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Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data 

Wehr, Hans (Date) 

A dictionary of modern written Arabic. 

"An enlarged and improved version of 'Arabisches Wörter- 
buch für die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart' and includes the Con- 
tents of the 'Supplement zum Arabischen Wörterbuch für die 
Schriftsprache der Gegenwart.' " 

1. Arabic language-Dictionaries— English. 
I. Cowan, J Milton. II. Title. 
[PJ6640.W43 1976] 492'.7'321 75-24236 
ISBN 0-87950-001-8 

© Otto Harrauowltz, Wiesbaden 1961, 1066, 1971 

© Spoken Language Services, Inc. 1976 

Spoken Language Services, Inc. 

P.O. Box 783 
Ithaca, New York 148S0 


Shortly after the publication of Professor Hans Wehr's 
Arabisches Wörterbuch für die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart 
in 1952, the Committee on Language Programs of the Ameri- 
can Council of Learned Societies recognized its excellence 
and began to explore means of providing an up-to-date Eng- 
lish edition. Professor Wehr and I readily reached agreement 
on a plan to translate, edit, and enlarge the dictionary. This 
task was considerably lightened and hastened by generous 
financial support from the American Council of Learned So- 
cieties, the Arabian American Oil Company, and Cornell 

This dictionary will be welcome not only to English and 
American users, but to orientalists throughout the world who 
are more at home with English than with German. It is more 
accurate and much more comprehensive than the original 
version, which was produced under extremely unfavorable 
conditions in Germany during the late war years and the early 
postwar period. 

lthaca, New York J Milton Cowan 

November 1960 

Preface to The Pocket-Book Edition 

In Order to meet the enormous increase of interest in Arabic 
brought about by political, economic and social develop- 
ments of the past decade, we have now published our 3rd 
Revised Edition of A Dictionary of Modern W ritten Arabic in 
this handy, comprehensive and unabridged version. 

Münster Hans Wehr 

lthaca, New York J Milton Cowan 

February 1976 


Thiß diotionary presents the vocabulary and phraseology of modern mitten Arabic. It is 
based an the form of the language wbich, throughout the Arab world from Iraq to Moroooo, is 
found in the proee of books, newapapers, periodicals, and letters. This form is also empioyed in 
formal public address, over radio and television, and in religious ceremonial, The diotionary will 
be most usefuJ to those working with writinga that have appeared aince the turn of the Century. 

The morphology and syntax of written Arabio are esaentially the same in all Arab ooun- 
triea. Vocabulary differences are limited mainly to the domain of apecialized vocabulary. Thua 
the written language contmnea, as it haa done throughout centuriea of the paat, to ensure the 
linguistio unity of the Arab world. It provides a medium of oommunicatkm over the vaat 
geographica! area whoee numeroua and widely diverser local dialecta it tranaoends. Indeed, 
it gives the Arab people of many countriea a Bense of identity and an awarenesa of their common 
culturaJ heritage. 

Two powerful and conflioiing forces have affected the development of the modern Arabio 
lexicon. A reform movement originating toward the end of the last Century in Syria and 
Lebanon haa reawakened and popularized the old conviotion of educated Arabs that the 
ancient 'arabiya of pre-Islamio times, which became the classical form of the language kl the 
early centuries of Islam, is better and more correct than any later form. Proponenta of this 
puristic doctrine have held that new vocabulary muat be derived exoluaively in accordance 
with ancient modela or by aemant» extension of older forma. They have insiBted on the 
replacement of all foreign loanwords with purely Arabio forma and expressiona. The puriata 
have had conaiderable influence on the development of modern literary Arabio although 
there haa been widespread protest againat their extreme point of view. At the same time 
and under the inoreaaing influence of Western civüization, Arab writers and jouroalists 
have had to deal with a host of new concepts and ideas previously alien to the Arab way 
of life. Aa aetual usage demonstrates, the puriats have been unable to eope with the aheer 
bulk of new linguiatic material whioh has had to be inoorporated into the language to 
make it ourrent with advances in world knowledge. The result is Been in the tendency 
of many writers, especially in the fields of Bcience and teohnology, simply to adopt foreign 
words from the European languagea. Many common, everyday expressions from the various 
colloquial dialects have also found their way into written expression. 

From its inception, thia diotionary haa been oompiled on acientifio descriptive principlea. 
It oontains only worda and expressiona which were found in context during the course of 
wide reading in literature of every kind or which, on the basis of other evidence, can be shown 
to be unqueationably a part of the present-day vocabulary. It ia a faithful record of the 
language ae attested by usage rather than a normative presentation of what theoretically 
ought to occur. Consequently, it not only liste claasical words and phrasea of elegant rhe- 
torical style aide by side with new coinages that confonn to the demands of the puriata, but 
it also oontains neologiama, loan tranalations, foreign loans, and colloquialiama which may not 
be to the linguistio taste of many educated Arabs. But since they occur in the corpus of ma- 
terials on which the diotionary ia based, they are inoluded here. 

Introduction VIII 

A number of special problems oonfront the loxicographer dealing with preaent-day Arabio. 
Since for many fields of knowledge, especially those which have developed outside the Arab 
world, no generally accepted terminology has yet emerged, it is evident that a practical 
dictionary can only approximate the degree of completeneas found in comparable dictionaries 
of Western languages. Local terminology, especially for many public institutions, offices, 
titles, and administrative affairs, has developed in the several Arab countries. Although the 
diotionary is based mainly on usage in the countries bordering on the eastern Mediterranean, 
looal official and administrative terms have been included for all Arab countries, but not with 
equal thoroughness. Colloquialisms and dialect expreasions that have gained ourrenoy in 
written fonn also vary from country to country. Certainly no attempt at completeneas can 
be made here, and the user working with materials having a maxked regional flavor will be well 
advised to refer to an appropriate dialeot diotionary or glossary. As a rule, items derived from 
local dialecte or limited to looal use have been so designated with appropriate abbreviations. 

A normalized journalistio style has evolved for faotual reporting of news or discussion of 
mattere of political and topical interest over the radio and in the press. Thia style, which 
often betrays Western influences, is remarkably uniform throughout the Arab world. It 
reaches large sections of the population daily and constitutes to them almost the only stylistio 
norm. Its vocabulary is relatively small and fairly Btandardized, hence easily covered in a 

The vocabulary of scientific and teohnological writingB, on the other hand, is by no means 
standardized. The impact of Western oivilization has confronted the Arab world with the 
serious linguistio problem of expressing a vast and ever-inoreasing number of new concepts 
for which no words in Arabic exist. The creation of a soientifio and technological terminology 
is still a major intellectual ohallenge. Reluctance to borrow wholesale from European languages 
has spurred efforts to coin terms according to productive Arabic patterns. In recent decades 
innumerable such words have been suggested in various periodioals and in special publications. 
Relatively few of these have gained acceptance in common usage. Specialists in all fields 
keep coining new terms that are either not understood by other specialists in the same field 
or are rejeoted in favor of other, equally short-lived, private fabrications. 

The Academy of the Arabio Language in Gairo especially, the Damascus Aoademy, and, 
to a lesser eztent, the Iraqi Academy have produoed and continue to publish vast numbers 
of technical terms for almost all fields of knowledge. The aoademies have, however, greatly 
underestimated the difficulties of artificial regulation of a language. The problem lies not so 
much in inventing terms as it does in assuring that they gain acceptance. In some instances 
neologisms have quickly become part of the stook of the language; among these, fortunately, 
are a large number of the terms proposed by academies or by professional specialists. However, 
in many fields, suoh as modern Unguis tics, existential philosophy, or nuclear physics, it is 
still not possible for professional people from the different Arab states to discuas details of 
their disoipline in Arabio. The Bituation is further complioated by the fact that the purists 
and the aoademies demand the translation into Arabio even of those Oreek and Latin tech- 
nical terms which make possible international understanding among specialists. Thus while 
considerable progress has been made in recent decades toward the standardization of Arabic 
terminology, several technical terms which all fit one definition may still be current, or a 
given scientific term may have düferent meanings for different experts. 

Those teohnical terms which appear with considerable frequency in published works, or 
which are familiär to specialists in various fields and are considered by them to be stand- 

XX Introduotion 

ardized terminology, presented no partioular problem. Nevertheless it has not always been 
possible to aBoertain the terms in general acceptance with the experta of merely one oountry, 
let alone those of all. Doubtful caseB are entered and marked with a special Symbol. A desorip- 
tive diotionary suoh as thi» has no poom for the ümumerable academio coinages which experi- 
enoe has shown are by no means assured of adoption. Only those that are attested in the 
literature have been included. 

Classioisms are a further special problem. Arab authors, Bteeped in classioal tradition, 
can and do frequently draw upon words whioh were already archaic in the Middle Ages. The 
use of classioal patterns is by no means limited to belles-lettres. Arohaisms may orop up in 
the middle of a spirited newspaper article. Wherever an aesthetio or rhetorioal effect is intend- 
ed, wherever the language aims more at expressiveness than at imparting information, 
authors tend to weave in ancient Arabio and olassioal idioms. They are artistio and stylistio 
devioes of the first Order. They awaken in the reader images from memorized passages of 
anoient literature and contribute to his aesthetio enjoyment. Quotations from the Koran or 
from classioal literature, whose origins and connotations may well elude the Western reader, are 
readily recognized by Arabs who have had a traditional eduoation and who have memorized a 
wealth of anoient souroes. In former years many writers strove to display their erudition by 
oiting lexical rarities culled from ancient diotionaries and oollections of Synonyms. As often as 
not the author had to explain such nawädir in footnotes, sinoe nobody eise would understand 
them. This pedantic mannerism is going out of fashion and there is a trend in more recent 
literature toward smoothness and readability in style. Nevertheless it is olear from the 
foregoing that it is not possible to make a Sharp distinction between living and obsolete usage. 
All archaic words found in the source material have, therefore, been inoluded in this diotionary, 
even though it is sometimes evident that they no longer form a part of the living lexioon and 
aro used only by a small group of well-read literary oonnoisseurs. Suoh included forms are 
but a small sample of what the user is likely to encounter in the writings of a few modern 
authors; the impossibility of inoluding the entire anoient vocabulary is obvious. The user who 
encountere an old Arabio word whioh he does not understand will have to oonsult a lexioon 
of the 'arablya. Finally, some modern authors will ocoasionally take great liberties with older 
words, so that even highly eduoated Arabs are unable to understand the sense of certain pas- 
sages. Items of this kind have not been entered. They would contribute nothing to a dio- 
tionary whose scope did not permit inclusion of source references. 

The vocabulary of modern Arabic, then, is by no means standardized, its soope in times 
diffioult to delimit. These results emerge from the very character of modern Arabio — a 
written language, powerfully influenced by traditional norms, which nevertheless is required 
to express a multitude of new foreign concepts, not for one oountry only, but for many distrib- 
uted over a vaat geographical area. Arabic phonology, morphology, and syntax have re- 
mained relatively unohanged from earliest times, as has muoh of the vooabulary. Here tradi 
tional adherence to anoient linguistio norms and to the modeis of olassioal literature, especially 
the Koran, has had the effect of preserving the language intaot over the centuries. But 
as vocabulary and phraseology mUBt adapt to the new and ever-changing requirements 
of externa] ciroumstanoes, these are more prone to ohange. Striotly speaking, every 
epoch of Arab history has had its own peculiar vocabulary, whioh should be set forth 
in a separate diotionary. But as we have seen, the vocabulary of modern Arabio con- 
fronts the lexicographer who aims at completeness with more than a fair Bhare of Prob- 
lems and difficulties. 


In the presentation of the entries in the dictionary, homonymous roots are given separate- 
ly in only a few especially clear instances. The arrangement of word entriea under a given 
root does not necessarily imply etymological relationship. Consistent Separation of such roots 
was dispensed with because the user of a praotioal dictionary of modern Arabio will not 
generally be concerned with Semitio etymology. In confonnity with the practice customary 
in bilingual diotionaries of modern European languages, where the material is treated in 
purely synchronic fashion, the origin of older loanwords and foreign terms is not indicated. 
For reoent loans, however, the source and the foreign word are usually given. Personal names 
are generally omitted, but large numbers of geographical names are included; the niaba 
adjectivea of these can be formed at will, hence are not entered unless some peouliarity such 
as a broken plural is involved. In transliteration, while the ending of nisba adjectivea regu- 
larly appears as -i (e.g., janübi, diräsi, mäklet), the same ending is shown as -iy for nominal 
forms of roots with a weak third radioal, i.e., where the third radical is contained in the 
ending (e.g., qasiy, sabiy, mahmly, mabniy). This distinetion, not present in Arabic Script, 
may prove valuable to the user of the dictionary. Because of a distinetion which retains 
importance in quantitative metrics, the third person Singular masculine Suffix is transcribed 
with a long vowel (-hü, -M) following Short syllables and with a Short vowel (-Au, -hi) after 
long syllables. In any bilingual dictionary, the listing of isolated words with one or more 
isolated translations is, striotly epeaking, an inadmissible abstraction. In Order to provide 
the syntactical Information to be expected in a dictionary of this size, a liberal selection 
of kiiomatic phrases and sentences illustrating usage has been added. Symbols showing the 
aecraative and prepositional government of verbs are also supplied. Synonyms and trans- 
lations have been included in large numbers in Order to delineate as accurately as possible 
the semantie ranges within which a given entry can be used. 

The material for the dictionary was gathered in several stages. The major portion was 
collected between 1940 and 1944 with the co-operation of several German orientalists. The 
entire work was set in type, but only one set of galleys survived the war. The author resumed 
the collection of material in the years 1946 through 1948 and added a considerable number 
of entries. The German edition of the dictionary, Arabisches Wörterbuch für die Schriftsprache 
der Gegenwart, which appeared in 19S2, was based on a corpus of appnnrimately 45,000 slips 
containing oitations ftom Arabic sources. The primary source materials consisted of selected 
works by Tähä Husain, Muhammad Husain Haikai, Tauflq al-Haklm, Mahmud Taimür, 
al-Manfalüti, Juhrän Kalil Jubrän, and Amin ar-Raihani. Further, numerous Egyptian 
newspapers and periodicals, the Egyptian State almanac, taqwim misr, for 1935 and its 
Iraqi counterpart, datil al-'iräq, for 1937, as well as a nurober of specialized Egyptian 
handbooks wore thoroughly sifted. The secondary sources used in preparation of the German 
edition were the first edition of Leon Bercher's Lexiqut arabe-francais (1938), which 
provides material fron the Tunisian press in the form of a Supplement to J. B. Belot's 
Vocabulaire arabe-jrancais, G. S. Colin's Pour lire la presse arabe (1937), the third edition of 
E. A. Elias' comprehensive Modern Dictionary Arabic- English (1929), and the glossary of the 
modem Arabic chrestomathy by C. V. Ode-Vassilieva (1929). Items in the secondary sources 
for which there were attestations in the primary sources were, of oourse, included. All other 
items in the secondary sources were carefully worked over, in part with the help of Dr. Tahir 
Khemiri. Words known to him, or already included in older dictionaries, were incorporated. 
Apart from the primary and secondary sources, the author had, of oourse, to consult a number 
of reference works in European languages, encyclopedias, leiicons, glossaries, teohnical 

XI Introduotion 

dictionaries, and specialized literature on the most diverse subjeots in Order to ascertain the 
correct translation of many teohnioal terms. For older Arabio forma, the available indioes and 
collections of Arabio terminology in the flelds of religion (both Islam and Eastern Churoh), 
jurisprudence, philosophy, Arabio grammar, botany, and othere were very helpful. These 
collections were, however, not simply aooepted and incorporated en bloc into the dictionary, 
but used only to sharpen the definition of terms in the modern meanings aotually attested 
in the primary source materialB. 

After publication of the German edition the author oontinued coUecting and presented 
new material, together with oorrections of the main work, in Supplement tum arabischen 
Wörterbuch für die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart, which appeared in 1959. The Supplement 
contains the results of extensive oolleofcion from the writings of 'AbdassalSm al-'Ujaill, 
MikS'il Nu'aima, and Karam Malham Karam, from newspapers and periodicals of aU Arab 
countries, as well ae from Syrian and Lebanese textbooks and apecialized literature. In the 
postwar years several lexicographioal works dealing with modern Arabio beoame available 
to the author: the second edition of Beroher (1944), the fourth edition of Elias (1947), 
D. Neustadt and P. Sohusser's Arabio-Hebrew diotionary, MiUtn ■Arabi'Ibri (1947), Charles 
Pellat's Uarabe. vivant (1962), and C. K. Baranov's oomprehensive Arabic-Russian diotionary, 
Arabsko-Buaskiy Slovar (1957). In preparing the Supplement, the author oompared these with 
his own work but was reluotant to inoorporate items which he could not find attested in 
context, and which would merely increase the number of entries derived from secondary 

The author is indebted to Dr. Andreas Jaoobi and Mr. Heinrich Becker who, until they 
were caUed up for military Service in 1943, rendered valuable assistanoe in oollecting and 
coUating the vast materials of the German edition and in preparing the manusoript. A con- 
siderable amount of material was contributed by a number of Arabists. The author wishes 
to express his gratitude for such contributions to Prof. Werner Caskel, Dr. Hans Kinder- 
mann, Dr. Hedwig Klein, Dr. Kurt Munzel, Prof. Annemarie Schimmel, Dr. Riohard Sohmidt, 
and especiaUy to Prof. Wolfram von Soden, who contributed a large amount of exoeUent 
material. I am deeply gratefnl to Dr. Munzel, who contributed many entries from news- 
papers of the postwar period and likewise to his coUeague Dr. Muhammad Saftf. I 
appreciate having been able to disouas many difficult items with them. The assistanoe 
of Dr. Tahir Khemiri was especially useful. He contributed 1,500 very valuable items and, 
until 1944, his advice to the author during the colleotion and sifting of material shed light 
upon many dubious cases. Prof. Anton Spitaler likewise provided valuable observations and 
greatly appreoiated advice. Contributions to the Supplement were supplied by Dr. Eberhard 
Kuhnt, Dr. Götz Schregle, and Mr. Karl Stowasser. Moreover, in the oourse of two ™its to 
a number of Arab countries, many Arab contributors, students, scholars, writers, and pro- 
fessional people too numerous to mention generously provided useful infonnation and counsel. 
Here, as in the prefaces to the German edition of the diotionary and the Supplement, the 
author wishes to express his sinoere thanks to all those who have contributed to the 
suocess of this undertaking. 

This English edition includes all the material oontained in the German edition of the 
dictionary and in the Supplement, as well as a number of additions and oorrections the need 
for wl ich became obvious only after the publication of the Supplement. Additions have been 
inserted in the proof almost up to the präsent time. It was therefore possible to inolude a 
number of contributions made by Dr. Walter Jesser in Alexandria. The number of cross- 

Introduction XII 

references has been conaiderably inoreased. A new type fönt was introduced for the Arabic. 
The second edition of Webster' b New International Dictionary was used as a Standard refer- 
ence for spelling and for certain definitions. On the Suggestion of the editor, three changes 
were made in the System of transliteration used in the German edition, namely, ; for r , 
% for £, and g for £. Also, following hia preferenoe, proper namea were transiiterated without 
oapital letters, Bince there is no capitalization in Arabic soript. The author followed a Sugges- 
tion made by Prof. Charles A. Ferguson in hia review of the dictionary (Language 30 : 174, 
1954) to transcribe feminine endings of roots having a weak third.radical (l\-) with the pausal 
form -öA instead of dt. Also following Dr. Ferguson' s advice, the author has transcribed many 
more foreign words than in the German edition. The letters e, c, 9, o, ö, g, v, and p, which 
have no counterpart in classioal Arabio, have been added. The system of transcription for 
Arabic wordß throughout the diotionary is simply a transliteration of the Arabic script. For 
foreign wordß and Arabic dialeot words, however, the usual transliteration of the Arabic is 
inadequate to indicate the pronunoiation. In order to avoid diacrepancy between spelling and 
pronunciation, the author, in his German edition, would oftenrefrain from giving any tran- 
scription at all, but merely enter the foreign word as a rough guide to pronunciation. In the 
present edition practically all foreign words have been transcribed (e.g., diblömäsi, häikoptar, 
vizä, vEtö) with the help of the added letters. Arab studenta at the University of Münster were 
consulted for the approzimately corract pronunoiation. Nevertheless, in many instances the 
foreign source word is also entered becauae pronunoiation variea considerably from Speaker to 
Speaker, depending on the dialeot and the degree of assimilation. One other deviation from 
a striot transliteration of the Arabic was made for certain foreign words in order to provide 
a oloser approximation to the usual pronunoiation. In writing European words with Arabic 
letters, I , j , ^ are, contrary to regulär praotice in Arabic, frequently used to indicate short 
vowels. Where thiß is the case, we have transoribed accordingly (e.g., J^kPj' otomäliki, 
iljU'li danmark). 

Finally, the author wishes to erpreea his Bincere gratitude to the editor, Prof. J Milton 
Gowan, thanks to whose initiative and energy this English edition can now be presented to 
the public. Hia generoua expenditure of time and effort on this project has been greatly 
appreciated by all involved. To Theodora Ronayne, who performed the exacting taak of 
preparing a meticulously accurate typescript, thereby conaiderably lightening our Iabors, 
we are indeed grateful. Professor Cowan joine me in recording our special thanks to Mr. Karl 
Stowasser, whose quite remarkable oommand of the three languages involved and whose 
unusual abilities as a lexicographer proved indispensable. He has devoted his untiring efforts 
to this enterprise for the past four years, oo-ordinating the work of editor and author across 
the Atlantic. The bulk of the translation was oompleted in 1967-1958, while he was in 
Ithaca. During the past two years in Münster he has oompleted the incorporation of the 
Supplement into the body of the dictionary and assisted the author in seeing the work through 
the press. 

The following paragraphs describe the arrangement of entries and explain the use of 
Symbols and abbreviations : 

Arabio words are arranged aocording to Arabic .'oota. Foreign words are listed in straight 
alphabetical order by the letters of the word (cf. ^ j\j bäris Paris, jitf kädir cadre) . Arabi- 

XIII Introduction 

cized loanwords, if they olearly fit under the roots, are entered both wayB, often with the root 
entry giving a reference to the alphabetical listing (cf. jj\i qänän law, ii'jy naizak spear). 
Two or more homonymous roots may be entored as separate items, inclnding foreign 
words treatcd as Arabic forms (e.g., eß karim under the Arabic root '^f »nd '(.Ä' tlle 
French word crime; cf. also the consonant combination k-r-k). In Order to indicate to the 
reader that the same Order of letters occurs more than once and that he should not confine 
his search to the first listing, each entry is precedcd by a small raised numeral (cf. jj, _,>). 

Under a given root the sequencc of entries is as follows. The verb in the perfeet of the base 
stein, if it exists, oomes first with the transliteration indicating the vowcling. It is followed 
by the vowel of the imperfect and, in parenthesos, the verbal nouns or mafädir. Then come 
the derived stems, indicated by boldface Roman immerals II through X. For Arab users 
unaccustomed to this dcsignation genorally used by Western orientalists, the corresponding 
stem forms are: II JjJ ja"aU, III Jeti jäula, IV J«il afala, V Jxil tafa'ala, VI J*U3 
lajaala, VII Jxül infu'ala, VIII J«=il ifta'alu, IX Jjl ifalla, X J«jiJ isiafula. Whcrever 
there is any irregularity, for the rare stems XI through XV, and for the derived stems of 
quadriliteral verbs the Arabic form is entered and translitcrated (cf. y£ VII, i*~j VIII, ^**- XII, 
-Ulm III). Then come nominal forms arranged aecording to their length. Verbal nouns of the 
stems II through X and all active and passive partieiplcs follow at the end. The latter are 
listed as separate items only when their meaning is not immediately obvious from the verb, 
particularly where a substantival or adjeetival translation is possible (cf. ^rU- häjib under 
^JC, J^-U sähil under J#). The sequence under a given root is not determined by historical 
considorations. Thus, a verb derived from a foreign Word is plaeed at the head of the entire 
section (cf. ül aqlama, 2 t\j II). 

Essentially synonymous definitions are separated by commas. A semicolon marks the 
beginning of a definition in a different semantic ränge. 

The syntaotic markings accompanying the definitions of a verb are a for the aecusative 
of a person, * for the aecusative of a thing, U for the feminine of animate beings, f for a 
group of persona. It should be noted that the Arabic included in parentheses is to be read 
from right to left even if separated by the word "or" (cf. ^ji, ^ij). Verb objeets in English 
are expressed by s.o. (someone) and (something), the reflexive by o.s. (onesclf). 

A dash oecurring within a section indicates that the following form of a plural or of a 
verbal noun, or in some instances the introduction of a new voweling of the main entry. 
holds for all following meanings in the section even if theso are not synonymous and are 
separated by semicolons. This dash invalidates all previously given verbal nouns, imperfect 
vowels, plurals, and othor data qualifying the main entry. It indicates that all following defini- 
tions apply only to this Iatest sub-entry (cf. Ji^- ka\aqu, J.U 'adala). 

In the transcription, which indicates the voweling of the unpointed Arabic, nouns are 
given in pausal form without tanwin. Only nouns derived from vorbs with a weak third 
radical are transcribed with nunnation (e.g., ^\j qädin, ^1m muqladan, Ju matan in 
contrast with Sj^ 1 . &uirä). 

A raised z following the transcription of a noun indicates that it is a diptote. This indication 
is often omitted from Western geographical terms and other recent non-Arabic proper names 
because the inflected ending is practically never pronounced and the marking would have 
only theoretical value (cf. ^^O 2 -' Mokholm, Jj.,1 abrll). 

The Symbol O precedes newly coined technical terms, chiefly in the fields of technology, 
which were repeatedly found in context but whose general aeeeptance among specialista could 

Introduction XIV 

not be established with certainty (cf. jUlJ tüfäz television aet, ^j*- hads Intuition, j£- miharr 
heating installation). 

The symbol D precedes thoae dialect words for which the Arabic Bpelling suggests a 
colloquial pronunciation (cf. «jLu- haddäf, 'Ja*- II). 

Dialect words are marked with abbreviations in lower-case lottere (e.g., syr., leb., saud.-ar., 
eto.). These are also used to inrlicate words which were found only in the sources of a particular 
area, This does not neceBsarily mean that a word or meaning is confined to that area (cf. j jjU- 
järür, ^ baffia, oUJLt Silmän). 

The same abbreviations, but with capital letters, mark entries as the generally accepted 
technioal terms or the official designations for public officee, institutions, administrative 
departments, and the like, of the country in question (cf. i _ r -Lf majlis, i&£ mahkama). 

The abbreviation Isl. Law marks the traditional terminology of Islamic fiqh (cf. i-u- 
hadat, üU li'än, <«i* mtä'a), as distinguished from the technical terms of modern juris- 
prudence whioh are oharacterized by the abbreviation jur, (cf. ^Af 'amdi, <J ^Sj talabbus). 
For other abbreviated labeis see List of Abbreviations below. 

Elatives of the form aj'cdu are translated througbout with the Englißh comparative 
because this moat often fite the meaning. The reader should bear in mind, however, that in 
oertain contexts they will best be rendered either with the positive or the Superlative. 

The heavy vertical stroke | terminates the definitions under an entry. It is followed by 
phrases, idioms, and sentences which illustrate the phraseologioal and syntactic use of that 
entry. These did not have to be transcribed in füll because it has been necesaary to asaume 
an elementary knowledge of Ärabio morphology and synbax on the part of the user, without 
which it is not poasible to use a dictionary arranged according to roote. Consequently, no 
tranacription is given after the vertical Btroke for: 

1 the entry itself, but it is abbreviated wherever it is part of a genitive Compound (e.g., 
ß. al-ma'äli under ßähib, husn al-u. under vhdvia) ; 

2 nounB whose Arabic speUing is relatively unambiguous (e.g., I-tfli, ÄpU, jUT, jU); 

3 words known from elementary grammar, suoh as pronouns, negations, and prepositions 
the third peraon perfect of the verb type fa'aia, occasionally also the definite article; 

4 frequent nominal types, such as: 

a) the verbal nouns (mafädir) of the derived atems II and VII — X: 
J^" taf'U, JUÜI infi'äl, jUil ifti'äl, J^l*il if'iläl, jUisJ istif'äl; 

b) the aotive and passive partioiples of the basio verb stem: 
Jpli fä'U, <Lli fä'üa, and Jj*Ä» maf'ül, lijJu maf'üla; 

c) the nominal types J_«i fall, *L*i fa'iia, jU/i*äJ t and J_yj fuül (also as a plural); 
«JUi/TöZa and *i^yj fu'üla as well as J*il af'al; 

d) the plural forma jUil af'äl, oUil af'ild*, JJUi fa'älü, Jplil ajä'il, J*U* mafä'il, 
JJUi fa'ä'il, J*Ui fa'ä'il, JJUi faälil, J-*Ui ajä'il, J-*Uj tafä'il, J-*U* mafä'il, 
ÜJUi fa'älila. 

All other poasible vowelings are transcribed (e.g., ij'äl, fa"äl, fu'ail, fa'vl, af'vl, fä'al). Words 
with weak radicals belonging in the form types listed above are also transcribed wherever 
any uncertainty about the form might arise (cf. 'f \j rägin under ^j, fjj^- 1 C-j j under c^ j , 
iS *i'i\ 4j>-il under JU*_ * masjid). 


List of Abbreviations 

In transcription, two nouns forming a genitive Compound are treated as a unit. Thoy are 
transoribed aa noun — definite article — noun, with the entry word abbreviated (of . under ^-»-L. 
aähib, «_1 Sibh). In a noun Compound where the seoond noun is in apposition or attributive, 
it alone is transoribed (cf. under lj\ ibra, iU- jild). In this manner the difference between 
the two oonstructions is brought out clearly without resorting to transliteration of the i'räb 
endings. A feminine noun ending in - a, as first member of a genitive Compound, is also abbre- 
viated, and the construct ending -t is to be read even though it is not expressed in the 

In view of the great variety and intricacy of the material presented, it is inevitable that 
inconsistencies will appear and that similar examples will be treated here and therc in a dinerent 
manner. For such incongruities and for certain redundancies, we must ask the user's indulgence. 

November 1960 

Hans Wehh 

List of Abbreviations 










anno Domini 
















year of the Hegira 






construetion engineering 






ante meridiem 


































east, eastern 










circa, about 






for example 

List of Abbreviationa 



























Great Britain 










gram mar 








that is 









Intern. Law 

International Law 








Islam, Islamic 




Jordan Kingdom 










































north, northern 


noun, nomen 


North Africa 


northeast, northeastern 







n. un. 

nomen unitatia 

n. vic. 

nomen vicia 


northwest, northwestern 














parliamentary language 












person, personal 













P i. 


pl. comm. 

pluralia oommunis 


poat meridiem 












wbioh see 





List of Abbreviationa 














eouth, southern 



Saudi Ar. 

Saudi Arabia 


theatrical art 


Saudi -Arabian 




southeast, aoutheastern 












Span iah 









United. Arab RepubUc 












west, western 






southwest, southwestern 


Yemenite usage 





I a particle introducing direct and indirect 
questions; j»l — I o — am in alternative 
queationa; A — 1 »\jm sawä'un a — am 
no matter whether — or; j\ a-wa particle 
indicating or implying doubt: or? per- 
haps? tiUi j ^iiUjI (taSukku) you 
wouldn't doubt it, would you? do you 
perhaps doubt it? or do you doubt it? 
Vi a-lä and LI a-mä intemifying inter- 
j'ectiona introducing sentencea : verily, 
truly, indeed, oh yes, etc., IjJiJLi VI 
(fa-nzurü) oh, do look! why, look! *Jl Li 
(inndkü) why, he is ...! 

1 i_>T ab 2 Auguat(month; Syr., Leb., Jord.,Ir.) 

a .->l see _^l 

\_>l abba u to long, yearn (ctj Jl ilä uxifanihi 
for one'a homeland) 

'l-^j! look up alphabe tically 

JLI (It. abate) abäti abbot {Chr.} 

5JU ibäla, ibbäla bündle, bale 

J u 


see ji) 

jjcl abjad aiphabet 

^jjjcl abjadi alphabetic(al) ; oLa*:l 
elementary facta, simple truths | lJj^J-I 
iafV the lettera of the aiphabet, the 

-ol abada i (*ji\ ubüd) to stay, linger (^ at a 
place); — i u to roam in a state of 
wildnesa, run wild, be shy, shy away, run 
away (animal, game) II to make laating 
or permanent, perpetuato, eternize (* V to be porpetuated, become 
lasting or permanent; to return to a 
State of wildness 

jjl abad pl. jLT dbäd endless, eternal 
duration, eternity; l-ol abadan alwaya, 
forever; ever, (with neg.) never (in the 
future), not at all, on no account; (alone, 
without negation) never! not at all! by 
no means! | -oVl Jl, -bV' J* and jA-OI -bl 
abada d-dahri forever; ^-bVl -bl abada 
l-abadin and ,j<-bVI -bl Jl ilä abadi ha. 
forever and ever 

^-bl abadi everlaating, eternal, endless 

^jjVl al-abadi eternity 

ijJjl abadiya infinite duration, endless 
time, eternity 

JjT äbid wild, untamed 

«OjT äbida pl. x>\j\ awabid 2 unuaual 
thing, prodigious event | Lj-dl x>)j\ a. 
ad-dunyä the Wondera of the World 

-Ojj mu'abbad eternal, endless, ever- 
laating | jjj* ^ (sijn) life impriaonment 

x j\ abara i u (abr) to prick, sting II to pollinate 
(* a palm tree) 

»j\ ibra pl. j \ ibar needle, pin; indicator 
(of an instrument); shot, injection (med.); 
sting, prick | lj\ *LÄß~ haqanahü ibratan to 
give s.o. an injection; ^\J\ lj\ i. ar-rä'i 
geranium (bot.); Z^-^Lk* »j\ (magnätlsiya) 
magnetic needle; J^V' Jii sugl al-i. 

j^> mi'bar needlecase; pack needle 

z jljT äbär see Ji 

*--/' abraMya and i~Zjj\ abrüSiya pl. -öl 
diocese, biahopric (Chr.); parish (CAr.) 

<m r±*j\ abramis, (j-x.lj-1 bream (200Z.) 

>y I ifrriz pure gold 

g-ij\ ibrisam, ibrisim silk 

f jt_j\ ibriq pl. JjjLI abäriq* pitcher, jug 

Jj j I abril April 

öj\ abzan pl. üjLI abäzin* waahbowl 

fj\ ifaim pl. fj\j\ abäzim* bucklo, claap 

lj ij\ vh4 pl. ^LT ööö^ and ^^U ma'bitf pl. 
jäjL ma'äbujP hollow of the knee, popliteal 

.Lil V to take or carry under one's arm (* ; 
to put one's arm (*, • around s.o., around, hold in one's arm {*, • s.o., 

Jaul ibf pl. ^>1>T äbäf m. and f. armpit 

jjl abaqa % (jLl ibäq) to escape, nin away 
( a slave from his master) 

^1 abaq a kind of hemp 

jiJ äbiq pl. JLI ubbäq runaway, escaped; 
a fugitive 

1 Jjl ibil (coli.) cameis 

•ULI ibäla, ibbäla bündle, bale 

>LI ibliz alluvial deposits (of the Nile) 

^j-Jj I iblUP pl. ULI abälisa devil, Satan 

*j. I II to celebrate, praise, eulogize (• a de- 
ceased person), deliver a funeral oration 
(• in praise of s.o.) 

4iil ubna passive pederasty 

üljl ibbän time; uLI ibbäna during, 
üLl j at the time of, during 

,jol; ta'bin commemoration (of a de- 
ceased person) | ,joÜI *U*- haflat at-t. 
commemorative celebration (in honor of 
a deceased person) 

by\* mqtbün catamite; weaküng, moLiy- 
coddle, siasy"; scoundrel 

^yljl abnüs ebony 

*i\ abaha and abiha a (abk) to pay attention 
(J, also <y to), heed (J, also ^, take 
notice (J, also ^ of ) J *l oj* V j*\ (yu*bahu) 
an insignificant, unimportant matter V to 
display proud, haughty marinere; to turn 
away, keep one's distance, remain aloof 
(^p from), look down (^ upon), think 
o.s. far above (^ s.o or 

<f\ ubbaha splendor, pomp, ostentation, 
pageantry; pride 

<_J ab pl. »LTö6ä* father (also eccl.}; ancestor, 
forefather; £~A L yä abati my father! 
jl^Vl al-abawän the parents, father and 
mother; \jy\ abünä reverend father, form 
of address and title of a priest (Chr). \ 
.u- ^p LI aban 'an jaddin handcd down 
from father to son, as inherited from 
forefathers; j»-. y\ abü su'n marabou; 

r>-" y. ' °^ «-«ö«"* p°ppy ; J>^ ' y. ' 

abü l-havl the Sphinx; üllüJI y\ abü 
l-yaqzän rooster, oock 

»y\ vbüwa fatherhood, patemity 

jjil abawi patemal, fatherly 

ü-w_jil ebonite 

*J_jjI (Fr. abonni) abünik pl. -ät subscription; 
subscription card (e.g., for public convey- 
ances, a concert season, etc.) 

ijl abä a (.LI ibä\ l.LI ibä'a) to refuse, 
decline; to turn down, reject, scom, dis- 
dain (*; to deny (* J* s.o. | 
«luij öl VI <jl (illä an yaf'alahü) he in- 
sisted on doing it; jl Vi ^>l <jl God willed 
that . . . V to refuse, decline 

•LI ibä*, «.LI ibä'a rejection; dislike, 
distaste, aversion, disdain; pride 

jl ably disdainful, scomful; proud, lofty, 

<_J äbin pl. «L I vbäh reserved, ßtandofiish ; 
unwilling, reluctant, grudging 

i^wl abtb the eleventh month of the Coptic 


i£;^L>l ablqüri Epicurean 

ÜjjÄjI abiqüriya Epicureanism 

r-jTl vtrujj and £j\ utrunj oitron (Citrus 
medica; bot.) 

^JLjT (Turk. ateffi) ät&$gi fireman, stoker 

jtL ma'tam pl. ft, ma'ärim.' obsequies, funeral 

1 ü1jI atän pl. JiT ätun, J^l u*un, u/n female 
donkey, she-ass 

3 <jjjl a/ün, atiün pl. Jll vlun, J^jUI aiätln 2 
kiln, furnace, oven 

»jLjI üduu pl. jjtji aJäuw duty, tax, tribute 

^pujjl (Fr.) oto&fa autobus, bus 

(5-jUjjI (Fr.) otomätlki automatic 

J— yjf and J-jj*yil (Fr.) otomooij automobile 

Jl alä i (üUjI Üyön, Jl aty, «LjU matäh 
to come (» or Jl to; J* over s.o.), arrive 
(* or Jl at); ^ Jl to bring, bring forward, 
produce, advance, accomplish or achieve; t-» • jl to bring, give or offer s.o.; to do, perform {* a deed), carry out, 
execute (* e.g., movements); to commit, 
perpetrate {* a sin, a crime); to mention 
(J*; to finiah off (J*, also s.o.); 
to finish, complete, carry through, dispose, 
aettle, wind up, conclude, terminate, bring 
to a close (J*; to destroy, annihilate, 
eradicate, wipe out (J*; to eliminate, 
carry away, sweep away (J*, do 
away (J* with); to use up, exhauat (also 
a subject), prcsent exhauatively, in great 
detail (J*, elaborate (J* on | 
Jl li" as follows; *_^T Jp Jl (äkirihi) 
to complete, finish; to spend or use 
up the last of; ^-jUIj ^-i»-Vl J* Jl 
to destroy everything, wreak havoc; 
Lrl^J ü- ^Oa^ J' (buyüia) to tackle in the right way, knock on the right 
door; Jj j* Jjj yu'tä min qibali is under- 
mined, weakened, ruined by III to offer, 

furnish, give, afford (<_> • to s.o., 
provide, supply (<-» * s.o. with) ; to be pro- 
pitious, be favorable {» for s.o.), favor 
(* s.o.); to turn out well (# for s.o.), be in 
favor {• of); to suit, befit, become (» s.o.), 
be appropriate (• for s.o.); to agree (• with 
s.o.; food) j »^i $> *\S\ [hiüuSai'in) every- 
thing was in bis favor, turaed out well 
for him, came bis way IV to bring (* * s.o.; to give (* • s.o.; to grant (* • 
to s.o., bestow (* • upon s.o. | 
• SjJl JT (zakäta) to give alms V to origi- 
nate, atem, derive, spring, arise, result 
(je- from); to end (je- with), result (je- 
in); to get (Jl to), arrive (Jl at); to be easy 
to do, be feasible without diffioulty, be 
attainable, go well, progress; to go about (J) gently, cautiously X to ask to 
come, induce to come {• s.o.) 

JU matan pl. ol* maäiin place where comes from ; place at which one arrives ; 
access; pl. ou place of origin; origin, 
source, provenance; place where one has 
been or to which one has come; place where starts, where ends 

c*\ ätin coming, next; following j f_>~*VI 
jVl {usbü') the coming week, next week; 
JVtT as follows 

il>l_^ muäiin, muwätin favorable, pro- 
pitious, opportune, convenient, suitable 

ii»l atta u i a (ÜLjI atäta) to be luxuriant, grow 
profusely (hair, plante) II to fix up, prepare 
(a; to furnish (* an apartment) 
V to be or become rieh, wealthy, to prosper; 
to be furnished 

i>ljl atät furniture, furnishings (of an 
apartment, of a room) 

ti~uu ta'tit furnishing 
<i»l ait, tiuJI atil abundant, luxuriant, 
profusely growing (hair, plants) 

x j I atara u i (air, SjUI atära) to transmit, pass 
along, report, relate (*, je- from, or 
based on the authority of, s.o.) II to 

affect, influence ( j or J* s.o.,, act 
(j or J* upoo), produce an effect, make 
an impression, have influence ( j or J* on) ; 
to induce (phys.) IV to prefer (J* * to), 
like (* more (J* than); to have a pre- 
dilection, a liking (* for), like (*, be 
fond (* of); to choose, deem wise or ad- 
visable (jl to do; to adore {*, » 
s.o., | _yX\j *-ÄJ j\ (nafaahü bi-l- 
kair) to wißh o.s. well, hope for the best 
for o.s. V to be impressed, be influenced; 
to let o.s. be impressed, be impreßsible; to 
be moved, be touched (i_j or J by, also 
£*); to be exoited, be stimulated; to be 
affeoted (<-» by, said of materials, e.g., 
iron by acid); to be induced (phys.); to 
follow in s.o.'s (♦) tracks, follow a.o.'s 
example, emulate (• s.o.); to pursue, follow 
up (* a question, a problem) ; to perceive, 
feel {* X to claim a monopoly; to 
poesess alone, with the excluaion of others, 
monopolize (i_*; to appropriate (^, take exclusive possession (l_j of); 
to preoccupy (*, engross (* the 
attention) j * <ü>! ytu-l the Lord has taken 
hfm unto Himself 

j I atar pl. jIjT ätär track, trace, vestige; 
sign, mark; touch; Impression, effeot, ac- 
tion, influence (j on); tradition (relating 
the deeds and utterances of Mohammed 
and bis Companions); work (of art, esp. 
of literature); ancient monument; jüTan- 
tiquities ; remnants, vestiges ; ( religioua ) 
relics | jtf^ll 1* *üm (d-ä. archeology; 
jÜ^fl jli museum of antiquitiea; *J j\ V 
(atara) ineffective, ineffeotnal; i jt r j J\j 
(rafi) with retroaotive force O'ur.); £-*\ 
,>* Xu \J\ asbaha ataran ba'da 'ainin to 
be deetroyed, be wiped out, leave noth- 
ingbutmemorybehind;,>* -W Lr' •■*'*' ( a 'ö* 
dahü) to destroy completely; »j\ J», 
tj I j (also fi itrihi) on bis (its) track, at Mb 
heels, after bim; immediately afterwards, 
presently, thereupon; y^l J» immediately 
afterwards, presently 

j\ üra (prep.) immediately after, right 

&j\ atari archeologic(al) ; archeologist 
(also ^jIjT äfäri); old, ancient, antique | 
iSj\ (1U archeologist; hj\ <ii (luga) dead 

j 1 atir egoistic, eelfiflh 

»j I atara Belfißhness, egoism 

jrul atlr favored, preferred (J^c by s.o.), 
in favor (.u* with s.o.); select, exquisite, 
noble; see also alphabetically 

•jül aßra remainder, remnant; faint 
trace, vestige 

ij\* ma'tara, ma'tura pl. j\* ma'äHr* 
exploit, feat, glorious deed 

jv\j ta'tir action, effect, influence, im- 
pression (j, J* on); effectiveness, efßcacy; 
induction (phys.) 

tfjvb ta'tiri produced by induction, in- 
ductive, inductional, induced (phys.) 

jlil itär preference; altmism; predilec- 
tion; ktve, affection 

yl* ta'agur being influenced; agitation, 
emotion, feeling; excitability, eensitivity; 
(pl. -ät) feeling, Sensation, perception J «j J _- 
yUJl easily impressed, impresaible, sen- 

tfjfc ta'atturi: ^ytdl ^Jl\ (madhab) 
the impreBsionistic movement 

öylj taatiuriya impressionism 

jliiü-l isti'tär arrogation of a monop- 
oly ; monopolization ; preaumption, pre- 
sumptuousness; exclusive power 

jjjU ma'tür transmitted, handed down | 
j_jjL J_jS (qa-ul) and !jjjL it (kalima) 

jja mu'aüir affecting, acting upon; 
affective ; impressive ; moving, toucbing, 
pathetic; (pl. -ät) influencing factor, in- 

*j$\ look up alphabetically 

LjüI ulfiya pl. «JiLjI atäfin trivet, tripod (in 
ancient times : any one of the three stones 
supporting a cooking pot near the fiie) | 
jIj Vi «JüIj that which rounds out a number, 
caps, puts the lid on, the crowning 

JJI atala i to consolidate, strengthen II to 
become rieh V to be Consolidated, be 
Btrengthened ; to become rieh 

J?l atl pl. JjjI utül (coli.; n. un. •, pl, 
ataläl) tamarisk (bot.) 

JJI atil and JJj* mv'attal deep-rooted; 
of noble origin, highborn 

jrl alima a (um, atam, A* ma'tam) to sin, err, 
slip V to eschew sin, shun evil; to restrain 
o.b., hold back 

r\ itm pl. *\j\ ätäm sin, offense, misdeed, 

f U ma'tam pl. r L. ma'ätim* sin, offense, 

misdeed, crime 

-jü ta'fim sin, offense, misdeed, crime 
s-T ätim pl. Äxl atama and Jl a^tm pl. 

•Lei utamä' 1 sinful, criminai, wicked, evü; 


Xc 1 tjnutZ antimony 

_r*l a/ir ether 

Lul atinä Athens 

Lj^JI atyübiyä Ethiopia 

J^~ji atyübi Ethiopian; (pl. -ün) an 
Ethiopian | «j.jJVI j^AJI Ethiopia 

^1 ajja u i (^*-\ ajij) to burn, blaze, flame 
(fire) II to light, kindle, start (* a fire) 
V = I 

r-U-l »l> mä* ujäj bitter, salty water 

^U-l ajjäj burning, blazing, hot 

jv^U. mvta'ajjij burning, blazing, flam- 

i-j-l ajabtya horologium (Copt.-Chr.) 

^»-1 ajara u (ajr) to reward, recompense, 
remunerate (» s.o.) II to let for rent, let 
out, hire out, rent, lease (* ; (with na/* 
sahü) to hire o.s. out IV to let for rent, let 
out, hire out, rent, lease (* ; to rent, 
hire, lease, hold under a lease (*, 
take a lease (* on) ; to hire, engage, take 
on (• s.o.), engage the Services (• of s.o.) 
X to rent, hire, lease, hold under a lease 
(*, take a lease (* on); to charter {* 
a vessel); to hire, engage, take on (• b.o.), 
engage the Services {♦ of s.o.) 

j*- 1 ajr pl. jy- 1 ujür wages, pay, 
honorarium, recompense, emolument, re- 
muneration; price, rate, fee | jj-Jl jj*~\ 
u. as-aafar fares 

lj>-\ ujra hire, rent, rental; price, rate, 
fee; fiied rate, (official) charge; postage | 
■4jj" Vr 1 postage; JiJl lj>-\ u. an-naql 
transport charges, freight(age), carriage, 

_r>-l ajxr pl. »I_^»-I ujarä* 2 hireling; 
workraan, laborer, day laborer; employee 

»j*?\ ajira working woman, factory 
girl, female laborer; woman employee 

j*»-t ta'jir letting, leasing, hiring out, 
lottingon lease ; lease |yl*Vlj j^r^l fjA* 
(i'ära) Lend- Lease Act 

jL<l ijär pl. -ät rent; letting, leasing, 
hiring out, letting on lease | jLf^U for 
rent, to let 

•jU-l ijära pl. -ät rent; letting, leasing, 
hiring out, letting on lease 

jl*»£ü-l iäti'jär rent, lease, tenure 

j^L ma'jür paid, salaried, on the 
payroll, gainfully employed; employee; 
mercenary, venal, hired, bribed 

j*rj* mu'ajjir pl. -ün landlord, lesaor 

j>r^—* mwta'jir leaseholder, lessee, 
tenant; employer 

a _^.T äjurr (n. un. 5) baked brick 







o'W- 1 iijäf 


J»-l aj'tla a (a/al) to hesitate, tarry, länger 
II to delay, postpone, put off, defer, ad- 
journ (Jl a tili) V to be postponed, 
be deferred, be adjoumed (Jl tili, to) 
X to request postponement (* of; 
to seek to delay (* 

J^l ajal yes, indeed! certainly! by all 
means ! 

J»-^ li-ajli or J»-l ^ min ajli becauae 
of, on account of, for the sake of; for | 
jl J--V in order that, that, so that; 
li* J»-l j* therefore, for that reoson, on 
this account 

J»-l ajal pl. JU-T äjäl appointed time, 
date, deadline; instant of death; respite, 
delay | J*-1IIj on credit (com.); Jr^' JJ-** 
short-term, short-time ; short-lived ; Jl 

. , - ji- J*-l (yairi musamman) for an 
indefinite period, sine die, until further 

J^t ta'jU delay, postponement, ad- 
journinent, deferment, respite; appoint- 
ment of a time or date 

J*-T äjü delayed, protracted; deferred; 
later, future (as opposed to J*-U) | ^U 
■5U-T J\ 'äjilan au äjilan, <U-T ^1 *U-L* j 
sooner or later, now or later on; J»-Ul J 
J*-^ 1 j now and in the future 

lU-'Sl al-äjtla the life to come, the 

J»-J* mu'ajjal delayed, late, post- 
poned, deferred; fiied in time, deadlined 

Äj*\ ajama, coli. .»-I ajam pl. -ät, j-I u/um, 
»U-T äjäm thicket, jungle, forest; reeds, 

5j>l ajamlya malaria | «->1M. *-*>•* 
baüfat al-a. anopheles 

j»-T äjin brackish (water) 

•-U*-l ajanda notebook 

7-1 ahka u (ahh) to cough 

.u-l II to make into one, unite, unify (* 
VIII i£\ ittahada see j*-j 

.u-l aAad, f. ^.u-l iAdä one; somebody, 
someone, anybody, anyone (esp. in neg- 
ative sentences and questionß); .u-VI 
the One (God); Sunday | >o*-l ahaduhum 
every one of them; .u-V' f^i !/ aun| ol-a. 
Sunday; iJmJ! .u-1 a. as-aa'af Palm 
Sunday; S^^a^JI -U-l a. al-'anpara Whit- 
sunday; <J»jJlM jIj-T ähäd al-idüf a few 
thousand (2 — 9000; as distinguished from 
J»yVI C>\jl* and J»_^l Oll.) 
j0*-l oAodi dominical, Sunday (adj.) 
<jJU-l a/wwiiya unity, oneness 
iU-^/l al-ähäd the units (math.) 

1 l y-\ ahina a (ahan) to bäte (J* s.o.) 

Ä^-l iÄna pl. j^-l »Aan old feud, deep- 
rooted hatred 

»^T see £j\ 

JU-1 ajwda u (a£tf) to take (> * from or 
out of); to take (* along; to get, 
receive, obtain (j- * from); to take 
up, seize (*; to grab (i_> s.o.,, 
take hold of (*-<); to perceive, notice 
(• s.o., said of the eye) ; to gather, under- 
stand, infer, doduce (j* * from), 
read (a between the lines (j^ of); 
to grip, captivate, thrill, spellbind (v 
s.o.); to take up, acquire, make one 's 
own (<~>, e.g., a method); to keep, 
adhere (<-» to), observe, take over, adopt, 
embrace, follow, copy, imitate (<-»; 
to accept (v; to take, lead (Jl v 
b.o. to); to admonish, urge, drive {<-» * 


a.o. to do; to enjoin, impose (■_> • 
on s.o.; to take away (* Je from 
a.o., strip, deprive {* Je s.o. of), 
cut off, bar (* Je s.o. from); to reproach, 
blame (* Je s.o. for); to hold against 
s.o. (Je) that... (Ol), fix the blame fje 
on s.o., jl for the fact that); to obligate 
(>_> J* s.o. to); to learn (Je or j*. from 
s.o., *, acquire knowledge (Je or j*. 
from s.o.), te i*l' -i>-l (Jilm) to study 
under s.o.; to begin, start (j or i_> with or, with foll. imperf.: to do, prepare, set out, be about (j or >_> 
to do | *u>\ -U-l (uhbatahü) to make 
preparations, prepare o.s., get ready; 
ü"5Ü -U-t« -i*-' (makad) to adopt the same 
course as s.o. eise, follow s.o.'s example; 
IJU-l* *l* l*-\ to seize s.o., take possession 
of a.o. (a Sensation, or the like); »\jtt -U-l 
(majrähu) to take its course; <Jl£ X±\ 
(majliaahü) to take one's seat, sit down; 
»jj^ i»-l (hidrahü) to be on one's guard; 
J_J-L «-U-I (husnä) to be friendly, be 
nice to s.o. ; a_^»lic -U-1 (bi-kätirihi) to show 
o.s. complaisant toward s.o., try to 
pleaee s.o.; aJ-U «-U-I (bi-danbihi) to 
punish s.o. for hie offense; o]j X^-\ (raya* 
hü) to ask s.o.'s opinion, consult s.o.; 
aAs. ^J>\ -U-l {ukida r-ra'yu) the matter 
was put to a vote; i-jL-L Ä^l {bi-asbäbi) 
to embrace, adopt, e.g., vV"^ -^ 
ijjj*yi SjUäi-1 (hadära) to adopt Euro- 
pean culture; »JJÜL »\*-\ ißidda) to deal 
with s.o. severely, give s.o. a rough 
time; *ÄjJ* <^* -U-l to obstruct s.o.'s 
way, hinder s.o. from moving on; »A£-\ 
*ijU J* to Shoulder, take upon 
o.s.; J »JjJI Jj-\ ('udda) to prepare, set 
out, get ready to do; \x^ 4-1* Ä>-1 
('dhdari) to put a.o. under an Obligation, 
impose a commitment on s.o.; J* -U-l 
Iji. (j\>-} ukida 'alä (Amt) girratin to be 
taken by surprise, be caught unawares; 
ÜjUÜj -U-I (muqäbala) to repay like for 
like; i_^UJI -L-^L» »^i which cap- 

tivatea the heart, a fascinating, thrilling 
thing; ^Lll L'i>-I (mataru) we got caught 
in the rain; *j~*\^> -U-i (bi-7iäpirihi) to 
help s.o., stand by s.o., take care of s.o., 
look after s.o.; *— kl -U-i {nafasahü) to 
draw breath; <-Lill <A* .U-l to take s.o.'s 
breath away; pJI ».U-l (7iaum) sleep 
overwhelmed him; ».u .U-1 (6t-yadiAt) 
to help s.o., stand by s.o. II to lay under 
a spell, enchant, bewitch (» s.o.) III to 
censure, blame (>_>, Je « s.o. for; to 
punish (>_>, Je o s.o. for); to hold 
(Je) against s.o. (»), resent (J* • in 
s.o.) | !j.U-1jJ V lä tu'äkidnl pardon me! 
forgive me! no offense, I hope! VIII .ucl 
ittakada to take (*; to take on, 
assume (*; to take up, occupy (*; to pass, adopt (* e.g., a resolution); 
to take, single out, have in mind (**, «> 
s.o. or as); to make use (* of, 
use (a; to imitate, affect (* e.g., 
s.o.'s manner of speaking) ; to make 
(j* m out of s.o. or | "&J- ikl 
(Saklan) to take on a form or shape; 
\Jüj* JÜcl (mauqifan) to take an attitude, 
assume a position; öj:>UI jol-cdl ökl to 
take the necessary measures; ljl_^f -i^l 
(qaräran) to pass or adopt a resolution; 
»-UJj-l ^Jl^il &\ to take up new po- 
sitions (troops) 

.U-l akd acceptance, reception; seizure; 
taking out, taking away, removal, etc. | 
<j\j\ .U-l a. ar-ray voting, vote; ijj -U-1 
(wa-radd) discussion, debate, dispute, 
argument; bj Vj l-i—=- 1 J^ V »^i (yaqbalu) 
an indisputable matter; »Uaej .U-l {wa- 
'afä') give-and-take; traffic, trade; deal- 
ings, relationa (esp. business, commer- 
cial); discussion, debate; fight, battle 

«.U-l ukda spell, charm 

JL>- 1 akld prisoner of war 

*Xs-\ akida booty, spoils 

iU-l akkä4 captivating, fascinating, 


Ju-U ma'kad pl. JU-l* maäkid 2 place 
from which one takes, source ; 
O wall socket, outlet {el.) ; adoption, 
borrowing, loan ; manner of acting, mode 
of procedura, approach; pl. Ö»-U source 
referencea, bibliography (in booka); rep- 
rehensible points, faults, flaws, defects, 
shortcomings | ^>»Vl o»-tU the simplest, 
easiest approach ; -Ulli ^»^ eaay to 
handle or to use; aee also akada (middle 
of paragraph) 

«irf-lj, mu'äkada objection, exception; 
censure, blame J !»-bUj* "}/ (mv'äkadata) 
pardon me! no offense, I hope! 

i_p-U ma'Jcüd taken, seized; taken by 
aurpriae, caught, trapped ; surpriaed ; 
taken {^ with), fascinated (t-* by) ; 
Ai ij^U in force, valid 

oli^L maküdät receipts, takings, 
returns (com.) 

i-\ II to delay, put off, defer, postpone, 
adjourn (* ; to hinder, impede, 
obetruct, hold up (« s.o., *, slow 
down, retard (*; to draw out, 
delay (j* # beyond ita appointed 
time); to put back (*, » a.o.,, shelve 
(*; to set back (* a watch, a dock); 
to auspend, discharge, dismiss, remove 
(> s.o. from an office) V to be late; to be 
delayed, fall or lag behind (j*), tarry, 
linger, heaitate; to default (j* on), be 
behindhand, be in arreara (j* with), be 
behind {j* in); to hesitate (j* with); to 
be suspended (from aervice), be dia- 
charged, be dismiaaed | ^ dJli -Xm j^-^-i l 
ül after that, he did not hesitate long 
before he ..., presently, he ... 

_^-T äkir pl. -ün, -ät, _/- \j\ aiväkir* last, 
ultimate, utmost, extreme; end, close, 
conclusion; foot, bottom (of a paper); 
>^l and ;>^l the hereafter \ i>^l jUl 
the abode in the hereafter, the ever- 
lasting abode; «_^-T J( ilä äkirihi and 

so forth, et cetera; j*V' j»-> äkira l- 
amri eventuaüy, finally, in the end, after 
all; j»j}\ _^-T äkira d-dahri forever; _^-T 
öL-jJl ä. az-zamän time at which the 
Day of Judgment is to be expected, the 

end of the world; 

'>' J* 

to the last, 

down to the grass roots, entirely, com- 
pletely, e.g., »j*-T j* _^i {dummira) to 
be completely destroyed, be wiped off 
the map ; »j>-\ ^- from behind, from the 
rear; _^-T <! I* endlesa, infinite; j*-T j 
_^\ after all, last of all; _*iJI y-ljl 
a. oi-ioAr the end of the month, the last 
ten days of the month; I^T ^j-^j lj»! 
last but not least 

lj*-^\ al-äkira the hereafter 

_^T äkar 3 , f. <j_/-\ ukrä, pl. comm. _/-\ 
ukar* (and üjj^\ äkarün or o U_^- 1 
ukrayät respectively) another, one more, 
j*-^l the other | ^j*-l «^ (marratan) 
once more; j^^-lM ( _ > *, j*-^ _>» he also, 
she also, he in turn, ab© in turn, j»-^ Lil 
I also; ti^^l oJtf o\ (in känat) other - 
wise; ^T Jl üT j« from time to time; 
^ji~\ Jl iL- y* (sana) from year to 
year; <Sj*-\j »jj Cr J . {/o*«») once in a 
while, from time to time; t£j*-l — *5jT 
(äwinatan) Bometimes — sometimes, at 
times — at times 

tf^Vl al-ukrä the hereafter 

•SIS- 1 ufcrow» of or relating to the life 
to come or the hereafter 

^»-1 akir last; latest; rearmost; the 
second of two; l,r»-l eventually, finally, 
in the end, after all, at last; recently, 
lately, the other day; j»-1/l — ü/l/1 the 
former — the latter | l_^-T ^j lj*»-l 
last but not least 

jU^> mi'kär palm which retaine ita 
fruit into the winter 

^»-U ta'kir delay, deferment, post- 
ponement; obstruction, retardation; put- 
ting back, temporary shelving 

j*\i taakkur delay, lag, retardation; 
hesitation, tarrying, lingering; slowneas, 
tardinesa; backwardness, underdevelop- 
ment (of a country) 

j*-j* mu'akkar rear part, tau, end; 
stern (of a ship) ; remainder, balance (of 
a sum, to be paid later); \j*-$* mu'akka» 
ran recently, lately, the other day; at 
last, finally, eventually 

»j»-j* mu'akkara rear, rear guard (of an 
army) ; rear positions or lines (mü.) ; 
stern (of a ship) 

_^l^4 muta'akkir delayed, belated, late; 
occurring later (je than); behind, behind- 
hand, in arrears; backward, underdevel- 
oped; lagging, staying behind; defaulter; 
Uj^-ldl the later, or modern, authora, 
writers, or the likefasopposedtoj^ JJtdl); 
ol>-uil arrears, balance of a sum re- 
maining due after previous payment | 
i^lxil OloiJt (buidän) the underdevel- 
oped countries 

Sr^Aaji-\ Ukfubüf OCtOpuS 

j>-\ III to fraternize, aasociate as brothera 
(« with s.o.) V to act or show o.s. as a 
brother or friend VI to fraternize, asso- 
ciate as brothers 

;-l ak pl. ij*-\ ikwa, jl_^>-l ikwän 
brother; fellow man, neighbor; friend; 
pl. ül_jjil speeif., brethren or members of 
an order; jl_j>-Vl religious brotherhood 
of the Wahabi sect, militant in character, 
established by Ibn Sa'üd in 1910 | ^-1 L 
my dear friend! *Ä) _^>-l akü tiqa trust- 
worthy, reliable; jJü £l brother through 
both father and mother, brother-german 

<l^-\ ukt pl. cJ\yi~\ akaiüät eister; 
{gram.) cognate; counterpart | l^-l the 
other (of two), its mate, its counterpart 
(after a fem. noun) 

jj>- Jcuwaiy little brother 

6j>-\ akawi brotherly, fraternal 

~tjj±\ akawya brotherhood (as a re- 
ligious association) 

» U- 1 ikä' , »j>- 1 uküwa brotherhood , 
brotherliness, fratemity 

•jl*-l ilcäxua fratemization, fraternity, 

i-t ta'äkin fratemization 
j_j>-l ajcür barn, stable 
jl adda ut to befall, affüct (» s.o.) 

il j*l amr idd a terrible, evil, horrible 

.«ol aduba u (adab) to be well-bred, well- 
mannered, eultured, urbane, have refined 
tastes; — adaba i (adb) to invite (to a 
party or banquet, « s.o.), entertain 
(* s.o.) | ijU >_ol (ma'duba) to arrange a 
banquet, give a formal dinner II to 
refine, educate (• s.o.); to diseipline, 
punish, ehastise (* s.o.) IV to invite aa a 
guest (• s.o.) V to reeeive a fine education ; 
to be well-bred, well-educated, eultured, 
have refined tastes; to show o.s. polite, 
courteous, civil, urbane; to educate o.a., 
refine one's tastes (^ by, through); to let 
o.a. be guided (i_j by) | -jjü ._oIj (6t- 
adabihi) to follow s.o.'s moral example 

i_ol adab pl. ._jl.sT ädäb eulture, re- 
finement; good breeding, good manners, 
social gracea, decorum, decency, pro- 
priety, seemliness; humanity, humane- 
ness; the humanities; belles-lettres | c-jj 
^j^I toilet, water closet; .-olM J~L# and 
,,-oVl fJ* ill-mannered, ill-bred, impolite, 
uncivU; i/UI i_jj"i!l ('ämml) populär 
literature; t-o^l Jl*-j literati, men of 
lettera; ^!^l S-JS' kulllyat al-ä. (= fa- 
culte des lettres) College of arts; ._jIjI 
rulea, rules of conduet, e.g., £j_ji-JI t-jU 
rules of decorum, etiquette; i-jIjVI de- 
cency, morals 

Jjl adabi moral, ethic(al); literary [ 
J^l <— *-lj moral Obligation; LjjL-j \-td 



adabiyan wa-mäddiyan morally and phys- 
ically; «-o^ ii-iiJI (jalaafa) ethica, moral 

*i»Lol adabiyät Uterature, bellea-lettres adabJfäna pl. -dt toüet, wator 

^jil oii6 pt. »UjI tuia6ä' a cultured, 
refined, educated; well-bred, well-manner- 
ed, civil, urbane; a man of culture and 
refined tastes; man of letters, writer, 

ijjl adiba authoress, writer 

iol* ma'duba pl. <— >jU ma'ewitt* ban- 
quet, formal dinner 

»_jit to'dit education ; discipline; pun- 
ishment, chastisement; disciplinary pun- 
ishment | ^__j jl^Jl ^j-Lf majlia at-t. dis- 
ciplinary board 

^jIj ta'dibi disciplinary; punitive, re- 
taliatory | <&& <-*£ (qadlya) discipli- 
nary action 

wot ta'addub good breeding, good 
manners, civility, politenesa, courteous- 
ness, tact 

<_oT ädib host 

t-oj* mu'oddit pl. -ün educator ; 
teacher in a Koranic school (Tun.); — 
muaddab well-bred, well-mannered, civil, 

«jjl vdra scrotal hernia 

üjjl adirna 2 Edirne, Adrianople (city in 
NW Turkey) 

^LjLjjVI (Fr. adrtatique) al-adriyatxk and 
*ilJljjjV1 j£ bahr al-a. the Adriatic Sea 

x *s\ adama i (adm) to take some additional 
food (* with the bread), enrich (* the 
bread) "with aome extra food or condi- 

a\i\ idäm anything eaten with bread; 
shortening, fatty ingredient 

V>l, l*i\ adam, adama skin 

<jl adim skin; surface; tanned skin, 
leather | ^jVl f*\ <*• al-ar$ the surface 
of the earth 

j.ljl addäm tanner 

3 pjT ädam* Adam | ,oT ^ \ human being 

tji\ ädami buman; humane; poor, 
inferior, meager; (pl. -ün, joljl awädim 2 ) 
human being 

«-*jT ädamiya humaneness, humanity; 

• Ijl adäh pl. oljji adawät tool; instrument; 
Utensil, implement, device, appliance ; 
apparatus; (gram.) particle | SA-1 »IjI 
o. oi-A«jbm machinery of govemment; 
._ju_^jl definite article (gram.); *IaI 
öJLLJ (tan/idiya) executive agency; pl. 
materials, equipment, gear, *^j_^~ 
(AarMya) war material; i-LL^-l olj^l 
(iA(tyafiya) stand-by equipment (techn.); 
iJj^. (manztJiya) household Uten- 
sils, household effects 

ÜjjV' al-adön (Hebr.) the Lord; Mr (Isr.) 

<js\ II to convey, take, bring, lead, steer, 
Channel (*, i or u s.o.,, Jl to), see 
that s.o. or (*, » or <_j) gets to (Jl); 
to bring about, cause, effect, produce 
(Jl; to lead, contribute, be condu- 
cive (Jl to a result); to amount, come 
practically (Jl to); to tend (Jl to), aim 
(Jl at); to carry out, execute, discharge 
(*; to perform (* a ritual, etc.); 
to do (vr'j wäjibahü one's duty); to 
fulfill (ü-Uj a function, iJI—j a mission); 
to accomplish (öjj^U a task); to take 
(L_c an oath; UUll.1 an examination) ; 
to render (L.0*- kidmatan a Service, J or 
Jl to s.o. ; a e.g., a meaning, a musical 
composition, etc.) | >*"5*— Jl ^jI (saldm) 
to greet, Baiute V to load, be conducive, 
contribute (Jl to results); to be carried 
out, be performed, be accomplished ; to 


arrive ( Jl at), be lead ( Jl to) X to demand, 
claim {* • from s.o. 

•bl adä* pl. -ät (as verbal noun of II) 
rendering (of a Service); pursuit, Per- 
formance, execution, discharge (of a 
duty), realization, effeotuation, accom- 
plishment (of a task); rendition, reading 
(e.g., of a musical oompoeition); fulfill- 
ment; payment f »IjIII j~*- kum al-a. 
good rendition (of a work of art, of a 
musical composition) 

Sjjtj ta'diya rendering (of a Service); 
pursuit, Performance, execution, dis- 
charge (of a duty), realization, effectua- 
tion; accomplishment (of a task); ful- 
fiUment; payment 

&J» mu'addan assignment, task, func- 
tion ; sense, meaning, signification, import, 
underlying idea 

jl i$ 1. (introducing a verbal clause) (and) 
then; iJlj jl id däka (also written £jlil) 
then, at that time, at the same time, in 
doing so; 2. (conj.; temp. and caus.) as, 
when; since, as, the more so as, because; 
jl jl id anna since, as, in view of the fact 
that; for, because 

1 ljl idä 1. (introducing a nominal clause 
the subject of which may he expressed 
by i_j with foll. genit.) and then, and 
all of a sudden; (with noun in nomina- 
tive case or with i_j) there waa . . . , 
and all of a sudden there was . . . ; 
2. (conj.) when; if, whenever; whether, if 
(introducing indirect questions); L. lil 
when, whenever; lil VI (iüd) unless, if 
not; except when 

2 ljl (Dil) idan then, therefore, in that case, 
hence, consequently 

jljT ädär 2 March (month; Syr., Leb., Jord., 

1 jjl a4ina a to listen (Jl to s.o.); to allow, 
pormit (j J s.o.; to hear, learn 

(<_• of, be informed (i_» about) II to 
call (i_j to),esp. to call to prayer (J-^LaJl;); 
to crow (rooster) IV to announce, make 
known (.-», i_j • to s.o., inform, 
notify (* s.o.); to call to prayer; to call 
upon s.o. (•), urge, admonish, exhort 
(• s.o.) to do {■_-■); to herald (i_i or *; to foreshadow (i_j; to be on 
the verge (ül of doing | -UjiJtj jjT 
(JljjJL) (zawäl) to show signs of the 
imminent downfall (end); öL*ijIj JJJI üjT 
(lailu bi-ntipäf) it was close to midnight 
V to herald, announce (i_» X to ask 
permission (j to do, rarely i_j); 
to ask permission to enter (J* s.o.'s 
house), have o.s. announced (J* to s.o.); 
to take leave (,y of s.o.), say good-by 

üjl idn permission, authorization ; oili 
Zt\ if God choose, God willing; (pl. jjjl 
udün, olijjl udünät) (postal) order | uil 
-b^rJl pl. Jj^JI oUjjl postal money order; 
<i>jjl uil do. 

jjl udun, ud,n f., pl. jljT ädän ear; 
handle (of a cup) | J**J\- üi^l u^ll 
(wusfä) middle-ear infection, Otitis media 

jlil adän call to prayer 

ojl udaina little ear; ear lobe 

ojU ma'dana, oit. mi'dana pl. öiL 
ma'ädin 3 minaret 

üIÄjI Idän declaration, proclamation, 
announcement (^ of | »1.^1; IJ 1 JL* l 
tljJi-l indicating that the conversation 
is (was) ended 

üjJU ma'gün authorized; slave with 
limited legal rights (Isl. Law) ; = jj iL 
^ji. (Sar'i) oföcial authorized by the cadi 
to perform civil marriages (Isl. Law) 

ÄJjiL ma'düniya leave, furlough (mil. 
Syr.); license, franchise (Syr.) 

ui_J* mu'addin muezzin, announoer of 
the hour of prayer 


üil tdan see 2 lil 

^p! a^tya a to suffer damage, be harmed 
IV to härm, hurt, wrong (• s.o.); to mo- 
lest, annoy, irritate, trouble (• s.o.) J V 
,j;jjj lä yu'di innocuous, harmless, inoffen - 
sive V to aufFer damage, be wronged; to 
feel offended, be hurt 

,j}\ adan, »Ijl adäk, Jjjl adlya damage, 
härm; injury; trouble, aruioyance, griev- 
ance, wrong, offense, insult 

Jjlil idäya damage, härm, harmful- 
neBS, noziousnesB 

»lil idä' härm, damage, prejudice; 
offense, hurt; grievance, nuisance 

ij* mu'din hurtful, harmful, injuri- 
ous, detrimental, prejudicial; annoying, 
irksome, troublesome; painful, hurting, 
offensive, insulting 

jjljl arätiqi and J^jIjI pl. ÜjIjI arätiqa 
a heretic (Ckr.) 

t/ljT ärämi Aramaean; Aramaio 

<_^jl ariba a {arab) to be skillful, proficient 
(«_* in; — araba % to tighten (a 
a knot) HI to try to outwit (• s. o.) 

wijl arab pl. <_jIjT äräb wish (j for), 
desire, need (j of; purpoae, aim, 
goal, end 

i-*jl irb pl. ^IjTöröfi limb | Ljl Ljl «Sj* 
(mazso^aftü) to tear to pieces or to 

öjl irba skill, resourcefulness, clever- 
ness, smartness 

ÄjjI uria pl. «-jjI «raA knot, bow 

^jl arifc skillful, resourceful, clever, 

<— >jU ma*rab pl. <_. >jL. ma'ärtfi 8 wish, 
desire; object of desire, purpose, aim, 
goal, end 

Jojl arbll 2 Erbil (the ancient Arbela, city 
in N Iraq) 

jjl^jl ariuwäzx artesian (well) 

1 i* J l ntosowdissension{^ubetween,among) 

2 £>jl *'rf inheritance, heritage; estate (of 

ifS'iyj I UTtüduksX orthodox ; <-S iyj V 1 
the Orthodox Church 

^-Tj^jV' fj^l ar-rüm al-urtüduks the 
Greek Orthodox Cburch 

j^jl arija a (araj, £_j\arij) tobe fragrant Vdo. 
^jl araj fragrance, sweet smell 
£jl arij fragrant, sweet- smelling 
£jl arij fragrance, sweet smell 

k»-jI II taarjaha to rock, Swing 
wv-jti* muta'arjih fluctuating 

,>i*-jVl al~arjanlin Argentina 

j^jl urjwwän purple 

(jl_j*-jl urjuwäni purple (-colored) 

J^Tj' populär spelling (eg.) of j^*-»_^ 'ara- 
göz (q.v.); Punch (in a Punch and Judy 

j-jl II to date (* a letter, and the like, <_* 
with a date); to write the hiatory of (*) 

£jU ta'rik dating (of a letter, etc.); 
iärik pl. f r j\y Uxwärxk 2 date; time; his- 
tory; chronicle, annals | SLJ-1 f.j^i 
hayäh biography; curriculum vitae; £jIj 
*U- {'ämm) world history; AjUI »L*U the 

JtjÜ ftmfö historic(al) 

jrjj* mw'arrifc pl. -ün historiographer, 
historian, chronicler, annahst; — mu» 
'arrak dated 

J-j^jl arkabil archipclago 

j^-jl (5p^ü)v) pl. i^UjI aräkina archon, pl. 
notables (Chr.-Copt.) 


i_ojl irdabb (now usually pronounced ardabb) 
pl. t_jjljl arädib 2 ardeb, a dry meaaure 
[Eg.; = 1981) 
iijl irdabba cesspool 

JjjVl al-urdunn Jordan (river and country) 

Jijl urdunm Jordanian | ÄJjjV' <SlLil 
ijT'lAl al-mamlaka al-u. al-häSimlya the 
Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (official 

jljjjl (Fr. ardoise) arduwäz slate 

*jjl arz (n. un, «) cedar 

2 jjl aruzz rice 

^jl arasa i (ars) to tili the land 

^jl trris and aris peasant, farmer 
^jjz^j] aristuqräfi aristocratic ; aristocrat 

•JsljJii-jl aristuqrätiya aristocracy 

_jL-jl arisfü Aristotle 

^jl arS indemnity, amercement, fine, pen- 
alty; blood money (for the shedding of 
blood; Isl. Law) 

^-jji-jl ^yijl (Gr. äQxtenioxonog) archbishop 

jjj_ijl (Fr. archiduc) archduke, üj-LJjl 

^jl ard f., pl. ^Ijl arädin, öj~äji aradün 
earth ; land, country, region, area ; terrain, 
ground, soil | l ^J\ (j-*jV (suflä) the 
nether world; L-JJUi ^jV' (muqaddasa) 
the Holy Land, Palestine 

^ij I ardi terrestrial, of the earth ; 
soil-, land- (in Compounds) ; situated on 
or near the ground, ground {adj.); earth- 
Iy; Underground, aubterranean 

£j£ ^jl ardi Saukl artichoke 

^jl arad (coli.; n. un. V) termite; 

l~Jj\ ardlya pl. -ät floor; ground 
(also, e.g., of a printed fabric, of a 

painting); ground floor, first floor (tun.); 
storage, warehouse charges 

fjy-ijl ardurüm 2 Erzurum (city in NE 

Ü»jl (also *l»jjl) urfa pl. i»jl uraf (i»jjl) 
battalion (formerly, Eg.; mit.) 

Ui»jl arpaqa pl. -ät heresy (Ckr.) 

«jjU see jüj 

j^jl urgun pl. j^ljl arägin* organ (mu8. 

J_>pjt urgül, argül a wind instrument (re- 
lated to the clarinet, consisting of two 
pipes of unequal length) 

jjl ariqa a to find no sleep II to make 
sleeplesa (• s.o.), prevent s.o. (•) from 

jjl araq 

lessness, insomnia 

iSüji arika pl. dUljl arä'ik 2 couch, sofa; 

iLSj! argila pl. jXijl arägtP {syr.) water 
pipe, narghile 

^oJjl irlandi Iriah 

l *j\ arama i to bite 

j»jl urram molar teeth | *Ji\ öj*- 
(harraqa) to gnash one's teeth (in anger) 

i*jjl arüma, urüma root, origin; stump 
of a tree 

l»j.t« mVram root (of a tooth) 

2 i»ljT äräm (= *Tjl pl. of fj ri'm) white 

,>jV al-arman the Armenians 

J*j! armani Armenian (adj. and n.) 

Li-.jl armeniyä Armenia 

ijjUjVI al-amäivut the Albanians 
^jljjl arnäwuti Albanian 

^jl arnab f., pl. .-Jljl aränib 2 hare; rabbit | 
ja^ ^jjl (hiTtdi) guinea pig 

3jjl arnaba female hare, doe | <Jj\ 
tju^l o. al-anf tip of the nose; nose, 
muzzle (of an animal) 

liLJjl (Turk. örnek) antik pl. iLiljl aränik 2 
pattern, model; form, blank 

bjjl urztbbä Europe 

jjjl urubbi European (adj. and n.) 

\ijl ar V honey 

1 jjT ort Aryan 

ij jT äriya Aryanism 

Ujl onAä Jericho 

jl azza u i (Jrjl aziz) to simmer; to hum, 
buzz; to whiz, hiaa; to fizzle; to wheeze 

j-ji aziz hum(ming), buzz(ing); whiz- 
zing, whizz, whistle (e.g., of bulleta) 

^jl azaba i (azb) to flow, run (water) 

i-»t1jt. mi'zäb pl. i—jju ma'äztb 2 and 
t_j|>» mizäb pl. i_-ijL« mayäztb* drain; 
gutter, eaves trough 

'^Jl izb dumpy, pudgy, stocky; small man 

liLjVl al-uzbak the Uzbeks 

jjl azara i (azr) to Surround (* II to 
clothe {» s.o. with an jljl izär q.v.); 
to cover, wrap up (• a.o., *; to 
strengthen, brace {« s.o., * III to 
help (» s.o.); to support, back up, 
strengthen (» s.o.) V and VIII to put on 
an izär {see below), wrap o.s. in an 
izär VI to help each other; to rally, 
unite, join forces 

jjl azr strength | »jj' -^ &adda azrahü 
or «jjl ,j- xi (min azriht) to help, support, 
encourage s.o., back s.o. up; Sadda az* 
ruAü to be energetic, vigorous, lusty, 

jljl izär m. and f., pl. jjl uzur loin- 
cloth; wrap, shawl; wrapper, covering, 

jjü mi'zar pl. jju ma'äzir 2 apron; 
wrapper, covering, cover 

»jjlj* mu'äzara support, aid, assiat- 
ance, backing 

jjU tä'äzur mutual assistance 

J»jl azifa a (azaj, J»jjl vzüf) to come, ap- 
proach, draw near (a time) 

jjl azaqa i (azq) to be narrow V do. 

jju ma'ziq pl. jj U ma'äziq 2 narrow 
passageway, narrow pass, strait, bottle- 
neck; predicament, fix, dilemma, critical 
Situation, also ~j»~ jju (harij) 

Jjl azal pl. JljT äzäl eternity (without 
beginning), sempiternity 

Jjl azall eternal, sempiternal 

iJjl azaliya sempiternity, eternity 

(•jl V to be or become critical, come to a 
head (Situation, relations) 

i*jl azma pl. azamät emergency; crisis | 
Ijjljj öjl (urizäriya) cabinet crisis 

fjtvta'azzum: ÜU-I (»jü t. al-häla critical 
development, aggravation of the Situation 

(•jju ma'züm victim of a crisis 

j^j\ izmir 2 Izmir (formerly Smyrna, sea- 
port in W Turkey) 

J^jl izmil pl. Jjpiljl azämtl 2 chisel 

Ojjl (Engl.) azöt azote, nitrogen 

Jjji azöti nitrogenous 

^jl III to be opposite (*), face (* s.o., 

»Ijl izä'a (prcp.) opposite, face to face 
with, facing; in front of; in the face of 
(e.g., of a Situation); as compared with; 
»Ijli bi-izä'i opposite, face to face with, 


facing; in front of; »Ijl J* '<& ««'» 
in the face of (e.g., of a Situation) 

1 l _ r .T äs myrtle 

"^T pl. -ät ace (playing card) 

•^1 II to found, establish, set up (*» 
lay the foundation (* for) V to be founded, 
be establiflhed, be set up 

^1 im« foundation, basia; exponent 
of a power (math.) 

^U aaäs pl. tr - I usus foundation 
(also, of a building), fundament, ground- 
work, ground, basis; keynote, tonic 
(rnua.) | ^U > (with foU. genit.) on 
the basia of, on the Btrength of, on 
account of, according to; ,>. *J ,_^l— I ^ 
Äm^I (asäaa, sihha) completely unfound- 
ed (newB, rumor) 

^L-l asäsi fundamental, basic; ele- 
mentary ; eseential ; principal, chief, main | 

Li j? (hajar) cornerstone, foundation 

oL— L-l tuäsiyät fundamentals, prin- 

u ^Jj ta'sia founding, foundation, estab- 
lishment, setting up, Institution; ground- 
ing, laying of the substructure (arch.); 
pl. -ät facilitiea, Utilities; institutions 

lS ~> r *\s ta'stH founding; foundational, 
fundamental | iS ^Jj ^-Lf (majlia) con- 
Btituent assembly 

l r~*y> mu'assis founder 

L~- ja muassasa pl. -ät foundation, 
establishment; firm (com.); institution; 

ül— ^' al-asbän, al-iabän the Spaniards 

jl~*1 isbäni Spanish; (pl. -ün) Spaniard 

i^L-l isbänak spinach 

iJl— -I isbäniyä Spain 

-IjlJ isbidäj and ^-L-*l isbidäj white lead, 

jtj*\ (It. spirüo) isbirto alcohol 

: LJ t -l isbalifa epaulet 

C--I see J c— - 

JLjli-! üföliH static (eJ.) 

jL-l (Fr. Stade) istäd Stadium 

iliJ urtüi pl. iJÜLl cuätida master; teacher; 
professor (academic title); form of ad- 
dress to intellectuals (lawyers, journal- 
ists, officials, writers and poets); ledger 
{com.) | Jip^l il=^/l (a'zam) Grand Maa- 
ter (of a lodge); jfW iMl title of 
the Rector of AI Azhar Univeraity; Sls-1 
^.ß (hirst; Eg.) and ^^ ilsJ (Syr.) 
füll profesBor; ^^ ^ ilsJ (Syr.) asso- 
ciate professor; fyiu j^- ili^l (mutafarrig ; 
Äff.) part-time professor (holding an 
office outside the univeraity) ; 0*1— * ili*l 
(muaawf) assistant professor {Eg.;8yr,); 
J\j ili-l (Äff.; Syr.) visiting professor; 
JiU j ;ö;L-l * (j'aiai) they aremasterB of 

*jjli-l ustädiya mastership; professor- 
ship, profeasorate 

JjJlsJ wtan&üJ" Istanbul, Constantinople 
J^jU^I istanbüll of Istanbul 

«iUJSl al-äsitäna, «ili^l/l al-astäna, aliatäna 
Constantinople, Istanbul 

jj^l istabraq brocade 
j»jlJUl wfrdiiji Strategie 
J tjLl ttsJuröJ» Australian 

Uljü-1 u^uräiiyö Auatralia 

JJj^l wtor/ini aterling j JJ^I «=>- pound 
aterling; JJj^l ü^-* mintaqat al-i. Ster- 
ling area 


see j*\ 

<j>^1 (It. stoppa) tow, oakum; ootton waate 

jjaji-l (It. -Engl, «(udio) i8tÜdiyöp\.£»\jk£Af .\ 
istüdiyShät studio; atelier 

)j£fL*\ istokholm Stockholm 

l-Jji-l (Engl.) istöniyä Estonia 

C-jJLL-I i&tiyätit steatite, soapatone (min.) 

£^J look up alphabetically 

j— I X to display the courage of a lion (J* 

J— I aaad pl. J— I usud, usd, j^J usüd, 
jLT äsäd lion; Leo (astron.) | o-VI »Ij 
leontiasis (med.) 

l s*\ twara » (twr) to bind, fetter, shackle, 
chain (» s.o.); to capture, take prisoner 
(• s.o.); to captivate, fascinate, hold 
spellbound (. s.o.), absorb, arrest (* the 
attention) X to surrender, give o.s. up 
as prisoner 

j-l aar (leather) strap, thong; cap- 
ture; captivity | ^\ ;xt tiddat al-a. 
vigor, energy 

•j~.\ uara pl. ^-1 usar, -ät family; dy- 
nasty; clan, kinsfolk, relatives; — asirra 
see j^ 

•j-.L bi-asrthi entirely, completely, al- 
together, ^^-L lj»U all of them came, 
they came one and all 

jUI iaär (leather) strap, thong; cap- 
tivity; captivation, enthrallment | «jj 
•jW J to be subjected to, fall into 
the clutches of 

j^-l a&ir pl. *\jJi usarä' 2 , ^^-1 asrä, 
tjjUI asärä prisoner, captive, prisoner of 

• jj-l aaxTQ. pl. -ät female prisoner, Blave 

jS\ äair winning, captivating, fasci- 
nating; captor 

j_j-U ma'aür captivated, faacinated, en- 
thralled ( v by) 

a »_ r -l aairra see j ^ 

3 ~*jj~\* look up alphabetically 

Jsfl^-I isrü'W Israel | JJl^l j* banü i. 
the Israelites; J-Jl^l U_,j daulat i. the 
State of Israel 

JJi j- 1 isrä'ili Israelitish ; Israelite ; 
IsraeÜ (adj. and n.); oUJI^I Judaica 

Jjlj-I isräßl* Israfil, the angel who will 
sound the trumpet on the Day of Res- 

Vj-' u&rvb lead (metal) 

JjJlLJ isfanbiU 2 Istanbul, Constantinople 

JJa-l isfabl pl. -ä( stable, barn 

*Jfc-l (It. sloppa) uafubba tow, oakum 

vXA*' a*turläb astrolabe 

( _ r il*-l istaqi« pl. -ö/ element 

UljLJ uafuwäna pl. -ä( column (arch.) ; 
cylinder {ma(A.; of an engine); phono- 
graph record; — pl. ,>LUI asä/m 2 high- 
ranking, prominent personalities ; stars, 
celebrities, authorities, mastere (e.g., of 
art: ji)\ ,>I.LI a. al-fann) 

jl^LJ usfuwäni cylindric(al) 

ZjJ*~\ us\üra. pl. jJ*Ul asä/ir" legend, fable, 
tale, myth, saga 

t$jjl*-l usfüri fabulous, mythical, leg- 

JjkJ ustül pl. J-UU aaöfi/ 2 fleet; squadron 

D J«-l iw/ä (colloq. for SbJ) pl. ol^L-l 
ustawät master; foreman, overseer; also 
form of address to those in lower callings, 
e.g., to a cab driver, coachman, etc. 

J&J aaifa a (asaf) to regret (J* or J, 
feel sorry ( J* for), be sad ( J* about) V do. 

,_iJ aaaf grief, aorrow, chagrin, regret | 
I.Lu-l lj wä asaßh/ oh, what a pity! 
it's too bad! Jt~-# Ijj «»-</« lal-asaji 

(or only ^i-^J) unfortunately; 
and ,_iJ j£i M-iuJK Mo/in do. 

,jj aaij and ^i_-l <wi/ regretful, sorry, 
sad, grieved, distreased 
JaJ& tatusuf regret 
JaJ äsij regretful, sorry, aad | uS'J 
JtJ ji (joira dai/in) I left him without 
regret," I was only too glad to leave him 
»_L J>j-L maaüf 'alaihi mourned 
(eap. of a dead person, = the late la- 

J^,y mu'aij distressing, sad, regret- 

JiJi. mute' mm/ sad, sorry, regretful; 
\JaJc* aorry! 

iljljU w/äiwfc and flLl ts/äiwfc spinach I 
jjj iULu.1 (rimi) garden oraoh (Atri- 
plex hortensis, 6o(.) 

,_■ I • - I os/aU asphalt 
-jjUI u/an;', ij/unj sponge 

jjiiJ w/anj'i spongy; porous 
jlxj-l isfindän maple (4ol.) 
r-lj-i-l vs/idä) white lead, ceruse 
j^\ «/in pl. üJU mä/in» wedge 

>j!>-l «JorMJi: J-ji/t« 1 o-V - ( mara 4) 
acurvy (med.) 

.JiiJ uequj pl. 1BLI asägifa, *_ÜLI cmöj»/ j 
bishop | iüL^I j-Jj archbiahop 
li-l usqufi episcopal 
Lii.1 usqu/iya episcopate, bishoprio 

j^ , '. .1 yjiqumn, üqumri mackerei (zaol.) 

J-iJ isqü an Oriental variety of sea onion 

^j£-\ (Engl.) isketi sketch 

IjJiS^-I w/to(iandä Scotland 

jt-l-CJ iakotianii Scottish, Scotch 

ü£J wfeila pl. J£*LI asälcü' seaport, commer- 
cial center (in the East) 

ilX— i iekamla stool, footstool 

üjjxSL,! iakavdarüna' Iskendcron (formerly 
Alexandretta, seaport in S Turkey) 

öjxi^.'JI al-iskandarlya Alexandria (oity in 
N Egypt) 

LibxSL,! iskandinäjly/i Scandinavia 
JJ II to sharpen, point, taper (» 
JJ aaai (coli.) rush (iof.) 
1L.I oraJa pl. -öi thorn, spike, prong; 
point (also, e.g., of a pen = nib); tip of 
the tongue 

»-W jj^' oJ-Äurü/ al-asallya the 
letters j, ^- and ^> 

J_J asil smooth | J--I Jbs- {kadd) Bmooth 

*JLI cuäla eliptic, oval form 
Lj. mu* omo2 pointed, tapered 

JjjVjÜ (variant of Jjjl^l) islämbüli of 

jJ ->U islanda Iceland 
^-1 see 1 f 

jyeXf I aamänjanf aky-blue, azure, cerulean 
»jA asmara Aamara (capital of Eritrea) 
cj.x*I asmant, ismant cement 
J^rl asmanti cement (ad]'.) 

/-.I asana i u and ostna a to become brackish 

j?\ äsin brackish 

(jj and jj-l) LI mö tt (am, LI osan) to 
nurse, treat (» a wound) ; to make peace 
(jo between, among); — ^1 <M»y« l^- 1 . 


LI Man) to be Bad, grieved, distress«) 
II to console, comfort (• b.o.); to nurse 
(• a patient) III to ahare (one's wordly 
poesessions, . with s.o.), be charitable 
(• to b.o.); to aasist, Support («s.o.); to 
console, comfort (. s.o.); to treat, eure 
(», medically) V to be consoled, 
find Bolace VI to share the worldly 
poaseBsiona; to assist one another, give 
mutual aasistance 

tff-f asan grief, sorrow, diBtreBs 
">y\ uswa, iswa example, model, pat- 
tern | >_/ IjJ utwatan bi following the 
model or pattern of, along the linea of; 
in the same manner as, just as, like 

•UL ma'säh pl. ^X, ffla'önn tragedy, 

V-t lasiya consolation, comfort 

•Uj. mvwäaäh (for mu'äath) oonsola- 
tion; charity, beneficence 

j\_y\ üwär, uawär pl. j_,U tuäwir', SjjU 
atäwira bracelet, hangle 

o\jJ aswän' Aswan (oity in 8 Egypt) 

rj-' asüj Sweden 

u»-j-l atüji Swedish 

^j-l see j-l 

L-T fciyä Asia | ltj ^l\ L.T (fugri) Asia 

tO— T äsiyain Asiatio, Asian (adj. and 

J.j— I «y«) 1 Asyüt (oity in oentral Egypt) 

V- 'I V to be mixed, heterogeneoua, motley 
(a orowd) 

ilil uMba pl. ^JLSl oArjJi mired, 
motley orowd 

sUil iSWiya' Seville (oity in SW Spain) 
jwil iibin pl. ^,,lil see Jj 

/l a&ra u (a*) to saw (»; — j to 
file, sharpen with a file (* II to 
mark, indicate, State, enter, record («; to grant a Visa; to provide with 
a visa (J» 

^il aiar liveliness, high spirits, eru- 
berance; wildness; insolence, imperti- 

ji\ aür Uvely, sprightly, in high spirits, 
exuberant; wüd; insolent, impertinent, 

jlii. mi'lär pl. j^l^. mawäHr 1 saw 

j~t la'ltr issuance of an offioial 
endoreement; offioial endorsement; visa 

ij^ü ta'iira pl. -ö? visa 

/. murür or jU»-l Jj^iL' transit visa 

^i> mu'aUir indicator, needle (of a 
measuring Instrument) 

jlj- mu'alSar jagged, serrated; mark- 
ed, designated ( v by, with) 

Jil Ufa pl. J>UI oAJ/Sn awl, punoh 

jllil «Aiön potash; saltwort (Salsola kali; 

41^1 vjna moss 

jj£> aAür Assyria 

<SjjÜ oUri Assyrian (adj. and n.) 

^■s-»! afit pl. u«"~»l u#u« flowerpot 

J-»l II to close, shut (a door, eto.) 

j-»l ifr pl. jL«T 4>ör covenant, compact, 
oontract ; load, eneumbrance, bürden ; sin ; 
pl. jL»T bonds, ties 

~>j~J äfira pl. _^ljl awSeir* bond, tie 
(fig., e.g., .V^ll ^Ijl o. oZ-uwW bonds 
of friendship); Obligation, commitment 

Jrk»l »*>W pl. -dl stable, barn 

jl+i^l iffahän' Isfahan (oity in W oentral 


X,\ afula u plU attOa) to be or become 
firmly rooted; to be firmly established; 
to be of noble origin II to found (», 
give (») a firm foundation, establish 
the foundation or origin of (») V to be 
or become ßrmly rooted, deep-rooted, 
ingrained; to take root, be or become 
firmly established; to derive one's origin 
(j. from) X to uproot, root out, extir- 
pate, extenninate, annihilate (»; 
to remove (. an organ by » surgioal 
Operation) | ~U >U (**«•»•> *• 
eradicate, eliminate radically 

JJ oji pl. Jj^l •«« root: trunk (° f 
a tree); origin, souroe; cause, reason; 
descent, lineage, stock (esp., one of a 
noble character); foundation, fundament, 
basis; the original (e.g., of a book); — 
pl. J^l «^ prinoiples, fundamentals, 
rudimente, element« (e.g., of a science); 
rules; basio niles, prinoiples, axioms; 
real estate, landed property ; asset« {fin.) ; 
_ }Ul aflan originally, primarily; 
(with neg.) by no means, not at aU, not 
in the least | >MI j originally, at first; , 
«Uli J_^l u. al-fiqh the 4 foundations 
of Islamio jurispnidence, i.e., Koran, 
Sunna, qiyä» (analogy) and ijnä' (con- 
eensus); fJ ^-j >V "» ta wld UabUl - 
ties; Silu. tV <<»««*«'»*•> double- 
entry bookkeeping; J^ll -— (»««*•) 
properly, in conformity with regulations 

J^.1 o?« original, primary, primal, 
initial; genuine, authentic, pure; basic, 
fundamental, principal, ohief, main | j£\ 
<^.1\ (tomon) cost price; iJ-Vl ol»^ 
(jihäi) the cardmal points (of the com- 
pass); J-.I 3J» C«*«*) Cardinal number; 
L.1 j^p ('utfw) regulär member 

Jj^l upüH in accordance with the 
rules, oonforming to prevailing prin- 
oiples; traditional, ttsual; legist 

j_,l afil pl. .*-! «*"■"■' of P ure ' 
noble origin; original, authentic, genuine 

pure; proper, actual; firm, soüd; sound, 
reasonable, sensible; of strong, unswerv- 
ing character-, steadfast; deep-rooted; 
native, indigenous | J^VI >MI the 
actual reason; Jß J*-l of sound, 
unerring judgment ( 

j^l apl pl. JU-T öjiäi, JJU-I o**"« 1 
time before sunset, late aftemoon 

aul ojräto firmness, steadfastness, 
Btrength of character; nobUity of descent, 
purity of origin; afälatan immediately, 
directly, personally | Jß 3UI o. «-"'» 
olarity and firmness of judgment; ju- 
dciousness ; «-Ü 0* ^ >V^ B po ntMe0USly ' 
of one's own accord, in one's own name, 
personaUy, privately (as opposed to 
,ji j. «Uli-); "«.Uj *lU o?äto ton *"*- 
niyäbatan directly and indirectly 
;l_Jj to'f>ito pedigree, genealogy 
J^t ta'afful deep-rootedness 
JUsJ wtf'jöl extirpation, extermina- 
tion, (redical) eümination; removal by 

J^tu mutoV deep-rooted, deep- 
seated; chronic (illness) 
iil ojif the moaning bray of a camel 
i>l aforo i t. («fr) and II to bend, ourve 

jltl tför pl. -ät, >l «f«r frame (also, 
of eyeglasses); tire (of a wheel); hoop 
(of a barrel, etc.) 

jjU.1 ifora rim, feUy (of a wheel) 
jjU.1 «fori framelike, hoop-shaped 
2 *jß\ see jjl» 

«li>l ufrujuMo a variety of pigeon 
OjjUI ofrün = öjjl" 

.jJLii^l, jiüWI al-aflantik, oJ-ofianfi« the 

JUi^l.1 afl-in^i and JÜ^U <&">#■ At " 



uXI afW satin; (pl. ^ly ^^ atlas> 
volume of geographical maps 
u-U»l affcw» Atlantio 

JtU.1 <#»tp Atlantio | JtiUVI JJ-I (Art/) 
the Atlantic Pact 

l»jLI ojüi» sea turtle 

W O0ä, liT a^ä pl. ol>l „^„a, aga , lordj 

master, sir; eunuch, harem chamberlain 

.i>VI oH0m, ö,Uy| aZ-ojärijo the Greeks 

ii>' V^Cj» Greek, Grecian (adj. and n.) 

o-]«-£l a#iMfu* August (month) 

öl V to grumble, mutter in complaint (a. 

ijl uff dirt (in the ears or under the 
nails), earwax, cerumen 

öl uff interj. expressing anger or dis- 

wül a/a/displeasure; gnimbling, grum- 

cJut ta'otfu/ displeasure; grumbling, 

i >VI aJ-./ran, the Franks, the Europeans | 
£j»VI j^A; Europe 

u^yl ifranji European 

u^jil i/ran* French; J_J^VI the French 
language; Uj_J>VI the French 

>>l t'/rfe pl. j,jUI /är«! frieze; edge; curb- 
sidewalk | «Ul yj\ ,-. «rf^^, p]at . 
form (of a railroad Station) ; .LU I y J\ 
molding (arcA.) 

li>l afriqä f. and Li>l i/ri^s, now usually 
pronounced afriqiyä f. Africa | Li^il 
«JUII (Samällya) North Africa 

Jijil ifrigi, now usually pronounced 
o/tljt African; (pl. -ün, «JjUI a/äri,a) an 

■j_ß äfirm, bravo! well done! 

üji-il i/*m«n, i/«We n wormwood, ab- 
sinthe (Artemisia absinthium; bot.) 

&i\ ifiin pl. Oi-Lil o/äfin« litany (Chr.) 
üUiVI ai-a/jän the Afghans; Afghanistan 
üU_iUil afgänütän Afghanistan 
JUil o/yäni Afghan (adj. and n.) 

Jil «/<?, */«? pl. jliT ä/öy horizon; ränge 
of Vision, field of Vision; pl. di stant 
lands, faraway countries, remote regions- 
provinces, interior of the country (as' 
distinguished from the capital) | jliT 
t^jV I ä. al-ard the remotest parts of the 
earth; J5 y| JliT ä. oZ-6.Jäi the outlying 
portions of the country; jlfifl jlit feg", 
$M oi-a. foreigners, travelers 
Jil ufqi horizontal 

JliT äfäql coming from a distant 
country or region 

jlil affäq wandering, roving, roaming; 
tramp, vagabond 

■iii\ afaka i (afk) and afita a (i/i, „/*, o/oi, 
4yl «/»*) to lie, teU a lie 

■iM ifk and SCjl o/ifc, pl . ^. ü | „^.^ 
lie, untruth, falsehood 
4UI ogüit liar, lying 
Jil o/ai. « ,' (Jyl u/ü i) to g0 downj se( . (stare) 
J,il «/« setting (of stars) 
J»l ä/ü transitory, passing 
OjWil afiäfün' Plato 
jil o/an stupidity 

u;>l a/tn and u_,>L ma'/fln stupid, 
foolish, fatuous; fool 

iS-Ül a/artdi pl. -iyo gentleman (when refer- 
ring to non-Europeans wearing Western 
clothes and the tarboosh); (after the 
name) a title of respect (<#.); p.jjI a fan. 
dim! Sir! (eg.) afcmdim/ (I beg your) 
pardonf What did you say? 


jfjl (It. nvvoatio) w«J advocate, lawyer, 
attorney | j^ tfjM representative of 
the attorney general (= Fr. avocat 

Ojj\ ajyün opium | OjSi\ C JJ '** aUa - 

öl uqqa pl. -« oka, a weight, in Eg. = 

1.248 kg, in Syr. = 1-282 kg 

jl>l u^mcän pl- ^ «Sä* 5 » "^^ 
y^J aqrnbädin composite medicament | y 
' 'j-&p\ 'Um a-l-1- pharmaceutics, phar- 

Jjiljyl aqrabädini pharmaceutic(al) 

Jjl aqit cottage cheeae 
jüil iqlii look up alphabetically 
ül agfama to acclimate, acclimatize, adapt, 
adjust II to'aäiamo to acclimatize (o.s.) 

Jjl ijBm pl. «JUI 04äS" a climate; area, 
region; province, district; administrative 

district (£?.; = i;>); fJ^ 1 COUntry - 
provinces (as distinguished from the 


Lil iqllmi cUmatic; regional, looal; 
territorial | 3-JW .Ul (miyfiA) terri- 
torial waters 

oJil igBd pl. -^ a i älid * ke y 

i_l'.l ijüdis 2 Euclid 

pj JI US nüm pl. pi«l «4*»«™' hypostasis, 
divine person within the Trinity (.Chr.); 
constitutive element 

Zß\ (Gr. eixmv) iqüna icon (Chr.) 

V'jiLäl uqyänüsiya Oceania 

jjS"! oiMiB Akkadian 

;_r jtf I akädlmlya academy 

_. yS I oWäMr October 

jTI II to asBure (. J s.o. of, Ol that); to give 
assurance (» J to s.o. of); to confirm 
(», a view) V to be or become. 
convinced, convince o.s. (,>. of; to 
reassure o.a., make sure (y. of; to 
be sure (o. of); to be urgent, imperative, 

±f\l ta'kid pl. -« asBurance; confirma- 
tion; emphasis; -iTÜl, moet certainlyl 
of course ! 

jj-fc ta'akkud assurance, reassurance 
aTI oKa certain, sure; firm (reaolve); 
definite (desire); urgent, imperative 
(need); \if\ akidm certainly! surely! 

jfj. mu'aitad certain, definite, sure; 

jft, muta'akkid convinced (j. of) 

i/l akam i (oir) to plow, tili, cultivate (> 
the land) 
jS-l olMr pl. -«», !/l o*»™ plowman 

';/! «im pl- /' ukar baU ( f0r playÜlg) 
LcjTI eizemä eczema (med.) 
ri Uil oä"oJ ii» X-rays 
lj^_Tl extra 
r , fl oksiien oxygen 

juTI otsada to oxidize, cause to rust II to'ojv 
sada to oxidize, rust, become rusty 

i_.ri uia« pl. V 6 " 1 a*ä** p oxide 
I .,.; ^1 Oxford 
^~S I oksiien oxygen 
_^_TI «Jcsir elixir 
^iT I akuff see ^iT 
I JTI aMa u (da, $1 'na'kal) to eat (. ; 
to eat up, consume, awallow, devour, 
destroy (»; to eat, gnaw <» at), 

eat away, corrode, erode (»; to 
spend unlawfully (,, enrioh o.a., 
feather one's nest (* with) | _^jj| U» JS"I 
V^J (dahru, lariba.) to be old and wora 
out, be timeworn; LJI JTl (r*ä) to take 
usunous intereat; , : .-C ll Jfj; . | . , 
ya'famu min oitm tu'kalu l.'kati/ he 
knows how to tackle the matter properly; 
.JU. «Kl OiMuAfi) his skin itched; j JS"| 
j" (foAn) to eat off a plate; «i. JS"I 
(Jajjais) to encroach lipon s.o.'. rights 
II and IV to give s.o. (.) (») to eat, 
feed (» . s.o. III to eat, dine (. with 
s.o.) V to be devoured, be consumed; to 
be eaten away, corrode, undergo cor- 
rosion; to become old, mm, timewora, 
füll of cracks; to be destroyed by cor- 
rosion VI = V 

J>l all food; meal, repast; fodder 
feed | JfVI «i> gurfat al-a. dining room; 
(es-) ^~JI JTl a. al-bahr land washed 
away by the sea or the Nile (as opposed 
to ^Jl c> ) "~ 

JSl uhd, uld food; fruit | *jtTl JT to 
bear fruit 

«*"! * pl. aioW( meal, repast; — 
aHa bite, morael 

OJIfl ulcäl prurigo, itch eruption 

X I >US, JJ-I alil, Af I aifii vora- 
cious, gluttonous; hearty eater, gour- 
mand, glutton 

JST. ma'kal pl. JTC ma'äiiP food, 

Jf t to-aiM wear; corrosion; erosion 

JS"C" to'öfcui wear; corrosion; erosion 

JSo'l i'«ifcj( erosion (jeoi.) 

JS'Täiii eater 

iB* TöKfa gangrenous sore 

JjTb ma'iü/ eatable, edible ; pl. o V .TL 
food, foodstuffs, eatables, edibles 
J» l> m-u'äkil table companion 
JHi. ™«to-oMö and JTU. mato -a£ a 
corroded; eroded; worn, timewora; füll 
of cracks; rusty, rust-eaten 

WJJ& I t'ißräj clergy (Chr.) 

*r-js&\ iUirüsiya clericalism 
Sj&\ ikliriln cleric(al) 
l fo£'l iklinilä clinical 
5fl oia«, „L .*, ffr , ikSmi j-, uium> 
ffr I äkäm (coli. p oltom) hü,, ^j.. 
heap, pile | U.1^ l. tfVI ,,_,_, („,„,■ 
something's fishyl there is more to it 
than meets the eye 

Jl iU pact, oovenant; blood relationship, 

'VI a-lä and U a-mö See I o 

! VI a£j see 'yi 

"Vlaiiä(=VulanZä)l e ,t,that...not,in 
order that . . . not, so as not to 

«VI illä (- V Ol inlä) unless,if not; except, 
save; (after negation:) only, but, not 
until | Ol VI Mä anna except that ..., 
yet, however, nevertheless (also intro-' 
ducing main clauses); Ijl VI illd idä 
unless, if not; except when; Vlj wa-Wä 
(and if not =) otherwise, orelse; y.j VI 
illä wa-huwa (with a preceding negation) 
unless he ..., except that he ...; j. L, 
Ol VI wa-mä hiya illä an (with following 
verb in perf.) it was not long until ...; 
presently, forthwith; J~ ... Ol VI > L ' 
'«'■mä hiya illä an ... hatlä no sooner 
had he ... than ..., e.g., ^ Ol VI ^ Li 
J"* J~ (hamma) he had no sooner made 
his plan than he carried it out 

K-Vl alaski Alaska 

uVI aläy and uVTöÜy pl. .« regiment 



1 t_Jl alaba u i (alb) to gather, join forcea, 
rally II to incite (J* * s.o. against) V to 
rally, band together, plot, conspire (J* 

2 ,_JVl Jl^r jibäl al-alb the Alps 

uU^l al-albän the Albaniana 
UUI albäniyä Albania 

£■1 abbreviation of »^-T Jl ilä äkirihl and 
bo on, etc. 

jÄJl alladl, f. Jji allati, pl. m. ^JJl alladina 
f. J^Jl alläti, ij\j\i\ allawäti, J^Jl allä'i 
(relative pronoun} he who, that which; 
who, which, that | Jllj LdJ! j*j ba'da 
l-lutayyä wa-llati after lengthy dia- 
cussions, after much ado 

^r-ljJl (Fr. Alsace) alzäs 2 Alsace (region of 
NE France) 

^Jl II to belittle, disparage ( J* s.o.) 

1 Jei\ alj pl. J)_^i ulüf, Jj^T äläf thousand; 
millennium [ LäJj^ Ö^Jl (mu'allafa) or 
"Jj- ö V 1 thouaanda and thousands ; 
ÖjJ ^1 olj-ip 'aSarät al-u. tens of thou- 
sands; J>_^VI oll. mi'ät al-u. hundreds 
of thousands 

JJl alfi; JJI .u. Cid) millennial cele- 
bration, millenary 

2 i_iJI alif name of the letter I | 4jL J[ -Jjl j* 
from beginning to end, from A to Z; 
e»Lj 4iJI tjjju (wa-yaahü) he knows it 
from A to Z; »L Jl ABC 

3 ._JI a/t"/a a {alj) to be acquainted, familiär, 
conversant (a with ; to be on 
intimate terms ( a with s.o.); to he or get 
accustomed, used, habituated (a to); to 
like (a, be fond of (a); to become 
tarne II to accustom, habituate (a t> s.o. 
to; to tarne, domesticate (* an 
animal); to form (a e.g., a committee, 
a government); to unite, join, combine, i 
put together (y.j different things); to I 

compile, compose, write (a a book) V to 
be composed, be made up, conaist (j* 
of); to be united, be combined VI to be 
attuned to each other, be in tune, be 
in harmony ; to harmonize (** with) 
VIII to be united, be Hnked, be connected ; 
to be on familiär, intimate terma (u 
with); to form a coalition (pol.); to fit, 
suit («, go well, agree, harmonize 
(*. with); to be well-ordered, neat, tidy 
X to aeek the intimacy, court the friend- 
ahip (» of s.o.) 

•Jei\ ilf pl. ö^l ulläf intimate; close 
friend, intimate, confidant; lover 

ÜJI ulfa familiarity, intimacy; friend- 
ship, love, affection ; union, concord, 
harmony, congeniality 

.JiJI alif familiär, intimate; tarne, do- 
meaticated (animal); friendly, amicable, 
genial; (pl. .Ju^l alä'if 2 ) intimate, close 
friend, asaociate, companion 

ö_jJI alüj familiär, intimate ; tarne, 
domesticated (animal) ; attached, devoted, 

i_äJU ma'laf object of familiarity 

.Jütj ta'lif formation (e.g., of a govern- 
ment); union, junction, combination {^> 
of separate things); literary work; com- 
positum, compilation, writing (of a book, 
of an article); (pl. .JJL" ta'ällf 2 , *JaJ\y) 
work, book, publication 

i_äJ Ü ta'äluf harmony; familiarity, 
intimacy, mutual affection; comradeship, 

Ö^Wl i'tiläf concord, harmony; agree- 
ment (« with); union; coalition, entente 


(j"iWl i'tiläfl coalition- (in Com- 
pounds) | HJi^jl »j'jj coalition cabinet 

ÖjJU ma'lüf familiär, accustomed; 
usual, customary; custom, usage 



<_Üj* mu'oU»/ pl. -ün author, writer; — 
mu'aüaf composed, oonsisting, made up 
(j* of); written, compüed; (pl. -ät) book, 
publication; see also 1 Jil\ alj 

JtRu muta'älif harmonious 

jll alaqa » (dg) to shine, radiate, flash, 
glitter, gliaten V and VIII do. 
jil a&u? brightness, brilliance 

&i\ alläq bright, shining, brilliant, ra- 
diant; glittering, flaehing, sparkling 

jilj ta*alluq glow, radiance, effulgence 

jlti roufa'atftg bright, shining, bril 
liant, radiant 

JjJ&\ elektröni electronic | jjj&\ Ji* C«?0 
electronic Computer 

Ul alima a {alam) to be in pain, feel pain; 
to suffer (<_j from II and IV to 
cause pain or suffering {• to s.o.), pain, 
ache, hurt (» b.o.) V = I; to complain 

Jl alam pl. *VT äläm pain, ache, 
Buffering, agony j «Jl— Ju fV' (nafsänlyä) 
mental agony; fV^I £^-1 ««61** oZ-ö. 
Passion Week {Chr.) 

Jl o/tm aching, sore; aad, grievous, 
painful, ezcruciating ; hurting 

Jlj ta'aÜum Sensation of pain, pain, 

iy mu'lim aching, painful; sad, griev- 
ous, distressing 

Jli. muta'aüim aching, painful; in 
pain, suffering, deeply afflicted ; tonnented 

"*VI ilä-ma see Jl 

^lii almäa [al sometimes interpreted as 
definite article) diamond 

üli^l al-almän the Germans 

Jlil almäni German; (pl. -an, ülil al* 
man) a German 

Ulli almäniyä Germany 

Lilil almäniya German character or 
characteristios, Germanity 

«Jl II to deify (• s.o.), make a god of s.o. (•) 
V to bocome a deity, a godhead; to deify 

<!l, »VI üäh pl. UT äliha god, deity, 

«*Vl ilaha pl. -ät goddess 

^1, ^\ ildhi divine, of God; theo- 
logical; ^L*VVI al-ilähiyät theological, 
spiritual concems | oL»VVI U- *ilm al-i. 

dl aüäh Allah, God (as the One and 
Only) | iija «ä U-UäM darruka exolamation 
of admiration and praise, see ja 

^1JI aMhumma God! | Vi ^1 (iUä) 
unless, were it not that, except that, or 
at best (afber a negative statement) ; 
ijl jUI (idä) at leaßt if or when; if only; 
m ^\ (na'am) by God, yes! most 
certainly ! 

i»»j]l ulühiya divine power, divinity 

*jlj ta'Uh deification, apotheosis 

*JT älih (pagan) god 

UT äliha pl. -ät goddess 

^T älihi divine 

«jU. muta'aÜih divine, heavenly 

OjA^l etc., see o>*V 

l (J\) V alä u to neglect or fail to do, not to 
do (j, desist, refrain (j from | j lOf». jJl V (jahdan) he will go 
to any length, he spares no effort, goes 
out of his way for IV to swear | J* jT 
ül 4— Jü he promised himself that he ... 

OÜ ila oath 
^T (Fr. haUo) hello! 
Ljyll oiümjnyd and t^Ujl! alüminyam alu- 



1 JI ilä (prep.) to, toward; up to, as far as; 
tili, until; öl Jl (conj.) until j tj ^\ Jl 
(äkiriki) and bo forth, et cetera; JJi Jl 
beaidea, moreover, furthermore, in ad- 
dition to that ; o* Jl tili tomorrow ! 
»LÄJUI Jl (liqä') good-by! fl\ iläma 
(— U Jl) up to where? how far? ^- Jl 
tili when? how long? ^ jJUI ('annt) 
get away from me ! away with you ! 
<iJJi >JU Jl (jänibid.) beaidea, moreover, 
in addition to that; Ol Jl l-U moreover, 
furthermore; *iüi j* Jl (gairid.) and the 
like; <Jl L-j and the like, et cetera; 
(rt-ll) *r" t>J (wa-man) and other people 
like that; iUi (addressing the reader) 
now here you have ...; here ia (are) ...; 
following is (are) ..., e.g., U ^jUJl Jlj 
in the following, the reader will find 
what . . . ; Ij^I Jl Jl j* -r 1 ^' (uslüb 
'ibräni) a etyle of Hebrew approximating 
Arabic; illj Jl Vj i-i» Jl V neither thia 
way nor that way, belonging to neither 
group; iUI j-^/l it's up to you, the 
deciaion is yours 

V^/T ö/ä* (pl. of Jl ilan) benefita, bless- 

*<Jl alya, üya pl. alayät fat tau (of a aheep); 

oLJl iliyäßa Iliad 

J pl am or? (introducing the aecond member 
of an alternative queation) 

a i-l ama pl. »LI tmä*, £j\j*\ amawät bond- 
maid, slave girl 

8 pl amma u (amm) to go, betake o.a., repair 
(>toa place), go to see (• s.o.); — (i*L1 
imäma) to lead the way, lead by one'a 
example (« s.o.); to lead (» s.o.) in prayer; 
— (Ä*jJ umüma) to be or become a 
mother II to nationalize {* V to 
go, betake o.a., repair (* to a place), go 
to see (• a.o.) VIII to follow the example 
(^ of a.o.) 

pl umm pl. 0I+J ummahät mother; 
source, origin ; basis, foundation ; original, 
original Version (of a book); the gist, 
essence of; pl. oL^—l matrix 
(typ.) j jd-\ pl u. al-kibr cuttlefish, squid; 
j-J-i pl u. al-hasan {magr.) nightingale ; 
Jjü-I pl u. al-kulül river mussei (zool.)\ 
jl.j.a pl u. durmän Omdurman (city in 
central Sudan, oppoaite Khartoum); pl 
^0 1 J I «. ar-ra's skull, brain ; cerebral 
membrane, meningea; ,>*jjIj £j' r' u < 
ar6a r uw-ar&a'tn centipede; üf* pl u. 
iamla(ta) this world, the worldly pleas- 
ures; ,>*!! pb 6»-u. ü-*o»n or *^* pb with 
one's own eyes; üT^ill pl and ^Ußl pl the 
firBt aura of the Koran; (^_^JI pl u. al-qurä 
Mecca; ^L^Ji pl also: the original text 
of the Book from which Koranic revela- 
tion derivea; the unconteated portionB 
of the Koran; ^J>\ A u. al-wafan capital, 
metropolia; iol^A-l oL^I the most im- 
portant eventa ; Ctjjl- 1 cl^l matrix (typ.) ; 
JjLJ.1 0I4J the main problems; oL^.1 
JJLüJl the principal virtuea 

i»l umma pl. p*l umam nation, people; 
generation | x+£- i-l Mohammed's Com- 
munity, the Mohammedans; I-wdl >"^fl 
(muftoAtäa) the United Nations 

ij\ umm» maternal, motherly;illiterate 
uneducated; (pl. -ün) an illiterate 

L*i ummiya ignorance; illiteraoy; aee 
also under 3 i jj*\ 

^\ umami international 

a*j»\ umüma motherhood; motherli- 
ness, maternity 

pl.1 amäma (prep.) in front of; in the 
preaence of J pl-lH Jl (amämi) to the 
front, forward, onward, ahead; Jsj i 
jl V' *»L.I (iWä an) he had no other 
alternative but to ...; *»L-I ^ij (tuaqafa) 
to oppose, resist, 8 top, check 

iji,\ amämi front, fore-, anterior, for- 
ward, foremost | *-*UI «LäJ (nu<#a) outpost 


l«Ut imäm pl. ü I a'imma imam, 
prayer leader ; leader ; master ; plumb 

l*Ll imäma imamah, function or office 
of the prayer leader; imamate; leading 
Position; precedence 

-jü tamim pl. -dt nationalization 

1 l_*t a-mä see \ a 

*LI ammä (with foll. Ji /a) as to, as for, as 
far as... is concerned; but; yet, how- 
ever, on the other hand | Om LI (ba'du) 
(a formular phrase linking introduction 
and actual subject of a book or letter, 
approx.:) now then,..., now to our 
topic: ... 

a Ll immä if ; Llj — LI be it — or, either — 
or (also j\ — LI) 

jjl»l^>.l imbarätür emperor 

^ j_jt»l^-l imbarätüri imperialxst(ic) 

*iJj^'-^»' imbarätüriya empire, im- 
perium; imperialism 

jw.1 ambtr pl. ^oLI amäbir* ampere (d.) 

(5—*! imbiq = J-«l 

C_J om< crookedness, curvedness, curvation, 
curvature; weakness 

•ul amad pl. jLT ämäd end, terminus, 
extremity; period, Stretch or span of 
time, time; distance | 0-w .ul JL» for a 
long time (past); -uVl j*-ü short-dated; 
of short duration, short-lived ; short- 

j*\ amara u (amr) to order, command, bid, 
instruct (• s.o. »_j to do, commission, 
charge, entrust (• s.o. i_> with or to 
do; — amara, amura v (»jLt 
imära) to become an emir II to invest 
with authority, make an emir (• s.o., 
J» over) III to ask s.o.'s (•) advice, 
consult (• s.o.) V to come to power; to 

aet o.a. up as lord and master; to behave 
like an emir; to assume an imperious 
attitude; to be imperious, domineering 
VI to take counsel, deliberate together, 
confer, consult with each other; to plot, 
conspire (Je against) VIII to deliberate, 
take counsel (i_> about); to conspire, plot, 
hatch a plot (l-> against s.o.) | »^L _^i*l 
to carry out s.o.'a ordera 

j*\ amr 1. pl. jjjl axuämir 2 order, 
command, Instruction <l-» to do; 
ordinance, decree; power, authority; 
{gram.) imperative | JU j>\ ( r älin) royal 
decree (formerly, Eg.); J» _^.\ ( r al\y) 
decree, edict of the Bey (formerly, 
Tun.); tJjJli _^\ ordinance having the 
force of law {Tun.); ^S\j ^Vl (wa-n- 
nahy) pl. ,yl>Jlj j»\fi\ (lit. : command 
and interdiction, i.e.) sovereign power; 
füll power(s), supreme authority; -L. jy _^\ 
(delivery) order (com.); i\_^\ c^ at your 
disposal, at your Service. — 2. pl. jjj 
umür matter, afTair, concern, business | 
*Jlj j*\ (accomplished) fact; J»jj** j*\ 
common knowledge; j»*i\ Jjl j at first, 
in the beginning; L ^-V (amrin) for 
some reason or other; tiH-Lf* ^-Vl ,^1 
isn't it so? iUoT j-VIj LI (ammä wa-l- 
amru) things being as they are, there will, 
no doubt, . ..; j*\ j* ^£j \^t (min amrin) 
whatever may happen; however things 
may be; ^j-l ,>j jm he has two pos- 
sibüities (or alternatives); ,^ÄJ! ^^1 which 
(introducing a relative clause the ante- 
cedent of which is another clause); ,^-iJ 
tj*\ qudiya amruhü it's all over with him; 
in the latter and similar phraaes, »^\ is a 
frequent paraphrase of "he" 

j*\ immar aimple-minded, stupid 

ij»\ imra power, influence, authority, 
command | «J^l c-£- under hia command 

äjLI amära pl. -ät, JU amä'ir 2 sign, 
token, indication, Symptom, mark, char- 


JjLI tnwSra position or rank of an 
emir; princely bearing or manners; prin- 
cipality, emirate; authority, power j !jL*l 
j»JI i. al-bahr offioe or Jurisdiction of an 
admiral, admiralty; jl> J»-U c>ljL*l (*. 
*, 'umdn) Truoial Oman 

jul omfr pl. »1^.1 umariJ' 1 Commander; 
prince, emir; title of princes of a ruling 
house; tribal chief | ^111 j^\ (aläy) Com- 
mander of a regiment (formerly, Eg.; 
approx.: colonel; aa a naval rank, 
approx.: oaptain); »l^lfl jJ\ approx.: 
major general (Tun,); jU«JI .>•! (Eg. 
1939) approx.; admiral, jUJl »l_^l jJ? 
(Eg. 1939) approx.: fleet admiral; j*\ 
j*Ji\ a. al-bahr admiral (when referring to 
a non-Arab officer of this rank; Eg. 1939 
approx.: vice-admiral) ; ./Till j*J\ _^*l 
or Ji*Vl jUJl j-J fleet admiral (when 
referring to a non-Arab officer of this 
rank); »IjJII j*J a. al-liwä* (Ir,, since 
1933) brigadier; <_JI .1^ j»\ a. I <U- 
'assa commandant of the Bey's palace 
guard {formerly, Tun.); j^-*JJ-' j**' °- a '- 
mu'mintn Commander of the Faithful, 

*j^\ amira pl. -ät princese 

^j^\ amiri (and D ^j* miri) gov- 
ernmental), state-owned, State, public ] 
iSj^ ^jl (<w£) government land [Syr,); 
4jj^*Vl «*-Lll government presa 

jL*l ammär constantly urging, always 
demanding (lj to do; inciting, in- 
stigating | «^Jb SjL^i <r £l\ (nafs, au) 
the baser seif (of man) that inoites to evil 

jj-t ta'mür soul, mind, Bpirit; peri- 
cardium (anat.) \ jj*\d\ t-^Lpl pericar- 
ditis (med.) 

tj*\}* mu'ämara pl. -ät deliberation, 
counsel, Conference; plot, conspiracy 

j*\j ta'ammur imperiousnesB, domi- 
neeringneBs;imperious deportment, over- 
bearing manners 

j-t ia'ämur Joint conaultation, counsel, 
deliberation, Conference; plot, conspiracy 

jltjj'l i'timär deliberation, counsel, Con- 
ference; plot, conspiracy 

IjLil-i isti'mära (frequently written 
IjUx-l) form, blank 

jA ämir Commander; lord, master; 
orderer, purchaser, customer, client | 
^Ut ^1 absolute master, vested with 
unlimited authority 

jjAa ma'mür commissioned, oharged; 
commissioner; civil officer, official, esp., 
one in executive capacity; the head of 
a markaz and qxsm (Eg.) | (j^JjJi jjA* 

commissioner of police ; « xLcül jjA* 

(tafliaa) receiver (in bankruptcy; jur.); 
i5^i-l jjXt m. al-haraka traffic manager 
(railroad); Li-adl j_yi» m. at-ta^fiya re- 
ceiver (in equity, in bankruptcy; jur.) 

<UjA* ma'müriya pl. -ät order, In- 
struction; errand; task, assignment, mis- 
sion; commission; commissioner's office, 
administrative branch of a government 
agency, e.g., SJLi» <ijj^ (qadä'iya) 
judicial commission charged with Juris- 
diction in outlying communities (Eg.) 

üjjJi* muiaämirün conspirators, plot- 

<Jjj£j* mu'tamirün conspirators, plot- 
ters; members of a congresa, Convention, 
or Conference, conferaes 

j£ja mu'tamar pl. -ät Conference; Con- 
vention, congress | «LJI j&y m. a$- 
&ulh peace Conference 

i}j*\ II taamraka to become Americanized, 
adopt the American way of life, imitate 
the Americans 

'JjJS taamruk Americanization 

^J^l amarillis amaryllis (bot.) 

1^j^*l amrikä (formerly, also Uj^J) America] 
ojii-l ^ij* 1 (janvbiya) South America 



JJj-l amriki American; (pl. -ün) an 


üKjj-VI al-amrikän the Americans 
JKj^.1 amrikäni American; (pl. -ün) 

an American 

^1 amsu (but acc. L—l amsan) the day 
past, yesterday ; the immediate past, 
recent time; — amsi (adv.) yesterday; 
recently, lately, not long ago | ^—VIj 
bi-l-amsi yesterday; not long ago; (>r -l 
6j}\ amsi l-awwal two days ago, the 
day before yesterday 

*_— ( umsiya pl. -ät, ^Ll amä&iy eve- 

fbjwJ amstirdäm Amsterdam 

jw.1 amJir the sizth month of the Coptic 

ul imma' and «*>l ivnma'a characterless 
person; Opportunist, timeserver 

J*l amoZa u {amal) to hope {* or *_> for), 
entertain hopes (» or u of) II to hope; 
to ezpect (<> a of s.o.); to raise 
hopes {• in s.o.), hold out hopes (« for 
s.o.), give (♦ s.o.) reason to hope or 
expeot | \j<*- *L\ (kairan) tolet s.o. hope 
for the best V to look attentively (*, j 
at), regard, contemplate (a, j; 
to meditate; to consider, think over, 
ponder (*, j, reflect {*, j on) 

J*l amal pl. JUT ämäl hope, expec- 
tation (J of, also ^) | ^JS* JJ 
fallacious hope 

J*U ma'mal pl. J*L ma'ämü 1 hope 

J*U ta'ammid pl. -ät consideration ; 
oontemplation ; pl. C>^L*L" meditations 

J*T ämü hopeful 

J*_P mu'ammü hopeful 

J_pU ma'mül hoped for, expected 

Jrfti* muta'ammil contemplative, med* 
itative, reflective; pensive, wistful, musing 

^y\ amuna u (üLl amäna) to be faithful, re- 
liable, trustworthy; — amina a (amn, uUl 
amän) to be safe, feel Bafe (j* or *from) 
II to reassure (» s.o.), set s.o. 's (•) mind 
at rest; to asaure, ensure, safeguard, 
guarantee, Warrant, bear out, oonfirm, 
corroborate (J*, *; to insure 
(3tjl-\ U against fire); to entrust (• to 
s.o., J*; to say "amen" (J*to 
IV to believe (*_> in) VIII to trust (• s.o.), 
have confidence, have faith (« in); to 
entrust (J* * s.o. with, to s.o. 
X = VIII; to ask for protection, for 
ä promise of security, for indemnity 
(. s.o.) 

<yl amn safety; peace, security, pro- 
tection | j»Ul j-VI ( r ämm) public safe- 
ty J ü*^' JLitj tfl e police 

üUI amän security, safety; peace ; 
shelter, protection ; clemency , quarter 
(mil.); safeguarding, assurance of pro- 
tection; indemnity, immunity from pun~ 
ishment | Äüi üUI j (a valedictory phrase) 
in God's protection! 

^..l amin pl. »L.I umanä'* reliable, 
trustworthy, loyal, faithful, upright, hon- 
est; safe, secure; authorized representa- 
tive or agent; tnistee; gnarantor (J* of); 
chief, head ; Superintendent, curator, 
custodian, guardian, keeper; chambcr- 
lain; master of a guüd (Tun.); {mil.) 
approx.: quartermaster-sergeant {Eg. 
1939) | JjVt Cr/Vl {awwal) Lord Chamber- 
lain (formerly, at the Eg. Court); j^S~ 
»L.VI approx.: Chief Master of Ceremo- 
niea (ibid.); ö_^U ,>*' a - al-makzan ware- 
house Superintendent; stock clerk; ^-1 
üjjl j* a. rirr ad-daula and ^1 ,>-.! 
a. as-sirr permanent secretary of state 
(Syr.) ; JjX^JI ^*l a. as-pundüq and 
JUI ,j*J treasurer; cashier; *r*Ull ^^1 
mayor (esp. Ir.); *U ^J ( r ämm) sec- 
retary general; i_-i£il ^*l a. al-maktab 
(formerly) a subaltern rank in the Eg. 
navy (1939) 


j\J ämin amen! 

üL.1 amäna reliability, trustworthiness ; 
loyalty, faithfulness, fidelity, fealty; in- 
tegrity, honesty; confidence, trust, good 
faith; deposition in trust; trusteeship; 
(pl. -ät) deposited in trust, a de- 
posit, trust, charge; secretariat | ÄjUl 
JjOi^aJI a. a$-fiundüq treasury department ; 
öl* ULI ('ämma) secretariat general ; 
ollLVI üjit makzan al-a. baggage check - 

j^U mtCman place of safety, safe place 

<j*.Jj tamln securing, protection; assur- 
ance ; safeguarding ; reassurance ; ensuring ; 
guaranty, warranty; security, surety; in- 
surance | ,^£»-1 ir*v (ijtimä'i) social 
security; JjjJ-l -U* ijwu ($idda) fire in- 
surance; *Li-l J* jJb (AoyäA) life insur- 

ülcl imän faith, belief {<_j in) 

uUjüI i'timän trust, confidence; credit 

uLSL-1 isttmän trust, confidence 

^.i ömtn peaceful 

Oj-U ma'mün reliable, trustworthy 

4-L ^^ mw'amman 'alaihi insured 

j*j* mu'min believing, faithful; be- 

y:j* mu'laman entrusted ( J* with) ; 
confidant; sequestrator (jur.) 

^j-^lJ omnibua omnibus, bus 

1 t 5_ f *l amawi of or like a bondmaid or hand- 

% <S_y\ umawi Ommiad (adj.) 

Ä-.1 _jj banü umayya the Ommiads 
LjI amibä amoebae 
J'^J amiräl admiral 
tT>*l, «5*^*1 amerikä, amerika America 
iJljw! amiräliya admiralty 

1 ül an (conj.) that; — in 1. (conj.) if; jlj 
Mxx-»n although, even though, even if; 
ü\j — Ol be it — or (be it); Vi iüä 
(= V üi) look up alphabetically 2. (par- 
ticle) not, esp. in the phrase Vi j* öl 
tn Auu« tZ2ä (f. VI ^ ul) it is nothing but, 
it is no more than 

: jl anno (conj.) that; <\ U 6»-mä annaAü 
since he (it), because he (it); *Jl J* 'ald 
annahü while he (it), whereas he (it); 
introducing a main clause: however, 
yet; <jl illij that is to say, namely, to 
wit; — inna (intensifying particle in- 
troducing a nominal clause) verily, 
truly (in most cases not translated in 

Le 1 innamä but, but then ; yet, how- 
ever; rather, on the oontrary 

3 jl anna i (jol anin, äUü ta'nän) to groan, 
moan (j,- at) 

Äjl anna pl. -ät moan, groan | oLaTj oljl 
wails and laments 

^rjl anin plaintive sound, wail; groan, 

ijlil anänl egotistic; egoistio(al), self- 

ÄJUl anäniya egoism, selfishness 

Jj^UVl al-anädül Änatolia 

^Ulil anänäs pineapple 

._Jl II to blame, censure, reprehend, up- 
braid (• s.o.) 

<_-ufc la'nib blame, censure, rebuke 

Ul (pronounced ambä) Abba, a high ecclesi- 
astic title of the Coptic Church, preceding 
the names of metropolitans, bishops, 
patriarchs, and sainte (< Äßßä) 

jUI anbär pl. _rUl anäbir 2 , jv\j\ anäbir 2 ware- 
house, storehouae, storeroom 


,-ilJl (Turk. onbagi) onbaai a mil. rank: cor- 
poral (formerly, Eg.); ^Lil J-Tj approz.: 
private first class (Eg.) 

i_^jl, <u_^ see i_J 

i j 7 ü\ inblq alembic 

cJ\ anta, f. anti thou, you (2nd pers. sing.); 
pl. m. jjl antum, f. ^jl antunna you 
(2nd pers. pl. and poüte form of address); 
dual £1 antumä both of you 

Ijjl anta-dä it's you! 
oUtSwul antikkäna museum 

iSJül an/ifca pl. -ät (eg.) old, old-fashioned, 

jj*Jül anlimün antimony 

iiJl anuta u (o»jl uTiwia) to be or become fem- 
inine, womanly, womanish, effeminate 
II to make feminine; to effeminate, make 
effeminate; to put into the feminine form 
(gram.) V to hecome feminine (also gram.) 

^jjl untä pl. ÜjI inät, jUl anätä fem- 
inine; female; a female (of animals); 
öLiJ s Jl al-untayän the testicles 

^jijl untawx womanly, female, women's 
(in Compounds); effeminate, womanish 

SjjJ I unüta femininity, womanlineas 

ijjlj tarnt the feminine, feminine form 

iJJ* mu' annal (gram.) feminine (adj.) 
\-?rj}_y m jjv\ antröbölöjiyä anthropology 
^Ljil inj äs (syr.) pear 
IJÜLf I (It. Inghilterra) ingillerä England 

j\Lf*^l al-ingülz the English 

tijJj^l ingdlizi English; Englishman 

J-jtfl injil pl. Jj--LjI anäjil 2 gospel 

J-atl tn;'i& evangelical; evangelist 
LLf I injiliya evangelical creed 

( _ r JjJ*i' 1 al-andalus Spain 

L_JjAjI indüniaiyä Indonesia 

^jjl anisa a and anusa u (uns) to be com- 
panionable, sociable, nice, friendly, ge- 
nial; o ^1 to like s.o. 's Company, like to 
be together with s.o.; to be or get on 
intimate terms (■_. > or Jl with s.o.); 
to be used, accustomed, habituated (Jl 
to); to perceive, notice, find (* a quality, 
j, j* in s.o.); to sense, feel, make out, 
recognize (*, j in, at) [ «ij^A- ^1 
(li-haditihi) to like to listen to s.o. II to 
put at ease ; to tarne III to be friendly, nice 
(» to s.o.); to entertain, amuse (e> s.o.) 
IV to keep s.o. {•) Company; to en- 
tertain, delight, amuse (* s.o.); to per- 
ceive, discern, make out (with the eyes; 
a; to sense (*; to find, see, 
notice, observe, e.g., öLiSüi «lj ^T he saw 
that he was duly qualified, that he was a 
capable man V to become incarnate (Son 
of God) X to be sociable, companionable; 
to get on familiär terms, become inti- 
mate; to become tarne; to be friendly, 
nice, kind (o to s.o.) ; to accommodafce o.s., 
accustom o.s., settle down; to be familiär, 
famüiarize o.s., acquaint o.s. (<_j or Jl 
with); to inform o.s., gather Information 
(>_j ahout); to take into consideration, 
take into account, bring into play (<—•, draw upon (<~>); to listen 
(J to, heed (^ an opinion) 

.Jl uns sociability; intimacy, famili- 
arity, friendly atmosphere 


= üH 

(ka'b) talus, inner 

anklebone (anat.) 

^1 ins (coli.) man, mankind, human 

^Jl insi human; human being 

^U näs (coli.) and ^Ul unäs people 

0«-»L3 näaüt mankind, humanity 

^»Ijl anäexy (pl.) people, human beings, 

a -x>\ anis close, intimate; close friend; 
friendly, kind, affable, civil, polite, cour- 

üL-jl insän man, human being | oL-jl 
^r-JI ». al-'ain pupil (of the eye) 

ÜL-ji insäna woman 

(jL-jl tn«än» human ; humane ; humani- 
tarian, philanthropist 

«jLil insäniya humanity, humaneness; 
politeness, civüity; mankind, the human 

LJlj* mu'änasa intimacy, famüiarity, 
friendlineaa, geniality, cordiality; aocia- 
bility; conviviality 

^UjI Inas exhilaration ; friendlineaa, 
geniality ; famüiarity, intimacy, cordi- 
ality; sociability 

(jJlJ ta'annus incarnation (Chr.) 

^ÜUI Vtinäs social life, sociability 

i-jTänisapI. ~ät, (jJljl awänis 2 young 
lady, miss 

,j->>U ma'nüs familiär, accuatomed 

(j-Ju—* mustanis tarne 

Jti\ (Engl.) m£inch 

<j*-jijl (It. acciuga) anlfüga (eg.) anchovy 

*-TlLil anfäkiya 2 Antioch (ancient city in 
Syria; now Antakya, in S Turkey) 

( j r j)jkü\ onfölöji ontologic(al) (philo*.) 

»J»jl anifa a (anaf) to diadain, acom (j*,, 
öl to do; to reject haughtily 
(a X to reaume, renew, recommence 
(*; (jur.) to appeal (* a aentence) 

»Jül anf pl. jliTänä/, dy\ unüf noae; 
epur (of a mountain); pride \ *J6\ Jj 
ragma anfiht in defiance of him, to apite 
him; <stj\ jS" (anfahü) to humiliate s.o., 

put a.o.'a noae out of Joint; *_üVi V-L- 
etuck-up, haughty, proud 

Jjl anfi nasal 

Uu\ anafa pride; rejection; diadain 
(j- of 

<Jtjj\ anüf proud, haughty, stuck-up, 
eupercilioua, diadainful 

i_j ÜJ£-I isti'näf fresh atart, recom- 
mencement, renewal, reaumption, re- 
opening (also, of a legal case); appeal 
(jur.) | ULüJ fjJ (qaddama) to appeal, 
make an appeal (jur.) 

jüj£-1 isti'näf i of appeal, appellate; 
L#Lil-l isti'näfiyan by appeal 

■JuT änif preceding, above | jföJI »J»jT 
(dikr) preceding, above, above-mention- 
ed; LöjT änifan previously, above, in the 

uJcSja mu'tanaf primordial, virginal 
atate; beginning 

U 'jm\ (Fr. Anvers) anvers Antwerp (city in 
N Belgium) 

1 JrjJ-ül influuxinzä influenza, grippe 

jjl aniqa a to be neat, trim, smart, spruce, 
comely, pretty; to be happy (i_> about), 
be delighted (i_> by) IV to please (* s.o.) | 
»^1 <ÜJj (iai'u) he likes the thing 
V to apply o.a. eagerly and meticulously 
(j to) ; to be meticuloua, fastidious, 
finical; to be chic, elegant 

4*Ll I anäqa elegance 

Jjl aniq neat, trim, spruce, comely, 
pretty; elegant, chic 

3j I anüq Egyptian vulture (Neophron 
percnopterua) | 3jl^\ Ä^ i ^ je-\ a'azz 2 
min baidi l-a. (lit. : rarer than the egga 
of a vulture, i.e.) approx.: scarcer than 
hens' teeth (proverbially for rare) 

JJÜ ta'annuq elegance 


jiy, mu'niq, £y müniq pretty, come- 
ly, winsome, nice, pleasing 

j»ti* muia'anniq chic, elegant 

*jjj\ anqara Ankara 

(j-J-iil a^olis eel 

dii I änwfc lead (metal) 

^jli&l inkiSäri pl. -iya Janizary 

IJ*J&I, *JüS^jl (It. InghiÜerra) ingilterä, in* 
giltera England 

üf*SL*j!£ji ^ I al-anglosaksün the Anglo - Saxons 

<Jj~SL~j}&'^\ al-anglosaksüniya Anglo- 

>J&^I al-ingliz the Engliah 

(j;>Jd inglizi English; Englishman 

^pd&l ankalis eel 

j»U^I ai-anäm and fl^i (coli.) mankind, the 
human race 

rj>jt\ unmüdaj model, pattern; type, ei- 
ample; sample, specimen 

j^cl anamün anemone {bot.) 

*JI anä i to mature, become ripe; to draw 
near, approach, come (esp. time) | jl <J Jl 
it is (high) time that he; esp. in negative 
Statements: üb Jl a-lam ya'ni? isn't it 
about time ...1 V to act slowly, proceed 
unhurriedly, bide one's time, be patient 
X to take one's time, hesitate (j in, 
with); to wait 

Ji anan pl. »ul änä' (span of) time, 
period j JJI »LiT j (laili) all night long; 
jL(Jl J)\Jf\j JJI »UT änä'a l-laili wa- 
afräja n-nahär by day and by night 

SUI anäh deliberateness ; perseverance, 
patience | SU VI J_jt fül al-a. long-suffer- 
ing, great patience; 3UVI ^j* long-suffer- 
ing (adj.) 

•Ul inä* pl. «Jl äniya, uljl awänin 
vessel, Container, receptacle ] fUUI <S\ 
ä. af-ta'äm table Utensils, dishes; mess kit 

jfc Ut annin slowness, deliberateness 

oll* muta'annin slow, unhurried, de- 

a jl annä (interrog. part.) where ... from? 
why is it that...? why? where? (place 
and direction) ; how? wherever; how- 
ever | . . . V I <J Jl 3 (allä) and why shouldn't 
he ... ? 

ü_j— jl anlsün, j^-Jl aniseed 

L*Ji anlmiyä anemia | O *ij**- L*-jl perni- 
cious anemia (med.) 

»T aki! IaT ähanf (interj.) oh! 

^1 II to prepare, make ready, equip (J *, * 
s.o., for) y to be ready, be pre- 
pared; to prepare o.s., get ready; to 
equip o.s., be equipped (J for) 

LaI uhba pl. ,_-*! uhab preparation, 
preparedness, readiness, alertness; equip- 
ment, outfit, gear | ^>J-\ LaI u. al-harb 
miütary equipment; h»-J\ La! J* ready 
toset out; jl-Ui-Vl LaI J* fully prepared; 
on the alert (mil.) ; *i~*\ -U-l to make one's 
preparations, get ready 

»_jL»I ihäb skin, hide 

i_— *U taahkub preparedness, readiness; 
(pl. -ät) preparation 

<_**U* mula'akhib ready, prepared 

JaI ahala u i (J_y>l uhül) to take a wife, get 
married; — ahila a to be on familiär 
terms (i~> with); — pass. ukila to be in- 
habited, be populated (region, place) 
II to make fit or suited, to fit, qualify 
(J a, * s.o., for); to make possible 
(a J for s.o., enable (* <J s.o. to do, make accessible (> J to s.o.; 
to welcome (i_j s.o.) "V to be or become 
fit, suited, qualified (J for ; to 


take a wife; to marry, get married X to 
deserve, merit {*, be worthy (* of) 

J»l ahl pl. -an, JUI ahälin relatives, 
folke, family; kin, kinsfolk; wife; (with 
foll. genit.) people, members, followere, 
adherents, possessore, etc.; inhabitants; 
deserving, worthy (J of; fit, suited, 
qualified (J for); pl. ü>Vt, JUVI the 
natives, the native population | CjJI J»l 
a. al-bait members (of the house, i.e.) 
of the family; the Prophet's family; 
jloJl J»l the people living in the house; 
*iji-\ J»l a. al-kirfa people of the trade; 
<JtU-l J»l people pledged by oath, 
members of a sworn confederacy; J»l 
*_^i-'l o. al-Jpibra people of experience, 
experts; <k— ÄJl J»l a. as-safsafa Soph- 

ists; <: 11 J»l o. as-aunna the adherents 

of the Sunna, the Sunnis; jj)\j j-dl J*l 
a. ai-maaar uw-Z-wa6ar the resident pop- 
ulation and the nomads; IaU-^JI J»l o. 
al-wajäha people of rank and high social 
standing; "}*+-_> "^*l aAZan wa-sahXan wel- 
come! iil> }Ul aAlan ftiia welcome to 
you! J*--j J*l Ujl^ j *J he is a welcome 
guest in our house 

J»l ahli domestic, family (adj.); na- 
tive, resident ; indigenous ; home, na- 
tional { J»l d-bj national bank (Eg.); ^>j>- 
i-UI (harb) civil war; 5-1*1 5*£s£ (mahkama) 
indigenous court (Eg.); J»^M »LääJI (qatfä*) 
Jurisdiction of indigenous courts; r-^V 
J»V' (t'niä;) domestic production; ijüj 
J»l {uag 1 /) family wakf 

ÄjUI akliya aptitude, fitness, suitable- 
ness, competence; qualification | LUV 
3J_jjUJI the civil rights; i-L*"V' J-T le- 
gally competent ; Li* V ' f ■** legally incom- 
petent, under tutelage 

J*T ähil and Jj*u ma'AüJ inhabited, 
populated (region, place) 

Zj"$Mj* muakkilät qualifications, abil- 
ities, aptitudes 

J*ti* muiä'akkü married 

J*U— « muata'hU worthy, deserving, mer- 
iting; entitled 

pi-UI ihlllaj myrobalan, emblic (fruit of 
Phyllanthus emblica L.; bot.); ellipse 

^^nJUaI ihlilaji elliptic(al) 

j\ au or; (with foll. subj.) unless, exoept 

1 (»_jjI) <-S\ äba u (aub, öjl aufta, t_jLI iyäb) 
to return ; t-» <_jT to catch , contract , 
auffer, incur, be in for, be left 
with, got one's share of 

Vj' <ß ü - m * n kuM* anbin from all 
sides or directions; <-?_y*j *->-*' \f ü - 
(wa-vaubin) do. 

