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Full text of "On the classification and geographical distribution of Crustacea"





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ON THE 
















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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION 



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THE EEPOET ON CRUSTACEA 



OF THE 



f^^NITED STATES EXPLORINa EXPEDITION,' 

CAPTAIN CHARLES WILKES, U. S. N., 



DURING THE YEARS 1838-1842, 





BY 



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JAMES D. DANA, 



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MEMBER OF THE SOC. C^S. NAT. CUR. OE MOSCOW; THE SOC. PHILOMATHIQUE OF PARIS* THE 

GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON J THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES 

AT boston; the ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA, ETC. 




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PHILADELPHIA:" 

PRINTED BYC. SHERMAN 

1853. 



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THE EEPOET ON CRUSTACEA 



OF THE 



UNITED STATES EXPLORINa EXPEDITION, UNDER 

CAPTAIN CHARLES WILKES, U. S. N., 



DUKING THE YEARS 1838-1842. 



BY 



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JAMES D. DANA, A.M., 

MEMBER OF THE SOC. C^S. NAT. CXTK. OF MOSCOW; THE SOC. PHILOMATHTQUE OF PARIS; 
GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON; THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES 

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AT boston; THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA, ETC. 



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PHILADELPHIA: 

PRINTED BY C. SHERMAN 

1853. 



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E'EYIEW 



GF THE CLASSIFICATION OF CEUSTACBA, WITH REFERENCE, TO 

CERTAIN PRINCIPLES OF CLASSIFICATION. 



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The class Grustacea exhibits a clearness of outline in its tj^pes, and 

a display of relations, transitions, and distinctions, among its several 
groups, exceeding any other department of the animal kingdom. 
This fact arises from the very great range in structure occupied by 
the species. The limits in size exceed those of any other class, exclu- 
sive of the Kadiata; the length varying from nearly two feet to a small 

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fraction of a line, the largest exceeding the smallest lineally more 
than a thousand-fold.' In the structure of the limbs, the diversity is 
most surprising, for even the jaws of one division may be the only 
legs of another ; the number of pairs of legs may vary from fifty to 



one, or none. The antennse may be either simple organs of sense or 
organs of locomotion and prehension ; and the joints of the body may 
be widely various in number and form. In the branchial and the 
internal systems of structure, the variety is equally remarkable j for 
there may be large branchiae, or none j a heart, or ;^ne ; a system of 
distinct arterial vessels, or none ; a pair of large liver glands, or but, 
rudiments of them; a series of ganglions in the nervous cord, or but 



one ganglion for the whole body. 



Taking even a single natural group, the Decapods ; — the abdomen 



may be very small, without appendages, and flexed beneath the broad 
cephalothorax out of view, or it may be far the larger part of the 
body, and furnished with several pairs of large natatory appendages ; 



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1396 



CRUSTACEA. 



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the inner antennae may be very small, and retractile into fissures fitted 
to receive them, or they may be very long organs, constantly thrown 
forward of the head ; and descending but a single step, we come to 
species of Decapoda without proper branchiae, some having the abdo- 
minal legs furnished with branchial appendages, and others w^ith no 
abdominal members at all. 



When we consider, that these di\ 



class that may 



not embrace 



now 



that 




1 over ten thousand species (not half of which are 
then comprehend the wide diversity in the distinc- 
The series of species followed through, gives us an 

iracteristics upon which the 



ed view of those distinctive ch 



limits and relations of groups depend. The network of afii 



other departments ; but it is more magnified to 



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Moreover, the distinctions are obviously distinctions of rank. There 
is no ambiguity as to which is the higher or superior group, as among 
Insecta. The variations are manifestly variations in grade, and we 
may readily trace out the several steps of gradation, as we descend 



from the highest Brachyura to the lowest Lernaea. And while we so 



—J 



readily distinguish these gradations, we as plainly see that they are 
not steps of progress followed by nature in the production of species ; 
but, simply successive levels (grades of types), upon which species have 

been multiplied. 

We, therefore, may consider the class Crustacea as especially well 
adapted for instruction in some of the higher principles of classifica- 
tion in Zoology ; and, if we mistake not, laws may be educed which 
have not hitherto taken form in science. These have already been 



But 



we 



partially alluded to in the previous pages of this A^olume. 
here bring together the facts in a connected view, in order to state 
the principles more definitely, and exhibit the full extent of their 
bearing. We leave out, however, a large part of the details, which 

may be found elsewhere in this Report. 

The fundamental idea, which we shall find at the basis of the 
various distinctions of structure among the species is, the higher cen- 
tralization of the superior grades^ and the less concentrated central forces 
of the inferior^ — a principle which has been applied to the animal 

subdivisions, but which has not been 
followed out into all the details of structure exemplified among Crus- 
tacea. 



kingdom in some of its larger 



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CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1397 



This centralization is literally a cephalization of tlie for 



In the 



higher groups, the 



part of the whole structure is centred in the 



head, and contributes to head functions, that is, the functions of 
senses and those of the mouth. As we descend, the head loses 



part after another, and with 



of this kind, there is a step 



down in rank. This centralization may be looked for in the 



^ 



cords; but the facts are less 



bly studied there, than in the 



members, the production and position of which measure the condition of 
the forces :— just as we can better measure the forces of a galvanic 
battery by the work done, than by the size or external appearance of 

the plates which constitute it. 

In the Crustacea type, there are normally twenty-one segments, and 

correspondingly twenty-o 

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Edwards, the last seven 



le pairs of members, as laid down by Milne 
of which pertain to the abdomen, and the 



first fourteen to the cephalothorax. No w, we . may gather from an 
examination of the crab, or Macroural Decapod, acknowledged to be 
first in rank, what condition of the] system is connected with the 
highest centralization in Crustacea. 

In these highest species, nine segments and nine pairs of appendages 



of the /( 



phalothoracic, belon 



the senses and mouth 



and only five pairs are for locomotion. Of these nine, three are org 
of senses, six are the mandibles and maxillao. 



are 



Moreover^ 

clustered into the smallest possible space, so that the six pairs of 
mouth organs hardly occupy more room than the first pair of legs. 
The organs are all small, the antennae exceedingly short, the maxillae 



small lamellar 



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sparingly jointed 



The 



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powers 



of 



growth have had but little play 



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The inner antennae are rather 



gards the basal joint, which is devoted to one of the senses, but 



the rest is nearly rudimentary, and the whole is snugly boxed '^ 
be extruded at the will of the animal. The exterior max 
outer maxillipeds) cover exactly the other pairs, and shut 
down over the mouth, like a well-fitting operculum to the buccal 



closely 



We hence learn, that the cond 



of highest centralization in 



Crustacea, is where the cephalic part embraces the largest portion of 
the normal structure of the cephalothorax, and the whole is con- 
tracted within the smallest compass, with the least vegetative growth 
or elongation of the parts. The forces are concentrated in the more 
perfectly developed senses and the higher functions of the animal 



givmg 



size to the organs of the senses, but acuteness to 



the 



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1398 



CRUSTACEA. 



serial funct 



The perfection of the senses is 



ced by the 



small antennae ; for we infer therefrom 



ly that the 



organ is 



ely an organ of sense, but also, that the delicacy of tl 



itself is 

function 



such 



require 



long-jointed append 



to aid 



This cephalization of the animal is farther observed in the 



of the 



of the thorax and the abdomen 



first place, is reduced to its minimum size, 
here cut short, as in the anterior 



The abdomen, in the 

Vegetative elongation is 

part of the animal ; and the sphere 



of srowth has a narrow limit, owing to the very intensity of 



con- 



centration; and we find that the limit widens as the intensity dimi 



nish 



Again : the central power is indicated by the fact, that the first pair 
of legs is the strong pair ; being properly hands, they contribute espe- 
cially to the higher functions, that is, the support of the Hving animal 
through their strength and powers of prehension, and 



like the 
followino:, to locomotion. Thus, as we pass from the centre, the organs 
3 of more and more humble function. 
This centre, as we have observed in another place, is properly between 



the second antenna and mandible 



The 



d antennae 



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rudimentary mouth, are among 



embry 



the first parts that appear m 

If we look at it as a centre of force or of growth, we rem 

his centre, before and behind, 



d the 
the 



that the radii on opposite sides of this centre, 

very unequal, the latter being six or eight times as long as the former, 

relation which is the inverse of the functional importance of the 

parts pertaining to each. 

Our idea of the condition of highest centralization is thus drawn 

L 

from a study of the species. 

The most perfect state of it is seen in the Maia group, in which the 
bases of the antennae and eyes are crowded into the narrowest possible 
compass, and the mouth organs are well compacted within the buccal 
area, and the legs and whole system have the highest comijleteness. 

The form of the body of a Maia is a somewhat flattened ovoid, nar- 
rowest in front; and the middle point between the mouth and the 
second antennse, which we call the potential centre of the animal, is 
situated near the front, say about half an inch from the front outline 
(excluding the beak), supposing the cephalothorax three inches long. 



We may call the part 



this centre, A 



part posterio 



B; and th 

latter, h. 



of the former, measured on the axis, a; of the 



These parts may be viewed, as regards development 



as 





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CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1399 



potentially equal j and yet tbe anterior, A 



mucli 



and lower than the followi 



times shorter and 
It would not. the 




fore, be far out of the way to say, in mathematical language, that the 
functional importance of the two parts varies inversely as the cubic 

contents of the parts. 

We pass now to the degradations from this, the highest type. 

These degradations are seen 

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Firsts in a widening of the space between the antennae. 
Secondy in a slight enlargement of the outer maxilHpeds 

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they do not fit snugly over the buccal area. 
Third, in an elongation of the antenna. 



that 



These are all evidences of a slight relaxing of the concentrating 
element. The first, marks the transition of the Maia group to the 
Parthenopidse, and thence to 



the Cancridas. The second 



a step lowe 



species of the old g 



grade 

swimmino; crabs and the Corystoids 



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also to the 



and the third, marks off the 



Corystoids as the lowest of the true Brachy 



While there are such marks of degradation exhibited through 



the 



growth or elon 



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of parts, there is also a mark, equally significant 



the obsolescence of the posterior thoracic legs, a peculiarity of many 



Graj: 



In the Maioids 




well balanced j the type 
of the central functions 

But 




is perfect in its development : the s 

allows of the full and complete growth of all the other parts 
the diminution of force may not only be attended with a loosening of 
the cephalic hold on the remoter of the cephalic organs, but also, in a 
failure in the production of the posterior organs of the body, or those 



on the outer hmits of the syst 
Grapsoids. 



and this is what happens m many 



The swimming form of the legs in Lupa and allied species 
mark of inferiority. 
Besides the above evidences of degradation, there are still others in 
the Brachyural structure, which act conjointly with tlie preceding, 
producing lower grades of s-pecies. They are ^ all marks of a relaxa- 
tion of the centrahzation. 

Fourth. An enlargement or widening of the sternum and abdomen. 

Fifth. The abdomen becoming somewhat relaxed from the venter 
instead of remaining close-appressed to it: 

Sixth. The vulvse becoming more remote from one another, being 
situated in the bases of the third pair of legs, instead of the sternum. 



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1400 



CRUSTACEA. 



Seventh. The inner antennae losing their fossettes, and being con- 



stantly exsert. 

Eighth. The branchiae bein 

side. 




more than nine in number on either 



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The first of these peculiarities distinguishes many of the Grapsoids 
well as lower species. The second is observed in the Corystoids 



and is an additional mark of 



ferior grade. The third 



Dromia and allied. The fourth, in Latreill 



m 

and in Dromia, this evidence of degradation 



The fifth, in 



Dromia and Latreillia have the posterior legs abbreviated 



still 



that 



the fourth as well as fifth pair is short and dorsal 



The last 



characteristics, above mentioned, mark a transition 



ards the Macroural type, and the genera of this kind belong with 



the Anomoura. This transition is seen further 



Ninth. The eyes being without fossettes. 

Tenth. The second pair of antennos becoming exterior to the eyes. 
Eleventh. The outer maxillipeds more enlarged and subpediform. 

Twelfth. The abdomen more lax and furnished with a pair of caudal 

appendages. 

Thirteenth. The abdomen more elongated, and hardly inflexed. 



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These several changes exhibit a continuation of the process of 



laxation 



There is thereby an enlargement of the 



and their more remote position at the 



anterior extremity of 
the animal ; and also, an enlargement of the posterior or abdominal 
parts of the animal, and a development of appendages in the posterior 
direction. These marks of degradation, excepting the thirteenth, are 
found in the Hippa and Porcellana groups, and the thirteenth in the 



Paguridea 



At the same 



that these Macroural characteristics 



appear, the body becomes elongated. The species all bear a stamp of 
imperfection in the abbreviated posterior legs, as explained above, as 
well as in the other points alluded to. 



to. The subordination of the nin( 
annuli to cephalic functions, which is so striking in the Maioids 



has become less and less complete, and the 



perfect; more 



the habits of the animals 



more 



;ish, and they 



fitted for self-preservation. The large Dromia picks up a waste shell, 
and by means of its hind legs, lifts it over its body for protection, and 
the Pagurus finds shelter in the water-worn univalves of a coast. 



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CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1401 



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The degradation pointed out, is lience, not merely a variation in 



the position and size of 



but an actual deterio 



and intellig 



Other minor points exhibiting difference of grade, might be men 



tioned: but they h 
here only one 



dy be 



ubiects of remark 



We state 



the character of the fingers of the large hands 



In 



the 



higher species 



these fingers are pointed j in a grade below 



some groups, they have a spoon-like extremity 



This 



form 



is often more perfect in youn 



dividuals than in adults, which 



one evidence that it is in fiict proof of inferiority. By this mark we 
learn that the GUorodince are of lower grade than the Xanthince; the 
Paguri, than the BernJiardi; the Mifhracidm, than the Maiadce, etc. 



Let us pass now to the Mao 



In the typical Macroural species 



the antennas, ii 

Ions exsert organs, and 



stead of being minute, with the inner retractile, are 



b 



eyes 



form, and do not closely cover the other mouth org 



plate as an appendage 
f maxillipeds are pedi- 

ms; the abdomen 



than the rest of the body, and has its six regular pairs 
All these points show a still further relaxing of the 



There 



of 



d 



is often longer 

of appendages. 

centralization or cephalization of the species 

of the parts anterior to the mouth, and ah 

this elongation of the two extremities is approximately proportional 

to the relative dimensions of the corresponding parts in the Brachyura. 

If we were to draw out an ovoid with the relative length and breadth 

of a Macroural cephalothorax, and place its focus so as to correspond 

with the position of the posterior margin of the epistome, in a manner 

like that proposed for the Maia among Brachyura, the ovoid would 

be very narrow, and the foci 

the front than in the Brachy 



or centre proportionally farther from 



In following down the degradation of 



the Brachyura to the Ano- 
moura, we have found the posterior legs becoming abbreviated, and 
the whole structure in its aspect imperfect. But, in the typical Ma- 
seeming imperfection. The legs are 
re exceedingly quick in their motion, 



othing of 



anim 



all fully formed ; the 

instead of being sluggish; and every organ is apparently in its most 

We 

should, therefore, understand, that the process of degradation, alluded 
above, is not one actually passed through in the system of creation ; 

351 



perfect state for the uses of the system to which it is tributary 



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1402 



CRUSTACEA. 



for by its progress we should never reach the Macroural structure ; 



nor, in 



Brachyural 



the reverse order, should 



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the rem 



from the Macroural reach the 
LS above, we speak only of the 



comparative actual conditions of the species as regards centralization. 
The Macroura and Brachyura belong to subordinate, yet correlated 

types of structure, each perfect in itself, and admitting of wide modi- 

We add a few 



fications, and having its own svstem of degradations 



words 



these degradations 



among 



the M 



We ha\^ 



seen 



that, in the Brachyura, the powerful prehensile legs are those of the 
first pair, th'ese acting for the collection of food, and so contributing to 
the mouth. In the Macroura, there are species of high rank that 

There are 



have the 



lea's strons-handed, like the Macroura 



others, in which the 



d or third pair is the 



g-handed 



pair 



others having all the legs weak appendages, with only rudimentary 



hands 



The several marks of degradation are as follows 



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First. The outer maxillipeds pediform. 
Second. The maxillipeds next anterior pediform. 
T/mxl. Second pair of legs cheliform and stouter than the fi 
Fourth. The third pair of legs 
the preceding. 



cheliform and stouter than either of 



Thu 



we descend, we find one and 



two pairs of mouth ap- 



pendages beginning to pass from the mouth series to the foot series, and 
the cephalic portion is thus losing its appendages and high centralized 
character. Moreover, the power belonging to the first pair of legs in 
the higher species is transferred to the second pair of legs, as in the 



y 



Palsemo 



or. to the third pair, as in 



the Penseidse; indicating a 



further decrease of that centralization so remarkable in the Brachy 

I 

Still lower among the species, as in the Sergestida3, all the legs 



weak, and the posterior pair may be short or obsolete, — the same 
deterioration that occurs in the lower Brachyura. 

As we descend farther, there is an increased obsolescence of organs, 
and every step is one of marked imperfection as well as degradation. 



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Fifth. The branchiae become external and small. 

Sixth. The branchiae become wholly wanting, or part of the 

minal appendages. 

Seventh. The last two pairs of thoracic legs become obsolete. 
Eighth. The abdominal appendages become obsolete. 



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CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1403 



Ninth. The eyes and antennse have separate segments, and the 
abdomen is very long and large. 



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The fifth point of degradation is seen in the EiqoJiausidw ; the 
the Mysidoe and other Anomobran 



the 



th is found 



al genera of the same group 



the eighth in certain Mysidse 



The Anomobranchiates are thus degraded Mac 



Th 



merely a relaxing of the centrahzation ; but the forces are so weakened 
as not to succeed in finishinor out the members in the system of struc- 



which they pertain 



The 



consequently are not modi 



fications upon the level of the Macroural type, nor upon a distinct 

simply imperfect developments of the 



level or distinct typ 



but 



Macroural structure below the true level of that type. They bear 
arly the same relation to the Macroura, that the Anomoura bear to 



the Brachy 



The 



th step 



seen in the Squilloidea 



the 



phalic part, as well as 



relaxation of system and elongation m 

abdomen are remarkable. 

The continuation of the line of degradation represented in the Ano- 

remarked, among the typical 



moura, is not to be found 



have 



N 



Macr 



But the 



of the Paguri may be traced 



aberrant Macroura, called Thalassinidea ; and the 



both in the 



abdomen, the le^'s, and 
Squilloids, c 



brand 



a transition to the 



division of the Anomobranchiates. If then, we wer 



the lines of af&nity in the specie 



ould be fr 



the 



Mysis group to the typical Macroura, and from the Squilla group 
the Thalassinidea, as elsewhere explained. From the latter, 1 



lines lead mainly to the Anomoura and higher species 



In our review, thus far, we recognise one only of the iirimary types 
of structure among Crustacea. This primary type is characterized by 

devoted to the senses and 



having nine, normal annuli or segments 



mouth, that is, to the cephalic portion of the body. It includes two, 

tJiree secondary types. The first of these 



or, we perhaps may say, 



secondary types is the Brachyural ; it has the antennaa small, the 
inner pair in fossettes, the abdomen without appendages 



In the other 



are elongated, and 



type (or other two, if so considered), the antennae 

bbth pairs free, the abdomen is elongated, and furnished with a series of 

appendages. 

that it embraces two distinct types (a second and third), the 

two correspond to the typical Macroura and the Thalassinidea. 



This, the second type, is the Macroural; or, if we 



assume 



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1404 



CRUSTACEA. 



Each secondary type emlbraces types of more subordinate cli 
which it is unnecessary here to dwell upon. 



There 



IS a 



tendency in the lowest species to a transfer of the 
posterior mouth appendages to the foot series, so as to leave but S( 



phalic 



but it is only a modification of the primary tyj: 



the species have every mark of being degraded or imperfect forms, 

and are not examples of a new type. 

In this primary type, the species vary in length from half an inch 
to twenty inches. Two inches may be set down as the average length 
and breadth for the Brachy ura ; while three inches is the average length 
of the Macroura, the average breadth being half an inch or less. 



The second primary type among Crustacea 



well defined 



nine 



limits, and as distinct in its characters as the first. Instead of having 

annuli devoted to the senses and mouth, there are but seven, the 
mouth, including a pair of mandibles, two pairs of maxilljB, and one 
of maxillipeds. The number is permanent and characteristic. 



Ther 



are, consequently, seven pairs of legs in these species, instead of five, 
the Decapod number; and the species have been appropriately styled 
the Tetradecapoda. Instead of exhibiting any appearance of imper 



fection 



any obsole'scent 



like those lower Macroura that 



show a transition to a fourteen-footed structure, the organs are all 



complete, and the whole stru< 
in character. They have noi 
are not pedicellate 3 there is 



ure is perfect in symmetry and unique 

a Macroural characteristic. The eyes 



but a body divided 



as there are legs (when 



our 



Clioristopod 



many segments 

the antenna?, legs, and whole internal structure are distinct in tyj 

The branchiae are simple sacs, either thoracic or abdominal 



We have, therefor 



Tetradecapods an expression of that 



3ture of body, and that size, which belongs to a system, in which 
seven annuli or segments are concentrated in the cephalic portion 
of the structure. The structure is far inferior to the Decapodan. 



but 



'*- 



The 



rarely exceeds two inches, though in extreme 



three 



four inches -, and probably half an inch is the average length 



The 



between the first and second of the primary types, is therefore 
distinct in the average size of their structures, as in their actual 

ade or rank 

Superior rank among 



Tetradecapods may be distinguished by 



some of the same points as in the Decapods 



The short 



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CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1405 



short compact bodies, and abbreviated abdomen of the Isopods, are 
proofs of their superiority of grade 



The abdominal 



da 



ply branchial, and in the higher species are naked 



or 



■ciliated 



lamellae 



The 



grade are seen in the 



of these abdominal lamellae, their becoming ciliated, and the abdomen 
being also more elongated and flexible ; then in the abdominal lamellgo 
becoming elongated natatory appendages, and the abdomen taking a 
length usually not less than that of the thorax, as in the Amphipods, 
in which the branchiae are appendages to the thoracic legs. And 
while this elongation goes on posteriorly, there is also anteriorly an 
enlargement of the antennae, which in the Amphipoda are usually 



long org 



There are thus two secondary types of structure among 



the Tetradecapods, as among the Decapods; a transition group be 



Anomoura, partakes of some of the 



of both types, without being a distinct type itself 



These 



Anisopoda 



The 



species graduate from the Isopod degree of perfec 



the Bopyri, the lowest of the Tetradecapods. 
alogy between this group and the Anomou 



There is thus 



The Trilobita probably belong with the second type, rather than 
e third. Yet they show an aberrant character in two important 



points 



First, th 



of the body multiplied much beyond the 



normal number, as in the Phyllopoda 



Agassiz has remarked 



upon 



this as 



the Entomostrs 
i of that larval 



and 



which characterizes in many 



the earlier forms of animal life 



In the second place, the size of the body far transcends the ordinary 

Isopodan limit. 

it is more probably the reverse. 

normal and most effective size, due to the same principle of veg 

growth, which accords with the inordinate rnultipHcation of sei 



This might be considered a mark of superiority; but 

It is an enlargement beyond the 



body 



* 



The third primary type (the Entomostracan) includes a much wider 
variety of structure than either of the preceding, and is less persistent 

* Prof. Guyot very happily names the three great periods of geological history 
ally denominated the Palaeozoic, Secondary, and Tertiary, or, by Agassiz, the age of 
Fishes, that of Reptiles, and that of Mammals,— the Vegetative, the Motorial, and the 
Sensorial epochs;— the first, being the period characterized prominently by vegeta- 
tive growth in animal life ; the second, by the increased development of the muscular 
system, as exemplified by the enormous reptiles of the epoch ; the third, by the develop- 
ment of the higher functions of the brain, exhibited in the appearance of mammals. 



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1406 



CRUSTACEA. 



these mouth organs 



in its characteristics. It is, however, more remote in habit from the 
Tetradecapods, than from the lowest Decapods, and is properly a dis- 
tinct group. Unlike the Decapods and Tetradecapods, there are nor- 
mally but six annuli devoted to the senses and mouth in the highest 
of the species, and but five in others, the mouth including a pair of 
mandibles, and either one or two pairs of maxillae (or maxillipeds) . 
This is an abrupt step below the Tetradecapods. We exclude from 

the prehensile legs, called maxillipeds by some 
authors, as they are not more entitled to the name than the prehen- 
sile legs in Tanais, and many other Tetradecapods. There is an 
exception to the general principle in a few species. A genus of Cyp- 
roids has three pairs of maxillse; but this may be viewed as an 
example of the variations which the type admits of, rather than as an 
essential feature of it, — possibly a result of the process of obsolescence 
which marks a low grade, as in the Mysidag, whose abdomen by losing 

its appendages, approximates in this respect to the Brachyural struc- 
ture, though, in fact, far enough remote. 

The species of the Entomostracan type show their inferiority to either 
of the preceding in the absence of a series of abdominal appendages, 

the appendages of the eighth, ninth, tenth, and 



and 



also in having 



eleventh normal rings, when present, natatory in form. 



The 



range of size is very great, 



and this is a mark of their low 



grade, for in this respect they approach the Radiata, whose limits of 
size are remarkably wide. Nearly all of the species, and those which, 
by their activity, show that they possess the typical structure in its 
highest perfection, are minute, not averaging over a line in length, or 
perhaps more nearly three-fourths of a line. 

Taking this as the trae expression of the mean normal size of the 
type, the three primary types will vary in this respect as 24 (two 

inches) : 6 : 1. 

The size in this third type, reaches its maximum in the Limuli ; 
and these are unwieldy species, whose very habits show that vegeta- 
tive growth has given them a body beyond the successful control of 
its weak system, that is, a larger frame than it has power to wield 
with convenience or defend, for it is at the mercy even of the waves 
upon a beach. 

This type has its highest representatives among the Cyclopoids, 




roup of the higher Crustacea. 



In 



which remind us of the Mysis 

these, the cephalic part includes six out of the fourteen cephalotho- 




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CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1407 




I 

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annuli. In the Daphnioids and the Caligoids, they include only 
In Limulus, only the first four can properly be counted as of 



the cephal 



In many 



Entomostraca, the mouth 



are nearly as perfect legs 



as in Limulus, and the species, although 



evidently of a low grade, cannot properly be removed from the group 



Lim 



h 



its nearest ally 



Ap 



although this g 



has the 



mouth organs of a Daphni 



The lowest species of the type are the Lern^oids 



It is of the same 



yet 



h 



so 



A fourtli primary type includes the Cirripeds. 
rank as regards cephahzation as the Entomosti 
many peculiarities of structure, that it should be regarded as a distinct 
type, rather than a subordinate division of the third typ 

The mean size of the species of 
the same among the higher Ento 



oup is mu 



greater than 



But if we regard the 



young 



Cyp 



state, and compare it with the correspond 



g condition of species of Cyproicls, we shall discover that the species 
have, in fact, an abnormal growth ; a growth which takes place at 
the expense of the powers of motion or action in the individuals. 
The body, when it commences a sedentary life, increases in magnitude 
far beyond the Cypris or Daphni 

loss of ^0 



d there is a corresponding 



move 



sufficient for the tiny model ; and when the model is enlarged without 

responding increase in the seat of power, sluggish motion is the 



necessary consequence 



Thus it is with the Med 



Individuals 



of the minuter species, or the larger species, when in the young 



but as 



are gifted with 
the forces with 
movement, or lose almost 
is illustrated again in the 
related to Jsera and T 



powers 



of 



the 



conforms to 



species 



they become slow 



m 



The 



male is a small active anim 



mais. The female, of sedentary habits, becomes 
grossly enlarged and corpulent, so as to exceed by twenty-fold lineally 




the len 
manifest, that t 

absolutely no g 



th of the male, and nearly ten thousand times its bulk 



It 



nervous system, or motive power of the female 



of locomotion 



,pabiiities 
female will move but a ten-thousandth of 



that of the male; and consequently, the 
ill be ten thousand times less, or the 

inch at the most, while 



the male is moving one inch, a fact with regard to them, as any one 
is aware of who has seen the incapability of the female to make any 



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1408 



CRUSTACEA. 



w 

progress by locomotion. This then, is an example beyond dispute, of 
a system overgrown through the vegetative process, so as to be too 
much for the motive energies within. The Lernaeoids afford a similar 
illustration of this principle. 

For the same reason, therefore, as in the Bopyri, the Medusae, the 
Lernseoids, and the Limuli, we cannot compare the actual mean size 
of the adult Cirripeds with those of the other primary types. We 
should rather infer the mean normal size for such a comparison, from 
the size of the young before it becomes sedentary, or from that of free 
males, if such exist. Such males are announced by Darwin, as actu- 
ally occurring in some species. Moreover, they are very minute, 
varying from a line to half a line or less in length. This, therefore, 

is some reason for taking as the mean normal size, the same as given 
for the Entomostraca. 



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K fifth primary type includes the Rotatoria. In these animalcular 
species, the mouth includes a pair of mandibles and often a rudimen- 
tary pair of maxillae j and consequently, the cephalic portion may 
contain the same number of annuli as in the Daphnia group, with 
which group many of them have near relations. They have usually 
an articulated abdomen, furcate at extremity, like the Cyclopoids. 
The grand point of inferiority to the Entomostraca, evincing the more 
infinitesimal character of the system of life within, is the absence of 
all thoracic appendages or legs. The organs of locomotion are simply 



cilige arranged about the head; and it is quite probable that two sets 



Pro- 



(or more) of them correspond to the second pair of antennse, as these 
are organs of prehension and motion in many Entomostraca. In Cal- 
lidina, there are two sets, some distance from the extremity of the 
head, which may have this relation; and the two sets in the true 
Rotifers may also be of this character. In others, the corresponding 
parts are actually somewhat elongated. 

The species vary in size from a line to a sixtieth of a line, 
bably one-ninth of a line is the average size. 

The actual relation of the Rotatoria to the Entomostraca (which 
view the author sustained in his Report on Zoophytes (1845)), can 
hardly be doubted by those who have the requisite knowledge of the 
lower Crustacea for comparison. The structure of the body, the 
jointing and form of the abdomen, when it exists, the mandibles, and 

alimentary system, the eyes when present, — all are Crustacean ; and 



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CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1409 



a slight transformation of some Entomostraca— an obliteration of the 
legs and substitution of locomotive cilias — would almost turn them 

into Kotatoria. 



In the classification which has been developed, we have made out 
five primary types of structure among Crustacea. A grand distinction 
has been shown to consist in the different degrees of cephalization of 



the normal Crustacean structure, 
out of the fourteen cephalothorac 



The consecration of nine annuli 
. to the senses and mouth, distin 



guishes the highest type ; of seven, the second type ; of six or five, the 
third and fourth; oi five or four, the fifth. In connexion with other 
distinctions in these types, we find that they correspond to s 
of different size, the size being directly related to the grade 
particulars may be tabulated as follows : 



These 



Typical number 
of cephalic an- 
nuli. 



9 



II. Macroura 



7 . 
6-5 
6-5 
5-4 



. Mean Bormal length, in 
twelfths of inches or 
lines. 

24 (and breadth; 24). 

36 (and breadth; 6). 

6 
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Type I. PoDOPHTHALMiA ] Subtype I. Brachyura; 

or DecapodA; 
Type II. TetradecapodA; 
Type III. EntomostracA; 
Type IV. Cirripedia, 
Type V. ROTATORIA; 

The first type is alone in having true thoracic branchisD, and pedi- 
cellate eyes. 

The second type has branchial sac-like appendages^ either abdo- 
minal or thoracic^ and sessile eyes. 

The third type has generally no branchi^; the surface of some part 
or all of the body serving for aeration. A few species^ however^ are 



furnished with special organs for this function. This is^ however^ no 



mark of superiority in such species, for they occur even in the Limuli^ 
amons the lowest of the Entomostraca. The necessity of them in 
this case arises from the abnormal size of the species, both the mark 
and occasion of its inferiority ; for the system is thus too large for 
the mode of surface aeration, found among ordinary Entomostraca; 
moreover, the shell, which so large an animal possesses and requires 
for the attachment of its muscles and its movements, is thick and 
firm, and this is inconsistent with aeration by the exterior surface of 
the body. The same remarks apply to the liver glands, which are 

very small or wanting in the small species. 

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1410 



CRUSTACEA. 



The third and fourth types show their inferiority to the second, by 
the absence of a series of abdominal appendages; and the fifth a lower 
state still, in the absence of both thoracic and abdominal legs. The 
more degraded Macroura (certain Mysidse) show a transition in this 
obsolescence of abdominal organs to the third type. 



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Some of the conclusions from these facts are the followin 



to 



I. Each type corresponds 



lystem of force, more or less 



centralized in the organism, and is an expression of that force 



the 
higher degree being such as is fitted for the hisrher structures deve 



for structures of inferior grade 



d 



loped, the lower such as is fitted 
size. In other words, the life-system is of different orders for the dif- 
ferent types, and the structures formed exhibit the extent of their 
spheres of action, being such as are adapted to use the force most 
effectively, in accordance with the end of the species. 

Lven type, as the first, for example, the same system may 



II. In 




be of different dimensions, adapted to structures of diffe 
But the size in either direction for structures of efhcien 
limited. To pass these limits, a life-system of r 



Qothe 



nt sizes. 
action is 
der 



IS re- 



quired 



The Macroura, as they diminish in size, finally pass th 



and the organisms (Mysidge, for example) 



no longer perfect in 



their members ; an obsolescence of some parts be 




take pi 



and species of this 



sm 



actually complete only when pro 



vided with the structure of a Tetradecapod. 
- The extreme size of structure admittin 



of 



highest efficient 



activity is generally three to 



imes lineally the average 



mean 



typical 



Of these gigantic species, three or four times longer th 



the mean type, there are examples among the Brachyura and Macroura 
which have all the highest attributes of the species 
Amphipoda and Isopoda thi 



Th 



are also 



3e inches in length, with full vigorous 
Among Entomostraca, the Calanidse, apparently the highest 

that are three lines long, or three times the 



powers.^ 

group, include species 

length of the mean typ 



III. But the limit of efficient activity may be passed ; and whe 



it is attended with a loss of 



powers 



The 



the 



female Bopy 



d Lernasoids, and the Cirripe 



This 



the proper sphere of action of the system of force withm. 

is especially found in sedentary species, as we have exemplified 

remarks on the Cirripeds. 




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CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 




IV. Size is, therefore, an important element in the system of ani 
^trnrtnres As size diminishes, in all departments of animal life 



mal structures, 
the structure chang 



To the human 



the quadruped also, beyond 



which 



structure there is a limit ; to 
structure is an impossibility; 



d so seems the case among Crustace 



The Decapod 



the 



diminishes, reaches the lowest limit; and then, to continue _ the rang< 
df size in species, another structure, the Tetradecapodan, is mstituted 



and as this last has also its limit 



Entomostracan is introduced 



the gradation ; and, as these end, the Rotatoria be 



Thus 



length of nearly 



Crustacea are made to embrace species, from a 
feet (or two hundred and fifty lines) to that of a one-hundred-and-fiftieth 
of aline. These several types of structure among Crustacea do not 
graduate, as regards size, directly from one to another, but they consti- 



overlapping lines, as has been sufficiently 



V. In the opposite extreme of 



iD 



being 



o 



etable kin 



b 



dom, the same principle 



illustrated. Plants may be so minute 



have free motion and activity, as in animals. The spores of 

are known to have powers of locomotion, and some 



Al 

Infusoria, are now 




called 



admitted to belong to the vegetable kingdom 



These are examples of locomotive plant 



Now, ordinary plants 



Cirripeds 



examples of sedentary species, that have outgrown the 



limits of activity 



The life-svstem 



fact sufficient 



power to give locomotion only to the minute plant-individuals alluded 
to ; and infusorial species of plants retain it, as long as they live. 

owth proceeds in the enlarge- 

it immediately outgrows its 

In most other plants, the 



But when, as in the Alga8, vegetative g ^ 
ment of the minute infusorial spore, i 

activity, and becomes a sedentary plant 
seed have never the minute size which admits of motion. 
The mean size of the Entomostracan type was stated to be 

of the Rotatorial type, 

the mean size of the plant type 



07ie-sixtn of a line ; and we may add, that 



the mean 



size admitting of 



mderstanding by this 
the highest activity 



s in other 
■if deduced 



from the size of plant-infusoria, would be about one-sixtieth of 



We observe 



the smallest size of the perfect Macroura (fi 



type) is very nearly the mean size as to length of the 



of 



second typ 



So also, the 



of 



perfect animal of the 



second type (Tetradecapoda) is very nearly the mean size of the most 
perfect animals of the third type ; and the smallest size of the perfect 
animal of the third type is nearly the largest size in the fifth type. 



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1412 



CRUSTACEA. 



In order to 



pare 



allied animals of different 



should be 



oted, that while there is some found 



for the conclusion 



under certain limitations, size is a mark of grade, rapidity of move- 
ment or action should also be considered ; and the more proper com- 
parison would be between multiples of size and activity. This deduc- 

in the most s'eneral sense, and rather 

!S. We 





betw 



however, true or 
species of allied groups than those of different typ 



may occasionally find someth 



t> 



like 



exemplification of the law 



long bipeds, ludicrous though the idea may be. 

VI. We observe with regard to the passage in Crust 



grades under a given type, that there are two methods by which it 

takes place. 

1. A diminution of centralization, leading to an enlargement of the 

circumference or sphere of growth at the expense of concentration, as 



the elongation of the 



and a transfer of the maxillipeds 



the foot series, the elongation of the abdomen and abdominal appen 



da 



2. A diminution of force as compared with the size of the 



leading 



an abbreviation or obsolescence of 



mferential 



as the posterior thoracic legs or anterior antennae, or the abdo 
minal appendages (where such appendages exist in the secondary typ( 
embracing the species) . These circumstances, moreover, are indepen 
dent of a degradation of intelligence, by an extension of the sphere 
of growth beyond the proper limits of the sphere of activity. 

VII. A classification by grades, analogous to that deduced for Crus 



may no doubt be laid out for other classes of anim 



But 



particular facts in the class under consideration, are not to be forced 



upon other 



Thus, while inferiority 



o 



Crustace 



nected with a diminished number of annuli cephalically absorbed (fi 
the senses and mouth), it by no means follows, that the Insect 
which agree in the number of cephalic annuli with the lower Crusta 

or inferior to the higher species. 



allied 



them 



rank 



On 



the contrary, as the Insecta pertain to a distinct division, being aerial 



be studied and judged of, only 

r insects themselves. 



instead of aqueous animals, they can 
on principles deduced from comparison amon 
They are not subject to Crustacean laws, although they must exem- 
plify beyond doubt, the fundamental idea at the basis of those laws. ^ 

The views which have been explained, lead us to a modification, in 
some points, of the classification of Crustacea, adopted in the early 



4. 



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■> 






V 



\ 



y 





*■ 



I 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1413 



part of this Report, and followed out through the subsequent pa 




The question, whether the eyes are pedicellate 



upon which 



the names Podophthalmia and Edriophthalmia are based, proves to be 
one of secondary importance. And although still available in distin- 
guishing almost infallibly the species of the first type, it is far from 
rendering it necessary or natural to embrace together under a common 
division the species that have sessile eyes (so-called Edriophthalmia), 
as done by most writers on this subject. 

The term Decapoda, in view of these principles, has a higher signi- 
fication than has been suspected, since by expressing the number of 



feet, it impl 



the number of cephaHc annuli characterizing the 
It' would not be employing it inconveniently, therefore, if it 
were extended to embrace all the Podophthalmia, or all species of the 
first type, including the Mysis and Squilla groups 



species 



For 



reason, the term Tetradecapoda has a high 



nificance 



as applied to the species of the second type. The position of the Tri- 
lobita still remains in doubt. The Cirripedia and Entomostraca, third 
and fourth types, stand properly on nearly the same level. 



X 



On the following pag 



we offer a review of 



classification of 



Crustacea, with the characters of the several subdivisions 



"We first 



present the characters of the higher divisions of the class, that 

The Subclasses, Orders, and Tribes of Crustacea. 



?. 





' . 



\ ] 



.. \ 



i I 



i' 



1 I 

L 



\'f 



* References and synonymy are omitted beyond, as they have been given fully in 
other parts of the work. 



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354 



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CEUSTACEA. 



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SuBCLASsis I- PODOPHTHALMIA (yel DECAPODA). 



/ 



Annuli cephalotlioracis cephalici (ad sensus et appendices 

Oculi pedunculati. 

icis lateribus 



buccales pertinentes) numero nove77i. 
Brancliise aut foliosas aut filosae, sub tlioi 



dispositse, raro obsolete vel abdominales. Cephaloth 
carapace plus minusve tectae. 



\ 



»i I 



Ordo I. EUBKANCHIATA. 



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Branchise apud thoracis latera dispositas, carapace tectas. 



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TribxjsI. BEACHYURA 



Corp 



latum 



inflexum et stricte appressum, appendicibus carens. 



Abdomen in sternum 

Branchiae 



'» 



utrinque numero novem 



Vulvse in sternum excavate. Carap 



gitudinali infra utrinque notatus, antice cum epistomat 



coalitus. 




Tribus II. ANOMO¥RA 



Corp 

Abdomen ssepe ac in 
appressum, interdum elongatum 



sive 



gatum 



latum sive multum elon- 

r 

Brachyuris, S£epe ad sternum laxe 
, et non inflexum, et appendicibus 



caudalibus instructum : 
numero novem vel plur 



vatoe, ac in 



Macron 
Brachy 



ppendicibus aliis. Branchiae utrmque 
Vulvse in pedum Stiorum bases exca 
Carapax sutura longitudinali utrinqut 



Tribus III. MACROURA.— Corpus multum 



elon 



Abdomen 



elongatum et appendicibus seriatis instructum, vix inflexum, vel 




.—- v ». 




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— -4- 




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,.--[_ 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1415 



r 

rectum. Branchige numero ssBpius plures quam novem. Vulv» 
in pedum Stiorum bases excavatse. 



Carapax sutura longitudinali 



raro utrinque notatus. 





ii 



I ■ 



^ 



Ordo II. ANOMOBRANCHIATA. 



Branchige sive apud pedum bases thoracis dispositse et aperti 
appendicibus abdominis appendiculatae, sive omnino obsoletse 



Tribus I. MYSIDEA.— Corpus forma fere Caridoideum, non dep 



sum. 



prehensiles, g 



Pedes thoracis et maxillipedes nulli 
ssepius palpigeri, palpo prope thoracem insiti. 

Tribus II. AMPHIONIDEA. — Corpus depressum, stepe latum. 
Pedes thoracis et maxillipedes nulli prehensiles, palpigeri, palpo a 
thorace remoto. 

Tribus III. SQUILLOIDEA.— Corpus valde depressum. Pedes qua- 
tuor et maxillipedes quatuor monodactyli prehensiles. 




:ff 



t-W 




! 



SuBCLASSis II. TETRADECAPODA. 



S 



Annuli ceplialotlior 



iphalici numero septem 



Oculi 



Appendices brancliiales simplicissim^, sive tho 



siles. 

racicge sive abdominales. Ceplialothor 



multi-annulatus 



apace 



pedibus 



iatis instructus 



Abdomen 



,ppendicibus seriatis instructum, raro obsolescens 



Ordo I. OHORISTOPODA. 



Cephalothorax pedibus unguiculatis interdum partim chelatis in- 
structusj pare utroque ad annulum singulum pertinente. 



Tribus I ISOPODA.— Pedes thor 



seriei anterioris numero sex 



poste 



ppendicibus branchialibus non instructs 



Abdomen breve, appendicibus decem anticis branchialibus, duobus 
posticis styliformibus vel lamellatis. 



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1416 



CRUSTACEA. 



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Tribus II. ANISOPODA. — Pedes thoracis seriei anterioris numero 
octo, seriei posterioris numero sex, appendicibus branchialibus non 
instructi. Abdomen sat breve, appendicibus decern anticis branchi- 
alibus vel subnatatoriis, duobus posticis ac in Isopodis. 

Tribus III. AMPHIPODA. — Pedes thoracis seriei anterioris 



V 



seriei anterioris numero 
octo, seriei posterioris numero sex, appendicibus branchialibus 



partim 



Abdomen elongatum, appendicibus sex natatoriis 



tyliformibus 



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Ordo II. TRILOBITA.— (An liujus sedis ?) 



? — Cephalothorax appendicibus lainellatis infra instructus baud pedi- 
bus unguiculatis. Segmenta corporis numero ab norma sa^pe mul- 
tiplicata. 



SuBCLAssis III. ENTOMOSTRACA 



Annuli cephalotl 



phalici numero sex vel quinque 



Oculi ssepissime sessiles. Appendices brancliiales s^pis 

appendicibus seriatis non instruc 



sime nullge 



turn 



Abdomen 



Cephalothorax pedibus seriatis instructus, octo vel 



decern post 



ad annulos 8vum-llmum vel 12mum perti 



nentibus (si non obsoletis), ssepius natator 



Ordo L GNATHOSTOMATA. 



Os mandibulis maxillisque normalibus instructum, non trunciforme 



nee suctorium. 



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Legio I. LOPHYROPODA.— Appendices cephalothoracis et segmenta 
numerum normalem non superantes. 



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Tribus I. CYC LOPOIDE A.— Cephalothorax annulatus et carapace 
non instructus. Abdomen rectum et non inflexum. Appendices 












v^ 



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i 




CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1417 



cephalothoracis mandibulares et sequentes numero 16-18, posticis 
8-10 natatoriis. 

Tribus II. DAPHNIOIDEA 



Corp 



carapace plerumque 



abdomine plus minusve inflexo. Appendices cephalothoracis man- 
dibulares et sequentes numero 12-16, 6-8 posticis subnatatoriis. 

Tribus III. CYPROIDEA.— Corpus carapace bivalvi omnino tectum 
et bene clausum, abdomine bene inflexo. Appendices cephalotho- 
racis mandibulares et sequentes numero 10, nullis natatoriis. 



J' 



it 







Legio II. PHYLLOPODA.— Appendices segmentoque cephalothoracis 
numerum normalem superantes, corpore immodice annulato. 



Tribus I. ARTExMIOIDEA 



Corp 



fere rectum. Cephalothorax 



multiannulatus testa sive tectus sive non tectus. Appendices 
cephalothoracis plerumque foliacese. Oculi pedunculati. Styli 
caudales fere ac in Cydopoideis. 

Tribus IL APODOIDEA. — Cephalothorax testa scutiformi tectus. 
Appendices, cephalothoracis posteriores lamellate. OcuH sessiles 



Abdomen multiannulatum 



Extremitas caudalis forma mn^ 



Tribus III. LIMNADIOIDEA.— Corpus testa omnino tectum capite 

abdomineque inclusis ac in Cyproideis. Oculi sessiles. 



Extremitas 



caudalis ac in Cyproideis. 



Okdo IL CORMOSTOMATA 



Os trunciforme et suctorium, basi s^pe mobile. 




m 










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SuBORDO I. PCECILOPODA. 



Quoad formam corporis Cyclopoideis plerumque affinia, s^pe peltata 
interdum subcvlindrica, quoque vermiformia. Os inferius. 



ii 



II 



Tribus I. ERGASILOIDEA. — Cephalothorax annulatus, carapace 

Truncus buccahs non mobilis, brevis, mandibulis in- 
(?). Pedes 8 postici bene natatorii ac in Cydopoi- 



non tectus. 
terdum obsoletis 



deis 



Ova externa in sacculos g 



Corpus saspius non dep 



355 



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1418 



CRUSTACEA. 



Tribus II. CALIGOIDEA.— Cephalotliorax 



pace 



Truncus buccalis mobilis, mandibulis armatus 



Pedes 



, L 



8 postici plus minusve natatorii, saepe partim in laminis coaliti. 
Ova externa in tubos longos uniseriatim gesta, tubis raro obsoletis. 
Corpus ssepius valde depressum et peltatum. 

Tribus III. LERN^OIDEA.— Cephalotliorax vix annulatus. Cor- 
pus sive breve et obesum sive elongate vermiforme. Pedes nata- 
torii obsoleti. Ova externa sive in saccules aggregata sive in tubos 
uniseriata. 



*« »i III 



r 



I; 



KM 



StJBORDO II. ARACHNOPODA. 



Quoad formam corporis fere Aracbnoidea, abdomine plerumque obso- 



lete, cephalothorace 
trunciforme frontale. 



brevi, annulato, pedibus longis diffusis. 



Os 



Tribus PYCNOGONOIDEA. 



^ 



\ 



I 



4 




( 



Ordo hi. MEROSTOMATA. 



Os pedum basibus in locis mandibularum et maxillarum instructum 



Tribus LIMULOIDEA. 



\ 



SuBCLASSis IV. CIRRIPEDIA. 



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I 



^y\ . 



Annuli cephalotli 



phalici numero sex vel quinque 



Oculi sessiles vel obsoleti. Appendic 



brancMales nuUas 



Abdomen obsoletum. Animal sessile in testam multival- 
vatam inclusum quae nunquam in nulla parte extus exuitur. 
Cephalothorax pedibus seriatis tenuibus multiarticulatis 

instructus. 




f 



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)l' 




CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA 



1419 




SuBCLAssis V. ROTATORIA. 



Ab- 



Corpus minutum, pedibus totis carens et ciliis motum. 
domen ssepe 2-3 annulatum et apice furcatum, interdum 
obsoletum. Annuli ceplialotlioracis ceplialici numero quin- 
que vel qiiatuor. 



1 



1^ 



ii 




i 



:i 




* 



After this exposition of the subclasses; orders, and tribes, of the 
class Crustacea, here follows 





m 



OF THE FAMILIES AND SUBFAMILIES OF THE HiaHER 

SUBDIVISIONS OF CEUSTACEA. 



SuBCLAssisI. DECAPODA 



Ordo I. EUBRANCHIATA 



Tribus I. BRACHYURA. 



SuBTRiBUsL MAIOIDEA. 



V 



Legio I. MAIIInTEA vel Maioidea Typica.— Corpus ssepissime oblon- 
gum, ssepius a.ntice angustum et rostratum. Articulus antennarum 
externarum Imus sub oculo insitis, anteriusque productus, testa 
externa sine sutura coahtus. Pedes forma normales.* 



We 



^ the families Inachidce and Mithracidm. The peculiarity of the outer maxilli- 

peds, adopted by De Haan as the characteristic of the Inachidae, appears to be of suffi- 
cient value to authorize the separation of the genera of this kind from the other Maiid», 
although not so important as to require the union of the Eurypodii with the Inachid^, 
as done by this author. The Mithraces have a distinct character, removing them from 
the other Maioids. There is in the species Mithrax, a singular diversity of form 




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1420 



CRUSTACEA. 



Fam. I. INACHID J^]. — Oculi in orbitis retractiles. Articulus max- 
illipedis externi Stius apice 4tum gerens. Digiti acuminati. [Pedes 



prselongi.] 



1. MACROCHEiRiNyE. — Carapax late ovatus. Rostrum furcatum. Oculi oblongi. 

Gr. Macrocheira, De H. 

2. Inachin^. — Carapax triangulato-ovatus. Rostrum emarginatum aut integrum. 

Gr. Inachus, Fab., Microrliynchus, Bell. 

3. Salacin^. — Oculi perbreves. Rostrum fere obsoletum; non bifidum. Corpus 
non oblongum. Pedes 8 postici longi et crassi. — Gr. Salacia, E. and Lucas. 

Fam. II. MAIID-^. — Oculi in orbitis retractiles. Articulus maxil- 
lipedis externi Stius angulo interno 4tum gerens. Digiti acuminati. 












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1. OcicU latera capitis iiisiti et plus mimisve lateraliter porrecti 



1. LibiniNjE. — Rostrum apice emarginatum. Corpus pauIo oblongum^ subglo- 
"bosum^ lateribus altis. Oculi perbreves. Pedes sive longi sive mediocres. — Gr. 
Egeriay Lat., Doclea^ Leach, Lihidocleay E. and L., Lihinia^ Lh. 

2. MAiiNiE. — Carapax orbiculato-ovatus, rostro prominente profunde bifido. Pars 
antennarum externarum mobilis margine orbits orta. — G. Maia^ Lk., Dioiie, De H. 

3. PisiN.^. — Carapax triangulato-ovatus, rostro bifido, non deflexo. Pars anten- 
narum externarum mobilis mai^gine orbitse exclusa, et sub rostro non celata. — Gr. 
ParmnithraXy E., jP/sa, Lh., Pelia^ Bell, Lissa^ Lh., Rliodia^ Bell, Ilyas^ Lh., 
PisoideSy E. and L., Herhstia^ E., TJioe^ Bell, Deliaanius^ M^L. 

4. PRiONORiiYNCiiiNiE. — Pisinis affines. Rostrum breve, latissimum, bilobatum, 
non deflexum. — Gr. PrionorJiynchiis^ H. and J. 

5. MiciPPiNiE. — Rostrum latum, deflexum. — Gr. Micippa^ Lh. 

6. Chorinin-^. — Carapax triangulato-ovatus. Rostrum furcatum. Pars anten- 
narum externarum mobilis sub rostro celati. — Gr. Cliorinus^ Lh., Chorilia^ D., 
LoJiaina^ D., Naxia^ E., Scyraj D., Ilyasteniis^ White, Pyria^ D. 



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2. Oculi frontales et porrecti long itiidinales ^ carapace antice truncato. 



7. Othonin^. — Oculi elongati, cylindrici. — G. Othonia. 
[Cujus sedis est Siphonoecetesy Kr.] 

Fam. III. MITHRACID^. — Oculi et maxillipedes externi ac in 
Maiidis. Digiti versus apicem excavati et non acuminati. 

1. MiTHRACiN^. — Oculi longitudine mediocres. — G. Mithrax^ Lh., Mithracuhis^ W. 

2. Cyclacin^.' — Oculi longi.— G. CyclaXj D. 

exceeding what is found in any other genus of Maioidea. This fact, in connexion with 
the habits of the species, and the peculiarity of the fingers, seems to re(][uire the institu- 
tion of a distinct family of Mithracidae. 






-n 




^ 



# 

I 

* 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1421 



Fam. IV. TYCHID^. 



Oculi retractiles sed orbitis carentes, infra 



carapacem sese latentes. 

1. Criocarcinin^.— Rostrum valde deflexum. Carapax oblongus.— G. Criocar- 

cinus, Guer. 

2. Tychin^.— Carapax obloBgus, antice latus, latitudine trans-orbitali magna, 

rostro non deflexo, sat longo, furcato. Oculi apice paululum exserti — G. Tyche, 

Bell. 

3. Camposcin^.— Carapax oblongus, rostro fere obsoleto, emarginato. Pedes 8 

postici longi. Oculi elongate pedunculati et exserti.— G. Camposcia, Lat. 

Fam. y. EURYPODID^.— Oculi retractiles ad carapacis latus, non 

r 

sese latentes. 

1. EuRYPODiNiE.— Antenna externse apertse. Carapax triangulato-ovatuS; rostro 
longo, furcato. Pedes longi. Oculi longi et elongate salientes. Spina post- 
orbitalis oblonga,— G. Eurypodius, Guer., Oregonia, D. 

2. Amathin^.— [An oculi retractiles et species bujus sedis?] Antennae externse 
sub rostro celatje. Carapax triangulato-ovatus, rostro furcato, latitudine trans- 
orbitali perangusta. Pedes longi.— G. Amathia, Roux. 

y 

Fam. VI. LEPTOPODID^.— Oculi non retractiles. Pedes pr^longi. 



A. AntenndB externse apertse 



1 



. AcH^iN^.— Carapax triangulato-ovatus, rostro perbrevi, bifido. Oculi longi et 
elongate salientes. Pedes 4 postici subprebensiles.— G. AclicBus, Lh. 

2. In ACHOiDiN^.— Carapax triangulato-ovatus, rostro elongate, simplice.— G. Ina- 
choides, E. and L. 



Pedes 



B. Antennae externse suh rostro celatse. 

3. LEPTOPODiNiB.— Carapax triangulato-ovatus, rostro elongato, simplice. 

longissimi. — G. Leptopodia, Lh. 

4. Stenorhynchin^.— Carapax triangulato-ovatus, rostro breve, bifido.— G. ^teno- 

rTiyncIius^ Lk. 



Fam. YII. PERICERID-^ 



Oculi non retractiles. Pedes longitu- 



dine mediocre s. 



A. Antennee externse apertse. 



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similes 



a. 



1. Paramicippin^.— Rostrum valde deflexum. Micippce aspectu 

Paramicippa, E. n r, • ^ 

2. Pericerin^.— Rostrum profundi bifidum, non deflexum.— G. Fericera, Lat., 
' Tiarinia, D., Perinia, D., lialimus, Lat., Pugettia, D. 

356 



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.:*-.:■ 







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V 













1422 



CRUSTACEA. 



3. Men^thin^. — Rostrum integrum vel sulbintegrum.— Gr. MenaetMus, E,, Acan- 
thonyx, Lat., AntiliUnia, M'L., Peltinia, J). 



w 



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B. Antennae externse sub rostra celatse. 



I— 

4. Stenocionopin^. — Oculi prselongi. Rostrum longuni; furcatum, cormbus 
styliformibuS; divaricatis. — Gr. Stenociono_psy Lat. 

5. Epialtin^.— Oculi longitudine aut mediocres aut perbreyes. Rostrum oblon- 
gum; crassum, sive integrum; sive emarginatum. Antennse externse apicem 
rostri ssepius non attingentes. Pedes 8 postici subcylindrici. — G. EpialtuSj E., 
Huenia, De H., Xenocarcmus. W., Leucippa^ E. 



ti MM 



Legio II. PARTHENOPINEA vel Maioidea Cancridiga 



Corp 



sive breviter 



gulatum sive valde transversuni 



atum 



Articulus antennarum externarum Imus oculo interior, 



rarissime solutus, saspms 



infixu 



sine sutura externa 



coalescens. Pedes antici longiores, toti forma normales 



I 



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Fam. I. PARTHENOPIDiE.— Oculijetractiles. Carapax lateraliter 
non bene expansus. 

G. Parthenope, Fab., Lambrus, Lh., Eiirynome, Lh. 

Fam. II. EUMEDONID^.— Oculi non retractiles. Carapax late- 
raliter non bene expansus. 

A, 

G. Eumedomis, E., Ceratocarcinus^W. (Harrovia, W.) [An hujus sedis Gonato- 
notusj A. and W. Crust. Sam., tab. vi. f. 7.] 

h 

Fam. III. CPvYPTOPODID^,— Oculi retractiles. Carapax latera- 
liter valde expansus, pedes 8 posticos plerumque tegens. 

G-. Gryptopodia, E., Eurynolamhrus, E., Tlos, W. 

Fam. IV. TKICHID^. — Parthenopidis quoad oculos carapacemque 
affinis ; sed quoad maxillipedes externos Dromiis. 

Gr. TricJiia, De H. 




Legio III. ONCININEA vel Maioidea Dromidica. — Corpus triangu- 
latum. Antennao externas e basi solutso, cylindricse. Pedes pos- 
tici breviores, subdorsals, uncinato-preliensiles. 



Fam. I. ONCINOPID^E 

G. Oncinopus^ De H. 




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CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1423 





\i 



I" 

j! ■ 

m 



SuBTRiBUS II. CANCEOIDEA. 

LegioI. CANCRINEA vel Cancroidea Typica. — Species marinas 
vel maritimse. Antennae quatuor conspicuse. Cavitas branchialis 
superficie non papillo-spongiosa. 



Fam. I. CANCRID^. 



1. Pedes postici gressom. 

Palatum colliculo longitudinali utrinque non 



bene divisum. Carapax sa^pius late transversus, interdum angustus. 
Antennse internse plus minusve longitudinales. 



1. Cancrin^.— Frons interorbitalis perangustus 



a. Cancer, Leach, Peri- 



mela, Lb. 

