coil. When a wave comes 
over the wire, none of this current passes 
through the bridge- wire containing Gr, but, 
acting on m' and m, causes them to set up sec- 
ondary currents, and these currents, being set 
up within the bridge-wires, are not in bal- 
ance; hence they will flow through the bridge- 
wire and actuate the magnet of "<Gr. 

The moment the main wave ceases a reverse 
current from the magnets m m' will be sent 
through the bridge- wire to Gr. The magnets 
m and rn' may be replaced by secondary bat- 
teries or by shunted condensers, or other de- 
vices for generating secondary currents. 

I claim as iny i indention — 

1. The combination of several acoustic in- 
stalments, each transmitting a different se- 
ries of waves or impulses, with an automatic 
circuit -changer, whereby but one series of 
waves is allowed to pass over the wire at the 
same time, for the purpose set forth. 

2. The combination of an acoustic main- 
line receiving-instrument, operated by a series 
of waves within a main circuit of another 
acoustic instrument, corresponding in its vi- 
brating time, within a local circuit operated 
by the main-line instrument, substantially as 
set forth. 

3. The combination, with an acoustic re- 
ceiving-instrument, of a repeating-sounder for 
intercepting false signals, substantially as set 
forth. 

4. The reed d, vibrated by a magnet in the 
main-line circuit, in combination with the reed 
/.-, local circuit, magnets, and contact-points h 
i, substantially as set forth. 

5. The combination of a polarized acoustic 
receiving-instrument in the bridge- wire of a 
Wheatstone balance with induction devices in 
the line, substantially as and for the purposes 
set forth. 

Signed by me this 3d day of April, A. D. 1876. 

THOS. A. EDISOK 

Witnesses : 

Harold Serrell, 
Ohas. H. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Telephonic or Electro Harmonic Telegraphs, 

No. 198,089. Patented Dec. 11, 1877. 




N. PETERS, PHOTO-LITHOGRAPH ER.j WASHINGTON, 0. 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO THE 
AVE STERN UNION TELEGRAPH COMPANY. 

IMPROVEMENT IN TELEPHONIC OR ELECTRO-HARMONIC TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 19S.089, dated December 11, 1877 ; application filed 

April 6, 1876. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Duplex Telegraphs, of which the following 
is a specification : 

I make use of reeds vibrating in different 
periods of time. They are each kept in vibra- 
tion automatically by a magnet and local cir- 
cuit, and send pulsations corresponding in 
time upon the main line. The batteries are 
each placed in the main line, and arranged so 
as' to oppose each other. The receiving-in- 
struments are placed in the bridge of a Wheat- 
stone bridge, and balanced in relation to the 
outgoing current, and respond to the current 
from the distant station ; and the receiving- 
instruments are peculiarly constructed, so as 
to respond to the transmitted pulsations, 

a, c, and d are the transmitting-reeds, 
each having a different vibrating time, and L 
B are the local batteries, and M the electro- 
magnets in the circuits of the respective bat- 
teries, by means of which the reeds are vi- 
brated automatically, the local circuit at 20 
being broken by the movement of the reed to- 
ward the magnet. 

1 and 2 are batteries opposed to each other. 
The battery 2 is short-circuited by the contact- 
points upon the reed a at every vibration, 
thus allowing the battery 1 to transmit a short 
wave over the main wire to the distant station. 
K 1 is a key, which only allows these waves 
to pass over the wire at the moment when its 
lever is passing from the back to the front 
contact-point, and in contact with neither. 
These short waves cause the receiving-reeds 
to open and close the sounder for a very short 
period of time, and allowing the signals to be 
read by the contact of the lever of the sounder 
upon its lower contact only. 

3 and 4 are another set of batteries, oper- 
ated in the same manner as 1 and 2, except 
that the reed b makes a different number of 
vibrations per second than a. 

c and d are two other reeds, each of which 
serves to break a short circuit around the bat- 
teries 5 and 6, thus allowing the current from 
5 or 6 to pass over the line at the moment that 



8 and 9 or 10 and 11 are separated from each 
other and the signaling-keys K 3 and K 4 are 
open. 

R 1 R 2 and wires 12 and 13 form part of a 
Wheatstone balance. 

14 is the bridge-wire, in which are placed 
the acoustic receiving-instruments G H B, op- 
erated by series of waves from the distant 
station. These reeds are in the bridge- 
wire, and the various resistance so adjusted 
that no currents from the batteries 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 
and 6 pass through these instruments, but 
pass to the distant station to similar instru- 
ments in a bridge-wire of a Wheatstone bal- 
ance. 

R 3 is a resistance to balance the resistance 
of the line. R 4 is a resistance for increasing 
or decreasing the charging and discharging 
time of the equating-condenser C. 

G is a receiving-instrument, which is worked 
by torsion. 

n is a metal bar, preferably round, securely 
clamped to two upright pillars, and provided 
with two projecting arms — one for operating 
the local-circnit devices, the other to secure 
an armature placed over an electro-magnet, 
which, acting on this armature, twists the bar. 
The twist, length, or size of the bar varies its 
periodic vibrating time. Hence it is very 
quickly adjusted by twisting it to the right or 
left and tightening 7 its clamping-screw. 

X is a magnet, placed in the main-line or 
bridge wire, with its cores facing those of a 
larger inductive magnet, Z, the wire upon 
which is connected to the magnet Q. 

18 is a reed, polarized by the permanently- 
magnetized horseshoe-magnet 19. The pas- 
sage of waves through X of one polarity 
causes positive and negative inductive cur- 
rents to be thrown into Z and Q and causes the 
vibration of the reed 18. 

B is a double-reed instrument, each of which 
is provided with an electro-magnet, and the 
extreme ends provided with contact-points. 
These reeds are tuned nearly alike, one being 
a little more flat than the other, so that its 
amplitude of vibration is not so great as the 
other. One part of the local circuit is con- 
nected to one reed, while the other part is con- 



198 



i,0§9 



nected to the other reed. This local circuit 
contains a battery and sounder. 

When no waves periodic with the vibrating 
time of B are transmitted from the distant 
station, the points on the extreme ends of the 
reed are not in contact and the local circuit is 
open ; but if a proper series of waves is sent, 
both reeds are set vibrating, and, as one has 
a slightly greater amplitude than the other, 
they come in contact, close the local circuit, 
and vibrate together as long as the proper 
waves come over the wire. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. The combination, in an acoustic telegraph, 
of opposing batteries, a vibrating reed, and a 
short circuit to one of the batteries, opened 
and closed by the action of such reed, substan- 
tially as set forth. 



2. In an acoustic - telegraph instrument, a 
torsion-rod, n, and an electro-magnet for vi- 
brating the same, substantially as set forth. 

3. The combination, in an acoustic-telegraph 
instrument, of two reeds, one having a slightly 
different vibration from the other, and a local 
circuit to a sounder passing through such 
reeds, substantially as and for the purposes 
set forth. 

Signed by me this 3d day of April, A. D. 
1876. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Harold Serrell, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Synchronous Movements for Electric Telegraphs. 

No. 200,032. Patented Feb. 5, 1878. 




N.PETERS. PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHER, WASHINGTON, 0. 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MEMO PAEK, NEW JEESEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN SYNCHRONOUS MOVEMENTS FOR ELECTRIC TELEGRAPHS, 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 200,032, dated February 5, 1878 ; application filed 

November 1, 1876. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, in the county of Middlesex and 
State of New Jersey, have invented an Im- 
provement in Synchronous Movements, of 
which the following is a specification : 

The object of this invention is to produce 
the rotation of two or more shafts in perfect 
unison, whether they are near each other or 
more or less remote. This is available for 
controlling the movement of type-wheels in 
printing-telegraphs at distant stations, or for 
regulating the rotation of other mechanisms. 

I make use of a reed or tuning-fork care- 
fully tuned, and kept in vibration by the ac- 
tion of one or more electro-magnets; and in 
cases where the reeds or tuning-forks are in 
different places iu the electric circuit the 
movement of one of such tuning-forks gov- 
erns the electric pulsations passing to the 
others. This insures uniformity of vibration. 

The electric circuits may be arranged in any 
desired known manner. Circuits of this char- 
acter have been used by me. 

In the drawing, a a' represent tuning-forks ; 
o b', the magnets for operating upon them to 
maintain the vibration, and o a circuit-opener 
to make and break the electric circuit in which 
the electro-magnets are placed, c d e are the 
shafts that are to be regulated in unison. 
There may be two or more of them. 

Upon each shaft is a ratchet or escapement j 
wheel, and upon the tuning-fork or reed is an 
arm carrying pallets or an escapement. 

If a train of gearing and a weight or spring 
is used to revolve either of the shafts, the pal- 



lets will be shaped as an escapement to allow 
the wheel and shaft to rotate only at the speed 
resulting from the vibrations of the escape- 
ment by the reed or tuning-fork. 

If the pallets are made wedge-acting, so as 
to move the wheel and shaft around by the 
vibration of the pallets, then the shaft may 
receive its revolving power from the reed it- 
self. 

Under any circumstances the speed of rev- 
olution will be the same in all the shafts if the 
number of teeth on the wheels is the same, or 
proportionate if the number of teeth is differ- 
ent, the vibrations of the pallets being in all 
instances the same. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. The combination, with a reed or tuning- 
fork, and an electro -magnet and circuit-break- 
er to maintain the vibration thereof, of pal- 
lets, a toothed wheel, and a shaft receiving its 
revolving motion from, or being controlled by, 
the vibrations of the reed or tuning-fork, sub- 
stantially as set forth. 

2. The combination of two or more reeds or 
tuning-forks, corresponding electro-magnets, 
and a circuit-breaker with two or more revolv- 
ing shafts, toothed wheels, and pallets moved 
by the vibration of the reeds, substantially as 
and for the purposes set forth. 

Signed by me this 30th day of October, A. 
D. 1876. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Harold Serrell. 



T A. EDISON. 
Phonograph or Speaking Machine. 

No. 200,521. Patented Feb. 19, 1878 




United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MEKLO PABK, NEW JERSEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN PHONOGRAPH OR SPEAKING MACHINES. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 200,521, dated February 19, 1878; application filed 

December 24, 1877. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, in the county of Middlesex and 
State of New Jersey, have invented an Im- 
provement in Phonograph or Speaking Ma- 
chines, of which the following is a specifica- 
tion : 

The object of this invention is to record in 
permanent characters the human voice and 
other sounds, from which characters such 
sounds may be reproduced and rendered audi- 
ble again at a future time. 

The invention consists in arranging a plate, 
diaphragm, or other flexible body capable of 
being vibrated by the human voice or other 
sounds, in conj unction with a material capable 
of registering the movements of such vibrat- 
ing body by embossing or indenting or alter- 
ing such material, in such a manner that such 
register-marks will be sufficient to cause a sec- 
ond vibrating plate or body to be set in motion 
by them, and thus reproduce the motions of 
the first vibrating body. 

The invention further consists in the various 
combinations of mechanism to carry out my 
invention. 

1 have discovered, after a long series of ex- 
periments, that a diaphragm or other body 
capable of being set in motion by the human 
voice does not give, except in rare instances, 
superimposed vibrations, as has heretofore 
been supposed, but that each vibration is 
separate and distinct, and therefore it becomes 
possible to record and reproduce the sounds 
of the human voice. 

In the drawings, Figure 1 is a vertical sec- 
tion, illustrating my invention, and Fig. 2 is 
a plan of the same. 

A is a cylinder having a helical indenting- 
groove cut from end to end — say, ten grooves 
to the inch. Upon this is placed the material 
to be indented, preferably metallic foil. This 
drum or cylinder is secured to a shaft, X, hav- 
ing at one end a thread cut with ten threads 
to the inch, the bearing P also having a thread 
cut in it. 

L is a tube, provided with a longitudinal 
slot, and it is rotated by the clock-work at M, 
or other source of power. 

The shaft X passes into the tube L, and it 
is rotated by a pin, 2, secured to the shaft, | 



and passing through the slot on the tube L> 
the object of the long slot being to allow the 
shaft X to pass endwise through the center or 
support P by the action of the screw on X. 
At the same time that the cylinder is rotated 
it passes toward the support O. 

B is the speaking-tube or mouth-piece, which 
may be of any desired character, so long as 
proper slots or holes are provided to re-enforce 
the hissing consonants. Devices to effect this 
object are shown in my application, No. 143, 
filed August 28, 1877. Hence they are not 
shown or further described herein. 

Upon the end of the tube or mouth-piece is 
a diaphragm, having an indenting-point of 
hard material secured to its center, and so .ar- 
ranged in relation to the cylinder A that the 
point will be exactly opposite the groove in 
the cylinder at any position the cylinder may 
occupy in its forward rotary movement. 

The speaking-tube is arranged upon a stand- 
ard, which, in practice, I provide with devices 
for causing the tube to approach and recede 
from the cylinder. 

The operation of recording is as follows : 
The cylinder is, by the action of the screw in 
X, placed adjacent to the pillar P, which 
brings the indenting-point of the diaphragm 
O opposite the first groove on the cylinder, 
over which is placed a sheet of thick metallic 
foil, paper, or other yielding material. The 
tube B is then adjusted toward the cylinder 
until the indenting-point touches the material 
and indents it slightly. The clock-work is 
then set running, and words spoken in the 
tube B will cause the diaphragm to take up 
every vibration, and these movements will be 
recorded with surx>rising accuracy by indenta- 
tions in the foil. 

After the foil on the cylinder has received 
the required indentations, or passed to its full 
limit toward O, it is made to return to P by 
proper means, and the indented material is 
brought to a position for reproducing and ren- 
dering audible the sounds that had been made 
by the person speaking into the tube B. 

is a tube similar to B, except that the dia- 
phragm is somewhat lighter and more sensi- 
tive, although this is not actually necessary. 
In front of this diaphragm is a light spring, 
D, Having a small point shorter and finer than 



2 



200,521 



the indenting-point on the diaphragm of B. 
This spring and point are so arranged as to fall 
exactly into the path of all the indentations. 
This spring is connected to the diaphragm F 
of by a thread or other substance capable 
of conveying the movements of 1). Now, 
/when the cylinder is allowed to rotate, the 
spring D is set in motion by each indentation 
corresponding to its depth and length. This 
motion is conveyed to the diaphragm either 
by vibrations through a thread or directly by 
connecting the spring to the diaphragm F, 
and these motions being due to the indenta- 
tions, which are an exact record of every move- 
ment of the first diaphragm, the voice of the 
speaker is reproduced exactly and clearly, and 
with sufficient volume to be heard at some dis- 
tance. 

The indented material maybe detached from 
the machine and preserved for any length of 
time, and by replacing the foil in a proper 
manner the original speaker's voice can be re- 
produced, and the same may be repeated fre- 
quently, as the foil is not changed iu shape if 
the apparatus is properly adjusted. 

The record, if it be upon tin -foil, may be 
stereotyped by means of the plaster-of-paris 
process, and from the stereotype multiple 
copies may be made expeditiously and cheaply 
by casting or by pressing tin-foil or other ma- 
terial upon it. This is valuable when musical 
compositions are reqnired for numerous ma- 
chines. 

It is obvious that many forms of mechanism 
may be used to give motion to the material to 
be indented. For instance, a revolving plate 
may have a volute spiral cut both on its upper 
and lower surfaces, on the top of which the 
foil or indenting material is laid and secured 
in a proper manner. A two-part arm is used 
with this disk, the portion beneath the disk 
having a point in the lower groove, and the 
portion above the disk carrying the speaking 
and receiving diaphragmic devices, which arm 
is caused, by the volute spiral groove upon 
the lower surface, to swing gradually from 
near the center to the outer circumference of 
the plate as it is revolved, or vice versa. 

An apparatus of this general character 
adapted to a magnet that indents the paper 
is shown in my application for a patent, No. 
128, filed March 2G, 1877; hence no claim is 
made herein to such apparatus, and further 
description of the same is unnecessary. 

A wide continuous roll of material may be 
used, the diaphragmic devices being recipro- 
cated by proper mechanical devices back ward 
and forward over the roll as it passes forward ; 
or a narrow strip like that in a Morse register 
may be moved in contact with the indenting- 
point, and from this the sounds mav be repro- 
duced. The material einploved for this pur- 
pose may be soft paper saturated or coated 
with paraffine or similar material, with a sheet 
of metal foil on the surface thereof to receive 
the impression from the indenting-point. 

I do not wish to confine myself to reproduc- 



ing sound by indentations only, as the trans- 
mitting or recording device may be in a sinu- 
ous form, resulting from the use of a thread 
passing with paper beneath the pressure-roll- 
ers t, (see Fig. 3,) such thread being moved 
laterally by a fork or eye adjacent to the 
roller t, and receiving its motion from the dia- 
phragm G, with which such fork or eye is con- 
nected, and thus record the movement of the 
diaphragm by the impression of the thread in 
the paper to the right and left of a straight 
line, from which indentation the receiving- 
diaphragm may receive its motion and the 
sound be reproduced, substantially in the man- 
ner I have already shown; or the diaphragm 
may, by its motion, give more or less pressure 
to an inking-pen, u, Fig. 4, the point of which 
rests upon paper or other material moved 
along regularly beneath the point of the pen, 
thus causing more or less ink to be deposited 
upon the material, according to the greater or 
lesser movement of the diaphragm. These 
ink-marks serve to give motion to a second 
diaphragm when the paper containing such 
marks is drawn along beneath the endof a lever 
resting upou them and connected to such dia- 
phragm, the lever and diaphragm being moved 
by the friction between the point being great- 
est, or the thickness of the ink being greater 
where there is a large quantity of ink than 
where there is a small quantity. Thus the 
original sound-vibrations are reproduced upon 
the second diaphragm. 
I claim as my invention — 

1. The method herein specified of reproduc- 
ing the human voice or other sounds by caus- 
ing the sound-vibrations to be recorded, sub- 
stantially as specified, and obtaining motion 
from that record, substantially as set forth, for 
the reproduction of the sound-vibrations. 

2. The combination, with a diaphragm ex- 
posed to sound- vibrations, of a moving surface 
of yieldiug material — such as metallic foil — 
upon which marks are made corresponding to 
the sound - vibrations, and of a character 
adapted to use in the reproduction of the sound, 
substantially as set forth. 

3. The combination, with a surface having 
marks thereon corresponding to sound- vibra- 
tions, of a point receiving motion from such 
marks, and a diaphragm connected to said 
point, and responding to the motion of the 
point, substantially as set forth. 

4. In an instrument for making a record of 
sound -vibrations, the combination, with the 
diaphragm and point, of a cylinder having a 
helical groove and means for revolving the 
cylinder and communicating an end movement 
corresponding to the inclination of the helical 
groove, substantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this loth day of December, 
A. B. 1877. 

THOS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H, Smith. 



2 Sheets— -Sheet 1 

T. A. EDISON. 
Aooustic Telegraph. 
No. 200,993. Patented Mai4h 5, 1878. 




i- PETERS, PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHER, WASHINGTON. C. 



2 Sheets-Sheet 2. 

T. A. EDISON. 
Acoustic Telegraph. 

No. 200,993. Patented March 5, 1878. 

— m — i 




N.PETERS, PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHEB, WASHINGTON. D 0. 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PABK, NEW JEESEY, ASSIGNOB TO THE 
WESTEEN UNION TELEGBAPH COMPANY. 

IMPROVEMENT IN ACOUSTIC TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 200,993, dated March 5, 1878 ; application filed 

September 18, 1876. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thoxas A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, in the State of New Jersey, have 
invented an Improvement in Acoustic Tele- 
graphs, of which the following is a specifica- 
tion: 

The object of this invention is to transmit 
eight different messages at the same time over 
a single circuit without interference with one 
another. 

The invention relates, primarily, to the 
method fully described in my application No. 
122, by winch one single circuit is transferred 
from one set of instruments at both ends of 
the line to several other sets, one after the 
other, alternately, thus creating four distinct 
si gn aling-circuits. 

The present invention more particularly re- 
lates to a method by which each signaling-cir- 
cuit so created can be again doubled by a 
manipulation of the currents, thus allowing 
of the transmission of four messages in one di- 
rection at the same time that four messages 
are sent in the opposite direction. 

The diagram illustrates the connections at 
one terminal station only, the connection at 
the distant station being precisely the same. 

A is the large transfer tuning-fork, making 
thirty vibrations per second, and kept in con- 
stant vibration by the interception of the lo- 
cal circuit, in which its magnets (not shown) 
are placed by the main-line tuning-fork upon 
the controlling-line, as hi aforesaid applica- 
tion No. 122. B is another fork, placed in 
the same local circuit, but making double the 
number of vibrations of A — i. <?», sixty per sec- 
ond. 

The method by which these local tuning- 
forks at both terminals are kept in accurate 
unison is fully described in my aforesaid ap- 
plication, and the contact-points, instruments, 
and connections are arranged exactly as shown 
in that application, excepting that both A and 
B are provided with an extra set of springs, 
and the receiving-magnets Avith extra coils, 
and to which extra springs, connections, and 
coils is attached an artificial line of about the 
same resistance and of about the same elec- 
tro-static capacity as that of the real line, so 
that when the line is being transferred from 
one set of instruments to the other the artifi- 
cial line is at the same time transferred to the 
same instruments, Avhich object is attained by 



causing the relay-magnets to have two sets of 
coils, one through which the main-line cur- 
rent passes in one direction, while through the 
other the current of the artificial line passes 
in the opposite direction. The latter, when 
its resistance is properly adjusted, allows of 
the transmission of current through the sig- 
naling - relays to the distant station without 
affecting such relays, which are free to re- 
ceive the message from the distant station, 
and the same action takes place on all the 
instruments at both terminals. 

C, D, E, and F are the double -coil relays, 
C being connected to the spring 30 of the 
transmitter G, D to 31 of H, E to 32 of I, and 
F to 33 of K, the levers of all of the transmit- 
ters being connected to earth. 

Immediately over these springs are contact- 
points connected to the main battery. Either 
spring is brought in contact with its contact- 
point upon closing the key (not shown) of a 
local circuit, in which the electro -magnet of 
the transmitter is placed. At the same time 
that the point comes in contact with the spring 
it separates the spring from the earth- wire. 
This puts the battery in connection with the 
double spool of the relay. At the moment 
when the main line is connected at both ends 
by the vibration of the forks the current from 
the battery passes through one of the coils to 
the distant station, and would tend to close 
the relay; but at the same time the battery- 
current passes through the other coil (in an 
opposite direction) over the artificial line; and as 
the resistance of that is such that the current 
strength in each coil is the same, but the tend- 
ency opposite, and as the static charge and 
discharge are the same on both, the relay re- 
mains unaffected, and is ready to receive sig- 
nals from the distant station. The high fork 
B serves to split the main line into two parts, 
and also the artificial line inta two parts, al- 
lowing both the main line and the artificial 
line to remain in contact with the earth for a 
short period of time after it has been connected 
to one split, and disconnecting it from the 
earth just before it is placed in contact with 
the other split. E E is the resistance-coil, 
which serves to create the artificial line, c' d 
is the condenser, which serves to give the ar- 
tificial line the proper electro-static capacity, 
while E* is an adjustable resistance, which 
serves to increase or decrease the discharging 



2 200, 

time of the condenser to meet the various dis- 
charging times of different circuits. 

B h is a resistance-box, which, in rjractice, I 
shall probably insert in each of the splits 
passing to the artificial line, for the purpose of 
obtaining a more perfect balance of the two 
circuits, as it has been found difficult to con- 
struct differential magnets so that all coils 
shall produce the same amount of magnetism 
in their cores. 

In addition to the apparatus shown, I pro- 
pose to insert a fork or forks making the same 
number of vibrations as B at various stations 
along the line, and keep them in motion by 
acoustic relays in the controlling-line, passing 
through the same stations, and arranging the 
contact-points as shown in Fig. 2, for the pur- 
pose of discharging the wh'e between each 
wave or vibration, which will enable me to 
work very long circuits. A slmnt, m, passes 
to the spring a, and connects it to earth, (and 
at that particular period of time when neither 
prong is in contact with a or b.) The spring a 
rests upon c, and is connected to b, thence 
through d to earth; but when the fork is a 
little over the center of point of rest, either 
on one side or the other, the continuity of the 
earth-connection is interrupted either by the 
separation of a from c, or b from d. 

This action of putting the line to earth out- 
side of the instruments between each Anima- 
tion takes place, or may take place, at both 
terminals, and at any number of way-stations. 

On very long lines more perfect" signaling 
is attained by connecting the receiving-instru- 
ment as in Fig. 3. 

E is a large resistance, shunted with a con- 
denser, c'. B l and B 2 are two smaller resist- 
ances in shunts to lessen the total resistance 
of the circuit, and to provide a circuit for the 
discharge of the condenser-current, which, by 
its action upon the relay, serves to neutralize, 
to some extent, the static discharge from the 
line due to the passage of the distant signal- 
ing-current. 

I do not wish to confine myself to any par- 
ticular relay, or the use of single currents, as 
polarized relays and reversed circuits may be 
used; neither do I wish to confine myself to 
the use of differential-coil relays for balancing 
the outgoing current, as the whole arrange- 
ment may be placed in a AVheatstone bridge, 
and which will be the subject of another ap- 
plication; neither do I wish to confine myself 
to the transmission of eight messages, as "each 
of the four circuits (obtained by the rapid 
transfer of the line upon the several instru- 
ments) can be split up again by employing 
another set of higher and lower forks, and 
each of the eight circuits so obtained can be 
doubled in the same manner as those already 
described by a mere duplication of springs 
and points; or, instead of splitting the wire up 
into eight wires, it can remain as in this ap- 
plication, and each of the four splits may con- 
tain two signaling-instruments, one respond- 



,993 



ing to positive and negative currents inde- 
pendent of their tension, and the other to 
strong and weak currents independent of their 
polarity, the connection being made to each 
split in the same manner as they would if such 
split were an actual wire. 

Upon reference to my aforesaid application 
No. 122, it will be understood that the forks 
B vibrate exactly in time with each other at 
the two ends of the line, that the forks A also 
vibrate in time with each other at the two 
ends of the line, but at half tlie speed of the 
forks B. 

In the vibrations of a musical fork, the 
prongs both move away from each other, and 
then both move toward each other, and this 
feature and the synchronous movements cause 
the circuit-closers to be operated exactly in 
harmony, so that when the key G is operated 
the circuit from the battery, which is thereby 
closed, will only reach the corresponding re- 
ceiving-instrument at the distant station, and 
so on of all the other signaling-instruments, 
the circuits being simultaneously opened and 
closed to each instrument at both ends of the 
line at each vibration of the fork, and also 
closed to the artificial line, and all the circuit- 
closers are similar to circuit-preserving keys, 
so that the circuit is not entirely broken at 
any time. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. In a transmitting telegraph-instrument, 
two tuning-forks, extra contact-points, and cir- 
cuit-connections to the main and artificial 
lines, substantially as and for the purposes 
set forth. 

2. The combination, with the several tuning- 
forks or equivalents composing the trans- 
ferring mechanism, of a main line and an arti- 
ficial line with devices connected to the latter 
to create proper conditions, and receiving-in- 
struments, for the purpose set forth. 

3. The combination of several continuity- 
preserving transmitting-instruments, differen- 
tial-coil relays, resistance-coils, and condens- 
ers, substantially as shown, with the vibrat- 
ing tuning-forks, or equivalent devices, at 
both terminals, with the main line and artifi- 
cial line, for the purposes set forth. 

4. The tuning-fork B, Fig. 2, spring a 6, 
points o d, and line and earth wire m, all ar- 
ranged and operated substantially as set forth, 
and for the purposes specified. 

5. The shunts E 1 and E 2 , Fig. 3, resistance 
E, condenser c', in combination with the elec- 
tro-magnet or other receiving-instrument, for 
the purposes set forth. 

Signed by me this 26th day of August, A. 
D. 1870. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Geo. D. Walkee. 



J 



T. A. EDISON. 
Automatic Telegraph Perforator and Transmitter, 

No. 200,994. Patented March 5, 1878. 




United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MEILO PABK, NEW JEESEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN AUTOMATIC-TELEGRAPH PERFORATOR AND TRANSMITTER. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 200,994, dated March 5, 1878 ; application filed 

November 11, 1876. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, in the county of Middlesex and 
State of New Jersey, have invented an Im- 
provement in Telegraphs, of which the follow- 
ing is a specification : 

The object of this invention is to transmit 
Morse characters over a local circuit or tele- 
graph-line by any of the usual methods, and 
record the same simultaneously and automati- 
cally by perforating a strip of paper, which 
strip, so perforated, serves to retransmit the 
same message over other circuits or lines. 

By this improvement a record of the mes- 
sage can be made at the transmitting or re- 
ceiving station, or at any intermediate station, 
by the perforated paper, without obstructing 
the operation of the line, and that strip can 
be used for subsequent automatic transmis- 
sion. 

I make use of a shaft reA T olved, preferably, 
by an electric engine, and operating a paper- 
feed and a punch, the feed taking place when 
the punch is out of the paper, and there is a 
coupler between the power and the punch for 
connecting or disconnecting the latter, which 
coupler is operated by an electro-magnet, so 
that the message, passing through the mag- 
net, will be effective in operating the perfora- 
tor, and the perforated strip serves as a rec- 
ord, or it can be used for retransmission. 

The invention further consists in the mech- 
anism for retransmitting the message from the 
perforated strip. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a sectional ele- 
vation of the punching' mechanism, and Fig. 2 
is a plan of the complete apparatus. 

a is the punch, b is the die between which 
the paper passes from the roll upon the arm c. 
d is the spiral spring which aids in withdraw- 
ing the punch from the paper. The bearings of 
the punch are / and g. e is a coupler, secured 
to the punch at h, and provided with a notch 
at its extreme end. The coupler is moved up 
and down by the lever of the magnet to. 

h is a pivoted lever, provided with two prongs 
at its end, one of which, w 1 , catches in the 
notch on e when the lever of the magnet is 
attracted, thus connecting the coupler e to m l . 
The other prong of k is connected by the link 



and joint n to the eccentric p upon the engine- 
shaft n 3 . r is the paper-feeding lever, also 
connected to the engine-shaft by an eccen- 
tric, s. 

The eccentric^ is set at one hundred and 
eighty degrees, or nearly so, to the eccentric 
s, so that the punch enters the paper while 
the feed-lever is drawing back, and the punch 
comes out of the paper just as the feed-lever 
commences to move the paper forward, thus 
producing an accurate timing of the punching 
and feeding devices. 

The electric engine to 3 , for actuating the 
punch and paper-feed, is in the circuit 3 4 of 
a local battery. 

The feed-lever r is provided Avith points, 
which engage with the paper and allow it to 
be carried forward, t is a click, which pre- 
vents the paper from receding when r is 
drawn back. 

The operation is as follows : When the cir- 
cuit in which the magnet m is placed is open, 
the coupler e is thrown upward, and the punch 
remains out of the paper, and receives no move- 
ment; but the paper-feed r continues to inove 
the paper forward at a regular rate. If, now, 
the circuit in which m is placed is closed, the 
magnet becomes energized, its lever is at- 
tracted, and the coupler e is brought down 
upon the prong to 1 , locked to it, and immedi- 
ately the punch reciprocates rapidly, passes 
through and out of the paper. The first move- 
ment launches a hole the same size as the 
punch, but thereafter, and so long as the mag- 
net m is closed, punches only crescent-shaped 
pieces at each movement, as the paper-feed is 
only a fraction of the distance covered by the 
punch ; hence an elongated slot or perforation 
is made, its length depending upon the length 
of time that m is energized. Immediately that 
the circuit containing m is broken, the coupler 
e is thrown out of contact with to 1 , the punch 
ceases to be reciprocated, while the lever r 
continues to feed the paper, thus forming the 
spaces. 

As the engine-shaft ?t 3 makes several thou- 
sand revolutions per minute, the perforated 
characters can be formed with great rapidity. 

The electro-magnet to is in a eircut, 5 6, to 
a distant station, in which circuit there is a 



2 



200,994 



receiving-mstrament, battery, and finger-key, 
and the message transmitted to said distant 
instrument corresponds to the message per- 
forated in the strip of paper by tlie punch a. 
After the strip has been punched it is passed 
through the transmitting or translating ma- 
chine, which consists of a drum, a', provided 
with a slot around its whole circumference, and 
in its center. 

7/ is the roller for pressing the paper against 
the drum, so that it may be carried forward. 
c' is a forked spring, used for holding the pa- 
per against the drum, and also to gripe the 
end of the paper as its end is passed between 
the spring and the drum. g l is a pinion- 
wheel, engaging with a worm, # 2 , upon the 
shaft of the electric engine H\ and said engine 
is in a circuit, 7 8, of a local battery, m 2 is a 
governor, which, as the speed increases, causes 
the lever Tc' to be withdrawn from I, thus 
breaking the circuit in which the engine is 
placed. 

By the use of the worm and pinion a very 
even rotation of the drum a/ is attained, while 
allowing great rapidity of rotation of the elec- 
tric engine, which is desirable, and by the use 
of the electric governor any required speed is 
easily attained. The circuit-breaking devices 
consist of a duplex spring, e' d', and the wires 
9 10, connecting with e' d', form part of the 
circuit to a distant station, to which the mes- 
sage is to be retransmitted, e' is provided 
with a v-ponrt somewhat smaller than the 
slot in the periphery of the drum a. This 
point is in line with the perforated characters, 
and when resting on the paper the extreme 
end of e', which is tipped with platina, is sep- 
arated from the point r' of d' ; but when a 
perforation passes under the point on e', the 
said point enters into the slot in the drum, 
bringing the end of e> in contact with r, clos- 
ing the circuit, which is again broken the mo- 
ment the paper intervenes between the point 
of e' and the drum, f is a screw for adjust- 
ing the contact-points to or from the drum a. 

I will mention that the electric engines 
might be displaced, both in the puncher and 
m the transmitter, by clock-work, or by tuning- 
forks or reeds set in motion by electro-mag- 
nets — in the case of the puncher one prong 
serving to actuate the punch, Avhile the other 
prong would actuate the paper-feed, and in 
the case of the transmitter the tuning-fork 
could, by a suitable toothed wheel and click 
give practically a continuous rotation to the 
drum, the speed being regulated by movable 
weights on the prongs of the fork, or by dou- 
ble pressure-springs. 

I will also mention that if the puncher is to 
be used merely for preparing the paper for 
transmission, the locking-coupler e' might be 
actuated by a movement derived from a 
Morse key, without the use of electricity; and 
where great speed is required in perforating, 
the shaft upon which the eccentrics are placed 
might be rotated by hand, a small pulley be- 



ing secured to the shaft, which would be con- 
nected to a very large one by a belt or geared 
by toothed wheels, and the whole set in mo- 
tion by hand or foot power. 

