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Full text of "Dickinsons' comprehensive pictures of the Great Exhibition of 1851"

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DICKINSONS' 




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1851, 



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BY MESSRS. NASH, HAGHE, AND ROBERTS, R.A. 



l^uMisjifii mhx tlje €xpm Iflnrtinn d lis ^aqal ligljnf00 l^mn Ihii, 



PRESIDENT OP TEE BOYAL COMMISSION, 



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LONDON: 

DICKINSON, BROTHERS, HER MAJESTY'S PUBLISHERS, 

114, NEW BOND STREET. 

MDCCCLIV. 



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YOL I. LIST OF SUBJECTS. 



FRONTISPIECE :— NORTH TRANSEPT, WAITING FOR THE QUEEN. 



I. The Inaugueation. 

II. Greece : — 

Objects Prominent.— Marble Bas-relief, from Parthenon— Carved Cross, in 
the old Byzantine Style — Palicar Dress — Embroidered Goods— Case of 
Saddles — Statues, Boy at the Stream ; Hampden. 

III. Russia : — 

Objects Prominent.— Gilt Bronze Candelabras, by Krumbigel— Large Vase 
from Imperial China Manufactory, St. Petersburg — Centre Piece and other 
works in Silver, by Sazikoff— Malachite Ornaments, &c. (DemidofF)— Case 
of Jewels, by Seftyzer and Bewzershon — Malachite Doors and Vases— Inlaid 
Flooring — Stained Glass in Gallery. 

IV. North Germany: — 

Objects Prominent. — Musical Instruments, by Glier and Son, Klingenthal — 
Brass Wire Cages, by Ritcher — Miss Berenhardine's Embroidered Portraits 
of Queen Victoria and the Prince of Wales — Relief, in Plaster, illustrative of 
Northern Mythology — Model of the Lorley, by Engelhard — Mosaic Table 
Tops — ^Transparencies — Brass Chandelier, by Bemstorff and Erchwede. 

V. HOELAND : — 

Objects Prominent. — Zeeger's Imitation Chinese Screw — Mr. Hosse's Jewels 
— ^Van Hampen's Case of Silver Ornaments — Flower Tables and Stands, 
Schutz — Corsage made of Diamonds, &c. — Silver Ornamented Tea-kettle, 
by Lucarde — Case of Military Ornaments — Bronze Statuette of Prince 
William I. of Holland. 

VI. Belgium : — 

Objects Prominent. — Statues: the Lion in Love; the Torments of Cain; 
The Death of the Stag, in Bronze, by Debay ; Godfrey de Bouillon ; the 
Happy Child ; a Child, in Marble ; Psyche, Cupid, &c. — Wood Carving, by 
Geerts. 

VII. Austria, No. 1 : — 

Objects Prominent. — Elaborately Carved Bedstead, and other Furniture — 
The Eau de Cologne Fountain. 

VIII. Austria, Sculpture, No. 2: — 

Objects Prominent. — Maypole, a Marble Group, by Manfredini — Candelabrum, 
of Cast Iron — Radetzky, in Bronze — Mosaic Vases, by Gottl— Carved Frame, 
by Kolb — Veiled Vestal, David, &c. in Marble— Glass, by Hoffman. 

IX. ZOLLVEREIN : 

Objects Prominent. — Amazon, by Kiss — Globe, in relief, by Kumner — 
Oxidized Silver Vase, by Albert Wagner — Statuettes, from the Royal 
Prussian Iron Foundry — Bas-relief, in Bronze, Cupid on Panther — Wood 
Carving, Bacchus— Shield, in Bas-relief, by Krauss— German Organ, in 
Gallery. 

X. Octagonal Room : — 

Objects Prominent. — Lion and Panther, in Zinc, by Devarnine and Son, Ber- 
lin—Bronze Groups, Children with Dogs — Marble Statue, Boy reclining, 
by Professor Drake — Ditto, Girl with Lamb, by Albert Wolif— Statuette, 
Amazon and Tiger — Painted Glass, By Wetzell and Kellner— Marble Statue, 
Magdalen, by Wagner — Porcelain Jar, by Koeinliche. 



XI. 



1 :— 



France, No. 

Objects Prominent. — Ringuet Leprince, Tapestry— Lienard's Carved Clock- 
case, Cabinet, &c.— Truc's Porcelain Lamps— Duval and Co.'s Lamps— 
Cruchett's Sculptures in Carton Pierre, &c.— Le Mire Pere et Fils, Lyons 
Silks for Curtains— Album of the Society of Literary Men— Books in the 
Oriental Languages, from the National Printing Establishment of France — 
Morceau; Tissues for Hangings and Furniture — Flaissier's Carpets. 

XII. France, No. 2:— 

Objects Prominent.— Fourdinois' Prize Sideboard— Entrance to Sevre Court 
— Bronze Busts, Negro and Negress, by Cordier — Barbedienne and Co.'s 
Bookcase and Bronzes— Gates of the Baptistry of Florence— Marble Statues, 
Hero and Leander, Algerine Products, and Eve and Children. 

XIII. France, No. 3 :— 

Objects Prominent. — General View of the Sevre Court— The Gobelin Tapes- 
try—Bronzes—Cupid Cutting off his Wings, by Bonnassieux— The beautiful 
collection of Vases and Paintings from Sevre, &c. 



XIV. France, No 4 : — 

Objects Prominent.— Stalls of Lerolle, Freres ; C. Rouge ; C. Christofie and 
Cie. ; J. B. Marchand; M. Odiot— Church Chandelier, in the Gothic Style- 
Case of Electro-plated Goods, by Elkington's process. 

XV. Spain and Portugal : — 

Objects Prominent.— Tabernacle, for a Cathedral— Case of Spanish Arms, 
Toledo Sword, &c.— Shield of the Royal Arms of Spain, in Silk, Gold, and 
Silver— Baby Linen, made for the Prince of Austria— Barrels of Portuguese 
Snuff— Case of Embroidered Goods— Embroidery in Hair— Candelabra by 
Solami of Leghorn. 

XVI. Switzerland : — 

Objects Prominent.— Model of Strasburg Cathedral— Collection of Firearms 
— ^Dutertresteche and Bonnek, and P. Phillips's Stalls of Jewellery, Clocks, 
&c. — Musical Boxes — Embroidery. 

XVn. Italy:— 

Objects Prominent.— Ornamental Carved Wood Frame — Marble Vase- 
Marble Statues, Bacchus Reclining — Pysche and Cupid — Rinaldo and Armido, 
Candelabra and Flower Stand — Tassa Vase— Jupiter Stator and Colonna 
Foca, of the Roman Forum — Landscape in Needlework — Vases, in Legno. 

XVIII. Sweden and Denmark : — 

Objects Prominent. — Porphery Vases — Specimen of Needlework, by Miss 
Alner — Orcestis, a Statue, by Prof. Bissen — Woollen Goods — Stuffed Silver 
Bear Skin — The Shepherd's Boy, a Statue — Wielback's Compasses and 
Clock. 

XIX. Tunis, No. 1 :— 

Objects Prominent. — Arab Tent, with Lions' and Leopards' Skins stretched 
thereon — Domestic and CuHnary Utensils — Bottles containing different 
sorts of Scented Waters — Jewish and Algerine Garments. 

XX. Tunis, No. 2:— 

Objects Prominent.— Saido Belais, the Attendant on the Tunisian Depart- 
ment — Gerby Blankets — Arab Mantles and Shawls — Blankets of Tunisian 
Manufacture — Carved Door at the Entrance to the Chinese Department — 
Saddles, Embroidery, Dresses, Cushions, &c. — View of the South-eastern 
Side Avenue. 

XXI. Tunis, No. 3 :— 

Objects Prominent. — Major Edie's Curtain— Chinese Deities— Tunisian Carpet 
— Brazilian Products — Artificial Flowers, in Feathers — Case of Chinese 
Products — Hewitt's Collection — Statues, Zephyr and Aurora ; Virginius. 

XXII. Turkey, No. 1 :— 

Objects Prominent. — Deers' Horns — Case of Coral and other Ornaments — 
Koulah Carpets and Rugs — Case containing Specimens of Dried Flowers 
from Mount Hebron — Assortment of Bottles of Scents and Seeds — Mangal 
or Brazier, for Warming Apartments — Sledge from School of Arts, in Tassy 
— Embroidered Saddle. 



XXIII. Turkey, No. 2 :— 

Objects Prominent. — Cases of Embroidered Goods — Tables in Alabaster — 
Assortment of Antique Silver Cups and Saucers — Silver Coffee Urn — Turkish 
Tent — Ostrich Wing — Embroidered Saddles and Trappings. 



XXIV. China :— 

Objects Prominent. — Cabinet, Vases, Lamps, Tiles — Screens and various 
Ornaments. 



XXV. America, from the North-west End: — 

Objects Prominent. — Water Vase, made of fine Brick Clay, by Salt and Mear, 
Cincinnati — Sioux Saddle and Hunting Belt — Greek Slave — Case of Cheap 
American Newspapers — Zinc Ore, from New Jersey; weight, 16,400 lbs. 
—Model of the "Falls of Niagara "—The "Rider" Iron Truss Bridge, and 
Vulcanized India Rubber Trophy " Goodyear " — In gallery, Gray and David- 
son's Organ, &c. — Zollverein Linen Department. 



XXVI. Foreign Nave. 



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VOL. II. LIST OF SUBJECTS. 



FRONTISPIECE :— THE TRANSEPT. 



I. The Exteriok. 

II. India, No. 1 : — 

View of the Indian Tent.-OBJECTS PROMINENT.-Embroidered Elephant Trap- 
pings-State Punkahs-Carved Rosewood Furniture-Costume of an Indian 
Chief— King of Oude's Crown— Ivory Throne. 



III. India, No. 2: — 

Viewfro7n the Transept.—OBJECTS PROMINENT.-Statue, Michael and Satan- 
Collection of the Arms of various Territories in India— Hunting Saddles, 
with Trappings— State Punkahs, or Fans— Jewellery Case. 



IV. India, No. 3 :— 

View from the Transept.— Objects PROMINENT.-Jewel Case, containing the 
Durri-a-noor, or " Sea of Light," Diamond, &c.— State UmbreUas, fee- 
Models of Ships, Netting, Fishing-tackle, &c. 



V. India, No. 4 : — 

South Court.— Objects Prominent.— State Carriages— Royal Canopy— Tro- 
phy of Cotton and Silk Manufactures— Howdah, of Ivory— Stuffed Elephant, 
with Trappings— Embroidered Muslins, from Dacca. 



VI. India, No. 5 : — 

Mrth Court.— Objects Prominent.— Needlework Carpet Cover, from Lahore 
—Elephant Trappings— Bedstead of solid Silver, and Canopy— Groups of 
Figures, illustrative of Indian Manners— Bed, from Cachmere. 



VII. India, No. 6 :— 

South Passaffe.— Objects Prominent.— Raw Materials from various parts of 
India, &c.— Ivory, Horns, Metallic Ores ; and the rude Tools of the Natives. 



VIII. India, No. 7 :— 

Mrth Passaffe.— Objects Prominent.— Complete Collection of the Pottery of 
India— Statue of the Queen, by a Native Artist— Silk Carpets— Dresses of 
Various Tribes— Fountain, Boy and Swan. 



IX. West Indies, Colonies, &c. : — 

Objects Prominent.— Case of Artificial Fruits and Flowers, by H. Elwell, 
Barbadoes— Pedestal and Crown in Shellwork, by Miss Nichols, Bahamas 
—Collection of Minerals, from South Australia— Articles made from the 
Leaves of the Palm Tree, from Mauritius— Figure-head, an Indian Chief, 
by J. Mitchell, New Brunswick. 

X. Guernsey and Jersey, Malta and Ceylon : — 

Objects Prominent.— Original Designs for Statuary in Porcelain, by T. and 
R. Boote, of Burslem— Gun, curiously wrought and inlaid with Silver, from 
St. Heliers— Contributions from the Ionian Islands, Embroidery, &c.— 
Carvings in Stone, by F. Dimech, F. Testa, J. Foler, and P. Degesare. 

XI. Canada : — 

Objects Promini^nt.— Indian Canoe, Sledges and Carriages— Sledge Harness- 
Perry and Brothers' Fire Engine— Case of Linen and Woollen Goods- 
Chairs presented by the Ladies of Montreal to Her Majesty the Queen. 

XII. Medieval Court : — 

Medieval Court.— Objects Prominent.— Hardman's Church Plate and Brass 
Work— Myer's Stone Tabernacle, Font, &c.— Minton, Ornamental Tiles, &c. 
— Crace, Furniture, Paper Decorations, &c. 



XIII. Painted Glass, in Gallery : — 
Objects Prominent.— Stained Glass of all Nations. 

XIV. Agriculture : — 

Objects Prominent.— The Stands of Messrs. Ransome and May ; Barrett, 
Exall, and Andrews ; Garrett and Son ; Crosskill, Westlake, and others. 



XV. Sheffield Hardware : — 

Objects PROMINENT.-Stuart and Smith's Department-Leslie's Patent Gas 
Fittings— Hoole, Robson, and Hoole's Stand— Robertson, Carr, and Steel's 
Stand— Ibbotson Brothers, and Turton and Son's Departments. 



XVI. Hardware : — 

Objects PROMiNENT.-Wood Carving by Machinery-Jordan, Jennins and 
Bettndge's Papier Mache Pianoforte, Chairs, &c.— Feetham and Co.'s Stove, 
Grates, &c.— Potts' Bronzes— Winfield's Chandelier and Brass Castings- 
Ornamental Gas Fittings, Messenger, of Birmingham. 



XVII. Furniture : — 

Objects Prominent.— Loo Tables, Side Boards, &c., Morant— Carved Oak 
Looking-glass, Snell and Co.— Ormolu Goods, Wertheimer — Jackson and 
Graham's Department. 



XVIIL Woollen :— 

Objects Prominent — Revolving Lighthouse 
Brett Brothers' Stall. 



Clay's Case of Woollens — 



XIX. Flax :— 

Objects Prominent— Seeley's Fountain— Plaster Group, Liberation of Carac- 
tacus— Jacquard Loom— Muslin Goods, J. Holden— Irish Cambric, John 
Henning — Dunfermline Goods, Erskine Beveridge. 



XX. Furs :— 

Objects Prominent— Adcock's Feathers— Nicholay's Furs, Seals, Red Fox, 
Wolf, Leopard, Lions, Tigers, Bears and other Skins— Stuffed Leopard and 
Wolf— Tiger's Head, &c.— Ross's Telescope— Minton and Co.'s Encaustic 
Tiles. 



XXI. Moving Machinery : — 

Objects Prominent — Sketch taken from Whitworth's Stand of Machine 
Tools, for Planing, Slotting, Drilling, Boring, &c. ; and introducing Fair- 
bairn's Corn-mill, Wrought-iron Crane, Garforth's Ri vetting Machine— 
Johnson's Wfre-drawing Machinery— Gardner's Spinning Machinery— Wat- 
kins's Coining Press— Appold's Pump. 

XXII. Machinery : — 

Objects Prominent— The Great Hydraulic Press — Crampton's and other 
Locomotives— Nasmyth's Steam Hammer— Fox, Henderson and Co.'s, and 
Stothard's Cranes— Ransome and May's Turntables —Water Cranes, Screw 
Piles, &c.— Fire-engines, Pumps, Water-rams, &c., by Merry wether— Shal- 
ders, Easton and Amos, and Shand and Mason. 

XXIII. Minerals : — 

Objects Prominent.— Minerals, as arranged by Thomas Sopwith, Esq.— 
Mr. Beaumont's Specimens of Silver— Duke of Buccleugh's Specimens of 
Ores, &c.— Arkansa's" Mining Company, Lead Ore, &c.— Galena, from the 
Isle of Man. On the wall.— Imitation Marbles, by Hopkins— Inlaid Flooring, 
by Cowell and Thomas— Model of Gothic Door, by Emery. 

XXIV. Cotton, Carriages, &c. : — 

Objects Prominent.— Plan of Liverpool— Case of Crape, Muslin, &c., J. H. 
Young, Glasgow— Cotton Goods, D. and J. Anderson, Glasgow — Gingham, 
Lotham and Parker, Carlisle ; Dixon and Sons, ditto— Hair Seating, Laycock 
and Son, Sheffield. 



XXV, Exterior, Coals, &c. : — 

Objects Prominent.— Slates from the various Quarries— Columns— Anchors— 
—Masses of Stones— Geological Specimens— Marrochetti's Coeur de Lion, 
and the Steam Engine in the distance. 

XXVI. The British Nave. 
XXVII. Closing Ceremony. 



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WAITING FOR THE QUEEN. 



The sun rose bright on the morning of the 1st May 1851, substituting the brilliancy of an Itahan sky for that canopy 
of mist which so continually hangs over the metropohs of England. The birthday of the Exhibition of Industry of all 
Nations had arrived, and from early day-break, the note of preparation was sounded, announcing the interest which aU 
classes of the population took in the inauguration of that great undertaking. 

If a stranger, unacquainted with the cause of this unusual agitation, had found himseK for the first time in the 
streets of London, on that bright morning, he would have been amazed at the unprecedented appearance presented by 
the modern Tyre ; for the gates of the docks were closed, the voice of the steam engine was mute, the mansions of 
Lombard street were as empty as the palaces of Venice, and the immense population of the Capital were wending their 
way, in one uninterrupted stream, towards Hyde park. 

A Palace realizing in its decorated architecture the most glowing conceptions of an oriental imagination, and 
gorged with treasures more costly than even the mind of a Monte Christo could have conceived, was thrown open to the 
pubhc ; — a Temple filled with inventions, the solutions of problems studied by myriads of intellects, teeming with fashions 
destined to satisfy the ever-changing caprices of the human will, and adorned with ideal works of art attesting the 
existence of national and individual spiritualism, even in this utihtarian age, was reared up to Industry ; and the beloved 
Sovereign of an Empire upon which the sun never sets, was to do honor to the reahzed idea of her Koyal Consort, by 
opening in state the Great Exhibition of 1851. 

Brilliant and solemn was the spectacle which is depicted in the accompanying plate. An assemblage composed 
of the magnates of England, and of Continental Europe, of the aristocracies of birth, of intellect and of wealth, was 
" waiting for the Queen." The talented orator astounding Parhaments with his eloquence, the wily diplomatist playing 
with the destinies of Empires, the illustrious in war, in Hterature, in science and in art, were gathered together upon 
that platform "waiting for the Queen." Around them and above them a girdle of female beauty, such as even the 
glowing pencil of a Sir Peter Lely would have failed to depict, encircled the building from north to south, and from east 
to west. The Englishwoman, calm in the possession of her chaste and aerial lovehness, the animated Parisienne, rich 
in her indescribable grace, and the daughter of the South, with her restless and impassioned gaze, — each and all 
contributed their charms to lend enchantment to the scene. 

It is related of one of the Kings of Spain, whose taste for the arts led him to spend immense sums for the 
embellishment of the Museo del Key at Madrid, that he would pass whole days in the old curiosity shops of his Capital, 
alleging as his motive for so doing, that he considered the motley collection to be found therein, to be a truthful essay 
on the life of nations, and on many of the great events of history, and to be a poem more useful and valuable than all 
the writings of a Calderon or a Lopez de Vega. The contemplation of a Virgin painted by Murillo would plunge him 
into an ideal world peopled with saints ; a statue by Michael Angelo would carry him back to those glorious ages when 
the arts flourished, pure and undisfigured, under the Popes ; and the enameUing of a death's head by Benvenuto 
CeUini would remind him of the spirit of la Renaissance profanely intruding on the soil of Italy. 

A similar effect must have been produced on the mind of many a thoughtful observer, standing in the Transept 
of the Crystal Palace, before the arrival of Her Majesty. At one glance, he could embrace the industrial position of the 
East, represented by the productions of India, Persia, Turkey, Egypt and China. In the gorgeous luxury of oriental 
habits he could trace the germs of the Mahommedan creed so grateful to the senses ; and in the prim formality of 
Chinese manners he could detect the injunctions of Confucius against mirth and laughter ; in short, in aU these he 
could see the gradually fading image of the Past, whHst in the dazzhng display of the contributions of our own land, of 
France, and of Germany, he could read all the glorious promises which these nations are holding out to the world, of a 
resplendent Future. Above aU, in that vast concourse, he could behold the loyalty of the Enghsh people and their love 
for the Sovereign of their land, a love which was never more enthusiasticaUy manifested than when Her Majesty's entry 
was greeted by the sublime music of our National Chant. 



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GREECE. 



In a novel called " Arria MarceUa," lately published in France by Mons. Gautier, is a fanciful episode of a young man 
who visits the buried ruins of Pompeii, and faUs in love with the beautiful form of a woman moulded out of a block of 
lava extracted from the resuscitated city. Half-cursing fate for merely placing within his grasp the cold passionless 
stone, robbed of its warm heart and Hps which might invite and return a pressure, he rechnes against the fragment of a 
prostrated column and faUs asleep, revelhng in the frenzy of his new-born and strange passion. In his dream the fossil 
town reconstructs itself ; the broken porticoes are perfectly re-estabhshed ; the white marble piUars rear their capitals, 
and again ajfford support to the architectural magnificence above them ; in a word, walls, forum, temples and fountains — 
all are rebuilt, and the sleeper finds himseK in the actual presence of the Koman town, in all the circumstantial reahty 
of its existence 2,000 years ago : in fact the impression is so vivid and intense, that he even himself becomes an actor 
among the multitudes which again throng the streets and theatres, and again occupy the no longer voiceless chambers. 
Darkness vanishes, soHtude is peopled : Pompeii no longer lays mournfully slumbering in her shroud, but has again 
started into life and youth, pure as before the Vesuvian torrent had consumed her : the needle of Time had gone back 
twenty centuries on the dial of eternity. 

In the midst of this fantastically restored city our hero meets the graceful form, whose angehc lovehness, lastingly 
imprinted on the fragment of lava, had thrown him into such ardent reveries, — ^he finds Arria MarceUa as startlingly 
beautiful as in the day when she was ingulphed by the sulphureous torrents of the volcano. He sees her with a rosy 
and life-like cheek, a sparkhng eye, a sweet and tender smile ; he speaks to her and teUs her that it is his love, liis 
frantic, unearthly love, which has recalled her to life : he inebriates himself, by her side, with the silver tones of her 
voice, and with the soft caresses with which, notwithstanding all her maidenly reserve, she cannot help rewarding the 
ardent expressions of his affection. 

Suddenly, however, an aged man appears to interrupt the eager intercourse of the two lovers : it is Marcella's 
father. He approaches and gazes on the happy pair, who seem moulded for one another, and who are yet in reahty 
separated by 2,000 years. He entreats his child to leave the young man's side, not to drag the hving from their sphere, 
and to let her lover return to the hfe which God had appointed him to lead. But aU in vain ; MarceUa with the common 
wilfulness of youth refuses to obey the old man's commands, when he stretches forth his attenuated hand and touches 

lier the graceful draperies which enveloped her form faU, her laughing voice is hushed, and the nocturnal visitor sees 

only by his side a heap of crumbling ashes, mingled with a few calcined bones, and the abodes of art, of luxury and of 
taste, whose resurrection had been so strange, again become the tombs of their momentarily- waked residents. 

It was with feehngs of a nature somewhat simUar to those which animated the enthusiastic fancy of Arria 
MarceUa's lover, that we wandered into the smaU space devoted to the display of the articles contributed by Greece to 
the Great Exhibition of 1851. Her contributions were so few, so inferior to the gorgeous and dazzling collection which 
we may conceive she would have produced, had the Exhibition been held in the glorious days of Pericles, during whose 
briUiant reign Athens gloried in the name of " the country of literature and the arts," that we longed to throw back the 
shroud of years and reinstate the land that once was " Freedom's home or Glory's grave " in the mighty rank which she 
held before her downfaU : to disinter the noble Past, and in its effulgent lustre, to dissolve away the ignominious Present. 
Could our dream have been realized, and could Greece have gathered the worid around her to admire her revival, we 
might aU then have enjoyed the exquisite happiness, short-Uved though it might have been, which crowned the passion 
of the ardent enthusiast, who could not have desired the animation of his MarceUa of stone with greater eagerness than 
we do the restoration of the glory of Athens. 

As we traversed the aisles of the Crystal Palace there was much of sobering and humbhng thought, when we 
looked calmly about us, after the first bewilderment which the gorgeous display of the coUective industry of the world 
Avas calculated to produce, to remember that England perhaps only now holds that rank among the other nations of the 
world which Greece held centuries ago. It is Commerce which has put into the hands of northern Europe, whose 
inhabitants clothed themselves in skins and painted their naked bodies with woad, aU the arts, the inventions and the 
comforts which then exclusively flourished in the south, and were enjoyed by its people alone. Greece was the first 
European country who prided herseK on her civUization, her Uterature and her industry, and the monuments which she 
yet retains in every brauch have shed a glory upon her sons that almost obscures their mUitary fame— and what is she 
now ? That very Greece had the smaUest display in the Exhibition of 1851 : her power, her riches, her gloiy had 
dwindled, so that she was not ashamed to send, in reply to the courteous invitation addressed to her by England, whom 
she considers a Protectress, a few boxes containing only some specimens of raw produce, with three contributions to the 
fine art department, unworthy of this once renowned country. From these facts the lesson which we learn is that there 
has been a steady march northward of commerce and her concomitant power and gloiy, and that ruin seizes those whom 
she abandons : ,11.^1, „i^ 

" More unsteady tlian the southern gale. 
Commerce on other shores displays her sail ; 
And nought remains of all that riches gave 
But towns unmanned and lords without a slave." 



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EIJ88IA. 



From the opening of the Exhibition until the middle of June 1851, the Russian Department was the most unattractive 
on the Foreign side of the building. To the visitor who had recently left the gorgeous Sevres court, or had just 
returned to the Nave after contemplating the masterpieces of the Milanese Sculptors, the scantily Med area allotted to 
Russia seemed as barren and uninviting as the wastes of Siberia must appear to the traveUer who has been dwelling 
amid the richly varied landscapes of Southern Europe. 

At length however the day arrived when the commercial and artistic resources of Russia were to attract as much 
attention amongst the thronging multitudes in the Crystal Palace, as its political position does amongst the Cabinets of 
Europe. Novelty was the great feature of the Russian collection, and for this attribute it was mainly indebted to the 
articles in Malachite, exhibited by the Messrs. Demidoff. The Roman and Florentine Mosaics, which adorned the 
Itahan Department, were famHiar objects to the accomphshed traveUer and patron of the Fine Arts, and although the 
Malachite ornaments which enrich the various Palaces of the Continent had long attracted admiration, yet the iidaying 
of this mineral had never been carried to such perfection, and developed on so large a scale, as in the specimens 
manufactured at the Works of the Messrs. Demidoff at St. Petersburg. 

Malachite is a green carbonate of copper, the residue of a cupriferous solution, and which, in accordance with the 
mysterious laws of nature's geometry, assumes the crystaUine structure of stalagmites. It was long thought that this rich 
mineral was to be found exclusively in Siberia; but since 1845, when the great impulse was given to copper mining in 
South Australia, some very fine specimens of the blue and green carbonates of copper have been discovered in the Burra 
Burra mines. 

The best kinds of Russian Malachite are extracted from the Nijny Tagilsk copper mines of the Messrs. Demidoff, 
on the Siberian slopes of the Ural mountains. These mountains, which form the north-eastern barrier, or girdle as the 
Russian word signifies, between the European and Asiatic possessions of the Emperor of Russia, are, in a geological 
point of view, the most interesting in the world. Amongst their other mineral productions are reckoned gold, silver, 
platinum, copper, lead, diamonds, jasper, and porphyry. 

The manufacture of the Malachite doors, which form so prominent a feature in the accompanying plate, is said to 
have occupied thirty men working day and night for a whole year. The inlaying of this mineral is a most tedious 
operation, and it is curious to contemplate the patience displayed by the rude workman of the North, who flings away 
piece after piece untH he at last meets with one of the suitable hue, and intersected by the proper veins, beguiling 
meanwhile the monotony of his labour by humming one of the national ballads of his country. 

The jewellers of St. Petersburg enhanced their world-wide reputation for elegance in design and superiority 
in the setting of precious stones, by the splendid diadems and other jewels, which were the cynosure of all eyes, and 
pronounced by the fairer portion of the community, the best judges in such matters, to be exquisitely tasteful. 

AU classes of society in Russia have a fondness for ornaments, and the merchant's wife at an early hour in the 
day will be found adorned with rings, bracelets, and necklaces, many of which amongst our middle classes would be 
considered 

" An India in itself." 

It is related of the late Emperor Alexander, who was considered an excellent judge of female loveliness, that he 
seriously objected to any of the high-born ladies of his court, 

" The trembling lustre of whose hair 
"Was radiant, radiant gold," 

encirchng their light coloured tresses with a tiara of diamonds. He considered that the brilliant effect of these gems 
was only shown to perfection when contrasted with the glossy brightness of raven locks. This fact was, however, not 
stated by the present Emperor's jeweller, who was the principal exhibitor of the magnificent tiaras of diamonds, mingled 
with emeralds and opals of the largest size, and the fair-haired beauties who came to admire his sparkling works were 
left to follow their own taste, and were not called upon for their opinion on the justness of the Czar's invidious 
distinction. 



