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Smith Stanger 






Smith Stanger 





G. A* A. , • G. A* Aitisn. 

J. G. A. . . J. G. Algeb. 

J. A-n. . . . The Bey. John Andbbson. 

W. A. J. A. . W. A. J. Abchbold. 

G. F. B. B. . G. F. Bussell Babxeb. 

M. B Miss Batsson. 

B. B. . • . . The Bsv. Ronald Bayhn. 

T. B Thomas Batns. 

H* L. B. . . The Ret. Canon Lbioh Bennett. 


G. C. B. . . The lath G. 0. Boasb. 
T. G. B. . . Thb Bey. pBorassoB Bonkbt, 

G. S. B. . . G. S. Boulgbb. 

A. B. B. . . Thb Bbt. A. B. Buckland. 

G. W. C . . G. W. Campbell. 

E. L Co . . E. Ibying Cablylb. 

W, C-b. . . William Cabb. 

E. C-b. . . . Ebnbst Clabkb, F.SJL 

E. M. C. . . Miss Clbbxb. 

A. M. C* . . Miss A* M. Clbbkb. 

G. A. J. C Pbofbbsob G. A. J. Cole. 

T. C .... Thompson Coopbb, F.SJL 

W, P. 0. . . W. P. Coubtnby. 

L. C .... Lionbl Cust, F.SJL 

J. A. D. . . J. A. Doylk. 

R. D. • . . . Robbbt Dunlof. 

C L. F. . . C Litton Falkinbb. 

C. H. F. . . 

0. H. Fibth. 

T. F 

Thb Bbt. Thomas Fowlsb, D.D., 

President or Cobfos 

Chbisti College, Oxford. 

W. G.. . . 

. Thb latb William Gallowat. 

B. G. . . . 

. Richard Gabnbtt, LL.D., CB, 

A. G. . . . 

. Thb Bbt. Albxandbb Gobdon. 

B. E. G. . 

. R. E. Graves. 

J. 0. H. . 

• J. Cuthbbbt Hidden. 

J. W. H. . 

. Professor J. W. Hales. 

J. A. H. • 

• J. A. Hamilton. 

C. A. H. . 

. C. Albxandbb Habbib. 

P. J. H. . 

. P. J. Habtog. 

T. F. H. . 

. T. F. Hendebson. 

F. 0. H. B. Thb Rbv. Pbbbbndaby Hinobs- 


W» xx. • . 

. The Bet. William Hunt. 

C. K. . . . 

• Chablbs Kent. 

C. L. E. . 

. C. L* Kxngsford. 

J. K. ... 

. Joseph Knight, F.S.A* 

J. K. L. . 

• Professor J. K. Lauohton. 

G. S. L. . 

• G. S. Latabd. 

I. S. L. . . 

. L S. TiBAniM. 

E. L* • • • 

. Miss Elizabeth Lbb. 

S. L. • • • 

. Sidney Lbb. 

B. H. L. . 

. B* H. Legos. 

E. M. L. < 

. Colonel E. M. Lloyd, B.E. 

J. H. L. , 

. The Bet. J. H. Lupton, DJX. 



List of Writers. 

E. C. M. . 

. E. C. Mabchant. 

E. F. R. . . The Rev. E. F. Russell. 

H. £. M. . 

. The Right Hon. Sib Hebbbbt 

F. S The Rev. Francis Sanders. 

Maxwell, Bart., M.P. 

T. S Thomas Seccombe. 

L. M. M, . 

. Miss Middleton. 

W. A. S. . . W. A. Shaw. 

A. H. M. , 

■ A. H. MlLLAB. 

G. F. 8. . . Miss G. Fell Smith. 



L. T. S. . . Miss Lucy Toulmin Smith. 

G. W. M., 

, G. W. Moon. 

T. W. S. . . His Honour Judge Snagge. 

N. M, . . . 

. Nobman Moore, M.D. 

L. S Leslie Stephen. 

J. B. M. , 

. J. Bass Mullingbb. 

G. S-h.. . . George Stbonach. 

R. N. . . . 

■ Mbs. Nbwmabch. 

C. W. S. . . C. W. Sutton. 

A. K 

. Albebt Nicholson. 

J. T-t. . . . James Tait. 

G. Lb 0. N. 

. G. Le Gets Noboate. 

H. R. T. . . H. R. Tedder, F.S.A. 

IX J. O'D. 

. D. J. O'Donoghub. 

B. H. V. . . Colonel R. H. Vetch, B.E., 

F, M, O'D, 

, F. M. O'Donoghub, F.S.A. 


J. H. 0. . 

, The Bey. Canon Overton. 

W. F. W. . W. F. Wallis. 

A. F. P. . 

* A. P. Pollard. 

A. W. W. .A. W. Ward, LL.D. 

B. r. . , , 

. Miss Bertha Porter. 

W. W. W. . Surgeon • Captain W. W. 

D'A. P. . . 

. D'Abct Powbb, F.R.C.S. 


E. L. R. . 

, Mbs. Radford. 

C. W-h. . . Charles Welch, F.S.A. 

W, E. R. . 

. W. E. Rhodes. 

W. R. W. . W. R. Williams. 

J. M. K , 

. J. M. Rioo. 

B. B. W. . . B. B. Woodward. 

H. R. . , . 

. Herbert Rn. 

W. W. ... Wabwice Wboth, F.S.A. 







SMITH. [See also Smyth and Smtthb.] 

SMITH, AARON {d. 1697 ?), solicitor to 
the treasury, of obscure origin, was men- 
tioned as a seditious person in a procla- 
mation of 1 June 167/. A frequenter of 
the Rose tavern, he associated with such 
dangerous men as Titus Oates and Hugh 
Speke. He also got to know Sir John 
Trenchard, and sought the acquaintance of 
the knot of intriguing politicians who re- 
ceived pay from the Prince of Orange. His 
success may be deduced from the tact that 
he was number forty-five in Dangerfield's 
list of the forty-eight members of the Green 
Ribbon Club in the summer of 1679 (Danger- 
field, Discovery of the Designs of the 
Papists, 1681). On 30 Jan. 1682 he ap- 
peared at the king's bench bar on a charge 
of providing Stephen College [q. v.l with 
seditiouspapers for the purposes of his de- 
fence. He was tried for this offence in the 
following July, and found guilty of deliver- 
ing libellous papers to College and using 
disloyal words. He managed to escape 
into hiding before sentence was pronounced, 
and spent the year in active plotting. He 
had by this time obtained the confidence 
of the leaders of the disaffected party, and 
the council, consisting of Monmouth, 
Russell, Essex, Sidney, and Hampden, des- 
patched him in January 1683 to confer 
with their friends in the north. When the 
government got wind of the Rye House 
plot, they found means of laying hands 
upon Smith, who was arrested in Axe Yard 
on 4 July and committed to the Tower. 
He was thought to be deeply implicated in 
the plot, but so little could be proved 
against him that he was on 27 Oct. sen- 
tenced for his previous offence to a fine of 

vol. un. 

500/., two hours in the pillory, and to re- 
main in prison pending security for good 
behaviour. He seems to have thought 
himself lucky in getting off so easily (Lttt- 
trbll, i. 286). Though mentioned in Nathan 
Wade's list of the members of the ' King's 
Head Club ' in October 1685 (Karl MS. 
6845), it is not improbable that Smith spent 
the next four years in or within the rules of 
the king's bench prison, from which he was 
released in March 1688 (Luttbell). 