I will also mention that an absolute lock 
like the lever e and prong m 1 is not absolutely 
requisite when considerable power is used to 
revolve the eccentrics, for if plenty of power 
is used, as with hand-power, the spiral spring 
d around the punch can be strengthened and 
made to draw the punch out without aid from 
the eccentric-lever, and the mere insertion of 
a wedge between the end of m 1 and a con- 
tinuation of the punch a will serve to actuate 
the punch. Such wedge is free to be with- 
drawn at each revolution of the shaft carry- 
ing the eccentric, and there is but little move- 
ment; hence a very weak power will suffice to 
throw the wedge in and out. 

I will also mention that the punch and 
paper-feeding mechanism may be reciprocated 
continuously, and the characters formed by 
using a movable die and paper-feeding wheel, 
both of which can be brought toward the punch 
and feed-click by an electro-magnet, or by 
hand. It is not even essential that the paper- 
feed click should impinge directly upon the 
paper, as the paper may be passed over a 
drum and the drum rotated by the feed-click 
engaging in the teeth of a ratchet-wheel upon 
the shaft of the same. 

I will also mention that when it is required 
that reverse currents should be used, so as to 
enable the punching mechanism to be con- 
trolled by a polarized relay whose lever oper- 
ates the magnet m ? two punches maybe used, 
one under the other, but separated, say, one- 
thirty -second of an inch, and the locking 
mechanism so arranged that when m is closed 
the top punch will enter the paper, and when 
open the eccentric will be locked to the other 
punch when it enters the paper, thus causing 
the spaces between the characters in the 
upper row to have perforations immediately 
below them in the second row. In this case 
the transmitting-drum is to be provided with 
two grooves and two contact - springs, one 
connected to the positive pole of a battery, 
while the other is connected to the negative 
pole, of another battery, thus allowing the 
transmission of alternate currents. Even one 
battery could be used and the springs ar- 
ranged to reverse the same. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. The punch and die a 1) and notched 
coupler e, in combination with the eccentric 
p, fork 7^, and electro-magnet m, substantially 
as set forth. 

2. In a perforating apparatus, a continu- 
ously-revolving shaft and a step-by-step feed, 
operated thereby, in combination with a punch 
that is actuated by the shaft while the paper 
is quiescent, a coupler to connect the power 
and the punch, and an electro-magnet to move 
such coupler, substantially as set forth. 

3. Punch and paper-feeding mechanism re- 



200, 

ciprocated by the eccentrics p and s, when the 
same are arranged in such a position that the 
paper is only fed when the punch is clear of 
the die. 

4. The transmitter consisting of a drum, 
contact-points and springs e' d' r', electric 
engine n\ and governor m? h' Z, all arranged 
and operated substantially as specified, and 
for the purposes set forth. 



3 



Signed by me this 30th day of October, A. 
'. 1876. 

THOS. A. EDISOK 

Witnesses : 

<xEO. T. PlNCKNEY, 

Harold Serrell. 



T. A. "EDISON. 
Speaking Machine. 

No. 201,760. Patented March 26, 1878. 






United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PABK, NEW JEESEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN SPEAKI NG- M ACH I N ES. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No, 201,760, dated March 26, 1878; application filed 

March 4, 1878. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, in the county of Middlesex and 
State of New Jersey, have invented an Im- 
provement in Speaking-Machines, (Case 153,) 
which I term the "Aerophone," and of which 
the following is a specification: 

The object of this invention is to reproduce 
the human voice or other sounds with greatly- 
increased volume or force. 

Articulation produces certain atmospheric 
sound waves or vibrations in a given relation 
to each other in respect to volume or charac- 
ter. The sound-waves of words uttered in a 
whisper correspond generally to those uttered 
in the loudest tones, except in the volume. 

In my phonograph, heretofore secured by me, 
(Case No. 149,) the sound produced by the in- 
strument corresponds to the sound acting upon 
the diaphragm, only less in volume. 

The object of the present invention is to re- 
verse the action of the phonograph, and cause 
the human voice or other source of sound to 
reproduce that sound in tones that are louder 
than the original utterances, thereby enabling 
a feeble voice to be heard distinctly to any de- 
sired extent within the capacity of the instru- 
ment. 

I make use of a diaphragm, against which 
the sound-vibrations are directed from the voice 
or other primary source of sound, and this dia- 
phragm or other body moved by such sound- 
vibrations is made to control the exit of air, 
steam, or other fluid under pressure, and so 
set in motion secondary sound-vibrations, the 
same as the primary sound- vibrations, except 
of greater volume. The relative volumes of 
the sound- vibrations will depend upon the 
pressure of the fluid and the opening for the 
escape of the same. 

My invention is available for giving orders 
Upon vessels, for signaling distant vessels, for 
military orders, for orders at fires, for com- 
municating between engineers of passing loco- 
motives, for station-signals, and for address- 
ing large assemblies, or for giving audible ut- 
terances that are sufficiently powerful to be 
heard above surrounding noise or confusion. 

In the drawings, Figure 1 is a section. Fig. 
2 is a plan of the instrument as adapted to an 
organ-pipe or trumpet for direct action in in- 



creasing the volume of the sound; and Fig. 3 
is a section of the instrument in connection 
with a phonograph, for increasing the ampli- 
tude of the vibration that makes the record. 

The diaphragm a is acted upon by the human 
voice or other sound, and vibrated by the same. 
By the term "diaphragm" 1 mean anybody 
capable of and adapted to respond to atmos- 
pheric sound- vibrations, so that the said vibra- 
tions shall be given to the diaphragm or its 
equivalent. 

Imakeuseof the vibrations of the diaphragm 
to operate a valve, b, that is connected with 
the diaphragm a, preferably by a section, c, of 
india-rubber tubing. The diaphragm is to be 
inclosed in a proper case, that directs the sound 
upon the diaphragm, and the valve is, by pref- 
erence, balanced by being pivoted in the cen- 
ter, so that the pressure of the air, steam, or 
gas upon the valve does not interfere with its 
movement. 

The air, gas, steam, or other fluid under 
pressure, is supplied from a suitable holder by 
the pipe e, and at i the valve allows or checks 
the escape of the said fluid into the pipe Jc. If 
the valve is covered with a sheet of india-rub- 
ber, secured at its edges and to the tubes e and 
Jc, leakage will be prevented, but the valve will 
be free to be moved by the diaphragm. 

It will now be apparent that the valve will 
open more or less at i, according to the am- 
plitude of vibration of the diaphragm, and 
hence that the air passing at this point will be 
a multiple of the sound-vibrations of the at- 
mosphere acting upon the diaphragm; hence 
corresponding tones will issue from the tube 
or trumpet Jc, and by increasing the pressure 
of the fluid, so the volume of sound will be in- 
creased. My experiments and tests lead me to 
believe the apparatus capable of very great in- 
crease of the secondary sound over and above 
the primary controlling sound; and I remark 
that the apparatus employed may also be 
greatly varied, according to the object to be 
attained. Care is required to prevent inter- 
ference with the clearness of the articulated 
sounds, in consequence of any musical reson- 
ance in any of the parts of the apparatus. 

In Fig. 3 the parts before described are rep- 
resented as combined with a receiving-dia- 
phragm, 7, that actuates a recording-point to 



201 



,?6© 



record the sound- vibrations, as in my aforesaid 
phonograph. In this case the indentations 
will be much greater, on account of the ampli- 
tude of the vibrations given to the disk. 

It will be evident that the phonographic 
record may be employed instead of the dia- 
phragm to operate the valve b, and thus allow 
the record to be made of the articulations, af- 
ter which such articulations are reproduced in 
the same or in increased volume as the origi- 
nal utterances. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. The combination, with a diaphragm, or 
the record produced therefrom, of a valve and 
a supply of air, gas, steam, or other fluid un- 
der pressure, for reproducing sounds, substan- 
tially as set forth. 



2. The method herein specified of producing 
sound, by causing primary sounds or articula- 
tions to act upon a diaphragm, and then con- 
trolling the exit of a fluid under pressure in 
harmony with the primary sounds, to produce 
secondary sounds corresponding with the pri- 
mary sounds, but of different volume, substan- 
tially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 28th day of February, A. 
D. 1878. 

THOS. A. EDISOK 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Speaking-Telegraph. 

No. 203,013. Patented April 30, 1878, 




N. PETERS, Photo-Lithographer. Washington, D. C. 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON;, OF MENLO PARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO 
WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH COMPANY, OF NEW YORK, N. Y. 

IMPROVEMENT IN SPEAKING-TELEGRAPHS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 203,013, dated April 30, 1873. Application filed 

December 13, 1877. 



To all tohom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, in the county of Middlesex and 
State of New Jersey, have invented an Im- 
provement in Speaking-Telegraphs, of which 
the following is a specification. 

The object of this invention is to transmit 
and receive oral communications over tele- 
graphic circuits. 

This telegraph is operated by sound-vibra- 
tions. I make use of a rheostat with numer- 
ous contact-points and a conductor that is op- 
erated by the sound-vibrations, and serves to 
short-circuit the rheostat to a greater or less 
extent according to the amplitude of vibration. 
I interpose an elastic cushion between thecon- 
ductor and the diaphragm or other body moved 
by sound, to prevent false vibrations, and I 
employ an induction-coil and a local circuit, 
arranged in such a manner that with a weak 
local battery, the line-current is augmented 
and the rise and fall of electric tension is in 
proportion to the sound-vibrations. 

Figure 1 is a section of the instrument for 
transmitting; and Fig. 2 is a view at the rear 
of the diaphragm, showing the maunerof wind- 
ing the rheostat-wires. Fig. 3 shows the dia- 
gram of connections for one terminal station. 

A is an induction-coil, consisting of one bar 
of iron and two coils, m' and m 2 , the latter be- 
ing placed in the main line, in which the local 
battery c and the receiver P> also forms a part. 

m' is the primary inductive-magnet, of very 
low resistance, placed in a local circuit, 1 2, 
containing also the rheostator resistance-coils 
¥ ¥ ¥ ¥, &c. 

e' e 2 e 3 e 4 , &c, are springs, each one being 
connected to the juncture between each resist- 
ance-coil. These springs e' e 2 , &c, are con- 
tiguous to the spring D, and when the spring 
D is moved it comes in contact with e' just a 
little before it does with e 2 , and so on. When 
e' and e 3 are in contact with D the resistance 
h' is cut out of circuit, and if e 2 and e 3 are in 
contact with D the resistance li 2 is cut out, 
and so on, and contact between all the springs 
and D cuts all the resistance out of circuit. 

For very powerful effects the resistance of 



ml should be less than one ohm, and the total 
resistance of ¥ ¥, &c, about five ohms. Then 
the slightest movement of the spring D, when 
properly adjusted, will cause a great rise and 
fall in the strength of the magnetism in the 
core of to', and a consequent powerful induced 
current will pass over the line and set the plate 
of the receiver at the distant station in vibra- 
tion. 

If the diaphragm gis set in powerful vibra- 
tion a greater number of springs e <?', &c, come 
in contact with D, and a greater disturbance 
of the magnetism of the core of m' takes place, 
transmitting a more powerful wave into the 
main line, which is in one direction when the 
diaphragm causes D to approach the springs, 
and in the contrary direction when it recedes 
therefrom, thus the strength of the waves sent 
into the main line are proportionate to the 
amplitude of vibration of the diaphragm. 

1 do not wish to confine myself to any par- 
ticular arraugement of the springs e' e 2 e 3 , &c, 
as they may be arranged to radiate from a cen- 
ter, like a sunflower, around a metallic disk 
beveled in the proper manner and secured to 
the diaphragm, so as to come in contact with 
one after the other of the springs as the dia- 
phragm approaches. It is not even necessary 
that the springs should be worked in a local 
circuit* as the resistance between each spring 
may be greatly increased and the transmitter 
inserted directly in the main line with the re- 
ceiver and battery. 

Fig. 4 is a modification of the rheostat. The 
same consists of a cylinder of insulating mate- 
rial having a thread cut in it from end to end 
and containing wound very fine platina wire, 
the total resistance of which maybe five ohms. 
The forward movement of the diaphragm g 
causes the spring D to short-circuit each con- 
volution of the wire, one after the other, and 
thus decreases the resistance of the local cir- 
cuit. 

In Fig. 5 the wire-resistance is replaced by 
a semi-conductor, such as plumbago, at G, in- 
cluded in the local circuit, the connections be- 
ing made by the metallic clamps K and H. 

/ is a piece of rubber tube fastened to the 



203,013 



diaphragm and faced with a thin piece of plat- 
ina-foil, g', which acts in the same manner as 
the spring D in Pigs. 2, 3, and 4. The for- 
ward movement of the diaphragm causes more 
and more platina to come in contact with the 
plumbago, thus allowing the greater part of 
the current to pass through the platina, ac- 
cording to the amplitude of the diaphragm-vi- 
brations. Of course other materials, such as 
silicon, boron, sulphides of the heavy metals, 
and other conducting chemical compounds, 
may be used, or even very thin strips of gold, 
platina, silver, and other metals may be used 
in the same manner as the plumbago. 

In Fig. 6 the change in the resistance of the 
coil of wire takes place longitudinally, a spiral 
of insulated wires being arranged on a stud of 
insulating material, and compressed or allowed 
to expand by the movement of the diaphragm, 
thus causing the various convolutions to short- 
circuit one another. 

By this construction of apparatus and ar- 
rangement of circuits I am enabled to trans- 
mit upon the line electric undulations propor- 
tionate to the leugth of line, so as to produce 
the proper response at the distant receiving- 
magnet B and diaphragm-armature B', be- 
cause the rheostat will cause more or less re- 
sistance in the local circuit and the polarity of 
m 2 will alternate with the rise and fall of the 
electric tension in the local circuit, and the 
battery c, also being in the main line, will act 
to neutralize or augment the main-line cur- 
rent according to the polarity of that current 
and in proportion to the resistance of the local 
and main-line circuits, thus obtaining a pow- 
erful current on the line from a weak local cur- 
rent. The elastic cushion /, interposing be- 
tween the diaphragm, or other article vibrated 
by the atmospheric sound-waves, and the short- 
circuiting conductors of the rheostat, prevents 
any musical vibrations of either D or g and 
causes a gentle yielding movement and change 



of electric tension in proportion to the sound 
without risk of false vibrations. 

I do not claim herein the disk of plumbago 
Gt shown in Fig. 5, as this is similar to that 
shown in my application No. 130; neither do 
I herein claim the sheet-iron diaphragm form- 
ing an armature to the electro-magnet, as that 
is shown in some of my former applications, 
and the resistance to the electric circuit is also 
varied by the motion of the diaphragm in said 
application No. 130. Therefore the same is not 
claimed herein. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. In a speaking-telegraph, the combination, 
with a diaphragm, of a rheostat or resistance- 
coils and a conductor vibrated by the dia- 
phragm and acting to short-circuit more or 
less of the rheostat in proportion to the ampli- 
tude of the vibrations, substantially as set 
forth. 

2. In combination with a diaphragm actu- 
ated by sound-vibrations and a metallic con- 
ductor, an elastic cushion, /, interposed be- 
tween the diaphragm and said metallic con- 
ductor, to move the latter in proportion to the 
movement of the diaphragm, substantially as 
set forth. 

3. In aspeakiug-telegraph, the combination, 
with the diaphragm and rheostat, of a local 
circuit and au induction-coil, substantially as 
set forth. 

4. Inaspeaking-telegraph,an induction-coil, 
a rheostat, and a battery in a local circuit, and 
a main-line circuit passing through a second 
induction-coil and also through the battery, 
substantially as set forth. 

Signed bv me this 8th day of December, A. 
D. 1877. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



2 Sheets— Sheet i 

T. A, EDISON. 
Speaking-Telegraph. 
Na. 203,014, Patented April 3a, 1878. 




N.PETERS, PHOTO-LI'i HOGRAPHER, WASHINGTON, C. 



2 Sheets— Sheet 2. 

T. A. EDISON. 
Speaking-Telegraph. 
No. 203,014. Patented April 30, 1878. 




United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PARK, KEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO WESTERN 
UNION TELEGRAPH COMPANY, OP NEW YORK, N. Y. 



IMPROVEMENT IN SPEAKING-TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 203,014, dated April 3Q, 1878; application filed 

July 20, 1877. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, in the county of Middlesex and 
State of New Jersey, have invented an Im- 
provement in Speaking-Telegraphs, of which 
the following is a specification: 

I make use of a resonant case with several 
tympans, adjusted to different degrees of ten- 
sion or delicacy, and these are all so connected 
with contact-points in the metallic line-cir- 
cuit that the electric pulsations will be sent 
over the line from one or more of these tym- 
pans, and operate upon an electro-magnet and 
receiving-tympan of a resonator. 

By this arrangement it is sought to produce 
such undulations of the electric currents pass- 
ing over the line that they will represent the 
inflections of the human voice speaking into 
the transmitting-resonator, and therefore the 
receiving-instrument will be correspondingly 
influenced. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a plan view, 
partially in section j and Fig. 2 is an end view T 
of one tympan and circuit-closing device. 

The box a is of a suitable size and shape. 
At one side thereof there is a mouth-piece, b, 
adapted to receiving the sounds of the human 
voice as spoken into the resonant box a. This 
mouth-piece may be upon the top of the box, 
or at one of the sides thereof. 

It is preferable that the hollow resonant box 
be cubical, in order that at its sides may be 
placed the tympana aforesaid. I have shown 
four such tympans. Each tympan is made simi- 
lar to the head of a kettle-drum, but preferably 
of a plate of metal, and it covers an opening 
in one of the sides of the resonant box. 

The edge , of the tympan e is between the 
rings 1c, and rests against the end of the cyl- 
inder li; and there are screws/, by which to 
adjust the rings and apply greater or less 
strain to the tympan. 

The tympans are all connected with the 
metallic line-circuit L, and in front of each 
there are one or more circuit-closing springs, 
i, preferably with carbon or plumbago points, 
and each spring is adjusted by the screw o, so 
that the point is in nearer or more remote 
proximity to the tympan. The springs i are 
all in- the circuit * to the battery M B, and 



there is a ground-connection at G-, and a 
shunt from the main line L to G-, in which is 
placed a rheostat, R, and magnet-helix M, to 
neutralize the static charge and discharge. 

It will now be evident that whenever the 
tympans, or any one of them, are vibrated 
by the action of the voice, the line-circuit 
will be connected to the battery, and pulsa- 
tions sent that represent the vibrations of the 
tympan. 1 therefore construct or adjust the 
tympans so that they respond to different 
tones or modulations of the voice, in order 
that when a person speaks into the resonant 
box the sound will be responded to by one or 
more of the tympans, and pulsations will be 
sent upon the .line coefficiently, so that the 
various modulations and tones of the voice 
will be represented by the electric pulsations, 
which, acting upon an electro-magnet at the 
receiving-station, will influence the resonant 
receiver and produce the same tones, where- 
by the articulation will be apparent to a list- 
ener. 

On very long lines, owing to the excessive 
weakness of sound in uttering the hissing 
consonants, the electric pulsations resulting 
therefrom at a certain distance cease to be 
perceptible. 

To overcome this, 1 arrange the device 
shown in Figs. 2 and 3 in place of one of the 
tympans, so as to increase the strength of the 
consonant waves, as in ch, S, T, P. This is 
accomplished by using a plate, c, with a small 
hole or slot near the center, in front of which 
is stretched a strip or piece of sheet-rubber, 
w, that is secured near each edge of the disk 
c, and laps a little over the hole in c; and upon 
the rubber is secured a small piece of platina- 
foil, f, an arm of which runs over to and makes 
connection with the plate e. Immediately oppo- 
site is a platina contact-screw, iv, which is con- 
nected to the battery through a resistance, R'; 
and by regulating this, the hissing parts of 
speech may be increased or decreased instead of 
being lost, as in the other tympans, owing to the 
minute amplitude given them by these sounds, 
and also to the enormous resistance of the 
plumbago points to the slight pressure which 
these vibrations give. By using aplatina point 
these vibrations are rendered very loud, and 



* 203 

by the employment of the rubber in front of 
the aperture in c great amplitude is obtained, 
even to the faintest hiss. 

I do not herein make any claim to the trans- 
mission of electric currents varying in in- 
tensity proportionately to the sound-vibra- 
tions, as that is set forth in applications here- 
tofore filed by me; and in my application ISTo. 
141, plumbago is described as acted upon by 
the vibrations of the diaphragm. I do not, 
therefore, claim the same herein. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. The combination, in the telegraphic cir- 



,014 

cuit, of tvro or more tympans, a resonant box, 
and one or more circuit-closers to each tym- 
pan, substantially as set forth. 

2. The plate c, provided with an aperture, 
an elastic membrane, and circuit-breaking 
connections, arranged and operated substan- 
tially for and in the manner set forth. 

Signed by me this 16th day of July, A. D. 
1877. 

THOS. A. EDISOK 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Harold Serrell. 



I 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO THE 
WESTERX UNION TELEGRAPH COMPANY, OF NEW YORK, N. Y. 

IMPROVEMENT IN SPEAKING-TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 203,015, dated April 30, 1878; application filed 

August 28, 1877. 



To all tchom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, in the county of Middlesex and 
State of New Jersey, have invented an Im- 
provement in Speaking-Telegraphs, of which 
the following is a specification : 

The object of this invention is to transmit 
, and reproduce the human voice over tele- 
graphic circuits. 

The invention, which is a modification of 
an application for patent filed by me April 27, 
1877, consist's in the following particulars: A 
mouth-piece provided With a slot or hole to 
allow of the escape of the air ejected from 
the mouth in the act of making a hissing con- 
sonant, thus preventing a bulging of the dia- 
phragm, and at the same time increasing in a 
surprising manner the movement of the dia- 
phragm when such hissing sounds are made. 

The invention further consists in the em- 
ployment of mica as a diaphragm. J have 
discovered that of many substances which 
are suitable for diaphragms, it alone will give 
the greatest amplitude of vibration with the 
least harmonical or extra sound ; that it re- 
mains unaffected by the heat and moisture of 
the mouth, and does not get out of adjust- 
ment by stretching, like thin substances that 
have heretofore been used for diaphragms. 

The invention further consists in a yielding 
contact plate-spring secured to the diaphragm 
so as to allow the diaphragm to make its full 
vibration while such spring is pressiug against 
the tension-regulator next referred to. 

The invention further consists in a tension- 
regulator made of elastic fiber and electric 
conducting material, whereby the resistance 
of the circuit is decreased by the compression 
of the fiber, bringing the conducting material 
into more intimate contact, or the resistance 
is increased by the expansion of the fiber. 

In my application No. 141, filed July 20, 
1877, a piece of plumbago is described for vary- 
ing the resistance by pressure, and I have 
shown a piece of plumbago arranged in front 
of a diaphragm operated by the human voice, 
and connected with the telegraphic line in 
such a manner that when the diaphragm went 
outward it would cause pressure upon the 
plumbago, and this would increase the electric 



wave iii the circuit, and if the diaphragm was 
vibrated weakly a light pressure would be 
placed on the plumbago, and a weaker wave 
would be sent, thus producing waves of a 
strength proportional to the tones of the 
voice. This does not give as perfect articula- 
tion as the tension-regulator I am about to de- 
scribe, principally on account of the great 
difference in pressure, or greater amount of 
pressure required to effect a given change. I 
have discovered that if any fibrous material — 
such as silk, asbestus, cotton, wool, sponge, or 
feathers — be coated, by rubbing or otherwise, 
with a semi-conducting substance, such as 
plumbago, carbon in its conducting form, me- 
tallic oxides, and other conducting material, 
and such fiber be gathered into a tuft and 
placed in a circuit, it is very sensitive to the 
slightest movement. I am enabled not only to 
obtain the regulation by the greater or less 
pressure, but also to increase or decrease the 
extent of surface-contact between the particles 
of conducting or semi-conductingmaterial that 
is associated with the fiber. 

It is best to use fibers that are springy, such 
as sponge or silk, so as to prevent the ma- 
terials packing and the regulator losing its 
elasticity. 

I prefer to use unspun silk fiber, cut in lengths 
of about one-sixteenth of an inch, which are 
then coated with plumbago by thorough rub- 
bing, or by using a mucilaginous paste of 
plumbago, rubbing and thoroughly drying, af- 
ter which the fiber, with a little loose plum- 
bago, is rolled into a cigar shape, and retained 
by a binding-fiber of silk. I propose to call 
these " articulators" or "electric tension-regu- 
lators." 

Another method of metallizing the fiber 
which I propose to employ is to soak the fiber 
in a solution of nitrate of silver or other me- 
tallic salt, and reduce the metal to a metallic 
state upon the fiber by a suitable reducing 
agent, such as exposing the silk to the fumes 
of phosphorus, this process of metallization be- 
ing well known among electroplaters for caus- 
ing non-conducting articles to become con- 
ductors for receiving a deposit of metal there- 
on. 

The fiber may be moistened with a semi- 



203, 



,015 



conducting fluid, and operate in precisely the 
same manner, the resistance being lessened 
by compressing the ftber, and vice versa. 

The electric tension -regulator/, I place be- 
tween a conduct-in g-spring, a, secured to the 
diaphragm b, and the conducting point or 
plate c, secured to the adjusting-post d, and 
adjust it so that when the diaphragm is in a 
state of rest the regulator will remain in con- 
tact with both a and c by pressure. This ten- 
sion-regulator may be employed in various 
electric instruments — such as rheostats — to 
regulate the electric current passing at a 
given place according to the pressure exerted 
upon the mass of fiber. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a section of a 
transmitting - instrument with my improve- 
ments applied thereto. Fig. 2^ is a modifica- 
tion of the mouth-piece. 

The line-circuit passes to the spring in the 
center of the diaphragm by theplatina foil e; 
thence through the articulator or tension- 
regulator/ and contact c to the pillar B ; thence 
to battery and earth or return wire. 

At the distant station the line enters any 
suitable receiving-instrument, which may be 
an electro magnet secured to a resonant box 
or operating- diaphragm operated by the ar- 
mature or other device. 

The plate a is attached firmly to the mica 
diaphragm or tympan & by making small holes 
in the mica and soldering the plate to the 
mica, the solder entering the holes and adher- 
ing l>y the roughness of the surfaces of such 
holes. 

When the diaphragm on the transmitter is 
in a state of rest, the circuit is closed, and a 
constant but weak current passes through the 
circuit, the tension-regulator offering, say, 
two thousand ohms resistance. 

If the slightest sound is made near the 
mouth-piece, the diaphragm is set vibrating, 
and the fibrous regulator is compressed and 
expands at each vibration, thereby increasing 
and decreasing its resistance many ohms, and 
causing a rise and fall of tension within the 
circuit, and these waves so produced act upon 
the distant receiving-instrument, when these 
vibrations are reproduced. 

In speaking into the case ft, or into the reso- 
nant-box of any telephone, there is difficulty 
in transmitting the sounds from consonants, 
because the hissing sound produces a pressure 
upon the diaphragm instead of a vibration. 
1 obviate tin's difficulty by an opening in the 
Speaking-tube with an edge or angle, against 
which the hissing sound is directed, and which 
responds to such sound, and communicates 
the same to the diaphragm ; and as this hiss- 
ing sound, in pronouncing some of the conso- 
nants, passes downwardly from the mouth. I 
introduce a notch or orifice, at i, in the lower 
part of the speaking-tube 7t, so that, the sound 
passing down through the slot and striking 
the sharp edges of the slot, the hissing sounds 
are intercepted and cut and turned into vibra- 
tions, and these, acting upon the diaphragm, 



increase enormously the distinctness and vol- 
ume of the hissing sounds at the receiving- 
instrument. 

In spcaking : tubes where there is no slot the 
air ejected in pronouncing hissing consonants,, 
having no escape, causes the diaphragm to 
bulge outward, and so lessen the resistance 
of the circuit, and not transmit the hissing 
sounds except when exceedingly loud. A large 
hole in the tube near the diaphragm prevents 
the bulging of the diaphragm ; but it does not 
increase the effect of the hissing sounds, but 
on the contrary weakens them, as well as the 
vowel-sound. 

It is obvious that many modifications of the 
mouth-piece maybe made so long as the holes 
or slots are located so that their edges cut 
the hissing sounds for the purpose set forth. 
A tube with a hole or slot, t, having a sha:p 
edge between the mouth-piece and diaphragm, 
as in Fig. 2, may be used. 

I have found that mica, owing to its beiig 
composed of innumerable layers of thin sheets, 
does not give a ringing sound or harmonics 
like most other substances which have equal 
strength, rigidness, &c, especially metals, and 
it is not affected, except in an unimportant ex- 
tent, by the heat and moisture from the mouth ; 
neither does it stretch like metal. All these 
properties are essential in a speaking - tele- 
graph for insuring permanency and absence 
of false vibrations or harmonic responses, and 
for obtaining perfect articulation. 

Animal membranes are inconstant, and are 
too sensitive to heat and moisture, and are 
constantly stretching. I use a spring in the 
center of the diaphragm, which is somewhat 
weaker than the diaphragm, and this is for 
the purpose of allowing tlie diaphragm to have 
a more free movement, the spring serving to 
take up by its elasticity the effect of the sud- 
den check of the diaphragm when the fiber has 
been compressed too greatly by loud speaking. 

The adjusting-post d, by preference, is made 
so that the disk is brought toward the dia- 
phragm without being turned, so as to pre- 
vent disturbing the fibrous tension-regulator. 

It is obvious that many devices (other than 
the mere pressure of the diaphragm against 
the conducting-fiber) may be used to secure 
the fiber. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. In an instrument for transmitting electric 
impulses by sound, a diaphragm or tympan 
of mica, substantially as set forth. 

2. In an instrument for transmitting electric 
impulses by sound, the combination, with a 
diaphragm or tympan, of an electric tension- 
regulator of fiber and electric conducting ma- 
terial, substantially as set forth. 

3. An electric tension-regulator composed of 
elastic fibrous and electric conducting material. 

4. The combination, in an electric instru- 
ment actuated by sound, of a diaphragm or 
tympan, a conductor, and an electric tension- 
regulator composed of elastic fiber and elec- 
tric conducting material. 



203,015 



3 



5. Tlie combination, "with an electric ten- 
sion-regulator composed of fiber and electric 
conducting material, of a variable presser act- 
ing upon sucli fiber, substantially as set forth. 

G. The combination, with a diaphragm or 
tympan of mica, of an electric conductor and 
pins of solder passing into holes in the mica 
to secure said conductor, substantially as set 
forth. 

7. In an instrument for transmitting electric 
impulses by sound, a resonant case having an 
opening near the mouth-piece, substantially 
as and for the purposes set forth. 



8. In an instrument for transmitting and re- 
producing the human voice or other sound, a 
closed telegraphic circuit containing a battery 
and compressible elastic material operated by 
the sound, for increasing and decreasing the 
resistance to the battery-current, substantially 
as set forth. 

Signed by me this lGth day of August, A. 
D. 1877. 

THOS. A. EDISOK 

Witnesses: 

William G. Mott, ■ 
Chas. II. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Speaking-Telephone. 

No. 203,016. Patented April 30, 1878. 




.N. PETERS, PHOTO-UTHOGRAPHER, WASHINGTON, D C 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PAEK, NEW JEESEY, ASSIGNOE TO WESTEEN 
UNION TELEGEAPH COMPANY, OF NEW YOEK, N. Y. 

IMPROVEMENT IN SPEAKING-TELEPHONES. 



Specification forming part of Lettei3 Patent No. 203,016, dated April 30, 1878; application filed 

March 7, 1878. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, in the county of Middlesex and 
State of New Jersey, have invented an Im- 
provement in Acoustic Telegraphs, (Case No. 
151,) of which the following is a specification : 

The object of this invention is to transmit 
and receive oral communications over tele- 
graphic wire by sound. 

The invention relates to an arrangement of 
devices for transmitting two classes of sig- 
nals — one by the vibrations of the voice and 
the other by a key or switch for signaling the 
distant station. 

In my application No. 141 for Letters Pat- 
ent, filed July 20, 3877, I have shown a car- 
bon disk acted upon by the vibrations of a 
diaphragm to produce rise and fall of electric 
tension upon the line, such carbon disk being 
in the main-line circuit $ and in my applica- 
tion No. 146, filed December 13, 1877, 1 have 
shown a rheostatic device acted upon by the 
diaphragm to produce rise and fall of tension 
in the primary circuit of an induction-coil. 

I find that the carbon heretofore employed 
in connection with a diaphragm is not adapt- 
ed to use in the primary circuit of an induc- 
tion-coil, because its resistance is too great, 
and the necessary rise and fall of tension is 
not' produced. 

If the carbon is mixed with other substances, 
so as to separate the particles, the rise and fall 
of tension can be obtained; but its resistance 
is too great to be used in the primary circuit 
of an induction-coil. 

I have discovered that lamp-black obtained 
from the combustion of very light hydrocar- 
bons, such as gasoline or naphtha, can be used 
for the aforesaid purpose. 

I select from lamp-black thus made only the 
very blackest portions, and then place the 
same in a mold, and subject it to a very pow- 
erful pressure, sufficient to consolidate the 
same, and place it in a correspondingly-shaped 
cavity contiguous to the diaphragm, with a 
piece of cork or a piece of rubber intervening 
between the same and the diaphragm, and 
connect the disks of platina foil that are used 
at each side of the carbon in the primary cir- 
cuit of the induction-coil, and obtain from the 



pressure resulting from the motion of the dia 
phragm the necessary rise and fall of tension 
without the great resistance heretofore insep- 
arable from the carbon, in said circuit. 

I will now describe the action of the appa- 
ratus. 

A at station 1 is the carbon -transmitter. 9 
is the body of the telephone. 10 is the cap 
for securing the diaphragm tightly. 8 is a 
piece of cork and rubber tube secured to the 
diaphragm. The rubber tube rests, when 
properly adjusted for speaking, against an 
ivory disk, 7. The ivory disk rests upon a 
disk of platina foil resting upon a button of 
lamp-black carbon, 6. This, in its turn, rests 
upon the platinized surface of the rod 5, which 
is adjustable to and from the diaphragm by 
the right and left hand screws 3 and 4. 

The platina on the top of the carbon disks 
next to the diaphragm is connected to a bind- 
ing-post, and to the other binding-post a wire 
connects with the rod 5. Thus the circuit 
must first pass to the upperplatinaand through 
the carbon to the lower plate. 

The vibrations of the diaphragm subject the 
carbon to different pressures, according to the 
amplitude of motion resulting from the sound- 
waves, and this difference of pressure varies 
the resistance offered by the carbon to the 
passage of the current, and produces a rise 
and fall of electric tension. 

