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Full text of "Continental Journal of Agricultural Science - (Vol 4, 2010)"

Continental J. Agricultural Science 4: 54 - 59, 2010 ISSN: 2141 - 4203 

© Wilolud Journals, 2010 http://www.wiloludjournal.com 

GENDER ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTION, POTENTIALS AND CONSTRAINTS OF Thaumatococcus 

danielli IN EKITI STATE 

Adebisi- Adelani O., Adeoye I.B.,01ajide-Taiwo F.B., Usman J.M., Agbarevoh P., and Oyedele 0.0 

National Horticultural Research Institute, P.M.B 5432, Idi-Ishin .Ibadan. 

e-mail of corresponding author: adelanidotol@yahoo.com 

ABSTRACT 

Thaumatococcus danielli popularly known as "Ewe eran" among the Yoruba ethnic group in Nigeria is 
an important crop due to its numerous economic and medicinal values. The study examined gender 
participation in the production, potentials, and constraints of Thaumatococcus danielli in Ogotun Ekiti, 
Ekiti State. Data was collected with the aid of a well structured questionnaire from 50 randomly 
selected respondents using snowballing technique. Tools of analysis include descriptive statistics and T- 
test. The result of the T-test showed that land preparation, planting and weeding were male dominated 
(P<0.05). However, harvesting, production of mats, bags and slippers, selling of mats and bags and 
leaves were female dominated (P<0.05). Result also revealed that almost all the respondents were aware 
of the usefulness of Thaumatococcus danielli in mat weaving, fancy bags and slippers. The major 
constraints faced in production were in the following order: seasonal variation >price 
instability>marketing. Research into improvement of craft production of Thaumatococcus danielli 
should be encouraged; development of more industrial raw materials from its fiber should also be 
encouraged. Producers should be brought to the awareness of the economic and ornamental potentials 
of Thaumatococcus. danielli sweetness as sources of added value and income. 

Key Words- Thaumatococcus danielli, Gender analysis, Potentials. 

INTRODUCTION. 

Before and after the discovery of crude oil, agriculture remains the mainstay of Nigerian economy. Agriculture 
is a major activity in the rural areas. Even the people who engage in other non-agricultural occupation such as 
trades and craft, weaving, carving, tailoring and merchandising, still supplement their livelihood from farming. 
(Olubanjo, 2001). However, most income generating and livelihood activities are along gender lines in the rural 
areas in Nigeria. 

Jigging, Samanta and Olawoye (1997) defined the term gender as it describes the socially determined, 
maintained and enforced roles of men, women including males and females assigned on the basis of sex. (In 
comparison sex denotes the physical and biological differences between males and females). Gender has proven 
to be an essential variable for analyzing the roles, responsibilities, constraints, opportunities incentives costs and 
benefits in agriculture. 

As a social construct the term gender merely refers to the learned behavioral differences between men, women 
and youths. Gender analysis in agriculture refers to the determination of who does what, why, with what 
resources towards improving their overall production and the standard of living. It is the most effective tool to 
open up the farm household and understand it behavior (Poats 1985). 

Rural women as well as men, through out the world are engaged in a range of production activities essential to 
household, and to the economic development of the society. The social and economic structure of Nigeria is 
changing with relevance of globalization. There is growing awareness of agricultural innovation and 
Technologies which have reconcile with the roles and responsibilities of women and men and introduce measure 
such as maternity leave, child and family care services and benefits. However the barriers to economic 
empowerment by women still persist (Adufe, 2005). In most part of the rural areas in Nigeria, division of labour 
within the household is gender-specific and according to Age and Sex. Men and women play prominent roles in 
agricultural production, and their contribution to the household food basket vary from one ethnic group to 
another also from one commodity food crop to the other. 

