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Full text of "Crania americana; or, A comparative view of the skulls of various aboriginal nations of North and South America. To which is prefixed an essay on the varieties of the human species"

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(Dier(BiFA5r(Dir©A. 

CHIEF OF THE QMA:WHAWS. 

Drawn for Morioang Canania Americana lay MSiWeaver. 



e e p. 



,ge 292. 



CAi 






CRANIA AMERICANA; 



OR, 



A COMPARATIVE VIEW 



OF THE 



SKULLS OF VARIOUS ABORIGINAL NATIONS 



OF 



HOmi'H MMM ^©IDriPH AMMHIKS A § 



TO V7HICH IS PREFIXED 



AN ESSAY ON THE VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES 
Kllustratca fig SeiJTOt2=$fflht Plates anir a mi(\xzti Jttap. 



BY 



SAMUEL GEORGE MORTON, M. D. 

PROFEiSSOR OF ANATOMY IN THE MEDICAL DEPARTMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA COLLEGE AT PHILADELPHIA; MEMBER OF 

THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA; OF THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY; OF THE 

HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF PENNSYLVANIA; OF THE BOSTON SOCIETY OF NATURAL HISTORY, &C., &C. 



PHILADELPHIA: 
J. DOBSON, CHESTNUT STREET 

LONDON: 

SIMPKIN, MARSHALL & CO. 

1839- 



COPY-RIGHT SECURED ACCORDING TO LAW. 



T. K. & P. G. COLLINS, PRINTERS, 

No. 1 Lodge Alley. 



'^'//X 






■ KA-sn 



TO 



W. S. W. RUSGHENBERGER, M.D. 

OF THE UNITED STATES NAVY, 



AUTHOR OF 



"THREE YEARS IN THE PACIFIC/ 



AND 

"A VOYAGE ROUND THE WORLD," 

THIS WORK, 

WHICH DERIVES SOME OF ITS MOST VALUABLE MATERIALS FROM HIS RESEARCHES IN PERU 

IS MOST RESPECTFULLY 

AND 

GRATEFULLY INSCRIBED 



BY THE AUTHOR, 



TO 



JOHN S. PHILLIPS, ESa. 

MEMBER OF THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA, &C.5 &C. 



My Dear Sir: — Having now completed a task which has cost me some years 
of toil and anxiety, it gives me great pleasure to record the many obligations I 
owe you in the prosecution of these inquiries. To your ingenuity I am almost 
wholly indebted for the means of obtaining the elaborate measurements appended 
to this work ; which, without your personal aid and untiring perseverance, would 
have remained in a great measure unaccomplished. It may, perhaps, be thought 
by some readers, that these details are unnecessarily minute, especially in the 
Phrenological Table; and again, others would have preferred a work conducted 
throughout on Phrenological principles. In this study I am yet a learner; and it 
appeared to me the wiser plan to present the facts unbiassed by theory, and let the 
reader draw his own conclusions. You and I have long admitted the fundamental 
principles of Phrenology, viz: That the brain is the organ of the mind, and that 
its different parts perform different functions : but we have been slow to acknow- 
ledge the details of Cranioscopy as taught by Dr, Gall, and supported and extended 
by subsequent observers. We have not, however, neglected this branch of inquiry, 
but have endeavored to examine it in connection with numerous facts, which can 
only be fully appreciated when they come to be compared with similar measure- 
ments derived from the other races of men. Yet I am free to acknowledge that 
there is a singular harmony between the mental character of the Indian, and his 
cranial developments as explained by Phrenology. 



This work has not been composed in that philosophic retirement which is so 
favorable to investigation and reflection: on the contrary, you can bear witness 
that I have pursued my course amidst the continued fatigue and anxiety of a 
professional life; and this must be my apology, if the work I now submit to the 
public does not embrace all the materials which are called for in such an under- 
taking. 

I am, my dear sir. 

Your very obliged friend and servant, 

SAMUEL GEORGE MORTON. 

Philadelphia, October 1, 1839. 



PREFACE. 

t 

The title of this work is perhaps sufficiently explanatory of its objects. The 
principal design has been to give accurate delineations of the crania of more than 
forty Indian nations, Peruvian, Brazilian and Mexican, together v^ith a particularly 
extended series from North America, from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic, and 
from Florida to the region of the Polar tribes. Especial attention has also been 
given to the singular distortions of the skull caused by mechanical contrivances 
in use among various nations, Peruvians, Charibs, Natchez, and the tribes inhabit- 
ing the Oregon Territory. The author's materials in this department are ample, 
and have enabled him to give a full exposition of a subject w^hich w^as long 
involved in doubt and controversy. Particular attention has been bestowed on the 
crania from the Mounds of this country, which have been compared with similar 
relics derived both from ancient and modern tribes, in order to examine, by the 
evidence of osteological facts, whether the American aborigines, of all epochs, have 
belonged to one Race, or to a plurality of Races. 

I was, from the beginning, desirous to introduce into this work a brief chapter 
on Phrenology ; but, conscious of my own inability to do justice to the subject, I 
applied to a professional friend to supply the deficiency. He engaged to do so, 
and commenced his task with great zeal ; but ill health soon obliged him to 
abandon it, and to seek a distant and more genial climate. Under these circum- 
stances I resolved to complete the Phrenological Table, and omit the proposed 
essay altogether. Early in the present year, however, and just as my work was 
ready for the press, George Combe, Esq., the distinguished phrenologist, arrived in 
this country; and I seized the occasion to express my wants to that gentleman, 
who, with great zeal and promptness, agreed to furnish the desired Essay, and 
actually placed the MS. in my hands before he left this city. It is with great 



iv PREFACE. 

pleasure that I also record Mr. Combe's liberality in providing this memoir 
without having seen a word of my manuscript, or even knowing what I had 
written, at the same time that I was under the necessity, owing to certain pre- 
arrangements, of limiting him to a given number of pages, in which he acquiesced 
with the most obliging frankness. By means of this Essay, which is accompanied 
by two illustrative plates, the reader will be able to apply Phrenological rules to 
every skull in the series here figured. 

Neither care nor expense has been spared in the endeavor to give accuracy 
to the lithographed illustrations of this work, which have been chiefly executed 
by Mr. John Collins, one of the most successful cultivators of his art in this 
country. Many of the plates have been drawn the second and third time; and in 
several instances the entire edition was cancelled, in order to correct inaccuracies 
that had previously escaped observation, 

I have given much more space to the Introduction than was at first 
intended, in the hope of inviting, throughout this country, a greater interest to 
this important and attractive study. It is impossible to treat of such a subject, 
without drawing largely on the researches of those distinguished men who have 
devoted their time and talent to inquiries of this nature; among whom it is 
especially necessary to mention Buffbn, Blumenbach, Humboldt, Prichard, Law^ 
rence, Virey and Bory de St. Vincent; while, among the writers of this country, 
I have derived much instruction from the writings of the late Dr. Barton, Professor 
Caldwell, Dr. J. C. Warren, Professor Gibson, Dr. B. H. Coates and Dr. M'Culloh. 
The "Researches" of the last named gentleman, embody more facts relating to 
the Aborigines of America than almost any other work. To these and other 
sources of information, I have made specific acknowledgments throughout the 
following pages. The great work on Mexican Antiquities by Lord Kingsborough 
I have never seen; and Le Noir's splendid work on the same subject, and Mr. 
Delafield's American Antiquities, did not reach this city until my last sheets were 
already in press. 

It will be observed, by comparing the prospectus issued three years ago with 
this work as now published, that I have greatly extended the original design by 
the addition of eighteen plates and nearly two hundred minor illustrations, 
together with a corresponding enlargement of the text. This object has been' 
chiefly attained through the liberal and unsolicited patronage of two individuals 



PREFACE. V 

living at a remote distance from each other and from me, to whom I take this 
occasion to express my grateful acknowledgments. The first of these gentlemen 
is my yenerable and much-honored uncle, James Morton, Esq., of Clonmel, 
Ireland ; the other, my friend William Maclure, Esq., late of this city, and now 
resident in Mexico, well known as the distinguished President of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. I claim, however, some merit for having 
commenced publication when my subscription list bore but fifteen names ; and I 
persisted for a long time on my own resources, although frequently apprehensive 
that an enterprise which never had gain for its object, would add pecuniary loss to 
numberless vexations. 

I do not even now consider my task as wholly completed. On the contrary 
the illustrations of the Mexican nations are too few for satisfactory comparison 
owing to the extreme difficulty of obtaining authentic crania of those people. 
This deficiency, however, is likely to be soon obviated by the kindness of some 
friends of science in Mexico ; and these materials, when received, together with 
some that came to hand too late for use, and many others that are expected, will 
enable me to complete my design by the publication of a small Supplementary 
Volume; in which it will further be my aim to extend and revise both the 
Anatomical and Phrenological Tables, and to give basal views of at least a part of 
the crania delineated. I shall also take occasion to measure the anterior and 
posterior chambers of the skull in the four exotic races of men, in order to 
institute a comparison between them respectively, and between them and the 
American Race. But in order to accomplish this object, a very extended series 
of crania is of course indispensable ; and the author therefore respectfully solicits 
the further aid of gentlemen interested in the cause of science, in procuring the 
skulls of all nations^ and forwarding them to his address in this city. Nor can I 
close this preface without recording my sincere thanks to George R. Gliddon, Esq., 
United States Consul at Cairo, in Egypt, for the singular zeal with which he has 
promoted my wishes in this respect ; the series of crania he has already obtained 
for my use, of many nations, both ancient and modern, is perhaps without a rival 
in any existing collection ; and will enable me, when it reaches this country, to 
pursue my comparisons on an extended scale. 



Philadelphia, October, 1, 1839. 

B 



CRANIA AMERICANA. 



INTRODUCTORY ESSAY 

ON THE VARIETIES OP THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

The geographical distribution of the human race, is one of the most interesting 
problems in history. The oldest records seldom allude to an uninhabited country. 
The extremes of heat and cold, and the intervention of seas and mountains, have 
presented but trifling barriers to the peopling of the earth. 

The condition of man, under these infinitely varied circumstances, is less 
the effect of coercion than of choice. Thus the Eskimau, surrounded by an 
atmosphere that freezes mercury, rejoices in his snow^y deserts, and has pined in 
unhappiness when removed to more genial climes. On the other hand, the native 
of the torrid regions of Africa, oppressed by a vertical sun, and often delirious 
w^ith thirst, thinks no part of the v^orld so desirable and delightful as his ow^n. 
The arid province of Chaco, in Paraguay, which the Spaniards stigmatise as a 
desert, is crowded by forty Indian nations, who regard it as an earthly paradise. 
It may be further remarked, in illustration of this subject, that extensive migra- 
tions have been mostly confined to the temperate zones : it is rare, for example, 
to find the Polar tribes wandering to the south, or the people of the torrid zones 
attempting to establish themselves in a colder climate. The exceptions to this 
rule are chiefly to be seen in the civilised communities of modern times, in 
which the spirit of migratory enterprise is without a limit. 

From remote ages the inhabitants of every extended locality have been 

marked by certain physical and moral peculiarities, common among themselves, 

and serving to distinguish them from all other people. The Arabians are at this 

time precisely what they were in the days of the patriarchs : the Hindoos have 

1 



2 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

altered in nothing since they were described by the earliest writers ; nor have 
three thousand years made any diiFerence in the skin and hair of the Negro. In 
like manner the characteristic features of the Jews may be recognised in the 
sculpture of the temples of Luxor and Karnak, in Egypt, where they have been 
depicted for nearly thirty centuries.* 

This identity of physical characteristics, preserved through numberless 
generations, and often under very dissimilar circumstances, has occasioned various 
speculations in respect to the origin of the human family. The prevalent belief is 
derived from the sacred writings, which, in their literal and obvious interpretation, 
teach us that all men have originated from a single pair ;t whence it has been 
hastily and unnecessarily inferred, that the differences now observable in mankind 
are owing solely to vicissitudes of climate, locality, habits of life, and various 
collateral circumstances. 

Without attempting to pursue this intricate question in detail, we may 
inquire, whether it is not more consistent with the known government of the 
universe to suppose, that the same Omnipotence that created man, would adapt 

* See Description de PEgypte, Tome II, pi. 6, and Tome III, pi. 40. 

t "That the three sons of Noah overspread and peopled the whole earth, is so expressly stated 
in Scripture that, had we not to argue against those who unfortunately disbelieve such evidence, we 
might here stop: let us, however, inquire how far the truth of this declaration is substantiated by 
other considerations. Enough has been said to show that there is a curious, if not a remarkable 
analogy between the predictions of Noah on the future descendants of his three sons, and the actual 
state of those races which are generally supposed to have sprung from them. It may here be again 
remarked, that, to render the subject more clear, we have adopted the quinary arrangement of 
Professor Blumenbach ; yet that Cuvier and other learned physiologists are of opinion that the 
jmmary varieties of the human form are more properly but three, viz: the Caucasian, Mongolian, 
and Ethiopian. This number corresponds with that of Noah's sons: assigning, therefore the 
Mongolian race to Japheth, and the Ethiopian to Ham, the Caucasian, the noblest race, will belong 
to Shem, the third son of Noah, himself descended from Seth, the third son of Adam. That the 
primary distinctions of the human varieties are but three, has been further maintained by the erudite 
Prichard, who, while he rejects the nomenclature both of Blumenbach and Cuvier, as implying 
absolute divisions, arranges the leading varieties of the human skull under three sections, differinp- 
from those of Cuvier only by name. That the three sons of Noah who were to 'replenish the 
earth,' and on whose progeny very opposite destinies were pronounced, should give birth to diiferent 
races, is what might reasonably be conjectured. But that the observations of those who do, and of 
those who do not believe the Mosaic history, should tend to confirm its truth, by pointing out in 
what these three races do actually differ, both physically and morally, is, to say the least, a singular 
coincidence. It amounts, in short, to presumptive evidence, that a mysterious and very beautiful 
analogy pervades throughout, and teaches us to look beyond natural causes, in attempting to account 
for effects apparently interwoven in the plans of Omnipotence.''-MuRRAY, Encyc. of Geog. p. 255, 



VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 3 

him at once to the physical, as well as to the moral* circumstances in which he 
was to dwell upon the earth ? It is indeed difficult to imagine that an all-wise 
Providence, after having by the Deluge destroyed all mankind excepting the 
family of Noah, should leave these to combat, and with seemingly uncertain and 
inadequate means, the various external causes that tended to oppose the great 
object of their dispersion : and we are left to the reasonable conclusion, that each 
Race was adapted from the beginning to its peculiar local destination. In other 
words, it is assumed, that the physical characteristics which distinguish the different 
Races, are independent of external causes. 

Such appear to have been the primitive distinctions among men : but hostile 
invasions, the migratory habits of some tribes, and the casual dispersion of others 
into remote localities, have a constant tendency to confound these peculiarities; and 
the proximity of two races has uniformly given rise to an intermediate variety, 
partaking of the characters of both, without being identical with either : these are 
QdiWeA mixed races. 

The grouping of mankind into Races, has occupied the ingenuity of many of 
the best naturalists of the past and present century ; and here again we observe 
that diversity of opinion which is so frequent in human researches, Linnaeus 
referred all the human family to five races, viz : the American, the European, the 
Asiatic, and the African, and individuals of preternatural conformation. The 
Count de Buffon proposed six great divisions, viz; 1, The Hyperborean or Lap- 
lander, which embraces the Polar nations. — 2, The Tartar, which includes the 
eastern and central nations of Asia. — 3, The Southern Asiatic, which embraces 
the South Sea Islanders. — 4, The European. — 5, The Ethiopian. — And 6, The 
American. At a subsequent period BufFon reduced the races to five, by grouping 
the Laplanders with the Tartars, inasmuch as he regarded the one as a degenerate 
branch of the other.f 

More recently Professor Blumenbach, of Gottingen, to whom this department 
of science is under great obligations, has adopted the arrangement of BufFon ; 
changing the names, however, of some of the divisions, and assigning, with much 
greater accuracy, their geographical distribution. Thus, the Laplander and Tartar 
of BufFon constitute the Mongolian variety of Blumenbach ; the Southern Asiatic 
of the one corresponds to the Malay of the other; and the European and Caucasian 
represent the same people in both arrangements. 

The system of the celebrated Cuvier is still more elementary, for it proposes 

* Genesis, IX, 25, 26, 27. t Sonnini's Buffon, XX, p. 120, &c. 



4 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

three races only: the Caucasian, Mongolian, and Ethiopian; but the author hesitates 
to refer to either of these, the Malays, the Papuas, the Australians, and the South 
Sea Islanders.* 

At the other extreme is Malte-Brun, the distinguished geographer, who 
enumerates sixteen races, of which the American nations form but one.f 

Much has also been written in reference to the unity of the human species : 
the affirmative opinion is sustained by Linnaeus, Blumenbach, Cuvier, and many 
other distinguished naturalists ; yet, on the contrary, Virey has divided mankind 
into two species, Dumoulin into eleven, and Bory into no less than fifteen.^ 
Finally, a French professor, overstepping the barriers of reason and nature, has 
attempted to establish several subgenera.^ 

Such wide differences of opinion have led some persons to reject all classification 
in Anthropology ; but the same objections would apply with equal force to the 
whole range of Natural Science, which, divested of arrangement, presents an 
uninviting chaos. As our means of comparing the races of men become more 
extended, our classification will of course improve ; and meanwhile we must rest 
content with an approximation to accuracy. It may here be remarked, that two 
leading features constitute the basis of most of the attempted classifications of the 
human species : one of these is called the physical^ the other the ethnographic 
method. In the former, mankind are grouped in great divisions characterised by 
similarity of exterior conformation ; while on the last mentioned plan, the arrange- 
ment is based on analogies of language. Each of these systems has its advocates 
to the exclusion of the other ; but it is reasonable to suppose that method most 
natural and comprehensive which is derived from both these sources, as well as 
from all others which tend to establish analogies among men. In order to 
combine, as far as possible, all these advantages, it is proposed in this place to 
consider the human species as consisting of twenty-tivo families. 

It is necessary, however, to premise, that these families are not assumed as 
identical with races, but merely as groups of nations possessing, to a greater or 
less extent, similarity of physical and moral character, and language. Some of 
these families possess, it is true, the peculiarities of the aboriginal races to which 

* Regne Anim. T, 84. 

t See Bory de St. Vincent, T. I, p. 95.— I have not been able to find this classification in 
Malte-Brun, ed. 1832. 
t Ibid. I, p. 83. 
§ Broc, Essai sur les Races Humaines, 1836. 



VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 5 

they belong ; but others are of mixed and very diverse extraction^ and of compara- 
tively recent origin. 

Believing, however, as I do, in the primitive distribution of mankind into 
races in the sense already explained, yet being unprepared to offer any thing new 
on the subject, I shall, for the present at least, adopt the arrangement of Professor 
Blumenbach as respects these great divisions:* for although his system is obviously 
imperfect, yet it is, perhaps, the most complete that has hitherto been attempted. 

I. THE CAUCASIAN RACE. 

The Caucasian Race is characterised by a naturally fair skin, susceptible of 
every tint ; hair fme^ long and curling, and of various colors. The skull is large 
and oval, and its anterior portion full and elevated. The face is small in propor- 
tion to the head, of an oval form, with well-proportioned features. The nasal 
bones are arched, the chin full, and the teeth vertical. This race is distinguished 
for the facility with which it attains the highest intellectual endowments. 

1. The Caucasian Family. 

2. The Germanic Family. 

3. The Celtic Family. 

4. The Arabian Family. 

5. The Libyan Family. 

6. The Nilotic Family. 

7. The Indostanic Family. 

II. THE MONGOLIAN RACE. 

This great division of the human species is characterised by a sallow or olive 
colored skin, which appears to be drawn tight over the bones of the face ; long, 
black, straight hair, and thin beard. The nose is broad, and short ; the eyes are 
small, black, and obliquely placed, and the eye-brows arched and linear : the lips 
are turned, the cheek bones broad and flat, and the zygomatic arches salient. 
The skull is oblong-oval, somewhat flattened at the sides, with a low forehead. 
In their intellectual character the Mongolians are ingenious, imitative, and highly 
susceptible of cultivation. 

* It will be observed, however, that the word race is substituted for variety^ and the order in 
which these divisions follow each other in Blumenbach is somewhat changed. Vide Blumenbach, De 
Gen. Humctni Far, Nat. p. 289. 
2 



6 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

8. The Mongol-Tartar Family. 

9. The Turkish Family. 

10. The Chinese Family. 

11. The Indo-Chinese Family. 

12. The Polar Family. 

HI. THE MALAY RACE. 

The Malay Race is characterised by a dark complexion, varying from a 
tawny hue to a very dark brow^n. Their hair is black, coarse and lank, and their 
eye-lids draw^n obliquely upw^ards at the outer angles. The mouth and lips are 
large, and the nose is short and broad, and apparently broken at its root. The 
face is flat and expanded, the upper jaw projecting, and the teeth salient. The 
skull is high and squared or rounded, and the forehead low and broad. This race 
is active and ingenious, and possesses all the habits of a migratory, predaceous and 
maritime people. 

13. The Malay Family. 

14. The Polynesian Family. 

IV. THE AMERICAN RACE. 

The American Race is marked by a brown complexion, long, black, lank 
hair, and deficient beard. The eyes are black and deep set, the brow low, the 
cheek-bones high, the nose large and aquiline, the mouth large, and the lips 
tumid and compressed. The skull is small, wide between the parietal protu- 
berances, prominent at the vertex, and flat on the occiput. In their mental 
character the Americans are averse to cultivation, and slow in acquiring know- 
ledge; restless, revengeful, and fond of war, and wholly destitute of maritime 
adventure. 

15. The American Family. 

16. The Toltecan Family. 

V. THE ETHIOPIAN RACE. 

Characterised by a black complexion, and black, woolly hair; the eyes are 
large and prominent, the nose broad and flat, the lips thick, and the mouth wide: 
the head is long and narrow, the forehead low, the cheek-bones prominent, the 



THE CAUCASIAN FAMILY. 7 

jaws projecting, and the chin small. In disposition the negro is joyons, flexible, 
and indolent ; while the many nations which compose this race present a singular 
diversity of intellectual character, of which the far extreme is the lowest grade of 
humanity. 

17. The Negro Family. 

18. The CaflFrarian Family. 

19. The Hottentot Family. 

20. The Oceanic-Negro Family. 

21. The Australian Family. 

22. The Alforian Family. 

1. THE CAUCASIAN FAMILY. 

This family, the type of the Caucasian Race, derives its name from the 
mountainous region of Caucasus, hetween the Black Sea and the Caspian, a spot to 
which history and tradition refer the primeval family of man. The spontaneous 
fertility of this tract has rendered it the hive of many nations, which extending 
their migrations in every direction, have peopled the finest portions of the earth, 
and given birth to its fairest inhabitants. On the present occasion we propose to 
notice the Caucasian family as consisting of three branches, the Caucasian proper, 
the Persian, and the Pelasgic. 

1. The Caucasians proper are confined to the valleys and mountains of 
Caucasus. They are extremely numerous, and embrace many primitive tribes 
which differ in language, yet possess, in common, certain prominent physical 
characters. Independent of these aboriginal nations, it is said that five great 
immigrations of foreigners form as many epochs in the history of this country. 
These nations are the Lesghi, the Ghasazes, the Mongols, the Arabs, and the 
Tartars. The languages spoken are scarcely inferior in number to the remnants 
of nations. " There are villages perfectly insulated, each of which is a complete 
nation, whose language is not in the least comprehended by the people in the next 
village to them, and is spoken nowhere else."* Hence the observation of Major 
Rennel, that this remarkable tract, which forms an isthmus between the nations 
of the north and south, seems to have retained a specimen of each passing tribe 
from the date of the earliest migration.! 

A few only of the most prominent of these nations will be noticed on the 
present occasion. 

* Tooke's Russia, II, p. 107. t Freygan, Caucasus, p. 51. 



8 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES, 

The Circassians^ have long been celebrated for superior personal endowments. 
The men are distinguished by the elegance of their shape : their stature seldom 
exceeds the middle size, yet they are athletic and muscular without being corpulent. 
The women have attracted the attention and commanded the admiration of all 
travellers; nor can there be a question that in exquisite beauty of form and 
gracefulness of manner, they surpass all other people. They are distinguished by 
a fair skin, arched and narrow eyebrows, very long eyelashes, and black eyes and 
hair. Their profile approaches nearest the Grecian model, and falls little short of 
the beau-ideal of classic sculpture. 

Of all the Circassians the tribe called Nottahaizi presents the most general 
diffusion of personal beauty. Mr. Spencer asserts, in his late travels among them, 
that every individual he saw was decidedly handsome.f 

The Circassians are shepherds and agriculturists ; and although indolent in 
field labor, they are extremely active and vigilant in war, which is their favorite 
pastime. They pass much of their time in hunting, and in making predatory 
excursions among the adjacent tribes. Like the Arabs, they affect great hospitality, 
but they are at the same time selfish and deceitful. Contrary to the common 
impression, they seldom sell their own women to the Turks ; for this traffic is 
mainly supported by unfortunate captives from the different provinces of Georgia.^ 

The Caratski tribe have, by a singular misnomer, been called Black Circas- 
sians ; whereas their complexions, says Father Lamberti, are very fair ; and he 
adds, "that this name was probably given them only because the atmosphere of 
the country is always gloomy and overcast with clouds."^ 

The Georgians are not less beautiful than the Circassians, possessing the same 
style of features, but a darker complexion. |1 They are extremely vain of their 
personal charms, and endeavor to enhance them by dying their hair, painting their 
faces, and making their eyebrows join in a continuous line.^ The Georgians are 
less warlike than the Circassians, but much more literary and refined ; they are 
fond of poetry, and have a national love of music. 

* They call themselves Attighe, or Adige. They are the Zychi of the Greeks and Latins, and 
the Tcherkess of the Russians. 

t Trav. in Circassia, II, p. 245. 

J Klaproth, Caucasus, p. 321. 

§ Ibid., p. 286. 

II Prof. Blumenbach has figured the skull of a Georgian female, to illustrate the perfect 
proportions of the Caucasian head. — Decad. Cran., Tab. XXI. 

IF Freygan, Trav. in Caucasus, p. 136. 



THE CAUCASIAN FAMILY. 9 

The Abassians^ who call themselves Msne^ "are distinguished from all 
the neighboring nations by their narrow faces, by the figure of their heads, which 
are compressed on both sides, by the shortness of the lower part of the face, by 
their prominent noses, and dark brown hair." They appear to be the aboriginal 
inhabitants of the northwest part of Caucasus, but have been reduced to a mere 
tribe by constant feuds with the Circassians. Their language has no resemblance 
to any known Asiatic or European tongue.* 

The Ossitinians^ or Ireen, are a mere horde of rapacious banditti, speaking a 
language allied to the Persian. * 

The Inguches and Kists are also lawless communities, who live by hunting 
and plunder, and rob for honor as well as from necessity. They worship one 
God, without either saints or idols. Similar to these are those mountaineers of 
Daghestan, called Tawlinzi and Lesghi : living in inaccessible retreats, they 
descend into the valleys for mutual depredation, and to pillage travellers.! Their 
language is peculiar to themselves, excepting a few words which resemble the 
Samoyede tongue.J 

It is difficult to form a just estimate of many of these tribes, who are, on the 
one hand, degraded by the Mahomedan faith, and on the other oppressed by the 
grasping policy of the Russians. Of their intelligence and bravery there can be 
no question ; and their moral perceptions, under the influence of an equitable 
government, would no doubt assume a much more favorable aspect. 

2. The Persians^ who constitute the eastern branch of the Caucasian family, 
have been celebrated from remote antiquity for their high civilisation, their 
national pride and their successful valor. But since the seventh century of our 
era, this country has been successively invaded and conquered by the Saracens, 
Mongols and Tartars, whose amalgamation with the native inhabitants has pro- 
duced, especially in the large towns, a very mixed population. It is chiefly 
among the mountain tribes that the indigenous Persians are at present found. 
They are a fine, athletic people, with good yet strong features, which travellers 
compare to those of the Highlanders of Scotland. Their complexion is naturally 
sallow, and becomes brown from constant exposure ; and in the province of 
Mazunderan, Mr. Frazer saw some individuals who were almost black.§ Similar 
in exterior to the former are the many tribes of the mountains of Talesh, whose 



* Klaproth, p. 247. t Freygan, Caucasus, p. 58. 

X Ellis, Caucasian Nations, p. 43. § Trav. in Persia, p. 50. 

3 



10 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

rapaciousness and cruelty are a proverb in Persia. The daughters of these 
mountaineers, especially in the province of Ghelan, are extremely beautiful. 

In the tovs^ns, from causes already mentioned, the inhabitants present a very 
different aspect; for the long admixture of Georgian and Circassian blood has done 
much to improve the Tartar physiognomy of the rural tribes, and the somew^hat 
heavy figures and sallow^ color of the original Persians. 

" At the present time," says Chardin, " there is scarcely a man of rank in 
Persia w^hose mother is not either a Georgian or Circassian. The King himself 
is mostly derived, on the maternal side, from this exotic source ; and as it is a long 
time since this mixture commenced, the w^omen of Persia have also become much 
more beautiful, though they do not equal those of Georgia. As for the men, they 
are generally tall and erect, w^ith a graceful manner and agreeable deportment."* 

The modern Persians are polite and polished in their manners, and extrava- 
gantly addicted to flattery. They are obsequious to their superiors, but affect to 
despise all foreigners. They are proverbial adepts in deception, and like the 
Arabs, make a merit of their frauds vs^hen these have been practised with adroit- 
ness. They are lively and imaginative, fond of music and poetry, and idolise the 
names of Hafez and Saadi. The Persian language is a dialect of that of Fars, and 
is used in poetry and general literature, but the Turkish is the court language. 
The present rulers of Persia (vrho are Tartars of the Kujur race) have, of course, 
established Mahomedanism as the state religion ; but the Ghebres and Parsees still 
worship fire as the emblem of the Supreme Being. The great body of this sect, 
however, was driven from Persia by the Arabs under the Chalif Omar in the 
seventh century. They established themselves in India, and especially in the 
province of Surat, where they are still numerous, and constitute an industrious 
population. 

The Iliyats^ or wandering tribes of Persia, are chiefly of exotic extraction, 
and form a distinct body of people. Morier compares them to foreign shoots, 
grafted on the original Persian stock. They date from the conquest by the 
Saracens, A. D. 651, and their numbers were augmented during the subsequent 
invasions of Genghiz and Tamerlane. They are of Mongol-Tartar extraction, but 
have mingled for centuries with the Persians, to whom they have imparted their 
roving propensities. They are by turns cultivators, shepherds, soldiers, and free- 
booters.f 

* Chardin, Voy. 11, p. 34. f Morier, in Jour. Roy. Geog. Soc, VII, p. 230. 



THE CAUCASIAN FAMILY. 11 

The inhabitants of Afghanistan, on the skirts of Persia, are also of the 
Caucasian family. They are spare in person, strong and bony. Their noses are 
prominent and aquiline, their cheek bones high, their faces long. Their manner 
is singularly hospitable to strangers, at the same time that their lives are mostly 
spent in predatory violence on the neighboring provinces, or passing caravans. 
Their customs resemble those of the Arabs, from w^hom they claim descent ; for, 
although they despise a Jew, they call themselves Ben i Israel — the children of 
Israel, vs^hence some vs^riters suppose them to be Jev\^s converted to Mahomedan- 
ism.* 

Koordistan^ to the east of the Tigris, and proximate to Persia, is inhabited by 
two sorts of people, the clansmen, or military Koords, and the peasants, or cultiva- 
tors, the latter being literally the bondsmen of the former. "The peasant," says 
Mr. Rich, " is in a moment to be distinguished, both in countenance and speech, 
from the true tribesman ; nor would it be possible for him to pass himself for his 
countryman of nobler race. The difference in physiognomy between the clans- 
man and peasant Koord is perfectly distinguishable. The latter has a much 
softer, and more regular countenance ; the features are sometimes quite Grecian. 
The tribesman is more what is called a hard-featured man, with a thick, promi- 
nent forehead, abrupt lines, and eyes sunk in his head, which are usually fixed in 
a kind of stare. Light gray, and even blue, is a common color for the eye."t 
They treat their women more kindly than either the Turks or Persians, and have 
a better idea of domestic comfort ; yet they are haughty and cruel, fond of war 
and pillage, and fight among themselves when they have no common enemy.J 

3. The Pelasgic Branch derives its name from the Pelasgi, who are first 
mentioned in history as the inhabitants of Thessaly. Enterprising and migratory 
in their habits, they spread over all Greece, and passing thence into northern 
Italy, gave birth to the Etruscans. For political reasons they assumed the name 
of Heltenes, and were the lineal progenitors of the Greeks or Acheans. It has 
been observed by a late writer, that the Greeks had no sooner obtained the 
elements of literature and the arts from the Phoenicians, than they advanced 
rapidly to the highest state of civilisation, until they may be said to have become, 
in their descendants, the masters of the world. We are taught even from our 
infancy to study their letters and their arts, which are justly regarded as models 
of perfection, seldom equalled and still more rarely surpassed. 

* Barnes, Trav. in Bokhara, II, p. 32. Wolff, Miss. Res. p. 157. 
t Residence in Koordistan, p. 89, 320. 
t Ibid. p. 150. 



12 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

The unmixed Greeks are above the middle stature, of fine proportions and 
graceful mien. The forehead is high, expanded, and but little arched, so that it 
forms with the straight and pointed nose, a nearly rectilinear outline. This 
conformation sometimes imparts an appearance of disproportion to the upper part 
of the face, which, however, is in a great measure counteracted by the largeness 
of the eye. The Greek face is a fine oval, and small in comparison to the 
voluminous head. The statues of the Olympian Jupiter, and the Apollo Belvidere, 
convey an exact idea of the perfect Grecian countenance.* 

" The women of Cyprus are handsomer than those of any other Grecian 
island. They have a taller and more stately figure ; and the features, particularly 
those of the women of Nicosia, are regular and dignified, exhibiting that elevated 
cast of countenance so universally admired in the works of Grecian artists. At 
present this kind of beauty seems peculiar to the women of Cyprus: the sort of 
expression exhibited by one set of features, may be traced with different gradations 
in them all. Hence were possibly derived those celebrated models of female 
beauty, conspicuous in the statues, vases, medals and gems of Greece."t 

Perhaps of all the population of modern Greece, that of Roumelia in moral 
traits most resembles the ancient. They are hardy, warlike, and brave, and have 
never been completely subjected by the Turks. The inhabitants of the Morea — 
called Moreotes, on the contrary, have been long the acknowledged vassals of the 
Porte. The coasts and maritime towns are inhabited by a motley people of 
various races, who are called by the general name of Greeks, but who have little 
claim to Grecian lineage or character. 

The degeneration of the modern Greeks, however, is rather moral than 
physical ; for their athletic limbs, their broad shoulders and their strong lineaments, 
are not inferior to those of their ancestors.J 

The Trojans, like the Etruscans, were cognate with the Greeks ; and iEneas, 
flying from the flames of Troy, founded in Italy the kingdom of Alba. The 
striking difference, however, between the Roman and Greek physiognomy, is 
familiar to all observers, but is readily accounted for by the free intercourse of 
the primitive Romans with the surrounding nations, of which the Rape of the 

* BoRY DE St. Vincent, L'Homme, I, p. 40. t Clarke, Trav. II, p. 338. 

t " It appears from numerous instances, especially from the case of the Greeks, that moral causes 
infinitely more than physical circumstances, influence national character, since arts, sciences and letters 
now flourish on the cold and foggy shores of the Baltic sea and the German ocean, while, during a 
period of several centuries, not a single poet or philosopher has arisen in the country of Homer and 
Plato.''— BiGLAND, Effects of Phys, and Moral Causes on the Charac. of Nations, p. 144. 



THE GERMANIC FAMILY. 13 

Sabines is one of many examples. The Roman head differs from the Greek in 
having the forehead lower and more arched, and the nose strongly aquiline, 
together with a marked depression of the nasal bones between the eyes. 

" Look," says Dr. Wiseman, " at the sarcophagi on which the busts are carved 
in relief, or raised from their reclining statues on the lid, or even examine the 
series of imperial busts in the capitol, and you cannot fail to discover a striking 
type, essentially the same, from the wreathed image of Scipio's tomb, to Trajan or 
Vespasian, consisting in a large and flat head, a low and wide forehead, a face, in 
childhood, heavy and round — later, broad and square, a short and thick neck, and 
a stout and broad figure. Nor need we go far to find their descendants ; they are 
to be found every day in the streets, principally among the burgesses, or middle 
class, the most invariable portion of every population."* 

During the period of Roman greatness, the colonies of Greece and Rome 
extended themselves widely into Spain, where they blended with the primitive 
Celtiberians or Basques, and the Phenicians. The later invasions of the Vandals 
and the Saracens, have added their diversities to the physical and moral character 
of the Spaniard, which, with some redeeming qualities, has the selfishness of the 
Arab, the pride and cruelty of the Roman and the superstition of the Greek. 

> 
2. THE GERMANIC FAMILY. 

This great family has occupied, both in ancient and modern time, a large 
proportion of Europe, which it gradually overspread from east to west, thus 
encroaching on the Celts, with whom they are often inseparably blended. 

The Germans are familiar to us by their middling stature, their robust form 
inclining to obesity, their fair, florid complexion, and their light hair. The head 
is large and spheroidal, the forehead broad and arched, the face round, the eyes 
blue and the neck rather short. 

The moral character of the Germans is marked by decided personal courage, 
great endurance of fatigue, firmness and perseverance, and a strong attachment to 
their families and their native land. Intellectually they are conspicuous for 
industry and success in the acquisition of knowledge : with a singular blending 
of taciturnity and enthusiasm, they rival all modern nations in music, poetry and 
the drama ; nor are they less conspicuous for their critical attainments in language, 
and the exact sciences. 



Wiseman, Lectures on the Connection between Science and Revealed Religion, p. 152. Jim. ed, 
4 



14 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

M. Bory de St. Vincent has so happily illustrated this division of the Cauca- 
sian race, that I shall chiefly avail myself of his observations in respect to it. He 
separates the Germanic family into tv^o divisions, the Teutonic and Sclavonic. 

1. "The Teutonic variety is traced to the Hyrcinian forests, the Tyrolese 
Alps, and the sources of the Sale. Following the Danube, which rises in their 
country, they advanced eastwardly only into Austria, nor passed the southern 
Alps; but they spread towards the north, disdaining the rest of the Caucasian 
race, and reached the sea coast, at first between the Elbe and the Rhine. These 
were the people who, under the name of Cimbri, occupied the peninsula of Jut- 
land and the neighbouring islands ; passing thence into Scandinavia, they became 
the Sunones^ who have since been called Goths.* Coasting the Baltic to the 
estuary of the Niemen, they were the primitive stock of the Borussi, the ancestors 
of those Prussians who are now, as it were, lost in the midst of the Sclavonic 
tribes. Under the names of Saxons, Danes and Normans, they ravaged the Celtic 
coasts, established themselves at the mouth of the Seine, and passing into the 
British islands, drove the primitive Celts into the w^estern parts of the country. 
At a still later period the Teutonic tribes, under the name of Norwegians, peopled 
the remote island of Iceland." 

The Teutonic language, adds this author, has become the root of the English, 
Dutch, Danish and Swedish tongues. 

To the preceding statement it may merely be added, that the Goths having 
issued from Scandinavia in vast numbers, passed to the south, and harassed the 
Roman provinces. In the second century they settled on the shores of the Palus 
Maeotis, and thence possessed themselves of Dacia. They were called Ostrogoths 
and Visigoths, the Eastern and Western Goths. Their subsequent military enter- 
prises, and especially the conquest and sack of Rome in the fifth century, are 
familiar to all readers of history. The Vandals were also from the Gothic hive ; 
they emigrated with King Edric, settled for a time on the borders of the Rhine, 

* The late Mr. Pinkerton has written an elaborate work to prove that the Scythians, Getis and 
Goths were one people, who originated in Persia, and entered Europe by a northwestern route ; and 
that the German nations, and even the Pelasgi of Greece, were all lineal descendants of this Asiatic 
family. I leave these mooted points to the learned in national genealogy, and content myself with 
the more reasonable exposition of the ingenious French writer, which, in the main, coincides with the 
researches of Dr. Prichard. The latter author has estabUshed the fact that the Getse of the ancients 
were not Goths, but Thracians ; and that the domestic history of the Goths themselves establishes 
their northern origin and German descent. See Pkichard, II, p. 162.— Pinkerton, /^m. on the 
Goths, ^, 14,31, &c. 



THE CELTIC FAMILY. 15 

and subsequently ravaged a great part of Europe, and established a monarchy in 
Spain. They crossed also into Africa, and took and occupied several of the 
Roman provinces on that continent. 

Austria and Hungary, (the ancient Pannonia,) and the adjoining states, are 
at this time peopled by the lineal descendants of the Goths, w^hose harsh features 
contrast strongly with those of the more polished nations of southern Europe. 

2. The Sclavonic Variety. " This second Germanic variety is composed of 
men issuing probably from Mount Krapack, whence, turning to the south they 
peopled Hungary, crossed the Danube, and pressed their migrations to the Adriatic 
sea. In the north they followed the marshy track of the Vistula and Niemen. 
Descending the Dneister towards the Black sea, they mingled with bands of 
Tartars from the Scythian provinces, until becoming identified with them, a 
mixed race was formed; the latter, assuming the name of Scythians, are celebrated 
in history for their incursions on Persia on the one hand, and on the Roman 
empire on the other. "^ 

Under this denomination are also embraced the Russians, Poles, Lithuanians 
and part of the Bohemians and Hungarians. They are for the most part charac- 
terised by darker hair and complexion than the Teutonic tribes. The Tartars 
who conquered Russia in the twelfth century under the renowned Zenghis Khan, 
retained their dominion for more than two hundred years, and have left evident 
traces of their sojourn both in the physical character and social institutions of the 
Russians.! The people of this division of the Germanic family are brave and 
enterprising, but generally rude and uncultivated ; and the Russians, perhaps the 
most polished branch, emerged from the deepest barbarism so lately as the reign 
of Peter the Great. 

3. THE CELTIC FAMILY. 

This branch of the great Caucasian race, occupied at one period nearly all 
western Europe. They extended from the Pyrenees to the Rhine, and from the 
base of the Alps to the western islands of Britain. They bore the general name 
of Celtae, and their continental territory was the "Gallia Celtica" of the Romans. 

The long continued intercourse of these people with other and dissimilar 
nations, has tended to obliterate their primitive characteristics, excepting in 
certain parts of the extreme west of Europe. Thus they are yet numerous in 

* L'Homme, I, p. 132-136. t Klaproth, Trav. in Caucasus, p. 90. 



16 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

Brittany, Scotland and Ireland, where in certain districts they retain their primi- 
tive name of Gael. 

The features of these people are strongly marked. They are tall, and 
athletic, and little prone to obesity, while their physical strength corresponds to 
their muscular proportions. They have the head rather elongated, and the fore- 
head narrow and but slightly arched : the brow is low, straight and bushy ; the 
eyes and hair are light, the nose and mouth large, and the cheek bones high. 
The general contour of the face is angular, and the expression harsh. 

They are slow but laborious, and endure fatigue beyond the sufferance of 
other men. In disposition they are frank, generous and grateful, yet quick- 
tempered, pugnacious and brave to a proverb. 

In some localities their physical traits, their moral character and their 
peculiar customs, have undergone little change since the time of Caesar. It is 
probable that the most unsophisticated Celts are those of the southwest of Ireland, 
whose wild look and manner, mud cabins and funereal bowlings, recall the 
memory of a barbarous age. 

The Celts have generally been considered the aboriginal inhabitants of 
western Europe; but Sir William Betham has recently undertaken to show "that 
ancient colonies of Phenicians settled in Spain, Ireland, Britain and Gaul, long 
before the Christian era ; that they called themselves Gael or Celtae ; and that the 
Irish, the Gael of Scotland and the Manks (of the Isle of Man) are now the only 
descendants of that ancient people who speak their language."* The author then 
proceeds with an ingenious comparison between the Gaelic and Phenician lan- 
guages, and illustrates their affinity to a degree truly surprising.f Strong as the 
evidence is on this point, we may still hesitate to acknowledge the afiliation of the 
Celts and Phenicians until some remaining discrepancies are explained : for is it 
not singular, if the Celts were Phenicians, that they should have inherited so 
little of the national splendor, refinement and maritime enterprise of their pro- 
genitors? Betham brings but slender evidence of the civilisation of the ancient 
Irish ; and Co5sar's account is any thing but complimentary to their domestic and 
civil relations. 

The same learned author gives plausible reasons for supposing that the Picts 
or Caledonians of Scotland were not, as is commonly believed, of Celtic orirfn 

* Inquiry into the Origin of the Gael and Cimbri, Introd. p. 16. 

t Betham shows, after Vallancey and others, that the Carthaginian speeches in the P£enulus of 
Plautiis are absolutely Gaelic. See his work above quoted, p. 112. 



THE CELTIC FAMILY. 17 

but a branch of the Cymbri of Jutland ; and that the Pictish Cimbri conquered 
Wales and Cornwall on the fall of the Roman Empire, and are the ancestors of 
the present Welsh population of Britain. 

At the invasion of Caesar the Belgae, a branch of the Teutonic stock, were 
already numerous in the maritime parts of England. Subsequently the establish- 
ment of Roman colonies, the invasion and conquest by the Saxons, and still later 
by the Normans, have all contributed to form that extraordinary people whom we 
call the English or Anglo-Saxons. Inferior to no one of the Caucasian families in 
intellectual endowments, and possessed of indomitable courage and unbounded 
enterprise, it has spread its colonies widely over Asia, Africa and America ; and, 
the mother of the Anglo-American family, it has already peopled the new world 
with a race in no respect inferior to the parent stock. 

While the Celtic appears to be but partially blended with the English blood, 
the present French nation partakes of it much more largely. The Romans, the 
Germanic tribes, the Goths, the Burgundians and the Franks, who successively 
established themselves in France, amalgamated with the native population, thus 
forming a new race singularly different from that of the adjacent islands, wherein, 
as we have already seen, the social cond tion of the Celts has always been much 
more isolated. " It is thus," says Bory de St. Vincent, " that the Celts and Gauls 
have become the modern French, of whom the Franks of the middle ages are not 
the parent stock, as those assert who trace their genealogy to the latter barbarians. 
It is from their Celtic ancestors that the French derive their vivacity, their incon- 
stancy, their impetuous courage devoid of perseverance, a vanity often puerile, and 
remarkable quickness of perception, together with that levity which is the jest of 
a neighboring country."* 

We may in this place remark, that the Caucasian, Germanic and Celtic 
families already described, and the Hindoo family to be hereafter noticed, consti- 
tute the great chain of what are called the Indo-European nations. " It is now 
well known," observes Dr. Prichard, " that a greater or less degree of affinity 
exists between the dialects of some nations in the south-eastern parts of Asia, and 
the most extensively spread and most civilised languages of Europe. By this 
affinity is not meant a resemblance of some particular words in the vocabularies 
of several nations, such as a casual intercourse may have occasioned, but that sort 
of analogy in the primitive words and grammatical structure, which requires a 

* L'Homme, I, p. 125. 



18 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

difFerent explanation; and is supposed plainly to indicate those languages in which 
it is displayed, however they may differ in some respects, to have sprung from a 
common original. This analogy has been remarked more especially between the 
Sanscrit, or the ancient language of India, and the Greek, Latin and German."* 

Without undervaluing these philological analogies, I am disposed to believe, 
with Humboldt, that we shall never be able to trace the afiliation of nations by a 
mere comparison of languages ; for this, after all, is but one of many clews by 
which that great problem is to be solved. Dr. Prichard himself admits that 
Europe was inhabited by " a more ancient people," before the Asiatics made their 
appearance; and although the language of the former was modified by this 
intercommunication, there is no satisfactory evidence that the physical character 
of these primitive people sustained any obvious change by the gradual immigration 
of the intruders from Asia. Dr. Prichard places the Celtic tribes among the 
Indo-Europeans; while Sir William Betham, as we have seen, judging also from 
similarity of language, pronounces the Celts to be of the Phenician branch of 
Arabians. With these discrepancies before us, we may inquire whether the term 
Indo-European is not more applicable to certain languages of Europe, than to the 
inhabitants themselves ? 

4. THE ARABIAN FAMILY. 

The physical conformation of the Arabs proper is not very unlike that of 
their neighbors the Circassians, although, especially in the women, it possesses 
much less of the beautiful. Their skin is generally sallow, but is never black in 
the unmixed race; and in those whose rank permits them to avoid exposure to the 
sun, the complexion is a light and clear brunette. The Arab face is a somewhat 
elongated oval, with a delicately pointed chin, and a high forehead. Their eyes 
are large, dark and full of vivacity; their eyebrows are finely arched; the nose is 
narrow and gently aquiline, the lips thin, and the mouth small and expressive. 
Such at least is the appearance of the higher classes; but from these there is 
every grade of exterior feature until, in the Arab of the desert, the traveller sees 
all that is ferocious and repugnant in human nature. The Arabs in general are 
below the middle stature ; their persons are spare and often meagre, and yet they 
possess an extraordinary vigilance and activity. 

* Piiys. Hist, of Man, I, p. 491. 



THE ARABIAN FAMILY. 19 

The habits of the Arab are strictly pastoral and wandering. His tent is his 
home, and he perpetually varies its location as his wants or caprice may prompt 
him. 

The moral character of this race blends some very opposite elements ; they 
are the children of impulse, at one moment raising the sword against the unresist- 
ing traveller, and the next receiving, with open hospitality, the stranger whose 
necessities have driven him to their tents. They are indolent excepting in their 
wars and pastimes, and remarkable for their covetousness and duplicity. Vanity 
is characteristic of all classes, from the chief of a tribe to the humblest Bedouin. 
Their politeness is extreme, and sobriety is a national trait. 

Their intellectual character is conspicuous for a fertile imagination, and the 
successful cultivation of music, poetry and romance. 

The migratory disposition of the Arabians has led to their dispersion over 
countries very remote from the parent land, so that at the present time Arabia 
does not contain a twentieth part of the descendants of Ishmael. Africa has 
always been one of their favorite retreats, and history records three principal 
irruptions, at distant periods from each other. The first was that of the Canaan- 
ites who were expelled by Joshua, and established themselves in northern Africa, 
and were the Mauri of the ancients ; the second migration took place in the 
first century of the Christian era, and the third and last great influx was in the 
seventh and eighth centuries, by the Mahometan Arabs. 

The Moors who inhabit the present kingdom of Morocco, and other parts of 
Africa, are in part descended from the Mauri, and partly from the Saracens who 
were expelled from Spain, together with the intruding Arabs of the different 
epochs. But the term Moor is used in Barbary to designate the inhabitant of a 
town or city, while Arab is the collective designation of the wandering tribes of 
this family. The Moors are of the middle stature, with complexions varying 
from black to white, owing to their intercourse with the negroes of Sudan. The 
women of Fez, however, are fair as Europeans, with uniformly dark eyes and 
hair. Those of Mequinez are even more beautiful, with remarkable grace and 
suavity of manner. 

The men of Duquella have regular features, and are tall and well limbed : 
those of Temensa and Shawia, are a strong, robust race, of a copper color.* The 
nomadic Arab tribes live chiefly in tents; they are a restless and turbulent people, 
who are engaged in constant broils with each other, and with the adjacent Berbers 

* Jackson, Morocco, p. 128. *,^m. ed. 



20 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

and Negroes. They are slightly made, and below the middle size, yet hardy and 
untiring in whatever they attempt. Cruelty and selfishness are their characteristic 
traits, and they possess also the vices which flow from ignorance and bigotry. 

The Saracens, so celebrated for their conquests, first occupied the country 
between Mecca and the Euphrates; but they spread themselves rapidly over 
Africa, and soon established their kingdom in Spain, whence they were not 
expelled until the sixteenth century, after a dominion of seven hundred years. 
The Saracens, w^ho are no longer known as a nation, surpassed the contemporary 
Arabians in the cultivation of literature, science and art. 

The Bedouins^ whose original country is northern Arabia, are among the 
most primitive and characteristic people of this family. Some of their tribes pass 
the spring and summer on the frontiers of Syria, seeking pasture and water : in 
the autumn they purchase their winter provision of wheat and barley, and return 
after the first rains into the interior of the desert. Tribes of this family inhabit 
or rather ambulate the district of Balbec, and the vicinity of Homs and Palmyra : 
a few pay tribute to the Pasha of Damascus, but most of them acknowledge no 
superior. "The Aenzes, a powerful Bedouin tribe, are easily distinguished from 
the Shemal Arabs by their diminutive size, few of them being above five feet two 
or three inches in height : their features are good, their noses often aquiline, their 
persons extremely well formed, and not so meagre or slight as some travellers 
have reported ; their deep-set, dark eyes sparkle from under their bushy black 
eyebrows, with a fire unknown in our northern climes ; their beard is short and 
thin, but the black hair of all abundantly thick. The females seem taller in 
proportion than the men ; their features in general are handsome, and their deport- 
ment very graceful. In complexion these Arabs are very tawny ; the children, 
however, at their birth are fair, but of a livid whiteness."* They are a nation of 
robber-shepherds, among whom wealth creates no influence, for the chief and 
the meanest Arab eat daily of the same dishes, partake of the same privations, and 
mingle in the same amusements. Like all Arabs they are passionately fond of 
music and poetry, but whole tribes of them can neither read nor write. They 
are highly courageous, but they fight rather for the acquisition of plunder than 
for the love of glory. 

The Wahabys^ so celebrated in recent times for having overrun and conquered 
all Arabia, were at first a mere tribe of sectarian Bedouins, who derived their 
name from a favorite chief. Their creed has been defined " a mussulman puritan- 

* BuRKHARDT, Bedouins and Wahabys, p. 28. 



THE ARABIAN FAMILY. 21 

ism and a Bedouin governmentj in which the great chief is hoth the political and 
religious leader of the nation, exercising his authority in the same manner as the 
followers of Mohammed did over his converted countrymen."* Yet their chief 
sectarian distinction appears to be their hostility to the domes of the mosques, and 
to ornamented tombs, which they uniformly destroy with fanatical zeal. In their 
moral character the Wahabys are no better than the other Bedouins. 

The Bedouins claim lineal descent from Ishmael. They are not only spread 
over nearly all Arabia to the confines of Persia, but across the entire continent of 
Africa to the Atlantic ocean. They skirt the Mediterranean on the north, and 
thence rove almost to the centre of the African continent. Even the territory of 
Houssa is said to derive its social character from the numerous Arabs who inhabit 
it. Change of locality and the lapse of time have effected no change in the habits 
of this people, who, in the time of Diodorus, were forbidden by their laws "to 
sow corn, to plant fruit trees, to make use of wine, or to inhabit houses," in order 
that there might be nothing to tempt the avarice of an enemy. They who 
plundered all nations, provided against a like calamity to themselves. 

The Jews or Hebrews were in their origin a pastoral nation, but in progress 
of time they established themselves in the cities of Palestine. Their physiognomy 
is familiar in the receding forehead, the elongated face, and the large and aquiline 
nose. Their high attainments in literature are fully attested by the sacred 
writings; and their zealous attachment to their religion, and their patient endur- 
ance of adversity, are among the most striking traits of their character. Dispersed 
by a divine judgment, they are to be found almost every where on the habitable 
earth, recognised by the same features, and the same undeviating form of worship. 

Travellers describe a colony of black Jews at Cochin and Cranganore, in 
Malabar : they, however, are not Jews by nation, but only by conversion. The 
date of their original apostacy is very ancient : they are, in fact, Hindoos in all 
respects but their religion ; and Mr. Wolff informs us that " even at this time 
many of the Hindoos become converts to Judaism."! 

The Hebrews are supposed to be derived from the Chaldeans, an elder 
branch of this race, whose capitol, Babylon, is among the proverbial wonders of 
antiquity. Belonging to the same stock, were the Idumeans, or EdomiteSjJ 
renowned for their dwellings excavated from the solid rock, and other architec- 
tural remains in the recently revealed city of Petra. 

* BuRKHARDT, Bedouins and Wahabys, p. 274. t Missionary Researches, p. 308. 

J Called also the Nabathean Arabs. 
6 



22 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

Phenicia, one of the smallest yet most illustrious states of antiquity, was, as 
already hinted, an Arabian nation of the Chaldean stock. They roved upon the 
ocean as the cognate tribes did upon the land; their very name signifies a imnderer 
by sea^ an appropriate appellation when we reflect on their fearless voyages to 
every part of the vrorld then known, and their successful doubling of the Cape of 
Good Hope six hundred years before the Christian era. Tyre and Sidon were 
their principal cities in Phenicia proper. They joined the Mauri and built 
Carthage, and on the destruction of this city by the Romans, the two nations 
were blended in a common family.* This again became mixed with the Arab 
immigrations of various epochs, and partially with the Berbers, whom we have 
next to mention.f 

5. THE LIBYAN FAMILY. 

It is proposed in this name to include the various tribes of aboriginal Africans 
who have long been designated by the Arabic term of Berbers. I adopt the 
former designation from Prichard and Heeren, who consider these people to be 
the descendants of the ancient Libyans. They are found both to the north and 
south of Mount Atlas, extending their wanderings into Morocco and Barbary: 
on the east they inhabit as far as the Gulf of Cabes, or the Little Syrtis, while on 
the west they reach the Atlantic. They call themselves by the collective or 
national name of Amazirgh. 

The various communities of this family are characterised by handsome 
Caucasian features, but in complexion they present all the shades from white to 
nearly black. 

The Tuariks are perhaps the best known of all the Berber tribes. Captain 
Lyon describes them as the finest men he ever saw ; tall, straight and handsome, 

* Chenier, Resch. sur les Maures, I, p. 19. 

t The term Semitic has been applied to the Syrian nations between the Mediterranean sea and 
western Persia, "from Shem, the son of Noah, from whom, in the table of nations in the book of 
Genesis, entitled Toldoth Beni Noach, many of them are declared to have descended.'^ The principal 
Semitic communities are or were the following : 

1. Elam, to the northward of the Persian Gulf. 

2. Ashar, or the people of Assyria. 

3. The Chasdim or Chaldeans, from whom are descended the Hebrews and Arabs. 

4. The Lydians. 

5. Aram, or the proper Syrians. 
See Prichard, Res. II, p. 208. 



THE LIBYAN FAMILY. 23 

with an imposing air of pride and independence. Their features resemble those 
of southern Europeans ; their natural complexion is nearly white, much darkened, 
however, by exposure to a hot sun, and their hair is long, black and glossy. They 
are said to be less treacherous than the Arabs, yet passionate, cruel and revengeful. 
They are fond of war, and plunder both their Arab and Negro neighbors, and 
reduce the latter to slavery. They are chiefly pastoral in their mode of life ; and 
although they have horses, they mostly travel and fight on foot. 

The Shilloohs inhabit south of the Tuariks, are less robust and have darker 
complexions : they are also said to be more industrious, peaceful, civilised and 
humane, having some manufactures, and being more husbandmen than shepherds. 
They occupy the western valleys of Mount Atlas, in the province of Temsna, 
but are still more numerous south of the city of Morocco. 

The Mem inhabit the oasis of Ghadamis, south of Tripoli, and are said to 
be divided into two hostile tribes which are at constant war with each other. 

To this family also belong the Beni-Mozab^ and other tribes of Belad-el-gerid, 
south of Atlas, the Zuaves of the Tunisian territory, the Kolluvians in the neigh- 
borhood of Soudan, the Tagama near Tombuctoo, who are white, and the Hagara 
and Matkara, who are yellowish.* 

"The Kabyles," says Dr. Prichard, "who appear to be intimately connected 
with the Berbers, inhabit the higher part of the Algerine and Tunisian territories, 
living in mountain villages composed of huts, which resemble the magalia of the 
old Numidians. The Kabyles, as we learn from Dr. Shaw, are in general of a 
swarthy color, with dark hair ; but those who inhabit the mountains of Auress, 
though they speak the same idiom, are of a fair and ruddy complexion, and their 

hair is of a deep yellow."! 

It is probably a tribe of Berbers to whom M. Arago alludes when he informs 
us, that, "in going from Bougia to Algiers in 1808, by land, he saw women of all 
ages in the different villages, who were white, had blue eyes and fair hair; but 
that the nature of his journey did not permit him to stop and ask if they came 
from any particular tribe." 

The GuANCHEs of the Canary Islands appear to have been a colony of 
Berbers, as is inferred from the remains of their language, their features and their 
customs. The singular perfection with which they practised the art of embalm- 



* Prichard, I, p. 246, &c. — The best account of the Berbers I have any where seen is contained 
under that article in the Penny Cyclopaedia, a learned and elaborate work with a very iiumble title, 
t Idem. p. 243. 



24 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

ing, has led to the supposition that they were of Egyptian origin ; but the analogy 
between the two nations appears not to have extended beyond this solitary rite. 

The Berbers have generally been confounded with the Arabs, whom they 
chiefly resemble in their wandering and predatory habits. The Berber language 
is wholly different from the Arabic : neither do they claim to the Arabs, or the 
Arabs to them any national afiliation : and there is sufficient reason to believe, as 
already stated, that they are identical with the Libyae of the ancients, the people 
who inhabited the country before the first influx of the Arabians. 

I am at a loss where to class the Gallas of eastern Africa, yet they bear a 
general physical resemblance to some tribes of Berbers. They are of small 
stature, with long black hair, and complexions varying from brown to black. 
They are among the most warlike and remorseless barbarians of Africa, and their 
principal tribe, the Boren-galla, now governs by conquest in Abyssinia, and even 
occupies Gondar, the capital. They are supposed to spring from that unknown 
region which constitutes the southern interior of the continent. 

In the immediate vicinity of Mount Atlas the distinctions of Race are often 
altogether confounded, owing to the proximity of the Negro tribes. Thus the 
Tibboos are nearly black, and have long wiry hair, intermediate between that of 
the Tuarick and the Negro ; yet their features are good and their forms delicately 
and even beautifully moulded. The immemorial predatory habits of these various 
tribes amply account for this blending of physical character ; for the Tibboos mix 
with the Negroes, the Tuaricks enslave the Tibboos, and the Moors, in their turn, 
make enemies and slaves of them all. 

6. THE NILOTIC FAMILY. 

The valley of the Nile, a narrow strip of land six hundred miles long and but 
ten broad — the Nilotica tellus of the ancients, presents at the present time at least 
two cognate nations, which, though dwindled and degenerate, appear to constitute 
a family distinct from the rest of mankind. These nations, if they now deserve 
that name, are the Egyptians and Nubians. 

The modern Egyptians are composed of two classes, or castes, the Copts and 
Fellahs. 

The Copts, though now remarkably distinct from the people who surround 
them, derive from their remote ancestors some mixture of Greek, Arabian and 
perhaps even Negro blood. They present various shades of complexion, from a 
pale yellow to a deep bronze or brown. "The eyes of the Copt are generally 



THE NILOTIC FAMILY. 25 

large and elongated, slightly inclining from the nose upwards, and always hlack. 
The nose is straight, excepting at the end, where it is rounded and wide ; the lips 
are rather thick, and the hair is black and curly."* Mr. Madden says that they 
are also marked by the great distance between the eyes. Their legs and feet are 
badly formed, and they are seldom graceful or pleasing in their manner. These 
people, now reduced to about one hundred and fifty thousand souls, are Christians, 
but they bear a bitter hatred to all other sects. They are said to be of sullen 
temper, avaricious, ignorant, dissembling and faithless. 

The Coptic language is extremely ancient and very peculiar ; nor can there 
be a question of the identity of the pure Coptic with the ancient vernacular 
Egyptian. It does not appear to have undergone any change of grammatical 
structure, and it is of greater antiquity than any Indo-European or Semitic 
language.f The knowledge of the Coptic language is at present known to but 
few of the Copts themselves. The Ptolemies first attempted to eradicate it by 
substituting the Greek in its place, and they even made it a capital offence to 
speak the Coptic in common conversation. The Turks have pursued the same 
policy, by requiring the Arabic to supersede both Greek and Coptic. 

The Copts are supposed by Niebuhr, Denon and others, to be the descendants 
of the ancient Egyptians; and it has often been observed, that a strong resemblance 
may be traced between the Coptic visage and that presented in the ancient mum- 
mies, paintings and statues :$ but it is in vain that we look for absolute identity 
in a country that has groaned in bondage for two thousand years. The Persians, 
the Greeks, the Romans, the Arabians and the Turks, have successively held 
dominion in this fated valley, and subjected it, in turn, to every species of oppres- 
sion. The Copts, therefore, can be at most but the degenerate remains, both 
physically and intellectually, of that mighty people who have claimed the admira- 
tion of all ages. 

The great mass of the present Egyptian population is composed of a mixed 
race of Copts and Arabs, who are called Moslem-Egyptians^ or Fellahs. They 
are handsomer than the purer Copts. " Their heads are a fine oval, the forehead 
of moderate size, not high, but generally prominent ; their eyes are deep sunk, 
black and brilliant ; the nose is straight and rather thick ; the mouth well formed ; 
the lips are rather full than otherwise ; the teeth particularly beautiful, and the 
beard is commonly black and curly, but scanty."^ 

* Lane, Mod. Egypt, 11, p. 310. t Lipsius, in Wiseman's Lect. p. 63. 

t Niebuhr, Trav. in Africa, p. 71. § Lane, Mod. Egypt, II, p. 32. 

7 



26 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

In person they are remarkably well proportioned ; the men being large and 
robust, and the women beautifully formed. They have a yellowish but clear 
complexion, and their whole exterior has derived from their Arab lineage some 
advantages which the genuine Copt but rarely possesses. 

The Nubians constitute the second division of the Nilotic family. They call 
themselves Noiiba^ or Kenous^ but are known in Egypt by the name of Berabera.* 
" The figure of the Nubian," says Mr. Stevens, " is tall, thin, sinewy, and graceful, 
possessing what would be called in civilised life an uncommon degree of gentility. 
His face is rather dark, though far removed from African blackness ; and his 
features are long and aquiline, decidedly resembling the Roman."! 

The hair of the Nubian is thick and black, often curled either by nature or 
by art, and sometimes partially frizzled, but never woolly. In fact, judging from 
the painting and sculpture of their temples, the ancient Nubians, like the modern, 
were in no respect analogous to the Negroes, excepting in the occasional blackness 
of their skin : and it is also worthy of remark, that their most frequent scenic 
decorations represent their triumphs over the Negroes, who uniformly appear as 
menials or as captives. 

" It is among the Nubians," says Mr. Madden, " we are to search for the 
true descendants of the Egyptians; a swarthy race, surpassing in the beauty of 
their slender forms, all the people of the East ; living on the confines of Egypt, 
where, probably, their ancestors had been driven by the Persians ; and possessing 
a dialect somewhat mixed with Arabic, but which I have observed no Arab 
understands." 

Although the Nubians occasionally present their national characters unmixed, 
they generally show traces of their social intercourse with the Arabs, and even 
with the Negroes ; and the long domination of the former has impressed on these 
people many of their peculiar traits, including their religious observances ; for 
although the Nubians early embraced Christianity, they are now all Moslems, and 
boast that they have not a Christian among them. 

The Myssinians, the Axomites of the Romans, inhabit the country to the 
south of Nubia, and appear to have been originally afiliated with the Egyptians 
and Nubians. But at present they have utterly lost their identity from their 
intercourse with various nations of different origin and language, but especially 
the Arabs, Gallas and Negroes. Thus constituted, the Abyssinians present one of 

*BuRKHARDT, Trav. p. 210. 

t Stevens, Egypt, &c., I, p. 104.— Burkhardt, Trav. p. 144. 



THE NILOTIC FAMILY. 27 

the most motley and barbarous states in existence. Yet the Arab and Nubian 
lineaments predominate ; and are seen in the oval face, the narrow pointed nose, 
the long, black hair and delicate limbs ; while the immemorial amalgamation of 
the Abyssinians with their Negro slaves, imparts to many the thick lips, the flat 
nose, and even the crisped and woolly hair of the genuine African. The present 
inhabitants are to the last degree barbarous, cruel and licentious. Even the 
Christian population is said to partake of the national anarchy, for they are divided 
into three parties, who are so inimical to each other that they refuse to take the 
sacrament together. " The Abyssinians," says Gobat, in extenuation, " are liars, 
as well as the Arabs ; but they yet have a feeling of shame which the Arabs have 
not." 

Their written language, the Gheez, has some affinity with the Arabic, which 
may be attributed to the long intercourse of the two nations. 

The ancient intercourse of the Abyssinians with the Egyptians, is proved by 
the temples and obelisks among the ruins of Axoum, the port of Abyssinia on the 
Red Sea ; while at Meroe, in the interior, and at other places, are seen some 
stupendous architectural remains of high antiquity. 

The Ancient Egyptians. — The physical traits of the Egyptians, as derivable 
from their monuments and mummies, may be embraced in the following 
summary. 

They appear to have been spare in person, with long limbs and delicate 
hands and feet. Their heads were formed as in the Hindoo, thus differing from 
the Caucasian only in being somewhat smaller in proportion to the body, and 
having a narrower and less elevated forehead. Mr. Madden, who speaks of 
having examined a great number of heads in the Theban catacombs, says "that 
the old Egyptian skull is extremely narrow across the forehead, and of an oblong 
shape anteriorly. I never found one with a broad expanded forehead."* There 
is a remarkable resemblance among the innumerable heads sculptured in the 
temples of the Nile ; and one who is accustomed to examine them becomes so 
familiar with the Egyptian physiognomy, that when other races are introduced, 
as the Jews and Negroes, the eye can mostly detect them. There is also a 
singular accordance in conformation between the sculptured heads, and the real 
ones taken from the Theban catacombs. Two prominent varieties are discernible 
in each : one of these has the rather low and narrow forehead above mentioned, 
while the other presents the full development of the Caucasian head. The 

* Trav. in Egypt, &c., II, p. 93. 



28 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

former greatly predominates in the Egyptian sculpture, and is possibly character- 
istic of the Egyptians as a race. The nose was rather long, and joined the head 
much in the Grecian manner ; the eye was elongated and rather oblique ; the lips 
were well formed, the chin rounded and moderately full, and the whole expression 
mild and pleasing. It may be added that the Egyptian ear is said to have been 
placed higher than in the Caucasian; but on this point I cannot speak from 
observation. It is curious, however, that the same remark has been made in 
reference to the Hindoos of Malabar.* 

As to the complexion of these people, history is strangely silent ; but judging 
from the paintings which have been copied by Belzoni, ChampoUion and others, 
their prevalent color appears to have been swarthy or brown, with a tinge of red. 
It is certain, however, that there was a difference in color in the different castes, 
as in the modern Hindoos, presenting every shade from nearly white to a very 
dark brown, or even black. Their hair was long, straight, and generally black, 
although in the mummies it has a brownish color, which has been attributed to 
the process of embalming.f 

The antiquity of the Egyptian nation, and their skill in the arts and sciences, 
have been proverbial in all ages. " It is a remarkable fact," says Mr. Wilkinson, 
"that the first glimpse we obtain of the history and manners of the Egyptians, 
shows a nation already advanced in the arts of civilised life ; and the same customs 
and inventions that prevailed in the Augustan era of that people, after the 
accession of the eighteenth dynasty, are found in the remote age of Osirtasen, the 
contemporary of Joseph. "J 

In illustration of the antiquity and the " learning of the Egyptians," we may 
briefly notice a few facts in connection with the received chronology : thus, they 
had completed the pyramids of Memphis within three hundred years after the era 
assigned to the deluge ; — they wrote their hieroglyphic characters on papyrus as 
early as the age of Cheops, two thousand years before Christ ; — they discovered 
and constructed the arch at least three thousand four hundred years ago ; — the 
Greek Scroll is common in the tombs of the Pharoahs ; — and the so called Doric 
column and entablature ornamented the porticos of Beni-Hassan before sculpture 
was an art in Greece. § Hence the observation of a late writer, that "this 

* ViREY, Diet. d'Hist. Nat. Art. L'Homme. 

t The Egyptians kept their heads shaved excepting a lock on the crown, and their head-dresses 
were as varied as the capitals of their columns. 

X Ancient Egypt, III, p. 260. § Ancient Egypt, II, p. 117 —III, p. 150, 261, 318. 



THE NILOTIC FAMILY. 29 

singular people had attained a high degree of civilisation and refinement at a time 
when the whole western world was still involved in barbarism; when the history 
of Europe had not yet begun ; and long before Carthage, Athens and Rome were 
thought of." 

Note. — On the Supposed ^^ffinity between the Egyptians and Negroes. — I trust I shall be 
excused for offering, in this place, a few brief remarks in reference to a vulgar error which has found 
support in the superficial observations of some men, and the misapplied benevolence of others: I 
allude to that hypothesis which classes the ancient Egyptians with the Negro race. Among the 
advocates of this opinion was Volney, the celebrated traveller. He looked upon the Sphinx, and 
hastily inferred from its flat features and bushy hair that the Egyptians were real Negroes : yet these 
circumstances have no weight when we recur to the fact that the Budhists of Asia (the most 
numerous sect in existence) represent their principal god with Negro features and hair, and often 
sculptured in black marble ;* yet among the three hundred millions who worship Budha, there is not, 
perhaps, a solitary Negro nation. The Egyptians borrowed many of their mythological rites from 
their southern neighbors, in the same way that, in after time, the Greeks borrowed from the 
Egyptians, and the Romans from the Greeks : yet these facts are no proofs of the affiliation of races. 
The ruins of Pompeii contain a temple of Isis ; yet would any one thence infer that the inhabitants 
of that city were Egyptians } There is no absolute proof, moreover, that the Sphinx represented an 
Egyptian deity: it may have been a shrine of the Negro population of Egypt, who, as traffickers, 
servants and slaves, were a very numerous body ; whence the boast of the Egyptian kings, recorded 
by Diodorus, that the vast structures of Karnak and Luxor were erected by the labor of foreigners, 
and that none of the native Egyptians were employed on them. This remark may be coupled with 
another statement of the same historian, that the people of Egypt followed their own fancies in 
reUgion, every one being allowed to worship that object which his ancestors had worshipped before 
him.t Hence the number and diversity of their gods, from a leek or a reptile to the deified Osiris. 

Another point much insisted on is the following : Herodotus, speaking of the Colchians, says 
that the Egyptians believed them " to be descended from part of the troops of Sesostris." He then 
adds, " to this I myself was also inclined, because they are black, and have hair short and curling.^J 
This description, however, is far from being sufficient to characterise a Negro, and would apply with 
equal truth to a large proportion of the Nubians of the present day, merely making allowances for 
the well known vagueness with which the Greeks apphed the term black to all complexions darker 
than their own. Even if it be admitted that these Colchians were real Negroes, it does not prove the 
point at issue; for the remark that they were "part of the troops of Sesostris" leads to the reasonable 
inference that they were either wholly or in part derived from the servile or Negro caste in Egypt, 
and not of the Egyptian race. This opinion is sustained by another passage in the same historian, 
who tells us that in the army of Xerxes which invaded Greece, there was a legion of western 
Ethiopians, who, he adds, "have their hair more crisp and curling than any other men."§ Now, if 
the Persian army was composed in part of genuine Negroes, how much more likely were the troops 
of Sesostris to embrace a portion of that race, he being himself a king of Egypt ? But it may be said 



* Heber, Narr. I, p. 254. Am. ed. f Diod. Sic. Hist. (Booth's Tr.) B. I, chap. 7, 

j^ MiXayx^posi xaX ov\o~fiX};. Euterpe, Cap, C, § Herod. Polhym*"Cap. LXX. 

8 



30 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

that Herodotus speaks of the Colchians as Egyptians : to which it may be answered, that he does so; 
in a generic or comprehensive sense; precisely as in our own time the army of Ibrahim Pacha is said 
to be composed of Negroes and Fellahs, who, with all their motley grades, receive the collective 
name of Egyptians.* As Herodotus is chiefly appealed to by those who would merge the Egyptian in 
the Negro, I think some extracts from his work will show that he himself had no such view. He has 
for example the following passage: "The priests afterwards recited to me the names of three hundred 
and thirty sovereigns (successors of Menes:) in this continued series, eighteen were Ethiopians, and 
one a female native of the country — all the rest were men and Egypiians.^^ Let us analyse this 
passage. It is admitted that these eighteen Ethiopians^ were foreigners; yet in all probability 
Nubians, and not Negroes. If it be contended, however, that they were real Negroes, then it will 
follow that only one eighteenth part of this long line of monarchs could have been of Negro origin. 
It is also reasonable to infer, that whatever may have been the national character of this exotic 
minority, they reigned in Egypt by usurpation or by conquest. J Moreover, this "female native of 
the country," was Nitocris, who is described by Manetho as "remarkably beautiful, with a fair skin 
and flaxen hair."§ It is unnecessary to remark that no two personal traits could be more diametrically 
opposite to those of the Negro than these ; and as Nitocris was a native Egyptian, and of the royal 
line, we may reasonably infer that she possessed, in an eminent degree, the national characteristics of 
the high-caste Egyptians. 

This question is further elucidated by the numberless pictorial and other representations in the 
tombs of Egypt and Nubia. Thus, in the plates to Belzoni's Researches, among the most ancient 
Nubian remains, we see figures of various complexions, from a Hght flesh-color to a dark red, and 
these are conjoined with strictly Caucasian or Asiatic features. Another series represents four 
unequivocal Negroes, marked by every characteristic trait, including, of course, a jet black skin; 
while, on the same picture, and as if to enforce the distinction of race by a direct contrast, several 
other personages are seen with fair skins and Caucasian lineaments. || 

" Black people," says Mr. Wilkinson, " designated as natives of the foreign land of Cush, are 
generally represented on the Egyptian monuments either as captives, or as the bearers of tribute to 
the Pharaohs."ir "I remarked," says Denon, "many decapitated figures: these were all dark, while 
those who had struck off their heads, and still stood over them sword in hand, were red."** 



*This feature of the modern Egyptian army is well explained in Burkhardt, Trav. p. 341, &c.— Long after tins part 
of my manuscript was ready for the press, I read the learned Dr. Wiseman's Lectures on the Natural History of Man, 
in which I find the following corroborative passage: "It is not easy," he remarks, "to reconcile the conflictino- results 
thus obtained from writers and from monuments, and it is no w^onder that learned men should have differed widely in 
opinion on the subject. I should think the best solution is, that Egypt was the country where the Greeks most easily 
saw the inhabitants of interior Africa, many of whom doubtless flocked thither and w^ere settled there, or served in the 
army as tributaries or provincials, as they have done in later times; and thus they came to be confounded by writer* 
with the country where alone they knew them, and were considered a part of the indigenous population." Am. ed. p. 97. 

t The geographical meaning of the word Ethiopian will be explained in the chapter on the Negro Race. 

:|: Herod. Euterpe, lib. c. 

§ Manetho, as quoted in Wilkinson's Anc. Egypt, I, pp. 28, 91. The reader may also put his own construction on 
the following passage in Herodotus : " We may venture to assert," says he, " that after the Jfricans, there is no people 
in health and constitution to be compared to the Egyptians."— Su^erpe, cap. LXXVI. 

II Researches, folio plates.-Dr. Wiseman also refers for further proof to Hoskins's Trav. in Ethiopia, which I have 
not seen. 

^ Ancient Egypt, I, p. 4. ** y^y. jj^ p, 296. 



THE NILOTIC FAMILY. 31 

At the entrance of the temple of Ipsamboul, in Nubia, Burkhardt saw the remains of several 
colossal statues, cut out of the solid rock ; of the most perfect of them he remarks : " The head which 
is above the surface [of the sand] has a most expressive, youthful countenance, approaching nearer to 
the Grecian model of beauty than that of any ancient Egyptian figure I have seen."* 

But with reference to the physical character of the Egyptians, there is a source of evidence to 
which some allusion has already been made, and which is more conclusive than any other : I refer 
to the embalmed bodies of the Theban catacombs. These vast cemeteries are crowded with genuine 
Egyptians, whose remains even now retain almost every feature in perfection. Here are the very 
people who walked the streets of Thebes, they who built Luxor and the Pyramids; and yet among 
the thousands whose bodies curiosity and avarice have dragged from their tombs, I am not aware 
that a solitary Negro has been discovered. 