The instrument A* is included within the 
primary circuit of the induction-coil DE. D 
is the primary wire of the coil, and is wound 
on the outside of the secondary coil E. C is 
a switch, which, when moved to the right in 
contact with 15, places the transmitter A in 
the primary circuit containing the battery K 
and coil D. When the switch is in the center, 
the primary circuit is open and the apparatus 
is ready for the reception of a call-signal. 
When the switch is turned to the left, at 16, 
the instrument A is thrown out of circuit, 
and the battery only is connected to the pri- 
mary coil D. 

The movement of the switch from 36 several 
times serves to open and close the primary 
circuit and throw a powerful induced current 
into E, and then to the line. 

The polarized relay F, coil E, and receiving* 



2 



instrument B are all placed in the main-line 
wire at both stations. The powerful current 
thrown into the secondary coil and line by the 
movement of the switch C from 16 works the 
tongues of both polarized relays F in unison 
with the switch. The tongues, closing against 
their contact-points, close a local circuit con- 
taining a call-bell, H. 

The same battery K that is employed with 
the telephones is utilized to ring the bell. 
The connections for the transmitter A are 
from the battery K, by wire 20, to 21, then 
through the telephone A to wire 22, and from 
22. to 15, through the switch-lever C, to the 
primary coil D and to wire 23, back to battery, 
This is the connection for transmitting and 
receiving telephonically. When not thus work- 
ing, the switch is placed in the central posi- 
tion between 15 and 16. When in this posi- 
tion, if the switch of the distant station is 
moved to operate the call, the tongue of F 
closes the local circuit at g; thence, by wire 
24, to battery K, and through K to wire 25; 
thence through the magnets of the bell-call to 
wire 26, and then through the tongue of the 
polarized relay. 

When the switch G is moved to work the 
distant call it is brought into contact with 16, 
and the current passes from K, by wire 20, to 
16; thence through C to the primary wire D; 
thence to 23, back to the battery K, setting 
up a powerful induced current in the coil E 
and line. 

I will mention that it is not necessary to use 
a polarized relay, as an unpolarized relay of 
the ordinary character may be used, as 'the 



current due to the opening of the primary 
circuit is much the strongest; but the lever of 
the unpolarized relay should be light and the 
spool very short. It is not even necessary to 
use the call-bell H in many instances, when 
the terminal is very quiet, as the sound given 
by the polarized relay itself is sufficient; or a 
small bell may be worked by the tongue. 

The tongue of a polarized relay should be 
biased, so that it will always be away from the 
point g, except when moved by the signaling- 
currents, so as to prevent short-circuiting the 
battery K when transmitting telephonically. 

By employing two cells and a considerable 
resistance in the magnets upon the call-bell, 
it is not essential to bias the tongue; but it 
may be made to respond to both positive and 
negative, a shunt from one cell being used to 
furnish current to the call-bell. 

I claim as my invention— 

1. The combination of transmitter A, coils 
D E, switch C, polarized relay F, bell H, bat- 
tery K, and circuits, arranged and operating 
substantially as herein set forth. 

2. In combination with a telephonic and the 
primary circuit of an induction-coil, the but- 
ton of lamp-black earbon, prepared as set forth, 
and placed in the primary circuit, substantially 
as and for the purposes set forth. 

Signed by me this 28th day of February, 
A. D. 1878. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Harold Serrell, 

CrEO, T. PlNCKNEY. 



No. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Telephone Call-Signal. 



203,017. 



Patented April 30, 1878. 




PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHER, WASHINGTON, C. 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO WESTERN 
UNION TELEGRAPH COMPANY, OF NEW YORK, N. Y. 

IMPROVEMENT IN TELEPHONE CALL-SIGNALS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 203,017, dated April 30, 1878 ; application filed 

March 4, 1878. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, in the county of Middlesex and 
State of New Jersey, have invented an Im- 
provement in Telephone-Calls, (Case No. 152,) 
of which the following is a specification : 

The object of this invention is to provide a 
simple apparatus for a signal-call on a tele- 
phonic circuit. 

The invention consists in a stand for the re- 
ceiving -instrument and a swinging metal 
lever, the end of which comes into contact 
with the diaphragm, so that it is thrown from 
it violently when a strong wave or current 
passes over the line or through the magnet 
of the receiving-instrument. This lever, in 
returning, strikes the diaphragm a blow, and 
produces a sharp penetrating sound like that 
of a Morse sounder, and this may be heard in 
all parts of a large room. 

I have heretofore shown, as in Case No. 146, 
an induction-coil in connection with a tele- 
phone. I arrange a switch between the local 
and main-line circuits, in such a manner as 
to vary the electric tension on the bine by 
moving such switch, and thereby operating 
the call at the distant station ; and I prefer 
to employ a peculiarly-constructed induction 
apparatus, in which there is a fine wire wound 
helically around a larger wire, and then the 
, two are wound to form a helix. The larger 
wire is in the local circuit, and forms the pri- 
I mary induction-coil, and the induced current 
is set up in the finer helix. 

If a soft-iron bar passes through the coil, its 
inductive force is increased; but the clearness 
of the sound received upon the telephone is 
lessened thereby. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a diaphragm of 
the circuit-connections, and Fig. 2 shows the 
induction-coil separately. 

A is the receiving - instrument, provided 
with a diaphragm and a magnet for giving 
motion to it. This is included in the main 
line a a a a. 

C is the primary coil; D, the secondary coil, 
which latter is included in the main-line cir- 
cuit, e is the sounderdever, resting upon the 



diaphragm of A. X is a rack or stand for 
holding both the receiving and transmitting 
instruments when not in use. S is a switch. 
When it is turned to the point 1, the trans- 
mitter B is included in the primary circuit 
with coil C and battery Q, and the transmit- 
ter serves to increase and decrease its resist- 
ance when the diaphragm is vibrated by sound. 

There is a carbon disk, through which the 
current passes, and it produces more or less 
resistance, according to the amplitude of vi- 
bration of the diaphragm, causing greater or 
less pressure on the carbon. 

When the switch-lever S is moved to the 
point 2, the secondary wire of the coil is short- 
circuited. It remains in this position for the 
reception of a call-signal from the distant sta- 
tion. Were the coil D left in circuit it would 
tend to weaken the signal-call by its resistance 
to the passage of the current from the distant 
station. 

When the switch-lever is at the point 3, the 
current from the battery Q passes only through 
the primary wire. By connecting and dis- 
connecting the switch S from this button 3, 
powerful induction- waves are thrown into the 
line, and act upon the distant receiver to at- 
tract and repel the lever e and give the sig- 
nal-call. 

Fig. 2 illustrates the construction of my im- 
proved induction-coil. In this the large wire 
C forms the primary coil, and the fine wire D, 
wound around the same, forms the secondary 
coil, the latter being placed in the main cir- 
cuit and the former in the local circuit, as 
heretofore explained. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. In combination withareceivingtelephone- 
instrument having a diaphragm and electro- 
magnet, aswingingleverplacedwithitsmoving 
end in contact with the receiving-diaphragm, 
and a switch or key for increasing the elec- 
tric current and operating the lever as a 
sounder or call upon the diaphragm, substan- 
tially as set forth. 

2. In combination with the telephone-trans- 
mitter B and receiver A, the induction-coil 
C D, battery Q, local circuit, switch S, and 



a 



203,01? 



circuit-connections, substantially as and/ for | 
the purposes set forth. 

3. In combination with the main-line cir- 
cuit and local circuit, and the telephonic in- 
strument, the induction-coil composed of two 
wires, the largest of which is surrounded by 
a finer insulated wire wound' helically, the 
two being then wound into a helix to form 
the induction-coil, substantially as set forth. 



Signed by me this 28th day of February, 
.. D. 1878. - 

THOS. A. EDISOK 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Telephone or Speaking-Telegraph. 

No. 203,018. Patented April 30, 1878. 

f. 







L — ^ J 




ill 


Mill 











iRTfl 




ERS. Ph«o-L»(, 0rw l,. r . W.jhingio,,, D 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PAEK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGN OE TO WESTEBN 
UNION TELEGBAPH COMPANY, OF NEW YOEK, N, Y. 

IMPROVEMENT IN TELEPHONES OR SPEAKING-TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 203,018, dated April 30, 1878 ; application filed 

December 13, 1877. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, in the State of New Jersey, have 
invented an Improvement in Speaking-Tele- 
graphs, of which the following is a specifica- 
tion. 

I make use of two or more cells containing 
a mobile fluid, and these fluids are insulated 
from each other, except when they come to- 
gether at a narrow opening or space, and thete 
is an electrode in each cell, and the diaphragm 
or other body vibrated by the atmospheric 
sound-waves regulates the opening or the press- 
ure at this point, so as to vary the electric ten- 
sion on the line to correspond with the sound- 
vibrations. 

In the drawings, Figure 1 is a vertical longi- 
tudinal section of an acoustic transmitter fitted 
with my improvement, and Fig. 2 is a cross- 
section at the line x x. 

B is a cylinderof insulating material, divided 
by a partition, b 1 , into two compartments or 
cells filled with a couducting-fluid. In each 
cell is an electrode of platina, carbon, or other 
conductors, one of which is connected to the 
line-wire and the other to the battery and earth. 
The top portion of the partition b' is slightly 
hollow, leaving a passage-way, 2, for the fluid 
and current to circulate from one cell to the 
other. 

Besting upon the face of the cylinder is a 
flexible head of mica, rubber, or other non- 
conducting material, e, impervious to the fluid, 
and over this is secured a cap, c, provided 
with a slot. When the cap c is securely fast- 
ened to the cylinder the diaphragm prevents 
any of the fluid from circulating from one cell 
to the other, except through the small aperture 
at 2 made by the curve on the end of the par- 
tition I)'. 

li is a box with a mouth-piece, A, and at one 
side of the box is secured the diaphragm i, and 
upon the diaphragm is a piece of cork, t, which 
extends outward from it and through the slot 
in the cap c on the head of the cylinder B, and 
comes in contact with the mica or rubber flexi- 
ble heads, to which it may be secured by a ce- 
ment, although this is not actually necessary. 



The operation is as follows: When the dia- 
phragm i is properly adjusted to the diaphragm 
in the cylinder B the space for the circulation 
of the fluid from one cell to the other is very 
narrow. If, now, the diaphragm is set in vibra- 
tion by a sound, the passage-way is increased 
and decreased in size at every vibration, thus 
increasing and decreasing the resistance to the 
passage of the current from one cell to the 
other, owing to the alteration in the size of 
the liquid couductor. If the amplitude of the 
diaphragm is very great, the space is nearly, 
if not altogether, closed at the forward move- 
ment, and widened to its fullest extent by the 
backward motion, and if the amplitude is small 
only a slight increase and decrease in size of 
the aperture takes place. According to the 
size of the opening, so there will be more or 
less resistance to the current passing through 
at this point, and there will be a correspond- 
ing rise and fall of electric tension on the line 
at this point. 

It is obvious that with a mobile fluid all the 
harmonical and other sounds incident to articu- 
lation act to produce corresponding changes 
of electric tension. 

The opening that connects one cell with the 
other is small, and at the side of the electrodes, 
in preference to being above them; hence the 
gas formed by decomposition of the fluid from 
transmitting does not interfere with the opera- 
tion nor produce extra sounds, and at the same 
time a great increase and decrease in the 
strength of the current is effected by the slight- 
est movement of the diaphragm. 

There are many forms of apparatus in which 
my improvement may be employed. 

In Fig. 7 the cylinder B is represented as 
standing vertically instead of horizontally, as 
in Fig. 1, which permits of the diaphragms e 
and c being dispensed with. 

In Fig. 3 1 have represented several narrow 
slits in the partition V between the cells, and 
a thin strip of metal, from the diaphragm % 
running dow r n at the side of the partition, and 
also slotted 5 but the slots in the normal posi- 
tion do not correspond ; hence by the vibration 
of the diaphragm the openings are increased 



2 203 

or lessened and the resistance to the electric 
current increased or decreased. A spring, o, 
may be used to hold the plate to the partition. 

Fig. 4 shows the partition V arranged hori- 
zontally, the passage-way from one cell to the 
other being controlled by a valve or plunger, 
I, arrauged at an aperture through the parti- 
tion. 

In Fig. 5 the passage-way is between two 
independent cells by means of a flexible tube, 
to, and the opening is increased or lessened by 
the movement of the diaphragm acting through 
a finger, n, that presses upon the flexible tube. 

I will mention that mercury may be used 
instead of an electrolyte, or a porous material, 
such as paper, may serve to connect the cells 
together, as in Fig. 6. 

s represents a pieceof porous material, such 
as paper or muslin, and the ends pass into 
liquid in the cells, so as to be kept moist by 
capillary attraction, and adjacent to this is a 
presser,_p, connected to the diaphragm or other 
vibrating body, so as to be moved by the same 
and press with more or less force upon the 
moistened strip and interrupt the passage of 
electricity more or less, according to the ampli- 
tude of vibration. 



1,018 

I do not herein claim a mica diaphragm, the 
same being set forth in my prior application 
No. 143, filed August 28, 1877; neither do I 
herein claim a device for effecting a rise and 
fall of electric tension by a motion derived 
from the diaphragm, that having been set 
forth in my prior application No. 130, filed 
April 27, 1877 ; and in my application No. 144, 
filed September 5, 1877, the electrodes are 
moved to vary the resistance to the electric 
current passing through a liquid. In the pres- 
ent instance the electrodes are stationary. 
I claim as my invention — 
In an acoustic-telegraph apparatus, the com- 
bination of two stationary electrodes immersed 
in two cells, a conducting-fluid in said cells, 
and a fluid-connection between such cells, and 
mechanism actuated by a sound-vibrated body 
for varying the dimensions of such liquid-con- 
nection and the conductivity of the same, sub- 
stantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 8th day of December, 
A. D. 1877. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



United States Patent Office 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO WESTERN 
UNION TELEGRAPH COMPANY, OF NEW YORK, N. Y. 

IMPROVEMENT IN TELEPHONES OR SPEAKING-TELEGRAPHS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 203,018, elated April 30, 1878; application filed 

December 13, 1877. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, in the State of New Jersey, have 
invented an Improvement in Speaking-Tele- 
graphs, of which the following is a specifica- 
tion. 

I make use of two or more cells containing 
a mobile fluid, and these fluids are insulated 
from each other, except when they come to- 
gether at a narrow opening or space, and there 
is an electrode in each cell, and the diaphragm 
or other body vibrated by the atmospheric 
sound-waves regulates the opening or the press- 
ure at this point, so as to vary the electric ten- 
sion on the line to correspond with the sound- 
vibrations. 

In the drawings, Figure 1 is a vertical longi- 
tudinal section of an acoustic transmitter fitted 
with my improvement, and Fig. 2 is a cross- 
section at the line x x. 

B is a cylinder of insulating material, divided 
by a partition, b', into two compartments or 
cells filled with a conducting-fluid. In each 
cell is an electrode of platina, carbon, or other 
conductors, one of which is connected to the 
line-wire and the other to the battery and earth. 
The top portion of the partition b' is slightly 
hollow, leaving a passage-way, 2, for the fluid 
and current to circulate from one cell to the 
other. 

Resting upon the face of the cylinder is a 
flexible head of mica, rubber, or other non- 
conducting material, e, impervious to the fluid, 
and over this is secured a cap, c, provided 
with a slot. When the cap c is securely fast- 
ened to the cylinder the diaphragm prevents 
any of the fluid from circulating from one cell 
to the other, except through the small aperture 
at 2 made by the curve on the end of the par- 
tition b'. 

li is a box with a mouth-piece, A, and at one 
side of the box is secured the diaphragm i, and 
upon the diaphragm is a piece of cork, t, which 
extends outward from it and through the slot 
in the cap c on the head of the cylinder B ? and 
comes in contact with the mica or rubber flexi- 
ble heads, to which it may be secured by a ce- 
ment, although this is not actually necessary. 



The operation is as follows: When the dia- 
phragm i is properly adjusted to the diaphragm 
in the cylinder B the space for the circulation 
of the fluid from one cell to the other is very 
narrow. If, now, the diaphragm is set in vibra- 
tion by a sound, the passage-way is increased 
and decreased in size at every vibration, thus 
increasing and decreasing the resistance to the 
passage of the current from oue cell to the 
other, owing to the alteration in the size of 
the liquid conductor. If the. amplitude of the 
diaphragm is very great, the space is nearly, 
if not altogether, closed at the forward move- 
ment, and widened to its fullest extent by the 
backward motion, and if the amplitude is small 
only a slight increase and decrease in size of 
the aperture takes place. According to the 
size of the opening, so there will be more or 
less resistance to the current passing through 
at this point, and there will be a correspond- 
ing rise and fall of electric tension on the line 
at this point. 

It is obvious that with a mobile fluid all the 
harmonical and other sounds incident to articu- 
lation act to produce corresponding changes 
of electric tension. 

The opening that connects one cell with the 
other is small, and at the side of the electrodes, 
in preference to being above them; hence the 
gas formed by decomposition of the fluid from 
transmitting does not interfere with the opera- 
tion nor produce extra sounds, and at the same 
time a great increase and decrease in the 
strength of the current is effected by the slight- 
est movement of the diaphragm. 

There are many forms of apparatus in which 
my improvement may be employed. 

In Fig. 7 the cylinder B is represented as 
standing vertically instead of horizontally, as 
in Fig. 1, whicb permits of the diaphragms e 
and c being dispensed with. 

In Fig. 3 1 have represented several narrow 
slits in the partition b' between the cells, and 
a thin strip of metal, from the diaphragm i 
running down at the side of the partition, and 
also slotted; but the slots in the normal posi- 
tion do not correspond ; hence by the vibration 
of the diaphragm the openings are increased 



2 203 

or lessened and the resistance to the electric 
current increased or decreased. A spring, o, 
may be used to hold the plate to the partition. 

Fig. 4 shows the partition b' arranged hori- 
zontally, the passage-way from one cell to the 
other being controlled by a valve or plunger, 
I, arranged at an aperture through the parti- 
tion. 

In Fig. 5 the passage-way is between two 
independent cells by means of a flexible tube, 
m, and the opening is increased or lessened by 
the movement of the diaphragm acting through 
a finger, n, that presses upon the flexible tube. 

I will mention that mercury may be used 
instead of an electrolyte, or a porous material, 
such as paper, may serve to connect the cells 
together, as in Fig. 6. 

s represents a piece of porous material, such 
as paper or muslin, and the ends pass into 
liquid in the cells, so as to be kept moist by 
capillary attraction, and adjacent to this is a 
presser, p, connected to the diaphragm or other 
vibrating body, so as to be moved by the same 
and press with more or less force upon the 
moistened strip and interrupt the passage of 
electricity more or less, according to the ampli- 
tude of vibration. 



,018 

I do not herein claim a mica diaphragm, the 
same being set forth in my prior application 
No. 143, filed August 28, 1877; neither do I 
herein claim a device for effecting a rise and 
fall of electric tension by a motion derived 
from the diaphragm, that having been set 
forth in my prior application No. 130, filed 
April 27, 1877 ; and in my application No. 144, 
filed September 5, 1877, the electrodes are 
moved to vary the resistance to the electric 
current passing through a liquid. In the pres- 
ent instance the electrodes are stationary. 
I claim as my invention — 
In an acoustic-telegraph apparatus, the com- 
bination of two stationary electrodes immersed 
in two cells, a conducting-fluid in said cells, 
and a fluid-connection between such cells, and 
mechanism actuated by a sound-vibrated body 
for varying the dimensions of such liquid-con- 
nection and the conductivity of the same, sub- 
stantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 8th dav of December. 
A. D. 1877. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Circuits for Acoustic or Telephonic-Telegraph. 

No. 203;019. Patented April 30, 1878. 




United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO WESTERN 
UNION TELEGRAPH COMPANY, OF NEW YORK, N Y. 

IMPROVEMENT IN CIRCUITS FOR ACOUSTIC OR TELEPHONIC TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 203,019, dated April 30, 1878 ; application filed 

February 21, 1878. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, in the county of Middlesex and 
State of New Jersey, have invented an Im- 
provement in Circuits for Acoustic Telegraphs, 
(Case No. 150,) of which the following is a 
specification : 

In telegraph-lines there are very often nu- 
merous wires running in the same direction 
upon the poles, and it has long been known 
that currents passing through one or more of 
said wires set up iuduced currents in the other 
wires. These ordinarily are harmless in the 
Morse and other systems of telegraphy; but 
where a wire for a telephone, acoustic, or speak- 
ing telegraph runs parallel to or within the 
field of the electric influence of another wire, 
there are false and confusing sounds at the 
receiving -instrument that greatly interfere 
with hearing the message sent upon such 
acoustic lines. 

The object of the present invention is to 
compensate, neutralize, and destroy the ex- 
traneous or induced currents from contiguous 
circuits, so that the messages will not be in 
any manner interfered with by false currents. 

The invention is primarily adapted to tele- 
phonic circuits, and is so described herein; but 
it may be used with any instruments where it 
is desirable to neutralize such extraneous cur- 
rents. 

The present invention consists in the com- 
bination, with the telephonic circuit or other 
circuit to be freed from external influences, of 
an induction-coil, connected with the contigu- 
ous circuits in such a manner that a reaction- 
ary induction is established in the telephonic 
line of a power corresponding and similar to 
the primary inductive action, but opposed to 
the same, so as to entirely oppose and neu- 
tralize the action of the same. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a diagram rep- 
resenting one of the forms in which the afore- 
said compensation is effected. The large coils 
c & are included in the telephonic circuit at 
each end of the line. In the coils are iron 
cores, surrounded by a primary coil, the ends 
of which may or may not be connected together, 
according to the compensation desired. 

The iron core extends outside of the coils 



some distance. I have shown compensation for 
two circuits only. These circuits, which I call 
"No. 1 n and "No. 2," running in close proximity 
to the telephone- wires for many miles, induce 
a momentary current in it every time the cir- 
cuits are opened or closed, the strength of 
which is proportionate to the proximity of the 
wires to each other and the number of miles 
that they run side by side. 

These induced currents are in one direction 
in closing the circuit, and the opposite direc- 
tion on opening the circuit. To neutralize the 
induced current from, say, No. 1 circuit, I place 
electro-magnets e e' at each terminal in the 
circuit of circuit No. 1. 

These magnets are then adjusted to approach 
the iron cores 1c 1c' until the induced current 
thrown into the coils c and c' and telephone- 
line by the action of the magnets e and is 
equal, but opposite to, the induced current 
from the circuit No. 1 thrown into the tele- 
phonic wire by running parallel to it. Thus a 
perfect compensation is attained. 

If the two lines run parallel for long dis- 
tances I connect the two ends of the primary 
coil on c and c 1 together, and thus retard the 
magnetism and demagnetization of the cores 
7i and consequently lengthen the induced 
currents thrown into c and & by the action of 
e' and e. 

Having thus compensated for circuit No. 1, 
the compensation for circuit No. 2 is exactly 
similar. If the latter circuit does not affect 
the telephone-circuit as strongly as No. 1, the 
electro-magnets / and f are placed a greater 
distance from Jc and Jc' ; the latter may be elon- 
gated, and compensation attained from many 
circuits by employing separate magnets in 
each circuit which affects the telephonic cir- 
cuit. 

Owing to the great diversity in the charac- 
ter of the induced currents thrown into tele- 
phonic wires from wires in close proximity — 
due to different lengths and the employment 
of different battery powers and systems of 
transmission — many methods to meet special 
conditions are necessary. Thus in Fig. 2, where 
the circuits 1 and 2 employ powerful batteries 
and reversals and many magnets are in cir- 
cuit, the induced currents thrown into the tele- 



2 203, 

phonic wire are exceedingly powerful; hence 
a more powerful means of compensation is 
necessary. 

In Fig. 2, g is an iron core, over which there 
are three or more coils — one for each line-cir- 
cuit. The coils 1 and 2 are in the ordinary or 
Morse circuits Nos. 1 and 2, while coil 3 is in 
the telephonic circuit. The coils are so wound 
and arranged, in relation to the induced cur- 
rents thrown into the telephone-wire by the 
proximity of the other wires that they will act 
in the iron core g to set up a magnetism therein 
that will cause a powerful induced current to 
pass into coil 3 and telephonic line opposite 
in direction to the induced currents in the tele- 
phonic line due to the proximity of the other 
wires. 

It is obvious that, these coils may be inserted 
at any number of points along the linej and 
that the intensity of the reverse currents will 
be proportionate to the intensity of the cur- 
rents exerting the inductive influence, and 
hence they will always be neutralized. 

In cables containing a number of wires 
there is not only dynamic induction, but static 
induction. The latter appears sooner than 
the former, and is of exceedingly short dura- 
tion, so that magnetic compensation alone is 
too sluggish. In Pig. 3 is shown a modifica- 
tion of Fig. 1 to meet this condition, which it 
does to a considerable extent, but not en- 
tirely. 

The induction-coils 1 and 2 are included in 
derived circuits from the line-circuits 1 and 2, 
that pass to the condensers c 3 and c\ and to 
the earth. The object of the condensers is to 
prevent any leakage of current from the cir- 
cuits 1 and 2, and at the same time to hasten 
the magnetizing and demagnetizing of the 
cores g, so that an induced current of moment- 
ary duration is set up in coil 3 to meet and 
compensate for the static current from the cir- 
cuits'! and 2. 

I will here mention that, to obtain perfect 
compensation, both the static and dynamical 
induced currents must be set up in the com- 
pensations so they will circulate in the tele- 
phonic wire in a direction opposite to those 
induced by proximity of the wires; and to ob- 
tain these conditions, both magnets and con- 
densers are necessary— the former to set up 
dynamical induction-currents, and the latter 
statical currents. 



,019 

In my apparatus, if current No 1 is opened 
there first appears a short wave of current due 
to static induction, then an interval, and then 
the dynamical inducted current appears, which 
gradually dies away to nothing; hence, a com- 
pensation which will eradicate the dynamical 
current will leave that due to static induction 
free to circulate, and this cannot be eradi- 
cated by an induced current from a magnet, 
because time is required to charge and dis- 
charge the cores and the consequent produc- 
tion of the induced current. 

Upon short circuits I use a coil with two or 
more wires, wound side by side upon a wooden 
bobbin, as shown in Fig. 4. One wire is 
placed in the telephonic circuit, while the 
others are placed in the circuits to be compen- 
sated for, and so connected therewith that the 
currents thrown into the telephonic coil are 
equal but opposite to those due to induction 
resulting from the wires running parallel. 

By employing large wires, and a large quan- 
tity of it, I am enabled to obtain nearly per- 
fect compensation, as the coils set up both dy- 
namical and statical currents, no iron cores 
being used to retard the appearance of the 
currents. 

Instead of the coil of several wires wound 
side by side, several long strips of tin -foil may 
be placed side by side and insulated from each 
other, and the currents passed through the 
strips in the same manner as if they were 
wires. 

Another method consists in providing the 
telephonic receivers with differential coils, and 
running another wire parallel with the tele- 
phonic wires, and including in it the subsid- 
iary coil. 

I claim as my invention — 
The method herein specified of compensat- 
ing in one circuit for induced currents from 
adjacent circuits, consisting in setting up a 
reactionary induction by an induction-coil 
connected with the adjacent circuit or circuits, 
substantially as set forth. 

Signed bv me this 13th day of February, A. 
D. 1878. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Ohas. H. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Perforating-Pen. 

No. 203,329, Patented May 7, 1878. 




J.PETERS, PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHER, WASHINGTON. D. C 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PABK, NEW JEBSEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN PERFORATING- PENS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 203,329, dated May 7, 1878; application filed 

April 23, 1877. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, in the county of Middlesex and 
State of New Jersey, nave invented an Im- 
provement in Perforating-Pens, of which the 
following- is a specification: 

This invention is an improvement upon and 
modification of the device patented to me, No. 
180,857, and dated August 8, 1876. 

The present invention relates to a means for 
reciprocating the needle that is used for per- 
forating the paper. 

I employ a motor that is revolved by foot 
or other convenient power, and gives motion 
to a shaft with universal joints that passes to 
the pen and revolves the mechanism that re- 
ciprocates the pen, and at the same time the 
universal joints allow the pen to be manipu- 
lated in writing or drawing. It is also pref- 
erable to employ a tube and sliding rod ex- 
tending from one universal joint to the other, 
that allows the distance to be increased or 
lessened between the universal joints. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is an elevation, 
illustrating the connection between the motor 
and the pen. Fig. 2 is a side view of the pen 
in larger size ; and Fig. 3 is a section of the 
tubular connection in magnified size. 

The wheel a is revolved by suitable power. 
It will generally be preferable to connect the 
same by a belt with a larger wheel, 6, and fly- 
wheel c, either above or below the table d, 
actuated by a treadle, f. 

The universal joint e is at one end of the 
shaft g, connecting the same to the shaft of 
the wheel a 7 and this shaft g extends to the 
universal joint h of the shaft Ic, It is prefera- 
ble to have this shaft g in two parts, one a tube, 
and the other a rod sliding within it, there being 
a groove or feather (see Fig. 3) that allows 
the one part to be revolved by the other, and 
at the same time the distance between the 



joints e and h can vary, to adapt the position 
of the pen to the place where the writing is be- 
ing performed. 

The shaft i is revolved with great rapidity 
by means of the train of gearing I m n extend- 
ing between the shaft Tc and the shaft i. The 
shafts of this train of gearing are supported 
in the light metallic frame above the tubular 
pen-holder o, within which is the needle s, that 
is reciprocated by a cam or eccentric, r, upon 
the shaft i. The guide t serves to maintain 
the upper end of the needle-holder in its proper 
position. The penetrating needle-point acts, 
as described in my aforesaid patent, to perfo- 
rate the paper in drawing or writing, and the 
subsequent printing from the perforated sheet 
is to be done in the manner described in said 
patent. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. The combination, with an autographic 
perforating-pen, and the cam or eccentric to op- 
erate the same, of the universal joints and shaft 
g, connecting and giving motion from a motor 
to the mechanism upon the pen, substantially 
as set forth. 

2. The extension-shaft g, made in two parts, 
one sliding within the other, and provided 
with universal joints at the ends, in combina- 
tion with a motor and a x>en formed of a re- 
ciprocating needle, a holder, and mechanism 
for moving the pen, substantially as set forth. 

3. In combination with the autographic per- 
forating-pen, the train of gearing upon the pen 
to increase the speed of the pen, and a motor 
connecting with the train of gearing upon the 
pen, substantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 18th day of April, A. D. 
1877. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Pneumatic Stenoil-P.en. 

No. 205,370. Patented June 25, 1878. 




United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MEXLO PARK, NEW JEESEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN PNEUMATIC STENCIL-PENS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 205,370, dated June 25, 1878; application filed 

March 26, 1877. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, in the county of Middlesex and 
State of New Jersey, have invented an Im- 
provement in Autographic Printing, of which 
the following is a specification: 

In Letters Patent granted to me August 8, 
1876, No. 180,857, an instrument is described 
for puncturing paper for use in autographic 
printing, consisting of a needle-pointed rod 
moving within a tube or holder, and recipro- 
cated by a cam and shaft actuated by an elec- 
tro-motor; and a reference is hereby made to 
said patent for a description of the applica- 
tion of said instrument and the manner of 
printing from the punctured sheet of paper. 

The object of my present invention is to 
make use of air, gas, water, or other fluid as 
the motor for actuating the reciprocating nee- 
dle-rod, whereby I am enabled to reduce the 
weight of the instrument, and consequently 
render it more convenient for use. 

In the drawings, Figure 1 is a vertical sec- 
tion of the instrument provided with a fan- 
wheel for the air or other fluid to act on. Pig. 
2 is an elevation of the pen-holder and section 
of the fan-wheel case. Pig. 3 shows the cam 
for reciprocating the needle-rod. 

a is the pen tube or holder, tapering to a 
point, &, at its lower end, and its upper end is 
screwed into the socket c and clamped by the 
nut d. e is the needle-pointed rod within the 
tube or holder a, and the needle-point/ should 
project slightly below the end of the point b 
when the rod e is at its extreme downward 
movement, so as to puncture the paper and be 
entirely within the tube at the reverse move- 
ment, in order that the pen can be moved in 



forming the letter or line, all substantially as 
set forth in the aforesaid patent. 

In Figs. 1 and 2, 1 have shown a case, A, 
upon the socket c, and within this case is a 
fan- wheel, i, upon a shaft, I, in screw-bearings 
attached to the sides of said case, and secured 
to this shaft is a cam, m, that acts upon the 
stock n at the upper end of the needle-rod e, 
and reciprocates said rod with more or less 
rapidity, according to the speed of rotation of 
the fan-wheel i. This fan-wheel may be driven 
by water admitted to the case h through the 
flexible tube t from any suitable supply, such 
as a connection from a street-main, or from a 
reservoir properly located, the fluid escaping 
by the pipe v after acting upon the wheel ; or 
air under pressure from a compressing appa- 
ratus may be used for driving the fan- wheel ; 
or the flexible tube t may be provided with a 
mouth-piece, so that the person using the in- 
strument may blow into the tube and case, and 
thus rotate the fan- wheel. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. In an instrument for puncturing paper 
for autographic printing, a needle-pointed rod 
reciprocated by a device constructed substan- 
tially as described, and operated by the action 
of air or other fluid, as set forth. 

2. In combination with the holder a and 
needle-rod e, the fan- wheel i, case h, shaft I, 
cam m, and flexible tube t, substantially as 
and for the purposes specified. 

Signed by me this 3d day of February, A, 
D. 1877. 

THOS. A. EDISON, 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Ohas. H. Smith. 



4o. 207,723. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Duplex Telegraphs. 

Patented Sept. 3, 1878. 




^2 (^jh^V^ri^t 



N.PETERS, PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHER, WASHINGTON, D C. 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWABK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR OP ONE-HALE 
HIS RIGHT TO GEORGE B. PRESCOTT, OF NEW YORK CITY. 

IMPROVEMENT IN DUPLEX TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification foriiing part of Letters Patent No. 207,?23, dated September 3, 1878; application filed 

September 1 3 1874. 



To all wJiom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the State of New Jersey, have in- 
vented an Improvement in Duplex Telegraphs, 
of which the following is a specification : 

Where two persons are sending and two re- 
ceiving, one at each end, the entire line is 
sometimes deranged by a signal from one of 
the receivers to repeat. My invention is made 
to allow either party that is receiving to in- 
terrupt the person sending to him, so that he 
is thereby warned to repeat, and that with- 
out interfering with the other message that is 
being sent or received. 