Fam. II. XANTHID^ 



•Palatum et carapax ac in Gancridis 



An- 



9 



plus minus\^ 



1 



Xanthine.— Antennse externse basi firme infixae, parte mobili ex biatu orbitse 
nonexclusa. Frons interorbitalis latior. Digiti acuminati.— G. Atergahs, ^ 
H., CarpUius, Lb., De H., Liomera, D., Liagora, De H., Actcea, De H., D., 
Xantho, Lb. (subgenera Xantho, Euxanthus, D., XantJiodes,l).^Paraxantlms, 
Lucas), Menippe, De H., Panopaeus, E., Medaeus, !>-, ^ '" 
2. Chlorodin^. — Antennae interna transversse. 



Antennae externaj basi firme 



infixse parte mobili ex biatu orbitae raro exclnsa. Frons interorbitalis latior. 
Digiti instar cocblearis excayati. [Quoad genera Xanthine et Cblorodm^ ferme 
parallela^.l— G. Etisu^, Lb., Carpilodes, D., Zozymus, Lb., Adxodes, D., Dmra, 



De H., Ohlorodius, Lb. (: 



GMoTodius, P'dodius, J)., 



) 



Oyrao, De H. 

3. POLYDECTIN^. 



Antennee internee transversse. Antennas externae basi solutae 



et liberse.— [An Pilumnis propinquior.]— Q. Polydectus, E. 



Fam. III. ERIPHIDiE 



Palatum colliculo 



G 



dinali utrinque 



Carapax seepius angustus, interdum latus, mar 

more quam postero-lateralis, latitudine £ 



bene divisum. 
antero-laterali 
mediana ssepissime longiore, oculis 



:n 



otis. 



(Ethrin 



Carapax transversus, lateribus valde dilatatis et rotundatis. An- 
tenuEe internee fere longitudinales.— a. ffi/^Ara, Lb. _ ^^_ 

2 OziN^ —Carapax plus minusve transversus, lateribus non dilatatis. Digiti 
" acuminati Antenna; internee transversse. Orbita biatu interne basi antennae 
occupato instructa. Abdomen maris 7-articulatum.-a. Galene, De H,, Ozius, 
E., Pseudozius, D., PUumnus, Ux., Pilumnoide.,^. ---^ t. m.z.-. i.. pa. 
bujus sedis Acanthodes, De H. ?] 

3. ACTUMNINiE. 

ActumnuSj D. 



Melia 



[ 



Orbita Ozinis similes. Digiti instar cocblearis excavati.— G. 






\ 



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I 




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I 



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a 



i,-1 







*s:f 





,;:0 



'^. 



v^<Vv;-kSN.WW 





m 






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9 



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J 

i 



kk. 



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II 







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ff 



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1424 



CRUSTACEA. 



4. ERiPHiNiE. — Orbita infra bene clansa, biatu interno 



carenS; articulo antennae 



basali ex orbita omnino excluso. Carapax sive paulo transversus sive snbquad- 
ratus. G-. Ruppellia, E., EripUa, Lat., Domcecius, Souleyet, Trapezia, Lat., 
Tetraliay D.; Quadrella, D. 



2. Pedes postici natatorii. 



f 



ssepius colliculo longitudinal! 



Fam. IV. PORTUNID^. — Ramus maxillipedis Imi internus lobo 

interno instructus. Palatum 
que divisum. 

1. Lupine. — Sutura sterni niediana tria segmenta intersecans. Palatum colli- 
culis prominentibus.— G. Scylla, De H., L%ipa, Lh., AmpMtrite, De H., D., 
Garupa, D., Thalamita, Lat., Charyldis, De H., D., Lissocarcinus, W. 

2. ARENiEiNJ3.— Sutura sterni mediana tria segmenta intersecans. Palatum col- 
liculis non divisum. Eamus maxillipedis Imi internus ad apicem late transversim 
triangulatus, ramis duobus inter se fere convenientibus. — Gr. Arenseus, D. 

3. PoRTUNiD^. — Sutura sterni mediana duo segmenta intersecans. Palatum col" 
liculis ssepe obsoletis. — Gr. Portunus, Pab. 

Fam. V. PLATYONYCHID^. — Ramus maxillipedis Imi internus 
non lobatus. Palatum colliculis non divisum. 

G-. Carcinus, Lb., Portumnus, Lb., Platyonycliiis, Lat., Polyhius, Lh. 



Legio it 



TELPHUSINEA vel Cancroidea Grapsidica. — Sp 



fluviales. Antennas quatuor conspicuge 



Cavitas branchialis per 



magna ac in Gra]^soideis, superficie saepe papillo-spon 




\ 



*%^n 



Fam. I. TELPHUSID^. 

a. Telphusa, Lat., Yaldivia, W., Potamia, Lat., Trichodactylus, Lat., Orthostoma, 
Randall. 




Legio III. CYCLINEA vel Cancroidea Corystidica.— Antennae ex- 

ternse obsoletge. Carapax angustus vel suborbicularis. 



1 



I 



\i 



i 

i 




r 



> 

* 







* t 



Fam. I. ACANTHOCYCLIDiE 

Q. Acanthocychis, Lucas. 



SuBTEiBus III. CORYSTOIDEA. 



Fam. I. TRICHOCERID^.— Carapax forma Cancroideus, fronte non 
rostratus. Antennae interna longitudinales. Antennas externae 



' 9 



*^M 




■r 



^f 




♦I 



I 

I 

! 



■•.Tfc* 







k 



/ 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA 



breves, flagello parce piloso. Maxillipede 



1425 



super epistoma 



product!, sed marginem area3 buccalis bene adapt 



G-. Trichocera, De H. 

Fam. II. THIID^.— Carapax 

non rostratus. 
tenn^ externae 



borbicul 



non oblon 



Antennae 



transversas vel obliq 



fronte 
An- 



breves, flagello parce piloso. Maxillipedes extern! 



\ 



super epistoma product!. 

G. Thia, Lh., Krausda, D. 

Fam. III. CORYSTID^.— Carapax sive suborbicularis 



multum 



.ngustus, fronte plus minusve 
pistoma product!. 



Maxillipedes externi super 



W 



(Eidia, De H. (partim) 



H. and Jacq., Pseudocorystes, E., 



* V 



I 




SuBTRiBus IV. GRAPSOIDEA. 



1. Artkulus maxillipedis externi 4:tus cum angulo dtio interno articulatus. 



Fam. I. GONOPLACID^.— Carap 



Frons 4ta parte 



latitudinis carapacis longior, paulo deflexus, lamellatus. 
internse transversse. Articulus abdominis maris 2dus 
tiguo angustior. 

a. Eucrate, De H., Curtonotus, De H., Gonoplax, Lh. 



Antennae 



2. Articulus maxiUipedis externi 4:tus cum angulo Btii apicali interno non articulatus 

sed medio marginis apicalis sive angulo externo. 



\ 



Fam II. MACROPHTHALMIDJE.— Ocul! 3tia parte carapacis 



breviores. Carapax 



bquadratus, ssepissime transversus, antice 
latissimus, angulis anticis acutis, lateribus non arcuatis. Antennae 
internee sive transversse sive longitudinales. Articulus abdominis 
maris 2dus sterno contiguo angustior. 



Articulus maxiUipedis ex- 



terni Stius crista obliqua pilifera nunquam 



1 



2 



MACROPHTHALMIN.E.— Antennae interna transversse sub fronte insitae. An- 
tennae externse basi ad frontem appressae. Articulus maxiUipedis externi 4tus 
apertus.— G. Cleistostoma, De H., Macrophthalmus, Lat. 

OcYPODiNiE.— Antenna internae longitudinales, juxta frontem utrinque insitas. 



HI 



4 






i 



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I ff 




) 



i 



Rift :' 




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■ M t i\\ 



[\ 

















I 



I '*! 



1426 



CRUSTACEA. 



r 

Antennse externse a fronte paulum remotge. Articulus maxillipedis extern! 4tus 
apertuS; Stius 2do minor. — Gl. Gelasimus^ Lat., Heloecius^ D., Ocypoda^ Fab., 

Scopimeraj De H. 
3. Doting. — Articuli maxillipedis externi 4tus et sequentes 3tio celati. — G-. Doto, 

DeH. 

Fam. III. GEAPSID^.— Oculi 3tia parte latitudinis carapacis bre- 
viores. Carapax subquadratus, ssepius depressus, lateribus aut 
rectis aut arcuatis. Antennas internge transversae. Articulus 
abdominis maris 2dus sterno contiguo ssepius vix angustior. Arti- 
culus maxillipedis externi Stius sive inornatus sive crista obliqua 
pilifera ornatus. Palatum colliculis (viarum eflferentium limitibus) 
instructum. 

1. Grapsin^.— Antennse internaa fronte teetse. Articulus maxillipedis externi 
Stius crista obliqua in 2dum producta non ornatus. — Gr. Pseicdograpsus, E., Hete- 
rograpsus, LucaS; Platynotus, De H., BracTiynotus, De H., TricJiojnis, De H., 
Grapsus, Lk., Goniograpsus, J)., Planes, JA., Ilemigrapsus, J)., Cyrtograpsus, D. 

2. Sesarmin^. — Antennje internae fronte tectae. Articulus maxillipedis externi 
Stius crista obliqua in 2dum producta notatus. — Gr. JSesarma, Say, Sarmatmm, 
T>., Cydograpsus, E., ChasmagnatJiiis, Be II., Helice, De H. 

3. Plagusin^. — Antennae internse sinubus frontis longitudinalibus apertae. — Gr. 



Acanthopus, De PI., Plagusia, Lat. 

Fam. lY. GECAECINID^.— Oculi br 



Carapax obesus, paulo 



trans versus, antice latus, curvatim decliviSj lateribus arcuatis et 



pone oculos 



g 



rotundati et vix dentatis 



Ante 



internse 



transversae. Articulus abdominis maris 2dus sterno postico 



angustior. 
plifera no 
bus) non : 



Articulus maxillipedis externi Stius crista obliquc 
rnatus. Palatum colliculis f viarum efferentium limiti 



1. UCAIN^. — Articulus maxillipedis externi 4tus apertus.. — Gr. Uca^ Lh., Gecar- 
cinicus^ E.^ Gardhoma^ Lat., Gecarcoidea^ E. 

2. GrECARCiNiN^.— Articuli maxillipedis externi 4:tus et sequentes 3tio celati.— a. 

GecarcinuSy Lat. 

Fam. V. PINNOTHERID^.— Oculi perbreves orbitis insiti, raro 



non retractiles. Carapax sive obesus sive dep 



raro paulo 



oblongus et interdum parce 
Antennae internae aut transversae 



rostratus, lateribus valde rotundatis 



obliq 



Abdomen mans 



um 



angustum, versus basin sterno contiguo valde angustius. Pala 
colliculis (viarum efFerentium limitibus) instructum. [Species totae 
parvae.] 

1. PiNNOTHERiN^. — Articiilus maxilHpedis externi 2dus parvulus aut obsoletus. 



\ 




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• - 



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( 



\ 






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I 



SuBTRTBUS Y. LEUCOSOIDEA. 



ti ■ 



i ' 




CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1427 



Xe 



W., Xanthasia, W., Pinnixa, W 



2. Hymenicin^.— Corpus ssepius parce rostratum, depressum. Articulus maxil- 
lipedis extern! 2dus dimidio 3tii major. 



Hymenosoma, Lh., Hal 



W., Hymenicus, J)., Elm 

Fam. VI. MYCTIRID^ 



Corp 



obesum. Carapax 



peran 



gustus, vix rostratuS; orbitis 
longitudinales. 

Gr. Myctiris, Lat. 



Antennae internee parvulse 



■ I 






J 



I m I 



/. 



1. Appendices maris genitales hasi pedum btorum ortce. [ Via affer ens pone 

regionem pterygostomianam ingrediens.'] 



Fam. I. CALAPPID^.— Articuli maxillipedis extern! terminales 
non celati. 

1. Calappin^.— Pedes nulli natatorii.— G. Calappa, Fab., Platymera, E., Mursia, 

E., Cydoesj De H. 

2. Orithyin^. — Pedes 8 postici natatorii. — Gr. Oritliyia. 

Fam. II. MATUTID^.— Articuli maxillipedis externi terminales 
celati, 3tio triangulate, palpo vix longiore quam articulus 2dus. 

Gr. Hepatus, Lat., Thealia, Lucas, Matuta, Fab. 




I 




' 2. Appendices maris genitales sterno ortse. 

■ 

Fam. III. LEUCOSIDiE.— Yia afferens apud angulum palati^anter 
lateralem ingrediens. Articuli maxillipedis externi terminales pr 



cedentibus 



Pedes postici ad normam 



* * 



Nucia. D., Nursia 



My 



OreoplioruSj Riippell. 

Fam. IV. DORIPPIDiE 



Via 



r 

afferens partem regionis pterjgosto- 



mian98 posticam ii 

nales precedentibus non tec 

hensiles. 

Gr. Dorippe, Fab., Ethusa, Roux. 



grediens. Articuli maxillipedis externi termi- 
. non tecti. Pedes 2-4 postici subdorsals pre- 



X 



^ 



'4 



II 



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vP- 



1428 



CRUSTACEA. 



Tribus II. ANOMOURA. 



Sectio I. Anomouka Superiora. 



Ocul 



1 



Imis 



Antennae 2dae oculis interdum 



posteriores non exteriores. Abdomen angustum, ad sternum ssepius 
appressum, appendicibus caudalibus carens. 



f 



i 



SuBTRiBUS I. DROMIDEA, vel Anomoura Maiidica Superiora 



\ 



Carapax subtriangulatus vel subquadratus vel suborbiculatus, fronte 
angusto, oculis approximatis. Pedes postici subdorsales. Via affe- 
rens uti in Maioideis. 






.- 1 I f : 



Fam. I. DROMID^. 

G-. Dynomenej Lat., Dromia^ Fab., Latreillia^ Roux, Homola^ Lh 

Fam. XL CYMOPOLID^.— [An hujus sedis?] 

G. Cymopoliay Eoux^ Cafhyra^ Guer. 



1 



Stjbtribus II. BELLIDEA, vel Anomoura Cancridica. 







I 



s 



Carapax parce oblongus, subellipticus. Pedes 8 postici inter se 
similes. Via efferens uti in Dromideis. 



• 



Fam. I. BELLID^. 

G. Corystoidesy LucaS; BeUiay E. 



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SuBTRiBus III. RANINIDEA, vel Anomoura Leucosidica. 



Carapax oblongus. Via efferens osque uti in Le^cosoideis . 



Fam. I. RANINID^. 

G-. Eaninoides, E./ Ranina, Lk., RaniUa, B., Notoj>us, De H., Lyreidus, De H., 
CosmonotuSj W. 



X 



^ 




. ..'•'■ 



. »' 



_ J"4i 




- 1 








/ 




) 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1429 



^ 



Sectio II. Anomoura Media. 



Oculi 



Imis 



anteriores. Antennae 2d9e oculis poster! 



et exteriores. Abdomen inflexum, sed non stricte appressum, ap- 



pendicibus caudalibus instructum 



Os nunquam uti in Leucosoi 



deis 



SuBTRiBus IV. HIPPIDEA, vel Anomoura Corystidica. 



Carapax oblongus. Maxillipedes extern! operculiformes, art!culo 3t!o 
elongato et lato. Pedes 2di 3tii 4t!que natatorii, 5ti debiles inflexi. 



Fam. HIPPID^. 

G-. Albuncea, Fab., AlhunUppa, E., Remijpes, Lat., Hippa, Fab. 




« 



] 




SuBTRiBUS V. PORCELLANIDEA, vel Anomoura Grapsidica. 



Carapax suborbiculatus. Maxillipedes 



male operculiform 



articulo 3t!o paulo minore quam 2dus. Pedes 2di 3tii 4tique g 

5ti debiles, inflexi. 



Fam. PORCELLANIDiE 

G-. Porcellana^ Lamarck. 



Sectio III. Anomoura Submedia. 



/ 



Abdomen valde dilatatum 



Oculi antennis Imis plane anteriores. 

inflexum sed stricte non appressum, appendicibus caudalibus 



ft 



» 






m 



SuBTRTBUS yi. LITHODEA, vel Anomoura Maiidica Submedia. 



r 

Carapax subtriangulatus uti in Maioideis. Abdomen latum, vix sym- 
metricum. Pedes null! natatorii, 2dis 3tiis 4tisque consimilibus, 
5tis parvulis, sub carapace inflexis. 

358 



k 

,1 



I 



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f- 




! 




! I 




-I -»- — — — .- -I— - 



■ - J ^ 1^ 





/ 




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i 



t« 



1430 



CRUSTACEA. 



Fam. LITHODID^. 



G. Lithodes, Lat., Xomis, De H., EcUdnocerus, W 



/ 



Sectio IV. Anomoura Inferiora. 



Oculi antennis Imis anteriores. Antennae 2diB oculis posterioi 
exteriores. Abdomen elongatum, vix inflexum, appendicibus 
dalibus instructum, ssepe appendicibus quoque ventralibus. 



y 



i 



i 




SuBTRiBUS VII. PAaURIDEA, vel Anqmoura Maiidica Inferiora 



Carapax oblongus, postice mollior. Abdomen plerumque moUe vel 
carnosura, appendicibus imparibus saepius instructum. Pedum 
pares 3tii 4ti dissimiles. 



»4 



1 



I 



* } . I ■ ; 



itii 



w. 



\: t» fc. 



Fam. I. PAGURID^ 



Antennae internse mediocres, articulo Imo 



brevissimo 



Maxillipedis externi palpus flagello multiarticulato 



instructus. — Species aquaticae vel littorinae. 

1. Pagurin^.— Abdomen asymmetricum. — G. Paguristes^ D., Diogenes, D., Bern- 
lardus, D., Pagurus, Calcinus, J)., Aniculus, D., Clihanarius, D. 

2. Cancelling. — Abdomen symmetricnm. — G-. Gancellus, E. 

Fam. II. CENOBITID^. — Antennae internae multo elongate, 



arti- 



culo Imo oculis saepius longiore, valde deflexo. Maxillipedis ex- 
terni palpus flagello non instructus. Species pr^cipue terrestriales. 

G. CenoUta, Lat., Birgus, Lb. 



SuBTRiBUS VIII. iEGLEIDEA. 



\ 



I 
» It 



\ 



-• 






tri- 



ll 



M 



t f M 



\ 








M 




» 



^ 



I, 



1 



1 



f 



Carapax elongatus, textura omnino 



Abdomen extus 



taceum, maris paribus appendicum obsoletis, femince elong 



uctum. Pedum pares 3tii 4tiq 



consimiles; 6ti debiles, sub 



carapace inflexi 



Branchiae filosae 



Fam. MGLEIDM 

Gr. JEglea, Lh. 



%. 



1 



"^ 



■--. 



^%^. 




'- 








(' 



i 



{ 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1431 



SuBTRiBUS IX. GALATHEIDEA 



Abdomen 



Carapax elongatus, textura superficiei omnino crustaceus. 

extus crustaceum, maris feminceque paribus appendicum elongatis 
infra instructum. Pedum pares 3tii 4tique consimiles^ 6ti debiles 
juxta carapacem inflexi. Branchise foliosae. 



t 




Fam. GALATHEIDiE. 

F 

G. Munida, Lh., Galathea, Fab., Grimothea, Lh. 



APPENDIX. MEaALOPIDEA. 



G-. Marestia, D., Monolepis, Say, Megalopa, Lh., Oyllene, D., Trihola, D 



Tribus hi. MACROURA. 



Sectio I. Macroura Paguro-squillidica. 



SuBTRiBus I. THALASSINIDEA. 



\ 



Carapax duabus suturis longitudinalibus subdivisus, saepeque sutura 
dorsali transversa. Antennaa externaB squama basali nulla vel 
parva instructae. Pedes 6 postici directione non consimiles; duo 
antici longiores et crassiores, fossorii et s^pius cbelati. 



^ 



f 



Legio I. THALASSINIDEA EUBRANCHIATA. — Species bran- 
chiis thoracicis instructae tan turn. 



n • 



V 






It 




Fam. I. GEBID^. — Maxillipedes extern! pediformes. Appendices 
caudales et alise abdominales latae. 

Gr. Gehiay Lh., Axius^ Lh., Calocaris^ Bell, Laomedia^ De H., Glaucothoey E. 

Fam. II. CALLIANASSID JE. — Maxillipedes externi operculiformes. 
Appendices caudales latae. 

G. Callianassaj Lh.; Trypdea^ D. 



i 



1 



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-' ■- 



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1432 



CRUSTACEA. 



Fam. III. THALASSINID^. — Maxillipedes extern! pediformes. 
Appendices caudales lineares. 

G. Thalassina, Lat. 



Legio IL THALASSINIDEA ANOMOBRANCHIATA. — Pedes 

abdominis appendicibus branchialibus instructs 



Fam. I. CALLISEID^. 

G. Callianideay E., CalUsea^ Guer., D 



^- c 



i\ 



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H 



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I 



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nM 



i:H 



ll^i 











Sectio II. Macroura Normalia. 



SuBTRiBus I. ASTACIDEA, vel Macroura Superiora. 



a: 



- J 



Carapax sutura dorsali transversa sgepius 



suturis longitudi 



•lateral! cum epistomate connata. 

nulla sive toarva instructae. 



nalibus obsoletis, testa antero 

Antenna3 externas squama basali 

Pedes 6 postici directione sat consimiles; antici crassiores, sive 

didactyli sive non didactyli. [Branchiae filosag.] 



1. Antennce externce squama hasali carentes. Pedes antici monodactyli. 



ceph a- 
An- 



Fam. I. SCYLLAEID^. — Carapax valde depressus, margine 
lothoracis utrinque tenui, carapace lateraliter subito inflexo 
tennse externse laminatae breves. Sternum trigonum. 

G. Scyllarus, Fab.; Arctus, D., Thenus, Lh., Parribacus, D., Ihacus, Lh. 

Fam. II. PALINURIDJE. — Carapax subcylindricus, lateraliter late 
rotundatus. Antennse externse basi subcylindric^, longae. Sternum 

I 

trigonum. 

Gr. PalinuruSy Eab., PanuliruSy Grray. 



2. Antennee externse squama hasali instructce. Pedes antici didactyli. 

Fam. III. ERYONID^.— Carapax non oblongus, depressus, lateribus 
subito inflexis, abdomiiae multo angustiore. 

Gr. Eryouy Desmarest. 



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II 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1433 



Fam. IV. ASTACIDtE. — Carapax oblongus, subcylindricus, abdo- 
mine parce angustiore. Sternum angustum. 

1, AsTACiN^. — Manus crassse et latse^ superficie convexse. — Gr. Homarusy E.^ Asta- 

coidesy Gruer. (subgenera AstacoideSy Gherapsy Erich.) Astacus (subgenera 
AstacuSj Camharus^ Erich.) 

2. NephropiNuE. — Manus prismaticse, lateribus fere rectae. — Gr. NepJirops, Lh. 

ParanephropSj W. 



{ 



SuBTRiBUs II. CARIDEA; vel Macroura Typica- 



Carapax sutura nulla notatuS; epistomate antice non connatus. An- 



tennas externao squama basali magna instructae. Pedes 6 postici 
directione sat consimilesj Imi vel 2di crassiores et chelati, 3tii 4tis 
similes. [Branchiae foliosee.] 



1. Maxillipedes 2di hreves et lamellatL 



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Fam. I, CRANGONIDJE. — Mandibulae graciles^ valde incurvatse^ 
non palpigersG; corona perangusta^ non dilatata. Pedum pares Imi 
2dique inter se valde in^equi. 

1. Crangonin^. — Pedes Imi 2dis crassiores. Maxillipedes externi pediformes. 
Digitus mobilis in manus marginem claudens; immobilis spiniformis. Pedes 
2di non annulati, — Gr. Crangon^ Fab.^ Sahinea^ Owen^ ArgiSj Kr., Paracran- 
gouj D, 

2. Lysmatin.^. — Pedes Imi 2dis crassiores. Maxillipedes externi pediformes. 
Digiti sub^equi; uno ad alterum claudente. Pedes 2di annulati. — Gr. Niha^ 

RissO; Lysmata^ RissO; Cyclorhynclius^ De H. 

3. Gnathophyllin^. — Pedes 2di Imis crassiores. Maxillipedes externi lati; 

operculiformes. — G-. Gnatliojjhyllum. 

Pam. II. ATYID^. — Mandibulae crass^^ non palpigerae^ corona lata^ 
parce bipartite processu terminal! brevi et dilatato. Pedum pares 
Imi 2dique inter se sequi^ carpo nunquam annulato. 

1. Atyin^. — I^edes thoracici palpo non instructi. — G. Atya^ Lh., Atyoida^ Ran- 
dall^ Caridina^ E. 

2. Ephyrin^. — Pedes thoracis palpo instructi. — Gr. Ephyra^ Roux. 

Fam. III. PAL^MONID-^. — Mandibulae crassse, sive palpigerse 
sive non palpigerse^ supra profunde bipartitae, processu apicali ob- 



longo^ angusto. 



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1434 



CRUSTACEA. 



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1. Alphein^.— 'Pedes Imi crassiores, chelati ; 2di filiformes, carpo ssepius annu- 
late, plerumque chelato. Mandibulae palpigerse.— G. Alpheus, Fab., Betseus, D., 
Alope, W., Athanas, Lb., HippoJyte, Lh., Rliyncodnetes , B. 

2. Pandalin^.— Pedes Imi gracillimi^ non^chelati, 2di filiformes^ carpo annulato. 

■Gr. Pandalus, Lh. 

3. Pal^monin^.— Pedes 4 antici chelati, 2di Imis crassiores, carpis nullis annu- 
latis. Pedes nulli palpigeri.— G-. Pontonia, Lat., D., (Edipus, J)., Harpilms, 
D., AncMstia, D. (An PericUmeni Costs& similis ?) PalasmoneUa, D., Palsemon, 



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4. Oplophorin^. — Pedes Imi sive didactyli sive monodactyli ; 2di cbelati, cras- 
siores. Squama antennarum externarum acuminata, extus spinis armata.— G. 
Oplophorus, E., Regulus,. D. 

[Cujus eedis Autonomea, Risso ^J 



2. MaxilUpedes 2di tenuiter pediformes. 



Fam. IV. PASIPHiEIDiE.— Mandibul99 uti in Atyidis 



G. Pasiphmay SaY. 



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SuBTRiBUS III. PEN^IDEA, vel Macrouea Inferiora. 



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cum epistomate 



Antennae externse squama basali magna instructse 



Q connatus. 
Pedes Imi 



2diq 



3tiis 



non crassioreS; 3tii saBpins crassiores longiores et che 



lati; raro pedes 
sive non chelatis 



debiles et tenues, Stiis sive obsolete chelatis 



Fam. I. PENiEIDuE.—Pedes 6 antici chelati, 3tii longiores et plus 
minusve validiores. 

G. Sicyonia, E., Penseus, Lat., Ansteus, Duv., Stenopus, Lat., Spongicola, De H. 

Fam. II. SEEGESTIDiE.— Pedes toti debiles, 2di Stiique consimiles, 
sive obsolete didactyli sive non didactjli. Maxillipedes extern! 
tenues. 

G. Sergestes^ E., Acetes^ E., Euphema^ E. (An hujus sedis?) 

Fam. III. EUCOPIDJE.— Pedes toti debiles, 2di 3tiique non chelati, 
Imi maxillipedesque extern! monodactyli et subprehensiles. 

G. Eucopiay J). 



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CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1435 



Oedo II. ANOMOBRANCHIATA 



Tribus I. MYSIDEA. 



II 



Fam. I. EUPHAUSID-^.— Cephalothorax forma Caridoideus. Pedes 
thoracis bifidi, appendicibus branchialibus externis. 

Gr. Thysano^podaf E., EupJiausia, D., Cyrtopia, D. 

Fam. II. MYSID^.— Cephalothorax forma Caridoideus. Pedes tho- 
racis bifidi, appendicibus branchialibus carentes. 

1. CYNTHiNiEj. — Pedes abdominis appendicibus branchialibus instructi. Antennae 
internse biramese^ externae squama basali instructse. — Gr. GyntJiiay Thompson. 

2. Mysin.^. — Pedes abdominis appendicibus branchialibus carentes. Antennae 
interuEe biramese, externae squama basali instructae.— Gr. Mysis^ Lat., Fromysis, 
J).y Macromysisj W.^ Sinella^ D., Loxopis^ D. 

3. ScELETiNiNiE.— Pedes abdominis appendicibus branchiiformibus carentes. An- 
tennae internse simpliceS; external biramese^ squama basali carentes. — G. Sceh" 
tina^ D.; RacJiitia^ D.; Myto^ Kr. 

Fam. III. LUCIFERID^.— Segmentum antennale 



valde elongatum 



carapace per suturam fere discretum. Pedes simplic 



G. Lucifer, 



Appendix to the Mysidea. — Gr. Furdlia^ D., Calyptopis^ D., Zoea. Bosc. 



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Tribus II. AMPHIONIDEA 



I 



Fam. I. AMPHIONID^. 

Q. Phyllosoma, Leach, AmpMon, Edw 



Teibus III. SQUILLOIDEA. 



Fam. I. SQUILLID^. — Eostrum carapaxque per suturam disjuncti 

Gr. Lysiosquilla, J)., Squilla, FseudosquiUa, Coroms, Lat., Gonodactylus, Lat. 



Fam. II. ERICHTHID^.— Rostrum 



earapacis frons product 



et acuminatus, carapace et rostro non disjunctis 

G. SquilkrichfJius, Edw., Erichthus, Lat., Alima, Lh. 




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1436 



CRUSTACEA 



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SuBCLAssisII. TETEADECAPODA 



Ordo I. CHORISTOPODA. 



Tribus I. ISOPODA. 



SuBTRiBUS I. ID0TJ5IDEA. 



Appendic 



abdominales duse posticae bene operculiformes, appendice 



alias optime tegentes 



Fam. I. IDOT-^ID.^.— Pedes fere consimiles, pi 



minusve ambu 



latorii. 

a. Idotsea, Fab., Edotea, Qxxer., Erichsunia, D., Cleantis, D., Ejyehjs, D. 

Fam. II. CH^TILID^.— Pedes 6 postici non subsequi, pari uno lon- 
gissirao, et multiarticulato. 

Gr. Chsetiliay J). 
[An hujus sedis Anthuridce J] 

SuBTRiBUS II. ONISCOIDEA. 



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Appendices abdominales duse posticas styliformes et non operculiformes 
alias appendices tegentes sat terminales, raro obsoletae. 



Fam. I. ARMADILLID^ 



Corp 



bene convexum 



latum, 
pendic 



Abdomen multiarticulatum, segmento ultimo parvo 
audales ultra abdomen non exsertse, lamellat8B. 



articu- 
. Ap' 
Mandi 



bulae non palp 



Antennse internaB inconspicuge 



1 



2 



TyLiN^.-^Appendices caudales infra al)dominis segmentum posticum celatse et 
operculiformes sed paryge et alias appendices non tegentes.— Gr. Tylu&^ Lat. ^ 
Armadillin^.— Appendices caudales inter duo abdominis segmenta postica 
partim vis^.-a. Armadillo, Lat., Sj^Urillo, D., Armadmidmm, Br., Dii^lotx- 



ochuSy Br. 



Fam. II. ONISCID^.— Corp 



ssepius minus convexum, vel 



vel laxe articulatum 



Abdomen multi articulatum, segmento ultimo 



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CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA 



1437 



parvo. Append 
bulge non palpig* 



caudales valde exsert^, stjl 
Antennao internae conspicnaa 



formes. Mandi- 



V. 



1. Oniscin^. Maxillipedes 3-articulati^ articulis duobus ultimis brevibus et par- 

vulis. Antenna3 externse ad articulationem 5tain bene geniculatae. Basis appen- 
dicum caudalium perbrevis, duos stylos multum iuajquos gerens, stylo interno 



Antennae 



sub abdomine partim celato.— Gr. Oiiiscus, Linn, (subgen. Trichonisc 
cellio, Lat., Oniscus), Philoscia, Platy arthriis , Br., Deto, Guar. 

2. ScYPHACiN^. — Maxillipedes 2-articulati, articulo 2do lamellato. 
externa3 ad articulationem 5tam non geniculatae. Basis appendicum caudalium 
aut brevis aut oblongus, ramo interno interdum omnino aperto.— Gr. Scyi^Jiax, 

D.y Styloniscus, D. 

3. Lygin^e. — Maxillipedes 4-articulati; elongati. Antennae externfe ad articula- 
tionem 5tam non bene geniculatEe. Styli caudales longi, basi longe exserto, 
ramis setiformibus, subaequis et aeque apertis.— Gr. Lygia, ^&\>., Lygidium, Br. 



Fam. III. ASELLIDJE. — Corpus s^pius plus dep 



et laxe arti- 



culatum. Abdomen 1-6-articulatum, segmento ultimo magno, scu- 
tellato. Appendices caudales stjliformes, interdum brevissimae. 



Mandibulae palp 



AntennaB internae conspicuse 



1. LiMNORiN^. — Abdomen 5-6-articulatum. — Gr. Limnoria, LJi. 

2. AsELLiN^. — Abdomen 1-2-articulatum. — Gr. J(Bra, Lb., Jseridina, E., Asellus, 
Gr., Janira, Lb., Henopomus, Kr., 3Iunna, Kr. 



SuBTRiBUS III. CYMOTHOIPEA. 




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Appendices abdominales duae posticae lamellataB, apud abdominis 
latera dispositae. 



V 



Fam. I. CYMOTHOID^.— Maxillipedes breves, 3-4-articulati, oper 



culiformes, articulis terminalibus an 
caudales liberae, mar^inibus rarissime 



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brevib 



Append 



infixae. 

connatis. 



itae. Antennge sub capita 
mentis anterioribus rare 



Abdomen 4-6-articulatum, se| 
Pedes toti ancorales. Branchias s^pissime 



Epimerae conspicuae. 

1. Cymothoin^.— Lamellse caudales nudse. Abdomen multiarticulatum, seg- 
mentis liberis. — Gr. Gymothoa, Fab,, Ceratothoa, D., Livoneca, Lb., Anilocra, 
Lb., Nerocila, Lb., Okncira, Lb. 

2. Orozeuktin^. — Segmentum abdominis posticum ac in Cymothod; segmenta 
alia coalita et noa libera.— Gr. Orozeuktes, E. 

Lamellse caudales ciliatae. Abdomen multiarticulatum, seg- 



j^GATHOINiB 

mentis liberis. 



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1438 



CRUSTACEA. 



Fam. II. ^GIDJE.— Maxillipedes 



gati, 4-6-articulati, articulis 



totis lamellatis, terminalibus latis et brevibus. Appendices caudales 
liber£G, marginibus ciliatse. Antennae ad frontis margmem capitis 

affixa9 . . 

uiculati. 8 



,pert£e 



Abdomen 4-6-articulatum. Pedes 6 



dum ancorales aut prelie 



saspius simpliciter 

Branchiae 




Ep 



postici unguiculati et nunq^uam ancorales 
merae conspicuso. 

1. JEGmJE. — Pedes 6 antici ancorales, -unguibus validiS; reliquis unguibus parvulia 
confecti. — Gr. jEga, Lh. (Subgen. JEga^ Conilera^ Lh., Rocinelay Lh.), Ache- 
ritsiaj LucaS; PterelaSy Guer. 

2. CiROLANiN^. — Pedes nulli ancorales.— Gr. Girolana^ Lb., CoraUana^ D., AH- 

tropus, E. 

Fam. III. SPHEROMID^. 



Maxillipedes elong 



5-6-articulati 



et palpiform 



Append 



caudales margine abdominis laterali 
marginem capitis affixae, apertae. 



connatae. Antennae ad frontis 

Abdomen 1-2-articulatum. Pedes non ancorales (raro 4 antici 



ancorales) . Brancliiae 



merae non discernendae 



1. SPHEKOMiNiE. — Lamella appendicis caudalis externa sub internS. se latens. — Gr. 
Splieromccy Lat., Cymodoceay Lh., Cerceisy E., Cassidina^ E., Amphoroideumj E. 

2. Nes.^in.^. — Lamella appendicis candalis externa saliens, sub interna se nou 



latens, usquam aperta. Pedes nulli ancorales. 



Nescea 



Campe- 



copeUy Lh. 

3. Ancinin^. 



•Pedes 4 antici ancorales. — Gr. AndnuSy E. 



A 



\ 









Tribus II. ANISOPODA. 



SuBTRiBUS I. SEROLIDBA, vel Anisopoda Cymothoica 



Appendi 



duae posti 



abdominales lamellat^e, apud abdominis 



latera dispositse 



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Fam. I. SEPOLID^.— Appendices abdominales sex anticaB liberae, 
subnatatorise, quatuor sequentes brancbiales, bene lamellate, ul- 
timse ac in Cjmotlioidis. Antennae Imas sub capite insitae. 

Gr. Serolis, Lh. 

Fam. II. PRANIZID-^. — Appendices abdominales totas ac in iEgidis. 



Antenna Imse sub capite insitae. 



Pedes thoracis numero decern, 



paribus duobus anticis rudimentariis. Thoracis segmenta numero 
quinque non superantia. 



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CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1439 




1. Pranizin^. — Caput parvum 



Mandibulse vix salientes. — Gr. Praniza^ Lh. 



2. Ancein^.— Caput grande. Mandibulse ultra caput longe exsertaa.— G. Anceus^ 



Bisso. 




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SuBTRiBUS II. ARCTUmDEA, vel Anisopoda Idot^ica 



Appendices duge posticse abdominales lamellatae et bene operculiformes, 
appendices branchiales tegentes. 



Fam. I. ARCTURID^. 

1. Arcturin^.— Opercula abdominis ad ventrem strict^ appressa.— Gr. Arcturus, 

Lat., Leachia, Johnston. 

2. Anthurin^.— (An Idotceideorum ?) Opercula abdominis ad ventrem non bene 
appressa, sed libera et latera abdominis partim tegentia.— G. AntJiura, Lh. 



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SuBTRiBus III. TAN AIDE A, vel Anisopoda Onisoica. 



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Appendices duse posticse abdominales plus minusve styliformes, sub- 



terminales, interdum obsoletge 



Fam. I. TANAID^. — Pedes Imi 2dive subchelati, sequentes non 
ancorales. Abdomen paribus 5 appendicum subnatatoriis unoque 
postico stjlorum instructum. 

1. Tanain^.— Corpus lineare, segmento thoracis Imo ssepe oblongo capiteque par- 
vulo. Styli caudales longi. G. Tanais, E., Paratanais, D., LeptocMia, D., 



J 



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/ 



ApseMdes, Lh., Rhoea, E. 

2. LiRiopiN^.— Corpus antice latins, postice sensim angustans, segmento thoracis 
Imo reliquis vix longiore, capite sat grandi. Appendices abdominales numero 

decern elongata?. — Gr. Liriope, Rathke, Cryptotldr, D. 

3. Crossurin^.— Corpus antice latius, postice sensim angustatum, segmento tho- 
racis Imo vix longiore, capite sat grandi. Appendices abdominales inferiores 
numero sex, ciliatse. — Gr. Crossurus, Rathke. 

II. BOPYKIDtE. — Pedes toti plerumque aliquo modo subpre- 

hensiles vel ancorales. Maris corpus angustum ; abdomen 1-6-arti- 
culatum, appendicibus subnatatoriis stylisque duobus ssepe in- 



Fam 



structum, totis \ 
latum et obesum 
letum. 



ppendicibus interdum obsoletis 



Feminm 



corpus 



quoad pedes ssepe partim obso 




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1440 



CRUSTACEA. 



1. BoPYRiN^. — Thor2iX femince appendicibus brancliialibxis careus. Gr. Bopyriis^ 
\idA.y Phryxus^ Rathke, Cepon^ Duv.; DaJiiSy Kr. 

2. loNiN^. — Pedes thoracis /emmoe ad basin appendices simplices branchiales 
gerentes. — Gr. lone^ Lat.; Argeia^ D. 



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Tribus III. AMPHIPODA. 



SuBTRiBus I. CAPRELLIDEA. 



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Maxillipedes elongati^ palpiformes. Caput oculique mediocres 
domen obsolescens. 



Ab- 



Fam. I. CAPRELLID^.^— Corpus longum et fere filiforme. Antenna 
2d9e longitudine mediocres. [Species non parisiticse.] 

G-. Proto^ Lh., Protella, D.y Caprella, Lk.^ jEgina^ Kr.^ Cercops, Kr., PodaUriuSj Kr. 



Fam. II, CYAMID^.— Corpus latum^ depressum. Antennas 2dge 
obsoletae. [Species parasitic93.] 

Gr. Oyamus, 



SuBTRiBus II. GAMMARIDEA. 



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Maxillipedes elongati, palpiformes. Caput oculique mediocres 



Ab- 



domen appendicibus sex natatoriis et sex styliformibus instructum 



Fam. I. DULICHID^. — Gressoriae, habitu Caprelloidege. 



Corpus 



linearC; epimeris obsoletis. Pedes sex posteriores longi, subprehen- 
siles. Abdomen 5-articulatum. 

G. Dulicliia, Kr. 

Fam. II. CHELURIDiE. — Corpus fere cjlindricum, epimeris medio- 



cribus. Abdomen seg 



4 to 6toque coalitis et oblongis, styli 



■\ 



caudalibus inter se valde dissimilibus. 

G. Chelura, Philippi. 

Fam. III. COEOPHIDiE. — Gressorise, pedibus partim lateraliter 
porrectis. Corpus plus minusve depressum, ssepe latum, epimeris 
perbrevibus, interdum obsoletis. Abdomen forma appendicibusque 
normale et perfectum. Antennas ssepe pediformes. 



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CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1441 



, 1. Clydonin^.— Styli caudales Imi 2dique simplices, subulati.— G. Clydoyiia, D. 

2. COROPHIN^.— Antennae plus minusve pediformes. Styli caudales Imi 2di(][ue 
biramei.— G-. CoropUum, Lat., SipJionoecetes, Kr., PlatopUum, D., Gi/rtopUum, 
D., Unciola, Say, Podocerus, Lh., Cratophium, D., Cerapus, Say, Gerapodina, 
E., ErichtJionius , E. 

3. IciLiN^.— Antennae non pediformes nee subpediformes, flagellis sat longis basi- 
que sat brevi instructge. Styli caudales ac in Corophinis.—Q. Icilius, D., Pi^ery- 
gocera, Lat. 

Fam. IV. ORCHESTIDiE. — Saltatorias, pedibus nullis lateraliter 



I 




Corpus compressum, epimeris 



porrectis. 

dicibus normale. Antenna 



bene pedifo 



Abdomen appen- 

Styli caudales 



Imi 2dique biramei; 3tii simplices brevissimi et ultra 2dos non pi 
ducti. Mandibulse non palpiger^. Maxilla lm83 palpo instruci 

sive parvulo sive obsoleto. 

G. Orchestia (subgen. Talitrus, Talorchestia, Orchestia), AUorcJiestes, D. 

Fam. V. GAMMAKIDiE.— Saltatoriae vel natatorige, pedibus nul 



lateraliter porr 



Corpus ssepius compressum, raro subde 



pressum, epimeris sive magnis sive parvis 



Styli caudales 



duobu 



oblong 



ssepiusque ultra 2dos productis, interdum 



simplicibus. Mandibulse sa3pissime^ palp 
palpo magno 



Maxilla lm93 






3-articulato (rarissime 1 



1. Pedes 10 ]Jostici non preJiensiles, 

I 

1. STEGOCEPHALIN.E.— Antennae breveS; superiores basi crassae. Mandibulse acie 
denticulata instructs, palpo brevi uniarticulato intus dentato. Epimer^ per- 



magnse 



Gr. StegocepJialuSj Kr. 



2. Lysianassin^.— Antennge breves, superiores basi crassae. Mandibulae apice 
parce dentatse et acuminate; acie vix instructas, palpo 2-3-articulato. 



pedes lamellis internis magnis 



Epimerse permagnae 



Maxilli- 
Gr. Lysianassa^ E., 



PUias, Guer., Opis, Kr., Uristes, D., Anomjx, Kr., Urotloe, D. 

3 Leucothoin^.— Antenna superiores basi plus minusve graciles. Maxillipedes 

' elongati, perangusti, articulo longo unguiformi confecti, lamellis internis perbre- 

vibus. Mandibute sive palpigerce sive non palpigerse, processu molari carentes 

(An semper?).' Epimerse magnge.— Q. Stenothoe, D., Leucothoe, Lh. 

[An hujus sedis, genus Mkhrocheles, Kr., et AmphitJioe marionis, Edw. ?] 

4. Gammartn^.— Antennee Imse basi graciles. Maxillipedes sat lati, lamellis 

' internis sat elongatis. Mandibulse acie denticulata instructae et altera accessoria 

quoque processu molari et palpo 3-articulato. Pedes 10 postici non subprehen- 

a. Acantho7wius , Owen, Alihrotus, E., Leptochirus, Zad., Iphimedia, 



siles. 



(Ed 



361 






t. 



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f * 
4 ! 




M t 



t'i 



iif 



%\ 



V 



til 



ii 




1 If 




»•• 



J 

\ 




■ t 



1 



■•: 



N, 



*f 





^, 



i 



Si'' 



^SSS^^^ 



c^ 



;>^ 



-L 




V. 



„ KkIL 



/ 



, > 



\ 



1 ** 




•i :fl <;^f! 



i 



\ 










»» 



jftiit) 



i'l^*» 



I 



1442 



CRUSTACEA. 



MelitUj Lh., D., MsBra^ Lh., D., Dercothoe^ D., PyctiluSy D.^ Atylusy Lh., Ischy- 
rocerus, Kr. [An hujus sedis FardaUsca^ Kr. ?] 



2. Pedes 10 posttci partim prehenstles. 



'i 



< 



I 



» t 



5. PoNTOPOREiN^. — Pedes 3tii 4tique plus minusve prehensilesj 6 postici non 
prehensiles. — Gr. Lepidactylts^ Say, PontipoTeia^ Kr., Ampeliscaj Kr., Proto- 
medeiay Kr., J.ora, Kr., Phoxiis^ Kr. 

6. Is-^iN^. — Pedes 4 vel 6 postici subprehensiles. — G. isasa, E., Anisopus^ Tern. 



r 







j H 

i 



I' * 



r 



h 
I 



I ' 



i 



ttt* I 



SuBTRiBus III. HYPERIDEA. 



Maxillipedes abbreviati, lamellati, operculiformes. Caput grande, 
oculorum corneis plerumque tectum. Appendices abdominales ac 

in Gammarideis, latius lamellat^e. 

Fam. I. HYPEEIDj3j]. — Antennas 2da3 exsertae. Abdomen in ven- 
trem se non flectens. Pedes 5ti 6ti Tmiqae forma longitudineque 
mediocres, 5tis Gtisve non percrassis nee prehensilibus. 

1. VlBiLiN-^. — Corpus forma paulo Gammaroideum. Caput oculique mediocres. 

Maxillipedes palpo parvulo instruct!. Palpus mandibularis tenuis. — Gr. Vibi- 
liay E. 

2. Hyperin^. — Caput tumidum. Oculi pergrandes. Palpus mandibularis tenuis. 

■Gr- LestrigonuSy E., Tyro^ E., Hyperiay Lat., Metoecus^ Kr,, Tauria^ D., Dai- 
rinia^ D. (=Dairaj Edw.), Cysiiso^ina^ Gruer. 

3. Synopin^. — Corpus gracilius. Palpus mandibularis sat brevis, latissimus. 
Oculi grandes. — Gr. Synopia^ D. 



V 



n : 



f 



t 



tr 



f'lf 



t 




M \ 




II 



m\ 




I 

* 



1^ 



! 



Fam. 11. PHRONIMID^. — Antennae 2ds8 exsertse. Abdomen in 
ventrem se non flectens. Pedes oti Gtive sive crassi sive elongati, 
saepius prehensiles, quoque 3tii 4tique saepe prehensiles. 

1. Phronimin^. — Abdomen versus basin sat gracile. Pedes 5ti magna manu 
didactyla vel monodactyla confecti; 3tii 4ti extremitate graciles, non prehensiles. 
Antennae breves. Gr. Phroiiimay Lat., Primno^ Guer. 

2. Phrosinin^. — Abdomen versus basin sat crassum. Pedes 5ti prehensiles, 
monodactyli; quoque 3tii 4tique prehensiles. — Gr. Anchylomera^ E., Phrosina^ 
Risso, Themisto^ Guer. 

3. Phorcin^. — Pedes 5ti Gtive valde elongati, et crassi, sed manu non confecti. 
G. Phorcus^ E. 



Fam. III. TYPHIDiE. — Antennae 2d2e sub capite thoraceve celatas 
et saepius replicatse. Abdomen in ventrem ssepe se flectens. Pedes 



«i 



* 






i ' 



V 

T 

I 



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ill 



I'. 



h i 



« 








'^ 



^- 



h' 



\ 




h 1 



J 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1443 



t 



i! *i 



6 postici interdum abbreviati cum articulo Imo operculiformi 



dum longitudine mediocres 



1. Typhin^. — Abdomen in ventrem Be flectens. — G-. Dithyrus, D., Typhis, R. 

Thyrop%iSy D. 

2. Pronoinje. — Abdomen in ventrem se non flectens. Caput non oblongum; an- 

tennis in capitis frontem insitis. — Gr. Pronoe, Guer., Lycs&a, D. 

3. OxYCEPHALiNiE.— Abdomen in ventrem se non flectens. Caput oblongum 
an tennis Imis in superficiem capitis inferiorem insitis.— G. Oxycc^haluSf E. 



\ 



W 




ill 

r 



1 y 



^ii 



OrdoII. (?) TRILOBITA. 



V 



ii 




^% 



. i 






SuBCLAssis III. ENTOMOSTEACA. 



Ordo I. GNATHOSTOMATA 



LEaio 1. LOPHYROPODA. 



• 



1 



Tribus I. CYCLOPOIDEA. 



lis 



I 



-•« 





Fam. I. CALANIDiG.— Oculi duo simpl 



minutissimi, pigmentis 



a 



1 



*t 



sive coalitis sive 



discretis ; interdum oculi alii in uno coaliti infra 



,put deorsum spectantes 



Mandibula3 maxillaeque elongati palp 



g' 



eras. Pedes Imi nunquam prehensiles. 

1. C ALANINE.— Oculi inferiores nulli. Antennae Imx longaS; fere trans versim 
porrectse; dextra maris articulatione non geniculans ; 2dae non prebensiles. Max- 
illse latere interiore setigeri». Abdomen longitudine mediocre. — G, Calanus, 
Leach, Rhincalanus, J)., Cetochilus, Euchssta, Philippi, Undina, D. 

2. PoNTELLiNiB.— Oculi inferiores distincti. Antennae Im^ longae s^pe oblique 
porrectse; dextra maris articulatione saspius geniculans; 2d« non prehensiles. 
Maxillse abdomenque ac in Calaninis. G. 
Candace, D., Fontella, Acartia D., Catopia, D. 

3. OiTHONiNiE. Oculi et antennse fere ac in Calaninis. Abdomen prselongum, 

' cephalothorace vix brevius. Maxillae latere interiore digitatce.— G. Oithona, Baird. 

4. NoTODELPHiN^. — Antennae 2daB prehensiles, vel monodactylie. — G. Noto- 

delphys, Allman. 



L 



Hemicalanus, D., Diaptomus, Westw 



■#♦ 



HI 



i 41 



^ 









*^ 



^ 



■-, 



■^ 




i 




f 



f 




<v.:^ 







I >ii 



I ' 



•A 



ki 




\ : 



k 



1 



J 



1 



I 



H 



fi^ 



'It 






1444 



CRUSTACEA. 



/ 



Fam. II. CYCLOPID^. — Oculi duo simplices minutissimi coaliti 
tantum. Mandibulas palpo parvulo vel obsolete. Pedes lini plus 
minusve subprehensiles. 

1. Cyclopin^. — Sacculi ovigeri externi duo. — Gr. Cyclops. 

2. HarpacticiNjE. — Sacculus oviger unicus. — Gr. Harp adieus^ Edw.; Clytemnestra^ 
D.^ CanthocamptuSy Westw., Setella^ D. 

Fam. III. COEYC^ID^. — Oculi duo simplices minutissimi coaliti; 

quoque alii duo portentosse magnitudinis; lenticulo prolato interno 

Sacculi ovi2;eri 



corneaque 



magna oblata in testam insita instruct!. 



sive duo sive unicus. Pedes Imi ssepius subprehensiles. 

1. CoRYC^iN^. — Sacculi ovigeri duo. — Gr. Corycoeus^ D., Antaria^ D., Sapphi- 
rinaj Thompson. 

2. MiRACiN^. — Sacculus ovigerus unicus. — Gr. Miracia^ D. 



Tribus II. DAPHNIOIDEA. 



X- 



L' 



F 

I: 






s 



^ 



Fam. I. PENILIDjE. — Pedes foliacei numero duodecim, angustiores. 

Antennae anticse obsolescentes. 

G. Sida^ Straus, Daphnella^ Baird^ Penilia^ D.^ Latona^ Str. 

Fam. II. DAPHNID^. — Pedes foliacei numero decern, latiores. 
Antennae anticse l-2-articulat9e, raro multiarticulatge. 

G. DapJinia^ M., CeriodapTmia^ J).y Moina^ Baird, Macrotlirix^ B., Acanthocercusy 
Schodler^ UurycercuSy B.^ LynceuSy M., Alona^ Baird; Bosmina^ Baird. 




! i> 



! 




m 1 



H 



Fam. III. POL YPHEMID^.— Caput grande, oculis repletum. Pedes 
numero octo, fere teretes. Antennae anticae obsolescentes. 

L 

G. PolyphemuSy M.^ EvadnCy Loven^ Pleopisy D. 



!-« \ 



t*i' 




Tribus III. CYPROIDEA. 



I 










#1 



\ 



■:. J 




Fam. I. CYPRID^ 



Antennae 2dae subteretes, 3-5 



Mandibulse apice productae et denticulatae, et lateraliter palp 



palp 



mandibulse apice remoto. Oculi pigmento unico minuto 



guncti, lenticulis duobus sph 
pediformes. 



Pedes duo vel plu 






■^ 




--• 



■',■! * 



'^^.u 










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, »" 



" ' 




k _ _■ 



H 



m 



1 



.' 



i' 



r 



-'r( 



-■ 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1445 



r 

1. Cyprin^.— Pedes numero quatuor; anteriores tenues pediformes, posteriores 
debiles. Abdomen elongatuiri; stylis duobus confectum. — G-. C^pris, Miiller, 
Candona^ Baird. 

2. Cytherin^.— Pedes numero sex, consimileS; pediformes. Abdomen breve.— G. 



Antennae 2d93 basi crassae^ s^pius 



Cythere^ Miiller. 

■ b 

Fam. 11. HALOCYPRID^. 

biramese, ramo loiigiore 5-7-articulato elongate setigero. Appen- 
dices mandibulares omnino pediformes, processu molari parvo. 

1. Cypridinin^.— Pedes quatuor, articulati. Maxilla quatuor.—G. Gy^ridinay E. 



2. Halooyprin^. — Pedes duo, venftiformes. Maxillae sex. 



Halocypris 



} 



Conchoecia^ D. 



Legio II. PHYLLOPODA. 



Tribus I. ARTEMIOIDEA. 



Hi! 




^1 



I 



I ^* 



4 



. 1- c 

B 1 


■' ! ; 


1 
* f 


|i 


'A 


a \ \ \ 


4 ^ 

1 



n 




n 



Fam. I. ARTEMIAD^.— Cephalothorax multiannulatus usque ad 



put, testa nusquam tectus 



Pedes numerosi, foliacei 



1. CniROCEPHALiNiE.— Corpus gracile. Abdomen longum et multiarticulatum. 
Antennse 2d8e breves sed percrassse, maris prebensiles. — Gr. Chirocephalus, Pre- 

vost, Artemia, Leach. 

2. EuLiMENiN^.— Abdomen fere obsoletum. Antennae quatuor fere filiformes. 

G. Eulimene, Lat. 

F 
I 

J 

Fam. II. NEBALIAD^.— Cephalothorax testa fere bivalvi bene 
tectus. Abdomen non. inflexum, pauci-annulatum . Pedes plures 



posteriores biremes, ac in 
branchiales. 

^ 

G. Nehalia^ Leach. 




reliq 



anteriores foliacei 







\ 



Tribus II. APODOIDEA. 



'. 



1 



Fam. APODID^. — Oculi duo compositi. Appendices duae caudales 



rigide setiformes 

G-. Apus, Scboeffer. 



Testa scutiformis. 



362 



H I 



i 





1 






rf 



/ 



i 



r- 




!f 



-^, 



'». 



-*..m g* 



^sss-.H^ 



•' iL ■■' "*■■'- ■_i_'r 






,. .' 



'!- 




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■ > 



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1 

I 



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ll^ t 




'*( 



I 



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1446 



CRUSTACEA. 



Tribus III. LIMNADIOIDEA 



Fam. LIMNADIDJE. 

G. Limnadia, Br., Cyzicus, Aud., Lininetis, Loven (Hedessa, Lievin) 



♦it! 



« t 



Ordo II. CORMOSTOMATA 



r 



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ii 



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^ ^ I 



'1 



1 1 



» M. 




M It 



I 

i! 



SuBORDO I. PCECILOPODA 



/ 



Teibus I. ERQASILOIDEA. 



^ 



Fam. I. MONSTRILLIDiE 



•Corp 



eloDgatum fere cylindricum 



Abdomen 5-6-articulatum, segmentis Imo 2doq 



setosis mun 



ac 



St 



Maxillae 



ue appendicibus 
posticse et pedes 



obsoleti, pedes octo maxime biremes 



G-. Monstrilla, D. 



J 



Fam. II. ERGASILIDiE 



Corp 



breviusculum, cepbalothorace 



abdomine stylis caudalibus minutis setig 



confecto 



An 



Corycoeo, pedes octo postici bene 



tennae posticse subprebensiles ac in 
biremes. 

G-. Ergasilus, Nordmann. 

Fam. III. NICOTHOID^. — Ergasilidis affinis. Antennae posticae 
perbreves vel rudimentariae. [Corpus lobis tumidis prodigiosis late- 
raliter prolongatum.] 

Gr. Nicothoe^ Aud. et Edw.— [Cujus sedis est Bomolocus^ Nordmann ?] 






t 



lit \» 





m 



n 







'' '%[ 



s 

- .1 




Tribus II. CALIGOIDEA. 



Fam. I. ARGULID^. — Corpus late depressum, peltatum 



Antennae 



Ova in tubis 



Imse obsoletse. Pedes Imi tubulati^ 2di unguiculati. 
vel sacculis externis non gesta. 

G. ArguluSy Miiller. 

Fam. II. CALIGID^.— Corpus late depressum, peltatum, segmento 



n 

I 



t i\ 





/ 



{ 



\ 




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/ ^ 




-i 



y< 



f ■• 








- H 



N 



4 



m^ 



I 

i 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1447 



1 



pergrandi 



AntennsD Imse breves, 2-3 



2d8e 



Pedes Imi graciles, 2di prehensiles vel 



Ova 



& 



pore tectge. 

externa in tub 

1. Caligin^.— Truncus buccalis ovoideus, paulo oblongus, apertura oris inferiore. 
Maxillse ab ore remotse, brevissima3, crass^e. Tubi ovigeri externi recti. An- 
tennae antics 2-articulat£e.— O. GaKgus, Mliller, LepeopJitheirus, Nord., Cali- 
geriay D., Calistes, J)., Trehius, Kr. 

2. PANDARiNiE.— Truncus buccalis acuminatus, apertura terminali. Maxillaa par- 
vulfB lamellares ad truncum appressae. Tubi ovigeri externi recti. — Gr. Fandarus. 
Lb., Nogagus, Lh., Phyllopliora, E., Dinematura, Lat., Euryhporus, Nord., Lepi- 

dopus, D. 

3. Q^Q-Kovm M.—Pandarinis affinea. Tubi ovigeri externi sub abdomine convo- 

luti. — Gr. Cecrops, Lsemargus. 

4. B-p^EGiLLmiNJE.—Fandarinis affines. Oculi duo ac in Sappbirinis. G-. SpecilU- 

gus, J). 