ÄjjI auba return 

t-jljl i'yöfc return { LLIj LUi dahäban 
wa-iyäban there and back ; back and 
forth, up and down 

uU ma'äb place to which one returns; 
(used as verbal noun:) return | «-»Lj >_j>*^ 
Coming and going 

2 >_jT look up alphabetically 

I y jl and I j- j\ (It. opera) ffpwd opera ; 
opera houae 

C-jyji (Fr.) öp»ret operetta 

Cjj\ (Ft. aoül) August (month; magr.) 

tri^j' (Fr. (tutobus) oiobla autobus, bus 

J»I_ht_»Jj' (Fr.) otogräf pl. -öf autograph 

,jMj*jjjI otüqräfi autocratic 

JlöUjJjl (Fr.) otomätikX automatic 

J-ij-yjji (Fr-) o(om&iJ automobile 

Jjjl (Fr.) öfej pl. -ät hotel 

^jl au; highest point, acme, pinnacle; cul- 
mination, climax; apogee (astron.); peak 
(fig.; of power, of fame) 


»■T äh albumen, eggwhite 
O <>*-T ähin albumin 

(jjl) jT äda u (aud) to bend, flex, curve, 
crook (*; to bürden, oppress, weigh 
down (» s.o.); — Jjl awida a (aivad) to 
bend ; to be bent V to bend ; to bow 

ibjl auda bürden, load 

ij\ awad: »jjL flj to provide for b.o.'s 
needs, stand by s.o. in time of need; 
ajjl flil (awadahü) do.; tosupports.o.,fur- 
nish s.o. with the means of Bubsiatence 

j\j\ uwär heat, blaze; thirst 

IjjjI urubbä Europe 

jjjl urubbi European 

J-ljjl üruialim* Jerusalem 

&jj\ (= iLjl) urfa pl. .Ujl ura^ battalion 
(formerly, Eg.; mtl.) 

(jl^ijjl uruguwäy Uruguay 

IJLfjjl (It.) orkesträ orchestra 

iLijjl (Turk. örnek) urnik pl, dJLjijl aräniJc* 
sample, specimen; model, pattern; form, 

IjjjjI urubbä, IjjjjI Europe 

Ujjjl uru&&» European 

^[>»-jj_jl ürüguwäy Uruguay 

Jjl II (eg.) to ridicule (J* s.o.), make fun of 
s.o. (J.) 

jjl iwazz (coli.; n. un.) goose, geese 

,j*T ä« myrtle; see also alphabetically 

L'ljwjl uafurdütyä Australia 

IjjwjI (It.) austnyä Austria 

^Ljl Oslo 

Lj L-ji ü-sfö aee |J L-l 

3-ijl wiiya pl. ^Ijl awäSin prayer, oration 

4t\ äfa pl. -ät härm, hurt, damage, ruin, bane, 
evil; epidemic, plague; plant epidemio 

<J»_jJ- ma'üf stricken by an epidemio 

Jjjijl (Engl.) oviröl Overalls 

*(iij') jT äjo u to bring a.o. (J*) bad luck, 
cause diacomfort or hardship (J* to) 
II to bürden (» s.o.) with unpleas- 
ant, troubleaome or difficult 

2 *sj\ see i#l 

3 ^lijl uwaiqät (dimin. of OÜjl) short timea; 
good times 

u-^j'» u^>Wj' ojtyöni«, ogiyänüs ocean 

*Jj\ üqiya pl. -ötf ounce, a weight of varying 
magnitude (Eg.: 37.44 g; Aleppo 320 g; 
Jerusalem 240 g; Beirut 213.3 g) 

jjjjlTjl (Fr. occasion) okazyön Clearing sale, 
special sale 

Lil^^Sjl ukräniyä Ukraine 

J^^Sj\ (Fr. oxygene) oksizen oxygen 

(Jjl) JT äla u (aul, JU ma'äl) to return, re- 
vert (Jf to); to go back, be attributed, be 
attributable (Jl to), spring, derive (Jl 
from) ; to lead, conduce, tend ( Jl to), 
result eventually (Jl in); to come or go 
eventually (Jl to a.o.), paas into the 
hands of (Jl) | Jl y$\ JT the long and 
the short of it was that . . . ; Jl ÖLU.I o jT 
(ma^äfu) he eventually got to the point 
where ... II to interpret, explain (* 

JT äl family, relatives, kinsfolk, clan; 
companions, partiaans, people; mirage, 
fata morgana 

<jT äla pl. -ät Instrument, Utensil; tool; 
apparatus; device, implement, appliance; 
machine | Lr X\ £>*$\ ä. al-hiss senaory 
organs; ijjüc ÄJT (bukäriya) steamengine; 
jL\ ijT ä. al-jarr tractor; v^*- ÄJT (ja* 
hannamiya) infernal machine; *?ij*- *H 
(harbiya) instrument of war; .iL^^JI *JT 


mobor, engine; 1—-U- 5JT calculating ma- 
chine; iTU-l 3jT ä. al-hiyäka power loom; 
iULA-'l üT sewing machine ;_j*.alj äJTradio; 
Äailj ilT hoisting machine, crano, derrick; 
pump; ^i— jJ! <JT and li^— * ÜJl (musafy* 
kina) heater; jj^\ 3J T (photographic) 
camera; i*-LL!l üTprinting press; J™ill ilT 
ä. al-gael washing machine; '£j*& «Jl 
incubator; JUL-VI iJTreceiver, receiving 
set (radio); l^Ä* lüT (muqaffira) distüling 
apparatus, still; i>b&\ 5J T and LjK" 3J T 

typewriter; j\J\\ < J ilT ä. Wb al-qimär 

slot machine; LJL-y* *^ (müawjfyo) mu- 
sical Instrument; 4_J^I 5jT alarm; siren; 
hörn (of an automobile); #lf* üT (ßom;»ä') 
(fig.) tool, creature, puppet 

jT all meohanic(al); mechanized; mo- 
torized; instrumental; organic | jTi.1^ 
(mihrät) motor plow; -J VI ol_^ÄJI {qüwät) 
motorized troops; ÜJl 55^*- (haraka) a 
mechanical movement 

ÄJT äliya mechanics 

JVT äläti pl. LjVT älätiya (eg.) mu- 
sician ; singer 

Jji awwal 2 , f. Jjl ülä, pl. m. -ün, Jjljl 
awä'tf 2 first; foremoet, most important, 
principal, chief, main; first part, be- 
ginning; (with def. article also) earlier, 
previous, former; see also under Jj | 

JjV' öl J V' (insän) primitive man; i— j-L» 

Jjl physician-in-chief; JJljVI, tJjJjVI the 
forebears, forefathers, ancestors; JJtjl 
_^JÜl o. aH-Sakr the first ten days of a 
month, beginning of a month; lj* JjV 
li-awwali marratin or JjVI ZjJl for the 
first time; *ij\ ^ aUIjI ,^* since its be- 
ginnings, from the very beginning; j* 
»j^\ Jl *ij\ {äkiriki) from beginning 
to end, from A to Z; j*^\ Jjl awwala 
l-amri at first, in the beginning; JjVI 
JjVli each time the first available; U Jjl 
(auwala) the moment when, just when; 
at the very outset of; JjVI ^> jS"\ 
(aktara) more than before 


Vjl axmvalan first, firstly, in the first 
place; at first, in the beginning | JjL Vjl 
and Vjti Vjl by and by, gradually, one 
after the other, one by one; l_/*-lj Vjl 
and \j»-\j Vjl {äkiran) firBt and laBt, alto- 
gether? simply and solely, merely 

Jjl awwali prime, primary, primordial, 
original, initial, first; elemental, funda- 
mental, basic, principal, chief, main; 
elementary; primitive, pristine, primeval] 
*Jj\ i-j.u (madrasa) elementary school, 
grade school; iJjl jI_j* (mawädd) raw 
materials; Jjl i-le {'adad) prime number; 
*Jj\ ijy\j (fätüra) pro forma invoice 

*Jj\ awwaliya pl. -ät fundamental 
truth, axiom; primary constituent, es- 
sential component, element; precedence; 

Jil ayyil, iyyal, uyyal pl. JJLl ayä'xP 

ULI iyäla pl. -ät province; regency 

iljJLI ailüla title deed (jur.) 

J U maäl end ; outcome, final issue, 
upshot; result, consequence | JU-I j 
J U.I Jj at present and in the future 

JjjU ta'mll pl. -öf Interpretation, 

»Vjl ttiö't, liliJjl, liUVjl ulä'ilca these; those, 
pl. of the demonstr. pron. li and jJIi 

j^ijl oJimÖi Olympic j i-ljV v 'LI VI the Olym- 
pic games 

jLljl olimbiyäd Olympiad 

j)j\ ulü (pl. of jj) owners, possessors, people 
(with foll.genit.: of) | ^V' jJjl u. l-amr 
rulers, powerful leaders; jlÄJIj JJ-I ^JjI 
u. l-hall wa-l-'aqd (lit. : masters of solv- 
ing and binding) do.; uliJI ^Jjl u. i-Sa'n 
the responsible people 

1 [»ljl uwäm thirst 

2 j.jl ohm (el) 


fj>j£*j\ omnibiu omnibus, bus 

*liT an time; ü^\ al-äna now | jT j and 
■**-'j $ J afc tne same time, aimultane- 
ously; j*X Jl üT £m (äkara) from time to 
time; j^j jT ^j L. (ua-öfcaro) and 
jT Jju IjT Bometimes, at timea, now and 
then, once in a while; Uti UT gradually, 
by and by, little by little; ÜjTj — UT 
(äwtnatan) sometimes — sometimes, at 
timea — at timea; u^/1 JJ qabla l-äna 
before, previously, formerly; j'SU li-l-äna 
and j^l Jr hattä l-äna until now, hith- 
erto, so far; <lftl •*» ba'da l-äna from 
now on, henceforth, in the future; <> 
1-l*Lo* u^l min al-äna fa-fiä'idan do. 

J&T äna'üKn that day, at that time, 

iilijT äna4äka that day, at that time, 

Oj\ aun calmness, aerenity, gentlenesa 

oljl awän pl. SjjT öun'na time | JJ 
*jljl prematurely; -Jtjl j at the right 
time, timely, seasonably, *i\j\ > jat 
the wrong time, untimely, unaeasonably; 

Zj$\ ,> j . fr° m tmie *° t" 116 ; ^j^" uy 

dj^^J («M and j^-l 0» *jT (dwinaten, 
u&rä) at timea, Bometimea; j^-lj — üjl 
sometimes — sometimeB, at timea — at 
times; jlj^l *i*U (/dto) it is too late; 
üljVI jT (ö?w) the time haa come, it is 
time (J for, to do 

*ü\ji\ look up alphabetically 

^ilJjl onbaH corporal, aee ^SlJl 

(»j\) *T aha u and II to moan, aigh V to 
moan, sigh; to sigh with admiration (J 
over), exolaim "ah!" 

«jl avnoah (interj.) oh! 

«TöAi, UTöAan, »Ijl wwwahi oh! 

<*T öAa pl. -ö* aigh, moan; pl. oL*T 
aigha of admiration; rapturous exclama- 

•jb to'auwuA moaning, sighing; admir- 
ing exclamation; plaintive sound, wail 

tjj\ awä i to seek refuge, seek aheiter ( Jl at a 
place); to go (Jl to bed); to betake o.a., 
repair (Jl to a place); to shelter, houae, 
put up, lodge, accommodate, receire as 
a guest (*, « s.o., II to shelter, 
lodge, put up, accommodate, receive aa 
a guest (« s.o.) IT to seek shelter (Jl at 
a place), to retire (Jl to a place); to 
betake o.a., repair (Jl to & place); to 
shelter, houae, put up, lodge, accommo- 
date (• B.O.) 

AyJ \wa accommodation, lodging, hous- 
ing, sholtering 

^jl. ma'wan pl. jL ma*äwin place 
of refuge, retreat, shelter; abode; resting 
place; dwelling, habitation | JJ jjL 
(laut) ahelter for the night; doaa house 

^jT ^l Vm äwä pl. jjT cAj banät ö. 

1 ijTäyo, coli. ,jT äy, pl. -ät sign, token, mark; 
miracle; wonder, marvel, prodigy; model, 
exemplar, paragon, maaterpiece (j of, 
e.g., of Organization, etc.); Koranio verae, 
JX I J"jS\ J {äy a4-dikr) the veraes of 
the Koran; paasage (in a book), utter- 
ance, saying, word; iLT (with foll. genit.) 
moat solemn assurances (of love, of 

■jl ay that is (to say), i.e.; namely, to wit 

\*l » yes (with foll. ^ilj yea, indeed! yeB, by 

\*l a VV> f- V o-VV 0, (with foll. genit. or suffix) 
which? what? what kind oft whoever, 
whoaoever ; any, every, no matter what . . . ; 
(with neg.) no; Lr! äyyumä whatever, 
whataoever | cJlT *A, ülT U ayyan käna, 
ayyatan känat whoever he (or ehe) ia, no 
matter who he (or Bhe) is; ü5" j* j} ayyv 
man käna whoever it may be, whoaoever; 
JU- jl J* (ayyi hälin) in any caae, at any 

rate, at all events, by all means; -U-Ij ^1 
ayyu wähidin any one; OLi ^1 ULI *i j! 
inna lahü Sa'nan ayya Sanin it is of the 
greatest importance (lit. : it is of im- 
portance, and of what importance!); ._-*! 
l->L*I Ul o u'jiba bihi ayyamä i'jäbin 
how much he admired him! he admired 
him greatly; jLil Le! *_L JJl aqbala 
'alaihi ayyamä iqbälin he sbowed the 
greatest interest in it 

Li iyyä with nominal suffix to express the 
accusative [ öl i)L! take care not to . .., 
be careful not to . . . ; > iJL I , j ilL I beware 
of ...! iiLlj (dial. wayyäk), »Llj {wayyäh) 
with you, with him 

jU see 2 j\ 

jjl II to back, support (» s.o., * a claim, an 
aspiration, etc.); to confirm, corroborate, 
endorse (* news, a judgment, etc.) 
V = pass. of II 

j_jü ta'yld corroboration, confirmation, 
endorsement, backing, support 

j^ r jjJjI (Fr. hydrogene) idrozen hydrogen 

iJL^jj-ul ILj (qunbula) hydrogen bomb 

l j\ air pl. jy) uyür penis 

*jU af/yär 3 May (Syr., Leb., Ir., Jord.) 

jl^l Irön Iran, Persia 

jly I iräni Iranian, Persian; (pl. -ün) 
a Persian, an Iranian 

loilyl irlandä Ireland 

^jJj-I irlandi Irish; (pl. -ün) Irishman 

JLj-I (Engl.) eriydl aerial, antenna 

1 _ r j>l i3is Isis 

I ^ r i\ ayisa a (^Ll iytw) to despair (^ of 

^LJ jyöa despair 

i-jj^jl (Fr. &Aarpe) sash 

( ( _ r *jl) ^T Ö<£a i to rcturn, revert (Jl to; to become (Jl 

Läjl aidan also, too, as well, likewise, 
eqaally; again; in addition, besides, 

UIUI tfd/iyd Italy 

Jliajl ißli Italian; (pl. -ün) an Italian 

Üjjjl (Gr. tlxojv) iqüna and <~>jÄ>} iqüniya 
pl. -dt icon (CAr.) 

uiiil aik (coli.; n. un. ;) thicket, jungle 

2 Jjl and ULI see Jjl 

»JjLI adüJ a September (Syr., Leb., It., 

3 ij^ljl ailüla title deed (?W.) 

(<■!) >T äma i: -c^jj j- A (zaujatiht) to lose 
one's wife, become or be a widower, c~«l 
L^*-jj j* (zaujihä) to lose one's husband, 
become or be a widow 

Irl aima, *jA uyüm and fü to* 
'ayyum widowhood 

f\ ayyim pl. ^-Ll oyä'im 8 , ^/Ll aydiTiö 
widower, widow 


aiwam 2 see 


Lei ayyumä see *^1 ayy 

1 ( fc >') ^ ^ na * to oomo, approach, draw 
near (time) | jljVl öl {awän) the time 
has come: öl *J öT it's time for him 

üT see üj\ 

j\ aina wherc? (= at or to whaL 
place?) | j.\ j* min aina where ... from? 
j.1 Jl where? (= to what plauo?) ^ j& j_\ 
how far we still are from..., worlda 
separate us from ... (fig-); ilü J* '■** ö*_' 
what is this compared with that! 



^\ al~ainu the where; Space (philo*. ) 

^j! ainamä wherever 

ULI ayyäna when? (conj.) when 

2 j>\ II to ionize (* V to be ionized (el.) 

ü_jjI iyön pl. -ät ion 

>jÜ fa'yln ionization 

^U. muio'ayym ionized 

<jl iAi, iha, ihin (interj.) well! now then! all 
right ! 

Ifl ayyuhä, with fem. also \^J\ ayyatuhä 
(vocative particle) ...! 

<_jjjl ayyüb 2 Job 

jjjjjlfi al-ayyübiyün the Ayubiteß 
{jA aiwam* Bee pj 
^jjI see 2 ^/l 

2 (jljjl twä» pl. -ät recess-like sitting room 
with a raised floor, usually opening on 
the main room or courtyard through an 
arcade; estrade 

1 i_j abbreviation of <_jIj chapter 

2 i_j bi (prep.) in, at, on (place and time); 
with (indicating connection, association, 
attendance); with, through, by means 
of (deaignating instrumentality or agency, 
also with pass. = by); for ( = at the 
price of); by ( = to the amount of); by 
(introducing an oath) | JJL bi-l-lail at 
(by) night, jlfJl* bi-n-nahär during the 
daytime, by day ; j^Jj 1f \J" Samälan 
bi-Sarqin northeast ; C-**J j l^i fa-bihä 
wa-ni'mat in that case it's all right; 
öl j (J -J it is not my intention to ...; 
i]\ Xt \ -U hädä bi-däka now we are even, we 
are quits; itL_j 4S-<JJ (majVihi) an hour 
before his arrival; ^ "with" frequently 
givea causative meaning to a verb, e.g., 
»^ l y^- (lit. : to rise with, i.e.) to 
boost, further, promote; Jl *j *L 
to cause s.o. to arrive at, lead s.o. to; 
for its use as copula after negations, etc., 
see grammar; "& bi-lä without; jl lc 
bi-mä anna in view of the fact that; 
since, as, inaamuch aa, because; «J Lc 
bi-mä fihi including 

•L bä' name of the letter t-> 

LL bäbäpl. ol_jjL bäbawät, otjLL pope; papa, 
father, daddy 

i^jjLj bäbatui, ^jLL papal 

4j_jjLj babawiya papacy 

1 uu ba'ba'a to say "papa" (child) 

2 Jiji bu'bu' root, source, origin; core, heart, 
inmost part; pupil of the eye, also 
(J^aII jij>_ b. al- üin 

JjL bäbiP Babel, Babylon 
JjL bäbill Babylonian 

4jL bäbih the second month of the Coptic 

7rji\j babüj pl. pz>\ji bawäblj 1 slipper 

jjth bäbür pl. -ät, juI_jj bawäbir 3 (= j_y)j) 
locomotive, engine; steamship, steamer 

£jA> bäbünaj camomile (bot.) 

*' "I; bätista batiste 

j^^JjtL bätölöji pathologic (al) 

U»-^J_jJL bätölöjiyä pathology 

üU^jL bädinjän and jljf-ij baidinjän (coli.; 
n. un. •) pl. -ät eggplant, aubergine 


x jLj 6ö> pl. -ä£ bar; taproom 
a jL ba'ara a to dig a well 

Jj bi'r f., pl. jLT übär, jUj bi'är well, 

«j_Jj bu'ra pl. jJj 6u*ar center, seat 
(flg.); site; pit; abyss 

Cjj-SIjIj (Fr. paraehute) bäräSüt parachute 

(il^m bäräguwäy Paraguay 

(jj^jL see <Jjj _r 

<JjIj (Fr.) barlcek parquet, parquetry floor 

*L"jIj see *\jj 

•jIj 6ära pl. -ä( para (coin) 

ajjL bärüd saltpeter; gunpowder 

«jjjlj ftörüda pl. -bjljj bawärid 2 rifle, 

,jJjIj 6ö>m 2 Paris 

^jjlj öön« Parisian 

Jlj bäz pl. ül_)u 6izä7fr and jL ba'z pl. j^Jj 
6u'äz, o\je bi'zän falcon 

jljL bäzoV pl. -ä( bazaar 

C-Jjlj öäzoW basalt 

JjjjjLi bäzübtmd bracelet 

^Jj bausa u (^- L 6a* s) to be strong, brave, 

intrepid; — ^^Jü ba'iaa a (,j-Jj 6a' a) to 

be miserable, wretched VI to feign 
misery or distress VIII to be sad, worried, 

Js-jJI {J Jj bi'sa r-rajulu what an evil 

^L ba's strength, fortitude, caurage, 
intrepidity (ob verbal noun of ^Jj 
bcfusa); härm, hurt, injury, impairment, 
detriment, wrong | ^ul -bJ-1 courageous, 
brave, intrepid; *i ,^-L V (6a' sa) there 
is no objection to it; unobjectionable; 
not bad, rather importaut, consklerable, 

e -8-> 4- if^i ^ ^\f (kammiyät) consider- 
able quantities ; ^L V (6a' sa) never 
mind! it doesn't matter! it's all right! 
^' cr'H ^ ** doesn't matter that . . . ; 
?o" . i*' a yy u 6o*at». ? what does it 
matter? what of it? ^ ^L 4_L ^-J 
(fca'aun) he will be none the worse for . . . ; 
iU* ^-L V (6a' sa) it won't do you any 
härm! don't worry! don't be afraid 

( _ r Jj obj banätu bi'a calamities, ad- 
versities, misfortunes 

^ji bu'a, »l—L ba'sä' 3 , ^jj* bu'üs 
and ^-Jj fcu'sa pl. ^Jjl a6'a* misery, 
wretchedness, suffering, distress 

( _ r j£ 6a'te pl. »L-Jj bu'asä'* miserable, 

^L 6ö*w miserable, wretched 
J-Uj (Fr.) &cwtfZ pastel 
J~*lj bäsU bacilli 

^iL bä5 senior, chief (in Compounds) 

^ jI^Ij bäS6&vÄi and ,j!j jlf^lj approx. : 
master Sergeant (formerly, Eg.) 

pSi** Ij fcÖÄfcaHm physician-in-chief 

j^-j^piL bäSrayyis a naval rank, approz. : 
petty officer 3rd class {Eg.) 

,_jt^ilj bäSkätib chief clerk 
Jät'Ij bäämufti chief mufti (Tun.) 
^rtM; bäSmufattiS chief inspector 
( _ r *JL+r'Li bäSmuhandia chief engineer 
UL fcäiä pl. ol^L böSawät (CjIjUL) pasha 

jilj 6ö3o£, 6ö£tg pl. J^ 6auw&g a sparrow 

jjliUI al-bäsqvrd the Bashkirs 

^rXilj see jS^L* 

^jAi (Engl.) bös pl. -ät bus, autobus 

j^li bäfün concrete, b6ton 


iplj bäga celluloid; tortoiae ahell 

üU-fUI al-bäkistän Pakistan 

JLl-TLj bäkistänl Pakistan! (adj. and n.) 

] Jlj bäl whale {zool.) 

a Ulj bäla pl, -ät bündle, bale 

jUU baltö pl. oljUU 6o^oum(, ^^j baläfi 
overcoat; paletot 

J\j (It. balh) ball, dance 

üjJLj bälün balloon 

jUUI jjr juzur al-bälit/är the Balearic Is- 

*JL (Fr.) böleh ballet 

L»1j and S-*Lj bämiya gumbo, okra (Hibiscus 
esculentus L., 6o(.,a populär vegetable in 

OL see üji 

*^J\jji\j i-ili SäSa bänörämiya ( = Fr. icran 
panoramique) Cinemascope screen 

ÜjJj ia'üna the tenth month of the Coptio 

t$lj bäy, f. IjLj bäya pl. -ät formerly, in Tunisia, 
a title aftor the names of the membera 
of the Bey's family 

jUI jU dar aUbäy (formerly) the Tuni- 
sian government 

j« babr pl. j_j-j bubür tiger 

»Uo babgä' 2 (and &a&&ajä* a ) pl. oljli-j babgä* 
wät parrot 

C~i boXla u i (bau) to cut off, sever (a; 
to complete, finish, achieve, accomplish, 
carry out (*; to fix, settle, de- 
termine (*, decide (*, j on II to adjudge, adjudicate, award 
(* VII to be cut off; to be finished, 
be done; to be decided j j*>1\ £-ül 4i 

trüj <^ri it' s ftu< over between him and 
them, they are through with each other 

Co bau settlement, decision; La battan 
definitely, once and for all 

o batta pl. -ät adjudication, award ; final 
decision; <lJ\ al-battata and o battatan 
definitely, positively, decidedly, esp. with 
negations: absolutely not, definitely not 

Jj batti definite, definitive 

i-L battiya, bittiya pl. Jla batätly 
barrel ; tub 

Ljli> batätan decidedly, definitely, pos- 
itively, categorically, unquestionably, ab- 

C-oj Jo&ii adjudication, award 

£j\j bält definite, definitive | Cj\j *~> 
(man') categorical interdiction 

l Ji batara u (batr) to cut off, sever (*; 
to amputate (*; to mutilate, render 
fragmentarily (* a text) VII to be out 
off, be severed, be amputated 

Jü batr cutting off, severance, Sepa- 
ration; amputation 

Jj\ abtar 2 curtailed, docked, clipped, 
trimmed; imperfect, defective, incom- 
plete; without offspring 

jli> battär cutting, sharp 

J\i bätir cutting, sharp 

jJUa mabtür broken, abrupt, un- 
connected; fragmentary, incomplete 

fl .!jÜ biträ"*, baträ'* Petra (ancient city of 
Edomites and Nabataeans; ruins now in 
SW Jordan) 

ilji batrak patriarch 

Jjjü batrül, bitröl petroleum 

■il abta' 2 an assonant intensifier of w-J 
ajma' 2 all, altogether, whole, entire 

-iL bäti' strong; füll, whole, entire 


ik> II to cut off (a 

1 Jij batala i u (batl) and II to cut off, sever 
{*; to make final, dose, settle, 
make conclusive, clinch (* V to 
retire from the world and devote one's 
life to God (ä»l Jl); to be pious, chaste 
and self-denying; to live in chastity 
VII to be cut off, be curtailed, be docked 

J>=j batül virgin; Jj=JI the Virgin Mary 

<}jZj batüti virginal 

*Jy* batüliya virginity 

Js*s* mutabattil an ascetic, a recluse; a 
pious, godly man 

a V_>=j batülä birch tree 

io batta u (batt) to spread, unroll, unfold 
(a, e.g., a rüg); to scatter, disperse 
(a ; to disseminate, propagate, 
spread (a, e.g., a spirit, an ideology, 
a doctrine); to sprinkle (a a on); to 
let s.o. {«, also J) in on (*, esp. on a 
secret) ; to broadeast, transmit by radio | 
üj-JI d-j to peer around; ^Will <Lj to 
plant, or lay, mines IV to let (» s.o.) in 
on a secret (a) VII to be spread; to be 

ij batt spreading, dissemination, prop- 
agation; grief, sorrow 

jo batara i (batira a) and V to break out with 
pimples or pustules (skin) 

ju batr pl. jjij biitür (n. un. »ju batra 
pl. batarät) pimples, pustules 

ju batir, j& batir pustulate, pimpled 

j£j bataqa i u (with _^Jl an-nahra) to open 
flood gates so that the river will overflow 
its banks VII to break forth, burst out, 
well out, pour out, gush out; to emanate, 
proeeed, spring (j- or ^ from) 

jliul inbitäg outpouring, effusion, out- 
pour, outburst; emanation 

*wf bajika a (bajah) to rejoiee (i-> at) V to 
vaunt, flaunt (l_j, boast, brag (lj of) 

vv-Jt tabajjuh bragging, braggery 

M^i* mutabajjih braggart 

tJjf. bajda, bujda root, aource, heart, es- 
sence, basis | j-V «-^ the heart of the 
matter, the actual State of affairs, the 
true facts; lf-&- J/I _** {ibn bujdatihä) he 
knows the Job from the ground up, he is 
the right man for it 

j£-\ abjar 2 obese, corpulent 

l _ r it bajasa u i (bajs) and II to open a. 
passage (for the water), cause (the water) 
to flow V and VII to flow freely, pour 
forth copiously, gush out 

l _ r j~ bajs, ,^-wf bajis flowing freely, 

mjt baja (n. un. ») pelican 

Jjt II to honor, revere, venerate, treat with 
deference (• s.o.), show reapect (• to 
s.o.); to give precedence (J* a or * to 
s.o. or over) V to be honored, be 
revered, be venerated 

J*: bajal Syphilis (*>.) 

Jjj^J tabjU veneration, reverence; def- 
erence, respect 

^»w mubajjal revered, respected; ven- 

jtf bajama i {bajm, >^ bujüm) to be 
speechless, dumfounded 

yc. II to clinch (* a nail) 

£ bahka a (bahh, ^ bahah, rj^ buhüh, 
rl£ bahäh, **-j£ buhüha, i*-l* bahäha) 
to be or become hoarse, be raueous, 
husky, harsh (voiee) II and IV to make 
hoarse (* s.o.) 

*£■ buhka hoarseness 

4-\ abakh* hoarse 


mabhüh hoarse 


r%y£- II iabahbaha to be prosperous, live in 
easy circumstances; to enjoy o.a., have 
a good time 

rj^. bakbüh gay, meny 

*>-j^ buhbuha middle; life of ease 
and comfort, prosperity, affluence | j 
,y <*-j^- amidst 

^»w mvbahbah well-to-do, prosperous ; 
enjoying an easy, comfortable Life 

C-& bäht pure, unmixed, sheer; exclusive, 
also J * s i\ C-*; \z£ bahtan merely, solely, 
purely, exclusively, nothing but . . . 

J^ buhtwr stocky, pudgy, thickset 

i$J>£- bukivji stocky, pudgy, thickset 

£-* bahata a (bäht) to look, search (* or 
^ for, seek (* or ^; to do 
research; to investigate, examine, study, 
explore (* or ^, less frequently 
with j or J*), look into (* or j*); to 
discuss (* a subjeet, a question) III to 
discuss (» with s.o., J a question) VI to 
have a discussion, discuss together; to 
confer, have a talk (*. with s.o., j 

w* bäht pl. ■Lij*- btthüt, olj_^, £il*il 
abhät search (^ for), quest (^ of); 
examination, Btudy; research; investi- 
gation, exploration; discussion; treatise; 
(pl. iW) study, scientific report (j on) 

iU: bahhät pl. -ün scholar, research 

ÄjU: bdhhäta eminent scholar 
ui-^w mabhat pl. ^i^-U, mabähit 2 sub- 
jeet, theme, field of investigation or dis- 
cussion, objeet of research; research, 
study, examination; investigation 

&- L. mubähata pl. -öl negotiation, 
parley, Conference, talk, discussion 

i.*-b bähit pl. -ün and il*i bukkal 
seholar, research worker; examiner, in- 

J^ bahtara to disperse, scatter (*; 
to waste, squander, dissipate (m 
II tabahtara pass. of I 

Ijji bahtara waste, dissipation 

^>w mubahtir squanderer, wastrel, 

*_^ bahira a to be startled, be bewildered 
(with fright) 

B _ / *: II to travel by Bea, make a voyage IV do. ; 
to embark, go on board; to put to sea, 
set sail, sail, deparb (ship); to go down- 
stream, be sea-bound (ship on the Nile) 
V to penetrate deeply, delve (j into); 
to study thoroughly ( j a subjeet) X =V 

j£- bahr pl. jU bihär, jj£ buhür, jUl 
06 Aar, _^l abhur sea; largo river; a 
noble, or great, man (whose magnanim- 
ity or knowledge is comparable to the 
vastness of the sea); meter (poei.) | j 
j£- in the course of, during, (>iL- _^ j 
(sanatain) in the course of two years, 
within two years ; Ja-*jdl ^aj V l j*»Jl 
(abyatf, mutawassifl the Mediterranean 
(sometimes shortened to ^ÄjVI j»^); 
j-LLJI j£- b. al-bolfiq the ßaltic Sea; 
V>^-' j£. b. al-janüb the South Seas; 
^•Vl j~J\ the Red Sea (also f^Ull _^ 
6. al-quhum) ; j_^-'l _^ b. al-kazar the 
Caspian Sea (also J L*_SOl j*JI\); ?jj\ j£-üm the Mediterranean; j^-V ^»«Ji 
(aswad) the Blaek Sea; oUiUJl j£- b. 
az-zulumät the Atlantic; J^J j£- b, lü} 
and c-J.1 j*fcJl {mayyit) the Dead Sea; 
J-Jl y: {eg.) the Nile 

j> j*JI al-bahrain the Bahrein Is- 

tj\j£- bahräni of the Bahrein Islands; 
ÄjjUvJl al-bahärina the inhabitants of the 
Bahrein Islands 

tjj^- bahrt sea (adj.), marine; maritime; 
nautical; naval; navigational ; (in Eg.) 
northern, bahriya (with foll. genit.) north 



of; (pl. -ün, ») eailor, Seaman, mariner | 
_y»U j_^ approx. : Seaman apprentice 
(Eg.) ; ijj»wJl il>|^ÖJl (jütwäi) the naval 
forcea; \j£- *1>UU (na&ö(ät) marine flora, 
water plants 

<j j£- bahriya navy 

•j^ bahra pond, pool 

jl^ öoAÄär pl. -ün, »jl* fiaÄÄära Sea- 
man, mariner, sailor; pl. Sjl* crew (of a 
ship, of an airplane) 

2jv£ buhaira pl. -ät, J[£- bakä'ir 3 lake; 
(tun.) vegetable garden, truck garden 

ö\j£- bukrän crisis (of an illness); cli- 
max, culmination (also, e.g., of ecstasy) 

j>*S tabahkur deep penetration, delv- 
ing (j into a subject), thorough study 

j*<~* mutabahkir thoroughly familiär 
(j with); profound, erudite, searching, 

jl^ bahlaqa: <. 
gaze <j at) 

jl<£ {'ainatAt'} to stare, 

l f- f' ^ a - ^°^ excellent! well done! bravo! 

2 £ bakka u (bakk) to snore; to spout, 
spurt, squirt (*; to sprinkle, splatter 
(t_> * with) 

i^Ljc bakkäJca nozzle 

ii^i (eg.) bukJeeka squirt, ayringe 

Ob* mibakka nozzle 

tlji 6afc( luck; a kind of lottery | ü-*JI J-Ü 
unlucky; c^JI »j- bad luck 

«iJf; &afci( lucky, fortunate 

£*_y*~* mabküt lucky, fortunate 

Jit II tabaktara to strut, prance 

jjc II to vaporize, evaporate (*; to 
fumigate (*}; to disinfect (*; 
to perfume with incense, expose to aro- 

matio smoke {* V to evaporate 
(water); to volatilize, turn into smoke or 
haze; to perfume o.s., or be perfumed, 
with incense 

jlit bukär pl. -ät, 
fume; steam 

abkira vapor, 

i£jl£ bukäri steam (adj.), steam-driven 

jjjc bakür incense; frankincense | jyC 
f_j* b. maryam cyclamen (bot.) 

Jt-\ abkar 3 suffering from balitosis 

•^iw mibkara pl. j»-^» mabäkir* (also 
■ät) censer; thurible; fumigator 

jvJ tabklr fumigation 

ji^S tabakkur evaporation, vaporiza- 

«_^-Ij bäkira pl. j»-\jt batväkir* steamer, 

ijtji buwaikira small steambnat 

( _ r Jc bakasa a (baks) to deorease, diminisb, 
reduce (* ; to lessen (e.g., 4=*JS 
qimatahü the value of ; to disregard, 
neglect, fail to heed (* 

Kj ^£- baks too little, too low; very low 

l _ r ^-lj bäfcis Bmall, little, trifling, un- 

bakiiS pl. ^ij^Li 1 bakäSlS 2 tip, gratuity 

mJ£ baka'a a (bak') with ■*— ü : to kill o.b. 
(with grief, anger, rage) 

jJfil abkaq 2 , f. »Läjc bakqä' 2 one-eyed 

Jjtf bakila a (bakal), bakula u (buhl) to be 
niggardly, be stingy (i_> with, ^ or 
J* with regard to s.o.), scrimp (jp, J* 
s.o., iy for), stint (i_> in, ^f- or Jp s.o.), 
withhold (je-, J* from s.o., <_> VIto 
give reluctantly, grudgingly f^, J* to 
s.o., i~> 

JJ£ bukt avarice, cupidity, greed 


JJc bafcll pl. *•&■ bukalä' 1 avarioious, 
greedy; miser, skinflint 

Üiw mabjpala cause of avarioe, that 
whioh arouses avarice or graed 

jjc bufcnuq pl. ^üc bakäniq* kerchief, veil 
(to oover the head) 

Jü badda u (badd) to distribate, spread, 
disperse II to divide, distribute, spread, 
scatter, disperse (*; to remove, 
eliminate (*; to waste, squander, 
fritter away, dissipate (* V pass. 
of II; X to be independent, proceed 
independently (<_> in, o.g., in one's opinion, 
i.e., to be opinionated, obstinate, head- 
atrong) ; to possesa alone, monopolize 
(<_>; to take possession (<_> of s.o.), 
seize, grip, overwhelm, overcome {<_> s.o.; 
said of a feeling, of an impulse) ; to dis- 
pose arbitrarily, highhandedly (<_> of; to rule despotically, tyrannically, 
autocratically (<_> over) 

A* budd way out, escape | jSÖ i lil 
ül j - -^ (buddun) if it is inevitable 
that...; Jü V (budda) definitely, cer- 
tainly, inevitably, without fail; by all 
means ; j* Uj V it is necessary, inescapable, 
unavoidable, inevitable, c- *J Oj V he 
aimply mußt do it, he oan't get around it; 
-ü JS* j- min huUi buddin in any caae, at 
any rate 

-ü jW abädid* (pl.) Boattered 

OjO-j fabdid scattering, dispersal, dis- 
persion ; removal, elimination ; waste, 

il-Ll-1 istibdäd arbitrariness, high- 
handedness; despotism; autocracy; ab- 

jjljj^l istibdädi arbitrary, highhand- 
ed, autocratic, despotio; oLjjIjJ^I istib* 
dädiyät arbitrary acta 

j-L* mubaddid scatterer, disperser; 
squanderer, wastrel, spendthrift 

o-i— mu9tabidd arbitrary, highhanded, 
autocratic, tyrannical, despotio ; auto- 
crat, tyrant, despot | *jIj- ' ",.- (bi-ra** 
yihi) opinionated, obstinate, headstrong 

i-ü bada'a a (#.u bad') to begin, start (<_> or 
j with, a; t with s.o.; with 
foll. imperf.: to do or doing 
respectively ) ; to set in, begin, start, 
arise, spring up, orop up II to put (*, J* before eise), give preced- 
ence or priority (* to, J* over eise) III to begin, start (<_>, » 
with regard to s.o.), make the first Step, 
take the initiative or lead (<_> in, • 
toward s.o.), e.g., jOI&Lj *Ub {kaläm) to 
accost s.o., speak first to s.o. IV to do or 
produce first (*, bring out (* 
new) | -Uu Uj [gju L. mä yubdi'u wa-mä 
yu'idu he can't think of a blessed thing 
to say; -Uwj jO-j he says or does every- 
thing conceivable VIII to begin, start 
(v with 

*X> bacT beginning, start | .jJ! .u* from 
the (very) beginning; \*Xij Ijj* *Li ('au* 
dan wa-bacPan) or *J -U J* * :>_>* ('audakü 'alä 
baSikx) or *0j Jl 1^» (ilä bacCin) he did 
it all over again, he began anew 

•I-ü bad'a, il-u badVa, öl-ü bidäya 
beginning, start | ^Vl *jI-ü j in the be- 
ginning, at first 

ä*l-ü badä'a beginning, start; first step, 
first instance | »Oj «*1oj badd' ata baSin 
right at the outset, at the very be- 

jl-u budä'i primitive 

t-u mabda* pl. ^jL. mabädi'* be- 
ginning, start, starting point; basis, foun- 
dation ; principle ; invention ; pl. prin- 
ciplea, convictions (of a person); ideology; 
rudiments, fundamental concepts, Cle- 
ments j jjLII <^S" Jculub al-m. elementary 



ja-, mabdai original, initial; funda- 
mental, basic; LjJL* mabdaiyan origi- 
nally; in principle 

•IjLüI ibtida beginning, Start; novitiate 
{Chr.) | jf. »IoijI ifciidä'an min from, 
beginning ..., os of (with foll. date) 

Jloijl ibtidä'i initial; preparatory, ele- 
mentary, primary ; of first instance (jur.) ; 
original, primitive [ v'-^ '**&■ {mahf 
kama) court of first instance; jlaijV' J*d\ 
elementary education; v'- 11 ^ * - j j * {mad* 
rasa) lower grades of a high school, 
approx. : junior high school (as dis- 
tinguished from *j>Ij); v'-^.' "l^-i (&a* 
häda) approx.: junior high school grad- 
uation certificate 

\$s\i bädi* beginning, starting | _^Vi *^li 
bädi'a l~amr and j*Vl jjIj j in the begin- 
ning, at first; J[j\ l^ilt j right away, 
without thinking twice, unhesitatingly; 
».b ^j J^jL bädi'a dl bad'in above all, 
first of all, in the first place, primarily; 
•^"i [$sU\ al-bädi'u dibruhü (the person 
or thing) mentioned at the outset, the 

^j-U-. mubtadi* beginning; beginner; 
novice {Chr.) 

Toi-* mubtada* beginning, start; {gram.) 
subjeet of a nominal clause 

l jJU badara u to come unexpectedly, by sur- 
prise; to escape {,y> s.o.; e.g., words in 
excitement) III to come to s.o. 's (») 
mind, oeeur to s.o. (») all of a sudden, 
strike s.o. (idea, notion) ; to embark, 
enter (Jl upon or set out (Jl to do without delay; to rush, hurry (Jl 
to s.o., to a place); to hurry up (<_j with, Jl jjb with foll. verbal noun: 
to do promptly, without delay, 
hasten to do; to fall upon s.o (») 
with (>_>), aecost, assail, surprise (i_> • 
s.o. with; e.g., Jk-li. ?'$£-> »j-ib to 
snap rudely at s.o.); to react, respond (Jl 

to | JpjJI jlfl Jl jiL {injäzi l-wa'd) 
to set out to fulfill a promise VI jjLj 
jmJ}\ Jl {dihn) to suggest itself strongly, 
be obvious ; to appear at first glance as if 
(jl); öl ^»S Jl j-iLj (dikni) it oecurred 
to me all of a sudden that . . . ; ^öJI Jl jalJ 
(fahm) to be immediately understood 
VIII to hurry, rush, hasten (* to); to get 
ahead of s.o. (»), antieipate, forestall 
(» s.o.) | :AJli UjAjI before she could say 
a word he exclaimed . . . 

jOj badr pl. jjJj budür füll moon 

äjJj badra pl. badarät, j\x> bidär huge 
amount of money (formerly == 10,000 
dirhama) j Jlj*Vl olj-4 enonnous sums 
of money 

jl-b badäri hurry! quick! 

» j j L. mvbädara undertaking, enter- 

äjjlj bädira pl. j*\jt bavxidir* herald, 
harbinger, precursor, forerunner, first in- 
dication, sign; unforeseen act; Btirring, 
impulse, fit (e.g., of rage); bluriäer, mis- 
take; j^ji stirrings, impulses | j*- »jaIj 
6. kairin a good, or generous, impulse 

2 jXj baidar pl. jiLi bayädir* threshing 

rjj-ij and üjjJü (Turk. bodrum) badrüm, bad* 
rün pl. -ät basement 

f-Jj bada'a a {bad') to introduce, originate, 
start, do for the first time (*, be the 
first to do (*); to devise, contrive, 
invent (a II to aecuse of heresy 
(« s.o.) IV = I; to create (a; to 
achieve unique, excellent results (j in); 
to be amazing, outstanding (j in 
VIII to invent, contrive, devise, think 
up (* X to regard as novel, as 
unprecedented (a 

9±i bad' innovation, novelty; oreationj 
\*y-j Uju bad* an wa-'audan repeatedly 



f-jj bid* pl. f-l-ul abdä" innovator; new, 
original; unprecedented, novel | f-U V 
lä bid'a no wonderi jl f-Jj "^ lä fttd'a an 
no wonder that . . . ; j- s-Jj eise than; 
unlike, different from 

«ijj büf'a pl. p-b Staa' Innovation, 
novelty; heretical doctrine, heresy; pl. 
creations (of fashion, of art) | f-oJI JaI 
a&Z aZ-6. heretics 

ȣjj ftooT, f-Jj bud* unprecedented, 
marveloua, wonderful, amazing, admira- 
ble, singular, unique; creator | -j-lJI 1* 
*ilm aX-b. tbe art or science of meta- 
phors and (in general) of good style 

**iii badi'a pl. -Jljj badcii'* an aston- 
ishing, amazing thing, a marvel, a wonder; 
original creation 

^.u badti rhetorical 

f-Jjl abda" 3 more amazing, more ez- 
ceptional; of even greater originality 

f-l-ul t&dö' creation, fashioning, ehap- 
ing; a marveloua, unique achievement; 
uniqueness, aingularity, originality; Crea- 
tive ability 

O^'JjI ibdä'i romantic (lit.) 

Ov-'JjI ibdaiya romanticism (lit.) 

f-a— mubdi' producing, creating; crea- 
trve; creator; ezceptional, unique, out- 
Btanding (in an achievement, eap. of 
an artist) 

f--tu. mvbtadi' innovator; creator; her- 

JXj look up alphabetically 

Jjj badala u to replace (<~> a, by), 
ezchange (<~> * for) II to change, 
alter (a a to), convert (a a 
into); to Substitute (a for, .-> or 
j-, ezchange, give in ezchange 
(a, wor,}. for); to change (a 
III to ezchange (a * with b.o. IV to 
replace (^ a by), ezchange (^ a 

for eise); to compensate (**_>» 
s.o. for with eise), give s.o. (•) (*) in ezchange for (»j) V to change; 
to be exchanged VI to ezchange (a, 
also words, views, greetings) X to ex- 
change, receive in ezchange, trade, barter 
(t_> a and a i_j for); to replace (a 
t_j and a l-j by), Substitute (l-j a and 
* l-j for eise) 

Jjj ftoaaJ pl. JUI a&iöJ Substitute, 
alternate, replacement ; equivalent, com- 
pensation, setoff; reimbursement, rec- 
ompense, allowance; price, rate; (gram.) 
appositional Substantive standing for an- 
other Substantive | öt^l Jjjäya 
allowance for food ; i i _ r i_Jl Joj b. as- 
aafaHya tra vel aUo wance ; iil _^i V ' J-"j 
subscription rate; J/,-!< J-u expense 
account, expense allowance 

Jjj badala (prep.) instead of, m place 
of, in lien of 

j- V->j badalan min in place of, in- 
stead of, in lieu of 

ifjj badla pl. ooäoZöf, Jjj &ü2at suü 
(of clothes); costume | >^-l <J ju o. al- 
hammäm bathing Buit ; <_r, if Jj (ras* 
miya) uniform; iJLü^iS *J.u (taSrifätiya) 
full-dress uniform 

*Jjj badaliya compensation, smart 

JIjü badala (prep.) instead of, L. JIjj 
(conj.) instead of {being, doing, etc.) 

JjJj badil pl. >V-u budalä' 2 Substitute, 
alternate (^ or ,y for); Btand-in, double 
(theat.); (f. :) serving as a replacement or 
Substitute | iL.u »jyu (mafraza) reserve 
detachment (mil.) 

JIjü baddai grocer; money-changer 

Ül-b baddäla culvert ; pipeline ; tele- 
phone ezchange, central 

D JjL* TttobädiP see Jjj 

JjJ-j taidCf change, alteration 

ihL. mvbädala pl. -ät exchange | oV.iL» 
ijjljf {tijäriya) commercial exchange, 
trade relatione 

Jljjl ibdäl exchange, interchange, re- 
placement (<_j by), Substitution («_j of); 
change; phonetic change 

(Jo_j tabaddul change, shift, turn; 
transformation ; transmutation, con Ver- 

(JiU tabädul {mutual) exchange | 
^"äLJl JiLj (. as-aaläm exchange of greet- 
ings; jW^J-'l JjU thought transference, 

JI-lL-I istxbdäl exchange, replacement, 

t}x>* mubdil: oLjI_jL-V J-L* 
wandt automatio record changer 

JjLi* mutabädal mutual, reciprocal 

üJj baduna u and badana u to be fat, corpu- 

jjj badan pl. jl-ul abdän, üJo\ abdun 
body, trank, torso 

(J-U badani bodily, corporal, physicai, 

üljj badäna corpulence, obeaity 

j-jXj badin pl. d>Jj bvdun stout, cor- 
pulent, fat, obese 

ijjjj budüna corpulence, obesity 

(1>jL bädin pl. öJj bvdn stout, corpulent, 
fat, obese 

•Oj badaha a to come, descend Buddenly (* 
upon s.o.), befall unexpectedly (• s.o.); 
to aurprise (» s.o.) with (^) III to 
appear suddenly, unexpectedly (^ » 
before s.o. with VIII to extem- 
porize, improvise, do offhand, on the 
spur of the moment (* 

ifcioj badäha spontaneity, spontaneous 
occurrence, impulse; simple, natural way, 
naturalness, matter-of-factness ;i»1oj badä- 

hatan and UlaJb all by itself, spontane- 

i^-Jj badiha sudden or unex- 
pected; improvisation ; impulse, inspi- 
ration, spontaneous intuition; intuitive 
understanding or insight, empathy, in- 
stinctive grasp, perceptive faculty J J* 
i^-Ül all by itself, spontaneously; off- 
hand; i^-Ül j-^L*- quick- witted, quick at 
repartee; S^U- Ö^jj presence of mind 

a f Jj badihi and ^Oj badahi intuitive; 
self-evident ; a priori (adj.) 

L^Aj badihiya pl. -ät an axiom, a fun- 
damental or self-evident truth; truism, 
commcmplace, platitude 

*Ji Jj badä'ih* fundamental or seif- 
evident truths 

(jjj) \jj badä u to appear, show, become 
evident, clear, piain or manifest, come 
to light; to be obvious; to seem good, 
acceptable, proper (J to s.o.) III to show, 
display, evince, manifest, reveal, declare 
openly | ij\xJL ^jL (*adäwa) to show 
open hostility IV to disclose, reveal, mani- 
fest, show, display, evince (*; to 
demonstrate, bring out, bring to light, 
make visible {*; to express, utter, 
voice (a | j J\j ^^1 (ra'yahü) 
to express one's opinion about; Lij ^JjI 
(ragbatan) to express a wish or desire 
V = I; to live in the desert VI to pose as 
a Bedouin 

j -h badw desert ; nomads, Bedouins 

tjjjj badawi Bedouin, nomadic; rural 
(as distinguished from urban); a Bed- 

\j x> badawiya pl. -ät Bedouin woman, 
Bedouin girl 

«luj badäh pl. oljOj badawät whim, 
caprice; ill-humor 

Sjluj badüwa and bidätoa desert life, 
Bedouin life; Bedouinism, nomadism 



»l-U baida 2 desert, steppe, wilderness, 

•IjuI ibdä* expression, manifestation, 

jlj fiödm apparent, evident, obvious, 
piain, visible; inhabiting the desert; pl. 
*1 jj budäk Bedouins 

«jaL bädiya desert, semidesert, steppe ; 
peasantry; (pl. s\j> bouwdin) nomads, 

öIaj bidäya = S»ljb 

i 6o^o- n {ba44) to get the better of (*), 
beat, surpass (• s.o.) 

i bad& and iL» bädd elovenly, untidy, 
shabby, fitthy, squalid 

Sili badäda Blovenliness, untidiness, 
ehabbiness, d^tineaa, filth 

1i badaa a to revile, abuse (J* s.o.), rail 
(J* at s.o.); — ^.ij fautt'a a, ji farfu'a u 
to be obscen* bawdy 

*iSM ^4* disgusting, loathsome, nause- 
oua, foul, dirty, obsoene, bawdy, ribald 

*\X> badä* and !»li badaa obscenity, 
ribaldry, foulness (of language) ; disguat, 
loathing, aversion, contempt 

^-i badaka a to be baughty, proud 

i-i badak luxury, pomp, splendor; 
haughtiness, pride 

f*\i bädik pl. j-Jl>. bawädik* high, 
lofty; proud, haughty 

jXt badara u {badr) to sow, disseminate (*, seed, also fig. = to spread) II to 
waste, squander, dissipate (* 

jii badr pl. jjii budür, jli bidär 
seeds, seed; seedling; pl. jji pips, pits, 
stones (of fruit) 

ijXt badra (n. un.) a seed, a grain; pip, 
pit, stone (of fruit); germ; (fig.) germ 
cell (of a development, and the like) 

jli bidär seedtime 

jXJ tabdlr waste, squandering, dissi- 

jJL. mvbaddir aquanderer, wastrel, 

«3Xj look up alphabetically 

Ji badala % u (badi) to give or spend frecly, 
generously (*; to sacrifice (*; 
to expend (* ; to offer, grant ( * | 
•X^r- Ji (jahdahü) to take pains; Ji 
ljj^£do.;».uLn jTji (Jeuüa mumadatin) 
to grant every assistance; ^L- 11 Ji to 
make efforte; J itliJl Ji to obey s.o., 
defer to s.o.; JU JT Ji (Jeuüa gälin) and 
J_k- J ij*^-J\j JWI Ji to spare no 
effort, go to any length, give everything, 
pay any price for or in order to; Ji 
<4*-j »l. (maa uuihihi) to sacrifice one's 
honor; (O^ jp or) ö~& öji <-Ü Ji to 
sacrifice o.s. for s.o.; <*-j Ji (ivus'ahü) 
to do one's utmoat, do one's best T to 
fritter away one's fortune, be over- 
generous; to prostitute o.s. (woman); to 
display common, vulgär manners VIII to 
wear out in common service, make trite, 
vulgär, commonplaoe , to hackney (*; to abuse (*; to express o.s. 
in a vulgär manner, use vulgär language ; 
4_jÜ JJcjI to degrade o.a., demean o.e., 
sacrifice one's dignity 

Ji badl giving, spending; sacrifice, 
surrender, abandonment; expenditure; 
offering, granting 

Üi badia suit (of clothes) 

JJL. mibdal pl. JSL. mabÖdiP s lipper; 
pl. JjL. casual clothing worn around 
home | JSL. j O^U so-and-so in his 
private life 

JlJbi ibtidäl triteness, commonness, 
commonplaceness ; banality; debasement, 

JiL bädü spender 



JJLi* mutabaddil vulgär, common 

Jo~* mvbtadal trite, hackneyed, banal, 
common, vulgär ; e veryday , common- 
place (adj.) 

x j haira (Ist pera. perf. barirtu, barartu) a * 
(bin) to be reverent, dutiful, devoted; 
to be kind {• or i_> to s.o.); to be chari- 
table, beneficent, do good («_» to s.o.); to 
obey (• s.o., esp. God); to treat with 
reverence, to honor («_» or • the parents}; 
to be honest, truthful; to be true, valid 
(sworn Statement); to keep (<_j a promise, 
anoath) II to Warrant, justify, vindicate; 
to acquit, absolve, exonerate, exculpate, 
clear (a, » s.o., | <_> <^-j jj {wajhahü) 
to justify o.s. by IV to carry out, fulfill 
(*, a promise, an oath) V to justify 
o.s.; to be justified 

j birr reverence, piety; righteousness, 
probity; godliness, devoutness; kindness; 
charitable gift 

j barr and jL bärr pl. j\j\ abrär and 
Ijj barara reverent, dutiful (i_> toward), 
devoted (o to); pioua, godly, upright, 
righteous; kind 

*ji+ mabarra pl. -ät and jL. mabärr 2 
good deed, act of charity, benefaction; 
philanthropio Organization ; charitable 
institution, home or hospital set up with 
private funds 

j jü tabrlr justification, vindication 

jL bärr reverent, faithful and devoted; 
see also under j barr above 

Jjs* mabrür (accepted into the grace 
of the Lord, i.e.) blessed (said of a 
deceased person) 

j >* mubarrir pl. -ät justification ; 
excuse | a] jj* )} (mubarrira) unjusti- 

% j barr land (as opposed to sea), terra firma, 
mainJand; open country; \j barran out, 

outaide | l_^j \j barran wa-bahran by 
land and sea 

,jj barri terrestrial, land (adj.); wild 
(of plante and animals) j SJL \j IjL- 
(aayyära, mä'iya) amphibious vehicle 

*lj barrtya pl. ^j I j barärly open 
country; steppe, desert; see also x \j 

<j\j barräni outside, outer, exterior, 
external; foreign, alien 

3 j burr wheat 

1 l_r bara'a a ( v bar') to create (*, said 
of God) 

*j bar* creation 

*jj bariya pl. -ät, Ll_r baräyä creation 
(= that which is ereated); creature; Bee 
alBO 2 _r. 

^ jUl tU-bäri' the Creator (God) 

Z \$J bari'a a (U\j barä'a) to be or become 
free, be cleared (j* from, esp. from guilt, 
blame, etc., Jl toward s.o.); to recover 
(j,- from an illness) II to free, clear, 
acquit, absolve, exculpate (» s.o., j- from 
suspicion, blame, guilt) | J*-_^l 3*-U \j 
(sähaia r-rajul) he acquitted the man 
IV to acquit, absolve, discharge, exculpate 
(• s.o.); to eause to recover, eure, heal 
(* s.o.) | 4i-j \j\ (dimmatahü) to clear 
s.o. or o.s. from guilt, exonerate s.o. or 
o.s. V to clear o.s. (j* from suspicion, 
from a Charge), free o.s. (^ from respon- 
sibility, etc.), rid o.s. (,y, of); to declare 
o.s. innocent, wash one's hands (^ of); 
to be acquitted X to restoro to health, 
eure, heal (« s.o.); to free o.a. (^ from), 
rid o.s. ((>. of) 

»j bur* and *jj burü* convalescence, 

*<Sj & ar *' pl- *L>y' abriyä' 2 , *\j burä', 
birä' free, exempt (^ from), devoid 
((>• of ) ; guiltless, innocent ; guileless, 
harmless; healthy, sound 



*\j barä* free, exempt (^ from) [ *iö 
,> *'y (<Wmma*uAö) he is innocent of ... 

U\j barä'a being free; disavowal, with- 
drawal; innocence, guiltlessness; naivete, 
guilelessness, artlessness; (pl. -ät) Ucense, 
diploma, patent | fjj^-l ••'y patent on 
an invention; Ö— iüJl «>l^ exequatur {a 
written authorization of a consular officer, 
issued by the govemment to which he 
is accredited) ; üJl l*\j b. ai-tiqa (Tun.) 
credentials (dipl.) ; l*\j J* harmless ; 
without guilt, innocent 

4jj-3 tabri'a freeing, exemption; acquit- 
tal, absolution, discharge, exoner&tion 

«TjL. mubära'a mubarat, divorce by 
mutual consent of husband and wife, 
either of them waiving all claims by way 
of compensation (Isl. Law) 

»\j\ ibrä' acquittal, abeolution, release; 
releaae of a debtor from his liabilities, 
remifision of debt (Isl. Law) 

*\jc^\ iatibrai J*A-I »ljc-1 ist. al-hamal 
the ceremony of aelecting and purifying 
the Host before Mass (Copt.-Chr.) 

j\j*r^ji baraguwäy Paraguay 

Jj jljJI al-bvräzxl Brazil 

{Sf-^j (Fr- brasserie) bräaerl beer parlor, 

f\j Prague 

a\j\j (Fr. paravent) baravän folding screen 

l>l_r bdrahmä Brahma 

4j j birba and ijj birbä pl. jl j baräbi 
ancient Egyptian temple, temple ruins 
dating back to ancient Egypt (eg.) ; 
labyrinth, maze 

jf-j barhak pl. f-\j baräbik* water pipe, 
drain, culvert, sewer pipe 

jj barbara to babble noisily (e.g., a large 
orowd), jabber, mutter, prattle 

jj}\ al-barbar the Berbers 

tfjj barbari Berber (adj.); barbaric, 
uncivillzed ; — (pl. »j\j baräbira) a 
Berber; a barbarian 

*ij j barbariya barbar(ian)ism, barbar- 
ity, savagery, cruelty 

;>u muiabarbir barbaric, uncivilized 

ur AJ_r look up alphabetically 

ijiuj barbU (syr.) tube (of a narghile, of an 
enema, etc.) 

!nij barbafa to splash, paddle, dabble (in 

tjjij (It. barbone) barbüni, also bjtj red 
muilet (Mullus barbatus; zool.) 

\jj see <tj 

ij~uj barbia barbel (zool.) 

JLJ_r burtugäl Portugal 

JUjj burtugäli Portuguese 

JUjy burtuqäl, ü\Jüj burtuqän orange 

jUjy burtuqäli tl j\jüj burtuqäni orange, 
orange- colored 

■jj buttun pl. ij\j barätin 9 claw, talon 

V_r V to display, show, play up her charms 
(woman); to adorn herseif, make herseif 
pretty (woman) 

'ry. burj pl. ^jj burüj, *^\j\ abräj tower; 
Castle; sign of the zodiac | *\^-\ -rj b. 
al-hamäm pigeon house, do vecot ; r_j 
•Uli b. al-miyäh water tower 

'i^-jL bärija pl. rJji bawärij 3 warship, 
battleship; bärge 

^j-U- jJl t_-jJ lab al-birjäs a kind of equestrian 
contest, joust, tournament 

'^j-tft-jti al-birjia Jupiter (ostron.) 

J»-_f barjal pl. J»-I_r baräjiß compaas, (pair 
of ) dividera 



*+j burjuma pl. ^\j baräjim* knuckle, 
finger Joint 

^j- bariha a (r\j baräh) to leave (* or ^ & 
place, Jl for), depart (* from, Jl on 
one's way to); with neg. : to continue 
to be (= Jlj) | j rj ; l* he iß still in ...; 
Lii r; U (ganiyan) he U still rieh; rj 
•LU-'I (Ipafa) the matter haa come out, 
has beoome generally known; ryj 1j£ 
to come and go II to beset, harass, 
trouble, molest (<-» s.o.) III to leave 
(* a place, Jl for), depart (* from, Jl on 
one's way to) 

-1y baräh depart ure; oessation, stop; 
a wide, empty tract of land, vast ezpanse, 
vastness; U-ly barähan openly and 
plainly, patently 

£j\J tabärih* agonies, torments (e.g., 
of longing, of passkm) 

o-jL. mvbäraha departure 

«-jLi bärih (showing the left side, i.e.) 
ill-boding, inauspicious, ominous (as 
opposed to f\**)i ^jUI al-bärika yester- 

o-jUl al-bärikaia yesterday | «^-jUl ÜJJl 
(Zatioto) last night; o-jUl Jjl awwala 
l-b. the day before yesterday, two daye 

-JU mu/wirrtA violent, intense, ex- 
cruciating, agonizing (esp., of pains) 

o_ -ju mudarraA &»Ai stricken, afflicted, 

l *j barada u to be or beoome cold; to cool, 
cool off (also fig.); to feel cold; to cool, 
chil) {*; to soothe, alleviate (* 
pain); — baruda u to be or become cold 
II to make cold (*; to refrigerate 
(*; to cool, chill (*, also fig.); 
to soothe, alleviate (* pain) V to refresh 
o.a., oool o.s. off; to be soothed, be 
alleriated VIII to become cold, cool off 

ij bard coldness, chilliness, coolness; 
cooling; alleviation; cold, catarrh 

ij barad hail, ~**j barada (n. un.) 

ijj barüd collyrium 

jjy burüd coldness, coolness, chilliness; 
emotional coldness, frigidity 

•ijj burüda coldness, coolness, chil- 
liness ; emotional coldness, frigidity | 
>-iJI lijj b. ad-dam cold-bloodedness 

«j-iy bardiya ague, feverish chill; see 
also below 

*\)j buradä** ague, feverish chill 

•*\j barröda cold-storage plant; re- 
frigerator, icebox 

-b jü tabtid cooling, chilling ; cold 
storage, rofrigeration ; alloviation, mit- 
igation | -ü^ll jl+r J^Aöz at-t. cold- 
storage plant, refrigerator ; -1>>JI **jf- 
ffurfat at-t. cold-storage room 

jjL bärid cold ; cool, chilly ; easy ; 
weak; stupid, inane, silly, dull; dunce, 
blockhead | öjU v >l (korb) the cold 
war; ojU i*-^ an easy prey; jjIj ^*s. 
( f ai$) an easy life; ojIj <*: (hujja) a weak 
argument; jjL ;J (tibg) light, mild to- 

*s* mvbarrid cooling, refreshing; pl. 
•öl refreshments (beverages, etc.) 

i_A* mubarrad cooled, chilled 

2 *j barada u to file (* a piece of metal, etc.) 

jly barräd fitter (of machinery) 

• jly biräda fitter's trade or work 

*jly buräda iron filings 

*j^ mibrad pl. jjL. mabärid 1 file, rasp 

■j^ turd pl. *\j\ abräd garment 

lij burda Mohammed 's outer garment 
oliy burdäya curtain, drape 



*ij- IV to send by mail, to mail (* a letter) 

Ojj; 6arW post, mail | ^^i-l 4j jO! (jawui) 
air TTiail 

j4j^ &arid{ portal; messenger, oourier; 

*jjjb look up alphabetioally 

*if*j bardi, burdl papyrus (bot.) 

Sjjlt 6ardlya pl. -ät papyrus | Cj\j jjJI ]* 
't/m oJ-6. papyrology 

3\±j bardäq pl. Jj-ily barädiq* jug, pitcher 

r->jOl i^«J la'ö aJ-6. bridge (game) 

jk»^ bardaka to poliah, burnish (* 

□ itiy = Itiy 

jl*i_r = d\Jüj 

uSj«/ bardaqüS (= ^jii^) marjoram 

•jjjy {Fr. ftorrfure) bardüra ourbstone, curb 

4*i_r barda'a pl. £ilj. öard^i* 1 saddle, pack- 
aaddle (for donkeya and cameis) 

^jlj- barä4i'i maker of donkey sad- 
dies, aaddler 

öj'ij btrdaun pl. ^ily barädin* work horae, 
jade, nag 

l j_r baraza u to oome out, show, appear, oome 
into view, emerge; to jut out, protrude, 
stand out, be prominent (also fig.); to 
aurpaas, exoel (J» s.o.) II to cause to 
oome out, bring out, expose, ahow, set 
off, accentuate {*; to excel, surpaas 
(j J* B -o. in), stand out (j for), dia- 
tinguish o.a. (j by) III to meet in 
combat or duel (• s.o.); to compete in a 
oontest (■ with s.o.) IV to cause to come 
out, bring out, expose, make manifest 
(*; to publish, bring out (* a book, 
etc.); to present, show (m e.g., an identity 
card) V to evacuate the bowel« VI to vie, 

jjj burüz prominence, protection, 

j\j biräz exorement, feoea; oompeti- 
tion, oontest, match (in sporta) ; duel 

~*jj buraiza (birSza; eg.) ten-piaater 

jj I abraz 1 more marked, more diatinc- 
tive; more prominent 

•jjL» mubäraza competition, conteat, 
match, esp. in sporta; duel; fencing 

jlj-1 ibräz bringing out, displaying, 
setting off, accentuation ; production; 

Jjb bäriz protruding, projecting, sa- 
lient; raised, embossed, in relief; marked, 
distinct, oonspicuoua ; prominent (Per- 

jjw mubarriz surpassihg (J* s.o.), 
superior (J* to s.o.); winner, victor (in 

JjL» mubäriz competitor, contender; 
combatant, fighter; fencer 

■jr jr (Fr. priae) briz pl. -ät (plug) socket, wall 
plug, outlet (syr.); \jj bariza pl. y\j 
bartfiz* do. (eg.) 

*'jy) look up alphabetioally 

*ö\jj barazän trumpet 

£j_r barzaip pl. £jlj; baräzik* interval, gap, 
break, partition, bar, obatruction; isth- 

JjJ-r burzüq sidewalk 

1 ^U - r binäm pleurisy 

i f -iJ, I look up alphabetioally 

'^j- birsim olover, speoif., berseem, Egyp- 
tian olover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.; 

1 iSJ buri pl. jilyl abräi mat 

J-j\ abraS* spotted, speckled 



% <J>j \ look up alphabetically 

cJ-j birUt: c-Jj; ^-L» (bai4) soft-boiled 

4jJ.j bar&ilöna Barcelona (seaport in NE 

J.j barSama to stare, gaze (Jl at; to 
rivet (> 

Ir'j barSama riveting 

j»Li_r burSäm and <jL5_r (n. un. •) pl. -ät 
wafer; Host (Chr.) 

<*\J>j burSäma rivet 

j£\-*j burSämji riveter 

l&jf'j burSamjiya riveting 
1 Lr *j barifia a (baraf) to be a leper 

^j burp wall gecko (Tarentola mau- 
ritanica, zool.) 

^j barap leprosy 

^j <i abraf 2 leproua; leper | ^j\ *L- 
aämm a. wall gecko 

x \^j burpa stock exchange 

^j baratfa u {^jj burü$) to germinate, 
Bprout (plant) 

j^j barfüz: 4j»^*«JI j^j b. al-bahriya fore- 
castle, crew quarters (on a merchant 

*Uy barpi'a (**bj barfa'a) to galJop 

JUy barfaia i*^j barfala) to bribe (« s.o.) 
II tabarfala to take bribes, be venal 
J-U_r birfil pl. JJ-ly baräfiP bribe 

1 Ij- barpuna to rave, talk irrationally 

>jl»j- ftur/üm, barfüm trank of an 

2 uL^r barfamän pl. -Ä (*yr., e^.) talj earthen 

or glase vesael (for preserres, oil, eto.) 

fj bara'a a to surpass, excel {• s.o.); (also 
baru'a u) to distinguish o.s., be skillful, 

proficient V to oontribute, give, donate 
(u>; to undertake (voluntarüy, ^, volunteer (^ for), be prepared, 
willing (u> to do; to be ready, be 
on hand (u-> with) 

lAj bara'a skill, proficiency; efßciency, 
capability, capacity 

\*jj buriia superior skill, outatanding 


fyü tabarrv' pl. -ät gift, donation; 

f-jU ftört' skilIed, skillful, proficient, 
capable, efficient; brilliant, outstanding 
(work of art) 

fj bar'ama to bud, burgeon, sprout 

fj bur'um pl. f\j harä'im* and p*_r 
bur'üm pl. £plj- öor^Jm" bud, burgeon; 
blossom, flower 

■Ltjej burgül pl.»i-*l_r 6arögt/ B flea;pl. •l~*\j 
(syr.) small silver coins | ^»»Jl ■t>jfij > b. 
al-bakr shrimp {zool.) 

jii^ bargaS (coli.; n. un. •) gnat(s), midge(s) 

Ji_r &ur£uZ cooked, parehed and crushed 
wheat, served together with other food 
(eg., syr.) 

J.j (Turk. J.JJ* burfa) bürgt pl. J.\j t 
barägi screw 

jij birfir pl. ji\j baräfir* purple 

Äi j j look up alphabetically 

^Sy baraqa u to shine, glitter, aparkle, flash j 
»IjJl cjj- (samö'u) there was lightning 
IT = I; to emit bolts of lightning 
(cloud); to flash up, Light up; to brighten 
(face); to cable, wire, telegraph (Jl to) 

3j barq pl. 3jj burüq lightning; flash 
of lightning; ielegraph | ^_-U 3j (kvUab) 
lightning without a downpour, used flg., 
e.g., of s.o. given to making promises 
without ever living up to them 


jy barqi telegraphic, telegraph- (in 

ÄJj barqlya pl. -ät telegram, wire, 

Jis bariq pl. jJlj- barä'iq 2 glitter, 

ßhine, gloss, luster [ Jj*. jjy jj (ma'» 

dini) lustered, coated with metallic 

3\j buräq Alborak, name of the 
creature on which Mohammed made bis 
ascension to the seven heavens (r^j**) 

3\j- barräq shining, lustrous, epar- 
kling, flashing, glittering, twinkling 

3j* mabraq glitter, flash | ^-Jl 3j<+ J 
/* m. %9-yubh with the first rays of the 
raorning sun 

jjU bärig: J^VI JjIj 6. al-amal 
glimpse of hope 

öjU bäriqa pl. JjI^j baioäriq 2 gleam, 

Jj« mubriq: ._Jtf Jj« teletype 

a üjJl al-barga Cyrenaica (region of E Ubya) 

3 l jij) look up alphabetically 

*3j^ look up alphabctically 

| i_"*/ barqasa (3-iiy barqnSa) to variegate, 

paint or daub with many colora (*; to embellish (*; «Jy one's 
speech) II tabarqaSa reflex. and pass. of I 

(jtij- birqis finch 

<iij- barqasa colorful raedley, variety, 

J*^* mubarqai colorful, vaxiegated, 

>Äj barqa'a to veil, drape (*, • s.o., 
II tabarqa'a to put on a veil, veil o.a. 

ßjj burqu' pl. -jly baräqi'* veil (worn 
by women ; long, leaving the eyes exposed) 

3J»j barqüq (coli.; n.un. 1} plum 

x i!y baraka u to kneel down II and IV to 
make (* the camel) kneel down II to 
invoke a blessing (J* or j on, J 
on s.o.) III to bless (j or • s.o., also J 
or J*), invoke a blessing on; to give 
one's Messing (* to, sanction 
(* V to be blessed (cj by); to enjoy 
(i_->, find pleasure, deHght (i_j in); 
to ask s.o. 'b (^>) blessing VI to be blessed, 
be praised ; ... i]j\J tabäraka . . . God 
bless . . . ! X to be blessed 

«O birka pl. i]j biralc pond, small 
lake; puddle, pool | i»-LJI «T, 6. as- 
eibäha swimming pool 

«T/ baraka pl. -ät blessing, benediction | 
o^JI ii» qillat al-b. misfortune, bad luck 

fjj-l abrak 2 more blessed 

dL^y tabrik pl. -ät good wish; blessing, 

iJjL. mubärak blessed, fortunate, lucky 
B *ilijLr barärlk 2 (mor.) barracks 
jtfj birkär compass, (pair of) dividera 
jlf/ burkün pl. J-.S'ij baräkin 2 volcano 

JlT/ burkänl volcanic 

i)\lj barlamän parliament 

jU.^ barlamänl parhamentary 

*-Jli j- barlamäniya parliamentarianism 

Jlly (It. brillante) brillanti brilliant, dia- 

,>.Jy bariin Berlin 

l mj barima a (baram) to be or become 
weary, tired (i_j of), be fed up, be bored 
(^ with), find annoying, weariaome (<-> V to feel annoyed (<-> by), be dis- 
pleased (<-> with); to be fed up (^ with), 
be sick and tired (<-> of, also j*); to be 
impatient, discontented, dissatisfied; to 
grieve, be pained 


*j barim weary, tired (■_> of), dis- 
gusted (i_j at, with); dissatisfied, dis- 

ajü tabarrum wearineas, boredom, dia- 
guat; discontent, disaatisfaction; uneasi- 
nesa, discomfort, annoyance 

^jc* mutabarrim croaa, peevish, vexed, 

2 [j barama u (barm) to twist, twine (* a 
rope); to shape (* rouild and long; 
to roll up (* the sleeves) ; to settle, 
establish, confirm (* IV to twist, 
twine (a a rope); to aettle, establish, 
confirm (*; to conclude (* a pact); 
to confirm (» a judicial judgment); to 
ratify (* a treaty, a bill) VII to be aet- 
tled, be established, be confirmed; to be 
twisted, be twined 

<*\j barräma pl. -at drilling machine 

fj barim rope; ßtring, cord, twine 

<t j barrima pl. -at drill, borer, gimlet, 
auger, bit; O oorkscrew 

O *^ J barrimlya spirochete 

*\j\ ibräm aettle ment, eatabliahment; 
confirmation; concluaion (of a pact, etc.); 
ratification | Aj^j <J *jd\ <£* mahkamat 
wn-naqd wa-l-t. Court of Cassation (Eg.) 

rjjv> mdbrüm: O +jj* tiü— • (silk) wire 
rope, cable 

«•jm mubram firm, strong; irrevocable, 
definitely established; confirmed, rati- 
fied | ajv »Lii (gada) inescapable fate; 
itjw «j>^j irrevocably 

2 ~<tj burma pl. * j buram, a\j biräm earthen- 
ware pot 

Lj* burmä Burmo 

<jL/ barmä'i amphibious | <J\+j LLj (dabo 
bäba) amphibious tank (mil.) 

O V-j 1 barmä'iya amphibian 

tiöjLj- (Engl.) barmänant permanent wave | 
jjUI J* <^*jL^ cold wave (in hair) 

j*j barmaq pl. j*\j barämig 2 baluster; 
spike (of a wheel} 

oLfty baramhät the seventh month of the 
Coptic calendar 

tlßc^s Birmingham 

a*yj barmüda the eighth month of the Coptic 

J-jy bar mil pl. J^ij- barämil 2 barrel; keg, 
cask; tun 

4-jj barniya pl. Jl^ baräniy clay vessel 

f\jj barnämaj pl. *ly barämij 2 program, 
plan, achedule; roater, liat, index; cur- 

^\j~j burunjuk gauze, crepe 

1 1 _ r J_r burnua pl. ^pjlj- baränis 2 (also ^^y 
fcam&s, &wrnü« pl. Lr -ü^j baränis 2 ) bur- 
noose, hooded cloak; caaula, chasuble 

(of Coptic priesta) 
hammäm bathrobe 



6. oZ- 

^'^ baräniai pl. -iya maker of bur- 

2 1 _ r Ji^l JL». j'i&öJ al-baränt« the Pyrenees 

3 1 _ r Jy ftrins prince 

i-jj-Jy brinsesa princesa 

iajy II tabarnafa to wear a hat 

Ü»Jy burnaita pl. -ö(, JaJ'j' &aränif a 
(European) hat (men'a and women's) ; 
lamp ahade 

*»j burha pl. burahät, «j burah a while, a 
time ; ahort time ; instant, moment ; 
<aj burhatan a little while | ^p^j -Uj 
(after two moments =) in a ahort time 

□ ±j barJtam (syr.) = *j* wtarAam 

jPj bardhman pl. 5**lj- barähima Brahman 


<~**j barahmiya Brahmanism 

j»_r barhana to prove, demonstrate (J* or 

'er s-th.) 

jUj- burhän pl. J*\j barähin* proof 

ÄUy barhana proving, demonstration 

•jj barwa waste, scrap 

JJU-Jjj- brotostanti Protestant; (pl. -ün) a 

iJüb-Jjj brotostantiya Protestantism 

j—jjj (It. proUsto) brotostö protest (of a bill 
of exchange) 

6^yjj brotoköl protoeol 

üyjj brOtOn proton 

f\j*rjJ brogräm program 

tjrjj buTÜji pl. -fya trumpeter, bugler 

jjj barwaza to frame 

jljj- barwäz, binoäz pl. jj\j baräwiz* 

^jj (It. Pruseia) burüsiyä Prusaia 
^jj burüsi Praasian 

**jj and 43jj (It. prova) bröva, bröfa pl. -dt 
test, experiment; proof sheet; rehearsal 

jjj % (Fr-) bronz bronze 

tS'jjj t bronzi bronze, bronzy | ^ «J 1 
tfyjjJI ('«*»■) the Bronze Age 

l tSJ, barä * (&wy) to trim, shape (*, nib 
(* a pen), sharpen (* a pencil); to Scratch 
off, scrape off (*; to exhaust, tire 
out, wear out, emaciate, enervate (• b.o.), 
sap the strength of (•) III to vie, com- 
pete (• with s.o.), try to outatrip (• s.o.) 
VI to vie, compete, contend, be rivals; 
to meet in a conteet, try each other's 
strength (esp. in games and Sporte) TU to 
be trimmed, be nibbed, be sharpened; 
to defy, oppose (J s.o.); to undertake, 

take in hand (J, set out to do 
(J), enter, embark (J upon); to break 
forth (j* from); to get going; to break 
out, let fly, explode (with words, esp. 
in anger or excitement) 

,jj baran dust, earth 

*i)j barräya, j»^j^l i,\j b. al-aqläm 
pencil Bharpener 

l\j* mibräh pocketknife 

• IjL* mubärdh pl. C-»L jL* mubärayät con- 
test, tournament, matoh (in games and 
sports); competition, rivalry 

jLi : Lj-jL ,_^ill Jtfrl a'fi l-qausa UU 
riyahd give the bow to h\n\ who knows 
how to shape it, i.e., always ask an 
e xpert 

jLi* mviabärin partieipant in a oon- 
test, contestant, contender; competitor, 

*\>_j see Aj and l j 

üILjj> barifäniyä, birifdniyä Britain, ULLy 
^Ji-Jl (vzmä) Great Britain 

jU^j> barifani, birifdnl British; Bri- 

l y bazza u (bau) to take away, steal, wrest, 
snateh (* * from s.o., rob, strip 
(* » s.o. of; to defeat, beat, out- 
atrip, excel (* s.o.), triumph, be vic- 
toriouB (. over) Till to take away, steal, 
pilfer (*; to take away, snateh 
(a money, J* from s.o.); to rob, fleece 
(• s.o.) | ^Ul i}\j*\ jül to lift money out 
of people's pookets, relieve people of 
their money 

Jljül ibtixdz theft, robbery; fleecing, 
robbing (of s.o.) 

• j bazza u to bud, burgeon 

j buzz, bizz pl. jlj. bizäz, Jl>l abz&z 
nipple, mammilla (of the female breast); 
teat, female breast 


a > bazz pl. jj'j busüz linen; cloth, dry gooda 

*j bizza clothing, clothes, attire; uni- 
form | *^"j *j (rasmlya) uniform 

jl> bazzäz draper, oloth merohant 

«j\j bizäza cloth trade 
jy t y bazbüz pl. >jl> bazäbiz 2 nozzle, spout 
j'j bazara * (bazr) to sow 

j'j bizr pl. jjj buzür seed(s); pl. jljrl 
abzär andy jUI abäzir* spiee 

«j> At'zra (n. un.) seed; kernet, pip, 
pit, stone (of fruit); germ 

jl_> bazzär seedsman 

»j'j buzaira pl. -ät epore (6o(.) 

fy bazaga u to break forth, oome out; to 
dawn (day) ; to rise (sun) 

fj'j buzüg appearance, emergence ; 
rise (of the eun) 

3j bazaqa u (bazq) to spit 

Jlj- buzäq Bpit, spittle, saliva 

**!> bazzäqa snail; cobra 

ü>* 771162050 pl. JjL> maMzt^ 9 spittoon, 

x Jy bazala u (bazl) to eplit (*; to pierce 
(m, make a hole (* in); to tap, 
broach (*; a cask); to puneture, 
tap (« s.o.; med.); to clear, filter (* a 

J_> bazl puneture, tapping, paracenteeis 

Jlj- buzäl bung (of a cask) 
J>* mibzal pl. JjL* mabäzil* spile, 
ßpigot, tap; cock, faucet 

a ü> (It. j)weW») biziüa and V_> green peaa 

rj\ ibzim pl. fjLl abäzim* buckle, clasp 

Cjjaj bizmül bismuth 

Jsijr bizanfi Byzantine 

jU fiöztn pl. «1_> buiöA, Jl^j bawäzin, jl>j 
tfzän falcon 

^pj fco« and i-j !>(M5a pl. ^Lj fiwäs cat 

Lj 6o*o*a a (.^-j 6cm') to treat amicably 
(i_j s.o.); to be intimate, be on familiär 
terms (<_« with) 

UjIjLj besäräbiyä Bessarabia 

^L-J basbäs, 1-L-j basbäsa (eg.) mace (fio(.); 
(wiojf.) fennel 

4~>~-j 6<m6üäi («£,) paatry made of 
flour, melted butter, sugar and oil 

(Fr.) baaiiliya pastilles, lozenges 
1 üU-j bustän pl. (>jL_j 6a*ö7tn a garden 

Jli-j tuaiänt gardener; garden (adj.); 

oL-j ftaatana gardening, horticulture 

a jji-j (Fr. j)tÄ(OTt) feiatö», ,>— t (Engl.) bistan 
pl. ^.I—j basätin 2 piston 

3 J>i-J (It. bastone) bastüni spades (suit of 
playing cards) 

ä*»-j fttwia Easter; Passion Week (CÄr.) 

j_j ftoaaro « (j_y- > busür) to scowl, fröwn; — 
basara u (basr) and VIII to begin too 
early (* with), take prämature action, 
be rash (* in 

j~i buar (n. un. "») pl. jL-j biaär unripe 

j_^U bäsür pl. j^jt bawä&ii 2 hemor- 

i*-j basafa u (bas}) to spread, spread out 
(*; to level, flatten (*; to 
enlarge, expand (*; to ßtretch out, 
extend (* ; to unfold, unroll (* ; 
to grant, offer, present (*; to sub- 
mit, state, set forth, expound, explain 
(*, J or Jp to s.o.); to flog (* s.o.; 
Nejd); to please, delight (• s.o.) | U,-; 
4-*-lji (diraaihi) to spread one's arms; 


J «4*1—11 -b L— j (yada l-musä'ada) to ex- 
tend a helping hand to s.o.; »x'Lii 1^-' 
to lay the table; — basuta u (ü>Lj ba* 
eäfa) to be simple, openhearted, frank, 
candid II to spread, spread out, extend, 
expand (*; to level, flatten (*; to simplify, make simple (* 
III to set forth, State, expound, explain; 
to be sincere (<_* • with s.o. about or in, confess frankly (<_j « to s.o. 
V to be spread, be unrolled, be spread 
out, be extended ; to speak at great 
length (J about), enlarge (j on), treat 
exhaustively, expound in detail (j a 
theme); to be friendly, communicative, 
sociable, behave unceremoniously, be 
completely at eaae | ijoA-l j l-;' to 
talk freely, without formality VII to 
spread, extend, expand (intr.); to be glad, 
be delighted, be or become happy 

.L-j basf extension, spreading, un- 
rolling, unfolding; presentation, State- 
ment, explanation, exposition; cheering, 
delighting, delectation; amusement; (Eg.) 
numerator (of a fraction) | oJI L-j 6. 
al-yad avarice, greed, cupidity 

ik-j basfa extension, extent, expanae; 
size, magnitude; skill, capability, abili- 
ties; excess, abundance; (pl. -ät) State- 
ment, exposition, presentation; — (pl. 
J»L_j biaäf) landing (of a staircase); es- 
trade, dais, platform (eg.) 

iL_j bisäf pl. -ät, Ik-jl absifa, U.--; 
busuf oarpet, mg | ii^JI J»L_j 6. ar-rahma 
winding sheet, shroud; iJt-. (*-ij or) -.j*» 
ti^-Jl J»L_j J* (masalaian, bäht) to raise a 
question, bring a question on the carpet, 
also liibll J»L_ i J* (6. ü-munäqaSa) for dis- 
cussionjv U i»1 — Jl ^J» to bring the mat- 
ter to an end, settle it once and for all 

-L— j baeif pl. »Lk_j busafä' 2 simple; 
piain, uncomplicated ; slight, little, mod- 
est, inconsiderable, trivial, trifling; i»-«Jl 
name of a poetical meter; pl. »IL-j 

simple souls, ingenuous people | ^ aJl Lj_j 
6. al-yadain (pl. L— i busuf) generous, 

iL— Jl al-basita the earth, the world 
JJL-J basä'ifi elements; simple rem- 
edies, medicinal plants; basic facts 

ÄLLj basäta simplicity, plainncss 

O &j-*\ ubsüta pl. L--U abäsit* rim, 
felly (of a wheel) 

L— jl absaf 2 simpler; wider, more ex- 

L~-u tab3lt simplification 

IfU«I inbimt (n. vic. 3) extensity, ex- 
tenaiveness, extension ; expansion, ex- 
panse; joy, delight, happiness, gaiety, 

•tL-L <Löp 'adcda bäsita extensor (aTiaf.) 

J»-j— i* mabsüf extended, outstretched ; 
spread out; extensive, large, sizeable; 
detailed, elaborate (book); cheerful, 
happy, gay; feeling well, in good health; 
(tun.) well-to-do 

)» ■■> ' ■« muTibasit extending, spreading; 
gay, happy, cheerful; level surface 

<vL-> (Turk.) basturma a kind of jerked, 
salted meat (eg.) 

jji-JI al-buajür the Bosporus 

J-j basaqa u (3j-i busüq) to be high, tall, 
lofty, towering; to excel, surpasa {• or 
> s.o.) 
J-Li bäsiq high, tall, lofty, towering 
J— t. mubaiq high, tall, lofty, towering 
cJX-j (Fr. bicyclette) biskilet, baskilet bicycle 
O^S— .j (It. fciseoöo) ftasiktü biscuit 
ljjX-j baskawit biscuit 

1 J— » basula u (ilL_> 6aadZa) to be brave, 
feariess, intrepid V to scowl, glower X to 
be reckless, defy death 

ÄJLj baaäla courage, intrepidity 

JLc*l wtibsäl death defiance 

J-L hbtt pl. »}U 6iwaW", JJ^ feauxJ- 
eiP brave, fearless, intrepid 

mustabsil death-defying, heroio 

**Lj bisilla peas 

_j 6a«ama » (feum), V and VIII to smile 

i*_j bo«ma pl. ftasanuli smile 

|.L_j bauäm smiling 

— *- mo6«*m pl. .- L* TTwiäsim' mouth ; 
mouthpiece, holder (for cigars, cigarettes, 

fl—Äjl ibtisäm and (n. vic.) ol_il pl. 
•öf smile 

J... > IxMmaZa to utter the invocation 
p*.J\ j*-J\ äil *-J "In the name of God, 
the Benificent, the Merciful" 

iL— j baamaia utterance of the above 
invocation; the invocation itself 

ix-j buaaina kitty 

^jJj^— j pnkolöji paychologic(al) 

^j baSJSa a {bau-, Ülij feztäla) to display a 

friendly, cheerful, happy mien; to smile; 

to be friendly (J to s.o.), give s.o. (J) 

a smile 

J.jLi_ baSüSy J\£> baiSäi smiling, 

friendly, cheerful 

üLij baSäSa smile; happy mien 

^ilj bäiS smiling, happy; friendly, kind 

C~1j buSt (Nejd, Bahr., Ir.) a kind of claak, 
= mLc 'abä'a 

cJL> bi&ta (eg.) woolen cloak worn by 

Egyptian peasants 

1 Ja balara i, ba&ira a to rejoice, be delighted, 
be happy (<-* at II to announce 
(as good news; «_* • to s.o.; to 
bring news (.-> * to s.o. of ; to spread. 

propagate, preach {*->; a religion, 
a doctrine) | <~> *— «j ^ (na/*»Afl) to 
indulge in the happy hope that ... IV to 
rej oice (at good news) X to rej oioe , 
be delighted, be happy (o* at, eap. 
at good news], welcome (i~>; to 
takeasa good omen (y \\j**- ** j^r-*\ 
(kairan) to regard as auspicious 

jJa bi&r joy 

j±i_ bvJtr glad tidings 

^_^j bwbrä glad tidings, good newB 

lj\Jj> biSära pl. -äi, J\t» baiä'ir* good 
news, glad tidings; annunciation, proph- 
ecy; gospel; j-'Lij good omens, propitious 
signa | *jLiJla-p 'ld al-b. the Annunciation, 
the Day of Our Lady (Chr.) 

j±» baixr pl. Ajli bu$ar&* bringer of 
glad tidings, messenger, herald, har- 
binger, forerunner, precursor; evangelist 

jiiw tabHr announcement (of glad 
tidings) ; preaching of the Gospel ; evan- i 

gelization, misaionary activity 

tSs^ü tabüri misaionary 

/U tabä&lr 1 foretokens, prognostics, 
omens, first signs or indications, heralds 
(flg.); beginnings, dawn | j*»*JI _r-^ '• i 

al-fajr the first shimmer of aurora, the 
first glimpse of dawn 

_ r tx» muba&Sir pl. -ün announcer, mes- 
senger (of glad tidings) ; evangelist {Chr.); 
preacher; misaionary (Chr.) 

^ , lr .„- mtutabSir happy, cheerful 

»^ baSara u to peel (*; to scrape off, 
shave off, Bcratch off (*; to grate, 
shred (* III to touch (*, 
be in direct contact (* with; to 
have sexual intercourse ( * with s.o. ) ; 
to attend, apply o.s. (* or <~> to 
take up, take in hand, pursue, practice, 
carry out (*, a job, a taak, etc.) 


jti baiar man, human being; men, 

iSjM baSari human ; human being ; 
epidermal, skin (adj.) | &jti ^xX der- 
ma tologiat 

\fti baSara outer skin, epidermis, ou- 
ticle; skin; complexion 

~*ijii baiariya mankind, human race 

•j-t*» mib&ara pl. ji- L. mabäüt* soraper, 

•jJL* mubäSara pursuit, practioe; di- 
reot, phyaical cause (Isl. Law) ; mvbä» 
saratan immediately, directly 

jjtxt mabSür : *jj2j* *~»r (jvbna) 
shredded cheese 

j-iL. mubäfir pl. -ün direct, immediate 
practitioner, pursuer, Operator; director 
O manager (Eg.); court usher (Syr.) 
(mii.) approx.: staff sergeant (Eg. 1939) J 
jJL* j± indirect; »^L. oLU*l (ißäbät) 
direct hita 

^ij^Jj baSarüS flamingo 

*1j baü'a a (UUj basa'a) to be ugly, loath- 
some II to make ugly, disfigure, distort 
(*; to disparage, run down (* 
X to regard aa ugly, find ugly or re- 
pugnant (* 

*±j baii" ugly; offensive, disgusting, 
distasteful, repugnant ; unpleasant 

*-1j bau' ugly; offensive, diBgusting, 
distasteful, repugnant; unpleasant 

i*-Lij bai&a ugliness 

*1jI abSa' 9 uglier; more repulsire 
\pL look up alphabetic&lly 
**Üj (eg.; Turk. baska; invar.) different 
dilt Yin to lie, prevaricate 

iJLtj baSSäk bar 

ilLLjjl tötitöfc lie, deoeit, trickery 

ijj&Li baSkür pl. j*T Ltj baSäHr 2 poker, fire 

a j^j fcoSfcir pl. j*TUj AoASAür" towel 

<LLj (It.) btiiüa pl. -dJ bacillus 

JLj baiima a (ba&am) to feel nauseated, be 
disgusted {j. by, be fed up (,> 
with) IV to nauseate, sicken, disgust 
(. s.o.) 

jti basam surfeit, satiety, Ioathing, 

jUJLj baSmär (tun.) lacework, trimmings 

t$j*Ltj ba&ämiri (tun.) laceworker, lace- 

J*i> bahnaq ßlipper (worn by fuqaha and 

i-ij ba&na (magr.) Sorghum, millet 

cr JUj beJana tbe ninth month of the Coptic 

üjLLi baSnüqa pl. JJUj baSänxq 7 kerchief 
tied under the chin (pal.) 

Cr~> baSnin lotus 

(Jäj baspa i (bafis, ^.^j 6a^{^) to glow, 
sparkle, glitter, shine; • — (eg.) u to look 
i^u fro^^a embers 

^■■^ü fta^ij» glow, shine; glimpee, ray 
(e.g., of hope); lustrous, shining 

^Laj basaäs lustrous, shining; (eg.) 
spy, detective 

u ^ ; ^ü basbasa (<~««*i basbasa) to wag {*JÖj 
6t-^ana/)t'At its tail); (eg.) to ogle, make 
sheep's eyes, cast amorous glances 

*i*~*i baska see o»-j 

1 _ r *j ftapura u, basira a (basar) to look, see; to 
realize, understand, comprehend, grasp 
(*_j II to make (* s.o.) see, under- 
stand or realize (* or <~>, make 
(• s.o.) aware (* or *-» of; to en- 


lighten (* » or <-> • s.o. on or as to; 
to teil, inform (j> > or u • b.o. about) 
IV to see (*, * s.o.,; to make out, 
behold, perceive, discern, notice (*, * 
a.o. ,, Bet eyes on (*, ♦), catch aight 
of (*, •); to recognize (*, * s.o.»; to 
reflect (<-> on), ponder (<-> B.tli.) V to 
look (a at), regard (*; to reflect 
(j on, ponder (j X to 
have the faculty of visual perception, 
be able to see; to be endowed with 
reaaon, be rational, reasonable, in- 
telligent; to reflect (j on, ponder 

j~mi bofar pl. jU-ül abpär vision, eye- 
sight; glance, look; insight; Bight, dis- 
cernment, perception | j-*Jl j-*i short- 
sighted, myopic; j-»JI gl lamh al-b. 
glance of the eye; j-»Jl d?, y-*JI ~i j, 
s*J\ jJ. öji (düna), ^-Jl gL > Jil j 
(aqaüa) in the twinkling of an eye, in 
a moment, in a flaah, instantly; ^J- J* 
j~*J\ (madä) within sight; ^ ^mi <I he 
ü knowledgeable in, he is familiär with 

tSj~*i bapart optic(al), visual, oculax 

oUyuu bapriyät optica 

*jL-ü ba$ära perception, discemment; 
perspicaoity, acuteness of the mind, 

jwü 6ojrtr pl. »Ij^ü &UjWfd ,a endowed 
with eyesight; aeutely aware (<-> of), 
having insight (.-> into) ; possesaing knowl- 
edge or understanding (^ of), dis- 
ceming, discriminating, vereed, knowl- 
edgeable, profioient (.-> in), acquainted 
(«_^ with 

i>«) &o0tra pl. j-*L*ü 6aß<i**r* (keen) 
insight, penetration, discemment, under- 
standing, (power of) mental perception, 
mental vision | Jjwl ^ deliberately, 
knowingly; j- »jwü J* OK" to have 
insight into, be informed about; ijwaJ! ÄiL» discerning, clear-sighted, 

perspicacious, sharp-witted; SjwJl ili» 
nafä&al.-b. sharp discemment, perspicao- 

_ r *jl abpar* more discerning 

«y^J ta&psra enlightenment; Instruc- 
tion, Information 

y^3 tabawur reflection, consideration; 
penetration, clear-sightedneBS, perspicao- 

•jJ^ bäptra pl. j**\j* bawfyir* eye 
: * jM aJl al-bafra Basra (port in S Iraq) 
j^u bapaqa u to spit (J* on s.o.) 

uu; 6o^N/a (n. vic.) ezpectoration ; 
(expectorated) spit, spittle, saliva 

JUü bvfäq spit, spittle, saliva 

«_* mi&paga spittoon, ouspidor 

J-aj ba^aZ (coli.; n. un. #) onion(s); bulb(s) | 
jUJI J^u 6. al-fa*r sea onion (Scilla venia) 

J^ü bo^oZi bulbous 

iL--ü buiaita pl. -dt, j*ill *L-~»i 
6. a$-8a r r bulb of the hair (anot.) 

_*j bapama u (bapm) to print, imprint (*; to stamp (*; to make, or 
leave, an imprint (* on) 

3— «j bapma pl. ba^xmSX imprint, im- 
pression j &■ I <*-«j 6. ai-fcaim stamp im- 
print, stamp; £>.L»Vl *— *J fingerprint 

lj~*i ba&va embers 

Lf Ät ba44 tender-akinned 

**ä) bafa'a a (baf) to cut, alaah or slit open 
(*; to out up, carve up, disseot, 
anatomize ( ?.th.); to amputate (surg.) 
II to cut up, oarve up, disseot, anato- 
mize III to sleep (l> with a woman) 
IT to invest capital (*) profitably in a 
commeroial enterprise T pass. of II; to 
trade; to ahop, make purchases X to 

£-öj ba4* amputation 

*_«j büf (commonly, with genit. pl. 
of f. nouns, Ä*jkj with genit. pl. of m. 
nouna ; in classical Arabic ( *-«j with both 
genders) some, a few, several 

**^L) fti^'a pl. <u^j büja' piece (of 
meat); meat; see also &nf above 

( *_«j 6ud' vulva 

«■Läj bidä'a pl. suLaj ba4ä'i' a goods, 
merchandise, wares, commodities ; that 
which s.o. has to offer, which he haa to 
show, with which he is endowed (also 
attributes, qualities) | i*LiJI jLLi freight 
train; U-L-u ^ *xp U r-j*-' he aaid 
what he had intended to say 

Ju mibtfa' pl. f-^L. maiä^t' 1 dissect- 
ing knife, Bcalpel 

f-Läj! »&#f mandate for the manage - 
ment of affairs (Ial. Law) ; partnership 
in a limited Company, capital Investment 

uu mub4i' pl. -ün limited partner 

^JLX>*< mtutabtfi' manager, managing 
agent {Isl. Law) 

Sa t batf (n. un. •) duck; iL; batfa leather 
flask | JUI <L calf (of the leg) 

ßti bafu'a u (».Uj bw}', »IU biß', *»U»j 
bafä'a) to be slow ; to be slowgoing, 
slow-footed, slow-paced; to tarry, linger, 
wait, heeitate II to retard, slow down, 
delay, hold up (^ Je b.o. in IV to 
slow down, decelerate, retard, delay, hold 
up (a; to he slow, go or drive 
slowly, slow down ; to be late (je for, 
in meeting s.o.), keep s.o. (je-) waiting 
V to be slow, tardy ( j in) VI to be slow, 
leisurely, unhurried; to go, drive, act or 
proceed slowly, leisurely; to he slow- 
going, slow-footed, slow-paced; to slow 
down X to find slow (*, * s.o.,; to 
have to wait a long time (■ for s.o.), 
be kept waiting (• by s.o.) 

•Jdü bvf slowness, tardiness | ».Lj 
slowly, leisurely, unhurriedly 

>J*j bafi' pl. *LLj bifä' slow, unhurried; 
slowgoing, slow-footed, slow-paced; tar- 
dy, late; sluggish, lazy; slow, gradual, 
imperceptible | O "j*" »,^j b. at-taraddud 
of low frequency (el.) 

lU abfa'* slower | CJ i v l^ j. tL>t 
(guräbi nüh) tardier than Noah's raven, 
i.e., slower than a ten years* itch (pro- 
verbially of b.o. who is very tardy) 

»LLjI ibfä' slowing down, retardation, 
deceleration, reduction of speed; tarry - 
ing, delay; slowness | »\L>\ Ojj without 

jLLj tabäj,u Blowness; slowing down, 

*jjU*j baltäriya pl. -ät battery (el. and mil.) 

ILLUj bafäfä, Ü»U»j bafäfa sweet potato, yam 

^-i-Uoj baßtia potatoea 

«*LL> 866 jLj 

J*J*j bafbafa («LJ«j bafbafa) to quaok (duck) 

jJaj bafaha a (bafh) to prostrate» lay low, 
feil, throw to the ground, throw down 
(*, . b.o., V and VII to be pros- 
trated, be laid low; to lie prostrate, 
sprawl, stretch out; to eztend, stretch; 
to lie 

^Ll abfafy 9 flat, level; (pl. gkll abä* 
fih 2 ) hasin-shaped Valley, wide bed of a 

»Uio bafhä'* pl. c \Ut bifäJk, oIjULj 
bafhäwät basin -shaped valley ; piain, 
level land, flatland, open oountry; (tun.) 
publio Square 

U-Lj bafiha pl. £lU baß'ih 2 wide bed 
of a stream or wadi; a stagnant, shallow 
and broad hody of water 

^LkU munbafih proatrate; flat, level; 
level land, piain 


£j«j bitfik, battik (n. un. ;) melon, water- 
melon; bafßk hub (of a wheel; syr.) 

oJo~> mabtaku melon patch 

1 J Li ba^ira a (bafar) to be wild, wanton, 
recklesa; to be proud, vain; to be dis- 
contented (* with; to disregard 
{* IV to make reckless 

^Lj bafar wantonness, cockiness, arro- 
gance, hubris, pride, vanity 

S^U abäfira (pl.) bona vivants, play- 
boys, epicures 

2 »\JtJ\ al-bafrä* Petra (ancient city of Edom- 
ites and Nabataeans; ruins now in SW 

j-jL batrak pl. j-jlia bafirik* roe (of fish) 

^•J*i bulnts Peter 

J~i_^»j ba^raSil and j£j& &afraJinstole(CAr.) 

jtjii bifriq pl. üjliu bafäriqa, ,jfej^ 6afdrig a 
patrician ; Romaean general ; pengum 

iJjLj bafralc, <t\ij*i ba}rik r ilj-_^»J bapriyurk 
pl. ÜjLLü baßrika Patriarch (aa an eecle- 
siastic title, Chr.) 

«-S^Lj bafrakiya, <Sj^* bafriyarkiya 
Patriarchate (Chr.) 

jAv bafaüa i u (batS) to attack with violence; 
to bear down on, fall upon s.o. (<-■ or j); 
to knock out (o s.o.); to hit, strike (l_>, land with a thud (l_> on) 

,jiJai 6a(i etrength, power, force, 
violence; courage, valor, bravery; o-p- 
pression, tyranny 

<tLi batSa impact 

üLLü bifäqa pl. -ät, jILLj batä'iq 2 slip (of 
paper), tag; Card, calling Card; ticket; la- 
bel | »jijjJl **Uaj calling card; i__ *V üLLj 
(ÄiJtfijKi) and «Juj*dl üUü identity card; 
i-j'iiW ji^il 4*U*> b. al-mawääd at-gitfä'iya, 

0^>*^' i*LLtJ food ration card; «jüLaLI SjILj 
6. al-mu'äyada greeting card 

1 JLj bafala u (büß, Ö^Lt buflän) to be or 
become null, void, invalid, faJse, un- 
tenable, vain, futile, wortbJess; to be 
abolished, fall into disuse, become 
obsolete ; to cease, stop, be discontinued ; 
to be inactive, be oat of work II to 
thwart, foü, frustrate, make ineffective, 
counteract, neutralize, nullify, invalidate 
(*; to abolish, cancel, annul, 
suppreas (* IV = II; to talk idly, 
prattle ; to paralyze, immobiliae, hold 
down, pin down {* the Opponent) 

JLj butl nullity; uselessness, futility, 
vanity; fabity, falsenees, untruth 

Ü LLü bitäla and bafäla idleness, in- 
activity; free time, time off, holidays, 
vacations; unemploymeat 

jUa« baffäl pl. -an idle, inactive; un- 
employed, out of work 

ö'^ki buflän nullity ; usetessneas, futüHy, 
vanity; falsity, untruth; invalidity 

jLLj-i ibfäl th-warting, frnstration, in- 
validatiora; ruin, destruction; abolition, 

JtL bäfil nugatory, vain, futile; false, 
untrue; absurd, groundleas, baselesB; 
worthless; invalid, null, void; deception, 
He, falsehood; JLUL and *&{, bäfitan 
falsely; futüely, in vain; pl. J-LU abäfil 9 
vanitres, trivialities, trifles, flimflam, idle 
talk, prattle 

JL-. mubfil prattler, windbag ; liar 

JL-. mubtal nugatory, futile, vain 

Jk^ mulabattü unemployed 

z JLj ba^ula u (üJlk; batäla, -J_jl»j butüla) to be 
brave, be heroic, be a hero 

JLj batal pl. Jlk)l abfäl brave, heroic; 
hero; champion, pioneer; hero, protag- 
onist (of a narrative, etc.), lead, star 



(of a play); champion (athlet.) | JUll JLj 
b, al-'älam world champion 

ÜLj bafala heroine (of a narrative), 
female lead, etar (of a play); woman 
champion (athlet.) 

ÄJLU bafäla bravery, valor, heroiam 

iljW ftu/üJa bravery, valor, heroiam; 
Ieading role, starring role (theater, film); 
championship (athlet.) | «J.UII ÄJ^LJI 
fdtamya) and JUll ÄJ^Wi 6. al-'älam 
world championship (afWef.); ^J^LJl jj^ 
the part or role of the hero, Ieading role 

<J LLj bafälisa Ptolemies 

iü bnfm, bufum terebinth {bot.) 

1 t )U> bafana u (bafn, ü^kj fo^Gn) to be 
hidden, concealed, to hide; — bafuna u 
(oILj fco/öfto) to be paunchy II to line 
(a a garment, <_j a with); to cover 
the inside («_» * of with), hang, face, 
fill (uj * with) IV to hide, conceal, 
harbor (a V to be lined, have a 
lining (garment) ; to penetrate, delve 
(a into), become absorbed, engrossed 
(a in) X to penetrate, delve (a into), 
become absorbed, engrossed (a in); to 
try to fathom (a; to fathom (a, get to the bottom of (a); to have 
profound knowledge (* of, know 
thoroughly, know inside out (a 

jkj ba\n pl. üj^ai bvfün, jU abfun 
belly, stomach, abdomen; womb; interior, 
inside, inner portion; depth j p-UJI J& 
b. al-qadam sole of the foot; <J&5\ jU b. 
al-kaff palm of the hand; J*J\ iJ aij and 
il^LJi ,j-*ij raq$ al-b. belly dance; <jLj j 
(bafni) in, within, in the midst of; ojhi j 
inside, within, in; l.u-lj Uk> üj-Üj (waladat 
she gave birth only once; j^i LJ*> (H- 
zahrin) upside down 

jLi bafni ventral, abdominal 

jU bafin paunchy 

<Ui bifna gluttony ; overeating, in* 

üLLj bifän pl. <Ui\ abfina girth (of a 

ÄJILj bifäna pl. JLLj batä'in* inside. 
inner side; lining (of a garment); retinue, 
suite, entourage | iJlLj j among, amidst; 

j^Lj bafin pl. üLLj bifän and 0U>-* 
rnibfän paunchy, fat, corpulent, stout; 

^Li bvfain ventricle (of the heart; 

oILj baftäniya pl. -at, ^\U> bafäfin 2 
cover; hlanket; quilt 

jL»U bäfin pl. jjl»[>j bawäfin* inner, 
interior, inward, inmost, intrinsic ; hidden, 
secret; iiUUI coastal piain of E Oman; 
L-UL* bäfinan inwardly, secretly | <_i£jl jLL 
6. al-kaff palm of the hand; p-üJI jL»L» 6. 
al-qadam sole of the foot; j-^l jLU j 
at bottom, after all, really; J * s i\ jWjj the 
factors, circumstances or reasons at the 
bottom of; ^j^l jtljj b. al-ard 
the secret depths of the earth 

J\*l> bäfini internal | ^LL ^ij* (marad) 
internal disease; ^tUl i_JJl {/*"&&) internal 

*-J»Ul al-bäfiniya name of a school of 
thought in Islam, characterized by 
divining a hidden, secret meaning in the 
revealed texts 

üjL-* Tnabfün affected with a gastric or 
intestinal ailment 

jli^ mvbaitan lined; fiDed (^> with) 
*£> II (tun.) to füll (a 

üU»Li (Span, batdn) bäfän fulling mill 
1J»Li bäfiya pl. ^\ji bawäfin pitcher, jug 
Jöü bazza u to spout, gush out, well out 
Jui bazr pl. jjai buzür clitoris (anat.) 


mu bu'bu* pl. aiUj ba'äbi'* bugaboo, bogey 

ii-*> 6a f ato a (6a'Z) to send, send out, dispatoh 
(Jl u or a, i s.o. or to); to forward 
(Jl u or a to); to delegate (*_» or * 
Jl s.o. to) ; to emit (t_* or * ; to evoke, 
arouse, call forth, awaken (*; to 
stir up, provoke, bring on (*; to 
revive, resuscitate (*; to resurreot 
(• s.o., Ojil j* from death); to inoite, 
induce (J* to, instigate (J*; 
to cause (J*; e.g., aatonishment) | 
■Jt^J-'l «Ja «Jl vi-*> (haxzai ai-ffauf) to 
Bcare the wits out of s.o.; j ILA-I ^jj xLm 
(rüha l-kayäh) to breathe life into 
or s.o., revive VII to be sent out, 
be emitted, be dispatohed, be delegated; 
to be triggered, be oaused, be provoked; 
to be resurrected (oJJ j* from death); 
to originate (j* in), come (j* from), be 
caused (j* by); to emanate (fragrance); 
to arise, spring, proceed, develop (j- 
from), grow out of (J*) ; to set out to do (with foll. imperf.) VIII to send, 
dispatch (» s.o.) 

viüo ba't sending out, emission, dis- 
patching, delegation, etc.; resurrection ; 
pl. ij*i bu'ü$ delegations, deputations | 
*i-*Jl <->J*- A*2Ä al-b. approz. : Renaissance 
Party, a political party with strong 
socialist tendencies ; ti-*Jl ^ Day of 
Resurrection {from the dead) 

ii«j &a'to pl. ba'atät delegation, deputa- 
tion, mission; expedition; student ez- 
ohange; group of exchange Btudents; 
revival, rebirth, renaissance, rise | *i*j 
*ij$L^. {'aakanya) military mission; ii*j 
1— -L_Jj.s diplomatic mission; *jj\ *i*j (ata- 
Ttya) arohaeological expedition; ii*Jt ,j-uj 
ra'ls al-b. chief of mission (dipl.) 

ij*L 6<Ta Easter (CAr.) 

■j.^» mab'at sending, forwarding, dis- 
patch ; emission ; awakening, arousal; 
— (pl. tts-L* mab&if) cause; factor 

ii-*Li b&it pl. it*\ji bawä'ip incentive, 
inducement, motive, Bpur, reason, cause, 

mab'üt dispatohed, delegated ; 
envoy, delegate; repräsentative, deputy 
(in the Ottoman Empire) 

»i-o-u munba'ot source, point of origin 

u ba'jara {ij*** ba'tara) to scatter, strew 
around,fling about (*; to disarrange, 
throw into disorder (* ; to squander, 
waste, dissipate {* II taba'tara pass. 

jvKf» muba'tar scattered, widespread 

j ba'aja a (ba'j) to slit open (* the belly); 
to groove, dent, notch (* VII to 
have indantations or notches ; to be 
brutsed, dented, bumpy; to get battered 

m^ munba'ij notched, indented 

1 ba'uda u (bu'd) to be distant, far away, 
fax off; to keep away, keep one's distance 
(jp from); to go far beyond (je-), ezceed 
by far ( j» ; to be remote, improbable, 
unlikely I fr *i ■**! ne ^P* *" m a^ay 
from; jl .Uj V it is not unlikely that ... 
II to remove (• s.o.); to banish, exile, 
expatriate (• s.o.) III to cause a Sep- 
aration (,>■» between) | ö^i Jo -i*L 
•tfJI üyj *o prevent s.o. from attaining; 4JU*-I ju J#\i (ajfänihi) to stare 
wide-eyed IV to remove (*; to 
take away (*; to eliminate (*, 
do away with (*); to send away, HiRmfra 
(• s.o.); to expatriate, banish, exile (• 
b.o.); to ezclude, make unlikely, improb- 
able, impossible (*; to go or move 
far away; to go very fax (J in or with VI to be separated, lie apart, lie 
at some distance from one another ; 
to separate, part Company, become es- 
tranged; to move away, go away, with- 
draw, depart (j* from); to keep away, 
keep one's distance (je from); to quit, 
leave, avoid (j* ; to follow in regulär 

intervals VIII to move or go away; to 
keep away, withdraw (,y. from) ; to quit, 
leave, avoid (,y.; to leave out of 
consideration, disregard (,y X to 
single out, set aside (*; to think 
remote, farfetched (*; to regard as 
unlikely (*; to diBqualify (» s.o.) 

Xu bu'd remoteness, farness; (pl. jLjI 
ab'äd) distance ; dimension ; interval 
(mus.) [ Xu J* and xJI J* in the distance, 
far off; jU & Xu J* at a distance of 100 
meters; Xu je. and Xu J* from a distance, 
from afar; il*jl *j"^J ji three-dimensional ; 
jUt^l < >'^* giyäa al-a. linear measure; 
UAl Xu 6. al-himma high aspirations, 
loftiness of purpose; ÜiJl Xu 6. aS-Hqqa 
wide interval, wide gap; C-i-JI Xu 6. 
OjS-jSö renown, fame, celebrity; Cjj-d\ Xu 
6. ap-paut do.; ^kJl Xu 6. an-Tiazar far- 
sightednesa, foresight; J Ixu bu'dan li 
away with . . . ! 

Xu ba'du then, thereupon; afterwards, 
later, after that, in the folkrwing; still, 
yet | Xu |fj afterwards, later; Xu Li see 
I L*I; j^jf Xu j* he is only a small boy, 
he iß Btill young; Xu ot } (yati) he 
hasn't come yet 

Xo ba'^ (prep.) after; in addition to, 
beside; aside from | . . . «äjf* Xu (W 
nt'Ai) aside from the fact that he is...; 
iiJ] i Xu afterwards , after that, later 
(on); besides, moreover; iJÜ Xu besides, 
moreover; ül Xu öa'ffa an (conj.) after; 
il Xu (id), L Xu and L. Xu ,y (fca'di) do.; 
4jL- *Xu U 4jL- (aafakun) the height of 

JJxu ba'da'idin then, thereafter, there- 
upon, after that, afterwards 

O-aj fco'»«* pl. »Ixu bu'adä' z , Xu Äw'uti, 
jlxu bu'dän, jUj &t r öi distant, far away, 
far (,y. from); remote, outlying, out-of- 
the-way; far-reaching, extensive; far- 
fetehed, improbable, unlikely; unusual, 
stränge, odd, queer; incompatible, in- 

consistent (j» with) | Xju ,y from afar, 
from a distance; Xju Xj* öl* faA<2) a long 
time ago; _r ^1 Xju 6. al-atar of far-reach- 
ing consequence; ^jlill Xju remote in 
time, going way back in history, ancient; 
jbjl o_*j 6. as-Sa'w high-minded, bold; 
ilill Xju 6. aS-Siqqa far apart; j_>ill Xju 
6. al-gaur deep; unfathomable; jxll Xju 
6. al-madä long - distance, long -ränge; 
extensive, far-reaching; ^IkJI Xju 6. an- 
nazar farsighted; farseeing; JLÜ.I -> . - ; 
6. al-manäl hardly attainable, hard to 
get at; Ixju »_^j to go far away, go to 
distant lands ; Xju Jf «üaJ to look off into 
the distance 

x^u bu'aida (prep.) shortly after, soon 

Xu I ab' ad 2 pl. 0* L I abä'id 2 farther, 
remoter, more distant; more extensive; 
less likely, more improbable; pl. OpLI 
ofcä'ti 2 very distant relatives | Xu^l ö^iJl 
(Axrj) the Far East; Xu^l the absent one 
(used as a polite periphrasis for s.o. who 
is being criticized or blamed for; 
also when referring to the Ist and 2nd 

4jjUjI db'ädiya pl. -ät country estate 

XjtJ tab'td banishment 

jUj bi'äd distance 

eXt-L. mubaada sowing of dissension, 
estrangement, alienation 

jljul ib'äd removal, Separation, Isola- 
tion; elimination; expatriation, banish- 
ment, deportation 

X^Lj tabä'ud interdistance ; mutual es- 

Xw mub'ad deported; deportee 

OpIju mutabä' id separate | »x>Uit ol jU j 
(fatarät) in wide intervals; oljt» j 
,^1 j- »4*Lu (zaman) at infrequent inter- 
vals, from time to time 

mustab'ad improbable, unlikely 


l j*t ba'r, ba'ar droppings, düng (of animals) 

■jsaj ba'lr pl. lj*i\ ab'ira, ö\j*i bu'rän, j*LI 
abä'ii 2 , if jl*j ba'ärin 7 oamel 

jj*j ba'zaqa (*»j»u ba'zaqa) to scatter, difl- 
sipate, equander, waste (* 

Jj*^ mubaziq squanderer, spendthrifb, 

ijiuo II to divide into parte or portions (* V to be divided, be divisible 

j«j ba'd part, portion; one; some, a 
few; a little of, some of | »^Lll ^m b. 
al-'vlamä' one (or some) of the echolara; 
u^*ü jy ff*ä*> li*ij (ra/a'nö) we have 
exalted some of them above the others; 
j*-*^ I ,^äJI — (^Jl some — Bome, a few — 
others; Läm j--**j one another, each 
other, mutually, recrprocally ; ^^u j «uiu 
one in the other, within one another; 
»^1 j4«j ba'da S-Sai* to some extent, 
somewhat, a little, rather; Uj'Uil ^^ <LfU 
(ba'qUi l-m.) he resembled him somewhat, 
to some extent; üß ^Jwtj oy ii* (gar») 
for the last hundred years and more 

ij*j*j bcCüd (n.un. •) gnafcs, mosquitoes 

j^LaJ tab'id division, partition, por- 

«0&u bu'küka club, Bociety 

J*i ba'l the god Baal; land or plante thriv- 
ing on natural water supply ; — (pl. 
J_j*j buül, *lj*u bu'vla) lord; husband 

'Am ba'la wife 

^u ba'li unirrigated (land, plants) 

»iLLo ba'labakk 2 Baalbek (ancient Heliop- 
olis, village in E Lebanon) 

C-u bagata a (bagt r *ik> bagta) to come un- 
expectedly, descend unawares (• upon 
s.o.) III do.; to surprise (« s.o.) VII to be 
taten by surprise; to be taken aback, 
be aghast, be nonplused 

«iu bagta surprising event, surprise; 
bagtatan, ijj Je 'alä bagtatin all of a 
sudden, suddenly, surprisingly 

iü.L. mubägata Budden arrival, sur- 
prising ineident or event, surprise ; sudden 
attack, raid 

ti»Lu bugät pl. üLüj bigtän small birds 

»jIäj see oili-jj 

jJäj II tabagdada to swagger, throw one's 
weight around, be fresh (properly, to 
behave like one from Baghdad) 

■iljju bagdäd 1 Baghdad 

ijjI-Uj bagdädi pl. -ün, ».ubu bagSdida 
a native of Baghdad 

1 1 _ J i*j bagaSa a: #^Jl c~üj («md'u) there was 
a light shower 

<Lit bagSa light rain shower 

2 <Lia bugSa = iijj 

8 ÜLu (e^.) bugäSa etuffed pastry made of 
flour, eggs and butter 

iJ Äii bagida a, baguda u {bugd, i^ilij bagäda) 
to be hated, hateful, odious II to make 
(• s.o.) hateful (Jl to s.o.) III to loathe, 
detest, hate (» s.o.) IV to loathe, detest, 
hate (• s.o.) VI to hate each other 

u^üj bugd, <^üj bigda and »Liij bagdä'* 
hatred, hate 

(j^-ij bagtd hateful, odious (Jl to s.o.), 
loathsome, abominable 

,_ r äpLj tabägud mutual hatred 

fjsji?* mabgüd detested, hateful, odious 

c ^ü r » mubgid pl. -ün hater; — mvb* 
gad detested, hateful, odious 

J« bogt pl. JUj bigäl, JLül abgäl mulo; 
iL« bagla pl. bagalät female mule | Jbu 
lj£~Ü\ b. al-ganfara the piers of the bridge 

JUj baggäl pl. -ün mule driver, muleteer 


Jü bagä i (»Lo bugä*) to seek, desire, covet, 
seek to attain (*, wiah for 
( A ). — (bagy) to wrong, treat unjustly 
(J# s.o.); to oppress (J» s.o.), oommit 
outrage (J» upon); to whore, fornicate 
VII jJuü it is desirable, necessary; it is 
proper, appropriate, seemly; it ought to 
be, Bhould be; with J: it behooves him, 
with 4_U: he muet, he should, he ought 
to VUI to seek, desire (*, aspire 
(* to, strive (* for) 

Jü bagy infringement, outrage, injus- 
tice, wrong 

Jo bagiy pl. LUj bagäyä whore, pros- 

l_i* bugya objeot of desire; wiah, de- 
sire; bugyata (prep.) with the aim of, 
for the purpose of 

•Ui bigä' proatitution 

»Uü bugS wiah(ing), desire, endeavor, 

j«l« mabgan pl. £L* mabägin brothel 

f L* mabäßin coreted things, desiderata, 
wishes, desires 

•Uiil ibtiga* desire, wiah; ibtig&a (prep.) 
for the purpose of 

f L bägin pl. l\*t buQäh desiring, oov- 
eting, striving; committing outrages, 
oppressive, unjust; oppresBor, tyrant 

JZ;* mvbiogan aspired goal; aspiration, 
desire, endeavor, effort 

ou bafta oalioo, Indian cotton cloth 

jIiäj bifUk beefsteak 

»ji baqq (n. un. !) bedbug, chinoh | jJI i_^ 
elm {bot.) 

■jj fagga u (tag?) to give off in abundanoe 
i3Lu baqqäq garrulous, loquacious ; chat- 
terbox t prattler 

jJÜ baqbaqa (ÜJu 6056040) to gurgle, bubble, 
splutter, purl (water); to chatter, prattle 

jLi baqbäq garrulous, loquacious; chat- 
terbox, prattler 

ii^JL baqbüqa blister (of the skin) 

t+üu bxtqja pl. pi (wgaj bündle, pack, pack- 

,j-jj-üj baqdünis, baqdünas parsley 

Ju baqara u to split open, rip open, cut open 
(a IV do. 

Jkt baqar (coli.) bovines, cattle; n. un. 
Ijli baqara pl. -ät cow 

tfjh baqari bovine, cattle-, cow- (in 

jLü baqqär pl. • cowhand, cowboy 

^Jü baqs box, boxwood (bot.) 

oL-Ju buqsumät rusk, Zwieback; biscuit 

l \ h buqSa Yemenite oopper coin 

*/■; baqHS pl. ^^ili 603ÖÄJ 1 present of 
money; tip, gratuity, baksheesh 

<Ju II to spot, stain, smudge (* V to 
become stained, get smudged; to be 
spotted, Btained 

AtJu buq*a pl. »Ju buqa r , fli biqa 
spot, blot, smudge, stain; place, Spot', 
aite; plot, patch, lot 

■jul abqa* 1 spotted, speckled 
UiL böqVa pl. g\jt bawäqi'* sly dog, 
shrewd fellow 

Ji baqala u (baql) to eprout (plant) 

Jäj 604I (coli.; n. un. 3) pl. J>ü fcwtfüJ, 
JU>1 aÄgdi herbs, potherbs, greens, her- 
baceous plante; specif., legumes | <L-*JJI 
UUI the Leguminosae ; äjjUI iUJl hya- 
cinth bean (Dolichos lablab L.); iUJl 
»UuJ- 1 (hamqS) purslane (bot.) ; *UJl 
i_käjl ({ZoAo6ij/o) garden orach (6of.); 
«JU^IUM Üi celandine (6o(.); 4JLLI ili 
6. al-malih common fumitory (bot.) 


JUj baqqäl pl. -ün, Uli baqqäla green- 
grocer; grocer 

Uli 6*<7<iJa the grocery business 

•j^Jü baqläwa, \j$m a kind of Turkish de- 
light, paatry made of puff paate with 
honey and almonds or pistachios 

jü baqqam brazilwood 

Ji baqiya a (»li baqä') to remain, atay, 
continue to be (J* in a State or con- 
dition); to keep up, maintain (J* a state 
or condition); to be left behind, be left 
over; to laat, continue, go on; (with foll. 
imperf. or part.) to continue to do, 
kcep doing ; to become | Sil» j^ i 
{yabqa fiflan) he is no longer a child II to 
loave, leave over, leave behind {* 
IV to make (» a.o.) stay; to retain, 
leave unchanged, leave aa it is, preserve, 
maintain, keep up (*; to leave, 
leave over, leave behind (*, • a.o.); 
to leave untouched, save, apare (J* s.o.,, e.g., s.o.'s life) V to remain, stay, 
continue to be ( J* in a State or condition) ; 
to be left, be left over X to make stay, 
aak to stay, hold back, detain (• s.o.); 
to spare, save, protect (• s.o., *; to 
preserve (*; to retain, keep {*; to störe, put away (* 

4~äj baqiya pl. [Am baqäyä remainder, 
rest ; remnant, residue | Jj-Ot iJL b. 
ad-duwal the remaining countries, the 
rest of the countries ; vM' V"-" (Jbäqiya) 
the last remnant 

»LL baqä' remaining, staying, lingering, 
abiding; continuation, continuance, du- 
ration ; survival, continuation of ex- 
istence after life; immortality, eternal 
life; existence; permanence | »UJI jb 
the hereafter 

JA abqä more lasting, more durable, 
more permanent; better preserving; con- 
ducive to longer wear, better protecting 

»li I ibqa continuation, retention ; main- 
tenance, conservation, preservation |»lii 
<-L oJS" L. J* ifU-l maintenance of the 
Status quo 

»Uä-Jk— I istibqa continuation, retention; 
maintenance, conservation, preserration 

j Li bäqin staying ; remaining ; left ; 
remainder {arüh.); lasting, continuing, 
permanent, unending; sorviving; living 
on; everlaating, eternal (God) | il>LtUi 
oU-LJI the good works 

jjl* mutabaqqin residue, remnant, re- 
mainder, rest 

iL be (Eg. pronunciation) pl. tl>j^£j bakawäl, 
^\jr bahawät bey (title of courtesy; cf. 

ijj^j bekawtya rank of a bey 

»Jö baki' pl. »cnj btkä' having or giving 
little, sparing (e.g., of words) 

j>-Kj bikäsin becassine, snipe (zool.) 

LtjjJt^j (Fr. baccalaur&U) baJcälßriyä baooa- 
laureate, bachelor'a degree 

^^jjjJcnj bakälSriyüs bachelor (aca- 
demic degree) 

^LSÖ (Turk. binbafi) bimbäix, bikbäii major 
{■mit; formerly, Eg.) 

cSj II to censure, blame (• s.o.) 

sj tabkit blame, reproach 
j^M\ remorse 

i$j&l bakteri bacterial, caused by bacteria 
Lijc^h baktiriyä bacteria 

j£ö bakara u to set out early in the morning, 
get up early; to come early (Jl to), be 
early (Jl at) II do.; j _^ö and <-» _^ö 
with foll. verbal noun: to do early, 
prematurely, ahead of its time III to be 
ahead of s.o. (•), anticipate, forestall 
(. s.o.) IV = I; VIII to be the first to 
take (*, be the first to erabark (* 



on; to deflower <U a girl); to in- 
vent (m B.tb.); to create, originate, start 

jSCj bakr pl. jSCjI aÄfcar, 0'lj& fraifcrä» 
young camel 

_^j WJfcrpL J&l afeifcör fkafc-bom, eklest ; 
firstling ; lmprecedented, novel, new ; 
virgin; virginal 

tijSsj bikri firBt-boro, first 

<i_^j bilcriya primogeniture 

»_^j fcaira and bakara pL _^j fcafcar, 
-ö( reel; puBey (mecA.); spool, coil; winch, 
windlasB f S_^j .L*- fca# b. thread 

»^j bakra: ,,-jI 3_^j J* 'oZä fcajfero*» oÄS- 
Aim, -pjl SjSÖ j* and *t*^j J* all 
without exception, all of them, all to- 
gether; Lr'^j j» J*W ^-T-^" tne erwd 
went forth as one man 

»_^j bukra pL _^j ftutor early morning ; 
bukratan early kt the morning; to- 
morrow ; on the foUowing day, next day 

j&j balir coming early; early, prä- 
mature; precocious 

j_>SCj bakür and jjf^i bakür coming 
early; early, premature; preeocious 

jjS^* bttkür earliness, prematureneas, 
premature arrival | Jj*il j t£jj£* fowi) 
my early retura 

«jKj bakära virginity 

•jISsj bakkdra puUey (meeA.) | »jS^j 
*-5^- (mwrafcfcaia) set of pulleys, block 
and tackle 

•jjSj &«jfcüra and «j j_>5o ftufoirfya pri- 

•jjflj fcätüra pl. jS"^j> fcawJÖJfcw 3 first- 
lings; first results, first fruits; beginnmg, 
rise, dawn; (with foll. genit.) initial, 
early, first; pl. jS"\jt first signs or indi- 
cations; initial Symptoms; heralds, har- 
bingers (fig.) | «TljiJl hjfk early fruit; 
*JI>I yjTU üIT the first thing he did 

^j I abkar 2 rising earlier 

joX-. mibkär precocious 

jKsil ibtikär pl. -<ö novelty, inno- 
vation; creation; invention; origination, 
first production; initiative; creativity, 
originality; pl. oljOol specif,, creations 
of fashion, fashion deBigns 

Jf\i bäkir early; premature; I_^"Ij bä* 
kiran in the morning ; early (adv.) | 
jfUl *-L«aJl j (jSaftöA) early in the morn- 
ing; jfl« Jl tili tomorrow 

•jJ*Ij ftöib'ro pi. jflj* bawäkir 3 first- 
lioge, first produce, early fruits, early 
vegetables; pl. first indications or Symp- 
toms, heralds, harbingers 

^L* mubakkir doing early; early; 1^^* 
mubakkiran early in the morning, early 

jSo-. mubtakir creator; creative; Inven- 
tar; — - mvbtakar newly created, novel, 
new, original; (pl. -ät) creation, specif., 
fashion creation, invention f j£=r* *-*>* 
(taub) original design, model. dress crea- 

r_& bofkraj pl. rj&* bakärij* kettle, coffee 

JSCj II to buckle, buckle up, button up 
(*; to fold, cross (* the arms) 

iJSCj bukla pL JCj bukal, -ät buckle 

4^Ci (It. baceald) bakaläh codfish 

^JiJj^i bakalöriyüs bachelor (academic de- 

C bakima a to be dumb; — baknma u 
to be silent, hold one's tongne IV to 
silence (» s.o.) V to become silent; to be- 
come dumb 

5^ bakam dumbness 

fA abkam*, f. »l£i &afcmd' a , pl. ^ 
buibn dumb 



ol^So and «j_>SÖ see <il> 

Jö bakä i (»t£j bukä', Jö ZwJfean) to cry, weep 
(J# over); to bemoan, lament, bewail 
{* s.o.), mourn (» for) II and IV to make 
(• s.o.) cry X to move (» s.o.) to teara, 
make (« s.o.) cry 

• fo bakkä' given to weeping f re- 
quently, tearful,, lachrymose 

£A\ UU- hä'if al-mabkä the Wailing 
Wall (in Jerusalem) 

S-J'lj bäkiya pl. iü^j bawäkin waüing- 
woman, hired mourner; (eg.) arch, arcade 

i!Li bäJcin pl. StSvj bukah weeping, cry- 
ing; weeper, waüer, mourner 

iL. mubkin, mubakkin causing tears, 
tearful; sad, lamentable, deplorable 

j^SC bikln Peking 

1 Jj bat (also with foll. j u>a-) nay, — rather. . . ; 
(and) even; but, however, yet 

8 Jj balla u (ball) to moisten, wet, make wet 
(*, * s.o.); — balla i to recover (^Zj* j* 
from an illness) II to moisten, wet, make 
wet (*, « s.o.) IV to recover (^Zj* j* 
from an illness) V and VIII to be mois- 
tened, be wetted; to become wet 

Jj ball moistening, wetting; moisture 

Jj bill recovery, convalescence, re- 

IL billa moisture, humidity j ilj U 
iL ,>U! mä zäda f-fina billatan what 
made things even worse . . . 

JL balal moisture, humidity; moist- 
ness, dampness, wetness 

JJL balll a moist, cool wind 

ALL ballla (eg.) dish made of stewed 
maize and sugar 

J^l ibläl recovery, convalescence, re- 

JJ-j tabattul moistneBS, dampness, hu- 

JjL. mablül, JJL* mubalial, Jx«. mvb* 
tau moist, damp, wet 

3 Ji biül (from Fr. bille): ^ ^f (harrt) 
ball bearing 

-$j see a i_-< 

t>j^j, ^t-j "ylj blätln, plätin platinum 

j7^ (Fr. plage) bläi beach 

^sr^i balagrä pellagra 

^j"^; baläraj stork 

dLi-"^ (Fr. plastiqtte) blästlk plastic 

±>*$j see Jail 

ii^j (Engl, plug) spark plug (ir.) 

ü^j, il^ see jL 

_LiJ.j balbala to gurgle 

1 t )Jj balbala to disquiet, make uneasy or 
restive, stir up, rouse, disturb, trouble, 
confuse (• s.o., * II tabalbala to feel 
uneasy, be anxious; to be or become con- 
fused, get all mixed up 

1LL balbala pl. Jj^j baläbil 2 anxiety, 
uneasiness, concem; confusion, muddle, 
jumble, chaos 

JLL balbäl anxiety, uneasiness, concem 

Jj^j baläbil 2 anxieties, apprehensions 

J_Lj tabalbul muddle, confusion | 
ii— J*^i l jJji t. al-alsina confusion oftongues 
(at the tower of Babel) 

2 JJLi bulbul pl. Jj - ^ baläbil 2 nightingale 

,Jj balaja u (t-jJj bulüj) to shine; to dawn 
(morning, aurora) ; — balija a (balaj) to 
be happy, be glad (i-j about), be de- 
lighted (■*- > at) IV to shine (sun) V and 
VII = balaja 


rJjl ablaf gay, serene, bright, clear, 
fair, nice, beautiful 

jpJiW p^Ljl inbiläj al-fajr daybreak 
KL>Jj beljikä Belgium 

JLjJj tety'ifct Belgian (adj. and n.) 

pL balak (coli.; n. un. «) dates (bot.) 

oL baluda u (o"^ baläda) to be stupid, idiot- 
ic, duU-witted II to acclimatize, ha- 
bituate {*, to a country or region) 
T pass. of II; to become stupid, besotted, 
lapse into a etat« of idiocy; to show o.s. 
from the stupid side VI to feign etupidity 

-iL balad m. and f., pl. j:Aj bääd 
country; town, city; place, Community, 
village; j*^j country; üIjL buidän coun- 
tries | u txl\ i~Jo b. al-habai Ethiopia; 
^a>\ *"% b. aß-sin China; -U^l *•& b. al- 
hind India 

»jJj balda town, city; place, Commu- 
nity, village; rural Community; township 

^jI» baladi native, indigenous, home 
(as oppoaed to foreign, alien); (fellow) 
Citizen, compatriot, countryman; a na- 
tive; communal, municipal J ^Uj ( _ r Xf 
(majlis) city Council, ]ocal Council 

öjL baladiya pl. -ät township, Com- 
munity, rural Community; ward, dis- 
trict (of a city) ; municipality, municipal 
Council, local authority 

■lJL balid and -UjI ablad* stupid, dolt- 
ish, dull-witted, idiotic 

o-^j baläda stupidity, silliness 

aJ-j tabaüud idiocy, dullness, obtuse- 
ness, apathy 

jJ-i. mutaballid besotted, dull, Btupid 

ji>\ look up alpha betically 

l _ r xLI pl. i-JLI look up alphabetically 

oLL balasän baisam, balm; baisam tree; 
black eider {bot.) 

—L baisam pl. -.^ baldsim 2 baisam, balm 
(j*— Lj 6abam{ balsamic, balmy 

Jall) balSafa to Bolshevize II tabalSafa to 
be Bolshevized 

lÄllt baliafa Bolshevization 

J-il; buliifi pl. lÄi-^i baläSifa Bol- 
sheviat(ic); Bolshevik, Bolshevist 

buUifiya Bolsheviam 

ÖjJLL balaSün heron (zool.) 

1 ij*b bala$a u (bals) and II to extort, wring 
forcibly (j- « from s.o.; to black - 
mail {« s.o.) 

^^«L 6aty extortion, blackmail; for- 
cible imposition of taxes 

3 ^^ balläp pl. jaJ*^ 6aJä/i£ a (ep.) earthen- 
ware jar 

1 Uj II to pave (*, with flagstones or 

J»"3k bald} pavement, tiled floor; floor 
tiles; palace; pl. UJjI ablifa floor tiles | 
JLLil i»^Ül (maiait) the royal court; jlo». 
JoUl AÜ2&Z al-b. court mourning 

Ät'^j baläda floor tile; flagstone, slab- 
stone; paving atone 

IlJLj toÄ/t/ paving, tile-laying 

JaL. mttballaf paved, tiled 

2 i»jL &aüüf oak; aoorn 

3 <Uj balfa pl. -ät, JaL tuia/ ax 

j^tij balfaji pl. -tya engineer, sapper, 
pioneer (mil.); gangster; procurer, pan- 
derer, pimp; sponger, hanger-on, parasite 

*iLL balafa balata gum 

yji (Fr. paletot) balfö pl. -ät, J>-^ baläti 
paletot, overcoat 

* | _^1j butyi bolti (Tüapia nilotica), a food fish 
of the Nile 


jJJJl al-balflq the Baltio countries | ^ 
j-UJl 6oAr oJ-6. the Baltio Sea 

ifc»J Ij bälüza hand presB ; (eg.) a kind of cream 
made of cornstarch, lemon juice and 
honey, or the like 

Ai bala'a and bali'a a {hol') to Bwallow, 
swallow up (*; to gulp down (*; to put up (* with, swallow, 
stomach, brook (* | *äjj fJL {riqahü) 
lit. : to swallow one's saliva, i.e., to catch 
one's breath, take a little rest, have a 
break; to restrain o.a., hold back (said 
of one in a rage) II and IV to make (• s.o.) 
swallow (* | *juj **L (riqahä) to 
grant s.o. a short rest VIII = I 

i*L bal'a large bite, big gulp 

*t~£j baüä'a, ~**jL baUü'a pl. -ät, ^J"^ 
baläli* 2 sink, drain 

«**JL bälü'a pl. -ät, (^JIjj bawälx 1 sewer, 
sink, drain 

jL bvX'um pl. f^t balä'im? and *j»h bid* 
*üm pl. **"i0 bala'im % pharynx {anat.); 
*jAi gullet, esophagus {anat.) 

x iL balaga u (KjJLj hdüg) to reach (» s.o., *, get (*, • to), arrive (* at); to come, 
amount (* to), be worth (* so and so 
much); to come to s.o.'s {•) ears; to 
attain puberty (boy); to ripen, mature 
(fruit, or the like); to come of age; to 
exhaust, wear out (j* s.o.); to act {j* 
upon s.o.), have its effect {j* on), äffe et 
(j- s.o.); to go far (j, j* in, 
attain a high degree ( j, j* of | £L 
Jl *j to make s.o. or get to or arrive 
at, lead or take s.o. or to, get s.o. or to the point where, öl fji\ *j iL 
(tarannvb) he began to reel so violently 
that...; .U-l iL- ^^1 iL {mablaga l-jidd) 
the matter became serious; Jj)l J--JI iL 
b. s-aailu z-zubä the matter reached a cli- 
max,, things came to a head; JL»-J1 iL* iL 
{mablaga r-rijäl) to be sexually mature, 

attain manhood, come of age; *4-M iL 
{ahtddakü) to attain füll maturity, come 
of age ; to reach its climax ; UL» »^1 j iL 
(•^jiil j» or) (mablagan) to attain a high 
degree of; iLil lö* jL^Xi c-iL ,>.»- 
{kina, (JtJfcrayäH, mablaga) when I had 
come to thia point in my reminiscences ; 
iL* JS* 4i* iL (hdla mablagin) to work 
havoo on s.o.; «L*o iL (muntahähu) to 
reach its climax, come to a head II to 
make (» s.o.) reach or attain (*; 
to take, bring (Jl * to s.o.), see 
that (*) gets (Jl to); to convey, 
transmit, impart, communicate, report 
(a » to s.o. ; to inform, notify 
(* • s.o. of, teil, let know {* « s.o. 
about); to report {je- about), give an 
aecount of {je-); to inform {je. against 
s.o.), report, denounce {je. s.o.) | UL-j iL 
to fulfill a mission; ^"it- -iL baÜifihu «a- 
lämi give him my best regards! III to 
exaggerate (j in; to overdo, do 
too long (j; to go to greatest 
lengths, do one's utmost (j in) IV to 
make (*, « s.o., reach or attain 
( Jl ; to make (* amount ( Jl to), 
raise (* an amount, a salary, Jl to); to 
inform, notify (u or jn s.o. of, 
teil, let know (^ or je- * s.o. about); to 
announce, State, disclose (* ; to 
inform (je- against s.o.), report, denounce 
{je- s.o.) | i-j i _ r *ij^ -iL! to report 
to the police V to content o.a., be content 
(i_j with); to eke out an existence; to 
still one's hunger (i_j with), eat (^ 
to be delivered, be transmitted 

UL V Lr" aam'an lä balganf may it be 
heard but not fulfilled, i.e., God forbid! 
(used at the mention of unpleasant) 

4«L bulga and 9-^Aj baläg sufficiency, 
competency, adequaey (see also a *iX> be- 

Wj baläg pl. -ät communioation, In- 
formation, message, report; announce- 
ment, proclamation ; communique; State- 


ment;notification(of thepolice) | j*-\ f-^j 

i_L baiig pl. »LL bnlagä' 2 eloquent; in- 
tense, laeting, deep, profound (e.g., an 
impression); eerioua, grave (e.g., an in- 

9jL bulüg reaching, attainment, arrival 
(at); maturity, legal majority 

**">0 baläga eloquence; ort of good 
style, art of composition ; literature | 
ii^Ül 1* 'Um al-b. rhetoric 

■LI ablag 2 intenser, deeper, more last- 
ing; more serious, graver 

iL^ mablag pl. JL* mabälig 1 amount, 
Bum of money; extent, scope, ränge; 
(see also examples under iL I) | i y\ iL* 
(ismi) nominal par; Äp^jII äJ L^Ll (müda'a) 
the deposits (at a bank); Jy ii-4 ^-.Jj 
jX\ j« (li-yatabayyana, qauli, jidd) in 
Order to find, out to what extent my 
words were meant seriously 

mJlJ tablig pl. -ät conveyance, trans- 
mission, delivery (Jl to s.o.); information 
(^ about); report, notification (^c of); 
communication, announcement, notice | 
i-LJI ^t\sS" credentials 

UL» mubälaga pl. -ät exaggeration 

*yk\ ibläg conveyance, transmission 

Jlj bälig extensive, far-reaching ; con- 
siderable ; serious ( wound), deep, pro- 
found, violent, vehement (feelings), 
strong, intense; mature; of age, legally 

il^ muballig bearer (of news), messen- 
ger; informer, denouncer; detective 

2 <ih bulga, balga pl. -ät, bulag slipper of 
yellow leather 

LjliL bulgäriyä Bulgaria 

^jliL bulgärl Bulgarian (adj. and n.) 

iL» balga7n phlegm; (pl. i^ balägim 2 ) ex- 
pectoration, Sputum 

(J *iL balgami phlegmatic ; phlegmy, 

JAj balafa i {half) to bluff II do. 