In the diagram drawing, a is the line ; b, 
the receiving relay-instrument, d is a helix 
around the same core as b; and this helix is 
in a circuit passing to the artificial line and 
rheostat e, and this rheostat is to be ad- 
justed to equal the line, so that the pulsation 
from the sending-station, acting in reverse in 
the helices b and d, produces no magnetizing 
effect in the core, but the pulsation from the 
distant station, passing along a, acts in b, un- 
balanced, and either produces the sound by 
the armature-magnet or else works a local cir- 
cuit and sounder. The pulsation received from 
the distant station passes by 3, /" and 4 to the 
earth-connection. 

_ The lever /is operated to give the pulsa- 
tions that are sent upon the line, and these 
pulsations divide at 5, passing equally through 
the helices g and h, thence through the helices 
b and d aforesaid. 

The helices g and li are of a differential polar- 
ized relay, the tongue or polarized armature- 
lever % of which forms a circuit-breaker in the 
local circuit Jc I m, and in this circuit the key 
I acts to open or close the circuit, and, by the 
electro-magnet m, operate the lever/ and semi 
the pulsations upon the line. 

The main battery o is connected by wires 
10 11 to closing-points 12 13, and the revers- 
ing-lever r has springs 14 15 and an insulated 
arm, s. When the key I is operated the lever 
/"closes 18 and 19, and with the lever r in the 
position shown the circuit is closed by 10 12 
s 15 to the ground, there dividing, part return- 
ing through e d h to 3, part going to distant 
station, thence by a b gto 3, whence the united 
currents pass by 3, 18, 19, 20, 14, r, 13, and 11 
to the battery. By these connections the 



pulsations are sent to the distant station and 
received there in a similar instrument. It 
will be apparent that at the sending-station 
the current divides at 5, and, passing through 
both g and h, the polarized armature will be 
retained in the normal position, with the cir- 
cuit of Jc I m closed, regardless of whether the 
current sent is reversed or not ; but the cur- 
rent from the distant station only acts in g; 
hence the polarized tongue is changed by the 
reversal of the battery-connection at the dis- 
tant station, so that if the receiver closes the 
key v he does not interfere with the party 
sending by the key I from his own station, but, 
the battery- connection being reversed, the 
differential relay at the distant station is 
changed by the change of polarity in g, and 
the party sending the message is warned to 
repeat by the fact that his own magnet m does 
not work, because the polarized tongue has 
broken the circuit of the magnet m, and it 
will not respond to his key I. It is to be re- 
marked that the receiving-operator only closes 
his key v sufficiently long to give the signal, 
and then releases it, so that the parts resum e 
their normal condition to allow of the mes- 
sage being again sent to him. The reversal 
of the polarity at the sending-station does not 
change the balanced condition of b d, nor make 
any difference in the action at the distant 
station, because that current sent is operative 
in b at the receiving-station, whether of one 
polarity or the other. 

I do not herein claim the construction or 
arrangement of the reversing lever or key r, 
except in combination with other portions of 
the apparatus, as hereinafter specified, as the 
same is fully described in another application 
of even date herewith, and designated as Case 
99. 

I claim as my invention — 

The differential polarized relay-magnet g h 
and local circuit containing the key ?, arma- 
ture-lever i, and magnet m, in combination 
with the reversing-key r and circuit-connec- 
tions, substantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 19th day of August, A. 
D. 1874. 

TITOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Citas. IT. Smith, 
Geo. T. Pincknev. 



No. 207J24. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Duplex Telegraph. 

Patented Sept, 3. 1878 




United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWABK, NEW JERSEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN DUPLEX TELEGRAPHS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 207,721, dated September 3, 1878; application filed 

December 28, 1674. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Duplex Telegraphs, of which the following 
is a specification: 

Duplex telegraphs have been made with an 
artificial line connected to a bridge, and a 
resistance and condensers have been used 
in such artificial line ; but the artificial line 
does not properly represent the telegraph-line, 
and there are inaccuracies in the action of the 
artificial line arising from the fact that the 
energy of the current sent is greatest near the 
sending-station and diminishes toward the re- 
ceiving-station, and the reaction or static dis- 
charge is in the same proportion, the last por- 
tion thereof being the weakest; but in the ar- 
tificial line the condensers discharge so nearly 
simultaneously that the static discharge from 
them does not properly balance the static dis- 
charge from the line. 

The first portion of my present invention 
relates to the arrangement of the condensers 
and rheostats composing the artificial line. 

The second portion of my invention relates 
to the combination of a retractile magnet with 
the armature of the receiving-magnet, the re- 
tractile magnet being so arranged as to release 
its action upon the said armature at the mo- 
ment of the reversal of polarity of the main 
battery. 

In carrying out the first part of my inven- 
tion, instead of making use of a single con- 
denser having a static capacity equivalent to 
that of the line, as has heretofore been the 
practice, I employ two or more separate con- 
densers, the number dependin g upon the length 
of the line, and having an aggregate capacity 
equal to that of the single condenser hereto- 
fore employed. 

It is well known that the static capacity, 
and consequently the charge of a long line, is 
greatest at the end adjacent to the battery, 
and decreases progressively from thence to 
the distant end, where it becomes nil. When, 
therefore, the line is discharged by disconnect- 
ing the battery, and connecting the same end 
to the earth, as in duplex transmission, the 
initial portion of tlie discbarge is the most 
powerful, after which it decreases rapidly un- 



til it becomes imperceptible, for the reason 
that the portion of the charge contained in the 
distant portion of the line is not only propor- 
tionately smaller in amount, but also has a 
greater length of line or resistance to pass 
through to reach the point of discharge. 

In order to produce a corresponding action 
in the artificial line, 1 employ a suitable num- 
ber of separate condensers, a a, of progres- 
sively-increasing capacity, and of which the 
aggregate capacity is equal to that of the line. 
For example, suppose the capacity of the line 
is represented by 1,G00, and four condensers 
were employed, as shown in the drawing, then 
the capacities of the respective condensers 
should be approximately 700, 500, 300, and 
100. Between the several condensers and. the 
line I also place rheostats b b, so adjusted and 
arranged that the condensers will be charged 
and discharged through resistances having to 
each other the relation of the numbers 1, 2, 
3, and 4. When arranged on this principle 
the charging and discharging of the group of 
condensers a a will correspond with that of 
the line with sufficient accuracy for all prac- 
tical purposes. This arrangement is applica- 
ble to all descriptions of duplex and multiple 
telegraphs. 

The line <?, wires e e, and connections from 
5 to 6 form the bridge, and in the bridge-wires 
e are the rheostats / /' and electro-magnets g 
(j 1 , and these electro-magnets neutralize the 
effects of the secondary currents from the re- 
ceiving-magnets placed between 5 and 6 in the 
bridge, which, were it not for these electro- 
magnets and their neutralizing discharge, 
would circulate in the circuit formed by e e 5 0, 
and cause the relay-magnets in such circuits 
to stick, or respond too slowly. The rheostats 
//'should be adjusted to properly regulate 
the resistance in e e. 

The double-coiled receiving-magnet 7i h' is 
worked by increased or decreased current from 
the distant station. I find that it is better to 
divide this magnet into two parts, so as to use 
short spools and obtain as great or greater 
power, with less resistance, than would arise 
if the whole of the wire were coiled on one core, 
and these magnets It W are at opposite sides of 
the armature-lever % and its fulcrum, so as to 
act in unison. * 



2 20? 

There is a second coil or spool, 7v 7c', to each 
core of the electro-magnets h V in a local cir- 
cuit, with a battery, 7, and adjustable rheo- 
stat, m. The action of these coils is so ad- 
justed by the rheostat that any currents that 
may leak into the line from the ground by im- 
perfect insulation or otherwise are neutral- 
ized, and for this purpose the poles of the bat- 
tery are to be properly connected, according to 
the character of the current leaking to the 
line. Thereby the line is better adapted to 
quadruples transmission, because if the action 
of the current from the distant station is varied 
by its strength being increased by an addition 
of the same polarity, or lessened by a leakage 
of opposite polarity, the effect is neutralized 
by the local circuit from I, and the coils Je ~k' 
acting uj)on the cores of the magnets li li' in a 
way to balance the effect on such cores by the 1 
leakages of the line. 

The armature-lever i operates the local cir- 
cuit of the battery o, and in this is the sounder 
jp, for receiving from the distant station, and 
to this sounder is also connected the local cir- 
cuit q, as explained in one of my previous ap- 
plications for patents. In this case the sound- 
er # responds according to the pulsations from 
the distant station, whether the same is a rise 
or decrease of tension; so, also, the sounder r 
in the local circuit from r' is operated by the 
polarized magnet s, according to the reversal 
of the currents from the sending-station, as 
before explained in my previous application. 

In the circuit between 5 and G is placed a 
second polarized magnet, t, and its armature 
is operated only by the reversal of the current, 
and it opens and closes the circuit from V 
through the retractile magnet u. This mag- 
net u takes the place of a spring to draw back 
the armature i. It is known that when a re- 
versal of the current takes place in an electro- 
magnet there is a moment of neutralization or 
no magnetism ; hence at that moment a spring, 
if used, pulls the armature back, and produces 
a false operation in the quadruples telegraph 
especially. The tongue of the polarized mag- 
net t in the circuit of the permanent retractile 
magnet u, being moved by reversal of current 



,?24 

on the main line, opens the circuit of u mo- 
mentarily, and then closes the same, so as to 
neutralize as far as possible the risk of a false 
movement of i by breaking the circuit of u at 
the instant of reversing the polarity. 

The galvanometer at v and a switch, v', to 
place it in circuit are useful in the adjustment 
of the rheostats and the balancing of the electric 
energies. When the resistance of the arti- 
ficial line is equal to that of the main line there 
will not be any current through the bridge; 
hence the galvanometer will remain uninflu- 
enced. 

The finger-keys 10 and 11 are employed to 
open and close local circuits to the electro- 
magnets 12 and 13, and these in turn operate 
the circuit-preserving keys 14 and 15, that are 
connected with the two-part battery 16, earth- 
wire 17, and line-wire 18, in a manner similar 
to that heretofore employed by me, so that one 
operator's message is indicated by the reversal 
of the polarity of the current, and the others 
by producing a rise and fall in the tension of 
the current sent. 

The particular transmitting devices shown 
are not herein claimed, being included in my 
application designated as Case 99, filed Septem- 
ber 1, 1874. 
I claim as my invention — 

1. In a duplex telegraph, an artificial line 
provided with two or more condensers of vary- 
ing capacity, and alike number of rheostats of 
varying resistance, for regulating the charge 
and discharge of the same to correspond with 
that of the main line, substantially as and 
for the purpose specified. 

2. The retractile magnet u, combined with 
the magnet h and polarized magnet t, that acts 
to momentarily break the circuit of u when the 
reversal of polarity takes place, substantially 
as set forth. 

Signed by me this 14th day of December, 
A. D. 1874.' 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Speaking-Telephone, 

No. 208,299. Patented Sept. 24, 1878. 



c 




PETERS, PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHER, WASHINGTON, D. C. 



United States Patent Office. 



rHOMAS A. EDISON, OP MENLO PARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO WESTERN 
UNION TELEGRAPH COMPANY, OF NEW YORK, N. Y. 

IMPROVEMENT IN SPEAKING-TELEPHONES. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 208,299, dated September 24, 1878; application filed 

July 20, 1877. . 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, in the county of Middlesex and 
State of New Jersey, have invented an Im- 
provement in Speaking-Telegraphs, of which 
the following is a specification : 

In acoustic telegraph -instruments there is 
comparatively little difficulty in transmitting 
musical tones, because the pulsations vary in 
number per second, and the distant reed or 
other receiving device that is of the same tone 
I responds ; but in speaking the tones of the voice 
[ are often in the same musical key, and hence 
there is difficulty in obtaining a clear response 
to the words spoken. 

My invention relates to the transmission of 
varying strengths of current, according to the 
strength of the tone, and to a certain extent 
I regardless of the musical key; and at the re- 
I ceiving- instrument a corresponding tympan 
■ receives the proper movement to produce a 
corresponding sound, through the agency of 
an electro-magnet operating on the same. 

In the drawing, Figure 1 is a plan view of 
the transmitting and receiving devices, par- 
tially in section. Fig. 2 is a sectional view of 
a modification in the transmitting device ; and 
Fig. 3 is a section, in larger size, of a portion 
of the transmitting apparatus. 

The transmitting device consists of the re- 
sonant case a, with a tympan, b, over the end, 
the same being, by preference, a sheet of metal ; 
and c are tightening rings and screws, where- 
by the tension of the tympan is regulated. A 
similar resonant case, «/, tympan b', and tight- 
eners d are provided at the receiving-station, 
and the two should be made of the same, or 
I nearly the same, character throughout, in or- 
der that the resonant conditions may corre- 
I spond. 

1 There are two or more contact-points at the 
I transmittal g-station. In Fig. 2, 1 have shown 
I two, numbered 1 and 2; and in Fig. 1 there 
I are three, numbered 1, 2, 3. These contact- 
I points are so constructed and arranged in the 
I electric circuit that when the voice acts in the 
I resonant case and vibrates the tympan more 
I or less, according to the strength, volume, or 
I tone of the voice, the electrical condition of the 



line will be correspondingly influenced-— that 
is to say, a feeble tone will produce but a fee- 
ble electrical response on the line, and the re- 
verse; hence the electro-magnet h, acting at 
the receiving end, will exert a power to vibrate 
the tympan b' proportionate to the voice-power 
at the transmitting-station. 

In Fig. 1 one pole of the main battery M B 
is connected to the earth, and the other to the 
tympan b. The line I is connected, through 
the rheostats R 1 , R 2 , and R 3 , to the respective 
contact-springs and these press toward the 
points 12 3, respectively, but are withdrawn 
by the disk-pointed screws k, so as to be in 
proper proximity to the respective points. 
The point 2 closes the circuit, through R 2 , with 
the smallest vibration of the tympan. The 
rheostat R 2 is of the greatest resistance, and 
hence but feeble pulsations pass to the line. 

When the amplitude of vibration is increased 
by the strength of the sound, the circuit is 
closed, through R l , by 1, and this rheostat is 
adjusted to offer less resistance; hence a 
stronger current passes to the line, and when 
the contact at 3 is closed the strongest cur- 
rent is sent on the line, because R 3 offers but 
little resistance. By this device the current 
is proportioned to the volume of sound acting 
upon the tympan of the resonant case, and 
the rmlsations of that current respond to the 
vibrations of the tympan. Hence the electric 
pulsations become the reflex of the voice, and 
act in the distant magnet and upon the dis- 
tant tympan to reproduce the same sounds. 
The number of contact-points and rheostats 
may be increased, if desired. 

The electro-magnet helix u, rheostat R 4 , and 
ground - connection serve to neutralize the 
static charge and discharge of the line and 
self-induction of the instruments. At the re- 
ceiving-station, the armature m 2 is a spring- 
bar secured in standards n 2 at each end, and 
it is connected adjustably to the center of the 
diaphragm, and it vibrates by the action of 
the electro-magnet h, placed in front of it, and 
through the helix of this magnet the current 
passes from the line to the earth, or the reverse. 
This armature m 2 responds with greater rapid- 
ity and delicacy than a swinging armature, and 



2 208, 

there is no risk of its movement being so great 
as to allow it to touch the cores of the electro- 
magnet and adhere to them. 

In Fig. 2, the battery B l is connected be- 
tween the adjusting-screw m and the standard 
m l of the spring 6, and the battery B 2 is in a 
circuit between the adjusting-screw n and the 
standard n l of the spring 7 j and the screws m 
and n are insulated, but connected in the me- 
tallic circuit passing through the standards 
m 1 w 1 , the batteries, and the line L to the 
ground G. It will now be evident that when 
at rest the respective batteries are short-cir- 
cuited through 6 m and 7 n, and hence do not 
act upon the line ; but when thetympan is vi- 
brated the contact of 1 or 2 with its adjusting- 
screw is broken, and the battery-current passes 
to the line ; and if the contact of both be si- 
multaneously broken, the line-current is from 
both batteries and correspondingly pulsated. 
By this construction of circuit-closer the quan- 
tity of battery-power is increased in propor- 
tion to the increase of the power or volume of 
the voice in speaking. 

Several of these contact-points and batter- 
ies may be used instead of two. 

As I have shown in my previous application, 
No. 130, filed April 27, 1877, a diaphragm with 
means for regulating the tension thereof, no 
claim is herein made to such device. 

In my application No. 130, filed April 27, 
1877, 1 have shown a means for producing a 
rise and fall of electric tension by the vibra- 
tions of a diaphragm. j and in my application 



,299 

No. 145, filed December 13, 1877, 1 have shown 
an armature-plate, an electro-magnet for the 
same, and a closed circuit to the source of un- 
dulatopy electric energy. It is therefore to be 
distinctly understood that I do not, in this 
present application, make any claim to any 
such devices, but limit my claim hereunder to 
devices that are not shown in either of said 
applications. 
I claim as my invention — 

1. The combination, with the tympan ar- 
ranged to respond to the human voice, of two 
or more contact-points operated by such tym- 
pan and the electric circuits, substantially as 
specified, whereby the current passing upon 
the line is pulsated in unison with the vibra- 
tions of the tympan and its volume propor- 
tionately increased or decreased, substantially 
as set forth. 

2. The combination, with the resonant case 
and tympan, of two or more contact - points 
and rheostats, adjusted substantially as speci- 
fied, to regulate the strength of the electric 
pulsations passing upon the line, as set forth. 

3. The combination, with the diaphragm 
and resonant tube, of an electro-magnet and 
a spring- armature that is supported at both 
ends, substantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 16th dav of July, A. D. 
1877. 

THOS. A. EDISON 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Harold Serrell. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Quadruple! Telegraph 'Repeaters. 

No. 209,241. Patented Oct. 22, 1878. 




Cttty 



united States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF NEWABK, NEW JEESEY, ASSIGNOR OF ONE -HALF 
HIS EIGHT TO GEOEGE B. PEESCOTT. 

IMPROVEMENT IN QUADRUPLEX-TELEGRAPH REPEATERS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 209,241, dated October 22, 1878; application filed 

March 23, 1875. 

Case No. 113. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Newark, in the county of Essex and State of 
New Jersey, have invented an Improvement 
in Quadruplex Telegraphs, of which the fol- 
lowing is a specification : 

The object of this invention is to repeat 
from one quadruplex circuit into another quad- 
ruplex circuit. 

In my present invention I make use of two 
quadruplex circuits, in which the signals are 
made by rise aud fall of tension in one relay- 
magnet, and by change of polarity in the 
other relay-magnet, which is polarized. The 
modes of connecting and operating have been 
fully set forth in applications heretofore made 
by me. 

The present improvement relates to the con- 
nections from one quadruplex telegraph to 
another, whereby the circuits work into and 
operate each other, so that the messages . are 
repeated automatically in one circuit by the 
receiving - instrument of the other circuit, 
instead of the finger-key being operated by 
hand. 

The entire apparatus and connections for 
repeating, as aforesaid, are shown in the dia- 
gram, which, although it appears complicated, 
is very simple. One line, L, comes, for in- 
stance, from New York to one set of instru- 
ments at an intermediate station — say Buf- 
falo — and the other line, L, extends to the dis- 
tant instruments — say at Chicago — in the other 
direction. 

The keys and instruments are duplicated 
and exactly the same, only there are two dis- 
tinct sets of instruments. 

Suppose that a message over the wire L 
from Ne\v York acts by rise and fall of ten- 
sion in the relay-magnet M, and that this mes- 
sage is repeated into the sounder or receiving- 
instrument g'. If the switch 40 in the local 
circuit of the battery/' is closed, the message 
goes no farther ; but if the switch 40 is open 
the circuit of the battery /' extends to the 
electro-magnet c, the switch of the key a being 
open. Thereby the message received at M on 
one line is repeated by c and K into the next 



line. So, in like manner, the message received 
from New York in the differential magnet D 
M and repeated in the sounder n will go no 
farther if the switch 42 is closed ; but if the 
switch 42 is open the message will be repeated 
to Chicago at the key b by the magnet d and 
key E K, that reverses the circuit in the same 
manner as if the finger-key b were operated. 

Of course, by opening the switch 41 the 
message coming over the line L from Chicago 
and received in M will be repeated to New 
York, and the same thing will occur in rela- 
tion to the message received in D M from 
Chicago if the switch 43 is closed. Thus one 
or more messages may be automatically re- 
peated in long lines without interfering with 
the working of the other portions of the quad- 
ruplex instruments in either direction from the 
intermediate station. 

In an application for Letters Patent filed by 
me September 4, 1874, Case 99, circuit-preserv- 
ing keys for changing the polarity of the cur- 
rent and for increasing or decreasing the 
electric tension, like those shown in this ap- 
plication, and instruments for responding to 
the pulsations sent by these keys are shown. 
I therefore do not herein lay any claim to the 
same. 

What I claim is — 

1. In combination with two main-line cir- 
cuits, each capable of quadruplex operation, 
the repeating-magnets, local circuits, switches, 
and connections, arranged substantially as set 
forth, so that either message may be repeated 
independently of other messages, substan- 
tially as set forth. 

2. The combination, with the receiving- 
sounders in one line, of repeating-instruments, 
local circuits and switches, and transmitting- 
instruments in the other line, arranged and 
operating substantially as and for the pur- 
poses set forth. 

Signed by me this 24th day of February, A. 
D. 1875. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Geo. D. Walker. 



T. A. EDISON, 

Assignor of one-half interest to G. B. Prescott. 

Quadruplex-Telegraph Repeater. 
No. 8,906. Reissued Sept. 23, 1879. 




United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PAEK, NEW JEBSEY, ASSIGNOB OF ONE- 
HALF INTEBEST TO OEOEOE B. PEESCOTT. 

IMPROVEMENT IN QU A D RU P LEX-TELE G RAPH REPEATERS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 209,241, dated October 22, 1878; Eeissne No. 8,906, dated 
September 23, 1879 ; application filed November 16, 1878. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, 
now of Menlo Park, in the county of Middle- 
sex and State of New Jersey, have invented 
certain new and useful Improvements in Quad- 
ruples Telegraphs, which improvements are 
fully set forth in the following specification, 
reference being had to the accompanying draw- 
ings. 

My present invention consists in certain im- 
provements upon the apparatus described in 
my application for Letters Patent filed on or 
about the 1st day of September, A. D. 1874, 
for improvement in duplex telegraphs, and 
designated as Case 99 ; and has for its object, 
first, to provide meaus of compensating the 
effects of static induction and discharge upon 
the instruments at the receiving-station when 
two sets of signals are transmitted simulta- 
neously in the same direction without inter- 
fering with the transmission of one or more 
sets of signals in the opposite direction ; sec- 
ond, to provide means whereby the adjust- 
ment of the balance at either station, in a sys- 
tem of duplex or quadruples telegraphy, may 
be conveniently effected without interference 
from the transmitting-instruments or batteries 
at the other station ; and, third, to provide 
means whereby two quadruplux circuits may 
be coupled together, so that two sets of sig- 
nals may be repeated from the first circuit 
into the second at the same time that two 
other sets of signals are being repeated from 
the second circuit into the first. 

In the accompanying drawings I have shown 
two complete sets of apparatus arranged for 
quadruples transmission, in order to properly 
illustrate the method of repeating from one 
set of apparatus to the other. As these two 
sets of apparatus are exact counterparts of 
each other, the same letters of reference have 
been applied to each, those pertaining to the 
right-hand set being distinguished by a prime 
mark. 

In my hereinbefore-mentioned application 
designated as Case 99, 1 have described a du- 
plex telegraph in which two independent sets 
of signals may be simultaneously transmitted 
over a telegraphic circuit in the same direc- 
tion, one instrument at the receiving-station 



responding solely to changes in the polarity 
of the current, and the other instrument 
solely to changes in the strength of the cur- 
rent. 

In my present invention the apparatus and 
method described in Case 99 are combined with 
the arrangement of circuits and method of si- 
multaneous duplex transmission in opposite 
directions set forth in Letters Patent of the 
United States granted to Joseph B. Stearns 
on the 12th day of November, A. D. 1872, No. 
132,932, and reissued on the 22d clay of June, 
1875, No. 6,508, by means of which combina- 
tion I am enabled to simultaneously transmit 
four independent sets of signals over one wire. 

When this combined apparatus, technically 
termed a " quadruples telegraph," is applied 
to a submarine cable or a land-line of consid- 
erable length, the correct operation of the sys- 
tem is materially interfered with by the phe- 
nomena of static induction and discharge 
which manifest themselves upon the receiving- 
instruments. The tendency of the return dis- 
charge from the outgoing currents is to pro- 
duce a false signal upon the receiving-instru- 
ments at the home station each time that the 
current is reversed, or the key-connection is 
changed from the battery to the earth. This 
effect is neutralized by the application of a 
rheostat and condenser to the artificial line 
in the manner fully set forth in Letters Patent 
of the United States No. 126,847, granted to 
Joseph B. Stearns on the 14th day of May, A. 
D. 1872, and reissued as No. 5,344 on the 1st 
day of April, 1873, to which reference is had. 

The effect upon the receiving-instruments, 
when two sets of signals are being simultane- 
ously received, of the static induction which 
arises from the incoming currents is entirely 
different and distinct from that caused by out- 
going currents, and requires a different method 
of compensation. The manner in which I 
have effected this compensation will be here- 
inafter set forth. 

Eeferring to the drawings, T x is a current- 
reversing or pole-changiug transmitter, which 
is operated, in the usual manner, by a finger- 
key, K x , and local battery. It is connected 
with the ground G at the point 1, and with 
the line at the point 2, and is so arranged that 



s 



8,906 



when in a position of rest the positive or zinc 
pole of the battery Ei is to line and the nega- 
tive or copper pole to the earth ; but when de- 
pressed the polarity of the battery with re- 
spect to the line and earth is reversed. T 2 
is a single-current transmitter, which, when 
depressed, simply connects the battery E 2 to 
the battery E,; and as the former is, say, three 
times the size or strength of the latter, the ef- 
fect of depressing the transmitter T 2 is simply 
to increase the strength of the current going 
to line irrespective of its polarity. 

One receiving-instrumentjE,, responds solely 
to changes in the polarity of the current trav- 
ersing itscoils without reference to its strength, 
while the other instrument, E 2 , responds solely 
to changes in the strength of the current with- 
out reference to its polarity. The two sound- 
ers S x and S 2 are, respectively, operated by 
the receiving-instruments E T and E 2 through 
the intervention of the local relays Lj and L 2 . 

The apparatus thus far described is essen- 
tially the same in construction and mode of 
operation as that described in my hereinbe- 
fore-mentioned application, Xo, 99; but in or- 
der to convert this into a quadruples appara- 
tus, it is necessary to combine it with some 
system of duplex transmission in opposite di- 
rections. 

I have shown in the drawings the hereinbe- 
fore-mentioned method patented by Joseph B. 
Stearns, in which the outgoing current from 
the transmitter T x divides at the point 3 be- 
tween the main line 3 4 5 and the artificial 
line 3 6 7. The receiving-instruments ~R X and 
E 2 are placed in a bridge-wire, 4 6, which is 
rendered neutral to outgoing currents in ac- 
cordance with a well-known law by so adjust- 
ing the artificial resistances or rheostats A, B, 
and X that the proportion of A to B is the 
same as that of the line to X. The electro- 
static capacity of the line is balanced by the 
condenser 0, which is attached to the artificial 
line, and is therefore charged and discharged 
simultaneously with the main line, the dura- 
tion of the discharge being regulated by means 
of the adjustable rheostat oc. This condenser 
is not affected by the incoming currents, as 
the resistance between the point 6 and the 
earth at 7 is so much greater by the way of 
the rheostat X than by the way of 3, 2, and 1 
that the position of the received current pass- 
ing by that route is inconsiderable. 

The effect of electro-static induction upon 
the alternate positive and negative signals 
sent by the transmitter T a and received by the 
instrument E x is to shorten them bv increas- 
ing the length of the neutral space which sep- 
arates them, and this effect increases in pro- 
portion to the square of the length of the line. 
The result is, that on a long line there is a 
tendency in the receiving -instrument E : to 
shorten dashes into dots and to obliterate 
dots altogether. Moreover, if a reversal oc- 
curs while a signal is being made upon the 
receiving-instrument E 2 , the armature of the 



latter often falls off for so great a length of 
time as to make a break in the signal. 

I have succeded in compensating this effect 
by placing a condenser, c, between the main 
and artificial liues, so that one set of its plates 
is in connection with a point in the main line, 
and the opposite set of plates in connection 
with a point in the artificial line, having the 
same potential with respect to outgoing cur- 
rents. When the receiving-instruments are 
placed in a bridge-wire, as shown in the draw- 
ings, the condenser may also be attached to 
the bridge-wire. It is obvious that in this po- 
sition it can only be charged and discharged 
by the action of iucoming currents. When, 
for example, a positive current is traversing 
the receiving-instruments, the condenser c re- 
ceives a positive charge, and at the movement 
of reversal gives it out again in advance of the 
arrival of the negative current from the distant 
station . This positive discharge passes through 
the receiving-instruments E x and E 2 in the re- 
verse direction, and produces the same effect 
upon them as a negative current, instantane- 
ously succeeding the termination of the posi- 
tive current, thus compensating the effect of 
static induction upon the received signals. 

The amount of charge iu the condenser c is 
regulated, as required, by means of the rheo- 
stat Y, which is inserted in the bridge-wire be- 
tween the points of connection of the con- 
denser, the charge being always in proportion 
to the resistance unplugged. 

In the system of quadruples transmission 
which has been described there is always a 
current upon the line, either positive or nega- 
tive, from the battery Ej, and this current, 
when arriviug from the distant station, ren- 
ders it impossible for the operator at the home 
station to adjust the resistances, or, as it is 
technically termed, "balance" the instruments. 
To avoid this difficulty I provide a three-point 
switch, X, which is placed between the point 
3 at the junction of the main and artificial 
lines and the transmitter %, so that by turn- 
ing the switch to connect the point 3 with the 
wire 8, instead of the wire 2, the line may 
be connected directly to the earth at Gr with- 
out including the battery E x . This arrange- 
ment enables the balancing to be effected with- 
out difficulty. 

In order to arrange two sets of quadruples 
apparatus upon two different lines, so that 
each set of signals may be repeated over the 
other line, it is necessary to connect the re- 
ceiving-instruments of each line to the corre- 
sponding transmitters of the other line, which 
is most conveniently done by means of the 
local circuits. Thus in the drawings the two 
sets of quadruples apparatus are supposed to 
be placed at Buffalo, the left-hand line going to 
Chicago and the right-hand line to Xew York. 
By tracing the connections (shown iu dotted 
lines) it will be observed that the local circuit 
of receiving-sounder Si is continuous with the 
local circuit of transmitter T'i, and in like man- 



§,906 



S 



ner the local circuit of sounder S 2 is continu- 
ous with the local circuit of transmitter T' 2 . 
In precisely the same manner S'j and S' 2 are 
connected with T x and T 2 . 

By closing the switches W 1 and W 2 the local 
circuits connecting S x and T' 3 and S 2 and T' 2 
may he divided, permitting each to work in- 
dependently. The corresponds g switches W'i 
and W 2 on the opposite side serve a similar 
purpose. In this manner either one of the 
four separate sets of signals which are being 
simultaneously transmitted over one circuit 
may be automatically repeated into the other 
circuit or not, at pleasure, by opening or clos- 
ing the corresponding switch. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. In a duplex or quadruplex telegraph, a 
condenser having one of its inductive sur- 
faces connected with the main line and the 
other with the artificial line at points of equal 
potential with reference to outgoing currents, 
so as to receive a charge from incoming but 
not from outgoing currents, substantially as 
and for the purpose specified. 

2. In a duplex or quadruplex telegraph, the 
combination of a main line, an artificial line, 
and a bridge- wire connecting the said lines at 
points of equal potential with reference to out- 
going currents, with a rheostat or artificial re- 
sistance placed in said bridge-wire, and a con- 
denser, the opposite inductive surfaces of which 
are connected with the said bridge- wire upon 
opposite sides of said rheostat, substantially 
as and for the purpose specified. 

3. In a quadruplex telegraph, the combina- 
tion at one station of two receiving-instru- 



ments, one operated by changes in the polarity 
of the current irrespective of its strength, and 
the other operated by changes in the strength 
of the current irrespective of its polarity, with 
two condensers, one of which receives a charge 
from outgoing but not from incoming currents, 
while the other receives a charge from incom- 
ing but not from outgoing currents, substan- 
tially as and for the purpose specified. 

4. In a duplex or quadruplex telegraph, a 
switch or commutator placed between the 
transmitting apparatus and the point of junc- 
tion of the main and artificial lines at the 
same station, and so arranged that the latter 
point may be disconnected from the transmit- 
ting apparatus and connected directly to the 
earth, substantially as and for the purpose 
specified. 

5. In combination with two main-line cir- 
cuits, each capable of quadruplex operation, 
the repeating-magnets, local circuits, switches, 
and connections, arranged substantially as set 
forth, so that any one set of signals may be 
repeated independently of any other set, sub- 
stantially as set forth. 

6. The combination, with the receiving- 
sounders in one line, of repeating-instruments, 
local circuits and switches, and transmitting- 
instruments in the other line, arranged and 
operating substantially as and for the purposes 
set forth. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Stockton L. Griffin, 
Martin ST. Force. 



T. A. EDISON 
Yooal Engine. 

No. 210,767. Patented Dec. 10, 1878. 





N. PETERS, PHOTO-UTHOGfiAPHER. WASH1NQT0N, 0. 



United States patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PARK, NEW JERSEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN VOCAL ENGINES. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 210,767, dated December 10, 1878; application filed 

November 27, 1878. 



To all wlwm it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, Middlesex county, State of New 
Jersey, have invented certain new and useful 
Improvements in Vocal Engines ; and do hereby 
declare the following to be a full, clear, and~ex- 
act description of the invention, such as will 
enable others skilled in the art to which it 
pertains to make and use it, reference being 
had to the accompanying drawings, which 
form part of this specification. 

The object of my invention is to transform 
the vibrations of a diaphragm or other body 
capable of being set in vibration by sound- 
waves into continuous rotation of a shaft, to 
act as a prime motor for various light mech- 
anisms. 

My invention consists in the combination, 
with a diaphragm sensitive to sound-waves, of 
a shaft between centers having a fly-wheel at- 
tached, and combining the diaphragm there- 
with by a friction-clutch, which, when recip- 
rocated by the vibration of the diaphragm, 
acts upon a shaft so as to continuously rotate 
the same when the diaphragm is actuated by 
sound-waves. 

Figure 1 is a front view of my apparatus. 
Figs. 2 and 3 are side views of the same. 