William was no sooner on the throne 
than Smith preferred his claims to sub- 
stantial reward. Carefully hidden as his 
influence had been, he had been the ' Mephi- 
stopheles ' of whig intrigue since 1678 ; and 
on 9 April 1689, with a cynical disregard 
for propriety, William made this fanatical 
partisan solicitor to the treasury, a post of 
rapidly increasing consequence, to which 
were added the functions of public prosecutor 
(cf. R. Nokth, Autobiogr.) Large sums were 
entrusted to him for the purpose of prosecu- 
tions, and there is little doubt that Smith 
would have been content to pose as the 
Fouquier-Tinville of the English revolution. 
Happily, about ninety per cent, of nis charges 
were thrown out by the grand juries, while 
he was greatly restrained in his activity by 
the jealousy of the attorney-general, Sir 
George Treby [q. v.] In November 1692 
he was summoned before the House of 
Lords to explain the procedure which had 
been followed upon the arrest of Lords 
Marlborough and Huntingdon. With such 
contemptuous roughness was he cross-ex- 
amined, i y t ye modest man takes it soe 
much to heart, y* an affidavit wase this day 
made in y* House that he wase not in a 
condition to appeare* (Hatton Corresp. ii. 



But upon his old friend Sir John Tren- 
chard [q. v.] becoming secretary of state (for 
the northern department) in 1693, Smith's 
activity against suspects and Jacobites was 
redoubled. On preliminary evidence of the 
slenderest kind he travelled down to Lanca- 
shire with two informers, Taafe and Lunt (for 
whom he had appeared as bail on a charge 
of bigamy), two men of execrable character. 
A few compromising letters and some arms 
behind a false fireplace were discovered, and 
five Lancashire gentlemen were arrested; 
but Ferguson and other pamphleteers alluded 
to the plot as a ridiculous sham; Taafe 
changed sides at the last moment, and at 
the trial at Manchester in October 1694 the 
prisoners were acquitted. Smith was charged 
by the hostile party with having ' fashioned 
all the depositions of the witnesses for the 
prosecution, and by his own side with having 
thoroughly mismanaged the affair. Large 
sums of money passed through his hands, 
and he was widely suspected of malversa- 
tion. In February 1696 he was closely 
questioned by the House of Commons as to 
his accounts. Failing to deliver his ac- 
counts to the commissioners appointed to 
examine them by 18 Feb., he was ordered to 
be taken into custodv, and on 25 July 1696 
he was dismissed worn his employments. 
Four months later he attended at the bar of 
the house and pleaded illness. He was 

fiven an extension of date until 16 Jan. 
697. But he failed to put in an appear- 
ance, and thenceforth drops into obscurity, 
or more probably died, early in 1697. 

[Luttrell's Brief Hist. Relation, vols. i. ii. iii. 
and iv. passim ; Burnet's Hist, of his own 
Time, ii. 474 ; Roger North's Autiobiogr. ed. 
Jessopp ; Kingston's True Hist, of several De- 
signs and Conspiracies, 1698 ; Jacobite Trials in 
Manchester, 1694, ed. Beamont (Chetham Soc.), 
pp. 50, 94 sq. ; Lord Kenyon's Papers (Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 4th Rep. App, iv. passim, 14th 
Rep. App. vi. 85-7) ; Macaulay's Hist, of Eng- 
land ; Ranko's Hist, of England, vi. 529; Sit- 
well's First Whig, pp. 49, 84, 155, 197, 200. 
The indexes to Luttrell and to the three works 
last mentioned make the curious mistake of con- 
fusing the disreputable and insolvent Aaron 
Smith with John Smith (1655-1723) [q. v.], 
who became chancellor of the exchequer in 1699, 
and was subsequently first speaker of the British 
House of Commons.] T. S. 

SMITH, AARON (JL 1823), seaman, 
was on 19 Dec. 1823 tried at the Old Bailey 
on various charges of piracy in the West 
Indies, and especially of having plundered 
the ship Victoria of coffee, dyewood, and 
other articles to the value of 30,000/., and 
also of having plundered the ship Industry. 

The alleged facts were proved by competent 
witnesses ; Smith's defence was that he was 
an unwilling agent. The story which he re- 
lated in court was that, having been for about 
two years in the West Indies, he shipped as 
first mate on board the Zephyr brig, which 
sailed from Kingston for England in the end 
of June 1822. The master, an ignorant and 
obstinate man, had been warned against the 
leeward passage, which, however, he preferred 
as the shortest. The warning was justified, 
and the brig was taken possession of by a 
schooner manned bv Spaniards and half- 
breeds, who plundered her of whatever seemed 
valuable, forced the master by threats of 
torture to deliver up what money he had on 
board, and then let them go, detaining Smith 
to act as navigator and interpreter, in which 
capacity he was compelled, by threats and 
actual torture, to act at the plundering 
of the Victoria, the Industry, and other 
vessels. After several months detention he 
succeeded in escaping, but at Havana was 
recognised as one of the pirates, arrested, 
and thrown into prison ; and as he refused 
or was unable to bribe the Spanish magi- 
strates, who offered to release him on pay- 
ment of one hundred doubloons, he was 
handed over to Sir Charles Rowley [q. v.], 
the English commander-in-chief at Jamaica, 
and was brought to England in irons on 
board the Sybille. His tale, in part sub- 
stantiated by witnesses, carried conviction 
to the judge, who summed up strongly in 
his favour ; and the jury, without hesitation, 
returned a verdict of ' Not guilty.' He was 
described as ' a very genteel-looking young 
man, apparently about thirty years old. 'The 
Atrocities of the Pirates: a Faithful Nar- 
rative of [Smith's] Unparalleled Sufferings 
during his Captivity in Cuba ' (1824), was 
apparently a much embellished record by a 
sympathising friend. 

During the following years Smith con- 
tinued at sea, and had command of a vessel 
in the China trade. In 1834 he retired and 
lived in London, doing, apparently, a little 
business as an underwriter, and also, it was 
said, as a bill discounter. On 31 Jan. 1850 
he attended a meeting at the London Tavern, 
called to petition parliament to do away 
with ' head money ' for Borneo pirates, i.e. 
money paid to those who recovered the bodies 
of persons alleged to have been murdered by 
the pirates. It was said that the pirates had 
no existence, and that harmless fishermen or 
people picked up on shore were killed for the 
head money. Smith — described as a burly 
seafaring man — stood up to contradict this, 
and said the pirates were very real ; he him- 
self had been attacked by them and his ship 



very nearly taken. The statement was re- 
ferred to in the House of Commons on 
23 May, in the debate on the navy esti- 
mates, and Mr. Cobden remarked that Smith 
was himself a pirate and deserved to be 
punished as such. The speech was reported 
in the ' Times ' of the 24th, and on the 25th 
a Mr. E. Garbett wrote, in Smith's name, to 
Cobden, requesting an interview. This Cob- 
den refused, and an angry correspondence 
followed (Times, 1 June), which brought up 
a Captain Cook, who wrote to say that 
Smith was certainly a pirate ; that he him- 
self had been captured and ill-treated by 
him (ib. 20 June). On this Smith brought 
an action for libel against Cook, who pleaded 
justification, and the case virtually resolved 
itself into trying Smith over again for acts 
of piracy said to have been committed 
twenty-eight years before, for which he 
had already been tried and acquitted. But 
by this time Smith's witnesses were either 
dead or lost sight of ; there was no official 
report of the former trial, and Smith's ' Nar- 
rative ' was clearly padded with a romantic 
love adventure, and necessarily open to sus- 
picion. Eventually, however, a verdict was 
given in Smith's favour, but with damages 
of only 10/. (ib. 10 and 13 Dec.) He was 
at this time living in Camden Town, where 
he still was in 1852, after which his name 
disappears from the ' London Directory.' 