Thaumatococcus danielli (Benn) Benth (miraculous berry) is a non timber forest species that has been 
contributing to the rural economy for a long time but whose potentials have not been fully exploited for 
community development. It is a multi-purpose perennial herb that offers a wide assortant of uses with its leaves, 
fruits, stalks and roots (Arowosoge, 2006). It is a naturally occurring plant growing in the wild. However, some 



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Adebisi- Adelani O et al.,: Continental J. Agricultural Science 4: 54 - 59, 2010 



farmers are beginning to grow it commercially. It is processed into mats, bags, slippers and sponge. It is also 
used as ornamentals, fish traps, and roof thatching. Some research work has been done on the economic 
potentials of this miraculous berry and the analysis of the plant as a pulp. But little or no research work has been 
done on gender role in the planting, processing and utilization of the plant. This study is therefore being carried 
out to determine the role of each rural household member in the production, processing, and utilization of 
Thaumatococcus danielli constraints being faced in the production and the awareness of its uses was 
emphasized. The specific objectives of the study are to: 

(1) identify gender involvement in production, processing and utilization of the 
Thaumatococcus danielli 

(2) assess constraints being faced by respondents in the production of Thaumatococcus 
danielli . 

(3) determine the level of awareness of respondents on the utilization of the plant. 

(4) identify the social-economic and personal characteristics of the respondents. 

Hypothesis: There are no significant differences in the role played by male, female and children in the 
production of Thaumatococcus danielli. 

METHODOLOGY. 

The area of study was Ogotun Ekiti town in Ekiti State. The town was purposively selected being the major 
producer of Thaumatococcus danielli. Ekiti State is situated entirely within the tropics. It is located between 
longitudes 4, 5, and 45° East of the Greenwich meridian and latitude 7, 15 and 8, 5° north of the Equator. It lies 
south of Kwara and Kogi State, East of Osun State and bounded by Ondo State in the East and in the south. 
Ekiti state has 16 local Government Councils. By 2006 census, the population of Ekiti State was 2,384,212, with 
the capital located at Ado-Ekiti. 

The state enjoys a tropical climate with two distinct seasons. These are the rainy season (April-October) and the 
dry season (November-March). Temperature ranges between 21 and 28° C with high humidity. Ogotun Ekiti 
which is known as the mat weaving center was purposively selected. Respondents have been proportionately 
selected using snowballing technique. 

Both qualitative and quantitative instruments were used for data collection (i.e. the use of interview and 
questionnaire) from 50 respondents consisting of producers, processors and marketers of Thaumatococcus 
danielli. Data collected included those on personal characteristics, awareness of the usage, gender involvement 
in production, processing, utilization and constraints. The data was analyzed using descriptive (frequencies, 
percentages, ranking) and t-test. 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. 
Personal Characteristics of Respondents. 

Table 1 shows that majority(60%) of the respondents in the area of study were between ages 25-34 while 26% 
were less than 25 years of age. This result indicates that most of the respondent were in their active age and 
were therefore expected to be strong and agile. Moreover, they are likely to be opened to new ideas, Nabinta 
(1994) and Adebayo (2008) reported that farmers within the ages of 30-49 years adopt new ideas/technologies 
more easily and readily than older farmers. The results also shows that females (88%) dominated 
Thaumatococcus danielli production in the study area while male were just 12%. this may be due to the fact that 
Thaumatococcus danielli plant is mainly meant for women who takes care of children and they use the income 
for the payment of their children's school fees and other domestic expenses. Further analysis from Table 1 also 
indicated that majority (68%) of the respondents were married and are expected to be responsible. The 
educational qualification of the respondents indicated that majority (62%) of the respondents had no formal 
education, and 20% has primary school education. This may hinder adoption of innovation in a way. 

Socio-economic characteristics of respondents. 