In Fig. 1, is the diaphragm, of any con- 
venient material, which is secured to the frame 
A by the ring D and screws XX. B is a 
mouth-piece for concentrating the air-waves 
upon the diaphragm. F is a cork secured to 
the center of the diaphragm. 2 is a rubber 
tube, into w T hich a pin is secured. This pin 
connects the rubber with the reciprocating le- 
per G , whose fulcrum is upon the shaft 3. 

P is a click or pawl resting upon the wheel 
H, and pressed against its surface by the 
spring O. K is another click, secured to the 
upright M, which serves to prevent a back- 
ward motion of the shaft. E is a fly-wheel, 
for storing, by momentum, the intermittent 
power, and thus keeping the shaft in continu- 



ous rotation. The shaft 3 runs in centers be- 
tween the uprights M and X. The whole is 
secured to the base W. 

The action is as follows : When the mouth 
is placed in proximity to the niouth-piece B, 
and several words are spoken, or a musical 
note given, the sound-waves, striking the dia- 
phragm, set it in vibration. This, in turn, re- 
ciprocates the lever G-, causing the shaft to be 
carried forward a small distance at every vi- 
bration, and the momentum of the fly-wheel 
transforms these minute impulses into con- 
tinuous rotation of the shaft. A small grooved 
pulley, 4, Fig. 1, is attached to the shaft, in 
the groove of which a continuous thread or 
band may pass to any light mechanism, and 
thus give motion. 

I do not wish to confine myself to any par- 
ticular mechanism for transforming the vi- 
bratory motion of the diaphragm into contin- 
uous motion, as a ratchet-wheel and click and 
many other well-known mechanical equiva- 
lents may be used. Neither do I wish to con- 
fine myself to a pulley and cord for connecting 
the prime mover to the apparatus to be set in 
motion, as a worm and wheel or toothed wheel 
or friction-wheel may be substituted instead. 

A large cone may be inserted in the mouth- 
piece B, for collecting extraneous sounds and 
causing them to move the diaphragm. 

This apparatus is useful for giving motion 
to clocks and other small apparatus requiring 
minute power. 

I claim as my invention — 

A vocal engine consisting of a diaphragm or 
other body capable of being set in motion by 
sound-waves, a shaft, and reciprocating mech- 
anism, substantially as and in the manner set 
forth. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Wi. Cabman, 
Chas. Batchelor. 




N. PETERS, PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHER, WASHINGTON. D C. 



I 



2 Sheets— Sheet 2. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Automatic-Telegraph. 

No. 213,554. Patented Mar. 25, 1879. 



tier. 




Ok. 



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\ \ •• 







N.PETERS. PHOTO-UTHOGRAPHER, 



I 

United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MEKLO PAEK, NEW JEESEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN AUTOMATIC TELEGRAPHS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 213,534, dated March 25, 1879; application filed 

March 26, 1877. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I. Thomas A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, in the county of Middlesex and 
State of New Jersey, have invented an Im- 
provement in Telegraphs, of which the fol- 
lowing is a specification : 

The object of this invention is to indent up- 
on a sheet of paper the characters received 
from a distant station, or the characters trans- 
mitted from the same station, and to use such 
sheet of paper to transmit the same message, 
thus providing an automatic device for trans- 
mitting the same message more than once 
from one station to different stations, and for 
retransmitting the message automatically 
where it has to pass through several offices to 
reach its destination. 

In the drawings, Figure 1 is a plan of the 
instrument. Fig. 2 is a side view with the 
indenting -plate in section; and Fig. 3 is a 
section of part of the indenting-plate and pin. 

In chemical telegraphs a sheet of paper has 
been clamped to a disk, and the stylus resting 
upon such paper has been moved gradually 
toward or from the center of the disk by a 
volute groove in the surface of the disk itself 
or in a separate plate. 

I make use of a volute groove in a disk or 
plate ; but the first part of my invention re- 
lates to the disk or plate with volute groove 
or channel in the under surface and the guid- 
ing-point below such plate, while the point 
that operates upon the paper is above that 
plate. 

The disk or plate a is mounted upon the 
vertical shaft b, sustained by the standard b' 
and bed a'. Any suitable motor is applied to 
revolve the shaft b and plate a. 

I have shown an electric engine consisting 
of the shaft c, armature c', stationary magnets 
rf, governor-balls e, circuit breaker or commu- 
tator /, and lever-arm g, operated upon by the 
governor to open or close the local circuit to 
the magnets d, according to the speed of the 
engine, and thereby obtain uniformity. This 
electric engine is similar to that shown in mv 
Patent No. 131,343. 

The worm c' upon the shaft c serves to ro- 
tate the wheel li upon the shaft b, and there is 



a friction-clutch, d' 7 and lever h', by means of 
which the wheel h is connected with or dis- 
connected from the shaft b. 

Upon the plate a is a clamping-frame, «, 
preferably hinged at one side, 2, and provided 
with a swinging catch, 3, at the other side. 
The paper to receive the message is laid upon 
this plate a, and held by the frame %' around 
its edges. 

There are to be guide-marks upon the paper 
and also upon the disk a, so that the paper 
can be correctly positioned upon the disk in 
the first instance, and replaced absolutely cor- 
rect when required. For this purpose it is 
preferable to perforate the paper at the center 
and at a point corresponding to the hole 5. 

The volute groove 8 is upon the bottom of 
the plate a, and in it is the point of the pin I, 
that is at the end of the arm m, and above the 
disk a and paper is the marking-point 6 at 
the end of the arm n. 

These arms m and n are hinged to a stock, 
o, upon a vertical standard, o', and there is a 
vertical pivot upon which the stock o and the 
lever-arms m n swing horizontally. The arms 
m n have right-angled toes, as seen by dotted 
lines at 7 and 8, and the weight of the arm n 
is greater than that of m, and hence the point 
I is raised up into the volute groove, and the 
point 6 rests upon the paper. The lever n' 
acts to raise the point 6 off the paper by press- 
ing the lever-arm m downwardly when it is 
desired to move both points away from the 
paper. 

The marking-point 6 is made to indent the 
paper by the action of the electro-magnet r 
and its armature-lever r', and thereby produce 
Morse or other characters by pressing the pa- 
per down into the groove 4 of the disk a, and 
this electro-magnet r is either in the main line 
or (by preference) in a local circuit. 

In Fig. 2 these circuit connections are illus- 
trated. The relay-magnet E operates by its 
armature the local circuit to the electro-mag- 
net f , and in this is placed the sounder s. 

The operator at the receiving-station closes 
the switch H of his key K, and the sending 
operator opens his switch. 

When the instrument is employed to trans- 



213,551 



late or repeat the message into another circuit 
the delicate insulated spring circuit-closer «jy 
tracing-point 12, and contact-point 13 are made 
use of, and these are placed in the circuit into 
which the message is to be sent in order 
that the tracer 12 may lift the spring v and 
break the circuit when resting on the portion 
of paper that is not indented, and when the 
indented portion is beneath said point the 
spring closes the contact at 13, and the mes- 
sage is sent to the distant station. 

The arrangement of circuits shown in Fig. 
2 is convenient. In this the movement of the 
switch H to the dotted positions causes the 
main-line circuit to pass through the insulated 
spring circuit-closer v, point 13, arm n, so that 
the indented paper will give motion to the cir- 
cuit-closer and transmit the message previ- 
ously recorded. 

The spring 13 rests upon the paper, and the 
circuit-closing spring v, carrying the point 12, 
has also the screw 15 to close the circuit upon 
the spring 13 when the indentation passes 
below the point 12. This screw 16 requires 
to be adjusted to suit the condition of the pa- 
per or of the indentations. I therefore pro- 
vide a T-head to the screw, and a turner, 16, 
above it, which passes through the arm n, so 
that the adjustment can be made while the 
instrument is at work, the said turner being 
insulated and having a notch for the T-head 
of the screw, as shown in Fig. 4. 

There may be two disks arranged to receive 
their motion from the prime mover, each hav- 
ing a friction-clntch that is operated by a 
double lever, ///, whereby one disk is discon- 
nected and stopped simultaneously, or just 
alter the other disk is put into motion, so that 
w hen one paper is full its disk may be stopped 
just after the other is started, so as not to 
drop any signals, and the paper that is full is 
removed and another paper substituted. The 
same devices are available either in receiving 
or in sending messages. te 

In the diagram, Fig. 5, the connections for 
this purpose are shown, and the lever h' closes 
the circuit through the spring circuit-closer v 
and contact-point 13 in the act of shifting the 
power from one of the disks to the other. 

It will generally be preferable to make the 
volute grooves in square or oblong plates, so 
as to receive ordinary square or oblong sheets 
Of paper. These can be more easily filed away 
lor future reference, and contain the dates aud 
facts desired upon the face of the paper, in the 
angles thereof. Fig. 6 shows one of these 
square blanks. The message can be read upon 
these blanks, or it can be repeated at an V 
time. J 

In place of having only one contact slnW 
and point, it may be preferable to have three, 
placed ST de by side and close together, so as 
to allow for any inaccuracy in the position of 
the paper, or that may result from expansion 
or contraction of the paper. Either one of 



these points passing into the indentation in 
the paper will close the circuit and transmit 
the signal. The screw 16 allows the contact- 
points to be adjusted to suit the paper that is 
in use. 

Apuncturing or perforatingpointmight take 
the place of the indenting or embossing point. 

It is obvious that many modifications may 
be made to produce the same result. For in- 
stance, the electric engine maybe replaced by 
a clock-work or other motor. 

The arm n might be made to rotate instead 
of the plate a. The underneath spiral might 
be dispensed with, and the spiral on top of the 
plate might be continued out a greater dis- 
tance from the center, and the additional spiral 
used for giving an outward movement to the 
arm . The plateitself might be dispensed with, 
and a drum used, with grooves cut lengthwise, 
and the indenting -magnet moved back and 
forward by suitable mechanism, the paper 
being fed from a continuous roll. 

I am aware that it is not new to record tele- 
graph-signals by indenting or embossing pa- 
per, as that method is adopted by Morse. 
Neither is it new to retransmit from such char- 
acters by causing them to give motion to con- 
tact mechauism, as that is shown in the Eng- 
lish patent granted to William Thomson aud 
Fleming Jenkin August 25, 1860, No. 2,047, 
Such embossing, however, was done on nar- 
row strips of paper. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. In a telegraph in which the indented or 
embossed message is employed for transmit- 
ting electric pulsations, the means, substan- 
tially as specified, for recording the message 
in a volute line upon a sheet of paper, aud for 
following that line with the circuit-breaking 
device in transmitting from such record, as set 
forth. 

2. A plate provided with a volute groove 
upon its surface, aud means for clamping a 
sheet of paper thereto, in combination with an 
indenting or perforating point, and means for 
maintaining the proper position of the point 
over the spiral groove, substantially as set 
forth. 

3. A telegraphic blank of paper or similar 
material provided with one or more perfora- 
tions, in combination with the plate receiving 
the same, and having corresponding marks to 
insure accurate adjustment in the various ma- 
chines, substantially as specified. 

4. The combination, with a spirally- grooved 
or volute plate, of an arm and indenting and 
transmitting mechanism supported by such 
arm, and a second similar groove for moving 
such arm , substantially as set forth. 

5. In combination with a rest upon the pa- 
per, a point operated by the undulations of 
the surface of the paper and a circuit-closer 
and electric circuit to a distant receiving-in- • 
strument, substantially as set forth. 

6. The arms n and m, pivoted to the stock o f 



213,554 



and turning upon a vertical pivot, in combi- 
nation with the plate a, containing a volute 
groove, substantially as specified. 

7. In combination with two revolving plates 
aud the indenting or transmitting mechanism 
connected thereto, a clutch for connecting 
one plate before disconnecting the other, sub- 
stantially as and for the purposes set forth. 

8.. The combination, with an indenting-in- 



strument, electro-magnet, and spirally-grooved 
plate, of a sounder in the same circuit as the 
indenting-magnet, substantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 3d day of February, A. 
D. 1877. 

THOS. A. EDISOK 

Witnesses : 

Geo. T. Pinckney, 
Chas. H. Smith. 



I 



T. A. EDISON. 
Electric-Lights. 




N. PETERS, PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHER, WASHINGTON. D, C. 



United States Patent Office. 

THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PARK, NEW JERSEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN ELECTRIC LIGHTS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 214,636, dated April 22, 1879 ; application filed 

October 14, 1878. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, 
of Menlo Park, in the State of New Jersey, 
have invented an Improvement in Electric 
Lights, of which the following is a specifica- 
tion. 

Electric lights have been produced by a coil 
or strip of platina or other metal that requires 
a high temperature to melt, the electric cur- 
rent rendering the same incandescent. In all 
such lights there is danger of the metal melt- 
ing and destroying the apparatus, and break- 
ing the continuity of the circuit. 

My improvement is made for regulating the 
electric current passiug through such incan- 
descent conductor automatically, and prevent- 
ing its temperature rising to the melting-point, 
thus producing a reliable electric light by ren- 
dering conducting substances incandescent by 
passiug an electric current through them. 

In my apparatus the heat evolved or de- 
veloped is made to regulate the electric cur- 
rent, so that the heat cannot become too in- 
tense, because the current is lessened by the 
effect of the heat when certain temperatures 
are reached, thereby preventing injury to the 
incandescent substance, by keeping the heat 
at all times below the melting-point of the in- 
candescent substance. 

Various devices for carrying my improve- 
ment into practice may be employed, and I 
have tested a large number. I however have 
shown in the drawings my improvement in a 
convenient form, and contemplate obtaining 
separate patents hereafter for other and vari- 
ous details of construction, and I state my 
present invention to relate, broadly, to the 
combination, with an electric light produced 
by incandescence, of an automatic thermal reg- 
ulator for the electric current. 

Figure 1 represents the electric -light appa- 
ratus in the form in which the thermal regu- 
lator acts by the heating effect of the current 
itself, and Fig. 2 illustrates the same inven- 
tion when the radiated heat from the incan- 
descent conductor operates the thermal regu- 
lator. 

The incandescent metal is to be platinum, 
rhodium, iridium, titanium, or any other suit- 
able conductor having a high fusing -point, 



and the same is used in the fornT of a wire or 
thin plate or leaf. 

I have shown the platinum wire a as a double 
spiral, the two ends terminating upon the 
posts b c, to which the conductors d e are con- 
nected. The double spiral a is free to expand 
or contract by the heat, as both ends are be- 
low the spiral. 

A circuit -closing lever,/, is introduced in 
the electric circuit, the points of contact being 
at i, and there is a platina or similar wire, A*, 
connected from the lever/ to the head -piece 
or other support I. 

The current from a magneto-electric machi tie, 
a battery, or any other source of electric ener- 
gy, is connected to the binding-posts n o, and 
when contact atiis broken the current passes 
from o through lever /, wire fc, support I, wire 
e, post c, platina coil a, post 6, and wire d, or 
metallic connection, to binding-screw n. In 
this iustance the wire Je r being small, is acted 
upon by the electric current and heated, and 
by its expansion the lever /is allowed to close 
upon % and short-circuit the current. 

The contact-point i is movable, and it is ad- 
justed so that the shunt will not be closed un- 
til the temperature of the apparatus arrives at 
the desired height, and, by diverting a portion 
or the whole of the current, the temperatureof 
the incandescent conductor is maintained in 
such a manner that there will be no risk of the 
apparatus being injured by excessive heat or 
the conductor fused. 

If the wire Ac is small, so as to be heated by 
the electricity itself, it may be placed in any 
convenient position relatively to the light ; but 
if such wire is heated by radiation from the 
electric light, then it should be adjacent to the 
incandescent material. 

In all instances, the expansion or contrac- 
tion of a suitable material under changes of 
temperature forms a thermostatic current- 
regulator that operates automatically, to pre- 
vent injury to the apparatus and to the body 
heated by the current. 

In Fig. 2 the current does not pass through 
the wire A - , and the short-circuiting lever is 
operated by the radiated heat expanding the 
wire A'. This in practice does not operate as 
rapidly as the device shown in Fig. 1. 



214,636 



The electric light may be surrounded by a 
glass tube or any other suitable device, such 
as two concentric glass tubes with the inter- 
vening space filled with alum-water or other 
bad conductor of heat, the object being to re- 
tain the heat of the incandescent metal and 
prevent loss by radiation, thus requiring less 
current to supply the loss by radiation. 

I am aware that the electric current has been 
used to produce heat, and that such heat has 
been employed to vary the relative position of 
the light-giving electrodes and the length of 
the intervening arc. In my light there is no 
electric arc. 



I claim as my invention — 

1. In combination with an electric light hav- 
ing a continuous incandescent conductor, a 
thermostatic circuit-regulator, substantially as 
set forth. 

2. In combination with an electric light, a 
thermostatically-operated shunt, substantially 
as set forth. 

Signed by me this 5th day of October, A. D. 
1878. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

ALFRID SWANSON, 

Stockton L. Griffin. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Thermal-Regulator for Electric-Lights. 



No. 214,637. Patented April 22, 1879. 




N.PETERS, PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHER, WASHINGTON, C. 



United States Patent Office, 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PARK, NEW JERSEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN THERMAL REGULATORS FOR ELECTRIC LIGHTS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 214,637, dated April 22, 1879; application filed 

November 18, 1878. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas Alva Edison, 
of Menlo Park, in the State of New Jersey, 
have invented an Improvement in Electric 
Lights, of which the following is a specifica- 
tion. 

The object of this invention is to devise a 
reliable and economical electric lamp, to give 
light by incandescence due to the passage of 
the electric current through conductors of 
electricity, so that a great number of lamps 
maybe used in one electric circuit. 

The invention consists in causing the heat 
generated by the incandescent conductor to 
expand the air or fluid in the containing-cham- 
ber as its temperature rises, the pressure thus 
created serving to move outwardly a yielding 
material — such as a diaphragm — which, in its 
turn, serves to control the passage of the elec- 
tric current through the incandescent body by 
means of contact-points or circuit-regulators, 
and thus the temperature of the incandescent 
conductor will be regulated automatically. 

In the drawings, Figure 1 is a sectional ele- 
vation of the electric lamp, and Fig. 2 is a 
plan of a portion of the same. The other fig- 
ures are separately referred to. 

a is a glass tube or vessel, containing spiral 
or strip c, of iridium or equivalent metal, 
through which the current passes, b is the 
top plate, to which the spiral c is connected. 
The glass tube is secured to the metallic 
standard Q. e is a diaphragm closing the 
bottom of the lower chamber. There is a par- 
tition between the chamber containing the 
spiral c and the chamber of the diaphragm ; 
but air circulates freely between the chambers 
through the holes d d d d. 

When the spiral is heated by the passage of 
the current, the air in the chambers expands 
and bulges the diaphragm outwardly. On 
the center of the diaphragm is a platina point, 
/, immediately opposite another platina point, 
g, on a spring, li. This again is opposite an- 
other platina point, n, on the screw m. m' is 
a disk of insulating material, on the top of 
which is a brass ring in electrical connection 
with the spring h. A rubbing contact-spring, 
v, connects this ring to the insulated plate R 
and the binding -post 2 on the base. The 
frame Q is connected to the other binding-post, 



1. A wire, 20, connects the spiral of the light 
with the plate R and binding-post 2. 

When no current passes in the circuit con- 
taining this instrument, the air in the cham- 
ber is of the same pressure as the atmosphere, 
and the points / and g and n are not in con- 
tact. If, now, the current is allowed to circu- 
late in the line, it passes, say, from binding- 
post 2 to R, thence through wire 20 to the top 
i, down through spiral c to base Q, to the other 
binding-post, 1. 

When the spiral c reaches within a few de- 
grees of its melting-point, the expansion of 
the air will have bulged out the diaphragm e 
and brought the points /and g together, thus 
short-circuiting the current from the spiral, as 
it now must nearly all pass from binding-post 
2 to R, thence through spring v to the ring y i 
through spring li to g, through / to diaphragm 
e, to Q, and back to binding-post 1. When 
thus short-circuited the temperature of both 
the air and spiral fall by radiation, and when 
it reaches a certain point the diaphragm and 
point / leave </, and the current again passes 
through c and raises its temperature, and the 
same action takes place. This regulation is 
so rapid that the eye does not perceive any 
diminution in the strength of the light. The 
object of the contact between g and n is, that 
in case /and g should fail to make contact 
the short circuit would still take place, as n 
and / are both connected to Q. 

It is obvious that this method may be ap- 
plied in many ways. For instance, the dia- 
phragm might give motion to a lever or spring 
through which the contacts might be made, 
and this second chamber may be separated 
from the one containing the spiral c, as shown 
in Fig. 3. A tube, d', leads from the chamber 
containing the spiral to the second chamber, 
m* t closed by the diaphragm e. n' is a lever, 
which is moved by the movement of the dia- 
phragm, and serves to short-circuit the spiral 
c when it comes in contact with the point p. 

Mercury may replace air in the tube d and 
chamber m 2 , the pressure of the air or gas in a 
acting through such mercury on the diaphragm 
e; or the mercury may come into contact with 
the point to make direct circuit through the 
mercury. 

The incandescent conductors may be made 



214, 



,637 



in either of the forms shown in Figs. 4, 5, or 6. 

In my application No. 156, filed October 14, 
1878, I have shown a thermostatic circuit- 
regulator in connection with the electric light. 
I do not therefore herein claim any feature set- 
forth in said prior application. 

I claim as my invention — 

The method specified of regulating the tem- 
peratureof the incandescent light-giving body, 
by the expansion of the air or gas in the closed 



vessel containing the light acting automati- 
cally in the electric circuit, substantially as 
set forth. 

Signed by me this 14th day of November, 
A. D. 1878. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Stockton L. Griffin, 
Ohas. Batchelor. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Sex tup lex-Tele graph. 

No. 217,781. Patented July 22, 1879. 




United States Patent Office 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO 
WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH COMPANY, OF NEW YORK, N. Y. 

IMPROVEMENT IN SEXTUPLEX TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 217, 781, dated July 22, 1879; application filed 

May 14, 1877. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, in the county of Middlesex and 
State of New Jersey, have invented an Im- 
provement in Electric Telegraphs, of which 
the following is a specification. 

This invention is an improvement upon the 
telegraph known as the " quadruplex," and I 
designate this invention as the "sextuplex tel- 
egraph." 

I have discovered that the rise and fall of 
tension in the line and the reversals of polar- 
ity can be effected without deranging the ac- 
tion of one or more reeds or other instrument 
vibrating according to a musical tone, and ref- 
erence is made to my application No. 132, in 
which such vibrating instrument is shown in 
connection with a duplex telegraph. 

In my present invention I am enabled to 
combine an acoustic telegraph with a quadru- 
plex telegraph, and use twelve persons to one 
wire, three sending from each end and three 
receiving at each end, there being keys to con- 
trol the rise and fall of tension and the con- 
nection and disconnection of the musical pul- 
sations with the line, and this number will be 
increased if there is a second or third musical 
transmitter and receiver introduced into the 
line. 

lu the diagram accompanying I have repre- 
sented the instruments and electrical connec- 
tions at one end of line, the instruments and 
connections at the other end of the line being 
similar. 

The key Jc opens and closes a local circuit to 
the electro-magnet a, that operates the circuit 
preserving and reversing key P, and changes 
the polarity of the line by connecting c of the 
battery B to line when lc is depressed, or z to 
line when the key is open, or the reverse, in 
the manner well known in connection with 
quadruplex telegraphs. 

The key Jc 1 opens and closes a local to the 
electro-magnet d, that operates tension-kev T, 
and connects a part or the whole of the bat- 
tery B to the line to effect a rise and fall of 
electric tension. In both cases these opera- 
tions are performed without the main -line cir- 
cuits being broken. 

The reed or tuning-fork F is provided with 



electro -magnets that are connected in a local 
circuit to the battery 2, and serve to vibrate 
the reed or tuning-fork, the circuit at 3 being 
alternately broken and closed by the move- 
ment of the reed. 

At 4 the main line from ground Gis pulsated 
by the movement of the reed or tuning-fork F 
and sends its pulsations on the line, and the 
distant tuning-fork or reed in the bridge-wire 
at the distant station is pulsated accordingly. 
If, however, the key ¥ is closed, the main line 
is short-circuited around the instrument F, 
and the main current will cease to be pulsated 
at 4; hence, if the key W in its normal condi- 
tion is closed, signals will be given at the dis- 
tant reed or tuning-fork by the circuit being 
broken at ¥, and the reverse, for in cases 
where the key W is open in its normal condi- 
tion the signal will be given by the interrup- 
tion of the musical sound at the distant sta- 
tion when the key W is closed. 

The circuits will go over the line I and the 
artificial line a I preferably by the switch s, 
that is found to be a convenience in adjusting 
the receiving -instruments by connecting the 
line directly to the ground. 

When ¥ is open, part of the battery only will 
be on line, the connection being froniB through 
6 7 8 9 10 11 to ground, (through 4 or ¥,) and 
returning by s 12 13 14 15 16 to z of battery. 

When ¥ is closed, the whole battery B will 
be on line from c through 17 7 8 9 10 11, and 
returning as before. 

When Je is open, the circuit is connected 
through P, as before ; but when k is closed the 
circuit is reversed at P, regardless of rise and 
fall of tension, the circuit being connected 
through T, as aforesaid, aud by 8 12 to line, 
and returning from ground through 11, 10, 15, 
and 16 to z of battery. 

At the transmitting-station the receiving- 
instruments are not influenced by the outgo- 
ing currents, because they are in the bridge- 
wire, the rheostats being adjusted with refer- 
ence to balancing the line I and E by the ar- 
tificial line E 1 to G'. 

The receiving-instruments consist of the po- 
larized relay P K, that is operated by the re- 
versal of the polarity of the current of the mag- 
net M, the armature of which responds to the 



2 217, 

rise and fall of tension, and the reed or tele- 
phone N, all of which may be of any known 
character and respond to tbe respective elec- 
tric conditions. 

The signals may be given direct 5 but it is 
preferable to employ local circuits and sound- 
ers to each instrument. 

The rheostats at E 2 E 3 serve to adjust the 
resistance in the bridge, and the condensers c 
& serve to neutralize any static charge and 
discharge, the first one, c, serving this purpose 
in tbe bridge-wire and its local connections, 
and the condenser d acting in the same ca- 
pacity in connection with the line and ground 
connections. 

It is to be understood that tbe different rheo- 
stats are to be adjusted and the resistances 
thereby varied according to the required con- 
ditions, as heretofore well known. 

It will be obvious tbat the receiving-magnets 
may be wound with double coils, and the bal- 
ance of the outgoing currents made by tbe dif- 
ferential system. 

In my application No. 132, of even date here- 
with, I have set forth a reed operating by elec- 
tro -harmonic pulsations and a relay -instru- 
ment and their appropriate transmitting-in- 
struments; hence these are not claimed herein. 



',781 

In my application No. 99 the telegraphic 
circuit has a key to vary the strength of cur- 
rent and a key to reverse the polarity, and in 
my application No. 125 synchronous vibra- 
tions are produced at the ends of the line by 
reeds or tuning-forks. These devices, there- 
fore, are not herein claimed. 
I claim as my invention — 
The combination, in a telegraphic circuit, of 
a key to reverse the polarity of the current, a 
key to vary the strength of the current on the 
line, a vibrating reed acting to pulsate the 
current on the line, a key to shunt the main 
line and prevent the action therein of thepul- 
sator, and three receiving-instruments in the 
bridge, one operated by reversal of current, 
the other by changes in the strength of tbe cur- 
rent, and the third by the pulsations of the 
current, substantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 8th day of May, A. D. 
1877. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Geo. T. Pingkney, 

HAROLD SERRELL. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Duplex-Telegraphs. 

No. 217,782. Patented July 22, 1879. 




United States Patent Office, 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PAKK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO 
WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH COMPANY, OF NEW YORK, N. Y. 

IMPROVEMENT IN DUPLEX TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 217,782, dated July 22, 1879 ; application filed 

NoA r ember 14, 1878. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, in the State of New Jersey, have 
invented an Improvement in Telegraphs, of 
which the following is a specification. 

The object of this invention is to transmit 
signals from one point in a circuit to other 
points in the same circuit without adding bat- 
tery, opening the line, or varying the resist- 
ance, in order that two series of. signals may 
be transmitted simultaneously. 

The invention consists in placing an elec- 
tro-magnet in circuit, and reversing its posi- 
tion in the line by a reversing apparatus, so 
that the self-induction of the magnet, which 
takes place at the moment of a change in the 
polarity of its cores, shall weaken the con- 
stant current for an instant and thus trans- 
mit the signal. 

A is the electro-magnet, placed in the main 
line. X is a reversing-sounder. When' the 
local circuit, in which is the magnet m, is 
opened by the key Jc, the line passes through 
spring 2 to 3, thence by wire a to the magnet 
A, thence by wire 6 to the lever 4,. through 
spring 1 to the earth. 

If, now, the key Jc be closed, m attracts the 
lever, and the position of the magnet A is re- 
versed ; or, in other words, a change in po- 
larity occurs in its cores by the current of the 
line passing through it in the opposite direc- 
tion. 

The current from the line passes through 
spring 2 to lever I, thence by wire 6 to A, 
thence by wire a to 3, thence through spring 
1 to the earth. Although there is a constant 
current circulating in the line from the main 
battery, M B, at the moment of reversing the 
magnet, the powerful induction-current from 
A is sufficient to neutralize it for an in- 
stant. This slight opening, although scarcely 
affecting the relay R, becomes audible on in- 
serting a telephone-receiver at any point in 
the line. 

If a key, 5, be inserted in the line, and 
shunted with a resistance-coil, R 2 , of, say, one 
thousand ohms, the throwing in and out of 
this coil by the key will cause the relay R to 
work, and, owing to the form of the wave, 
will not affect, to a perceptible degree, the 
telephone-receiver j hence two series of sig- 
nals may be transmitted simultaneously in va- 
rious directions over a single wire. Of course 



several stations may be placed on one cir- 
cuit. 

I will mention that a shunted condenser or 
secondary battery may replace the maguetA. 

It is to be understood that the key 5 va- 
ries the tension of the line and produces a 
signal at the relay R, regardless of the posi- 
tion of the maguet A or its equivalent in the 
line, and that the polarity of the line is not 
changed by operating the key Jc; but by said 
key Jc a momentary change in the condition 
of the line is produced that is responded to in 
the telephone. 

A condenser or secondary battery in the 
line acts the same as the electro -magnet A, 
when the flow of the current through the same 
is reversed by the circuit-connections without 
the circuit being broken. 

I remark that numerous telephones may 
be placed in the line at various stations, and 
that all will respond whenever any one of 
the magnets in the line is reversed in its po- 
sition in the line, and that these magnets A 
may be the ordinary relay -magnets of the 
Morse or other system. 

By adding the key and connections one sta- 
tion can signal another or converse with an- 
other over the main-line wire without break- 
ing the circuit. 

I do not herein claim the combination in 
one circuit of telephone-instruments and the 
Morse instruments, as the same is set forth in 
my prior application No. 132. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. The method herein specified of produc- 
ing an electric condition in the closed circuit 
of a telegraph-line that will give a signal in 
a telephone by reversing the position in that 
line of an electro-magnet, secondary battery, 
or similar device, substantially as specified. 

2. The combination, in a closed circuit, of 
a receiving - magnet, a telephone, an electro- 
magnet, or its equivalent, and an apparatus 
for reversing the connections of the same in 
the circuit, a rheostat or resistance, a shunt 
to the same, and a key, substantially as set 
forth. 

Signed by me this 11th day of November, 
A. D. 1878. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

S. L. Geiffin, 
Maetin N. Force. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Magneto Electric Machine. 

No, 218,166. Patented Aug. 5, 1879, 




United States Patent Office 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PAEK, NEW JEESEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN MAGNETO - ELECTRIC MACHINES. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 218,166, dated August 5, 1879; application filed 

December 9, 1878. 



To all wliom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas Alva Edison, 
of Menlo Park, in the State of New Jersey, 
have invented an Improvement in the Method 
of and Means for Developing Electric Cur- 
rents, of which the following is a specifica- 
tion. 

It lias long been known that if two electro- 
magnets, or an electro -magnet and a perma- 
nent magnet, be drawn apart or caused to 
pass by each other, electric currents will be 
set up in the helix of the electro-magnet. It 
has also been known that vibrating bodies — 
such as a tuning-fork or a reed — can be kept 
in vibration by the exercise of but little power. 

I avail of these two known forces, and com- 
bine them in such a manner as to obtain a 
powerful electric current by the expenditure 
of a small mechanical force. 

In the drawing, a tuning-fork, a 2 , is repre- 
sented as firmly attached to a stand, b 2 . This 
fork is preferably of two prongs; but only one 
might be employed, upon the principle of a 
musical reed. This vibrating bar or fork may 
be two meters long (more or less) and heavy 
in proportion. It has its regular rate of vi- 
bration, like a tuning-fork, and the mechan- 
ism that keeps it in vibration is to move in 
harmony. A crank and revolving shaft or 
other suitable mechanism may be employed; 
but I prefer a small air, gas, or water engine, 
applied to each end of the fork. 

The cylinder a> contains a piston and a rod, 
h\ that is connected to the end of the bar, and 
steam, gas, water, or other fluid under press- 
ure acts within the cylinder, being admitted 
first to one side of the piston and then the 
other by .a suitable valve. The valve and di- 
rect-acting rod c 2 are shown for this purpose. 

The bar or fork a 2 may be a permanent mag- 
net or an electro-magnet, or else it is provided 
with permanent or electro-magnets. 

I have shown electro -magnet c c 1 upon the 
pron g of the fork. There may be two or more 
on each, and opposed to these are the cores of 
the electro-magnets d; hence, as the fork is vi- 
brated, a current is set up in the helix of each 



electro -magnet d in one direction as the cores 
approach each other, and in the other direc- 
tion as they recede. 

This alternate current is available for elec- 
tric lights; but if it is desired to convert the 
current into one of continuity in the same di- 
rection a commutator is employed, operated 
by the vibrations of the fork to change the cir- 
cuit-connections each vibration, and thereby 
make the pulsations continuous on the line of 
one polarity. 

A portion of the current thus generated may 
pass through the helices of the electro -mag- 
nets c 1 , to intensify the same to the maximum 
power, and the remainder of the current is em- 
ployed for any desired electrical operations 
wherever available. I, however, use the same, 
especially with my electric lights. 