[Times, 20 Dec. 1823; Morning Chronicle, 
20 Dec 1823.] J. K. L. 

SMITH, ADAM (1723-1790), political 
economise, born at Kirkcaldy on 5 June 
1723, was the only child of Adam Smith, 
writer to the signet, by Margaret, daughter 
of John Douglas of Strathendry, Fifeshire. 
The father, a native of Aberdeen, had been 
private secretary to Hugh Campbell, third 
earl of Loudoun [q. v.], who in 1713gave 
him the comptrollership of customs at Kirk- 
caldy. The salary was 40/. a year, probably 
much increased by fees. The elder Smith 
died in April 1723 (he has been confused 
with a cousin, also named Adam Smith, who 
was living in 1740; see Rab, Adam Smith, 
p. 3). The younger Adam Smith was brought 
up Dy his mother, and the bond between 
them came to be exceptionally close. When 
about three years old ne was carried off by 
gipsies, but speedily recovered (Dttoald 
Stewart, 'Works, x. 6). He was a delicate 
child, and already inclined to the fits of ab- 
sence of mind which were a lifelong charac- 
teristic. He was sent to the burgh school of 
Kirkcaldy, and was beginning Latin by 1773, 
as appears from the date in a copy of Eutro- 
pius with his name. Among his school- 

fellows was John Oswald (afterwards bisho] 
of Raphoe), brother of James Oswald [q. v. 
The brothers Adam, the architects, who Hvi 
in Kirkcaldy, were also friends of his boy- 
hood. Smith was sent to Glasgow for the 
session of 1737-8, and studied there for 
four sessions. He learnt some Greek under 
Alexander Dunlop [q.vj, and acquired taste 
for mathematics under Kobert Simson fa. v.], 
to whom he refers with great respect (Moral 
Sentiments, pt. iii. chap. 2). Matthew, 
father of Dugald Stewart, whom he couples 
with Simson as a first-rate mathematician, 
was a fellow-student and lifelong friend. 
The most important influence, however, was 
that of Francis Hutcheson, whose teaching 
both on moral and economic questions had 
considerable affinity to the later doctrines 
of his pupil. A letter written by David 
Hume to Hutcheson (4 March 1740) shows 
that a ' Mr. Smith ' had made an abstract 
of the- 'Treatise of Human Nature,' by 
which Hume was so well pleased as to 
send a copy of his book through Hutcheson 
to the compiler. Whether 'Mr. Smith ' 
was Adam Smith is, however, .uncertain. 
Smith obtained a Snell exhibition to Balliol 
College, Oxford, in 1740. The exhibitions 
were then worth 40/. a year. According to 
the founder's will, the exhibitioners were to 
take orders in the episcopal church in Scot* 
land. The regulation was not enforced 
after the union. According to Stewart, 
however, Smith was intended to take orders, 
but did not find the ' ecclesiastical profession 
suitable to his taste/ Smith went to Ox- 
ford on horseback in June 1740, and stayed 
there without interruption till 1746. His 
name does not appear hi the list of graduates, 
but Thorold Rogers infers from the title of 
' dominus ' given to him in the batlery 
books that he took the B.A. degree in 1744. 
Smith's famous remarks upon the English 
universities in the ' Wealth of Nations ' 
imply that he owed little to the official 
system of tuition. He read, however, in- 
dustriously for himself; he had access to 
the college library, obtained a wide and 
accurate knowledge of Greek as well as 
of English literature, and employed himself 
in translations from the French with a view 
to the improvement of his style. M'Culloch 
reports ' on the best authority ' that he was 
once found reading Hume's ' Treatise/ and 
severely reprimanded. Letters from Smith 
to his mother, quoted by Brougham, show 
that he had suffered from 'an inveterate 
scurvy and shaking of the hand/ and had, 
as he thought, cured himself by tar-water. 
He also speaks of a ' violent fit of laziness ' 
which had confined him to his elbow-chair 



for three months. He was probably over- 
worked and solitary. The Scottish students 
were regarded with dislike at Oxford, and 
the only friend mentioned is John Douglas 
(1721-1807) [q. v.], also a Fifeshire man, and 
afterwards bishop of Salisbury. Smith re- 
turned to Kirkcaldy in 1746. He was ac- 
?uainted with Henry Home, lord Karnes 
q. v.], and, at Karnes's suggestion, gave a 
course of lectures upon English literature in 
1748-9. These were afterwards burnt by his 
own direction ; but they had been seen by 
Hugh Blair [q. v.], who acknowledges in his 
own lectures that he had taken ' some ideas ' 
from them, and was thought to have taken 
them too freely. Smith, as appears from 
various allusions in his writings, held the 
ordinary opinions of the leading critics of 
his time. He preferred Racine to Shake- 
speare, and specially admired Swift, Dryden, 
Pope, and Gray. He told a contributor to 
the ' Bee ' that he had never been able to 
make a rhyme, but could compose blank verse 
'as fast as he could speak.' He naturally 
shared Johnson's contempt for blank verse. 
When Boswell reported this coincidence, 
Johnson replied, ' Had I known that he loved 
rhyme so much ... I should have hugged 
him.' Smith probably edited the edition of 
the poems of William Hamilton (1704- 
1764) [q. v.] of Bangour, published at this 
time (Kae, pp. 49-61). Smith repeated his 
literary lectures for three winters, and gave 
also some lectures upon economic topics. 
These are known only from a quotation 
by Dugald Stewart, which shows that he 
was strongly opposed to government inter- 
ference with ' the natural course of things.' 
Smith appears to have made 100/. by a 
course or lectures (Bubton, Hume, ii. 46), 
and his reputation presumably led to his 
unanimous election to the chair of logic at 
Glasgow on 9 Jan. 1761. He began his 
official lectures in October. They were 
chiefly devoted to 'rhetoric and belles- 
lettres.' He also acted as substitute for 
Craigie, the professor of moral philosophy, 
who was sent to Lisbon for his health, and 
died in the following November. Upon 
Craigie's death, Smith was transferred to 
the chair of moral philosophy (29 April 
1762). He was supported by his friend 
William Cullen [q. v.], also professor at 
Glasgow, and both of them desired that 
David Hume might succeed to the chair of 
logic ; but Smith admits that this would be 
against public opinion. Smith's new pro- 
fessorship seems to have been superior in 
point of money to the old one. There was 
an endowment of about 70/. a year; the fees 
amounted to about 100/. ; and Smith had a 


house in the college, where his mother and 
his cousin, Jane Douglas, lived with him. 
He moved to two other houses in succession 
during his professorship; but they were 
demolished with the old college buildings. 

There were some three hundred students 
in the college, of whom about eighty or 
ninety attended the moral philosophy class. 
Most of them were preparing for the ministry, 
and about a third were Irish presbyterians. 
Smith gave lectures during the session at 
7.30 a.m., followed by an ' examination ' at 
eleven, besides some private lectures. John 
Millar (1736-1801) [q. v.] describes his 
course to Dugald Stewart. It included four 
topics : natural theology, ethics, containing 
the substance of his ' Moral Sentiments,' the 
theory of those political institutions which 
are founded upon 'justice,' that is, of 
jurisprudence, a treatise upon which is 
promised, though it was never completed, at 
the end of the ' Moral Sentiments ; ' and of 
the political institutions founded upon ' ex- 
pediency,' a topic which corresponds to the 
' Wealth of Nations.' Millar says that his 
manner, 'though not graceful, was plain 
and unaffected; that he spoke at first with 
hesitation, but warmed up as he proceeded, 
especially when in view of possible con- 
troversy, and then spoke with great anima- 
tion and power of illustration. He used, 
according to the elder Alison (Sinclaib, 
Old Times and Distant Places, p. 9), to 
watch some particular student of expressive 
countenance, and be guided by such bearer's 
attentiveness or listlessness. The lectures 
became famous, especially after Smith's 
publication of the ' Moral Sentiments.' Lord 
Shelburne sent his younger brother Thomas 
to study under Smith, and Voltaire's friend, 
Theodore Tronchin, a physician at Geneva, 
sent a son for the same purpose in 1761. 