Fam. III. DICHELESTID^ 



Corp 



gustum, segmento antico 



parvo 
ultra 



Antennse Imse breves, 5-10-articulat^ : 2dae fere frontales 



put exsertaa. Pedes Iml g 
in tubis gesta. 



2di prehensiles 



Ova 



/ 



1. DiCHELESTiN^. — Segmenta corporis angusta,non folios^ producta. — Gr. Dicheles- 

tium^ Herm.; Nemesis^ Roux. 

2. Anthosomatin^. — Segmenta corporis folios^ producta. — Gr. Anthosomay Leach. 



Tribus III. LERN^OIDEA. 



Fam. I. CHONDRACANTHID^ 



Appendices ceplialothoracis 



nuinero quatuor vel plures, unguibus plus minusve ancorales. 

1. Selin^. — Antenna anticee et pedes thoracis postici graciles. — G. SeliuSj Kr. 

2. CnoNDRACANTHiNJii. — Antennae anticae 'graciles vel perbreves. Pedes thoracis 

postici breviter et crasse ancorales.— G-. Ghondr acanthus, de la Rochc; Lernanthro- 
puSy BL, Lernentomay Bl.; Cyciius, E. 

3. CLAVELLiNiE. — Antennae anticae obsoletse. Pedes thoracis postici crassi et 
Treves.— Gr. Clavella, Oken, PeniculuSy Nord., JEthon, Kr. 

Fam, II. ANCORELLID^. — Antenna posticae feminarum ad apicem 
ssepeque per latera connatas et disco ancorali confectse, 

1, Ancorellin^. — Antennae posticae feminarum per latera connatae et disco anco- 
rali confectae. — Gr. AncoTeUa\ Cuv. 

2. Lern^opodin^. — Antenna postici feminarum versus apicem connatse tantum. 

Gr. Lern^opoday Kr., Brachiellaj Cuv., AchthereSy N., TracheliasteSy N., J5asa- 

nisteSj N. 




! 




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- ■ 

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t I 





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If 



1'., 



r 



■-. 



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:s- % 






i 






ii 



^^u^^ 



2' il-. '- ^' " 



•* ' -'- 



-1 — ■ - '-- — — 1^ ~ — 






i 



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-t 



Ii 




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il 



8 







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m 



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1 ,' 

r 
I 




I 

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L 



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6 



till 



1448 



CRUSTACEA. 



Fam. III. PENELLIDtE.— Pedes obsoleti. Caput 2-4 appendicibus 



brevibus non articulatis munitum. 



/ 



1. Penelltn^. — Pedes pauci rudimentarii vix obsoleti. — Gr. Penella^ Oken^ Ler- 

neonema, Edw. 

2. Lerneocerin^. — Pedes omnino obsoleti. — Gr. Lerneocera, Bl., Lernea. 



SuBORDO II. ARACHNOPODA vel PYCNOGONOIDEA 



Fam. I. NYMPHID^.— Antennis munitae. 

G-. Nymphum, Fabr., Ammothea, Lh., Pallene, J., PhoxicTiilidium, J 



W 



l« 



8i 



Fam. II. PYCNOGONID^.—Antennis carentes 

■ 

Gr. Pycnogomim^ Brunnich, PhoxichiluSy Lat. 



i 



\ fi 



fl» It 



)M '^( 



SuBCLAssis IV. CIEEIPEDIA 



*i 




P 



E t* 




/ 



SuBCLASsis V. EOTATOEIA 



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v- 



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4 




i 



.»ut 



t 






^ 



P 



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APPENDIX. 



The following references are here added to genera of Fossil Crus- 
tacea, not mentioned in the preceding classification, excluding the 



Trilobite group 



1. ^kmuiDM.—Arges of De Haan (Faun. Japon., 21 and 52, pi. 5, 



f 



L 




i' 




\ 



! I 





I * 



11 



/ 



'- r 



r 



, ^■'?' 








/ 



I 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1449 



f.4) 



g' 



near Pilumnus and Menippe. Maxillipeds Cancroid 



abdomen in both sexes 



-jointed; lateral 



mar 



of carapax 

Dis- 



parallel and entire, so as to resemble Cydograpsiis Audouinii. 
tance between the eyes one-fifth the breadth of the thorax. 

Etycea, Leach (Mantell's Geol. of Sussex, PI. 29, f 11, 12), has the 
transverse form of Xantho. 



2. Eriphid^ 



■Zmithojpsis, M'Coy (Ann. Mag. N. H. [2], iv. 162), 
approaches Actumnus in nearly orbicular outline and convexity of 
carapax, but has the fingers acuminated ; the basal joint of the outer 



just reaches the front 



Podop 



M'Coy (loc. cit., p. 165), very near Galene of De 



Haan. It has the slender legs of our Pilumnus 



) \n\ 



W 



•ti 









v- 



3. Anomoura. — Dromilites and Ogydromites of Edwards; Hela of 
Count Mtinster ; Basinotopus and Notopocory stes of M'Coy (Ann. Mag. 
N. H. [2], iv. 167, 169). The form and sutures of the carapax 



M' Coy's g 



'; 



and the character of the arms and of the posterior leg 



very nearly as in JEgl 



4. Thalassinidea. — Magila, A 



GancrinoSf Orphneaj Brisa, and 



Bro7ne of Mtinster ; Megachirus and Pterochirus of Brown 



5. AsTACiDEA.— Co/e^'a, Broderip (Geol. Trans. [2] 



Qlypl 



and Pemphix, von Mey 




Krebse) ; Bol 



Miinster; Podo- 

m. Mag. 



Becks ; ArcJiceocarahus and Hoploparia of M'Coy (Ann. 
N. H. [2], iv. 173, 175). The species have the transverse suture 
across the carapax, which distinguishes the Astacidea and most Tha- 
lassinidea from the Caridea and Pen^idea. 



I 



1 



» s 



6. Penjiiidea.— The following 



referred to the Penaeus 



group 



by De Haan (Faun. Japon., 187) : Antrimpos, Bylgia, Drolna, 
Pusa, Blaculla, ^ger, Udora, Kolga, Hefriga, Elder of Count Mtinster, 
and possibly, Rauna and Bomhur of the same author. In the first 



of 



g 



the 



legs are didactyle, and in Hefriga and 



Elder all are monodactyle. The genus Saga of Count Miinster, De 

Haan refers to the Mysidea. 

363 



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1450 



CRUSTACEA. 



7. Sqtjilloide A . — Naranda and Rechur of Count Miinster are re- 
ferred here by H. G. Bronn (Index Palaeontologicus, ii. 575) ; and 
also, with a query, Noma and Urda of the same author. 



r 

8. IsoPODA. — ArcTiceonisGus and Palceoniscus of Edwards (Ann. des 
Sci. Nat., XX. 326). Archseoniscus, according to Edwards, is between 

Spheroma and Ancinus. 



9. Entomostraca. — T. Rupert Jones adds to the CytherinsB the 

genera (or "subgenera") Gytherella and Gythereis, based on the form of 
the shell. Cyprella and Gypridella of Koninck (Descript. An. Foss.) 

are genera proposed for Cyproid species found in the Belgian carbo- 
niferous beds; and Dithyrocaris, Scouler (Portlock's Geol. Rep., Lon- 
donderry, and Wm. King's Permian Fossils of England, p. 64, Palsa 



,ph 



Soc 



Pub. 1850), includes Carboniferous or Permian 



species, which have been referred both to the Cyproidea and Apo- 
doidea, it being uncertain whether the shell is properly bivalve or 
not. GythGro;psis, M'Coy, includes Palaeozoic species that have been 
referred to Cytherina; Beyrichia and Geratiocaris, M'Coy (Brit. Pal. 

Fossils, Mus. Camb., 4to, 1851, 135), are genera of other Palseozoic 

All the carboniferous and Palseozoic species are referred to 



species. 

the section Phyllopoda 



the bivalve genus Limnadia, by Bur 



meister and M'Coy 



The abnormal number of segments in 




other 



Palseozoic Crustacea render it probable that this reference of them 



;ht. 

Entomoconchus , M'Coy 




Geol. Soc. Dublin 



and Daph 



noidea, Hibbert (On the Burdie House Limestone, Trans. Roy. Soc. 
Edinb., xiii. 180), are other related genera. ' The latter may be near 

A pus. 

Eurypterus, Harlan, and Pterygotus, M'Coy, are other Palseozoic 

genera, probably of Entomostraca. Eurypterus has been supposed to 

be related to Limulus. 

Belinurus, Koninck, Ealicyne^ von Meyer, are other genera, referred 

to the Poecilopoda. 



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GEO&EAPHICAL DISTEIBUTION 



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CHUSTACEA. 



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I. PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS ON THE TEMPERATURE 

OF THE OCEANS. 



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The temperature of the waters is well known to be one of the most 
influential causes limiting the distribution of marine species of life. 
Before therefore we can make any intelligent comparison of the Crus- 
tacea of different regions, it is necessary to have some clear idea of 
the distribution of temperature in the surface waters of the several 
oceans; and, if we could add also, the results of observations at 
various depths beneath the surface, it would enable us still more per- 
fectly to comprehend the subject. The surface temperature has of 
late years been quite extensively ascertained, and the lines of equal 
temperature may be drawn with considerable accuracy, 
latter branch of thermometric investigation almost eve 



But in the 



yth 



yet 



remains to be done : there are scattering observations, but none of a 
systematic character, followed through each season of the year. 

The Map which we have introduced in illustration of this subject, 
presents a series of lines of equal surface temperature of the oceans. 
The lines are isocheimal lines, or, more properly, isocrymal lines ; and 
where they pass, each exhibits the mean temperature of the waters 
along its course for the coldest thirty consecutive days of the year. 




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1452 



CRUSTACEA 



The line for 68° F., for example, passes through the ocean where 68 
F., is the mean temperature for extreme cold weather. January is 
not always the coldest winter month in this climate, neither is the 
winter the coldest season in all parts of the globe, especially near the 
quator. On this 



we do 



the lines 



g 



month, but make them more correctly the limit of the extreme cold 



for the year at the pla 



* Between the line of 74° north and 74 



south of the equator, the waters do not fall for any one month below 
74° F.J between 68° north and south, they do not fall below 68 

There are several reasons why isocrymal are preferable to summer 
or isoiheral lines. The cause which limits the distribution of species 
northward or southward from the equator is the cold of winter, rather 
than the heat of summer, or even the mean temperature of the year. 
The mean temperature may be the same when the extremes are 

When these extremes are little remote, the 



( 



very widely different 



and especially the mildness of the 

snecies that would be 



.\ 



equable character of the seasons, 
winter temperature, will favour the growth of 
altogether cut off by the cold winters where the extremes are more 
intense. On this account, lines of the greatest cold are highly impor- 
tant for a chart illustrating the geographical distributions of species, 
whether of plants or animals. At the same time, summer lines have 
their value. But this is true more particularly for species of the 
land, and fresh-water streams, and sea-shore plants. When the sum- 
mer of a continent is excessive in its warmth, as in North America, 

cs that would otherwise be 



many species extend far from the tropics 

confined within lower latitudes. But in the 

cold in the waters, even in the Polar regions, wherever they 



ocean, the extremest 



solid ice (and only in such plac 



marine species found), is but 



few degrees below 32° Fahrenheit. The whole range of temperature 

The resion which has 68 



for a given region is consequently small 

F. for its winter temperature, has about 80° for the hottest month of 

; and the line of 56° F. in the Atlantic, which has the lati- 
tudes of the state of New York, follows the same course nearly as the 



summer 




m 





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til 



* The word isocrymal here introduced is from the Greek idog, equal, and K^\)^og, 
extreme cold, and applies with sufficient precision to the line for which it is used. These 
lines are not isocJieimal lines, as these follow the mean winter temperature ; and to use 
this term in the case before us, would be giving the word a signification which does not 
belong to it, and making confusion in the science. 



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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1453 



summer line of 70° F 



In each of these cases the whole 



of 



the range is small, being twelve to fourteen deg 
In fresh-water streams, the waters, where 



frozen, do 



sink 



lower than in 
below freezing 



the colder oceans, reaching at most but a few deg 
Yet the extremes are greater than for the 



the same latitudes which 



for 
for the ocean 56° and 70° F. as the 



limits, the land streams of America range in temperature between 30 
and 80° F., and the summer warmth in such a case, may admit of the 
development of species that would otherwise be excluded from the 



g 



While then both isocrymal and isothermal lines are of importa 
charts illustrating distribution over the 



pre-eminently important where the 



^ the former are 

,phy of marine species is to 



be studied. . • j. ±-u 

The lines of greatest cold are preferable for marme species to those 

of summer heat, also because of the fact that the summer range for 
30° of latitude either side of the equator is exceedingly small, being 



but three to four degrees in the Atlantic, and six to 
the Pacific. The July isothermal for 80° F. passes 



ght de 




paral 



lei of 30° ; and the extreme heat of the equatorial part of the Atlantic 



Ocean is rarely above 84 



The difficulty of dividing this space by 



isothermals with so small 




obvious 



That 



It is also an objection to using the isotheres, that those towards^the 
equator are much more irregular in course than the isocrymes "^ "" 
of 80° for July, for example, which is given on our Map from Maury s 
Chart, has a very flexuous course. Moreover, the spaces between the 
isotheres fail to correspond as well with actual facts in geographical 
distribution. The courses of the cold water currents are less evident 
on such a chart, since the warm waters in summer to a great extent 

overlie the colder currents. . 

to be noted that nothing would be gained by making the 



It is also 



mean 
for lay 



perature for the year 



stead of the extremes, the basis 



down these lines, as will be inferred from the remarks 
already i^ade, and from an examination of the chart itself 

The distribution of marine life is a subject of far greater simphcity 

L 

* Moreover, the greatest range for all oceans is but 62° of Fahrenheit, the highest 

while the temperature of the atmosphere of the globe 



being 88°, and the lowest 26 
has a range exceeding 150°. 



364 




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1454 



CRUSTACEA. 



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than that of continental life. Besides the influence on the 



of 



be 
of 



summer temperature in connexion with that of the cold seasons, 
already alluded to, the following elements or conditions have 
considered : — the character of the climate, whether wet or dry 
the surface of the region, whether sandy, fertile, marshy, el 
vegetation, whether that of dense forests, or open pasture-land 
of the level of the country, whether low, or elevated, etc. 



•of the 



etc. These and 

many other considerations come in, to influence the distribution of 
land species, and lead to a subdivision of the Regions into many sub- 
ordinate Districts. In oceanic productions, depth and kind of bottom 
have an important bearing : but there is no occasion to consider the 
moisture or dryness of the climate ; and the influence of the other 
peculiarities of region mentioned is much less potent than with conti- 
nental life. 

We would add here, that the data for the construction of this chart 
have been gathered, as regards the North Atlantic, from the iso- 
thermal chart of Lieutenant Maury, in which a vast amount of facts 

For the rest of 



istered, the result of great labour and 



dy 



the Atlantic and the other oceans we have employed the Meteoro- 
logical volume of Captain Wilkes of the Exploring Expedition Reports, 
which embraces observations in all the oceans and valuable deductions 
therefrom ; also, the records of other travellers, as Humboldt, Duper- 
rey of the Coquille, D'Urville of the Astrolabe, Kotzebue, Beechey, 

Lge, toge- 
difierent 



Fitzroy, Vaillant of the Bonite, Ross in his Antarctic Voy 
ther with such isolated tables as have been 



r. y 



ive been met with in 
Journals. The lines we have laid down, are not however, those of 
any chart previously constructed, for the reason stated, that they 
mark the positions where a given temperature is the mean of the 
coldest month (or coldest thirty consecutive days) of the year, instead 
of those where this temperature is the mean annual or monthly heat ; 
and hence, the apparent discrepancies, which may be observed, on 
comparing it with isothermal charts. 



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The isocrymal lines adopted for the chart are those of 80°, 74 

They diminish by 6°, 



60°, 44°, and 35° of Fahrenheit. 



68°, 62°, 56 

excepting the last, which is 9° less than 44°. 

In adopting these lines in preference to those of other degrees of 
temperature, we have been guided, in the first place, by the great fact, 
that the isocryme of 68° is the boundary line of the coral-reef seas, as 



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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1455 



plained by the author in his Report on Zoophyt 



Beyond this 



line either side of the equator, we have no species of true Madrepora, 
Astrsea Meandrina or Porites; below this line, these corals abound 



d form 



reefs. This line is hence an impor 



■& 



Passin 



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point in any map illustrating the geography of marine life 

beyond the regions of coral reefs, we leave behind large numbers of 

Mollusca and Radiata, and the boundary marks an abrupt transition 

in zoological geography. 

The next line below that of 68° F., is that of 74° F. The corals 
of the Hawaiian Islands, and the Mollusca 
extent, differ somewhat strikingly from those of the Feej 
species of Astr^ea and Meandrina are fewer, and those of Pontes and 

Pocillopora 



to a considerable 

^es. The 



more 



abundant, or at least constitute a much larger pro 



portion of the reef material 
hardier species -, for where they 



These genera of corals include the 



the equatorial 



they 



found to experience the greatest range in the condition of purity 



of the waters, and 



the longest exposures out of water 



Their 



abundance 



the Hawaiian Islands 



at Oahu 



hence a conse- 



quence of their hardier character, and not a mere region peculiarity 
independent of temperature 
g a line between the H 



There are grounds, therefore, for draw 



Islands and 



d as the 



temperature at the latter sinks to 74 
F. is taken as the limiting temperatu 



F. some parts of the year, 74 
. The Feejee seas are exceed 



;ly prolific and varied in tropical species 



The 




row m g 



luxuriance, exceeding in extent and beauty anything elsewhere ob- 
served by the writer in the tropics. The ocean between 74° F., north 
of the equator, and 74° F. south, is therefore the proper tropical or 

torrid region of zoological life. _ . 

With respect to the line of 80° F., we are not satisfied that it is of 



/ 



much importance as 
from the hottest wa 



ards the distribution of species 



The ....o 



ocean 88° to 74° F. is but fourteen 



decrees and there are probably few species occurring within the 



that demand a less rang 



Still 



hereafter made, may 



show that the hot waters limited by the isocryme of 80° includ 



some peculi 



species 



At Sydney Island and Fakaafo, within this 



hot area, there appeared to be among corals a rather greater pr 



lence than 



of the g 



Manopora, which as these 



tender 



* In the author's Report on Greology, 66° F. is set down as the limiting temperature 
of Coral-reef Seas : this, however, is given as the extreme cold. 68° appears to be the 
mean of the coldest month, and is therefore here used. 



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1456 



CRUSTACEA. 



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species, may perhaps show that the waters are less favourable for 
hardier corals than those of the Feejees, where the range of tempera- 
ture is from 74° to 80° F. ; but this would be a hasty conclusion, with- 
out more extended observations. The author was on these islands 

r 

only for a few hours, and his collections were afterwards lost at the 
wreck of the Peacock^ just as the vessel was terminating the voyage 

by entering the Columbia River. 

It is unnecessary to remark particularly upon the fitness of the 
other isocrymals for the purposes of illustrating the geographical dis- 
tribution of marine species, as this will become apparent from the 
explanations on the following pages. 



The regions thus bounded require, for convenience of designation. 



separate names, and the following are therefore proposed. 



They 



constitute three larger groups : the first, the Torrid zone or Coral-reef 
seas, including all below the isocryme of 68° F.; the second, the 
Temperate zone of the oceans, or the surface between the isocrymes of 
68° F. and 35° F.; the third, the Frigid zone, or the waters beyond 
the isocryme of 35° F. 



\ 



I. TORRID OR CORAL-REEE ZONE. 



Regions. 



1. Supertorrid, 

2. Torrid, 

3. Subtorrid, 



Isocrymal limits. 

80° F. to 80° F 



80 
74 



to 74 
to 68 



S\ 



II. TEMPERATE ZONE. 



*-« 




1. Warm Temperate, 

2. Temperate, 

3. Subtemperate, 

4. Cold Temperate, 

5. Subfrigid, 



68 
62 
56 
50 
44' 



to 62 
to 56 
to 50 
to 44 
to 35 



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III. FRIGID ZONE. 



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1. Frigid, 



35 



to 26 



A ninth region- — called the Polar — may be added, if it should be 

.J 

found that the distribution of species living in the Frigid zone re- 
quires it. There are organisms that occur in the ice and snow itself 




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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1457 



of ttie polar 



but these should be classed with the animals of 



the continents; and the 



tal isothe 



rather 



the oceanic, are required for elucidating their distrib 



It seems necessary 



here the 



thorities for some of the 



more important positions in these lines, and we therefore run over the 



observations, mentioning a few of most 



for 



any particulars with refei 



There is less necessity 
to the North Atlantic, as our 



facts are mainly derived from Lieut. Maury 
author would refer his readers. 



Chart 



which the 



1. North Atlantic— /socr?/we of 74° F.— This isocryme passes 
the reefs of Key West, and terminates at the northeast cape of Yu 

catan ; it r; 

Gulf Stream, and th 



flexure parallel with J'lorida along the 



continues on between the Little 



d Great 



Bah 



To the eastward, near the African coast, it has a flexure 

from the hot waters along the coast of Guinea, 

towards the Cape Verde 




northward, arisin 

which reach in a slight current upward 

Islands. The line passes to the south of these islands, at wh 

Fitzroy, in January of 1852, found the sea-temperatures 

72° F. •_ ^ 

Isocryme of 68° F. — Cape Canaveral, in latitude 27 




'<i^ 



71 



oup^ 

and 



o 



north of 



the limit 



reefs on the 



of 



termination of the line of 68 



O 



The Gulf Stream occasions a bend 



this line to 36° north, and the polar 
southward again as far as 29° north 



current, east of it, throws 
Westward it inclines much 



the south, and terminates just south of Cape Verde, the eastern cape 
of Africa. Sabine found a temperature of 64° to 65° F. ofi" Goree, 
below Cape Verde, January, 1822; and on February 9, 1822, he 
obtained 66i° near the Bissao shoals. These temperatures of the cold 



season contrast 



■}y 



those of the warm 



Even 



May (1831), Beechey had a temperature of 86° off the mouth of Rio 
Grande, between the parallels of 11° and 12° north 



/ 62? F 



This isocryme leaves the American 



at 



\ 



Cape Hatteras, ih latitude 35i° north, where a bend in the outline of 
the continent prevents the southward extension of the polar 




the shores. It passes near Madeira 
bends southward reaching Africa nearly in the latitude of the Car 



from flowing close alon 



d 



like 



Mcrymes of 56° and 50° F.— Cape Hatteras, for 
the limit of the isocrymes of 56° and 50° as well as of 62°, there being 

365 



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1458 



CRUSTACEA. 



P» 



no interval between them on the American coast. The line of 56° 
F. has a deep northward flexure between the meridians of 35° and 
40° west, arising from the waters of the Gulf Stream, which here 
(after a previous east and west course, occasioned by the Newfoundr 
land Bank, and the Polar Current with its icebergs) bends again 



northeastward, besides 



continuing 



in part eastward. 



The Polar 



Current sometimes causes a narrow reversed flexure, just to the east of 
the Gulf Stream flexure. Towards Europe, the line bends southward, 
and passes to the southwest cape of Portugal, Cape St. Yincent, or, 
perhaps to the north cape of the Straits of Gibraltar. Vaillant, in the 
Bonite, found the temperature at Cadiz in February, 49 i° to 56° F. 
(9*7° to 13*4° C), which would indicate that Cadiz, although so far 
south (and within sixty miles of Gibraltar), experiences at least as 
low a mean temperature as 56° F. for a month or more of the winter 
season. We have, however, drawn the line to Cape St. Vincent, which 
is in nearly the same latitude. Between Toulon and Cadiz, the tem- 
perature of the Mediterranean in February, according to Vaillant, was 
55i° to 60i° F. (13-1° to 15-7° C), and it is probable, therefore, that 
Gibraltar and the portion of the Mediterranean Sea east and north to 
Marseilles, fall within the Temperate Region, between the isocrymes of 
56° and 62° F., while the portion beyond Sardinia and the coast by 
Algiers is in the Warm Temperate Region, between the isocrymes of 

62° and 68° F. 

The line of 50° F., through the middle of the ocean, has the lati- 
tude nearly of the southern cape at the entrance of the British Chan- 



nel ; but approach 



Europe it bends downv 



to the coast of 



Portugal. The low temperatu 



of 



491° 



observed by Vaillant at 



the mean sea- 

The 



Cadiz would carry it almost to this port, if this were 
temperature of a month, instead of an extreme within the bay 
line appears to terminate near latitude 42°, or six degrees north of the 
isocryme of 56°. This allows for a diminution of a degree Fahrenheit 
of temperature for a degree of latitude. A temperature as low as 61° 



F. h 



been observed at several points within five deg 



■ees of this 

coast in July, and a temperature of 52° F., in February. Vigo Bay, 
just north of 42° north, lies with its entrance opening westward, well 
calculated to receive the colder waters from the north; and at this 
place, according to Mr. R. Mac Andrew,* who made several dredgings 
with reference to the geographical distribution of species, the Mollusca 



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* Kep. Brit. Assoc, 1850, p. 264. 



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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1459 



have the character rather of those of the British Channel than of the 

Mediterranean. , 

Isocryme of 44° F.— This hne commences on the west, at Cape 
Cod, where there is a remarkable transition in species, and a natural 
boundary between the south and the north. The cold waters from 
the north and the ice of the Newfoundland Banks, press the Hne close 



upon those of 50° and 56° F 



But after getting beyond these in- 



fluences, it rapidly rises to the north, owing 



the expansion of the 



Gulf Stream in that direction, and forms a large fold between Britain 
and Iceland ; it then bends south again and curves around to the 



)st coast of Ireland 
Isocryme o/ 3 5 ° F 



This line has a bend between Norway and Ice 



land Hke that of 44°, and from the same 



•the influence of the 



Gulf Stream 
tained. , 



But its exact position in this part has 



been 



2. South Atlantic— /socr^/me of 74° F. — This line begins just 
south of Bahia, where Fitzroy found in August (the last winter 
month) a temperature of 74° to 75i° F. During the same month he 
had 75i° to 76i° F. at Pernambuco, five degrees to the north 
Bahia, the temperature 



Off 



was two 



the warm tropical 



degrees warmer 



than near the 



south to 



from the 



bends the isocryme 
17° and 18°, and the cold waters that come up the 

The line gradually rises northward, as it goes 

Sabine, 



\ 



and passes the equator on the meridian of Greenwich 



m a 



African 



ly straight from Ascension Island, in 8° south, to the 
under the equator, obtained in 



June 



the cold& 



month) the temperatur 



78°, 77°, 74°, 72-8°, 72-5°, 73°, the 



temperature thus diminishing on approaching the coast, although at 
the same time nearing the equator, and finally reaching it within^a few 

miles 

passes north of the 



These observations in June show that the isocryme of 74° F 

The temperatures mentioned in Maury 



Chart aflbrd the same conclusion, and lead to its position as laid down 



Isocryme of 



F 



On October 23d to 25th, 1834, Mr. D. J. 

of the 



Browne, on board the U. S. Ship Erie, found the temperature 
sea on entering the harbour of Rio Janeiro, 67i° to 68i° F. Fitzroy, 
on July 6, left the harbour with the sea-temperaturejOi° F. Beechey, 
in August, 1825, obtained the temperatures 6816° to 69-66° F. off 
the harbour. The isocryme of 68° F. commences therefore near Rio, 
not far south of this harbour. Eastward of the harbour, the tern- 




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1460 



CRUSTACEA. 



perature increases two to 



four deg 



In July, Fitzroy carried 



temperature above 68° as far south as 33° 16' south, longitude 50° 10 



t 



giving at this time 6 8 i° to 69 



i°F 



Beechey in A 



8 



obtained 68° F. in 31° south, 46° west. The isocryme of 68° F. thus 



bends far 



reachina; at least the parallel of 30 



It tak 



a 



course nearly parallel with the line of 74° F., as different observations 
show, and passing just south of St. Helena, reaches the African coast, 
near latitude 7° south. Fitzroy, on July 10 (mid-winter), had a sea- 
temperature of 68i° near St. Helena; and Yaillant, in the Bonite, in 
September found the sea-temperature 68-7° to 69-26° F. 
Isocrymes of 56° and 50° F. — These two isocrymes leave the American 

north of 



rather nearly together. The former commences just 



the entrance of the La Plata. Fitzroy, in July 23 to 31, 1832, found 



the sea-temp 



Montevideo 66° to 58° F., and in August, 57 



O 



to 54 



O 



F 



These observations would lead to 56° F 



arly the 



mean of the coldest month. The temperatu 

served in 2 
on July 10 



56° F. was also ob 



5° south, 53° west, and at 36° 



th, 56° 36' west 



B 



d 13. 1833, at Montevideo, the 



temperature was 



46 i° 



47i°, a decree of cold which, although only 



the line of 56° F. to the north of this place. The temperature near the 
land is several degrees of Fahrenheit lower than at sea three to eight 
degrees distant. East of the mouth of the La Plata, near longitude 50° 

Beechey, in July, 1828, found the temperature of the sea 61-86" 

61-25° F. at Montevideo, while in 35° 5 



So in April 23 to 29, Vaillant obtained the temperature 59-5 



14, it was 66-2° F., and farther south, in 



7° 42 



5 



April 
west. 



April 30, it was 64-4° F. ; and in 39° 19' south, 54° 32' west, on May 

" on May 2, in 40° 30' 



Lit was 571° F.: but 



the westward 



ith, 56° 54 

the colder 



/ 



the temperature was 48° F., an abrupt 
waters. Beechey, in 39° 31' south, 45 



o 



13 



on 



August 28 (last of winter), found the temperature 57-2 
the 29th, in 40° 27' south, 45° 46' west, it was 54-20°; 



Ko 



F.. and 



while 



on 



the next day, in 42° 27' south, and 45° 11' west, the temperature fell 

serve to fix the position 



of 



47-83° F. These and other observations serve 
the isocryme of 56° F. It approaches the Afr 



coast, in 32 



o 



but bends upward 



cold 



land 



On 



August 20. Vaillant, in 33° 43' south, 15° 51' east, found the temp 



56° F 



hile 



the 22d 



the same latitude, and 14° 51 



east (or one degree farther t< 
57-74° F., being nearly two de 



the 



r 

d), the temperature 
At Cape Town, in Ju 



was 



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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1461 



(latitude U°), Fitzroy found 55° to 61° F., while on August 16, farther 
south, in 35° 4' south, and 15° 40' west, one hundred and fifty miles 
from \he Cape, Vaillant found the temperature 59-36° F. The high 
temperature of the last is due to the warm waters that come from the 
Indian Ocean, and which afford 61° to 64° F. in August, off the south 
extremity of Africa, west of the meridian of Cape Town. 

The isocryme of 50° F. leaves the American coast just south of the 
La Plata ; after bending southwardly to the parallel of 41°, it passes 



east ne 
African 



,rly parallel with the line of 56° F 



It does not reach the 



Isocrymes of 44° and 35° F 



Fitzroy in Aug 



r 

(the last winter 



month) of 1833, found the sea-temperature at Bio Negro (latitude 41 

the voyage from the La Plata t 



th) 48i° to 50° F 



But durmg 



46 



Rio Negro, a few days before, a temperature of 44 i° to 
with • this was in the same month in which the low temperatu 



The bend 



tioned on a preceding page was found at Montevideo 
the coast north of the entrance to the La Plata, is to some ej 
limit between the warmer waters of the north and the colder 
from the south ; not an impassable limit, but 



often by a more abrupt 

part of the coast. The water was 



one which is marked 
than occurs elsewhere along this 



lly three or four deg 



colder at Montevideo, than at Maldonado, the latter port being hardly 
sheltered from the influence of the tropical waters, while Montevideo 



wholly 



The 



coast 



somewhat 



point where the line of 44° F. reaches the 
ain, yet the fact of its being south of Rio 
Negro is obvious. After leaving the coast, it passes north of 47J° 
south, in longitude 53° west, where Beechey, in July, 1828, found the 

sea-temperature 40'70° F. 

The line of 35° F. through the middle of the South Atlantic, follows 
nearly the parallel of 50° ; but towards South America it bends south 
ward and passes south of the Falklands and Fue ' 



Capt 



Ross 



1842, found the mean temperatu 



At the Falklands, 
of the sea for 



July, 38-73°, and for August, 38-10 



while in the middle of the At 



lantic 



March 24, latitude 52° 31' south, and longitude 8° 8 



the temperature was down to 34-3° F., and in 50° 18' south, 7 



o 



15 



37° F.- March 20, in 54° 7' south, on the meridian of Green 



wich, it was 33-4° F 



The month of March would not give the cold 



temperature 



The temperature of the sea along the south 



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1462 



CRUSTACEA. 



of Fuegia sinks nearly to 35°, if not quite, and the line of 35° there- 
fore runs very near Cape Horn, if not actually touching upon Fuegia. 



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North Pacific Ocean. — Isocryme of 80° F 



The waters of the At 



lantic in the warmest regions, sink below 80° F. in the colder 
and there is therefore no proper Supertorrid Re 
the Gulf of Mexico, where the heat rises 




th 



In 



at times to 85° F., it sinks 



in other seasons to 74° and in some parts, even to 72° F. ; and along 

irature is in some 



the ocean, the temp 



o 



the Thermal equator across 

portions of the year 78°, and in many places 74 

But in the Pacific, where the temperature of the waters rises in 
some places to 88° F., there is a small region in which through all 
seasons, the heat is never below 80°. It is a narrow area, extending 



from 165° east to 148° west, and from 7J° north 



11° south 



In 



going from the Feejees in August, and crossing between the meridians 
of 170° west and 180°, the temperature of the waters, according to 



Captain Wilkes, increased from 79° to 84° F., the last temperatu 
being met with in latitude 5° south 
this, g 



itude 175° west 



from 



northward, there was a slow deer 



of temperature 



The Ship Relief, of the Expedition, in October, found nearly the same 



temperature (83 



lo 



m 



the same latitude and longitude 1 



^^Q 



west.* 



the Peacock, in January and February [summer months), found 



But 

the sea-temperature 85 



d longitude 171 



o 




88° F., near Fakaafo, in latitude 10° south 
In latitude 5° south and the same long 



V 



tude, on the 16th of January, the temperatu 



January 10th, it was 83° F 



on March 26th, in 5 



o 



in 3° south 
I, and lonsfi 



tude 175 



O 



the 



peratu 



was 86° F.; on April 10th 



the 



same longitude, under the equator, at the Kingsmills, the temperature 
wRs 8Si° F. : on Mav 2d, at 5° north, longitude 174° east, 83i° F.^ 



83 



F 



May 2d 



5° north, longitude 174 



8 



F 



May 5th, latitude 10°, longitude 169° east, 82° F 



The fact that the 



& 



of greatest heat in the Middle Pacific is south of the equato 



as 



it h 



been laid down by different authors, is th 



evident 



limits of a circumscribed region of hot water 
Pacific, were first drawn out by Captain Wilkes 



in this part of 



Another Supertorrid region may 
northwestern portion ; but we 



have 



the Indian Ocean, about 

sufiicient information for 



down its limits 
yyme of 74° F, 



\ 



At San Bias, on the coast of Mexico, Beechey 



* See, for these facts, Captain Wilkes's Report on tlie Meteorology of the Expedition. 



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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1463 



"F 

I 



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I 



found the mean temperature of the sea for December, 1827, 74-63 



F.; for January, 73-69° F.; for February, 72-40° F. The line of 74^^ 
F. commences therefore a degree or two south of San Bias. In the 
winter of 1827 on January 16 to 18, the temperature of 74-3° to 
74-6° F. was found by Beechey, in 16° 4' to 16° 15' north, 132 
40' to 135° west J and farther west, in the 
141 



same latitude, longitude 



o f; 



8' west, the temperature was 74-83° F. West of the Sandwich 



Islands, near the parallel of 20° north, the temperature rises five degrees 
in passing from the meridian of 165° west to 150° east, and the iso- 
cryme of 74° F., consequently rises somewhat to the north, over this 
part of the ocean. Between the meridians of 130° and 140° east, the 
temperature of the sea is quite uniform, indicating no northward flexure ; 
and west of 130° east, nearing China, there is a rapid decrease of tem- 



perature, bend 



the line far 



the 



off Cochin China 



to have the temperature 74-12° F 



I. Vaillant, of the Bonite, found 

de 12° 16' north, 109° 28' east, 
; and even at Singapore, almost 



der the equator, the temperature on February 17 to 21, was 77*54 
79-34° F. The isocryme of 74° F. terminates therefore upon 



the 



theastern coast of Cochin China 



Isocryme of 68°.— OIF the Gulf of CaHfornia, in 25° north, 117° west, 
Beeche}^ obtained for the temperature of the sea, on December 13, 



65° F.; on December 15 



23° 28' north Tsame latitude with the 



extremity of the peninsula of CaHfornia), 115° west, a temperature of 
69-41° F. The line of 68° will pass from the extremity of this penin- 
sula, the temperature of the coast below, as it is shut off mostly from 
the more northern and colder waters, being much warmer. 



The tem- 

69-41° in the middle of December, is probably two and a 

or from the 



peratur( 

half degrees above the cold of the coldest month, jud 



X 



temperatures of the latter half of December and the month of 



February at San Bias 
therefore bend a little 



Leaving California, the isocryme of 68° will 



southerly to 22 i°, in longitude 115 



In 



of the sea 



Oah 



m 



23° 56' north, 128° 33' west, Beechey, on January 11, found the 
temperature of the sea 67-83° F. The line of 68° passes north of the 
Sandwich Islands. The mean temperature 

February, 1827, was 69-69° F. 

Near China, this isocryme is bent far south. At Macao, in winter, 
Vaillant found the sea-temperature, on January 4, 69° F.; on January 
5 to 10, 62-7° to 50° F.; January 11, 12, 49-87° to 48-74° F.; January 

Cochin China, on 

; in 16° 22 



13 to 16. 50-9° to 52-16° F. ; and at Touranne 



February 6 to 24, the sea-temperature was 68° to 68 i° F 



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1464 



CRUSTACEA. 



north, 108° 11' east 



January 24 



was 67°; in 12° 16' north 



109° 28' east, it was 7442° F. The very low Macao temperature is 
that of the surface of the Bay itself, due to the cold of the land, and 

probably, as the other observations show, of the sea outside 



thward 



the southeast 



The line, before passing south, bends 
shore of Niphon, which is far warmer than the southeast coast, along 
Kiusiu. In the Eeport of the Morrisons' visit to Jeddo (Chmese 
Repository for 1837), a coral bottom is spoken of, as having been 

in the harbour of Jeddo. According to Siebold (Crust. 



encountered 

Faun. Japon., p. ix.), the mean 



temperature (air) of Jeddo 



On January 8, 1827, Beechey found in 29° 42 



57° F., while that of Nagasaki, although farther south, is 44° F 
Isocryme of 62° F, 

north, 126° 37' wesi 

ceding day, 32° 42' north, 125° 43' west, the 



the temperature 62*7 



F 



while on the pre- 
temperature was 



60-5° F. Ag 



December 11, in 29° north, 120° west, the tern 



perature was 62*58° F 

Isocryme of 56° F. 



At Monterey, on January 1 



/ 



perature according to Beechey was 56 



5. the sea-tem 



but the mean temperature of 



the 



for November 1 to 17 



54-91 



In the Yellow Sea, the 



o 



56° F., and the line of 56° begins south 



January temperature is 50 

of Chusan. 

Isocryme of 50° F.— At San Francisco, from November 18 to De- 
cember 5, 1826, Beechey found the mean sea-temperature to be 51'14° 

west, the temperature was 
in December of 1826, the mean sea- 
was 54-78° F.; and for November, 



F., and off Monterey, in longitude 123 



50-75° F., on December 6 



temper at 
60-16° F 



at S 



Fr 



The line of 50° F. (mean of the coldest thirty 



days), probably leaves the coast at Cape Mendocino 



Isocrym esof ii° and 3 5 ° F 



Captain Wilkes found the temperature 



off the mouth of the Columbia River, through ten degrees of longitude 

r the last of April, 1841. The isocryme of 44 



48° to 49° F., durin 



would probably reach the coast not far north of this place 



The tern 



peratu 



on October 21 



the same latitude, but farther west, 14 



west, was 52-08° F 
temperature was 44-91° F 



On October 16 



50° north, 169 



O 



the 



According to some oceanic temperatuD 
North Pacific, obtained from Lieutenant Maury, the sea-temp 



rature off northern Niphon, in 41° north and 142 
March, showing the influence of the cold Polar 



north, and 



149 i° east, it was 



was 44° F , 
and in 42° 

43° F. The line of 44° hence bends 



southward as far as latitude 40° north, on the Jap 



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GEOGRAPHICA.L DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1465 



- Again, : 
was 41° F 
166° east. 



March, in 43° 50' north, 151 
in 44° 50' north, 152° 10' eas 



o 



the sea-temp 



39° F 



46° 20' north 



33° F 



49° north, 157 



O 



time, west of Kamschatka, in 55° north, 153 



33° F. ; and at the same 
' east. 38° F. : in 55° 40' 



north, 153 



o 



38° F. The line of 35° consequently makes a deep 



bend nearly to 45° north, along the Kurile Islands 




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South Pacific 



—Isocrymes of 74°, 68°, and 62° F.— The tempi 
of the sea at Guayaquil, on August 3d, was found by Vaillant 



the river, from 70i° to 73i° F., and 



be, in 

August 5 to 12, 74-7° to 75-2° F 

2° 22' south, 81° 42' west, the temperatu 



But off the 



the Puna anchor 
oast, August 15, in 
69-8° F. : and the 



day 



O 



25' south, 84° 12' west, it was 70° F 



the 17th, 1 



87° 42 



was 71-28° F.; and on the 14th, nearer the 



shore of Guayaquil, in 



3° 18' south, 80° 28' west, it was 78° F 



Again, at Payta, one hundred miles south of Guayaquil, in 5° south, 
the sea-temperature was found by Vaillant, July 26 to 31, to be 60*8° 
to 61 i° F. The isocryme of 74° F., consequently, leaves the coast just 
north of the bay of Guayaquil, while those of 68° and 62° F., both 



commence between Guayaquil and P 



Payta is situated so far 



„„ the western cape of South America that it receives the cold waters 
of the south, while Guayaquil is beyond Cape Blanco, and protected by 
it from a southern current. At the Gallapagos, Fitzroy found the tem- 
perature as low as 58i° F. on the 29th of September, and the mean for 

the day was 62°. 

The Gallapagos appear, therefore, to lie in the Warm Temperate 

the isocrymes of 62° and 68° F. Fitzroy, in going 
from Callao to the Gallapagos, early in September, left a sea-tempe- 
rature of 57° F. at Callao, passed 62° F. in 9° 58' north, and 79° 42 



The average for September was, however 



66°. 
Keafion, bet 



west, and on 
the Gallapagc 



the 15th, found 68i° F. off Barnn 



Island, one of 



season, the cold waters about the Gallapagos have 
limits- Beechey found a sea-temperature of 83-58° on the 30th 



In the warm 



of March, 1827, j 



south of the equate 



100° west. But m 



October, Fitzroy, going westward and southward from the Gallapagos, 
found a sea-temperature of 66° F. at the same place; and in a nearly 



p-ht course from this point to 10° south, 120 

° • _.i_- aoo ^(\o n(\'^o 79 



found the 



temperatu 



ly, 68 



70 



2-5 



73-5 



74 



and 



beyond this, 75i°, 76J°, 77i° F., the last 



November 8, in 14° 24 



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1466 



CRUSTACEA. 



south, 136° 51' west. 



These observations give 



a wide sweep to the 



cold waters of the colder seasons, and throw the isocrymes of 74^ and 
68° F., far west of the Gallapagos. Captain Wilkes, in passing directly 
west from Callao, found a temperature of 68° F., in longitude 85° 
west; 70° F., in 95° west; and 74° ^., in 102° to 108° west. These 
and other observations lead to the positions of the isocrymes of 74°, 
68°, and 62°, given on the Chart. The line of 74° passes close by 
Tahiti and Tongatabu, and crossing New Caledonia, reaches Australia 



in latitude 25° S. 

In mid-ocean there is a bend in all the southern isocrymes. 



* 



III::" 



* The following observations by Mr. W. C Cunningham (in connexion with those of 
other navigators), establish the fact of this flexure; they were sent by him to the 
author, in a letter, dated Talcahuano, Chili. 



1. FROM TUB HARBOUR OF APIA, ISLAND OF UPOLU, TO TAHITI 



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DATE. 


LATITUDE. 


LONGITUDS. 

L 


WINDS. 


BEA.f 


AIR.f 

1 


"WEATHER. 

1 


May 11 
12 


15^^02' S. 


172° W. 


N.E. 


78-50 


77° 


- - 

Fine. 


15 02 


172 37' 


S.fe-XJ. 


78i- 


78 


Showery. 


13 


16 04 


;i 


E. by S. 


78-1 


78 


*' heavy rains. 


14 


17 27 


174 43 


S.E. 


78 


78 


Dark. 


15 


17 58 


174 16 


E. 


78 


77 ' 


Fine, but cloudy. 


16 


18 50 


173 41 


S.E. 


78 


76 


t4 " 


17 


19 47 


173 28 


S.E. 


78 


76 


Clear. 


18 


19 37 


172 41 


s. 


77i 


71 


Clear and fine- 


19 


19 57 


170 47 


s. 


76 


75 


Cloudy. 


20 


20 21 


169 11 


S. by E. 


, 76i 


74 


v. 


21 


20 16 


167 21 


S. by E. 


76i 


72 


(4 


22 


20 18 


167 03 


Yar. 


76 


74 


Clear. 


23 


21 09 


166 37 


S, 


74f 


76 


Dark. 


24 


20 46 


164 29 


S. 


75 


75 


Cloudy. 


25 


26 30 


163 33 


S. 


76 


74^ 


Fine. 


26 


19 52 


163 01 


s. 


77 


75 


Dark. 


27 


19 23 


161 53 


S,E, 


73 


75 


a 


28 


20 07 


162 22 


S.E. 


73 


76 


Fine. 


29 


21 04 


162 54 


S.S.ej. 


72 ■ 


76 


Cloudy. 


30 


21 16 


162 46 


E,S-E- 


71 


76 


(( 


31 


23 00 


162 45 


N.N.E. 


72 


76 


Clear. 


June 1 


22 06 


160 48 


Var. 


74 


T6 


Fine. 


2 


22 46 


161 19 


s.s.w. 


74 


74 


Clear. 


3 


21 00 


160 00 


E. 


74 


75 
72 


Fine; at Raratonga. 


11 


22 21 


160 20 


E. 


73 


Fine, 


12 


22 24 


160 25 


E. 


73 


72 


J M 


13 


22 49 


159 33 


Var. 


73 


72 


:i 


14 


22 29 


158 54 


E. by S. 


72 


72 


it 


15 


22 25 


159 37 


N.N.E. 


71 


7H 


tc 


16 


22 37 


159 05 


Var. 


71 


71 


At Mangaia. 


17 


« * 


« * 


Var. 


70 


71 


Fine. 


18 


♦ * 


■ ■ 


S.S.E. 


68 


72 


u 


19 


21 39 


156 42 


S.E. 


68 


72 


Dark. 


20 


21 06 


155 47 


b.O*r-i* 


68 


73 


cc 


21 


20 63 


154 20 


S.S,E. 


68 


74 


Fine, 


22 


20 36 


152 34 


S.S.E. 


63 


76 


a 


23 


20 21 


151 18 


S.E. 


70 


76 


u 


24 


19 10 


151 11 


S-B, 


71 


76 


u 


25 


■ • 


« > 


E. 


* ■ 


« « 


ki Tahiti. 




L 




f Mean temper; 


ature. 




L 



\ 



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X. 




if 



/ 



1 ^ 




i" 



/ 



_!_-- _- 





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I 













GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1467 



Isocrymes of 6Q° and 50° F 



The temperature at Callao, in July 




{ 



58 



'g 



60 



58i° or 59° F. At Iquique, near 20° south, Fitzroy had 
F., on July 14, 1835 ; and off Copiapo, in the same month, 

a sea-temperature of 



I 



56i° F. At Valparaiso, Captain "Wilkes found 



52 



F 



May 



and Fitzroy, in September, occasionally obtained 



48° F., but generally 52° to 53 



Off Chiloe, Fitzroy found the tern 



perature 48 



o 



i 



51 



o 



July 



/ 



2. FEOM TAHITI TO VALPAKAISO 



DATE. 



Aug. 26 
27 

28 

29 
30 
31 

Sept. 1 

2 

3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

Oct. 1 

2 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 



LATITUDE. 



18^77' 

20 10 
22 02 
22 18 

22 30 

23 15 

24 24 

25 14 

26 13 

27 18 

28 46 

28 40 

29 21 

30 19 

31 30 

32 30 

33 45 

34 42 

35 43 

36 50 

38 19 

39 23 

40 18 
40 01 
39 05 
38 24 
38 09 

37 42 
37 23 

36 52 

37 05 
37 05 
37 11 
37 03 
36 47 
36 48 
36 29 
36 22 

36 42 

37 12 

36 58 

37 11 

36 18 
35 28 
34 14 
34 06 
34 03 
34 48 
33 39 
33 33 
33 10 



LONGITUDa. 



151°01' 

151 33 

152 06 
152 45 

151 38 

152 47 
152 51 
152 12 
151 41 
150 47 
149 49 

149 49 

150 21 

151 40 

152 43 
152 46 
151 56 
150 37 
148 53 
147 15 
146 37 
145 38 
143 43 

141 19 
139 11 

136 58 

134 08 

130 38 

127 22 

124 06 

121 00 

117 32 

114 18 

112 19 

108 58 

106 31 

104 12 

103 30 

101 00 

97 06 

94 30 

90 20 

88 11 

84 55 

82 08 

74 25 

73 06 

72 10 

72 40 

72 50 

72 04 



WINDS. 



S.E. 
S.B. 
S.E. 
S.E. 
Yar. 
S.E. ^ 

S.S.B. 

N.N.E. 

S.W. 

s.w. 

S.W. 

s.w. 

w. 

S.E. 

S.E. 
S.E. 

Var. 

Yar. 

N.E. 
N.E. 

Yar. 

N.N.E. 

N.E. 

N.E. 
N.N.E. 

N. by W. 

N.N.W. 
N.N.E. 
N.N.W. 
N,N.W. 

N.W. 
W. 

N.W. 

Yar. 

N.W. 
W. 

Yar. 

Yar. 
N.N.W. 

N.W. 
W.N.W. 
W.N.W. 
W.N.W. 

N.W. 

N.W. 
Yar. 

S.W. 
N.N.E. 

N. 

N.W. 

S. 



SEA. 



73° 

72 

72 

75 

76 

68 

68 

69 

69 

65 

63 

62 

61 

60 

58 

58 

58 

56 

60 

56 

55i 

53 

60 

52 

55 

56 

56 

56 

55 

56 

58 

56 

56 

58 

57 

67 

58 

55 

53 

58 

58 

56 

57 

56 

64 

57 

67 

57 

56 

56 

56 

65 



AIR. 



* 



76° 

75 

75 

73 

72 

72 

72 

72 

70 

66 

68 

66 

65 

65 

60 

60 

57^ 

58 

56 

66 

55 

52 

51 

52 
54 

55 

54 
55 
54 
54 
57 
55 
54 
67 
55 
65 
57 
56 
56 
57 
56 
54 
55 
56 
56 
67 
56 
57 
57 

57 

56 

54 



EBMAEK3 



Fine. 
Clear. 

(( 

cc 

u 

Cloudy. 
Clear. 
Fine. 
Clear. 

a 

Eains. 

Cloudy. 
Squally,' dark 






T i 



I 



u 



(C 



Cloudy. 

Thick and cloudy. 

Cloudy. 
Clear. 

Cloudy. 



i' ?■ 



l1 






I 



a 



Rain; dark. 

" S(iually. 

Clear. 
Eoggy. 



Cloudy. 

Rains. 

Clear. 

u 

Squally. 

Cloudy. 

« mild. 

Squally. 
Cloudy. 

a 



Clear. 






* 1 



Fine 



u 

u 



I At Yalparaiso 



* Mean temperature 



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■. 



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♦4 




1468 



CRUSTACEA. 



Indian Ocean. — Isocrymes of 74° and 68° F. — Off the south extre- 
mity of Madagascar, in 27° 33' south, 47° 17' east, on August 4th, 



Yaillant found the temperature 69-26° F. ; and in 29° 34' south, 
46° 46' east, the temperature of 67*84° F.; off South Africa, August 
12, in 34° 42' south, 27° 25' east, the temperature 63-5° F.; on Au- 
gust 14, in 35° 41' south, 22° 34' east, a temperature of 63'3° F.; 
while off Cape Town, two hundred miles to the west, the temperature 
was 50° to 54° F. 



In the above review, we have mentioned only a few of the obser- 
vations which have been used in laying down the lines, having 



selected those which bear directly on some positions of special interest, 
as regards geographical distribution. 



The Chart also contains the heat-equator , — a line drawn through 




the positions of greatest heat over the oceans. It is a shifting line, 
varying with the seasons, and hence, there is some difficulty in fixin 
upon a course for it. We have followed mainly the Chart of Berg- 

But we have found it necessary to give it a much more 



haus. 

northern latitude in the western Pacific, and also a flexure in the 

western Atlantic, both due to the currents from the south that flow 
up the southern continents. 

Vaillant, passing from Guayaquil to the Sandwich Islands, found 
the temperature, after passing the equator, slowly increase from 76° 
F., August 19, in 2° 39' north, 91° 58' west (of Greenwich), to 81-9 
F., in August 31, 11° 15' north, 107° 3' west, after which it was not 
above 80° F. The same place in the ocean which gave Yaillant 76° 

F., in August, afforded Fitzroy (4° north, 96° west), on March 26 



\ 



O 



(when the sun had long been far north), 82J° F. This shows the 
variations of temperature that take place Avith the change of season. 



^ 



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y 



REMAKKS ON THE SEVERAL REGIONS. 



The form and varying breadth of the different reg 



'J 



and the 



relations between the sea-temperatures of coasts in different latitudes 
which they exhibit, are points demanding special remark. 



1. Atlantic Torrid Region, between 74° F. north, and 74° F. south. 

The form of this region is triangular, with the vertex of the triangle 



\ 



\ . 











■—*-■*. 





i 

J 

1 



l\ 



/ 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



U69 



the 



Its least width is four degrees of latitude ; its greatest 



width between the extreme latitudes, is forty-six and a half de 

coast it includes only a part of the coast of Gi 



On the African 



On 



west, it embraces all 



and no portion is south of the equator. 

the West India Islands and reefs (excepting the Little Bahama), and 



the South Amei 



coast, from Yucatan to Bahia 



a fact th a t 



for the wide distribution of marine species on the Amer 



side of the 



2. AUantic Suhtorrid Regions, hetween 74° and 68° F 



The North 



Suhtorrid Region of the Atlantic is about six degrees ni its average 
width, which is equivalent to a degree of Fahrenheit to each degree 



surface. It 



thin the same temperature limits, a part of 



the east coast of Florida, between 24 



o 



the Afric 



betwee 



the 



related coasts differing ten degrees in latitude 



d 27 J ° north, and a part of 
of 9° and 14 i° north, the 

The Bermudas, 



tude 33°, and the Cape Yerdes, in 15i°, fall withm 



The 
north e 



South Suhtorrid Region has the same average width as the 



Taking the whole Atlantic Torrid or Coral-reef zone together 



width on the eat 
extends between 
of sixty-four de 



; is about twenty-one degrees, while on the west, it 
the parallels of 30° south and 34° north, a breadth 
pps. As many species will thrive under the tem- 

range of 



perature of any part of the Torrid zone, the geographical 
such species in the Atlantic may be very lar 



and the Bermudas on the north 

of which there are many actual examples 



from Florida 



Bio Janeiro on the south, a rang 



Atlantic Warm Temp 



Regions, hetween 68° and 62° F 



The 




northern of these regions has a breadth of fourteen and a half de 

along the west of Africa, and 

States, south of Cape Hatteras, off the Carohnas, Georgia, and northern 



about seven degrees along the United 



Florid 



These shores and the C 



therefore in one and the 



same temperatur 



The southern of these regions averages five degrees in width 



The 



Hmit on 'the African coast is sixteen to eighteen degrees to the 
north of the western on the South American coast. 

Atlantic Temperate Regions, hetween 62° and 56° F 
Temperate Region is but a narrow strip of water on the west, termi 



The north 



Cape Hatteras 



the coast of the United States. To the 

368 



> 



!»P 



v. 



n 



111 



i J 



\ 



1 



1 s 



it 



1 



i I 



J 
I 



\\ 



J i 






J! 






e 



/ 




- \\ 



\. 



fit 



• - 






%> 



it 1 



I- 



r 

f 



4 ' ri 



tl 



Hi 



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» { 




1 

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1470 



CRUSTACEA. 



\ 



east it widens, and embraces the Azores and the African coast along 
Morocco, together with the Straits of Gibraltar, and a large part of the 
Mediterranean. Madeira lies upon its southern limit. It is, therefore, 

at the Azores, Madeira, 



and 



that the same species should occur at 
the African coast, and be excluded wholly from 



Atlantic 



of Europ 



This, according to Prof. Forbes, is the fact ^ith the 



Littorina striata, besides other species 
Azores are in different regions. 



The coasts of Portugal and the 



The South Temperate Region extends to Maldonado at the mouth 



of the La Plata, from near the parallel of 30 



O 



^ the Afr 



aches over more than 



the number of degrees of 



■The northei 



tude, to within five degrees of Cape Town. 

Atlantic Suhtemperate Regions, hetween 56° and 50° F, 

of these regions, like the preceding, can scarcely be distinguished on 
the coast of the United States, as the lines 50° and 56° F. fall nearly 

the eastern side of the Atlantic, it 
latitude 42° north, having a width 



g'ether at Cape Hatteras 



occupies the coast of 



On 
to 



of five degrees. It thus corresponds to the so-called Lusitanian Re 



The 



them includes the mouth of the La Plata on one side, and 



on the other the coast near Cape Town, beyond which it extends to 
the Cape of Good Hop 



The 



Atlantic Gold Temperate Regions, hetween 50° and 44° F, 
from Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras belongs to the Northern Cold Temp 



rate Region. Passing easterly, this region is but 



a 



of 



water for thirty de 



of longitude 



which it expands, and 



d latitude 



on the 



finally terminates between Western Ireland ai 

Spanish coast. The British Channel, the Bay of Biscay, and Vigo 

Bay, Spain, are within the limits of this region. 

The southern embraces the coast of South America along by Rio 
Ne-^ro for about five degrees, and passes wholly to the south of Africa 



The coast of 



Atlantic Sulfrigid Regions, hetween 44° and 35° F, 
Massachusetts, north of Cape Cod, of Maine and Newfoundland, and 
all Northern Britain, the Orkneys, Shetlands, and Faroe Islands, per 



the 'Northern Subfrigid Re 



while the southei 



eludes 



Greenland, Iceland 



d 



the Falklands, Southern Patagonia, and Fi 
Atlantic Frigid Regions, heyond 35° F, 
Norway are within the northern of these regions, and the South Shet- 
lands. Sandwich Land, and South Georgia, within the southern. 



w 






I 



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f 



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i 



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t*fr« ! 





I 



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- - . 



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( 



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f 



/ 





GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1471 



Pacific Regions 



A comparison of the regions of the Atlantic and 



Pacific, and especially of the limits of those commencing at the South 
American coasts, brings out some singular facts. 

The Torrid region of the Pacific, near the American coast, embraces 
only seventeen and a half or eighteen degrees of latitude, all but three 
of which are north of the equator; while that of the Atlantic 



The south Subtorrid 



Re 



ige of coast, and reaches to 15° south. 

has a breadth of about three degrees on the Peruvi 



reaching to 4° south, while that of the Atlantic extends to Rio 
Janeiro, in 24° south. The Warm Temperate Region has a breadth of 
less than a degree, reaching 



Cape Blanco, in 4i° south, while that 



of the Atl 

Temperate Re 



extends to Rio Grande 



33° south. The next or 



has a longer range on the South American 



extending; to Copiapo, in 27i° south, and the Atlantic region corre- 



sponding goes to Maldonado in 



35 



south. The Gold Temj 



Regions of the two oceans cover nearly the same latitudes. 