«_äL half, üL balfa bluff 

jLl ablag 2 piebald 

(J -iiL bilqiä* Muslim narrte of the Queen of 

uliUI al-balqän the Balkans 
JliL balqäni Balkan 

*ÄL balga' and i*ÄL balga' a pl. -j*^ balägi' 2 

dl> see t\jL 

ü^SsL balkön balcony 

1 Jj balam anchovy 

2 Jj balam pl. *•&) abläm sailing bärge (tr.) 

3 L IV to be silent, hold one's tongue 

ü^Aj ballän bathhouse attendant; name of a 
plant growing near stagnant waters 

U^Aj balläna female bathhouse attend- 
ant; lady's maid 

«--iL balansiya 2 Valencia (region and city 
in E Spain) 

,j*L pl. 0*J">L ' °k U P alphabetically 

4L baliha a to be stupid, simple-minded 
VI to- feign foolishneaa, pretend to be 
stupid X to deem ( « s.o. ) stupid or 

*L balak and **">0 baläha stupidity, 
foolishness, simple -mindedness ; idiocy, 
imbecility | 2_^L. U">U (mubakkira) demen- 
tia praecox 

*L balha let alone, not to speak of, 
not to mention 

*L! ablah 2 stupid, daltish, dull-witted; 



L-jL^Jj bilkaraiyä bilharziaais, Schistosomiasis 

<j^]j buiahniya abundance, wealth, variety 
(of earthly possessions) 

'Ol^L Bee ül^^lf, 

*D öj+L bulhön pl. J^-^t balähin* (= JjAl^.l ; 
eg.) sphinx 

(jii and Jj) Vj 6aid « {balw, »^ 6aJä*) to 
teat, try, put to the test (• b.q., m; 
to know from long experience (*; 
to afflict (• s.o.); — Jj baliya a (Jj bilan, 
**$j bald') to be or become old, worn, 
ahabby (clothes) ; to dwindle away, van- 
ish; to deteriorate, decline, become de- 
crepit; to diaintegrate (a corpae), decay, 
rot, spoil III to care, be concerned (v 
or *, • about), be mindful (i_j or a, » 
of s.o., of; to pay attention (i_> or 
* to), mind, heed, take into consideration, 
take into account {<_j or »; to take 
notice (i_j of) | JU L mä ubäli, JL1 V 
I don't care ! I don't mind ! it's all 
right with me! JL> V (as a relat. clause) 
unconcerned, heedless, carelesB, recklesa 
IV to try, test, put to the teat {» a.o.); 
to make experienced, harden, inure (• 
s.o. ; aaid of trials, experiences) ; to work 
havoc (* on; to wear out (* | 
L- — *-£i Jjl (balä'an haaanan) to stand 
the test; to prove o.s. brave (in war) 
VIII to try, tempt, put to the teat (• a.o.); 
to afflict (<j • s.o. with), visit (^ • on 
s.o.; pasB. vbtuliya to become or be 
afflicted (i_j with, hy), suflFer (i_j from) 

Jj bilan decline, deterioration ; decay, 
putrefaction, decomposition ; worn con- 
dition; wear; shabbiness 

Jj batiy worn, old, ahabby, thread- 
bare; decrepit, dilapidated, decaying, 
decomposed, rotten 

*Jb baliya pl. \y$j baläyä trial, tribula- 
tion, Visitation, affliction, distress, mis- 
fortune, calamity 

»*ib bald' trial, tribulation, Visitation, 
affliction, distress, misfortune; scourge, 
plague; creditable Performance, bravery, 
gallantry, heroic action | j^. »^ (ha* 
8an) favor, Messing, grace (of God); good 

,4jL> balwä trial; tribulation, Visitation, 
affliction, distress, misfortune, calamity; 
necessity, need | « j^LJI c^ ('ammat) it 
has become a general necessity 

•1IL. mubäldh consideration, regard, 
heed, attention | ;^L.V Id-mvbdläh in- 
difference, unconcein, carelessness 

t~^j\ ibtild' trial, tribulation, affliction, 

Jlj bältn old, worn, worn out; ahabby, 
threadbare, ragged, tattered; decrepit, 
dilapidated ; decayed, rotten ; obsolete, 

JL. mubälin observant, heedful, mind- 
ful (._j of) | cj JL. ji heedless of 

J^. mubtalan (lesa correctly Ji-. mub* 
talin) afflicted (i_j with, by), auffering 
(lj from) 

jjL II tabalwara to cryatalize; to be crys- 
talized; to be covered with cryatals 

j^L baUür, billaur pl. -ät crystal; crya- 
tal glöss, flint glasa, glaas | O iSj^ Jj^>. 
(sakri) rock crystal, transparent quartz 

»j^L billaura (n. un.) pl. -dt crystal; 
crystal glass, flint glaas, glass; tube 
(radio); crystal, quartz plate (of a de- 
tector; radio); (syr,, pronounced ballöra) 
negative (phot.) 

tijjL ballüri, btUauri crystalline; crys- 
tal (adj.) 

ijj^L ballüTxyu, biüauTiya pl. -dt lense 


j_jL. mubalwar: »jj^t* *^*L** candied 




jjs, ijjl (Fr. bleust) bdlüz, büiua pl. -dt 

iljj (Turk. btUük) bulüh pl. -ät Company 
{mü.; Eg.) | 0^*1 fJjl* 6. omi» (mü.) 
approi. : quartermaster Sergeant (former- 

üjL boUfin balloon 

l Jj 6aM yes, yee indeed, certainly, surely 

■Jj ftoKyn eto., aee jlj 

j-UUj (It. pagliaccio) jtalyatiö olown, buffoon 

jJjUj (It. fripltanfo) büyardö billiards 

*— Jj billseh plisse', pleating 

1 l jX 6oUln pl. oJ^J baZdZin 1 pallium, liturgical 
vestment of a bishop worn over the 
ohasuble (Chr.); monk*s robe (Copt.-Chr.) 

■ü^L balyün pl. ^.^j baläyln* (U.S.) billion, 
(G.B.) milliard; (U.S.) trillion, (G.B.) 

** bomm loweat string of a musical instru- 

f_Lr bumbäg, üLe 6vmM$a bow tie 

jLe bombäy Bombay 

^•L look up alphabetically 

^ V JJ tabannä to adopt as son (* s.o.); 
to adopt, embrace (* 

^1 ihn pl. »LjI o&nd*, Oyj banfin son; 
deacendant, scion; offsprmg, son (of a 
nation or people) | * aT ^ I pl. »jX ji; (son of 
Adam) man, human being; jjT ^.l *6n 
duxä jackal; -ÜJ1 ^1 um al-balad local 
inhabitant, native; j^UI »Ljl nativee, 
native populatkm; v^' i>' ^ a ^-^ at * 
warrior, soldier; warlike, belücoae; ^.1 
Jsi— Jl wayfarer, wanderer; i- u^-*" 0".' 
60 years old; «*.U j. I ifrn «ä'a/t'M tem- 
poral, transient, passing; «JL# ^i ifr» 
puftiAi hia own aon; ^^ j<l ibn '♦>« 
weasel; »^Ji »L jj oanü mä' tu-wnuS* 

the Arabs; <Juj-< Jj Beni Suef (city in 
Egypt, S of Cairo) 

ol t&tia and cJu fruit pl. ob oandt 
daughter; c-w girl | yJI ol t. al-'amm 
(female) cousin; periphrastically for wifet 
dLf- ijl your wife; j&JI ü-« 6. af-jSJfer 
pl. J&Vi ob thought, idea; ,j>jVl ob 
fr. oi-ari^ inseots and worms; ^-1; üb 
6. 6t** calamities, afflictions; j»-ül ob 
fr. ad-dahr do. ; üJÜl cJj fr. aS-safa word ; 
j-UJ! ob 6. as-fiadr worries, fearo, 
anxieties; üijjj ob fr. tcartZäna earth- 
worms, rainwonna 

Jj frunaiya my little son 

IjLi bunüwa sonship, filiation 

iSj^j Ixmawi filial 

jj fafranntn adoptlon (also flg., e.g.. 
of ideas, principles, etc.) 

•j. frunn coffee beans, coffee 

^j bunni coffee- colored, brown 

•üb banän finger Ups | jt-i *~L* -t^ ty*** 
iäru) lit.: he is pointed at with fingers, 
i.e., he is a famouB man; tiijb fj* \j\ anä 
\aua banänika I am at your disposal, I 
am at your aervice 

Jj^iL banädöra ($yr.; from It. pomodoro) 

^jLj fcorwirw 1 Banaras or Benares (the Holy 
Oty of the Hindus, in N India) 

^iLü see ,^L£> 

yjj bintü napoleon, louia d'or (gold coin of 
20 franca) 

Wj II to dope, narcotieize (with banj; • s.o.); 
to anesthetize (* s.o.) 

«j banj henbane (Hyoscyamus niger; 
bot.); an anesthetic, a narcotic 

v UJl al-banjäb the Punjab (region, NW 
Indian subcontinent) 

^jhJj banjar red beet (eg.) 

Xj band pl. *yj bunüd article, clause» para- 
grapb (of a law, contract, etc.); banner; 
large body of troops 

x jXj bandar pl. jjbj banädir* seaport; com- 
mercial center ; district capital (Eg.) ; jAbj 
aee also under v-L» below | ,^-U* j«^j fr. 
'afefcöa Bandar Abbas (seaport in 8 Iran) 

a ijjXj look up alphabetically 

J-L> bunduq (coli. ; n. un. •) pl. jaIij banädiq 7 
hazelnut(s), filberts; hazel, bazel tree; 
üOj hazelnut, fiJbert; bullet 

j-L> bundttqi Venetian sequin 

ÄJXj bunduqlya pl. JaIij banädiq* 
rifle, gun | ^tj IJ-L» fr. rai£ ahotgun 

iJ-uJl al-bunduqiya Venice 

ciliXj bunduqänl pl. -fin, ««Li band* 
diqa a Venitian 

JjXj bundüq pl. JjiL> banädiq 2 bastard 

#jjj^ banadöra (syr.; from It. _pom«Joro) 

(_fjj.U> j>l aAmar 8 banadöri tomato-red 

Jjü^j (Fr. _pendt*Ze) bandül pendulum 

»j-Cj (Span, bandera) bandera pl. jjLj band* 
dir 2 pennon, flag, banner 

jjUj frannür (= jjL baüür) glass 

ja*>j banzahir bezoar, bezoar stone 

j>>j banzin, benzln gasoline, benzine 

IJ J> i (Engl.) pence 

t>l— Äj benisilln penicillin 

<- -u (Fr. peneie) bansSh pansy (bot.) 

Oj-_ Ju bansiyön pl. -öi boardinghouse ; board- 
ing school 

^-a^j frinpir f., pl. j-^Lj franäsir 2 ring finger 

ju iuni pl. i»jO bunüf point (stock market) 

jjlkj banfalün (from It. pantaloni) pl. -ä* 
trousers, pants 

jjlü; bangäzi Bengasi (city in NE Iib}'a, 
capital of Cyrenaica) 

JUiJI al-bangäl Bengal (region, NE Indian 

j7— ij banafsaj (coli.; n. un. «) violet (bot.) 

(j»«—^ banafsaji violetlike, violetisb; 
violet (adj.) | { y-^JcJ\ öy or [J ^->*:.II »Ijj 

^^Lij banfaS, banafS amethyst (min.) 

ajcj binaqa and ÜJu baniqa göre, gusset (of 
a ahirt or garment) 

1 jiij frunjfc root, core, heart, best part | dkj 
j^Jl fr. oi-'umr the prime of üfe, the best 

2 diiJ franjfc pl. t\yj bunük bank, bankin g 
house | t-iul-lll <^Jjj credit bank; jij& <iij 
deposit bank; -»all .iL» fr. ad-dam blood 
bank; JjoJI ^Jb-Jt (dauA) the World Bank 

3 tiii r * mubannah stranded 

i t ili r . iiL* muhannak mvbannak shrewd, 
sly, astute 

uIj^iScj (Engl.) banibndf banknote 

•jCj and jijCj see 1 ( j« 

jljO (Fr. fraijjnotre) banwär baignoire, theater 
box of the lowest tier 

x Jj frans t (»Li bind', uLJu bunyän) and Till 
to build, erect, construct, set up (a}; 
to build, establish, rest (J* * on); 
to consummate the marriage (L- and LJ* 
witb a woman); pass. buniya, ubtuniya 
to be based, be built, rest ( J* on) | '*$ Jj 
J* (JfeaZtmatan) to give a word an in- 
declinable ending in (a certain vowel or a 
vowelleas consonant; gram.) V see 1 l y 

»Li frinö" building, construction, erection, 
setting up; structure (also, e.g., of an 

Organum), aetup, make-up; (pl. «Jul 
abniya) building, structure, edifice | öU I 
»LJI i'ädat al-b. reconstruction ; ji-\ »LJI 
(kurr) Freemasonry; J* »Lj binaan 'alä 
according to, in accordance with, on the 
baais of, by virtue of, on the atrength of ; 
ii* J* »Ij accordingly, thus 

ijUj binai constructional, building 
(used attributively) ; architectural; struc- 

Li; binya, bunya pl. Jj hinan, btman 
structure, setup, make-up; Wnya build, 
frame, physique, physical Constitution J 
iJjl iJjl^ of delicate Constitution; ~^ 
ÄJJI and ÄJJI -L* of sound Constitution, 
healthy; ÄJJI j_j» qawiy al-b. husky, 

•Lü bannä' pl. -ün builder; mason; 
conatructive j j>- Ȇj (Aurr) Freemason 

IjLj binäya pl. -ä( building, structure, 

jLjü bunyän building, construction, 
erection, setting up; building, structure, 
edifice; physique, stature 

J~« mabnan pl. jL. mabänin building, 
construction, erection, setting up; build- 
ing, structure, edifice; form; foundation, 
fundament, basis | JJlj ^]j\ {ra'y) con- 
tent and form 

,jvj tabannin see 1 ( ^ 

jL bänin pl. »Lj fiimäA builder 

J-* mabniy built, set up, erected ; 
founded, based, resting (J* on); fixed, 
established; indeclinable; ending in- 
declinably (J* in; gram.) 

2 ,j^ ( En gl-) penny 

jm (It. bagno) banyö bath, bathtub 

yl^f bahita a, bahuta u and pass. buhita (bäht) 
to be astonished, amazed, bewildered, 
startled, perpleied, flabbergasted, speech- 

less ; — bahita to be or become pale, fade 
(color) ; — bahata a to astoniah, amaze, be- 
wilder, startle, stagger, flabbergast (• s.o.) ; 
(üLy buhtän) to Blander, defame (• s.o.) 
III to come or descend unexpectedly (» 
upons.o.); to startle, stagger, flabbergast 
{» s.o.) IV to surprise, astonish, amaze (» 
s.o.) VII = I 

C~r buht and uLy buhtän slander, falsa 
accusation; lie, untruth 

i^- bahta perplexity, amazement, be- 
wildennent, stupefaction 

ilJkL bähit pale, pallid, faded (color); 
perplexed, aghast 

üjf- mabhüt perplexed, astonished, 
amazed, startled, flabbergasted, aghast 

~f bahija a to be glad, be happy (^ about), 
be dehghted (w at); — bahuja u to be 
beautiful, look wonderful IV to gladden, 
delight, make happy (• s.o.) VIII to be 
glad, be happy (i_j ahout), be delighted 
( v at) 

<*«^- bahja splendor, magnificence, beau- 
ty, resplendence; joy, delight | jüli^l i^» 
delight of the eyes, welcome sight 

Fi- bahij, —ff bahtj magnificent, splen- 
did, beautiful; happy, joyous; delightful 

i>f~. mabhaja a moment of happiness 
and joy 

P*L+ mabähij 1 joys, delights; pleasures, 
amusements, dlversions; splendid things; 
splendor, pomp, magnificence 

jr^ri' *6fiÄäjjoy,rejoicing, delight (wat) 

£..(-. mubhij pleasant, charming, delight- 

~L. mubtahij happy, glad, dehghted 

J-if- bdhdala to insult (« s.o.); to treat con- 
temptuously, meanly (* s.o.); to expose 
(» s.o.) to ridicule, make a laughingstock 
(* of s.o.) II tabahdala pass. of I 



Ü-L^ bahdala insult, affront, abuse, out- 
rage; meanness; triteness, insipidity 

J-L^ mubahdal maltreated, oppressed, 

jr bahara a (bahr) and IV to glitter, shine ; to 
dazzle, overwhelm (» s.o., * s.o. 's eyes) | 
jL«j^I j^j »ji a dazzling, overwhelming 
thing; — pass. buhira to be out of breath, 
to pant VII to be dazzled, blinded; to be 
smitten with blindness; to .be out of 
breath VIII to flaunt, parade, show off, 
present in a dazzling light (i_j 

jt bahr deception, dazzlement (i_j by) 

jr buhr difficult respiration, labored 
brea thing 

Ijr bahra (n. vic.) being dazzled, dazzle- 

•sr buhra middle, center | . . . l jr j 

^1 abhar 2 more brüliant, more magnif- 

jf\ abhar 2 aorta (anat.) 

jLj- bahär pl. -ät spiee 

jlföl ibtihär dazzling display, show (i_j 

j*\j bähir dazzling, brüliant, splendid 

jjr* mabhür breathless, out of breath, 

■rjx bahraja (~**rjx bahraja) to adorn, deck 
out, dreBs up ahowüy; to give a deeeptive 
brightness (* to); to glamorize (»; 
to rejeet as false (» a witness); to fake, 
counterfeit (* II tabakraja to 
adorn o.s., spruce o.a. up, dress up; to be 

r-_rr bahra] false, spurioua, fake, aham, 
worthless, bad; counterfeit money ; tinsel, 
frippery, cheap finery; trash, cheap stuff 

'**rj^ bahraja empty ahow, hollow pomp 

jl*-_rt* bahrajän tinsel, frippery 

rjrf mubahraj showy, tawdry, gaudy, 
ornate, ostentatious ; trashy, rubbishy, 
cheap, inartistic 

j jx bahriz (eg.) a soup 

i^f bahaza a (bahz) to oppress, weigh down 
(• s.o.; a load, work), weigh heavily (» 
on s.o.) IV do. 

.Ii*L> bähiz heavy, oppreasive, trying; 
excessive, exorbitant, enormous ; ex- 
pensive, costly 

j^ bahaq a kind of liehen (bot.); herpetic 
eruption, tetter; vitüigo alba, a mild 
form of leprosy (med.) 

J^ bahala a (bohl) to curBe (• s.o.) V and VI 
to curse one another VIII to supplicate, 
pray humbly (to God) 

Jf I abhal sa vin ( Juniperus sabina ; 

Jlföl ibtihäl supplication, prayer 

J*L> bähil pl. J^- buhl, buhhal free, 

J^JLf- buhlül, bahlül pl. JJLf bahälil 2 buffoon, 
jeater, clown, fool 

jljLf- bahlawän pl. -ät, -lya acrobat, tumbler, 
equilibriBt, ropedancer, tightrope walker 

ji_jL r bahlawdni acrobatic | olTj*- 
ÄJl^J-f (harakät) acrobatics; antics, capers 
of a tumbler; jl^J-r o\jb (fayarän) aerial 
acrobatics, stunt flying 

-f- IV to make obscure, dubious, unintel- 
ligible (* V and X to be obscure, 
ambiguous, unintelligible (J* to s.o.) 

K^f bahma lamb, sheep 

^ bahim pl. -,- buhum jet-black 

S~~f- bahxma pl. ri^- bahä'im 2 beast, 
animal, quadruped; pl. üvestock, cattle, 
(large) domestic animals 



L5 *- t - bahimi animal, beetial, brutiah 

*~*~r bahimiya brutiahnesa, bestiality, 

l>Lf-l ibhäm obacurity; vagueness, am- 

l>Lf-l ibhäm pl. j>LI abähim* thumb; 
big toe 

>L bähim big toe 

tr* mubham obscure, dark, cryptic, 
doubtful, vague, ambiguous | --. ja» 
fotiad) abstraot number (moiA.); O .. '- 11 
^il ('a*a*) the vagus (<ww<.); ^1 ,-VI 
(um) the demonstrative pronoun (pram.) 

l (jr) W; bdhS. u, bahuwa u and jf bakiya a 
(»L. baW) to be beautiful lil to vie, 
compete (lj • with b.o. in; to pride 
o.b. (l-> on), be proud (lj of), boast {lj of, 
l-> • to b.o. of VI to compete with 
one another; to be proud (<^ of), pride 
o.a. (lj on) 

jr bahw pl. .L.I abha hall; parlor, 
drawing room, reception hall 

( _ fr boAty beautiful, magnüicent, Bplen- 
did; brilliant, radiant, shining 

flf bahä' beauty, magnüicence, splen- 
dor; brilliancy 

JL. boAifi Bahai (adj.); (pl. -ßn) an 
adherent of the Bahai sect, a Bahai 

-f*l abAd more splendid, more bril- 

«UL. mubähäh and »LT tabtSAtn pride, 
vainglory, boaatfulneas 

•oljf see iL 

(>jj) »L M*a u to come again, return; to 
oome back (i~> with, bring back, 
yield, bring in (.-» |^-'t »L or JiiJLi 
(JHit6a t /ojoi) to fail II to provide ao- 
commodations (J and • for s.o., * at a 
place), put up (J or • s.o., * at) | Lil£* I_^ 
(matönan) to take a place, settle down, 

live or stay at a place IT to provide 
accommodations (* for s.o., * at a place); 
to settle down, reside, live (<_> at a place) 
V to settle down {* at a place), occupy 
{\j?j+ markazan a place), hold (UlÄ* ma» 
qäman a position) | UtSL. T^J (makänan) 
to gain ground, become generally ac- 
cepted; ^^ Ij-j ('<•*"') to ascend the 
throne ; SU- 1 IjJ (hukm) to oome to 
power, take over power 

&! Mo pl. -ät (usually pronounced 
bai'a) pl. -dt residenoe, domicile, seat; 
Situation; surroundings, environment, 
milieu; home, habitat 

•»Li mabä'a place to which oomes; 
abode, dwelling, habitation 

•jj tabawvm* : ^j^ *j^ t. al-'ari acces- 
sion to the throne 

^jt II to divido into chapters or sections {* ; to arrange in groups, arrange 
systematically, class, classify (* 

i-jL bäb pl. ^j*) abiDäb, öLu bibän 
door; gate; opening, gateway; entrance; 
cbapter, section, column, rubric; group, 
olass, oategory; field, domain (flg.) j ^Ul 
JUI the Sublime Forte; ~->X±\ ^L 
b. tU-mandab Bab el Mandeb (strait 
between SW Arabia and Africa; geogr.); 
v!>i^' J* near, imminent; 1-bJU- 1<U £=i 
to open up a new way, a new possibility; 
<_jL ~ü futiha bäbv ... was (were) begun, under way; *^l <^\j Ji5 (qafaia) 
to put an end to, terminate, close; J-iiJI i-jL i> (b. il-fatß) as a favor; 
Jjl «_jLi ^ (au&S) with all the more 
reason, the more so; <_jUI IJu j about 
this matter, about this; jl IjjjJÜ «-»L ^y 
(b. *4-tfarfira) it ia necessary that . . . ; ,^-jJ 
ü-uJl t-jLi ^ li* (b. ia-pudfa) that'a no 
coincidence; .-»Li j* jlT or .-»U j J*-.> 
(with foll. genit.) to belong to, fall under; 
*A> j i>^i unique of ita kind; «ül .-»L J* -iL 
to pursue one's livelihood, earn one's 



4j Li bäba pl. -ät kind, Bort, olass, category 
u^I^j &awuü& pl. -ün doorman, gate- 
4j\y biwöba office of gatekeeper 
4j\jt bawtoaba pl. -Öt (large) gate, por- 
tal | SjL^Äll *j\jt b. al-qanfara lock gate 

t_-i_j-J (a&i«fr division into chaptera, 
sectioning, Classification, syBtematio ar- 
rangement, grouping 

>-jj~* mubawwab arranged in groups, 
classed, classified 

CAijt boblln poplin 

lujj (Fr. bobine) bobina spool, reel 

Cjjj bvwaü aee £~u 

UlJ^j, ifljjj (It. potoMa) frätäad, fctüä* potash 

iiJjj bütaqa (usually pronounced bautaqa) 
crucible, melting pot { jUjll UJ^j j 
(zamän) in the melting pot of time 

*»njt (Fr. bougie) bviih pl. -ät spark plug 

(».jj) j-L 6äAa u (&auA) to become known, 
be revealed, be divulged, leak out (secret) ; 
to reveal, disclose, divulge (* or ■_», 
a secret; Jl and J to s.o.) IV to diaclose, 
reveal (* or <_j, J to s.o.); to release, 
abandon, make public property, declare 
ownerless (* ; to permit, allow, 
leave (*, J to s.o.); to justify, War- 
rant (a X to reveal {*; to 
regard as publio property, as ownerless, 
as fair game; to deem permissible, lawful 
(a; to hurt (*i«j*- hurmatahü s.o. 's 
honor); to take possession (* of), ap- 
propriate, take as booty (*; to 
saize, oonEscate (* | <*s r^J--' {da* 
mahü) to proscribe, outlaw s.o. 

r-ji bauh divnlgence, disolosure (of a 
Beeret); confession 

rjt buh wide, open Space; courtyard; 

**-\> bäha pl. -ät wide, open Space; 
open place, sqnare, plaza; courtyard; 

**-\j\ ibäha divulgenoe, disolosure (of 
a secret); permission, authorization; li- 

^Ul ibähi licentious, unrestrained, un- 
inhibited; anarchist; freethinker 

V-ll ibähiya freethinking, libertinism; 

<— Ul— I istibäha appropriation, capture, 
seizure; spoliation, confiscation 

*>Li mubäh permitted, allowed, permis- 
sible; legal, lawful, licit, legitimate; open 
to everyone, permitted for all, free; 
ownerless (Ial, Law) ; indifferent (said 
of actions for which neither reward nor 
punishment is to be expected, but whioh 
are permissible, pl. c>U-L* indifferent, 
permissible actions, Ist. Law) 

(rji) j-L» bäka u to abate, subaide, let up, 

decrease; to die, go out (fire); to fade, 

bleach; to spoil, rot (e.g., meat) II to 
Bpoil (* 

£\j) buwäk evaporation, exhalation, 
vapor, steam 

fij^j tabwik: h&}\ £y? t. an-nukta the 
spoiling of the point of a story 

D ■Aj bäyik spoiled, bad; vapid, in- 
sipid, stale (also, e.g., of a joke) 

!>jUjj bükärest Bucharest 

»jSj* (Fr. povdre) büdra powder 

ii±ji büdaqa pl. 3±\j> bawädiq* crucible, melt- 
ing pot 

Ijjj büdä Buddha 

iSiji bü4* Buddhistic; Buddhist 

5j j^j büdiya Buddhism 

(jjt) jL; bära u (baur, j\jj bawär) to perish; to 
lie fallow, be uncultivated (land); to be 



futile, unauccessful, unprofitable, lead 
to nothing (work); to be unsalable, be 
dead stock (merchandise) | cJJ\ Ojb 
(bint) the girl could not get a husband 
II to let He fallow (* land); to make un- 
profitable, useleas (* IT to destroy 

jjt bür uncultivated, fallow | j_jj ^j\ 
(ard), pl. jji j-iljl (arfltfm) fallow land, 

j\jt bawär perdition, ruin | jljJl jIj 

J\i bair unoultivated, fallow (land) 

ijlj>. büräni (eg.) a vegetable stew 

jLjc- jji bür said Fort Said (seaport in NE 

ö\±j* jjt bür südän Fort Sudan (seaport in 
NE Sudan) 

jSoj_jjj_jj burturikü Puerto Rico 

JUjjj^ burtugäl Portugal 

*-*j>, bwsa pl. -ät stock ezchange 

jlji j^j &ür /u'&i Port Fuad (seaport in NE 
Egypt, opposite Port Said) 

3jji baitraq borax 

Ljji burmä Burma 

1 iJJM (Turk. boru) bürl trumpet, bügle 

tjrjjji 6«rüj5 pl. -iya trumpeter, 

§ <Jjji büri (pl* tsJji batcäri) striped mullet 
(Mugil cephalus; zool.) 

**ijj* (Fr.) bürlh puree 

l }jt II to pout, sulk, look glum, sullen 

jji büz pl. j\jt\ abioäz muzzle, Bnout 
I> jS tabwiza sullen mien 
j^-. mvhavmiz sullen, glum 

% jjt büz, «J^j büza ice cream 

3 *jji büza a beerlike beverage 

*jb bäz pl. jljjl a&u-dz, ji>j bizän falcon 

x ^yji büa bus 

\ lj 'ji) ^-Ij Mm u (baut) to kiss (* s.o.) 
<*y w bau&a, büsa kiss 

j=-yj (It. bu&to) bustü corset 

Äk-jj, ii-^j (It. jxwta) &w$a, ftusio post, mail 

jjÄ^jJ\ al-buefür the Bosporus 

((Art) o*^. ^* u (baui) to be boisterous, 
shout, roar (crowd) II do. 

Jiji baiii pl. ^bjl auMJ (for ^j\\) 
mob, rabble 

1 U ^>. &ü£ (coli.; n. un. I) reed 
i*ßjt büaa pl. ntt inch 

t a ^jt büa pl. (j-^'^jl ofr«^ linen or silk fabrio 

*L*jt (It. buasola) bosla compass 

"Jyjt büfa orucible, melting pot 

Hiji büza a beerlike beverage 

1 9ji bü* metatorsal bone {anal.) |f>Ül *-Jj*i V 
9-^Jl ,y he wouldn't know bis knee from 
his elbow (proverbially, of a stupid per- 


•f-U bä* pl. f\jt\ abwa the span of the out- 
spread arms, fathom; in Eg. today = 4 
4irä" mi'märiya = 3 m | 9 Ul Jjjt mighty, 
powerful; oapable, able; knowledgeable; 
generous, liberal; s-UI j~m* powerlese, 
helpless, impotent, we&k, incapable; 
niggardly, atingy; s-UI jj*«» impotence, 
weakness ; incapability (je- of ) ; f U L» 
pljÄltj with might and main 

x fjt II to surprise 

2 «U bäga celluloid; tortoise shell 

»iic-jj bügäda and <J>\s-y. bügäda potash, lye 



j\ijt bügäz pl. j* \jt batuäjfiz' strait(s) ; harbor | 
JJ^joJI J*j* the Dardanelles 

*Jj* (Fr. bttffet) büfih hoffet; bar; sideboard 

3j* II to blow the trumpet 

3jt büq pl. -dt, 3\jt\ ainväq trumpet» 
bügle; fanfare; harn (of an automobile, 
of a gramophone) ; acoustic signaling 
de vice; megaphone; mouthpiece, Bpokes- 
man ; duplicity, treachery, betrayal | 3ji 
0_^JI b. ap-paut or jjii^fl 3jt loudspeaker 
(radio); O ,y*j £j> (rahimi) oviduct, 
Fallopian tube (anat.) 

£\jj bawwäq trumpeter, bugler 

Uli bäga bündle; bunch of flowers, 
nosegay, bouquet 

ÜjL oä'tgapl. $\jt bawä'iq 3 misfortune, 

Jli^j btiqäl, ÜI^j büqäla pl. Jj'jj bawäqH 1 
vesael without handles, mug 

j»jjjLJ^j boknford patrol wagon, paddy wag- 
on, Black Maria 

JiKv-i^j (Engl.) boki&käf box calf 

1 (J^j) JL bäla u (baul) and V to make water, 
urinate IV to be diuretic X to cause to 

i}jt baul pl. JI^jI abwäl urine | ^jij» 
jj£j| J^JI marod al-b. as-aukharl diabetea 

J^j bauli uric, urinary, urinoua | ^Jll—ll 
*J>Jl the urinary passages; *Jj^ u^'j^^l 
diseases of the kidney and urinary bladder ; 
J^j --J (lasammum) uremia (med.) 

*Lj biia: O V=»-T <-Lj (öAintf/a) al- 
buminuria; O Hj** *^H (da«w»unj/a) hem- 
aturia (med.) 

ill^j fuwuü/a public lavatory 

«Üj-t mabwala pl. JjL* wuj/»öun/ 2 urinal ; 
a diuretic ; — mibwala Chamber pot ; toilet, 
water doset 

Jl^-I-I istibwdl: Q f-dl JI^JL-I üf. od- 
dam uremia (med.) 

9 JIj fül state, condition; heart, mind; notice, 
regard, attention j Jb ji significant, no- 
table, conaiderable, important, serious, 
grave; JUI f\j farüQ al-b. leisure; J_>Ü. 
JUI anxious, uneasy, concemed, worried; 
JUI Jjji» long-suffering, patient; ... *JIj l* 
(with verb) why is it that he (it) ...? 
why ...T illL U how about you? what do 
you t hinkt *IL ^U- fealä bäluhü hia mind 
is at rest, he haa no worries; <fL> ^k^- it 
occurred to him, it came to bis mind; 
<J) Jl *JLj (J*. f Jll) J*l (a'fä, alqä, ja'ala) 
to turn one's mind to, give one's atten- 
tion to, pay attention to, take into ac- 
count, be mindful of, bear in mind, heed; VL> JjÜ jL jl fam yu&p Z»-?auft 
ftdZan he didn't pay any attention to 
what I said; VIj 4^. Jju V (yogtÜu) no 
less significant than this 

8 J>j bül postage stamp 

*Jl bäl whale (zooj.) 

5 *Jb look up alphabetically 

D *Vj* büläd (= iVy) steel 

L^J^j see <-i}ji 

3"iji büläej* a diatriot of Cairo 

»xlji bölanda Poland 

jxJjj ftöJandi Polish; (pl. -fin) Pole 
jiji bölö polo 
Li^j (It. Polonia) bülüniyä Poland 

djiji bülünl Polish; Pole 

1 ( _ r J_ > j (Ft. police) bülis police | *jlj^fl ^}j* 
vice squad; jLi-l ,^-JjJI (?tnä*t) criminal 
police; <Jji~\ (j-J^Jl (Ä<z r &*) military po- 
lice; jj-Jl ,j-J>Jl («irrt) secret police; 
jj^l ^rt'^i traffio police 

V-äLh *i'jJ rttwäyo bviiaiya detective 



*"<-Aji and *-«Jj> (Fr. police) bülim, btäifa 
pl. j^-Hj-! fcatwJ/v 1 » ^r-J^H ^>wdfü a 
certificate of insurance, policy | <_ Jjj 
jj-Jjl 6. aJ-&&*» bill of Iading 

Lul_^ büli/iyd Bolivia 

JJ_jj büß/» Bolivian 

Ol~JjJl »b daal-baulinä uremia 

Pji büm (coU.; n. un. '») pl. ^IjjI abwäm owl 

1 j^j baun, &ün interval, distance; difference 

■jL* (coli.; n. un. ♦) ben tree (Moringa; 60*.) 
horse-radish tree (Moringa oleifera; bot.) 
Egyptian willow (Salix aegyptiaca L. 

tj'J^oAy. B^enoe Aires 

Jjj (Engl.) böni pl. J\ji bawäni pony 

•l bäh coitus; sexual potenoy; sexuaüty 

W- r*_H (Eng'-) böhimiyä Bohemia 

Lf ~*ji böhtmi Bohemian (adj. and n.) 

*T~*ji böhimiyä Bohemianism, Bo- 
hemian life 

*ijji ba*üna the tenth month of the Coptio 

*iji (Turk. boya) böya paint; shoe polish 

<Jt-X* iJf^iJi f 6 ?*) ^yV* houae painter, 
painter; shoeahine, bootblack 

i-j bayya = *Aj look np alphabeticaUy 

*iu see *j) 

oL biyäda infantry (Eg.) 

^jLj otyöti» infantryman, foot soldior 

jL, UL, _jj'Lj bjyän, biyäna, biyänö pl. oL»Lj 
ftiy<5»iW piano 

1 l _-u 6i6 pipe, tube; feed pipe, spout (of a 
reservoir or tank) * 

■i-jj &iba (Western) amoking pipe 

(£~u) oL* 6dto * (Ca-» mabtt) to paas or 
spend the night; to stay overnight; to 
become; to be (j in a Situation); with 
foll. imperf. : to get into a Situation, get 
to the point where; to continue to do, 
go on or keep doing, stick to 
II to brood (by night; a about; to 
contrive, hatch (* an evil plan, J against 
s.o.), plot (J against s.o.); to put up for 
the night (. s.o.) | J*~J\ j i« (faff; eg.) 
to flunk, fail promotion (pupil) IV to put 
up for the night (• s.o.) 

C-u bait pl. Oj-j buyüt, oUj-j buyütät 
house, buüding; tent (of nomads); room; 
apartment, flat; (garden) bed; family; 
oase, box, covering, sheath; pl. oUj-j 
large, respectable houses ; respectable fam- 
iliee; (pl. c*LI abyät) verse | lj^\ <i~u 
b. al-ibra (navigator's) compass; ö^Jl J»l 
ahl ai-b. family, specif., the family of the 
Prophet; ^l^Jl J»i people from good, 
respectable families; ijLf ^\Jj?> (tijä* 
riyä) commercial houses; fl^J-l C-*Jl (ha* 
räm) the Kaaba; »^J-1 Cjj b. al-kala and 
i_j^V1 C~u toilet, water closet; 
•lall £~u origin or seat of the disease; 
Jjj c-w (ri/J) country house; »J-^»JtlS ^ 
and J.-^.äJt c-u (the essential, principal 
verse of the kasida, i.e.) the quintessence; 
the gist, the essentials, the hit of; that Stands out from the rest, the 
right thing ; J- c-u baitalahm 2 Bethlehem ; 
«iülil cjJI the ruling house; JLLI ^u treae- 
ure house; fisc, treasury, exchequer (lal. 
Law); (Tun.) administration of vacant 
Muslim eetates 

J~j baiti domestio, private, home, of the 
house, house- (in Compounds) ; domes- 
ticated (animals); homemade 

£~ljt buwait pl. -ät small house; small 

oL> bayyäi pl. -ün and UL» bayyäta 
boarder (student); (pl. -ün) pupil of a 
boarding achool {tun.) 

Oj-> bayyüt stale, old 

c-i-. mabü ovemight stop, overnight 
stay; shelter for the night 

cJ\j bau stale, old; (eg.) not promoted, 
^Ja— Ji j (^off) in school 

Cj-. mubayyü plotter, schemer, intri- 

UUwj fti/ömö and 4« Im bxj&ma pajama 

1 {-u) jIj bäda i to perish, die, paas away, 
beoome eztinot IV to destroy, extermi- 
nate, eztirpate (*, * s.o., 

jl -u baida anna although, whereas; 
(esp., introducing a sentence:) yet, how- 
ever, but, ... though 

#I-U baitä* pl. -L> bid, CjIjI-U bat* 
däwät desert, steppe, wilderness 

»jU ibäda annihilation, extermination, 
eradication, extirpation 

jJL bä'id passing, transitory, temporal; 
past, bygone 

X-. muAicZ deBtructive, annihilative ; 
(pl. -ät) means of extermination | oi.1—* 
Sj^Jj- (Ao&wiytj) inseotioides 

s *jLj look up alphabetically 

jXj baidar pl. j^Lj ftoyörftf' threshing floor 

Jxj baidaq (and JJL») pl. JjLj ftoyädtj* 
pawn (in chess) 

üLfXj see üUjb alphabetically 

*D «jLrf bayyära pl. -ö( (paJ.) irrigation 
wheel; plantation 

■Ijo, ;>j (It. birra) bträ, bira beer | \jJ\ *!-»* 
fTio^na' oZ-6. brewery 

J_tj bairaq pl. jjL bayürvf flag, banner, 

jlo>j|u bairaqdär color-bearer, Standard - 

aJjJI JU- (Fr. Pyrin&es) jihöl al-birinek the 

1 jjj birü Peru 

■jjy (Fr. bureau) birö pl. -ö( office, bureau 

Cjjjsj bairüP Beirut (capital of Xjebanon) 

ijjju bairüii pl. *3j\ji bawärita, iyU 
bayärifa a native or inhabitant of Beirut 

^IjJjjy biruqräfi bureaucratic 

<^\Jjjo biruqräfiya bureauoracy; red 


UUju bizanfiyä Byzantium 

(jl*j>j bizanft Byzantine 

üj— aj 6i*5n bison 

(,j^Lj) (j-ilj fcö^a » to lay eggs (also *); to stay, 
settle down, be or become resident (<_* at 
a place) | rjij üiSdü ^L (tM*-/arrofca) to 
be bom and grow up in a place; to 
establish itself and spread (plague) II to 
make white, paint white, whitewasb, 
whiten (*; to bleach, blanch (*, textiles, Iaundry, rice, etc.); to tin, 
tinplate (*; to make a fair oopy (* 
of | *4»-j u ^Li (wajhahü) to make 
s.o. appear blameless, in a favorable 
light, to whitewash, exculpate, vindi- 
cate, justify s.o., play s.o. up, make much 
of s.o.; to honor s.o., show honor to s.o.; 
*4*tj *■>' tj*^, ma y God make him happyl 
4iij«* &. ^jÄm V this doesn't ahow him in 
a favorable light V pass. of II; IX to be 
or become white 

^jÄj baid pl. ^j-j buyü4 eggs 

4-i-* baida (n. un.) pl. -ät egg; testicle; 
helmet; main part, substance, essence | 
iLjJI 5-i-i b. ad-dik (the egg of a rooster 
i.e.) an impossible or extraordinary 
thing ; oUI *«*-) b. al-balad a man held 
in high esteem in his Community; <*ö-j j 
jLfJI (6. in-nahär) in broad day light; 
.Ju-Jl 5-i-i 6. aß-fiaif the hottest part 
of the summer; f^UVl *-*^ the territory 
or pale of Islam; j-jJI <*ij j* vliJJl» ^ 


jUjJl i-Ä-j (6. id-din, b. il-wafan) defense 
of the faith, of the country; jj£\ iju 
b. al-kidr a woman secluded from the 
outside world, a chaste, respectable 

^ä_) baidi, ijyjt-i baidawi and (jjLi-j 
baidäwi egg-shaped, oviform, oval, ovate 

<^._.u buyaida and *Jb_^ buwaida pl. 
-ä£ small egg, ovule; ovum 

^Lj bayäd white, wbiteness; white- 
wash; — (pl. -ä() hairen, desolate, un- 
cultivated land, wasteland; gap, blank 
space (in a manuscript); blank; leucoma 
(med.); linen, pl. oL#Lj linen goods, 
linens; (ayr.) milk, butter, and eggs | 
Ä~}\ ^Lj 6- ol-baid white of egg, al- 
bumen; ,>*jl ^Lj 6. al-'ain the white of 
the eye; jL,Jl ^Lj b, an-nahär daylight, 
(acc.) by day, during the daytime; ^Lj 
*JJ i'_j-j **jj bayäda yaumihx wa-sawäda 
lailihi by day and by night; o^l ^Lj 
6. al-wajh fine character, good reputation ; 
^Lj Jir* «jmajfc 6. a Nile fish (eg.); J* 
^Lj blank, free from writing, printing 
or marks, uninscribed; (jAjjI or) (J -J 
^LJl (labisa, iriadä) to dressin white 

u"j* bayüd pl. ^ fcuyutf, bid (egg-) 

,j-i^l abyad 2 , f. «LL baidä'*, pl. lJ -i = j 
6t<J white; bright; clean, shiny, polished; 
blameleas, noble, sincere (character) ; 
empty, blank (sheet of paper); pl. oLi~JI 
al-btdän the white race; ,jÄj*^' white of 
egg, alhumen ] »Li~> ^jl (ard) harren, 
uncultivated land, waateland; »Li-* "*jjj 
(taura) peaceful, bloodless revolution ; 
a^-i^ l^A-'l (haif) first light of dawn; 
(J äjVI <^MJi\ (dahab) platinum; ^tA-JL 
^^ä-iVl with cold steel; »Läj ci-rf* (sohl* 
fatukü) his reputation is good; he has 
noble deeds to his credit, he has a noble 
character; »UL> <Ja^ (suhuf) noble, glo- 
rious deeds; »ULj öji5~l (ukdüba) white 
lie, fih; »Lkj UJ (iatla) a sleepless night, 

! a night spent awake; ,_ r *ri^l Cj ^' (mauf) 
natural death; #L*-j Oj (i/(u2) beneficent 
hand, benefaction 

^Ä-- mabxd, mibya4 ovary (<mw(.) 

*-*^j tabyida fair copy 

O ( ^'~*ri' ibytdäd leukemia (med.) 

,^-ijlj 6ä*K$ pl. u-äj'^ ftaurä'»^ (egg-) 

u -a cr * mubayyüj, pl. -ün whitewasher; 
bleacher; tinner; copyist, transcriber (of 
fair copy) 

'*-*■*• mubayyada fair copy 

J*~> baifara to practice veterinary science; 
to shoe {* a borse) 

jLkj baifär pl. *^Lj bayäfira veteri- 
narian; farrier 

<jj*z> baifari veterinary | ji^^JI <-JJl 
{#>&) veterinary medicine; ts^d>. vi^ 

*J*z> baifara veterinary science; farriery 

l (*~>) 9-\j bä'a i (bat', »__. mabi') to seil (*, • or J to s.o., l-» for a price) III to 
make a contract (• with s.o.); to pay 
homage (• to s.o.); to acknowledge as 
sovereign or leader (» s.o.), pledge alle- 
giance (• to) IV to offer for sale (* 
VI to agree on the terms of a sale, con- 
clude a bargain VII to be sold, be for sale 
VIII to buy, purchaae (&> * from 
s.o. and * » from s.o. | *!. 9-LjI ^ 
**■?>) Vj (abtä'u, abl'uhü) I don't trust him 

«_j bai' pl. f-j-j buyü', C/ie-j^ buyü'ät 
sale | *-Ji for Bale; *i^*- (oL^ or) 5-jj 
(jabrlya) forced sales, compulsory sale 
by auction; Ü*i-l» »_j (jumla) wholesale 
sale; jU-'lj *?> (Jciyär) optional sale (Isl. 
Law); i_-iij j*^ *~j (li-äkiri rägtbin) sale 
to the highcst bidder; i-JI »j'ina 
credit Operation (Isl. Law) 

ä*_j bai'a agree ment, arrangement ; 
husiness deal, commercial transaction, 

bargain; eale; purchase; homage | <*_JI J* 
into the bargain 

f L bayyä' ealesman, merchant, dealer, 
commission agent, middleman 

•— j maM' sale, pl. -öl Bales (esp. on 
the stock market) 

UjL> mubäya'a pl. -ä( conclusion of 
contract; homage; pledge of allegiance; 

f-Ljjl ibtiyä* purchase 

mj\j bä'i' pl, i*L bä'a seller, vendor; 
dealer, merchant; salesman 

öoLi bä'i'a aaleawoman 

,■-*• moftt' and f-L* mubä' Bold 

f-Lw mufcfä' buyer, purchaser 

2 i*j 6l r a pl. -ät, »jj ftiya' (CAr.) church; 

iL» be {eg.) t big, bek pl. ol_^j b&gawät (syr.) 
bey (title of courtesy); cf. iiL 

iijSLj bekawya rank of bey 

jl£*j bikär compass, {pair of) dividers 

^iLSlj Bee ^iL5ö 

*SLi (Fr.) blkek piqu6 (fabric) 

'J-. (Fr. ftttfe) &(/ ball | J-j ^^f jfcurai 6. ball 

2 *Lo ta/a see J_jj 

üLL batbudn black eider (bot.) 

L-jlfL billiarsiyä bilharziasia, Schistosomia- 
sis (med.) 

*-Lj (Ft. fitüe) bilya pl. -öi little ball, marble 

üIi-j^j bimäriatän hospital; lunatic asylum 

l (Lfi\) <J^ bäna i (üLj bayän) to be or be- 
come piain, evident, come out, come to 
light; to be clear (J to s.o.); (<>.> bain, 
ij^iw bainüna) to part, bo separated 
(j* from) II to make clear, piain, visible, 

evident (a; to announoe (a; 
to atate (a; to ahow, demonstrate 
(a; to explain, expound, eluoidate 
(a, throw light (a on) III to part, 
go away (• from), leave (♦ s.o.); to differ, 
be different (*, • from), be unlike 
(a); to contradict (a, be contrary 
(a to); to confliot, be at variance, be 
inconaistent (a with IV to explain, 
expound, elucidate (J a to s.o.); 
to separate, aift, distinguish (j* a 
from); to be clear, piain, evident V to be 
or become clear, intelligible (J to s.o.); 
to turn out, prove in the end, appear, be- 
come evident; to follow (j* from), be 
oxplained ( j* by) ; to be clearly dis- 
tinguished (j* from); to seek to ascertain 
(a, try to get at the facta (a of); 
to eye or examine criticaliy, scrutinize 
(a, » s.o.,; to look, peer (a at); 
to see through (a), see clearly, 
perceive,notice,discover,find out (a; 
to distinguish (j* a from) VI to 
differ, be different, be opposed, be 
contrary; to vary greatly, differ widely; 
to vary, differ, fluctuate (ju between two 
amounts or limita) X to be or become 
clear, piain, evident; to Bee, know, per- 
ceive, notice (a; pass. ustubina to 
follow clearly, be clearly seen (j* from) 

^j bain Separation, division; interval; 
difference | ^r-Jl olj enmity, disunion, 
discord; ^r-JI j in the meantime, mean- 

^j baina (prep.) or ^j ^'t fi-mä b- 
between; among, amidst j j — ^o either 
— or, partly — partly, e.g., ,>j pjÜ\ jlf 
—LSnJL^j c~»l— » (pämitin wa-mutakalli* 
min) the crowd was divided among thoae 
who were ailent and those who talked; 
*iM ü?. iyadaiki) in front of him, before 
him, in his presence; with him, on him, 
in his possession, e.g., <jJj ju ^^ V (si* 
läha) he hasn't got a weapon on him, he 
is unarmed; jJJi j^t ^j meanwhile, 

in the meantime; iS J6 ^uj J_j Ipi in 
my heart, at heart, inwardly; v^'-P Jh 
in hia arme; J±i j* min bainihim from 
among them, from their midst; jv J-j 
something between, a cross, a mixture, 
a combination ; neither good nor bad, 
medium, tolerable; ju Ju »^i something 
between, a cross, a mixture, a combina- 
tion; j-^Tj C-Jj j^-j (waqt, äkar), j^> 
tSj*~\j *J* {fatra, ukrä) at times, fxom 
time to time 

juL mä-bain look up alphabetically 

Ljj bainä, ]±u bainamä (conj.) while; 

(jy bayym clear, piain, evident, ob- 
vious, patent; (pl. »LjjI afcytnä' 2 ) eloquent 

üL bayän pl. -äi cleamess, plainneas, 
patency , obviousness ; Statement, dec- 
laration, announcement; manifestation ; 
explanation, elucidation, illustration ; In- 
formation, newe ; (official) report, (of- 
ficial) statement; enumeration, index, 
list ; eloquence ; üLJt the Koran ; aee 
also alphabetically j ÄJLiA.1 üLj correction 
(journ.); üLJl je- ^i- (ganiy) Belf-explana- 
tory, aelf-evident; jLJI 1* r üm al-b. 
rhetoric; jLJI «JJ«* * äff al-b. explicative 
apposition (gram.) 

JLj bayäni explanatory, illustrative; 

Cm bayyina pl. -ät clear proof, indis- 
putable evidence ; evidence (Isl. Law) ; 
a document serving as evidence | Cm 
iJjt (?°rfiya) ciroumstantial evidence; 

ijj Jp as has been provod; ^i« J» jlT 
to be fully aware of ; to be well-informed, 
well-poeted, up-to-date about 

jul abyan* clearer, more distinot, more 

üLu tibyän exposition, demonstration, 
explanation, illustration 

j-^jj tabyin and i'Lt ibäna exposition, 
demonstration, explanation, illustration 

j-Lj tabäyun difference, unlikeneas, dis- 
similarity, disparity 

JjLj tabäyuni different, differing, oon- 

^lj bä'in clear, piain, evident, ob- 
vious, patent; final, irrevocable (di- 
vorce; Isl. Law); of great length | ^U 
JjLJI b, af-fül towering, of unusual 
height (person) 

o'lj bä'ina bride's dowry 

iij—. mabyüna distance 

j-^t mubin clear, piain, evident, ob- 
vious, patent | ^1\ t^bijl the Koran 

j-Li* mutabäyin dissimilar, unlike, dif- 
ferential, differing, vaxying 

2 üLj, oLj look up alphabetically 

t^l—ü see ^LSj 

y^u see ji* 

4-j bih = iL 

1 ojjj (Engl.) biyürih puree 

3 4jj_j-j (Fr. pyorrhle) biyÖrSh pyorrhea (med.) 

1 Cj abbreviation of ü^äJj telephone 

•o to (particle introducing oaths) by, Jji\S 
ta-üähi by Godt 

•Ij iä* name of the letter Cj 

O^jIj fd&üt pl. CjjIjJ tawäbit 2 box, case, 
ehest, ooffer; oasket, coffin, sarcophagus | 


-i^Jl OjjlJ t. al-'ahd ark of the covenant; 
•Lll ßij OjjU (. ra/' aX-miydh Archime- 
dean screw; v'— H &jfi '• as-säqiya 
Bcoop wheel, Persian wheel 

Sj-jÜ täbiyökä tapioca 

tltl to'ta'a to stammer (with fright) 

^ aee gjS 

ojj see jIj 

^t IV j^Jl jtM (froßaro) to stare (* or Jl at 

2 »jlj see j_jl 

•jlj (äza (= ÄjlL) fresh, tender, new 

iiU täha fem. of the demonstrative pronoun 
iili rfäto (dual nom. ii!Ü tänxha, genit., 
acc. tiUw tainika) 

^Tjj, f»jl tau'am, f. •, pl. r\j> towä'tm* 

Ja* Uli at-tämlz tbe Thames 

jlj töy (fun. t afgr.) tea | j*-\ jU black tea 

j^jjU täy&r and ^U täySr (Fr. tailleur) pl. -öf 
ladies' taüored suit, tailleur 

t_J toMa * (tabb, ^-ü taöai, «_jLj tabäb) to 
periah, be destroyed X to stabilize, be 
stabilized, be or becomo atable; to be 
settled, established, well-ordered, regulär, 
normal; to progress well | j-VI *J »_-£-! 
eveiytbing went well with bim 

*J Uj tabban lahüf may evil befall bim! 
may he perish I 

<_jLiIJ istitbäb normalcy, regularity, 
orderliness, order ; stability ; favorable 
oourae or development 

C-dl at'tibt Tibet 

jy tabara i (tabr) to destroy, annihilate (* 

jZ tibr raw metal; gold duet, gold 
nuggets; ore 

jUj tabär ruin, destruction 

•j jö tibriya dandruff 

jj3 tabriz* Tabriz (city in NW Iran, capital 
of Azerbaijan province) 

»J tabi'a a (taba, ItAj tabä'a) to follow, suc- 
ceed (> s.o., *, come after s.o. or (*, •); to trau, track (*, • s.o.,, 
go after s.o. or (*, »); to walk be- 
hind b.o. (•); to pursue (*; to keep, 
adhere, stick (* to, observe (* ; 
to follow, take (* a road), enter upon 
(* a road or course); to comply (* with; to belong, pertain (* to); to be 
subordinate, be attached (« to b.o.), be 
under s.o.'b («) authority or command, be 
under s.o. (») | ^jj-JI ^J {durüsa) to 
attend classes regularly III to follow (*, 
* s.o.,; also = to keep one's mind 
or eyes on, e.g., on a development); to 
agree, concur (» with s.o., J* in, 
be in agreement or conformity (*, Jp 
with); to pursue, chase, follow up (• b.o., 
m; to continuo (*; »j^sairahü 
on one'ß way), go on (* with or in) 
IV to cause to Bucceed or follow (in time, 
rank, etc.); to place (* s.o.) under s.o.'b 
(») authority or command, subordinate 
(« t to b.o. s.o., * > to V to 
follow (*, esp. fig. : a topic, a devel- 
opment, the news, etc., = to watch, 
study); to pursue, trail, track (*, » s.o., ; to trace (* ; to be subordinate 
(*, * to), be attached (• to b.o.) VI to 
follow in succession, be successive or 
consecutive, come or happen successively; 
to form an uninterrupted sequence VIII to 
follow, succeed (• s.o., *, come 
after (*, »); to make (* be succeeded 
or followed (l^ by eise); to proBecute 
(» s.o.), take legal action (» against); to 
follow, obey, heed, obBerve, bear in 
mind (*; to pursue (*; to 


examine, investigate, study (* ß.th.); 
pass. uttubi'a to have or find followers, 
adherents ( Je for, e.g., for an idea) | 
i-l~- *Jl (siyiuatan) to pursue a polioy; 
*-x *Jl (yamtnoAü) to keep (to the) 
right X to make (* s.o.) follow, ask (• s.o.) 
to follow; to seduce (• s.o.); to have as 
its consequence, engender, entail (*; to subordinate to o.a., make 
subservient to o.s. (* 

*-j taba' auccesaion; Bubordinateness, 
dependency; following, followers; sub- 
ordinate, Bubservient (J to; <uiiU 
successively, consecutively; J LJ taba* an 
U according to, in accordance with, 
purauant to, in observance of; due to, in 
consequence of, as the result of; — 
(pl. f-Lj! alba) follower, companion, 
adherent, partisan ; sub ject, national, 
Citizen; appertaining, appurtenant, per- 
tinent, incident 

i yJ iaba'% : ijj "<*y*- ( r uquba) in- 
cidental punishment (;«r.) 

4aJ tabi'a pl. -ät consequence; respon- 
sibility, responsihleness | Je l*-di Jll (alqä) 
to make s.o. or responsible 

£jJ tob? pl. f LJ tibä r following attach- 
ed, attending, adjunct; — (pl. «JlJ ta* 
bä'i r% ) follower, adherent, partisan; aide, 
help, assistant, attendant, servant 

1j»J taba'iya pl. -ät Subordination, 
subjection; subordinateness, dependenoy; 
citizenship, nationality ; l^i U subse- 
quently, afterwards; oonsequently, hence, 
therefore, accordingly 

ULJ tibä'an in succeBsion, successively, 
consecutively, one after the other, one 
by one 

i*jÜL. mutäba'a following, pursuing, pur- 
suit, prosecution; continuation 

f LjI itba {gram.) intensification by 
repeating a word with its initial con- 
sonant changed, such as katir ba\\r 

mSJ tatabbu' foUowing (esp. flg., of an 
argument, of a development, see Y 
above); pursuit; prosecution; succession, 
course { j£j\d\ ^-I=Jt the course of history; 
4J4* iit\jLJ3 ('adlxya) legal aotion, pros- 

£>& tatöbu succession; relay (aöilet.); 
»i Ld U consecutively , Buocessively , in 
Buccesaion; seriaUy, in serialized form 

f LJl ittibä* following; pursuit (e.g., of 
a policy) ; adherenoe (to), compliance 
(with), observance (of); J UL-jl ittiba'an 
li according to, in accordance or confonn- 
ity with, pursuant to, in observance of 

O l/V ittibä'i olassical 

O *=*V"' üübaiya classicism 

-jU täbi* pl. «*J taba'a, flJ tvbba fol- 
lowing, succeeding, subaequent; subsidi- 
ary, dependent; minor, secondary; sub- 
ordinate (J to s.o.), under s.o. (J); be- 
longing (J to); subject to s.o.'s (J) au- 
thority or competence; adherent (J to), 
following (J s.o. or; — (pl. ftjl 
alba 1 ) adherent, follower, partisan; eub- 
ject, Citizen, national; subordinate, serv- 
ant; faototum; (pl. *j)y) appositive 
(gram.) ; appendix, addendum, Supple- 
ment; O function [math.) | <*jUI «JjjJI 
{duwal) the satellite countries 

**jU täbi'a pl. -jijj tawabi'* female 
attendant, woman servant; a female de- 
mon who accompanies women; appurte- 
nance, dependency; consequence, effect, 
result; responsibility; pl. *j}y depend- 
encies, dependent territories; O satellites 
{pol.}, = ^1>JI JjJÜl {duwal) the satellite 

4-juU täbi'iya nationality, citizenship 

fj~* matbu foUowed, succeeded (<_> 
by) ; one to whom service or obedience is 
rendered, a leader, a principal (as distal- 
guished from a»U subordinate) 


»il=u muiaiäbi* auocessive, oonsecutive 

^ju muttaba' observed, adhered to, 
complied with (e.g., regulation, custom); 
followed, traveled (road, course) 

*J ttbg pl. 9jS tvbüQ tobacco 

Jj tabala i to oonsume, waste, make siok 
(. s.o.; said of love) II, III and JjjJ 
taubala to spiee, season (* 

JjL" täbai, täbü pl. JiljJ tawäbiP cori- 
ander (bot.); spiee, condiment, aeasoning 

*JjJ tabbfäa (ayr., leb.) a kind of salad 
made of bulgur, parsley, mint, onion, 
lemon juice, apices, and oil 

J>~- matbül (love-)sick, weak, ravaged, 

J-i* muia&ooZspicedjBeasoned^avored; 
{ayr., Üb.) stuffed with a mixture of 
rice, chopped meat and various spices, 
e.g., J— i. OL»: iL (bä4injän) stuffed 

•jlJ (Fr. tableau) tablOh pl. -&t a painting 

^u tibn straw 

JJ tibni straw<colored, flaxen 

oLt tabbän straw vendor 

üUJI ^jj^ darb at-tabbäna the Milky 

^z* matban pl. ^b. matäbin* straw- 

iT^-w tabiyökä tapioca 

J >ül <rf-tatar and jHI (rf-ta#r the Tatars 
^ Ju totori Tatarian ; Tatar 

fl if-rj talrä (from _r"j) one after the other, 
successively, in succeBsion 

ii-UJ (üt'jfc trigger 

Ju tulun tobacco 

,^>J3 teianüs tetanus (m«J.) 

jtf tajara u and Till to trade, do business; 
to deal ( J or v in III do. (» with 

•jlf Hjära commerce; traffio, trade; 

tfjtf tijäri oommercial, meroantilo, 
trade, trading, business (used attributive- 
ly); oommeroialized | jjL*:' c-u (6aÜ) 
commeroial house, business house; Ü^i-I 
4jjUJI (Aarofa») trade, traffio; «jjtf Sf^i 
(Sirka) trading Company ; ^jU" JLL'I 
(ittifäq) trade agreement 

j»c« matjar pl. ^U« moAS/tr* business, 
transaction, dealing; merohandise; Btore, 

t£j»*i* matjari commeroial, trade, trad- 
ing, business (used attributively) 

j\jc\ ittijär trade, business (<-> in 

_^-Ü täjir pl. jU: tujjär, tijär merohant, 
trader, businessman, dealer, tradesman | 
iUi-l jij-l; f. al-jumJa wholesale dealer; 
«jjpdl j».\j t. at-tajn'a and ^ILiJl _^-Ü (. 
oZ-gt^Ti retailer 

•_^-U 4*L*> Mf&Ta &2;ira Balable, market- 
able merohandise 

«U tujäba (prep.) in front of, opposite, face 
to face with, facing 

il^ tahta (prep.) nnder; below, beneath, 
underneath j ^dl £-* (tajriba) on 
probation; in an ezperimental State; 
j%*äj*=N <L^- in preparation; JiiJ-l «i^ 
(At/z) in oustody, under guard; jliJI «i^ 
(mdäd), OjJ_I)I c-*= due, outstanding, 
unsettled, unpaid (com.) ; j-^LJI c^ 
under arms; ^ef c-^ (Azm'tAim) in 
their hearing, for them to hear ; * iJ ^J}\ ^J. 
(taswiya) outstanding, unpaid, unsettled 
(com.); J»\ji\ ^J (iträfi) under the 
patronage or superintendence of; c^ 
j jaAJI suboonscious ; *»j-*J c^ (ta$ar* 
rufihi) at bis disposal; »JJl z~* (fab r ) in 
press; ö[y# cJi- (unwäni) under the title 


of; LJLfrl £*£■ (a'ywninä) before our eyes; 
^j^\.cJ- in traming; oJI c^ (yad) 
in hand, at hand, avaüable, handy; £*£■ 
tJj in hifl power; c*£- ,>• min tahti from 
linder, from beneath; under 

cJ- tahiu (adv.) below, beneath, 

JU^ tahtäni lower, under- (in Com- 
pounds) | <J^ lH^ underwear 

J*£. IT to preaent (^ • or # # s.o. with 

'*}J- luhfa pl. i_4* fuAa/ gift, preaent; 
gern (fig.), curiosity, rarity, article of 
virtu, objet d'art; work of art | «Ji *i£- 
fjannlya) unique work of art 

«Jt»«!* mathaf jil. «J»*-U* maiahif 1 mu- 
seum | m^JI ijt^i* m. ai-Sam* waxworks 

f takka u to become sour, ferment (dough) 

1 £j£ takt pl. Ojic tulfüt bed, couch; benoh; 
Beat; sofa; ehest, oase, box, coffer, cab- 
inet; wardrobe; platform, dais; band, 
orohestra j ilUI cJ* t. al-mulk throne; 
royal residence, capital; «SXJLl cJe (. 
al-mamlaka capital (of a oountry) 

üljj cJc, o\jjJ£ taktaruwän, taktara* 
wän mule-borae litter 

•cit biMa board; deak; blaokboard 

iric tafctafca to rot, deoay 

1 Je tajcima a to Buffer from Indigestion, feel 
siok from overeating IT to surfeit, satiate 
(» s.o.); to give (• s.o.) indigestion, make 
siok (• a.o.); to overstuff, cloy (* the 
stomaoh) TIB = I 

*Je tttffama, tuhna pl. J£ txtkam, -ät 
indigestion, dyspepsia 

/•_>*£• matjpüm Buffering from indigestion, 

1 J£ iafcama i to fix the limits of (*), delimit, 
limit, oonfine, bound (* Ol to 
border (* on), be adjacent (* to s%th.) 

£ takm, tukm pl. fj£ tuhüm bound- 
ary, border, borderline, limit 

ji-\t» mutäkim neighboring, adjacent 

r-j^j iadruj*, **-j4j tadruja pheasant 

j*X) tadmur 1 , usually pronounced tudmur* 
Palmyra (ancient city of Syria, now a 
small village) 

iSj*£ tadmuri, usually pronounced 
tudmuri anyone j j^-tf V nobody, not 
a living bouI 

•j»\J {eg.\ taräbtza) pl. -ät table 

\*j*-\j träkömä trachoma (med.) 

^J (Fr. terrasse) teräs terrace 

f'/» iS^J tr&m, tramwäy tramway 

<—>J tariba a to be or become dusty, covered 
with dust II and IT to cover with dust 
or earth (• s.o., * III to be s.o.'b 
(•) mate or comrade, be of the same age 
(• as s.o.) T to be dusty, be oovered with 

<~>j tirb pl. <-*lyl aträb person of the 
same age, contemporary, mate, com- 
panion, comrade 

<—>J tarib dusty, dust-covered 

aiJ tnrba pl.^ w»_r turab dust; earth, 
dirt; ground (also fig.); soil; grave, tomb; 
graveyard, cemetery, burial ground 

ijj turabi pl. -iya (eg.) gravedigger 

<~*\j turäb pl. *ij\ atriba, ö\*J tirbän 
duat, earth, dirt ; ground, soil 

J>\J turäbi duaty; dustlike, powdery; 
earthlike, earthy; dust-colored, gray 

O **\J turäba cement 

1*jjT tariba pl. t-Jl,/ tarä'ib* ehest, thorax 

hj+ matraba poverty, misery, desti- 
tution; (pl. «-oU* matärib*) dirt quarry 

i^JÜ mtUrib dusty, dust-covered 



^J larbaaa (== ^-jjj) to bolt (* a door) 

^\*J tirbäa pl. iJ mu\j taräbia 2 , ^-Aj 
taröbia 2 bolt, latch (of a door or window) 

Cr^.J tarbantln turpentine 

»juj (eg.) tarabeza table 

l/.ij turbin pl. -ät turbine 

tt*\j see <Zjjj 

jj tirtir gold and silver spangles (eg.) 

frJ tarjama to translate (* s.tb. je from 
one language Jl to another); to Interpret 
(*; to treat (* of by way of 
ezplanation, expound (*; to write a 
biograpby (J of s.o., also •) 

<*lj tarjama pl. j~\J taräjim 2 trans- 
lation; Interpretation; biography (also 
«LA-I a*;J); introduction, preface, fore- 
word (of a book) | S.i.^JI *jh J)\ (aab'inlya) 
the Septuagint 

öl*; J turjumän pl. ***\J taräjima, 
**-\j taräjim 2 tranelator, Interpreter 

frJ* mutarjim translator, interpreter; 

frJ* mutarjam translated j J* frJ^* 
LUI {film) synchronized (film) 

rj tariha a (tarah) and V to grieve, be sad 
II and IV to grieve, distress (* s.o.) 

rj tarah pl. ~\J\ aträk grief, distress, 

j jj tarzl pl. *jjj iarziya (eg.) tailor 

<ijj iarziya tailoring 

l W^J ^odk up alphabetically 

t(J »j II to provide with a ehield or armor 

tfj iura pl. ^IjTl aträa, ^yjj turüa 
shield; disk of the sun; — tira pl. turüa 
cogwheel, gear | »jß\ 3jX~*> aundüq at-t. 
gearbox, transmiasion ; ^yil dlf aamak 
at-tura turbot (zool.) 

^s* motroa, mitras pl. ^jU* matäris* 
and ^1^* miträs pl. Lr >j\^> matäria* bolt, 
door latch; rampart, bulwark, barricade; 
esp. pl. Lr ij\i* barricades 

<iL-y taraäna, outf/" tarakäna arsenal; ahip- 
yard, dockyard 

J£-*y (Fr. tricycle) tricycle 

3ja-j-* (It. terrazzino) tarasina baloony 

fj tari'a a to be or become füll (vessel) 
IV to £11 (a, esp. a vessel) 

**■/ tur'a pl. fj tura', -dt canal; 
artificial waterway | i\j*^\ **j t, <ü-träd 
feeder, irrigation canal; ^JtJj^\ ~**J 
drainage canal (Eg.); ii^l ic-jXJl the 
Kesidence of the Sultan of Morocco 

J*v, AU/ turgul, turguüa turtledove 

tjy tarifa a to live in opulence, in lurury 
IV to effeminate (• s.o.); to provide with 
opulent means, Surround with luzury 
(. s.o.) V = I 

Jt j taraf and *ij turfa luxury, 
opulence, affluence; effemination 

J>j tarif opulent, sumptuous, luxu- 

J»y* mutraf living in ease and luzury; 
sumptuous, luxurious; luxuriously adorn- 
ed, ornate, overdecorated (<-» with) 

^-Uy tirfäa (magr.) truffle (bot.) 

Jiy tarfala to strut 

»ßj tarquwa pl. Jly taräqin collarbone, 
clavicle (anat.) 

! iiy taraka u (tark) to let be, leave, reünquish, 
renounce, give up, forswear (*; to 
desist, refrain, abstain (* from; 
to leave, quit {* s.o., * a place); to leave 
out, omit, drop, neglect, pass over, 
skip (m; to leave (J or Jl * to); 
to leave behind, leave, bequeath, make 
over (*, J to s.o.; as a legacy) j 



J*i &j to let s.o. do; Jl IjK* iiy 
to leave one place for (another) ; «u i j *f/ 
(/i dimma(tAt) to leave in s.o.'s care, 
leave to s.o.; *JU. Jp *Sj to leave or s.o. unchanged, leave or 
s.o. alono; *jtij *Sj (wa-sa'nahü) to 
leave s.o. alone, leave s.o. to his own 
devices III to leave (• s.o.); to leave alone 
{• s.o.); to leave off hostilities (• against 

i\J tark Omission, neglect; relinquish- 
ment, abandonment; leaving, leaving be- 

«5*jT tarika pl. -ät (also Urica) heritage, 
legacy, bequest 

iSÖ/ tarika pl. <*&\j> tarä'ik 2 old maid, 

«5jU» mutäraka truce 

t\jj* matrük pl. -ät heritage, legacy 

*£J II to Turkify, Turkicize (• s.o.) X to 
become a Turk, become Turkified, adopt 
Turkish manners and customs 

iJjjl at-turk and i\\j^\ al-aträk the 

SJ turki Turkish; Turk; ISJA at-tur* 
klya theTurkish language 

\Sj turkiyä Turkey 

viL jo tatrxk Turkification 

üls-SV turkistän 2 Turkistan 

öL5j3l at-turkumän the Turkmen 

\t r - : -J turumbfy (syr.) pl. -ät (Western) drum; 
&~*j turumbefa (eg.) pl. -ät do.; specif., 
bass drum 

j.k-.y turumbafgl {eg.) drummer ; 
bandsman (mil.) 

" turmüs lupine (bot.) 

,j—j lurmus. 

j*j*J termümitr thermometer 

£j turunj see ry'» £j\ 

•J tarika a to concern o.a. with trifles 

*»y turraha pl. -ät sham, mockery, 
farce; lie, humbug, hoaz 

•alj/ (Fr. Troade) tirwäda Troy 

<->jS (Engl, troop) squad, platoon ; squadron | 
Lfj'j-* *-?JJ ißawärl) cavalry squadron 

jkij-j/ = [ ^L r *y see under ^~»J abovo 
jLy* tiryäq theriaca; antidote 
_ȣ>/ (Fr.) tricot 

■ *— J I 

i*_J (w'o (f. *-J tfw f ) nine 

jts. UJ tis'ata 'a&ara, f. •_, 
'aSrata nineteen 

*-J (im* pl. 9-1 Ji ateä' one ninth, the 

ninth part 

j_ > *_j (w'ön ninety 

^>UI a(-(ö«' the ninth 

JjVl J/^ türin 1 al-awwal October, {j j£ 
(JU)I i. aj-fänt November (»Syr., Jr., Le&., 

LS'üjJL-jS^Ü tfoko&loväkiyä Czechoslovakia 

JJL;" täil Chile 

üljU ftftwn 2 Tetuan (city in N Morocco) 

*j abbreviation of JLw, see ^U 

^jJ ta'i&a a ((a'oi) to work hard, toil, slave, 
drudge, wear o.a. out; to be or become 
tired, weary (j* of IV to trouble, 
inconvenience {« s.o.) ; to irk, bother, 
weary, tire, fatigue (» s.o.) 

i_«m ta'abpl.i-jUJl at'äb trouble, exertion, 
labor, toil, drudgery; bürden, nuisance, 
inconvenience, discomfort, difficulty, 
hardship; tiredness, weariness, fatigue; 
pl. <~>\jü\ fees, honorarium 

i_-*J ta'ib and öLJ ta'bän tired, weary, 



t_-cli- matä'ib 2 troubles, pains, efforts; 
discomforts, inconveniences, difficulties, 
troubles; complaints, ailments, ille (at- 
tending diflease) ; hardships, strains 

t-j»!* mvt'ib troublesome, inconvenient, 
toüsome, laborioua ; burdensome, irk- 
some, annoying ; wearisome, tiresome, 
tiring; tedioua, dull, boring 

t^-jd. mut'ab tired, weary 

»i»j ta'ta'a to stammer; to shake (» s.o.); 
«i*j1 itta'iaa to move, stir 

j*J ta'izz* Taizz (city in S Yemen, seat of 

^m taaaa a, ia'isa a to fall, perish; to 
become wretched, miserable; ta'asa and 
IV to make unhappy or miserable, ruin 
(. s.o.) 

^m ta'a and i-Lö ta'äsa wretchedness, 

^m la'is and ( _ r jjJ ia'la pl. »l_*J 
tu'asä* 3 wretched, miserable, unfortunate, 

yj-j^-* mat'üs pl. (j-i^li* matä'is* wretch- 
ed, miserable, unfortunate, unhappy 

tJü tajfa to spit II to say "phew" 

tJu tuff dirt under the fingernails; 
dll Uj tuffan laka phew! fie on you! 
O *»lij taffäfa spittoon, cuspidor 

Iläj tafettä, *liiJ taffeta 

*-LiJ tujfäh (coli.; n. un. •) apple(s) 

~&Jü tufka pl. <lXiü tufak (ir.) gun, rifle 

Jü tajala u % (taß) to spit 

Jij tufi and JUJ tu/äZ spit, spittle, saliva 
Jjj" ta/i/ ill-smelling, malodorous 
iliu mitfala spittoon, cuspidor 

*Ü ta/iAa o (tafak, *>LiJ tafäha, *yü tufüh) to 
be little, paltry, insignificant; to be flat, 
tasteless, vapid, insipid 

<ÄJ ta/oÄ and *jj»J tu/üA paltriness, 
triviality, insignificance 

*>Uj tafäha paltriness, triviality, in- 
significance; flatness, vapidity, insipidity, 
tastelessness ; inanity, stupidity, silliness 

*Ju tafih and **U &£/iA little, paltry, 
trivial, trifling, insignificant ; worthless; 
commonplace, common, mediocre; flat, 
tasteless, vapid, insipid; trite, banal 

i^jlj täfiha pl. **ljj fawil/iA* worthless 
thing; triviality, trifle 

jjliJ see j_j» 

3-U7 see Li 

yü IV to perfect, bring to perfection (* ; 
to master, know well {*, e.g., a 
language), be proficient, skillful, well- 
versed (* in 

jäJ tiqn skillful, adroit 
ijLU taqäna firmness, solidity; per- 

jSjI alqan* more perfect, more thorough 

üLäjI itqän perfection ; thoroughness, 
exactitude, precision; thorough skill, 
proficiency; mastery, command (e.g., of 
a special field, of a language) | öU- j 
üUT^/I to greatest perfection; of excellent 

jij mutqan perfect; exact, precise 

Jj taqä i to fear (esp. God) VIII see Jj 

JJ taqiy pl. »Uul atqiyä* 1 God-fearing, 
godly, devout, pious 

Jjl atqä more pious 

Jj (u^oti and ,^yü taqwä godliness , 
devoutness, piety 

1 l iJj tahka u to trample down, trample under- 
foot, crush (*; to intoxicate (• 0.0.; 

2 i£j tikka pl. ilio (tjfcafc waistband (in the 
upper seam of the trousers) 


"ilü takka to tick (dock) 

5SJ (iiia pl. -dt ticking, ticktock (of a 
clock), ticking noise 

*'<SS look up alphabetically 

Oj5o (ufcüi pl. of Engl. (tcJtei 

1 il=Sj taktaka to trample down, trample 
underfoot (* 

*iHJ taktaka to bubble, simmer (boiling 

B J^J tofctaia to tick (clock) 

4&$o taktaka ticking, ticktock (of a 
clock), ticking noise 

'i£Jli& taktik tactics 

<£j takiya pl. L&J takäyä monastery (of a 
Muslim order); hospice; home, asylum 
(for the invalided or needy) 

1 j; toll pl. J* tiläl, Jtfl atUü, Jjl: tulül 
hill, elevation | <_-*jJ JJ f. a6*6 Tel Aviv 
(city in W Israel) 

t^tull tulle 

Jj^C toJdttf 3 hardahipa, troubles, adversities 

jjj talld, jJI* föltd, j^I (»Zäd inherited, time- 
honored, old (possession, property) 

<^jSLJj tilisküb telescope 

Ju IV to Stretch one's neck; to crane (* the 

iJj tal'a pl. 9~ti tüä' hill, hillside, 
mountainside ; (torrential) stream 

*Jj talf long, outstretched, extended; 
high, tall 

öljiij tiligräj, taligräf pl. -ät telegraph; 
telegram, wire, cable | Jl ül_ / ilj J^jl to 
send a wire to 

jljilJ tiligräfi, taligräfi telegraphio 

JA) talifa a (ialaj) to be annihilated, be 
destroyed; to be or become damaged or 

spoiled, be ruined, break, get broken, 
go to pieces II to min (*; to wear 
out, "finish" (» s.o.) IY to destroy, an- 
nihilate (*; to min, damage, spoü, 
break (*; to waste {* 

iJJJ taiaf ruin, destruction; ruination, 
damage, injury, härm; loss; waste 

ülilj talfän spoiled; useless, worthless, 
good- for - nothing 

,JiLu matlaf, Üii* matlafa pl. .JiJU. 
matälif deBert 

Ji^j mitiäf wastrel; ruinous, harmful, 

ö^jt itläf pl. -Öt annihilation, de- 
struction; damage, injury, härm 

•Jt} \j tälif ruined, damaged, broken ; 
spoiled, bad 

tjijltt matlüf and ._'»[:,» mutlaf ruined, 
damaged, broken; spoiled, bad 

!_>!-- mutlif annihilator, destroyer ; 
injurer; damaging, ruinous, harmful, 
injurious, noxious 

jiij talfaza to televise, transmit by televiaion 

•jiij talfaza televiaion 

ijjiij ie I i I t^ä'a talfaziya tele vision 
broadcast, telecast 

O Jl-öij tilfäz televiaion set 
öjijiij (Fr. t^Wuwion) ÜKvwyÖn televiaion 
^ilj taljana to telephone 

UjÄLj tilifün and O^LlJ talifün pl. -dt 

.Lit see JJ 

Ji; tifia fem. of the demonstrative pronoun 

Jj talam pl. a^AjI atläm (plow) furrow 

J*L* talmafa to take on as, or have for, a 
pupil or apprentice {* s.o.); to be or 
become a pupil or apprentice (J of s.o., 

also J*), receive one's schooling or 
training (J*, J from) II tatalmada to be 
or become a pupil or apprentice (J or 
•Oj J* of s.o.), work os an apprentice 
(J or »ij J* under s.o.) 

IxJJ talmada sohool days, College 
years; apprenticeship; (time bf) proba- 

jUj tÜmäd leaming, erudition 

JUi; tilmid pl. JL.^ talämid*, lX*-& talä* 
mida pupil, atudent, apprentice; proba- 
tioner; trainee; disoiple | tfj* .LJj (bahri) 
approx.: chief -Warrant W-3 (naval rank; 
Eff-)l tSj** **s*^ (*»/<""*) ftpprox.: chief 
Warrant W-4 (naval rank; Eg.) 

Äi-Jj tÜmlda pl. -ät girl student 

•jl , '' (tWnwön 2 Tlemcen (city in NW Algeria) 

SjJl lalmüd Talmud 

*Ü taliha a (talah) to be astonished, amazed, 
perplexed, at a loss 

«Jlj tälih and *U* mutaüah at a loss, 
bewildered, perplexed | JUI Jli f. al-'aql 
absent-minded, distracted 

(^JJ) ■jü talä u (jjj (uZüu;) to follow, succeed; 
to ensue; — (*j*& tiläwa) to read, read 
out loud (*, J* to s.o.); to recite 
(* VI to follow one another, be 

jjj tüwa (prep.) after, upon | J-yl 
^>bS" jjj Llifto send letter after letter 

»j^i tiläwa reading; publio reading; 
recital, recitation 

Jlj tälin following, succeeding, sub- 
sequent, next; JUiL» bi-t-täli then, later, 
subsequently; consequently, honce, there- 
fore, accordingly 

Jln. mutatälin successive, consecutive 

J; taüi (tun.) tulle 

jLJj tilibätl telepathy; telepathio 

jJU taüU, UUis pl. ^-J^ totalis* sack 

öji}iAj (Fr. (Ö&wton) (»Jfowy3n television 

üjjUJ pl. -ät tallfün telephone 

djÄjS talifüni telephonic, telephone- 
(in Compounds) 

f tamma t to be or become complete, com- 
pleted, finished, done; to be performed, 
be aocomplished (J by s.o.); to come to 
an end, be or become terminated; to 
come about, be brought about, be 
effected, be achieved, come to pass, come 
off, happen, take place, be or become a 
faot; to be on hand, be there, present 
itself; to persist (J* in); to continue 
(J* or to do II and IV to 
complete, finish, wind up, conclude, 
terminate (*; to make complete, 
Supplement, round out, fill up (*; 
to carry out, execute, perform, accom- 
plish, achieve (* X to be oomplete, 
completed, finished 

j-Lc* tamäm completeness, wholeness, 
entirety, perfeotion; füll, whole, entire, 
complete, perfect; separate, independent; 
L*Le tamäman completely, entirely, whol- 
ly, perfectly, fully, quite ; precißely, 
exactly | Afj-b (badr) and * le" jJ» (qamar) 
füll moon; öoUl **UI AS j at 6 o'clock 
sharp; 5J&I J« A& (ma'nä hkalima) 
in the füll sense of the word; >-pL 
entirely, completely 

<^£~ tamima pl. fix" tamä'im* amulet 
*■ I atarnm 2 more complete, more perfect 

i*ü iatimma completion; aupplementa- 
tion ; Supplement 

j.:7 tatmim completion; perfection; 
consummation, execution, fulfillment, re- 
alization, effectuation, accomplishment 

a\jc'\ itmäm completion; perfection; ter- 
mination, conclusion; consummation, ex- 
ecution, fulfillment, realization, effectu- 
ation, accomplishment 


fl^l-1 istitmäm termination, conclu- 

j»U tämm complete, perfect, entire; con- 
summate ; of füll value, Sterling, genuine 

i!Le" tumbük Fersian tobacco (esp. for the 

Ix' tamtama to stammer, mumble, mutter; to 
recite under one's breath (<_j 

je" tamr (coli.; n. un. #, pl. lamarät, jjt tu» 
mür) dates, esp. dried ones | <jx± jt 
(hindi) ta marin d (bot.) 

^y {tg. tamargi), ^jj*, ^rjU^', jr^> 
pl. -ya male nuree, hospital attendant; 
"<*-jt pl. -ät female nurse 

jji look up alphabetically 

^L-x timsäh pl. £~-lc" tamäsih 2 crocodile 

aJu tamga stamp; stamp mark J lks 3jj 
waraq t. stamped paper 

je tumman rice 

jjx tammüz* July (Syr. t Ir., Leb., Jord.) 

l j tunn tuna (zool.) 

*jcJ tinnin pl. jwtJ taJiänin* sea monßter; 
Draco (adron.); waterapout (metecr.); see 
also alphabetically 

*(jU Wnt' pl. »bJ tunnä' resident 

iiLö tunbäk (pronounced tumbäk) and jl.i" 
tumbak Fersian tobacco (esp. for the 

JLo tinbäl pl. J-jLo tanöoff* short, of small 

jCl (Fr. tfmore) tambar pl. ^ÜJ tanöotr* 
Btamp (nw^r.) 

jCi* mutambar stamped (magr.) 

J-U (Turk. tem&el) tambal pl. <LLo fcznd&tfa 

jc-*Cj {Fr. tungstene) tongdsten tungsten 

•xJ (It. tenäa) tanda awning ; rooQng, sun roof 

jj£ tannür pl. j^U; tanänir 2 a , kind of 
baking oven, a pit, usuajly clay-lined, 
for baking bread 

ljj£ tannüra (eyr., leb.) (lady'ß) skirt 

^JJ tenniß 

1 iUj tanak tin plate 

j^&J tanakji tinsmith, whitesmith 
Ä&j tanaka pl. -ä( tin Container, can, 
pot; Jerry can 

VIj'U (finiJfca see lilJ alphabetically 

t>r Ju tennis 

,>jj fannin tannin, tannic acid 

nf tahtaha to stammer, stutter 

1 <^ iuhma pl. J- tuham accusation, Charge; 
suspicion; insinuation 

KAf tihäma* Tihama, coastal piain along 
the southwestern and southem shores of 
the Arabian Peninsula 

ij5 taxvwan right away, at once, immediately; 
just (now), this very minute | _>dJ li-t- 
tawwi at once, right away, also with pers. 
Suffixes: gjd li-tawwi, U^J li-tairwihä 
(I have, she has) just...; at once, pres- 
ently, immediately 

C~\\y (Fr. toiieüe) tuwälü toilette 

r ü 

matäb) to repent, be penitent, do pen- 
ance; with je-: to turn from (sin), be 
converted from, renounoe, forawear; (said of God) to restore to His 
grace, forgive (J* s.o.) | *ul Jl *_jL" to 
turn to God in repentance II to induce 
to repentance or penitence, make repent 
(» s.o.) X to call on s.o. (*) to repent 

*jjj tauba repentance, penitence, con- 
trition; penance 


<->l_J tawwäb doing penance; repentant, 
penitent, contrite; forgiving, merciful 

v-JLj tä'ib repentant, penitent, contrite 

^j*jij> tcbojjräfiyä topography 

l *l>y tut mulberry tree; mulberry | ^J oJ 
(ardi) and ^fj»' £»jj (»/ro»/») straw- 
beny; i£r <^> (AntÜ) and j-LJI oJ 
*. ai-'u&ng raapberry 

a oy t£f the firat month of the Coptio calendar 

IJJ tättyd, »LSJ KÜtyö', 1JJ tütiya zinc 

pjj II to crown (* s.o.; also fig. »_> * 
with) V to be crowned 

g\5 täj pl. JUwj ff/dn crown; miter {of 
a bishop) j j^JI -U f. al-'amvd capital 
{of a column or pilaster); ij&\ g\5 t. cd- 
iura oalotte 

£_J tuwaij little crown, Coronet 
£j£ tatunj crowning, coronation 

jrj* ie 0° ftn( i ^jrj* tßgöland (Eg. spelling) 
Togo (region in W Africa) 

<£>') c^ Bee & 

»j\j täratan once; sometimes, at times | 

JjU — SjU, lj_»U — ;jlJ(/o«ron), jyü — Ujl; 
(ukrä) sometimes — sometimes, at times 
■ — at other times 

"• L>> tauräh Torah, Pentateuch ; Old Testament 

^-ij*' ^.JjJ torpid, turbid torpedo (Bub- 
marine missile) 

ü»iJ> turbin pl. -ät turbine 

*Jjj> torta pl. -ät pie, tart 

(Jy) JlS <ögo « (taug, jU_J tawaqän) to long, 
yearn, wish (Jl for}, hanker (Jl after), 
desire, crave, covet (Jl, atrive 
(Jl for), aspire (Jl to) 

3J» taug, o\JjJ tawaqän longing, yearn- 
ing, craving, desire 

J\jj tawwäq longing, yearning, eager 
(Jl for), craving (Jl 

JjÜ tä'iq longing, yearning, eager (Jl 
for), craving (Jl 

'^l*\tfy(tökaaTnämit/a;eg.)be]t buckle, (mtl.) 
Jj tül tulle 

jj tun and <J_J tüna tuna (zool.) 
£y (Turk. tun?) tunj bronze 
^yjji tünus*, tünia* Tunis 

^JJ fönt« pl. -fin, <-Jl_J tatvänisa 
Tunisian (adj. and n.) 

*J_J tüniya pl. jl_J iauüni alb of priests and 
deacons (CAr.) 

(•_J) »U täAa u and II = (*J) .U föAa » and II 

«*J tuAa daughter 
jJ\Z (It. teoiro) tiyäirö theater 
D J^ü toüoi pl. J;lj Bee Jiu 
^^bJ fitänü? tetanus (med.) 

(^>) ^Ij *ÖAo * to be destined, be forcor- 
dained (by fate, by God; J to s.o.); to be 
granted, be given ( J to s.o.) IV to destine, 
foreordain (i J to b.o.; to grant, 
afford, offer (* J s.o.; pass. utiha 
to be destined, be foreordained, be 
granted, be given { J to s.o.) | J-iyJI J -Jl 
(utiha) he met with success, he was 
successful; ~<*jib\ J «Jl (furpa) he was 
given the opportunity, he had the chance 

jLj tayyär pl. -ät flow, stream, course, current, 
flood; fall (of a stream); movement, tend- 
enoy, trend; draft (of air); (el.) current | 
O j-iU- jLj (mubä&ir) and _r^_ jU 
(mustamirr) direct current; Q t-^jLi* jLj 
(mutanäwib) and O >t- jL; (mwto- 
gayyir) alternating current; O v^-k* J 1 ^ 
(mutodafc#6) oscillating current (eJ.) ; 
O o^M jLj (ndAt^) pulsating current; 


O »Jti gs* j\? (*»«' at-taraddud) 
high-frequency current; O üj«I »,jS^ j^j 
(bat? at-taraddud) low-frequency current; 
O M^ ^ ->y C* 8 1-jaM) high-ten- 
sion current; O ^ *J»Li jW («"**" 
al-jahd) low-tension current; O J^ jV 
{däti) Belf-induoed current 

O jtu matär (syr.) dynamo, generator 

»>" (Turk. teyze) *&a m&teroal aunt 

^ law pl. ^iJl otyö«, ^jJ tuyü* billy goat 

l _ r ü\ atycu? foolish, crazy 
lijßd\ ,yX I oi-Awmmd t-ttfüdlya typhoid fever 
^ji-J (t/fi* typhus 

iL; itfca fem. of the demonstrative pronoun 
' iJii (Uta 

*J^ II (from Turk. Je!) to cable, wire, tele- 
graph {syr.) 

*JJ f*Z hemp; Unen 

3 <U «to fiber, staple 

J (*J) flJ Mmo » (tatm) to become enslaved, 
enthraJled by love; to enslave, make 
blindly Bubßervient ( • s.o. ; through 
love) II to enslave, enthral (love; * s.o.); 
to make blindly eubservient, drive out 
of bis mind, infatuate (• s.o.; love) 

-i. mutayyam enslaved, enthralled (by 
love), infatuated 

'»Lj taimä' 1 Taima (oasis in NW Arabia) 

^3 (in (coli.; n. un. !) fig | $jZ u? (Saulci) 
fruit of the Indian fig (Opuntia ficua- 
indica Haw.) 

iLJ tainiha see fJU alphabetically 

{<J) »Lj iäha i to get lost, wander about, lose 
one's way, go astray; to stray, wander 
(thoughts); to escape (,>. s.o.), elip (,>. 
s.o.'s memory); to perish, be destroyed, 
be lost; to be perplexed, Btartled, as- 
tonished; to be haughty; to swagger, 
boast, brag ( J* to b.o.) | ÖLJJ I 44»- j J* 4-U 
a smile flits over bis face II to mislead, 
lead astray (• s.o.); to distract, divert 
(« s.o.); to confuse, confound, bewilder 
(» s.o.) IV = n 

<J tih desert, trackless wilderness; 
maze, labyrinth; haughtiness, pride 

•LJ tayyäh Btraying, stray, wände ring; 

jLpJ taihän* Btraying, stray, wandering; 
perplexed, at a loss, be wildered; proud, 

»Lpj taihä'' and i*U* matäha a trackless, 
desolate region; i*U* maze, labyrinth 

4jLj tä'ih straying, stray, wandering, 
roving, errant;lostinthought, distracted, 
abBent-minded; lost, forlorn; infinite; 

^J^J (Engl.) tulip 

i abbreviation of *JIj seoond (time unit) 

f\j fd' name of the letter ^ 

^Ju ta'iba a (^M ta'b) and VI to yawn 

♦Lj} tu'aba* yawning, yawn; fatigue, 

Ji ta'ara a {tar) to avenge the blood of 
(• or i_j), take blood revenge (»oru for 


s.o. killed), take vengeance, avenge o.s. 
(t-» • on s.o. for, also ^ or J for) IV and 
VIII jl)l üta'ara to get one's revenge, 
be avenged 

jU ta'r pl. -öl, jTjI afär, Jj\ ätär re- 
venge, vengeanoe, blood revenge; re- 
taliation, reprisal | »jU Jj-\ or juJL i*^l 
to take revenge, avenge o.s.; jlill SljL* 
mubärät at-t. return match (sports) 

J\j tä'ir avenger 

JjJjj tu' lül and ÜjJJj tu'lüla pl. JJt taäliP 

j/j fo'd scars 

^Uo taAata u (oLJ taiöf, OjJ |u2)ü/) to stand 
firm, be fixed, stationary, immovable, 
unshakable, firm, Btrong, stable; to hold 
out, hold one's ground {J against s.o. or, be firm, remain firm (J toward s.o. 
or, withstand, resiet, defy (J s.o. 
or; to be established, be proven 
(fact); to remain, stay («-> at a place); 
to maintain (J*, keep, stick, ad- 
here (J* to, abide or stand by 
(J#; e.g., by an agreement); to insist 
(J* on) | <4*-j J C^J (/» wajhihi) to 
hold one's own against s.o., assert o.s. 
against s.o. II to fasten, make fast, fix 
(a; to consolidate, strengthen (*; to stabilize {>; to confirm, 
corroborate, substantiate (* ; to 
appoint permanently (» s.o.; to an office); 
to prove, establish {*, demonstrate, 
show {uti that); to prove guilty, con- 
vict (J* a defendant); to confirm (Chr.) | 
<i »j**i £~u (baparahü) to fix one's eyes on, 
gaze at; 4_.o» C-y (qadamaiki) to gain 
a foothold IV to establish, determine 
(*; to assert as valid or authentic, 
affirm {*; to confirm, corroborate, 
substantiate {>; to prove (J* * 
to s.o.; J to s.o., ul that); to demon- 
strate, show (>; to furnish compe- 
tent evidence (* for); to bear witness, 
attest (* to); to acknowledge (*, 

e.g., a qualification, a quality, J in s.o.), 
concede (J * to s.o.) ; to prove guilty, 
convict (Je a defendant); to enter, re- 
cord, register, list ( j * in a book, in 
a roster, etc.) j Jj^il j oJI (waraq) to 
put down in writing, get on 
paper; u ^i^\ ilaJI (Jiakpa) to determine 
s.o. 's identity, identify s.o.; <:?**■& C-u! 
(&ak#iyatahü) to identify o.s., prove one's 
identity V to ascertain, verify (j, 
J* if), make sure (j of, J* if); 
to consider carefully (j, proceed 
with caution (j in) X to show o.s. stead- 
fast, persevering; to seek to verify (*, try to make sure (* of), seek con- 
firmation of or reassurance with re- 
gard to (a); to ascertain, verify (*, 
make sure (* of; to find right, 
proven or true, Bee oonfirmed (*; 
to regard as authentic {* 

C-y tobt firm, fixed, established; stead- 
fast, unflinching; brave 

C-jj tabat reliable, trustworthy, credible 

C-y tabat pl. oLJl atbät list, index, roster 

oLj tabät firmness; steadiness, con- 
stancy, permanence, stability; certainty, 
sureness; perseverance, persistence, en- 
durance; continuance, maintenance, ie- 
tention (J* of, adherence (J* to) 

üjj tubüt constancy, immutability, 
steadiness; permanence, durability; cer- 
tainty, sureness | ^+JÜl OjJ t. aS-Sahr 
the official determination of the be- 
ginning of a lunar month 

C-iji atbat 2 more reliable, firmer, stead- 
ier, eto. 

Cj-Ü tatbit consolidation, strengthening ; 
Btabilization ; confirmation ; corrobora- 
tion, substantiation | C-^iJI _^ sirr at-t. 
the Sacrament of Confirmation (Chr.) 

oLIl itbät establishment; aSBertion; 
confirmation ; affirmation, attestation ; 
demonstration ; proof, evidence; regia- 


tration, entering, listing, recording; doc- 
umentation, authentication, verification | 
CjLJI oaU witness for the prosecution; 
oLJVl »«--fr r ib' al-i. bürden of proof (jur.) 

jLjI itbäti affirmative, confinnatory, 
corroborative, positive 

C-Ju tatabbut ascertainment; verifi- 
cation, examination, oheck; careful, cau- 
tious procedura, circumspection ; inter- 
ment (of the remains of a saint; Chr.) 

CjLj täbit firm, fixed, established; sta- 
tionary, immovable; steady, invariable, 
const&nt, stable; permanent, lasting, du- 
rable, enduring; confirmed, proven; a 
constant | ^iU-1 CjIj t. al-jcCa undis- 
mayed, fearless, staunch, steadfast; C-jU 
aJ*JI t. al-'azm firmiy resolved, deter- 
mined; oÜ iJ^Ul and otf Jlj*l im- 
movable property, real estate, realty; 
O «1*1/1 c-jIjäh unidirectional, 
rectified (el.) 

ijU tabita pl. C-ijy tawäbit 1 fixed star 

0>-i» matbüt established, confirmed ; 
certain, sure, positive, assured; proven 

ji tabara u to destroy, ruin (»s.o.); (jjj tu* 
bür) to perish III to apply o.a. with zeal 
and perseverance (J* to, persevere, 
persist ( J* in) 

jjJ tubür ruin, destruction | ^jÜ 
Jjr^J Jo^ (^ J or ) t*^ (do'ä) &t-J-u>atl 
wa-t-t. to wail, burat into loud laments 

Syli. mutäbara persistence, persever- 
ance, endurance; diligence, assiduity 

iiJ taba}a u and II to hold back, keep, pre- 
vent (^ » s.o. from doing; to 
hinder, handicap, impede, slow down, 
set back (*, « s.o.,; to bring about 
the failure (* of, frustrate (a 

Äiu tvbna pl. ,>' fwia« lap, fold of a gannent 
(used as a receptacle) 

üL> tibän = Äio tvbna 

Jlu look up alphabetically 

/ tajja u to flow copiously 

r\jt tajjäj copiously flowing, Streaming 

jfi- takuna u to be or become thick, thicken ; 
to be firm, solid, compact IT to wear out, 
exhaust, weaken («s.o.) J 1>jJ *Jfil (darban) 
to wallop s.o. , give s.o. a sound thrashing ; 
j^all j jfi- 1 ( r adüw) to massacre the 
enemy; ^t^^L-lj 4^\ to weaken s.o. by 
inflicting wounds 

jfi- tikan, iJÜt takäna, ijyt tuküna 
thickness, density; consistency; compact- 

,>jc takln pl. »LJc tukanä* 3 thick; 

^0j tady and tadan m. and f., pl. »lall o&iä' 
female breast; udder 

_r (arr abounding in water | «-oJl ^ •/ (dam') 
tear-wet, tear-blurred (eye) 

w>y taraba i (tarb) and II to blame, censure 
(• and Jp s.o.) 

•~lj3 tatrib blame, censure, reproof 

j j tartara (lj j tartara) to chatter, 

j\jj tartär prattler, chatterbox; •jliy 
tartara do. (fem.) 

•jj tartara chatter, prattle 
±j tarada u to crumble and sop (* bread) 

Jjj tarid a dish of sopped bread, meat 
and broth 

jjw mürad bowl 

fj tarama i {tarm) to knock s.o.'s (•) tooth 
out; — tarima a (taram) to have a gap 
between two teeth 

{jj and <jj) <£j tariya a to become wealthy 
IV to become or be rieh, wealthy (<-» or 
,y, through; to make rieh, enrich 

(. B.O.) 


^j taran moist earth; ground, soil | 
Lj^Jl Ja isJü\ {j\ aina t-t. min at-turayyä 
(proverbially of things of disproportionate 
value) what has the ground to do with 
the Pleiadea? »\j Äiil ._-!» (jayyaba) 
approx. : may God rest him in peace 1 

&j tariy pl. »Ijj'l atriyä' 2 wealthy, 
rieh | <-?j}-\ iiJ war profiteer, 
nouveau riche 

Cj\jJ tariyät plantations 

tjj tarwa and *\j tarä* forturie, wealth, 
riches | ijjtll J»l ahl at-t. the rieh, the 
wealthy; "*-ȧ Ijj (qaumlya) national 
wealth; «Jl. *jj (mä'iya) abundance of 
water, abundant supply of water (of a 

\jj furayyä Pleiadea; (also hj) pl. 
oLy turayyät ohandelier 

j» mutrin wealthy, rieh 

jLu tubän pl. Ool*? t&'äbin 1 snake | »Hl jLw 
(. al-ma eel 

JLu tubäni snaky, snakelike, Serpen- 
tine; eely 

^jkL> mafab pl. »_-*li» maiä'ib* drain 

<IL*j tu'ala foz 

U*S ta'lab pl. JU ia'älib* fox | ^JLsIl »1j 
alopecia (med,), loas of hair 

i Xi fa'labi foxy, foxlike 

LLJ ta'laba vixen ; O tetter (med.) 

_^J ioff r pl- jy* tvQü* front tooth; mouth; 
port, harbor, inlet, bay; seaport 

»jii tugra pl. ji titgar breach, crevasse, 
crack, rift, crevice; opening, gap; cavity, 
hollow; narrow mountain trail 

(•lii tagäm white, whitenesa 

>lj tägim white (adj.) 
(jw) Im tagä u (»tu tuga) to bleat (ßheep) 

»lju tuga bieating, bleat 

pU tägin bieating | Le-Ij Vj i-i-U *l U 
(rägiya) he has abeolutely nothing, he 
is deprived of all resources, prop. : he 
has neither a bieating (sheep) nor a 
braying (camel) 

jju fafar pl. j\Ju\ aifär crupper (of the 

Jju tv.fl dregs, lees, Bediment; residues 

jju III to associate {« with a.o.), frequent 
s.o. 's (») Company; to pursue, practice 

iüj tafina pl. -ät, jii tifan callus, 

*Ju\ look up alphabetioally 

<cj see jJj 

i__i) taqaba u (iaqb) to bore, or drill, a hole 
(* in, pierce, puneture, perforate 
{* II do. II and IT to light, kindle 
(* V and VII to be pierced, be 
punetured, be perforated 

^Jutaqb piercing, boring, puneture, Per- 
foration; (also tuqb pl. v-^äj tuqüb, ^LäJI 
aiqäb) hole, puneture, borehole, drill 

«Ju tuqba pl. <_Ju tvqab hole 
w'Uj and i_jUi)l j_j* 'Cd at-tiqäb match- 
stick; matches 

V>^J |t*£fifi keenness, acuteness (of the 

t_ 3*. mtfgoo pl. i_JÜL* matäqib* borer, 
drill, gimlet, auger, brace and bit, wimble, 
perforator; drilling machine 

v Uj'I ijgöb kindling, lighting 

«_Jlj fögtö penetrating, piercing, Bharp 
(mind, eyes) | JicM t_itf (. an-nazar per- 
spicacity; sharp-eyed; _^ill *_-»Lj f. aZ- 
jiJfcr sagacity, acumen, mental acuteness; 
shrewd, Bagacious, eharp-witted 

oUij tögtbdt borers (zool.) 

JmJu taqifa a (taqf) to find, meet (» s.o.); — 
taqifa a and taqufa u to be skiüful, smart, 
clever II to make straight, straighten 
(*; to correct, set right, straighten 
out (*; to train, form, teach, edu- 
cate (♦ s.o.); to arrest (♦ s.o.); to Beize, 
confiscate (* III to fence (• with 
s.o.) V to be trained, be educated 

üLaj taqäfa culture, refinement; edu- 
oation ; (pl. -ät) culture, civilization 

jLÄj taqäfl educational; intellectual; 
cultural | jlÜ J*»L (miUhaq) cultural 

iJtJd> tatqif cultivation of the mind; 
training, education; Instruction 

üJÜL. mutdqafa fencing, art or sport of 
fencing, swordplay, Bwordsmanship 

iJüiS tataqquf culturedness, oulture, re- 
finement, education 

ijüi< mutaqqaf educated; trained; oul- 

Jü faqvla u (tiql, *JUj taqdla) to be heavy; 
with t->: to load or hurden, make heavy; to be hard to bear (J* for 
s.o.), weigh heavily (J* on), be burden- 
aome, cumbersome, oppressive( J* to s.o.) ; 
to be heavy-handed, sluggish, doltish, 
dull-witted; to be too dull, too sluggish 
(jp for, to do, not to bother 
(jp about) II to make heavy, weight 
(*; to bürden, encumber (J* s.o., 
* with, overburden (J* s.o.), over- 
tax s.o.'s (J*) strength, ask too much 
(J* of s.o.); to trouble, inconvenience, 
bother (J* s.o., t-> with, pester, 
molest ( J» s.o.) | «Ulf Ji* and <US' JUI 
(käAüahü) to bürden s.o. or ; J*tf JJu 
ul>il to bürden the budget IV to 
bürden (*, * s.o.,; to oppress, dis- 
tress (* s.o.), weigh heavily (» on); to be 
hard to bear (» for s.o.) | <US' JJul 
(kähilahü) see II; VI to become or be 
heavy; to be troublesome, burdensome 

(J* to s.o.), trouble, oppress (J* s.o.); 
to be sluggish, doltish, slow; to be in a 
bad mood, be sullen, grumpy; to find 
burdensome and turn away (jp from; not to bother (jp about); to be 
too dull, too sluggish (jp for, to do X to find heavy, hard, burdensome, 
troublesome (*, find annoying {*, 
• s.o., | 4Üi J5£L-1 (fitfaÄü) to 
find s.o. unbearable, dislike s.o. 

Jij {iql pl. JLÄjM atqäl weight; bürden, 
load; gravity; heaviness | JUJVf **j taf 
al-a. weight lifting {athlet.); ,y>Jl JÜJl 
(nau'i) specifio gravity 

J5j tiqal heaviness; aluggishness, dull- 

Jü taqal pl. JliJi atqäl load, baggage 

6">ÜiJl at-taqalän the humans and the 

äUj Ja^Za trouble, inconvenience, dis- 

il Uj faqäla heaviness ; sluggishness , 
doltishness; dullness 

JJJ taqil pl. ,-tfu tuqatä*, JU' fi^t« 
heavy; weighty, momentous, grave, se- 
rious, important; burdensome, trouble- 
some, cumbersome, oppressive; unpleaa- 
ant, disagreeable, distasteful (person) | 
p-dl J-ij (. od - dam insufferable, an- 
pleasant, disagreeable (person) ; rjj\ J-i» 
t. ar-rüh doltish, dull (person) ; a bore ; 
Jiill J-i 1 |. aj-jül disagreeable, in- 
Bufferable (person); ^ill J^il |. al-fakm 
slow of understanding, alow-witted; J-äj 
■*-Jl |. o«-Aim r hard of hearing; wli^ 
1L2J (fltnö'a) heavy industry ; JJsJ »L 
heavy water (phya.) 

Jijl o£gaZ 3 heavier ; more oppressive 

Jüi. mttgäZ pl. J-»li* moiögiP weight 
(also placed as an equipoise on the 
scales of a balance) ; miskal, a weight (in 
Egypt = 24 Uj* =* 4.68 g) | Iji jUi. m. 


ßarra the weight of a dust speck, i.e., a 
tiny amount; a little bit; ^* JLÜ* a little 
of t a little bit of 

JJ& tatqll weighting, burdening; mo- 

JiLü tatäqttl sluggishneas, dulJness 

JJÜ* mutaqqai and mutqal burdened, 
encumbered ; overloaded ; weigbted ( v 
with; oppreaeed (o* by); heavy 

JiLbu mutaiäqil sluggish, duU; sullen, 

J& JaMIa a (tateZ) to lose a cbild (•), also: 
to be bereaved of a loved one (•) by 
deatb IV U-Üj ^\ JfcJI o/ifeaJa l-umma 
waladahä to bereave a motber of her son 

J& taiaZ state of one who has lost a 
friend or relative; mourning over the loss 
of a loved one 

ü*&5 faJWdn{*) bereaved of a child 

J& taJUä bereaved of a child (mother) 

<S*tf täküa pl. JTIjJ jawäfct'Z" bereaved 
of a child (mother) 

iiSo fufcna pl. jjSd tukan, -ät barracks (mtl.) 

J} toKa « (JL* toloZ) to tear down, deatroy, 
overthrow, subvert (*, esp. LJ_/> 
'orion to topple a throne) VII to be 
subverted, overthrown (throne) 

ÜJ fuüa pl. JU /utoJ troop, band, party, 
group (of people); military detachment 

l^L* talaba t (taÄ) to criticize, ran down (• 
s.o.); to Blander, defame (• s.o.) 

<_Jj talb slander, defamation 

i-ii. mailaba pl. ,_Jli. moiöZft 9 short- 
coming, defect, blemish, stain, diagrace 

^J \j tälib slanderous, defamatory ; 

dJ5 II to triple, make threefold {*; to 
do three times (* 

iiiJ tuü pl. i^JbM ailäi one third; fuZu* 
a sprawling, decorative calligraphic style 

«NJ fa/öta (f. i* 1 toiö) three; INJ 
tolöfon three times, thrice 

J*)tf /oZöft tertiary; Tertiary (?eoi.) | 

j:AiJI JJ L. pre-Tertiary 

jU. Äj^S talätaia 'aSara, f. i^t* «i^ 
ta&Ka 'a&rata thirteen 

iJlill aWäZif the third; liili (älifan, 
thirdly; liltf l /eo of a aecond 

j^J - ^ talätün thirty 

.U^ill at-ialäiä* and .U^ill pj yaum- 
a/-|. Tuesday 

i - ^ fuJö| a and ^ii. matlat* three at a 

J*jC (uJö** tripartite, consisting of three, 
(gram.) triliteral, consisting of three 
radicals; tri-; trio (mus.) | WjjJl J*>tf $• 
z-zawäyä triangulär; olijjJl J^ (. J-uw» 
ro^öi trifoliate 

>L>j}\5 JöfcW Trinity (CAr.); trinity, triad ; 
triplet 1 ijJlill »y»j zoArat af-|. pansy 

£■!*" tatllt doctrine of the Trinity; 
Trinity {Chr.) 

JJiS tatlity trigonometric(al) 

u nl*- mtttaüat tripled, triple, threefold; 
having three diacritical dota (letter); 
triangulär; (pl. -ät) triangle (geom.) \ 
iljIVI Hill *Aß (rdya) t dJiLI ^1 {'(dam) 
and Lt-Lill the tricolor; ilU iiiil (A&W) 
acute-angled triangle; LljjJI *iii- m. az- 
zauüyä triangulär; ^Ul jjl— IM iiiit 
(muiasäuj» «-aäjutn) isoscelea triangle ; 
9-^U-iV' tfjl—ii.1 iiill equilateral triangle; 
/Uli iilll right-angled triangle 

iliül al-mutaüatät and oliiiil v 1 -^ 
Awöft ol-m. trigonometry 

rÜ talaja u: *\Jh c->*1j («17710*«) it snowed, 
was snowing; — JaZijo a to be delighted, 


be gladdened (aoul, heart; lj by) II to 
cool with ice (*; to freeze, tum into 
ice {* IV *^Jl Cj*L*I it snowed, was 
snowing; to cool, moiaten (* 8,th.) | Jjl 
*jX* {fadrahü) to delight, pleaae, gratify 
s.o. V to become icy, tum into ice, 
oongeal; to freeze 

^1j talj pl. rjtitulüj snow; ice; artificial 
ice | JiJI *>4j nudfat a\-t. snowflake 

^Ji falji snowy, snow- (in Compounds) ; 
icy, glacial, ice- (in Compounds) 

pU" talij icy 

r^ taÜdj pl. -ün ice vendor 

h~^ taüäja pl -ät iceberg, ice floe; 
refrigerator, icebox 

l»Jju matlaja pl. £li* matälij* icebox, 
refrigerator; oold-Btorage plant 

rjk" ma^lüj snow-covered ; iced, ioy; 
oü^ii* frozen food; ioed beverages 

Jli- muiaüaj iced ; icy, ice-cold 

1J talama i (foim) to blunt, make jagged (*, break the edge of (*); to make a 
breach, gap or opening (* in a wall); to 
denle, sully (* reputation, honor) ; — Ja* 
lima a to be or become jagged, dull, blunt 
II to blunt (* V to become blunt 
VII to be defiled, be discredited (repu- 

p talm nick, notch; breach, opening, 
gap; crack, fissure, rift | c*~*Jl 1) t. 
ap-pit defamation 

Uu tulma pl. ]j fulam = talm | <Jj -u 
«(KÜo tulmatan to fiU a gap; o— T V «*L* 
(tusaddu) a gap that cannot be closed, 
an irreparable loes 

}\j täiim dull, blunt 

Ajli* maflüm defiled, sullied (reputation, 

liL. mutafaUim blunted, blunt; craok- 
ing (voice) 

C^*JI itL. muntalim o^-^it of ill repute, 
of dubious reputation 

< famma there | < j* min famma hence, there- 
fore, for that reason 

< tumma then, thereupon ; further- 
more, moreover; and again, and once 
more (emphatically in repetition) | *& < *& 
(kaUä) no and a hundred times no! r ^» 
min tumma then, thereupon 

ix [ammata (c~c ) there; there is | ,^-J 
<t there ian't 

^U tumäm a grass | >l^l öjL Jp (Ja- 
ra/i i-|.) within easy reach, handy; J**- 
^1 tjjl» J* liö made it readily under- 
atandable, he presented it plausibly for all 

-Lei look up alphabetically 

jjc famara u to bear fruit IV do. X to profit, 
benefit (*from);toexploit,utilize(*; 
to invest profitable (* money) 

jx tamar pl. jU /wiär, jlc I atmär 
fruits, fruit (coli.); reault, effect, fruit, 
fruitage; yield, profit, benefit, gain 

iy tamara (n. im. of tamar) pl. -ät 
fruit; reault, effect; yield, profit, benefit, 

j^L.1 iatifmär exploitation (also pol.~ 
econ.), utilization, profitable uae 

jJu mufmir fruitful, productive, prof- 
itable, lucrative 

jJZ~* mustatmir pl. -ün exploiter (pol.- 
econ.); beneficiary 

Jx tamila a (|amaZ) to become drunk IV to 
make drunk, intoxicate {• s.o.) 

Jx tamai intoxication, drunkenness 

iLc tamala drunken fit, drunkenness 

Jx tamil intoxicated, drunk(en) 

*JU twnäla residue, reninant, dregs (of 
a liquid), heeltap (of wine); scum, foam, 


1 l yc II to appraise, aasen, estimate (*, 
determine the prioe or value (* of; 
to price (* | jJ± V lä yutammanu 
invaluable, ineetimablo, priceleaa 

jx iaman pl. üU I atmdn, i-c I o|mina 
price, oost; value | J^VI >JI (oaft) ooet 
price; ^-UVI J-il' (tudri) par, nominal 

j^I famin costly, precious, valuable 

j*l olman 1 coatlier, more preoioua, 
moro valuable 

j^J3 taumln estimation, appraisal, as- 
BeBsment, valuation, rating 

öj~i* matmün object of value 

^L, mu|ammtn estimator, appraiser | 

^L, mtifamman prized, valued, valu- 
able, preoioua 

j^i. mujmtn costly, preoioua, valu- 

j*t* mufman objeot of value 

■•wie tamäniya (f. uLc tam&nin) eight 

ji* *Jlc famätuyata *a£ara, f. »yJ^ jLc 
famäniya 'a&rata eighteen 

j£ fumn pl. ölx I ajman one-eighth 

ex tumna pl. -dl a dry measure (Eg. =« 
i/, c u; = .258 1; Poi. = ca. 2.25 1) 

j^Jlc famänfin eighty 

j^bll a|-tämin the eighth 

j*L> mu|amman eightfold; octagonal 

<i» junna pl. ju {unan fetlock 

!j-Cj JunaVa, {undutua pl. iU> {anddtn breast 
(of the male) 

Ji fafid t (tony) to double, double up, fold, 
fold up, fold under (*; to bend, flex 
(*; to tum away, dissuade, keop, 
prevent, divert (j* • s.o. from) | üb* J5 

<-y {'in&na fartuiki) he galloped off 
II to double, mako double {*; to do 
twioe, rcpoat (*; to pleat, plait 
(*; to form tho dual (* of a word); 
to provide with two diacritical dots {* 
a letter) IV to commend, praise, laud, 
extol (J*, s.o.), «peak appreciatively 
(J* of) | .bül >U <-U JJI ('äfim t-fanä') 
to speak in the most laudatory terms of 
s.o. V to double, beoome doublo; to be 
doublod; to be ropeated; to bend, fold; 
to be bont, be folded, be folded up or 
under; to walk with a swinging gait 
VII to bend, bcnd up, down or over, lean, 
incline, bow; to fold, be foldable, be 
folded back; to turn away (j* from), 
give up, renounce (j*; toturn, face 
(Jl toward); to apply o.a., turn (Jl to; (with foll. imperf.) to set out, pre- 
paro (to do X to except, exclude 
(j- • or * s.tb. or s.o. from), make an 
exception (* of 

Jj fany bending ; folding ; turning 
away, dissuasion, koeping, prevention 

tj? I in y pl* *U' «•?«•*' fold, pleat, plait, 
crease (in cloth); bend, twiat | o*» Li? 
Jl tinyan ba'da fmyin from time to 


»bjl atnä'a (prep.) during; in the 
course of j »U>t j /» atnä'i do.; j 
•UV» »-i* <j, «UVI dt <j, *ili .USI in the 
meantime, during all this time, mean- 

•Lu tanya pl. tanaydl fold, pleat, plait, 
crease (in cloth) 

•Li? fanfya pl. LL> tandyä middle in- 
cisor; narrow paas; mountain trail | 
LU> j in, inside, among, between, fre- 
quently only a fuller, rhetorically more 
elegant expression for "in", o.g., LU> j 
cä) in bis heart, inwardly, ^-iSÜI LU> j in 
the books ; l Ü ^j in, inside, among, be- 
tween; IjUI p^ foUtT of-f. one with 
high-flung oapirations 

»b tantt commendation, praise, eu- 
logy; appreciation 

»b tuntf* and Ji. maknä two at a 

,jjS tanawi dualist 

*j yi janawiyo dualiam 

Jb tami'i laudatory, eulogistio 

JLj ttmä'i twofold, double, dual, bi- 
nary, bi-; biradical {gram.); duet, duo 
(mu.) | jljlll üb* iij* (mufcami f. I- 
mihoär) two-cyole engine 

O 3-Jb jund'Iya dualism; duet, duo 

jb*i tfndn», f. jliu! ifnatdni two 

^ b*l gnd 'oioro, f. ly^ IimI ünoW 
'airata twelve 

ü^Vl fji yaum aZ-i£natn and joJ'iM 

Jlill at-täni tha second; the neit; Uli 
yiniyan and v^ töniyatan secondly; for 
the seoond time, once more, again | 
JCjI jü j. fnatn the seoond of a pair, pen- 
dant, companion pieoe, matoh 

3Jü fdniya pl. öj^* |au*!nin seoond 
(time unit) 

<Sy^ tänav* seoondary; minor | j_^-l 
*j_^U matters of seoondary importance, 
minor matters; <tyÜ *-jJ* secondary 
sohool; iSjJ\j £o-j subletting 

L£ tatniya repetition; plaiting, pleat- 
ing; doubling, gemination; (gram.) dual; 
seoond seqnel (o.g., of a collection of 
short stories); commendation, praise, 
eulogy | 9-lJwVl V" Beutoronomy 

»LjuI i-niinä* bending, flection; flexibil- 
ity, foldability | »Uii^J Jitt foldable, 

;.Liil iniinä'a pl. -dt (n. Tic.) bend, 
flexure, curve 

»Uix-l istitnä* ezception, excluaion | 
»bil^L. with the exception of, except; 
*\^L-\ üj-ü without ezception 

JbixJ ta*i(nä't ezceptional; UUil-l 
wfünä'Iyan as an ezception | iJbJiJ J^*-l 
emergencies; i-JUil— I i*JU- 0oi«i) emer- 
gency Session 

Ji. ma}niy folded; plaited, pleated; 

Ji> mujannan double, twofold; in tbe 
dual (gram.) 

JM.„- mustatnan excepted, excluded 
(,>. from) 

IjJ täwa see ^ _y 

1 (v>) V^ #** u to return » come back 
(also, e.g., a state or condition, Jl or J to 
s.o.); with v : ** r© turn 8 ' tü - (J' to 8 - -) I 
4-Äi Jl i-jÜ to regain consciousness, come 
to; *Xij <JI v^ (ruiduAü) to recover 
one's senses II to reward (• s.o.; said of 
God) IV to repay, requite (* m with); 
to reward ( J* . s.o. for) X to aeek reward 

<~>j} jauA pl. <— »LJ tiyäb, <—»'>' atwäb 
garment, dress; cloth, material ; (fig.) garb, 
outward appearance, guise, cloak, maak; 
pl. ^Lj olothes, clothing, apparel | <->Lj 
•j+-1\ {. as-sahra formal dress, evening 
clothes ; .U—j <->Ji j in piain, homely form ; 
t-*LiJI j»IV of flawless character, irre- 

xj\y tatoäb requital, recompense, re- 
ward (for good deeds); (Ial. Law) merit, 
credit (arising from a pious deed) 

<>jZ* matwaba requital, reoompense, re- 
ward (bestowed by God for good deeds) 

^ll* mafäb and <t\t» maiäba place to 
whioh one returns ; meeting place ; rendez- 
vous ; resort, refuge 

Öli- maiäba (with foll. genit.) place or 
time at which appears or recurs; 


manner, mode, fashion ; see also pre- 
ceding entry j lAtx (with foll. genit.) like, 
as ; tantamount to, equivalent to, having 
the same function as 

jlil = ^»Uj (i_ 

VI) to yawn 

(j_jj) jU tära u to stir, be Btirred up, be a- 
roused, be excited ; to swirl up, rise (dust) ; 
to arise (question, problem; a difficulty, 
<p-j j ß wajhihi before s.o.) ; to be trig- 
gered, be unleashed, break out; to revolt, 
rebel, rise (Jp against); to rage, storm | 
«yU jU (tä'iruhü) to fly into a rage, be- 
come furious, flare up IV to agitate, 
excite (• s.o., *; to stimulate (» 
s.o., *; to irritate (» s.o., *; 
to arouse, stir up, kindle, excite (*, 
e.g., feelings), cause, provoke, awaken 
(*; to raise, pose, bring up (*JL_* 
masaiatan a question, a problem) | jtfl 
*jj\j (tä'iratahü) to infuriate s.o., excite 
s.o. X to excite, Btir up, kindle (*, 
esp. passions); to rouse (*; to 
arouse, awaken (*, esp. feelings); 
to elicit, evoke (* wails, outcries, j* 
from s.o.) ; to incite, set ( J* * s.o. against) ] 
■■ , *r- jLil-l {qafabahü) to infuriate s.o., 
make s.o. angry 

jy taur pl. ölyj tträn bull, steer; ox; 
Taurus (astron.) | jjill JjJ *>jj* Sörabat 
dail aUt. oxtail soup 

*jy taura excitement, agitation; out- 
break, outburst, fit (of fury, of despair, 
etc.) ; eruption (of a volcano) ; (pl. -ät) up- 
heaval, uprising, insurrection, riot, rebel- 
lion, revolt, revolution | 3-UI Ijy (aMiya) 
internal strife, civil war 

( ^jy tauri revolutionary (adj. and n.) 

iSJjy taurawi revolutionary (adj. and 

ö\jy tawarän agitation, excitation, 
flare-up, eruption, outbreak, outburst; 
dust whirl 

jli* maiär incentive, Stimulus, motive, 
spur, ocoasion, cause | JuJ-l jli* m. ai- 
jadal and fl j*Jl jli» object of controversy, 
point of contention 

•j\j\ tfära excitation, stirring up, kin- 
dling; agitation, incitement; provocation, 
(a)rousing, awakening; irritation, Stim- 

J\j iä'ir excited, agitated, raving, fu- 
rious, mad; rebellious; fury, rage (in the 
idiomatic phrase */!j jIj see above); (pl. 
jljj tvwwär) inBurgent, rebel, revolution- 

•J\j tifira pl. J\y tawä'ir* tumult; ex- 
citement, agitation; fury, rage 

jJL- mvtir exciting; provooative; stimu- 
lative, irritative; excitant, irritant, stimu- 
lant; instigator; germ, agent; pl. ol_^i- 

rjtjy töriyüm thorium {ehem.) 

Jji VII to swarm, orowd, throng ( J* around 
s.o.); to come over s.o. (J#) 

Jji taul and J*J1 6y f. an-nahl swarm 
of bees 

*y {um (coli.; n. un. •) garlio 

tfji tawä % {*\y tawä*, j> tuwiy, j_^i. matwan) 
to stay, live (v at a place); to Bettle 
down (l-j at a place); pass.tuwtj/a to 
be buried IV to Btay, live; to lodge, put 
up as a guest (• s.o.) 

,jy tawty guestroom 

iß tüwa pl. fjjj tuwan signpost, road- 

jji. matwan pl. jli* matäwin abode, 
habitation, dwelling; place of rest 

L-.U tayyib pl. ~dt a deflowered but un- 
married woman, widow, divorcee 

J^j iaiial pl. JILj tayätiP a variety of wild 
goat (Capra jaela) 


J-UU- jätaliq = jii*- 

JrJr jVjV pl. '^-"t*- ja'äji** breast; prow, 
bow (of a ship) 

jU- ja'ara a {ja'r, Jfc- fu'är) to low, moo; 
to supplicate, pray fervently (Jl to God) 

jU- ja'r and jl$*- jVdr lowing, mooing 
(of cattle) 

l jU- gäz pl. -Ö( (Eg. Bpelling) gaa 

^JU- jöx jazz 

<JjjV ( Fr - ?azon> Eg. spelling) gözön lawn 

^iU pa'oso a (;'o7) to be agitated, be con- 
vulsed (with pain or fright) 

^iU- ja'i emotional agitation; heart, 
bou] | *iU- J*jj rabafa ja'Sahü to remain 
calm, compoeed, self-posaeesed; ^iÜ-l Jolj 
or i^U-l CjI* calm, compoeed, cool, self- 
possessed, undiamayed; iotj ^Ic with 
unswerving courage, unflinchingly 

*=TU, öTU and o-TU jafcOa jacket, coat 

öjJU- yaZön gallon 

cf j*!W (Eg. spelling) galbrl gallery (fAeaf.) 

j»U jom pl. -dt cup; drinking vessel; bowl 

*a£.W jämakiya pl. -£(, ilJLIj»- jawämi& 

tr^V jÄm*« pl- tri*'jr ?»t«Im^* , buffalo 
*">*V jämüsa buffalo oow 

^-r'V (pronounced iämreg, from Turk. ea- 
neriffi; coli.; n. un. £&n»rglyt) a variety 
of small green plum with saveral stones 


#U- jäh rank, standing, dignity, honor, glory, 

•jU- jätoa Java 

ifjU ;dwi Javanese; benzoin; (pl. -ün) 
a Javanese 

jlijU- jäwadär rye 

^jU läw*4 aergeant = ^jLt, ^ j 1 - 1 

1 » r *- jvbb pl. t-»W' öjM6, uU jibäb -well, 
ciatern; pit 

**-*. j'uAfro pl. ^-j-- juÄofc, yU jibäb, --jL*- 
;aid't& 1 jubbah, a long outer garment, 
open in front, with wide sleeves 

«j*- jaiA pl. «-I 
o;7ȊA beehive 

ajbuh, ^L*. jääA, j-L*-l 

**>- jabjcäna, jabakäna powder magazine; 
ammunition; artillery depot 

r /a&ara u (jabr, jj^ jubür) to set (* broken 
bones); to restore, bring back to normal 
(*; to help back on hiß feet, help 
11p (* s.o.; e.g., one fallen into poverty); 
to force, compel (J* • s.o. to do | 
♦_^U j*- (Jfäfirahü) to oonsole, comfort, 
gratify, oblige s.o.; to treat (s.o.) in a 
conciliatory or kindhy manner II to set 
(* broken bones) III to treat with kind- 
ness, with friendliness (* s.o.), be nice 
(* to s.o.) IV to force, compel (J* • b.o. 
to do; to hold sway (Je over) 
V to show o.b. proud, haughty; to act 
streng, throw one's weight around; to 
show o.b. streng or powerful, demon- 
strate one's strength or power; to be set 
(broken bones) | iijL 41 1 j^f (bi-bnika) 
God has demonstrated His power on 
your son, i.e., He has takon him unto 
Himself VII to be mended, repaired, 

je- jabr setting (of broken bones) ; force, 
compulsion ; coercion, duress ; power, 


might; (predestined, inescapable) decree 
of fate; \j~- jabran forcibly, by force | 
j\i-\ 1* 'Um al-j. algebra ; ^^-Jl j^- *jj yaum 
j. al-bahr a local holiday of Cairo (the 
day on wbich, in former times, the water 
of the Nile was channeled into the now- 
abandoned kalxj, or City Canal, thus mark- 
ing the beginning of the irrigation season) 

tjj-*- jabri algebraic ; compulsory, 
forced; — jabari an adherent of the doc- 
trine of predestination and the inescap- 
ability of fate; fatalist 

öj» jabariya an Iatamic school of 
thought teaching the inescapability of 
fate; fatalism 

jL*- jabbär pl. -ün, _rL»- jabäbir*, «yL»- 
jabäbira giant ; colossus; tyrant, op- 
pressor; almighty, omnipotent (God); 
gigantic, giant, colossal, huge; Orion 
(aatron.) \ *jLi^\ jL*- j, al-kufwa striding 
powerfully, taking huge ßtrides 

JjL*- jibära (art of) bonesetting 

•jwh jabira and *jL*- jibära pl. J\-~- 
jabä'ir* Splint (surg.) 

£->jjv~ jabarüt omnipotence ; power, 
might; tyranny 

»Lju~ jibriyä** pride, haughtineas 
O j$4 tajblr, |»LL*II j^jf orthopedics 
jLß-\ ijbär compulsion, coercion 
(jjL^t ijbäri forced, forcible, com- 
pulsory, obligatory | ^jL^Vl -^r^' oona - 
pulsory recruitment; military conscrip- 

j U- jäbir and jjt mujabbir bonesetter 

jjjt majbür and jwf mujbar forced, 

JJju;. jabra'iP, Jjj«- jifcnP Gabriel 

1 1 _ r o*- U to plaster, coat, patch, or fix with 
plaster {*; to put in a cast, set in 
plaster (* 

(J -« r jibs gypsum; plaster of Paris 

i-L*- jabbäaa gypsum quarry; plaster 

*(j~jr J *** (coli.; n. un.»;«yr.) watermelon(s) 

1 J-*- jabala u i {jabl) to mold, form, ahape, 
fashion (*; to knead (*; to 
create {J* • s.o. with a natural dispoai 
tion or propensity for) ; pass. Je J-*- (jxtb\ 
to be born for, be naturaUy disposed 
have a propeneity for 

iL*- jibla, jibiüa pl. -ät natural dia- 
position, nature, temper 

a J-*- jabal pl. JL*- jibäl, <JL*-l ajbäl mountain ; 
mountains, mountain ränge | «_J^I JU*- 
j. aZ-oü> the Alpe; ^'jj^' <J*-r tne Aures 
Mountains (in E Algeria); -ü*- J-*- ice- 
berg; Lx- J-*- ;. rfnä Mount Sinai; J-*- 
JjU» Gibraltar; jU J-*- voloano 

J-*- jabali mountainous, hilly; moun- 
tain (adj.); montane; (pl. -an) highJander, 
mountain eer 

tSj^r gabaläwi (eg.) highlander, moun- 

«j *A T *- gabaläya pl. -ät {eg.) grotto, oave 

,>*- jabvna u (jvbn, «jL»- jabäna) to be a 
coward, be fearful; to be too much of 
a coward (j* to do, shrink (j* from II to cause to curdle (* milk); to 
make into cheese (*; to curdle; to 
aecuse of cowardice, call a coward {• s.o.) 
V to curdle (milk), tum into cheese 

,>*- jvbn and üL*- jabäna cowardice 

,>*- jvbn and <~*- jvbna cheese 

jL*- jabän pl. »L-*- jvbanä' 1 coward; 

jL*- jabbän cheese merchant 

^-*- jabin pl. Cr-*r j^bun, i-»-l ajbina, 
,> r l a/bun forehead, brow; fac. ade, front; 
f ace I tirrT - 0* m * n J^«** I alone; J* 
■IrJI ,>.». in the sky 

.> i 


uTa) I 


J^ jabini frontal 

^»-l ajban* more cowardly 

<>L*- jabbäTia pl. -ä£ cemetery 

,>-jf ta/btn cheese making, processing 
into cheese 

1 4 ?r jabaha a to meet, face, confront (» b.o.) 
III to face, confront, oppose, defy (• b.o., 
a, show a bold front (* to); to face 
(* a problem, a difficulty) 

ifo- jahha pl. »L*- 7*&äA, oL^ jabahät 
forehead, brow; front, face, facade; front- 
line, battle front 

<f\jt. mujäbaha facing, confront ation, 

^y- jaW » (*jL*- jftäya) to collect, raise, 

levy (* tazes, duties) II to prostrate o.b. 

(in prayer) VIII to pick, choose, elect 

(*, • s.o.) 
ÖL*- jibäya raising, levying (of taxes) ; 

{pl. -ät) tax, duty, impost 
JL*. jibä'% tax- (in Compounds); fiscal 
^ majban pl. <^lf Tnajäbin tax, impost 

i_*L- jäbin pl. «t*- jubäh tax collector, 
revenue officer, collector; (bus, etc.) con- 
duotor (ir.) 

i_jU- jäbiya pl. vljr jutwloin pool, basin 

U*- j'aW (abbreviation of *$1 v=^) cosine 

£*■ jatta u (jag) and VIII to tear out, uproot 
(* a tree, also fig.) 

*^r JvU& pl- <^r y*¥%* £*li»-l ajföj body ; 
corpse, cadaver; oarcass 

ii^f mujtatt uprooted (also fig.) 

Ji». ?o*J thick, dense (esp. haii) 

J-li»- ;'tjZt7 pl. üJLv jatäliqa catholioos, pri- 
mate of the Armenian Church 

J*- jatama u » (7'atoi, >»ji»- jutüm) to alight, 
sit, perch (bird); to crouch, cower; to 
fall or lie prone, lie face down; to beset, 
oppreas (J* 

<*i*- ;'a|ma (n. vic.) motionless sitting 
or lying 

*b*- juiäm and f>V jätüm nightmare, 

ü |^»- jutmän pl . - öi body , mortal 

Jl^ jutmän* bodily, physical, cor- 

jrU ;d/»m pl. JU juttam squatting, 
crouching; perching; prostrate, prone 

(jV) b*- /ald u (ju/äw) to kneel, reat on the 
knees; to bend the knee, genufiect; to 
fall on one's knees 

ji*- jutüw kneeling position 

•>>- j'W "** rock pile, mound ; sepulchral 
mound, tumulua 

j£ maftan hassock 

^U- jätin kneeling; Jli-I Hercules 

j& jahada a {jahd, *j* juhüd) to negate 
(*; to disclaim, disavow, disown, 
deny (*; to refuse, reject, repudiate 
(*; to renounce, forswear, adjure 
(* a belief); to deny (* • s.o. his right) | 
<L/7 j& (jamilahü) to be ungrateful to s.o. 

A&jahd denial; repudiation, disavowal, 
rejection, disclaimer; unbelief (rei.) 

j_^ juhüd denial; evasion, dodging, 
Bhirking (of a moral Obligation); ingrat- 
itude; repudiation, disavowal, rejection, 
disclaimer; unbelief (rei.) 

-U-l»- jähid denier; infidel, unbeliever 

j* VII to hide in its hole or den (an i mal} 

j* juhr pl. jL*l ajhär, jj*_ juhür hole, 
den, lair, burrow (of animals) 


J& jahi pl. ^l* jihä&y jLl*; jikSän, 
^L*;l ajJuii young donkey; (pl. ^j* 
jvhüS) trestle, horee 

<tf jah&a young female donkey 

.U* jahaza a (i»>* jvhüx) to bulge, pro- 
trude (eyeball) 

0**11 J»j* juAü? ol-'atn exophthalmio 
goiter, abnormal Protrusion of the eye- 

<_j£f jdhafa a {jdh}) to peel off, scrape off 
(*; to sweep away (»; to have 
a bias (« for), aide (** with s.o.) IV to 
härm, hurt, injure, prejudice (v s -°->; to ruin, destroy (o* s.o.,; 
to wrong (i_> 6.0.) 

J»l*H ijhäf injustice, wrong; bias, prej- 

mujhif unjust, unfair; biased, 

Ji* jahfal pl. Jil*; jahäfil 2 multitude, le- 
gion, host, large army; army corps 
{Syr.); eminent man 

~& jahim f. (also m.) fire, hellfire, hell 
l c^ fr . JoAS»** hellish, infernal 

«- jakka (eg.) to lord it, give o.s. airs; to 
boast, brag; (syr.) to dress up (alightly 

j-l*' jakkäk boaster, braggart 

i-u- j'add pl. jj-u- judüd, ilojfl ojdöd grand- 
father; ancestor, forefather | J*Vl Ji-I 
(alä) ancestor 

3.U- jadda pl. -ät grandmother 

2 .u- ja^Wa » to be new ; to be a recent devel- 
opment, have happened lately, have 
recently become a fact; to be added, crop 
up or enter aa a new factor {circum- 
stanoes, costs); to appear for the first 
time (also, e.g., on the stage); to be or 
become serious, grave; to be weighty, 

Bignificant, important; to take (j 
serioualy; to ßtrive earneatly (j for), go 
out of one's way (j to do, make 
every effort (j in); to be Berious, be in 
earnest (j about), mean busineas; to 
hurry (j one's step) II to renew (*; 
to make anew, remake (a ; to 
modernize (*; to restore, renovate, 
remodel, refit, recondition, refurbish (*; to be an innova f or, a reforraer; 
to feature new or novel, produce new ; to rejuvenate, regenerate, 
revive, freshen up (*; to renew, 
eztend (* a per mit) ; to begin anew, repeat 
(a, make a new start (* in; to 
try again (*ii*- hazzahü one's luck) IV to 
strive, endeavor, take pains; to apply 
o.s. eamestly and assiduously (j to), 
be bent, be intent (j on; to hurry 
(j one's step); to renew, make new (* V to become new, be renewed; to 
revive X to be new, be added or enter as 
a new factor, come newly into existence; 
to make new, renew (* 

-U- jadd pl. jj-U- judüd good luck, good 

.u- jidd seriousness, earnestness; dil- 
igence, assiduity, eagerness; l-u- jiddan 
very, much | Jj£ and -U- j- earneatly, 
aeriously; Ji*l> .u- jiddu bäkizin very high 
(price); *ii* .u- j. 'azimin very great; 
Ji-^-Vl a*. üy&* {jidda l-iktiläf) they 
differ widely; J -iA-1 Jl— Jp i_Üj {»ägi 
l-j.) to apply o.s. with diligence to, take 
pains in, make every effort to 

<_; J_»- jiddi serious ; earnest ; Lj J_»- 
jiddiyan in earnest, eamestly, seriously 

ö-U- jiddiya earnestness; seriousness, 
gravity (of a Situation) 

•-U- jidda newness, recency, novelty; 
modemness, modernity; O rebirth, ren- 

*.u- judda 2 Jidda (seaport in W Saudi 
Arabia, on Red Sea) 

-ü.u- jadid pl. j.u- judud, judad new, 
reoent; renewed; modern; novel, uh- 
precedented | uU_Ji-l al-jadldän day and 
night; .b.u- ja anew, again; («ff.) Jj>.u- 
gj podüi lanff brand-new 

4*;-l ajadd* more serioua, more intent; 
newer, more recent 

AiOjC to)dki renewal (also, e.g., of a 
permit); creation of new, origina- 
tion; new preeentation, new production 
(theat.); innovation; reOrganization, re- 
form ; modernization ; renovation, restora- 
tion, remodeling, refitting, recondition- 
ing, refurbisbing ; rejuvenation, regenera- 
tion ; pl. -dt innovationa ; new aohievementa 

iJjf tajaddvd renewal, regeneration, 

jL- jädd in earaest, earnest; aerioua 
(as opposed to comic, funny) 

oU- jädda pl. -<K, itj«- jautädd* main 
street; street 

jjJitf majdüd fortunate, luoky 

jajt mu jaddid renewer; innovator; re- 

idjc mujaddad renewed, extended; re- 
modeled, reoonditioned, renovated, re- 
stored; rejuvenated, regenerated; new, 
reoent, young 

4<t mujidd painstaking, diligent, as- 

■>*■'■-» mxistajidd new, recent; incipient 

w>o>- jaduba u (*>jJ*- judüfo) to be or 
become dry, arid (soil) IV to Buffer from 
drought, poverty or dearth; to be barren, 
sterile; to oome to nothing, go up in 
amoke, fall fiat, fizzle out; (ayr.) to 
explode in the barrel (Bhell; mtl.) 

w><u- jodb drought, barrenness,sterility; 
sterile, barren 

L-j-u- jadib and v^r' ajdab*, f. »L.u- 
jadbä'* barren, sterile 

L^ojt mujdib barren, sterile; desolate, 
arid; unproductive, unprofitable 

i.u- jadaf pl. Ü.u-1 ajddf grave, tomb 

.u-u- judjuJ pl. 0--I.U. jadäjid* cricket 

b^r /odura u («jU»- jaddra) to be fit, suit- 
able, proper, appropriate (^ for s.o., for;to befit, behoove (i~> s.o.,; to 
be worthy (^ of), deserve (^» | 
•_^*j j4*: (gikruhü) and j5"xJIj jAf it is 
worth mentioning 

jX»- yodr wall 

_r<u- jodlr pl. -an, »IjX»- jvdartf* 
worthy, deserving (y of ; becoming, 
befitting {<_>; proper, suited, suit- 
able, fit (v for), appropriate (v to) | ./X«- 
jTüJLj (tf»£r) worth mentioning 

jX»-l ojior 1 worthier; more appro- 
priate; better suited, more suitable 

Jjla*- jadära worthiness; fitness, suit- 
abüity, aptitude, qualification ; appro- 

jix». jidär pl. jX>- jtufur, uljX*. judrän 

^j1<u- ;üid>f mural, wall (ad].) 