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NOHTH GERMANY. 



The five great Northern States of Germany were very small contributors to the Exhibition. Hanover was repre- 
sented by ten exhibitors, who supplied specimens of some of the productions of the kingdom. Although mining is 
the most extensive branch of Hanoverian industry, and silver, copper, and lead are found in large quantities, no 
specimens were exhibited ; and it appears that the fault was to be traced to the Government, which retains the few 
mines actually at work in its own hands, instead of forming them to private speculators, who would have a greater 
stimulus to increase their productiveness, and who would employ a larger number of workmen. Thus it is that 
many existing mines in the Upper Harz, the produce of which might enrich the kingdom to a very great extent, and 
give occupation to the inhabitants, are left unexplored, to languish and decay. The only natural production exhi- 
bited from Hanover was asphaltum, one of the varieties of bitumen, of which there were samples in a raw state, and 
also prepared for covering roofs and pavement, for which it is very extensively used. 

Among the few manufactured articles must be mentioned the lustre, in gilt bronze, which forms a prominent 
feature in the accompanying Plate. It was made to hold sixty candles, and though apparently too elaborate and 
heavy, when lighted it proved a very handsome piece of furniture, and deserved to be adopted by the Fine Art 
Class. Under this head, and in the same metal, was a bust of his Majesty Ernest Augustus, the late King of Hanover, 
and a statuette representing the painter Holbein. The most interesting of all the contributions, however, was an elec- 
tro-magnetic telegraph, with the exhibitor's additions and improvements on the system of the American Professor 
Morse. It was a variety of the Registering Telegraph, and its peculiar arrangements may be thus described : a long 
strip of paper passed slowly from off a paper roller on which it was wound, under the point of a pencil, which was 
in connection with an electro -magnet ; a straight line was in this way traced on the paper as it was unrolled, until 
an electric current through the wire, threw the magnet into action and changed the position of the pencil. A sign 
was thus made on the paper, and it must be apparent how easily this principle, once attained, can be put into prac- 
tice for communicating intelligence. 

From the other States two contributions must be noticed : the first on account of its local interest, the second 
because of its absurd incongruity. An exhibitor from the Grand Duchy of Mecklenberg-Schwerin showed a distil- 
ling apparatus, which formed a very appropriate link between the collection of different kinds of charcoal and the 
pyroligneous acid, which is produced by the distillation of wood, and is used in medicine, chemistry, and in the arts ; 
while from Oldenburgh was sent a model of the famous Castle of Heidelberg, carved in cork ! The material was an 
ignominious one in which to represent these stupendous ruins. The mind which could wander back into that vast 
area of the architecture of all ages, where every stone seems to whisper the history of a fallen empire, and where 
man feels overpowered with awe, as he beholds the mighty tomb where past power and magnificence lie buried, 
was indignant at the desecration, and would hardly stay to bestow a scornful smile on the artist's work. 

The contributions from the Hanse Towns (included also in this Plate) were very varied. The brass-wire cages 
were sent from Hamburg, and were intended for parrots and other large birds. On the same stand may be remarked 
a small picture in a very elaborate frame ; this was a portrait of the Queen and of his Royal Highness the Prince 
of Wales, embroidered in hair. The minute stitches of the work proved that the executor had a capital eyesight, 
but it is doubtful how far her Majesty was flattered by the likeness to herself. Quite forward, in the main avenue, 
was a Phaeton, of which the panels were in rosewood, much carved, and the springs in bronze. 

The eye of the lover of legends and romance wandered away, however, from all these objects, and after one 
glance at a very good bas-relief in plaster, illustrative of Northern Mythology, fixed itself long and admiringly on a 
graceful model by which the Exhibitor had attempted to define the form and paint the beauty of the far-famed 
Lorley. For the information of those not learned in the legends of the Rhine, it may be as well to state that near 
Coblentz lies a sharp, oval-shaped rock, which juts forward into the Rhine at a spot where the current is exces- 
sively rapid, and thereby causes, at its base, the formation of a whirlpool of considerable extent. The legend says 
that the Lorley, a beauteous syren with golden locks, sits mournfully on this rock, striking a smaU harp, from which 
proceed sounds so harmonious and entrancing, that mariners are irresistably forced to raise their eyes and gaze on 
the syren's face, neglecting thereby to take the requisite precautions against the dangers of the flood. Sweetly and 
softly she sings— nearer and faster dashes on the sailor— until, at last, amidst a burst of triumph and derision from 
the Lorley, he is engulphed within the vortex and is seen no more. 



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HOLLAND. 



To the lover of the picturesque, the aspect of Holland is exceedingly uninteresting. Viewed from the top of a tower or 
spire, the country appears like one vast plain diversified by neither mountain or hill ; its surface being intersected by an 
immense network of canals, which are there as numerous as roads in England, the purposes of which, indeed, they for 
the most part, answer. There are, however, some features of interest which reheve the dull monotony of this prospect ; 
in the south and central provinces, rich meadows of wide extent and of the most beautiful verdure, are seen covered with 
large herds of well-fed cattle, the rearing of which is a much more important source of national wealth than tillage ; in 
the north, especially, are numerous lakes, clusters of trees, and in the vicinity of the large towns, elegant villas, sur- 
rounded with gardens and parks, decorated with busts and statues. 

The Government has long been anxious to encourage manufactures, and as no country can display more striking 
proofs of the energies which man can exert in overcoming the physical evils or difficulties of his situation than HoUand, 
whose bulwark 

" Spreads its long arms around the watery roar. 
Scoops out an empire, and usurps the shore," 

there is every reason for affirming that the same success will now crown the spirit of industry displayed by the Dutch, 
which attended the construction of those stupendous dykes for shutting out the sea, which extend throughout the 
provinces of Friesland, Zealand and Guelderland, and in general wherever the coast is not protected by a natural 
barrier from the encroachments of the sea, which is above the level of a considerable portion of the country. 

The collection sent to the Great Exhibition from the Netheriands was valued at about £ 6,000, and comprised 
objects which represented every class of raw produce and manufactures. Among the chemical substances may be 
remarked, a newly invented colouring matter, the Polychromate or Chrysammic acid, which is produced by the action of 
nitric acid upon powdered aloes. Obtained by this process, Chrysammic acid appears in golden crystals, and its 
compounds are remai^kable for the brilHancy of their colour : specimens of dyed siUc were shewn as examples of the 
several different colours which the acid appears capable of communicating, without any other colouring matter, but simply 
by the apphcation of various corrosive processes. 

In the Machinery department was a very ingenious apparatus, exhibited by Mr. G. Goosseus, the Commissioner 
for the Netherlauds, for the manufacture of percussion caps. This machine was completely automatic, producing eight 
thousand caps an hour ; in a single operation these caps are loaded with fuhninating powder, pressed, covered with 
varnish and exposed to the air to dry. Among the phHosophical instruments was to be seen a dynamostater, to be used 
as a dynamometer for ploughs. The dynamometer is an instrument intended to measure the muscular strength of men 
and animals ; in drawing a burthen which encounters a variable resistance, such as a towed ship, owing to the changes 
in the hygrometric condition of the atmosphere, these ordinary spring dynamometers are found incapable of procuring 
the requii-ed indications ; in many cases also, their sensibihty is insufficient to shew the alterations of straining which 
foUow in quick succession : the inventor of the dynamostater, Mr. Cavaux, asserted that his instrument supphed aU these 

deficiences. 

A large folding fire screen, ornamented in the Chinese or Japanese style, formed the most remarkable object 
among the furniture exHbited, and in which the execution of the various detaHs was exceUent. In their Keport the 
Jury remark the redundancy and inappropriateness of much of the ornament apphed to the European specimens of 
Japan ware, and direct attention to the better examples of this work from Japan and China, where, in the subordinate 
parts, the ornament is kept subdued and simple, thereby giving more effect to the principal features. 

The celebrated Dutch setters of precious stones were represented in the Exhibition by M. Remain alone. His 

contribution consisted of a beautiful corsage, made of rose diamonds and pearls of fine quality, arranged in the form of 

flowers and scroUs, around a portrait painted in enamel. It was so constructed, that it could be divided into three parts 

by the alteration of certain clasps, and worn either as a stomacher, a head-dress, or a chatelaine. Two very valuable 

additions were made to this department by the Duke of Devonshire and Mr. A. J. Hope, M.P.. His Grace exhibited a 

very interesting work of jeweUery made to commemorate the reconcihation of two noble Dutch famihes many years 

back, who were before in fierce enmity. It was in the form of a hawk, and of the size of the living bird, studded all 

over with various fine gems, rubies, turquoises and amethysts ; and within was contamed the gold drmking cup from 

which the hostile Counts pledged each other at their reconcihation. Among the jewels in the fine collection contributed 

by Mr. Hope was the largest known peaxl in the world, resembhng somewhat in shape a clenched fist ; the handle of 

Murat's sword made of a single beryl, which was an exceedingly interesting relic of the handsome soldier ; and a sapphire 

having by candlelight the colour of an amethyst, being the identical '' Saphir merviUeux " formerly in the possession of 

Philippe Egaht6, upon which was founded one of the beautiful tales by Madame de Genhs. 



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BELGIUM. 



The important position which this country has occupied in the poHtical, military, commercial, and agricultui'al 
history of Europe— its former celebrity in manufactures and the fine arts— and its present rapid progress in 
every industrious pursuit and social improvement, gave a peculiar interest to the contributions received from 
upwards of five hundred exhibitors. These productions furnished a very complete view, not only of the state of 
manufacturing industry, but also of the material operated upon; and this was doubtless due to the fact, that the 
idea of the Exhibition was by no means new to the Belgians, who have sustained and encouraged for many years 
the progress of science, learning, the fine arts, and literary taste by numerous national exhibitions taking place 
alternately in Brussels, Antwerp, and Ghent. 

The accompanying Plate represents that portion of the Main Avenue of the Building which divided the 
space allotted to Belgium into two wings, and in which were grouped the contributions of the distinguished 
sculptors who sent their works to the Exhibition. The chief feature of the Belgian School of Sculpture is a 
tendency to the picturesque, which is in conformity with the whole character of the nation in art ; but though in 
many ideal subjects the effect of this treatment may be very attractive, yet in those in which the movement must 
be depicted as bold and natural, the sculptor falls into an affectation of it insensibly to himself, following in the 
steps and imitating the style of Canova. This want of reality was very apparent in the colossal figure of Godefroy 
de Bouillon, by E. Simonis, which was, however, placed too near the spectator to appear as the artist designed it. 
He was represented on horseback, grasping a standard in his right hand, and raising it high above his head ; while, 
by the expression of his countenance, which was full of Hfe and animation, he appeared to be invoking the blessing 
of Heaven on the sacred emblem which w^as to lead his army to Jerusalem. The careful execution so apparent 
in the rider was, however, sadly wanting in the horse, which was clumsy in the extreme. It seemed as if the 
artist had taken for his model a specimen of the heavy Flemish breed, and exaggerated all the outlines so that 
there might be no want of proportion between the rider and his steed. Although Mr. Simonis may have departed 
too far from nature, his wish, in the execution of this work, was to compensate for the optical diminution which 
causes statues placed in the open air to appear meagre and deficient in mass. After this explanation, every one was 
ready to bestow almost unbounded admiration on the whole character of the figure which so ably represented the 
•' Baron of the Holy Sepulchre," whose lofty and animated expression was well calculated to carry back the 
spectator seven hundred years, so as to imagine himself in the very presence of that noble leader of the First 
Crusade who refused to wear the diadem where the " King of Kings had received a crown of thorns ;" but this 
unhappy departure from the principles of Plastic Art could not be overlooked in the awkward steed, a side view of 
which revealed two parallel lines, which would have been carefully avoided even in a child's toy. This work was 
cast in plaster from the original one in bronze, which is placed in the Place Boyale at Brussels. Mr. Simonis was 
eminently successful in a small statue which was placed at the foot of the group which has just been described ; and 
in the class of subjects called " Genre " there was scarcely anything in the Exhibition to equal it. It was called 
** The Unhappy Child," and represented a little fellow who by his vigorous blows had broken the vellum of his 
drum : the miserable expression of his face was so natural, the eyes closed and the mouth opened to its full extent, 
that it seemed almost surprising that the cry of anguish was unheard. 

M. Jehotte, an artist of considerable merit, exhibited a statue intended to represent the torments of Cain 
overwhelmed with the curse just pronounced against him by Heaven, when he said unto the Lord, " My 
punishment is greater than I can bear." The attitude of the figure seemed, however, to be rather that of the 
murderer horror-stricken at the sight of the dead body of his brother, the very consciousness of his guilt rendering 
him unmindful of the punishment, and crying, 

" Pain, heap'd ten hundredfold to this, were still 
Less hurthen, hy ten hundredfold, to hear. 
Than were those lead-like tons of sin, that erush'd 
My spirit flat before thee." 

Leaving the statues of Yenus, Psyche and Cupid, &c., which are prominently represented, and in a great 

measure tell their own story, we must bring forward a group by G. Geefs, called *' The Lion in Love," which 

allegorically represents the power of beauty over savage nature. The monarch of the forest, unable to resist 

the seducing loveliness of a nude female who is seated on his back and fascinating him with her eyes, is quietly 

submitting to be deprived of his claws. To explain the illustration were the lines — 

*' Amour, amour, quand tu nous tiens, 
Ou pent bien dii-e — adieu prudence." 

The group was in plaster, and the execution was soft, pleasing and very careful. 

All the artists, of whose works we have been giving a description, received medals from the Jury of the 
Fine Art Class ; and though, perhaps, they were not in every case adequately represented by their contributions, 
justly might Belgium be proud of the position into which she was raised by them. 



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AUSTRIA I. 



The suite of rooms containing the articles contributed by Messrs. 0. Leistler and Son of Vienna, was a very interesting 
feature in the Austrian department, and presented an imposing picture of the luxurious furniture of the nobihty of 
Austria. In each of the four rooms the flooring was inlaid on the principle of what is called, in cabinet-work, 
marqueterie, only on a bolder scale : woods of different colours being cut to pattern and inlaid one in the other, or so 
arranged as to produce a very beautiful effect for floors. On entering from the Transept the first division was furnished 
as a dining-room : it contained a table made of zebra- wood, long enough to accommodate forty persons, a set of thirty-six 
chairs, and a sideboard. Next to this was the drawing-room, containing several small and occasional tables, a very 
prettily designed revolving picture stand, easy chairs, and two loo tables, of which the larger measured eight feet ten 
inches in diameter, and was said to be made of a single piece of zebra- wood. On the north side was a handsome 
mahogany folding door, leading to the bed-room, which attracted more attention perhaps than any of the other apart- 
ments, as it contained, besides many articles combining elaborateness of manufacture with fitness and comfort, an 
immense state bedstead, eleven feet long by nine feet wide, and thirteen feet high, sumptuously carved in zebra- wood. 
Although every portion of this bedstead was an isolated beauty, and every part was grouped with admirable skill to obtain 
rehef by shadow, it was impossible to say that it combined the requisites of a first rate piece of furniture— namely, 
lightness, elegance and durabihty. The canopy, in which the most horrible torments of nightmare seemed to be lurking, 
was hke a vast cavern roof; indeed, as a whole, the bed appeared just fit for a parvenu Croesus, who has more money 
than taste, and looks upon quantity as more valuable than quality. 

Mr. Redgrave, R.A., than whom we can find no better authority on all matters relating to design, thus expresses 
his opinion with reference to this cumbrous mass of rich material : " The bed looks more fitted for a corpse to he in 
state on than for a place of repose : it is a congeries of parts without an object : the footboard is so high and sohd that 
it shuts in the sleeper as in a prison, and completely impedes the free circulation of air : the footposts rise from massive 
purposeless bases, and dwindle into mere sticks as they approach the heavy canopy ; the wood selected is unsuitable for 
carving, its party-coloured grain blurring the ornamental forms." 

In the hbrary, which was the fourth and last room of the suite, was placed a gothic book-case, carved in oak, 
presented to the Queen by His Majesty the Emperor of Austria. It was designed by M. Bernardo di Bemardis, 
Architect, assisted by M. Joseph Krauner of Prague, and its construction was hght and elegant. It was partly fiUed 
with some very fine specimens of Austrian bookbinding, the most remarkable of which were those exhibited by M. 
Habenicht of Vienna, consisting of three albums of the most costly and elaborate description : one was in dark blue 
velvet, with silver mountings ; another in green, with dehcately pierced work in ivory ; and a third in tortoiseshell, with 
gilt and sHver inlaid embeUishments. These very beautiful covers were from designs by Professor Raesher, and were of 

superior workmanship. 

We must not leave this department of the Exhibition without mentioning the Eau-de-Cologne fountain, which is 
so prominently represented in the accompanying plate. This dehcious perfume was so hberaUy distributed, that the 
supply in charge of the attendant was exhausted before the jury had made the awards, so that only the residue left in the 
fountain was submitted to them. As the specimen had evidently lost much of its perfume from exposure to the air, the 
reporters, at the request of the Austrian Commissioner, Mr. Charles Buschek, and with the sanction of the Executive 
Committee, examined, subsequently, a fresh sample, which was taken from a cask of Eau-de-Cologne which had 
remained under the care of Her Majesty's Customs, and which had been overlooked by the attendant. This sample was 
found to be equal in quahty to the Eau-de-Cologne contributed in other departments by three other persons, each bearmg 
the same name as the hberal exhibitor in the Austrian furniture court-namely, Jean Marie Farina. AU four Farinas 
claim to be the original, and it appears that speculation is carried to so high a pitch in Cologne, that any chHd entitled 
to the name of Farina is bargained for as soon as bom, and christened Jean Marie : at times this event is even 
anticipated. 



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ATJSTEIA II. 



The Milanese Sculpture-room in the Great Exhibition has been so much abused by many well qualified to pass an 
opinion on the merits of the groups which it contained, that it requires some boldness to express admiration for any 
particular statues, lest we should thereby expose ourselves to the charge of ignorance or want of taste. It has even been 
said that the clever way in which the gallery was darkened had for its object the concealment of many instances of 
careless execution from the eyes of the public, who, it was thought, would not, in general, give themselves the time or 
the trouble to think much about it. We would fain hope, however, that those who expressed their opinion that in the 
best examples in the room there was scarcely a feeling or appreciation of the word beauty, and that conceptions of the 
very worst character abounded, were merely rival sculptors, actuated, no doubt unconsciously to themselves, by a shght 
feeling of envy while passing their judgment; and that the masses who crowded in a continuous stream into the Austrian 
Sculpture-room, rendering an examination, and even an entrance, a matter of considerable difficulty will, in memory, look 
back with pleasure on those pieces of sculpture which have been selected to form the subject of the following remarks. 

It was somewhat a melancholy sight to see a whole gallery of statues, the works of Itahan artists, exhibited under 
the Austrian flag, and guarded, as it were, by a bronze figure of Marshal Radetsky, leaning on his sword. Well may 
Lord Byron's hnes be applied to Italy, stiU fair, but now fallen, 

" Enough. — ^no foreign foe could queU 
Thy soul, till from itself it fell ; 
Yes, self-abasement paved the way 
To viUain-bonds and despot-sway." 

Raffaele Monti, of Milan, exhibited several works. Eve who, after the fall, arrived at the full consciousness of her crime, 
sat " silent, and in face confounded," was beautifuUy conceived and carefiiUy executed. The " Two girls fishing " formed 
a dehghtful group : but we think the expression of the upright figure almost too divine, considering that it was a portrait; 
but this remark is perhaps invidious or unjust, as the Minna or Brenda, whom it represented, may have had that pure 
and angehc face. There was however another statue by Monti, which was more generally admired by the pubhc than 
either of those alluded to : it represented a girl kneehng, with a thin veil thrown over her face. Many spectators were 
completely deceived by the effect produced, for the folds of the veil were so truthfully sculptured, and the features 
beneath so dehcately shown, that the first impulse was, invariably, to hft off the gauze which seemed to have been placed 
over the work as a protection from dust. A severe, correct and highly refined taste would, of course, at once pronounce 
this innovation, an entrenchment upon the artificial and meretricious ; but it had its admirers among those who did not 
think that the artist had renounced the only means by which beauty, character and expression can be distinctly rendered 
in the countenance. The workmanship was dexterous, and we do not think that it showed want of taste, to deviate from 
the old principles of art, as practised by the Greeks, and to ramble from the path of those who confined their work 
to an undisguised representation of the human features. 

The " Fainting Ishmael," by Strazza, represented the " Son of the Bondwoman," left lying in the desert and 
perishing with thirst. The figure was such a truthful copy of attenuated nature that it almost conveyed the idea of its 
being a cast taken after death ; it was painful to look upon the form so expressive of lonehness as well as suffering, for 
the dying boy is represented without his mother, whose agonized sympathy for her child must add much to the pathos 
of the story: we think this omission was a mistake. The same subject was, with respect to this latter point, better 
treated by Emanuel Max, of Prague ; in his group Hagar is represented with her hand thrown open, as in the act of 
supphcation, and resting upon the bosom of the prostrated Ishmael, whilst the steadfast and imploring look which she 
directs to heaven reveals her helplessness and her anguish. 

Innocenzo Fraccaroh, of Verona, showed a statue of David in the act of slinging the stone at Gohath : the figure 
was spirited, and the features had a lofty expression. But this sculptor's master-piece was the '' Wounded AchHles," 
whose attitude was striking and effective, whilst the expression of pain and horror in the face, as the hero views his 
wounded heel, was weU depicted. The statue showed such a thorough knowledge of anatomy, and such a clear decided 
style of modeUing, that it has been suggested to have a cast of it placed beside the antique statues in the Royal 
Academy, as it would lose nothing by the contact, and the students might be the better for it. The value of accessories, 
which, when chosen with judgment, always help to carry out the effect, was weU understood by Fraccaroh ; the drmkmg 
cup at the feet of AchiHes, was aU that was needed to suggest the scene of the event. 

A somewhat colossal bust of the poet Vincenzio Monti deserves attention before we leave this subject. It was 
the work of A. Sangiorgio, of MHan, who showed a very spirited conception in the masterly and careful execution of it. 
The head seemed in fact to be pregnant with the poetic spirit, now so finely tuned to the Hving thoughts of the age. 



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ZOLLYEREIN. 



The Zollyerein, or " Great Customs' Union," is the most extensive of the three commercial groups into which 
Germany may be divided. It was constituted in the year 1820, on the invitation of Prussia, but the arrangements 
for perfecting the Union were in progress for many years, and only came into practical operation at the beginning 
of 1834. It was then that twenty-six states, forming the centre of the vast Germanic region, agreed to destroy all 
the custom-houses on their frontiers, and to give perfect freedom of intercourse to the subjects of the different 
governments. The free introduction of merchandize from foreign countries and the states not comprised in the 
Union is not allowed, and duties are collected at one uniform rate at custom-houses built on the exterior boundaries 
of the frontier-states. The ZoUverein embraces an area of above 174,000 square miles, and is bounded on the north 
by the Kingdom of Hanover, the Grand Duchies of Mecklenburg Strelitz and Mecklenburg Schwerin, the Duchy of 
Limburg, and the Netherlands, and extends southwards as far as Switzerland and the provinces of the Empire of 
Austria. 

Since the establishment of the Union, industry and commerce have been in a satisfactory state of progress ; 
and notwithstanding the manifold impediments to trade under which the country laboured for so many years pre- 
viously, the inhabitants became so well aware of the immense advantages they derived from a community of interest, 
that giant strides were made towards the improvement of all their productions, and w^hen they wxre invited by 
England to enter the field of honourable competition, they found that they could place themselves on an equal 
footing with other nations which had for ages past enjoyed the blessings of which they had been deprived. There 
w^ere upwards of 1700 exhibitors (nearly equalling in number those from France), and they filled a space of 77,184 
superficial feet with many important and interesting contributions, the total value of which was about £61,000. 

The objects included under the head of Fine Arts were such as will not soon be forgotten : many were of 
great beauty, and indicated elaborate care in the manufacture and finish. 

The principal group in the accompanying view is the Amazon, by Professor A. Kiss of Berlin, and is so well 
knoivn that it is hardly requisite to describe it. A tiger has just sprung upon the horse and buried its claw^s into 
his neck. The Amazon, surprised but undaunted by the attack, has her eyes fixed sternly on the wild beast, and 
firmly grasping her lance with her right hand, is thrown back from her seat to give greater force to the blow by 
which the contest is to be decided. This beautiful work, cast in zinc, and bronzed over by a peculiar process, 
the invention of M. Geiss of BerUn, was a copy of a group cast in bronze in 1839, presented by a number of 
amateurs to the King of Prussia, and placed by his Majesty's command at the foot of the steps in front of the Royal 
Museum at Berlin. 

In the nave, at the foot of the statue of the Amazon, was placed a Globe in relief, 4 feet in diameter, on 
a pedestal. It was constructed of papier-mache ; and in the execution regard was not only paid to the summits of 
the mountains, but to all highlands, rivers, and towns. In the globes which M. Kummer, the exhibitor, has made 
for the instruction of the blind, the names of the smallest places are also in raised characters ; and these proved so 
useful, that the Prussian Government testified their approbation of the services of M. Kummer in assisting to ame- 
liorate the suffering condition of his helpless fellow-creatures, by conferring a diplomatic title on him. 

Messrs. J. Wagner and Son, jewellers, of Berlin, exhibited a table -ornament of oxidised silver, in the shape 
of a fruit-dish, on a stand 4i feet high. The design is intended to represent the gradual attainment of civiHzation 
by mankind. A short description will perhaps not be uninteresting, as some of the ideas are original and clever. 
On the base, Man is represented in a nomadic state, his pursuits being confined to hunting, fishing, and cattle- 
breeding ; Nature has not yet submitted to his will, and the Arts are still unknown. The stem is in the form of an 
oak, which, by reason of its utility in agricultural purposes, leads Man to gardening and the cultivation of the vine. 
With wine enthusiasm awakes, and the nobler works of Man commence ; Architecture, the Ai'ts and Sciences, 
Mining, Machinery, Trade, and Navigation, subject all Nature to his rule, insomuch that the pursuits of his fore- 
fiithers (racing and hunting) become his pastimes. All is not yet, however, complete ; Man has to obtain self-know- 
ledge and a victory over himself. The artist has represented the attainment of this conclusion by a genius standing 
on a palm-tree, with a conquered serpent in his left hand, while with his right, he is raising a torch towards Heaven. 
On the cover of the bowl beneath are the words : " He who conquers himself, frees himself from the power which 

binds all men." 

In the gaUery was placed an Organ, by Messrs. Schulze, which occupied very little space, and was remark- 
able for its great power, delicacy of tone, and simplicity of mechanism; its chief peculiarity consisting in the deep- 
ness of the tones which it could produce, and in having an apparatus attached for accelerating the transmission of 
sound. 



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OOTAGONAIi EOOM. 



There was perhaps no portion of tlie Foreign Department of the Great Exhibition which received a greater nnmber of 
separate visits of inspection from each individual composing the many thousands of persons who daily crowded the 
crystal avenues, than that octangular space in which were so tastefully displayed the best productions of art which the 
German States composing the ZoUverein could assemble together. Those who had travelled on the Continent and had 
developed their taste for the beautiful by the contemplation of the chefs -d'cBuvre of foreign artists, found in this spot food 
with which to refresh their recollection of the magnificent Galleries of Munich, of Dresden and of Berlin, while to those 
who had never gone farther than the National Gallery and the British Museum, and whose ideas of perfection were 
consequently hmited to the Works of Art exhibited in them, the collection in the Octagonal room served to shew that 
somewhere at least, far away from England, were to be found a keener perception of beauty and form, and a superior 
taste in design, composition and ornamentation, not only in the larger examples of wood carving, bronzes and statuary, 
but also in those numerous small articles for which every nation is indebted to the increasing refinement of civihsation, 
and which, for want of a suitable expression in our own language, must be classed under the general head of objects 
of virtu. 

At one entrance was placed a marble statue of a child reclining on a cushion ; and as the position was very 
natural, and the face very roguish and pretty, it was of course always surrounded by a knot of unmarried ladies, who had 
made an immediate rush towards it, as if they wished it to overhear their " ! the little love," which they seemed to 
consider to be as much de rigueur on this occasion, as if it had been a real hve darhng exhibited to them. In a recess 
were several httle house-clocks, each of them less than an inch in diameter, which were said to be exhibited as specimens 
of " beauty and execution:" but as each clock seemed to have its own notion about keeping time, the passer by wisely 
confined his admiration to the rapid motion of their diminutive pendulums, which generally excited a smile of amusement 
at their apparent hurry aud industry. But we must not dwell on the ridiculous, when almost every part of the room, 
represented in the accompanying plate, was fiUed with the most beautiful specimens of works in gold, silver and bronze. 
Every eye was irresistibly attracted to a truly magnificent chess-board and set of men, exhibited by Messrs. Weishaupt 
of Hauau. The board itself was composed of alternate squares of tortoisesheU and mother-of-pearl, and was surrounded 
by a frame in silver and gold, ornamented in the renaissance style with enamel, precious stones and pearls ; one set of 
the chess-men were made of gold, the other of silver, and were splendidly ornamented in the same style as the board. 
The contributors desirous of adding novelty to magnificence, carried out in this work the comparison which has been so 
often made between the vicissitudes and dangers of the human career, and the game of chess ; and the selection which 
they made among the heroes and heroines who have figured in the past history of the world, for the purpose of giving, 
them an opportunity of disputing and fighting their battles over again for an indefinite number of times, did credit to 
their judgment. The principal figures of each of the opposing sides were portraits of personages who reaUy have 
played their part in the game of hfe ; the two kings representing the Emperor Charles V, and Francis I, King of France, 
and the two queens Margaretta of Parma, daughter of Charles V, and Margaret of Valois, sister of Francis I. 