Smith, as Mr. Rae shows from the college 
records, took a very active part in business 
during his professorship. He was employed 
to conduct various legal matters, such as a 
controversy withBalliol over the Snell exhi- 
bitions. He was 'qu838tor' or treasurer 
from 1768 to 1764, and curator of the 
chambers let to students ; he was dean of 
faculty from 1760 to 1762 ; and in 1762 was 
appointed vice-rector, in which capacity he 
had to preside over all college meetings. The 
number of quarrels among the professors, of 
which Rem complains upon succeeding 
Smith, shows that this position was no sine- 
cure. Smith was a patron of James Watt, 
who was enabled by the college to set up as 
mathematical-instrument maker in Glasgow 
in spite of the trade privileges of the town ; 
he advised Robert Foulis [q. v.] when start- 



ing an academy of design at Glasgow, and 
supported the university typefoundry esta- 
blished by his friend Wilson, the professor 
of astronomy. It is remarkable that Smith 
was active in the opposition carried on by the 
university and the town council to building 
a theatre in Glasgow. Smith approved of 
playgoing; he speaks strongly in the 
' Wealth of Nations ' against the fanatical 
dislike of the theatre, and agreed with Hume 
in supporting John Home in the agitation 
about 'Douglas.' He may, as Mr. Rae 
suggests, have had excellent reasons for dis- 
criminating between theatres at Glasgow 
and theatres at Paris ; but his motives must 
be conjectural. Smith also took a leading 
part in protesting against the claim of a pro- 
fessor to vote upon his own election to 
another professorship, and in favour of the 
deprivation of another for going abroad 
with a pupil in defiance of the refusal of his 
colleagues to grant leave of absence. 

Smith joined in the social recreations cha- 
racteristic of the time. He belonged to a club 
founded by Andrew Cochrane, provost of Glas- 
gow, for the discussion of trade (Carlyle, 
Autobiogr. p. 78). Sir James Stewart Denham 
[q. v.] found soon afterwards that the Glas- 
gow merchants had been converted by Smith 
to free-trade in corn ; and such matters had 
doubtless been discussed at tbe club. Smith 
was also a member of the Literary Society 
of Glasgow, founded in 1752 ; and on 23 Jan. 
1753 read a paper upon Hume's ' Essays on 
Commerce' (Maitland Club Notes and Docu- 
ments). He and his friend Joseph Black, 
the chemist, joined the weekly dinners of 
the 'Anderston Club,' and Watt testifies 
that he was kindly welcomed at this elub 
by his superiors in education and position. 
Smith's orthodoxy seems to have been a little 
auspected at Glasgow, partly on account of 
his friendship with Hume. 

It does not appear precisely at what time 
this friendship began. Hume did not settle 
at Edinburgh until Smith was leaving for 
Glasgow. In 1752 they were in corre- 

tndence, and Hume was consulting Smith 
iut his essays and his projected history. 
Smith frequently visited his friend at Edin- 
burgh. He was elected a member of the 
Philosophical Societv, to which Hume was 
the secretary upon its revival in the same 
year ; and in 1754 was one of fifteen persons 
present at the first meeting of the Select 
Society, started by the painter Allan Ram- 
say, which became the * Edinburgh Society 
for encouraging Arts, Sciences, Manufac- 
tures, and Agriculture in Scotland.' Smith 
presided at a meeting on 19 June 1754 ; and 
gave notice of discussions upon naturalisa- 

tion and upon the policy of bounties for the 
export of corn. Many economic topics were 
discussed at this society (see Scots Mag. 
for 1757), which also, like the Society 
of Arts (founded in 1753 in London), of- 
fered premiums in support of its objects and 
manuiactures. It moreover proposed to 
teach Scots to write English, and incurred 
ridicule, which probably led to its extinction 
in 1765 (see Campbell's ' Ellenborough ' in 
Lives of the Chancellors). Smith also con- 
tributed to the 'Edinburgh Review' of 
which two numbers only appeared. He re- 
viewed Johnson's ' Dictionary ' in the first 
number, and in the second proposed an ex- 
tension of the ' Review ' to foreign litera- 
ture, adding an account of the recent writ- 
ings of French celebrities, including Rous- 
seau's ' Discourse on Inequality.' Suspicions 
as to the orthodoxy of the writers, and an 
erroneous belief that Hume was concerned 
in it, led to the discontinuance of the ' Re- 
view ' (Tytler, Life of Karnes, i. 233). In 
1758 Hume was anxious that Smith should 
succeed to an expected vacancy in the chair 
of the ' Law of Nature and Nations,' in the 
gift of the crown. The holder, he thought, 
was willing to resign it for 800/., and • the 
foul mouths of all the roarers against heresy ' 
could be easily stopped. Smith, however, 
did not become a candidate. In 1762 Smith 
was an original member of the t Poker Club,' 
so called because intended to stir up public 
opinion on behalf of a Scottish militia, 
though in practice it seems to have done 
little beyond promoting conviviality. 

In 1759 Smith published his ' Theory of 
the Moral Sentiments.' The book was warmly 
welcomed by Hume, who reported its favour- 
able reception in London (Letter of 12 April 
1759), and was highly praised in the * Annual 
Register ' in an article attributed to Burke. 
Smith was henceforth recognised as one of 
the first authors of the day. He visited 
London for the first time in 1761. It was 
probably on this occasion (see Rae, p. 153) 
that he accompanied Lord Shelburne on the 
journey, and urged his principles with such 
* benevolence ' and * eloquence ' as perma- 
nently to affect the mind of his companion 
(Stewabt, Works, x. 95). It is probable 
also that a famous interview took place at 
this time with Dr. Johnson. They certainly 
had a rough altercation at the house of Wil- 
liam Strahan, Smith's publisher. Scott after- 
wards told a story according to which the 
two moralists met at Glasgow, and ended a 
discussion relating to Smith's account of 
Hume's last illness by giving each other the 
lie in the coarsest terms. The story involves 
palpable anachronisms, as Johnson's only 



visit to Glasgow was before Hume's death. 
This is gratifying to biographers who are 
shocked by the anecdote. That something 
of the kind took place at Strahan's, however, 
is undoubted, and may have been the foun- 
dation of Scott's story (Boswbll, Johnson, 
ed. Hill, iii. 331, v. 369 ; other versions are 
in Wilberforce Correspondence, 1840, i. 40 n., 
and Edinburgh Review, October 1840; see 
Rae, pp. 166-8). 