"It is now clearly proved," says the illustrious Cuvier— "yet it is necessary to repeat the truth, 
because the contrary error is still found in the newest works— that neither the Gallas, (who border on 
Abyssinia,) nor the Bosjesmans, nor any race of Negroes, produced the celebrated people who gave 
birth to the civilisation of ancient Egypt, and of whom we may say that the whole world has inherited 
the principles of its laws, sciences, and perhaps also religion. It is easy to prove, that whatever may 
have been the hue of their skin, they belonged to the same race with ourselves. I have examined in 
Paris, and in the various collections of Europe, more than fifty heads of mummies, and not one 
amongst them presented the characters of the Negro or Hottentot.'^t 

It may justly be inquired, if science, art and literature, had their origin with a Negro tribe on the 
skirts of Africa, how does it happen that the stream of knowledge has never flowed into, but always 
from that country ? For while it has been permanently diffused through Asia and Europe, in Africa 
itself it cannot be traced beyond the mountains of Nubia. Again, it is now proved almost beyond 
controversy, that Egypt, and not Nubia, was the mother of the arts; and that the stupendous 
monuments of the Upper Nile, and especially those of Meroe, were the works of the Pharaohs, and 
indicate the great marts of commerce between Egypt and the other nations of Africa.^ 

The passages from the Greek poets Avhich bear on this subject, have been ingeniously analysed 
by Dr. Prichard, to whose work on the Physical History of Mankind, the reader is referred for much 
valuable information on this subject. " Some of these passages,'^ says Dr. Prichard, " are very 
strongly expressed as if the Egyptians were Negroes; and yet it must be confessed that if they really 
were such, it is singular that we do not find more frequent allusion to the fact. The Hebrews were 
a fair people, fairer at least than the Arabs ; yet in all the intercourse they had with Egypt, we never 
find in the Sacred History the least intimation that the Egyptians were Negroes; not even on the 
memorable occasion of the marriage of Solomon with Pharaoh's daughter. Were a modern historian 
to record the nuptials of an European monarch with the daughter of a Negro king, such a circumstance 
would surely find its place. And since Egypt was so closely connected with Grecian afi'airs when 
under the Ptolemies, and afterwards with the rest of Europe when it became a Roman province, 
it is very singular, on the supposition that this nation was so remarkably different from the rest of 
mankind, that we have no allusion to it."§ 



*Trav. in Nubia, p. 91. t Lawrence's Lect. on Zool. p. 347, &c. 

% Heeren, Anc. African Nations, I, p. 426. — Wilkinson, Anc. Egypt, I, p. 4, 13. 
§Res. I, p. 319. 



32 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 



7. THE INDOSTANIC FAMILY. 
THE HINDOOS. 

There are perhaps no people on the globe who present more varied physical 
traits than the Hindoos. In general, however, the face is oval, the nose straight 
or slightly aquiline, the mouth small, the teeth vertical and well formed, and the 
chin rounded and generally dimpled. The eyes are black, bright and expressive, 
the eye lashes long, and the brow thin and arched. The hair is long, black and 
glossy, and the beard very thin. The head of the Hindoo is small in proportion 
to the body, elongated, and narrow especially across the forehead, which is only 
moderately elevated. 

India presents every tint of complexion from an absolute black to a clear and 
beautiful brunette ; but the different shades of olive are predominant, especially 
among the higher castes, while the Pariahs, and others of the lowest class, are as 
uniformly dark. 

" The great diflFerence in color between the different natives," says Bishop 
Heber, " struck me much : of the crowd by whom we were surrounded, some 
were black as Negroes, others merely copper-colored, and others little darker than 
Tunisians. It is not merely the difference of exposure, since this variety is visible 
in the fishermen, who are naked all alike. Nor does it depend on caste, since 
very high-caste Brahmins are sometimes black, while Pariahs are comparatively 
fair."* 

The people of Cambaia are said to be nearly of an ash color; those of Guzerat 
and Mahratta are yellow, while olive is the prevalent tint in Goa. 

The women of the Brahminical caste are celebrated for their beauty, 
especially those of Canara and Malabar, who are said to bear a comparison with 
those of Georgia and Circassia. They are often mothers at ten years of age. 

The stature of the Hindoos is low, in general not exceeding five feet three 
or four inches; their persons are slender, their limbs long and delicate, but well 
moulded, and their hands and feet small and beautifully formed. 

The moral character of the Hindoos varies much in the different sections of 
India, whence the discrepant statements of modern travellers. They appear by 
nature to be a mild, sober and industrious race, warm in their attachments and 



^ Narr. T, p. 45. ^m. ed. 



THE INDOSTANIC FAMILY. 33 

fond of their children. But their love of the marvellous, fostered as it is by a 
fantastic religion, is almost w^ithout a parallel among nations. They are of a 
timid disposition, and not inclined to cruelty, yet their avarice, which is extreme, 
leads them readily to commit murder for the most trifling acquisition. Notw^ith- 
standing the apparent mildness of their manners, says Bishop Heber, the criminal 
calendar is generally full of gang-robberies, incendiarism, and analogous crimes ; 
" and the number of children v^ho are decoyed aside, and murdered for the sake 
of their ornaments, is dreadful." They practise deception vrith infinite art, to 
w^hich falsehood and perjury form no obstacles. "For all these horrors their 
system of religion is mainly answerable, inasmuch as whatever moral lessons their 
sacred books contain — and they are very few — ^are shut up from the mass of the 
people, while the direct tendency of their institutions is to evil. The national 
temper is decidedly good, gentle and kind. They are sober, industrious, affectionate 
to their relations , generally speaking faithful to their masters, easily attached by 
kindness and confidence, and in case of the military oath, are of admirable obedience, 
courage and fidelity in life and death. But their morality does not extend beyond 
the reach of positive obligations; and where these do not exist, they are oppressive, 
cruel, treacherous, and every thing that is bad."* The intellectual character of 
the Hindoos is distinguished among the present Asiatic nations ; but their learning 
has been very much devoted to comments on their sacred books, which are 
extremely numerous. They have had many admirable writers in poetry and the 
drama, and excel in some branches of mathematics, and especially in algebra. 
Their antique architectural remains are on a stupendous scale, and consist chiefly 
of rock-hewn temples ornamented with elaborate sculpture. Such are the caverns 
and galleries at EUora and Elephanta, which rival the similar efforts of ancient 
Egypt. 

Among the varied population of India are some tribes and nations who differ 
so widely, physically and morally, from the great mass of people, as to claim at 
least a passing notice. 

The Tudas of the Neilgherry Hills, in the southern peninsula, appear to have 
been the aboriginal inhabitants of the region they occupy. They are described as 
above the common height, athletic and well made ; with a large, full and sparkling 
eye, Roman nose, and fine teeth. Their hair is long, black and curling, with 
a full beard. They are of grave deportment, cheerful manner, and peaceful 
disposition, not even carrying defensive weapons : yet on the other hand they are 



* Heber, Narr. II, p. 240. Jim. ed. 
9 



34 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

indolent and dirty, and their moral code permits to their women a plurality of 
husbands. Their religion, which forbids the worship of idols, is in no respect 
analogous to any existing Asiatic creed, and their language has no affinity to the 
Sanscrit.^ They are believed to be aborigines of southern India, exhibiting what 
their ancestors were before they received those institutions which have stamped 
upon the Hindoo race so peculiar a character.! 

The Rajpoots are of light complexion, with more aquiline features than the 
people of the adjacent provinces. 

They are, however, genuine Hindoos. They were formerly engaged in inces- 
sant wars : they have the vices of slaves added to those of robbers, with as little 
regard for truth as the other Hindoos, while they possess a blood-thirstiness from 
which the latter are very far removed.J In their demi-civilisation, their extrava- 
gant fondness for their bards and their romantic chivalry, they strongly resemble 
the Europeans of the middle ages. The Rarejas are a Rajpoot tribe who, owing 
to some singular dilemma of caste^ cannot find a single individual with whom a 
daughter of theirs can be matched ; whence they have adopted the horrid expedient 
of putting to death all their female children, so that in 1818, in a population of 
twelve thousand souls, there were not more than thirty women alive !§ 

The Sikhs were originally a kind of dissenters from the Hindoo faith, whose 
fundamental principles were " devotion to God and peace towards man." Their 
numbers augmented rapidly, embracing multitudes of Hindoos and many Mahome- 
tans ; but being pressed beyond endurance by the tyranny of their Mussulman 
neighbors, they at length discarded the olive branch and took up the sword, possessed 
themselves of their native province of Labor, and conquered the Punjab ; and now 
constitute, under the sway of Runjeet Singh, the most powerful native government 
in India. II 

In Malabar the inhabitants are black, but have good features and the general 
exterior of the Hindoos; but the prejudices of caste are carried to an extent 
unknown in other parts of India. Thus, " if a cultivator or a fisherman presumes 
to touch one of the nairs, or military class, the nair is considered fully justified in 
killing him on the spot. The same fate befals the paria who ventures even to 
look him in the face, and does not, on seeing him at a distance, instantly take 



* Harkness. On the Aborig. Race of the Neilgherry Hills, p. 7, 25, 

t British India, II, p. 273. j Heber, Narr. II, p. 5Q, ^m. ed, 

§ British India. By Murray and others, II, p. 370. 

II Malcolm, Sketch of the Sikhs, passim. 



THE INDOSTANIC FAMILY. 35 

flight. This last race are all slaves, a condition not common in the rest of 
Hindostan. But there is another class of sufferers whom a barbarous pride has 
stripped beyond any other of the most common rights of humanity : the niadis are 
excluded from all human intercourse, forced to wander in unfrequented places, 
without any means of support except the alms of passengers. These they 
endeavor to attract by standing at a little distance from the public road, and 
howling like hungry dogs, till the charitable wayfarer lays on the ground some 
donation, which, after his departure, they hastily carry off."* 

The inhabitants of Ceylon, who are called Singalese, are black like those of 
Malabar, but are less oppressed and therefore less degraded. They are represented 
as courteous in their manner, and despise both theft and falsehood. Their 
disposition is mild; yet when their anger is once roused, they are singularly 
violent and implacable. The dominant religion is that of Budha, the remaining 
sectaries being chiefly of the Brahminical persuasion. The Singalese have a 
tradition of their former affiliation with the people of Siam, and they certainly 
possess, both in their religious rites and their physical conformation, some 
resemblance to that people. Perhaps the latter circumstance may be accounted 
for by the presence of the Malays, who have long colonised their coasts. 

The Hindoos are among the oldest nations of the earth. Their present 
civilisation, with its institution of castes — their religion, which is Brahminical — 
and their language, which is Sanscrit, may all be traced to an antiquity of nearly 
three thousand years. 

The castes are four great divisions or classes, each designed to be isolated and 
exclusive in all its relations. They are, 1st, the Brahmins^ or Priests; 2d, the 
Rajahs^ (or Kishatrias,) or Soldiers ; 3d, the Vaisya^ or merchants and cultivators ; 
and 4, the Sudras^ or subordinate cultivators, who are, in fact, the slave population 
of Hindostan. Each of these tribes is subdivided into several more, of which 
the number is uncertain.! This singular thraldom prohibits all intermixture or 
association of castes : yet notwithstanding the severest social and bodily penalties, 
the impure or mixed castes are very numerous ; for of these the Pariahs alone are 
said to constitute one fifth of all the people of India. Inferior, if possible, to these 
are the Pallis of Madura, and the Puliahs of Malabar, whose touch is defilement 
even to a Sudra. 

The Brahminical religion of the Hindoos is essentially idolatrous. The 

* Murray, Eticyc. of Geog. p. 997. t Dubois, People of India, p. 54. 



36 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

Trimurti, or trinity, is composed of Brahma, Vishnu and Siva, with an infinite 
ramification of minor deities. Budhism, which is a persecuted schism of the 
Brahminical creed, has still some followers in India, among whom are the Jains 
of western India, Benares and Ceylon.* What is much more remarkable is the 
fact, that on the Malabar coast is a colony of Christians, whose traditions extend 
back to the time of St. Thomas. Another, and still more unsophisticated body 
of them occupies the interior of Travancore. They inhabited their present 
localities centuries before the modern discovery of the passage to India by the 
Cape of Good Hope. 

Hindostan was among the countries which were overrun and conquered by 
Jenghis Khan and Timur. But in the year 1 5^5, Sultan Baber, king of Persia, 
seized upon India, subduing the native inhabitants, and driving out the Mongol- 
Tartars of the then existing dynasty. He established his court at Delhi, and 
India from that epoch was called the Mogul Empire^ the sovereign himself 
assuming the title of the Great Mogul ; but this once powerful dominion sunk into 
comparative insignificance during the early part of the past century. The 
northern Hindoos having mingled for centuries with the Mongol-Tartars, received 
in common with those people the conventional name of Moguls^ which embraces 
Persians, Greeks of Bactriana, and Arabs, who are called Moors ; but the latter 
appellation is more strictly applied to the Mahomedans only. 

The people of India have only been called Hindoos since the Tartar conquest : 
previous to that event all the inhabitants who professed the Brahminical faith^ 
were called Gentoos. 

We may add that the gipseys of Europe, whose origin has been so long a 
paradox to the learned, are now ascertained to be of Hindoo extraction. 

The original country of the Hindoos has been a question among historians. 
Their reverence for the north, added to the traditions of the Brahmins, and various 
collateral circumstances, have led Bory de St. Vincent and Malte-Brun to suppose 
the cradle of these people to have been the lofty table-land about the sources of 
the Indus, and the elevated valleys of Serinagur ; while Heeren and others are of 
the opinion that " the Brahmins, and perhaps the Kishatriya and Vaisya castes 

* Heber, Narr. I, p. 154.— II, p. 19, 74, 290. ^m, e^T.—Budhism, though of much more recent 
date than the primitive Brahminical rehgion, is supposed to have arisen in India a thousand years 
before Christ, and to have had many followers : but in the sixth century of our era a persecution 
arose, which expelled nearly all the Budhists from Hindostan, whence they took refuge in the central 
and eastern provinces of Asia. 



THE INDOSTANIC FAMILY. 37 

were originally a race of northern conquerors of fair complexion; while the 
Sudras and other inferior tribes were an aboriginal and darker race."* 

Note. — On the Resemblances between the Hindoos and Egyptians, — History and the arts 
discover many remarkable analogies between the Hindoos and Egyptians, whence they have been 
supposed by some able waiters to be affiliated nations. That there was extensive and long-continued 
intercourse between them is sufficiently obvious, and history speaks vaguely of conquest and migration. 
Which was the dominant power ? The Egyptians very naturally decided this point in their own 
favor; for they assert that Osiris crossed Arabia to the utmost inhabited parts of India, and that he 
built many cities there. " He left likewise/' says Diodorus, "many other marks of his being in these 
parts, which have induced the inhabitants to believe and affirm that this god (Osiris) was born in 
India.^'t Thus it appears that in the age of Diodorus, the Hindoos not only worshipped, but claimed 
as original to themselves, the principal divinity of the Egyptians. 

These resemblances may be traced throughout the mythology and usages of the two nations. 
Apis, the Egyptian Bull, was the symbol of Osiris ; and the White Bull is the animal on which Siva 
is represented on the Indian pagodas. Worship was bestowed alike on the Ganges and the Nile. 
Both nations worshipped the sun and the serpent ; and even at the present time the objects held in 
the greatest veneration by the Hindoos of the Vishnu sect, are the ape, the monkey, the bird called 
Garuda, and the serpent Capella.J Among the symbols of superstition in each are seen the sphinx, 
the lotus, the lingam and the cross. " The crux ansata which is constantly observed in the hands of 
the Nilotic statues, is nothing but the yoni-lingam of the Hindoos; and it is a curious fact that in the 
terra cotta images of Isis, dug up near her temple at Psestum, she holds in her right hand an exact 
representation of the Hindoo Hngam and yoni combined.''§ 

Their affinity is also recognised in their almost exclusive vegetable diet, their use of a sacerdotal 
language, their numerous ablutions, and by the institution of castes, which the Egyptians enforced 
with as much rigidness as the Hindoos do now. Among them no mechanic or artificer could exercise 
any other vocation than that which his parents had followed before him;l| and this system gave rise to 
the same exclusiveness in their domestic arrangements which is so remarkable among the modern 
Hindoos, who will not permit their viands or their vessels to be touched by a stranger ; for Herodotus 
observes that the Egyptians would not use a knife belonging to a Greek, " nor will they even eat of 
the flesh of such beasts as by their law are pure, if it has been cut with a Grecian knife.^'IT 

Similar analogies are discernible in the architecture of the two nations, whether it relates to their 
motiolithic temples, or their subterranean sanctuaries, or the statuary and minor decorations of their 
stupendous edifices. Even the obelisk is seen in the excavated temple of Kylas, in India; and the 
antique pagodas of Tanjore and Chalambroom, are but sUght modifications of the Egyptian pyramid.^* 
Dr. Russell mentions the interesting fact, that " the Sepoys who joined the British army in Egypt 



* Lib. of Entertaining KnowL Art. Hindoos, p. 103. 

f Booth's Diodorus, B. I, chap. 2. X Dubois. On the People of India, p. 54. 

§ Library of Entertaining Knowl. Art. Hindoos, I, p. 167. || Booth's Diodorus, B. I, chap. 6. 

^1" Euterpe, cap. XLL — This fact is also recorded in Genesis, wherein it is stated that "the Egyptians might not eat 
l)read with the Hebrews; for that is an abomination unto the Egyptians." Chap, xliii, v. 32. 

** Maurice, Indian Antiq. vols. 2 and 3, passim. — Sir William Jones derives the name of the river of Egypt from the 
Sanscrit w^ord nila, blue; and the Indus is called Mlab in the early part of its course from the blue color of its waters. 

10 



38 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

under Lord Hutchinson, imagined that they found their own temples in the ruins of Dendera, and 
were greatly exasperated at the natives for their neglect of the ancient deities whose images are still 
preserved ; and they proceeded to perform their devotions with all the ceremonies practised in their 
own land.''* 



8. THE MONGOL-TARTAR FAMILY. 

This vast family, which is called by the various names of Tartar, Mongol 
and Scythian, now occupies nearly half of Asia and part of Europe, and is 
composed of several branches speaking dijBFerent languages, yet possessing a general 
resemblance in their manners and personal appearance. In order to avoid repe- 
tition we shall proceed at once to give some account of these several divisions.f 

1 . The Finnish Branchy or Tchudes. Of these the Finns inhabit the north 
of Europe between the 60th and 65th degree of north latitude. Though a colony 
from Asia, they have for many ages occupied their present seats, and are now 
subject to Sweden. They are of middling stature, with broad faces, dark eyes 
and sallow complexion. They have schools and academies, are slow but shrewd, 
and have made considerable progress in the arts and sciences. 

The Ingrians resemble the Finns in exterior, but they are stupid, suspicious 
and thievish, whence their poverty and vagabond habits. 

The Cheremish inhabit the province of Kasan. They were originally a 
pastoral and wandering tribe, and even now never dwell in towns ; but they have 
assumed agricultural habits, though without industry or enterprise. 

The Mordvines are settled on the rivers Oka and Volga in the government 
of Kasan. They are of a brown complexion, with harsh hair, and lean face, of 
inactive habits yet honest and hospitable. 

The Votiaks^ who also inhabit the province of Kasan, are of meagre person 
and middling stature, and resemble the Finns more than any nation that derives 
its origin from them. 

The Vogouls, who dwell in the forests north of Mount Ural, are of a gay 
disposition, honest, shrewd, and laborious, yet fickle and slov^enly to excess. They 
are a pastoral tribe, and the northern horde domesticates the reindeer. Other 
communities of the Finnish stock inhabit the Russian province of Permia, where 
they are called Permians. 

* Anc. and Mod. Egypt, Introd. p. 20.~See also London Quart. Rev. XVI, p. 18. Jim. ed. 

tThe materials of this chapter are derived almost exclusively from Tooke's -Russm, passim, 
and Abitl Ghaze, History of the Tartars.-In distributing the Mongol-Tartar family into branches, I 
have been chiefly governed by the diff-erence in language, and have followed the first named author. 



THE MONGOL-TARTAR FAMILY. 39 

2. The Mongols proper embrace several subordinate divisions, of vs^hich the 
Calmucks^ w^ho are the most prominent, occupy the western section of the great 
Mongol region. "They are characterised by obliquity of the eyes, which are 
depressed towards the nose, and by the rounded internal angle of the eyelids ; by 
their black and scarcely curved eyebrows ; by the nose, which is altogether small 
and flat, being particularly broad towards the forehead ; by high cheek-bones, and 
round head and face. A black-brown iris, large and thick lips, short chin, white 
teeth, remaining firm and sound even in advanced age, and large ears standing off 
from the head, are universal. They are of middling size, and we see very few 
tall people amongst them : the women are particularly small, and very delicately 
formed."* They have a good understanding and quick comprehension ; are lively 
and tractable, yet extremely improvident, and thievish, but not disposed to cruelty 
even in their predatory excursions. They are divided into four principal tribes, 
the Koschots, Derbets, Soongars and Torgots, which for a long time constituted an 
independent and powerful nation; but their hordes, which are now subject to 
Russia, at present inhabit the deserts between the rivers Don and Volga, and the 
Ural river from Igris to the Caspian sea. They are part idolaters, part Christians, 
and their religious rites are characterised by superstition and inconstancy. 

The Burats. In the middle of the past century the Burats inhabited the 
government of Irkutsk, almost from the Yenisei, along the Mongolian and Chinese 
borders, to the Angara and Tunguska, and thence to the lake Baikal, which latter 
place appears to have been their primitive home. In personal appearance the 
Burats much resemble the Kalmucks, yet they are less inclined to corpulency. 
" Their flesh seems sodden, and their countenance is pale and yellow. Their 
bodies have very little solidity and strength. A Russian of the same size weighs 
much more ; and either in play or earnest, overcomes several Burats with ease."t 
They are indolent, dishonest, and spiritless, and have scarcely any possessions but 
their flocks. Allied to the Burats are the Kalkas, who inhabit the country 
between Siberia and the great desert of Cobi; a superstitious and uncivilised 
people, who are said to present, in their domestic customs, a humiliating picture 
of human degradation. 

3. The Tartar Branch. The Tartar hordes were originally derived from 
Great Tartary, in other words from the vast territory between Siberia and the 
mountains of India, from the river Oural to Mongolia, one part of which is now 
comprehended in Soongaria. Yet at this time they have ceased to maintain their 

* Pallas, in Lawrence's Lectures, p. 55Q, f Tooke, Russia, IV , p. 1 32. 



40 



VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 



sovereignty in this region excepting in Bokhara and some other eastern provinces, 
at the same time that they have established themselves in countries yet further 
east, and possess a corner of Europe. 

The Tartars of Kasan and Orenburg have acquired much of the Russian 
mien and exterior. They are thin in person, have a fresh complexion, w^ith small 
eyes and nose, and light hair. They are w^ell made, have a sprightly, agreeable 
address, and are said to excel in the mechanic arts. 

The Touralinzes differ from the former in their large heads, and robust 
forms inclined to, obesity, yet they speak the Tartar language. 

The Nogay Tartars occupy Little Tartary, embracing the provinces of 
Krimea, Kuban and part of Circassia, between Russia and the Black Sea. They 
have much the exterior of the proper Mongols, as seen in their small eyes, their 
large ears and their clumsy persons ; and the resemblance is further sustained by 
their rude and deceitful manner, and their proneness to rapine. They constitute 
many hordes, w^hich are for the most part nomadic. 

During the expeditions of the Tartars to the west of Asia, the Usbecks fixed 
themselves in the province of Bokhara, on the frontier of Persia, where, more 
provident than the other hordes, they formed a permanent settlement, changing 
their pastoral and nomadic life for that of agriculture, and their movable tents into 
settled habitations.* Their language is one of the sweetest dialects of the 
Tartar language ; and the people of Bokhara are themselves among the handsomest 
of this family, owing to their proximity to Persia, and their intermarriages with 
the native inhabitants, and with captives from Georgia and Circassia. It is even 
asserted that no less than three-fourths of the Bokharians are of slave extraction, 
and that their features no longer identify them with the Tartar race.f 

The Baschkirs dwell on the rivers Oural, Volga and Kama. They have the 
large ears and small eyes of the Mongols, and their hair is often red or chestnut 
color. Among them are individuals of the most repulsive physiognomy, while 
the manners of the horde are gross and brutal in the extreme. " They have 
natural good sense, but not the least inclination to cultivate their intellectual 
faculties: they are courageous, suspicious, obstinate, severe and consequently 
dangerous. If they were not well looked after, they would none of them follow 
any other trade than that of pilfering and plunder.''^ 

The Barabainzes rove over the deserts between the Ob and the Irtisch, in 



* ToOKE, Russia, 11, p. 130. 
X TooKE, Russia, II, p. 182. 



t Barnes, Trav. in Bokhara, II, p, 103. ^m. ed. 



THE MONGOL-TARTAR FAMILY. 41 

Siberia, Their features partake most of the Kalmouk character, although their 
language is a Tartar dialect. They have few wants, are dull, indifferent, inoffen- 
sive and honest. Unlike the neighboring hordes, they were never known to 
combine for predatory purposes. 

The Kirgmians^ although their language is Tartar, have the strong Mongol 
features, with a sharp and fierce look, indicative of their real character. They are 
proverbially fickle, undertaking the rashest and most contradictory measures, one 
moment revolting, the next returning to obedience. In spite of treaties and 
largesses, they cannot forego their characteristic love of plunder on every occasion 
that offers; and after having oppressed all the barbarous nations around them, they 
have in turn become the tributary vassals of Russia.* 

Beside the Mongul and Tartar hordes already enumerated, there are many 
others that are so evidently a mixture of both, that they cannot justly be classed 
with either. Such are the Tchoulmins, between the upper parts of the Ob and 
Yenisei ; a people, fickle and ambulatory in their habits, yet docile and readily 
instructed. 

The Yakuts, persecuted by the Burats, fled to the north from the Sayan 
mountains, and now dwell on the shores of the Lena, in the government of 
Irkutsk. It is rare to see either short or tall persons among them, and in feature, 
as in language, they are both Mongols and Tartars. They are slow, kind and 
honest, and derive their chief subsistence from their herds. The Yakuts have 
been placed by some writers as a horde of the Polar race. 

To the north of China, in the province of Kin, live the Maudshurs, one of 
the most brave and politic of the Tartar nations. Although they do not speak 
the Tartar language, they are in all other respects, in manners, customs and 
personal appearance, a cognate branch of that people. They invaded China in the 
17th century, effected a complete conquest and placed on the throne a king of 
their own nation. They have, however, rather adopted than subverted the 
Chinese government and institutions, and the two nations appear to be now 
blended in singular harmony. 

To the north and east the Mongol-Tartars gradually mingle with the tribes 
of the Polar race, until their characters become blended in the Kamstchatkans, 
the Tungusians, and the inhabitants of the isle of Jezo. 

We may here add a few words respecting the Huns. These people were 
genuine Mongol-Tartars, whose original seats were west and north of China ; and 



* TooKE, Russia, II, p. 244, 254. 
11 



42 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

it would appear that the great Chinese wall, which was erected three centuries 
before Christ, was designed to prevent the inroads of the Huns. Their migrations, 
like those of the other hordes of their race, were unlimited, and they at length 
appeared in two divisions on the skirts of Europe, one near the Caspian sea, the 
other on the Volga. These at length invaded Europe itself, and drove the Goths, 
A. D. 375, beyond the Danube into the Roman territory. They then took 
possession of all the country between the Danube and the Tanais, and established 
their empire in Pannonia. They repeatedly ravaged Greece and Asia Minor, 
until at length their ferocity, and habitual predatory inroads on the neighboring 
provinces, led the princes of eastern Europe to combine for their destruction, 
which was effected in the eighth century, when they were all destroyed or 
driven out of the country; for the present Hungarians are not the descendants 
of the Huns, but of the Goths who succeeded them in the possession of the 
country. 

The preceding details illustrate the fact, that no absolute line of demarcation, 
geographical or physical, can be drawn between the several branches of the 
Mongul family. However they differ in language, and occasionally in exterior, 
and whatever may have been their original characteristics, they are now so blended 
that every horde possesses some of the lineaments of all the others. 

The name Tartar was originally confined to a single horde, being derived from 
a distinguished khan or chief; and in progress of time this designation embraced 
all the tribes from the Oxus to the country of the Mongols, between whom and 
Europe the Tartars were interposed as a sort of barrier. The Mongols themselves 
occupied all the territory east of the Tartars as far as China, and to the north of 
that kingdom. Genghiz Khan, though a Mongol, began his career at the head of 
a Tartar horde, but his singular success soon combined both nations under his 
sway, the Mongols taking precedence : whence it happens that from the time the 
Tartar history begins to excite attention, it ceases to be that of a particular nation. 
" Distributed under the banners and commanders of the Mongols, these enjoy 
with posterity the glory of their conquests, while the Tartars are constrained to 
lend their name to the devastations with which both nations everywhere marked 
the bloody progress of their armies." 

The rapidity of the conquests of the Mongol-Tartars, and the cruelty and 
rapine that marked their course, are without a parallel in history ; for at the death 
of Genghiz, nearly all Asia, excepting China and the Indo-Chinese nations, united 
in vassalage to form that mighty dominion since called the Mogul empire. 

The latter name was more recently restricted to the Mahomedan possessions 



THE TURKISH FAMILY. 43 

in India, of which Delhi was the capitol. The Mogul empire was invaded by 
the Persians in ITSS, and has since declined into total insignificance; the nominal 
Great Mogul being at this time a mere stipendiary of the British East India 
Company.* 

9. THE TURKISH FAMILY. 

The primitive Turks appear to have been a Mongol nation ; but their rapid 
conquest of some of the fairest portions of the Caucasian region, and their early 
amalgamation with the Circassians, Georgians, Greeks, and Arabs, has totally 
changed their physical character, and rendered them a handsome people.f 

The modern Turks are of a middling stature, with an athletic form and well 
proportioned limbs : the head is round, the eyes dark and animated, and the whole 
face expressive and intelligent ; while the short nose and open nostrils are indica- 
tive of Mongol extraction. In manner they are proverbially courteous and 
taciturn ; but their true character is marked by violence of passion, cruelty and 
vindictiveness. Intelligent, and ready in the acquisition of every species of 
knowledge, they would soon assume an elevated literary rank were it not for the 
trammels of superstition and fatalism. 

According to Ritter, the Turks, under the name of Hiong-nu, had their 
primitive seats in the north of China, where they formed two kingdoms in the 
first century, disappeared from history in the fourth, recovered their power in the 
fifth, and were subsequently merged (together with the Tartars, who, as we have 
seen, were also Mongols,) in the armies of Genghiz Khan. The Turks, at a later 
period, separated from their Mongol masters, and established themselves in Persia, 
whence passing into Asia Minor they made repeated attacks on the Greek empire, 
which they finally subverted in the middle of the fifteenth century. The powerful 

* In India there remain some traces of the ancient Mongols, who have probably occupied 
their present seats from immemorial time. Such are the Bheels and Gooand tribes of Guzerat and 
other parts of western India, who appear to be branches of the same great family " which pervades 
all the mountainous centre of India, the Gaels of the east, who have probably at some period been 
driven from all these Avildernesses by the tribes possessing the Brahminical faith.^' In the same 
group may be placed the Puharrees, also of central India, the Cohatars in the southern peninsula, and 
the Jauts in the west. The latter retain the warlike and pastoral habits of the ancient Scythians. 
Heber, Narrative, &c., I, p. 194. Jim, eel. 

t This fact has led some writers to class the Turks with the Caucasians, and to doubt the Mongol 
origin of the parent stock; an objection that may be met by a fact from Professor Pallas, who says that 
even the mixed blood of the repulsive-looking Calmucks and Russians produces beautiful children. 



44 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

and jealous Mongols followed on the footsteps of their former allies, and entering 
Asia Minor, defeated them in a pitched hattle. But the Turks recovered them- 
selves after a desperate struggle, drove the Mongols out of Asiatic Turkey, regained 
the ascendancy, and have kept it from that time to the present. 

We novr find them in possession of Asia Minor, Syria, European Turkey, 
Egypt, and various strong holds on the Barbary coast. 

Osman, the Turkish chief w^ho vanquished the Mongols in Asia Minor, trans- 
mitted his name to his nation, whence they call themselves Osmanlies^ which in 
Europe has been perverted to Ottomans.* 

10. THE CHINESE FAMILY. 

These people are rather below the middle stature, stout limbed and inclined 
to flesh. The head is large, rounded and somewhat conical, owing to a high, 
retreating forehead. The face is flat, and the cheek bones expanded ; the eye is 
small, half closed, and drawn obliquely upwards towards the temple, at the same 
time that the upper lid is a little projecting beyond the lower : the eyebrows are 
black, highly arched and linear : the nose is small, flattened towards the nostril, 
broad at its root, and separated from the forehead by a strongly marked depression. 
The mouth is large, and the lips rather fleshy. They have uniformly black hair ; 
and the complexion of young persons of the higher classes is fresh and fair, but 
that of the multitude is pallid or sallow, and has been compared to a dried leaf. 

" People in Europe have been strangely misled in their notions of Chinese 
physiognomy and appearance, by the figures represented on those specimens of 
manufacture which proceed from Canton, and which are commonly in a style of 
broad caricature. A Chinese of Peking might as well form an idea of us from 
some of the performances of Cruikshank. The consequence is, that a character 
of silly levity and farce has been associated, in the minds of many persons, with 
the most steady, considerate and matter of fact people in the world. Their 
features have, perhaps, less of the harsh angularity of the Tartar countenance in 
the south than in Peking. Among those who are not exposed to the climate, the 
complexion is fully as fair as that of the Spaniards and Portuguese. Up to the 
age of twenty they are often very good looking; soon after that period the 
prominent cheek bones generally give a harshness to the features, as the roundness 

* For a brief and graphic view of the connections between the Turks, Tartars and Mongols, in 
relation to language, history and physical character, see Wiseman's Lectures, p. 110. 



THE CHINESE FAMILY. 45 

of youth wears off."* The old people of both sexes are for the most part much 
wrinkled and very ugly; and the women are proverbially celebrated for the 
artificial smallness and deformity of their feet. 

The Chinese skull, so far as I can judge from the specimens that have come 
under my inspection, is oblong-oval in its general form ; the os frontis is narrow 
in proportion to the width of the face, and the vertex is prominent : the occiput 
is moderately flattened ; the face projects more than in the Caucasian, giving an 
angle of about seventy-five degrees ; the teeth are nearly vertical, in which respect 
they differ essentially from those of the Malay ; and the orbits are of moderate 
dimensions, and rounded. 

The moral character of the Chinese is thus summed up by Dr. Morrison, 
whose opinion is derived from long and intimate acquaintance with these people. 
" The good traits of the Chinese character, amongst themselves, are mildness and 
urbanity; a wish to show that their conduct is reasonable, and, generally, a 
willingness to yield to what appears so: docility, industry, subordination of 
juniors ; respect for the aged and for parents ; acknowledging the claims of poor 
kindred. These are virtues of public opinion, which, of course, are in particular 
cases often more show than reality; for, on the other hand, the Chinese are 
specious, but insincere ; jealous, envious, and distrustful to a high degree. Con- 
science has few checks but the laws of the land ; and a little frigid ratiocination 
on the fitness of things, which is not generally found effectual to restrain, when 
the selfish and vicious propensities of our nature may be indulged with present 
impunity. The Chinese are generally selfish, cold-blooded and inhumane."t 
" He might with great propriety have added," says Mr. Ellis, " that in the punish- 
ment of criminals, in the infliction of torture, they are barbarously cruel ; that 
human suffering, or human life, are but rarely regarded by those in authority, 
when the infliction of the one, or the destruction of the other, can be made sub- 
servient to the acquisition of wealth or power." 

The intellectual character of the Chinese is deserving of especial attention, 
although in letters, in science and in art, they are the same now what they were 
many centuries ago. They have their national music and their national poetry, 
but of sculpture, painting and architecture, they have no just conceptions, and 
their national pride prevents their adopting the arts of other countries. Their 
faculty of imitation is a proverb ; and their mechanical ingenuity is universally 
known. " That nation cannot be viewed with indifference which possessed an 

* Davies, Descrip. of the Emp. of China, I, p. 253. t Morrison, in GutzlaiF, Introd. p. 28. 

12 



46 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

organised government, an army, a written language, historians and other literati, 
in a period so remote as to be coeval with the immediate successors of the inspired 
historian of Creation, and the lawgiver of the ancient people of God."* They 
have a copious literature, both ancient and modern ; they have possessed the art 
of printing for eight hundred years ; and their written language, with the same 
characters that they use at the present day, is of extreme antiquity, not less, 
according to Remusat and others, than four thousand years. A solitary fact will 
prove this position. Vessels of porcelain, of Chinese manufacture, have of late 
been repeatedly found in the catacombs of Thebes, in Egypt. Some of these are 
as old as the Pharaonic period ; or, in other words, they must have been made at 
least fifteen hundred years before the Christian era. The inscriptions on these 
vessels have been read with ease by Chinese scholars, and in three instances 
record the following legend : — The flower opens, and lo ! another year.f 

The civilisation of China is nearly as old as that of Egypt, and has probably 
remained stationary for thirty centuries ; and, although it is based on a heartless 
religion, no doubt embraces as many both of the comforts and luxuries of life as 
the social institutions of Europe ; at the same time that similar wants and indul- 
gences, in these widely separated communities, are often gratified by very different 
yet equally adequate means. European civilisation has borrowed largely from 
China, the Chinese nothing from Europe. When the king of France introduced 
the luxury of silk stockings, says Mr. Barrow, the peasantry of the middle 
provinces of China were clothed in silks from head to foot ; and when the 
nobility of England were sleeping on straw, a peasant of China had his mat and 
his pillow, and the man in office enjoyed his silken mattress. 

These were equally the luxuries of their ancestors, and they have not chosen 
to improve upon them. To prevent innovations, the laws prescribe for every 
thing, and a man must dress, and build, and regulate all his actions according to 
a certain form. Hence it has been observed that unmovableness is the character- 
istic of the nation; every implement retains its original shape; every invention 
has stopped at the first step. The plough is still drawn by men ; the written 
characters of their monosyllabic language stand for ideas, not for simple sounds ; 
and the laborious task of merely learning to read, occupies the time that might 
be employed in the acquisition of many branches of useful knowledge^ 

The religions of China are three— -that of Confucius, Laou-tse and Budha. 



* Ellis, Introd. to Gutzlaff's Voy. p. 13. t Wilkinson, Anc. Egypt, III, p. 108. 

t Outlines of Univ. Hist. p. 17. 



THE INDO-CHINESE FAMILY. 47 

It appears that the great philosopher of China is actually worshipped by his 
countrymen, that no less than fifteen hundred and sixty temples are dedicated to 
him, and that upwards of sixty thousand animals of different kinds are sacrificed 
to his manes every year.* The Laou-tse doctrine appears to be a mere tissue of 
moral subtleties; while the Budhism of the Chinese is essentially the same with 
that of the neighboring nations — a gross and enervating idolatry. 

The Japanese bear a striking resemblance to the people of China, whose 
features the former possess in an exaggerated degree. According to Thunberg 
" the eyelids form in the great angle of the eye a deep furrow, which makes the 
Japanese look as if they were sharpsighted, and discriminates them from the other 
nations."! In general they are of short stature, with heavy limbs, large heads, and 
sunken eyes." Like the Chinese they are laborious artificers, but less ingenious 
than that nation, nor have they equalled them in the art of navigation. They 
have two religious sects, but the dominant creed is that of Budha, mixed up with 
some peculiar superstitions. Their vernacular tongue is said to have no resem- 
blance to that of the Chinese, but they derive their classical or learned language 
from that people. Their alphabet, instead of whole words, designs single letters 
only4 

The peninsula of Corea is inhabited by a branch of this family, rougher, 
however, in their exterior, and less advanced in the arts than the Chinese proper, 
whose vassals they are. Their vernacular language and alphabet are altogether 
peculiar, but they are required to use the Chinese characters. 

11. THE INDO-CHINESE FAMILY. 

The Indo-Chinese nations have been so called more on account of their 
geographical position between Hindostan and China than for their resemblance to 
the Hindoos, from whom they differ widely. The Indo-Chinese are real Mon- 
golians, yet their proximity to India has undoubtedly given rise to some intermix- 
ture with the Hindoos, and in some instances the partial adoption of the letters 
and religion of that people. 

The nations embraced in this family are those of Ava, Pegu, Aracan, Siam, 
Cochin-China, Cambodia, Tsiompa, Laos, and Tonquin. 

The states of Ava, Pegu and Aracan, constitute the Burmese empire. The 

* Mediiurst, China, p. 193. t Malte-Brun, II, p. 537 

t Tucket, Mar. Geog. Ill, p. 300. 



48 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

complexion of the inhabitants varies from brown to nearly black. Their figure is 
short and robust, and in physiognomy they resemble the Chinese, yet are much 
uglier. They profess the religion of Budha. Their literature is, for the most part, 
metrical, consisting of songs and romances ; a fact which corresponds with their 
moral character, for they are represented to be a lively, inquisitive race, volatile, 
impatient and irascible. They are greatly inferior to the Chinese, and have made 
but little progress in the useful arts.^ Besides the Burmese, the kingdom of Ava 
contains, especially towards the north, many wild tribes of people who have no 
seeming affinity with the dominant population, and who are said not even to be 
Budhists, and to speak dialects and perhaps languages of their own.f 

The Aracanese are much the most uncultivated and barbarous people of this 
family. They are accustomed to flatten the heads of their children by means of 
a plate of lead, applied soon after birth, and they slit and distend their ears to a 
frightful degree. 

The Siamese present strong analogies to the Burmans. The following 
graphic description, from the pen of my friend Dr. Ruschenberger, will convey 
an accurate idea of these people. "Their average height, according to the 
measure of Mr. Crawford, is five feet two inches, which I suspect to be near the 
truth, from the few to whom I have applied the rule. The lower limbs are 
stout and well formed ; the body is long, and hence the figure is not graceful. 
The shoulders are broad, and the muscles of the chest are well developed. The 
neck is short and the head is in fair proportion. The hands are large, and the 
complexion of a dark olive, but not jetty. Among females of the higher classes, 
who pass their time mostly within the harem of their lords, the skin is of a very 
much lighter hue ; in some instances it might be described as a very dark brunette. 
The forehead is narrow at the superior part, the face, between the cheek bones 
broad, and the chin is, again, narrow, so that the whole contour is rather lozenge- 
shaped than oval. The eyes are remarkable, for the upper lid being extended 
below the under one, at the corner next to the nose, but it is not elongated like 
that organ in the Chinese or Tartar races. The eyes are dark, or black, and the 
white is dirty, or of a yellowish tint. The nostrils are broad, but the nose is not 
flattened, like that of the African. The mouth is not well formed, the lips 
projecting slightly ; and it is always disfigured, according to our notions of beauty, 
by the universal and disgusting habit of chewing arecanut. The hair is jet black, 
renitent, and coarse, almost bristly, and is worn in a tuft on the top of the head, 

* Crawford, Ava, &c., p. 372. f Ibid, p. 470. 



THE INDO-CHINESE FAMILY. 49 

about four inches in diameter, the rest being shaved, or clipped very close. A 
few scattering hairs, w^hich scarcely merit the name of beard, grow^ upon the chin 
and upper lip, and these they customarily pluck out. 

" The occipital portion of the head is nearly vertical, and, compared with the 
anterior and sincipital divisions, very small ; and I remarked, what I have not seen 
in any other than in some ancient Peruvian skulls from Pachacamac, that the 
lateral halves of the head are not symmetrical. In the region of firmness, the 
skull is very prominent; this is remarkably true of the talapoins."^ Mr. Finlay- 
son's observations are to the same purpose. " The head," says he, " is peculiar : 
the diameter from the front backwards is uncommonly short, and hence the 
general form is somewhat cylindrical. The occipital foramen in a great number 
of instances is placed so far back, that from the crown to the nape of the neck is 
nearly a straight line."t 

The moral character of the Siamese appears to be at a very low ebb. The 
intelligent voyager first quoted, describes them as suspicious, vacillating and cruel. 
Cringing and servile to their superiors in the extreme, they are arrogant and 
tyrannical in regard to those who are below them in rank.J Their virtues and 
their vices are venal ; and the services of the judge and the assassin have each 
their price. " I regret," says Mr. Gutzlaflf, " not to have found one honest man : 
sordid oppression, priestcraft, allied with wretchedness and filth, are everywhere 
to be met with." They are remarkable, nevertheless, for filial respect, and regard 
for their rulers. 

The inhabitants of Cochin-China^ or Jlnnam^ are smaller in stature than the 
Siamese, and they are also less clumsily formed. The general form of the face is 
round, so that the two diameters are nearly equal. The forehead is short and 
broad, but the occipital portion of the head is more elongated than in the people 
of Siam. The chin is large and broad; the beard grisly and thin, the hair 
copious, coarse and black; the nose small, but well formed, and the lips moderately 
thick. Obesity is rare. The color of the Cochin-Chinese is usually as fair as 
that of the inhabitants of southern Europe, yet the dark Malay hue is not unfre- 
quently met with. They are, nevertheless, a coarse featured people, and render 
themselves repulsive by the constant use of areca and betel, which reddens the 
lips and blackens the teeth. 

* Voy. Round the World, p. 299. — In the same work, p. 300, the reader will find some detailed 
measurements of Siamese heads. 

t Siam and Cochin-China, p. 229. J Voy. p. 301. 

13 



50 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

They are said to be the gayest of the oriental nations; good-natured and 
polite, but extravagantly fond of etiquette. So versatile are their feelings and 
actions, that they have been compared to the monkey race, whose attention is 
perpetually changing from one object to another. Hence w^hile they are more 
active and warlike than the Chinese, they want the industry and perseverance of 
that nation.* Their language is a dialect of the Chinese, though considerably 
altered, and their written characters are the same. 

The Laos^ or Chaus, to the north of Siam, are wretchedly poor, dirty in 
their habits, sportful in their temper, careless in their actions, and great lovers of 
music and dancing. Their language is soft and melodious, and very similar to 
that of the Siamese. 

The Kamehs^ or inhabitants of Cambogia, to the southeast of Siam, are of 
higher antiquity and more literary character than any of the surrounding states. 
They must be a very imaginative people ; for Mr. GutzlafF states that nearly all 
their books, with the exception of their national laws and history, are in poetry. 
They are, nevertheless, a coarse people, cringing or insolent according to circum- 
stances,! 

The natives of the Nicobar islands appear to be of Indo-Chinese extraction. 
Their color is a deep copper, and they have thick lips and wide mouths. It is 
asserted that they compress the heads of newly born infants in such manner as 
to flatten the occiput and cause the teeth to project outwards. They live in a 
very uncivilised state, compel their women to cultivate the ground, and have 
hitherto resisted all measures for the melioration of their condition. f 

12. THE POLAR FAMILY. 

This singular race is exclusively seen on the northern skirts of the continents 
of Europe, Asia, and America. They are of short stature, of clumsy proportions, 
with large heads and short necks. They have the flat faces and small noses of 
the Mongol-Tartars, with some obliquity in the position of the eyes. Their color 
is brown, lighter or darker, but often disguised by accumulated filth. 

The concurrent testimony of all voyagers shows these people to be, both in 

*FiNLAYsoN, Siam and Cochin-China, p. 299.--Ruschenbergeii, Voy. p. 354.— Barrow, 
Cochin-China, p. 308. 

t GuTZLAFr, Three Yoy. to the Coasts of China, p. 47. 
X TucKEY, Mar. Geog. Ill, p. 328. 



THE POLAR FAMILY. 51 

appearance and manner, among the most repulsive of the human species : yet they 
possess considerable differences, which will he best considered geographically. 

At the northwestern extremity of Europe are the Laplanders^ who, by pretty 
general consent, have been enumerated with the Polar family, although their 
dialect is more closely allied to the Finnish than to any other. They have the 
flat face and diminutive stature of the Samoyedes ; but their hair is brown, their 
cheeks hollow and their eyes gray. Their complexion varies from yellowish to 
dark brown. " Their manner of life renders them hardy, agile and supple, but at 
the same time much inclined to laziness. They have plain common sense, are 
peaceable, and obedient to their superiors."* In their dealings, however, they are 
described as mistrustful and given to cheating. 

The Ostiaks present a remarkable example of a nation composed of three 
great communities, each of which dijffers in customs and language from the others : 
of these the northern horde is of Samoyede extraction, while the southern is allied 
to the Finns. They are of the middle stature, with a pale, yellowish complexion, 
harsh, dark hair, together with the ordinary exterior of the Polar race. They are 
of the phlegmatic temperament, timid, indolent and uncleanly in their habits, yet 
of docile disposition, and possessed of much natural kindness. In common with 
most of the cognate tribes, they have reduced their women to the condition of 
slaves.f 

The Samoyedes call themselves Chosova^ which merely means men. They 
inhabit the frozen margin of Asia from the 65th degree of north latitude to the 
sea shore, and extend also into Europe. These people are seldom more than five 
feet high. "They seem all of a heap; have short legs, small neck, a large head, flat 
nose and face, with the lower part of the face projecting outwards: they have large 
mouths and ears, little black eyes, but wide eyelids, small lips and little feet. "J 
The women reach maturity early, and are often mothers at twelve years of age. 
They are more savage than the Ostiaks, and extremely indifferent on all those 
subjects that excite the feelings of other people. 

The Tungusians rove the deserts which extend from the Yenisei eastward to 
the ocean. Their features resemble those of the other families of this race ; but 
their complexion is fresh, and their women are said to be of agreeable appearance 
and manner. The men have a hoarse voice, and possess sight and hearing in 
perfection, with a singular obtuseness of the organs of touch and smell.^ They 

* TooKE, Russia, I, p. 5. t Tooke, Russia, &c., I, p. 178.— Pallas, Voy. IV, p. 52. 

J Ibid. Ill, p. 12. § Ibid. Ill, p. 77. 



52 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

are frank and sanguine in their manner, averse to theft, fraud and falsehood, 
improvident and insensible in their social relations. 

The Yakaguires traverse the icy region between the Yakouts and the Frozen 
ocean, and avoid all other people. 

The Kamschatkans have the physical traits of the adjacent Polar tribes, 
excepting that their w^omen are handsomer; but their moral and intellectual 
character is different. They are said to possess a strong memory, and a remark- 
able tact at mimicry ; despise labor, which they resume only from the necessities 
of the passing hour, and are cowardly in the extreme. It must be admitted that 
the southern Kamschatkans, in common with the southern tribes of Tungusians 
and Ostiaks, have so long mixed with the proximate Mongol-Tartar hordes, that 
it is in some measure arbitrary to class them definitively with either family, for 
their characters are obviously derived from both. 

The Koriaks^ who inhabit north of the Kamschatkans, are dull of compre- 
hension, obstinate and revengeful, yet industrious and susceptible of friendship. 
Their language, though in many respects peculiar, has a near affinity to that of 
their neighbors the Tchukchi. 

The Tchukches resemble the Koriaks in person, manners and language, and 
form the intermediate link between the latter nation and the Polar tribes of 
America. They are barbarous and cruel, and repugnant to every form of civilisa- 
tion. "In short," says Mr. Tooke, "they are naturally as wicked and as dangerous 
as the Tungusians are mild and gentle."^ In person they are small and spare, 
yet have the round, flat face of the other people of this race. Their chief riches 
consist in herds of reindeer, of which animals it is not uncommon for individuals 
to possess ten thousand.f 

The KurUians inhabit the Kurile islands, which stretch from the peninsula 
of Kamschatka almost to Japan. These people have good complexions and a 
copious beard, but in other particulars resemble the adjacent hordes. 

Crossing to the American continent we find the Polar race composed of the 
Eskimaux and Greenland ers, who are both generally included in the former name, 
an Algonkin word signifying "eaters of raw flesh;" but their own national designa- 
tion is Keralit. They are the sole inhabitants of the shores of all the seas, bays, 
inlets and islands of America, north of the 60th degree of north latitude, from the 
eastern coast of Greenland in longitude 21"=^, to the straits of Behring in longitude 
127^ west. On the Atlantic they also skirt the coast of Labrador, and are even 

* Russia, III, p. 177. t Ibid. Ill, p. 187. 



THE POLAR FAMILY. 53 

seen as far south as the Straits of Belle-Isle and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. In 
the west they extend along the shores of the Pacific Ocean southwards as far as 
Mount St. Elias and Behring's Bay, embracing the Konaji and some other tribes, 
including the islanders of Kadjack.* They seldom wander more than a hundred 
miles from the sea, and subsist in a great measure by fishing. 

The western Eskimaux, or those living to the west of Mackenzie's river, are 
said by Captain Beechey to be taller in stature than the eastern tribes, their 
average height being about five feet seven and a half inches. They are also 
better looking, more industrious, and more irascible and warlike. Their counte- 
nances, however, are represented as much deformed by habitual sore eyes, and 
teeth worn down by the constant mastication of hard substances ; and above all by 
the barbarous custom of slitting the lower lip, and wearing in the aperture an 
elliptical piece of wood or bone.f 

Captain Lyon, in his account of the Eskimaux seen by him at Igloolik and 
Winter Island, on the northeast coast, has given a detailed and graphic description 
of the American division of this race. " They may," says he, " more properly be 
termed a small than even a middle sized race : for though in some few instances, 
and in particular families, the men are tall and stout, yet the greater portion are 
beneath the standard of what, in Europe, would be called small men. The tallest 
I saw was five feet nine inches and three quarters in height ; the shortest only 
four feet ten inches ; and the highest woman was five feet six inches, w^hile the 
smallest was four feet eight inches only. Even in the young and strong men the 
muscles are not clearly defined, but are smoothly covered, as in the limbs of 
women. However prominent and well shaped the chest may be, the neck is 
small, weak, and often shrivelled. They all stand well on their feet, walking 
erect and freely, with the toes rather turned inwards, and the legs slightly bowed. 
The neck and shoulders of the young women are generally in good, though large 
proportion ; and the arm and wrists are sometimes handsome. The feet of both 
sexes are small and neat, well joined at the ankle, and free from blemishes. The 
complexion of the Eskimaux, when clearly shown by a previous washing, is not 
darker than that of a Portuguese ; and such parts of the body as are constantly 
covered, do not fall short in fairness to the generality of the natives of the Medi- 
terranean. A very fine healthy blush tinges the cheek of females and young 
children, but the men are more inclined to a sallow complexion. 

" The inner corner of the eye points downwards, like that of a Chinese ; and 



Gallatin, in Archaeolog. Amer. II, p. 10. t Beechey, Voy. II, p. 570. 

14 



64 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

the caruncula lachrymalis, which in Europeans is exposed, is covered by a mem- 
brane which passes over it vertically. The eyes are small and black, expressive 
and sparkling when animated. Another peculiarity is the prominence of the 
cheek bones ; and it is in consequence of this form that the noses of such as are 
full-faced are literally buried between the projections ; and one of our chief belles 
was so remarkable in this way that a ruler, when placed from cheek to cheek, 
would not touch the nose. The mouth is generally kept open with a kind of 
idiotic expression, so that the teeth of either jaw are generally shown. The 
mouths are large. The teeth are strong, and deeply fixed in the gums ; they are 
formed like rounded ivory pegs, and are flat on the upper end as if filed down. 
The chin is small and peaked ; and what we call a double chin is rare."* 

The Eskimaux of Prince Regent's Bay,t to the northeast of Baffin's Bay, 
and about 76^ north, are of a dirty copper color, and very corpulent; while those 
on the west side of Baffin's Bay have clear complexions, which only become 
darker by old age and exposure.J 

On the icy shores of the great island of Greenland, are seen the easternmost 
tribes of this singular race. Their features do dot materially differ from those 
already described, but their complexion is decidedly darker, varying from brown 
to olive, while at Oppernivick they are as dark as muiattoes. It is needless to 
add that many are much lighter, and others quite fair. In the moral scale they 
rank extremely low. Crantz, the missionary, who lived many years among them, 
reluctantly declares that "it is no injustice to allow them no true virtue, and only 
the absence of certain vices."§ They are crafty, sensual, ungrateful, obstinate 
and unfeeling, and much of their affection for their children may be traced to 
purely selfish motives. They devour the most disgusting aliments uncooked and 
uncleaned, and seem to have no ideas beyond providing for the present moment. 

With respect to the moral and intellectual character of this widely distributed 
family, little need be added to what has already been said. Their mental faculties, 
from infancy to old age, present a continued childhood : they reach a certain limit 
and expand no farther. What Crantz says of the Greenlanders may be applied to 
other tribes, viz : that they possess simplicity without silliness, and good sense 
without the art of reasoning.|| They are fickle and facetious, and their connubial 



* Private Journal, Boston ed. p. 222. 

tCalled also the jlrctic H'lgJilands, Ross. Voy. 1819, p. 115. 

t Parky, First Voy. p. 2S2. § Crantz, Hist, of Greenland, I, p. 188. 

II Hist, of Greenland, I, p. 1 35. 



THE POLAR FAMILY. 55 

infidelity is a proverb among voyagers.* In gluttony, selfishness and ingratitude, 
they are perhaps unequalled by any other nation of people ; and they are habitu- 
ally unfeeling w^ithout designing to be cruel.f On the other hand they are mild 
in their tempers, and tractable in their manners ; but their chief redeeming virtue 
is their fondness for their children, w^hich knows no bounds. They are devoid 
of warlike propensities; and even the resistance made by the Samoiedes to the yoke 
of the Russians, has been two or three local and abortive attempts at insurrection. 
BufFon states that Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, attempted to discipline a 
regiment of Laplanders, but they could never be brought to action.^ Finally, 
though grossly puerile in their superstitions, they have no combination of senti- 
ments that deserves the name of religion. 

Most readers are aware that colonies of Scandinavians and Icelanders peopled 
Greenland in the middle ages. Since the fourteeHth century, however, nothing 
has been heard of them, and they were supposed to have been blocked up and 
destroyed by the accumulating ice, whence the name of Lost Greenland. In 
1829 the Danish government sent Captain Graah to explore these icy solitudes, 
and to ascertain at least the locality of the lost colony. This enterprising voyager 
discovered a community of which he gives the following account : " They have 
little analogy with the Eskimaux, and resemble, on the contrary, the Scandinavians 
of Europe. They have neither the flat heads, short broad persons nor flabby 
features of the Eskimaux ; but are for the most part above the middle stature, 
having the European form of head and expression of countenance. Their persons 
are rather meagre, but nervous and finely formed, without any appearance of 
weakness, and they are more active and robust than the inhabitants of the western 
coast. The color of the skin of the women and children is quite clear and pure 
as that of Europeans, and they have often brown hair, which is never seen in the 
other inhabitants of Greenland."^ The moral character of these people is said to 
be characterised by great honesty, simplicity and truth : yet they are pagans, have 
their sorcerers like the Eskimaux, and speak probably a dialect of their language, 
for Captain Graah could not understand it. It will be readily surmised from the 
preceding facts, that these people constitute the real remains of the Scandinavian 



* Parry, Second Voy. p. 529. 

t They sometimes destroy children who have lost their parents, and bury ahve or otherwise 
destroy such old persons as have by their infirmities become a burthen on the community.— 6'ee 
Crantz, loco citat.^ and Ellis, Voy, to Hudson's Bay, p. 191. 

X SoNxiNi's Buffon, XX, p. 67. § Jour. Roy. Geog. Soc. of London, VII, p. 240. 



56 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

colony which, to Europeans, have been lost for ages ; and their long intercourse 
with the Greenland tribes has led them to adopt the superstitions of that people 
and more or less their language and mode of life. 

13. THE MALAY FAMILY. 

The head of the Malay is large, and the nose short, depressed, and flattened 
towards the nostrils: the eyes are small, black, oblique and expressive; the face 
is broad, compressed, and very prominent, and the mouth and lips are large. 
Their limbs are thick and they are below the middle stature. The color of the 
Malay is a decided brown, often with a bronze tint. Their hair is long, black 
and lank ; but they have little beard, and this they for the most part eradicate. 

The skull of the Malay presents the following characters : the forehead is 
low, moderately prominent and arched : the occiput is much compressed, and 
often projecting at its upper and lateral parts : the orbits are oblique, oblong and 
remarkably quadrangular, the upper and lower margins being almost straight and 
parallel : the nasal bones are broad, and flattened, or even concave : the cheek 
bones are high and expanded : the jaws are greatly projected ; and the upper jaw, 
together with the teeth, is much inclined outwards, and often nearly horizontal. 
The teeth are by nature remarkably fine, but are almost uniformly filed away in 
front to enable them to imbibe the color of the betel nut, which renders them 
black and unsightly. 

The facial angle is less than in the Mongol and Chinese ; for the average, 
derived from a measurement of thirteen perfect skulls in my possession, gives 
about seventy-three degrees. 

Among a considerable number of Malays whom I have seen in this country 
as mariners, there has been a remarkable uniformity of appearance ; as much so, 
indeed, as if they had belonged to the same social family. Even their complexion 
seems little altered by the diversified latitudes they inhabit ; and Mr. Crawford 
has remarked that they are a very distinct people, strikingly alike among them- 
selves, but unlike all other nations.* 

The Malays are a strictly maritime nation, making considerable voyages in 
their light vessels, and for the most part establishing themselves on the rivers and 
along the sea coasts of the islands they invade. They possess an active and 

^ Indian Archipel. v. I, p. 25.-M. Lesson (Voy. du Coquille, Zool. p. 43,) supposes the Malays 
to be a mixed race of Indo-Caiicasians and Mongols. 



THE MALAY FAMILY. 57 

enterprising spirit, but in their temper are ferocious and vindictive. Caprice and 
treachery are among their characteristic vices ; and their habitual piracies on the 
vessels of all nations, are often conducted under the mask of peace and friendship. 

The Malays are said, by the annals of their nation, not to be natives of 
Malacca, as their name imports, and as strangers have generally supposed, but to 
have originated in the district of Menangkabao, in the island of Sumatra. They 
date their first migrations from the parent hive in the year 1160, first fixing 
themselves in the peninsula of Malacca, where they built the city of Singapore ; 
and it vs^as from this colony, and not from the parent stock, that the Malayan name 
and nation were so widely disseminated over the Archipelago.* The Malays 
are now proverbially scattered throughout the Indian islands, and have especially 
established themselves in Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Amboyna, Formosa, Celebes, the 
Philippines, the Moluccas, and parts of Ceylon and Madagascar. 

The Malay inhabitants of Sumatra correspond, in their exterior, to the 
characters already given of this race, excepting that their complexion is yellower, 
and they are said to flatten the heads and noses of their children.f In the interior 
of the island live the Battas, a people of still fairer complexion, but the most 
habitual and remorseless cannibals on the face of the earth. According to Sir 
Stamford Raflles "they have a regular government and deliberative assemblies; they 
possess a peculiar language and written character, can generally write, and have a 
talent for eloquence: they acknowledge a God, are fair and honorable in their 
dealings, crimes amongst them are few, and their country is highly cultivated ; 
and yet these people, so far advanced in civilisation, are cannibals upon principle 
and system.'' Nay more, they not only eat their victims, but eat them alive; in 
other words they do not previously put them to death ; and these victims are 
their own people, and not unfrequently their own relations. Such is the penalty 
for adultery, midnight robbery, for intermarrying in the same tribe, and for 
treacherous attacks on a house, village or person. Prisoners taken in war are 
eaten at once ; and the slain are devoured in like manner.J 

The inhabitants of Java are of a yellowish complexion, and remarkably well 
formed. Their wrists and ankles are very small, although they are otherwise of 
a robust make, and resemble the Chinese, between whom and the other Malays 
they are a connecting link. The Javanese are more tractable and less sanguinary 

* Crawford, Indian Archipel. IT, p. 376. t M arsden's Sumatra, p. 38. 

} Life and Public Services of Sir S. Raffles, p. 425. Quoted in the Library of Entertaining 
Knowledge, article New Zealanders, p. 107. 
15 



S8 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

than the other islanders ; and in their domestic relations they approach nearer to 
the usages of civilised society.* The Sunda people, however, who inhabit the 
mountainous districts of the island, are in all respects a much ruder people. The 
Chacrelas^ with fair complexion, white hair and feeble eyes, are obviously Albinoes, 
although their number was formerly very considerable. 

In the great island of Borneo the Malays have possession of the entire sea 
coast, and the shores of all the navigable rivers. They form, however, but a 
fractional part of the inhabitants of Borneo ; for the mountainous region of the 
interior is peopled by the savage Dayacks, and Eidahans, who belong perhaps to 
another race ; yet they are represented as being fairer than the Malays, and more 
sanguinary and ferocious. Celebes has long been in possession of two Malay 
nations, the Bugis and Macassars, who divide the island between them : the latter 
are reputed for their bravery, which appears to be rather a temporary desperation 
than cool courage. 

The Malays of the Philippine Archipelago are said to resemble the 
Sumatrans and Macassars in person, as well as in language and manners. They 
are described by Zuniga as possessing a good stature, an olive complexion, flat 
noses, large eye?, and long hair. They call themselves Tageh, or Tagelos, in the 
island of Luzon, and Bisayas in the central islands. The interior and moun- 
tainous parts of the larger islands of this group, especially Luzon, Mindanao and 
Mindoro, are peopled by a very different race, who possess all the characters of 
Negroes, and are regarded as the aboriginal inhabitants. 

The Malay inhabitants of the Molucca Islands occupy all parts of them 
excepting the mountainous interior, which is possessed by the Alfoers, a Negro 
tribe. The women of Amboyna are remarkably handsome, and have more 
resemblance to the natives of New Zealand than to the neighboring Malay islands. 

Formosa, although but twenty leagues distant from the coast of China, is 
inhabited by Malays of rude and intractable character. 

The island of Ceylon has a numerous Malay population on its coast, and they 
are represented as a singularly lawless and desperate people. The same remark is 
applicable to such of this nation as have established themselves on the eastern 
coasts of Madagascar, 

Besides the Malay and Negro races, the Indian Archipelago is peopled by 
great numbers of Chinese and Arabs, among whom the latter enjoyed the almost 
exclusive privilege of these seas between the ninth and fourteenth centuries, since 

* Raffles, Java, T, p. 57. 



THE POLYNESIAN FAMILY. 59 

which period they have been superseded by the Malays. The Hindoos and Indo- 
Chinese have also contributed largely to people these islands. 



14. THE POLYNESIAN FAMILY. 

The name Polynesia has been given by geographers to all the islands in the 
Pacific Ocean from the Ladrones to Easter Island, embracing also the Pelew^ 
group, the Carolinas, the Sandv^ich, Friendly, Society, Navigators', Harvey's and 
the Marquesas islands. 

The Polynesians are of the middle stature, and athletic, with small hands, 
heavy limbs and large feet. Their faces are round, or delicately oval, and some- 
what compressed. The nose is well formed, straight or aquiline, yet sometimes 
spread, without, however, presenting the peculiar flatness that distinguishes the 
Negro.* The forehead is low, but not receding ; the eyes black, bright and 
expressive : the lips are full, and the teeth remarkably fine. Their complexion 
varies from nearly white to olive, and from dark brown to nearly black ; but the 
latter color is said to result chiefly from elaborate tattooing, and is particularly 
observed in persons advanced in years.f Their hair is long, black and curling, 
and not unfrequently more or less frizzled. 

All voyagers, however, have noticed the great disparity that exists between 
the plebeians and the aristocratic class, as respects stature, features and complexion. 
The privileged order is much fairer and much taller than the other ; their heads 
are better developed, and their profile shows more regular features, including the 
arched and aquiline nose. The indolent habits of this caste tend also to obesity, 
which often becomes extreme after middle life.J 

The eastern groups of the Polynesian islands present the most pleasing 
examples of this race. Thus, in the Sandwich Islands the inhabitants, who call 
themselves Kanakas, are the most docile and imitative, and perhaps also the most 
easy of instruction, of all the Polynesians. 

The Archipelago, called the Tonga, or Friendly Islands, is composed of 
three groups, the Tonga, the Hapai, and the Hafaloo Islands, one hundred and 
fifty in number, containing a vast population of the Polynesian race. " Their 
features are very various, insomuch that it is scarcely possible to fix on any 
general likeness by means of which to characterise them, unless it be a fulness at 



* RuscHENBERGER, Voy. Round the World, p. 454. t Porter, Voy. II, p. 14 

i Williams, Missionary Enterprises in the South Sea Islands, p. 460. 



60 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

the point of the nose, which is very common. But on the other hand we met 
with hundreds of truly European faces, and many genuine Roman noses, amongst 
them. Their eyes and teeth are good ; but the last neither so remarkably white, 
nor so well set, as is often found amongst Indian nations."* The general com- 
plexion is " a cast deeper than the copper-brown," although many have a true 
olive tint, and others, especially among the women, are comparatively fair. 

The inhabitants of Tongataboo and the adjacent islands, are warlike, vindic- 
tive and superstitious, and even indulge in occasional cannibalism, which they are 
said to have learned from the Fegee islanders. They maintain the institution of 
castes to a degree not surpassed by the Hindoos ; for they extend it even to their 
gods, whom they divide into six different classes.f 

The people of the Society Islands, together with those of the groups called 
the Georgian, Austral, and Harvey's Islands, are generally less muscular than the 
Sandwich islanders, whom, in other respects, they closely resemble. They are 
well formed, and often beautifully proportioned, and possess an uncommon share 
both of activity and gracefulness. Their countenance is open, and the facial 
angle is often as good as in the European. The eyes are black, bright and full 5 
the lips rather tumid, the teeth remarkably good, and the nose rectilinear or 
aquiline. The whole face is round or oval, ''ivithout any resemblance to the 
angular form of the Tartar msage^'X Their hair is long and black, generally 
straight, but often curly, and sometimes frizzled. " The prevailing color of the 
natives is an olive, a bronze or a reddish-brown — equally removed from the jet 
black of the African and the Asiatic, the yellow of the Malay, and the red or 
copper color of the aboriginal American." Yet the color of the people of some of 
these islands, and especially in the Harvey and Austral islands, is as fair as that of 
the inhabitants of some parts of southern Europe. 

Forster has given a graphic description of the people of Tahiti. Their 
complexion is white tinctured with brownish yellow, from which there is every 
tint to a swarthy hue. The shape of the face is more round than oval, and the 
features very symmetrical and often beautiful. Their hands and fingers are 
delicately formed, but their feet are disproportionately large. Like the other 



* Cook's Last Voyage, T, p. 380. 

t Marriner, Tonga Islands, p. 330.--It is worthy of remark that among the Tonga people, 
children acquire their rank hij inheritance from the mother's side, Marriner, p. 325. Such also 
was the custom of the Natchez of Florida. 

J Ellis, Polynes. Res. II, p. 17. 



THE POLYNESIAN FAMILY. 61 

islanders of this race, they are fickle, indolent and sensual, yet when engaged in 
war they fight with great intrepidity.* 

The Marquesas Islands present a population very similar to that of the 
Society Isles; in youth sprightly and beautiful, somewhat darker than the Tahitians, 
and less inclined to flesh. 

In Easter Island (which is fifteen hundred miles from the nearest inhabited 
islands) the natives possess a tawny skin, a slender frame, and well proportioned 
limbs, but with features less prepossessing than those of the islanders already 
noticed. Some remains of cyclopean architecture and sculpture, indicate the 
present population to be, in comparison, an ignorant and degenerate race. 

Of all the Polynesians the New Zealanders are the most sanguinary and 
intractable. Their combined treachery, cruelty and cannibalism, have made them 
proverbial ever since the discovery of their island by Tasman. Captain Crozet, 
whose crew they attempted to destroy, illustrates their character in very few 
words: "They treated us," says he, "with every show of friendship for thirty- 
three days, with the intention of eating us on the thirty-fourth." These islanders 
are tall, athletic, and admirably well shaped. Their complexion is varied between 
white, brown and black ; but in the majority of the common people it is of a deep 
bronze color. The better classes have the olive and yellowish brown tint of the 
Malays, with hair long and black, and generally more or less frizzled. The New 
Zealanders practise the operation of tattooing with an elaborateness and perfection 
elsewhere unknown. It is a principal means of distinction between the chiefs 
and common people, and may, according to its pattern, "be regarded as the crest 
or coat of arms of the New Zealand aristocracy."! 

The Fegee islanders vie with the New Zealanders in treachery and cannibal- 
ism. Captain Dillon gives a melancholy narrative of the murder of fourteen of 
his men, most of whom were subsequently baked in ovens and devoured in his 
presence.f 

The Tikopians are robust in form, and inoffensive and hospitable in their 
manners. They live almost exclusiv^ely on vegetable food, which has been sug- 
gested as the cause of their singular docility.^ They are of a bright copper color, 
and use the betel nut like the Malays. 

All the Polynesian islanders are characterised by a volatile disposition and 
fugitive habits. They act from the impulse of the moment, without reflection 



* FoRSTER, Voy. Round the World, p. 229. t Ellis, Polynes. Res. I, p. 3K 

t Voyage to Discover tlie Fate of La Perouse, I, p. 19, &c. § Ibid. II, p. 135. 
16 



62 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

and almost without motive. Thus they are kind or cruel, loquacious or taciturn, 
active or indolent, according to the promptings of caprice or passion ; and they 
have been truly said to possess the foibles of children, w^ith the vices of men. 
The more their character has been studied, the more evident it becomes that their 
good qualities w^ere greatly overrated by the first voyagers and missionaries vs^ho 
visited them. The correctness of these remarks is sustained by the laxity of 
moral feeling throughout these islands ; by their absurd superMitions and human 
sacrifices; by their remorseless cruelty to prisoners taken in vrar, and their general 
recklessness of life ; and last, not least, by the Arreois society, (now happily obso- 
lete,) which enjoined the murder of the offspring of its members. 

The Polynesians, nevertheless, are intelligent, imitative, and amenable to 
instruction, as is manifest in their rapid progress in elementary literature and 
the more useful arts : and if we except the New Zealanders, the Fegee islanders, 
and a few other groups, perhaps no people on the globe have been more readily 
amenable to the usages of civilised life, and the doctrines of Christianity. Their 
intellectual capacities have by some authors been considered equal in all respects 
to those of the Caucasian race ; which, however, is by no means certain ; for 
although they rapidly acquire ideas by means of active perceptive powers, their 
reflective faculties have not hitherto expanded in proportion. 

In their uncivilised state they are singularly devoted to the pastimes of 
boxing, wrestling, archery and boat racing ; but their most striking predilection is 
for maritime amusement and adventure. Their canoes are large, and constructed 
with great ingenuity, and will in many instances accommodate fifty men. In 
these vessels they prosecute their wars upon the neighboring islanders, and under- 
take considerable voyages for profit and pleasure.* Their fondness for the sea is 
in fact a national and dominant feature in their character, and shows itself in the 
eagerness with which they enter as sailors in the ships of all nations ; and their 
ingenuity is in nothing so conspicuous as in the construction of their vessels.f 

15 THE AMERICAN FAMILY. 

The concurrent testimony of all travellers goes to prove that the native 
Americans are possessed of certain physical traits that serve to identify them in 



* For an instructive account of the protracted and successful voyages of the Polynesians, see 
Ellis, I, p. 126, and II, p. 51.— Williams' South Sea Islands, p. 422.— Beechey, Voy, I, p. 172. 
t FoRSTER, Obs. p. 457. 



THE AMERICAN FAMILY. 63 

localities the most remote from each other ; nor do they, as a general rule, assimi- 
late less in their moral character and usages. It is not to be denied that different 
tribes occasionally present very dissimilar features ; but these differences are more 
obvious in small communities than in collective nations. There are also, in their 
multitudinous languages, the traces of a common origin; and it may be assumed 
as a fact that no other race of men maintains such a striking analogy through all 
its subdivisions, and amidst all its variety of physical circumstances. 

By vvdiat rule of Anthropology ,~then, are we to group the American nations 
into families, or, as some v^riters have attempted, into species ? The ingenious 
Bory de St. Vincent has endeavored to show that the American race embraces 
four species exclusive of the Eskimaux ;* but he has certainly failed to point out 
any differences that have a claim to specific character. 

It appears to me, as heretofore indicated, that the most natural division of 
the American race is into tv^o families, one of which, the Toltecan family, bears 
evidence of centuries of demi-civilisation, while the other, under the collective 
title of the American family, embraces all the barbarous nations of the new world 
excepting the Polar tribes or Mongol- Americans. Some writers, however, suppose 
even the Eskimaux to be a part of the same original stock, partly because there is 
some resemblance in features, partly from partial analogy of language, and partly 
again from a determination to merge the American in the Mongolian. It is 
obvious, nevertheless, that the continent of America was originally peopled, as it 
yet is, by a very distinct race, and that the Eskimaux arriving in small and 
straggling parties from Asia, necessarily adopted more or less of the language and 
customs of the people among whom they settled: hence the Eskimaux, and 
especially the Greenlanders, are to be regarded as a partially mixed race, among 
whom the physical character of the Mongolian predominates, while their language 
presents obvious analogies to that of the Chippewyans who border them to the 
south.f In the American family itself we observe several subordinate groups 
or branches which may be designated under the following heads : 



* For example, the Mexicans and Peruvians are considered cognate with the Malays, and are 
by this author referred to his Neptunian species^ (Homo neptunianus.) His Columbian species, 
(Homo columbicus,) he supposes to have had their original seats among the Alleghany mountains, 
and to have spread themselves from the basin of the St. Lawrence to Florida, the West Indies, 
Honduras, Terra Firma, and Guyana. The Jimerican species, (Homo americanus,) includes the 
tribes of the Orhioco and the Amazon, and those of Brazil, Paraguay, &c. The fourth or Patagonian 
species, includes the nations of the far south. — U Homme, Esplces 8, f), 10 et 11. 

t Archaeolog. Araer. H, p. 118. 



64 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

1. The Appalachian Branch may include all the nations of North America 
excepting the Mexicans, together with the tribes north of the river of Amazons 
and east of the Andes. The head is rounded, the nose large, salient and aquiline ; 
the eyes dark brown, and with little or no obliquity of position ; the mouth is 
large and straight, the teeth nearly vertical, and the whole face triangular. The 
neck is long, the chest broad but rarely deep, the body and limbs muscular, and 
seldom disposed to obesity. In character these nations are warlike, cruel and 
unforgiving. They turn with aversion from the restraints of civilised life, and 
have made but trifling progress in mental culture or the useful arts.* 

^. The Brazilian Branch is spread over a great part of South America east 
of the Andes : its geographical position may be indicated in general terms as 
embraced between the rivers Amazon and La Plata, and between the Andes and 
the Atlantic; thus including the whole of Brazil and Paraguay north of the 35th 
degree of south latitude. The physical traits of these people differ but little from 
those of the Appalachian branch; they possess, perhaps, a larger and more 
expanded nose, and larger mouths and lips. The eyes are small, more or less 
oblique and set far apart : the neck is short and thick, and the body and limbs 
stout and full even to clumsiness.f In character the Brazilian nations scarcely 
differ from the Appalachian : none of the American tribes are less susceptible of 
cultivation than these ; and what they are taught by compulsion in the missions 
seldom exceeds the humblest elements of knowledge.^ 

3. The Patagonian Branch. This group includes the nations south of the 
La Plata to the Straits of Magellan, and the mountain tribes of Chili. They are 
for the most part distinguished for their tall stature, their fine forms and their 
indomitable courage, of all which traits the Araucanians possess a conspicuous 
share. 

4. The Fuegian Branch. These people, who inhabit the island of Terra 
del Fuego, are often called Patagonians; but this name is objectionable because it 
is also applied to numerous tribes of common Indians who inhabit the plains 
from the Rio de la Plata to the Straits of Magellan ; wherefore, as a more local 



*This division is nearly identical with the Columbian species (Homo columbicus) of Bory de 
St. Vincent. 

tl derive these characters chiefly from an inspection of the beautiful plates in the folio Atlas of 
Spix and Martius's Travels in Brazil. 

t This division is almost the same with the American species of M. Bory, and is embraced in the 
group bearing that name in the classification of M. Dumoulins. 