Table 2 shows the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents. The result indicated that 40% of the 
respondents interviewed do engages in several activities when it comes to Thaumatococcus danielli production 
i.e. they grow it on their farm and sell its products. This shows how important Thaumatococcus danielli is to the 
economy of the respondents. Reasons for being in the business as indicated by 74%were ready source of 
income and family commitment. The table also reveals that 46% of the respondents have been involved in 
Thaumatococcus danielli business for over 20 years. This indicates that it is more or less a hereditary business. 



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Adebisi- Adelani O et al.,: Continental J. Agricultural Science 4: 54 - 59, 2010 



With this long years experience they must have been able adjust to changing condition and adopt the most 
efficient cultural practices in production, processing and utilization. Farm size plays an important role in farm 
success because it reflects the availability of capital, access to credit and even management ability. Table 2 also 
shows that 42% of the respondents have less than one acre of land for Thaumatococcus danielli. The major 
achievement of Thaumatococcus danielli respondents is found (52%) in the area of training of their children. 
Children education is the priority of people in Ekiti state of Nigeria. 

Awareness of the use of Thamatococcus danielli 

Table 3 shows the awareness of respondents about the various uses of Thamatococcus danielli. AW the 
respondents are fully aware that Thamatococcus danielli is used for mat weaving, fancy bags, slippers and used 
in packaging of cooked food like pap, moin moin, pounded yam e.t.c. this is corroborated by the work of 
Adeyeye in his study of economic analysis of in Ekiti state who stated that majority of the respondent are aware 
that Thamatococcus danielli is used in the packaging of cooked food and mat weaving.. Also 98% respondents 
claimed that it is used in combination with other materials. Thamatococcus danielli could be used in roof 
thatching, though this is no more common due to modernization which has led to the usage of roofing sheets as 
materials for roofing. Majority of the respondents (82%) are aware that Thamatococcus danielli could be used as 
sweetener and flavour which they even affirmed on the course of In-depth interview that the fruit of 
Thamatococcus danielli is sweeter than sugar. They use it in drinking garri, pap and tea. This is contrary to the 
view of Arowosoge (2006)that awareness about Thamatococcus danielli as sweetener is low. The least 
awareness of the use of Thamatococcus danielli is in its use as ornamental crops. The table shows that 14% of 
respondents are aware that Thamatococcus danielli is used as ornamental plant. This is an indication that it 
could be planted around the house to beautify the environment. 

Gender involvement. 

Table 4 shows that 86%, 90%, 92%and 98% of the male are involved in land acquisition, land preparation, 
planning and chemical application while 80%, 66%, 70%, 84% of females are involved in processing into 
slippers and bags, production of mats, selling of leaves and bags. This finding indicates that both males and 
females are involved in various activities of Thaumatococcus danielli production, processing and marketing. 
This makes it to agree with the findings of Agwu (2005) in his study of attitude of farmers towards the fadama 
programme in Okigwe. Agricultural zone who stated that majority of adult males were more involved in 
application of herbicides 79.5% and land acquisition (59.6%) while processing of the produce and marketing of 
produce are in the hands of females and children. The t-test (Table 5) shows that there is significant difference 
in all the activities of males compare to their female counterpart in Thaumatococcus danielli production. 

Constraints to involvement. 

Constraints to involvement in producing, processing, utilization of Thaumatococcus danielli are shown in Table 
6. Seasonal variation ranked first among the constraints. This is closely followed by both marketing and price 
instability. This is in tune with the result of Usman (2007) in the study of marketing of Thaumatococcus danielli 
in Oyo-state who reported that the major problem confronting the women was is in seasonal variability of the 
Thaumatococcus danielli leaves. 

CONCLUSION. 

The study revealed that majority of the respondents was between the ages of 25 and 43 years and were females 
(88%). Majority (62%) had no formal education and 74% of respondents indicated that Thaumatococcus danielli 
was a ready source of income. 