Among the admirers of Smith's * Moral Sen- 
timents 'was Charles Townshend (1726-1767) 
[q. v.] He was stepfather of Henry Scott, 
third duke of Buccleuch [q.v.], and told Hume 
as soon as the book came out that he should 
like to place the duke under Smith's charge. 
He visited Smith at Glasgow in the summer. 
In October 1763, when the duke was about 
to leave Eton, the offer of a travelling tutor- 
ship was made accordingly, and accepted by 
Smith. He was to have his travelling ex- 
penses, with 300/. a year and a life-pension of 
the same amount. He applied for leave of 
absence in the following November, under- 
taking to pay over his salary to a substitute, 
and returning to his pupils the fees for his 
class. He had to force the money upon 
them (Tytleb, Karnes, i. 278). Soon after 
starting upon his travels he sent in his resig- 
nation (Rae, pp. 168-72). 

Smith left London for Paris with the duke 
in February 1764. They met Hume at Paris, 
and proceeded almost immediately to Tou- 
louse. They were joined in the autumn by 
the duke's younger brother, Hew Campbell 
Scott, and stayed at Toulouse for eighteen 
months, making a few excursions. They 
visited MontpelHer during the session of the 
states of Languedoc ; and Smith, though he 
could never talk French perfectly, went 
into society and was pleased with many of 
the provincial authorities. In August 1764 
the party started for a tour through the 
south of France and went to Geneva, where 
they spent two months. Smith saw Voltaire, 
for whom he always had a profound respect. 
When Rogers in 1789 spoke of some one as 
* a Voltaire,' Smith replied emphatically, ' Sir, 
there has been but one Voltaire' {Table 
Talk, 3rd edit. p. 46). He also met Charles 
Bonnet and Georges Louis Le Sage, the pro- 
fessor ofphysics. In December he went to 
Paris ; Hume left shortly afterwards, but in- 
troduced Smith to his Parisian friends. 
During the next ten months Smith had much 
intercourse with philosophers in Parisian 
salons. He saw Holbach, Hel vetius, D'Alem- 
bert, Necker, Turgot, and Quesnay . Morellet, 
with whom he became especially intimate, 
afterwards translated the 4 Wealth of Na- 
tions.' Condorcet says that Turgot not only 

discussed economic questions with Smith, but 
continued to correspond with him afterwards. 
Stewart {Works, x. 47) denies, and appa- 
rently on sufficient grounds, that this corre- 
spondence ever existed ; and no letters have 
been found. At a later period, however, 
Smith certainly obtained a valuable docu- 
ment through Turgot's 'particular favour' 
(Sinclair, Correspondence, i. 388). The in- 
fluence of the French economists upon Smith's 
opinions has been much discussea ; but it js 
clear that the facts of the intercourse at this 
time throw no doubt upon the view that 
Smith reached his main theories indepen- 
dently; and that he was influenced only 
so far as discussions with eminent men of 
similar tendencies would tend to clear and 
stimulate his mind. He told Rogers in 1789 
that he thought Turgot (Clayden, Early 
Life of Bogers, p. 95) to be an honest man, 
but too little acquainted with human nature 
— a remark which may have been suggested 
by Turgot's later career. 

While in Paris Smith had some concern 
in Hume's quarrel with Rousseau [see under 
Hume, David, 1711-1776], and was anxious, 
as long as possible, to prevent Hume from 
making the affair public. A story is tbld of 
Smith's love of an English lady at this time, 
and the love of a French marquise for Smith. 
Neither passion was returned (Cubbie, 
Corresp. 1831, ii. 317). Stewart also men- 
tioned a disappointment in an early and long 
attachment to a lady who survived him 
( Works, x. 97), but nothing more is known 
of any romance in his life. 

On 18 Oct. 1766 Smith's younger pupil, 
Hew Campbell Scott, was murdered in the 
street in Paris. Smith at once returned with 
the remains, reaching Dover on 1 Nov. He 
stayed in London superintending a third 
edition of the ' Moral Sentiments ' and read- 
ing in the British Museum. On 21 May 1767 
he was elected F.R.S. He had by this time 
returned to Kirkcaldy, where he lived with 
his mother and his cousin Jane Douglas, who- 
had retired thither from Glasgow after his 
resignation of the professorship. Smith was 
now occupied with the composition of the 
* Wealth of Nations.' He visited the Duke of 
Buccleuch, who had been married on 3 May 
1767, and whose settlement at Dalkeith was 
the occasion of a great entertainment. The 
duke testified afterwards that they had never 
had a disagreement, and the friendship lasted 
till Smitus death. Smith then staved 
quietly at Kirkcaldy, and in February 1/70 
Hume writes to him of a report that he was 
going to London with a view to the publi- 
cation of his book. Smith, however, was 
delayed in his work, partly by ill-health; 


and Hume in April 1772 complains that he 
was ' cutting himself off entirely from human 
society/ In 1772 his friend William Pul- 
teney recommended him to the directors of 
the East India Company as member of a 
commission of inquiry into their administra- 
tion to be sent to India. Smith, in a letter 
of 5 Sept. 1772 (Rab, p. 253), states his 
willingness to accept the appointment, but 
the scheme was soon afterwards abandoned. 
Smith mentions that his book would have 
been ready for the press but for bad health, 
for ' too much thinking upon one thing ' and 
other ' avocations ' due to public troubles ; 
probably, as Mr. Rae suggests, liabilities 
incurred by the Duke of Buccleuch through 
the failure of Heron's bank. Smith went to 
London with the manuscript of his book in 
the spring of 1773, leaving directions with 
Hume as to the disposal of his other manu- 
scripts in the event of his death. He was 
in London frequently, if he did not stay 
there continuously, during the next four 
years (Rab, p. 263). In 1776 he was elected 
a member of ' The Club ;' he is mentioned by 
Horace Walpole, Bishop Percy, and others ; 
and it is said that he often met Franklin 
and carefully discussed chapters of the 
4 Wealth of Nations' with Franklin, Dr. 
Price, and ' others of the literati ' (Watson, 
Annals of Philadelphia, i. 553). Various 
passages in the book show that it was under- 
going revisions at this time. ' The Wealth 
of Nations ' was at last published on 9 March 
1776. He seems to have received 500/. from 
Strahan for the first edition, and published 
the later editions upon half profits (Rab, p. 
285). The book succeeded at once, and the 
first edition was exhausted in six months. 
According to Mr. Rae it was not mentioned 
in the House of Commons till 11 Nov. 
1783, when Fox quoted a maxim from that 
'excellent book* (Pari. Hist, xxiii. 1152). 
As Fox admitted to Charles Butler (Remini- 
scences, i. 176) that he had never read the 
book and could never understand the sub- 
ject, the allusion is the stronger testimony 
to its general authority. It was never even 
4 mentioned in the House again' (that is, of 
course, in the very imperfect reports) ' until 
1787/ nor in the House of Lords till 1793. 
During the American war, however, Lord 
North, in imposing new taxes, seems to have 
taken some hints from the ' Wealth of Na- 
tions/ especially in the house-tax (1778) and 
the malt-tax (1780) (see Rab, pp. 290-4 ; 
and Dowbll, Taxation, ii. 166-73). Pitt 
studied the book carefully, applied its prin- 
ciples in the French treaty of 1786, and 
spoke of it with veneration when introduc- 
ing his budget on 17 Feb. 1792 (Pari. Hist. 


xxix. 834). Whether it be true or not, as 
Buckle said, that the 'Wealth of Nations' 
was, * in its ultimate results, probably the 
most important that had ever been written ' 
(Hist. Civilisation, i. 214), it is probable that 
no book can be mentioned which so rapidly 
became an authority both with statesmen 
and philosophers. 