THE AMERICAN FAMILY. 65 

designation, it is proposed to adopt the name of Fuegians. Their own national 
appellation is Yamnnacunnee. They rove over a sterile w^aste w^hich is computed 
to be as large as the half of Ireland, and yet their w^hole number has been 
computed by Forster at tv^o thousand souls.* The physical aspect of these 
people is altogether repulsive, and their domestic usages tend to heighten the 
defects of nature. They are of low stature, seldom exceeding five feet four or 
five inches. They have large heads, broad faces, and small eyes. Their chests 
are large, their bodies clumsy, with large knees and ill-shaped legs. Their hair 
is lank, black and coarse, and their complexion a decided brown, like that of the 
more northern tribes. The expression of face is vacant, and their mental opera- 
tions are to the last degree slow and stupid ; they are almost destitute of the usual 
curiosity of savages, caring little for any thing that does not minister to their 
present wants. The difference between the Fuegians and the other Americans is 
no doubt attributable to the effects of climate and locality, and the consequent 
habits of life, which tend, in this instance, to depress and brutalise the mind, and 
to impair the physical man. 

General Observations on the Barbarous Nations composing the American 
Family. — xlfter examining a great number of skulls, I find that the nations east 
of the Alleghany mountains, together with the cognate tribes, have the head more 
elongated than any other Americans. This remark applies especially to the great 
Lenape stock, the Iroquois, and the Cherokees. To the west of the Mississippi 
we again meet with the elongated head in the Mandans, Ricaras, Assinaboins and 
«ome other tribes. Yet even in these instances the characteristic truncation of the 
occiput is more or less obvious, while many nations east of the Rocky Mountains 
have the rounded head so characteristic of the race, as the Osages, Ottoes, Missouris, 
Dacotas, and numerous others. The same conformation is common in Florida; but 
some of these nations are evidently of the Toltecan family, as both their characters 
and traditions testify. The head of the Charibs, as well of the Antilles as of 
Terra Firma, are also naturally rounded ; and we trace this character, so far as 
we have had opportunity for examination, through the nations east of the Andes, 
the Patagonians and the tribes of Chili. In fact, the flatness of the occipital 
portion of the cranium will probably be found to characterise a greater or less 
number of individuals in every existing tribe, from Terra del Fuego to the 
Canadas. If these skulls be viewed from behind, w^e observe the occipital outline 



* Obs. During a Voy. Round the World, p. 225, 
17 



66 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

to be moderately curved outwards, wide at the occipital protuberances, and full 
from those points to the opening of the ear. From the parietal protuberances 
there is a slightly curved slope to the vertex, producing a conical, or rather a 
wedge-shaped outline. 

Humboldt has remarked that " there is no race on the globe in which the 
frontal bone is so much pressed backwards, and in which the forehead is so 
small/'* It must be observed, however, that the lowness of the forehead is in 
some measure compensated by its breadth, which is generally considerable. The 
flat forehead was esteemed beautiful among a vast number of tribes ; and this 
fancy has been the principal incentive to the moulding of the head by art. 

Although the orbital cavities are large, the eyes themselves are smaller than 
in Europeans ,• and Fresier asserts that the Puelche women he saw in Chili were 
absolutely hideous from the smallness of the eyes.f The latter are also deeply set 
or sunk in the head ; an appearance which is much increased by the low and 
prominent frontal ridges. 

Among the North American Indians there is rarely any decided obliquity in 
the position of the eyes which is so universal among the Malays and Mongols ; 
but Spix and Martins have observed it in some Brazilian tribes, and Humboldt in 
those of the Orinoco : and among the Pourys, the Prince de Wied describes a 
man who bore, in this and other respects, a marked resemblance to a Calmuck. 

What has been said of the bony orbits obtains with surprising uniformity : 
thus the superior margin is but slightly curved, while the inferior may be com- 
pared to an inverted arch. The lateral margins form curves rather mediate 
between the other two. This fact is the more interesting on account of the 
contrast it presents to the oblong orbit and parallel margins observable in the 
Malay. The latter conformation, however, is sometimes seen in the American, 
but chiefly in those skulls which have been altered by pressure to the frontal 
bone. 

The nose constitutes one of the strongest and most uniform features of the 
Indian countenance : it mostly presents the decidedly arched form, without being 
strictly aquiline, and still more rarely flat. 

The nasal cavities correspond to the size of the nose itself; and the remark- 
able acuteness of smell possessed by the American Indian has been attributed to 
the great expansion of the olfactory membrane.^ But the perfection of this sense, 

* Monuments, T. I, p. 158. f Voy. p. 64. 

t Blumenbach, Dec. Cran. p. 25. 



THE AMERICAN FAMILY. 67 

like that of hearing among the same people, is perhaps chiefly to be attributed to 
its constant and assiduous cultivation. The cheek bones are large and prominent, 
and incline rapidly towards the lower jaw, giving the face an angular conformation. 
The upper jaw is often elongated and much inclined outwards, but the teeth are 
for the most part vertical. The lower jaw is broad and ponderous, and truncated 
in front. The teeth are also very large, and seldom decayed ; for among the 
many that remain in the skulls in my possession, very few present any marks of 
disease, although they are often much worn down by attrition in the mastication 
of hard substances. The long, black, lank hair, is common to all the American 
tribes, among whom no trace of the frizzled locks of the Polynesian, or the woolly 
texture of the Negro, has ever been observed. The beard is very deficient among 
the Americans generally, and the little that nature gives them they assiduously 
eradicate from early manhood. It is perhaps in this respect that we observe the 
nearest analogy between the Americans and Mongols, although it is far from 
being peculiar to them alone. It is not, however, as De Pauw asserts, that the 
beard is w^hoUy wanting,* for travellers have occasionally noticed it long and full 
where it has been allowed its natural growth. Examples of this kind have been 
particularly observed among the Chippewyans, and the Slave and Dog-ribbed 
Indians of the far north.f Lewis and Clarke remark that the beard, among the 
Chopunnish west of the Rocky Mountains, " is very often suffered to grow, nor 
does there appear to be any natural deficiency in that respect ; for we observed 
several men w^ho, if they had adopted the practice of shaving, would have been as 
well supplied as ourselves.''^ La Perouse observed good beards in about one half 
of the Indians of New California, and the rest had probably eradicated theirs by 
art : and Molina says that the Chilians occasionally have as thick beards as the 
Spaniards. § " The mustaches, which modern travellers have found among the 
inhabitants of the northwest coast of America," says Humboldt, " are so much 
the more curious, as celebrated naturalists have left the question undetermined, 
whether the Americans have naturally no beard, and no hairs on the rest of their 
bodies, or whether they pluck them carefully out. Without entering here into 
physiological details, I can affirm that the Indians who inhabit the torrid zone of 
South America have generally some beard ; and that this beard increases when 



* " Les Americains etaient surtout remarquables en ce que les sourcils manquaient a un grand 
nombre, et la barbe cl foiis.'^ 

t Mackenzie, Trav. in N. Amer. p. 36, j Exped. 11, p. 292, 

§ Hist, of Chili, I, p. 275. 



68 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

they shave themselves, of which w^e have seen examples in the missions of the 
Capuchins of Caripe, w^here the Indian sextons wish to resemble the monks their 
masters. But many individuals are born entirely without beard, or have no hair 
on their bodies. M. de Galeano, in his last expedition to the Straits of Magellan, 
informs us that there are many old men among the Patagonians with beards, 
though they are short and by no means bushy. On comparing this assertion with 
the facts collected by Marchaud, Mears, and especially by Volney in the northern 
temperate zone, we are tempted to believe that the Indians have more and more 
beard in proportion to their distance from the equator."* Mr. Schoolcraft 
mentions beards as common among the Potowatomies, and alludes to a very old 
man of that tribe "whose long, descending gray beard would not disgrace a 
Nazarite."t 

A copper-colored skin has been assumed by most writers as a characteristic 
distinction of the Americans, who have hence been called the copper-colored race. 
The investigations of Dr. M'Culloh satisfactorily prove that this designation is 
wholly inapplicable to the Americans as a race, and that it is more characteristic 
of some other and very remote nations.J The error has obviously arisen from the 
habitual use, among many tribes, of red paint to a brown skin, which occasions a 
coppery hue. Humboldt declares that the denomination of copper-colored men 
could never have originated in the equinoctial regions to designate the Americans : 
and I can further testify that among the individuals of many diflferent tribes that 
have come under my observation, I have never seen a copper-colored man. " We 
consider, therefore," says Dr. M'Culloh, " that the color of the American Indians 
in general is brown, diiSering in intensity with various tribes, according to various 
localities; but that it is almost impossible to say what that brown color principally 
resembles. The cinnamon is, in my apprehension, the nearest approach to it, 
though still too inaccurate for general comparison. "§ I fully coincide in opinion 
with Dr. M'Culloh ; and believe, with him, that no epithet derivable from the 
color of the skin, so correctly designates the Americans collectively as that of the 
Brown Race. Although the Americans thus possess a pervading and characteristic 
complexion, there are occasional and very remarkable deviations, including all the 
tints from a decided white to an unequivocally black skin. This fact maybe 
sufficiently illustrated by the following examples. Among the fair tribes of the 
Upper Orinoco, Humboldt makes especial mention of the Guahariboes, the 

* Polit. Essay, B. IT, chap. 6. t Trav. in Valley of the Miss. p. 317. 

X Researches, p. 16, &c. § Ibid. p. 18. 



THE AMERICAN FAMILY. 69 

Guanares, the Guayacas and the Maquiritares. " The individuals of the fair tribes 
whom we examined," says that traveller, "have the features, the stature, and the 
smooth, straight, black hair which characterise other Indians- It would be impos- 
sible to take them for a mixed race, like the descendants of natives and Europeans, 
and they are neither feeble, nor albinoes."* Among the Botocudys of Brazil, the 
Prince de Wied saw some who were almost entirely white, with a tint of red 
upon their cheeks, although the usual color is a reddish brown.f Molina states 
that the Boroanes, who inhabit the Araucanian provinces of Chili, in the thirty- 
ninth degree of south latitude, "are white, and as well featured as the northern 
Europeans.":f Bouguer found some Peruvian Indians at the base and on the west 
side of the Cordilleras who were almost as white as Europeans. Bartram saw 
among the Cherokees some young women, whom he describes as fair and 
blooming; and among the nations of the island of St. Catharine, on the coast of 
California, young persons of both sexes have a fine mixture of red and white in 
their complexions. 

That climate exerts a subordinate agency in producing these diversified hues, 
must be inferred, I think, from the facts mentioned by Humboldt, that the tribes 
which wander along the burning plains of the equinoctial region, have no darker 
skins than the mountaineers of the temperate zone. Again, the Puelches and 
other inhabitants of the Magellanic region, beyond the fifty-fifth degree of south 
latitude, are absolutely darker than the Abipones, Macobios and Tobas, who are 
many degrees nearer the equator. While the Botocudys are of a clear brown 
color, and sometimes nearly white, at no great distance from the tropic, and 
moreover, while the Guyacas under the line are characterised, as we have seen, by 
a fair complexion, the Charruas, who are almost black, inhabit the fiftieth degree 



"^ It is well known, however, that Albinoes are not unfrequent among the American Indians. 
Those of Darien were minutely described by Wafer about a hundred and fifty years ago. " They 
are quite white," says he, " but their whiteness is like that of a horse, quite different from the fair or 
pale European, as they have not the least tincture of a blush or sanguine complexion. * * * Their 
eyebrows are milk-white, as is likewise the hair of their heads, which is very fine, inclining to a curl, 
and growing to the length of six or eight inches. * * * They seldom go abroad in the day time, 
the sun being disagreeable to them, and causing their eyes, which are weak and poring, to water, 
especially if it shines towards them ; yet they see very well by moonlight, from which we called them 
moon-eyed." — Wafer, in Drake'' s Coll. of Voy, FoL p. 310. 

t Voy. au Bresil, II, 212.— I, 335. 

X History of Chili, I, p. 274. 
18 



70 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

of south latitude, and the yet blacker Californians are twenty-five degrees north of 
the equator.* 

" The nations of New Spain are darker colored than the Indians of Quito 
and New Grenada, who inhabit a precisely analogous climate. We even find 
that the nations dispersed to the north of the Rio Gila, are browner than those 
that border on the kingdom of Guatimala. The people of the Rio Negro are 
darker than those of the Lower Orinoco, yet the banks of the former of these two 
rivers enjoy a cooler climate. In the forests of Guiana, especially near the sources 
of the Orinoco, there exist several tribes of a whitish complexion, [to whom 
allusion has already been made,] who are surrounded by other nations of a darker 
brown. The Indians who, in the torrid zone, inhabit the most elevated table land 
of the Andes, and those who, under forty-five degrees of south latitude, live upon 
fish in the Archipelago of Chonos, have a complexion as much copper-colored as 
they who cultivate, under a burning sun, the banana in the narrowest and deepest 
valleys of the equinoctial regions. To this it must be added, that the Indians 
who inhabit the mountains are clothed, and were so long before the conquest ; 
while the aborigines that wander on the plains are perfectly naked, and conse- 
quently are always exposed to the perpendicular rays of the sun. Every where, 
in short, it is found that the color of the American depends very little on the 
local situation which he actually occupies ; and never, in the same individual, are 
those parts of the body that are constantly covered, of a fairer color than those 
that are in contact with a hot and humid air. Their infants are never white 
when they are born ; and the Indian caziques who enjoy a considerable degree 
of luxury, and who keep themselves constantly dressed in the interior of their 
habitations, have all the parts of their body, with the exception of the palms of 
their hands and the soles of their feet, of the same brownish red or copper color."! 

After all, these differences in complexion are extremely partial, forming mere 
exceptions to the primitive and national tint that characterises these people from 
Cape Horn to the Canadas. The cause of these anomalies is not readily explained : 



* " Si le climat seul etait la cause de la couleur brune des Americains, les Portugais auraient du, 
apres pliisieurs generations, prendre aussi cette couleur ; et cependent il est certain qu'ils ont la meme 
que leurs ancetres toutes les fois que leur sang n'est pas mele avec celui des Negres ou des Indians."— 
Prince de Wied, Voy, au Bresil, II, p. 310.— See also, Humboldt, Monuments, T. I, p. 23.— 
DoBRizHOFFER, II, p. 9. — BoRY DE St. ViNCENT, U Homme, II, p. 20. 

tMALTE-BRUN, Geog. %^m. ed, 5, p. 14. 



THE AMERICAN FAMILY. 71 

that it is not climate is sufficiently obvious ; and whether it arises from partial 
immigrations from other countries, remains yet to be decided. 

Nothing can be more variable than the stature of these people, which presents 
some remarkable contrasts, of which a few only need be noticed at present, as I 
shall revert to this subject on a future occasion. The Patagonians of the main 
land, after rejecting the absurd fables of the early voyagers, are the tallest nation 
on the American continent. Commodore Byron states that among five hundred 
men he saw together, the shortest were at least four inches taller than his own 
men.* Captain Wallace, however, took the pains to measure many of them, 
among whom one was six feet seven, and several were six feet five ; but the 
greater part of them were from five feet ten to six feet.f On the other hand 
Humboldt found the Chaymas and some other tribes of the Upper Orinoco to be 
remarkably short, while in the adjacent Charib nation the men were not less 
conspicuous for their great stature. The Pourys and Coroadosf of Brazil are 
diminutive races, while the Abipones of Paraguay are, to a man, of gigantic pro- 
portions. The late Mr. Bartram, who passed much time among the Florida 
nations, describes the Creek (Muscogee) Indians as strikingly tall and athletic, " a 
full size larger than Europeans ; many of them above six feet, and few under that, 
or five feet eight or ten inches." Yet what is very singular, he assures us that 
the women of that nation are seldom above five feet high, and that the greater 
number of them never attain to that stature ; an observation that has also been 
made respecting the Indians of Paraguay. § 

Although the Americans are generally of good stature, they are not so 
generally of strictly athletic proportions. Their chests are often less expanded 
and their shoulders narrower than one would expect ; defects which are usually 
ascribed to habitual indolence ; for the men make little exertion with their arms 
beyond bending the bow. On the other hand, many nations both of North and 
South America, are remarkable for their perfect symmetry: among numerous 
examples we may instance the Patagonians of the main land, the Charruas of 
Brazil, and the Creeks and Seminoles of Florida. In fact there is ample evidence 
to disprove the hypothesis of some closet naturalists, that the physical man of 
the new world is of a defective and degenerate organisation. 



* Hawks. Voy. I, p. 26. 

t Ibid. I, p. 124. — The reader will find an interesting examination of this question in the Intro- 
duction to Havvksworth's Voyages, and also in De Pauw, Rescb. sur les Amer. T. I, p. 283, &c. 
t Spix and Mart. Trav. II, 239. § Pernetty, Voy. I, 299. 



t^ VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

Among some mountain tribes of South America, and especially in Chili, the 
natives are remarkable for the size of their limbs, which are so large as to appear 
out of proportion to the body ; yet it is remarkable that the Americans seldom 
attain a state of obesity. 

Notwithstanding the general custom of going barefoot, the American Indians 
possess remarkably small feet, and their hands have the same delicate conformation. 
Most travellers have noticed this fact, which is a characteristic of the race ;* yet 
the Indian is generally stiff and awkward in his gait, owing to the prevalent habit 
of walking with the feet turned inwards. 

The unsophisticated Americans might be divided into three great classes, 
derived from the pursuits on which they depend for subsistence, viz : Huntings 
Fishings and Agriculture. The first and largest class is devoted to hunting; and 
it embraces most of the strictly nomadic tribes, and of course a great proportion 
of the entire race. The several Dacota nations west of the Mississippi, together 
with the Upsarookas, the Assinaboins, the Black Feet, and many other nations 
both east and west of the Rocky Mountains, cultivate nothing whatever. They 
live upon the flesh of the bujQfalo, the deer, the bear, and various other animals ; 
and when these fail, they suffer all the privations resulting from famine and 
disease. In the southern continent, vast hordes now derive a ready and unfailing 
subsistence from the wild cattle which overrun the extensive plains or pampas of 
Brazil and Patagonia ;t and a few tribes now domesticate these animals, and thus 
avoid the labor of the chase and the lasso. Such are the Pehuenches of the 
Chilian Andes, between the thirty-fourth and thirty-seventh degree of south 
latitude. They dwell, says Molina, in the manner of the Bedouin Arabs, in tents 
made of skins, disposed in a circular form, leaving in the centre a spacious field, 
where the cattle feed during the continuance of the herbage. When that begins 
to fail, they transport their habitations to another situation, and in this manner 
continually changing place, they traverse the valleys of the Cordilleras.J 

In comparison with the hunting tribes, those which subsist exclusively by 
fishing are not numerous ; for among the many nations who inhabited the Atlantic 



* De Azara, Voy. T. II, p. 32, 5S, 269.~Pr. de Wied, Voy. au Bresil, art. Botocudy.— Molina, 
Hist, of Chili, I, p. 27G.— Humboldt, Voy. aux Reg. Equinox, III, p. 2S2, 

t The domestic breed of cattle was first introduced into South America by the Spaniards, and it 
continues to increase beyond all calculation, notwithstanding the annual havoc made among these 
animals for the purposes of food and commerce. 

t Hist of Chili, II, p. 224. 



THE AMERICAN FAMILY. 73 

coast of America, the greater number made their means of support a secondary- 
consideration, some alternating it with agriculture, others with the chase. 
Among the proper piscatory tribes, however, may be adduced the natives of Terra 
del Fuego, and the Flathead nations of the Columbia river. Numerous tribes 
unacquainted with agriculture, are sustained for a great part of the year by fishing 
in the rivers and lakes ; and in the interim between the ending and the recom- 
mencement of the fishing season, are driven to the greatest extremities for food 
sufficient for the purposes of life. Thus the Shoshones west of the Rocky 
Mountains, live more than half the year on roots alone ; and the Ottomacs of the 
Orinoco are compelled for months together to assuage the cravings of nature by 
mixing with their food a large proportion of unctuous clay.* 

In connection with this subject it may be remarked, that even the piscatory 
tribes are wholly destitute of the spirit of maritime adventure, or even fondness 
for the sea. Their boats are of the simplest construction, and in their fishing and 
other aquatic excursions, they seldom intentionally lose sight of land. 

A few tribes were strictly agricultural before the arrival of the Europeans, 
but a much greater number have become so since. Among the former are the 
nations who inhabit the plains and open land between the Orinoco and the 
Amazon, a region to which even the missionaries have hitherto been denied 
admission.f In North America, the cultivation of the soil has been chiefly 
restricted to the nations inhabiting the country between the great lakes and the 
Gulf of Mexico, and between the Mississippi and the ocean. But even among 
the most industrious of these tribes agriculture was pursued in a very elementary 
manner, having been confined chiefly to the cultivation of maize or Indian corn, 
the sweet potatoe, melons and tobacco.J Among the Catholic missions in South 



* " The Ottomacs during some months eat daily three quarters of a pound of clay, sHghtly hardened 
by the fire, without their health being sensibly affected by it. They moisten the earth afresh when 
they are going to swallow it. It has not been possible to verify hitherto with precision how much 
nutritious vegetable or animal matter the Indians take in a week at the same time ; but it is certain 
that they attribute the sensation of satiety which they feel to the clay, and not to the wretched aliments 
which they occasionally take with it.^^ — Humb, Pers, Nar, V, p. 643. 

t Humboldt, Pers. Nar. Ill, p. 312. 

t Gallatin, in Archaeolog. Amer. II, p. 151, 152. — It is remarked by this author that "the 
four millions of industrious inhabitants who, within less than forty years, have peopled our western 
states, and derive more than ample means of subsistence from the soil, offer the most striking contrast 
when compared with perhaps one hundred thousand Indians whose place they occupy." — Loco citat, 
p. 154. 

19 



74 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

America, agriculture has become by coercion the business of the Indians ; and 
among many of the independent hordes of both continents it is conjoined with 
hunting as a means of subsistence. Again, in the West India Islands where there 
was no game, the wants of an immense population were supplied in part by 
agricultural labor, but perhaps in a still greater degree by cultivating the indi- 
genous fruits. Many tribes resort wdth regularity to all these modes of subsistence, 
according to the return of the seasons ; thus employing the spring of the year in 
fishing, the summer in agriculture, the autumn and winter in hunting. 

The Cherokees, as we shall hereafter see, have become an agricultural nation 
by the force of example ; but in Mexico there are tribes which have inhabited the 
same localities which their ancestors possessed some centuries ago, and who lead 
the peaceable life of cultivators of the soil, exempt from the contingencies to 
which the hunting tribes are always exposed.^ 

Although the Americans have derived their horses from the Europeans, they 
have managed them from the first with surprising dexterity. Among many 
tribes in both Americas the fondness for these animals amounts to a passion: 
whole tribes have assumed the equestrian character, so that they hunt and fight 
exclusively on horseback; and the single province of Chaco, in Paraguay, contains 
no less than twenty of these nations. They are also numerous throughout Brazil 
and Patagonia, and in the region between the Mississippi river and the Rocky 
Mountains. Yet strange as it may appear, there is scarcely an example among 
the free Indians, of a horse being used for agricultural purposes.! 

The bold physical development of the American savage is accompanied by a 
corresponding acuteness in the organs of sense. Although nature has done much, 
education has contributed more to the perfection of these faculties. The constant 
state of suspicion and alarm in which the Indian lives, compels him to observe a 
sleepless vigilance. His senses are incessantly employed to preserve himself from 
surprise and destruction, and to foil the stratagems of his enemy. It is said that 
the Charibs of the Antilles could, by the scent alone, follow a man through the 
woods with the same precision that a northern Indian traces another by his foot- 



* Humboldt, Polit. Essay on New Spain, B. II, chap. 6. 

t Among other modes of revenging themselves on the Spaniards, the Indians committed an 
incessant pillage of their horses. Thus in the space of fifty years, says Dobrizhoffer,) an hundred 
thousand of these animals were driven from the estates of the Spaniards by the Ablpc/nes of Chaco 
alone ; and the same author adds, that no less than four thousand horses were frequently carried off 
by the Paraguayan Indians in a single assault.—///^/, of the Mipones, III, p. 8. 



THE AMERICAN FAMILY. 75 

steps; and that they could even detect the nation to which their enemy belonged,* 
" I observed," says Dobrizhoflfer, " that almost all the Abipones (of Paraguay) had 
black but rather small eyes ; yet they see more acutely v^ith them than we do 
with our large ones, being able clearly to distinguish such minute and distant 
objects as would escape the eye of the most quicksighted European."t The 
singular absence of physical deformity has been noticed by all travellers. Such 
defects as arise in childhood are, for obvious reasons, less likely to happen in savage 
than in civilised life. But on the other hand, the various congenital defects 
probably occur in an equal ratio in both conditions ; but it is well known that the 
Indians destroy such of their children as labor under these misfortunes, on the 
plea that they would be helpless, and of course dependent members of the 
community. This kind of infanticide is an almost universal usage among the 
barbarous tribes, who attribute physical deformity to the workings of an evil 
spirit, and children of delicate and unpromising constitutions often suffer the same 
fate. 

How idle is that theory which attributes to these people less hardiness of 
constitution than belongs to the European ! What, in truth, can exceed their 
endurance of fatigue, of hunger, of thirst and of cold ? By day and by night, in 
summer and winter, over mountains, and through rivers and forests, they pursue 
their determined course, whether the object be revenge on an enemy, or food for 
their families at home. It has been assumed in evidence of their weakness that 
they sunk under the labor of the mines much sooner than either Europeans or 
Negroes : but it must be borne in mind that the Indian is incapable of servitude, 
and that his spirit sunk at once in captivity, and with it his physical energy ; 
w^hile, on the other hand, the more pliant Negro, yielding to his fate, and accom- 
modating himself to his condition, bore his heavy burthen with comparative ease. 
Thus it was that a moral influence destroyed thousands of Indians in Hispaniola, 
until the race of islanders became extinct, while their fellow laborers lived and 
multiplied in defiance of oppression. 

Dr. Robertson has been at some pains to prove the physical inferiority of the 
American Indians; and yet, in a note, he quotes from Godin ample evidence 
that the seeming weakness of these people is not a natural defect, but the mere 
result of an inactive life. "The Indians in warm climates," says Godin, "such as 
those on the coasts of the South Sea, on the River of Amazons, and the river 

* Selden, Archseolog. Amer. I, p. 426. t Hist, of the Abipones, II, p. 13. 



76 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

Orinoco, are not to be compared for strength with those in cold countries ; and 
yet boats daily set out from Para, a Portuguese settlement on the River of 
Amazons, to ascend that river against the rapidity of the stream, and with the 
same crew they proceed to San Pablo, which is eight hundred leagues distant. 
No crew of w^hite people, or even of Negroes, would be found equal to such a 
task of persevering fatigue, and yet the Indians, being accustomed to this labor 
from their infancy, perform it."* From these and other facts, it is evident that 
where the Indian can be stimulated by ambition or the hope of reward, his bodily 
strength is equal to great and protracted exertion. 

Cautiousness and cunning are among the most prominent features in the 
character of these people. A studied vigilance marks every action. If an Indian 
speaks, it is in a slow and studied manner, and to avoid committing himself he 
often resorts to metaphorical phrases which have no precise meaning. If he seeks 
an enemy, it is through unfrequented paths, in the dead of night, and with every 
device for concealment and surprise. When he meets his victim, the same 
instinctive feeling governs all his movements. His motive is to destroy without 
being destroyed, and he avails himself of every subterfuge that can protect his 
own person while he seeks the life of his antagonist. It is by a refinement of 
cautious cunning that they have so often circumvented Europeans, and they 
pride themselves on this faculty more than on any other. Thus also when 
provoked they can mask their resentment under an unruffled exterior ; but the 
mind w^hich thus conceals its emotions, devises at the same moment a sleepless 
and bloody revenge. Their very politeness is a part of their cautiousness ; for in 
conversation they seldom contradict or deny the remarks that are made to them, 
so that a stranger is unable to decide whether they are pleased or displeased, 
convinced or the contrary. " The missionaries who have attempted to convert 
them to Christianity, all complain of this as one of the great difficulties of their 
mission. The Indians hear with patience the truths of the gospel explained to 
them, and give their usual tokens of assent and approbation; but this by no 
means implies conviction—it is mere civility."! For the same reason an Indian 
seldom expresses himself with surprise. If an object interests him on account of 
its novelty, he shows his gratification in a few subdued remarks, or by a significant 
gesture ; but it is difficult to betray him into enthusiasm. That taciturnity which 
is also linked with their cautiousness, is fostered by all their usages. It is seen 

* Robertson, Hist, of Amer. Note X LVI. f Hist, of Amer. (Anon.) p. 77. 



THE AMERICAN FAMILY. 77 

even in the marriage ceremony, which is often joyless and even melancholy, as if 
it were rather the harbinger of sorrow than of happiness. It is indeed seldom 
that their pastimes excite enthusiasm or hilarity, unless the performers are 
stimulated by intoxicating drinks ; in which case, as among more civilised men, a 
temporary madness unmasks the darkest passions, and the natural reserve of the 
Indian gives place to extravagant mirth and brutal ferocity. 

This perpetual vigilance has led some authors to charge the Indian with 
cow^ardice ; but he is taught from childhood to consider a successful stratagem 
more honorable than open victory; and it has been observed by an intelligent writer, 
that among the North American Indians generally, flight in battle is not considered 
disgraceful where the number or the resistance of an enemy is greater than had 
been anticipated. Retreat under these circumstances is a principle of their tactics; 
and they renew the combat without humiliation when fortune promises better 
chances of success. The courage of the Indian is evident in his desperate resist- 
ance to superior force ; by his choice of death to capitulation, even when he has 
every guaranty of personal safety ; and by that unshrinking firmness with which 
he sees and feels the approach of death under the most cruel torments. To be 
whole days and nights fastened to a stake and subjected to incessant but gradual 
mutilation — to sustain this load of misery with fortitude and even with cheerful- 
ness, and finally to sink into death without losing for a moment this indomitable 
self-possession, are surely suj[ficient proofs of the courage of the Indian. The 
stoicism with which he bears every variety of bodily suffering is so extraordinary, 
that Ulloa and others have attempted to explain it on the ground that the Ameri- 
cans have a coarser, stronger and less sensitive organisation than any other race. 
This, however, is a mere postulate which has no foundation in fact, and might be 
applied with equal plausibility to the primitive martyrs : nor need we look beyond 
the influence of a ruling passion for a full explanation of the phenomenon. All 
an Indian's hope of glory, all his chance of distinction, depend on his ability to 
endure privation. He goes half clothed to the chase in the depth of winter, not 
because he is insensible to cold, but because he chooses to appear indifferent to it. 
In like manner he sustains himself amidst the severest agonies that can be inflicted 
on human nature, because to shrink from them would stamp him with cowardice 
and infamy. With many tribes this principle is carried so far that parents torture 
their children to test their self-possession ; nor are they enrolled on the list of 
warriors until they can sustain the ordeal without complaint. Let it not be 
thought, however, that the Indian courts privation ; on the contrary no one can 
dislike it more. His natural indolence is opposed to it, and he has moreover the 
20 



78 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

same love of existence as other men. He will resort to every possible contrivance 
to avoid the ills of life, but when they fall upon him he bears them with a heroism 
that has become a proverb. 

As a result of habitual indolence, the Indians are remarkably improvident. 
What a missionary writer says of a few nations, is applicable to many, and indeed 
to most. " They live reckless of the past, little curious about the present, and 
very seldom anxious about the future."^ When the cold pinches him he com- 
mences building a hut; but should the weather soften and invite to repose, he 
abandons his task until again stimulated by necessity. And so it is with his other 
domestic concerns. He will often suffer with want before he engages in the 
chase ; and a successful hunting expedition is followed by a protracted season of 
indolence and gluttony. 

It is usual to charge the Indians with treachery : but in most instances it will 
be found that they have only retorted the perfidiousness that has been heaped 
upon them by others. The annals of Indian history are ample evidence of this 
fact. A system of encroachment and oppression has been practised upon them 
since the first landing of Europeans on the shores of America : their lands have 
been seized upon the most frivolous pretences, and they have had no redress at the 
hand of the white man : wars have been fomented among them to procure their 
mutual destruction ; and when they have been weakened by the conflict, the 
common enemy has stepped in and seized upon their possessions. They have 
been taken in their villages, or inveigled on ship-board, to be sold into slavery ; 
and in fact every art that cupidity could devise has been put in practice to deprive 
them of liberty and life. Is it surprising that a people thus oppressed should 
retaliate on their oppressors ? Or shall we stigmatise them as treacherous when 
they have received so much treachery at our hands ? 

A strong feeling of gratitude is proverbially an Indian trait. General Harrison, 
who has had ample occasion to see and know the Indians, observes that one of the 
brightest parts of their character is their high regard for the obligations of friend- 
ship. " A pledge of this kind once given by an Indian of any character, becomes 
the ruhng passion of his soul, to which every other is made to yield." It is not, 
however, to be denied that they are unfeeling by nature and cruel by education. 
To spill the blood of an enemy, to torture him to death by slow degrees, is the 
supreme pleasure of the American savage. He WTeaks his vengeance with equal 
fury on all the kindred of his adversary. Old age, the helplessness of infancy or 

* DoBRizHOFFER, Abipoues, II, p. 55, 



THE AMERICAN FAMILY. 79 

the charms of youth, have no power to check his destroying spirit. His is, in 
truth, a demoniac love of slaughter w^hich delights in the shriek of the wounded 
and the groan of the dying. Revenge is his ruling passion, and it is the first 
lesson a father inculcates in his child. To gratify it he cheerfully meets every 
difficulty, and encounters every danger ; for to the eye of the Indian no treasure 
is equal to the scalp of an enemy. He constantly reflects on the impression which 
his conduct will make on a friend or an enemy : he studies to surprise the one 
and confound the other; and when neither is before him, he imagines the presence 
of departed spirits, who watch his actions and recount them in the other world. 

Travellers differ on the question of Indian hospitality. They certainly 
possess this trait in a limited degree, and qualify it with reserve if not with 
reluctance. Lewis and Clark aver that after crossing and recrossing the continent 
of America, and meeting of course with many nations of Indians, they were never 
sensible of having received a really hospitable reception from more than one tribe, 
and that was the Chopunnish, or Nez-perces.* It should be recollected, however, 
that they found some of these nations in want of food; while in other instances the 
proverbial rapacity of the white man, and a suspicion of the motives of Captain 
Lewis's party, shut out the kindlier feelings which, for the most part, characterise 
the unsophisticated Indian. 

Covetousness forms but a minor element in the character of the Indian : we 
have observed that he is singularly content with the supply of present need, and 
that his mind is seldom harassed with the idea of future want. He craves not 
the house nor the land of his neighbor, and shows an entire apathy to those 
possessions which are most prized in civilised communities. Hence it is that the 
tumuli of Mexico and Peru, though often immensely rich in the precious metals, 
were never disturbed by the native inhabitants. It remained for strangers to 
commit this act of sacrilege. Much of this indifference to property, however, 
may be ascribed to its uncertain tenure. Among most tribes their daily wants 
are supplied by mutual exertion, and the fruits of the chase are divided among 
the many. If a man dies, every one seizes what he wants from among the 
property of the deceased ; and his wife and children receive nothing, and are left 
to begin the world anew for themselves, with the certainty that whatever their 
industry or good fortune may acquire, will be subject to the same predacious 
violence at their death. 

It must in truth be confessed that the Indian is least to be admired at home ; 

*Exped. II,p. 27.9. 



so VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

for in him the domestic virtues are but partially expanded. War and the chase, 
on the other hand, call forth all his energies. Hunger, fatigue and toil, are 
encountered without a murmur, and the mind, goaded on by the powerful impulse 
of ambition or revenge, becomes untiring and indomitable. The firmness of 
purpose, its attendant privations, and the final contest with a courageous adversary, 
give a seductive exaltation to the character of the American savage. He returns 
to his home, he is greeted by the applauding shouts of his countrymen, and the 
bloody deeds of a crafty and destroying spirit are recounted, even in civilised 
communities, as acts of heroism and greatness. How transient is this seeming 
glory ! The excitement of the moment has passed away, and where is the 
warrior now ? For him domestic life has no charms, and tranquillity resolves 
itself into the most grovelling pastimes. Behold him lounging under the shade 
of a tree, the victim of apathy and sloth, too vain to cultivate his fields, or to 
raise a hand for his own support, while he looks with complacency on the toils of 
a mother, a wife, or a daughter, whom the barbarous usages of Indian thraldom 
have condemned to perpetual slavery. To such an extent is this servitude 
carried, that mothers not unfrequently destroy their female children, alleging as a 
reason that it is better they should die than live to lead a life so miserable as that 
to which they are doomed ;* while among some tribes grief and jealousy drive the 
women to suicide.f The Indian is habitually cold in his manner to the gentler 
sex, and stern to his children, considering it unmanly to show much tenderness to 
either. This exterior reserve, however, is by no means indicative of their real 
character ; for after all that has been said to the contrary, these people are not 
remarkable for the purity of their morals. The very reverse, indeed, is true; for 
when they throw off the mask of reserve which they habitually assume in the 
presence of strangers, they are observed to be as much depraved by vice and 
sensuality as most other barbarous nations.} 

The Americans are, perhaps, less swayed by superstitious fears than most 
other savages ; and their religion, if it merits the name, is more remarkable for its 
poverty than its grossness. It is chiefly a simple theism which acknowledges a 
good and an evil spirit ; the former of course exerting a benign influence on the 



* Bradbury, Trav. in Amer. p. 89.— Depens. Voy. a la Terre Ferme, T, p. 302. 

t Keating, Exped. to the St. Peters, I, p. 227, 395. 

t See Bradbury, Trav. in Amer. p. 37, 149, 154. Jim. cof.— Keating, Exped. I, p. 224.— De 
AzARA, IT, p. 115.— Lewis and Clark, Exped. I, p. 105, 421; II, p. 134.— Muratori, Missions of 
Paraguay, p. 29. 



THE AMERICAN FAMILY. 81 

destinies of men, while the latter is looked upon as the author of all their misfor- 
tunes. Yet there is, for the most part, no regularity in the time or manner of 
their worship, which appears to be the mere result of occasion or impulse. The 
Indian hears God in the winds, and in the cataract, and acknowledges his presence 
in all the phenomena of the elements ; yet these are always attributed to the same 
spirit, and not, as with most barbarous people, to a multiplicity of spiritual agents. 
Again, the Americans are little prone to idolatry; for it is rare to find any com- 
munity among them paying homage to an image of their own making. So far as 
inquiry has been extended to this subject, it appears that all the American nations 
believe in the immortality of the soul, which is to enjoy in a future state the most 
exciting temporal pleasures without fatigue or alloy : of these pastimes hunting 
and fishing are the most esteemed, and hence the implements used in both are 
buried with the dead. 

The Indians have an extraordinary veneration for their dead, which some- 
times induces them, on removing from one section of the country to another, to 
disinter the remains of their deceased relatives, and bear them to the new home 
of the tribe. Hecke welder says, that when at Bethlehem, in Pennsylvania, about 
the middle of the last century, he saw a removing party of the Nanticokes pass 
through that town, loaded with the bones of their dead friends, some of which 
were in so recent a state as to taint the air as they passed.* 

The intellectual faculties of this great family appear to be of a decidedly 
inferior cast when compared w^ith those of the Caucasian or Mongolian races. 
They are not only averse to the restraints of education, but for the most part 
incapable of a continued process of reasoning on abstract subjects. Their minds 
seize with avidity on simple truths, while they at once reject whatever requires 
investigation and analysis. Their proximity, for more than two centuries, to 
European institutions, has made scarcely any appreciable change in their mode of 
thinking or their manner of life ; and as to their own social condition, they are 
probably in most respects what they were at the primitive epoch of their existence. 
They have made few or no improvements in building their houses or their boats ; 
their inventive and imitative faculties appear to be of a very humble grade, nor 
have they the smallest predilection for the arts or sciences. The long annals of 
missionary labor and private benefaction bestowed upon them, offer but very few 
exceptions to the preceding statement, which, on the contrary, is sustained by the 
combined testimony of almost all practical observers. Even in cases where they 



* Narr. p. 76. 
21 



82 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

have received an ample education, and have remained for many years in civilised 
society, they lose none of their innate love of their ow^n national usages, which 
they have almost invariably resumed when chance has left them to choose for 
themselves. Such has been the experience of the Spanish and Portuguese 
missionaries in South America, and of the English and their descendants in the 
northern portion of the continent.* 

However much the benevolent mind may regret the inaptitude of the Indian 
for civilisation, the affirmative of this question seems to be established beyond a 
doubt. His moral and physical nature are alike adapted to his position among 
the races of men, and it is as reasonable to expect the one to be changed as the 
other. The structure of his mind appears to be different from that of the white 
man, nor can the two harmonise in their social relations except on the most 
limited scale. Every one knows, however, that the mind expands by culture ; 
nor can we yet tell how near the Indian would approach the Caucasian after 
education had been bestowed on a single family through several successive 
generations.! 

* Those distinguished travellers, Spix and Von Martins, mention that an Indian of the Coroados 
tribe of Brazil, was brought up in the adjacent European colony, and so far educated that he was 
ordained priest, and read mass ; " but all at once he renounced his new profession, threw aside his 
habit, and fled naked into the woods to his old way of life.'^ — Trav. in Brazil^ II, p. 242. 

My friend Dr. Casanova, who has resided several years in Chili, informs me that instances like 
the preceding are not unfrequent in that country, even when the Indians have been taken at a very 
tender age, and every inducement has been held out to enlist their feelings in favor of civilised hfe. 

" At an early period of the existence of Harvard University," says Dr. Warren, " our pious 
ancestors placed there a number of young Indians. These, after a short term of study, uniformly 
disappeared, and I believe the name of Caleb Chees-chaumuck stands on the college catalogue, a 
solitary instance of a native regularly graduated. — A recent example of the difficulty of reducing the 
young savage to the habits of civilised life, is well known in this vicinity. The government of the 
United States, after the late Indian war, placed the son of the Prophet Tecumseh at the West Point 
establishment of cadets. The young man conformed at first with apparent ease to the strict discipline 
of the institution; but on their visit to this place in 1821, he availed himself of an opportunity to quit 
them, and has not, I believe, since rejoined the corps.'^* 

The Mohawk warrior Thayendanegea, more familiar by the name of Brant, received a Christian 
education, and even joined in the Christian communion ; yet he was readily induced by the British 
government to resume his savage propensities against the American colonies, and became one of the 
most bloody and remorseless destroyers in the annals of Indian warfare. 

t" Variety of powers in the various races," observes Mr. Laurence, "corresponds to the differ- 

* Comparative View of the Sensorial Systems in Men and Animals, p. 95.— I may add, that Dr. Warren does not 
suppose the Indians incapable of attaining the sciences and arts ; but that the reason of their having made so little 
progress, is to be traced to injudicious and inadequate means of instruction. 



THE TOLTECAN FAMILY. 83 

One of the most remarkable intellectual defects of the Indians is " a great 
difficulty in comprehending any thing that belongs to numerical relations. I 
never saw a single man who might not be made to say that he was eighteen or 
sixty years of age."^ Wafer made the same remark in reference to the Indians 
of Darien ; and Mr, Schoolcraft, the United States Indian Agent, assures me that 
this deficiency is a cause of most of the misunderstandings in respect to treaties 
entered into between our government and the native tribes. The latter sell their 
lands for a sum of money without having any conception of the amount, so that 
if it be a thousand dollars or a million few of them comprehend the difference 
until the treaty is signed and the money comes to be divided. Each man is then 
for the first time acquainted with his own interest in the transaction, and disap- 
pointment and murmurs invariably ensue. 

15. THE TOLTECAN FAMILY. 

In this group are embraced the civilised nations of Mexico, Peru and Bogota, 
extending from the Rio Gila in the thirty-third degree of north latitude, along the 
western margin of the continent to the frontiers of Chili. In North America, 
however, the people of this family were spread from ocean to ocean, through the 
present intendencies of Mexico, Vera Cruz, Puebla, Oaxaca, Guatimala, Yucatan, 
Nicaragua, &c. In South America, on the contrary, this family chiefly occupied 
a narrow strip of land between the Andes and the Pacific Ocean, and were limited 
on the south by the great desert of Atacama. Further north, however, in the 
present republic of New Grenada, lived the Bogotese, a people whose civilisation, 
like their geographical position, was intermediate between that of the Peruvians 
and Mexicans. This division of the Toltecan family had long held their mountain 
empire at the epoch of the Spanish invasion and conquest, and were surrounded 
on all sides by barbarous and uncongenial tribes. 



ences both in kind and degree, which characterise the individuals of each race ; indeed, to the general 
character of all nature, in which uniformity is most carefully avoided. To expect that the Americans 
can be raised by any culture to an equal height in moral sentiments and intellectual energy with 
Europeans, appears to me quite as unreasonable as it would be to hope that the bull-dog may equal 
the greyhound in speed; that the latter may be taught to hunt by scent like the hound; or that the 
mastiff may rival in talents and acquirements the sagacious and docile poodle." — Lectures on Zoology ^ 
p. 501. — See also a graphic view of this question in Dr. CaldwelPs Thoughts on the Unity of the 
Human Species, p. 142. 

* Humboldt, in Lawrence's Lect. p. 569. 



84 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

In assigning the geographical limits of the Toltecan family, it is not to he 
supposed that they alone inhabited this extended region; for while successive 
nations of that family held dominion over it for thousands of years, other and 
barbarous tribes were every where dispersed through the country, and, whether 
of aboriginal or exotic origin, may have at all times constituted a large part of the 
population. During these periods of power and greatness, an organised feudal 
system divided the nation into two great classes of nobles and plebeians ; and 
there appears to have been as much objection to the amalgamation of these classes 
as ever existed in an aristocratic state of Europe. The advent of the Spaniards 
destroyed all distinctions by reducing both classes to equal vassalage ; and three 
centuries of slavery and oppression on the part of the Spaniards, have left few 
traces of Mexican and Peruvian civilisation, excepting what we glean from their 
history and antiquities. These nations can no longer be identified in existing 
communities ; and the mixed and motley people who now bear those names, are 
as unlike their ancestors in moral and intellectual character, as the degraded Copts 
of Egypt are unlike their progenitors of the age of Pharaoh. 

As it will be a principal object in the sequel of this work to consider the 
character of these nations in reference to their cranial remains, we shall in this 
place merely remark that it is in the intellectual faculties that we discover the 
great difference between the Toltecan and American families. In the arts and 
sciences of the former we see the evidences of an advanced civilisation. From 
the Rio Gila in Calafornia, to the southern extremity of Peru, their architectural 
remains are every where encountered to surprise the traveller and confound the 
antiquary: among these are pyramids, temples, grottoes, bas-reliefs and arabesques; 
while their roads, aqueducts and fortifications, and the sites of their mining 
operations, sufficiently attest their attainments in the practical arts of life.* 

* It will be observed that this family is identical with the Neptunian species (Homo neptunianus) 
of M. Bory de St. Vincent. I cannot adopt that designation, because the classification to which it 
belongs refers these people to the Malay race. That they are not Malays is sufficiently obvious from 
the diff'erence in their character throughout; at the same time that some analogies between the skulls 
of the two races will be recognised from the description already given. It must moreover be granted, 
that there are some resemblances in language which are very interesting ; but while these prove a 
communication and even protracted intercourse between the Americans and Asiatics, they by no 
means establish an affiliation of nations. But the most striking discrepancy between the Malays and 
Americans is seen in the extraordinary nautical habits of the one people, and the utter destitution of 
all maritime enterprise in the other. 

It is curious to observe that in M. Dumoulin's classification, his eleventh, or American species, 
which embraces most of the barbarous tribes of South America east of the Andes, is said to possess 



THE TOLTECAN FAMILY. 85 

With respect to the American languages, it may be sufficient in this place to 
observe that they present resemblances not less remarkable than those we have 
noticed in the physical and moral traits of these people. All the nations from 
Cape Horn to the Arctic sea, have languages w^hich possess " a distinct character 
common to all, and apparently diflfering from those of the other continent with 
which we are acquainted."* This analogy, adds Dr. Wiseman, is not of an 
indefinite kind, but consists for the most part in peculiar conjugational modes of 
modifying the verbs by the insertion of syllables ; whence the remark of Vater 
that this wonderful uniformity observed from one extremity of America to the 
other, "favors in a singular manner the supposition of a primitive people, which 
formed the common stock of the American indigenous nations."! 

Note. — On Certain Mixed Races in America, -^The various grades of amalgamation between 
the white and Negro population of America, are too well known to require specification in this place; 
but there are two other mixed races which, from being much more partial, are much less familiar : 
viz, those which have resulted from intermarriages between the Europeans and Indians, and between 
the Indians and Negroes. Of the first class the frontier settlements every where present isolated 
examples; but at San Paulo, in Paraguay, there is an entire community of these people who are 
known by the name of Mamelukes, They are the offspring of Indian women by men of the 
Portuguese, Dutch, French, Itahan, German and Spanish nations. The fathers were often outlaws, 
the mothers the very refuse of the Indian tribes. It is not surprising, therefore, that the children of 
such parents should have surpassed the indigenous savages in barbarity and devastation. Their 
habitual custom was to attack the missionary stations of the Jesuits, and either destroy or carry into 
hopeless slavery all the Indians who fell into their hands. Whole districts were thus depopulated, 
and even the Spanish cities were repeatedly attacked and pillaged, and the inhabitants reduced to 
slavery. " It is asserted that in one hundred and thirty years, two millions of Indians were slain, or 
carried into captivity by the Mamelukes of Brazil; and that more than one thousand leagues of 
country, as far as the river Amazon, were stripped of inhabitants. Pedro de Avilla, Governor of 
Buenos Ayres, declared that Indians were openly sold, in his sight, by the inhabitants of San Paulo 
at Rio Janeiro; and that six hundred thousand Indians were sold in this town alone from the year 
1628 to 1630."J These atrocious practices were at last done away by the severest measures on the 
part of the parent governments of Spain and Portugal, but first by a victory gained over these lawless 
banditti by the combined tribes of the Guarany nation. 

Allied in origin to these are the Confusos of Brazil, a numerous community with long and curled 



for the most part a spherical head, (tete generalement spherique,) while the Columbian species of the 
same author, embracing the Peruvians and Mexicans, is described with an elongated head, (tete 
allongee.) It is only necessary to compare the plates of the present work to be satisfied of the 
inaccuracy of the latter observation. — Vide Bulletin des Sciences Univ, VI, p. 245. 

* Gallatin, in Archasolog. Amer. II, p. 5, US. t Wiseman, Lectures, p. 80. 

jDoBRizHOFFER, Abipoucs, I, p. 161.— MuRATORi, Paraguay Missions, p. 5G, 
22 



86 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

hair, especially towards the end, "a mean between the wool of the Negro and the long stiff hair of 
the American.'' This bushy mass is combed out from the head so as to be between two and three 
feet in diameter, like that of the Papuas of New Guinea.* 

The most remarkable mixture of the Indian and Negro races, is perhaps that described by Mr. 
Stevenson as seen by him in the republic of Colombia. " The natives of Esmeraldas, Rio Verde and 
Atacames," says he, "are all Zambos, apparently a mixture of Negroes and Indians; indeed the oral 
tradition of their origin is, that a ship having Negroes on board arrived on the coast, and having 
murdered a great number of the male Indians, kept their widows and daughters and laid the founda- 
tion of the present race.'' He describes these Esmeraldenos as "tall and rather slender, of a lightish 
black color, different from that called copper color; have soft curly hair, large eyes, nose rather flat, 
and thick lips, possessing more of the Negro than the Indian."! Dr. M'Culloh does not admit the 
asserted Negro origin of these people; but it so much resembles that of the black Charibs of St. 
Vincent, as to leave httle doubt on the subject. Mr. T. R. Peale, who was some time among the 
Esmeraldenos, has assured me that so far as his personal observation goes they are a decided mixture 
of Negro and Indian blood. It has been thought by some that these are the very "blackamoors" 
described by Peter Martyr as having been seen by Balboa ;t a point which, at this distance of time, is 
not readily decided. 

17. THE NEGRO FAMILY. 

The term Ethiopian is in common use to designate the Negro, yet very 
improperly, inasmuch as the name Ethiopia was applied by the ancients not only 
to certain parts of eastern Africa, including Nubia and Abyssinia, but also to 
southern India ; and it was moreover applied to any country whose inhabitants 
were of a very dark complexion. § "The Greeks," says Sir William Jones, "called 
all the southern nations of the world by the common appellation of Ethiopians, 
thus using Ethiop and Indian as convertible terms."|| It is obvious, therefore, 
that the term Ethiopian, as applied by Blumenbach and others to the Negro 
nations collectively, is vague if not inadmissible. 

The Negro Family^ in the present instance, embraces all the proper Negro 
nations near and south of Mount Atlas and Abyssinia to the country inhabited by 
the Gaffers and Hottentots. The more northern tribes, as we have already 
intimated, present various mixed features derived from their proximity to the 
Caucasian nations in their vicinity. "The people of El-wah," says Browne, "are 

* Spix and Martius, Trav. in Brazil, I, p. 324. 

t Trav. in South Amer. II, p. 387. % M'Culloh, Researches, p. 2Q. 

§ Russell, Nubiu and Abyssinia, Introd. p. 19.— Heeren, Anc. Nations of Africa, I, p. 295.— 
" Ethiopia, though a vague name, was applied to that country lying beyond the Cataracts, which in 
the Scriptures and in the Egyptian language, is called Cush.^' 

II Legh. Jour, in Egypt, p. 89. 



THE NEGRO FAMILY. 87 

quite of Egyptian or Arab complexion and feature, and none of them black ; so 
that I scarcely conceived myself to have arrived at the confines of the blacks till 
we reached the first inhabited parts of Darfour."* In like manner the Foulahs, 
who inhabit the Atlantic coast in the same parallel of latitude, are of a brown 
complexion, with long hair and European features; but these tribes are obviously 
in part of Moorish descent, and are supposed by some to be the Leucsethiopes of 
Ptolemy. Many nations to the north of the Mountains of the Moon, however, 
together with nearly all those south of them, present the peculiar features which 
render the people of this race more readily identified than those of any other. 
These characteristics, which have been already adverted to, are so uniformly 
bestowed, that among the thousands of Negroes of many different nations whom 
I saw in the West Indies, not one could have been mistaken for an individual of 
any other race. 

The moral and intellectual character of the Africans is widely different in 
different nations. Thus the Makouas and Ashantees have continued to be the 
uncompromising enemies of the European colonists, and remain to this day 
unsubdued. The fiery and revengeful Eboe contrasts strongly with the docile 
native of Benguela. The Kroomen of the western coast are an intelligent and 
industrious people, while many of the tribes of the Niger are remarkably stupid 
and slothful. The Mandingoes are tractable and honest ; but the Lucumi, who 
also inhabit the western coast, are a brave and independent people, who in captivity 
will even resort to suicide to avoid punishment or disgrace* The Caravalli tribe 
is remarkable for combining industry and avarice ; and it is observed in the West 
Indies that they constitute the greater proportion of the free Negroes who become 
rich. On the other hand, all the tribes of Congo, and they are very numerous, 
are noted for indolence, deception and falsehood. The Negroes are proverbially 
fond of their amusements, in which they engage with great exuberance of spirit; 
and a day of toil is with them no bar to a night of revelry.f 

Like most other barbarous nations their institutions are not unfrequently 
characterised by superstition and cruelty. They appear to be fond of warlike 
enterprises, and are not deficient in personal courage; but, once overcome, they 
yield to their destiny, and accommodate themselves with amazing facility to every 
change of circumstance. 



* Trav. in Africa, p. 165. 

t Lander, Trav. to Source of the Niger.— Prichard, Researches, Vol. I.— Murray, Trav. in 
U. States. 



88 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

The Negroes have little invention, but strong powders of imitationj so that 
they readily acquire the mechanic arts. They have a great talent for music, and 
all their external senses are remarkably acute. 

With respect to their intellectual character there is much diversity of opinion; 
some authors estimate it at a very low scale, w^hilst others insist that the germ of 
mind is as susceptible of cultivation in the Negro as in the Caucasian. That 
there is considerable difference in this respect in the different tribes is pretty 
generally admitted; but, up to the present time, the advantages of education have 
been inadequately bestow^ed on them, and instances of superior mental pov^ers 
have been of extremely rare occurrence. 

Note. — The great antiquity of the Negro race admits of no question, and has even led some 
philosophers to surmise that it was the primitive stock of mankind, and that all the other varieties 
may have been derived from this one by the action of physical causes. A few facts are sometimes of 
more weight than a host of hypotheses; and it may not be irrelevant to put this question, as well as 
the converse of it, to a chronological test, in the words of a distinguished author. " According to 
accredited dates," says he, " it is four thousand one hundred and seventy-nine years since Noah and 
his family came out of the ark. They are believed to have been of the Caucasian race ; and the 
correctness of the belief there is no ground to question. We shall assume it, therefore, as a truth, 
without adducing the reasons which seem to sustain it. Three thousand four hundred and forty-five 
years ago a nation of Ethiopians is known to have existed. Their skins, of course, were dark, and 
they differed widely from Caucasians in many other particulars. They migrated from a remote 
country and took up their residence in the neighborhood of Egypt. Supposing that people to have 
been of the stock of Noah, the change must have been completed, and a new race formed, in seven 
hundred and thirty-three years, and probably in a much shorter period.'^* 

The recent discoveries in Egypt give additional force to the preceding statement, inasmuch as 
they show beyond all question, that the Caucasian and Negro races were as perfectly distinct in that 
country upwards of three thousand years ago as they are now : whence it is evident that if the 
Caucasian was derived from the Negro, or the Negro from the Caucasian, by the action of external 
causes, the change must have been effected in at most a thousand years ; a theory which the 
subsequent evidence of thirty centuries proves to be a physical impossibility; and we have already 
ventured to insist that such a commutation could be effected by nothing short of a miracle. 

18. THE CAFFRO-AFRICAN FAMILY. 

The country of the CajGfers, now called Caffraria, is of indeterminate extent. 
On the eastern coast it extends from the Keiskamna river (w^hich separates it from 
the Cape colony) to the south of Delagoa bay. On the west it touches Orange 

* Caldwell, Thoughts on the Unity of the Human Species, p. 72. Philad, 1830. 



THE CAFFRO-AFRICAN FAMILY. 89 

river ; but its inland or northern limit is unknown, but is probably not less than 
two hundred leagues.* Thus the CafFers are interposed between the Hottentots 
on the south and the common Negroes on the north. Caffer, though now 
generally adopted among Europeans as the national designation of these people, is 
an Arabic word signifying infidel. Their true name appears to be Amakosa. 

They are divided into many tribes, of which the principal are the Amakosa, 
Amatimba, Amaponda and the Zoulah.f The difference of physical appearances 
among these tribes is inconsiderable. They are tall, athletic and extremely well 
proportioned, and possess much natural grace of manner. Their physiognomy is 
remarkable for its combination of European and Negro character. The head, for 
example, is large, the forehead full and vaulted, the nose salient and aquiline, and 
the face a well formed oval: but on the other hand the mouth projects, the lips 
are large and fleshy, the hair black and more or less woolly, and the skin mostly 
black, though occasionally a dark brown. The Caffer women are much smaller 
than the men, seldom exceeding five feet in height, with a sleek, soft skin, and 
features which are strongly expressive of cheerfulness and content. 

Lichtenstein, who was long among the CafFers, declares that he never saw 
pne of these people " sneeze, yawn, cough or hawk ;"$ a fact which he found 
supported by the observations of his fellow travellers and others. This is truly 
a physiological anomaly. 

If we may judge from the statements of some travellers, the CafFers are as 
much above the genuine Negro in morals and intelligence as in physical appearance. 
The tribes resident near the English colony are less cruel and superstitious than 
some others ; but their appeals to pretended sorcery in punishing crimes and in 
settling disputes, and the despotic sway of their chiefs, are evidences of a great 
degree of barbarism. 

It is very remarkable that the CafFers should have nations of genuine Negroes 
on both sides of them, and yet themselves possess so few Negro characteristics. 
Among other speculations is that of Mr. Barrow, who believes them to be of 
Arabic origin. " Their pastoral habits and manners," says he, " their kind and 
friendly reception to strangers, their tent-shaped houses, the remains of Islamism 
discoverable in one of its strongest features, the circumcision of male children, 
universally practised among the CafFer hordes, all denote their affinity to the 
Bedouin tribes. Their countenance also is Arabic ; the color only difFers, w^hich 

* Wolf. Trans. Roy. Geog. Soc. Ill, p. 200. t Steedman, in same Journal, V, p. 322. 

X Trav. in Africa, T, p. 252. 

23 



90 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

in some tribes varies from deep bronze to jet black, but most generally the latter 
is the prevailing color. "^ I give this hypothesis as I find it. 



19. THE AUSTRO-AFRICAN FAMILY. 

South of the Caffers to the extremity of Africa, live the Hottentots, one of 
the most singular varieties of the human species, and the nearest approximation 
to the low^er animals. Their stature is of the mediate class, their persons large 
and clumsy, vv^hile their limbs are generally better moulded than in the northern 
Negroes. They have remarkably small hands and feet, which Sparrman considers 
a characteristic mark of this nation. Their complexion is a yellowish brown, 
compared by travellers to the peculiar hue of Europeans in the last stage of jaun- 
dice. Others call it a bright olive. Their hair, which is black and woolly, is 
attached to the scalp in small twisted tufts, but they are nearly destitute of beard. 
The head is large, the forehead low and broad, and the face extremely wide between 
the cheek bones, whence it retreats rapidly to a small, contracted chin. The eyes 
are small and far apart, the nose very broad and flat, and the mouth large; and 
the women are represented as even more repulsive in appearance than the men. 
Notwithstanding these personal disadvantages, Kolbenf asserts that among many 
thousand Hottentots who had come under his observation, he never saw a bandy 
leg or a crooked limb, nor any other deformities, excepting two cripples only. 

The Hottentots have but very vague ideas of religious obligations, although 
they are extremely superstitious. " The faults of which they are accused are, an 
inveterate indolence and gluttony, devouring every kind of animal garbage that 
falls in their way, without preparation, and when thus gorged they throw them- 
selves down and sleep off the effects. That they are, however, capable of 
improvement, is evident from the conduct of those formed into an armed corps 
by the English, and who not only showed a sufficient degree of energy, but also 
grew cleanly in their persons. "J 

The preceding remarks, however, apply chiefly to the Korans and the 
adjacent tribes, some of whom are naturally docile and inoffensive, while others 
have lost a part of their native rudeness by their proximity to the better sort of 
European colonists. But the Bosjesmans are far more savage and degraded than 
any other Hottentot tribes: Lichtenstein, indeed, maintains that they are a 



* Trav. in Southern Africa, II, p. 117. t Present State of the Cape of Good Hope, p. 53. 

t TucKEY, Maritime Geog. Ill, p. lo. 



THE OCEANIC-NEGRO FAMILY. 91 

distinct people, speaking a language dijBerent from the Hottentots, and consti- 
tuting the ultimate link in the scale of humanity. They are robhers by profession? 
cruel by nature, and have such a passion for destroying, that when they attack 
any of the herds belonging to the colonists, they will kill every animal they 
cannot drive away, rather than leave any for the owner.* These Bosjesmans, 
moreover, have the Hottentot features in their utmost ugliness, although their 
predatory life gives more activity and animation to their appearance. Like the 
New Hollanders, their eyelids become so much closed after middle life as to 
conceal the whole of the eyeball, leaving an aperture just sufficient to admit the 
light.f 

Their dwellings are mud hovels, bushes, caves and clefts in the rock, which 
last often serve them in place of houses. — Many go naked, but others cover them- 
selves in the simplest manner with the skins of animals killed in the chase. They 
feed on flesh when they can get it, eating it either raw or cooked indifferently; but 
their chief food consists of roots, berries and plants, whence their emaciated forms 
and shrivelled skin.J They have but little better idea of cleanliness than the 
brute creation ; and a curious fact is mentioned by Lichtenstein, who says that 
many of the Hottentot tribes have a w^ay of crouching down to the water, and 
throwing it into their mouths with the forefingers of both hands.§ 

20. THE OCEANIC-NEGRO FAMILY. 

The Oceanic-Negro 1 1 family is dispersed extensively through the Indian 
Archipelago, and is also found in many islands of the Pacific. In the texture of 
the hair, in the color of the skin, and in fact in every physical relation these people 
are at once recognised as members of the great Negro race. M. Bory de St. 
Vincent describes them from personal observation in the following terms : Their 
physical characters consist in the color of the skin, which is even blacker than 
that of the darkest Ethiopians ; the head is rounded, yet compressed in front and 
at the sides, at the same time that the facial angle is not more acute than in other 
Negroes : the hair is short and woolly, and more compact upon the head than in 
any other people; the superciliary ridges and the cheek bones are extremely 



* Lichtenstein, Trav. in S. Africa, II, p. 50. t Burchell, Trav. in S. Africa, I, p. 459. 

X Sparrman, Trav. in Africa, I, p. 201. § Trav. in Africa, II, p. 48. 

II Called Melaniens (Homo melanicus) by Bory de St. Vincent. They have generally borne the 
collective name of Papuas. See next section. 



92 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

prominent : the eye is smaller than in the Australians, and the pupil is of a mixed 
greenish and brownish tint : the nose is excessively flat, the alae being thin and 
depressed above, but below^ disgustingly open, thus corresponding in lateral extent 
with the wide mouth ; the latter projects like a snout, with thick lips of a bright 
red color ; and the chin is almost square, with a very scanty beard. Their lower 
extremities are thin, long and disproportioned, in which respect they resemble the 
Australians. 

The more remarkable communities of this family are the following. The 
people of Van Diemen's Land have the preceding characteristics in the extreme, 
although their country is as cold as Ireland. So also the natives of the Great 
Andaman Island, who are of small stature, with slender limbs, protuberant 
abdomen, high shoulders, and large heads, exhibiting, in the language of Colonel 
Symes, a horrid mixture of famine and ferocity.* Forster compares the people 
of Mallicolo to monkeys, and asserts that he had seen no Negroes in whom the 
forehead w^as so depressed. This family is also found in the numerous islands 
adjacent to New Guinea, as New Britain, Admiralty Island, the Hermit Islands, 
&c. In Santa Cruz they are said to be less intensely black, and to have large 
foreheads. They also inhabit Tanna and Erromanga, Vanikoro, Viti, New Cale- 
donia and many other islands ; and there is every reason to believe that they are 
the aboriginal inhabitants of these various localities. 

The Papuas. It has already been remarked, that the term Papua has been 
generally applied to all the black races of the Indian Archipelago ; but Quoi and 
Gaimard have recently established the fact that the true Papuas are a hybrid 
family of Malays and Oceanic Negroes. These Papuas are of the middle stature, 
and generally pretty well formed, yet they occasionally have attenuated limbs. 
Their skin is not black, but a dark brown ; and their hair is very black, neither 
lank nor crisped, but woolly, rather fine, and so much frizzled as to give the 
appearance of enormous magnitude to the head ; and they comb out these wiry 
locks in such manner as to make the mass three feet in diameter. They have 
but little beard : the nose is sensibly flattened, the lips thick, and the cheek bones 
large ; but there is nothing disgusting in their physiognomy.f The Papua skulls 
figured in Freycinct's Voyage, have the broad face of the Malay, and the whole 
head is somewhat rounded, with large parietal protuberances.^ 

* Embassy to Ava, p. 130. t Bory, L'Homme, I, p. 305. 

X Voy. de PUranie, Atlas, PI. 1 and 2. 



THE AUSTRALIAN FAMILY. 93 

The moral and intellectual character of these people appears to differ in 
nothing from that of the genuine Negroes hy whom they are surrounded. 

The views of the French naturalists as to the origin of the Papuas are 
strongly confirmed hy the physical characters of the Confusos of Brazil, who have 
been described in a former part of this work.* The true Papuas are for the most 
part confined to the northern coast of New Guinea, and the islands of Waigou, 
Sallawatty, Gammen and Battenta.f The people of Bougainville's island, who are 
darker and of more repulsive physiognomy, appear to belong to the same family. 
With them may also be classed the inhabitants of Solomon's isles, and those of 
Taomaco and Australia del Espiritu Santo.J 

21. THE AUSTRALIAN FAMILY. 

The natives of New Holland are of the full stature, with broad chests, thin 
bodies, and long, slender limbs. Their usual color is either black or very dark 
brown, yet many of the women are as light colored as mulattoes. The face, 
which is ugly in the extreme, projects greatly from the head, and the mouth is 
particularly prominent owing to its width, and the great size of the lips. The 
nose is flat and broad, and the nostrils expanded. A deep sinus separates the nose 
from the forehead ; the frontal ridges often overhang the eyes, while the forehead 
itself is low, and slopes rapidly to the top of the head. Dampier remarks of them 
that they hold up their heads and half close their eyes, as if looking at the sun ; 
which he supposes is done to keep off the multitudes of insects by which they are 
surrounded. Their hair is longer than in the Negro, coarse and often much 
frizzled, yet rarely woolly. § They are passionately fond of war ; and as their 
fierce and vindictive tempers seldom allow them to pardon an enemy, there is a 
perpetual provocation to feud and bloodshed. Even their courtship, if it merits 
that name, consists in a violent abduction of the object of desire, and their women 
are treated throughout life with a brutality perhaps unparallelled in any other 
country. They are to the last degree filthy in their persons and gluttonous in 
their eating ; and their dances betray the licentiousness of their morals. || 

It is not probable that these people, as a body, are capable of any other than 

* Page 85. t Lesson, Voy. de la Coquille. Zool. I, p. 87. 

J Prichard, Phys. Hist, of Man, I, p. 377-380. 

§ Breton, N. South Wales, p. 187. — Barrington, Botany Bay, p. 63. 
II Breton, p. 202. 
24 



94 VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

a very slight degree of civilisation. "Forty years have elapsed since the country 
was colonised," says Mr. Breton, " and I have not yet heard of a single native 
having been reclaimed from barbarism."^ Yet by their contact with the Europeans 
who have of latter years settled the country, they have lost much of the natural 
ferocity of their manners, and they have in many instances become industrious 
laborers. This is the more remarkable when we reflect on their primitive roving 
habits, which prevented their tilling the earth, or domesticating the indigenous 
animals; for they obtained from day to day a casual subsistence almost solely by 
fishing and the chase.f 

The languages of the Australians are peculiar to themselves, and as yet but 
little understood; but it is now established that they borrow little or nothing from 
the Sanserit.J 

The Australians are wholly deficient in maritime skill and enterprise. 
They paddle along their coasts seated cross-legged on a log, nor is there any 
evidence that they have ever crossed the straits which separate them from Van 
Diemen's Land.§ 

The western coast of New Holland, and some of the adjacent islands, are 
inhabited by people who have the general character of the Australians with some 
traits of the Oceanic-Negro : thus at Melleville Island (fifteen miles from the 
north coast) their feet are large, " their heads flat and broad, with low foreheads, 
and the back of the head projects very much : their hair is strong like horse-hair, 
thick, curly, and frizzled, and very black : their eyebrows and cheek bones are 
extremely prominent, and their eyes small, sunk, and very keen and bright : nose 
flat and short, the upper lip thick and projecting, mouth remarkably large, with 
regular, fine, white teeth : chin small, and face much contracted at bottom. "|| 
They have long bushy beards, and, like the Australians, scarify the skin in place 
of tattooing. 

22. THE ALFORIAN FAMILY. 
Of all the families of mankind, the Alfoers, or Horaforas, are perhaps least 

* N. South Wales, p. 240. 

t This gloomy picture is derived from the great majority of observers of Australian life. The 
reader may consult Dawson's Australia for some very different views, which, however, appear to 
be biassed by a genuine and active spirit of benevolence. See also Lang's Polynesian Nation. 

t Field. N. S. Wales, p. 210. § Campbell, in Trans. Roy. Geog. Soc. Ill, p. 158. 

II Campbell, in Trans. Roy. Geog. Soc. of London, III, p. 153. 



THE ALFORIAN FAMILY. 95 

known. From the accounts of voyagers they appear to he more nearly allied to 
the Australians than to any other people. They have the flat nose, projecting 
cheek hones, large eyes, and salient teeth, of the Negro, with straight, coarse, long 
hair. Their limbs are long and thin, and their whole exterior repulsive in the 
extreme. To this it is added that they are sulky, stupid and ferocious.* 

The Alfoers are considered aboriginal to many islands of the Indian Archi- 
pelago. They are most numerous in New Guinea, the Moluccas, and Magindano : 
in Celebes they are said to be sometimes as fair as the Malays, and the savage 
Dyaks of Borneo appear to belong to the same family. It is not improbable, as 
Dr. Prichard suggests, that the Alfoers are but a branch of the Australian stock.f 



Note. — The map which precedes this work is designed to show, though on a small scale, the 
geographical distribution of the five races of men; and the lines of demarcation are those indicated by 
Professor Blumenhach, as separating the different varieties or races in the primitive epochs of the 
world. In every such attempt some anachronisms are unavoidable, and we necessarily judge of 
antiquity from the observation of modern times. The ancients, for example, knew little of Africa, 
and nothing of America and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, not to mention a multitude of subordinate 
details; but we assume that the inhabitants of those countries were essentially the same at the Christian 
era that they are now. The boundary between the Caucasian and Mongolian races is extremely 
vague, but Professor Blumenbach's line (which is an approximation to accuracy) runs from the 
Ganges in a northwestern direction to the Caspian sea, and thence to the river Obi, in Russia. At a 
comparatively recent period, however, several Mongolian nations have established themselves in 
Europe, as the Samoyedes, Laplanders, &c. 

The Ethiopian line is drawn north of the Senegal river obliquely east and south to the southern 
frontier of Abyssinia, and thence to Cape Guardafui, thus embracing the Atlas mountains. Of the 
latter little is known; but many Negro nations inhabit to the north of them, at the same time that the 
Arab tribes have penetrated far beyond them to the south, and in some places have formed a mixed 
race with the native tribes. 



Le3son, Voy. de la Coquille. Zool, I, p. 103, t Researches, I, p. 393. 



CRANIA AMERICANA. 



THE ANCIENT PERUVIANS. 

Peru is a narrow strip of land between the Andes and the sea, bounded on 
the south by a desert. Its fine climate, its productive soil, and its proximity to 
the ocean, render it one of the most interesting divisions of the southern continent; 
and its advantages appear to have been fully appreciated by the aborigines them- 
selves, for there is evidence that several populous nations held successive dominion 
in the country. 

History, even before the advent of the Spaniards, throws much light on one 
of these nations ; that, for instance, which was governed by the Incas : yet, with 
respect to the others, we know little else than what can be gleaned from their 
monuments and cemeteries ; and however meagre these facts may appear, they 
possess considerable interest, and the more so because so few others are available 
to us. 

The arid region of Atacama* was the favorite sepulchre of the Peruvian 
nations for successive ages ; for, while the climate tends rather to the desiccation 
than to the decay of the dead, the mixed sand and salt of the desert have con- 
tributed to the same end ; and the lifeless bodies of whole generations of the 
former inhabitants of Peru may now be examined, like those from the Theban 
catacombs, after the lapse of hundreds, perhaps of thousands of years. The great 
number of the dead thus remaining in Peru, has been a subject of surprise to all 
travellers, and serves to convey an idea of the vast population that has at different 



* The desert of Atacama divides the kingdom of Peru from that of Chil6, and is nearly an hundred 
leagues in length. " In the midst of it is the River of Salt, the water whereof is so brackish that it 
presently grows thick in the hand, or any vessel, and the banks are covered with salt.'^ — Herrera, 
Dec. IV. Lib. IV. Cap. I. 



THE ANCIENT PERUVIANS. 97 

periods derived its subsistence from that country. For example, we are told by 
an intelligent voyager, that having landed at Vermejo, in Peru, in the year 1687, 
he found the vicinity of that tow^n so strewed with desiccated bodies, that, in his 
own language, a man might have walked a mile and a half, and trod on them at 
every step.* These circumstances long since made me desirous to obtain a series 
of crania from the Peruvian sepulchres, in order to ascertain, if possible, whether 
they present indications of more than one great family; or, in other words, to 
inquire whether among them I could trace such departures from the well known 
type of the American race, as would lead to the supposition that this continent 
was formerly inhabited by a plurality of races. In pursuing this inquiry I have 
been so fortunate as to have the examination, in my own and other collections, of 
nearly one hundred Peruvian crania: and the result is, that Peru appears to have 
been at different times peopled by two nations of differently formed crania, one 
of which is perhaps extinct, or at least exists only as blended by adventitious 
circumstances, in various remote and scattered tribes of the present Indian race. 
Of these two families, that which was antecedent to the appearance of the Incas 
is designated as the Ancient Peruvian^ of which the remains have hitherto been 
found only in Peru, and especially in that division of it now called Bolivia. 
Their tombs, according to Mr. Pentland, abound on the shores and islands of the 
great Lake Titicaca, in the inter-alpine valley of the Desaguadera, and in the 
elevated valleys of the Peruvian Andes, between the latitudes of 14° and Uf 30' 
south. The country around this inland sea was called Collao, and the site of 
what appears to have been their chief city, bears the name of Tiaguanaco. 

Let us now glean from the few sources that are open to us, what can be 
discovered of the physical and intellectual character of these people, their history 
and tradition. 

Our knowledge of their physical appearance is derived solely from their tombs. 
In stature they appear not to have been in any respect remarkable, nor to have 
differed from the cognate nations except in the conformation of the head, which is 
small, greatly elongated, narrow its whole length, with a very retreating forehead, 
and possessing more symmetry than is usual in skulls of the American race. The 
face projects, the upper jaw is thrust forward, and the teeth are inclined outward. 
The orbits of the eyes are large and rounded, the nasal bones salient, the zygomatic 
arches expanded; and there is a remarkable simplicity in the sutures that connect 
the bones of the cranium. 



"" Wafer, Voy. p. 165. 
25 



98 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

The first idea that occurs to every one on looking at a series of these skulls 
is, that their peculiarities are in a great measure artificial. If, however, we care- 
fully examine the cranium figured on the fourth plate, together with the accom- 
panying smaller outlines, we find no evidence of mechanical compression. This 
head, on the contrary, appears to be of the natural form, unaltered by art; and it 
is figured as an illustrative type of the cranial peculiarities of the people now 
under consideration. 

It must almost invariably happen, that when the forehead of a naturally 
rounded head has been much compressed by art, the back and lateral parts of the 
cranium become proportionally expanded, in order to make room for the brain that 
has been displaced from the anterior chamber. Thus, among all the specimens I 
have seen of this deformity, from the tribes on the Columbia river, the ancient 
inhabitants of Venezuela, the Charibs of the Antilles and some tribes of Peruvians, 
I have met with no exceptions to the preceding rule. All these nations have, 
naturally, spheroidal heads, and the result of mechanical compression is such as 
above described; a point on which the reader can judge for himself by comparing 
the illustrations in various parts of this work. Now the heads of these ancient 
Peruvians seldom present such lateral expansion; but on the contrary are as 
remarkable for their narrowness as for their length. In fact their low facial angle, 
their sloping forehead, and their protruding face, might lead to a suspicion of a 
Negro origin, were it not for the unanswerable evidence derived from the texture 
of the hair. This is uniformly long. and lank, and appears to have been worn 
at full length by both sexes, and its natural blackness is preserved notwithstanding 
centuries of inhumation. I am free to admit that the naturally elongated heads 
of these people were often rendered more so by the intervention of art, but such 
examples are for the most part readily detected. It is a feature both of civilised 
and savage communities to admire their own national characteristics above all 
others, and hence where nature has denied an imaginary grace, art is called in to 
supply the deficiency; and even where there has been no such deficiency, human 
vanity prompts to extravagance. Thus I have seen some skulls of this race which 
must have been naturally very low and long; yet in order to exaggerate a feature 
that was considered beautiful, compression has been applied until the whole head 
has assumed more the character of the monkey than the man. An example of 
this kind will be seen in the fifth plate, wherein the evidence of artificial flattening 
of the forehead is undeniable: but the congenital lowness of this region and great 
length of the head, have made very little compression necessary to effect the 
desired object ; whence there has resulted but a trifling expansion of the posterior 
and lateral parts of the skull. On the other hand, had this cranium been of the 



THE ANCIENT PERUVIANS. 99 

rounded form common to the American Indians, and especially to the existing 
Peruvians, it is difficult to imagine by what complex contrivances the present 
shape could have been produced. 