All the respondents were aware of the potential of Thamatococcus danielli in mat weaving, bags, slippers and 
packaging of foods. Seasonal variation of the Thaumatococcus danielli raw products ranked first among the 
constraints encountered. Females were more involved in the producing, processing and marketing of 
Thaumatoccocus danielli 

REFERENCES 

Adebayo E.F, A.N Mohammed and S.I Mshelia (2008): Economic Analysis of millet production in Gamawa 

Local Government Area of Bauchi State, Nigeria. Nigeria Journal of Rural Sociology Vol 8 No. 1 2008. 

Adufe, W.A (2005): Sociology of Education. Lucky Odoni Press. Ijebu-Ode. Pp. 1-84. 



56 



Adebisi- Adelani O et al.,: Continental J. Agricultural Science 4: 54 - 59, 2010 



Agwu A.E (2005): Attitude of farmers towards the Fadama Programme in Okigwe Agricultural Zone, Imo State. 
Nigeria Journal of Horticultural Science, Vol 10, 2005. 

Arowosoge O.G.E and Labode Popoola (2006):Economic Analysis of Thaumatococcus danielli Benn Benth 
(miraculous berry) in Ekiti State, Nigeria.www.isfae.org/scietificjoournal/2006/issue/content.pdf. 

Jiggins J: R.K Samanta, and J.E Olawoye (1977): Improving women farmers Access to Extension Services" In 
Burton E Sawnson, R.P Berta and A.J Sofranko (Eds) FAO reference manual, Improving Agricultural 
Extension. 

Nabinta, B.T (1994): Analysis of Indigenous storage practices for selected cereals by farmers in Bauchi L.G.A 
Bauchi State, Unpublished M.Sc thesis University of Ibadan. 

National Population Commission (1991) Population Census. 

Olubanjo, 0.0 (2001): Women involvement in Agriculture, A case study of Ondo State, Nigeria. An 
unpublished undergraduate research project, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Federal 
University of Technology, Akure. 00 20-25. 

Poats, S.V (1985): Gender analysis in Farming Systems, Research and Extension Projects Proceeding of family 
system Research/Extension symposium. University of Arkansas and Winrock Institute of Agricultural 
Development U.S. A pp 263-272. 

Usman J.M, O. Adebisi and Adelani, O (2007) : Marketing Analysis of Thaumatococcus danielli in Ibadan 
Metropolis. In Proceeding of Horticultural Society of Nigeria 2007. 



Table 1: Personal characteristics of the Respondents 



Characteristics 



Frequency 



Percentage 



Age (in Years) 




Less than 25 


13 


25-34 


30 


35-44 


4 


45-54 


2 


55-64 


1 


Total 


50 


Gender: 




Male, 


6 


Female, 


44 


total 


50 


Marital status 




Single 


14 


Married 


34 


Widowed 


2 


total 


50 


Religion 




Christianity Islam 


43 


traditional 


6 


total 


1 




50 


Educational 




attainment 




No formal 




education. 




Primary school 




education. 


31 


Secondary school. 


10 


OND/NCE. 


7 


Total 


2 




50 



26 

60 

8 

4 

2 

100 

12 
88 
100 

28 
68 
4 
00 



86 
12 
6 
100 



62 

20 

14 

4 

100 



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Adebisi- Adelani O et al.,\ Continental J. Agricultural Science 4: 54 - 59, 2010 



Table 2: Socio- economic characteristics of respondents. 