Hume wrote a warm congratulation, with 
a judicious hint of criticism. His health 
was breaking, and Smith had intended to 
bring him from Edinburgh after the publica- 
tion of his ' Wealth of Nations.' Hume, 
however, started by himself, and met Smith, 
on his way northwards, at Morpeth. Smith 
had to go on to Kirkcaldy to see his mother, 
who was ill. Hume committed the care 
of his posthumous publications to Smith, 
and especially desired him to guarantee the 
appearance of the ' Dialogues on Natural 
Religion.' Smith made difficulties, on the 
ground of the probable clamour and possible 
injury to his own prospects. He promised 
to preserve a copy of tne book if entrusted 
to him ; but different arrangements were 
finally made by Hume for the publication. 
Smith refused to receive a legacy of 200/. 
left to him by Hume, only, as he thought, 
in consideration of the performance of this 
task. Smith, however, promised Hume that 
he would correct the other works, and add 
to the autobiography an account of Hume's 
behaviour in his last illness. Smith was 
present at a final dinner which Hume gave 
to his friends in Edinburgh on 4 July 1776. 
The 'Life,' with the promised account of 
the illness in a letter to Strahan, was pub- 
lished in 1777. Smith spoke in the strongest 
terms of Hume's virtues, to the great offence 
of the orthodox. The letter appeared to be 
intended to show how one who was not a 
Christian could die. Smith probably did 
not appreciate its significance to others. He 
was attacked in a scurrilous 'Letter to 
Adam Smith ... by one of the people 
called Christians,' i.e. George Home [a. v.], 
afterwards bishop of Norwich. Of this he 
never took notice. 

In January 1777 he was again in London, 
but returned to Kirkcaldy, and there re- 
ceived his appointment as commissioner of 
customs in December following. The ap- 
pointment may have been due to the Duke 
of Buccleuch, or, as Mr. Rae (p. 320) thinks 
probable, to Lord North and Sir Grey 
Cooper, the secretary of the treasury, in re- 
cognition of the suggestions about taxes in 
the ' Wealth of Nations.' The appointment 
was 600/. a year, and the Duke of Buccleuch 
refused Smith's offer to resign the pension. 
Smith was therefore now well off, and took 




Panmure House in the Canongate (still stand- 
ing), where he settled with his mother, his 
cousin Miss Douglas, and David, son of an- 
other cousin, Colonel Robert Douglas of 
Strathendrv. He had a good library, and 
entertained his friends simply, especially at 
Sunday suppers. He read Greek, and took a 
weekly dinner at the i Oyster Club/ of which 
he and his friends Joseph Black and James 
Hutton the geologist were the chief members. 
He was one of nve commissioners, and at- 
tended to his duties regularly. Scott gives 
some singular anecdotes of the absence of 
mind for which he was always remarkable, 
and especially of one occasion upon which he 
automatically imitated the military salute 
made by a stately porter (' John Home ' in 
Misc. works j vol. xix.) He was becoming in- 
firm ; and though his duties were not severe, 
they occupied him sufficiently to prevent him 
from completing new original work. He apo- 
logises to his publisher in December 1782 for 
his idleness (Rae, p. 362). He was now, how- 
ever, preparing a third edition of the ' Wealth 
of Nations,' to which he made considerable 
additions. He was consulted by William 
Eden (afterwards Lord Auckland) and the 
secretary to the board of trade in 1779 in 
regard to free trade with Ireland (Letters in 
Rae, pp. 350-4, from English Historical Re- 
view of April 1886), and in 1783 in regard to 
the regulations of the American trade. Sm it h 
was a steady whig, and heartily approved of 
Fox's East India Bill. In 1784 Burke passed 
through Edinburgh on his way to be installed 
as lord rector of Glasgow. 'Burke/ as 
Smith said (Bisset, ii. 429), ' is the only 
man I ever knew who thinks on economic 
subjects exactly as I do without any previous 
communication having passed between us.' 
They were at this time in political agree- 
ment, and Smith, after receiving Burke at 
Edinburgh, accompanied him to Glasgow 
and upon an excursion to Loch Lomond 
(Dalzel, University of Edinburgh , i. 42). 
Burke was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh in June 1784. This 
society had been founded in the previous 
year, superseding the old Philosophical So- 
ciety. Smith was one of the four presidents 
of the literary branch, Robertson, Blair, and 
Cosmo Gordon being his colleagues. In 
August 1785 Burke again visited Scotland 
in company with Windham, and renewed 
his intercourse with Smith. 

Smith's mother died on 23 May 1784 in her 
ninetieth year. His ffrief was so intense as 
to surprise his friends, and was the more 
trying as his own health was declining. In 
the winter of 1786-7 he had an attack 
which caused serious alarm. In April he 

went to London to consult John Hunter. 
He was much wasted, but was able to go 
into society. He met Pitt on several occa- 
sions. They dined together at Henry Dundas's 
house at Wimbledon, when Pitt told him to 
be seated first ; ' for we are all your scholars' 
(Kay, Edinburgh Portraits, p. 75). George 
Wilson reports to Bent ham (14 July) that 
Smith is ' much with the ministry/ and en- 
gaged in some researches for which the 
clerks at the public offices are to give him 
every facility. Wilberforce also talked about 
the society recently started for extending 
the Scottish fisheries (Wilberforce, Corre- 
spondence, i. 40). Smith observed, ' with a 
certain characteristic coolness,' that the only 
result would be the loss of every shilling 
invested. He was not far wrong. 

In November 1787 Smith was elected lord 
rector of Glasgow. He acknowledged the 
honour in a warm letter of thanks to the 

Principal (Rae, p. 411), and was installed on 
2 Dec, but he gave no inaugural address. 
In 1788 he was in much better health. He 
lost his cousin, Jane Douglas, who had lived 
with him for many years, in the autumn. 
In 1789 Smith employed himself upon a re- 
vision of the ' Moral Sentiments/ the pre- 
vious editions of which had remained un- 
altered. The suppression of a reference to 
Rochefoucauld, whom he had coupled with 
Mandeville, was criticised, very needlessly, 
as a concession to a private friendship with 
Rochefoucauld's grandson (Stewart, x. 46 n.) 
The suppression of another passage, in which 
he had said that the Christian doctrine of the 
atonement coincided with natural religion, 
was brought to notice in consequence of a 
reference to the original edition by Arch- 
bishop Magee. On hearing of the suppression 
Magee said that it was a proof that Smith 
had been seduced by the inndel Hume. The 
statement that the * Criterion ' of his friend 
John Douglas was written to meet Smith's 
difficulties as to the miracles is regarded as 
doubtful by Mr. Rae (p. 129), who observes 
that it cannot be traced beyond Chalmers's 
' Dictionary.' There can in any case be no 
doubt that Smith was a sincere theist, and 
that he especially lays great stress upon the 
doctrine of final causes. It is probably as 
clear that he was not an orthodox believer. 
His characteristic shrinking from ' clamour ' 
explains his reticence as to deviations from 
accepted opinions. But his warm admira- 
tion for Hume, Voltaire, and Rousseau was 
scarcely compatible with complete disap- 
proval of their religious doctrines ; and not 
to express such disapproval, had he felt it, 
would have been cowardly rather than reti- 
cent. He no doubt shared the rationalism of 



most contemporary philosophers, though in 
the sense of optimistic deism. Smith argues, 
in the ' Wealth of Nations/ that society is 
so constituted that each man promotes the 
interests of all by attending to his own inte- 
rests, and in the ' Moral Sentiments ' that 
sympathy induces us to approve such con- 
duct as tends to this result. In both cases a 
belief in the argument from design is clearly 

In the spring of 1790 Smith was plainly 
failing. When he became aware of his 
state he sent for his friends Hutton and 
Black, and insisted upon their burning six- 
teen* volumes of his manuscripts. They did so 
without knowing what were the contents. 
Smith's mind seemed to be relieved. He 
afterwards had some friends to supper, as 
usual, but was forced to retire early, using 
a phrase which has been variously reported 
(Claxden, Samuel Rogers, p. 168 ; Stewart, 
x. 75 n. ; Sinclair, Old Times and Distant 
Places). It cannot be known whether he 
adjourned the meeting to another place or 
to another and a better world. He died on 
17 July 1790, and was buried in the Canon- 
gate churchyard. 