% jj*. judira (paas.) and II to have smallpoz 

iSj-^r jvdarl, jadari smaüpox 

jjJdt majdür and jOjt mujaddar in- 
fected witb smallpox; pock-marked 

«jJjf mujaddara dish mada of rice or 
(in Syr.) of bulgur with lentils, onions 
and oil (eg. t syr.) 

x £0*. ?ada'o a (jad t ) to cut off, amputate 
(*, esp. some part of the body) 

«Jü^l fX* bi-jad'i l-anf (prop., at the 
cost of having the nose cut off) at any 
price, regardlesa of the sacrifice involved 

£X»-I ajda'* mutilated (by having the 
nose, or the like, cut off) 

8 D £■*»- gada' (= f-Ju- jada') pl. üU-u- 
gid'än (eg.) young man, young fellow; he- 

1 Jio»- II to curse, blaspheme (J* s.o., esp. 

JujJ- tajdxj imprecation, blasphemy 

■oO». jadafa i and II to row (* a boat) 

J»ljjt mijdäf pl. «Ju^Lf majädif 1 oar 

M-U- jadala u i [jadl) to twisttight,tighten, 
stretoh (* a rope); to braid, plait (*, 
the hair, etc.) II to braid, plait, {* 
III to quarrel, wrangle, bicker {* with 
s.o.); to argue, debate (• with s.o.); to 
dispute, contest (j VI to quarrel, 
have an argument; to carry on a dispute 

J.U- jadal quarrel, argument; debate, 
dispute, discussion, controversy | ^j» 
1/-U- farada jadalan to asBume for the 
sake of argument, propow as a basis for 

J.U- jadall cöntroversial; disputatious; 
a disputant 

JLu- jaddäl and Jlo* mijdäl disputa- 
tious, argumentative; mijdäl see also 

ilj-i*- jadUa pl. JjI-i?- jadä'iP braid, 
plait; tresa 

Jljjt mijdäl pl. Jjjlf majädiP flag- 
stone, ashlar; see also above under 

JI.U- jtdöi and iblf mujädala pl. -Öf 
quarrel, argument; disputo, discussion, 
debate | JI-U-l JJu >/ (j/a^öaJu) incontest- 
able, indiBputable; JI.U- ^/ Zä ;ü2äfa and 
JI.U- ^b 6»-&x j. incontestably, indispu- 

Jj4jt majdül tightly twisted; braided, 
plaited; interwoven, intertwined (tress 
of hair); slender and trim, shapely (e.g., 

Jjlf mujädil disputant, Opponent in 

*(Jj-U- jadwal pl. Jjl-U- jadäwiP creek, brook, 
little stream; column; list, roster; index; 
chart, table, schedule | ^j* Jj-V (d*rd* 
*») curriculum; ***j_>Jl Jj^*- stock list, 
l^jjJl Jj<U- p jU- (£äri;a) not quoted 
(stock ezchange); Jl>^/I Jj«u- agenda; 
working plan 

(jJ*-) io*- jadfi u to give a present (J* to 
s.o.) IV to give as a present (^ J* s.o., present (^ J* s.o. with); to be of 
use, be useful, profitable | L»iJ j.u-1 
(nafan) to be useful; iilj-üf V l.u that 
won't help you, that will be of no use 
(to you); U* <Lke j-i* U do.; ^Ui ja* V 
(/aiiJan) = ^Ui ^yjo ^/ , see J*j X to beg 
for alms; to implore, beg (* • s.o. for, plead {* for 

•Lu- jadä* advantage, gain (j* for s.o.) 

iSj**r jadwä gift, present; advantage, 
benefit, gain | j j-u- ^ (bi-lä) and j-* J* 
jji*- (§airi) of no avail, useless, futile, in 

ji*-l a/<&5 more useful, more advanta- 

i;.u- jody pl. »I.U- ;tt£ä', jUu- jidyän kid, 
young billy goat ; Caprioorn (twtron.) ; 
jxU the North Star 

i*- jadda u {jadd) to cut off, clip (* 

•jll>- judäda pl. -ät slip of paper; pl. 
i^ljl-u- small pieces, shreds, scraps, clip- 

i_ji*- jadaba i (jadb) to pull, draw (*; 
to attract (*; to pull out, draw out, 
whip out (*, draw (* a weapon, or 
the like); to appeal, prove attractive 
(♦ to s.o.), attract, captivate, charm, 
allure (♦ s.o.), win (» s.o.) over (<Jl to 
one's side) III to contend (• with s.o.) at 
pulling, tugging, etc. (* | JJ-I *jjl*- 

(habla) to vie with s.o.; (to be able) to 
compete with s.o., measure up to s.o., 
be a match for s.o.; j»t3*SJI -o iL*- or <iJU- 
lij-U- or ^i-jjJ-l J»ljirl 4jiU- (afräfa l-h.) 
he engaged him in oonveraation, involved 
him in a discussion; *jU*J-l J*\J*\ <jiU- 
(afrdfa l-hadära) to vie with s.o. in cul- 
ture VI to pull baok and forth (• s.o.); to 
contend (», * for); to attract each other j 
kljoi-S J»lji»l |_>ji1j£ (afräfa l-h.) they were 
deep in oonveraation, they were talking 
together VII to be attracted ; to be 
drawn, gravitate (Jl toward, to) VIII to 
attract (• s.o., *, *Jl to o.a.; also 
magn.); to allure, entice {* s.o.); to win 
(• s.o.) over (*Jl to one's side); to draw, 
inhale (* puffs from a cigarette, etc.) 

<^Ju- jadb attraction ; gravitation ; 
appeal, Iure, enticement, captivation | 
IJu- i^l to wrest away, take away by 
force; iS M r \ v^-' O***») b 61 appeal 

L_jto*- jaddäb attractive ; magnetic (fig.) ; 
suction, suotorial; winning, fetching, en- 
gaging; charming, entioing, oaptivating, 

«-»V ajdab* more attractive, more 

«ylo«:! injidäb attraction, inolination, 
proneness, tendency 

v'-k*-' ijtidäb attraction; entioement, 

i-jjU- jätfib attractive; magnetic (fig.); 
winning, fetohing, engaging; charming, 
enticing, captivating, gripping 

LjjU- jä4ibiya gravitation; attraction; 
attractiveness; charm, fascination; mag- 
netism (fig.); Iure, enticement | O V.^W- 
Jiill ;'. at-tiql gravitational force; i-öU- 
4--.iL.--;. {magnati&iya) magnetism; ^jiU- 
U JX I j. al-jina sex appeal 

L_jji* majüüb attracted; possessed, 
maniacal, insane; (pl. i_o jljf majätfib*) 

maniac, lunatic, madman, idiot | 
<--jil*M mustaifä l-m. mental hospital 

<~öl»«2* mutajädib mutually attractive; 
belonging together, inseparable 

V^-» munjadib attracted ; inclined, 
tending (Jl to) 

jij- jadara u (jadr) to uproot, tearout by the 
roots (* II do.; to extract the root 
(* of a number; math.); to take root 

jJu- jidr t jadr pl. jj-U- judür root (also 
math.); stem, base, lower end; (pl. jtJu-l 
aj4är) stub (of a receipt book, or the 
like) | f j^j j-i-r (iarbi'i) squaro root 

jjij^- jidri radical, root (adj.) 

jJjf tajdlr evolution, root extraction 

£-U- jada' pl. jUJ»- jvd'än young man, young 
fellow (cf. Q f--U- gada'); new, incipient | 
ieJU- ^j^. I coü (karbu, jada'atan) the war 
broke out again, started all over again; 
L»X*- j*>j\ jUl (Z-a77im) he reopened the 
whole affair, he roverted to the earlier 

f-JU- jid' pl. f'-U-l ajgd', f\ji*r judü* 
stem, trunk; stump, tree stump; torso 

^Ju- jid'i truncal 

«J»J>- II to row (* a boat) 

ijlif m\j4df pl. *-J"Jljf majädip 

JJU- ;o<£t2a a (jadal) to be happy, gay, 
ezuberant, rejoice IV to make happy, 
gladden, oheer (• s.o.) 

J.U- jidl pl. JlJ*-l a/jiäJ, JjV ;u^ül 
stump (of a tree) 

JjJU- judail wooden post on which 
cameis rub themselves 

JJu- ^al gaiety, hilarity, exuberance, 

J.U- ja4ü pl. o^V jv4län gay, hilar- 
ious, cheerful, in high spirita, exuberant, 

ü^i*- jadlän* gay, hilarious, oheerful, 
in high spirits, exuberant, happy 

(.i*. jadama t (;a£m) to cut off, chop off 
(*, esp. a part of the body); to 
remove, take out, exciae {> e.g., the 
tonsüs, the appendix ; surg.) ; paaa. 
judima to be afflicted with leprosy 

j-JU- jidm pl. fji*- jußüm, flA»-' ajiäm 

(■IJb- judäm leprosy 

<*I-L- judäma stubble 

fJu-l ajdam 3 pl. t/V 7'admö mutilated 
{from having an arm, a hand, etc., cut 
off); leproua; leper 

AjXt- majdüm leprous; leper 

jj*Ö*- judmür stump 

*jV ja^wa, jidwa, ju4wa pl. ^V ?»^ an ' 
judan, *\J*- jidä' firebrand; burning log 

j- jarra u (jarr) to draw, pull (*; to 
drag, tug, haul (*; to tow (*; 
to trail (a; to drag along {. s.o., 
*; to draw (J* * on s.o.), 
bring (* down (J* upon s.o.); to 
lead (Jl to), bring on, cauBe (Jl; to 
entaü {* e.g., some evil, J* for s.o.); 
(gram.) to pronounce the final consonant 
with t, put (a word) into the genitive | 
~*j j*- j*- (jartratan) to commit an outrage, 
a crime (J* against s.o.); \ijJ jr {q*yv* 
dan) to be in shackles, go shackled; 
i^ß Jl jUl jr (qvrßihi) to secure advan- 
tagea for o.s., feather one's nest; ^ ^ 
<j£> *JLJ (lisänahü bi-kalima) he won't 
let a word escape his lips IV to ruminate 
Vll passive of I ; to be driven ; to be swept 
along, drift, float | »Ijjll Jl >?l (warä'i) 
to withdraw, fall back, give way VIII to 
ruminate j *-VT J^-\ (älämahü) to mull 
over one's grief 

,»- jarr pull{ing), drawing, draft; trac- 
tion; drag(ging), tugging, towage, haul- 
ing; bringing on, causing; genitive | 
jl\ Jjj*. harf al~j. {gram.) preposition; 
I jj. Uj wa-kalumma jarran and so forth 

• ,»- jarra pl. jl^*- jirär (earthenwaie) 

»j»- jarra, jurra trail, track; rut (left 
by a wagon) | i» *j* bi-j. qalam with 
one stroke of the pen 

»j*. jirra cud (of a ruminant) 

,£,»- j- min jarrä because of | i^j*r Cr 
because of you, on your account, for 
your sake 

,1^»- j* min jarrä'i because of, due to | 
b\ *\j~- j- because 

j\ j. jarrär huge, tremendous (army); 
potter; (pl. -ät) tractor; tugboat, steam 
tug, towing launch 

jjjU järür pl. jJsr jawärir* (syr.) 
drawer (of a desk, eto.) 

ljjj\r järüra [leb.) rake (tool) 

•JSr faira pl- J^sr joriPir* guilt; 
offense, outrage, crime | *jst ü* m * rt 
jarlrati because of, on account of 

•jl/r jam™ P 1 - -** ft variet y of BCOr ' 
pion; tractor 

yt mijarr trace, tug (of a harness) 

ij£- majarra galaxy 

Ljlyil ingiräriya (eg.) towage chargea 
for watercraft 

jjjf. majrür drawn, dragged, towed, 
etc.; word governed by a preposition, 
word in the genitive form; (pl. _rj^ 
magärir*) drain, sewer {eg.); j^M Bew- 
eis, sewage System (eg.) 

Jje. mujtarr ruminant (adj. and n.) 

j^»- jaru'a u (:t/r jur'a, S»1^ jarä'a) to dare, 
venture, risk, hazard (Jp, take the 
risk (J* of, jl of doing, have the 


courage (Jp for II to encourage 
(J* • a.o. to V to dare, venture, 
risk, hazard (J* VIII to be venture- 
some, be daring; to become bold, make 
bold (J# with s.o.); to venture (Jp s.tb. 
or upon, have the audacity (J* to 

*iSj*r J ar ? pl- •k>r' ajriycT 1 bold, 
courageous (<_*, J* in; forward, 
immodest, insolent; daring, reckless, fool- 

•T>r jw'a and •»!>►- jarä'a courage, 
boldness, daring; forwardness, insolence 

jjif mujtari' bold, forward 
^l^rt- (Fr.) garäi pl. -äX garage (eg.) 
f Lrt- 9 r äm gram {eg.) 
^-ü^j*r granü granite (eg.) 

JJl_/»- graniti granitic (eg.) 

'«-VT j&riba o (jarab) to be mangy; (eg.) to 
fade (color) II to test (>; to try, try 
out, eBsay (»; to sample (*; 
to rebearse, practica (* ; to attempt 
(*; to put to the test, try, tempt 
(♦ s.o.) | j 4-ij v>!" *° ty one'fl hand at; 
fUVI v>r (ayyöma) to gather experience 

V>r jarab mange ; itch, Scabies 

*->jr j&rib mangy; acabby 

V>r' ajrab*! f. »l(>»- jarbä'*, pl. ^^ 
jurfc and oO/»- j'ar&dn 1 mangy; scabby 

v'>r jiräb pl. *j_^-I a;r»&a, o^». jurub 
sack, bag, traveling bag; knapsack; 
Bcrotum; covering, case; sheath, scab- 
bard (for the sword) 

vlrt" J Uf äb pl. -ät stocking, sock 

*_-i>r 7 or ** a patch of arable land 

**.£■ t&jriba pl. vJ ij ? tajärib^ trial, test; 
tryout; attempt; practica, rehearsal; 
scientific test, experiment; probation; 
trial, tribulation; temptation; experience, 

practice; proof sheet, galley proof, also 

V-i** ~**j£- (matba'iya) 

<~ij£- tajrib trial, test(ing); trial, trib- 
ulation; temptation 

isijf tajribi trial, test (adj.); ex- 
perimental ; based on experience, am- 
pirical | ^^1 ^^iJl ^ film, an-nafs) 
experi mental psychology 

O +&.jf- tajrVnya empiricism (phüos.) 
<~ij* mujarrib experimental ; tester; 

examiner; tempter 
i^t^t mujarrab tried, tested; proven or 

establisbed by experience, time- tested, 

time-tried; experienced, practiced, Bea- 

sonod; man of experience 

'<-?jjr look up alphabetically 

•■*i>r jarba4a = ijj*- 

jj*r jvrbuz pl. •j\ J » r jaräbiza impoetor, 
confidence man, swindler 

*jj*r j&rbaza (also »Jjj*-) deception, 
s windle 

£>-«■ i arbü ' (^ tx-0 p l c^j* i aräbv% 

jerboa (zool.) 

*jXjj*- jarabandlya (and *jXj\j»-) knapsack, 

{Sj-r J*rjwn, <*>^-r jwiüma pl. »jIj-»- 
jaröHm* root ; origin ; germ ; microbe, 
bacillus, bacterium | ryjL I C~£ tahi al-j. 

^j*- look up alphabetically 

Srj? jarjara (•>►->»- jarjara) to gargle; to 
jerk or pull baok and forth; to trail, drag 
(*; totowaway (* |*IL»> j»j»- 
(JpufäAu) to drag one's feet, shuffle along 
II tajarjara pasa. and refl. of I 

•j*-jr farjw gargling; rumbling noise; 
rumble, clatter (of a wagon) 

>r>r jirjir (large, thick) beans 

- jirjlr watercreafl (eg., syr.) 

rj*r jaraha <* (J ar $) to wound (» s.o.); to 
injure, hurt (* s.o.; alao fig., the feeUnga) 
II to invalidste (* testimony), challenge, 
declare unreliable (* a witness), take 
formal exception (*, * to) VIII to commit 
(* an outrage, a crime) | oL-Jl r-j^i 
(sayyi'üt) to do evil things 

r/r fwfy pl« r}/r j* r fy* r_j/r JwüA, 
d\*-jj*z- jurühät, t^j*-\ ajräh wound, in- 
jury, lesion 

r}/r jarräh pl. -ün surgeon | t^jT 
uL-«^l dental surgeon 

**"l/r jiföha Burgery 

t^l/r ?* r ^' surgical | v-L*- *J ü * 
('amallya) surgical Operation 

£j*- jarih pl. ^f/r jarhä wounded, 
injured, hurt 

£j* tajrih surgery; defamation, dis- 


»■jU järih injuring; wounding, sting- 
ing, painful, hurting; rapacious (beaat), 

4^-jU- järiha pl. r-j[>*- jawärih* pred- 
atory animal or bird | j*LII rjj*- j. 
af-fair predatory birds 

rJ>yr jawärih 1 limbs, extremitiee (of 
the body) | **-j\yr JC with might and 
main, with all hia Btrength 

rjj* majrüh pl. fcM- majärih* 
wounded, injured, hurt 

Sj*- jarada u (jard) to peel, paxe (*; to 
remove the shell, peel, rind or husk (* 
of; to denude, divest, strip, bare 
{*; {com.) to take stock; to make 
an inventory (aJL»J! of goods on hand) 
II to peel, pare (*; to remove the 
shell, peel, rind or husk (* of; to 
denude, divest, strip, diapossess, deprive 
(j* ior i s.o. or of); to withhold 
{j* * from s.o.; to draw, unsheathe 
(»Jt-Jl the sword); to unleash (J* * 

against s.o.) ; to send, dispatch { * a 
military detachment, troops, -L> or Ja 
agatnst s.o.); to free (<> * or » b.o. or from) ; to isolate {* ; to abatract 
(*; to divest (j- • s.o. of hia citizen- 
ship, of a rank, of a vested right, etc.) | 
t-^LJI ja o^*- to diaarm s.o. ; j* *— *j ij*- 
to free o.s. from, rid o.s. of, give up 
V pass. of II; to strip o.s., rid o.s., get 
rid (j* or je. of ), free o.a. (j* or y. from) ; 
to be free (j* or jt. from, J for a task); 
to devote o.s. exclusively (J to; to 
give up, renounce (ja or jp; to 
isolate o.b. ; to be absolute 

*/r ? af <* bare, threadbare, shabby, 
worn; (com.) inventory; atocktaking 

ij*- jarid without Vegetation, barren, 
bleak, Btark (landscape) 

* J ß r \ ajrad 1 , f. »la^*- jardit*, pl. i^»- 
jurd desolate, bleak, without Vegetation; 
hairless, bald; threadbare, shabby, worn 
(garment); open, unprotected (border) 

i\j»- jaräd (ooll.; n. un. I) locust(s) | 
Jl*-j il^»- (rahh&l) migratory locust(s); 
^**Jl jl^ ;'. al-bahr langouste, sea oray- 
fish; UjIj*: bi-jarädihä in its entirety 

Juj*- jarid palm branches Btripped of 
their leaves; jereed, a blunt javelin used 
in equestrian games 

••bj>r jarida pl. JJl^*- jarffid* (n. un. 
of J>ij*r) palm-leaf Btalk; list, register, 
roster, index ; newspaper | S-_.jd ~*Hj*r 
{yaumiya) daily newspaper; #1—11 JjI_ht 
;'. al-masä' the evening papera; ä-b^L-l 
ÜUI and i-JLjxJl «-b^-l tho newareel 

ti^jyr' ajrvdi (*yr.) beardless, hairless 

ijf mijrad pl. ijljf majärid 2 scraper 

Juyf tajrid peeüng, paring ; dia- 
robement, Stripping; denudation; depri- 
vation ; divestment ; disarmament ; dis- 
patching (of troops); freeing; isolation; 
abstraction | j-^LJI j» JL/f disarmament 

3 J* 


*Jjjj£ tajrida pl. -äi, .bjljf tajänd* 
military detachment, expeditionary force 

ijjf tajarrud froedom («> or je 
from); isolatedness, Isolation; independ- 
ence, impartiality; abaoluteneaa; ab- 
stractness, abstraction 

*j£- mujarrad denuded, bare, naked; 
freed, free (j* or je from); pure, mere, 
nothing more than; sole; very, absolute; 
abstract; selfless, disinterested; Ist stem 
of the verb [gram.) | (with foll, noun in 
genitivo — mere, sheer, nothing but:) 
ji mujarradu lahwin mere play, just 
fun; *ij£\ i>*^k w i tn the naked eye; 
l* ^jj^-c bi-mujarradi mä as soon as, at 
the very moment when 

lI^St jardal pl. 6^j*r jarädil 3 bücket, pail 

*sr jurad pl- >J'J>r jir^än, jurdän large 

jjij*- j&iaun pl. jöl>r jaräjliP large 

1 (J - J *- jaraaa i (jare) to ring, toll, knell, 
(re)sound II to make experienced, inure 
by severe trials, Borely try (• s.o.; time, 
events) ; to compromise, disgrace, dis- 
credit, expoae, bring into disrepute (w 

^j*r J ars > P rs sound, tone 
^j^ jaras pl. ,_--lj*-l ajräs bell 
i-^*- jursa defamation, public expo- 
sure ; scandal, disgrace 

'öL'j*- jiraäya, vvr jiraiya pl. -dt Jersey, 
woolen sweater; ^-^r Jersey cloth 

^j*. jaraSa u (jarS) to crush (*; to 
grate, bruise, grind (* 

<Art- J ar & ft grating, scraping noise 

cri-/t" 7 ar ** crushed, bruised, coarsely 
ground; crushed grain; grits 

ÜjjU- jSrüki pl. ^jlj»- jawäriS* 
quem, hand mill (for grinding grain) 

^^ jaritfa a (joro^): ^iy ^j-^ (6i- 
ri^tAi) he choked on bis saliva, could not 
awallow hiß saliva (beoause of excitement, 
alarm, or grief), he was very upset, 
in a State of great agitation, deeply 
moved; — jarada u (jard) to choke, 
suffocate {. s.o.) IV *üj. 4-^1 (cf. I) 
to alarm s.o., fill s.o. with apprehension 

^iij»- jaridi ^itjft Ojj ,>i>l JU- 
häla l-j. düna l-qari4 (proverb; lit.: 
choking prevented poetry, i.e.) in the 
face of death one does not think of 
rhyming {among other interpretations) 

fyr j ara ' a a (i ar ') ftQ d jari'a a (jara f ) to 
swallow, gulp, devour (*; to pour 
down, toss down (* a drink) II to make 
(• s.o.) swallow (*; to gulp down 
V to drink {* VIII to swallow, gulp 
down {* 

**>r r jr '°i 7<" , 'o pl« fjT J ura \ •& gulp. 
mouthful, draught; potion, dose (med.) 

Jij*- jarafa u {jarf) and VIII to sweep away 
(*; to wash away (*; to 
shovel away (*; to remove (*; 
to tear away, carry off (*; to carry 
along (* or • s.o. or VII to be swept 
away, be carried away 

J»j*- jurf, juruf pl. J»jj*? jurüf, J»lj*-I 
ajräf underout bank or shore; cliff, 
steep slope, precipice; bluff {along ariver 
or coast) | ^*^1*- *J>r (jalldi) avalanche 

Ülj*- jarräfa pl. -ät, ^Juj'j*- jaräiif 2 
rake; harrow 

J»j^f majraf pl. J»jtf majärif* torrent, 
strong current 

*>j£- mijrafa shovel, scoop; (*yr.) mat- 
tock; trowel 

J»i>f mijräf pl. »Jujlf majärlp shovel, 

J»jU- jdrif torrential (stream, moun- 
tain creek); stormy, violent (emotions, 



^ri^i-l al-jarkas the Circassians 

tS S^ r jarkasi pl. i-S"l_^- jaräkisa Cir- 
cassian (adj. and n.) 

{ST jo-rama i (jarm) to bone ( JH al-lahma 
the meat); — to commit an offense, a 
crime, an outrage (Jp or Jl againat a.o.), 
sin (Jp or Jl against s.o.), injure, härm, 
wrong (Je or Jl s.o.) II to incriminate, 
Charge with a crime (» s.o.; ayr.) IV to 
commit a crime, to sin (Jp or Ji against 
s.o.), do wrong (Je or Jl to s.o.), härm» 
wrong (Jp or J! s.o.) VIII = IV 

aj*- garm pl. ^jj? gurüm {eg.) long, 
flat-bottomed bärge, lighter (naitt.) 

(»j»- jirm pl. j»lj*-l ajräm, j»j*- jurum 
body; mass, bulk, rolume (of a body) | 
<Slei\ c[^-Vl (falalnya) the celestial 

>_^- j'urm pl. |»I_htI °? f öm, |»j_^**- jurüm 
offense, crime, sin 

f^ V Ja jarama surely, certainly, of 

fj*- jarim hulking, bulky, huge, vo- 
luminoua, of great size 

*f.j*r /orima pl* f Lnr jarä'im 3 crime; 
offense; sin | (^^Ji* or) ^^rS" «._■*- (fcufirö, 
'uzmä) capital offense; fljJ-1 üjj\j penal 

|"Lht' *7™m crime; eulpability, delin- 

ij\ J » r \ ijrämi criminal 

?jj£ X- lahm majrüm fillet (meat) 

i.jjf '<*» Sana mujarrama an entire 

(•jjf mujrim criminal; (pl. -ün) a crim- 
inal; evildoer, eulprit, delinquent | >jj* 
jJU reeidivous criminal 

}* ] j*~ joramxz* 


jarämlz 3 limbs, 

legs | *'j^\j*r *> (damma) he beat it, he 
made off 

üU^-1 al-jarmän the Gennanic tribea, the 

ijlv*r jarmäni Germanic, Teutonio 

1< Jj*T ?' t * rn Pl- ^-Hr' a?™n (stone) basin; 
mortar; {eg.) threshing floor, barn | 
4jJj-jJ.I üj*- j. al-ma'müdiya baptiamal 

2 ü\j»r jirän the front part of a camel's neck | 
<>\jj£ 'Sj* ^° become established, take 
root ; o lj*- «-U JJI (oiffÖ, jtränaA«) to apply 
o.a. to and adjust to it, aecustom 
o.s. to 

JIj'j*- iurnäl (eg. also gurnäl) pl. J-jlj*- itorä" 
nil 7 [eg., garäml 2 ) Journal, newspaper, 

£~u\j>r granlt granite 

jj lj*- graniti granitic 

j_^- jarw (jirw, jurw) pl. _^-l a/rin, »1^»- j'irä', 
*'j*r' a 7™** *i_rt"' ajriya puppy, whelp, 
cub (of a dog or beast of prey) 

**JjT Wtea gross (= 12 dozen) 

fjjt^ jarä i (jary) to flow, stream (water) ; to 
run; to huny, ruah; to blow (wind); to 
take place, come to pass, happen, oeeur ; 
to be under way, be in progresa, be going 
on (work); to befall (J s.o.), happen (J 
to); to be in circulation, circulate, bo 
current; to wend one's way (Jl to), 
head (Jl for); to proeeed (J* in aecord- 
ance with); to follow (*., yield, 
give way {,** to, e.g., to a desire);to 
entail (^; (with »Ijj) to run or 
be after, seek to get | *J ^j*. 
„ ^a*». he had a talk with; *\jjt ,jj*- 
(majrähu) to take the same course as, 
be analogous to, follow the same way as, 
proeeed or act in the same manner as; 
f-dl t*>? »^1 *••• iSj»r (minhu ä-$ai'u 
majrä d-dam) it had become second 
natuie to him; j— l*i'l Je ijj*r (alaun) 
to circulate, make the rounds (rumor) ; 



üU JT Jp ^jt to be on everyone's 
Ups; <Ji Je (£,»- (galamtAi) to come to 
8.o/s pen (o.g., a poem); <U^ J* ^_^- 
(&«#a) to follow a plan; J*JI <ic ^jt L 
famolu) the way things are handled, 
what is oustomary practice ; J**JI o t (jj*- 
to be in foroe, be valid, be oommonly 
observed (law, custom); ^ : *WI &jr 
to be customary, be common practice« 
be a common phenomenon, bave gained 
vogue; J* öUL ^j*. to do custom- 
arily, be in the babit of doing; 
^r-sl* diJd £>j*- that was their habit 
II to cause to run | öjj tf^ (rigoAü) to 
make s.o.'s mouth water III to concur, 
agree, be in agreement (• with s.o., j 
in; to keep paoe, keep up (. with 
s.o.; also intelleotually); to be able to 
follow (. s.o.); to go (along) (* with); to 
adapt o.s., adjust, conform (* to), be 
guided (* by) IV to cause to flow, make 
flow (*; to oanse to run, set lunning 
(*, • s.o.,; to make (* take 
place or happen, bring about (a; 
to oarry out, exeoute, enforce, put into 
effect, apply (*, e.g., rulea, regu- 
lations); to oarry out, perform (* an 
action); to set going, set in motion (* a 
projeot), launch (* an undertaking) ; to 
Channel (J» or J * to), bestow, 
settle (J* or J * upon s.o.); to 
impose, infliot (J» », a penalty, on 
s.o.) | 4tj£ (j-j».! (tajribatan) to carry 
out an ezperiment; LL5^ <,£/»-' *o con " 
duct an in veetigation ; ÜU1 <l ^^j-l (*'fi* 
natan) to grant s.o. a subsidy; ^jt *lj*-l 
(majrd, with foll. genitive) to treat 
in the same manner as, put on 
equal footing with 

iSjT J ar V course | J* L_^- jaryan 'aiä 
in accordance with, according to 

iSSj*- Jm min jarüka and «il>l_^- ,> 
min jar&ika because of you, on your 
account, for your sake 

»Ijj»- jarrä* runner, racer 

äjJj*- jir&ya pl. -<K daily (food) ra- 
tions; pay, aalary | öt^»- Jb* 'U giräya 
(eg.) coarse bread 

öljj*- jarayän flow, fluz; course; stream 
iSj* majran pl. j\jt majärin water- 
course, stream, rivulet, gully; torrent or 
flood of water; pipeline; canal, ohannel; 
drain, sewer, pl. sewers, Bewag© System; 
power line (et.); ourrent (ei.); current (of 
a stream); guido rail (lechn.); course (of 
events), progress, passage | JjJl &jZ- m. 
l-batd Urethra (anat.); ( _ r i^JI &{£■ m. t~ 
tanaffvs respiratory traot (anat.); ^jt 
*\ji\ m. l-hawä* air stream, current of 
air, draft; *\jA X>-\ to take its oourse; 
Bee also ^j*. I and IV 

oL^L mäjarayät, mäjariy&t (pl. of 
iSj*r M (course of) events, happenings 

•\j\jL mujäräh keeping up (with foll. 
genitive : with) ; conformity (with foll. 
genitive: with) j J »ljl£ mujärätan li 
in conformity with, in acoordance with, 
aooording to 

•!j»-l ijra* pl. -ät Performance (of an 
action) ; exeoution ; enforcement ; pl. 
measures, Steps, proceedings J c»Uj»-l Jj£\ 
(itta$a4a) to take measures; SJ^iliC'Ulj»-! 
(qänünxya) legal steps, proceedings at law 

jU- järin flowing, Streaming, running; 
ciroulating; current, present | tfjU-1 _^iJI 
(Sahr) the ourrent month 

4£jU- järiya pl. -ät, j\jt- jawärin girl; 
slave girl; maid, servant; ship, veasel 

- jazza u (jan) to cut off, olip (*; to 
Bhear, shear off (*; esp. the wool of 

•jt~ jizza pl. jj»- jixaz, J\j*- jazä'iz* 
shora wool, fleece, olip 

»jlj»- juxäza pl. -ät slip of paper; label, 

jlj». jazzäz pl. -ün shearer, woolshearer 
jjf mijazz woolshears 



lj»- jaza'a a and Till to be content, oontent 
o.a. (i_* with) II to divido, part, separate, 
break up, cut up, partition (* 
V to divide, break up, be or beoome di- 
vided; to be aeparated, be detaohed, be 
partitioned off; to be divisible, separable 
(je. from) 

*>r /uz* pl. »|>^l ajzä* part, portion; 
constituent, oomponent; fraction; divi- 
lion; seotion; the 30th part of the Koran 
(= 2 hizb) 

Ojr /«*'* partial; minor, trivial, in- 
aignificant, unimportant; (jur.) minor, 
petty ; LJj*-. juz'iyan partly ; oLJj»- 
juz'iyäl details, particulara; trivialitiea; 
aubordinate parte; divisiona, aections 
(o.g., of a court of justice) | *Jj*- a|>« 
{mawädd) petty casea (jur.); SJjr ry»r 
(junah) aummary deliota (ju-r.); v>r f^ 
oourta of aummary justice; *Jj*- ÖLJ 
(niydoa) p&rquet of a aummary court; 
Vjr «k^- minor incident; *-I/r *i>-J 
(fcutPtya) part payment; oUSJIj oLi^jLl 
(fcuttiydf) the particular and general as- 
pecta, the minor and the major isauea 

*&jß? juxai* pl. -ät molecule 

Jlj*-1 ajzä'l pl. -fin pharmaoist, drug- 

^1^1 ajzäji pl. -lya phannacist, drug- 

V'j*-' ajzä'iya and üU-lj»-! ajzäJpäna 
pl. -dt pharmacy, drugatore 

«jjjf tajzi'a di vision; partition; Sep- 
aration; dissociation; breakdown (into 
claaaea, oategoriea, etc.); fragmentation f 
*J/»«iU JjÜ divisible; 4jJj*£JI ÄJ^jIS divisi- 
bility; ö'j^l ^U retaUer, rotail merchant 

üUj»- juzdän, jixdän pl. -Öf wallet; change 

'jj*- jazara u (;'aw) to alaughter; to kill, 
butcher (* an animal); — tu (jazr) to 
Bink, fall, drop, ebb (water) 

jj»- /ozr alaughter; butchering; ebb 
(of the eea) 

•jjr jazra blood aacrifice 

jjJt fa&r pl* jyr ;uzur alaughter 

jlj*- ;audr pl. I, -fin butcher 

*jjfr jazira pl- y'j»- jaziFir*, jj»- ju* 
zur island | Syj*- *r* Ä&At* 7- peninsula; 
«y^Ll AI Jazira, (Northwest) Mesopo- 
tamia; J"I>LI Algeria; Algiers; ^yJli^y- 
/. al-arab Arabia, the Arabian Peninaula; 
olJU-M y M>i(£Ü«I<W) the Canary Islands; 
»1^-iA^ I '*j_}L\ (Jca4rä') Algeciraa (aeaport in 
SW Spain) 

<$js? jaxari insular; (pl. -ün) islander 

,sJ\j»r jazä'iri pl- -*» Algerian (adj. 
and n.); islander 

jjfi- majzir pl. jjlrf. majäzir* alaughter- 
house, abattoir; butohery 

•jj* majzara pl. jjlrf- majäzir* butoh- 
ery; masaaore, oarnage 

*jj»- /«aar (coli. ; n. un. I) carrot(a) 

fj». jazi'a a (jaza", £j>- jtuü") to be or be- 
oome anxious, wonied, coneerned; to 
be aad, unhappy (j* about); to feel 
regret (J* for a.o.), pity (J* a.o.); to 
mourn (J* for s.o.) V to break apart, 
break, snap 

9 j+- jaz* onyz 

f-j». juz' axle; ahaft (Uchn.) 

fj*- jaza' anxiety, uneasineaa, appre- 
henaion, ooncern; anguiah, fear; aadneas 

f-j*- jazi* restless, impatient; anxious, 
wonied, uneasy, apprehensive 

fjjr Z* 8 ** an<1 PJ^T /**•' r 08 ^« 88 ; i m " 
patient; anxious, worried, uneasy, ap- 

9j£ mujazza* marbled, veined; varie- 
gated, dappled 


t_j>- III to act at random, blindly, indis- 
oriminately, take a ohance; to speculate 
(fin.); to speak vaguely, in general terms; 
to riflk, Btake (v | *— *j <JijU- to 
riak one's life; j <> <J»jU- to plunge s.o. 
into (some adventure) 

<J»lj*- yuaS/ purcbase of a certain a- 
mount of things- (Isl. Law); Ulj*- jtuä* 
/an at random, haph&zardly 

Üjtf mujäzafa raanness, recklessness, 
foolhardiness; riak, hazard; adventure, 

J»jljf mujäzif rash, reckless, foolhardy ; 
adventurous; venturesome 

1 J^>>- javula u to be considerable, abun- 
dant, plentiful IV .IUI *j J>1 ('a^J'a) 
to give generously, openhandedly, lib- 
erally to s.o. VIII to write shorthand 

J*- jad and Jjj»- jazii pl. Jl^ /»- 
zäl abundant, plentiful, ample, mnch; 
pure, lucid, eloquent (style) | ^tjl <Jj*- 
of sound, unerring judgment; IjSli «j£i 
^jj*- fafcaroAü Sukran jazllan he thanked 
him profusely; *^jJ»- lj£i many thanks! 

*Jj*- jizlo pieoe, slioe 

SJIj*. jaztUa profusion, abundance ; 
(rhet.) purity (of style) 

J>£ mujtazil atenographer 
'Jjj^- look up alphabetically 

B üVj*- juzlän ~ ülj>J*- 

*j.j*- jazama i (jazm) to cut off, cut Bhort, 
olip (*; to judge; to decide, Bettle 
(*; to be positive (u> about), be 
absolutely certain (.-> of; to assert 
authoritatively (^; to make up 
one's mind, decide, resolve (J* to do; to impose, make incumbent (J* * on s.o.); (gram.) to pronounce the 
final consonant (of a word) without a 
vowel; to put (* a verb) into the apoco- 
pate form or the imperative 


>-j*- jazm cutting off, clipping; deeision; 
resolution, resolve; apodiotio judgment; 
(gram.) apocopate form j rjA-l <*"iU 'alämat 
al-j. = jazma 

<*j*- jazma diacritical mark (°) indi- 
cating vowellessness of a final consonant 

fjU- jäzim decisive; peremptory, def- 
mite, definitive, final; firmly convinced, 
absolutely certain (^ of; (pl. fjlj»- 
jawäzim?) governing the apocopate form 

ajj£- majzüm cut off, cut Bhort, clipped ; 
decided, Bettled; (gram.) voweüess (final 
consonant) ; in the apocopate form 

rj>y+ munjazim (gram.) in the apoco- 
pate form 

3 <uJ*- jazma pl. -ät, *j*- jizam (pair of) shoes, 
(pair of) boote j J>Ly <*j»- (6»-ri6öf) laced 
boote; i*U <*j»- (Jammö*a) patent-leather 

a ^J*- gazmaQx (eg.) and JL»J*- gizamäti 
(eg.), jazmäti (syr.) pl. -iya shoemaker 

^j*. 7'azä t (»lj*- jozä*) torequite, recompenee 
(• s.o., u or J* for), repay (• to s.o., 
u or J*; to reward (* s.o., *-. or 
J* for); to punish (• s.o., u or J* for); 
to aatisfy (• s.o.), give satisfaction (» to 
b.o.); to compensate, make up (<~> * for with or by); to compensate, offset 
(je | \j^- Äiil iJlj*- (kairan) may 
God bless you for it! jUi- »lj*- »[^ (jazä'a 
ainimmära) he returned to him good 
for evil III to repay, requite (i_> * 
with, <~> • s.o. for), reoompenae (<-> • s.o. 
for); to reward (J* or u * s.o. for); to 
punish ( J* oru« s.o. for) | \_y~- >jjU- (Icoi* 
ran) he invoked God's reward upon them 
IV to auffice (• s.o.), do for a.o. (*); to 
take the place, serve instead (je of), re- 
place (je. 

»lj*- jazä* requital, repayment; rec- 
ompense, return; compensation, setoff; 


amends, reparation; punishment, pen- 
alty | j-üJ »l>- {naqdi) fine 

J'yr J az ä*i penal 

Öj»- j»zya pl. j_^- 7'tzan, »l_^- jixä* 
tax ; tribute ; head tax on free non- 
Muslims under Muslim rule 

Öjjf tajziya reward 

•Ijl* mujäzäh requital, repayment; 

^_ r j'aara u {jas8, <_* majaMa) to touch, 
feal, handle (*; to palpate, examine 
by touch {*; to test, sound, probe 
(*; to try to gain Information 
(a about), try to find out (*; to 
spy out (* | *-iJ l _ r » r (nabdahü) to 
feel s.o.'s pulse, (fig.) »^1 ^^J ^r*- to 
probe, sound out, try to find out 
V to try to gain Information { * about), try 
to find out (*; to reconnoiter, scout, 
explore (*; to be a spy, engage in 
espionage ; to spy, pry, Bnoop ( J* on a.o.) | 
IjU^-l *J ,^— jtf (akbäran) to gather In- 
formation for s.o., spy for s.o. VIII to 
touch, feel, handle (*; to spy out 

u ~* r jasax u J r \ 4J* forty al-j. delicate 
to the touch, having a tender surface, fresh 

orj"W jteü* pl- a-f^jr jawbü? ßpy 
i-j^l*- jä&ü&a woman spy 

(j-^-l*- jäsüsi of espionage, spy- (in 

L^-l*- jä&ü&iya spying, espionage 
* *j*. jausaaa spying, espionage 

ljr ^- majass spot which one touches or 
feels; sense of touch | l _ r A\ jl*- ka&in 
al-m. coarse to the touch, having a rough 

u ^- mijasB probe (med.) 

( __ r — jf tajaasua spying, espionage 

^U jäsi' hard, rough, rugged 

r II to make corporeal, invest with a 
body, embody, incamate (*, give 
concreto form (* to; to render or 
represent in corporeal form {* V to 
become corporeal, assume concrete form, 
materialize; to become incamate (Chr.); 
to become three-dimensional 

4—»- jasad pl. jL_*-I ajsäd body | J-* 
A_i-1 'xd al-j. and A_i-t Lr J- Corpus Christi 
Day (Chr.) 

ja— »- jasadi bodily, fleshly, carnal 

jlo—i-. jusdänl bodily 

j—jf taja&sud materialization ; incar- 
nation (Chr.) 

4— £■ mujassad embodied, oorporined 

j— »^ mutajaarid corporeal; incamate 

.*- josara u to span, cross, traverse (* ; 
(JjL^ jasära, jj~*- jusür) to venture, 
risk ( J*, have the courage ( J* to do II to build a dam or dike; to em- 
bolden, encourage (• s.o., J* to do 
VI to dare, venture, risk ( J*, have 
the audacity (J* to do; to be bold, 
forward, insolent, impudent (J* with 
s.o.) VIII to span, oross, traverse (* 

_,-*■ jiar pl. _ r * r \ ajaur, j>-*- juaür 
bridge; dam, dike, embankment, levee; 
— (pl. ~vj-*r juaüra) beam, girder; axle, 
axletree | 'Sj**i* j~*- (mutaharrik) movable 
bridge; jL* ^ (muaüaq) Suspension 
bridge; f'U ^ pontoon bridge, floating 

jj— *- jasür bold, daring; forward, in- 
solent, impudent 

ljl~*r jas&ra boldnees, recklessness, in- 
trepidity; forwardneas, insolence 

jjj- tajäsur boldness, recklesaness, in- 
trepidity; forwardneas, insolence 

^-l*£. mutajätir bold, daring; forward, 
insolent, impudent 



jL-*. seo jU-»- 

— *- jaeuma u (<•!—*- jo*i7na) to be great, big, 
large, bulky, huge, immense II to make 
corporeal, invest with a body {*, 
give (* shape or form; to materialize 
{*; to cause to stand out, bring out 
(*; to enlarge, magnify (*; 
e.g., microecope) ; to make big, bulky, 
huge (*; to play up, exaggerate 
(* V to become corporeal, become 
embodied; to materialize; to assume a 
form, take shape, become tangible or con- 
crete; to be materialized; to become big, 
large, huge, increase in volume, grow in size 

_*- jism pl. j*L-*-l ajsäm, {j-t jusüm 
body (also O of an automobile); sub- 
st&nce, matter; masa; form, shape 

L i*- *- jitmi bodily, phyBioal; substan- 
tiaJ, material 

*_»- jasim pl. j»L*- jisäm great, big, 
large; voluminous, bulky, huge; vast, 
immense ; stout, oorpulent; weighty, most 
signiöcant, momentous, prodigious 

^_»- jusaim pl. -ät particle (phys.); 
corpuscle (biol.) 

_*-! ajaam* more voluminous, larger; 
stouter, more corpulent 

i*L*- jasäma size, volume; stoutness, 
olj-*- jusmän body, masa 

J^-*- jusmänl bodily, physical, cor- 
poral | Jlr-J-I w-Jitdl corporal punishment 

-— jf tajtüm embodiment; «lief; en- 
largement, magnification, magnifying 

_jt mujassam bodily, corporeal; 
(math.) body ; three-dimensional ; tangible, 
material, concreto; raised, relieflike, 
standing out in relief (e.g., 3*-j* <!■£>- 
relief map); relief; enlarged, magnified | 
— * 1* (film) three-dimenaional (stereo- 
scopic) film, 3-D motion picture 

vl<-*- jaamäniya* Gethsemane 

(j— *-) L-*- jaaä u to become hard, solid 

u £»- ja$$a u (jaü) to grind, crush, bruise, 
grate (* 

Äi*- juiia hoarseness, huskiness, raucity 
(of the voice) 

^ifrlq- jaUS ground, grated, cnuhed 

im £* r \ ajaiP, f. .Li»- jaSSä'* hoarse, husky, 
raucous (voice) 

Uj-. II and T to belch, burp 

»Li»- juSä* and »ll*- jufa belch(ing), 

jLl»- juiär livestock 

ȣ*/ ja&i'a a ijaSa*) and V to be covetous, 

«-£*- jaSa' greed, avidity, inordinate 

ȣ*- yoii' greedy, covetous 

_!*- jaJSima a (ja&m, <*LL»> j'oiäma) to take 
upon o.s. (* some hardship) II to make 
(• s.o.) suffer or undergo (*; to 
impose (* • on s.o. difficult), bürden 
(* * s.o. with V to take upon o.s., 
suffer, undergo (*, e.g., hardships) 

J^j- (eg., of. JÜ iiHl) sample, specimen; 

^ II to plaster, whitewash (* 
ü-*T TW gypeum; plaster of Paria 

,jL-*»- ü tajaffana to lounge, Stretch lazily, 

«•»- jt'a beer 

«_^u>. II to corrugate (* 

L«»- ;a'6a pl. v^r ?*'<*& quiver; tube, 
pipe; gun barrel; O oartridge pouch 
(8yr.) | jLj^I i-«r j. äffbär town gosaip 


mm>- ja'ja'a (*•»>•»- ja'ja'a) to clamor, roar, 
shout; to clatter, clap; to bluster, ex- 
plode in anger 

**>>**- ja'ja'a hubbub, rumpus, olamor, 
roar; creak, clapping noiae (of a mill 
wheel) ; bluster 

PImu*. ja' ja" clamorous, boiBteroua, 
noisy; bawler, loud-mouthed person 

Xu- ja'uda u (~*}j>*r jv'üda, »iL*, ja'äda) and 
T to become curly, frizzed, kinky, ourl 
(hair); to be wavy; to be creased; to be 
wrinkled II to curl, frizz {m; the 
hair); to wave (*; the hair); to 
crease, pleat, plait (* cloth); to wrinkle 
{* the skin) 

•u»- ja'd (or oJl 0*»- j. al-yad, >J»SJl .u»- 
j. al-kqff) stingy, niggardly, tightfiated 

•0*»- ja' da curl, lock, ringlet 

tjXu- ja'dl and 0**-l aj'ad* curly 

ti-Lj*- pa'äfi (ey.) bum, loafer, good- 

4-*l* tajä'id* wrinkles, lines (of the face) 

klilxwf taja"udät wrinkles 

•Uf muja"ad curled, frizzed; wavy; 
furrowed, creased; wrinkled 

■Uo muiaja"id curled, frizzed; wavy; 
furrowed, creased; wrinkled 

«J-u»- ja'dana idle talk, goeaip (Üb.) 

_ / **- ja'ara a {ja'r) to drop its manure (animal) 

öl_^u-. _y) abü ji'rän* Bcarabaeus; düng 

jim^ ja'jar little river, creek 

J*»- ja'ala a (ja'l) to make (*; to put, 
place, lay (*; to create (*; 
to effect, bring about (*; to make 
(* * a rule, a principle, or the like, 
• « s.o., e.g., leader, king, etc.), appoint 
(• • s.o. to an office, rank, or the like); 
to fix, set (* * a Bum, a price, at); to 

think, deem, believe (<_> • or • • s.o. to 
be ..., * * to be ...), take (<_> • or • • 
s.o. for, * * for); to represent (*, •_)>•* j ae, or in the form of, 
eise); to appoint, settle (J * for 
s.o., in s.o. 's favor) ; to give, grant, 
concede (J *, an advantage, to s.o.), 
put s.o. (J) in the way of (*); to 
attribute (* J to s.o., maintain that (>) belongs to s.o. (J); to entrust 
(Jl * to s.o.); to put, get {» s.o., 
*, into a specific State or condition); 
(with foll. imperf.) to begin to, aet out to| 
Jaäj *L». to induce b.o. to do; to make 
s.o. do (in a narrative); Hy^t *Lu>- 
(bi-manzilati) to place s.o. on equal 
footing with ; «.u Jjbi. j *L*. (/» mutend* 
wali yadihi) to bring or put within 
s.o.'s reach III to seek to bribe, try to 
win (<_> » s.o. with 

J**- ju'l pl. JUij-I afäl pay, wages; 
piece wages; reward, prize 

Jj»»- ju'U: ^- Jltfl {iUifäq) piece - 
work contract 

J**- jv'al pl. ö">U»- ji'län düng beetle; 

«ll»» ji'äla, ja'ala, ju'äla pl. JJU*. 
ja'ä'iP pay, wages; allowance; reward, 
prize; bribe 

L»l>>>- jugräßyä and vi/** - jufiräfiya geog- 
raphy | S.«.J» vL^ (/oM'iya) physical 

jl>*- jugräfi geographica!; geographer 

i_i»- Jaffa (Ist pers. perf. jafaftu) i (JU». 
jafäf, ü»>i»- jufüf) to dry, become dry; 
to dry out II to dry, make dry (* B.tb.) 

»JiU*- jafäf dryness; desiccation; dry- 
ing up; dullnesa 

«JiLijf tijfäf pl. «Juil* tajäfif* protective 

tajftf drying; desiccation; de- 
hydration; drainage 


<-Jl*- J ä Jf dfJ I *-J^r^*- J* {qalam hibr) 
ball-point pen 

<Jii£ mujaffaf dried, desiccated, de- 
hydro ted; olüjt dehydrated foods 

•Li*- /u/d* useless, vain, futile | »Li*- «_^i 
dahaha jufä'an to be in voin, be of no 
avail, pass useleaaly 

C-i*- jt/J, c*i*- (5t/f (pronounced £»/(; ep.) 
pincers, tweezers; metal clamp | cu*- 
üLj-i j. Saryän arterial olamps 

jüj*; (pronounced SiftiH; eg.) filigree 

ilbu-. jt/titfc farm, country estate; govero- 
ment land {Pal.) 

ji*- jafr, jÄl\ i& 'ü™ al-j. divination, for- 


ijj*- jufra pl. jji»- jujar pit, hole 

Ji*- jafala i u (jafi, J>**- jw/ü0 an< l IV to 
start, jump with fright; to shy (horse) 
II to start, rouse (*, • s.o.); to scare 
away (• s.o.) 

Ji*- jafl and J>«*- jw/ü* 1 fright, alarm; 

tiiLU- (pronounoed Siflik; eg.) 

ja*- jafn pl. ü>i*- jufün, OLL*-! aj/dn eyelid 

iU*- ;'a/na pl. 6 Li*- ;»/än, iLi*- jafanät 
bowl; graps vine 

(^i*-) Li*- jafä u {jafw, »Li*- jafä') to be rough, 
coaree; to treat (♦ s.o.) roughly, harshly; 
to turn away (• from), shun, avoid, flee 
(• s.o.) III to treat (• s.o.) roughly, 
rudely, harshly; to be oruel (• to s.o.); 
to be crosa (• with s.o.); to elude, flee 
(« s.o.; slumber); to offend (* against 
good taste, one's sense of honor, or the 
like) VI to withdraw (j* from), shun, 
avoid (• b.o.); to loathe {je- s.o.,, 
have an aversion (je to) ; to display rüde 
manners, aot the ruffian 

ji+- jafw roughneas, harshness 

*^i*- jafwa roughneas; estrangement, 
alienation ; disagreement, dissension, 

•Li*- jafä' roughness, harshneae; stern- 
neas; antipathy, aversion, distaate, loath- 
ing; estrangement, alienation 

x y r \ ajfä refraining even more (J 
from), more averse (J to 

«jU- jäfin pl. «Li*- jufäh harsh, rough, 
coarse; brutiah, uncouth, rüde 

iiTU- look up alphabetically 

jS^*- III (syr.) to tease (• s.o.) 

*J*- jaüa i (J^*- jaläl) to be great, lofty, 
exalted, illustrious, sublime; to be too 
great (j* for), be beyond (jt), be 
far above (je) | j~»J-l J* Jr ('an 
il-hofir) to be innumerable II to honor, 
dignify, exalt {• s.o.); to cover (*, 
esp. the ground, as snow, plante, etc.); 
to envelop, wrap, drape, clothe ; to border, 
edge {*, ^ with) IV to honor, digni- 
fy, revere, venerate, esteem highly, exalt 
( • s.o.) ; to deem too high, too exalted ( j* 
for, consider far beyond {je-) 
VI to deem o.s. far above ( je) X to 
be great, exalted, sublime 

J*- jatt great, outstanding; bolky 

J*- juÜ major portion, bulle, majority, 
main part | *!*- jvüuhü most of it; t*V' J*- 
;. al-umma the majority of the people; 
4-i U J»- ite main Contents; *jl JUL U J»-j 
(jvüu) that muoh, at least, can be said 

JL- jalal important, significant, mo- 
mentous, weighty 

J*- jvlid pl. Jl*- jvkd matter of great 
importanos, momentous undortaking, 
great feat, exploit 

<U jvUa, jitta droppings, düng (of 
animals); Jutta pl. Jl*- julal (oannon) 
ball; bomb 



<U- jnüa attire, elothing | <ijjX\ 1U-1 
(1J^5ÜI) (habrawiya, kahnütiya) epis- 
copal (sacerdotal) vestments (Chr.) 

JJ*- jtdtl pl. oU-l a;tH<S' 8 , Ü*-l ajtüa, 
JJlU- jalä'Ü* great, important, significant, 
weighty, momentous; lofty, exalted, 
sublime; reverod, honorable, venerable; 
glorioua, splendid 

J-^U jaläl loftiness, sublimxty, august- 
ness; splendor, glory 

"*}•£>- jaläla loftiness, subUmity, august- 
ness; majesty | tl'^i-l (i-»-U*) !_^-L* His 
(Her) Majesty, illil iJ-^U- 7. al-malik His 
Majesty, the King 

J»-l ajall 2 groater; more sublime; more 

iLfi majalla pl. -ä( periodical; review, 
magazine | v^*—-' *l£ (iwfcü'iya) weekly 
magazine; s_+- ^f (JoAriya) monthly 
publication; »_; i^U iL* (Aüflsa) pro- 
fessional Journal for . . . ; *&+-*$ \ iL*. 
lawbook, code; jol^l iLf do. 

<U" tajifa and JlU-i »jiöZ honor, 
distinction; esteem, deference, respect; 

a J*- juÜ rose 

t-»}U- jwZafc, juüäb rose water; julep 

i>;:>U- (Fr. gtlatine) ielätin jelly 

V - ^*- (Fr. glaci) glaseh (eg.) kid leather 

1 i_L- jalaba i u (jalb) to attract (a; to 
fetch, get, bring (a, J to s.o.); toim- 
port (a goods); to bring about (a a state, 
condition) ; to bring (a härm, shame,etc, 
Jp upon s.o.) ; to gain, win, obtain (* ; 
to earn (a; (vj^r fuliib) to scar 
over, heal (wound) II to shout, clamor; 
to be noisy, boisterous IV to earn, gain, 
acquire (a; = II; VII pass. of I 
VIII to procure, bring, fetch, get (*; to draw (a on; to import (* 

goods) X to import (a goods); to fetch, 
summon, call in (» s.o.); to attract, draw 
(a, a s.o.,; to seek to attract or win 
(a, • s.o.,; to get, procure (a 

!_Jj>- jalb bringing, fetching; procure - 
ment; acquisition; importation, import; 
causation, bringing on, bringing about 

!_Jj>- jalab imported; foreign 

i_-i*- jalab and <JU- jalaba clamor; 
uproar, tumult, turmoil 

<JU- julba scar 

i_--L- jalib imported, foreign; (pl. ^1*- 
jaJbä, -LU- julabä' 2 ) foreign slave 

^■^U- jalläb attractive, captivatmg ; 
importer, trador; see also alphabetically J 
i—JI v^T a ' av 6 trader 

J-j-^U- galläbiya [eg.) pl. -ät, ^"^U- galä» 
Üb 1 galabia, a loose, shirtlike garment, 
the common dress of the male population 
in Egypt 

<_jLU- see below under i_- -U- 

i_Jj^-1 ajlab 2 more attractive, more 

d_Lf majlaba pl. i_JLf majälib* causa- 
tive factor, motive, reason, cause, oc- 

u r J'^u-l istijläb procurement, acquisi- 
tion; importation, import; supply; at- 
traction | j>^LJI ^"iUiJ promotion of 
tourist traffic 

JU- jälib causative factor, motive, 
reason, cause, occasion 

2 ^ r >'iU- juläb, julläb rose water; julep 

3 LL- jalaba jalap (bot.) 

1—-U- II tajalbaba to clothe o.s. (l-> with), be 
clothed, be clad (l_> in a garment, also 

<_jLU- jilbäb pl. «_-xj">U- jaläblb* garment, 
dress, gown; woman's dress 



üLU- jidvbbän ohickling vetoh, grass pea 
(Lathyrus Bativus) 

1 JmJU> jaljala to re verberate; to resound, ring 
out; to rattle; to shake (* 

J**U jvljul pl. Jr^r jaläjiP (little) 
bell, Bleigh bell; cowbell; jingle 

iUJj- jaljala sound of a bell; lond, 
shrill sound 

J^Lf mujaljil shrill, pieroing; ring- 
ing, resoimding, rererberant 

'iUJ»- juljula, ILnJU-I J-*- jabalal-j. Golgotha 

■ö^UJ»- jidjtdän, jüjilän Besame 

«U ;aZ«Aa a O'aJaA) to be or become bald 
^Ul a/ZoA", f. -l^L- jalhä'*, pl. ^U juiÄ 
bald-headed, bald 

«L- jalafca a and II to sharpen (*; to 
whet, hone {* a knife), strop (* a razor); 
to stretch, extend, roll out (> metal) 
*J*- j'aZfc grindstone, whetstone, hone 

ai*. jalada i {jald) to whip, flog, lash (• s.o.); 
— jalida a to be frozen, freeze; — jaluda 
u to be tough, hardy, undismayed, stead- 
fast, patient II to bind (* a book); (to 
oaase) to freeze (* III to fight (# s.o.) 
IV to freeze; to be frozen, be oovered 
with ice V to take heart; to show o.s. 
tough, hardy, robust; to resign o.s. to 
patience; to bear, Buffer VI to engage in 
a sword fight 

oi». jald flogging; — (pl. :oU-l ajläd) 
staunch, steadfast; strong, sturdy 

oi*- jild pl. äjl*- jvlüd, J'iU-l ajlödskin, 
hide; leather f oUic oi*. (suktiyän) 
morocoo; fli oi*- (lammä') patent leather 

».U*- jUda akin, hide; pieee of leather; 
race | LixL- ^>\ Um jildatinä our country- 
man, our fellow tribesman, pl. bJ-ü*- j-> 
banü j. 

t^oi*. jildi dermal, outaneous, skin 
(adj.) f 3j-Ü*- <j*'j*' 8 '" 11 diseases 

•0-1*- julaida pl. -dt membrane, pel- 
liole; O film (phot.) 

oi*. j'afcwi endurance; suffering; pa- 
tience; firmament 

Hol», joüo lash, Btroke with a whip 

O-l*- jolüJ pl. »IxL- juladä*' staunoh, 
steadfast; strong, sturdy 

0-1*- jalid iee | 0-1*- J-*- jafai 7. iceberg; 
O-ill j- 4*Li (<#'<*) ice floe 

i$0-l*- jaZidtioy, ice-oovered, glacial, iee 
(adj.); snow-oovered | ^-lU;I j~«JI {'ap) 
the Ice Age 

j^L- 7o2tZ<f long-suffering, patient 

j'iU jalläd pl. -fin leather merohant; 
executioner, hangman 

»j^U- jaläda and *^>U- julvda endurance, 

loLf mijlada whip, lash, scourge 

oJLf tajlid freezing; bookbinding 

i'iU jtfcjrf fight, battle (against) 

oLf tajaüvd endurance, patience 

-drf. mujaüid; < r &\ oU m. a/-ih**u& 

oi* mujaUad frozen, ioy, ice-covered; 
bound (book); (pl. -ät) volume (book) 

oJlf mujälid pl. -an gladiator 

ol»u* mvlajaüid patient 

J^U- jitiauz (ooll.; n. un. •) hazelnut; hazel 

fJ Aj r jalaaa i (,j->U- ?«&**) to Bit down (Jl 
with s.o., at a table, etc., J» on a chair); 
to sit (Jl with s.o., at a table, J* on a 
chair) | *Upl Jl ^^JL- (rasaäm) to Bit for 
a painter III to Bit (* with s.o., next to 
s.o., in b.o.'r Company); to keep s.o. (•) 
Company IV to ask to sit down, make sit 
down, seat (• s.o.) 

*~L- jal&a pl. -ät seat (in an auditorium) ; 
seseion (of parliament, of a committee, 



of a court, eto.) ; party, gathering, meet- 
ing | 5-JU- JÖ* *aqada jalsaian to convene 
a Session ; i*U «JL- ('dmma) plenary 

«JL- jtba manner of sitting 

)>r JU- jaZi« pl. »Ul*- julasä'* participant 
in a social gathering; table oompanion; 
one with whom one sits together; *-*!*- 
the man who was at the party with him 

<-xU- jaltsa lady oompanion; fem. of 

^j^r ftdüs sitting; sitting down; 
accession to the throne; pl. of ^U- 
jälis sitting 

^jjjt majlis pl. ^Lf majälif seat; 
Session room, oonferenoe room; party, 
gathering, meeting; sooial gathering ; 
Session, sitting; councü meeting; counoil; 
ooncilium ; collegium, College ; board, 
oommittee, commission; administrative 
board; court, tribunal | *Jjt j in a.o.'s 
presence, in s.o.'s Company; *__j^Lji ^^JLf 
and ^jk ijJjL disciplinary board; ( _ r JLf 
tj-i-tj conatituent assembly; jliT -\* 
regional court {tribunal regional; Tun.); 
1*VI iJ SA m. al-umma parliament (Ir.); 
^Vl ^ySjt m. al-amn the Seourity 
Counoil; üoiJI ,jjjc. m. al-baladtya and 
i^jJj ( _ r JLf (baZtuft) local Council, munic- 
ipal counoil; <~>^J-I ,jA*- m. al-harb war 
Council; t _ $ — »- ^^-Lf {Aa*oi) probate court 
(for Muslims; %.); -Us* ^M (mubtalif) 
mized court (eg.); fli-dl ^Sfi- defense 
oouncil; \j\>*j\ ^^-U m. oZ-üZöra ad- 
ministrative board, committee of manage- 
rnent, directorate; board of directors (of 
a oorporation or bank); i^-ili ( _ r JLf m. 
al-mudiriya provincial Council, provincial 
parliament (Eg.); iijj}\ S*. m. ad-daula 
Supreme Administrative Court (Eg.) ; 
tf-jj t^Jjf (™A») religious court, clerical 
court (of the Coptio Church); jj^i ^IjL 
iJjjJI m. förä d-daula councü of stete; 
£>—•" cr-^f oouncil of eiders; Senate (£9.); 

Ja» ^pLf ( r tuUi) court, tribunal (3yr.); 
{^jSLc or) jjfr ^r-U ('«r/i f '«fawJ) 
court-martial; /VI *--■* ^rif m. 'u^fraf 
a£-umam Council of the League of 
Nations ; aj**II ,jJje. the House of Com- 
mons; üütVI ^r-U m. al-a'yän Senate 
(/r M Jon*.); £Jj^Vl ^r-U draft board, 
recruiting commission (mil.); &jj ^Sfi- 
(qarawi) local oounoü; ^aL^Ü ^^JLf 
(tgtis&it) economic oouncil; t/y i _ r Sjt 
(qaumi) national assembly ; öL» ^pJLf 
»jjiJ! ta. qiyädat af-taura Supreme Rev- 
olutionär Tribunal (Eg.); j^fli ,^1 
and jjTVl ^1 (akbar) the Grand 
Counoil (== le Qrand Conseü; Tun.); 
Cr^jjW or^f tbe House of Lords; ^ySjt 
<-*'>•" m. an-nuuwdft lower house, Cham- 
ber of deputies; (jLJ ^S*. (niyäbi) par- 
liament; <#i-l ^rJLf m. al-jiha approx.: 
provincial counoil (= conseü de rigion; 
Tun.); *\jjj\ ^ySjt m. al-uwzarä" cabinet, 
Council of ministen 

LJLf mujälaM social interoourse 

(jJU- 7'fifw pl. t^l*- 7*W*, u^^*- 7'uZZd« 
sitting; pl. ^"^U- partioipants in a sooial 

.LU- jalafa i (jalf) to ohafe, gall, abrade (* 
the flkin); to shave (^J\ ar-ra'aa the 

iUL- 7'uZ/a lump, clot | <u*± 1UL- (da* 
maunya) blood olot, thrombus 

t_ii»- jilf pl. ö-^U-l 07*20/ boorish, rüde, un- 

läU ^zZ/a/a (<l*iU jalfaja) to calk {* a ship) 

jiL- galjana (eg.) to galvanize 

olU- galjana galvanization 

JÄljf mugalfan galvanized 

Ü"^- jaläqa: <uj i*-^. (garowtyo) yokel, 

j]*- jalama i (jalm) to clip, shear off {* 
j]*- jaZom pl. p-^-! a7'Idm shears 


r _^l abü galambü (eg.) a variety of orab 

.ui»- II tajalmada to be petrified 

-ui»- jalmad pl. -u^»- jaJämW and 
ij*U- jtdmüd pl. 0-.^U- jalämld 1 rook, 

jUL- juUanär pomegranate blossom 

(^U- and J»-) ^U- 70W u to olean, polish (* ;to olear (* the view);tomake clear, 
make piain* clarify, olear up (*, 
throw light on (*); to reveal, unveil, 
dißdoae (*; to dislodge, oust, re- 
move (je * or * s.o. or from); to 
shine, be briüiant, distinguish o.a. ( j in; to be or become clear, evident, 
manifest; to pull out, move out (j* of a 
place), go away, depart (j* from a 
place), leave, quit, evacuate (j* a place); 
— J»- jalä i to polish, burnish (* 
II to reveal, disclose, bring to light ( jp or 
*; to show, represent (• s.o., * ; IT to remove, dislodge, oust, 
drive away (*, • s.o., ; to evacuate 
(• s.o., ,j* from); to move away, go away 
(j* from a place), leave (je- a place) 
T to become olear, evident, manifest; to 
reveal itself, be revealed; to appear, 
show, come to light, come out, manifest 
itself; to be manifested, be expressed, 
find expression VII to be clean or cleaned, 
be polished, be bumished ; to be removed, 
be dislodged, be ousted; to move away 
(j* from a place), vacate, evacuate (j* 
a place) ; to be dispelled, vanish, go away, 
pass (crisis, difficulty, etc.); to dis- 
appear; to reveal itself, be revealed, be 
disclosed; to be unveiled (bride) ; to 
become manifest, manifest itself; to 
become clear or piain; to clear up and 
reveal (j*; to lead, come (& to), 
end (je in) ; to result (jt- in) j ** Jj^JJ L 
j»)j\ the outcome of the matter, what 
will come of it VIII to reveal, disolose 
(*; to regard (*, look at 
(*) X to seek to olarify (*; to 

olarify, clear up {*, throw light 
(* on); to uncover, unearth, bring to 
light, find out, discover, detect (* 

*>U- 'j I ihn jalä a famous, well-known 
man, a celebrity 

J*r jally clear, piain, evident, patent, 
manifest, obvious, conspicuous; LL- ja* 
l\yan obviously, evidently 

SJ*- jaltya pl. L^U- jaläyü sure thing, 
piain fact | J » y j\ LL- jallyat al-amr the 
true State of the affair 

J»-l ajlä clearer, more obvious, more 

IjL- jilwa unveiling (of the bride) | ÜJ 
•jLU lailat al-j. wedding night 

»*iU- jalä* clarification, eluoidation ; 
clarity, clearness, plainness, distinctness ; 
departure, (e)migration (je- from); evac- 
uation (j* of an area; mtl.); »*sU 
clearly, plainly 

jLL- jalayän vision, revelation, apoc- 
alypse {Chr.) 

Jlf majdlin (pl. of Jjf majlan) 

5JL* tajtiya: i-*^l SJjf (üähiya) divine 
revelation; theophany (Chr.) 

Jjf tajaüin revelation, manifestation; 
Transfiguration (of Christ) | J^ifl X* 'id 
at-t. Transfiguration Day (Chr.) 

ob»-l ijtilä* oontemplation 

»IUj^I istijla clarification, eluoidation 

<JU- jäliya pl. -ät, Jlj»- jawälin colony 
(of foreigners) ; colony of emigrants 

J*il al-mujaüi the winner (in a race) 

Jm£> mutajaüin obvious, evident, mani- 
fest, patent 

jjL-. galön pl. ~ät gallon (eg.) 

j^Lf mugalwan galvanized (eg.) 

J»- juUä see l J»- 


O^ürk* gilyotin guillotine (eg.) 

*l»r abbreviation of t£j*A a^ Egyptian 

**■ jamma i u (jamm) to gather; to collect 
one's thoughta, concentrate ; to rest II and 
V to grow luxuriantly (plante) X to 
gather; to colleot one's thoughts, con- 
centrate; to rest, relax, seek recreation 
(j>- from); to be covered with luxuriant 
Vegetation (ground) 

*- jamm abundant, plentiful; much, 
a great deal of; many, numerous; mani- 
fold, multiple; crowd, group of people | 
_rVi yr j- al-atar effective, efficacious; 
L*-_ L*- -u»-l (akabbahü kubban) to be more 
than fond of; i* Jjlji numerous ad- 
vantages, ample benefits; jJ£ *■ large 
crowd, throng 

>l>; jamäm rest, relaxation, recreation, 
gathering of new strength 

^t majamm place where gathers 
or flows together | «u**^_*j J\j\ li* jt 
(muatajma'uhü) what this opinion a- 
mounts to 

«jf tagmim (eg.) bobbed hairdo (of 

fit*-— «I istijmäm colleotednesa ; con- 
centration; attentiveness, attentive rev- 
erence; rest, relaxation, reoreation 


iSJ^*\ ' 

iSjf'. (from It. gambero) gambari, ^^> gam- 
ma™ (eg.) shrimp (zool.) 

1 «"*> jamjama (*~*++i jamjama), f^iftl j*j-_ 
(kaläma) and II tajamjama to articulate 
indistinctly, stammer ; to express o.a. 
poorly, speak incoherently; to mumble 

*i**»>; jumjuma pl. yr-L*; jamäjim 2 skull, cra- 

jumjumi cranial 

pjh jamaha a (jamk, *-L>- a jimäh, r-j** ju» 
müh) to bolt (horee); to be refractory, 
unruly, recalcitrant ; to be defiant; to be 
capricious, whimsical; to run out on her 
huaband, run away from home (wife) 

^■L^ jimah recalcitrance, defiance; will- 

r^> jumüh recalcitrance, defiance ; 

rj*: 7 am üh headatrong, defiant, un- 
ruly, ungovemable 

*L*- jämik headstrong, defiant, un- 
ruly; indomitable, untamable 

*-l> jamada u, jamuda u (jamd, jj> jw 
müd) to freeze ; to congeal, harden, 
stnTen, be or become hard or solid, solid- 
ify; to coagulate, clot (blood); to be 
rigid, inflexible (in one's thinking); to 
stagnate; to be apathetic, indolent, dull, 
indifferent | J» *-iJ o>i> to be indifferent 
toward, put up with, aoquiesce in; OJj^ 
»Jj (yadukü) to be niggardly, tightfisted 
II to freeze, frost, congeal (*; toso- 
lidify, coagulate, harden, stiffen (*; 
to curdle (*; to freeze (* assets) 
T to freeze, become frozen, turn into ice, 
freeze up, become icebound; to freeze to 
death; to congeal; to solidify; to harden, 
set (o.g., cement) ; to coagulate, clot 
(blood) VII to freeze up, become ice- 
bound; to freeze, beoome frozen, turn to 

Xf-_ jamd freezing; congelation, solidi- 
fication, coagulation | jJA ~**-j* darajat 
al-j. freezing point 

Jj^ jamad ice 

.iL*; jamäd pl. -ät a solid; inorganio 
body; mineral; inanimate body, inani- 
mate being; O neuter {gram.) 

^> jumvd frozen state; solid, com- 
pact state, compactness, solidity; rigor, 
rigidity, stüTness ; inorganio state ; harden- 


ing, induration; hardnesB, infiexibility; 

deadlock, standstill ; inertia, inaotion, 

inactivity; lethargy, apathy, paasivity, 


**j*~. jumüda solidity, hardness 

\ t if tajmid solidification, hardening; 

consolidation ; reinforcement (of a foun- 

dation) | Ji>/Sll •u* 9 ^ '■ al-amwäl freezing 

of assete 

A*jC tajammud freezing; frost; conge- 
lation; solidification; coagulation 

j \j£ I injimäd freezing up or ov er, 
icing up; ice formation 

.uU jämid hard, solid; atiff; rigid; 
motionless; inanimate, inorganic; (gram.) 
defective; dry, dull (book, and the like); 
impervious to progress or Innovation, 
ossified, ultraconservative; pl. ^j>- ja* 
wämid* inanimate things, inorganio mat- 
ter, mineralß 

.Uj*i* mvtajammid frozen, icy; BtifF, 
congealed; coagulated 

■Uj^i. munjamid frozen, icy, ice (adj.); 
arctic | Ju*^l\ U-£\ (muAit) the Arctio 

VpLr; jumädä name of the fifth and sixth 
months of the Muslim year (JjVI j^Lf: 
j. l-ülä Jumada I and lj£l\ ^L*: j. l-äkira 
Jumada II) 

\j*l II to roast (* meat) VIII to burn incense 

jX- jamr embers, live coal | Jp ölT 
ji^l ^ ^1 {aharra) to b© on tenter- 
hooka; to be in greatest suspenso, be 
dying with curiosity 

•j> jamra (n. un. of j>) live coal; 
firebrand, smoldering embers; rankling 
resentment; (pl. -ät) carbunole (med.) | 
O SSsJ-'I.SjJ;! anthrax 

jl*- jummär palm pith, palm core 
(edible tuber growing at the Upper end 
of the palm trunk) 

mijmara pl. j-Lf majämir* bra- 

zier; censer 

*iSj*: aoe j^*; 

i!j> (eg.) gumruh pl. iijLr; gamärik* customs; 
cuBtomhouse | Äj*}-) **j raam al-g. oub- 
toms duty, tariff 

Sj*: gumruH customs, tariff (used at- 
tributively) | Sy. *l*' {ütihäd) customs 

ii^Hf mugamrak duty paid 

>> jummaiz (coli.; n. un. 5) sycamore (Fi- 
cus syoomorus; bot.) 

ifjA*- look up alphabetically 

i Jjh jamaSa i u (jami) to unhair (* 
II to make love, caress, pet 

»> jama'a a (jam') to gather (*; to 
collect (* e.g., money); to unite, combine, 
bring together (parts into a whole); to 
put together, join (* things); to set, 
compose (* type; typ.); to compile (* 
a book) ; to summarize, sum up (> ; 
to rally, round up ( > people) ; to pile up, 
amass, accumulate (*; to assemble 
(> several persona); to oonvoke, con- 
vene, call (* a meeting); to add (* num- 
bers), add up (* a column); (gram.) to 
make plural, pluralize (* a word); to 
unite, link, bring together (jw several 
things or persona) ; to combine ( j — Ju 
e.g., both strength and courage); to con- 
tain, hold, oomprise (* | *Jit^Wl ^ 
*^}\ (afrAfa) to summarize, sum up ; 
to give a survey of; £- 1*1 jJl ^ 
llitjH {barfTata) to be very efficient, do 
an excellent Job, do superlatively good 
work; ajUI Jt* *#; (Sartda l-q.) to round 
up the herd; VU^L» ju <->\&\ £•* 
(tafahätihä) the book contains, lists...; 
Cjj-j J* ü-ü *»£■ (yujma'u) the plural 
of bait is buyüt U to pile up, amass, accu- 
mulate (* ;to rally, round up (», 
> s.o.); to assemble (* the parts of a ma- 


chine) III to have sexual intercourse (U 
with a woman) IV to agree ( Jp on, to 
do; to be agreed (J» on); to decide 
unanimously <Jp on), reaolvo (J* to do | j>j*\ \j**~) (amrahum) they 
came to terms, they made a Joint de- 
cision V to gather; to assemble, congre- 
gate; to rally, band together, flock to- 
gether (people); to pile up; to accumu- 
late; to gather into a masB, agglomerate ; 
to Cluster; to coagulate VIII to be close 
together; to como together, meet, join; 
to unite, combine (t_> with); to assemble, 
mcet, convene (an Organization, a com- 
mittee, etc.); to be or get together, have 
a meeting, interview or Conference, hold 
talks (i-j, »- with s.o.), meet (>->, »- s.o.); 
to coneur (Jp in), agree, be agreed (Jp 
on X to gather, collect (*; 
also »\jt quwähu one's strength, »j-Kil 
afkärahü one's thoughts); to summarize, 
sum up (*; to possess, combine 

A-T jam' gathering; collection; com- 
bination; connection, coupling, joining; 
aecumulation; (arith.) addition; union, 
merger, aggregation, integration (jo of); 
holding together (j>j of divergent, sep- 
arate things); (pl. fjt- jumu) gathering, 
crowd, throng; gang, troop; (gram.) plu- 
ral | J*. iJi «j-; j. as-Saml union, integra- 
tion; _t* — SoJI *> the broken ( = internal) 
plural, JUI *^\ the regulär (= external) 
plural; *>l —I ism al-j. collective noun 
(gram.); oJl «j-; j. al-yad fist 

*-*; jum', eJaSOl ^ j. al-kaff, -dl -j^ j. 
al-yad fist, clenched hand | *jOj **£■ with 
clenched fists 

lo*; jum'a pl. -> juma' , -ät week; Fri- 
day 1 4*-M *y_ yaum al-j. Friday ; f^/*! 1 ! **> 


Pasaion Week; -...U-Jl 4»-M and 4»-M 
ojj-i Good Friday {Chr.) 

L-^ jam'iya pl. -ät club, association, 
society; Corporation, Organization ; as- 

sembly | /^/l L-j*; j. al-umam League 
of Nations; *j_r*- *r*-*r (kairiya) chari- 
table Organization ; <Ji U-V 1 L^> j. 
al-ia'äf approx. : civil ambulance Serv- 
ice; 4?*ij£ *»»> (ta&ri'iya) legislative 
assembly; "^j^ -v**; ('umümiya) and 
♦L.I*. a~*j- ('ämma) general assembly; gen- 
eral meeting; plenum, plenary Session; 
SJjljJ •-*> (ta'äwuniya) cooperative 

«-> jamV (with foll. genitive) total; 
whole, entire; all; entirety; e.g., ^-LJl «_--; 
all men, all mankind; gM all people, 
everybody; the public at large; [*~*- ja* 
mV an in a body, altogether, one and all, 
all of them; entirely, wholly, totally 

*r\ ajma' 2 pl. -ün, f. »Li*; jam'ä' 2 , pl. 
**■; juma' 9 entire, whole, all | JUll 
£*•) l/V--^/1 (ajma'a) the entire Islamic 
world; »Li-; jUI (jam'ä'a) the whole 
house; «j^Ij bi-ajmaihi in ita entirety, 
to its füll extent, completely, altogether; 
-jjL--; L I j jU- all of them came 

p Li*; jumma aggregate ; total, total 

O tJ^.jif p **: jamma kahrabä'i storage 

**U; jamä'a pl. -ät group (of people); 
band, gang, party, troop; Community; 
aquad (military unit; Eg. 1939) | oUU-; 
bly lj jamä'ätin iva-afrädan in groups and 

^l*: jamä'i collective (as opposed to 
fjiji jardi individual) 

**£■ majma pl. »-bf majämi' 2 place 
where two or more things meet, place or 
point of union, junetion; meeting, con- 
gregation, Convention, assembly; (also 
-J* *»-£ m.'ilmi) academy (scientific); 
College (e.g., of ecclesiostical dignitaries); 
synod | jjJj »l*j£ (baladi) provincial synod 
(Chr.) ; Jö jJS"l ■*£ (ikllriki) clerical 
synod (of the Coptic Church); j**L*-", -U--1 
<—>jiJ}\ to win or captivate the hearta; 


«_L* ^U^c, &»-m. 'ainatAt (to look at a.o.) 
with complete concentration, intently 

j»*jf majma'i academy member, aca- 

*-,£■ tajmV assembly, assemblage (of 
the parts of machinery) 

f- Lf; jimä' sexual intercourae ; 
comprising or involving another thing 
or a number of thinga | ^\ f-L^ _^\ al- 
kamr j. al-itm wine involves sin, wine 
is the vessel of sin 

f-lr^l ijma Agreement, unanimity (also 
Jj]l f-Lr^l); unanimous resolution (J* to 
do; {Ist Law) consensus {of the 
authorities in a legal question; one of 
the four ufül of iBlamic Law) | f-U^Vl» 

,jX*-} ijmä'i based on general agree- 
ment, unanimous; collective, universal 

>*jf tajammu' pl. -ät Coming together, 
meeting; gathcring; troop concentration; 
crowd, throng, mob; agglomeration; 
O agglutination (chem..-med.) 

f\* r \ ijtima" pl. -ät meeting (<-» with 
s.o. ; of a corporate body ; of parliament) ; 
get-together, gathering, assembly; re- 
union; rally; Convention; conjunction, 
constellation (a&tron.) ; confluence (of 
rivers) ; Iife in a social group, Community 
life, social life; flr*-*^ human society J 
J^Lil 9 \&-\ ijtima' af-turuq crossroads, 
intersection, junction; H^-Vl J* r üm al- 
ijt. Bociology; f-l^^l »^ü sociologista 

^lrt-1 ijtima' % Community, group (used 
attributively) ; social; socialist(ic) ; socio- 
logical j l^l^^l üjLSJI »jljj ministry 
for social affairs; i-^I^Vl 3JLA- 1 personal 
status ; i-tl^ *V I <.j£ 1 ( kidma ) social 
service, social work; i^l^-V' iljLJl! 
(musäwäh) social equality; «-^^-Vl <1-A1 
(hai'a) human society 

«-*1^»- 1 ijtima \ya socialism 

»U jämi' comprehensive, extensive, 
broad, general, universal; coüector; oom- 
piler (of a book); compositor, typesetter; 
(pl. p*\j>r jawämi' 1 ) mosque | **L- 0*— . 
(masjid) great, central mosque where the 
public prayer is performed on Fridays 

LuU- jämi'a pl. -ät league, union, asso- 
ciation; Community; federation; reli- 
gious community, communion; common- 
nesB, Community of interests or purpose; 
university | O »^_rt&' ***L- j. al-kahrabä' 
storage battery, accumulator; /"ill <<mU- 
j. al-umam League of Nationa; 4**Li-i 
VlL/l/l {islämxya) Pan-Islamiam; i*»\i.\ 
5-*j*JI ('arabiya) and i-jjJI JjJÜi <<mU- 
(duwal) the Arab League ; i_*i <<mU- 
(äa'biya) university extension, adult edu- 
cation courses, evening courses 

JL.U- jämt'i academic, collegiate, uni- 
versity (adj.); university graduate 

f-j^jf majmü' collected, gathered; to- 
tality, whole; total, sum (arith.) \ öj^i-l 
«*^*jM matter {typ.); JLJd\ j-iljl fj*^" 
m. arä4i l-qufr the total area of the 
country ; tij^ £j** m - /«#A» its total 
length; ^~*JI f>*?^ ( e a$abi) the nervous 

**>*j£ majmü* a pl. -ät, *~*ljf majämi** 
collection (e.g., of works of art, of stamps, 
etc., also of stories); compilation, List; 
group (also, e.g., of trees, of islands, 
etc.); series (e.g., of articles in a news- 
paper); O battery (el.); alliance, league, 
bloc (e.g., of states); collective, collecti- 
vistio Organization; aggregate; complex, 
block (of buildings); System; bulletin, 
periodical | *-— *i)l **_j*jM (Sameiya) the 
solar System ; *-pLi^» **j+*r (pinä'iya) 

«*jf mujammi' collector (lechn.) ; Q stor- 
age battery, accumulator 

4~L «*j£ mujma' 'alaihi (that which 
is) agreed upon, unanimous 



«*af mujtama* pl. -dt gatbering place, 
place of assembly; meeting place, rendez- 
vous; assembly, gathering, meeting; So- 
ciety; human society; Community, com- 
mune, collective 

i;S^ = *£*W look up alphabetically 

J J> jamala u (jaml) to suin up, summarize 
(a; — jamula u (JL> jamäl) to be 
beautiful ; to be handsome, pretty, come- 
ly, graceful; to be proper, suitable, appro- 
priate (^ for s.o.), befit (i_j s.o.) II to 
make beautiful, beautify, embelliah, a- 
dorn (*, • s.o., III to be polite, 
courteous, amiable {» to s.o.) IV to sum, 
total, add (*; to treat as a whole, 
mention collectively (*; to sum up, 
summarize (>}; to act well, decently, 
be nice V to make o.a. pretty, adom o.s. 
VI to be courteous, be friendly to one 

Ur; jumla pl. J> jumal totality, sum, 
whole; group, troop, body; crowd; whole- 
sale; (gram.) Bentence, clause; iL*; jum- 
latan completely, wholly, on the whole, 
altogether, in general, at all j 30*- lj *Lr~ t 
jumlatan wahidatan all at once, at one 
swoop; oLjK]1 *J-»7 everything in ex- 
istence; h\j*\ "*Lt-_ ^ jlT he was one of his 
companions, he belonged to his com- 
panions; *JU U iL*- j Jlj (jumlati) among 
other things, he said ...; J^öJl IL^j 
jl wa-jumlatu l-qauli antia or Ü^j 
jl j-^l in short ..., to sum up ..., 
briefly stated ...; iiJ^l J* in short, 
in a word; iiJ^L whoUy, on the whole, al- 
together, in general, at all; by wholeaale 
(com.) ; Üxi-JJ »sr^ I Ü^ j. al-ujra al-mus' 
iahiqqa gross wages; ii>l j*-\2 wholesaler, 
wholesale dealer; ÜJ;I _^- ai'r al-j. whole- 
aale price; i-fl *Lt-_ (ismiya) nominal 
clause; i_l*i *Lt- t (fi'liya) verbal clause; *Lr- t 
ijjL^I (ikbäriya) or <ij^- iLr; (kabariya) 
declarative sentence (or clause); *Lt^ 
5JLÜI (inSaiya) exclamatory sentence; 

ÄJU- ILr (hällya) circumstantial clause; 
*^*j^> *Lr~ t (Sarfiya) conditional clause ; 
<JjU» *Lr- 4 (mu'tarida) parenthetical clause 
J^l uL*- kisäb al-jummal (or jumal) 
use of the letters of the aiphabet ac- 
cording to their numerical value 

JL> jamäl beauty | O J^' 1* *Um 
al-j. aesthetics 

J_> jamll beautiful, graceful, lovely, 
comely, pretty, handsome; friendly act, 
favor, service, good turn; courteay | 
J-i;L Jilj^l, J-W «ijA* ma'rifat al-j. and 
J_i;L üli^p ('irfän) gratitude; J-J^l jlj£j 
nukrän al-j. ingratitude; J-^-J _^~U un- 
grateful; "^L^ J Jii*- (hafiza) to keep s.o. 
in fond remembrance, remember s.o. 
with gratitude 

J>l ajmal 2 more beautiful 
J_*j£ tajmil beautification, embeDish- 
ment; cosmetics 

ILLt mujämala pl. -ät (act of) courtesy; 
civility, amiabüity; flattery; iLljf mujä* 
malatan amicably, in a friendly way j 
iHjf «jLj ziyärat m. courtesy call; *e\Ji 
oiUUi etiquette 

JW ijmäl summation, summing up; 
summarization;Vl>l ijmälan on thewhole, 
in general, generally speaking, as a general 
principle | Jyl .ill-Ü VW to sum up, I 
(would) say ...; *JL>1 j in its entirety, 
as a whole; Jl>1/L and JlXlM J* in 
general, on the whole, altogether; **-j> 
JL>VI bi-wajhi l-i. = VW 

JL>I ijmäli comprehensive, summary, 
general, over-all, total, collective | jjJü 
Jl>l over-all report; ÄJL>1 <*\ji- (garäma) 
collective penalty; y W «jJii (nazra) gen- 
eral view 

J*jC mujmil pl. -ün wholesaler, whole- 
sale dealer 

J*jt mujmal summary, rösumö, ayn- 
opsis, compendium ; general concept ; sum, 
total | J**^ by wholesale 



g J> Jamal pl. Jl> jimdJ, JW a;mä{ camel | 
}j r i\ J> ;. oZ-yaAüi chameleon 

Jl> jammäl pl. -Ün camel driver 

ül> jumän (coli.; n. un. 3) pearlB 

J+* jamhara to gather, colleot {*, *, 
s.o.); to aasemble {• s.o.) II tajamhara 
to gather, flock together (orowd) 

*_/4> jamhara multitude, crowd, throng; 
the great mass, the populaoe 

jj^r\ jumhür pl. jj\+ jamähir* multi- 
tude; crowd, throng; general public, 
public; j&l)~\ the masses, the people 

iS J.HT 7«mÄ«ri republican (adj. and n.) 

*iJj* r ~. jwnkürlya pl. -ät republio | 
».wdl OjJt *jj_>^:I (*ara&»ya, mu/taAüia) 
the United Arab Republio ; *ijj^) 
oll^l i-jU'^l (ütihädiya) the Föderal 
Republio of Germany; i-kly^-UI *jj_h^;I 
oll^l (dimügrdjiya) the German Dem- 
ooratio Republio 

j4*j£ tajamkur gathering (of people); 

j»- ;anna u (jann, ü^*- ;unün) to cover, hide, 
oonceal, veil (*, J*; to descend, 
fall, be or become dark (night); pass. 
junna: to be or become possessed, insane, 
mad, crazy | «j^:*- j*- (junünuhü) to get 
madly excited, become frantic II to 
oraze, make crazy, drive insane, madden, 
enrage, infuriate (• s.o.) IT to cover, 
veil, hide, conceal (*; = II; V to 
go mad, become crazy X to be covered, 
veiled, concealed; to regard (» s.o.) as 
crazy, think (• s.o.) mad 

j*- jinn (coli.) jinn, demons (invisible 
beings, either harmful or helpful, that 
interfere with the lives of mortale) 

^~ jinni demonio; jinni, demon 

Lj- jinniya female demon 

L*- janna pl. -ät, üb*- jinän garden; 
paradise | *<dl ob*- paradise; OU-J jTL- 

inhabitant of paradise, deceased person, 
one of blessed memory 

*lc»~ junaina pl. -ät, Jb*- janä'in' little 
garden; garden 

JJb*- janä'ini gardener 

*±*- jinna possession, Obsession; mania, 
madness, insanity 

i^- junna pl. ^ junan protection, 
shelter, shield 

üb*- janän pl. öb*-l a/nän heart, soul 

üb*- jannän gardener 

,>;>. ;antn pl. L*-l ajinna, Ji>-\ ajnun 
embryo, fetus; germ (in a seed, etc.) 

üjX*- junün possession, Obsession; ma- 
nia, madness, insanity, dementia; foolish- 
ness, folly ; frenzy , rage, fury ; ecstasy, rap- 
ture { üji» üjjU al-j. junün madness has 
many varietiea, manifests itself in many 

dj^- junüni crazy, insane, mad; fran- 
tic, frenzied 

j^f mijann pl. uljf majänn 2 shield 

hjt majanna madness, insanity 

uU- jänn jinn, demons 

uyjf majnün pl. ,>iljf majänin* pos- 
sessed, obsessed; insane, mad; madman, 
maniac, lunatic; crazy, cracked; crack- 
pot; foolish; fool 

i«-. janaba u to avert, ward off (* » from s.o. II to keep away, avert, ward off 
(a * from s.o., keep s.o. (•) out of 
the way of (*), spare (* • s.o. III to 
be or walk by s.o.'s (*) side; to run 
alongside of (*), run parallel to (*), Bkirt, 
flank (*; to avoid (* V to 
avoid (m, • s.o.); to keep away (*, • 
from), steer clear, get out of the way 
(*, . of) VI and VIII = V; VIII to be at 
the side of {*), run Bide by aide with (*), 
run alongside of {*), skirt, flank (* 


«.Jj»» janb pl. ■-">*- junüb, v^r' a?na& 
aide; jonAa (prep.) beeide, next to, near, 
at | ^Jr Jl Lj>- (also yijU L^-) aide by 
aide; 4-f*- jo (;anta»A») inaide (it), within; 
4-^*- ,jo U (öaina janbaihi) what it con- 
tains, compriaes, its Contents; »_-J»- Jp 
aside, apart; oJi-l olj pleurisy 

4jj» jonAa pl. janaböt aide; region, 
area ] ^L*- J i° it» within, inside; «*' 
4?Lj>- ,jo (ffcwnmoAfl) to oomprise, hold, 
oontain; Üjill Ol— *- j. ai-gurfa the 
whole room; ii^Jl ol~*- jo in (the middle 
of) the room; oLjLI j»-lj crammed, 
ohock-full, brimful, filled to overflowing 
or bursting 

i f*r janbi lateral, aide (adj.) 

«_-j-- jtmui in a atate of major ritual 
impurity; not belonging to the tribe, not 
a kinaman | *~dL\ jU-l the neighbor not 
belonging to the family 

•-jU^- janäb (title of reapect) approz.: 
Eight Honorable; f^r Your Honor; 
you (polite form) 

iiL»- janäba major ritual impurity (Ial. 

<-jL>- junäb (= t^-jjUi olj) pleuriay 

;anä&an aouth- 

uj>- j'onfii aouth; L 
ward, to the Bouth 

Lü Jl 


Oj^t janübt aouthern | V*j^*> 
South Africa 

<_-jU- jän*6 pl. <-J|j»- jatttSnift 1 aide; lat- 
eral portion; sidepiece; flank; wing; face 
(geom.); part, portion, paxtial amount; 
partial view, seotion ($* of a acene, pio- 
ture or panorama); quantity, amount; 
a certain number (^* of)» * few, aome | 
aJU> jj on bis part; ^» — <_JL- j* 
j^-T <_JU- on the one hand — on the other 
hand; aJU- Jl to bim, to his address; 
at his (its) aide, next to bim (it); «JLf 
beeide bim (it), next to bim (it); ^JU- Jl 
and «-Jl^ aide by aide with; in addition 
to; apart from, aside from; LjU- **^j to 

put aside; UU- «jj to leave 
aside, omit; t^JU- j in oompariaon 
with, as oompared with, as against; re- 
garding, with regard to; ^j*- jo U 
their hearta; öJl UU- jänibä l-fam the 

comers of the mouth; 

. oJU a oon- 

aiderable, or certain, degree of; a con- 
aiderable amount of, a good deal of; 
j* jiS <-JU- a great deal of, a large por- 
tion of; j* j^Xt-JU- J«i _>» he is very ...; 
f jÖI (>. *li* <-Jl*" J* OK" (fcaram) to be very 
generous; S^^i j* Ji» <_JU- J» (aAam- 
mlya) of great importance; <_-j'U- Ji*l Je 
•j^LJ-'l ^ 'aZd a'zamt jäm'bin «u» al- 
kufüra of utmoat importance, of great- 
est signüicance; «-JL- J£j everywhere, on 
all aides; *JU- *J ^äa^- (kafatja, jänibaJiü) 
to show o.b. condeacending, affable or 
gracious to s.o.; to meet s.o. on fair 
terms; aJU- j-1 amtna jänibaJiü to be 
safe from s.o.; |»l^»l «-JU- *j*1 «1 (u'trAu) 
I paid not the leaat attention to bim; 
*JU- (i_*U, <_-j>j) J*U- (?änt&aAa) to fear 
s.o., be afraid of s.o.; *_-Jli-l ill, milk al-j. 
crownlandfl; j^il ^U- (ep.Jfiso, 
treasury; *_-Jli-l jj layyin al-j. gentle; 
docile, tractable, compliant; <-Jli-l i>J '* n 
al-j. gentlenesa; <-J\j}-) *-**"-> "^ fl ^"?' 
roomy; spaoioua, unconfined; «-JU-1 jJj 
friendly, amiable, gentle; *_— «U-J v,>»j* 
feared, dreaded; ^-JU-.I >jt powerful, 
mighty, Btrong ; <_J U-J « jp 'izzot oZ-j. power ; 
«-JU-.1 i^-j^ maAift aZ-j. dreaded, reapected; 
jloJi <_-J]^»- j about the house, all over the 
house; often vi«" j = V 

,JU- jön*6t lateral, aide, by- (in oom- 

^jjj-I a^noAi foreign, alien ; (pl.-ün, «-Jl*-I 
ajänib*) foreigner, alien | vV'Vl ->'3Ül the 
foreign oountriea, the outaide world; 'üj 
^j[t r 'y\ firqat al-ajänib the Foreign Legion 

V.^ ffonnö&iya pl. -ät (eg.) curb; em- 
bankment, levee; aide ohannel, lateral 
(following a road or railroad traoka); by< 
paaa (of a lock or aluice) 


<_jjf iajannvb avoidance 
•^b^-l ijtinäb avoidance 
<Jj£ mujanniba flank, wing (of an army) 

jL>- junbäz, jL^ calisthenics; gymnastics; 

jjLjf junb&ä (^jL»;) califlthenic(al), 
gymnastic | «jjL^l «-»^Vl gymnastic ex- 
ercises, physical exercisea 

«j- janaha a (r->*- ;unüA) to incline, be in- 
clined, tend (J or Jl to); to lean (J or Jl 
to or toward) ; to tum, go over ( Jl to), join 
( Jl associate 0.8. ( Jl with) ; to Strand 
(J* or Jf on a coast; ahip); to diverge, 
deviate, depart (jp frora}; to tum away 
(jp from), break (jp with) II to provide 
(* with wings, lend wings (* to 
IV to incline, be inclinod, tend (J or Jl 
to) ; to lean ( J or Jl to or toward) ; to tum 
(J or Jl to; to Strand (ship) 

mö>- jinh aide 

£>- junk, jinh darkness, gloom | £*■ j 
JJJl (;'. il-lail) in the dark of night, under 
cover of night; ^^SCll ^*- Cr 1 , (junhay 
il-karä) lit.: between the two halves of 
slumber, i.e., at night when everyone's 

5»*j-. junha pl. ü- junah misdemeanor 
(jvr., less than a felony, *iU*-, and more 
than an infraction, üJIJi) 

»•t*- janah pl. Wj- I ajniha, «j- 1 ajnuh 
wing (of a bird, of an airplane, of a 
building, of an army); aide; flank j j U! 
4>-l>. I am under bis protection; »-L»-. J* 
j*$y\ over the ether, by radio; *-L>- J* 
ip^— Jl (;. w-«*r'a) with winged haste 

^Lj- jiunöA misdemeanor (7'ur.); sin ] 
ü I 4-1* ^b*. *5/ (;u7iöAa) it won't be held 
against him if he ...; it won't do any 
härm if he ... 

ü-l ajnah* more inclined (Jl to) 

£>*- janüh inclined (Jl to 

r-j^r junüh inclination, leaning, bent, 
tendenoy (Jl to) 

£U jänih side, flank, wing 
4^U- jäniha pl. £|>r jatttäniÄ' rib; pl. 
also bosom, heart, soul j ^^jt Cr 1 m m 7 
bosom, at heart; L^'j*- ^>ü» (Jafarat) Bhe 
beoame happily ezcited, she trembled 
with joy 

P^ mu/annaÄ winged 

-U*- II to draft, conscript, enlist, recruit (• 
s.o.; mil,); to mobilize {* an army, J* 
against) V to be drafted, be conscripted, 
be enlisted (for military Service) 

X*- jund m. and f., pl. ^1*- junüd, ibj-l 
a;add soldiers; army | ^^1 .u*- ;. aJ- 
£aZä0 Salvation Army 

i$-u*- /und» pl. a^*- junüd soldier, pri- 
vate | Jjl (j-U*- (auwoJ) private first 
class {Ir., Syr.); o*c_. jxj». (miutajidd) 
reoruit (/r., 5yr.); Jh^I tf- 1 ^' the Un- 
known Soldier 

!o -U*- jundiya military affairs ; the army, 
the military; military Service 

Julie, tajnid draft, enlistment (mü.) ; 
recruitment; mobiüzation | (£jL»-VI -^aK 
(ijbäri) military consoription 

XjC tajannud military Service 

XjC mujannad recruit 
(jjl-U*- gindäri standard-bearer, cornet (Eg.) 
•—•■U*- jundub pl. «-obr janädib* grasshopper 
^-U*- pandara {eg.) to mangle (* laundry) 

»j-U*- pondara mangling (of laundry); 
press; O rotary press (typ.) 

\$j'-u*- look up alphabetioally 

i»j-^ iandarma gendarmery 

uO-^r iandarmi gendarme 

J*-U*- gandufii (eg.) oysters 


*Jai*- jandala to throw to the ground, bring 
down, feil {• s.o.) 

Jai*- jandal pl. JjL*. janädiP stone; 
pl. JjL*- cataract, waterfall (ep.) 

'JjJl»- gundül (eg.) pl. JoU*- panödU 1 gondola 

Jl_r*- jendräl, ginräl {eg.) general (military 

s*- II to say the burial prayera, conduot the 
funeral Service (» for the deceased; Chr.) 

IjL*- jinäza, jandza pl. -St >'L*. janä'iz* 
bier; funeral procession 

Jb»- junnäz pl. >JU*- ?andntz a requiem, 
funeral rites, ob&equies; funeral proces- 

Jr>>V janzabil (= j-^J) ginger 

^JU- janzara {= _^j) to be or become 
covered with verdigris 

jlJN-- jtnaär {= jl^j) verdigris 

VjV ;»nztr (= j^-j) pl.j-jbf janäzir 2 chain; 
track (of a caterpillar, of a tank, etc.); 
a linear measure (= 5 qapaba = 17.75 m; 
also = 20 m ; Eg.) \ j >- SjlU fära* j. track 
sprocket, sprocket wheel 

jj^f mujanzar track-laying (vehicle) 

u Jj~ II to make alike, make aimüar (*; 
to assimilate, naturalize (• s.o.); to class, 
classify, sort, categorize (* III to 
be akin, be related, similar (*, • to), be 
of the same kind or nature (• as s.o., 
* as, be like s.o. or (*, •), 
resemble (« s.o., * V to have o.a. 
naturalized, acquire the citizenship (<_j); 
to be naturalized VI to be akin, related, 
of the same kind or nature, homogeneous 

^jJ^- jins pl. ^L*-! ajnäa kind, sort, va- 
riety, species, class, genus; category; sex 
(male, female); gender (gram.); race; na- 
tion | (j-ii-l —.1 ism al-j. (gram.) generic 
noun, colleotive noun of nonpersonal 
things (which form a n. un. in ♦); u -ii-\ 

tf^-ijJI (baSari) the human race; 1' , : - »LjI 
abnä* jinsinä our fellow tribesmen; j* 
iJ ~*i-) iS_r** he ia Egyptian by natiopality ; 
ouUll ^-Ü-l the fair sex; j£X\ ^\ the 
strong sex 

(j-i*- jinsi generic; sexual; racial 

(j-**-V Jd-jinsi asexual, sexless 

^ ■■■ V jinsiya pl. -ät nationality, Citizen* 

,j-±jf- tajnls naturalization ; paronoma- 
aia (rhet.) 

^Uj»- jinäs (rhet.) assonance, pun, paro- 

5-JLf mujänasa relatedneas, kinship, 
affinity; similarity, likeness, resemblanoe 

^^-Ltf tajannus acquisitum cf citizen- 
ship, naturalization 

^Ijf tajänus homogeneity, homogene- 
ousness; Hkeness, similarity, resemblance 

^Lf mujänis similar, like, related; 

,_j-i»w mutajannis naturalized 

^Ui. muiajänis akin, related, of the 
same kind or nature, homogeneous 

jLIw-. (Lat. Oentiana) gentian (eg.) 

'.Je*- VI to deviate (je from); to incline, be 
inclined (Jl or J to 

l ^-*~r '°°k up alphabetically 

_r*Ui»- junfä$, ,j^J^~ junfai? sackcloth, 

iL»- junk pl. i]j^- junük harp 

Jj*- janowä Genoa (seaport in NW Italy) 

^- janä i (jany) to pick, gather, harvest, 
reap {*,, also the fruitsof one's work); 
to pocket, rake in, collect (*; to 
derive (* profit, j* from); to secure, real- 
ize {* profits, an advantage); to ineur 
(* evil, härm, punishment); to cause, pro- 


voke, bring about (*; — (<> m ^*- jinfa 
yd) to commit a crime, an outrage { J# on) ; 
to offend, sin (J* against); to commit, 
perpetrate (5jIi*-, Lii danban a crime, an 
offense; J*, less frequently Jf, on or 
ag&inßt); to inflict (* some evil, J* on 
a.o.) ; to härm (J* s.o., V to in- 
criminate, aecuse, charge with a crime 
(J* s.o.), lay the blame (J* on s.o.), 
blame (J* s.o.); to act meanly VIII to 
gather, harvest (* 

^ jany harvest; reaping (fig.); — 
janan (coli.) firuits 

ob*- jinäya pl. -ät perpetration of a 
crime; felony (jwr.; in the strictly legal 
sense, more than a misdemeanor, <m^, 
and an infraction, <«Jüt), capital offense | 
oLlii-J *£* mahkamat al-j. criminal court 

JL*- jinä'l criminal | v^r *^* (mak* 
leama) criminal court; JLjL jyUJl crim- 
inal law, penal law 

Jjf majnan pl. üLf ynajänin that which 
is picked or harvested, a crop; source 
of profit or advantage 

yf tajannin incrimination, aecuaation 
(J* of s.o.); mean way of acting, low, 
underhand dealings 

üU- janin pl. iL*- junäk perpetrator (of 
a delict); delinquent, criminal 

4_L Jjf majniy 'ahxihi harmed, in- 
jured ; aggrieved party ; victim of a crime 

^Jnj r- (Fr. Qeneve) idnSf Geneva 

«^ (Engl, guinea) ginek, also gunaik pl. -ä( 
pound (c^.) | (J-Ijwl) tfjJjf I <ht pound 
Bterling, English pound; ^j-— ^^r Egyp- 
tian pound (abbreviation : *r) 

JL^j- jahbad pl. »1*1+»- jahäbida man endowed 
with a critical mind; great scholar ; 
brigbt, brilliant, intelligent 

*. jahada a (jahd) to endeavor, strive, 
labor, take pains, put o.a. out; to over- 
work, overtax, fatigue, ezbaust (• s.o.) 
III to endeavor, strive; to fight (J-*-* J 
*^lll for;to wage holy war against 
the infidels IV to strain, exert (* ; to 
tire, wear out, fatigue (• s.o.), give trouble 
(♦ to) | S *- * •*«■' (nafsahü) to go to 
great lengths, go out of one's way ( j for 
or in; j tßj A|*-l {fikrahü) to 
concentrate on, put one's mind to, apply 
o.s. to VIII to put o.s. out (J for, 
work hard; (Isl. Law) to formulate an 
independent judgment in a legal or the- 
ological question (based on the applica- 
tion of the 4 ufül; as opposed to taqltd, 

Xftm jahd pl. Ajtf- juhüd atrain; exer- 
tion; endeavor, attempt, effort; trouble, 
pains ( j on behalf or for the sake of; O voltage, tension {el.) \ »X^ X^ 
jahada jakdahü, also »J^*- (Jjl*-) J^ to do 
(try) one's utmost, do (try) all in one's 
power, make every conceivable effort; 
0-4»- x& bi'jahdin jahldin with great 
difficulty, by dint of strenuous efforts; 
x^- J^ß- Xv after a lot of trouble O •*+»- 
Jl* {'älin) high tension [el.) 

Xt*- juhd strain, exertion; juhda (used 
prepositionally) to the limit of ... | J^*- 
ÖliJl juhda $-fäqa as far as possible, as 
much as possible; «ijU» x^*- j. täqaiiki 
as much as he can, to the limit of his 
abilities; öt£j X^*- juhda imkänihi do. ; 
L. Xf*- juhda mä as much as, to the limits 
of what . . . ; ^Xt*- juhdi as far as I can 

x^- jahid see -i^*- jahd 

jl#*- jihäd fight, battle; jihad, holy war 
(against the infidels, as a religious duty) 

^jlt*- jihädi fighting, military 

1jj>\j~ mujähada fight, battle 

jL**-I ijhäd exertion; overexertion, over- 


^lf!*-l ijtihäd effort, exertion, endeavor, 
pains, trouble ; application, industry, dili- 
gence; (Isl. Law) independent judgment 
in a legal or theological question, based 
on the Interpretation and application of 
the 4 u$ül t as opposed to taqlid, q.v. ; 
individual judgment 

Jj+ 3 f majhüd pl. -ät endeavor, effort, 
exertion, pains, trouble, work; O voltage, 
tension (el.) | 4Jl^j£ Ji; to make every 
effort, go to gTeatest lengths 

■i*Lf mujähid pl. -ün fighter, freedom 
fighter; warrior; sergeant (Eg. 1030) 

a^jf mujhid Btrenuous, exacting, try- 
ing, grueling; — mujhad overworked, ex- 

J^üf mujtahid diligent, industrious ; 
(pl. -ün) mujtahid, a legist formulating 
independent decieions in legal or theo- 
logical matters, based on the Interpre- 
tation and application of the four upüh 
as opposed to muqaUid, q.v. 

,*- jahara a (jähr, jL+»- jihär) to be brought 
tolight, comeout, show, appear; — tode- 
clare publicly, announce (a or i_» ; to 
avow in public, proclaim (i_» ; to raise 
( k the voice) ; — jahura u ( Sj Wr jahära ) 
to be loud, be clearly audible (voice) 
III to declare or say openiy, voice, utter, 
express frankly (cj 

_^4*- jähr and jl^*- jihär publicness, Pub- 
licity, notoriety; 1_^*- jahran and Ijl^*- 
jihäran publicly, in public 

•_^4*- jahratan openJy, overtly, frankly, 

<SjVr j'aAri notorioua, well-known, public 

_r-p- jahir loud (voice, shout) 

_ r #>-l ajhar 2 day-blind 

_^4*-l ajhar 2 (elative) louder, more au- 

<jjji»- jahwari loud (voice) 

jtf- mijhar loud-voiced 

j& mijhar pl. j*\jL majäkir* micro- 

iSstf- mijhari microscopic(al) 

jl^jf mijhar loud-voiced ; O loud- 

»jh\jt mujähara frankness, candor (of 
one's words) 

*- jahaza a to finish off ( J* a wounded man), 
deliver the ooup de gräce to (J*) II to 
make ready, prepare {* ; to arrange 
(*; to provide, Hupply (*; 
to equip, fit out, furnish, supply, pro- 
vide (v • or * or a.o. with) IV to 
finish off (J* a wounded man), deliver 
the coup de gräce to (J*); to finish, ruin 
(J* s.o.) V to be equipped, furnished, 
supplied, provided ; to equip o.a. ; to 
prepare o.a., get ready; to be ready, be 

jlf»- jahäz (also pronounced jihäz) pl. 
•ät, «J4*-I ajhiza equipment, appliances, 
outfit, gear, rig; trousseau; contrivance, 
gadget ; implement, appliance, Utensil ; 
Installation, apparatus (teehn.); System, 
apparatus (anat.) | jX-V Jl**- (lä-ailln) 
wireless set, radio; ji^j jL^»- radio (re- 
ceiving set); O Jr* 1 — JUr (mustoqbü), 
O JUe^Vl jl+r, O Jrlidyl jl^- receiver, 
receiving set (radio); *j.L jl^»- (mudV), 
O (Jt-jVl jLp- j. al-irsäl transmitter 
(radio); (jj±jiJj JL^*- television set; jl^*- 
jjU-I drillingrig; oüderrick; jl^*- 
^jjj (dauri) circulatory System (anat.); 
i^jVI oljl>VI J^ JL^ or ^U Jl^- 
<~*j^\ ol^Jl (hazzät,ardiya) Seismograph; 
,jj^ JL^*- (sirri) seoret Organization, Under- 
ground Organization; H^-*lM jL^*- sound 
locator; iS ~ajiI\ jL^i-l ( T apabi) the nervous 
System; -*ill JL^»- /. al-hadm digestive 

y+4- tajhiz equipment, furnishment; 
preparation; pl. £j\y+£- equipment, gear 



iSs+f- tajhizi preparatory ; (of & Bohool) 
preparing for College 

jaU- jahiz ready, prepared; ready- 
made; equipped | SJaL- (oLji. or) 5 — Jl 
(albisa) ready-made clothes 

j+jt mujahhaz equipped, provided, fur- 
nished, supplied (t-» with); armed (^ with 
guns; of a ship, tank, etc.) 

4»- IT to sob, break into sobe | »l£jtj ^r^r^ 
(buka) to be on the verge of tears, 
struggle with teara; to break into tears 

<±4*- jahia (n. vic.) pl. -dt sob; out- 
burst of tears 

^1^>-I ijhöi outburst of teara 

i^*- IV to hear youog ones, litter; to have 
a miscarriage (woman) J I4— iJ C-J^-I 
(nafsahä) ehe induced an abortion 

(j-ivr jihd miscarried fetus 

u *-v? jahitf miscarried fetus 

^l^-l ijhäd miscarriage, abortion; in- 
duced abortion 

J4»- jahila a (jahl, «Jl*»- jahäla) to be Igno- 
rant; not to know (<-> or *, how to 
do; to be irrational, foolish; to 
behave foolishly ( J* toward) VI to ignore 
{* ; to refuse to have anything to do 
{> with), shut one's eyes (a to), disregard 
(* a fact); to affect ignorance, pretend to 
know nothing X to consider ignorant or 
stupid (* s.o.) 

J^»- jahl and 4JI4»- jcüiäla ignorance; 
folly, foolishnees, stupidity | J**- j* out 
of ignorance 

<-Wr fahül ignorant; foolish, stupid 

J^jt majhal pl. J*Ij£ majähil 2 un- 
known region, unexplored territory | J*Ljf 
LÄj_^I unknown Africa 

J^ tajhll stultification 

J*L* tajähul ignoring, disregard(ing) 

J*L- jähil pl. iLp- jahala, J^*- jzthhal, 
JI4»- juhhäl, »"^*- juhala' 2 not knowing 
(<_j, how to do; ignorant, un- 
educated, üliterate; foolish; fool 

JaL- j'öAtZi pagan, of or pertaining to 
pre-Islamic times 

LUU- jähiliya state of ignorance; pre- 
Islamic paganism, pre-Islamio timea 

iSjtf- majhül unknown; anonymous 
(also ~-V! J>ff m. al-ism); pl. J;*^ wa* 
jähil 2 unknown things | J^^l ii^ jJi<ja( 
aj-m. passive (jrom.) 

<J_^f majhüliya being unknown, un- 
known nature 

-4#- jahuma u (öl*»- jahäma, 0^4*- juAüma) 
to frown, glower V to frown, scowl, 
glower; to regard with displeasure (a, » 
or J s.o. or, frown (a or J on); to 
eye gloomily, coolly, grimly (a, • or J 
s.o., ; to become sullen, gloomy (face) 

^4*- jahm sullen, glum, morose, gloomy 

l*lt»- jahäm clouds 

0L4*- jahäma and <*_}+>■ juhüma grim 
look, sullen expression ; gloominoss ; brood- 
ing silence 

L^~ jahannam 2 (f.) hell 

jahannami hellish, infernal 

y- jaunv pl. •'_>*- 1 ajtoä', »l_>*- jiwä* (pl. fre- 
quently with Singular meaning) air; at- 
mosphere (alsofig.);sky; weather;sphere, 
milieu, environment; \j»- jaunvan by air; 
by telegraph, telegraphically | ji-\ Jjj 
air mail; ^loU-i tabaqät al-j. airlayers; 
JkU j>- j (muTnfir) in rainy weather 

tfj*. jawwi air, aerial, aero- (in Com- 
pounds); airy, atmospheric(al) ; weather 
(used attributively), meteorologic(al) j 
^jji-l JoJLäJI {fagt) atmospheric pressure; 
<lj>r Olli (tabaqät) air layers; ^ j*- J^l*-! 
(ustül) air fleet; o^». SjU air raid; ol_>DI 



Sj^I (qüwät) air foroe; *j>LI «•-'^ll avia- 
tion; *jj*- »b_« (mind*) airport; «j_j*- jL#_>I 
meteorological observationa ; ^ _»*- ^ (ha* 
jar) meteorite 

l^>- (ecUoq.) jawwä (pronounoed gütoa 
in Eg.) in it, within; inaide 

<j'jr jawuwnt, jfuunwäni inner, inaide, 

4J\jß~ gvwäfa (eg.) guava (fruit); guava Bhrub 

Jlj*. (eg.) guwäl pl. -ät sack 

Jlj»- (It. guanti; eg.) gloves 

*ujj*- (Ft. jupe) skirt 

•(.-jj*-) ^L- jäba u (javb) to travel, wander 
(* through), traverse, roam, tour, ex- 
plore (*, e.g., foreign landa); to 
pierce, penetrate (*, cut through 
(*); to wander, cruise (* about a place) 
III to answer (» s.o., Je, reply, 
respond (• to s.o., Je to; to comply 
(* with), accede (* to) IV to answer (• or 
Jl s.o., j* or Je a question), reply, 
respond (» or Jl to s.o., J* to; to 
comply (* with a requeat), accede, defer 
(a to); to hear (» s.o.), accede to the re- 
quest or wiahee of (*); to fulfill, grant 
(* a wiah); to consent, asaent, agree 
(Jl to); to oonour (Jl in) | *it Jl uUI 
(falabihi) to comply with a.o.'s requeet 

VI to reply to one another; to echo (*, v 
from) ; to ring out (voices) ; to be (mutu- 
aUy) corresponding, harmonize; to be 
favorable, propitious (** to s.o.; Situation) 

VII to soatter, break up, paaa over (clouda) ; 
to be dispelled, disappear, vanish (wor- 
ries); to fade (darknesB) X ^U^u-I to hear, 
answer (* a prayer), grant (* a requesb); 
to comply with the request of (J), ac- 
cede or defer to the wiahee of (J); to 
react (J to); to respond (J to, ^ with), 
listen, pay attention (<J to), ahow interest 
(J in); to meet, answer (<-> J s.o. with), 
reply (<-> J to s.o. with or by doing ; 

to reaound, reverberate, re-eoho; to res- 
onate (J or Jl to, be in reaonance 
with (phya.) ; — <_^*u*'l istajwaba to 
interrogate, examine, question (* s.o.); to 
hear (• the defendant or witness); to 
interpellate (• s.o.; in parliament) 

<-j^>- javb traversing, touring, ex- 
ploration (of foreign oountriea) ; piercing, 

*iyr j^vba pl« -#» Vjr juwab opening, 
gap; hole, pit 

<_j1j*- jawäb -pl. <j_jt' ajtoiba answer, re- 
ply; ootave (to a given tone; mus.); 
(eg. ; pronounced gawäb pl. -ät) letter, 
message | ^^Jjt <_j'j*- j. aS-Sarf main 
clause (concluaion) of a conditional sen- 
tenoe, apodoBis 

«j'jr jawäbi anawering (used attribu- 

vVr jawwäb traverser (of foreign ooun- 
triea), traveler, explorer 

<jU-I ijäba answer(ing), reply(ing), re- 
aponse, reapondence; compliance; fulfill - 
ment, granting (of a request); accession; 
consent, assent | &iü <jU-1 ijäbatan U- 
falabikztm in compliance with your re- 
quest; in answer to your request 

<->j\4 tajäumb agreement, oonformiby; 

Äil«£«>l istijäba hearing, anawering (of a 
prayer); granting, fulnllment (of a re- 
quest); resonanoe, oonaonance (phys.) \ 
J <jIj*£-1 istijäbatan li in compliance with, 
in answer to, in deference to 

lylj^LJ istijwäb pl. -ät interrogation, 
questioning; hearing; interview; Inter- 
pellation (in parliament) 

lyjlwL* mutajäwib harmonious 

( _- c ^r_* muetajib hearing, anawering, 
granting ; reverberant, resonant, reso- 
nating; responsive, susceptible, impres- 



Oj»- (Engl.) jüt jute 

(rjr) rW* /*£* w An & !▼ *° annihilate, 
destroy, min; to flood, inundate (* the 
Und) VIII do.; to carry away, sweep 
away (* s.o., *; storm); to put down, 
subdue, quell (*, o.g., a not) 

4»-U-l ijäha deBtruction, annihilation; 
crop damage; crop failure, bad harvest 

^U*-l ijtiyäh destmotion, annihilation; 
Bubdual, suppression 

f U- jä'ih orushing, devaatating; dis- 

i*L- jä'iha pl. ^I_j»- jawä'Vf calamity, 
disaster, ruin; epidemio; crop damage 

r>*- jvJf pl. rl>f' ajtoäk broadcloth 

(i>*-) jU- jäda u {»*j*r jvda) to be or become 
good, become better, improve; — (jüd) 
to grant generously (i_*, be so gen- 
erouB äs to do <lj with verbal 
noun); to be liberal, openhanded (^ with, J* toward s.o.), bestow liberally 
(lj, J* upon s.o.), grant, give lav- 
ishly (^ of, J* to s.o.), shower 
(<-» J* s.o. with); to donate (4* a sum of 
money, etc.) j a— ii» aU- to Bacrifice o.s.; 
to give up the ghoBt; ^-ÜL »L-* coU- fa*.» 
näAu &»-d-dam*) tears welled from his 
eyes; #1, — II OjU- (heavens granted rain) 
it rained II to do well {*; to make 
better, improve, better, ameliorate {*; to recite (the Koran; cf. >u>f) 
IV to do well, do excellently (*; to 
master (*, be skilled, proficient 
(* in), be an ezpert (* at), be conversant 
(* with an art or field of knowledge); to 
accomplish or say good, ezcellent things; 
to achieve ezcellent results; to be ez- 
cellent, outstanding, diatinguish o.s. (e.g., 
as a poet) | ii) aL-l (lugatan) to master a 
language; jJUJl J* ü»>Jl jU-I ( r azfa) to play 
the piano well X to think {* good 
or ezcellent, approve of (*); to consider 
(* suitable for or appropriate to{J) 

*yr föd openhandedness, liberality, 

jy-- javd heavy rains 

•iL- see linder '.u- 

•*>*■ jüda goodness, excellence 

J^r jayyid pl. jU- jiySd good, perfect, 
faultless; outstanding, ezcellent, first- 
rate; good (as an examination grade) ; lo»>- 
jayyidan well, excellently; thoroughly j 
la»- 0->- (jiddan) very good (also as an 
examination grade) 

jj*-l ajwad 1 better 

i\jj~ jawäd pl. j|_>*-I ajwäd, jjL-1 aj&* 
tnd 2 , •bjU-l ajätmd*, jj». jüd openhanded, 
liberal, generous, magnanimous; jawäd 
pl. jU- jiyäd, jU-I ajyäd, .üjL-l ajäwtd* 
race horse, racer; charger | jI^h-IM j/i 
noble man 

Jj^f tajwid art of reciting the Koran- 
Koran reading (in aoeordance with estab- 
lished rules of pronunciation and Into- 

-L£ mujid adept, efficient, proficient 

j\ijr jaudär see jIjjL- (alphabetically) 

Gj*0 jl*- jära u (jaur) to deviate, atray (j^. 
from); to commit an outrage (J* on), 
bear down (J# upon), wrong, persecute, 
oppress, tyrannize (J* s.o.); to oncroach, 
make inroads (J* on another's territory) 
III to be the neighbor of s.o. (•), live 
next door to (•); to be adjacent, be next 
{* to, adjoin {*; to be in the 
jmmediate vicinity of (», *), be close to 
(•, *}; to border (* on) IV to grant 
asylum or a aanetuary (• to s.o.) ; to 
protect (• s.o., ,> from), take (» s.o.) 
under one's wing; to stand by b.o. {«), 
aid (• s.o.) VI to be neighbors; to be 
adjacent ; to ha ve a common border 
X to seek protection, seek refuge (*-> with 
s.o., j- from, appeal for aid (• to 
s.o., ^ against 


jj*- jaur in justice j oppression, tyr- 
anny; outrage 

jU- jär pl. üljw- jlrän neighbor; refu- 
gee; protege", oharge 

♦jU- jära pl. -äi neighboress 

•jw- jira neighborhood 

•j_yr jüra pl. jj»- fuwar pit, hole 

if jjr see alphabetically 

Jj*- jiwär neighborhood, prozimity; 
j\yc in the neighborhood of, in the vicin- 
ity of, near, oloae to 

•jjlf mujätoara neighborhood, proxim- 

_/U- jä'ir pl. »j_>»- jawara, IjU- jära 
unjuat, unfair; tyrannioal, despotia; ty- 
rant, oppressor, deapot 

jjU mujäwir neighboring, adjacent; 
near, close by; (pl. -ün) Student (esp. of 
AI Aznar Univeraity; living in the vicin- 
ity of the Mosque) 

jdt. mujir proteotor 

jjU«i* mutajäwir having a common 
border; adjoining, adjacent, contiguous 

«-jjj»- jawab pl. «-olj'r jotoärib 1 stocking; 

WrJ^r 7 or J*yö Georgia (republic of the 


x x$jjr jüri damask rose (Rosa damascena, 
bot.); crimson 

"if Jj*r (Engl.) jüri jury 

l (Jjr) JW- ) äza u ü!>r jatoät, jL* majäz) to 
pass, come, travel (* through); to pass 
(* an examination, a test); to be allowed, 
permitted, permiasible ; to be possible, 
conceivable; to work, succeed (<S* with 
s.o.; deceit, artifice) | <LJ-I <\* OjU- 
(AUa) the trick worked with him, he 
feil for the trick II to perznit, allow 

(a; to approve (* of), sanation, 
Warrant, authorize (* 111 to pass (* or by, go or walk past 
(*); to go beyond (*), overstep, 
cross, leave behind (*, also, e.g., 
j**S\ j* j-u^Aill JjU- fumr) he is past 
thirty; to ezceed, surpass (*; to 
pass over (ja), disregard (jp, 
pay no attention (ja to); to let (jp 
go unpunished; to give up, forgo, re- 
linquish (ja IT to traverse, cross 
(a, Jl on the way to); to permit, 
allow (* J to s.o.; to authorize 
(a J s.o. to do, also * •); to lioense 
(a; to approve, oonfirm, endorse 
(a a decision, a judgment); to approve 
(a of, sanotion (a V to toler- 
ate, suffer, bear VI to pass (a or 
by, go or walk past (*); to 
go beyond (*), overstep, cross, leave 
behind (a; to exoeed, surpass (*, also J*); to go too far, overstep 
all bounds, encroach, make inroads; to 
pass over (ja), disregard (ja, 
pay no attention (ja to); to give up, 
forgo, relinquish (*; to refrain (ja 
from) VIII to pass, run, go (* through), 
cut aoross (*); to cross (a a border, a 
street, a mountain ränge); to traverse 
(a a country or sea); to oover (* a dis- 
tance); to pass {* through the mind; 
said of ideas, thoughts) ; to go (a through 
hard times or a crisis); to surmount, 
overcome (a a crisis) X to deem per- 
miasible (a; to ask permission 

jj*- jauz pl. jlj»-l ajwäz heart, center 
(of a desert, of a large area, etc.) | jl^-l j 
amid, in the middle of, in; »Lull j\ji~\ j 
(fa4a) in spaoe 

jij»- jatoäz permissibility, admissibility ; 
lawfulness, legality; permission, (official) 
permit, Ucense, authorization; possibil- 
ity, conoeivability ; passing (of an exam- 
ination) | jiJ\ jl_^- j. as-aafar (pl. -dt) 
(traveling) passport 



jlf majäz croasing; passage; corridor 
(pol.-geogr.); metaphor, figurative expres- 
sion (rhei.) | IjU maj&zan, jUI J-y J» 
figuratively, metaphorically 

tfjljf majäzl figurative, metaphorical 

•jU-l ijäza pl. -öt permission, authori- 
zation; approval; license; = Fr. Ucenct 
as an academio degree; permit; vaca- 
tion, leave (of absenoe) | _^J- 1 SjU-l i. cd- 
hafr grant of patent, isaue of letters 
patent; patent; <-L«*j SjU-l (guniuZiya) 
ezequatux of a consul (dipl.)\ «— -v* *jl*-' 
(maro^tya) siok leave; v*-»-*-*' oljL-Vl 
(madrasiya) sohool vacation; •jL-'i/lj Jli 
on leave, on vacation 

•jjljf mujäwaza and Jjljf tajäwuz 
crossing; ezceeding; overdraft, overdraw- 
ing (of an account) ; disregard (je- for) ; 
relinquißhment (j* of 

jü>-i i;Vtydz traversing, orossing; pas- 
sage; transit; oovering (of a distance); 
passing (of an examination) ; surmounting 
(of diffioulties) 

j-*U- jaiz permitted, lawful, legal; con- 
ceivable, thinkable 

*j V 7'ä'ta» V^'J^yr jautfiz* prize, re- 
ward, premium | V*'-»-* •-/**?■ {diräüya) 
stipend, scholarship 

Jljf mujäz licensed; licentiate (as an 
academio title, = Fr. Ikencii; e.g., j jlif 
j-^LJ! licencii As aetences) 

«□ jj*. — -yj II to give in marriage 

O Jj*r i avz pl* j\yr ■ °7* wSi5 = rJ J cou pl e 

□j^jrt («yr.; pronounced maiwez, < 

-jj- muzwaj) wind instrument with a 

double pipe, correaponding to the Egyp- 

tian zummära) 

Mjji.1 al-jauzä* Gemini (astron.) 

*J**- ;auz (coli.; n. un. «, pl. -ät) walnut | 
»_^LJI jj*- j. af-fib nutmeg; >JJl j_y? j. cd- 
qa% nux vomica; -lAI J_>*- j. aZ-Atntf, j_>»- 

^-U* (A«iuß) coconut; _*i)l j^*- ;'. 0/40» 
cocoon, ehrysalis of the ailkworm 

Ij^jr- jjteo (eg.) narghile 

tSjj*r i avxi nut (used attributively and 
in Compounds); nut-brown, hazel 

6 jU- look up alphabetically 

Jj>r ;'a«a»i pl. Jjljr jawdtiP young pigeon 

(^^»-) ^U- jäsa u to peer around, pry 
around, look around (J"iU. kiläla in); 
to search, investigate, explore (* 
VIII to search, investigate, explore (* 

J-_>*- jausaq pl. jJ^r jawäavf palace; man- 
or, villa 

U*j_>*- gawtfa pl. Julj*- pauxJ'tf 1 (ejj.) dowel, 

(*>_j»-) s-L- ;ä*a u to be hungry; to starve 
II to cause (• s.o.) to starre, starve out, 
famish (» s.o.) IV do. 

fj*r ?•*' hunger, starvation | Uy- oU 
to starve to death 

jUj»- /au'tJn*, f. ^j»r 7 0U 'ä'> P*- f -er- 
jiyfl" hungry, starved, famished 

«■U majS'a pl. -ät famine 

«JU- jöV pl. £_L»- ;»yä*. £jr juww-' 
hungry, starved, famished 

»i^f tojufT starving out 

«.U-l »ja'a starving out 

tj^r- II to make hollow, hollow out (*> 

*jj*r 7 av f pl* *J'j*r' a 7 u **/ hollow, cav- 
ity; depression; interior, inside, center, 
heart; belly, abdomen; north (magr.) | 
J»j»- j inside, in the interior of, in the 
middle of ; J-Ui üjr J (/• *WoÄ) or ü^ 
JiJl (jaufa) in the middle of the night 

J_>**" Z»* 4 /* inner, interior, inside; 
subterranean, Underground, subsurface 
(of geological strata); northern (magr.) \ 
*Jj~- »L« ground water 


(Jij»-1 ajwaj 2 , f. »\iy- jaufä**, pl. ü»j»r 
;u/ hollow; empty; vain, futile, inane, 
pointless, senseless 

<Jajj£ tajwif pl. «Ju jLf tajäwif* hollow, 

iji^f mujawwaf hollowed out, hollow 

3j*r jauq pl. jl_^-l ajwäq and ü_j»- ;auga 
pl. -öi troop, group; theatrical troupe, 
operatic Company ; choir {mus.) ; orchestra, 
band (also '-lJu^ja **yr) ] «Jj^-.l j^* mu " 
dir al-j. conductor, bandleader, choir 
leader; J>^ll\ üj*- j. aS-Saraf Legion of 

'(Jj*-) JU- jäla u (jaul, Ü_j»- jaula, Jj_^ toj* 
twiJ, üVj»- jawalän) to roam, rove, wander 
about; to move freely, be at home (j in 
a field of learning), occupy o.e. (j with); 
to be circulated, go the rounds; to pasa 
(j, <-» through the mind) | <-l_r JL- 
to preoccupy s.o., engross s.o.'s attention; 
(*_^»ljc) s_^,U j J^ U what he is pre- 
occupied with, what is on his mind; 
*JL» 3 ujJI JL- (dam', 'ainaihi) his 
eyes swam in tears; j «>b cJU- (yaduhü) 
he laid his hands on, he committed de- 
falcations of IV to circulate, pasa a- 
round (* | j ^J\ JL-I (ra'ya) 
to weigh thoroughly, ponder ; 
_ / kJI JU-I (nazara) to let one's eyes wander 
about; to look around V to roam, rove, 
wander about, move around; to patrol, 
go the rounds; to cruise; to tour, travel 
from place to place, travel about 

3J_j»- jaula pl. -ät circuit, round; patrol; 
excursion, outing ; tour ; (round) trip ; 
voyage, run {of a steamer); (round-trip) 
flight (of an airplane) ; round (in sports) 

Jj_>*- jawwäl wandering, migrant, itiner- 
ant, roving; cruising; traveling; ambu- 
lant; traveler, tourist; see also alpha- 
betically | Jl_j»- *lj rämin jawwäl pl. *Lj 
~*^j*r Tumäh jawwäla riäeman (mit. ; 


~*^j*r j&wwäla one given to roaming 
or traveling; wanderer, wayfarer; O m <>~ 
torcycle; cruiser 

Jl^ tajwäl migration, wandering, rov- 
ing, traveling; nomadic life, nomadism 

öV>»- jawalän migration, wandering, 
roving, traveling; nomadic life, nomadism) 
•ull oVj*- j. al-yad embezzlement, defal- 

jLf majäl pl. -ät room, Space (J for; field, domain, ephere; scope, ez- 
tent ; reach; ränge; elbowroom, free scope; 
play, clearance; field (magn.) f VLf i\J L. 
tiJLiJI (Sakk) to admit of no doubt; V 
dJ ^*UJ jLf (majäla, fa'n) (it is) in- 
contestable; Jljtl ti* j in this con- 
nection; L»~J oUI JljM f±j (amämahü) 
to give b.o. a free hand, wide scope of 
action; is^*- J^f (hayawx) lebensraum; 
J**Jl jLf m. al- r amal field of activity; 
^.tk'J;,* jLf (magnafisi) magnetic field; 
JLjM tJj-Siddatal-m. field intensity (mogn.) 

Jjjf tajawvml roaming, roving, wan- 
dering, migration ; going out, moving 
about; patrol, round; (round) trip, tour; 
traveling j Jj*dl V-* man" at-t. ourfew 

JJU- »jL bä'i'jä'il pl. j^UL- «L peddler, 

J>*i* mutajawwil wandering, migrant, 
roaming, roving, itinerant; ambulant; 
traveling; traveler | J>»«i* J-5j traveling 
salesman; J>*i* pb (6ai/yö') peddler, 
hawker ; Jjȟ u-*-* (?*****) itinerant 

a JJ_>»- look up alphabetically 

JJp- poj/ golf (ep.) 

I*U- look up alphabetically 

^ifr fön P* ^Ivr' <»7«»n gulfi ialet, bay 

Ujj*-, *^j*-, *Ljjt (It. gonneüa) goneüa pl. -Ö( 
(woman's) skirt (eg.) 


«U- look up alphabetically 

j*j*r II tajauhara to become subatance 

j*yr jauhar pl. j*\yr jawähir* intrinsic, 
essential natura, essence; content, Bub- 
atance (as opposed to form; philos,); 
matter, subatance; atom; jewel, gern; 
pl. jewelry | ^»>A-lj i-juj\ (zoi/) the spuri- 
ous and the genuine 

»j*y? /ottAara jewel, gern 

i£j*j*r jauhari substantial; intrinsio, 
essential, inhereut; fundamental, main, 
chief, principal; material; jeweler 

jrjtsr jauharji jeweler 

^->Lr*>? mugauharät (eg.) jewelry, trin- 
kets; jewela, gems 

l iSj*r joiufiya a (jatvan) to be paasionately 
stirred by love or grief 

iSj*r jüw-n ardent love, pasaion 

2 iSj\*r look up alphabetically 

jWjt — j'^jW - 1°°^ U P alphabetically 

(\yr) *^r ?*'° •J*, y**?'*'« (*j? maji) to come 
(», * to); to get (* to), reach (* a place); 
to arrive; to bring (<^>; <_> • to b.o.; to bring forth, produce (v; 
to set forth (*_>; to do, perform; 
to commit, perpetrate (*; to occur, 
be mentioned, be said (j in an article, 
document or book); (with foll. imperf.) 
to be about or set out to do | j »L. 
jl flj»Vl «Jj^*- thenewspaper "AlAhram" 
reporta that ...; o\ ,^-jjIj ^ »U a report 
from Paria says that ...; 4fli3 C^»U 
J üjlk> (mufäbiqatan) ita results coincided 
with ... 

iL*- jl'a, jai'a Coming, arrival | iL*- 
V^*ij (dakäb) coming and going, <_~»S 
lUjj iL*- to pace the floor, walk up and 

»^ maji' coming, arrival, advent 
oLJljLi al-jä'iyät the things to come 

l V=f jaib pl. vj^r juyüb breaat, bosom, 
heart; Bine (matA..); hole, hollow, cavity, 
excavation; pocket; purse } ,j*l£l t_-J-l 
(fcö*?) the privy purse; u-J-J *lc* tamäm 
ai-j., *|^ll *_--*- cosine (math.); ,_„M uU 
pocket watch; •~>~i-) ü>j_-^» pocket money; 
V**"^' V_fc4-' {anflya) the nasal sinusea 
(arnoi.); i.jLül vj^r ?■ al-invq äwama pook- 
ets of resistance (mtl.) 

^j»- jatW pocket (adj.) 

'y-»- jlp, i r ^ r jib and ^_-j»- JjL- myyärat 
j. jeep 

£-*■ (ir.) <?t( a colorful ootton fabric, ohintz 

1 -L»- j'id pl. jL*-I ajyäd, ^*- juyüd neck 

"4^»- jayyid see ij». 

8 jL*-, jL*-I see il_^- jawäd 

1 J <j r jairi surely, truly, verily 

ii>*- ? ir * calcareous, lime (adj.) 
jL*- jayyäT unslaked lime 
♦jL«r jayyära limekiln 

V*- II to endorse {^n.) 

j>*- (It. giro) endorsement {fin.) 

**j*-, o\jv r see jy- 

•jj»- ffiax Giza (city in NEgypt); abrand of 
Egyptian cotton 

(^ji**-) tjil*- j3A» * (^^-^ir joyaiän) to be ei- 
cited, be agitated; to rage, storm; to 
boil, simmer II to levy troops, mobilize 
an army X to raise, mobilize (* an army, 
also, e.g., IjLaJl an^äran followers) 

^^Ju*- jaiS pl. (jJj-*- juyüS army, troops, 
armed forces | J-ib^VI ^/a*- occupation 
forces; J^L^-I ,_£**- army reserve; ^ji**- 
^i)j» (muräbif) territorial army; ,Jj»- 
iliVlä$ Salvation Army; L ^- 
»Lil al-masa dusk, evening twilight 

,jiL»- jayyäS agitated, impassioned; ex- 
cited, boiling up; ebullient; pleasurably 
excited, happily stimulated 

üUjj»- jayaaän excitement, agitation; 

(Ja-»-) jU jäfa i, II and V to be putrid, stink 
(decaying cadaver) 

jiyaj, J»L*-! ajyäf 

ii-*- jlja pl. u 
corpse, cadaver 

JL»- £*H Czech 

J-*- ?'»/ pl. JL»-I ajyäl people, nation, tribe; 
generation; Century; epoch, era 

<J"^r (It. gelati) jeläti ice cream 

**■ jlm name of the letter r- 

,>»- (Fr. jatne) corselet, sheath corset (e^.) 

^j*j?r jiyogräfiyä geography | \J\ J i. J J r \ 

<öj-iJl (baSariya) anthropogeography 
Ij jv*>-»- jiyojlziyä geophysics 

ijL^j^-»- jiyofiziyai geophysical | LJI 

ÄJLj/j^J-l («ana) the geophysical year 

jis*js*- jiyofiziqt geophysical 
Ljt-jIj^ jiyolöjiyä geology 

^yrJjir jiyolöji geologic(al) 

*U hä* nanie of the letter «> 

j-UU ÄöfoSm rabbi j jf*i\ -U-U-l the chief 

JjJ*- see Jj*- 

t/L*- hämx Hamitic 

öU- and llU- see j>*- 

«JU- (pronounced 7wm£a) pl. t_J[j»- ÄauxSntfi 2 
(formerly 2Vn.) hamba, palace gendarme 
of the Bey of Tunis 

OjJL*- see j^~ 

*._-»- habba i (hubb) to love, like II to evoke 
(Jl in s.o.) love or a liking (<., m for 
or s.o.), make ( Jl s.o. ) love or like 
(», * or s.o.); to endear (Jl * 
to s.o.), make (* dear, lovable, 
attractive (Jl for h.o.), make (* 
palatable, acceptable (Jl to s.o.); to urge 
(Jl * on s.o.), suggest (Jl * 
to s.o.) IV (._-»- hubb, La mahabba) to love, 
like (*, • s.o.,; to wish, want, 
or like, to do (jl) | i! ,_-»-l 

uhibbu an 1 should like to , . .; öl J ,_-*-! 
to like about s.o. that he . . . ; <l j<£ I l^ V 
(kaira) he doesn't want him to be hap- 
py, he grudges him everythüig V to 
show love, reveal one'a affections (Jl 
to s.o.); to endear o.s. ( Jl to s.o.), 
make o.s. populär, ingratiate o.s. (Jl 
with s.o.); to court, woo (Jl a woman) 
VI to love one another X to like (*; 
to deem (* desirable, recommend- 
able; to prefer (J* * to eise) 

._-»- hubb love; affection, attachment | 
olJJl ._-»-&. a<f-rfä/seIf-love,amour-propre; 
^^Uai-Vl ._-»- curiosity, inquisitiveness; 
jjLf^II ._-»- h. al-waian patriotism; J L». 
(hubban) out of love or affection for, out 
of friendship for ; j L*- in the desire to . . . 

<j»- hubbi friendly, amicable, loving; 
Lj- hubbiyan in an amicable manner, 
amicably; by fair means (jur.) 

._-»- Hibb pl, u->L*-l ahbäb darling, dear, 
dearest (one) 

V^*- habäb aim, goal, end 


,_^ habib pl. »U-i ahibbä'*, l^\ 
ahilba, v^*"' ahbäb beloved, sweetheart, 
lover; darling; dear one, friend; dear 
(Jl to s.o.); populär; <_j^*"^' the beloved 
onea, the dear ones 

ijij*- habiba pl. ^j^t*" tobä'ib* sweet- 
heart, darling, beloved woman 

,_^l ahabb 2 dearer, more desirable, 
preferable (Jl to s.o.) 

li*- habbadä (with folL nominative) 
how nice, how lovely iß . . .! how good, 
excellent, perfect is , . .! | ^ Ix*- how 
nice it would be if . . .; J*i_^ JW-' l-lj*- 
h. l-hälu lau fa'ala it would be nice, or 
he would do well, if he did it; JU-1 li-— Ij 
{hälu) that's just wonderfnl! 

1^*. mahabba love; affection, attach- 
ment | JL>J\ i-rf- m. al-wafan patriotism 

i_«^ tahdbbub courtship, wooing 

^U; tahäbub mutual love, concord, 

V^t* mahbüb beloved; dear; lovable, 
desirable; populär; favorite; beloved one, 
lover; (pl. <-*ul£ mahaW) 1 ) gold piece, 
sequin (in Ottoman times; eg.) 

*ijT*- mahbüba Bweetheart, darling, 
beloved woman 

i_ /!; ^ muhabbab agreeable, pleaaant, 
desirable, lovable, dear (Jl to s.o.); nice, 

,_-* mvhibb pl. -«n loving; lover; 
fancier, amateur, fan; friend | ^U <_^ 
philanthropic(al), affable; JrjJl U^ oar 
dear friend; jtf^i j>4- friends of arche- 
ology; *j"iJJ ^J- (li-dätihi) egoiflt 

uUa. mutahdbb loving one another, 

u_.r,-: M ' mustahabb (re)com mendable, do- 
sirable (said of acta whose negleot is not 
punished by God, but whose performanoo 
is rewarded ; Id. Law) ; well-liked, populär 

*>■ II to produce seed, go to seed (plant) ; to 
bear seed (grain); to granulate, become 
granulated; to granulate (* IV to 
produoe seed 

i_^> habb {coli.; n. un. •) grains; seed; 
— pl. <--L^*~ hubüb grain, cereals, oorn; 
seed(s); grains, kerneis; granules; pellets; 
puls, pastüles; berries; acne, pustules, 
pimples | >jJI ._-•- chufa (Cyperus es- 
culentus L.; bot.); -üÄll ,_->■ h. al-faqad 
chaste tree (Vitex agnus castus L.; bot.); 
i}j\l\ ,_->- croton seeds (seeds of Croton 
tiglium; bot.); (magr.) ehernes; JL4JI ^ T ^- 
h. al-höl and (jl*^) öl«Jl ^*- h - al-hän 
cardamom (Amomum cardamomum L.; 
bot.); ^LjJI ._->- h. al-gamäm hail, hail- 

i-»- habba (n. un.; see also >_^- habb) 
pl. -ät grain, granule; seed; kernel; pill, 
pastille; berry; puBtule, pimple; trivial- 
ity, trifle; a square measure {Eg.; = 
58.345 m») ; pl. oU- beads (of the rosary) | 
_^*i <*- h. Salr a linear measure {Eg. ; = 
0.205 cm); *>1#- i-*- (AwJuw) aniseed; l+- 
»1*^- (^audä* 3 ) black caraway (Nigella 
aativaL. ;&<>(.); JU^I ü>U- grains ofsand; 
Juli 5-*- A. al-'ain eyeball; pupil (of the 
eye); *_-ÜJl L#- h. al-qalb dearest one, 
beloved, darling 

L[ ,,r Aa&aft blister 

i^ Au&ztöa pl. -ä* little grain, small 
kernel; small pimple or pustule 

lSr ^- hubaibi granulär, granulated | 
^J.1 x,J\ {ramad) traohoma {med.) 

■■- habhab (ooll.) watermelon (hij.) 
^_-»-L»- hubOhib firefly, glowworm 

^ II to approve, think well (* of, 
oommend (*; to applaud, acelaim, 
oheer (. s.o., * 

JL* tahbty approval; aoclamation, ao- 
elaim, applause, chearing 


p- habara u (habr) to gladden, make happy, 
delight {» s.o.); — habira a (jj-*- hvbür) 
to be glad, happy II to embellish, refine, 
make workmanlike (»; to compose 
{ * ) in elegant style ; to write, 
compose (* 

j«- hibr ink | jX\ *\ umm al-h. squid, 
cuttlefish; 3jj J» s*- (waraq) mere ink 
on paper, of no effeot (e.g., an agreement, 
a treaty) 

j»- habr, hibr pl. jL*-! ahbür a non- 
Muslim religious authority, learned man, 
scribe ; bishop ; rabbi { Ji* V I jJ- 1 the Pope ; 
jL-Vl rf -i- «t/r al-a. Leviticus (Old Test.) 

jj* habn pontifical | ,jj-*~ ^l-tf 
(quddäs) pontifical moss (Chr.) 

Sjjj». habnya office or dignity of a 
bishop, bishoprio, pontificate 

»j»- habara, hibara pl. -8t silken Bhawl 
or wrap (worn in publie by lodies) 

jL» hab&r, hibär pl. -dt mark, trace 
(esp. of blows), weit, wale 

jjt*- hvbür joy 

tfjL*- hubärü pl. CjLjLp- hvbärayüt 
bustard (zool.) 

jj~£- yahbür bustard chick {zool.) 