Without moving from the spot where the chess-board was placed, the visitor had but to raise his eyes and gaze 
on aU the dazzhng beauties conspicuous in every article before him, to realize aU that we have written above with 
regard to foreign taste in ornamentation. The paintings on porcelain by Messrs. Henneberg and H. Bucker, the 
statuette in bronze of Beethoven, the figures exhibited by Juhus Franz, one representing Victory standing upon a 
rock and throwing a wreath to the conqueror, and the other. Victory writing down in the book of history the names of 
those victors whom she has crowned, which carried off a prize medal " for the scrupulous accuracy of their execution," 
and were afterwards purchased by the Queen, all contributed to render the Octagonal Room one of the most attractive 
and beautiful departments of the Exhibition, and certainly the most complete repository of Fine Art which had ever been 
seen in this Country. 



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FRANCE, 1. 



Lyons is to France what Manchester is to Great Britain, and still maintains her rank as the first silk manufacturing 
city of Europe, notwithstanding the very active competition of Switzerland and England, who have entered the 
arena against her. Not long ago, people came from all parts of the world to purchase what Lyons and the neigh- 
bouring towns could alone produce, but now that England draws from her vast Colonial possessions the raw material 
in such great abundance, the struggle for supremacy has commenced. As yet France triumphs ; a highly cultivated 
taste both in the combination of colours and the beauty of design in all its detail exercises a powerful influence over 
the demand and supply; but when once England has succeeded in educating her workmen, so that they produce 
designs which will carry off the prestige which now attaches itself to the productions of the looms of Lyons, the 
superiority of France will be at an end, and vain and fruitless will be her efforts to sustain the struggle against an 
empire which can produce cheaper and more abundant raw material, supposing the perfection of machinery and 
the excellence of workmen to be the same on both sides. 

With one exception, silk weaving at Lyons is not conducted in large buildings or factories belonging to the 
fahricans (silk merchants), but, on the domestic system, in the houses of the master-weavers, each of whom has 
usually from two to eight looms, which, with the fittings, are his own property. He and his family work as many 
of these looms as they can, and employ comjmgnons or journeymen weavers for the remainder. The fahricans 
supply patterns and silk to the owners of the looms, to whom is entrusted the task of producing the web in a 
finished state. In the town of Lyons has been built an establishment called the condition puUique, consisting of 
large warehouses, in which an even temperature and dryness are always maintained. All bales of unwrought silk 
which ai-e intended for the trade are brought here, and as soon as they are considered to be reduced to an equable 
dryness, or, as it is called, submitted to the condition, they are weighed, and the result determines the market price. 
This proceeding has been found necessary, because the silk absorbs the moisture of the air so readily as to vary 
considerably in weight, according to the hygrometric condition of the atmosphere. 

The Lyons silks were displayed in a series of cases which extended along the Gallery, nearly the whole 
length of the space devoted to the French department, and a careful examination of these gorgeous productions 
impressed every Englishman wdth the conviction that, however sharply we may be engaged in the contest with 
France, she still keeps in advance of us in all matters appertaining to taste and delicacy of colouring. 

It is not possible here to give details respecting all the silks which deserved attention. From the richer 
portion may be selected the contributions of the Chamber of Commerce of Lyons, which consisted chiefly of 
pictures woven in silk ; none claimed more notice, perhaps, than a portrait of Joseph Marie Jacquard, the inventor 
of the beautiful apparatus for figured weaving, which bears his name. He was born at Lyons in 1752, of humble 
parents, both of whom were engaged in operations connected with weaving ; and though he had to struggle against 
much opposition from the Lyonese weavers, he had the satisfaction of knowing before he died, in 1834, that his 
ingenious invention had become extensively employed. 

The chef-d'oeuvre of the silk looms of Lyons was, however, the "Yictoria robe," designed by Charles Candy, 
and was one of the greatest triumphs of industrial skill in the whole Exhibition. The design represented the 
appropriate emblems of England, Scotland, and Ireland — the rose, the thistle, and the shamrock — surrounded by 
the garter, with its motto, '^ Honi soit qui mat y pense,'' clearly and prominently woven, which united the group 
into '* one harmonious whole." 

In the accompanying Plate are represented some articles, chiefly appertaining to drawing-room decoration, 
which must not be passed over. The designs for this purpose in the French department were in great variety, and 
it was difficult not to appreciate the results of a refined taste and a rich fancy. The frontispiece, by M. Victor 
Cruchet, was a handsome piece of ornamentation in carved w^ood and carton-pierre ; the subject of the design 
related to field-sports, and consisted of dead game, in well arranged groups, and illustrations of the chase. M. 
Ringuet-Leprince exhibited a drawing-room cabinet in ebony and gilt-bronze, with medallions in carved ivory ; 
and an ebony table, inlaid Avith tortoise-shell, brass, silver and ivory, and ornamented in gilt-bronze, with nine 
historical portraits — Louis XIY. and his ministers Colbert and Louvais, surrounded by the great poets, philosophers, 
and generals of the age. 



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FKANCE II. 



The accompanying Plate represents that part of the French Department which formed the entrance to the Sevres 
Court, and contained the finest illustrations of French Sculpture which were sent to the Great Exhibition. 

The statue of Phryne, in white marble, by J. Pradier, was a masterpiece of sculpture, uniting gracefulness of 
form, with beauty of feature. Phryne was a celebrated Athenian courtezan, mistress to the sculptor Praxiteles, 
and the French Artist succeeding in giving to his work that subtle refinement and sprightliness which corre- 
sponded with the name which he had bestowed on the youthful female figure. The chiselling of the surface 
was perfect, and the only fault w^hicli could be laid to the charge of the artist, was the bad taste of ornament- 
ing the hem of the garment with a red border, and the fingers with gold rings, which contrasted painfully with 
the otherwise colourless marble. 

So much vituperation has been bestowed upon the work of J. Clesinger, of Besanpon, that it becomes almost 
an act of audacity to praise even the excellent points in the masterly chiselling of the artist. His figure repre- 
sents a Bacchante rolling in a state of drunken excitement on a bed of vine leaves and grapes. The expression of 
the face was beautiful, and the position of the hands, the cup and the fruit was very powerful, and the whole 
figure displayed a knowledge of anatomy which was not to be found in any other work in the Exhibition. The 
artist has been accused of allowing " his imagination to be perverted and degraded to the service of a low sensu- 
ality," while he only showed a want of judgment in the choice of a subject on which to indulge his fancy. Greek 
art has exercised its influence over the sculpture of every part of Europe, from the earliest period of its existence 
even down to the present day, and the materials of nearly all modern sculptors are drawn from Grecian mythology ; 
is it then just to say that an artist's mind is " essentially gross, and saturated with vice," because he does not 
copy the Venus of Praxiteles, or the Minerva of Phidias — because he carves an historical reality in preference to 
a fabulous conception ? Clesinger succeeded in faithfully representing a Bacchante, after the celebration of 
orgies in honour of the God Bacchus, of whom she was the priestess; had he wandered from the graphic de- 
scriptions of Ovid, he would have been as much blamed for his mediocrity, as he now is for his extravagance. 

The sideboard carved in wcod, by A. G. Fourdinois, was considered by the Jurors worthy to rank as sculpture. 
The four principal figures which adorned the pilasters, instead of being the ordinary repetition of the emblems 
of the four quarters of the globe, were representations of Tea, Coffee, Wine, and the Dessert, and the artist more- 
over succeeded in expressing clearly what each figure was intended to illustrate ; altogether the work showed a 
happy invention, and great power of execution, and would be nearly faultless, were it not for the want of taste 
displayed in supporting such a mass of human figures and animals on the heads of six hounds, which all look as if 
they had been taught to remain in that stiff and unnatural position, and w^ould run away as soon as they no longer 
beheld the whip. 

" Le Premier Berceau," of Debay, represents Eve in a sitting posture, clasping her right knee with her hands, 
so as to form a kind of cradle of her lap for her two sleeping children, Cain and Abel. The great beauty 
of the group consisted in the countenance of Eve, which admirably expresses the tenderness of a mother, un- 
wearied, while watching her helpless infants. 

Close to this spot were exhibited an interesting group of objects from Algeria, which chiefly consisted of raw 
materials and produce. From the collection which was shown, the mineral wealth of the country seemed to be 
considerable. Vegetable productions, which will doubtless become hereafter valuable as textile materials, together 
with medicinal substances and agricultural produce were also well represented. Besides awarding medals to several 
individual exhibitors from Algeria, the Jury presented a Council Medal to the French Minister of War, for the part 
taken by him in exhibiting this valuable collection of raw products. 



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SEVRES COURT. 

The history of the manufacture of porcelain in France may he divided into two distinct eras; the first commencing 
in 1695, and extending over a period of ahout seventy years, during which the porcelain known hy the epithet 
tetider was ftibricated ; and the second beginning in 1768, after the discovery of a vein of clay at St. Yrieix, near 
Limoges, which brought about material changes, ending in the establishment at Sevres of a maniiflicture of hard 
porcelain on a considerable scale. 

A curious anecdote is related respecting this discovery : Madame Darnet, the wife of a surgeon residing at 
St. Yrieix, while wandering in a valley in the neighbourhood of that town, found a white unctuous earth, which 
she considered might prove a good substitute for soap in the washing of linen. With this object she shewed it to 
her husband, who immediately took it to a chemist residing at Bordeaux, and requested his opinion on the subject. 
This man, having heard of the researches which were being made to obtain a proper clay for the manufacture of 
hard porcelain, and suspecting that the earth submitted to him possessed the necessary qualities, forwarded 
the specimen to the chemist Macquer, at Paris, who was then occupied in experiments on the improvement 
of porcelain. Macquer pronounced it to be the true kaoHn, and went himself to St. Yrieix for the purpose 
of ascertaining in what quantities the clay could be obtained. Having satisfied himself that a large vein existed, 
he established at Sevres the manufacture of hard porcelain, which has now assumed a national character, and 
is carried on under the direction of the French government. The conclusion of this anecdote is not un- 
interesting. In 1825, an aged woman presented herself to M. Brongniart, who was then the director of the 
establishment at Sevres, and supplicated him to bestow some temporary relief, to enable her to return to St. Yrieix, 
whence she had come. Having put some questions to her, he found that this woman was Madame Darnet, who 
had sixty years before discovered the precious kaolin of Limoges. The aid she had asked for was immediately given 
to her, and M. Brongniart afterwards obtained for her, from Louis XVIII., a small pension, which she enjoyed until 
her death. 

All the Sevres porcelain in the Exhibition was of the kind called hard, the other manufacture having been 
discontinued for the last fifty years : but, according to M. Ebelman, who, on the death of M. Brongniart, succeeded 
to the direction of the establishment, all the materials and processes for the fabrication of the tender porcelain are 
still preserved at Se^TCS, and it will be easy to reproduce articles made of the clay in use before 1768, whenever it is 
considered desirable to do so. The collection of paintings and vases exhibited by the National Manufactory of 
Porcelain and Stained-glass, at Sevi-es, was most valuable and splendid ; with these magnificent productions England 
was not able to compete, notwithstanding the very great progress made in this country in painting on porcelain. 

That portion of the French department in which this collection was displayed, also contained specimens of 
the tapestry produced at the three great national manufactories of France. That of Beauvais, established by 
Colbert in 1664, when the Louvre, the Tuileries, and other royal palaces, were receiving their rich decorations, 
contributed a variety of carpets in different styles, and materials for covering chairs, sofas, &c. In this manufactory 
a certain quantity of carpets is made for public establishments, and the surplus is sold, but at a price so large as 
effectually to prevent a very general demand for them. 

The Gobelin family sold their carpet manufactory to Colbert, in the year 1677 ; foreign artists and workmen 
were engaged, laws were enacted for the protection and government of the establishment, and the chief direction 
given to the renowned artist, Le Brun, who caused tapestry to be made from the finest designs of the Italian 
painters. Specimens of velveted tapestry, called de la Savonnerie, were exhibited, and proved to English weavers 
that there is much yet for them to learn, before they can equal the magnificence of these productions. But let 
them learn, at the same time, what to avoid, as well as what to imitate, and consider, before they take a Gobelin 
carpet for then- model, " whether or not the various scrolls, panels, flowers, mouldings, armorial bearings, flags, and 
other details of the carpet, are really fitted to cover a floor ; — whether, viewing the question in a philosophical point 
of view as to the abstract question of beauty, — fitness in articles of use being an essential element — these objects are 
the decorations most suited to a floor or a ceiling. There can be little doubt that every unprejudiced mind would 
at once declare in favour of the ceiling, and that the artistic stumbling-blocks and pitfalls above enumerated would 
be better if fixed overhead, except from some latent fear that their own ponderosity would bring them down upon 
the spectator." This idea may appear somewhat fastidious, but it emanates from one eminently qualified to express 
an opinion on the subject,* and perhaps is more true than has been as yet generally admitted. 

The third national manufactory of carpets is situated at Aubusson, a town in the department of La Creuze,and 
was formerly much more extensive than at present. In the early part of the seventeenth century, upwards of two 
thousand of the inhabitants were directly engaged in the carpet trade ; but, being mostly Protestants, the revocation 
of the edict of Nantes, by making a great number emigrate to foreign countries, gave a blow to the manufacture 
from which it never recovered. M. Sallandrouze de Lamornaix, the great manufiicturer of the Aubusson tapestries, 
exhibited a large carpet evidently designed for the current year, bearing the royal arms in the centre, and the 
names and emblems of the principal seats of manufticture in England and France in the panels on the sides. The 
observations made above with respect to the Gobelin carpets, apply with still greater force in this case — for, if 
objections be made to flowers on a carpet, who could reconcile to himself the idea of treading pictures under foot ? 

The late National Assembly being desirous of testifying its appreciation of the benefits likely to accrue to 
France from the reception of her manufactures into the Exhibition, presented one of the most valuable of the 
Gobelin carpets exhibited, illustrating the massacre of the Mamelukes, to Her Majesty; while to Lord Granville 
and Mr. C. Wentworth Dilke, the two most active and untiring members of the Royal Commission, were sent over 
cases containing tastefully selected specimens of the finest Sevres porcelain. 



* The head-master of the Birmingham School of Design. 



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FHAJN^CE lY. 



The Great Exhibition afforded an opportunity of observing one great distinction between the works in precious metals 
exhibited by Great Britain, and those contributed by French exhibitors. The English gold and silversmiths seemed to 
have valued their work by its weight of metal, while their foreign rivals wisely considering that art would give a more 
real and permanent value than mere material, seemed to have attempted to attain perfection in design and workmanship 
with the smallest expenditure of metal possible. It is to this deficiency of our countrymen in the treatment of the 
precious metals, as the medium of art, that a clever writer on the subject has recently attributed the many paltry 
inventions which are found in the imitative manufactures. He says : " If we contemplate some of the inventions of the 
artists, and some of the thoughts which they have wrought out, we shall be indeed surprised that such puerilities could 
be dwelt on long enough to execute them as Works of Art, and stiQ more, that manufacturers, so shrewd as they 
generally are, should be found to engage in their production, were it not sufficiently evident that there is a large and 
wealthy pubhc whose taste does not rise above such art^ proved by its becoming patrons and purchasers." He then goes 
on to say that it is such art in the more precious metals, employed on such thoughts, which leads to examples like 
*' Kachel at a well in a rock under an imitative palm tree, drawing — ^not water, but ink ; Burns' Shepherdess finding the 
same black fluid in the formless well at her side ; the milk-pail on a maiden's head containing, not goat's milk, as the 
animal by her side would lead you to suppose, but a taper." From this we may infer that the blame is not to be attached 
so much to the producers of English Works of kxi, as to those who, as large purchasers, keep the market stocked with 
articles suited to their own bad taste : the gold and silversmiths of Great Britain may design with as great abihty, and 
model with as much knowledge as their foreign brethren, but it cannot be denied that the taste of the class who purchase 
these works abroad must be higher than that of the corresponding class in this country. 

We feel a further justification for what we have just stated when we glance at the reports of the jurors on the 
works in precious metals shewn in the Great Exhibition. It appears that there were a hundred and twenty-two 
Enghsh exhibitors in that class, among whom six council and fourteen prize medals were distributed, while out of forty- 
five French exhibitors, six received council medals, and thirty-one out of the remaining thirty-nine were judged worthy 
of prize medals. 

Foremost among those represented in the accompanying plate stood Messrs. Marrel, who, besides seals 
ornamented with beautiful little figures, scent bottles and snuff boxes in the most varied styles and of the most exquisite 
workmanship, exhibited a large vase of silver, representing the combat of Theseus with the Amazons, after the 
celebrated picture by Kubens. It was executed in the Louis XIV style, by order of the late Queen of France, for the 
Due d'Aumale, whose arms it bore. The variety of articles exhibited by J. F. Rudolphi and by A. Gueyton, bears 
witness to great fertihty of invention and a happy apphcation of old as well as of new processes : from the contributions 
of M. Kudolphi we cannot make a better selection than a beautifully executed httle group representing two gentlemen 
in doublets, of the epoch of Louis XIII, fighting a duel, with sword and dagger, their bodies being composed of 
irregularly shaped pearls ; and we beheve the best article exhibited by M. Gueyton was a silver vase, cast and chased, 
in which, in seven medaUions, was represented the history of the horse, shewing the ancient, mediaeval, and modern 

race-course. 

We must not conclude without bearing testimony to the tasteful magnificence of the silver-gilt toilet table, 
beautifully chased and ornamented in precious stones, executed by M. Froment-Meurice, and presented by subscription, 
on the occasion of the marriage of H. R. H. Louise Marie Th6rese of France, and H. R. H. Charies Ferdinand de 
Bourbon, Infanta of Spain. The Duchess of Pajma kindly allowed the toilet table, glass, and all the et ceteras, to 
be placed in the Exhibition, as a splendid specimen of a most dehcately finished work of art, feehng most justly that 
this object alone, apart from the many other meritorious contributions by the same gentleman, was sufficient to raise 
M. Froment-Meurice to the first rank among his brother artists. 



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SPAIN AND POETUGAL. 



Perhaps the most remarkable point in the character of the collection sent from Spain to the Great Exhibition was the 
contrast presented between the number, the variety and the richness of her raw materials, and the absolute insignificance 
of her manufactured articles. The mineral productions were deserving of a very close inspection, although the series 
were by no means complete. The most valuable of the Spanish mines are those of lead in Granada, which extend in 
greater or less abundance into nearly all the provinces, differing chiefly by the various combinations of other bodies with 
the ore, such as antimony, iron, zinc, and above all, silver, which is often found in large quantities. The quicksilver 
mines of Almaden in La Mancha, are extremely productive, and supply the greater part of the mercury imported into 
this Country, and into the United States. The specimens exhibited shewed the quicksilver in the different states in 
which it exists, pure, and combined with sulphur. 

Spain was once the sole possessor of that breed of fine wooUed sheep caUed the Merino, which the French 
invasion of 1808 dispersed over the Continent of Europe, breaking up the best flocks that remained and mixing them 
with others of inferior quahty, so that the Merino breed until quite lately has been found in much greater perfection 
in most other countries than in Spain. Much pains have however been taken by the Spaniards to regain for the wool 
of their sheep the celebrity which it used to enjoy. Some very fine specimens were contributed by M. Justo Hernandez, 
who has been energetically engaged in ameliorating the Merino flocks. He first introduced the custom of warmly 
clothing the sheep from December to the beginning of June, and the experiment proved in every way most satisfactory. 
The wool of his sheep grew very much finer, and the improvement was plainly perceptible by comparing the wool on 
those parts of the animals which had been effectually covered, with that on those which had remained bare. 

With every advantage which nature can lavish, Spain did not, or perhaps would not, rank as a manufacturing 
country in the Exhibition. It has been said by some of her own countrymen that the manufactured articles transmitted 
from Spain conveyed but an exceedingly incomplete and fallacious notion of the character, the condition, and the extent 
of her industry, and they adduce as a proof of the negligence and apathy that must prevail among the industrial classes 
of Spain, the fact that the province of Catalonia, whose connexion with what they call the cotton industry of the country 
represents a capital in buildings and machinery of 83,000,000 of francs (<£ 3,320,000), had not sent a single sample of 
her numerous products to the Exhibition in London. 

An English writer gives the following reasons for the unsuitableness of the Spanish character to success in 
Agriculture and Manufactures ; he says : " During the prolonged struggle with the Moors, a taste for daring adventures, 
and for an irregular predatory mode of Hfe, was widely diffused throughout the nation ; and the discovery and conquest 
of America, which occurred nearly at the same time that the power of the Moors was annihilated by the conquest of 
Granada, afforded a new and boundless field for the exercise of the pecuhar tastes and talents formed in the Moorish 
wars. In addition to the means thus afforded of arriving at wealth and distinction by a more compendious and less 
laborious, though more hazardous route than that of sober industry, those honorary distinctions of which the Spaniards 
are extremely fond, were conferred only on those who followed the profession of arms, and who could shew that their 
ancestors had not degraded themselves by engaging in the debasing pursuits of agriculture, manufactures and 
commerce ! " 

The space allotted for the display of the Spanish collection was, however, not whoUy destitute of manufactured 
articles of a very remarkable and interesting character. The Royal Ordnance of Toledo exhibited sword and sabre 
blades richly enamelled and otherwise ornamented. The temper and flexibility of the Toledo steel are well known as 
being unrivalled in the world, and were well illustrated by the contribution of Don Manuel de Ysasi, who transmitted to 
the Exhibition a sword of such extraordinary flexibility that it could be thrust into a metalhc scabbard twisted in the 
form of a serpent, and when drawn out it immediately became as straight as an arrow. 

The collection sent by the Portuguese exhibitors resembled that which we have just described, inasmuch as it 
was extremely rich in raw materials and produce, and shewed that considerable efforts had been made to represent as far 
as possible the natural resources of a country, the manufacturing capabihties of which remained still to be developed. 
We may mention, however, the extensive assortment of various quahties and descriptions of snuff exhibited by the Royal 
Tobacco Contractors of Lisbon. The Company have obtained from the Portuguese Government a Royal Charter, which 
secures to them the exclusive manufacture of soap and tobacco. The Jury awarded an honorable mention for the 
delicate flavour of these snuffs : but the Company, by their hberality, constituted all the visitors to the Crystal Palace 
jurors, and were able to judge of the high appreciation which the latter evinced for the quahty of the tobacco, by the 
rapid manner in which whole casks were emptied. 



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SWITZEELAND. 



Switzerland is a federal State composed of twenty two Cantons, which were finaUy united in a confederation for mutual 
defence at the peace of 1814, each, however, being independent and having an internal administration of its own. Since 
1850, they have submitted to a systematic tariff of customs equaUy enjoyed by the whole of the confederation, and have 
adopted a uniform currency, which is caUed the federal franc, and is of the same value, and admits of the same subdivi- 
sions as the franc of France. They have also been lately considering the advisability of estabhshing a uniform system 
of weights and measures, and in all probabihty they will choose the decimal system as adopted in France and Belgium. 
The Swiss have indeed shewn themselves most earnest in the cause of improvement and reform, and the Great 
Exhibition afforded gratifying proof that their industrial products are sufficiently varied and valuable to allow full scope 
to their laudable exertions. 

Switzerland is almost wholly a pastoral country ; the crops are precarious and scanty, and only nine Cantons 
produce sufficient corn for the supply of their own inhabitants ; the remaining thirteen Cantons are therefore obliged to 
import the cereals from Germany and Lombardy. The breeding and care of cattle is one of the most ancient pursuits of 
the Swiss, and with the exception of the inhabitants of the manufacturing towns, cows, goats and sheep constitute their 
principal wealth— the goats, in a great measure, supporting the poorer class, while the richer farmers derive their hmited 
wealth from the cheese suppHed by the cows. 

Notwithstanding the geographical disadvantages of Switzerland, the inhabitants have carried several branches of 
manufacturing industry to a considerable state of advancement, and their contributions to the Exhibition incontestibly 
proyed to aU the assembled nations of the earth, what could be effected by energy, economy, patriarchal industry, and 
patience. Notwithstanding the difficulty of internal communication, and the want of navigable rivers, Switzeriand is the 
only country in Europe in which certain products, for which there is an immense and ever increasing demand, can be 
procured at the lowest price at which they have ever been manufactured. 

If we draw a line in a north east direction across the Canton of Friburg, we shall divide pretty accurately the 
French from the German population ; each portion of wHch is distinguished by its own characteristic maaufactures. In 
the German Cantons of Switzerland the cotton and silk fabrics form the chief employment of the inhabitants, and the 
towns most remarkable for their manufactures are B41e and Zurich : whHe in the French Cantons, the watches, musical 
boxes and jewellery of Geneva and Neufch^tel need apprehend no rivalry. The raw silk is drawn from various foreign 
States, but chiefly from Lombardy, where the chmate is well adapted for the breeding and rearing of silk- worms, aud in the 
Canton of Zurich alone, the manufacture of silks, taffeta and ribbons, gives employment to between 12,000 and 13,000 
people. In the Great Exhibition the Swiss manufacturers of silk ribbons exhibited a very large number of specimens in 
twenty one glass cases, and the elegant way in which they were displayed excited universal admiration. Like the French 
manufacturers of Lyons and Mulhouse, they sent their contributions in a collective form, so as to bring into notice the 
importance of the manufacture, rather than their individual merit ; wisely concluding that as in union there is strength, 
they could not do better than sacrifice their personal pretensions to superiority, to the industrial reputation of their 
country. 

The watchmaking trade is of veiy great importance, and the Cantons of Geneva, NeufchMel, Vaud, and Bernese 
Jura, are calculated to manufacture two-thirds of the watches in the worid ; it is estimated that about 1,200,000 are 
made there annually. The beauty of the workmanship which is lavished on the watch cases would almost induce us to 
separate them from the interior movements, and class them under the head of jewellery, particularly as nearly every 
ornament, rings, bracelets, gold purses and walking sticks, contained a watch of the smallest dimensions. We may 
mention especially the miniatures of the Queen, and Jenny Lind, beautifully set with briUiants, and a portrait of the 
Queen of Holland surrounded by diamonds, each of which served to encase a fine gold watch. As a specimen of dehcate 
manipulation, besides many watches of the most minute description, which were warranted to go with precision, M. Louis 
Audemars exhibited a pistol composed of twenty distinct pieces, which would act perfectly, and yet which only weighed 
half a grain ! 

In the Swiss Department there were several specimens of very excellent wood carving. The subjects they 
represented were chiefly connected with the happy pastoral life which the inhabitants lead high up amid the rich pastures 
of the Alps, where the air is perfumed and the water pure ; much of the furniture, however, illustrated other points of 
nationality, such as the costumes of the twenty two Cantons, which are still kept completely distinct amongst the rural 
population, while here and there was seen the chapel of WilHam Tell, at Altorf, testifying to the enduring character of 
the devotedness of this brave and primitive people to their noble and patriotic champion. 



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ITALY. 



Under this general title, the accompanying Plate represents the contributions from the Papal States, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, and the 
Kingdom of Sardinia, among which were to be found some of the most attractive objects in the Exhibition. 

It is deserving of notice, that the greater number of the fifty-seven exhibitors who formed the Roman collection, contributed only 
to the first and last sections of the Exhibition— the raw materials and the fine arts ; for though the manufactures serve almost entirely for 
home consumption, they are in the most depressed and backward state ; and truly has it been said, that many a town of Great Britain, 
of only 30,000 inhabitants, produces a greater quantity of manufactured goods than the three million inhabitants of the Pontifical States. 

This reproach must, however, be at once retracted, when attention is called to the sculptures, the cameos in onyx and shell, and the 
beautiful mosaic work, which, notwithstanding that many of the most distinguished artists of Rome (and especially Tenerani, the greatest 
living sculptor of Italy) sent no specimens of their works to the Exhibition, served to render the Italian court one of the most attractive 
to all classes. 

In the Nave were placed two marble figures ; the nymph Glycera, and another nymph, both by the late R. J Wyatt, of Rome. 
Glycera was a beautiful courtezan of Sicyon, who lived about 350 B.C., and who was renowned for her skill, and the elegance of her taste 
in the arrangement of fiowers for chaplets and garlands. The painter Pausias became enamoured of her, and from copying nature as displayed 
by his mistress, was soon highly celebrated for his skill as a painter of fiowers. The last efibrt of his genius was a picture of Glycera herself, 
seated, and in the act of arranging a wreath. A production, to create which admiration, talent, and love lent their aid, could not fail to be a 
masterpiece, and it was bought by LucuUus for no less a sum than two talents. Eminently successful was Mr. Wyatt's conception of this 
nymph, in a statue representing a girlish figure, slight, and full of simple grace ; the symmetry, the exquisite softness of the flesh surfaces, 
the winning attitude, the smiling beauty of the face, the classic proportions of the head, the good taste displayed in the treatment of the 
drapery, all gave to the design a peculiar charm, evidencing the highest genius, and the nearest approach to artistic perfection. 