On the North American coast at Cape Hatteras, the three isocrymes 
62°, 56°, and 50° F., leave the coast together; and in the Pacific on 

is a similar node in the system of 



the South Am-erican 



there 



toscether 



isocrymes, the three 74°, 68°, and 62°, proceeding nearly 

from the vicinity of Cape Blanco. 

Vie win o' these regions through the two oceans, instead of along the 



other pecuharities no less remarkable are brought 



The 



breadth of the jSouth Torrid 



Region in the Pacific, is more 

; and the most 



than twice as great as that of the same in the Atlantic ; 

southern limit of the latter is five degrees short of the limit of the 



former in mid 



So also, the Subtorrid Region at its g 



elongation southward in 



average course 



of the 



the Atlantic, hardly extends beyond the 
e of 68° F. in the Pacific, and the average 



breadth of the former is but two-thirds that of the 



The same 



almost equal extent of the Warm Temperate and Tern 



perate 



The breadth of the Torrid Region of the Pacific to the eastward 



? 



where narrowest, is 



deg 



and to the westward, between 



eme limits, forty-nine deg 



The Torrid 



Coral-reef 




Seas, in the same ocean, has a breadth near America, of about eigh 
teen'degrees, and near Australia and Asia, of sixty-six^de 

New Zealand lies within 
Regions, excepting its southern portion, which appears to pertain like 



the Subtemperate and Cold Temp 



1 




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li 



HI 



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V 



1472 



CRUSTACEA. 



Fuegia to the Subfrigid. Van Diemens Land, exclusive of its northern 
shoreS; is within the Cold Temperate. 



Indian Ocean Regions. — The Torrid Region covers the larger part 
of the Indian Ocean, including all north of the equator, and embraces 
the larger part of Madagascar. The Subtorrid extends just beyond 
Port Natal on the African coast (four degrees of latitude north of Cape 
Town), where there are coral-reefs. The Warm Temperate and Tem- 
perate regions 



each claim a part of the South African coast, arid the 



-V 



latter terminates at the Cape of Good Hope. 

It hence follows that Port Natal, in latitude 30° south, the Haw 



Islands, and Bermudas lie 
Cape Town, in latitude 34 



within regions of the same name. While 



o 



uth 



m 



like region with north 



New Zealand, Valparaiso, the Atlantic shores of Portugal, and the 
sea between Cape Hatteras and Cape Cod. 






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y 




Influence of Summer Heat. — The small annual range of temperature 
(twelve to fourteen degrees in most regions) has been remarked upon, 
and we have further observed, that the extreme heat has far less influ- 
ence on the distribution of species than the extreme cold. There are 
however some cases in the colder seas, in which the range has but half 
the extent here mentioned, and in such, the species are likely to differ 
from those characterizing the same region under other circumstances, 
approximating to those of the region next exterior. These cases are 
certain islands, or the extremities of continents, which are exposed to 
cold ocean winds and currents. The south shores of Fuegia and New 
Zealand appear to be examples of this kind. 



We add a table, enumerating the more important lands or coasts 
embraced in each of the regions, bringing together those which are of 
like temperature, and which consequently may be most closely related 
in species. It is partly in recapitulation of the preceding pages. 



I. TORRID ZONE. 



V 



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1. TORRID REGION. 



A. Atlantic. — 1. West India Islands. 

2. Coast of Soutli America, from the northeastern cape of Yucatan, to a degree south 

of Bahia. 

3. Coast of Africa, from 9° north to 5° north. 



t 









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r 









V_ 



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\ 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1473 



4. Red Sea, to latitude 20° (?) north. 

5. East coast of Africa, to latitude 26^ (?) south. 

B. Indian Ocean.— 6. Coast of Persia, India, Malacca, Siam, and Cochin China, to 
12^° north, on the eastern coast of the last-mentioned country. 



of 



7. The islands of the Indian Ocean, north of 16° south, the northern two-thirds 

Madagascar. 

8. The East India Islands ; also, the northern coast of Australia, from 22 south on 

the west side, to 25° south on the east side. 

C. Pacipic— 9. The Pacific Islands, between 20° north and 20° south, together with 
the Ladrones, New Caledonia, excepting the southern extremity, also the Tonga Islands, 
as far as Tongatabu, the Hervey Islands, the Paumotu Islands, as far as the Gambler 
Islands, and excluding Hawaii on the north. 

10. The South American coast, from 17i° north to 1° south. 



2. SUBTORRID REGION. 



F 

A. North Atlantic. — 1. The northern and western coast of Yucatan, and the coast 

of Mexico and Texas, within the Gulf of Mexico. 



\ 



2. 



West 



14* 



3. The Bermudas. 

4. The coast of Africa, from 9° i 
B. South Atlantic— 5. The coast of South America, from below Bahia to a degree 

or two below Rio Janeiro. 

6. Ascension Island and St. Helena. 



West 



north to 7° south. 



C. Indian Ocean.— 8. East coast of Africa, from 26i° south to 31° south, including 
Port Natal ; also, northern half of the Red Sea and the Persian Grulf. 

9. South extremity of Madagascar, Isle of France, and Mauritius. 

10. Western coast of Australia, between 22° south and 26 F (?) south. 

D. North Pacific Ocean.— 11. Coast of Cochin China, between 12 r north and 



15° north. 



12. Formosa, Loochoo (Liukiu), and neighbouring islands, southern shore of Japan, 

Hawaiian Islands. 

13. West coast of North America, from the southern extremity of the peninsula of 

California to 17J° north. , or o 

E. South Pacific— 14. A small part of the coast of Eastern Australia, between 25 

south and 26i° south. 

15. The southern extremity of New Caledonia, Pylstaart's Island, Mangaia, Rimetara, 

Rarotonga, Rurutu, Pitcairn's, Easter Island, and possibly the Gambler Islands. 

16. The west coast of South America, near Gruayaquil, from 1° to 4° south. 




t « i ! 



. ( 



W 



!( 



ft I 



' \ 



''I 




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1 






II. TEMPERATE ZONE. 



1. WARM TEMPERATE REGION 



r 

A North Atlantic— 1. Coast of Gulf of Mexico, along Louiaiana, Mississippi, 

369 



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1474 



CRUSTACEA. 



Alabama, and the western side of Florida; also, the coast of the United States^ from 
27° north on the east side of Florida to Cape Hatteras. 

2, The Canaries, and the coast of Africa, from 14J° north to 28 J° north. 

B. South Atlantic. — 3. East coast of South America, from a degree south of Rio 
Janeiro to 30° south; also, the west coast of Africa, between 7° south and 14° south. 

C. Indian Ocean.— 4. South Africa, between 31° south in longitude 30°, and 33^ 

south in longitude 23° east. 

5. Western coast of Australia^ between 26 J° south, and the southwestern cape, in 

latitude 34° south, including the vicinity of Swan River. 

D. North Pacific Ocean. — 6. The Tonquin Gulf, Hainan Island, and the adjoining 

coast of China, 

7. The western coast of the peninsula of California, as far as 28 J° north. 



2. temperate region 



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II 



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s 



A. North Atlantic. — 1. Not distinguishable at Cape Hatteras. 

2. Azores and Madeira, and the northwest coast of Africa, between the Straits of 

Gribraltar and 29° north. 

3, The Mediterranean Sea, excepting probably the eastern coast and the southern 
coast east of Tunis, and including Algiers, Nice, Naples, and Sicily. The northern coast 
borders on the Subtemperate Region, or just passes into it. 

B. South Atlantic. — 4. The eastern coast of South America, from 30° south to 

r 

the eastern cape of the La Plata^ and not including Montevideo. 
5. The western coast of Africa, between 14° south and 28° south. 

C. Indian Ocean.— 6. Southern coast of Africa, between the Cape of Good Hope 
and the meridian of 23° east. /' 

7. The southern shore of Australia. 

■ 

8. The western part of Kiusiu, including the bay of Nagasaki. (Possibly Subtemperate.) 

D. Nokth Pacific Ocean. — '9. Coast of California, between 28J° north and 34i° 
north, at Cape Conception, south of Monterey. 

E. South Pacific. — 10. East coast of Australia, between latitudes 26^° south and 

31° sou 



uth(?) 
West 



lo 



south, to 



27J 



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3. subtemperate region. 



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V. 



A. North Atlantic. — 1. Not distinguishable at Cape Hatteras. 

2. Coast of Portugal, to 42° north. 

3. Black Sea, excepting northern portion? 

B. South Atlantic. — 4. Mouth of the La Plata. 

5. West coast of Africa, from 28° south to Gape of Good Hope, including Table Bay. 

C. North Pacific Ocean.— 6. Southern part of eastern coast of Niphon, and the 

Yellow Sea, from south of Chusan. 

7. Californian coast, from 34 J° north to Cape Mendocino, — including the Baja of 

\ ■ 

Monterey and San Francisco. 



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i 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1475 



D. South Pacifio.— 8. Southeast angle of Australia, from 30° south, including Port 

Jackson. 

9. Northern island of New Zealand, nearly or quite to Cook's Straits. 

10, West coast of South America, from 27J° south to 38^, including the harbours of 
Coquimbo; Valparaiso, and Valdivia. 




ill 




': i 



\ 



4. COLD TEMPERATE REGION. 

> 

A. North Atlantic— 1. Coast of the United States, from Cape Hatteras to Cape Cod. 
2. Southern Britain and Ireland, British Channel, Bay of Biscay, and northern coast 

of Spain to 42° north, including Vigo Bay(?). 

B. South Atlantic— 3. East coast of South America, from the southern cape of 
the La Plata to 48° south, including the Bay of Rio Negro. 

4. Island of Tristan d'Acunha. 

C. Indian Ocean.— 5. St. Paul's and Amsterdam Island. 

6. Van Diemens Land, Middle Island of New Zealand, excepting 

southern extremity, Chatham Island. 

7. Middle part of Eastern Niphon to 40° north. 

8. West coast of America, from Cape Mendocino to Columbia Eiver, or possibly to 

the Straits of De Fuca. 

9. West coast of South America, from 38° south to 49° or 50° south, including 

Ohiloe, 



D. Pacifio. 



us 



« 




I 



1 



5. SUBFRIGID REGION. 

A. North Atlantic— 1. Massachusetts Bay, coast of Maine, Bay of St. Lawrence, 
and Southern Newfoundland. 

2. Northern Britain, Orkneys, Shetlands. 
8. Crimea and north coast of Black Sea? 

B. South Atlantic— 4. East coast of South America, below 43° south, including 

Fuegia and the Falklands. 

C. Indian Ocean.— 5. Prince Edward's Island, Crozet, Kerguelen's Land. 

D. Pacific— 6. North part of Niphon, Yeso, the larger part of the Japan and Ok- 
hotsk seas; also the northwest coast of America, from 55° or 56° north, nearly or quite 

to the Columbia River. ■, ^ , ■ •, j ■ j.i, 

7. South extromity of New Zealand, with the Aucklands, and other islands m the 

vicinity. 






4 



I 



» 



/ 




III. FRIGID ZONE. 



1. Eastern coast of North America, from the east cape of Newfoundland to the norths 
ward with Greenland, Iceland, the coast of Norway, Cattegat. 

2. South Shetlands, South Georgia, Sandwich Land, and other Antarctic Lands. The 

line runs quite close to Cape Horn. ^^ " , 

3. The Aleutian Islands, and' eastern and southern Kamschatka, and part of the 

• 1 



Kuriles. 



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1476 



CRUSTACEA. 



■ \ 

The areas of the Torrid, Temperate, and Frigid zones of tempera- 
ture, either side of the equator, considering 27° as the normal limit 
between the first two of these zones, and 60° the limit between the 
Frigid and Temperate, are as follows : 



L 

i; 




Torrid zone. 
Temperate zone, 

Frigid zone, 



8,427,000 square miles (geographical) 



7,641,000 
2,486,300 



a 



a 



a 



<< 



u 



u 



i ■ ! i 






IP 



UK 



^ 1 



I J 



I I 



It is hence seen that the Temperate zone, although six degrees 
wider than the Torrid, has not as large a surface. The species of 
marine life, if distributed ^equally over the two, would, therefore, be 
more numerous in the Torrid zone than in the Temperate, unless the 
extent of ocean and coast line were far greater in the Temperate than 
in the Torrid zone, which is not the case. The ocean in the southern 
Temperate is much more extensive than that of the southern Torrid ; 
but the coast line is far less extensive in the former, as it does not 
abound in islands, like the Torrid zone.* 

The range of temperature is far greater in the Temperate zone than 
in the Torrid, it being 20° F. in the latter, and 33° F. in the former. 

In the Torrid zone, the Suhtorrid Region has nearly one-third the 






f»i^ 




•« 




* The following table gives very closely the surface of the zones in square geographi- 
cal miles, for every 2 J degrees of latitude to the parallel of 60° : it is taken from a 

larger table by Berghaus, in his Lauder- und Volker-kunde, i. 47. The first is the zone 
from the equator to the parallel of 2J°, the second, from 2 J degrees to 5 degrees, and 



so on. 



2r 

5 

10° 
12J 
15° 

17J 

20 

22 i 

25 

27i 

30 



809,824 
808,200 
805,124 
800,512 
794,368 
786,728 
777,580 
766,952 
754,868 
740,544 
726,408 
710,092 



^ 



The zone from 60^ to 70° has the area, 



i( 



a 



70° to 80 
8 0° to 9 



<( 



a 



II 



ii 



32 J 
35° 

37J 
40 

42 J 

45° 

47J° 

50° 

52J 

55 

67 J 
60 



692,424 
673,440 
653,172 
631,656 
608,944 
585,064 

560,320 
534,032 

506,960 
478,924 
441,792 
420,176 

1,366,748 
837,516 
282,036 



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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1475 

r 

D. South Pacific.-8. Southeast angle of Australia, from 30° south, including Port 

Jackson. n i > a* •+ 

9. Northern island of New Zealand, nearly or quite to Cook s btraits. 

of South America, from 27J° south to 38°, including the harbours of 



10. West coast 



Coquimbo, Valparaiso, and Valdivia. 



4. COLD TEMPERATE REGION 



A North Atlantic.-I. Coast of the United States, from Cape Hatteras to Cape Cod. 
2.* Southern Britain and Ireland, British Channel, Bay of Biscay, and northern coast 



B. South Atlantic. 



^ (J) 

sT'sast coast of South America, from the southern cape of 



the La Plata to 43° south, including the Bay of Rio Negro. 
4. Island of Tristan d' Acunha. 
C. Indian Ocean.— 5. St. Paul's and Amsterdam Island. 



D. Pacific. — 6. 



Van Diemens Land, Middle Island of New Zealand, excepting 



southern extremity, Chatham Island. 

7. Middle part of Eastern Niphon to 40° north. 

8. West coast of America, from Cape Mendoci 

the Straits of De Fuca. 

9. West coast of South America, from 38° s 

Chiloe. 



or 50° south, including 



5. SUBFRIGID REGION 



A. North Atlantic.-1. Massachusetts Bay, coast of Maine, Bay of St. Lawrence, 

and Southern Newfoundland. 

2. Northern Britain, Orkneys, Shetlands. 

3. Crimea and north coast of Black Sea? , . i j- 

B. South Atlantic.-4. East coast of South America, below 43° south, mcluding 

Fuegia and the Falklands. ■, , t ;i 

C Indian Ocean.-5. Prince Edward's Island, Crozet, Kerguelen s Land. 
D PAcmc.-6. North part of Niphon, Yeso, the larger" part of the Japan and Ok- 
hotsk seas; also the northwest coast of America, from 55° or 56° north, nearly or quite 

'' rSoltlS^'of New Zealand, with the Aucklands, and other, islands in the 

■ ; 

vicinity. 



III. FRiaiD ZONE. 



1 Eastern coast of North America, from the east cape of xNewfoundland to the north- 
wd with Greenland, Iceland, the coast of Norway, Oattegat 

2 South Shetlands, South Georgia, Sandwich Land, and other Antaret,c Lands. The 

'1.Th?Ata&a TlandT -d eastern and southern Kamschatka, and part of the 





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Kuriles. 



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1476 



CRUSTACEA. 



The areas of the Torrid, Temperate, and Frigid zones of ocean- 
temperature, either side of the equator, considering 27^ as the normal 
limit between the first two of these zones, and 56^ the limit between 
the Frigid and Temperate, are as follows : 



Torrid zone, 
Temperate zone, 
Frigid zone, 



33,711,200 square miles (geographical) 



27,849,500 
12,694,700 



u 



a 



a 



a 



u 



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koM 

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It is lience 



the Temperate 



although two deg 



The 



wider than the Torrid, has not as large a surface. The species of 
marine life/ if distributed equally over the two, would, therefore, be 
one-fifth more numerous in the Torrid zone than in the Temperate, 
unless the extent of ocean and of coast line were far greater in the 
Temperate than in the Torrid zone, which is not the case, 
in the southern Temperate is much more extensive than that of the 
southern Torrid; but the coast line is far less extensive in the former, 
as it does not abound in islands, hke the Torrid zone.* 

The range of temperature is far greater in the Temperate zone than 
in the Torrid, it being 20° F. in the latter, and 33° F. in the former. 

In the Torrid zone, the Subtorrid Region has nearly one-third the 



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It 



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n 





■A 

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1 






* The following table gives very closely the surface of the zones in square geographi- 
cal miles, for every 2 J degrees of latitude to the parallel of 60° : it is deduced from a 
larger table by Berghaus, in his Lander- und Volker-kunde, i. 47. The first is the zone 
from the equator to the parallel of 2i°, the second, from 2 J degrees to 5 degrees, and 



so on. 



2J° 
5° 

10 

12r 

15° 

171° 
20° 

22 i 

25 

27J 
30 



3,239,296 
3,232,800 
3,220,496 

3,202,048 
3,177,472 
3,146,912 
3,110,320 

3,067,808 
3,019,472 
2,962,176 
2,905,632 
2,840,368 



32i 
35° 

371 
40 
42 J 
45 

47i 
50 
52 J 
55 

57i 
60° 



r 

The zone from 60"* to 70"* has the area, . 



iC 



u 



70° to 80 
80° to 90 



u 



u 



a 



a 



2,769,696 
2,693,760 

2,612,688 
2,526,624 
2,435,776 
2,340,256 
2,241,280 

2,136,128 
2,027,840 

1,915,696 
1,767,168 
1,680,704 



5,466,992 
3,350,064 
1,128,144 



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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1477 



surface of the Torrid Region, and not one-fourth as much 



line 



facts which should be 
the two. 



rded in comparing the number of species of 



Before leaving this subject of the Map, we add a few brief remarks 



popular way 



the origin of 



peculiar forms and positi 



The 




of 



presented by the isothermal lines of the ocean. 

the dobe are admitted to be the causes that produce the flexures and 



modify the courses of these lines 



These currents are usually of g 



depth, and consequently the deflecting land will be the deeply seated 
slopes off' a coast, beyond ordinary soundings. 

The eastern coasts of the continents either side of the equator, feel 
the influence of a warm equatorial current, which flows westward over 
each ocean, and is diverted north and south by the coasts against 
which it impinges, and more or less according to the direction of the 

r 

coast. 



The western coasts of the continents, on the contrary 



a 



r 

g polar 



In the southern oceans, it flows from the west- 



ward, or southward and westward, in latitudes 45° to 65° south, and 
brought to the surface by the submarine lands or the submarine 
of islands or continents ; reaching the continents of ' '^ ' 
America, it follows along the western coast towards the equator 
same current, being divided by the southern cape of America, flows 
also with less volume up the eastern coast, either inside of the warmer 



Africa and South 

The 



In the Norther 



Seas 



t-i- 



tropical current, or else on both sides of 
the system of polar currents is mainly the same, though less regular; 
their influence is felt on both eastern and western coasts, but more 
strongly on the eastern. In the Atlantic, the latter reduces the tem- 
perature of the waters three or four degrees along the north coast of 
South America, as far nearly as Cape St. Boque. 

The cold currents are most apparent along the coasts of 

and 
subm 



The limits 



islands, because they are here brought to the surface, the 
slopes lifting them upward, as they flow on. 
of their influence towards the equator depends often on the bend of 

prominent cape or a bend in the outHne will change 



the 



for 



the exposure of 



coast from that favourable to the polar 



that favourable to the tropical, or the reverse. Thus it is at Cap 
Hatteras, on the coast of the United States ; Cape Verde, on Wester] 
Africa : Cape Blanco, on western South America, etc. 

370 



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1478 



CRUSTACEA. 



These are important principles modifying the courses of the oceanic 
isothermal lines ; we may now proceed to the application of them. 



In the Atlantic, the warm 



tropical current flowing westward, is 



trended somewhat northward by the northern coast of South America, 
and still more so by the West India Islands, and thus it gradually 
curves around to parallelism with the coast of the United States. But 
south of Newfoundland, either wholly from the influence of the colder 
current which it meets with, or in part from meeting with submarine 



diverges far from the equator in its easterly course, 



slopes that serve to deflect it, it passes eastward, and afterwards, 
where it is again free to expand, it spreads both eastward and north- 
eastward. . The flexures in the isocrymes of 74° and 68° F., near the 
United States coast, thus have their origin. For the same reason, the 
line of 56° F. is nearly straight, till it reaches beyond the influence of 
the Newfoundland Banks, and then makes its Gulf Stream flexure. 
The line of 44° F. for the same reason, — the spreading of the Gulf- 
Stream waters— 
and even rises in a long loop between Great Britain and Iceland. 

The cold currents, flowing down the eastern coast of America, bend 
the isocrymes far south close along the coast, and make a remarkable 
southern flexure in the isocrymes of 68° and 56° F. outside of the 
Gulf Stream flexure. So on the western coast of Britain, the isocryme 
of 44° F. has a deep southern flexure, for a like cause. 

The waters of the tropical current gradually cool down in their 
progress, through the influence of the colder waters which they en- 
counter; and along the isocryme of 62°, they have in the colder 



seasons 



common temperature with that of 



that the 



of the Gulf Stream is but faintly marked 



And also 



the western half of the 



g 



covered by the isocryme of 56°, the 
reached this as a mean temperature. 



colder and warmer waters have 

Owing to the influence of the polar current on the northern coast 

South America, the equator of heat lies at a distance from the land 



of 



Up the 



of Africa flows the cold current from the 



south and west, bending upward all the 



and passing 



north of the equator, it produces a large southern bend, off th 



of Africa, in the northern isocryme of 74° outside of the warm cu 
flexure from the coast of Guinea, and also a large northern flexu 
the heat-equator. 



* 



Wilkes 



found a current setting to the northward for much of the time until passing the equator. 



i 



( 



I 
{ 



1 



' ^ ' ^ 










I 



^ 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1479 

I 

The Atlantic tropical current also flows in part down the eastern 
coast of South America, giving a deep flexure to each of the isocrymes, 
besides making these lines to diverge from the equator, through all 



th 



length 



Affain, the polar current passes northward 



coast-line, bending far back the western extremity of each of the 



isocrymes 



In the Pacific, the tropical currents show their efiects near the coast 
of New Holland and China, in a gradual divergence of the lines from 



the equator 



The 



ges of islands forming the Tarawan, Kadack 
and Ralick Groups, appear to divert the current northward in that 
part of the North Pacific, and consequently the isocrymal lin^s bend 
northward near longitudes 170° west and 180^ 
that of 68° shows a still greater northern flexure 



and near Niphon 



The i 



of the polar currents in th 



IS 



remarkably 



The southern flows from the west and south, bending upward 
the line of 56° F. along the South American coast, producing at Val- 



g 



Still farther north 



paraiso at times a sea-temperature of 48° F 

throws the line of 68° F. even beyond the equator and the Galla- 

pagos ; and that of 74° F., nearly one thousand five hundred miles 



and four hundred north of the 



beyond Payta, five degrees south of the equator. 



from the coast, 

62° F. reaches ( _ 

the sea-temperature at this place being sometimes below 61 
The north polar current produces the same result along the 



The line of 



of Asia, as on the eastern of Amen 



The isocryme of 74° F 



is bent southward from the parallel of 23° to 12° 30' north; and that 
of 68° F. from 34° to 15° north, and the latter deflection is even longer 

mtic. The trend of the coast 
of this current until the bend in the 



than the corresponding one in the Atl 
opens it to the continued 



outline of Coch 



China, below which the cold waters h 



less 



influence, althouffh still 



showing some effect upon 



the heat-equator 



The isocryme of 44° is bent southward to Niphon, by the same cold 
waters, and from this part of the northern Pacific the current appears 
to flow mostly between the islands of Japan and the continent. 

In the Indian Ocean, the effects of the tropical current, as it flows 



westward 
crymes. 



pparent in the southern deflection of the several 
The trend of the coast favours a continuation of the cur 



directly along the 



and consequently, its modifying influence 



the sea-temperature reaches almost tc 
passes even beyond it at sea, carrying 
east. 



Cape Town on the coast, and 
56° F. to the meridian of 15° 




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1480 



CRUSTACEA. 



and 



J 



By comparing the regions of the different oceans, north and south 
of the equator, we may arrive at the mean position of the several iso- 
crymes, and thereby discover on a grander scale, the influence of the 

various oceanic movements. 

For the purpose of reaching mean results, the Middle Pacific is the 
most favourable ocean for study. This is apparent in its gre 
extent, and the wide distance between the modifying continents; 
also no less in the greater actual regularity of the isocrymes. 

We hence deduce, that the mean position of the isocryme of 74° F. 
is along the parallel of 20°, this being the average between the means 
for the North and South Pacific. In the same manner we infer that 

r 

the mean position of the isocryme of 68° F. is along the parallel of 27°. 
The southern isocrymes of 66° and 62° F., are evidently thrown 
into abnormal proximity by the cold waters of the south. This cur- 
rent flows eastward over the position of the isocryme of 44° F., and 
consequently in that latitude has nearly that temperature, although 
colder south. Hence, it produces little effect in deflecting the line of 
44° F.; moreover, the line of 50° F. is not pushed upward by it. But 
the lines of 56° and 62° F. are thrown considerably to the north by its 
influence, and the Warm Temperate and Temperate Regions are made 
very narrow. With these facts in view, we judge from a comparison 
of the North and South Pacific lines, that the mean position for the 
isocryme of 62° F. is the parallel of 32°; and for 56° F., the parallel 
of 37° ; for the isocryme of 50° F., the mean position is nearly the 
parallel of 42°; for 44° F., the parallel of 47°; for 35° F., the parallel 
of 56°. There is thus a mean difference of five degrees of latitude for 
six degrees of Fahrenheit, excepting near the equator and between 
35° and 44° F. These results may be tabulated as follows :* 






Isocryme of 80° F., 

74°, . 
68°, 
62°, . 
56°, 
50°, . 
44°, 
35°, . 



Parallel of 6 
" 20 

« 27 

32 

37 
42 

47 
56 



(( 



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We 



latitude for every fiye degrees would normally correspond. They would be for 20°, 74 

F.; for 25°, 70° F. ; for 30°, 64-4° F.; for 35°, 58-4° F. ; for 40°, 52-4° F.; for 45° 
46-4° F. : for 50°, 41° F. ; for 55°, 36° F. ; for 60°, 31° F. 



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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1481 



Using these results as a key for comparison we at once perceive the 



great influence of the 



movements on climate and on the g 



graphical distribution of marine life 



The polar current of 



Southern Atlantic has a more northward 



mid-ocean than that of the Pacific 



It consequently bears 



up the isocryme of 35° F. to the parallel of 50°, six degrees above the 



mean 



The effect on 



the other isocrymes of the Atlantic is very 



the first place that the most southern 



remarkable. We perceive m the tirst piace uiau lut. muou .....^^^^^ 
point of each of these isocrymes is not far from the mean position ot 
the same isocrymes in the Pacific, while the most northern point of 
each is ten to twenty-five degrees farther north. Taking the position 
of the isocrymes of 68° and 74° F., where they cross the meridian of 15 
west as the mean position for this ocean, we find that the former is eight 
decrees in latitude farther north than 68° F. in the South Pacific; and 
the mean for the latter is in 7° south, while for the same m the 
Pacific it is 20° south, making a difference of thirteen deg 
effect of the cold southern waters is consequently not along the 
African coast alone, but pervades the whole ocean. It is hence 

utterly untenable the common notion, that the tropical 
the Indian Ocean is the same which flows up the 
With a temperature of 56° south of C 



The 



Town 



obvious, how 

current from 

African coast. - i. -, n ^- -c +i,^ 

would be wholly incapable of causing the great deflections for the 

whole South Atlantic which have been pointed 



It combines with 



the pola 



but does 



The facts thus 



the opinions long since brought forward by the distinguished 



meteor 



clog 



Mr. Wm. C. Eedfield, that the 



flowing north along 



the African and South American 
temperate 



are alike true polar 



cold 



We may now turn to the North Atlantic 



In this part of the 

68° F.. are ne 



the mean positions of the isocrymes of 74° and 
normal positions deduced from the Pacific ""' 

somewhat higher latitude, the mean position, excludmg the 



The line of 62° F 



and western deflections, being near the parallel of 36 



56 



O 



F. has the parallel of 42 i° north for its mean position 



The line of 
over the 



middle of the ocean, which is five and a half degrees above the normal 

The line of 50° has in the same manner for its mean 
the mid-ocean, the parallel of 47i°, or again five and a 



the Pacific 



positi' 



* American Journal of Science, xlv. 299, 1843. 

371 




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1482 



CRUSTACEA. 



half degrees above the normal position in the Pacific. The line of 
44° F. may be considered as having for its mean position the parallel 
of 62° north, while it rises to 60° north. The lines in the North 
Atlantic above that of 68°, average about five degrees higher in lati- 
tude than the mean normal positions, while 68° and 74° have nearly 



the same 




as in the Pacific. There is hence a g 



between the Pacific, South Atlantic, and North Atlantic Oceans 
This is seen in the following table containing these results : 



\ 



I. 




it 



Isocryme of 74'' F., 



(C 



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u 



a 



68 
62 
56 
50 
44 
35 



Normal, deduced 


Mean position in 


Mean position in 


from Pacific. 


South Atlantic. 


North Atlantic. 


20° 


7° south. 


2l° north. 


27° 


19° 


28° 


32° 


29° 


36° 


37° 


36° 


42 r 


42° 


39° 


47r 


47° 


440 


52° (max. 60° north). 



56 



50 



61 



(max. 







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The influence of the warm tropical waters in the North Atlantic 
lifts the isocrymes of 74° and 68° as they approach the coast of 
America, while the same lines are depressed on the east by the colder 
northern currents. Moreover, north of 68° the whole interior of the 
ocean is raised four to five degrees in temperature above the normal 
grade, by the same waters spreading eastward ; and between Great 
Britain and Iceland, the temperature is at least ten degrees warmer 
than in the corresponding latitude of the South Pacific, and thirteen 
or fourteen degrees warmer than in the same latitude in the South 

Atlantic* 

The influence of so warm an ocean on the temperature of Britain, 

and on its living productions, animal and vegetable, is apparent, when 
it is considered, that the winds take the temperature nearly of the 



waters they pass over. 



And the eflects on 



the same region, 



that 



would result from deflecting the Gulf Stream in some other direction, 
as remarked by Prof. Hopkinsf and others, and substituting in the 
Northern Atlantic the temperature of the Southern Atlantic, is also 



* Ross, in his Antarctic Voyage, found the sea-temperature in 60° south and 3° west, 



31i 



March 



was 30-1° in February. 
+ Quarterly Jour. Gr( 



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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1483 



obvious, without farther illustration 
would be foreign to the topic before 



The discussion of these subjects 



We clo 



these general remarks, by giving the extreme surface 



temperatures of the waters, as nearly 

of prominent importance in marme zoological 



scertained, for some place 




phy 



The ex- 



tremes in view are 



the means of the coldest and warmest thirty 



days of the year 




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SOUTH AMERICA. 

Venezuela and Surinam, 74 
Pernambuco, 74°-83°. 

Bahia, 74°-83 

Kio Janeiro, 68J°-78°. 

Buenos Ayres, 50°-64J 

Bio Negro, 46°-60°. 
Fuegia, 36°-56°. 
Falklands, 37°-50°. 

Chiloe, 48°-56r 

Valdivia, 50°-63 

Conception, 52° ?-60° ? 

Valparaiso, 52°-62°. 
Copiapo, 56r(July)-68°? 

Iquique, 58° (July)-69° ? 
Callao, 57i°-74°. 
Payta, 60°-74° ? 
Guayaquil, 69°-81°. 
aallapagos; 62°-80 



80 



V 



t 



NORTH AMERICA. 

Panama, 74°-85° ? 

San Francisco, 51°-68° ? 

Monterey, 54°-70° ? 

Acapulco 82i°-84° (March). 

Columbia River, 46°-60° ? 

Puget's Sound, 42° ?-57°. 

South of Newfoundland, 35°-63 

Massachusetts Bay, 37°-64°. 

Cape Henry, 46°- 

Off Charleston, 64°'-81° 



80 



Key West, 72°-85°. 
Yucatan, 71°-83 
Cuba, 74°-84°. 






GREAT BRITAIN AND EUROPE 



Shetlands, 36°-56°? 

Scotland, west and north, 39 
Irish Sea, 45°-63 
English Channel, 46°-62 
Cape Finisterre, 50°-66 
Near Gibraltar, 58°-77 

Azores, 60°-73 

Madeira, 62°-75°. 
Canaries, 64°-75 
Cape Verdes, 70°-82 



58 



AFRICA. 



Sierra Leone, 78°-85 
Ascension, 72°-78 

St. Helena, 68°-74 

Table Bay, 54°-68°. 

Port Natal, 72°-73° (May) 



N 



INDIAN OCEAN. 

South end of Madagascar, 69°-80 
Mauritius, 72°-83°. 
Entrance of Red Sea, 76°-88 
Keeling Island, 78°-83° (April) 
Singapore, 74°-84°. 
Balabac, 77°-85 
Manilla, 79°-85 
North Luzon, 74°-84 



PACIFIC OCEAN 



Ladrones, 79°-86°. 
Salomon Islands, 77°-85 










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1484 



CRUSTACEA. 



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New Hebrides; 74°-83 
New Caledonia, 73°-82°. 

Kingsmills, 80°-88 
Feejees, 74°-85°. 
Tongatabu, 74°-82 
Samoan Islands, 74°-85°. 
Tahitian Islands, 74°-83 
Hervey Islands, 68°-76 



Hawaiian Islands, 68°-83 
Island of Hawaii, 72°-83 






NEW HOLLAND, ETC. 

Port Jackson, 55°-71 

Hobarton, Yan Diemens Land, 50°-60° 

Bay of Islands, N. Z., 54°-67°. 
King George's Sound, 58°-68 



A great service will be conferred on science when an isothermal 
chart for the continents is made out, with the most convenient sub- 
divisions for illustrating the subject of the geographical distribution of 
land and fresh-water species. Dove's charts contain in part the ele- 
ments as regards temperatures ; but it remains to be decided which 
isothermal boundary lines had best be adopted for this particular 
purpose; and moreover, the actual curves of the isothermals dependent 
on the elevations of a country should be laid down. The winter lines 
of 68° and 74° for the ocean and air, appear to correspond very nearly, 
and the same lines might be used for the land chart as well as the 
marine. The former is the limit for the Cocoanut Palm as well as 
for coral-reefs, and the Torrid zone of oceanic temperature, might 
hence be called the CocoanuU^alm as well as the Coral-reef zoi\q. 



Temperature at deptlis. — With respect to the change of temperature 
as we descend in the ocean, we cannot present a series of facts, as 
those that have been ascertained are too few and isolated to be of 
much service. The lowest temperature reached is 39 i° F., 



which 



less than that of the Frigid Region, as here laid down. Under the 
equator this temperature is not reached short of seven thousand feet, 
and somewhere between the parallels of 45° and 60°, the position 
varying with the seasons and meridian, it is found at the surface as 
well as at all depths below. , 



It is a question of much interest, how far temperature influences 
the range of zoological species in depth. From a survey of the facts 
relating to coral-zoophytes, the author arrived at the conclusion, that 
this cause is of but secondary importance.* 
limiting temperature bounding the coral-reef seas, and ascertaining 



After determining the 



* Exped. Report on Zoophytes, 1846, p. 103 ; and on Geology, p. 97. 



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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1485 

the distribution of reefs, it was easy to compare this temperature with 
that of the greatest depths at which the proper reef corals occur. 
This depth is but one hundred feet. Now the limiting temperature, 
68° is reached under the equator at a depth of five hundred feet, and 



/ 



nder 



parallel of 10 



o 



depth of at least three hundred feet 



besides temperature ; and 

air dis- 



There must, therefore, be some other cause 

this may be amount of pressure, of light, or of atmosph 

solved in the waters. 

Prof. Forbes has remarked that the deep-sea species in the ^gean 
have a boreal character;* and Lieut. Spratt, also, has ascertained the 
temperatures at different depths,t and shown that the deep-sea species 

those which have the widest range of distribution, most of them 



are 



north, about the British shores or north of France 
that the species which occur in deep water in the ^g 



g 



Yet 



found in shallow waters of like temperature about the more northern 



coasts ? If so, Lieut. Spratt 



conclusion, that temperature is the 



But 



principal influence which governs the distribution of marine faun 
depth as well as in latitudinal distribution, will stand as true, 
we believe that facts do not bear out this conclusion. Deep-sea 
species hve in deep seas in both regions, with but little difference in 
the depth to which they extend. They are boreal in character, when 
of Mediterranean origin, because they are cold-water species; and 
their wide distribution is because of the wide range of temperature for 
which they are fitted, rather than their fitness to endure a given tem- 
perature, which they find at considerable depths to the south, and 



the surface to the north 
As this point is one of much importa 



have 



the 



tables of dredging by Prof E. Forbes, in the ^gean and about 



the British Islands,! to see how far it is borne 



and we add other 



results by R. MacAndrew, Esq., at Vi 
Malta and Pantellaria, Algiers and T 



Bay, Portugal, Gibraltar 



and thoroughness of Prof Forbes 



researches and 



those abo of MacAndrew, give peculiar weight to the conclusions. 
Those species are taken from the tables which are common to these 

* Report on the ^gean Invertebrata, Rep. Brit. Assoc, 1843, 130. 



t 
X 



Assoc, 1848, 81. 

Assoc, 1843 ; and on British Marine Zoology, ibid., 1850, 192. 



Rep. Brit. Assoc, 1850, p. 264. 



372 



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CRUSTACEA. 



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r 

several regions, and with regard to which the observations are free 
from doubt; and we have confined the list to the Acephalous molluscs, 
as these appear to be sufficient to test the law under discussion. The 

depth is given in fathoms. 

It should be observed, that to carry out the theory, the species 
should be confined to shallower waters to the north than to the south. 



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[ North Scot- 
land and 
Shetland. 



South Eng- 
land and I 
of Man. 



Yigo Bay 



Grijbraltar. 



Corbula nucleus, . 
Nesera cuspidata, . 
Thracia phaseolina, 
Solen peilucidus, . 
Psammohia ferroensis 
Tellina donacina, . 
Mactra subtruncata, 
Lutraria elliptica, , 
Cyiherea chione, , 
Yenus oTata, . . . 
Venus fasciata, . . 
Venus verrucosa, . 
Artemis lincta, . . 
Cardium echinatum, 
Lucina flexuosa, 
Lucina spinifera, . 
Kellia suborhicularls, 
Modiola tulipa, . . 
Modiola barbata, . 
Area tetragona, . . 
Area lactea, . . . 
Pectunculus glycerimis, 
Niiculanitida, . . 
Nucula nucleus, 
Lima subauriculata, 
Pecten similis, . . 
Pecten maximus, . 
Pecten opercularis, 
Pecten yarius, . . 
Anomia ephippium, 



3-80 
10-80 

0-80? 

T-lOO 

3-90 

1-80 

0-12 

0-10 

5-100 
5-90 

6-80 

5-100 

3-100 

10-100 

0-90 

10-50 

lo-ob 

5-80 
5-60 

5-100 
4-100 

2-80 

2-40 

2-100 

3-20 

0-80 



5- 

3- 

5- 

6- 

5- 

0- 

0- 

10- 

7- 

T- 

0- 

6- 

5-- 

6- 

15- 

10- 

5- 

2- 

20- 

10- 

5- 

5- 

5- 

15- 

20- 

10- 

5- 
3- 
0- 



50 

50 

30 

50 

50 

40 

20? 

20 

20 f 

50 

50 

10 

50 

■50 

50 

30? 

40 

25 

-15 

-30 

-50 

■50 

-30 

-50 

-30 

-50 

-30 

-50 

-30 

-50 



^gean. 



5-25 
20 



8-20 
45* 



40 
8* 



Malta and 

Pantel- 

laria. 



Algiers 

and 
Tunis. 



5-10 

Low water 



8 
8 

5 

Low water 

LittoraL 

4 

10-12 

8 

12 

• * • • 

8* 

• • • 

8-12 

20-25 

6-25 

« ■ * * 

20* 

8 
8-20 

8 
10 



8 
6-40 
8 
6 
6 



15-25 
10-25 

* • 

30 
12-20 

30 
12-40 

6-20 

35 

4-25 

20-40 
8 



7-80 

12-185 

7-30 

20-40' 
7-45 



6-50 



7-10 
29-135 

27-40 
2-40 

* ■ * 

7-50 
7-U 
4^30 

29-45 
2-50 
7-95 

20-80 
0-150 
6-24 



8-35 



6-15 
6-40 
6-50 
6-15 
6-15 



35 



10 

10 

6 



■- 



6-40 
35-50 

6-15 
35-50 



* • • 


6-15 


1 

2-10 


6-40 


15 30 


•l ■ 


27-185 


* 4 


■ « * 


35-50 


10-70 


•" • 


7-55 


6-15 


20-40 


35-50 



6-35 
6-35 
6 

6-8 



35 

85 
6-8 

35 
6-35 

35 
6-8 
6-35 

35 

35 

6-8 

35 
35 

6-35 



/ 



To compare fairly this table, it should be noted that the dred 
the Shetlands^ Orkneys^ and nortli of Scotland^ was 



iD 



g 



carried to a 



limit 



depth than about Southern England, fifty fathoms being the 

are shallow. Making this 



the 




the waters 



allowance, we are still struck with the great depth to which the species 
penetrate at the most northern locality, instead of the small depth. 
Out of the twenty-one species which are here mentioned as occurring 
on Northern Scotland, or the Shetlands, and the ^gean, fourteen or 
fifteen descend to a greater depth in the former than in the latter; and 
nearly all the species common to the north and south extremities of 
the British Islands, are reported from the deepest waters at the north. 
Of the observations made at 
Algiers, and Gibraltar, there is but a single example among the above 



Vigo Bay, Malta, Pantellaria, Tunis, 



of 



g 




depth 



locality examined. The dredging in the Med 



northernmost 

n by MacAn- 



drew, was 



carried to as great depths; yet even allowing for 

I 

« * Not found living at tHe depth stated. 




X 



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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1487 



the facts are not a little remarkable. One hundred fathoms appears 
to have been the greatest depth of the Shetland dredgings 



Now the temperature m 



the ^gean during the warmer months, 



according to Lieut. Spratt; is as follows : 



At the surface, 



76^-84^. 



10 

20 
35 
75 
100-800 



fathomS; seldom below 74 



in the summer 



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68 
62 

56 



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-- 



The temperature of the waters near Southern England in summer 

Consequently the surface 



62 



summer 



and near the Shetlands 55° or less 
temperature of the British Channel is not found m 
at a less depth than thirty-five fathoms, and the surf^ 



the 



summer temperature of the Shetlands, is the temperature at one- to three 
hundred fatlioms in the Mgean; and still species that range to a depth 
of one hundred fathoms about Northern Scotland are found withm 
thirty fathoms of the surface in the ^gean, that is, where the summer 
temperature is 74° or more 



Such facts show the hardiness of the 



We must, therefore 



species in enduring great ranges in temperatu 

conclude, that it is not temperature alone or mainly which determmes 

the depth to which species may live. 

fitted for cold waters may be found in the deeper seas where 



It 



an influence, and 



species 



other 



such waters occur ; but the limit of descent depends on 

fluences. • j i. -d f 

Looking at this table in another way, we see, as recogmsed by i^rot. 

Forbes, that species which occur at or near the surface m Northern 
Scotland, are generally met with only at greater depths m the Medi- 
terranean : that is, the minimum depth is less in the former case than 

Thus Gorhula nucleus has for its minimum depth in the 
MeditTrrlnean six fathoms, and in the northern regions three fathoms. 
PsammoUa ferroensis has ten fathoms for the former, and three for the 

Other examples will be found in the above table, sufiicient to 
illustrate the principle, although many exceptions exist. Thus species 
that have the range of one hundred fathoms beyond Scotland, may 
have the same in the Mediterranean, except that in many cases they 
do not reach as near the surface, where the waters are warm 



the latter 



latte 



The Crustacea of 



same 



this subject in a similar 





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U88 



CRUSTACEA. 



/ 



way. But the observations upon them have been made with less 
thorougliness, and we have, therefore, confined our discussions to 

Molluscs. 

Prof. Edward Forbes has with much discrimination laid down cer- 
tain zones in depth, and pointed, out their zoological and botanical 
peculiarities for certain coasts. The observations on Crustacea made 
by us, were not extended to any considerable depth, and they will 
not enable us, therefore, to recognise these several zones in the follow- 
ing tables. 



C 



II. aEOaKAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES. 



In making an application of the isothermal oceanic chart to the 
subject of the geographical distribution of Crustacea, we have two 

objects before us. 

First. — To compare the zones and their regions with one another 
as to (a) numher of species, (b) number of genera, (c) numher and size 
of individuals, (d) grade of species, in order to arrive at some general 
conclusions as to the temperatures best fitted for the highest and most 
prolific developments of Crustacea. 

Second. — To compare difierent geographical positions in similar 
regions with one another, in order to arrive at their resemblances and 
differences, and deduce the several distinct zoological provinces ; and 
also to distinguish the more or less wdde diffusion of species in longi- 
tudinal ranffe. 



1. DISTRIBUTION OF 



W 



REFERENCE TO THE TEMPERATURE 



We here present 



of tables, containing, for each genus, the 



number of species that occurs in each temperature region, with a 
column also giving the sum of the Torrid zone species, and another for 
the sum of the Temperate zone species. The several regions are lettered 
a, h, c, d, &c., to A, and where one or more species in a region occur 
in another nearer the equator, it is indicated by annexing the number 



with the letter of the column in which 



Thus, 6 (2 



column h, means 



that there are six species in the h or Subtorrid 



Region, but two of them are found also in the a or Torrid Reg 



^ 






/ 










GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1489 



We give first a table of the Brachyura, and following this, a recapitii 
lation and summary, containing a summing up of^he Bpec- for the 



subfamilies, families, tribes, &c 



These tables afford some obvious 



deductions 



Then follow similar tables for the Anomoura, Macroura 



and remaining Podophthalmia, with 
the same for the Tetradecapoda. 



of deductions : and then 



The perfecting of the Temperature Chart, by changing the limits of 
some of' the regions (which is to be expected as new facts are brougM 



i 



will undoubtedly 



some modificat 



of these tables; but 



nothing that will affect essentially the conclusions which will here be 



drawn from them 



V 



373 



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1490 



CRUSTACEA. 



-■ 



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TABLE I. 



BRACHYURA 



1. MAIOIDEA. 






I. MAIINEA. 

I. INACHID-aE. 

1. Macrochririn^. 

Macrocheira, . . • . 

2. Inachin^. 

Inachus, 

Microrhyncbus, . . 

3, SALACINiE. 

Salacia, 

IT. MAIIDiE. 

1. LlBININ^. 

Doclea, 

Libidoclea, . . . . 

Libiniaj 

2. Mating. 

Maia, 

Paramitlirax, - . . 

Pisa, 

Pelia, 

Lispa, 

Bhodia, 

Hyas, 

Pisoides, 

Herbstia, 

Thoe, 

Dehaanius, . . . . 

4 PRIDNORHTNCIIINiE. 

Prion orhy nchus, . . 

5. MiciPPiN^. 

Micippa, 

6. CnoRiMN^. 

Chorinus, 
Chorilia, 
Lahaina, .... 

Naxia, 

Scyra, ..... 
Hyastenus, . . . 
Pyria, 

7. Otho>in^. 

Othonia, .... 
TTI. MITHRACID^. 

11. MiTHRACINiS. 

Mithrax, .... 
Mithraculus, • . 

12. CycLACiN^. 

Cyclax, .... 

IV. TYCHTDiE. 

1. Criocarcinin^, 

Criocarcinus, . . 

2. Tychin^. 

Tyche, ..... 

3. Camposcin^. 

Camposcia, , , . 



/ 



Tf 



o 

EH 

■ 



1 









4 



1 

1 
3 



1(a) 

2 

2(la) 

1(a) 
3 (1 a) 



4 



6 



1 
1 



8 
1 

1 



2 
1 



2 (la) 

2 (la) 

1 
1 



5(4a) 



(la) 



.iH 
U 

o 
H 

TO Q 

o =^ 

EH 



1 



4 

2 

2 

1 
5 



1? 

1? 



5 



7 

1 
1 

1 
1 



9 
1 

1 



1? 

2 

1 



P4 

a 



ft 



-J 



1 

2 



2(1 J) 
1 



5 
1 

1 

1 
2 
1 



1? 



2 



2 (la) 
2 



o 



ft 
B 

EH 



3 
3 



1 

1 

2(lc) 

1? 

4 (2 c) 

1 



l(lc) 



2 (2 a) 



o 



Pi 

B 



I 

CO 

<1D 



1 



1 

2(1Z>) 



2(?/) 



1(c) 



ft 

a 



a- 



1 

3(le) 






/- 



i(/) 



1(c) 
1(c) 



2(lc) 



2 



1 



1 



1 

1(c) 

1? 

1(e) 



2(1/) 



OJ 



c6 

O Q) 



CO o 



O 

EH 



1 

6 
2 

1 



1 
2 

4 

3 

4 

7 
1 
1 
1 
3 
1 
3 
1 
1 



1 



1 
1 



2 



4 

2 






!(/) 



V 



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* - 



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—--,,*—' 



J 

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A 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1491 



^t 




i 
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HI 
W 

1 :lt^ < i 




* 



V 



^ 



/ 



i 



V. EURYPODID^. 

1. EURYPODINiE. 

EurypodiuSj .... 

Oregonia, 

2. AmathinjE. 

Amathia, . . . . , • 
VI. LEPTOPODID-^. 

1. ACHEIN^. 

Acheus, 

2. Inachoidin^. 

Inachoides, .... 

3. Leptopodin^. 

Eeptopodia, .... 

4. STENORnYXOHINiE. 

Stenorhynchus, . . 
Vir. PEKTCERID^. 

1. PARAMICIPPIN.E. 

Paramicippa, , • « 

2. PERICERIN^. 

Pericera, 

Tiarinia, 

Perinea, 

Halhnus, 

Pugettia, 

3. Men^thin^. 

Mensethius, .... 

Acanthonyx, , . . 
AntiUbinia^ .... 

Peltinia, 

4. STENOCIOXOPINiE. 

Stenocionops, . . - 
5. Epialtin^. 

Epialtus, 

Huenia, ..... 
XenocarcinuSj . . . 
Leucippaj 

II. PARTHENOPIITEA. 

I. PARTIIENOPID^. 
Parthenopej .... 

liambrusj 

Eurynome; . . . . 

II. EUMEDONIDiE. 
Eumedonus, , . . 
Ceratocarcinus, . . 

?Gouatonotus, . . . 

? Zebrida, 

? Harrovia, 

III. CRYPTOPODID^. 

Cryptopodia, . . . 
EurynolambruSj . . 

III. ONCININEA. 
Oncinopus, . . . - 



'2 

t-i 
o 



1 



4 
5 

2 



5 

2 

1 



3 

13 



M A 1 I D E A — Continued. 



1(?6) 
3 
1 
1 



o 



02 

■ 



1 

3 (2 a) 

1 

1 



6 (2 a) 

6(10-) 

1 

1 

1 

3 

3 (la) 

1 
1 



1(a) 
5 (1 a) 



u 
o 

H 

Cm 
O 

13 



o 



PI 
o 



1 



1 

6 
6 
1 
2 



9 
6 
1 

2 



3 
4 
1 
1 



3 
17 



1 
3 
1 
1 
1 



B 

EH 

a 



a> 



u 

Pi 

EH 



o 



B 



i 



* 



1? 



3 (la.?) 



1 



1 



2 



1 



1(a) 



1(&) 



1 



2 



1 (a ?) 



1 
1 



2 



1 



4(16) 



1 



3 
1 



ft 

a 

H 

2 

'o 



Hd) 



X{d) 






4(2e) 
2 



IW 



1 



1(?^) 



1 



1 



1 



<o 



0) 

ft 

a 

O 0) 

rt o 
o ^ 



4(4-1?) 
2 

1 



2(?1) 
1 
3 
2 



1 



1 

2 



3 



6 



2 



S 
3 



1 
1 



■ 



1 



\ 



X 






4 

1 
1 





11 



M 





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W 



m 





/ 



■-. 





■ I 




\ 




r 



t 





_^. 



*.^^, 





.■ --, 




»*jri. 



I 



'ri 



M 



1- 



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? 



i 



I 



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I -till 



^ 



» 



n> \t 



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Ml 



li 



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4 
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1492 



■ 



'' 



I. OANCRINEA, 
T. CANCRID^. 
Cancer, . , . 
Perimela, . , . 



y 



II. XANTHID^. 

1. Xanthine, 

Atergatis, . . . 

Carpilius, . . . 

Liomera, . . . 

Liagora, . . . 

Actsea 

Xantho, . . • 

Paraxanthus, . 

Menippe, , . . 

Panopeus, . . 

Medseus, . , . 
Halimede, , , 

2. CHLORODINiE. 

Etisus, .... 

Etisodes, . . . 
Carpilodes, . . 
Zozymus. , . , 

Actaeodes, . . . 
Da'ira, .... 
Chlorodius, . . 
P'ilodius, . . . 
Cyclodius, . . 
Cymo, .... 

3. POLYDECTINiE. 

Polydectus, . . 
IIT. ERIPHID^. 

1, (ETHRINjE. 

(Ethra, .... 

2, OZtN'iE. 

Galene, 
Ozius, . , 

Pseudozius, 
Pilumnus, 
Pilumnoides, 
Melia, . . 
? Acanthodes, 

3, ACTUMNIN^. 

Actumnus, 
4. Eeiphin^. 

Kuppellia, 
Eriphia, . 
Domascius, 
Trapezia, . 

Tetralia, . 
Quadrella, 

IV. POKTUNID^. 

1. Lupine. 

Scylla, . . 

Lupa, . . 
Am phi trite, 

Carupa, . 
Thalamita, 

Chary bd is, 
Lissocarcinus, 

2. ARENiEIX^. 

Arenseus, . . 

8. PORTUNIN^. 



CRUSTACEA. 



V. 



PLATYONYCHID^ 

Carcinus, .... 
Portumnus, . . . 

Platyonycbus, . . 
Polybius, .... 



2. CANCROIDEA. 






tit 

o 



• 



'd 



O 

H 
o 



^ 



o 



a 

o 



14 
5 
1 

6 
12 

2 
3 



2(+l?) 

2 

1 
3 

8 
1 
13 
4 
2 
2 

2(?+l) 



7 (4 a) 

11 (3 a) 

7(?3a) 
10 (2 a) 

4(1 a) 

3 

1 

2 

1 



17 

13 

1 

12 (? 2) 
20 

5 

6 
1 

2 



4(?1) 

2 

1 
1(?+1) 4(?1) 
2 10 

1(a) 1 
10 (4 a) 19 

4 

2 

2 

3(?1) 



1 



2 

2 

11 



l{a) 
2 (? -1) 

1 

4(?+7) 

1(a) 



1 

2(?~1) 
2 
3 
15(?+7) 



1 

1 

2 
1 
9 
3 
1 



1(+1?) 

5 
8 
1 
7 

11 
2 

1 



1 
1 



6(4:0) 



1(a) 
5 (2 a) 
7 (2a) 

7 (3a) 
11 (7 a) 



2 

2 

2 

1 

10 

3 

1 



ft 

is 



1 



1(6) 
2 

2(1&) 
3(2 6) 



1(a) 



1 (? +1) 

8 
13 

1 
11 
15 

2 

1 



IQd) 



1 






4(2 6) 
1 

1(a) 



1? 



2(?-l) 



2(?-l) 



O 






CP 



a 



* 



1 



7 



1(b) 

4 (2 a, c) 



1(6) 



3 

2 

1 



2 

3 



ft 

H 



o 

o 



2(1 c) 
l(rf) 



* 



t3> 



OJ 



e3 

ft 

a 

H 

o 

O 



o 

^3 



3 (1 c, 1/) 



10 
1 



2 (3 c, d) 



2(2 6) 



1 

8 
2 
2 
4 



2(ldf) 



1(c) 



1(d) 



1(c) 



1(a) 
2(?+5) 



1 



9 (2 c) 



1 
1 



2 (Id) 



7 
1 



1 



1(b) 



1(6) 



1 

2 



12(8 c,^ 2 (c?,/) 



4 
1 

1 



1 

il4 



1(d) 

1(6) 



1(6) 



6 



S-i 

■ 



1 



T 



/ 



I 



1 



1 



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l_ 




GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. ' 149 



O 



i 



YI. PODOPHTHALMID^. 

Podophthalmus, . . 

II. TELPHUSINEA * 

III. CyOLINEA. 
Acanthocycius, . . 



I. GONOPLACIDiE. 

Eucrate, 

Curtoiiotus, .... 
Gonoplax, .... 

II. MACROPHTHALMID^ 
1. Macrophthalmin^. 

Cleistostoma, . . ■ 
Macrophthalmu.s, . . 

2. OCTPODINiE. 

Gelasimus, .... 

HeloeciuSj 

Ocypoda, 

Scoplmeraj .... 

3. Doting. 

Doto, 



III. GRAPSID^. 

1. GRAPSINiE. 

P?eudograpsus, 

Heterograpsus, 

Brachynotus, 

*Enocheir, 

*PIatynotuSj . 

Tricbopus, . 

Grapsus, , . 
Goniograpsus, 

Planes, . . 
Hemigrapsus, 

Cyrtograpsus, 

2. Sesarmin^e. 

Sesarma, . . 
Sarmatium, . 
Cyclograpsus, 
ChasmagnathuSj 

Helice, . . . 

3. Plagusin^. 

A can tb opus, 

Plagusia, . . 



IV. GECAECINID-^. 

1. UCAlNiE. 

Uca, • • • ' ■ • 



CANCROIDE A— Continued. 



"u 
u 
o 



o 

I 



-o 



u 
u 

o 

H 
o 

"^ 
o 



o 



1(a) 



a 

u 



« 



o 



2 






f-i 

CD 

a 



* 



P4 

a 

O 

S 



'd 

'So 

1 

CO 



1 



3. GRAPSOIDEA. 



* None marine 



374 



CU 



c3 

u 

a 

H 

O 

o 



o 



1 








*f 





t¥4 




M 





























■ 










t-i 




Torrid. 


o 

1 

pi 

02 


2 

u 

o 

O o 

^ o 


ft 

a 

H 

a 


M 

P« 

a 

EH 


ft 

a 

02 


4 

ft 

a 

H 


-d 

1 

02 


0) 
ft 

a 

^ • 
o a> 

TO O 


• 


■ « 


• 


O ^ 

2 




'^ 


* 
<4> 


**^ 


« 

i 
1 

1 


H 


rfS 




2 


J 


"*■ '■ 

1 


i 
1 

1 
1 


1 




1 


2 (la) 


2 


1 

1 


2(1 c) 

1 
1 


i 

1 


l{d) 




2 




2 


5(2a) 


5 




1 






1 






7 


5(?-i-l) 

1 


12 










1 






10 


1 

9(3a) 


16 


3(6) 




2 
2 


1(6) 

1 
1 


1(6) 


6 
2 




8 


7(2a) 
1 


13 
1 


1(J) 




2 (la) 




1 
1 


3 




4 

1 


1(a) 


1 
















1? 