'•j*£ mihbara, mahbara pl. yL* ma» 
höbir* inkwell 

jj- habaaa i (habs) to obstruct, shut off, 
confine (*, • s.o.,, block, bar, hold 
back, check (* j* from; also tears, 
laughter, etc.); to withhold (* j* from 
b.o.; to hold in custody, detain 
( » s.o. ) ; to apprehend, arrest, jail, 
imprison (» s.o.); to keep, keep back, 
put aside, put away (J* * for); to 
tie up, invest inaiienably (* capital) | 
J* *_jI) (J-jj- (nafsahü) to devote o.s. 
entirely to . . . ; j* »Oj ,_,-**- (yatZaAü) to 
take ( out from under s.o.'s power; 
4-Lül cLs u -jj- (anfäsahü) to make s.o. 

catch his breath , take s.o.'s breath 
away ; Jüll « j«*». A«6wa nu'a S-Sugl he 
was committed to prison under hard 
Iabor II to tie up inaiienably (* funds, 
J* for, esp. for a pious purpose), make 
a religious bequest (*, for the benent of 
J*) TU to be held back, be held up, 
stop, be interrupted, intermit ; to restrain 
o.s., hold back Till to block, obstruct, 
bar, confine (*, » s.o.,; to detain, 
hold in custody (*, * s.o., s.tb.); to hold 
back, retain, suppress (*, * s.o.,; 
to be detained, held up; to be impeded, 
held back; to falter, break, fail (voice), 
stop (breath) 

u -y- habs (act of) holding or keeping 
back, obstruction, check, repreasion ; 
blocking off, barring, confinement; dam- 
ming up, staving off; safekeeping, ousto- 
dy, retention; imprisonment, arrest, de- 
tention, jailing; (pl. ^j^- hubüs) prison, 
jail | J»U»-l is-t*- (ihtiyäfi) detention 
(pending investigation) ; ^pl^Ul l _ r ^- (in- 
firädi) solitary confinement; -b-li u ~u- 
penal servitude 

u -jj- hibs pl. ifl?»-! ahbüs dam, weir, 

.j-jj- hubs, hubus pl. ijJ-*-! ahbüa (Tun., 
Alg. t Mor. = toaqf) inalienable property 
the yield of which is devoted to pious 
purposes, religious bequest, {Fr. jur.) 
"habous" | j-U l _ r ±*- ('ämm) publio habouB, 
,_^L»- j^*- (kä$s) private habous; L-**- OK* 
J* (= J* Liij öS*) to be entirely depend- 
ent on . . . 

i_i*- hvbsa speech defect, impediment 
of speech 

ij-t*- habis blocked-off, shut-off, barred, 
confined, locked-up ; secluded ; bated 
(breath); choking (voice); (pl. »L-**- hw 
baaü**) hermit 

jj-*.* mahbas, mahbia pl. ^L* ma» 
häbis* place where is confined or 
locked up; jail, prison; (prison) cell 



( _ r i* mihbaa device for shutting off or 
blocking off 
<_a£ mo.hha.aa. hermitage 

^L^l inhibäa seclusion, confinement; 
etoppage > interruption; cessation 

^L^-l ihtibäs retention.restraint; Inhi- 
bition, impediment, obstruction, stop- 
page | JjJI ( _r'-r > -' ihtibäs al-baul sup- 
pression of urine, ischuria 

ifjT*- mahbüs shut-off (from the out- 
side world), isolated, secluded, confined, 
locked'Up; imprisoned, captive; tied-up 
(funds); (pl. u -^\*^ Tnahäbis 2 ) prisoner, 
prison inmate, oonvict 

( _ r j^ muhabbia donor of a habous (see 
)J -a*- hübe) 

*_L cr o^l al-muhabbaa 'alaihi bene- 
ficiary of a habous (see )J -a*- hubs) 

,j-j^* munhabia secluded, shut-off 

^^lii-l al-habai Abyssinia, Ethiopia; (pl. 
^Lj-VI al-ahbää) the Abyssinians, Ethio- 
pia ns 

LiU-l al-habasa (and «JLjJ-l j^j) Abys- 
sinia, Ethiopia 

,^1**- kaba&i pl. ^iL»-' ahbüi Abyssin- 
ian, Ethiopian 

V*. habata i (i^*- hiibüt) and habipi a to 
come to nothing, fail, miscarry, go wrong; 
to be futile, be of no avail, be loat IV to 
frustrate, thwart, foil, defeat (>, 
J* * in s.o.; negotiations, efforts, 
an attempt, etc.) 

V*. habat scar of a wound, wale, weit 

S*^»- hubüt futility, failure 

J»L*-t t'Aiöf frustration, thwarting, foil- 

^ habaq basil (bot.); (egr.) a variety of 
speedwell (Veronica anagallis aquatica L.) 

•iL»- habaka i u {habk) to weave well and tight 
{*; to braid, plait {*; to 

twist, twine, ttghten (*; to knit 
(*; to devise, contrive (* a p]an, 
a plot) II to twist, twine, tighten {* ; 
to fasten (* 

<£_>■ habka fabric, tissue; texture, 

tiL*- hubuk: fj>^\ dL*- h. an-nujüm 
the orbits of the celestial bodies 

<5~Lj- hibäka weaver's trade, weaving 

Jj^ mahbük tightly wo ven ; tight, 
taut; sturdy, strong, robuBt, husky 

tlLzt muhtabik interwoven, intersecting 

1 J»*- VIII to ensnare, catch in a snare {*, • 

J-*- häbl pl. JL*- hibäl, J-»-l ahbul, 
J^>- hubül, JL»-1 ahbäl rope, cable, 
hawser; cord, string, thread; (pl. JL*- 
hibäl) beam, ray (e.g., of the sun, of 
Light)» jet (e.g., of water); vein; sinew, 
tendon j JjjJI J?*- jugular vein; jy-Jl J^l 
(aurri) umbilical cord; j^iJl J-J-l (SauH) 
spine; iÖ^-* JL*- (sautiya) vocal cords; 
jSLA\ J^ ivy {bot); ,111 JL^ jets of 

water; V J Wi > Jr 1 - 1 <i*W) J J| a h* 
(aflaqa) l-habla 'alä l-gärib to let things 
go, slacken the reins, give a free hand, 
impose no restraint; JJ-I «li^jl slackening 
of the reins, yielding; relenting; Vj^-*' 
*L»- idtaraba habluhü to get into a state 
of disorder, of disOrganization, of disinte- 
gration, get out of control; ,>0 I J* <_-«j 
(la'iba, hablain) to play a double game, 
work both sidea of the etreet 

iJ**-l uhbüla pl. J;jl»-1 ahdbil 2 snare, 
net; rope with a noose; pl. Jj^ tricks, 
wiles, artificea, stratagems (in Order to 

UL*- hibäla pl. J!t*- habä'il 2 snare, net 

J,,U häbil: JjUL JjU-i Ü£+\ (iktalafa) 
everything became confused, got into 
a state of utter confusion; p+LLij *«ijU- 
all together, all in a modley 


'J^- habila a (habal) to be or become preg- 
nant, conceive n and IV to make preg- 
n&nt (U a woman) 

J^ Aa&aJ conception; pregnancy 
J^- AuA&J pl. JL*. habäkt and Ü^Lj- 
habläna pregnant 

,>*- Aa&an dropsy 

üLf^»- (ül^JI ^_-*- Aa&6 aJ-Mn) cardamom (Arno- 
mum cardamomum L.; bot.) 

(j-*-) L*- AaM u (Aa6u>) to crawl, creöp; to 
present (* • b.o. with, give, award 
(* * to b.o. III to be obliging (♦ to 
s.o.), show one's good will (»toward s.o.); 
to favor (• s.o.); to side (» with s.o.), 
bepartial (»tos.o.);to show respect, def- 
erence (• to s.o.) VIII to sit with one's legs 
drawn up and wrapped in one's garment 

~*y*- hibwa, hubwa, habwa gifb, present 

»L*- hibä' gift, present 

•LL£ muhßbäh obligingness, complai- 
sance, courtesy; favor(ing), favoritism, 

C-*- hatta u {hau) to rub off, scrape off, scratcb 
off (* 

o- hitta pl. c^*- hitat (eg.) piece, bit, 

Jß- hattä (prep.) until, tili, up to, as far 
as; (conj.; with perf.) until, so that; (with 
subj.) until, that, so tbat, in order that ; — 
(particle) even, eventually even; and 
even; ji J»- even if; (with preceding 
negation) not even, and be it only . . . 

oli*- hutdt scraps; morseis, crumbs 

öl*: tahätt corrosion 
-U*- hatida a (hatad) to be of pure origin 

m£- mahtid descent, origin, lineage 
»j^- hutra small piece, bit, trifle 

jü>- hitär pl. j%*~ hutur border, edge, 
fringe, surroundings, vicinity 

.Jo- hatf pl. J*>=*- hutüf death | j* £*wj 
<J\L> 4-o- (Jl ,^-j) yabhatu r an (yas'ä ilä) 
hat/ihi bi-züfihi he brings about his own 
destruction, digs his own grave; <Jt>- üL 
<ij\ mala hatfa anfihl he died a natural 

-U- hatama i {hatm) to decree, make neces- 
sary, prescribe (J* > for s.o.), 
make (* a duty, a necessity (J* for 
s.o.); to impose, enjoin (J* * upon 
s.o.); to decide, determine definitely 
{i_j II to decree, make necessary, 
prescribe ( J* * for s.o. ), make 
(* a duty, a necessity ( J* for s.o.) 
V to be necessary; to be s.o.'s (J») 
duty, be incumbent (J* upon s.o.) 

^*- hatm pl. *js»- hutüm imposition, 
injunction; final decision, resolution, de- 
termination; £»- hatman decidedly, defi- 
nitely, necessarily, inevitably 

(_j*^*- hatmi decided, definite, final, 
conclusive, definitive, unalterable, irrev- 
ocable, inevitable 

L*i»- hatmtya decidedness, definite - 
neas, definitiveness, determinateneas, un- 
alterableness ; necessity 

i-*i*-V lä-hatmlya indeterminism (phi- 

*y£- mahtüm imposed, enjoined, ob- 
ligatory; determined, definitive, deter- 
minate, unalterable, inevitable; destined, 
predestined, ordained (fate) 

lA muhattam imposed, enjoined, oblig- 
atory; determined, definitive, determi- 
nate, unalterable, inevitable; destined, 
predestined, ordained (fate) 

I*«i. mutahattim absolutely necessary; 
imperative (duty) 

U»- hatta u (hatt) to urge, incite, prompt, 
goad, spur on, egg on, prod, provoke, 


impel (• s.o., J* to do | *U«^ *i-*- 
(JptiOhu) to quicken one's pace, hurry 
(Jl to a place); Si^ <^~ itoniqq) to 
hurry, hasten; < ii-*- (gwiamotAi) to 
quicken one's pace, break into a run 
VHI and X = I 

£d>- hatit fast, rapid, quick 

O *JU- hät&a hormone 

'J- Ai£/i Hittite (n. and adj.) 

ÄJli»- Autfia dregs, lees, Sediment; scum 
(flg.); offal, discard, scrapa | ./.jJ-l ÜLi*. 
aük eombings 

(ji».) li*. Ao£3 u (Aafw) to strew, scatter, 
spread, diaperse (* 

**- hajja v to overcome, defeat (♦ s.o., 
with argumenta, with evidence), confute 
(• s.o.); to convince {« s.o.); — (hajj) to 
make the pilgrimage (to Mecca), perform 
the hadj m to dispute, debate, argue, 
reason (• with s.o.) YI to argue against 
eaoh other, carry on a dispute, to debate; 
to take counsel Vm to advance (<-> 
as-an argument, plea, excuae, or pretezt; 
to allege in Bupport or vindication, 
plead (w; to vindioate, juatify (J ; to protest, remonstrate ( J* against), 
object, raise objectionB (J* to) 

*»■ hajj and 'de hijja pl. -4t, mT 
hijaj pilgrimage; hadj, the officio! Muslim 
pilgrimage to Mecca | i*i-l jj {Zu l-hijja 
Zu'lhijjah, the last month of the Ialamio 

de hujja pl. £* Aujo; argument; 
pretenae, pretezt, plea; proof, evidence; 
document, writ, deed, reoord; authorita- 
tive souroe, competent authority | ***» 
ul under the pretenae that . . . , on the 
plea . . . , on the pretext of . . . 

r-Lp hajäj pl. ~de\ ahijja circumorbital 
ring (anat.) 

p£- mdhajj destination (of a jonrney) 

'**•*■ mahajja pl. A* mahäjj 1 destination 
of a pilgrimage, object of pilgrimage, 
Bhrine; destination (of a journey); goal; 
road; way; procedure, method | **«*■ 
^I^JI m. a^-^awOb the Right Way, the 
Str&ight Fath; Jj-J-I *j*£ railroad 

r\? htf&j argument, dispute, debate 

£>+£■ tahajjuj argumentation, plead- 
ing, offering of a pretezt, pretenae, ex- 

~l*=»-l ihtijäj pl. -äi argumentation; 
pretezt, excuse, plea, pretenae; proteat, 
remonstrance (J* against), objection, 
exception (J* to) 

^u. htijj pl. ^ijp hujjaj, gje hajij 

pilgrim; hadji, Mecca pilgrim, honorific 
title of one who has performed the pil- 
grimage to Mecca 

je hajaba t* (hajb) to veil, cover, screen, 
shelter, aeclude (J*» from); to hide, 
obscure (j* * from elae, e.g., 
from sight); to eclipee, outshine, over- 
shadow (• s.o.); to make impercepttble, 
invisible (j* * to); to conceal (j* * from s.o.); to make or form a Sepa- 
ration (,>jj — ,>> between — and) 
n to veil, hide, conceal; to hide from 
aight, koep in aeclusion (U a vornan); 
to disguiae, mask (»_> * with) Y to 
conceal o.s., hide (j* from), flee from 
Bight, veil o.a. VII to veil o.b., conceal 
o.a.; to be oovered up, become hidden, 
be obsoured Y1H to vanish, become 
invisible, disappear from eight; to veil 
o.b., conceal o.a., hide; to become hidden, 
be conoealed (j* from); to withdraw; 
to elude perception; to cease orinterrupt 
publioation (newspaper, periodical) 

<_jp hajb seclusion ; Bcreening off; keep- 
ing away, keeping off 

<~>ljp hijäb pl. ^Jt hujvb, *J?\ ah' 
jiba cover, wrap, drape; curtain; wom- 
an's veil ; screen , partition , folding 


screen; barrier, bar; diaphragm (also 
j»-U-l L-»UJ-i; anat.); amulet 

<>\je hijäba office of gatekeeper 

(_jU^j-I ihtijäb conoealment, hidden- 
ness, seclusion; veiledness, veiling, pur- 

^ r *-U- häjib concealing, Screening, 
protecting; (pl. <~>\>**-fyujjäb, Im- ha jaba) 
doorman, gatekeeper; chamberlain; order- 
ly (Syr., mü.); (pl. ■-*-]>*- hawäjib 2 ) eye- 
brow | *\ji\ <-*»-U- h, al-hawd' airtight, 

Vj*»* mahjüb concealed, hidden, 


X JE hajara « (hajr, hijr, hujr, ö\je hijrän, 
hujr&n) to deny access (J* to s.o.); to 
stop, detain, hinder (J* or • b.o.); to 
forbid, interdict { J* * to s.o.), pro- 
hibit (J* s.o.) from doing {*); to 
place (J* s.o.) under guardianship, declare 
( J* s.o.) legally incompetent 

JE hajr restriction, curb(ing), check(ing), 
obatruction, impeding, limitation, cur- 
tailing (J* of; barring, ciosing, 
de barmen t, preclusion; detention; block- 
ing, confinement, Containment, suppres- 
sion (as a protective measure); interdic- 
tion, pixihibition, ban ; revocation, or 
limitation, of s.o.'s ( J*) legal competence | 
if* j? ($*#**) quarantine 

JE hijr forbidden, interdicted, pro- 
hibited; lap; (pl. jLtl ahjär, jJe hnjür, 
«jjjt hujüra) mare 

•JE hujra pl. hujarät, je hujar room; 
cell; (railroad) aompartment; Chamber | 
jlküVl »J? waiting room; *_yi\ Ije h. 
an-navm bedroom; *-»-^UJl Ö/^i-l (fallä* 
hiya) Chamber of agriculture 

>nl*. mahjar pl. j~-\£- mahäjir* military 
hospital, infirmary; prison, jail, dungeon | 
( y"* j*+£- (fihhi) quarantine, quaran- 
tine Station 

j»+£- mahjir, mihjar, mahjar pl. j~\£- 
mahäjtr* {— ,>JI j*4- m. al-'ain) eye 
socket; see also below 

ju*^ tahjir interdiotion, prohibition, 
ban; see also below 

jj*>^-' mahjür pl. j**-l* mahäjlr* (and 
4-U jjj*£) one placed under guardian- 
ship; minor; ward, oharge 

*JE n to petrify, turn into stone (*; 
to make hard as stone (* V to turn 
to stone, petrify, become petrified 

je hajar pl. j\jc\ ahjör, »j\je hijära, jLf 
hijär stone ; weight (placed as an equipoise 
on the scale of a balance) | ^L-^/l _/»J-l 
(aaäsi) the foundation stone, cornerBtone, 
^UVI_^J-I *J>j {wa$') laying of the cor- 
nerstone; ^^Jl JE h. al-baläl flagstone, 
paring stone; ^- Je h. jahannam lunar 
caustic, eilver nitrate ; j*jU JE h. al-jir lime- 
stone; JlfJI j*»l-\ or JlfJI JE (summäqi) 
porphyry; j^-VI >^J-i {aswad) the Black 
Stone (of the Kaaba); ü-slilt JE hema- 
tite (min.); «^wJl je h. al-'atra stum- 
bling block; <i-->UJI JE philosopher's 
stone; O j*5JI J? h. al-qamar eelenite; 
f.^J* and ,>j JE preciouB stone, gern ; 
j»J-\ J* »J* (tob'} Üthograph;_^J-i **U» 

tjJE hajarl Btony , Btone ( adj . ) | 
<Sj*+i-\ ^a*J! ('(ty) the Stone Age; j-*«JI 
^i-j.U-1 j^^J-1 the Neolithio period; _ r *»Jl 
/■.Uli tj^nJ-l the Paleolithic period 

_^t hajir stony, petrified 

jljt hajjür stone mason, stone cutter 

_^»*tf. ma/ijir pl. _^-l* mahäjir* (stone) 

jj*£ tahjir petrification; stone quar 

^»•rf. tahajjur petrification 

jp**£m mutahajjir petrified 

jy*^ mtutahjir petrified 


'j: hajaza u i (hajz) to hold back, restrain, 
hinder, prevent ( jp * from); to 
keep away (je * from); to block 
(off), close, bar; to isolate, insulate, con- 
fine, seclude; to make inaccessible; to 
set apart; to separate (jo two things); 
to arrest, detain; to seize, Sequester, 
impound (J* or *, e.g., b.o.'s 
property, salary); to confiscate, safe- 
guard (*; to reserve (*; to 
make a reservation (* for a theater aeat, 
a steamer cabin, a ticket, etc.) VIII to 
retain for o.s., reserve to o.s. {* 

ist hajz curbing, prevention, re- 
straint ; seclusion, confinement, Con- 
tainment, isolation, insulation, Separa- 
tion; arrest, detention, seizure, confisca- 
tion, Sequestration (Je of; reser- 
vation (of seats) | hji-\ ^ h. tü-hurriya 
deprivation of liberty, unlawful detention, 
duress (jur.); Je ^^J-l Jil {alqä) to confis- 

jUJ-l al-hijäz Hejaz, region in W 
Arabia, on the Red Sea coast 

jjljp hijäzi of or pertaining to Hejaz.; 
(pl. -an) an inhabitant of Hejaz 

j*-U häjiz and »j^-U pl. jr]y~ hawä* 
jiz 2 obstacle, hindrance, impediment, 
obstruction; partition, screen, dividing 
wall; block, blockade, road block; fence, 
gate, railing, balustrade ; hurdle ; bar, 
barrier; barricade | ^r^' v^' ^~ 
phragm (anat.); Q ^V >rU- break - 
wate.r; (Ä-f^J-l) ii^ 1 jr^ (qumruqiya, 
gumrukiya) customs barriers; O •J^-^*- 
JaJj-JI lightning rod 

O sr^~ <^o* muwazzaf häjiz approx.: 

1 ü*-l*£ muhäjafa singlestick fencing 

1 J»Utl ihjäf = öl* I 

Jf hajala u i {hajl, 0"** hajalän) to hop, 
leap; to skip, gambol 

Jjt hajl, hijl pl. i}j? hujül, Jlfl ah* 
jäl anklet 

J* hajal (coli.; n. un. I) pl. ö^f 
hijlän, Jj£ hijlä partridge; mountain 
partridge, mountain quail 

iLt hajala pl. Jl* hijäl curtained 
canopy, or alcove, for the bride | obj 
JU»i-l ra^bät al-h. the ladies 

IUJ-1 i-J labat al-hajla hopscotch 
J*ȣ mw/wj;a/wearinganklets(woman); 
white-footed (horse); bright, brilliant, 
radiant; unique, singular, esp. in the 
phraae J^y-' (agarr 2 ) 

Jt hajama u (hajm) to cup {» s.o.; med.) 
IV to recoil, shrink, flinch (je from); 
to desist, abstain , refrain ( j* from ) , 
forbear (je ; to withdraw, retreat 

** Jiajm pl. (*^t hujüm, A^\ ahjam 
bulk, size, volume; caliber (of a cannon) | 
**«A-I jS bulky, sizable, massive 

a\JP hajjäm cupper 

<*\je hijäma cupping, scarification, art 
of cupping 

-j^ mihjam, 1***^- mihjama pl. *r^- 
mahäjim 2 cupping glass 

(•1^1 ihjäm desistance, abstention; re- 
straint, aloofness, reserve 

■jz hajana i (hajn) to bend, curve, crook 
(* VIII to snatch up, grab (*, 
take hold (« of 

j*l ahjan 2 curved, crooked, bent 

j^£ mihjan pl. Jr 1 ^ mahäjin 2 staff or 
stick with a crooked end, crosier; hook 

(j£) \jj- -o lf hajä hihi kairan to think 
well of s.o., have a good opinion of s.o. 
III to propose a riddle (• to s.o.); to 
speak in riddles, be enigmatic 

\je, je hijan pl. »1*1 ahjä* intellect, 
brains, understanding, discernment, acu- 
men, sagacity, wit, intelligence 


J~ hajiy appropriate, suitable, proper 
(v for ) 

J~\ ahjä more appropriate, more 
suitable, more proper; more correct, 


üJtl ithjiya pl. ,j*-l*-i ahäjiy, ^l*-l 
ahäjin riddle, puzzle, enigma 

l^ hakäm 


U-U- (look up alphabeti- 

J*. Jiadda u (hadd) to sharpen, hone (* a 
knife); to delimit, dclineate, demarcate, 
mark off, stake off (* land, j* from); to 
set bounda (* to, limit, restrict, 
confine {*; to irapede, hinder, 
eurb, check (j* or a; — t (lx>- 
hidda) to becorae furioua, angry (J* at): — 
t u {s\±>- hidäd) to wear mourning, 
mourn (J* the deceased) II to sharpen, 
hone (* a knife); to forge (*; syr.); 
to delimit, demarcate (*; to 
aet bounda (* to, circumscribe, 
mark off, delincate aharply ; to liinit, 
reatrict, confine (j- or *; to dcter- 
mine, appoint, aasign, achedule, lay down, 
set down, establiah (*; to fix (* 
e.g., pricea); to define (* | jJ*- 
fl^^aj (baqarahü) to dart aharp glances; 
to acrutinize (j, look sharply (j at III to oppose (*, * s.o.,, 
act contrary ( * , » to a.o., to ), 
contravene, counteract, violate (* 
IV to ßharpen, make sharp (* j 
Jl ^kJI Ar-\ (nazar) to look sharply 
at, atare at ; »j-oi A- 1 ( basarahü ) to 
dart aharp glances; to acrutinize (j, look sharply (j at; a*-\ 
»j^i ^ [bagarihi) to glance sharply; — to 
put on garmenta of mourning V to be 
delimited, be delineated, be bounded, be 
circumacribed; to be dctermincd, be 
eatablishcd, be aet down, be scheduled, 
be fixed ; to be defined, be definable 
VIII to be or become angry; to become 
infuriated, be furioua (J* at), be ex- 

aaperated (J* with); to be agitated, be 
upset, be in a atate of commotion 

A>- hadd pl. ijA- hudüd (cutting) edge 
(of a knife, of a sword) ; edge, border, 
brink, brira, verge; border (of a country), 
boundary, borderline; limit (flg.), the 
utmost, extremity, termination, end, 
terminal point, terminua ; a (certain) 
measure, extent, or degree (attained) ; 
(math.) member (of an equation), term 
(of a fraction, of a proportion); divine 
ordinance, divine atatute; legal punish- 
ment (Isl. Law) | Ai- li-haddi or a>- Jl 
until, tili, up to, to the extent of, A- Jl 
jS'I ai, jS'I li-h.l-äna up to now, sofar; 
L. A*- Jl (haddin) to a certain degree, 
to a certain extent; _-_5 A>- Jl, -L*j A>~ Jl 
to a considerable extent or degree, 
considerably, extensively ; A- ^1 Jl 
{ayyi haddin) how far, to what degree or 
extent; *J x>- V (JwtWa)boundlo33, infinite, 
unbounded, unlimited; A*- "^ bi-lä haddin, 
A>- j-i- Ji ilä gairi haddin boundlesa, un- 
limited, without limita; »1^ A>- J* 'alä 
haddin snwä'in, ^f A*- J* 'alä h. siwan 
in the aame manner; equally, likewiae; 
A- J* (haddi) according to, commensurate 
with; 4jI i -i*- j fi haddi dätihi and .oli a£ 
in itaelf, aa auch; J*Vi Al~\ {a'lä), aL\ 
^«jVI {aq-?ä) the raaximum; ja^l Ai-\ 
{adnä) the minimum; <£jf- A>- ('umri) age 
limit; {jA*- ji du haddain two-edged; 
ijA*- j (hu/lüdi) within, within the frame- 
work of; »ijA*- ^^jI iJL (aq$ä hudüdihi) 
to attain ita higheat degree; «il .jj-U- 
the bounds or restrictions tbat God has 
i man's freedom of action 

Ix*- hidda sharpness, keenneas; pitch 
(of a tone); djatinctivcnesa, raarkedness ; 
vehemence, violcnce, impetuoaity; fury, 
rage, wrath, ire, anger; excitability, 

irascibility, passionateness 

lAf- hida aee a>-j 
sAr- hadad forbidden 


s\a*- hidäd (act of) mourning { J* over) j 
jloJ-l uji taui al-A. garmenteof mourning; 
i-^Jl jIju- A. al-baläf court mourning 

ijO»- Aodid iron; pl. OjIju- Atu&l'tf 1 
iron parts (of a structure) ; forgings, hard- 
ware, ironware | * U- -b-i*- crude iron, pig 
iron, iron ore; O Pj^* -4^*- (mut&wi") 
wrought iron; Jap JjA*- (faß) unprooessed 
iron, pig iron; .uJ-l _^J» «aAr aZ-A., ij.u- 
_^ii\ caat iron; OjOJ-1 äSL- eikkat al-fr. 
railroad; ajL -b.u- j <-•./»* see i_j_p> 

-u-u- hadid pl. aI.w Aüidrf, »l.wl ahid* 
da 1 *, Ij*-\ ahidda sharp (knife, eye, 
tongue, etc.). keen (mind) 

a*- I dfyadd 1 aharper, keener ; more 
vehement, more violent 

•OjO«- hadida pl. o^to*. had&id* pieoe of 
iron; object or tool made of iron J 
ijj-l iJj.u- A. al-hart plowshare; »ij Ji- 1 J* 
(ep.) in financiai straita, pinohed for money 

j-b-U- Aadidi iron (adj.) | *j-Aj>w *£- 
(riifcifea) railroad 

JOjOJ-I al-hudaida Hodeida (seaport in 
W Yemen) 
jl.u- haddüd ironsmith, blacksmith 
ol-u- Atdäia amithcraft, artofsmithing 

0j4^ tahdld pl. -0J Umitation, delimi- 
tation ; delineation, demarcation ; re- 
striction, curb, oonfinement ; determina- 
tion, fixation, appointment; definition | 
■ü-udl J* and -b.udl a^j J* (wa?'A» 
*-*.} to be exact . . . , Btrictly speaking . . . 

jU- Addd sharp (also, flg., of a glance), 
keen (mind); high-pitched (tone); vehe- 
ment, fiery, impetuous; fierce; vivid; 
acute (illness) | ^Ijli jU- h. al-mizäj, 
UJI iU- A. a$-fa&* hot-blooded, hot- 
headed, hot-tempered, irascible ; «jU- *j jij 
<zdi«ya) acute angle; jU-1 c^ aubacute 

jjj* moArfüd bounded, bordered (^ 
by); circumscribed, confined; limited 
(= small, e.g., number, knowledge, etc.); 

delimited, determinate, fixed, definite, 
definitive | J*il iji£ m. al-ma T na un- 
ambiguous ; j^iJl jj^ wi. a^-^famdn 
of limited Uability; (*JjLA\) UjlA «T^i 
{Urica) limited Company, oorporation 

jo£ muhaddad sharpened, aharp ; deter- 
mined, fixed, appointed, deatined (J for); 
strictly delimited, clearly defined 

is* muhtadd angry, furious, exaaper- 

iljj- AüTa, pl. I.U. A«fa', »l.u- Aidd*, jT-u- 
hid'än kite (zool.) 

•I.U- Aada'a pl. »l-u- Aidd* double-bladed 

<_*u- AodtÄa a (Aadai) to be oonvex, dome- 
shaped, cambered, bent outward; to be 
hunchbacked; to be nice, kind, friendly 
(J*- or y to s.o.), be solicitous (J* 
or i_j about b.o.), care (J* or o> for 
s.o.), take care (J* or y of b.o.) II to 
make oonvex, emboaa, camber, vault, 
curve, crook, bend (* V and XII 
«~Oj-*"-' ihdaudaba to be crooked, vaulted, 
oambered, embossed, convex 

»_>.u- hadab affection, fondneaa, love; 
kindlineas; Bolicitude, care; (pl. l^Iju- 
hidäb, t^lov-l ahdäb) elevation of the 
ground | ojj~<j <-*u- JS"j> (wa-^aubin) or 
V-l*-j Vj-» J^ ö* fr° m aU sidea, fxom all 
directiona, from everywhere; vj** J^* J 
V^j everywhere, in every quarter, on all 

<_*u- hadib curved, cambered, vaulted, 
convex; hunchbacked; kindly, friendly 

ij.u- hadaba hunchback, hump; camber, 
vaulting, curvature 

v a^l oAdab 9 , f.»L-u- hadba' 1 , pl-v^ 
Awß hunchbacked, humped; — (elative) 
kindlier, friandlier 

i^o^ muAoAiai embossed; cambered, 


Jj-U- hadafa u (£*j-U- hudüt) to happen, occur, 
take place, come to pass; — haduta u 
(<}l.u. hadäta) to be new, recent; to be 
young II to teil, relate, report (* to s.o., 
u or i, j, ^ about); to speak, 
talk ( • to b.o., ^ or j about, of ) | 
4_Lj *jj*. haddatahü galbukü and cJa*- 
<_ij haddatathu nafsuhü his heart, 
his innermost feeling told him (^; v *— * l - jJ *" {nafwkü) to talk 
o.s. into (, try to believe or 
see (as factual); to resolve, make up 
one's mind to do; Ol <-jJ hi>J*- 
he said to himself, told himself that . . . 
III to speak, talk (^ or j * to s.o. 
about; to discuss (j* or j • with 
s.o., converse (^ or j • with s.o. 
about); to negotiate, confer (• with s.o.); 
to address, accost (• s.o.); to call up {* 
s.o., by telephone) IV to bring forth, 
produce, create, originate (*; to 
found, establißh (*; to bring about, 
cause , occasion , provoke , effect (*; to drop excrement | tf-U- i.u-1 
(hadatan) to bring about ; to cauw 
or do, esp., evil, do mis- 
chief V to speak, talk (Jl to s.o., je, -_j 
or j about or of, converse, chat 
(Jl or u with s.o., jp, uor j about 
VI to talk with one another, converse, 
have a conversation X to renew {*; 
to buy new (*; to introduce, start, 
invent, originate, create (*; to 
find or deem (• s.o.) to be young 

djJ*- hadat pl. i!>l-U-t ahdät a new, un- 
precedented thing, a novelty, innovation; 
event, ineident, oecurrence, happening; 
phenomenon; evil Symptom; misdeed; 
misfortune; ritual impurity {Id. Law)*, 
excrement, feces; (•p\.<L>\i*-\,ö\5i*-hudtän) 
young man, youth; il-U-i juveniles 

<±o-u- hadit pl. il-U- hidät, »U.U. hu* 
daUS % new, novel, recent, late; modern; 
Ijja*- haditan recently, lately | *LJl £j.U- 
h. al-ötnä' new - built, recently built ; 

j-JI u-j-U- h. aa-sinn young; -i^Jl li-j-U- h. 
al-'ahd of recent date, recent, new, young; 
i_j o^JI £j-u-, l-j A+e £j.u- (A. 'aAitn) 
having adopted or acquired ( recent- 
ly; not long accus tomed to (, inex- 
perienced at (, new at (, newly, 
e.g., »jVjJI; J^JI £j4»- (hi-l-wiläda) now- 
born, r-lj^JL Xfi\ ^^*- (bi-z-zawdj) new\y 
wed; Ijjjk -*+J' £j-u- ulf he had not 
known Europe until recently 

ijj*- hadit pl. ijjUl ähäält 1 , ÜÜ-u- AkJ* 
Mji speech; chat, chitchat, amall talk; 
conversation, talk, discussion; interview; 
prattle, gossip ; report, aecount, tale, nar- 
rative ; Prophetic tradition, Hadith, narra- 
tive relating deeda and utterances of bhe 
Prophet and his Companions | £j.U- 
**\j*- h. huräfa fabulous story, silly talk; 
yj-oi £j.u- {qudsi) Muslim tradition in 
which God Himself speaks, as opposed to 
jjj ij J*. (nabawi) an ordinary Prophetic 
tradition; (J Jd\ £j.U- h. an-nafs one 
talks o.s. into; premonition 

il>jO*- hudüt setting in (of a State or 
condition), oecurrence, ineidence (of a 
phenomenon); oecurrence, ineident, hap- 

*jl-u- hadäta newness, recency, novelty; 
youth, youthfulness 

il*a»-l ahdaf newer, more recent 

jAjJl jÜ-U- hidtän (or hadat&n) ad-dakr 
misfortune, adversities, reverses 

4jj.u-l uhdüta pl. J-jjU-1 ahädit 3 speech; 
discussion, talk, conversation; chatter; 
fabling, fibbing; topic, subjeet of a con- 
versation ; gossip, rumor (about a person) | 
oj-U-Vl J-*- hum al-u. praise (of s.o.); 
y;.u-VI *y *ü* al-u. slander, defamation 

ojl£ muhädata pl. -öt discourse, con- 
versation, discussion, talk, parley 

il-u-l ihdät produetion, creation, in- 
vention, origination; causation, effectu- 


oLJI^-l ihdwiy&t (pl.) co-ordinatee 
(math.) | AiiyF oLlli^l {'amüdiya) ordi- 
natea; S-ül iLSI.u-1 (ufqlya) abscisaas 

ti.IJb.iJ istihdät invention, creation, 
production, origination 

ioU hädü occurring, happening, taking 
place; new, recent; freßh; — (pl. £>*])*- 
hawädit 2 , also -&t) occurrence, incident, 
event, happening; episode; case (jur.); 
accident, mishap | jj'J ioU a cose of 
forgery; ioliJ üt£L. makän al-h. Bite of 
action, ecene of the crime, locus delicti 

i\iU- hädita pl. •tj^y hauädit 1 occur- 
rence, event, happening; plot (of a 
play) ; incident, epieode ; accident, mishap [ 
jjjii ojU h. al-murür traffic accident 

iirf. mnhaddit pl. -ün apeaker, talker; 
Bpokesman; conversation partner, inter- 
locutor ; relator, narrator ; a tranamitter of 
Prophetic traditions, traditionary, repre- 
sentativeof the science or study of Hadith 
(eee above); O phonograph, gramophone 

iOrf- muhdat new, novel, recent, late; 
modern; upstart, nouveau riche; oy^\ 
the Moderne 

J>j*-i. mutahaddit apokeaman, Speaker 

w»u*^— . mustahdat new, novel; — (pl. 
-öi) novelty, innovation; recent invention, 
modern produet; neologism 

r a*- hadaja i and II to stare, look sharply 
(*, * at s.o., at, often with a^-»-* 
bi-baearihi or »Jüj bi-nazarihl) 

r-i*- hidj pl. gj-b- hwlüj, ^1-u-t ahdäj 
load, bürden, enoumbranoe 

£jb- y\ abü hudaij stork 

4fl4p- hid&ja pl. £-t*- ^adäN'? 1 camel 

jj^ hadara, hadura u (hadr, Ij\j*- hadära) 
to be thick; — hadara u i {hadr, jjJb- 
hudür) to bring down, lower (*; 

to cause (* to descend; to drop 
(a; to ahed (* teara); IjJb- ji*- 
{hadran) to rattle off, expreaa quickly 
(an utterance, a. thought); — (hadr) 
to come down, step down, deacend; to 
glide down, swoop II to drop (*; 
to lower, incline, dip (* V to 
deacend gradually; to glide down; to 
come down, descend; to flow down 
(tears); to derive, atem, originate (,j* 
from) VII to come or go down, de- 
acend; to glide down, Bink down; to be 
in decline, be on the downgrade, to 
decline, wane; to flow down (tears); to 
slope down, alant down, be inclined (ter- 
rain) ; to come ( Jl to a place), arrive ( Jl at) 

jj*. hadr rapid recitation of the Koran 
(a terminus technicua of tajwxd) 

jjj+- hadür slope, downgrade, declivity, 
declivitoua terrain 

jjj. tahaddur deacent, slant, Blope, 
inclination, incline, declivity 

j\jJ-\ inhidür slant, dip, pitch, inclina- 
tion, descent, slope ; declivity; fall (of a 
river); decline, waning; ruin, decay, de- 

jiU- hädir thick 

j.Uju mutahaddir descending, slanting, 
ßloping downward 

j.Uw munhadir deBcending; lowered, 
dipped; alanting, aloping, declivitous 
(terrain); declining, waning, being on 
the downgrade, in a State of decadence or 
decline; run-down, aeedy, down-at-the- 
heela, down-and-out 

j .Uw munhadar pl. -öl depression ; slope, 
talus, incline, descent, declivity ; fall 
(of a river) 

^j*- hadaea i u (hada) to surmise, guess, 
conjeeture (* 

,»-1*- hada aurmiae, guess, conjeeture; 
O intuition 



D Ji'i- haddäf (< J»li~), iijTLil Jil-U- («yr.) 
Shuttle (weaving) 

□ üli*- JjLi» pära haddäf a (syr.) flywheel 

1 Jo»- Aa<2aga t (hadq) to Surround, encircle, 
encompass (<_j s.o., ; (with *i-k> 
bt-'ainihi) to look, glanoe (. at s.o.) II to 
look, glance, gaze, stare (Jl or j at, 
also <_j) | j jLJl Ja*- (naazra) to fix 
one'ß glance on ... IV to Surround, 
encircle, encompass, enclose , (lj s.o.,; to look, glance (j, Jl or «_^ at) | 
j jLJl J.u-1 (nazara) to fix one'B glance 
on . . . 

ü.u- hadaqa pl. -dl, Ja*- hadaq, JI.U- 
hidöq, jl.u-1 aW<^ pupil (of the eye); 
pl. jli—l glances 

iia*- hadiqa pl. jlli*- hadä'iq* garden | 
oLjl^-J-l Üj.u- A. aJ-AayauiflfaJ/ zoological 
garden, zoo 

jl.u-1 tTwta^ encircle ment, encompass- 
ment (^ of) 

j-i* _^ fcatar muAdü/imminent danger 

11 D J-U- II { = JJ*-) to make acid, sour, tart, 
or sharp (* 

D J-»U- hääiq (= JiU-) sour. tart, acid, 
sharp (taste) 

Ja*- hadala i to flatten, lerel, eren, roll 
(a; (Aa<M, Jji*- hudül) to treat 
unjustly (Je s.o.) 

*J-i*4 nttTufa/a pl. JjU mahädil* roller, 

*a*- VIII to burn, glow, blaze; to burn up, 
be consumed by fire; to flare up, break 
out (fight); to be furious, burn with 
at, orer), also LLi- 

wrath (J* 

j-Ioj-1 ihliddm paroxysm 

*oi«t mu/i&ufiin furious, 

»o*- Au&i see i*-j 



1 D »j-u- AWuw horseshoe 

'(ji- and ^.u-) I.U- hadä u (Aadw, »Ij«. AiWd', 
hidä*) to urge forward by singing {* 
cameis) ; to urge, spur on, egg on, prompt, 
instigate, induce, more (<^i or * s.o., 
Jl to, to do; lj l-U- to insti- 
gate; to sway, rock, roll (rider, 
camel); to Bwing along, rock along (in 
riding) J Jl li-j-U- 1 *^j 1 -U- their oonrersation 
led them to . . .; .»JK^Jl 4-fl ^J. ^jk 
{garadun tuhdä) a goal much Bought 
after or worth striving for V to oompete, 
rie (• with s.o.); to challenge, pro- 
roke (*, • b.o.,; to defy, oppose, 
resiat, withstand (*, • s.o.,, stand 
up (», • against s.o., against; 
to incite, stimulate, arouse, animate, 
sharpen (*; *»ITj dakä'ahü s.o.'s 
intellect); to intend (*, to do, 
be bent (* on doing 

»l-u- hudä' animating singsong, chanting 
of the cararan leader 

»l-i*- haddä' camel driver, cameleer 

«ji*-l uhdüwa, <j-U-I uhdiya song of the 
camel drivers 

jj. tahaddin pl. o L A*t tahaddiyät 
challenge, provocation 

jU- hädin pl. «li*- hud&h Caravan leader 
(who urges the cameis forward by 
singing); camel driver, cameleer; leader 

.u^* mutahaddin challenger, provoker 

1 iS-^ m hadiya a to remain, stay (i_> at a place), 
stick (utoa place) 

3 D <jI-U- hidäya, hiddäya 

il-b- hid'a 

jj*- hadira a (hidr, hadar) to be cautious, 
wary, to beware (j* or *, • of s.o., of, be on one's guard (j* or *, • 
against) II to warn, caution (,> ♦ 
s.o. of or about), put (• s.o.) on his 
guard (jr* against) III to watch out, be 



careful; fco be on one's guard (• against), 
be wory (» of 8.0.) V to beware, be wary 
(,> of) VIII = I 

j-u- hidr and hadar caution, watch- 
fulness, alertneBS, wariness, circumspec- 
tion; precaution | »ji*. -U-l (hadarahü) to 
be on one's guard; j-U- J» 'alä hadarin 
cautiously, warily; on one's guard {^* 

jl». Aajftr cautious, wary 

jl-U- Aatälri beware (Ol of doing . . ., 
y> of! watch out (j- for)! be 
careful (^- of)! 

jjJ- tahdir warning, cautioning (j- of, 

*jiL* mt^kl^ara caution, precaution, 
precautionary meaaure 

jjÄ£ mahdür that of which one should 
beware, against which one should guard ; 
object of caution ; — (pl. -ät) danger, peril ; 
trouble, difficulty, misfortune 

(Jiö*- hadafa i (hadf) to shorten, clip, curtail 
{* or y>; to take away, 
cut off, clip off { y> from, reduce (j-, strike or cross (j- off; to cancel, strike out, 
delete, drop, leave out, omit, suppress 
(* ; (gram.) to elide, apocopate, 
drop by aphaereais; to deduct, subtract 
(a; to throw (<^> • at s.o., 
pelt (i~> « s.o. with; to cast away, 
throw away, discard (<~> II to clip, 
trim (*; to give (» shape, 
to trim, clip, or cut (* into proper 

tjäj- hadf shortening , curtail ing , 
cutting off, trimming, etc.; canceling, 
cancellation, striking off, croasing off, 
deletion; Omission, dropping, supprea- 
sion; (gram.) elision, elüpsia, apocopation 

^sili^ ha^äiir 1 : »jJlö* »aVI he took all of it, 
he took it lock, stock and barrel 

J.U- hadiqa a> hadaqa i (hidg, üli»- hadäqa) 
to be skilled, skillful, well- versed, proficient 
(*or, maater («; — hadaqa 
u (<3j-i*- hudüq) to turn sour (milk) 
V to feign skülfulness, proficiency, clever- 
ness or smartnesa 

ja*, hidg and Ül-w- hadäqa skill, dexter- 
ity, proficiency; smartnesa, cleverness, in- 
telligence; perspicacity, sagacity, acumen 

jiL- hädiq pl. j!Ö*- huddäq skillful, 
skilled, proficient; well-vereed, clever, 
smart, intelligent; sour 

jJ-U- II tahadlaqa to pretend to be clever 
or skillfull, feign skill or knowledge ; to be 

üJ-U- hadlaqa skillfulneas, dexterity 

(jJV) l-U- hadä u: » } \*- IJu- (hadwahü) to 
imitate s.o., take after s.o., follow 
s.o.'s example III to be opposite 
(*), face, parallel (*, run 
parallel (* to) VI to be opposite each 
other, be parallel VIII to imitate, copy 
(i~> or J* s.o.,, also », take 
or follow (i^. or J* s.o.,, also * as an example or model; to be 
shod; to wear (« aa footgear 

jJV hadwa (prep.) opposite, face to 
face with | J-JIj J*Jl iiji*- hadwaka n-na'la 
bi-n-na'l in a completely identical manner, 
to a T, like two peas in a pod 

J-U- hidä' pl. <jJu-t ahdiya shoe; 
sandal | ÄjÜ— V' *jL# shoemaker 

»la*. hidä'a (prep.) and AX*- bi- 
hidä'i opposite, face to face with 

*IjV haddä' shoemaker, cobbler 

;ljl* (j) > r al& (/i) muhäd&ti along, 
alongside of, parallel to 

•li^*-l ihtidä' imitation, copying 

iL* muhädin opposite, facing 

j+- harra u i (Aarr, •_,!;*- harära) to be hot 
II to liberate (• s.o.); to free, set free, 


releose (* s.o.); to emancipate (• s.o.); 
to consecrate (» s.o.) to the Service of 
God; to clarify, clear up, make clear 
(*; to formulate precisely, phrase 
aecurately, define exactly, pinpoint (* ; to revise {> a book) ; to edit, redact 
(* a book, a periodical); to write, pen, 
indite, compose, oompile (* V to 
become free; to be freed, be liberated 
(,3- from); to be emancipated Till to be 
kindled, be heated, flare up 

j»- harr heat, warmth 

j»- hurr pl. m. jl^-l ahrär, pl. f. J\j». 
harä'ir* noble, free-born; genuine (jewels, 
etc.), pure, unadulterated; free; living 
in freedom; freeman; independent; free, 
unreatrained; liberal (pol.; jl^Vl the 
Liberais); frank, candid, open (J* toward 
s.o.); free, available, uninvested (money) | 
ji-\ ^U^-Vl {ihtiyäß) free reserves, un- 
encumberedreaerves; <IL* >»- .> min hurri 
mälihi with his own cash, with funds at 
his disposal 

lj*- harra pl. -ät stony area; volcanic 
country, lava field 

i/- hurriya pl. -ät freedom, liberty; 
independence, unrestraint, license (e.g., 
poetic) | ä^LJI *jj— h. al-'ibäda freedom 
of worship ; _£iJI hj». h. al-fikr freedom 
of thought; f^xJI *tj*-äm freedom 
of speech; <«l»»^JI or) ^J^ll *j_,»- h. an- 
nah (a$-$ihäfa) liberty of the press 

jj>- harir silk; pl. J\j*. harä'ir 2 (j\j*~) 
silken wares, silks | ,$J*e j_^- ($akri) 
asbestos; ^L-* j j»- rayon 

iSj^j*- hariri silken, silky, of silk 

ijj\j*- harü'iri silken, silk- (in Com- 
pounds), of silk; silk weaver 

j\j— harrär silk weaver 

*jLf*~ harüra heat; warmth; fever heat, 
fever; temperature; ardor, fervor (of 
emotion), pasaion; eagemen, enthosiasm, 

zeal; vehemence, violence, intensity; 
burning (of the skin) 

*jj>- huraira pl. -ät calorie 

tfj'j"" haräri thermal, thermic, thermo-, 
heat (used attributiv ely) ; calorie | ».u-j 
Lji^»- (wahda) calorie 

O <Lj[r haräriya pl. -ät calorie 

Jjj*- harür f-» pl- j lj»- harä'ir 2 hot wind 

ö\j*- harrän 2 , f. ^j*. harrä, pl. jt^*- 
hirär, jjlj*- harärä thirsty; passionate, 
fervent, hot (fig.) | (jj»~ Ijj (zafra) a 
fervent sigh; jy- 9j*s hot tears 

j*-\ aharr 2 hotter, warmer | j»-\ Je 
_^i-l (>• ()'<"»') on pins and needles, on 
tenterhooks, in greatest suspense or 

O j*- rniharr heating System, heating 

j j£ tahrir liberation; release; emanei- 
pation; record(ing), writing; editing, re- 
daction; editorship (of a newspaper, a 
periodical); (pl. -Ol, j j\J- tahärir*) piece 
of writing, record, brief, document | 
j j*d\ ur -jJj editor-in-chief; _r j**ä\ Ijlil 
board of editors, editorial staff 

k$j„j£- tahriri liberational; emaneipa- 
tional ; liberal ; recorded in writing, 
written, in writing 

jU- harr hot; warm; ardent, glowing, 
fervent, passionate 

jjj£- mahrür hot-tempered, hot-headed, 
fiery, passionate, furious 

jj£- mvharrir pl. -ün liberator, eman- 
cipator; writer, clerk; editor (of a news- 
paper, of a periodical) 

jj£- muharrar oonsecrated to God; set 
down in writing, recorded in writing, 
written; booked; pl. oljyt bookrogs, 

j/c* mvtaharrir emancipated; an 
advooate of emanoipation 


j*- hariba a (harab) to be furious, enraged, 
angry III to fight, combat (« s.o.), 
battle, wage war (» agaüiBt s.o.) VI to 
fight (one anothor), be engaged in war 

^S- harb f., pl. vJj*- hurüb war, 
warfare; fight, combat, battle; enemy, 
enemies (J* or J of s.o.) | LUI ._>/*- 
(ahliya) civil war; Lil** 1 ^j*- (sihäfiya) 
pres3 feud; LlJ-JI ^jjl~\ (qallbiya) the 
Crusades ; l _ r li*Jl ^>l (uzmä) , UUl ^> l 
('ä/amlt/a), <.Ul ^i-l ('ämma) World 
War 1; L^L- j* ^>l toAx/a* tl- 
Aar&u 'an aäqihä and JU Jt "-r*>^' — »^ 
gömaf t7-A. f a/ä aö^in war flared up, 
fierce fighting broke out 

Oj- harbi warlike, bellicose, bellig- 
crent, martial, war (adj.), military; (pl. 
■ün) wanior, soldier, military man | j-^jJl 
iJji-\ (bülts) military police 

*jj>- harba pl. ^j^ hiräb lance, spear; 
spearhead; bayonet, sidearm 

#Li_^- hirba pl. <j\j*- haräbiy chameleon 

•lij*- \j ivä harabähf (exclamation of 
lament) alas! goodness no! oh my! 

s~>\j£- mihrab pl. <— jj^ mahäTib 2 a re- 
cesB in a moaque indicating the direction 
of prayer, prayer niche, mihrab 

i, jlrf. muhäraba struggle, combat, fight, 
battle; warfare 

^\J*.\ ihtiräb mutual struggle 

^jL»t mukärib warring, belligerent; 
warrior, combatant, fighter; corporal 
(Eg. 1930) 

j^jjU^il al-mutahäribün the belliger- 
ents, tho warring parties 

~*^.jij*- harbü$a pl. 
pastille, pill 

haräbiSr (tun.) 

*. harata % u {hart) to plow (« the soil); 
to cultivate, tili (* the ground) 

£>j*- hart plowing, tilling, tillage, 
cultivation of the soil; arable land, tilth; 
plantation, culture 

4jj- harp. (n. un.) arable land, tilth 

ÄIIj. hiräta cultivation of the soil, 
farming, agriculture 

£>\j*- harrät plowman 

il^rf. mihrät pl. i-jjL* mahärit 2 plow 

ijU- härit pl. ilj»- Aurröi plowman | 
i»jU-l jjI abü l-h. lion 

r-^ j»ai-t?a a {/wm?) to be close, tight, 
narrow ; to be straitencd, be confined, 
get into a strait, be cornered, be hard 
pre83ed; to be oppressed, be anguished 
(heart); to be forbidden (J* to s.o.) 
II to narrow, tighten, straiten (»; 
to complicate (*, make (* 
difficult; to forbid (Ja * to s.o.); 
to pereist (j in IV to narrow, 
straiten, confine, cramp, hamper, im- 
pede, restrict (*; to complicate, 
make difficult, aggravate, jeopardiz© (* 
a Situation, s.o.'s position) ; to embarrasa 
(» s.o.) ; to coerce, constrain, press 
(Ji » s.o. to); to forbid (J* * to 
s.o.) V to refrain from sin or evildoing; 
to abstain, refrain (j- from), avoid 
(^; to be eomered, be forced to 
the wall; to become or be oppressed, 
anguished, distressed; to beeome critical, 
become complicated or difficult, be 
aggravated (Situation), be jeopardized 
(s.o.'s position) | (v) ü* •- , * L "* TL-J^ 
($adruhü) to feel depressed by, feel 
annoyed at; U ,-UI *> ^ this made 
things difficult for people 

r jj- haraj closenesa, tightneas, narrow- 
ness; confinement, atraitness, constric- 
tion, crampedness; restriction, impedi- 
ment; oppresaion, distress, anguish; 
difficulty; critical Situation; prohibition, 
interdiction; forbidden, inter- 
dicted, sin | ^ ^ (haraja) there is no 



objection; ^LLc rj»- V nothing Stands in 
your way, you are at liberty 

Tj*- haraj (coli.; n. un. S) pl. -dt, r\j»- 
hiräj, ^l^-l ahräj thicket; denae forest; 
woodland, timberland 

rj*- harij narrow, close, tight, confined, 
straitened ; oppressed, hard pressed, 
harassed; critical (Situation, position) 

kj*-\ ahraf narrower, closer, tighter, 
more straitened; more critical 

g\j»- haräg (eg.) auction 

ö-l^- harüja seriouenesa, gravity, diffi- 
culty, complicatedness (of a Situation) 

tj£ tahrij forestation, afforestation 

rj£ taharruj restraint, reserve, aloof- 
ness; timidity, diffidence, faint-hearted- 
ness; critical complication, gravity, diffi- 
culty (of a Situation) 

oU^ muharrijät: üLc V' Ol»yjfi m. al- 
aimän binding, committing, or solemn, 

r-j*- muhrij disconcerting, embarrass- 

r-jj>LU mutaharrij: jJuail r-j*^* m.aß- 
sadr annoyed, vexed, anguished, op- 

j^ harida a (harad) to be annoyed, dia- 
gruntled, angry, furious (J# at, with) 

^jU- härid, Zj»- harid and o\*j*- har* 
dän annoyed, disgruntled, angry, furious 

•JjV" hirdaun pl. ,>J!/»- harädin 2 lizard 

jj>- haraza u (harz) to keep, guard, protect, 
preserve (*, take care (* of); — 
haruza u («j|^- haräza) to be strong 
be strongly fortified, be impregnable 
IV to keep, preserve, guard (*; to 
obtain, attain, achieve, win (* | 
(jjL^üi) \_ r Mj jj*-\ (naaran) to win a 
victory; j rr J\ ,_^f jj»~\ (qaqaba s-sabq) 
to oome through with flying colors, carry 

the day, score a great success V to be 
wary (^» of), be on one's guard (^» 
against) VIII to be wary {,>. of), guard. 
be on one's guard (j* against), be careful, 
take heed, take precautions 

jj»- hirz pl. jl^*-l ahräz fortified place; 
refuge, sanctuary, retreat; custody; (pl. 
J !/*-'» JJj*- fyurüz) amulet 

j j*. hariz strongly fortified, guarded; 
inaccessible, impregnable 

jl^p-l ihrüz acquisition, acquirement, 
'jbtainment, attain ment, achievement, 
winning, g&ining 

j\j+-\ ihtiräz pl. -ät caution, wariness, 
prudenoe, circumspection ; reservation, 
reserve | jlJ^-V' J-& with all reservation 

O «jjl*- häriza fuae (d.) 

jj£ muhriz obtainer, aoquirer, winner, 
gainer; possessor, holder (J* of 

^j>- harasa u [hara, a*\j»- hirOsa) to guard, 
watch, control (», *, s.o.); to 
overaee, superviae, superintend (», *, 
s.o.); to secure, protect, safeguard, pre- 
serve, keep (♦, *, s.o.); to watch 
( J* over) V and VIII to beware, be wary 
| {,y of), guard, be on one's guard (j* 

^j». haraa watch; guard, escort; body- 
guard | jLJI j-^-l (sayyär) müitia, 
"garde mobile" (8yr.) | »JyiJI j-,- h. 
aS-Saraf honor guard; JÜII ^^ (malaki) 
the royal guard (formerly Ir., Eg.); ( _ r ^-l 
$Ji\ (mulüki) (formerly) bodyguard of 
the Bey {Tun.); jyi j->1 (watanl) the 
National Guard 

~*~>\j*- hiräsa guarding, wabching, con- 
trol; watch, guard, guard duty; super- 
vision, auperintendence ; guardianship, tu- 
telage, oustody, care, protection ; safe 
conduct, escort; administration ; admin- 
istration of an estate (jur.) ; Sequester | 
J*-lj_Jl ~kJj*- coast guard 



u*\J*-\ ihtiräs caution, wariness, pru- 
dence; (pl. -ät) precaution, precautionary 
meosure j j« Ul^»-I for protection from 
or against 

^jU- häris pl. L-^- harasa, ^1^- 
Aurrfl« vigilant, watchful ; watchman ; 
Bentry, sentinel, guard; overseer, Super- 
visor, Superintendent ; Administrator ; 
guardian, custodian, keeper, protector, 
tutelary (in compounda) | «TJvJl ^jU- 
h. at-tirka Administrator of an estate; 
fljA-'l ^jU- keeper of the aeal; j-^l ^jU- 
h. al-marmä goal keeper; jlä* ^^*- (? a * 
4ä'%) aequeatrator, receiver (in bankrupt- 
cy, in equity); ,j-jl*- £"&> (maVak) guard- 
ian angel (CAr.JjJJJl ,j-;L*- £■ a '-&*' night 

^^ mahrüs guarded, safeguarded, 
secured; protected (by God; esp. used 
as an epithet after the names of cities) ; 
üj*>jj£\ the children, the family 

u*j4- muhtaria cautious, wary, careful 

^j— hara&a i (karS) to Scratch (*, * s.o., II to inatigate, prod, incite, 
provoke, incense (• b.o.); to set (^j 
people against each other), sow discord, 
dissension (jo among) V to pick a 
quarrel, atart a brawl (v with s.o.), 
provoke (*-« a.o.) 

£p- hirS, hurS pl. ^il^ 
hurüi forest, wood(a) 

^j»- kariS and ,Jj»-\ ahraJP rough, 
coarse, Bcabrous 

I ahrüi, ,Jijj»- 

,Jj»- harai, 

hur 3a, <Z\j+. harü&a 
, acabrousneas 

,J-ij^ tahriä instigation, prodding, 
incitement, provocation, agitation, in- 

J,j£ taharrui provooation, importu- 
nity, obtruaion, meddling, uncalled-for 

hariaf pl. 

harüSif* acales (of 


,j-^*- harasa t and harifa a {hire) to deaire, 
want, covet (J*; to be intent, 
be bent (J© on) ; to strive ( J* for), 
aspire (J* to) 

tjfj*- hirs greed, avidity, cupidity, 
covetouanesa ; desire; aspiration, endeav- 
or, wish (J* for); avarice | Jp L*,»- in 
the desire for . . . , in the endeavor to . . . ; 
r}jj^ ' J* \~fj*~ danger ! (on warning 

^iij- harty pl. ^[f- hirOs, »Uy- 
Aura^fl' 8 covetous, greedy, avid, eager 
(J* for); bent (J* on), desirous (J* of) 

^j^»-! ahme 2 more covetous, greedier 

,jZj*- II to goad, prod, spur on, egg on, 
incite, rouae, provoke (J* » s.o. to 
or to do; to inatigate, abet, stir 
up, agitate ( J* • a.o. to or against) ; O to 
induce (d.) 

^^ij^ tahrld incitement, provocation; 
instigation, abetment, agitation (J* to); 
innammatory Propaganda (J* against 
a.o.); O induction (ei.) | O J'J o+ij* 
Belf-induction {ei.) 

tS *tj£ tahrigi inciting, instigative, agi- 
tative, inflammatory; provocative 

^jIj- härid bad, wicked, evil 

^j*- muharrig pl. -ün inciter, baiter; 
instigator, abettor; demagogue, rabble 
rouaer; agitator, provocator; O induotor 


i. mutakarritf, Q induced (d.) 

j»- II to slant, incline, make oblique (* ; to bend off, up, down or back, turn 
up, down or back, deflect {* ; 
to distort, corrupt, twist, pervert, mis- 
construe, falaify (* [ **-i^* j* *ij*- 
fan mavdi'ihi) to distort the aense of 


dj"-, rob of its true meaning V to 
turn off, branch off, take a tuming; 
to deviate, depart, digress {je- from) ; 
to avoid (je-; to be or become 
bent off, distorted, corrupted, perverted 
VII to tum off, branch off, take a tuming; 
to deviate, depart, digress, turn away 
(jp from); to slope down, slant, be in- 
clined (terrain); to tum (Jl to, toward); 
to be twisted, be distorted; to be oblique, 
slanting; to be cocked, rakish (headgear); 
with <_>: to make appear oblique, 
alanted, or distorted; to be corrupted, 
perverted | jp *j cj^l to dissuado s.o. 
from; *^[> <-J^l (mixäjuhü) to be indis- 
posed, be ill VIII to do (* profea- 
sionally, practice (* aa a profession; 
to etrive for aucceas 

t_jj»- harf pl. <J»j»- hiraf (cutting) 
edge (of a knife, of a aword) ; sharp edge ; 
border, edge, rim, brink, verge ; — 
(pl. J>jj*- hurüf, Jy-1 ahruf) letter; 
consonant; particle (gram.); type {typ.) \ 
tjj*- J* irresolute, wavering, on the fence ; 
L^ij ^ *tLül alfäzuhü bi-hurüfiJiä his worde 
literally; «J»^J-Ij or j*-\J\ «_J/I-Ij hterally, 
verbatim, to the letter; ,_J^ Li,»- harfan 
bi-harßn literally, word for word; *jj 
Jj^I >-Jr»-Vlj (waqqa'a, ülä) to initial (e.g., 
•0*U. mu'äkadatan a treaty); «J»j^J-l 
h^^\ {abjadiya) the alphabetic letters, 
the aiphabet; «*Hf <J»jj»- matter {typ.); 
i_«-ijl «_Jj^i-l (Samsiya) the sun letters 
(i.e., sibilants, dentals, r, l, n to which the 
/ of the artiole asaimilatea), «jj*JJl "-»j^' 
(qamariya) the moon letters (to which the 
l of the article does not assimilate); 
^J-l J<tj*- h. al-jarr prepoaition {gram.); 
(JäÜ-'I Öj»- h. al-kafd do.; iju^l cjy- 
article {gram.); JtL*l\ .J»^»- h. al-'atf co- 
ordinating conjunction ( gram.) ; <J»j»- 
* l+ii-^ I interrogative particle (gram.) ; 
. Sil «-Jj*- A. al-qasam particle introducing 
oaths (gram.) 

jy*- harfi hteral 

t_jj»- Awr/ common garden pepper Cresa 
(Lepidium sativum L.; bot.) 

ii^- hirfa pl. <J»j»- Aira/ profession, 
occupation, vocation, businesB, craft, 

i_ju j»- Äari/ pl. »Li^- htirafä' 2 customer, 
patron, client (tun.) 

t_ju j*- hirrif pungent, acrid (taste) ; 
oLijj*- spicy food, delicacies 

üil^- harüfa pungency, acridity (taste) 

ijtlj* tahrif pl. -flt alteration, change; 
distortion ; perveraion, corruption, esp. 
phonetic corruption of a word 

Jil^l inhiräf pl. -<K deviation, di- 
gression ; obhqueness, obliquity , incli- 
nation, slant; declination (astron.); ail- 
ment, indisposition, also ^Ijil cjj^l 

t_jt>»-l ihtir&f professional pursuit (of 
a trade, etc.) 

^ij£- muharraf corrupted (word) 

oyM munharif oblique ; slanted, slant- 
ing, sloping, inclined ; distorted, perverted, 
corrupted, twisted; deviating, divergent; 
trapezium (geom.) 

J»J& muhtarif one gainfully employed 
(<-> in), person doing (._-<) profession- 
ally ; professional, a pro (sports) ; profes- 
sional (adj.), e.g., ÖjU jU«* (oihäfi) pro- 
fessional Journalist; climber, careerist 

O «-Jj^ muhtaraf pl. -ät studio, ateher 

jj*. haraqa i (harq) to burn (*; to 
burn, hurt, sting, smart | «Ji Jy- 
(qalbahü), pl. f^J* 3j»- (qulübahum) to 
vei, exasperate s.o.; — u (harq) to rub 
together (* II to burn (*; 
*jL-l 3j*- (aanänahü) to gnash one 's 
teeth IV to burn (*; to destroy by 
fire (*; to singe, scorch, pareh 
(-; to scald (*; to kindle, 
ignite, Bet on fire (* | j *1J **i Jy-I 
(fahmata lailihi) to spend the night doing 


(, bum the midnight oil over . . . 
V to bum, be aflame, bum up, take fire, 
be conaumed by fire, be burned; to be 
consumed (by an emotion), pine away 
(* with), be pained (* by), eat one'B 
heart out j ü^i j_^ {iauqan) to be 
overcome with longing or nostalgia VIII to 
bum, be aflame, bum up, take fire, be 
oonaumed by fire, be burned 

j j- harq burning, incineration, com- 
bustion; kindling, igniting, setting afire; 
arson, incendiarism ; pl. 3jj*- hurüq 

bums {med.) 

3j*- haraq fire, conflagration 

*i*- hurqa, harqa burning, incineration, 
combustion; stinging, smarting, burning 
(as a phyaical Sensation); torture, tor- 
ment, agony, pain, ordeal 

jU- huräq, hurröq tinder 

jl^ harräq burning, aflame, afire; hot 

jj^»- hariq and Üj^»- pl. jt\r harü'iq* 
fire; conflagration 

O '**\r harräqa torpedo 

jlj^*- haraqän burning, stinging, smart- 
ing (as a painful Sensation; e.g., of the 

O 3j*- mahraq pl. j jl* mahäriq* foouB 

jijUi tahartq* (Eg.) season of the 
Nile 's lowest water level, hottest season 
of the year 

3\j*-\ ihräq burning, incineration, com- 

Jiy£ taharruq burning, combuBtion ; burn- 
ing desire (Jl for) 

jljw-l ihtiräq burning, combustion; fire, 
conflagration | O JL^-Vl *»> 9^ r f at °'-*- 
combuBtion Chamber (tecAn.); jlj*»-"SM J^Ü 
qäbil al-i. combustible 

JjU- häriq areorust, incendiary 

3jj£- mahrüq burned, oharred, scorched, 
parched ; reddish, bronze-colored ; pl. 
olij^ makrüqät fuel | 3jj* j^i (fatä&r) 
fired clay 

3j£ muhriq: üjf- iLJ {qunbuia) incen- 
diary bomb 

O öj£ mvhraq crematory 

~üjt- muhraqa burnt sacrifice 

eijj- harqada pl. Jij^» haräqid* Adam's apple 

<jÜ^- harqa fa pl. J»il_^- haräqif* protruding 
part of the hipbone 

i^- II to move, set in motion, drive, propel, 
operate (m ; to march, move {• 
troops); to stir (*; to start, get 
started, get underway (* ; to 
agitate, ezcite, Btimulate {*; to 
incite, instigate, goad, prod, provoke, 
actuate, urge (J# • s.o. to do; to 
awaken, arouse, foment, stir up (*; 
to vowel, vowelize (gram,, * a consonant) | 
•jplJL. 'J^- (maiä'irahü) to grip, excite, 
thrill s.o.; kJttJ^JI i\^- to affect the feel- 
ings, be touching, moving, pathetic; V 
b5"U ii^ (sdJWnan) he doesn't budge, 
he doesn't bend his little finger, he 
remains immobile, apathetic; *SV~ li^- 
(säkinakü) to rouse s.o., put s.o. in 
a State of excitement, commotion or 
agitation V to move, be in motion, stir, 
budge; to start moving, get moving; 
to start out, get underway (traveler); 
to de part, leave (train); to put out, to 
sail (fleet); to be set in motion, be driven, 
be operated; to be agitated, be excited, 
be stimulated; to be awakened, be roused, 
be fomented, be provoked, be caused 

ii_^- harik lively, active, brisk, agile, 

'Sj— haraka pl. -äi movement, motion; 
commotion; physical exercise; stirring, 
impulse; proceeding, procedure, policy; 
action, undertaking, enterprise; military 



Operation; continuation, progress; traf- 
fic (raü, Stripping, street); movement (as 
a social phenomeuon); vowel (gram.) \ 
*S\&*>j tfj*- j (sakanätihl) in all his 
doings; in every Situation; jjjL\ *5"y- 
(through) traffic; «-i'lA' *0" shipping 
traffio; «JUäJI *5^- exchange of goods; 
JJ^Vl '*S"y tumover (com.); *jj— Ül iS^-' 
(nwunya) feminiat movement; Ü^i-I *-'■„■»■ 
nimble, lithe, light, quick, agile, adroit; 
y^i- 1 JJu slow in motion, heavy-handed, 
clumsy, sluggish, lumbering, inert, indo- 

O Sj*- harahi kinetio (phys.) 

!}\j*- hardk movement, motion 

ilj* mahrak path, trajectory (of a 

iil>tf mihr&k poker, fire iron 

&jj& tahrild dynamio 

ilj£ taharruk pl. -ät movement, motion; 
forward motion ; start ; departure ; sailing 
(of a fleet) 

i\)\»- härik withers 

ij^rf muharrik mover, stirrer; rouser, 
inoiter, fomenter, awakener, agent; insti- 
gator; — (pl. -dt) motive, Springs, incen- 
tive, Bpur, motivating circumstance, oau- 
sative factor; motor, engine (techn.) 

l^««i* mutaharrik moving, inovable, 
mobile ; pronounoed with following vowel, 
voweled, vowelized (oonsonant; gram.) \ 
iT^i* jj~> (fuwar) movies, motion. pic- 

•iSj*- harkapi (and u ^'j*- harlcaia) to stir up, 
agitate, excite, thrill 


haruma u, harima a to be forbidden, 
prohibited, interdlcted, unlawful, un- 
permitted (J* to s.o.); — harama i (hirm, 
jl^*- hirmän) to deprive, bereave, dis- 
possess, divest (* * or j* • s.o. of, 
take away, withdraw, withhold (* * or 

* j* or j» • from b.o., deny, refuse 
(* • or * ja or ^ * to b.o.; to 
exclude, debar, preclude, cut off (* • or 
ja • s.o. from; to excommunicate 
(• s.o. ; Chr. ) 1 1 to declare ( * 
sacred, saorosanct, inviolable, or taboo, 
to taboo (*; to declare (* 
unlawful, not permissible, forbid, inter- 
diot, proscribe (*, J» to s.o.); to 
render (• s.o.) immune or proof (ja 
against), immunize (> • s.o. againai) | 
<_iJ Jft <»j*- to deny o.b., abstain, 
refrain from IV to excommunicate 
(• b.o.; Chr.); to enter into the State 
of ritual oonsecration (esp., of a Mecoa 
pilgrim; see Aj^~\ ihräm) V to be for- 
bidden, interdicted, prohibited ; to be 
holy, sacred, sacrosanct, inviolable VIII to 
honor, revere, venerate, esteem, respect 
(*, • s.o., | *—Ü pj^-l to be self- 
respecting X to deem (* Baoro- 
sanot, sacred, holy, inviolable; to deem 
(* unlawful or unpermiesible 

ajp- hirm excommunication (Chr.) 

»jp- haram pl. Aj*-\ ahräm forbidden, 
prohibited, interdicted; taboo; holy, 
sacred, sacrosanct; sacred, sacred 
object; sacred poesession; wife; sanctum, 
sanctuary, sacred precinct; OL^i-l the 
two Holy Places, Mecca and Medina | 
J^ji-'i <Uti tälit al-haramain the third 
Holy Place, i.e., Jerusalem 

<*j*- hurma pl. -ät, hurumät, huramüt 
holiness, sacredness, sanctity, sacro- 
Banctity, inviolability ; reverence, venera- 
tion, esteem, deference, respect; that 
which is holy, sacred, sacrosanct, invio- 
lable, or taboo; — (pl. ^y huram) woman, 
lady; wife 

Aj*- harüm pl. (•__/- hurum forbidden, 
interdicted, prohibited, unlawful; 
forbidden, offense, sin; inviolable, taboo; 
sacred, sacrosanct; cursed, acoursed | j\ 
Ay ibn h. illegitimate son, bastard; 


f!A' tf*bVI no man's land; neutral 
territory; *I^J-i c-Jl (bait) the Kaaba; 
fl>l j^Ail (AiAr) the Holy Month 
Muharram; f 1^-1 (ma»juf) the Holy 
Mosque in Mecca; dLU («[^- you mustn't 
do (say) thatl * l^-L illicitly, illegally, un- 

elf*- A*rtJm pl- -***» *v*-' aArima a 
woolen blanket (worn as a garment 
around head and body) 

fj*- harim pl. *j*. hurum a sacred, 
inviolable place, sanctum, sanctuary, 
sacred precinot; harem; female membera 
of the family, women ; wife 

ij* j*- fyariml women's (in Compounds), 
for women 

fjj*- hurüm pl. -ät exoommunication 

<j\j*- fyarämi pl. -iya thief, robber, 

üU^- hirmän deprivation, bereave- 
ment, dispossession (of s.o., j* of; 
debarment, exclusion, preclusion (^ 
from); excommunication (Chr.); priva- 
tum | iylM üU^- h. al-ir$ exclusion 
from inheritance, disinheritance (Jal. Lato) 

*j*- mahram pl. * jl* mahärim 1 
forbidden, inviolable, taboo, Baorosanct, 
holy, or sacred; unmarriageable, being 
in a degree of oonsanguinity preoluding 
marriage (Jal. Lato) 

l*j* mahrama pL * jlrf mahärim • 

j**_^ tahrim forbiddance, interdiction, 
prohibition, ban 

Aj*-\ ihräm atate of ritual oonseoration 
of the Mecca pilgrim (during which the 
pilgrim, wearin& two eeamless woolen or 
linen sheets, nsually white, neither oombs 
nor shares, and observea sexual oon- 
tinenoe); garmenta of the Mecca pilgrim 

^lji-1 ihtiräm pl. -ät deference, respect, 
regard, esteem, reverence; honoring (e.g. t 
of a privilege); pl. honors, respeots, 

(,>. of); excluded, precluded, debarred 
(j* from); suffering privatum (as oppoeed 
to <3jj_r»)» exoommunicated (Chr.) 

fj* muharram forbidden, interdicted; 
Muharram, name of the first lalamic 

month; *1^A-I *j£- m. al-hara\m honorific 
name of this month 

*j£- muhrim Mecca pilgrim who has 
entered the state of ritual conseoration 
(see a\j*-\ ihräm) 

(•j^ muhtaram honored, revered, vener- 
ated, esbeemed, respeoted; (in the salu- 

tation of letters:) my dear ; vennrable, 

reverend; notable, remarkable, consider- 

^*j*~ harmal African rue (Feganum harmala 
L.; bot.) 

«Lj*. harmala pl. J»[^- harämiP a 
looee wrap worn over the Shoulders 
(garment of the dervishes) 

bp- harana, haruna u (ü[^- hirän, hurdn) 
to be obstinate, etubbom, headstrong 

l*Jj*- harün pl. öj*- hurun obstinate, 
stubborn, refraotory, reluctant, reaistant 

OjjU harün brazier 

hj>- harua burning; wrath, rage; acridity, 
pungency (of taste); pungent, disagree- 
able odor 

ifj*- V to seek, pursue (*, strive (* 
for)» aspire (* to) ; to examine, investigate 
(*; to inquire (j* or * into), make 
inquiries (j» or * about); to be intent 
(# on, take care (* of, 
attend (* to, also j), look (* after, also j); to see to it (jl that) 



cSji-lj bi-l-harä hardly, barely 

j^»- hariy pl. »l^l ahriyä 1 * adequate, 
appropriate, auitable {*_> for), worthy 
(v of | fü\j jj». {frier) worth 
mentioning, considerable; Jj-ucJLi jj». 
credible, believable; <Jj1-\j j\ or to be 
exact, or rather 

ijj»-\ ahrä more adequate, more proper, 
more appropriate j tf^VL jl or to toll 
the truth, or more explicitly, or put more 
exactly, or rather 

j£ taharrin pl. £>\jj£- taharrxyüi 
inquiry; investigation | i s J *d\ «U^i iurfat 
at-t. or jj»^i\ AtJu** maqlakat at-t. secret 

•- hazza u {hazz) to notch, nick, incise, indent 
(J, make an incision, cut (j into II and VIII = I 

j»- hazz pl, jjj*- huzüz incision, notch, 
nick; the right time, the nick of time 

*>- hazza incision, notch, nick; time; 
the right time, the nick of time; predica- 
ment, plight 

j |j*- hazäz head scurf, ringworm ; tetter, 
eruption (med.) 

«jlj*- hazäza rancor, hatred, hate 

j£- mahazz notch, nick | j£\ t_-*L*l to 
find the right Solution, hit the nail on 
the head, hit the mark, strike home 

;*- hazaba u (hazb) to befall {. s.o.), happen, 
occur (. to s.o.) | _^VI v>" tne matter 
became Berious il to rally (» s.o.); to 
form or found a party 111 to side, take 
sides (» with), be an adherent (• of s.o.) 
V to take sides; to form a party, make 
common cause, join forces 

<-?j*- hizb pl- v[r**' a hzäb group, troop, 
band, gang; party {pol.); the 60th part of 
the Koran | *j[>-l j* _j* he belonga to 
bis clique, he is of the same breed 

fjj*- hizbi party (adj.), factional 

5-j>- hizbiya party aotivities; partisan- 
ship, partiality; factionalism 

öjt'jv- haizabün old nag 

i-^ tahazzttb factiousness; factionalism 

wjU- häzib: <yjU- *»J»- hazabahü h. he 
met with a mishap 

V>^* miUahazzib partial, biased; par- 

b>- hazara i u (Äazr, »jj* maAzara) to esti- 
mate, asseas, appraise (*; to make 
a rough estimate (* of, guess (* 

jj*- hazr estimation, assessment, ap- 
praisal; conjecture, guess, sunnise 

hjj*- hazzüra riddle, puzzle 

\jjf- mahzara estimation, assessment, 
appraisal; conjecture, guess, surmise 

2 ö\j m y- hazirän' June (Syr., Leb., It., Jord.) 

(jli^- huzuqgäni choleric 

**J_>- hazüqa, iijjl*- häxüqa hiooups 

f>- hazama i {hazm) to tie up, bündle, wrap 
up, pack, do up in a package or bündle 
(*; to girth {* an animal); to 
make fast, fasten, tie (* | >^\ *j*- 
(amrahü) to take matters firmly in hand ; 
— kazuma u {hazm, <.lj*- hazüma, ~<*jy- 
huzüma) to be resolute, firm, stouthearted, 
intrepid II to gird (• s.o.) V and VIII 
to be girded; to- gird o.s., put on a belt 

C>- hazm packing, packaging, wrap- 
ping; determination, resoluteness, firm- 
ness, energy; judiciousness, discretion, 

i-j*- huzma pl. *j*- huzam wrapped 
up or tied up; bündle, fagot, fascine; 
beam of rayB, radiation beam (phyt.); 
bunch (of herbs, etc.); Bheaf; package, 

Aj*- hizäm pl. -ät, i*^-l ahzima, *y- 
huzum belt, girth; gjrdle; oummerbund, 


waistband (worn over the oaftan to 
fasten it); Bword belt | j.1/1 |»|>- A. 
al-amn safety belt 

aJ»-! ahzam* more resolute; more judi- 

I>JU- höxim pl. i*^- Aazama and rj*- 
Aarim pl. »Uj*- Auzamd* 3 resolute, energet- 
ic; judicious, disoreet, prudent 

jj*- Aazana u to make Bad, sadden, grieve 
(• s.o.); — Aazina a (Auzn, hazan) to be 
Bad, grieved (J or J» at or because 
of); to grieve, moum ( J* over) II and IV 
to make Bad, sadden, grieve (• s.o.) 

uj»- hvxn pl. jtj*-l aAzdn sadness, 
grief, sorrow, affliction 

Oj»- Aazn pl. jjj«- Auzün rough, rugged, 
hard ground 

oj*- Aaztn sad, mournful, grieved 

^j». Aarin pl. »Uj»- Auzand'*, jlj»- 
Atzdn, (J^*- hazAnä sad; mourning (for a 
deceased person); sorrowüig, mournful, 
grieved | ojJ-l inJ-.l (jitm'a) Good Friday 

jU>- Aaznän* very sad, very grieved, 
worried; in mourning 

D JiLi*- AazflyinJ (,>!>■ Aaiä'inJ) 
sad, mournful, melancholic; mouraing- 
(in Compounds), mortuary, funereal j 
Ji|>- ^ili (qumää) cloth for mourning 

j^ foAaxzvn sadness; behavior of a 

üjj* mahxün grieved, grief-stricken, 
pained, sad, saddened 

öj£- mvhzin grievous, saddening; sad; 
melartcholic ; tragio ; <l>\jja mufysinQt griev- 
ous things | ~*jj£- <Jui* <-■# (^ fcim/ttf j/a) 
and *ij£- <Ajj (riie&ya) tragedy (theat.) 

(J -*- Aawa (Ist pera. perf. haaastu) u (hau) 
to carry, currycomb (* an animal) ; to feel, 

sense (*; — Amm (Ist pers. perf. 
haaastu) », (Ist pers. perf. haaistu) a to 
feel sorry, feel sympathy or compassion 
(J for), sympathize (J with). II to grope, 
feel IV to parceive, sense, experience (* 
or <-»; to feel (* or »-»; 
to notice (* or »-»; to hear (* a 
sound, a noise, etc.); to take notice 
(• of s.o.) V to grope, probe (* for, 
flnger, handle, touch (*, run the 
hand (* over; to grope about, 
feel around; to seek Information, make 
inquiries (j* about) ; to sense, experience, 
perceive (*, ^; to feel {■_»; 
to be affected, be deeply touched (•_* by 

(J -*- hau Sensation, perception, feeling, 

(J -*- At« sensory perception, senBation ; 
feeling, sentiment; sense; voiee; sound; 

j-.- hissi sensory; sensuous; pereep- 
tible; palpable | O <^' <_jüU (madhab) 
senBationalism, sonsualism 

oU«- hissiyät sensations 

£r i-»- ha*is faint noise 

^l— j- haasüs sensitive; sensible; readily 
affected, susceptible; sensual (pleasure) 

i^L_j- hasaäsa sensory organ 

^L_ j- hass&ai allergio | V"*— *" er*!/*' 
aUergic diseases, allergiea (m«rf.) 

L-L-*- haaaAaiya sensitivity (alsotecAn.) ; 
sensibüity ; faculty of sensory perception ; 
susceptibility ; sensuality | *— *L_i-l ^ij» 
mara4 <d-h. allergy (med.) 

<-* mihassa ourrycomb 

^L— I ihsOs pl. -Ot, ^-i-Ul ahäais* feel» 
feeling; Sensation, sense (^ of; 
perception (■_» of; sensitivity; pl. 
oUL-^t feelings, sentiments | O ,^-1— •-' 
jjüL sensitivity to light; O L/ -l~»-1/l -U-t* 

highJy sensitive; *\JJu ^L-»-! (rnuitarak) 
feeling of harmony, concord, unanimity; 
^L^-Vl *Ü qiüat al~i. insensitivity, dull- 
nesa, obtusenesa 

O V-L_^VI uIlUI af-ta'ifa al-ihsdHya 
the impressionists 

i-U- hässa pl. ^]y hawäas* Bensation; 
aense | ^r-J-'l ^J^l the five senses 

,j^>— * wiaA*ü* feit; senaed; perceptible, 
noticeable, palpable, tangible; appreci- 
able, considerable (e.g,,loss); ^-j...^ 1 that 
wbich is perceptible through the senses; 
appearance, evidence; oL-j^l thinga 
perceptible through the senses 

_*- Aawfca u (Aa*6, i^l p- hisOb, üL— *■ Am« 

län, Auibdn) to compute, reckon, calou- 
late; to count; tocharge, debit (J* * 
to s.o., to s.o.'a aecount); to credit (J * to b.o., to s.o.'s aecount) | *jL_»- !_ „,r- 
f/iwaiaAü) to takc or s.o. into 
aecount or into oonsideration, reckon 
with or s.o., oount on or s.o.; 
J LL*- |_ — p. (hitdban) do.; to attach 
importance to s.o. or; i_Vll L - „i- 
J >_iL*- (alfa) to have a thousand appre- 
hensions about . . , ; — hatiba a % (OL-*- his* 
bdn, 1_^ mahaaba, mafyriba) to regard (* • 
s.o. a*) f consider, deem(*«a.o. tobe. . .); 
to think, believe, suppose, assume; to 
consider, regard {j- * s.o. as belonging 
to), oount {ja • s.o. among); to see 
(» J in s.o.; — haevba u ihatab, 
ÄjU-*- Aa«32>a) to be of noble origin, be 
highborn; to be highly esteemed, be 
valued III to settle an aeoount, get even 
(• with s.o.); to call (* s.o.) to aoeount, 
ask (• s.o.) for an aeeounting; to hold 
(• s. o.) responsable, make (• b.o.) an- 
swerable | «— ij J* < r ^<U- to be oareful, 
be on one's guard V to be oareful, be 
on one's guard; to take precautions; to 
seek to know, try to find out (* 
VI to Bettle a mutual aecount VIII to 
debit or credit; to take into aecount, 

take into consideration (<_j or m; 
to reckon (<_j or * with); {to antieipate 
a reward in the hereafter by adding a 
pious deed to one's aecount with God — 
such as resigning in God's will at the 
death of a relative; hence:) loJj ,_ 1 M ^I 
(tvaladan) to give a son, be bereaved of 

a son; «^tJi Zi\ x* *. Z*.l to sacrifloe in antieipation of God's reward in 
the hereafter; to charge (J* * foi); 
to think, beliere, suppose; to take (• * 
s.o. for or to be . . .); to be content, 
content o.s. (<_j with); to disapprove 
(J* * of in s.o.), take ezoeption 
(J* * to in s.o.), rejeot (J* * 
in s.o.); to call (J# s.o.) to aeoount, 
ask (J* s.o.) for an aoeounting 

,_— *- Aa*6 reckoning, Computing, oal- 
culation; thinking, opinion, view; suffl- 
ciency j p*p (^l t .*■ or) >l\_ w htubuka (bi- 
hasbifea) dirhamun one dirham is enough 
for you ; <jl J-L_*- it suffices to say that . . . ; 
you know enough when you hear that . . . ; 
you need only . . . ; ö\ \*Ju ,j\ t tf {muqni'an ) 
it will be enough to convinoe you if . . . ; 
i^i JS* li+i dL_~j (b%.h04ä IcuUiMiarran) 
but enough of all theee negative aspeots! 
<— — * fa-had* and that 's all, and no more, 
only (interchangeable with Lm) 

tf-*- hubt: i f^- ijU. (majlis) pl. ^Lf 
*■;—*- guardianship oourt, probate oourt 

«_— *- hatab pl. i_jI — p-1 dfytSb measure, 
extent, degree, quantity, amount; value; 
esteem, high regard enjoyed by s.o.; 
noble desoent; ha*aba (prep.), ^— * bi- 
hasabi and <—— *- ti* ' a ^ ly^tabi acoording 
to, in aoeordanoe with, commensurate 
with, depending on 

L— *- hasabamd (conj.) acoording to 
what — , as, depending on how . . . | 
l jJü\ L— j- (ttafaqa) as chanoe will 
have it 

<— *- hisba arithmetical problem, »um 


wj - hasib pl. .L-*- huMba'* reapeoted, 
esteemed; noble, of noble birth, highborn 

oL—*- husbän oaloulation, reckoning, 
aooounting; computation | öl— J-l j 05" 
to be taten into account, be taken into 
oonsideration; to be expected, be antic- 
ipated; Ol uL_i-l j j&" it waa expected 
that . . .; jl JL_*- I expect that . . . 

i_jL*- hirtb arithmetic, reckoning, oal- 
culus; computation; calculation, estima- 
tion, appraisal; aooounting, settlement; 
oonsideration, consideratenesa ; caution ; — 
(pl. -AI) bül, invoice; Statement of oosts; 
(bank) account; pl. oL»l— »- bookkeeping | 
JJLI ujL>- h, al-jumrnal (al-jumal) use of 
the alphabetio lettera aocording to their 
numerical value; i^LJ-1 1* 'Um al-h. 
arithmetio; J->LuJl .-.L*- h. at-tajädxd 
differential caloulus; J.&JI «-^L*- h. at- 
tak&mul integral calculus; *iL#- j ü5" 
he reckoned with it, he expected it, he 
was piepared for it; <d IL*- J^ to take 
s.o. or into oonsideration; to reckon 
with s.o. or; ^bAM ^.LJ-I (fntämi) and 
JL^ ._>L#- (nrtd't) final Statement of 
account, final aooounting; i_<LJ-l Jl »Ui 
(da'Ohu) he called bim to account; *ji 
t^LJ-1 yaum a/-£. the Day of Reckoning, 
Judgment Day; J LI—»- ftfl to render 
account to s.o.; «-*L,p- ^u without limit 
or bounds, to exoess, to an unlimited ex- 
tent; «-*L,p- j*» ,y blindly, without fore- 
thought, at random; j^i t^l— i- toa.o.'s 
credit, to s.o. 's advantage; ü^Ai ^L*- J* 
to s.o. 's debit, at s.o. 's expense, to s.o. 's 
disadvantage^L-J»! *^> JJ /agtya«ü'a (-A. 
he got a raw deal, he was in for it; ujL#- 
jU- (jflnn) current account; ol>L*- 
„^iji'l jj-c, .y Ä. «umfüf aM. savings-bank 
aocounta; <-!»>>>■ ^L*- blocked account; 
4_jjj oLjL-»- double-entry bookkeeping; 
j^JÜl ^LJ-1 (saryi) the Julian oalendar; 
J jift «_*LJ- 1 {garbi) the Qregorian oalendar 
jL-p- hitAH arithmetical, mathematioal, 

L^Lpt muhAsaba pl. -Ä accounting; 
Clearing (com.); bookkeeping; request for 
accounting; examination of consoience 
(theol.) | i--lp±l *— i gwt» al-m. accounting 
department, comptroller's office ; Clearing 

i. A .J^l t'AJiadb computation; calcula- 
tion, oonsideration, refloction; debiting; 
orediting; valuation; contentedness, sat- 

,_— U hasib counter, reckoner, arith- 
metician, calculator, Computer 

Vj-* mahsüb pl. -an, »-.j-l**- maAdJÜ» 1 
protege 1 , pet, favorite; obedient, sub- 
serviert ( J* to s.o.) 

ij > „*t maJuü£>iya esteem enjoyed by 
s.o., position of distinction; patronage, 
favored position, favoritism 

,_— U muAds.6, i/^r-l**- mu/t&n&^i (<y.) 
accountant, bookkeeper; comptroller, au- 

i_ 1M "Z fnuAJa«aö that for which one 
can expect reward in the hereafter (e.g., 
suJFering, loss, etc.) 

.#- Kitada u (hasad) to envy, grudge (• s.o., 
J* or *, be envioiu (• of s.o., J*> 
or a because of VI to envy each 

x~— hasad envy 

ij-*- heuüd pl. a_*- Au*w2 envious 

A-Ui tah&sud mutual envy 

J-U h&tid pl. iL-*- AuMdd, iJ_*- 
Aasoda envious; envier, grudger 

i^_*t mahsüd envied; smitten by the 
evil eye 

.»• Aa*ira « t (Aa»r) to pull away or off, 
remove (j* *, a oover, a veil, from) ; 
to unoover, lay bare, unveil (j*-; 
— ( j>-*- Au»wr) to beoome dim (sight) ; — 
hasira a {haaar, •,_»- hatra) to regret 
< J*, be grieTed, be pained ( J* by; to sigh (; — haaara i, 
hasira a (kaaar) to become tired, fatigued 
II to fatigue, tire, weaken, sap {♦ s.o.); 
to grieve, sadden (• s.o.), cause pain or 
grief {• to s.o.); to remove (* a cover, 
j* from), lay bare, unveil (j* V to 
be diatressed, be pained, be grieved (Jp 
by); to sigh (Jp over) VII to be pulled 
ftway or off, be removed (je- from); to 
be rolled up, be tu med back (sleeve, je- 
from the arm); to disappear suddenly 
(j* from) 

j~*- hasar fatigue, dcbiiity, weakness | 
j*aJ>\ j-— h. al-basar nearsightedness, 

j-*~ hasir grieved, sad; fatigued, lan- 
guid, weary, tired 

*j-— haara pl. hasarät grief, sorrow, 
pain, distress, affliction; sigh j !_ / -*J L. 
yä la-l-haarati alaal unfortunately! j,-». L. 
yähasrati and alj^-»- \j wä haaratäh what 
a pityl too bad! 

_r— *- haair pl. j| aP - »■ haarü tired, weary, 
fatigued, exhausted; dim, dull (eye), 
ne&rsighted | y-*Jl _r— »- h. al-baaar near- 
"ighted, myopio 

jj~*- huaür nearsightedness, myopia 

<j\j-»- haar&n regretful, sorry, sad, 
distressed, grieved 

j-£- tahasaur sighing; regret 

^U hOair pl. j*)y hawüair 2 bared, 
denuded | ^-aJl y-l*- h. al-baaar near- 
sighted, myopic; ^\j\ ^U h. ar-ra'a bare- 
headed, hatless 

_*- haaak (coli.; n. un. •) thorns, spines; 
spikes, pricks; fishHbnes; awns, beard 
(bot.); name of several prickly herbs, esp. 
of the genus Tribulus 

Jl-*- haaaH thorny, prickly, spiny 

*- hasama t (haam) to cut, sever, out off 
(a; to nniah, complete, terminate 

(*; to decide (* a question); to 
settle (* an argument); to deduct, dis- 
count {* an amount from a sum of money) 
VII to be severed, be cut off; to be finished , 
be completed, be terminatcd; to be 
settled (argument) 

f~— haam finishing, completion, termi- 
nation; decision; settling, settlement (of 
an argument); discontinuance, shutdown, 
closing down; deduction, discounting 
(of an amount) 

(•!—*- hua&m sword, sword edge 

fj— *- huaüm fatal, trying, grueling (pl.; 
days, nights, also years) 

--U- h&aim decisive; final, peremp- 
tory, conclusive, definite, definitive 

j— »- haauna u (huan) to be handsome, 
beautiful, lovely, nice, fine, good; to be 
expedient, advtsablo, suitable, proper, 
fitting; to be in a proper State, be in a 
desirable condition | dL_j} j-*- jl in h. 
ladaika if you like it, if it seems all right 
to you ; jl iL j-*: it is to your advantage 
that you . . .; you ought to . . .; j~*. 
J »-il-UiJ be was all willing to . . . II to 
beautify, embellish (*; to adorn, 
decorate (*; to improve, put into 
better form, ameliorate, better (*; 
to make a better presentation (* of; to present in a favorable light, 
depict as nice or desirable (J * to 
s.o.); to sugar-coat, make more palatable 
(* unpleasant, disadvanta- 
geous) III to treat (» s.o.) with kindliness 

IV to do right, act well; to do (* 
well, expertly, nicely; to know (* how to 
do, be able (* to do; to 
master (*, have command (* of, be proficient (* in; a lan- 
guage, an ort, a handicraft, etc.), be 
oonversant (* with; to do good, be 
oharitable; to do favors, do good (Jl or 

V to b.o.), do (Jl or L» s.o.) a good turn, 
be nice, friendly (Jl or ^ to s.o.); to give 

alms, give charity (Jl to s.o.) | 4i_*-l U 
mä ahaanahü how good he is! how hand- 
some he ifl! wJu^-l ahsanta well done! 
bravo! iJli^i J-*-' (almäniya) to master 
the German language, knowQerman well; 
•bJ—Ul jr-*-! to aim well or accurately; 
«jjjJL* Jr-*-' (ma^ürataAü) to give good 
advice ; ^ jläi I j-*- 1 (zötitw ) to have a good 
opinion of ..., judge favorably; 
4iL*L&* j-*-l (mu'dmaZaJa^ü) to treat s.o. 
well V to become nicer, more handsome, 
more beautiful; to improve, ameliorate, 
get better X to deem (* nice, etc., 
or good; to regard (* as right, ad- 
visable or appropriate; to approve {* of, sanction, condone {*; to como 
to like, to appreciate (*, find pleas- 
uro (* in; also — IV: j-*u-l 
«j>LtVl (ingüiziya) to know English well; 
pass. ustuhsina to be good, commendable, 

j-*- husn beauty, handsomeness, pret- 
tiness, lovelineas; ezcellence, Buperiority, 
perfection | AJ-I j-L li-h. il-hazz fortu- 
nately; IJ^i-JI j_*- good manners, good 
behavior; good conduct; i^LJIj ^-Jl j_*- 
(A. aa-aair) an irreproachable life; j-*- 
hj^^ill A. at-ta$arruf discretion, individual 
judgment; jliJI j_»- %. a?-fann good 
opinion, favorable judgment; j^i\ j-*- 
euphemism; (S-Jl) x-*iJI j-*- h. al-qafd 
(an-niya) good intention, good will, good 
faith; *_a->j j-*- h. yüsuf beauty spot, 
patch; j-L\ c— - ritt al-husn a kind of 
bindweed (Convolvulus cairicus L. ; bot.); 
deadly nightshade, belladonna 

j-*- hasan pl. jl_*- Ai«Jn beautiful, 
handsome, lovely; pretty, nice; good, 
agreeable; excellent, superior, exquisite; 
l-..i- hasanan well, sptendidly, excellently, 
beautifully; ÜLJ-I the ladies; — high 

j^JL-A-l al-hasaniyün the Hasanides, 
the descendants «of Hasan, son of 'Ali 
and Fat im a 

j_*-l ahaan* pl. ,^-U-l ahärin 1 better; 
nicer, lovelier, more beautiful ; more 
excellent, more splendid, more admirable | 
t±* II U- j-*-1 _>» he iß better off than 
they are; j_»-l j> JJl> (bi-Uati) in a 
friendly manner, amicably, with kindness 

•b_*- Aamd' 1 pl. öl-*- Ai*2n (of a wom- 
an) beautiful, a beauty, a belle 

J-A-l al-humä pl. -d* (f. of ,>-p.^I 
al-ahsan) the best outcome, the happy end* 
ing; fair means, amicable manner | J-J-Lj 
amicably, by fair means, in a friendly 
manner; ^-A-i »Lr*Vl (aamd') the 99 at- 
tributes of God 

4i_*- Aaozna pl. -<W good deed, bene- 
faction; charity, alms; pl. ob-«- advan- 
tages, merita 

üj_*- Ao4ffün pl. Ü^-U-*- hasäsin 3 gold- 

i_#t ma/uanä nice, good; 
advantage; pl. ^yU- mahäsin* beauties, 
charms, attractions, merita, advant&ges, 
good qualities 

,>— * tahain beautification, embellish- 
ment; improvement, amelioration, better- 
ment; processing, refining, finishing; (pl. 
jwl* toh&ain 3 ) ornament, decoration | 
O J— Jl t>— ^ '* an-mwJ eugenics 

ii-L* muAdjana friendly treatment, 
kindlineas, amicability 

jU-*-l »A«ln beneficence, charity, alms- 
giving, Performance of good deeds 

( y^ tahaaaun improvement, amelio- 
ration | ,>-»dl J on the way to recovery 

jL-w.J iatika&n approval, consent; 
acclaim; discretion; application of dis- 
cretion in a legal decision (Isl. Law) 

j, -^ muhassin embellisher, beautifior, 
improver; pl.ob— ^ muhaaainät cosmetics 

j-^ muhain beneficent, charitable 

ji.i-i* - muatahaan approved, commend- 
able; pleasant, agreeable 


(s-*.) 1_*- hasä u (hasw), V and VIII to drink, 
sip (* 

_>-.*- hasw and »1_*- {taad* soup, broth 

*^.*- Aoiuxi pl. fcuauxU a sip 

^-*- Auswa pl. husuwOt, husawtU, L-*-l 
ahsiya a sip, emall quantity of liquid; 
soup, broth; bouillon 

^i*- AaJ&i u (haiS) to mow, out (* II to 
smoke hashish 

Jtt*. haiU (coli.) pl. J&i+. hatä'iP 
herbB, grassee; weeds; hay; hemp (Can- 
nabis sativa L.; bot.), hashish, oannabia; 
Btillborn child | jbjill ,J+l*- h. ad-dindr 

*Jui^- haHia (n. un.) herb 

(jiLt*- haiSüi pl. -ün Bmoker or chewer 
of hashish, hashish addict 

^LL*- AuAW, UUL*- AuAUa last breath, 
last Bpark of life 

^jijj-i*- ÄaÜrfi (eg.) sap-green, reseda- 

J& mihaSi, \t£ mihai&a pl. jXt. ma* 
häiP aickle, scythe; fire iron, poker 

<t£- mihaiia pl. -öi (eg.) tool for 
weeding, weeder 

lt r^t- mahSaS, ÜU- L ^^- m.-käna hash- 
ish den 

U mahäOP 

hashish den 


L— haSada i u {ha&d) to gather, concentrate, 
masa (» esp. troops), call up, mobilize 
(> an army); to pile up, Btore up, accn- 
mulate {», Jl at a place) II to amass, 
accumulate (*, masa, concentrate (• 
esp. troops) V and VIII to rally, come to- 
gether, assemble, gather, crowd together, 
throng together; to be concentrated, be 
massed (troops); to fall into line (troops) 

■U*. haid pl. ijj±- huiüd assembling, 
rallying ; gathering, assembly, crowd, 

throng; concentration, massing (esp. of 
troops); mobilization, calling up (of an 

xL£- tahai&ud pl. -ät ooncentration (of 

jLlI*-i ihti&Od pl. -öi gathering, crowd; 
concentration (of troops) 

xiU- häSid numerous (of an assembly), 
orowded (of a public demonstration) 

O IJ-IU h&üda battery (eJ.) 

i*- haSara i u (ha&r) to gather, assemble, 
rally (• people); to cram, crowd, pack, 
j'am (together); to Bqueeze, press, force, 
stuff, tuck (.jo or j * into) 

j-^' rji youm al-haSr the day of con- 
gregation (of the dead), the Day of Ren- 

•yi*- ha&ara pl. -ät insect; pl. vermin, 
inject pesta | ol^^J-l L 'Um al-h. ento- 

<jj£+- ha£art insectile, insectival, inseot- 
(in Compounds) ; entomologic(al) 

£_ri*- ha&raja and II tahahaja to rattle in 
the throat 

i^i*- hairaja rattling, rattle in the 

«_Ü»- V to be dressed shabbily, dress slovenly 
>Ja±+- haüaf dates of inferior quality 
ÜJL*- haSafa glans (penis; anat.) 

viLl*- haSaka i (ha£k) to cram, jam, squeeze, 
stuff (j m into) 

-i». haiama i (haim) to shame, put to shame 
(. s.o.) II and IV do. V and VIII to be 
ashamed to face a.o. (^ or j^j; to be 
reticent, modeat, shy, baahful, diffident 

«■- ÄaJawi servants, retinue, entourage, 

LJj- hiSma shame, basbfulness, timid- 
ity, diffidence; modesty; decency, de- 


-J>- fei&in pl. •| c l*- huSamä' 2 modest, 
timid, basbiul, shy, diffident 

-51* maAdßm 1 pubes, genitals 

J& tahaMum and aLU— I i/itt&Sm 
ehame, shyness, modesty, reticenee, de- 
cency, decorum 

-il* muAta&'m shy, bashful; modest, 
reticent, decent, decorous 

^^) iL*- KaSä u (ha&w) to atuff, fill, dress 
(w * with; esp. fowl, eto.); to fill 
in (a; to load [m a firearm; mm with, o.g., a oamera); to fill (m 
a tooth); to insert (* II to inter- 
polate (*; to insert (*; to 
provide (* with a margin; to hem 
(m a dress); to supply (* a book) with 
marginal notes or glosses III to exoept, 
oxclude (j* » s.o. from) V to keep away, 
stand aloof, abstain (j* from), avoid, 
Bhun (j*, beware (j* of), be on 
one's guard (j* against) VI to keep away, 
abstain (j* or j* from), beware (* or 
je or j* of), avoid, shun (m or je or j* 

jl*. hoho that with which is 
stuffed or filled; dressing, stuffing (of 
fowl, etc.); filling (of teeth); insertion; 
{gram.) parentheais; interpolation 

»jl*. haMea pl. -Ol filling, stuffing 
(oushion, oookery, eto.) ; load (of a 
cartridge), charge (of a mine); panel, 
inlay, inserted piece (in paneling, in a door) 

\1p~ Julian pl. »li*-l aAW bowels, 
intestines; interior, inside | »Li»-I j in 
the interior of, within, in 

^ lyiian = Li»- haian 

<JL^. ha&lya pl. -ät, \A±*- JiaMyä 
cushion, pillow; mattress 

UU-, ^U- hO&a (with genit., aco. or J) 
except, save | 4i ^U-, 4) UU- God foibid! 
jt iU LiU- far be it from you that you . . . ; 

Ji jiU, iü J\~ (Mio) = 4 LftU, iü UU 

' .».< iahSiya Insertion; interpolation 

JAJ. iah&Hn avoidance 

<J\ß~ häüya pl. ^V" Aawä&n border; 
seam, hem; edge; margin (of a book); 
marginal gloss; marginal notes; oom- 
mentary on certain words and passages 
of a book, supercommentary ; footnote; 
postscript; retinue, entourage, suite, 
servants; dependents; pl. ^J^ critical 
apparatus | i-iU-l jJj and ^JjA-l JJj 
nice, polite, courteous, gracious, amiable, 
kindly, friendly; S-iU-l üj riqqat al-h. 
niceness, amiability, graciousness 

jiJ. mahfrüw filled, dressed; stuffed; 
loaded (firearm); pl. Cj]^*- mahiüwdt 
filled, or stuffed, diahes 

^iit mahHy filled, stuffed (esp. food); filled or stuffed 

) _^»- frawa u to fall as a share (• to s.o.) 
III to share (• * with s.o.) IV to 
allot s.o. (•) hie share 

lj s»- hu$f saffron 

c«*. hiffa pl. (j^-*»- At<KZf sharo, portion, 
allotment; share (/In.) ; contingent, quota; 
apan of time ; lesson, class period | «-*■- 
fj\ j A. /i r-ra6A dividend (fin.); O «-*~ 
( _ ri ^ldl founders' share; O j«-*J-l f^ 
quota System, apportionment ; «.*»- <j 
»j^-j in a short time 

tJ A~+£ tah$i$ quota System, apportion- 

i^L*. muAOwa allotment; sharing (with 
s.o.), partaking, participation 

JUL**- see if «»- 

u ^^. hofoba % u to oover or strew with 
pebbles or gravel (* ground); to macad- 
amize (* ground), metal (* a road); 
— hafiba a and pass. hvfiba to have the 
measles II to cover or strew with pebbles 
or gravel (* ground); to macadamize 
(* ground), metal (> a road) 


i_— «*> hoQdb road metal, crushed rock, 

•Lrfw- Aa$6fl* 8 (coli.) pebblea; gravel 

4 rr a»- hafba measles (med.) 

i-^lj- Adftba storm, hurricane 

^owm. ^wp^wpa to be or become clear, piain, 
manifest; to come to light (truth) 

•4» ha$ada » u (ha$d, jU*- ha$öd t hi$äd) to 
harvest, reap (*; to m'ow {* 
IV, VIII and X to be ripe 

x*v- fyaQd and iL»*- A»#hZ harvesting, 
reaping, harvest; jU*- harvest time 

X-«*- ha?id, !-L^- ha^ida pl. aJL**- Aa* 
ßä'i'ti 2 crop, harvest yield | -t-a»-j ^ 
everything without exception 

jLm- ha$$üd reaper; harvester 

x*£- mijifad pl. o^Lfi maA&pwi' sickle 

O !jU- ka$$äda and O »-U«* mih* 
$ada mowing machine, mower | O «->Lm- 
i-ljj (tiarrtlsa) combine 

-U*U- Aä^tti reaper 

O *-U*L»- h&$ida mowing machine, 

j^o£ maApütf harvested, reaped, mown 

-L*£ mu/uüZ and -i .«w— .» mu*taA?»d ripe 

*> Aafara t u (ha$r) to Surround, encircle, 
encompass, ring (*; to enctose 
(a; to parenthesize (* a word); 
to blockade (*, » s.o.,; to besiege, 
beleaguer (*, » s.o.,; to detain, 
deter, restrain, contain, hold back {* s.o.); 
to limit, restrict (j * or «_j to); to 
condense, reduce in scope (*; to 
narrow down, confine (j * to, also 
a suspicion to s.o.); to bring together, 
compile, arrange (j * under a 
rubric); to enter {J * in a list); to 
put together, set up, list, enumerate 
(*; to comprise, contain, include, 

involve (*; — ha^ira a (ha^ar) to 
be in a fix, be in a dilemma III to en- 
cirole, Surround {*, » s.o.,; to 
shut off, seclude (*, * s.o.,; to 
block (a; to beleaguer, besiege 
{*, • s.o.,; to blockade (a, • s.o.,; to detain, deter, restrain (• s.o.) 
VII to be straitened, confined, narrowed 
in; to be or become restricted, limited 
(<-< or j to) ; to limit o.s. (._j or j to) ; to be 
Condensed (j to), be concentrated ( j in); 
to be or become united (e.g., <*5^- £*£ 
under s.o. 's rule); to be reducible (j to), 
be expressible (j in terms of), oonsist ( j 

_ r o»- ha$r encirclement, encompass- 
ment, enclosure, oorralling; parenthesiz 
ing; blocking, blockading, beleaguering, 
siege ; detention, determent ; restraint, 
retention, Containment, check; limita- 
tion, restriction, connnement; narrowing 
gathering, coDecting (of scattered), 
compilation ; enumeration, listing, count 
ing, Computing; centralization, concen^ 
tration; (tobaeco) monopoly | ^^A-Ij striot 
ly speaking; _ r mL\ J^w Jp exhaustively 
ltj+d\ j**»- h. at-tamwin rationing; I**^p 
_ r »i- 1 'alämat al-h. parantheses, brackets 
(typ.); _ r *L\ C^s Jftaj 1/ (yadkulu) or 
*J j-m*- V (ha$ra) boundless, infinite, im- 
measurable, innumerable; _ / -*i-l 3jä* y<** 
füqu l-hap-a do.; O j*±-\ «jLj-l ijäzat 
al-h. patent on an invention; j**»- «jljl 
iiLUlj ^sJI idärat A. at-tibg wa-t-tumbäk 
Government Tobacco Monopoly (Syr.) 

j-m»- hup- retention (of urine) ; consti- 

j-m»- ha$ar dyslogia, inability to express 
o.s. effectively 

.>-«*- ha$ir pl. _ r ^»- hitgur mat 

•_£-**- hafira pl. JL**. ha$a'ir* mat 

jL**- hifär block, blockage, barrier; 
blockade; siege 


I^U- muhä^ara block, blockage, bar- 
her; blockade; siege 

jL**i inhif&r reatrictednese, limitation, 
confinement; (tobacco) monopoly 

jy*£- malifür blocked, blockaded; 
beleaguered, besieged; limited, reBtricted, 
confined (j to); narrow 

» r «. hifrim (coli.; n. un. *) unripe and sour 

grapes (ayr.) 
i _^ r ^ hafufa u («iL*»- haf&fa) to have sound 

judgment, be judicious, discriminating 

i _'^ r ^ hafif endowed with sound judg- 
ment, judiciouB, discriminating 

^ -~- ha?if endowed with Bound 
judgment, judicious, discriminating 

«iL*»- httfäfa sound judgment, judi- 

\&— haQala u {J>-*«- hufül) to set in; to be 
there, be existent, ertant; to arise, come 
about; to result, come out; to happen, 
occur, tranapire, come to pass, take 
place; to happen, occui* (J to s.o.), come 
(J upon s.o.), befall, overtake (J s.o.); to 
originate, emanate, derive, stera (j- from), 
be caused, be produced (j- by) ; to attain, 
obtain, get, receive, acbieve (J*, 
win (J* s.o. or; to come int© 
possession (J* of; to seek (J* a 
permit), apply <J* for a permit); to 
collect, recover (J* a debt), call in (J* 
funds); to receive, take in (J* 
II to cause (*) to happen or set in; 
to attain, obtain (*; to acquire 
(*, also knowledge); to infer, deduce 
{*; to collect (• a fee, faxe, etc.), 
levy (a taxes, fees, etc.), call in (* money) ; 
to Bummarize, aum up (* V to 
result (^ Crom), come out (sum); to be 
obtained, be attained; to be raiBed, be 
levied, be required, be demanded; to be 
taken in, come in (fees, taxes, funds); 
to be collected {taxea); to procure for 
o.b., get (J*; to attain, receive, 

obtain (J*; to auquire (J*; 
to collect (J* fees) X to procure for o.a., 
get (J*; to attain, receive, obtain 
(J*; to acquire (J* 

J^a» hufül setting in, occurrence, in- 
cidence, happening (of an event or pro- 
cess); obtain ment, attainment (J* of; achievement (Jp of; aoqui- 
aition ( J* of 

1U.W- hafUa pl. JJL*»- hafä'iP rest, re- 
mainder ; amount collected, proceeds, 
returns; revenue, receipts, yield, income, 

J-y*-, «Ly and iL*i_p- look up alpha- 

*J L*»- hagfäla collection box, alms box 

J^rf. mah$al result, outcome, upshot, 

X-**- tahfil pl. -ät attainment, obtain- 
ment, gain; aoquisition {also of knowl- 
edge) ; learning, studying, scientific stud- 
iea; collection, raising, levy(ing), call- 
ing in (of funds, taxes) ; income, revenue, 
receipts, returns, proceeds; resume, sum- 
mary, gist (of a speech or opinion) ; j* 
Jli jl J-*U-I Jr^ m Bummary, it may 
be said . . . 

jJ>~** tahfilgi (eg.) = J~-* muhatfü 

J^U häfil pl. J-*ly- hawtyW setting in, 
occurring, taking place, happening; re- 
Bult, outoome, sum, total, product (also 
math.) ; revenubs, receipts, proceeds, 
gain; income, returns; crop, harvest; 
warehouse, storehouse, granary, depot, 
magazine; main content, purport, gist, 
essence, substance (of a speech); J-^U-1 
briefly, in short; pl. oS-»U produot(s), 
yield, produce, production (econ.) 

J^«* mahfül pl. -ät, J-*l* mahüfiP 
result, outcome, issue ; yield, gain ; 
product, produce; crop, harvest; pro- 


J««£ muha^fil ooUector ; tax collector ; 
caahier; (bus, streetcar) conductor 

J-o*«i* mutahagsil yield, revenue, pro- 
ceeds, receipt«, returns (j-. froni) 

**- ha$una u (oL**- ha$äna) to be inac- 
cessible, be well fortified; to be chaste 
(woman) II to make inaccessible (*; 
to Btrengthen (* ; to fortify , entrench 
(m; to immunize, make proof (xJ 
didda against) IV to make inaccessible 
(*; to fortify, entrench {*; 
to be chaate, pure (woman); to remain 
chaste, be of unblemished reputation 
(woman) V to strengthen one's position, 
protect o.b. ; to be fortified ; to be seoure, 
be protected 

^u- fyipn pl. üj~*»- hufün fortresa, fort, 
Castle, citadel, stronghold; fortification, 
entrenohment ; protection | y'lU j-o- Fly- 
ing Fortresa 

üUd»- hifün pl. j***- hufun, iu**J ahfina 
horse; stallion | ^^Jl üU**- h. al-bafyr 
hippopotamus; ^jlit. üU**- (bitkäri) iron 
horse; OL**- Ij* qüwat h., or üL**- alone, 
horse power 

,>-*■- hafin inaccessible, strong, forti- 
fied, firm, secure(d), protected; immune, 
proof, invulnerable (.Li didda against) | 

ü*««*-! Jr**-' (fr*?™) stronghold (flg.; e.g., 
of radicalism) 

J>~*i~\ji\ abü l-hu^ain fox 

o U*»- hagäna strength, ruggedness, 
forbiddingnesa, impregnability, inaccessi- 
bility ; Bhelteredness, chastity (of a 
woman); invulnerability, inviolability; 
immunity (of deputies, diplomata; against 

jwt^ tahpin pl. -ät fortification, en- 
trenchment ; strengthening, cementing, 
solidification; immunization 

uu**-l*Ä0ä»blameIessness, unblemished 
reputation, integrity (Isl. Law) 

J~*£- tafyawun securing, safeguarding, 
protection, protectedness 

j-rf muha$san fortified; entrenched; 
immune, proof (±1 didda against) 

i^jtjt muhfina, muh^ana sheltered, 
well- protected, chaste ; of unblemished 
reputation (woman; Isl. Law) 

■»- IV to oount, enumerate (*; to 
calculate, compute (* j-. from); to 
debit, Charge (J* * to s.o.'s ac- 
count), hold (* J* against s.o.) | V 
iS *£- (yuh$ä.) innumerable 

lS ^- ha^an (coli.) pebbles, little Btones 
•L*.- haqäh, ly+»- hafwa pl. oLa*< 
ha&tydt little stone; pebble; calculus, 
stone (med.) | *Jy IL*»- (bauliya) cystio 
oalouluB; \j\jJu* ;L*»- (fafräwiya) gall- 
atone, biliary calculus 

üU lS ä»»- ha$& lubän, 0UU**- rosemary 

i$j~*~ haqawi atony, pebbly, gravelly 

»U**-l ihqü' pl. -£/ count, counting; 
enumeration ; calculation, computation ; 
statistios | üSwJI »L**-l i. aa-sukkän census 

jL-*-l ihfä'l atatiatic(al); (pl. -ün) 

4JU**-I ihq&'iya pl. -öl statistios 

tp- hadda u (hadd) and II to spur on, incite 
(* s.o., J* to), goad, prod (• s.o., J* to 

(j^*- ha44 incitement, inducement, 
prodding, prompting, instigation 

( _ r i r i*- had%d pl. ^jjkjt»- hudud, «^»-1 

ahidda foot of a mountain; lowland; 
perigee (astron.); depth; State of decay | 
I Jl J> to sink: low (flg.); Jl «fj 
LI {(&JfcfcaAü), 
run into the ground 

'u- fyadara u (jj^~ hudür) to be present (* 
at), be in the presence (* of s.o.); to 


attend (»; to be present (* in s.o.'s 
mind), be readily recalled (# by s.o.); to 
take part, participate (1— Lt majlisan 
in a meeting); to come, get (Jl or #, • 
to s.o., to a place), arrive (Jl or * at a 
place); to visit (* a place), attend (* a 
publio event), go {* to a Performance, 
etc.); to appear (A*\ before a judge, etc., 
Jl in, at), show up (Jl in, at); to betake 
o.e., go (Jl,>. from... to);(:jUi»- hafära) 
to be eettled, sedentary (in s civilized 
region, as oppoeed to nomadio existence) 
II to ready, make ready, prepare (*, also, e.g., a medicine = to Com- 
pound), make, produce, manufaoture 
(*; to study, prepare (* a leason); 
to fetoh, get, bring (» s.o., *, 
procure, supply (*; to settle (• 
s.o.), make s.o. {•) sedentary; to civilize 
{• s.o., m III to give a lecture, 
present in a lecture (• to s.o.); to 
lecture, give a course of lectures IV to 
fetch, get, bring (*, • s.o.,, procura, 
supply (*; to take (• s.o., *, 
Jf to a place) | •** «,-i*-! to have 
with one, bring along V to preparo 
o.s., ready o.a., get ready (J for); to 
be ready, prepared; to become settled, 
be sedentary in a civilized region; to be 
civilized, be in a state of civilization ; to 
become urbanized, become a town 
dweller Till to come (• to s.o.), be in the 
presence (• of s.o.); to live in a civilized 
region; pasa. uhtutfira to die X to have (*) brought, to call, send (#, • for 
B.o., for, have s.o. (•) come; to 
Bummon (* s.o.); to fetch, procura, 
supply, get, bring (*; to conjure, 
call up, evoke {* a spirit); to visualize, 
envision, call to mind (*; to carry 
with o.8., bring along (*; to pre- 
pare (*, e.g., a medicinal preparation) 

j±»- hadar a civilized region with towns 
and villages and a settled population 
(as opposed to desert, steppe); settled 

population, town dwellers (as opposed to 

iSjl— hafari settled, sedentary, res- 
ident, not nomadic, non-Bedouin, like 
urbanites; civilized; urban; town dweller 

*jJ**- ha^ra presence | ~*j~l*- j ™ the 
presence of . . .; i-UI » / ^J- 1 {'aliya) His 
Highness (formerly, title of the Bey of 
Tunis); ftr**- » respectful form of ad- 
dress, eep. in letters; j^^jJI •/-■*- cf. 
Fr. Monsieur Je docUwr 

jjti— hwjür presence; visit, partici- 
pation, attendance; (as one pl. of^U-) 
those present | *jj~**: in his presence; 
<UjU jj~i>- k. al-hafla attendance of the 
celebration ; j*Jl\ jj-**- A. ad-dihn presence 
of mind; j jj- «Sj j waraqat h. summons 

jjj-m*- hutfüri: 5jjj«i*- ^Kj-I (afykäm) 
judgments delivered in the presence of 
the litigant parties after oral proceedings 
(jur.); L jj~i*- fiiufüriyan contradictorily 

«jUi». hcujAra civilization; culture; set- 
tledness, sedentariness 

•>**- ha4ira pl. j-'lJw- Jw^d'tr* a small 
group of 6 to 12 people (specif., the 
smallest unit of boy scouts = patrol); 
aection, squad (mtl.; Syr.) 

j*£- majvjar presence; attendance, Com- 
ing, appearanoe (of s.o.); assembly, meet- 
ing, gathering, Convention; (pl. _r*l* »w 
häqlir*) minutes, official report, proces- 
verbal, record of the faotual findings | 
*j}~\ j^A m. al-jard inventory listj^pÄ*** 
4^» bi-mahfarin minhu in s.o.'s presence 

jjj- tahfär preparing, ready ing, making 
ready; (pl. -ät) preparation (J for; also 
e.g., for an examination) ; making, prepa- 
ration, cooking {of food, etc.), production, 

äs^Ä tahtfirl preparatory, prepara- 
tive | 0*~W *&**»*& wJ-M (mu'aüimin) 


preparatory institutes for teachere, teach- 
ers* Colleges (Eg.) 

»jjf[^ muhätpira pl. -<K lecture 

jUi*-l ihdär procurement, supply, fetch- 
ing, bringing 

jJl£- tahatfdur civilized way of life 

jLij-l ihtujdr demise, death 

jUi*-i-l iatikdär making, production, 
manufacture ; preparation ; summoning | 
r^jj^^ jLi»^-l istihdär al-arwäh evoca- 
tion of spirits, Bpiritism 

^>U- hüdir pl. jJk*- huddar, jj~**- 
hvdür preaent ; attending ; ^->U- i the 
present (time); prepared (J for); ready; 
(pl. jLU huddär, *j~^- hadara) settled, 
eeden tary, resident, village or town 
dweller, not nomadio | ^-iU-l j or cJjJl j 
y-ili.1 at preBent, now; _^AJI j^*- h. 
al-fikr quick-witted, quick at repartee; 
^U aJÜ (naqd) cash, ready money 

•j-il*- hSdira pl. jJ*\y- hawädir* Capi- 
tal city, metropoüs; city (as a center 
of civilization) 

jj-*£ mahdür possessed, haunted or 
inhabited by a jinni; demoniao 

j*ä£- muhaddir maker, producer, manu- 
facturer; diasector {med.) 

j-*\^> muhä$ir lecturer, Speaker 

jj&- muhtfir court usher 

j*ä»c* mutahad^ir civihzed 

j-*z4- mvhtadar dying, in the throes 
of death, on the brink of death ; a dying 
peraon; haunted or inbabited by a jinni; 

_r*— z— ' mustahdar pl. -dU preparation 
(ehem., pharm.) | tj\js jJ^^i—* (dawä'%) 
medicinal preparation 

j^r-**- hadramaut 2 Hadhramaut 

\j_fJk— hadraml pl. fjLi*- hatfärim 9 man 
from Hadhramaut; Hadhramautian (adj.) 

,>**- hadana u {hadn, «Li*- hidäna) to clasp 
in one's arms, embrace, hug (♦ s.o.); 
to nurse, bring up, raise (• a child); 
(Aatfn, ü 1 -^*- hidän, «Li*, hüjäna, 
OjJi*- hudün) to hatch, brood, ineubate 
{* an egg; of a bird) VI to embrace one 
another, cling to one another, nestle 
against each other VIII to clasp in one's 
arms, embrace, hug (*, • s.o.,; to 
harbor in one's bosom (* feeling); to 
hatch, concoct, contrive (*; to bring 
up, raise (• a child) 

,>«*- hüjln pl. üUi*-l ahdän breast, bosom 
(between the outstretched arms); armful, 
that which can be carried in one's arms j 
j-il-L *iJ (qabilahü) he reeeived him with 
open arms; o\Ju»\ jy and üLi*-1 j amid, 
among; with, in the presence of (s.o.); 
»I_^~*ll oU*-\ j {fahrä') in the heart 
(or folds) of the desert; L*JLi»-i jo Jj-UI 
she took me in her arms 

iiUi*- hidäna, hadana raising, bringing 
up, nursing (of a child); hatebing (of 
an e gg)> ineubation j i*LiJ-l jlj children's 
home, day nursery, creche 

Ov^*" hadin embraced, hugged, resting 
in s.o. 's arms 

Jr«** mahdan pl. j«il* mahädtn* 
children's home, day nursery, creche 

uLij- 1 ihtidän embrace, bug(ging), 

~<-J>\p~ hädina pl. ^ij»- hawSdin 1 nurse* 
maid, dry nurse 

j^-i* muhtafön embracing, hugging; 
tender, affectionate 

J*>- hafta u (haff) to put, place, put down, 
set down (*; to take down (* a 
load, bürden); to lower, decrease, di- 
minish, reduce (* or j*; to de- 
preciate (»j-ü j* min qadrihi or *i*J j» min 
qimatihi the value of | JU^I iu- 
(rihäla) to halt, make a stop, dismount, 
encamp (while travcling on horsehack, 

camelback, etc.); — « (M, ty^ A*f«*) 
to sink, descend, go down; to alight 
(bird); to land (airplane); to drop {price) 
II to put down, set down, take off, un- 
load (* a load) VII to sink, descend, go 
down; to decrease, diminish; to decline, 
decay, wane VIII to put down, set down, 
take down (* ß.th.) 

j». hatt(&ct of) putting or setting down; 
depreciation, belittling, derogation, dis- 
paragement (j* of; reduction, 
diminution, decrease (<y of 

&»- hifia alleviation, «lief, mitigation ; 
abasement, debasement, demotion, deg- 
radation (in rank, dignity, prestige) ; 
humiliation, insult, indignity 

jwl dfyatß lower 

«U^ hafifa price reduction 

W- mahaU place at which ia 
put down or deposited; stopping place, 
stop; pause, fermata, hold, concluding 
Btrain, cadence (mvs.) | JL1/I J** object 
of hope, that on which one's hopes are 
pinned; jltiV' J«# <JK* to attract the 
glances, draw attention to o.s. ; f ^1 it^ 
m. al-kaläm sense, or meaning, of one's 

iL* mahafta pl. -ät stopping place, 
stop (also of public conveyances) ; Station, 
post; railroad Station; broadcasting Sta- 
tion, radio Station | jLJI Ji^»* 1 «L* 
m. tahteil at-tayydr transformer Station; 
(^LiUI) «liVi iL* m. al-itäa (al-lä- 
BÜkiya) broadcasting Station, radio Sta- 
tion; transmitter (Station); v-h> *^ 
(ra'iäiya) (railroad) main Station; O «L* 
oljLiVl m. al-iSärät signal post; O «L* 
JUj^I m. al-irsäl transmitter (Station; 
radio); «j^I iU-y^J iL* (li-l-arpäd al- 
jawunya) meteorological Station, weather 
Station; -Ji^Jl IL* m. 09-90*} (Eg.) pump 
Station (for dratnage) ; power plant ; O iL* 
JLJii— "b/l receiving Station (radio); O «L* 
j-l^.^1 v<—j 5-SL-V (lä-silkiya qapirat al- 

amwäj) short-wave transmitter Station; 
•li^SÜI xSy iL* m. taulxd al-kahrabä' and 
iJ\jjjS' iL* power plant 

J»IL*'I inhifit decline, fall, decay. de- 
cadence; inferiority | J»lL*Vl ^l-*-' 
iheäa al-inh. sense of inferiority 

J»IL*I inhifäfi postclassical writer 

,L*^l. munhatt low, base, low-level, low- 
grade; fallen, degraded (woman); mean, 
vile, vulgär; inferior 

Ja»- hafaba i to gather nrewood | ^J*»- 
«L». J {fl hablikl) to support s.o., stand 
by b.o., back s.o. up VIII to gather 

Jm- hafab pl. v 1 -^- 1 ahiäb nrewood 

^IL»- haffäb wood gatherer; wood- 
cutter, lumberjack; vendor of nrewood 

tahfib singlestick fencing (a 
populär game, esp. in rural areas; eg.) 

^UU häfib wood gatherer; woodcutter, 
lumberjack; vendor of nrewood | ,_.!»& 
jj ica-häfibi laüin lit.: like one who 
gathers wood at night, i.e., blindly, at 
random, heedlessly (said of s.o. who does 
not realise, or think about, what he is 

. 1 — hafama % (hofm) to break, shatter, 
smash, wreck, demolish (* II = I; 
V to break, go to pieces; to be broken, 
be smashed, be shattered; to crash (e.g., 
airplane, structure, etc.); to be wrecked 
(ship) VII = V 

UU- hifma pl. jj»- hifam particle, 
smaU piece, shred, bit, morsel; 

*LU*- hupäm debris, rubblo; fragments, 
shards, broken pieces; wreckage, wreck 
(of a ship) | LJ JJ^ fLL»- h. ad-dunyä the 
ephemeral things of this world, the 
vanities of the world 

-U- haftm smashed, shattered, wrecked 

£J- iahflm smashing, shattering, 
wreoking, breaking, demolition, destruc- 
tion, disruption | O J-U-.l J«t "•• _• - 
icebreaker (naut.) 

|J^ tahaffvm crumbling, disintegra- 
tion; cnuh (of an airplane); coUapae, 

U.U. hifima: O -ÜJ.I <J.U- icebreaker 

|J^ mu^atfim crashing, thundering, 
roaring (of an explosion, etc.) — muAaf» 
/am broken (language) 

UtA muhatlima: L-iJ Urf (kdjiya) 
ioebreaker (naui.) 

Ji». $o»a a (hazz) to be lucky, fortunate 
IV = 1 

■^ &■$? pl- J*»!»- huzüz part, portion, 
share, allotment; lot, fate, destiny; good 
luck, good fortune; afnuence, wealth, 
fortune; prosperity; pleasure | j. Ji»- ji 
endowed withj Jiil j_i ti-humi l-h. 
and JU.I l ^_»- ^ fortunately, luckily; 
Jii-I »^ tu' al-h. bad luck, misfortune; 
Jü-I .^ sayyt' oi-A. unlucky, unfortu- 
nate; JiJ-l »j-J unfortunately; ^*. ^ 
Ji»- luokily for me, fortunately; j. öS" 
jl «•»» J-— he was lucky in that he . . .; 
U*»* W 1 * i>-»-' er*! he is no better off than 
ahe is 

Ji-U. Aafiz lucky, fortunate 

JijlK maAzfif lucky, fortunate; con- 
tent(ed), happy, glad 

Ji- hazara u (Jiosr) to fence in, hedge in 
(»; to forbid (< J» to s.o., 
prohibit (* J* s.o. from doing 

_ r w- hazr forbiddance, interdiction, pro- 
hibition, ban; embargo 

jUi». hiz&r, hazUr wall, partition, screen ; 
fence, paliaade, railing 

•j&- hazira pl. ,/lli». hazSir* enclo- 
sure, railing, fence, palisade, hedge; 

Compound, yard, pound, pinfold; oorral, 
pen, paddock, coop; hangar, shed; field, 
domain, realm (fig.) | .jji»- j (with foll. 
genit.) inside of, within; «jjji»- JI 4jj»- 
(jaiabahü) to bring s.o. under one's in- 
fluence; cAJVJh j\$i*. airoraft hangara; 
^XäJI *jJö- A. al-qvd* Paradise 

jjlK maAffir interdicted, prohibited, 
forbidden (J* to s.o.); embargoed; pl. 
&\>Ji& forbidden things, reatriotions 

(ji- and Jb.) Ji~ haziya a (ijli- huzwa, 
hizwa) to enjoy the favor or good graces 
of s.o. {£*), be in s.o.*s (x*) favor or 
good graces; to acquire, obtain, attain, 
gain, win ( v 

•>!■*- huzwa, hizwa favored position, 
role of favorite; preoedence; favor, grace; 
good will, benevolence; prestige, credit, 
Standing, respect, esteem | xs. \J±*. JÜ 
(^aJ) to find favor with s.o. 

*-!•*- haziya pl. Ulli», hazäyä paramour, 
miatress, oonoubine 

«Ji* mahziya pl. -ät paramour, mia- 
tress, ooneubine 

Ja»- haffa u (haff) to Surround (^ a, • s.o., with, also wj and J,» s.o.,, 
enclose, encompass, border (v, *; 
to depüate (» a part of the body), unhair 
(» the skin); to trim, clip (. the beard); 
to chafe, rub off, abrade (* | 
•jjr*" «* «-** ne is the objeot of ad- 
miring glances, he is the center of atten- 
tion, all eyes are upon him; — i (^ji*. 
ha/t/) to rustle II and VIII to Surround, 
(Jj*-> v *» • a -°'», encloBe. encom- 
pass, border (S r , tj. » 

J»LU- hijäj side 
^V**" h<*W rustle, rustling 
ü* mihaffa (also mahaffa) pl, -31 litter, 
stretcher; roller stretcher; sedan 

J»U- Ad/f: JU >». (jwtz) piain bread 
(without anything to go with it; tg.) 


«iL- häffa pl, -ät enclosure, edge, 
margin; brim of a vessel; border, brink, 
verge; fringe, hem | <— '!A' ~**^~ J*" ' a ^ 
Ä. il-fcaräb on the brink of ruin 

i*. hafid pl. jLi*-l ahfäd, lAi*- hafada 
grandson; descendant, offspring, scion 

♦.Li*- hafida granddaughter 

i*. Aa/ara t (hafr) to dig (*; to drill 
(for oil); to excavate (archeol.); to carve 
(a; to engrave, etch (* metal) j 
jiL*- _^i*- to dig; S^A*- _^i*- (Au/* 
ratan) to prepare a pitfall, prepare an 
anibush VII pass. of I; VIII to dig 

ji*- hafr digging, earthwork, excava- 
tion (also archeol.); unearthing; drilling 
(for oil); oarving, inscribing (e.g., of 
letters); engraving, etching; graphic 
arts (etching, wood engraving); scurvy 
(ayr.) | jiJ-l jl**- jahäz al-h. oil rig; oil 

%jÄ*- hufra pl. jÄ*- hufar pit; hollow, 
cavity, excavation; hole 

ijj*- hafriya digging, excavation; 
O gravure; pl. <^- l ^j J **" excavations 

jU*- haffär digger; engraver; driller; 
stone mason | j^Jtll jU*- gravedigger 

jj&- hafir dug, dug out, excavated, 

»j\J»- hafira pl. y'U*- Ao/ä'tr" 
excavated or unearthed; pl. excavations 

jji»-l vhfür pl. jäU-l aAö/tr 1 ex- 
cavated; fossil; pl. excavations (archeol.) 

ji£. mihfar pl. jiU- mahäfir* spade 

^U Aö/ir pl. J]y- hawäfir* hoof | ^ij 
yU-l Jt ^ili-l to coincide, happen to 
correspond exactly; ^li-l J* on the 
spot, right ftway, at once 

j^U A^/tri ungular, ungulate 

»yU- Äö/ira original condition, be- 
ginning | »^U-l x* on the spot, right 
away, at once; 4^iL- Jl *j~j to revert 
to itB original State or origin 

jjji*. mahfür dug ; inscribed, engraved : 

i*- hafaza i (hafz) to pierce, stab (# s.o., <-> 
with the spear); to incite, instigate, urge, 
prompt, induce (J* or Jl » s.o. to 
V to prepare o.a., get ready, be ready, 
beabout to do (J or Jl), set out to do (J or Jl); to get ready to jump, 
make a running start; to listen, pay 
attention VIII to be about to do, 
be ready (J for) 

}ä£ tahaffuz preparedness, readiness; 
vim, dash, verve, sweep, elan 

jiU- häfiz pl. j>\f*- hawäßz 2 spur, drive 
(Jfttodo, incentive(Jftto), initiative 

. mutahafflz ready, prepared (J for) 

i*- haßza a (At/?) to preserve (*; to 
protect, guard, defend(»fl.o.); to observe, 
bear in mind (*, comply (* with, be mindful, be heedful (*of; 
to keep up, maintain, sustain, retain, 
uphold (*; to hold, have in safe- 
keeping (*, take care (*; 
to keep, put away, save, ßtore (* ); 
to conserve, preserve (*; to retain 
in one's memory, remember, know by 
heart (*; to memorize, learn by 
heart, oommit to memory (*, esp. 
the Koran); to reserve (* *-iJ for 
o.a.; to stay, discontinue^suspend 
(Jgi*dl a judicial investigation; jur.) \ 
Äiil *ki#- may God proteot himl JjjJL; -Wi*- 
to hold in care of general delivery 
(*; Ü^-jJl j J^u= (yuhfazu) in 
care of general delivery, poste restante; 
Jt\ij\ lii>- (uxtfaa) to be loyal to s.o., 
keep faith with s.o. II to have s.o. {*) 
memorize {* III to preserve, keep 
up, maintain, uphold, sustain (J*; 


to supervise, control (J*, watch 
(J* over; to watch out <J# for), 
take care, be heedful, be mindful (J* of), 
look {J# after) t attend, pay attention 
(J* to); to keep, follow, observe, bear in 
mind (J*, comply (J# with), 
conform {J* to); to protect, guard, 
defend (* and J», also j* IV to 
vex, annoy, gall, irritate, hurt, ofiend 
(» s.o.) V to keop up, maintain, preserve 
(»_> ; to obBerve, keep in mind 
(»_>, be mindful, be heedful, take 
care (»_> of, be concemed (<_• with); 
to be cautious, be wary, be on one's 
guard ; to be reserved, aloof ; to have 
reservations VIII to maintain, uphold 
(t_> or *, e.g,, *sjk£. one's rights); 
to keep up, maintain, retain (._. or *., e.g., a posture, a characteristic) ; 
to take care, take over custody (<_• of 
s.o.), protect, guard («_• s.o.); to defend 
(against encroachment), hold, maintain 
(<_• a possession); to preserve, sustain, 
continue, keep up (._.; to hold, 
possess (»_>; to put away, hold, 
have in safekeeping (<_>, take care 
(<-> of; to keep, retain (*_>; 
«— iJ JiÄ>-l to keep for o.a., appro- 
priate, reserve for o.s. (<_; or *, 
take complete possession (* of) X to 
aßk s.o. (») to guard or protect {* or J*; to entrast ( J* or * • to s.o., 
com mit (J# or *) to the Charge of 
s.o. (.) 

Jü*- hifz preservation ; maintenance, 
sustentation, conBervation, upholding; 
protection, defense, guarding; custody, 
safekeeping, keeping, storage; retention; 
observance, compliance (with); memoriz- 
ing, memorization ; meniory; (;'ur.) dis- 
continuance, stay, Suspension (of legal 
action, of a judicial investigation) | 
jUVl J*jU- preservation of ancient mon- 
uments (Eg.); '<*—*}\ JijU- h. a$-?\hha 
hygiene, Banitation; JiiJ-l JU, police 

«Li*- hifza anger, indignation, resent- 
ment, rancor 

JiLi*- hifäz pl. -ät dressing, ligature, 
bandage | lj ^ r i-l JiLi*- h. al-haü} sanitary 

Ji-i*- hafiz attentive, heedful, mind- 
ful; preserving, keeping, guarding (J* 

üijj*- haflza pl. .Uli*- hafä'iz 2 grudge, 
resentment, rancor 

•iixt mahfaza, mihfaza pl. -ät, JiiLrf- 
mahäßz* folder, bag, satchcl, briefease 
diapatch case, portfolio; wallet, pocket- 

üü*^ mihfaza capsule 

. Ji-i* tahflz memorization drill, incul- 
cation (esp. of the Koran) 

J»Li*- hifäz defense, protection, guard- 
ing (esp. of cherished, sacred thingB); 
preservation, maintenance (J* of inter- 
ests); keeping, upholding (of loyalty), 
adherence (to u commitment) 

üiil* muhäfaza guarding; safeguard- 
ing; preservation; protection, defense; 
conservation, sustaining, upholding, - 
retention, maintenance (J* of 
conservativism {pol.), conservative atti- 
tude; following, observance ( J* of, 
compliance (J* with, adherence 
(J* to); guarding (j* against mUfortune), 
saving (^ from misadven^ure); garrison 
(mtl.); (pl. -öl) governorate (one of five 
administrative divisions of Egypt, in 
oddition to 14 mudiriyät); office of the 
muhäfiz (head of a governorate); prov- 
ince, any one of the larger administra- 
tive districts (Syr.) | ^-iJl J* ~*L*U\ 
seif- preservation ; «Lil^l ^mx. ma4hab 
ahm. conservative movement, conserv- 
ativism, Toryism 

Jü* tahaffuz caution, wariness, re- 
straint, reticence, reserve, aloofnesa; — 

(pl. -Ol) precaution, precautionary 
measure; reservatio!!, Uroiting condition, 
conditional stipulation, proviso | Jii*«Jl u 
with füll reservation 

Jü* lahaffuzi precautionary, pre- 
ventive | Uii* £*Uj».l (ijrä'ät) pre- 
cautionary measures; JÜ* ^L» (?uiA) 
settlement before action, preventive 
settlement {jur.) 

JiUi-l ihtifäz guarding, safeguarding ; 
preaervation ; retention, maintenance, 
eontinuation, conservation, defense, pro- 
tection, vindication, sustaining, up- 
holding; keeping, holding, safekeeping, 
cuBtody (v of 

JkiU- häfif keeper, guarder, guardian, 
oustodian, caretaker; (pt. -ULi*- hujf&f, 
<kö- hafaza) one who knows tbe Koran 
by heart (formerly an bonorific epithel) 

«lüL- häßza memory; — (pl. Jü|>*- 
hatoäfiz*) wallet, pocketbook: money 
order {Sg.) 

bjJtt- mahfüz kept, held in saf«- 
keeping, deposited, guarded, preserved; 
memorized, committed to memory, etc.; 
conserved, preserved (food); reserved; 
ensured, aecured, safeguarded; — pl. 
O lU^i* canned goods, oonserves ; archives ; 
memorized materia), what s.o. knowB 
by heart | iy^ll oll->üil j\* the Egyp- 
tian Public Record Office; «U^i* 0*^TL 
oonBerves, canned goods; XU^i* j^iA-l «-»; 
all rights reserved 

Jiil* muhäfiz eupervisory, Controlling; 
observing ( J», oomplying ( J* with), 
etc.; conservative {pol.), OjiüL^I the 
Conservatives, the Tones; keeper, guard- 
er, guardian, custodian, caretaker, Super- 
visor, Superintendent; mayor; governor 
(Kg. : title of the chief offioer of a gov- 
ernorate ; Syr. : chief officer of a prov- 
ince) ; director general, president (= Brit. 

> mutahaffif vigilant, alert, wary, 
oautious; retioent, reserved, aloof; staid, 

jLtoU— . mustahfaz pl. -ät reserve (mü.) 

Ji»- hafala i (haß) to gather, assemble, 
oongregate; to flow copiously; to be 
replete, teem, superabound («-» with); 
to pay attention, attend, give one's 
mind (u or J to, concern o.s. 
(^ with), make much (v of), set great 
störe («-» by) | ** Ji*. V (hafla) indifferent, 
of no consequence II to adorn, decorate, 
ornament («-» m with) VIII to gather, 
rally, throng together; to oelebrate (v, s.o.); to conoern o.s. (^ or J 
with), attend, pay attention, give one's 
mind (^ or J to; to honor, wel- 
come, receive kindly (^ s.o.) 

*Ji»- haß gathering, meeting, assem- 
bling; assembly, congregation, throng, 
orowd ; performanoe, show, publio event ; 
celebration; feast, feetival 

Uö- hafla pl. -ät assembly, gathering, 
meeting, congregation; party; (social or 
publio) event; show, Performance (the* 
ater, cinema); conoert; festirity, oere- 
mony, festival, festive event, celebra- 
tion | Jub)l ÜjU- commemoration, oom- 
memorative ceremony for a deceased 
person ; ^ji 1 iUA- I (fiW) premiere ; 
UiU- «U»- numerous assembly; «j/*- *Lu- 
(frairiya) oharity Performance, charity 
event; jiJJI «Li*- A. ad-dafn funeral 
ceremony, obsequies; S-üi Ui*- (cttntya) 
religious ceremony, Divine Service; «li*- 
•/aU and _^-- «Li*- A. «amar evening party, 
soiree; vti-* *^~ motion-picture show; 
iflJÜl «Li»- tea party; ^jjl «Li*- A. 
oi-'urff wedding; jLJt-1/l «Lu- (public) 
reoeption; «ji^-f* *^**~ ooncert 

Js**- Aa/iJ eager, assiduous, diligent 

Ji* wwA/ü pl. J*U maAd/ü 1 assembly, 
congregation, meeting, gathering; party; 


body, collective wholc; circle, quarter | 
J>-L J-i* Masonic lodge; i^r*^! Ji^i 
{5— -IjJI) (rasmiya, siyäsiya) the official 
(political) circles or quarters 

JLk-1 ihtifäl pl. -ät celebration, cere- 
mony, featival, festivitiea 

JiU- haß pl. Ji». ^ujflW, Jil,^ luiwäfil 2 
füll < v of), filled, replete ( v with); 
abundant, copious, Iaviah ; much fre- 
quented, well attended (by viaitors, 
partieipants, etc.), numerous (of attend- 
ance); soleran, ceremonial, festive 

«üU häfüa pl. -ät, Jil^ haiväfil 2 
O autobus 

Ji* muAto/t/: j^Lc^l the partieipants 
in a festive event, the celebrators 

Jii# muhtafal assembly place, gather- 
ing place; party; * JA:* celebrated 

ji»- hajana u to scoop up with both handa 
{*; to give a Üttle (J to s.o.) 