The group of " Rinaldo and Armida," in marble, the subject of which was taken from Tasso's Gerusalemma Liberata, was executed by 
Signer Rinaldi of Rome. Armida, in the act of stabbing herself Avith a dart, was arrayed in a graceful Turkish costume, and was finished 
with considerable roundness and beauty, whilst Rinaldo, who arrests her hand, stood stifi" and unwieldy in a coat of mail ; the leggings, shield, 
and helmet, being brought to a degree of polish which spoke highly of labour misapplied. 

H. Cassin exhibited a group representing the horrible fate of Laocoon and his two sons as related by Yirgil. Laocoon was a son of 
Priam and priest of Apollo, who attempted to dissuade the Trojans from bringing into the city the fatal wooden horse consecrated to Minerva. 
He was soon punished for his temerity ; for while sacrificing a bullock to Neptune, two enormous serpents issued from the sea, and seizing 
Laocoon and his children, squeezed them in their complicated folds until they died in the greatest agonies. 

The Grand Duchy of Tuscany is rich in mines and quarries, which were represented by numerous specimens. The collection of 
agricultural produce was not so complete as might have been expected ; but there were many superior samples of Boracic Acid, of Tuscan 
origin, which used to be solely imported from the East Indies. Dr. Bowring, in his " Report on the Statistics of Tuscany," describes a remarkable 
boracic acid lagoon, spread over a surface of thirty square miles, which emits a dense and stinking odour, inducing the peasants for a long time 
to deem it an entrance into the infernal regions, and to regard it with great superstition. 

To the Fine Arts Class, Professor Nencini, of Florence, contributed a very spirited statue of Bacchus reclining in an easy, graceful 

attitude whilst he was squeezing the juice from a bunch of grapes into his mouth ; but the great attractions in the Tuscan collection were the 

mosaics of which the two most splendid specimens, representing the ruins at Paestum, were exhibited in the Nave. The origin of mosaic work 

is very ancient : Rome was taught by Greece, who had herself received her artists from Asia. At the fall of the Roman empire, this art, like all 

others was lost, and only recovered in Italy in the fourteenth centuiy. The Sovereigns of Tuscany appreciating its high importance, founded 

at Florence a celebrated school, which has produced the eminent artists of the cities of Italy. The ancient or Roman mosaics difier essentially 

from what is called Florentine work ; the former are made with minute pieces of coloured marble or glass, more or less opaque, and of every 

variety of hue which the subject may require, and as each separate piece is of the same colour throughout, the graduation of tints can only be 

obtained by an immense number of small pieces, of which those contiguous to each other exhibit scarcely any perceptible difierence to the eye ; 

while the Florentine mosaics are composed of slabs of marble, or other hard stone of difierent colours, carved out according to the design 

which it is intended to produce. The tables and table tops exhibited by Tuscany were, for the most part, executed in Florentine mosaic, while 

the ruins of Paestum, already referred to, were specimens of Roman work, and each picture is said to have occupied the artist fifteen years. 

Napoleon attempted to establish in Paris a school similar to the one at Florence, and placed M. Belloni, whose beautiful compositions are to be 

seen in the Louvi'e, at its head. Circumstances, however, prevented the accomplishment of the Emperor's views, and, except the production 

of a few mosaic artists, with considerable talent, who were M. BeUoni's pupils, the school has disappeared without leaving a trace of its existence. 

The insular portion of the Kingdom of Sardinia supplied specimens of its mineral wealth, including some spathic iron ore, and rough and 

manufactured slates. Samples of raw and thrown silk, and fine specimens of the products of the velvet looms of Tm-in and Genoa, formed a 

valuable part of the collection; but most attention was paid to the silver filigree work, exhibited in the North Central Gallery, and espcciaUy 

to the composite column intended to celebrate the era of the Great Exhibition of 1851. It was placed on a pedestal, which was ornamented with 

a likeness of the Queen, the British fiag and other devices, surrounded by a group of sea-horses, intended to convey the idea of the Sovereignty 

of the ocean, and surmounted by a globe on which stood a figure of Fame. The only contribution in sculpture from the Sardinian States was 

a small statue of a Bacchante in marble, by a Genoese artist. 



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SWEDEN AND DENMAEK. 



As the number of exhibitors from Sweden, Norway and Demnark, the contributions from which three countries were aJl 
placed close together in the Ciystal Palace, and are therefore aH included in the accompanying plate, did not amount to 
two hundred, it is impossible to think that they properly represented the productive power of these northern kingdoms 
of Europe, but it was easy to perceive what effect habits of economy and frugality, as remarkable in these regions as in 
Switzerland, had upon the articles which were displayed by them. Food and raiment and shelter hardly costs anything 
to the Norwegian and the Swede, and the severity of the climate hardens them against privations such as our countrymen 
would be unable to endure, and they are thereby freed from the many, often factitious, wants which are considered 
indispensable by the inhabitants of more southern latitudes. 

When first the contributions from these countries were talked of, we confess to having confined our expectations 
to seeing tons of iron aad steel, suggested by the name of Sweden, aud bushels of wheat and other agricultural produce 
from Norway. There were of course many specimens of both, and such contributions proved both interesting and 
mstructive : but articles to attract the fancy and please the eye were by no means wanting, and the jurors thought fit to 
reward with a prize medal a coUection of wooden vessels for various domestic purposes, ornamented with carvings done 
by the native peasantry. The proprietor also of a very good statue in marble, representing a shepherd, placed it in this 
department, as a specimen of the skiU of Mr. MoHn, a Swedish sculptor, who had executed it at Rome. 

The superiority of the Swedish iron for conversion into steel has been considered to arise from the presence of a 
certain portion of maugauese, and this metal has accordingly been introduced into the melting pots of our mauufactories ; 
Its effect is to render the iron harder, whiter, aud more brittle. There are, however, two unquestionable causes which 
render the Swedish iron best adapted for making steel : the first is, that the ore used is the magnetic iron ore, and the 
second that mineral fuel is not employed in the process of smelting. Both Sweden and Norway also exhibited specimens 
from their copper mines, which are scarcely less celebrated thau their iron mines. In woven fabrics and other manufac- 
tures there were several exhibitors, but none of them were remarkable for any pecuHarity requiring description. 

The articles exhibited by Denmark, though far from numerous, were chosen to illustrate the four great divisions 
of Raw produce. Machinery, Manufactures and Fine Art. Under the first of these heads were included agricultural 
produce, wool, and lamb and goat skins ; under the second were many philosophical instruments, and an interesting 
specimen of mechanical ingenuity by Mr. S. Hjorth : this latter was a working model of an electro-magnetic engine, 
illustrating the practical apphcation of the electric current, to the development of mechanical force through the induced 
magnetism of certain masses of soft iron. The Royal Porcelain manufactory at Copenhagen contributed figures, busts, 
and bas-rehefs, on sacred, allegorical and mythical subjects, modelled after Thorwaldsen— but the specunens were so 
very small, that they scarcely conveyed more than a general impression of their designs, which was to be regretted the 
more, as the eye of the EngHsh pubhc is but Httie acquainted with the productions of that artist, though his name 
sounds tolerably familiar to their ears. 

But Denmark had a right to be proud of the high position to which she was raised by her sculptors, who 
contributed to the Fine Art department ; and although with the name of Jerichau is immediately associated his finely 
conceived group in marble of the Hunter and Panther, we would pass over it and turn our attention to another group in 
plaster, by the same artist, which we beheve to have been a better composition and which was but little noticed, while 
plaudits were being showered upon the Hunter with the ill-proportioned legs, animadverted on by the jurors. How 
beautiful was the attitude of Eve after the fall, leaning on the shoulder of the desponding Adam, seated at her feet : 
both feehng guilty, she could only comfort him by weeping because he wept ! The group is now in the Danish depart- 
ment of the New York Exhibition, and its merits are caUing forth from the Americans the admiration which the EngHsh 
public were so slow in bestowing upon it. Ere we conclude we must mention a master-piece, by another sculptor, 
H. W. Bissen. He described it as " Orestes, the Avenger of his father, at the moment when the Furies appear before 
him." The figure of Orestes was represented brandishing a sword and was full of life and energy, while the momentary 
character of the action was rendered to perfection. 



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TUNIS, I. 



Tunis, situated in a province of the same name, which forms one of the states of Barbary on the northern coast of 
Africa, has been a nominal dependency of the Turks since a.d. 1570, but has regained its independence by 
the gradual decline of their empire, the Bey merely receiving the caftan with the dignity of Pacha of Three 
Tails from the Sultan. The town is principally populated by Jews, Arabs, and Turks, the proportion of Christians 
being very small. Though much fortified, it is not strong, and is chiefly celebrated in history for having been so 
many times besieged and taken. 

On entering the gates there is little to admire, for the houses, though generally built of stone, are mean and 
dirty, and the streets narrow and often obstructed by heaps of filth and mud. The most handsome buildings 
are the mosques, one of which was converted into a Roman Catholic cathedi-al when Tunis was occupied by the 
Spaniards. For an English visitor, some interest must necessarily attach itself to the palace of the late Bey, which 
was occupied by Queen Carohne, during the time she sojourned at Tunis, when visiting the most celebrated spots 
on the coast of the Mediterranean : within, the decorations are magnificent, the rooms being paved with marble, 
and all opening upon marble courts, in the centre of which beautiful fountains throw up their waters in jets, 
bringing vividly to the remembrance Moore's description of the Eastern Harem chambers :— 

" Where nothing but the falls 
Of fragrant waters, gushing -with cool sound 
From many a jasper fount are heard around." 

There are many bazaars in which almost every article procurable in Tunis is to be disposed of, and a theatre in 
which Italian operas and comedies are performed. In the walls which now surround the town are several gates, 
and it is outside one of these, called the Bab-kartajmah, or Carthage-gate, that there has been for some time a 
Protestant burial-ground. This flict would appear to intimate that the mortahty is great ; but this is not the case, 
for, on the whole, the climate may be said to be healthy as well as pleasant. It is true that the plague is not an 
unfrequent depopulator, but its advent is to be attributed far more to the uncleanly habits of the Tunisians than to 
anything unfavourable in the climate. The heat is never so very great as might have been supposed, the thermo- 
meter seldom rising above 96° in the summer months, or faUing below 52" in December or January. What is com- 
monly called the rainy season commences in October, and continues, more or less, until May. 

The many resources which Tunis possesses, both on account of the great fertihty of the soil in many parts, 
and its numerous natural productions, have never been fully studied or turned to profit, as the inhabitants, of an 
inactive and unenterprising character, never cultivate more of their land than will absolutely suffice for the mainten- 
ance of their fimiihes and to pay the taxes ; the cause of this, no doubt, is to be traced to the rapacity of the asses- 
sors, who seize upon every possible pretext for overvaluing the produce of the land, and thereby increasing the 
amount of their returns to the government exchequer. It was therefore interesting to find that this comparatively 
little-known country should, on the invitation of England, immediately consent to take a step calculated to increase 
its commercial importance, and to incite its people to bring forth their pecuhar productions for comparison and 
competition with those of the rest of the world. His highness Mushir Basha, the present Bey, took considerable 
interest in the Great Exhibition, and under his directions a collection was formed, with the concurrence of the 
producers and manufacturers of the province, who liberally contributed their goods, and despatched to London, 
where, no one can deny, it formed one of the most remarkable and curious features of the whole display. 

This collection was sent to England under the care of his highness's commissioner, Signor Hamda Elmkadden, 
who, being unacquainted with our language, was accompanied by an interpreter, M. Santillana, a native, for many 
years attached to the British Consulate at Tunis, and also by an Arab attendant, called Saido Belais, who, from his 
picturesque costume, loud talk in Arabic, and energetic gestures, attracted no little attention, and was considered a 
far more important personage than his grave master by the majority of the visitors, who will no doubt remember 
Saido long after the costly draperies, of which he had the care, have been forgotten. His portrait was taken, and 
he appears in the foreground of the accompanying view, squatting, as was his custom, on one of the counters. 



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TUNIS, II. 

His Highness Mushir Basha, Bey of Tunis, received from the Royal Commissioners a medal on account of the whole 
collection exhibited by him ; and at one of their meetings it was resolved that this award should be considered a 
separate and distinct gift of the Commission, in token of gratitude for the trouble taken by the Bey in getting toge- 
ther such an interesting collection in illustration of the Industries which it was intended to represent. The goods 
from Tunis were valued at £8,988 8.., and consisted not only of specimens of the raw produce of the land, but also 
of a selection of all the manufactured articles which were most interesting in this country. Among the vegetable 
products were the leaves of the Hennah, which 

" Imbue 
The fingers' ends with a bright roseate hue. 
So bright that in the mirror's depth they seem 
Like tips of coral branches in the stream," 

and which are very extensively used for this purpose by the Tunisian ladies. The plant grows to a height of ten or 
twelve feet, and puts out clusters of small flowers, which have an odour of camphor ; the leaves are picked twice in 
the year, and after having been dried and powdered, are sent to all the markets of the East. To use the die, it is 
requisite to make a paste with the powder, which is then appHed to the part which it is intended to colour, and 
bandaged round. 

Among the manufactures every article of Tunisian dress was represented. The heretti, or red caps of Tunis, 
Avhich were shown in so many varieties, are famous throughout the Mediterranean. Their brilliant die is obtained 
from the kermes, and it is considered that the peculiar properties of the water of Zaghwan, an inland town where 
the dying is chiefly conducted, conduces to render the colour permanent. The manufacture of these skull caps is 
said to have formerly given employment to more than 50,000 persons, but the opposition which the trade now meets 
with from Leghorn and Marseilles, where rival manufactories have been established, has very greatly reduced the 
demand for them from Tunis. 

As an illustration of the decoration of the interior of Moorish rooms, was a carved and inlaid door with a 
curious lock and key. Wood and ivory were both used to form a beautiful and regular open pattern, behind which 
was glass stained in diflbrent colours, which threw a kind of subdued glow on all the surrounding objects. 

Complete Moorish di'csses, for both men and women, Avere shown with all the ornaments and jewels worn by 
both respectively, and were indicative of the peculiar characteristics of Oriental taste and design. The white 
bornouses, made of wool and silk, with a hood and long tassel behind, were very much admired, and so sought after, 
that the supply was totally inadequate to the demand, and the few that were exhibited were sold, in some instances, 
for four times their actual value. 

It was impossible not to remark the richness of the gold embroidery applied both to human apparel and to 
the decoration of the caparisons of the horse. The Arab is well known to have so much affection for his horse, that 
he treats him with more tenderness and care than he vouchsafes even to his own children, and it quite seemed, on 
an examination of the beautiful velvet saddles exhibited, as if the designer had thought that it was not possible to 
make them too valuable for the purpose for which they were intended. 

The most prominent object in the accompanying Plate is the Arab tent, made of goats' hair, which represents 
the ancient and simple method by which the Bedouin Arab is protected from the weather while wandering in the 
desert : when packed up, such a tent occupies but little space, and is easily carried on the back of a camel. On the 
outside of it were stretched skins of the lion and the panther, which appear to be almost the only wild animals now 
to be met with in Barbary. The gigantic brood of reptiles, of which Livy writes, seems to have entirely disappeared. 
It was on the banks of the Bagrada that an enormous serpent, 120 feet in length, is said to have opposed the pro- 
gress of Eegulus and the whole Roman army ; but it is now impossible to consider this tale in any light except that 
of a fable, for no serpents exceeding 12 feet in length are ever seen in the present day. Within the tent was exhi- 
bited part of the large collection of the African dates, which were sent from Tunis in baskets made of leather and 
plaited straw ; the date tree belongs to the family of the palms, and its fruit is as important an article of food to 
the Eastern nations as wheat is to inhabitants of the West. 

The space around the Arab tent was fitted up so as to represent one of the Bazaars of Tunis ; the shops on 
one side containing large straw hats, bornouses, blankets, leather slippers, and belts, and on the other, dried 
figs, raisins, dates in jars, and large bottles of olive oil, laid out in a manner most calculated to tempt purchasers. 
It must be admitted that for a characteristic display of the native productions of Timis, which were in themselves 
indicative of the peculiarity of the manners and customs of the people, it would have been impossible to have con- 
tributed a better selected collection of goods ; and the gratitude of the world, and not only of the Royal Commission, 
is due to the Bey for having illustrated his own country, comparatively little known in the North, with so much 
success. 



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TUNIS, III. 

The accompanying Plate represents that portion of the Transept and Main Avenue of the Exhihition in which w 
displayed those peculiar productions of Tunis. China, and BrazU, which were selected from the mass as calculated 
to excite the greatest amount of interest. Since the contributions from Tunis have already been alluded to. we 
pass at once to those of the Chinese, who. from their antiquity, their exclusiveness and their numerous clever inven- 
tions, have ever been regarded as a wondrous people ; while their manners and customs, differing so totally from 
those of the western nations of the earth, have excited a curiosity in gratifying which no perfect success has yet 
been obtained. 

The collections of Chinese productions and manufactures in the Exhibition was formed from the contribu- 
tions of about forty individuals residing in England, while her Majesty's consul at Shanghai sent a very complete 
set of specimens of the raw products of Japan ; and it is a somewhat surprising fact that notwithstanding the rich 
display of silks and porcelain, these minerals alone receiyed honourable mention from the Jurors. 

On a counter were arranged the various Teas imported from Canton. The tea-plant, called by the natives 

cha^ rises from four to five feet in height, and bears a strong resemblance to the myrtle, but the flower is not 

unlike smaU white hedge-roses, and whatever may be the number of varieties, owing probably to peculiar culture 

or preparation, they are divided by Europeans into the two general heads of Black Tea and Green Tea. It has 

been for some time ascertained that the green colour is merely an adulteration, and not the natural tint of the 

leaf: in the Exhibition was a bottle of the materials used for colouring teas, and it has already been suggested 

that its contents might with advantage be analysed, to ascertain whether they do or do not contain any deleterious 

ingredient. The leaves are gathered three times in the year, and for the finer descriptions of tea, very careful 

manipulation is necessary before they are exported. They are first immersed into boiling water for the space of 

about half a minute, when they are laid out so as to dry them a little. Then they are roUed between the fingers, 

till they acquire the forms in which we see them here, and finally they are placed in a kind of stove, where they 

are kept constantly in motion until they are perfectly dry. Yery often they are made to receive a perfume which 

they do not naturally possess, and for this purpose the Chinese use chiefly the flowers of the Olea fragrans, and the 

Magnolia glauca. 

The origin of the introduction of tea into Europe is comparatively recent : on September 25th, 1661, Pepys 
wrote in his Diary, " I sent for a cup of tea (a Chinese drink), of which I had never drank before :" it was 
probably first brought to Amsterdam by the Dutch East India Company, and from thence exported to London. 
The consumption of tea in the United Kingdom is now enormous (in 1850 upwards of 51,000,000 lbs.), and it is 
this little shrub which has succeeded in bringing China into nearer contact with foreigners than her sages ever 
desired ; for they have ever foreseen, in a free intercourse with other nations, the destruction of their own power. 

One of the most prominent objects in the accompanying Plate, is a representation of an Idol in bronze, 
said to have been cast before the deluge, which was used by the worshippers of Buddha or Fo, as the deity is called 
by the Schamans or Chinese priests. It was brought to England by Major Edie, who obtained it from the 
Schamans in whose charge it was placed, by bribing them with a certain quantity of opium. The figure was not 
quite perfect, there being several perforations in different parts of its body, which originally held precious stones 
and other ornaments. 

A curious contribution was made by Mr. Thorns, in the form of an original address presented to his 
excellency Hwang, on his being appointed the deputy Governor of the Province of Canton, during the reign of the 
Emperor Kang He, about a.d. 1684. This address, which was signed by 776 merchants and tradesmen, was 
written in a poetical and quaint style, and measured seven feet nine inches in length, and six feet in widths 
contained two thousand three hundred and twenty-eight Chinese characters, beautifully worked in gold on silk, 
and was lined with Chinese embossed velvet, surrounded with a gilt border. 

Messrs. Hewett exhibited two specimens of Chinese umbrellas, which were only remarkable from the great 
number of their ribs, which amounted to forty-two ; they were covered with oiled-paper painted and varnished. 
The umbrella is still a mark of high rank in China, though no longer exclusively so ; it is not, however, so much 
used among the middle classes as it is in England, while the poorer inhabitants depend solely on appropriate 
clothing to protect them from the sun and rain, wearing either coats made of skin, usually with the fur outside, 
or thatching themselves in with a coat made of straw, and a hat composed of split bamboo, which are sufficient to 
defy the heaviest rain. 

The habit of smoking in China is common to both sexes in all classes of society, and at almost all ages — ^for 
even little boys and girls are often seen with a pipe in their mouths, and when a visit is being paid, it is always 
customary for the host to ofier a cup of coffee and a pipe to his guest. These pipes are used in every variety of 
form, but generally have a very small bowl made of a white metal, with a long stem. There was only one opium 
pipe in the collection, which, with its appurtenances, was contributed by Dr. Berncastle. 

Brazil was represented by only four exhibitors, and in the accompanying Plate may be seen the contribution 
of Mr. Adamson, which was certainly the most attractive. It consisted of a beautiful bouquet of flowers, made of 
the feathers of Brazilian birds, with the exception of a few composed of beetles* wings in their natural colours. 
The bouquet was constructed expressly for the Exhibition, and comprised specimens of the Cotton, Coffee, and 
Tobacco Flowers. 



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TURKEY, I. 

TCRKISH manners and customs are so completely opposite to our own, that the bay at the North East Angle of the 
Transept of the Exhibition, where the collection formed by order of the SubHme Porte was displayed, attracted 
large numbers of the visitors, who inspected the highly interesting contributions with great interest and curiosity. 
These visitors, doubtless, might well have been divided into two classes, having very different motives for their 
eager and curious examination of the gorgeous illustrations of the habits and usages of the Turks : some looked 
back into the past, and remembered how the peculiar doctrines of the Koran made a profound impression upon the 
ferocious, ignorant, and superstitious minds of the Turks, after they had embraced the Mohammedan faith, when 
they Hterally believed that the sword was the key of Heaven, and that to fall fighting in defence of the true faith 
was the most glorious of deaths, and was followed by the largest portion of eternal fehcity ; that not more than 
three centuries ago, aU Eui'ope quaked with terror at the name of the Grand Turk, and that Solyman the 
Magnificent was even a more powerful sovereign than his contemporary the Emperor Charles Y.— but those who 
sought to increase the interest excited by the contributions of the Ottoman Empire, by referring to the history of 
its past grandeur, were the few : thousands knew but little of all this, but they had read the " Arabian Nights' 
Entertainments," and from being already familiar with the sayings and doings of the heroes and heroines of its 
tales, in the guarded city of Bagdad, from the weary porter, with his heavy burden, to the Caliph himself 
surrounded by his Yizier and attendants,— they longed to see with their own eyes the numerous illustrations of 
domestic manners of which their conception had previously been but imaginative, however accurate the 
description. 

We have stated that Turkish usages differ very much from our own, and this is exemplified in various 
w\ays. Our close and short dresses, calculated for promptitude of action, appear in their eyes to be wanting both 
in dignity and modesty. Their national dress is loose and flowing : that of the women, with the exception of the 
turban, differing but slightly from that of the men. The shape and colour of the turban serves to distinguish the 
different orders and ranks of the people and the functions of pubHc ofiicers. Among these, there is one privileged 
order, called oomra, or ameers, who are authorized to w^ear green turbans ; they are the descendants of Mohammed 
by his daughter Fatima. Inasmuch, however, as they are very numerous, oomra, like Brahmins in India, are often 
found in the most abject condition of life. Latterly, it has become fashionable at Constantinople to imitate the 
dress and manners of other European nations, though the former is inconvenient on account of the numerous 
ablutions which the Turk is forced to perform according to the precepts of the Koran. 

Turkish ladies have, in general, very white and delicate complexions, caused, no doubt, by their sedentary 

mode of life, and their habit of veiling themselves whenever they leave the house. Their habits and their great 

addiction to the bath, render them rather disposed to embonpoint; but it is absurd to say that this constitutes a 

Mussulman's beau ideal of beauty : were it so in reality, the Circassian and Georgian women would never have been 

selected for the " Lights of the Harem." In all the houses, which are often mean and dirty on the outside, the 

apartments appropriated to the exclusive use of the women are sumptuously fitted up, and such is their privacy 

that, unless on very rare occasions, all males are excluded from them, except the master of the family. The Turkish 

women are in general excessively ignorant, for education is not considered necessary for a girl ; and even the men, 

though they do not universally neglect learning, must be regarded as an illiterate people. 

This ignorance has a very great effect on their character and dispositions, in which two great faults are 
always to be traced : they are excessively proud and excessively sensual. It is their ignorance which is the parent 
of the former disposition, and the latter is a consequence of the peculiar nature of the Mohammedan paradise, 
which, though it does admit of spiritual pleasures, appears to confine them to such alone who obtain a superior 
degree of honour and felicity, while the happiness of the greater number of those who have succeeded in passing 
the Al Sirat, or the bridge which is said to be laid over the midst of hell, and described to be finer than a hair and 
sharper than the edge of a sword, consists wholly in corporeal enjoyments. It is, therefore, but natural, that 
Mohammedans should wish to realize in this world some portion of that felicity which is to be the reward of the 
faithful in the next. The doctrine of predestination is doubtless the cause to which must be ascribed the contempt 
of the Turks for the inventions and discoveries of other nations, and their conviction of the inutility of those 
instruments without which the researches of the acutest natural philosopher would be imperfect, and which are 
either entirely unknown to them, or only used as playthings to excite the admiration of ignorance, or to gratify a 
vain curiosity. 

The above sketch of Turkish manners and character, which must be taken into consideration by those who 
examine the contributions which were made by the Ottoman Empire to the Exhibition, if they desire to appreciate 
the fitness of many of the articles for their intended purposes, and their peculiar value to those who use them, 
will serve as an introduction to a future description of the most remarkable portions of the collection, which was 
valued at £9,500. 



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TIJEKEY II. 



Notwithstanding the efforts made by tlie present Sultan to revive the manufactures which once existed, and to introduce 
at his own private cost immense working estabhshments for the manufacture of broadcloth, silk, cotton, glass, and metal 
goods, the display of Turkish productions in the Great Exhibition forcibly reminded the spectator that the glory of that 
nation had passed away, and he involuntarily placed her, with Persia, in the category of those Powers which represent ages 
gone by, contrasting so strongly with the United States and Australia, the summit of whose career must incontestably 
be sought for in the future. In the collection however were to be found evident signs of a determination to aspire to 
the rank of a progressing civilized nation. The immense resources in raw materials which Turkey possesses within her 
own territories will, if she only learn how to use them, soon emancipate her from the difficulty under which she has so 
long been labouring, that of relying upon foreign supplies for the commonest necessaries required by her people ; and 
much honor is due to the young Sultan for having recognized the importance of an intimate acquaintance with the 
condition, prospects, and influences of the commercial policy of the countries with which he is in relation, and for having 
sent, with this view, into England, France, and Germany, a number of young men to acquire a knowledge of manufac- 
turing, social and pohtical matters, which conduce so much to the progress and prosperity of an Empire. 

The collection sent from the Levant was arranged with infinite taste ; the whole resembling one of the Turkish 
Bazaars, where the goods are displayed after the Eastern fashion. Those persons who had previously visited the famous 
shops of Adrianople, of Constantinople, and of Smyrna, were not prepared to see the variety and the richness of the 
articles which were exhibited by order of the Sublime Porte. Among the specimens of Oriental pomp and luxury were 
to be seen the httle silver coffee cup-holders, shaped Hke our egg-cups. Much pains are taken to ornament these cup- 
holders in silver and other materials : they represent a custom pecuharly Eastern, for, as is well known, coffee is served 
out to every visitor, without milk or sugar, much in the same way as a person making a call in England would be invited 
to take a glass of wine. The care taken in the manufacture of the Narguilles or hookahs, beautifully ornamented with 
silver, shews how indispensable an article of luxury the pipe is to the Turk ; indeed he would hardly be recognized as 
such were he not luxuriously reclining on soft cushions, and dreamily hstening to the " bubble, bubble " noise made by 
the passage of the fragrant smoke of the tobacco through the scented waters. 

In the accompanying view of the Turkish collection are also prominently represented the embroidered saddles 
and trappings which attracted so much attention. For embroidery and other gorgeous work, common in Oriental 
countries, Turkey has long been distinguished : but in every article, however magnificent, was discernible a leaning 
towards a richness of display in the material, while the workmanship remained almost totally neglected. Although 
characteristic of a wealthy Power, magnificence is no longer considered its test, and the Turks must learn to turn their 
attention to the production of their raw materials, and above all of the materials for dying, which they have in such 
abundance. As they cannot excel in manufactured goods, in which they were found to be so far surpassed by other 
European countries, let them devote all their energies to improve their natural productions, and become thus a great 
commercial nation. Turkey stands in the position of the most favored of nations with regard to the facilities of commu- 
nication, and her numerous ports are in the most advantageous situations ; Smyrna is already accounted one of the most 
important commercial cities in the world, — all conduces to render easy the exchange of her own natural productions for 
the necessaries required by her people, which can be suppHed by foreign powers. 