1 
1 

1 




1 
1 






2 


2 
1 
1 




1 


2 


3 
















J 


1 


1 

1 
















1 

5 


1(a) 
5 (3 a) 

8 (2 a) 


1 
7 


3 (3 a, 6) 


1 ^"L 


2 (la) 


M /t \ 




6 
3 
2 
5 
1 




2 


8 


2 (2 a, 6) 

2(16) 


2(16) 




1(J) 


1 


\ 


«■■ 


v. ^ 

2 


2 


1(6> 
2(?e) 




« 




■ 




4(?+l) 


4 


^ ■ 


2 


1 
1 


] 




9 


11 (3 a) 


IT 


3 (2 b) 




1(b) 


1(5) 




3 




1 

2 
1 


3 

2 (la) 

1? 


1 
5 
2 
1 






l(?+la) 
2 






1 
2 




2 


1(a) 


2 


1(a) 


l(o) 


1(a) 






1 

3 

i 




3 


3 (la) 


5 1 


1(a) 


1(a) 


2 (la) 






■ 


2 


2(2a) 


1 

2 


/ 




- 








1 



1. 




\ 








\ 






\ 







':t-- 





»^ V 




t. 



1 






irf'-N 



M^r- 



'^ 



' - -'. 





-■-. 



9 Hit 

Mill 




f ■( 



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li ,i 



i t 



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1 



1494 




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ir 



Gecarcinicus, 
Cardisoma, . . . 

Gecarcoidea, , . . 
2. Gecarcinin-e. 

Gecarcinus, . . . 
V. PINNOTHERID-^. 

1. PiNNOTHERINiE. 

Pinnothera, . 
Fabia, . . . 
XenophthalmuSj 
Xanthasia, . 
Pinnixa, . . 
Pinnotherelia, 
2. Htmenicin^. 

Hymenosoma, 
Halicarcinus, 
Hymenicus, . 
Elamena, , . 

VI. MYCTIRID^. 

Myctiris, . . . 



I. CALAPPID-^. 

1. Calappin^. 

Calappa, . . . 

Platymera, . . 

Mursia, . . . 

Cycloes, . . . 

2. Obithtin^. 

Orithyia, . . . 



II. MATUTID^. 

Hepatus, . . . 
Thealia, . . . 
Matuta, . . . 



III. LEUCOSID^ 

Leucosia, . . . 
Philyra, . . . 
Leucisca, . . . 
Ebalia, .... 
Nucia, .... 
Nursia , . . . 

Ilia, 

Myra, .... 
Guala, .... 

Ixa, 

Iphis, .... 
Arcania, . . . 
Oreophorus, . . 
Tlos, .... 






IV. DOKIPPID^ 

Dorippe, . . . 

Ethusa, . . . 



1- 



CRUSTACEA. 



GRAPSOIDEA — Continued. 



•a 

O 

H 



1 

4 



2 



2 

1 
1 



1 



1 



6 
1 



1 



1 
1 
2 



3 
2 



1 

1 

1 
2 

3 
2 
1 
1 



4 



IS 

o 



o 



02 



o ^ 






2(2 a) 
l(?a) 

1(?) 



^ o 



1 

4 
1 



a 

H 



a> 



a 

B 

* 



a> 



e3 

a 



PS 
02 



2 



3 (la) 



4 

1 

1 



2(a) 



2 



(la) 



3(1 &) 



/ 



1 



2 



2 



1 
1 



1 
1 

1 

2 
2 



1 



1 



4. LEUCOSOIDEA. 



r 


1 

* 




'O 




• rH 




^ 


* 


u 


'^ 


o 




~^^ 




* 


o 


^ 


H 


C/2 


* 


» 


e 


tJ» 



7 (6a) 

2(la) 
1 



2 (la) 
2 (2 a) 



4 
2 
1? 

1 

2(la) 

2(la) 
1(a) 



1 



4(4a) 



o 

H 



7 

2 
1 

1 



2 
1 
2 



7 

4 
1 

1 

2 

2 
1 
2 
3 
2 
2 
1 



4 



Pi 

i 



a> 



c3 

Pi 

a 

H 



* 



e9 
Pi 

I 



I 



2(1 a) 



1(c) 



1 



1 



1 



1 

1(a) 



3 



1 



1 



1 



1? 



2(lc) 



1(a) 



1 



4 (2 a) 



2(lc) 



Pi 

a 

H 
'o 

s 



I 

C5l 



a> 

t-t 
Pi 

a 

a; 
H 

o 



o 



d 
o 



4 (4 c, d) 



2(1 (?) 
1 



2(le) 



2 



7 
2 



2 
1 

1 

3 
2 



1 



Pi 

a 



o 



•a 



p 



3 



2(1/) 



o 



03 
Pi 

a 

o 



a> 

o 



o 



2 

1 

1 



2 



1 
1 

8 



2 
1 



1 



4 
1 



I 

I 



r 



'2 



\ 



« 



V 



l' 



/ 



' 



■- 



i 



4 




-i 



r 



\ 



-y r 



*'j' 



1-'. V L *-ta_ 







/ 



r 



. 



\ 






V. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA 



5. CORYSTOIDEA. 



'3 

o 



I. TRICHOCERIBiE. 

Tricliocera, . 



ft * 



II. THIIDiS. 

Thia, . . . 
Kraussia, . . 



TIT. CORYSTID^E. 

Telmessus, . . 
Atelecyclus, . . 
Peltarion, . . . 

Pseudocorystes, 

Gomeza, ■ . • 
(Eidia, .... 
Corystes, . . • 
Dicera, , . . . 




O Q> 



1(?+1) 



1495 




In the following recapitulation, the figure in parenthesis following 



the Total for the Temperate zone of the larg 




roups, expresses the 



number of species common to the Temperate and Torrid 




f 



). 





•* 




^'^im 




It 




y 



» i 



r • 



y 



i 



\\\ 





y - 



y 



» 



\\ 






r 

I 



r 










rs.*^ 




JS^-:. 



■*r 




f 



t 



i-' 



I 



/ 



W 



w 



' n* 



I 



t 



*l 



i 



- ' 



1496 



CRUSTACEA. 



6. RECAPITULATION. 















- 




{ 














1 




1 




\ 1 


1 


. 1 


1 




a> 




/ 


'6 


torrid. 


1 
U 

o 


m Temp. 


perate. 


temperate 


Temp. 


frigid. 


f Tempera 

r 


• 

'2 




M 
^ 


• 


Q ^ 


^ 


a 


t 


S 




o <» 


'§) 


J 


O 





r2 ^ 
cj o 


■w 

^ 


*» 

! H 








':3 f^ 

TO O 


E*4 




* 


* 


rCi 


EH 


* 

o 

35 


'«' 


• 

21 


s 


^ 




* 


I. MATINEA, . . 


82 

1 


57 


122 


|27 


16 


14 


92(9) 


I. MAIOIDEA, . 






57 


50 


92 


32 


23 


19 


15 


14 


84(9) 




1. Inachid^, .... 






1 




1 


3 


4 


1 


4 




10 




Macrocheirinae, 






1 

i 
1 












1 


!(/) 


i 1 




Inachinge, . . . 






1 




1 


3 


3 




3(1 c) 


V*^ y 


8 

1 




SalacinsSj .... 
















1 


^ r 


1 

/ 


1 

1 




2. Maiid^, 






21 


16 (5 a) 


32 


18 


10 


7 


8 


6 


38(2) 




Libininge, .... 






4 


3 (la) 


6 


2{lh) 


2 


3(16?) 


1(c) 


2(lc) 


7 




Maiinsej .... 






1 


2 (1 a) 


2 


1 


1 


1 

i 
1 


1(c) 


1? 


3 




Pisinge, 






4 


5 (2 a) 


7 


11(?+1) 


. 7 (3c) 


4(lc) 


4 (2 c, (2) 


3 (2 c,/) 


23(2) 


1 


Prionorhynchinge, , 










1? 












^» " 




MicippinaB, , . . 






4 


2 (1 a) 


5 
















ChorinitiEe, . . . 






8 


4 (la) 


11 


1? 






2 




3 




Othonjnse, . . . 








• r 




2 






L 




2 




3. MithraciDjE, . . . 






10 


5 


11 


4 


1 


1 






6(3) 




Mithracinas, . . . 






9 


5 (4a) 


10 


4 (la) 


2 (la) 








6 




Cyclacinse, . . . 






1 

1 


1 
f 


1 




^t r 




n 








4. TiCHIDiE, 






3 


1 


4 


- 














Criocarcininse, . . 










1? 




1 


' — 






r 
1 




Tychinse, . . . , 




1 


2 




% 








I 


h 






Camposcinse, . . , 




i 


1 


1(a) 


1 












■ 




5. EURYPODIDiE, .... 




1 




^ ^ 








3 


L 
1 


6 


7 




Eurypodinge, . , 
Amathinte, . . . 






1 


- 








2 
1 




6(2c) 

1 


6( + l?) 




6. Leptopodid^, . . 






1 


-. 


1 


4 


3 


2 


2 


1 


8(1) 
2(?1) 




Achpinas, .... 


g 










ir 


1 

1 




l{d) 






Inachoidinae, . . 














1 


1 


^ 




V y 




Leptopodin^e, . , 






1 




1 


3(1 a?) 


- 


l(a?) 






3 




Stenorhyn chinas, , 






1 








2 


^ ^ 


iW 


l{d) 


i 2. 




7. PBKICERIDiE, . . . , 






21 


28 


43 


3 


5 


5 


1 


1 


15(3) 


1 


Paramicippinaej 




t 1 


1 


- 


1 




1 








1 




Pericerinag, . . . 






11 


5 (2 a) 
13 (3 a) 


14 


1 


2 






1 


4 




Meri£eihin£e, . . . 






8 


18 


1(a) 


2 








3 




Stenocionopinas, 








1 - 


i 1 


^ A 














Epialtinse, . . . 






2 


8 (la) 


9 


l{h) 


1 
1 


5(16) 


1 




7 




IT. PARTHENOPINEA, ' 


23 


T 


28 


1 


4 


2 


1 




8 




1. Pakthenopid^, .... 


16 


6 (2 a) 


20 




4 


l(d?) 


1 




6 




2. EUMEDONID^, .... 


5 ! 


^ " 


5 




1 


^ r 











3. CRTPTOPODIDiEj .... 


2 i 


1 

i 
1 


3 


1 

1 




1 






2 




III. ONCININEA, . . 


2 


1 


2 




1 


L 


1 









II. CANOROIDEA. 












i 
1 




- 






I. OANCKINEA, . . 


157 


112 


229 


22 


25 


23 


25 


8 


69 (12) 




1. CANCRIDuE, . . . 




« 








1 


1 


7 


3(2c,d) 


3 (2 C,/; 


11 




2. Xanthid^, . , 








• 


83 


61 


129 


8 


6 


6 


5 (5 6, d) 


^^ 


16 




Xanthinse, 








* 


43 


44 (9 a) 


77 


8(4&) 


6(4a,6) 


7(lc) 


6 (5 6, c, d) 




16(5) 




Chlorodinas, , 






- 


■ 


40 


12 (4 a) 


49 












^ T 




Polydectinsej , 
3. Eriphid/fi, . . , 








• 
t 


2 (? +1) 
35 


16 


3 

44 


4 


6 


A 


2 


1 


14 




(EthriDse, . , 








* 


1 


1(a) 


1 




n 




^ ^^ % 


J_^ 






Ozina3, . . , 








» 


16 


8(?+7,la) 


23(?4-7) 


3 (?-l) 


5 


4 (2d) 


1(d) 


1 


12(2) 




Actumninse, . 








• 


1 


1 


2 
















Eriphinte, . , 








• 


17 ■ 


5 (4 a) 


18 


1 


1(c) 




1 


^^ 


2 




4. PORTUMDiE, . , 








» 


36 


32 


52 


8 


10 


2 


13 


3 


21 




Lupin 86, . , 








M 


35 


31 (15 a) 


51 


6 (3 a.h) 


1(c) 




1(6) 


1(6) 


6(3) 




ArenteiDae, , 








■ 


1 


1(a) 


1 


1(a) 










Ui) 




Portuninse, , 








• 




X / 




2(?+5) 


9 (2 c) 


2(1 c^) 


12(8c,c?,^,) 


2 (d,/) 


14 




5. t*LATyOJ(YCIIIJ>^, . 




I * 




1 


1 (?-l) 


2(?-l) 


1 

1 


2 


4 


2(2 6, d) ; 


1(6) 


7(1) 




6. PODOPHTHALMID^, . 






. 


2 


1(a) 


2 


1 
1 














III. GRAPSOIDEA, . 


1 
1 1 


72 


88 


131 


21 


14 


27 


10 ' 


9 


63(8) 




1. GONOPLACID.^, . . . , 


k 


1 


4 (la) 


4 


1 


2(lc) 




1(d) 


1 


3 




2. Macrophthalmid;fi, , 




B 


28 


28 


48 


4 


1 
1 


4 


1 


1 

1 


10 




Macrophthalminse, 


1 


1 


9 


10 (2 a) 


17 


1 
1 


1 




-■ ^ 4^ V 


1 


_j ^^ 




Ocypodiuse, . , , 


r 


1 


18 


17 (5 a) 

la) 
44 


30 


4(2 b) 




6 


.1(6) 


1(6) 


10 




Dotince, , , 


f 1 


r 1 




k 


1 


1 


1 














3. Grapsib.^' . . 


t 1 


L ri 




V 

^ 


28 


60 


12 


10 


10 i 


4 


2 


30 




3 

Grap^inae, 


* 








10 


23 (6 a) 


27 


7(6a.6' 


8 (2 a, h) 


4 (1 a) 


3(16) 


2 


20 




Sfsarminae, , 


■ t 


1 




« 


13 


17 (4 a) 
4 (2 a) 


26 


3(2 6)- 




4(16) 


1(6) 




6 




Plagusinte, 




t 




■ 


5 


7 


2 (2 a) 


2 (2 a) 


3(1 a) 






4 


1 
1 



\ 



m 



I 






\ 



I 



i« 












--!'» 





• \ 



m^. 



. 1 




L . . 

< > ; 



M 



y 




^ 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA 



1497 



4. Gecarcinid^, . 

Ucainse, . . 

Gecarcininse, 
6. PinnotheridjE, 

Pinnotherinas, 

Hymenicinge, 
6. Mtctirid^, . . 



IV. LEUOOSOIDEA, 

1. Calappid^, . 

Calappinse, 

Orithyinge, 

2. MatutiDvE, . 

3. Leucosid^, . 

4. DORIPPID^j . 



v. OORYSTOIDEAj 

1. TRICHOCERIDiE, . . 

2. Thiid^, 

3. CORYSTIDiE, .... 






RECAPITULATIO N— Continued. 



'2 

EH 



■ 

o 



i 

* 



u 

o 

H 

o 



o 



o 

eg 



9 

7 
2 

5 
4 
2 
1 

35 
8 

7 
1 
4 
19 
4 

2 

1 

1 



6 

5 (4 a) 
1(?) 

5 

3(1 a) 

1(a) 

1(a) 

33 
10 

10 (7 a) 

4 (3 a) 
15 (3 a 
4(4a: 

3(?+l) 
l(?c) 
2 
1 



10 
8 
2 
8 
6 
2 
1 

48 

11 

10 

1 

5 

28 

4 



a 

• 



O) 



e3 

M 

P4 

a 

EH 



O) 



Pi 

a 






Pi 

a 



5 

1 (? +1) 
2 



4 

4(1&) 



11 

3 (la) 

3 (la) 

1 
3 

4 (3 a) 

2 



2 
2 



8 
1 

1(c) 



2 



5 

2(lc) 

4 

1 
3 



2 

2 
9 
4 
5 
1 

5 
1 
1 

1 

3(la) 



o 



I 

■ 

?3) 



03 



u 
P< 

a 

H 
o 



e8 



O 
H 



* 

a 
o 
t4 



4 

4(4c,(i) 



2 



2 



5 
3(1 d) 

2(le) 



\ 



2(1/) 



6 



6 
1 



1 2 

5(2c,d)l5(3(2,/) 13 



2 

2 

17 

11 

6 

1 



24.(5) 
4 
4 

2 

13 

5 

16 
1 
2 






SUMMARY. 



r0 



Maioidea, . 

Cancroidea, 

Grapsoidea, 

Leucosoidea, 

Corystoidea, 



.'2 
-2 



IS 

*S - 



82 

157 
72 
35 

2 



57 

112 

88 

33 

3 



P4 

a 

o 

H 



o3 



348 



296 



122 

229 
131 

48 
5 





ei- 


* 


t4 


o 


o 


ft 


Pi 

a 


4) 


s 


a 




s 


;3 


H 


CQ 



•^ 



•a 



535 



35 

22 

21 

11 

2 



91 



27 

25 

14 

8 

4 



p. 

a 

o 



21 
23 

27 
5 
2 



16 

25 

10 

3 

6 



78 



78 



60 






ffi 




ts 




H 




« 


« 


p« 


'S 


a 


'pa 


a> 


M 


H 


Cm 

• 


tffH • 



El 



We here notice a few of the general facts or conclusions that may 
be deduced from the preceding tables. 

I. The line of division, separating the Torrid and Temperate zones 
of ocean temperature, following the isocryme of 68° or the outer limit 
of coral reef seas, marks a grand boundary in organic life, well exem- 



/ 



plified in Crustacean species 



Out of the five hundred and thirty-fo 



species 



of 



Torrid and Subtorrid Regions (the Torrid zone), there 



hundred 



known to be common to the two. But of the 



two hundred and fifty-four in the Temperate Regions, only thirty-four 
occur in the Torrid zone. A large number of genera, containing more 
than a single known species, are confined wholly to the Torrid zone : 

375 





1*1 



'■ : ' 



■ 
i 

ri 



iHiM h| 








\ 



4 




^ 







-?<v;s^*^. 




Hi 



^^ ^ X n — *_ / 



I r 






I 



* 



i 



I" 



r 

i 



/ 



1498 



CRUSTACEA. 



such are Micippa (5 species), Mensethius (9), Huenia (4), Parthenopc 
(3), Atergatis (17), Carpilius (13), all the Chlorodinse, including forty 
nine species, nearly all the Eriphinas, including eighteen species, Cha 



At the same time, the species of the Torrid and Sub- 
many cases^ equally numerous. Of species of 

of the Car- 

d but five from the 



rybdis (15) 

torrid Regi 

Charybdis, eleven species occur in each of these reg 

r 

pilii, eleven 



are reported from the Subtorrid ai 
Torrid : of the Mensethii, five are found in the Torrid Eegion, and 



in the Subtorrid, only two being common to both. These proportions 
may be much varied by future investigations. Still it cannot fail to 
be evident from a survey of the table, that the line between the 
Torrid and Temperate zones is a natural zoological limit. A further 
examination of the other subdivisions, will show, we believe, that all 

of them are important. 

II. The Torrid species of Brachyura (Torrid and Subtorrid Regions) 
greatly preponderate over those of the Temperate zone, the proportion 
being above two to one. This fact is the subject of remarks by 
Edwards, but with difierent conclusions from those which we would 

deduce. 

III. The Frigid zone, as far as known, includes one species peculiar 
to it, the Ghionoecetes opilio. And Stenorliynclius phalangium, Eyas 



Per 



araneus, Portunus pusillus, Carcinus moenas, and Cancer pagurus 
all that are known to extend into it from the Temperate zone, 
haps the Cancer cTiirogonus from Kamtschatka (Tehnessus chirogonus 
of White) should be added. This may be in part e 



little 



ploration hitherto made in the Frigid Se 



Yet 



of the 
the 



investigations of Beechey, Fabricius, Kroyer, Rathke, and others, we 
may be assured that the number of species is exceedingly small. 

lY. Within the Temperate zone, the species are most numerous in 
the Warm Temperate, Temperate, and Subtemperate Regions; beyond 



this, the number diminishes, being a quarter 



the Cold Tempe 



rate than in the Subtemperate, and half less in the Subfrigid. More- 
over, in the last-mentioned region, seventeen out of the thirty-seven 
species, or nearly one-half, occur in w^armer temperate latitudes, only 
twentv species being confined to the Region. 



V. In the Torrid zone, the species of the torrid region, amounting 



to three hundred and forty-eight, exceed in 



umber those of the 



Subtorrid by only forty-two, although the Subtorrid 



■d 




both as to surface and extent of coast line 



1 



-4 



^ 






1 










'^-- 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1499 



\ 



VI 



Passing now from these general considerations respecting the 



Brachyura as a class to the several orders, we may look at their 



among 



these orders and their subdivisions, for the several 



order to discover what is the relation of the species to^ temperature 



and whether the cold or warm water species 



the higher or lower 



.„ grade, or whether the torrid or temperate zone can claim species of 
the highest perfection or magnitude among the Brachy-- 



The following table g 



the 



which the number of species 



of the several orders in the Temperate and Frigid zones, bears to that 



of the Torrid zone. 



1. Maioidea, . 

2. Cancroidea, 

J 

3. G-rapsoidea, 

4. Leucosoidea, 

5. Corystoidea, 



1 :l-3 
1 : 3-3 
1 :21 
1 : 2 
1 :0-3 



y 




A 



i 



H 



i 



l» 



t 





i 



!1; 



I PV 




in 




V* 



W 



\ 



k 





M 




It hence appears 



that the Maioidea and Corystoidea are propor 



tionally much more abundant in the colder seas than the Cancroidea^ 

Grapsoidea, or Leucosoidea. 

If we examine into the subdivisions of the Maioidea and C"— 



dea we shall find the differences between the two groups in distri 



bution 



;ly brought 



We shall find, moreover, that 



both groups may be divided into a warm-water and cold 



below 



I. MAIOIDEA. 



mi 




itf 



I 



i 



1, TEMPERATE ZONE SECTION 



\ 



1. Ixiachidse; 



Torrid 


Temperate 


species. 


species. 


1 


10 



2. Maiidge, subfamilies Libininss, Maiinse, Pisinse, Otho 



mnse 



3. Eurypodidaej 

4. Leptopodidae 



15 

1 



35 

7 

8 



17 



60 



t 







' i 



I 




y 



V 




\\ \ 



m 



\ ' '■ 





I..-I - . ^ . . 



«:. 




1500 



CRUSTACEA. 



2. TORRID ZONE SECTION. 



1. Maiidae, subfamilies Micippince^ Ghorinin<By Pyrincej 

2. Mithracidae, . . 

3. Tychidse, • • . . . 

4. Periceridse, . . - • 

5. Parthenopinea; . . ^ . 

6. Oncininea, • • . . . 



Torrid 

16 

11 

4 

43 

28 
2 



Temperate 

3 

6 



14 

8 




IV 



104 



31 



■■\ 



»] 



II. CANCROIDEA. 



1. TEMPERATE ZONE SECTION. 



Cancridae, 

PlatyonychidaS; 

Portunidae, subfamily Portuninasj 

Cyclinea; . . * 



2. TORRID ZONE SECTION, 



■^ 



Xanthidae, 

Eriphidae, . . . 

Portunidae, excluding the Portuninoey 

Podopbthalmidae, . , 



Torrid. Temperate, 





2 





2 



Torrid 
129 

44 

52 
2 



227 



11 

7 

15 
1 



34 



Temperate 

16 
12 

7 




35 



I 

i 



"We have here two singular facts brought out. 

First, that the cold-water section of the Cancroidea embraces those 
species that approach most nearly to the Corystoidea;, and which we 
have elsewhere shown to be the l<ywest in grade of the Cancrinea. 
All have the lax character of the outer maxillipeds, which is a mark 
of degradation in the Corystoids; and the Cyclinea are still nearer 
that group. Many of the species moreover have the 



hind legs 



a 



of degradation. 



swimming pair, another mark 

before shown, are two-thirds cold-water species 



The Corystoidea, as 



Second, that the cold-water section of the Maioidea contains the 



"t 



^ 






I 



- 1 





- i 







UpSr- 







^x . I . 




J 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1501 



species 



that 



highest in grade, and larg 



It is headed by 



the Macrocheira of Northern Japan, the king of all crabs, whose body 



IS 



inches Ion 



and 



foot broad, or, with extended 

le 



sometimes covers a breadth of eleven feet, and whose 
arms are four feet long I* The species of the other genera are mostly 
among the larger of the Maioids, and have no mark of mferionty. 
Such are the species of Maia, Pisa, Lihanii, Eurypodius, etc. 

But among the species of the warmer section, we find the Oncininea 
and Parthenopinea, both manifestly inferior in grade, the former 
approaching even the Anomoura, and the latter forming the passa 
of the Maioids to the Cancroids, as has been explained. We observe 
also the Periceridse and Tychida?, all very small species, excepting a 
few Pericerse : the Mensethii, Tiarinias, and Acanthonyces, are examples 

of the group, 
attaining a large size 



\ 




In addition, there are the Mithracid^, which although 

show their inferiority in their shorter epistome, 



shorter body, which is sometimes even 



and their spoon 



shaped fingers 



In the last character, the Chlorodinge among 



the 



Cancroids, similarly show their inferiority to the Xanthidae 



That 



this kind of finger is such 



mark of inferiority is apparent from 



diminishing in many species as the adult size of the animal is attained, 
the tendency being towards producing the acuminated finger found in 

the highest grades. 

hence sustained in the conclusion that the Maioids of the 



We 



Temperate zone are generally those that are highest in grade 



It 



shows the congeniality of cold waters to the Maioids, that the 



only Br achy 



peculiar to the Frigid 



of this group 



We 



refer to the Chionoecetes opilio 



( 



VII. The Brachy 



therefore, although most numerous m 



Torrid zone, do not reach in this zone their highest perfect 



the 
On 



the contrary, the Temperate zone or 



colder w aters are the habitat of 



the highest species 



Hence 



the Maioidea stand first among all 



Crustacea, the highest development of the class Crustacea takes place, 
not in the Torrid zone, the most profuse in life, but beyond the 



■h 



tropics and coral-reef seas, in the middle Temperate Reg 



VIII. The prevalen 



of the inferior Corystoids in the colder 



does not invalidate this conclusion, as the fact respecting the 



Maioids is wholly an independent 



for these last, by attaining 



* De Haan's Fauna Japon., Crust, p. 101. 

376 




\ 



t* 







14 



I 



1 




« 



t It 





* 




A \m\'4 




\ 








I \ 



J : 




w 



m # 



l!|l- 



f 



I 



■m 



\ 







m 




ife-^KU 





'- - '4< - 






1502 



CRUSTACEA. 



[ 



\ 



f 



ciple 
grades 



highest perfection in these coldest waters, determine the prin- 
as regards themselves, the hiahest grade of Crustacea. Lower 



the colder waters, and the 



governing their 



distribution demand separate study and consideration 



IX. Passing a step below the Maioids 



come to the Cancroids 



and th 



with the 



exception of the lower Cor jstoid species, and 

only one-eighth of the rest, are Torrid zone species. 

X. If the Torrid zone is the proper region for the full development 
of the Cancroid type, and its heat is needed for this end, it is natural 
that species of Cancroids like the PortunincB, Platyonychidce, and Can- 
didce, found in the less genial waters of the Temperate zone, should 
bear some mark of inferiority, and it is a fact that they have such 



marks in th 



This inferiority is not seen in their smaller 



for a larger size, under certain conditions, may equally 



a 



lower grade, but in the inferior concentration of the life-system, 
exhibited either in the lax outer maxillipeds, the elongation of the 

> 

antennae and abdomen^ or in the smaller size or swimming character 
of the posterior legs. 

For a like reason also, the species of Corystoidea, a grade still lower, 
naturally occur in the cold and ungenial region they frequent. 

We hence perceive, that the degradation among the Maioids takes 
place when the species become warm-water species, and the degrada- 



among the Cancroids 



the 



manner, when the species 



become cold 



species; for the reason that the colder 



and the warmer for the Can 



the proper habitat for the Maioid type, 

croid type. n 

XI. In the tables of the Maioidea and Cancroidea of the Temperate 
and Torrid zones, page 1499, the species are included by families 
and subfamilies, and consequently the peculiarities of some genera are 
not shown. In the families or subfamilies referred to the cold-water 



genu 



Doclea, of the sub 



four Torrid and 



Temp 



section, there is only one warm- 
family Lihinince, in which there 

zone species. 

Among those referred to the warm-water section, there are the 

following cold-water genera : 



Parthenopinea, genus Eurynome, 



Species in 
Torrid zone 

. 



Species in 
Temperate zone. 

2 



a 



Xanthidse, 
Ozin9S, 



a 



a 



Eurynolaiubrus, 

Paraxauthus^ 

Ozius, 






2 



1 
2 
3 



r 



II 



». 



ou. 




•SS" 










\ 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1503 



t 



\ 



H 






The species of Cancrinea of the Torrid zone section, which reach 
farthest into the Temperate zone, are those of the following g 
Xantho, which has eight Temperate zone species out of twentj-eight 
in all- Panopeus, which in the same way has four out of ten; Pdumnus 



which has seven out of twenty 



and Lupa, which has four out 



of ten. The Cold Temperate Region is the highest for each of these 
genera', excepting Lupa and Pilumnus, a species of each of these latter 



& 



extending just within the limits of the Subfrigid Re 



the coast of Massachusetts 



XII. The Grapsoidea, if divided between the Torrid zone and Tern- 
according to families or subfamilies, will fall within the 



perate 



Torrid zone, excepting a single family of the Pinnotheridge 



which 



ht species in the Torrid zone and fifteen in the Temperate 



Considering the genera, however, we find th 



al among the 



Grapsidse may be called cold-water gem 
divided between the Torrid and Temperate 



or are about equally 
. They are as follows : 



Pseudograpsus, 

Heterograpsus, 

Brachynotus, 

Planes, 
Hemigrapsus, 

Cyrtograpsus, 
Chasmagnathus, 



Torrid 
species. 

1 




2 
4 


2 



Temperate 
species.. 

2 
1 
1 

2 
5 
1 

2 



Five out of twelve species of Grap 



also reach into the colder 



seas. 



Further particulars will be gathered from the tables 



XIII. The Leucosoids include as cold-water genera the follow 



Genus Ebalia, 



u 



Ilia, 



Torrid, 






Temperate 

8 
1 



The remaining genera are mainly confined to the Torrid 



out 



r 



of the species they contain, sixty 



all, forty-eight are of this 



zone. 



Hepatus, however, contains as many cold 



species, and the same is true of Doripp 



although but one of the 



species of the latter is exclusively Temperate. 

XIV. The tropics afford not only a larger number of species of 



\ 



\ 



Brachyura th 



the Temperate zone, but also a much greater propor 



i 





I 



I I 






at 



It 




^ 






I 




; 





f 




L 



i 




\i 



^ft9% 





jr 




if I 






i 



X 

^ 



I 



i« 



r 




! fi i 



. Ml 



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I 




t 



■'; 



ii 



1504 



CRUSTACEA. 



tion of individuals of the several species. Crustacean life, of this 
tribe, is far the most prolific in the warm waters of the globe. Crus- 
tacea are very abundant about coral islands, far exceeding what may 
be found in other regions. 

XV. The actual mass of Brachyura appears also to be the largest 
in the tropics, although there are genera, as Macrocheira and Cancer, 
which have their largest species in the colder waters, and which 



exceed in size any other Brachy 



The genera Atergatis, Carpilius 



Xantho, Menippe, Zozymus, Eriphia, Thalamita, Charybdis, Calappa, 
besides others of the Torrid zone, contain many large species, which 
are of very common occurrence; while the cold-water genera of Maioids 
appear to be much less prolific in species, and the other genera, 
though abounding in individuals, as Cancer and Lupa, are still but 



few in number. Any very 



comparison, however, of the two 



this particular cannot be made without more data than have 



yet been collected 




V. 



\h\ 



I 




■' 



m 



Ml^ 



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I 



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.i>. 



i 



i 

} 



y 




t 



I 



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■!»•." 



m* 




ti 



» 






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( 



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i 



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J" ^ 3 _ 





H ; 



*j 




GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1505 



TABLE II. 

ANOMOURA, MACROURA, AND ANOMOBRANCHIATA 



I. DROMIDEA. 

1. DROMIDiE. 

Dynomeiie, , . 

Dromia, . . . 

Latreiilia, . . 

liomola, . . . 

2. CYMOPOLID^. 

Cymopolia, . * 

Capbyraj . . . 



II. BELLIDEA. 

CorystoideSj . . 
Beliia, .... 



III. RANINIDEA. 

RaninoideSj . . . 
Kanina, . . . . 
Rauilia, . . . . 
Notopus, . . . . 
Lyreidus, .... 
Cosmonotus, . . 

IV. HIPPIDEA. 
Albuneea, .... 

Albunhippa, . . 
Remipes, . . . . 

Hippa, 



V. POROELLANIDEA. 

Porcellanaj . . . 

VI. LITHODEA. 

Lithode?, .... 
Lomis, ..... 
EchidnoceruSj . . 



1. 



2, 



VII. PAG-URIDEA. 
PAGURID^. 

1. Pagurin^. 
Paguristes, . . . 
Diogenes, .... 
Beruhardus, . . . 
Pagurus, .... 
Calcinus, .... 
Anicuius, .... 
Clibanarius, . . . 

2. Cancelling. 
Cancellus, , . . 

CENOBITID^. , 
Cenobitaj .... 
Birgus, 



VIII. ^G-LEIDEA. 
iEglea, ..'... 



IX. OALATHEIDEA. 
.^ Galathea, . . . 

Muuida, . . . 

Grimotbea, . . 

MEaALOPIDEA 
Marestia, . 
Monolepis, 

Megalopa, 
Cyllene, . 
Tribola, . 



1. ANOMOURA. 



o 



5 



1 
2 



1 
1 



1 



2 

5 

1 



17 



2 
2 

9 
6 
1 

16 



8 
1 



4 



2 
1 

1 
1 



rs 



o 



to 



1 

6 (3 a) 



1(a) 



1 

1(a) 



13 (3 a) 



l(?a) 
4 (la) 
3(?+3) 
7 {2 a) 
3 (3 a) 

1(«) 
7 (4 a) 



6 (5 a) 
1(«) 



1 



u 

o 

o a> 

c3 o 



1 

8 



1 

2 



1 
1 
1 



1 



5 
2 



27 



3 

5 

3(? +3) 
14 

6 

1 

19 

If 

9 
1 



5 



2 
1 

1 
1 



ft 

a 

H 



o 



Ol 



c3 

a 



a> 



en 
u 

a) 

ft 

a 



1 
1 
1 



2 (2 a, c) 

2 

2(lc) 

1 



JJl 



<t» 



2(1&) 



3 (2 a) 

1(a) 
2(6) 



5 (2 afi) 



1 
1 



1 

1 



2(2 a,c) 
2 , 



7(lc) 



1(c) 



ll(3cQ 



2(1&) 
1 



2 

2 (2 a) 

8 

6 (2 b, c) 



1 



1 



1 



1 



2? 



4 

8(lc0 



1 



2(lc) 



2 



1 



1 



ft 

a 



o 
O 



'3) 
S 



1(c) 



1(c) 



3 (2 c,d) 



1(c) 



2 
1 



7 (2 c) 
1? 



1(c) 



T(2/) 



6(36,^;/) 



1(e) 



3 (2 c,e) 

1 

1 



1 
2 



2(1/) 
1(/ 



Oi 



03 
U 

a> 

ft 

a 

H 

'S ■ 



377 



2 
3 
2 

1 



1 
1 



1 
1 



3 
2 
1 

2 



20 



7 
2 

1 



6 
2 

25 

7 



4 



2 



4 
2 
1 



2 
1 
2 
1 
1 



\ 






2(2^) 



4(le) 



/-^ 



« 




^ m 



I »Hll 



I 







ft 





j 



ii 



* I; 




} 



* ; I M<^^ 



V 



y^ 



\ 1 






' « 



^''1 







'' * 



X 



^««ift 









(/ ¥ 





SN,s;v?s: 




i 



HII 



t 



y 





H 






It 




^ n 



) 






I' 

I 



H 




it 



I f 



♦ 







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I 



& 



1606 



I. THAIiASSINIDEA. 
I. GEBID^. 
Gebia, . . 
Axius, . . 
Calocaris, , 
Laomedia, 
Glaucothoe, 

r 

II. CALLIANASSID^. 
Callianassa, . . , 
Trypsea, .... 



III. THALASSINIDJS. 

Thalassinai . . . 

IV. CALLISEID^. 

Callianideaj . . . 
Callisea, .... 



II. ASTACIDEA. 
I. SCYLLAKXD^. 

Scyllarus, . . . 
Arctus, .... 

Thenus, . . , 
Parribacus, . . 
Ibacus, .... 



II. PALINURID^. 

Palinurus, . . , 
Panulirus, , . . 

III. ASTACID^. 

1. ASTACINiE. 

Homarus, . . . . 

Astacus, &c. 

Freshwater. 

2. NEPHROPINiE. 

Nephrops, . . . . 
Paranephrops, . , 

III. OARIDEA. 
I. CRANGUNID^. 

1. CrANGONINjB. 

Crangon, . . . , 

■ Sabinea, . . . , 

Argis, . . . . , 

ParacrangoD, . , 

2. Ltsmatin^. 

Nika, .... 
Lysmata, . . . 
Cyclorhynchus, 

3. Gnathophtllin^. 

Gnathophyllum, , 

II. ATYID^. 

1. Attin^. 

Atya, 

Atyoida, . . . . 
Caridina, . , . , 

2, EPHTRINiE. 

Ephyra, . . . , 



1 



3, 



III. PAI/^MONID^. 

Alphein^. 

Alpheus, .... 

Betaeus, .... 

Alope, 

Athanaa, .... 

Hippolyte, . . . 

Rhyncocinetesj . . 
PandalinjE. 

Pandalus, . , . 

PAIi^MONINjB, 

Pontonia, . . . 
(Edipus, . 
Harpilius, 

AncbiBtia, 



. *» 



1? 



2 



1 
1 



1 
1 

2 
1? 



1 
8 



4 



14 
1 



5 






3 
3 
1 
3 



CRUSTACEA. 



2. MACROURA. 







f 




•a 


'u 


- 




u 
o 


id. 


1 

■ 




h 




■ 


. To] 





m O 


e 


rCl 


H 



1 



\ 



6 (la) 



1(a) 



1 

8 (4a) 



2 



2 
1 
1 



17 



4(2a) 



1 



1? 



1 



2 



1 
1 



5 

1 

2 

2 



2 
12 



2 



6 
1 
1 



31 
1 



r 



4 
3 
1 
3 



P4 

a 

E-t 

a 



2 



o 



c3 

u 

a 



1 



1? 



1 



1(6) 

1(a) 



2 



ir6) 

1(c) 



1 



1? 

1? 

1 



3(16) 



1? 
1 



1 



1 



5(?3) 



2 
1 



1(c) 



1 

2 



4(2 6) 



1 

3(lc) 



1(?+1) 
1 



t 

Pi 

a 

03 



■I 

CQ 



2(lc) 



1 

1 



1 



2 

1? 



1 



2 



1 



1 
3 

!(?/) 

6 
1 



P4 

a 

H 



o 



2 
1 



1(e) 



1(^) 



'3 



1 
1 



1 



2 (Id) 



2 



7(3e) 



!(/) 



a 

H 

O O 

Co o 

o « 



7 
1 
1 

1? 



5 
1 



1 



1 
1 
1 



3 

1? 



4 (2 c,/) 



3 



2 
2 



1 



2(1^ 



1(e) 



1(^ 
6(1 c) 



1 



2 



12 



3 
2 
1 

1 



1 

2 



7 
4 
1 

1 

18 

1 



•2 

'S 



■f 



^ 



3(?-M) 



3(1^) 
1 






19 



2(li7) 



'■f- 




- > 










■^1 






"Sm 



J 




^y. 



\A 



\ 



\ 



\ 
: V 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



Palsemonella, . . . 

Palasmoa, 

Hymenocera, . . . 
Cryphiops, . . . . 
4. Ophlophorin^. 

Oplophorus, . . . . 
Kegulus, 

IV. PASIPH^IDiE. 
Pasiphsea, 

IV. PEN^ffilDEA. 

I. PEN^ID^. 

Sicyonia, 

Penseus, 

Stenopus, 

Spongicola, . . . . 

II. SERGESTID.^. 

Sergestes, 

Acetes, 

? Euphema, . . . , 

III. EUCOPID^. 
Eucopia, 



I. SQUILLOIDEA 
I. SQUILLIDiE. 

Lyslosquilla. . . 

Squilla, . . . . 

Pseudosquilla, . , 

Coronis, . . . . 

Gonodactylus, . . 

II. ERICHTHID^. 

SquiUerichthtiSj . 

Erich thus, . . . 
Alima, 



II. MYSIDEA. 

I. EUPHAUSID^. 

Thysanopodaj . 

Euphausia, . . 

Cyrtopiaj . . . 



II. MYSID^. 

1. Cynthin^. 

Cynthia, . . . . 

2. Mysin^. 

Mysis, 

Promy&is, . . . . 

Macromysis, . . . 

Siriella, . . . . 

Loxopis, . . . . 

3. SCELETININ^. 

Sceletina, . . . . 

Rachitia, . . . . 
Myto. 

III. LUCIEERID^. 

Lucifer, . . . . 



M A C R U K A— Continued. 



rS 



o 



2 

14 
1 



* 

I 



I 

■§ 

OQ 

* 



20 (2 a) 



1 

2 



8 



u 
o 

o « 

03 o 



2 

32 
1 



B 

* 



O) 



CD 

a 

EH 



1 

2 




1 



1 



5 



1 



3 



6 (3c) 



O) 



c3 
u 

P4 

a 

0) 



f 



7(2&,c> 
1 






'2 

•1-4 

I 

OQ 

» 



6(2c,e) 



1 



2 
4 



1 



iw 



1? 



1 



1 



III. AMPHIONIDEA. 
AMPHIONID^. 
Phyllopoma, . . . 
Amphion, .... 



3. ANOMOBRANCHIATA. 



o 

H 



3 
6 
1 

1 
2 



2 
8 
6 



1 

3 

2 



3 
1 

3 



3 



15 
1? 



Eh 

-2 

t 



3(2a 
8 (3a 
1(a)' 

5 (la) 



4 



1 



1 



1 



1 



.'2 

o 
H 



o 

EH 



4 

11 

1 

1 

6 



2 

12 

6 



1 
3 

2 



1 
1 
3 
1 

3 
1 



4 



16 
1 



■ 



o 



o 



o3 

Fh 

CD 

ft 

a 

at 



1(a) 
5(16) 



2(2a,&) 



ft 

a 






ft 

a 



5(2&,c) 2(2a,&) 
1 2(1 d) 



1(a) 



2 



2 



1 



o 



2{2hyd) 



3 

i 



1? 



1 



3 
1 



2 



1 



2(1/) 
2 



ft 

a . 

03 






18 
1 



1 



2 



2 
9 



1 

1 



t 

o 
ft 

^ a 



1 

10 
2 
1 

3 



1 



3 
1 



2 

7 



2 



2 



1507 



'2 

*bb 



PR 

« 



1 



1 



1 






2 




t 



M itA 



^^•i 



M< 



« 



f* 







I 



' 1 



flM 



i! 




^! 



II i 

if t4 



1 



JPf 




It 



I 



1 



iiifii 



S 




■x 






^ 

-. 






«ift« 9 



I 



4«» 



1 ■ 



■1 





.^* 



iirm 







*^' 




,1 



* »* 



> 



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y 




1508 



CRUSTACEA. 



r 



!■■ 



H 



i 



M 



( 



I 



^ 



U 



Fi It 





« 







,lt 



-n 




ir 



J^ 






s 

EH 



ANOMOURA, 
Dromidea, . . 

Dromidae, . 

Cy mop ol idee, 
Bellibea, . . . 
Rantnidea, . . 

HiPPIDEA, . . . 
PORCELLANIDEA, 

LiTflOBEA, . . 
PAaURIDEA, . . 

Paguridse, 
Cenobitidce, 

^GLEIDEA, . . 

Galatheidea, . 
Megalopidea, . 

MAOROURA, 

THALASSINIDEA, 

Gebid®, . . . 

Callianassidse, . 

Thalassinidge, . 

Calliseidse, . . 

ASTACIDEA, 

Scyllaridse, . . 
Paliuuridse, . . 
Astacidae (Marine), 



CAKIDEA, 

CRANGONID.E, 

Crangonin^, 
Lysmatinse, 
Gnathophyllinte, 
Atyid^, . . . 
Atyinae, 
Ephyrinas, 

PAL^MONIDjE, , 

Alpheinge, 
Pandalin^e, 
Palgemouinae, 
Ophlophorinsej 

PASIPHiEIDiE, . . 

PEN^IDEA, 

PEN^IDiE, .... 

Sergestid^, . . . 

EUCOPID^, . . . 



ANOMOBRANCHIATA, 
SQUILLOIDEA, 



90 
8 
5 
3 

3 

8 
17 

45 

36 
9 

4 
6 

84 
5 
1? 



2 



14 
5 
9 



54 



4 
4 

51 
20 

27 
3 



Erichthid^, 



MYSIDEA, 

EUPHAUSID^j . 
MTSID.'E, . . . 

Cy I) thin 38, 
Mysinae, . 
Sceletininas, 

LUOIFERID^, 

AMPHIONIB^, 



11 

10 

1 



4. KECAPITULATION. 



o 






u 

O 

E-t 
o 



o 



a 

o 



59 (25 a) 
7 (3 a) 
7(3a) 



P4 

B 

o 
H 

* 



I 



O 



ft 

at 



* 



2 (la) 
3(la~ 
13 (3 a 

33 (17 a) 

26 (11 a) 

7 (6 a) 

1 



77 (14 a) 

1 

1 



16 (6 a) 
7 (2 a) 
9 (4 a) 



48 (4 a) 
2 

2 

4 

4 

42 (4 a) 
21 (2 a) 

21 (2 a) 



125 
12 
9 
3 

4 

10 

27 

62 
52 
10 

5 
5 

147 
6 
1? 
1 
2 
2 

24 

10 
14 



20 (7 a';b) 

3 X 
3 



6 (4 a,h) 
5l2a,b) 

3(16" 
3(16: 



43 (11 a-c) 
7 (3 a-c) 
6 (3 a-c) 

2 

4 (2 a-c) 

7(lc) 

21 (4 a-c) 
21 (4 a-c) 



34 (8 b-d) 



2(16) 
2(16) 



1 
2 

23 (2 afi) 
4 
3 
1 



2(lc) 



1(c) 
11 (3 d) 
1 

13 (3 6,Cj(f) 
13(S6.c,d) 



98 
2 

2 

8 
8 

89 
39 

46 
3 



40 (8 6,c) 
3 
1 
2 



3 (2 a, 6) 
3 (2 a, 6) 



2 
1 
2 

35 (4 6,c) 
5(lc) 
2(lc) 
2 
1 



13(?+3) 
3(?+3) 

2? 
1 



62 
30 
13 
17 

17 
6 

8 

5 

3 
3 

15(?+1)| 



12 (4 a 
12 (4 a 



26 (7 a) 

22 (7 a) 

18 (7 a) 
4 

3 



1 
1 
1 
1 



19 

18 

1 



82 
45 
24 
21 

20 

6 

10 

6 

4 

4 

17 



13 (1 6" 
5(16' 
1? ■ 
6 
1 



4 (2 6,c' 
2 (2 h,c 
1 
1 

28 (5 6,c) 
8(?) 
5(?3) 
3 

3 
1 

2 
16(56,c' 
8 (2 6.C 
1(?+1)' 
7 (3c) 



3 

3 

24 (3 6,c) 
4(lc) 

2 

1(c) 



20 (2 6,c 
12 



3 
3 



9 

8 
8 



'4 a,6) 
:^ a,6) 



1 

1 

1 



5 
4 
1 



10 (3 a-c 

6 (3 a-c 
6 (3 a-c) 



2 
2 



6 (2 6,d) 

4 (2 6,c^- 

5 (3 6,rf 



1 



a 

a* 



o 






CD 



25 (8 c 
1(c) 
1(c) 



-e) 



c5> 



P4 

a 

H 

o 



O 



pa 

o 



1(C) 

3 (2 c, d) 
3(lc) 
9(3e) 
9(3e) 



19 (10 c-f) 



6 (2 c,e) 
3 

36 (12 d-e) 
4(le) 
3 
1(e) 




4(3/) 



18 (3 e/) 

3 
2 
1 



5(2(r) 

1((Q 

4(1 d) 



!(/) 



1(/) 



24 (10 c,«) 14 (2 e,/) 



9(4e) 
7(3e 

2(1^: 



5 (2 €,/) 
5 (2 e,/) 



14 (4 c,e) 
8 (3 c~e) 

6 (2 c,e) 

iW 

3 (? +1) 

3 
1? 



8 
5 
2 
1 

1 



14 
3 
4 
7 

84 

21 

14 

6 

1 

3 

1 

2 

68 

33 

3 

21 

1 

2 



110 (15) 
8 

7 
1 
2 
2 

8 
20 
10 
44 
44 

2 

7 

7 

126 (16) 
17 
10 
6 

1 



"5) 



6 (3 e-5f ) 



2(2/,^) 
4(1.) 



'r 



29(2^) 



28 (2 g) 
5 (1 9\ 
5 (1^7 



(?1) 



4 (2 6,fQ 
2 (2 6,c?) 
2 (2 h,d) 



2 
2 



2 



10 (1/) 
1(?+1) 

1? 

1 

9(1/) 
4 

5(1/) 
4(1/) 



n 

9 

2(?) 



33 (9 a,6) 

16(9" 

16(9 

15 

4 

11 

9 



22(1^) 

19 

2(1^) 
1 



1 



1 



2 
2 



2 



The following deductions may be drawn from the preceding tables 



h 



\ 



-i 




ns; 




-■* 




v- - - -' 





j.^1 





^Hm 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA 



1509 




I. ANOMOURA. 



XVI 



The Anomoura are 



torrid and temperate 5 
than cold-water species 



nearly equally divided between the 
es, there being hardly one-tenth more torrid 
Only fifteen species out of two hundred and 



/ 



twenty-five are common to the torrid and temperate 



Yet 



seen from the table, that if 




the Galatheidea 



\ 



\ 



Lithodea, and part of the Paguridea, the species hardly extend beyond 



the warmer half of the temperate zone. 



There are but six known 



frigid species, and these are of the two last-mentioned groups 



\'^ 



XVII. The torrid 



and temperate zone 



of the Ano 



mour 



follows ; the frigid zone species being here added to the 



temperate. 



/ 



1. TEMPERATE ZONE SECTION. 




V 



(f 



m 



I 



1 



\. 



DromidaS; Gr. LatreilUa^ 

Homola^ 

Bellidea^ 

Raninidea; Gr. Notopus^ 

Lyreidus^ 

Hippidea, Gr. Alhunhippaj 

Lithodea^ 

Porcellanidea^ 

Paguridse; Gr. Paguristes^ 

BernharduSy 

^gleidea, 

Galatheidea^ Gr. Muniday . 

Grimotheay 
Galatheay 



Torrid zone 










27 
3 

3 






5 



Temperate zone. 

3 

2 

2 

1 

1 

2 

10 
20 

6 




J 



% 



\ i 




¥m 



29 



1 torrid and 
4 frigid. 




2 
2 
1 
4 




2. TORRID ZONE SECTION. 



Torrid zone. Temperate zone. 



Dromidse; Gr. Dynomene, 

Dromia, 

CymopolidaB, Gr. Cymopolia, 

Capliyra, 



1 

8 
1 

2 



378 



V 






2 (1 torrid); 

1 





V 



\ 



(PHI 



I 
i 



i 




■M 



ff 



n 



1? 





, K 




A 



k * 





■*i > -V 



•>: 





i 




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:i 



I 

n 



i 



i 



*, 



n 



r I 



1510 



CRUSTACEA. 



'x 



Raninidea; Gr. Raninoides^ 

Raimia, 
Raniliay 
CosmionotuSy 

Hippidea^ Gr. Albuncea^ 

RemipeSy 

PaguridsB; Gr. Diogenes^ 

PaguruSy 

CalcinuSy 
Aniculus^ 



U 



•I 1 



Cenobitidae, 



ClihanariuSj 

CanctlluSy 



Torrid zone 



1 



1 

1 
1 

3 
5 
2 
5 

14 
6 
1 

19 



1? 



10 



Temperate zone. 

r 






3 (2 torrid) 

1 (1 torrid) 

2 (1 torrid) 
2 (2 torrid) 
7 (1 torrid) 




4 

0? 
1 



I 



II 






<!«• K 



m 




i 



\n 



Ml 



% 



I Wi 






U 



V 



'I 



\ 



u 




I 




"> 



-mm^^ 



1 




The Dromidea and 



Paguridea have 



third to 



-fourth more 



torrid than cold-water species, 

The Raninidea and Hippidea are mainly tropical. The two extra- 
tropical species of Raninidea occur only in the warmer of the tempe- 
rate regions, and the species of Hippidea in the temperate zone (eight 
out of the whole number eighteen) have among them four that occur 

also in the tropics. 

The Lithodea belong to the coldest temperate regions, abounding 
especially in the subfrigid region. The Galatheidea are mainly of the 
temperate zone; there are five known torrid species, and seven tempe- 



the latter nertaininsf to the colder 



The 



R) 



has but two-thirds 



temperate as in the torrid 



many 



the 



Yet the subtemp 



but one less than the subtorrid, and some of the largest species of Ae 
genus occur here ; while, on the contrary, the torrid zone species are 
quite small. Although, therefore, Porcellana may rank as a torrid 



zone genus, if 



consider the relative number of species in the 



les, it is more properly a temperate zone genus. 

The Paguridea range through both the tropics and temperate zone. 



passing into the frigid 



BernTiardus is mainly a cold 



genus, while Pagurus, Calcinus, and Clibanarius are mostly torrid 
genera. Pagurus has seven out of twenty-one species in the tempe- 
rate zone. But it is in the torrid zone where the species of the largest 
size' occur; the extra-torrid species belong almost exclusively to the 



Med 



The species are 



dingly prolific in the trop 



far exceeding what occurs as regards any Paguridea in the temperate 
zone. 



i 



■V 



^ h ■ -r -^ -- £r 






-^u 






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tIA 



& 



i 



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I 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF, C RUST A C E A. 



1511 



XVIII. It was found in the Brachyura, that the highest species 
among the Maioids, and the highest of Crustacea occur in the extra- 
tropical regions ; and that as we descend to the Cancroids, th 



become mainly tropical; moreover 



we descend among the C 



croids (the type of which is tropical), there is in general a return to 



the less g 



colder waters, as 



plified in the true C 



Cancridae and the Corystoidea, these last 



being mainly cold 



species. 
Brachy 



By these steps we find the more degraded forms among the 



^ 



g 



in both the colder and warmer 



We 



therefore expect that the Anomoura, which are properly B 
chyura of a still lower grade, should be arranged according to rank 



r< 



preference to the other 



And it is a fact that the 



Latreillia, but 



of higher species occur about equally in the two zones, 
a single step below the Inachidse, is found in the warmer temperate 
regions; and Dromia, a little lower, has three-fourths of its species in 
the tropics. Homola, again, has been found only in the temperate zone. 
Among the Paguridea, the Bernhardi or cold-water species are pro- 
bably the superior in rank; and the Lithodea, which are a grade 
higher still, are from the neighbourhood of the frigid zone. 



r' 



The Hippidea, which h; 
des (page 54), but below 



been 



Corystoidea, are mos 



dered as in the Corystoid 



from warmer 



waters 



The most bulky forms 



among 



th 



Anomoura are found in the 
The common Ranina dentata 



genera Lithodes, Ranina, and Dromia. 

has a length of five inches in the Japan Seas, while in the warm East 

Indies (at the Moluccas) , as De Haan states, four inches is the greatest 

length. 



-^ 



II. MACROUKA. 




. The Macroura, according to the table, are nearly equally 
divided between the torrid and extra-torrid zones, the former including 
one hundred and forty-seven species, and the latter one hundred and 

fifty-three species. 

In the above table we have not included the fresh-water Astacidae, 



we are treating only of marine species 



Yet 



numbers betw 



the 



zones, these should be brought 



comparison of 
in. They are 



about thirty-six in number, and all, excepting perhaps one, belong 



I > 




! 




1 



II 



i4 




« 



1 



m 



• I 



i 1? 



\ 






4 





-* 
1 



- h 




'^ 

J 



m 



-i 



•'- . 



9 



-_k 






iHi^m* 



f 



>S^vS^ 




/ 




mi: 




# 



1512 



CRUSTACEA. 






i( 



m 



!M|M 



JfP 



^ 



\ 



the temperate zone. With this addition, the numbers become one 
hundred and forty-seven for the torrid zone, and one hundred and 
eighty-nine for the extra-torrid. Sixteen of the cold-water species are 
common to both the torrid and temperate zones, and twenty-nine occur 
in the frigid zone, twenty-seven being peculiar to this zone. This is 
strikingly in contrast with the Brachyura, of which two-thirds are 
torrid species, and only five or six are known to extend into the cold 
zone, of which but one is confined to it. 

XX. The Thalassinidea are mainly extra-torrid species. 

The Astacidea are divided between the warm and cold seas; the 
Palinuridse and Scyllaridge being mostly of the former, and the Asta- 
cidae almost exclusively of the latter. 

The Caridea spread largely over both zones ; but extensive groups 
are extra-torrid, and some genera contain many frigid species. 

The Penaeidea are mainly of the torrid zone. 

The exact ratios will be gathered from the preceding tables. 

XXI. The geographical relations of the subordinate groups are 
shown in the following table. 



r 



m k 

m 



►•** 




f 




ti 



\ 



.i 



\ % 



Mt 



m 



*f 



Mt 



." t 

1 




-i 



r 



\ h 







■J %/ 



\ - 




1. TEMPERATE AND FRIGID ZONE SECTION. 



Thalassinidea^ 
Astacidea, 



Astacidse, 

Scyllaridge, Gr. Arctus^ 
PalinuridaS; Gr. PalinuruSj 

Caridea. 

Crangonidse,. 

AtjidaS; Gr. Ejphyra^ . 
Palsemonidse. 

Alpheinse, Gr. BetseuSy 

Alopcy 

AthanaSy , 

Hippolytey , 
Pandalinse^ Gr. PaiidaluSj . 
Palsemoninse, G. GrypMopSy 
Pasiphaeidse, Gr. Pasiphcecty 
Penaeidea^ Gr. Eucopiay . 



species in tlie 
Torrid zone. 

6 



24 
1 

2 



2 




1 





8 









■. 



Species in the Tempe- 
rate and Frigid zones. 

17 

50 
46 

1 

3 



25 
2 



4 
1 
1 

37 (19 frigid). 
4 (2 frigid). 

1 

3 (1 frigid). 

1 (1 frigid). 



L ' 



- -1 



-tJ 












* 



1 1 1 



I 



(( 



f 



7 



) 



\ 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1613 



2- TORRID ZONE SECTION 



Species in the 
Torrid zone. 



Species in the Tempe- 
rate and Frigid zones. 



Astacidea. 



Scyllaridse, except Arctn^^ 
Palinuridse; G. PanuliruSy 



Caridea. 



/ 



Atyinse^ 
Palsemonidae. 

Alpheinse, G. AlpheuSy 
Palaemoninse; G. Ponioma^ 

(Edipusy 
HarpiliuSj 
Anchistia^ 
Palsenionella, 
Paleemony 

Hymenoceraj 



Oplophorinse, 



10 
12 



2 
1 



8 



1 



Penseidea, 



31 
4 
3 
1 

3 

2 

32 

1 

3 
19 



7 
2 





19 (1 frigid) 


1 

12 



XXII. Considering the Scyllaridge and Palinuridge as the Macroura 

highest in grade, this division of the Podophthalmia appears at first 

to have its superior developments in the troj 

questioned whether this is altogether true. 

two genera, one Palinurus, mainly a cold-water genus, the other Panw- 



But it may still be 
The Palinuridse include 



lirus. a warm-water or Torrid zone g 



and 



g 



the superior in rank, as should be the 



the Torrid 
if the trop 



the most congenial to the highest Macroural developments 



3 are 
Pali- 



nurus has the outer antennae nearly 



contact at base, and the 



flagella of the inner anter 
water genus, has the oute 
of the inner antenna3 very 



very short; PanuliruSj the warm- 
nse remote at base, and the flagella 
The genera are thus characterized 



by marks analogous to those that distinguish the higher and lower 
species among the Brachyura, or that exhibit the superiority of the 
Brachyura as a class over the Macro ura ; and if such evidence is here 
to be regarded, the cold-water genus, Palinurus, is the higher in rank. 
Moreover, the aspect of the Palinuri, the harder shell and more com- 
pact body, strike the eye at once as indicating their higher character. 
In size, they are not at all inferior ; they even exceed the Panuliri in 
bulk if not in length. Among the Palinuri, one species is afforded by 
the warm seas of the West Indies ; but it is not half the size lineally, 

379 






-J 



•\ ! 




m 



I ■ . 