It would be natural to suppose, that a people with heads so small and badly 
formed would occupy the lowest place in the scale of human intelligence. Such, 
however, was not the case ; and it remains to show, that civilisation existed in 
Peru anterior to the advent of the Incas, and that those anciently civilised people 
constituted the identical nation whose extraordinary skulls are the subject of our 
present inquiry. 

Among the first travellers in Peru, and perhaps the very first who recorded 
what he saw, was Pedro de Cieca, an officer in the army of Pizarro. Although 
an unlettered man, he describes with simplicity and clearness whatever came 
under his observation ; and the following passage from his work, although of some 
length, is so interesting and so connected with the present inquiry, that I shall 
venture to give it entire. 

" Tiaguanico," says he, " is not a very large town, but it is deserving of notice 
on account of the great edifices which are still to be seen in it ; near the principal 
of these is an artificial hill raised on a groundwork of stone. Beyond this hill are 
two stone idols, resembling the human figure, and apparently formed by skilful 
artificers. They are of somewhat gigantic size, and appear clothed in long vest- 
ments diffi^ring from those now worn by the natives of these provinces ; and their 
heads are also ornamented. Near these statues is an edifice which, on account of 
its antiquity and the absence of letters, leaves us in ignorance of the people who 
constructed it : and such indeed has been the lapse of time since its erection, that 
little remains but a well built wall, which must have been there for ages, for the 
stones are very much worn and crumbled. In this place, also, there are stones so 
large and so overgrown that our wonder is excited to comprehend how the power 
of man could have placed them where we see them. Many of these stones are 
variously wrought, and some having the form of men, must have been their idols. 
Near the wall are many caves and excavations under the earth ; but in another 
place more to the west are other and greater monuments, consisting of large gate- 
ways and their hinges, platforms and porches, each of a single stone. 

'^ What most surprised me while engaged in examining and recording these 
things, was that the above enormous gateways were formed on other great masses 
of stone, some of which were thirty feet long, fifteen feet wide, and six feet thick. 
Nor can I conceive with what tools or instruments these stones were hewn out ; 
for it is obvious that before they were. wrought and brought to perfection, they 



100 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

must have been vastly larger than w^e now^ see them. Before I proceed to a 
further account of Tiaguanico, I must remark that this monument is the most 
ancient in Peru : for it is supposed that some of these structures were built long 
before the dominion of the Incas^ and I have heard the Indians affirm that these 
sovereigns constructed their great buildings in Cuzco after the plan of the w^alls of 
Tiaguanico, and they add that the first Incas w^ere accustomed to hold their court 
in this place. Another very curious fact is, that in the greater part of this territory 
there are no quarries nor rocks w^hence the materials for these structures could 
have been derived. I asked the natives, in the presence of Juan de Varagas, (vs^ho 
commands here,) if these edifices w^ere built in the time of the Incas ? But they 
laughed at the question, repeating what I have already stated, adding that they did 
not know who built them, but that they had a tradition of their ancestors that 
these structures appeared in a single night as we now see them."* 

These statements, and many others to the same purpose, are confirmed by 
the Vicar-general, Diego de Alcobaza, who also visited Tiaguanico, and has left 
an account of the architectural wonders he saw there.f 

It will be observed by the preceding narrative, that tradition among the 
Peruvians attributed these cyclopean structures to an era long antecedent to the 
appearance of the Incas, and this tradition is sustained by history ; for the city of 
Tiaguanico did not fall into the hands of the Incas until the reign of Mayta 
Yupanque, the fourth king, at which period the edifices in question must have 
been in existence for centuries, and were already in a state of ruin and decay. 
Garcilaso de la Vega, himself of the royal Peruvian family, admits that these ruins 
existed at the time the country was conquered by his ancestors ;t and a Peruvian 
author, two centuries and a half nearer our own time, states that Tiaguanico is 
indisputably anterior to the monarchy of the Incas, and speaks, as if from personal 
observation, of a gigantic pyramid and colossal human figures cut from solid rock, 
indicative of the power and genius of a great nation. § The first invasion of the 
Incas was followed by the erection of some temples to enforce the new religion, 
but their only great architectural monument in these parts, the Temple of the 
Sun on the island in Titicaca, was not built until the reign of Tapac Yupanque, 
the tenth Inca, early in the fifteenth century. Herrera also alludes to a tradition 

* Pedro de Cieca, Chronica del Peru, Cap. 105. ISmo. Anvers, 1554.— See also Acosta, Hist, 
de las Indias, Lib. VI, Cap. XIV. 

t Garcilaso de la Vega, Commentarios, Lib. Ill, Cap. 1. 

t Idem. Loco citato. § Mercurio Peruano, Lima, 1791. 



THE ANCIENT PERUVIANS. 101 

of the Indians that these edifices had been built by Amazons at a remote era, nor 
are the Incas mentioned as having had any part in their construction.* 

" It is probable," says Humboldt, " that the edifices which are called in Peru 
by the name of Inga-pilca^ or Buildings of the Inca, do not date further back than 
the thirteenth century. Those at Vinaque and Tiaguanico were constructed at a 
more remote period : so also were the walls of unbaked brick, which were made 
by the ancient inhabitants of Quito. It is to be desired that some intelligent 
traveller would visit the banks of the great lake Titicaca, the province of Collao, 
and more especially the elevated plain of Tiaguanico, which is the centre of an 
ancient civilisation in this region."! 

It will now be asked what evidence can be adduced to prove that the people, 
whose remains we are considering, were the same with those who have left the 
architectural monuments of Tiaguanico and Titicaca ? The fact is established by 
the observations of Mr. Pentland, an intelligent English traveller, who has recently 
visited the upper provinces of Peru. This gentleman states that in the vicinity 
of Titicaca he has " discovered innumerable tombs, hundreds of which he entered 
and examined. These monuments are of a grand species of design and architec- 
ture, resembling Cyclopean remains, and not unworthy of the arts of ancient 
Greece or Rome. They therefore betokened a high condition of civilisation; but 
the most extraordinary fact belonging to them is their invariably containing the 
mortal remains of a race of men, of all ages, from the earliest infancy to maturity 
and old age, the formation of whose crania seems to prove that they are an extinct 
race of natives who inhabited upper Peru above a thousand years ago, and diflfering 
from any mortals now inhabiting our globe. The site is between the fourteenth 
and nineteenth degrees of south latitude, and the skulls found (of which specimens 
are both in London and Paris) are remarkable for their extreme extent behind 
the occipital foramen; for two-thirds of the weight of the cerebral mass must have 
been deposited in this wonderfully elongated posterior en amber: and as the bones 
of the face were also much elongated, the general appearance must have been 
rather that of some of the ape family than of human beings. In the tombs, as in 
those of Egypt, parcels of grain were left beside the dead ; and it was another 



* Hist. Dec. Ill, Lib. IX, Cap. 1. 

t Monuments, I, p. 5. — See also Dr. M'Culloh, (Researches, p. 406,) who remarks, in confirma- 
tion, "that a certain degree of demi-civilisation prevailed in the nations adjoining the Peruvian 
empire, which was not derived from their communication with the latter.^' 
26 



102 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

singular circumstance that the maize, or Indian corn, so left, was different from 
any that now existed in the country." 

Mr. Pentland expresses his decided opinion " that the extraordinary forms 
thus brought to the light of day after their long sojourn, could not be attributed 
to pressure, or any external force, similar to that still employed by many American 
tribes ; and adduced, in confirmation of this view, the opinions of Cuvier, of Gall, 
and of many other naturalists and anatomists. On these grounds he was of opinion 
that they constituted the population of these elevated regions before the arrival of 
the present Indian population, which in its physical characters, customs, &c., 
offers many analogies with the Asiatic population of the old world."* 

The preceding facts appear to establish two important propositions; first, that 
the primitive Peruvians had attained to a considerable degree of civilisation and 
refinement, so far at least as architecture and sculpture may be adduced in 
evidence, long before the Incas appeared in their country ; and secondly, that these 
primitive Peruvians were the same people whose elongated and seemingly brutalised 
crania now arrest our attention ; and it remains to inquire, whether these are the 
same people whom the Incas found in possession of Peru, or whether their nation 
and power were already extinct at that epoch ? 

The modern Peruvian empire had existed upwards of four hundred years at 
the time of the Spanish conquest, so that its origin may be dated somewhere 
about the year 1100 of our era. Now it appears that among the first military 
enterprises of this new family was the conquest of CoUao, which possessed a 
productive soil and a warlike population, and embraced within its confines the 
Lake Titicaca, from which the Incas pretended to have derived a supernatural 
origin. Every effort was therefore made to subdue and to destroy the Collas. 
The Inca Yupanque waged against them a war of extermination ; and we are told 
by Herrera that in some of the towns he left so few persons alive, that inhabitants 
were afterwards sent from other parts of Peru to colonise the wasted districts-f 
The same historian adds, that in order further to depopulate the country, the 
inhabitants were banished from it in large bodies, and dispersed through other 
provinces of the empire; and yet such was the dread in which the new dynasty 
held these warlike people, that they forbade more than a thousand of them to 



* Report of the Fourth Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, p. 
624; and Additional Reports, which were republished in Waldie's Journal of Belles-Lettres, 1834. 
t Historia de las Indias, Dec. Ill, Lib. IX, c. 4. 



THE ANCIENT PERUVIANS. 103 

be withiD the walls of Cuzco at a time, lest they should attempt some revo- 
lutionary enterprise. It therefore appears that no means were left untried to 
subdue and exterminate the people of Colla;* yet how far such a system, persisted 
in at intervals for more than two centuries, could have annihilated a whole nation, 
I shall not attempt to decide. 

When the Spaniards took possession of these provinces, they found them 
inhabited by barbarous tribes, and the islands in the lake Titicaca, which had 
once been highly cultivated, were then waste and vacant. Upon the lake were 
seen rafts made of the reed called by the natives totora^ and on these rafts whole 
families made their home, tossed here and there upon the waters by every change 
of wind. They were in so brutalised a state that when asked to what nation of 
people they belonged, they replied, " We are not men, but Uros," as if they did 
not consider themselves as belonging to the human species.f Were these Uros 
(for so they named their tribe) the remains of the savage colonies sent from other 
parts of Peru to supplant the Collas ? This inference bears at least the stamp of 
probability, but it still does not aid us in ascertaining whether the Collas them- 
selves were the remains of the primitive civilised Peruvians.f 

It may be added, that Garcilaso describes the Peruvian tribes near the sea 
coasts, to whom he applies the collective name of Yuncas, as living in the utmost 
barbarism at the advent of the Incas. In proof of this statement he adduces their 
mythology, which accorded divine attributes to every thing in which they observed 
any dominant excellence. Thus, says he, they worshipped the fox for his cunning, 
the deer for his swiftness, and the eagle for the perfection of his sight. These 
superstitions, however, are not more surprising than those of the primitive ages of 
civilisation in the old world ; and there appears throughout the Spanish historian 
an evident disposition to depreciate the character of the ancient tribes of Peru, in 
order to palliate the cruel measures which were resorted to by the Incas for their 
subjugation. Garcilaso himself describes a remarkable temple at Pachacamac, 
which was erected by the Yuncas ; and the Chimuyans, who were something 
farther to the south, appear to have possessed extensive and regular edifices, 
together with some other attributes of civilisation. The inhabitants of Chimu 
resisted the Incas with great valor, and appear to have been very superior to most 



* Garcilaso de la Vega, Comment. Lib. Ill, cap. 3. 

t AcosTA, Hist, de las Indias, Lib. Ill, cap. 6. — De Laet, Novlis Orbis, Lib. XL 
X Indian tradition relates that the Collas were all destroyed at once, but attributes this catastrophe 
to an inundation. See Herrera, Dec. Ill, Lib. IX, c. L 



104 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

of the adjacent tribes at that early epoch. Nevertheless, they could not compare 
with the primitive nation of CoUao ; and w^hen we MA the remains of the latter 
mingled, as it were^ among those of the barbarous hordes on the sea coast, their 
presence may be accounted for in the casualties of war or commerce, or by that 
forced system of colonisation to which we have already alluded. 

I have followed up the researches of Baron Humboldt and Dr. M'CuUoh 
with the more zeal, because so little notice has been taken of the subject by other 
writers ; and especially because we are now able to take one step more in the 
inquiry, by studying the arts of these people in connection with their cranial 
remains.* 



* Mr. Stevenson has described some very interesting ruins near the village of Langunilla in the 
province of Caxamarca, which he supposes to be anterior to the Inca dominion in Peru. He repre- 
sents these remains to be those of a town, of which the houses are all built of stone, surrounding a 
rock or hill in a valley. '' The bottom tier or range of rooms has walls of an amazing thickness, in 
which I have measured stones twelve feet long and seven feet high, forming the whole side of a room, 
with one or more large stones laid across, which serve as a roof Above these houses another tier 
was built in the same manner, on the back of which are the entrances or doorways, and a second row 
had their backs to the mountain. The roofs of the second tier in front had been covered with stone, 
and probably formed a promenade ; a second tier of rooms thus rested on the roofs of the first tier, 
which were on a level with the second front tier. In this manner one double tier of dwelUng rooms 
was built above another to the height of seven tiers." The author adds that this series of buildings 
was capable of containing five thousand families, and he gives his reasons for supposing it to be, not 
a granary of the Incas, as some travellers have imagined, but the residence of the lord of Chicama, 
" when he resided in the interior of his territory before it became subject to the Inca Pachacutec." 
These ruins present no remains of delicate sculpture, although some of the stones are carved in 
arabesques. Similar to these are the remains of the fortified palace of Paramonga. Trav. in S. 
Jimer. II, p. 22, 170, 173. 



THE ANCIENT PERUVIANS. 105 

PLATE I. 

EMBALMED HEAD, FROM THE PERUVIAN CEMETERY AT ARICA. 

This head, though ohvioiisly a relic of antiquity, has not all the characters of 
the Ancient Peruvian, nor is it introduced as an unequivocal example of that race. 
The forehead is extremely retreating, and at least partially moulded by artificial 
means; but the whole cranium is broader, both in its frontal and parietal diameters, 
than is usual in the people now^ under consideration. It is carefully and effectually 
embalmed : the flesh of the neck and face has been removed and its place supplied 
by Lama wool, and the whole head appears to have subsequently undergone the 
process of tanning and drying. The skin is almost black, the sockets filled, the 
external appendages of the eye admirably preserved, and the hair, which is long, is 
elaborately plaited, and disposed with great apparent care. The sharpness of the 
superciliary ridges indicates the effect of a board or bandage, which has compressed 
the OS frontis and widened the whole head. This is the most perfect instance of 
embalming, among the American nations, that has come under my notice. The 
head was found separate from the body, and enveloped in a sack of corresponding 
size, made of coarse thread or twine. It was disinterred in the vicinity of Arica, 
and politely lent me for insertion among the illustrations of this work, by Mr. 
James Blake, of Boston, Massachusetts. 

The inhabitants of Port Mulgrave, on the northwest coast, and some other 
tribes, decapitate their dead chiefs, and place the head in a box by itself ;* from 
which and other circumstances it is probable that the present relic was not that 
of an enemy, but a person of distinction. 



* Dixon, Voy. p. 176, 181.— This singular custom also prevails in some of the South Sea Islands, 
as the Ladrone and Society Islands, and the Gambler Group. — Hawksworth, Voy. II, p. 236. — 
Beechey, Voy. I. p. 121. 



27 



106 



CEANIA AMERICANA. 



PLATE II. 



ANCIENT PERUVIAN. 





This extraordinary relic was exhumed from that part of the sandy tract of 
Atacama which is nearest to Arica. I received it in fragments from Mr. T. R. 
Peale of this city, and have heen so fortunate as to recompose all the parts. The 
observer is struck with the greatly inclined forehead, the extreme elongation of 
the whole head, and more particularly by the length of the occiput behind the 
ear ; yet there is but little lateral expansion of the head, which, with the face, is 
narrow in proportion throughout. 

This cranium belongs to a child not more than five years of age, and 
presents the following measurements. 

Longitudinal diameter, . , . . . 6.9 inches. 



Parietal diameter, 

Frontal diameter. 

Vertical diameter, 

Extreme length of head and face. 

Internal capacity. 

Capacity of the anterior chamber, 

Capacity of the posterior chamber. 



4.6 inches. 

3.7 inches. 
4.3 inches. 
7.5 inches. 

64. cubic inches. 
17. cubic inches. 
47. cubic inches. 



THE ANCIENT PERUVIANS. 



107 



PLATE III 



ANCIENT PERUVIAN. 





A skull with a singularly flat and retreating forehead, and projecting face. 
The narrowness of the head, however, is not remarkable, and very slight 
pressure, if any, has been applied to the frontal bone. The latter presents a 
rounded ridge extending from the nasal bones backwards to the sagittal suture, 
which elevation would probably have been obliterated if much compression had 
been resorted to. On the other hand, a friend has suggested that this ridge may 
be the result of compression itself, from ligatures which have pressed up the bones 
proximate to the frontal suture of infancy ; yet such a result could hardly have 
followed unless the compression was ingeniously withheld from that part of the 
forehead. Again, on plates XVII and LV of this work, two skulls are figured in 
which this frontal ridge is as strongly developed as in any others in my possession, 
and yet are obviously devoid of mechanical agency. Of the few skulls of ancient 
Peruvians that have come under my notice, the larger number possesses this ridge 
in a striking degree, and it is least obvious in those instances where the flattening 
process is most evident, for example in plate V. 

MEASUREMENTS. 



Longitudinal diameter. 

Parietal diameter. 

Vertical diameter. 

Frontal diameter. 

Extreme length of head and face, 

Inter-mastoid arch, • 

Inter-mastoid line. 



6.5 inches. 

5.2 inches. 
5.1 inches. 

4.3 inches. 
8.3 inches. 

14.5 inches. 
4. inches. 



108 



CRANIA AMERICANA, 



Occipito-frontal arch. 

Horizontal periphery. 

Internal capacity, . 

Capacity of the anterior chamber. 

Capacity of the posterior chamber, 

Capacity of the coronal region. 

Facial angle,. . . . 



13.8 inches. 
18.5 inches. 
72.5 cubic inches. 
26. cubic inches. 
46.5 cubic inches. 
14.75 cubic inches. 
68 degrees. 



This skull belongs to the Philadelphia Museum, and was lent me by Mr. T. 
R. Peale. The entire desiccated body was obtained from the borders of the 
desert of Atacama, not far from Arica. The remains were those of a woman 
who may have reached her thirtieth year. The hair was very long, and had lost 
none of its natural black color. With the body was found a small bag, not unhke 
a modern reticule, in which were contained some copper fish-hooks and small 
instruments of bone which were probably used in forming the meshes of their 
nets or other fabrics. Among the envelopes were also observed small pieces of an 
aromatic gum. 

Through the kindness of Alexander Naysmith, Esq., of London, I possess 
casts of the six skulls brought by Mr. Pentland from the vicinity of the lake 
Titicaca, and five of them are strikingly like the specimen here figured, both as 
respects their general form, their narrow face, their small size, and their several 
diameters ; yet they present more obvious marks of artificial modification. 



PLATE IV. 



ANCIENT PERUVIAN. 






I have already alluded to this relic as furnishing an example of the head of 
the primitive Peruvians unaltered by art ; and it may therefore stand as a type of 



THE ANCIENT PERUVIANS, 



109 



the cranial conformation of these people. Though the forehead retreats rapidly, 
there is but little expansion at the sides, and from the face to the occiput inclusive 
there is a narrowness that seems characteristic of the race. The posterior view 
represents the skull elevated in that region without any unnatural width at the 
sides, and the vertical view sufficiently confirms the latter fact. 



7.3 


inches. 


5.3 


inches. 


4.3 


inches. 


5.3 


inches. 


14. 


inches. 


4.3 


inches. 


15. 


inches. 


19.8 


inches. 


8.2 


inches. 


81.5 


cubic inches 


31.5 


cubic inches 


50. 


cubic inches, 


16.25 cubic inches 


73 degrees. 



MEASUREMENTS. 

Longitudinal diameter. 

Parietal diameter. 

Frontal diameter. 

Vertical diameter, 

Inter-mastoid arch, 

Inter-mastoid line, 

Occipito-frontal arch. 

Horizontal periphery. 

Extreme length of head and face. 

Internal capacity, . 

Capacity of the anterior chamber. 

Capacity of the posterior chamber. 

Capacity of the coronal region, . 

Facial angle, .... 

My friend Dr. Ruschenberger, from whom I received this skull, has pre- 
served the following memorandum of the circumstances under which it was 
found. 

" About a mile from the town, (Arica,) on the south side of the morro^ is 
a cemetery of the ancient Peruvians. There is one path to it over the hill, which 
is somewhat laborious, and another round the base of Arica Head, which is only 
practicable when the tide is low. On one side of the hill are found the graves of 
this injured people, indicated by hillocks of upturned sand, and the numbers of 
human bones bleaching in the sun, and portions of bodies, as legs and arms, or a 
hand and foot, scattered over the surface. The surface is covered with sand an 
inch or two deep, which being removed discovers a stratum of salt, three or four 
inches in thickness, that spreads all over the hill. Immediately beneath are found 
the bodies, in graves or holes, not more than three feet in depth. The body [to 
which this head belonged] was placed in a squatting posture with the knees 
drawn up, and the hands applied to the sides of the head. The whole was 
28 



110 



CRANIA AMERICANA. 



enveloped in a coarse but close fabric, with stripes of red, which has withstood 
wonderfully the destroying effects of ages, for these interments were made before 
the conquest, though at what period is not known."* 



PLATE V. 

ANCIENT PERUVIAN. 





I have not ascertained from what particular part of Peru this skull was 
obtained, but it is strikingly analogous to the three preceding specimens. The 
intervention of art in flattening the skull is very manifest, yet it has been effected 
on a forehead extremely low by nature; for the lateral swell is not remarkable, 
and the parietal protuberances, in particular, are not much more inflated than was 
natural to these people. The depth of the cranium behind the coronal suture is 
remarkable ; and the very narrow face in this instance proves that the head could 
not have been originally spheroidal, like that of the later inhabitants of Peru. 

This specimen was politely lent me by Dr. J. Kearney Rodgers, of New York, 
of whose collection it forms a part. 



MEASUREMENTS. 



Longitudinal diameter. 
Parietal diameter, . 
Frontal diameter, . 
Vertical diameter, . 
Inter-mastoid arch, . 
Inter-mastoid line, . 
Occipito-frontal arch, 



6.7 inches. 

4.5 inches. 
4.1 inches. 
4.1 inches. 

11.5 inches. 

3.6 inches. 
14.2 inches. 



* Three Years in the Pacific, p. 341 



THE ANCIENT PERUVIANS. 



Ill 



Horizontal periphery. 

Extreme length of head and face. 

Internal capacity, . 

Capacity of the anterior chamber. 

Capacity of the posterior chamber. 

Capacity of the coronal region. 

Facial angle. 



18. inches. 
8.8 inches. 
65.5 cubic inches. 
19.75 cubic inches. 
45.75 cubic inches. 
12.75 cubic inches. 
61 degrees. 



It will be shown in the sequel that the average internal capacity of the 
Caucasian or European head is at least ninety cubic inches; and it will be observed 
that the three adult skulls in the preceding series of ancient Peruvians, give an 
aggregate of two hundred and nineteen cubic inches, or a mean of seventy-three. 
It will also be observed, that the mean capacity of the anterior is about one half 
of that of the posterior chamber, or twenty-j&ve to forty-seven ; while the mean 
of the facial angle is but sixty-seven degrees. 



THE CHIMUYANS. 

This name, Chimii, was applied rather to a chief than a territory. The 
province of the " Great Chimu " was very near the present site of Truxillo, in 
Peru, and its inhabitants had attained a certain degree of civilisation before they 
were conquered by the tenth Inca. My friend Dr. M. Burrough, (now United 
States Consul at Vera Cruz,) examined the ruins of the Chimuyan city with great 
care, and traced the remains of dwellings, walls and terraces, over an extensive 
plot of ground.* 



* For some additional particulars respecting the remains of the ancient demi-civiUsation in South 
America, the reader is referred to the learned Researches of Dr. M'Culloh, Chap IX. 



112 



CRANIA AMERICANA, 



PLATE VI. 

CHIMUYAN. 





In the course of some excavations among the ruins of the Chimuyan city, 
Dr. Burrough found a skull in admirable preservation. It differs from both the 
Ancient and Inca Peruvian heads in being of a more oval form, although there is 
still an obvious inequality betw^een the tw^o sides ; the forehead also is low and 
retreating, and the width is large between the parietal bones, and the whole head 
remarkably small. 



MEASUREMENTS. 



Longitudinal diameter, 
Parietal diameter, . 
Frontal diameter, . 
Vertical diameter, . 
Inter-mastoid arch, « 
Inter-mastoid line, . 
Occipito-frontal arch. 
Horizontal periphery, 
Internal capacity, . 
Capacity of the anterior chamber, 
Capacity of the posterior chamber. 
Capacity of the coronal region. 
Facial angle, .... 



6.5 inches. 

5.4 inches. 

4.4 inches. 

5.2 inches. 

14.6 inches. 

4. inches. 

14.4 inches. 

19.5 inches. 
67.5 cubic inches. 
28.5 cubic inches 
39. cubic inches. 
10.25 cubic inches, 

76 degrees. 



113 



THE INCA OR MODERN PERUVIANS. 

The origin of the Incas of Peru is shrouded in fable. They are represented in 
their traditions as two celestial personages^ a son and daughter of the sun himself, 
who were sent from heaven to instruct and civilise a favored people. These 
persons, says the tradition, were Manco Capac, the first Inca, and Coya Mama, 
who was both his sister and his wife. They appeared first on an island in the 
lake Titicaca, and taking the people under their jurisdiction, began at once a 
reform of all the institutions of the country. 

Thus a fabulous tradition of the Peruvians refers the rise of their monarchy 
to two personages only ; but this preference for a small number was calculated to 
render the account more marvellous, and the descendants of the individuals more 
respected. What goes, however, to prove that Peru was not conquered by the 
artful inventions of a few strangers, is the fact that the first Inca planted numerous 
colonies, and subdued many nations; always appearing in arms, and always 
victorious.* Force was appealed to from the first appearance of these new 
people; the laws were altered, a new language and a new religion imposed, and 
all the customs and rights of many populous and warlike communities, were 
abrogated in a very short period of time, and this by force of arms or the dread 
of punishment. All that absolute power could do was done in a single reign. Is 
it to be believed that all these changes were brought about by two strangers, who 
spoke a foreign language ? Can it be credited that this total revolution in social 
and civil government was the result of moral causes, operating on nations who 
were as strongly devoted to their own institutions as any other people ? Certainly 
not. On the contrary we are compelled to attribute this change to an influx of 
foreigners, whose number and intelligence . enabled them to overcome every 
obstacle that arose in their path. Who could these strangers be ? 

The Toltecas, the most civilised nation of ancient Mexico, after governing 
that country for four centuries, suddenly abandoned it about the year 1050 of our 
era. The reasons for this step are given at some detail by the Mexican annalists. 
They state that during the reign of their last prince, a series of calamities gave a 
fatal blow to their prosperity and power. "For several years heaven denied them 
the necessary showers to their fields, and the earth the fruits that supported them. 
The air, infected by mortal contagion, filled daily the graves with the dead, and 

* Garcilaso, Comment. Lib. I, passim. 
29 



114 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

the minds of those surviving w^ith consternation, at the destruction of their 
countrymen. A great part of the nation died by famine and sickness ; and the 
w^retched remains of this people, willing to save themselves from the common 
calamity, sought timely relief to their misfortunes in other countries."* The 
historian then adds, that the Toltecas migrated in large bodies to various parts of 
the continent, and extended themselves as far south as Yucatan ; and so complete 
v^as the dispersion of these people, that the land of Anahuac (the ancient name of 
Mexico) remained solitary and depopulated for nearly a century. Now it has 
been mentioned in the preceding chapter, that the Inca race date their possession 
of Peru from about the eleventh century of our era; and as this period corresponds 
with the epoch of the migration of the Toltecas, we may reasonably conjecture 
that both were of a common origin. This supposition gains strength when we 
inquire into the character of the Toltecas. 

Of all the nations of the new world they had attained to the highest degree 
of civilisation ; they lived in society, collecting themselves into cities, under the 
government of kings and regular laws. They were not remarkably warlike, and 
preferred the cultivation of the arts to the exercise of arms ; they also devoted 
themselves to architecture, and cultivated with care various useful plants and 
fruits. Nor did they practise those arts only which are considered as necessary 
to human comfort, but those also which minister to luxury ; and it is added, that 
although their religion was idolatrous, it does not appear that they practised those 
barbarous and bloody sacrifices, which became so common in Mexico after the 
Toltecan emigration. f Now, as we shall heareafter see, these are the leading 
features in the character of the modern or Inca Peruvians ; and when we take into 
consideration that the disappearance of the Toltecas from their own country, was 
simultaneous with the advent of the new dynasty in Peru, may we not look upon 
the two as cognate nations ? There is, besides, a coincidence in the squared and 
conical form of the head in the Toltecas and Peruvians that is very striking, and 
which will be more particularly adverted to in a future part of this work. 

Whether the preceding inference, which is by no means new, be correct or 
not, there can be little doubt that the Inca family was an intruding nation^ led 
perhaps by a few individuals of the sacerdotal class ; and having conquered Peru, 
much the same political relations appear to have subsisted between them and the 
pre-existing inhabitants, as we at present observe between the modern Greeks and 
the Turks. 

* Clavigero, Hist of Mexico, I, p. 118. Culkn's Tr, t Ibid. I, p. 114, 116. 



THE INC A PERUVIANS. 115 

We next proceed to examine into the physical character of the Modern 
Peruvians. They differ little in person from the Indians around them, being of 
the middling stature, well limbed, and with small feet and hands. Their faces 
are round, their eyes small, black, and rather distant from each other ; their noses 
are small, the mouth somewhat large, and the teeth remarkably fme.^ Their 
complexion is a dark brown, and their hair long, black, and rather coarse. 

The skull in these people is remarkable for its small size, and also, as just 
observed, for its quadrangular form. The occiput is greatly compressed, some- 
times absolutely vertical ; the sides are swelled out, and the forehead is somewhat 
elevated but very retreating. The capacity of the cavity of the cranium, derived 
from the measurement of many specimens of the pure Inca race, shows, as we 
shall hereafter see, a singularly small cerebral mass for an intelligent and civilised 
people. These heads are remarkable not only for their smallness, but also for 
their irregularity ; for in the whole series in my possession, there is but one that 
can be called symmetrical. This irregularity chiefly consists in the greater 
projection of the occiput to one side than the other, showing, in some instances, a 
surprising degree of deformity. As this condition is as often observed on one 
side as the other, it is not to be attributed to the intentional application of 
mechanical force ; on the contrary it is to a certain degree common to the whole 
American race, and is sometimes no doubt increased by the manner in which the 
child is placed in the cradle. 

I am in fact convinced, that among the collection of Peruvian skulls alluded 
to above, there is not one that has been designedly moulded by art ; and hence it 
may be reasonably inferred, that individuals of the royal race, or those forming 
the higher classes among the Peruvians, seldom or never flattened their heads. 
What to them was natural was imitated by the inferior orders, and especially, it 
may be conjectured, by the inhabitants of conquered provinces, and others whose 
heads may not have been originally formed on the aristocratic model. While the 
early Spanish travellers frequently speak of the flattened heads of the people, they 
never mention this condition as applicable to the princes and other dignitaries who 
abounded in Peru at the conquest. Let it not be supposed, however, that these 
deformities were confined to a single model : on the contrary there were two 



* Stevenson, South Amer. I, p. 376. — Ruschenberger, Three Years m the Pacific, p. 3S0. — 
Ulloa, Yoy. to S. Amer. I, p. 267. — The latter author asserts that more natural defects are observed 
among the Indians of Quito than in any other race of men. If this be the fact, it must be attributed 
to the proximity of civilisation, which is well known to enervate and debase the Indian. 



116 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

principally admired forms ; but that which tended to widen and elevate the head 
appears to have greatly prevailed over the opposite extreme, which flattened and 
elongated it in the horizontal direction. I have been at some pains to inquire 
into the facts connected with this singular custom, as contained in the early 
Spanish travellers and historians, and have gleaned the following particulars. 

Cie^a, one of the oldest authorities, states that " in the province of Anzerma, 
and in that of Quinbaya, as well as in some other parts of this continent, when a 
child is born they fix its head in the shape they wish it to retain ; thus some have 
no occiput, others have the forehead depressed, and a third set have the whole 
head elongated. This conformation is, in the first place, produced by the applica- 
tion of small boards, and is subsequently continued by means of ligatures."* 

The same traveller adds the following notice of the Indians called Caraques, 
near the Spanish settlement of Puerto Viejo. " At the birth of a child," says he, 
" they mould its head, and then bind it between two boards, in such manner that 
at the age of four or five years it remains either broad or long, or destitute of the 
occipital prominence. They assert that this custom contributes to health, and 
enables them to carry greater burthens."t 

Torquemada, also writing of the Peruvians, has the following passage. " As 
to the custom of appearing fierce in war, it was in some provinces ordered that 
the mothers or their attendants should make the faces of their children long and 
rough, and the foreheads broad, as Hippocrates and Galen relate of the Macroce- 
phali, who had them moulded by art into the elevated and conical form. This 
custom is more prevalent in the province of Chicuito, than in any other part of 
Peru."t 

The preceding quotations are satisfactory evidence, that the custom of distort- 
ing the skull, was common in many provinces of Peru at the period of the Spanish 
invasion ; that it was resorted to for the purpose of increasing the ferocity of the 
countenance in war,— augmenting an imaginary grace,— and adding to the health 
and strength of the body. It is also obvious that there were two principal modes 
of eff'ecting this end, and that these were the opposites of each other. 

The following passage from Garcilaso de la Vega, proves that this fashion 
was not introduced by the Incas, but was in use before they conquered the 
country. He states that the Inca Huyna Capac, having invaded the province of 
Manta with a view to its subjugation, found there a people who were living in the 

* Chronica del Peru, Cap. XXVI. f Loco citat. Cap. L. 

t Monarquia Indiana, T. II, p. 581. Fo/. Madrid^ 1723. 



THE INC A PERUVIANS. 117 

most barbarous and demoralised condition. " Both the men and the women cut 
their cheeks with pointed flints ; they also deform the heads of their children by 
placing, at birth, a small board on the forehead and another on the occiput, and 
drawing them tighter day by day until the child has attained the age of four or 
five years. By this process the head becomes broad from side to side, and narrow 
from back to front. Not satisfied with this deformity they shave the hair from 
the top of the head, and the nape of the neck, letting it grow on the sides only ; 
and this not being combed or otherwise arranged, but rude and entangled, adds 
to the hideousness of their physiognomy."* The historian then gives the names 
of six nations or tribes to whom the above description is applicable. 

It thus appears that the custom of moulding the cranium into artificial forms 
is of great antiquity and prevalence in Peru. We have seen that it existed among 
what we have termed the civilised primitive Peruvians, that it was common 
among many barbarous tribes at the invasion of the Incas, and that it continued to 
be a popular fantasy when the Spaniards took possession of the country. Professor 
Blumenbach quotes from Aguirre, part of a decree of the Ecclesiastical Court of 
Lima in the year 1585, forbidding parents, under certain specified penalties, to 
compress or distort the heads of their children in the various modes which were 
in vogue even at that late period ;t and that the custom was not extinct a very 
few years ago, is evident from the statement of Mr. Skinner, an English traveller. 
Speaking of the Connivos of Peru, he remarks, " that all their attention is bestowed 
on preserving a firm texture of the body, and on flattening the forehead and hinder 
part of the head [in the upward direction] with a view of resembling, as they say, 
the full moon, and of becoming the strongest and most valiant people in the world. 
To attain the former of these aims, they bind the waist, and all the joints, of their 
male offspring, from their tender infancy, with hempen bands. With a view to 
the latter, they wrap the forehead in cotton, and lay on it a small square board^ 
applying another similar board to the occiput, and adjusting them with cords until 
the intention has been answered. Thus the head is elongated above, and flattened 
both before and behind. "J 

The Omaguas, who, towards the middle of the last century, inhabited the 



* Comment. Reales, Lib. IX, Cap. VIII. 

t"Cupientes penitus extirpare abiisum, et siiperstitionem, quibus Indi passim infantum capita 
formis exprimunt, qnos ipsi vocant Caito, Oma, Opalla," &c. Vide Blumenbach, De Gen. Humani 
Var. Nat, p. 220. — Laurence, Led, on ZooL p. 377. 

X Present State of Peru, p. 2C9. 
30 



118. CRANIA AMERICANA. 

shores of the Maragnon for several hundred leagues, and extended themselves 
quite to the Atlantic, appear to have been a Peruvian colony, both from analogy 
of language and customs ; for they w^ere in the practice of moulding the heads of 
their children so as to give them the high and lunated shape in use among the 
Connivos.* 

I presume De Pauw alludes to the Omaguas w^hen he tells us, that "certain 
Indians on the borders of the Maragnon, have square or cubic heads : in other 
words they are flattened on the face, on the crow^n, on the occiput, and on the 
temples, thus presenting the acme of human extravagance."! 

Peru, like the co-existent feudal states of Europe, contained two classes of 
people wholly unlike each other, viz : the exotic Inca family, with its numberless 
ramifications, which held all the honor and advantage in their own hands ; and 
the native plebeian multitude, who were in as low a state of degradation as the 
selfish policy of their superiors could devise and establish. 

To the former of these classes was confined whatever was known of science, 
art or refinement. The members of the royal family prided themselves on their 
skill in architecture, astronomy and the national literature; and it will be observed 
that whenever an individual was named as pre-eminent in any of these departments 
of knowledge, he belonged to the dominant caste. In fact, the plebeian class was 
excluded from any participation in literature and science, except only when they 
could be employed as musicians and artisans. The Incas thus held alike the 
power and the knowledge in their own hands. 

Their principal intellectual attainments were in geometry, music, poetry and 
architecture ; but a people having no written language, and transmitting only 
by tradition their attainments in these branches of knowledge, cannot at this late 
period be fully appreciated, and much less can they be fairly compared in these 
respects with Europeans. 

Architecture is one of the earliest attributes of civilisation, and in this the 
Peruvians had made surprising progress. Their temples, palaces and tombs bear 



* La Condamine, Mem. de PAcad. Roy. des Sc. Tome 62, p. 427.— Ulloa, Hist, del Viage, T. I, 
p. 505. — Does the following fragment of history refer to these Omaguas ? "When Francisco Pizarro, 
Diego Almagro, and others, conquered the said empire of Peru, and had put to death Atabahpa, one 
-of the younger sons of Guaynacapa fled out of Peru, and took with him many thousands of those 
soldiers of the empire called Orejones, and with those and many others that followed him, he van- 
quished all that tract and valley of America which is situate between the great rivers of the Amazons 
and Baraquan, otherwise called Orinoco and Maragnon."— Sir W. Raleigh, Fby. to Guiana, p. 25. 
t Rescherches sur les Americaines, I, p. 146. 



THE INC A PERUVIANS. 119 

ample evidence of this fact ; and while the design is for the most part simple, the 
execution cannot but excite our admiration. Their great object appears to have 
been to erect cyclopean structures, vrhich should at once attest their skill in art, 
and the povy^er of their mechanical contrivances. They separated from the quarries 
enormous masses of stone, they shaped them into exact proportions, and they then 
conveyed them to such distances that we are at a loss to conjecture by what means 
the object was accomplished. Acosta, after stating that he had measured a single 
block of stone at Tiaguanico (the city, as we have seen, of the primitive Peruvians) 
which was thirty feet long, eighteen feet broad and six feet thick, declares that 
there were stones in the walls of the fortress of Cuzco of far greater size^ and 
w^hich were placed there by hand. Yet these masses, says Acosta, were not 
shaped by rule, but of unequal proportion, the irregularities of the one being 
exactly fitted by extreme toil and ingenuity to those of the other, without mortar 
or cement ; and yet the place of junction was scarcely discernible.* What is 
equally remarkable is the fact, that these gigantic fragments of rock were brought 
from Muyna, which is five leagues distant from the city of Cuzco ; and some of 
them from a much greater distance.f 

Thus the seemingly superhuman efforts of the Egyptians are at least equalled 
by those of the Peruvians ; and what most excites our admiration in the one, must 
be also conceded to the other. We see in the Peruvians a people destitute of 
horses, oxen, or any beast of burthen except the feeble lama ; and yet they have 
left monuments which sufficiently attest their great ingenuity and indomitable 
perseverance. We are ignorant of the means by which they transported these 
cyclopean fragments of rock, and the mechanical contrivances that were used in 
excavating and adapting them to their destined situation. The arts of the present 
day, with all the refinements of successive generations of ingenious minds, would 
perhaps be inadequate to achieve those remarkable ends which are common in the 
monuments of Peru. 

The Peruvians, like the primitive Egyptians, were not acquainted with the 
use of iron.J Such of their implements as in other countries are made of that 

* Hist de las Indias, Lib. VI, Cap. XIV.— -Ulloa, Voy. II, p. 130. 
t Garcilaso, Comment. Lib. VII, Cap. XXVII, XXVIII, XXIX. 

X Yet according to the best information we possess on this subject, "iron was known (in the old 
world) 184 years before the Trojan war, about 1370 years before Christ;" and there is sufficient proof 
that the Egyptians used iron instruments and utensils so early as the Pharaonic era.— Wilkinson, 
Anc, Egypt, III, ^, 247. 



120 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

metal, were composed of copper alloyed with a very small proportion of tin, which 
gave it great additional tenacity. It was with chisels of this kind that they 
shaped those enormous blocks of stone which have already been mentioned. 

" Yet all we have said," observes UUoa, " is surpassed by the ingenuity with 
which they wrought emeralds; these gems being found cut into various shapes, 
some spherical, others cylindrical, conical, and various other shapes, made with 
perfect accuracy, and drilled through with all the delicacy of our European artists. 
It is an almost insurmountable difficulty to explain how they could work a stone 
of such hardness."* 

The constructive talent of the Incas was also conspicuous in their roads. 
One of these is eminently deserving of notice, and is thus described by Humboldt, 
in his journey across the plains of Assuay. " We were surprised to find in this 
place, and at heights which greatly surpass the top of the peak of Teneriffe, the 
magnificent remains of a road constructed by the Incas of Peru. This causeway, 
lined with freestone, may be compared to the finest Roman roads I have seen in 
Italy, France or Spain. It is perfectly straight, and keeps the same direction for 
six or eight thousand metres. We observed the continuation of this road near 
Caxamarca, one hundred and twenty leagues to the south of Assuay ; and it is 
believed in the country that it led as far as the city of Cuzco."t 

After a review of the preceding facts, how idle is the assertion of Dr. Robert- 
son, that America contained no monuments older than the conquest ! How 
replete with ignorance are also the aspersions of Pinkerton and De Pauw ! Two 
of these authors, who wrote expressly on American history, are unpardonable for 
such gross misrepresentation. They appear to have veiled the truth in order to 
support an hypothesis.f It is in vain longer to contend against facts ; for how- 
ever difficult it may be to explain them, they are nevertheless incontrovertible. 
Whence the Peruvians derived their civilisation, may long remain a mooted 
question; that they possessed it, cannot be denied. "At a time when a public 
highway was either a relic of Roman greatness, or a sort of nonentity in England, 
there were roads fifteen hundred miles in length in the empire of Peru. The 
feudal system was as firmly established in these transatlantic kingdoms as in 
France. The Peruvians were ignorant of the art of forming an arch, but they 



* Quoted in M'Culloh's Researches, p. 366. t Monuments, I, p. 241. 

i Robertson, Hist. Amer. II, p. 110. •^m. ed. — Pinkerton, Essay on the Goths, p. 6S. — De 
Pauw, passim. 



THE INC A PERUVIANS. 121 

had constructed suspension bridges over frightful ravines : they had no implements 
of iron, but their forefathers could move blocks of stone as huge as the Sphinxes 
and Memnons of Egypt."^ 

It is remarked by Dr. M'CuUoh that in astronomy the Peruvians appear to 
have been far behind the Mexicans. " As the Peruvians," says he, " made, by 
means of tov^ers, constant azimuth observations on the sun's rising and setting, 
and also upon the shadov^s cast by pillars at the times of the equinoxes and 
solstices, I cannot easily perceive a reason for the great inaccuracy of their year as 
it has been represented to us ; and I am therefore inclined to think that only 
some grosser part of their calendar has been preserved. In this opinion I am 
further seemingly strengthened by not finding the Spanish w^riters to describe any 
cycle of years to have been used by them, w^hich the nature of their observations 
w^ould hardly have permitted them to dispense vrith."t 

" Their year," says Herrera, " was divided into tw^elve months, distinguished 
by their several names; and particular festivals appointed in each of them. The 
year began in January, till one of the Incas ordered it should begin in December, 
at which time they celebrated their great festival." 

" The Peruvians," adds Dr. M'CuUoh, " unlike the Mexicans, were ignorant 
of the causes of eclipses, for they supposed the planets at such times to be sick. 
They particularly distinguished the planet Venus, some of the brighter fixed stars, 
the Pleiades, the Milky VTay, &c., to all of which they gave certain names, and 
imagined them for the most part to be, or to represent, various animals which they 
were accustomed to meet with in Peru. "J 

We often hear the government of the Incas characterised as one of peculiar 
mildness; but it was, on the contrary, an absolute rule, in which they held 
despotic sway over their subjects, " governing them according to their own views 
and pleasure, or as the exigencies of the times may have required ; hence the 
proceedings of the government were necessarily fluctuating, and, according to 
the capacity and temper of the Inca, were either just or unjust, capricious or 
benevolent. "§ All the lands of the empire were divided into three portions, of 
which one only fell to the share of the people ; and even this they could not sell 
or otherwise dispose of, the title being vested in the Inca himself; and to prevent 



* Long, Polynesian Nation, p. 87. 

t Researches Concerning the Aboriginal Hist, of Amer. p. 373. 
X Idem, p. 361. § Idem, p. 374. 

31 



122 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

any possible dispute or misunderstanding in this matter, the plebeian lands were 
newly distributed every year. 

The monarchy appears to have had its due portion of insurrections and dis- 
turbances of various kinds, some of which reached the palace itself. One Inca, at 
least, was deposed and put to death ; and when Atahualpa contested the empire 
with Guascar, he had that prince murdered, together with no less than thirty of 
his brothers, and a vast number of their dependants. We have already alluded to 
the destruction of the Collas in the early times of the monarchy ; and as another 
example of unsparing cruelty, Huyna Capac, after a revolt of the Caranques, 
ordered two thousand of them to be put to death in cold blood, on a single 
occasion.* These facts suiBficiently show, that the civilisation and comparative 
refinement of the Incas, were blended with some remains of the ferocity of the 
savage. 

In their social relations, however, they appear to have been characterised by 
gentleness and affection ; and although by a remarkable law^, all crimes were alike 
punished with death, such was the natural docility of the temper of the Peruvians, 
that executions are said to have been unfrequent among them. 

Matrimonial engagements were entered into with very little ceremony or 
forethought, and they were as readily set aside at the option of the parties. 
Polygamy was lawful, but not prevalent. Among the common people, inconti- 
nence among unmarried persons was scarcely regarded as a crime, and sensuality 
was a prevailing vice, in some degree countenanced by the royal authority. As a 
natural consequence, child-murder became so common, that foundling-hospitals 
were established by the government, in which children were received and provided 
for at the public expense. In truth, the morals of the Peruvians in these respects 
have nothing to commend them.f 

Their diet was chiefly vegetables, maize entering largely into their aliments. 
Exhilarating drinks were in common use among the men ; the principal prepara- 
tion of this kind was called chica, which was fermented from the maize. So fond 
were the natives of this beverage, that it was even placed beside the dead in their 
tombs ;t and UUoa asserts, that among the Peruvians of the present day, spirituous 
liquors destroy more men in one year than the mines do in fifty. 

* Garcilaso, Lib. IX, p. 367. FrycauVs TV.—Coreal, Voy. II, p. 54. 
t M'CuLLOH, Researches, p. 379.— Carli, Lettres Americaines, I. p. 138. 
X Stevenson, S. Amer. II. p. 371. 



THE INC A PERUVIANS. 123 

The great mass of people was indolent from two causes, the enervating 
warmth of the climate, and the humiliating nature of their political institutions, 
of which we have already spoken. 

The apathy of the common people rendered them filthy and negligent in 
their persons ; and in my examinations of several mummies of this class, taken 
from old cemeteries near the coast, I have noticed the hair in many instances 
to be charged with desiccated vermin, which, though buried for centuries in the 
sand, could not possibly be mistaken for any thing else. 

The religious system of the Peruvians was marked by a great simplicity, and 
was divested, as we have observed, of those bloody rites which were common with 
the Aztecs of Mexico. They believed in one God, whom they called Viracocha, 
in the immortality of the soul, and in rewards and punishments in the next life. 
They worshipped both the sun and moon, in whose honor they erected temples 
and formed idols. Even the stars received their share of homage, because, as it 
has been happily expressed, they were esteemed the servants and handmaids of 
the greater luminaries. To these they sacrificed both beasts and birds, but never 
human beings.* 

But one of the most remarkable features of the Peruvian religion was, the 
consecration of virgins, in the same manner as practised in modern convents. 

Each temple was provided with a body of these recluses dedicated to the 
Sun, whose ojffice was not to assist in religious exercises, but to weave certain 
fabrics for the use of the royal family. The Peruvians, moreover, enjoined vocal 
confession on all classes of people, and there were specified penalties for all crimes. 
To conceal any thing in these confessions was in itself held criminaLf 

We are forcibly struck with the superstitious and barbarous funeral rites of 
these people. When their chief men died they mourned them many days, and 
buried them with great solemnity. In the grave or tomb they deposited the most 
valuable possessions of the deceased, his weapons, utensils, meats and drinks ; and 
with these were also buried a number of human victims, women, boys and servants, 
to attend on the departed in the next world. Besides these sacrifices, which 
custom rendered compulsory on certain individuals, others committed suicide for 



* Acosta charges the Peruvians with sacrificing their own children, which is denied by Garcilaso, 
and has, in fact, no proof. On the contrary, the Inca Roca, having conquered the ferocious tribe 
called Canches, forbid them, under pain of death, to sacrifice their children.—CARLi, Lettres Ameri- 
caines, I, p. 115. 

t Herrera, Dec. Ill, Lib, x, Cap. 2. 



124 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

the same purpose ; and thus when Huayna Capac died, early in the fifteenth 
century, no less than four hundred persons expired hy their own hands, in the 
ambitious delusion of accompanying their dead monarch in his new existence.* 

The Peruvians were as shrewd and politic as the other Americans, and 
habitual victory over the nations that surrounded them, gave them both confidence 
and supremacy. When, however, they were opposed to a people better armed 
yet infinitely inferior in number to themselves, their courage in a great measure 
forsook them; and we are astonished at the spectacle of a powerful empire laid 
in ruins by a handful of brigands.f It must be granted that the latter were better 
armed, defended by coats of mail, and in part mounted on horseback ; yet when 
it is recollected that after the first shock of Pizarro's treachery, the natives could 
have opposed a thousand men to one of their invaders, it seems at first view 
incredible that the Peruvians should have yielded to so contemptible a forccj 
Some redeeming circumstances, however, mark this seeming pusillanimity of the 
Peruvians. The Spaniards had possession of the person of their king, who was 
kept as a hostage for the forbearance of his subjects; and the successors of the 
former having excited the avarice of their countrymen, they flocked to Peru in 
such numbers that the disparity of force became every day less. When at last 
this injured people was goaded to resistance, their courage was such as better 
became their cause, but it was too late to be effectual. Had they possessed but 
a fourth part of the valor of the Araucanians, fifty years would not have sufficed 
for their subjugation. 

* Herrera, Dec. Ill, Lib. VIII, Cap. 1. 

t The empire of Peru ceased in 153.3, by the murder of Atahualpa. There is a consolation in 
knowing that all the leaders in the atrocities which were perpetrated in this conquest, died violent 
deaths ; from Pizarro, who fell by the hands of his countrymen, to the infamous Valverde, who was 
sacrificed to the vengeance of the Indians. 

% Pizarro's invading force consisted of sixty-two horsemen, and one hundred and two foot soldiers, 
of whom twenty were armed with cross-bows, and three with muskets. — Robertson, Hist. J3m. II, 
p. 52. ^m, Ed, 



THE INCA PERUVIANS, 



125 



PLATE VII. 



PERUVIAN CHILD FROM SANTA. 



This juvenile skull was obtained by Dr. Ruschenberger at Santa, which was 
once a great cemetery of the Peruvians. Of the many crania observed there. Dr. 
R. observes that the occiput " is almost vertical, and rises quite abruptly from the 
great hole at the base. The left side is generally much more prominent than the 
right, and the forehead is narrow and retreating."* This head is figured merely 
to show the characters of the genuine Peruvian as developed in infancy, and a 
few only of the more important measurements are subjoined. 

Longitudinal diameter. 

Parietal diameter. 



Frontal diameter. 
Vertical diameter, 
Internal capacity. 



5.4 inches. 
5.4 inches. 
4. inches. 
4.6 inches. 
61 cubic inches. 



PLATES VIII AND IX. 



PERUVIAN FROM THE TEiMPLE OF THE SUN, 





This head is remarkable alike for its squared form and its small size, and yet 
it is of adult age, and probably belonged to a female. It is very thin and delicate 
throughout ; the breadth between the parietal protuberances is nearly the same 
with the longitudinal diameter, and there is a symmetry of parts rarely observed 
in Peruvian heads. The peculiarities of this relic are represented with great 



* Three Years in the Pacific, p. 374. 



32 



126 



CRANIA AMERICANA. 



accuracy on the two annexed plates, to which it is only necessary to add the 
usual 

MEASUREMENTS. 

Longitudinal diameter. 
Parietal diameter. 
Frontal diameter, 
Vertical diameter, 
Inter-mastoid arch, 
Inter-mastoid line, 
Occipito-frontal arch. 
Horizontal periphery. 
Internal capacity, . 
Capacity of the anterior chamber. 
Capacity of the posterior chamber, 
Capacity of the coronal region, . 
Facial angle, .... 
I am indebted for this skull to my friend Dr. Ruschenberger, who obtained 
it from Pachacamac, the celebrated Temple of the Sun, near Lima. 



5.8 


inches. 


5.7 


inches. 


4.4 


inches. 


5.1 


inches. 


14.5 


inches. 


4.1 


inches. 


12.7 


inches. 


18.4 


inches. 



71.75 cubic inches. 
28.75 cubic inches. 
43. cubic inches. 
11.4 cubic inches. 
75 degrees. 



PLATE X. 

PERUVIAN CHILD FROM THE TEMPLE OF THE SUN. 

This head is figured chiefly with a view to show the extraordinary inequality 
of the skull so common in the Peruvians, and especially in those from Pachacamac, 
which, with few exceptions, present more or less of this conformation. Dr. Rus- 
chenberger's remark on the heads observed by him at Santa, that the left side was 
the most prominent, does not obtain in this instance, and among the many skulls 
in my possession the deformity of one side is as common as the other. Was this 
shape the result of accident or design ? If it were intentional we might suppose 
there would have been some regard paid to symmetry, which was not the case. 
While, as we have seen, the common people distorted their heads in various ways, 
there is no evidence that the higher classes ever adopted the custom ; and perhaps 
the irregularity observed in the skulls of the latter, merely resulted from a total 
disregard to plebeian usage by strapping the child's head loosely to the cradle- 
board, so that the occiput assumed any accidental form whatsoever. 

This head was brought from Pachacamac and presented to me by my friend 
Dr. Ruschenberger. 



THE INCA PERUVIANS. 



127 



PLATE XL 



PERUVIAN FROM THE TEMPLE OF THE SUN. 





A strikingly characteristic Peruvian head, for which I am also indebted to 
Dr. Ruschenberger. As is common in this series of skulls, the parietal and 
longitudinal diameters are nearly the same. 



MEASUREMENTS, 



Longitudinal diameter, 
Parietal diameter, . 
Frontal diameter, . 
Vertical diameter, . 
Inter-mastoid arch, . 
Inter-mastoid line, . 
Occipito-frontal arch. 
Horizontal periphery, 
Internal capacity, . 
Capacity of the anterior chamber, 
Capacity of the posterior chamber. 
Capacity of the coronal region, 
Facial angle, .... 



6.1 inches. 

6. inches. 

4.7 inches. 

5.5 inches. 

16. inches. 

4.5 inches. 

14.1 inches. 

19.5 inches. 

83. cubic inches. 

33.5 cubic inches. 

49.5 cubic inches. 

15.75 cubic inches. 

81 degrees. 



128 



CRANIA AMERICANA, 



PLATE XL— A, 



PERUVIAN FROM THE TEMPLE OF THE SUN. 





Another head from the cemetery at Pachacamac. A skull of imusual 
thickness, prominent vertex, great fulness of the whole parietal region, and large 
capacity. 



MEASUREMENTS, 



Longitudinal diameter, 
Parietal diameter, . 
Frontal diameter, . 
Vertical diameter, . 
Inter-mastoid arch, . 
Inter-mastoid line, . 
Occipito-frontal arch, 
Horizontal periphery. 
Internal capacity, . 
Capacity of the anterior chamber. 
Capacity of the posterior chamber, 
Capacity of the coronal region. 
Facial angle. 

For this relic I am also indebted to the kindness of 
berger. 



6.7 inches. 
6. inches. 

4.5 inches. 

5.6 inches. 
16.2 inches. 

4.5 inches. 
14.5 inches. 
20.2 inches. 
89. cubic inches. 
34. cubic inches. 
55.5 cubic inches. 
20.5 cubic inches. 

80 degrees. 
my friend Dr. Ruschen- 



THE INCA PERUVIANS, 



129 



PLATE XI.— B. 



PERUVIAN FROM THE TEMPLE OF THE SUN 





Another skull from the same sepulchral locality, and from the same intelli- 
gent voyager. It is characterised by small dimensions, a very retreating forehead, 
and a very prominent vertex. 



MEASUREMENTS, 



Longitudinal diameter. 
Parietal diameter. 
Frontal diameter, 
Vertical diameter, 
Inter-mastoid arch, 
Inter-mastoid line, 
Occipito-frontal arch. 
Horizontal periphery. 
Internal capacity, . 
Capacity of the anterior chamber. 
Capacity of the posterior chamber. 
Capacity of the coronal region, . 
Facial angle, . . . . 



6.3 inches. 

5.8 inches. 

4.5 inches. 

5.3 inches. 

15. inches. 

4. inches. 

13.2 inches. 

19. inches. 

76.5 cubic inches, 

30. cubic inches, 

46.5 cubic inches. 

12.25 cubic inches. 

80 degrees. 



33 



130 



CRANIA AMERICANA. 



PLATE XL— C, 



PERUVIAN FROM THE TEMPLE OF THE SUN. 




'lKT ^^ 





Also from Pachacamac, through the zeal and friendship of Dr. Ruschenberger. 
Here again the parietal and longitudinal diameters are nearly equal. The 
posterior and lateral swell of this cranium are very remarkable, and the vertex 
has the characteristic prominence. The cheek bones, though high, are not heavy, 
and there is a pleasing symmetry in the various parts of the face. The beauty 
and accuracy of the drawing require nothing to be added excepting the 



MEASUREMENTS. 




Longitudinal diameter, . . . . . 6. inches. 


Parietal diameter, . 






5.9 inches. 


Frontal diameter, . . 






4.4 inches. 


Vertical diameter, . . . 






5. inches. 


Inter-mastoid arch, . . . , 






15.5 inches. 


Inter-mastoid line, . 






4. inches. 


Occipito-frontal arch. 






13.2 inches. 


Horizontal periphery. 






1 9. inches. 


Internal capacity, . 






77. cubic inches 


Capacity of the anterior chamber. 






28. cubic inches 


Capacity of the posterior chamber. 






49. cubic inches 


Capacity of the coronal region. 






11.3 cubic inches 


Facial angle, .... 






80 degrees. 



THE INCA PERUVIANS. 



131 



PLATE XL— D, 



PERUVIAN FROM THE TEMPLE OF THE SUN. 





This skull, also from the Inca cemetery, presents several wounds of the 
occipital bone, which must have been inflicted by some blunt weapon, probably 
the back of a war-axe ; and as the head is that of a middle aged man, we may 
presume he fell in battle. The occipital view has been represented merely 
to show the prevalent configuration of this part of the head in the Americans 
generally ; the general conical outline,— the prominent vertex,— the full parietal 
protuberances, and the proportional width between the mastoid processes. 



MEASUREMENTS. 

Longitudinal diameter, 
Parietal diameter, . 
Frontal diameter, . 
Vertical diameter, . 
Inter-mastoid arch, . 
Inter-mastoid line, . 
Occipito-frontal arch, 
Horizontal periphery. 
Internal capacity, . 
Capacity of the anterior chamber. 
Capacity of the posterior chamber. 
Facial angle, . 
This skull forms part of the fine collection from 
me by Dr. Ruschenberger. 



6.5 inches. 

5.5 inches. 

4.6 inches. 
5.6 inches. 

14.8 inches. 
4.5 inches. 
13.6 inches. 
19.5 inches. 
68.5 cubic inches. 
33. cubic inches. 
35.5 cubic inches. 
75 degrees. 
Pachacamac, presented to 



132 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

Result of the measurement of twenty-three adult skulls of the pure Inca 
^ace.— Through the kindness of Dr. Ruschenberger, I possess twenty-three adult 
heads from the cemetery, called Pachacamac, or the Temple of the Sun, near 
Lima.* As this sepulchre was reserved for the exclusive use of the higher class 
of Peruvians, it is reasonable to infer that the skulls obtained there belonged to 
persons of intelligence and distinction; especially as learning among the Peruvians 
was an aristocratic prerogative. Six of these skulls are figured on the annexed 
plates, and by submitting them, together with the remainder of the series, to the 
measurements used in this work, the following results are obtained. 

The largest cranium gives an internal capacity of 89.5 cubic inches, which 
is a fraction short of the Caucasian mean ; while the smallest head measures but 
60 cubic inches. The mean of the whole series gives but 73 cubic inches, which 
is probably lower than that of any other people now existing, not excepting the 
Hindoos.f 



* « Four leagues from the city of Los Reyes (Lima) on the same coast, is the valley of Pacha- 
camac, delightful and fruitful, and among the Indians very famed for the famous temple or the sun, 
which is in it ; the greatest and richest of all the Indies, which they held in the highest devotion; it 
was built on a small hill, (made by hand), of adobes (sun-dried bricks) and earth, and ornamented with 
many doors with various paintings of wild animals. In the same temple there were apartments for 
the priests, who professed great sanctity ; for when they went to make a public sacrifice, they walked 
backwards, with their faces to the people and their backs to the idol. Thus with downcast eyes, and 
much apparent perturbation, they sacrificed human blood, and animals, and birds, and the idol gave 
replies. The priests were held in great veneration. Many people went in pilgrimage to this great 
temple with rich offerings; j70 one was permitted to be buried 7iear it except priests, nobles, and 
distinguished persons, from whose interments great sums of gold were derived ; and at the appointed 
feasts, great numbers of people assembled, and after the sacrifices they danced to the sound of instru- 
ments." — Herrera, Hist, de las Indias. Lib. VI, Dec. V, p. 148. 

The statement of Herrera that this Cemetery was consecrated to persons of distinction is confirmed 
by Gomara. " In esto templo se mandaban enterar los senores i principales, con intento que sus 
cuerpos se dedicasen a su Dios, i las animas purgadas ia de sus delitos i pecados, tengam el descanso, 
gogo, i placer deseado en su vida de ellos." — Origen de los Indios, 4^c., p. 334. Madrid, 1729. 

Ulloa describes the Temple of Pachacamac as a complete ruin. " It is divided into three parts ; 
namely, a palace, a fortress and a place of prayer. Rude as this edifice appears, we may yet perceive 
an air of grandeur and magnificence that attests that of the princes who built it." And Garcilaso 
adds that it was built by the Yuncas, a Peruvian nation, before the times of the Incas. The latter, 
however, are supposed to have embellished the original temple, for their own use ; and it even appears 
that the worship of the Yuncas and the Inca Peruvians was alike directed to Pachacamac, The 
Supreme God. — See M'CuLLoir, Researches, ^^c.j p. 405. 

t See Appendix. 



THE ATURES. 133 

The Anterior chamber gives a mean of 32 cubic inches; the highest measure 
being 36.55 the smallest 23 cubic inches. 

The Posterior chamber gives a mean of 42 cubic inches ; the highest measure 
being 55.5^ the smallest 30 cubic inches. 

The Coronal region gives 12 cubic inches as a mean; the highest measure 
being 20.5, the smallest 9.25 cubic inches. 

The mean of the Facial angle is 75 degrees; the largest angle being 80, the 
smallest 72 degrees. 

If to this series we add the measurements of tv^elve other genuine Peruvians 
from various localities, the mean internal capacity is increased but a single cubic 
inch, w^ith but a fractional difference in the Facial angle. It will, therefore, 
appear in the sequel, that the internal capacity of the cranium in the demi-civilised 
Peruvians, is much less than that of the barbarous nations. 

It may, morever, be remarked, that the heads of nine Peruvian children in 
my possession, appear to be nearly if not quite as large as those of children of 
other nations at the same age: which is the more remarkable as no specimen 
among the entire series of thirty-five adult skulls, reaches the European average of 
ninety cubic inches of internal capacity. 



THE ATURES. 

At the sources of the Orinoco,^ among the forest solitudes of one of the 
remotest European missions. Baron Humboldt discovered the cavern-sepulchre of 
an extinct, but once powerful tribe, called Atures. As the annexed drawing was 
made from one of the identical skulls brought by that distinguished traveller, I 
shall describe this remarkable cemetery in his own words. 

" The most remote part of the valley is covered by a thick forest. In this 
shady and solitary spot, on the declivity of a steep mountain, the cavern of 
Ataruipe opens itself. It is less a cavern than a jutting rock, in which the waters 
have scooped a vast hollow, when, in the ancient revolutions of our planet, they 
attained that height. We soon reckoned in this tomb of a whole extinct tribe 



* Lat 5° 39' north. 
34 



134 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

near six hundred skeletons, well preserved, and so regularly placed, that it would 
have been difficult to make an error in their number. Every skeleton reposes 
in a sort of basket made of the petioles of the palm-tree. These baskets, which 
the natives call mapires^ have the form of a square bag. Their sizes are 
proportioned to the age of the dead ; there are some for infants cut off the moment 
of their birth. We saw them from ten inches to three feet four inches long, the 
skeletons in them being bent together. They are all ranged near each other, and 
are so entire, that not a rib, or a phalanx is wanting. 

The bones have been prepared in three different manners, either whitened in 
the air and the sun ; dyed red with onoto, a coloring matter extracted from the 
bixa orellana; or, like real mummies, varnished with odoriferous resins, and 
enveloped in leaves of the heliconea or the plantain tree. The Indians related 
to us, that the fresh corpse is placed in damp ground, in order that the flesh may 
be consumed by degrees ; some months after, it is taken out, and the flesh remaining 
on the bones is scraped off with sharp stones. Several hordes in Guyana still 
observe this custom. Earthen vases, half baked, are found near the mapires^ or 
baskets. They appear to contain the bones of the same family. The largest of 
these vases, or funeral urns are three feet high, and five feet and a half long. 
Their color is greenish gray, and their oval form is sufficiently pleasing to the eye. 
The handles are made in the shape of crocodiles, or serpents, the edge is bordered 
with meanders, labyrinths, and real grecques^ in straight lines variously combined. 
Such paintings are found in every zone, among nations the most remote from 
each other either with respect to the spot which they occupy on the globe, or to 
the degree of civilisation which they have attained. The inhabitants of the little 
mission of Maypures still execute them on their commonest pottery ; they decorate 
the bucklers of the Otaheiteans, the fishing implements of the Eskimoes, the 
walls of the Mexican palace of Mitla, and the vases of ancient Greece. Every 
where a rhythmic repetition of the same forms flatters the eye, as the cadenced 
repetition of sounds soothes the ear. Analogies founded on the internal nature of 
our feelings, on the natural dispositions of our intellect, are not calculated to throw 
light on the affiliation and the ancient connection of nations. We could not 
acquire any precise idea of the period to which the origin of the mapires and the 
painted vases, contained in the ossuary cavern of Ataruipe, can be traced. The 
greater part seemed not to be more than a century old, but it may be supposed, 
that, sheltered from all humidity, under the influence of an uniform temperature, 
the preservation of these articles would be no less perfect, if it dated from a period 
far more remote. A tradition circulates among the Guahiboes, that the wariike 



THE PUELCHES. 135 

Atures, pursued by the Caribbees, escaped to the rocks that rise in the middle of 
the Great Cataracts; and there that nation, heretofore so numerous, became 
gradually extinct, as well as its language. The last families of the Atures still 
existed, in 1767, in the time of the missionary Gili. At the period of our voyage 
an old parrot was shown at Maypures, of which the inhabitants related, and the 
fact is worthy of observation, that, " they did not understand what it said, because 
it spoke the language of the Atures."* 

PLATE XII. 

ATURIAN OF THE ORINOCO. 

This cranium presents the large face and ponderous jaw so common in the 
American race, together with the retreating forehead, prominent cheek bones and 
large orbits of that people. The head is more elongated than usual, and less 
flattened in the occipital region. This skull never came under my personal 
inspection, for which reason I am unable to add any measurements, or other 
precise observations. The original is preserved in the Museum of the Jardin du 
Roi, in Paris : Professor Flourens kindly permitted a drawing to be made from 
it, which was taken by M, Werner, an excellent artist, under the supervision of 
my friend Dr. Edmund C. Evans, of this city. 

Baron Humboldt procured several of these skulls, but the vessel in which 
several of them were shipped, was lost at sea, and I believe but two reached 
Europe. One of these is figured by Professor Blumenbachf, and presents a much 
higher head and flatter occiput than the one represented above. 



THE PUELCHES. 

The Puelches, whose name implies Eastern People^ wander over the extensive 
plains between the 36° and 39° of south latitude. They are divided into many 
tribes, which extend from the Straits of Magellan to the Rio de la Plata, and 

* Personal Narr. 5, p. 617. t Decad. Cran. Tab. XL VI. 



136 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

from the Atlantic Ocean to the country of the Araucanians. In stature they 
much resemble the Spaniards, hut they have stronger limhs than the adjacent 
Indians, a larger and rounder head, and a heavier and harsher person. They are 
also not so dark complexioned. 

It is remarkable that although all the Puelche tribes are of wandering habits, 
none of them are strictly pastoral, neither keeping sheep nor sowing grain : but 
they depend entirely on hunting, for which purpose they keep a great number of 
dogs. They are divided into four tribes, one of which is the Tehuekts, who are 
celebrated by the name of Patagonians. They are remarkably tall, athletic men, 
and according to Falkner and others, average more than six feet in height. 
Much, however, that the early voyagers have written respecting them must be 
received with caution. We propose to advert to this subject again ; and will now 
merely add, that when European voyagers visited the Patagonians, the latter 
showed their policy by selecting their tallest men to confer with the strangers ; 
thus leaving the impression that they were a nation of giants. 

The Puelches are proverbially brave and skilful in war, as their protracted 
and bloody contests with the Spaniards bear ample testimony. They at first 
compelled the latter to abandon the foundation of the city of Buenos Ayres ; nor 
did they yield in the contest until their enemies overpowered them with cavalry. 
In proof of their invincible courage, De Azara gives the following remarkable 
example. " In the heat of battle five Pampas* were made prisoners : they were 
put on board a seventy-four gun ship, with a complement of six hundred and fifty 
men, for the purpose of conveying them to Spain. When the vessel had been 
five days at sea, the captain allowed them the privilege of walking about without 
restraint, when they immediately resolved to seize the ship and murder all on 
board. To effect this object, one of them approached a corporal of marines, who 
appeared to be off his guard, seized his sabre, and in a moment of time killed two 
pilots and fourteen sailors and soldiers. The four other Indians also flew to arms, 
but finding themselves overcome by the guard, they sprang into the sea and 
drowned themselves, an example that was at once followed by their ringleader."t 

* The Spaniards call them Pampas, but their own national appellation is Puelche. 
t De Azara, Voy. T. II, p. 39. 



THE PUELCHES. 137 

PLATE XIII. 

PUELCHE OF PATAGONIA. 

The original of this drawing was made in Paris with the preceding one, 
under the inspection of Dr. E. C. Evans. I have to regret that I possess no 
measurements ; but the accuracy and beauty of the delineation convey as perfect 
an idea of the cranium of the Puelches as can be attained by a drawing. We are 
at once struck with the broad face, the projecting upper jaw, the arching of the 
zygoma, the low os frontis, the flattened occiput, and the fulness of development 
above the opening of the ear. The size of the lower jaw and the perfection of 
the teeth are also characteristic. 



THE CHARRUAS. 

This powerful nation originally inhabited the northern shore of the Rio de 
la Plata, and extended their possessions to a distance of thirty leagues parallel 
with that river. They are of the middle stature, well proportioned, erect and 
active ; and according to De Azara, on whom I chiefly depend for these details, 
the whole nation would scarcely produce a man too fat, too meagre, or deformed. 
They hold the head erect, with a bold physiognomy and fierce countenance, 
indicative of their ferocity and haughtiness. Their color is nearer a black than 
a w^hite, with very little mixture of red. Their nose is straight, their eyes rather 
small, bright and always black, and are never observed entirely open, at the same 
time that they can see better and twice as far as Europeans. Their teeth are 
well arranged, very white, and rarely fall out spontaneously. Their hands and 
feet are small and admirably proportioned. 

All the energies, mental and physical, of these people are devoted to war 
alone. They have no diversions, nor dances, nor songs, nor instruments of music, 
nor social assemblages. Their habitual gravity conceals the passions ; they never 
laugh aloud, and always address each other in a subdued tone of voice. They 
have no religion, no forms of politeness, no laws, no rewards and no punishments ; 
35 



138 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

and their equality is so perfect that they do not even acknowledge the authority 
of a chief. 

Yet such is the courage, the ferocity, the indomitable spirit of this warlike 
nation, that De Azara asserts that they have spilt more Spanish blood than ever 
flowed in all the contests with Montezuma and the Incas,* In fact the Charruas, 
with their confederate tribes, have been called the " doorkeepers of Paraguay," 
on account of their pertinacious and successful resistance to the encroachments of 
the Spaniards. To the last degree cruel, revengeful and exterminating in their 
wars with the native tribes, and with the Europeans, they present, in strong relief, 
all the prominent characteristics of the race. 

PLATE XIV. 

CHARRUA OF BRAZIL. 

This skull possesses the characteristics of the American Indian in very strong 
relief. The points which we have noticed in the Puelche, are exaggerated here, 
together with a more retreating forehead and more flattened occipital region. 
This head is preserved, with the two preceding ones, in the Royal Museum in 
Paris; and the drawing was taken under the same circumstances as those of the 
Puelche and Aturian, so that I am unable to give any particulars which cannot be 
derived from the drawing itself. 



THE BOTOCUDOS. 

These people call themselves Engerecmoung; but they are more familiarly 
known by the names Aymores and Botocudos, the latter being given them by the 
Portuguese. They inhabit the dense forests of Brazil between the Rio Doce and 
the Rio Prado, or in other words within the 13th and 19th degrees of south 
latitude. 

Nature, says the Prince de Wied, has given the Botocudos an admirable 
exterior conformation, for they are handsomer and better proportioned than the 

* De Azara. Voy. dans PAmer. Merid. T. 2, p. Q—2S. 



THE BOTOCUDOS. 139 

other Tapouyas. They are mostly of the middle stature, with broad shoulders, 
large chests, and delicate hands and feet. Their eyes are mostly small, black and 
piercing ; the nose is short, straight and expanded at the nostrils. The whole 
face is large, and occasionally somewhat flattened. Their color is a reddish 
brown, much darker in some instances than others, and in some examples almost 
white. In other respects these people resemble the other nations of the American 
continent. But they have, in common with several tribes of Paraguay, the 
horrible custom of slitting the lower lip, and wearing in the opening thus made 
a round or oval piece of wood, which gives their physiognomy a frightful 
expression, which is heightened by the almost constant flow of saliva from the 
aperture. 

With respect to the moral character of the Botocudos, there is little, perhaps 
nothing, to admire. "Being in no degree guided by the moral principle, and 
uncontrolled by the laws which restrict civilised man within the limits of social 
order, these barbarians follow the impulses of sense and instinct like the jaguars 
of the forest. The outbreakings of their demoniac passions, and especially their 
revenge and jealousy, are as terrible as they are sudden and unexpected." The 
most trifling incident is sufficient to excite their anger, which can never be 
appeased except by the death of the offender. 

It will be of course inferred that their wars are constant and sanguinary. 
They contend with all the surrounding nations, whether of the European or 
Indian race, and their hatred to some adjacent tribes is so implacable, that they 
never spare man, woman or child. Though now nearly exterminated, they 
remain, as a nation, unconquered and unconquerable. 

Nevertheless, unlike their neighbors, the Charruas, the Botocudos have their 
hours of mirth, and enliven their indolence with songs and dances : and with all 
their savage attributes it is due to them to state, that they have in some instances 
shown lasting gratitude to those who have befriended them.* 

PLATE XV. 

BOTOCUDO OF BRAZIL. 

Being extremely desirous to obtain a drawing of one of the skulls of these 
singular people, I wrote for that purpose to his Highness, Maximilian Prince de 
Wied-Nieuwied, celebrated for his scientific researches in both Americas. My 

* See Voyage au Bresil, par S. A. S. Maximilien, Prince de Wied-Nieuwied, T. II, p. 207, &c. 



140 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

application was promptly responded to by that distinguished traveller, who sent 
me a beautiful drawing of which the annexed lithograph is an exact copy. The 
original is preserved in the collection of the illustrious Professor Blumenbach, 
and is the identical specimen brought by the Prince de Wied, and figured in the 
Decades Craniorum. Not having had access to the skull itself, I cannot give all 
its measurements according to my adopted plan; but the following description 
from the above work of Professor Blumenbach, will in a great degree supply the 
deficiency. 

"The age of this man," says he, "was about five and twenty. During the 
war between the Botocudos and the Portuguese, he was accustomed to join his 
countrymen in their hostile incursions ; but after hostilities ceased, he frequently 
visited the garrison on the Rio Doce, where he not long after fell sick and died. 

" The cranium, which is large, is also very ponderous from the thickness of 
the bones, and their dense and hard texture: and as a whole, if you disregard for 
a moment the under jaw, the figure and interval of the orbits, the elevated nasal 
spine, and other particulars peculiar to man, the general aspect approaches nearer 
to that of the Orang Outang than any other skull from a barbarous nation to be 
seen in my collection. I have indeed one or two specimens of the Negro, in 
which the upper jaw is more projecting ; but this skull differs from them in other 
respects, besides having the cheek bones more prominent, and a greater swell of 
the parietal bones. 

" But what deserves particular notice is an indentation, shaped like the point 
of the finger on wax, which remains after the loss of the front teeth, the sockets 
of which are compressed, or rather completely absorbed. So universally, the 
Prince de Wied assures me, does this happen to the youth of this nation from 
wearing the wooden lip-ornament, already mentioned, that you will scarcely find 
one of them arrived at the age of thirty who retains these teeth."* 

I have only to add the following measurements, which are derived from the 
drawing. 

Longitudinal diameter 6.5 inches. 

Vertical diameter about 5.6 inches. 



Facial angle, 



Decas Cran. Sexta, p. 16; et Tab. LVITF. 



141 



THE MEXICANS 



The valleys of Mexico, the ancient Anahuac, have been compared, in their 
political vicissitudes, to those of Italy. Beautiful and productive in a remarkable 
degree, and possessing a delightful climate, Mexico has excited the cupidity of 
many different nations, who have successfully established their dominion over it. 
Let us for a moment enumerate these various people, and at the same time 
inquire into their peculiar characteristics. 