Such, we trust, was the lesson taught the Turks when they were in a position to compare their collection with 
those of other nations. If it was appreciated by them,— if they recognized where lay their inferiority, and where their 
excellence, they will have been at once started in a new career, and will forget that they are heroes of the Past, in their 
efforts to supply what they want so as to live in the Future ; and what the Great Exhibition has revealed wiU hinder 
them from wasting capital on an industrial Utopia, totaUy regardless of agriculture, and of those numerous products which 
their country so richly provides. 



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CHINA. 



When the Portuguese first visited China, they were astonished at the heauty of the country and the opulence of the 
inliabitants, whom they found both industrious and civilized. Nor were the Chinese less surprised to behold a people 
who equalled them in skill and in every branch of knowledge, wliile on many occasions they were forced to acknowledge 
that they were surpassed by them. The travellers from Europe who have visited them, still retain a portion of this 
admiration, and continue to speak with enthusiasm of the great number of cities which flourish over every part of 
this immense empire, of the enormous population, and of the prodigious wealth which they possess. The manufactures, 
agriculture, mines, canals, public roads, and the encouragement given to the arts and sciences, have excited the 
applause of the more western nations, and made them feel that the Chinese, who had known, many centuries before 
Europe, the art of block-printing, the composition of gunpowder, and the use of the magnetic compass — those three 
so highly celebrated and valuable discoveries of European skill — were entitled to a high, or one of the highest places 
among civilized nations. It is, however, curious to contrast inventions of such high utility and importance with the 
very small progress the Chinese have made in the sciences, as astronomy, geography, and mathematics, for which 
they were not ashamed to be indebted to European missionaries. 

With regard to astronomy, the Chinese make but little use of the knowledge they have acquired except for the 
purposes of divination, although the Imperial Observatory which adorns Pekin, the metropoHs of the whole empire, is 
considered by them as unparalleled in the universe, and some French mathematicians have represented it as one of the 
greatest prodigies of art and ingenuity, as weU as of beauty and magnificence. In this estabhshment five astronomers 
are employed night and day, each in a different apartment on the top of the tower, to observe the different astronomical 
appearances; one is continually looking towards the zenith, and the others to the four points of the compass, so that 
nothing may escape their notice. Their attention, however, is not confined to the heavenly bodies, but extends to 
all objects connected with meteorology: the results of their observations on this head are carefully entered in their 
journals, and an account of them is every morning submitted to the surveyor of mathematics, who registers them in his 

office. 

Their knowledge of geography is very limited, and they consider China to be the centre of the earth. They are 
consequently, very ignorant of the art of navigation, and although their imperial and mercantile navies are extensive, 
they are inefficient, except in those parts to which the pilots have been accustomed, and where they have a perfect 
knowledge of the various locahties. The Junk, which arrived in England in 1851, and was for some months an object 
of great interest to visitors, was the first Chinese vessel that had ever performed the voyage; and notwithstanding that 
she was found to be a most beautiful and easy sea-boat, never having shipped a drop of water, or leaked, since the day 
she left China, the crew had veiy considerable difficulties to overcome before she reached her destination, it being 
found sometimes necessaiy to employ twenty men to steer her. That mathematical science is at a low ebb, is evinced 
by an Imperial edict, pubHshed in the Pekin Gazette of May 1800: it announced the intended marriage of one of the 
Princesses, and charged the Tribunal of Mathematics to select a fortunate day for the celebration of the nuptials. 

The celebrated French Orientalist, Abel Remusat, describes the Chinese as remarkable for the utmost poHsh 
and refinement of manners, which, in many respects, almost equal those of European nations. In their present 
fashions, however, we find many tilings utterly at variance with our own taste and feelings : we may mention among 
others the assumption by the Emperor of the magnificent titles of " Son of Heaven, Lord of the World, Sole Governor 
of the whole Earth, Great Father of the People"; their admiration of corpulency, which they think is a sign of a good 
conscience, and is often the means of promoting a Chinese to the rank of Mandarin; and the practice in women of rank 
of compressing their feet to a most artificial diminutiveness, wliich prevents their walking, or at least gives them a 
mincing gait, and a languid, dehcate and interesting air. A Chinese woman to be accounted handsome must not be 
tan, but very upright. In vain is she blessed with a vivid complexion and fine colour; custom commands her to efface 
the' healthful bloom as a mai'k of immodesty, and to rub herself with a whitish powder, which renders her pale and 

sickly-looking. 

Allusion has been already made to the strange collection sent to the Great Exhibition from the Celestial 
Empire. The curious workmanship of many articles bears witness to the sort of instinctive leaning which the Clihiese 
have for the most difficult and dehcate manual labour; but we need envy nothing that they have, unless it be the 
abundance of some natural productions, especially silk. Their porcelain has been known from time immemorial, and 
in every thing else the Chinese are so stationary, that they may be considered as the most ancient workmen on the 
earth. Among the ar-ticles which they displayed, were some wlrich were produced at a period nearly as remote as that 
of the deluge, and which, in truth, did not appear to be very dissimilar to those winch they manufacture at the 
present day. 



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UNITED STATES. 



There were two causes which gave to the productions of American industry displayed in the Great Exhibition a 
character totally distinct from that which is found in those of many other countries. In the first place whole dis- 
tricts are solely deyoted to the pursuit of agriculture, disregarding mining, trades, and manufactures ; and secondly, 
in the United States, it is rare to find wealth so accumulated as to favour the expenditure of large sums upon articles 
of luxury. The Americans pride themselves upon their numerous inventions, the larger number of which 
however, as might be expected, are devoted to improvements in agriculture : still, much ingenuity has been shoAvn 
by them in increasing the speed of their steam-engines, and in making printing-presses capable of throwing off as 
many as twelve thousand impressions in an hour. As an illustration of the facility with which they could diffuse 
knowledge through the press, a case containing a number of American newspapers was exhibited, and these, by the 
cheapness of their production, went far towards supplying what every community must feel to be a very urgent 
want. 

The collection of minerals, both metallic and non-metallic, was very valuable : the specimens of iron espe- 
cially showed the probability of America becoming eventually one of the greatest iron-producing countries in the 
world. Besides the recently-discovered gold mines in California, the United States are rich in both the precious 
and useful metals : a large lump of zinc ore, weighing sixteen thousand four hundred pounds, was exhibited from 
New Jersey. This specimen of the red oxide of zinc derived some interest from the difficulties which had to be 
overcome by the New Jersey Exploring and Mining Company, before the heavy mass could be exhibited in London. 
It was found impossible to employ the usual means for transporting the ore to New York, for the Morris Canal was 
closed by the ice. It therefore became necessary to transport it by land to Dover, the nearest railway terminus ; 
but three ranges of high mountains had first to be crossed, and heavy teams of horses and oxen were required to 
draw the truck in which the ore was placed up the sides of the mountains, while in descending it had to be held 
back by strong ropes fastened to the trees on the road side. However, it was safely shipped on board the United 
States frigate, St. Lawrence, and landed at Southampton, from whence it was liberally transported to London, free 
of all charge for carriage. 

In the centre of the accompanying Plate is a representation of the full-sized model of Rider's improved 
Suspension Truss Bridge, said to be remarkable for its durability and economy. The model was surmounted by a 
" trophy" of vulcanized India rubber, exhibited by the Goodyear Rubber Company. 

The great attraction in this Department was the statue, in white marble, of the Greek Slave, by Hiram 
Power ; the figure belonged to Mr. Grant, who kindly permitted it to be placed in the Exhibition, as it was the 
production of one of the few sculptors the Americans possess. During the early Greek revolutions the captives 
were exposed for sale in the Turkish bazaar, under the name of " slaves ; " the artist has delineated a young girl, 
deprived of her clothing, standing before the licentious gaze of a wealthy eastern barbarian. Her face expresses 
shame and disgust at her ignominious position, while about her lip hovers that contemptuous scorn which a woman 
can so well show for her unmanly oppressor. It is a hard thing to produce a perfect work, and many faults were 
soon found to injure the well-merited reputation of the statue. The manner in which the right hand was made to 
lean upon the trunk of a tree, while the whole weight of the body was thrown upon the left leg was, however, 
the only grave error committed by the sculptor ; and the greater number of those who daily swept past this happy 
effort of his genius, felt disposed to reply to all the merciless critics— 

" If to her share some minor errors fall, 
Look in her face, and you'll forget them all." 

The organ in the gaUery was not a contribution from the United States ; space had been in the first instance 
allotted to the builders, Messrs. Gray and Davison of London, at the northern end of the Transept ; but it was 
found impossible to leave it in that position, as, when the instrument was played, so large was the crowd which 
assembled to hear its magnificent tones, that the passage in the gallery was soon completely blocked up, and all 
circulation stopped. 



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INDIA I. 



A PECULIAR value and interest were attached to the coUection exhibited by the East India Company in the Great 
Exhibition, from the fact that it was impossible to find it reproduced in any other place. The greater part of the Indian 
articles were not suitable to European tastes, and few are ever sent here, because we are generaUy backward in perceiving 
that with some very slight modifications they might be adapted to our wants. There were, for example, several gold and 
silver tissues which a very little alteration would so transform as to render them conformable to the most dehcate and 
refined female taste. Let white silk be substituted for the silver, and yeUow silk for the gold, aud all would be accom- 
plished, without the loss of those perfect designs, the opportunity of studying wliich has been stated to have been - a 
boon to the whole of Europe." 

Indian art truly deserved the preference which has been given to it ; it resembled that of no other nation. It has 
not the strange wHdness which appears to be inherent to Chinese taste, nor the regularity of Greek and Roman designs, 
nor that staring vulgarity so commonly found at the present day : it is an art by itself, independent, and seems never to 
have altered, or to have borrowed its principles. It was evident that the weaver's skill had risen to high perfection in 
India : even putting aside the Cashmere shawls which have become the types of fashion and good taste, everything 
exhibited by the East India Company formed a collection of master-pieces. Muslins embroidered with gold, scarves of 
every colour and of the most exquisite taste, table-covers enamelled with flowers, tissues of every description, shaded 
with emerald green, saddles, cloaks, stuffs for hangings and curtains, kerchiefs of eveiy hue which nature has lavished 
upon the wing of the butterfly, all were to be found in this brilliant collection, which could only be formed by a company 
as powerful as that which reigns supreme in India ;— the command went forth and the East came. 

Among the objects represented in the accompanying plate is the crown or tuj as worn by the King of Oude ; but 
it was exhibited divested of its jewels. His kingdom was for a lengthened period so despicably mismanaged by its native 
authorities, that, from being one of the richest states of Hindostan, it became, a few years ago, one of the poorest and 
most wretched, being especially distinguished for anarchy and disorder. The people were so independent of the royal 
authority, that they only yielded a very imperfect obedience, and as lately as 1830, Oude was the theatre of a civil war 
between the Sovereign and his mihtary chiefs. The province is now under the protection of Great Britain, and secured 
from foreign aggression ; and it is to be regretted that our government did not also interfere in its internal administration, 
so far as to introduce some regularity and efficiency into the management of the native concerns by the King, and aid 
him through the intervention of the British Resident at Lucknow, to repress the disorder of the peoj)le. 

The present of the Rajah of Travancore to the Queen, consisting of a splendid ivory chair of state, with a foot- 
stool, beautifully carved and- ornamented with jewels, was greatly admired. It was used by His Royal Highness Prince 
Albert, at the ceremony which took place immediately before the closing of the Exliibition, when Lord Canning, the 
President of the Council of Chaii-men of the Juries, presented to him, as the Head of the Royal Commission, the several 
Reports drawn up upon the subjects which had been submitted to the thirty-four Juries, composed of the most eminent 
men of all nations, together with the names of the Exhibitors whom they had judged entitled to rewards. 

In this representation of the Indian Collection wiU also be seen a suit of native apparel, consisting of a gold 
figured muslin turban and a waistband to match, a pair of kinkob trowsers, and a mushn vest. Such appears to be the 
usual dress of the Rajah of Boondie who contributed them. His Rajahship is in the province of Rajpootana, and under 
the protection of the British Government : although small, tliis state is important, as it contains the principal passes from 
tlie south into Upper Hindostan. 

The large collection of saddles, howdahs, and parasols, which fill up part of this view, as well as of the 
others of the Indian Department, show a more decided European influence in their details than the shawls, to which 
we have aUuded above, and have much similarity with the specimens sent from Constantinople. The devoted admirers 
of the shawl patterns of India would, of course, exclaim against innovation or alteration of the designs, and therein hes 
the chief cause that in the manufactures of Norwich or Paisley, the peculiar, tail-like figure, known as the " pine," is 
elaborated ad nauseam, while other Indian details, and the tasteful selection of the proper colours, are whoUy neglected. 
In the Exhibition, however, there were numerous attempts to escape from the trammels of this Hindoo conventionahty, 
wliich on its first appearance in Europe was thought so little of by one fair lady, to whom a specimen was presented, as 
to iuduce her to make it useful as a substitute for an " ironing blanket," in the getting up of linen ; and by another, as 
to cause her to declare that it was only fit to make into an under petticoat ! One celebrated French house went so far as 
to present a grand architectural facade, with columns, trees, and flags, all woven in the most approved manner and in 
the legitimate colours ; yet all these were for the adornment of the back of a lady, in a scrambling 65*011; after that novelty 
which the admirers of this veiy article say is impossible. 



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INDIA 11. 



The rich coUection of articles of JeweUery exhibited by the East India Company was displayed in glass cases, enclosed 
within iron raihngs, on the North and South sides of the Nave and near the Transept. The accompanying plate only 
represents one of these cases ; we shall not however confine our remarks to that alone, but select the most splendid and 
interesting objects contamed in them both, and which were so splendid as to attract the attention of aU visitors to the 
Crystal Palace. 

The most valuable gem was the " Durria-i-Noor," or Sea of Light, set as an armlet, and surrounded by ten 
smaller diamonds : the jewel although of large size and great purity, has lost much of its value by having been very ill- 
cut. Eaised immediately behind it was a gorgeous coat of a Sikh Chief, made at Delhi : the robe is composed of kinkob 
or cloth of gold, with very large epaulettes in pearls, and on each, two valuable emerald drops, and a deep border of rich 
gold embroidery, beautifully overlaid with pearls, rubies and emeralds ; the value of each epaulette was estimated at 
£ 5,000. In front of this State dress were placed the trowsers also made of kinbob, and the cap of an Indian Chief. 
On each side lay a pair of " Moorchals," in embossed and filagree gold, containing a sort of fan of the feathers of the 
Bird of Paradise. These costly and elegant ornaments are in India the insignia of the highest offices, and according to 
the native custom only a few of the Indian potentates are entitled to bear them in the presence of the Governor General. 
Among the Princes of India privileged to use them are the Emperor of Delhi, the King of Lucknow, and the Nabob of 
the Carnatic. 

The golden girdle of a native Chief studded with nineteen emeralds, each about an inch and a half square, must 
have been of enormous value, for, besides the emeralds which were all cut thin and flat, and had various inscriptions 
from the Koran engraved upon them, (a proceeding which, although it would greatly depreciate their value in this 
country, would render them almost invaluable in the eyes of a Mahommedan Chief,) the girdle was surrounded on the 
top and bottom by a row of very fine diamonds. It is probable, however, that even the value of this magnificent 
ornament was surpassed by a pair of armlets, containing three large rubies uncut, but just sufficiently pohshed to shew 
their extreme brilliancy and depth of colour. These rubies were formerly the property of the Emperors of Delhi, and 
gained some additional value by the traditional legends attached to their possession. 

Close by lay a pearl necklace consisting of two hundred and twenty four large pearls, and another shorter one 
ornamented with four very fine spineUi rubies, set in exquisitely wrought gold, the very pattern of which, almost 
resembling the edges of point lace, seemed to harmonise with the stones. 

The two Views of the Indian Department from the Transept include the collection of arms from various territories 
in India, and the models of ships, netting, and fishing-tackle, as used in the far off Eastern seas. What numerous 
implements of destruction! What various forms for guns, cannons, pistols, swords, daggers curiously jeweUed, with 
straight blades and curved blades, carved, gilt or enameUed-neaiiy all with a view to destroy, few intended as tools to 
produce ! It would almost lead us to suppose that hfe is found to be too long in our Indian possessions, and thought 
to be an evil which could not be done away with too soon. On the other hand the models of the vessels employed by 
the natives, conveyed the idea that they were constructed rather for piratical expeditions, than to carry on commerce 
with the neighbouring States. The CoUection in the Exhibition included the weU-known Catamarans of Madras, 
remarkable for their buoyancy, which enables them to pass through the surf at different parts of the Coast, while the 
boats of this Countiy could not live on the waves : the long Snake-boat of Cochin, and the Dingee or Bum-boat of 
Bombay, employed in canying persons to and from vessels in the haxbour, and which are generaUy hired by the captains 
of ships with a view to keep their own boats from being knocked about. 

At the intersection of the Western Nave with the Transept was placed one of the numerous allegorical represen- 
tations of Satan vanquished by the Archangel Michael. In this group, the sculptor Mr. Lough, attempted to illustrate 
the moment when ,, ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

And writhed him to and fro convolved ; 

****** 
Gnashing for anguish, and despite, and shame. 

To find himself not matchless ;" 

while the Archangel, having overcome the Evil one, raised his hand to Heaven, and gave God the glo.7 ^^ ^;-;<»7 
which he had just obtained. Although the two figures were, perhaps, not ,uite weU combined, the fo.™ and at.tude of 
the victorious Michael were both grand and noble. 



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INDIA. III. 

We have before alluded in general terms to the case of jewellery exhibited by the East India Company, and as the 
accompanying plate presents a view of the Indian Department as seen from the Transept, we will take the opportunity 
of giving a few descriptive particulars with reference to the Great Diamond, called " Koh-i-Noor," or " Mountain of 
Light," which was exhibited by Her Majesty in the Main Avenue of the Eastern division of the Exhibition Building. 

The Koh-i-Noor has long enjoyed both European and Indian celebrity, and has accordingly been made the subject 
of traditionary fable, as well as of historical record. Hindoo legends declare that it was found in the Mines of the South 
of India about four or five thousand years ago, during what is called the Great Indian War, and was worn by one of the 
warriors, Kama King of Anga, whose spartan valour and glorious death are immortalised in a heroic poem of great 
antiquity, caUed " Mahkbharata." During an interval of nearly three thousand years, we find no authentic account of 
the Great Diamond, but it appears that in the year 56, before Christ, it became the property of Vikramaditya, the Rajah 
of Ujayin, from whom it descended to his successors, the Rajahs of Malwa, untU the principahty was subverted by 
Mohammedan conquerors, into whose hands it feU with other spoils of infinite price, and who estimated its value at half 
of the daUy expense of the whole world. The Mohammedans in their turn, were subjugated in the year 1306, by the 
armies of Ala-udin, the Sultan of Delhi, and according to the autobiography of the Sultan Baber, whose book is of 
undoubted authenticity, the jewel became with other treasures the property of the Sultans of Delhi. 

The Pathan Kings of Delhi were supplanted by the Moguls of the house of Timur in the beginning of the I6th 
century, and the great diamond feU into the hands of Baber the first Sovereign of that dynasty, and passed eventually 
into the possession of the ruling family of Kabul. Nadir Shah, on his occupation of Delhi in 1739, compeUed 
Mohammed Shah to give up everything of value which the Imperial Treasury contained. According to the famUy and 
popular tradition, Mohammed Shah was in the habit of wearing the jewel in the front of his turban, and on the first 
interview between MmseK and his wily conqueror, the latter insisted upon exchanging turbans, as a proof of regard and 
friendship. However this might have been, we need have httle doubt that the great diamond was in the possession of 
Mohaimned Shah at the time of the Persian invasion, and if it was, it most certainly changed masters, and became as is 
universally asserted the property of Nadir Shah, who is also said to have bestowed upon it the name of Koh-i-Noor. 
Upon the death of Nadir, the diamond which he had wrested from the unfortunate representative of the house of Timur, 
became the property of Ahmed Shah, the founder of the AbdaH dynasty in the Kingdom of Kabul. Having thus traced 
the Koh-i-Noor to Kabul, there is httle difficulty in giving a history of its subsequent fortunes. The jewel descended to 
the successors of Ahmed Shah, and in 1813 Shah Shuja was compeUed to resign it to Rungeet Sing, whose nommal 
guest and actual prisoner he then was, for a lakh and twenty five thousand rupees, or about £ 12,000 sterUng. Rungeet 
Sing was highly elated by the acquisition of this valuable gem, and wore it as an armlet on all state occasions. At the 
annexation of the Punjab by the British Government, the CivU Authorities took possession of the Lahore Treasury, 
under the stipulation previously made that aH the property of the State should be confiscated to the East India Company 
in part payment of the debt due by the Lahore Govei-nment, and of the expenses of the War. It was at the same tune 
stipulated that the Koh-i-Noor, being a State jewel and not readily convertible into rupees, should be surrendered to the 
Queen of England. Lord Dalhousie sent it to England in charge of two Officers, and on the 3rd of July 1850, it was 
presented to Her Majesty by the Chairman of the Court of Directors of the East India Company-an appropriate and 

dignified close to its eventful career. tt r. • vr 

The truth of all this strange history has been denied, as it is impossible to prove the identity of the Koh-i-Noor, 
with the diamond acquired by the Conqueror Ala-udm, to whom we have made allusion above : this fact is. however, 
invariably affirmed by the members of the ruhng family of Kabul, and by the jewellers of Kabul and Delhi. 

The Executive Committee found great difficulty in exhibiting the Koh-i-Noor in a satisfactory manner, as on a 
close examination the facets appealed to have been cut in a most inartistic manner, and by no means to bear the h.gh 
pohsh which a diamond of its great purity ought to exhibit. Since the close of the Building the ^o^^^- a^^ 
e-cut under the superintendence of Messrs. Garrard, and its appeai-ance has been -^'^\-^:2lo^^iTl 
impossible to estimate the value of the famous gem, but the following ai-gument has been used : ^ ^1. K^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
on! m.on ster.g, so many yea.s ago; . .s sum had been -^^^-:: ^^^1;:^ i^ 
would amount to-day to fifty millions-therefore the diamond is ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^J^ ^ ,^^,,, ,^,e 
calculation, notwithstanding the fact that ladies do appea. to ^ ^—^^^^ ^_,„, ,., ,,.ed too- 
i^esistible. An old Spanish aphorism says " Love in youth, m old age, respect 
would that they were more so. for they are far less expensive than briUiants ! 



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INDIA. 

England owes to tlie East India Company the possession of this vast and important country, celebrated throughout 
all ages for its natural riches. It was in the year 1599 that an association was formed, with the title of ** The 
Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading to the East Indies," and with £30,000 only as capital. 
Having obtained a charter from the crown, they commenced operations, and the result of their first adventure, and 
of those of several subsequent years, was a commercial profit of about 150 per cent. In 1624 the King of England 
gave authority to the Company to exercise the functions of government in the territories which they had acquired, 
power being granted them to punish their servants either by civil or martial law. The three principal Presidencies 
into which British India is divided — Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta — had each its president, and a council of 
about twelve members, appointed by commission of the Company, as early as the year 1707. Several amalgama- 
tions with rival companies took place, and the capital was gradually increased to £6,000,000, which is the nominal sum 
on which dividends are now paid ; but nevertheless the East India Company, since the whole trade has been thrown 
open to individual enterprise, have never been able to compete with private traders, chiefly on account of the large 
standing army they are obliged to keep, and the costly way in which their trade is conducted. Such is a brief view 
of the origin of, perhaps, the most remarkable commercial company in the world, who have established themselves 
in the land which has, from the earliest historical times, exported its far-famed and valuable productions into the 
Western nations of the earth. Although no longer the powerful body they once were, their dominion may soon be 
taken from them altogether ; for the time is rapidly approaching when a new Charter must be applied for, and then 
will the question be warmly discussed whether the Home Government could not, by taking the management of 
affairs into its own hands, dispense entirely with the intermedium of the Company. 

The gorgeous display of the contributions from the East Indies impressed every visitor with the importance 
such possessions must be to Great Britain ; and legitimate was the pride with which our countrymen wandered 
through the large space which the rich Indian productions filled, when they remembered that they were exhibited, 
by England, and not by any foreign land. In the autumn of 1849 the Directors of the Honourable East India 
Company decided upon contributing, as largely as time would permit, to the Exhibition, and by January, 1850, 
Dr. Forbes Boyle, to whom the task had been confided, had completed the lists of raw products and manufactured 
articles, which it was considered most desirable to obtain from India. These Hsts were sent to the different Presi- 
dencies, and translated for distribution among the natives ; the Court at home, at the same time, caUing the attention 
of the Supreme Government to the occasion when " an opportunity will be afforded for the latent resources of dis- 
tant provinces, and the skill of the least known artist, to compete with the produce of the most favoured regions, or 
the works of the most successful genius." Central committees were formed at Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay, and 
numerous local committees in many of the principal towns were presided over by men notorious for their exertions 
in the great cause, and the success of their efforts is to be measured by the satisfaction with which the man of 
science, the merchant, the manufacturer, and the artist studied the contributions most new and interesting to them ; 
admiring, on the one hand, the well-chosen specimens of the natural productions of the land, and on the other, the 
ingenuity and delicacy of the workmanship of the manufactured articles. 

In the centre of the accompanying Plate is represented the Howdah, a kind of state palanquin, in ivory, 
which was exhibited by her Majesty. This howdah, with magnificent trappings worked in gold and silver, (intended 
to be borne on the back of an elephant,) was sent to the Queen by the Nawab Nazim of Moorshedabad. The Com- 
missioners finding that no artificial contrivance would answer the purpose, sought for a long time in vain for a stuffed 
elephant on which to display this howdah : at length it was discovered that the Museum of Saffron Waldon could 
boast of a specimen, and a trusty messenger was forthwith despatched to negociate with the authorities for the loan 
of it ; they agreed to aUow the animal to be taken to London for the purpose, and though not a large one of its kind, 

it was a very great additional attraction. 

The Nawab Nazim sent her Majesty, at the same time, a magnificent reception seat with a canopy of purple 
velvet, embroidered in gold, and supported on a framework of silver, with two " moorchals," or emblems of dignity, 
used by the princes of India on state occasions, made of pure gold, and containing feathers of the Birds of Paradise : 
part of the native throne is represented in this view. 



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INDIA Y. 

If the East India Company had conceived the idea of fitting up a large portion of the Exhibition Building with 
the machines and implements employed by the Hindoos, and had, at the same time, imported the native workmen 
to use them, and grouped Indians of every caste around as spectators, they could not have better succeeded in 
portraying the peculiarities of oriental costume and habits, than by exhibiting those interesting models in clay and 
wood, illustrative of many ceremonials and customs of a novel and characteristic description. They did not merely 
represent machines and men, but had so much hfe and sprightliness infused in their every attitude, that they looked 
more as if they were intended for models of manners, if we may be permitted to use the expression, and the visitor 
almost expected the Lilliputian groups to move and speak, and really perform their several avocations, not as 
automatons, but as intellectual men and women. 

One of the best and most complete of these models was contributed to the collection by Mr. Mansfield, of 

the Civil Service. It represented a Collector of Revenue making his annual settlement with the cultivators. The 

official has pitched his camp near a small village, in which are seen rows of houses, with shops displaying all kinds of 

wares for sale. On the banks of the river, which flows close by, are groups of women filling their pitchers with 

water and washing their clothes ; while, in the fields around are luxuriant crops of corn and the sugar-cane. The 

Collector is seated in a tent, surrounded by other revenue-officers of the district, and about the entrance are a body 

of ryots, with petitions for the remission of part of their revenue payments. The horses of the servants and others, 

forming the officer's escort, are picketted at a short distance, and near them are the camels engaged for the 

transport of the tents and baggage. The three hundred figures which compose these characteristic groups, were all 

removable at pleasure ; and a numbered list of them, denoting their position on the platform, of nine feet square, 

was sent by the Exhibitor to serve as a key for arranging the whole. 

In the back-ground of the accompanying view of the Indian Department, are represented two magnificent 
specimens of Eastern furniture, which deserve notice. Deo Naryn Sing, of Benares, exhibited a royal bedstead, 
the covering of which was in silk and velvet, and the mattress in velvet ; but the bedstead of enamelled silver from 
Cashmere, was still more splendid and, at the same time, more tasteful. The hangings of the latter were of 
Cashmere shawl, gracefully festooned, and the material of the pillows and mattress were of the finest description. 
However, the difficulty of regarding both comfort and grandeur in the manufacture of their couches, was as apparent 
as in some of the regal resting places in our own country ; and the Indian bedsteads were more calculated to 
gratify the eye by their gorgeous splendour, than to tempt the wearied limbs to seek repose beneath their glittering 
shelter. 

The Hindoos are fond of carving in wood, horn, and ivory; the first they must have practised from very 
early times, probably for their idols ; and they have now arrived so near perfection, that even the best English 
houses might well be furnished with such chairs, sofas and book-cases, as were exhibited from Bombay, elegantly 
carved in black wood. The ivory carvers of Berhampore contributed a variety of specimens of their work, and 
deserved much credit for elaborateness of detail and truth of representation. To illustrate the facility with which 
they could carve the most minute objects, as well as those of large size,— there was an elephant enclosed in the shell 
of a pea, — and that they were capable of doing new things, when required, was shown in the set of chessmen carved 
from the drawings of Layard's " Nineveh." 