I have represented commutator springs or 
levers c 3 c 4 , operated by rods 45, that slide 
through the levers c 3 c 4 , and by friction move 
them. When the prongs a 2 a 2 are moving from 
each other the contact of levers c 3 c 4 will be 
with the screws 40 41, and the current will 
be from line 1 through c 1 to c; thence to c 3 , to 
41 43, and to circuit of electro -magnets d d, 
and from d d, by 42, to 40 c 4 and line 4, as 
indicated by the arrows. When the prongs a 2 
a 2 are vibrating toward each other, the circuit 
will be through c l c & 4'i, in the reverse di- 
rection through the circuit and magnets d d, 
back to 43, and by c 4 to line 4. 

I claim as my invention — 

The combination, with a vibrating body 
similar to a tuning-fork, of mechanism for 
maintaining the vibration, and magnets, cores, 
and helices, whereby a secondary current is 
set up, so as to convert mechanical motion into 
electric force, or the reverse, substantially as 
set forth. 

Signed by me this 3d day of December, A. 
D. 1878. 

THOMAS A. EDISOK 

Witnesses : 

Stockton L. Griffin, 
Geo. E. Carman. 



T, A. EDISON. 
Apparatus for Electric Lights. 

No. 218,167. Patented Aug. 5, 1879. 




N. PETERS, PH OTO-UTH OGR A P H ER , WASHINGTON, D C. 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PARK, NEW JERSEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN APPARATUS FOR ELECTRIC LIGHTS. 

Specification forming paxt of Letters Patent No. 218,161, dated August 5, 1879 ; application filed 

January 10, 1879. 



To all inhom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, in tlie State of New Jersey, have 
invented an Improvement in Apparatus for 
Electric Lights, of which the following is a 
specification. 

It is well known that an electric current 
passed through a secondary battery is stored 
up or reacts after the original current ceases, 
so that it can be used as a source of elec- 
tricity. 

I employ two secondary batteries, such as 
those known as the " Plante batteries." One 
of these is connected in the main circuit, and 
the same becomes charged. A circuit-changer 
is introduced in the circuits in such a manner 
as to connect this charged battery with one 
or more electric lights, and simultaneously 
throw the main circuit through the other sec- 
ondary battery, to charge the same, after 
which that is connected with the electric lights, 
and the main circuit reconnected to the first 
secondary battery, and so on. 

In the annexed diagram, Figure 1, the cir- 
cuit-connections are illustrated, and Pig. 2 is 
a perspective view of the switch. Fig. 3 is a 
side view of the secondary batteries. 

The secondary batteries A B are of any de- 
sired construction. I prefer, and use, two 
sheets of lead wound together into a square 
or cylindrical form, and immersed in acidu- 
lated water in a closed case. 

The main line a is connected with any 
magneto-electric machine or other source of 
electric energy, and b is the return-line or 
earth-connection. 

The main line a is connected by the wires c 
to the secondary batteries A B, and the re- 
turn-wires d e pass through the switch / and 
wire i to b. 

The electric lamps g are represented in 
branch circuits between the wires h and h. 
The wire h connects to one of the secondary 
batteries A B, and the wire 1c connects to the 
switch /. 

The switch / is preferably cylindrical, with 
two insulated half-cylinders, 4 and 5, against 
which the springs of c d rest; and from tbese 
half-cylinders are metallic connections to the 



insulated disks 6 and 7, respectively, against 
the peripheries of which the springs of i k 
rest, and this switch can be rotated periodi- 
cally by a handle or by a clock-work or other 
suitable means. 

When the switch / is in oue position the 
main circuit is closed through a, c, A, d, 4, 6, 
and i to b, and the secondary circuit is closed 
from B through li, lamps g, wire Tc, switch 7 5, 
and wire e to B. 

When the switch / is in the other position 
the main circuit from a passes by c to B, and 
by e, 4, 6, and % to 6, while the secondary cir- 
cuit from A is by li through lamps g, wire Jc 7 
5, and wire d to A, so that when the sec- 
ondary battery B is furnishing the accumu- 
lated electricity to the lamps g the main cur- 
rent is charging the secondary battery A, and 
vice versa. 

The switch / may be actuated periodically 
by clock-work or any suitable mechanism. 

When a secondary battery is fully charged, 
the decomposition of the liquid commences 
and gases are developed. I avail of this to 
actuate a circuit-regulator and disconnect the 
main current. 

The two closed cases in which the sec- 
ondary batteries are placed are provided with 
tubes s, passing to a chamber, r, beneath a 
flexible diaphragm, t; and in the metallic cir- 
cuit c there is a switch or lever, a, that is 
acted upon to break the electric circuit to the 
secondary batteries when the gases have ac- 
cumulated sufficient pressure to move said 
diaphragm. 

The accumulated gases combine, and in so 
doing maintain the electric action of the sec- 
ondary batteries, and the pressure decreases, 
and the circuit is again closed by the lever u. 

I am aware that gas has been produced by 
an electric current decomposing a liquid, and 
that the confined gas has been employed to 
move electrodes and regulate the main cur- 
rent. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. The combination, with electric lamps and 
a main circuit, of two secondary batteries 
and circuit-conuections and switch, substan- 
tially as set forth, to alternately change the 



218,16? 



main and secondary circuits, substantially as 
specified. 

2. The secondary circuit, containing electric 
lamps, and the secondary battery and inclos- 
ing-case, in combination with the main cir- 
cuit through the secondary battery, a dia- 
phragm acted upon by the accumulation of 
gas in the secondary battery, and a switch-le- 



ver in the main circuit, substantially as and 
for the purpose specified. 

Signed by me this 31st day of December, 
A. D. 1878. 

THOMAS A. EDISOK 

Witnesses : 

Wm. Carman, 
Benj. D. Acker. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Electric Lighting Apparatus. 

No. 218,866. Patented Aug. 26, 1879. 




United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PARK, NEW JEESEY. 



IMPROVEMENT IN ELECTRIC LIGHTING APPARATUS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 218, §66, dated August 26, 1879; application filed 

December 9, 1878. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas Alva Edison, 
of Menlo Park, in State of New Jersey, have 
invented an Improvement in Electric Light- 
ing- Apparatus, of which the following is a 
specification. 

In an application before filed by me, the 
light-gi ving body is combined with the circuit- 
connections and a thermal regulator that pre- 
vents injury to the apparatus by short-circuit- 
ing the current or placing a resistance therein. 
I do not therefore herein claim any such de- 
vice. 

My present invention relates to the combi- 
nation, with the light-giving body, of a range 
of levers and contact- surfaces arranged in 
such a manner that the current is short-cir- 
cuited or shunted to a greater or less extent, 
according to the heatof the incandescent light- 
giving body. 

In the drawings, Figure 1 is an elevation of 
the bracket and a section of the light-giving 
apparatus. Fig. 2 is a sectional plan at the 
line x x. Figs. 3 and 4 are diagrams of the 
circuit-connections; and Fig. 5 is a partial 
elevation endwise of the shun ting-levers. 

The bracket a is sustained by a socket and 
tin at b, so that it may be swung like a gas- 
Lxture. 

c is one of th e electric cond uctors. The same 
is insulated and passes into an opening in the 
bracket, and thence to the electric light, and 
the return circuit is through the pipe a to the 
wire d, or to the gas-pipe, if the bracket is 
upon a gas-pipe. 

The conductor c passes to the insulated plate 
c 1 within the case /, and, for convenience, this 
case/ has a swinging door,/ 7 , in one side to 
give access to the interior parts. Above the 
case/ is a glass cylinder, h, or other suitable 
protection for the electric light, and i is a strip 
of platina-foil or other known or desired light- 
giving material that can be rendered incan- 
descent and produce the necessary light with- 
out melting. The conductor c 2 passes to one 
end of this light, and the other end of i is con- 
nected by the spring A; with the metal part of 
the bracket, and thence to d. 

The spring Jc serves to keep a slight tension 
on the foil i, and the yoke or frame I inter- 
venes between the spring Jc and the foil. 

There are levers n, or springs, that are con- 
nected at 2, and their free ends rest in and 



upon the yoke or frame I, and their ends should 
be tipped with platina. 

The bar o is preferably of platina, and it is 
adjustable by means of the screw »?, that raises 
or lowers the same, so as to bring it nearer to 
orfarther from the ends of the levers or springs 
n. This adjustment is made so that the ends 
of the springs or levers n will not be in con- 
tact with the bar o while the light is in its 
normal condition ; but when the heat of the 
foil i becomes excessive the expansion allows 
the ends of the springs or levers n to come 
into contact with the bar o and set up a shunt 
or short circuit from c o, through n, to d, and, 
according to the amount of expansion in i, so 
one, two, or more of the bars or springs n 
will be in contact with o, because said bar ois 
farther from the levers n at one end than at 
the other. By this means injury to the light- 
giving body is prevented, and a path estab- 
lished for the electric current becomes less in 
resistance as the points of contact between n 
and o increase in number. 

The lower end of the yoke I may come into 
contact with the spring or stud t at the extreme 
expansive movement, as seen in Fig. 4, to still 
further lessen the resistance between c and d 
and divert the current from the foil i. 

The ends of the levers n may be in a bath 
of mercury, as seen in Fig. 4, to insure elec- 
tric contact. If the foil i is accidentally broken 
or injured the circuit through n is instantly 
closed, so that other lights in the same circui t 
are not extinguished. This device is auto- 
matic, so as to avoid the extinguishment of 
other lights. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. The combination, with the light-giving 
body, of two or more circuit levers or springs, 
n, a yoke, I, a contact-bar, o, and the circuit- 
connections, substantially as set forth, for less- 
ening the resistance of the shunt as the tem- 
perature of the light-giving body increases, as 
specified. 

2. The circuit-connection t, in combination 
with the levers or springs n, yoke 7, light-giv- 
ing body i, and circuit-connections, substan- 
tially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 3d day of December, A.D. 
1878. 

Witnesses: THOMAS A. EDISON. 
Stockton L. Griffin, 
Geo. E. Carman. 





J.PETERS, PHOTO-UTHOQRSPHER. WASHINGTON. D. C. 



2 Sheets— Sheet 2. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Dynamo-Electric Machine. 



No. 219,393. 



Patented Sept. 9, 1879, 



Cowe Ho. /80. 





i- PETERS, PHOTO-UTHOGRAPHER. WASHINGTON, D 0. 



United States Patent Office, 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF IEILO PAEK, NEW JEKSEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN DYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 219,393* dated September 9, 1879; application filed 

July 10, 1879. 



To all uiliom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, in the State of New Jersey, have 
invented an Improvement in Dynamo-Electric 
Machines, of which the following is a specifica- 
tion. 

I make use of a ring supported by arms and 
revolved between the cores of a field-of-force 
magnet. There are helices around this ring- 
connected to commutator-plates, and the cur- 
rent is taken off by three springs, two of which 
are connected together and receive the current 
of one polarity, and the other spring receives 
the current of the opposite polarity. The hel- 
ices of the ring, as they are revolved through 
the magnetic field of the field-of-force mag- 
nets, have the secondary current set up in 
them, and the same is taken off by the com- 
mutators aforesaid. 

To insure the entire current passing off by 
the commutators, and to prevent the secondary 
current circulating in the helices of the revolv- 
ing ring, the continuity of the helies or heli- 
cal sections is interrupted at two or more places ; 
and to avoid the interruption of the line-cur- 
rent, I use a stationary bridge and revolving 
contact-blocks to close the circuit at the inter- 
ruption of the helix-wire, when the same is in 
the line-circuit, through the commutators. 

I have discovered that an increased mag- 
netic effect is produced in the field-of-force 
magnets by periodically shunting the current, 
as will be more fully described hereinafter. 

In the drawings, Figure 1 is a plan of the 
machine. Fig. 2 is an elevation with the frame 
removed at the line x x. Fig. 3 is a section 
through the ring and the core-extension of the 
field-of-force magnet, and Fig. 4 is a diagram 
of the connections. 

The shaft a is supported in suitable bearings 
b and revolved by power. Upon this shaft are 
arms c, that sustain the ring d. This ring may 
be of one piece of iron ; but I prefer to use fine 
wire wound into a coil or ring, and having a 
circular form section ally, as seen in Fig. 3. 

Around the ring d there are helices wound 
in numerous sections,/, and the wires are taken 
off to commutator-plates e, as illustrated in the 
diagram, Fig. I. One end of one helix-wire is 
joined to the same commutator-plate e as one 
end of the next helix- wire, except at two or | 



more places around the ring, where there is a 
break in the metallic connections of the helices. 
I have shown two such breaks at the blank 
commutator-bars e' e 2 , where the wires, instead 
of passing from the helical sections to such 
plates e l e 2 , pass to the secondary commutator- 
blocks k, composed of four insulated blocks, 
and * is a stationary bridge of metal, against 
which the blocks Jc revolve. These blocks Jc 
are upon a cylinder of insulated material on 
the shaft a, and revolve with it. The opera- 
tion will be hereinafter explained. 

The field-of-force maguets N S are wound 
with helices, and there are lateral projecting 
cores n s, with openings through them, in which 
the ring d is revolved, said lateral cores being 
close to the helices of theriugs, but not touch- 
ing the same, as seen in Fig. 3, so that the 
helices pass across the magnetic field somewhat 
the same as in the Paccincti or Gramme ma- 
chines. 

The commutator-springs / m n bear upon the 
commutator-plates, and the circulation of the 
electric current will be from the springs I and 
n, through the helices that are in the field of 
magnetic influence, and thence by the spring 
m, or the reverse, according to the polarity of 
the field-magnets and the direction of revolu- 
tion, the same polarity of secondary current 
being set up in the helix-section that is ap- 
proaching N, that is set in another helix that 
is moving away from S ; hence the springs I 
and n are connected to one line-wire, and the 
opposite polarity of current is set up through 
m, as indicated by the arrows, Fig. 4, said 
spring m connecting to the neutral point be- 
tween the poles of the field-magnets. 

From the foregoing it will be understood 
that a continuous current is set up in I m n 
from those helix -sections that are passing 
through the magnetic field. The commutator- 
springs, however, have to bear upon two of 
the commutator-plates at the sametimeto avoid 
interruption in the current or a spark. 

The current passes from m out upon the line- 
wire 5, and returns upon the line- wire 6 to I 
n, or the reverse, and the helices of the field- 
of-force magnets N S are in this circuit, as 
shown in Fig. 4. 

The secondary commutator-blocks Jc, being 
insulated, form two breaks in the helix-sec- 



219, 



,393 



tions ; but the stationary bridge i is in sucli a 
position that the circuit is maintained in the 
helices that are in the magnetic field, such 
bridge answering the same purpose as it would 
to connect the helix-wires continuously to the 
commutator-plates & e 2 . The metallic circuit, 
however, is broken on the opposite side at the 
commutator e 2 , so that currents cannot circu- 
late through the ring of helices. 

As the connections are illustrated, it will be 
seen that the current is always free to circulate 
through the helices of the field-of-force mag- 
nets, and under ordinary circumstances the 
electric effect will be augmented until the maxi- 
mum effect is attained. I have discovered that 
by combining with the tield-of-force magnet 
and the circuit through the same a shunt 
open and closed periodically, the dynamic ef- 
fect is greatly increased. 

9 and 10 are shunt-wires from the line-circuit 
at each side of the helices of the field-magnets, 
and u v are springs bearing upon a cylinder, 
to, that is upon the shaft a, and is revolved 
with it. Part of the surface of to is of conduct- 
ing and part of insulating material. When 
the springs u v rest upon the conductor the 
current is shunted or short-circuited, and, find- 
ing a route of less resistance, does not pass 
through the helices of the field-of-force mag- 
nets, and acquires thereby increased volume, 
as the resistance is less ; but so soon as the 
non-conducting material comes into contact 
with u and v, the shunt is broken, and the in- 
creased current, having no other route, is 
obliged to pass through the helices of the field- 
magnets, and augments the magnetism and 
increases the current, so that the energy of the 
machine is promoted by shunting the field-of- 



force magnets ; and this I do every revolution 
of the shaft a, but it may be done more or less 
frequently. 

By the arrangement shown the helices of the 
ring are not liable to become heated, because 
the current passes through but a small portion 
of the ring, and the other parts of the ring 
are open to atmospheric influence and free to 
cool. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. In a magneto-electric machine, a ring of 
helical sections connected to commutator- 
phites, and the metallic circuit, interrupted at 
two or more places, in combination with the 
field-of-force magnet, the springs I n, connected 
together and to one wire of the circuit, and 
the intermediate spring, m, to the other wire of 
the circuit, substantially as set forth. 

2. The combination, in a magneto-electric 
machine, of a field-of-force magnet, revolving 
helix -sections, commutator-plates, to which 
the helix-sections are connected, the springs I 
m n, the secondary commutator-blocks Zc, and 
a metallic bridge, i, to the same, for maintain- 
ing metallic connection in the helices that are 
within the field-magnets, substantially as set 
forth. 

3. In a dynamo-electric machine, a shunt 
around the helices of the field-of-force magnets, 
and means for opening and closing that shunt 
periodically, for the purposes and substan- 
tially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 7th dav of July, A. D. 
1879. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

S. L. Griffin, 
Francis R. Upton. 



No. 219,628. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Electric-Light. 



Patented Sept. 16, 1879. 




United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PARK, NEW JEESEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN ELECTRIC LIGHTS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 219,628, dated September 16, 1879; application filed 

December 9, 1878. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas Alva Edison, 
of Menlo Park, in the county of Middlesex and 
State of New Jersey, have invented an Im- 
provement in Electric Lights, and the follow- 
ing is declared to be a description of the 
same. 

The object of this invention is to produce a 
candle or light-giving body by the incandes- 
cence of a conductor of electricity in the form 
of a cylinder, prism, or other mass of a size 
adapted to yield the required volume of light. 

The invention consists in an electric-light- 
giving body formed of a conductor, such as 
finely-divided platinum, iridium, rutbinium, or 
other metal difficult of fusion, incorporated 
with non-conducting material. 

The candle, made as aforesaid, can be of 
any desired size or shape, and the metallic 
particles become incandescent by the passage 
of the current, and the non-metallic materials 
are luminous and increase the brilliancy. This 
is accomplished by a comparatively small elec- 
tric current. I mix with such finely-divided 
conductors infusible materials — such as oxide 
of magnesium or zirconium — in different pro- 
portions, so as to obtain any degrees of con- 

r ductivity required. 

In some instances I saturate rods, sheets, or 
other forms of infusible oxides with a salt of 
the metal difficult of fusion, and reduce the 
same by heat to a metallic state. 

I will mention that the use of a non-con- 
ducting material is not absolutely necessary, 

i as the finely-divided metals, owing to their po- 

( rosity, have high resistance, and become easily 
incandescent j but I prefer to use the non-con- 

\ ductor. 

In Figure 1 is shown a lamp composed of 



finely-divided iridium mixed with oxide of zer- 
conium and molded in the form of a split 
hollow cylinder, x. Pig. 2 is a detached sec- 
tion of the same. Fig. 3 is a perspective view, 
and Fig. 4 is a plan view. 

The cylinder being split, the current enters 
the binding-post A, passes through the lever 
L, through the regulating-wire n to the plate 
g, thence up one side of the iridium cylinder 
x, down the other side to the plate h, thence, 
by wire Tc, to the regulating-screw m and bind- 
ing-post n'. 

The regulation of the temperature of the 
cylinder x is obtained by the thermal-current 
regulator in the same manner as is shown in 
my application No. 156, filed October 14, 1878. 

The incandescent conductor made in this 
manner may be of any desired shape. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. For electric lighting, a conductor of elec- 
tricity formed of finely - divided metal incor- 
porated with a non-conductor of electricity, 
substantially as set forth. 

2. A rigid electric-light-giving body having 
a longitudinal incision or separation from the 
base to near the end, for insuring the circula- 
tion of the electric current through the entire 
body, substantially as set forth. 

3. In combination with a rigid light-giving 
body having a longitudinal incision, an ex- 
pansive thermal-circuit regulator to control the 
strength of the current by the heat developed, 
substantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 3d day of December, A. 
D. 1878. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Stockton L. Griffin, 
Geo. E. Cabman. 



2 Sheets— Sheet 1. 



No. 221,957. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Telephone. 

Patented Nov. 25, 1879. 




N- PETERS, PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHER, WASHINGTON, 0, 



2 Sheets— Sheet 2. 

T. A. EDISON. 
Telephone. 

No. 221,957. Patented Nov. 25, 1879. 




N.PETERS. PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHER, WASHINGTON, D C. 



United States Patent Office 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PABK, NEW JERSEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN TELEPHONES. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 221,95'S', dated November 25, 1879 ; application tiled 

March 31, 1879. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, in the State of New Jersey, have 
invented an Improvement in Telephones, (Case 
No.l75,)of which thefollowing is a specification. 

The object of this invention is to transmit 
sounds electrically to a distance and reproduce 
the same with great power and without loss of 
volume. 

The peculiar action upon which this inven- 
tion is based was patented by me January 19, 
1875, and numbered 158,787. An application of 
this action to telephony was also applied for 
by me July 20, 1877, No. 141, in which there 
is a band of paper moving beneath a point con- 
nected to the diaphragm. This feature, there- 
fore, is not broadly claimed herein. 

The present application consists more par- 
I ticularly in devices which make the inven- 
L tion perfectly practicable for use in commerce, 
and render the same reliable and effective. 

In the drawings, Figure 1 is a section of the 
apparatus. Fig. 2 is a view of the back of the 
box. Fig. 3 is a plan view, and Fig. 4 is a 
diagram representing the connections to the 
line, local circuit, and various parts of the ap- 
paratus. 

a' is a cylinder of compressed chalk soaked 
in an electrolytic solution, such as a caustic 
alkali, that it may become a conductor of elec- 
tricity. I will mention that any finely-divided 
non-conducting material or porous body hav- 
ing capillary pores, and which has no chemi- 
cal action upon the absorbed solution, may be 
used. This cylinder is secured to a shaft, V, 
and the whole is rotated by the operator by 
means of the toothed wheels & d 1 , shaft e, and 
handle/. Worm and pinion may be substi- 
tuted, and motor-power of a clock-work or 
| analogous motor replace the hand of the oper- 
ator. 

Besting upon the cylinder a' is a flat spring, 
g, connected to the diaphragm d 2 . This spring 
is pressed upon the chalk with a pressure of 
several pounds by means of the wire 7c and 
spring /;., the screw m serving to increase or 
decrease the amount of pressure. 

The line- wire is connected to the spring g, 
while the earth-wire is connected to the shaft 



on which the cylinder a/ is secured. If, now, 
the cylinder be rotated in the direction shown 
by the arrow and no current passes, the nor- 
mal friction of the spring g upon the surface 
of the cylinder a' will be very great, and the 
spring will be carried forward in the direction 
of the rotation of the cyliuder, thus pulling 
inwardly the diaphragm (P. If, now, a cur : 
rent passes whose direction is such that hy- 
drogen will be produced upon the surface of 
the spring g in contact with the chalk, the 
friction will be reduced to an extent propor- 
tionate to the strength of the current; hence 
the diaphragm will regain its natural position 
and continue there as long as the current 
passes. If, now, the current ceases, the nor- 
mal friction at once is re-established, and the 
traction increases, and the diaphragm is in- 
stantly pulled inwardly again. If, now, a cur- 
rent in the opposite direction is transmitted, 
the effect is scarcely noticeable, as the evolu- 
tion of oxygen upon the surface of the spring 
g does not, except with a few saturations, de- 
crease the friction like hydrogen, but, on the 
contrary, generally tends to increase the nor- 
mal friction ; hence I allow a constant current 
to circulate on the line, and am thus enabled 
to utilize the opposite waves by causing them 
to weaken the constant current, which is al- 
ways in a direction to evolve hydrogen on the 
surface of the spring g. 

If no constant current were upon the line, 
the waves in one direction only would produce 
a limited effect; but by using a constant cur- 
rent circulating upon the line in addition to 
the waves of similar and opposite polarity, 
one polarity of wave is added to that of the 
current, and the other wave neutralizes, or 
nearly neutralizes, the constant current ; hence 
the tendency of one wave is to produce a less- 
ening of friction of, say, five units, which, 
added to that produced by the constant cur- 
rent—say five— together give ten units. If, 
now, an opposite current is sent, it neutralizes 
the constant current, and we have the normal 
friction of the cylinder, whereas if no constant 
current were used one current would lessen the 
friction by five units, and the opposite current 
would perform no work. 



2 221, 

n' is a receptacle containing water, and rest- 
ing in the water is a roller, r, composed of 
any flexible absorbent substance, such as 
sponge or felt. 

A lever, r', to which the roller is attached, 
and by which the roller may be brought in 
contact with the cylinder a', extends through 
the box to the outside. The object of this de- 
vice is to supply the cylinder with water lost 
by evaporation, and make it a conductor to 
the electric current. 

In practice, when all the apparatus is in- 
closed in a cast-iron case, the loss by evapo- 
ration is very small ; and if the roller beheld 
against the cylinder and the cylinder be ro- 
tated three or four times the chalk will take 
up sufficient moisture so that it will perform 
its functions for a week or more without again 
wetting it. 

The connections are as follows : T is a car- 
bon telephone-transmitter, placed in a local 
circuit with an induction-coil, I, and local bat- 
tery X. If the position of the switch-lever ?/. 3 
is ou the button n, then the current proceeds 
from the local battery X via wire 1, primary 
coil of I, wire 2 to 3 * thence to the switch-le- 
ver n\ wire 4, through the carbon transmitter 
T ; thence by wire 5 to the post b; thence to the 
battery. 

The sonorous waves of the voice are trans- 
lated iuto electric waves of a positive and 
negative character iu the secondary coil of 
the inductorium I in the well-known manner. 

The connections of the main line are as fol- 
lows : The line from the distant station enters 
at the post d; thence via wire 9 to the call- 
bell electro-magnet p' • thence via wire 10 to 
the key-lever ¥; thence by wire G to the point 
p of the switch, and by wire 7 to tho springy 
of the receiver; thence through, the moist 
chalk to wire 8, to and through the secondary 
cod; thence via wire 3 to the switch-lever, 
which, it will be remembered, is iu n; thence 
by wire I through the transmitter to wire 5: 
thence to post b, and by wire 12 to the post o, 
which is connected to the earth. I will men- 
tion that either of the posts d e may be con- 
nected to the ground or line. 

It will be noticed that the main line passes 
through the transmitter, which is connected 
to the local battery ; hence a portiou of the cur- 
rent leaks into the main line, and it is this 
portion which thus leaks iuto the line that 
serves as a constant current for short lines; 
but if the line be too long, or has too great a 
resistance, this small leakage-current is so 
weakened as to be insufficient to produce a 
lessening of friction between the spring g and 
the chalk ; hence I insert one or more cells in 
the main line. 

While the switch is in this position— I e., 
the lever in contact with n— transmitting and 
receiving can go on simultaneously. By turn- 
ing the switch-lever to the point p the tele- 
phonic apparatus is disconnected, and the call- 
bell apparatus p' becomes operative. The line 



,95? 



enters at the point d, passes through the call- 
bell magnet via wire 9, and by 10 to key ¥; 
thence via 6 to p, and by switch to wire 3, and 
by 2 through the primary coil and via 1 to lo- 
cal battery, through that to post b, and by 12 
to post e and to earth. By depressing the key 
¥ the circuit is opened and closed, a"nd the 
two local batteries— one at each end of the 
line — become operative to ring the bell. 

I will mention that the two receivers herein 
described and the two transmitters may all be 
connected in one line and operated without 
the aid of induction-coils, but the results are 
not equal to that from the use of the coil; 
also, that the receivers will act as transmit- 
ters by reason of the fact that when the spring 
g and chalk are at rest the resistance of the 
whole is generally about twenty-five hundred 
ohms, and this resistance is reduced instan- 
taneously to two hundred or three hundred 
ohms by the slightest movement of either the 
chalk or the spring; hence the movement of 
the diaphragm d 2 by the voice produces the 
same result, or nearly so, as the carbon trans- 
mitter. If advantage is to be taken of this 
fact, the surface of the spring g should be re- 
duced to increase the effect, and an induction- 
coil having a primary coil of high resistance 
used in connection with the apparatus, al- 
though it is not absolutely necessary, as the 
direct results are nearly as good. 

In preparing the chalk I prefer to use a salt 
of mercury mixed with caustic soda. The ac- 
tion takes place no matter what the propor- 
tions are. The mercury salt I prefer to use is 
the acetate of mercury. 

I will mention that this moisture of the 
chalk may be regulated automatically by tak- 
ing advantage of the fact that the normal fric- 
tion of the chalk increases as it becomes drier. 

A spring resting on the chalk is connected 
to the wetting-roller, and has such a pressure 
and counteracting spring that when the chalk 
has its proper moisture the friction during ro- 
tation is insufficient to produce the necessary 
traction to lift the roller; but when it becomes 
drier the traction becomes sufficient to lift the 
wetting-roller, and it supplies moisture until 
the traction is reduced below a certain point 
and it falls. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. The combination, with the acoustic tele- 
graph and diaphragm, of a roller that receives 
a revolving motion and contains an electro- 
lytic material, and a spring or presser con- 
nected with the diaphragm and resting upon 
the roller, substantially as set forth. 

2. The combination, in an acoustic tele- 
graph, of a moving surface containing elec- 
trolytic material, a diaphragm, a presser o 
spring extending from the diaphragm an 
resting on such surface, a screw through 
fixed support acting upon the presser to va 
or adjust the friction between the moving su 
face and the presser, substantially as set fort 

3. The roller a', revolved by power, and tl 



221,95* 



3 



presser g and diaphragm <? 2 , iu combination 
with the receptacle n 1 for liquid and the trans- 
fer-roller r, substantially as set forth. 

4. The arrangement of local circuit, mag- 
netic call, telephone-receiver, telephone-trans- 
mitter, switch, and line-connections, substan- 
tially as set forth, whereby the call and the 
receiving-instrument are in the line - circuit, 



and the local battery is also put upon the line, 
substantially as specified. 

Signed by me this 24th day of March, A. D. 
1879. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Stockton L. Griffin, 
Wm, Carman. 



EDISON. 
Telephone. 

Patented Dec. 9, 1879. 




T. A. 

Carbon 

No, 222,390. 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO WESTERN 
UNION TELEGRAPH COMPANY, OF NEW YORK, N. Y. 

IMPROVEMENT IN CARBON-TELEPHONES. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 322,390, dated December 9, 1879 ; application filed 

November 11, 1878. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas Alva Edison, 
of Menlo Park, in the county of Middlesex 
and State of New Jersey, have invented an 
Improvement in Telephones, of which the fol- 
lowing is a specification. 

Thisinvention I term the " micro-telephone," 
in consequence of the same responding to mi- 
nute vibrations of the instrument itself, trans- 
mitted to it hy any solid body or of the atmos- 
phere, and in so doing transmitting electric 
pulsations to a distance, where they can be re- 
ceived by an ordinary telephone. 

In the drawings, Figure 1 is a section of the 
instrument, and Eig. 2 is a plan of the same. 

The box A is of a suitable size and shape 
for holding the apparatus, and for acting as a 
resonant case, one side thereof being open. 
This case conveys to the apparatus any vibra- 
tions or disturbance resulting from the sound- 
vibrations of the atmosphere or from the vi- 
bration of the solid material upon which the 
box rests. 

In the box A is an opening, preferably 
round, in which is the diaphragm p, and upon 
this diaphragm is a piece of compressed finely- 
divided conducting material, such as carbon, n. 
A second piece of carbon or similar material, 
w, is secured to a lever, c, the fulcrum or pivot 
of which is at x. 

A lever-arm, h, and movable weight % may 
be employed to balance the lever c and parts 
connected therewith, and the delicate spring 
e and adjusting-spindle / serve to increase or 
decrease the pressure of the buttons m n upon 
each other. 

The plate ft, of light material, such as mica, 
is connected with the lever c, and this is within 
and protected by a funnel or mouth-piece, B, 
upon the box A. 

It is now to be understood that the slightest 
vibration or jar given to the apparatus, such 
as that resulting from walking about a room, 
or from the articulate speech or sound- vibra- 
tions, vary the pressure of m n upon each other, 



aud in so doing the electric condition of a cir- 
cuit passing through p n m c and wires 3 4 is 
varied, and a corresponding response occurs 
in a distant receiving-telephone. The finely- 
divided carbon or other material between 1c 
and p thus becomes a circuit-regulator, that 
acts to vary the resistance in proportion to the 
vibration of the parts. 

This transmitter is either included in a short 
circuit containing a receiving-telephone and 
battery, or in the primary circuit of an induc- 
tion-coil containing a battery, and whose sec- 
ondary coil is in the line-wire containing the 
receiving-telephone. 

In my application No. 141, filed July 20, 
1877, 1 have shown a diaphragm and a spring 
carrying one electrode, and also a second elec- 
trode; and in my application No. 178, filed 
June 2, 1879, I have shown a diaphragm and 
two springs, with carbon between them. I do 
not herein lay claim to any of the devices shown 
in either of the said applications. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. The combination, with a resonant case or 
support, of the carbon or similar material, the 
lever c. disk ft, and circuit-connections, sub- 
stantially as set forth. 

2. The combination of two moving plates or 
diaphragms, p and ft, with finely-divided car- 
bon or similar material intervening, and the 
circuit-connections passing through the same, 
substantially as set forth. 

3. The combination, with a resonant case, of 
two diaphragms or plates, p aud ft, upon which 
sound or other vibrations operate, and a cir- 
cuit-regulator of finely-divided carbon or other 
material placed between such plates ft and p 
and the circuit-connections, substantially as 
set forth. 

Signed by me this 8th day of November, A. 
D. 1878. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

S. L. Geiffin, 
Chas. Batcheloe. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Magneto-Electric Machine. 

No. 222,881. Patented Dec. 23, 1879. 




N. PETERS. PHOTO-UTHOGRAPHER, WASHINGTON, D 0. 



ctnited States patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PAEK, NEW JERSEY. 
IMPROVEMENT IN MAGNETO-ELECTRIC MACHINES. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 222,§8l, dated December 523, 1879; application filed 

September 10, 1879. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, in the State of New Jersey, have 
invented an Improvement in Magneto-Electric 
Machines, (Case 184,) of which the following 
is a specification. 

The object of this invention is to increase 
the effectiveness and cheapen the construction 
of the revolving armature. 

I make the revolving armature of a cylinder 
of wood with two iron heads, and around the 
cylinder and between the heads fine iron wire 
is wound. 

At the ends of the cylinder, outside the 
iron heads, there are disks of hard rubber or 
other insulating material, and the wires form- 
ing the induction-helix are wound lengthwise 
of the cylinder into notches in the edges of 
the disk. This insures the proper insulation 
of the induction-helix, even if the insulating- 
covering of the wires may be injured, and the 
fine iron-wire cylinder forms a magnet by in- 
duction from the field-of- force magnet, and 
the wires running circumferential ly also set 
up magnetic poles in the revolving armature, 
and with the aid of the commutator the mag- 
netic poles always remain at the right place 
on account of the. quick discharging time of 
the iron-wire magnet, and therefore are prac- 
tically regardless of the speed of revolution, 
and render it unnecessary to adjust the com- 
mutators for different speeds of revolution. 