: I 

I liif A^ 




If 



iiii 



V \ 



i 







i 




i 



U 

i; 

r f 



^j 



!#• 



I 







i 



m' 



i 



't"^ 



t^ 



^1; 
I- 



\ 



ii 




( 



\ \' 



1^ 



m 



I 



«•«• 



-. 



1 
1 
1 


'A 
■ 


i 


- 


^ 

t 


f 


1 

1 


- 




i 



-1 



if?** tf 

h 

t 
1^ 




i 



V. 



w 




<>; 



•*^>- 



•^s^^oot- 



I i! 



i illfl- 



t- 




i 



1 



m 



\ 



1514 



CRUSTACEA. 



r . 



4 



I L 






I t 



M I 



: i 



V 

r 



W 










I 



H 





I J 



jH fitt^ 






m 



s t 



R^ 



vr. 



3te 




!i 



s 



of the Lalandii of the Cape of Good Hope, or the vulgaris of the Medi- 
terranean, both gigantic species, sometimes a foot and a half in length 

independent of the antennae. 

The Astacidge, the remaining family in the tribe Astacoidea, is con- 
fined almost wholly to the colder waters, and the species are numerous. 

Among the Caridea, the Crangonidss certainly have the precedence. 
The fact that the first pair of legs have perfect hands, while the other 



leffs 




vergiform, shows a relation to the Brachyura, which 



dence of superiority 



These Cranaronidae, th 



the 



highest of the 



have the anterior legs 



Caridea, are almost exclusively cold-water spe 
In the family Palgemonidge, some genera 
furnished with stout hands, while in others the second is the stout 
chelate pair. The former, for the reason just alluded to while speak- 
ing of the Crangonidee, and elsewhere farther explained, are superior 
in rank. It is among these genera of this superior grade, the Alphe- 



inse, that we find the cold 



and boreal species. The g 



Hippolyte alone contains thirty-seven cold-water species, nineteen of 
which are of the Frigid zone ; ai 



zone ; and there are only eight torrid species. 
On the contrary, among the Palgemoninae, the inferior group, there 
e forty-six torrid to twenty-two of extra-torrid ; and only one of the 



latter is boreal. Species of Alph 



common in the tropics about 



coral-reefs ; but the largest species of the g 
lons^, occur beyond the trop 



two or three inches 



The Pengeidea, the lowest of the tribes of Macroura, are mainly 



tropical 



Yet 



very lowest species (like the lowest Brachy 



partly in the colder waters, or even in the F 



XXIII. Comparing the 



id and temperate species of Macroura 



we are led to conclude, that the latter are probably most numerous in 
individuals, and the most bulky in mass. Excepting the Panuliri, 
Scvllari, and some Palsemons, the tropical species are small, and more- 

- " The 

Harpilius, Anchistia, 



over, they are not particularly abundant about coral-reefs 
species of the torrid genera, Pontonia, CEdip 



Pal^emonella, Hymenocera, and Atya, are all quite small, the g 



part 
the 



)t exceeding an inch and a quarter in length, and moreov 
pical Alphei are also small species, as stated above 



? 



The 



Penasidea 



partly larger species 



Contrast these particulars with 

Astacus, 



the facts as to the genera of the Temperate zone. Palmurus, 
Nephrops, Paranephrops, Homarus, Arctus, Crangon, and the related 
genera, Hippolyte, Pandalus, Cryphiops, contain species mostly of 



/ 



V 






i; I 



'«r 




■v"^ 







[ - 



* 



* ■ ? 



-* ' 



. 1 



- » 



r . 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIB UTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1515 



V 



large size, and the adult Homari and Palinuri are not exceeded i 

weight by any other Macroura. 

The Thalassinidea, which belong almost exclusively to the temp 



rate 



and larg 



igions are smallest in the warmer part of the 



Temp 



the middle and colder part. A Puget Sound species 
(subfrigrd region) of Callianassa (C. gigas) is at least four and a half 
inches long, the G. uncinata of Chili, five inches, and the Thalassina 



yionides of Chili, six inches 



The facts respecting this subtribe 



I 



added to those mentioned above, strengthen much the conclusion, that 
the cold-water genera have the largest species ; for all the species are 

over an inch and a half in length. 




k ■ * 



■ - 



\i 



t 



\ 



ii 



(.■ 



I 






ill^ 



m 







\ 



X 



III. ANOMOBRANCHIATA 



XXIV. The Mysidea, to which the Penseidea are related, are, to 
considerable extent, cold-water species, although many are found also 



There are among 



in the tropics. 

seventeen extra-torrid species 

; In the Squilloidea we have 



them twenty torrid species 



and 



example of an inferior grade 



large lax body, with a 



small head and long abdom 



and they 



remind us of overgrown larval forms, or species vegetatively enlarged 
beyond the normal or most efficient size. In this particular they 
have some analogies with the earlier forms of life. They are found 

are Torrid 



mostly within the trop 



Twenty-four of the Squillidae 



zone 
zone. 



the Temperate 



species, and only seven pertain exclusively 
Of the Erichthidse, twenty-one out of twenty-two species 



are 



ported from the Torrid 



The Amphionidea, a related group 



include seventeen Torrid zone species and two of the Temperate 



* ^ 



X 



X 







' Ml 
Jl 



i 




*M 



i 




I I 



■ 



itt'ii 



b I 
p 

1 






( 






Ifrl 



4 






i 



I ^^. 




\ 



. ' 



i 



4 



f 



I 




i 



<i 





H 



i 



lit*. 



^F 



I 



i 



*a» 




"^■^^C 




»^ 



m-} 




t 



i 



If 4 







> 



1516 



/ 



CRUSTACEA. 



TABLE III. 



TETRADECAPODA 



L 

H 




I!) 



tl t 



I 



J 




I - 



i.U* 



i 








« i' 



s\ 



\ 



W 






\\ |. 





»^ 



^ 



t 



ff 



\ 



1. ISOPODA 



^d 



o 



IDOT^IDEA. 

Idotaea, . . . . 

Edotia, . , . , 

Erichsonia, . , 

Cleantis, . . , 

Epelys, . . . . 



• 

o 






DQ 

* 



rS 



M 
O 

bi 

O 



CQ 



c 



a 
o 



3 



CH^TILID.^. 

Chcetilia, . . . 



ONISCOIDEA. 
ARMADILLIDiE. 

Tylus, .... 



Armabillin^. 

Armadillo, . 
Spherillo, . . 
Armadillidium, 
Diploexochus. 

ONISCID^. 

ONISCIN^ffi. 

Oniscus,* . 
Playartlirus, 

Deto, . . 

SCTPHACIN^. 

Scyphax, . 
Styloniscus, 

Lygia, . . 
Lygidium, 

ASELLID^. 

Jcera, . , 
Jasridinaj . 
Asellus, 
Jauira, . . 
Henopomus, 
Munna, 



OYMOTHOIDEA. 
CYMOTHOID^. 

Cymothoin.35. 

Cymothoa, 

Ceratothoa, 

Livoneca, . 

Anilocra, . 

Nerocila, . 

Olencira. 
Orozeuktin^. 

Orozeuktes, 
-3Egatroin^. 

^gathoa, , 



1 
1 



1 
1 



1 
1 



2 
1 



4 

1 



t 



6 



2 



3 
2 



6 



s 

B 

H 

■ 



1(a) 



1 



10 



1 
3 



1 

5 



5 



1(c) 



\ 



8 



4 
1 
2 
2 
1 



I 



2(lc) 



1 



2 
1 



3 (la) 
3 



6 



1 



2 (? ff) 



6 

1 

6 
2 

7 



1 



1 



2 

4 
1 



« 



w 



o 



■ca 1 


o9 


u 


o 


a 


p< 


P4 

s 




-? 


H 


1 


old 


CO 


Q 



*s 



6 



1 



•d 

bjD 

I 

DQ 

* 

(Si 



ll(3(?,c) 



1 



2 



6(1(7) 

2 

1 



1 



3(le) 



8 



14 
1 
1 



10 
1 



1 



6 



1 



2 
1 

2 

2 
1 



3(1/) 



1 



1(/) 



2(1/) 



1 



1 

2 

1 

1 
1 



* Including Trichoniscus, Porcellio, and Philoscia. 



a> 



u 

a> 

Pi 

a 

o 

'c6 



o 



O 



27 
1 

1 
1 



1 



4 



6 

2 
19 



39 
1 
1 

1 

9 
1 

6 

4 

1 

1 



1 
5 
1 
5 
3 









fell 

« 



♦, 



9 



2 
1 

2 



I 







/ 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



I 



i 



y 



I S P D K— Continued. 



u 

o 

H 



iEga, . . 
Conilera, . 
Rocinela, . 
Acherusia, 
Pterelas, . 
C1EOLANIN.E. 

Cirolana, . 
Co rail ana, 
Alitropus, 



SPHEROMIDiE, 

Spheromin^. 

Spheroma, . . 

Cymodocea, . . 

Cerceis, . . . . 

Caridina, . - . 

Amphoroidea, . 

Nesasa, .... 
Campecopea, . . 

Ancinin^. 

Ancinus. 



1 



\ 



4 

1 

2 






I. SEROLIDEA. 
SEROLID^. 

Serolis, .... 

PRANIZID^. 
Praniza, .... 
Anoeus, . . . . 

II. ARCTURIDEA. 

Arcturin^. 

Arcturus, .... 
Leachia, .... 

ANTHUKINvE. 

Anthura, .... 

III. TANAIDEA. 
TANAID^. 

Tanain^. 

Tanais, .... 
Paratanais, . . . 
Leptochelia, . . . 

Apseudes, . . . 
Rhoea, 

LlRIOPIN^. 

Liriope, .... 
Cryptothir, . , , 

Crossurin^. 

Crossurus, . . . 
BOPYRID^. 

BOPYRINiE. 

Bopyrus, .... 
Phryxus, .... 

CepoTij 

Dajus, 

lONIN^. 

Tone, 

Argeia, .... 



1 



1 
1 
1 



1 



3 
o 






1 



1 



o 

I 



1 



O 

H 

Cm 

O 

o 



o 

ESI 



^1 



o 






2 



1 
2 



4 



1 



a 

'X3 



a; 



u 
a;) 

a 



,0 

« 



1 



1 



1 

2 
1 



£> 



a 

2 

'o 



1 



'3} 



1 



4 



1 
1 



1 



13 (1 c) 
4 



l(cO 
2 



2 
1 
1 



3(l€) 



1 



10 (2 e) 
1 



4 
2 



6 (3 c,/)_ 
6 

1 



!(/) 



2. ANISOPODA. 



t3 



1^ 

o 

O 

o 



o 

b3 



Ci 

a 

O! 

H 

a 

Si 



Q 



^ 



w 



C3 

p. 

a 

E-i 






1 



3 
1 

1 



2 
2 



1 



P4 

a 



<S> 






c9 

a 

H 

1:3 



o 



1 



'fcb 



1 

3 

2 (Id) 



3(1/) 
1 



1 



1 



1 



3 
1 
1 

1 



2 



1 



2 
1(/) 



1 

1(d) 



l{d) 



1(d) 



1 



1 



380 



/ 



Pt 

a 

H 
o 

o 



0) 

13 

o 



5 
1 
5 
1 
2 

4 



28 
9 
1 
1 
2 

6 
2 



O) 



c3 

a 

H 

o 



o 



4 

6 
3 



1 
3 

4 



6 
1 
1 
1 
1 



1 



1 
1 





1617 






Z(2d,g) 









1 

1 
1 



1 



1 



1 



2 



1 



>ii 




1 



I- 



r# »!• 




1 




I 




\¥ 



I 



< 



! IMI 




* 




I 




\ 








I' 



# 








\ \ 



% 



T'. 



% 





<v 



>;> 




SS' 





M 



i . 



I 



I 



t 



I 



i 



1518 



CRUSTACEA. 



WM 



I 



w- 



I 



M 



J 



H *- 



ift 



M'i 



^■' 



t 



*' 

t 



!! 




1/ 



i N 



H 





n* f 



1 





:'\ 



ii 



. , I 



u 




nV 



r 




'ir m 





/ 



CAPRELLIDEA. 
CA^RELLIDiE. 

Proto, , 
Protella, 
Caprella, 

Cercops, 
PodaHrius, 

Cyamus, 

aAMMARIDEA. 
DULlCHlOiE. 

Bulichia, . . . , 
CHELURID^. 

Chelura, . . . . 
COROPHIDJE. 

COROPHINiE. 

Coropbium, . 

Siphonoecetes, 
Platophium, . 
Cyrtophium, 
XJnciola, . , 
Podocerus, • 
Cratophium, 
Cerapus, . . 
Cerapodina, . 
Erichthonius, 
Laphystius, . 

ICILIN^, .... 

Icilius, . . . 
Pterygocera, . 

ORCIIESTID^ 
Orchestia, . . 
AUorchestes, 

GAMMARID^ 

Stegocepualin^. 

Stegocephalus, 
Lysianassin^. 
Lysianassa, 
Phlias, . . 
Opis, . . 
Uristes, 
Anonyx, . 
XJrothoe, . 

LEUCOTHOlNiE. 

Stenothoe, 
Leucothoe,^ 

GAMMARIN-ffi. 

AcanthonotuSj 

Alibrotus, 

Leptochirus, 

Iphimedia, 
CEdicerus, 
Amphithoe, 
Gammarus, 
Phot is, . . 
Melita, . . 
Msera, . . 
Dercothoe, 
Pyctilus, . 
? Pardalisca, 
Atylus, 
Ischyrocerus, 
Microcheles, . 

PONTOPOREIN^. 

Lepidactylis, 
Pontoporeia, 
Ampelisca, 
Protomedia, 
Aora, . . 

Phoxus, . 



3. AMPHIPODA. 






o 



12 

8 



• 



1 

(?)2 



1 
5 



1 



1 



1 



2 
2 



2 

1 
1 



3 

8 



1 

2 
2 



(?)1 



5 
3 



2 



1 

7 
1 



2 
1 
1 






o ^ 

r- el 



1 
1 

5 

2 



1 
1 



2 



1 



7 
5 



2 



2 

1 
1 



1 

10 
9 



3 

3 

3 



I 

B 



CD 



^ 



t-i 



C3 

a> 
Pi 

a 

* 
'IS 



2 



1 



1 



1 



1 
2 



4 
2 



2 



2 
2 



2 



03 



P4 

a 



3 

02 






* 



a 



o 

a 



r2 

'3) 

I 

"51 



^ 



3 



1 
4 



3 



1 

2 

2 
1 



14 

QQ.d) 



3 
1 

2 
3 

1 



1 



6(1/) 



3(2e) 



1 



1 



6(2d,e) 



1(e) 



1 



4 

1 



1(?) 



1 



1 

1 

2 
1 

2 

6 

12 (1 d) 

1 
4 



1 



1 
1 



3 

2(1/) 
5 



1 



a> 



03 
ft 

a 

O 

o 



O 

C!4 



1 

15 



5 



1 



1 



1 
2 

3 

1 



26 
9 



2 
1 
1 

2 



1 

1 

2 
1 
8 
1 

12 

23 

2 

7 



1 



1 



'2 



1 

4 (2/ £r) 
2 

1 

1 



1 



1 



1 
2 



2 



1 



2(1^) 
11 



2 
3 



14 

1 

1^(2/) 
2 



1 

2 
1 



1 
1 
1 

1 



{ 



f 






k -. 



-'— - t-.*_^ 



i^' 









f 







> 



-<' J 



'^ 



J. 






I 
I 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA 



ISJEINJB. 

Is8ea, . 

Anisopus, 



HYPERIDEA. 

YlBILINiE. 

Vibilia, .... 

IIt PEKING. 

Lestrigonus, . . 

Tyro, .... 
Hyperia, . . . 

Metoecus, . . . 

Tauria, .... 

Cyilopus, . . . 
Bairilia, . . . 

Cystisoma^ . . 

Stnopin^. 

Synopia, . . . 



PHRONIMID^. 

Phronimin^. 

Phronima, . . 

Primno, . . . 

Phrosininje. 

Anchylomera, . 

Phrosina, . . . 

Themisto, . . • 
Phorcinje. 

Phorcus, . . • 



TTPHID-^ 

Ttphin^. 

Dithyrus, . . 

Typhis,. . . 
Thyropus, 
Pronging. 

Pronoe, . . 

Lycsea, , , . 

0XTCEPHALIN.3B. 

Oxycephalus, 

Rhabdosoma, 



o 

EH 



1 

4 



4 



2 



1 



1 



1 



1 
1 



AMPHIPOD A— Continued, 



i 



fO 



1 



^ 



3 



1 



o 



o a> 
rt o 



1 

4 
1 



4 



2 



1 



4 



2 



1 
1 



1? 



1? 



—1 



^1 



V 






1 



1 



1 



1 



2 



1 
2 



1 






o3 



I 



3 



1? 



1 



1 



1 



1 



-2 

a 

a> 

'd 

'o 
Q 

s 



'2 

I 



1 



2 



1 



1 



1(d) 



1 



27 



1 



a> 



ft 
S 



ca o 



1 



1 

1 



6 



1 
1? 



1 
1 

1 

2 
1 






1 
3 
2 

1 
1 

1 
1 



1519 



-d 



1 
1 
1 



/ 



3 



/ 




m 




L 



t 



i 



1!^ 



I 



i 






) 

i 



1. 






4 



I 



J 

i^ 



T? / 

A r J 

f 1 


if I r 



I 

1 



( 

r 

i i 






i 



■> 



I 




mi 

■tin ^. 

I 



%*■ 




:? 




**/ 




.L-:, — -h 





r^ 



mm 



I 



I 




I 



If 



t 






t) 



I / 



1520 



CRUSTACEA. 



4t» 



;i 



1 1-( 




v^ 



\ 



^ \ ■ 



It- 



- II 



il 



'U 




I 



I f 




))« 



i 



i>« 








iMH 



tt 






a 



i 



W rt» i f. 




^ 



4. 


RECAPITULATION. 






^ 




* 

3 


torrid. 


3 

o 

H 


en Temp. 

r 


r 

* 

la 

0) 


temperate. 


* 

p. 

a 

^ ■ 


1 
1 

frigid. 


f Temperate 




- 




T 




U 


a 




s 


^ 


O 0) 

,1^ 


^bp 


- 


o 






^ 

^ 




S3 


o 


02 


* o 






* 

26 ; 


• 


Q 

56 


• 


'«■ 


^ S 


(^ 




• 


ISOFODA, . . . 


31 (1 a) 


19 (1 a) ^ 


i8 (2 c) 


67 (2 c,d) 


65(9c,d,e) 


oO (9 e,/) 


208 


4 

21(3d,,/,5r) 


IdOTjEIDEA, .... 




n 


3 


2 


6 


1(a) : 


10 


7 


13 (3 d,c) 


4(le) 


31 


9 


Idotgeidge, . . . 






3 


2 


5 


1(a) ■ 


10 


7 


12 (3 cZ,c) 


4(le) 


30 


9 


Chagtilidas, . . 












\ * 






1 


■ F 


1 




OnISCOIDEAj .... 






4 


11 


15 


14 


19 (2 c) 


34 (1(f) 


27 


9(4/) 


96 


9(1/) 


Armadillidge, 






2 


3 


5 


7 


6(lc) 


11 (1 tZ) 


8 


1 


31 


^ ^^ * 


Oniscidse, . . . 






2 


8 


10 


6 


10 (1 c) 


22 


14 


5(2/) 


i 63 




Onisciiite, . . 








6 


6 


5 


8 


15 


11 


3(1/) 


41 




Scyphacinge, . 






1 




1 






1 




1 


2 




Lyginae, . . 




* • • 


1 


2 


3 


1 


2(lc) 


6 


3 


1(/) 


10 


^ _ ^^ ^ 


AselJidaa, . . . 












1 


3 


1 


6 


3(1/) 


12 


9(1/) 


Cymothoidea, . . . 






19 


18 (1 a) 


36 


4 


18 


26 (1 c) 


25 (4 cZ,e) 


17 (4 e,/ 


81 


3 (2 d,g) 


Cymothoidse, 






11 


12 (1 a) 


22 


1 


, 7 


6 


1 


r 


15 




Cymothoinse, 






10 


12 (1 a) 


21 


1 


1 

7 


6 


1 




15 


■ 


OrozeuktinEe, . 






1 


^fc r 


1 






i 






1 


•^ 


^gathoinje, , 








2? 


2? 






1 






I 


^ ^^_ K 


iEgidas, . . . 






8 


2 


10 


1 


5 


3 


, 7(2d,e) 


4 


18 


3 (2 d,g) 


iKginagj . . . 






1 


1 


2 


1 


4 


2 


4 (Id) 


4 


14 


3 (2 d,g) 


Cirolaninse, . 






7 


1 


S 




1 


1 


3(le) 




4 


■ 


Spheroiiiidae, 






1 


3 


4 


2 


6 


18 (1 c) 


17 (2 e) ' 


13 (4 e,/) 


49 




Spheromingej 






1 


3 


4 


1 


5 


18 (1 c) 


11 (2 e) , 


12 (3 e,/) 


40 




!Nesa;mfie, . 












1 


1 




6 


1(/) 


6 




Ancininse, . 


















1 


^ ^F ^ 


2 


> 


AlSriSOFODA, 




5 


3 


8 




14 


4 (1 cT) 


13 (3 d) 


9(1/) 


34 


15 


Serolidea, .... 












4 


1 


6 (Id) 


4(1/) 


13 


3 


Serolid£e, . . , 














- 


1 


1 


3(1/) 


4 


1 


PranizidEe, . 














4 




6 (Id) 


1 


9 


2 


Arcturidea, . . . 






1 




1 




3 




3 


3(1/) 


8 


1 


Takaidea, . . . ." 






4 


3 


7 




7 


3 (Id) 


4 (2d) 


2 


13 


11 


Tauaidae, . . 






4 


2 


6 




1 


2 


2 (1 d) 


1 


10 


8 


Bopyridse, 








1 


1 




1 


IW 


2 (Id) 


1 


3 


3 


AMPHIPODA, 




48 


34 


82 


11 


22 


42(lcr) 


61 (5 d,e) 


30 (5 d,€,/) 


157 


83 (4 /fir) 


Caprellidea, . . . 




3 


6 


9 


2 


2 


6 


8(2e) 


7 (2 tj) 


21 


9 (2/^) 


Caprellidae, . 






3 


6 


9 


2 


1 


3 


5 


6(1/) 
1(e) 


16 


9 (2/,^) 


Cyamidie, . 










- 




1 


3 


3(2e) 


5 




Gammaeidea, . . 






29 


22 


51 


4 


1 


30 (1 d) 


48 (1 e) 


19 


112 


68 (2/i?) 


Dulichidse, 














14 


^fc ^ 








1 . 


Cheluridse, . 


















1 




1 




Corophida;, . 






3 


2 


5 








7 


1 


8 


5 


Orchestid^e, . 






4 


8 


12 


1 


6 


20 (1 d) 


6 (2 d, e) 


5 


35 


2 


Gnmmarida?, 






22 


12 


34 


3 


8 


10 


35 (1 d) 


13 


68 


60 


Stegocephalin^e, 
















^^ 






1 


Lysianassingej 




2 


2 


4 


-.^ 


2 




2 


2 


6 


14 (1 g) 


Leucothoin^e, . 




2 




2 








1 




1 


2 


Gammarinse, . 




16 


13 


29 


3 


6 


10 


30 (1 d) 


11 (1 /) 


58 


39(1/) 


Pontoporeinae, 














1 


1 


w 


2 


4 


Isasinte, ... 
















1 




1 




Hyperidea, , . . . , 




16 6 


22 . 


5 


6 


6 


5 


4 (Id) 


24 


6 


Hypericiee, . . , 




11 


1 


12 


1 


1 


3 


2 


2 


8 


3 


Phronimidre, . . 




3 


4 


7 


1 


3 


1 


1 


2 (Id) 


6 


3 


Typhida?, .... 




2 


1 


3 


3 


2 


2 


3 




10 




Total, tetradega: 


FC 


)DA 


, 79 


68 (1 a) 


146 


30 (1 a) 


84 (2 c) 


113 (4 c,tZ) 


139(17 c,d,e) 


69(15d,^,/) 


399 


129 (7 d,/^) 



Before 



g 



the 



from the above tables of the Tetr 



this division of C 



has 



decapoda, it should be observed that 

been less thoroughly explored than that of the Podophthalmia, and 

future investigations must vary much the proportions between the 



species of the different 



regions. 



The coasts of Europe and the 



within the reach of European 



and have 



been carefully examined; while voyagers through the trop 



have 



I 









'_--' F^. _■ 




1 ' 



- I . ^ 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1521 



ally contented themselves with collecting the larger Crustacea 



In the 



g 



Gammarus 



a 



pical species had been reported 



until our investigations, which broug 



eleven to light, bein 



a 



third the whole number of those of ascertained localities reported 



this g 



Some general conclusions may, however, be safely drawn from the 

the exact ratios deduced from the 



facts already known, although 
tables may hereafter be much modified. 

I. The Tetradecapoda are far more numerous in extra-tropical 

latitudes than in the tropical. 

The proportion in the above table is 521 : 146; allowing for future 
discoveries, it may be set down at 2 : 1, without fear of exceeding the 

truth. 

II. The genera of extra-tropical seas are far more numerous than 



'' 



those of the tropical. 

Out of forty-nine genera of Isopoda, only 



are known to 



the tropics, and but four of these are peculiar to the trop 







of 



Lity genera of Anisopoda, six only are known to be 



tropical, and but two are exclusively so, 
Among the Ampliipoda, out of fifty 



genera of Gammaridea, only 
known to contain tropical species; nine are exclusively 



tropical, and but ten, includin 



these 



have more tropical than 



tropical species. The Caprellidea and Hyperidea embrace thirty 
genera, fifteen or sixteen of which include tropical species. 

The variety of extra-tropical forms compared with the tropical, is 
hence very great. 

III. From the tables, the ratio of extra-tropical and tropical species 
in the 



Isopoda, is 
Anisopoda, 
Amphipoda, 



4 :1 
6 : 1 
3 :1 



Among the Isopoda, the Idotasidea are the most decidedly cold-water 
species, and the Cymothoidea, the least so. The ratio of species for 

the 

Idotseidea, is . . • • ..8:1 

Oniscoidea, . • • • • 7:1 

Cymothoidea, . • • . . 2i : 1 

Two-ninths of the extra-tropical Idotasidea (or nine species) belong 

381 



I 



\ 



\ 




H ^ 



4 t 




'i 



»« 



1l 





N » 



\ 




sm 



ri^*"' 




I 



% 




\ 




\m 



\ 



-^m 



^ 




1 



? 




tt^«f 



*<* i« 



t 



\ 



H« . 



li 



^ 



m 







r 




w 





W«i? 





f 



m 




• «»iU 




r 

% . 

* 






rtf f r 




\ 



\ 




-*• 






■I 



t 







ff 




H I 



ii 



I I) 

r 



! I 

I r 



: \ 



i 



I 




nit 




H¥ 



\m 



I 



1522 



CRUSTACEA. 



to the Frigid zone, and nearly one-tenth of the extra-tropical Oniscoi- 
dea (or nine species) ; while less than a twenty- fifth of the Cymothoi- 



dea occur in the Friaid zone, and but one of these has not also been 



gly extra- 



found in lower latitudes. 

Of the Amphipoda, the Gammaridea are most 
tropical, the proportion being for the extra-tropical and tropical species 
3 i : 1 ; while the ratio in 
ridea, li : 1. Out of one hundred and se^ 
species of Gammaridea, sixty-six are Frigid 



the Caprellidea, is 3 : 1 ; and in the Hyp 



nty-eight 



pical 



zone species, besides two 
which have been found both in the Frigid and Temperate zones. 

IV. The genera which extend into the frigid region are the follow- 
ing. The names of those more especially frigid, according to present 

r 

knowledge, are italicized; and the proportion of frigid species to the 
whole number of extra-tropical^ is mentioned in decimals^ where they 



exclusively frigid 



Idot^idea. — Idotsea (0-3), Glyptonotus. 

Oniscoidea. — Jsera (0*25) Jmridina^ Asellus (0 20); Janira (0-5), Henopomus^ 
Munna (0"66). 



Cymothoidea. — JEga (0-4). 



J 



Serolidea. 

Arcturidea. 



'2) 



5) 



(0-15), Anceus(0-25). 



Tanaidea. — Tanais (0-5), Liriope, Crossurus, Phryxus^ Dajus 



\ 



Caprellidea. 
Gammaridea. — DuUcMa, 



(0"24), ^gina, CercopSy Podalirius. 

tesy Unciola (0-5), Podocerus (0-5). 



(0-07), StegocephaluSy Opis (O'GG), Uristes, Anonyx (0 



(0-75), IpUmedia (0-6) (Edicerus (0 



Pardaliscay Isc 

Hyperidea. 



MichrocJieleSy Pontoporeia^ 
(0'14); MetoecuSy Tauria^ 



), Leucothoe (0-66) 
(0-33), Melita (0-5) 



(3-0) 



V 



mM 




X- 



f^ 



K 



\h 



\\ 




"- • 



\ 



1 f 



. t I 




r 



\ \ 



\% 



4 




The Spheromidas are nearly all cold-water species, though not reach 



g into the Frigid 



There are forty-nine known species of Sph 



romidae in the Temperate 



and but four in the Torrid. Sei 



is a peculiar cold-water form, belonging mainly to the subfrigid and 
frigid regions. Orchestia is to a large extent of the Temperate zone, 
while AUorchestes is more equally distributed through the torrid and 

r 

temperate. Amphithoe^ as restricted by us^ is alike common in the 



US; IS alike common 
torrid and temperate regions ; while Iphiraedia, the other section of 
the old group, is mainly a cold-water genus. 
The Hyperidea are mostly tropical genera, 
V. The species and genera of Tetradecapoda are not ( 



'nly most 



f 




i.- -r -I- 



mr^ 




\ 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1523 



abundant in the extra-tropical regions, but besides, the individuals of 



species appear 



to be more numerous, or at least not less so. 



At 



Fuegia, the quantity of Gammaridae collected on bait dropped in the 



no region visited by us, did we 
The Spheromae were also verj 



water was exceedingly large; and in 
find evidence of as great profusion, 
abundant along the shores. 

yi. Moreover, the species of extra-tropical waters are the largest of 
the tribe. In the Frigid zone, there are Idotseidse three to four inches 
long, while the average size of the tropical species is less than three- 
fourths of an inch ; there are Spheromae an inch long, while those of 
the tropics seldom exceed a fourth of an inch ; there is a Lysianassa 
three inches long, while the warmer seas afford only small species, 



half i 

while 



inch in length; there is a Pterelas over ar 
e JEfndsQ of the tropics are less than half 



inch in lens-th 



ch 



The 



Gammari of 



trop 



those of the colder 



•e small slender species, not half the size of 
The species of Serolis are an 



inch 



inches long. Thus, through the Idotaeidea, the ^gidae, Serolidae, 
Spheromidae, Caprellidea, and Gammaridea, the largest species belong 
to the colder seas, and the giants among Tetradecapods, are actually 

found in the Frigid zone. 

Among the Hyperidea there is one gigantic species, belonging to 
the genus Cystisoma, which is over three inches long. It is reported 
from the Indian Ocean, but whether tropical or not is unascertained. 
Of the species of this group examined by the writer, the largest, a 
Tauria, was from the Frigid zone. 



VII. Ag 



the Tetradecapoda of 



tropical waters are the 



highest in rank. Among the Isopoda (which stand first), the Idotaei- 
dea appear to be of superior grade, and these, as observed, are espe- 

seas, reaching their maximum size in 



cially developed 
the Frigid zone. 



colder 



are 



cold 



Again the Serolidae, the highest of the Anisopoda 

The Orchestia3 among the Amphipoda, al 



species 



V 



are 



though reaching through both the Torrid and Temperate zones, 
largest and much the most numerous in the latter. 

VIII. Those species of a genus that occur in the colder waters, are 
often more firmly put together, and bear marks of superiority in their 
habits. The Amphithoe and Gammari of the tropics are lax and 
slender species, of small size compared with those of the colder seas. 

IX. There is a tendency in the colder waters to the development of 
spinous species. This fact is as true of the Podophthalmia as of the 



/ 





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1624 



CRUSTACEA. 



1 



i, \ 



I 



i i 



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r 



lit 




i 








t^flt 



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Tetradecapoda. Among the former, there are the thorny Lithodes, 
the numerous Maioids armed with spines, the Acanthodes; while the 
Cancroids and Grapsoids of the tropics are usually very smooth and 
often polished species. There are the spinous boreal Crangons, the 



species of which genus in the warmer seas are without spines. Among 



the Tetradecapods, the boreal Iphiraedise are often spinous or crested 3 
Acanthonotus and Dulichia are spinous genera. The same tendency 
is seen in the third pair of caudal stylets in some cold-water Gammari, 
which have the branches spinulous instead of furnished with a few 
minute hairs like those of the tropics. 

There are also some spinous Crustacea in the tropics, as the Pali- 
nuridaB and species of Stenopus. Such facts, however, do not lead to 
any modification of the previous remark ; for the tendency observed 
is still a fact as regards the several genera mentioned. 



ENTOMOSTRACA. 



n 

The Entomostraca have been little studied out of the Temperate 
zone, if we except the results of the author's labours. The described 
species of most of the families are, therefore, almost exclusively from 



temperate regions, and we know little of the corresponding species 



or groups m 



the 



armer seas. 



The 



following table 'presents the 



■- 



number of known species of the torrid and extra-torrid zones, omit 
ting the Lernseoids : 



TABLE lY. 



Torrid zone 



LOPHYROPODA. 

Cyclopoidea^ 

Daphnioidea^ 

Cyproidea, 

Phyllopoba. 

Artemioidea^ 

Apodoidea^ 

Limnadioidea^ 

PCECILOPODA. 

Ergasiloidea, 

Caligoidea^ . 

Were we to leave out of 



Extra-torrid zone, 



120 
5 

13 



76 
46 
61 






2 



10 
3 

2 



1 

16 



A 
33 



the researches of the 



thor, the 



number of species and the proportion for the Cyclopoidea, instead of 
120 to 76, would be about 3 : 50, thus not only reversing the ratio. 



/ 
^ 



-. . 1 - i- 



f^^- 






\ 



■ i. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1525 



but giving to the Temperate zone almost all the species of the group* 

yet reported 

The 



few Caligoids have been 



Moreover, no Daphnioids and 

from the Torrid zone, excepting those described in this Report, 
author's time when on land in the tropics was devoted mainly to the 
department of Geology, and consequently the fresh-water Entomostra- 
cans were not as thoroughly collected as those of the oceans. He 
therefore attempts to draw no conclusions from the above ratios. 

A few facts may, however, be deduced with respect to some genera, 
and especially those of the Cyclopoidea. The following table gives 
the number, as nearly as known, of the species of each genus of the 



Cyclopoidea, occurring in the torrid and extra-torrid zones. 



The 



number common to the extra-torrid and torrid zones is mentioned in 
brackets. 



! 



li I; 



i 




^^ 





i 



I 




IfiBM 




\ 



TABLE V. 



CYCLOPOIDEA. 



L Calanid^. 

1. Calaniude. 

Calanus, . . 

Rhiocalanus, 
Cetochilus, 
Euchseta, 
Undina, . 

2. Oithonines. 

Oithona, . , 

3. Pontellindd. 

Diaptomus, . 

HemicalanuS; 
Candace^ . . 
Acartia, . . 
Pontella^ . . 
Catopia, . 

4. NotodelphineQ, 

NotodelphyS; 



Torrid. Extra-torrid. 



. 25 
. 2 



12(3) 



4 
3 



1 
1 



2 



1 



2 



4 

5 
3 

22 
1 



1 
1 

9(3) 



1 



II. CYCLOPIDiE. 

1. Cyclopince. 

Cyclops, . . 
? Psammathe; 
? Idomene, , 
? Eurjta, 

2. Harpacticinae. 

Canthocamptus, 
Harpacticus, 

Westwoodia, 
Alteutha, 
Metis, 

Clytemnestra 
Setella, . 

Laophon, 
Oncaea, . 

^aippe, . 
Idya, . 

3. Steropince. 

Zaus, . 
Sterope, . 



Torria. Extra-torrid 



2 



9 
1 
1 

1 



2 



* The whole number of Cyclopoidea described previous to May 



4 
15 

1 

1 

1 



1 

5 



1(1) 
1 

I 

1 

1 
1 



1 
4 



1842, by which time 



the author's observations were completed, was less than twenty-five ; and of the oceanic 
Cyclopoids, one hundred and fifty species of which the author has described, not ten were 
then known. We may judge from these results of a single cruise, what still remains to 
be done in the department of Entomostraca. 

382 



/ 




It 

^ 4 



\V^ 



iM 




r 



'I 




1 

t 



ii 



-4 



i 



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y 
k 



U 






\ 






J ' 




f 



i^ 




niU 



li:i 




\ 



|i< 



i 

i 



( 



« 



« 



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-^ 



VH ': 




—I^.W-l 




k 




» 



i 



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14 



1 



1 



1526 



III. GonYOJEl-DJE. 

1. CorT/csetnde. 

Corycseus, 

Ant aria, . 

Copilia, . 

Sapphirina, 



Torrid 



18 

3 

2 

15 



CRUSTACEA. 



Extra- torrid 



1 
1(1) 



5 



2. Miracinse. 

Miracia; 



Torrid. Extra-torrid. 



Total Calanid^, 
Total Cyclopid^, 

Total CORYCJEID^; 



1 



71 
10 

39 



1 



29(6) 
44(1) 

8(1) 



HI 



t 



m 



ff 



* 



Hit 



L ■ 

1 



\ 



H 






f 



Pt 



[ ! 

I I 



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r 

H 



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I 



It 



The properly oceanic genera include all the Calanidce, excepting 
Biaptomus and Notodelphys ; all the Corycoeidce; with only the single 
genus Setella among the Cyclopidse. 

genera are mainly tropical, yet each 
•tropical species j and those which are most abun- 



Among the Calanidse, the 



afford 




occurs 



dant in the colder waters are Calani or closely allied. 

beyond the tropics; but all the species thus far examined are found 



in the Torrid 



PonteUa is 



of 



warm 



/ 



water genus than 
Calanus. The Corycaeidee are to a large extent tropical. The genus 
CoryccBus is almost exclusively so, while Sappliirina is common in the 
Temperate zone. The Steropinae are Frigid species. 

Although the Calanidse are more varied in species within the 
tropics, they abound more in individuals in the colder seas. Vast 
areas of "bloody" waters were observed by us off the coast of Chili, 
south of Valparaiso (latitude 42° south, londtude 78° 45' west, and 



\ 



latitude 36° south, londtude 74° 



which were mainly d 



to a 



species of this group; and another species was equally abundant in the 



North Pacific, 32 



th, 173° west 



They 



been 



■ming in other seas, constituting the food in part of 



ported as 



of whale. Such immense shoals we did not meet with, within the 



trop 



Among 



the Daphnioid^ 



the 



g 



Daphnella, Penilia, Cerio- 



daphnia, and Ly 



w^ere observed by us in the Torrid 



- '• 



zone. Of 

the Gyproids, Cypridina, Conchoecia, and Halocypris are oceanic forms, 
and mainly of the tropical oceans. 

The Galiyoids spread over both zones, 
reach from the equator to the frigid se 



Caligus and Lepeophtheirus 
is; Nogagus, Pandarus, and 



Dinematura are represented in both the Torrid and Temperate 



iQ the latter, Calanus sanguineus 



(^subgen.. Calanopia) 




1 

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I 



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L -^ I 



-VV 






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ft. 




\ 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1627 



GENEKAL KEMARKS AND RECAPITULATION. 



i 



I 



i 




I 



I 



We 



with some general deductions from the tables, and 



■y 



recapitulation of some principles. 

A survey of all the great divisions of Crustacea, shows us that ex- 
clusive of the Entomostraea, they are distributed, according to present 
knowledge^ as follows 



Brachyura^ 
Aaomoura, 
Macroura, 
Anomoibrancliiata^ 

Isopoda, ^ . 
Anisopoda, 
Amphipoda^ 

Total, 



■^ 



a. Torrid zone 

. 535 
125 

. 148 

82 

56 

8 

82 



1036 



6. Temperate zone. 

257 (34 a) 
110 (15 a) 
125 (16 a) 

33 (9 a) 
208 (la) 

34 
157 



924 (75 a) 



c. Frigid zone. 

5(4 6) 

4(16) 
29 (2 h) 

2 
21 (3 b) 
15 
83 (4 b) 



159 (14 6) 



H i* 



f 

4 



9 



Taking the sum of the Frigid and Temperate zone species (subtract- 
ing the fourteen common to the two) we have 1036 species in the 
torrid regions to 1069 in the extra-torrid^ seventy-five of which are 
common to the two. This shows a nearly equal distribution between 
the zones. But excluding the Brachyura, the numbers become 501 to 
811^ giving a preponderance of more than one-half to the Temperate 



zone. 



^ 



* Adding to the numbers above, the species which have been necessarily left out as of 
uncertain locality, amounting to one hundred and forty in all, and inserting also the 
Entomostraca, it makes the total of described living species, as follows r 



Brachyura, 
Anomoura, 
Macroura, 



830 

262 
297 



Anomobranchiata, 
Isopoda, . 
Anisopoda, . . 
Amphipoda, 



1389 
115 



295 

57 
341 



^ 



Entomostraca, 



693 

492 



Total, 




X 



The number of species collected in the course of the cruise of the Expedition (exclu- 







I 



'; 












t 




^li^4 






'r 



-r. 1-- - 



'-■ 



i i\t 




I i 




I 



I 




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1 f 



M 



.1 



{ 



> ^ 



Mt i 






I 




* 



i 



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ii 



1528 



CRUSTA CEA. 



■ 

The species of highest rank among the Brachyura, Macroura, Iso- 
poda, and Amphipoda, the four principal types in the above, belong 
to the extra-torrid zones ; and in subordinate groups or families, it is 
often true that the genera of superior [ 



rade are 



torrid 



trast with the others which are torrid genera. Higher groups, ch 

r 

racteristic of the colder regions, sometimes show degradation amoi 
those species of the group that are tropical ; and the tropical sectioi 



g 



also may continue the line of degradation by 
the colder seas. 



gain into 



As we descend in the scale of Crustacea, from the Podophthalmia 



to the Tetradecapoda, the 



umber of cold 



species mcreases 



becoming in the latter group, three times greater than the warm 



It is an important fact, nevertheless, that this increase of 
c species is still no mark of degradation; the particular 



species. 

cold-wate 

facts that have been discussed, leading to a very different concl 

Other principles follow. These 

two types, the Decapodan and Tetradecapodan 



that the 



dist 



be 



dependently 



iidered, and not parts of a 



chain of species, a fact illustrated in the preceding chapt 



the classification of Crustacea. . 

Second, that the preponderance of cold-water species is the reverse 
of what must have been true in the earlier geological epochs, when 
the oceans had a somewhat higher temperature ; or were to a large ex- 
tent tropical. 

Third, that the progress of creation as regards Crustacea, has ended 




fit 



* 



f 





' I 



i 



I 



t 



sive of those lost in the wreck of the Peacock, which included nearly all the collections of 
two seasons in the tropical regions of the Pacific) is nearly 900 ; and the number of new 
species described is 658, distributed among the groups as follows : 



Brachyura, 

Anomoura, 

Macroura, 
Anomobranchiata, 



151 

50 
57 
28 



Isopoda, . 
Anisopoda, 
Amphipoda, 



67 

7 
110 



Entomostraca, 



•286 



184 

188 



Total, 



658 



V 




^; 



c 



% 



t 




I . 






> 




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T 1 



E b 



■«-J 




•^ — ■- 








•% 



4 1 



i. 

i 



I* 



4 



\ 




'GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1529 



r 

not where it begun, in multiplying the species of warmer waters and 
giving them there their superior developments, but in carrying 
species to a higher perfection in the colder regions of the oceans. A 
preponderance of species in the warmer seas is perhaps to be expected, 
since warm waters have prevailed even more largely than now in 
earlier epochs. But it would seem, that the introduction of the higher 
grades of Crustacea required, not merely the cooler waters of the 
present tropics, but even the still colder temperature of the Temperate 
zone, and therefore the present condition of the globe. 

The genera of Fossil species commence with the Entomostracans 
and Trilobites in the Palaeozoic rocks. Next appear certain Thalas- 
sinidea and Astacoid species, in the Permian system; then Mysidea, 
Penoeidea, many Tlialassinidea, Astacoidea, and Anomoura, in the 
Oolitic system ; then a few Cancroids and Leucosoids in the Creta- 
ceous, which become much more numerous in the Tertiary system, 
along with, some Grapsoids. None of the Maioids, the highest of 

Crustacea, have yet been reported from either of the Geological epochs. 



I 
( 



I 



« 



n 



i 



-I 







i* 



! Kt* 





The numher of individuals and the size are^ for the Brachyura^ 
greater in the Torrid zone than in the colder regions. But for the 

Maciroura^ the species of cold-water genera average nearly twice the 
lineal dimensions of those of warm waters j and the number of indi- 
viduals also may possibly be greater. 

In stating the conclusion respecting the Macroura^ on a preceding 
page (p, 1515)^ we omitted to give in detail the mean sizes of the 
different groups. The following are the results^ including the Gala- 
theidea^ which are closely related to the Macroura: 



i 



« 






i; 

1 



«i) 1 



fe 



'*^ 



■^. 




Galatheidea, 

Thalassinidea; 

Scjllaridae; 

Palinuridse, . 

Astacidae. — Homarus, 

Astacinae, 

Nephropinse, 

Crangonidse, 

Palaemonidse. — Alpheinaa, 

Pandalinae, . 
Pal£emoninsB, 
Oplophorinae, 



\ _ 

Penseida3, 



Mean length of 
Torrid zone species, 

0-3 inches. 



20 

60 

12-0 



1-5 



2-3 
10 
3-6 



Ci 



ic 



i( 



a 



a 



a 



u 



Mean length of 
Extra-torrid species 

3'0 inches. 



30 

6-0 
15-0 
140 
3-0 
6-0 
2-0 
1-6 
30 
24 



1 



4-5 



(6 



a 



u 



ii 



a 



u 



a 



a 



u 



« 



a 



\ 



i 



UV5 





388 



* 









) 



y 



% 




n 




\ 



m r 




1 J" 



--■^i- 



■■ '■ 





I 








till 



1530 



CRUSTACEA. 



M( 



I II i 



i 



I 



i 



1 . 



J J 



r 



I !| 



! 



• 






fv . 



I f 

11, 



The table shows that the torrid species, in 



of the groups 



average larger than the extra-torrid 



The cold-water Palinuridse 



ge as the largest warm-water species, and will outweigh them 



the cold-water Galatheidea, are ten times the 



ge length of the 



warm-water; the Alpheinse, Palaemoninse, and Pen^idse are 



as large in the 



nothing in the tropics to balance the Astacidae, a group 
species, some of them gigantic ; nor 



at least 

is hence 

of large 

the Crangonidse, nor Pandalinse. 



perate regions as in the torrid. There 



The genus Palaemon, in the Torrid zone, averages larger than in the 



Temp 



the ratio being 3'5 to 2*40 j the former amount being 



r 

reduced to 2*3 for the Palaemoninse, by the species of the other 



tropical 



^r 



which 



mostly quite small. Yet, taking the 



of 3-5 to 2-40, it affects but little the balance against the Torrid 



As 



bulk, also, the Temp 



probably has the preponde 



yet 



data are less definite. In the Galatheidea, the cold 



water species are not only ten times larger lineally (which implies 
at least eight hundred times cubically), but they are far more prolific 



mbers where they 



The Thalassinidea 



more numerous in extra-torrid species than torrid, as well as larg 



size. 



The ScyllaridaB are mainly tropical; but the species 



not 



tnumber the torrid, we believe that the 



of common occurrence, compared with the Astacidae, which abound 
everywhere, and these, as well as the Crangonidse and Pandalinae, are 
all Temperate zone species. The Palsemoninae and Penseidas probably 
preponderate in the tropics, and this may be also true of the Alpheinae. 
Taking a general view of the whole, and considering the fact, that the 
extra-torrid species rather oi 

deduction above stated is correct. . 

In the Tetradecapoda, the number of species, the number and diver- 
sity of genera, the number of individuals, and the bulk, are all greatei 
in the extra-torrid seas than in the torrid, as has been explained on £ 
preceding page ; and this is especially true of the Amphipoda. 

The tendency to spinose forms among the species of the colder tern 
perate regions, or Frigid zone, has been remarked upon on page 1523 
as exemplified among the Gammaridea, the Crangonidae, Lithodes 
and Maioids. 



^ 



2. DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA ACCORDING TO GEOaRAPHICAL 



PROVINCES. 



X 



The following tables are presented, as embodying in a general waj 



r 



\ * 



>«jh 



f . 




■^ 








I. *■!_ 



I k. 




m^ 



K 3 









GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1531 



the greater part of the information furnished us by the present state 
of science, with reference to the distribution of Crustacea in the diffe- 
rent parts of the globe. 

We divide the surface of the globe, for marine zoological geography, 
into three sections, the Occidental, the Africo-European, and the Oriental; 
the first, including the east and west coasts of America and adjoining 
islands; the second, the eastern side of the Atlantic Ocean, the coasts of 

r 

Europe, and also of Africa as far as the Cape of Good Hope ; the third, 
embracing the Indian Ocean and its coasts and islands, the East 
Indies, and the Pacific Ocean, with its coasts and islands, exclusive of 
the western coast of America and the neighbouring islands. The total 
number of species in each is given in a separate column. 

In the Occidental section, under the head of Western America, there 
are two columns; one (N.) for the coast north of the equator; the 
other (S.) for the coast south^ together with the Gallapagos. 

Under the head of Eastern America, there are the same two divi- 
sions of north and south. Fuegia is included in Eastern instead of 
Western America. 




^-- 



In the Africo-European section, we make three columns 



for 



(N.) 



of Europe and Africa, north of 



qiiator; and the 



adjacent islands, the Cape Verdes, Canaries, and A 
(Med.) for the Mediterranean Sea; a third, for the 



a second 
of Africa 



south of the equator to the Cape of Good Hope, with the islands, Ascen- 
sion, St. Helena, and Tristan d'Acunha. 

A separate column is devoted to species in the north frigid region 
of the Atlantic. 

In the Oriental section, there are the divisions (1), East Africa, 
with the columns north (N.), and south (S.), the latter including 
Madagascar, Isle of France, and other islands near the African coast; 
(2), Indian Ocean and the East Indies, including the coast of Southern 
Asia, the islands of the oceans south, with Torres Straits and north- 
western Australia; (3), the Western Pacific, including Japan and other 
regions north of the equator, for one column, and for the other, the islands 
and shores in the Western Pacific south of the equator, embracing New 
Ireland, Eastern Australia, Van Diemens Land ; (4), the Middle Pacific, 
divided into north and south, and embracing the various islands over this 
ocean exclusive of those just mentioned, with New Zealand, the 
Aucklands, &c., on the south. 

Under each subdivision, we designate the particular temperature 





fill 




s 



J 



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I 




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H 



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1532 



CRUSTACEA. 



N 



region in which the species occur, by uping the letters a, 5, c, d, e, /, 
g, hj as in the preceding tables. Thus opposite Lihinia, 1 e in the 
first column means that one species occurs on the west coast of North 
America, and this one in the subtemperate region (e), the position of 
which on the coast will be observed on the chart. So, opposite Hyas, 
1 g, in the same column, implies that one species occurs in the subfrigid 

These letters a, h, &c., in the columns in some cases have a 
more definite signification, than simply that of indicating the tempe- 
rature region, for the reason, that species may have hitherto been 



region 



I- 



obtained only at a single point in such 



Thus in the column 



^ 



W. America, N., 
W. America^ S., 



a 



(( 



a 



E. America, N., 



a 



E. America, S., 



(( 



a 



E. Atlantic, S., 



(C 



E. Africa, N., 



E. Africa, S., 



W. Pacific, N., 
W. Pacific, S.,' 



<( 



Mid. Pacific, N"., 



cc 



Mid. Pacific, S., 



^ ^ 



/ 



(C 



a 



g^ signifies Puget's Sound. 
c, " the Gallapagos. 

Peruvian coast. 



d, 



f, 



u 



u 



u 



(( 



iC 



h 



9, 



A 



a 



; 



b', 

Indian 0. and E. Indies, c. 



h 



a 



cc 



cc 



a 



a 



a 



cc 



cc 



cc 



cc 



cc 



cc 



a. 



/, 



9 



cc 



(C 



cc 



cc 



cc 



cc 



} 



the coast of Chili and mainly Valparaiso. 

the coast of Chiloe. 

Key West and the adjoining coast of Florida, 
the coast of Georgia, and the Carolinas, to Cape 
Hatteras, but mainly Charleston, South Carolina. 

Rio Janeiro. 

Rio Negro. 

Falklands and Fuegia. 

Table Bay, South Africa. 

Tristan d'Acunha. 

southern half of Red Sea. 

northern half of Red Sea. 

Port Natal. 

Mauritius or Isle of France. 

Swan River, West Australia. 

Loochoo, Formosa, and part of South Japan. 

Port Jackson, in East Australia, and Isle of King, 

north of Van Diemens Land. 
Van Diemens Land. 
Kingsmills and Wakes Island. 
Hawaiian or Sandwich Islands, 
northern part of New Zealand, 
middle part of New Zealand, 
southern extremity of New Zealand and the 
Aucklands. 



i^; I 



m 



, 1 
' I 



, h 



Other information respecting the use of the letters will be gathered 



from the Chart. 



The order of the genera is the same as in the preceding tables, and 
the subdivisions into families may there be ascertained. 



ik 



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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA 



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I-H d 



rO pO 



. CO »o 



CO 






C>1 



.OOr-itH 



. ^ . 



• C^rH 



CI 






<r^ ^ 






00 



■^ ^ 



s 



p 



OQ 



o 



0^ 



CO 



o 






r-i 



■^ 






rO 



CO 



rO 






•f-l 



a:a 

o o 



w 0) !S 









e 



OQ 

* * ^S 

"; CO S ;m 3 c6 
g .a =3 ="5 3 

--' '^^ O TOO 



Ti< 



tH f-M 



CI 



c^ 



I-l ^ 



CI 



tH tH 



tia 



CI 



« 



p 

M 



SI 
P 



■43 



■W 



3 



ce .2 S c3 ^ a -- § g .^ 
cuppao^o-^ooocQ 






^ a a 



o 



I. 



1 

\ 



\ 






— ^^_.. 




-"- - t^-l 












T*,'- 



'^ 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA 



1539 



o 

<1 




CO 






I'B^OX 



eg 

'3 




02 



1^ 



ml 
o 



Oi 






rrs ^ 5 w 



c3 

p4 



OG 



12; 



*[^;ox 



otpay 



o 



g 






02 



13 






"WOX 



o3 



CQ 



^ 
^ 



c3 



CZi 



^ 

^ 



(M 



rHT-i 



(N 



^ 



cq 



CN^ 



(M 



■* 



G<l 



(Mr-lr-i COtHtH OS CO iH 



« 



rH 



-* 



T-i 



i-liH 






'« 






N 



O 



^ 



P 

sz; 






c3 

• »-* 



iH 



■» 



C^ 






s 



^ 



o 






<i:) 



?Si 



cc 



CO 

"3 



a 

o 



o 

o 
o 



P 



c« 



rO 






(M 






>» 



c3 



CO 

a! 






o 



e ts 



rO 



tH 



r-i r-i 



1-4 r-i 



rO 












a 3S 



O 



p 



rO 



H 



CO 

j;^ ct 1^ 
O 13 t- 

c3 



CSI 






CO 



^ 






a 
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CO 



l-i 



<iJ 






<M !N 



<5 



"a 



-i) 



'^ 



^ 



r-i 



C5> 



to 



S 






CO 



tH 



<a 






CO 



CO 



iH 



iH 






(N 



CM 



'SJ 



S 



CO 



O^O^OOHr^OO 



^ P 'p 



P 

^ O ;^ 

« O TO 



rO 



< 



CO 



OOHi-l 



00 






^ 






CO 

id 



C^ 






^ 
C^ 












^ X ^ X ^ oj 



no 

P* 
O 

u 

a* 

a> 



Cm 



P 
)— t 

Q 



^ 



c3 
0) 



P 

o 

bC 
p.- 



tH 



(N r-t 






Cb 



fl 
O 
bO 
P 

TV ^ ™ 

J-. a ■ 



r-i 






^ 






CO 



C3 






p p 

ra fc- H 
g CS 

a. U 2 



CO Cq 






01 



«o 



« 



e « 



rH 



(MrJ< 



i-( O-l ^ 



%^. 



1^ 



t-co 






CO 



r-( 









P 



13 

I ^rv 

C 






1/1 

P 



s3 






8^ 



o 







^ 



V 




< 






I 



« 



S 



1 



f 



i 



i 

I 



4 

1 




^«i^ 






I. 



\ 







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/ 



.J 



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\ 




V^tt'i #'« 



1 



1 



mit 



r 



! 



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I 



?^n. 




V 



44 






r _ — V _ J 





i. . 








rt- 



rr 





i 



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■1 



P 



fi^' 



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1540 



CRUSTACEA. 






.!^ 



• 



\ 






■ V 



'* 



I" 




1«^ 



I 



o 




I 



^ ^ 



^ 



■I 





J 



-'#f 



'1 



'mos, 



o 

■ 

t3 




w. 



1^ 



* 



CQ 



^ 

;?5 









g3 

o 



OQ 



^ 



•I^:jox 



'OT:jojy 



c5 



QQ 



g 



<1 







w 



l^^ox 



CO CO H 0:1 0^ cq r-H i-(<M 



CO-^ ClT-i tH tH 



T-l 






<ii 












sees 

CO (M 1— [ i-H 



e S 






■^ 



. CO 



CO 



tu 



CO <N 1-1 






^ 






CQ 






C3 



« 



t/i 



12; 



l-iHCliM 









to 

CO 






« 



^ o 



T-H T-i 






CP 



•V 






o 









« e !3 






to 



< 



10 



5? 

13 



■ > 






CO 



fJS 












« 

cq 






CO 



i (M 



O 



^ 



cT 



c6 



OQ 



P5 Ph Pm B W <i Ph P^ W o o 



-.0 

CO — 

t3 c2 s 



O 



o 

B 



u 

o 
o 

a 

a; 

a 



p. o 
;-( P- 



co 



■^ 



'^ 



^ 



<; 






P 






O 



!3 



o 



tH 



00 T-i 



rO 



rO ^ 



UD 



CO 






CO 



^ 



rO 



rO 






^C* 



\ 



rH 



'^ 



C^ 







O 









o 



0) 



\ 






P 



o 






CO 

o 



c3 

P- 
3 



P< 

o 

u 

;3 



02 Pk 02 33 02 <1 WP^ 



fi 



'). 




t 






I' > 



- \ 

r 




' r 



- -- ■■- 



- --I 














4 



{ 



^ 




GP:0GRAPHICAL distribution of CRUSTACEA 



1541 



J 1 



EH 



o 



I 



r 

{ 




o 



^ 



I^^OX 



1 



OQ 



^ 



"^ 



• 



02 






GQ 

• r^ ^ f-f iS 

ra 3J H a 



o 



^ 



c3 



t/2 



I?; 



Itb:Jox 



I 



ptSiJ^ 



t) 



c3 



<4 



c3 






o 

a 



CQ 



T3 

a; 






l^iox 



CO 



125 



QQ 



CO i-H fH <M CD Tl< >0 



iH i-ii-l 



^0^0 ^C. 



cocq 



rfs 



iH COtH (M 



CO 



<=1 









e so e « e c3 e 



CO 






CO 1-1 



^ 






OrH 






^ 

o^^ 



Cq CO 






*w 



'^ 



c3 



::= • !=s 



U3 



e 



'^ 



<^i 



CO 



01 






^ 



CO 



e e 



CO 



ts e 



cc 



03 






Kl 



a? 