1. Mexican tradition states that the country w^as originally inhabited by 
barbarous hordes, who were no doubt analogous, in their physical appearance and 
social institutions, to the present population of the more northern regions of the 
continent. They have left no monuments ; but it is probable their descendants 
yet exist among the uncultivated tribes which are still scattered over the country. 

2. Of the civilised nations of Anahuac, those which claim the greatest 
antiquity are the Olmecas, who extended their migrations to Nicaragua and the 
Gulf of Nicoya; — the Miztecas and the Zapotecas. These people are said to have 
been as highly cultivated as any of the nations who succeeded them: and it seems 
more than probable that some of the architectural monuments of Mexico, will yet 
be traced to a period long antecedent to the arrival of the Toltecas.* Among the 
nations who inhabited the country at this early epoch, are also to be mentioned 
the Tarascas, and the Otomies, the latter being the least civilised of them all. 

3. The first recorded invasion of Mexico was that of the Toltecas, which is 
dated by most historians about the year 600 of our era.f Their original seats are 

i 

stated in their traditions to have been to the northwest of Mexico, in a country 
called Huehuetapallan. Their monarchy commenced in the year 607, and 
terminated, as we have already stated, A. D. 1031; at which period a series of 
calamities caused their partial destruction, and dispersion into other countries. 
Of all the nations of Anahuac, the Toltecas were the most refined in their social 
relations, and most skilful in the arts and sciences. They introduced the 
cultivation of Indian corn and cotton : they made roads, lived in towns and cities, 
and erected as we have seen,J the most surprising monuments of the new world. 



* Humboldt, Monuments, II, p. 249. 

t Boturini, with much plausibiHty, dates the Toltecan monarchy before the Christian era. It is 
indeed difficult to imagine that the monuments of Pahieque are but 1200 years old, 
J See page 84, and sequel. 
36 



14£ CRANIA AMERICANA. 

4. On the decline of the Toltecan naonarchy, the Chechemecas appeared in 
Mexico. These people were also from a northern country, which their annals 
call Amaquemecan. They were a nation of hunters, clothed in the skins of 
beasts, and unacquainted with agriculture or the arts of civilised life. Their 
religion embraced the simple worship of the sun, to which they made offerings of 
fruits and flowers, unattended by human sacrifices. Although the Chechemecas 
were a rude people, they were not averse to civilisation: they mixed with the 
Toltecas who still remained in the country, adopted their agriculture, and many 
of those ornamental arts to which we have already adverted.* 

5. It was during the Chechemecan monarchy that the seven tribes took up 
their abode in Anahuac. These tribes bore the following names : Zochimilcas, 
Calchese, Tapanecas, Colhuas, Tlahuicas, Tlascalans, and Aztecs or Mexicans. 
These nations bore the collective name of Nahautlacas ; they came also from a 
northern country which they called Aztlan, which was contiguous to Aquemecan, 
the hive of the Chechemecas.f This immigration took place in the year 1178. 
These several tribes established themselves independently in Anahuac, the 
Mexicans being the last in order of arrival, A. D. 1245. 

6. Subsequent to the seven tribes there arrived another great family, bearing 
the name of Alcohuans, whose native seats were nearly identical with those of 
the Chechemecas. A confederacy was early established between the Alcohuans, 
the Chechemecas and the Toltecas, and the national appellation was derived 
from the first of these tribes, which is represented to have been further advanced 
in civilisation than any people of Anahuac, excepting the Toltecas. These 
nations, together with the Naulacas, appear all to have spoken dialects of the same 
language, a fact which is accounted for in their cognate origin. J 

The Aztecs or Mexicans were at first tributary to the Alcohuans, but they 
early shook off the yoke, and became in their turn the rulers of Mexico, which 
they governed until the capital fell into the hands of the Spaniards under Cortez, 
in the year 1521. 

* Clavigero, Hist, of Mexico, B. II. 

t These northern seats of civiUsation, however, have been sought for in vain; and it is worthy of 
remark, that the learned Cabrera has attempted to show that the native seats of the nations above 
ermmerated, were not to the north, but in the south of Mexico. After an enumeration of various 
plausible facts, he adds, " all these circumstances united tend to demonstrate, by evidence as clear as 
evidence can prove, that the kingdom of Amaquemecan was situated in the present province of 
Chiapa."— See Solution of the grand Historical problem of the population of America, p. 6S. 

X Humboldt, Monuments, I, p. 81. 



THE MEXICANS. 143 

Having thus traced, in as few words as possible, the affiliation of the various 
tribes which intruded themselves into Mexico, we proceed in the next place to 
inquire into the distinguishing traits of these communities, all which are now 
registered in history by the collective name of Mexicans. 

All these nations were characterised, as we have observed, by similarity of 
language, and they possessed also similar manners, institutions, and physical traits ; 
^nd Humboldt has compared their affinity to that which is known to exist between 
the Germans, the Norwegians, the Goths and the Danes, who are all embraced in 
a single race.* 

The moral and physical qualities of the Mexicans, says Clavigero, their 
tempers and dispositions, were the same with those of the Alcohuans, the 
Tepanecas, the Tlascalans and other nations, with no other difference than what 
arose from their different mode of education, so that what is said of one may be 
considered applicable to all the others.f " The Mexicans are of good stature, 
generally rather exceeding than falling short of the middling size, and well 
proportioned in all their limbs : they have good complexions, narrow foreheads, 
black eyes, clean, firm, regular white teeth ; thick, black, coarse, glossy hair, thin 
beards, and generally no hair upon their legs and arms. There is scarcely a 
nation, perhaps, upon earth in which there are fewer deformed persons, and it 
would be more difficult to find a single hump-backed, lame or squint-eyed man 
among a thousand Mexicans, than among a hundred of any other nation. The 
unpleasantness of their color, the smallness of their forehead, the thinness of their 
beard and the coarseness of their hair, are so far compensated by the regularity 
and fine proportion of their limbs, that they can neither be called very beautiful, 
nor the contrary, but seem to hold a middle place between the extremes. 

" Their appearance neither engages nor disgusts; but among the young women 
of Mexico, there are many very beautiful and fair ; whose beauty is at the same 
time rendered more winning by the sweetness of their manner of speaking, and by 
the pleasantness and natural modesty of their whole behaviour."J 

Their senses are very acute, especially that of sight, which they retain 
unimpaired to old age. They are moderate in eating, but like all the American 
nation they delight in intoxicating drinks, which have already caused a frightful 
waste of life. To these observations of Clavigero may be added a few others 
from Humboldt, who describes them as possessing " a swarthy and copper color, 
flat and smooth hair, squat body, long eye with the corner directed upwards 



* Monuments, I, p. 214. t Hist, of Mexico, I, p. 103. 

± Clavigero, I, p. 104. Am, ed. 



144 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

towards the temples, prominent cheek-bones, thick lips, and an expression of 
gentleness in the mouth strongly contrasted with a gloomy and severe look."* 
The same author adds, that the Mexicans, especially of the Aztec and Ottomite 
races, have more beard than any other American nation. " Almost all the Indians 
in the neighborhood of the capital, (Mexico)," says he, " wear small mustaches, 
and it is even a mark of the tributary cast."t 

This account of the physical character of the Mexicans is chiefly derived 
from Clavigero, who w^ell knew the people of whom he wrote, not only from 
having studied all the works that have been written respecting them, but especially 
from having resided thirty-six years among them. This author, however, states 
that the Mexicans have narrow foreheads ; which may be in general true of the 
existing tribes, but the remark does not apply to the ancient nations, as is proved 
both by their sculpture and their crania. 

On the Heads of the Ancient Mexicans, — I have not succeeded in obtaining 
an adequate series of Mexican skulls, and of those in my possession but eight are 
older than the conquest. No one of them is altered by art, and they present a 
striking resemblance, both in size and configuration, to the heads of the Ancient 
Peruvians, In examining the delineations in Del Rio'sJ account of Palenque, I 
observed in the corner of his fifth plate, a small, inverted skull, which is so com- 
pletely characteristic of these nations that I have had it drawn on a larger scale, 
preserving, however, the exact proportions of the original. On comparing this 
skull with those of the Peruvians^ already figured, a striking resemblance is 
manifest in the great lateral swell of the head, the rather expanded forehead, and 
the prominent aspect of the vertex or crown. 




* Political Essay on New Spain, p. \05,^N. York ed. t Loco citat. 

t Description of the Ruins of an Ancient City in Guatemala. 

§ See more particularly the skull from the Temple of the Sun, plate XL— C, and compare this 
again with the Natchez heads. The Palenquian relic is a medium between the two. 



THE MEXICANS, 



145 



In fact, these features are so decided that they appear to result in part from 
the application of mechanical pressure. This drawing has great interest from the 
circumstance of its being an authentic copy from an antique Toltecan bas-relief, 
and probably represents the configuration of the head in that nation ; for it is 
obvious from the symmetry and accuracy of the figure, that the artist accomplished 
his task with a skull before him. 

With respect to the many heads figured by Del Rio, they present a striking 
resemblance to each other. They have a conical form, very narrow from front to 
back, and consequently very broad from side to side. The forehead retreats, the 
brow is low, the nose large and aquiline, the mouth wide and the lips somewhat 
tumid. There can be no question that some of these features are exaggerated ; 
but they no doubt preserve the leading traits in the physiognomy of the people 
they represent. The two following illustrations are faithfully transcribed from 
the work of Del Rio, merely omitting such parts of the elaborate head-dresses as 
are unnecessary to the present purpose. 





Were it not for the evidence of undeniable facts, such configuration of the 
head would be pronounced altogether ideal. But when the reader has examined 
the real skulls figured in this work, and especially those of the Natchez tribe 
(who appear to have been of the Toltecan stock,) he will perceive in them a 
distortion similar in kind to that represented in the bas-reliefs of Palenque, but 
in a much more exaggerated degree. With respect to the extravagantly dispro- 
portioned noses of the Toltecan sculpture, Humboldt observes that they might at 
first sight appear to indicate a race very different from that which now inhabits 
these countries ; but, he adds, " it is possible that the Mexican people might have 
37 



146 



CRANIA AMERICANA. 



believed, with the philosopher Plato, that there was something majestic and royal 
in a large nose, and hence may have used it, in their paintings and reliefs, as the 
symbol of power and moral worth."* 

With respect to the form and expression of the Toltecan face, we possess 
other remains of antiquity that no doubt approach very near to nature, and at least 
express what those people considered the beau-ideal of the human physiognomy. 
I allude to the heads moulded in terra-cotta, which have been so abundantly found 
among the Toltecan ruins of Anahuac. Hundreds, perhaps thousands, of these 
effigies have been obtained from the vicinity of the pyramid of Teotihuacan alone : 
they are mostly about an inch in length, and the features are admirably propor- 
tioned. They have high and broad foreheads, oval faces, prominent cheek bones, 
and rather tumid lips. They are all very much compressed from back to front, 
and appear to have been ornamental appendages of clay vessels in common use. 
A late traveller has observed, that the arts could not have been very deficient 
with a people " who, with such coarse materials, and for such common purposes, 
could fashion heads on so small a scale, and exhibiting so much character and 
expression."! 

Dr. Frederick Edmonds, an English gentleman who passed several years in 
the Mexican republic, has presented me with a number of these relics, which 
were obtained by him from the ruins of the Temples of the Sun and Moon, at 
Teotihuacan. Two of these, which are similar to those described and figured by 
Captain Vetch,^ are represented in the subjoined wood-cuts. 





It is thus that we trace the same style of features in the sculpture of the 
nations of Anahuac, from the northern provinces of that country to Nicaragua^ in 



* Monuments, I, p. 131. 

t Vetch, in Trans. Roy. Geog. Soc. of London, VIII, p. 9. j Ibid, plate II. 

§ From Herrera's account, the people of Nicaragua appear to have continued the custom of 
moulding the head up to the time of the Spanish invasion of the country. His words are as follow: 



THE MEXICANS. J 47 

the south, a distance of twelve hundred miles ; while over this vast tract was at 
the same time diffused a language, institutions and monuments, which all bespoke 
a common origin. Humboldt has somewhere remarked that it is not unlikely that 
the figures with enormous aquiline noses, observed in the Mexican hieroglyphic 
paintings, may point to a race of men already extinct. For this surmise, however, 
there appears to be no foundation ; for this peculiarity of Toltecan sculpture is to 
be regarded as a conventional rule of art, like others in the bas-reliefs and statues 
of the Nile. 

The practice of artificially moulding the head, varied, it is true, according to 
fancy, has been traced from Peru into Venezuela,* and thence into Nicaragua as 
matter of fact; and as we also find the Natchez and other tribes originally from 
Mexico addicted to the same usage, we may reasonably infer that the Toltecas 
and Aztecs, who give evidence of the same custom in their bas-reliefs, and 
hieroglyphics, did really practise it as a national usage ; and skulls will no doubt 
be hereafter found that will place this question beyond controversy.f 

We now turn from the physical to the moral and intellectual character of 
the Mexican nations. "The religion, government and economy of a state," 
observes Clavigero, " are three things which chiefly form the character of a nation, 
and without being acquainted with these it is impossible to have a perfect idea of 
the genius, disposition and knowledge of any people whatever-''^ The historian 
then adds that the religion of the Mexicans was a heap of errors, superstitions and 
cruel rites. Their gods were nearly as numerous as those of the Romans, and 
their offices and attributes were mystified by the worst inventions of priestcraft. 
They worshipped the sun and moon among their principal divinities, and they 
personified the seasons and various phenomena of nature, giving to each its place 
in their mythological series : they had a god of war, a god of peace, a god of 
mirth, and in fact a god for almost every imaginable contingency, together with 
household divinities (answering to the penates of the ancients) almost without 

"Los hombres son de buena statura^ mas blancos que loros; las cabecas a tolondrones con un hoyo en 
medio por hermosura, i por asiento, i por car ga.''— Hist, de las Indias, Dec. Ill, Lib. IV. 

* See Plate 64. 

t Since this paragraph was written I have received a letter from Dr. John Macartney, of the city 
of Mexico, who speaks of the "singular forms'^ of the skulls in the ancient cemetery of Santiago de 
TIatelolco. I wait with great interest for the facts these reUcs may develope. The cemetery asserted 
to have been lately discovered at Durango, in the Mexican states, may also throw much additional 
light on this subject. 

+ Hist, of Mexico, B. VI. (Cullen.) 



148 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

number. It is asserted that, after the conquest by the Spaniards, the Franciscan 
monks, alone, destroyed in eight years, more than twenty thousand idols.* Their 
temples were in proportion ; Torquemada estimated them at forty thousand, and 
Clavigero thinks this estimate is much within bounds. They had their fasts, 
penances and feasts, their monks, vestals and priests of different orders. But what 
is most surprising in a nation possessing any claim to refinement, was their 
numberless human sacrifices; men, women and children were put to death by 
every possible variety of suffering, and there seems to be no doubt that the blood 
of no less than twenty thousand human beings w^as annually devoted to the gods 
of the Mexicans. When to this account we add the appalling fact that the bodies 
of the victims were devoured at the feasts of the people, we are compelled to 
acknowledge that no nation on the earth has ever presented such a combination of 
revolting enormities. f It is but justice, however, again to remark, that these 
abominations were not practised by the Toltecas and the other ancient nations of 
Anahuac, but by their successors and perhaps conquerors of the Aztec family. 

We pass over other traits of barbarism, which prove, that while the intel- 
lectual character of the Mexicans was far exalted above that of the other nations 
of North America, their moral perceptions appear to have been blunted in 
proportion : all their institutions, religious and civil, were established and main- 
tained with bloody rites, which must have constantly operated to deaden and 
obliterate the finer feelings of our nature. Familiarity with death leads to 
indifference of life, and hence, perhaps, the superior courage of the Mexicans: 
for notwithstanding the aspersions of De Pauw and others, these people yielded to 
the Spaniards only after a valiant struggle. De Pauw asserts that Mexico was 
conquered by Cortez with 450 vagabonds, and fifteen horses, badly armed. This 
is a great error; for every reader of American history is aware, that Cortez 
enlisted against the doomed empire, the people of various tributary and discontented 
provinces ; so that in place of attacking Mexico with 450 men, he commenced his 
invasion with 200,000. Cortez acknowledges the multitude of his allies, and 
admits that at the siege of the capital, they fought against the Mexicans with even 
greater ardor than the Spaniards themselves. The siege of the city lasted seventy- 
four days, during which time the inhabitants defended themselves with the utmost 
bravery ; nor did they surrender until 50,000 of their number had been destroyed 
by famine and the sword, and seven of the eight parts of their city had fallen into 
the hands of the enemy. 

* Hist, of Mexico, B. VI, p. 26. (Cullen.) t Clavigero, Hist, of Mexico, p. 59. 



THE MEXICANS. 149 

Let us now turn to the more pleasing part of the picture, that which 
considers the progress these people had made in the refinements of civilised life. 

The state of civilisation among the Mexicans, when they were first known 
to the Spaniards, was much superior to that of the Spaniards themselves on their 
first intercourse with the Phenicians, " or that of the Gauls when first known to 
the Greeks, or that of the Germans and Britons when first known to the Romans. 
— Their understandings are fitted for every kind of science, as experience has 
actually shown. Of the Mexicans who have had an opportunity of engaging in 
the pursuit of learning — which is but a small number, as the greater part of the 
people are always employed in the public or private works — we have known 
some good mathematicians, excellent architects, and learned divines."* 

The architectural taste of the Mexican nation is chiefly seen in the Palace 
of Mitla, and the ruins of Palenque. The first of these remains is situated in the 
province of Oaxaca, and belongs to the era of the Zapotecas : it embraces five 
separate buildings, disposed with great regularity, courts, terraces, columns, 
arabesques and subterranean vaults. The columns, which are the only ones 
hitherto found in America, are without capitals, and indicate the infancy of this 
department of art.f 

If we go southward to Guatemala, which was a province of Mexico under 
nearly all the dynasties that governed that country, we find other architectural 
remains of an elaborate and imposing character, which tend still more strongly to 
impress the mind with the genius of the ancient people of Anahuac. " The cave 
of Tibulca," says Juarros, " appears like a temple of great size hollowed out of the 
base of a hill, and is adorned with columns, having bases, pedestals, capitals and 
crowns, all accurately adjusted according to architectural principles."! Juarros 
also describes the cavern temple at Mixco in yet more extraordinary details; 
which remind us, says an ingenious author, of the rock caverns and temples of 
EUora, Elephanta, and other similar monuments of Hindoo workmanship. § Are 
these the works of the Toltecas, or of their cultivated progenitors the Olmecas ? 

In the same region of country, near the village of Palenque, are the ruins of 
a city of which we have already spoken, in which the massive edifices, the inclined 

* Clavigero, ut swpra, t Humboldt, Monuments, II, p. 156. 

X Hist, of Guatemala, p. 57. 

§ M'CuLLOH, Researches, p. 316. — The monumental treasures of New Spain have been for 
centuries hidden from investigation by a singularly selfish policy. It is matter of congratulation, 
however, that the time is rapidly approaching when the Anglo Saxon race will control the destinies 
of Mexico, and throw open her buried monuments to the scrutiny of art and science. 
38 



150 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

walls, the bas-reliefs and hieroglyphic sculpture, belong obviously to a remote age, 
and are by pretty general consent attributed to the Toltecas. 

The gigantic monuments of Anahuac are also seen in the pyramids of 
Cholula, Teotihuacan and Papantla. When the Aztecs took possession of this 
country in the 12th century, they found these monuments already existing, and 
referred them to the Toltecas. The pyramid of Cholula has a base twice the 
breadth of that of Cheops, yet is low in proportion.* It is built of unbaked 
bricks, is four stories or terraces in height, and is constructed in the direction of 
the four cardinal points. — The pyramids of Teotihuacan are eight leagues north 
of the city of Mexico : two of these are dedicated to the Sun and Moon, and these 
again are surrounded by hundreds of others of smaller size, which form streets in 
lines from north to south, and from east to west. Lastly in this series of 
monuments, is the pyramid of Papantla, built of hewn stones of Cyclopean 
dimensions, and ornamented with hieroglyphics. 

SujSfice it to add, that the year of the Mexicans consisted like our own, of three 
hundred and sixty-five days, but instead of twelve it was divided into eighteen 
months, each of twenty days : they possessed a distinct system of hieroglyphic 
writing, and their annals went back more than eight centuries and a half before 
the arrival of the Spaniards. 

Their knowledge of arithmetic and astronomy, as we have already noted, was 
both extensive and accurate. They had constructed considerable aqueducts, of 
which the remains yet exist, and numerous canals for irrigation, of which one is 
asserted to have extended a distance of one hundred and fifty leagues. "They 
were able to extract, separate and fuse metals; to give copper the hardness of 
steel, for the fabrication of their weapons and instruments ; to make mirrors of 
this hardened copper, or of hard stone; to form images of gold and silver, hollow 
within; to cut the hardest precious stones with the greatest nicety; to manu- 
facture and dye cotton and wool, and work and figure the stuffs in various ways ; 
and to spin and weave the fine hair of hares and rabbits, into fabrics resembling and 
answering the purposes of silks."t Such are the people whom certain closet 
authors in Europe have stigmatised as barbarians, incapable of the arts and 
refinements of civilised life. 

Clavigero, speaking of the present descendants of the Aztecs, observes that 

* Humboldt, Monuments, I, p. 89.— This traveller states the side of the base to be, 1,423 feet^ 
while its height is only 177 feet. 

t Carli, quoted in Lawrence's Lect. on Zoology, &c. p. 480. 



THE MEXICANS. 151 

they possess both the imitative and inventive faculties ; and although slow in their 
motions, they shovr extraordinary perseverance in those w^orks that require long 
continued attention. They are taciturn and severe in their manners, and seldom 
exhibit those transitions of passion so common in other nations. They are generous 
and disinterested, setting little value on gold, and giving, without reluctance, what 
has cost them much labor to obtain. 

But it will still be asked, where are now the descendants of the civilised 
Mexicans ? Where is the genius of that people ? A passage from Humboldt will 
sufficiently answer these questions. "As to the moral faculties of the Indians, it 
is difficult to appreciate them with justice, if we only consider this long oppressed 
caste in their present state of degradation. The better sort of Indians, among 
whom a certain degree of intellectual culture might be supposed, perished in great 
part at the commencement of the Spanish conquest, the victims of European 
ferocity. The Christian fanaticism broke out in a particular manner against the 
Aztec priests ; and the Teopixqui, or ministers of the divinity, and all those who 
inhabited the Teocalli, or houses of the gods, who might be considered as the 
depositories of the historical, mythological and astronomical knowledge of the 
country, were exterminated ; for the priests observed the meridian shade in the 
gnomons, and regulated the calendar. The monks burned the hieroglyphic 
paintings, by which every kind of knowledge was transmitted from generation to 
generation. The people, deprived of these means of instruction, were plunged in 
ignorance so much the deeper, inasmuch as the missionaries were unskilled in the 
Mexican languages, and could substitute few new ideas in the place of the old. 
The remaining natives then consisted of the most indigent race, poor cultivators, 
artizans, among whom was a great number of weavers, porters, who were used as 
beasts of burthen, and especially those dregs of the people, those crowds of beggars, 
who bore witness to the imperfection of the social institutions, and the existence 
of feudal oppression, and who, in the time of Cortez, filled the streets of all the 
great cities in the Mexican empire. How shall we judge then, from these 
miserable remains of a powerful people, of the degree of civilisation to which it 
had risen from the twelfth to the sixteenth century, and of the . intellectual 
development of which it is susceptible ? If all that remained of the French or 
German nation were a few poor agriculturists, could we read in their features 
that they belonged to nations which had produced Descartes and Clairaut, Kepler 
and Leibnitz?"* 

* Polit. Essay, B. II, Chap. VI. 



152 



CRANIA AMERICANA. 



In addition to these remarks, we will merely note the moral and political 
resemblance that exists between the ancient and modern Mexicans on the one 
hand, and the Egyptians of the age of Pharaoh and the present Copts on the other. 
Slavery has degraded the faculties of both, and it would require centuries of the 
most favorable circumstances to resuscitate the dormant genius of either. 

PLATE XVI. 

MEXICAN. 





A skull of large and massive developments, with a full, broad but retreating 
forehead, and great width between the parietal bones. The head is more oval 
and elongated than is usual in this race, and there is a remarkable fulness of the 
phrenological region of constructiveness. The face is large and projecting, and 
the lower jaw broad and ponderous. This is a relic of the genuine Toltecan 
stock, having been exhumed from an ancient cemetery at Cerro de Quesilas, near 
the city of Mexico. It was accompanied by numerous antique vessels, weapons, 
&c., indicating a personage of distinction. This cranium was brought from 
Mexico by the Hon. J. R. Poinsett, and by him presented to the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 



MEASUREMENTS. 



Longitudinal diameter. 
Parietal diameter, . 
Frontal diameter, . 
Vertical diameter, . 
Inter-mastoid arch, . 
Inter-mastoid line, . 



7.1 inches. 

5.7 inches. 
4.4 inches. 

5.2 inches. 
15.9 inches. 

4. inches. 



THE MEXICANS. 



153 



Occipito-frontal arch. 

Horizontal periphery. 

Internal capacity, . 

Capacity of the anterior chamber. 

Capacity of the posterior chamber, 

Capacity of the coronal region. 

Facial angle. 



14. inches. 
20.5 inches. 
83. cubic inches. 
39. cubic inches. 
44. cubic inches. 
17.5 cubic inches. 
72 degrees. 



PLATE XVII. 

MEXICAN. 





With a better forehead than is usual, this skull presents all the prominent 
characters of the American race — the prominent face, elevated vertex, vertical 
occiput, and the great swell from the temporal bones upward. Of the particular 
tribe to which this individual belonged I am not informed ; and I should have 
hesitated to present it as a genuine Mexican had I not received, through Mr. 
Joseph Smith, late of this city and now of Mexico, a skull which corresponds 
with it in almost every particular, from an ancient tomb at Tacuba. Of the 
latter I subjoin, at the end of the following measurements, three diagrams for the 
purpose of comparison. 



MEASUREMENTS. 



Longitudinal diameter. 
Parietal diameter, . 
Frontal diameter, . 
Vertical diameter, . 
Inter-mastoid arch, . 
39 



6.8 inches. 

5.5 inches. 

4.6 inches. 
6. inches. 

15.6 inches. 



154 



CRANIA AMERICANA. 



Inter-mastoid line, . 
Occipi to-frontal arch. 
Horizontal periphery. 
Internal capacity, . 
Capacity of the anterior chamber. 
Capacity of the posterior chamber 
Capacity of the coronal region. 
Facial angle, , . . . 




4.4 inches. 
14.6 inches. 
19.9 inches. 
89.5 cubic inches. 
33.5 cubic inches. 
56. cubic inches. 
19.5 cubic inches. 

80 degrees. 




The skull represented in the above diagrams came too late to be lithographed ; 
but in a future part of this work are inserted three heads from Otumba, which 
will materially assist in completing this section of the illustrations. (See Plates 
59, 60, 61.) 



PLATE XVII.— A. 

MEXICAN. 





This is the cranium of a Mexican Indian of the Pames tribe, whose location 
is at the hamlet of San Lorenzo, not far from the city of Mexico. It was 
exhumed at the particular request of the late Dr. Antommarchi, Physician to 



THE MEXICANS. 



155 



Napoleon, and by that gentleman deposited in my collection at the request of 
my friend Dr. M.Burrough, United States Consul at Vera Cruz. The certificates 
which accompanied this skull go to prove that it belonged to an Indian of the 
unmixed race, but of whose history nothing is stated. It therefore only remains 
to subjoin the usual 



MEASUREMENTS. 



Longitudinal diameter. 
Parietal diameter, • 
Frontal diameter, . 
Vertical diameter, . 
Inter-mastoid arch, . 
Inter-mastoid line, . 
Occipito-frontal arch. 
Horizontal periphery. 
Internal capacity, . 
Capacity of the anterior chamber. 
Capacity of the posterior chamber. 
Capacity of the coronal region, . 
Facial angle, . 



6.6 inches. 

5.3 inches. 

4.3 inches. 

5.2 inches. 
14.6 inches. 

4.1 inches. 
13.6 inches. 
19. inches. 
74. cubic inches, 
28. cubic inches. 
46. cubic inches. 
11.5 cubic inches, 
77 degrees. 



PLATE XVIII. 

MEXICAN. 





A remarkably well characterised Toltecan head, from an ancient tomb near 
the city of Mexico, whence it was exhumed with a great variety of antiques, 
vessels, masks, ornaments, &c. It is preserved in the collection of the American 
Philosophical Society; and I am indebted for its use on this occasion to the 



156 



CRANIA AMERICANA. 



estimable Librarian of that institution, John Vaughan, Esq. The forehead is low, 
but not very receding ; the face projects, and the whole cranium is extremely 
unequal in its lateral proportions. 



MEASUREMENTS. 



Longitudinal diameter, 
Parietal diameter. 
Frontal diameter. 
Vertical diameter. 
Inter-mas toid arch, . 
Inter-mastoid line, 
Occipito-frontal arch. 
Horizontal periphery. 
Internal capacity, 
Capacity of the anterior chamber. 
Capacity of the posterior chamber. 
Facial angle, . . . . 



6.4 inches. 
5.7 inches. 

4.5 inches. 

5.4 inches. 
14.6 inches. 

4.5 inches. 
13.5 inches. 
20.3 inches. 

77. cubic inches. 
30. cubic inches. 
47. cubic inches. 
78 degrees. 



PLATE XVIIL— A 



MEXICAN.— TLAHUICA? 





This is a female skull, obtained from Acapacingo, in the valley of Cuernavaca, 
about fifty miles south of the city of Mexico. It was obtained and presented to 
me by that distinguished friend and patron of science, William Maclure, Esq., 
President of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Mr. Maclure did 
not inform me to what tribe this individual belonged ; but as Clavigero* states 



Hist, of Mexico, I, p. 7. (Cullen's Tr.) 



THE NATCHEZ. 



157 



that all the tribes of that section of Mexico belonged to the great Tlahuica nation, 
I have designated this specimen accordingly. We recognise in this skull the 
projecting face, the retreating forehead and the flat occiput of the Toltecan family, 
although the whole head is more elongated than usual. The styloid process 
exceeds any similar appendage I have ever seen, and touches the lower jaw in a 
way that must have impeded the opening of the mouth. 



MEASUREMENTS. 



Longitudinal diameter. 
Parietal diameter. 
Frontal diameter, 
Vertical diameter, 
Inter-mastoid arch, 
Inter-mastoid line, 
Occipito-frontal arch. 
Horizontal periphery. 
Internal capacity. 
Capacity of the anterior chamber. 
Capacity of the posterior chamber, 
Capacity of the coronal region. 
Facial angle, . 



6.9 inches. 

5.2 inches. 

4.2 inches* 

5.4 inches. 

14.5 inches. 

4.1 inches. 

1 4. inches. 

19.2 inches. 

78. cubic inches. 

30. cubic inches. 

48. cubic inches. 
14.25 cubic inches. 

76 degrees. 



THE NATCHEZ. 

The traditions of the Natchez state, that they migrated from Mexico at two 
different periods : and their singular usages lead to the belief that they were a 
branch of the great Toltecan family, which, as we have seen, was subjected to 
great vicissitudes, and ultimately, in a great measure, expatriated from Anahuac. 

The more obvious analogies between the Natchez and the Toltecas, consist 
in the worship of the sun, the practice of human sacrifices on the death of eminent 
persons, hereditary distinctions, and fixed institutions, in which respect they differed 
from all the other nations of Florida. 
40 



158 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

The Natchez not only worshipped the sun, but kept what they termed the 
eternal fire ; which last they accomplished hy slowly burning a torch made of 
three pieces of wood joined at one end.* 

Their hereditary usages were very remarkable, and constituted, in fact, a 
feudal system of the most exclusive kind. They called their principal chief the 
Great Sun^ and the nobles and their children were called suns; while all that 
portion of the tribe not allied to these dignitaries, were stigmatised by an epithet 
equivalent to the English word rabble. Yet what is even more singular, nobility 
was derived and transmitted exclusively through the female sex. 

The character of these people was more pacific than that of most other 
American tribes. They rarely make wars, says Charlevoix, nor place their glory 
in destroying their fellow creatures; but, once excited to revenge by repeated 
provocation, their resentment is appeased only by the extermination of their 
enemies. The fate of the first French colony in their nation is a tragical 
illustration of this fact, and may be told in a few" words. The French, by 
repeated aggressions, aroused the vengeance of a people who had assiduously 
cultivated their friendship. A plan w^as concerted by the Indians for destroying 
their enemies in a single night ; and with such fidelity was this secret maintained, 
that on the eve of St. Andrew, A. D. 17^9, they fell upon the hapless colony, and 
of seven hundred Europeans, all except a mere handful w^ere massacred without 
mercy. 

We have only to add the uniform result of such resistance on the part of the 
Indians. The French entered the country of the Natchez in great force, and this 
injured people, after a valiant struggle, w^as at last dispersed and almost extermi- 
nated in the year 1730.t 

It is a singular circumstance in the character of these people, that they were 
in the practice of funeral sacrifices to an extent unknown elsewhere in America 



* Charlevoix, Voy, de PAmerique, Let. XXX. 

t The French sold their Natchez prisoners, inckiding a chief, into slavery in the West India 
Islands. Such of the Natchez as escaped the fate of their country, fled up Red River, in Louisiana, 
and encamped six miles below the town of Natchitoches. Monsieur St. Dennie, a French Canadian, 
was then Commandant at Natchitoches : he collected what soldiers and militia he had at his disposal, 
and these being joined by the Natchitoches Indians, the Natchez were attacked in their camp by the 
whole force. The besieged " defended themselves desperately for six hours, but were at length totally 
defeated by St. Dennie, and such of them as were not killed in battle, were driven into the lake, where 
the last of them perished, and the Natchez as a nation became extinct.''— Sibley, Message from the 
President of the U. S., 1806, p. 80. 



THE NATCHEZ. 159 

excepting in Peru. My friend Mr. Nuttall has embodied the more striking 
features of this usage in the following paragraph. " When either the male or 
female Sun died, all their allouez^ or intimate attendants, devoted themselves to 
death, under a persuasion that their presence w^ould be necessary to maintain the 
dignity of their chief in the future vrorld. The wives and husbands of these 
chiefs were likewise immolated for the same purpose, and considered it the most 
honorable and desirable of deaths. More than a hundred victims were sometimes 
sacrificed to the manes of the Great Chief. The same horrible ceremonies, in a 
more limited degree, were also exercised at the death of the lesser chiefs. 

" At the death of one of their female chiefs, Charlevoix relates, that her 
husband not being noble, was, according to their custom, strangled by the hands of 
his own son. Soon after, the two deceased being laid out in state, were 
surrounded by the dead bodies of twelve infants, strangled by order of the eldest 
daughter of the late female chief, and who had now succeeded to her dignity. 
Fourteen other individuals, were also prepared to die, and accompany the deceased. 
On the day of interment as the procession advanced, the fathers and mothers who 
had sacrificed their children, preceding the bier, threw the bodies on the ground 
at different distances, in order that they might be trampled upon by the bearers 
of the dead. The corpse arriving in the temple where it was to be interred, the 
fourteen victims now prepared themselves for death by swallowing pills of 
tobacco and water, and were then strangled by the relations of the deceased, and 
their bodies cast into the common grave and covered with earth."* 

Among other singular customs of the Natchez, was that of distorting the 
head by compression. Du Pratz mentions, the women place their newborn 
infant in a cradle which is about two feet and a half long, nine inches broad, and 
six inches deep, stuffed beneath with a kind of mattrass, with the plant called 
Spanish beard. " The infant is laid on its back in the cradle, and fastened to it by 
the shoulders, the arms, the legs, the thighs and the hips ; and over its forehead 
are laid two bands of deer-skin, which keep its head to the cushion, and render 
that part flat:" and he adds, that they never place their children on their feet 
until they are a year old.f 

During the invasion of Florida, by Ferdinand de Soto, the Spaniards met 
with some Indians whose heads were moulded precisely into the form above 
described. "Their heads are incredibly long," (high) observes the historian, "and 

* Travels in Arkansas, p. 271.— Charlevoix, Yoj. de TAmerique, Let. XXX. 
t Hist, of Louisiana, p. 323. 



160 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

pointed upwards, owing to a custom of artificially compressing them from the 
period of the child's birth, until it attains the age of nine or ten years."* The 
people thus described are said to inhabit the province of Tula ; and it is curious 
to observe, that this name was also that of the Toltecan capital of Anahuac, and 
signified a place of reeds. The same name is found in Texas and Guatemala, 
indicating the migrations of the Toltecan nation. It is, therefore, a reasonable 
presumption, that the Natchez were a colony of the old Toltecan stock.f 

The Natchez lived very much excluded from intercourse with the adjacent 
nations, excepting the Chetimaches. They inhabited the banks of the Mississippi 
in three principal villages near the city which now bears their name ; but the last 
remnant of the nation not long since occupied a small village on the Talipoosa 
river, in Alabama. During the late war between the United States and the Creek 
Indians, these Natchez joined the army of General Jackson, but since that period 
their name appears to exist only in history.J 

PLATES XX AND XXI. 

NATCHEZ. 

The extraordinary cranium of which two views are given on the annexed 
plates, was obtained from a mound near the city of Vicksburg, state of Mississippi, 
by Dr. W, Byrd Powell, of New Orleans, who has furnished me with the following 
brief memorandum. 

" This skull is a fac-simile of another obtained at Natchez, but in a better 
state of preservation. It was obtained from a mound which was full of bones for 
the most part in a decomposed state. The drawings I send you are remarkably 
accurate ; and the following are a few of the most remarkable phrenological 
measurements, derived from the skull itself: 

" From individuality to occipital spine 5^ inches, 

'' From destructiveness to destructiveness 51 inches. 

"From cautiousness to cautiousness 6 A- inches. 



* Garcilaso de la Vega, Hist, de la Florida, Lib. IV, cap. 13. — Instead of nine or ten years, 
(nueve a diez anos,) the time employed in the process was probably that number of months. 

t M'CuLLOH, Researches, p. 271. — Mr. Nuttall thinks that the place called Quigalia in De Soto's 
narrative, and the place where that brigand expired, was within the Natchez territory. — TravJn 
t^r leans as, p. 263. 

X Nuttall, Trav. p. 234. 



THE NATCHEZ. 



161 



" From secretiveness to secretiveness 65. 

" From constructiveness to constructiveness 4 



1 jj 



Mr. Dorfeuelle, of Cincinnati, has kindly presented me with a cast of another 
skull obtained near the city of Natchez, and which corresponds in most of its 
details with that here figured, and of which I subjoin two diagrams. 





I am further informed that five at least of these extraordinary crania, have 
been obtained from different mounds in the ancient territory of the Natchez. It 
is now well ascertained, however, that several other tribes of our southern Indians 
also practised the art of changing the form of the skull. Among these were the 
Choctaws. "They flatten their heads with a bag of sand," says Adair, "which 
with great care they keep fastened to the skull of the infant, while it is in its 
tender and imperfect state."* Bartram is more explicit. " The Choctaws are 
called by the traders Flats, or Flatheads, all the males having the fore and hind 
part of their skulls flattened or compressed, which is effected in the following 
manner. As soon as the child is born, the nurse provides a cradle or wooden case, 
where the head reposes, being fashioned like a brick mould. In this part of the 
machine the little boy is fixed, a bag of sand being laid on its forehead, which, by 
continual gentle compressure, gives the head somewhat the form of a brick from 
the temples upwards, and by these means they have high and lofty foreheads, 
sloping off* backwards."! The Choctaws, therefore, moulded their heads in the 
same style or form with the Natchez. I subjoin diagrams of an admirably 
preserved cranium from a mound high up the Alabama river, and which has been 



*Hist. of the Amer. Indians^ p. 2S4. 
41 



t Trav. p. 517. 



162 



CRANIA AMERICANA. 



kindly lent me by Dr. 0. H. Fowler, of this city. Whether it be a Choctaw or 
a Natchez, I cannot determine, but it is probably the latter. 




The Waxsaws, according to Lawson, resorted to a somewhat similar device. 
" They use a roll which is placed on the babe's forehead, it being laid with its 
back on a flat board, and swaddled down hard thereon, from one end of this engine 
to the other." ^'-The instrument," he adds, "is a sort of press that is let out and 
in, more or less, according to the discretion of the nurse, in which they make the 
child's head flat : it makes the eyes stand a prodigious way asunder, and the hair 
hang over the forehead like the eaves of a house, which seems very frightful."* 
Finally, it seems certain that the Katawbas on the east, and the Attakapas on the 
west side of the Mississippi, practised a similar usage. 



THE CHETIMACHES. 

Near the Natchez was another powerful though not numerous nation, called 
the Chetimaches. Du Pratz states that the latter are a branch of the Natchez, 
who have always looked upon them as their brethren.f But this affinity appears 
to have been of a social nature only, for Mr. Gallatin observes that he could find 
no analogies in their respective languages, and their customs appear to have been 
altogether dissimilar. 



* Hist, of Carolina, p. 33. 



tHist of Louisiana, p. 314. 



THE CHETIMACHES, 



163 



They formerly inhabited the vicinity of the Lake Barataria, but, though 
once a warlike people, were subdued by the Europeans early in the last century; 
for Charlevoix, writing in the year ITSa, says that the Chetimaches were nearly 
all destroyed at that time, and that the few of the tribe then remaining were 
slaves to the French colony. 

PLATE XIX.* 

CHETIMACHES. 





The late Dr. Justus Le Beau, of New Orleans, presented me with two 
genuine skulls of this tribe, which were exhumed from a cemetery in the Parish 
of St. Mary, in Louisiana, Of these heads I have figured the largest, which 
presents a singularly massive development. The nearly vertical occiput, the great 
height of the skull, and the size and strength of the bones of the face, are not 
surpassed by those of any Indian cranium I have seen. The measurements are 
as follow : 



MEASUREMENTS. 



Longitudinal diameter. 
Parietal diameter, 
Frontal diameter. 
Vertical diameter, 
Inter-mastoid arch, 
Inter-mastoid line, 
Occipito-frontal arch. 



6.9 inches. 

5.6 inches. 

4.2 inches. 
5.9 inches. 

15.5 inches. 

4.3 inches. 
14. inches. 



* In the regular order the Chetimaches should have preceded the Natchez. 



144 



THE MUSKOGEES OR CREEKS, AND SEMINOLES, 

20. inches. 

85. cubic inches. 



Horizontal periphery. 

Internal capacity, . 

Capacity of the anterior chamber. 

Capacity of the posterior chamber 

Capacity of the coronal region, . 

Facial angle, .... 



39.25 cubic inches. 
45.75 cubic inches. 
13.25 cubic inches. 
71 degrees. 



THE MUSKOGEES OR CREEKS, AND SEMINOLES. 

The Muskogee or Creek confederacy is composed of several nations or 
remnants of nations, among which the most prominent, at the present time, are 
the Seminoles. I am indebted to the politeness of Dr. Forry, of the United 
States Army, for some interesting particulars in reference to this coalition. 

MusKOGEEs. "Among the great nation of Creek Indians," says he, "the 
principal and original tribe was the Muskogee, by whom the claim of having 
always occupied the country recently in their possession is boldly asserted. Long 
known as a powerful and restless confederacy, its sway extended over the present 
limits of Georgia, Alabama and Florida. It consisted of a community of tribes, 
which, having become reduced in numbers, incorporated themselves with the 
ruling band. In progress of time these various clans or tribes became, in some 
measure, a homogeneous people. 

" The Seminoles, who have a similar origin, consist chiefly of Muskogees. 
The ancient possessors of the soil have become extinct, or at least have lost their 
identity among the wars, and changes and confusion incident to our aborigines. 
The collective appellation of Seminoles^ in its Muskogee acceptation, has a 
signification expressive of the character of the Bedouin Arab. Detaching 
themselves from the main body of the Creeks, they wandered wherever a greater 
abundance of game or undisturbed possession of the soil might offer inducements. 
The Yamassees, a powerful people of whom much is said in our early colonial 
history, were, after long wars with their ancient enemies the Creeks, completely 
broken up, and under the elder king Payne, the Seminoles reduced as tributaries 
all refractory tribes. Thus from this nucleus of a people, there gradually arose 



THE CREEKS. 165 

bj natural increase and accessions from other tribes, a nation of Seminoles^ or 
wanderers.^'^ 

Mr. Bartram describes the Creek women as of short stature but well formed : 
their visage, says he, is round, their features regular and beautiful: the brow is 
high and arched ; the eye large, black and languishing, and expressive of modesty, 
and diffidence. " They are, I believe, the smallest race of women yet known, 
seldom above five feet high, and the greater number never arrive to that stature : 
their hands and feet are not larger than those of Europeans of nine or ten years 
of age ; yet the men are of gigantic stature, a full size larger than Europeans ; 
many of them above six feet, and few under that, or five feet eight or ten 
inches."! He adds that their complexion is much darker than that of any tribe 
he had seen to the north of them. 

Bernard Romans observes, that they are remarkably well shaped and a very 
hardy race. " What deserves notice here is, that their thorax is very shallow, so 
that a savage of this race may appear almost a giant by the breadth of his 
shoulders, yet not measure so much in circumference as an ordinary European ; 
but whether this is the effect of art or nature, I cannot pretend to decide." Their 
women, he adds, are handsome, and the whole nation so hospitable that they are 
always ready to share their pipe and board with a stranger. On the other hand 
they are adepts in cruelty when they wreak their vengeance on a captive enemy.J 

Bartram confirms this picture, by stating that they are fond of their wives 
and children, and kind to travellers who pass through their country with pacific 
intentions. " I have been weeks and months amongst them in their towns," says 
he ; "I never observed the least sign of contention or wrangling ; never saw an 
instance of an Indian beating his wife or reproving her in anger. In this case 
they stand as examples of reproof to the most civilised nations, as not being 
deficient in justice, gratitude and a good understanding. "§ 

Bartram has justly characterised the Creeks as a proud and arrogant people, 
" valiant in war, ambitious of conquest, restless, and perpetually exercising their 
arms, yet magnanimous and merciful to a vanquished enemy, when he submits, 
and seeks their friendship and protection." They habitually unite the subjected 

* Sketch of the Indian Tribes known under the appellation of Muskogee, with some general 
remarks on the Manners and Customs, &c., of the American Aborigines. By Samuel Forry, M. D., 
Medical Staff, U. S. Army. MS. 

t Trav. in Florida, p. 484. j Nat. Hist, of Florida, I, p. 92. 

§ Trav. in Florida, p. 490. 
42 



166 



CRANIA AMERICANA. 



tribes into their own confederacy, and give them all the rights possessed by 
themselves. 

Hence the present Creek nation is said to embrace the remains of no less 
than fifteen different tribes, w^hich they have conquered at various times. " This 
confederacy of remnants," says Romans, " is a race of very cunning fellows, and 
with regard to us the most to be dreaded of any nation on the continent, as well 
for their indefatigable thirst for blood, (which makes them travel incredibly for a 
scalp or prisoner) as for their being truly politicians bred."^ 

All these details go to prove that the Creeks possess, in a remarkable degree, 
those seemingly incompatible extremes that compose the Indian character. 

PLATE XXII. 

SEMINOLE. 






This remarkably characteristic Indian head was presented to me by my friend 
Dr. G. Emerson of this city, who at the same time favored me with the following 
historical memorandum. " Seminole warrior, slain at the battle of St, Joseph's, 
thirty miles below St Augustine, in June 1836, by Captain Justin Dimmick, of 
the First Regiment United States Artillery. At the commencement of the action 
Captain Dimmick rode forward, and received the fire of the Indians at a distance 
of about thirty yards. The Captain's horse being struck on the neck and flank, 
he dismounted; and the Indians, supposing him to be badly wounded, rushed 
towards him to scalp him. At that moment Captain D, raised his gun, (a 
double-barrel fowling piece,) and shot both of the Indians in succession: he 



Nat. Hist, of Florida, I, p. 91, 



THE CREEKS, 



167 



then seized the musket of a soldier who stood near him, and sprang upon his 
enemies, one of whom (the subject of the annexed drawing) he found already 
dead, by a ball through the head, while the other was merely wounded. The 
latter was at once despatched by a thrust of the bayonet ; and thus by the singular 
bravery of Captain Dimmick, these two savages lay dead, and side by side, in a 
few moments after the action began." 

The accompanying lithograph, and the preceding wood outlines, convey an 
exact representation of this interesting relic, which presents a lofty, though 
retreating forehead, great breadth between the parietal bones, and remarkable 
altitude of the whole cranium. The orbits of the eyes show the medium size and 
quadrangular form, noticed w^hen speaking of the Creek Indians. The fatal ball 
is observed to have entered the skull at the coronal suture, at its junction with the 
sphenoid bone ; and it passed out through the opposite parietal bone. 



MEASUREMENTS, 



Longitudinal diameter, 
Parietal diameter, 
Frontal diameter, 
Vertical diameter, 
Inter-mastoid arch, 
Inter-mastoid line, 
Occipito-frontal arch. 
Horizontal periphery. 
Internal capacity. 
Capacity of the anterior chamber. 
Capacity of the posterior chamber. 
Capacity of the coronal region. 
Facial angle, . 



7.3 inches. 
5.9 inches. 
4.6 inches. 
5.8 inches. 

15.9 inches. 

4.4 inches. 
15.3 inches. 
20.7 inches. 

93. cubic inches. 
35.5 cubic inches. 
57.5 cubic inches. 
25. cubic inches. 
72 degrees. 



168 



CRANIA AMERICANA. 



PLATE XXIIL 

SEMINOLE. 





A Seminole warrior, of whose history nothing is known. The skull was 
obtained in Florida twelve miles south of the Suwannee river, and presented to 
me by Dr. Eugene H. Abadie, of the United States Army, to whom I am indebted 
for various similar obligations. It is a large head, with the Indian characters very 
strongly marked, and having a remarkably well developed forehead. 



MEASUREMENTS 



Longitudinal diameter. 
Parietal diameter, . 
Frontal diameter, . 
Vertical diameter, . 
Inter-mastoid arch, . 
Inter-mastoid line, . 
Occipito-frontal arch. 
Horizontal periphery. 
Internal capacity, . 
Capacity of the anterior chamber. 
Capacity of the posterior chamber, 
Capacity of the coronal region. 
Facial angle, .... 



7.1 inches. 

5.6 inches. 

4.7 inches. 
5.5 inches. 

15. inches. 

4.1 inches. 
14.8 inches. 
20.3 inches. 
89. cubic inches. 
52.? cubic inches. 
37.? cubic inches, 
19.? cubic inches. 

78 degrees. 



THE SEMINOLES. 



169 



PLATE XXIV, 

SEMINOLE. 





This Seminole skull was sent me by the late lamented Henry B. Croom^ Esq. 
It possesses the strong traits of the other crania of this nation. 



MEASUREMENTS, 



Longitudinal diameter. 
Parietal diameter, . 
Frontal diameter, • 
Vertical diameter, . 
Inter-mastoid arch, . 
Inter-mastoid line, . 
Occipito-frontal arch. 
Horizontal periphery. 
Internal capacity, . 
Capacity of the anterior chamber. 
Capacity of the posterior chamber. 
Capacity of the coronal region. 
Facial angle, .... 



7. inches. 
5.9 inches. 

4.5 inches. 
5.8 inches. 

14.7 inches. 

4.6 inches. 
14.2 inches. 
20.5 inches. 
91.5 cubic inches. 
44. cubic inches. 
47.5 cubic inches. 
18.1 cubic inches. 

81 degrees. 



43 



170 



CRANIA AMERICANA, 



PLATE XXVI. 



MUSKOGEE, OR CREEK. 






This plate is taken from the skull of Athlaha Ficksa, a full-blood chief of the 
Creek nation. He fought with great bravery in the United States service, and 
against the majority of his ow^n countrymen in the present Florida v\^ar. He died 
at Mobile, in 1837, whence I received his cranium through the kindness of Dr. 
Henry S. Rennolds, of the United States Navy. The broad but low forehead, and 
the width between the parietal bones, are highly characteristic in this head : a 
front view is given of it, in order to convey an accurate idea of the osteology of the 
Indian face. Thus we see the large and projecting cheek bones, an arched and 
prominent bridge of the nose, powerfully developed jaws and remarkably perfect 
teeth. The distance between the eyes is even greater than is usual, yet the orbits 
themselves are not large in proportion. The following are the measurements of 
this remarkably fine head. 



MEASUREMENTS, 



Longitudinal diameter. 
Parietal diameter. 
Frontal diameter, 
Vertical diameter, 
Inter-mastoid arch, 
Inter-mastoid line, 
Occipito-frontal arch. 
Horizontal periphery. 
Internal capacity, . 



7. inches. 

5.7 inches. 

4.6 inches. 

5.3 inches. 

15.3 inches. 
4.5 inches, 

14.4 inches. 
20.8 inches. 
94.75 cubic inches. 



THE CHEROKEES. 171 

Capacity of the anterior chamber, . . . 42.5 cubic inches. 

Capacity of the posterior chamber, , . . 52.25 cubic inches. 

Capacity of the coronal region, . . • 15.6 cubic inches. 

Facial angle, , ^ci degrees. 



THE CHEROKEES. 

The Cherokees, says Bartram, are even taller and more robust than the 
Muskogees, and by far the largest race of men he had seen. Their complexion is 
brighter than that of the succeeding tribes, and somewhat of an olive cast, while 
some of their young women are nearly as fair as Europeans, 

The same traveller, who was much among the Cherokees towards the close 
of the last century, describes them as grave and circumspect in their deportment, 
and slow and reserved in conversation ; tenacious of their rights, and impatient of 
aggression, yet more humane than most of their Indian neighbors. Mr. Bartram 
speaks of them as a warlike nation, " ready always to sacrifice every pleasure and 
gratification, even their blood, and life itself, to defend their territory and maintain 
their rights."* This last statement, however, is rather at variance with history, 
for the Cherokees have been remarked for their pacific disposition, and their 
preference of agriculture to war. Mr. Bartram himself mentions the fact of their 
doing homage to the Creeks in open council ; and he adds that this vassalage was 
arrogantly imposed and passively submitted to.f 

It is also certain that some of the southern tribes, and especially the 
Congarees, Yamassees and Esaws, made incursions into the Cherokee country for 
the mere purpose of making prisoners, whom they subsequently sold as slaves in 
Charleston, South Carolina; nor was this practice abolished until the year 1695.J 

It is obvious from the preceding facts that the arts of peace are more 
congenial to the Cherokees than those of war. They are not only more docile, 
but far more intelligent and capable of instruction, than the surrounding tribes ; 
and in proof of this we need but instance the syllabic Cherokee alphabet, which 

* Trav. in Florida, &.C., p. 485. t Loco citat. 

X Gallatin, in Archoeolog. Amer. II, p. 92. 



172 



CRANIA AMERICANA. 



was invented by a native Indian of that tribe, and by means of which any 
individual of the nation can be taught to wTite his own language in three weeks. 

Mr. Gallatin records the following interesting observation. " The only well 
ascertained instance, among our own Indians, of their having, at least in part, 
become an agricultural nation, (meaning thereby that state of society in which the 
men themselves do actually perform agricultural labor,) is that of the Cherokees, 
and it is in proof, that, in this case also, cultivation was at first introduced through 
the means of slavery. In their predatory incursions they carried away slaves from 
Carolina; these were used to work, and continued to be thus employed by their 
new masters. The advantages derived by the owners were immediately perceived. 
Either in war, or in commercial intercourse, slaves of the African race became 
objects of desire ; and gradually, assisted by the efforts of the government and the 
beneficial influence of the missionaries, some among those Indians who could not 
obtain slaves, were induced to work for themselves. Accounts vary as to the 
extent of that true civilisation, but it is believed that it embraces nearly one third 
of the male population."* 

The same learned author observes that the late Dr. Barton thought the 
Cherokee language belonged to the Iroquois family, " and on this point," he adds, 
" I am inclined to the same opinion. The affinities are few and remote ; but there 
is a similarity in the general termination of the syllables, in the pronunciation and 
accent, which has struck some of the native Cherokees."! 

PLATE XXV. 

CHEROKEE. 





The head of a Cherokee warrior who was known in the army by the name 



* Archaeolog. Amer. II, p. 157. 



tlbid. p. 91, 



THE UCHEES. 



173 



of John Waring. I have sought in vain for any particulars of his history, nor 
indeed is there any thing remarkable in the conformation of the skull. It only 
remains, therefore, to add the 



MEASUREMENTS. 

Longitudinal diameter, 

Parietal diameter. 

Frontal diameter, 

Vertical diameter. 

Inter-mas toid arch, 

Inter-mastoid line, 

Occipito-frontal arch. 

Horizontal periphery. 

Internal capacity, . 

Capacity of the anterior chamber. 

Capacity of the posterior chamber. 

Capacity of the coronal region, . 

Facial angle, .... 

The preceding skull belongs to the Phrenological Society of this city, and I 
have been allowed the use of it on this occasion by my friend Dr. John Bell. I 
have in my collection four Cherokee heads for w^hich I am indebted to the zeal 
and kindness of Dr. J. Martin, of the United States Army. On comparing these 
with the one belonging to the Phrenological Society, I find them all small, the 
largest not equalling the average of European skulls, and the mean of the series 
giving but seventy-nine cubic inches of internal capacity, while the mean of the 
facial angle is seventy-six degrees. 



7.2 


inches. 


5.3 


inches. 


4.3 


inches. 


5.3 


inches. 


14.1 


inches. 


4.5 


inches. 


14.7 


inches. 


19.1 


inches. 


82. 


cubic inches. 


35. 


cubic inches. 


47. 


cubic inches. 


12.25 cubic inches. 


77 degrees. 



THE UCHEES. 

The Uchees, though now incorporated in the Creek confederacy, were 
primitively a distinct nation, and spoke a different language. They were originally 
established east of the Coosa river, and they consider themselves the most ancient 
44 



174 



CRANIA AMERICANA. 



inhabitants of the country- Mr. Gallatin* thinks the Uchees may have been the 
dpalaches of De Soto : no tribe in Florida gave that miscreant more trouble ; they 
disputed every inch of ground, and kept up an untiring w^arfare against the 
Spaniards, until the latter had left their territory. The valor of the Spaniards, 
says Garcilaso de la Vega, only redoubled the courage of the Indians.f 

PLATE XXVII. 
UCHEE. 

I received this v^ell-characterised Indian head from my friend Dr. Z. Pitcher, 
of the U. S. Army, v^ho accompanied it with the follovs^ing memorandum. "This 
man spoke the English language, and played v^^ell upon the fife, from which 
circumstance he was known as Bill the Fifer. He was attached to the U. S. 
Army during the Creek war, and was regarded as a dauntless warrior. He died 
at Fort Gibson, Arkansas, in 1833." 



MEASUREMENTS. 



Longitudinal diameter, 
Parietal diameter, . 
Frontal diameter, 
Vertical diameter, . 
Inter-mastoid arch, . 
Inter-mastoid line, . 
Occipito-frontal arch, 
Horizontal periphery, 
Internal capacity, 
Facial angle, . 



6.8 inches. 

5.4 inches. 

4.3 inches. 

5.5 inches. 
15. inches. 

4.4 inches. 
14.3 inches. 
20.1 inches. 
81.5 cubic inches. 

75 degrees. 



On measuring nine heads of Indians of the Creek and Seminole nations, I 
find the internal capacity unusually large, being no less than 94.75 cubic inches 
in the largest, and 81.5 in the smallest skull; and the mean of the series is 87.5 
cubic inches, which is a near approach to the Caucasian. The mean facial angle, 
however, is but seventy-five degrees. 



* Archseolog. Amer. II, p. 95. 



t Conqiiete de la Florida^ I, p. 150, 



175 



THE ALGONQUIN-LENAPE. 

The Algonkin and Lenape nations are grouped by philologists under the 
collective name of Algonquin-Lenapes ; yet we observe some physical differences 
in people of this great family, and they were still more separated by those 
perpetual hostilities which every where characterise the American tribes. 

When the Europeans first became acquainted with the Algonquin-Lenape 
nations, they possessed a vast tract of North America, extending from Labrador 
and Hudson's Bay on the north, to the country of the Florida tribes on the south, 
while the Mississippi and Atlantic bounded them west and east. It is well known, 
however, that at the present day many of these tribes inhabit west of the 
Mississippi, while to the east of that river they are in a geat measure superseded 
by the white population. It is necessary to remark, however, that in the midst 
of the Algonquins, and surrounded by them on every side, lived the Iroquois or 
Five nations. 

It will be observed in the course of this work, that I possess an extensive 
series of the crania of this widely extended nation, and it may therefore be 
admissible to give a brief enumeration of the principal communities of which it is 
composed, arranged in a geographical manner: and I take this occasion to 
acknowledge that these facts are chiefly derived from the published labors of Mr. 
Gallatin.* 

The Northern group of the Algonquin-Lenape embraces the Knistenaux or 
Crees, the Chippeways, the Ottawas, the Potawatomies, the Missasaugas, and the 
Algonquins proper. All these nations speak dialects so nearly allied, that they may 
be rather considered as dialects of the same than as distinct languages. The 
Knistenaux language is less allied to the general type than any of the others, but 
even here the affinity is very obvious. The Northeastern group included the 
Micmaks, the Etchemins and the Abenakis, which tribes inhabited the seacoast, 
and some extent of inland country, from Labrador to the present state of Maine. 
Among the southernmost of these communities, was the Penobscots, of whom some 
degraded remains are yet existing. 

The Eastern or Atlantic group^ embraces the New England Indians, or in 
other words those between the Abenakis and Hudson river; the Long Island 

* Archseolog. Amer. II, p. 23, etc. 



176 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

tribes ; the Delaware and Minsi of Pennsylvania and New Jersey ; the Nanticokes 
of Maryland; the Susquehannocks ; the Powhattans of Virginia, and the Pamlicoes 
of North Carolina.* The northern tribes of this great family are familiar in our 
colonial history by the names of Mohegans or Pequods, Narragansets, Wampanoags 
and Pawtuckets. The Delawares, less belligerent than those nations, occupy a 
prominent place in the early annals of Pennsylvania, while the Powhattans hold 
the same relative position to Virginia. 

The Western group of Lenape includes the Menominees, the Miamis, the 
Illinois, the Ottigamies or Foxes, the Sauks, Kickapoos and Shawnoes, together 
with some subordinate tribes. They occupied a wide tract of country, extending 
from the Cumberland river on the south to the Great Lakes. 

It is only necessary to add, that these numerous and often remote nations 
speak dialects of a single language, and that philologists have grouped them on 
account of this affinity. In physical character there is also an obvious resemblance, 
and their social habits are much alike ; but these points will be considered more 
in detail hereafter. 

We may here add from Mr. Gallatin, that "it is difficult to ascertain whether 
the name of Algonkins or Algoumekins, did belong to any particular tribe, or vras 
used as a generic appellation." The tribes living on the Ottawa river were more 
especially distinguished by the name of Algonquins. 



THE CHIPPEWAYS. 

This powerful nation roves in bands over an extensive tract of country, 
embracing the whole of the Lakes Superior and Winnepeck, and the Lake of the 
Woods. Their camps are also seen on Lake Pepin, on the Spirit Lake, on the 
Assinaboin and Saskatchawan rivers, and at the Sault St. Marie. They are, 
however, a thinly scattered people, whose numbers have been rapidly diminished 
by war and the small pox, those two fatal enemies of Indian life. 

Mr. Keating gives the following physical traits of this nation. " The 

* G ALLATINj Loco cltat 



THE CHIPPEWAYS. 



177 



Chippeways are not naturally very strong, but they are active ; they will walk, 
swim, paddle, &c., for a length of time without any apparent fatigue. They are 
inured to exercise, and heedless of exposures of all kinds ; they make good hunters 
and skilful fishers. They are generally tall and thin, and are easily distinguished 
from the Missouri Indians by the absence of the aquiline nose, which may be 
considered characteristic of the latter. Their bodies and shoulders are well set 
and well proportioned : their legs are not very good, generally destitute of calf, 
with thick knees and ankles : their feet are large ; their arms and hands small and 
well shaped ; they possess great strength in the wrist. Their voice is strong and 
harmonious, and many of them sing, and their ear appears good,"^ They seem 
to be among the most intelligent of the northern tribes ; brave in war, and faithful 
to the obligations of friendship. 

PLATE XXVIIL 

CHIPPEWAY. 





I received this head from Henry R, Schoolcraft, Esq., the distinguished 
traveller and naturalist, and United States Indian agent at Michillimackinack. Of 
its history nothing is known, excepting the fact of its having belonged to a genuine 
Chippeway Indian. The general characters are those of the American race ; but 
the frontal region presents an unusual development. 



MEASUREMENTS. 



Longitudinal diameter. 
Parietal diameter, . 



• • 



7.3 inches. 
5.8 inches. 



Exped. II, p. 166. 



45 



178 



CRANIA AMERICANA. 



Frontal diameter, . 
Vertical diameter, . 
Inter-mastoid arch, . 
Inter-mastoid line, . 
Occipito-frontal arch, 
Horizontal periphery, 
Internal capacity, . 
Capacity of the anterior chamber. 
Capacity of the posterior chamber. 
Capacity of the coronal region. 
Facial angle, .... 



4.8 inches. 

5.5 inches. 

15.1 inches. 

4.6 inches. 

14.2 inches. 
20.9 inches. 

94. cubic inches. 
43. cubic inches. 
51. cubic inches. 
14.75 cubic inches. 
84 degrees. 



THE MENOMINEES. 

The Menominees formerly inhabited the country about Green Bay, in 
Wisconsin, where they were early visited by the Jesuit missionaries, from whom 
they received the name of Folks Avoines; because, with more prudence than the 
adjacent tribes, they collect in summer a quantity of wild-rice to serve them for 
subsistence in winter. 

Charlevoix and others, says General Pike, have all borne testimony to the 
beauty of this nation. '' From my own observation I had sufficient reason to 
confirm their information, for the men are all straight and well made, about the 
middle size, and their complexion fair for savages. In short, he adds, they would 
anywhere be considered handsome, and the women are even handsomer." Such is 
the testimony of nearly all travellers. Charlevoix calls them very fine men, and 
the best shaped in all Canada. Mr. Keating remarks also that the few Menomi- 
nees he met with, were of a light color, much resembling the white mulattoes of 
the United States; and he adds, that "they are naturally so much fairer than the 
neighboring tribes, that they are sometimes called the white Indians."* Although 
a small nation " they are respected by all their neighbors for their bravery and 



Exped. to the St. Peter's River, I, p. 174. 



THE MENOMINEES. 179 

independent spirit, and esteemed by the whites as their friends and protectors. 
When in the country I have heard their chief assert, in council with the Sioux and 
Chippeways, that although they were reduced to a few in number, yet they could 
say — we never were slaves."* 

Their bravery is so much respected by the Chippeways, that the latter permit 
the Menominees to hunt on their grounds on the Mississippi and Lake Superior.f 

" Their language, though of the Algonkin stock, is less similar to that of the 
Chippeways, their immediate neighbors, than almost any dialect of the same stock. 
As no other tribe speaks it, and they generally speak Chippeway, it is almost 
impossible to find good interpreters. It is probably owing to that circumstance 
that they were for a long time supposed to have a distinct language, belonging to 
another stock than the Algonkin."J 

PLATE XXIX. 

MENOMINEE. 





By the kindness of Dr. Satterlee, of the United States Army, and J. A. 
Lapham, Esq., I have received a series of Menominee skulls, embracing eight 
specimens. They are something larger than the average of Indian crania ; and 
although for the most part they present a rather oval shape, they are all marked 
by a gently flattened occiput. 

The annexed plate was drawn from the cranium of a young Menominee 
woman, probably not more than twenty years of age. The symmetry of this 
skull, and its equal proportions, are more remarkable than in any other Indian 

* Pike, Exped. p. 52, 89. 

t Warden, United States, III, p. 540. — Beltrami, Trav. II, p, 175. 

J Gallatin, Archasolog. Amer. II, p. 60. 



180 



CRANIA AMERICANA, 



head I have examined. I received it from Dr. Satterlee, to whom I am much 
indebted for the practical interest he has shown in this work. 



MEASUREMENTS. 



Longitudinal diameter. 
Parietal diameter. 
Frontal diameter. 
Vertical diameter, 
Inter-mastoid arch, 
Inter-mastoid line, 
Occipito-frontal arch. 
Horizontal periphery. 
Internal capacity, . 
Capacity of the anterior chamber. 
Capacity of the posterior chamber. 
Capacity of the coronal region, 
Facial angle, . . . 



6.8 inches. 

5.6 inches. 

4,'2 inches. 

5.5 inches. 
14.7 inches. 

4.1 inches. 
14.1 inches. 
19.9 inches. 
86.5 cubic inches. 
36.5 cubic inches. 
50. cubic inches. 
15.5 cubic inches. 

79 degrees. 



THE MIAMIS. 

The territory claimed by the Miamis and Piankeshaws (two tribes speaking 
one language) may be generally stated as having been bounded eastwardly by the 
Maumee river of Lake Erie, and to have included all the country drained by the 
Wabash. The Piankeshaws occupied the portion bordering on the Ohio. On 
the east they bordered on the Illinois ; the boundary line being the dividing ridge 
which separates the waters emptying into the Sabine creek, and the Kaskaskia 
river, from those which fall into the Wabash.* 

In physical character the Miamis do not differ from the other western tribes 
of the great Algonquin-Lenape stock. Their fine athletic forms, aquiline noses, 
and strongly marked angular faces, are noticed by all travellers. In intellectual 



* GallatiNj Archteolog. Arner. II, p. 63. 



THE MI AMIS. 181 

capacity they yield to no tribes in the west. Little Tortoise, the Indian philoso- 
pher and friend of Volney, was a Miami : so also, according to Captain Carver, 
was the celebrated Pontiac, so long the artful and implacable enemy of the 
English during the past century. 

Little Tortoise gave Volney the following account of the acute perceptions 
of his tribe. " We can distinguish every nation," said he, '"'at first sight: the face, 
the complexion, the shape, the knees, the legs, the feet, are to us certain marks of 
distinction. By the print of the foot we can distinguish not only men, women 
and children, but also tribes."* 

With some admirable traits the Miamis mingle others that are truly deplor- 
able. They are excessively sensual, and like the adjacent tribes, their fondness 
for spirituous liquors has reduced them to a very low state of degradation : the 
graphic picture which Volney drew of their social condition fifty years ago, is 
sufficient evidence of this factf 

Their revenge was remarkable even among Indians ; and to such excess was 
this demoniac passion indulged, that the Miamis and Kickapoos once embraced a 
society of men whose office it was to appease the spirit of revenge, whether 
national or individual, by devouring prisoners taken in war. It is further stated 
that the members of this inhuman fraternity held their olfice by hereditary 
privilege, and that their last celebration took place so recently as the year 1780, 
since which time it has been discontinued. 

Some of the Miami tribes have resisted every attempt at civilisation and 
conversion, and remain uncompromising Pagans to this day.J Even the Jesuits, 
during the French ascendancy, could make no impression on them ; for one of 
these missionaries declares that the tribes of the Illinois can only be converted by 
a miracle from heaven.^ 

* View of the Climate of the U. S. p. 412. t Loco citat. 

t Morse, Indian Report, Ap. p. 109. § Lettres Edifiantes, XI, p. 304. 



46 



182 



CRANIA AMERICANA 



PLATE XXX, 



MIAMI. 





I received this skull from Dr. J. W. Davis, of Thorntow^n, Indiana, who 
politely favored me w^ith the follow^ing memorandum of the history of the 
individual. 

" The man to whom this cranium belonged vv^as a Miami chief of the Eel 
river village. This fraction of the tribe w^as established on Augar river, a tributary 
of the Wabash, M^here they held a beautiful section of country known as the 
' Thorntown Reserve.' They acknowledged the authority of two individuals as 
their chiefs, one of whom had received from the whites the name of Captain Jim, 
This man had acquired a great ascendancy over his people by his bravery, his 
success in the chase, and his uncompromising hostility to the white faces. By his 
cunning and eloquence he several times defeated the project of his colleague and 
rival, who was as anxious to sell the reservation as the whites were to purchase it. 
In the year 1830 a general council was called once more to deliberate on the 
propriety of selling their land. The Captain again opposed the sale, and in a 
long and forcible speech depicted the beauty and fertility of the country they 
then held, and the folly of parting with it for any consideration. No sooner had 
he ceased, than his rival denounced him as the enemy of his tribe, and wishing its 
destruction. The Captain then sprang upon his feet, retorted the charges, and 
called his colleague a white man's dog^ upon which the latter seized a knife in 
each hand, and rushed furiously upon his opponent, who, with a single weapon of 
the same kind, willingly joined in combat. The tragedy was short and bloody. 
Each belligerent received the stab of his adversary, and both fell dead on the spot. 
They were buried side by side, with a pole bearing a flag placed between them. 



THE OTTIGAMIES. 



183 



The Captain^ at the time of his death, was forty-five years of age, of a commanding 
appearance and unconquerable spirit." 



MEASUREMENTS, 



Longitudinal diameter. 
Parietal diameter, . 
Frontal diameter, . 
Vertical diameter, . 
Inter-mastoid arch, , 
Inter-mastoid line, . 
Occipito-frontal arch. 
Horizontal periphery, 
Internal capacity, . 
Capacity of the anterior chamber. 
Capacity of the posterior chamber. 
Capacity of the coronal region. 
Facial angle, . . . , 



7.3 inches. 
5.5 inches. 
4.3 inches. 

5.5 inches. 
14.6 inches. 

4.6 inches, 
14.9 inches. 
21. inches. 

90. cubic inches, 
33.5 cubic inches. 
56.5 cubic inches, 
13.5 cubic inches. 
75 degrees. 



THE OTTIGAMIES 



The Ottigamie or Fox tribe, and the Sauks, constitute in language, feature 
and usages, a single nation, and the social and political alliance which now exists 
between them has continued for centuries. When first observed by Europeans 
their territory was at the southern extremity of Green Bay, in Wisconsin, but 
they have more recently occupied large tracts on both sides of the Mississippi. 
The Sauks and Foxes are a finely formed people, and are said to combine in their 
characters both valor and generosity. Perhaps no tribes in North America are 
more warlike than these, and they possess an uncommon share of the perseverance 
and craftiness of their race. Charlevoix, who wrote early in the last century, 
after speaking in praise of the warlike spirit of the Iroquois, (who were ever the 
bitter enemies of the French,) thus characterises the Ottigamies. " It was not 



184 



CRANIA AMERICANA 



long," says he, " before we met with a new enemy, equally brave as the Iroquois, 
less politic, but much more ferocious, and whom it was impossible to conquer or 
to surprise. They might be compared to those insects which appear to have as 
many lives as limbs ; for they were no sooner dispersed than they reappeared, and 
when reduced to a mere handful of brigands, they were still to be encountered 
every where, and for twenty-five years interrupted commerce, and infested the 
roads, over a tract more than five hundred leagues in circumference. These were 
the Ottigamibs, commonly called Foxes."* A late traveller remarks that these 
people still retain their ancient character, being " constantly embroiled in wars 
and disputes with their neighbors, the results of which show that they have more 
courage in battle than wisdom in council."! 

PLATE XXXI. 

OTTIGAMIE. 





A large and ponderous skull of a full-blood Fox Indian, for which, and 
various similar favors, I am indebted to the kindness of Dr. B. B. Brown, of St. 
Louis, Missouri. It is one of the largest aboriginal skulls in my collection, as 
will be seen by the following 



MEASUREMENTS. 



Longitudinal diameter, 
Parietal diameter, . 
Frontal diameter, 
Vertical diameter, . 



• • • 



• • 



7. inches. 
5.9 inches. 
4.7 inches. 
5.5 inches. 



*Hist. Generale de la Nouv. France, IV, p. 94. 



t Schoolcraft, Trav. p. 348. 



THE POTOW ATOMIES. 



185 



Inter-mas toid arch, . 
Inter-mastoid line, . 
Occipito-frontal arch, 
Horizontal periphery. 
Internal capacity, . 
Capacity of the anterior chamber. 
Capacity of the posterior chamber. 
Capacity of the coronal region, . 
Facial angle, .... 



15.3 inches. 
4.7 inches. 
14.2 inches. 
20.9 inches. 
91.5 cubic inches. 
40. cubic inches. 
51.5 cubic inches* 
12.75 cubic inches. 
82 degrees. 



THE POTOW ATOMIES. 

" The Potowatomies are for the most part well proportioned, about five feet 
eight inches in height, possessed of much muscular strength in the arm, but rather 
weak in the back, with a strong neck, and endowed with considerable agility. 
Their voice is feeble and low, but excited, very shrill. Their teeth are sound 
and clean, but not remarkable for regularity. Their complexion is very much 
darkened by exposure to the sun and wind, while those parts which are kept 
covered are observed to retain their native brightness. Their sight is quick and 
penetrating, but blindness is frequent from the intense application of the eye in 
still hunting, and from exposure to the alternate, and in some cases, united action 
of the sun and snow ; doubtless also on account of the constant smoke in their 
huts."* The same intelligent traveller adds, what has been already observed of 
the Indians in general, that although their endurance of cold and hunger are very 
extraordinary, they are absolute gluttons when freely supplied with food, and will 
eat ten and twenty times in the day. The Potowatomies, though a brave nation, 
are much more tractable in temper than some of the neighboring tribes; and 
Charlevoix, after eulogising their fine exterior, declares that he received more 
kindness from them, infidels as they were, than from the Christian Hurons.f 



Keating, Exped. I, p. 136. 
47 



t Voy. a PAmer. Let. XVII. 



186 



CRANIA AMERICANA. 



PLATE XXXIV. 



POTOWATOMIE. 





A skull of a genuine Potowatomie, of whose history, however, nothing is 
known. It is remarkable for its capacity behind the ears, and for the great length 
and flatness of the coronal region. I received it from my friend Dr. Walker, of 
the United States Army, who obtained it while stationed in Michigan, which is 
the native seat of this tribe. 



MEASUREMENTS, 



Longitudinal diameter. 
Parietal diameter, . 
Frontal diameter, 
Vertical diameter, . 
Inter-mastoid arch, . 
Inter-mastoid line, . 
Occipito-frontal arch. 
Horizontal periphery, 
Internal capacity. 
Capacity of the anterior chamber. 
Capacity of the posterior chamber. 
Capacity of the coronal region. 
Facial angle, .... 



7.8 inches. 

5.7 inches. 

4.4 inches. 

5.3 inches. 
16.8 inches. 

4. inches. 
15.8 inches. 
22.1 inches. 
98. cubic inches. 
35.5 cubic inches. 
62.5 cubic inches. 
19. cubic inches. 

80 degrees. 



187 



THE NAUMKEAGS. 

The Naumkeags constituted one of the many subordinate tribes of the 
Lenape nation in Massachusetts, They were governed by the Sagamore of 
Pawtucket, and their villages occupied the site of the present town of Salem, in 
Massachusetts. All the New England tribes are said to have been very much 
alike. "They were tall, straight, of a red complexion, with black eyes, and 
of a vacant look when unimpassioned." The same author adds, what is more 
apocryphal, that they " possessed a natural understanding, sagacity and wit, equal 
to the same attributes in other men."* Had this been the fact they would not 
have been so easily duped, nor so speedily annihilated, by the Europeans. 



PLATE XXXHL 



NAUMKEAG. 





I received this head from Dr, A. L. Pearson, of Salem, Mass., near whose 
residence it was exhumed, together with thirty other skulls and the corresponding 
skeletons. They were all placed in the sitting posture a short distance below the 
surface of the ground, but were, for the most part, in a state of decomposition. 



MEASUREMENTS. 



Longitudinal diameter. 
Parietal diameter, . 



6.9 inches, 
5. inches. 



D WIGHT, Trav. in New England and New York, I, p. 113. 



188 



CEANIA AMERICANA, 



Frontal diameter, . 
Vertical diameter, . 
Inter-mastoid arch, . 
Inter-mastoid line, . 
Occipito-frontal arch. 
Horizontal periphery. 
Internal capacity, . 
Capacity of the anterior chamber. 
Capacity of the posterior chamber. 
Facial angle, . • . . 



4.2 inches. 

5.3 inches. 

1 4.3 inches. 
3.9 inches. 

14.4 inches. 
19.8 inches. 