Many other materials, some of them of the most opposite kinds, are employed by the Indian carvers, on 
which to exercise their skill. All the elaborate detail of the richly ornamented Hindoo architecture of the south of 
India, was brought out in the soft and yielding pith of the marsh-plant; while necklaces for men, and bracelets for 
women were manufactured out of hard white shells imported into Calcutta from Ceylon. 

On the walls that enclosed the objects which have just been noticed, were suspended a number of both large 
and small carpets, of which mention has been made elsewhere. 



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INDIA. VI. 

In the accompanying Plate the artist has represented that part of the space deyoted to the East Indian Collection 
which was set apart for the display of the Raw Materials produced by that extensive peninsula. These were so 
numerous that the mere enumeration of them occupied seyeral pages of the closely-printed catalogue ; we therefore 
feel that it is impossible, in this short sketch, to give anything like a detailed description of the natural productions 
of our Indian territories, and must confine the following remarks to a few generalities of peculiar interest. 

From the mineral kingdom, which was largely and well illustrated in the Exhibition, we may select iron and 
coal as the most remarkable productions. It has ever been a subject of surprise how so primitive a people as the Hin- 
doos could have overcome the difficulties of smelting iron and of forging steel. A couple of natives will in a few hours 
construct a furnace of clay, from four to five feet high, leaving an opening in front about a foot or more in height, 
which is built up with clay at the commencement, and broken down at the end of each smelting operation. On 
each side of this opening are inserted tubes of clay in connection with the bellows, which are either made with the 
leaves of the forest, or a goat-skin stripped from the animal without ripping open the part covering the belly. As 
soon as the process of smelting the iron is concluded, the temporary wall in front is broken down and the bloom 
removed with a pair of tongs from the bottom of the furnace. When the iron is to be converted into steel, a quan- 
tity is packed into crucibles (about a pound in each) with materials producing carbon, and subjected to heat, 
urged by blast for about two hours and a half, when the process is considered to be completed ; the crucibles are 
then taken out of the furnace and when cool are broken, and the steel is found in the form of a cake at the bottom. 
We find in a passage in Ezekiel a confirmation of the fact of the Hindoos having discovered the way of making 
steel at such early periods, where Dan and Javan are described as bringing ''bright iron, cassia, and calamus," which 
are all Indian products, to Tyre. 

The steel prepared by this simple method has long been an article of commerce from the west of India to the 
Persian Gulf, since it has proved itself admirably adapted for the fabrication of all cutting instruments. Mr. Heath, 
at one time the managing director of the Indian Iron and Steel Company, even goes so far as to say, " We can hardly 
doubt that the tools with which the Egyptians covered their obelisks and temples of porphyry and syenite with 
hieroglyphics, were made of Indian steel." There can be no doubt that its use was highly valued in the time of 
Alexander the Great, for we find that King Porus made him a present of thirty pounds of steel after his victory and 

generosity of conduct. 

The Great Indian coal field which runs for sixty-five miles in length and twelve in breadth, is supposed to 
cross the Ganges and to extend to Cachar, from which place have been brought numerous specimens of coal. Mr. 
Jones, an English miner, opened the first coUiery in India in the year 1815 ; three pits were sunk to the depth of 
ninety feet, and seven beams of the mineral were met with, one of them of the thickness of nine feet. Calcutta 
now consumes large quantities of coal, but chiefly for forges and steam navigation. 

Among the vegetable productions we must remark the specimens of cotton, which is grown in every latitude 
in India. Generally speaking Indian cotton is very inferior to other kinds brought into the markets of Europe : 
but it is beheved that this is not owing so much to the incapacity on the part of India to produce good cotton, as 
to the want of care in selecting the seed and in the culture of the plant. 

England now obtains sheep's wool with other productions of the animal kingdom of British India ; very few 
years ago such an idea would have been ridiculed. Several specimens were in the Exhibition ; some fine Merino 
wool from Mysore, some from Lahore, and other kinds from the dry and cold climate of Thibet. Many of the 
animals there are furnished with a fine down, under the coarse outer wool : it is this which is chiefly employed for 
the Indian shawls, so weU known for their useful qualities, and so admired for the elegance of their designs and their 
beautiful colours. 



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INDIA. VII. 

Monsieur Brongniart, the ex-director of the porcelain manufactory at Sevres, once remarked that Pottery affords 
the best record of the early ages of the human race, just as bones do of the earth. The antiquity of the art of 
fashioning clay into vessels of various shapes, and hardening it by the action of heat, renders it an object of especial 
interest. The allusions to the Potter's Wheel in the Old Testament indicate the prevalence of the art at an early 
epoch in the history of man, and this is abundantly confirmed by the annals of oriental nations, and by the material 
evidence of cups and other vessels of baked clay which are found in old tombs among the ancient cities of India, 
and in those of other parts of the world. 

Little is known of Indian Pottery ; indeed, the specimens preserved in our national collections have given 
birth to the very general idea that it is hemispherical in shape. The Great Exhibition proved that, although some 
of the vessels are certainly so formed for the convenience of being carried on the head, the Hindoo could, with his 
naked hands and the aid of the ancient potter's wheel, fashion vases which many of the best judges greatly admired 
for their elegant and even classical gracefulness of form : it has also been suggested that some of these beautiful 
shapes were of Etruscan origin, but there is no reason to believe that the Hindoos have ever had anything but their 
own unerring taste to guide them. Among the specimens of the Ceramic manufacture of India was a small statue 
of the Queen, by a native artist, which only served to show that the Hindoos have not attained any excellence in 
the art of making statues and busts, "although," as Dr. Forbes Royle very justly observes, -the opportunities are 
great of seeing the human figure as well at the ordinary occupations of life, as in their gymnastic schools, and they 
have had considerable employment in sculpturing the figures, though grotesque, of their gods and goddesses. Yet 
that they are capable of excelling in this as in many other arts, is evident from the admirable representations of the 
difierent castes and trades in the clay figures from Kishengurh in Bengal, as from Gokak, near Belgaum." 

Although working in stone does not strictly come under the head of this subject, we must mention as worthy 
of notice the floating stone swans and fish which were sent by the Rajah of Johdpore. These were carved in the 
white marble of the country, and yet could swim on water, showing that the Hindoos are not ignorant of the 
buoyant effect of air when enclosed in a substance so much heavier than water. 

On the wall space of that part of the Indian Collection which the artist has represented in the annexed Plate, 
were suspended cotton and silk carpets, and illustrations of Indian dresses manufactured by the natives. Although 
carpets seem more calculated to cover the floors of houses in cold and wet climates, yet their invention originated 
in eastern countries, where they are not so much used in doors, as to spread over the sandy and dusty earth in the 
open air under the shade of trees, where the native loves to sit. The Persians undoubtedly first employed what we 
call tapestry, although skins were used long before for similar purposes, and this was probably introduced into 
Turkey, and there manufactured into rugs and prayer- carpets for the Mahomedan to kneel on in his devotional exer- 
cises. The carpets of India are made of two materials, cotton and silk : the former are stout, serviceable, and hand- 
some, and are made of aU sizes. They are generally striped blue and red, but often other colours are used in squares 
or stars. It is a question of some interest whether our manufacturers at home might not make these carpets with 
profit to themselves for the bedrooms, &c., of the poorer classes : and whether they might not exhibit their skill in 
improving the designs, and exporting small carpets for individuals, and large ones for halls and tents, into aU parts 

of the world, not excepting India itself. 

A splendid specimen of a silk carpet was contributed by Maharajah Goolab Sing, and was described as being 
as remarkable for " variety in the pattern, brilliancy in the colouring, as well as pleasing harmony in the whole, 
as any in the Exhibition." In the great Tent which was pitched outside the Building, at the eastern end, was a 
large carpet which deserved attention from the fact of its having been manufactured by the reformed Thugs in the 

Government School of Industry. 

The accompanying Yiew gives a glimpse of the Transept, in which is seen a fountain in cast-iron, bronzed, 
the jet of which was formed by a group of " Cupid and the Swan," designed by Mr. John Bell : the figures occuped 
the centre of a tazza, ornamented with a decoration of the white and yellow water-lily. The fountain was cast by 
the Coalbrook Dale Company. 



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WEST INDIES. 



Contributions for the Exhibition arriyed from nine of the West India Islands, and as much interest is felt by 
many persons in the prosperity of these dependencies of Great Britain, a considerable amount of attention appeared 
generally to be given to the specimens which had been selected, as the best illustrations of their productions. With 
one exception, howeyer, they all were yery inadequately represented-the yalue of the whole collection not exceed- 
ing £300. Still it must be borne in mind that these contributions consisted almost exclusiyely of natural produc- 
tions, of which only small specimens were sent, the manufactured articles being yery few. 

The exception was Trinidad, whose collection was one of much yalue and interest. From this Island there 
were a variety of specimens of pitch, some taken from the centre, and some from the shores of the Pitch Lake, which 
is the most singular natural phenomenon of Trinidad. It is about a mile and a half in circumference, and is nearly 
surrounded by volcanoes which vomit mud and clay. In the centre of the lake the pitch is soft, becoming gradually 
harder and colder as it approaches the sides. It is much used for pavement, not being suitable for other purposes, 
since it requires the admixture of a large quantity of oil. " The origin of the Great Pitch lake," says Mr. Robert 
Hunt, " has been the matter of much conjecture ; by some it has been referred to volcanic action, by others to a 
decomposition of an anthracite bed. Be this as it may, the petroleum springs as they issue, yield a product con- 
taining a large quantity of volatile matter ; as it flows down the lake in a plastic condition, toAvards the sea, it 
becomes less and less bituminous, and eventually nearly all that is left is an impure mass of carbon. This is the 
character of much that is sent to this country." The strong smell emitted from the lake, which is situated on the 
highest land in Trinidad, is sensible at a very considerable distance. 

Tortoise-shell was exhibited as forming one of the articles of export. The shell of the turtle which is caught 
on the coasts of Trinidad and the Gulf of Paria, difiers from all others from the fact of the scales overlapping one 
another like tiles on a roof. Among the agricultural products were specimens of sugar, shown by Mr. H. Warner, 
of this island, who is making strenuous endeavours to improve the quality of this staple product of the colony ; 
Avoods for ornamental and other purposes, among which should be specially mentioned the tecoma, which is hard 
and durable, of a peculiar colour, and capable of receiving a fine polish ; and lastly those beautiful seeds, originally 
introduced from the East Indies, which are used for beads of different kinds. Those commonly known as Job's 
Tears are the fruit of a tropical grass, called the Coix lachrtjma, and lustrous as pearls, are generally mixed with 
others of a brilliant red hue to form necklaces and bracelets. 

The most remarkable of the contributions from the other West India Islands, were groups of tropical flowers, 
vegetable products and fruits, modelled in wax. Yery considerable interest necessarily attached itself to them, as 
the plants were thus brought under the eye of those to whom they were unknown, in all the vividness of colour and 
the fulness of form which characterises them when freshly and luxuriantly growing in their native clime. 

The accompanying view includes two stands which were covered with the products of the South Australian 
mines. They consisted of copper and stones of copper ore, chiefly from the Burra Burra mines, near Adelaide. 
Some of the specimens were very fine, the ore yielding generally from 30 per cent, to 70 per cent, of copper. These 
mines have been altogether very successful: they have been only worked since September 1845, and in 1850 had 
produced nearly 56,500 tons of metallic ore. They have been found to furnish also the carbonates of copper or 
malachites, which were so much admired in the Russian Department of the Exhibition. The Australian malachites 
have not yet, however, been very extensively used on so large a scale, being chiefly employed in small ornaments, 
and the more minute decorative purposes, the specimens obtained from these mines being more brittle than the 
Russian malachites used at the Imperial Copper Works at Perm. 

In the back-ground has been introduced the rough wood carving of an Indian chief, intended for the figure- 
head of a ship, which was sent from New Brunswick, with the view of showing how greatly the art of ship- 
building has improved in the colonies in America. 

It was close to this spot that originated, on May 8th, the only fire which occm-red during the whole time 
the Exhibition was open to the public. It was caused by the over-heating of a draft-pipe attached to a gas stove in 
the office of Messrs. Fox, Henderson and Co., which ignited some papers in a box under the counter on which were 
displayed the New Zealand productions; it was instantly discovered and extinguished. When the awful conse- 
quences of a fire, or even an alarm of fire, among the crowds which have filled the building are considered, it invests 
this incident with a greater interest than would, under other circumstances, be due to it. AU those who were on 
that day calnfly wandering through the different avenues and passages should, indeed, feel grateful to the Royal 
Commission for having made the precautionary measures against fii'e so complete as to have prevented its spread, 
and thus averted a calamity which, by its effects, probably would have ranked with the most deplorable of the 
disasters of any age of the world. 



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GUERNSEY AND JERSEY-MALTA AND CEYLON. 

The Channel Islands have been in the possession of Great Britain since the Conquest, and though the French have repeatedly tried to wrest these islands 
from us, which, by their proximity to the coast of France, seem to be their natural property, they have inyariably failed. The trade of Guernsey is very 
inferior to that of Jersey, which has increased rapidly during the last fifty years, and its commercial relations, formerly confined to England and France, 
now extend to the chief countries of Europe, the West Indies, and South America. 

An interesting and characteristic coUection of articles was supphed by about fifty exhibitors. The Local Committee, which was formed there at an 
early date after the ofiicial announcement of the Exhibition, arranged a collection of the granites, which are quarried chiefly at Mount St. Mado in Jersey, 
and are yery valuable ; and Colonel Le Couteur sent specimens of some of the most approved varieties of wheat cultivated in the island. Among the 
manufactured articles from Jersey, two must be selected as most worthy of attention. Peter Jouhaud exhibited a " carriage gun," which could readily be 
taken to pieces and used as a rifle, a fowling-piece, or a pistol, while a secret spring in the lock prevented any accidental discharge : the barrel was curiously 
wrought and inlaid with gold and silver. The chifibnniere, or sideboard, by G. Le Feuvre, was carved in oak, having inside fittings of satin-wood, and the 
panels in tapestry, representing the emblems of England, Scotland, and Ireland : the back was formed by an elaborate cai'ving, the subject being King John 
signing the Magna Charta. 

The most important contributions from Guernsey were the raw silk, the produce of the island, and the samples illustrating the manufacture of 
iodine and hydriodate of f)otasli. Experiments have been repeatedly made in England to introduce the culture of the silkworm, and though they have been 
attended with partial success, the climate of Great Britain has always proved the insuperable obstacle. In the Channel Islands, however, the introduction 
of the mulberry of the Philippine variety, which has been found best adapted for the food of the worms, would no doubt be attended with success, as 
there is seldom any frost in winter, and the climate is consequently very mild. The raw silk exhibited was the first sample obtained by the Guernsey 
Silk Growers' Company, lately established in the island, and was interesting, as attracting attention to an important and probably ultimately, a profitable 
direction for the outlay of capital. Iodine is extracted from the ashes of several varieties of the fuci and algae, which grow abundantly on the north and west 
coasts of the Island of Guernsey. These marine plants, called " varecs," are first dried in the sun on the sea-shore, and then burnt in large trenches cut for 
the purpose. The fused mass, containing salts of soda in many varieties, is then broken into fragments, and washed ; the result of a long evaporation 
is a deposit, which combines iodide of potassium with several other salts, and which must be chemically treated before a complete separation can be 
eflectcd. 

The Island of Malta was conferred in 1525 by the Emperor Charles Y. on the Knights Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem, who had a short time 
previously been expelled from Rhodes, and remained in their hands until 1798, when the treachery of the French knights rendered its capture by a fleet 
from their own country comparatively easy, and the Order of Malta was then virtually extinguished. The English took possession of Valetta in 1800, 
and have since retained it by virtue of the treaty of Paris, in 1814, by which it was definitely annexed to the crown of Great Britain. 

The local manufactures of Malta were represented by thirty-four exhibitors, the only specimens of raw material sent being some pieces of Maltese 
stone oiled for pavement and in their natural state, and some samples of cotton and silk of native production. The most prominent part of the collection was, 
however, formed by the vases sculptured in Maltese stone, which is of a rich cream colour, and being soft, is easily carved. As it is not susceptible of polish, 
and would soon yield to the influence of the moisture of the atmosphere, it is unfit for external decoration. The carvers of Yaletta have long been 
celebrated for their works, and those in the Exhibition, in various styles, but chiefly after the antique, were all beautifuUy executed, and evinced great 
softness of finish and very tasteful design. 

From the Exhibition the Island of Malta has obtained a prize of far greater value than the medals conferred by the juries ; for, in consequence of his 
numerous services, and especially for those rendered while he acted as Chairman of the Executive Committee, Sir WiUiam Reid was sent out, when the 
Building closed, as the Governor of Malta. His whole career has been one of benevolence and usefulness, evidences of which are chiefly to be found in the 
field where he was most able to exercise them— in the Island of Bermuda, where he represented his sovereign for many years, and where he is still 

remembered as the " Good Governor." 

Before leaving the Mediterranean, a glance must be bestowed on the contributions of certain individuals, who kindly came forward and oflered to 
exhibit such articles as they had in their possession, in order to represent the manufactures of the Ionian Islands. We are told that, owing to some 
misapprehension, the lonians were without knowledge of the objects and purports of the Exhibition of 1851, until it was too late to provide articles fit for 
display. Madame Mavrojanni exhibited an apron of crochet-work, remarkable for the beauty of the pattern and execution. These aprons are the ordinary 
Avork of the peasant girls of Corfu, and ai'e always worn by them. It is a curious fact, that the crochet-work, which has recently appeared in England as an 
accomplishment, has been for ages the every-day work of the Ionian peasant girls. 

Lord Seaton sent, amongst a vai'iety of contributions, a large sHver brooch of elegant and curious design, and of the finest workmanship, combining in the 
centre the Lion and Crown of England, as a large medallion, with seven medaUions, containing the arms and emblems of the seven islands, depending 

from it. 

The Island of Ceylon, though in such close proximity to the continent of India, does not form any part of the dominions of the East India Company, 
but is in direct dependence on the Crown of England. Ceylon was not fairly represented in the Exhibition, as there was scarcely anything furnished in the 
art for which the natives have been justly celebrated-that of carving in wood and ivory. To ensure the arrival in London of the goods by the prescribed 
time, only six months could be granted for the production of articles which required at least a year, as it is quite impossible to persuade a Cingalese carver to 
work faster than is his custom : he will not depart from long-established usage. 

A curious sample of Arack, a spirit distilled from the sweet juice of the cocoa-nut tree, called "toddy," was exhibited: it had been upwards of 
thirty years in bottle, and came originaUy from the cellar of the last Dutch Governor of Ceylon. Arack is well known in England as forming the 
chief ingredient of Va.Ml jn.nch: it is said, however, that this " Vauxhall nectar" is a mock arack. made by dissolving flowers of benzoin in pale 
Jamaica rum. 



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CANADA. 



It was impossible for any of our fellow-countrymen to wander, without pride and gratification, into the space 
doYoted to the display of the productions of the English possessions in North America ; at the same time, they were 
impressed with an awful sense of the power and responsibihty of England in ruling, and in having ruled, for nearly 
a century, so immense a tract of land, peopled by emigrants from many parts of Europe, not more than one-sixth 
being her own legitimate subjects. In the Eastern province, or Lower Canada, the inhabitants are chiefly French, 
and are now almost as much a distinct people as they were at the time that Canada was ceded by France to 
Great Britain. There is hardly any communication between the English colonists and La Nation Canadienne ; a 
deep-rooted antipathy appears to subsist in many parts between them, and the tranquillity of the colony is, from 
time to time, disturbed by the efforts of the one race to gain the ascendancy over the other. 

Canada boldly and promptly answered the summons which England put forth, and, from the comparative 
proximity of the colony to the mother country, it was more fully represented in the Exhibition than any other 
of our possessions, with the exception of India, the value of the natural and manufactured produce sent over, 
being nearly £2,500. Canada is strictly an agricultural country, three-fourths of its inhabitants, on the lowest 
computation, being engaged in farming operations. But, as a science, agriculture is almost unknown ; no method 
or definite system is pursued in husbandry, and, though the soil is eminently fertile, the produce is generally 
inferior to that of more favoured climates. 

The late Geological Survey, under the superintendence of W. E. Logan, Esq., has been the means of 
pointing out the mineral wealth of the colony. From his report, it appears that the country abounds in the ores 
of iron, and, in many parts, copper, silver, and lead, have been found to exist. Gold has been discovered in several 
localities, and specimens were exhibited from the workings of the Chaudiere Mining Company weighing from a few 
grains up to a quarter of a pound. However, the precious metal has not been found in sufficient quantities to 
render the search for it desirable, in comparison with that for other metallic ores. 

In the commerce of Canada, the exportations of timber form no inconsiderable item. The numerous forests 
abound in many kinds of the most valuable trees, but it is chiefly the white and red pine which is sent to England, 
the United States, and other parts of the world. In the main avenue, immediately opposite Canada, was erected a 
kind of trophy formed of planks cut from the trees, which grow in such luxuriant abundance. It may be seen on 
the left, or north side of the accompanying view. 

The manufactm'ed articles sent to the Exhibition from Canada showed that the inhabitants, in general, pay 
more attention to the useful than to the ornamental ; and it was somewhat curious to see the mixture of the works 
of a savage population with the clearest evidences of English civilization. The canoe which was slung up between 
the two galleries was one of the largest class used, and calculated to hold a crew of twenty men, with their stock 
of provisions and necessaries. It was made from the bark of the white birch, and was so Hght that it could be 
carried with ease by its crew, to avoid the faUs and rapids which occur so frequently in the American rivers. The 
sleighs exhibited were very light and elegant, and of two kinds — the single and the double. They are generally 
di-awn by four horses, who madly gallop at full speed over the ice and frozen snow, urged by their drivers, who, 
wrapped in the warmest furs, participate in their exhilaration and excitement, which a pure air and brilliant sky 
cannot fail to produce, even though the thermometer be thirty degrees below freezing point. 

The fire-engine, which occupied a large space nearly in the centre of the Canadian department, was very 
ingeniously constructed, and could throw a jet of water to a height of 180 feet, only requiring from twenty to 
thirty men to work it. 

Lastly, as an illustration of the beauty and aptness of the native woods for cabinet-work, six chairs, 
elaborately carved in the style of the fourteenth century, the coverings of which were worked by the ladies of 
Montreal, were sent over and exhibited previous to being presented to Her Majesty. 



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MEDIEVAL COURT. 

The exhibitors who contributed their seyeral productions to form the MecHscyal Court had in view the illustration 
of a style of decoration now almost totally neglected, except in Roman Catholic churches ; and well was their design 
carried out. On his entrance, the visitor was struck with the awe which is so often felt in a sanctuary : the place 
was, as it were, set apart from the rest of the Exhibition, looking dark and solemn, for the display of the taste and 
art of dead men ; and, indeed, when a comparison was attempted with the things without, the mind was not always 
able to award the higher praise to the latter. Several gentlemen undertook to make a selection of the most eligible 
of the contributions offered, and to superintend the arrangement of the space placed at their disposal by the Royal 
Commissioners, which could not exceed 2,304 superficial feet (to include both passages and exhibiting space), and 
the ornaments were therefore unavoidably much crowded together. 

The accompanying view was taken so as to embrace the contributions of as many of the exhibitors as possible, 
several of which deserve particular notice. On the eastern side were placed some of the most beautiful specimens 
of stone and wood carving to be met with in the whole Exhibition, by Mr. G . Myers, of Lambeth. His sculptured 
Font in Caen stone was raised on three traceried steps, and in the panels round the bowl were bas-reliefs represent- 
ing the Fall of Man, St. John Preaching in the Wilderness, the Baptism of Christ, and the Crucifixion ; while 
around the base were effigies of St. Mary, St. John, St. Peter, St. Paul, and the four Evangelists. The cover was 
richly carved in oak, the niches being filled with figures of angels in the attitude of prayer. When the Font was 
required to be used, the cover was so arranged as to slide upwards in the canopy above it, the height of the whole 
being about 28 feet. 

Mr. Myers also exhibited a sculptured Tabernacle, with richly carved gablets, niches, and flying buttresses, 
surmounted by angels bearing musical instruments, and also a canopied niche, in which stood a statue of the Virgin 
and Child. Quite in the background is seen a large Rood Cross, carved in oak, and of very peculiar workmanship. 
The whole sm-face of the arms and support of the Cross was entirely covered by a rich network of tracery, fleur-de- 
lis, and other ornaments. This was also one of Mr. Myers's contributions. 

On the northern side of the Mediaeval Court stood a large Stove in Terra Cotta (literally baked clay), which 
was exhibited by Messrs. Minton and Co., of Stoke-upon-Trent. The important difference which distinguished this 
from the common German stoves was, that the pieces or tiles of which it was composed were made by the compres- 
sion of clay in the dry powdered state. This process was invented and patented by Mr. Richard Pressor, of Birming- 
ham, and has been applied to various purposes of an useful nature, in addition to the stove under notice. The 
Gothic designs of these Tiles were by Mr. A. W. Pugin, and they are enamelled in the style of Lucca della Robia, 
which is perfectly novel in this country, and, indeed, has not been elsewhere attempted since the 16th century, 
until it was revived by Mr. Minton in the decoration of these tiles, friezes, garden-vases, &c., for the Great Exhibi- 
tion. Stoves of this description emit great warmth, without producing the dryness so often complained of in iron 
stoves. 

Mr. Minton has been occupied for many years in bringing to perfection those Encaustic Tiles which excite 
such well-merited admiration. With great zeal and unflagging perseverance he collected and improved the old 
designs of Mediaeval times, and has now enlisted the first talent of the day in the production of new ones. Not- 
withstanding the success which has attended his efforts, Mr. Minton is not yet contented ; his interest in the 
subject remains unabated ; improvements are constantly being made, new colours being employed ; and now any 
special design an architect may desire can be produced. The tiles have been used by Mr. Barry in the new Palace 
at Westminster ; and some very beautiful specimens have been laid down in the great central hall at the entrance 
of the House of Commons. The tiles for walls, which Messrs. Minton also contributed to the Mediaeval Court, are 
ornamented by a patent process of printing from the surface, by which several colours may be transferred at one 
operation. The process is likely to come into extensive use, and has been akeady applied to the decoration 
of pottery in general ; tiles thus ornamented have been ordered for the smoking-room of the House of Commons, 
and have been much used for the fireplaces in other parts of the new Palace. Specimens of them were exhibited 
as forming the pans of flower-pots, the gilt iron frames of which were fm-nished by Messrs. Hardman, of Birmingham. 
These latter gentlemen also sent some very valuable contributions to the Mediaeval Court, consisting of church- 
plate and ornamental brass-work ; whHe the greater part of the decorations and fm-niture were suppHed by Mr. 
J. G. Grace, of Wigmore Street, and Messrs. Pugin, with whom originated the idea of collecting together these 
specimens of Mediaeval Art. 



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PAINTED GLASS. 

TH. art of painting and staining glass is undo.Medl, .e; ancient, being, in the first instance, directed onl, to the 
product,on of a design resulting fro. the separation of different colours by metallic lines. Soon, however, it was 
discovered how greatly the effect could be inpreaoprl K,r fi,^ ;ijv 

°'''''^ ^5^ *^" ^'^'^t'O'^ °f •nere black lines di-awn on the glass, and fixed 

by the action of heat, so as to render them unchancrpnWo o^ri <• ^-u- •■ , 

m uncnangeable, and from this point, the art advanced step by step towards 

that perfection which it attained in the twelfth and fhirfo^,,*.!, * • , , 

t«eiitn and thuteenth centuries, and which men have since vainly endea- 
voured to equal. 

The great difference between the nainted o-lns* r^f+\.^ „„„ x j 

P '^ ^'"^^ °^ *'^«' PJ^esent day and that produced four hundred years ago, 

appears to be that the former requires a close in«r.oof;^„ !,„<■ -i. ■, , 

^ inspection before its real beauties are ascertained, every part taken 

singly being beautiful in itself, but the effect of the whole not being such as this examination would lead you to 
anticipate ; while the latter, notwithstanding its great imperfections and quaintness of design, invariably succeeds in 
expressing the action and the sentiment of the subject it represents. With fewer colours than axe possessed by the 
artist of the nineteenth century, the old painters on glass produced beautiful and hai-monious results, which have 
never since been equalled, and it was consequently thought that the cause lay in the better quality of their colours ; 
but the real secret which has not yet been discovered, is the artistic arrangement, contrast, and combination of the 
different shades. These meUow tones and harmonious effects have certainly been increased by the finger of time, 
which has softened certain hues, and as it were, blended the whole ; and the faithful imitators of the mediaeval designs 
have not failed to find a means of copying these peculiarities. Such a process is evidently invaluable when it is 
requisite to repair old stained glass, and to replace broken portions of it; but if glass is produced to-day, having that 
appearance of age, a few years wiU suffice to overdo the effect, and render the painting gloomily obscure. 