Smith left his property to his cousin, 
David Douglas (afterwards Lord Reston), 
who was to follow the instructions of 
Hutton and Black in regard to his works, 
and to pay an annuity of 20/. to Miss Janet 
Douglas, and on her death 400/. to Andrew 
Cleghorn. His property was less than had 
been expected from the modesty of his 
establishment ; and Stewart found the cause 
to be that he had secretly given away sums 

* on a scale much beyond what would have 
been expected from his fortune.' 

Smith, according to Stewart, never sat for 
his portrait, though a painting by T. Collopy 
in the National Museum of Antiquities at 
Edinburgh has been taken to represent 
Smith because the ' Wealth of Nations ' is 
inscribed on a book in the picture. Tassie, 
who had seen Smith, executed two medal- 
lions in 1787. From one (with a wig), now 
in the National Portrait Gallery of Scotland, 
a drawing was made by J. Jackson, engraved 
for publication in 1811, and also engraved 
for editions of the 'Wealth of Nations.' 
Other engravings are by J. Beugo in the 

* Scots Magazine ' for June 1801, and by H. 
Horsburgh for M*Culloch's edition of the 
4 Wealth of Nations/ 1828. Another (v; ith- 
out a wig), now in the possession of J. It. 
Findlay, esq., of Edinburgh, has not been 
engraved. Two portraits were drawn by 
Kay for the ' Edinburgh Portraits.' 

Smith's library passed to the heirs of his 
nephew. Part now belongs to the nephew's 

grandson, the Rev. Dr. Bannerman, who in 
1884 presented a portion to New College, 
Edinburgh ; part to another grandson, Pro- 
fessor R. O. Cunningham, who presented a 
Eortion to Queen's College, Belfast. Other 
ooks were sold. Mr. James Bonar com- 
piled a catalogue (1894) of these and of such 
other books as could be traced. This in- 
cludes about 2,200 volumes, or nrobably 
about two-thirds of the whole. The cata- 
logue marks the passages in which Smith 
quotes the books named. Mr. Bonar also 
gives a plan of Smith's house at Kirkcaldy, 
a copy of his will, and an account of his 
portraits by J. M. Gray. 

Smith's ' Wealth of Nations ' is generally 
admitted to have originated the study of 
political economy as a separate department 
of scientific inquiry. It is therefore dis- 
cussed in every, manual and history of the 
subject. Its merit is due on one side to the 
great range of his historical knowledge, to 
the ingenuity and sound judgment with 
which he applies his principles to a number 
of concrete cases, and to the literary skill 
which makes him always animated, in spite 
of digressions and a diffuse style. On the 
other side, his exposition of abstract prin- 
ciples, though inevitably imperfect, owed 
part of its success to the completeness with 
which it represented the dominant tendencies 
of contemporary thought, and especially the 
revolt against obsolete restrictions of all 
kinds. The ' Smithianismus ' of German 
writers was supposed to represent the un- 
qualified acceptance of the laissez-faire 
theory ; and Buckle's enthusiastic panegyric 
represents the view taken at the time by a 
zealous adherent of that doctrine. Smith 
was too practical to accept the view as abso- 
lutely as his disciples. His sympathy with 
the general tendency has incidentally sug- 
gested much controversy as to his relation 
to previous writers of similar views. The 
most elaborate investigation of his obliga- 
tions to his predecessors will be found in 
Professor Hasbach's ' Untersuchungen tiber 
Adam Smith' (1891). Smith's relation to 
the French economists, already discussed by 
Dugald Stewart, was elucidated by the re- 
ports of his Glasgow lectures in 1768, pub- 
lished with an introduction by Mr. Cannan. 
The report, though very imperfect, shows 
the manner in which Smith had treated the 
subject before his visit to France, and the 
subject '8 relation to his general scheme. Mr. 
Cannan sums up his view by saying that 
Smith had worked out his theory upon the 
division of labour, money, prices, and diffe- 
rences of wages before going to France, but 
had acquired from the 'physiocrats' the 




perception that a ' scheme of distribution ' 
was necessary, and ' tacked his own scheme 
(very different from theirs) on to his already 
existing theory of prices ' (Lectures, p. xxxi). 
Other monographs upon Smith's relations to 
other writers are Oncken's 'A. Smith and 
Immanuel Kant ' (1877), Feilbogen's ' Smith 
and Turcot ' (1893), and Skarzynski's 'Adam 
Smith als Moralphilosoph una Schopfer der 
Nationalokonomie.' Many other references 
are given in Cossa's ' Introduction to the 
Study of Political Economy • (English, 1893), 
and a full bibliography, by Mr. J. P. Ander- 
son, is in the appendix to Mr. Haldane's 
1 Adam Smith.' 

Smith's works are : 1. Articles upon John- 
son's Dictionary, and the general state of 
literature of Europe, in Nos. 1 and 2 (all 

?u Wished) of the (old) ' Edinburgh Review,' 
755; the review was reprinted in 1818. 
2. « The Theory of Moral Sentiments,' 1759 ; 
to the second edition £1761) was added a 
'Dissertation on the Origin of Languages ; ' 
a sixth edition, ' with considerable additions 
and corrections,' appeared in 1790 ; a French 
translation was published in 1764, and one 
(by Blavet) in 1774. 3. ' An Inquiry into 
the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of 
Nations,' 1776, 2 vols. 4to ; the 2nd (1778) 
is unaltered; the 3rd (1784), in 3 vols. 8vo, 
has ' additions and corrections,' which were 
separately printed in the same year; the 
4th and 5th, reproductions of the 3rd, ap- 
peared in 1786 and 1789 ; and a 9th in 1799. 
A French translation by Blavet was pub- 
lished in 1781, after appearing in the ' Journal 
de 1' Agriculture ' (1779-80); a second, by 
Roucher and the Marquise de Condorcet, in 
1790; and a third, by Gamier, in 1802 (re- 
published in 1843 with commentaries). A 
Danish translation by Drabye was published 
in 1779-80; a German, by J. F. Schuler, in 
1776-8 ; and one by Garve by the end of 
the century. The Italian translation was 

Published in 1780; a Spanish translation in 
792, though it had been previously sup- 
?ressed in Spain by the inquisition ; and a 
>utch translation in 1796. An edition by 
W. Playfair, in 3 vols. 8vo, appeared in 1805; 
one by D. Buchanan, in 4 vols. 8vo, appeared 
in 1814. One by J. R. M'Culloch, in 4 vols. 
(1828), went through four editions, and was 
republished in 1 vol. in 1863 ; one (by E. G. 
Wakefield) appeared, in 4 vols., in 1835-9, 
one by Thorold Rogers, in 2 vols., in 1869, 
and one by J. T. Nicholson in 1884. 4. ' Es- 
says on Philosophical Subjects ' (with Dugald 
Stewart's ' Life ' prefixed), 1795, published 
by his executors. The first three are 
upon ' the principles which lead and direct 
philosophical inquiries,' as illustrated by 

the history of ' Astronomy,' of ' Ancient 
Physics,' and of ' Ancient Logic and Meta- 
physics.' The others are upon the i Nature 
of that Imitation which takes place in what 
are called the Imitative Arts;' upon the 
'Affinity between Music, Dancing, and 
Poetry; ' upon the ' Afcnity between certain 
English and Italian verses,' and ' Of the Ex- 
ternal Senses.' 5. 'Lectures on Justice, 
Police, Revenue, and Arms ... by Adam 
Smith . . . reported by a Student in 1793/ 
edited by Edwin Cannan, 1896. The ' Col- 
lected Works ' were published in 1812-11, 
5 vols. 8vo. 