^ O. 



- O 



■? S 



P 



C5 



CO 



rH 



d 



CO 






C& 



o 



^55 



^ S"'ai -T - 



E^i^o.^^S5^^ 



P o 



TT-H 1f CS 



j^ 3 s c p f3 -H .a 

t-3 c/i CU O O M Pil -< 



a. 






<N 



-► 



« e 



(N 



(M 



CM 



rH 



rC> 



CO >^ 



i-l rH 



e 






T-t 



rO 



03 



s 



O — ; o. +3 -t; 



-^ 



CO 1-4 



^ 



s 



'^ 









r ^ 



12; 
o 



p^ a ^-^ 



!. O 



u 






o o a; ^ cJtd 



-tfl o 



-i:;^ 



X 



o 



o 



^ ^ >. ^.^ ^-^.bbSrt^S 



Hf^OQgCi^gcBKlaiPiSH; 






a 



v^< 



386 



ill 



il!;^ 



\ 



\ti 



I 1 1' 



i 



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11 




i»KS 




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> 

i 

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1 



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->^ 



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^ --^ 



I 




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r- 




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■ 




-^ 



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1542 



CRUSTACEA. 




M* 



P 



id 






I 




ft 

o 

o 

I— I 




f 



i 



> 




^ 




'« 



li 



H'4^ 



» J 



\ 



n 



f 



4t 




I 



I rt.i. 



•Rox 



o 



CQ 



;?5 









OQ 



1^ 



rC 0^ 53 a 



< 



m 



^ 



•mox 



•pistj^i 



o 



c3 






C3 



c3 

a 

■ 






CQ 



CD 



;2i 



'TOOX 



QQ 



125 



W. 






CO 



1-1 ''^ 



(N 



tHtHC^ 



■^ c^ <M l^^ th 



CO 



1H 






r< 



/■ 



CO 



CO 



T 









CO^ 






o 

-* 



^ 






05 






COiH 









C<1 



rO 



W r-( H r-1 r-1 



^S 



^ 




r 



r> 



« 



C5J 



ft 



H 
O 

ft 






GQ 
O 

o 



c3 
Id 

2^ 



<1 
ft 



O 
O 

CO 



m 



c3 



o 



CM 



W CS <» 



iH 



CO 






■» 



V 



CO 






^ 



CO 



CO 



<o 



* 



CO r-( 






<i) 



^ 
^ 



tS 






p3 



mOp^sqc:) 









B 



T3 

a 



to 

o 

'ft*: 



IK 
02 



CO 

o3 









<U 



^ 



8 

tMrH 



CO 



rH CO iH CM r-i C^ (N 



-< 



CI 



^ 



c^ 






<N 



^ 



r-l 'M 



-^ 






<M 



<» 






03 



o D-, . 



o 



a 

J3 






tN 



r-1 






r<; 



'^ 



(M 



HS 



<M 



s 



<o 



^ 









CO 









B 

o 

o 
Id 



rO 



<0 



<» 



rfi 



« 






CO 



OOiH O Cq 






o 



COrH 



rO 






-(1 

ft 



o 

H 
O 






CO 



^ 
■^ 



CI 



^ 



^ 



CO iH 



CO 



e e 



c3 

=5 h-l ^ 






o 



.c3 
O 



-« 






c3 



o 



f^ 1 L 



TO 

a; 

s 



to tH lO 1— ! r-( lO 



CO 



'^ 



^ 



(M 



^ 



r-l CO 



(Mcq 



cq 



rO 



i^i 



ES3 

o 






-^ 



CO 



^ 



o 

:« ce _ 
to bo fl 






cS 



03 
□ 

o 



cS 

ri5 



/ 









o 



^^ S O P- ft C^ ^ hJ'hn'S h^ f^ "< ^^ S <* 



>^ S .1=: ^^^i: K K -^ S =^ i^ -S 



\ 





f 




'-I —I— --T 



--.*- - . 







i 



' X _ 



' -^ 







"^ 



i'. 



II 



I 



i« 



1 > 



^ 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1543 



rH(M^r-l'MrHr-!T-t 






^ 
t— 



^ 



CO- 



^ 















CO Ci 



CO 



s^ 



CO 



^ 






Ci ^ 







CD'^ 



Ol 



CO 



O 



CO 









o 



CO 

ft 

o 



O 

o 

B 



o 



^ 



rH 



i-l 



CO C^l 



*s 



^ ^ 

^ 



^ 






01 






<i3 



o: 



a) 






o -< oi o o o ^ ;?; o <J 



c6 



c8 

o 

o 

p. 






ft 
O TO 

ft s 



TO 



/ 



ft 

o 

o 

02 






CO 



•JTJ^OI 



O 



fZi 



;zi 



•i-l 



GQ 



1^ 






o 

S 



s 



iy2 






*l'6^0X 



•piSu^^ 



c3 



< 

H 



CQ 









l^^ox 



c3 

o 

a 



OQ 



c3 



02 






c*-- 



iHi-iT-t 



Til 



• • 



rH CO 



* t 






■^ 



1-4 



\ 






e 



OJ 



to 



^ 



Cl 



^ 



CO CM 



lO 



H 
CO 






9 

o 

P:5 



P 






•S 






COiH 



» ■ 



« • 



CrO 



<0 
CI 



H 








M 


•^ 


c6 


TO 




TO 


[^ 


S 




"o 


'3 


0) 




Ser 





TO 






O 

^ ^-2 5 



P 



^ &^ 






i-lr-lr-i 



^ 



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trr.5 



cfi 



03 



=3 
:3 






o 
o 



rO 



T-iTilC^ 



r< 






r-f 



s 



r-> _jf- 



8.2 ^ 



Ci 



a-cl .^ 






m 

3 



•^ 



evj 



PI 



at 
O 






c .a 



HrH 



s 






r .j^ ce 



o 

ft 



ce 



2J 



OP 




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.1 



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4 



1 




(M 



I 



I 



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I 



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I 



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f 



f 



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«4 



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14 



til-. 



an 







I 

1 




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4^i 




r 



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3 



1544 



CRUSTACEA. 



!» 




/ 



1 



I 



I 

I 



ft 

o 



Pw 




<1 




s 





1 



^ 



t- 




i 




f 



*Ib;ox 



'S 

■ 



02 



1^ 



o 



Oi 



;2; 



_ «1 

£3 03 

^ 8 g a 






f4 



xn 



1^ 



•l-eiox 



•piSuj 






02 















'm'^j^ 






F4 





■CQ 



^ 
^ 



€3 
O 

* 



02 



;2i 



tH CCCl 



rH 



iH -^ 



C^ 



CI iH CO OS rH 



w 






CM 



1^ 



S 



rH 



rO 



Pi 

O 



to (^^ 



■ • 
* • 



■ « 
to to 



CI 



e 



c^ 



CO 



CO 



c* 






l-H T-( rH I— 1 T-t 



d 



^ 






CO 






CO 



-< 



rf* 



CO 



•^ 



CO 



c^ 



IGi 



o 












CO 



3^ ^.S 2^ g 

»-■ J- o3 r^ a; O "^ 






-jS 



Sev, 



tCJ 






d 



C» 



C^ 



^^ 






05 



=3 ce .5 



jq 

o 









c 






CO 
-t-> S 



a 

p. 



p- 

o 



s 



o3 



o 

o 

O 



.a 

IS 



TO 



=5 „- 



TO 



P 

■ o 



02 



l-i 



CO 



O (M r-i C^ W 



« 



c^ 



to 



S 



"^ r-l 



rH 



."^ 



'I* r-! 



CO »o 



c^ 

to 






CI . 



to 
*CJ 

JO tH 



* * 

c^ 






CI 



^ 



CI 



2 g o P-^ 



O 

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c3 






CO ^ 

33 -r 



fcC 



CO JZ 



C6 



if. 






c 



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a; 
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CO 



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to to « (3 

1-1 iH CO 



to 



c* 



CO 



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01. 



COu::>THrHCOrHO;OrHCO 



iH 



CI 



CO 



s 



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rH 1-H rH rH 1— t 



P 









r^ TO CC O 

< ^ H^ o P < 



o 

p 



c 
o 

a 

02 



O 

o 
a? 



o 
o 



XJL 



lO 






s 



^ 



^ 






o 






o 









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CO 



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CI CI 



CI 



^T-H 



00 00 



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rH!M 



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o ;:5 



i 






% 




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_, _ t _ V 



w 







1. 1 











GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA 



154 







f 













• * • ■ * ■ ■ 




. .T-l 










'% 


- 


• 




■ 










' 


rH 


( 
( 














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55 






r-i^^ 




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<, 






















■ * ■ 

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t- 






i-lrH<MHT-lrHi-lrH C-lrH tHCC 


■ 4 ■ ■ 


1 

r 


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iiH COCOr-4 










1-1 








iH 




^i 










< 


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* 
1 * 
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r 4 
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t 9 

w 
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B 

t m 
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B 


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THi-i • • • I 

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1 - 






















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* ■ * • ■ 1 

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• 

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B ■ B B B 

■ * * B * 
• . . B * 




1 


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4 






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I . 








F 1 






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rH * . ft . 


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c 


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p <: 

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r.2 

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J 

3 


ft 

ft 

% 

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3 

8 


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Cm . : 


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fc- o =e r 






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■. 



■■ 



f^^^^<^^^^^p^^^^^ 



t>jHffiS&HQfiQ M a- cu^cm^cmPhhcuJop^ 



387 



\ 



I 



4 



ijn 




1 



f 



ii 



s 



fl j 



1 



1 



r 






i 



i 
I 



I 



\ 




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^ 



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r 




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r 



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i 



1546 



CRUSTACEA. 




RECAPITULATION. 



f 



f 



fw 



,f 



\ 



I 



; - 







4 



I 



« 



The three subdivisions adopted in the preceding table, are desig- 



nated 





and C; in the following summary of the results. 



The 



division A, includes the Atlantic and Pacific coasts and islands of 
America J B, the European and West African coasts and islands, from 

r 

Cape ^ Hof& to Greenland inclusive ; and C, the coasts and islands of 
the Indian and Pacific Oceans (America excluded).* 



( 



I. BRACHYURA. 



A. 



Maioidea. 

Maiinea, 



Parthenopinea, 
Oncininea, 

Total Maioidea, 

Cancroidea. 
Cancridse, 
Xanthidae, 
Eriphid^e, 



69 
1 




70 



10 
17 

7 



Portunidse, Platyonycliidse and 

Podophtlialmidse, 
Telphusineaj . 
Cyclinea, 

Total Cancroidea, 

GtRAPSOIDEA, 

Leucosoidea, 
Corystoidea, 

Total Braohyura, 



13 



6 
1 



54 



51 
9 

6 



190 



B. 



24 (1 a) 



5 




29(1) 



3 

7 (la) 

5 

19 (1 a) 
1 





35 (2) 

18(5) 
12 

5 
99(8) 



c. 



73 (1 5) 

29 
2 



104 (1) 




129 (1 h) 

52 (1 £) 

54 (1 a) 

7 




242 (3) 

124 (5) 
48(1) 
8 



526 (10) 



\ 




II. ANOMOURA 



- -'" 



\ 



Dromidea, 

Bellidea, 

Raninidea, 



A. 

1 

2 
1 



\ 



t 



B. 

9 





c. 



15 (1 h) 

5 



-'*' The discrepancies between the enumeration here and the summaries of the preceding 
tableS; arise from species omitted in one or both^ on account of the uncertainty of their 
localities. 



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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1547 



1^ 



'- -. 



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I 



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i 



1 



Hippidea, 
Porcellanidea, 

Lithodea, 
Pagui'idea, 
^gleidea, 
Gralatheidea, 



Total Anomoura, 



A. 

7 

24 
5 

26 
2 
3 



71 



B. 

2 
4 
1(1 a) 

27 (1 a) 


6 (la) 

49(3) 



c. 

7 

19 
3 

61 (1 6) 



5 



115 (2) 



» 



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H 



Thalassinidea, 
Astacidea, 
Caridea, 
Penseidea, 



III. MACROURA. 



Total Macroura, 



A. 

7 
29 
40 

4 



80 



B. 

8 
9 

77 (3 a) 



8 



J 



102 (3) 



c. 



9(16) 

27 

85 (3 6) 

22 
143 (4) 



«"l 



1 



) 



Squilloidea, 

Mysidea, . 
Amphionidea, 



IV. anomobranchiata 



A. 

10 
3 





Total Anomobranchiata, 13 



V. TETRADECAPODA. 



B. 
16 

18 
9 



43 



c. 



32 (3 6) 

15 

11 

58(3) 




I 



*' 





If 



\ 1 



ISOPODA. 



Idotaeidea, 

Oniscoidea, 

Cymothoidea, 



V 



Total Isopoda, 



A. 



11 

30 

32 



73 



B. 



25 

72 (1 a) 
57 (1 a) 



154 (2) 



c. 



6(16) 
11 

42 (2 6) 



69(3) 




Anisopoda, 
Amphipoda. 



Caprellidea, 
Crammaridea, 

Hyperidea, 



Total Amphipoda, 



10 



13 

55 
9 



77 



Total TETRADECAPODA, 



160 



24 

114 

27 



38 



165 



357 (2) 



6 

51 
17 



6 



74 



139 (3) 



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1548 



CKUSTACEA. 



The preceding table affords the following lists of genera of the three 
grand divisions, according to the present state of the science. 



h 



I 



1. GENERA EXCLUSIVELY AMERICAN OR OCCIDENTAL 



f 



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Coast on 


T 


Coast on 




Trhich found. 


V 


which found. 


1. Maioidea, 




3. Grapsoidea. 




Microrhynchtis, 


west. 


Cyrtograpsus, . 


• east. 


Salacia, 


# 


Uca, 


west and east. 


r 

Libidoclea, 


. west and east. 


Gecarcoidea^ . 


east. 


Libinia, 


• 


Fabia, 


west. 


Pelia, . 


west. 


Pinnixa, 


. west and east. 


Rhodia, 


1 


Pinnotberelia, 


west. 


Pisoides, 


# 


Halicarcinus^ 


. west and east. 


Thoe, 


west and east. 


4. Leucosoidea. 


r 


Chorilia, 


west. 


Platymera^ 


west. 


Scyra, 


1 


HepatuS; . 


west and east. 


Othonia, 


• 


Gruaia, 


• 


MithraculuS; 


west and east. 


5. Corystoidea. 




Tyche, 




Telmessus^ 


west. 


EurypodiuS; 




Peltarion, 


• 6cLSu. 


Oregonia, 


west. 


PseudocorysteS; 


west. 


Inachoides^ 




6. Anomoura. 


H 


Pugettia^ 


ii 


Corystoides, 


west. 


EpialtuS; . 


west and east. 


Bellia, 


• 


Leucippa, 


u a 

• 


Ranilia, . 


u 


2. Cancroidea, 


- 


Albunbippa^ . 


west. 


Pilumnoides, . , 


west. 


Ecbidnocerus, 


a 


TrichodactyluS; 


east. 


7. Macroura, 


r 


ArenseuS; 




Cambarus, 


west and east. 


Potamia, 


west and east. 


Paraerangon, . 


west. 


Orthostoma, . 


east. 


^glea, . 


a 


Acantbocyclus, 


west. 


CryphiopS; 


• 



2. GENERA EXCLUSIVELY OP THE AFRICO-EUROPEAN DIVISION. 




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v_ 




1. Maioidea. 

Lissa. 

Stenorbyncbus. 
Amatbia. 
Eurynome. 

2. Cancroidea, 

Perimela. 

Portumnus. 

Polybius. 



3. Grapsoidea. 

Gronoplax, 

Heterograpsus. 

Bracbynotus. 
Hymenosoma. 

4. Leucosoidea, 

Ilia. 

5. Corystoidea. 

. Tbia. 



V 



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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA 



/' 



1549 



Corystes. 

6. Anomoura* 

Homola, 

7. Macroura. 

Axius. 



/ 



Calocaris. 
Ephyra. 

Gnathophyllum. 



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3. GENERA EXCLUSIVELY ORIENTAL, OR OE THE THIRD DIVISION 



i 

4 



V 



1. Maioidea. 

Macrocheira. 

Paramithrax. 

Micippa. 

Lahaina. . 
Naxia. 

Hj^astenus. 
Pyria. 
Cyclax. 
Camposcia. 

Paramicippa. 
Tiarinia. 

Perinea. 

Halimus. 

Mensethius. 

Stenocionops. . 
Huenia. 

Xenocarcinus. 

Parthenope. 

Eumedonus. 

Ceratocarcinus. 

Gronatonotus. 

Eurynolambrus. 

2. Cancroidea, 

Atergatis. 

Liomera. 

Liagora. 

Medseus. 

Halimede. 

Etisus. 

Carpilodes. 
Zozymus. 

Daira. 
Cymo. 

Polydectus. 

(Ethra. 
Galene. 
Pseudozius. 



J 



388 



Melia. 

Acanthodes. 

Actumnus. 
Kuppellia. 

DomEecius. 
Trapezia. 
Tefcralia. ^ 
Quadrella. 
Scylla. 

Charybdis. 
Lissocarcinus. 
Podophthalmus. 
3. Grapsoidea. 

Curtonotus. 
Cleistostoma. 

Macrophthalmus 
Heloecius. 
Scopimera. 
Doto. 

Eriocheir. 

Platynotus. 

Trichopus. 

Sarmatium. 

Helice. 

Gecarcinicus. 

Xenophthalmus. 
Xanthasia, 
Hymenicus. 
Elamena. 

Myctiris. 



J. 



/" 



4. Leucosoidea. 
Mursia. 
Orythia. 
Thealia. 
Matuta. 
Philyra. 
Leucisca. 
Nucia. 



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1550 



CRUSTACEA. 



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Nursia, 

Myra. 
Ixa. 

Iphis. 

Arcania. 

Oreophoru&. 

Tlos. 

Ethusa. 

5. Cor^stoidea. 

Kraussia. 

(Eidia. 
Dicera. 

6. Anomoura, 

Caphyra. 

Raninoideis. 
Kanina. 

Notopus. 
Lyreidus. 

Cosmonotus 
Lomis. 
Diogenes. 
Ani cuius. 
Birgus. 



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i 



7. MacToura. 
Laomedia. 
Glaucotboe. 
Callianidea. 
Callisea. 

Therms. 
Ibacus. 
Astacoides. 
Paranepbrops. 

Cyclorbynchus 

Atyoida. 

Alope. 

(Edipua. 

Harpilius^. 

Ancbistia. 

Palsemonella. 

Hymenocera. 

Oplopborus- 

Regulus. 

StcBopus. 

Spongicola, 

Acetes. 

Eucopia. 



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4. GENERA COMMON TO THE AMERICAN AND AFRICO-EUROPEAN DIVISIONS^ 

BUT NOT IN THE THIRD^ OR ORIENTAL. 



1. Maioidea. 

Hyas. 
Herbstia. 
Leptopodia. 
Stenorbyncbus 

2. Gancroidea. 



Atelecyclus. 
3. Aiiomoura. 

Munida. 

Grimotbea. 

4. Macroura. 

Homarus. 



/ 



5. GENERA COMMON TO THE AFRICO-EUROPEAN AND ORIENTAL DIVISIONS; 



■j 



^ 





J' 






■ i 



NOT YET FOUND IN THE OCCIDENTAL. 



A. 



1. Maioidea. 

Inaobus. 

Doclea. 

Maia. 

Acbseua 
Lambrus. 

2. Cancroidea. 

Actsea. 
Actaeodes. 

Tbalamita 



Portunus 



D, 



Telpbusa. 



3. 


Leucosoidea 


1 


Cycloes. 
Ebalia. 


r 

4. 


Dorippe. 

Anomoura. 
Latreillia. 



Cymopolia. 
Remipes. 
5. Macroura. 

Nika. 

Lysiaata. 

Caridina. 



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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1551 



6. GENERA COMMON TO THE THREE DIVISIONS. 



' '1 



.^ 



*i 



1. Maioidea. 

Pisa. 

Mithrax (mainly Occid.) 

Acanthonyx. 

2. Cancroidea. 

Xantho. 

Panopasus (mainly Occid.) 

Pilumnus. 

Eriphia. 

Lupa. 

Amphitrite. 

Carcinus. 

Platyonychus. 
8. Grapsoidea, 

Grapsus. 

Goniograpsus. 

Sesarma (sparingly European). 

Acanthopus. 
Plagusia. 



Pinnothera. 
Calappa. 



4. A 



noTnoura, 



Dromia (sparingly Occid.) 



Albunasa. 
Porcellana. 

Lithodes. 

+ 

Paguristes. 

Bernhardus. 

Pagurus (mainly Orient.) 

Clibanarius. 

■ 

Galathea. 

5. MacTOura. 
Gebia. 
Scyllarus. 
Panulirus. 
Palinurus. 
Astacus. 
Crangon. 
Alpheus. 

b 

Betseus. 

Hippolyte. 

Pandalus. 

Palsemon. 

Sicyonia. 

Penasus. 



The following are lists of species common to 



They may be much changed by further 



more of the 

study, 



three divisions. 

through the discovery that the specimens from distant localities 



not 



ipecific. Should this happen, ther 



a relation indicated 



based on their close similarity, which is important 



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1. SPECIES STATED TO BE COMMON TO DIYISIONS A. AND B., OR THE 

AMERICAN AND THE AFRICO-EUROPEAN WATERS. 



\ 




>♦< « 



\ 



-1 



r 

Hyas coarctata; Massachusetts and Long Island, in United States j France; England; 









Shetlands. 

■ J 

Leptopodia sagittaria; Canaries; West Indies; Yalparaiso. 

Panopseus Herbstii; Mediterranean; Key West, South Carolina, and New York, in 

United States. 
Carcinus msenas; Mediterranean at Nice; Crimea; England; Massachusetts, United 

States. 
Grapsus pictus; Madeira; Peru and Chili ; (also various Pacific islands.) 



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1552 



CRUSTACEA. 



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Planes minutus; Atlantic Ocean^ and occasionally found on both the American and 

European coasts. 
G-oniograpsus varius; Canaries; Mediterranean at Algiers^ Nice, Italy; Crimea; Brit- 



V 

/ 



tany ; and probably at Rio Janeiro, Brazil. 
West and South Carolina, ii 

r 

Africa, according to M^Leay. 
West Indies ; Canaries : Made 



and in South 



VX 



> 



South Africa (also various tropical Pacific islands). 
;usia squamosa; West Indies; Key West, South Carolina, in United States; 




Sea; Port Natal). 
; Cape Town (also. 



(also 



(also, Pondicherry) 



West 



^ 



and on the coast of South Carolina. 



[ , 



-4 

Lithodes maia; Great Britain ; Shetlands; Norway; coast of Massachusetts (rare). 
Bernhardus streblonyx; Great Britain; France; Mediterranean; Norway; Massachu- 

F 

setts, in United States ; (also Kamtschatka). 
Cenobita diogenes; West Indies; Mediterranean ; (Hawaii ?) 

Crangon vulgaris; Great Britain; France; United States; San Francisco and Puget^s 

Sound, Western America. . 

Crangon boreas; Norway; Iceland; Greenland; Massachusetts (in fish), (also, Kamt- 
schatka). 

Pandalus annulicornis; Scotland and Shetlands; Norway; Iceland; Massachusetts 

(rare) . 

Gonodactylus chiragrus; Mediterranean; Key West; (also. Red Sea; Port Natal, 

South Africa; Isle of France; East Indies; Swan River, 
Australia; Pacific Ocean, at Feejees, Tongatabu, &c.). 



2. SPECIES COMMON TO B. AND C, THE AERICO-EUROPEAN AND ORIENTAL SEAS. 



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Mithrax dichotomus ; Mediterranean ; East Indies. 

Achseus Cranchii ; Mediterranean; Japan (probably same species). 

Actsea rufo-punctata; Canaries and Mediterranean; Isle of France, Indian Ocean. 

Thalamita admete; Canaries; Port Natal, South Africa; Red Sea; Indian Ocean and 

East Indies; Pacific Ocean, at the Feejees, Samoa, Hawaiian 

Islands, Wake's Island, &c. 
Pilumnus Forskalii ; Canaries ; Red Sea. 
Grapsus pictus ; see above. 

Grapsus strigosus; Canaries; South Africa; Red Sea; East Indies. 
Goniograpsus messor ; Canaries; Port Natal, South Africa; Red Sea; East Indies. 



v^ ^ l^h^ N Planes minutus; Atlantic; Japan, 

Acanthopus planissimus ; see above. 



Plagusia tomentosa ; Chili ; South Africa ; New Zealand. 
Plagusia squamosa; see above. 



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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1553 



-Cycloes granulosa; Canaries; Jopaw (probably same species). 

Remipes scutellata; Ascension Island; Swan River, Australia; St. Christopber's 
-Lysmata seticaudata; Mediterranean; Japan, 

Alpheus Edwardsii; Mediterranean; Cape Verdes; Port Natal, South Africa. 
Tandalus pristis ; Mediterranean ; Japan. 

Squilla mantis ; Mediterranean; Canaries; Tschttsan, 

Pagurus striatus; Mediterranean; Japan. 




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3, COSMOPOLITES. 



The above lists include the following species occurring in the Occi 



dental. Africo-European^ and Oriental 



Grapsus pictus. 
Acanthopus planissimus. 
Plagusia squamosa. . 
Plagusia tomentosa. 



Bernhardus streblonyx. 
Crangon boreas. 
Crangon vulgaris. 

Gonodactylus chiragrus 






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These are cosmopolite species.* The Grapsus, Acanthopus, Plagusia 
squamosa, and Qonodactylus pre-eminently deserve this name, being 
found both north and south of the equator. They thrive in the 

hottest equatorial waters, and have their extreme limit in the tempe- 
rate region. The temperature they admit of is hence at least from 56 

to 88° F. 

The other species are cold-water species. Plagusia tomentosa 

belongs to the southern subtemperate region, being reported from 
Cape Town, New Zealand, and Chili, and the rest are found in high 
northern latitudes, and probably pass from the Atlantic to the Pacific 
Ocean through the Arctic Seas. 

Besides the above species, a few are found in the West Indies, 
which occur also in the Oriental Seas, but are not yet known from the 
European or West African coasts. These, which also may be styled 
cosmopolites, are as follows : 



Mithrax asper ; East Indies ; probably the same on the Peruvian coasts. 
Atergatis lobatus ; Red Sea and Indian Ocean ; West Indies. 

Carpilius maculatus ; East Indies ; South France j Japan ; various Pacific Islands from 

the Paumotus to the Feejees and Hawaiian Islands; West Indies^ 
Eriphia gonagra ; East Indies; Port Natal; Key West. 



9 

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* The Platyonychus hipustulatus may possibly be another cosmopolite, for it is re- 
ported from Table Bay, the East Indies, Japan, and Valparaiso. But we believe the 
Valparaiso species to be different from that of the East Indies, and have so named it. 

389 



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1554 



CRUSTACEA. 



Menippe Kumphii; East Indies; Rio Janeiro and the West Indies. 

Chlorodius exaratus ; Pacific Islands ; East Indies; West Indies. 

Lysiosquilla scabricaudis ; Indian Ocean; West Indies; Brazil; South Carolina. 



*f 



From the survey already made, it is apparent, that the three grand 
divisions of the seas and coasts adopted in the preceding table, have 
very few species in common, and they correspond to a natural geo- 
graphical arrangement. They constitute three kingdoms, to which 
two should be added, one for the Arctic Seas, and the other for the 
Antarctic. 

I. The Occidental Kingdom, embracing the Atlantic and Pacific 
coasts of America to the frigid region, or some point in the subfrigid 



These kingdoms are : 



region. 






II. The European Kingdom, extending from Cape Horn (or Cape 
Agulhas) to the Shetlands inclusive, and embracing the adjoining 
islands. 

III. The Oriental Kingdom, including the east coast of Africa, the 
south and east of Asia, and the islands of the Indian and Pacific 

L 

Ocean, exclusive of the American continent. 

- 

IV. The Arctic Kingdom, including Norway, Iceland, Greenland, 

the Alascha Archipelago, and adjoining parts of the coasts of America 
and Kamtschatka, with other Arctic lands. 

V. The Antarctic Kingdom, embracing Fuegia, the Falklands, 
southern New Zealand, and the lands or islands of the Antarctic Seas. 



Each of the first three kingdoms are naturally divided into three 
subkingdoms : a north, a middle, and a south, corresponding severally 
to the North Temperate, Torrid, and South Temperate zones of sea- 
temperature. The importance of these divisions will be a subject of 
further remark beyond. 

The summary of the results in the preceding table, presents some 

striking facts. 



We observe, first, that there is a 



ratio of 1 : 1*5 between the 



Maioids of the A and C divisions (that is between those of the Occi- 
dental and Oriental seas, as just explained), while the ratio is about 
1 : 4i for the Cancroids. So also, while the ratio of the A and B 
divisions together (Occidental and European) to C (Oriental) is for 
the Maioids, nearly 1 : 1, it is for the Cancroids, 1 : 3. Here is a 
wide difference between the Occidental and Oriental seas as regards 

3 , 

these groups. This last ratio is for the Corystoids nearly that for the 
Maioids, or more exactly, 1 : 0-75; and for the Grapsoids it is 1 : 2; 






V 





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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1555 



for the Leucosoids, 1 : 2J. (The Arctic 



d A 



Seas are here 



merged in the other kingdoms, with which thej are most nearlj 



associated 



If we compare these ratios with those which the same groups sus- 
tain as regards temperature, as exhibited on a former page, we discover 
that there is a very close parallelism; showing plainly that the preva- 
lence of Maioids in the Occidental Seas must be owing to the com- 
parative prevalence of cold waters ; and the prevalence of the warm- 
water groups, the Cancroids and Leucosoids, in the Oriental Seas, is 



g conversely to the great extent of warm 



A 



ratio between the A and 



di 



igether of the 



Macroura. and 



C division, is nearly as 1 : 0*8, which sustains the 



same 



The 



onding ratio for the Tetradecapoda is as 1 : 0*26 



B 



as this group, owing to the smallness of the species, has not been the- 
roughly investigated, except in European regions, directly under the 

eyes of European observers, we cannot use satisfactorily the facts 
they present for deducing general conclusions, or for characterizing 
zoological districts or provinces. Still, it should be observed that the 

facts conform to the same principle. 

)ortance before comparing the zoolo- 



It is he 



im 



g 



character of diffe 



coasts, that the temperature 



of 



those coasts should be ascertained. 

Comparative tables of the East Indies and Mediterranean, or of the 
Peruvian coast and the East Indies, or of the southeast and southwest 
coast of Africa (and so on), would lead us far astray, if this element 
were left out of view ; for a difference of temperature region, implies 
a difference of genera and species, independent of other considerations. 
On these grounds, whole continents, of sides of continents, may have 
a common character and differ widely from other continents in the 

same latitudes. 

If we look at the American continent in this point of view, we at 

r 

once perceive a striking peculiarity. All the coasts of North and 
South America, with the Gallapagos on the west, belong to the Tem- 
perate zone, excepting a few degrees along by Panama, and a con^ 
nected range of coast from Key West to Rio Janeiro. Chili and Peru 
are excluded even from the warm temperate region, and so also, the 
coast of the United States, north of Cape Hatteras. 

Now contrast America with the Oriental Seas. The whole east 



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1556 



CRUSTACEA. 



of Africa, north of the parallel of 30° south, the coasts of India 



and the East India Islands, and the northern half of A 



together with the 



umerous islands of the Pacific, belong alike to 



the Torrid zone. In the Am 



Seas, the torrid coasts make a 



single range, and have many species in common throughout. In the 



Oriental Seas, they reach with 



pted surface over one-half 



of the circumference of the globe, and there is room for many distmct 
provinces within the same temperature region. The space for Torrid 



zone species along 



American 



the Atlantic or Pacific 



that 



hole Atl 



Ocean, is small compared 



of the East Indies, Indian Ocean, and Middle 



r 

fact is more striking, if we consider that the Atlantic east of the West 
Indies contains no islands in the Torrid zone, besides St. Helena, 
Ascension, and the Cape Verdes, all of which are of small size. 



A 



o 



order to compare the coasts of Am 



and Europe," we 



must observe that the warm temperate region is represented along the 
former by a small district from Northern Florida to Cape Hatteras, 
while this region does not reach at all the latter, and only the Cana- 
ries in the eastern Atlantic are within it. Moreover, the temperate 

L 

and subtemperate regions are mere points on the North American 
coast at Cape Hatteras j while on the European side, the former 
embraces the larger part of the Mediterranean, and a portion of North- 
western Africa, and the latter includes the Atlantic coast of Portugal. 
But north of Cape Hatteras, the coast of America is rightly compared 

with that of Europe, north of Portugal. 

To compare the coast of Asia and Europe, we first observe in the 



same manner 



the 



perature regions 



is in fact a striking 
Yet, the torrid and 



similarity with the coast of the United States. 
subtorrid regions are confined to limits much nearer the equator ; and 
the warm temperate, although embracing as many degrees of latitude 
as the warm temperate on the United States, does not on the China 
coast extend farther north than the subtorrid region of the Florida 
coast. The temperate region hardly has a place on the coast of 
China, while the subtemperate occupies the Yellow Sea. North of 
this Gulf, the coast corresponds mostly with the coast of the United 

States, north of Cape Cod. 

It is unnecessary to adduce other explanations, as the chart fur- 
nishes all that is needed for a ready comparison between the diffe- 
rent coasts. 




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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1557 




The propriety of uniting 



kingdom both coasts of America 



the eastern and western, and thus shutting off the latter from the 



g 



Pacific Ocean, may at first appear unnatural. Yet it is 



sup 



ported by all facts bearing on the subject. There are no species known 
to be common to Western America and the Middle Pacific, excepting 



two or three cosmopolites. Moreover, the genera are to a great ext 
distinct, and where so, they often occur on both sides of the contine 
The genera of Podophthalmia peculiar to America are mentioned 
page 1548, and also the particular coast on which they oc 
A review of some of the facts will exhibit in a stroi 

)logical resemblances of the two sides of the continent. 



g light the 



Of Cancel^ there s^re four species found on the west coast of South 



America. tJu 



of North America, and 



the 



North America 



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Of Hepatus, there is one species common to the West Indies and 
Brazil, a second, found at Rio Janeiro ; a third, at Valparaiso, Chili j 
2b fourth, on the Carolina coast. 

Libinia, in the same manner, has its species on the Atlantic and 

Pacific coasts of the United States, and the coasts of Western and 
Eastern South America. Mithrax is as widely distributed. 

Epialtus occurs in the West Indies, California, Brazil, Gallapagos, ' ; 
and Valparaiso. Potamia has two West Indian and one Chilian species. 

Eurypodius of Southern South America has its representative at V" 
Puget's Sound, in the genus Oregonia. 

Again, the Libinia duhia of the West Indies, is hardly distinguish- 
able, according to Prof. L. R. Gibbes, from the L. qffinis, Rand., of the 
California coast. L. spinosa of Brazil is also found in Chili. Lepto- 
podia sagiftaria j)CCUYS in the West Indies, and also, according to Bell, 
at Valparaiso; Acanthonyx Petiverii {T), in the West Indies, Brazil, 
and Gallapagos J Epialtus marginatus, on the coast of Brazil and at 
the Gallapagos (Bell) ; Epialtus hituherculatus , in Chili, and at Key 
West; Uca una, Guayaquil and West Indies; Alhuncea scutellata, West 
Indies and San Lorenzo, Peru ; Hippa emerita and talpoides, both 
on East and West America, North and South. 

It is obvious, therefore, that the east and west sides of America are 
very closely related, and differ widely in a zoological sense, from 
either of the other kingdoms. 

We observe further, that nearly all the genera peculiar to America 

are cold-water genera. They are mostly Maioids ; the large group of 

390 



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1558 



CRUSTACEA. 



the Cancroids, which belong mainly to warm waters, does not include 
a single genus exclusively American, and of the family Leucosidae, of 



the Leucosoids, there are only three known species. 

We also perceive why the western coast of America has no zoolo- 
gical affinity with the Pacific Islands. The temperature of their 
waters is widely different; and, moreover, the oceanic currents of the 
tropics run from the . American coast to the westward, and are a 
barrier to migration eastward. 

The relations of the American or Occidental to the Africo-European 
kingdom are of much interest. The two kingdoms are widely diffe- 
rent in most respects. 



In the first place, the genera Lwpa, Qelasi 



musj Ocypoda, Lihinia, 



\ 



Epialtus, Hepatus, well represented on the American coasts, are not 

known on the European, besides others (Table 1, page 1548) of less 
prominence. 

Again, there are several genera common in Europe, not known in 
America, as Inachus, Maia, Achwus, Portuiius, Ehalia, Latreillia, 
Athanas, in addition to those included in Table 2, on page 1548. 

Still, the American and Africo-European kingdoms have a common 

character separating them from the Oriental. For example : the 

/great genus Cancer occurs in both of these kingdoms, and is not known 

' in Oriental seas, except in New Zealand and Tasmania. So also the 
important genus Homarus; besides Hyas, Herhstia, Leptopodia, Atelecy- 
cliis, Munida, and Grimothea. The genus Homarus has one species on 
the coast of the United States, one on the coast of Europe, and one at 
Table Bay, South Africa, thus ranging over the whole Atlantic. 

We may now treat separately of tlie several Kingdoms^ and their 
subdivision into Provinces^ pointing out the naturalness of their limits^ 

and the characteristics of these Provinces. Each temperature region 
along a coast makes a distinct Province, which facts, where ascer- 
tained, show to be well characterized. In some cases, a farther sub- 
division may be desirable, and when so, the subordinate divisions may 
be called Districts. The Provinces of each zone together may consti- 
tute a Subkingdom, as the Torrid Subkingdom, Temperate Subking- 

dom, &e. 



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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



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1559 



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I. OCCIDENTAL KINaDOM. 



In the Occidental kingdom, there are in the first place, two Sections, 
the Eastern and the Western; and both these sections are subdivided 

into 

1. The Torrid Subkingdom; 2. The South Temjperate Subkingdom; 

3. The North Temperate Subkingdom. The last two subkingdoms 



include the whole of the Temperate zone 



pting perhaps the 



extreme portions, which on zoological grounds may be separated, and 
united to the Frigid zone, forming the Arctic or Antarctic kingdoms. 

In the following mention of the provinces, we give their lengths along 
the coast ; and it will be seen, that althougTa they may appear to be 
numerous, they still have a wide extent, the length being seldom under 
five hundred miles, and sometimes full four thousand miles. 



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A. WESTERN SECTION. 



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I. TORRID SUBKINGDOM. 



1. The Panama Province (torrid), extending from the equator or a 
degree south to a degree beyond Acapulco. Length, sixteen hundred 
miles. 

2. The Mexican Province (north subtorrid), reaching from the 
termination of the Panama province to the Peninsula of California. 
Length to the California Peninsula, exclusive of the Gulf, six hundred 
miles. 

3. The Guayaquil Province (south subtorrid) occupying from Cape 
Blanco, the west cape of South America, nearly to the equator, and 
including the Bay of Guayaquil. Length, nearly two hundred miles. 



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II. SOUTH TEMPERATE SUBKINGDOM 






1. The Gallapagos Province (warm temperate) includes the Galla- 
pagos Islands, but does not reach the continent. The genera peculiar 
to it are Microrhynchus, Pelia, Rhodia, Thoe, and Othonia. There are 
also two species of Mithraculus, one of Mlthrax, one of Pisoides (also 



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1560 



CRUSTACEA. 



Chilian), one of Eerhstia, one of Pisa, one of -^ 



The variety of 



Maioid forms is remarkably large. The Cancroids have not been 
described. Epialtus marginatus is also reported from Brazil. 

2. The Peruvian Province (temperate), from just north of Payta 
nearly to Copiapo. Length, fifteen hundred miles. The most cha- 
racteristic species appear to be the Panopceus crenatus, Xantho crenatus, 
and Albunhippa spinosa (another species of which genus occurs in 



California). There also ex 
of very large size, which is 



r 

here, the cosmopolite Grapsus pictus 
3 farther south ; also Lihinia rostrata 



Mithi 



asper 



A 



Porcellana rnitra^ Pagur 




besides several Chilian species 



and Xantho 



Orbigniiy X. Gaudicliaudii^ Bernhardus Edwardsii^ and Pseudosqiiilla 
monocerosy which are common to Chili and Peru. The Pilumnoides 
perlatus is reported from Peru by D'Orbigny ; but we observed it only 



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at Valparaiso, where it was originally found by Poeppig.* 

3. The Chilian Province (subtemperate) . Length, seven hundred 
miles. This province is distinguished from the Peruvian by the rare 
occurrence of Qrapsus pictus, and the unusual number and size of the 
species of Cancer and Poi^cellana, three of the former and ten of the 
latter existing at Valparaiso. Both of these genera have been shown 
to reach their highest developments in the middle Temperate zone. 
Other characteristic genera are the following :—InacIioides^ Acantlio- 
cyclas^ Platymera^ Pseudocorystes^ Bellia^ ^glea^ Cryphiops^ PlnnotJie' 
relia^ and Rhyncocinetes. JEpialius dentatus^ Ocypoda Gaitdichaudii^ 
Grap>siis planifrons^ Hepahts chilensis^ and Platyonychus purpureus are 
large and common species. The genera Ocypoda and Grapsus are not 
found south of the subtemperate region, Pilumnoides we suspect to 
be peculiar to Chili. The following are other genera represented in 
the Chilian seas : — Lihinia^ Lihidoclea^ Pisoides^ Leptopodia^ Leucippa^ 
Xantho (four large species)^ Panopceus^ Ozius (also an Australian genus) ^ 
Pilumnus^ Gelasimiis^ Gyclograpsus^ Uca^ Plnnixa^ Leiicosia^ Atelecyclus^ 
Pagiiristes^ Bernhardus^ Galathea^ Gallianassay Thalassina^ AlpheuSy 
BetceuSy Paloemon^ Pseudosquillay Gonodactylus . 

The Chilian province is allied to the Gallapagos through 
Plsoides tiiberculosus and perhaps^ Acanthonyx Petiverii; with Brazil^ 
through Lihinia; spinosa; with the West Indies and Canaries^ through 
Leptopodia sagittaria. The Hepati of Chili and Rio Janeiro are 
closely related; and we suspect that the H. chilensis is found also at 




-I 



* Gay, in his Historia de Chile, mentions its occurrence only on the Chilian coast. 



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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA, 



1561 



Callao, Peru. The Eurjpodii of the Patagonian seas sometimes reach 



A. 



U^^' c 



as far north as Valparaiso. 

Among the Tetradecapoda, Arnphoroidea typica is a peculiar species, ^^ 
yet it closely resembles a species from Australia. Other genera of 
Tetradecapoda represented in Chili, are the following \—Bpelys, Por- 
cellio, Lygia, Spheroma, Desmarestia (Nicolet), Orchestia^ Allorchestes , 
Iphimedia, Amphithoe, Aora, Hyperia, Primno, Pronoe, Oxycephalus. 

4. The Araucanian Province (cold temperate), extending from 
Valdivia nearly to the parallel of 50°. Length, nine hundred miles. 
The genera Eurypodius and Lithodes occur on this coast, and probably 

also Platyonychns and Pseudocorystes ; but the Araucanian species have 

not yet been studied. 

South of the Araucanian province lies the ISouth Patagonian and 
Fiiegian, the latter of which properly falls into the Antarctic kingdom. 



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III. NORTH TEMPERATE SUBKINGDOM. 



1. The SoNORA Province (warm temperate) along the California 

r 

Peninsula. Length, five hundred and fifty miles. 

2. The Diego Province (temperate), extending from just below the 



of 



Peninsula 



° to latitude 34 




and in- 



cluding the port of San Die 



Length, four hundred and fifty 



A species of the genus Pugettia and an Alhunhippa (a Peruvian genus) 
occur on this coast. 

3. The California^ Province (subtemperate) extending beyond 
the Bay of San Francisco to Cape Mendocino. Length, four hundred 
and eighty miles. This region has a close resemblance to the Chilian, 



Jt>r 




in some of its genera, which is also subtemperate 



Th 



ther 



three species of Go, 



of Epialtus, and one of Lihinia 



are 
Th£ 



Libinia is closely like the L. duUa of the United States, if not iden 

tical with it. 

4. The Oregon Province (cold temperate), extending probably t( 



Puget's Sound 



Length, about four hundred and eighty miles 



The 



Crangon vidgaris, common in Northern Europe, occurs on this coast. 



and the Echidnocerus of White 
mouth of the Columbia. 



Lithodes) is reported from, the 



y 



5. The PuGETTiAN Province (subfrigid). Length, about twelve 



hundred miles. This province has some distinctive g 







(related to Eurypodius), Chorilia, iScyra, and Telmessus; also. 



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1562 



CRUSTACEA. 



species of Pugetfia, Eyas, Pseudograpsus, Pinnothera, Fahia, Trichocera 



with others of Bernhardus, Gehia. Call 



Nephrons, Or an g on 



Paracrangon, Pandalus; and among the Tetradeeapoda, there are the 

ia, Orchestia, Allorchestes, IpTiimedia, 



g 



07ii 



SpliGToma, Arg 



and Gammar 




The northern part of the North American coast, including the 
Alaschka Archipelago, belongs to the Arctic kingdom. 



B. EASTERN SECTION 



I. TORJIID SUBKINQDOM. 



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The Caribbean Prov 



Islands, and the 



d north 



id), including the West India 
eastern coast of South America, 
from the north of Yucatan to beyond Bahia. Length, along the South 
American coast alone, about four thousand miles. There are as yet 



known Caribbean 



B 



of Podophthalmia., that do 



other Provinces in this or the other kingdoms. Mithrax and Uca are the 



more characteristic genera, and the latter is reported 



only 



/ 



from Guayaquil, Brazil. The following are prominent forms : — Cliori 
nus heros, Pericera cornuta, and P. S-spinosa, Amphitrite forceps and A 
'^-spinosa, Ocypoda rlwmbea, Galappa marmorata, Atya occidentalis , Pali 



nurus 
Carpil 



long 



Pal(Emon Jamaicensis. The Torrid zone genus 
two West Indian species, one of which (C. macu 



y 



latus) is a cosmopolite, and allies the West Indies to the Oriental seas 
Dromia, although a warm-water genus, has but a single representative 
D. latior; and of CMorodius, so common in the Orient, in like manner 

only one species has been observed, and that occurs also in the Pacific 
There is but a single species of Leucosidse known ) but the Caribbean 
species of Crustacea, it must be acknowledged, are not very thoroughly 
known. Through Leptopodia sagittaria the province is related to 
the Canaries. » 

2. The Florid AN Province (subtorrid). Key West and a part of 
Florida are here embraced, together with the Bermudas. Length on 
the United States coast, two hundred miles. The species are mostly 
those of the Caribbean Sea. A Lihinia, Hyas, Epialtus, and Menippe, 
have been reported from Key West and Florida, that are not men- 
tioned as occurring about the West India Islands j also, several 
Sesarmas, a Ranilia, and a Gallianassa j these genera are none of them 



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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1563 



i 



eminently Torrid zo 

licaris, Platyonychu, 



The northern species, Bernhardus pol- 
Lupa dicantlia, Panopceus limosus and 



Herhstii, reach as far south as Key West. 

3. The Brazilian Province (subtorrid), including the harbour of 
Rio Janeiro, and extending north nearly to Bahia. Length, six hun- 
dred miles. The species of Crustacea are numerous, and have close 
relations to those of Key West. Among the species peculiar to the 



province are the folloAving : — Leucipp 



Pllumnus Quoyi, Lup 



sp 



Eucrate crassimanus, G hasmagnathus granidatus, He 



grapsus granulatus, Hepatus fasciatus, H. angustatus, Sicy 



etc. 



The number of species of Caprellids and Cymothoids 



The following species 



common to Rio Janeiro and Key West 



the West Indies: — AcantJionyx fbtiverii, Gelasimus maracoaniy and G. 



vocans, Uca levis?, Xantho 



L 



dicantha. Arenceus crihra- 



ria, Ocypoda arenaria, 0. rhomhea, Goniograpsus ruricola, Gardisoma 
guanhujni, Scyllarus equinoctialis, Penceus hrasilie^isis, Pagurus gi^aiiu- 



latu 



etc. Epialtus marginatus occurs also at the Gallar 



and 



Menippe Bumplm, reported as Brazilian, belongs to the East Indies 



I* ] 




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II. NORTH TEMPERATE SUBKINGDOM. 



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1. The Carolinian Province (warm temperate)^ extending along 
by Northern Florida^, Georgia^ and the Carolinas to Cape Hatteras, 
Lengthy six hundred miles. Several Key West species occur also in 
this province; for exaiR^le^ Lihinia dubia^ Mithrax hispiduSy Menippe 
mercenariuSj Arenwus crihraria, Ocypoda arenaria, Sesarma 7'eticulata, 

and S. cinerea, Plagusia squamosa. Still, the general character of the 
species is different. Among the peculiar species mentioned by L. R. 

Gibbes^ diYQ Leptopodia calcaratay Pisa mutica^ Cryptopodia granulata^ 
Pllumnits aculeatus^ Hepatus decoruSy Guaia punctata^ PorceUana macrch 
cheles^ AlhimcBa scutellata^ Callianassa majoVy Gehia affinis^ Alpheus 
heterocJieliSy A, formosus^ and Pontonia domestica. The following northern 
species have Charleston as their southern limit : — Lihinia canaliculata^ 
Cancer Sayi^ Bernhardus longicarpus ; Squilla empusa also reaches from 

Florida to New York. The warm-water genera of Cancroids are all 
absent ; the species of Hepatus indicates a relation to the Chilian and 
Brazilian provinces. 

2. The YiEGiNiAN Province (cold temperate). It extends from Cape 
Hatteras to Cape Cod, including the shores of Virginia, New Jersey, 



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1564 



CRUSTACEA. 




Delaware Bay, New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island. Length, six 
hundred and fifty miles. It corresponds essentially to the Pennsyl- 
vanian Province of Milne Edwards ; a name not here adopted, since 
the state of Pennsylvania has no part in the coasts, it being entirely 
inland. The giant Homarus^ Lupa dicantha^ Pihimniis Harrisiiy Cancer 
Sayij and G. irroratus^ Lihinia canaliculata ^ Panopceus Herbstiiy and P. 
limosuSy Platyonyclius ocellatus^ Gelasimus vocans^ JSernJiardns pollicarisy 
and B. longicarpus, Palcemon vulgaris, with Sesarma reticulata 
southern species), occur in this province. 

The province strongly contrasts with the same province across the 
Atlantic in the fewness of its species. Only tivo Maioids (exclusive of 
the subfrigid Hyas coarctata, and one of the two Mithrax liispidus, is 
properly a southern species) have been reported from these shores, 
with seven Cancroids, two Grapsoids (one a Pinnothera), three Ano- 

Hippa and two Bernhardi), and three or four Macroura 
(besides Astaci). There is still one point of resemblance between 
the two regions, in that Carcinus mmnas is common to both ; also, the 
genus Homariis has a species in each, and so also the genus Cancer. 
But America has no Xantho north of Florida, while this genus on the 



moura 




other side of the Atlantic reaches to the shores of Britain. 



A 



gain. 



we have species of Panojicei, extending even to the subfrigid region, 
none of which group occur in the British Seas. 



'I 



o 



-' 



The NovA-ScoTiA Province (subfrigid) extends from Cape Cod 
to the eastern cape of Newfoundland. Length, nine hundred miles. 

Cancer irroratus, Pilumnus Harrisii, Carcitius mcenas, and occasionally 
Pandalus annulicornis, Hippolyte aculeatus, Crangon vulgaris, and C. 
boreas, Lithodes maia, Hyas coarctata, Bernhardus strehlonyx, occur on 

this coast, besides other species mentioned above as belonging to the 
Virginian province. We begin to find a resemblance to the Northern 

European and British shores. 







/ 



t 



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.- ^ 



III. SOUTH TEMPERATE SUBKINGDOM. 



r 



m 



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I 



1. 



We know little of the Crustacea of this coast of South America. 
According to the temperate regions, there are four provinces. Two are 

F 

north of the La Plata, and may be called the Provinces of St. Paul 
(four hundred and eighty miles long), and Uraguay (three hundred 
and sixtv miles') . The mouth of the La Plata from Maldonado, around 



/ 



by Montevideo^ Buenos Ayres, to the 



Cape, C. Antonio, consti 



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X- 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1565 



J 




V. 

tutes a third province, the Platensian ; a fourth, from C. Antonio to 
the south cape of the bay of Rio Negro, the Northern Patagonian, 
five hundred miles long. 
Cvrtograpsus angulatus. 



A pecuhar Grapsoid form of Rio Negro is the 



The Hemigrapsus affi 



another species 



and- this locaUty is the extreme outer limit of the genus Hemigrapstcs, 

Two peculiar Idotasid forms occur in this 



far as 



known 



ty, having been taken by us from a fish : they are Clea 



and ChcBt 



The genus Serolis occurs farther south 



and does not appear to extend to Rio Ne 



The subfrigid reg 



southern part at least, along Fue 



belongs properly to the Antarctic kingdom 



but the rest of the 



may belong to another province, called the Southern Patago7iian, which 
may include also the coast of Western Patagonia south of the Arau- 

canian Province. 



^ 






I 



I 



f 
I 



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1 



i» 




II. AFRICO-EUROPEAN KINGDOM. 



The prominent differences in temperature between this kingdom 
and the Occidental have been briefly pointed out. The most influen- 
tial is the existence of a large temperate region, covering a conside- 
rable part of the Mediterranean coasts, as well as a portion of the 
western coast of Africa, with the Azores and Madeira; and also a 
subtemperate on 



the 



coast of Portugal; both of which regions are 



unrepresented on the coast of the United States. There are many 

species peculiar to the Mediterranean ; and by their extension north, 

they give a greater variety to the British seas than they probably 

would otherwise have. 

On the African coast, we make Cape Agulhas the southern limit. 
Table Bay, however, as is natural from its situation near the borders 



between two great 



kingdoms, 



partakes of a middle character, yet 

It affords the Oriental 



belongs more properly to the Atlantic Ocean. 
species Platyonychus trimaculatus and Dromia hirsutissima ; but pro- 
duces also a species of the Atlantic genus Homarus, and according to 
M'Leay, the Sesanna reticulata of Say, besides four other species of 

this genus. 

The genera peculiar to the Africo-European kingdom, and those 

common to it and the other kingdoms, are already mentioned on pages 

1548, 1550. 

392 



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1566 



CRUSTACEA, 



The following are the provinces belonging to the three subkingdoms 
the torrid, the north temperate, and south temperate : 



/ 



I. TORRID SUBKINGDOM. 



y. 



1. The GuiNEAisr Province (torrid), including the coast of Guinea to 

, r 

9° north or Sierra Leone. Length, twelve hundred miles. 

- 

2. The Verdensian" Province (north subtorrid), including the coast 

■ n 

from 9° north nearly to Cape Verde, and also the Cape Verde Islands. 

w 

Length on the African coast, three hundred and fifty miles. A 
species of Actoeodes (A. faba) occurs here, the only one of this warm- 
water genus yet known in the Atlantic. 

3. The BiAFRiAN Province (south subtorrid), including part of the 

r . J _ ^ 

African coast near the equator^ about the Bight of Biafra, and reach- 
ing to 7^ or 8° south; and also the islands Ascension and St. Helena. 
Length on the African coast^ nine hundred miles. 



II. NORTH TEMPERATE SUBKINGDOM. 



^ 



- -■ 



1. The Canarian Province (warm temperate), including the west 
coast of Africa to the latitude of the Canaries, and embracing these 
islands. Length on the African coast, one thousand miles. In 
this province there are several species from more tropical regions, 
which here reach their northern limit, such as Pllumnus ForsJcalii, 
also from the Red Sea; Thalamita admete, East Indies, Natal, &c.; 
Orapsus strigosus, East Indies, &c.; Goniograpsus messor, East Indies, 
Red Sea, &c. Oplophorus spinosa (= Palaemon spinosa, BrulU), 
Leptopodia lanceolata, Cycloes cristata, Squilla oculata, are reported 

only from the Canaries ; though the Cycloes resembles closely a Japan 
species, if it be not identical with it. Many of the species of the 
British Channel here reach their southern limit ; for example, Inachus 
dorhynchus , Maia squinado, Pisa tetraodon, Xantho rivuhsus, Portunus 
corrugatus, Gonoplax angulata, Goniograpsus varius, Atelecyclus cruen- 
tatus, Dromia vulgaris, Porcellana platycheles, Galaihea strigosa ; these 

w 

are found also in the Mediterranean. There are besides many other 
Canarian species that are found in the Mediterranean, which do not 
extend to the north, e. g., Herhstia condyliata, Actcxa rufo-pundata, 
Eriphia spinifrons^ Lupa hastata^ Amphitrite liastata^ Portunus Jiolsatus^ 





y* 





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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1567 



Calappa granuUta, Dorippe lanata, Homola spinifrons, Alhunma sym 



Arctus ursus, Q natliophyllum eleg 

Plag 



nisia, Scyll 

TreilUanus, Pagurus callidus 

and Acanthopus planiasimus are also found at the C 



The cosm 



Palcemon 
squamosa 
The Lep- 



topodia sagittaria occurs here, at the West Indies, and at Valp 



2. The Mediterranean P 

this province 



The Azores and Madeira belong 



The characteristic species, distinguishing it from 
the more northern provinces are, Lissa cJiiragra, Doclea ovis, Acaiv- 
ilionyx lunulatus, Panopceus Herhstii (also, N. American), Platyonychus 
nasutus, Ooniograpsus maurits, Heterograpsus Merdatus, Bracliynotus 
Q-dentatus, Ilia nucha and I. rugulosa, Latreillia elegans; and at Madeira, 



Acanthopus plan 



and Grapsus pictus are very common species 



Above we h 

Canaries alsi 
Britain. 



some of 



fou 



and beyond we give a list of those found in the seas of 



The relations of the Mediterranean region to Japan are mentioned 



by De H 



The 



g 



strikingly Mediterranean which occur in 



Japan, are Latreillia, Niha, Caridina, Ephyra, Sicyonia, Achceus, Panr 
dalus, Lysmata; and the species of the last three, together with Squilla 



mantis, are probably ide 



viz., Pandalus pristis, Lysmata seti- 



caudata and the Achceus Granchii, which last is at least hardly distm 



shable 



o 



De Haan, from 



losely like a Japan species 



A. japonicus. Portunus 

according to De Haan. 



The Gycloes of the Canaries is another of the Atlantic species, allying 
the Atlantic region to Japan, as above mentioned. Doclea is also an 
Oriental genus, represented in the Occidental kingdom by Libinia. It 
has but one described species out of the Oriental kingdom. 

3. The LusiTANiAN Province (temperate), along the western coast 



of Portugal. Length, three hundred miles 



4. The Celtic Province (cold temperate) so named by Milne Ed 



wards, including the Atlantic coast of Spain and 
Channel, and Southern Britain and Ireland. 



the British 



The more characteristic 



genera are Inachu 



By 



pagurus 



Portummis. Po7 



Pisa^ Eury 
ms^ Polyhiu 



Perimela. Can 



? 



(G. 



hardus, GalatJwa, Munida, A 



us, Ehalia, Atelecyclus, Bern 
Galocaris, Homarus, Grangon, Mka 



Eyppolyte, Pandalus. Several of the species of the Celtic province 



which reach 



the Canaries, and 



also in the Mediterr 



; mentioned above. The following is a list of the Decapods common 
the Celtic province and the Mediterranean 



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1668 



CRUSTACEA. 