In the drawings, Figure 1 is an elevation of 
the field-of-force magnet with the poles and 
armature-cylinder in section. Fig. 2 is a plan 
of the armature-cylinder with the poles in sec- 
tion. Fig. 3 represents the wooden cylinder 
sectionally without the wire helix. Fig. 4 is 
a section of one end of the armature-cylinder, 
and Fig. 5 is a diagram of the circuit-connec- 
tions. 

The field-of-force magnet a is provided with 
the poles N S, and the same may be either a 
permanent magnet or electro-magnet, but pref- 
erably the latter, and the helix thereof in the 
circuit from the armature-helix; or it may be 
energized separately. The pole-faces are con- 
cave. 

The shaft c is in bearings cZ, and has a wooden 
cylinder, e, between the two iron heads/, and 
g is the helix of iron wire wouud into the space 
between the heads/. 



The insulating-heads h, of hard rubber, vul- 
canized fiber,orequivalentmaterial, are secured 
outside the heads/, and are of larger diame- 
ter, so that the helix-wires i, that are wound 
longitudinally, may be kept from contact with 
the iron helix g or heads /, so that the cur- 
rent may not be short-circuited, even if the 
insulation of the wires % is defective. 

The projections o around the heads h serve 
as guides to retain the wires that are wound 
into the notches between said projections. 

The longitudinal wires i are connected to the 
commutator-plates n, from which the brushes 
pass the current to the binding-screws, and 
thence to the object that is to be supplied with 
the electric current. 

The wires i may be wound in the manner set 
forth in my application No. 177. 

In use the poles N S of the field-magnet 
energize, by induction, the iron -wire helix g, 
and the wires of the armature-coil i are carried 
across or cut the lines of magnetism, so as to 
obtain a maximum effect in setting up a cur- 
rent in said induction-helix. 

The bobbin, after winding, is served with 
German-silver wire in several places to keep 
the induction-wires against the cylinder. 

I do not claim a dynamo-magneto-electric 
machine wherein a cylindrical armature coiled 
with insulated wire wound longitudinally on 
the exterior thereof and provided with a com- 
mutator is caused to rotate between curved 
branches of electro-magnets, the coils of which 
are in electric circuit from the commutator to 
the terminals of the machine, as I prefer not 
to include the helix of the fielcl-magnet in the 
circuit from the commutator. 

I claim as my invention — 

The cylinder e, of wood or similar material, 
with the iron heads /and intervening helix of 
fine iron wire, in combination with the disks 
7tof non-conducting material and the induction- 
helix wound lengthwise and into notches 
in the edges of the insulating-disks, substan- 
tially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 4th day of September, 
A. D. 1879. 

THOS. A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

S. L. Griffin, 
Frank McLaughlin. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Eleetric-Lamp. 

No. 223,898. Patented Jan. 27, 1880. 




United States Patent Office 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PAEK, NEW JERSEY. 
ELECTRIC LAMP. 



SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 223,898, dated January 27, 1880. 

Application filed KovembRr 4, 1879. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas Alva Edison, 
of Menlo Park, in the State of New Jersey, 
United States of America, have invented an 
5 Improvement in Electric Lamps, and in the 
method of manufacturing' the same, (OaseJSTo. 
186,) of which the following is a specification. 

The object of this invention is to produce elec- 
tric la mps giving li ght by i 1 ) can descen ce, wh ich 
io lamps shall have high resistance, so as to al- 
low of the practical subdivision of the electric 
light. 

The invention consists in a light-giving body 
of carbon wire or sheets coiled or arranged in 

15 such a manner as to offer great resistance to 
the passage of the electric current, and at the 
same time present but a slight surface from 
which radiation can take place. 
The invention further consists in placing 

$o such burner of great resistance in a nearly- 
perfect vacuum, to prevent oxidation and iu- 

F jury to the conductor by the atmosphere. The 
current is conducted into the vacuum-bulb 
through platina wires sealed into the glass. 

«S The invention further consists in the method 
of manufacturing carbon conductors of high 
resistance, so as to be suitable for giving light 
by incandescence, and in the manner of secur- 
ing perfect contact between the metallic con- 

3° ductors or leading-wires and the carbon con- 
ductor. 

Heretofore light by incandescence has been 
obtained from rods of carbon of one to four 
ohms resistance, placed in closed vessels, in 

35 which the atmospheric air has been replaced 
by gases that do not combine chemically with 
the carbon. The vessel holding the burner 
has been composed of glass cemented to a me- 
tallic base, The connection between the lead- 

4° ing-wires and the carbon has been obtained by 
clamping the carbon to the metal. The lead- 
ing-wires have always been large, so that their 
resistance shall be many times less than the 
burner, and, in general, the attempts of pre- 

45 vious persons have been to reduce the resistance 
of thecarbon rod. The disadvantages of follow- 
ing this practice are, that a lamp having but 
one to four ohms resistance cannot be worked in 
great numbers in multiple arc without the em- 

5° ployment of main conductors of enormous di- 
mensions 5 that, owing to the low resistance of 



the lamp, the leading-wires must be of large 
dimensions and good conductors, and a glass 
globe cannot be kept tight at the place where 
the wires pass in and are. cemented ; hence the 55 
carbon is consumed, because there must be al- 
most a perfect vacuum to render the carbon 
stable, especially when such carbon is small in 
mass and high in electrical resistance. 

The use of a gas in the receiver at the at- 60 
mospheric pressure, although not attacking 
the carbon, serves to destroy it in time by " air- 
washing," or the attrition prod need by the rapid 
passage of the air over the slightly-coherent 
highly-heated surface of the carbon. I have 65 
reversed this practice. I have discovered that 
even a cotton thread properly carbonized and 
placed in a sealed glass bulb exhausted to one- 
millionth of an atmosphere offers from one 
hundred to rive hundred ohms resistance to the 70 
passage of the current, and that it is absolutely 
stable at very high temperatures ; that if the 
thread be coiled as a spiral and carbonized, 
or if any fibrous vegetable substance which 
will leave a carbon residue after heating in 75 
a closed chamber be so coiled, as much as two 
thousand ohms resistance may be obtained 
without presenting a radiating-surface greater 
titan three - sixteenths of an inch; that if 
such fibrous material be rubbed with a plas- 80 
tic composed of lamp-black and tar, its re- 
sistance may be made high or low, according 
to the amount of lamp-black placed upon it 5 
that carbon filaments may be made by a 
combination of tar and lamp-black, the latter 85 
being previously ignited in a closed crucible 
for several hours and afterward moistened and 
kneaded until it assumes the consistency of 
thick putty. Small pieces of this material 
may be rolled out in the form of wire as small 90 
as seven-one-thousandths of an inch in diame- 
ter and over a foot in length, and the same 
may be coated with a non-conducting non-car- 
bonizing substance and wound on a bobbin, or 
as a spiral, and the tar carbonized in a closed 95 
chamber by subjecting it to high heat, the 
spiral after carbonization retaining its form. 

All these forms are fragile and cannot be 
clamped to the leading-wires with sufficient 
force to insure good contact and prevent heat- 100 
ing. I have discovered that if platinum wires 
are used and the plastic lamp-black and tar 



2 



223,S9S 



material be molded around it in tlte act of car- 
bonization there is an intimate union by com- 
bination and by pressure between the carbon 
and platina, and nearly perfect contact is ob- 
5 tained without the necessity of clamps; hence 
the burner and the leading-wires are connect- 
ed to the carbon ready to be placed in the vac- 
uum-bulb. 

When fibrous material is used the plastic 

10 lamp-black and tar are used to secure it to the 
platina before carbonizing*. 

By using the carbon wire of such high re- 
sistance I am enabled to use fine platinum 
wires for leading- wires, as they will have a 

15 small resistance coinpaj-ed to the burner, and 
hence will not heat and crack the sealed vac- 
uum-bulb. Platina cau only be used, as its 
expansion is nearly the same as that of glass. 
By using a considerable length of carbon 

20 wire and coiling it the exterior, which is only 
a small portion of its entire surface, will form 
the principal radiating - surface; hence I am 
able to raise the specific heat of the whole of 
the carbon, and thus prevent the rapid recep- 

25 tion and disappearance of the light, which on 
a plain wire is prejudicial, as it shows the 
least unsteadiness of the current by the flick- 
ering of the light; but if the current is steady 
the defect does not show. 

30 I have carbonized and used cotton and linen 
thread, wood splints, papers coiled in various 
ways, also lamp-black, plumbago, and carbon 
in various forms, mixed with tar and kneaded 
so that the same may be rolled out into wires 

35 of various lengths and diameters. Bach wire, 
however, is to be uniform in size throughout. 

If the carbon thread is liable to be distorted 
during carbonization it is. to be coiled between 
a helix of copper wire. The ends of the car- 

40 bon or filament are secured to the platina 
leading-wires by plastic earbonizable material, 
and the whole placed in the carbonizing-cham- 
ber. The copper, which has served to prevent 
distortion of the carbon thread, is afterward 

45 eaten away by nitric acid, and the spiral soaked 
in water, and then dried and placed on the 
glass holder, and a glass bulb blown over the 
whole, with a leading-tube for exhaustion by 
a mercury-pump. This tube, when a high 



vacuum has been reached, is hermetically d 
sealed. 

With substances which are not greatly dis- 
totted in carbonizing, they may be coated with 
a non-conducting non-carbonizable substance, 
which allows one coil or turn of the carbon to m 
rest upon and be supported by the other. 

In the drawings, Figure 1 shows the lamp I 
sectionally. a is the carbon spiral or thread. 
c & are the thickened ends of the spiral, formed 
of the plastic compound of lamp-black and tar. 6& 
d d' are the platina wires, h h are the clamps, ■ 
which serve to connect the platina wires, ce- 
mented in the carbon, with the leading-wires 
x x, sealed iu the glass vacuum-bulb, e e are 
copper wires, connected just outside the bulb m 
to the wires x x. m is the tube (shown by 
dotted lines) leading to the vacuum-pump, 
which, after exhaustion, is hermetically sealed 1 
and the surplus removed. 

Fig. 2 represents the plastic material before 7c 
being wound into a spiral. 

Fig. 3 shows the spiral after carbonization, 
ready to have a bulb blown over it. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. Au electric lamp for giving light by in- 75 
candescence, consisting of a filament of carbon 

of high resistance, made as described, and se- 
cured to metallic wires, as set forth. 

2. The combination of carbon filaments with 1 
a receiver made entirely of glass and conduct- 8c! 
ors passing through the glass, and from which 
receiver the air is exhausted, for the purposes 
set forth. 

3. A carbon filament or strip coiled and 
connected to electric conductors so that only 85 
a portion of the surface of such carbon con- 
ductors shall be exposed for radiating light, 

as set forth. 

4. The method herein described of securing 
the platina contact-wires to the carbon fila- gq 
ment and carbonizing of the whole in a closed 
chamber, substantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 1st day of November, 
A. D. 1879. 

THOMAS A. EDISOK 

Witnesses: 

S. L. Griffin, 
John F. Eandolph. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Electric-Lighting Apparatus. 

No. 224,329. Patented Feb. 10, 1880. 




N. PETERS, PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHER, WASHINGTON. D. C. 



United States Patent Office 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PARK, NEW JEESEY. 
ELECTRIC-LIGHTING APPARATUS. 

SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 224,329, dated February 10, 1880. 

Application filed February 3, 1879. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Meulo Park, in the county of Middlesex and 
State of New Jersey, have invented an Im - 
5 provement in Electric-Lighting Apparatus, 
(Case No. 170;) and the following is declared 
to be a description of the same. 

The object of this invention is to produce 
electric illumination by the incandescence of 
10 carbon. 

The invention consists in making the two 
poles dissimilar, one being of the carbon in 
the form of a slender rod," and which serves 
to give light, while the other is of platinum 

15 or platinum-iridium alloy, against which the 
rod presses. 

The inferiority of contact which takes place 
between the metal and the carbon creates a 
considerable resistance, which, heating the 

20 carbon, increases the inferiority of the con- 
tact, causing the carbon to become highly in- 
candescent; but no effect is produced upon 
the platinum or iridium alloy. 

In Figure 1, A is the frame-work ; B, the 

25 platina pole; C, the carbon rod. h h are 
springs, whicb rub upon the carbon rod, and 
are the medium of conveying a current to it 
by the wires K from the binding - post, the 
platina rod B and frame A being connected 

30 to the other binding-post by the wire L. 

d' and d are wheels, over which cords or 
Strings run. These strings are connected to 
the extreme end of the carbon C, and to the 
pulley / and weight G. The effect of the 

35 weight is to cause the carbon rod to press 
at all times against the platina or iridium 
rod B. 

The carbon rod is insulated from the frame 
A in any suitable manner, and it will be ap- 

4° parent that as the carbon rod is consumed the 
weight G moves the carbon upwardly to main- 
tain contact with metallic rod B. 

In Fig. 2 is shown a method whereby the 
carbon rod C is fed downward by means of a 

45 weight, A', resting upon the upper end of the 
carbon and guided by the springs or rods d? 
(0, Electrical contact is maintained with the 
weight and carbon by the springs d? d 3 , or in 
any other suitable manner. *" 

50 i n pig, 3 a magazine-lamp is shown. 
are rods of carbon contained in the case 



H, which rods rest at their lower end upon 
the inclosed bottom of the case H and slide 
toward the tube e', into which the rods pass 
one at a time by their own weight, n is a 55 
feed-wheel, that acts through an opening at 
one side of the tube e' upon the carbon rod ; 
p, a weight, and m a spool or coil of thread or 
tine wire, with a slight friction from a spring 
or otherwise, to prevent the thread unwinding 60 
too easily. This thread passes around the 
wheel «, or a drum on its shaft, and is con- 
stantly drawn upon by the weight p, so as to 
move the carbon rod downwardly and keep 
it in contact with the metal rod B. 65^ 

It is obvious that a clock-work movement 
which will run for several days, or an electric 
engine included in the same circuit, may give 
motion to the feed-wheel n. 

I am aware that in some instances the car- 70 
bon rod has been forced into contact with a 
large bar tipped with platina. I make use of 
a rod of platina or iridium that is smaller 
than the carbon, so as to produce a resistance 
at the point of contact between the carbon 75 
and platina in consequence of the inferior con- 
tact, and thereby develop incandesence at this 
point. 

I am also aware that rods of carbon have 
been supplied automatically from a holder. 80 
Therefore I do not claim the same. 

J claim as my invention — 

1. The combination, with the carbon rod, 
in an electric lamp, of a metal rod that is diffi- 
cult of fusion and smaller than the carbon 85 
rod, so as to produce a resistance at the. point 

of contact between the carbon and the metal, 
and a weight to maintain the necessary press- 
ure at the point of contact, substantially as 
set forth. 9° 

2. The case H, having an inclined bottom 
and adapted to receive several carbon rods, iu 
combination with the metallic rod B and 
means for guiding the carbon and maintain- 
ing the pressure thereof at the point of con- 95 
tact, substantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 23d day of January, A. 
D. 1879. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

S. L. Griffin, 
Wm. Cabman. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Method of Preparing Autographic Stencils for Printing. 

No. 224,665. Patented Feb. 17, 1880. 




N. PETERS, PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHER. WASHINGTON, O G. 



United States Patent Office 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OP MENLO PAEK, NEW JEESEY. 
METHOD OF PREPARING AUTOGRAPHIC STENCILS FOR PRINTING. 



SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 224,665, dated February 17, 1880. 

Application filed March 17, 1879. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, in the State of New Jersey, have 
invented an Improvement in Preparing Sten - 
5 oils for Printing, (Case No. 173,) of which the 
following is a specification.. 

In Letters Patent No. 180,857, granted, to 
me, means for perforating paper by a rapidly- 
reciprocating needle are set forth; also, a 

io method of printing by forcing a semi-fluid ink 
through the perforations. 

My present invention relates to a peculiar 
stencil-sheet, and to the method of and a means 
for preparing the perforated stencil of paper 

15 or similar material. 

I make use of a slab or plate with a surface 
of numerous sharp points. Such surface is 
represented a£ a composed of needle-points 
set closely together, or wire points, the ex- 

20 treme ends of which are in the same plane and 
the bodies united by solder or cast metal; or 
the said surface may be a metal plate with its 
surface scored with grooves that leave the in- 
tervening sharp points projecting, as shown 

25 in the section, Figure 1, and plan, Fig. 2. A 
steel plate thus prepared and hardened is pre- 
ferred. 

Upon this slab the sheet of paper b is placed, 
and upon it, by preference, a sheet of blotting- 

30 paper, c, or other soft paper or material, is 
laid, and the person that writes or draws makes 
use of a stylus or blunt point, d, and writes 
or draws upon the surface of the paper c by 
pressing the same by hand thereon with a force 

35 that is sufficient to cause the points of the slab 
a to penetrate the paper b upwardly in the lines 
beneath the stylus. The sectional view, Pig. 
3, illustrates this method of preparing the 
stencil. 

40 The perforations in the paper will have their 
largest diameter at the under side of the sheet, 
as shown in the section, Pig. 4, in consequence 
of each point in the slab a being tapering; 
hence, when the paper stencil is made use of 

45 in printing with a semi-fluid ink, such ink will 
pass in at the smallest part of each hole to the 
broader part of the hole adjacent to the paper, 
and the lines of dots will be sufficiently heavy 



and distinct when printed upon the surface 
that is printed. 50 

I do not limit myself to the use of the sheet 
of soft paper c, as the writing may be done 
directly upon the surface of the sheet b, and 
any suitable blunt pencil or stylus may be 
used. In some instances the pencil may be of 55 
wood or other yielding material; or a lead-pen- 
cil may be employed. 

A method of printing by a perforated sten- 
cil having been set forth in my aforesaid pat- 
ent does not require to be repeated herein. 60 
I remark that the ink may be rubbed into or 
forced through the perforations of the stencil 
in any desired manner, so as to print upon a 
sheet of paper laid beneath the perforated 
stencil. 65 

The stylus may be provided with a small 
roller at the lower end or a ball in a socket. 
This roller or ball should be of yielding ma- 
terial, such as leather or rawhide. 

I claim as my invention— 7° 

1. The method herein specified of preparing 
stencil-sheets for printing, consisting in press- 
ing the sheet in the lines to be printed against 
the numerous fine perforating-points of a slab 
by means of a blunt stylus that is passed over 75 
the sheet at the lines to be perforated and 
forces such sheet upon the points, substantially 

as set forth. 

2. As an appliance for puncturing stencil- 
sheets by the aforesaid method, the slab «, hav- 80 
i ng a surface composed of numerous and closely- 
proximate penetrating-points, in combination 
with a blunt stylus adapted to be moved by 
baud over the paper to be perforated, substan- 
tially as set forth. 8 5 

3. An autographic stencil - sheet, substan- 
tially as described, for multiplicate printing, 
having perforations that are the largest at the 
side next the surface to be printed, substan- 
tially as set forth. _ r 1 . _ 9° 

Signed by me this 10th day of March, A. D. 

1879 " THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

S. L. Griffin, 
G-. E. Carman, 



(No Model.) 

T. A. EDISON. 
Safety-Conductor for Electric-Lights. 

No. 227,226. Patented May 4, 1880. 




TLa.JU 




N. PETERS. PHOTO- LITHOGRAPHER. WASHINGTON, D C. 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISOST. OF MEMO PABK, NEW JERSEY. 
SAFETY-CONDUCTOR FOR ELECTRIC LIGHTS. 



SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 227,226, dated May 4, 1880. 

Application filed March 25, 1880. (No model.) 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, in the county of Middlesex and 
State of New Jersey, have invented a new and 
5 useful Improvement in Conductors for Electric 
Lights 5 and I do hereby declare that the fol- 
lowing is a full and exact description of the 
same, reference being had to the accompany- 
ing drawings, and to the letters of reference 
io marked thereon. 

In other applications for patents made by 
me I have shown a safety device for prevent- 
ing an abnormal flow of current through any 
branch. This safety device consists of a piece 
15 of very small conductor interposed in the main 
conductors of a house or in the derived circuit 
of a lamp. Preferably, one is interposed in the 
circuit of each lamp or other translating de- 
vice. This small conductor has such a degree of 
20 conductivity as to readily allow the passage of 
the amount of current designed for its partic- 
ular branch, but no more. If, from any cause 
whatever, an abnormal amount of current, 
large enough to injure the translation devices 
25 or to cause a waste of energy, is diverted 
through a branch the small safety -wire be- 
comes heated and melts away, breaking the 
overloaded branch circuit. It is desirable, 
however, that the few drops of hot molten 
30 metal resulting therefrom should not be al- 
lowed to fall upon carpets or furniture, and 
also that the small safety-conductor should be 
relieved of all tensile strain; hence I inclose 
the safety- wire in a jacket or shell of non-con- 
35 ducting material, which, preferably, is secured 
to the ends of the large conductors, uniting 
them, not electrically, but as to tensile strain. 



In the drawings, Figures 1 and 3 show dif- 
ferent forms of jacket or shell, and Fig. 2 is a 
section or half of the form shown in Fig. 1. 40 

B B is the main or ordinary conductor, sev- 
ered, as shown, and C is the safety device or 
wire, capable of conducting the current or- 
dinarily used in its particular circuit, but 
melting and thereby breaking the circuit when 45 
the current is injuriously increased. 

In Fig. 3 A is a simple shell placed over 
the safety- wire only. The preferable form is 
shown in Fig. 1, where A is a shell composed 
of two halves, a, one of which is shown in Fig. 50 
2. This shell is made slightly tapering at the 
ends, and with a slight inward tiange, so as 
to grasp firmly the wire B B. 

The two halves are placed so as to form a 
complete cylinder, the ends grasping the wire 55 
B B, and the hoops or bands E E slipped on. 

This arrangement forms a shell or case for 
the safety- wire, and at the same time relieves 
it of tensile strain, the strain of the wire B B 
being carried by the case. 60 

What I claim is — 

1. The combination, with the safety wire or 
device, of an inclosing case or shell, substan- 
tially as set forth. 

2. " The combination, with the safety -wire 65 
and main severed conductor, of a shell or case 
inclosing the safety device or wire and reliev- 
ing it from strain, substantially as set forth. 

This specification signed and witnessed this 
10th day of March, 1880. „^n*r 
THOS. A. EDISOK 

Witnesses : 

Wm. Carman, 

C. P. MOTT. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Electric-Lights. 




N.perens, photo-uthographes, Washington, d c. 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PARK, NEW JEESEY. 
ELECTRIC LIGHT. 



SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 227,227, dated May 4, 1880. 

Application filed February 10, 1879. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, in the State of New Jersey, have 
invented an Improvement in Electric Lights, 
5 (Case No. 171,) of which the following is a 
specification. 

The object of this invention is to economi- 
cally apply electricity to lighting and to in- 
sure uniformity ' of action in the different 
io lamps. 

The invention consists, first, in an improved 
incandescent lamp and regulator; second, in 
an automatic switch connected with the regu- 
lator of the lamp to connect it with the line ; 
15 third, in grouping several lamps in such a inau- 
ner that their combined resistance shall be the 
same as one lamp. 

Figure 1 represents the lamp and the circuit- 
connections. 1,2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 are coils of wire— 
20 preferably flattened wire formed of an alloy 
of platinum and iridium, or metallic nickel. 
There are six of these coils, (see Fig. 4,) each 
of which is slipped over a pencil of pipe-clay, 
which may be provided at the top end with a 
25 head, as shown in Fig. 1. 

These pipe-clay pencils are secured to pipe- 
clay disks x resting in the split metal cup 
y ?/'. Coil No. 2 has its lower end connected to 
the binding-screw m of the cup y. The top end 
30 of the spiral 2 connects to the spiral 3, the 
bottom of 3 to 4, the top of 4 to 5, the bottom 
of 5 to 6, the top of 6 to 1. The bottom of 1 
connects to the screw n of the brass cup y'. 
q and p are electric conductors between the 
.35 divided cup y y' and the divided baser and r', 
and at the same time serve as supports to the 
burner. 

The wire of the coils as it comes from the 
winding-machine is stretched to open the coils, 

40 and then dipped in a thick milky solution of 
zircon oxide and clay and then passed through 
a hydrogen flame. This causes a very slight 
coating to adhere to the wire. 
The coils are pressed together and placed 

45 on the fire-clay pencils, and the coils are con- 
fined between the heads of the fire-clay pencils 
and the clay blocks x x', into holes in which 
blocks the ends of such fire-clay pencils are 
pressed. The coils forming the spirals are 

50 thus in contact, or nearly so, but they do uot 



connect electrically : hence the current passes 
through the whole length of the wire. The 
expansion of the pencil of clay, or clay and 
zircon, is about equal to that of the metal coils ; 
hence their condition is not materially altered 55 
by the heat. 

The spirals are of such a size that they nearly 
touch each other. Hence the light and heat 
are confined within the circular range of spirals, 
and aid in intensifying the light and heat of the 60 
electric candle, and the radiation is mostly 
from the outside portions of the coils. 

The pipe-clay disks y y' serve both for hold- ■ 
ing the pencils and preventing the lower ends 
of the spirals from cooling by having their heat 65 
conducted downward by the metal supports 
q$>. 

24 is a glass globe or shade set, over the 
burner, and made air-tight, or nearly so. Air 
can only pass through the orifice li, as shown 70 
by the arrow. 

'The regulation by the electric current, and 
the consequent temperature of the burner, is 
obtained by the expansion of the air contained 
in the glass shade 24. 75 

10 and 11 are flexible chambers, similar to 
those used in an aneroid-barometer. The ex- 
pansion of the air by the heat of the burner 
causes these chambers to bulge outwardly and 
gives a downward motion to the lever 12, 80 
which is secured to the chamber 11 at 13. 

15 is a long rod tipped with platinum. 14 
is a contact-point, and the lever 17 usually 
rests against it; but when the heat of the 
burner has reached its maximum point it has 85 
expanded the air sufficiently to cause the lever 
12 and point 15 to separate the lever li from 
14 and divert the electric current from the 

lamp. . . , 

When the lamp is in operation the current 90 
passes from wire 50 to point 23, which is in 
contact with the spring 22, (the regulator- 
screw 19 keeping 22 and 23 in contact;) thence 
the current passes to binding- post and lever 
17 • thence to contact-point 14, to r, through 95 
the spirals to r'j thence by wire 30 to the other 
binding-post, and out by wire 51 

If now, the temperature of the spirals be- 
comes too great, the lever 12 and point 15 are 
thrown downward, and the lever 17 separated 100 



from point 14, thus throwing the lamp entirely 
out of circuit and placing in circuit a resist- 
ance, B 3 , equal to it, the object of the resist- 
ance being to prevent an excessive spark at 
5 the contact-points. 

I remark that if the current is accurately 
circulated for the lamp the resistance of E 3 
may be much greater than the lamp, and such 
resistance may even be in the form of several 
io spirals placed between the spirals 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 
and 6. 

When the lever 17 is in contact with the 
point 15 and lever 12, the current passes by 
wire 50 to 23 ; thence through 22 to binding- 

15 post, to 17 ; thence through 15 and 12 to the 
coil E 3 by wire 54; thence by wire 30 to the 
binding-post, and out by wire 51. 

The block 16, upon which the lever 17 and 
point 14 are attached, is movable, and it is ad- 

20 justed by means of the screw 19,- that passes 
through the stationary nut 18. By moving this 
block 16 toward the lamp the circuit is broken 
to the candle and closed through 15 and 17, 
and in so doing the. circuit from 50 is broken 

25 between the spring 22 and screw-point 23. The 
reverse movement causes the lamp to be auto- 
matically connected to the circuit when the 
regulator-screw is turned downward to light 
the lamp. 

30 The parts can be so arranged that the lamp 
will be disconnected when it is giving a light 
equal to about two-candle power. 

In Fig. 2 are shown switches 41 and 42, 
whereby the lamps may be disconnected from 

35 the circuit after being turned down, as shown 
in my previous application, No. 169. 

It is obvious that any of the various forms 
of thermal circuit-regulator already described 
in my previous patents maybe combined with 

40 the burner herein shown. 

In Fig. 3 is shown the before - described 
lamp with mercury substituted for the ane- 
roid-chambers. 
In Fig. 2 I have shown a single lamp, L, 

45 having, say, one thousand ohms resistance, 
placed in one branch, and in another branch 
I have shown four electric candles or burners, 
1/ L 2 L 3 L 4 , in one lamp. The burner being 
in close proximity and arranged in two-branch 

50 circuits, the resistance of each branch being- 
two thousand ohms, the two branches will 
jointly offer a resistance of one thousand ohms, 
the same as the resistance of the one lamp L. 
By this arrangement various numbers of 

55 lamps may be placed in branch circuits be- 
tween the same main conductors and the re- 
sistance be equal in each branch. 



In my application for a patent No. 162 I 
have shown a glass shade in which the air is 
confined, and acts by its expansion upon a dia- 
phragm to operate the electric-circuit regu- 
lator, and in my application No. 162 I have 
represented the confined air as acting upon a 
column of mercury, and in my application for 
a patent No. 166 I have shown the lamp as 
composed of a flattened coil of wire, and in 
my application No. 169 I have shown a rheo- 
stat or resistance that is thrown into the cir- 
cuit when the lamp is extinguished. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. The combination, with the electric lamp 
and its transparent shade, of the aneroid- 
chambers 10 and 11 and electric-circuit reg- 
ulator, substantially as set forth. 

2. In an electric lamp, the combination, 
with a core of pipe -clay or equivalent non- 
conducting material and a base of similar 
material, to which the core is connected, a 
helix of platina or equivalent material sur- 
rounding the core and the wires of the elec- 
tric circuit connected thereto, substantially as 
set forth. 

3. In an electric lamp, a circular range of 
parallel helices connected alternately at top 
and bottom, and at the ends to the electric 
conductors, substantially as set forth. 

4. The combination, in an electric lamp, of 
the divided base r r', standards p q, divided 
cup y y', and a circular range of parallel hel- 
ices and circuit-connections, substantially as 
set forth. 

5. The combination, with the electric lamp 
and thermal circuit-regulator, of the movable 
block 16, levers 12 and 17, contact-points 14 
15, adjusting-screw 19, rheostat E 3 , aud cir- 
cuit-connections, substantially as and for the 
purposes set forth. 

6. The automatic switch 22 23, in combina- 
tion with the screw 19, block 16, circuit-con- 
nections, thermal circuit-regulator, and elec- 
tric lamp, substantially as set forth. 

7. The arrangement of four electric lamps 
in a divided branch circuit between two main 
conductors, substantially as and for the pur- 
poses set forth. 

Signed by me this 6th day of February, A. 
D. 1879. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Stockton L. Griffin, 
Wm. Carman. 



6c 



65 



70 



75 



So 



§5 



90 



95 



! 



105 



No. 227,228. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Electric-Lights. 

Patented May 4, 1880. 



£3 



£3 



13 



14 



3? 





i. PETERS, PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHER, WASHINGTON, D. C. 



United States Patent Office* 



THOMAS A. EDISOjST, OF MEN.LO PARK, NEW JERSEY. 
ELECTRIC LIGHT. 

SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 227,228, dated May 4, 1880. 

Application filed February 1879. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known tiiat I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, in the county of Middlesex and 
State of New Jersey, have invented an Ira- 
5 proveinent in Electric Light, (Case No. 169,) 
of which the following is a specification. 

In my Patents Nos. 214,636, 239,628, and 
218,866 the expansion of metal under heat is 
availed of in regulating the electric circuit, 
io and hence the same is disclaimed herein. 

In my p resent electric lamp I make use of 
a coil of wire with a pyroinsulating material 
between the coils similar to that set forth in 
my application So. 166, which pyroinsnlation 
15 is disclaimed herein ; but I combine therewith 
a surrounding case that is rendered incandes- 
cent by the heat of the coil, and I combine 
with the lamp a thermal - circuit regulator ar- 
ranged so that the amount of light can be 
20 varied at pleasure by an adjusting-screw that 
regulates the point at which the thermal regu- 
lator acts to open the electric circuit and lessen 
the current, so that the incandescent case can 
be more or less luminous. 
25 The invention also consists in a lamp which 
is peculiarly adapted to use in multiple arc. 

In the drawings, Figure 1 is a diagram illus- 
trating the connections, and Eig. 2 shows the 
peculiar lighting apparatus. 
30 The magneto-electric machines may be of 
any suitable character and driven by power. 
They may be arranged between the two main 
conductors A B in ranges or multiple arcs of 
three, four, or more in each, and the connec- 
35 tions should be made for intensity. I have 
represented four such magneto -electric ma- 
chines, M, in each range. 

A is a tube laid in the earth, and preferably 
of iron, and it forms, together with the earth, 
o one-half of the circuit. Within this tube is an 
insulated conductor, B, preferably of a num- 
ber of strands of copper twisted together in 
the form of a cable, one strand of the cable 
being dropped, say, every one hundred feet, 
5 so that at the extreme end of the circuit there 
shall be but a single strand. This cable is in- 
sulated from the tube by any cheap or economi- 
cal insulation, such as tar or asphaltum. 
A branch tube, A 2 , containing a single strand 
50 from the cable, is to enter each house or build- 
ing, and from the basement smaller wires are 



run to the various parts of the house where 
the lights are required. Each lamp is to be 
provided with a switch, 2, so that it may be 
disconnected from the conducting-wires. 55 

The electric generators at the central station 
are provided with constant fleld-of-force mag- 
nets, the helices of which are in the electric 
circuit; hence if all the lamps feeding from 
the main conductors are disconnected by their 60 
switches the circuit will be broken and no cur- 
rent passes through the conductors leading 
from the station to the lights, and the steam- 
engine runs lightly and with the expenditure 
of "a very small amount of force. If now the 65 
switch of a single lamp is turned the lamp is 
connected to the branch wires from the main 
conductors, the circuit is closed, and only suffi- 
cient current passes from the central station 
to supply that lamp, because the external re- 70 
sistance determines the amount of current. In 
this way the current will be proportioned to 
the number of lamps in the circuit. 