öi*. Äa/na pl. hafanät handful 

J <>*»- and Jj-) Jj- Aa/Jya a (Sjli*- kafäwa) 
to reeeive kindly and hospitably, to 
welcome, reeeive with honors, honor (i_j 
s.o.) V to behave with affection, be 
affectionate (^ toward) VIII do.; to 
celebrate {^ an occasion, a festival) 

^ hafly welcoraing, reeeiving kindly, 
greeting (^ s.o., 

•jLi»- hajäwa friendly reeeption, wel- 
coming, welcome, Balutation {^ of s.o.) 

»Lji»-I ihtijä' reeeption, welcome, sal- 
utation (._> of s.o.); celebration, festivity 

'j*- hafi-ya a (»Li*- fyafä*) to go barefoot; to 
have sore feet 

ÖL- häfin pl. ili». hufäh barefoot(ed) 

J>. haqqa i u to be true, tum out to be true, 
be confirmed; to be right, correct; (also 
pass. huqqa) to be necessary, obligatory, 
requisite, imperative (J* for s.o.), be 

ineumbent (J* upon s.o.); to be ade- 
quate, suitable, fitting, appropriate (J*- 
for s.o.); to be due (J s.o.); *I ^ he 
is entitled to it, he has a right to it; J»- 
4-L he deserved it (punishment); — u 
to ascertain (*, make sure, be sure 
(* of; to recognize, identify {• 
s.o.) II to make (*) come true; to 
realize (*, e.g., a hope), carry out 
(* e.g., a wish), carry into effect, fulfill, 
put into action, consummate, effect, 
actualize (*; to implement (* e.g., 
an agreement); to produce, bring on, 
yield (* results); to determine, ascertain, 
find out, pinpoint, identify (*; to 
prove (*) to be true, verify, establish, 
substantiate (*; to confirm, asaert, 
aver, avouch, affirm (* ; to be 
exaet, painstaking, meticulous, careful 
(a in doing, e.g., _^iJI ji». (nazara) 
to look closely; to study, examine, 
investigate, explore {*, look, in- 
quire (* into; to verify, check {* 
or J; to investigate (j; 
police); to make an official inquiry (* 
into, Institute an investigation (* 
of or into; court; für.); to interro^ate (»* 
s.o.), conduet a hearing (** of s.o.; jur.) 

III to contend for a right {• with s.o.), 
contest or litigate a right (» against s.o.) 

IV to teil the truth; to be right (j in; to enforce (*, e.g., a legal 
claim) V to prove true, turn out to be 
true, be confirmed, prove to be correct; 
to materialize, become a fact ; to be 
realized, be effected, come into effect; to 
be examined, be explored; to ascertain 
(*, also j-), make sure, reassure 
o.s., gain proof, convince o.s., be convinc- 
ed, be sure, be certain (* of; to 
check, verify (* or ,y; to be serious 
(l-> about X to be entitled, have a 
claim (* to; to claim (*, lay 
claim (* to); to deserve, merit (*, 
be worthy (* of); to require, demand, 

necessitate, make requisite (*; to 
fall due, become payable (sum of money), 
mature, become due (note) ; to be due ( J 
s.o.) IjTill Jm:-,* (iikra) worth mention- 
ing, noteworthy; fj\ *J* fr - '— * *l/ 
(rasmu) not subjeot to a fee, free of 

fr- Äa^j truth; correctness, rightneas; 
rightful posseasion, property; one'a due; 
duty; proper manner; true, authentic, 
real; right, fair and reaaonable; correct, 
Bound, ralid; jA-l an attribute of God; 
(pl. 3y*- hxtqüg) right, title, claim, legal 
claim (j to); JjiJ-t law, juriaprudence, 
legal Bcienoe ; Ü- haqqan really, in reality, 
in effect, actually, in fact, indeed, truly, 
in truth; justly, rightly, by rights j 
?iilj ÜJ is that (really) soT reallyT j* 
justly, rightly, by rights; ji-U truly, in 
reality, actually; properly, appropriately, 
in a suitable manner; fr- bi-haqqi and 
fr- J as to . . ., aa for . . ., with respect to, 
conceming, regarding; fr- J* j* he ifl 
in the right; iL** ji-t you are right; ji-1 
Tjljr- you are wrong; iLl* fr- y> it iß 
your duty; SU* J»- ti* you owe this to 
me; 4-i* LJÜ- litt^* ft'r/dnan) in re- 
Cognition of what he owed her; *5»- fr 
he is entitled to it, it ia bis due; fr öS" 
jl ü»- he should have..., he ought to 
have...; j jA-1 <J he is entitled to ...; 
Jli jilj (yugdJ) one may aay, it must be 
admitted, it's only fair to aay, say what 
you will . . ., ... though (as a parentheti- 
oal phrase) ; «^11 fr- <Jj* (£<*??« 
l-ma r rifa) to know ezactly, know for 
certain, know very weil, also ^\ fr- ^ 
(haqga l-'ilm) ; ^1 fr- ^ fakima kaqqa 
l-fahm to understand precisely, com- 
prehend thoroughly, be fully aware; 

UM JjU II (w'äia) true happiness; 

3jkL\ Ltf" Jh*Wiyo( aJ-A. law school, 
faculty of law 

fr- huqq hollow, cavityj socket of a 
Joint (anat.); also — U*- huqqa 

U*» huqqa pl. JJU- Au^o?, JU*- hiqäq, 
ÖU*-I aAfö? small box, case, pot or jar; 
reeeptacle, Container; — (pl. -ät, ji*. 
Au^of) a weight (Syr. t Pal.) = öl uqqa; 
iJ^JUJ U*- = 1.280 kg (Ir.) 

fr-\ ahaqq* worthier, more deserving 
(i_* of; more entitled (<-? to 

j-S*- Aoftg pl. »UM ahiqqd' 2 worthy, 
deserving («_> of, fit, competent, 
qualified ; entitled (<-> to) 

<JLö- Ao^Iga pl. jJU*- kaqä'iq* truth, 
reality (also pAÜo*.); fact; the true state 
of affairs, the facta ; true nature, essence ; 
real meaning, true aense; haqtqatan 
really, in reality, in effect, actually, in 
fact, indeed, truly, in truth | oLi*- J» ol> 
I aaw its true nature, as it really is; 
^\ U-I». J in reality, really, actually; 
UJu» <J ^-J it does not really exist, it is 
not real 

JJ»»- haqiqi real, true; actual; proper, 
intrinsic, essential; genuine; authentic; 

Jji- huqüqi juristic(al); (pl. -ün) 
Jurist, jurisprudent, lawyer 

Li*-t ahagqiya legal claim, title, right 

Jli*- kaqq&nl correct, right, proper, 
sound, valid, legitimate, legal 

«JU*- haqqänlya justice, law | »jtjj 
4JUM Miniatry of Justice (formerly Eg.) 

J_i* tahqlq realization, actuab'zation, 
effeotuation, Implementation; fuUUlment 
(of a claim, of a wish, etc.); achievement, 
accompliflhment, exeuution ; ascertain- 
ment, determination, identifioation, veri- 
fication; substantiation ; asaertion, af- 
firmation, confirmation; pinpointing, 
precise determination ; exaetness, ao- 
curateness, precision; (= jkJl J-i* (. 
an-nufä) precise pronunciation ; — (pl. 
•ät) verification, check, checkup, in- 
veatigation; offioial or judicial inquiry, 


inquest | ül JJmJI it is a matter of faot 
that ..., it is certain that ...; J-«*uII J* 
properly speaking, striotly speaking, 
actually; exactly, preoiaely; positively, 
definitely; J-a^ull .u» properly speaking, 
striotly speaking, actually; V.^^AJl jJu: 
*. a&-fafy&ya identifioation (of a person), 
proof of identity; <_ «»JJI jj^ j^L^* 
Sahädat t. aS-iak^ya identity oard; 
i-^i^Ui jJui ^ ^zZom (. a&j*. bureai of 
identifioation; «JlJÜI jJw: f.. a4-$ätlya 
identifioation; JJ*»sII ^l» ezamining 
magistrate; ^IjjVI Jjj* realization of 
profits (stock market) 

JÜ-I \hqOq; jJi UliJ ihqäqan U-l- 
haqq (so) that truth may prevail 

<jÄ* tahaqqvq ascertainment, making 
sure ; con viotion, certainty, certitude ; 
verification, check, cheokup 

JU»cJ istihqäq pl. -ät worthiness, 
deservingness, meritj one'B due or desert; 
maturity, payability, falling due (of a 
sum of money); re-olaiming or caliing in 
of due, demand of a right; vindica- 
tion (Ial. Law), replevin, detinue I j* 
dÜucJ deservedly, juatly, by rights; 
JÜ*j>l j>ü undeservedly; JLu^Vi £j!j" 
date of maturity (e.g., of a bond); 
JU1I JUu^VI (Ivbnänl) name of a 
Lebanese order 

3jÄ£ mahqüq worthy, deserving (cj, 
J of), fit, oompetent, qualifying (o*, J 
for) ; wrong, at fault, on the wrong 

Ji^ muhaqqiq investigator; inquirer; 
examining magistrate 

Jit muhaqqaq sure, certain, beyond 
doubt, unquestionable, indubitable; as- 
sured, established, aocepted, recognized I 
ul ji^l j* it is certain that ..., it is a 
fact that . . . 

j< muhiqq telling the truth, in the 
right, being right 

• mutahaqqiq convinced, sure, cer- 
tain, positive 

J*» " — * mustahiqq entitled; olaiming; 
beneficiary (of a wakf); deserving, 
worthy | £»-UI j^u* m. ad-daf due, 
payable (sum) 

i- VIII to put into one'B bag, to bag (* 

vi*- hvqb pL v 1 -»*-' oAffäfr» v 1 -**- ^*? flÄ 
long stretch of time, long period 

*-**- hiqba pl. (_Jl*. hiqab long time, 
stretch of time; period, age | öL.jJl j* Ü- 
hiqbatan min ax-zamän for quite a time, 
for Borne time 

<_-Jt#- haqab pl. ^Lö-I ahaäb a kind of 
ornamental belt 

<- r >\3k»- hiqäb pl. <-~Ä»- hvqub a kind of 
ornamental belt 

i— 1*- haqiba pl. t^JU*. Aafd*j6 a valise, 
suitoase, traveling bag; leather bag I i-JU- 
«— «L._jLi diplomatic pouch ; j^äJI ^ .. V 
portemonnaie, change purse; jJI 4 ,, 5 r- A. 
al-yad ladies' purse, handbag 

oi- haqida a, haqada i (haqd, hiqd) to harbor 
feelings of hatred (J* against) IV to 
incite to hatred or resentment, embitter, 
envenom (• s.o.) V = I; VI to hate one 

■ü»- hiqd pl. jU*-1 ahqäd, iji*- hugüd 
hatred, malice, spite, resentment, ranoor 

Si-i»- haqida pl. jJUu- haqä'id* hatred, 
malice, spite, resentment, rancor 

iji- haqüd füll of hatred, spiteful. 
resentful, malicious, malevolent, raneor- 

•JU häqid fulJ of hatred, spiteful, 
resentful, malicious, malevolent, rancor- 
ous; pl. »Xi». haqada malevolent people 

J*- haqara i (haqr) to despise, scorn, disdain 
(• s.o., a; to look down (*, * on), 
have a low opinion (*, • of); — hagura u 

to be low, base, contemptible, despicable ; 
to be despised, degraded, humüiated 
II to disparage, decry, depreciate (• b.o.), 
detract, derogat« (» froin s.o.); to degrade, 
debase, humble, humüiate; to regard 
with contempt, deBpise, scorn, disdain 
{« s.o., * VIII to despise, scorn, 
disdain (• s.o., *, look down (*, • 
on) X to regard as contemptible or 
despicable, disdain, despise (» s.o., *, look down {*, * on) 

jj&- haqir pl. »l^i»- huqarä* % low, baße, 
mean, vulgär, vile; Uttle, small, paltry, 
inconsiderable, poor, wretched, miserable; 
despised; despicable, contemptible 

J**-\ aAgar* lower, baser, more con- 

!jU>- haqära lowness, vulgarity, base- 
neas, vilcness, meanness; Bmallness, pal- 
triness, insignificance, poorness, wretched- 
ness, miserableness ; despicability, con- 
temptibleness; ignominy, infamy 

jj& tahqtr contempt, disdain, scorn; 
degradation, humiliation, abasement 

jLÄi*-i ihtiqär contempt, disdain, scorn | 

regard b.o. with contempt, look down 
one's nose at s.o. 

JicJ- muhtaqar despised; contemptible, 

Ji- haql pl. J>i»- huqul field (also fig. = 
domain); column | Jj^Jl J>5»- oil fields; 
c^jjl JJto- h. az-zait, .UiJl JA*- h. an-naft 
oil field; oil area; <_->jU^!l Jji»- expen- 
mental fields; Jb_^T J**- (kahrabä'i) 
electric field 

Ji*- haqli field- {in Compounds) 

ililrf muhäqala aale of grain while still 
in growth, dealing in grain futures (UU 

ja*, haqana i « (haqn) to hold back, with- 
hold, keep back, detain, retain (*; 

to suppresB, represa, restrain (*; +>o 
keep to o.s. {^,-JI tu-airra the secret) ; to 
spare (*o damahü b.o.'s blood or life); to 
give (» b.o.) an injection (med.) VIII to 
become congested ' (esp. blood); to suffer 
from strangury; to take an enema, a 
clyster; to be injected | <|*-j t >»i»-l (waj- 
Huhu) his face was flushed, his face turned 

y&- haqn retention, withholding; 
sparing ; injecting , injection ( med. ) | 
_JL.jJ LJU- kaqnan li~dimä'ihim in order 
to Bpare their blood ; -0 j_^JV j ji*- 
intravenous injection (med.) 

*ii*- huqna pl. ( ji*- huqan injection 
(med.); hypodermic; clyster; enema 

oi£ mihqana pl. J>^ mahäqin* 
syringe (med.) 

ÜLI^-I ihtiqän congestion \ p-di b\Jt*-\ 
iht. ad-dam vascular congestion 

J}c£. muhtaqan reddened by blood 
congestion, flushed, red (face) 

jji»- haqw pl. »Li*- hiqa , »U»-l ahqjS loin, 
groin | *ij*»- -i-Li faddada haqwaihi to 
gird one's loins 

i^U- Aaifcfea « (Aaitl-) to rub, chafe; to scrape; 
to Scratch; to rub off, scrape off, Scratch 
off, abrade (* | »jju» j iU- (^oirtAi) 
it iinpressed him, affected him, touched inside him IV to itch V to rub o.a., 
scrape, chafe (■-> against); to pick a 
quarrel (^ with s.o.) VI to rub or scrape 
against each other VIII to rub o.s., 
scrape, chafe (<-> against); to be in con- 
tact, in touch (<_> with) | »jX«* j <sh»-\ 
(padrihi) it impressed him, affected him, 
touched inside him 

k iU- halck rubhing, chafing; friction; 

'&*■ hikka itching; Scabies, itch {med.) 

iJl£*- hakkäk lapidary 



til* mihakk touchstone; teat | Jp £**$ 
Jic}\ iii^ tabata r alä m. in-naxar to 
stand a critical test 

iS^rf- mt'Aaüa currycomb 

ilUi taA<5££ (reciprocal) friction 

ilK^-l tAJtfeH; pl. -äi (reciprocal) fric- 
tion ; close touch or oontact ; friction 
(fig., = diasenaion, oontroversy) j ji. ^ 
i]&>-l min gairi ht. frictionless 

*fj£^ muhakkak chafed, worn away 

e i£#- kuklca {tun., = huqqä) pl. £)$i>. hukak 
small box, case, pot or jar 

_£*- VIII to buy up, hoard and withhold, 
corner (* a commodity); to monopolize 
(* a commeroial article) ; to bare exclusive 
posaession {* of, hold a monopoly 
(* over s.tb.) 

jS^p- Aikr, hukr and ^X 1 ;^#- 1 ujrat al-h . 
ground rent, quitrent 

j£p- hakar, hukar hoarded 

•_£*- huhu hoarding (of gooda) ; mo- 

•jjS t»- hälcüra small vegetable garden 

jt£i»-l ihtikär pl. -ät comering, buying 
up; monopoly; preferential position; 
supremacy, hegemony | ^]l lj\jf JS<*-\ 
iht. t. ai-bunn coffee-trade monopoly; 
j£jl jfc»-l iht. as-sukkar sugar monopoly 

^jKc»-! iktikärt rapacious, grasping, 

^*- hakama u (huJem) to pasa judgment, 
express an opinion { Jp, j on, judge 
(Jp, ^ by, from); to decide, give a 
decision, pasa a verdict, posa sentence 
(Jp on); to aentence (Jp s.o., l> to a 
penalty ; said of the judge), impose, 
inflict (l-> a penalty) on s.o. (Jp); to 
pronounce a verdiot or judgment, deliver 
judgment, rule (J in s.o.'s favor); to 
adjudicate, adjudge, award (u J to a.o.; to take (^ as a Standard or 
norm ; to have judicial power, have 
Jurisdiction, have authority (Jp and » 
over), govern, rule, dominate, control 
(Jp or • s.o.); to order, command {«_>; to bridle, check, curb (», *, s.o.) | f!.L^L «-L fi*. {hukima, 
i'däm) he was sentonced to death; £»- 
<JliL> (bi-iddnaiihi) to convict a.o., find 
s.o. guilty(j'ur.); «j'J^ f- (bi-barä'atihi) 
to acquit a.o. (jur.) II to appoint (. s.o.) 
as mler; to choose (• s.o.) as arbitrator, 
make (• a.o.) the judge (j over or in, jy between) III to proaecute (» 
s.o.); to arraign, bring to trial, hale into 
court (• b.o.); to interrogate, hear (• b.o.) 
IV to make (* s.tb.) firm, strong, sturdy, 
solid; to fortify (*; to atrengthen, 
consolidate (*; to do well, do 
expertly, master (* field, work), be 
proficient (* in) | <-r .l CJ {amrahü) to 
do thoroughly, carefully, properly; 
vUl Jii ^-1 (qafla l-bäb) to lock the 
door firmly; oJ £»-l (lugatan) to master 
a language V to have one's own way (j 
in), proceed (j with) at random, at will, 
handle (j arbitrarily; to pasa 
arbitrary judgment (j on); to make o.s. 
tbe judge (Jp of), pass judgment (J* on); 
to decide (l-> on); to rule, reign, hold 
away (j over); to dominate, control 
(J, be in control, be in command 
(j of) VI to bring one another before 
the judge (fü~\ Jl); to appeal (Jl to) 
for a legal decision; to be interrogated, 
be heard (in court) VIII to have one's 
own way (j in), proceed («j with, in at will, at random, handle (j 
arbitrarily, judge arbitrarily; to rule, 
reign, hold sway (Jp, j over); to be in 
control, bo in poasession (Jp of); to 
appeal (Jl to) for a legal decision, seek 
a decision (Jl from), have b.o. (Jl) decide 
X to be strong, aturdy, solid, firm; to 
bccome atronger, be strengtnened, be 



conaolidated; to take root, be or become 
deep-rooted, deep-seated, ingrained, in- 
veterate, marked, pronounced (feeling, 

<*. Kuhn pl. (&-I ahkäm judgment, 
valuation, opiniou; decision; (legal) 
judgment, verdict, sentence; condem- 
nation, conviotion; administration of 
justice; Jurisdiction; legal oonsequenoe 
of the facta of a oase {Isl. Law) ; regulation, 
rule, provision, order, ordinance, decree; 
judicjousness, wisdom; judgeahip; oom- 
mand, authority, control, dominion, 
power; govemment, regime; pl. ^S»*-i 
Statutes, by-laws, regulations, rulea, 
provisions, stipulations, principles, pre- 
cepta; l&- hukman virtually; legally | 
£* bi-hukmi by virtue of, on the 
atrength of, pursuant to; by foree of; 
^p- j aa good ae, all but, e.g., ^- jj» 
*.u]l (/{ huhmi l-'adam) it is aa good as 
nothing, it is practically nonexistent; 
jjÜ\ C- j p-»l afbaha /« huhmi l-mw 
garrar it is all but decided; ^- j jf 
»^iJI also : to be subject to ; *C- J* J>" 
to give in, yield to s.o.; U\jJA j£*- £. oJ- 
barä'a aoquittal; &**- f~ (AttfüH) 
judgment delivered in the presence of 
the litigant partiea, after oral prooeed- 
ings (jur.); f1u*Vlj £J-I {i'däm) death 
sentenee; jU £*- (Qiyäbi) judgment by 
default (jtir.); JM fX\ (#W) self- 
determination, autonomy {pol.) ; f-i- 1 
^j^J-l {jumhüri) the republican form 
of govemment, the republioan regime; 
jlUI fX\ (mitflog) the absolute, i.e., 
authoritarian, regime; jUl £U {niyabi) 
the parliamentary regime, parliamen- 
tarianism; &-I U- lajnat al-Ji. board of 
examiners, review board; Vj*" ^^*-"^' 
('urfiya) martial law; «Jlül (&*-l (in* 
tiqütlya) provisional regulations (jur.); 
Übt *l£»-l {fatämlya) final regulations 
(jur.)i i*»U (&-I (iäfpa) special reg- 
ulations; *&■ ^ J& («n») every age 

has its own set of rulea, muat be judged 
by its own Standards; >K*-1 »jjj-iü (li-4- 
darüra) necesaity has its (own) rules, 
(approx.: neceasity knowB no law) 

( i^- huhni legal 

j!jX- (eg.; pronounced hikimdär) com 
mandant; chief of polioe 

3jjU&- («ff.; pronounced hikimdäriya) 
commandant's office 

C- AaJfcom pl. (•ISC*. Aufeiäm arbitrator, 
arbiter; umpire, referee 

'*£*- hihma pl. f*- hikam wisdom; 
sagacity; philosophy; maxim; rationale, 
underlying reason | "Si- (with foll. genit.) 
on aocount of, beoause of 

i^- hihni gnomio, aphoristio, ex- 
preasing maxims | { J&\ j*^ (&' r ) gnomio 

'S*- kakama pl. -äi bit (of a horse's 

,£*- haHm pl. p\S^~ hukama* wise, 
judioious; wise man, sage; philosopher; 
physioian, dootor 

^L*£— hahimbäü senior physioian, 
chief aurgeon 

ojS^- huküma pl. -äi govemment 

jjS^- huhümi of govemment, gov- 
ernmental; official; state-owned, atate- 
oontroDed, of the state, state- (in Com- 

£»J ahkam 1 wiser 

"£*■ mahhama pl. fV mahäkim* 
oourt, tribnnal | JiLIi-Vi "&*■ m. al- 
irti'näf court of appeal, appellate oourt; 
<J>t '*&■ (ahliya) indigenous court (Eg.; 
Jurisdiction limited to Egyptian na- 
tionale); UIjijI *£* (ibtida'iya) court of 
flrst inatance; i.JS' yljijl "*&■ (huülya) 
civil oourt with Jurisdiction in cases of 
major importance, at the same time 
appellate inatance of XJ/f }^ t^ffO» 


V>r *£* (juz'iya) in Eg., lowest court 
of both 5JU1 fl* (approx.: diatrict 
courts) and of Le^Jl fU canonical 
courta (with Jurisdiction in marital and 
fatnily mattere); summary court; l£* 
OLU-I m. al-jinäydt criminal court; fl* 
L»*i»±Jl Jlj*-Vl (Safffiya) courts dealing 
with vital statistics; «Lkjt l& (muk* 
talita) mixed court (with Jurisdiction 
over resident« of foreign nationality) ; 
kj-jS <X* (Sar'iya) canonical court 
(administering justice on the basis of the 
Sharia), court dealing with family 
mattere of Muslims; ijjSy. <^ {mar* 
kazlyä) county court, dealing with 
minor offenses, esp. misdemeanora (Eg.); 
^j'aVl »Lull Ü^ m. al-gadä' al-idärl 
administrative court; (»I^Vij »j^'JI <5^ 
m. an-naq4 wa-hibräm Court of Cas- 
sation, the highest court of appeal in 
Egypt; • J üf\ *£* Court of Cassation 
{Syr., Leb. = f Ij-Vlj u ijd *£* in Eg.); 
£*UI oU-U tribunals 

{£*' tahkim appointment of an ar- 
bitrator; arbitration; arbitral deciaion, 
award; pl. ol^" fortifications | -£* 
JU-I starting from the present State of 
a court's findings (Ul. Law); S+A iL» 
hai'at at-t. board of arbitration; Jury, 
committee of judgea, committee of 
umpires {in sports), committee of referees 
(in mil. maneuvera); '<*£* *J- (lajna) do. 
iil^ muhäkama judicial proceeding; 
trial, hearing (in court); legal prosecution 
l»lx»-l ihkäm perfection; accuracy, 
exactness, exactitude, precision ; exact 
Performance, precise execution | j-B^-Vj 
accurately, exactly, precisely; j iJLi 
l»o^-Vi of higheat perfection 

fi*. tahakkum arbitrariness, arbitrary 
powers or action; despotism; domination, 
dominion, rulc, sway, power; control (j 
of, over) 

u5 ^ tahakhtmi arbitrary; despotic 


pK*»=-l istihk&m intensiflcation, in- 
crease, strengthening; consolidation, sta- 
bilization ; fortification ; pl. oUowi-1 for- 

^L- häkim ruling, governing; decisive; 
— (pl. -fin, |»lx»- hukkäm) ruler, sovereign ; 
govemor; judge | ^*Li jfL. (bi-amrihl) 
autocratic; autocrat, dictator; ,.1* TL»- 
fämm) governor goneral; lljLil fL- h. 
al-mubäräh umpire, referee (athlet.) ; f L- 
^LJI h. offulh (Syr.) justice of the peace; 
i-P-UI f\m- h. an-nähiya (Tun.) district 

*S U- hdkimiya domination, dominion, 
rule, sovereignty; judgeship, judicature, 
Jurisdiction (tr.) 

*?l* (•_>£* mahküm 'alaihi sentenced (^ 
to) | pl4*Vl* ^J* fjS^I (i'däm) thoee 
sentenced to death; JüJLj «J* rj&- 
(faJtal) doomed to fail 

fit- muhakkam pl. -ün arbitrator, ar- 
biter; umpire, referee (j in, over) 

f* muhkam strengthened, reinforoed; 
firm, solid, sturdy; tight, taut; perfeot, 
masterly, masterful; well-aimed (blow, 
hit); accurate, precise, exact |j-u.uJI S^ 
well-planned, well-contrived 

f* ~ ..~* mustahkam reinforced, fortified; 
strengthened, consou'dated, strong; in- 
veterate, deep-seated, deep-rooted, in- 
grained (custom, trait, etc.); pl. CjLSCp«i_. 
defenses, fortifications 

J--&*-, «jjI-iXp- see £■- 

$~ hakä i («K». hikäya) to teil, relate (*, report, give an account (* of); to 
speak, talk (syr., leb.); to imitate, copy 
(* ; to resemble (*, • s.o., III to 
imitate, copy (*, assimilate o.s. (* 
to); to be similar (* to), be like (*), 
resemble (*, be attuned, adjust- 
ed, adopted {* to), be in harmony 
(* with) 



iK»- hikäya pl. -ät atory, tale, nar- 
rative, account; {gram.) literal quotation 
(of the words of othere) 

!5"*l* mvhäkäh imitation; simüarity, 
resemblance; haruiony 

iiU- hälrin narrator, storyteller; phono- 
graph; O loudspeaker, radio 

£*■ mahlny imitated, imitation (adj.) 

j^tL^-S^- ßee >*- 

x y halla u {hau) to untie (» a knot), unbind, 

unfasten, unravel, undo (*; to 

Bolve (* a problem, a puzzle); to de- 

cipher, decode (* to dissolve in 

water (*; ehem.); to resolve (* 

into its components), analyze (*; 

to melt {*; to decompose, dis- 

integrate (*; to disband, break up, 

dissolve {* an Organization or party, 

parliament) ; to open, unpack (* a 

package, and the like); to loosen, relax 

(*; to release, Bet free, let go (», » s.o.); to clear, exonerate, exculpate 

(^ • s.o. from), abeolve (• s.o., ,y from 

hissinsjCAr.); pass. huüa to be free ; to be 

relaxed; — » u (JjL- hulül) to dismount, 

alight, ßtop, halt; to Bettle down, stay 

(u* at a place, also j and *; Jp with 

s.o., at s.o.'b house), come (for a visit, J* 

to); to take up reaidence (* in a place 

or country); to descend, oome down; to 

descend (J* upon s.o.; wrath); to over- 

come, overwhelm (J* s.o.; Bleep); to 

befall («-» and J* b.o.; punishment, 

suffering), oeeur, happen (^ to s.o.); to 

become incamate (j in s.o.; God); to 

Bet in, arrive, begin (time, season); — i 

to pass into Bolution, dissolve; to fade 

(color); — i {hiü) to be allowed, per- 

mitted, permissible, lawful; to be due, 

payable (debt) | ^^u j y (manfib) to 

take over or hold an offlee; *1* y 

{niahallahü) to be in the right place; 

j* y y, ^ y y (■^^m to take 

the place of s.o. or, replace, Buper- 

sede s.o. or, Substitute for s.o. or; -M <M J ^-L- {qaibihl) she held a 
place in hia heart; «j-U jjJd\ y y 
{mahaüa t-taqdiri ladaihi) to enjoy s.o.'b 
high esteem; y *1>M o-J* ö* J* - 
JU»^.^I (mm nufüsi l-qurrä'i mahaUa 
l-istih&än) to appeal to the readers, meet 
with the readere' approval II to dissolve, 
resolve {into its component parte), break 
up, decompose, analyze (*; to 
make a chemical analyais (* of; to 
be dissolvent, act as a solvent (* on; 
med.) ; to discharge, absolve, clear, 
exonerate, exculpate (• s.o.); (*U" tahiila) 
to expiate an oath; to make permissible 
or lawful, legitimate, Banction, justify, 
Warrant (*; to declare permissible 
or lawful, allow, permit (* IV to 
discharge, release, absolve, diaengage (<>. • 
b.o. from); to declare (* lawful, 
legally permissible, permit, allow (*; to cauße to set in or oeeur, bring 
about, produce, cause to take root, 
establish, stabilize (*; to cause (* to take or oecupy the place (* of), 
shift, move, translocate (* *, e.g., a 
tribe, to a place); to Bettle (ju * a- 
mong) JaI* *l*-l (mahattahü) to cause s.o. 
or to take the place of s.o. or eise, 
replace s.o. or by, Bubstitute s.o. or for, take s.o. or as Substitute 
for; ibJl y *^ y\ {mahaUa l-'inäya) 
to pay attention to, make one's 
concern V to dissolve, melt, disintegrate ; 
to disengage o.s., disassociate o.a., 
ertricate o.s., free o.s. {> from) VII to 
be untied (knot); to be solved, be un- 
raveled (problem); to be dissolved, be 
broken up, be disbanded (also, of an 
Organization, a party, eto.); to dissolve, 
melt; to become Black, limp, weak, loose, 
relaxed; to disintegrate; to melt away 
VIII to settle down (* at a place); to 
oecupy (mtl., * a territory); to assume, 
take over, oecupy, hold, have (* a place, 



a rank, an office) | Jj^l jl£il Ji»-I (al- 
makäna l-awwala) to occupy the foremost 
place; aJL^I Ji»-I (a'mälahü) to take over 
s.o. 's functions X to regard {* as 
permissible or lawful, think that one 
may do (*); to regard as fair garae, 
as easy prey, seize unlawfully, mis- 
appropriate, usurp (* 

J*- hall pl. J^L- hulül untying, un- 
fastening, undoing (of a knot); Solution 
(of a problem, of a puzzlc, etc.); un- 
riddling, unraveling, explanation; Solu- 
tion (ehem.); dissolution, disbandment, 
breaking up (of an Organization, etc.), 
abolition, cancellation, annulment; re- 
lease, freeing, liberation; decontrol, re- 
lease, unblocking (e.g., of a blocked 
sum); discharge, Clearing, exoneration, 
exculpation; absolution (Chr.) | JJ! L Li 
soluble, solvable ; O JJJI JJ- i (taijl) 
spectral analysis; J-Uil^ Ji-I J*l ahl al-h. 
wa-l-'aqd or J»j Jlj Ji-I J*i (raty) influential 
people, those in power; *Jl*-j-j «L- j 
(tarhälihl) in all his doings, in everything 
he did 

Jj- kill: fa) j- J^ j «jS~ (hillin) he 
was free to ..., he was at liberty to ...; 
he had free disposal of . . . ; j* J^. j c^ I 
you're free to . . ., you may readily . . . 

iL- halla pl. JL- AiZaZ low copper 
vessel; cooking pot (ey.) 

iL- Ät'/Za way Station, stopping place, 
stop, stopover; encampment; absolution 
(Chr.); dispensation (Chr.) 

iL- hulla pl. JL- hulal clothing, dress, 
garb ; vestments (ecclesiastic ; Chr.) ; (com- 
plete) suit of clothes; (Western) suit j 
4_r*j ÄL- (rasmlya) uniform; ö^_ Jl iL- h. 
as-sahra formal dress 

J"iL- haläl that which is allowed, 
permitted or permissible; allowed, per- 
raitted, permissible, allowable, admis- 
sible, lawful, legal, licit, legitimate; 

lawful possession | J-^L- ^1 ihn h. legiti- 
mate son; respectable man, decent fellow 

JjL- hulül stopping, putting up, 
staying ; descending, Coming on, be- 
falling, overtaking; incarnation; setting 
in, advent, arrival (of a time, of a dead- 
line), beginning, dawn; Substitution (for 

J-L- hal'd pl. oLl ahillä'* husband 

iLL halila pl. Jj'^U halail 2 wife 

J-L-l ihlll outer opening of the 
Urethra; Urethra (anat.) 

Jrf. mahall pl. -ät, jUt mahäll 2 place, 
location, spot, site, locale, locality, 
center; (place of) residence; business; 
business house, firm, commercial house ; 
störe, shop; objeet, cause (e.g., of dis- 
pute, admiration, etc.); gear (automo- 
bile) |aUJ^ and<Ld<LI see J^-IandlV; 
*L*t (mahallahü) in his (its) place; *U. j 
in his (its) place, in his (its) stead, 
instead of him; 4^ j utf to be in the 
right place; to be appropriate, ex- 
pedient, advisable ; to be justified, 
warranted; <Ltf. jü. J improper, mis- 
placed, unsuitable, ill-suited ; out of 
place; inappropriate, inexpedient, in- 
opportune; A*. JijL^ sädafa mahallahü 
to be convenient, be most opportune; 
J Jrf- ^ (mahalla) there is no room 
for . . . ; it is out of place, quite döplace 1 ; 
J**J! J* m. al-'amal place of employ- 
ment; i.Ü'i/l J* m. al-iqäma (place of) 
residence, address ; ^jUT J* (tijäri) 
business house, commercial house ; 
ijjL«iJlj i-y**!! o^l ('umümlya, ti* 
järiya) public Utilities and commercial 
houses ; Jil ~.\ ism al-m. firm; 
CjUjäj J* m. ruhünät pawnshop; o*^ 
i»-L-JI m. as-siyäha travel agencies; 
CjL\?j* Jrf- m. murattibät refreshment 
parlor; ^1 J* m. al-lahw and J* 
,^»■3^.1 m. al-malähi (pl. JL* ) amuse- 
ment center; *\'J J* m. n«<T objeet 



of controversy, controversial matter; 
v_-mJ *$£■ ,^jl K J lä arä m. li-'ajabin I 
don't aee any reaaon for amazement, 
there ia nothing to be aatonished 
about; Jii J* m. na?ar deserving 
attention, a atriking, remarkable thing 

J* mahalll local; native, indigenoua; 
parochial; pl. £>Li£ local news, local 
page (of a newspaper) 

J* mahill due date; dato of delivery 

<U. maÄaWa pl. -äf way Station, 
atopping place, stop, etopover, en- 
campment; camp; section, part, quar- 
ter (of a city) | ^jsÜI 2£\ (kubrä) 
Mahalla el Kubra (city in N Egypt) 

J-U" tahlil dissolution, reaolution, 
breaking up, decomposition, specifica- 
tion, detailing, analyzation; (pl. JJl^ 
tahälil 3 ) analysis (ehem.) ; absolution 
(Chr.) | J-LJb in detail; JJ* J^. 
ma'mal t. laboratory for chemical anal- 
yBes; J^j^T J^ (kahrabä'i) electroly- 
sis; (JLjUI) ^«iJI J-Lill (nafsi) psycho- 

JJ* tahlil* analytic(al) 

Ji*: taAaHu/ dissolution, breakup ; Sep- 
aration, disengagement, disaasociation 

J^l inhiläl diaBolution, breakup, 
decomposition; disintegration ; decay, 
putrefaction; slackening, exhaustion, 
prostration, weaknesa, impotence 

J:&»-l iht iläl oecupation (mtl.) \^j^r 
J^b*-Vl oecupation foroes 

ii^i»-l ihttläli occupying, oecupation 
(usedattributively); advocate of foreign 

J_>I* mahlül solved ; dissolved , 
resolved, broken up; looae; untied, 
nnfastened, unfettered, free, at large; 
weakened, prostrate, ezhausted, lan- 
guid;8olntion(liquid;eAem.) |j<JJIJ>I* 
m. ai-fa'r with loose, diaheveled hair 

Ji^ muhallil analyzer 

J**j munhall aolved; dissolved, re- 
solved, broken up ; disbanded ; lan- 
guid, prostrate, weak; permitted, al- 

*k* ißj?r juyüS muktalla oecupa- 
tion forces 

WjL?- aee J^- 

1 t T JU- halaba % u (halb) to milk (a an 
animal) | «J±±\ ^*oJl !_JL- halaba d-dahra 
aifurahü he has seen good and bad 
days V to run, drip, trickle, ooze, Beep, 
leak; to water, drool (mouth, with 
appetite) | »IjilM J (_-U^J (afwäh) 
making the mouth water, appetizing; 
Ji j ^Ull ij^ (al-lu'äbu /» faml) my 
mouth was watering VIII to milk (* 
an animal) X do. ; to squeeze juice (* 

tJU- halb milking 

»_JL- halab milk 

«JL- halba pl. kalabät race track; 
arena; danoe Soor; raoe horses | i-U- 
is*ij\ h. ar-raq? danoe Soor; ,^-J *jl 
<JJ-1 iÜJ j» he ia not made for that, he 
doean't belong there, it iß not in hia 
line; «-> *4*~ u»J^ a niaater of, excelling 
or outBtanding in 

i-U- Aul&a fenugreek (Trigonella 
foenum-graecum ; bot.); tonic, prepared 
of yellowiah grains, for women in 
childbed (eg., syr.) 

i^JU kalib milk | <_JU jJ Za&an Ä. 
cow's milk (eg.) 

V^*- Aalüfi laotiferoua | <— >^*- V*i 
(frogara) milk cow; v>^' V-Ul (mä* 
Äya) dairy cattle 

V^- Aalldö milker 

ij^U- Aalldöa milkmaid, dairymaid; 
dairywoman; milk oow 



<_-irf mahlab mahaleb (Prunus maha- 
leb; bot.) 

tJl*- hälib Ureter 

*--l * ■■ "- « mustahlab emulsion j u , - !-. : .. » 
j_jJJi m. al-lauz almond milk 

2 i_J*- halab 2 Aleppo 

i^-aiU- At&ft, Aaftii aaafetida (Ferula asaa- 
foetida; bot.) 

^U- halaja i u (halj, «_U- hallj) to gin (* 

F^*~ b a lj ginning (of cotton) 

£rU- halij ginning {of cotton) ; 
ginned (cotton) 

5*-t>U- hiläja cotton ginner's work or 

£$*- halläj cotton ginner 

^U mihlaj, i*JL* mihlaja pl. U*. 
mahälij 2 cotton gin 

^U mahlaj pl. iU mahälij 2 cotton 

Jj-i»- kalhala to remove, drive away, shove 
away II tahalhala to stir from one's 
place; to move, Btir, budge 

OjjL- halazün snail; spiral 

ojjl*- halazüna (n. un.) anaü; Bpiral 

ijjji*- halazüni spiral, helical, volute, 

^^-L- haliaa a to remain, stay permanently 
(<-< at a place), stick (<-< to a place) 

^-i- hila pl. ^-^Ul ahläs (with foll. 
genit.) one addicted or given to, 
one adhering to | _^J]I ^^-1 a. 
al-lahw people given to pleasure and 
amusement, bons vivanta, playboys 

^J*- hiU pl.^^l ahläs, ^J*- hulüa 
saddle blanket 

^J*-! ahlaa 2 , f. .L-L- halsä' 2 bay, 
chestnut (horae) 

*Jii»- halaja i (half, hilf) to swear (^ili by 
God) | b_r (JlU- (yaminan) to take an 
oath II to make (• s.o.) swear; to put 
to oath, swear in (• s.o.); to adjure, 
entreat earnestly (» s.o.) III to enter 
into a confederation, into an alliance 
(o with s.o.), become an ally (» of s.o.) 
VI to eommit one another by oath (J* 
to do, join in alliance; to ally, 
make an alliance (*. with) X to make 
(» s.o.) swear, exaet an oath (» from 
s.o.); to adjure, entreat earnestly («s.o.) 

i_li*- half, hilf swearing, oath | <jA*- 
^jM taking the oath 

(_iL- hilf sworn alliance, confederaey, 
league; federation; (pl. <_j^\ ahläf) 
ally | <jj£~-£- tjai»- ('askari) military 
alliance; J^^\ J*1JJ (a}lanti) the 
Atlantic Pact 

iJl-L- halif pl . .Ul»- hulafä' 2 con - 
federate; ally; allied | »lili-l the Alliea 

*i~L»- halifa pl. -ät f. of i_j_U- 

JtjL- hallüf pl. JaJ*£*~ halällj 2 (maär. r 
eg.) wild boar; pig, swine 

.LäL- halfä' und aäL- halja (bot.) alfa, 

JjlI*- tahlif swearing in | ^J-Udl ci- 
lajnat at-t. the Jury (in court) 

ÜJl* muhälafa alliance 

iJJL*; tahäluf State of alliance; al- 
liance, treaty of alliance 

tjjjt muhallaj sworn, bound by oath; 
(pl. -ün) Juror (in court) 

iJJU*!- mutahälif interallied, allied 

jl*- halaqa i (halq) to shave (* the head, 
the face); to shave off {* the beard) 
II to circle in the air, hover; to fly, soar 
(bird ; airplane ; J* and JSy over or 
above; to round, make round, 
circular or ring-shaped (*; to 


ring, Burround, encircle (J* s.o.,; 
to clothe V to form a circle, sit in a 
circle; to gather in a circle (J* around 

ji»- halq shaving, shave; (pl. jji»- 
hulüq, J")A*-I ahläq) throat, gullet, 

JL- halqi guttural, pharyngeal 

jU- halaq ringa, earrings 

ÜL>- halqa, halaqa pl. ji»- halaq, CjLäU- 
halaqät ring (also earring, etc.); link 
(of a chain) ; circle (also of people) ; 
group of students studying under a 
professor, hence: lecture, course (e.g., 
at AI Azhar University) ; part of a 
sequence or series ; ringlet ; dißk ; decade ; 
market | Sl*Jl üU- h. an-najäh life buoy, 
life preserver; JUäj*^I iäl»- h. al-itti$äl 
and J-^l <ÄL*» A. al-wa$l connecting 
link (>j between; fig.); »ijüll üU-i the 
missing link, the intermediate form; 
»jS ,> *^LJ «U-l J fwmriAi) in the 
sixth decade of his life, in his fifties; 
iilr-^l ÜL>- Bsh market; jUil Ul»- A. 
al-qutn cotton market 

Jl>- halaqi annular, ring-shaped, 

j^A*- halläq pl. -ün barber ( ^ J}U 
(sihhl), *«^JI j - ^ A. as-sihha barber- 

j~L- AaZig shaved, shaven, shorn 

ü^W hiläqa shaving, shave; barber's 
trade | iWA-l JjjL* sä&fin al-h. shaving 
soap ; ijt>U- ! o>JL* barbershop ; i*Ü 
SWJ-1 gö'af al-A. do.; O i*^- 1 ^^ 
and O ür^li-i *J' safety razor 

jjjt miAZa? pl. jJl* mahäliq 2 straight 

ji* taAZig flying, flight (of an air- 
craft ; Je and Jji over a country) ; 
take-off (of an airplane) 

jJU- j- min häliq from above 

/■_jÜ*- hulqüm pl. -S:A>- AaJägtm 3 throat, 
gullet | rjÄU-' **-b räAaf aä-A. a kind of 
sweet made of cornBtarch, sugar, 
mastic and pistachios (eg.) 

jiU- halika a (halak) to be pitch-black, 
deep-black XII dJJjl»-! tAIau2aita do. 

ilU- AaZafc intense blackness 

iSCU- AuZfca intense blackness 

»"iL- halilc pitch-black, deep-black; 
gloomy, murky 

iTji»- hulüka gloominess, darkness; 

.illU- AäZifc pitch-black, deep-black; 
gloomy, murky 

J*. halama u to dream (uj or j* of; jl j 
of being, becoming, doing, etc., in the 
future); to muse, reflect, meditate (<-» 
on; to attain puberty; — haluma 
u to be gentle, mild-tempered VIII to 
attain puberty 

U. hulm pl. (O^*-' ahläm dream; pl. 
irreality, utopia 

| JU hulmi dream- (in Compounds), 
of or pertaining to dreamB 

U- hulum sexual maturity, puberty | 
U.I iJb to attain puberty 

U. hilm pl. f_jL- Au/wm, W>-1 ahläm 
gentleness, clemency, mildness ; for- 
bearance, indulgence ; patience ; in- 
sight, diacernment, understanding, in- 
telligence, reason | W*-"iM jU~* simple- 
minded people, simple souls 

U- halam (coli.; n. un. I) tick; mite; 
nipple, teat, mammilla (of the female 

^»L- halami parasitic; mammillary, 

JL- halim pl. »IJU- hulamä' 2 mild, 
mild-tempered, gentle; patient 


j*^i*- halüm, j*jJU- hälüm a kind of 
Egyptian cheese 

iU- AäZt'm pl, -an dreamer 

kj£ muhtalim sexually mature, pu- 
beBcent, marriageable 

(^i»- and J»-) hal-uwa u, haliya a, ^- halä 
u (*j*>U- haläwa, ül^i*- A-aJwön) to be 
sweet; to be pleasant, agreeable (J to 
s.o.) | »jiJl J "^»- he enjoyed the thing; 
jl *J ~k- it pleased him that..., he 
was delighted that . . . ; <l J*- \ c ~*- 
(haaabamä) at hie discretion, as he 
pleases; — J»- Äoiä * to adorn, grace; 
— J»- haliya a to be adorned (t-i with) 
II to Bweeten (*, e.g., a beverage 
with sugar); to adorn, bedeck, embel- 
lish, attire, furnish, provide {*, » s.o.,, t-i with) V to adorn o.b., be 
adorned, decked out, embellished, 
graced, endowed, furnished, provided 
(^ with) X to find sweet or pleasant, 
like (*, be delighted (* by) 

~$*- halan sweetness, pleaBantness 

jl*- hulw sweet ; pleasant, nice, 
charming, delightful, pretty | <t^k\ J*- 
a gifted raconteur, amusing, entertain- 
ing; *j!i-1 «juJI (gudda) pancreas (anat.) 

J*- haly pl. J*- kuliy piece of jewelry, 

i~L- hilya pl. J»- At7an, Kulan dec- 
oration, embellishment, finery; Orna- 

iSj^*- halwä pl. ifj^*- haläwa candy, 
confection, confectionery, sweetmeats 

*\j\*- halwä' 2 candy, confection, con- 
fectionery, sweetmeats 

cAji»- halwayät (and eg. halawiyät) 
sweets (in general) ; sweet pastry j 
candies, confectionery, sweetmeats 

»j}U- haläwa sweetness ; candies , 
confectionery, sweetmeats ; grace, grace- 

fulness, charm, refinement, wittiness, 
wit; present of money; ransom | #j^U- 
J«^ (hummußiya) a sweet made of 
roasted chick-peas; oL-i ~»j%- (fa* 
hiniya) a sweet made of sesame-seed 
meal; ijj^J «j^»- (lauziya) a sweet 
made of almonds 

ölji»- hulwän present of money, 
gratuity, tip 

ijljl»- halwäni and jl_^L- AaJwä'i 
confectioner, candy dealer ; pastry 
cook, fancy baker 

J-*- 1 U mö u AatVä oh , how sweet 
is ..., *~^-\ U oh, how sweet he is! 

i-1*: takliya decoration, embellish- 
ment, ornamentation 

J* muhallan sweetened; decorated, 
embellished, adorned, ornamented (<_• 

**- ham pl. »\j~\ akmä' father-in-law; pl. 
relatives of the wife by marriage, in- 
laws of the wife 

»Li- hamäh pl. c^\jjr- hamawät mother- 
in-law; see also 1 ( y- and 2 l y- 

S Z*- huma see 2 j*~ 

8 j- hamma u (hamm) to heat, make hot 
(*; pass. humma to be feverish, 
have a fever | dJIi J *. (humma) that 
was decreed to him, that is his lot, his 
destiny II to heat, make hot (*; 
to bathe, wash (* or » s.o. or IV to 
heat, make hot (* X to bathe, 
take a bath 

Ä*- hamma hot spring 

Ä*- humma blackness, swarthiness, 
dark coloration; fever 

j- humam (n. un. S) charcoal; any- 
thing charred or carbonized; ashes, 
cinder; lava 

^y- hummä f., pl. üL/- hummayät 
fever, fever heat [ Äjj^äjJI _J-1 and 



*jjLJI ,yJ-l (tiflya) typhoid fever» 
typhus fever; jJi ,y h. d-diqq hectio 
fever; gj\ ,y A. r-r»V quartan fever; 
***t'J 1 ,^' relapsing fever; »Iji-Jl ,yJ-l 
or Äjjlji-Jl ^^J-i {pafrä', pafräwiya) 
yellow fever; ^-JJl y A. 1-#W tertian 
fever; 4_*«.i)l i^' (/oAmiya) anthrax; 
^j^Ül ^1 (girm«iyo) soarlet fever; 
^1 ^ h, l-qaii hayfever; J-OüJl ^l 
(qulä*iya) foot-and-mouth disease ; ^^J- 1 
3-^iJl SJil (mit^Hya, AiitHya) cere- 
brospinal meningitia ; *>rj*A\ ,yJ- 1 
(mtttamavnvija) undulant fever, Malta 
fever, brucellosis; <L»lidl ,yJ-l (ni/fl* 
aiya) puerperal fever, ohildbed fever; 
O «—J*! ^\ (nama&ya) spotted fever 
^ Aumml feverish, febrile, fever- 
(in Compounds) 

j-Lr- hamäm (coli.; n. un. •) pl. 'dt, 
/[*■ Aamlf im 1 dove, pigeon | J*-lj)l (Li- 
oarrier pigeon ; f^-l jU bugloss , 
oxtongue (Anohusa officinalis; bot.) 

I»lr- himäm (fate of) death 

l»lr- Aammdm pl. -d* bath; swim- 
ming pool; spa, watering plaoe | (Li- 
u ^ t A. Samt sunbath; *tj* oülr- 
(bahrlya) seaside resorts 

~t- hamim pl. »Lr-1 oAimmd' 8 close 
friend; close, intimate; — hot water 

-.1 oAomm', f. »L*- Aammd* 1 , pl. p 
Aumm blaok 

^ mt'Aamm hot-water kettle, oal- 
dron, boiler 

l»^«i~l wd'Amdm bathing, bath 

>^^. mahmüm feverish, having a 
fever; frantio, heotie 

J U- Aama'o a to clean out, dredge (* a well) 
U- Aama' , »U- Aam'a mud, mire, 

»* j- Aamfa to be or become angry, 
furious, mad (J* at s.o.) 

*j- hamhama ('<****• hamhama) to neigh, 
whinny (horse) 

i***r- hamhama neigh(ing), whinny« 
ing, whinnies 

*j- ÄtmAtm oxtongue, bugloss (An- 
ohusa officinalis; bot.) 

Jj- Aamtda a (Äamd) to praise, commend, 
laud, extol (J* * s.o. for, * II to 
praise higbly (• s.o.) 

jj- Aamd commendation, praise, 
laudation | *>> -uA-1 al-hamdu lilläh 
thank God! praise be to God! praised 
be the Lord! 

xj- Aamtd praise worthy, laudable, 
oommendable ; benign, harmless (dis- 

:»j> Aamüd praiseworthy, laudable, 
oommendable, praißed 

jj- 1 ahmad* more laudable , more 

\j+'i\ **ij£\ ai-farVa al-ahmadiya 
Mohammedan Law 

•-U4- mahmada pl. Jul^ mahämid* 
oommendable aot; pl. juU- praise s, 

}j*4- mahmüd praised ; commend - 
ahle, laudable, praiseworthy 

.u^ mtthammad praised; commend - 
able, laudable 

j.u* mithammadi pertaining or 
attributable to Mohammed 

Jjj- hamdala to pronounce the formula 
Zi xj-l "Praise be to God!" 

IIjj- hamdala the formula «i -ui-l 
(see above) 

^j- II to redden, color or dye red {*; 
to roast (a; to fry (*}; to 
brown (* flour in preparing a roux) 
IX to turn red, take on a reddish color, 
redden, blush 


y- humar asphalt 

(Sj*- humari asphaltic, asphalt, tar, 

*jt- humra redness, red color(ation), 
red; rouge (eosm.); briok duat, briok 
rubble; eryaipelas, St. Anthony's fire 

jU- htmär pl. jj- hamir, ^r- humur, 
\j*-\ ahmira donkey, ass j i ^J\ jIf- 
ä. al-wahS and ^-j jU- (utahil) wild 
ass, onager; jl^-1 — . samm al-h. oleander 
(Nerium oleander; bot.) 

i>\*- himära pl. J\r- hamä'ir* she- 
ass, female donkey 

jjf humür red, red color(ation), 

•jj- humaira redstart (zool.) 

jU- hammär pl. • donkey driver 

y\ ahmar*, f. ^y hamrä**, pl. y 
liumr red, red-colored, ruddy ; rosy, 
pink | j*-^\ ^J, y-y\ jji infrared; 
j+W ^1 the Red Sea; y^\ ^XJI 
the Red CrosB; yy\ o^il (maut) 
violent death ; jt- V I ^ I (hawä) 
sexual intercourse; üljj-Vl ("the 
two red ones", i.e.) wine and meat; 
y^j i^Vl ("the black and the red", 
i.e.) all mankind; »LiiJl y\ lipstick 

*{f hamrä >% smut, ruBt (diBease 
affecting oereals); »I^J-I Alhambra, the 
Citadel of Granada 

Jj**l yahmür red; deer, roe, roe- 
buck; wild ass; hemoglobin (physiol.) 

j\y\ ikmirär reddening, blush(ing), 
redness, red ooloration; erythema 


j** muhammar roasted | ij*£- ^lU 
(batäfis) fried potatoes 

}*• hamaza i (hamz) to bite, or burn, the 
tongue (taste) 

,j~*- hamisa a to work with zeal, be 
zealous, eager, ardent, be or" become 
enthusiastic, get all worked up, get 
excited, be filled with fanatie enthu- 
siasm V = I; to be overzealous or 
orerenthusiastio (J in ; to 
advocate fervently (J, throw 
o.s. wholeheartedly behind (J) 

,j-** hamia and Lr r- 1 ahmas* un- 
flinohing, staun ch, steadfaBt, ardent, 
eager, zealous, stout, hearty ; fiery, 
enthusiastic, füll of enthusiasm 

(j-l*- kamäa and i-Lf* hamdaa 
enthusiasm, fire, ardor, fervor, zeal, 

tf^*- hamäal enthusiastic, ardent, 
flery, zealous, fanatio; stirring, rous- 
ing, thrilling, electrifying 

,j— ^ tahammus unflinchiüg zeal, 
enthusiasm (J for), fanaticism 

tj-**^> mutahammis enthusiastio, ar- 
dent, fiery, zealous, fanatio; an ardent 
follower, a fanatio adherent, a fanatio 

Jt*- hamaia u to excite, im täte, infuriate, 
enrage (• s.o.) 

<tr- hamia oatgut (med.) 
1 )p ^»- II to roast; to fry, broil (* 

^m*- himmia, himmas; (oolloq.) hum- 
mus (coli.; n. un. #) chick-pea 

"t^*" *»"»?" Homs (the ancient Emesa, 
city in oentral Syria) 

**~ hamwfa u (<J»y- humüda) to be or 
become sour II to make sour, sour, 
acidify, acidulate (*; to develop 
(* a photographio plate, a film; phot.); 
to cause (* to oxidize 

+*- hamd pl. ,ji\j*\ ahmäd acid 
(ehem.) | Jji ijj*. (ba-uli) uric acid 

iS ^- j& Sajar hamdi citrus trees 

*-«■*■ hamdiya pl. -ät oitrus fruit 

humüda sourness, acidity | 


muwallid al-h. oxygen 


,-Jl»- hummäd, 

■ hummaid sorrel 

, ;_,«: tahmid souring, aeidification; 
development (phot.) 

^>U-I ihmäd jocular language, joking 

, ^ 1^ hämid sour, aeid; aeidulous; 
(pl. ,j**\y- Aati-ämtd 2 ) aeid (ehem.) \ 
fJA\ ^yi-U A- al-fahm carbonic aeid; 
J i _ J ^' (J ^U (jtitri(i) sulphuric aeid 

j> Aamiga a and hamuqa u (humq, vif 
hamäqa) to be stupid, silly, foolish, 
fatuous; to become angry or furious 
II and IV to regard (» s.o.) as a fool, 
consider (• s.o.) dumb, stupid, idiotic 
VI pretend to be stupid VII to become j 
angry or furious X to consider (• s.o.) j 
dumb, stupid, idiotic j 

jj-- humq stupidity, silliness, fool- . 
ishness, folly I 

vif hamäqa stupidity, silliness, fool- , 
ishness, folly; anger, wrath 

ij\j- humäq, hamäq smallpox, Variola | 

jr-l ahrnaq 2 , f. .Iä> hamqa 1 , pl. &~ 
hum(u)q, J> hamqä, Jlf hamäqa dumb, 
stupid, silly, foolish, fatuous; fool, sim- 
pleton, imbecile 

ülif hamqän dumb, stupid, silly, 
foohsh; angry, furious 

J*- hamala i (haml) to earry, bear (*; 
to lift, pick up (* in order to carry 
it), load up and take along (*; to 
hold (*, in one's hand); to carry 
on or with one, take or bring along 
(»; to transport, carry, convey 
(*; to bring, take (Jl or J * 
to s.o.); to take upon o.s. (je- instead of 

or for s.o., * a bürden), carry, assume 
(* the bürden, je- of s.o. eise), relieve 
(* je- s.o. from, take (* a bürden, 
agrievance.etc.) froma.o. (je-); toextend, 
show, evince, cherish, harbor (* a feel- 
ing, J toward s.o.); to become or be 
pregnant (j* by s.o.); to bear fruit 
(tree); to induce, cause, prompt, get 
(J* . s.o. to do, make s.o. (.) do (J*); to convert, bring around, win 
over (*jJj J* • s.o. to one's opinion), 
convince (*Jj J* • s.o. of one's opinion); 
to attack (J* s.o.), also J* 1U- J> 
(kamlalan) to launch or make an at- 
tack on; to ltnow by beart (* a book); 
to relate, refer (J* * to), bring (* to bear (J* upon, link, 
con-elate, bring into relation {*, J* 
with); to trace, trace back (J* * 
to); to ascribe, attribute, impute (J* * to s.o.); to make (* a word) agree 
grammatically (J* with another) | J*- 
<„ ^; j to feel annoyed, be in a mel- 
ancholy mood, feel blue; - — iJ J* J> to 
pull o.s. together, brace o.s. ; J*^ J* *U- 
(mahmali) to take to mean..., 
interpret or construe in the sense 
of ..., as if it were ...; *1** ^ J* *U- to 
niisinterpret, misconstrue; J*£ Af 
.0-1 (mahmala l-jidd) to take 
seriously, take at face value II to 
have or make (• s.o.) carry or bear (*, load, bürden, charge, task (*, • 
s.o. or * with), impose (» • on 
s.o. V to bear, assume, take upon 
o.s. (*, e.g., oliiJI an-nafaqät the 
expenses, VjJ-H al-mas'üllya the re- 
sponsibility); to bear up (* under), bear, 
stand, suBtain, endure, tolerate, stomach 
(*; to undergo, suffer (*; to 
be able to stand (• s.o.) or put up (« with 
s.o.); to set out, get on one's way; to 
depart VI to maltreat, treat unjustly 
( U s.o.), be prejudiced, be biased, take 
sides (J* against s.o.); to struggle to 


one'a feet, rise with great effort | J* J^L^- 
*-_jÜ (nafsihi) to brace o.a.; to puü 0.8. 
together, take heart, pluck up courage 
VIII to carry, bring (*; to carry 
away, take away, haul off, lug off (*; to suffer, undergo, bear, stand, 
endure, suatain (*; to allow, permit, 
suffer, tolerate, brook, atomach (*, 
acquiesce (* in), put up, bear (* with; to hold (*, have capaeity 
(* for); to imply that (*) is possible, 
permissible, or conceivable; J*^ yahta* 
milu and (pass.) yuhtamalu (it is) bear- 
able, tolerable; (it is) conceivable, pos- 
sible, probable, likely 

J> haml carrying, bearing; induce- 
ment, prompting, encouragement (of 
s.o., J* to); delivery; transport, trans- 
portation, conveyance ; portage, carry- 
ing charges; — (pl. JU-I ahmäl, Jl»- 
himäl) foetus ; pregnancy | JJ. 1 -.o* 
'adam al-h. sterility (of a woman) 

J> himl, haml pl. JU-I ahmäl cargo, 
load, bürden | ^ J> haml hayy pay load, 
commercial load, live load; ■!■ , -, A*- 
(jnayyit) dead load; dead weight (arch.); 
öj\j* J> (muwäzin) counterpoiae, coun- 

J*- hamal pl. j-^jh humlän, JU- 1 
ahmäl lamb; (unconaecrated) Hoat (Chr.- 
Copt); Ariea, Kam (astron.) 

iL»- hamla pl. hamalät attack (J* on); 
offensive; campaign; military expedition; 
expeditionary force | ijjjtj iL»- (ta'di- 
blya) punitive expedition ; iJU* iL*- 
(pihäfiya) presa campaign; iJLii^l iU- 
{istikSäfiya) reconnaissance raid (mtl.) ; 
Ä-SLjlx-. iL»- motorized detachment (mit.); 
ij U^J I Ü»- (intikäbiya) election campaign 

Jj- hamali pl. -lya ambulant water 

J-»» hamil foundling; guarantor, war- 

J* äLj" ham,lla 'alä a bürden to, 
completely dependent upon 

Jj*- hamül long-suffering; gentle, mild- 

JL»- hammäl pl. -ün, l porter, carrier 

iJ L»- himäla work and trade of a 
porter or carrier 

üL»- hammäla (carrier) beam, girder, 
aupport, base, post, pier, pillar; suspend- 
ers | jJ«JJ -JL»- (sadr) brassiere 

ÄJy- humüla pl. -ät load capaeity, 
load limit, capaeity; tonnage (of a 
vessel) ; portage, freightage, tranaport 
charges; (pl. JJl*- hamait?) family (/r.) 

J*^ mahmal see J> harnala; also 
Ul J** J* lju-i i^-l (m. il-jidd) to take seriously 

J*^ mahmil (colloq. mahmal) pl. J*l£ 
mahämil 2 camel-borne litter ; mahmal , 
a richly decorated litter sent by Islamic 
rulers to Mecca as an emblem of their 
independence, at the time of the hadj 

J~** tahmil burdening; eneumbrance; 
impoaition; loading, shipping, shipment 

iL*j£ tahmila pl. J^UT tahämü 2 sup- 
pository (med.) 

J**i tahammul taking over, aasump- 
tion (of burdens); bearing, Standing, suf- 
ferance, endurance; durability; strength, 
hardiness, sturdiness, aolidity (of a ma- 

J-l* tahämul prejudice, biaa, partiali- 
ty; intolerance 

i}\^-\ ihtimäl bearing, standing, auf- 
fering, sufferance, toleration; probability, 
likelihood, potentiality | Jl^^l ^^0 
(sa'b) hard to bear, oppressive 

J-U- hämil pl. iL»- hamala porter' 
carrier; bearer (of a note, of a check, etc. ; 
of an order or decoration); holder (of 
an identification paper, of a diploma, of a 



certificate) ; holding device, holder, 
clamp, fastener, hold, support (techn.); 
fighter (J* against); (pl. J*l_>*- hawämil 2 ) 
pregnant | OjjJI J*U Courier; ^-^1 *b- 
Ä. al-askum shareholders ; vjAilfl U#- the 
publicists, the writera; <Üil «•■^T J*U- A. 
kaläm alläh one who knows the Koran 
by heart; J*U- jLJ (tayyär) carrier 
current (ei,); iLU- «l^Vj* («wuj'öf) carrier 
wavea (ei.) 

Ü*U- AämtZa pl. -<H device for carry- 
ing, carrier | ~*^tj*- ü*l*- map case; 3JL.U- 
jjly U* A. fä'irät airorafb carrier 

Jj*£ TTioAmfii carried, borne ; bear- 
able, tolerable; load weight, Service 
weight, cargo; tonnage (of a veasel); 
predicate, attribute (logic) , *-l* 6y>£- 
subject (logic) | ü>*^ Ili* (muSäh) 
motorized infantry (mÜ.) ; [>*- öjj~£- *?*■ 
(jatowan) airborne troops (mtl.) 

J** muAammai loaded, laden, heavily 
charged, burdened (t-> with), encumbered 


J*=* muktamal bearable, tolerable ; 
probable, likely 

jlt- hamtaqa (Ul#- AamJoga) to stare, gaze 
( j or v at) 

U*^> himaläyä Himalaya 

l j*" Äamfl (oonBtruot State of f harn) and iU- 
AamäA see 1 *- 

*( _>*■ and > ) v* hamiya a to be or become 
hot; to glow (metal); to flare up; to fly 
into a rage, become furious ( J» at) j ^y- 
u^Ujfl fierce fighting broke out II to 
make hot, heat (*; to heat to 
glowing (* metal); to fire up (* a stove); 
to kindle, inflame, stir up, exoite (* ; 
to bathe (= 8 j- II) IT to make hot, heat 

j*- hamw heat | JjJl j*- A. an-niZ 
prickly heat, heat rash, liehen tropious 

y humüw heat 

ir- huma pl. -ät, ^ human sting, 
stinger (of inseeta); prick, apine (of 

^ hamiy hot, glowing; heated, 


hummä see * j 

*-j- hamiya zeal, ardor, fervor; enthu- 
siasm, ardent zeal, fanaticiam; violenoe, 
vehemence; passion, rage, fury; heat of 
ezeitement; temper, temperament | i-J-i 
*-»yü\ (qaumiya) chauvinism 

Li- humayyä heat; ezeitement, Agita- 
tion; enthusiaam; fire, pasaion, impet- 
uoeity, vehemence; fury, rage; wine 

*j\j- hamäwa heat 

-*^ mahman fire Chamber, furnace 
(of a stove, oven, etc.) 

>U- hämin hot; heated, violent, fieroe 
(e.g., a battle) ; glowing, passionate, 
fiery; burning 

**- hamä i (hamy, <Aj~ himäya) to defend, 
guard (a, • s.o.,, ,> againat), protect, 
shelter, shield (j* *, • s.o., from); 
to deny (^^11 the patient) harmful 
food (*; = to put him on diet); to forbid 
(öl • s.o. to do III to defend (j- s.o. 
or, also, of a lawyer in oourt); to 
shield, protect, support (jt b.o. or, 
take up the cause of {&), stand up for 
{jfi) VI to keep away (* from), shun, 
avoid (* VIII to protect o.s. (•, * 
from, from b.o.), defend o.s., oover 
o.s. (v with, seek protection, Beek 
shelter or refuge (*-j with s.o., also x*', 

j* himan protection; defense; sanc- 

*-*- himya that wbioh is defended; 

ijl*- himäya pl. -ät protection, patron- 
age, sponsorship, auspices; protectorate 


•l*l£ muhämäh defense (jur.); legal 
profession, practicing of law J »Ul^l «La 
kai'at al-m. the bar 

»£»-! iAftmä* seeking cover, seeking 
protection; cover, aheiter, protection 

l»U- Aömt'n pl. «l> AumäA protector, 
defender, guardian; patron { v^"' *l>*^' 
(rfouia) protecting power (of a' protector- 

4-*U- hämiya pl. -0/ patroness, pro- 
tectress; garrison (miJ.) 

^^»rf- mahmty protected (<-> by); being 
under a protectorate, having the Status 
of a protectorate j *-•* ÜLu (minfaga) 
protectorate (country) 

i-*^ mahmiya pl. -ö* protectorate 
(country; pol.) 

pL»t muA£mm pl. üj^l* muhdmün 
defense counsel, counselor-at-law, lawyer, 
barriater, attorney (at law), adrocate 

*-*[£■ muhämiya woman lawyer 

Jlrf- muhtamin one who seeks pro- 
tection ; protegä ; being under a pro- 
tectorate, having the Btatus of a pro- 

% l\j-, »\j- hamäh Hama (city in W Syria) 

^- hanna « (&'-*- hanin) to long, yearn, 
hanker (Jl for), crave (Jl; — (o- 
hanna, oLj- hanän) to feel tenderness, 
affection, sympathy ( J* for s.o.) ; to 
Bympathize, commiserate (J* with), 
feel compassion ( J* for); to pity (J* h.o.), 
have mercy (J* on) II to move, touch, 
fiü with tenderness, soften, fill with 
compassion (*Jj galbahü s.o.'s heart) ; 
to blossom, flower, be in bloom (tree) 
V to feel sympathy, feel pity, feel compas- 
sion (J* for s.o.), commiserate (J* with 
s.o.); to be tender, affectionate 

o- hanna sympathy; commiseration, 
compassion, pity; favorable aspect, ad- 

öLj- hanän sympathy, love, affection, 
tenderness; commiseration, compassion, 
pity; liJLJL*- hanänaika have pity! have 
mercy ! 

Üb*- hanäna compassion, pity, com- 

,>j- hanin longing, yearning, hanker- 
ing, nostalgia, craving, desire 

üj^*- hanün affectionate, loving, soft- 
hearted, tenderhearted, compassionate, 
merciful ; tender, soft, gentle, kind, 
moving, touching (voice) 

üLj- hannän affectionate, loving, 
tender ; compassionate, sympathetic 

üL*i tihnän attachment, derotion, 

J\£ tahannun tenderness, affection, 

u*- II to dye red (*, with henna) 

»Lj- hinna henna (a reddish-orange 
cosmetic gained from leaves and stalks 
of the henna plant) j »LJ-I _^jl abü l-h. 
robin (redbreast); »LJ-I j£ (colloq. tamr 
el- hinna) henna plant (Lawaonia inermis; 

<JU- look up alphabetically 

J-^- hanball Hanbalitic, of or pertaining to 
the ma4hab of Ahmad ibn Hanbai ; 
puritanical, Btrict in religious matters; 
(pl. ÜiLij- hanäbila) Hanbalite 

o^iU-, <jy\*- see j*- 

£jj- hanita a (hint) with «t^r j or «l*-j : to 
break one's oath V to practica piety, 
perform works of derotion ; to seek 
religious purification; to scorn sin, not 
yield to sin 

<i-j- hint pl. iltLj-l ahnät per Jury; sin 

C*- hanjara pl, 

U*- hanäjir 3 larynx, 
kunjür pl. ^»-U*- hanäjir' larynx, 

J*^*- hanjala to prance (horee); to caper, 
gambol II tahanjala to dance, caper, 
gambol, frisk 

^x*- Atndi« pl. ^jL»- AanädtV dark night 

J^i-Lj- handaqüq (bot.) melilot, (yellow) 
Bweet clover (Melilot us) 

±1*. hanaS pl. ^Jli*-' ahnäi snake 

Sc*- II to embalm (. a corpse);to stuff (* a 
ül*. Atnfa wheat 
Ü.L*- hi-näta embalming 
ScJ- takannuf mummification 
Sc£- muAannaf mummified 

j .L;J-1 ijjP 'arafta* ai-Aanffir victoria, light 
carriage designed for two passengers 

IL>- hanzal (coli.; n. un. •) colocynth 
(Citrullus colocynthis; bot.) 

tjc- hanafa i to tum or bend eideways 

,_Ä^*- hanif pl . »Ui»- hunafä' * true 
believer, orthodox; one who scorns the 
falfie creeds surrounding him and pro- 
feßses the true religion; true (religion) | 
■_'-,• J- l j-Jl (din) the True (i.e., Islamic) 
Religion, also »U*- Jl ii-J-l (aamAö') 

L L*~ hanafi pagan, heathen, idolater 
(Chr.); Hanafitic (see <Jt*-); (pl. -ün) 

3-i*- hanafiya paganism, heathendom 
(Chr.); Hanafitic madhab (an orthodox 
achool of theology founded by Abu 
Hanifah); — (pl. -ät) faucet, tap; 

ULJ-I al-hamfiya the True (i.e., 
Islamic) Religion 

i_x*-\ ahnaf* afflioted with a distortion 
of the foot 

p>- haniqa a (kanaq) to be furious, mad, 
angry; to be annoyed, exasperated, 
peeved, irritated (J* or J* at, by), be 
resentful (J* or j* of) IV to infuriate, 
enrage, embitter, exasperate, irritate 
(• b.o.) 

£*- hanaq fury, rage, ire, wrath, anger, 
exasperation, resentment, rancor 

,£*- haniq furious, mad, angry; resent- 
ful, bitter, embittered, annoyed, exas- 
perated, peeved 

g U- häniq furious, mad, angry ; 
resentful, bitter, embittered, annoyed, 
exasperated, peeved | *LA-1 J* JjU- 
(AayäA) weary of life, dispirited, dejected; 
»L_iJI Jp JJU (nisä') misogynist 

j^- muhnaq infuriated , enraged ; 
embittered, bitter, angry, exasperated, 

iL*- hanaka i u, II and IV to sophisticate, 
niake experienced or worldly-wise through 
severe trials (said of fate, time, age) 

dk*- hanak pl. iiL*-l ahnäk palate 

Jl*. hanaki palatal 

iL*- hunk, hink and *£>- hunka world- 
ly experienco, worldly wisdom gained 
through experience, sophiatication 

iU^ mvhannak experienced, worldly 
wiae, sophisticated | di^j ili** (mu* 
bannak) shrewd, smart, sharp 

(ji^- and ^*-) L*- hanä u and ^- hanä i to 
bend, curve, twist, turn; to lean, incline 
(J* or Jf toward s.o.); to feel for s.o. 
(J*), sympathize (J* with s.o.), com- 
miaerate, pity (Jp s.o.), feel compassion, 
feel pity (J* for s.o.); to bend, bow, 
flex, curve, crook (* IV to bend, 
bow, tilt, incline (* ; e.g., *--ij 
rcCaahü one's head); to sympathize (J* 


with b.o.), feel compaasion, feel pity (Jp 
for s.o.), commiserate, pity ( J*> b.o.) YII to 
bend, curve, twist, tum; to be wind- 
ing, be tortuous, wind, meander (e.g., 
aroad); toturn,deviate,digress(^frfrom); 
to bow (J to s.o.); to lean, incline (J# or 
3ji over, Jl toward s.o., toward}; to devote o.a. eagerly (J*- to; 
to contain, harbor (J# | j^jLi öl 
i>~* J* (i»*^ V (£«&'*» #0«) I harbor no 
grudge, I feel no resentment 

_^j- Aanu> bending, deflection, flezing, 
flexure, curving, curvature, twißting, 
t Urning 

_^*- hinw pl. »L*-l aAnä' bend, bow, 
turn, twist, curved line, curve, contour; 
pl. riba | l^L*-l jn in her bosom 

_^j- kunüw sympathy, compaasion, 
tenderness, affection 

J»- Aan-j/ bending, deflection, flexing, 
flexure, curving, ourvature, twißting, 

i-^- hanya bend, turn, curve 

4^*- Aanti/a pl. LL*- kanäyä arc; 
camber, curvature | »j-L* LL*- j in hia 
boaom; *— ü LL*- j in hiß heart, deep 
inaide him 

*jL*- kinäya curving, curvature, twißt- 
ing, turning, bending 

OjJU- see below 

^£- mahnan pl. oU- mdhänin curva- 
ture, bend, flexure, bow, turn, curve 

»L*; I inhinä* bend, deflection, curvature ; 
curve; arc; inclination, tut; bow, curtsy 

S»L^i inhinä* a {n. vic.) bow, curtsy 

jlji-l al-hawänl the longest ribe; (fig.) 

breast, boBom | ^j*- *J*. hi-mil'i h. 

(they shouted) at the top of their lungs, 

with all their might 

^£- mahniy bowed, inclined (head) ; 
bent, curved, crooked 

j»«^ munhanin bent, curved, crooked, 
twisted; inclined, bowed 

J*»i* munkanan pl. oU»^ munha* 
nayät bend, flexure, deflection, curvature; 
turn, twißt, break, angle; ourve (of a 
road, and math.); slope 

O^L- hänüt pl. C-aj^j*- hawänifi störe, shop; 
wineahop, tavern 

Jjj U- hänüti pl. -iya (eg, ) corpee 
washer; undertaker, roortician, grave- 

*\j>- hawwä** Eve 

<~jj>- Y to abstahl from sin; to lead a pious 
life; to re&ain, abBtain (j- from 

<ij>- hauba sin, offense, misdeed, out- 

»Lj»- haubä'* soul 

Cjj*- hüt pl. Ob-»- Aiiän, ol^*-i aAwät fish; 
whale; Pisces, Fishes (astron.) j Oj*- 
ü^-L A. Bulaimän salmon 

£j*- IY ahwaja to have need, stand in need, 
be in want (Jl of, need, require, 
want (Jl; to put (» s.o.) in need of 
(Jl), make necessary (Jl » for s.o., 
require (Jl » of s.o., compel, oblige 
(Jl » s.o. to); to impoverish, reduce to 
poverty (. s.o.) | Jl 4*rj*-\ L. {ahwajahü) 
how much he Stands in need of . . . ! how 
urgently he needs ...! VIII to have need, 
stand in need, be in want (Jl of; also J), 
need, want, require (Jl, s.o.) 

want, lack, de- 

rj*- haiij need, 
ficiency, destitution 

i^U- häja pl. -ät need (Jl or ^ of); 
necessity, requirement, prerequisite ; na- 
tural, bodily need; pressing need, needi- 
ness, poverty, indigence, destitution ; 
object of need or desire; desire, wish, 
request; necessary article, requiaite; 
matter, concern, business, job, work; 
thing, object; — pl. £\j>- kawä'if needs. 



necessities, necessarieft; everyday objecto, 
effects, belongings, posseBaions, atuff; 
olothes, olothing | (J) Jl i^U- j OK* to 
stand in need, be in want of (, need, 
require (; (J) Jl V 1 ^ V (Ad?ata) 
. . . is not neoessary, not required, there 
is no need of...; *j J **-\*- V I don't 
need it; «jJX\ X* if (or when) neoessary, 
if need be, in oaae of need; i»-^~ j* J 
(0turt AdjoJin) unneceasarüy; 4*-U-l *j U 
the essentials; 4»-U-l Jrf. fnoAaU aZ-A. the 
essential passage, the gist, the substance, 
the crux, the interesting part (of an 
exposition); c*-U- x- «uftftx Aä/afaAfi to 
meet s.o.'a needs, provide for s.o.*s 
needs; o-U- ^^i» gu£5 AdjataAu to fulnll 
fl.o.'s wish; ö-U-l ^i» to relieve nature 

oL*-U- häjiyät everyday commodities, 
Utensils, Utilities, neoessaries, neoessities 

rj*-' oAuw;" 1 in greater need (Jl of ; more neoeasary 

pL^-l ihtiyäj want, need, requirement» 
(pre)requisite, necesaity; pl. -ät needs, 
neoessities, neoessaries 

ifrjU- mahätvif (pl. of «y* mvh» 
wt;*) needy, poor, deatitute people 

r\s* muhtäj in need, in want (Jl of requiring (Jl; poor, deatitute, 

*U-j*- haujala pl. J*r[>*- hatuäjiP pbial (eAem.) 

(j_j*-) jU- häda u (haud) to tum aside, tum 
away (j& from), turn (je off) II to tum 
off, take a turning 

•jj*- hauda turn, turning 

(j_j*-) JU- Ad(£a u (Aaud) to urge on, spur on 
(* animala) IT do. X i_j»jj istahwada to 
overwhelm, overoome, overpower (Jp 
s.o.; esp. emotions), get the better of 
(Jp), gain mastery (Jp over); to aeize 
(Je on), take possession (Jp of), usurp 
( Jp 

t$j>»- hüdi coachman, cabman, driver 
*ikr~ hü4iya coaohman's work or trade 

(jjp~) jU- hära i* to return ( Jl to) ; to recede, 
deerease, diminiah, be reduced (Jl to) 
II to ohange, alter, amend, transform, re- 
organise, remodel, modify (* or ,>; 
to roll out (* dough); to make white, 
wbiten (*; to bleach (* a fabrio) 
mto talk, oonverae, have a conversation 
(• with s.o.); to diacuss, debate, argue 
IT (with L»l_jj-. jawäban) to answer, reply 
(with negations only) T to be altered, 
changed, amended, transformed, re- 
organized, remodeled, modified VI to 
carry on a diaouasion 

jy~ hawar white poplar (also pro- 
nounced haur); bark-tanned sheepskin, 
basil ; marked oontrast between the 
white of the oornea and the blaok of the 

#jU- hära pl. -ät quarter, part, section 
(of a oity); (Tun.) ghetto; lane, alley, 
aide atreet (with occasional pl. <jjj*- 
hawäri) | xJ\ «jU- A. as-sadd blind alley, 
dead-end atreet 

jj*-\ abwar*, f. •!;_>•- Aaurtf 1 , pL j^- 
Aflr having eyes with a marked contraat 
of white and blaek, (also, aaid of the 
eye:) intensely white and deep-blaok 

\j\y hawwära (hawäral) cretaoeous 
rook; ohalk 

iSj]y hatväri pl. -ün diaciple, apostle 
(of Jesus Christ) ; diaciple, follower 

<Jj\f hutvtvärä cretaceous rock; chalk 

hjj^- hüriya pl. -ät, jj»- hür houri, 
virgin of paradise ; nymph ; (pl. -ät) 
young locust j »Hl <jjj*- water nymph, 

o\jjp~ haurän 1 the Hauran, a moun- 
tainous plateau in SW Syria and N 



jj£ mihwar pl. jjlrf mahäwir 2 rolling 
pin ; pivot, core, heart, center ; axis ; 
ttxle, axletree 

j\A mahär (coli.; n. un. ä) oystere; 
shellfish, mussels; mother-of-pearl, nacre 

lj\£- mahära (n. un.) oyster; oyster 
shell, muaael; trowel 

jj£- tahwir alteration, change, trans- 
formation, reorganization, reshuffle, re- 
modeling, modification 

j]y Atuwrtalk, conversation, dialogue; 
argument, dispute; text (of a play); 
Script, scenario (of a motion picture) 

»jj\£- mtthäwara talk, conversation, 
dialogue; argument, dispute 

_)jL*i tahätvur discussion 

{jj>- and >*-) jL- häza u {hauz, »jL*- hiyäza) 
to possess, own, have (*; to gain, 
win, get, receive, obtain, achieve, attain 
(a, e.g., success, victory, etc.); to 
gain possession, gain control (* of, 
seize, monopolize (*; — häza t 
(>*- haiz) to drive on, urge on (* camels) 
V tahawwaza and tahayyaza to writhe, 
twist, coil; — tahayyaza to stay away, 
keep away, seclude o.a., isolate o.s. 
(^ from); to be disposed, incline, tend, 
lean (Jl toward); to join (Jl s.o. or; 
to aide (J, Jl with), take sides (J, Jl in 
favor of) VII to isolate o.s., seclude o.s., 
separate, Begregate, disengage o.s., dis- 
sociate o.s., stay away, keep away, retire, 
withdraw (^ or y> from); to join (Jl 
s.o. or; to unite (Jl with); to side 
(Jl or J with), take sides (Jl or J in favor 
of) VIII to possess, own, have (*; 
to take possession (* of; to keep, 
prevent, hin der (^ • s.o. from) 

jjj- hauz possession, holding, tenure; 
obtainment, attainment, acquisition ; 
taking possession, occupation, occupancy ; 
(jwr.) tenancy; — (pl. j]y-\ ahwäz) 

enclosed area, enclosure; precinct(s), 
boundary, city limite 

ifjj*- hauzi poBsessory, tenurial 

•j j»- Kaum possession, holding, tenure ; 
property; area, territory | *Jjj*- j or 
tJk i vj*- J /* A. yadihi in his possession; 
-r - ** Vj*- ü* t}*^ * ne defense of Egyptian 

>*- hayyiz, haiz pl. jL*-l ahyäz scope, 
ränge, reach, extent, compass, confines, 
field, domain, realm ; sphere | >*- j J»--U V 
J_ji*il (yadkulu) it is not within the 
bounds of reason; Jji-Il >*- Jl j y (to 
advance to the realm of fact, i.e.) to 
become a reality; jtCVI >*- J f\ h. il- 
imkän within the realm of possibility, 
quite possible 

•jL*- hiyäza possession, holding, tenure; 
taking possession, occupation, occupancy; 
acquisition of title, acquisition of the 
right of possession; obtainment, at- 
tainment, acquisition 

>*: tahayyuz partiality; prejudice, 

jL*l \7ihiyäz Isolation, seclusion, re- 
tirement; partiality; prejudice, bias 

J\*~ hä'tz posseesor, holder, tenant 

>j*i« mutahayyiz partial, prejudiced, 

jUw munhäz secluded, retired, with- 
drawn, removed (j* from); an Outsider, 
a stranger (j* to) 

xj*^- VIII (eg.) to be in a quandary, waver, 

^(^j*-) ^L*- häSa u (hauS) to round up, drive 
into a trap (* game); to stop, check, 
prevent, hinder {*, stand in the 
way {* of); to hold back, stem, stave 
off (* II to gather, collect, amass, 
acoumulate, pile up, hoard (*; to 
save, put by (* money); to find (* 


J^jr- hauS pl. ^2^1 ahwäs, jLIaj- 
Äiiän enclosure, encloBed area; court- 

^jr- haivas mob, rabble, riffraff 

i^j*- hüSi wild; unusual, odd, queer, 

^U-l s-^-l usbu al-häü Passion Week 

8 LiU, ^U see ji»-, -J> ^l*- Aä£a JiüäÄ 

<-»>»- Aaimf aquinting of the eyes (cauBed 
by constant exposure to glaring light) 

,j*j*-\ ahwa?, 2 f. »L»j»- hauqa 2 , pl. 
u -» - >»- Aü? having narrow, aquinting 

•— »L*- hiyäsa girth. 

A^i >»- hausal, ~*L*j*- hausala craw (of a bird) ; 
bladder; pelican l^jljll iL^-1 (maräriya) 
gall bladder, bile (a;ia(.) 

La) u- Auwaipti blister, bleb, vesicle; 
water blister 

iL^ij*- kuwaifiila pl. -ät blister, bleb, 

,j*j*- hav4 pl. u>!>»-' aAiwäd, ^L*- hiyä4, 
üUi.*- Ai^än basin; water basin; trough, 
tank, cistern, reservoir, Container; basin 
of a river or sea; pool; (in the Egyptian 
irrigation system) a patch of land aur- 
rounded by dikes, flooded by high watcr 
of the Nile; pond; pelvis {anat.); (garden) 
bed; dock; pl. ,j«*L*- hiyäd (sacred) 
ground, area, domain (to be proteeted), 
sanctum | J»U ^j*- (jäjf) dry dock; 
a\j- ^j*- Ä. hammäm bathtub; Aje ,jij*- 
('awwäm) floating dock; oL»- j* jlj to 
assume the defense of s.o., make o.s. the 
champion of s.o.; to defend o.s.; t-ö 
j. -dl ^-il*- J* {dabba) to defend the faith; 
OjJii-lj jnjJI ^j*)y-\ coal and iron deposits 

O *-<»i>*- Äuuatda renal pelvis (anat.) 

(\?j*~) -UU- Aöta u {häuf, *J*=*- Atta, iLL». 
Ätyä/a) to guard, protect (*, • s.o.,, 
watch (*, • over s.o., over, have the 
custody (*, • of); to attend (* to), take 
care (* of), look after (*); to Sur- 
round, encircle, enclose, encompasa (t-» 
s.o., II to build a wall (* around, wall in (*; to encircle, Sur- 
round (*, close in from all sidea (* 
on III to try to outwit, dupe, or 
outemart (» s.o.); to mislead, lead 
astray, seduce (• s.o.) IV to Surround 
(._j s.o.,, also *, • s.o.,, l-» with); 
to encompasa, enclose, embrace, comprise, 
contain (.->, also *); to ring, encircle 
(>y s.o. ,, also m, • s.o.,, l-* with, cloee in from all aides (l-> on); to 
know thoroughly, comprehend, grasp 
completely, underatand fully (l->, 
be familiär, be thoroughly acquainted 
(l-* with) | 1,1* o J*U-I ('Üman) to know thoroughly, have comprehensive 
knowledge of; to take cognizance, 
take note of; u LI* *i»UI he in- 
formed him of . . ., he let him know 
about . . . ; he brought ... to his notice 
V to guard, protect (*, • s.o.,; to 
take precautions (* with regard to), 
attend (* to); to be careful, be cautious, 
be on one's guard VIII to be careful, be 
cautioua, watch out, be on one'a guard; 
to take precautions, make provision (J 
for, so as to ensure ...); to Surround 
(l-> s.o.,; to guard, protect, preserve 
(J* .-> from), take care («-* of), 
attend (l-> to), look after (.->), see to it 
(öl that) 

Üa_*- hlpi, haifa, *iy»- haufa cautious- 
ness, caution, provident care, prudence, 
circumspection | <^*- -^ (hifatakü) to 
be on one'a guard, take precautions; *Aj 
<Lj- thoughtlessly, unthinkingly, inad- 

51» L»- kiyäta guarding, cuatody, pro- 
tection, care 


-Uj j* 1 tahwi$ encirclement 

«i»l>-l ihäfa encirclement, encompass- 
ment; comprehension, grasp, understand- 
ing, knowledge, cognizance (i_j of, 
acquaintance, familiarity (i_j with); In- 
formation, communication 

i»j^ iahawwuf Provision, care, at- 
tention, precaution, prüde nee; pl. -ät 
precautionary measures, precautions 

J» Lj- I ihtiyäp caution, cautiousness , 
prudence, circumspection, carefulness; 
Provision, care, attention, precaution, 
prevention; pl. -ät precautionary meas- 
ures, precautions j J»L^-1M J-x- J* as a 
precaution, out of precaution, to be on 
the aafe aide 

jWL^-l ihtiyäpi precautionary ; prophy- 
lactic; preventive; replacement; Spare- 
rn Compounds) ; reserve- {in Compounds) ; 
stand-by; reserve funds, capital reserves 
(fin.); reserve (mil.) | ^tL^-l tr j*- (AaJw) 
detention pending investigation ; jv\X> 
1J»Lj>- 1 precautionary measures, pre- 
cautions; 4-tL*-l £j\ji (qüwät) reserves 
(mil.); jWL^-l Jl* capital reserve, reaerve 
fund; *UM ijjJI J»l-^-l (crude-)oil re- 

Jaj*U- Ää*t£ pl. jLL-*- hifän, -*»L»- hiyät, 
Jul^. hawä'ip 2 wall j JLJ.I Joll*- A. aJ- 
mabkä Wailüig Wall (in Jerusalem) ; 
-UU-I ^jc A* (u^i or) Jll alqä {tfaraba) 
bihi r ur$a l-hä'it to make little of, 
scorn, disdain, despise; to rejeet, discard, throw overboard; 
to ruin, thwart, foil 

-Uj_**- hawip (eg.) clever, smart, shrewd 

Ja_£ muhX\ surrounding («-« ; 
comprehensive ; familiär, acquainted (^ 
with); — (pl. -ät) circumference, periph- 
ery ; eztent , ränge , scope , compass , 
reach, domain, area ; milieu, environ- 
ment, surroundings; ocean; pl. olL-tf 
surroundings, environment | ^^Lii»^! Ja_^l 

(atlanfi) the Atlantic Ocean; jjLX! L~£\ 
(hädi') the Pacific Ocean 
J»l*t muhäf surrounded («-« by) 

J*>»^ mutahawwif cautious, prudent, 
provident, circumspect, careful, watchful 

Jip- häuf edge, rim, brim, brink; border, 
hem, fringe 

ül*- Ää/a pl. -ät, J>\j*- hawäfin border, 
rim, brim, brink, verge ; edge ; fringe, 
hem | *-»!»*■ ir'. witbin it, in it, thereüi 

(3j*-) jl*- häqa u (hauq) to Surround, 
enclose, infold, embrace («-« s.o., 
II = I (J* s.o., 

1 j!p- hauqala {51ip- hauqala) to pronounce 
the formula: *J)li ^! *^i V. Jj»-^ (see l>j- 

2 SJJp- hauqala pl. Ji'_>*- Äaiwägt'P phial (cAem.), 
Florence flask 

(iJp-) iJl*- Aäjfea u (hauk, 1JL>- AtyäJfc, ^"L*- 
Aiyäki) to weave (*; to interweave 
(*; to knit (*; to braid, plait 
(* ; to contrive, devise, hatch, 
concoct (*; e.g., ruses, intrigues, 
pre texte), think up, fabricate, create (* in one's imagination) 

iTLj- hiyäka weaving; knitting; braid- 
tng, plaiting 

jiJL*- hä'ik pl. iS'L*- häka weaver; — 
(mor.) an outer garment made of a long 
piece of white woolen material, covering 
body and head 

(Jp- and J-»-) Jl*- häla u to change, undergo 
a change, be transformed; to shift, turn, 
pass, grow (Jl into, also *), become 
(Jl; to deviate, depart (je from, 
e.g., a commitment), dodge, evade, faü 
to meet (je; to elapse, paus, go by 
(time) ; — (*ij^*- hailüla) to prevent (Ojj; to intervene, interfere, interpoae, 
come d>j between) |-i^* je Jl*- ( r ahd) to 
withdraw from a contract; j^i ,>* Jl*- 


j*y\ lt j .j *° niftke inaccessible to 
s.o., impossible for s.o. ; to bar or obstruct 
s.o. 's way to; to prevent s.o. from, deny s.o.; juj <-Jü ,jo JU- 
liliiVl (i^fäq) to resist compassion, deny 
o.s. any sympathy II hawwala to change 
(Jl * or * * to eise), transform, 
tranamute, convert, turn, make (Jl * or 
* a into eise); to transplant 
(*; to transfer (a; to convert 
( k , mathematically ) ; to switch , 
commutate (* current; el.); to convert, 
transform (a current; el.); to shunt (* a 
railroad car); to switch (a a railroad 
track); to remit, send, transmit (a, 
e.g., money by mail, Jl to s.o.); to pass 
on, hand on (Jl * to s.o.); to forward 
(Jl > to s.o. or to an address); to 
endorse (a a bill of exchange, a promis- 
sory note); to direct, tum (a, also 
»Jäi nazratan a glance, Jl to or toward); 
to divert, distract, keep (^ a or • s.o. 
or from); to tum away, avert (»/-*j 
^ bofamkü one's eyes from); to tum 
off, switch off, disconnect (a current; el.) \ 
üoJI J^*- (daffa) to turn the heim, change 
the course III häwala to try, attempt, 
endeavor (a, jl to do, make 
an attempt, make an effort (jl to do; to Beek to gain (a by artful 
means; to deceive by pretenses, make 
excuses, hedge, dodge IV to change (a a 
or Jl a to),. transform, tranamute, 
tum, make (a a or Jl a into); to 
convert, translate (a a or Jl * into); 
to transfer (*; to remit, send (* 
Jl or Jp to s.o.); to assign (a, » s.o.,, Jl or Jp to s.o.) ; to turn over, hand 
over, pass on (Jp «or « s.o. or to); 
to forward (Jp a to); to refer (J) • 
s.o. to); to cede, transfer (a a debt, Jp 
to s.o.; jvr.) | J\A\ (Jl) > J^l (uhila, 
ma'äi) and -IpUiII Jl J-»-l {taqä'ud) he 
was pensioned off; Jl «JL-XII C-L»-1 
j^.jj_rJI the bill was protested (ßn.) V to» 

hawivala to change, undergo a change; 
to be changed (Jl to), be transformed, be 
transmuted , be con verted ( Jl into) , 
become (J!, tum, grow (Jl into), 
transform (Jl — j- or jp from — into), 
change, develop, evolve ( Jl — j* from — 
to); to withdraw, go away, leave; to 
move (Jl to a residence); to turn away 
(^ from), turn one's back (^p on); to 
deviate (,jp from); to depart, digress, 
stray (&JJ\ J* from the way); to re- 
nounce, forgo, relinquish, disclaim (^p; to proceed slyly or cunningly | 
5L#- JT J_j^ to employ every conceivable 
trick ; — tdhayyala to employ artful 
means; to ponder ways and means {J 
to an end, in order to attain 
VI iahäwala to try, endeavor, take pains 
(Jp to do, strive (Jp for); — 
tahäyala and VIII to employ artful 
means, resort to tricks, use stratagems 
(Jp against s.o.); to deceive, beguile, 
dupe, cheat, outwit, outsmart (Ja s.o.); 
to be out (Jp for or achieve (Jp by artful means, by tricks VIII to 
work or strive ( on one's own re- 
sources), make efforts (on one's own) 
IX J_p-I ihwaUa to be cross-eyed, to 
squint X to change (Jf to, into), turn, 
be transformed, be converted (Jl into); 
to be transubstantiated (bread and 
wine, Jl into the body and blood of 
Christ; Chr.); to proceed, pass on, shift, 
switch (Jl to new or different); 
to be impossible (Jp for s.o.); to be 
in conceivable, absurd, preposterous 

JL- hol m. and f., pl. J1^-l ahwäl 
condition, State ; Bituation ; poeition, 
Status ; circumstance ; case ; present, 
actuality (as opposed to future); circum- 
stantial expreBsion or phrase {gram.); pl.: 
conditions, ciroumstances ; matters, af- 
fairs, concerns; cases; häla (prep.) dur- 
ing; immediately upon, right after; just 
at; in case of ...» in the eventof .. .; VI*- 


hälan presently, immediately, at once, 
right away, without delay; now, actual- 
ly, at present [ Jli-I j and JU on the 
spot, at once, immediately; JU- Jf J* 
(Iculli hälin) and JU- ^1 Je (ayyi h.) in 
any ca8e, at any rate, anyhow; Je JJ-j 
JU- (yabqä) it remains unchanged, just 
as it is; Jl_>*-Vl j- JU- j in some case or 
other, anyway, if occasion 8hould arise, 
possibly; {with neg.) by no meana, under 
no circumstances, not at all, in no way; 
JU- J*, Jltf, JU- ^L bi-ayyi h. with neg. : 
by no meana, not at all, in no way; 
j Jli-I jJJiT the same goes for ..., it is 
the same with..., it is also the case 
with...; j JU-I j* 1^ as is the case 
with; .iJJU- yJiS" how are you? Jl* *^ 
a thing in itaelf, a separate, independent 
thing ; «j ji- 1 J ly- V I (jaunviya) atmos - 
pheric conditions; *..a^lll Jl^*-Vl Tl* 
(Sajcpiya) courts dealing with vital 
statistice; 4««kdt JL>*-VI (pliü or) u>li 
personal Statute ; JU- 1 <_->-L* noun 
referent of a circumstantial phrase 
(gram.); JU- ^jt. 'ard h. application, 
memorial, petition; Jli-I uUJ, JU- ÜU 
see jLJ 

HU- hälamä (conj.) as soon as 

JU- häla pl. -ät condition, state; Sit- 
uation; (possible, actual) case; hälata 
(prep.) during | jl JU- hälata an (conj.) 
whereas; ai* JU-lj under these circum- 
stances, such being the case, things 
being as they are; JU- j (hälati) in (the) 
case of ..., in the event of .. ., e.g., JU- j 
<u Li (giyäbihi) in case of his absence, 
»lijJl JU- j (wajäh) in case of death; j 
JU-I Ȁ* in thia (that) case; jl JU- li- 
hälati an in case that..., in the event 
that...; lil U JU- j if ; j JLLl ^ 1^ as 
is the case with...; 2-fr£»-l *^^- (ijti* 
inä'iya) marital status; *jjJ-I oVU-l (jaw* 
wlya) atmospheric conditions; JbX-\ JU- 
A. al-katar stand-by, alert, state of 
alarm; i^l^l JU-I the status quo; JU- 

^jl^LJi h. af-tawäri' state of emergency; 
( _ r xUI JU- j (talabbus) flagrante delicto 
(jur.); ÄJall JU-I (madanlya) civil status, 
legal status ; JU-I »j* su al-h. predic- 
ament, plight 

JU- hall present, current, actual, 
existing; momentary, instantaneous ; UU- 
hällyan at present, actuallj | IJU- »jj~# 
(püra) snapshot (phot.) 

SJU- häliya actuality, topicality, time- 

Jj^- haul pl. Jl_>*-I ahwäl year; might, 
power | <öiL VI »y Vj J_>*- V lä haula 
wa-lä qüwaia illä bi-lläh there is no power 
and no strength save in God; J Jj*- V 
iL» Vj (wa-lä hllata) he is completely 
powerless, he can do nothing, he is at 
the end of his resources 

Jj» hiwal change of place, change | 
V_>*- <Ce ö_jiiu V (yabtagüna) they don't 
want it otherwise, they ask for it 

Jj» haula (prep.) around, about; 
circa, about, some, approximately, rough- 
ly (with following number); about (esp. 
in news headings, approx. = re, concern- 
ing) | J_>*- ^ (haulihi) (= <!_>*-) around 
him (or it), about him (or it); Lj-Jj*- Cf 
(haulaihimä) around the two of them, 
about them; from their vicinity, from 
their surroundings (dual) 

Jj» haull periodic, temporary, intcrim ; 
one year old (animal), yearling; young 
animal; lamb, wether 

O ^LJj*- hauliyät yearbook, annals 
(= Fr. annalea, as a scientific publication) 

J-»- hau strength, force, power, vigor | 
J-»- Je (standing) upright, erect; »y V 
Je*" "^J ^ (qüwata) completely helpless and 

iL*- Ulla pl. J-*- hiyal, J~>U-I ahäyil 2 
artifice, ruse, stratagem, maneuver, sut- 
terfuge, wile, trick ; device, shift ; a 


means to accomplish an end; expedient, 
makeshift, dodge, way-out; legal strat- 
agem (for the purpose of in fraudem 
legis agere) | -JLI-I U what's to be done? 
j J <L/- ^ (Mota) I have no poasibility 
to..., I am in no position to ...; j-U l* 
iL»- (&i-yadt) I can do nothing, I can get 
nowhere; VI «L*- -Uf A Jam ya;ü2 At/afan 
tüä he couldn't do anything except . . . , 
he had no other choice than ...; «JLi-l «^#1 
(a'yathu) he was at a Ioss, he was at the 
end of his wits 

^*- kiyali cunning, crafty, wüy, sly, 
tricky, foxy 

Jj-I ahyaP craftier, wilier 

J_>»- kawal squinting, Strabismus 

Jj^l ahwaP, f. »fj*. Äauiä' 1 , pl. J>p- 
Äüi squinting, Bquint-eyed, cross-eyed, 

JjJ»- Au'üi change, transformation, 
transmutation ; prevention (0>> of 

Jt_j»- At'unf obstacle; partition, screen 

JL» Juyö&j (prep.) in view of ..., with 
regard to ..., in the face of, opposite, in 
front of, before 

ti\jf kauxlla pl. -ät assignment, cession 
(jw.); bül of exohange, (promissory) 
note, check, draft | JjjJI «JJ_>»-, Sj-Ijj; *1\j*- 
money order; jÄ* iJlj»- Ä. sajar traveler's 

Jl_>»- hawäiä (prep.) around, about ; 
circa, approximately, roughly, about, 
some (with following number) 

*J_jL»- hailüla Separation, Interruption, 
disruption; prevention (up of 

JU V lä mahdla = 31* V (see 

iJUt maAäJa roller, wheel (of a draw 

o SJU- V lä mahälata minhu it is 
inevitable; there is no doubt about it; 

(also ÄJl£ V alone) most certainly, pos- 
itively, absolutely, by all means 

Jj^ tahwil transformation, trans- 
mutation, con version (J[ into 
change, alteration, modification; trans 
plantation ; trans position, reversal, in 
version, translocation, dislooation, dis 
placement; transfer, assignment; con Ver- 
sion (e.g.,of currency); conversion, trans- 
formation (of electric current); O trans- 
fer (fin. ; also ^oJl Jj_>* t. ad-dain) 
remittance (of money), transmittal, send 
ing, forwarding; bül of exchange, promis 
sory note, draft (com.); check; endorse- 
ment (com.); c.o.d., cash on delivery | 
L^VI o^U-JI Jl Ji^dl IUI <Lli {q&i. 
Uyal ui-'vmla, ajnabiya) convertibility of 

«L^ tahwila pl. Jj.jU^ tahävAl* branch, 
offsboot ; Biding, sidetrack (railroad) ; aide 
canal (irrigation; Eg.); switch (railroad) 

iljLtf muhäwala pl. -ät attempt, try; 
effort, endeavor; recourse to expedienta, 
shifta, or dodges, dodging, hedging | 
4jL»- Jp <ljU (hayätihi) attempt on s.o.'s 
life, murderous aasault 

<Jl*-l ihäla transfer, conveyance, as- 
signment ; remittance ; forwarding, re- 
ferring ( Jl or Jp to a competent autbori- 
ty); transmission, transmittal; O transfer 
{fin.); cession, assignment {Isl. Law); 
abeurdity | Jp iJl*-1fL with reference to; 
SJL-VI ^li magistrate sitting at de- 
fendant's arraignment, trial judge; <Jl*-l 
u^l (>) J 1 (ma'äS) and .fettdl Jl *IUI 
(taqä'ud) pensioning off 

J_>* takawwul change, transformation, 
transmutation; abrupt change, sudden 
turn, reversal ; shift, transition ; departure, 
deviation, digression (je- from) ; re- 
nunciation (je of) | JpuH <k* nuqfat 
at-t. turning point 

Js* tahayyvl use of tricks, trickery 

JjUT tahäyvl and JL^-I t'Ä*»yä& use of 
tricks, trickery; cunning, craft, subtlety, 
artfulness ; malice, treachery , perfidy ; 
deception, fraud 

Jjl* tahäyuli and Jl~*-I iktiyäli 
fraudulent, e.g., JLj-I ^^1 (ifläs) frau- 
dulent bankruptcy 

•ULc^l istihdia ohange, transformation, 
tranamutation, turn, shift, tranaition ; 
transubstantiation (Chr.); impossibility, 
inconceivability, abBurdity, preposterous- 

JJU- hä'il pl. JJlj»- Aawd'iP obstacle, 
obstruotion, impediment (uj* on the 
way to, j — jo see JU- häla I); 
barrier; partition, acreen, folding screen; 
' — (pl* 4f Auwun/) changeable, variable, 
frequently changing ; feeble, languid, 
wan, pallid 

J^ muhawwü pl. -<W Converter, trans- 
former (tl.)\ endorser 

iJyt muAaurwtbz switch (railroad) 

•ul* J^ mukawvxd 'alaihi o.o.d., oaah 
on deüvery; <t J^ oolleoted on delivery 

J-rf. muAil transferor, assignor (J«J. 
Zau 1 ) 

Jl* mukäl inconceivable, unthink- 
able, imposaible, absurd, preposterous, 

J^«=* mutahaunoil changeable, variable, 
changing | *Jj**dl ->VVI (a'y&i) the 
movable feasts (Chr.) 

Jljrf. muktäl artful, cunning, deceit- 
ful, treacherous, perfidious, fraudulent; 
Bwindler, cheat, impostor, fraud; crook, 
scoundrel; assignee (Isl. Law) | «ul» Jl^ 
debtor of a ceded claim, transferee {Isl. 

J.*rjL^ mustahll imposaible, absurd, 
preposterous; 0">L*«i— . impossible thingB, 
imposäibilities, absurdities 

([V*") f^" b^ ma u (haum, öLy»- Aawamän) to 
cirole, hover, glide (in the air; of a 
bird, also of an aircraft); to hover, swarm, 
buzz (Jj*- and J# around) J »-L* i^iJI C-*U- 
(faibka, fliddahü) suspicion concentrated 
on him, he was suapeoted II to circle in 
the air; to hover in circles, to cirole; to 
go around, revolve (thoughts and iinages, 
in one'a head or mind); to browse (j in 
a book) 

•y hauma pl. -5t turmoil of battle, 
thick of the fray; main part, bulk, 
main body; (tun.) quarter, section (of 
a city) 

iJU- and <UU> see ,>■- 

Cj^U- see _y*- 

,jjm~ hawä i to gather, collect, unite (*; 
to encompass, embrace, contain, hold, 
enolose, comprise, include (*; to 
poasess, own, have {*; to clasp 
(*, the hand) V to curl (up), coil (up) 
VIII to encompaBS, embrace, contain, 
hold, enclose, comprise, include (* or 
J#; to possess, own, have (* or Jp 

<ij^- hatvtya convolution, coil, curl, 
roll; pl. \j\j*~ hawäyä intestines, bowels, 

*i]y- hatoäya pL -ät (eg.) wase, round 
päd to support a bürden on the head or 
on the back 

jU- häwin pl. «1^»- hutoäh anake charmer; 
juggler, conjurer, magician 

£j\jj& muhtawayät content (s) (of a 
book, of a receptaole) | ,j->Ül <z>L mJ z£- the 
innermost thoughts, the secrets of the 

(t/"» Js* - ) itf" ^tf** » t/" hayya L* yahyä 


hayäh) to live; ^ hayya to live to 
see, ezperience, witness (*, live 
(* through a time) | illil l yJ li-yahya 

l-malik long live the king ! — ^- hayiya 
L*£ yakyä (»L*- hayA*) to be aehamed (,> 
of, because of) II L^ hayyä to keep 
{• s.o.) alive, grant (• s.o.) a long life; to 
say to s.o. (.):*"! t&~* may God preserve 
your life!; to greet, Baiute (♦ s.o.) IV L#-l 
ahyä to lend life (*, * to s.o., to, 
enliven, animate, vitalize, endow with 
life, call into being (*» give birth 
(* to); to revive, reanimate, revivify 
(*, give new life (* to); to put on, 
produce, stage, arrange (* e.g., a theat- 
rical Performance, a celebration, and 
the like); to celebrate (a, also a 
festival) j jijS'JÜl L»-l ($ikrä) to commem- 
orate (a deceased person), observe the 
anniversary (of s.o.'s death); JJI L*-l 
(Jail) to burn the midnight oil, JJI L*-l 
•"iL* (ßdULtan) to spend the night in 
prayer; !^Jl L*-l (aahrata) to perform 
in the evening (of an artist); Lp-I 
*ii*- (haflatan) to give a Performance; 
to perform at a celebration (axtist); 
JLJ d^ Ö^jill c~^-\ 4* qad ahyat il- 
firgatu tatäta layälin the theatrical troupe 
gave thxee evening Performances X L*«£~l 
utahyä to spare s.o.'s (•) life, let live, 
keep alive (» s.o.); L*^l-I istahyä, L f^\ 
istahä to be ashamed (• to face s.o.; ^* 
of, because of; to beoome or 
feel emharrassed (^» in front of s.o.), be 
embarrassed {^» by); to be bashful, ßhy, 

(j*- b°yy pl* •'•s*-' °hya* living, live, 
alive; lively, lusty, animated, active, 
energetio, unbroken, undaunted, un- 
dismayed; living being, organism; trihe, 
tribal oommunity; block of apartment 
houses; seotion, quarter (of a city) f U 
•Lp-VI 'Um al-ahyü' biology; iUl ( y- 
h. aX-älam. houseleek tree (Sempervivum 
arboreum L.; bot.) 

^- hayya : »^LJi J*^- hayya t aiä t-püak 
come to prayer! 

*-*- hayya pl. -ät snake, serpent, viper 

QjUI ohyä'i biologic(al); (pl. -ün) 
biologist | «-jL»-I »W*^* {Hmtyd*) bio- 

,&- hayiy bashful, ahy, diffident, modest 

*L*- haya shame, diffidence, bash- 
fulness, timidity ; shyness | »LA- i JJj 
shameless, impudent; »LA-1 <Ü qiUat al-h. 
shamelessness, ünpudence 

•L»- hayäh pl. olj-»- hayawät life; life- 
blood; liveliness, animation | J*iJ\ »L*- 
h. ar-rif country life, rural life; ÖUli »LJ-1 
fämma) public life; «JJUl ILJ-I family 
life; »LJ-1 j>^—» mustawä l-h. living 
Standard; O »L»U J* 'ün* a*-Ä. biology 

tjj-*- Aayautf lively, füll of life, vital, 
vigorous; vital, essential to life 

*ijs*- hayawiya vitality, vigor, vim 

C->Lj-»- hayawiyät: obj-/ oL*> jIj* 
(mawädd mu$ädda) antibiotics 

ö]rf- hayawän pl. -<M animal, beast; 
(coli.) animals, living creatures | CjIjIj-*- 
LjJj (tadytya) mammals; üjif oljjj-*- 
(muj'tarra) ruminants; J^iL ü]^- (fufailt) 
parasite; oj^J-l 1* 'tfm. aJ-A. zoology 

Jlj-*- Aayaii»önl animal (adj.); zoolog- 

animal nature 

,^j*- huwayyin pl. -<ft minute animal, 

,-»-1 aAyd livelier; more vigorous, 
more vital 

5_*: toAfya pl. -<W, LLtf tahäyä greeting, 
salutation; Baiute; cheer (= wish that 
God may give s.o. long life) | •1 j S"jJ i-* 
iahxyatan li-dikrähu in Order to keep his 
memory alive, in remembrance of him; 
i jS^-JI 4_»Jl ('askariya) mUitary salute 

•Lp»I iAyä* animation, enlivening ; 
revival, revitalization, revivincation; ar- 
ranging, Staging, oonducting, putting on, 


holding (of a celebration) | j^-UI »L»-l t. 
a4-dikrä commemoration (of a deceased 
person); j^-U »L»-l (ihyä'an) (with foll. 
gen.) in commemoration of..., in me- 
moriam ...; ol_>ll .L*-l i. al-mawäl culti- 
vation of virgin land 

•L»»i<-I istihyä' shame ; diffidence, bash- 
fulness, timidity; shyness 

L* muhayyan face, countenance 

4jO— II ii^jl as-silt al-muetahiya sen- 
sitive plant (Mimosa pudica; bot.) 

t~*- haüu (conj.) where (place and di- 
rectum); wherever; since, as, due to the 
fact that; whereas; inasmuch as | 
ül <t~*- (anna) Bince, as, because, due to 
the fact that...; in that...; u6" >i— *- 
wherever it be; in any case, at any rate; 
£-*- Jl ilä haüu where (direetion); to 
where . . ., to the place where . . . ; £-*- j. 
min haitu from where, whence, where- 
from; where (place); whereas; (with 
foll . nominative ) as to , as for , 
concerning , regarding , with respect 
to, in view of, because of; j^> 
üliJl d— »- min h. t-taqäjatu with regard 
to education, as far as education is 
concerned; jjOj IIj jjOj £_*. j„ (yadri 
wa-lä yadri) whether he knows it or not, 
knowingly or without his knowledge; 
V ^*- j* (with foll. imperf.) without 
(being, doing, etc.) ; ja ^*. j. as such, in 
iteelf, jh £-*■ j. jJUil ('älam) the world 
in iteelf, the world as such; jl ^ _i- j. 
(anna) inasmuch as; in view of the 
fact that; since, as, due to the fact 
that ; <t~* bi-haitu inasmuch as ; in 
Buch a manner that..., so as to...; so 
that...; such as...; (he found himself) 
at a point or degree where, e.g., j. c-j£* 
jy" V •t~£- ;»ljJl (barä'a, tarä) = she 
was so naive that she couldn't see . . . ; 
*J it~J^ insofar as ... not, provided 
that... not; jl *t~* (anna) in such a 
manner that..., so as to..., so that... 

1^-*- haitumä wherever, wheresoever 
(place); wherever, no matter where... 
(direetion) | jJü\ ]£*. (iUafaqa) any- 
where, wherever it was (or be), haphaz- 
ardly, at random 

Vjj- haifiya pl. -ät standpoint; view- 
point, point of view, approach; aspect, 
respect, regard, oonsideration ; high social 
Btanding, social distinetion, dignity; pl. 
also : considerations, legal reasons on 
which the judgment is hased, opinion 
O'w.) | (SjjUI) oLSJ.1 jji (dawü) or 
«JLJ-I t->l*M t oLjLA-I ^l^H people of 
(high) social Btanding, prominent people, 
people of distinetion; vLte^"' Vs^-' t> 
(hayawäniya) from a zoological view- 

• Jj-JJ- 1 al-hitiyün the Hittites 

(V-) J L»- häda i (hatd, j^*- huyüd, jlj-*- 
hayadän, jl* mahid) to deviate, swerve, 
depart, desist (je from); to leave, quit, 
give up, abandon, relinquish (je; 
je <; jU- to dissuade or get s.o. away 
from...; to incline, tend (Jl, j*. to, 
toward), shade, blend (Jl, j* into) II to 
keep aside, put aside <* III to stay 
away, keep apart (*, • from s.o., from; to avoid, shun (*, • b.o., 
TU to depart, deviate, digreaa, swerve 
(j* from) 

-l»- haid, jl-L»- hayadän deviation, 
digression, depart ure, Bwerving, tuming 
aside, turning away 

•0-»- haida deviation, digression, swerv- 
ing, departure (from a course) ; neutrality ; 
impartiality | I.L*- J* aside, apart, to 
one aide 

-L* mahid avoidanoe (je of | 
<* jl* V (mahida) it is unavoidable 

jL»- hiyäd neutrality (pol.) | aLJ-I J* 
neutral; i-J^I je aU- (faß) derailment 


j:>L»- hiyädi neutral (pol.) 

»JjI^ muhäyadtr neutrality {pol.) 

Oj'U- haid neutral (pol.) 

X>\£ muhäyid neutral (pol.) ; OjJu\£ I 
the neutrals (pol.) 

OjLlu muiahäyid neutral (pol.) 

iWjJ-»" haidaräbäd* Hydarabad 

( j**-) jU- Aära (Ist pera. perf. hirtu) a (ij**~ 
haira, j\_r*- hayarän) to become confused; 
to become or be helpless, be at a Iosb, 
know nothing (j of f about}; to waver, 
hesitate, be unable to choose (joj — 0; J . 
between — and) | »j*l j jU- (amriAf) to 
be confused, baffled, bewüdered, dis- 
mayed; to be at a loss, be at one's wit's 
end II to confuae, baffle, bewilder, non- 
plus, embarrasa (• s.o.) V to become con- 
fused; to be or become diamayed, atartled, 
baffled, perplexed (j by), be at a loas (j 
as to) ; to waver (uncertainly) (Ju 
between) | »j»\ j jJ- (amrihi) to be 
confused, baffled, bewüdered, diaconcert- 
ed, be at a Iobs, be at one's wit'B end 

s*- hair fenced-in garden, enclosure j 
üJjJ-l jw h. aX-hayawän zoological 
garden, zoo 

ijw haira confusion, perplexity, be- 
wilderment, embarrasament, helplessness | 
•j~~ S embarraBBed, at a low, helplesa 

ülj-*- hairän 9 , f. iSJf hairä, pl. tfjV" 
hayärd, huyärä confused, perplexed, 
Btartled, diamayed, diBconcerted, baffled, 
nonplused, bewüdered, appalled, taken 
aback, Btunned; embarrassed, at a loss, 
at one'ß wit'a end; uncertain, helpless, 
sheepish (smile, etc.), confused, in- 
coherent (words, and the like) 

jj. tahayyur confusion, perplexity, 
bewüderment, dismay; embarrasament, 

j-'U- hä'ir disconcerted, perplexed, 
startled, diamayed; embarrassed, help- 
less, at a loss, at one's wit's end ; baffled, 
bewüdered, confused, uncertain (j 
about); Btraying, astray | *^\ j J\~ 
(amrihi) confused, baffled, bewüdered, 
embarrasaed, at a loss, helpless 

j,£- muhayyar embarrassed, at a loss, 

_^*»i. mutahayyir and jlirf- muhtär 

j*- aeej^»- 

üjtj**- flee <-?'j*- 

(u-V") u-» 1 ^- h*W a •' {bau* ~*~*t~ *«*#*. o*^- 
mahifi) to flee, escape (j* or from, run away (j* from), turn one's 
back (y. on) VII do. 

^j*?- haif, ***lj- haifia flight, escape 

j^_i fj*^- S (**J waqa'a fi haifa baijta 
to get into a bad fix, meet with 

iJ ^J- mahlf flight, escape; place of 
refuge, retreat, sanctuary | ,j*~t- O; U it 
1b unavoidable; ül ,y u a^-X j£j i they 
oouldn't but ..., they had no otber 
alternative but to . . . 

(jrfL»-) C— iU- hä4at i (haia*, ^ä^ mahüf, 
^i\A mahä4) and V to menstruate, 
have a monthly period 

jÄj- ha%4 (n. un. **i^) and ^L»- 
hiyö4 menstruation, monthly period 

^'U hai4 (f>) *nd <^j'U- menatru- 

ü«-, iLL»-, ülL^, .UL»- see ]ßj*- 

\Jt-»-) 'JiU- häja i (haif) to deal unjuatly 
( l» with s.o.), wrong, injure, härm (J* 
s.o.); to restriot, Iimit, curtail, impair 
(Jp, enoroaoh (J* upon) V to 

impair, injure, prejudice, violate (* or 
j», encroach, infringe (* or j* 

.J»-»- haif wrong, injuBtice; härm, 
damage, prejudice | <As- Jt* what a 
pity! too bad! <o Jjl^- V (haifa) it 
is not out of place, it is quite appro- 

2 1jL»- haifä Haifa (seaport in NW Israel) 

(J-*-) jU- häqa i to Surround, beset from all 
sides (<_j s.o.) ; to fall, descend, come 
{i_j upon s.o., punishment) , befall, over- 
take, grip, seize, overcome (<_j s.o.), 
happen, oeeur (<_j to) ; to penetrate, 
pierce (J the body; of a sword); to 
affect, influence (j s.o., IV to 
Burround, beset from all sides (<_• s.o.); 
to bring down (* <_• upon s.o., cause (*) to descend (<_j upon s.o.) 

J-»- haiq consequence, effect (of a 
mißdeed redounding upon the evildoer) 

iL*- II to weave 

ÄS~L»- see i\y 

iL»- haik = tfUL- ; see i\j»~ 

1 ^ r V, iL-, j^l, JL^, ^L^, etc., see J^-; 
J-j- i see _ji*- 

2 JjL- häyil 2 Hail (town and oasis in N 

(<>»-) ^^- häna i to draw near, approach, 
come, arrive (time); to happen accidental- 
ly | cJjJI jU- the (right) time has come; 
now is the time; öl <l jU- the time has 
come for him to ...; jj*+ij ül .1 jL- LI 
{a-mä, an yafhamü) haven't they under- 
stood yet . . . ? ; ÜLiiJI J- cJU- (minni 
Itifäta) I happened to turn around ( Jl to), 
it just happened that my eyes feil on 
(Jl) II to aet a time (» for s.o.) IV to 
destroy, wipe out (• s.o.) V to watch, 
wait (* for a time or an opportunity) | 
i-^-tll ö^ (furpata) to wait for an op- 

portunity, bide one's time X ^>^-t 
istahyana to wait for the right time 

jU- hän bar; cabaret 

üU- häna pl. -ät bar, wineshop, wine 
tavern; pub, tavern, taproom 

,>»- hain death, destruetion 

,>»- hin pl. üL»-l aAyÖn, joL-l ahäyin* 
time; propitious time, good time, op- 
portunity ; hina (prep.) at the time of ..., 
at, upon; (conj.) at the time when, when; 
as soon as; U_j- hinan for some time; 
once, one day; UL»-I ahyänan occasional- 
ly, from time to time, sometimes j 
L-»- — ü-»- sometimes — sometimes, at 
times — at times; joL-VI j at times, 
sometimes, once in a while; ^^m j 
(üli^V) üL^Vl ß ba'4i l-a. and (J ä^ i 
üL»-Vl ba'da l-a. sometimes, occasionally, 
now and then, once in a while, from time 
to time, at times; jL»-VI i_-UI j fi aglabi 
l-a, mostly, moßt of the time, in most 
cases; ,>»- Jl for some time; meanwhile, 
for the time being; 4^> j then, at the 
time, in his (its) time; in due time, at 
the appointed time; jU-l li da l-hina 
just now, right now; ^i-l jjij j» from 
that time on, from then on; j^i-l iJii Jl 
until that time, tili then; ^j- j (with 
foli. verb) whereas; jl Jkp. j and jl j*>- J* 
(hini) at the same time when ..., while; 
whereas, also without jl, e.g., j-j- J* 
jj^Jr > r ald hini hum yazumüna 
whereas they, on the other hand, claim ; 
üf- Jl j<»- j*,öyj j;»- jo, jy -W \~*-i 
j*~y 0i*" J- (H-äkara) and j>-Jj j*>- j*j 
(uw-äfcara) from time to time, now and 
then, once in a while 

itL>- hina'idin at that time, then, 
that day 

iJI-L-*- hinadäka at that time, then, 
that day 

IcL»- hinamä (conj.) while; when, as 


•U- ka name of the letter r- 

jjjU- kätün pl. i>Jl>*- feauwtf» 2 lady, socially 
prominent woman | o^jUM »j*j zahrat 
al-k. little blue flower of the steppe {ayr.) 

J.U-U- käkäm (= fL»-U-) rabbi 

^r-^jU- fcäraßin and J~^jU- tarnen* (e^.) 

öjj'*- käzüq pl. Jjjl>^- fcauxjzig 8 poat, stake, 
pole; dirty trick | jjjU- i-A* that'e tough 

üUU- Jcäqän pl. (>*'_**- J»uwgtn s overlord, 
ruler, sovereign, monarch, emperor 

i5"U- feöfc» earth-colored, khaki 

l»U- kam raw, unworked, unprocessed; un- 
tanned ; linen ; oalico ; (pl. -äi) raw 
material; inexperienced, green, untrain- 
ed, unsküled, artless, uncouth, booriah; 
pl. oUU- raw materials | fU- i^L- raw 
leather; fU- -U^ raw fibers ; pU- C-j J (zoü) 
crude oll; fU- ^£- (su&fear) raw sugar; 
a\X\ jl^U (mauw<W) the raw materials 

jU- £dn pl. -äi hostel, caravansary; inn, 
pub, tavern | J-U-'l üU-'l (kalili) district 
of Cairo (center of art trade and market 
activity); «jJjj öU- Khan Yunis (town 
in Gaza sector) 

52 U- käna pl. -ät column (e.g., of a news- 
paper); Square (e.g., on a ohessboard) 

l^»- kabba u (kabb, (_-»- kabab, i_~^- kabib) 
to amble (animal); to trot (horse); to 
jog, saunter (person); to sink (j in 
sand); — u (kabb) to Bürge, heave, be 
rougb (sea) V and VIII to amble (animal) ; 
to trot (horse) 

i__»- kabab amble; trot 

<_-»^ kabb, kibb heaving, surging (of the 
sea), rough sea 

<~s- kabb imposbor, Bwindler 

L». jcaba'a a and II to hide, conceal (* 
T to hide, conceal o.a.; to be hidden, be 
concealed VIII to hide, conceal o.s.; to 
disappear; to be hidden, be ooneealed 

»<_-»^ kab\ %ib' that which is hidden, 
a hidden thing 

5ix-»- kabx'a pl. LL». kabäyä that which 
is hidden ; a hidden, Beeret thing ; a 
cache | ^jVl IjL*- k. l-ar$ that which 
is hidden in the earth; natural resources 

Li. makba* pl. *jUc makdbi' 1 hiding 
place; hide- out, refuge, haunt, retreat; 
cellar, shelter, air-raid shelter 

»L». kibä* pl. i^-l akbi'a, i-jil akbiya 
tent; huak, hüll (of grain) 

«SjU- käbi'a, LjU käbiya pl. \j\j»- 
hawäbi**, vl>*- kawäbin large vesael, 
cask, jar 

cXjfi mukabba'ät hidden, Beeret thinga ; 

* t jj. muktabx hidden, ooneealed 

CS- IV to be humble (Jl before God) 

<i->- kabu$a u (leubt, oL^ kabäia) to be bad; 
to be wicked, evil, malicious, vicious, 
malignant VI to behave viciously, dis- 
play malice; to feel awkward, feel em- 

i-*i- Jcubt badness, wickedness; ma- 
lignancy (e.g., of a disease) ; malice, 
malevolence, viciouaness 

<i~*- kahai refuse, soum, dross, alag 

i^- kabit pl. £^l kubvt, »iL*- kubatä'*, 
<1>L+ l akbät, iL*, kabata bad, evil, wicked ; 
malicious, vicious, epiteful; noxioua, 
injurious, harmful; malignant (diaease); 
offensive, repulsive, nauaeating, disgust- 
ing (odor) 

i-jil akbat 2 worse; more wicked 

DLj^ kabäfa badness, wickednesB; mal- 
ice, raalevolence, viciouaness, malignancy 

^- kabara u (Jeubr, *s*- kibra) to try, test 
(*; to experience (*; to bave 
tried, have experienced, know by ex- 
perience («; to get to know thor- 
oughly, know weil {*, • a.o.); — 
kabura u to know thoroughly (i_i or *, be fuiJy acquainted {<-j or * with II to notify, advise, apprise, in- 
form, teil (♦ s.o., <-j of or about) III to 
write (• to s.o.), address (• b.o.), turn, 
appeal (• to s.o.), oontact (• b.o.) in 
writing; to negotiate, treat, parley {* 
with a.o.) IV to notify, inform, apprise, 
advise (l-j • s.o. of), let know, teil (<~j • 
b.o. about) ; to communicate, report, 
relate (<-j * to s.o., teil (<-j • a.o. V to inquire (* of s.o.), aak (» b.o.) 
TI to inform one another, notify one 
auother, keep one another informed; to 
correspond, write eaeh other; to nego- 
tiate, treat, parley {« with a.o., j about) 
VIII to explore {*, aearch (* into), 
seek Information (* about); to test, 
examine {• b.o., *; to try, put to 
the test (• s.o., *; to have tried, 
have experienced, know by experience 
(a; to know well (* X to 
inquire (je a of s.o. about), aak (je • s.o. 

j\»- kabar pl. jL*U dkbär news; in- 
formation, intelligence ; report, com- 
municatton, message; notificationjruinor; 
Btory; matter, affair; (gram.) predicate 
of a nominal clause; pl. annala [ je JL 
yL^I to inquire of s.o. about s.o. eise; 

ülT j^- j jlT or ülT j^- j J^j (kabari 
häna) to belong to the paat, be passe, be 
no longer existent 

•^*- kibra, j»- kubr experience; knowl- 

j^-»- kabir experienoed, expert (<_» 
in); familiär, conversant, well -acquainted 
(i_j with), cognizant (<-j of); j*X\ the 
Knowing (one of the attributea of God) ; 
(pl. *\j± kubarä**) expert, Bpecialiat | 
l ^J\^ r ii\ ju»- tax expert, tax adviser 

j_^U- käbür pl. jy\j*- kawäbir* peg; 
pin; wedge 

jjt mähbar Bense, intrinsic significanoe ; 
(pl. yUt makäbir 3 ) laboratory 

jLJe- mikbär pl. ^IJ£ makäbir 9 test tube 

•j\jt mukäbara pl. -ät oorreapondence, 
(esp. written) Information (in clasaified 
ads: <-* viJil pleaae write to..., please 
contact ...), notice, notifioation, oom- 
munication | ^J^LiJ \j\jf. telephone call, 
telephone conversation ; Vtj^ *jy£ (kä* 
rijiya) long-difltance call ; \j- lj\jf- 
(airriya) secret communique; ol^lÜl 1* 
qalam al-m. intelligence bureau; !/LÜl 
Lj^™**- (hu4üriyan) apply in person (in 
ciasei fied ads) 

jL«^l ikbär notification, information, 
com munication, note, message; report; 
indirect discourse, oratio obliqua (gram.) 

i£jL^I ikbäri news-, information- (in 

j\£ takäbur negotiation; correspond- 

jti^l iktibär pl. -ät exploration, study; 
examination ; test ; test item (of an 
examination) ; trial, testing; (scientific) 
investigation, research, experiment; ex- 
perience, empirical knowledge; practical 
experience | ~*tjj£- oljL^-l (tahririya) 
written examination items; jli jtü-l 


(4äti) personal experience; jLj^^/I J-l- J» 
experimentally ; jLi*-^1 c-^ 011 probation, 
on trial; jLülM J***- experimental fields 

(jjL^-l ifcft&dri experimental; experi- 
ential; empirical 

LjLi^-I iktibäriya empiricism 

jLi^-l igtikbär pl. -ö/ inquiry | ij\* 
OJjLi»!-^! Information bureau 

_^i mukbir pl. -ün reporter; detective 

jci muktabar pl. -ö< laboratory 

- habaza i (frabz) to bake {* bread) VIII do. 
'jji~ hubz pl. jL>-l akbäz bread 
♦>*- kvbza loaf of bread 

JL>- kabbäz pl. -an, «jL>- baker 

jL*t fcubbäz, j^*. kubbaiz, ^jL»- £u&- 
bäzä mallow (bot.) 

•jL>- fci&öza baker's trade, art of 

>i makbaz, »>jt majebaza pl. _>Ljc 
makäbiz 2 bakery 

i*^ kabapa i (kabp) to mix, mingle, intermix 
(i_j * with) n to mix, mingle, inter- 
mix (*; to muddle, jumble, confuse 
(a, make a meaa (* of) 

^ x *- Icabiß, i-«— »■ kabi#a medley, 
mess, mishmash, hodgepodge; ^ jn, ^ a 
jellylike sweet 

^L»- kabbäp one who causes confusion, 
who messes things up; an irresponsible, 
light-minded person 

*■ kabafa i (jcabf) to beat, strike (*, 
against; to knock, rap {* on, ^Ul 
onthedoor); tostamp (^^1 theground; 
of animala) j »I^JU ik*- J«Jc {kdbta 
'a&wä'a) he acts haphazardly, he proceeds 
rashly or at random V to beat, strike, 
hit (• s.o.) ; to bring down, feil, knock out, 
throw to the ground (• s.o.); to bump, 
hit (* against), eollide (* with), stumble 

(* over); tobe lost, wander about, stray; 
to grope about, fumble about; to atrug- 
gle, resist; to clatter over the ground, 
gallop (horse) VIII to bump (against) ; to 
struggle, resist; to grope about, fumble 
about; to be lost, wander around, stray; 
to stir, bustle 

«U-jt- kabfa blow, stroke; rap, knock; 
noise, din, uproar 

]*L>- Jcubäf insanity, madnesa, mental 

J.^- Icabala u {kahl) to confound, confuse, 
mess up, complioate {*; to hinder, 
impede, handicap, stop, hold back (• 
s.o.); to befuddle {• s.o.), confuse b.o.'b 
(•) mind, rob (• s.o.) of bis senses, make 
{♦ s.o.) crazy; — kabila a (fcabal, JL^ 
Jsahäl) to get confused; to be or become 
mentally disturbed, crazy, insane II to 
confound, confuse (*, ■ s.o.) ; to 
oomplicate, entangle, mess up, muddle, 
throw into disorder (*; to rob of 
his senses, drive insane (♦ s.o.) VIII to 
become muddled, disordered (mind) 

J-*- hM, kabal confusion ; mental 
disorder, insanity 

,3-*- jeabil mad, crazy, insane; feeble- 
minded, dim-witted 

(J-^-i akbat 1 mad, crazy, insane; feeble- 
minded, dim-witted 

JL^-I iJftibäl mental disorder 

Jj-jt makbvX mad, crazy, idiotic, 
imbecilic, mentally deranged, insane; 
muddlehead, dolt, fool 

Jjt mukabbal confused, baffled, per- 
plexed, dismayed; muddled, confused, 
mixed up 

(jfi-) L»- kabä u (kabw, fcubüw) to go out, die 

LL»- and »L»- pl. 1—^1 see L>- 
oU pl. v]>*- Bee ^*- 


i$j\~*- kibyäri caviar 

J+- kaiara i (jfair) to betray (• s.o.), act 
perfidiously, disloyally (* toward s.o.); 
to deceive, cheat, dupe (• s.o.) 

JU- katr disloyalty, breach of confi- 
dence, perfidy, treaoheiy, betrayal, de- 

jb^- kattär traitor, disloyal person, 
cheat, awindler 

j-"U- kätir treacherous, perfidious, dis- 

Ji*- katala i u (katl, öi&- katalän) to dupe, 
gull, cheat, double-croes, deceive (• s.o.) 
III to deceive, oheat, dupe (* s.o.); to 
behave hypooritically VIII = I 

J=*t kaÜ and Üjljt mukätala deception, 
trickery, double-dealing, duplicity, dup- 
ing, gulling 

Jjljt mukätÜ deceitful, crafty, wily, 

Jji- katama i (katm, *b*- kitäm) to seal, 
provide with a seal or Bignet (*; to 
stamp, impresB with a stamp (a; 
to seal off, olose, make impervious or 
inaccessible (*; also J* the hearte, 
said of God); to put one's seal (* on), 
conclude, terminate (*; to wind 
up, finisb, complete (*; to close, 
heal, cicatrize (wound) T to put on or 
wear a ring (i_j) | i_-*JJIj Ji (dahab) to 
wear a golden ring Till to oonclude, 
finish, terminate, wind up (* 

I*- katm sealing; — (pl. *U»-I aktäm, 
ry*- kutüm) seal, eignet, seal imprint; 
stamp, stamp imprint; also = L*i>- (see 
below) | JjjJl Irf- postmark, (postal) 
canceüation stamp; 2X-\ »r* Sam' al-k. 
sealing wax 

<^J- katma pl. katamät recital of the 
entire Koran, esp. on festive occasions 

<rU. kätam, kätim pl. f jyt kawätim 2 
seal ring, eignet ring; ring, finger ring; 

seal, signet; stamp | g\jß /U- k. az- 
zawäj wedding ring; jj-jdl fU- Je. an- 
nabiyin the Seal (i.e., the last) of the 
Prophets = Mohammed 

fUU kätäm pl. *p]y- katvätim 1 seal 
ring, signet ring; ring 

^U*i- kitäm sealing wax; end, close, 
conclusion, termination | *U£I j at the 
end, at last, finaUy, eventually 

jlü kiiämi final, conoluding j <JS* 
«-*bj^ (kalima) oonoluding speeoh 

»b^-l iktitäm end, close, conclusion, 

<c U- kätima pl. f\j*- kaioätim*, w|^>- 
kavxUlm 2 end, olose, conclusion, termina- 
tion; epilogue (of a book); *z\y>- final 
s tage 

Jjt mukattam ringed, adomed with 
a ring or rings (hand) 

Jjjt muktatam end, close, conclusion, 

I ( jü^ katana i (katn) to circumciae (• a boy) 
VIII pass. 

^>- katn circumcision 

lf*- katan pl. üli^l afcJän son-in-law; 

ob*- kitän, 4Jli»> kitäna circumcision 

"üjJU- look up alphabetically 

j*t- kaiara u and katira a to become solid, 
become thick, solidify, thicken; to be or 
become viscous, sirupy; to clot, coagulate 
(liquid); to curdle (milk) II and IV to 
thicken, inspissate, condense, coagulate 
(* liquid); to curdle (* milk) V = I 

O «jo^ katra thrombosis (med.) 

jU*. Jeulär dregs (of a liquid); soum 
of the earth, riffraff, mob 

•jli». kutära dregs (of a liquid); Sed- 
iment, lees 

Ju£ to&ojgur coagulation | O ^1 j z* 1 
[mukk) cerebral thrombosis 

j-V jdftr thiokened, inspissated, Con- 
densed; viseous, ropy, sirupy; curdled, 
eoagulated, clotted; yoghurt, curd 

Jut mukaßar thiokened, mspiseated, 
Condensed; visoous, ropy, sirupy; curdled, 
eoagulated, olotted 

Jjt kajüa a föajal) to become embatrassed ; 
to be ashamed (,y of or to face s.o.), 
be abashed (,j- by, feel embarrassed 
(,y about or in front of s.o.) II and 
IT to shame (* s.o.) ; to embarrass, abash, 
put to shame (• s.o.) 

Jjc fcajal shame (<> at); bashfulness, 
diffidenoe, timidity, shyneas; abashment; 
disgraee, shame, ignominy | J»JÄ U 
(la-l-k.) O disgraoe! the shame of it! 

Jje kajü abashed, embarrassed; bash- 
ful, diffident, shy, timid; overgrown 
with luxuriant, profuse Vegetation; long 
and flowing (garment) 

Jj^ kafül abashed, ashamed, shame- 
faced ; shy, bashful, diffident, timid 

o^JP kajlän* abashed, ashamed, 
shamefaced; shy, bashful, diffident, tim- 
id; bewildered with shame, embarrassed 

Jj«jt makjül ashamed, shamefaced 

Jj^Jt mukjü arousing Bhame, shame- 
ful; shoeking, disgraceful, ignominious | 
*UÜI »Li* VI (a r dä') the pudenda 

-U- kadda u to furrow, plow (* the ground) 
V to be furrowed; to become wrinkled 

-W- kadd pl. ij±*- kudüd cheek; lateral 
portion, side | a-W- j*-+ §a"ara kaddahü 
to put on a contemptuous mien 

OA kadd and «-U- kudda pl. ja*- hudad 
furrow, ridge, groove, rut 

*jd+\ ukdüd pl. JjjU-I akädid 2 furrow, 
ridge, groove, rut; trench, exoavation 

»jjt mikadda pl. jljt makädd* cushion, 
pillow; seat oushion 

£4*. kadij premature child 

r-liji $üid; abortion, miscarriage 

jOj^ kadira a (jcadar) to be numb, prickle, 
tingle (leg, arm); to be or beoome limp, 
benumbed, paralyzed; — kadara u to 
confine to women's quarters, keep in 
seclusion (U a girl) II to numb, benumb, 
stupefy {* b.o., *; to anesthetize, 
narcotize, put to sleep {• s.o., *; 
med.); to confine to women's quarters, 
keep in seclusion (U a girl) IV to make 
torpid, stupefy, benumb, deprive of 
Sensation, narcotize (• b.o., m V to 
be numbed, be stunned, be stupefied, 
be deprived of Sensation; to coiiie to 
rest, calm down 

j^- kidr pl. jjJ*- fendür, jl.U-1 akdär, 
j$[*-\ akädir* ourtain, drape; women's 
quarters of a tent; boudoir, private 
room (of a lady) 

j-U- kadar and »jA»- kudra numbness, 
insensibility (esp. of a limb gone to 
sleep); daze, torpor, Stupor 

j-U- kadir numb (limb); benumbed, 
torpid, dazed 

jj*£ takdir anesthetization, narootiza- 

jjU- kädir limp, languid; benumbed, 
torpid, dazed; hidden in bis den, lurk- 
ing (lion) 

yiU- kädira chrysalis (of a Caterpillar; 

jJut mukaddir anesthetic, painkiUing, 
tranquilizing; (pl. -ät) an anesthetic; a 
narcotic, drug, dope 

jAJt mukaddar numb, torpid, in- 
sensible; (eg.) tipsy, fuddled, drunk 

•joie. mukaddara girl kept in seclusion 
from the outaide world 


P-* ( 

^.u- kadasa i (kadä) to Scratch (*; to 
maul, lacerate, tear to pieces (*; 
to violate (* the rules of decenoy, s.o. 's 
honor, and the like); to disturb (* the 
peace); to ruin, sully, run down (o»r* 
sum'atahü s.o.'b reputation) II to Scratch 
(*; to maul, lacerate, tear to 
pieces (*; to violate (* the rules 
of decency, s.o.'b honor, etc.); to ruin, 
Bully, run down (o»r* sum'atahü s.o.'s 

,ji.u- AxnWpl.^j-u. kudüS, j\j±\ akdäS 
Scratch, Scratch mark; graze, abrasion 

£0»- kada'a o to cbeat (»s.o., je. out of; 
to deceive, mislead, dupe, gull (• s.o.); 
pass. kudi'a to be mistaken, be wrong 
(je. about); to fail to see clearly (je. with 
regard to), get the wrong impression 
(je- of HI to cheat, dupe, deceive, 
take in (• s.o.); to try to deceive or 
double-crosB (• s.o.) VII to let o.a. be 
deceived, be deceived, deluded, misled 
(lj by); to be mistaken, be wrong 

i*-U- kud'a pl. £j*~ kuda, -ät de- 
ception, cheating, s windle 

«..u- kuda'a impostor, swindler, cheat, 

4*0^-1 <£j* sawwä akda'ahü to crush 
s.o.'s pride, humble s.o. 

*mX+ kadl'a pl. *lla»- kadä'i' 3 de- 
ception, deceit, betrayal, treachery, per- 
fidy, trickery, imposture 

J-J.U- kaddä' impostor, swindler, sharper, 
cheat, crook; deceptive, deluaive 

f-Oj^ kaida fata morgana, mirage 

^jjUI akädi'* swindles, underhand 
dealings, crooked practices; phantoms, 
phantasms, delusions 

^.bfi mikda', mukda', makda' pl. fjljft 
majcädi' 2 small room, Chamber, cabinet; 
bed Chamber 

j-J-us- kidä' deception, doceit, swindle, 
imposture, betrayal, treachery, perfidy, 
trickery, duplicity 

^ \JJ- kidä'i deceitful, fraudulent ; 
deceptive, delusive, fallacious 

£\sli mukädi' swindler, impostor, cheat, 
sharper, crook 

Ja*- kadila o to fltifien, become rigid; to 
become numb, torpid, limp 

l»o*- kadama i w (i*.us kidma) to serve, be at 
service, do Service ; to have a job ; to work ; 
to wait (»ons.o.); to serve (• s.o., *; 
to render a Service (• to s.o., * to, 
stand up {. for s.o.) | Lr i J ^\ aJJ- to tili or 
cultivate the soil; !^T ^L-us- **a*- (jfcü 
damätin katiratan) he rendered him many 
Services; j^i ^tfj ^ (rikäba) to 
be at s.o.'s beck and call; J-L** >o*- 
ö'Ä» (ma$äliha) to serve s.o.'s interests; 
^-loiJI fj+ (quddäsa) to celebrate Mass 
(Chr.) II to employ, hire (• s.o.), en- 
gage the Services (» of s.o.); to give 
work (» to s.o.), provide work (« for) 
X to employ, hire, take on (• s.o., J for, engage the Services (J • of s.o. for; to put in Operation, operate (* 
e.g., a public Utility); to employ, uae 
(*, J for), make use, avail o.s. (* 
of, J for a purpose) 

(••**!- kadam servants, attendants 

öjji- kidma pl. f-U- kidam, -ät a service 
(rendered); attendance, service; Opera- 
tion ; office, employment, occupation, 
job; work | .^i i„u j in the service of ; £1*1+ j at your service ; UJiJJ öo»- 
(kidmatan) in the interest of truth, for 
thesakeoftruth; <j j£_JI i-uU ('aakariya) 
military service; ijjL^I i-u^l (ijbäriyä) 
conscription, compulsory service; i*ij.'l 
*ijJ>\ (sirriya) secret service (pol.); 
^l-UJl i—u- k. al-quddäa celebration of 
Mass (Chr.) 