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DECAPODA COMMON TO THE CELTIC PROVINCE AND THE MEDITERRANEAN.* 



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1. Brachyura. 

Maia squinado, A. 
Pisa tetraodon, A. 
" lanata (Gibsii), A. 



Achaeus Cranchii, A. 
Stenorliynchus phalangium, A 
Eurynome aspera. 
Perimela denticulata, A. 
Xantho floridus, A. 
" rivulosus, A. 

Pilumnus hirtellus. 

J- 

Portuuus pusillus. 



(( 



IC 



u 



it 



a 



Rondeletii^ A. 

depurator (plicatus), A, 
marmoreus. 
corrugatus, A. 

holsatus. 



Porcellana platycheles, A. 

" longicornis, A. 

Bernhardus Prideauxii, A 



a 



a 



Forbesii. 

strebloByx 
Clibanarius oculatus. 
Galathea strigosa, A. 

squamifera. 



ii 



Carcinus msenas, A. 
Portumnus latipes, A. 
Gronoplax angulata, A. 

Goniograpsus varius, A. 

Pinnothera pisum. 

Thia polita. 

Corystes dentatus. 

2. Anomoura. 
Dromia vulgaris, A. 



3. Macroura. 

Callianassa subterranea. 
Arctus ursus, A. 
Palinurus vulgaris, A. 
Homarus vulgaris, A. 
Nephrops norvegicus. 
Crangon fasciatus, A. 

vulgaris. 

cataphractus, A. 
Nika edulis, A. 

Alpheus ruber, A. 

Athanas uitescens, A. 

Hippolyte varians, A. 

" viridis, A. 

Palaemon serratus, A. 
Pasiphasa sivado. 

Penaeus sulcatus (caramote) 



iC 



t( 



The genus Xantho, in X rivvlosus and X fioridus here reaches 



g 



cold limit 
to the ne 



Nephrops norvegicus^ although more properly per 



province north 



within the limits of 
ean. Stenorhynchus 



this; and it has even been taken in the Med 

phdlangium and Portunus pusillus, reach south into the Mediterrane 
and north to the Fridd zone : 



Portunus holsatus, QalatJiea strigosa, and 



y 



r 



Porcellana platycheles^ south to the Canaries and north into the sub- 
frigid. 

6. The Caledonian Province (subfrigid), including Northern Scot- 
land, the Shetlands, Orkneys, and the Ferroe Islands. Hyas coarc- 

arcuatus, Galathea nexa^ Manida RondeletiL Galocaris 



tatvjs, Portunus 



Pandalus annuli- 



MacandrecBy Nephrops norvegicus^ Hippolyte spinus^ 

L 

* Those species that are reported by Lucas from AlgierS; are followed by the letter A. 




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.-..._ •- . _ 1 .- I . _ 



-'I.. 






GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1569 



cornis, and Pasiphoea Savignii, appear to belong especially to this 
province, besides some species of Bernhardus and Crangcni. Liihodes 
maia also occurs here. 



III. SOUTH TEMPERATE SUBKINGDOM. 



I 



V 

The provinces of the South Temperate zone, along the west coast 
of Africa, are, the Angola (warm temperate, three hundred and sixty 



miles Ion 



Benguela 



em 



nine hundred miles Ion 



and 



Capensian (subtemperate, four hundred and fifty miles long) . Nothing 



known of the Crustacea of the 



pt 



in the last men 



tioned province, upon which we have already remarked. Hymeno- 
soma orhiculare is one of the Table Bay species ; and it belongs to a 
group that is represented only about the southern extremity of South ^ 
America and in New Zealand. Palinurus Lalandiiy another species, is 



e of the largest of known Macrourans 
South of the subtemperate region, in 



the cold temperate, stands 



the Atlantic, the island of Tristan D'Acunha, which may be another 
province, the Tristensiajst. As mentioned by Krauss, the Spheroma 
tristense, Edw., is common to this island and Table Bav. 




i 






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5--v^Z- 





■ 






V 



I 

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III. ORIENTAL KINGDOM 



4 



Turning Cape Agulhas, we soon come into a different Zoological 
world. The coast immediately east to longitude 30°, belongs still to 
the Temperate zone, and must constitute a distinct province, which 
we call the Algoa province (from Algoa Bay), the length of which, 
measured from Cape Agulhas, is full five hundred and fifty miles. 

Passing beyond this, we reach the Natal province, and here we 
recognise at once the seas of India and the Pacific Ocean. Krauss 



-one Natal species of Podophthalmia, not thirty of 




mentions 

which are peculiar to this region. Twenty are found in the Indian 

Ocean, eighteen in the Bed Sea, thirteen in Japan, eight in Australia, '^. 

jive in the Isle of France, besides three European species, and three 

American. We observe further that, twenty-two of the species of 

Podophthalmia occur in the Pacific Islands, among which are four 

species supposed by Krauss to be peculiar to Natal, viz., Pagurus 

(Olibanarius, D.) virescens, Kr., Pagurus [Galcinus, D.) elegafiSy Galene 

393 



_— * 




— ' 



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1570 



CRUSTACEA. 



1 1 



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41 fr 




natahnsis, Kr., Platyonychus {Kraussia, D.) rugulosus, Kr., all of 

which occur at the Hawaiian Islands.* 
V Of the European species, one is the cosmopolite Qonodadylus chi- 



ugrus, Latr. The others are Alph 



EdwardsiL and Gammarus 



Fabr. Megalopa mutica and Hippdlyt 



ifi 



I 

also 



ported 



from South Africa, do n 
the cosmopolites Goniog 



Port Natal. The American are 
IS, and Gonodactylus chiragrus, 



gether with Eriphia gonagra, Edw. The Sesarm 

r 

(jsia tomentosa, Lk., also South African, ar 



reticulata, Say, 

not from Port 




and Plagusia 
Natal. 

L ■ 

It is obvious, therefore, that the great ocean, from the east coast of 
Africa to the Hawaiian and Paumotu Islands, covering two-thirds of 
the surface of the globe, makes one great kingdom, closely related in 
its species, although including several zoological provinces and sub- 
ordinate districts. This fact respecting the oceans is strikingly in con- 
trast with those relating to the continents adjoining. A list of the 
genera of Decapods peculiar to this kingdom, and others of the genera 
and species common to this and the other two kingdoms, are given on 
pages 1549, 1550. 

This kingdom may be viewed as consisting of three Sections. 

_ . r 

First, the African, including the African coast to the head of the 
Eed Sea and Persian Gulf, with the adjoining islands, Madagascar, 

Mauritius, etc. 

Second, the Asiatic, from Van Diemens Land and New Holland, by 
the East Indies to North Japan. 

Third, the Pacific, including the Pacific Islands west of New 
Guinea, from New Zealand to the Hawaiian Islands.f 

The principal provinces of these three sections are as follows 




! 



«4 



A. AFRICAN SECTION. 



' 



/ 



y 



1. The Natal Province (south subtorrid), including also South 
Madagascar, and the Isle of France and Bourbon. 



This 



region is 



vn 



,.(., 





m 



* The Galene hawaiensis^ D., is so closely like the G, natalensiSy that we believe there 
is not sufficient reason for considering them distinct. 

t The species of these three sections are separately presented in Table VI. The two 
columns iV". and >S^., under East Africa^ include the African species; the column E. 
Indies and Indian Ocean^Sind the two columns JV. and S., under West Faci/ic^ the 

Asiatic species; the two columns N. and S., under Middle Pacific^ the Pacific species. 



/ 




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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1671 




"! 



4 



called the " Madecasse" by Edwards, a name here not 



pted 



the larger part of Madagascar is in the torrid and not subtorrid reg 



2. The Abyssinian Province 



d), including the east coast of 

also the 



Africa and the Red Sea, excepting its northern third, and also 
larger part of Madagascar and the islands of that part of the Indian 

Ocean. 

3. The Erythrean Province (subtorrid), including the northern 

subtorrid part of the Red Sea, and probably also the Persian Gulf. 



T" 




B. ASIATIC SECTION. 



I. ASIATIC TORRID SUBKINGDOM, 



-I 

i 






1. The Indian Province (torrid), including the East Indian Islands, 
Northern Australia, from its most western to its most eastern cape. 



and the coast of Asia to latitude 12A^° on the coast of Cochin China. 




2. The LiuKiu Province (subtorrid), including the islands of Liukiu 

* 

and Formosa^ the Meicoshimah Islands^ and the southeastern coast of 

Niphon^ along by Jeddo^ with the eastern side of Kiusiu; the province 
has but Httle space on the coast of Asia^ along a part of Cochin China. 
A third province exists on the west coast of Australia. 



i;i:. ASIATIC NORTH TEMPERATE SUBKINGDOM. 



.! 







\ 



i 

4 





1. The ToNQUiN Province (warm temperate), including the Gulf of 
Tonquin and coast of China, south of 25°. 

2. The Chusan Province (subtemperate), including the coast of 
China north of 25° and the Yellow Sea, together with the western 
part of Kiusiu, along by Nagasaki. 

The tempei^ate region is nearly or quite absent from the China coast. 

3. The Saghalian Province (subfrigid), including the Asiatic coast 
within the Japan Sea, and part of the western and the northern shores 
of Niphon, with the islands Saghalian, Yeso, and others. 

The cold temperate region does not appear to be represented on the 
Asiatic coast, but is found on the east coast of Niphon, where it forms 
along with the subtemperate region, what may be called the Niphon 
Province. 



A 



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1572 



CRUSTACEA 



III. ASIATIO SOUTH TEMPERATE SUBKINGDOM 



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1. The Swan Kiver Province (warm temperate), on the west coast 
of Australia. 

2. The Flinders Province (temperate), along the southern coast of 
Australia. 

3. The MoRETON Province (warm temperate and temperate) , on the 

east coast of Australia. 

4. The Bass Province (subtemperate) , from north of Port Jackson 
to Van Diemens Land. 

6- The Tasmania^ Province (cold temperate), including Van 
Diemens Land. 




I 



C. PACIFIC SECTION. 



!• PACIFIC TORRID SUBKINGDOM 






« 



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1. The Polynesian Province (torrid). To this province belong 
the PaciJSc Islands east of the East Indies, within the torrid region, 
including all the groups between 20° south, and the Hawaiian Islands 
on the north, embracing also the New Hebrides and nearly all of New 
Caledonia. There are probably several subordinate districts, but as 
they are imperfectly indicated by the Crustacea, we do not attempt to 
lay them down. Tongatabu and Tahiti lie on the borders of the sub- 
torrid region, in somewhat cooler waters than the Feejee or Samoan 
Islands. 

2. The Hawaiian Province (north subtorrid), Hawaiian Islands 
and others in the same range, to the north of west. 

3. The Raratongan Province (south subtorrid), including nearly 
all the Hervey Islands south of west from Tahiti, with Pitcairn's and 
the Gambler Islands, Ducie's, and some other islands in that vicinity. 



t 



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II. PACIFIC SOUTH TEMPERATE SUBKINGDOM. 



N 



1. The Kermadec Province (warm temperate and temperate). A 
few islands north of New Zealand lie in this province, and probably 
also Norfolk Island, a little farther to the west. 



» * 




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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1573 



( 



2. The Wangaroa Province (sub temperate). Includes the north 
part of New Zealand, of which the Bay of Islands is the prominent 

port. 

3. The Chatham Province (cold temperate) j embracing the Chatham 

Islands and Middle New Zealand, nearly to its southern extremity. 



In the above, the Torrid zone of the Oriental kingdom embr 
each of its regions three provinces, as follows 



African Section I. 



Indian Section II. 



L Torrid Region. 



1. Abyssinian. 2. Indian. 



Pacific Section III. 

3. Polynesian. 
3. Hawaiian. 



II. North Subtorrid Region! 1. Erythrean. 2. Liukiuan. 
III. South Subtorrid Region. 1. Natalensian. 2. West Australian. 3. Raratongan. 



i 






A 



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1. SPECIES COMMON TO THE THREE SECTIONS, THE AFRICAN, THE INDIAN, 



AND THE PACIFIC. 



* 






\ 






1. Brachyura. 

Parthenope horrida. — I. Fr., Red Sea; E. 

I.; Haw. 
Atergatis limbatus. — R. Sea; E. I.; Feej. 
Atergatis floridus. — Natal; E. I.j Tonga, 

Paumotus ; Tahiti. 
Carpilius maculatus. — I. Fr. ; E. L; Jap.; 

Samoa, &c., to Paumotus. 
Carpilius convexus. — R. Sea; E. I., Jap.; 

Feej., Haw. 
Act^ea hirsutissima. — R. Sea; Samoa. 
Chlorodius niger. — R. Sea (N.) ; E. I. ; 

Feej., Tonga, Samoa. 
Trapezia ferruginea. — R. Sea; E. I.; 

Pacific. 
Cymo Andreossyi. — R. Sea; E. 1.?; Sa- 
moa, Tahiti. 
Scylla serrata. — Natal; R. Sea; E. I., Jap. ; 

Samoa, 
Lupa sanguinolenta. — Nat. ; I. Fr., R. 

Sea; E. I.; Haw. 

Thalamita admete. — Nat,; R, Sea; E. I.; 

Samoa, Wake's, Haw. 
Thalamita crenata. — Nat.; R. Sea(S.); E. 

L, Jap., Feej. 
Cleistostoma Boscii. — Nat.; R. Sea; [E. 



I.?]; Feej. 



Podophthalmus vigil. — I. Fr.; E. I., Jap.; 

Haw. 
Ocypodabrevicornis. — I. Fr. ; E. I. ; Tonga. 

Acanthopus planissimus. — Nat.; E. I.?; 

Samoa, Tahiti, Paumotu, Haw. [also 
Madeira]. 
Calappa tuberculata. — Nat. ; I. Fr., R. 

Sea; E. I.; Feej., Tonga^ Haw. 

Calappa fornicata. — I. Fr. ; E. I.; Feej. 

2. Anomoura, 

Pagurus difformis. — I. Fr.; E. I.; Feej. 
Pagurus punctulatus. — E. I. ?; E. I. ; Haw. 

Calcinus tibicen. — Nat.; E. L; Samoa, 

Wake's, Tahiti, Paumotus, Haw. 
Calcinus elegans. — Nat.; E. 1.?; Wake's, 

Paumotus, Haw. 
Aniculus typicus. — I. Fr.; Jap.; Wake's, 

Paumotus. 
Clibanarius virescens. — Nat.; E. I.; Feej. 
Cenobita rugosa. — Nat.; E. I., Jap.; Feej.; 

Samoa, Tonga, Paumotus. 
Birgus latro. — L Fr.; E. I., Jap.; Samoa, 

Swain's, Paumotus. 

3. Macroura, 



Parribacus antarcticus. — I. Fr. ; E. I. ; 



Samoa, Paumotus. 



394 



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1574 



CRUSTACEA. 



Panulirus penecillatus. — R. Sea; E. I.- 
Pacific. 

Hippolyte marmoratus. 
cific; Haw. 

Stenopus hispidus. — I. Fr.; E. L: Pau- 



?; E. L: Pa- 



y" 



motus. 



5 



4. Anomohranchiata, 

Pseudosquilla stylifera. — I. Fr. ; ?; Feej.^ 

Haw. 
Gonodactylus chiragrus. — Nat.; I. Fr.^ R. 

Sea; E. I. ; Feej*; Tonga. 

b 



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O^tt'itt*^*- 



Of the above species, a few occur in both the torrid and subtorrid 



regions of these three sections of the Oriental kingdom, that is, in the 
Erythrean, Natalensian, Indian, Liukiuan, Polynesian, and Hawaiian 
Provinces. 



These are : — Lupa sanguindlenta, PodophtJidlmus 
Gdlappa tuberculata, Acanthopus planissimus, Calcinus tihicen, G. ei 

not included : 



'ml 



and Gonodactylus chirag 



Grapsus pictus is 



has 



yet been reported from the 



of Africa. The above 




twelve 



list must be much increased as the species of the different reg 

better understood. Some of the species have a range of over 

thousand miles. Many species common to Natal and Japan or the 

Hawaiian Islands, are given in the above list. We add below a 
list of 






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)>^2. SPECIES COMMON TO THE NATAL AND THE LIUKIUAN (SOUTH JAPAN) OR HAWAIIAN 

PROVINCES OE THE SUBTORRID REGIONS; AND NOT YET OBSERVED IN THE TORRID 



REGION INTERMEDIATE. 



» 



Micippa thalia.— Nat. and Jap. 
Xantho afl&niS; De H.— Nat. and Jap. 
Xantho obtusus; De H. — Nat. and Jap. 
Carpilius petrseus, De H. — ^Nat. (I. Fr.) 

and Jap. 
Cliarybdis granulatus. — Nat. and Jap. 
Thalamita prymna. — Nat. and Jap. 
Gelasimus arcuatus. — Nat. and Jap. 
Gelasimus lacteus, De H. — Nat. and Jap. 



Ocypoda cordimana. — Nat. and Jap. 
Sesarma picta. — Nat. and Jap. 
Sesarma affinis. — Nat. and Jap. 
Kraussia rugulosa. — Nat. and Haw. 
Galene natalensis. — Nat. and Haw. 
Dromia hirsutissima. — S. Afr. and Haw. 
Calappa spinosissima. — I. Fr. and Haw. 
Doto sulcatus, Nat.^ Jap.^ and R. Sea. -- 



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The Natal province, includes properly two districts, the Natal and 
the Mauritius, the latter distinguished by its more torrid character 
and its larger number of East Indian species, among which are the 

following : — Doclea ovis^ Gamposcia retusa^ Carpilius maculatus^ CEihra 
scriiposa^ Melia tessellata^ EripJiia levimana^ Calappa fornicata^ Aniculus 



typicuSy Birgus latro^ Parribacus antarcticuSy etc. 



Among the 
East Indian^ are the following : 



species 
Fla- 



common to the two^ not also 

mena Mathcei (a species found also in the nortliern or subtorrid part of 

the Red Sea), Ocypoda cordimana and Orchestia Bottce. 



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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1575 



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The following are some of the species peculiar to Port Natal : — Pisa 
fascicularis, Antilibinia Smithii, Acanthonyx Mac Leaii, A. scutellatus, 
A. 4:-dentatus EripJiia Smiihii, Me7iippe Martensii, Pilumnus xanthoides 
and P. granulatus, 



Actceodes Ruppelii. Among those of the Isle of 



France or Mauritius are, Stenocionops cervicornis, Dynomene hispid 



Hemigrapsus Latreilli (the genus Hemigrapsus is 
occur in the Torrid region), 



yet known to 
Atergatis sinuatifrons, A. and W., Car- 

etc. : also 



pilius signatus, A. and W., Dwmia fallax and D. hispida, etc.; 
Caprella scaura, and G. nodosa. 

The ErytJirean province, or the subtorrid portion of the Red Sea, 
includes several species not reported from more southern parts of the 

sea, as Elamena Matthcei, Menmthius monoceros (a Natal species), Para- 



micippa platipes, Myra f\ 



Riipp., OreopTi 



Tiorridus, Riipp 



Nursia granulata, Riipp., MacropTiihalrmis depressus, Riipp 



The Ahys, 



pr 



in its Red Sea portion contains seven 



species of Atergatis, of which A. sculptus, A. exsculptus, and A. Savig 



are not elsewhere reported. Lambrus pelag 



Actcea asper, Bup- 



pellia tenax?, Thalamita cJiaptalis, are other species, besides many that 



common in the East Indie 



Dromia unidentata is found in both 



more 



by 



the northern and 

r 

The Indian pi 

lowing genera : 
PartlienopGy Geratooan 

Actcea^ XantliOy Zozy 

Pilumnus^ Eripliia^ Liipa^ Amphiiritey Thalamita^ Charyhdis^ Lissocar 

ciniis, Podophthalmus y Ocypoda, Sesarma^ Xenophihalmus ^ Xanthasia 



Egeriay Poclea^ Micippa^ Tiarinia^ MejicethiuSy Larribi^us 
[tocarcinuSy Giyptopodia^ Tlos^ Atergatis^ Garpilius 

mis. Panopoeus. Actceodes^ Etisiis^ Ghlorodius 



Galappa, Matuta^ Leucosia^ Ixa^ Iphis^ A? 



Platyonychus^ Pagth 



s 



r 

Pagurus^ Galcinus^ Glihanarms^ Genohita^ Birgus^ Remipes^ Tlia- 



lassinay Thenus. PanvMruSy Atya^ Mph 



Palcemon. Penceus. Acetes 



Sq uillay Gonodac ty I 

any, of the followii 



d by the comparatively few species, 

Pericera^ Acanthony\ 



if 



Mithrax^ Bitppelliay and Hymenocera^ besides others that have been 
mentioned as peculiarly Occidental or Africo-European. 



The 



of the Japan Seas to the Mediterranean, and also 



the Natalensian have been remarked upon. The warm-water genera 
of XanthidcB and Lupines are abundantly represented in the Liukiuan 



province, so 



also the Galappince^ Scyllaridce, Sesarm 



Palinuridce 



and Squillidce. Eriocheir penecillatus^ Gurtonotus longimanus^ Trichia 



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1576 



CRUSTACEA. 



The 



dromiiformis , and Oncinopus arenaria are peculiar species. 
Banina dentata occurs here of a larger size than in the East Indies. 

The Tonquin province is characterized by species of Doripjpe, and 
by Liagora rubro-maculata, with some Leucosidse. The Acanthodes 
armatus of De Haan from the east coast of Niphon appears to belong 
to the Niphon province ; and the giant Macrocheira Koempferi of De 
Haan to the Saghalian. 

The Japan Seas are allied to the Hawaiian through certain species, 
as mentioned beyond. Through species of Sicyonia they are related 



/ 



to Rio Janeiro as well as the Mediterranean. 



The 



species occurring 



both in the Japan Seas and at Port Natal, are given on page 1574. 

The Swan River province on Western Australia, although of the 
warm temperate region, contains the following species identical with 



viz., Penceus canaliculatus and Gono- 



species of the Natal province, 

dactylus ^-spinosus; also the cosmopolite, Qonodactylus chiragrus, and 

the East India species, Tlienus orientalis. The following species found 

in this province, have not been mentioned from other localities, viz., 
Gelasimus forceps and Philyra porcellana. 

The Crustacea of the eastern coast of Australia have been little 
studied, excepting those of Port Jackson and the vicinity. This 
province is characterized by the presence of Halimus tumidus^ D.^ 
Mydiris longicarpus^ Ozius truncatuSy Edw.^ Helcecius cordiformis^ H. 
inornatus^ D.^ Ghasmagnaihiis levis^ D.^ and O. subquadratus (possibly 
N. Zealand), Helice crassa, Plagusia glabra, D., Paguristes frontalis (?), 
Callianassa [Trypoea) australiensis, D., Hippolyte spinicaudis. 

The absence of the Xanthidge is one of the prominent characters 
here observed, a group of species that occur but sparingly in any sub- 



temperate region. Among the Tetradecapods there is the Chilian 



genus Amphoroidea, affording a species closely like that of Valparaiso. 
The other genera of Tetradecapoda observed, are Idotcea, Spheroma, 
Orchestia, AllorcTiestes, Hyperia. 
In the great Pacific section of the Oriental kingdom, the Polynesian 



kingdom is of great extent, covering twenty degrees either side of the 



equator through the ocean to 130° west. Nearly the same genera 

as in the East Indies, mentioned on page 1575. 



are 



represented 



Among 



the exceptions, according to present knowledge, are Egeria, 

Dodea, Tiarinia, Partlienope, Gryptopodia, Tlos, Panopceus, Lupa, 
PodopJitlialmus , Leucosia, Ixa, Arcania, PlatyonycTius, Thalassina, 
Acetes, Thenus, etc., while there are present, species of Pericera, Pup- 



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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1577 



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pellia, Gy 
Regulus. 



710, Domcecius, Qalathea, (Edipus, Harpilius, Hymenocera, 
Dromia and Ranina have not been observed in the Pacific 



pt in the Hawaiian 



No species of Penceus has yet been 



ported from the Torrid region in this 



and small, the Xanthidce and EripUdm numerous, and often 



The Maioidea are few 

large. 



Some of the species common to the Pacific and East Indies have 
already been mentioned.* 

The Hawaiian province contains the following species, not else- 
where observed : — Lahaina ovata, D., Perinea tumida, D., Huenia sim- 



— ' 



MedcBus 



C hloro 



N. 



plex and H. hrevirostris , Xantho intonsus, D., 
dius nodosus, Pseudozius inornatus, some Tmpezice, Thalamita pulchra, 
Lwpa puhescens, Macroplithalmus telescopicus , Gelasimus 7ninor, Ocypoda 
levis D., 0. TIrvilUi, Hemigrapsus crassimanus , Sesarma trapezium, and 
S. ohtmifrons, Oydograpsus granidatus, G. dnereus, Nucia speciosa, D., 
Alhuncea speciosa, Porcellana cinctipes, GalatJiea spinirostris, Scyllarus 
latus, Randall, Niha hawaiensis, Atyoida hisulcata, Rand., AlpJieus levis, 
A. pacificus, A. pugnax, A. diadema, Palcemon dehiJis, D., P. acutifrons, 
D., P. grandimanus , Rand., P. gracillimanus. Rand., Penceus velutinus. 
It is most closely related to the southern part of the Japan Seas, 

m species : — Penceus canaliculatus , Podoph- 



containing the following Japan species :— 

tJialmus vigil, Ranina dentata, Pagurus carinatus. Rand. (=P. asper 



De H.); and the 



Torrid reg 



ira that are represented in Japan and 
Galene, Kraussia (D.), Niha, Scyllarus, 



Hemigrapsus. • Several Polynesian species occur here, as Am^li 
vigilans (Feejees), Thalamita integra, Goniograpsus thuhujar (Feej 



Grapsus 7'udis (Ladrones), Porcellana 



(Paumotus), Hippolyi 



marmoratus (Paumotus) , Galcinus tihicen, G. elegans, G. latens, Pagurus 

punctulatus, Ghlorodius cytherea, besides Grapsus pictus, Acantlwpus 

). Lupa 

d at the Isle 



planissimus, and Galappa tuherculata, which have aVide rang 



guinolenta 



here and also in the East Indies 



* The following oceanic Bntomostraca occur in the Pacific, or East Indies, and 
Atlantic: — Pontella (JPontellina) turgida, Atlantic, 



to 8J° N., and 4i° S., 17 



31° W.; Pacific, near Hall's and Pitts' Islands, l°-6° N., 173° '^.—Pontella {Pontel- 
lina) crispata, Atlantic, 8i° N., 23° 45' W.; 5°-7° N., 174J°-177° -E.— Undina vul- 
garis, Straits of Banca; Atlantic, 9° S., 17^ W., and 4 J° S., 25° W. Oithona plumifera, 

Atlantic, 4i°-7° N., 20°-22° W.; also 1° S., 30 J° W.; Pacific, near Kingsmill Is- 
lands.— CoryccEws varius, Atlantic, l°-7° N., 18°-22° W., and l°-7° S., 20°-30° W.j 
Pacific, 15^ S., 138r W.; 33° S., 153 J° E.j Ladrones.— CancZace pacJiydactyla, 

Atlantic, 11° S., 14° W.; 4^ S., 25° W.; 8^ S., 150° W.; 1° S., 30° W.; China 



Sea, 300 miles northeast of Singapore. 



395 



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1578 



CRUSTACEA 



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of France. The relations to the Natal province are similar to those 
with Japan, as before observed (p. 1574). Goniograpsus pUcatus, a 
Hawaiian species, according to Krauss, is also South African. 

Little is known respecting the species of the Raratongan, or Ker- 
madec provinces. 

The Warigaroa province (Northern New Zealand) is distinguished 
by an absence of Cancroid forms, as in Southeastern Australia, and 

r 

rather a prevalence of Grapsoid species. No Squillidce have yet been 
observed. Among the species peculiar to the province are the follow- 
ing : — Paramithrax Gaimardii^ Eurynolamhrus austrdlis^ Edw.^ Portunvs 
integrifronSy P. cantharus^ Qoniogrwpsus strigilatiis ^ Hemigrapsus crenu- 
latiis^ H. Qaimardiiy Halicarcinus varius^ H. puhescens^ Lomis hirta (pos- 
sibly from Middle or Southern New Zealand)^ several Porcellmice^ 
Paguristes pilosus^ Bernhardus cristakis^ B. novi-zealaiidice^ Clihanarius 
cruentatuSy Gebia hirtifrons^ ParanepJiTops planifrons^ P. tenuicornis^ 
B. cequimanuSy Alape palpalis^ Hippolyte spinifrons^ Palcemon afinis^ 
with species of the Tetradecapodan genera^ Idotcea^ Armadillo^ Sphe- 
rilloy Oniscus^ Scyphax^ D.^ Lygia^ Gymotlioa^ Nerocila^ jEga^ Splieroma 
(several species), Orchestia^ Allorchestes^ Iphimedia^ Melita^ (EdiceruSy 
Hyper ia. 

The genus Hymenicus^ which is near Hymenosoma^ and the PZa- 



gusia tomentosa found also at Table Bay, show a relation to the Capen- 
sian province (South Africa). Palcemon Quoyanus is also stated by 

r 

Krauss to be a South African species, found at Port Natal. 

The genera Ozius^ Hemigrapsiis^ and Ghasmagnathus^ and some of 
their species, are common to the Bass province (Australia) and North 
New Zealand, showing a relation between the two. Yet the diffe- 
rence in species is still so great, that they are properly distinct pro- 
New Zealand is over twelve hundred miles from New Hol- 



vmces. 



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land, and its Crustacea are hardly as much like those of New Holland 

r 

as those of Valparaiso. The following genera characterize both Chili 
and North New Zealand: — Cancer, Ozius, Gyclograpsus, Paguristes, 
and Betceus; and the Cancer Edwardsii and Plagusia tomentosa 
appear to be common to the two provinces, while the genus Cancer is 
not elsewhere known out of America and Northern Europe. Palcemon- ' />'*" ' 
affinis of the Bay of Islands, as Edwards observes, is hardly distin- 
guishable from P. squilla of the coasts of France and Britain. The 
species of Portunus in these southern seas are representatives of the 
most characteristic of European genera, and they belong rather to the 



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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA 



1579 



cold temperate than subtemperate regions of the Australian and New 
Zealand Seas. Portunus integrifrons is reported from Tasmania (Van 
Diemens Land). Ozius represents Xantho of the British Channel. 



X 



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AKCTIC AND ANTARCTIC KINaDOMS. 



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With our existing knowledge of species, the Arctic and Antarctic 
kingdoms widely differ ; but much of this difference may be owing 



the greater extent of land 



the northern kingdom, and not a little 



limited knowledge of the latter. In the Arctic Frigid 

there are the following genera of Podophthalmia : — Eyas 1 species 
Stenorhynchus 1, Cancer 1, Portunus 1, Cm 



1. LitJiodes 2, B\ 



Crangon 2, Sabinea 1, Argis 1, Hippolyte 18, 
Pandalus 3, Palcemon 1, Thysanopoda 3, Mysis 3, Myto 1. Out of 



liardus 3, d 




these, only Lithodes and Galathea 



present known 



m 



the Antarctic kingdom, and as yet we are not certain that either 
reaches beyond Fuegia, near 



E 



further researches 



ir the limits of the subfrigid and frigid 
are required. The Thysanopoda of the 

north are represented in the south by a species of Euphausia. 

Among the Tetradeeapoda, the following exist in the Arctic king- 



dom 



■Idot^idea, Idotcea, 9 specieSj Glyptonotus 1 ; Oniscoide A 



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1 Jcera 2, Jceridina 1, Asellus 1, Janira 1, Henopomus 1, Munna 1 ; 

of Cymothoidea, jEga 3 ; Serolidea, Praniza 1, Anceus 1 j TanaIidea, 
Tanais 6, Crossurus 1, Bopyrus 1, PJiryxus 2, Dajm 1 ; of Caprel- 
LiDEA, Proto 2, Capi'elJa 6, jEgina 2, Cercops 1, Podalirius 1 ; Gamma- 
EiDEA, Dulichia 1, Siphonoecetes 1, Unciola 1, Laphystius 1, Orchestia 
2, Stegocephalus 1, Anonyx 2, LeucotJioe 2, Acanthonotus 3, Iphimedia 
14, (Edicerus \, Oammarus 13, P/io^fs 1, ife?^to 2, Pardalisca 1, ^c%- 
rocerus 2, Microclieles 1, Lepidacf/ylis 1, Pontiporeia 1, Ampelisca 1, 
Protomedeia l,Phoxusl; Hypeeidea, Lestrigonus 1, Hyperia 1, Metcecus 

1, Themisto 2. 

From the Ajjtarctic kingdom, there are at present known, Olypto- 

^lotceaA, Cirolana 1, Serolis 1, Urisies (related to Anonyx) 1; 
of Hyperidea, Cyllopus 1, Tauria 1, Themisto 1 ; and if we add South- 




ern Fuegia, Eurypodii 2 




Halicarcinus 1, Munida 1, Orimothea 



1, Lithodes 3, %Zi*s 1, Omscus 1, Stylonismis 1, eToe? 




4 

1, Pterelas 1, 

etc. The 



Spheroma 3, /Sfero?i5 3, ^^.ori^/cc/l, Amphithoe 1, Qammarfa^l, etc. 

gain very strikmg. Serolit and some allipd forms, with 



Glyptonotus are the most characteristic of southern Isopoda, and 







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1580 



Sr- 



CRUSTACEA. 



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first of these genera is not known in the north. Halicardnus charac 



terizes the south but not the north 




and Grangon are 



common 



the north, and have not yet been detected in the south 



Litlwdes is common to both 



Eurypodius is wholly southern, but has 



alogue in Oregonia of Northwest America 



If then we were 



characterize the kingdoms by any of the species, we should call the 



& 



Arctic, the Hippolyte hingdom, about half of the known species of the 



The 



Hippolyte being Ar 



and the southern, the Serolis hingdom 



names imply a higher zoological rank for the Arctic than the 



Antarctic Seas. 

The Arctic kingdom is naturally divided into three 



occupying the North Atlantic Ocean 



Pacific; and the third 



Polar province 



The 



provinces. One 
iponding, north of the 

its of the Polar 



province we cannot exactly lay down. But the more Frigid seas 
which afibrd only Tetradecapods (and perhaps a species or so of Deca- 



pods) should be considered as 



distinct province from 

These 



that in which species of Hippolyte and Crangon are common, 
provinces are the Norwegian, the CamUcliatican, and the North Polar 



Norwegian 



of Norway and Iceland, with 



part probably of Greenland; characterized by Litliodes maia, Eyas 
araneus, Bernhardus pubescens, Qalathea rugosa, Grangon lar, G. 7-cari- 



etc 



The Gamischatican 



natus, and many species of Hippolyte, 
comprises Kamtschatka, the Aleutian Islands, and the neighbouring 
part of the North American coast, and extending it may be some 
distance beyond Behring's Straits, and is characterized by the Litliodes 
camschatica , Telmessus cJiirogonus, Bernhardus splendescens , Grangon 
salehrosus, Hippolyte armata, H. cornuta. 



s/ In these Polar seas, the species have often a wide i 
/" bably pass from one ocean to the other through the Polar 



r 

and pro- 
3. Thus 



Grangon horea^, Gai 



mmnas, Pagurus streUonyx, Hippolyt 



leatus, are not only found on opposite sides of the Atlantic, but 

the North Pacific. 

The Antarctic kingdom may also consist of three provinces : 

1. The FuEGiAN Province, including Fuegia, the Falklands, South 

Georgia; and characterized by Lithodes antarctica, L. verrucosa, L. 

granulata, species of JEurypodius,* Halicardnus, Galathea, S^heroma, 
and Serolis. 



The species of Eurypodius probably belong more especially to the South Patagonian 
or the Araucanian province, although occurring also in the Faegian. 





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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1581 



v% 



2. The AucKLANDiAN Province, embracing the Aucklands and per- 
haps the south extremity of New Zealand. 

3. The South Polar province, including the South Shetlands 
(whence comes the huge Gli/^ptonotm of Eights), and also the Antarctic ' 

lands of Wilkes and Ross. 

The group Hymenicinae, including the genera Hymenosoma, Hali- y 



\ ^ 



/? 



d Hymenicus, is peculiarly a southern type, and through 



these g 



the extremities of the 



have 



common cha 



racter. The first characterizes the Cape of Good Hope, the second 
Patagonia and Fuegia, and the third New Zealand. The Patagonian 

genus reaches north to Valparaiso, into the same temperature region 
(the subtemperate) that affords the Hymenosoma of South Africa and 
Hymenicus of New Zealand, and this subtemperate region is the 



highest northern limit of the group 
greatest perfection in Fuegia. 



Halicarcinus is developed 



V 



ORIGIN OF THE aEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA 



The origin of the existing distribution of species in this department 
of zoology deserves attentive consideration. Two great causes are 
admitted by all, and the important question is, how far the influence of 



each 
migr 



extended. The first, is original 



the second 



Under the first head, we may refer much that we have already said 
the influence of temperature, and the restriction of species to par- 



ticular " temperature reg 



It is not doubted that the species have 



been created in regions for which they are especially fitted ; that their 
fitness for these regions involves an adaptation of structure thereto, 
and upon this adaptation, their characteristics as species depend. 



These characteristics are of no climatal 



They are the impress 



of the Creator's hand, when the species had their first ex 
those regions calculated to respond to their necessities. 
The following questions come up under this general head 

1. Have there been local centres of creation, from which groups of 
species have gone forth by migration ? 

2. Have genera only and not species, or have species, been repeated 
by creation in distinct and distant regions ? 

3. How closely may we recognise in climatal and other physical 

396 



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1582 



CRUSTACEA 






conditions, the predisposing cause of the existence of specific genera 



or species 



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With regard to the second head, migration, we should remember, 
that Crustacea are almost wholly maritime or marine; that marine 
waters are continuous the globe around; and that no seashore species 
in zoology are better fitted than crabs for migration. They may cling 
to any floating log and range the seas wherever the currents drift the 
rude craft, while the fish of the sea-shores will only wander over their 
accustomed haunts. Hence it is, that among the Pacific Islands the 
fishes are often to a considerable extent peculiar to particular groups 

of islands, while the Crustacea are much more generally diffused. 

A direction and also a limit to this migration exist, (1) in the cur- 
rents of the ocean, and (2) in the temperature of its different regions. 
Through the Torrid zone, the currents flow mainly from the east 

f - 

towards the west; yet they are reversed in some parts during a certain 
portion of the year. But this reversed current in the Pacific never 
reaches the American continent, and hence it could never promote 
migration to its shores. Again, beyond 30° or 35° of north or south 

latitude, the general course of the waters is from tlie west, and the 
currents are nearly uniform and constant. Here is a means of east- 
ward migration in the middle and higher temperate regions. But 
the temperature regions in these latitudes are more numerous than in 
the tropics, and species might readily be wafted to uncongenial 
climates, which would be their destruction ; in fact they could hardly 

Moreover, such seas are more boisterous than those 



escape 



this. 



nearer the equator. Again, these waters are almost entirely bare for 
very long distances, and not dotted closely with islands like the equa- 
torial Pacific. 

In the northern hemisphere, on the eastern coasts especially, there 

currents from the south and cold currents from the north. 
The former overlie the latter to a great extent in the summer and 



are warm 



may aid southern species in northward migratio 
nearly the termination of the summer line of 70 



Cape Hatteras is 

Maury's Chart), 

On 



a temperature which belongs to the subtorrid region in winter. 

the China coast, at Macao there is a temperature of 83° in July, and 



the Yellow Sea, of 78° to 80 



But such northward mi 



are thus favoured 



only for the 



the cold currents of the 



months destroy all such adventurers, except the individuals of 



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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1583 



some hardier species that belong to the seas or have a wide rang 



distribution 
and are 
tunidaa i 



season. 



Sea-shore Crustacea are not in themselves migratory, 
thus unlike many species of fish. Even the swimming Por- 
re not known voluntarily to change their latitudes with the 



The following is a brief recapitulation of the more prominent facts 

bearing on these points. 

1. The distribution of individuals of many species through twelve^ 

thousand miles in the Torrid zone of the Oriental seas. 

2. The very sparing distribution of Oriental species in Occidental 

seas. 

3. The almost total absence of Oriental species from the west coast 

of America. 

4. The world-wide distribution within certain latitudes of the 
species we have called cosmopolites. 

5. The occurrence of closely allied genera at the Hawaiian Islands 



> 



and in the Jap 
6. The occu 



of the same subtorrid species at the Hawaiian 



Islands and at Port Natal, South Africa, and not in theTorrid. 
intermediate, ^s Kraussia rugulosa and Galene 



7. The ( 
Port Natal 

8. The . 



r 

of the same species (Plag 



tomentosa) in 



South Africa, New Zealand, and Valp 



and the occurrence of 



second species (C 



Edwardsii (?) ) at New Zealand and Yalp 



raiso. 



V 



V 



X 



of identical species in the Japan seas and at X 



9. The occurrence of closely allied species (as species of Ampho- \ 
roidea and Ozius) in New South Wales and Chili. 

10. The occurrence of the same species in the Japan seas and the ^ 
Mediterranean, and of several identical genera. 

11. The occurrence of a large number of identical species in the 



British 



and the Med 



and also in these seas and about 



the Canary Islands. 

12. The occurrence of closely allied, if not identical, species (as of 
Palsemon) in New Zealand and the British seas ; and also of certain 
genera that are elsewhere peculiarly British, or common only to 

Britain and America. 

13. An identity in certain species of Eastern and Western America. 








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1584 



CRUSTACEA. 



The following are the conclusions to which we are led by the facts : 
I. The migration of species from island to island through the tro- 
pical Pacific and East Indies may be a possibility; and the same 
species may thus reach even to Port Natal in South Africa. The 
currents of the oceans favour it, the temperature of the waters is con- 
genial through all this range, and the habits of many Crustacea, 
although they are not voluntarily migratory^ seem to admit of it. 
The species which actually have so wide a range are not Maioids 



--^ 



(which are to a considerable extent deep-water species), but those of 
the shores ; and some, as Thalamita admete, are swimming species. 

II. The fact, that very few of the Oriental species occur in the 
Occidental seas, may be explained on the same ground, by the barrier 
which the cold waters of Cape Hern and the South Atlantic present 
to the passage of tropical species around the Cape westward, or to 
their migration along the coasts. 

Moreover, the diffusion of Pacific tropical species to the Western 
American coast is prevented, as already observed, by the westward 
direction of the tropical currents, and the cold waters that bathe the 
greater part of this coast. 

r 

III. When we compare the seas of Southern Japan and Port Natal 
and find species common to the two that are not now existing in the 
Indian Ocean or East Indies, we hesitate as to migration being a suf- 
ficient cause of the distribution. It may, however, be said that drift- 
ings of such species westward through the Indian Ocean may have 
occasionally taken place; but that only those individuals that were 
carried during the season quite through to the suhtorrid region of the 
South Indian Ocean (Port Natal, etc.), survived and reproduced, the 
others, if continuing to live, soon running out under the excessive heat 
of the intermediate equatorial regions. That they would thus run 
out in many instances is beyond question ; but whether this view will 
actually account for the resemblance in species pointed out is open to 
doubt. 

IV. When further, we find an identity of species between the 

L 

Hawaiian Islands and Port Natal — half the circumference of the 
globe, or twelve thousand miles, apart — and the species, as Qalene 
natalensis, not a species found in any part of the torrid region, and 
represented by another species only in Japan, we may well question 
whether we can meet the difficulty by appealing to migration. It 
may however be said, that we are not as yet thoroughly acquainted 



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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1585 



with the species of the tropics, and that facts may hereafter be dis 



covered that 



ill favour this view. The identical species 



of 



pecuHar a character that we deem this improbable 



V. The 
mitv of Africa, in 



of the Plagusia tomentosa at the southern extre- 
New Zealand, and on the 'Chilian coasts, may 



perhaps be due to migration, and especially as it is a southern species 
and each of these localities is within the subtemperate region. 



ready however to assert, that such journeys as this 



We 

r 

ge of 



mig 



implies are possible 



The oceanic currents of this reg 



n the right direction to carry the species eastward, except that 

there is no passage into this western current from Cape Horn, through 
the Lagulhas current, which flows the other way. It appears to be 

rather a violent assumption that an individual or more of this species 
could reach the western current from the coast on which it might 
have Hved ; or could have survived the boisterous passage, and finally 
have had a safe landing on the foreign shore. The distance from New 
Zealand to South America is five thousand miles, and there is at 



J 



present not an island between. 

VI. Part of the difficulty in the way of a transfer of species between 
distant meridians might be overcome, if we could assume that the 
intermediate seas had been occupied by land or islands during any 

In the case just alluded to, it is possible 

;: and 



part of the recent epoch 

that such a chain of interrupted communication once had plac 



this bare possibihty weakens the force of the argument used above 
against miaTation. Yet as it is wholly an assumption, we cannot rely 



upon it for evidence that migration has actually taken place. 

YII. The existence of the same species on the east and west coasts 
of America, affords another problem, which migration cannot meet, 
without sinking the isthmus of Darien or Central America, to afford 

5 across. As yet we know of no evidence that this portion of 



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a passag 

the continent has been beneath the 

An 



during the recent epoch 
ument against such a supposition might be drawn from the 



very small number of species that are identical on the two sides, and 
the character of these species. Libinia s^inosa occurs at Brazil and 
ChiU and has not been found in the West Indies. Lepfopodia sagit 



another Maioid, occurs at Yalp 



the West Indies, and the 



Canaries 



VIII. The large number of similar species common to the Mediter 
aean and British seas may be due to migration, as there is a con 

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1586 



CRUSTACEA. 






tinuous line of coast and no intermediate temperature rendering 
sueli a transfer impossible; and the passage farther south to the 
Canaries of several of the species is not beyond what this cause might 
accomplish. Still, it cannot be asserted that in all instances the dis- 
tribution here is owing to migration ; nor will it be admitted unless 

other facts throw the weight of probability on that side^. 

IX. But when we find the sanie Temperate zone species occtirring 
in distant provinces, these provinces having between them no water 
communication except through the Torrid or Frigid zone, and offering 
no ground for the supposition that such a communication has existed 
during the recent epoch, we are led to deny the agency of voluntary 

An 
example of this, beyond all dispute, is that of the Mediterranean Sea 



or involuntary migration in producing this dissemination. 




^X^ and Japan. No water communication for the passage of species can 
be imagined. An opening into the Red Sea is the only possible point 
of intercommunication between the two kingdoms; but this opens 
into the Torrid zone, in no part of which are the species found. The 
two regions have their peculiarities and their striking resemblances ; 
and we are forced to attribute them to original creation and not inter- 
communication. 

X. The resemblances found are not merely in the existence of a 
few identical species. There are genera common to the two seas that 
occur nowhere else in the Oriental kingdom, as Latreillia, Ephyra, 
Sicyonia, &c.; and species where not identical have an exceedingly 

close resemblance. 

Now this resemblance in genera and species (without exact identity 
in the latter) is not explained by supposing a possible intercommuni- 
cation. But we may reasonably account for it on the ground of a 
similarity in the temperature and other physical conditions of the 

seas ; and the well-known principle of " Hke causes, like effects" forces 
itself upon the mind as fully meeting the case. Mere intercommuni- 
cation could not produce the resemblance ; for just this similarity of 

And where such a simi- 




we 



physical condition would still be necessary, 
larity exists, creative power may multiply analogous species 
should almost say, must, for, as species are made for the circumstances 
in which they are to live, identical circumstances will necessarily 
imply identity of genera in a given class, and even of specific structure 



subsenera 



If, then, the similarity in the characters of these regions is 



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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1587 



I 

of tlie identity of genera, and of the very close likeness 



close that 



identity is sometimes 



g^y 



admitted), we must conclude that there is a possi 



This 



certain species (so 

pected where not 

bility of actual identity of species, through orig 

in fact, becomes the only admissible view, and the actually identical 

species between Japan and the Mediterranean are examples. 

XI. When we find a like resemblance of genera and species between 
Temperate zone provinces in opposite hemispheres 
exact antipodes, as in the case of Great Britain aud New Zealand, we 



that 



almost 



have no choice of hypotheses left 



We must appeal directly 



gency for the peopling of the New Zealand 



well as the 



British, and see in both, like wisdom, and a like adaptedness of hfe 



physical nature. 



The Palsemon affinis of the New Zealand 



hardly distinguishable from the common P. squilla of Europe, and 



example of this resemblance 



It may not be an identity 



and 



this account it is a still better proof of our principle, because there 



pect migration or any other kind of transfer 



It 



a creation of species in these distant provinces, which are almost iden- 
tical, owing to the physical resemblances of the seas; and it shows at 
least, that a very close approximation to identity may be consistent 

with Divine Wisdom. 

The resemblance of the New Zealand and British seas has been 

occurrence in both of the 

Portunus and Cancer. It is certainly a wonderful fact that 



marked upon as extending also to the 



New Zealand should have 



closer resemblance in its Crustacea 



Great Britain, its antipode, than to any other part of the world— a 
resemblance running parallel, as we cannot fail to 






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geographical form 



insular position, and 



observe, with 

among the 




temperate regions of the ocean. Under such circumstances, there 
must be many other more intimate resemblances, among which we 
may yet distinguish the special cause which led to the planting of 
peculial- British forms in this antipodal land. 

The close resemblance in species and genera from Britain and New 
Zealand, and from Japan and the Mediterranean, and the actual iden- 
tity in some species among the latter, proves therefore that, as regards 
the species of two distant regions, identity as well as resemblance may 



Kt 



M 






be attributable to independent creations, these resemblances being 

direct accordance with the physical resemblances of the reg 

this conclusion cannot be avoided, we are compelled in all cases to try 



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1588 



CRUSTACEA. 



the hypothesis of migration by considering something beside the mere 
possibility of its having taken place under certain assumed conditions. 
The possibiHty of independent creations is as important a considerar 
tion. After all the means of communication between distant pro- 
vinces have been devised or suggested, the principle still comes up, 



that 



accordance with Divine Wisdom 



similar and 



identical species in different regions, where the physical circumstances 
are alike ; and we must determine by special and thorough investi- 
gation, whether one or the other cause was the actual origin of the 
distribution in each particular case. Thus it must be with reference 
to the wide distribution of species in the Oriental tropics, as well as in 

L 

the European temperate regions, and the Temperate zone of the South 
Pacific and Indian Oceans. 



XII. With respect to 



of identical species in distant 



regions, we would again point to its direct dependence on a near iden- 
tity of physical condition. Although we cannot admit that circum- 
stances or physical forces have ever created a species (as like can 
only beget like, and physical force must result simply in physical force), 
and while we see in all nature the free act of the Divine. Being, we 

may still believe the connexion between the calling into existence of 
a species and the physical circumstances surrounding it to be as inti- 



mate nearly 



and effect. The Creator has 



adapted each species to its place, and the whole 



infinite skill 
system of ad 



mirable harmony and perfect 



In his wisdom, any difference of 



physical condition and kind of food at hand, is sufficient to require 
some modification of the intimate structure of species, and this difife- 

so as to pro- 
duce an exactness 



pressed in the form of the body or members 



of adaptation, which we 



far from fully per 



/ 



ceiving or comprehending with our present knowledge of the relations 

of species to their habitats. 

When therefore we find the same species in regions of unlike phy- 
sical character, as, for example, in the seas of the Canaries and Great 

regions physically so unlike — we have strong reason for 



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Britain 

attributing the diffusion of the species to mig 



The difference 



and Great Britain may require the same 

are so far 



between the Mediterranean 

conclusion for the species common to these seas. They 

different, that we may doubt whether species created independently in 

the two could have been identical, or even have had that resemblance 

that exists between varieties ; for this resemblance is usually of the 



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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA 



1589 



most trivial kind, and effects only the least essential of the parts of 



species 



The continental species of Crustacea from the interior of different con- 
tinents, are not in any case known to be identical j and it is well under 
stood that the zoological provinces and districts of the land are of far 



i^- 



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more limited extent than those of the 



The physical differences 



As we 
r: the 



of the former are far more striking than those of the latter, 
have observed elsewhere, the varieties of climate are great( 
elevation above the sea may vary widely ; and numberless are the 
diversities of soil and its conditions, and the circumstances above and 



within 



Hence as the creation of each species has reference most 

intimately to each and all of these conditions, as well as to other pros- 

jgions is seldom to be 

snera are very widely 



pective ends, an identity between distant 
found, and the characteristic groups of g 



diverse. Comparatively few genera of Insects have as wide a rang 



as those of Cr 



and species 



with 



narrow limits. Where the 
we should in general look 



range of 
to migr: 



species 



ptions, have very 
this class is great, 



.tion as the cause rather than 
original creation; but the considerations bearing on both should be 
attentively studied before either is admitted as the true explanation. 

Throuo-hout the warmer tropical oceans, a resemblance in the phy- 
sical conditions of distant provinces is far more common and more 



than in the Temperate 



And hence it would seem that 



we could not safely appeal to actual differences as an argument 
against the creation of a species in more than one place. The species 
spread over the Oriental Torrid zone may hence be supposed to owe 
their distribution to independent creations of the same species in diffe- 



places, as well as to mi 



Yet we may 



this underrate 



the exactness of physical identity required for independent creations 

We know that for some chemical compounds, 



of 



same species 



^' 



the condition of physical forces for their formation is exceedingly 
deUcate ; and much more should we infer that when the creation of a 
living germ was concerned, a close exactness in the conditions would 



be re 

+ 

place 



quired in 



order that the creation should be repeated in another 



Infinite power, it is 



may 



in any place; but the 



will have reference to the forces of matter, the material em 



ployed in the 



The few species common to the Oriental and 



?- 



Occidental torrid seas seem to be evidence on this point ; the fact that 
the Oriental species have so rarely been repeated in the Occidental 

398 



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1590 



CRUSTACEA. 



migr 
trop 



wlien the conditions seem to be the same, favours the view that 
ition has been the main source of the difiusion in the Oriental 



descend in the order of Invertebrates, the species are less 
detailed in structure, with fewer specific parts and greater simplicity 



As 



^ 



we 



of functions, and they therefore admit of a wid 



of physical 



condition ; the same argument against multiplication by independent 
creations in regions for the most part different, does not, therefore, so 
strongly hold. As we pass, on the contrary, to the highest groups in 
Zoology, the argument receives far greater weight ; and at the same 
time there are capabilities of migration increasing generally in direct 
ratio as we ascend, which are calculated to promote the diffusion of 
species, and remove the necessity of independent 



Migration cannot therefore be set aside 



It 



al fact 



interfering much with the simplicity which zoological life 



its diffusion would otherwise present to us. 



Wh 



it 



ds. and 



where independent creations have taken place, is the great problem 
for our study. This question has its bearings on all departments of 
Zoology ; but in few has migration had the same extended influence 



species 



in that of Crustacea. Molluscs, if we except 
travellers, and keep mostly to narrow limits. 
XIII. There is evidence in the exceedingly small number of Torrid 



zone species identical 



the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, that there 



has been no water communication acre 
Torrid zone, during the period since 
were first on the globe. 



from one to the other in the 
dsting species of Crustacea 



XIV. As to zoological centres of diffusion for groups of species 



can point 



Each species of Crustace 



may 



h 



had its 



place of origin and single centre of diffusion in many and perhaps the 



majority of 



But we have no reason to say that certain 



were without life, and were peopled by migration from specific 



specially selected for this end 



If 



centres had an existence, 



there is at present no means by which they may be ascertained 



The 



particular temperature region 



which a species originated may be 



ascertained by observing which is most favourable to its develop- 
ment : we should thus conclude that the Banina dentata, for example, 
was created in the subtorrid region and not the torrid, as it attains its 
largest size in the latter. By pursuing this course with reference to 
each species, we may find some that are especially fitted for almost 



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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA 



1591 



every different locality 
observation can do it, 
creations. 



Hence we might show, as far as reason and 



that all regions have had their 



pecial 



The 



... world throughout all its epochs in past history, has been fur- 
nished with life in accordance with the times and seasons, each species 
being adapted to its age, its place, and its fellow species of life. 






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In the elaboration of the tables given in the preceding chapter, the 
following works and memoirs have been consulted 

L 

■s 

A. a. Desmarest's Considerations Generales sur les Crustaces, 8vo P^"^' ^f ^^ 
Milne Edwakds's Histoire Naturelle des Crustaces, 3 vols, 8vo, P^";; 1^^^;^;;^ 
MILNE EWAKBS, in Victor Jacquemont's Yoy. dans L'Inde, 4to., 1844; and other 
papers in the Archives du Mus. d'Hist. Nat, and the Annales des f ^^^^aturelles. 

Milne Edwards and H. Lucas, on the Crustacea of D'Orbigny's Voy. dans L Ame- 

rique Meridionale, 4to, Paris, 1843. , iqi;;iqi7 

W. E. Leach's Malacostraca Podophthalmata Britanniae, 4to, i8i0-l»i / . 

SiviGNY, Crustacea of Napoleon's Egypt, folio. 
De Haan's Crustacea of the Fauna Japonica, fol, 183d-185U. 
M'Leay, in Smith's Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa, 1838. _ 
E RtPPELL's Beschreibung und Abbildung von 24 Arten kurzschwanzigen Krabben 
als Beitrag zur Naturgeschichte des rothen Meeres, 4to, Frankfurt, 1830 

Thos. Bell's papers on the genus Cancer and on some Crustacea of the coasts ot 
South America, Zool. Trans, i. 335, and ii. 39. 
Thos. Bell's British Crustacea, Parts 1 to 6, Svo., London, 1844-1847. 
R. Owen, on the Crustacea of the Voyage of the Blossom ; and also, Appendix to 
Sir John Ross's Second Voyage in search of a Northwest Passage. 

H. RATHKE, Fauna der Krym, Mem. Imp. Acad. Sci St. Petersburg, -■ l^^^ -d 
Beit, zur Fauna Norwegens Kais. Loop. Car. Acad, der Nat. Bonn vol. xx., 4to., 1840. 
Dr F Kratjss's Stidafrikanischen Crustaceen, 4to., Stuttgart, l«4d. 
0. S. Costa's Fauna del Regno di Napoli, 4to., Crostacei in 1836. 

Webb and Berthelot, on the Canaries. , , • 

Kroyer's Conspectus Crustaceorum Greenlandi^, Copenhagen, and also various papers 

in his Tidskrift, published at Copenhagen ; and also the Crustacea of the Spitzbergen 

Expedition, in folio. ' ^_„ ttt 



( 



1849. 



H.' Lucas, Crustacea of Expl. de 1' Algiers, 4to., Paris. 

List of the Specimens of Crustacea in the Collection of the British Museum, 16mo., 

^°SVtht Specimens of British Crustacea in the British Museum, 16mo., London, 1850. 



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CRUSTACEA. 



A. Adams and A. White, Crustacea of tlie Voyage of the Samarang, 4to., London, 



1848. 



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A. A. Gould's Invertebrata of Massachusetts, 874 pp., 8vo, with plates. Boston 1841 
Lewis R. Gibbes, on the Carcinological collections of the Cabinets of Natural 
History in the United States, with an enumeration of the species contained therein and 
Descriptions of New Species. From Proceedings of the Amer. Assoc, toL m., 1850. 




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Bydohx and SoutEYET, Voyage of the Bomte. 

HOMBBON and Jaoquinot, Voy. an Pole Sud. et dans I'Oeeame _ 

Besides various other Memoirs by Say, J. W. Randall, Poppig, Enehson Phihpp., 
M«l e Wiegmann, Guerin, S. Loven, H. D. S. Goodsir, A. Wh te W. Thompson, 
etc, in the Journal Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia; Wiegmann's Arohiv. f. Naturg., 
Berin; Gu&in's Maga^in de ^ool, Paris, and also Bevue Zoo og,que,Jans; Anna es 
des Sci Nat., Paris; Vet. Acad. Eorhandl., Stocliholm; Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist 
London ; Kc^orts of Brit. Assoc. ; Proceedings of the Zool. Soc, London ; Jameson s 
New Edinburgh Journal, etc., etc. 




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