Each lamp I prefer to contain a resistance 
when incandescent of one thousand ohms. Af- 75 
ter the switch has been turned on so as to connect 
the light to the conductors the current will pass 
through a resistance, B, equal to the lamp ; but 
if the thermal regulating-screw n be turned 
downward the lamp will be thrown in circuit 80 
and the current divided according to the ex- 
tent to which the regulating-screw has been 
turned downward ; if but slightly the lamp 
will only reach, say, a red heat, when, owing 
to the expansion of the regulating-rod </, the 85 
lamp will be thrown out of circuit and the re- 
sistance R thrown in, as the lever x allows the 
lever Q to come in contact with the point n, 
the lever x breaking contact with it simulta- 
neously. As this takes place the lamp cools 90 
and the contraction of g places the lamp in cir- 
cuit again. Thus theresistance of the lamp and 
its appurtenances is quite regular regardless 
of the degree of temperate or amount of light 
the lamp is giving out. This feature of this 95 
light is similar to that shown in my applica- 
tion So. 166, and therefore does not form part 
of the present invention. 

This apparatus is not a perfect regulator, as 
the resistance of the incandescent conductor 10 
increases with its heat ; but if in any case it is 
desirable that the resistance should be practi- 



227,228 



cally constant at all temperatures the screw n 
may be arrauged to operate contact-levers, so 
as to decrease or increase the resistance of E 
when it is thrown upward or downward, sev- 
5 eral bobbins of wires being used in R, as in 
my application No. 146, one or more being 
brought into circuit by the movement of the 
screw n and its levers. By the means above 
described about nine-tenths of the resistance, 
io except of the main conductors, is light-giving 
resistance, thus effecting great economy in cur- 
rent. 

As before described, as the connecting of one 
or more lamps causes a sufficient amount of 

15 current to be developed at the central station 
to keep the same incandescent, it follows that 
if the machines at the station are arranged ex- 
pressly for tension and quantity many hun- 
dreds of lamps may be placed in circuit be- 

20 tween the main conductors, the reduction of 
resistance upon placing each lamp in the cir- 
cuit drawing the proper quantity of current 
from the station ; hence the greatest economy 
possible is obtained by causing all the resist- 

25 ance outside of the main conductors to be 
light-giving resistances. 

The lamp shown in Fig. 2 consists of a bobbin 
of wire insulated with a pyroinsulator, such 
as zircon, magnesia, lime, or other compounds 

30 of high fusibility, as set forth in my applica- 
tion No. 166. This Dobbin B', which has prefera- 



bly a resistance of one thousand ohms, is placed 
within a metallic case, L, which is rendered 
highly incandescent by the radiated heat from 
thebobbin. Therodf/ is insulated from the case 35 
at P, and one end of the bobbin B' is connected 
by a wire to this rod, the other end of the bob- 
bin being connected to the case L or to the wire 
connected to the switch 2. When the lamp is 
turned off the lever Q is in contact with n and 40 
the resistance R is in circuit ; but when 11 is 
lowered until the lever Q comes into contact 
with x the lamp is thrown in circuit and the 
regulating-rod g allows more or less intimate 
contact between n and Q. 45 

I will mention that the case L is not necessa- 
rily metallic, as it may be of lime or zircon. 

I claim as my invention — 

1. The lamp consisting of a pyroinsulated 
coiled wire, in combination with a surrounding 5P 
case that is rendered incandescent by the ra- 
diated heat, substantially as set forth. 

2. The combination, with the electric lamp, 
of the thermal regulator, a resistance, and an 
adjusting device, n, arranged and operating 55 
substantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 28th day of January, A. 
D. 1879. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Stockton L. Griffin, 
J. N. Mackenzie. 



No. 227,229. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Electric-Lights. 



Patented May 4, 1880. 




N.iPETERS, PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHER, WASHINGTON, D. C. 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PAEK, JSTEW' JERSEY. 
ELECTRIC LIGHT. 

SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 227,229, dated May 4, 1880. 

Application filed April 21, 1370. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, in the State of New Jersey, have 
invented an Improvement in Electric Lights, 
5 (Case iTo. 176,) of which the folio wing is a speci- 
fication. 

When platina and other metals that fuse at 
a high temperature are exposed to high heat 
and then cooled in the atmosphere they are 
10 injured, so that they are. not well adapted to 
use in electric lights for a long period of time. 

I inclose the conductor that forms the elec- 
tric candle in a transparent case and heat the 
same gradually to expel any gases from the 
15 material of the candle. I form a vacuum in 
the transparent case and then seal the same 
hermetically, so that all injurious atmospheric 
influences are avoided. 

The invention further consists of a vacuum- 
o receptacle made entirely of glass and sealed by 
melting the same in combination with an incan- 
descent continuous conductor pyro-insulated. 

The invention further consists in winding 
pyro-insulated wire upon a bottom of a com- 
25 pressed infusible substance, such as lime. 

The invention further consists in placing the 
vacuum-bulb within another glass receptacle, 
also closed from the air, and employing the 
expansion of (he air between the two recep- 
.30 tacles due to the heat of the incandescent bob- 
bin to produce a movement which shall dis- 
connect the lamps from the electric circuit when 
its temperature is too great. 
The drawing shows a section of the appara- 
35 tus, in which B is the transparent bulb. This 
bulb is open at the smaller end and the burner d 
inserted, and the open end of the tube is placed 
in connection with a mercury vacuum-pump, 
the platina wires g and / passing through. 
-40 The burner is connected with a battery and 
variable -resistance coil while the vacuum is 
being made. The heat of the bobbin d is, in 
the course of one hour, brought gradually from 
the temperature of the air to vivid incandes- 
45 cence. When the vacuum is considered prac- 
tically perfect the open end of the tube is 
melted and sealed. The platina wires passing 
through the glass are also sealed. 

Thus I am enabled to obtain a nearly -per- 
50 feet vacuum, which is permanent, and at the 
same time give the platinum wire a new and 



unknown property of great value in electric 
lighting, which is, that a platina wire which 
melts in the open air at a point where it emits 
a light equal to four candles will, when oper- 55 
ated upon as described, emit a light equal to 
twenty-five candles without fusion. The reason 
why the melting-point of the metal is thus 
raised is, that in the act of making the vacuum 
with the metal under heat all the gases which 60 
are contained in its pores are withdrawu, and 
when the receptacle is sealed cannot re-enter 
when cold; hence unequal and sudden expan- 
sions cannot take place and the wire is never 
cracked, but if left uncovered becomes as bright 65 
as the most polished silver — an appearance 
which cannot be given it in any other way. 
On the other hand, it is known that the 
metals of the platinum group have, in a sur- 
prising degree, the peculiar power of absorb- 70 
ing within their pores many volumes of gas, 
and it is the sudden expansion of this gas upon 
a sudden accession of heat that disrupts the 
wire and produces cracks, which extend nearly 
to its center when the wire is brought to mod- 75 
erate incandescence in the open air. These 
cracks set up a great resistance to the pas- 
sage of the current, and at these points be- 
come abnormally heated; hence the platiua 
wire easily melts, whereas no such cracks are 80 
noticed when the wire has been operated upon 
in the vacuum and all its gases pumped out. 

e is a cylinder, of lime, with a small spool on 
its extremity, on which the wire is coiled. About 
thirty feet of platinum or iridium wire coated 85 
with "magnesia oxide is coiled upon the spool. 

The wire may be of any size ; but I prefer 
to use wire .005 of an inch in diameter, which . 
will give a resistance when incandescent of 
about seven hundred and fifty ohms. By the 90 
use of such high-resistant lamps I am enabled 
to place a great number in multiple arc with- 
out bringing the total resistance of all the 
lamps to such a low point as to require a large 
main conductor ; but, on the contrary, I am 95 
enabled to use a main conductor of very mod- 
erate dimensions. 

Another important poiutis gained by the use 
of lamps of high resistance, as the resistance 
of the wires leading from the main conductors 100 
may be of very moderate dimensions ; hence 
can be placed in the pipes already used for 



,229 



gas, and at the same time effect a great saving 
in the cost of wire. 

Still another point gained is, that the high 
resistance of the lamps allows all to be placed 
5 in multiple arc, which is the only method where 
the maximum economy is attainable, as the 
lamps, when connected to the circuit, draw 
from the central station just sufficient current 
to maintain it at the proper temperature, and 

io if by accident or want of regularity in the 
main current the strength of the current should 
increase abnormally, the excess of heat sets 
the thermal regulator in motion and discon- 
nects the lamp entirely from the circuit, thus 

15 stopping all further consumption of energy 
until the temperature of the lamp is reduced 
to its normal conditions. I will state that 
these changes are not perceptible to the eye; 
hence the lamp cannot consume any more en- 

20 ergy than that required to cause it to emit a 
certain light. 

No loss in economy occurs by using so large 
a resistance, because the loss of energy is pro- 
portionate to the radiatiug-surface exposed to 

25 the air aud its temperature, and is independ- 
ent of the resistance of the wire forming such 
surface. 

m is a lime cup, into which the small end of 
the vacuum-burner is held. The platina wires 

30 pass under it to the binding-posts H K. 

n is the thermal regulator, operated by the 
expansion of the air. When the temperature 
ot the air between the bulbs becomes too 
great, the diaphragm bulges outward and the 

35 point separates the spring p from B and dis- 
connects the lamp from the circuit, where it 
remains until the temperature is reduced to 
the normal condition. 
The spark upon the point is very small, as I 

40 employ constant field-magnets at the central 
station; hence the powerful sparks due to the 
secondary current set up by the weakening of 
the powerful field-magnet is avoided. 

I will mention that the second globe c might 

45 be made entirely of glass, and the aneroid-di- 
aphragm, provided with a platina tube, be 
sealed in the glass, or the aneroid itself be 
made of glass. 

I am aware that an electric lamp has been 

50 made in which glass has been combined with 
other substances to form a case, and that ef- 
forts have been made to keep such case air- 
tight; but the changes of temperature have 
prevented the maintenance of a vacuum or 

55 the exclusion of the atmosphere. In my im- 
provement the chamber, containing the light 
is made entirely of glass, and I am able to ob- 
tain and maintain a vacuum, because there is 
no substance joined to the glass; hence the en- 



tire chamber can be hermetically sealed and 60 
the conductors of metal passing through the 
glass and around which the glass is melted are 
so small as not to injure the glass by their ex- 
pansion. 

I am also aware that carbon has been heated 65 
in the presence of both liquid and gaseous 
materials for changing its character and adapt- 
ing it to an electric light. In my present in- 
vention the gaseous materials contained in 
metallic wire are driven off by the action of 70 
heat evolved by an electric current while the 
wire is in a vacuum, so that the pores of the 
metal are not filled with any extraneous sub- 
stance; but, on the contrary, the metal is so- 
lidified by the removal of extraneous matter 75 
and the pores closed. 

In my application No. 166 I have set forth 
an electric lamp formed of pyro-insulated 
metah I do not, therefore, claim the same 
herein. 80 

I claim as my invention—^ 

1. In an electric lamp, the combination, with 
a hermetically-sealed vacuum-chamber made 
entirely of glass, of metallic conductors pass- 
ing through the glass aud around which the 85 
glass is melted, and an incandescent conductor 
placed in the electric circuit, substantially as 
set forth. 

2. The method herein specified of treating 
metallic conductors for electric lamps, consist- 90 
ing in inclosing the conductor in a glass case, 
exhausting the atmosphere from such case, 
heating the conductor by an electric current, 
and then hermetically sealing such glass case, 
substantially as set forth. 95 

3. The combination, in an electric lamp, of a 
hermetically-sealed vacuum-case made entire- 
ly of glass, conducting-wires passing through 
the glass and around which the glass is melt- 
ed, aud an incandescent bodyformed of a py- 
ro-insulated wire and an infusible core for the 
same, substantially as set forth. 

4. The combination of a transparent vacuum- 
case, a continuous conductor forming an elec- 
tric caudle, and a second transparent case 10 
forming a closed chamber, for the purpose set 
forth. 

5. The combination of the conductor cZ, form- 
ing an electric candle, the transparent sealed 
case B, the transparent case c, inclosing the case 1 1 
B, and the thermostatic regulator nop B, sub- 
stantially as set forth. 

Signed by me this 12th day of April, A. D. 
1879. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

S. L. Griffin, 
Edwin M. Fox. 



2 Sheets— Sheet 1. 

T. A. EDISON. 
Phonograph. 

No. 227,679. Patented May 18, 1880. 




2 Sheets—Sheet 2 

T. A. EDISON. 
Phonograph. 

No. 227,679. Patented May 18, 1880. 




United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PARK, NEW JERSEY. 
PHONOGRAPH. 

SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 227,679, dated May 18, 1880. 

Application filed March 29, 1879. 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Thomas Alva Edison, 
of Menlo Park, in the State of New Jersey, 
have invented an Improvement in Phono- 
5 graphs, (Case No. 174,) of which the following 
is a specification. 

In Letters Patent No. 200,521, granted to 
me, a cylinder with a helical-grooved surface 
is revolved with its screw-shaft and moved 

10 along endwise. Upon this cylinder there is a 
sheet of foil or similar material, and the same 
is indented by the action of a point moved by 
a diaphragm, and this foil forms a phonogram 
that can be used to reproduce the original 

15 sounds when moved in contact with a point 
and diaphragm. In the said patent one of 
the points is shown as connected directly to 
the diaphragm, and the other point is upon a 
spring. 

20 My present invention relates to improve- 
ments upon the phonograph patented as 
aforesaid, and the features of such improve- 
ment are hereinafter specially pointed out. 
In the drawings, Figure 1 is an elevation of 

25 the phonograph. Fig. 2 is a section of the 
diaphragm. Fig. 3 is an end view of the cyl- 
inder containing the foil. Fig. 4 is a side view 
of the diaphragm and the device for moving 
the same. 

30 The cylinder A has a grooved surface, as 
in aforesaid patent, and it receives the tin-foil 
or other material that is to be indented by the 
action of the diaphragm b and point to pro- 
duce the record of the sound, which I term 

35 the "phonogram," and the diaphragm E and 
point D are adapted to form a phonet and 
reproduce the sound; but it is to be under- 
stood that the same point and diaphragm may 
be employed to record and to reproduce the 

40 sound. 

In my present invention, as in my former 
patent, the motion of the recording -surface 
may be derived from clock-work, hand, or other 
power. 

45 In order to insure great uniformity of speed 
and prevent irregularity in the movement by 
inaccuracies of work, dust, lack of oil, or any 
other source of local friction or resistance, I 
make use of an abnormally heavy fly-wheel, 



H, upon the shaft of the phonograph, so as to 50 
prevent any trembling movement and to resist 
any tendency to increase or lessen the speed, 
for upon uniformity of speed of the phonet 
with the phonograph depends the accuracy 
of reproduction, especially in musical sounds, 55 
that depend for their tone upon the number of 
vibrations per second. 

The nut P is upon a lever pivoted at 3 and 
kept in contact by a cam, 4. When this lever 
and nut P are lowered the shaft X and cylin- 60 
der A can bj slipped endwise. 

The arm 5, carrying the diaphragm b, should 
be pivoted at 7 7 by pointed screws, so as to 
adjust the position of the recording-point of 
the diaphragm b relatively to the grooves of 65 
the cylinder. The screw 8 determines the 
position to which the diaphragm and record- 
ing-point may approach to the cylinder. The 
spring 9 serves to move the arm 5 away from 
the cylinder, and the double-ended locking- 70 
piece 10, entering slots in the frame 11, holds 
the arm in place when in use. 

One of the peculiarities of the present inven- 
tion over the aforesaid patent is a spring, 12, 
of india-rubber or other suitable material, 75 
placed between the cross-bar or bridge 13 aud 
the diaphragm, that serves as a damper to pre- 
vent false vibrations of the diaphragm and 
cause it to respond only to the actual move- 
ment given by the phonogram through the 80 
point D. It is also usually preferable to em- 
ploy a spring, 14, between the point and the 
diaphragm. This is useful, in both the phono- 
graph and the phonet, to prevent false sounds. 
This spring and diaphragm I have used in 85 
connection with telephones. I do not, there- 
fore, herein lav claim to the same, broadly. I 
have combined the same with the recording or 
phonet point and the phonogram. 

Another feature of invention relates to a le- 90 
ver between the diaphragm and the phono- 
gram, whereby the relative movements of the 
parts may be varied. This lever e has a ful- 
crum at 15. If thecouuection to the diaphragm 
is between the point D aud fulcrum 15, as in 95 
Fig. 5, then the motion of the point will be 
greater than the diaphragm, and when used in 
the phonograph will amplify the indentations 



2 227, 



in the foil. If used in the phonet, the move- 
ment of the diaphragm would be lessened. I 
therefore prefer, in that instrument, to change 
the places of the point and diaphragm connec- 
5 tion, as shown in Fig. 6, so as to amplify the 
movement of the diaphragm and increase tbe 
sound. 

Another feature of my present invention re- 
lates to the foil-holder, which I place on a reel 

io within the cylinder A, and draw the same out 
through a slot, as required from time to time, 
thus preserving the foil from injury aud ren- 
dering it unnecessary to handle the same. 
The reel I within the cylinder A is adapted 

15 to receive tbe foil in a roll upon it. One head 
of the cylinder is removable, so as to allow of 
the insertion or withdrawal of the reel. There 
is a slot in the cylinder, through which the 
foil is brought out, and there is a bar, 0, form- 

20 ingpartof the periphery of the cylinder, that 
is connected at its ends to the slides o', (see 
Pig. 7,) one at each end of the cylinder, and 
there is a lever- bar, a?, behind this slide-bar 0. 
When the slide 0' is drawn back from over the 

25 lever x, such lever can be swung out of the slot 
in the cylinder A, and the foil can be drawn 
out of the slot and wrapped around the cylin- 
der, and then the end is placed behind the bar 
x, and carried by it into the slot of the cyliu- 

30 der, and then the slide 0' is moved so that its 
edge passes over the lever x, and in so doing 
the foil is tightened around the cylinder and 
the lever x held in place. The surface of this 
cylinder is made with a helical groove, and 

35 the rim s of the cylinder is made with a simi- 
lar screw or groove, and the sliding sleeve t, 
that carries the diaphragm-arm, has a screw- 
surface at 25, that comes into contact with the 
screw s. 

40 With this character of instrument it is pref- 
erable to have the cylinder A upon a vertical 
shaft, and the sleeve t and diaphragm will be 
moved vertically. For this purpose the fixed 
stud 28 is vertical, and upon it is a tube, 29, 

45 of a size to receive the sleeve t, and having a 
groove and key, by which the sleeve t is al- 
lowed to slide endwise of the tube 29 ; but the 
two can be turned together on the stud or 
shaft 28. An arm, 30, on the tube 29, and a 

50 spring, serve to turn the tube, the sleeve, and 
the diaphragm and arm with sufficient force 
to bring the point D to bear upon the foil with 
the required force. 

It is preferable to employ with the dia- 

55 phragm a tube, v s aud mouth-piece v' such 
tube being flexible. 

The speaking into and recording of the 
sounds in the phonograph will be proceeded 
with as usual, and the reproduction of the 

60 sounds will be as before; but in case the op- 
erator wants to suspend the recording in the 
phonograph or the speaking in the phonet he 
simply has to draw upon the flexible tube, 
which swings the parts so as to disconnect the 

65 screw-rack from the flange s of the cylinder. 



,679 

This at the same time moves away the record- 
ing or the phonet point. The cylinder A can 
continue to revolve, and when the operator is 
ready he releases the pull upon the flexible 
tube, and the parts commence to act again at 70 
the exact place where the operation was sus- 
pended, because the screw-threads will only 
drop together when the proper part of the 
thread s comes to the corresponding part on 
the rack 25. 75 

I employ the cam 33 and its lever upon the 
sleeve t to act upon the tube 29 aud prevent 
the sleeve falling when the screw-threads are 
disconnected. This cam-lever 33 is self-act- 
ing, and it has to be raised when the sleeve t 80 
is to be lowered, so as to recommence at one 
end of the cylinder A. 

By simply turning the sleeve and moving 
the diaphragm and the screw-surface back, 
the sleeve and diaphragm can be slipped end- 85 
wise to any desired place upon the cylinder 
A to receive or deliver sounds. 

I am aware that fly-wheels are employed in 
numerous ways for equalizing the speed of 
machinery. I do not claim the same, broadly. 90 
In experimenting with my phonograph I dis- 
covered that the reproduction of the sound 
was imperfect if the slightest variation oc- 
curred in the speed ; hence the combination 
with the cylinder of a very heavy fly-wheel in 95 
proportion to the cylinder rendered perfect 
and reliable the action of the instrument in 
receiving and reproducing the sound by equal- 
izing the speed. 

I claim as my invention — 100 

1. The combination, with the phonograph 
cylinder, shaft, and screw-surface, of a swing- 
ing nut or screw-surface, to connect or dis- 
connect the parts that keep the recording or 
phonet point in position relative to the groove 105 
of the cylinder, substantially as set forth. 

2. In combination with foil or a sound-re- 
cording surface, a point, a diaphragm, and 
a spring or damper acting to press the dia- 
phragm toward the point, substantially as set no 
forth. 

3. In combination with a foil or sound-re- 
cording surface, a point, a diaphragm, and a 
spring between the point and the diaphragm, 
substantially as set forth. 115 

4. The combination, in a phonograph or 
phonet, of a diaphragm, a point, and a lever 
intervening between the diaphragm and the 
point, substantially as set forth. 

5. The combination, with the spirally- 120 
grooved cylinder in a phonograph, of a reel 
within the cylinder carrying the foil or simi- 
lar recording material, a slot in the cylinder, 
through which the foil is led out, and means 

for clamping the foil, substantially as set 125 
forth. 

6. The combination, with the cylinder A, of 
the sliding bar and lever x, to clamp the foil 
and stretch the same, substantially as set 
forth. , 130 



227,679 



7. The swinging sleeve t, having an arm 
that carries the diaphragm, in combination 
with the cylinder A, and rim s, having a 
screw-thread surface, substantially as set 
forth. 

8. The tube 29 upon the fixed stud 28, in 
combination with the sliding sleeve t,the dia- 



phragm, and the cylinder A, substantially as 
described and shown. 

Signed by me this 19th day of March, 1879. 

THOMAS A. EDISOK 

Witnesses: 

S. L. Griffin, 
Wm, Carman. 



(No Model.) 

T. A. EDISON. 
Magnetic Ore-Separator. 

No. 228,329. Patented June 1, 1880. 




vKcT^weui (X> . & OUya Crrd 



■I. PETERS, PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHER, WASHINGTON, D. C. 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PAEK, NEW JEESEY. 
MAGNETIC ORE-SEPARATOR. 

SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 228,329, dated June 1, 1880. 

Application filed April 7, 1880. (No model.) 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, in the county of Middlesex and 
State of New Jersey, have invented a new and 
5 useful Improvement in the Magnetic Separa- 
tion of Substances ; and I do hereby declare 
that the following is a full and exact descrip- 
tion of the same, reference being had to the 
accompanying drawings, and to the letters of 

io reference marked thereon. 

The object of this invention is to furnish 
means which, while simple and cheap in con- 
struction, shall economically aud effectually 
separate magnetic from non - magnetic sub- 

15 stances. To this end I so arrange a hopper 
for feeding the mingled magnetic and non- 
magnetic substances, a magnet, and receptacle 
for the substances, in such relation to each 
other that the trajectory of falling magnetic 

20 substances is altered, the magnetic and non- 
magnetic substances falling into different re- 
ceptacles. 

A suitable method of carrying this inven- 
tion into effect is as follows : A hopper, pref- 

25 erably provided with an adjustable valve-ori- 
fice, and arranged to feed the mingled sub- 
stances in a thin broad stream, is supported 
in any suitable way several feet (more or less) 
above a bin, which is partly immediately 1111- 

30 der the feeding-orifice of the hopper, so that 
material falling from the hopper would, under 
normal conditions, fall therein. Between the 
hopper and the bin, and to one side of the 
straight line connecting the two, is a magnet 

35 having a polar extension whose face is of a 
length equal to the width of the feeding-orifice 
of the hopper. Underneath the magnet, and 
by the side of the bin before mentioned, is 
another bin for the reception of the magnetic 

40 substances. Instead of these two bins, one 
bin, with a partition nearly or quite under- 
neath the pole of the magnet, may be used, or 
a simple partition may be similarly placed 
upon a floor and the bin or bins entirely dis- 

45 pensed with. 

The material fed from the hopper tends to 
fall in a straight line. As it comes, however, 
within the influence of the magnet the mag- 
netic portions are attracted thereby aud move 

5° toward the magnet, which is so placed with re- 
lation to the falling material thatitcanuot be 



attracted entirely to the magnet before gravity 
has carried it past. In other words, the tra- 
jectory of the falling magnetic substance is 
altered, it moving for a portion of its fall in a 55 
line which is the resultant of the two forces — 
gravity and magnetism — acting upon it. 
"in the drawings, Figure 1 represents, partly 
in elevation, partly in section, a simple appa- 
ratusforcarryingmyinventiouintoeffecf. Fig. 60 
2 shows the apparatus submerged in water. 

To any suitable support or frame-work A is 
attached a hopper, B, provided with a flap- 
valve, b, adjusted by screw «, for regulating 
the thickness of the sheet of issuing material. 65 
A magnet, 0, is supported below the hopper B 
in any suitable way. This magnet is provided 
with an extended polar face, 0, of a length equal 
to the width of thefeeding-orificeof the hopper. 
The polar face c is to one side of the line which 70 
the material would assume by force of gravity 
in falling from the hopper. This magnet is 
connected by wires 1 2 to a battery, generator, 
or any suitable source of electricity. 

Beneath the hopper and magnet is placed a 7 5 
bin or receptacle, E, having a partition, e, di- 
viding it into two parts, the bin being so placed 
that the partition is nearly beneath thepolec— 
that is, so placed that if continued upwardly it 
would pass between the pole aud the feeding- 80 
orifice of the hopper. Instead of a bin or bins 
being used, this partition e may be placed di- 
rectly upon the floor. 

Supposing now the hopper B to be filled 
with material, partly magnetic, partly non- 85 
magnetic, the material in falling would by 
force of gravity fall as shown at F. The mag- 
netic portions, however, are attracted toward 
the magnet ; but before they are brought 
over out of their path sufficiently to touch and 90 
cling to the pole c gravity has carried them 
past, and they fall as shown at F'. 

Instead of a magnet or magnets on one side, 
a magnet or magnets on both sides of the fall- 
ing stream of material may be used, in Avhich 95 
case the non-magnetic particles would fall 111 
the center, the magnetic particles being drawn 
to one side or the other. _ 

Instead of electro - magnets, it is evident 
that, if desired, permanent magnets may be io< 

used. , . n , 1 

When the material is wet it may first be 



2 228,329 



dried; or the entire apparatus may be placed 
in a tank of water, as I have found that when 
wet, heavy sand is used the tendency to clog 
in the hopper and to cling together in falling 

5 is entirely overcome by placing the hopper and 
magnet in water, as shown in Fig. 2; or the 
hopper alone may be placed in a tank of 
water and the rnagnet entirely upon the out- 
side thereof, or the body upon the outside, 

o with its polar face extending through the side 
of the tank. 

While the drawings show the substance 
falling in a straight line, it is evident that the 
principle of this invention could be carried 

5 into effect in other ways. For instance, the 
material to be treated may be first impelled 
by a blast of air or by other means in a hori- 
zontal plane, and the magnet placed above or 
below the line of the normal trajectory of the 

o material, so as to lengthen or shorten the tra- 
jectory of the magnetic substance. 

When desired the material to be acted on 
may be fed through the magnetic field in a 
column of water, the water acting to keep the 

5 particles apart, preventing them clinging to- 
gether by capillarity. The magnet in such case 



draws the magnetic particles out of the col- 
umn of water, or out of the center thereof, 
which may be pumped back and used over and 
over. 30 
What I claim is — 

1. The method of separating magnetic and 
non-magnetic substances, which consists in 
allowing them to fall together, and then by 
magnetic attraction altering or changing the 35 
trajectory of the falling magnetic substance 
without stopping its fall, substantially as set 
forth. 

2. The combination of a hopper, a magnet, 
and a dividing partition, when arranged rela- 40 
tively to each other, as hereinbefore set forth. 

3. The combination of a hopper and a mag- 
net, arranged relatively to each other, as here- 
inbefore described, and submerged in water, 
substantially as set forth. 45 

This specification signed and witnessed this 
3d day of April, 1880. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses : 

Wm. Carman, 
Geo. E. Carman. 



(No Model.) 

T. A. EDISON. 
Brake for Electro-Magnetic Motors 

No, 228,617. Patented June 8, 1880. 



F n 1 - 




n.peters. photo- lithographer, Washington, o. c. 



United States Patent Office. 

THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MBNLO PAEK, NEW JERSEY. 
BRAKE FOR ELECTRO- MAGNETIC MOTORS. 

SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 228,617, dated June 8, 1880. 

Application filed March 20, 1880. (JsTo model.) 



To all wliom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of 
Menlo Park, in the county of Middlesex and 
State of New Jersey, have invented a new and 

5 useful Improvement in Electro-Motors, (Case 
No. 207;) and I do hereby declare that the 

I following is a full and exact description of the 

I same, reference being had to the accompauy- 

E ing drawings, and to the letters of reference 
.jto marked thereon. 

In using electro-motors, especially for actu- 
ating light machinery, it is very desirable that 

I the rate of speed of the actuated machine be 
under control of the operator, and that the 
$5 means of control be simple, effectual, and easy 
of application. Hitherto this has been at- 
tempted only through cpntrolliug the electric 
circuit to the motor, breaking or closing it in 
whole or in part. This breaking of the circuit 

20 is destructive of the contact-points, and ordi- 

I narily effects only starti n g and stopping of t h e 
machine, and does not regulate the speed of 
the machine while running. I propose to con- 
trol the speed of the driven machine without 

25 affecting the motor by the means more fully 
hereinafter described and claimed. 

In the drawings, Figure 1 is a plan view of 
an electric motor and stand for a machine to 
be actuated thereby. Fig. 2 is an end view of 

30 the same, and Fig. 3 a front view. 

A is any suitable electro-motor, in which E 

mis the rotating armature, on whose shaft is a 
commutator, upon which press the springs or 
brushes a a, for completing the circuit from 

35 the conductors 1 2 to the motor. 

Upon the shaft T is the pulley B, secured 
thereto by friction, the friction being so ad- 
justed that the pulley and shaft shall be held 
and move together when only the resistance 
40 of the actuated machine is to be overcome, 
but that whenever a greater resistance is of- 
fered the friction shall be overcome and the 
shaft rotate within the pulley without rotat- 

» ing it. 

45 From the pulley B a belt, b, leads to the 
large fly-pulley 0, secured to the frame of the 
actuated machine. Upon the shaft of C is the 
pulley F, from which a belt transmits the mo- 
tion to the actuated machine. 



Upon the under side of the table D, or to 50 
any convenient part of the frame, is pivoted a 
brake, d, adapted to be brought to bear upon 
the pulley C, but held normally from so doing 
by a spring, x. To the brake d is pivoted the le- 
ver E, which passes down and is connected with 55 
a treadle, e, underneath the table. Through 
this treadle, then, any desired pressure may 
be put upon the periphery of the wheel 0, reg- 
ulating its speed, the current to the motor re- 
maining unaffected and its rotation continued, fo 

A switch, s, is used for breaking or closing 
the circuit to the motor. To the switch is at- 
tached a lever, L, which passes to the front of 
the machine, within easy reach of the operator. 
The current passes by wire 1 across the switch 65 
s when closed, as shown, through the motor, 
aud out by wire 2, or vice versa. This switch 
may, if desired, be placed upon the frame or 
table of the actuated machine. 

The form of brake used may be varied. For 70 
instance, it may be a belt-tightener, the belt b 
being normally loose, and the brake arranged 
to tighten it, so that it will take upon the 
pulleys and transmit motion from one to the 
other. 75 

What I claim is — 

1. The combination, with an electro-motor, 
of a mechanical brake, adapted to control the 
speed of the actuated machine, connected to 
the motor through a pulley fastened to the 80 
shaft of the motor by friction, substantially as 
set forth. 

2. The combination, with an electro-motor, 
of a brake applied to the main driven wheel 
and controlling the speed of such wheel, but 85 
not that of the motor, substantially as set 
forth. 

3. The combination, with an electro-motor, 
of a friction-pulley on the rotating shaft of 
the motor and a brake applied to the main 90 
driven wheel and adapted to control its speed, 
substantially as set forth. 

This specification signed and witnessed this 
10th day of March, 1880. 

THOMAS A. EDISON. 

Witnesses: 

Wm. Caeman, 

0. P. MOTT. 



T. A. EDISON. 
Method of Manufacturing Electric Lamps. 




N. PETEHS, 'PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHER, WASHINGTON. 0. 



United States Patent Office. 

THOMAS A. EDISON, OF MENLO PABK, NEW JERSEY. 
METHOD OF MANUFACTURING ELECTRIC LAMPS. 

SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 230,255, dated July 20, 1880. 

Application filed February 5, 1880. 



To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, a 
citizen of the United States, resident at Menlo 
Park, State of New Jersey, have made cer- 
5 tain new and useful Improvements in Elec- 
tric Lamps and the Method of Manufacturing 
them, of which the following is a specifica- 
tion. 

My electric lamp consists, essentially, (as 
o shown in prior applications of mine for pat- 
ents,) of an incandescing conductor of high re- 
sistance hermetically sealed in a glass vacuum- 
chamber. 

Great difficulty has always been experienced 
15 in so sealing a glass vacuum globe or cham- 
ber that complete union of the parts was had 
and clanger of opening or separation avoided, 
in order that a stable vacuum might be main- 
tained when the parts forming the seals were 
20 in vacuo when the sealing was done. In fact, 
the maintenance of a stable vacuum has been 
pronounced impossible by many scientists. 

The object of my invention is to furnish a 
method of manufacturing electric lamps so 
25 that a stable vacuum may be maintained 
therein. 

In carrying out my method of manufacture, 
a glass bulb, of the size desired for the inclos- 
ing-globe of the lamp, is formed with a sup- 
porting-neck extending in one direction, of a 
diameter sufficient to permit the jiassage of 
the incandescing conductor through it. Pref- 
erably a piece of tubing, of the size of the 
neck, has the bulb blown in it. Upon a point 
35 °u the bulb, preferably exactly opposite the 
center of the neck, is formed a long tube for 
attachment of the bulb to the air-exhausting 
apparatus. 

Upon the end of a smaller piece of tubing a 
40 small bulb is formed, and the body of the tube, 
a little below the bulb, is enlarged for a small 
space to about the size of the supporting-neck. 
This portion forms the arc-supporting part, 
wires, terminating in clamps for holding the 
45 conductor, being passed therethrough and 
hermetically sealed therein. After the con- 
ductor has been secured on the supporting 
portion it is passed up through the neck o