In England, the art declined after the Reformation, which gave birth to ideas Uttle in favour of the applica- 
tion of painted glass to the decoration of churches, and was almost entirely confined to the production of plain 
borders and rosettes, which were used for the windows of the halls and libraries of private houses. Though long 
dormant, it was never extinct, and has since revived so rapidly that it seems no element is wanting to throw a bril- 
liant lustre on the achievements of any ai-tist, provided he combine in his own person two gifts— he must be a good 
glass manufacturer, and a skilful designer. 

In the north-east gallery of the Building were exhibited the specimens of stained glass of all nations. The 
transparent roof was darkened, and the whole space enclosed with heavy drapery, so as to only admit the light 
from the north side, agamst which had been placed the panels, windows, &c., arranged in the order of the coun- 
tries which produced them. 

Among the French artists entitled to particular notice, must be mentioned Messrs. Mai'^chal and Gugnon, of 
Metz, who exhibited two works of very great merit : the famous portrait of the Bm-gomaster, was one of the finest 
paintings on glass ever produced, while the imitation of the glass-work of the sixteenth century, in St. Charles 
administering the Sacrament to the Plague-stricken, was a subject treated with a masterly hand : it may be con- 
tended, however, that in the latter it was the magnificent painting which excited admiration, and that the work 
was not produced under those conditions which are inherent to the true manufacture of stained glass. 

Monsieur Prosper Lafaye, of Paris, exhibited a window, the upper pai't of which was in imitation of the 
mosaic paintings of the thirteenth century, and produced a beautiful effect : in the centre was a scriptural group in 
a later style, and which might perhaps be objected to on account of the too great finish of the figures ; but it was 
evident that M. Lafaye was a talented artist, and felt unwilling to confine himself to mere outHne. 

Not far from these, Mr. G. BaiUie, of London, exhibited an original historical picture, enamelled on glass, 
representing Shakespeare reading a Play to Queen Ehzabeth and her Court. The merit of the execution of this 
work lay both in the general harmony of the whole, and also in the perfect success attained in the representation of 
the velvet and other materials of which the dresses were composed. The only fault was, that to be properly seen, 
the painting required the concentration of all the available light behind it, leaving the spectator in perfect obscurity. 
Messrs. Chance, Brothers, & Co., of Birmingham (the firm which alone produced, in addition to their ordinary 
business, the four hundred tons of glass, requisite for covering the whole surface of the Building), exhibited numerous 
specimens of ornamental work in different styles, among which should be noticed the decorations prepared for the 
Church at Leamington, which resembled those of the thu'teenth century, without, however, descending to copies of 
them. Close to them was a window composed of national emblems, designed by Luke Limner, and executed by the 
St. Helen's Plate Glass Company, exhibited mostly with the view of showing to architects the extent to which they 
could colour plates of glass. The window was executed in a single piece, and was an illustration on the largest scale 
of the successful application of design by heat to glass. 

It is impossible to enter into details respecting the whole of the numerous English and foreign exhibitors in 
this Class, who certainly, by their fine works, proclaimed a revival of the art— the modern character of which they 
did much to redeem ; but on leaving the gallery, and entering the main avenue, we find ourselves immediately 
opposite the immense work of Bertini, of Milan, which requires some notice. In the Official Catalogue, it was called 
" Dante, and some of his Ideas." Dante was made to occupy the centre of a lai'ge painted window, and was 
represented in one of his forlorn moods, as if he had just then passed the threshold of heU, and had himself relin- 
quished " all hope" — or, as if he was composing in exile his laconic epitaph : 

" Hie clauclor Dantes, patriis extorris ab oris." 

Though there was much merit in this work, the fine effect produced was mainly attributable to the complete 
obscurity which surrounded the spectators. It had too much of the character of a painting about it, requiring 
thereby the use of very large pieces of coloured glass in its manufacture— many of which had been broken, and the 
fractures were very distinct in several parts. 



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AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

AMO.O the Agricultural I.p Wnts in the Great Exhibition were to be found numerous specimens of those which 
were used by our most advanced agriculturists, as well as some new appliances, for the first time introduced to the 
notice of the public. The Exhibition wa. no novelty to the agricultural implement makers, who have long been 
accustomed to periodical displays of this branch of mechanical adaptation, under the patronage of the Royal Agri- 
cultural Society : and they had but Httle to fear from the rivalry of foreign nations ; for, although considerable 
ment was observable in the contributions from the United States of America and from Belgium, they aU had one 
strong family likeness, that of being remarkably heavy, while the English manufacturers have ever had in view to 
reduce the weight, as much as they were able, without impairing the solidity and strength of the implements. 

The most remarkable feature in the agricultural operations of the present day, is undoubtedly the rapid 
introduction and use of small portable steam engines for agricultural purposes, especially noticeable in connection 
with the combined thrashing, straw shaking and dressing maxihines, unknown until within the last two years, on 
account of the non-efficiency of - horse-power " appHcation to the working of such apparatus. Machines of this 
description are now made so efficient, that with a six horse-power engine, a farmer may thrash in the open field, if 
required, two large stacks in a day, at considerably less cost per quarter than by any other means. Thrashing, sepa- 
rating the straw and the chaff from the grain, and dressing the grain itself, can now be performed aU in one opera- 
tion and with a considerable diminution of labour ; and therefore these machines are becoming more and more 
appreciated by farmers, who are in earnest seeking after all such means as can be adopted to diminish the cost of 
production. 

Although it is difficult to select from the number of curious looking machines, which were crowded into 
the space devoted to the display of Agricultural Implements, any special one more worthy of attention than another, 
yet it would seem an important omission if the various improvements shown to have been effected in the manufac- 
ture of that most ancient of all machines— the plough— were to be overlooked. Notwithstanding that Pliny consi- 
dered the original machine used by the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Etruscans, and the Romans as perfect, and looked 
with contempt upon all efforts to improve its construction, experience has taught the farmer that even his own 
plough, combining the improvements of a Jefferson in America, a Duhamel de Monceau in France, an Ai'buthnot in 
England, and of many others in almost every country of the earth, is yet open to a charge of imperfection. 

This was apparent when the trial of the ploughs exhibited took place before the Jury at Pusey : those which 
worked best in small depths were not those which gave the most satisfactory results when put to work at an 
extra depth. It appears, therefore, that it is to the form of the share and furrow-turner that most attention 
is now requisite, with a view to their adaptation to soils of varying tenacities and degrees of resistance. After the 
most severe tests, the two or four horse plough exhibited by Mr. William Busby showed its superiority over the 
others ; it is right, however, to observe, that this exhibitor had applied to his plough the moveable nose-piece, 
invented by Messrs. Ransomes and May, the eminent firm of Ipswich, who are indefatigable in their attempts to 
bring to perfection every machine employed in agricultural pursuits. Moreover, the judges considered the working 
of the ploughs shown by Mr. Ball and Messrs. Howard very satisfactory. 

Since the introduction of Sherwood's patent metal mills, which are well adapted for grinding agricultural 
produce, farmers are turning their attention to the advantage to be derived from grinding for themselves, instead 
of sending to the millers such materials as they require for their own use. Messrs. Ransomes and May, mentioned 
above, are the only makers of these mills, which carried off a prize at the Great Exhibition, and several others since 
then, at local Agricultural Shows, in various parts of the Kingdom. 

The success which attended the trials of Mr. McCormick's Reaping Machine has convinced English farmers 
that it can be economically employed ; it is therefore probable that, within a very short time, similar implements, 
or some improvement on the American invention will be very generally used throughout the country. In Agri- 
culture, it appears that the machine will be as important as the spinning-jenny and power-loom in manufactures. 

Steam-ploughing must be the next great step in agricultural operations, but at present there are no prac- 
tical means of attaining the end in view. 



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SHEFFIELD HAEDWAEE. 

She™. n.ay well be tenned the MetropoHs of the maaufacturers of abides in steel ; in the particular department to 
which her productions are chiefly confined she stands pre-eminent, and many times were her sons gratified by hearing 
the weU mented praise which the magnificent display of hardware caUed forth, lavished by the foreign visitors upon 
the tasteful and weU designed grates, the admirable cutleiy, and the brilliant plated goods. ^' Your countrymen" 
saidaFrench gentleman, '' are proud of aU this variety, this richness ; I would fain exclaim ' .te cA..^.e.. ; ' but the 
Enghsh have now so long known the advantages of Free trade, that they forget to utter that ciy with me. Would that 
It re-echoed from east to west, and from north to south in France, for if once our manufacturers could procure iron 
and steel at more reasonable prices, we should be able to do as weU as you. 0, that the French Government would 
not close its eyes to that which this very exhibition demonstrates so clearly-that nothing will be wanting to establish 
the superiority of our manufactures from that day, when Industiy being released from the charge which presses so hardly 
upon her, under the colour of protection, she wiU be aUowed to exercise her powers with foil freedom, without submitting 
to grievous burdens which retard her progress, and without imposing any such herself." 

In the beginning of the seventeenth century, Sheffield was httle more than a large viUage ; now it displays aU 
the features of a manufacturing town of the first importance. The contrast between the town itself and the surrounding 
countiy is very great : the smoke arising from the numerous forges, steam-engines, and factories, gives a dingy mean 
appearance to the houses, while all around, the beautiful scenery is diversified by the handsome viUas of the opulent 
merchants and manufacturers, and from a distant view the spectator conceives only that he is gazing upon a very lovely 
spot. And so it was with the gorgeous splendour which dazzled the visitor to the Palace of Industry ; few could 
distinguish beneath it the ghastly misery which lay there gilded over and hidden. The Exhibition was glorious, but 
how much of that glory was shared by the workman, pale with sickness and grim with want ? When admiring an 
exquisite piece of cutlery or a chastely carved design, how many thought of the dreariuess of our manufacturing districts 
to those who are compeUed to eke out their hving there, where everything is dingy—the streets, commerce and morality, 
—where a thousand chimneys incessantly throw up their soot against the skies, to fall back, darken the atmosphere, 
and begrime the human wretchedness compeUed to move in it,— where the brightest and most beautiful productions 
contrast strangely with the haggard and consumptive producers,— where the rich spinner weaves into his stufi-s the 
hopes, affections and longings of the workman,— and where the ministers of rehgion preach no other gospel to the poor 
man than from that melancholy text, " In whatsoever state it has pleased God to caU you, be ye therewith content."— 
Oh ! this is a sad picture, aud to those who are wiUing to gaze on it, it may teach many a useful lesson, and especiaUy, 
it may induce us sometimes to consider how and by whom, and at what cost of human hopes and heart yearnings, the 
wonders we admire were produced. 

The commercial importance of Sheffield industry is known in every part of the world where Enghsh goods 
penetrate, and it would be difficult to enumerate all the various articles manufactured in this busy town, made principally 
of steel, which were represented in the Hardware Department of the Great Exhibition. We may especiaUy mention 
two of those firms whose stands are the most prominent in the accompanying plate, and who proved that the manufacture 
of drawing-room and other grates and fenders, and decorated stoves, is in a most promising condition in respect to 
advancement in tasteful design. Messrs. Stuart and Smith contributed specimens of Sylvester's patent grates, which 
were meritorious as for novelty of principle, design and workmauship. The distinguishing character of Sylvester's plan 
is that the combustion takes place on a metal plate which is not raised above the surface of the floor, thus obviating an 
objection very generaUy expressed against the grates of modem construction, which are placed so high as to leave the 
feet of the occupants of the room in a cold stratum of air. Messrs. Hoole and Robson's grates had less burnished 
surfaces than those just mentioned, and they deserved great credit for substituting for them castings in the state in 
which they leave the mould : these contrasted beautifuUy with the brass ornaments, and prevented the charge which 
was sometimes brought against Messrs. Stuart's productions, that they were too fine for use, from being appHed to the 
goods of Messrs. Hoole and Robson. 






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ha:rdwaee. 

The space devoted to articles of Hardware in the Great Exhibition was occupied by an exceedingly miscellaneous 
collection, for it was found very difficult to limit the range of Class XXII to objects of an entirely distinct nature ; for, 
on the one hand, it was intimately associated with Class I, as representing the results of human labour exercised upon 
mineral productions, and, on the other, in the cases of metalhc sculpture, its identity with Class XXX rendered the task 
of defining the limits between ornamental art and fine art, by no means easy. When the Jurors commenced their 
scrutiny of the articles classed under the general head of Hardware, they accordingly laid down the foUowing rules, which 
we wiU also take as our guide in bringing into notice the objects most deserving of attention, and which were selected 
as the most appropriate to form the subject of the accompanying plate : " The objects comprehended in Class XXH, 
may be divided into those intended to supply the necessary and absolute requirements of large industrial populations, 
and generally to minister to the conveniences of society ; and those which, either partiaUy or whoUy are created to meet 
the demands of taste and refinement among the wealthier classes of the community." 

It is a curious fact that the greater part of the articles commonly manufactured at Birmingham, are not the 

production of large factories, where extensive machinery has been erected at an enormous expenditure of capital. Nearly 

all the small wares are made by workmen who, each in his particular line, undertake to execute the orders which they 

have received from the agents in the town who are in correspondence with the great wholesale establishments which are 

to be met with in every part of the United Kingdom. In Birmingham there are numerous buildings containing a large 

number of rooms of various sizes, each of which is funiished with a lathe, benches, tools, and all the other requirements 

and conveniences as are suited to the various branches of manufacture for which the rooms are intended to be used : a 

steam-engine on the ground floor is connected by working shafts with the machinery placed in each workshop, and can 

when needed set the whole or any particular part m motion. When a workman receives an order which he calculates 

will take him a week or a month to execute, he hires for that period one or more of the apartments contammg the 

conveniences which he requires, stipulating for the use of a certain amount of steam power. In this manner he reahzes 

all the advantages which he would enjoy by the possession of a steam engine of his own, and as there is a great com- 

petition between the several owners of these buUdings, the charge for the accommodation of a workman has been 

brought very low. , r i f 

There are however, many extensive establishments in Birmingham which employ a large number of workmen of 
their own and which contributed some very fine specimens of their manufacture to the Exhibition. Messrs. Wmfield's 
coUection was remarkable for variety and novelty : their plain and ornamental tubes, which are applied in so many ways 
for domestic purposes, differed from all others in the manner in which they were produced ; their application of glass m 
the form of blossoms, leaves and fruit, to stamped brass-foundry, and particularly to upholstery decorations, was highly 
artistic and original ; but perhaps nothing was entitled to greater commendation than their patent metalhc bedsteads, 
richly and elegantly ornamented. These bedsteads are fast superseding those of wood, and are so portable that the 
possessor of one of them may literally " take up his bed and walk." The finest display of metallic manufactures in the 
whole of this class was perhaps made by Messrs. Messenger and Sons, whose establishment is one of the oldest m the 
trade in Birmingham, having been in existence upwards of fifty years. These gentlemen recognised at an early penod 
the importance of the union of art with manufactures, and it is to the skiU of a Flaxman and a Chantrey that a.e due 
„.any of the beautifully designed objects which were produced in the workshops of Messrs. Messenger. On their staU 
were to be seen groups of the Queen and the Prince of Wales, in bronze and or-molu, beautifully modelled by John 
BeU, a bronze statuette of the Duke of Wellington on his charger, and a portion of a chandeher in bronze, designed by 
Gruner for the paviHon in the gardens of Buckingham palace, which was remarkable both for the quahty of the metal 

"".tfouXl'^ 

f^nitur?! ited by Me srs Jennens and Bettndge. wMch the Ar.st has ^troduced into the view of the Hardware 

S'lent .vith wMch it was in close proximity. Among the m^y inventions of modern times for diffasmg^^ 
Department, mm ^^^^ ^^ ^^ admiration than 

of paper reduced to a pulpy state. The tormer procebb p 
causes conduce to render them very much more expensive. 



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ETJRNITIIRE. 

It would tave been difficult to select amy department of the Great Exhibition which could compare with Class XXVI, 
as an evidence of our national prosperity. The contributions to this section included every species of decoration, for 
churches, for palaces and for private dweUings, upholstery and paper-hangings, japanned goods and papier-mach6, and 
while exhibiting the taste and skill of the workman, they displayed no less distinctly the wealth and domestic refinement 
of those classes of the community for whose use, comfort or luxury the greater part of the articles were manufactured. 
Here, was a chair low, warm and soft, constructed so as to afford the largest possible amount of repose to the hmbs of 
the ponderer, while his mind was actively engaged on his own state, or on the destiny of others, thus unquestionably 
materialising the idea of the poet who beheved that nothing was so conducive to beautiful and true thought, as a fit place 
in which to think: there, was a causeuse temptingly opening its arms, and offering every facihty for carrying on a nascent 
flirtation in its doubly-luxurious lap : on every side, in short, was some article of furniture, a beautifoUy decorated state 
bed, a brighUy poUshed dining-room table suggesting the most convivial ideas, or a tastefully carved buffet, well mentmg 
a close inspection. Still this magnificent display gave birth to one legitimate regret, that amidst all the ornamental 
works in furniture, coUected at the Exhibition, there were to be found so few specimens of ordinary famiture for generd 
use- for of course a great number of the articles having had unhmited labour lavished upon them, called for such 
extravagant prices as few have the means of paying, and everybody felt that it would be very desirable to expend some 
ta^te in the manufacture of those more ordinary objects which are daily used by the middle class of society. 

Several of the beds united all the requisites of finished pieces of furniture ; they were hght and elegant, and 
certainly very attractive. Among the contributions of Messrs. Jackson and Graham was a sideboard of Enghsh oak m 
the remissance style, the pUasters of which were formed by figures representing huntmg and fishing, summer and autumn 
and which was certainly one of the most admirable contributions of the kind in the class : it was hardly even surp^sed 
by the Kenilworth Buffet, by Messrs. Cookes and Son, of Warwick, which was considered worthy of a place xn the Fme 
Art Court, and ranked as a specimen of sculpture in wood. The origin of this latter piece of toiiture, on which was 
carved the story of Amy Robsart and the Earl of Leicester, has been described as follows : " n the month o Ap^ 
1842, a cow oak tree, which grew near Kenilworth Castle in Warwickshire, measuring about 11 feet m ^ameter, and 
containing about 600 cubic feet of wood, was levelled, ^d afterwards purchased by the exHbitor. who, at he period o 
Prince Albert's happy conception of a grand industri^ competition, resolved upon creatmg from the fallen ree a 
:ZZ,.. ^ the sm and ingenuity of our native wood-ca^ers should be ^ly developed, ^^.sed wi^ 
t^s patriotic desire, and regardless of expense, anxiety and toil, the projectors of t^e ^^^^^^^'^^^^^ 
commendable taste, devoted the tree, which for long ages had stood near the famous castle of Kemlworth to recal to 
Z times the memorable events that had transpired within its w^s. Fiction with its most en.cing charms 
^ZL, poetry and romance, such as the genius of Sir Walter Scott could alone evok. blended wit ..ory^offere^^ 
materids for a work of art, such as few subjects could equal. Accordingly, the Kenilworth page^t of ^^^^Z 
of Queen Ehzabeth's visit to the Earl of Leicester, so quaintly described by L^eham and Gascoigne, two attend^ts 
llleQueen in this • Royal progress,' and so vividly reproduced by Scott, was resolved upon, and the result was before 

flip world at the ExMbition of 1851." -rn,. i .i td ^ 4. 

Those who wish to recal to memory this rich and elaborate piece of carving will find t e Eh^^ethan Bu^ 
minutely described in the Official Catalogue, but there was one important feature connected with the beauty an ac uracy 
mmutely descno introduced most satisfactonly the apphcation of 

of this production which deserves special notice. Mr. Walter ooope 

what sclptors call pairUi^, which had never before been successfully carried out m wood-carvin by this process t^ 
Z:ls. enabM to copy the plaster models of the designer with far greater nicety, than could have been attained 

by any other means. . ^. . , „. :„.„,trv were singularly rich and diversified, but an 

The contributions from the continent m this '^^^ ^[^^^2^^^^ ontradiction the i.ct, that not 
examination of the decorated furniture by our own manufacturers, ^^'^"^^""^'J^l ^, ^, ^.^^al they 

only for truthftdness of execution, but in many inst^ces for beauty of design and supenor qu y 
stood pre-eminent, when compared with foreign productions. 



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WOOLLENS. 



The importance attached to the woollen manufactures of this country, is proved by the stringency of the measures that 
were formerly taken by guilds of merchant tailors and woolstaplers, in directing its operations, and the earher records on 
this subject, present a most disgraceful picture of the now exploded fallacies by which the restrictive pohcy of our 
legislators attempted to support certain trades. These exist no longer, and in the Crystal Palace the manufacturers of 
Great Britain exhibited to the gaze of a]l the assembled nations of the earth, our oldest and our most recently introduced 
fabrics ; each one of which had its own pecdiar exceUencies, and for the production of which thousands of workmen are 
now employed, under an extended system, which has sprung from that freedom of thought and action, which has been 
the characteristic of the industrial communities of modem times, in contradistinction to the despicable exclusiveness of 
an epoch now happUy for ever passed away. 

We cannot, perhaps, do better than give an outHne of the process by which a fleece is wrought into a piece of 

cloth, of which there were so many admirable specimens in the WooUen department of the Great Exhibition. After 

haviiig been cleansed from maiks and stains, the wool is put into the hands of the wool-comber, who with an iron-spiked 

comb, the invention of which is attributed to St. Blaise, draws out the fibres and brmgs them into a state fit for the 

spinner. The latter forms the wool into threads, which are more or less twisted, according to the manufacture for which 

they are designed : the more twisted forming worsted, the looser yarn. The kinds of stuff made wholly or partly of wool 

are extremely various, and it is perhaps impossible to surpass the English broad-cloth with respect either to beauty or 

utility. The threads in it are so concealed by a fine nap or down raised on the surface and curiously smoothed or 

glossed, that the fabric looks more hke a rich texture of nature's forming than the work of a weaver. Wool, in common 

with other animal substances, takes a dye better than any vegetable matters, and the cloths are therefore made of every 

possible hue ; but, in order to fit them for the dyer, it is necessa^ to free them from all foukess and greasiness, which 

is by no means an easy operation. It is effected by a process called fuUing, in which the cloths are beaten by heavy 

mallets as they he in water, with which a quantity of fuller's earth has been mixed, and which unites wxth the greasy 

matter and renders it soluble in water: the operation of fulhng has the further effect of thickening the cloth and 

rendering it more firm and compact, by mixing the threads with each other, something in the manner of a felt. 

In the annexed view of the WooUen department the artist has introduced the stall of Messrs. Brett, Brothers, 
and the case of Mr J. T. Clay. Mr. Henry Brett was appointed a juror, and the firm was thereby disquahfied from 
receiving any special mark of approval from the jury of Classes XII and XV, but we camiot pass over the goods they 
exhibited, which were principaUy adapted for general consmnption in this country, and yet were suitable for the Colomes 
and the United States, without remarking the introduction which they made of a new fabric, for which there has smce 
been a considerable demand. They called it the " Clouded or Wove Doeskin," and thus describe the process of manu- 
facture. The yams are first dyed the colour required, then put into hanks, and the part which is to retam the onginal 
colour placed in a block and closely screwed down, and the whole is then immersed in the dye vat j-the parts projecting 
beyond the block take the new colour required, and the two distinct colours thus produce the effect of a clouded doeskin. 
The woollen trade of Great Britain was established in the reign of Edw^d the Third, in the year 1336, and has 
continued in the same districts where it appears to have been first located : the principal of which are the West of 
England (Gloucestershire, Somersetshire and Wiltshire), which claim the precedence in many respects, and the West 
Riding of Yorkshire, where the manufactures carried on at each town have their own pecuhar characteristics: thus, 
Leeds is remarkable for its wooUen products ; Bradford is celebrated for its worsted fabrics, introduced by the Flemish 
weavers, whom the cruel persecutions of the Duke of Alva in 1570 drove to seek for refuge in this country ; and Hahfax 
stands unrivalled in the artistic elements which characterise all its productions. 

The revolving lighthouse in the Nave was exhibited by Messrs. Chance. To resist the prolonged action of the 
atmosphere, the glass was made of as hard and undterable a nature as possible, but the exhibitors then could o^y 
accomphsh this object at the expense of the colour of the glass, a difficulty which they have since overcome, and the. 
fforts to Obtain a lass of a perfectly colourless nature have been crowned with success^ I'^-l'^J-'^^Z 
of a number of concentric rings, as used in the dioptric apparatus, were first suggested by Sir David B- er^-^^^^^^^^^ 
chief adv^tages which they present over the old system of reflectors are, greater effect from the same hght, the use 
an mialterable material, and a greater facihty for producing varieties of revolving hghts. 



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ELAX. 



The plants selected in Europe for the purpose of making thread and cloth from the fibres are chiefly Hemp and Flax. 
They both undergo the same general preparation before they are consigned to the weaver ; but the former is of a 
stronger and coarser texture than the latter, and is commonly employed in the manufacture of canvas and cordage, while 
flax is used for articles of clothing. 

Flax is an annual plant, with a green stem about two feet high, crowned with handsome blue flowers, which are 
succeeded by globular seed-vessels, containing ten flat oblong seeds of a brown colour, from which is expressed the 
linseed oil so extensively used in the arts, particularly for painting. The plant is suffered to grow until the seeds are 
ripe, and it is then plucked up by the hand, and laid on the ground to dry in httle bundles, two and two obliquely across 
each other. Soon after this, these bundles are collected, deprived of their seed-vessels, and placed horizontally in 
shallow pools and ditches of stagnant water to rot. The purpose of this part of the process is to dissolve a mucilaginous 
matter, which holds the fibres together, and is a very disagreeable operation, as the smell arising from the flax while 
rottmg is extremely offensive and prejudicial to the health. When the steeping is effected, the bundles are taken out 
and untied, and the flax is spread out upon a piece of clean smooth grass, which has been mown or fed off close, and 
there it is allowed to remain until the woody part becomes brittle : it is then beaten with mallets, which knock off the 
pieces of wood still adhering to the fibre, without breaking it, heckled, and so prepared by various other operations 
that the long fibres are got by themselves, clean and loose, in which state they are called flax; and the shorter and 
coarser fibres, separated during the process of combing, are called tow. 

The operation of spinning, which the flax next undergoes, consists in drawing out, with the fingers, several of 
the fibres together, and twisting them. The result of this spinning is thread, which is more or less fine according to 
the dexterity of the manipulator, and the nature of the material. Some thread twisted more closely than the rest is kept 
for needle-work, but the greater part is made up in bundles, called Hnen-yam, and committed to the weaver. 

There are several varieties of flax cultivated, and in Mr. P. Claussen's coUection which he contributed to the 
Great Exhibition, were to be found specimens of flax grown in England, France, Russia, and HoUand. The Enghsh 
plant is considered to produce the best fibre, and the foreign the best linseed. Mr. Claussen has introduced many 
improvements in the " handling " of flax, and can so modify its substance as to make it susceptible of being spun by the 
usual cotton macliinery : and this result has been obtamed through microscopic researches into the structure of the flax 
plant, aad the application of chemical knowledge to the improvement of old processes for prepai'uig it for use. The 
ultunate result of these experiments can scarcely be foreseen, but it is to be hoped that soon some extensive trials in the 
cultivation of flax in this country wiU be made, for as a manufactming material it would prove exceedingly valuable, and 
render us more independent of the United States, which supply us with nearly all the cotton used in our textile 
manufactures. Since the failure of the potato crop, Ireland and Scotland have been in a position to seize eagerly upon 
any new culture which promises moderate success, and since the repeal of the corn laws, many landowners in England 
have been m'ging their tenants to turn their attention to the culture of flax. 

At a meeting of the British Association at Edinburgh in 1850, an able paper was read on this subject by the 
late Mr. G. R. Porter, Secretary to the Board of Trade, who said : '' Hitherto we have in tHs country been greatly 
dependent upon our foreign importation for supphes of flax. WhHe the law imposed restrictions upon the importation 
of grain for human food, there existed a kind of impediment in the way of increasing our home growth of articles for any 
purpose not of equal primaiy necessity. That impediment is now removed ; and there can be no reason why our fields 
should not be henceforth used for the production of any article that promises an adequate profit to the farmer." The 
chief seat of flax manufactures in England is Barnsley ; in Scotland, Dundee ; and in Ireland, Belfast : the export of 
linen goods is already very considerable, but is certainly on the increase, as a large quantity of land is now sown witk 
flax seed every year in Somersetshire, Lancashire, and other parts of the United Kingdom. 

One of the prominent objects in the accompanying plate is the fountain, in axtifical stone, exHbited by Mr. 
Seeley, and described as " suitable for a market place in a provincial town." We were not before aware that the 
inhabitants of our country towns were so utterly devoid of taste, as to render it necessary to design such ugly thmgs to 
adorn their pubhc squares : and we think that it was injudicious of the Royal Commissioners to deface the Exh.b.t.on 
of Indust^ of all Nations, with a huge object which only excited the weU merited criticisms of those who had been 
accustomed to enjoy the skilfuUy designed fountains of Italy and France. 



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FURS. 