71. cubic inches. 
26. cubic inches. 
45. cubic inches. 
80 degrees. 



THE DELAWARES. 

The Lenape nations have a common tradition that they came from the far 
west; and migrating towards the east, arrived at the Mississippi river, called by 
them Nimesi-sipu, or the River of Fish. Here they found the Iroquois, who had 
also migrated, and were encamped on the banks of the river. These restless 
people found the country east of the river inhabited by numerous warlike tribes 
called Migewi^ and requested permission to establish themselves in their territory. 
This was denied them, but they were allowed to pass through the country. 
"They accordingly began to cross the Nimesi-sipu, when the Alligewi, seeing that 
their numbers were so very great, and, in fact, that they consisted of many 
thousands, made a furious attack on those who had crossed, threatening them all 
with destruction if they dared to come over to their side of the river. Fired at 
the treachery of these people, and the great loss of men they had sustained, and 
besides not being prepared for a conflict, the Lenape consulted what was to be 
done: whether to retreat in the best manner they could, or to try their strength." 
The latter plan was adopted, and the Iroquois joined them on condition that the 
conquered country should be shared between the two nations. A fierce conflict 
ensued; no mercy was shown to the vanquished, and "the Alligewi at last finding 
that their destruction was inevitable if they persisted in their obstinacy, abandoned 
the country to the conquerors and fled down the Mississippi, from whence they 



THE DELAWARES. 189 

never returned."* The country was divided according to the stipulation ; the 
Iroquois making choice of the lands near the great lakes and their tributary 
streams, w^hile the Lenape occupied the region to the south. When the European 
colonies arrived, the Dela wares were the possessors of the southern portion of New 
Jersey, and parts of the present states of Pennsylvania and Delaware. They 
received the strangers with confidence and kindness, and for many years this 
mutual good faith remained unbroken. The Delawares were less warlike than 
the Iroquois, to whom they finally became in a manner subservient. " In person 
they were upright, and straight in their limbs, beyond the usual proportion in 
most nations : their bodies were strong, but of a strength rather fitted to endure 
hardship than to sustain much bodily labor ; their features were regular ; their 
countenances sometimes fierce, in common rather resembling a Jew than a 
Christian,"t 

PLATE XXXIV. 

LENAPE, OR DELAWARE. 





The few Delaware skulls in my possession are more elongated than is usual 
in the American tribes; they are also narrower in proportion in the parietal 
diameter, and less flattened on the occiput. The annexed drawing is taken from 
a skull presented by Dr. Pitcher, U. S. A., who accompanied it with the following 
memorandum : '^I know this to be genuine. The country at present assigned to 
the Delawares lies north of the Kanzas, between it and the Missouri river. There 
are some wandering bands of these proud foresters in the Cherokee country, on 
the Neosho and Canadian rivers, in Arkansas, The individual whose cranium I 

** Heckewelder, Historical Account, &c., p. 3L t Smith, Hist, of New Jersey, p. 242. 

48 



190 



CRANIA AMERICANA. 



send you was a female, who died at the little colony on the Neosho river near 
Fort Gibson. This is all I can learn of her, as most of the nations of the stock 
called Algonquin by the philologists, have an aversion to speak of their deceased 
relatives, and shudder at the idea of calling them by name." 



MEASUREMENTS. 



Longitudinal diameter, 
Parietal diameter, . 
Frontal diameter, . 
Vertical diameter, . 
Inter-mastoid arch, . 
Inter-mastoid line, . 
Occipito-frontal arch, 
Horizontal periphery. 
Internal capacity, . 
Capacity of the anterior chamber, 
Capacity of the posterior chamber. 
Capacity of the coronal region, 
Facial angle, . . . 



7. inches. 

5.5 inches. 

4.6 inches. 

5.1 inches. 

14.4 inches. 

4.2 inches. 

14.5 inches. 
20. inches. 
78.5 cubic inches. 
33. cubic inches. 

45.5 cubic inches. 
1 6.25 cubic inches. 
76 degrees. 



THE IROQUOIS, OR FIVE NATIONS. 

The Iroquois Confederacy consisted originally of five nations, the Mohawks^ 
Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas and Senecas. The French gave them the name of 
Iroquois, but they called themselves Mengwe^ or Mingoes. These nations 
constituted the eastern division of this powerful family, while to the west were 
several other tribes of the same stock, as the Hurons, Erigas, Andastes, &c., but 
the latter formed no part of the confederacy. In the year 1712, the Tuscaroras, 
flying from their own hunting grounds in North Carolina, took refuge among the 
Iroquois, and were admitted as a sixth nation.^ 



* Golden, Hist, of the Five Nations, I, p. 1. 



THE IROQUOIS, OR FIVE NATIONS. 



191 



History affords ample evidence of the intellectual superiority of the Iroquois 
over the surrounding nations. They were passionately devoted to war, and were 
every where formidable and victorious. "The Five Nations," observes Mr. 
Gallatin, "had already acquired a decided superiority over the other Indians 
before the arrival of the Europeans. They were at that epoch at war with all 
the surrounding tribes, with perhaps the single exception of the Andastes on the 
west. That in which they were engaged on the north, with the Hurons and 
Algonquins, was still attended with alternate success on each side. But south- 
wardly they had already carried their arms as far as the mouth of the Susquehanna, 
and the vicinity of New Castle on the Delaware."* In fact they loved war for 
itself, and all other employments and pastimes were held to be contemptible in 
comparison ; and they gloried most in their assumed appellation of Ongive Honwe^ 
The Greatest of Men. Their language is both energetic and melodious, destitute 
of labials, but having the guttural aspirate.f 

They possessed all the other Indian characteristics in strong relief. They 
forced their women to work in the field and to carry burthens ; they paid little 
respect to old age ,• they were not much affected by the passion of love, and 
singularly regardless of connubial obligations ; and they unhesitatingly resorted to 
suicide as a remedy for domestic and other evils. They were proud, audacious, 
and vindictive, untiring in the pursuit of an enemy, and remorseless in the 
gratification of their revenge. In matters of religion their ideas appear to have 
been extremely vague; and their national observance consisted chiefly in the 
annual sacrifice of a dog, which they subsequently ate. Their cautiousness and 
cunning were proverbial even among the Indian nations: thus Golden observes 
that if they be sent with any message, though it demand the greatest despatch 
and portend imminent danger, they never tell it at once, but sit down a minute 
or two in silence, lest they should betray themselves by a hasty expression.t 
Hence they assumed a vacant and even stupid expression of countenance, when 
they were most awake to what was passing around them.^ It is but justice to 
add to these traits of the Iroquois, that in their long intercourse with the English 
colonies before the revolution, they were remarkable for their regard to treaties, 
and their good faith on all occasions wherein their pledge was once given. Early 
in the American Revolution they attached themselves strongly to the English 
interest, and committed horrible ravages in their incursions into the neighboring 



* Archseolog. Amer. 11, p. 75. 

X Hist, of the Five Nations, I, p. 20. 



tD WIGHT, Trav. IV, p. 209. 
§ D WIGHT, Trav. IV, p. 210. 



192 



CRANIA AMERICANA 



states. Measures were accordingly taken for their subjugation, which was effected 
in 1779, and the few subsequent years. The remains of this once powerful con- 
federacy are yet seen scattered through the state of New York, subdued in spirit 
and debased by their fondness for intoxicating drinks. Some remnants of tribes 
-however, have assumed agricultural habits, and do comparatively well ; but the 
Iroquois are rapidly diminishing in number, and will soon be known only in 
history. 

PLATE XXXV. 

CAYUGA. 





The skull of a Cayuga chief which I received from Dr. Pitcher, U. S. A., with 
the following note: "This man was one of the original emigrants, with his tribe, 
from the state of New York to Ohio, and lastly to Arkansas, where he died at the 
age of nearly one hundred years, A.D. 1834» His name was Wan-yiin-ta; and 
he was also long known to the government of New York, in their treaties with 
the Iroquois, by the name of the Tall Chief. He was a good speaker, and a firm, 
shrewd, sensible man, whose merit alone raised him from a plebeian origin to be 
chief of his tribe." 



MEASUREMENTS, 



Longitudinal diameter 
Parietal diameter, 
Frontal diameter. 
Vertical diameter, 
Inter-mastoid arch, 
Inter-mastoid line. 



7.8 inches. 

5.1 inches. 

4.2 inches. 

5.4 inches. 
14.2 inches. 

4.5 inches. 



THE ONEIDAS. 



193 



Occipito-frontal arch. 

Horizontal periphery. 

Internal capacity, . 

Capacity of the anterior chamber. 

Capacity of the posterior chamber, 

Capacity of the coronal region. 

Facial angle, .... 



15.5 inches. 
20.8 inches. 
93.5 cubic inches. 
35. cubic inches. 
58.5 cubic inches. 
11.5 cubic inches. 
78 degrees. 



PLATE XXXVL 



ONEIDA. 



^^^1^, 





Head of a full-blood Oneida warrior, aged about forty years. He was killed 
in a fray at the Seneca Reserve, in Ohio, in 1830. He was buried in the Indian 
cemetery on Sandusky river, below Tiffin, whence his skull was removed and 
presented to me by my friend Benjamin Tappan, M. D., of Steubenville, Ohio. 



MEASUREMENTS. 



Longitudinal diameter, 
Parietal diameter. 
Frontal diameter. 
Vertical diameter, 
Inter-mastoid arch, 
Inter-mastoid line, 
Occipito-frontal arch, 
Horizontal periphery, 
49 



7.5 inches. 

5.6 inches. 
4.1 inches. 
5.8 inches. 

14.4 inches. 

4.3 inches, 

14.9 inches. 

20.8 inches. 



194 



CRANIA AMERICANA. 



Internal capacity, . 
Capacity of the anterior chamber. 
Capacity of the posterior chamber. 
Capacity of the coronal region, . 
Facial angle, . . 



92.5 cubic inches. 

36. cubic inches. 
56.5 cubic inches, 
18.4 cubic inches. 
74 degrees. 



PLATE XXXVIL 



HURON. 





The Hurons call themselves Wyandots; and although of the same stock as 
the Iroquois, the two nations were engaged in deadly and constant war with each 
other, the Hurons espousing the French, the Iroquois the British interest. At 
length, about the year 1650, the Hurons were nearly exterminated, and from that 
time to the present have remained a feeble band. In all the striking traits of 
Indian character, they were in no respect inferior to the other nations of this 
stock. The annexed drawing was made from a skull obtained near Detroit by 
the late Dr. Sturm, the German traveller, of whose executor I purchased it. The 
only further information I can obtain respecting it, is the statement that it was 
the head of a chief, who was slain in a broil with his son-in-law. It is a ponderous 
cranium, and one of the most strongly marked in my collection. 



MEASUREMENTS. 



Longitudinal diameter. 
Parietal diameter, . 
Frontal diameter, . 



7.2 inches. 

5.3 inches. 
4.3 inches. 



THE PAWNEES. 



195 



Vertical diameter, . 
Inter-mastoid arch, . 
Inter-mastoid line, . 
Occipito-frontal arch. 
Horizontal periphery. 
Internal capacity. 
Capacity of the anterior chamber. 
Capacity of the posterior chamber. 
Capacity of the coronal region. 
Facial angle, .... 



5,5 inches. 
15. inches. 

4.4 inches. 
14.3 inches. 
19.8 inches. 

74, cubic inches. 
33.5 cubic inches. 
41.5 cubic inches. 

9.5 cubic inches. 
73 degrees. 



On comparing five Iroquois heads, I find that they give an average internal 
capacity of 88 cubic inches, which is within two inches of the Caucasian mean. 
The largest of them gives no less than 98.5 cubic inches, and the smallest (the 
Huron above described) seventy-four. The mean of the anterior chamber is 35.5 
cubic inches, while that of the posterior chamber is 52.5. The mean of the 
coronal region gives 1 5 cubic inches. 



THE PAWNEES. 

The Pawnees consist of two nations, the Pawnees proper, and the Ricaras or 
Aricaras, which last are also called Black Pawnees. The former inhabit the 
country on the river Platte, and the Ricara villages are below the Mandans, on 
the Missouri. These tribes speak a language different from any other on this 
continent. They do not differ much, in their physical character and belligerent 
habits, from the surrounding nations, but they have until lately practised the 
singular custom of sacrificing human victims to Venus, " The Great Star." This 
ceremony was performed annually, and immediately preceded their harvest labors, 
the success of which it was designed to promote. The practice is said to be an 
anomaly among the North American nations.* 



Exped. to Rocky Mountains, I, p. 357.— Gallatin, Archseolog. Amer. II, p. 128. 



196 



CRANIA AMERICANA. 



PLATE XXXVIII 



PAWNEE. 





This head appears to have been that of a female, and was brought from the 
Platte river, about tw^o hundred miles from its junction v^ith the Missouri, by the 
expedition under Major Long to explore the Rocky Mountains. I am indebted 
to Mr. T. R. Peale for permission to use it on this occasion, which I do with the 
more interest because it is the only Pawnee skull I have seen. 



MEASUREMENTS. 



Longitudinal diameter. 
Parietal diameter. 
Frontal diameter. 
Vertical diameter, 
Inter-mastoid arch, 
Inter-mastoid line, 
Occipito-frontal arch. 
Horizontal periphery, 
Internal capacity, . 
Capacity of the anterior chamber. 
Capacity of the posterior chamber. 
Capacity of the coronal region. 
Facial angle, . . . , 



6.6 inches. 

5.4 inches. 

4.4 inches. 

4.9 inches. 
13.7 inches. 

4.3 inches. 
13. inches. 
19.1 inches. 
70.5 cubic inches. 
31. cubic inches. 

39.5 cubic inches. 

10.6 cubic inches. 
75 degrees. 



197 



THE DACOTAS. 

This collective appellation embraces many tribes or rather nations of Indians, 
allied to each other by affinity of language, and in some measure by community 
of customs and feelings. They are also called Sioux and Naudowessies, and the 
" Seven Fires," in allusion to their confederacy of seven bands or tribes. They 
are established on both sides of the Mississippi, and on the w^estern side of that 
river their hunting grounds extend from the Arkansas to the remote northern 
plains, and are only bounded on the west by the Rocky Mountains. 

In the month of September 1837, 1 saw^ twenty-six chiefs and braves of the 
Sioux nation, then in Philadelphia, on their way to the seat of government. 
Every man of them had a broad face, high cheek bones, the large Roman nose 
expanded at the nostrils, a wide but low forehead, and flat occiput. Their com- 
plexion was cinnamon brown ; several of them were naked to the waist, so that I 
was not deceived by the color of their faces, which were all painted. Their 
figures were rather tall^ very muscular, and well proportioned. The Sioux are 
proverbial for their belligerent and sanguinary character. General Pike, who was 
much among them, says that from his knowledge he does " not hesitate to pro- 
nounce them the most warlike and independent nation of Indians within the 
boundaries of the United States, their every passion being subservient to that of 
war."* 

The Dacota language is said to be less sonorous than the Algonquin, which 
abounds in labials. " It is certain," says a late traveller, " that their manners and 
customs differ essentially from those of any other tribe ; and their physiognomy, 
as well as their language and opinions, marks them as a distinct race of people. 
Their sacrifices and their supplications to the unknown God — their feasts after 
any signal deliverance from danger — their meat and their burnt offerings — the 
preparation of incense, and certain customs of their females, offer too striking a 
coincidence with the manners of the Asiatic tribes before the commencement of 
the Christian era, to escape observation."! 



Exped. Appendix, p. 62. t Schoolcraft, Nam Journal, &c., p. 310. 

50 



198 



CRANIA AMERICANA, 



PLATE XXXIX. 



DACOTA. 






I received this skull from the late Dr. Poole, of this city, but could obtaiH 
no particulars, excepting the fact of its having belonged to a Sioux w^arrior of bad 
character, and who w^as killed by some act of violence on the northwestern 
frontier. The small squared head, the great comparative breadth between the 
parietal bones, and indiflferent frontal development, correspond precisely with those 
features as observed in the individuals of the Sioux delegation already mentioned. 



MEASUREMENTS. 



Longitudinal diameter. 
Parietal diameter, . 
Frontal diameter, . 
Vertical diameter, . 
Inter-mastoid arch, . 
Inter-mastoid line, . 
Occipito-frontal arch. 
Horizontal periphery. 
Internal capacity, . 
Capacity of the anterior chamber. 
Capacity of the posterior chamber. 
Capacity of the coronal region. 
Facial angle, .... 



6.7 inches. 
5.7 inches. 
4,2 inches. 
5.4 inches. 

14.7 inches. 
4.4 inches. 

13.5 inches. 

19.8 inches. 

85. cubic inches. 
36. cubic inches. 
49. cubic inches. 

16.6 cubic inches. 
77 degrees. 



THE OSAGES, 



199 



PLATE XLL 

OSAGE. 





The Osages, Minetaris, Mandans, Assinaboins, and many cognate tribes, are 
more or less connected with the great Sioux nation, although they are often 
inveterate enemies to each other. The Osages are now chiefly found in the western 
part of Arkansas, and are yet a powerful tribe. " They are so tall and robust," says 
a late traveller, " as almost to warrant the application of the term gigantic ; few 
of them appear to be under six feet, and many are above it."* Among the Osages 
who visited Boston some years ago. Dr. Warren remarked some very fine looking 
men : he particularises two, of whom he says that their heads could not be 
distinguished from those of Europeans.f It is said of these people, that they are 
fond of war without being remarkable for bravery. They consider horse-stealing a 
meritorious achievement, and at one time scarcely left a horse to turn a mill in 
the town of St. Genevieve. They are credited with one virtue, however, which is 
rare among savages, and that is mercy; for they rarely take the lives of those who 
fall into their hands."J 

The annexed drawing is derived from the skull of a young warrior named 



* Bradbury, Trav. p. 42. t Compar. View of Nervous System, &c., p. 93. 

t Breckenridge, Views of Louisiana, p. 147.— -On this subject Mr. Gallatin makes the follow- 
ing remarks: "Whether erratic or agricultural, there is a marked diiference between the habits and 
character of all the Indians who dwelt amidst the dense forest which extends from the Atlantic to the 
Mississippi, and those of the inhabitants of the western prairie. These last are every where less 
ferocious than those of the eastern side of the Mississippi. Like all savages they put to death the 
prisoners taken in battle; but the horrid practice of inflicting on them the most excruciating torture 
for days together, does not appear to have prevailed anywhere beyond the Mississippi.'^ — *J^rchasolog. 
Jlmer. II, p. 129. 



200 



CRANIA AMERICANA. 



the Buffalo Toil He was arrested in Arkansas on a charge of murder, and 
placed under guard at Fort Gibson. He soon determined to destroy himself, and 
succeeded by an excess of gluttony. Dr. Pitcher, to whom I am indebted for this 
relic, adds, that " as the Osages, Omahas, Kansas, Missouris and Quapaws all speak 
a language so nearly allied that they can severally converse with each other 
without an interpreter, you will find this specimen a fit representation of these 
several tribes." 



MEASUREMENTS, 



Longitudinal diameter, 
Parietal diameter, 
Frontal diameter, 
Vertical diameter, 
Inter-mastoid arch, 
Inter-mastoid line, 
Occipito-frontal arch. 
Horizontal periphery. 
Internal capacity. 
Capacity of the anterior chamber. 
Capacity of the posterior chamber, 
Capacity of the coronal region, . 
Facial angle, .... 



6.5 inches. 
5.9 inches. 

4.6 inches. 
5.3 inches. 

15.1 inches* 
4.1 inches. 

13.4 inches. 

19.5 inches. 

83. cubic inches. 
37.5 cubic inches. 
45.5 cubic inches. 
14.1 cubic inches. 
77 degrees. 



"The Missouri Indians of the male sex," says Mr. Gallatin, "exceed in 
height the ordinary average of the Europeans ; but the women are in proportion 
shorter and thicker. The average facial angle is 78 degrees ; the transverse line 
of the direction of the eyes is rectilinear ; the nose aquiline ; the lips thicker than 
those of Europeans ; the cheek bones prominent but not angular. The women 
marry very young, bear children from the age of thirteen to forty, and have 
generally from four to six."* My measurements of eleven skulls of Missouri 
tribes gives 77 degrees as a mean of the facial angle, which is confirmatory of that 
stated by Mr. Gallatin. The mean internal capacity of the skull is eighty cubic 
inches, and but one head comes up to the European average. 



* Archseolog. Amer. II, p. 130. 



201 



COTONAY? BLACKFEET. 

The Blackfoot nation is one of the most powerful in the northwestern region 
of this continent ; for, notwithstanding their long and desperate conflicts with all 
the surrounding tribes, they yet number thirty thousand souls. They are composed 
of three principal divisions, of which the Cotonay is the most celebrated and best 
known. They are proverbial for their uncompromising hostility to the trappers, 
whom they attack and destroy whenever opportunity offers. They never ask for 
mercy and rarely award it to their captives. Fierce, crafty and courageous, they 
hold little communication with other tribes, and revenge themselves on all 
strangers who intrude, whether for good or evil, within the limits of their hunting 
grounds. 

PLATE XL. 

BLACKFOOT. 





The only two heads I have ever seen of this isolated nation, were brought to 
this city by Mr. George Catlin, and by him presented to George Combe, Esq. 
The latter gentleman has politely placed them at my disposal, and I have had the 
largest of them figured on the annexed plate. It is the skull of a man who 
appears to have received a mortal blow on the top of the head, near the junction 
of the parietal bones, which has penetrated into the cavity of the cranium. This 
51 



202 



CRANIA AMERICANA. 



skull has great breadth between the parietal bones, and the phrenological organ 
of firmness is strikingly prominent. 



MEASUREMENTS, 



Longitudinal diameter. 
Parietal diameter, . 
Frontal diameter, . 
Vertical diameter, . 
Inter-mastoid arch, . 
Inter-mastoid line, . 
Occipito-frontal arch. 
Horizontal periphery. 
Internal capacity, . 
Capacity of the anterior chamber. 
Capacity of the posterior chamber. 
Capacity of the coronal region. 
Facial angle, .... 



7.1 inches. 
5.4 inches. 
4.3 inches. 
5.1 inches. 

13.8 inches. 
4.3 inches. 

14. inches. 

19.9 inches. 

77. cubic inches. 
33.? cubic inches. 
44.? cubic inches. 
18.2 cubic inches. 
78 degrees. 



THE FLAT-HEAD TRIBES OF COLUMBIA RIVER. 



The Indians of the Columbia river were little known until the remarkable 
expedition of Lewis and Clark, since which period they have been visited and 
described by several intelligent travellers. These tribes are established on both 
sides of the river, and to a distance of many miles from its mouth. "They are 
commonly of diminutive stature, badly shaped, and their appearance by no means 
prepossessing. They have broad, thick, flat feet, thick ankles, and crooked legs : 
the last of which deformities is to be ascribed, in part, to the universal practice of 
squatting or sitting on the calves of their legs and heels, and also to the tight 
bandages of beads and strings, worn round the ankles by the women, which 
prevent the circulation of the blood, and render the legs of the females particularly 
ill shaped and swollen. The complexion is the usual copper colored brown of the 



THE FLAT-HEAD TRIBES OF COLUMBIA RIVER. 203 

North American tribes, though rather lighter than the Indians of the Missouri and 
the frontier of the United States : the mouth is wide and the lips thick ; the nose 
of a moderate size, fleshy, wide at the extremities, with large nostrils, and generally 
low between the eyes, though there are rare instances of high aquiline noses ; the 
eyes are generally black, though occasionally we see them of a dark yellowish 
brown, with a black pupil."* 

But the most remarkable feature among them is the almost universal flatten- 
ing of the head by mechanical contrivances: various means are resorted to to eflect 
this end ; but the model of deformity is the same throughout, consisting in a 
depression of the forehead and consequent elongation of the whole head, until the 
top of the cranium becomes, in extreme cases, a nearly horizontal plane. This 
custom obtains among many tribes, among which are the Klickatats, Kalapooyahs 
and Multnomahs of the Wallamut river, and its vicinity; and the Chinouks, 
Clatsaps, Klatstonis, Cowalitsks, Kathlamets, Killemooks and Chelakis of the 
lower Columbia and its vicinity .f It is also stated that several tribes of the coast, 
both north and south of the river, are in the same practice, but they are all said 
to speak dialects of the Chenouk language.^ 

" The mode by which the flattening is effected," says Mr. Townsend, " varies 
considerably with the different tribes. The Wallamet Indians place the infant, 
soon after birth, upon a board, to the edges of which are attached little loops of 
hempen cord or leather, and other similar cords are passed across and back, in a 
zigzag manner, through these loops, enclosing the child and binding it firmly 
down. To the upper edge of this board, in which is a depression to receive the 
back part of the head, another smaller one is attached by hinges of leather, and 
made to lie obliquely upon the forehead ; the force of the pressure being regulated 
by several strings attached to its edge, which are passed through holes in the 
board upon which the infant is lying, and secured there."§ 

" The mode of the Chinouks, and others near the sea, differs widely from that 
of the upper Indians, and appears somewhat less barbarous and cruel. A sort of 
cradle is formed by excavating a pine log to the depth of eight or ten inches. 
The child is placed in it on a bed of little grass mats, and bound down in the 
manner above described. A little boss of tightly plaited and woven grass is then 
applied to the forehead, and secured by a cord to the loops at the side. The 

* Lewis and Clark. Exped. II, p. 130. 

t Townsend, Jour, to the Columbia River, p. 175. } Irving, Astoria, II, p. S8. 

§Ut supra, p. 175. 



204 



CRANIA AMERICANA. 



infant is thus suffered to remain from four to eight months, or until the sutures of 
the skull have in some measure united, and the bone become solid and firm. It 
is seldom or never taken from the cradle, except in case of severe illness, until the 
flattening process is completed."* My friend Mr. Tow^nsend was so kind as to 
bring me one of these cradles, of which the subjoined drawing furnishes an 
accurate idea. 




This cradle is formed by excavating a single piece of wood about three feet 
long. Midway between the top and bottom, inside, are little slats, of light wood, 
A, A, A, in a transverse direction, on which are placed a grass mat or bed. The 
head of the cradle, B, is an excavated chamber, bounded towards the foot by an 
inclined plane, D, the rounded margin of which supports the child's neck, while 
the head itself is received into the concavity at B. Attached to the side of the 
cradle is the pad, C, made of grass, with a loop at the end : this is drawn down 
over the child's forehead, keeps it in place, and causes the flatness of that part so 
universal in these people. The lateral loops, D, D, D, are for the purpose of 
attaching other cords for the purpose of keeping the child's body in a fixed 
position. The projecting end, E, is rounded, and answers for rocking the cradle, 
when poised on it, by a rotary motion applied at the opposite end. The head 
and neck rest on a grass mat or pillow. 

Either of the preceding processes must be very painful, often giving rise to 
ulceration of the scalp, and perhaps not unfrequently to death itself ; yet so highly 
is this deformity valued among the Columbia river tribes, that their slaves (who 
are for the most part derived from the adjacent tribes) are not allowed to practise 
it. The appearance of the infant during the process, is described as both ludicrous 



TowNSEND, Journey, &c., p. 176. 



THE FLATHEADS. 205 

and frightful, " and its little black eyes, forced out by the tightness of the bandages, 
resemble those of a mouse choked in a trap."^ Besides the depression of the 
head, the face is widened and projected forwards by the process, so as materially 
to diminish the facial angle ; the breadth between the parietal bones is greatly 
augmented, and a striking irregularity of the two sides of the cranium almost 
invariably follows ; yet the absolute internal capacity of the skull is not diminished, 
and, strange as it may seem, the intellectual faculties sujffer nothing. The latter 
fact is proved by the concurrent testimony of all travellers who have written on 
the subject 

"We find them," say Lewis and Clark, "inquisitive and loquacious, with 
understandings by no means deficient in acuteness, and with very retentive 
memories ; and though fond of feasts and generally cheerful, they are never gay. 
Every thing they see excites their attention and inquiries, but having been 
accustomed to see the whites, nothing appeared to give them more astonishment 
than the air-gun. To all our inquiries they answered with great intelligence, and 
the conversation rarely slackens. — The dispositions of these people seem mild and 
inoffensive, and they have uniformly behaved to us with great friendship. They 
are addicted to begging and pilfering small articles, when it can be done without 
danger of detection, but do not rob wantonly nor to any large amount. — In traffic 
they are keen, acute and intelligent, and they employ in all their bargains a 
dexterity and finesse which, if it be not learnt from their foreign visiters, may 
show how nearly the cunning of savages is allied to the little arts of more civilised 
trade. They begin by asking nearly double or treble the value of their merchan- 
dise, and lower the demand in proportion to the ardor or experience in trade of 
the purchaser ; and if he expresses any anxiety, the smallest article, perhaps a 
handful of roots, will furnish a whole morning's negotiation. Being naturally 
suspicious, they of course conceive that you are pursuing the same system. They, 
therefore, invariably refuse the first offer, however high, fearful they or we have 
mistaken the value of the merchandise, and therefore cautiously wait to draw us 
on to larger offers. In this way, after rejecting the most extravagant prices, 
which we have offered for mere experiment, they have afterwards importuned us 
for a tenth part of what they had before refused. In this respect they differ from 
almost all Indians, who will generally exchange in a thoughtless moment the most 
valuable article they possess for any bauble which happens to please their fancy, "f 

"^ Ross Cox, Columbia River, &c., p. 146. 
t Lewis and Clakk, Exped. &c., II, p. 136, 138, 141. 
52 



206 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

"The appearance produced by this unnatural operation/' says Mr. Townsend 
" is almost hideous, and one would suppose that the intellect would be materially 
affected by it This, however, does not appear to be the case, as I have never 
seen (with a single exception, the Kayouse) a race of people who appeared more 
shrewd and intelligent."* 

In the month of January of the present year, (1839,) I was gratified Mith a 
personal interview with a full-blood Chenouk, then on a visit to this city in the 
hospitable care of my friend Dr. William Blanding. This Indian was a young 
man twenty years of age. He had been three years in charge of some Christian 
missionaries, and in that period had acquired great proficiency in the English 
language, understanding it when spoken to, and replying with a good accent and 
general grammatical accuracy. He appeared to me to possess more mental 
acuteness than any Indian I had seen, was communicative, cheerful and well- 
mannered. Mr. Townsend knew this young man (who is now called William 
Brooks) in his own country, and they recognised each other when they met in 
Philadelphia. He possessed marked Indian features, a broad face, high cheek 
bones, large mouth, tumid lips, a large nose, depressed at the nostrils, considerable 
width between the eyes, which, however, were not obliquely placed, a short 
stature, and robust person. His complexion was neither copper colored nor 
brown, but reasonably fair, such as are seen in white men who have been exposed 
in the harvest field. What most delighted me in this young man, was the fact 
that his head was as much distorted by mechanical compression as any skull of 
his tribe in my possession, and presented the very counterpart to the Kalapooyah 
figured on the annexed plate.f He cheerfully consented to such measurements 
of his head as I desired to take, and of which the following are the results : 

Longitudinal diameter 7.5 inches. 

Parietal diameter 6.9 inches. 

Frontal diameter 6.1 inches. 

Breadth between the cheek bones 6.1 inches. 

Facial angle about 73 degrees. 

At the time of Lewis and Clark's expedition, the Sokulks, at the western 
base of the Rocky Mountains, also flattened the heads of their children. " Their 
stature is low, their face broad, and their heads flattened in such a manner that 

* Journey to the Columbia River, &c., p. 175. t See Plate 47. 



THE CHINOUKS. 207 

the forehead is a straight line from the nose to the crown of the head."* They 
are represented as a mild and peaceable people, who live in comparative happiness. 
There is also near the sources of the Columbia river a tribe still called by the 
name of Flatheads, who have long since abandoned the custom from which they 
derived their present designation. Their true name is SalisJi^ and they are in no 
way connected with the Columbia river tribes.f 

PLATE XLH. 

CHINOUK. 





This plate represents a Chinouk skull of the natural form : it was that of a 
slave, and was obtained by Mr. J. K. Townsend during his late sojourn on the 
Columbia river. " I have occasionally seen both Chinouks and Chickitats," says 
Mr. Townsend, "with round or ordinary shaped heads, sickness having prevented 
the usual distortion while young : but such individuals can never attain to any 
influence, or rise to any dignity in their tribe, and are not unfrequently sold as 
slaves. "J 

It has been thought by some philosophers, that were the artificial modification 
of the cranium persisted in for several successive generations, it would at length 
become congenital and perpetual. This hypothesis is proved to be wholly 
gratuitous by the evidence derived from the American nations, among whom the 
characteristic form of the skull is always preserved, unless art has directly 
interfered to distort it. 



"^^ Lewis and Clark, Exped. II, p. 12. — Walknaer, Cosmog. p. 583; quoted in Humboldt's Pers. 
Narr. VI, p. 32. 

t Townsend, Journey to the Columbia River, p. 175. — Ross Cox, Trav. &c., p 120 
t Extract of Letter addressed to me from Fort Vancouver, Sept. 26, 1835. 



208 



CRANIA AMERICANA. 



This head diiSfers in nothing from that of the Indians in general, from one 
end of the continent to the other : but it is gratifying to be able to present a 
perfectly natural skull of a people among whom a round, or naturally formed head, 
is considered a degradation. 



MEASUREMENTS. 



Longitudinal diameter. 
Parietal diameter, . 
Frontal diameter, . 
Vertical diameter, . 
Inter-mastoid arch, . 
Inter-mastoid line, . 
Occipito-frontal arch. 
Horizontal periphery. 
Internal capacity, . 
Capacity of the anterior chamber. 
Capacity of the posterior chamber. 
Capacity of the coronal region. 
Facial angle, . , . . 



6.7 inches. 

5.4 inches. 

4.4 inches. 

5.3 inches. 
1 4. inches. 

4.2 inches. 
14. inches. 
19.4 inches. 
74. cubic inches. 
33. cubic inches. 
41. cubic inches. 
14. cubic inches. 

76 degrees. 



PLATE XLIII. 



CHINOUK. 





Mr. Townsend, through whose kindness I received this skull, accompanied it 
with the following memorandum : " The skull of the Chinouk is that of a high 
chief, as was manifest in the superior style in which his canoe was decked out, 
the unusual fineness of the wrappings with which the body was covered, and the 



THE CHINOUKS, 



209 



evident care and attention which had heen bestowed on the whole arrangement." 
This head is small but compact, and has had its full share of artificial compression. 
The Chinouks inhabit the northern shore of the Columbia river, near its mouth. 
In common with the adjacent cognate tribes, they appear to possess less courage 
than the Indians of other nations. Mr. Ross Cox gives a sorrowful account of 
them, " The good qualities of these Indians," says he, "are few, their vices many. 
Industry, patience, sobriety and ingenuity, nearly comprise the former ; while in 
the latter may be classed thieving, lying, incontinence, gambling and cruelty."^ 
Lewis and Clark, at an earlier period, made much the same observations. " They 
seem to be inferior to their neighbors in spirit. No ill treatment or indignity on 
our part seems to excite any feeling except fear ; nor, although better provided 
than their neighbors with arms, have they enterprise enough to use them advan- 
tageously against the animals of the forest, nor offensively against their neighbors, 
who owe their safety more to the timidity than the forbearance of the Chinouks."t 
They fashion their canoes and domestic implements with considerable ingenuity, 
but have no fondness for the sea beyond the mere acquisition of food for their 
families. 



MEASUREMENTS. 



Longitudinal diameter. 

Parietal diameter. 

Frontal diameter. 

Vertical diameter, 

Inter-mastoid arch, 

Inter-mastoid line, 

Occipito-frontal arch. 

Horizontal periphery. 

Extreme length of head and face, 

Internal capacity. 

Capacity of the anterior chamber. 

Capacity of the posterior chamber. 

Capacity of the coronal region, . 

Facial angle, .... 



6.7 inches* 

5.9 inches* 

4.7 inches* 

4.6 inches* 
14.2 inches. 

4. inches. 
12.9 inches* 
20. inches. 

8.3 inches. 
69. cubic inches. 
32.5 cubic inches. 
36.5 cubic inches. 

9.9 cubic inches. 

72 degrees. 



* Columbia River, &c., p. 147. 
53 



tExped. II, p 116. 



210 



CRANIA AMERICANA. 



PLATE XLIV. 



KLATSTONI. 



Another one of the tribes of the Oregon, received also from my friend Mr. 
J. K. Townsend. It will be observed that the longitudinal and parietal diameters 
are nearly the same, and the forehead very much depressed. 



MEASUREMENTS. 



Longitudinal diameter. 

Parietal diameter, . 

Frontal diameter. 

Vertical diameter, . 

Inter-mastoid arch, . 

Inter-mastoid line, . 

Occipito-frontal arch, 

Horizontal periphery. 

Extreme length of head and face. 

Internal capacity, . 

Capacity of the anterior chamber. 

Capacity of the posterior chamber. 

Facial angle, .... 



6.2 inches. 
6. inches. 
4.6 inches. 

5.3 inches. 
14.4 inches. 

4.2 inches. 
13.4 inches. 
19. inches. 

8.3 inches. 

70. cubic inches. 
30. cubic inches. 
40. cubic inches. 
70 degrees. 



PLATE XLV, 



KILLEMOOK. 





The head of a chief, of very large dimensions and ponderous structure, the 



THE CLATSAPS. 



211 



jaws and teeth being of enormous size, and the face protruding. The internal 
capacity is greater than that of any other individual of this series in my possession. 
I am indebted for this skull also to Mr. J. K. Townsend. 



MEASUREMENTS, 



Longitudinal diameter, 

Parietal diameter, . 

Frontal diameter. 

Vertical diameter, . 

Inter-mastoid arch, . 

Inter-mastoid line, . 

Occipito -frontal arch. 

Horizontal periphery, 

Extreme length of head and face, 

Internal capacity. 

Capacity of the anterior chamber. 

Capacity of the posterior chamber. 

Capacity of the coronal region. 

Facial angle, .... 



6.9 inches. 

6.3 inches. 

4.9 inches. 

4.8 inches. 
15.7 inches. 

4. inches. 
1 4. inches. 
21. inches. 

8.5 inches. 
92. cubic inches. 
34. cubic inches. 
58. cubic inches. 
19.3 cubic inches. 

73 degrees. 



PLATE XLVL 

CLATSAP. 




The Clatsaps reside on the southern shore of the bay at the mouth of the 
Columbia river, and along the sea coast on both sides of Point Adams. Owing to 
the destroying effects of malignant diseases, especially the small pox, this tribe is 



212 



CRANIA AMERICANA 



reduced to a mere handful of people. The annexed plate is drawn from a skull 
brought me by Mr, Townsend: I have had a front view taken of it in order to 
show at one view the great width and inequality of the skull, and the extreme 
depression of the frontal bone. 



MEASUREMENTS 



Longitudinal diameter. 

Parietal diameter. 

Frontal diameter. 

Vertical diameter, 

Inter-mastoid arch, 

Inter-mastoid line, 

Occipito-frontal arch. 

Horizontal periphery, 

Extreme length of head and face. 

Internal capacity, . 

Capacity of the anterior chamber. 

Capacity of the posterior chamber. 

Capacity of the coronal region. 

Facial angle, . • . . 



6.7 inches. 
6. inches. 
5. inches. 
4.5 inches. 
1 4.9 inches. 

4.2 inches. 
13. inches. 
19.8 inches. 

8.3 inches. 

78. cubic inches. 
26. cubic inches. 
52. cubic inches. 
8.75 cubic inches. 
70 degrees. 



PLATE XLVIL 



KALAPOOYAH. 




THE KALAPOOYAHS, 



213 



The Kalapooyahs reside on the shores of the Oregon, 
some distance above its mouth, but they are now a dwindled 
and degenerate tribe. This fine head is among the many 
valuable contributions rendered to this work by my friend 
Mr. Townsend. It strongly resembles, in all its details, 
the Killemook head already figured. The enormous orbits, 
and the massive and protruded face, are among its most 
striking characters. 




MEASUREMENTS, 



Longitudinal diameter. 

Parietal diameter, • 

Frontal diameter, . 

Vertical diameter, . 

Inter-mastoid arch, . 

Inter-mastoid line, . 

Occipito-frontal arch. 

Horizontal periphery. 

Extreme length of head and face. 

Internal capacity, . 

Capacity of the anterior chamber. 

Capacity of the posterior chamber. 

Capacity of the coronal region. 

Facial angle, .... 



6.8 inches. 
6.3 inches. 

5.2 inches. 

4.9 inches. 
1 4.8 inches. 

4.3 inches. 
13. inches. 

20.4 inches. 
8.6 inches. 

87. cubic inches. 

35.5 cubic inches. 
51.5 cubic inches. 
11.2 cubic inches. 

68 degrees* 



54 



214 



CRANIA AMERICANA, 



PLATE XLVIIL 



CLICKITAT. 





Clickitat skull, from the Columbia river, sent me by Mr. Townsend. It is 
greatly flattened on the frontal region, and irregular in its proportions. It is also 
remarkable for the remains of an extensive fracture, commencing above the middle 
of the left parietal bone, and extending dow^n wards to the base of the skull. This 
fracture has been foUovsred by evident depression of the bone, and yet the cicatri- 
zation has been complete. 



MEASUREMENTS, 



Longitudinal diameter, 

Parietal diameter, . 

Frontal diameter, . 

Vertical diameter, . 

Inter-mastoid arch, . 

Inter-mastoid line, . 

Occipito-frontal arch, 

Horizontal periphery. 

Extreme length of head and face. 

Internal capacity, » 

Capacity of the anterior chamber. 

Capacity of the posterior chamber. 

Facial angle, .... 



6.6 inches. 
5.8 inches. 

4.8 inches. 
5. inches. 

14.2 inches. 

4.2 inches, 

13. inches. 

19.5 inches. 

7.9 inches. 

79. cubic inches. 
36.5 cubic inches. 
42.5 cubic inches. 
70 degrees. 



THE COWALITSKS, 



215 



PLATES XLIX AND L. 



COWALITSK. 





This extraordinary relic was also brought from the Columbia river by my 
friend Mr. Townsend. Deformed as the other skulls of this series are, this one 
surpasses them all in those factitious proportions which result from mechanical 
pressure to the forehead. Thus the vertical diameter is reduced to little more 
than four inches — the top of the cranium presents a flattened arch not far 
removed from a horizontal plane, and the face is protruded until the facial angle 
is reduced to sixty-six degrees, the lowest grade which I have observed in any 
human skull. I have represented both profile and vertical views of this head ; 
but the latter represents it as possessed of too much regularity, especially about 
the zygomae. The first or profile drawing is perfectly accurate in all its propor- 
tions, but the artist has inadvertently drawn it one sixth of an inch too small in 
each of its diameters. 



MEASUREMENTS, 



Longitudinal diameter, 
Parietal diameter, . 
Frontal diameter. 
Vertical diameter, . 
Inter-mastoid arch, . 
Inter-mastoid line, . 
Occipito-frontal arch. 
Horizontal periphery, 
Extreme length of head and face. 



7. inches. 

6.1 inches. 

4.9 inches. 

4.1 inches. 
13.9 inches. 

4. inches. 
12.7 inches. 
20.2 inches. 

8.6 inches. 



216 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

Internal capacity, . 
Capacity of the anterior chamber. 
Capacity of the posterior chamber. 
Capacity of the coronal region. 
Facial angle, .... 



75. cubic inches. 
28. cubic inches. 
47. cubic inches. 
6.25 cubic inches. 
66 degrees. 



Eight flattened skulls of the Columbia river tribes in my possession (seven 
of which are figured in the preceding plates) give the following results of measure- 
ment. 

Mean of the internal capacity, 80 cubic inches. 

Mean capacity of the anterior chamber, 31.8 cubic inches. 

Mean capacity of the posterior chamber, 46.8 cubic inches. 

Mean capacity of the coronal region, 11.8 cubic inches. 

Mean facial angle, 70 degrees. 

It therefore appears that the operation of flattening and otherwise distorting 
the head in infancy by artificial contrivances, does not diminish the capacity of 
the cranium, or the whole volume of brain ; neither does it materially affiect the 
relative proportions of brain in the two chambers of the cranium, inasmuch as the 
lateral expansion of the frontal region compensates for the loss of vertical diameter. 
The coronal region, however, is very much reduced by the process, and the facial 
angle is diminished at least five degrees. 

The external anatomical measurements are extremely distorted, especially 
the several diameters, and the length of the head and face conjoined ; for example, 
the eight crania give the following results : 

Mean longitudinal diameter, 6.7 inches. 

Mean parietal diameter, 6. inches. 

Mean frontal diameter, 4.9 inches. 

Mean vertical diameter, 4.8 inches. 

Mean of inter-mastoid arch, 14.6 inches. 

Mean of inter-mastoid line, 4.1 inches. 

Mean of occipito-frontal arch, 13.1 inches. 

Mean of horizontal periphery, 20. inches. 

Mean of extreme length of head and face, 8,3 inches. 



217 



SKULLS FROM THE TUMULI OR MOUNDS. 

It is designed on this occasion briefly to inquire into the geographical distri- 
bution of the mounds, their uses, and the race of people by whom they were 
constructed. 

In North America there are very few mounds east of the Alleghany 
mountains. They are extremely unfrequent, if not w^hoUy deficient, throughout 
the New England states, New York, Pennsylvania, and other states as far as South 
Carolina, where they are common in the interior : the latter remark is also appli- 
cable to Georgia and Florida, and all the country which skirts the Gulf of Mexico. 
Throughout the valley of the Mississippi they are very numerous. Dr. James 
took measurements of no less than twenty-seven immediately north of the town of 
St. Louis; Mr. Say counted upwards of thirty on the Kishwaka river, in the north 
of Illinois ; and the bluffs which border the Wisconsin, about four miles above its 
mouth, are covered with them.^ They abound much farther north, and are seen 
as far as the vicinity of Lake Travers, in lat. 46°, which is probably the northern 
limit of these remains. They are observed up the Ohio and its tributaries to the 
base of the AUeghanies, diminish in frequency westward of the Mississippi, and 
are not seen beyond the Rocky Mountains. To the south, they are common in 
Arkansas, and in Mexico are vastly numerous. In Peru and its ancient depend- 
encies they are also seen in great number, and even as far south as the country of 
the Araucos, in Chili. East of the Andes they are rarely seen ; and Humboldt is 
of the opinion that there is not a tumulus in all Guiana. 

Most of these structures are mere circular mounds of earth, from twelve to 
twenty or thirty feet in diameter, and six or eight feet high. Others are of large 
dimensions and imposing appearance ; such is Mount Joliet, in Wisconsin, which 
is described by Mr. Schoolcraft as of an elliptical form, four hundred and fifty 
yards in length, seventy-five in breadth, and sixty feet in height.f Mr. Brecken- 
ridge mentions another near the Mississippi and Cahokie rivers, eight hundred 
yards in circumference at base, and ninety feet elevation; and from the top of this 
mound no less than forty-five others are within range of sight.J The Etowee 
mound, in the Cherokee country, is still larger,^ and that on Grave creek, in 



* Keating, Exped. I, p. 239. tTrav. in the Valley of the Mississippi, p. 330. 

J Views of Louisiana, p. 187. § Amer. Jour, of Science and Art, I, p. 324. 

55 



218 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

Virginia, (which will be particularly noticed hereafter,) is also of gigantic size. 
But the most curious mounds are those constructed into rude resemblances of 
men and animals, which abound in Wisconsin territory; and these also are 
proved to be sepulchral monuments by the quantity of human remains embraced 
in themo* 

The mounds are variously shaped, circular, elliptical, and pyramidal, while 
some of them are formed in parapets, like the pyramid of Medoun, in Egypt. 

The uses of these structures were various, as will appear from the position 
they occupy, and the articles contained in them ; nor can there be a question that 
they were mainly designed for receptacles for the dead. In almost all instances 
in which they have been carefully examined, human bones have been found in 
them, and sometimes many skeletons together, and regularly disposed. The 
remarkable group of pyramids at Teotihuacan, north of the city of Mexico, is 
situated on a plain that bears the name of Micoatl, or The path of the dead^ 
obviously indicating at least one of the uses of those structures, which, in that 
locality alone, are several hundred in number.f In Peru the mounds are called 
Huacas^ w^hich, in the Quichua language, singnifies to weep^ a designation not less 
expressive than that of the Mexicans.J 

Besides human remains, the mounds often contain the bones of the bear, 
otter, beaver and other animals,^ together with stone hatchets and arrow heads, 
vessels of various kinds, fragments of obsidian and mica, and, more rarely, imple- 
ments of copper, and ornaments of ivory. It is also not unusual to find ashes, 
cinders and burnt bones, resting on a platform of stones, showing that the body 
had been first consumed by fire. There can be no doubt, however, that the 
mounds were also devoted to other purposes; 1st, as observatories and fortifications 
in time of war. Thus we are told that when the last remains of the Natchez 
were pursued by the French, (A. D. 1728,) they threw up a mound on Red river, 
in Louisiana, occupied it as a fortification, and defended it with the utmost bravery 
until overcome by the superior tactics of their enemies.|| In like manner the 
Cherokees, in their late war with the Creeks, surrounded the summit of the 
Etowee mound with pickets, placed their families in the enclosure, and thus 
defended themselves from the assaults of their enemies.^ 2d, As places of 



* Taylor, in Amer. Jour, of Science, XXXIV, p. 96, with diagrams. 

t Humboldt, Monuments, I, p. 91. J Ruschenberger, Three Years in the Pacific, p. 400. 

§ Archaeolog. Amer. I, p. 168. || Sibley, in Report, Sic, 1806, p. 80. 

IF Cornelius, in Amer. Jour, of Science and Art, I, p. 324. 



SKULLS FROM THE MOUNDS, 



219 



worship or of sacrifice. The pyramidal structures of Mexico are called Teocal- 
LIS5 or houses of the gods, indicative of at least one of the purposes to which they 
were devoted. Sd, As the foundations of dwelHngs. This fact has been observed 
in the low grounds of Louisiana, where the villages were liable to inundation ;* 
and Lewis and Clark appear to refer to a similar use of mounds among the Ottoes 
of Missouri.! 

Of what race were the people who constructed these tumuli ? It appears to 
me that if we examine this question in reference to the cranial remains and other 
relics found in the mounds, there can be no diifficulty in tracing their origin. 
The first step in the inquiry, however, will consist in an examination of the 
following series of skulls from localities remote from each other ; merely premising, 
that I have not in this instance admitted any specimens which are not perfectly 
authenticated by the places and circumstances in which they were obtained. 



PLATE LI. 



SKULL FROM A MOUND NEAR CIRCLEVILLE, OHIO. 





This relic was presented to me by my friend Dr. S. P. Hildreth, of Marietta, 
Ohio, who has furnished me with the following note, " Cranium of an aboriginal 
inhabitant of the Sciota valley, taken from an ancient mound constructed on a 
small natural elevation in the present town of Circlevillec Several other skeletons 
were found, but none of them in a better state of preservation. The os frontis is 
cut through or beaten in, probably by a blow from a battle axe ; and no less than 
five arrow-heads were found sticking in and about the skeleton. The tumulus is 
constructed of loam and coarse limestone gravel, which doubtless assisted in 



* Brixgier, Amer. Jour, of Science and Art, III, p. 37. 



tExped. I, p. 35. 



220 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

preserving the bones from decay.— The ancient works at Circleville are extensive, 
and when first discovered were in a fine state of preservation. Trees, the growth 
of many centuries, covered the ground, bearing evidence of the antiquity of these 
remains of a former race. Large quantities of human bones, in different stages of 
decomposition, are found in the gravelly plain about half a mile north of Circleville, 
showing that this had long been the burial place of a numerous people."* 

MEASUREMENTS. 



Longitudinal diameter, 
Parietal diameter, . 
Frontal diameter, . 
Vertical diameter, . 
Inter-mastoid arch, . 
Inter-mastoid line, . 
Occipito-frontal arch. 
Horizontal periphery. 
Internal capacity, . 
Facial angle, . 



PLATE LII 



7.3 


inches. 


5.8 


inches. 


4«4 


inches. 


5.4 


inches. 


14.6 


inches. 


4.2 


inches. 


14.1 


inches. 


20.3 


inches. 


86.5 cubic inches 


76 degrees. 



SKULL FROM A MOUND ON THE UPPER MISSISSIPPI- 





I am also indebted to Dr. Hildreth for this specimen, together with the 
following memorandum. " Skull taken from a mound seated on the high bluff 



* The admirable preservation of this skull, is owing to its having been washed with spirit-varnish 
immediately after exhumation, a process by which these relics may be readily and permanently 
preserved. 



SKULLS FROM THE MOUNDS. 



221 



which overlooks the Mississippi river, one hundred and fifty miles above the 
mouth of the Missouri. There w^ere six mounds placed near each other in a 
right line, commencing w^ith a small one only a few feet in height, and terminating 
in another of eight or ten feet elevation, and twenty feet diameter. This skull 
was obtained from the fifth mound in the series." It is a large cranium, very full 
in its vertical diameter, and broad between the parietal bones. 



MEASUREMENTS 



Longitudinal diameter, 
Parietal diameter. 
Frontal diameter. 
Vertical diameter, 
Inter-mastoid arch, 
Inter-mastoid line, 
Occipito-frontal arch. 
Horizontal periphery. 
Internal capacity. 
Facial angle. 



7.1 inches. 
5.3 inches. 
4.8 inches. 
5.5 inches. 

14.6 inches. 

4.2 inches. 
14.6 inches, 
20. inches. 
85.5 cubic inches, 

79 degrees. 



PLATE LIIL 



SKULL FROM THE GRAVE CREEK MOUND, IN VIRGINIA. 

The great mound on Grave creek, Virginia, is about twelve miles from 
Wheeling, and not far from the Ohio river. As it is one of the largest and most 
perfect works of the kind in North America, and as it has been excavated with 
great care and success, I have endeavored to obtain whatever particulars have any 
connection with the present inquiry. For these I am indebted to James W. 
Clemens, M. D., of Wheeling, Virginia, from whose memoir, drawn up at my 
request, I extract the following facts. 

" The Grate Creek Mound is eight hundred and thirty-seven feet in cir- 
cumference at its base, and seventy feet in height, and is situated on a natural 
elevation of eighty or one hundred feet above the lowwater mark of the Ohio 
river. The mound has been for more than half a century in possession of the 
family of Mr. Tomlinson, whose son accomplished a complete examination of it 
56 



223 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

during the summer of 1838. He commenced digging on the north side of the 
mound, and about four feet above the trench that surrounds it, from which point 
a horizontal shaft was excavated to the centre. At a distance of twelve or fifteen 
feet from the surface were found numerous masses composed of charcoal and 
burnt bone. Before reaching the centre a passageway was discovered to a vault 
at the base : this passage had an inclination of ten or fifteen degrees, and had been 
covered with timber, of which the impression on the earth alone remains ; and 
the vault itself was partially filled up by these timbers giving way, and admitting 
the soil from above, and many loose stones which appear to have formed part of 
the covering of this chamber, After removing all this rubbish from the vault, 
two skeletons were found covered with sand, one on the east, the other on the 
west side. The former was the smaller and most perfect of the two, and its 
cranium is figured on the annexed plate.* In this sepulchral chamber, and 
chiefly in connection with the larger skeleton, w^as found a great number of 
trinkets of various kinds, but principally six hundred and fifty ivoryf beads, per- 
forated in the centre. 

" On carrying a shaft upwards from this vault, another was discovered above 
it, and extending eighteen feet in length and eight in width. In it was found a 
solitary skeleton in a state of extreme decay, and which appeared, like those in 
the vault beneath, to have been placed in a standing position. With the bones 
were also obtained no less than seventeen hundred ivory beads, like those already 
mentioned, five hundred marine shells of the genus Oliva?, and about one hundred 
and fifty small plates of mica; the latter being perforated at their sides and 
corners. Five copper bands or bracelets were found on the bones of the arms, 
together with various articles of minor interest. 

" Mr. Tomlinson next dug a shaft from the top of the mound (which is con- 
cave, as if sunk in) down to the lowest vault; but he had first to remove an oak 
tree two feet and a half in diameter, and numbering three hundred growths from 
centre to circumference. Within three feet of the surface was found a skeleton 
in complete decomposition. On reaching the lowest vault it was determined to 
enlarge it for the more easy access of visiters, and it was accordingly extended to 
a diameter of twenty-eight feet During this operation ten more skeletons were 



* See Plate 53. 

tDr. Clemens assures me that these beads are genuine ivori/, and not bone; and adds, that as he 
had himself wrought much in ivory, he could not be mistaken in the material. 



SKULLS FROM THE MOUNDS, 223 

discovered, all in the sitting posture, but in so fragile a state as to defy all attempts 
at preservation."* 

The antiquity of the skull from the lovrer vault is sufficiently established by 
the preceding circumstances ; and I add it to these illustrations vv^ith the greater 
satisfaction on account of the authentic character of all the facts mentioned by 
Dr. Clemens. The occurrence of ivoryf beads is a matter of much interest ; for 
it w^ill be at once inquired, w^here did the ancient Americans procure this material? 
A glance at the drawling reveals the characteristic traits of the American skull, as 
seen in the full superciliary ridge, the salient nose, the rounded head, the flattened 
occiput, and the broad and ponderous lower jaw^. Every tooth in this head is 
perfect ; but a part of the occipital bone is deficient, and the dotted line is probably 
an approximation to the original outline. The follow^ing are the only measure- 
ments I have been able to obtain. 

Longitudinal diameter, . . . . . 6.6? inches. 

Horizontal diameter, (from superciliary ridge to occiput,) 6.5 inches. 

Parietal diameter, ...... 6. inches. 

Vertical diameter, ...... 5. inches. 

Facial angle, about . . .... 78 degrees. 



PLATE LIV. 

SKULL FROM A MOUND ON THE ALABAMA RIVER. 

This very interesting cranium has been already mentioned in this w^ork, 
(page 162,) where three views are given in wood outlines. It is there mentioned 
as the property of Dr. O. H. Fowler, who, having politely allowed me the use of 
it, I have gladly made room for it in this place. It is supposed to be a Natchez 
head, which is altogether probable ; but I insert it here as a genuine mound skull. 
It is flattened on the occiput and os frontis in such manner as to give the whole 
head a sugar-loaf or conical form, whence also its great lateral diameter, and its 



* Mr. Tomlinson, the proprietor, has been at great pains and expense to fit up the lower vault of 
this mound, in which the articles found in it are preserved for the gratification of strangers. 

tl am also informed by Dr. Clemens, that he has found porcelain beads in a small mound a mile 
and a half from the greater one.— For an early and interesting account of this mound, see Dr. J. 
Morton's memoir in the Amer. Jour, of Science and Art, VI, p. 166. 



224 



CKANIA AMERICANA 



narrowness from back to front. I shall merely repeat that it was exhumed from 
a mound high up the Alabama river. 



MEASUREMENTS. 



Longitudinal diameter. 
Parietal diameter. 
Frontal diameter. 
Vertical diameter, 
Inter-mastoid arch, 
Inter-mastoid line, 
Occipito-frontal arch. 
Horizontal periphery. 
Internal capacity, . 
Facial angle, , 



5 J) inches. 

6.6 inches. 

4.4 inches. 

5.1 inches. 
15.6 inches. 

4.4 inches. . 
12.4 inches. 
19.6 inches. 
80. cubic inches. 

72 degrees. 



PLATE LV. 

SKULL FROM A MOUND IN TENNESSEE- 





This cranium was exhumed by my friend Dr. Troost, of Nashville, Tennessee, 
from a mound in that state, at the junction of French-Broad and Holston rivers. 
Dr. Troost kindly forwarded it to Philadelphia for my use. The section of 
Tennessee above mentioned, and especially the Holston river, abounds in mounds, 
one of which covers an acre of ground and is thirty feet high. Six others are 
seen on that river a short distance above its mouth, which, on being opened, 
contained nothing but ashes and charcoal.* The present skull is remarkable for 



Sillirnan's Amer. Jour, of Science and Art, T, p. 429. 



SKULLS FROM THE MOUNDS. 



225 



its vertical and parietal diameter, and flatness and elevation of the occiput. The 
facial angle is also unusually great. 



MEASUREMENTS. 



Longitudinal diameter. 
Parietal diameter. 
Frontal diameter. 
Vertical diameter, 
Inter-mastoid arch, 
Inter-mastoid line, 
Occipito-frontal arch. 
Horizontal periphery. 
Internal capacity, . 
Facial angle, . 



6.6 inches. 

5.6 inches. 

4.1 inches. 

5.6 inches. 
15,2 inches. 

4.4 inches, 
14. inches. 
19.5 inches. 
87.5 cuhic inches. 

80 degrees. 



PLATE LVI, 



SKULL FROM A TUMULUS AT SANTA, IN PERU. 





This cranium w^as obtained from a mound near the town of Santa, in Peru, 
by Waters Smith, M. D., of the U. S. Navy, who kindly added it to my collection. 
The body was found in a flexed or sitting posture, accompanied by a number of 
vessels of baked clay, of fine workmanship and ingenious construction. One of 
them, which is in my possession, is a quadruple vase with a single tubular mouth. 
57 



226 



CRANIA AMERICANA 



This is a small, thin skull, covered, when I received it, with very long, black hair, 
which was removed to make the drawing. 



MEASUREMENTS. 



Longitudinal diameter. 
Parietal diameter, . 
Frontal diameter, . 
Vertical diameter, . 
Inter-mastoid arch, . 
Inter-mastoid line, . 
Occipito-frontal arch. 
Horizontal periphery, 
Internal capacity, . 
Capacity of the anterior chamber. 
Capacity of the posterior chamber. 
Capacity of the coronal region. 
Facial angle, . . . . 



6.2 inches. 
5.4 inches. 

4.3 inches. 
4.9 inches. 

14.6 inches. 

3.8 inches. 
13.3 inches. 
18.5 inches. 
74.5 cubic inches. 
30. cubic inches. 
44.5 cubic inches. 
14.5 cubic inches. 

71 degrees. 



PLATE LVII. 



SKULL FROM A TUMULUS IN THE VALLEY OF RIMAC, IN PERU. 





The tumulus from which this relic was obtained is about a mile and a half 
to the south of Lima. It is nearly two hundred feet in height, and was opened 
a few years since by the French consul, in search of antiquities. During the 
progress of excavation several skulls were thrown out, four of which were obtained 



SKULLS FROM THE MOUNDS. 



227 



by my friend Dr. Henry S. Rennolds, of the U. S. Navy, who politely transferred 
them to me. The cranium now figured has been much compressed by art, so 
that the forehead, from the superciliary ridge to the crown of the head, presents a 
very inclined plane. The bones are large and ponderous throughout. 



MEASUREMENTS, 



Longitudinal diameter. 
Parietal diameter, . 
Frontal diameter, . 
Vertical diameter, . 
Inter-mastoid arch, . 
Inter-mastoid line, . 
Occipito-frontal arch. 
Horizontal periphery. 
Internal capacity. 
Capacity of the anterior chamber. 
Capacity of the posterior chamber. 
Capacity of the coronal region, 
Facial angle, .... 



6.9 inches. 

5.6 inches. 

4.4 inches. 

5.1 inches. 
15.3 inches. 

4.3 inches. 
1 4. inches. 
19.7 inches. 
79, cubic inches. 
£9.5 cubic inches. 
49.5 cubic inches. 
14.1 cubic inches. 

72 degrees. 



PLATE LVIIL 



SKULL FROM A TUMULUS IN THE VALLEY OF RIMAC, IN PERU. 





A cranium found with the preceding, also presented to me by Dr. H. S. 



228 



CRANIA AMERICANA. 



Retinoids. It is a small head, with a very retreating forehead, but little if at all 
altered by art. 





MEASUREMENTS. 




Longitudinal diameter, . . . • • 6.5 inches. 


Parietal diameter, . 


• 








5.6 inches. 


Frontal diameter, . 


. 








4.5 inches* 


Vertical diameter, . 


■ 








5. inches. 


Inter-mastoid arch, . 


. 








1 4.7 inches. 


Inter-mastoid line, . 


t 








3.8 inches* 


Occipito-frontal arch. 


> < 








13.2 inches. 


Horizontal periphery. 


« 








19.2 inches. 


Internal capacity, . 


. 








76.5 cubic inches. 


Capacity of the anterior chamber. 






34. cubic inches. 


Capacity of the posterior chamber, . 






42.5 cubic inches. 


Capacity of the coronal region, . 






13.75 cubic inches. 


Facial angle, . 


• 


• 






74 degrees. 



The preceding illustrations embrace eight genuine mound skulls, and no one, 
I think, can examine them without being struck with their resemblance to the 
other crania figured in this work. They have the low forehead, high cheek bones, 
small facial angle, massive lower jaw, prominent vertex, flat occiput, and rounded 
head of the American race; and when we recur to the geographical distribution 
of the mounds as already noticed, they will be found scattered over those parts of 
both Americas which were inhabited by the demi-civilised nations embraced in 
the Toltecan family. Wherever these tumuli are found, whether in Peru, 
Mexico, Florida, or the Valley of the Mississippi, they are observed to be similarly 
constructed, and to contain analogous remains. Skeletons in the sitting posture 
are every where characteristic of them : the ashes and burnt bones indicate the 
practice of consuming the body with fire, which was still practised at the invasion 
of Mexico by the Spaniards; and when UUoa visited Peru so recently as the 
middle of the past century, he saw and described the manner in which mounds 
were constructed as sepulchral monuments. "The Indians," says he, "having 
laid the body, without burial, on the ground, environed it with a rude arch of 
stones or bricks, and earth was thrown upon it as a tumulus, which they call 
guaca. In general they are eight or ten toises high, and about twenty long, and 
the breadth rather less; but some are larger. The plains near Cyambe are 



SKULLS FROM THE MOUNDS. 529 

covered with them."* It will be observed from the preceding plates, that the 
people who interred their dead in the mounds were in the practice of distorting 
the skull by art, both in the horizontal and vertical methods ; and if I may judge 
from the nine adult mound skulls now in my possession, and sufficiently perfect 
for measurement, the people whom they represent were one and the same with 
the American race, and probably of the Toltecan branch. Thus, the mean 
internal capacity of these heads is but eighty-one cubic inches, or a little more 
than the mean of the American race, while the facial angle does not exceed the 
average of that people, or seventy-five degrees. These facts, together with an 
inspection of many of the long bones found in the mounds, satisfy me that the 
constructors were neither a gigantic race as asserted by some writers, nor a 
diminutive people as averred by others ;t but of the ordinary stature of the 
American Indians. The preceding data are to me also conclusive evidence that 
the occupants of the mounds were not Mongols, nor Hindoos, nor Jews : yet there 
are two articles found in these sepulchres which are not readily accounted for. 
One of these is the ivory beads described by Dr. Clemens : that gentleman declares 
that he is not mistaken in the material, and from his account the ornamental use 
of it must have been by no means inconsiderable. The other objects to which I 
allude are stones of a discoidal form, with or without a central hole, between 
which and the margin is a circular groove ; the periphery being mostly convex. 
Now it is remarkable that these quoit-like stones (which moreover closely resemble 
the calculi of the Romans) are not unfrequently found among the antiquities of 
Scandinavia.f Those found in Europe and America differ in nothing from each 
other, but the uses to which they were put are unknown. The discovery and 
partial occupancy of this country by the Scandinavians, long before the time of 
Columbus, is now well established ; and this fact may possibly account for the 
occurrence, in the mounds, of the apparently exotic articles of which we have just 
spoken. 

That the fortifications and other ancient structures of our western country, 
belong to the same era and people with the mounds, seems probable from the 
circumstance of their almost constantly occurring together ; nor is there any thing 



* Voy. I, p. 366. — For recent mounds in Florida, see Bartram, Trav. in Florida, p. 517. — Bossu, 
Trav. p. 298. 

t Atwater, Silliman's Amer. Joiir. of Science and Art, II, p. 224. 

X See Journal of the Antiquarian Society of Denmark, published in Copenhagen in the Danish 
language, Vol. I, Tab. II, Fig. S2, 53. 
58 



230 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

in the mode of their construction that points to a higher civilisation. In fact, a 
careful review of all the circumstances will lead almost unavoidably to the 
conclusion, that the ancient mounds of America owe their origin to the various 
branches of the great Toltecan family, which was spread, as we have seen, from 
the confines of Chili to the shores of Lake Superior. Wherever that people made 
their sojourn we find their monumental traces, presenting, it is true, different 
degrees of contrivance and ingenuity, but for the most part far exceeding those 
faculties as possessed by the barbarous tribes. Some of the latter, it is true, have 
occasionally formed sepulchral mounds, but the instances are rare ; and it will 
probably be hereafter established that all the tribes which erected mounds as a 
national usage, belonged to the Toltecan stock.* That they once occupied Florida 
and the valley of the Mississippi, there can be no doubt, but whether it was before 
or after their dispersion from Mexico is not yet ascertained. It seems more than 
probable, however, that the Mligewi who, according to Indian tradition, were 
driven southward by the Iroquois and Lanape, were Toltecan communities — the 
people who constructed the mounds for their sepulchres, and erected the fortified 
towns to defend themselves from the barbarous tribes by whom they were 
surrounded. 



SKULLS FROM ANCIENT TOMBS IN MEXICO. 

Through the kindness of Mr. Joseph Smith, late of this city, and now resident 
in Mexico, I have received a series of Mexican skulls, among which are six from 
the ancient tombs of Tacuba and Otumba. One of these has been already 
represented in outline,t and three others are lithographed on the annexed plates. 
They came too late for insertion in their proper place in the series, but possess too 
much interest to be omitted. 



- It is not unusual for the modem Indians to bury their dead in the ancient mounds, which they 
accomplish by sHght excavation of the surface. They very rarely construct mounds of their own; 
they merely recognise the old ones as sepulchres. 

tSee page 153, 154. 



SKULLS FROM OTUMBA, 



231 



PLATE LIX. 



SKULL FROM AN ANCIENT TOMB AT OTUMBA, IN MEXICO 





The present illustration is derived from a small, rounded cranium, with the 
projecting face and consequent low facial angle characteristic of the Toltecan 
nations. In fact, its striking resemblance to the Peruvian skulls already figured, 
will occur to every one. 



MEASUREMENTS. 



Longitudinal diameter, 
Parietal diameter, 
Frontal diameter. 
Vertical diameter, 
Inter-mastoid arch, 
Inter-mastoid line, 
Occipito-frontal arch. 
Horizontal periphery. 
Internal capacity. 
Facial ansle. 



6.3 inches. 

5.3 inches. 

4.4 inches. 
5.4 inches. 

14.3 inches. 

4.2 inches. 
13.5 inches. 
19.2 inches. 
74. cubic inches, 

76 degrees. 



232 



CRANIA AMERICANA 



PLATE LX. 



SKULL FROM AN ANCIENT TOMB AT OTUMBA, IN MEXICO, 





This head was obtained with the preceding, is a little larger and not so 
spherical : the frontal region is also better developed, yet the projecting face gives 



a low facial angle. 



MEASUREMENTS, 



Longitudinal diameter, 
Parietal diameter, 
Frontal diameter. 
Vertical diameter, 
Inter-mastoid arch, 
Inter-mastoid line, 
Occipito-frontal arch, 
Horizontal periphery. 
Internal capacity. 
Facial angle. 



6.6 



inches. 



5.3 inches. 

4.4 inches. 
5.4 inches. 



14. 



inches. 



4. inches. 
14. inches. 
19.3 inches. 
76. cubic inches. 
77 degrees. 



SKULLS FROM OTUMBA. 



233 



PLATE LXI. 

SKULL FROM AN ANCIENT TOMB AT OTUMBA, IN MEXICO. 





Found with the two preceding heads, but larger, and approaching nearer to 
the Caucasian model, both in its proportions and facial angle. 



MEASURE 



MENTS. 



Longitudinal diameter. 

Parietal diameter, . 

Frontal diameter. 

Vertical diameter, . 

Inter-mastoid arch, . 

Inter-mastoid line, . 

Occipito-frontal arch, 

Horizontal periphery. 

Internal capacity. 

Facial angle, . 

The subjoined wood-cuts will serve to convey an 
Mexican skulls, remarkable for a low, narrow forehead, 
of the whole posterior region of the cranium. 



7.1 inches. 

5.6 inches. 

4.6 inches. 

5.5 inches, 
15.5 inches. 

4.1 inches, 
15. inches. 
20.2 inches. 
87. cubic inches. 

80 degrees, 
idea of another of these 
and unusual development 





59 



234 



SKULLS FROM CAVES IN THE VALLEY OF THE OHIO. 

It was a custom of many American nations to deposite their dead in caves. 
The body was sometimes placed entire in these receptacles; but in other instances 
the bones were exhumed after the decomposition of the body5 and then removed 
to a cave as a final resting place. The two skulls figured on the annexed plates 
have so much interest that I have thought best to insert them, although the 
circumstances in wdiich they were found afford us no clue to their national 
affiliation. 



PLATE LXII. 



SKULL FROM A CAVE AT GOLCONDA, IN ILLINOIS. 





Some few years ago a cave containing many human skeletons, was discovered 
near the town of Golconda, on the Ohio river. A considerable number was trans- 
mitted to this city ; of these one is preserved in the Academy of Natural Sciences, 
and the other in the University of Pennsylvania. The former is figured on the 
accompanying plate. In general configuration, especially in the frontal region, it 
approximates to the Caucasian form, but with a small facial angle and full 
parietal diameter. The other heads from this locality are still more like the 
Toltecan model, and leave little doubt of their origin and their antiquity. 



MEASUREMENTS. 



Longitudinal diameter. 
Parietal diameter, . 



6.7 inches. 
5.4 inches. 



SKULLS FROM CAVES IN OHIO. 



235 



Frontal diameter. 
Vertical diameter, . 
Inter-mastoid arch, . 
Inter-mastoid line, . 
Occipito-frontal arch. 
Horizontal periphery, 
Internal capacity, . 
Capacity of the anterior chamber. 
Capacity of the posterior chamber. 
Capacity of the coronal region. 
Facial angle, .... 



4.3 inches. 

5.5 inches. 
14.5 inches. 

4.1 inches. 
1 4. inches. 
1 9.3 inches. 
81. cubic inches. 
35.25 cubic inches. 
45.75 cubic inches. 
18. cubic inches. 
76 degrees. 



PLATE LXIIL 



SKULL FROM A CAVE NEAR STEUBENVILLE, OHIO. 





In the month of May 1835, a cavern cemetery was discovered on the bank 
of the Ohio river, opposite to Steubenville. The cemetery is a fissure formed by 
a huge mass of rock which has fallen from the side of a hill, and lodged upon 
other rocks so as to leave an intervening space, of which the circumference is 
thirty or forty feet, and the entrance two feet and a half in diameter. Judge 
Tappan, of Steubenville, informs me in a note, that "the bones appear to have 
been deposited at different periods of time, those on top being alone in good 
preservation. They were of all ages, and thrown in indiscriminately after the 
removal of the flesh ; for it is well known that some tribes were accustomed to 
gather, at times, all the bones of their deceased relatives, and place them in a 
common receptacle." These heads are thoroughly characteristic of the race to 
which they pertain. They bear no evidences of great age, and no doubt belonged 



236 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

to individuals of the barbarous tribes. Some have thought them Mingoes, who 
were affiliated to the Iroquois : but the form of the head does not support this 
surmise. Of the great number of skulls found in this place, but few were perfect, 
of which last I have received eight. For these I am indebted to Dr. Hildreth of 
Marietta, Ohio; Dr, Andrews and Judge Tappan of Steubenville, in that state; 
and to Dr. M'Dowell of Pittsburg. The annexed drawing is taken from a 
remarkably fine head of this series sent me by Dr. Andrews. All these skulls, 
however, are surprisingly alike— the vertex elevated, the occiput flat, the parietal 
diameter very great, and the lower jaw massive. They are also of singularly 
large capacity, and in this respect approach nearer to the Sauks and Foxes, and the 
Muskogees, than to any other tribes that have come under my notice. For 
example, the mean internal capacity gives upwards of eighty-five cubic inches, 
and the facial angle rises seventy-eight degrees. The anterior chamber gives 38.3 
cubic inches, the posterior 49.2: but notwithstanding the proportion of the former, 
there can be little doubt that these skulls belong to the savage tribes, and not to 
the Toltecan stock. 



THE CHARIBS. 

That part of the American race called Charibs^ was at one period a numerous 
and widely distributed people. Their native seats were the northern regions of 
South America, almost from the river of Amazons northward to the sea, including 
the great valley of the Orinoco, and much of the present provinces of Guyana and 
Venezuela. From thence they extended their migrations to all the Antilles, from 
Trinidad to Santa Cruz.* They made a valorous opposition to the Europeans 
who first attempted to colonise their country ; and Peter Martyr, the companion 
of Columbus, declares, that so fierce and menacing was the appearance of the 
Charibs whom they took in their skirmishes, that no one could look on them 
without a sensation of horror. In the year 1578, the Charibs of the Orinoco 
made a desperate and successful incursion into the Spanish province of Valentia, 

* The Charib Islands were Trinidad, Grenada, St. Vincent, Dominica, Giiadaloupe, Martinique, 
Santa Cruz, St. Thomas, Nevis, Montserrat, Antigua, St. Kitts, and the Virgin Isles. 



THE CHARIBS. 237 

but they were soon after subdued, and have since been kept in check without 
much difficulty. They are still, however, a numerous people, for Humboldt states 
that those of the pure race who yet inhabit the banks of the Corone and Cayuni, 
and the mountains west of Cayenne and Pacaraymo, are not less than forty thousand 
in number.* The same traveller observes that the Charibs of Chari, in Venezuela, 
and those of the lower Orinoco, differ from the other Indians by being taller, and 
having more regular features. " Their nose is not so large, and less flattened ; the 
cheek-bones are not so high, and their physiognomy has less of the Mongol cast." 
Their heads are naturally rounded, as in the other tribes ; but many of the Charib 
nations long practised the flattening process, in such manner as to depress the os 
frontis, and thus elongate the head from front to back. Let us now glance 
separately at the Continental and the Insular Charibs. 

PLATE LXIV. 

CHARIB OF VENEZUELA. 

When Humboldt visited the continental Charibs, towards the close of the 
last century, he saw no remains of the custom of distorting the head, which was 
once so common among them, and even existed in recent times.f Speaking of 
the Indians of Cumana, Gomara says, " They compress the heads of their children 
gradually, and for a long time, between two little cushions made of cotton, in 
order to render the face broad, w^hich they esteem a beauty."t A stronger 
evidence on this subject, however, is derived from the annexed drawing, which 
was taken from a skull sent me by that distinguished gentleman and scholar, Don 
Joseph Maria Vargas, of Caraccas. It was found in a terra cotta vessel, wherein 
it had probably been preserved for centuries. It is much dilapidated, and admits 
of but a part of the usual 



MEASUREMENTS. 

Longitudinal diameter, . . . . . 7. inches. 

Parietal diameter, ...... 5.3 inches. 

Frontal diameter . 4.8 inches. 



* Person. Narr. VI, p. 11.— IV, p. 466. t Barkere, p. 239. 

J Hist, de las Indias, cap. LXXIX. 
60 



238 



CRANIA AMERICANA 



Vertical diameter, 
Inter-mastoid arch, . 
Inter-mastoid line, 
Occipito-frontal arch. 
Horizontal periphery. 
Facial angle, 



5.1 inches. 
14.6 inches. 

4. inches. 
14. inches. 
20.2 inches. 

70 degrees, 



PLATE LXV. 



CHARIB OF ST. VINCENT. 



That the Charibs of the Antilles were derived from the southern continent, 
and not from Florida, is proved by their traditions, their customs and their 
language.^ The original inhabitants of these islands w^ere a docile people called 
Igneris, allied no doubt to the Indians who occupied Cuba and the other larger 
islands on the arrival of Columbus. The Igneris, however, were exterminated by 
the Charibs, who at that period held undisturbed possession. 