ß\j*. kaddäm pl. • manservant, servant, 
attendant; woman servant, female do- 
mestic servant, maid 

a*\a*- kadäma attendance, Service; 
employment, occupation, office, Job 

i«1i»- kaddäma pl. -ät woman servant, 
female domestic servant, maid 

rajtf takdxm work, occupation or duty 
of an employment agent U-iJf- mukaddim 
see below) | f -Udl ^Si* maktab at-t. labor 
office, employment bureau 

*l.ü»i-l istikdäm (putting into) Oper- 
ation; use, utilization; employment, hir- 
ing (of an employee); Service, occupation, 
position, job 

pjU. kädim pl. fl-u- kuddäm, i-i^ 
kadama domestic servant, help ; man- 
servant ; woman servant ; em ployee ; 
attendant; waiter; deacon {Chr.) 

ioU- kädima woman servant; female 
domestic servant, maid ; woman at- 

V^ kädimlya status of a servant 
»jjje. makdüm pl. -ün, <jljt makä* 
dim 2 master, employer 

iyAit makdüma mistress, lady (of 
the house), woman employer 

i-y-lit makdümlya Status of the 
master or employer 

fjje- mukaddim pl. -ün employment 

*jic— . mustakdim pl. -ün employer; — 
mustakdam (colloq. mustakdim) pl. -ün 
employee, official 

oi»- III to befriend (. s.o.), make friends (. 
with s.o.); to associate aocially (» with) 

ü-u- kidn pl. jIa*-I akdan (intimate) 
friend, companion, confidant 

•jj*. kadin (intimate) friend, com- 
panion, confidant 

jiji*- kidiw, tjjiU- kudaiwi khedive 

ifj»,!*- kidiwi khedivial 

liii- X to submit, subject o.a. 

t^-ÄV-- mxutakd? submisaive, servile, 
aubservient, obedient 

Jijji»- ku4rüf pl. _iujl^ kadärif* (apinning) 

jjjit hudrüfi turbinate, toplike 

JiJU kadafa i (ka4f) to hurl away (», o» 

*iJJ£ mikdafa süng, ßlingshot, catapult 

Ja»- £o£afc» u (£a& uV^ £#Wn) to leave, 
abandon, forsake, deBert, leave in the 
lurch (• or je s.o.); to Btay behind; to 
disappoint; pass. kudiia to fail, suffer a 
setback, meet with diaappointment in to 
leave, abandon, forsake, desert, leave 
in the lurch (• s.o.) VI to let up, flag, 
grow alack, languish, wane, decrease, 
fade, grow feeble VII to be left in the 
lurch; to be helpleaa; to be defeated; to 
meet with dis&ppointment 
üVi>- kidiän diaappointment 

JiLic takädul fatigue, languor, weak- 
nesa, feebleneaa; relaxation, lesaening of 
teosion; disagreement, disaent, disunion 

JUiel inkidäl forsakennesa, deaerted- 
nesa, abandonment; defeat 

JiU*i* mutakädü languid, weak, ex- 
hausted, apent, effete 

ji^- X to Bubmit, subject o.a. 

»loii-l istikdä* aubservience, aubmis- 
siveneas, servility 

■iiV,-. mustakdin submissive, Bervile, 
aubservient, obedient 

ji~ karra iu(j ji- karxr) to murmur, bubble, 
gurgle, purl (of running water); to 
ripple, trickle; to snore; — (karr, jjj*- 


kurür) to fall, fall down, drop; to sink to 
the ground, prostrate o.ß. | ^-ylM J* ji- 
to fall to the ground; 4jJj j-.j ji- (baina 
yadathi) he prostrated himself before 
him; *-.i» £*£■ j*- (tahta qadamaihi) he 
feil at his feet 

jj*- karir purl, murmur, ripple (of 

*,jj»- kari'a a (*ji- fair*) to evacuate the 
bowela, defecate 

kur* and 

karä' excrement, 

jUI^- kuräsän* Khurasan (province in 
NE Iran) 

, <-» / >- karaba i (karb) to destroy, wreck, 
demolish, shatter, devastate, lay waste 
(*; — kariba a (<-»[^- karäb) to 
be or become destroyed, ruined, waste, 
go to ruin, fall apart, disintegrate II to 
devastate, lay waste, destroy, wreck, 
demolish, ruin, lay in ruins (* 
IV = II; V to be or become destroyed, 
ruined, waste, go to ruin, fall apart, dis- 

<~>j*- karb destruction, devastation 
<-»_/■ kurb hole; eye of a needls; anus 

<_^- karib destroyed, demolished, 
wrecked, devastated, waste; dilapidated, 
tumble-down, ramshackle; broken, ruin- 
ed, out of order 

<>j»- kirba pl. v>- b.i r °b t 8 ** 6 *>f) 
ruins; ruin, disintegrating structure 

<ij*- karba, kurba irreligion, lawless- 

iij*- kurba pl. <~>j>- kurab hole; eye 
of a needle ; anus 

~<ij*- kariba (site of ) ruins 

i_*!j»- karäb ruin, ruination; state of 
destruction or dilapidation ; desolation; 
(pl. <ij*-\ akriba) (site of) ruins 

*i\^ karäba pl. -ät, ^l^*- karä'ib 2 dis- 
integrating structure, ruin, ruins 

ü\jj*-karbän,kirbän destroyed, wrecked, 
demolished, devastated, waste; ruined, 
broken, out of order 

t_*j_^£ takrib pl. -ät devastation, de- 
struction, wrecking, demolition; Sabotage 

iSiJ*- J^ 'amal takrlbl act of Sabotage 

yjU kärib annihilator, destroyer 

<~>jk. mukarrib pl. ~ün annihilator, 
destroyer; Saboteur 

<_^ji mukrib annihilator, destroyer 

a VJj*" karrüb (coli.; n. un. ») carob, locust; 
carob bean, locust pod, St.-John's-bread 

~*iJj*- karruba pl. -ät kharouba, a dry 
measure (Eg.; = l /n £■** = .1291) 

^ij>- karbaSa to Scratch ; to scrawl, scribble 

,j*j*j»- karbüS pl. jiü!^ karäbiS* ißyr.) 

O oLijyt mukarba&ät graffiti 

Uij»- karbafa to throw into disorder, dis- 
arrange, confuse (* 

,jij*- karbaqa to perforate, riddle (*; 
to spoil, mar {* 
Jij*- karbaq hellebore (bot.) 

&>j*- karata u (kart) to pierce, bore, perforate 
(m, make a hole (* in) 

£jf- kurt, kart pl. Cj|^>-I akrät, £->jj*- 
kurüt hole; bore, drill hole; ring, eye, 

C^ijf- kirrit experienced, practiced, 
skilled; guide 

£-üj>- kartU rhinoceros 

rj»- karaja u (rjjf- kurüj) to go out, walk 
out; to come out (^ of), emerge (^ 
from); to drive or ride out, go out (in a 
vehicle) ; to flow out, exude, efFuse ; to go 
away, depart, leave, retire; to protrude, 



project, stick out; to leave (j+; 
to dismount, alight, diaembark (j* 
from), get out, step out (ja of); to 
emanate, issue, arise, originate, result 
{j* from) ; to draw away, segregate, 
separate, secede, dissent (je from), dis- 
agree (je- with); to deviate, depart (je 
from an arrangement, from a prin- 
ciple); to be an exception (je- to); to be 
outaide a given subjeet (je-), go beyond a 
topio (je-), exceed (je- a topic); to be 
alien {je- to), be extraneous (je- from), 
not to belong (je- to), be not included 
(je. in), have nothing to do with (je-); 
je- rjjt V it is limited to . . ., it iß nothing 
but...; to go forth (into battle); to 
attack (J* s.o.,, rise, fight (J* 
against); to rebel, revolt (J* against); to 
violate, break, infringe (Jp a rule, a 
regulation) ; t_> <lc r- j*- to come up 
to s.o. with ..., confront s.o. with ...; to 
get out, bring out, take out (^ s.o.); to 
turn out, oust, dislodge (<_* s.o.); to lead 
away, dissuade (je- <-> s.o. from); to 
find out, discover (<_* | ü-'l je- rj»- 
(haff) to be derailed, run off the track 
(train) II to move out, take out, dislodge 
(• s.o., *; to tum out, oust, expel, 
eviot, drive out (• s.o., * ; to remove, 
eliminate (• s.o., *; to exelude, 
except {*; to train (* s.o., j in a 
skill, and the like); to educate, bring up 
(• s.o.); to distill (*; to pull out, 
extract {* s.tb.); to gather, deduce, infer 
(*; to explam, Interpret, expound, 
elueidate (* IV to move out, take 
out, get out, bring out, dislodge {• s.o., 
*; to unload (*, diaembark, 
detrain, etc. {a s.o., e.g., troops); to 
turn out, oust {* s.o.); to emit, send out 
(*, e.g., electric waves); to stick 
out (* e.g., the tongue); to fish out (* from tbe pocket); to bring out into 
the open, make public (* ; to 
remove, extract (*; to eliminate 

(*; to expel, evict, exile, expatriate 
(• s.o., j* from a country); to dismiss, 
fire, remove (• s.o., j* from an office); 
*hj J* **v*"' (tarwatthi) to rob s.o. of 
his property, dispossess, expropriate s.o.; 
to give off, sound, emit (*, e.g., 
a tone; said of a musical Instrument); 
to set forth, state, express, utter, voiee 
(* an opinion); to break (Uj rihan 
wind); to educate, bring up (• s.o.); to 
train (» s.o.); to stage, produce {* a play; 
theat.); to bring out, make, shoot (iijjj 
riwäyatan a film, said of a director); to 
except, exelude (*, je- from); to 
pull out, extract (*; to select (* V to be educated; to be trained (j 
in a school, College, also j+; j in a field); 
to graduate (j from a school, from a 
College, also j*) VI to part Company, 
separate ; to disengage, disassociate, 
withdraw from one another ; to oede, 
assign, transfer, make over (J j* to 
s.o.) X to get out, move out, remove (*, Jm from); to take out, draw (*, j* from); to pull out, extract 
(*, j* from); to mine, extract, 
recover (* mineral resources); to win, 
gain, make (* a produet, j* from); to 
copy, excerpt (*, j* from a book or 
dooument); to derive, draw, deduce, 
figure out, compute (j* * from); to 
elicit (*, e.g., astonishment, j* from 
s.o.); to find out, discover {* 

rj>- h&TJ expenditure, outlay, ex- 
pense(s), costsjland tax; 
or suitable, that which is s.o. 's due, 
which s.o. deserves, which s.o. needs; 
(eg.) ration (food); {pl. oU,/ kurüjät) 
trimming; edge, edging, piping; pl. lace; 
trimmings | il*^*- II* that's what you 

need, what you deserve; 

EV- *• 

al-mafoiaqa one who deserves to be 

rj>- hurj pl. *tj>- kiraja saddlebag, 



i~j*- karja pl. karajät exit, departure; 
Protrusion, protuberance, projection, sa- 
lient part; (eg.) funeral 

r[f~ karäj tax; kharaj, land tax (Ist. 

yr\j*- Ä»räj* of or pertaining to land 
tax; of or pertaining to the taxed and 
cultivable area 

r\j>- kuräj (coli.; n. un. •, pl. -äl) skin 
eruption; tumor, abscesa 

rjj*- kurüjexit; egression, emergence; 
departure; exodus; emigration; raid, 
foray, sortie (J* against), attack, as- 
aault (J* on) [ .U-'l ^ TL J -?~ ^°#) 
derailment (of a train) 

£.j*- kirrlj pl. -ün graduate (of a 
school, College, or uni versity) | &£-J^ I jjj* 
<->j*}\ mu'tamar al-k. al-'arab Congress of 
Arab Graduates (a supra-national Or- 
ganization of uni versity graduates ad- 
vocating a unified Arab world) 

rjf- Tnakraj pl. rj^ makärij* (place 
of) exit; way out (of a difficult Situation), 
outlet, escape, loophole, stuft, dodge, 
excuse; articulation (of a sound); O eath- 
ode (el.) | lJjjJ-I rA* ^ phonetics 

£j£ takrxj education, training (in 
schools, Colleges); raising, upbringing, 
rearing (of children); extraction; deriva- 
tion, deduction; Interpretation, exegesis 

r^j*-^ ikräj taking out, moving out, 
removal; unloading, disembarkment, de- 
trainment ; emission ; moving, carting 
away, hauling off; evacuation; publica- 
tion , publicizing, bringing before the 
public; extraction, removal; elimination; 
dismissal, removal (from an office); oust- 
ing, expulsion, eviction, expatriation, 
banishment (from a country); excretion 
(biol.); finding out, discovery, figuring 
out; training, formation, education; 
directum, productton, Btaging (motion 
pictures, theater) | r|/-Vl JjJ (tatoaüä) 

to have the. direction .(motion pictures, 
theater) ; ... r[^- 1 j- directed by . . . 
(motion picture) 

r-Ji 1 takarruj graduation (from a 
school or College) 

r- j LJc tajcäruj Separation , disassocia- 
tion, disengagement, (mutual) with- 

r\j^jL*\ isiikräj taking out, moving out, 
pulling out, removal; withdra wing ; ex- 
traction, derivation, gaining (of in- 
dustrial products, etc.), mining, re- 
covery (of mineral resources); prepara- 
tion of an extract; excerpting, copying; 
deduction, inference; Solution (of a 
prob lern) 

rjU- kärij outer, outBide, outward, 
exterior; external, foreign; outside, ex- 
terior (n.); foreign country or countries; 
quotient (arith.); kärija (prep.) outside, 
out of; U-jU- kärijan outside | je U-jU- 
outside of, apart from; rjU-' ti abroad, 
in foreign countries; outside; rj^-l J' 
abroad, to foreign countries; to the out- 
side, outward, out 

<j--jU-M £1 Khärga (town in central 
Egypt, in Khärga oasis) 

j-jU- käriji outer, out- (in Compounds), 
outside, outward, exterior, external ; 
foreign; nonresident ] «^jU- «.iL* ( r %yäda) 
policlinic; L>-jU-'l «j\jj ministry of 
foreign (external) affairs, foreign min- 
istry; (tTJ^ -^*^ (tilmid) a student 
not living at a boarding school, a day 

rrj\y- kawärij 2 the Khawarij, Kha- 
rijitea (the oldest religiouB sect of Islam); 
dissenters, dissidents, backsliders, rebele 

■rj*- mukrij pl. -ün (screen or stage) 

rj£ mukraj excerpt, extract (from 
a book); oU^Jt exeretions (biol.) 



rj*«s- mutakarrij pl. -ün graduate 
( j or ,> of a school or oollege) 

r_f*i—* mustakraj pl. -ät eztraot; 
excorpt (,> from), partial oopy (,> of) 

ji-ji- ka.rka.ra to snore 

1 ^/- karida a tobe a virgin, be untouched, 
innooent, chaste 

i*ij*- karida pl. -ill^- karä'id 1 , ^*- 
kurud virgin; unbored pearl 

'•■i/ - kurda scrap metal, sorap iron; pl. 
olj^*- fcur<fau>dt notionfi, smallwarefl; 
small goods, Bmalls, miscellaneoua Bmall 
articles; (eg. also) novelties, fanoy goods 
for ladiea 

j*-^- tcurdaji doaler in miscellaneoua 

3*j*- kurdaq, kurduq small shot, buckshot 

Jj/- kardal (coli.; n. un. •) mußtard eeeds; 

jjt- karaza \ u to pierce, bore (* 

jji- karaz (coli.; n. un. '*) pearla 

jjjt mikraz pl. JjLit makäriz* awl; 

Jlyt mikraz awl; punch 

1 u - J rf- fcarwa a (fcaras) to be dumb, mute; to 
become silent, keep silent, hold one's 
tongue IV to silence, reduce to silence, 
gag (. s.o.) 

^^i karaa dumbness, muteness 

^y-1 afcrtw 8 , f. »U^t karsä' 1 , pl. ^j*- 
kurs, jU^- kuraän dumb, mute 

jU/- fairaön 1 dumb, mute 

■jU/- fcartwän, ÜU^- karasäna concrete 
(beton) | O **»!— üL-y- (mtwaUoAa) 
armored (or reinforced) concrete 

i- kurHf (coli.; n. un. I) pl. i-ir*^ 
karäSif artichoke 

ij+j*' karasa u (fcoi?) to guess, estimate (*; to conjecture, surmise (*, 
form conjeotures {* about); to teil an 
untruth, a falsehood, to lie V to fabricate 
lies ( Jp againat s.o.) ; to raise false 
accusations (J* against s.o.) 

ij+jt- JctTf, kurs pl. üL*^- kirfän, 
kuraän earring 

^[f- karräs pl. -ün liar, alanderer, 

]»,*- karafa u i (karf) to pull off, strip (* 
leavea from a tree); to turn, lathe, shape 
with a lathe (* wood, metal); to exag- 
gerate, boast, brag, lie; — u (eg.) to cut 
into small pieces; to mince, chop, dice 
(* meat, carrots, etc.) II (eg.) to cut into 
small pieces, mince, chop (* VII to 
be turned, be lathed, be shaped with a 
lathe; to join, enter (j, ilL* j /* ailk 
an Organization, a Community), af- 
filiate (J, <iiL j with an Organization, 
a Community); to penetrate (j or 
into); to plunge headlong (j into), 
embark rashly (j upon); to labor, slave, 
toil | »&J1 j \,j£-\ (buka) to break into 

]ßjS- kar% pulling-off (of leaves); up 

itüll i»/- iüii see üji; turning, turnery 

^\jt- karrät pl. -ün turner, lather; 
braggart, bluffer, storyteller 

&\r~ kiräfa tumor's trade, turnery, 
art of turning 

'^[^ karräfa skirt (st/r.) 

iL*j*- karlta pl. J^J^- karä'if 3 , J*/- 
kurut map, chart 

Sl^jt miJcrafa, makrata pl. i»jljt ma* 
kärit* lathe 

liyU- kärifa pl. -ät map, chart 

iyjjc mahnt cone (maih.); conic 

ijyt mahrityi conic 



ij^j*- karfüS, <i£j*- karfü&i pl. (ji^Ulyt 
kardfU* cartridge; lead (of a penoil); 
cartouche (arch.); daybook 

Jli^- karfäl oats 

(j^j*- kurfüm pl. ^[/- £ar<tyfm a probosois, 
trunk (of the elephant) ; hose 

f.A^"' al-karpüm Khartoum {oapital of 
the Sudanese Republic) 

ir.\*\j*- karäjin,' a kind of earthworm 

J_Ulyi fcarä$»n* wormlike, vermiform 

1*^^*- karplf rhinoceros 

9j»- karu'a u (fcur\ i*[^- karä'a) and kari'a 
a (kara') to droop, be or become slack, 
limp, flabby; to be or become languid, 
soft, spinelesa, yielding VII do. Till to 
invent, devise, contrive (* ; to 
create, originate (* 

9/- kari* and *t mJ J- kari' soft, languid, 
yielding, spinelesa, devoid of energy, 

9jj>- kirwa' castor-oil plant, palma 
Christi (Ricinus communis; bot.) 

f-lj^-l iJctirä' pl. -ät invention 

f- juft muktari' pl. -ün inventor 

?}£■ muktara' pl. -ö( invention 

Jiy- karifa a (karaf) to dote, be senile and 
feeble-minded; to drivel, talk foolishly 

uyi karaf feeble-mindedness, dotage, 
aenility; childishness (of an old man) 

Ji^- kari} and <3l*/- karfän feeble- 
minded, doting; childish; dotard 

•Juj*- karlf autumn, fall 

jlj*- karifi autumnal 

Jtjj*- karüf pl. jl^- kiräf, ii^-l 
akrifa, oli^ kirfän young sheep, lamb, 
yearling; wether 

<it^*i kuräfa pl. -öf superstition; fable, 
fairy tale 

jl^- kuräfi fabulous, fictitious, leg- 

ii^jt makrafa prattle, drivel, twaddle, J 

boah ™ 

L-Aij£ takrif folly , delusion ; foolish 
talk, drivel, twaddle, boah, bunoombe 

•Jj>J£ mukarrif childish, foolish ; (pl. 
-ün) prattler, chatterbox, windbag; char- 
latan | 

ij^j*- JcarfaSa to shuffle, mix (* 

<£jij*- karfüSa pl. J^]j*- karäfiS* card 
of low value, discard (in card playing) < 

3j*- karaqa i u {karq) to tear, rend, tear I 

apart (*; to make a hole (* in); to 
perforate, pierce, bore (* ; to 
penetrate (*, break, pass (* through; to traverse, cross, transit (*, 
a oountry); to violate, impair, infringe 
(*, encroach {* upon); to break | 

(* a vow, and the like), commit a breach 
of (*); to exceed the ordinary, be un- 
usual, extraordinary, unprecedented, un- j 

heard-of | ä^UII Jyi to go beyond what 
is ordinary or customary IV to lurk, lie 
in wait V and VII to be torn, be rent, be 
pierced, be broken VIII to pierce (* I ; to cut, break, pass (* through, 
penetrate (*; to traverse, cross, 
transit (*, travel through (*); 
to exceed {* e.g., a limit), go beyond (*) | 4<uL< Jj^*-I (masämi'ahü) to < 

shrill in s.o.'s ears 

3j*- karq tearing, rending, laceration; 
piercing, boring, Perforation ; penetration ; 
disruption; breakthrough ; tra Version, 
crossing, transit; violation, breach; (pl. 
3jj+- kurüq) hole, aperture, opening | 
(•Uil ,y$\ 3jii- Je. al-amn al-'ämm violation 
of public security; ÜjliUii 3j*- offense 
againat common usage, violation of 
mores; «51^1 J* Jj^l «— Jl (ittasa'a) the 
rent is beyond repair 


3j»- kurq and «^ kurqa awkwardness, 
olumsineBs; Btupidity | Jij\ j J/- (ra'y) 
^tupidity; folly, madneas; j Ji^J-'l J* 
... ü! J\j\ it would be very unwise 
to ... 

ij/- £trg» pl. Jyt ttrof tatter, shred; 
rag; Bcrap (of paper); polishing oloth; 
eraser (cloth) 

JyM akraq*, f. .1*/- JcarqcT*, pl. J/- 
£wrj clumsy, awkward; stupid; irregulär; 
illegal, illieit, unlawful 

Ö^fc makraqa trickery, sleight of hand, 
legerdemain, hoous-pocus, swindle 

Jjljt makdriq* a kind of pastry (tun.) 

Jlj^-I iktiräq penetration; pieroing, 
disruption; tra Version, orossing, transit 

JjU- £är»g and {#jUI or) oUl JjU- 
exceeding the customary, unusual, extra- 
ordinary, unprecedented, unheard-of; 
pl. 3j\j+ kawärvf preternatural phe- 
nomena, miracles; that whioh transoends 
the oonceivable or the rational | JjU- 
4M.UI supernatural ; Cj UjLJ.1 3j \j*- k. 
al-mufädafät miraoulouB ooincidences 

3 fit- muktaraq passage, passageway 

fyZ- karama i (karm) and II to pierce (*, make a hole or holes {* in); to 
perforate (* Tu to be pieroed, be 
riddled, be tom; to be deranged, un- 
settled, disorganized; to come to an 
end, run out, peter out, get lost VIII to 
destroy, annihilate (• s.o.); to carry 
off, carry away (• s.o., of death); to 
break (u>ji~JI the ranke), pass through (*) 

-»y- karm pl. *jj- kvrüm gap, blank 
(e.g., in a manuscript, or the like) 

*S~ kvrm hole | ij^\ *j- k. al-ibra 
eye of the needle 

**[,+ karräma drill, bit, auger, gimlet; 
punch, perforator 

*j»-\ akram 1 having a perforated nasal 

fjt takrim pieroing, boring, drilling; 
Perforation; punching; lacemaking, lace- 

itjfi takrima lace, lacework, open- 
work, filigree 

fl^l inkiräm etate of unsettlement, 
disturbance, disOrganization, derange- 
ment | üj l^xll j plyfi'l (tawäzun) disturb- 
ance of equilibrium 

Ajjif- makrüm defective, incomplete 
(e.g., a manuscript) 

l»ye. mukarram perforated; done in 
openwork, in filigree 

ülyi kwrmä&a pl. -ät (ir.) harrow 

*~>jj»~ kurnüb oarob, looust; carob bean, 
locust pod, St.-John's-bread 

Jjj*- kirnig pl. jj[f- karäniq* young hare, 

t_Jj*~ **rwo' castor-oil plant, palma Christi 
(Ricinus communis; 60*.) 

x y- kazxa u to pierce, transflx (* s.o.); to 
stab {• s.o., t-> with) Till to pierce, 
transfix (• s.o., *-> with) 

*y- kazz pl. jjj*- kuzüz silk, BÜk fabrio 

l j^- kazara u to look askance (• at s.o.), give 
b.o. (♦) a sidelong glance 

^tjJ-' I j* bahr al-kazar the Caspian Sea 

j\)j*»- kaizurän pl. jjL*- kayäzir* cane, reed; 
rattan; bamboo 

*j\)lr*- kaizuräna cane, atiok 

£j*~ kaza'a a {kaz*) to cut, sever (* 

J-*)*- kuia'bal idle talk, bosh 

Üjy*- kuza'bala pl. -ät idle talk, boBh; 
joke, jest, hoax; fib, yam; cock and bull 



J>j*- kazaf pottery, earthenware; poroelain, 
china; ceramics 

Sy- kazaf % (made of ) porcelain ; 
porcelaneous, porcelain, china (adj.) 

J» Ij». kazzäf dealer in chinaware ; 

Äi|j>- fcizäfa potter's trade, pottery 

1 3j*- kazaqa t to pierce, stab, transfix (*, • 
s.o.,; to drive, ram (,j>jVl j * into the ground); to tear, rend, rip 
apart (* II to tear, rend, rip apart 
(a V and VII pass of I and II 

3j>- kazq rip, rent, tear, hole (in a 

Jjjl»- käzüq pl. ,jij\^- kawäztq* post, 
Btakc, pole; dirty trick j <3jjU- II» that's 
tough luck! 

3 3jj+ look up alphabetically 

L>y- kazala i {kazl) to cut off, sever {*; 
to hinder, prevent, hold back, restrain, 
keep (« s.o., je from) VIII to cut off, cut 
ehort, end abruptly (*; to shorten, 
abridge, abbreviate (*; to stand 
alone {<-> with an opinion) 

J'j^-1 iktizäl abridgment, abbreviation; 
shorthand, stenography 

<J/j£ muktazil stenographer 

?y- kazama i (kazm) to string, thread (* 
pearls) | <ij\ *yi- (anfahü) to pierce the 
nasal septum (of a camel) and uisert the 
nose ring for the bridle; to make s.o. 
aubservient to one's will 

j»l^. kizäm, i»l^- kizäma pl. f l^> ka* 
zä'im 2 nose ring 

l/|^- kuzämä lavender {bot.) 

öji- kazana u (kam) to störe, stock, lay up, 
hoard, aniasa, accumulate; to keep 
secret, keep (* a secret) II and VIII to 
störe, stock, lay up, warehouse (*; 
to störe up, accumulate (*; to dam 

(*; to put in safekeeping, keep (* 

öy- Jcaxn storing; accumulation, 
hoarding, amasaing ; storage, warehousing 

~*iy- kazna treasure houae ; safe, 
coffer, vault ; wardrobe, looker ; cup- 

Ülj»- kizäna pl. -ät, £\y- kax&in* 
treasure houae ; vault, coffer, safe ; 
treasury, treasury department (of an 
official agency), any offioe for the 
deposit and disbursement of funds; 
locker, wardrobe, closet; cupboard; li- 
brary | ÜjoJI Ä*l^- k. ad-daula and ~*j>\)*- 
i.1* (ämma) public treasury, exchequer; 
rdiil Z\y^- k. at-talj ioebox, refrigerator; 
i_^&l 'ü\y- k. al-kutvb bookcase; library; 
l~^>j~a*- Z\y- (hifüpiya) private library; 
^'iU.I 4j\jii- wardrobe, closet, locker 

oj>- jeazina pl. £\yi- kazä'in* treasure 
house; publio treasury, exchequer; treas- 
ury, treasury department (of an official 
agency), any offioe for the deposit and 
disbursement of funds; cashier's offioe; 
vault, coffer, safe; cashbox, tili (of a 
merchant) |i-*»U-M oj^l (käfpa) (formerly) 
the Royal Privy Püree (Ir.); ~*}jJÜ\ "*Lij>- 
k. ad-daula public treasury, exchequer; 
ii^l, iij^, ä-u^lj iyö <jj*- cash register 

ö\y- kazzän pl, -ät, ^ j\j*- kazäxin* 
dam ; reservoir ; basin, sump, pool ; 
storage tank (also for oil); — (pl. -ün) 
storehouseman, warehouseman 

öjjt makzan pl. oj\Jt makäzin* 
storeroom, storehouse; depoaitory; stook- 
room, storage room; depot, magazine, 
warehouse ; störe, shop, department 
störe ; ujil al-makzan the Makhzan, 
the Moroccan govemment (formerly: 
governmental finance department; Mor.) \ 
hj*\ b}A m. adutiya drugstore; üjit 
j\x^>^\ m. al-i$där shipping room (com.); 
^J^\ oyt m, al-'aß trunk (of an auto- 



öyfi- makzani being under govenunent 
control or adminißtration, belonging to 
the govemment (Mor.) | <?jf- ^*' 
(amläk) govemment land (Mor.) 

Jjljt mahäzini pl. -%ya native gendarme 

üjlit makäzin*; Jj^UI üjljt m. af-fariq 
the nearest, shortest way, a short cut 

^yfi- makzanji storehouseman, ware- 
jl-L»J*- kwoTwiär, kaznadär treasurer 

jj*- takzin storage, storing, ware- 
housing; storing up, accumulation ; dam- 


ujU- käzin pl. *Jji- kazana, o]y- 
kuzzän treasurer 

üjjit makzün stored, stored up, 
deposited, warehoused; (pl. -#) stock, 
Bupply, stock in trade 

tfj*- kaziya a (kizy, kutan) to be or become 
base, vile, despicable, oontemptible ; 
(ölj*^ kazäya) to be ashamed (j- of); — 
kazä i to disgrace, dishonor, discredit, 
put to ehame (* s.o.); to shame, abash, 
embarrass (♦ s.o.) IT to humiliate, de- 
grade, dishonor (• s.o.); to shame, put to 
shame {» s.o.) X to be ashamed 

^y- Jfizy, hazan shame, disgrace, 
ignominy | I^JJÄ L yä la-l-kazä what a 
shame ! 

üLjit kasyän*, f. LjA kazyä, pl. lulyt 
kazäyä ashamed, shamefaced, abashed; 
shameful, disgraeeful, scandalous, in- 
famouB, base, mean, vile 

«Ijjc makzäh pl. jljt makäzin a shame- 
ful thing, a diagrace; reason for shame; 
pl. shameful things, disgraeeful aots, 

jjje majeziy ashamed, shamefaced, 
abashed; embarrassed, confused; jji^l 
the Devil 

jfi- mukzin disgraeeful, shameful, 
scandalous, infamous 

Äjjjt mukziya pl. -ät disgraeeful aot, 

^-^ kassa (Ist pers. perf. Jcasistu) a (<-»- 
kisaa, 1-L-ji. kasäsa) to be mean, base, 
vile; to become less, deorease, diminish, 
depreoiate, fall in value; — kassa u to 
lassen, reduce, diminish (* II to 
lassen, reduce, diminish (* 

^.^ Jaus lettuoe (Lactuca sativa ; 

iw^ kassa (n. un.) head of lettuce 

'<-+ kisaa and S-l— *- kasäsa meanness, 
baseness, vileness 

- **-r- kasis pl. »I— *-1 akissä'* mean, 
base, low, vile, despicable, contemptible, 

<-£_»- faw*«a pl. ^-JL 
trick, infamy 

JfcoÄi'w 3 mean 

t»»- falsa*» o (faw*) to chase away (• s.o.); — 
'(j-*- kasi'a a to be driven away, make 
off | cJ—»- kaei'ta beat it ! scram ! iLJl t-jtl 
ifcsa" üaika do. 

L-j^l aksa' s baser, meaner, more des- 
picable; weaker 

*^-U- faüt' spumed, rejeeted, outeast; 
low, base, vulgär, despicable, contempt- 
ible; disgraeeful, shameful, scandalous, 
infamous; futile, vain (attempt); weak, 
feeble, languid 

&?.-,{■ kastaka indisposition 

ib-Jt mukastak indisposed, unwell, 

j*J- kasira a (jeusr, jL_*> kasär, «jL-*- kasära, 
ülj^ji- kusrän) to ineur a loss, suffer 
damage; to lose, forfeit (*; to go 
astray, lose one'a way, get lost ; to 
periah II to cause loss or damage (• to 
s.o.); to do härm (» to s.o.); to destroy, 



min (» s.o.); to corrupt, deprave (• s.o.) 
IT to cause a loss (• to s.o.); to shorten, 
cut, reduce (* X to grudge (J* 
or j s.o. *, envy s.o. ( J* or j) the 
possession of (*) 

_ / _>- kuar loss, damage 

jl^r-*- kusrän loss, damage, forfeiture; 
decline, deterioration ; depravity, pro- 

IjLs- kasära pl. J\~J- kasä'ir* loss, 
damage ; pl. losses, casualties (j in ; 
mit.) | •)!—*■ L what a pity! too badl 

01^-»;- kasrän (eg.) loser; aflfected by 
damage or loss 

^U- £<£«»> lost, hopeless ; involving 
substantial losses; loser; depraved, cor- 
rupted; profligate, disreputable person, 

j-Jt mukassir causing damage, harm- 
ful, noxious, injurioua, detrimental 

l_»- karnfa % (kasf, «J»>-^ kusüf) to sink, 
sink down, give way, cave in, disappear, 
go down ; to be eclipsed (moon) ; — % (kasf) 
to cause to sink, cause to give way | 
jJylM 4j 4i I ,J*-»- k. llähu bihi l~ar$a God 
made him sink into the ground, God 
made the ground swallow him up 
VII to sink, sink down, go down 

<J&.-*- kasf baseness, ignominy, disgrace, 
shame; inferiority | Li-»- fl— säma 
kasfan to humüiate, abäse, degrade {• s.o.) 

i_jj-»- kusüf occultation (astron.) ; 
lunar eclipse 

^ kaiia % u (JcaSi) to enter (j 

^Ll»- kiSäS vermin, insecta 

i*- II to lignify, become woody or wood- 
like; to line, face or caae with wood, to 
panel, wainscot (* V to lignify, 
become woody or woodlike; to become 
bard, stiff, firm, rigid; to stiften, freeze 
(e.g., with panic) 

«_-i»- kasab pl. ujLI^I akSäb wood, 
lumber, timber | »Lü^l i_, *.r- k. al-anbiya 
guaiacum wood, lignum vitae 

i-i*- kaSaba pl. -ät, t_jLl^l ak&äb piece 
of wood; a timber; pale, post; plank, 
board | c— II 4JL+. k. al-mayyit coffin; 
r/-il «--*"■ b< oX-masrah stage (of a 
theater), -y-ll '<-!+■ J* on the "boards" 

,ji>- Jcaiabl wooden, woody, ligneoua, 
made of wood; timber-, lumber- (in 

t_jli*^ kaSSäb pl. • lumber merchant 

l^aJL^ takSib paneling, wainscoting 

4 T iiJc takiiba pl. -ät, t-^ilic takäSib* 
barrack, wooden shed 

l_-L*i takaiSub stiffness, rigor, rigidity; 

i_JL^i* mutakaSiib frozen, rigid; stiff, 
bard, firm 

C~L*- kuSt pl. ZjjI^- huSüt javelin 

-^U^i*- kaükäi (coli. ; n. un. S) pl. ^^S-lL»- 
kaSäkii 2 poppy 

9 ,ji*m.L*- ka&kas'a to dank, clatter, rattle; to 

iü*i». kaSkaSa pl. -ät noise; dank, 
clatter, rattle; rustfe, rustling; craah 

Ü*iJL>. (-= Ü~L£ ) rattle (toy) 

lj{±+ kuSära leftover (of a meal); offal, 
refuse ; a discard, a worthlesB thing 

»A*. kaSa'a a (fj^- kuiü') to be submissive, 
be humhle ; to humble o.s. ; to fade 
(voice) | «^-m-j *~S- (basarihi) to lower 
one's oyes II to humble, reduce to Sub- 
mission (» fl.o.) V to display humility; 
to be humble; to be moved, be touched 

Yy-±- kuiü' submissiveness, Submis- 
sion, humility 

*iU- käSi' pl. 

kaia'a submissive, 

JiLi». kufäf various fruita, stewed and soaked 
in airup or rose water, compoto 

JGLu- Jpuikär coarsely ground grain, grita 
<±j_£i>- kaikariSa Bcab, slough, Bcurf 
-V II to intozicate, make drunk (• b.o.) 

-i^- kaäm noBe; mouth; vent, outlet 

(>**»■ kaüüm pl. ^it* kayäHm* noee; 
gills; also pl. *-2t*- noee 

.^1* kaAuna u (*i>i* fcuiüna) to be rough, 
coarse, crude; to be raw, uncut, un- 
polished II to roughen, coarsen, make 
crude (* III to be rüde, uncivil, 
boorish {• to s.o.) V to display rough, 
rüde, or coarse, manners; to be rough, 
uneven; to lead a rough life XII ü*jZS-\ 
ik&iu&ina to be rough, coarse. crude; to 
lead a rough life 

jJL* kaiin pl. üLiw- kÜ&n rough, crude ; 
coarse (as opposed to jjL» nä"im); rüde, 
unpolished, uncouth; tough, harsh (life); 
hoarse, raucous (voioe) | iJ ~Jl\ jJL»- k. 
al-lama coarse to the touch, rough, un- 
even, wrinkled; jl^l ^ k. alkviq 
uncouth, boorish; *j±H\ ^2+- &. al-^Üra 
thick-shelled; ^'1 ^M (j iiu ) th « 

strong sex 


jlrf.1 akian*, f. .Lit kaind'*, pl. jl* 
kuin rough, tough, harsh, rüde, un- 

*LiX\ al'haSnä' the vulgär, uneducated 

ij^- Jcuiüna roughness, coarseneea; 
crudeness; rudeness 

^ kaHya a (£aiy, U*- kaSya) to fear, 
dread (« s.o., *, J» for s.o. or, 
be afraid (* of) II to frighten, soare, 
terrify, alarm (• s.o.) V = I; VIII to be 
embarrassed; to be ashamed 

IJJ- fea&ya fear, anxiety, apprehenaion | 
j+ ^*- kaiyatan min for fear of 

J*-l affiä mora timorous, more fearful; 
more to be feared, more frightening 

üLi* Jfaiyän*, f. Li* kaiyä, pl. LH* 
kaJSäyä timorous, timid, anxious, ap- 

^U- fcöÄn timorous, timid, anxious, 

i* ka&a u to distraguish, favor (especially, 
before others), Single out {• s.o.), beatow 
special honora (• upon s.o., in preference 
to others); to endow (»_> • a.o. with), 
confer, beatow (»_> • upon s.o.; to 
apportion, allot, assign, accord, give, 
dedicate, devote (»-> • to s.o., in 
preference to others); with <—iJ : to take 
possession (* of), demand (*; also 
4 ,. j; u ^j**- nafaahü); to be specifically 
associated (• with s.o.), be characteristic 
(. of s.o.), be peculiar (. to); to apply 
in particular {* to), be especially valid 
(* for); to concern, regard (• s.o., *, 
have special relevance (* to), bear (* 
on) I objo <**£■ (bi-'inäyatihi) to devote 
one's attention to s.o., favor s.o. with 
one's attention; ^JUl* *-»* (bi-g-dikr) to 
makft special mention of s.o. or; 
J+ l _^-\ß (ajnwu) I mention, among 
them, especially (with foll. acc); ^ l-i* 
i L^ this does not concern me, this is 
none of my business II to specify, 
partioularize, itemize (*; to spe- 
oialize (*, narrow, restriot (J * to); to designate, destine, set aside, 
earmark, Single out ( J * or . s.o. or 
for a purpose); to devote in particular, 
dedicate, assign {J * to); to allocate, 
allot, apportion (J * to); to ap- 
propriate (J * funds for); to reBerve, 
hold, withhold (J * for); to tie 
down (*-> • a.o. to a special field) V to 
Bpecialize ( J in, also »-* or j, in a scientific 
field); to devote all one's attention 
(J to; to apply o.s. <J to), go in 
for (J); to be peculiar (»-> to); to 


be choeen, destined, earmarked <J for) 
VIII to distinguish, favor (l-> • s.o. with), 
confer distinction (t-» » upon 8.0. by); to 
devote, give, accord, afford (*-> • to s.o., in preference to others); to dedioate 
(i-t • to s.o., e.g., one's Services); 
(with 4-JJ) to täte exolusive posBession 
(a of), claim, demand {*, lay 
special claim (* to; also <~Ju *j *z*-\ 
nafsahü) ; to be distinguished, be marked 
(<-* by); to possess alone, in distinction 
from all others, have above others {<^>, have the advantage over others 
(i~> that); to be peculiar (*-> to); to 
concern, regard (<~>, bear (v on); to 
be pertinent, have rele vanoe ( <_j to) , 
have to do ( *_> with) ; to be duly quaJified, 
be competent, have Jurisdiction {*_> in; 
e.g., an authority); to have as a special 
function or task (<_* 

^ ka$$ lettuce (bot.) 

u ^ t i~ kupp pl. ^U^ kifäfi, ^U^-l 
akfiäf* o*J~** m foffy nut > Bhack, shanty, 

- kaf?a jet of water 


,j-»L*»- Jfapäf interstiee, 
crevice, crack, gap 

<*L**- kapä#a crevice, crack, interval, 

<**~a>- kapi#a pl. ,j*jL+ji- kapä'ip* 
special characteristic or quality, specialty, 
particularity, peculiarity 

L*~*i^ kiaaipan particularly, especially, 

j/^ kupü$ specialness; L-y^*- Jeu* 
fiüfan especially, in partioular, speoifical- 
ly J u ^j^ak f ,j-y~**- j and o-y-*^- j* 
(with foll. genit.) as to, concerning, 
regarding, with respeot to, as regards; 
yJ fym£\ \Xf and %J *y*£\ ii» j* in this 
oonnection, in this matter, in tbis 
respect, about this, concerning this; Je 
*y*£\ and ü ^^m^-\ tt-j J* (wajhi l-k.) 

especially, particularly, in particular, 


(^y™**- kupüsi special; private, per- 

l^L*»- kapäfa poverty, penury, priva- 
tion, destitution, want 

,ja+-\ affofö 2 more special, more speoifio | 
^^■"1/1 J* especially; ^^-^1 j do. 

»Uu^l akisfä' 2 intimate friends, con- 

JLa^-I iksä'i see a lS *+ 

- r -'*■ takfis specialization; speoifica- 
tion, particularization, itemization; des- 
ignation, destination (for a purpose); 
allotment, apportionment, allocation ; 
reservation; (pl. -ät) appropriation, fi- 
nancial allocation; credit | l _ r ^ r ^ J* 
and (J ^L ;r ai^\ o-j J» Bpecifioally 

iJ M~*ji takappuf specialization (esp. t in 
a scientific field) 

^Lai^l iktifify pl. -dt jurisdiotion, 
competence; speoial province or domain, 
bailiwiok (fig.); pl. prerogatives, Privi- 
leges, monopolies ; concesaions (Intern. 
Law); u ^Lm^-VI (olj) j'i duly quaüfied, 
authorized, responsible, competent; !/li 
^La^-Vi scope of competence, sphere of 
authority, Jurisdiction, province, domain, 

^La^.1 iJftisäfi pl. -ün specialist 

,j*U- kä$a special, particular; specific, 
peculiar; relative, relevant, pertinent 
(<_j to), concerning (<^>; earmarked, 
designated, destined, set aside (<~> for); 
especially valid or true (<-> for), especially 
applicable (<_j to), characteristic (<-> of); 
distinguished ; private ; exclusive, not 
public | t-> i^U- *Joj*r professional 
Journal for...; Aji\j ,j<*l£l ('ämm) the 
special and the general; high and low, 
all people; ^-»1^1 k-^JJl physician in 

<*»U- bdffa pl. j-»^»- kawöffi exclusive 
property; private possession; specialty, 
particularity, peculiarity, characteristic, 
property, attribute; essence, intrinsio 
natura; leading personalities, people of 
dwtinction, <^U^I the upper class, the 
educated; käffiaian and 1^1* bi-feä$fatin 
especially, in particular | j— Äil <^U- j 
fl %. anfusihim at the bottom of their 
hearts, deep inaide 

wU- häfflya pl. -öl, ^L*^ kapä'ifi* 
speoialty, particularity. characteristic, 
peculiarity, property, special attribute, 
feature, trait, qualifi cation ; prerogative, 
privilege; Jurisdiction, competence 

<+>ji- feuwaiefia (dimin. of <**U- häffa) 
one's own business, private affair | J»»b 
jjJ i-«i^- j he meddlea in my private 

(j-y-^^ makpüß special 

tr *** mujfa$$a# chosen, set aside, ear- 
marked, designated, destined (J for); 
allotted, apportioned, allocated; — pl. 
■•■l - -'*■ (financial) allocations; appropria- 
tions, oredits; (daily) allowancea; (food) 
rations | ÜUl oU^ (itfäfiya) extra 
allowancea; £lLL1 oU^ m. aJ-mnZtfc civil 

u *z£ mukta$$ pertaining, pertinent, 
relevant, relative (<-• to); duly qualified, 
authorized, responsible, competent; spe- 
cial; pl. oL*ii muktaffät competences | 
<*zjk\ oL.UÜ.1 the competent authorities; 
i-*ijil j-'tjjl oompetent (or authoritative) 

^+- Jpapaba i and kafiba a (ki$b) to be 
fertile (soil) II to make fertile (*; 
to fructify, fertilize {* IV = I 

<^-**- hifb fertility; abundance, plenty; 
superabundanoe, profusion 

u^ ka#ib and vi-"" 1- £°?*& fertile, 
productive, fat 

hj~**- fpuptiba fertility 

- tafytb fructification, fertilization 
V L*^I ityäb fertility 
oL^ mulfofi^ibät fertilizers 
1. <•*■ mukfib fertile, productive, fat 

j**- fcafira a (üapar) to become cold; to 
Buffer from the cold III to olasp (* s.o.) 
around the waiBt, put one's arm around 
s.o.'s (•) waist Till to shorten, condenae, 
abridge, epitomize (* ; to sum 
marize (* 

_ r M^- faer pl. jj~**- kufiür hip, haunoh, 

'*j**t- mikfara pl. j*Äf- malpäeir* stick, 
baton, wand; maoe, scepter 

jL*i»-l iJptifiär shortening, condensation, 
abridgment, summarization, epitomiz 
ing (of a statement); hrevity | jLa^VL; 
and jL*^-Ij briefly, in short, in a few 

j^z£- muktafar shortened, Condensed, 
abridged ; hrief , short ; concise, terse 
Buccinot; (pl. -ät) short excerpt, brief 
exposition, Synopsis, outline, summary, 
abstract, epitome, compendium 

• ^U- Jfäfiira pl. j~*\)*- kawäpir* hip, 
haunch, waist | *jjj\± j «S^i (Sauha) a 
thorn in bis side 

i_' r- jfoßafa i {kapf) to mend, repair, Bew 
(* a shoe) 

<L*s- fca#fa pl. J»L*»- jeifäf basket 
(made of palm leaves) 

iL*»- kufila pl. J-**-.£ui»aJ, -ät tuft; bunch, 
Cluster; lock, wisp (of hair) 

iL«»- Jfaßla pl. JLa»- kifäl quality, 
property, characteristic, peculiarity, trait; 
(natural) disposition 

~m»- kafama i to defeat (* an Opponent) in 
argument; to deduct, subtraot (*, 
j* from); to discount (* a bill, a note^ 
III to argue, quarrel, dispute (♦ with s.o.' 


to bring legal action (* against s.o.), sue 
{» s.o.), litigate (* with); VI to quarrel, 
argue, have a fight; to go to law, carry 
on a lawBuit, litigate («_• with s.o.) 
VII to be deducted, be subtracted VIII to 
quarrel, argue, have a fight 

~*»- ka?m pl, jo-^*- kußüm, j»L**-i 
afoäm adversary, antagonist, Opponent; 
opposing party (in a lawsuit) 

**»- Jcapn deduction ; subtraction ; 
rebate ; discount ; pl. rj-**- hupüm 
liabilities (fin.) | -^'1 j**. ri r r al-k. 
discount rate, bank rate; oVL^JI **»■ 
Jf. al-kambiyälät bill discount 

p-**- kafim pl. *] c ^- kupamä* 1 , o)?**- 
jcupmän adversary, antagonist, Opponent 

<ßj^- kupüma quarre), argument, dis- 
pute, oontroversy, feud; lawsuit 

l*L^ jfipäm quarrel, argument, dispute, 
controversy, feud; lawsuit 

f^f- rnuf$ä$im adversary, Opponent, 
opposing party (in a lawsuit); antagonist; 

^- kapä % (»L- 
Ute (• s.o.) 

, iS *+ fcafiy p\. ol 
a castrate, eunuch 

kifä') to castrate, emasou- 
i- kipyän, «_*». kipya 

■ kutya pl. 

■ kußan testicle 

^j-ot makfiy castrated, emasculated | 
<s**- uv* (/ a ™*) gelding 
'jl^-l ikpai pl. -ün specialist; expert (of 
a specialized field) 

iJr ±± kadda {kadd) to jolt, jog (*; to 
shake {»; to frighten, scare (• s.o.) 

(J M>- ,jJ laban kadd buttermilk 

****- kadda concussion, shock, jolt; 
fright, terror, fear 

x^~U- kadaba i (kadb) to dye, color, tinge (*; — kadaba i and ka4*ba a (vj-^*- 
kudub) to be or become green (plant) II to 

color, tinge (*; to dye (* 
XU ._— »^ä*-I ikdavdaha to be or become 
green (plant) 

O <—-*>- kadb Chlorophyll (biol.) 

ujU**- kidab dye, dyestuff | O ^i^- 
l»oJI k. ad-dam hemoglobin (biol.) 

w-j™i^ Jeudüb green, greenness, green 

■-,-«««»- kadib dyed 

**,*+ kadkada (i~ki*~k*- kadkada) to Bet in 
motion, upset, rock, shake {* 

*~*lm~i.*- kadkada concussion, shock, jolt 

Ü- kadada t (kadd) to cut off, break off (* 
thorns) | a&jZ xJü- (Saukatahü) to tarne 
s.o., hold s.o. in check, curb s.o.'s power 

Ali- kadira o (kadar) to be green II to make 
green, dye or color green {* | jJui- 
^jVl (ar$) to sow the Und, tili the earth 
IX to be or become green XII j~iy±»-\ 
ikdaudara = IX 

jj^- kadir green , verdant ; verdure, 
greenery; young green crop (of gram) 

j-iA-'l al-kadir, al-kidr a well-known 
legendary figure 

~*j-**~ kudra green, greenness, green 
color; — (pl. jJ&- kudar) Vegetation, 
verdure, greenery, greens; meadow; j~i*- 

jy-i»- Ifudari greengrocer 

j L**- kadär green, greenness, green 
color; greens, herbs, potherbs 

j*-**- kadlr green 

~«jL*S- kuddra greens, herbs, potherbs 

jUi*- kaddär greengrocer 

^1 akdar*, f. .[,-irf- kadrff*, pl. ^ 
kudr green | ^LJlj ^Vl J* Jl (atä) to 
destroy everything, wreak havoc 

»\jj£\ ai-kadrä' "the Verdant" (epi- 
thet of Tunis) ; the sky 


Cj\j\j^- kadräwät vegetables; greena, 
herbe, potherbs 

»\j^m^\ al-kudairä' Paradise 

O jj~& yakdür Chlorophyll (biol.) 

*j**t- makdara meadow, lawn, turf, 
sod, greens, verdant land 

Cj\j~i£- mukaddarät vegetables 

(V**- kidrim pl. pjL**- kadärim* abundant, 
oopious ; well- watered, abounding in 
water; openhanded, generous, liberal, 

{_?+£■ mukadram designation of Buch 
oontemporaries of Mohammed, esp. of 
poete, whose Ufe span bridges the time 
of paganism and that of Islam; an old 
man who has lived through several 
generations or historical epochs 

**iti- kada'a a ifj-***- kudü') to bow, defer, 
Bubmit, yield, surrender (J to s.o., to, humble o.a. (J before), obey, 
follow ( J s.o. or ; to be subjeot ( J and 
Jl to a law, to a power, etc.), be under 
b.o.'b ( J or Jl) control II and IT to humble, 
subjugate, subdue, make tractable ( • 
s.o.) ; to submit, subject, expose ( J • or * or s.o. to , 

ff**- kv4ü* Submission, obedience, 
humility, subjeotion 

fj-**~ kadü' pl. **i*- kudu' submissive, 

pj— i»-t ikda* subjugation, subdual; 

«->U- kädi* pl. **iti- kudda*, uU_i»- 
JpwFän, kid*än submissive, humble; obe- 
dient, pliant, tractable; subject,. liable, 
prone (J to 

Li*i kadüa a to be or beoome moist II and 
IT to moisten, wet (* IX = I 

J-Ü kadil meist, wet; juioy, suc- 
oulent; refreshing, gay, lighthearted 

^t- kadama i (kadm) to munch (*, 
with a füll mouth), bite (* into 

~m*- Jcidamm vaat (said of the sea); 
sea, ocean 

*- kaffa u (feaff) to draw or trace a line { J* 
on); to draw, trace, sketoh, design {*; to write, pen (*; to oarve, 
engrave, insoribe (*; to outline, 
mark, trace out, preacribe (* J for s.o. | (|>-) IW J^ (faltan, aafran) to 
draw a line; i-^ill *L»- (Salbu) bis hair 
turaed gray II to draw lines; to rule (*; to furrow, ridge (*; to mark 
with lines or stripes, stripe, streak (*; to pencil {* the eyebrows); to 
mark, designate, earmark, indicate { *; to demarcate, delimit, delineate, 
stake out, survey {* land, real estate); 
to lay out, map out (* roads) Till to 
trace out, mark, outline, presoribe (* a 
way) ; to mark, demarcate, delimit, stake 
out, delineate (*; to map out, plan, 
projeot (* e.g., the oonatruetion of a 
oity); to make, design, devise (* a plan); 
to plan (*, make plana (a for) 

J»*- b&tt pl* -kt-** 1 to4$t liue; stroke; 
atripe, streak; (raüroad) line, line of 
communication ; telephone line; frontline 
(; furrow, ridge; handwriting; writ- 
ing, script; calligraphy, penmanahip | 
O is-h^ -1**- ( ar 4ty ground wire (radio); 
O ^5**- VI -ltJ-'l (üfin*) euneiform writing; 
•L*l*Vl i*>l>^l (amämxya) the foremost 
lines, battle lines (mü.); jjb Ja»- (bäriz) 
relievo script; 0j*jj ■^* L telephone line; 
~<ij*r ^>j^*- (jamoiya) airlines; ^-ba*- .U»- 
(hadidi) and -bJi-l i£- Ja»- Jf, sikkai cd- 
hadid raüroad line, railroad track; 
J lj ß Ja»- k. az-zawäl meridian (aslron. ; = 
jLfül .Jo-^u Ja»- je. nipf an-nahär); O J«*-'f 
jjl,— il (mismäri) euneiform writing; 
»I^u-Vl Ja»- k. al-istitvä* equator; J^iall Ja». 
k. af-pül or J^l» Ja»^ (füll) circle of longitude, 
meridian (geogr.); ^yJ/Ji J»»- k. al-'ard or 

ifjj* J*>- {'ardi) parallel (of Iatitude) 
(geogr.); »U.I *_i; Jt*. k.taqsim al-miyäh 
divido, waterahed; «Jl^SCll IjÜ\ .W- k. al- 
qüwaal-kahrabä'iya power linea; ä^-LAI J**^ 
meridian {geogr.); iuL'l ^ ^_^. to derail, 
run off the rails (train); /'-,- .W- J* 
(witw^im) Straightaway, in a straight 
line; outright, out and out; Jai-'l Jjl» J* 
(JüZ aZ-fc.) all along the line 

J**. fcu# section, district, quarter (of a 

iJ**- £a#i handwritten; linear; spear 

<U^- fcu#a matter, affair ; condition, 
State; office, function, position 

iL»- ^tf/a, fcu#a pl. JaL>^ W/af, fcufa/ a 
piece of land acquired for the purpose of 
huilding ahouae; a piece of real estate.lot; 
district; map or plan of a piece of real 
eatate, layout ; plan, project, design, inten- 
tion; line of action, course, policy, rule, 
precept, guiding principle | J**Jl 'da*. 
k. dl-'amal Operation plan, work plan; 
**j~ ja Uai-' ULI» (ixbqan) according to 
schedule, as scheduled or planned 

J»U»>- kaffäf pl. -ün penman, callig- 
rapher ; — tracing lines, leaving a 
straight trace | J*IL^ iLli (faiak) or 
iLUwi liü tracer bullet, tracer (mil.) 

-UjL^ takfit ruling, drawing of, or 
marking with, lines; lineation; designa- 
tion, marking, earmarking; surveying, 
survey (of land); planning; projecting, 
mapping out, laying out (of cities, of 
roads); plan, design 

,J*^z£ <-j (rasm) rough draft, firat 
aketch, design 

b^aif- makfüf handwritten; manuscript 

Ü^iaii maktüta pl. -ät manuscript 

JaLii mukafpaf striped, streaked, ruled; 
furrowed; designated, marked, earmark- 
ed; planned, guided, controlled; (pl. -ät) 
aketch, design, plan, layout; map (of a city) 

'^^ kafi'a a (IL^ kata') to be mistaken; to 
commit an error, make a mistake; to 
sin II to charge with an offense, in- 
criminate, declare guilty (• s.o.); to 1 

accuse (* s.o.) of an error or mistake; to 
fine (* a.o. ; tun.) IV to be mistaken, to 
err, commit an error, be at fault (j in); 
to be wrong (j about, in); to make a 
mistake (j in, with); to miss (• s.o., 
e.g., a shot; * the target); to escape (» 
s.o. or s.o.'s notice; a fact) | *Jti tWI < 

(fa'luhü) (his omen was wrong, i.e.) his 
expectations do not come true, are not 
fulfilled; that'a where he ia wrong, 
that's where he made a mistake! »U*»-l 
»^1 (Sai'u) (Ut. : the thing escaped | 

him, missed him,i.e.) he lacked it; »U*»-l 
j-i^l he failed, was unsuccessful; \^+-\ 
«JL-Lüi^l j he drew the wrong conclu 
sions; t>liill jo UmM he confused the 
two things, he mistook one thing for the 

*la*- kif sHp, lapse, fault, offenae, sin 

ü»»- kafa' and »LL»i- kafä* error; mistake, 
incorrectnesa ; offense, fault; kafa'an 1 

erroneously, by mistake | ... ül UiA^I /,* 
it is (would be) wrong to ...; tiii-'l ,-iL-»l 
isläh al'k. corrigenda, errata, list of 
corrections ; tli£ I JJ qatl al-k. ao- ' 

cidental homicide (jur.) 

4JLii>- Jcafi'a pl. -ät, IjLU*^ ka$äyä mistake, 
blunder; slip, lapse; fault, offense; crime, 
ain; fine (tun.) i 

^»U- käfi' wrong, incorrect, er- 
roneous; mistaken, at fault; (pl. «IL»- 
hufäh, actually, pl. of colloq. käfi), f. 
üU käfi'a pl. [)>\j*- kawäpi' 3 sinner 

* < J*£- mukfi' mistaken, at fault, wrong; 
incorrect, wrong, erroneous 

J*+ kafaba u (<-Li kufba, LIL*. kafäba) to ! 

deliver a public address, make a speeoh; 
to preach, deliver a sermon (^Ul J and 
^Ul an-ndsa to the people); — (kafi> t 



«Ju^ ki\ba) to propose (U to a girl; aaid 
of the man), ask for a girl's hand (U) in 
marriage (J on behalf of s.o.; said of the 
matchmaker) ; to give in marriage, 
betroth, affiance, engage (J* or J «ü 
one's daughter to s.o.) | Uj> ,_Ji». (wud* 
dahä) and l^oj* ^-A» 1 - (mawaddatahä) he 
courted her love III to address (• s.o.). 
speak, talk, direct one's words (» to s.o.), 
turn (» to s.o., orally or in writing) | *J»U- 
üjjLLJU to telephone s.o., call s.o. up; 
Ö&L *i»U- (bi-l-käf) to address s.o. on 
an intimate first-name basis Yl to talk 
to one another; to converse, confer, have 
a talk, carry on a conversation; to write 
each other, correspond, carry on a cor- 
respondence VIII to seek a girl's (U) 
hand in marriage, ask for a girl's hand 

u^Li- katb pl. v^*- h u tüb matter, af- 
fair, concern, bußiness; Situation, con- 
ditions, circumstances ; misadventure, 
mishap | ili*^ L what do you want? 
what's the trouble? what's the matter 
with you? j 4-i*^ U what concern of his 
is . . . ? what has he to do with . . . t U 
.iJii u-L». what's it all about? 

* ^ kifba courtship ; betrothal, en- 

iSui- kufia pl. i-^»»- kufab public 
address; speech; lecture, discourse; ora- 
tion; sermon, specif., Muslim Friday 
sermon, khutbah | ^Uä*^ ~<±*± opening 

V LU»- kißb pl. -ät, Um^I akfiba public 
address, speech; oration; letter, note, 
message | ^~*-ji->'Üi*- welcoming address; 
JijJ\ ^ILa k. al-'arS speech from the 
throne; Jr-^— V 1 ^ (musta'jil) expreBS 
letter, special-delivery letter; '**•& v^ 
Je. taqdima letter of introduction ; O ^ ^ U«t 
Sjjiil **J»JI £*\* {dät al-qima al-mvqarrara) 
(= lettres avec valeur declaree) reg- 
istered, insured letters (e^.); t^UiA-'l J-a» 
fa$l al-k. (in letters:) conclusion of the 

formal greetings by the words -l« LI 
ammä ba'du; conclusion, termination, 
end; decision; unmistakable judgment; 
^IW-'i J-a» liiJLoj Jj we're through with 
one another once and for all 

jl^- jcijäbi oratorical, rhetorical, 
speech-, lecturing (in Compounds) 

c^jLrf. katlb pl. »U»- kutabä'* (public) 
Speaker ; orator ; lecturer ; preacher, 
khatib; suitor (for the hand of a girl); 

1—L*- kafiba fiancee 

<>IW- jcafäba preaching, sermonizisg, 

i>lL*t kifäba rhetoric, oratory; speech, 
lecture, discourse 

!u iL»- kufüba courtship ; betrothal, 

iXLit mukätaba pl. -ät address; public 
address, speech; proclamation ; con- 
versation, talk; Conference, parley | äJvlic 
iJixij telephone conversation, telephone 

L^LIjc takäfub conversation; talk, dis- 
cussion; (inter)communication (also, e.g., 
telephonic, by radio, etc.) | <_«1»U^)1 *J 
lugat at-t. colloquial language 

^U käfib pl. »IL* j^afcö' 1 , v 1 ^ 
fcwfldft suitor; matchmaker 

U»U- fcöftöa pl. ^IW- kuffäb woman 

*jjL»ft makfüba fiancee 

l UL*t miikäfab addressed, spoken to; 

{gram.) second peraon 

J^iwLl look up alphabetically 

Ji*. jcatara i (ü\J**- kaiarän) to swing, wave, 
brandish (^; to shake, tremble, 
vibrate; to walk with a (proud) swing- 
ing gait; to strut, parade haughtily; — 
i u (jjk*~ kufür) to occur ( J to s.o.), come 

to s.o.'s (J) mind | *JL. J* y>|l J*± (bälihi) 
the matter came to his mind, occurred to 
him, he recalled the matter (also «Jli j 
and *)Li or Oj J*); ^WU *J J*»- he had 
an idea; JLj jLJ£ 4 j*\ {lam yakfir bi-bälin) 
an unexpected matter, one wouldn't 
dream of ; — kafura u {»jj** - fcttfüra) to 
be weighty; to be important, significant; 
to be grave, serious, momentous, danger- 
ous, perilous, riaky, hazardoua III to 
hak, hazard, atake {\->, <— ii> one's 
life); to incur the danger, run the risk 
(^ of), risk (^; to bet, wager (• 
s.o., J* a stake) IV to notify, inform (• 
s.o.), let (« s.o.) know (^ about; to 
warn, caution (» s.o.) V to walk with a 
lofty, proud gait; to atride, strut (with 
a swinging gait) ; to pendulate, osciUate, 
vibrate VI to make a bet (J* againat a 

J*+ kafar weightineBS, momentousness ; 
importance, consequence, eignificance ; 
seriousnesB, gravity; — (pl. -ät, jLU>-l 
aktär) danger, peril, menace (J* to); 
riskiness, dangerousness ; risk ; hazard ; 
(pl. jlL^. kifär) stake, bet, wager | J-U- 
^Li-'l of very great importance, momen- 
tous; Jm*- ji dangerous, perilous; ,_^«- 
JaJ- (muarrad) endangered, jeopardized; 
Jm*-\ «jLil iSärat al-k. alarm Bignal 

Jm*- kafir dangerous, perilous, risky, 
hazardous; serious, grave, weighty, im- 
portant, significant 

lja>- kaira pl. kafarät pompoua walk, 
strut ; swinging gait; idea, thought, 

jlL^ kaffir pendulum (phys.) 

j^~ kafxr pl. J*±- kufr weighty, 
momentouB ; important, significant; grave, 
Berious | jtiJl jb*- of great importance 

•j_jL>- kufära weight(iness), importance, 
moment(ousness) ; consequence, signifi- 
cance ; gravity, seriousness 

ü[^- kafarän swinging, oacillation, 

Jm+\ akfar 2 more dangerous, riskier; 
weightier, of greater consequence; more 
serious, graver 

*jLJ£ look up alphabetically 

^LJt makätir 3 dangers, perils 

*J*\£. mukäfara pl. -ät venture, risk, 

jLU^I ikfär notification, information; 

jlrU käfir pl. Jß\ji- kawäfir* idea, 
thought, notion; mind; desire, inclina- 
tion, liking | 4>U Jr^ (K-o/K) for your 
sake; ^LU- J$" j* min htUi käfirin with 
all one's heart, most gladly; ^LU- *-U j* 
'an flbati käfirin gladly, with pleasure; 
of one's own free will, voluntarily; Jp 
iJ^U as you like; »J>^ JW to afford 
satisfaction to s.o., to comfort, reassure 
s.o.; ,y »^»U- J* ii-l to feel offended 
by, take offense at; «jUU. £X* padda'a 
käfirahü to trouble, bother s.o. ; J^]^\ 0*1» 
(fammana) to calm the excitement; j* 
jl .jUÜc {marra) the thought crossed his 
mind that ...; li^UU-' UjTl (ikräman) for 
your sake, to please you ; __^»L£ I **j~ sur'at 
al-k. presence of mind; Jm\£-\ q^* quick- 

jtljft mutcäfir one who risks, 
who takes a chance ; daring, bold, 

J*£ mukfir dangerous, perilous, risky, 

>J*>- kafrafa (eg.) to be delirious, to rave, 
talk irrationally 

~4sjm+ kafrafa delirium, raving 

jL*- katifa a, Jcafafa i (Jcaff) to snatoh, 
wrench or wrest away, seize, grab (*; to make off (* with; to 
abduct, kidnap (« s.o.); to dazzle (j~*Jt 



al-ba$ara the eyes) V to carry away, 
sweep away (« s.o.) VI to Bnatch or seize 
(* from one another VII to be 
snatohed away, be wrested away; to be 
carried away, be swept away VIII to 
grab, seize, take forcibly (*; to 
snatch, wreat, wrench (j- * froni 
s.o.); to abduct, kidnap (• s.o.); to ran 
away, elope (U with a woman); to make 
off (* with; to dazzle (j-aJI al- 
bapara the eyes) 

<JaL*- katf grabbing, forcible seizure, 
rape; abduction, kidnaping; LiW- katfan 
rapidly, quickly 

UL^ katfa pl. kafafät (n. vic.) a 
snatching away, a grab; sudden stirring, 
flash | j_rJI XjL*. j (barg) instantly, in a 
trice, like a atreak of lightning; JJL*- 
j^aJÜI c->Ui»*^ j* an impulse, a sudden 

Jiliui- kaffäf rapacious; robber 

tjO«^ kuffäf pl. <Ja±\L*- kafdfif* (iron) 
hook; fiahhook; (coli.; n. un/«) swift, a 
variety of swallow 

.Jula*- kaffif pl. .Ji-LIL»- kafätif 3 iron 

t_jlla^-l iktifäf grabbing, forcible seizure, 
rape; abduction, kidnaping 

<_il»U- jcäfif pl. J*L\j£- kawäfif 3 raven- 
ous; rapacious; rapid, prompt; quick, 
sudden; lightninglike ; fleeting; short, 
brief | üi»U- ^Ui ravenous wolves; *jj~* 
Ü]»U- (püra) Bnapshot; üLU ^>j*- (harb) 

JL»- kafüa a (kafai) to talk nonsense IV do. 
V to Btrut, walk with a pompous gait; 
to walk with a proud, awinging gait 

Jl«* kafal idle talk, prattle 

Jl*»- kafil garruloua, chattering, given 
to silly talk ; stupid, foolish 

Jt*- kafm nose, snout, muzzle (of an animal) ; 
front part (nose and mouth) ; foremost or 

first part; important matter | <*Li: Jtl 
(afalla) approx.: to manifest its force, set 
in (e.g., of a disaater) 

,j*L*- kifmi, kafmi {coli. ; n. un. «) mareh 
mallow (Älthaea officinalis; bot.) 

»\1**- kifäm pl. U*. kufum noseband, 
halter (of a camel) 

(jb*-) Hui kafä u (katw) to step, pace, walk; 
to proceed, advance, progress | &\ \jL*- \L*- 
iw-lj (kafawätin) to take lorge strides, 
also fig. = to make extraordinary 
progress II and V to overetep, transgress 
(a; to cross (*, go or walk 
through (*); to ford (* a river); to 
leave its banks, overflow (river) ; to cross, 
traverse {jUJI the seas); to omit, die- 
regard, ignore, pase by (• so.); to go 
beyond (*); to extend (Jl to); to 
exoeed, tranacend (*; to excel, 
surpass, outstrip, outdo ( » s.o. ) ; to 
proceed, pass (* through, Jl to), 
leave (*) behind and turn to 
eise (Jl); to disregard (*, * s.o., in 
order to turn one's attention to (Jl) j 
/•U^l Jl 4j ^Lje (ilä l-amämi) to promote, 
advance VIII to step, pace, walk; to 
prooeed, advance, progress 

•J** katvxt pl. katatoät and hufiva pl. 
kufwät, kufuwSt, J»*- Jcufan step, pace, 
stride | tlliA j jU (kufähu) to walk, or 
follow, in s.o.'s footstepa; «jkij l^i*- »Xu 
taqaddama kufwatan fa-kufwatan to pro- 
ceed or advance step by step; »Ja*- üel 
«* U- (ittakada) to take a decisive Btep; 
ijjij uL^iu^ kafwatän wa-qafza hop, skip 
and jump (atklet.) 

«-L* Jcafiya ( = i^^) glip, lapse, trans- 
gression, fault, offense, sin 

l\]a*- Jcufäh pl. of "(jUU käfi' sinner 

•Ja*- kaffa i to be light (of weight); to be 
slight, inaignificant; to beoome lighter, 
decrease in weight, lose weight; to 
decrease in intensity, grow lighter (color) ; 

to be nimble, agile, quick; to hasten, 
huny, ruah (Jl to) II to make lighter 
(*, reduce the weight of (*); to 
ease, lighten, relieve, soften (* jp for 
s.o. difficult or oppreflsive, also 
* J*' <J* 8 -th., e.g., s.o.'s Bituation); to 
lessen, decrease, reduce, diminish (a or 
jr-; to mitigate, alleviate, moderate, 
temper (* or ^; to thin, dilute 
(> e.g., a liquid); (gram.) to pronounce 
(> a consonant) without taSdid | diip <JaJ*- 
kaffif 'anka ! cheer up ! be of good cheer ! 
libp,-- j- i_Ja_iL>- kaffif min sur'atika/ 

slow down ! 


to soothe 

s.o. 's pains V to dress lightly ; to dis- 
burden, relieve o.s. (of a bürden); to 
rid o.s., free o.s. (j- of; to huny 
away (je- from), leave (jp in a 
huny X to deem (> light; to value 
lightly, diadain, scorn, despise (<-■ s.o. or, look down (<-■ upon), think noth- 
ing (<-■ of), make light (<-■ of), aet little 
störe (<-■ by); not to take serioualy (<-■, attach no importance (<-■ to); to 
carry away, transport <• s.o., e.g., joy) 

J**- kuff pl. OU*- kifäf, J»LUl akfäf 
shoe, slipper; — (pl. cJU^I akfäf) camel 
hoof; foot (of the ostrich); sole (of the 
foot) | O; 1 *- J^ £TJ raja'a bi-kuffai 
hunain to return with empty hands, 
without having achieved one's mission; 
to accomplish nothing, fail, be un- 

Ü>- kijfa lightless (of weight); alight- 
ness, insignificance, triviality; sprightli- 
ness, buoyancy ; agüity, nimblenesa ; 
inconstancy, fickleness, flightiness, levity, 
frivolity | "<S~jL\ <i>- Je. al-haraka, j i-U- 
iT^J-l nimbleness, agility, quickneBs; 
>oJl lÄti- Je. ad-dam amiability, charm ; 
rjj\ Hui- Je. ar-rüh do.; uJI <i*- Je. al-yad 
manual skill, dexterity, deftness 

J»U ajeaff* lighter; lesser, slighfcer; 
weaker | lfj_r*h J<*-\ a - ad-dararain the 
lesser of two evüs 

(J»li»- Jcafäf, kjU^I j* liajar al-Jc. 
pumice, pumice stone 

jLii- Jcuffän pumice, pumice stone 

»JuAji. Jcafif pl. kjli*- Jcifäf, ijLU-l 
akfäf, »IUI ajcijfä'» light (of weight); 
slight, little, trivial, insignificant; thin, 
scanty, aparae; nimble, agile, sprightly, 
lively; — <-i-Ü-' name of a poetic meter j 
"<S~jL\ -Ja-JuI- k. al-haraka easüy movable, 
very mobile; nimble, agile; ^oJI t_i-£*- Je. 
ad-dam amiable, charming; rjj\ ij»-i»- je. 
ar-rüh likable, charming, winning, ami- 
able; gay, in high apirits, cheerful; u^ 
JLil Je. az-zill likable, nice (person); ^i*- 
j^LJI Je. al-'äridain having a thin beard; 
JäJI iJaJ^- k. al-'aql feeble-minded, dim- 
witted ; oJi ^j^U- k. al-yad nimble- 
fingered, deft; JoJl^- ^li weak tea 

ij\'^ tajcfif Iightening, easing ; les- 
sening, decrease, diminution; reduetion; 
allaying, mitigation, alleviation, pal- 
liation, moderation; commutation (jur.); 
relief; thinning, dilution (e.g., of a liquid) | 
cJi-ii-JI u>jJ* extenuating circumstances 

cJU^jl-1 istikfäj diadain, acorn, con- 
tempt ; levity, frivolity 

lÄiJfi- Ctjji zurüf mukaffifa extenuating 
circumstances (jur.) 

,_Ajii. mukaffaf thin, diluted 

jU- Jcafata u (o^i*- Jeufüt) to become in- 
audible, die down, die away (sound, 
voiee) ; to become süent, become still 
III <Jj~*i, <4^xj cjU- {bi-kalämihi, bi-ßau» 
tihi) to lower one's voiee IV to silence, 
reduce to silence (• s.o.) VIII = I 

O^i*. kufüt fading (radio) 

ü-iU- käfit dying away, dying down, 
becoming süent; inaudible; faint, dying, 
fading, trailing ofF (sound, voiee); soft, 
aubdued (Ught, color) 

cJcJf- muktafit soft, low, subdued 



'*»- kafara u (kafr, Ijli*- kifära) to watch {*, • 
b.o., or over s.o., over, guard, 
protect (• s.o., m ; — kafira a (kafar, 
•jli»- kafära) to be timid, shy, bashful 
II = I kafara V = I kafira 

jÄ*- kafr watching, watch, guard(ing) 

ji»- kafar guard detachment, guard; 
escort | J^l>-Jl j**- coast guard (Eg.) 

jj*- kafar timidity, shyness, bashful- 
ness, diffidence 

ji»- kafir bashful, diffident, timid, shy, 
embarrassed, coy 

jJi»- kafir pl. »\jÄ*- Jeufarä* 2 watchman; 
protector, guardian ; guard, sentry, senti- 

•jli»- kifära watoh(ing), guard(ing), 
protection; guard duty 

jjiit makfar pl. J>\J£ makäfir* guard - 
house, guardroom; guard, control post | 
il^-tll jJut m. aS-Surfa police Station 

»yU- kafira: J»-]>— Jl *yU-ähü 
coastguard cruiser (Eg.) 

jjiüf- makfür under escort, escorted; 
covered, sheltered, protected 

rÄ*- Jcafasa u (kafa) to ridicule, soom (» 
b.o.), laugh, mock (• at); to destroy, 
demolish, tear down (* a house) 

£i*- kafaS day blindness, hemeralopia 

JfcX akfaP, f. »lii»- kafaa'*, pl. JJ>+ 
kufS day blind, hemeralopic; weak- 
Bighted, afflicted with defeotive vision 

^li*. kuffäS pl. Jü\j± kafäfiP bat 

kafatfa i (kafd) to make lower (*; 
to lower, decrease, reduce, lessen, di- 
minish (*; to lower, drop (*, j-, also, e.g., the voice); (gram.) to 
pronounce the final consonant of a word 
with t; to put (* a word) in the genitive J 

J 4—b>- j-Ü*- (janähahü) to unbend toward 
s.o., ahow o.s. open-minded, responsive, 
aocessible to; — kafwßa u to be carefree, 
easy, oomfortable (life); to sink, dip, drop, 
settle, Bubside ; to become low, drop to an 
undertone (voioe) II to lower, decrease, 
reduce (*, price) | iLl*- <j***~ tyffil 
'alaikaf take it easy! <iliU- iL!*- <j+Ä+- 
(ja'Saka) cool off! calm down! relax! 
IV *jj^ j-ü^-l (aautahü) he lowered hie 
voice V and VII to sink, dip, drop, settle, 
subside ; to be lowered, be reduced 
(price); to decrease, grow Iess; to be 

j-ü*- kafd lowering, lessening, decrease, 
diminution, reduction; subduing, lower- 
ing, muffling (of the voice); curtailment, 
limitation, restriction; eaae (of life); 
(gram.) pronunciation of the final con- 
sonant with i | i+Jül ,jAJui- k: al-qima 
devaluation (of a currency) ; ^±»11 ,j+äj- 
k. aWaiS carefree, easy life ; ,j+ä*- j j* 
,ji±*Jl j- he lives in ease and comfort; 
Ci^aII !_?***- h> o^-aaut lowering of the 
voice; u Aii^\ *-Jj»- harf al-k. preposition 

Lf Ä-i*- kaf\4 low, soft, subdued (voice) 

x jäJl£ takfid lowering, cutback, re- 
duotion (esp. of prices) ; diminution, 
decrease, lessening, curtailment, restric- 
tion, limitation 

^-iUit t inkifäd sinking, dropping, 
subsidence; lowering, reduction; lessen- 
ing, decrease. diminution, decrement ; 
dropping of the water level, low water | 
,Syr (^>UJtl (jatvwi) low-pressure area 

^jÄä£- mukajfad lowered, reduced, low, 
moderate (price, rate); lower 

^rÄÄ^w munkafi4 low (altitude, fre- 
quency, price, etc.); soft, low, subdued, 
muffled (voice) | <«iii«J.I ^ I j V I the 
Netherlands; — munkafa4 pl. -ät low 
ground; depression (geogr.) 



jiA kafaqa i u (kafq, ulü»- kafaqän, 3j*+- 
kufüq) to vibrate; to tremble, shake; 
to beat, throb, palpitate (heart); to 
flutter, wave, stream (nag); to Aap the 
winga, flutter (bird); to waver, flicker; — 
(kafq) to flash (lightning); to beat, whip 
(*; eggs, cream, etc.); to make the 
sound of footsteps (ahoe) ; — (i3>»*- kufüq) 
to drop one's head droweily, nod off, doze 
off (ÜU- Ji»- Je. kafqatan); — •' [3y*~ 
kufüq) to set, go down (celeatial body) 
II to roughcast, plaster, ßtucco (* a wall) 
IT to Aap the wings, flutter (bird); to set, 
go down (celeatial body); to be unauo- 
cesaful, go wrong, fail, miscarry, come to 
nothing, be abortive ; to fail, be un- 
Buccesaful (j in 

jiA kafq throb(bing) palpitation; beat- 
ing, beat; footfall, footstep, tread (of a 
boot, of the foot) 

«Äi*- kafqa pl. kafaqät (n. vic.) beat, 
throb; tap, rap, knock; ticking noise, 

<jUi*- kafaqän palpitation of the heart, 
heart beat; throb(bing), beat(ing); flut- 
tering, flutter 

,jlü- kaffäq -pa\ipit&nt, throbbing (heart) ; 
fluttering, waving, Streaming (flag) 

O <ÄÄ*£ mikfaqa whisk, eggbeater 

JL*»-1 ikfäq failure, fizzle, flop, fiasoo 

jiU- käfiq palpitant, throbbing (heart); 
fluttering, waving, Streaming (flag); 
üLüU:l al-käfiqän East and West; Jij^l 
al-kawäfiq the cardinal points, the four 
quarters of the world 

JiU- käßqi mortar, plaster, rough- 
cast; stucco 

Uli*, see -JiJ- 

j~ kaßya o to be hidden, be conoealed; to 
be unknown (a fact; Jp to s.o.); to 
disappear, hide | ül Jic ^ it is well 
known that ...; as everybody knows ..., 

it is obvious that . . . ; iiJLl* Jjc ^ you 
know very well..., you are well aware 
(of it); — kafä i to hide, conceal (*; 
to keep secret (* IV to hide, conceal 
(*; to afford (* s.o.) a place to hide, 
shelter, hide (♦ s.o.); to keep secret (*; to disguise, conceal (*, J» 
or j* from s.o.) | Oj-*il J*^l to lower the 
voiee, Bpeak in an undertone T to hide, 
keep o.s. out of view; to disguise o.s. 
VIII to hide, keep o.b. out of view; to dis- 
appear, vanish; to be hidden, be un- 
known; to be lacking, be missing, be 
absent | jllüVl ^ J^-t to be hidden or 
disappear from Bight X to hide, keep o.b. 
out of view; to be hidden, be concealed; 
to be hidden from b.o.'s (j^) view, become 
invisible (je to s.o.), disappear from 

j*- kafiy hidden, concealed; secret, 
unknown; unseen, invisible; mysterious | 
f^' J^ b- a^-t*w* anonymous; O j[yl 
Li^- (anwär) indirect lighting 

Ij^. kufyatan, kifyatan secretly, clan- 
destinely, covertly; <* *^~- without bis 

'*Jt*~ kaflya pl. LU*- kafäyä a secret, a 
secret affair 

»Li*- kafä* secrecy, hiddenness | »Ui: I j 
secretly, clandestinely, covertly; »Li»- V 
ül J (kafä'a) it is quite evident, it is 
quite obvioua that . . . 

•li*.l ikfä' hiding, secretion; conceal - 
ment; lowering of the voiee 

■J»* takaffin disguise 

»loU iktifä* disappearance 

<_>U- käfin hidden, concealed; secret, 
unknown; unseen, invisible 

LiU- käfiya pl. iJiU^l kawäßn a secret; 
— pl. j]>£l al'kawäfi the ooverts, the 
secondaries (of a bird'8 wing) 

Jjfc makfly hidden, concealed 


^u muiakaffin disguised, in disguise 

<JcJ£ mvJctafin hidden, concealed, clan- 
destine, covert, secret ; disappearing, 

Jyfc muktafan hiding place, hide-out 

jÜU. look up alphabetically 

J*. katia u (kall) to pierce, transfix (* 
II to turn sour; to make sour, to sour, 
acidify (*; to pickle, marinate (*; to aalt, eure with aalt or in brine 
(*; to piok (* the teeth); to run the 
fingere {* through, part, comb 
(a the hair, the beard, also with the 
fingere) III to treat (» s.o.) as a friend 
IV to offend (v against), infringe, trans- 
gress (w; to violate, break (i~>, e.g., a rule, a custozn); to fail to 
fulflll, fail to meet (*-> an agreement); 
to forsake, desert, abandon (w s.o.,; to disturb, upset, härm, prejudice 
(cj T to be, lie or oome between (*; also in time), intervene (* 
between); to be located or situated, be 
interposed, be placed {* between); to 
permeate, pervade, interpenetrate (*, mix, mingle, blend (*with) VIII to 
be or beoome defectire; to be in dis- 
order, be faulty, defioient, imperfeot; to 
become disordered ; to be upset, be 
unbalanced ; to be disturbed (order, 
System) | Jy^-Ül C-lr^-l the conditions 
are not fulfilled; *Jj^J Ji»-I (tawäzunuhü) 
to lose one's balanoe, beoome unbalanoed; 
*li* Ji»-1 ('aqluhü) to be mentally deranged 

J*> hall viaegar 

y kiU, kuU pl. J^Ul akläl friend, 
bosom friend 

JU- kalal pl. J^U- kiläl gap, interval, 
interstice; cleft, craok, rupture, fissure; 
a defectire, unbalanoed state, imbalance; 
defectiveneas, imperfection; fault, flaw, 
defeot, shortcoming; disturbance, upset, 
disorder ; damage, injury, härm (that suffers or suffered); J^U kiläla 
during; between; through | JU- j }\ kalali 
and d~^*- j f% fciläli during; in the 
course of, within, in a given period of; 
dÜA J^U j meanwhile, in the meantime; 
J^U- ^ min kiläli aoroas, through, right 
through the middle of; out of, from 
within; (to judge, rea&on, draw conclu- 
sions, eto.) by, on the basis of, on the 
strength of. (to recognize) from 

il*. holla need, want, laok; — (pl. 
J^U- kiläl) property, attribute, pecu- 
liarity; characteristio ; natural disposition 

<U- kuüa pl. JU hvlal friendship 

J"5U- kiläl pl. il*-l akiUa boring or 
driUing implement; peg, pin; epit, 
skewer; (also ü"5U-, pl. ~ät) toothpick; 
see also JU kalal 

JJ*- kalil pl. oU ajfeiüä* », Ö^U hülän 
friend, bosom friend; lover; JJX'I Hebron 
(town in Jordanian Palestine) | Äiil J-U- 
epithet of Abraham 

Ü-U- kalila pl. -ät girl friend, woman 
friend; sweetheart, paramour 

JjU-'l |*l umm aI-£vJü/ river mussei {xool.) 

J"5U-1 ikläl pl. -ät breach, infraotion, 
violation (of a law, of a treaty, and the 
like) ; offense (against), transgression, 
infringement (of ) ; disturbance (of an 
order, of a System); impairment, injury, 
härm (to); average, damage by sea | 
V J^*-Vl j»J*. *. ('adami l-i.) without 
prejudice to, without detriment to 

t}-jc*-\ ikiiläl deficienoy, defectiveneas, 
imperfection; (a falling into) disrepair, 
deterioration; faultiness; disturbance (of 
a System, of a funetion, of theequilibrium, 
eto.); disorder, confusion 

Jüt mukallal pickled; salted; (pl. -ät) 
pickles, pickled vegetables 

Jit mukitt disgraceful, shameful | 
«^■UV^ J^ immoral, indecent, improper 



i__L- kalaba i u (kalb) to seize with the 
clawB, clutch (*, pounce (* on); — u 
(<j~>L^- kiläba) to cajole, coax, wheedle 
(• s.o.); to inveigle, beguile, bewitoh, 
enchant (* s.o., «ü* 'aqlahü b.o.'s mind); 
to charm, fascinate, captivate (• s.o.) III to 
cajole, wheedle, coax. inveigle, beguile, 
bewitch, enchant (• s.o.) VIII to Beize 
with the claws, clutch {*, pounce (* 
on); to cajole, inveigle, beguile, bewitch, 
enchant (• s.o.) 

i_~U- kilb pl. <_j"5U-1 akläb fingemail, 
claw, talon 

i_-U- 3j baTqun kullabun and barqu 
kullabin lightning without a downpour; 
a disappointing, disillusioning matter; 
i_-U- and 3j t> ^-U- delusion, illusion 

Jj~ kullabxv J± iLli {faSak) blank 
cartridges (Syr.; mil.) 

u-j-jU- fcalläb gripping, captivating, 
fascinating; attractive, engaging, win- 
ning; tempting, enticing; fraudulent, 
deceitful; deceptive, delusive, fallacious 

<*"jU- kiläba engaging manners, at- 
tractiveness, charm 

.„lit miklab p 1. i_JIJ£ makälib 1 claw, talon 

^JU- kälib = w^ kalläb 

tpr * r U- II takalbasa (eg.) to clown 

( _^* >r U- kalbüs pl. ^-to^U- kaläbia 2 , i^u'jU 
kolöbiaa (eg.) clown, buffoon, harlequin 

~l+- kalaja i and III to be on s.o.'s (•) mind, 
trouble, preoccupy, prepoesess (• s.o., 
s.o.'s mind; said of worries, doubts, etc.); 
to pervade, fill (» s.o.; said of a feeling) | 
<Ji J-U- (qalbahü) to be uppermost in 
s.o.'s beart V to be shaken, be convulsed, 
be rooked VIII to quiver, tremble, quake, 
shake ; to twitch ( eye, limb, body ) ; 
to animate, move, stir, inapire, fill, 
pervade, possess (*, j the heart; said 
of a feeling) J lf ^li*-l (gamman) to be 
filled with boitow, with grief (heart) 

i*»U- kalja pl. kalajäi emotion, senti- 
ment; scruple, qualm, misgiving 

«JU- kalij pl. ^U- kuluj, o\*A*- kvijän 
bay, gulf; canal; ^J-' name of Cairo's 
ancient city canal which was abandoned 
and leveled at the end of the 19th 

Century | ^jLiil »_U:I the Persian Gulf 

r*£*~ kiläj misgiving, doubt, scruple, 

ö-")t*U iktüäja (n. vic.) convulsion, jerk, 
twitch; tremor 

IXU- kälija pl. Uyi- kawäHj* emotion, 
sentiment; scruple, qualm; idea 

J^i*- kalkaia to shake, convulse, rock (* 
s,th.); to rarefy (*, e.g., air; ehem.- 
phya.) II takolkala to be shaken, be 
rocked; to come off, become disjointed, 
become detached; to become loose, work 
loose; to be or become rarefied (chem.- 

J^JU kalkal pl. J^^ kaläkiP anklet 

JLaU kalkäl pl. J^*)U- JealäkW anklet 

J^Jic takalkul rarefication 

J^JJt mukalhü and JiJU»i* mutakalkil 

■iL- kalada u (iji>- kulüd) to remain or last 
forever, be everlasting; to be immortal, 
deathless, undying; to abide forever (Jl 
or <~> in, with); to remain, stay (Jl or ^ 
or j at a place) | ~**-\J\ Jl .iL- to rest, 
relax; ßjift Jl .iL- to lie down to sleep 
II to make eternal or everlasting, per- 
petuate, eternaüze (*, make im- 
mortal, immortalize (» s.o.); to make in- 
effaceable, unforgettable (* ; a 
memory); to remain, stay, abide, linger 
(i_» at, in a place) ; to grow very old, enjoy 
a long life, be long-lived IV to eternize, 
immortalize, make immortal (» s.o., *; to perpetuate (*; to remain, 
stay, abide, linger ( Jl or ^ at, in a place) 



to be disposed, incline, lean, tend (Jl to) 
V to become eternal or immortal, 
perpetuate o.a.; to be or beoome long, 
lasting, perpetual 

-lU- kuld infinite duration, endless time, 
perpetuity, eternity | olJ-'l jIj Paradise, 
the hereafter 

A*- kuld mole (zool.) 

-lU- kalad, pl. si*-\ akläd mind, heart, 
spirit, temper 

^U- kulüd infinite duration, endlesa 
time, perpetuity, eternity; eternal life, 
immortality ; abiding, remaining, staying 

oJJc tajclid perpetuation, eternization, 

oJl*. kälid everlasting, perpetual, eter- 
nal; immortal, deathless, undying; un- 
forgettable, glorious; pl. JÜ\y- kawälid* 
mountains j ol-ÜU-M J)£\ the Ganary 

jjjt muklid diapoeed, inclined, tend- 
ing ( Jl to) 

^J*- kalam i (kaU) to steal (*; to 
pilfer, filoh, swipe, purloin (* 
III Jül\ 4-JU- (nazara) to glance furtively 
at s.o. Till to steal, pilfer, filch, swipe 
(*; to get under false pretenses or 
by crooked means (*; to embezzle, 
misappropriate (*; to spend seoret- 
ly (* hours) | Jl JJM ir l=rf-l (hufä) to 
sneak up on s.o.; (j) Jl JiJI j-li»-! to 
glance furtively at s.o. 

i_U- kuhaXan by stealth, stealthily, 
Burreptitiously, furtively 

^-^U- kiläsi mulatto, bastard 

,jM^ji-\ iktiläs pl. -ät embezzlement, 
misappropriation, defalcation 

iJ JiJf- muktalis embezzler, defalcator 

,jA*- kcUa$a u {^J*- kulüj) to be pure, un- 
mixed, unadulterated; to belong (J to 
s.o.); to get, oome (Jl to), arrive (Jl at); 

— (^^U- kalä?) to be or become free, be 
freed, be liberated (^ from), be cleared, 
get rid (,> of); to be saved, be rescued, 
escape {,> from); to be redeemed, be 
delivered, attain salvation {Chr.) ; — • 
(coUoq.) to be finished, be done, be 
through, be over; to be all gone II to 
clear, purify, refine, purge, rectify (*; to clarify (* a Situation); to 
liberate, free, save, rescue (* s.o., ,> 
from), rid (• s.o., <> of); to redeem, 
deüver (Chr.); to prepay the postage (Ja 
on); to pay duty (VUiJl J* on merchan- 
dise), clear ( J* goods); to settle (* a bill); 
(coliog.) to finish (* | *i*- iJ A^- (haq' 
qahü) to restore one's right, secure one's 
due III to act with integrity, with 
sincerity (• toward s.o.),treat (» s.o.) fair 
and Square; to get even, become quits 
(/with s.o.) IV to dedicate (a Jto s.o.; to be laryal (J to s.o.); to be 
devoted, be faithful (J to) | ^i-M <J A±\ 
(hvbba) to love s.o. dearly; oj Zi iJ A^-\ 
(li-llähi dinahü) to worship God fatth- 
fully and sincerely T to rid o.s. (j* of), 
free o.s. (^ from), get rid (j. of); to be 
freed, be delivered, be Baved, be rescued, 
escape (j* from) VI to act with reciprocal 
integrity and sinoerity; to be quita, be 
even X to extract (*, j* from); to 
copy, ezcerpt (*, j* from) ; to 
abstract, take, gather, work out (*, 
as the quintessence, j- of); to deduce, 
infer, derive (*, j* from); to dis- 
cover, make out, find out (*; to 
select, choose (*; to demand 
payment of a sum (*) and get it (,> from 
s.o.) | j* »JjU (j^li^-1 to derive profit from, 
profit, benefit from; \itj *U m\J*z**\ (wa* 
dan) to exact a promise from s.o. 

^■^U- kaläp liberation, deüverance, 
riddance; rescue, salvation (,> from); 
redemption (Chr.); payment, settlement, 
liquidation (of a bill); receipt; placenta, 


l^^U- kuläga pl. -ät excerpt; extract, 
essence ; quintessence, substance, gist 
(of; abstract, resum6, aummary, 
epitome; Synopsis \ VW *-»"$*- (nihä'tya) 
summation (jur.) ; *Jyt*>UI 4-»^J-'l (al- 
lähütiya) the "summa theologica" (of 
Thomas Aquinas); *ijt i-»"5**- ('i^riya) 
perfume essence; <^*JX\j in short, briefly, 
in a word (introducing a eummary of the 
basic ideas) 

l _ r oJU- kalip pl. »LaU kulaja 2 pure, 
clear, unmixed, unadulterated; sincere, 
faithful, loyal; loyal adherent 

^ji*- kvlü$ clearness, purity ; sincerity , 
candor, frankness 

^■^U- kallä? (magr.) tax collector 

^^- maklap safe place ; refuge, 
escape, rescue, salvation, deliverance 

(j^JJ^ taklia Clearing, purification, 
refining, rectification ; clarification ; lib- 
eration, extrication, deliverance, rescue, 
salvation ; payment, settlement, liqui- 
dation; prepayment of postage (J* on); 
customs clearance, payment of duty 
(mL^JI J* on merchandise; also i _ r t^ L 

<*oJ LJt mukälo&o, pl. -dt receipt 

j^tiU-l t£Zä£ sincere devotion, loyal 
attachment, sincere affection; Bincerity, 
frankness, candor; loyalty, faithfulness, 
fidelity, allegiance (J to) 

| _ r «ijc takallup freedom, liberation, re- 
lease, extrication, escape <j- from) 

t _ r »'^i^l «M;Zäpextraction;excerption; 
dorivation, deduction ; selection ; col- 
lecting (of a sum of money) 

^U- käliß pl. *1*~ kuüaf clear; pure, 
unmixed, unadulterated; sincere, frank, 
candid, true; free, exempt (,> from) | 
ij>- % $\ ,j*}\*- k. al-ujra post-free ; jjl ^L^ 
fc. or-raü prepaid, reply paid for (fcele- 

gram); il^Xll ^ ^U- (tjumrug) dutyfree; 
ijj^^l ^L*- tax-exempt 

.j^i* mukaüis liberator; Savior, Re- 
deemer (Chr.) 

(aJs.) I _ r al£- mukaUap ('alaihi) postage 

(j-tlii muklis devoted; sincere, frank, 
candid ; loyal ; faithful ( J to s.o., to; purehearted, virtuous, righteous; 
^aLÜI (in letters) approx. : yours truly . . ., 
sincerely yours . . . 

jflly - mustakla$ pl. -ät extract, ex- 

IlU- kalafa i (half) to mix, mingle, com- 
mingle, blend {<-j a with) ; to confuse, 

confound, mix up (ju two things; j ju with), mistake (j _ ju for) 
II to mix, mingle, commingle, blend (*; to cause confusion III to mix, 
mingle, blend, merge, fuse (> with ; to meddle (* in), interfere (* 
with); to mix, associate (• with s.o.); 
to have to do (• with s.o.) | *— Ü iiJU- 
(nafsahü) to befall, attack s.o. (pain, 
etc.); *!** j ]aij>- külifa f\ 'aqlthi to be or 
become disordered in mind VIII to be 
mixed, mix, mingle, form a mixture or 
blend; to consist of a heterogeneous 
mixture, be motley, promiscuous ; to 
associate, be on intimate terms (i~> with); 
to be or become confused, get all mixed up 

U>- half mixing, blending ; combination ; 
mingling, commingling ((_> with); con- 
fusing, confounding, mistaking, mix-up, 

Jal>- küf pl- l**£*-\ akläf component of 
a mixture ; ingredient ; pl. mixture, 
blend | uLJ^l i-^i the four humors of 
the human body (blood, phlegm, yellow 
bile, and black bile); j-Ul > JoU-l 
common people, populace, rabble, riff- 
raff, mob; .LL iU hilf milf, halt malf 
motley, pell-mell, promiscuously 



ÄUU- ifalfa mixture, blend, medJey 

ÄUU- kulfa Company; mixture 

ir^U kalläf and 1U}U kaliäfa pl. -äf 
mixer, mixing machine 

Ja-U- fcaiif mixed, blended; motley, 
heterogeneous, promiscuous; mixture, 
blend (ja of); medley, hodgepodge; (pl. 
•lkU> kidalä' 3 ) aesociate, companion, 

Vi* tottif pl. -öi insanity; delirium 

iLJlje. mukälafa Company, intercourse, 

V^-l i&üöf (process of) mixing, 
blending; mingling, commingling; eon- 
fusion; mental disorder; (social) inter- 
course, association, deaüngs (<_j with) 

Jr^Üft maklüt pl. VJl* mafcöJtJ 1 mixture, 
blend; alloy 

JJLi^ mukaUat confused, disordered 

JJLJt mvJcälaf stricken, affiicted (<-< e.g., 
by a disease) 

VU* muktalit mixed | SLLu&l £*Ut the 
mixed oourts, see i&t; VLrf *i*j coed- 

^U feda'a a (£aT) to take off, put off, slip 
off (* a garment) ; to doff, take off {*i>jtjß 
one's tarbooah); to extract, pull (* a 
tooth); to wrench, dislocate, luxate {* 
a Joint); to depose, remove, dismiss, dis- 
charge (* s.o., j* from an office); to 
renounce, forgo, give up (*, with- 
draw (* from) ; to throw off, cast off (»jli* 
'%4ärahü one'ß restraint, one's inhibi- 
tions); to refuse (i*UJI obedience); to 
diflown, repudiate (ol one's son) ; to 
divorce (U one's vife) in return for a 
compensation to be paid by her; to get 
through, have done (* with, be 
through, have gone through (*, 
e.g., a hard day); to impart (Je * 

to); to confer, bestow (J* * upon 
s.o.), grant, award (J* * to b.o.) | 
4>Lj -Jl^ (tiyäbahü) to undreas; j- **!*- 
J-jift i'ari) to dethrone s.o. ; i*l*- «J* ^Jbi 
(kü'atan) to bestow a robe of honor upon 
s.o.; J*- <-Jü Je A*- (haqqa) to arrogate to 
o.s. the right of ...; — kalu'a u (U^- 
jcalä'a) to be dissolute, morally depraved 

II to take away, remove, displace, dis- 
locate {*; to knock out of Joint, 
take or break apart (*; pass. 
JcuUi'a to fall to pieces, get out of Joint 

III to divorce (U one's wife, in return for 
a compensation to be paid by her) V to 
go to pieces, fall apart, break; to beoome 
or be luxated, dislocated (Joint); to take 
a vaoation in the country (tun.) | j Ajfi- 
^ I^JJI [Sarah) to be addicted to drinking, 
drink heavily VII to be displaced, be 
dislocated, be removed; to be diveBted, 
be deprived, be stripped (j^ of, 
forfeit, lose {,> | Ui ^Lcl {qatinthü) 
he was completely taken aback, he was 
alarmed, ßtartled 

■U jfal' slipping off, taking off (of 
clotheB); deposition (e.g., of a mler); 
dislooation, luxation | jb^V I *\*- ex- 
traction of teeth 

«!*■ kvT khula, divorce at the instance 
of the wife, who must pay a compensa- 
tion (IbI. Law) 

Ui>- kil'a pl. Aji- küa robe of honor 

«-U JpalV pl. »l*U- kula'ä' 2 deposed, 
dismissed, discharged (from an office); 
repudiated, disowned; wanton, dissolute, 
dissipated, profligate, morally depraved 

f^U kaüa wild, unruly, wanton, 
shameless, impudent 

ic-tiU- Jfolä'a dissoluteness, dissipation, 
profligacy, wantonness, licentiousnesa, 
moral depravity; {tun.) recreation in the 
country, summer vacation 

J^ kaula fool, dolt, simpleton 

^lU. käli': jlUI ^JU- k. al-'idär un- 
restrained, uninhibited, wanton; liber- 
tine, debauchee, roue, rake 

fjljt maklü" unrestrained, uninhibited, 
wanton; wild, unruly; reckless, heedless, 
irresponsible ; crazy, mad 

<jA>- kalafa u to be the successor (• of s.o.), 
succeed (» s.o.); to follow (• s.o.), come 
after s.o. (♦); to take the place of s.o. 
(•), Substitute (• for s.o.); to replace (• 
b.o., *; to lag behind s.o. (je-); to 
stay behind (je after s.o.'s departure); 
to be detained, be held back, be kept 
away, atay away (je from) II to appoint 
as successor {» s.o.); to leave behind, 
leave (*, • s.o.,; to have descend- 
ants, have offspring III to be contra- 
dictory, contrary, opposed (* to) ; to 
conflict, clash, be at variance (a with); 
to contradiot (• s.o., *; to be 
different, differ, diverge (* from), be 
inconsistent, incompatible, not in keep- 
ing, not to harmonize {* with); to offend 
(* against a command, a rule), break, 
violate, disobey (* a command, a rule) 
IV to leave {» offspring, children); to 
compensate, requite, recompense (J* 
s.o.; said of God); to break, fail to keep 
(•-Uj wadahü one's promise), go back 
on one's word; to disappoint (»1*^1 ar- 
rajä'a the hopes) V to stay behind; to 
lag or fall behind (je-); to stay, stay on, 
remain; to fail to appear or show up; 
to play truant; to be absent; to stay 
away (je from), not go (je to), not 
attend (je | #^1 je, ijjjt (majV) 
to fail to come or arrive; »i^JI je ijiijc 
('auda) not to return VI to disagree, 
differ, be at variance; to differ in opinion, 
be of a different mind VIII to differ, be 
different, vary (je from); to be varied, 
varying, variable, various, diverse, dis- 
similar; to vary (^ between); to dis- 
agree, differ in opinion, be at variance, 
argue, quarrel, dispute (j about); to 

oome or go frequently (Jl to), frequent, 
patronize (Jl a place), visit frequently 
(Jl s.o.,, come and go (Jl at); to 
come, descend (J* upon s.o.; said of 
afflictions ), befall, overtake { J* s.o. ) 
X to appoint as successor or vicar (* s.o.) 

<Jil>- half back, rear, rear part or 
portion; successors; kalfu and JA±- j* 
min kalfu (adv.) at the back, in the 
rear; kalfa (prep.) behind, after, in the 
rear of | LfiU- ^^ he ran after her; j* 
<Jii>- min halft behind, in the rear of ; j* 
i_ji^ I from behind, from the rear ; <jAi^ I Jl 
to the rear, backward, back; »^tJl <Jil»- Jl 
in the wake of; iJalA-'i j in the rear; 
at the back, in the background 

Jj^- halft rear, bind, hinder, back 

JA»~ hilf pl. J»lU-l akläf teat, nipple, 

iJiU- kulf dissimilarity, disparity, dif- 
ference, contrast, variance, discrepancy 

u-aU- kalaf pl. Ji*>Ul akläf Bubstitute; 
successor ; deacendant, offspring, soion 

ÜU- kilfa dissimilarity, disparity, dif- 
ferenoe; that which foüows and 
replaces it (e.g., second growth of plante, 
day and night, etc.) 

LLl>- kalifa pl. »UU- kulafä' 3 , «Ju*^- 
kalä'ip vicar, deputy; successor; caliph; 
(formerly) senior official of the native 
administration in Tunis, assigned to a 
OjÜ; (formerly) title of the ruler of 
Spaniah Morocco 

4-J-U-' I ükll al-minfaqa al-kalifiya 
the Caliphate Zone (formerly, designation 
of Spanish Morocco) 

ü^U- kiläfa vicarship, deputyship ; 
succession; caliphate, office or rule of 
a caliph; (formerly) administrative de- 
partment of a LLU- (Tun.), see above 

Jj^lji mikläf pl. <JaJ\£ makälif* 
province (Yemen) 


Ji-^U- fctJä/ pl. -öi difference, disparity, 
disaimilarity; divergence, deviation; con- 
trast , contrariety , incongruity , contra- 
diction, conflict; disagreement, difference 
of opinion (J* or j about); dispute, 
controveray; kiläfa (prep.) beside, apart 
from, aside from | 4J->U- kiläfyhü (= »jJ.) 
other, the like, ^"^U- othera (than thoae 
mentioned), <i:>U-j and the like (after an 
enumeration) ; <J>-$J£ bi-kiläß beside, 
apart 'from, aside from; oontrary to, as 
opposed to, unlike; J U">U- kiläfan U 
contrary to, against, in contradiction to; 
«fjlj Jf^j- J* unlike that, contrary to 
that, on the contrary, on the other 

j 1 ^»- Jciläfi controveraial, disputed 

iilijt- mukälafa pl. -ät contrast, con- 
trariety ; contradiction, inconsistency ; 
contra vention, infringement, violation ; 
misdemeanor (jur. ; as distinguished from 
öü> and *jbjr); fine (for a misdemeanor) 

.Jjjfi" takalluf staying away, non- 
appearance, nonattendance, nonpresence, 
abaence, truancy (also jj~*A-' J* <J*&); 
staying behind, staying on ; stopover 
(railroad); backwardness 

iktiläf pl. -ät difference, dis- 
aimilarity, disparity; diversity, variety; 
variant, Variation; difference of opinion, 
disagreement ; controveray | J» <*J\ 
ÄJjAil i_^l-UI <J*^>-I (raiya, dvnxya) the 
subjects of every (== irrespective of 
their) religious denomination; ^^te*-\ J» 
j-1j>-I whichever party they may belong 
to; Ifi*^-! J* ^\jii\ all the different 
fruits, fruits of every kind 

Üjüt maklüfa pl. -ät camel saddle 

■Jjjc mukaüaj left, left behind; Ieft 
over; pl. oUiit heritage, legacy, estate; 
ecraps, leftovers 

»Jj Lift mukälif divergent, varying, 
different ; inconsistent, incompatible, 

contradictory, contrasting, conflicting; 
tranagressor (of a command) 

i_**ly- mutakaÜif residual; left over; 
retarded , backward, underdeveloped 
(mentally, in growth, etc.); pl. -ün one 
left behind; straggler; pl. oUl»»i* herit- 
age, legacy, estate ; leftovers ; scraps, 
refuse, offal | <Al*w *ij\ (atriba) waete 
material, overburden, superstratum (in 
mining); üU*dl »Lil (miyäh) waste water, 

»jJiji muktalif different, varying, 
divergent (^ from); varied, varioue, 
diverse; having a different opinion, dis- 
agreeing (j or J* about) 

(*-i*) «-i «JJiJft mukUüaf jxhx ( r alaihi) 
controversial, disputed 

jU- kalaqa u (kalq) to create, make, originate 
(*; to Bhape, form, mold (*; 
— kaliqa a and hüuqa u to be old, worn, 
shabby (garment); — kaluqa u («ÖU- 
kaläqa) to be fit, suitable, suited II to 
perfume (* IV to wear out (*, 
let {* become old and shabby 
V pass. of II; to be molded, be shaped (<~> 
by a model or pattern), change (<~> with 
a model) ; to become angry VI II to 
invent, contrive, devise (* ; to 
fabricate, concoct, think up (*; 
to attribute falsely {* J* to s.o. 

jU- kalq creation; making; origination; which is created, a creation; crea- 
tures; people, man, mankind; physical 

jU- kvlq, kuluq pl. j^U-l akläq innate 
peculiarity; natural disposition, charac- 
ter, temper, nature; — pl. j"^-t akläq 
character (of a person) ; morals ; morality | 
jJL^I *y* sü y al-k. ill nature; jUM ^< 
sayyi' al-k. ill-natured; j\X I J^- saht al-k. 
complaisant, obliging; jLUI j^ dayyiq 
al-k. impatient, restless ; j">U- V I i* 
'Um al-a. ethics; moral science, morals; 


J^^l I yr aumüw ol-a. nobility of 
character; J'^U-Vl {j£*> noble manners, 
high moral Standards; J'^U-'Vl «i^i Surfat 
aha. vice aquad 

Jl»- kulqi ethic(al), moral | i-Ü>- /!/»- 
offenses against public morals 

JiU- kalaq (m. and f.) pl. üUU- Jndqän, 
3~ÄJ-\ akläq shabby, threadbare, wom 

üU- Jcilqa pl. jJU- Jcilaq creation; innate 
peculiarity of character, natural diapo- 
sition, natura; Constitution; physiogno- 
my; kilqatan by natura 

Jl». kilqy natural, native, congenital, 
innate, inborn, inbred 

Ül»- kalaqa rag, tatter 

J-jU- kaläq share (of positive qualities, 
of religion) | *J J^U- V (fea/äga) disgrace- 
ful, ignominious, deapicable; a worthless 
fellow, a good-for-nothing 

j-U- fcaZij pl. »LiU- kulaqä* 2 fit, quali- 
fied, suitable, appropriate (<^, J for, jl to do; apt (ül to do; 
in keeping with (>-*), adäquate (>-* to), 
worthy («_* of) j öl ü^LU- j^ it is (would 
be) only fair that we ..., we should ..., 
we ought to . . . ; jl jJ»-^* he is apt to . . ., 
it is only natural for him that he . . . ; 
Uj* OjSÖ ül \Xf J-U- (mu'liman) this is 
apt to be painful, it is only natural that 
this is painful; üL Li*UJ ül *äA+ *j—i »Jäi 
{twpii'anä) no more than a quick glance 
is apt to convince us that . . . 

jjl*- kalüq of firm character, stead- 
faat, upright 

jl»- 1 ablag* more adequate, more 
appropriate, more natural 

<5t>U- kalläq Creator, Maker (God) 

ÜJU- kaliqa the creation, the universe 
created by God; nature; natural dispo- 
aition, trait, characteristic ; creaturea, 

created beings; pl. Jj"3U- kalä'iq* crea- 
tures, created beings 

j^l akläqi moral; ethic(al); ethicist, 
moral philosopher | j-^-l *^»- (jurm) 
offense against public morals; ü— LÜl 
«J^"^' (falaafa) moral Bcience, moral 
philoaophy; ethics 

«^ÖU-I akldqiya morality, moral practioe 

JliU- kulqäni dealer in old clothes 

jJ U- käliq creative ; Creator, Maker 

3j& maklüq created; (pl. -ät, jJIJt 
makäliq 1 ) creature, created being 

jLit muktaliq inventor, fabricator (of 

jLJfc muktalaq fabricated, trumped 
up, invented, fictitioua; apooryphal; pl. 
-ät lies, falsehoods, fabricationa, fictiona 

,>!!*■ kalqin pl. jä'^U- kaläqin 7 caldron, boiler, 
" kettle 

I ^JU- kalanj heath, erica (bot.) 

a üUj-U- hulungän (eg.) (rhizome of) galingale 
(Polypodium Calaguala Kz.; bot.) 

(j\*-) ">U- kalä u (kulüw, *~£+ kalä') to be 
empty, vacant; — (kulüw) to be free 
(j+ or je- from) ; to be devoid {j- of, 
lack, want (j*, be in need (j- of); 
to be vacant (office) ; — (#>!*- kalwa) to be 
alone (<-*, Jl, *• with s.o., Jl also: with 
or in; to isolate o.a., seclude o.a.; 
to withdraw, retire (iljl-ull li-l-mudäwala 
for deliberation; court, Jury); to with- 
draw for spiritual communion, in Order 
to take counsel (Jl with); to devote o.s., 
apply o.a., give one's attention (J to; *j •£»- to forsake, desert s.o., leave 
a.o. in the luroh; — to pass (» s.o.), go 
by s.o. (»); to pasa, elapae, go by, be 
bygone, past, over (time) | ji-\ *J •&- 
(jaww) to have free Bcope, have freedom 



of aotion; JU-. & jfc II (jamäl) it is 
not without a certain beauty; j* j)j£ V 
UIU (mubäla§a) it is slightly exaggerated ; 
»J2\i j* ^Ü£ V it is not quite UBeless; 
■».. fi; J[ ^U- to be alone with o.a.; to 
commune with o.s., take counsel with 
o.s., search one's heart; d\y^ jl* i-. 
tlJU- mundu 'aSri sanawätin fcalat for the 
past ten yeare II to vaoate, evacuate 
(a; to leave, leave alone (• s.o.); 
to release, let go (« s.o., *; to desist, 
abetain, re&ain fa from), give up (j^ | tL- J»- (aabilahü) to let s.o. off, 
let s.o. go, release s.o.; Joj u^i ,jo J*> 
»,—JI to give s.o. a free hand in, let s.o. 
have bis own way with or in, let s.o. 
alone with; to open the way for s.o. to; 
ijjjll *\* dt* J»- Jpalli 'anka h. l-muyüia 
desist from such desires! IT to empty, 
void, drain, deplete (j* * of); to 
vacate, leave uninhabited or untenanted 
(* a place); to evacuate (a a city) | J»>l 
4JL- (aabilahü) to let s.o. off, let s.o. go, 
release s.o.; J J-jJI J*-l to open the way 
for...; **J* J»-l (tarafahü) to dismiss, 
discharge s.o., send s.o. away; to exoner- 
ate, exoulpate, clear s.o.; J <*r* J»tl 
(«xm'aAü) to be all ears for..., listen 
intently to...; Jji L. joj <m J*-l to 
let b.o. say whatever he Ukes, let s.o. 
talk freely V to give up, relinquish, forgo, 
abandon (j* or j», withdraw, 
resign (j^ or j» from); to cede, leave, 
surrender (J j* to s.o.); to lay 
down (j* an office) VIII to retire, with- 
draw, step aside, be alone (i~> or « with) 

jU- kilw free (j* from), devoid (j* of) 

j{+ kuiüw emptiness, vacuity; freedom 
(& from) 

•J*- Jfalä and ">U- U (with foll. aco. or 
genit.) except, save, with the exception 

••$>- fcalä' emptiness, vacuity; empty 
Space, void, vacanoy, vacuum ; open 

country | ."^1 £**■ or *^X-\ j under 
the open sky, outdoors, in the open air; 
OÜ-'I c~u bau al-Jp. toilet, water closet 

*j[+ kalwa pl. fealawät privacy, soli- 
tude ; Beclusion, Isolation, retirement ; 
place of retirement or seclusion, retreat, 
recess; secluded room; hermitage; re- 
ligious assembly hall of tbe Druses; 
booth, cabin | l^~ J* alone; in retire- 
ment, in seclusion ; *\J-\ ^1»- Jp. al- 
hammäm bathhouse 

tfjU- kalaw lonely, solitaxy, secluded, 
isolated, outlying; looated in the open 
country, rural, rustic, country | j^)*- Cw 
(bau) country house 

J» 1 l&diy P-* »W^ - ' alfliyä' % free (j* from), 
void, devoid (j* of) | JUI J»- carefree, 
eaaygoing, happy-go-lucky 

ÄJU- kallya pl. l/^U- kaläyä beehive ; cell 
(frtoZ.) | O JjVl iijJ-l ^1 {al-hayawiya 
l-ülä) protoplasm ; irj*- j» from within .... 
from inside . . ., out of . . . 

•VJfc mikläh nosebag 

Luc taJpliya vaoating, evacuation 

»■^U-l \%U£ emptying, voiding, draining; 
Clearing; vaoating, evacuation | 4JL— »-^-1 
%. sabilihi bis release 

Jit tajfollin relinquishment, abandon- 
ment, surrender, renunciation, resigna- 
tion (jf- of 

*'£i*-\ iktilä* privaoy, solitude 

ijU- feälin empty, void; open, vaoant 
(office, position) ; free, unrestiained, 
untrammeled, unencumbered; free (j* 
from), devoid (j* of) | in numerous 
Compounds corresponding to Engl, -leas 
or un-, e.g., *-U*U!l j* JU- useless, j* JU- 
jtSC-JI {auJfcfcön) uninhabited, untenanted, 
unocoupied; ^/JJl JU- £öZ» d-dain not 
bound by, without Obligation to, free 
(<> from) ; JUI JU- oarefree, easygoing, 
happy-go-lucky; — (pl. Jl^- £oi«Stfn) 


past, bygone (time) [ 3Jl£l öjjJi\ the past 
centuriea; JI^J-'I fl/ill j fi l-ayyämi h 
kawäli in the daya past 

>■ kamma u (kämm) to aweep (* a room) ; — 
i u {kämm, Aji- kumüm) to exude a 
rotten, foul smeü; to rot, putrify, decay 

/- kumm pl. *U» I akmäm coop, 
chicken coop, brooder; poultry pen 

Ü~ kamma putrid amell, stench 

>U- kämm stinking, rotten, putrid, 
foul-amelling; kam look up alphabetically 

A mukimm stinking, rotten, putrid, 

£> kamija a (kamaj\ to spoil, rot, decay 

■ij~ kamada u (jji- kumüd) to go out, die 
(fire); to abate, aubside, let up, calm 
down, cease, die down IV to extinguish, 
put out (* fire); to calm, appease, 
placate, aoothe, lull, still, quiet {*; 
to suppreas, quell (*; to subdue, 
soften, deaden, dull (*; to atifle, 
amother, kill (*; fig.) 

jji- kumüd extinction ; decline, de- 
generation, deterioration ; quietneas, still- 
neaa, tranquillity, calm ; immobility, 

jU-I ikmäd extinction, putting out; 
calming, aoothing, placation, appease - 
ment, lulling, atilling; subduing, soften - 
ing, dulling; settlement; auppreaaion, 
quelling (of a riot) 

-UU- kämid dying; abating, subaiding; 
calm, tranquil, still, quiet 

y- kamara u (kamr) and II to cover, hide, 
conceal (* ; to leaven, raise (* 
dough); to ferment (*, cause 
fermentation (* in) III to penneate, 
pervade (*, mix, blend (* with); 
to posseas, seize, overcome {• s.o., e.g., 
an idea, a feeling) IV to leaven, raise (* 
dough); to ferment (*, cause 

fermentation (* in); to harbor, entertain 
(*}; to bear a grudge, feel reaent- 
ment <J against s.o.) V to ferment, be 
in a atate of fermentation ; to rise (dough) ; 
to veil the head and faoe (woman) VI to 
conspire, plot, collude, scheme, intrigue 
(J* against) VIII to ferment, be in a 
state of fermentation; to rise (dough); 
to become ripe, ripen (also fig.: an idea 
in s.o. 's mind) 

ji- kamr m. and f., pl. jji- kumür 
wine; pl. alcoholic beveragea, liquor 

•jj- kamra wine 

iSj*~ kamri golden brown, reddish 
brown, bronze-colored (actually, wine- 

<iji- kamriya pl. -ät wine poem, 
bacchanalian verse 

j\j* kimär pl. Sji-I akmxra, jf- kumur 
veil covering head and face of a woman 

j\i- kumär aftereffect of intoxication, 

jj* kamlr leavened (dough); ripe, 
mature, mellow; leaven; leavened bread 

yJ- kamlra pl. J\j* kamä'ir* leaven; 
ferment; barm, yeast; enzyme (ehem.); 
(fig.) atarter, nucleus, basis (from which greater develops) 

j\j* kammär wine merchant, keeper 
of a wineshop 

«jli- kammära wineshop, tavern 

jj* kimmir winebibber, drunkard, 
tippler, eot 

_r~j£ takmir leavening, raising (of 
dough); fermenting, fermentation 

jl^-l iktimär (process of) fermentation 

j_j*jt makmür drunk, intoxicated, 

j*ijt muktamir fermenting, fermented; 


^j-i- II to quintuple, make fivefold, multiply 
by five (*; to make pentagonal 
(*; to divido into five parts {* 

^jj- kuma pl. ^li-l ajcmös one fifth | 
<J.l-1 j <^1>-I i-^i daraba akmdsahü ß 
asdäsihi and ^l-u-V L-li-l Vj™* ('*" 
asdäsin) to rack one's brain in eearch 
of a way out; to be at one's wit's end; to 
scheine, Intrigue 

i-> Jcamsa (f. ^,-i- Awma) five 
jtt. <-i- kamsata 'aSara (f. •_,!* ^,-i- 
kamsa 'a&rata) fifteen 

j^-> kamsün fifty | ,>—*£! -Lp 'wJ 
<z/-fc. Whitsuntide, Pentecoat; ,>— *J^I -i»-l 
akl a/-fc. Whitsunday ; j^-Li-' ' f W ayyäm 
al-kamäsin the period of about 50 days 
between Easter and Whitsuntide; □ J^Jt- 
and j^M- khamain, a hot southerly wind 
in Egypt 

J__i- o-p 'id karrwini 50th anniver- 

l _ r xt- kamis and ( _ r -x*tl *y_ yaum al-k. 
Thuraday | juJ-J u ^i- k. al-jasad Corpus 
Christi Day (Chr.); ^Ü\ tJ ^ k. al-fifh, 
jl^^l ,j-i*- k. cU-asrär, and i^Jl ( _ r ±i- 
k. al-ahd Maundy Thuraday (Chr.) 

^li- kammäa pl. i— l*- kamämüa 
(magr.) sharecropper receiving one fifth 
of the crop 

^l>- kumäsi fivefold, quintuple ; 
consisting of five consonants (gram.) | 
\j\jß ^*li- (zawäyä) pentagonal, five- 

i_x*> tcumaim (mor., pronounced 
kmiaa) omament in the shape of a hand 
(worn by women and children as a 
talisman against the evil eye) 

^U-'l al-kämis the fifth 
( _ r *jt mukammas pentagonal, five- 
cornered; pentagon; fivefold, quintuple; 

O pentameter 

^jLi- kamaSa % u (kamS) and II to Scratch (* 
e.g., the face, the skin, with the nails) 

^ii- kamS pl. ^j*- kumüS Scratch, 
Scratch mark, scar 

<i.\j- kumäSa pl. -ät Scratch, scar 

^jaJ» kamaßa u and kamipa a to be empty, 
hungry (stomaoh) 

,jM-r- kami$, jkül xJ +j- k . al-bafn , 
LU-I ^j- k. al-haSä with an empty 
stomach, hungry 

(•JjJl (j-ai^l ajcmap al-qadam pl. ,jA.U-' 
akämip hollow of the sole (of the foot) | 
^XÜl l yu-\ Jl ^\j\ j- from head to toe 

«#• kama'a a (kam', fji- kumü') to limp, 
walk with a limp 

Ji- kamala u (JjJ- ^umüZ) to be unknown, 
obscure, undistinguished ; to be weak, 

Ji- kamt and <ü- kamla nap, the 
rough, hairy Burface of a fabric ; fibers 

J> kamü languid, sluggish, dull, 

Jji- fcumäJ obscurity; weakness, laa- 
situde, languor, lethargy; indolence, slug- 
gißhness, inactivity; apathy, indifference; 
sleepiness, drowBiness 

ÜJ- kamila pl. J3U- kamä'ü* place 
with luxuriant tree growth; thicket, 
brush, scrub 

J.U- kämü unknown, obscure, un- 
distinguished, unimportant, minor ; weak, 
languid, sluggißh 

JJt mukmal velvet-like fabric, velvet 

Jjt mukmali velvety | JJft oU- (?'»W) 
deerekin, buckskin 

A*- II to guess, oonjecture, surmise; to 
make conjectures (* as to); to assess, 
appraise, estimate (* 


J-.-J& takmin appratsal, assessment, 
estimation; L~*J£ takminan and JiJt J* 
approximately, roughly 

l yJ&- mukammin appraiser, assessor 

1 j>- kanna % (j^^- kanln) to speak nasally, 
nasalize; to twang, speak through the 
dj- kunna nasal twang 
J-.'^- kanln twanging, nasal twang 
j^-1 akann 2 , f. »U»- kanna 2 twanging, 
speaking through the nose 

2 l y*- kunn (= f- kumm) pl. jL»-l aknän coop, 
chicken coop, brooder 

ijjt kanita a to be soft, effeminate V to 
display effeminate manners, become or 
be effeminate 

£j^ £an& oft, effeminate 

J^- kunlä pl. £>U»- kinät, jU*- kanätä 

ÄJjöi kunüta effeminacy 
£jj£ takannut effeminacy 

vijjc mukannat bisexual; effeminate; 
powerless, impotent, weak 

j*y**- kanjar pl. j*-L»- kanäjir 2 dagger 

j»^S- kankana to nasalize, speak nasally; to 
twang, speak through the nose 

<3-L*- kandaqa to dig a ditch or trench (liii^- ) ; 
to take up positions, prepare for battle 

Jii»i. kandaq pl. J-ili»- kanädiq 2 ditch; 

vl»-A* L ^unzuwämya megalomania 

c-j-^ji- kanzab Satan, Devil 

j-j*>- kinzvr pl. _rjli*- kanäzlr 2 swine, pig, 
h°g: <£J JS*~ (barri) wild boar; yjL»- 
scrofula, scrofulosis (mei.) 

*/ j*>- feMtzwa sow 

jy jLj^ Äaznäztr» scrofulous 

,^-Utl al-kannäs epithet of the Devil (proper- 
ly speaking, he who withdraws when the 
name of God is mentioned) 

U J*~\ aknas 1 , f. »LJU- kansa s , pl. ( _ r i>- 
kuns pugnosed 

jLli»- kin&är fern (6o(.) 

(j^sjöi &f'n-natt£ pl. ^^aJU*- foznänts 2 piglet 

^^j^- kinsir pl. _ r ^U*- kanöfir 2 little finger | 
J* {_ r ^U-'l) ^^aiA-'I -li* to give top 
rating because of its excellence, put, 
above everything «lse 

mL>- kana'a a {fj-*- kunü') to yield, surrender 
bow, atoop (J or Jl to s.o.), humble o.s. 
cringe (J or Jl before s.o.) 

fy*~ kanü' submissive, servile, meek, 
humble ; treacherouB, perfidious, diß 

fy*- kunü' Bubmissiveness, meekness, 

<J*lJ- kanaf {eg.) twanging, nasal twang 

jALJ- kanfara to snuffle, snort 

Je*- kunfus and »l— k*- kunfusa pl. ^U»- 
kanäfia 2 düng beetle, scarab 

>- kanaqa u [kanq) to choke (» s.o.); to 
euflbcate, stifle, smother, strangle, throttle, 
choke to death (» s.o.); to throttle down 
(techn. ; * ; to slow down, cut, check, 
suppress (j> III to quarrel, have a 
fight (« with s.o.) VI to quarrel, dispute, 
have a fight (« with s.o.) VII pass. of I; 
VIII to be throttled, be suppressed; to 
be tight, constricted (throat); to be 
strangled, be choked to death 

Ji>- kanq strangling, Strangulation ; 
throttling, suppression j jl^Vl Ji^ k. 
al-anwäT dim-out 

oJl ÄÄiai kanqat (kunqat) al-yad wrist 

JL»- kunäq auffocation; angina (med.); 
kunäq and J>Jl*- känüq quinsy, diphtheria 


(med.); pl. Jij^ katväniq* and £J^ 
fcowänig 2 do. 

JL*- kannäq choking, throttling, stran- 

J^jt maknaq neck, throat [ *ij*f »JU-i 
to grab s.o. by the throat, bear down on 
s.o.; to have power over s.o. 

JL*- kinäq strangling oord; neck, 
throat | J* jLA^ I J~^ (dayyaqa) to 
tighten the grip around s.o. 's throat, 
tread on s.o. 's neck, oppress s.o., beaet 
s.o. grievously; oljjc JU-I to grab s.o. by 
the throat 

Jbj^ fctnäg and ÜU»- kinäqa quarrel, 
fight, row 

Jbji- 1 iktinäq suffocation, asphyxia- 
tion; conßtriction; asphyxia (m#f.) 

JjU- käniq choking, strangling; suf- 
focating, asphyxiating, stirling, smother- 
ing; throttling, throttle- (in Compounds; 
techn.); (pl. Jl]^ kawäniq*) choke coil, 
reactor (radio); gorge, rarine, oanyon j 
JjU- jU asphyxiating gas; *_-jÖJ1 JJU- £. 
ad-di'b wolfsbane, monkshood, aconite 

Jj^jf- maknüq strangled ; suffooated, 
stifled, smothered; suppressed, choking 
(voice, laughter, etc.); constricted; stran- 
gulated; throttled 

j^jt muktaniq crammed, jammed, 
crowded, chock-full (<_j with) 

(j*- and ^-) 1^*- kanä u, J*- kaniya o (,^- 
kanan) to use obscene language IV to hit 
hard, afflict grievously, wear down, ruin, 
destroy, crush (J* s.o.,; said of fate) 

^i- kanan obscene language; 
indecentor obscene; prostitution ; fornica- 

V'j*" kawäfa pl- 'St sir, Mr. (title and form 
of address, esp., for Christians and 
Westerners, used with or without the 
name of the person so addressed) 

o\f*- kutvän, kitvän pl. Z^-\ akwina, ,^jU-i 
ajeävnn* table [ ij J I <j^»- k. az-zina 
dreasing table 

**v*- &äp a («ffO teacher, schoolmaater 

rj>- II (ep.) to rot, decay, spoil 

ry- kauk (coli.; n. un. 1) peach (e#.); 
plum (syr.) 

*^-j»- kauka pl . rj»- kuwak sky - 
light, windowlike opening; wicket (of a 
canal lock, of a gate); (eg.) alley con- 
necting two streeta 

»jjji- küda pl. -ö*, jjji- kuwad helmet 

1 (j_j«^) jU- fcära u (j|>»- fcwwäf) to low, moo 
(cattle) ; — jj^- kawira a {jj»- jcatvar) and 
jU- kära u to decline in force or rigor; to 
grow weak, apiritless, languid, to languish, 
flag; to dwindle, give out (strength) 

j_jj^ kaur pl. j\j»-\ akuxir, ö\j^- kirän 
inlet, bay 

jyi- kawar weakneas, fatigue, enerva- 
tion, languor, lassitude 


kuwär Iowing, mooing 

j!^ jcawwdr weak, languid, strength- 

2 i£jjt~ küri pl. *Jjl>»- kawärina parson, curate, 
priest; see also under j^- 

WJj*- bürw choir (of a churoh) 

3jj»- kauzaqa to impale (• s.o.); to corner, 
drive into a corner, get into a bad rix 
{• s.o.) 
jj jU- see 3y~ 

j£j»- 6jj vxiraq kauSaq wrapping paper; 
blotting paper 

1 u ^j»- kü$ (coli.; n. un. •) palm Ieaves 

\~*ji- küpa (eg.) plaitwork of palm 
leavea (resembling that of Panama hats; 
used as a tarboosh lining) 

A^\jji- kixoäfa art of palm-leaf plaiting 



2 u*y- kawa§ and ^j»-l aee ( _ r y- 

Hui**-) sj*\*- käfa * (£»«& ^^ ittyäd) to 
wade (a into water); to plunge, dive, 
rush (* into, tackle courageoualy 
{*» embark boldly (a on); to 
penetrate (* orj into), become absorbed, 
engrossed (* or j in); to go into a 
subject (j), take up (j a subject), deal 
(j with) | iS^dl ^U- (maVotö) to rush 
into battle; i-^J-l j^ t^*^" (giinära Z-Aar&) 
to enter the war 

( _ / <i^»- fcawi plunge, rush (into); enter- 
ing, entry (into, e.g., into war, into 
negotiations) ; penetration ; search (j 
into), examination, discussion, treat- 
ment (j of a subject) 

<*i\J£ makäfa pl. -ät, ^jli- makäwid 2 

»,>&. see ^ 

(ij»^»-) tJU- &ä/a (Ist pers. perf. kiftu) a 
(kauf, Sili makäfa, *Jui- kifa) to be 
frightened, scared; to be afraid (*, » or 
j- of), dread (*, » or ^ s.o. or; to 
fear (*, • or j- s.o.,; Jp for s.o., for; jl that) II and IV to frighten, scare, 
alarm, fill with fear (» s.o.) V = I 

<Jj>y- kauf fear, dread (^ of); li_>>- 
kaufan for fear (j* of), fearing (Je for) 

ü-jt- kifa fear, dread (j- of) 

<J>\j»- kawwäf, \Jtuj»- kaunuif faintheart- 
ed, fearful, timid, timorous ; coward, 

J»_^-l akwaf 2 more timorous; more 
dreadful, more to be feared 

ülji makäfa fear, dread | jl üli (makä* 
fatan) for fear that ..., afraid that ... 

.Jijljt makäivif 2 (pl. zu iilit) fears, 
apprehensions, anxieties ; horrors, dan- 
gers, perils 

\J*ij£ takwlf and üU-l ikäfa intimida- 
tion, bullying, cowing, frightening, scar 

^jyfi takawwuf fear, dread 

«JJU- jfcä't/ pl. ^J_>>- kuwwaf fearful, 
timid, timorous ; scared, frightened, 
alarmed (^ by); afraid (^ of); anxious 
(Je about), apprehensive (Je for) 

^jji maküf feared, dreaded; danger - 
ous, perilous 

(Ji-rf- mukif fear-inspiring, frightful, 
dreadful, terrible, horrible 

J'U- look up alphabetically 

J_^»- II to grant, accord, give, concede (* » to 
s.o., also * J; esp., the right, the 
power to do, bestow, confer (* » 
upon s.o., also * J), vest, endow 
(* » s.o. with, also * J) 

JU- käl pl. Jj^-I aJewäl, JjJ^- ku'ül, 
*Jj_J»- ku'üla (maternal) unclo; — (pl. ü*>L»- 
kllän) mole, birthmark (on the face) ; 
O patch, beauty spot 

iJU- käla pl. -öf (maternal) aunt 

<-L>*" kawal chatteis, property, esp., 
that consisting in livestock and slares; 
servants; (eg.) dancer; effeminate person, 

J^- kavXi Supervisor, overseer (of a 
plantation); gardener 

tyj*- ku'üla relationship of the 
maternal uncle 

J_jäfi mukawwal authorized (^ to) 

*U- look up alphabetically 

I (ü_j>-) jU- käna u (kaun, üL>- kiyäna) to 
be disloyal, faithless, false, treacherous, 
perfidious, act disloyally, treachorously, 
perfidiously (9 toward s.o.); to betray 
(» so.); to cheat, dupe, gull, hoodwink 
(» s.o.), impose (» upon), deceive (<i*"jj 
one's wife) ; to fool, deceive, mislead 



(• s.o.; said, e.g., of the memory); to 
forsake, let down, desert (» s.o.); to fail 
(« s.o.; e.g., the voice, and the like); to 
fail to keep {* e.g., a promise), break (Ixp 
'ahdan a contract) II to regard as or call 
faithlesa, false, disloyal, treacherous, 
dishonest, unreliable (♦ s.o.); to distrust, 
mistruet (» s.o.) V to impair, härm, hurt, 
prejudice (* VIII to dupe, gull, 
cheat, deceive, double-cross, betray (• 
s.o.) X ü J i*^*\ istakwana to distrust, mis- 
trust (» s.o.) 

ÜL*- kiyäna faithlessness, falsenesB, 
disloyalty, treachery, perfidy; breach of 
faith, betray al; treaeon; deception, fool- 
ing | iJL.^1 üL*- k. al-amäna breach of 
faith; j-Ji* ÄiL>- ('uzmä) high treaeon; 
j^)l 4jL>- breach of promise 

üjj*- ka'ün faithlesB, false, disloyal, 
traitorous, treacherous, perfidious; un- 
reliable, tricky, deceptive 

ü\j>- kawwän unreliable, faithless, 
disloyal, treacherous, perfidioua; traitor 

^U kä'in pl, o\j>- kutvwän, ~<Sj>- 
kawana disloyal, faithlesH, false, un- 
reliable, traitorous, treacherous, per- 
fidiouß; traitor 

*jU- and SjU- look up alphabetically 

*o)y~ look up alphabetically 

^äj*" kawä i {*\j>- kawä', t$j*- kawan) to be 
empty, be hungry; — kawiya a (*\yi- 
kawä*) to be empty, bare, dreary, 
desolate, waste 

*\j»- kawä 1 and ,jj>- kawan eraptiness 
(of the stomach), hunger 

jU käwin empty, vacant; dreary, 
waste, desolate | <%j. J* jU- ('urüSihi) 
completely devastated; ,j-»lj>)l ^jl»- fc. 
l-wifäd (= ^Ijjll JU) with an empty 
pouch, empty-handed, without a catch 

.jji- III to join (• s.o.), join the Company of 
{*), accompany (* s.o.) 

,jj+ fcuwaiy little brother 

lj>- küwa brotherlinesB, fratemity 
(= ;_j>.| uküiva) 

jljfi- mukäwin brotherly, fraternal 

j\s- kiyär (coli. ; n. un. S) oucumber | jCJ> jU^ 
k. ianbar (eg.) drumstick tree, purging 
cassia (Cassia fistula; bot.); «JL* jL*- fc. 
qaSia (eg.) gherkins, pickles 

(^^-) uU käba i (i-^ kaiba) to fail, mis- 
carry, be without success, be unsucoesa- 
ful; to be frustrated, be dashed, be dia- 
appointed (hopes); to go wrong II and IV 
to cause to fail; to thwart, frustrate, 
foil, defeat {*; to disappoint, daah 
(*J L.T ämöiaÄü s.o.'s hopes) V = I 

«-_»- kaiba failure, miscarriage, defeat, 
frustration; fizzle, flop; disappointment | 
i-ji. ajj walad fc., f. '*-*- cJJ btnt k. (eg.) 
a good-for-nothing, a ne'er-do-well 

<_JU- kä'ib failing; abortive, unsucceas- 
ful; disappointed 

( jj.) jU- Jcära i to choose, make one'a choice ; 
to prefer ( J* * to) II to make or let 
(• s.o.) choose ((>> between, j from), 
give (♦ b.o.) the alternative, option or 
choice (,>j between, j in); to prefer 
( J* a to) III to vie, compete (• with 
s.o.); to make or let (• s.o.) choose, give 
(• s.o.) the choice, option or alternative 
V to choose, seleot, pick (*, • s.o., 
VIII to choose, make one's choice; to 
choose, Belect, elect, pick (*, • s.o.,, 
fix upon s.o. or (*, •); to prefer 
(J* * to) | ... >j\yr Jl Äl jltf-l (?'»< 
wärihi) approx. : the Lord has taken . . . 
unto Himself X to seek or request what 
is good or best (*) for o.s. (• from s.o.); 
to consultan oracle, cast lots | j ^il jUc--1 
to ask God for proper guidance in 

j± kair pl. jL± kiyär, jU-l akyär 
good; excellent, outstanding, auperior, 
admirable ; better ; best ; — (pl. jj^- 


kuyür) good thing, blessing ; wealth, 
property; — good, benefit, interest, 
advantage; welfare; charity | ^-Lll j*i- 
the best of all people; ^Ul jl-^.^LIl jL»-l 
the best people, the pick of the human 
race; iL. jJ- j* he ia better than you; 
dil jyi- j* it ia better for you ; jJ-'l J$* j£\ 
the very best; fLJl jj-'l ('ämm) the com- 
monweal, general welfare; fUl! ^1 Üjj 
welfare State; j£ for the benefit of; jJ-' 
-4— ij! ft-fc. anjuaihim for their owngood; 
j*AM Jl>l charitable deeds; jX\ ^L» 
jsaÄdA al-k. and j4-'b dL-L*» good rnom- 
ing! jJ-'L» »jTj (daJbaraAö) to retain a good 
Impression of s.o.; to speak well of s.o. 

iSj*- <&»*'*"» charitable, beneficent, be- 
nevolent, philanthropic | <ij^- «-**; {jam* 
'lya) oharitable Organization 

*ij*~ kairiya charity, charitableness, 
benevolence, beneficence 

j± kayyir generous, liberal, openhand- 
ed, munifioent; charitable, beneficent, 
benevolent; benign, gracious, kind 

•jnri- kaira pl. -ät good deed, good 
thing; pL olj^- resources, treasures (e.g., 
of the earth, of a country), boons, blesa- 

»j-ui- klra and kiyara the best, choice, 
prime, flower, pick, eüte 

<Ss*- £**"» gülyflower (bot.) 
jyi-\ akyar*, f. ^jyi- kträ, ^jj*- kürd, 
pl. j-U-l akäyir* better, superior 

jL>- kiyär choice; Option, exercise of 
the power of choioe (/«/. Law); refusal, 
right of withdrawal (lal. Law) ; the best, 
choice, prime, flower, pick, elite; see also 

iSj\*- biyün optional, facultative; 

jL^-1 iktiyär choice; eleotion (aiaopol.; 
pl. -ät); selection; preference <J* to); 
Option; free will (phüoa.); L>L=»-I iktiyäron 

of one's own accord, spontaneously, 

jjLi».l iktiyäri voluntary, facultative, 
elective (studiea) 

jjt mukayyar having the choice or 

jLzift muktär free to choose, having the 
choice or option (j in), volunteering, 
jjbjc mitktäran (adv.) voluntarily, spon- 
taneously, of one's own accord; choice, se- 
lect, exquisite ; chosen, preferred, favorite ; 
a favorite; oljUJc selection, selected writ- 
ings, anthology; (pl. jrüljft makätir*) vil- 
lage chief, mayor of a village (Syr., Ltb., 

öb>*- aee j>- 

(u-i*-) o - ^*" &**** * (tri*- &***> öl— *»- kayasän) 
to break (<_> an agreement, a promise) 

t _^ui- kaiS sackcloth, sacking, canvas 

Üii- kaiSa piece of sackcloth; (pl. -ät, 
,_£>*- kiyaS) sack; straw mattress, pallet; 
Bedouin tent 

f j ■ * ■! » ■ see *i»- 

(ia-^) J»U- käfa i (kaif) and II to sew, stitoh 

J*-*i &a# pl. iy-A kuyüf, JoL^-l afcyöf, 
öLU->- H£dn thread; twine, oord; pack- 
thread, string; Aber | JJ lut- &. arnaJ a 
spark of hope, a thread of hope 

( _ J L = ^ kaift threadlike; fibrous 

-UL»*- &työf needle 

ܻL>- fciyd^a sewing; needlework, tailor- 
ing, dressmaking | ܻLi-" I ilT sewing 

J»L*f- kayyäf pl. -ün tailor 

«LL»- kayyäfa pl. -ä( dressmaker; seam- 

.LJt mikyaf needle 

•luU- fcö'if tailor 



'(J^O ^ köla a to i magine, fancy, think, 
believe, suppoae (ül that); to oonaider, 
deem, think (» * s.o. to be ..., * * B.tb. 
to be ...), regard (•* s.o. as, ** as) 
II to make (Jl s.o.) believe (jl that), 
suggest (Jl to s.o., *, give s.o. (Jl) 
the impreasion that (*) | öl (*J) *JI J-ii 
(kvyyila) he imagined, fancied, thougbt 
that..., it seemed, it appeared to him 
that . . . ; cX*- U Jp (kayyalat; Lr i^\ 
being understood) as the heart dictates, 
i.e., as ohance will have it, at random, 
unhesitatingly IV to be dubious, doubt- 
ful, uncertain, intricate V to imagine, 
fancy {*; to present itself, reveal 
itself (J to s.o.'s mind), become the 
objeet of imagination, appear ( = II 
kuyyila; J to s.o.) | jJ-'l «J JJt (kaira) 
to suspect good qualitiea in s.o., have 
an inkling of s.o.'a good qualitiea, think^ 
well of s.o., have a good opinion of b.o. 
VI to pretend (^ J to s.o., that ...), 
aot (J toward s.o., <-» as if); to feel self- 
important, be oonceited; to behave in a 
pompous manner, swagger, strut about; 
to conceive eccentrio ideas, get all kinds 
of fantastio notions, have a bee in one's 
bonnet; to appear dimly, in shadowy 
outline»; to appear, show (J* on), hover 
(Jp about; e.g., a smile about b.o.'s 
Ups), flit (J* across, e.g., a shadow 
aeross s.o.'b face, etc.) VIII to feel self- 
important, be conoeited; to behave in a 
pompous majmer, ewagger, strut about 

JL»- kayäl pl. IL^I akyila disembodied 
spirit, ghost, specter; imagination; phan- 
tom, apparition ; phantaam, fantasy, 
chimera, vision; shadow, trace, dim 
reflection | »ilLi JL^ k. Sakk slightest 
doubt; *\j*m~*i\ JL»- Je. af-fahrä* scareorow; 
JUJl (JL*- k. a?-?itt shadow play 

*)!—* kayäia pl. -dt ghost, spirit, 
specter; phantom ; phantasm, fantasy, 

JL^- kayäli imaginary, unreal; ideal, 
ideational, conceptual; utopian 

J-^-l akyaP more coneeited, haughtier, 

J--I akyai pl. J_^ kll, j>UI akäyil* 
green woodpeoker 

*•&:+- fpuyalä'* (f.) coneeit, coneeitedness, 
haughtiness, pride; OLX' al-kuyalä'a 
haughtily, proudly 

*J>Jl-A kailvla coneeit, ooneeitedness, 
anobbery, arrogance, haughtiness 

iLjt makila coneeit, coneeitedness, 
Bnobbery, arrogance, haughtiness; (pl. 
J>IJ£ makäyiP) indication, sign, symptom, 
characteriBtio; pl. Jjljfr visions, mental 
images, imagery 

J-Jt tafcyil play aoting | J—i-sN ,ji fann 
at-t. dramatic art 

JJfi takayyvl pl. -ät imagination, 
phantasy; delusion, hallucination, fancy, 
whim, fantastic notion 

JJe takayyull fantastic, fanciful, 

iJLi^I iktiycü pride; arrogance, haughti- 

ÜJft mukayyila imagination, phantasy 

JJn mujnl dubious, doubtful, uncer- 
tain, intricate, tangled, oonfused; confus* 
ing, bewildering 

Jliit muktäl coneeited, haughty, ar- 

* ( j-^ II to gallop (on horseback) 

Jj^ kail (coli.) pl. dj^- kuyül horses; 
horsepower, H.P. | JJ^I iL- horse rac- 
ing, horse race 

jLv- kayyäi pl. I, -ün horseman, rider 

*JL>- kayyäia cavalry (/r.; Eg. 1939) 

«JLv- \s* sariya kayyäia cavalry 
squadron (Eg. 1939) 


8 JU- see Jy- 

1 **- II to pitch one's tent, to camp ; to settle 
down; to stay, linger, reet, lie down, lie 
(J* on, (j or lj at a place); (fig.) to reign 
(e.g., calm, süence, peace, etc.; j or u 
at, in), Bettle (J* over) V to pitch one'a 
tent; to camp 

•w-. kaima pl. -ät, fL». Jeiyäm, **- 
Jpiyam tent ; tarpaulin ; arbor, bower ; 

fL»- kayyäm tentmaker 

^ic mvkayyam pl. -ät camping ground, 
camp, encampment 

***- htm natural disposition, nature, temper, 
character; inoünation, bent, tendency | 
•u-»i JU-I (eg.) to feel s.o.'s pulse, Bound 
s.o. out 

8 f U- look up alphabetically 

G <*• bnyyo pl* -& noose 

(_j|^ da'aba a (da'b, da ab, <->jj* du üb) to 
persist, persevere, be indefatigable, un- 
tiring, tireless (j or J* in; to go 
in for (J*), apply o.s., devote o.s. 
(J* to), practice eagerjy (J* 

Ja da'6 pl. (-.j-il a<f «6 habit 

Ja da'b, da'ab and vjj-* ^«'«6 
persistence, perseverance, tirelessnesa, 
indefatigabüity, assiduity, eagerness 

Jj da'tft and <_JU dä'ib addicted, 
devoted, persistent, aBsiduouB, eager, 
indefatigable, untiring, tireless (J» in) 

_ l-»jo da'ttft untiring, tireless, indefati- 
gable, persevering, persistent 

J j I ad'ab* more persistent, more 

ibla riötia governess, dry nurse, nurse 

£Ja däg pl. -ö( brand (made on cattle, etc.) 