Although in the most barbarous ages men clothed themselves in furs, the same materials, under certain modifica- 
tions, are, now that the world has attained a high degree of cultivation and civilization, considered among the most 
precious of garments. The earliest mention of skins is made in Scripture, where occur the words, " Unto Adam 
also, and to his wife, did the Lord God make coats of skins and clothed them." On those valuable sculptures lately- 
sent to England from Assyria, which bring to light records of the manners and customs of a mighty nation, whose 
history might otherwise have remained buried in its original obscurity, men are pourtrayed in fur garments ; the 
Persians, Greeks, and Romans were familiar with their use as articles of clothing and trophies of victory ; and in 
our own country rich furs have often been the friendly offerings of princes to each other, and the tokens of grace 
and privilege to their favourites, high rank and distinction being marked according to the kinds worn. 

In the accompanying Plate is represented the very extensive display of Furs which were contributed by 
Messrs. Nicholay and Son, the Court Furriers, to whom, besides, the Hudson Bay Company entrusted the produce 
of their territories in the Polar regions. Among the most interesting of the skins exhibited, may be remarked 
that of the Black Fox, valued at £50 each, and of which is composed the celebrated pelisse, belonging to the 
Emperor of Russia ; manufactured and undressed specimens of the Fur Seal, resembling the richest velvet, and of 
the Beaver, which was in former years one of the Hudson Bay Company's most valuable productions ; while along 
the front of the gallery were hung the skins of lions, bears, royal tigers, buffaloes, &c., &c., dressed to a beautiful 
softness, and adapted for carriage and sleigh wrappers, table-covers, and many other useful and ornamental 
purposes. Messrs. Nicholay exhibited in their collection a specimen of the Ornithorhyncus, a native of Australia, 
which appears to be the connecting link between bird and beast, having the bill and webfoot of the duck, and 
the body and claw of a beast. The skin resembles that of the otter, and seldom exceeds twelve inches in length. 
The male is furnished with two spui's on each hind leg, like the game-cock ; the female lays eggs, which she 
hatches, and then suckles her young brood. Altogether, from the description given, which must be credited on 
account of the unimpeachable authority* on which it is based, this animal appears to be one of the most extra- 
ordinary in nature. 

The Hudson Bay Company's annual importation of skins is sold by auction twice a year, in March and 
September, and these sales are attended by merchants from the most remote parts of the world. In the olden 
time, when the fur trade was carried on under the stringent regulations of the Skinners' Company, the skins 
were sold in a very singular manner, namely, by the candle. The following was the mode of proceeding : a small 
piece of wax taper was supported on a tripod, and placed on the long table, round which were collected the 
buyers ; as soon as a lot was put up, the candle was lighted, the bidding commenced and continued until the taper 
burnt out, and as it feU down, the last bidder was declared the purchaser. 

The class in which Furs were placed also included Feathers, and Messrs. Nicholay exhibited under a glass 
case a muff and boa, which excited much well-merited admiration. They were made of the down from the feathers 
that are used for state and military plumes, known as the Aigrette, and which are procured from a bird of the Heron 
species, called the Egret. The costly nature of the material is such, and its rarity so great, that three other sets only 
have been made during the present century; viz., for the Empress of Russia, for the Duchesse de Berri, and for 
Madame Adelaide, sister to the late King of the French. 

The principal display of feathers, however, was by Messrs. Adcock and Co. Of the various kinds employed 
as plumes for head-dresses, the most important are those of the ostrich, which were exhibited in aU the variety of 
forms in which they have been worn during the last fifty years. There was a fine coUection of the feathers of 
the Birds of Paradise, among which some were dyed several different colours. The difficulty of this process in 
certain cases wiH be conceived, when it is considered that naturally the plumage of the Bird of Paradise is of a 
golden bright hue. Many of the feathers in this case were very scarce, and some of the most valuable were mounted 

in gold and sih^er. 

The large astronomical telescope in the Nave, mounted on a cast-iron stand, nearly eleven feet high, was 
manufactured by Mr. A. Ross. The diameter of the object-glass was eleven and a half inches, and being provided 
with equatorial movements and other adjustments, was a fine specimen of the kind of instrument, which, with 
its minute and rather complicated machinery, is requisite for penetrating into the regions where the eye 
cannot travel unassisted. At the foot of this telescope were a number of other optical and philosophical apparatus, 
invented and manufactured by Mr. A. Ross. 

* Sir H. Halford. 






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MOYING MACHINEET. 

Imagination is as essentially necessary to the man of science as to the poet ; all scientific objects are promoted by 
experiments, and these cannot be contrived without the aid of imagiaation : it must be stated hypothetically that such 
and such a combination produces a certain result, and then experience is nothing more than the realisation of that 
supposition. This faculty is the great spring of human activity and the principal source of human improvement ; those 
who possess it can never be perfectly satisfied with their present condition, or with their past attainments, but are 
continually urged on to discover some untried enjoyment, or some ideal excellence. Once convinced of the importance 
of imagination, we never can contemplate the experiments of scientific men as a waste of time, or as the mere gratification 
of a worthless curiosity, but we will look upon them as the germs of those improvements, by which civilization, 
knowledge and morality may be more extensively diffused among the various nations of the world. 

If, then, it be granted that imagination is essential to the inventions of scientific men, we will advance further 

and uphold the opinion that imagination may be of service also in teaching a useful lesson to those, for whose comfort 

or convenience human ingenuity has been exerted. Will the idea be stamped as Utopian, that after the Almighty had 

crushed Adam under that awful anathema, " cursed is the ground for thy sake ; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days 

of thy life : in the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground," He should mercifully put it into 

man's own power to restore himself to his pristine happiness and excellence ; and that when He planned the Kedemption 

He should, with a view of accompHshing His own scheme, inspire one man with the spirit of science, another with the 

spirit of hterature, another with the spirit of art, all contributing to build up the edifice of man's re-estabhshed perfection ? 

We beheve that the inventions of men have a tendency to remove a great part of the curse which has tormented 

the world for nearly six thousand years. On every side we see the effects of that curse ; we cannot, and we do not flatter 

ourselves that we are emancipated from its consequences, or that the punishment of Adam was a mere threat. On the 

contrary, where we find the curse, there we also find a fierce war waged by man against his acknowledged foe ; where 

there is disease, we find the physician who has devoted his hfe to the discovery of antidotes : where there is famine, we 

find agricultural science labouring to increase the treasures of the soil : where the hghtnings of heaven ravage the earth 

and destroy men's lives, there we see the long tapering conductors drawing off the electricity of the thunder cloud, so 

that the Hghtnings shall no longer prove destructive to man, and to the labour of his hands. 

An the inventions of human ingenuity and skill, and the diffusion of general knowledge, may be looked upon as 
preparing the earth for that milennial era which is prophesied in the Revelations. But we need not seek further than 
the accompanying plate for an iUustration of the idea, that the more we are able to diminish the labour of man, which 
God intended should be his chastisement, the further we remove the curse, and the nearer we approach to our original 
perfection. Take for instance Whitworth's Stand of Engine Tools : his pecuhar genius has enabled him to effect such 
a convenient arraagement of the different parts of each, that his machines are almost self-acting, leaving nothing for the 
workman to do, except to ^x his work and keep his tools sharp : consequently Mr. Whitworth can produce better work 
by comparatively raw haads than formerly could be done slowly by the most skilful workmen at very high wages. Then 
turn to Appold's Centrifugal Pump, which was an exceUent example of the modern rehgion of mechanics,— making a 
smaU machine do a great deal of work by running it at great speed, thus saving a large outlay in the cost and size of the 
apparatus, and dispensing with a vast amount of human labour. Thus it is that we would look on all scientific men as 
instruments in the hands of Providence, working for the mehoration of the human race ; and we feel that we cannot 
better conclude, than by awarding our tribute of admiration to him who was the chief of this cohort, the originator of all 
the improvements in modem science ; for it would be in vain to attempt to value the debt we owe to " the man whose 
genius discovered the means of multiplying our national resources to a degree perhaps even beyond his own stupendous 
powers of calculation ; bringing the treasures of the abyss to the summit of the earth ; giving the feeble arm of man the 
momentum of an Afrit; commanding manufactures to arise, as the rod of the prophet produced water m the desert; 
affording the means of dispensing with that ' time and tide which wait for no man ; ' and of saihng without that wmd 
which defied the commands and threats of Xerxes himself." 



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MACHINERY. 

The immense display of machines of every description in the Great Exhibition, raised England to a proud position 
amongst the rival nations, as all her contributions stood pre-eminent for novelty, for usefulness, and for perfection of 
workmanship. Here, were marine steam-engines with four cylinders, of seven hundred horse power, which were said 
to be the largest yet made for vessels with screw-propellers : there, were new and gigantic locomotives with eight 
wheels, after Crampton's designs, which could rmi with perfect ease at the rate of seventy miles an hour, from the 
peculiarity of the position of the driving wheels, the axle of which was placed behind the firebox, an arrangement which 
gave great comparative steadiness of motion, especiaQy at high speeds. In front, was reared the Great Hydrauhc Press, 
which was remarkable not only for its size, but for the various contrivances for holding the chains by which the tubes of 
the Britannia Bridge were raised over the Menai Straits, that triumphal arch of modern engineering, under which a hne 
of battle ship can pass with all her saHs spread to the wind ; while on every side, around these stupendous apparatus, 
thousands of httle machines, which weU deserved the epithet of beautiful, were hard at work, and ingeniously occupied 
in the manufacture of all sorts of useful articles, from knife handles to envelopes. In this Department, which might 
weU be called the great park of machinery, a thoughtful observer could easHy discover the distinctive character of the 
English nation, as regards pohtical economy ;—Enghshmen employ their capital, but are ever seeking for mechanical 

means to work it. 

According to the classification of Dr. Lyon Playfair, which was adopted by the Eoyal Commissioners, Machinery 

formed one of the four great divisions into which specimens of aU the objects that could be exhibited, were distributed. 

This division was sub-divided into six classes:—!. Machines for direct use; 2. Manufacturing machines and tools; 

3. Mechanical, civH engineering, and axcHtectural contrivances; 4. Naval architecture and mihtary engineering; 

5. Agricultural and horticultural machines and implements ; 6. PhHosophical, musical, horological, acoustic, and 

misceUaneous instruments. This classification gave to the word " machinery " a far more extended apphcation than it 

ever received before ; but whether Dr. Playfair was right or wrong, in comprising under one head articles which until 

then had always been classed separately, the above arrangement was certainly exceedingly convenient for the immediate 

object which he had in view, and he therefore deserves infinite praise for having been bold enough to make the term 

machine so comprehensive, as to include every engine or implement which conveyed, in;a modified form, the power, 

whether animal, or of artificial production, applied to it. 

The artist has been as bold as Dr. Playfair, and has crowded into the accompanying plate such a multitude of 
heterogeneous apparatus, that we find it most difficult to determine which to select for remark. Foremost stands 
Nasmyth's steam hammer, which is too well known as having superseded the old tilt hammer to need that anything 
further should be said in its praise, as by it most heavy forgings are now made. The only curious fact in connexion 
with it, which may not be generaUy known, is that as far back as the year 1784, James Watt mentioned, in his 
specification delivered with his application for a patent, that the thought of using steam-power in connexion with a 
hammer had occurred to him; but he had never worked out the really useful mode of applying the hammer, that of 
attaching it to the piston-rod itself : and it is to the genius of one of our own times that is due the carrying out of this 

important step. 

Amongst the numerous fire-engines and pumps, the water-ram, by Messrs. Easton and Amos, may be mentioned 
as an exceedingly simple and effective apparatus, by which many country mansions are now suppUed with water; the 
only indispensable requisite being the existence of a smaH stream in the neighbourhood. Close by, stood the model of 
Maphn's hght-house, founded on Mitchell's screw piles, the plan of which is admirable for sandy bottoms where pdes are 
driven in with great difficulty. Lastly, we would wish to add one word of commendation to Messrs. Ransome and May's 
water-crane, intended to be used on railways, which was very ingeniously arranged with a rising hinge, so that it moved 
itself out of the way of the trains, when not required for fUhng the tender. But no description of the Machrnei, Court 
can give an adequate idea of the importance of its contents to those who did not visit it: a weeks examination was 
insufficient to exhaust all its treasures ; how then can we hope to do more than assist the memory to recall more vividly 
a scene which once beheld can never be forgotten ? 



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MINERALS. 



Great Britain is tlie most fayoured country in the world for the development of mineral industry, from two highly 
important conditions. In the first place, fuel, the indispensahle agent in the treatment of metalliferous ores, and 
the most powerful element in the production of motiye force, is found in ahundance in seyeral districts of England, 
Scotland, and Ireland; the value of some of these coal hasins is greatly increased hy the abundant distribution of 
the ores of iron among them, and each one so circumstanced has become the centre of a metaUiferous district, 
where numerous works produce iron at a cost so trifling as to annihilate at once the chance of a successful competi- 
tion by any other nation in the world. Secondly, the insular position of Great Britain is favourable to the cheap 
transmission of coal not only to those places on its own coasts where it is not found, but also to every pai^t of the 
world. 

Mines were worked in our own country by the Eomans, but during the reign of the Saxon kings they were 
much neglected, and subsequently to this period they were chiefly " exploited " by Jews. In the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth encouragement was given to German miners, long celebrated for their skill, to settle in England, as their 
aid was found necessary to revive so important an art fallen into decay. A great stimulus was given to the working 
of mines by the introduction of the use of gunpowder for blasting ; the ore being originally broken down with the 
" pick " only, which was a very laborious and often an almost impossible process : and the invention of the steam- 
engine was early rendered applicable to mining operations, and contributed to the present perfect state of the art. 
In the beginning of the eighteenth century the rich copper mines of Cornwall were first worked, and it is there 
that now the most powerful engines are employed, and the greatest encouragement given to all mechanical 
improvements. 

The contributions of the five hundred exhibitors in this department afibrded a very complete display of those 
objects that have reference to the production of metals of daily usage ; but to the greater number of visitors the 
mineral court presented few attractions. Notwithstanding their immense utility, the raw materials are deprived of 
all that brilliancy and variety of colour which gratifies the eye, and it is only when their singular forms and colossal 
dimensions arrest the attention and excite surprise, that a research into the peculiar conditions of their production 
becomes a subject of interest. 

Among the smaller specimens the illustration of lead mining contributed by Mr. Beaumont's mines at Allen- 
heads, in Northumberland, must be specially remarked. They were arranged by Mr. Thomas Sopwith so as to 
illustrate the peculiar mineral products of the Durham and Northumberland mining districts, the processes of 
dressing the ores of lead for the market, and the progress of conversion into pig lead. A case collected by the 
working men of Nentsberry fully showed the metallic and some of the earthy minerals from the mines in which 
they were employed. The main feature was however the exemplification of lead dressing, every stage of the process 
being illustrated, from the ore as found in the lode to the production of commercial pig lead. The separation of 
silver from lead, by Mr. Pattinson's process, was shown by Mr. Pattinson himself, who exhibited a cake of silver 
weighing 3,000 ounces, and Mr. Beaumont contributed one still larger, the weight of it being 12,162 ounces. 

The process alluded to consists in separating the crystallizing lead as it forms during a process of slow cooling, 
and is founded on the peculiar physical fact that silver remains fiuid at a temperature at which lead solidifies. These 
crystals of lead, as they are formed, sink to the bottom of the vessel, and on being removed are found to contain 
much less sHver than the original lead,— hence the last portion left in the crystaUization pots is exceedingly rich in 
silver. By this process it is commerciaUy profitable to separate three ounces of silver from the ton of lead, whereas 
by the old oxidizing process it was not found worth the cost of extraction, where the lead contained less than twenty 

ounces of silver to the ton. 

The contributions of the Duke of Buccleuch contained some very beautiful specimens of the rarer carbonates 
of lead, and some of the arseniates. The Ofiicial Catalogue contains a very full description, by Col. Lloyd, of the 
system adopted for the purpose of obviating the noxious efi^ects of the fmnes passing from the shafts of the fm-naces, 
and poisoning the neighbourhood, which appears to have been quite successful. 

The specimens of lead ore exhibited by the Arkansas Mining Company contaiued a hundred and fifty ounces 
of silver to the ton, a degree of richness scarcely ever to be met with, and this gave a pecular physical structure to 
the ore, which did not break up into cubes, as lead ore generally does, but into lamina. Close to these specimens 
was a section of the Devonshire lode from the Grassington Mines, and was very remarkable as showing the mode of 
metalliferous deposit in a mineral vein ; lead usually occurring in beds of limestone. The cubes of galena (sulphuret 
of lead) from Laxey, in the Isle of Man, were certainly the largest ever produced. 

On the tables in this Section of the Exhibition, were many remai'kable iUustrations of Cobalt, of Barytes, and 
the ores of Bismuth, Antimony, and Tungsten, besides numerous other specimens of lead ores from different locali- 
ties in the north of England and of Wales, but it has been thought advisable to confine the attention to the objects 
re immediately brought under notice in the accompanying View of the Mineral Court. 



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COTTON. 



Whilst the inhabitant of the northern regions is obhged to exercise much labor and ingenuity in procuring his clothing 
from flax and hemp and the stalks of other plants, the native of the fruitful south enjoys the benefit of a material 
produced in greater abundance, and in a state requiring much less preparation before it is rendered fit for the manufac- 
turer. This is Cotton, a filamentous down contained in the seed-pod of a family of plants called by Linn^us Gossypium. 

This substance appears to have been imported into this country as far back as the year 1298, but it was exclusively 
used at that period for candle or lamp wicks. Whether it was known to possess those properties which render it so 
peculiarly suitable for articles of clothing is uncertain ; and even many years after, it required the aid and enterprise of 
men of genius and perseverance to draw down upon it public attention. The manufacture of cotton, now the most 
important of all our branches of industry, does not date earher than the 17th century, and for a long period it was carried 
on upon a very limited scale ; the weavers for the most part working at their own homes, purchasing from time to time 
the materials upon which they worked, and then selling the produce to the dealers in the nearest market. It is not more 
than a hundred years ago that the Manchester merchants began regularly to employ the weavers, furnishing them with 
the requisite materials and paying them wages for their work. 

The rapid extension of the cotton trade, which had increased so much as to export goods to a considerable amount, 
induced the ingenious John Wyatt to turn his attention to the advisabihty of improving the machinery used in the 
manufacture, which until his time had consisted of nothing more compHcated than the wheel and spindle, every single 
thread requiring the undivided attention of one person ; the consequence of which was, that it was impossible to obtain a 
sufficient quantity of the cotton twist to supply the demand of the weaver. However the manufactory established by 
Wyatt failed, and it was reserved for the genius of Sir Richard Arkwright and Samuel Crompton to perfect the original 
contrivance. 

The fabrics made from cotton are probably more various and numerous than from any other material. They 
comprehend stuffs of aU degrees of fineness, from the transparent mushn of a robe or a turban, to the thick plush and 
warm bed-quilt, and there are upwards of 320,000 men and women employed in the cotton factories of England, Scotland 
and Ireland, producing materials, uniting elegance and cheapness in an unusual degree, for clothing people of aU ranks, 
from Russia to Guinea. 

Many requirements are necessary to arrive at perfection in the art of cahco -printing ; chemistry, mechanism, and 
above aU, taste must be brought into play, and there is perhaps no branch of industry that has made more demands upon 
the ingenuity of man, and has quickened his intelligence in a greater degree, than the art of printing colours upon woven 
fabrics. To produce a piece of printed cotton, even such as is seen used by the poorest of the people, the secrets of 
nature have been explored by the geologist and the botanist, the mysteries of science have been revealed to the chemist, 
and the mighty power of machinery has been developed by the greatest engineers the world has created. The duties of 
the chemist are perhaps the most important, for not only must he be acquainted with the nature of all dyeing materials 
and their effects when combined, but also he must study the nature of the vegetable fibres of the cloth, and the degree 
to which they wiU retain or combine with those drugs. One of his greatest difficulties is so to mix his colouring agents 
as to produce what is called Sifast colour : this is a desideratum considered to be of very great importance in all the first 
estabhshments. In the Exhibition were displayed innumerable specimens of the dyes employed, showing the difference 
of their appearance and quahty, when produced from different sources, and Messrs. Black, of Glasgow, in addition to a 
very beautiful collection of printed goods, prepared an elaborate series of specimens to illustrate nearly every style of 
calico-printing. 

For a long period the cotton manufacture of France was greatly in advance of that of Great Britain, and it was 
not until 1836, when a School of Design was estabhshed at Somerset House, and taken under the direct control of the 
Board of Trade in 1848, that England was able to produce any printed cahco which could at all compare with that of 
France as regards the display of taste in the colouring and designs. Schools, treating of art in its relation either to 
manufactures or to science, had existed in France for many years, supported partly by the state and partly by municipalities, 
and the advantages which resulted to the manufactures of that country in eveiy department requiring the display of taste, 
particularly as exhibited in the silk manufactures of Lyons, induced the merchants and manufacturers of this countiy to 
secure similar advantages for England: we trust that the Department of Practical Art— that branch of the Board of 
Trade which is at the head of all the Schools of Design estabhshed throughout the United Kingdom, will not disappoint 
their expectations ; under judicious management, a great deal may be accomphshed, but we grant that the difficulty of 
accomphshing it quickly, is insuperable. 



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EXTEEIOE. COALS, ETC. 

Gkeat and noble achievements are always of slow growth, and the Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations 
was not an exception to that rule. To say that it did not arise out of the wants, necessities and aspirations of the 
present age, is to say that it was bom out of season, and that its foundations had not been thoroughly and well laid, prior 
to the erection of the immense superstructure which sheltered the productions of all the nations of the earth : the 
Crystal Palace did not spring into existence hke Minerva, fully grown, armed and accoutred from the head of Jupiter, 
but was the result of a full and complete perception of the innumerable advantages which were to be derived from the 
accomplishment of a proposition emanating from the mind of His Koyal Highness Prince Albert, and it was to his zeal 
and talent in superintending and working out its details, and his thorough earnestness in its promotion under many 
serious discouragements, and under an active and well-planned opposition, that is due the success which attended the 
development of an idea originating with the Society of Arts, of which His Koyal Highness had become President. 

It can readily be imagined that the subject of a building suitable for the purposes in view, was one of early and 
anxious dehberation on the part of the Royal Commissioners ; and of the innumerable and complex difficulties which 
they had to overcome, this must assuredly have been one of the most insurmountable. Great as was the difficulty, how- 
ever, it was requisite to grapple with it : and the Committee appointed to act in all matters relating to the building, issued 
a document which invited all the architectural talent in the world to provide designs for competition in the great work. 
This document called forth designs from two hundred and thirty-three competitors, thirty eight of which were con- 
tributed by foreigners, and the rest by residents in England, Scotland and Ireland. The Committee did not bind 
themselves to accept any one of these designs, and found that although many of them were remarkable for elaboration of 
thought and elegance of execution, they aU failed to combine the many requisites which various considerations rendered 
essential. Under these circumstances the Committee prepared a design of their own, availing themselves of the 
suggestions contained in several of the plans contributed for competition, and having submitted it to the Royal Com- 
missioners, it was adopted and they were authorised to proceed with the necessary drawings and specifications. 

Fierce war was, however, waged against the proposed structure outside the walls of the Commission room : the 
time of both houses of legislature was consumed night after night in preposterous discussions, until at length worsted 
there by overwhelming majorities, foiled in the courts of law, and covered with ridicule everywhere, this discreditable 
opposition died a natural death, and in disgusting all reasonable men with its factiousness, rendered probably no Httle 
service to the cause it aimed at undermining. Then it was, that Mr. Joseph Paxton, (since knighted) known as a 
practical botanist and gardener to the Duke of Devonshire, was quietly engaged at Chatsworth in elaborating plans for 
a building destined in a greater degree to ehcit pubhc approval, and singular to say, he succeeded against the united 
talents of three of the most eminent engineers, and three of the most remarkable architects of the country ! 

Sir Joseph Paxton has thus described his labours : '' Gigantic as the bdlding was, it was conceived and framed 
by him in a small space of time. He need not, however, state that it was not done without a great deal of forethought, 
aided by the experience he had in constructing other great buHdings. ... He asked the Executive Committee 
whether they were so fax committed to the plaus, as to be precluded from receiving another ; the reply was, ' certainly 
not.' This was on Friday the 11th of June. From London he went to the Menai Straits to see the third tube of the 
Britannia Bridge placed, and on his return to Derby, he had to attend to some business in the boaxd-room, during which, 
however, his whole mind was devoted to his project ; and wHlst the business proceeded, he sketched his design upon a 
large sheet of blotting-paper. ... He sat up aU night until he had worked it out to his own satisfaction, and by 
the aid of liis friend, Mr. Baxlow, he was enabled to complete the whole of the plans by the Saturday foUowing, on which 
day he left Rowsley for London." The public have long known what foUowed : Sir Joseph Paxton's glazed Palace was 
eventually chosen unanimously not only by the BuHding Committee, but by the Royal Commission. 

Within the space at the western end, outside the building, were gathered a coUection of such things as could not 
be weU placed in the bmlding. Large masses of coal, cement and concrete, and several examples of the Welsh, Cornish, 
Scotch and Irish slates and flags, were exhibited on the south side : whHe on the north, were several atmospheric 
apparatus for recording meteorological observations, admiralty anchors, and granite columns and obehsks. The object 
which attracted most admiration was placed at some distance outside the western end of the bdlding : there, Rx^chard 
CcBur de Lion was grasping his uplifted sword with energy and determination. In this bronze statue by Baxon 
Maxochetti, the figure, expression and attitude of the rider are grand and commanding, but the horse, though its head is 
animated, is defective in its hinder quarters, a^d appears quite unequal to bear its lofty and import^t burden. 



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CLOSING OEEEMONT. 

On the 15th October 1851, the Exhibition of the Industry of all Nations was finally brought to an end. After more 
than five months of glorious existence, after haying been inspected and enjoyed by above six milhon visitors, who flocked 
to the MetropoHs of England from every quarter of the globe, the Royal Commissioners decreed that the great work 
was accompHshed, and that it was time to close the splendid and gorgeous arena, where twenty-six different nations 
had displayed their various productions to compete in peaceful rivahy for the prizes to be awarded to all meritorious 
contributions, by men of the most exalted rank, and of the most eminent reputations in statesmanship, in science, in 
Hterature, in manufactures, in commerce, and in the fine arts, from aU parts of the world. Then it was that 
Viscount Canning, who had acted as President of the CouncH of Chairman of the Juries, submitted to His Royal 
Highness Prince Albert and the other Commissioners, the principle on which the numerous awards had been made, 
and which had only been adopted after the most mature dehberation, as in no department of the vast undertaking had 
there been greater difficulties to overcome. 

Everybody knew that the Exhibition had been an '' immense success ;" that so far from entaOing a caQ on the 
Government for pecuniary assistance, a large surplus was in the hands of the Commissioners : everybody had experienced 
great personal pleasure and profit during an examination of the coUections of machines, manufactures or fine art, and 
felt deeply how useful and interesting, and at the same time, how elevating the spectacle had been to the multitudes 
who came to study or to admire : everybody had felt it so obligatory to go and see for himself, to gain a knowledge of 
things of which he was ignorant, to admire in all their perfection, productions with which he was well acquainted, and to 
compare them with those of other nations, and then to feel that experience had given him a right to praise their 
excellent points and to decry their deficiences, and so universal was the affirmative answer to the great question of the 
day, "Have you been to the Exhibition?" that it became almost possible to point to the solitary individual who 
would remain blind to the advantages of the undertaking, however patent they might be made to him, and who refused 
to look upon the whole enterprise in any other light but that of a " vast humbug." 

It was when the Palace of Industry was to be closed that men turned to the question of how these various 
contributions which had been so long displayed for their improvement and their gratification, were to be distinguished 
from one another, how the world was to learn the grounds on which the productions of one nation were superior to those 
of another. From the 1st of May to the 15th of October, a period of twenty-three weeks, during which the Exhibition 
remained open, the Queen accompanied by H. R. H. Prince Albert, paid thirty-five visits to the different departments, 
and carefully examined every object of interest and beauty contained within the crystal walls. The Exliibitors 
appreciated Her Majesty's kindness, and as far as personal feehng might extend, they probably would have been satisfied 
with the honour, and treasured up for their own gratification, the expressions of approval and admiration which fell from 
her hps. But this was insufficient for the world at large, and while it was gazing in wonder and delight, a body of 
world-renowned men devoted themselves to the thankless and arduous task of dehvering judgment upon at least a 
million articles. 

The difficulties which at first sight appeared to them insurmountable, were overcome, and certainly if any 
accidental omissions did occur, they could not be attributed to want of care or diligence on the part of the Jurors. 
With a few exceptions their decisions gave great satisfaction, and the Exhibition closed with a harmony as perfect as 
had previously prevailed both within and without its walls, and which cannot end with the event which produced it. 
" Let us," in the words of H. R. H. Prince Albert, on that day when he saw the undertaking which his own genius had 
so briQiantly carried out, brought to a happy close, " receive this harmony as an auspicious omen for the future ; and 
while we return our humble and hearty thanks to Almighty God for the blessing He has vouchsafed to our labours, let 
us all earnestly pray that that Divine Providence which has so benignantly watched over and shielded this illustration of 
nature's productions, conceived by human intellect and fashioned by human skill, may stiU protect us, and may grant 
that this interchange of knowledge, resultiug from the meeting of enlightened people in fidendly rivalry, may be dispersed 
far and wide over distant lands ; and thus by shewing our mutual dependance upon each other, be a happy means of 
promoting unity among nations, and peace and goodwill among the various races of mankind." 



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