These Charibs were among the most ferocious and brutal of the American 
nations. They were without laws and almost devoid of religious observances. 
Suspicious and revengeful to the last degree, they conducted all their enterprises 
with singular craftiness. They were morose and even melancholy, and looked 
upon the other natives as mere beasts to be slain and devoured. To such an 
excess was their cannibalism carried, that it gave rise to a law in 1504, by which 
the Spaniards were authorised to make slaves of all the individuals of the Charib 
nation who should fall into their hands.f It is even gravely asserted that, having 
tasted the flesh of all the nations who visited them, they pronounced the French- 
man to be most delicate, and the Spaniard the hardest of digestion J To persuade 
the Charibs to civilisation, or to reduce them to servitude, seemed alike impracti- 
cable. "If they did any thing it was only what they chose, how they chose, and 
when they chose ; and when they were most wanted it often happened that they 



"" The Red Charibs (of St Vincent) had a tradition that their forefathers came from the banks of 
the Orinoco, whence coasting Trinidad and Tobago to Grenada, and thence by the Grenadines, they 
arrived at St. Vincent, subdued the native inhabitants called Gahbeis, (or Igneris,) and possessed 
themselves of the Island.''— Sir W. Young, Account of the Charibs, p. 5. 

t Humboldt, Pers. Narr. V, p. 426. 

t British Emp. in America, II, p. 277.— Rochefort, p. 537. 



THE CHARIBS. 



239 



would not do what was required, or any thing else. When desired to hunt or 
shoot game, they chose to fish, and probably would neglect the very employment 
they chose."* Chanvallon declares that their stupid eyes were the mirror of 
their souls, and that " their reason is not more enlightened than the instinct of 
brutes." They kept their women in the vilest servitude, and instilled into the 
minds of their children the love of cruelty and slaughter. 

One of the most remarkable facts connected with these people, was their 
custom of flattening the skulls of their offspring. That which has been often 
doubted, is now reduced to certainty: yet it must be admitted as a singular 
circumstance, that Peter Martyr makes no mention of it ; and even Humboldt 
thinks that it was confined to the Black Charibs, who were of Negro descent.f 
That this is an error is proved by the fact of the continental ancestors of the 
Insular Charibs having practised the custom in very distant times ; by its being 
recorded by Rochefort, who wrote his account before the Black Charibs were 
known in St. Vincent ;J and by the personal testimony of several later voyagers. 
M. Amic, who was in Guadaloupe in 1791, saw both Charibs and Negroes with 
flattened heads, and obtained from them the apparatus by which the deformity 
was effected. § Mr. Lawrence has figured the head of a Red Charib chief who 
was well known in St. Vincent ;|| and Humboldt has represented both the natural 
and artificial configuration, the former differing in nothing from the ordinary 
Indian head. 

The annexed illustration of the Charib skull, is derived from a cast in the 
possession of the Phrenological Society of this city : the original is preserved, I 
believe, in the Royal Museum at Paris ; and it is the same which Gall and 
Spurzheim have figured in their great work on the Nervous System. A few 
diameters are all the measurements that can be obtained from the cast. 



MEASUREMENTS. 



Longitudinal diameter, 
Parietal diameter, 
Frontal diameter. 
Vertical diameter, 



• • 



• • 



7.2 inches. 
5.7 inches. 
4.5 inches. 
5.1 inches. 



* Sheldon, in Archseolog. Amer. I, p. 411. 

J Histoire des Antilles, published in 1671. 

§ Journal de Physique, Tome XXXIX, for 1791. 



t Pars. Narr. VI, p. 31. 



Lectures on Zoology, &c., Plate X. 



240 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

We shall merely add that the genuine Charibs of St, Vincent were reduced 
in 1763 to one hundred families; and thirty years later they scarce numbered 
that many individuals.* 

The Black Charibs. The Black Charibs of St. Vincent were the descend- 
ants of a cargo of slaves of the Moco tribe which were shipwrecked on the island 
of Bequia, near St. Vincent, about the year 1675. The Charibs first reduced 
them to slavery; but finding their numbers increase, resolved to destroy all the 
male children; whereupon the blacks revolted, slew great numbers of their 
masters, and soon became the most numerous and dominant family on the island.f 
They flattened the heads of their children, like the natives ; a practice which was 
also adopted by the runaway slaves, in order to stamp their offspring with a badge 
of freedom. Towards the close of the past century the Black Charibs, joined by 
the feeble remains of the native Indians, rebelled against the English authorities, 
and for some time held possession of the island ; but being finally subdued, they 
were, in 1795, exiled to the island of Rattam, in the Bay of Honduras. 



THE ARAUCANIANS. 

The Araucanians, the most celebrated and powerful of the Chilian tribes, 
inhabit the region between the rivers Bio-bio and Valdivia, and between the Andes 
and the sea, and derive their name from the province of Arauco. They are a 
robust and muscular people, of a lighter complexion than the surrounding tribes. 
Endowed with an extraordinary degree of bodily activity, they reach old age with 
few infirmities, and generally retain their sight, teeth and memory unimpaired. 
They are brave, discreet and cunning to a proverb, patient in fatigue and enthusi- 
astic in all their enterprises, and fond of war as the only source of distinction. 
Hence their successful opposition to the encroachments of the Spaniards : three 
centuries of almost constant warfare have neither subdued nor tamed them; and 



* Edwards, Hist, of the West Indies, B. III^ chap. 3. 
t Sir W. Young, Account of the Charibs, p. 42. 



THE ARAUCANIANS. 241 

although occasionally driven to their mountain fastnesses, they have always reap- 
peared as formidable and unconquerable as ever. Their vigilance soon detected 
the value of the military discipline of the Spaniards, and especially the great 
importance of cavalry in an army; and they lost no time in adopting both these 
resources, to the dismay and discomfiture of their enemies. Thus in seventeen 
years after their first encounter w^ith Europeans, they possessed several strong 
squadrons of horse, conducted their operations in military order, and, unlike the 
Americans generally, met their enemies in the open field. Nothing, indeed, could 
surpass their valor; and their wars with the Spaniards are replete with those 
chivalric exploits which constitute the charm and romance of history. 

The Araucanians are highly susceptible of mental culture, but they despise 
the restraints of civilisation ; and those of them who have been educated in the 
Spanish colonies, have embraced the first opportunity to resume the haunts and 
habits of their nation. They possessed some of the useful arts before their inter- 
course with Europeans : thus they extracted and purified the ores of gold, silver, 
copper and lead; they formed utensils of clay, had a process for varnishing them, 
and they even constructed vessels of marble. They had invented numbers to 
express any requisite quantity, and preserved the memory of important events by 
means of knotted cords, in the manner of the Peruvians ; and it is probable that 
they derived most of these advantages from the latter people. There was, however, 
but little intercourse between the two nations, as is proved by the fact that there 
are but fifteen or twenty words common to their languages.* 



The preceding facts are derived from Molina's History of Chili, Vol. II, passim. 



61 



242 



CRANIA AMERICANA, 



PLATE LXVI, LXVIL 



ARAUCANIAN CHIEF. 





These plates give two views of an Araucanian chief named Bampuni, who 
was slain in an encounter with the Chilian army under General Bulnes, in 1 835. 
The skull was obtained by my friend Dr. Casanova, who could only furnish the 
above brief particulars in reference to it. It is a symmetrical head ; the frontal 
region is lofty, but narrow, the w^hole posterior cranium is full, and the internal 
capacity is not much short of the Caucasian mean. The details are so well 
expressed on the accompanying plates, that it only remains to add the anatomical 



MEASUREMENTS, 



Longitudinal diameter. 
Parietal diameter, . 
Frontal diameter, . 
Vertical diameter, . 
Inter-mastoid arch, . 
Inter-mastoid line, . 
Occipito-frontal arch, 
Horizontal periphery. 
Internal capacity, . 
Capacity of the anterior chamber. 
Capacity of the posterior chamber. 
Capacity of the coronal region, 
Facial angle, .... 



6.9 inches. 

5.4 inches. 

4.1 inches. 

5.4 inches. 
15. inches. 

4.1 inches. 
1 4.2 inches. 
19.5 inches. 
84.5 cubic inches. 
32.5 cubic inches. 
52. cubic inches. 
19. cubic inches. 

76 degrees. 



THE ARAUCANIANS, 



243 



PLATE LXVIII, 



ARAUCANIAN CHIEF. 





This is the cranium of another Araucanian chief named Chilicoi, who was 
killed in the same battle with the subject of the preceding plate. I received it 
also from Dr. Casanova, who could give no additional particulars. The eye is 
struck with the projecting face and consequent small facial angle, the low fore- 
head, the flattened vertex, and the smallness of the whole head. 



MEASUREMENTS 

Longitudinal diameter. 
Parietal diameter, 
Frontal diameter. 
Vertical diameter, 
Inter-mastoid arch 
Inter-mastoid line, 
Occipito-frontal arch. 
Horizontal periphery. 
Internal capacity, • 
Capacity of the anterior chamber, 
Capacity of the posterior chamber 
Capacity of the coronal region, . 
Facial angle, .... 



6.7 inches. 
5.4 inches. 
4.7 inches. 
4.9 inches. 
] 4.2 inches. 
4.9 inches. 

13.4 inches. 

19.5 inches. 

77. cubic inches. 
32. cubic inches. 
45. cubic inches. 
11.9 cubic inches. 
72 degrees. 



The three Araucanian skulls in my collection give a mean internal capacity 
of seventy-nine cubic inches, which is much more than that of the Peruvians, and 
a little less than the average of the collective American race. The mean facial 
angle gives barely seventy-five degrees. 



244 



USUAL POSITION OF THE BODY IN INDIAN SEPULTURE. 

As an additional evidence of the unity of race and species in the American 
nations, I shall now adduce the singular fact, that from Patagonia to Canada, and 
from ocean to ocean, and equally in the civilised and uncivilised tribes, a peculiar 
mode of placing the body in sepulture has been practised from immemorial time. 
This peculiarity consists in the sitting posture^ and w^ill be best understood by 
reference to the annexed draw^ing. 



PLATE LXIX. 

NATURAL MUMMY OF A MUYSCA INDIAN OF NEW GRENADA. 

It vs^ill be observed in this instance that the body is in the sitting posture, 
the legs being flexed against the abdomen, and the feet turned inwards. The 
arms are also flexed so as to touch the chest, the chin being supported on the 
palms of the hands, and the fingers received into the hollow beneath the cheek 
bones. This interesting relic was brought from New Grenada, in South America, 
by the late Charles Biddle, Esq., who presented it to the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of this city, where it is now preserved. The body is not embalmed, but 
only desiccated ; yet the muscles are so well preserved as to render it probable 
that some antiseptic fluid may have been applied to them. 

Let us now trace this singular custom from south to north. The Moluches 
and Pampas of Patagonia bury their dead in large square pits. " They are placed 
in a row, sitting, with all the weapons and other things which belonged to the 
dead."— Falker's Patagonia, quoted in Jlppendix to M>/ma.— Dobrizhoffer also 
observes that the equestrian tribes of that country "compose the corpse in such 
manner that the knees touch the face." — Hist. Mipones, I, p. 132. 

The Indians of Chili had the same custom, but they exposed their dead on a 
stage above ground.— Forster, Obs. During a Voy. Round the World, p. 564. 

The Coroados of Brazil place the body in a sitting posture in a large pot, 
which is buried in the ground amidst cries and lamentation.— Spix and Martius, 
Trav. in Brazil, II, p. 250, 



MODE OF SEPULTURE. 245 

The Paraguas of Paraguay place their dead in a similar attitude. — De Azara, 
Voy. dans rdmerique^ 11, p, 143. This custom, as practised among the Atures, 
in the Valley of the Orinoco, has already been stated, (page 134.) 

Garcilaso de la Vega states that in the year 1560, he saw five embalmed 
bodies of Peruvian Incas, three men and tw^o w^omen. " They were seated in the 
manner of Indians, with the hands across upon the breast, and their eyes towards 
the earth:'— Comment. Book V, Chap. 29.— " The mountain Indians," says 
Herrera, "commonly built their tombs high, like towers, and hollow; and they 
buried their dead bowing the body, their thighs bound and in the sitting attitude." 
— Hist. Dec. Ill, Lib. 9, Cap. 3. — Dr. Ruschenberger, who personally exhumed 
several mummies near Arica, states that " the body was placed in a squatting 
posture, with the knees drawn up and the hands applied to the side of the head." 
(See page 109 of this work.) I have myself examined the desiccated bodies of 
six Peruvians, all of which were in the same position. 

The Indians of New Grenada followed the same custom, as is proved by the 
annexed illustration. The Spanish residents of that republic have a tradition that 
the natives, flying from the violence of their conquerors, died in caves and other 
obscure places, in an attitude which truly seems indicative of despair. Some 
very ancient monuments are said by Herrera to have been discovered by the early 
Spaniards near Zenu, in Venezuela : " These graves or tombs were magnificent, 
adorhed with broad stones, into which the bodies were placed in a sitting posture." 
— Hist. Amer. IV, p. 221. 

The Mexicans sometimes burned and sometimes buried their dead : when 
they buried them it was " in deep ditches formed of stone and lime, within which 
they placed the bodies in a sitting posture, on low seats, or icpalU:' — Clayigero, 
Hist, of Mexico, B. VI.— The same author adds, that Quinetzin, one of the early 
Chechemecan kings of Mexico, was embalmed '^ and afterwards placed in a great 
chair, clothed in royal habits." — Idem, B. II. 

When a Charib died his body was placed in the grave in an attitude " resem- 
bling that in which they crouched round the fire or the table when alive, with the 
elbows on the knees, and the palms of the hands against the cheeks." — Sheldon, 
in Archxolog. Amer. I, p. 378. — Sir W. Young, Account of the Charibs, p. 8. 

The Muskogees or Creeks had a similar usage. — Bartram, Trav. p. 515. — 
Romans, Hist, of Florida, I, p. 98. — The latter author adds that the Arkansas 
were in the same practice, " with the addition of tying the head down to the 
knees." — Idem, p. 101. 

The Alibamons bury their dead in a sitting posture ; in order to justify this 
62 



246 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

custom they say that man is upright, and has his face turned towards heaven, 
which is to be his habitation.— Le Bossu, Trav. in Louisiana, I, p. 157. 

On the discovery of the Mammoth cave, in Kentucky, a woman was found 
in a state of complete desiccation. " She was buried in a squatting form, the knees 
drawn up close to the breast, the arms bent, with the hands raised, and crossing 
each other about the chin." — Jirchseolog. Amer. I, p. 359. 

I am informed by Mr. Nuttall, that such also was the custom of the Osages 
of Missouri. — Of the Omahaws. James, Exped. I, p. 224. — Of the Mandans. 
Lewis and Clark, Exped. I, p. 163. — Of the Potowatomies. Keating, Exped. I, 
p. 115. — Of the Chippeways. Betram, Trav. II, p. 266 — Of the Delawares. 
Smith, Hist, of New Jersey, p. 137. — Of the Nahants and other tribes of Lenape 
in New England. Warren, Compar. View, Sfc, p. 134. — The present town of 
Salem, in Massachusetts, is the site of the old village of the Naumkeags: on 
making an excavation a few years since, many skeletons were found, "placed very 
near each other, with the knees drawn up to the breast, and the hands laid near 
the face, which was directed to the east." Er. Pearson's Letter to the Author. — 
Dr. Pearson had a drawing made of the skeletons in situ. 

In respect to the Canadian Indians, Charlevoix observes : " The dead man is 
painted, enveloped in his best robe, and with his weapons beside him, is exposed 
at the door of his cabin in the posture which be is to preserve in the grave ; and 
this posture is that which a child has in the bosom of its mother." — Journal dm 
Voyage, Sfc, VI, p. 107. 

Some excavations at Goat Island, at the Falls of Niagara, have revealed the 
same fact. — Ingram's Manual, ^c, p. 63. 

Finally, I am assured by Dr. Troost that the mounds he opened in Tennessee 
contained skeletons in the same attitude ; and Lieutenant Mather has made a 
similar communication to me in reference to a mound examined by him in 
Wisconsin. 

Thus it is, that notwithstanding the diversity of language, customs and intel- 
lectual character, we trace this usage throughout both Americas, and affording, as 
we have already stated, collateral evidence of the affiliation of all the American 
nations.* 



* I am aware that this practice is not exclusively American. Mr. Edwards, (Hist, of the West 
Indies, Book I, Append.,) cites Herodotus for its prevalence among the Nassamones, a people who 
inhabited northern Africa between Egypt and Carthage ; and Cicero records it as a usage of the 
ancient Persians. The modern Circassians, on the death of a nobleman, "set up a high wooden bed 



247 



THE MONGOL-AMERICANS. 
PLATE LXX. 

ESKIMAUX. 

Since writing the chapter on the Polar Family, (page 50,) I have been 
favored by George Combe, Esq., with the use of four genuine Eskimaux skulls, 
which are figured on the annexed plate. The eye at once remarks their narrow, 
elongated form, the projecting upper jaw, the extremely flat nasal bones, the 
expanded zygomatic arches, the broad, expanded cheek bones, and the full and 
prominent occipital region. 



MEASUREMENTS. 





Longitud. 
diameter. 


Parietal 
diameter. 


Frontal 
diameter. 


Vertical 
diameter. 


Intermast. 
arch. 


Intermast. 
line. 


Occipito- 
frontal 
arch. 


Horizontal 
periphery. 


Facial 
angle. 


Internal 
capacity. 


1. 


7.5 


5.4 


4.6 


5.4 


14.3 


4.1 


15.2 


20.4 


72° 


93. 


2. 


7.3 


5.5 


4.4 


5.3 


14.1 


4.3 


14.4 


20.3 


75° 


80. 


3. 


7.5 


5.1 


4.3 


5.5 


14.8 


3.9 


15.5 


20.3 


73° 


87.5 


4. 


6.7 


5. 


4.4 


5. 


13.6 


4- 


13.9 


18.9 


71° 





The extreme elongation of the upper jaw contracts the facial angle to a mean 
of seventy-three degrees, while the mean of three heads of the four, gives an 
internal capacity of eighty-seven cubic inches, a near approach to the Caucasian 
average. The following diagrams will enable the reader to make his comparisons 
still more in detail. 



in the open air, upon which they place the body of the deceased in a sitting attitude after the bowels 
have been taken out:" but the interment, which is eight days later, is in the recumbent posture. — 
Klaproth, Caucasian Nations, p. 337.— The New Hollanders sometimes bury their dead in this 
attitude.— Breton, iV. South Wales, p. 203.— The Hottentots, says Kolbein, double up the corpse 
"neck and heels, much in the manner of a human foetus.'' — Present State of Cape of Good Hope, 
p. 315.— The people of the Tonga Islands, Pacific Ocean, inter their dead in this position.— Marriner, 
Tonga Islands, p. 211; and Kotzebue has also observed it at the islands of Radack and Ulea. — Voy. 
of Discovery, III, p. 173, 211. 



248 CRANIA AMERICANA 

No. 1. — From Davis's strait; the A"^. 

largest head in the series, and the best 
frontal development. The nasal hones 
are so flat as to be scarcely perceptible. 





No. 2. — On this skull is written 
the brief memorandum, " Found in the 
snow by Captain Parry." In every 
particular a well characterised Eski- 
maux head. 




No. 3. — "Found by Mr. John 
TurnbuU, Surgeon, upon Disco Island, 
coast of Greenland, in the summer of 
1825." 



No. 4.— This skull was obtained 
at Icy Cape, the northwest extremity 
of America, and is marked "from A. W 
CoUie, Esq., Surgeon of H. M. Ship L 
Blossom," 








ANATOMICAL MEASUREMENTS. 249 

The great and uniform differences between these heads and those of the 
American Indians, will be obvious to every one accustomed to make comparisons 
of this kind, and serve as corroborative evidence of the opinion that the Eskimaux 
are the only people possessing Asiatic characteristics on the American continent. 



ANATOMICAL MEASUREMENTS. 

These measurements are derived from one hundred and forty-seven skulls of 
American Indians of forty dijBferent nations and tribes; and the crania are all 
of adult persons, and unaltered by art. The table is itself sufficiently explanatory 
for general purposes, but it is necessary to premise the manner in which the 
measurements have been taken. 

The longitudinal diameter is measured from the most prominent part of the 
OS frontis, between the superciliary ridges, to the extreme end of the occiput. 

The parietal diameter is measured between the most distant points of the 
parietal bones, which are, for the most part, the protuberances of these bones. 

The frontal diameter is taken between the anterior inferior angles of the 
parietal bones. 

The vertical diameter is measured from the fossa between the condyles of 
the occipital bone, to the top of the skull. 

The inter-mastoid arch is measured, with a graduated tape, from the point of 
one mastoid process to the other, over the external table of the skull. 

The inter-mastoid line is the distance, in a straight line, between the points 
of the mastoid processes. 

The occipitO'frontal arch is measured by a tape over the surface of the 
cranium, from the posterior margin of the foramen magnum to the suture which 
connects the os frontis with the bones of the nose. 

The horizontal periphery is measured by passing a tape around the cranium 
so as to touch the os frontis immediately above the superciliary ridges, and the 
most prominent part of the occipital bone. 

The length of the head and face is measured from the margin of the upper 
jaw, to the most distant point of the occiput, 
63 



250 



CRANIA AMERICANA. 



The zygomatic diameter is the distance, in a right line, between the most 
prominent points of the zygomae. 

The facial angle^ is ascertained by an instrument of ingenious construction 




* The facial angle, which was first proposed by the learned Professor Camper, is measured in the 
following manner: a line called the facial line, is drawn from the anterior edge of the upper jaw, (or, 
if the tooth projects beyond the jaw, from the tooth itself,) to the most prominent part of the forehead, 
which is usually the space between the superciliary ridges. A second or horizontal line, is drawn 
through the external opening of the ear (meatus auditorius) till it touches the base of the nostrils, 
between the terminal roots of the front incisor teeth, and from this point it is still prolonged until it 
meets with the facial line already described: hence the two lines may meet at, or very near, the nasal 
spine, or base of the nose ; but in other instances the decussation of the lines occurs at a point 
considerably anterior to the bone. It is obvious that an angle will be formed where these lines thus 
intersect each other, and this is the facial angle. For example, notice the annexed wood cut, (No. 1,) 
which represents the skull of the Cowalitsk already 
figured in this work, (see Plate 50.) The line A, B, 
is the facial Hne, extending, as just observed, from the 
anterior margin of the upper jaw to the most promi- 
nent part of the os frontis ; the second or horizontal 
line, is represented between the points C and D, and 
for the purpose of having a fixed point for its anterior 
termination, I have uniformly carried it to the nasal 
spine, above and between the roots of the two front incisor teeth. The point E, where these Unes 
decussate each other, is the facial angle, which in the present instance will be found to measure about 
sixty-six degrees.— The second wood cut (No. 2) represents the lines 
as drawn on a much better formed head, that of a Peruvian Indian, 
in which the angle at E measures seventy-six degrees. 

The most casual inspection of these diagrams will satisfy any 
one that the facial angle is no criterion of mental intelHgence; and in 
justice to Camper we must add that he does not assert it to be so. 
In fact it chiefly gives the projection of the face in relation to the 
head, without conveying the least idea of the capacity of the cranium, 
which is often the same in heads whose diameters are altogether different. The mere obliquity of 
the teeth contracts the angle; and what is yet more important, the space between the eyes from 
whence the facial line is drawn, may be very prominent, so as to give an angle of eighty degrees, 
while the forehead itself retreats so rapidly, that if the facial line were made to touch it, the resulting 
angle would not perhaps exceed sixty-five degrees. 

"The maximum angle that can be embraced by the facial lines," says Camper, «is 100°: if we 
advance these lines still further, the head becomes preternaturally large, as in hydrocephalus. But it 
IS surprising to observe that the most ancient Greek artists have chosen the very maximum of the 
facial angle, while the best Roman graveurs were satisfied with the angle of 95° 

«I have thus established the two extremes of obliquity in the fadal line," viz: from 70° to 100°. 




ANATOMICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



251 



and ready application, which has received so many additions from the suggestions 
of different individuals, that its invention cannot be ascribed to any one person. 
The original idea, hovsrever, originated v^ith my friend Dr. Turnpenny ; and I 
have much pleasure in explaining it, inasmuch as it appears to me to supersede 

These embrace all the gradations, from the head of the Negro to the sublime beauty of the ancient 
Greek models. If we descend below 70° we have an orang outang, or a monkey 5 if we descend still 
lower we have a dog or a bird— a snipe, for example, of which the facial line is almost parallel with 
a horizontal plane/^ — {Dissertation sur les difference r kites ^ S^^c, p. 42, &c.) 

Professor Blumenbach has denied that the genuine antique heads present an angle of 95° or 100°, 
and supposes that such measurements could only be derived from incorrect copies. Dr. Wiseman, on 
the other hand, remarks, "that whoever will examine the heads of Jupiter in the Vatican Museum, 
particularly the bust in the large circular hall, or the more defaced heads of the Elgin marbles, will be 
satisfied that Camper is accurate in this XQS^Qa:^— {Twelve Lectures, fyc, p. 105.) 

Another mode of comparing skulls was devised by Professor Blumenbach, called the norma 
verticalis, or vertical method; and consists in supporting the head on the lower jaw, and then looking 
down upon it from above and behind. If, however, several skulls are to be compared, they are to be 
stood each one on its occiput, the jaw being vertical and resting against a board or other plane surface. 
To make the comparison complete, the occipital ends should be so elevated as to bring the cheek bones 
on a line, as in the following diagram, which is copied from Blumenbach.— .(Z?e Generis Humani 
Var, Nat. p. 204, et tab, 1.) 






The first of these figures represents a Negro head, elongated, and narrow in front, with expanded 
zygomatic arches, projecting cheek bones, and protruded upper jaw. The second is a Caucasian 
skull, in which those parts are nearly concealed in the more symmetrical outline of the whole head, and 
especiaUy by the full development of the frontal region. The third figure is taken from a Mongol 
head, in which the orbits and cheek bones are exposed, as in the Negro, and the zygomae arched and 
expanded; but the forehead is much broader, the face more retracted, and the whole cranium larger. 
Having been at much pains to give the norma verticalis of the skulls figured in this work, the reader 
will have ample opportunity to compare for himself. He will see that the American head approaches 
nearest to the Mongol, yet is not so long, is narrower in front, with a more prominent face and much 
more contracted zygomae. 



25^ 



CRANIA AMERICANA. 



all other modes of ascertaining the facial angle. The following diagram represents 
the instrument, which may he called the Facial Goniometer, as applied to a 
cranium for the purpose of measurement. 




The letters A, A, A represent the rectangular hasal limhs of the instrument, 
(which is made of brass,) the front limb sliding at B, so as to increase or diminish 
the distance between the right and left limbs. In order to fix the goniometer to 
a skull, there is attached to each of the lateral limbs a slide with a conical pivot 
attached, C, which enters the meatus of the ear. The limb D, D, is attached by 
a hinge to the base, and can be brought to form any angle with it. G is a scale 
of one hundred degrees, attached by a hinge at I, and let through the limb D, D, 
at H. E is a horizontal limb, at right angles with D, D, on which it slides at F. 
The thin piece of wood, K, K, has an opening at L, to admit the nasal bones to 
pass through it. Now this piece of wood necessarily touches the most prominent 
parts of the forehead and upper maxillary bone, and therefore represents the facial 
line. To measure the facial angle, bring the upper surface of the anterior basal limb 
of the instrument on a horizontal plane with the nasal spine ; then let the limb D, 
D, fall back until the lateral limb E, touches the facial line K, K, when the facial 
angle will be at once designated on the scale. For the purpose of greater accuracy 
the lateral basal limbs of the instrument are graduated in inches and parts of inches, 



ANATOMICAL MEASUREMENTS. 253 

(not represented in the diagram,) and the sliding parts of the anterior limb are 
fixed by screws (as seen on each side of A) whenever the instrument is properly 
adjusted. With this apparatus the facial angle of any skull may be ascertained 
with exactness in the brief space of two or three minutes. 

Internal capacity. — An ingenious mode of taking this measurement was 
devised by Mr. Phillips, viz : a tin cylinder was provided about two inches and 
three-fourths in diameter, and two feet two inches high, standing on a foot, and 
banded with swelled hoops about two inches apart, and firmly soldered, to prevent 
accidental flattening. — A glass tube hermetically sealed at one end, was cut off 
so as to hold exactly five cubic inches of water by weight, at 60° Fahrenheit. A 
float of light wood, well varnished, two and a quarter inches in diameter, with a 
slender rod of the same material fixed in its centre, was dropped into the tin 
cylinder ; then five cubic inches of water, measured in the glass tube, were poured 
into the cylinder, and the point at which the rod on the float stood above the top 
of the cylinder, was marked with the edge of a file laid across its top ; and the 
successive graduations on the float-rod, indicating five cubic inches each, were 
obtained by pouring five cubic inches from the glass tube gradatim^ and marking 
each rise on the float-rod. The graduations thus ascertained, were transferred to 
a mahogany rod fitted with a flat foot, and these subdivided, with compasses for 
the cubic inches and parts. In order to measure the capacity of a cranium, the 
foramina were first stopped with cotton, and the cavity was then filled with 
white pepper seed^ poured into the foramen magnum until it reached the surface, 
and pressed down with the finger until the skull would receive no more. The 
contents were then transferred to the tin cylinder, which was well shaken in order 
to pack the seed. The mahogany rod being then dropped down with its foot 
resting on thS seed, the capacity of the cranium in cubic inches is at once read off* 
on it. 

Nearly all the preceding measurements were taken with my own hands. 

Coronal^ sub-coronal^ anterior and posterior chambers of the cranium, — An 
apparatus was devised by my friend Mr. Phillips to obtain these capacities, which 



* White pepper seed was selected on account of its spherical form, its hardness, and the equal 
size of the grains. It was also sifted to render the equality still greater. 
64 



«^54 



CRANIA AMERICANA 




eJ 



'T" 



d_^;-^ 



■i2222Zm^ 



. WsS252a 



Lv./ 



will be best understood with the aid of the an- 
nexed diagram. A, A, represent the top and 
bottom, and B, B, the ends of the instrument, 
dovetailed into each other to prevent warping. 
C, C, C, are sliders and screws, the latter being 
fitted with collars on each side of the sliders where 
they pass through it, in order that the screw may 
carry the slider along with it when moved back- 
ward and forward, D, cranium to be measured. 
E, F, is an iron straight-edge, standing on two 
legs welded to it and filed to the same length, so 
that when they rest on a horizontal plane, the straight-edge is also horizontal. G 
is a rod attached to a float of cork, small enough to drop into the foramen magnum; 
it is cut to such a length that when the base of the float is raised to the level of the 
plane on which rest the legs of the straight-edge E, F, the top of the rod shall 
rise to the upper margin of the straight-edge. H is an oval hole cut in the top of 
the frame A, (which is of stout mahogany plank,) large enough to admit the free 
adjustment of the largest cranium. In the lower figure^ c, is the screw moving 
the slider a, a, the former, when in place, working into a nut through a hole in 
the mahogany top-piece. 6?, d^ are clamps to confine the slide in a regular direc- 
tion: /, the point of the slider as shown in the lower figure, is bevilled off* on 
the top and two sides ; but the low^er side of the slider is carried out straight to 
the point, which is thus kept in the same plane as the top of the frame on w^hich 
it is bound by the pinching-screw 6, tapped into the clamp nearest the point of 
the slider. 

Capacity of the coronal region, — This measurement is the space included 
betw^een an imaginary plane drawn through the centres of ossification of the 
parietal and frontal bones, and the inner surface of the portion of cranium above 
it. To obtain this measurement, the instrument was first adjusted so as to bring 
the top of the frame A, A, to coincide with the plane of the horizon. The sutures 
and small foramina on the top of the skull being stopped with wax or putty, and 
when necessary, the inside of the cranium having been well varnished, the centres 
of ossification of the parietal bones were marked with a cross, and a line was 
drawn between the centres of ossification of the os frontis : the cranium was then 
placed inverted in the oval hole H, and the point of the slider at the end of the 
frame being pressed against the drawn line between the centres of ossification of the 



- ANATOMICAL MEASUREMENTS. 255 

frontal bone, the sliders at the sides of the instrument are then brought in contact 
with the centres of ossification of the parietal bones, the slider at the end being 
moved backward or forward to bring the cranium into the proper place. The 
float C is then dropped into the foramen magnum, and the frame E, F, held over 
it, as shown in the figure : mercury is then poured into the cranium until the top 
of the float-rod rises to the straight-edge E, F, thus indicating the surface of the 
mercury to stand at the level of the top surface of the frame A, A; and as the 
adjustment of the centres of ossification to the points of the sliders has brought 
them into the same plane as the top of the frame, the surface of the mercury must 
coincide with an imaginary plane, drawn through the centres of ossification. The 
mercury is then transferred to a graduated glass tube, and the capacity of the 
coronal region read off* in cubic inches and parts. 

The sub-coronal region is obtained by deducting the capacity of the coronal 
region (obtained as above stated) from the total capacity. 

Capacity of the anterior chamber of the cranium, — This measurement is the 
capacity of the space contained between an imaginary plane, at right angles to the 
anterior and posterior diameter of the cranium, coinciding with, or let fall from 
the anterior margin of the foramen magnum, and passing at right angles through 
the imaginary plane (drawn through the centre of ossification) which formed the 
dividing line between the coronal and sub-coronal regions. It is thus taken : the 
cranium being placed in the frame exactly as in taking the capacity of the coronal 
region, the straight-edge of a slip of wood is laid across it over the anterior margin 
of the foramen magnum and at right angles to the anterior and posterior diameter 
of the skull. One side of a carpenter's square is then laid on the mahogany 
surface, so that the other side of the square, which would then be upright, would 
stand with its flat surface pressing against the side of the cranium ; and another 
square is adjusted in the same manner on the other side of the skull, each having 
one of their vertical edges pressing against the straight edge of the ruler laid over 
the anterior margin of the foramen magnum ; and a pencil mark is drawn on each 
parietal bone along the perpendicular edges of the squares adjusted to the straight 
edge ; these pencil marks will be at right angles to the plane passing through the 
centres of ossification, and indicate the position of the plane dividing the anterior 
and posterior chambers, as described in the definition of that capacity. The cra- 
nium is then taken from the instrument, and a hole, eighth of an inch in diameter, 
drilled through the pencil marks in each parietal bone, about two inches from the 
meatus auditorius : a piece of stiff*, straight wire is then passed through these two 
holes, and the cranium nearly filled with white pepper seed. The skull is then 



256 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

held in the left hand, with the face resting on the palm; the seed being well 
packed with the finger or steel strike, and a candle placed nearly between the 
eye and foramen magnum, all the seed above the inserted wire is drawn out 
through the foramen by means of a strike made of a piece of stiff steel, half 
an inch wide, first filed straight on the edge, and then bent laterally so as to draw 
out the seed from the sides of the cranium. By working the strike about until 
it rested on both the wire and anterior margin of the foramen magnum, and 
examining how the surface of the seed coincided with these two points of the 
measurement, by inspection through the foramen with a due management of the 
light, the capacity can be obtained in a much more satisfactory manner than was 
at first anticipated. The seed is then transferred to the tin tube, and its quantity 
ascertained as in measuring the total capacity. 

The capacity of the posterior chamber is obtained by deducting the capacity 
of the anterior chamber from that of the whole cranium. 

The points through which the plane was drawn in the tw^o last measurements, 
was preferred to one drawn from the meatus auditorius, so that it should be 
vertical when the head was placed in its natural position when in life ; because 
the irregular form of the meatus prevented its being a fixed starting point ; and 
the difficulty of determining the living position of the head (which must have 
depended entirely on the eye, and might have been materially affected by the 
disposition of the light,) would have thrown a degree of uncertainty and irregu- 
larity over the results. A line drawn through the (Centre of the meatus, however, 
and the one adopted, generally coincided within a quarter of an inch. 



Note. — It will be observed that all the measurements have not been obtained in respect to every 
skull, which has chiefly arisen from the imperfection of some of the crania, while a few others came 
to hand so late as to preclude the possibility of taking the more difficult measurements.— All the 
Peruvians marked with a star are from the Temple of the Sun, (see page 132.) The figufes in the 
first column refer to corresponding numbers in my Catalogue of Crania, and are inserted here for the 
purpose of reference, and to give greater facility in comparing and correcting the measurements 
hereafter. The number in the second column refers to the corresponding plate in this work. The 
Table was considerably extended during the progress of the work through the press, which will 
explain some slight differences between it and the results as stated in the preceding pages. 



257 



TABLE OF ANATOMICAL MEASUREMENTS 



NATIONS 
OR TRIBES. 


6 

^1 


6 


■6 j; 

II 

6.6 


re a, 

11 


2 S 
2 S 

-a 


n 4 

U 


CS . 
It 




til 


li 

si 


m 


o 

5 & 
II 


Facial 
angle. 

Internal ca- 
pacity in cu- 
bic inches. 


i E s 

O cd o 


o 

III 

III 


111 

5sS 


li 


* Peruvian. 


75 




6. 


Te 


5.1 


15.£ 


)4J 


13.5 


19.8 7.8 


5.5,72^ 


83.5 


36.5 


47. 


14.5 


69. 


* Peruvian. 


76 




6.5 


5. 


4.1 


4S 


>14^ 


U. 


13.5 


18.6 7.8 


4.773^ 


64. 


23. 


41. 


11.9 


11.9 


* Peruvian. 


77 




6.6 


0.1 


^4.2 


5.2 


, i5.£ 


>4A 


U3. 


19.4 


[ 7.8 


5.575= 


75. 


35. 


30. 


12.25|62.75 


Peruvian. 


79 




6.6 


5.: 


4.5 


5.S 


15. 


4.4 


13.9 


19.2 


7.9 


5.3 74"^ 


74.5 


31.5 


43. 


11.4 


63.1 


Peruvian. 


81 




5.8 


5.7 


4.4 


5.3 


15.2 


4.S 


13.3 


18.3 


7.9 


5.176= 


79. 


32.25 


► 46.7518. 


61. 


Peruvian. 


83 




6.6 


5.6 


► 4.5 


D.4 


15.5 


4. 


13.8 


19.2 


8. 


5.4 79= 


75. 


31.5 


43.5016.1 


58.9 


* Peruvian. 


85 


11-B 


6.3 


5.g 


4.5 


5.3 


15. 


4. 


13.2 


19. 


7.2 


5.5 80° 


76.5 


30. 


46.5 


12.25 


64.25 


* Peruvian. 


86 


11 


6.1 


6. 


4.7 


5.5 


16. 


4.5 


14.1 


19.5 


7.8 


5.481° 


83. 


33.5 


49.5 


15.75 


67.25 


* Peruvian. 


87 


8&9 


5.8 


5.7 


4.4 


5.1 


14.5 


4.1 


12.7 


18.4 


7.4 


5. 


75° 


71.75 


28.75 


43. 


11.4 


60.35 


* Peruvian. 


699 




6.6 


5.e 


4.4 


5.2 


14.8 


4. 


13.6 


19.2 


7.8 


5.274° 


72. 


26.5 


45.5 


9.25 


62.75 


* Peruvian. 


90 




6.3 


5.5 


4.2 


5. 


14.5 


3.7 


13.2 


18.5 


7.6 


4.975° 


70. 


28.5 


41.5 


12.6 


57.4 


Peruvian. 


91 




6.2 


5.8 


4.3 


4.9 


14.5 


4.1 


12.6 


18.7 


7.4 


'5.2 73° 


66.5 


25. 


41.5 


9.7 


58.6 


* Peruvian. 


92 




6.8 


5.4 


4.5 


5.3 


14.7 


4.2 


14. 


19.5 


7.8 


5.775° 


74.5 


34.50 


40. 


13.5 


61. 


* Peruvian. 


93 




6.1 


5.9 


4.6 


5.2 


15.2 


4.1 


13.2 


19.2 


7.7 


5.275° 


76.5 


34.25 


42.25 


14.2 


62.30 


* Peruvian. 


95 


11-A 


6.7 


6. 


4.5 


5.6 


16.2 


4.5 


14.5 


20.2 


8. 


5.680° 


89.5 


34. 


55.5 


20.5 


69. 


* Peruvian. 


96 




6.4 


5.9 


4.5 


5. 


14.1 


4.2 


13.4 


19.4 


7.5 


4.S 


73° 


68. 


31.5 


36.5 


12.2 


55.8 


* Peruvian. 


97 


U-D 


6.5 


5.5 


4.6 


5.6 


14.8 


4.5 


13.6 


19.5 


7.9 


5,6 


75° 


68.5 


33. 


35.5 






* Peruvian. 


100 




6.2 


5.5 


4.4 


5. 


13.6 


3.8 


12.6 


18.7 


7.3 


5. 


70° 


60. 


2746 


32.5 


12.5 


47.5 


* Peruvian. 


400 




6.5 


5.7 


4.4 


5.2 


14.7 


4.3 


Il3.4 


19.5 


7.8 


5.5 


76° 


70. 


30.5 


39.5 


13.1 


56.9 


* Peruvian. 


697 




6.7 


5.5 


4.6 


4.9 


14.1 


4. 


13.4 


19.5 


8. 


5.573° 


71. 


32.5 


38.5 


10.5 


60.5 


* Peruvian. 


402 




6.9 


5.6 


4.4 


5.3 


15.2 


4.1 


14. 


20.2 


8. 


5.5,77° 


78.5 


34. 


44.5 


11.8 


66.2 


* Peruvian. 


403 




6.6 


5.6 


4.3 


5.3 


14.9 


3.9 


13.8 


19.5 


7.6 


5.2 


74° 


79. 


31. 


48. 


15.5 


63.5 


* Peruvian. 


405 




5.9 


5.6 


4.3 


4.9 


14.5 


3.9 


12.9 


18.4 


7.4 


4.9 


75° 


62. 


23.5 


.38.5 


10.1 


51.9 


* Peruvian. 


406 




6.3 


5.7 


4.3 


5.3 


15. 


3.9 


13.7 


19. 


7.5 


4.8 


76° 


75.5 


29.5 


46. 


12.4 


63.5 


* Peruvian. 


446 


11-C 


6. 


5.9 


4.4 


5. 


15.5 


4. 


13.2 


19. 


7.6 


5.4!80° 


77. 


28. 


49. 


11.3 


65.7 


Peruvian. 


447 




6.5 


5.9 


4.6 


5.1 


14.9 


4. 


13.2 


19.2 


7.8 


5.4 


74° 


71. 


29. 


42. 


10.3 


60.7 


Peruvian. 


448 




6.1 


5.7 


4.5 


5. 


15. 


4. 


12.9 


18.7 


7.9 


5.3 


74° 


74. 


32. 


42. 


14.9 


59.1 


Peruvian. 


449 




6.3 


6.1 


4.9 


5.3 


16. 


4.4 


13.2 


19.5 


8. 


5.5 


77° 


83.5 


35.5 


48. 


19.5 


64. 


* Peruvian. 


450 




5.9 


6. 


4.7 


5. 


15. 


4.1 


12.6 


19.1 


7.6 


5.3 


75° 


74.5 


35. 


39.5 


14.3 


60.2 


Peruvian. 


451 




6.8 


5.4 


4.3 


5.6 


14.6 


4.3 


14.3 


19.5 


7.8 


5.2 


78° 


87. 


31. 


56. 


19.75 


67.25 


Peruvian. 


452 




6.3 


5.8 


4.4 


5.2 


14.4 


4.2 


13.2 


19.2 


7.8 


5.4 


69° 


83. 


34. 


49. 


11.5 


71.5 


* Peruvian. 


685 




6.3 


5.3 


4.4 


4.6 


14. 


3.9 


13. 


18.7 








69. 


29. 


40. 


12.3 


56.7 


Peruvian. 


686 




6.4 


5.5|4.3 


5.2 


14.8 


4. 


13.2 


19. 


7.6 






71. 


38. 


33. 


14.4 


56.6 


Chimuyan. 


11 


6 


6.5 


5.44.2 


5.2 


14.3 


3.8 


13.4 


18.8 


7.6 


4.9 


76° 


67.5 


28.5 


39. 


10.25 


57.25 


Quichua. 


637 




7. 


5.2 


4.4 


5.2 


14.6 


4. 


14.4 


19.5 


8.2 


5.2 


70° 


79. 


33. 


46. 


17.5 


61.5 


Atacames. 


651 




6.6 


5.3 


3.8 


5.2 


14.5 


3.9 


14. 


19.2 


8. 


5.1 


73° 


75. 


29. 


46. 


14.5 


60.75 


Atacames. 


652 




G.6 


5.4 


4.3 


4.8 


14.2 


4. 


13.1 


19.5 


7.8 


5. 


74° 


74. 


27.5 


46.5 


8.75 


65.25 


Atacames. 


653 




7.2 


5.54.4 


5.1 


14.8 


4.1 


13.7 


20.2 


8.2 


5.4 


76° 


80. 


34.25 


46.75 


13.3 


66.7 


Araucanian. 


654 


68 


6.7 


5.44.7 


4.9 


14.2 


4.1 


13.4 


19.5 


7.8 


5. 


72° 


77. 


32. 


45. 


11.9 


65.1 


Araucanian. 


655 


66 


6.9 


5.4 4.1 


5.4 


15. 


4.1 


14.2 


19.5 


8. 


5. 


76° 


84.5 


32.5 


52. 


19. 


65.5 


Araucanian. 


656 




6.6 


5.3 4.2 


5. 


14.2 


4. 


13.8 


19. 


7.9 


4.9 


76° 


75. 


26. 


49. 


15.25 


59.75 


Mexican. 


714 


61 


7.1 


5.64.6 


5.5 


15.5 


4.1 


15. 


20.2 


8.3 


5.2 


80° 


87. 










Mexican. 


559 


17 


6.8 


5.5 


4.6 


6. 


15.6 


4.4 


14.6 


19.9 


8.1 


5.3 


80° 


89.5 


33.5 


56. 


19.5 


70. 


Mexican, 


715 


59 


6.3 


5.3 


4.4 


5.4 


14.3 


4.2 


13.5 


19.2 


7.7 




76° 


74. 










Mexican. 


499 




7.1 


5.6 


4.5 


5.4 


15.2 


4.3 


)4.2 


20. 


8.4 


5.3 


73° 


87.5 


36.25 


51.25 


19.25 


68.25 


Mexican. 


716 


60 


6.6 


5.3 


4.4 


5.4 


14. 


4. 


14. 


19.3 


7.8 




77° 


76. 










Mexican. 


A.N. S. 


16 


7.1 


5.7 


4.4 


5.2 


15.9 


4. 


14. 


20.5 


8.4 


5.5 


72° 


83. 


39. 


44. 


17.5 


65.5 


Mexican. 


717 




7. 


5.34.3 


5.3 


14.5 


4.1 


14. 


20. 






78° 


77. 










Mexican. 


681 


17-A 


6.6 


5.34.3 


5.2 


14.6 


4.1 


13.6 


19. 


7.5 


5.4 


77° 


74. 


28. 


46. 


11.5 


62.5 


Mexican. 


718 




6.8 


5.54.8 


5.7 


15.9 


4. 


14.6 


19.9 


8. 


5.4 


76° 


77. 










Mexican. 


682 




7. 


5.44.3 


5.3 


15. 


4.1 


14. 


19.8 


8. 


5.4 


76° 


80.5 


36.5 


44. 


15.5 


64.5 


Mexican. 


720 




6.9 


5.34.5 


5.6 


14.7 


3.9 


14.6 


19.8 


8.1 




80° 


82. 










Mexican. 


A. p. S. 


18 ' 


6.4 


5.74.5 


5.4 


14.6 


4.5 


13.5 


20.2 


7.2 


5.2 


78° 


77. 


30. 


47. 






Mexican. 


34 


18-A 


6.9 


5.24.2 


5.4 


14.5 


4.1 


14. 


19.2 


8. 


5.1 


76° 


78. 


30. 


48. 


14.25 


83.75 


Chetimaches. 


43 




6.5 


5.74.3 


5.9 


15.5 


4.1 


14. 


19.1 


8. 


5.1 


77° 


80. 


30.5 


49.5 


16.25 


33.75 


Chetimaches. 


70 


19 


6.9! 


5.64.2 


5.9 


15.5 


4.3 


14. 


20. 


8.5 


5.7 


7l°,85. 1 


39.25 


45.75 


13.25 


71.75 


Seminole. 


C. 




6.9| 


5.64.6 


5.3 


15. 


4.2 


13.6 


19.8 






75° 


80. 










Seminole. 


707 


23 


7.1 


5.6'4.7 


5.5 


15. 


4.1 


14.8 


20.3 


8. 


5.3 


78° 


S9. 










Seminole. 


604 


22 


7.3 


5.94.6 


5.8 


I^' 


4.4 


15.3 


20.7 


8.4 


5.3 


72° 


93. 


35.5 


57.5 


25. 


38. 


Seminole. 


708 




7. 


5.54.4 


5.4 


14.9 


4.2 


14.6 


20.1 


8.1 


b.l 


73°: 


36. 










Seminole. 


C. 




7.3 


5.64.2 


5.6 


15.2 


4.7 


15. 


20.4 






73°,82.5 1 










Seminole. 


456 


24 ; 


^•1 


5.9| 


4.5i 


5.8| 


14,7 


4.6 


14.2 


20.5 


7.9 


5.6 


81° 


91.5 


44. 


47.5 


18.1 


73.4 



65 



258 



CRANIA AMERICANA. 



NATIONS 
OR TRIBES. 


6 

o 




1| 


iJ 


1^ 




a 




2 — 


It 

|i 


CO 

III 




II 


O U t^ 

III 
111 

94.7£ 


c 

• - ° ^ 

5"= " 

O C3 u 


o 

o ^ ~ 

ct yi !^ 


o 


o 


Muskogee. 


579 


26 


7. 


5.7 


4^6 


5.3 


15.3 


4.5 


14.4 


20.8 


8.3 


5^8 


72^ 


»42.5 


52.2£ 


^15.6 


79.15 


Muskogee. 


441 




6.8 


5.8 


4.2 


5.6 


15.4 


4.3 


15. 


20. 


8.5 


5.4 


74° 


89.5 


37.25 


52.25 


>18.8 


70.7 


Uchee. 


39 


27 


6.8 


5.4 


4.3 


5.5 


15. 


4.4 


14.3 


20.1 






75° 


81.5 










Cherokee. 


632 




7.2 


5.2 


4.2 


5.5 


14.5 


4. 


14.6 


20.2 






77° 


88. 


36.5 


51.5 






Cherokee. 


633 




6.8 


o.l 


4.1 


5.2 


13.7 


3.8 


13.7 


18.S 


7.8 




76° 


74. 


33. 


41. 


16. 


58. 


Cherokee. 


634 




7. 


5.3 


4.1 


5.4 


14.5 


4. 


14. 


19.5 


8.3 




74° 


81. 


32.5 


48.5 


19.2 


61.8 


Cherokee. 


635 




6.6 


5.1 


3.8 


4.9 


13.4 


3.6 


13.8 


18.5 




4.5 




70. 






18. 


52. 


Cherokee. 


B. 


25 


7.2 


5.3 


4.3 


5.3 


14.1 


4.5 


14. 


19.1 






77° 


82. 


35. 


47. 


12.25 


69.75 


Choctaw. 


408 




7.2 


5. 


4.2 


5.5 


14.6 


3.9 


14.7 


19.2 


8.4 


5.1 


74° 


79. 


28. 


51. 


13.7 


65.3 


Sauk. 


561 




74 


5.9 


4.6 


5.5 


15.3 


4.3 


15. 


21. 


8. 


5.6 


84° 


96.5 


41.5 


55. 


24.25 


72. 


Otligamie, 


639 


31 


7 


5.9 


4.7 


5.5 


15.3 


4.7 


14.2 


20.9 


8.1 


5.8 


82° 


91.5 


40. 


51.5 


12.75 


78.75 


Ottigamie. 


415 




69 


5.9 


4.7 


5.5 


15. 


4.2 


14.2 


20.2 


8.2 


5.4 


76° 


89.5 


34. 


55.5 


19.25 


70.25 


Polowatomie. 


657 


34 


7.8 


5.7 


4.4 


5.3 


16. 


4. 


15.8 


22.1 


8.2 


5.2 


80° 


98. 


35.5 


62.5 


19. 


79. 


Chippeway. 


683 


28 


7.3 


5.8 


4.8 


5.5 


15.1 


4.6 


14.2 


20.9 


8. 


5.5 


84° 


94. 


43. 


51. 


14.75 


79.25 


Chippeway. 


684 




7*2 


5.5 


4.3 


5.5 


14.8 


4.1 


14.6 


20.2 


8.3 


5.5 


73° 


85.5 


35. 


50.5 


13.2 


72.3 


Menominee. 


35 




6> 


5.6 


4.2 


5.1 


14.3 


4.4 


13.5 


19.5 


7.9 


5.4 


72° 


72.5 


33.5 


39. 


14.1 


58.4 


Menominee. 


44 




6.8 


5.4 


4.3 


5.5 


14. 


3.2 


14. 


19.7 


7.9 


5.4 


75° 


74. 










Menominee. 


78 




7.3 


5.7 


4.5 


5.3 


14.2 


4.5 


14.2 


21. 


8.1 


5.6 


78° 


85.25 


38. 


47.25 


13.75 


71.5 


Menominee. 


454 


29 


68 


5.6 


4.2 


5.5 


14.7 


4.1 


14.1 


19.9 


7.7 


5.2 


79° 


86.5 


36.5 


50. 


15.5 


71. 


Menominee. 


453 




7.1 


5.8 


4.5 


5.4 


14.9 


4.6 


14.1 


20.6 


8.2 


5.8 


75° 


87. 


37.5 


49.5 


13.5 


73.5 


Menominee. 


563 




6.9 


5.7 


4.5 


5.3 


15.3 


4.5 


14. 


20.4 


8.1 




76° 


83.5 


40. 


43.5 






Menominee. 


W. 




7.1 


5.6 


4.4 


5.4 


14.8 


4.3 


15. 


20.5 






75° 


83.5 


33. 


50.5 


21. 


62.5 


Menominee. 


80 




6,6 


&.4 


4.2 


4.9 


14.2 


3.9 


13.6 


19.3 


8. 


5.1 


74° 


71.5 


30. 


41.5 


16.25 


55.25 


Massasauga. 


\^7 




7. 


5.2 


4.3 


5.2 


13.8 


4.1 


14.2 


19.5 


8.2 


5.2 


76° 


77.5 


29. 


48.5 


13.25 


64.25 


Lenape. 


40 


32 


7. 


5.5 


4.6 


5.1 


14.4 


4.2 


14.5 


20. 


8.1 


5. 


76° 


78.5 


33. 


45.5 


16.25 


62.25 


Lenape. 


630 




7.8 


5.4 


4.4 


6.2 


15.6 


4.3 


16. 


21.5 


8.8 




80° 












Minsi. 


568 




6,7 


5. 


4.2 


5.3 


14. 


4.1 


13.8 


19.3 


7.6 




78° 


72. . 










Manta. 


418 




7. 


5.1 


3.9 


5.3 


14.6 


3.9 


14. 


19.5 


7.9 


5.2 


79° 


74.5 


30. 


44.5 


16.75 


57.75 


Quinnipiak. 


26 




7. 


5.7 


4.7 


5.3 


15.1 


4.1 


14.1 


20.2 


7.8 






77. 


34.5 


42.5 


15. 


62. 


Gepepscol. 


P.C. 




6.8 


5.1 


4.2 


5.6 


14.5 


4. 


14.4 


19. 


7.9 


5.2 


76° 


77.5 


31. 


46.5 


20. 


57.5 


Miami. 


407 




6.9 


5.5 


4.3 


5.5 


14.5 


4.1 


14. 


19.8 


7.9 




75° 


79.75 


33.25 


46.5 


17.1 


62.65 


Miami. 


542 


30 


7.3 


5.5 


4.3 


5.5 


14.6 


4.6 


14.9 


21. 


8.4 


5.5 


75° 


90. 


33.5 


56.5 


13.5 


76.5 


Miami. 


562 




7. 


5.1 


4.2 


5.6 


14.5 


4.2 


14.1 


19.5 


8. 




78° 


82.5 


36.5 


46. 


15.5 


67. 


Miami. 


541 




7.6 


5.3 


4.3 


5.5 


15. 


4.1 


15.5 


20.5 


8.5 


5.1 




91. 










Natick. 


38 




6.7 


5.2 


4.1 


5.7 


14.5 


4.1 


14.3 


19. 


8.2 




73° 


77.75 


28. 


49.75 


13.9 


63.85 


Natick. 


84 




6.9 


5.4 


4.3 


5.3 


14.3 


4.1 


13.9 


19.9 


7.9 


5.1 


78° 


83. 


35. 


48. 


18. 


65. 


Natick. 


694 




6.9 


5.1 


4.1 


5.1 


13.1 


4.1 


14. 


19.2 


8.1 




70° 


77.25 


30. 


47.25 


10.3 


66.95 


Natick. 


693 




6.7 


5.2 


4.3 


5.3 


14.2 


3.9 


14.1 


19.1 


8.2 




78° 


77.5 


30. 


47.5 


14.5 


63. 


Natick. 


498 




7. 


5.1 


4.1 


5.2 


13.5 


4.1 


13.9 


19.5 


8. 


5. 


75° 


77.5 


28. 


49.5 


12.1 


65.40 


Natick. 


690 




6.7 


5.3 


4.5 


5.3 


14. 


4. 


14.4 


19.5 


















Natick. 


688 




7.4 


5.7 


4.4 


5.7 


15. 


5. 


15. 


21-5 


8.3 


5.8 


79° 


100. 


38. 


62. 


20.1 


79.90 


Natick. 


689 




6.9 


5.2 


4.2 


5.5 


13.3 


4.1 


13.7 


19.5 






77° 


77. ^^ 










Natick. 


691 




7. 


5.1 


4.3 


5.1 


13.5 


4.1 


14.1 


19.6 


8.5 


5.1 


73° 


77. 


32.5 


44.5 






Natick. 


692 




6.9 


5.1 


4. 


5.2 


13.9 


4.1 


14.2 


19. 


8.2 


4.9 


72° 


70. 










Naumkeag. 


567 


33 


6.9 


5. 


4.2 


5.3 


14.3 


3.9 


14.4 


19. 


8. 


4.8 


80° 


71. 


26. 


45. 






Naumkeag. 


631 




7.4 


5.5 


4.4 


5.9 


J 5. 


4.3 


14. 


18.7 








93.5 


33. 


60.5 






Shawnee? 


606 




6.9 


4.9 


4.1 


4.4 


13.5 


3.9 


14. 


18.7 


7.7 




78° 


71. 






15.4 


55.60 


Dacota. 


605 


39 


6.7 


5.7 


4.2 


5.4 


14.7 


4.4 


13.5 


19.8 


7.8 


5.2 


77° 


85. 


36. 


49. 


16.6 


68.40 


Assinaboin. 


659 




7.6 


5.8 


4.6 


5.1 


14.9 


4.3 


14.9 


21.2 


8.4 


5.6 


79° 


97. 


40. 


57. 


18.75 


78,25 


Minetari. 


650 




7.3 


4.4 


4.4 


5.1 


14.1 


4.1 


14.7 


20.2 


8.5 


5.1 


74° 


84.5 


34. 


50.5 


18.6 


65.90 


Mandan. 


643 




7.1 


5.4 


4.3 


5.1 


14.2 


3.8 


14.6 


20. 


8.2 


4.9 


77° 


82. 


31. 


51. 


25. 


57. 


Mandan. 


644 




7. 


5.3 


4.1 


5.3 


13.9 


4.2 


14.1 


19.8 


8.1 


5. 


74° 


76.5 


31.5 


45. 


14. 


62.5 


Ricara. 


649 




7. 


5.2 


4.1 


5.1 


13.5 


4. 


14. 


19.5 


8. 


4.9 


76° 


71.5 


28. 


43.5 


16.25 


46.5 


Osage. 


660 




7. 


5.4 


4.2 


5.5 


14.8 


4.1 


14.5 


20. 


8. 


5.3 


80° 


82.5 


40.5 


42. 


17.1 


65.4 


Osage. 


54 


41 


6.5 


5.9 


4.6 


5.3 


15.1 


4.1 


13.4 


19.5 


7.7 


5.7 


77° 


83. 


37.5 


45.5 


14.1 


68.9 


Pawnee. 


P. 


38 


6.6 


5.4 


4.4 


4.9 


13.7 


4.3 


13. 


19.1 


7.5 


5.2 


75° 


70.5 


31. 


39.5 


10.6 


59.9 


Co ton ay. 


C. 


40 


7.1 


5.4 


4.3 


5.1 


13.8 


4.3 


14. 


19.9 


8. 


5. 


78° 


77. 


33.? 


44.? 


18.2 


58.8 


Cotonay. 


C. 




6.9 


5.6 


4.5 


5.3 


14. 


4. 


13.9 


20. 


8.1 


5.1 


79° 


79.5 


38.? 


41.5? 






Oneida. 


33 


36 


7.5 


5.6 


4.1 


5.8 


14.4 


4.3 


14.9 


20.8 


8.5 


5.6 


74° 


92.5 


36. 


56.5 


18.4 


74.1 


Cayuga. 


417 


35 


7.8 


5.1 


4.2 


5.4 


14.2 


4.5 


15.5 


20.8 


8.4 


5.4 


78° 


93.5 


35. 


58.5 


11.5 


82. ' 


Huron? 


607 




6.7 


5.6 


4.1 


5.2 


14.5 


3.9 


14. 


19.2 


7.9 




76° 


81.5 


33. 


48.5 


17. 


64.5 


Huron. 


15 


37 


7.2 


5.3 


4.3 


5.5 


15. 


4.4 


14.2 


19.8 


8.2 


5.8 


73° 


74. 


32.5 


41.5 


9.5 


64. 


Iroquois. 


16 




7.5 


5.5 


4.5 


5.7 


15.2 


4.5 


15.1 


20.8 


8.8 


5.5 


74° 


98.5 


41.25 


57.25 


20.2 


78.3 


Iroquois. 


A.N. S. 




7.1 


5.4 


4.2 


5.3 


14.3 


4. 


14.1 


20. 


















Mingo. 


455 




7.1 


5.5 


4.5 


5.2 


14.7 


4.1 


14.5 


20.2 


8.1 


5.4 


77° 


81.5 


36. 


45.5 


18.75 


62.75 


Chmouk. 


^457, 




6.9 


5.8 


4.3 


5.2 


14.5 


4.1 


14. 


19.8 


8.1 


5.4 


73° 


80. 


34. 


46. 


13. 


67. 


Chinouk. 


578 


42 


6.7 


5.4 


4.4 


5.3 


14. 


4.2 


14. 


19.4 


7.8 


5.3 


76° 


74. 


33. 


41. 


14. 


60. 



TABLE OF ANATOMICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



259 



Skulls from Caves in 


6 


B 


■6 c 

2 O 




«s 


1^ 




2 2 


2 — 




_ c 


o 

2 '^ 




" " ^ 
— a 2 


o 


Cm 
O 




^2 . 


the Valley of Ohio. 


CJrf 

O 




^1 


j5.5 


u 


V a 




2"" 




•§3 


tig 


li 


1^ 


Hi 


III 


■pi 


Ill 
58? 


o O C 

oS2 


^ Sleubenville. 


420 




7. 


6.1 


is 


5.6 


15.5 


4.2 


14. 


20.5 


8.3 


5.5 


80° 


90. 


39. 


51. 


19.2 


70.8 


Steubenville. 


437 


63 


6.7 


6. 


4.6 


5.7 


16. 


4.4 


14.1 


20.2 


8.1 


5.6 


79° 


92. 


33.5 


58.5 


19.25 


72.75 


Steubenville. 


438 




6.7 


6. 


4.5 


5.1 


15. 


4.1 


13.5 


20. 


8. 


5.3 


80° 


84.5 


43. 


41.5 


14.9 


69.6 


Steubenville. 


658 




6.7 


6. 


4.5 


5.2 


15. 


4.1 


13.4 


20. 


8.3 




79° 


92.5 






22.8 


69.7 


Steubenville. 


436 




7. 


5.8 


4.5 


5.7 


15.6 


4.5 


14.2 


20.5 


8. 


5.2 


77° 


88. 


39. 


49. 


15.4 


72.6 


Steubenville. 


439 




6.6 


5.5 


4.3 


5.1 


14. 


4.1 


13.7 


19.2 


8. 


5.5 


78° 


75. 






16.3 


58.7 


Steubenville. 


440 




7.1 


5.7 


4.6 


5.6 


15. 


4.4 


14.2 


20.2 


8.1 




76° 


89. 


40. 


59. 


18.75 


70.25 


Steubenville. 


687 




6.2 


6. 


4.5 


5. 


14.8 


4. 


13.2 


19.4 








72. 


35.5 


36.5 


15.75 


56.25 


Golconda. 


A.N.S. 


62 


6.7 


5.4 


4.3 


5.5 


14.5 


4.1 


14. 


19.3 


7.8 


4.9 


76° 


81. 


35.25 


45.75 


18. 


63. 


Skulls from the Mounds. 






































Circleville, Ohio. 


53 


51 


7.3 


5.5 


4.4 


5.4 


14.6 


4.2 


14.1 


20.3 


8.2 


5.5 


76° 


86.5 










Tennessee. 


T. 


55 


6.6 


5.6 


4.1 


5.6 


15.2 


4.4 


14. 


19.5 


8.1 


5.3 


80° 


87.5 






15.3 


72.2 


t Atakapas. 


C. 




6.5 


5.3 


4.3 


5.7 


14.1 


4.1 


13.6 


18.8 


7.3 


5. 


81° 


76. 










t Natchez. 


F. 


54 


5.9 


6.Q 


4.6 


5.1 


15.6 


4.4 


12.4 


19.6 






72° 


80. 










Santa, Peru. 


73 


56 


6.2 


5.4 


4.3 


4.9 


14.6 


4.3 


13.3 


18.5 


7.8 


5.1 


71° 


74.5 


30. 


44.5 


14.5 


60. 


t Rimac, Peru. 


414 


57 


6.9 


5.6 


4.4 


5.1 


15.3 


4.3 


14. 


19.7 


8.3 


5.5 


72° 


79. 


29.5 


49.5 


14.1 


64.9 


Rimac, Peru. 


412 


58 


6.5 


5.6 


4.5 


5. 


14.7 


3.8 


13.2 


19.2 


7.8 


5.4 


74° 


76.5 


34. 


42.5 


13.75 


62.75 


Rimac, Peru. 


68 




7. 


5.9 


4.7 


5.4 


15.6 


3.9 


14 2 


20.3 


8.3 


5.4 


74° 


89.5 


37. 


42.5 


14.75 


74.75 


Mississippi. 


416 


52 


7.1 


5.3 


4.5 


5.5 


14.6 


4.2 


14.1 


20. 






79° 


85.5 






18.1 


67.4 


Flatheads of Columbia 






































river horizontally com- 






































pressed. 






































Clickitat. 


461 


48 


6.6 5.8 


4.8 


5. 


14.2 


4.2 


13. 


19.5 


7.9 


5.6 


70° 


79. 


36.5 


42.5 


12.75 


66.25 


Covvalitsk. 


573 


49 


7. 


6.1 


4.9 


4.1 


13.9 


4. 


12.7 


20.2 


8.6 


5.5 


66° 


75. 


28. 


47. 


6.25 


68.75 


Kalapooyah. 


574 


47 


6.8 


6.3 


5.2 


4.9 


14.8 


4.3 


13. 


20.4 


8.6 


6. 


68° 


87. 


35.5 


51.5 


11.2 


75.8 


Clatsap. 


575 


46 


6.7 


6. 


5. 


4.5 


14.9 


4.2 


13. 


19.8 


8.3 


5.5 


70° 


78. 


26. 


52. 


8.75 


69.25 


Killemook. 


578 


45 


6.9 


6.3 


4.9 


4.8 


15.7 


4. 


14. 


21. 


8.5 


5.7 


73° 


92. 


34. 


58. 


19.3 


72.7 


Chinouk. 


462 


43 


6.7 5.9 


4.7 


4.6 


14.2 


4. 


12.9 


20. 


8.3 


5.5 


72° 


69. 


32.5 


36.5 


9.9 


49.1 


Klatstoni. 


577 


44 


6.26. 


4.6 


5.3 


14.4 


4.2 


13.4 


19. 


8.3 


5.5 


70° 


70. 


30. 


40. 


12.75 


57.25 


Chinouk. 


721 




6.6 6. 


5. 


5.5 


14.9 


4.2 


13.1 


20. 


8.3 


6. 


67° 


84. 


35.2 


48.8 


14.25 


69.75 


Ancient Peruvians. 




































Atacania. 


P. 


3 


6.5 5.2 


4.3 


5.1 


14.5 


4. 


13.8 


18.5 


8.3 


5.1 


68° 


72.5 


26. 


46.5 


14.75 


57.75 


Arica. 


67 


4 


7.35.3 


4.3 


5.3 


14. 


4.3 


15. 


19.8 


8.7 


5.4 


73° 


81.5 


31.5 


50. 


16.25 


65.25 


Peru. 


R. 


5 


6.714.5 4.1 


4.1 


11.5 


3.6 


14.2 


18. 


8.8 


4.9 


61° 


65.5 


19.75' 


45.75 


12.75 


52.75 



MEAN RESULTS OF THE FOREGOING TABLE. 





Toltecan na- 


Barbarous 


American Race, 


Flathead tribes 








tions 
skul 


, including 
s from the 


nations, with 
skulls from the 


Toltecan and 
barbarous na- 


of Columbia ri- 
ver. 


Ancitiui 
Peruvians. 




inouiKls. 


Valley of Oiiio. 


tions. 










MEAN. 




MEAN. 




MEAN. 


II 


MEAN. 




MEAN. 


Longitudinal diameter. 


57 


6.5 


9b~ 


7. 


147 


6.75 


8 


6.7 


3 


6.8 


Parietal diameter. 


57 


5.6 


90 


5.5 


147 


5.55 


8 


6. 


3 


5. 


Frontal diameter. 


57 


4.4 


90 


4.3 


147 


4.35 


8 


4.9 


3 


4.2 


Vertical diameter. 


57 


5.3 


90 


5.4 


147 


5.35 


8 


4.8 


3 


4.8 


Inter-mastoid arch. 


57 


14.9 


90 


14.6 


147 


14.75 


8 


14.6 


3 


13.3 


Inter-mastoid line. 


57 


4.1 


90 


4.2 


147 


4.15 


8 


4.1 


3 


4. 


Occipito-frontal arch. 


57 


13.6 


90 


14.2 


147 


13.9 


8 


13.1 


3 


14.3 


Horizontal periphery. 


57 


19.4 


90 


19.9 


147 


19.65 


8 


20. 


3 


18.8 


Length of head and face. 


53 


7.8 


78 


8.1 


131 


7.45 


8 


8.3 


3 


8.4 


Zygomatic diameter. 


49 


5.3 


64 


5.3 


113 


5.3 


8 


5.7 


3 


5.1 


Facial angle. 


55 


75° 35' 


83 


76° 13' 


138 


75° 45' 


8 


69° 30' 


3 


67° 20' 


Internal capacity in cubic inches. 


57 


76.8 


87 


82.4 


144 


79.6 


8 


79.25 


3 


73.2 


Capacity of the anterior chamber. 


46 


^32.5 


73 


34.5 


119 


33.5 


8 


32.25 


3 


25.7 


Capacity of the posterior chamber. 


46 


t43.8 


73 


48.6 


119 


46.2 


8 


47. 


3 


47.4 


Capacity of the coronal region. 


46 


Xu. 


71 


16.2 


117 


15.1 


8 


11.9 


3 


14.6 


Capacity of the sub-coronal region. 


46 


tei.s 


71 


66.5 
41.5 


117 


64.5 


8 


67.35 


3 


58.6 


The total capacity being"^ Ant. chamb. 




42.6 




42.1 




40.63 




35.1 


estimated at 100, gives (Post, chamb. 
the following proportion- (Coronal reg. 




57.4 




58.5 




60. 




59,37 




64.9 




18.47 




19.6 




19. 




15. 




20. 


ate results as parts of 100. J Sub-cor. reg. 




81.53 




80.4 




81. 




85. 




80. 



t These three heads are artificially moulded. 

X The seeming discrepancy in the sums of these two" pairs of measurements, arises from the fact that only 46 of the 48 heads 
measured, enter into each series. 



260 



CRANIA AMERICANA. 



Remarks. — In the above scale of results, the skulls from the mounds have 
been classed w^ith the Toltecan division, and those from the caves of Steubenville, 
&C.5 with the Barbarous tribes. The great size of the Steubenville crania has 
considerably enhanced the mean internal capacity of the heads of the Barbarous 
Nations, so that it exceeds that of the Flatheads of Columbia river; but the latter, 
as heretofore stated, compare fairly with the average of the entire race. It is 
curious to observe, however, that the Barbarous Nations possess a larger brain by 
five and a half cubic inches, than the Toltecans ; while, on the other hand, the 
Toltecans possess a greater relative capacity of the anterior chamber of the skull, 
in the proportion of 42.3 to 41.8. Again, the coronal region, though absolutely 
greater in the Barbarous tribes, is rather larger in proportion in the Demi-civilised 
tribes ; and the Facial Angle is much the same in both, and may be assumed, for 
the race, at seventy-Jive degrees. 

In conclusion, the author is of the opinion that the facts contained in this 
work tend to sustain the following propositions : 

1st. That the American Race differs essentially from all others, not excepting 
the Mongolian; nor do the feeble analogies of language, and the more obvious ones 
in civil and religious institutions and the arts, denote anything beyond casual or 
colonial communication with the Asiatic nations ; and even these analogies may 
perhaps be accounted for, as Humboldt has suggested, in the mere coincidence 
arising from similar wants and impulses in nations inhabiting similar latitudes. 

2d. That the American nations, excepting the Polar tribes, are of one Race 
and one species, but of two great Families, which resemble each other in physical, 
but differ in intellectual character. 

3d. That the cranial remains discovered in the Mounds, from Peru to 
Wisconsin, belong to the same race, and probably to the Toltecan family. 



Note. — On the Internal Capacity of the Cranium in the different Races of Men. — Having 
subjected the skulls in my possession, and such also as I could obtain from my friends, to the internal 
capacity measurement already described, I have obtained the following results. The mean of the 
American Race, (omitting the fraction) is repeated here merely to complete the Table. The skulls of 
idiots and persons under age were of course rejected. 







ce j 










c « 


fl M 


•S^ 




%- • 


^.S 05 


— <y 


«j « 


RACES. 




c: w :: 


Si 




Caucasian. 


52 


87. 


109. 


75. 


Mongolian. 


10 


S3. 


93. 


69. 


Malay. 


18 


SI. 


89. 


64. 


A merican. 


147 


8^. 


100. 


60. 


Ethiopian. 


29 


78. 


94. 


65. 



ANATOMICAL MEASUREMENTS. 261 

1. The Caucasians were, with a single exception, derived from the lowest and least educated 
class of society. It is proper, however, to mention that but three Hindoos are admitted in the whole 
number, because the skulls of these people are probably smaller than those of any other existing 
nation. For example, seventeen Hindoo heads give a mean of but seventy -five cubic inches; and the 
three received into the table are taken at that average. To be more specific, we will give in detail 
the number of individuals of each nation as far as ascertained. 

Anglo-Americans, 6 

Germans, Swiss and Dutch, _ .. _ - 7 

Celtic Irish and Scots, ----- 7 

English, 4 

Guanche (Libyan,) 1 

Spanish, 1 

Hindoo, - - - - - - .. . 3 

Europeans, nation not ascertained, - - - 23' 

52 

2. The Mongolians measured, consist of Chinese and Eskimaux; and what is worthy of remark, 
three of the latter give a mean of eighty-six cubic inches, while seven Chinese give but eighty-two. 

3. The Malays embrace Malays proper and Polynesians, thirteen of the former and five of the 
latter; and the mean of each presents but a fractional difference from the mean of all. 

4. The Ethiopians were all unmixed Negroes, and nine of them native Africans, for which I 
am chiefly indebted to Dr. McDowell, formerly attached to the colony at Liberia. 

5. Respecting the American Race I have nothing to add, excepting the striking fact that of all 
the American nations the Peruvians had the smallest heads, while those of the Mexicans were some- 
thing larger, and those of the barbarous tribes the largest of all, viz: 

Toltecan C Peruvians collectively, - - - - 76 cubic inches, 
nations. \ Mexicans collectively, - - - - 79 cubic inches. 
Barbarous tribes, as per Table, - - 82 cubic inches. 
An interesting question remains to be solved, viz: the relative proportion of brain in the anterior 
and posterior chambers of the skull in the different races; an inquiry for which I have hitherto pos- 
sessed neither sufficient leisure nor adequate materials. 

During the laborious task of collecting the facts embraced in the preceding measurements, I have 
great pleasure in acknowledging the occasional attendance and aid of Dr. Goddard, Professor W. R. 
Johnson, Mr. Townsend, Mr. R. Pearsall, Dr. J. K. Barnes, Dr. Hardy, and Mr. Robert E. Peterson. 



66 



262 



PHRENOLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS. 

Being indebted to Mr. Phillips for the mode of obtaining many of these measurements, and for 
the successful accomplishment of them all, I have obtained from him the following explanatory note: 

"The measurements in the following table, from amativeness to combativeness inclusive, were 
taken with the craniometer; amativeness benig measured from the point where the external occipital 
crest intersects the lower semi-lunar line: those from individuality to philoprogenitiveness, to between 
constructiveness and constructiveness, with the callipers. From causality to causahty, and supra 
orbitar foramen to causahty, with dividers. The measurements from the meato-temporal line to the 
arch from caution to caution, with a graduated strap. The height of benevolence, veneration, firm- 
ness, conscientiousness and hope, above the plane drawn through the centres of ossification of the 
frontal and parietal bones, was obtained by placing the cranium in the frame, foramen magnum 
downwards, the centres of ossification being adjusted to the points of the sliders as before: a straight- 
edge, similar to that used with the float-rod except in having the legs shorter for convenience, was 
held over the spot to be measured, its legs resting on the mahogany surface; a graduated rod was then 
held vertically against the side of the straight-edge, with its point resting on the part to be measured, 
when the height of the organ above the plane was shown on the rod where it appeared above the 
straight-edge. 

" The other measurements were taken with the craniometer, callipers, dividers, and the measuring 

frame, to the centres of the organs as traced on a cast furnished by Mr. Combe, and figured on Plate 

LXXII. The measurements with the strap were obtained as follows: the meato-temporal line was 

taken from the centre of the meatus auditorius (the end of the strap being held over the meatus, not 

pressed down into it) to the middle of the parieto-sphenoidal suture, where the anterior inferior angle 

of the parietal bone unites with the greater wing of the sphenoid bone. For greater convenience this 

point will be found marked by a cross on the Cotonay head, Plate XL. The inter-sphenoidal arch, 

over reflecting organs, was measured from the above described spot marked with a cross, to the 

corresponding spot on the other side of the cranium, laying the strap over the centres of causality. 

The inter-sphenoidal arch, over the perceptive organs, was taken between the same points of 

measurement as the last, placing the strap over the perceptive organs, and keeping it above the 

superciliary ridge, where this appeared but a mere bony protuberance, as was frequently the case. 

Meatus to caution was taken from the centre of the meatus auditorius to the centre of ossification of 

the parietal bone. The arch from caution to caution, by laying the strap from centre to centre of 

ossification of the parietal bones, over the top of the cranium, and generally a little back of the organ 
of firmness. 

" That some errors may exist in so numerous a series of measurements is not merely possible but 
probable ; but the following facts show the reader how much care was taken to avoid them: a 
series of measurements with the craniometer and compasses, much more extensive than any we had 
seen published, had been carefully made on upwards of ninety of the crania, when Mr. George Combe 
arrived in this city. That gentleman immediately pointed out so many erroneous points of measure- 
ment, (arising from the use of a badly marked bust,) that those tables were condemned, together with 
the labor bestowed on them. I then proposed the strap measurements, the five last under the bracket, 
and some others, and the work was commenced anew. Dr. Morton took down all the measurements, 
the whole of which were made by myself; thus avoiding the inaccuracies which must necessarily 
have occurred, had several different persons contributed their aid.^' 







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• 





APPENDIX. 



Phrenological Remarks on the relation between the natural Talents and Dispositions 
of Nations, and the Developments of their Brains. By George Combe, Esq.* 

No object can be presented to the philosophic mind more replete with 
interest than an inquiry into the causes of the differences of national character. 
If the causes be natural, do they originate in the organisation of the body, in the 
development of the brain, in the influence of climate, or on what other physical 
agents do they depend ? If the differences result solely from moral and political 
circumstances, it is important to trace their nature and modes of operation. 