Characteristics 



Frequency* 



Percentage H 



Do you grow 


8 


Do you sell 


10 


Do you market 


12 


All of the above 


20 


Why in the 




business 




Source of income 


37 


No other Job 


1 


Interest 


1 


All of the above 


10 


Years of 




involvement 




<5 years 


4 


5-10 years 


13 


11-15 years 


4 


16-20 years 


6 


> 20 years 


23 


Achievement 




Build house 


4 


Train children 


26 


Married more 


1 


wives 




All of the above 


18 


Farm size 




1 acre 


21 


1-5 acres 


7 


6-10 acres 


2 


Above 10 acres 


5 


Not applicable 


15 


* All values are multipl 


e responses 



16 

20 
24 
40 



74 
2 
2 
20 



26 
8 

12 
46 



52 
2 

36 

42 

14 

4 

10 

30 



Table 3: Awareness of the use of Thaumatococcus danielii 



Activities 



Frequency 



Percentage 



sed as mats 

sed as fancy bags 

sed as sweetners and flavour 


50 
50 
41 


sed as sponge 

sed in combination with other materials as roof 


46 
49 


se for packaging cooked pap 
sed in preserving Kola 


50 
41 



All values are multiple responses 



100 
100 

82 
92 



100 

82 



Used as food supplements to some ruminants 


46 


92 


Use as traditional medicine 


27 


54 


Used as ornamental crops 


7 


14 



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Adebisi- Adelani O et al.,: Continental J. Agricultural Science 4: 54 - 59, 2010 
Table 4: Gender involvement. 



Activities 


Male 


Female 


Children 


Both 


Land acquisition 


43(86) 


5(10) 


1(2) 


1(2) 


Land preparation 


45(90) 


3(6) 


- 


2(4) 


Planting 


36(72) 


6(12) 


- 


8(16) 


Weeding 


32(64) 


4(8) 


3(6) 


11(22) 


Chemical application 


49(98) 


1(2) 


- 


- 


Harvesting 


34(68) 


- 


1(2) 


15(30) 


Production of mat 


10(20) 


33(66) 


1(2) 


6(12) 


Productionof bags 


40(80) 


- 


2(4) 


8(16) 


Processing into slippers 


1(2) 


40(80) 


2(4) 


8(16) 


Selling of mat 


- 


45(90) 


- 


5(10) 


Selling of bags 


- 


42(84) 


- 


8(16) 


Selling of leaves 


- 


35(70) 


- 


15(30) 


Usage of roofing 


42(84) 


5(10) 


- 


3(6) 


Use as indoor plant 


47(94) 


1(2) 


- 


2(4) 


Use for fish traps 


48(96) 


2(4) 


- 


- 


Use as sponge 


- 


33(66) 


1(2) 


16(32) 



All values are multiple responses, Figures in parentheses are the percentages 
Table 5: T-test value of Gender involvement. 



Activities 


T-value 


Decision 


Land acquisition 


8.09 


S 


Land preparation 


7.58 


S 


Planting 


6.83 


S 


Chemical application 


2.45 


S 


Production of mat 


11.88 


S 


Production into slippers and bags 


9.89 


S 


Selling of bags 


10.26 


S 


Selling of leaves 


14.0 


S 



P = (<0.005) 



Table 6: Constraints to involvement in Thaumatococcus danielii 



Severity 



Activities 

People preferring land for arable crops planting 

Thaumatococcus danielii 

Land availability 
Difficulty of harvesting 
Health hazard 
Transportation 
Marketing 
Seaonal varation 
Price instability 
Cultural/social belief/norms. 



Fre 


% 


N.S 


S 


VS 


Rankii 


19 


38 


36 


8 


6 


70- 7 th 


3 


6 


48 


2 




52-9 th 


18 


36 


34 


10 


6 


72-6* 


16 


32 


34 


10 


7 


74-5* 


25 


50 


27 


16 


7 


80-4* 


29 


58 


22 


21 


7 


85-2 nd 


37 


74 


16 


23 


11 


95-l st 


30 


60 


20 


25 


5 


85-2 nd 


10 


20 


45 


3 


2 


57-8* 



Fre -Frequency, %- Percentages, NS-Not Severe, S-Severe, VS- Very severe. 

Received for Publication: 12/1 1/2010 
Accepted for Publication: 28/12/2010 

Corresponding Author 

Adebisi- Adelani O., 

National Horticultural Research Institute, P.M.B 5432, Idi-Ishin .Ibadan. 

E-mail: adelanidotol@yahoo.com 



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