Jta <iöJ name of the letter j 

Uli däliyä dahlia(a) (6o(.) 

Üb dämä checkera | LlaJl i*-jJ lauhat ad-d. 
checker board 

iilrflj see •Ultfj 

^AjuIj (Fr. denldle) dantiüa laoe 

Jj ia dünaq, däniq pl. jj Ijj tJawänt^* an anoient 
coin, = */« dirham; amall coin; a Bquare 
meaaure (Eg.; = 4 aahm = 29.17 m a ) 

iijU'la danmark Denmark 

jjU'la danmarkl Daniah 
«— j_^ilaJl ad-dänüb the Danube 
Äjli <£äya pl. -ät wet nurse; midwife 

i_o tJaA&a * (daäft, <_^a (2aM6) to creep, crawl 
(reptile); to proceed, advance, or move 
slowly; to go on all fours; to enter (j, come (j infco) ; to steal, creep 
(*_ ij J into a.o.'a heart; of a feeling, e.g., 
doubt); to apread (j over, in, through), 
fill, pervade, invade (J ; to 
gain ground ; to gain ascendanoy (j 
in s.o.; of a condition, an idea, a Sensa- 
tion); to Btream in, rush in (of sensationa, 
J upon s.o.) | «Li-1 i_^jj 4J ^a (d. 
al-hayäh) to gain vitality II to sharpen, 
point, taper (* 

yj d-ubb pl. t-»lol adbäb, i-jj dibaba 
bear | _^^l l^oJI (affgar) Little Bear, 
Urea Minor (ortron.); jjTVl «-*■*" (ai&w) 
Great Bear, Urea Major (astron.) 


j:> dubbi ursine 

*o dabba sand hill, mound 

t^i dabxb creeping, crawling; In- 
filtration; influx, inflow, flow (e.g., of 
sensations, of Ufe, of vigor) ; reptile 

ujLjj dabbäb creeping, crawling, repent, 

iiljj dabbäba pl. -ät tank, armored car 

i_j.u madabb : «-*** Jl J^l v 1 * »>• 
(j7mwo6ä*Ä*) from the lower Nile to its 

*j\s dö&ba pl. vi»-* dawäbb* animal, 
beast; riding animal (horse, mule, don- 

i_ijj duwaibba tiny animal, animalcule; 

^.u mudabbab pointed, tapered 

£2 II to embellish, decorate, adorn, omament 
(*; to put in good style, formulate, 
compoee, write down, put down in 
writing {* 

r-Lji dlbäj pl. psi^i dababij 1 Bilk 

ij-Ljj dibäja (n. un. of r^i-*) brocade; 
introductory verees or linea, proem, 
preamble; face, visage; style, eleganoe 
of style; renown, repute, standing, 

ryj-Jü tadbij embellishment, adornment, 
omamentation ; composition, writing (of 
a book) 

ol^-u mudabbajät embellishmenta of 
Speech, fine figures of speech 

i^Ajj dabdaba to tread, tap 

*jJuy dabdaba sound of footateps, foot- 
fall, pitapat; pattering or clattering 
noise; snapping, flapping noise 

*jjX>± dabdüba pl. *— oIj-s dabädib* point, 
tip, tapered end 

^i dabara u (jjt* dubür) tp tum one's 
back; to elapse, pasa, go by (time) II to 
make arrangements, make plana (* for), 
prepare, plan, organize, design, frame, 
devise, concert, arrange, get up, bring 
about (a; to hatch (> a plot, etc.); 
to contrive, work up (* a rase) ; to 
diiect, conduct, manage, run, engineer, 
ateer, marshal, regulate (* be in 
charge (* of); to manage well, economize 
(* | iU- j 2 (kiftatan) to devise a 
plan ; üjJiJl j j to conduct the course of 
business, be in charge IV to tum one's 
back (j* or J* on s.o.); to flee, run 
away; to escape, dodge; to slip away 
V to be prepared, planned, organized, 
managed; to reflect, ponder (j or * on); 
to consider, weigh, contemplate (j or 
*; to treat or handle with care, 
with circumspection <j VI to 
face in opposite directions, stand back to 
back; to be contrary, opposite, opposed; 
to be inconsistent, incompatible X to 
tum the back (• on s.o.) 

j* dubr, dvbur pl. jlol adbär rump 
backside, buttocks, posteriore; rear part, 
rear, hindpart ; back ; last part, end, tail | 
ji j» behmd, at the back, in the rear; 
from behind, from the rear ; *j a dj 
waiid dvbwahü to turn one's back; to 
flee, run away 

gj* daban trailing behind, belated, 

Iji dabra tum (of fate) 
jji* dabür west wind 
jjii dabbür pl. jwlj* dabäbir* hörnet; 

jyo; tadbir pl. -ät planning, Organiza- 
tion; direction, management, disposal, 
regulation; economy, economization; — 
(pl. jjuü tadabir*) measure, move, step | 
JjU.1 jujJ t. al-manzil housekeeping, 
household management; JjU j^-tf (man* 
zili) do.; oj^ii jjjlJtdb (Ü and jjjljdl 4*1 



4>}*>UI (ittakada) to take the necesaary 

jLil idbär flight, retreat 

jjj tadabbur reflection, meditation (j, 
on), thinking (j about); consideration, 
contemplation (j of) 

yljj tadäbur disparity, dissimilarity, 

j\i däbir past, bygone (time); the 
ultimate, utmost, extremity, end; root | 
*^ti\ j-li jJaJ (däbira S-Sai*) to eradicate, 
root out, suppress radically; 
j\j&\ ,j-*Vj (amsi) aometime in the past; 
j\x\\ ,j-*ir ._-*i (ka-amsi d-däbiri) to 
vanish into thin air, disappear without 
leaving a trace (actually: like yeaterday 
gone by) 

jX» mudabbir manager, director; ruler, 
disposer; leader; ringleader | JjKll jX, 
achemer, intriguer, intrigant 

jX* mudbir: "^-Ä-y (/-u mudbiran wa- 
muqbilan from the rear and from in front 

a »jljj dubära (= *j\jj*) packthread, string, 
twine, cord, rope; thread 

i -\s dibs sirup, molasses, treacle, esp. of 

, l _ r -j>* dabbüs pl. ^-wlji dabäbis* pin; Bafety 
pin | j>J&l ^ji* safety pin 

^j dabai junk, rubbish, trash; — dabS 
rubblestone, rubble; cruahed rock (used 
as su betrat um in macadamizing) 

ijj dabaga a i u (dabg) to tan {* a hide) 

üLij dibäga tanning, tanner's trade 

f-lji dabbäg tanner 

lij-U madbaga pl. ijjx. madäbig 2 tan- 

^a dabiqa a (dabaq) to stick, adhere (i_j to) ; 
to cleave, cling (v to) II to catch with 
birdlime (* a bird) 

jj^ dt&iy birdlime 

Jjj daöig sticky, gluey, limy 

iL:> dabaka u (dabk) to stamp the feet; to 
dance the dabka (see below) 

iSji dabka (syr.) a group dance in 
which the dancere, lined up with locked 
arrns or holding hands, stamp out the 
rhythm and sing 

<Lj dibla pl. Jo dibal ring 

I^L^ diblöm and *->1j j diblöma pl. -ö< diploma 

,^-LyJbi di'Mdmöji diplomatic; diplomat 
i^UjJüi diblömäsiya diplomacy 

_^i datara u (j_yi du*ü r ) to fall into oblivion, 
be forgotten, become obsolete, anti- 
quated, extinct; to be blotted out, 
wiped out, efFaced, obliterated (track by 
the wind) II to cover, envelop (• s.o.); to 
destroy, annihilate (* V to wrap 
o.s. ( j in), cover o.s. (j with) VII to be 
or become wiped out, blotted out, ef- 
faced, obliterated; to be old; to be for- 
gotten, have fallen into oblivion, be 
obsolete VIII iddatara to wrap o.s. (<^ in), 
cover o.s. (i_j with) 

jUi ditär pl. jo dutur blanket, cover 

jyX» madtür past, bygone, ancient 

r* dajja i (dajj, ?^*-i dajxj) to walk slowly 
II <-:>LJ1j 4w-j to arm s.o. to the teeth 

r* dujj (syr.) thrush (zool.) 

*»-,> dujja intense darkness, pitch- 

rU: dajäj (coli.) chickens; fowl (as a 
generic designation) 

*»-l*-.i dajäja (n. un.) hen; chicken | 
^fiti-l ö-U-j d. al-habaS guinea fowl 

--■iLJlj £*-u mttdajjaj bi-8-ftitäh heavily 
armed, bristling with arms 


j**i dajira a (dajar) to be embarrassed, be at 
a lose 

jj£ i daijür pl. jw-li* dayäfir* gloom, 
darkness, dark 

^ j^i da»j*n dark, gloomy 

M*-i dajala v to deceive, dupe, oheat, take in 
{J* e.o.); to be a swindler, a cbarlatan, 
a quack II to coat, smear (*; to 
gild (*; to deceive, dupe, oheat, 
take in (J* b.o.), impose ( J* on) 

J*-a dajl deceit, trickery, bumbug, 
e windle 

JLo dajjäl pl. -ün, UL*-U-j dajäjÜa 
swindler, cheat, impoater; quack, charla- 
tan (fem. «JUo); Antichrist 

J-*-a? tadjll impoature, humbug; ohar- 
latanry, quackery 

8 iU-i dijla* the Tigris river 

^».i dajana u (dajn, dy-* dujün) to be dusky, 
murky, gloomy (day); — (dujün) to 
remain, stay; to get used, become ac- 
customed, become habituated; to become 
tarne, be domesticated II to tarne; to 
domesticate {* an animal) | ü**i ö-J-' Cj^a 
(li-kidmati /.) to put or b.o. to use 
for b.o.» make or b.o. of Bervice to 
b.o. III to flatter, cajole, ooax, wheedle, 
try to win or entioe by gentle courteBy 
(• b.o.) IV to be murky, gloomy, over- 
cast (day) ; to be dark (night) 

~<*-i dujna, dujunna darkness, gloomi- 
nesa, gloom 

jj-jl adjan* dark 

t y r \i däjin tarne, tamed, domesticated 
(animal); dark, gloomy | i».l* oUlj-*- 
(hayawänät) domeetio animalfl 

j*-l^i dawäjiii 1 poultry 

(j*.*) Lo dajä u to be dark, gloomy, dusky; 
to overehadow, oover, veil, shroud, 
blanket {*, Bpread (* over) III to 

play the hypocrite, pose aa a friend (• of 

s.o.); to cajole, flatter (» B.o.) 

*.* dujan gloom, darkness, duskinesa 
JJI ^Ij-i dayäji l-laü dark of night 
»U-I.U mudäjäh hypocriay; flattery, 

adulation, sycophancy 
pb däjin dark, gloomy 

t-i~* II tadahdaha to waddle 

^.u-i dahdah and ^1-U-a dahdäh dumpy, 
squat, stocky 

_^-i dahara a (dahr, jj*-a duhür) to drive 
away, chase away (• s.o.); to dislodge, 
remove (• s.o.); to defeat (* an army) 
Till to be driven away, be routed, be 
repelled, be thrown back; to be defeated 
(army) ; to go under, go to ruin, succumb, 
break down, oollapse 

jL-aJl indihär banishment, rejeotion; 
(pl. -äl) defeat (mü.); nun, fall, break- 
down, collapae; catastrophe] ü»Öl jU-Jjl 
ind. al-kaun end of the world 

_)j»-X* madhür routed, repelled ; ex- 
pelled, caat out; ostracized, banished 

r^o dahraja to roll (* II tadahraja to 
roll, roll along ; to roll down 

,-*-b dähis pl. ij-»-^ dawähis whitlow, felon 

^i dahaia a (dahS) to insert, thrust in, 
shove in, foiat in, smuggle in VII to 
interfere, meddle ; to mix 

^Ä>o dahada a to be invalid, void, untenable 
(argument); to disprove, refute, inval- 
idste (* an argument) II and IV to dis- 
prove, refute, invalidate (* an argument) 
iJ +*-* dahd refutation, disproof 
^jiyi duhü4 invalidity, shakiness, 
weakness, refutability (of an argument 
or a olaim) 

^U.u midhä4: ^Ua. ^a (da'wä) an 
invalid, unjustified claim 



(yi) U-a dahä u (dahw) to Bpread out, 
flatten, level, unroll 

O ^J- midkan pl. ^l-u madähin 
roüer, steamroller 

_^ol iddakara, »j+X* muddakira see _^ö 

(j-^-j dujcaa dolphin 

J»o dahola u (Jjrfo duhül) to enter (*, lesa 
frequently j, also Jl,, go, step, 
walk, move, come, get (*, j, J( into); to 
penetrate, pierce (*, j, Jl; to take 
possession of s.o. (•), befall, seize (* 
s.o.; o.g., doubt); to take up (<*4*i a 
post), start at a Job; to enter s.o. 's (J*) 
room or house, drop in on s.o. ( J*), come 
to see s.o. (J*); to call on s.o. (J*); to 
consummate the marriage, cohabit, sleep 
(lj or J* with a woman); to come (J* 
over s.o.; e.g., joy); (pram.) to be added 
(J* to); to supervene, enter as a new 
factor, aspect, element, etc. (J* upon, be newly introduced (J* into; to make one'a own, acquire (J*; to join, enter (* or j e.g., a 
religious Community); to participate, 
take part {* in); to set in, begin (time, 
event); to be included (j in; also jr* 
dimna), fall, come ( j, jtf , c^ under), 
belong, pertain (j, yf f c~* to), be 
within (j, je*, v^*:); pass.: dukila 
to be sickly, diseased, abnormal j J* J*o 
Jj-Uj j-Vl (ta'diZun) the matter has 
undergone modification; ~<*jX\ J»o (£w2- 
»w) to take up one's post, start at a job, 
report for work; 1-jAll J»o (»wairaaa) 
to enter school; »L-ll J^j (minä') to 
enter the harbor, put inj f^-ifil j J^j 
to come to the point; {**-*- j) *ü* j J»o 
dukila fl 'aqlihl (/i /«wuA*) to suffer from 
a mental (physical) disturbance II to 
make or let enter, bring in, let in (*, • 
s.o.,; to enter, insert, include (*, j or * in) III to come over s.oi («), 
befall, seize (» s.o.; e.g., doubt, suspicion, 
despair) IV to make or let enter, bring in, 

let in, admit, lead in, show in (* s.o.); to 
move, take, haul (J* or j * into); 
to incorporate, include, embody, insert 
( j or * * in); to cause to set in, 
bring about, produce, set off, trigger 
(J* * in); to introduce (*, e.g., 
an Innovation, an improvement, J* in 
or on | <*j&\ A*-*\ (madTasa) to 
send s.o. to school; J* IjwJ J^aI to bring 
about a change in ...; o^-uS <J* iJUoi 
(udkilat) the matter was subjeeted to 
modifications V to meddle (j in), in- 
terfere (j in, with); to interpose, inter- 
vene (j in); to invade (J, in- 
trude, obtrude (j on), disturb (j; 
to interlock, mesh, gear VI to meddle 
(j in, e.g., *JjJ-i j in s.o.'s affairs), butt 
in (ijJi-l j on a conversation) ; to 
interfere (j in, with), interpose, inter- 
vene (j in); to interlock, mesh, gear; to 
be superimposed ; to intergrade, shade, 
blend ( tJ A*j or ^mi j *-i*j one into the 
other) ; to come over s.o. {»), befall, strike, 
seize {« s.o.; e.g., doubt, grief) 

J»o dakl income; revenues, receipt«, 
returns, takings (as opposed to r->- 
karj); interference, intervention ; doubt, 
misgiving | J*-uJI <r>j-* income tax; Lr d 
V J*o j,\ *J (ayyu daklin) and J^a V 
u or jj (dakla) he should not meddle 
in . . ., he has nothing to do with . . ., it is 
none of his busineas 

J*o dakdl disturbance, derangement, 
disorder, imbalance, or defect of the 
mind; defeot, infirmity 

IU-j dikla intrinsic nature, essence ; 
inner Belf, innermost, heart, soul (of a 
person) ; secret intention | *iU- j «*- \j 
räja'a dikkUahü to commune with o.e., 
searoh one's soul 

iU-j dukla; iUoJI iL! lailat ad-d. wed- 
ding night 

iL-j dukkala a variety of warbler 



\^- i dakil inner, in ward , internal ; 
inner seif, heart, core; — (pl. »^»o 
dukalä* 3 ) extraneous; foreign, alien; 
exotio ; foreigner, alien, stranger ; not 
genuine, false, spurious; newly added 
(J* to); novice; (new) convert; guest; 
protägä, charge, ward | *L»o i*JS {ha* 
lima), J-^-j JüJ (to/?) foreign word or 
expression; (syr.-pal.) JL^-j (daküak) 
please, if you please 

"*L*-a dakila pl. JJU-j dakä'il* inner seif, 
inmost being, intrinsic natura, essence; 
heart, aoul | *~Jü *L*-> j inwardly, in- 
side, in bis heart; Lyü Jl^-» our inmost 
being; jjW JIUo the underlying natura 
of things, the factors at the bottom of 
things; <y_p JJUo d. ju*ti»tAi his private 
affairs, (of a country, etc.) its internal 

i}jji-i dukül entry, entrance, admis- 
sion; entering, ingress; beginning, aetting 
in; penetration; intrusion, invasion; 
first coition in marriage (Isl Law) | Jy-i 
^>ji- 1 d. al-harb entry into war 

*Jj*-> dufcvXlya octroi, oity toll 

J»-u madkal pl. Jj-Iju maÄta»! 1 en- 
trance ; hallway, veBtibule, anteroom ; 
entrance hall, lobby, foyer; mouth (of a 
port, of a canal); O anode (ei.); intro- 
duction (to a field of learning) ; behavior, 
conduct | o[)LJI Jrf-U (myyärfU) drive- 
way; jyUll i-jj-U J^-J- introduction to 
the study of law; J^-ül j-*- hum al-m. 
good manners, good oonduct 

iUIx. mvdäjcala interference, inter- 
vention; participation, interest (j in) 

JUol üZAöi leading in, showing in, 
bringing in, taking in, hauling in; in- 
volvement, implication; insertion, inter- 
polation, incorporation, inolusion; intro- 
duction (e.g., of a Constitution; of an 
improvement, J* on an apparatus, or 
the like) 

J^-Jb* tadakkul entry, entrance; in- 
vasion; interference (j with, in), Inter- 
vention; intrusion, obtrusion | J*-.tdl f-U 
'adam at-t. noninterferance, noninter- 
vention (pol.) 

J*-l-C tadäkvl interference, Interven- 
tion; interlook, meshing, gearing; super - 
impoBition; intergradation ; permeation, 
pervasion; O interference (phys.) 

J^-l-s däkil belonging, pertaining (j to), 
falling (J under), included (j in); inner, 
inward, inside, interior, internal; inside, 
interior (of; däkila (prep.) within, 
inside, in; "sU-Ij daküan inside (adv.) | 
J^UI j- from within; from the inside 

iUb däkila pl. J^-'ji dawäkiP interior, 
inside, inmost, hidden part; iU-liJI the 
Dakhla oasis (in central Egypt) 

J^la däkili inner, inward; internal; 
interior, inside; domestio, home, inland 
(as opposed to ,jrjU- häriji external, 
foreign ; pol.) ; indigenous, native ; private ; 
belonging to the house; U*-Ii däküiyan 
inside (adv.) | «Jw-Ij JL*SJ boarding stu- 
denta (as opposed to VtjU- day students) ; 
l_U-ti t->j*- (Aarb) civil war; iJu^l^ 3-yX. 
(madrtMo) boarding sohool; i-l^-ta ^H^ 
underwear; LLtla i»-"A- inland navigation 

«Jtf-La däkiliya interior | i"$J\ «J^-Ia the 
interior of the country, the inland ; 
LLtUi lj\jj ministry of the interior; yjj 
«Jw-I-Jl minister of the interior 

JyiJU madkül sickly, diseased, ab- 
normal; (mentally) disordered; of weak 
character, spineless; (pl. J-»-l-U madäkll 2 ) 
ravenue, receipts, takings, returns 

_jo daJcmasa (LJ-ä dakmaaa) to fool (J* 
s.o.) about one's real intentions, pull the 
wool over s.o.'s (Jp) eyes; to cheat; to 
be sly, crafby, artful 

i_»-j dakmasa deception, fooling, 
trickery; cunning, craft, slyness 


jii-i dakina a to be smoky; to taste or smell 
of smoke; — dakana a u to smoke, 
emit emoke (fire) II to fumigate, fume 
(*; to smoke, eure with smoke (* 
foodstuffs) ; to smoke (* a cigarette, 
tobaeco, a pipe) IT to smoke, emit 
smoke (fire) V to be smoked, be cured 
with smoke ; to be fumigated 
j>-} dukn pearl millet, dukhn 
j*~i dakan smoke, fume, vapor 

üUo dukän (dujckän) pl. L»ol adkina 
smoke, fume, vapor; tobaeco 

li^-i dujena smoke color; a kind of 
incense (CalamuB aromatious) 

O <-~*~* dakina cigarette 

J*-Uo dakäkini (eg., tun.) tobaeconist 

*^*-x* madkana pl. j^lx. madäkin* 
chimney, smokestaok, funiiel 

J^-i3 tadkin fumigation; smoking 
(e.g., of fish); (tobacoo) smoking 

i^-lj dakina pl. j»-|p daxväkin* chim- 
ney, smokestack, funnel 
j*-u mudakkin smoker 

uU-b^ look up alphabetioally 

u-b.» daidan habit, practica 

^a III to pamper, spoil (• a child) 

jj darra % u (darr) tc flow oopiously; to 
stream, flow, well; to aecrue (J* to s.o.; 
profit, wealth); to be abundant, plentiful 
IV to cause to flow; to bestow laviahly, 
heap ( J* * upon s.o. ), shower, 
overwhelm (J* * with s.o.); to 
yield (* a profit, J* to s.o.) X to stream, 
flow; to be abundant; to cause or try to 
bring about the abundant flow of {*); to 
cause s.tb. (*) to yield in abundance; to 
be out for (*), seek to gain (* a 
profit), try to make (* a living) 

jj darr milk; aebievement, accomplish- 
ment | •>,> Zi li-tiähi darruhü (literally: his 

achievement is due to God) how capable, 
how good, how excellent he is! 

j.s dürr (coli.) pearls 

•p durra (n. un.) pl. ~äl, jjj durar 
pearl; — a variety of parrot (Psittacus 
Alexandri L.) 

iSj* durri glitte ring, twinkling, bril- 
liant (star) 

•jj dirra, darra pl. jji dirar teat; 

jl;X> midrär ehowering abundant rain 
(sky, cloud) ; spouting, pouring forth, 
welling out 

jb darr flowing oopiously; produetive, 
rieh, lucrative; profitable 

jX. mudirr: JjJI j.u (baul) diuretic(al), 
pl. J>J1 C^\jJu diuretios; tS^JI _,.u ('araq) 

Ijj dara'a (dar') to rejeet (*; to avert, 
ward off {*, e.g., [^*- kafaran a 
danger, je- Crom) VI idddra'a to contend 
(j for) 

«jj dar' repulsion, prevention, avert- 
ing; warding off, parrying 

iL ji darVa pl. -ät target 

^f'j\j* daräbazin railing, parapet, banistera, 

x\)i Dürres (It. Durazzo, seaport in W 

tj[}i durräq (syr.) peach 

t/lp darämi dramatic 

w-jjj dariba a (darab, öjj durba) to be ao- 
customed, be used (<_j to), be practioed, 
trained, Bkilled (<-< in) II to habituate, 
aecustom (*, » s.o.,, j or ^ or J* 
to); to practica, drill {• s.o., j, i~* or J* 
in); to school, train, coach, tutor (* s.o., 
j, ^ or J* in) V to be aecustomed, be 
used (J* or j to); to be or become 



praoticed, sküled, trained, drilled, school- 
ed (J* or j in); to train (athkt.) 

i_jjj darb pl. VJJ* durüb narrow 
mountain pasa; path, trail, track; road; 
alley, lane | ÜLdl «^J* d - rt-taMä*** tho 
Milky Way 

iij* durba habituation, habitude, habit ; 
familiarity (with, experience; skill, 

Ljj dariba court of first instanoe 

u-jj-Ij tadrib habituation, acoustoming; 
practioe; drill; schooling, training, Coach- 
ing, tutoring | j^CJI v--jj-til <*<wfor») 
military training 

^fjA* mudarrib pl. -ün instructor, drill 
inatructor; trainer, ooach (atJUet.); tamer 
(of wild animals) 

^fjA* mudarrab experienced; practioed, 
skilIed; trained; schooled 

,>>[)* daräbazln and j>_/ji darbazxn railing, 
parapet, banisters, balustrade 

^jj dari>a*j to bolt {* a door) 

^Uji dirbäs pl. (j-jjb* <&«&**" bolt, 

^jjj darabukka (eg.), dirbakka (ayr.) pl. -<M 
darabukka, a oonical, one-headed hand 
drum, open at the Bmall end 

&j i ji darbaka banging or rattling noise, 
din, uproar, turmoil 

p-ji daraja u (rj j-> durü;) to go, walk, move 
proceed, advance (fllowly); to approaoh 
gradually, step by Step (Jl; to 
follow a couTBe (J*), proceed along the 
lines of (J*), proceed in such and such 
a manner ( J*) ; to go away, leave, depart ; 
to outgrow (^m a nest, a habitation); to 
be past, bygone, over (time); to have 
passed away, be extinot; to circulate, be 
in circulation, be current, have currency; 
to grow up (child); — (darf) to roll up, 

roll together (*; to wrap, wind, 
twist (J* * around); — darija a to 
rise or advance step by step | J* Ji^Jl jyj 
daraja l-'urfu 'alä it has become the 
general practioe to ... II to make (» s.o.) 
rise or advanoe by steps, promote (• 
s.o.) by degrees; to move or bring (* gradually cloeer (Jl to); to ap- 
proximate (Jl * to); to roll up, fold 
up {*; to circulate, put into circu- 
lation {*, give currenoy (* to, 
make (* the general praotice; to 
divido into degrees, steps or grades, 
graduate, grade, gradate (*; to 
insert, include, enter (j * in) III to 
go, keep up (* with, e.g., with the 
time, with a fashion) IV to insert, include, 
incorporate, embody (j * in); to 
enter, register (j *, e.g., in a list), 
book (* V to progress by steps, 
advance gradually; to proceed step by 
step (Jl to); to make progress (j in); to 
graduate, grade, be graded, graduated, 
gradated VII to be inserted, entered, 
incorporated, embodied, included (j 
in) ; to be classined (j in, C-* under) X to 
make (• s.o.) advance or rise gradually, 
promote (• s.o.) by degrees; to lead (• 
s.o.) gradually (Jl to), bring (• s.o.) 
around to (Jl, J); to bait, allure (• s.o.); 
to entioe, tempt, Iure into destruotion 
(» s.o.) 

rj* dar] entry, entering, registering, 
registration, recording; a rolled or folded 
paper; roll, soroll | «_jU£Ji r J-» J ü 1 tne 
book; *^l$ül £ji j f% d. il-lealäm. in the 
course of the talk 

p-ji durj pl. r\j*\ adräj drawer (of a 
table, desk, etc.); desk (e.g., for pupils in 

^ji daraj pl. g\ji\ adräj way, route, 
course; night of steps, stairs, staircase | 
**-\j^\ a*-j raja'a adräjahü (also **^Ija1 jI*) 
to retraoe one's steps, go back the way 
one came; to go back, turn back; <_~*i 


r}ij\ Tri»- 5 ' (adräja r-riyäh) to go the 
ways of the winds, i.e., to pasß unnoticed, 
without leaving a trace; to end in smoke, 
come to nothing, be futile, be in vain 

i^jj daraja pl. -ät step, Btair; flight of 
steps, stairs, staircase; degree, Step, tone 
(of a scale; mus.); degree (math. t geogr.; 
of temperature) ; grade, rate ; degree, 
order, rank; class (also, e.g., in trains, 
of a decoration); phose, state, stage (of a 
development) ; mark, grade (in school) | 
lj \ji. I i^ji d. al-karära (degree of ) 
temperature; LLJI üjL-jjJI ('ulyä) the 
maximal temperatures; JäJI üjL-jjJI 
(suflä) the minimal temperatures; ij-j* 
JjjUl d. af-fül degree of longitude (geogr.); 
(ouL>) <-*1p <»-j3 ('ilmiya, jämi'iya) 
academic degree; J5*JI i»-jj d. al-'aql 
level of intelligence, IQ ; CjU-j jJI Ji* report 
card (in school); JjVl IjjJÜl (j) j- («Ja) 
first-rate, first-class; <j*-ji ji of superior 
quality, high -grade, high-claae; ul Ö-jjJ 
(K-daraja(i) to the extent tbat...; to 
such an extent that ..., so much that ... 

^Ip durräj pl. £jtp darärip francolin 
(zool.); see also alphabetically 

r j-tf tadruf, *^jJS tadruja pheasant 

i»-!;i darräja pl. -ä( bicycle | 3jjli *»-l;j 

j-jj* madraj pl. rj'-^* madärij* way 
tbat one follows or pursues; course, route; 
road, path; starting point, outset, rise, 
growth, birth, dawn, beginning(s) ; tar- 
mac, runway (of an airfield); (as also 
mudarraj) amphitheater; (amphitheater- 
ed) auditorium or lecture room; grand- 
stand, bleachers | ^j-x* .L. since its 
beginnings; oLÜ rjA* m. nai'cUihl the 
place where he grew up; jJI ^jlJ- j jl— 
(m. ir-rugiy) to travel the road of 

£j-tf tadrlj graduation; Classification, 
categorization ; gradation | £j-dl J*, 

£.J^ £> ^.j-^Li gradually, by and by, 
by degrees, by steps, atep by step, more 
and more 

^j-tf iadrljl gradual, gradatory, pro- 
gressive; LjCj-U tadrijiyan gradually, by 
and by, by steps, by degrees, in stages 

^Ipl idräj insertion, interpolation, in- 
corporation; entry, registration, record- 
ing (j in a list) 

j:jJJ tadarruj gradual advance or 
progress; gradation, graduation | rj-^Lj 
graduaUy, by and by; <u*UjjI rj£ t 
irtiqaihi his gradual rise 

^lj.t-1 istidräj capability of graduaUy 
winning s.o. over, pereuasiveness, art of 

jrjli därij current, prevalent, wide- 
spread, populär, common, in vogue, 
circulating, in circulation | *-_,! jJl v^&l 
(kaläm) andij-jUI iilil (luga) the populär 
language, colloquial language 

£jJ- mudarraj graded, graduated; — 
(pl. -ät) open staircase, open-air stairs, 
fliere, stoop; grandstand, bleachers; 
amphitheater; (amphitheatered) audi- 
torium or lecture room 

£jJ- mudraj inserted, interpolated, 
incorporated ; entered, registered ; oon- 
tained, included (j, ^ in), comprised 
(j. V oy) 

ijj darida a {darad) to become toothless, 
lose one's teeth 

ijil adrad 2 toothless 

tjiji durdi sediment, dregs, lees 

^-jjjjj dardabis ugly old woman, hag 

•jap dardara roar, rush (of water) ; idle talk, 
prattle, chatter 

jljp dardär elm (bot.) 

jjijs durdür eddy, whirlpool, vortex 

Üap dardaSa idle talk, prattle, chatter 


^ji daraza u to sew, Btitch 

jji iarz pl. JjjJ dura« seam, hem; 

B tf JJ J dw« pl- JJ.P darüz Druse | j jjjJI J->- 
jabal ad-d. the Jebel ed Druz, the 
mountainous homeland of the Druses in 

S Syria 

,-p darasa u (dars) to wipe out, blot out, 
obliterate, efface, extinguish (*; 
to thresh (* grain); to learn, study (* 
ß.th., J* under s.o.). J* ^ ^v* ('*») 
to study under (a teacher, a professor); 
— u v^jj-i durüs) to be effaced, obliterat- 
ed, blotted out, extinguished II to teach; 
to inatruct {« s.o., * in; III to 
Btudy (• together with s.o.) VI to study 
(* carefully together VII to become 
or be wiped out, blotted out, effaced, 
obliterated, extinguished 

^ji dars effacement, obliteration» 
extinction; — (pl. ^jj> durüs) study, 
studiea; lesson, chapter (of a textbook); 
class, class hour, period; lecture; lesson 
(taught by experience, etc.) | jp Lj ji J)l 
(alqä) to lecture on ...; L-jji J«*l (<*'&) 
to give lessons; SJjU ^-jj^ (manziHyo) 
homework (of a pupil or Student) 

^Ip dtrö* threahing (of grain) 

L*lp diräsa pl. -äf studies; study | *-[p 
*Jl* fö7tya) oollegiate studies; *£_jJÜ i-lp 
(tänouJtya) attendance of a secondary 
school, secondary education, high-eohool 
education ; «L<j£» *-|p (mutawassifa) 
secondary eduoation, high-echool edu- 
cation (Syr.) 

^-Sja dtröa» of or pertaining to study 
or studies; Bcholastic, school; inBtruction- 
al, educational, teaching, tuitional | p-y 

vb J 

tuition feea; Ä— '1 

Sr'b- 1 


academic year; scholastic year, school 

^-j ji darts dried clover 

*— jjjJI Jl> 'ummät ad-darisa (eg.) 
railroad section gang, gandy dancers 

^b-i darräs pl. -ün (eager) student 

O *-Lp darräsa flau; threahing ma- 
chine | O *-!p »iL*»- (Aa^^öda) combine 

^jji dirwäs mastiff 

VjXi madnua pl. ^j'-U madärw 2 
madrasah (a religious boarding school 
associated with a mosque) ; school j i-j.u 
SJIjsjI (tofidd'iya) the lower grades of a 
secondary school, approx. = junior 
high Bchool; *Jj\ l*-jJu> {awwallya) 
elementary school, grade school; i-j-u 
ij_yL> (tänawiya) secondary school, high 
Bchool; *iJ^f öy-l* (/ijäriya) commercial 
College or Bchool; *-j^- *<jA» (Aar6tya) 
military aoademy;*J*-l.i i^jX* (däkiliya) 
boarding school; (LI*) Ul* i-j-U fättya, 
'uiyö) College; ^li^Jlj J>JJ1 i-j-u school 
of industrial arts, school of applied art 
and handioraft; ^jS" i-jA* (kubrä) Col- 
lege; ieoiil <**jjX\ the old "school" 
(= intelleotual or artistic movement) 

(j-jO- madrari scholastic, school 
^Jj-tf tadris teaching, Instruction, 
tuition | ,j-Jj4dl Ä~» hai'at al-t. teaching 
staff; faoulty, professoriate (of an aca- 
demic Institution) 

^jli däris pl. ^jtji dawäris* effaced, 
obliterated; old, dilapidated, crumbling | 
<-jlj> i.1* tajaddada därlsuhü to rifle 
from one's ashes 

^j-U mudorrM pl. -ün teacher, in- 
Btruotor; lecturer | opL- ^j-i* (mu«3'K2) 
assistant professor 

9-ji II to arm; to armor, equip with armor 
(a V and VIII iddaraa to arm o.a., 
take up arms, put on armor 

pji dir" m. and f., pl. £jj* durü*, £j*l 
adru r , f\j*\ adrS ooat of mail, hauberk; 
(suit of ) plate armor ; armor plate ; 
armor; armature; {pl. f !pl adra) chemise 




Ä^ljj aarrä'a pl. -at armored cruiser 

i*i)j durrd'a pl. (»jjIjj daran' 2 loose 
outer garment with sleeves, slit in front 

fjlj däri* armored, armor-clad, iron- 

i^jlj däri'a pl. fjljj dauxjrt' 2 armored 

f-jJU mudarra' armored ; armadillo 
(zoo£.) | Ä^j-U Jjj (güuxj) tank corps; 
Ä^j-U «jL- (aayyära) armored car; »Li- 
üy-jX* (mu$äh) armored infantry (mtl.) 

*£-jX* mudarra'a pl. -ät armored cruiser 
(Jij-a dar/ side, flank, wing; protection 

üjj darfa pl. <_jp dira/ leaf (of a 
double door or window) 

Jjjj darfll dolphin 

1 öj i daraqa (leather) shield 

O iJj-> daraq thyroid gland 

jjj daraqi shield-shaped ; thyroid | 
iJjOjl Ä-UJI (gudda) thyroid gland 

2 j[jj look up alphabetically 

] lJji II to last, continue, keep up (rains) 

III to reach, get, catch, overtake, out- 
distance, outrun (>, « s.o.,, catch 
up, como up (a, » with); to keep up, 
continue without interruption {* 

IV to attain, reach (a, arrive (a 
at); to get, catch, overtake {« s.o., *, catch up, come up (*, • with); to 
come suddenly, unexpectedly (» upon 
s.o.), overtake (» s.o.; death); to obtain 
(a; to grosp, comprehend (a; 
to perceive, discern, notice (*; to 
realize, understand (a, become 
aware, become conscious (a of; to 
mature, ripen (e.g., a fruit); to attain 
puberty, reach sexual maturity (boy) 

V i--^iil Jl ^j— Ül C-TjAj (Sams, magib) the 
sun prepared to set VI to reach and seize 

one another; to continue without inter- 
ruption, go on incessantly; to face, meet, 
obviate, take steps to prevent (a; 
to put in order, set right, correct (a, 
make amends (a for), provide compen- 
sation or indemnity (a for a loss, or the 
like) X to correct, rectify, emend (*; to set right, put in order, straight- 
en out (a; to make good, repair, 
redresa (a a damage, a mistake, etc.), 
make up (a for); to Supplement, supply 
(a that which is miasing); to anticipate, 
foreatall, obviate (a an event) 

iJji darak attainment, achievement, 
accomplishment ; overtaking, catching 
up ; police ; (pl. iJ 'j .il adräk) bottom, 
lowest level 

$j* darakl policeman 

iTjj daraka lowest level; pl. -ät 
descending steps (as opposed to oU-jj; 
cf. Ojll oBj^j »U-l oU-jj darajät al- 
hayäh wa-d. al-maut) 

iJlp darräk much-accomplishing, ef- 
ficient, successful 

iJjl-L. madärik 2 mental faculties, men- 
tal powcrs, intelligence, intellectual ca- 
pacities, perception, discernment j iJjl-dl 
^j-*^! the five sensea 

(Tip diräkan (adv.) constantly, in- 
cessantly, without interruption 

i\\ji\ idräk reaching, attainment, 
achievement, accomplishment; realiza- 
tion, perception, discernment, awareness, 
conaciouanesa (iJjp'iM Am faqd al-i. un> 
consciousness) ; comprehension, under- 
standing, grasp ; reason, intelligence 
sexual maturity, puberty; age of maturi 
ty | ilLp^! j- sinn al-i. age of dis 
cretion (Isl. Law) 

iJj-G tadarruk gradual decline 

iJlj-ü-l istidräk redress, reparation 
correction, emendation, rectification 



iljj> mudrtfc rational, reasonable, en- 
dowed with reason, intelligent; (sexually) 
mature, pubescent, at the age of puberty 

Cj SjA* mudrakät realizations ; cogni- 
tions; fised notions, established concepts 

3 *}ji (Engl.) derrick, derrick crane 

<*jj darima a to fall out (teeth) II to clip, 
trim (a nails) 

üjj darina a (daran) to be dirty, filthy 
IV do. V to Buffer from tuberculosis 

öji daran pl. ü\j*\ adrän dirt, filth; 
tubercles; tuberculosis | j,yj üp {ri'awi) 
pulmonary tuberculosis 

ijji darana (n. un.) pl. -ät tuberclo; 
small tumor, outgrowth, excrescence, 
tuberculc, nodule 

i_jji darani tubercular, tuberculous 

üj-G tadarrun tuberculosis | ^yj üj-tf 
(H'ann) and UJ\ üjAj t. ar-rta pulmonary 

tijoj tadarruni tuberculous 

üj^i* mutadarrin affected with tu- 
bercles, tuberculated 

»jj- midrah pl. »j\x* madärih 2 spokesman 

jtjj dirham pl. a\j2 darähim 1 dirhem, 
drachma {It. — coin of 50 ^-U) ; a weight 
{Eg. = V12 VJ 1 = ca - 3.12 g); f\j> 
nioney, cash 

^L^-jj duraihimät (dimin. with a 
derogatory sense; approx.:) pennies 

j.) protecting screen or 

Zjj* dxrwa pl. -ät | 
wall; parapet 

^jj* dirwäs mastiff 

,Jj jji darwti pl. ,Jj jlp daräväS* dervish 

1 ,j J ^ darä i (ilp diräya) to know (<_j or * or of; to be aware, be cogni- 
zant (u or *of); to nnderstand, com- 
prehend (i~> or * | . . . j 1fi tSJ-^i ^y 

all of a sudden there was ... III to flatter, 
treat with flattery or gentle courtesy, ca- 
jole, coaz (e s.o.) ; to deoeive, fool, mislead 
{♦ s.o.); to dissemble; to oonceal, hide, 
mask, disguise {* IV to let (» s.o.) 
know (<_j or about, inform, 
notify, advise (<-j • s.o. of) | ... L. iljjjl Ly 
(adräha), also <-> iJlpl Ly do you realize 
what . . . is? you don't even know what . . . 
means! VI to hide, conceal o.a. 

5jlp diräya knowledge, cognizance, 

^jjl adrä more knowledgeable, better 
informed, knowing better (<_j s.o.,, 
botter acquainted (<_j with) 

t^jjl V lä-adri a skeptic 

l\j\x* mudäräk sociability, affabüity, 

jlj darin knowing, aware, cognizant 
(i_j of 

\fj-L» midran, «j-U midra (= fj^, mirdan), 
öljj- midrah pl. jIju madärin pole (esp. 
one for punting boats) 

3Ljj diryäq (= jb/) theriaca; antidote 

<1j jj (It. dozzina) dazzina dozen 

^j dasaa u (dass) to put, get, slip, shove, 
thrust, inBert (j * into); to bury 
(j * in the ground); to instill, 
infuse (j <-•, * in); to adminieter 
surreptitiously (-JI as-mmma poiaon, J 
to s.o.); to foist (j * into); to 
smuggle (J * into, ju * s.o. among); 
to interpolate (*; to intrigue, 
scheme, plot (J*, J against s.o.) | ^j 
^'U-di to engage in secret machinations, 
intrigue, soheme II to put in, get in, slip in, 
shove in, thrust in, insert (*; to 
hide, oonceal (* V to engage (se- 
cretly, Jl in); to be hidden (j in) VII to 
slip (ju between or among, J into), 
creep, steaJ, sneak (,>i among, J into). 


infiitrate (j,); to ingratiate o.a., in- 
sinuate o.e. (j or Jf to s.o., into s.o. 's 
confidence); to be hidden 

<-j-o daaiaa pl. ^'Lo dasä'ia 2 intrigue, 
machination, scheine, plot j ^Loil ^j 
daae ad-d. machinations, intrigues, schem- 
ing, plotting (x*i against) ; plot, conspira- 


^Ui dassäs pl. -ün intrigant, intri- 
guer, schemer, plotter, conspirator; sand 
snake (Eryx jaculus) 

'kl— o dast pl. tl^i dusüt place of honor, 
seat of honor; seat of office; counoü | 
&-t c~o d. al-kukm (a ruler's) throne 

2 ul— -i diät pl. £jj~* dusüt kettle, boiler, cal- 
dron made of copper (eg., ayr.) 

3 i>j daata dozen; pack, packet, package 

j_j^-i dustür pl. ,/üLo dasätir 2 Statute; 
regulations; by-laws; (basio) constitu- 
tional law; Constitution {pol.); — (colloq.) 
dastür permission 

iSjj^s dustüri constitutional | fUkJl 
^j_j^-u)l constitutional form of govern- 

Äjj^j dustüriya constitutionality | 
ijjji^jjl ^J* 'adam ad~d. unconstitu- 

j^2 dasara u (dasr) to push, shove, pusb off 

O s*\* däsir propeller, airscrew 
»j£~-* daskara pl. jS'Lo daaäkir* village 
«*>* daaam fatness (of meat) ; fat, grease 

— j dasim fat; fatty, greasy, grimy, 
grubby ; rieh, abundant, substantial ; 
meaty, pithy, füll of thoughts (e.g., read- 
ing material) 

— il adaam*, f. »lf.i dasmä' 2 , pl. ^j 
dusm very fat ; fatty, greasy, grimy, 
grubby; — richer, more substantial, 

<*Lo daaäma fattiness, greasiness, 
griminess, grubbiness 

*-j-j dusüma fatness; richness, sub- 

l»Lo disäm plug, stopper 

«j^ daiaam amaranth (bot.) 

jjfs disembir, diaambir December 

j~i II to introduce, bring in (* V to 
be hidden, concealed; to penetrate (Jf 

^ij {Fr. doucke) duS shower, douche 

,ji*-J daSii and Üjij a kind of porridge 
made of crushed wheat and butter 

£-i.s daSt junk, trash, rubbish, refuse 

ji.s II to hand over, present (*; to 
consecrate, dedicate, inaugurate (* 

J*.~>Jj tadiln consecration, dedication, 
inauguration | i-^£ll jjt-i-tf consecration 
of the church 

^i V to belch, burp, eruet 

<ci da'a see f-ij 

9j> da"a to rebuff, turn down (contemp- 
tuously, « tbe poor, an orphan) 

i_-pj da'aba a (ÄjUj du'äba) to joke, jest, 
make fun (• with s.o.) III to play, toy 
{», m with, with s.o.); to joke, jest, 
make fun (* with s.o.); to give (» s.o.) a 
good-natured slap or smack {<-») ; to 
flirt(U with a woman) ; to dally, philander, 
play around (U with a woman); to play 
(• about s.o.; e.g., waves); to stroke 
gently, caress, fondle (*; to beguile, 
tempt, delude (• s.o.; said of hopes); to 
play (* a musical instrument) j jJLJi !_-pli 
to play on the piano VI to make fun, 
have fun together, have a good time 

!_-pj da'ib joking, jocose, playful, jolly, 
gay, funny 

lAt-i duäba pl. -ät joking, jesting, fun- 
making, fun; joke, jest 

v_>Ui da" ab joaose, playful, jolly, gay 

ks-\jl» mudä'aba pl. -ät play, fun- 
making, fun; joke, jest; pleasantry; dal- 
liance, flirtation, philandeiy 

<^e.\i dä'ib joking, jocose, playful, jolly, 
gay, funny 

± r *\x> mudä'ib joking, jesting 

J^j di'bil frog Bpawn, frog's egga 

J^-U muda'bal indisposed, out of 
eorts; round, ball-shaped 

«*il ad'aj 2 , f. »1> j da' ja' 2 , pl. £*a du'j black- 
eyed; deep-black and large (eye) 

j*i <£a*t'ra o (da'ar) to be immoral 

j*i da'ar immorality, indecency 

jpi da'ir unchaste, lewd, licentious, dis- 
solute, obscene, bawdy, immoral, in- 

SjUi da'ära, di'ära indecency, im- 
morality, licentiousness, debaucheiy | 

«jUoll c~u bau ad-d, brothel 

jt\i dä'ir pl. jUi du"är unchaste, 
lewd, licentious, dissolute, obscene, 
bawdy, indecent, immoral 

i _ r £-i da' asa a (da's) to tread underfoot, 
trample down, cruBh (*; to knock 
down, run over {» s.o. ; automobile) 
VII pass. of I 

uiipj da'aka a (da*k) to rub (a; to scrub, 
scour (*; to scrub on a washboard 
(a laundry); to crush, squash, mash (*; to crumple (a paper) 

xi da'ama a (da'm) and II to support, hold 
up (a; to prop, shore up, stay, 
buttress, underpin (*; to cement, 
consolidate, strengthen (a Till *jl 
idda'ama to be supported; to rest, be 
based ( J# on) 

Kfi di'ma pl. /i di'am support, prop 

<.Uj di'äma pl. -ät, f Uo da'ä'im* sup- 
port, prop, stay, shore; pier; buttress; 
pUlar (esp. fig., e.g., SaLJI fleo pillars of 

-e-tf iad*im support, strengthening, 
reinforcement, consolidation, underpin- 

(j*} and jtj) Uj da f d u {.l*j du'ä') to call 
(• s.o.); to summon (<-* or » s.o.), call or 
send for s.o. (*_* or •); to call up (• s.o., Jl, 
J for); to call upon s.o. (•), appeal to b.o. 
{*) for or to do (J, Jl), invite, 
urge (J, Jl • s.o. to do; to invite, 
ask to come (Jl • s.o. to; e.g., to a ban- 
quet); to move, induce, prompt (J, Jl * 
s.o. to do, prevail (<J, Jl • on s.o. 
to do; to call (<-», a « s.o. by a 
name), name (^, a » s.o. so and so), pass. : 
x-j du'iya to be called, be named; to 
invoke (^»1 God = to pray to); to wish 
(J s.o.) well, bless (J s.o.; properly: to 
invoke God in favor of s.o.), invoke a 
blessing (cj) upon s.o. (J), pray (^> for, J on behalf of s.o.), implore (v J 
for s.o.; to curse (J* s.o.; properly: 
to invoke God against s.o.), call down 
evil, invoke evil { J* upon s.o.) ; to 
propagate, propagandize (*J, make 
Propaganda, make publicity (<J for); to 
dem and, require (Jl, call for (Jl); 
to call forth, bring about, cause, provoke, 
ocaasion (Jl, give rise (Jl to) | ^s 
f k-'jU (du'iya) to be summoned, be 
called into session (parliament) ; Jl ^i 
■r">UJl Jr» du'iya ilä hamli s-ailäh to be 
called up for military Service, be called to 
the colors; ... ^-ü Jaj-j (yud'ä) a man 
called..., a man by the name of...; 
j**JI (Jjiü 4J Ui (}üli l-'umr) he wished 
him a long life III to challenge (a s.o.); 
to pick a quarrel (b with); to proceed 
judicially (« against), prosecute (» s.o.) 
VI to challenge each other, call each 



other forth or out, summon eaoh other; to 
evoke one another (thoughts, reminis- 
cences, sentiments) ; to be dilapidated, 
be tumble-down, threaten to fall (walle) ; 
to sink, subside, cave in; to fall down, 
sink to the ground (person); to coüapae, 
break down, deoline, degenerate (fig., 
of a oultural phenomenon); to flock 
together, rally VIII ^al idda r ä to allege, 
claim, maintain {*, ül that); to 
lay claim (* to demand, claim 
(*; to make undue claims (* 
to, arrogate (to o.a.), asBume 
unduly or presumptuously (*; to 
affect, feign, simulate, pretend, purport 
(^; to testify (in oourt); to accuse 
(»_j or m Jp a.o. of), charge (»_j or * Jp s.o. 
with), blame (*-j or * J* s.o. for), hold (t^j or *) against s.o. (Ja) X to call 
or send (• for s.o.), summon (* s.o.); to 
cite, summon for examination or trial 
(« s.o.; court, police); to reoall (• s.o., 
e.g., a diplomatio envoy); to call, ap- 
point (• s.o., e.g., a professor to a chair); 
to invoke (* s.o.); to invite, urge (Jl • 
s.o. to do, suggest (Jl • to b.o. or to do, call upon s.o. (») to 
do (Jl), appeal (Jl » to s.o. for 
or to do; to call for (*), require, 
demand, necessitate, make necessaiy or 
requisite (* 

ijci da'wa call ; appeal ; bidding, 
demand, request; call, convocation, sum- 
mons (Jl to), calling up, summoning; 
(official) summons, citation; invitation; 
claim, demand, plea; missionary activity, 
missionary work (also »jp-UI yiS nah 
ad-d.), Propaganda; — (pl. OJ^pj da'a* 
wät) invocation, imploration, suppUca- 
tion, prayer; good wish | oli-U» £>\j*s 
good wishes; ^JL S^pa (Harr) imprecation, 
curse; S_jpjJI ^>-Ls> host 

i^jpj da'wä pl. jjUi da'äwä, jl*j 
da'äwin allegation, pretension; claim; 
lawsuit, case, action, legal proceedings 

(Ißl. Law) | ül &y~h on the pretext 


^3 da'ly pl. »Ufril ad'iyä'* adopted 
son; bastard; braggart, bigmouth, show- 
off; pretender; swindler, impostor 

»Uj dua pl. ad'iya call; invocation 
of God, supplioation, prayer; request, 
plea; good wish (J for s.o.); imprecation, 
curse (Jp against s.o.) 

^jl ad'ä more conducive, more stim- 
ulating, of greater inoentive (Jl, J to), 
causing or provoking to a greater extent 

(Jl, J 

»jUi da'ätva, di'äwa pl. -ät Propa- 
ganda (pol.) ; publicity ( Jl for) 

t^jUj daäwi, di'äwi propagandistio 

ÄjUj» di'äya Propaganda (pol.) 

jlpa di r ä'i propagandistio 

Slp-U mad" äh determining factor, de- 
cisive motive or inoentive, cause, oc- 

f-loj iadä'in imminent collapse, impend- 
ing breakdown ; mutual summoning | 
JUil (jf-t-ij iadä'i l-ma'äni assooiation of 

»U^i iddi'a pl. -dt claim; arrogation, 
undue assumption, presumption ; al- 
legation ; pretension, pretense ; acou- 
sation, charge; »IpjVI the prosecution (in 
a court of justice) 

»U.tL-i iatid'a summons, summoning; 
recall, calling back ; official summons, 

flj dä'in pl. äUo du'äh one who invites, 
inviter ; Propagandist ; host ; motive, 
reason, cause | ^Ia V (dä'iya) it is not 
necessary, there is no need, there is no 
cause (J for) 

i-^b dä'iya one who calls for 
(Jl), invites to (Jl); Propagandist 
(with foll. genit. or Jl: of, herald; 



(pl. f\ji dawä'in) motive, reason, cause, 
occasion ; pl. f\j* requiiementa, ezi- 
genoies | <^*j»- Leb warmonger; Xje flj-U 
li-davxTin pikhtya for reasons of health ; 
iSjjj" ^Ip ö- it gives me great pleaa- 
ure ... 

y-\* mad'ütv one invited, guest; call- 
ed, named, by the name of 

f-ljfc* mutadä'in evoking one another, 
one leading to the other (reminiscences, 
thoughta); frail, shaky (Constitution); 
dilapidated, tumble-down; ready to fall, 
threatened with collapse; declining, in 
a Btage of decline, on the downgrade 

9Ju mudda'in one who makes an al- 
legation or pretension, aüeger, pretender; 
olaimer, olaimant; plaintüf; prosecutor 
(jur.) ; arrogant, presumptuous, bump- 
tious | l/>**JI ^.ill (umümi) the public 
prosecutor; pUl ^oll ( f ümm) do. (Mor.) 

^fA* mvddd'an claimed; 4_U ^xLI the 
defendant (jur.); pl. oLe-u mudda'ayät 
claims, pretenaions 

fjs~* mwtad'in applicant, petitioner 

£iii dagdag'a to tickle (• s.o.); to cruah; to 
chew, munch (* 

1 J i-i dagara a (dagr, j^j dagrä) to attack (Je 
s.o.), fall upon s.o. (Je) 
j*i dagr attack, assault 
tjj*} dagrä attack, assault 

'iSji'i dttgri (eg., syr.) direct, straight; 
atraight ahead 

J£i IV LJjJI cUÜjI adgakti id-dunyä it 
became dark, twüight feil 
^ftcj dagaJf darkness, dusk, twüight 
<lüj dagiSa darkness, dnsk 

( _ r *Pi dagifa a (daga#) to be chock-full, on 
the point of bursting 

i^ilj dägifa pl. ijapIp dawäflift knee- 
pan, kneecap, patella 

J*o da£al pl. jUol adpäZ, JUj dipäZ place 
with luxuriant tree growth ; thicket, 
bush, jungle; — defectiveness, faultiness, 

Jea dagil covered with dense under- 
growth (place); impenetrable; corrupted 

Je.u mudgil covered with dense under- 
growth (place) ; false, perfidious, insidious 
(in character) 

i-ä IV and VIII ijl iddagama to put (j * into), insert, incorporate, embody 
(j * in); (gram.) to contract (J * 
one letter into another), assimilate (<j * to) VII to be incorporated, embodied, 
merged, amalgamated; to be assimilated, 

■Jij daffa % (•JnJ* dafif) to Aap the wings 
(bird) II to hurry, rush 

Jj daff pl. öy-s du/ü/ aide; lateral 

ija dttj^, doj^ pl. ö>#j du/ü/ tambourine 

*i^ dajffa side ; leaf (of a double door or 
window); cover (of a book), jläail the 
two covers of a book; rudder, heim | 
iiaJl jS\$ or üjJI _r-U mudtr ad-d. steers- 
man, helmsman ; -Linil «« Je j-iJtotake 
the heim, make o.s. the leader; ÜaJl 4j yad 
ad-d. tiller; SjjjUJ] «ioJl j* (eg.) all to- 
gether, one and all, all without exception 

*jj difftya (eg.) loose woolen cloak 

'ja do/i'a a and j» dafu'a u to be wann; to 
feel warm II and IV to warm, heat (* V, Vm tiil iddafa'a and X to 
warm o.s. 

♦Öj d»/' wannth, warmness, heat 

*,jj do/F and »jj da/t* warm 

jT« da/'än 9 , f. ^tö da/*ä warm 

»Uj difa heating 

U\is dafaa wannth, warmness, heat 

Q LÜa daffäya pl. -df stove 



lix. midfa and slix» midfa'a pl. jlj- 
maiä/i' a stove, heating stove 

iüjj" to^'a heating, generation of heat 

j^^ daftar pl. j-'Üj dafdtir* booklet ; notebook, 
copybook; daybook, Journal; ledger 
(com.); roster, register, offioial register | 
ijL^- jis (kisäbi) account book; batik- 
book, passbook; obUJ^l Ji>^ißbät 
letter file, letter book, folder, portfolio; 
iy^l Jii pubhcation setting forth the 
terms of a purchase, the conditions of a 
leaee, the stipulations of a contract, or 
the like; IJIjU^I jth subscription booklet; 
jj-iwaJl Jii d. a^-pundü^ cashbook (com.); 

i*_l LI joj cadastre, land register; joj 

<~«*Jl d. al-yaumiya diary, Journal; jJL. • 
j-'UJl mask ad-d. bookkeeping 

ijUjö-i daflarkäna archives, pubHc rec- 
ords Office (Eg.) | i jLull ihl^M ÜU-JUj 
d. al-amläk al-'aqäriya land-registry office 

Li^iij difieriyä diphtheria 

jz dafara to push, push back (» s.o.); — 
dafira a (dafar) to stink 

jti dafar stench 

jti dafir stinking, fetid 

^Jj dafasa to hide (*; to push 

Jj dafa'a a (daf) to push; to push away, 
shove away, puBh back, drive back, repel, 
remove, dislodge, drive away (je *, » 
s.o., from); LjU- 4*»j (jäniban) to 
push, shove, or elbow, s.o. aside; to rid 
(*-jÜ je o.a., * of, get rid of; 
to get the better (*, » of b.o., of, 
conquer, maater control (• s.o., *; 
to fight (i-> * with); to reject, 
repudiate {*; to rebut, refute, 
disprove (*; to propel, drive (*; to move, cause, urge, impel, egg 
on, goad (• or ^ s.o., Jl or J to do, 
induce, incite, force, compel, oblige (• 

or *-> s.o., Jl or J to), make s.o. (*-> or •) 
do (Jl or J); to hand over, present, 
turn over (J or Jl * to s.o.); to pay 
(Le tamanan a prioe, Jl or J to s.o.) | 
Jl «Um^ üi (hifähu) to wend one's way 
to III to resist, withstand (• s.o., *, 
offer resistance (*, • to); to contradict, 
oppose (» s.o., je- so as to make him 
abstain from, dissuade (• s.o., je- 
from); to auppresB {*; to defend 
(je s.o.,, uphold (je-; to be 
entmsted with the defense (je- of, 
of s.o., also jur.) Y to dash forward; to 
dart off, rush off; to pour forth, flow, 
stream, gush forth (water) ; to spring up, 
make itself feit (an idea, a social tend- 
ency, and the like) VI to shove or push 
one another; to push or shove one an- 
other away or aside; to push off, shove 
off (je- from); to issue in intermittent 
bursts , gush forth intermittently ; to 
buret forth, rush out, sally (j* from); to 
be propelled, be driven forward ; to 
storm forward VII to dart off*, rush off; 
to proeeod rashly, blindly, without 
forethought; to be too impetuous, be 
too hotheaded; to plunge headlong (j 
into; to rush, dart, make (Jl at, pounce (Jl on; to rush off, 
hurry off, go quickly (Jl to; with foll. 
imperf.: to do; to give o.s. (J to 
s.o.); to burst forth, gush out, pour 
forth, spurt, spout, flow, run (j* from; 
water); to let o.s. be carried away or be 
overcome (*\jj by, e.g., ^j_j+- *\jj 
Sahawätihi by one'ß bodily appetites, 
»jjtJ- *\jj by one*s feehngs, Äi*-LJl »Ijj by 
worldly things) ; to proeeed, Bet out, begin 
(with foll. imperf.: to do X to try 
to ward off or stave off (*, ^ by) 

•ii daf pushing back, shoving aside; 
repulsion, driving away, driving off; dis- 
pelhng; parrying, warding off, staving off; 
repulse, rejectiou, repudiation; rebuttal; 
handing over, turning in; payment 



i**j daf'a (n. vic.) pl. dafa'ät shove, 
push, thrust; impetus, impact, momen- 
tum, forceful impulae, drive; ejaculation; 
paymen t ; deposit ; disbursement ; pl. 
issuea (stock market) 

l*ij duf'a pl. dufu'äl, dufaät that 
which issues at any one time, a burst, a 
gush, a spurt, and the like; time, in- 
atance | Ia*-\j i*o (duf'atan) all at one 
time, all at once, in one Btroke, in one 
feil awoop; WaJl »Ä» this time; oUii c— 
six timea; ojUu oLb J* (mutafäwita) at 
different times 

£jij dajfä' propelling, impelling, giv- 
ing impetua; O piston (techn.) 

£».u midfa' pl. JIa. madäfi' 2 gun, 
cannon | Q or^ll *Ju» JI.U (6o'tda/ ai- 
wwwwuJ) Iong-range guns; ^lUj Ja. 
(ra&$ä&) machine gun; O <*^ j»#'-u 
(dakma) heavy artülery; SjLüI »#1x11 
oljTUJ (mudadda) or ol/LU ojULl Jhil 
(mu^ätüima) anti-aircraft guns; J^tf Ja. 
O ol_/UJ jLi. (*wJä/t, mu<iädd) three-bar- 
reled anti-aircraft gun (mil.) ; jjU Ja. m. 
häumn mortar; ^Ul Ja. <->_,* darb m. 
az-zuhr marking of exact noon by cannon 

,j*iA. midfa'i gun-. cannon-, artillery- 
(in Compounds); artilleryman, gunner, 

i-»*j- midfa'iya artülery 

£Üj difä' protection; defense (^ of, of B.o. , also jur.) | *UaII J**- £o# od-d. 
line of defense; halfbacks (soccer); IJ Sfi- 
^LjaJI majlis ad-d. defense Council; lj\jj 
£UaII ministry of defense, war miniatry; 
JiyJl £ÜaII (uw^ant) national defense; 
olj-'UJi jLiil £ÜjJI (mu4ädd) anti-aircraft 
defense; ^jt j-Uj legitimate self-defenBe 
jjpUj d*'/ä'i defensive, protective 
IjJIa. mudäfa'a defense (j* of 

£UajI indifä* pl. -ö( ruBh(ing), plunging, 
plunge (j into); outhurst, outbreak, 

eruption; elan, dash, impetuosity, rash- 
ness, hotheadedness, fire, exuberance, 
effusiveness; Belf-abandon ; Ltüajl tn- 
difä'an spontaneously 

UUjjI indifä'a (n. vic.) sudden out- 
burst, outbreak (e.g., of wailing) 

Jlj däfi* repellent, expellant; driving 
pushing, giving impetus, incentive, im 
pellent, propelling, propulsive. etc.; re 
peller; payer, e.g., i_Jl^iJ| ^Jlj the tax 
payers; (pl. Jlp dawäfi'*) incentive 
impulse, impetus, spur, motive; Jl-b 
(with foll. genit.) motivated by..., by 
reason of ..., on the strength of ... 

oUJa. madfü'ät payments 

„ JIa. muHäfi' defender (j* of s.o., of 

Jij dafaqa u % {dafq) to pour out, pour 
forth (*; — u {dafq, j Jj dufüq) to 
be shed; to flow, well out, spout, guah 
forth; to overflow (* with V to 
pour forth, spout forth, gush forth; to 
rush in; to break forth, break out, burst 
out; to go off (shot); to plunge blindly 
(jr Jl into; to rush (J* against); 
to crowd (J* into) VII = V 

jö dafq pouring out, effuBion 

Uij dufqa pl. dufuqät, dufaqät, dufqät 
= i*ij duf'a | «ju-j. iijj (dufqatan) = 
Ij*-\j iJj; £j\ oUij d. ar-rih gusts; 
»Lil ^ am* gush of water 

jüj daffäq bursting forth, darting 
out, rushing out 

J»aI tadaffuq outpour, outflow, issae, 
effluence, efflux, effusion; influx, run, 
rush, inniah, inpour; outbreak, outburst; 
impulsiveness ; exuberance, effusivenesa 

Jilj däfiq pl. jjlji dawäfiq* bursting 
forth, breaklng out, erupting; gushing, 

t^i-Lu mutadafliq impulsive; exuberant, 



Jij diflä oleander (Nerium oleander L.; bot.) 

jö dafana i (dafn) to bury, inter, inhume 
{» s.o.); to bide, conceal, keep secret (* 

jii dafn burial, interment, inhumation 

,>ii dafin pl. »Uij dufanä' 2 buried, 
interred; hidden, secret 

i-ii daflna pl. ^Ui dafä'in 2 bidden 
treaaure, treasure-trove 

,y-U madfan, Ü-u madjana pl. ,jilx. 
ffuu2ä/in 3 burying place, burial ground, 

öÜi see jj 

ji io^jtz i (üi diqqa) to be thin, fine, fragile, 
frail; to be little, small, tiny, minute; 
to be subtle, delicate ; to be insignificant, 
unimportant, trifling, inconsiderable ; to 
be too fine, too subtle (j* for perception) ; 

— u (daqq) to crush, bruise, bray (* ; to grind, pulverize, powder (* 
s.tb.); to pound {*, e.g., meat); to 
stnke (clock); to beat, throb (heart); to 
hammer, throb (engine); to knock, rap, 
bang (*-jUI al-bäba on the door); to 
bump {iwU-Li <~!j rasahü bi-l-haif one's 
bead against the wall); to drive (* a 
nail); to ram in, drive in (constr. eng.); 
to beat, strum, play (J* a muBical in- 
strument); to type (J* on a typewriter); 

— to sound, resound, ring out (said of 
musical instrumenta) | cr yi-l jj (jarasa) 
to ring the bell; ^U-'l ^-^ Öj (;'. al-kafar) 
to sound the alarm; J* cr yi-l ja to call 
s.o. up, give s.o. a ring; ^A-l ö-i (jarasu) 

the bell rang; ie-1 11 cJi the clock Struck 

II to triturate, pulverize, reduce to 
powder {*; to bo precise, exact, 
strict, meticulous, painstaking, proceed 
with utmost accuracy or care (j in ; to scrutinize, examine closely, 
determine exactly (*; to do (* carefully, with precision j £*J1 jii 

(bahiä) to investigate carefully; ^kJI jji 
(nazara) to watch attentively or carefully, 
scrutinize, examine closely <j; jjj 
51»»- ^1.1 (mvlähazata) to observe closely 
III to deal scrupulously (• with s.o.) IV to 
make fine, make thin {* VII to be 
crushed, brayed, pounded; to be broken | 
*ip j^jl ('unquhü) he broke his neck 
X to be or beoome thin or fine 

iji daqq crushing, bruising, braying, 
pounding; pulverization, trituration; 
grinding (down); beat(ing), throb(bing); 
bang(ing), knook(ing), rap(ping) ; tat- 
too(ing) | fj*j)?\ ji d. al-jaraa peal, ring- 
ing, sound of a bell; .iLJ-l ja d. al-hanak 
chatter, prattle 

ja diqq fine, thin; little, small, tiny, 
minute; delicate, fragile, frail | ja j& 
ißajar) shrubbery, brush, scrub; joJI t J- 
hummä d-d. hectic fever 

Üa daqqa (n. vic.) pl. -ät bang, knock, 
rap; beat, throb; stroke, striking (of a 
elock); hammer, hammering sound; 
thumping, thump { ,_-UJI oüa d. al-qalb 
heartbeata; ^v4-l «a d. al-jaraa peal, or 
ring, of a bell; telephone call, ring 

üa diqqa thinness; finenesB; smallness, 
tininess, minuteness ; triviality, petti. 
ness, paltriness ; subtlety, subtleness, 
finesse ; critical or precarious State, 
delicate Situation; accuracy, exactness. 
exactitude, precision | 5jJj exactly, aa 
curately, precisely, minutely, painS' 
takingly, meticulously, sharply ; jj*i)l Üa 
acuteness of feeling, sensitivity, sen- 
sitiveness, sensibüity 

Üa duqqa pl. jia dugag fine dust; 

jtfa duqäq crushed, brayed, or pulver- 
ized, substance; powder; flour of lupine 

jJa daqiq pl. jtfa diqäg, Üal adiqqa 
fine, thin; delicate, frail, fragile; little, 
small, tiny, puny, minute ; subtle ; 



paltry, petty, trifling, trivial; precise, ac 
curate, exact; painstaking, scrupuloua, 
meticuloua; inexorable, relentless, strict, 
rigorous; delicate (Situation), critical, 
trying, seriouB, precarious ; — flour, meal 
i_jLXI jJi keeping strict account, strict, 
relentlesa, inexorable; jj*li\ Jjj sensi- 
tive; r* <fN JJi d. ap-ßan' finely worked, 
of delicate workmanship ; ^kJ! Jjj d. 
an-nazar clear-sighted, penetrating, dia 
cerning, sensitive; jJ-i y\ abü d. butter- 
fly; UJaJI »Lä^l (a'dä') the genitals 

dJLij daqiqa pl. Jjlii daqä'iq 2 particle; 
nicety ; intricacy ; detail, particular ; 
minute (time unit) | j_^V' jJl« the nice- 
ties, intricacies, or secret implications of 

Jl« daqqäq grinder, crusher ; flour 
merchant; frequently or constantly beat- 
ing, striking, etc.; player of an instru- 
ment j üÜj i*L- repeater (watch) 

UL*j daqqäqa knocker, rapper (of a 

Jii adaqq 2 finer; more delicate; smaller, 
tinier; more accurate, preciser; stricter 

ja* midaqq beetle; pounder, pestle; 
(eg.) trail, footpath 

Sj-U midaqqa pl. JI.U madäqq 2 pound- 
er, peatle; beetle; clapper, tongue (of a 

jJ-iJ tadqiq accuracy, precision, exact- 
ness, exactitude I J-»J£j exactly, precisely, 
accurately, minutely 

JJ.U mudaqqiq exact, accurate (acholar), 
thorough (investigator), painstaking, me- 
tieulouB, strict, relentlesa 

jj.u mudaqqaq precise, exact (data) 

Sylj däqira pl. _^\ji dawäqir 2 elay vessel 
(tun.) ; — stipend for underprivileged 
students (tun.) 

(•_j-13j> daqSüm (eg.) rubblestone, crushed 
rock; brickbats, gravel 

*ii daqi'a a (daqa t ) to grovel, cringe; to be 
miserable, wretched, humble, abject; to 
live in poverty IV do. ; to make miserable 
(» s.o.; poverty) 

f-Uol idqä' masa poverty 
«j.u mudqi* miserable, wretched; de- 
grading, abasing (poverty) 

Jjj daqal maat (of a ahip); mainmast; (coli.; 
n. un. S) a brand of dates of good quality 

x ib dakka u (dakk) to make nat, level or 
even. to smooth, level, ram, stamp, tamp 
(a earth, the ground, a road); to presa 
down, weigh down ; to beat down ; to dev- 
astate, demolish, destroy, ruin (* 
II to mix, mingle (* VII to be 
cruahed; to be leveled 

iii dakk pl. ii^j dukük level ground; — 
devastation, demolition, destruction 

ÄS*j dakka pl, -ät rubblestone, crushed 
rock; hallast 

iS*j dikka pl. iJS'j dikak bench 

Otfj dukkän pl. j^STa dakäkin 2 bench; 
störe, shop 

(jrfSj rfujfcjtönj'i storekeeper, shop- 
keeper, retailer 

£j.u midakk pl. -öf ramrod; O tamper 

a iJi II to provide (* trousers) with a waist- 
band (dikka or tikka) 

ÄS^ dikka (= <SLj tikka) waistband (in 
the upper seam of trousers) 

iij^lj^i diktätüriya dictatorship 
tSjjJl^A dtWöiürt dictatorial 

j V^i du&ur pl. S^'Si dakätira doctor | 
J^ii-I j jj^i doctor of law», LL.D. ; jjä'* 
JiJI j (Jtfcft) doctor of medicine, M.D. 
• I; j^j dwiiüniÄ doctorate, doctorship, 
doctor's degree, title of doctor | '»\jj£jS\ 
Ä iJ iJö\ (fakriya) honarary doctorate 


jj* iddakara see ^Sj 

yij'* (It. decreio) dileritö pl. ob/j decree 

»jTil odfcan', f. •LTi dajfcnä"" pl. jT» dufcn 
blackish, dark (color) 

j^Ij <fdjfc»n dark, dark-colored | ^r-»*-' 
^Tlj dark green; ^Ij ^L*l yellowish, of 
a dingy yellow, mud-colored 

"ülfi aee 1 iij 

Jj datta u (iJV-J daläla) to show, demons träte, 
point out (J* ♦ to s.o.; to lead, 
guide, direct, conduct (Jl or J* • s.o. to), 
show s.o. (•) the way (Jl or J* to); to 
show, indicate, mark (J*; to point 
(J* to, evince, indicate, denote, 
imply, bespoak, suggest (J*, be 
indicative, be suggestive (J* of); to 
furnish evidence (J* for, prove 
(J*; — (Ist pers. perf. dalaltu) i 
(JV-i daiäl) to be coquettish, flirt, dally 
(of a woman; J* with s.o.) II to prove 
(J*, furnish the proof (J* for), 
confirm, corroborate (.-» J* with); 
to seil or put up at auction, auction off 
(J*; to pamper, coddle, spoil (• 
s.o.); to fondle, caress, pet (» a child) 
IV to make free, take liberties (J* with 
s.o.); to pride o.s. (.-» on), be conceited 
(<-» of ) V to be coquettish, flirt, dally (of 
a woman; J* with s.o.); to be coy, 
behave affectedly; to take liberties (J# 
with s.o.); to pamper, coddle (J* s.o.) 
X to ask to be shown (J*; to seek 
Information, inform o.s. (J* about); to 
obtain information; to be informed (J* 
about) ; to be guided (.-» by), act or prooeed 
in acoordance with (<-»); to conclude, 
gather, infer (J*, .-» or ^ from), 
draw conclusions (i_j or j- from, J* with 
regard to), judge (J*, ^ or ,> by) 

Li* doli proper, dignined conduct ; 
coquetry, flirtation 

<!:> daüa pl. J^i diläl pot with long 
curved spout and handle used for making 

coffee (among Syrian nomads and in 
some parts of Saudi Arabia) 

JVi daläl coquetry, coquettiHhness ; 
pampering, coddling, spoiling 

JJj dalxl pl. Uil adilla, Jfti dalä'il*, 
»"i/al adiUd' s (the latter of persona) 
indication ( J* of ) ; sign, token ; symptom ; 
proof, evidence (J* of); guide; tourist 
guide, cicerone; pilot (of a ship, of an 
airplane) ; guidebook, guide manual, 
handbook ; directory , telephone directory ; 
railroad guide, timetable ; guide rail 
(teckn.); roller path (in steel conetruc- 
tion) | J* JJaJl *\i\ to furnish the proof 
for, demonstrate, prove; j^U JJi 
(zarfi) circumstantial evidence; »Uli JJi 
cogent proof, conclusive evidence 

JVi daüäl auctioneer; broker, Jobber, 
middleman, agent, commission mer- 
chant; hawker 

ÄJ^i daläla pl. -ät pointing; guidance; 
leading, leadership; indication (J* of); 
sign, token; sense, meaning 

*J *il i diläla auction, public sale ; 
business of a broker or middleman ; 
brokerage commission ; trade of a dealer, 
Jobber or agent 

U ^ .1 daUäla middlewoman, woman 

Jjl adalP proving more cogently (J*, more indicative or Buggestive (J* 
°0 I J* J^ J ^ (dalilin) the surest 
evidence of, the best proof of 

JJjJ iadlll reasoning, argumentation, 
demonstration; proving (J* of), furnish - 
ing of proof or evidence (J* for); cor- 
roboration, subsbantiation, confinnation ; 
pampering, coddling, spoiling; fondling, 
petting, caressing; pet form (of a name) | 
JJi=JI ~.\ pet name; ,> ">U JJ as a pet 
form of . . . 

JJOj tadaüul coquetry, coquettishneas ; 
pampering, coddling, spoiling 


JV-tJ istidläi reasoning, argumenta- 
tion, demonstration ; conclusion, infer- 
ence, deduction; proof, evidence (Je of) 

<! 1 i dälla familiarity, chumminess ; 
liberty (that one takes with s.o.); 
audacity, boldness 

J^J-U madlül proven; (pl. -äi) mean- 
ing, aense | oU£jl oVjJ-U m. al-kalimät 
lexical meanings 

JJ-U mtidaUal pampered, spoiled (child) 

J-U mudill preaumptuous, arrogant | 
*-uLj Ja. (bi-nafsihl) conceited, seif- 

'«■Ja dtdb plane tree, sycamore (bot.) 

VV/-» pl- <-r=J!p I°°b U P alphabetically 

Üj Nile Delta, Lower Egypt 

£s IV to set out at nightfall 

r^i dalüh pl. A-j <JuJuA moisture-laden cloud 

JjJi daldala to set into a swinging motion, 
dangle II tadaldala to hang loosely, 
d angle 

JaJj dvidid and JjJJj duldül porcupine 

,jJj II to swindle, cheat; to counterfeit, 
forge, falaify (* III to deceive, 
defraud {• s.o.), impose (• on) 

(J^IaJ tadtis deceit, fraud; swindle 

^-Jaj tadlisi fraudulent 

(jJ-L* mudaüas foxged, counterfeit | 
*-Ja* j^Ju connterfeit money; ^Jo- r^Li. 
forged keys 

gla iafa'a a (daT) with *SU lisänahü: to 
stiok out one'» tongue; to loll, let the 
tongue hang out II to pamper, spoil (• 
a child); to caress, fondle, pet (« s.o.) 
IV (J Jd\ ^J-b »^ (eg.) a nauaeating, dis- 
gusting thing VII to stick out, be stuck 

out, hang out, loll (tongue); to dart out, 
lick out, leap out, flare up fflame), break 
out (fire) ; to be pampered, spoiled 

^Jj daT: ^JjJl _J um ad-d. pet name 

f-V^ dallä' (coli.; n. un. I) watermelon 

üUIj dilgän clay 

.JJj dalafa i (dalf, J>Ji dulüf, jLib dalafän) 
to walk with short steps, toddle; to go 
or walk slowly, saunter, stroll (Jl to); 
to advance (Je toward); to approach 
step by step (Jl s.o. or; to pene- 
trate, reach (Jl as far as); to grope (Jl 
for, of the hand); to leak, drip, trickle 

O «-ÜI J dälif pl. J«l \j* dawälif 3 ricochet 

^iii dulfin pl. ^jVj daJäfin 7 dolphin 

jjj dalaqa u to spül, pour out (> a liquid) 
VII to be spilled (liquid) 

Jli dalaka u {dalle) to rub (*; to stroke 
{*, pass the hand (* over; to 
knead (ü^»*N the dough); — u (i]jii 
dulük) to set, go down (sun) II to rub (*, * s.o.), embrocate (*; to 
knead; to massage (» s.o.) 

dlj dalk rubbing; grazing, brushing, 
touching, touch 

iJjJj dalük liniment 

iJjJj dviük, u ~~ll\ iljii d. aS-Sams 

.iiJij tadtik embrocation; massage 

iW-U mudaüika pl. -Öl masseuse 

*Ij II to rob s.o. (•) of his senses, drive (• s.o.) 
crazy (love) V to go out of one's mind, 
go crazy (with love) | «u>- j c-iiS (hubbihi) 
she has fallen in love with him 

-Jj* mvdallah madly in love 



li IT idlahamma to be dark, gloomy; to be 

-Ij dalham dark, gloomy; deep-black idlihmäm a deep block 
la* mwttaAtmm dark, gloomy; deep- 

jjj II to let hang, dangle (*; to hang, 
suspend {*; to lower (*; to 
drop, let down, let fall down (* 
IV = II; to cast down {* glances, Jl on 
s.o.) ; to let one's glance {ajUüL bi-anzäriki) 
Bweep down; to express, utter, voice (*-», e.g., aAj bi-ra*yihi one's opinion) ; 
to deliver, make {f:j-*z>, a Statement; 
pol.); to adduce, present, advance, offer 
(*j** bi-hujjatin an argument); to 
inform, notify, advise (>-> Jl s.o. of), let 
(Jl s.o.) know (^t about); to offer, 
present (<-*> Jl to s.o.; to grant, give 
(J £j4* an interview to s.o.); to Blander, 
defame, asperse (j s.o.) | »V-dl JU »J* JjI 
(daiwahü, dilti*) or »"Voll j «j$x> to make 
one's oontribution (together with others), 
add one's touch, put in one's two bits' 
worth V to hang down, be Buspended, 
dangle (,y from); to be lowered, be let 
down; to be or become low; to sink, de- 
scend | i^ÄJl J-C to threaten to fall down, 
be ready to fall 

jis dalw usually f., pl. J-il adlin, »"V-i 
dila, »yd adla leather bücket; bücket, 
pail; Aquarius {astron.) 
4j^j daüäya pendant 

."VjI idlä' delivery (of a Statement); 
utterance, Statement ; presentation ; grant- 

«JIj däliya pl. Jljj dawälin water- 
wheel <for irrigation); trellia, espalier on 
which grapevines are trained; varix, 
varicose vein 

Jui* mutadallin pendent, suspended, 
hanging, dangling ; projecting, over- 
hanging, ready to fall down 

Üb look up alphabetically 

l ** dam pl. »Co d\ma blood; »Li homioide 
cases (jur.) \ ^j»-^ <o d. al-akawain 
dragon's blood (a dark-red, resinous 
substance derived from the dragon tree, 
Dracaena draco) 

i/a dami blood- (in Compounds), 

,4^.} damaivi blood- (in Compounds), 
sanguine; aanguinary, bloody 

a Ai damma u (dämm) to coat, smear, besmear 
(l-j a with); to paint, daub, color, 
dye, tinge, tint (^ * with) II to rub, 
embrocate, anoint (ij * with) 

(O dämm ointment, unguent, salve, 
liniment, embrocation; paint; pigment, 
dye, dyestuff; rouge 

aIo dimäm ointment, unguent, salve, 
liniment, embrocation; paint; pigment, 
dye, dyestuff; rouge 

— j damim pl. aIo dimäm ugly; de- 
formed, mifishapen | Üli^l **o d. al-küqa 
ugly to look at, of repulsive appearance 

1.L.J damäma ugliness; ugly appear- 
ance; abominableness, monstrosity 

A.jJI ad-dammäm Dammam (seapott 
in E Saudi Arabia, on the Persian Gulf ) 

£*..! damuta u (HjUa damäta) to be gentle, 
mild (character) II to soften, mellow {* 

i*.j damit pl. ^jL.j dimät: j^U-'Vl i-J 
gentle, mild-tempered 

olo damäta mildness, gentlenesa, 
tenderness (of character) 

£i damaja u (pj-J dumüj) to enter (j, go or come into (j), be inserted, 
incorporated (j in) II to write short- 
hand IV to twist tightly, twine firmly 
(a; to enter, insert, include, in- 
corporate, embody (j a in); to 



introduoe, interpolate, intercalate <j * in) ; to annex ( j * to) VH to oe 
inserted, be incorporated (j in); to be 
annexed (j to); to merge (j with), be 
awallowed up, be absorbed (j by); to 
be fused, fuse, amalgamate 

«aJ tadmij shorthand, stenography 

- La I idmäj insertion , incorporation , 
Interpolation; inolusion (j in); assim- 

r-L.Ajl indimäj incorporation, insertion 
(j in); amalgamation, merger, merging 
(j with); absorption (j by); annexation 
( J to) ; fuaion ; assimilation 

+x* mudmaj firm, compact 

+JI+ mundamij firm, compact, tight 

Ülrfj damajäna (also ULfb) pl- -ät demijohn, 

aX*s damdama to mutter, grumble, growl, 

l*x** damdama pl. -ät growl, snarl; 
rumbling noiae, rumble 

l j*s damara u to perish, be ruined, be de- 
stroyed II to annihilate, destroy, min, 
demolish, wreck (* V to be de- 
stroyed, demolished, ruined, wreoked 
VII to be destroyed, be annihilated 

jUj damär min, destruotion 

j^jj tadmlr annihilation, destruction, 


jUojl indimär utter defeat, rout, de- 

Btruction, annihilation 

~t,j*X> mvdammira pl. 

-ät destrpyer 


■jj^j dammür (eg.) a coarse calico-like 

tSjj** dammüri {eg.) made of dammür 
(see above) 

Kj^i damlra (eg.) flood season of the Nile 

4 D i$j>j* V lä dümari ( = jj-JJ V) nobody, 
no one, not a living soul 

^•Oj tadmur*, usually pronounced tudmur, 
Palmyra (ancient city in Syria, now a 
small village) 

iSj+JJ iadmuri, usually pronounced 
tvdmuri, someone, somebody; tSj*^ V 
nobody, no one t not a living soul 

( _ r ^i damasa u to hide, conceal, disguise (*; to bury (^jVI j • s.o. in the 
ground) II do. 

I _ r ^a dims (eg.) cinders, ashes 

i-lo damäsa darkness 

^lol admäa (pl.) hovels, shanties, 

^j*} dammüs pl. t ^-£*L*.i damdmls 3 
cave, cavern 

^Ic j daimäs, dimäs, ^j* j daimüs pl. 
( _ r i»ljj dayämls* dungeon; vault 

l _ r ^1j dämia pitch-dark; dark, gloomy, 

tr- i* Jji fül mvdammaa stewed beans 

j±+i dimo&tf, dimüq* Damascus (capital of 

£L-i* mvdamSaq damascened, dam- 
asked; (syr.) having adopted a sophia- 
tioated Btyle of living (imitating that of 
Damascus), urbanized 

*a* dama'a a to water (eye) IV to cause to 
weep, evoke tears, make (the eyes) water 

~o dam" pl. fj*a dumü' tears 

i*o dam'a (n. un.) tear, teardrop ; 
(eg.) dim'a gravy 

vuj dam'i: i~**a <JLi (qunbula) tear- 
gas bomb 

lui dami'a and *-*.! daml' pl. ^ywJ 
dam'd, joUa damö'i' 1 readily inclined to 
weep, frequently weeping, tearful, lach- 
rymose (woman) 

9ys damu and flo dammä' watering, 
watery, tearful (eyes) 

uXt madma' pl. »I.U madämi ri lach- 
rymal canal 

'«j damaya a to refute, invalidate (* a 
falsehood, an error, a false accusation); 
to triumph (* over falsehood; said of 

f-Lj dimäg pl. lk*i\ admiga brain 

iiJi ~<J? kujja dämiga cogent argu- 
menta 4«*b »jl+i (laAöäa) irrefu table 

2 '^* damaga u [damg) to stamp, provide or 
mark with a stamp (*; to hallmark 
(a gold and silver articles); to brand (* 
an animal) 

«j damg stamping j c-U^ail «j (2. 
al-ma&ügät hallmarking of gold and 
silver articlea 

oL.j damga stamp; hallmark (on gold 
and silver articles) j 4*0 3jj waraq d. 
stainped paper 

y_yX* madmüg stamped, bcaring a 

IjI^Ä.j dimuqräti democratic; democrat 

<\>\jÄ»i dimuqrä}iya democracy; demo- 
cratic attitude or conviction 

(j-Ä-j dimaqs raw silk 

,^-Äo dimaq&i silken, silky 

il^-x. madmük and <il*.U mudmai firm, tight, 

Jo damala u (daml, j^Li damalän) to 
fertilize, manure, düng (* the soil); — 
damila a (damal) to heal, heal up, scor 
over, cicatrize (wound) VII to heal, heal 
up, scar over, cicatrize (wound) ; to 
fester, suppurate (sore) 

J*i dummal (n. un. *) pl. J*lo damä* 
mii*, J—lo damämiP abscess, boil, sore, 

tumor, ulcer ; f uruncle ; bubo, plague 
boil; inveterate evil 

J* j oy. U> faün dummatt bubonio 

pLä dumluj pl. £lo damälij' bracelet, bangle 

l j*i damana u (damn) to fertilize, manure, 
düng (* the soil) IV to give o.a. up, 
devote o.a., apply o.a. (J* or * to), go in 
for (Jp or *); to be addicted (J* e.g., to 

j*^ dimn (coli. ; n. un. • ) pl. j-j diman 
fertilizer, manure, düng 

i-o dimno pl. j*i diman vestiges or 
remnants of a dwelling, ruins 

jlo damän fertilizer, manure, düng 

ülol idmän addiction; excees; mania; 
dipsomania j OJ^S-JJ OUjI i. al-muskirät 

j^-U mudmin addicted, given up (J* 
e.g., to wine); an addict (J* of) 

2 üLj durnän see ülyj 

j^*j damankür 2 Damanhür (city in N Egypt) 

^j*^ see 1 pi 

: t/j damiya a to bleed II and IV to cause to 

flj dämin bleeding, bloody, gory 

^x* rn.udam.Tnan, f. öL.u bloody; blood- 

B i*ji dumya pl. ^j duman statue, Statuette; 
image, effigy; dummy; doli 

J»Lo dimyät* Damietta (city in N Egypt) 

ji danna u (dann, ^J^ dantn) to buzz, hum 
(inaect); to drone 

üi dann and ^j danin buzz(ing), 
hum(ming), droning, drone 

üj dann pl. üli.» dinän earthen wine jag 



\ji danaa a and JJj danu'a u (*'j* dunü y a, 
«•Ijj tfcwä'a) to be low, mean, base, vile, 
contemptible, despicable 

»Ji dani pl. • UjI adniyä' 2 , .UjI adnä' 
low, base, mean, vile, despicable, con- 
temptible; inferior, second-rate, of poor 

UjI adna' 2 lower, viler, meaner; more 
inferior, of poorer quality 

J.Uj» danä'a lowness, basenesa, mean- 
ness, vileness; inferiority 

^Ji, Äkjj (Fr. dentelle) dantilla lace, lace- 

J^j dinjil (eg.) pl. J>-Uj danäjil 2 axle, axle- 

4-j-ijj (Turk. dondurnia) rfandurma ice cream 

ÜjUj danädiSa common people, people of no 

jjjj dandana to buzz, hum; to drone; to 
hum softly, croon (a song); to murmur 

i$JLo dindl (eg.) turkey 

jLjj pl. _tjUj look up alphabetically 

^ä danisa a [danaa) to be aoiled, sullied, 
defiled, polluted II to stain, soü, dirty, 
befoul, sully, pollute, cont»minate (*; to dishonor, disgrace f*; to 
desecrate (* V pass. of II 

^j danaa pl. odnäa uncleanneas, 
dirt, filth, aqualor; stain, blemish, fault 

^i dantsjü. (J-IjjI adnäa, »l—ij dunaaä' 2 
unclean, soiled, sullied, foul, polluted, 
defiled, stained 

,^-wJJ tadnis pollution, defilement, soü- 
ing, sullying, contamination; dishonor - 
ing, disgracing; deaecration, profanation 

*JJj dani ja a (danaf) to be seriously ül 
IV do. 

*Jüj danif pl. öUjI adnäf seriously ill 

ijajj danaf long illness; O cachexia, 
marasmus (med.) 

»Ju.u mttdnif, mudnaf emaciated, 
haggard, weak 

Jh'-s look up alphabetically 

<UJj dunqula Dongola (town in N Sudan, 
on the Nile) 

iJjXi danmark 2 Denmark 

(jji and U-i) Ij-> (Jana u (_jjj dunüw, yUi danä* 
wa) to be near, be close; to come or go 
near s.o. or ( j* or Jl or J), approach 
((>' J'« J 8 '°-> ß-th.); to come close, get 
close (j*, Jl, J to), approximate (j*, Jl, 
J; to draw near, be imminent (time, 
event); j* *j Uj to bring s.o. close to ...; 
— Jj daniya a (Uj danan, *j_Uj danöytz) 
to be low, lowly; to be or become mean, 
base, vile, despicable, contemptible II to 
bring close (*, • s.o., j* to), bring, 
take or move {*, • a.o.) near (j*), 
approximate (*, j* to); to apply 
o.s. (j to, buay o.s. (j with, delve (j hito); <-Ju J.i (nafsahü) 
to lower o.s., abäse o.s., humble o.s. III to 
approach (« s.o., *, come or get 
near s.o. or (•, *), come or get close 
(«, * to); to approximate (*; to 
measure up (*, • to) j JIju V »^ (yu* 
dänä) an unequaled thing IV to be 
near, be close; to approach (j^ or Jl or J 
s.o. or, come, go or draw near s.o. 
or (j», Jl, J), come close, get cloae 
(j*» J'> J to); to bring close (• s.o., *, j* to), bring, take or move (• s.o., 
* near (,>•), approximate (*, 
jf* to); to lower, drop (*, e.g., the 
veil) V to approach gradually (Jl 
or s.o.); to be debased, sink low, sink, 
decline; to lower o.e., abäse o.s., humble 
o.s. VI to come near each other, get close 
to each other, approach one another; to 



be olose together; to approaoh, approxi- 
mate (> VIII JjI iddanä to be 
near, be olose, come or draw near, ap- 
proach X to wish to be nearer or closer, 
try to oome nearer or cloeer; to aeek to 
fetch or bring closer (*, Jl to, to 
0.8.), reach out (* for, wish («Jl * 

y i dunüw ad vent, approaoh ; proximity , 
nearness, imminence (of an event) 

Jj daniy pl. »Uil adniyS* near, olose; 
low, lowly; mean, base, vile, despioable, 
contemptible, inferior, infamous, deprav- 

iJj daniya pl. -ät, LUi danäyä a base 
quality or habit; disgraoeful, in- 
famy, vile aotion 

Jj>l adnä, f. L'a dunyd pl. m. utal 
addnin, üys\ adnauna, pl. f. Ja dunan 
nearer, closer ; situated lower down, 
nether; lower, inferior; lowlier; smaller, 
of less significance; more appropriate, 
better suited, more suitable | j^-ilf 
(sorg) the Near East; Jil/I ^>U (maj* 
rib) Algeria; JujJ\ J^ > JjI (AaM* 
aJ-wortd) very near or close, imminent; 
öy^\ t-oÜ'ill the dosest relatives; •lol j- 
«Lull Jl (aqpähu) from one end to the 
other; wholly, entirely, completely, al- 
together; Ji^l -U-l (hadd) the minimum; 
•Uil hereinafter, below (in writings, doc- 
umenta, etc.) e.g., »Uil öyiji\ {muwaq* 
qi'ün) those signed below, the under- 
signed; Jjl ^ (with foll. genit.) not the 
least, not a single, not one 

Lb dunyä (f. of Jil odnä) world; 
earth; this world (as opposed to S^T); 
life in this world, worldly existence; 
worldly, temporal things or possessions; 
earthly things or concems | L'JJl 3U-I 
life in this world; U-dl pl umm od-<f. 
Cairo; U.u»ij L'all plil ogäma d-d. n»- 
aq'adahä approx.: to kick up a dust, 
mähe a stir, move heaven and earth 

i$jjs dunyawi, j jLb dunyäwi worldly, 
mundane, secular ; earthly, temporal, 
transitory, transient 

»jiji danäwa nearness, oloseness, prox- 
imity, propinquity; lowness, lowliness; 
meanness, baseness, viloness 

*jUj danäyä lowness, lowliness; mean- 
ness, baseness, vileness 

ÜAl tadannin sinking, deoline ; low 
Ievel, nadir (fig.) | J*>UVl Jo=JI (aküqi) 
the low level of morality, the moral 

61» dänin low; near, close 
ö\xl* muiadänin olose together 

jMi dahr pl. j_y*> duhür, jh*\ adhur time; 
long time, age, epoch; lifetime; eter- 
nity; fate, destiny | j*a)l ob banät 
ad-d. blows of fate, trials, affliotions, mis- 
fortune; j*-Ul JujL^S and j*-dl J>jy* 
vioissitudes of fate, ohanges of fortune; 
adversities, adverse circumstanoes; jm 
^j*UH dahra d-dähirtn for all eteraity, 
forever and ever; j*aJI _^T Jl ttf äffiri d~d. 
do.; 4^ j*ill ... V (od-daAra JfettUaAA) 
never in all one's life 

^j*i dahri an adherent of the dahriya, 
a materialistio, atheistio dootrine in 
Islam; atheist, freethinker 

jj*j duAri very old, far advanced in 

^i daham a (= ^la) to trample under- 
foot, trample down, orush (*, 
tread (* on; to run over (• 

^i*.i dahiSa a and pass. duHi&a to be astoniflh- 
ed, amazed, surprised {j- or J at); to 
wonder, marvel («> at); to be baffled, 
startled, puzzled, perplexed, taken abaok 
(,> or J by) II and IV to astonish, amaze, 
surprise, baffle, puzzle, perplex, startle 
(. s.o.) VII = dahiia 


Jljts dahaS perplexity, surprise, con- 
stemation, alarm, dismay 

^t*^ dahiS astonished, amazed, sur- 
prised; baffled, puzzled, nonplused, per- 
plexed, startled, disconcerted, alarmed, 
upset; dazed, stunned 

Üaj dähSa astonishment, amazement, 
surprise, wonder; perplexity, constema- 
tion, bafflement, bewilderment, dismay, 

^UaJl indihäS astonishment, amaze- 
ment; perplexity, consternation, baffle- 
ment, bewilderment 

Ju>x> mudhiS astonishing, amazing, 
surprising, marvelous ; pl. -ät amazing 
thingß, marvels, wonders 

^fijAJ- madhüs and jlut* mundahiS 
astonished, amazed, surprised; perplexed, 
baffled, puzzled, nonplused, startled; 

\J».> dahaq Stocks (to hold the feet of an 
offender by way of punishment) 

JUi dihäg füll (cup), brimful 

*üUaj» dihqän, pl. UUj dahäqina, ,>jIa.i 
dahäqin 2 man of importance, one who 
plays an important role, leading person- 
ality; grandee (in ancient Persia) | ^jIa.1 
i-L-JI d. as-siyäsa the political leaders 

»il*.i dahaka a (dahk) to crush; to mash (a 

ji»:> II tadahlaza to stroll about, walk about 
(in a hall) 

>Uj difUiz pl. jrJUi daAöJ« 2 anteroom, 
vestibule, lobby , foyer ; corridor, hall- 
way | >1aoJI j.1 ibn ad-d. pl. jJIaoJI »UjI 

J»j difUl Delhi 

*jo dahama a (dahm) and dahima a (daham) 
to come or descend (* upon s.o.) euddenly; 
to surprise, take unawares, take by sur- 

prise (• s.o.), come unexpectedly (a to 
s.o.); to enter suddenly, raid, invade (a II to blacken (* III to befall, 
seize, grip, attack (* s.o.), come over s.o. 
(*; e.g., sickness, despair); to surprise, 
take unawares, catch red-handed (« s.o.); 
to attack suddenly (» s.o.), fall upon s.o. 
{*), invade, raid (a e.g., a house); to 
overtake (» s.o.; fate), catch up with (») 
IX to be black 

S-*.i duhma blackness 

^»il adham % , f. »l>* dahmä' 2 , pl. jo 
duhm black, deep-black | >l>^ <_aI.i 
(dähiya) disaster, catastrophe 

*L-*-ül ad'dahmä' the masses, the com- 
mon people, the populace, also ^Ul »L*i 

3-M-U mudähama police raid; house 

j»J- mudhamm very dark, pitch-dark 

^i dahana u (dahn) to oil («, a, s.o., <^> 
with); to anoint (», a, s.o., <-» with); 
to grease, smear (», a, s.o., ^ with) ; 
to rub, embrocate (•, a, s.o., <^> 
with); to paint, daub (a; to varnish 
(a II do. III to treat with gentleness 
(» s.o.); to cajole, flatter (» s.o.), fawn (« 
on s.o.); to cheat, dupe, gull, take in, 
outsmart (* s.o.) V pass. of I 

j*± dahn oiling, greasing; painting, 

j»i duhn pl. adhän, oy>i duhün, 
-ät, üLaj dihän oil (edible, lubricating, 
for the skin) ; fat, grease 

^a.1 duhni oily, oil, oleic, oleo- (in 
oompounds); fatty, greasy 

tljLiA^ duhniyät fats, oils; fatty aub- 

»Laj dahnä' 2 desert 

OLa^ dahhän house painter, painter 

<~*s ddhina pomade 


jl*j dihäifpl. -ät, ii*il adhina cosmetic 
cream, cold cream, salve, ointment, 
unguent; consecrated oü, anointing oil; 
paint, vamish; hypocrisy, dissimulation, 
deceit; — (without pl.) painting, daub- 
ing; whitewashing | üUaJJ üjj {warSa) 

L*li* mudähana flattery, adulation, 
sycophancy, fawning ; hypocrisy, dis- 
simulation; deceit, trickery 

j*1j- mudähin flatterer, adulator, syc- 
ophant; hypocrite 

j>x. mudhin oily; fatty, greasy 

j_j*i dahwara to hurl down (*; to tear 
down, topple, overthrow (* II ta* 
ddhivara pass. of I; to fall, tumble; to 
slump, flink; to be dragged down, sink to 
the loweat level 

jj*jJ tadahwur fall, downfall; decline, 

jo dahiya a (»Uj dahä') to be clever, smart, 
cunning, artful, wüy; — dahä a to befall, 
overtake, hit, strike {» s.o.), come over 
s.o. ( ; misfortune) II = dahä VI to 
pretend to be smart or cunning 

.L»j dahä' smartness, slyness, shrewd- 
nesa, subtlety, cunning, craft 

jsjl adhä smarter, shrewder; craftier, 
wilier ; more skillful, subtler, more 
resourceful; worse, more calamitous 

Jj dahin pl. ;l*.> duhäh smart, sly, 
shrewd, subtle, cunning, wüy, artful; 
resourceful person 

L*b dähiya smart fellow, old fox, sly 

LaIj dähiya pl. *\j* dawähin calamity, 
disaster, catastrophe | »L»j <-*!■> (dahya) 
and »1>j i-*b (dahmä') disaster, ca- 
tastrophe; i-*lj j ^yi (fal-yadhab) let 
him go to hell! 

(»jj) Jj da' pl. *\j*\ adwä' disease, malady | 
._.WJI »1j d. at-ta'lab alopecia, loss of the 
hair; O ^ß •'* d - ar - ra( 19 St. Vitus's 
dance; O J^l »k d - a W*l elephantiasis ; 
O ükll *\i d. al-minfaqa shingles, herpes 
zoster {med.) 

^_jjj II to wear out, wear off (> 

Sjbji dübära packthread, string, twine, cord, 
rope : thread 

C^jjj dübait a rhymod poem consisting of 
four hemistichs 

,-ji VII to spread 

rj* dauh branching trees, branches 

i*-jj dauha tall tree with many 
branches; family tree, genealogical tablo 

'**-\a däha top (child's toy) 

(rji) r'-> <^fca u {dank) to conquer, subjugate 
(> a country); to resign o.s., humble o.s.; 
to be or become dizzy, have a feeling of 
dizziness; to feel ill, be sick, feel nausea 
II to conquer, subjugate (* a people); to 
make submissive, subdue, humble, hu- 
miliate, degrade (• s.o.); to make (• s.o.) 
dizzy; to molest, bother, trouble (• s.o.); 
to daze, stun (• s.o.) | aJ\j £j> (ra'sahü) 
to make s.o.'s head go round, make s.o. 

i^-p dauka vertigo, dizziness; coma; 

f\* dä'ik dizzy 

iijjj tadwik subjugation, conquest 

J jjj II to be or become worm-eaten 

^jj düd (coli.; n. un. S) pl. öUj didän. 
worm; maggot; larva; caterpiilar | S-ij-i 
j jjLi and _>s!l S-ijJ d. al-qazz silkworm; 
f-yW .ip d. ai-qar', ^ß jj.i {qar'%) ascarids; 
^jjll ijj d. al-qtTmiz cochineal; ,ji\ *j* 


d. al-miii oheese maggots; i-L*-^l iijil\ 

iS>ji düdl wormlike, worm-shaped, 

jjJ- madüd, mudawwid wormy, worm- 

"D ijJ- midwad — *jX* 

( J J^) jl* dära u (Ajur, ubja dawarän) to tum, 
revolve, rotate, move in a circle (Je, *_*, 
Jj»- around or s.o.)! circle (Je, c-., Jj». or s.o.); to begin to tum or rotate; 
to circulat«; to go round, apread, be 
current, make the rounds (of rumors, 
etc.); to run, be in Operation (of a ma- 
chine or engine); to start running, start 
up (engine); to walk or go about, run 
around; to roam, rove, move about, 
wander about, gad about; to make the 
rounds (J© among people), turn suc- 
oessively (Je to several people); to turn, 
turn one's face, wheel around; to veer, 
stuft, change ite direction; to change, 
take a difibrent turn, become difierent; 
to tum (Je against s.o.); to have to do, 
deal ( J^- or Je with), treat ( Sy or Je of ), 
refer (J^. or Je to), beax (J^ or J» on), 
concem (iy- or Je; to take place, 
be going on, be in progress, be under 
way; to be discusBed, be talked about ( ju 
among); to circulate, pass around (u; to lead, guide or show around (t_> 
s.o.); to let roam, let wander (*^>, 4-i_*j 
bi-nazarihi, bi-'ainaihi one's eyes, one's 
glance, j over) | jj durl about face! 
(oommand; mit.); *»tj jlj (ra'auhü) to be 
or become dizzy, giddy; ,^111 £. jlj 
(turnt) to trim sail, adapt o.s. to the 
Situation; v _^-l ^.j Ojlj (rdkä l-harb) 
war broke out; ,^1 UU, Ojlj Jll iijUI 
the battles that raged yesterday ; * *•• jb 
(bi-na/nhi) it passed through his mind; 
Jr-WJe jb (alaun) to be much-discussed, 
be on evefyone's Ups; ii.->Uj .ly^l Je jlj 

f*»1ll (afwäh, asalät aX-aqläm) to be 
ourrent in both the spoken and written 
language, be in general use, be generally 
acoepted (e.g., words); IjLel JTIj Ij^i jli 
(bäädan, a'yädan) he had been around in 
the world and had Seen a lot; (coüoq.) jlj 
■»JL. (bälahü) to pay attention (Jl, Je to), 
be careful (Jl, Je with); ^"Ul ^ o,lj 
calamity overtook them n to tum in a 
circle, spin, whirl, rotate, revolve (^, t; to turn, tum around (*_., <; 
to invert, reverse (*_., »; to make 
round, to round (e; to circulate, 
pass around (*; to set going, set in 
motion, start (<; to wind (* a 
watch, a clock); to look, searoh (Je for | «Jj jji (ra'sahü) to tum s.o. 's 
head, persuade s.o., bring s.o. round 
III to go or walk around (• with s.o.) ; to 
try to bring (. s.o.) round; to ensnare, 
inveigle (. s.o.); to try to ensnare (. s.o.); 
to try to deceive (> s.o.); to cheat, trick 
(J» or ^ . s.o. out of; to get 
away, escape, dodge, duck out IV to 
tum, revolve, rotate, spin, whirl (e; 
to tum around, tum (*, ^, Jl «Jj 
one's head toward); to direct (Je or Jl * to, toward), aim (Je or Jl > at); 
to circulate, pass around (»; to 
set in Operation, set going, set in motion 
(e a machine, an apparatus); to start, 
start up (£l^l al-muharrik the motor); 
to play, play back (» e.g., ULÜ U\J. 
tapes); to act upon (.), drive (<; to get under way (e a Job, a 
project); to take up (»; to initiate 
(e; to divert, turn away (^e *, • 
s.o., from); to direct, conduct, steer, 
manage, head, run (*, be in Charge 
(e of); to revolve in one's mind, think 
over, ponder (», ül that) | Jl i^-j, _,bl 
(bi-wajhihi) to tum around to s.o., 
look back at s.o.; *-!> jlil (ra'tahü) to 
tum s.o.'s head, persuade s.o., bring 
s.o. round; f^iji j i^ii.\ jljl to bring 


oonversation around to a topio, broaoh or 
discuas a subjeet V to be or become round; 
to be circular X do.; to oirole, rotate, 
revolve, spin, turn; to turn (Jl to), faoe 
(Jl s.o.); to turn around; to tum one'a 
head, look baok; to cirole (iij-, 
walk around (J>»-) 

j\i dir f., pl. jji dir, jlji diyir, oljl;J 
diyärit, h* diyara houae; building, 
Btructure, edifioe; habitation, dwelling, 
abode; reaidenoe, home; Beat, aide, 
locality; area, region; land, oountry (esp. 
pl. jU, aee below) | ß*i\ jIj muaeum (of 
antiquitiea); Jj^JI jta postoffloe;.liJI jta 
d. al-baqS the etemal abode, the here- 
after; «JUI jUI (bdqiya) do.; M Jül 
«JUI to paaa away, die; »Lä^l jW 
(baidä') Caaablanoa (seaport in W Mo- 
roooo); the White Houae (in Wash- 
ington); !jl~dl jIj eommereial houae, 
busineaa houae; v.A' ->'•* **• a *-^ af * war 
zone, enemy territory (Isl. Law: non- 
Muslim eountriea); i— Ij^JI jIj «eat of 
the Chief ezeoutive of a oountry; jla 
SjIaJI d. o*-ja'dda Conatantinople; jla 
:-LI I I d. os-salfai» Conatantinople (dea- 
ignation before World War I); fiJ\ jli 
d. at-taläm paradiae, heaven; epithet 
of Baghdad; Dar ea Salaam (aeaport 
and eapital of Tanganyika Territory); 
U*_jl jji oinemas, movie housea; jla 
IU/II d. ai-hirfa police Station; jIj 
ü_JI or itb—JI jb araenal; J— » _>Ij 
(pinf) cinnamon; Vj-"" ->'* ^* «4^°^ ftnd 
;£J _,lj d. at-riUu mint (building); 
Ijl^l jIjJI ('irdqiya) Iraq; f>Jl jIj 
name of a College in Cairo; «L«ll Ji d. 
al-fanä' (aa oppoeed to .lijl jh aee 
above) the temporal world, thia World; 
»Läj)l jl j d. al-gadä* oourt of juBtioe, tribu- 
nal; ^^-ll jb d. oi-hrfui publio Ubrary; 
jji\ jji d. oMoau> amuaement Centers; 
night clnbs; J.'-'l jlj theater, playhouse; 
illl jlj d. al-muik (royal) reaidenoe; 
SjyJ.1 jljJÜl (mifriya) Egypt; !y»il jIj d. 

al-hijra Medina; fbjill j\> d. alaMm 
orphanage, orphans' home 

ijb ddra pl. -dt halo (of the moon); 
circle; O («M oircuit; O vüla 
jjta ddri domeetio, native 
jjjj diirl domestio (animal); jji-»» 
j jjj ('ua/«'') »nd JJJ* houae sparrow 

jjj daur pl. jljjl odtoär round (of a 
patrol; in sports); role, part (played by 
s.o. or; film role, stage role; 
periodio ohange, rotation, alternation; 
crop rotation; period; (one'a) tum; 
phaae, stage, atep, degree, Station; epoch, 
age, era; fit, attaok, paroxysm (of a 
disease); floor, Story; musical compo- 
sition; number, Single Performance 
(within a program) | i-i-'j jj' (""■ 
taaalaul) vioious oirole, oiroulus vitiosus; 
Jl^ jjj (niM'J) final round, finals 
(othUi.); jliJ"VI jjJ d. oi-miqid Session, 
term (pari.); JjVI jjJll (auranJ) or jjj 
«yjl d. at-bufila leading role, starring 
role; j.rt fl» or bjJ ^ (la'iba) to play 
a part or role; &ij jji (ardl) ground 
floor, flrst floor; «j jj OK" it was bis tum; 
«I jjJI it ia his tum; jj>b (Ul) I for one,' 
(I) for my part, ijjJb (_>») he in tum, (he) 
for his part; jjJl; altemately, by tum» 
ijji daura pl. -it tum, revolution, 
gyration, rotation; oiroulation; oyole; 
cirouit; round, patrol; prooeasion {Chr.); 
round trip; tour (in general, of an artist 
or performer); de tour; period (O »1» 
ei.); Session (of parliament); oourse (of 
instruotion) (»r., »yr.) | 'uj^ •j.r'H (**■ 
mawfya) blood oiroulation; **ji-\ »j^ll 
(jawwiya) air oiroulation; JW>-' "'J-^ 
•Ä 11 (JJ^f) d - V , •» a, ((oj'äwui) or-fulio 
offloen' training oourse (mü. r Syr.); 
«s»l>j bj> {tirfiya) crop rot»tion; «jjj 
^o^ («oWlyo) legislative period; 3jji 
^JUll d. al-falak revolution of oeleatial 
bodies; UUJI Ijjj (tUt/d/lyo) flanking 
maneuver (mtl.); «JL. ijjj (mdUyo) 



financial period, fiscal year; »Lil Sjjj d. 
al-miyäh lavatory (with running water), 
toilet, -water closet 

,jjjj daurt patrolling, patrol- (in 
Compounds); periodic, occurring at reg- 
ulär stated times, recarring, inter- 
iiittent; circulatory, cyclic, etc., see 
j>> and '»jji; series (athlet.) | ^jjoJI jL+J-l 
(jahäz) the circulatory System 

ijjjj dauriya pl. -ät patrol, round; 
patrol, reconnaissance squad | oLjjj 
J»liSö-V1 reconnaissance squads, patrols 

D *jjjIj däwirlya = iijj* dauriya 

jo dair pl. adyär, »jj\ adyira, 
•j_jj j duyüra monastery, convent, cloiBter 

&j* dairi monaBtic, monaBterial, clois- 

•;J dlra region, area, land, homeland 

j \j* duwär, dawar vertigo, dizziness, 
giddiness; seasickness 

j \jä dawwär rapidly or constantly 
turning, whirling, spinning, rotating, 
circling, circulating; revolving, rotary, 
rotatory; whirlpool, eddy, vortex; itin- 
erant, ambulant, roving ; (eg. ) farm 
building, farm | jljj ^L revolving door; 
jijj *JL peddler, hawker; jj^j J*. jL». 
{jahäz hafr) rotary drilling rig; ^^ijl j |p 
d. aä-Sams sunflower 

jLj dayyär monastic, friar, monk 
jljo dairäni monastic, friar, monk 
Sjlp dawwära whirlpool, eddy, vortex; 
compaes, pair of dividers (ayr.) | Sjlp 
O »1^1 rf. a/-Aawä' weather vane 
,jjljj diyäri domestic; native 
ü[fji dawarän tum(ing), rotation, 
revolution, gyration; circulation, cir- 
cling, circuiting ; round trip, tour 

jjj! adwar 2 (elative): jr-jyi > jjil 
(alsun) more talked about, more fre- 
quently expressed or discussed 

jl-U madär pl. -äi orbit; circling, cir- 
cuiting, circuit, revolution; axis; pivot; 
(fig.) that upon which turns or 
depends, the central, cardinal, or crucial 
factor, the pivot; center; aubject, topic, 
theme (of a converaation, of negotiations) ; 
scope, ränge, extent, sphere ; tropic 
(geogr.); O steering wheel | Ült-Jl jU 
m. as-mratän Tropic of Cancer, ^-U-l jl.u 
m. al-jady Tropic of Capricorn; J* .jl.u jtf 
it (i.e., the dispute, or the like) was 
about..., it hingcd on...; iUI _,|.u J* 
(?n. is-sana) throughout the year, all 
year round 

_/ ja! tadunr recitation of the Koran at 
medium speed (between tartil and hadr; 
a technical term of tajwld) 

öjjl-u mudätvara pl. -ät cheathig, 
humbug, trickery; outwitting; attempted 
evasion or circumvcntion, shift, dodge; 
persuaeion, inveigling, ensnaring 

Sjljl idära turning; turning around or 
over, reverting, reversion, Inversion; 
starting, setting in Operation; Operation; 
drive (techn.); direction, management; 
administration ; administrative agency, 
department, office, bureau | ^'1 Sjbl 
t. al-amn the police; ij^ «jljl ('urfiya) 
military administration; SjIjVI »j— su 
al-i, mismanagement, maladministration; 
SjIjVI ,jJjt majlis al-i. board of directors, 
administrative board, committee of man- 
agement; IjIjVI jS^. markaz al-i. ad- 
ministration center, headquarters 

tÄjbl idäri administrative, depart- 
mental; administrative officer; manager 
(athUt.); Ljljl idäriyan through ad- 
ministrative Channels, administrative^, 

ejlji-l istidära roundness, rotundity, 

_/b dä'ir turning, revolving, spinning; 
circulating; current (e.g., cxpression), 
common; ambulant, itinerant; in prog- 


t » 

ress, under way; working, in Operation; 
running (machine, engine); round 

V*lj dä'ira pl. J\ji dawä'ir* circle 
(also math.); ring; circumference, perim- 
eter, periphery; sphere, scope, ränge, 
compasa, extent, circuit; field, domain 
(fig.); official agency, department (esp. 
It., Syr. t Leb.); office, bureau; depart- 
ment of a court of justice {Eg., Tun.); 
farm, country estate {eg.); misfortune, 
calamity, affliction j . . . äyb j within thc 
framework of ...; lj\i i_j-*j J^-i J* 'alä 
Sakli nißfi d. semicircular ; *J\jI\ üuu nuq* 
tat ad-d. essential factor, pivot, crucial 
point, crux; O vkjlf •-/' i (kahrabä'iya) 
electric cirouit; O *jy^i *J\* ehort 
circuit (el.); JijUU ij\s encyclopedia; 
<*_jÜl J\j3 govemment circles, ,/lj-OI 
(* ij SL-*Jl,4 s -l r JI)LCjil (rasmlya, aiyäsiya, 
'askariya) official (political, müitary) 
circles or quarters (journ.); ^La^-^I ä_/'J 
Jurisdiction (of an official agency, esp-, 
of a court of justice); «-iJi i/loJl (sa* 
nlya) civil list; i-» 1 ^- 1 V lj {ül^näßya) 
appellate court (Eg.; jur.); «-)U«iJl */la 
(inh'fcäötya) electoral district; *J* Oj'j 
J\fJS\ to suffer adversities 

jj-'lj da' tri circular, ring-shaped, an- 

jj-U muoattrtwir round, circular 
y4* mudir head, chief, director; ad- 
ministrator ; manager ; Intendant, Su- 
perintendent; rector (of a univeraity); 
mudir, chief officer of a mudiria, approx. 
= govemor {Eg.); (pl- »L»-** mudarä' 3 ) 
administrative officer at the head of a 
county (Syr. t Leb., Ir,, Saudi Ar.) \ jXm 
J*i-I m. al-jauq bandleader, conductor of 
an orcheatra 

IjXt mudira directress; administratress 

IjjXt mudiriya direction; administra- 
tion; management; — (pl. -ät) mudiria, 
province {Eg.) ; approx. : main depart- 
ment of a ministry {Ir.) 

jJc-a mustadir round; circular | yj» 
'*j .\'.\ \ mJUI (mu'tamar ai-m.) round- 
table Conference 

jjji dauraq pl. jjljj dawäriq 1 {eg.) bulging 
vessel with a long, slender neck» carafe 

jjji dauzana to tune (a musicalinstrument); 
O to tune in (radio) 

jljjj düzän and Üjjj dauzana tuning 
(of a musical inatrument); Üjjj O tun- 
ing (radio) 

1j jjj (It. dozzina) dözina dozen 

(^-ja) ,^-b däsa u (daus, ^La diyäs) to 
tread, step (* on); to tread (*; to 
tread down, trample down, trample 
underfoot, crush (*; to thresh 
(grain); to treat with disdain, humiliate 
(• b.o.); to run over (• s.o.; automobile) 
VII pass. of I 

^jj daus treading, trampling, tread, 

i-jj dxsa dense forest, jungle, thioket 
L-Ija dawwäsa pedal 
^l-u madäs shoe, sandal 

^•jX* modus, ,j>\j* mudäe trodden, 
trampled down; crushed; run over 

ljjlk-jj dusintäriyä, Ij jlsi-ya dysentery 

Aj^-yj (Fr. dossier) dosyi, v_,j dösS pl. -ät 
dossier, file 

i^jj (eg.) dawaS to irritate {• s.o.) or drive 
s.o. crazy by noise 

iJyj dauSa (eg.) din, noise, clamor, up- 
roar, hubbub, hullabaloo 

*j,ji (Fr. douche) dü& pl. -ö* shower, douche 
Üyj (It. aote) döfa dowry 
*-jj II to imprint a mark, to brand 
Mj dag pl. -ö* brand (on cattle). 



(ü>j->) <jla <Ü/a u (dauf) to mix, mingle 
(j * with); to add, admix (j » to) 

Jjj titi? duke 

öp dtiqa ducheaa 

jja dttyj ducol 

ijji düqiya dukedom, duchy 
ijji II to chatter, prattle 

«Sjj davka din, row, hubbub, tumult, 

'(Jj->) Jb oVUa u («Jp daufa) to ohange 
periodically, Uke tum», altemate, rotate; 
to change, turn (time, fortune) | lljj oJb 
jtoJ^Vt the time of absolutiam ia over, 
belongs to the past; «JjiJI «J cJIj fortune 
ha» turned in his favor (<uU against him) 
III to altemate, rotate (», • s.o.,; 
to cause to sucoeed by tums or to follow 
one another (fOVI al-ayyima the days; 
God); to altemate (jy between); to 
confer, talk (. with s.o., J about), 
disouss (j • with s.o. IT to give 
ascendanoy, afford superiority, give the 
upper hand (^* • to s.o. over); to make 
victorious, let triumph (J» • s.o. over), 
grant viotory (J» . to s.o. over); to 
replaco (ij » or ,>• with), ezchange, 
Substitute (v » or ,> for | Jjjl 
V 1 tff > ir^r-ll ip "«"k Jt-oonf l-'abbari 
min 6a»l umayyata the rule paswd from 
the Ommaiada to the Abbaaides VI to 
altemate, take tums (» lvith or in, 
o.g., in some work); to hand eaoh other (»), pasa (») altemately between 
themselvea; to handle altemately (» 
different thingB), take now thia, now 
that; to ezchange (j^l ar-ra'y views); 
to make frequent use (* of; to 
eonfer, have a discuasion, take counsel, 
deliberate; to parley, negotiate; to 
eirculate, be in circulation, be current, 
have currency | ^4jVI «Jjioj tadätvalathu 
l-aidl it paased from hand to hand, it 

made the rounds, it oirculated ; j-J V I «Jj loj 
(alnin) it passed from mouth to mouth, 
it was the talk of the town, it was on 
everybody'a Ups 

«Ijj daula pl. Jp duical altemation, 
rotation, change; change of time, tum 
of fortune; dynasty; State, country; 
power, empira | UjjJI ^L» title of the 
Prime Minister; Ö,SÜ.I ^üj ilj> daulat 
r. ai-h. Hia Ezcellency, the Prime 
Hinister; iljjjl ÖUi faidmat ad-d. title 
of the President of the Bepublic (Syr., 
LA.); UJI ajJI Caltya) name of the 
anoient Ottoman Empire; jj>SÜI J^lll 
(jJiJI or) (tutri, "uzmä) the big powers; 
«jJSj SJjj (muniadaba) mandatory power 

iSji (dam., pronounced dete = yTj 
rahm) metal vessel with long curved 
handle used for making ooffee 

Up dauli State (adj.); duwali inter- 

«Jji dwoaUya intemationality; inter- 
nationaliam; the International 

o^jjj dutmilit petty stetes, small 

dJLlIp dauxUatca altemately, by turns; 
succeasively, one by one, one alter the 
other | iUlp liSU, (wa-hdkadd) and so 
forth, and ao on 

JijJj todvAl intemationalization 

«Jjü» rnvddtcala pl. -dl parley, ne- 
gotiation; deUberation, consultation; dis- 
cuasion; muddwalatm altemately, one 
after the other, one at a time 

Jjlj; tadämü altemation, rotation; 
ciroulation, currency; circulation of mon- 
ey | JjIxJIj altemately, by turns, one by 

Jj'ji» mutadäwal current, circulating, 
in circulation; valid; oommon, in com- 
mon use, prevailing | Jjlodl *^£li (fco* 
Um) the oolloquial langoage 



•Jl;.» dawälin see _jb 

•-*%* düiäb pl. o-J^ dawältb 1 wheel; tire; 
gearing, gears, wheels, mechanism, ma- 
chine, machinery; closet, locker, cabinet, 
cupboard | ^^Ul vVp wardrobe 

jV>> iöiJr pl. -<K dollar 

'(j»j->) ('■> ddma u {daum, ?\t* datcdm) to last, 
continue, go on; to persevere, persist | 
*b L nu3 Alma as long as; (the more so) 
since, inasmuch as, as, becaüse; while 
he is . . ., when he is . . . ; L*- f U L (hayyan) 
as long as he is alive; tiL* £-..» U (tfumtu) 
so long as (or while) I am with you II to 
move in a circle, tum, spin, revolve, 
rotate, gyrate, circle; to tum, revolve, 
spin, twirl (* III to persevere, 
persist (J* in), apply o.b. diligently and 
steadily (J* to), pursue with diligence 
and perseverance (J*; to continue 
IV to cause to last or continue, perpetuate, 
make laeting, make permanent f* 
X to make (* last or continue; to 
continue, go on (* with 

pjs daum continuance, permanence, 
duration; lyj dawnan constantly, at all 
times, ever, always; — doom palm (bot.) 

4ji dima pl. *± diyam, *j>a duyüm 
continuous rain 

j. \j2 dawäm duration, continuance, 
permanence, perpetuity; uninterrupted 
suocession; endurance, perseverance; 
abiding, stay (of s.o., j at a place); Uj.» 
dawäman and (Ij-Ul Je permanently, 
perpetually, at all times, ever, always | 
(•IjoJ! cJj r («IjaJI CjMj\,Aj^\ oUU working 
hours, office hours (Ir., Syr.) 

i+yc* daimüma = ?\j* 

ö[f^ duwwäma top (child's toy) ; 
whirlpool, eddy, vortex 

iyl4- mudäwama perseverance, endur- 
ance, persistence; continuance, duration; 

s\i da' im lasting, enduring; endless, 
eternal, perpetual, everlasting; perennial; 
continued, continuous, continual, inces* 
sant, unceasing, constant ; permanent, 
standing, establiBhed; durable | (XcJl f I.» 
jriJlj d. at-taqaddum wa-n-numüw in a 
State of constant progress and growth 

Ix lj dä'iman always | Ui I l* U (abadan) 
always and ever 

^li daimi = *\* 

p\Xm mudäm wine 

j*-oi— mustadim constant, continuous, 
continual, incessant, uninterrupted 

•jlyj dümän rudder, heim 

jtly* dümänji steersman, helmsman 

1 öji II to record, write down, set down, put 
down in writing (*; to enter, Ust, 
register, book {*; to collect (* 
poems) | Up^ üj± (tarfan) to stipulate 
a condition V to be reoorded, be written 
down, be put down in writing 

ö\jt* dtwän pl. l/j\j* dawäwin* ao- 
count books of the treasury (in the older 
Islamio administration) ; divan, collection 
of poems written by one author; govern- 
mental office, administrative office; chan* 
cellery, office, bureau, Sekretariat; Coun- 
cil of State, cabinet ; oouncü, consultative 
assembly, board of advisers, executive 
committee; govemment; court of justice, 
tribunal; hall; davenport, divan; (rail- 
way) compartment | ^ jl^ill *JJ lugat ad-d. 
official jargon, officialese; ^tisll o\x* in- 
quisitional court; the Inquisition 

<j\ji* diwäni administrative, adminis- 
trational, official ; an Ottoman style of cur- 
sivo (used by the secretaries of the State 
Chancellery for treaties, diplomas, fir- 
mans, etc.) 

j>jjj iadwxn recording, writing down; 
entry, listing, booking; registering, reg- 



iijX* mudawwana pl. -ät rccord, note; 
entry; body of lawe; pl. CjUjJU writings, 
literature (on a given subject) 

•üji dün low ( lowly; bad, poor, inferior; 
meager, inadequate j JjjJIj <LU {'äma* 
lahü) he snubbed htm 

üji düna (prep.) below, beneath, under 
(in rank, value, etc.); this aide of, short of; 
before ; without ; more than ; with the ex- 
cluaion of, leaving ... aside, disregard- 
ing . . . ; and not by any means, but not | 
dlli üji (with foll. nominative) on the way 
to that, there is ..., before accomplishing 
that one must ..., jlüJl i^*i .illj öj* 
(karf al-qatäd) before one can do that, 
one must etrip the tragacanth of ita 
leaves, i.e., accomplish the impoasible; 
üjJj, üjj ^» (düni) without; with the 
exclueion of , excluding ; j I öj Jj and 
Ol üji ,> without (+ foll. gerund in 
Engl.); illij* dünaka (with foll. acc.) here 
you are! take...! watch out (* for)! 
beware (* of) ! *jjj j* he is below him, 
he doean't measure up to him; *yj öS" 
i->l (ahammiyatan) to be of less im- 
portance than...; s\ Jf ojj rl iimun 
dünahü fotUu tjmtn a Bin to end all Bina; 
ij^SL- «]l ^^-Jl jji > ^ijl {sinn, 'askariya) 
thoße below the age for military Bervice; 
Jl Ju L. üjj (nazarin) regardless of, ir- 
respective of; äJjli U üjjj with no benefit 
at all; completely useless; üo*~j jl (S ZJ£ 
l&i {takiä an yas'adna) ahe is afraid 
they will be happier than ehe is; !_-^JI «iJU 
Uj^ jjj (iuiui, gairihä) those booka and no 
others; ijl.U L>j* tilLü ^ <_«ü Ul (mtc 
ta'ajjib, fadlika, 'ilmika) I admire your 
virtue, but not your knowledge, or, I 
admire your virtue more than your 
knowledge; ^^JS\j j*x$\ üji »]y^\ f 
(kamma, tadammur, Sakwä) he stopped 
their mouths to keep them from mutter- 
ing and complaining; öjj ,>**JI jlTlil 
A*i£- L. (gupnu, yahtamiluhü) if the branch 
is not strong enough to carry him; 

öli)l Jl j.j.1 J^y it was he, not they, 
who reached the goal; o,j Ih»-^ i*-LSl 
{aSähai bi-wajhihä) she averted her face 
eo that he could not see her; «^1 Ujj JU- 
to prevent; »I^i-l üjj i*iVl (oü"a, 
Äamrä') the infrared rays; üjj oU^ll 
ä^w&ÄJI (maujät) ultra-ahort waves (radio) 

rj* dünum a aquare measure (Ir. = about 
2500 m»; Pal. = roughly, 900 m") 

X i5j* dawä and II to aound, resound, ring out; 
to drone; to echo, reverberate III to treat 
(« a patient, * a disease) VI to treat o.s. 
(with a medicine); to be cured 

,jji dawan pl. »Ipl adwa aickness, ill- 
neBS, disease, malady 

jj^ dawiy aound, noiBe, ring, clang, 
roar, thunder, drone; echo, reverberation 

ü\j) dawäh (□ 'o}jä dawäya) pl. jj^ 
duwiy, diwiy, oU j* iauwi/öi inkwell 

»Iji <£avü' pl. ijil adwiya remedy, 
medicament, medication, medicine, drug 

<j|p dawä'% medicinal, medicative, 

• b see »jj 

»Iji fjiwä' treatment, therapy (med.) 

• IjIju ffimÜwflA treatment» therapy 

j\jj tadäwin eure 
•jji (Fr. douiüe) düy socket (of a Light bulb) 
rjk* diyalög (Eg. spelling) pl. -dt dialogue 

rL*j and **-Ljj see £s 

stijti dayyüt (□ ^^jj) cuckold; procurer, 
pimp; a variety of warbler {zool.) 

jj*_> see ^-i 

O^Jjjf-ül ad-<&pflZ*yfin (Eg. spelling) the Gaul- 


Oi J 

üb-üj daidabän, daidubän pl. -Öt, So La dayd- 
diöa guard, sentry; sentinel | c-i'LA' öLjAo 
ship's pilot 

ü-Uj aee u.a.» 

_r J» »y-i» jL>'» «y^' tf/. J » J^ - *' l -*'-'l J Bee ->->■* 

^jj du dise (Ampelodesma tenax ; bot.) 

*-jj aee *-.> 

i-ji see .j-p 

^-^ see i^a 

ju^jj disembir, disambir December 

iL* dCjt pl. «SO* dtto, 4^ duyü*, libjl odytJjfc 
cock, rooster | ,_^ji- 1 iLi d. at-Aa&aJF 
turkey, turkey cock; j-jj dLa (rilmi) do.; 
dL-ül bjj wazn ad-d. bantamweight 

$jj)\ JLJI as -au öl od-diki whooping 

j_£l* (Fr. dicor) pl. -di decor, stage deco- 

^Ica daimäs, dimäs, ,j*j*a daimüs pl. j-fL» 
dayämuP dungeon, rault 

<£ s, fi, ojxj see (»ji 

JJ^ri dtmüfigi demotic (writing) 

\f \ßji j , ^ \Ju: i dimuqräfi democratic ; dem- 

<Sf\jij£i, *S\jÄ£} dimuqrätiya pl. -ät 
democracy; democratic attitude or con- 

l (^i) üb rföna * to borrow, take up a loan; 
to be a debtor, be indebted; to owe (^ J 
s.o., also, e.g-, ^üiJlj *J o\s (Sukr) d. 
lahü bi-S-htkr to owe s.o. one's thanks; 
t_j, e.g., bLJ>Lj bi-l-kayäh one's 
Ufe, J to or s.o.); to be indebted 
(u J to s.o. for); to be subject, subject 
o.a., bow, yield, (J to s.o. or, be 
under s.o.'s (J) power, owe allegiance 

(J to s.o.), obey (J s.o.); to grant a loan, 
lend money (» to s.o.); to subject, 
subjugate (• s.o.); to requite, repay (• 
s.o.); to condemn (» s.o.), pass judgment 
{* on s.o.) III to hare a debt (• with s.o.), 
be indebted (« to s.o.); to be the creditor 
(» of s.o.), have a money claim {» on 
s.o.) | ijZjj» i- *"■ Mr* *•;'■> (bi-mabla§ 
kämmt q.) he had a claim of five piasters 
on him IV to lend money (• to s.o.); to 
seil on credit (• to s.o.); to convict, find 
guilty, pronounce guilty {• s.o.) V to be 
indebted, have debts; to subject o.a. (J 
to) VI ^.u |>jl-tf (dain) to contraet a 
mutual loan, borrow money from each 
other X to make or inour debts, take up 
a loan 

^o dain pl. üji* duyün debt; pecuni- 
ary Obligation, liability; Obligation (Ist, 
Law); claim (Isl. Law), financial claim | 
j'il'it on credit; ^-01 ^j robb ad-d. 
creditor; t-^A-l üj>* d. al-harb war debte; 
■*y j* ^j bonded, or funded, debt; ^o 
Jlif (mumtäz) preferred, or privileged, 
debt; -x>-y j-i (muwahhad) consolidated 
debt; jlk. ^ j (mitflog) debt not bound to 
the physical person of the debtor, but 
outliving him (Isl. Law); 3j^~* J^ 
(mustagriq) claims against an estate 
which exceed or equal the assete (Isl. Law) 

~*jy~>s dainüna judgment; Last Judgment 

üLoJl ad-dayyän the Judge (attribute 
of God) 

äja« madina pl. ^\x» madä'in', u-U 
mudun town, city; Ä^-ü.1 Medina (city 
in W Saudi Arabia); see üa* 

oIj! idäna verdict of guilty; convio- 
tion j oIjL CU jX** sadara l-hukmu 
bi-idänatihi he was convicted 

ijlai-1 istidäna incurrence of debt« 

Jb dä'in creditor 

Üjjx. madyün indebted, in debt; ob- 
ligated, under Obligation 

Oi J 


~<±yX. madf/ünfya indebtedness, Obli- 

jx> modln owing; indebted, obligated, 
under Obligation; debtor | jCliU jm 
(fukr) owing gratitude, muoh obliged; 
J lij-u jlT to be indebted to s.o., stand 
in s.o.'s debt 

IjJu mudin moneylender, oreditor 
Oli. mudän convicted, found guilty; 
guilty; judged, condemned 

'(ji) üb dana i to profess (v a religion, a 
"oonviction, eto.) | (■jWfl; ob to profeas 
Islam; «JbU; jb (bi-AdUM) to adhere to 
one's oustoms T to profess (v a religion) 

^i dm pl. OIjjI adjuln religion, oreed, 
faith, belief | fr>l\ fy. ymm ad-d. the 
Day of Judgment 

Jjj dfnl religious; Bpiritual | Jj^ ir- 
religious; O Ji-iN ,M f*») »öenoe of 

ji dayyin religious, pions, godly, 

Z \j» diy&na pl. -dt religion; com- 
mnnion, confession, denomination, sect | 
«iL ill v* - '-* fonnder of a religion 

OLj dayydn pious, godly, devout, 

^ jj imjayyun piety, godliness, devout- 
ness, religionsness, religiosity 

^jz* mutadayyin pious, godly, devout, 
*ü .uu muladayytna religious Community 

jbj dlndr pl. jüÜj dandntr* dinar, a mone- 
tary unit </r., /ord.); pl. j*iLb money 

^jbi ilwSrf diamonds (of a deok of 

j»Ljj dln&md dynamo, generator 

^.bi dfodmtt dynamite 

O «jJ dainam pl. rta daydnim* dynamo. 

*»j See tS*j 

ül^ji pl. j^ilp and Jljja t 

I j 4t (demonstr. pron.) pl. >Vjl ulä'i this one, 
this; iij bi-di by this, by this means, 
thereby; lil J»'-(M therefore; Ijf Ja-rf« so, 
thus, in thia manner; so and so, so and 
so muoh; li£* M-ba-ii so, thus, in this 
manner; serves as intensifier after inter- 
rogative pronouns (roughly correspond- 
ing in English to such phrases as: ... on 
earth, ...then, or the lue): lil» what on 
eartht liU. why then! why in heaven's 
namet -Iij» hvw* <ß. f. tfi <f *•>» ft 
that one; look at that one! why, that 
is..., now if thatisn't...!; IÖJ.U h/tana- 

da behold, it is I, here I am, pl. .y»l j* l» 
Ali no^nu uW»; — used as an aoousativa 
in the oonstruot State: master, owner, or 
possessor of, with jj nonünative (q.v.), 
ji as genitive; — Uli 4&ka, f. ilU (Abt, 
*ilj ttca, pl. <£l>Vjl «&'•*» this, this one; 
iJIS jl (itf) then, at that time; in those 
days; — iS'a daliln, f. ilS titta, pl. illlfjl 
ldo?tsa that, that one; »iJüj bi-däliba by 
that, by that means, in that manner; 
diu U-dalita therefore; düi .U> fa'da 
fäüka after that, upon that, thereafter, 
thereupon; dli »• mo'a iaWoa yst, still, 



nevertheless, for all that; Ol Ji, (oimo) 
that is (to say), namety, to wit; JV Üi, 
(It'-onna) and that ia beoause . . ., for the 
one reason that...; Ol .ili (M-oma) 
thifl is due to the faot that ...; JUT tu- 
$Miia so, thus, in that manner; equally» 
likewise, in the same manner; — yJJ 
diiikum, f. fiS ItUum, pl. pVjl uUMnm 
that one; — li» hidi, f. <i* MrfiM, tfi» 
Adtf{, pl. .V> WuM'i, dual m. öU» 
Wrfdni, f. jl'U Adidnt thia, this one, an 
li» (alphabetioally) 

Ji X to be wolflike, be fleioe or orael like a 

oJS #'6 pl. v üi ii'äb, J^jji dv'bän 
dieb (Canis anthus), jaokal; wolf | 
jj-VI v 5 - 111 i>j" ™»«tf °rf-rf- aJ-a>tiKW 
name of a nonoontagious skin diseasa 

üjji ju'Joa pl. c-Jlji davO.'ib' look, 
Strand (of hair); tuft, wisp 

olS, jlS and *J\i aee jj 

illi eee li 

Jlj ^di name of the letter i 

^i joMo u to drive away, ohase away (*, • 
s.o.,; to defend (je s.o., 

h^ljj^uMo(ool].;n.un. S) pl. «jäI aiibba, 
jljj dibbän flies, fly | ^jli v^ g«dfly, 

ilii dvbäba pl. -41 (n. un. of >^li i) fly ; 
tip (of the sword, or the like) 

oUi ^uAMna, dibbdna fly; sight, bead 
(on a fireann) 
^i. midabba fly whisk, fly «watter 

#i dabdha a (dabk) to kill (by alitting the 
throat); to slaughter, buteher; to mas- 
sacre; to murder, alay; to sacrifloe, offer 
up ( immolate (» an animal) II to kill, 
slaughter, butohor, massaore, murder 

f> dabh slaughtering, slaughter 

£ i dibh saorificial viotim, blood saorifioe 

«*j diblfa, dubha angina (meo*.); diph- 
theria | L_,xJI ~**J!\ (fadriya) angina 
pectoris (med.) ; O «iijjill **iiJI (/u'ädiyo) 

,Ui iabbäh slaughtering, killing, mur- 
dering; slaughterer, butoher 

-2>j dabih slaughtered 

ü^jj $oWAa pl. j|lii daba'ik' slaughter 
animal; sacrifioial viotim, blood saorifioe; 
saorifioe, immolation; oäering, oblation 

fl. madbah pl. f)i- maddbih' slaugh- 
terhonse; altar (Chr.) 

7*1* madbaha massaore, slaughter, 
oamage, butohery 

ijii dabdaba to set into a swinging motion, 
Swing, dangle (* II tadabdaba to 
Swing, pendnlate; to osoillate (ei.); to 
be defleoted (magnetio needle) ; to vibrate ; 
to fluotuate; to waver, vaoillate, hesitate 

Äjijj dabdaba pl. -dl pendulous motion, 
pendulation; osoillation (ei.); Vibration 

^.bäJ iadabdvb pendulous motion, 
pendulation, swinging; osoillation (ei.); 
defleotion (of a magnetio needle) 

O ^jiiit mudabdib oscillator (ei.) 

Vk-i* mudabdab fluetuating, variable; 
vaoillating, wavering, hesitant, unsteady 

■-j'y'z- mvtadabdib: ^>X.'^- jL: (tayytr) 
oscillating ourrent (ei.) 

Jji dahala, dabvJa u (dabl, Jj.i dvbvl) to be 
wilted, to wilt, wither; to fade; to 
beoome dry, dry up; to waste away; to 
become dull, lose its luster (eye) 

JjS dabl mother-of-pearl, nacre 

«JUS dvbäla wiok 

Jjli tjäbü pl. J;i dvbvl wilted, withered; 
dry, dried up; faded (color); languid, 
dull, laokluster, languishing (glanee); 
feeble, weak, tired 



J*-j dahl pl. JU-Jl adkal, J^-j du£ü/ resent- 
ment, rancor, hatred; revengefulness, 
vindictiveness; blood revenge 

j*-i dakara a to keep, preserve, sbore away, 
put away (*; to save, lay by {* VIII j»-i\ iddakara to keep, pre- 
serve, störe away, put away (*; to 
störe, accumulate, gather, hoard, amasa 
{*; to lay by (a; to save (*, also strength, trouble, etc.) | _^ol 
J L*- (hubban) to harbor love for; _^-ij V 
I x^*- (juhdan) he sparos no effort 

j±* pl. jU.jl adkär stored 
away, put by, hoarded, or acoumulated; 
stores, supplies; treasure 

3j«ii dajctra pl. _r*Uö dakä'ir 3 treasure; 
stores, supplies; provisions, food; am- 
munition (mil.); (holy)