This subject has been investigated by philosophers in general, without any 
knowledge of, or reference to, the functions of the different parts of the brain. 
Phrenologists have avoided this error, and have pointed out and pursued a more 
perfect method of investigation; but they have not published any separate work 
devoted exclusively to this inquiry. In presenting the following remarks, I aim 
only at enabling the reader to observe the relative magnitudes of the whole brain, 
and the relative proportions of the different parts of the brain, indicated by the 
national skulls delineated by Dr. Morton, and to draw his own conclusions relative 
to the influence of these on the natural talents and dispositions of the tribes. 



* Dr. Morton has requested me to furnish the present contribution to his work entitled Crania 
Americana. As I have been greatly pleased with the correctness, as well as the beauty of the 
Hthographic drawings, many of which I have compared with the original skulls; and as I have every 
reason to expect that the text will equal, in intrinsic value, the workmanship of the plates, I supply 
the present brief remarks v^ith all the satisfaction that can be felt in presenting to the public so 
imperfect a sketch. It is proper to mention, that before I arrived in America Dr. Morton had entered 
into definite arrangements for the publication of his work, by which limits were prescribed both to the 
number of plates and extent of the letter press, in consequence of which it was not in his power to 
alter, or in mine to procure a greater space than is occupied by the following observations. I refer the 
reader to my own System of Phrenology for more detailed information, towards the end of which 
there is a section on National Skulls. 
68 



270 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

I prepare this memoir without having the advantage of seeing Dr. Morton's 
descriptions of the natural characters of the different Indian Races. These are 
not yet printed. The harmony or discord hetvreen his historical delineations, and 
the phrenological inductions w^hich the reader will be enabled to draw^ by applying 
the rules now to be laid down, will depend on the degree of approximation of 
each to nature. Where discrepancies shall appear, one or other of our views must 
be erroneous. I solicit the reader candidly to investigate both representations, 
and not to condemn phrenology at once as chargeable exclusively with error. 
Imperfect historical descriptions have been given of distant nations, and particu- 
larly of barbarous and savage tribes, whose manners have been imperfectly 
observed, and whose language has been scarcely at all comprehended ; and it may 
ultimately be discovered, that the characteristics indicated by the size and forms 
of their brains have been more correct than the hasty impressions of travellers. 

The favorite opinion with philosophers has been, " That the capacities of the 
human mind have been, in all ages, the same; and that the diversity of phenomena 
exhibited by our species, is the result merely of the different circumstances in 
which men are placed." "This," says Dugald Stewart,* "has long been received 
as an uncontrovertible logical maxim ; or rather, such is the influence of early 
instruction, that we are apt to regard it as one of the most obvious suggestions of 
common sense. And yet, till about the time of Montesquieu, it was by no means 
so generally recognised by the learned as to have a sensible influence on the 
fashionable tone of thinking over Europe." 

There is some ambiguity in this passage. The proposition, that the ^' capaci- 
ties of the human mind have been in all ages the same," does not necessarily 
imply that they have been alike in all nations. The Hindoo mind may have been 
the same in the year 100 as in the year 1800, and so may the English and all 
other national minds; but it does not follow that either in the year 100 or 1800 
the English and Hindoo minds were constituted by nature equal in all their 
capacities ; yet this is what I understand Mr. Stewart to mean: for he adds, "that 
the diversity of phenomena exhibited by our species, is the result merely of the 
different circumstances in which men are placed ;" embracing, in this proposition, 
men of every nation as equally gifted in mental power. There is reason to 
question this doctrine, and to view it as not merely speculatively erroneous, but 
as laying the foundation of much hurtful practice. 

When we regard the different quarters of the globe, we are struck with the 

* Dissertation prefixed to Encyclop. Britt. p. 53. 



APPENDIX. 271 

extreme dissimilarity in the attainments of the varieties of men who inhabit them. 
If we glance over the history of Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, we shall find 
distinct and permanent features of character which strongly indicate natural 
differences in their mental constitutions. The inhabitants of Europe, belonging to 
the Caucasian variety of mankind, have manifested, in all ages, a strong tendency 
towards moral and intellectual improvement. As far back as history reaches, we 
find society instituted, arts practised, and literature taking root, not only in 
intervals of tranquillity, but amidst the alarms of war. Before the foundation of 
Rome, the Etruscans had established civilisation and the arts in Italy. Under the 
Greek and Roman empires, philosophy, literature, and the fine arts were sedulously 
and successfully cultivated ; and that portion of the people whose wealth enabled 
them to pay for education, attained a high degree of intelligence and refinement. 
By the irruption of the northern hordes, these countries were subsequently 
involved in a chaos of ignorance ; — but again the sun of science rose, the clouds of 
Gothic darkness were dispelled, and Europe took the lead of the world in science, 
morals, and philosophy. In the inhabitants of this portion of the globe, there 
appears an elasticity of mind incapable of being permanently repressed. Borne 
down for a time by external violence, their mental energies seem to have gathered 
strength under the restraint, and at length to have burst their fetters, and overcome 
every obstacle opposed to their expansion. 

While these remarks are strictly correct in regard to the Teutonic race in 
Europe, varieties also of mental aptitude have been displayed by other tribes 
inhabiting that region of the globe. In France, Ireland and Scotland, the Celtic 
race remains far behind the Teutonic in the arts, sciences, philosophy and civili- 
sation. 

When we turn our attention to Asia, we perceive manners and institutions 
which belong to a period too remote to be ascertained, and yet far inferior to the 
European standard. The people of Asia early arrived at a point comparatively 
low in the scale of improvement, beyond which they have never passed. 

The history of Africa, so far as Africa can be said to have a history, presents 
similar phenomena. The annals of the races who have inhabited that continent, 
with few exceptions, exhibit one unbroken scene of moral and intellectual desola- 
tion; and in a quarter of the globe embracing the greatest varieties of soil and 
climate, no nation is at this day to be found whose institutions indicate even 
moderate civilisation. Some of the African tribes, however, have advanced beyond 
the savage condition. They have cities, rude manufactures, agriculture, commerce, 
government and laws ; and in these respects they greatly excel several of the 



272 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

tribes of native Americans, who have continued w^andering savages from the 
beginning to the end of their existence. 

The aspect of America is still more deplorable than that of Africa. Sur- 
rounded for centuries by European knowledge, enterprise, and energy, and incited 
to improvement by the example of European institutions, many of the natives of 
that continent remain, at the present time, the same miserable, wandering, house- 
less and lawless savages as their ancestors were, when Columbus first set foot upon 
their soil. Partial exceptions to this description may be found in some of the 
southern districts of North America; but the numbers who have adopted the 
modes of civilised life are so small, and the progress made by them so limited, that 
speaking of the race, we do not exaggerate in saying, that they remain to the 
present hour enveloped in all their primitive savageness, and that they have 
profited extremely little by the introduction amongst them of arts, sciences and 
philosophy. The same observations have occurred to a writer in the Edinburgh 
Review. The following remarks on the native American character appeared in 
that work in an article on "Howison's Upper Canada," in June 1822.— "From 
all that we learn," says the reviewer, "of the state of the aborigines of this 
great continent from this volume, and from every other source of information, it 
is evident that they are making no advances towards civilisation. It is certainly a 
striking and mysterious fact, that a race of men should thus have continued for 
ages stationary in a state of the rudest barbarism. That tendency to improvement, 
a principle that has been thought more than perhaps any other to distinguish man 
from the lower animals, would seem to be totally wanting in them. Generation 
after generation passes away, and no traces of advancement distinguish the last 
from the first. The mighty wilderness they inhabit may be traversed from end 
to end, and hardly a vestige be discovered that marks the hand of man. It might 
naturally have been expected, that in the course of ages, some superior genius 
would have arisen among them to inspire his countrymen with a desire to cultivate 
the arts of peace, and establish some durable civil institutions ; or that, at least 
during the long period since the Europeans have been settled amongst them, and 
taught them, by such striking examples, the benefits of industry and social order, 
they would have been tempted to endeavor to participate in blessings thus provi- 
dentially brought within their reach. But all has been unavailing ; and it now 
seems certain that the North American Indians, like the bears and wolves, are 
destined to flee at the approach of civilised man, and to fall before his renovating 
hand, and disappear from the face of the earth along with those ancient forests 
which alone afford them sustenance and shelter." 



APPENDIX. 273 

The theory usually advanced to account for these differences of national 
character is, that they are produced by diversities of soil and climate. But, 
although these may reasonably be supposed to exert a certain influence, they are 
altogether inadequate to explain the w^hole phenomena. We ought ever to bear 
in mind, that Nature is constant in her operations, and that the same causes 
invariably produce the same effects. Hence, when w^e find exceptions in result 
w^ithout being able to assign differences in causes, vv^e may rest assured that we 
have not found the true or the only cause; and our diligence ought to be quickened 
to obtain new light, and not employed in maintaining the sufficiency of that which 
we possess. 

If we survey a map of the world, we shall find nations whose soil is fertile 
and climate temperate, in a lower degree of improvement than others who are 
less favored. In Van Diemen's Land and New South Wales, a few natives have 
existed in the most wretched poverty, ignorance and degradation, in a country 
that enriches Europeans as fast as they possess it. In America, too, Europeans 
and native Indians have lived for centuries under the influence of the same 
physical causes ; the former have kept pace in their advances with their brethren 
on the old continent, while the latter, as we have seen, remain stationary in savage 
ignorance and indolence. 

Such differences are not confined to the great continents alone ; but different 
tribes in the same hemisphere seem to possess different degrees of native minds, 
and these remain unchanged through numerous ages. Tacitus describes the Gauls 
as gay, volatile, and precipitate, prone to rush to action, but without the power of 
sustaining adversity and the tug of strife ; and this is the character of the Celtic 
portion of the French nation down to the present day. He represents the Britons 
as cool, considerate, and sedate, possessed of intellectual talent, and says that he 
prefers their native aptitude to the livelier manners of the Gauls. The same 
mental qualities characterise the English of the nineteenth century, and they and 
the French may still be contrasted in similar terms. 

Tacitus describes the Germans, allowing for their state of civilisation, as a 
bold, prudent, self-denying, and virtuous people, possessed of great force of character; 
and the same features distinguish them still. The native Irishman, in manners, 
dispositions and capacities, is a being widely different from the lowland Scotchman; 
and if we trace the two nations to the remotest antiquity, the same characteristic 
differences are found. 

These differences between nations living under similar climates, are com- 
69 



274 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

monly attributed entirely to the religious and political institutions of the several 
countries. Presbytery and parish schools, for example, are supposed to have 
rendered the Scotchman habitually attentive to his ow^n interest; cautious, 
thoughtful, and honest: vv^hile Popery and Catholic priests have made the Irishman 
free and generous withal, but precipitate and unreflecting— ready in the gust of 
passion to sacrifice his friend, and in the glow of friendship to immolate himself. 
It is forgotten that there were ages in which popery and priests had equal ascend- 
ancy in all the British isles ; and that the Englishman, Irishman, and Scotchman, 
were beings as specifically distinct then as at present: besides, the more correct, 
as well as the more profound view, is to regard religious and political institutions, 
when not forced upon a people by external conquest, as the spontaneous growth 
of their natural propensities, sentiments and intellectual faculties. Hierarchies 
and constitutions do not spring from the ground, but from the minds of men. If 
we suppose one nation to be gifted with much wonder and veneration, and little 
conscientiousness, reflection and self-esteem; and another to possess an endowment 
exactly the reverse; it is obvious that the first would be naturally prone to super- 
stition in religion, and servility in the state ; while the second would, by native 
instinct, resist all attempts to make them reverence things unholy, and tend 
constantly towards political institutions, fitted to afford to each individual the 
gratification of his self-esteem in independence, and his conscientiousness in 
equality before the law. Those who contend that institutions came first, and that 
character follows as their effect, are bound to assign a cause for the institutions 
themselves. If they do not spring from the native mind, and are not forced on 
the people by conquest, it is difficult to see whence they can originate. 

The phrenologist is not satisfied with these common theories of national 
character; he has observed that a particular size and form of brain is the invariable 
concomitant of particular dispositions and talents, and that this fact holds good in 
the case of nations as well as of individuals. 

If this view be correct, a knowledge of the size of the brain, and the propor- 
tions of its different parts, in the different varieties of the human race, will be the 
key to a correct appreciation of the differences in their natural mental endowments, 
on which external circumstances act only as modifying influences. Such, accord- 
ingly, is the light in which I regard this great subject. If the size of the brain 
and the proportions of its different parts be the index to natural national character, 
the present work, which represents with great fidelity the skulls of the American 
tribes, will be an authentic record in which the philosopher may read the native 



APPENDIX. 275 

aptitudes, dispositions and mental force of these families of mankind. If this 
doctrine be unfounded, these skulls are mere facts in Natural History, presenting 
no particular information as to the mental qualities of the people. 

In applying phrenology to the elucidation of character as indicated by national 
skulls, the most important points to be attended to are the following. 

1st. To judge of the size of the whole brain. This is indicated by the 
dimensions of the skull. Magendie, in his Compendium of Physiology, says that 
" the only way of estimating the volume of the brain^ in a living person, is to 
measure the dimensions of the skull; every other means, even that proposed by 
Camper, is uncertain." (Milligan's Translation, p. 104.) Sir Charles Bell 
observes, "that the bones of the head are moulded to the brain, and the peculiar 
shapes of the bones of the head are determined by the original peculiarity in the 
shape of the brain." (Bell's Anatomy, II, p. 390.) Dr. Gordon, in the forty- 
ninth Number of the Edinburgh Review, admits that "there is in most instances, 
a general correspondence between the size of the cranium, and the quantity of 
cerebrum ; that large heads usually contain large brains, and small heads small 
brains." (p. 246.) 

The size of the national skulls indicates the dimensions of the brains which 
they contained. The influence of size in the brain on national character may be 
judged of from the following facts. 

First. The brain of a child is small, and its mind is weak. As the brain 
grows in size and attains to maturity in structure, the mental manifestations 
increase in vigor. 

Secondly. A small brain is one but not the only cause of idiocy. A brain 
may be enlarged by disease and idiocy ensue; but if this organ be too small, 
although it be healthy in structure, idiocy is an invariable consequence. Phre- 
nologists have in vain called on their opponents to produce a single instance of 
the mind being manifested vigorously by a very small brain. 

Dr. Gall has laid it down as a fact, to which there is no exception, that 
where the brain is so small that the horizontal circumference of the head does not 
exceed thirteen or fourteen inches, idiocy is the invariable consequence. " Com- 
plete intelligence," he remarks, "is absolutely impossible with so small a brain; 
in such cases idiocy, more or less complete, invariably occurs, and to this rule no 
exception either has been, or ever will be found." To the same effect. Dr. 
Spurzheim, in his work on Insanity, says : " We are very well aware that a great 
number of facts, repeated under various circumstances, are necessary before we 
can draw a general conclusion ; but with respect to idiotism from birth, we have 



276 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

made such a number of observations in various countries, that we have no hesita- 
tion in affirming that a too small brain is unfit for the manifestation of the mind. 
I beg to remark, that I do not say that idiotism is the attribute of a too small 
brain only; idiotism may be the result of different causes, one of which is a too 
small brain. We are convinced from observation, that the laws of nature are 
constant ; and if we continually observe that the same phenomenon takes place 
under the same circumstances, we consider our conclusion as certain, till experi- 
ence shows the contrary. No one, then, has the right to maintain that an inference 
is too hastily drawn because he has not made a sufficient number of observations. 
It is his duty to show facts w^hich prove the contrary, if he intend to deny the 
inference." In the Journal of the Phrenological Society of Paris, for April 1835, 
Dr. Voisin reports observations made upon the idiots under his care at the Parisian 
Hospital of Incurables, in order to verify the assertion of Dr. Gall in the passage 
just quoted ; and mentions that he found it substantiated by every one of his cases. 
In the lowest class of idiots, where the intellectual manifestations were null, the 
horizontal circumference, taken a little higher than the orbit, varied from eleven 
to thirteen inches, while the distance from the root of the nose backwards over 
the top of the head to the occipital spine was only between eight and nine inches. 
When the size varied from fourteen to seventeen inches of horizontal measure- 
ment, and eleven or twelve in the other direction, glimpses of feelings and random 
intellectual perceptions were observable, but without any power of attention or 
fixity of ideas. Lastly, when the first measurement extended to eighteen or 
nineteen inches, although the head was still small, the intellectual manifestations 
were regular enough, but deficient in intensity. In a full sized head, the first 
measurement is equal to twenty-two inches, and the second to about fourteen 
inches. So large was the head of Spurzheim, that even on the skull these two 
measurements amounted to 22| and 13^ inches respectively. 

Thirdly. Individuals and nations distinguished for great aggregate force of 
mind, animal, moral and intellectual, have had large brains. King Robert Bruce, 
Napoleon, Cuvier, Canova, Burns the poet. Dr. Gall and Dr. Spurzheim, among 
men, and the Teutonic race compared with the Hindoo among nations, may be 
cited as examples.^ 

I do not adduce these observations as evidence to prove the influence of size 
in the brain on the power with which the faculties of the mind are manifested, 
but merely as a statement of the proposition that such influence exists. The 
subject will be found more fully expounded in my System of Phrenology, in 
which also the influence of temperament, health, and exercise, in modifying the 



APPENDIX, 



277 



effects of size, is explained ; because the correct phrenological proposition is, that 
other conditions being equal, the size of each organ is an indication of the vigor 
of the mental faculty which it manifests. In examining national crania^ we are 
not informed of the temperament and education of the individuals, but left to 
judge of the natural character chiefly by the size of the brain and the proportions 
of its different parts. Our additional information rarely extends beyond the 
condition in which the tribes existed, viz: whether they were savages, barbarians, 
or civilised. I shall, for these reasons, confine my remarks chiefly to the size of 
the skulls, and to the proportions of their different regions. 

According to these views, the aggregate natural mental power, (animal, 
moral, and intellectual,) of the individuals composing any nation, will (other 
conditions being equal) be great or small in proportion to the size of their brains. 
Plate LXXI represents a Swiss skull, of average size, part of the collection of the 
Phrenological Society of Edinburgh. I have visited Switzerland and seen many 
skulls of that people, and this one appears to me to represent fairly the average 
characteristics. History informs us that in a rude age, before modern civilisation 
was established, this people, in a wild and inhospitable country, displayed extra- 
ordinary mental vigor (animal, moral and intellectual,) in vindicating and main- 
taining civil and religious liberty; and we know that the same character continues 
to distinguish them in the present day. They may here be assumed as a specimen 
of a powerful race, to serve as a standard by which to compare the skulls of the 
other tribes represented in this work. 

The measurements of this Swiss skull, as taken by Dr. Morton and Mr. 
Phillips, are as follow^ : 



Amativeness, 
Philoprogenitiveness, 
Adhesiveness, 
Self-esteem, 
Approbativeness, - 
Firmness, - 
Conscientiousness, - 
Veneration, 
Hope, 

Marvellousness, 
Ideality, 
Benevolence, 
Causality, - 
Individuality, 
70 



2.7 

3.6 

4.4 

4.8 

4.7 

5.S 

4.9 

5. 

4.S 

4.9 

4.5 

5. 

4.8 

4.4 



Order, - - - - 4.2 

Secretiveness, - . - 3.45 

Cautiousness, - - - 4.55 

Destructiveness, - - - 2.85 

Combativeness, - - - 3.45 

Individuality to philoprogenitiveness, 7.2 

Comparison to concentrativeness, - 6.7 

Cautiousness to cautiousness, - 5.55 

Ideality to ideality, - - - 4.75 

Secretiveness to secretiveness, - 6. 

Destructiveness to destructiveness, - 5.4 

Combativeness to combativeness, - 5.3 

Constructiveness to constructiveness, 4.6 

Causality to causality, - « 2.1 



278 



CRANIA AMERICANA. 



1.5 


Arch from caution to caution, 


- 


6.5 


2,65 


bDrt 

.5.2 


Benevolence, - 


- 


- 


1.3 




11 


Veneration, - 


- 


- 


1.6 


7.8 




Firmness, 


- 


- 


1.7 






Conscientiousness, 


- 


- 


1.3 


7.8 




Hope, 


- 


- 


1.2 


3.8 


tef rt 











Supra-orb. foramen to causality, - 

Meato-temporal line, 

Inter-sphenoidal line over reflecting 
organs, - - - - 

Inter-sphenoidal line over perceptive 
organs, - - - - 

Meatus to cautiousness. 

The internal capacity of this skull is 95.5 cubic inches ; the capacity of the 
coronal region f21.^5 cubic inches; facial angle, 87 . 

On comparing these measurements with those of the American skulls as 
exhibited in Dr. Morton's tables, the diflferences will be seen: or by comparing 
the dimensions of this Swiss skull as they appear to the eye in the plate, with 
those of the other skulls delineated in this work, all being drawn as large as 
nature, their relative proportions will become apparent. 

As, however, different parts of the brain manifest different mental faculties, 
the second object in studying national crania is to judge of the size of the 
different parts of the brain in relation to each other. This is indispensable to a 
correct elucidation of mental character as indicated by the brain ; but the limits 
to which I am confined prevent me from entering into minute detail. I, there- 
fore, confine myself to a few directions for estimating the size of each of the three 
great regions of the brain — that which is the seat of the intellectual faculties; that 
which is the seat of the moral and religious sentiments ; and that which is the 
seat of the animal propensities, and of the sentiments common to man and the 
lower animals. 

1st. The anterior lobe of the brain is the seat chiefly of the intellectual 
powers. The lower ridge, and the middle perpendicular portion, manifest the 
faculties which observe objects that exist, their qualities, actions, and physical 
relations. The upper anterior ridge manifests the powers which compare, reflect, 
estimate causes, and draw inferences. The superior horizontal portion of the 
anterior lobe manifests some of the moral sentiments. 

The anterior lobe rests on the super-orbitar plates, and these plates indicate 
its breadth from side to side, and its length from front to back. The breadth can 
be estimated by means of callipers applied to the exterior of the skull, at the 
point where the super-orbitar plate reaches each side. A, Plate LXXI. The length 
of the super-orbitar plate, and of the anterior lobe, from front to back, may be 
judged of, not with mathematical accuracy, but to a degree closely approximating 
to truth, by measuring the distance to which the skull extends forward from the 
point A to B on the superciliary ridge. The point A is located in the middle 



APPENDIX. 279 

space between the edge of the suture of the frontal bone and the edge of the 
squamous suture of the temporal bone, where these two approach nearest to each 
other, on the plane of the superciliary ridge. On examining a number of open 
skulls, I find that a line run directly across the skull from the point A on one side, 
to the corresponding point on the other, on the same level with the superciliary 
ridges, coincides closely with the transverse posterior margin of the super-orbitar 
plates. If a perpendicular line be dropped from the point A, when the axis of 
the eye is parallel to the plane of the horizon, it will be found to coincide closely 
with the most projecting point of the zygomatic arch ; and as this part of the 
zygomatic arch can be felt in the living head, it affords a means of appreciating 
the length of the anterior lobe in living persons. The masks of Napoleon and 
Canova show very long anterior lobes when measured according to this rule. 

The height of the anterior lobe, so far as it manifests the intellectual faculties, 
may be estimated by a line drawn from B on the superciliary ridge, to a point 
about a quarter of an inch above the centre of ossification of the frontal bone D, 
Plate LXXI. The point of ossification, D, of the frontal bone corresponds to the 
centre of the organ of causality on each side. 

The space included in D, A, B, denotes the dimensions of the anterior lobe 
devoted to intellect in the Swiss skull. 

The size of the organs devoted to the moral sentiments may be estimated as 
follows. These organs lie in the coronal region of the head ; and when the axis 
of the eye is parallel with the plane of the horizon, a horizontal line stretched 
across the forehead at the superior edges of the organs of causality and drawn 
backward till it touch the superior edges of the organs of cautiousness, would 
leave all the moral organs above it, and the organs of the propensities common to 
man and the lower animals, below or behind it. The centre of ossification of 
each parietal bone, C, is the centre of the organ of cautiousness. 

I have drawn a line from the centre of ossification in the frontal bone, D, to 
the centre of ossification in the parietal bone, C, (the centres of causality and 
cautiousness respectively,) on the Swiss skull, and assume all the region above this 
line, or the space included in E, C, D, to manifest the moral sentiments. 

The space El, C, F, denotes the seat of the organs of self-esteem, love of 
approbation, and cautiousness, C being in the centre of cautiousness. These three 
sentiments are common to man with the lower animals. Self-esteem and love of 
approbation, take their direction from the predominant faculties with which they 
are combined in the individual. If we find them combined with a high coronal 
region, they will assist the moral sentiments. If they be combined with the 



280 



CRANIA AMERICANA. 



coronal region small, and the base of the brain (the organs lying below F, C, D,) 
large, they will give an increased stimulus to the animal feelings. 

The following figures will serve as additional illustrations of these measure- 
ments. 



Fig. 1. — Gottfried. 




Fig. 2. — EUSTACHE. 




Fig. 1 represents the head of Gesche Margarethe Gottfried, who was executed 
at Bremen in 1828, for poisining, in cold blood, during a succession of years, both 
her parents, her three children, her first and second husbands, and about six other 
individuals. 

The line A B commences at the organ of causality B, and passes through 
the middle of cautiousness, 12. These points are in general sufliciently dis- 
tinguishable on the skull, and the line can easily be traced. The convolutions 
lying above the line A B must have been shallow and small, compared with those 
below, which are devoted to the animal propensities. 

Fig. 2 is a sketch of the head of a Negro called Eustache, who was as much 
distinguished for high morality and practical benevolence, as Gottfried was for 
deficiency of these qualities. During the massacre of the whites by the Negroes 
in St. Domingo, Eustache, while in the capacity of a slave, saved, by his address, 
courage and devotion, the lives of his master and upwards of four hundred other 
whites, at the daily risk of his own safety. The line A B is drawn from causality 
B, through cautiousness, 12; and the great size of the convolutions of the moral 
sentiments may be judged of from the space lying between that line and the top 
of the head C. 

Both of the sketches are drawn from busts, and the convolutions are filled in 
suppositively for the sake of illustration. The depth of the convolutions, in both 
cuts, is greater than in nature, that the contrast may be rendered the more per- 
ceptible. It will be kept in mind, that I am here merely teaching rules for 
observing heads, and not proving particular facts. The spaces, however, between 
the line A B and the top of the head, are accurately drawn to a scale. 



APPENDIX. 



281 



Dr. Abram Cox has suggested, that the size of the convolutions which con- 
stitute the organs of self-esteem, love of approbation, concentrativeness, adhesive- 
ness, and philoprogenitiveness, may be estimated by their projection beyond a base 
formed by a plane passing through the centres of the two organs of cautiousness 
and the spinous process of the occipital bone. He was led to this conclusion by 
a minute examination of a great number of the skulls in the collection of the 
Phrenological Society. A section of this plane is represented by the lines C, D, 
in Figs. 1 and 2. 

To determine the size of the convolutions lying in the lateral regions of the 
head, Dr. Cox proposes to imagine two vertical planes passing through the organs 
of causality in each hemisphere, and directly backwards, till each meets the outer 
border of the point of insertion of the trapezius muscle at the back of the neck. 
The more the lateral convolutions project beyond these planes, the larger do the 
organs in the sides of the head appear to be — namely, combativeness, destructive- 
ness, secretiveness, cautiousness, acquisitiveness, and constructiveness; also, to some 
extent, tune, ideality, wit, and number. 



Fig. 3.— Cingalese. 




Fig. 4. — Gottfried. 

S ^ -^E 




Fig. 3 represents a horizontal section of the skull of a Cingalese, the lines B 
T being sections of the planes above described. Fig. 4 represents the same section 
of the skull of Gottfried, the female poisoner already referred to. The lateral 
expansion of the head beyond the lines B T in Fig. 4, forms a striking contrast 
with the size of the same regions in Fig. 3. The Cingalese are a tribe in Ceylon, 
and in disposition are remarkably mild and pacific. 

Dr. Cox suggests farther, that the size of the convolutions lying at the base 
of the brain, may be estimated by their projection below a plane passing through 
the superciliary ridges and the occipital spine, (D E, Fig. 1, and D, Fig. £,) and 
by observing the distance at which the opening of the ear, the mastoid process, 
and other points of the base of the skull, lie below that plane. 
71 



282 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

The number of national crania accessible to any individual is comparatively 
small, and the conclusions which can be drawn from them must be proportionally 
imperfect. I, therefore, state the following deductions, not as ascertained scientific 
results, but as those to w^hich I have been led by such facts as have hitherto fallen 
under my observation. 

1. The independence of any tribe or nation, that is to say, its freedom from 
foreign yoke, is the result of a large development of the organs of self-esteem, 
firmness, and combativeness or destructiveness, in the majority of the people. 

Independence of a foreign yoke may be achieved, firstly^ by submitting to 
extermination in preference to subjection; or secondly^ by successful self-defence. 

The former (independence maintained at the expense of existence) is the 
result of a combination in which the organs of self-esteem, firmness, combativeness 
and destructiveness SiYephis^ and the moral and intellectual organs minus; and the 
aggregate size of the whole brain is minus, in the nation which is exterminated, 
compared with that of the nation which attacks it. The Caribs and the Iroquois 
Indians, (see Plates XXXVII and LXIV,) for example, have never been subdued 
by the Anglo Saxon race, but have sternly maintained their independence. They, 
however, have not been able to sustain themselves as independent communities 
possessing their own territories; but have either been exterminated or removed 
into distant regions. They have receded before the superior strength, combination, 
and skill of their invaders, but never bowed the neck and became quietly subject 
to them. The combination now mentioned occurs in their brains. 

Independence secured by successful self-defence^ is the accompaniment of an 
aggregate size of brain, animal, moral and intellectual, equal to that of the invading 
nation. The Araucanians, (Plates LXVI, LXVII, LXVIII,) in South America, 
and the Swiss in Europe, (Plate LXXL) afford examples of this remark. 

Permanent subjection to a foreign yoke, is the result of an inferior aggregate 
development of brain, animal, moral and intellectual, in the people subdued, to 
that possessed by the conquering tribe; but with the moral and intellectual organs 
larger in the subdued people in proportion to the organs of combativeness, destruc- 
tiveness and self-esteem, than they exist in tribes which prefer extermination to 
submission. The Peruvians and Mexicans, subdued by the Spaniards, and the 
Hindoos subdued by the British in India, afford examples. In them the aggregate 
size of the whole brain is less than the aggregate size of the whole brain in the 
Spaniards and English; but in them also the moral and intellectual regions of the 
brain are larger in proportion to the animal region, than in the Caribs and the 
Iroquois Indians. The increased size of the moral and intellectual regions in 



APPENDIX. 283 

proportion to the animal region, gives docility, while the deficiency in aggregate 
size is accompanied by feebleness of character. 

Independence accompanied by civilisation^ is the result of large aggregate size 
of brain, with the intellectual organs well developed, and the intellectual faculties 
cultivated. 

Independence^ civilisation^ and political freedom^ are the results of large aggre- 
gate size of brain, the moral and intellectual regions predominating in the majority 
of the people, aided by long cultivation. This combination characterises the 
British, Anglo-Americans, and Swiss. 

Among the native tribes of North America, the Cherokees and Chippeways 
have made the greatest advances towards civilisation ; and the coronal and intel- 
lectual regions in their brains are larger in proportion to that of the animal 
propensities, than in the brains of the Hurons and other tribes which have con- 
stantly receded before the Europeans. These tribes have preserved their inde- 
pendence, and the aggregate size of their brains, including the animal, moral and 
intellectual regions, is larger than that of the Peruvians of the Inca race, who 
have submitted to subjection, and larger than that of the Hurons who have resisted 
subjection, but been exterminated. 

As the present work may come into the possession of readers who have not 
ready access to the common Phrenological works, I subjoin a drawing of the skull 
having the organs marked on it, Plate LXXI, and a table of the functions of the 
organs. 

The organs are divided into orders and genera as follows : 

ORDER I.— FEELINGS. 

Genus I. PROPENSITIES— Common to Man with the Lower Jlnimals. 
*1. Amativeness — produces sexual love. 

2. Philoprogenitiveness. — Uses: AflFection for young and tender beings. — 
Muses: Pampering and spoiling children. 

3. CoNCENTRATivENESs. — Uscs: It glvcs the dcsirc of permanence in place, 
and renders permanent, emotions and ideas in the mind. — Abuses: Aversion 
to move abroad: morbid dwelling on internal emotions and ideas, to the 
neglect of external impressions. 

4. Adhesiveness, — Uses: Attachment; friendship and society result from it. 

* These numbers refer to the corresponding numbers on Plate LXXI, 



284 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

— Abuses: Clanship for improper objects, attachment to worthless indi- 
viduals. It is generally strong in women. 

5. CoMBATiYENESs. — Usts: Couragc to meet danger and overcome difficulties, 
tendency to oppose and attack whatever requires opposition, and resist 
unjust encroachments. — Muses: Love of contention, and tendency to 
provoke and assault. This feeling obviously adapts man to a world in 
M^hich danger and difficulty abound. 

6. Destructiyeness. — Uses: Desire to destroy noxious objects, and to kill 
for food. It is very discernible in carnivorous animals. — Muses: Cruelty, 
murder, desire to torment, tendency to passion, rage and harshness, and 
severity in speech and writing. This feeling places man in harmony with 
death and destruction, which are woven into the system of sublunary 
creation. 

C The love of life. 

(Appetite FOR FOOD. — ZTses; Nutrition. — Muses: Gluttony and drunken- 
ness. 

7: Secretiyeness. — Uses: Tendency to restrain within the mind the various 
emotions and ideas that involuntarily present themselves, until the judgment 
has approved of giving them utterance; it is simply the propensity to 
conceal, and is an ingredient in prudence. — Abuses: Cunning, deceit, 
duplicity, and lying. 

8. Acquisitiveness. — Uses: Desire to possess, and tendency to accumulate 
articles of utility, to provide against want. — Abuses: Inordinate desire of 
property, selfishness, avarice, theft. 

9. Constructiveness. — Uses: Desire to build and construct wwks of art.— 
Abuses: Construction of engines to injure or destroy, and fabrication of 
objects to deceive mankind. 

Genus II. SENTIMENTS. 
I. Sentiments common to Man and the Lower Animals. 

10, Self-esteem.— i!75es; Self-respect, self-interest, love of independence, per- 
sonal dignity.— ^6^65; Pride, disdain, overweening conceit, excessive 
selfishness, love of dominion. 

11. Love of approbation.— £/^6^65; Desire of the esteem of others, love of 
praise, desire of fame or ^\ovj,~ Abuses: Vanity, ambition, thirst for praise 
independently of praise-worthiness. 



APPENDIX. 285 

12* Cautiousness. — Uses: It gives origin to the sentiment of fear, the desire 
to shun danger, and circumspection ; and it is an ingredient in prudence. 
Muses: Excessive timidity, poltroonery, unfounded apprehensions, de- 
spondency, melancholy. 

13. Benevolence. — Uses: Desire of the happiness of others, universal charity, 
mildness of disposition, and a lively sympathy with the enjoyment of all 
animated beings. — Muses: Profusion, injurious indulgence of the appe- 
tites and fancies of others, prodigality, facility of temper. 

II. Sentiments proper to Man. 

14. Veneration. — Uses: Tendency to venerate or respect whatever is great 
and good ; gives origin to religious adoration. — Muses: Senseless respect 
for unworthy objects consecrated by time or situation, love of antiquated 
customs, abject subserviency to persons in authority, superstitious awe. 

15. Firmness. — Uses: Determination, perseverance, steadiness of purpose. — 
Muses: Stubbornness, infatuation, tenacity in evil. 

16. Conscientiousness. — Uses: It gives origin to the sentiment of justice, 
or respect for the rights of others, openness to conviction, the love of 
truth. — Muses: Scrupulous adherence to noxious principles when igno- 
rantly embraced, excessive refinement in the views of duty and obligation, 
excess in remorse or self-condemnation. 

17. Hope. — Uses: Tendency to expect future good; it cherishes faith. — 
Muses: Credulity with respect to the attainment of what is desired, 
absurd expectations of felicity, not founded on reason. 

18. Wonder. — Uses: The desire of novelty; admiration of the new, the 
unexpected, the grand, the wonderful and extraordinary. — Muses: Love 
of the marvellous and occult; senseless astonishment; belief in false 
miracles, in prodigies, magic, ghosts, and other supernatural absurdities. — 
Note: Veneration, Hope and Wonder, combined, give the tendency to 
religion; their abuses produce superstition. 

19. Ideality. — Uses: Love of the beautiful and splendid, desire of excellence, 
poetic feeling. — Muses: Extravagance and absurd enthusiasm, preference 
of the showy and glaring to the solid and useful, a tendency to dwell in 
the regions of fancy, and to neglect the duties of life. 

20. Wit. — Gives the feeling of the ludicrous, and disposes to mirth. 
72 



286 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

31. Imitation. — Copies the manners, gestures, and actions of others, and 
appearances in nature generally. 

ORDER IL— INTELLECTUAL FACULTIES. 

Genus I. External Senses. 

Genus II. Knowing Faculties which perceive the Existence and Qualities of 

External Objects. 

22. Indiyiduality. — Takes cognisance of existence and simple facts. 

23. Form. — Renders man observant of form. 

24. Size. — Gives the idea of space, and enables us to appreciate dimension 
and distance. 

25. Weight. — Communicates the perception of momentum, weight and 
resistance; and aids equilibrium. 

26. Coloring. — Gives perceptions of colors and their harmonies. 

Genus III. Knowing Faculties which perceive the Relations of External Objects. 

27. Locality. — Gives the idea of direction in space. 

28. Number. — Gives the talent for calculation. , 

29. Order. — Communicates love of physical arrangement. 

30. Eventuality. — Takes cognisance of occurrences or events. 

31. Time. — Gives rise to the perception of duration. 

32. Tune. — The sense of melody and harmony arises from it. 

33. Language. — Gives facility in acquring a know^ledge of arbitrary signs 
to express thoughts, readiness in the use of them, and the power of 
inventing and recollecting them. 

Genus. IV. Reflecting Faculties which Compare^ Judge^ and Discriminate. 

34. Comparison. — Gives the powder of discovering analogies, resemblances, 
and differences. 

35. Causality. — Traces the dependencies of phenomena, and the relation of 
cause and effect. 

When any organ is deficient in size, the pov^er of manifesting the faculty 
attached to it is proportionally feeble; when the organ is large, it is powerful. 



287 



MODES OF ACTIVITY OF THE FACULTIES. 

All the faculties, when active in a due degree, produce actions good — proper 
— or necessary. Excess of activity and improper direction produce abuses. The 
smallness of a particular organ is not the cause of its producing abuses. Thus, 
though the organ of Benevolence be small, this does not produce cruelty. It will 
be accompanied with indifference to the miseries of others. It may lead to the 
omission of duties. When one organ is small, abuses may result from another 
being left without proper direction and restraint. Thus, large Acquisitiveness and 
Secretiveness, combined with small Conscientiousness, and deficient reflecting 
faculties, may produce theft. Large Destructiveness, with small Benevolence, 
may produce cruel and ferocious actions. 

Every faculty w^hen in action, from whatever cause, produces the kind of 
feeling, or forms the kind of ideas, already explained as resulting from its natural 
constitution. 

The Propensities and Sentiments cannot be excited to activity by a mere 
act of the will. We cannot conjure up the emotions of fear, compassion, or 
veneration, by merely willing to experience them. These faculties, however, 
may enter into action from internal excitement of the organs; and then the desire 
or emotion which each produces is experienced, whether we will to experience it 
or not. We have it in our powder to permit or restrain the manifestation of them 
in the action; but we have no option, if the organ be excited, to experience or not 
to experience the feeling itself. There are times when we feel involuntary 
emotions of fear, or hope, or awe, arising in us, for which we cannot account; and 
such feelings depend on the internal activity of the organs of these sentiments. 

In the second place, these faculties may be called into action independently 
of the w^ill, by the presentment of the external objects fitted by nature to excite 
them. When an object in distress is presented, the faculty of benevolence starts 
into activity, and produces the feelings which depend upon it. In these cases, the 
power of acting, or of not acting, is dependent on the will; but the power of 
feeling, or of not feeling, is not so. 

In the third place, the faculties of which we are now speaking, may be 
excited to activity, or repressed, indirectly^ by an effort of the will. Thus, the 
knowing and reflecting faculties have the function of forming ideas. If these 
faculties be employed to conceive internally the objects fitted by nature to excite 



288 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

the propensities and sentiments, the latter will start into activity in the same 
manner, but not in so powerful a degree, as if their appropriate objects were 
externally present. The vivacity of the feeling, in such cases, will be in proper- 
tion to the strength of the conception, and the energy of the propensities and 
sentiments together. If we conceive inwardly an object in distress, and benevo- 
lence be powerful, compassion will be felt, and tears will sometimes flow from the 
emotion produced. Hence he who has any propensity or sentiment predomi- 
nantly active from internal excitement, will have his intellect frequently filled 
with conceptions fitted to gratify it. 

These faculties have not the attributes of perception, conception, memory, 
imagination : they have the attribute of sensation alone ; that is to say, when they 
are active, a sensation or emotion is experienced. Hence sensation is an accom- 
paniment of the activity of all the faculties which feel, and of the nervous system 
in general ; but sensation is no faculty in itself. 

The laws of the Knowing and Reflecting faculties are different. These 
faculties form ideas, and perceive relations; they constitute will; and they minister 
to the gratification of the other faculties which only feel. 

1^/, These faculties, as well as the former, may be active from internal causes, 
and then the kinds of ideas which they are fitted to form, are presented involun- 
tarily to the mind. The musician feels the notes flowing on him uncalled for. 
A man in whom Number is powerful and active, calculates by a natural impulse. 

9,dly^ These faculties may be excited by the presentment of the external 
objects fitted to call them into activity; and, 

SJ/y, They may be excited to activity by an impulse from the propensities 
or sentiments. 

When excited by the presentment of external objects, the objects are per- 
ceived, and this act is called Perception. Perception is not a separate power, 
but results from the lowest degree of activity of these faculties ; and, if no idea is 
formed when the object is presented, the individual is destitute of the power of 
manifesting the faculty whose function is to perceive objects of that kind. Thus, 
when tones are produced, he who cannot perceive the melody of them, is destitute 
of the power of manifesting the faculty of tune. Each of Them perforins percep- 
tion in its own sphere. 

When these faculties are excited by an act of the will, the ideas which they 
had previously formed are recalled : this act is named Memory, which results from 
the activity of each of these faculties; but it is no faculty in itself. Tune 
remembers music; Individuality, facts; and so on. Time acting along wath any 



APPENDIX. 289 

of these faculties gives the impression of the previous existence of the ideas recalled, 
which impression distinguishes Memory from Conception or Imagination. 

When these faculties are powerfully active, from internal excitement, the 
ideas they have previously formed are vividly and rapidly conceived, and the act 
of forming them, when not associated with the impression of past time, is styled 
Conception or Imagination. Each executes conception in its own sphere. 
When conceptions of absent external objects become vivid and permanent, through 
disease of the organs, the individual believes in the actual presence of the objects, 
and is deluded by phantoms or visions. This is the explanation of the cases cited 
in Dr. Hibbert's work on Apparitions. Great size or disease of the organ of 
Wonder, contributes especially to this effect. 

And, lastly. Judgment, in the philosophical sense, belongs to the reflecting 
faculties alone. The knowing faculties may be said, in one sense, to judge; as, 
for example, the faculty of Tune may be agreeably or disagreeably affected, and, in 
this way, may be said to judge of sounds; but judgment, in the proper sense of 
the word, is a perception of relation or of fitness, or of the connection between 
means and an end, and it belongs to the reflecting faculties. These faculties have 
perception, memory, and imagination also. He who possesses them powerfully, 
perceives and conceives, remembers and imagines, processes of deduction, or ideas 
of abstract relations, with great facility. 

Practical Judgment in the affairs of life, depends on a harmonious combination 
of all the organs, particularly of the propensities and sentiments, in just proportions. 
In order to act rightly, it is as necessary to feel correctly as to reason deeply. 

Attention is not a faculty of the mind, but merely consists in a vivid 
application of the faculties which form ideas. Unless an organ be adequately 
possessed, the objects of which it takes cognisance cannot be attended to by an 
effort of the will. The intellectual powers are greatly assisted in producing 
attention by Concentrativeness and Firmness. 

Association expresses the mutual influence of the faculties. 

The principles of Association must be sought for in the constitution of the 
faculties, and not in the relations of particular ideas. In using Association as an 
instrument of artificial memory, we ought to keep always in view, that every 
individual will associate, with greatest facility, ideas with those particular things 
which he has the greatest natural facility in perceiving. For example: he who 
has Number most powerful, will associate words most easily with numbers ; he 
who has Form most powerful, will associate words most easily with shapes ; he 
who has Locality most powerful, will associate words most easily with position; 
73 



290 CRANIA AMERICANA. 

and he who has Tune most powerful, will associate words most easily with musical 
notes. 

Hence, also, the influence of association on our judgment is easily accounted 
for. He in whom Veneration is powerful, and to whom the image of a saint has 
fron^ infancy been presented as an object to be venerated, experiences an instan- 
taneous and involuntary emotion of awe and respect every time the image is 
presented to him ; or a conception of it formed, because it is now a sign which 
excites in him that feeling, and the latter excludes the reflecting faculties from 
performing their functions. Hence, nntil we can break this association, and 
prevent the conception of the image from operating as a sign to excite the faculty 
of Veneration into activity, we shall never succeed in bringing his understanding 
to examine into the real attributes of the object itself, and to perceive its want of 
every quality that ought justly to be venerated. 

Thus, the associations which mislead the judgment and perpetuate prejudices, 
are associations of words or things with feelings or sentiments^ and not associations 
merely of ideas with ideas. 

Pleasure and Pain, and also Joy and Grief are affections of the mind arising 
from the exercise of every faculty. Every faculty, when indulged in its natural 
action, feels pleasure; when disagreeably affected, feels pain; consequently the 
kinds of pain and pleasure are as numerous as the faculties. 

Passion is the highest degree of activity of any faculty, and the passions are 
as different as the faculties: thus, a passion for glory is the result of great energy 
and activity of the faculty of Love of Approbation; a passion for money, of Acquisi- 
tiveness; a passion for music, of Tune; a passion for metaphysics, of Causality. 

Sympathy is not a faculty, nor is it synonymous with moral approbation. 
The same notes sounded by ten instruments of the same kind, harmonise, blend 
softly together, and form one peal of melody. The cause of this is to be found 
in the similarity of the constitution and state of the strings. Each faculty of the 
human mind has a specific constitution; and, in virtue of it, produces specific 
kinds of feelings, or originates or suggests specific kinds of ideas; and wherever 
similar faculties are active in different individuals, similar feelings are experienced 
by each, and similarity of feeling is sympathy. 

Sympathy is not synonymous with moral approbation. We approve of the 
actions produced by the lower faculties of others, only when these are guided by 
the faculties proper to man: we never approve of Combativeness, when indulged 
for the mere pleasure of fighting; but we approve of the action of this faculty 
when directed by justice and understanding. We approve of the action of the 



APPENDIX. 291 

sentiments proper to man, unmingled with any other motive, when directed by 
enlightened intellect. 

Habit is defined to be "a power in man of doing a thing, acquired by 
frequently doing it." Now, before it can be done at all, the faculty and organ on 
which it depends must be possessed in an available degree; and the more powerful 
these are, the greater will be the energy with which the possessor will do the 
thing at first, and the ease with which he will learn to repeat it. Habit, there- 
fore, is the result of facility acquired by exercise. It is the organ which acquires 
activity and superior facility in performing its functions, by being properly used, 
just as the fingers of a musician attain increased rapidity and facility of motion by 
the practice of playing. 

Taste is the result of the harmonious action of the faculties generally, in at 
least a moderate degree of vigor. Thus, the most beautiful poetry is that by 
which gratification is afforded to the higher sentiments and intellectual powers, 
without the introduction of any extravagance, absurdity or incongruity, to offend 
any one of them. If Ideality be in excess, this may produce bombast; if Causality 
predominate too much, it may introduce unintelligible abstractions ; if Wit be 
excessive, it may run into conceits, epigrams, and impertinences. A picture is in 
best taste when it delights the Knowing Faculties, Reflection, and the Moral 
Sentiments, without offending any of them. 

GEORGE COMBE. 

Marshall House, Philadelphia, April A, 1839. 



292 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

The original of the Frontispiece was painted from Hfe by J. Neagle of this city, a distinguished 
and well known artist, to whose politeness I am indebted for the privilege of using it on this occasion. 
The lithographed copy was made by M. S. Weaver, of this city, a young artist of great promise 
in both accuracy and beauty of delineation. The subject of this portrait, Ongpatonga, was an 
Omahaw chief, distinguished in his tribe as a warrior and orator. Among the multitude of Indian 
portraits which have come under my notice, I know of no one that embraces more characteristic traits 
than this, as seen in the retreating forehead, the low brow, the dull and seemingly unobservant eye, 
the large, aquiline nose, the high cheek bones, full mouth and chin, and angular face. 

In reference to the Map at page 95, we may merely add, that a dotted Une between the Gulf 
of Mexico and the great lakes, denotes the principal range of the mounds, and consequently the 
probable ancient seats of the Toltecan tribes in that region. 

Plate 1. Embalmed head from the Peruvian cemetery at Arica. 

Plate 2. Peruvian child from Atacama. 

Plate 3. Peruvian from Atacama. 

Plate 4. Peruvian of the Ancient Race. 

Plate 5. Peruvian of the Ancient Race. 

Plate 6. Chimuyan. 

Plate 7. Peruvian child from Santa. 

Plate S & 9. Peruvian from the Temple of the Sun. 

Plate 10. Peruvian child, from the Temple of the Sun. 

Plate 11. Peruvian from the Temple of the Sun. 

Plate 11— A. Peruvian from the Temple of the Sun. 

Plate 11— B. Peruvian from the Temple of the Sun. 

Plate 11— C. Peruvian from the Temple of the Sun. 

Plate 11— D. Peruvian from the Temple of the Sun. 

Plate 12. Aturian of the Orinoco. 

Plate 13. Puelche of Patagonia. 

Plate 14. Charrua of Brazil. ^ 

Plate 15. Botocudo. 

Plate 16. Ancient Mexican. 

Plate 17. Mexican. 

Plate 17 — A. Mexican, of the Pames tribe. 

Plate 18. Ancient Mexican. 

Plate 18— A. Mexican, of the Tlahuica nation. 

Plate 19. Chetimaches, of Louisiana. 

Plate 20, 21. Natchez. 

Plate 22. Seminole. 

Plate 23. Seminole. 

Plate 24. Seminole. 

Plate 25. Cherokee. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 293 

Plate 26. Muskogee, or Creek. 

Plate 27. Uchee, Creek confederacy. 

Plate 28. Chippeway. 

Plate 29. Menominee. 

Plate 30. Miami chief. 

Plate 31. Ottigamie, or Fox. This drawing is reduced about two-tenths of an inch. 

Plate 32. Lenape, or Delaware woman. 

Plate 33. Naumkeag, of Massachusetts. By an error in taking the facial angle, the face is made 
too projecting, and the angle therefore too small. This remark is also applicable to Plates 35 and 36. 

Plate 34. Pottowatomie. 

Plate 35. Cayuga. 

Plate 36. Oneyda. Reduced nearly four-tenths of an inch. 

Plate 37. Huron, or Wyandot. 

Plate 38. Pawnee. 

Plate 39. Dacota, or Sioux. 

Plate 40. Cotonay. Black/oof, 

Plate 41. Osage. 

Plate 42. Chinouk of Columbia river; natural form. Reduced nearly four-tenths of an inch. 

Plate 43. Chinouk chief. Reduced four-tenths of an inch. 

Plate 44. Klatstoni, of Columbia river. 

Plate 45. Killemook, of Columbia river. 

Plate 46. Clatsap, of Columbia river. 

Plate 47. Kalapooyah, of Columbia river. 

Plate 48. Clickitat, of Columbia river. 

Plate 49, 50. Cowalitsk, of Columbia river. The profile view is reduced nearly three-tenths of 
an inch. 

Plate 51. From a mound at Circleville, Ohio. 

Plate 52. From a mound on the Upper Mississippi. 

Plate 53. From the Grave creek mound, near Wheeling, Virginia. 

Plate 54. From a mound on the Alabama river. 

Plate 55. From a mound in Tennessee. 

Plate 56. From a Tumulus at Santa, in Peru. 

Plate 57. From a Tumulus in the Valley of Rimac, in Peru. 

Plate 58. From a Tumulus in the Valley of Rimac, in Peru. 

Plate 59. From an Ancient Tomb at Oturaba, in Mexico. 

Plate 60. From an Ancient Tomb, at Otumba, in Mexico. 

Plate 61. From an Ancient Tomb at Otumba, in Mexico. 

Plate 62. From a Cave at Golconda, in Illinois. 

Plate 63. From a Cave near Steubenville, Ohio. 

Plate 64. Charib of Venezuela. 

Plate 65. Charib of St. Vincents. 

Plate 66, 67. Araucanian chief. 

Plate 68. Araucanian chief. 

Plate 69. Natural Mummy of a Muysca Indian of New Grenada. 

Plate 70. Mongol-Americans, or Eskimaux. 
74 



294 



CRANIA AMERICANA. 



Plate 71. Swiss skull, introduced to illustrate Mr. Combe's Phrenological memoir. See page 277. 

Plate 72. Phrenological Chart. Taken from a head furnished to the author by George Combe, 
Esq. See ^^ppendix, p. 283. 

The wood-cuts of this work were taken from reduced drawings made with my own hands by 
means of an instrument adapted to the purpose by my friend Mr. Phillips. I had applied to several 
artists to furnish these drawings, and the camera lucida and graphic mirror were both tried in vain. 
On being furnished with the annexed drawing apparatus, (which might be called a Craniograph,) I 
was soon able by practice to make my own draAvings with great celerity and correctness. Some of 
my earlier essays, however, are among the last in this work, and will be recognised by their want of 
finish. 




A represents a deal board six feet long and one foot wide; B B two brackets to support two 
cross pieces one of which is seen at C, having an open space between them about two and a half 
inches wide, and the centre of the space six inches from the board A; D a piece of board six inches 
wide dovetailed to the end of the board A, supporting the eye-piece E, the hole at E being six inches 
from the board A, fifteen inches from the nearest surfaces of the two cross pieces C, and placed per- 
pendicular to the medial line of the board A; G a board dovetailed into the lower end of A. The 
cranium was adjusted on the board G, with its centre six inches from the smfaceofA; a piece of 
glass was then laid over the opening between the cross pieces at C, where it was held down by a 
screw. By looking down at the cranium F, through the eye-piece E, its outline and markings were seen 
on the glass at C diminished to one quarter, and were traced out on the glass with a pen and India 
ink, with great rapidity and accuracy. The drawings thus obtained on the glass, were then traced 
with a pencil on paper pressed against the glass while held up to the light, after which the drawing 
was finished with a pen. In the above cut the eye-piece is too high. 



INDEX. 



A. 

Massians, p. 9. 

Myssiniaiis, p. 26. 

Agricultural tribes, p. 73, 172. 

Alligewi, p. 188. 

Albinos, American p. 69. 

Alforian Family^ p. 94. 

Algonquins, p. 175. 

American Race, p. 6. 

American Family, p. ^2, 

Anahuac, p. 141. 

Anatomical measurements, p. 249. 

Apalachian nations, p. 64. 

Apalaches, p. 174. 

Araucanians, p. 240. 

Architecture of the Peruvians, p. 119. 

Arabians, p. 18. 

Atacama, p. 96. 

Atures, p. 133. 

tdustro- African Family, p. 90. 

Australian Family, p. 93. 

Baschkirs, p . 40. 

Beard of the Americans, p. 67. 

Bedouins, p. 20. 

Berbers, p. 22. 

Blackfeet, p. 201. 

Blacii Charibs, p. 240. 

Botocudos, p. 138. 

Brazilian nations, p. 64. 

Burats, p. 39. 

Burmese, p. 47. 

C. 

Caucasian Race, p. 5. 

Caucasian Family, p. 7. 

Ca I mucks, p. 39. 

Caffers, p. 88. 

Capacity of the skull in different nations, p. 260, 

Cayuga, p. 192. 

Celtic Family, p. 15. 

Charruas, p. 137. 

Chechemecas, p. 142. 

Chimu, p. 103, HI. 

Chinese Family, p. 44. 

Chetimaches, p. 162. t 

Cholula, p. 150. 

Choctaws, p. 161. 

Circassians, p. 8. 

Chechemecas, p. 142. 

Charibs, p. 236. 

Black, p. 240. 



Cherokees, p. 171. 

Chinouks, p. 203, 207. 

Chippeways, p. 176. 

Circleville Mound, p. 219. 

Clatsaps, p. 211. 

Clickitat, p. 214. 

Cochin-China, p. 49. 

Collao, p. 102. 

Complexions of the Americans, p. 68. 

Confusos, p. 85. 

Connivos, p. 117. 

Copts, p. 24. 

Cotonay, p. 201. 

Cowalitsk, p. 215. 

Creeks, p. 164, 170, 174. 

Cuzco, p. 119. 



Dacotas, p. 197. 
Delawares, p. 189. 



D. 



E. 



Egyptians, p. 24. 
Equestrian tribes, p. 74. 
Eskimaux, p. 53, 63, 247. 
Esmeraldinos, p. 86. 
Ethiopian Race, p. 6. 



Facial angle, p. 250. 

Fellahs, p. 25. 

Finns, p. 38. 

Five Nations, p. 1 90. 

Flatheads of Columbia river, p. 202. 

Fuegians, p. 64. 

G. 



G alias, p. 24. 
Georgians, p. 8. 
Germanic Family, p. 13. 
Golconda, Cave at p. 234. 
Goths, p. 14. 
Greeks, p. 12. 
Greenlanders, p. 54, 248. 
Guanches, p. 23. 



Hindoos, p. 32. 
Hiong-nii, p. 43. 
Hottentots, p. 90. 
Huacas, p. 218. 
Huns, p. 42. 



H. 



296 



CRANIA AMERICANA, 



I. 

lliyats, p. 10. 
Inguches, p. 9. 
Indo-European nations, p 
Indostanic Family, p. 32. 
Indo-Chinese Family, p. 47. 
Iroquois, p. 1 90. 



17. 



J. 



Japanese, p. 47. 
Jews, p. 21. 



K. 



,,p. 
59. 



52. 



Kamschatkans, 
Kanakas, p 
Katawbas, p. 162. 
Keralit, p. 52. 
Killemooks, p. 210. 
Kirgusians, p. 41. 
Klatstoni, p. 210. 
Koords, p. 11. 
Koriaks, p. 52. 



Laos, p. 50. 
Lajjlanders, p. 51. 
Lenape, p. 175, 189. 
Libyan Family, p. 22. 

M. 

Malay Race, p. 6. 
Malay Family, p. 56. 
Map, Explanation of p. 95, 292. 
Mandans, p. 199. 
Measurements, p. 249. 
Menominees, p. 176. 
Mexicans, p. 141, 231. 
Mitla, p. 149. 
Mixed Races, p. S5. 
Miamis, p. 180. 
Missouri tribes, p. 200. 
Mingoes, p. 190. 
Minetaris, p. 199. 
Moguls, p. 36. 
Mongolian Race, p. 5. 
Mongol-Tartar Family, p. 38. 
Mongol- Americans, p. 241. 
Moors, p. 19. 
Mound skulls, p. 217. 
Muskogees, p. 164, 170. 

N. 

Natchez, p. 157. 
Negro Family, p. 36. 
New Zealanders, p. 61. 
Nicobar Islands, p. 50. 
Nilotic Family, p. 24. 
Norma verticalis, p. 251. 
Nubians, p. 2Q. 



Oceanic Negroes, 
Omaguas, p. 118. 
Ongpatonga, p. 292 



0. 

p. 91. 



Osages, p. 199. 
Ostiaks, p. 51. 
Ottomacs, p. 73. 
Otumba, Tombs of p. 230. 



Papuas,y^ 92. 
Patagonians, p. 64, 71. 
Pachacamac, p. 132. 
Palenque, p. 144, 149. 
Pames, p. 155. 
Pelasgi, p. 11. 
Persians, p. 9. 
Peruvians, Ancient p. 9Q, 



Inca p. 113. 



Phenicians, p. 22. 
Phrenological Table, p. 262. 
Polar Family, p. 50. 
Polynesian Family, p. 59. 
Puelches, p. 135, 137. 



Rajpoots, p. 34. 
Rimac, p. 226. 



R. 



S. 



Salish, p. 207. 
Samoyedes, p. 51. 
Sclavonic Nations, p. 15. 
Seminoles, p. 164, 174. 
Sepulture, Indian p. 244. 
Skulls, American p. ^5, 
Siamese, p. 48. 
Sikhs, p. 34. 
Singalese, p. 35. 
Sioux, p. 197. 
Sokulks, p. 206. 
Steubenville, Cave at p. 235. 

T. 

Tartars, p. 39, 42. 

Temple of the Sun, p. 132. 

Teutonic Nations, p. 14. 

Tiaguanico, p. 99. 

Tibulca, Cave of p. 149. 

Titicaca, p. 97, 100, 103. 

Tlahuica, p. 156. 

Toltecan Family, p. 83, 84, 141, 228, 230. 

Tuariks, p. 22, 

Tildas, p. 33. 

Tula, p. 160. 

Tungtisians, p. 51. 

Turkish Family, p. 43. 



lichees, p. 173. 
Uros, p. 103. 

Wahabys, p. 20. 
Waxsaws, p. 162. 

Yakuts, p. 41. 
Yuncas, p. 103. 



U. 



W. 



vlorton's Crania Americana 



Pli 






UMIBiilLMllin) MHAIE) 



/■K^ifii itm\E, ipnii^aiJ^/a A^] (^ii.^^/]Sirs^TAir.Ai^a^A. 



Brawn from Nature and oitStoneljyA.lTof^^ 



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Mortons CraniaAmerieana 



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Drawii from Nature and On Stone Ly Joim Collins 



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LitK.of J ahiL CollinsA"" 79 South Tliiicl StrHUl^ 



Morton's Crania AmerioaBa 



PL7 




' fc .■'4.'^-r5SV'' 




Mmi^:-^. 







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Troni S?anta 

Drav^^l from Natui^e and on »Sbone Joy cToIin CoUiiivS 



Morions Cra nia Atm 



crica^na. 



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FIVOM THE TEMPLE OP THE SUN. 



Lith.of Joli)i Co]luis,N'=75S.T-hirdSiPBil» 



MortoTL's Crania Americana 



PI. 9 



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Drawn fiom A'ahn-e and on StoBeLr John Collins 



Morton's CramaAmericana. 



PilO 








i[AM (nmim 



rHOJM THE TEJSIPLiE OF THE STJIST 



Lithof J 6im CcaimsJ^°79 SonlKThiraStPhaaaeTjikia 



Mortons Craxiia Americaiia 



pi.ii 




FROM THE T^AtPLi: OF THE Sim, 

Ui\ of J ohu Collms ."N" 79 SonfiLTtmiSf Plulal"- 



Morions Crania Am enV ana. 



Pl.ll.A. 



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4M¥:'\ 




TROM THE TJEMPLE OF THE SUN. 

I_nlh. of JoLii Coll-i.is, TJo. 73 S.TiirrlSt.Phil? 



Mor i on s C p an i a, A 



Tuericana. 



PLllB, 




EROM TffiS TEMPIiE OF THE SVN . 

Litili. of Joliia Col]ms,No.75 S.Tl-iird. Bt.Tliil^ 



Mori ons ' Cr ani a Am e ri c an a 



PLil.C. 




ipumw^aii]^. 



FEOM THE TEMPliE OF THE STjlV 



Lith. of John Collins, I\ro.79 S. Third St. Phil ■ 



JVT Orion's CoeaniaA 



nxenc ai^a. 



PllLB 




PROM THE TEMPLE OF THE STJN. 

Xjaili. of Jolaa-iCoIlms.TT'? 79 S .Thrr <! pi . Tliil^ 



Morfon's Crania Americana 



PH5 




AT^umnAn 



or THE ORINOCO. 

Hraw n fiow Mature byJCNNVrjit-r. 
Liih of 3olm Colbivs N" 79 S oiiEK Tlriva SuTlii]aacLi>l>u-< 



I?. 



Moxtoii's Cranm Americana 



P1.15 



.^•s't''-^'^^'-' "iZ 








Morton's Crania Aineircaiia, 



PI. 14 




(om^mMWJ^. 



of Brazil 



From^ai-ure h\ J.CWciiici'. 



On S6oiie Ly T.A.Collins 



Morton's CTamaAmericaTUL 



Pl. 15 





B (E) T ® (0 W :D (D 



OF BRAZIL 



LiQv.uf JoTin.Co]lai^,NT9 SoutkTWa SbeeL^TMaaelviua. 





4 









Mori o ii'^ Ci' a II i a A 



i*iei»ica,Tia, 



PI,iZ 






MII^^3®iiS!r. 



Xj ith. ol JoLn C" o]l\-n s 'No.7.9 S .Tkir cl Si PKal ^^ 



M ori ojx s Ci' aiii a Aax e x»i e a n a. 



Ti-iy.A. 




masHu, 



MEXlCAlXr. 



l^i il'x. of Jo hri C o'Jlni s, TJ ? '/ ^ B . Tliir d Si . F : 



Mo3P i on's Cy ainia Anier i c 



PL 18 




«,',?^^Bi:?^'K^'»^>*-' 



muss^iiST. 



LiltL.oi- Jolm Oollin3l\Jo.y.9 S. Third StPiiil^ 



dxjrions Crania Am eric ana , 



Tl.i8.A, 





m.jm^ 



'^*s:pi?ji8K;^gsSasgsigs*« 



MEXICAN. 

ilh.of Jc.>ni Ccaiiiis,N°75 S.Tlm-aSi.Phil' 



Morton's Crania^ Americana 



vm 




'^'</-p^^? 




'^^2^!m^...^ 



XOUI&IANA. 



Litlv. of Oo\n Colling ,N"7P Soath Tlura ^it.^t^lwlal^^ 



Mort oTi s Cr axti a Am eidc ana . 



PLm 





^'^/'V.^^z-o^v^^^ 



"V/O. Sanders .M1^ 




TROFILE VIEW. 

Liih of John Collins, N^' 79 STl-urd St. PM^ 



T\tortojis Crania Axn eric aw.o.. 



PI. 21. 



•:^^'- - ■■ 






^i^^ 











W.C.Sanders del^ 



Iiiib. of John C oiim s , TvT^ 7P vS.THir d St PKil* 



MoT^ion's CraMa Americana 



m.22 




*'^-^^*^^^^^' 



iiMaif®iLis 



JDi'awn fTom Nainre and on Stone Jbv ^T. OoIliiLs 



Mori OTIS Or ania Azn erinana . 



PL 2^ 




■iiaaiis^cDiiiiic 



_Liiih. of John Col]ms,lsT'?75S.TLiraSi.Pliil^ 



IVTorion's CraniaAniericama. 



PL a 4 



...mm^mm^-^ 





^usissiKr^am 



T_)iili. of JoliTi Collini3,lXr? 79 S. Third Si.PlaiL« 



Mori oxis' Cr ania Am erl 



can a. 



PL 25. 




r 



3 



%*.«#^sf^w 



®lIIIllli®ISISli. 



LitL-of Jolan Gorin.a]\T? 73 S.TIirrclSL.PLil 



Mort o Its C r aiii a Americ ana 



n.Z6 





% 




% ■':. 







Mrw^m®(Sfiiii 



Liflv of .loW Collins, ¥°79 Soxtik Tim-cl ^t.Tluiatl ' 



jVTorioaas CraniaAmnericaria. 



PI. a 7. 



^-■^?«V.ia*r. 




wcgmi^m 



Liili.of Jolm CollmsK? 19 S .TLirdSiPKil^' 



JVioT i ons' Crayiia Ann ex'ioana 



PL 28. 




(pnrnipipiiwiiir. 



Litli. of John Colliris,N? 7-9, S.'TTiird Si. Pl-iil' 



Mw'ion'j^ Oraiia A.naerieaTia 



PL 29. 




\. 



MIlSf®M3ISr2iS 



Lrtli.of JoLn CoJIm.s^Tfo. 79 So-nili Thiril )Si. PMa, 



Morton'^ Crama> Anciericaiia 



PL:^o. 




MiriV.MIl£ (OUSlLaa 



Litli o£ John tlornnA'.m.Te ."Soatii Third vSt.PhiU. 



Morton's Craiu a Americana 



T1.51 







(Dl^^E^AMIEIl 



OLatX of 3 oliTv. Collius. N° 79 SouiX TWi St TMLil' 



Moi'ton's Crania Ameri cana 



PI. 5^ 











maifsfi 3iTisrAiFii 



FrQi3i Naixii-o and on StonoJjj Jolui (Jollin>s 



Morton's Crairia Americana 



PI. 5 3 




^S^^S^^^^^^^^^^Si: 



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AID'MIE,IlA(m 



Drawn from Katuxe wid on jStone hy Joliii Golliti^ 



Morion's CraniaAmericana. 



PI .34. 



iX^/Z-rzi^ -:;. ' ' 




IP'® 'iL'® WAS ©Mraii. 



Liiili.of John CoJ]ins,]\I° 7P STWaSi.PHl^ 




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■^^ i 



'■^^^ 








^1 











M oi»i o Ws Ct ani a Ani ex i e an a 



PL 37. 




S:^- 



iMwm.mm 



Lith.of Jol-iri CollmsJMo 7^ S. Third St.Phir 



Mortons CTftiiia Amerioajia 



P1.38 




iPAWM mm 



LitK of .1 okrLCo]lms;N° T9 SoxlQx TJuxi S L.l!iuk<F 



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Mor t on « Cr ania Amexic an a 



EL39 





ID) A(S® ^A 



:N W.TERKITOIVT 



I^tkof i ohuC.il Un si, N'?7» SouGi ThiriJ .Strtfet PbiL^Aelplua 



Mori oBS Ct a ni a Axneri c an a . 



PL40. 




M.3:Wea,ver del. 



BliACKFOOT. 



Mortons CTania American a. 



PI. 41 



..^^ 



'^--'''':.^&u^ 




m^A 



Litk, o£ 3 olnu Co]lms,:^° TS Soxidk TkixcLSi.BL. 



Mor Eon s Crani a Aniieiican a 



P142 




(S1IIEI^C0)'®]K2 



OF COLUMBIA RIVER. 



l^aturul Fothx. 



hxik. of Jolm Oaiiius N?73 SoutKTWa 3heef TVa«Ae]plua 



Mot tons Grania Americana 



PI. 43 




:£I3Mq:)'D:i^ smehi 



FI^OM: COLUMBIA. ill^^R 



JLitb oi: Jalrt) CoUmK;N"7£> ^g.Th^T^d .St "Plula. 



f:^: • 




ft^ 
M 



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MortoTus Qvama Americaiift 



P1.46. 




ILiAT^AIF 



JFROM COIiUmBIiLP^IVER. 



Drawn f roTn INTaiure and on Stone }^y J, CollmiS 



Morton's Crania Ameruana 



PL 47 



..^-^?Mfi^M^^f^>T\-%^^. 




L\th.olMolui('oUnis S"79 vSoutl. '['\uri\ St Philu. 





^^^ 





1^ 






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•^m-Ulx^''' 



Moi'ion '= Ctajii^^ Aiaerxeaiia 



PI. 50 



it 







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VEKTTCAL VIEW 



Litli.of JoTnj Collins >fo7J? Soiifti 'I'Ka'd St. Fhila 



f^-' 




W'' 




-1 



Si I 



^ 








^iT^'.'i^ 



]VIopt<m's CraTiiaAro. eric ana, 



PI. 52. 



.•AriJ*i*J-^J*?;Xt*«f«^,. 




-4% 





-# 



0]V THE UPPER MISSISSIPPI. 



Morton's CraniaAmericana. 



PL 5 a. 
















.,m ..-^^S^Fi..,., 




1 


f 1 i 


iivfl 


1 











Xlra^wn from IxTa-Lin'e LyE.Matiliews. 



NEAR WHEEIilNGrVIRailMA. 

l^Ji'l-^. of Jolin CollmS , N° 75 S . Thira SiTM^ 



IW^ori on'jj Cr a nia JW eri e ana . 



PL 5 4*. 




;^; 



.-'4 



IFm®lIE A MI®W£riD 



ON THE ALABAMA. MVEK. 

Jjiih. of JoTnn Collins, T\T? 7P S.Tliiri Si. PHil* 



Moi^on's Crania Atii eric ana 



PJ.5 




J..^._i_. 



^3ite: 



IN TENNESSEE. 

iiith. of iohn Oollms.K'^ 79 S. Third Bt.Pl-iii^ 



Mortons Crania AmericaTvi 



P1.56" 




J^^-' 




wmmE A TmmwjM^ at ^am^a ii" ipumw 



l.iOv.of J ahx C ollius, N ' 73 ^Soutk Tlurl SlT Ma^^ 



Morton's Crania Aanericana 



P1.57 




FROM A, TUMlXLUvS IN TBF. TAIJMY iW RD,L\C 



Morton's Crania Americana 



PI. 58 




TROl^^ TUMFIFS I^ THE>MiLEYOF JilMAC 



Lit>,orJoh.^Co11u,s N°79 ^ontLTIiiit] StPlulfla'V 



Morton's Crania Americana. 



PI. 59. 




r-^«^"=v._»..--- 



IFIIi(©MI AS5" ASr(gIIIiMS' ^®MIB 



J\.T OTTIMBA IN MEXICO. 

Liih. o£ Jol-iix Collin s.N? 7S, S.Thmcl Si,P}-ul» 



Mor t on$ Cr aniA ATneri c aana, . 



PL 60. 



..^^; 



^4, 






:^*/f?-?/'i^,'" 











AT OT17MBA IJ>^ IVTBXICO. 

Xjiih-o£ Jolm ColliTis.lSF? 75 S, Third Si. PML* 



Moxi on jfi C r tt 111 a ^^\j]ne 



rieana. 



PL61. 




AT OTUMBA IINF MEXICO. 

IjiiL of John Coll7jis„.l}J'-:^79 S.Ttird BiPM?" 



IVrori on IS ' G r ania Ann eri c aria 



PL 6^ 




I^mCDMl ^ ®iWll MS (B(cMi®IMIDii. 



IN IliLINOIS 



Lith.of Johii Collins. N° 75S. Third Sl.Pl'iil' 



Morfon's Crania Americana. 



n.6s 



/ 




OHIO. 

Litli. of Join Collins,N° 78,SoufkTlura Stllulai*^ 



Mox»ioji's Cx»aiiia,ATnerieaiia. 



P1.64. 







(^mixiaaiB ©5^ ^nsfnawi^iLii. 



Litl-i.of John Collins,TT° 79 S.Third St.Pliir^ 



Morton's Crania Am e i*ji c ana. 



PI. 6 5. 







' '^ 





^* 



miiiaiiiB ©If ^^. ^nsjcgi^ifs'. 



Ijiih of John Collins ,N° 79 S-Tharcl St, Phil ^ 







^ 



^ 



Morton* Crania AmeEicaiia 



n.6T 



Ji&i^3SSE«£*«K^^ 





■' w%i-# 



&.K 





^cp*""-- ''''^''■~' ,£_s_ ti*^^ ^" 






^1 





^ 

^ 

M 






Mortori^s Crania .\inci-.if<-in; 




Pi.6i# 



OF :nem^ cue n^ ad a. 








m 





m 






Moi'i oils C j-oniaAm ^riv 



Pl./^i. 




gjwacS^. 



LitL.of JoLn Ccalui^lI^/'^^.ft.ThirdSt.Pn-il' 



Morions Ciania Ainerieaiia. 



fl. 12 



Fiq.l. 



Mg . 2 . 





Fig.* 



Ti^.S. 





]?mm3H©a®#s®'iia ©a^an » 



ERRATA. 

Page 95, in the Note, for Atlas Mountains, read "Mountains of the Moon." 
" 109, ninth hne of Measurements, for 8.2 inches, read "8.7 inches." 
" 180, for Plate XXXIV, read " Plate XXXII." 
" 204, tenth line from the bottom, dele the words " the purpose of." 
" 283, for Plate LXXI, read " Plate LXXII." 

I have inadvertently omitted to mention my obligations to Dr. Paul Swift, of Nantucket, for the 
series of Natick Skulls measured in the Anatomical Table. 

Corrections of the Phrenolosrical Table. 





6 








destruc- 




if 








tiveness. 




O 




for 


read 


for 


read 


Peruvian. 


91. 


Causality to same, 


3.85 


1.85 


3.7 


2.6 


Peruvian. 


450. 








3.2 


2.9 


Peruvian. 


95. 


Secreliveness, 


4. 


3.3 






Peruvian. 


97. 


Cautiousness to same, 


4.4 


4.8 






Peruvian. 


402. 








3. 


2.7 


Peruvian. 


85. 








3. 


2.7 


Peruvian. 


90. 








2.7 


2.5 


Peruvian. 


446. 


Self-esteem, 


5.45 


4.45 






Peruvian. 


406. 








2.7 


2.5 


Peruvian. 


77. 








3.8 


2.7 


Peruvian. 


86. 








2.85 


2.75 


Peruvian. 


400. 








2.9 


2.7 


Peruvian. 


449. 


Marvellousness to same. 


3.3 


4.3 






Peruvian. 


76. 


Constructiveness to same, 


3.8 


4. 






Peruvian. 


73. 


Meautus to caution. 


2.25 


3.25 


2.55 


2.9 


Mexican. 


559. 








2.7 


2.4 


Pames. 


681. 


Meato-temporal line. 


3.6 


2.6 


2.9 


2.7 


Lenapi. 


40. 












Miami. 


562. 








3.8 


2.5 


Sauk. 


561. 








3. 


2.8 


Menominee. 


78. 


Constructiveness to same, 


5.45 


4.45 






Menominee. 


563. 


Secretiveness to same. 


6.85 


5.85 






Muskogee. 


441. 


Secretiveness, 


4.85 


3.85 






Cherokee. 


634. 


Causality, 


3.35 


4.35 






Golconda Cave. 


A.N.S. 


Secretiveness to same. 


4.25 


5.25 






Peruvian. 


449. 


Ideality to same, 


5.25 


4.25 







03° The list of subscribers' names will be furnished without delay. 



a ^m< 



The subscriber, having completed the Lithography of the plates of the " Crania 
Americana,'' in which he has been almost exclusively engaged for two years past, 
under the direction of the author, takes this opportunity to inform his friends and 
the public generally, that he is now prepared to accept any orders with which 
tJiey may be pleased to favour him. In thus calling their attention to the subject, 
he would desire to state the favourable opinion expressed by many individuals, 
and some public journals, of the execution of the drawings of the said work, 
and the faithful delineation of those peculiarities that form so important a feature 
in its anatomical character. From the time spent in this, added to a close 
observation, and measurement of all the various parts of the natural objects, he 
has the satisfaction of asserting, that but few inaccuracies will be detected by 
comparing the copies with the originals. Much care has been taken to obtain a 
high finish in the shading, as well as correctness in the drawing, in order to render 
this work at once pleasing to the eye of the professional man, the amateur, or 
the occasional reader. 

From a conviction that the experience gained in Lithography during the progress 
of this interesting publication, will enable the subscriber to execute such drawings 
as may be required, in a more thorough and satisfactory manner than would 
otherwise be the case, he now offers his services to any who may feel disposed to 
pubUsh anatomical plates; assuring them that as much labor will be bestowed 
upon them as has been given to the most elaborate ones now offered to their view. 
Portraits, landscapes, and every other kind of drawing, together with maps, plans, 
circulars, &c., will also be received, and care taken to secure correct and well 
finished copies. 

All persons interested in the art, are respectfully invited to call at No. 72 Dock 
Street (to which place the office has been removed,) where specimens in all its 
various branches may be seen and inspected. 

JOHN COLLINS. 

Philadelphia, 11th mo. 1st, 1839. 





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