[The Life of Adam Smith, by Mr. John Hae, 
1895, is an admirable and exhaustive account of 
all the known facts. Mr. Rae has examined the 
records and papers belonging to the universities 
of Glasgow and Edinburgh and the Royal So- 
ciety of Edinburgh. He has also exnmined 
manuscript sources of information in various 
places, and has collected all references in print. 
The chief original authority is the Life by Du- 
gald Stewart, read to the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh in 1793, prefixed to various editions of 
Smith's Works and in Stewart's Works, vol. x. ; 
the Life in W. Smellie's Literary and Cha- 
racteristical Lives (1800, pp. 211-97) is trifling; 
a later Life (by W. Playfair), prefixed to an 
edition of the Wealth of Nations in 1806, adds 
little; later Lives, by J. R. M'Culloch and 
Thorold Rogers, are prefixed to their editions of 
the same. See also Brougham's Philosophers of 
the Time of George III, pp. 166-289 ; Rogers's 
Historical Gleanings, 1869, pp. 95-137 ; McCosh's 
Scottish Philosophy, 1875, pp. 162-73 ; and 
Life by Mr. R. B. Haldane in Great Writers 
Series, 1887. Burton's Life of Hume gives 
much interesting information. Various anec- 
dotes and references are in A. Carlyle's Auto- 
biography, pp. 297-81 ; Ty tier's Life of Karnes, 
i. 233, 266-71 ; Dalzel's University of Edin- 
burgh, 1862, i. 21, 42, 63, 84 ; Sir John Sinclair's 
Life (i. 36-43), and Correspondence (i. 387-90) ; 
Caldwell Papers (Maitland Club, 1854), ii. i. 
131, 190; Duncan's Notes and Documents 
(Maitland Club), pp. 16, 25, 132; Strang's 
Glasgow and its Clubs, 1857, pp. 17, 21, 28; 
Clayden's Early Life of Samuel Rogers, pp. 92, 
110, 167; Windham's Diary, pp. 59, 63; Arch- 
deacon Sinclair '8 Old Times and Distant Places, 
pp. 9, &c. ; Walter Scott's Miscell. Works, 1834, 
xix. 339-42 (review of John Home) ; Thomson's 
Life of Cullen, 1859, i. Jl, 273; Faujas St. 
Fond's Voyage ... en Ecosse . . .,' 1797, ii. 
277, &c. ; Morellet's Memoires, 1821, i. 136-8 ; 
J. A. Farrer's Adam Smith (1881), in the Eng- 
lish Philosopher Series, is an account of the' 
Moral Sentiments.] L. S. 

1860), author and lecturer, son of Richard 
Smith, surgeon, who died on 12 Feb. 1857, 
aged 78, was born at Chertsey, Surrey, on 




24 May 1816, and was educated at Mer- 
chant Taylors' school from November 1826 
to 1831. At an early age he studied at the 
Middlesex Hospital, and in 1838 he became 
a licentiate of the Society of Apothecaries 
and a member of the College of Surgeons. 
Late in 1838 he joined his father in practice 
at Chertsey. On 4 Jan. 1840 he commenced 
contributing to the 'Medical Times' 'The 
Confessions of Jasper Buddie, a Dissecting 
Room Porter,' a series of articles signed 
' Rocket/ 

In 1841 he settled at 14 Percy Street, 
Tottenham Court Road, London, with a view 
to medical practice, from which, however, 
he was soon diverted by his literary preoccu- 
pations. As an author he showed excep- 
tional versatility in turning to account his 
powers of humorous observation. In March 
1841 he published in Bentley's ' Miscellany ' 
(pp. 357-81) 'A Rencontre with the Brigands/ 
To ' Punch ' he was an early contributor, send- 
ing articles entitled ' Physiology of the Lon- 
don Medical Student* (2 Oct. 1841) and the 
'Physiology of London Evening Parties ' 
(1 Jan. 1842). His first drama, ' Blanche 
Heriot/ was produced at the Surrey Theatre 
on 26 Sept. 1842. He soon after commenced 
in ' Bentley ' (1842, xii. 217 et seq.) the best 
of his novels, ' The Adventures of Mr. Led- 
bury.' Between 1844 and 1846 he wrote, 
in conjunction with others, several extrava- 
ganzas for the Lyceum Theatre, the series 
including 'Aladdin/ August 1844; 'Valen- 
tine and Orson/ Christmas 1844; ' Whit ting- 
ton and his Cat/ Easter 1845; all of which, 
owing mainly to the acting of Mr. and Mrs. 
Keeley, were very successful ( Era Almanack, 
1875, p. 6). He also adapted for the same 
house ' The Cricket on the Hearth/ December 
1845, and the ' Battle of Life/ 21 Dec. 1846. 
For the Adeiphi he wrote ' Esmeralda,' a bur- 
lesque, 3 June 1850, and for the Princess's 
' The Alhambra/ an extravaganza, 21 April 
1851. During the same period he acted as 
dramatic critic of the 'Illustrated London 
News/ edited 'Puck' (1844), wrote many 
popular songs for John Orlando Parry, and 
brought out ' Christopher Tadpole ' as a 
monthly shilling serial (1848). 

In 1847 he proposed to David Bogue, the 
publisher, to write a series of social natural 
histories, to be published at a shilling each, 
after the style of the Paris Physiologies. The 
series was started with ' The Natural History 
of the Gent/ and the success of this brochure 
was very great, the edition of two thousand 
being sold in one day. 

In 1847, in conjunction with Angus Be- 
thune Reach [q. v.J, Smith brought out a six- 
penny monthly called ' The Man in the Moon/ 

with which he was connected until 1849. 
In the same year he edited ' Gavarui in Lon- 
don ' (republished as ' Sketches of London 
Life and Character/ 1859). In 1850 he edited 
from April to August five numbers of the 
' Town and Country Miscellany,' and from 
July to December 1851, 'The Month/ with 
Leech's illustrations. 

Meanwhile Smith had found a new voca- 
tion. In 1849 he went on a tour to Constan- 
tinople and the East. On his return in 1850 
he published ' A Month at Constantinople/ 
Shortly afterwards he made his first appear- 
ance before the public at Willis's Rooms, on 
28 May 1860, in an entertainment written 
by himself, called'The Overland Mail' (Illus- 
trated London News, 1850, xvi. 413). On 
12 Aug. 1851 he made an ascent of Mont 
Blanc, and on 15 March 1852 (ib. 1852, xx. 
243-4, 291-2, xxi. 665) produced at the Egyp- 
tian Hall in Piccadilly an entertainment 
descriptive of the ascent and of Anglo-con- 
tinental life, which became the most popular 
exhibition of the kind ever known (Black- 
wood's Mag. 1862, lxxi. 35-55, 603). From 
that time until 6 July 1 858 he continued at the 
Egyptian Hall his career of success as a public 
entertainer, giving various new sketches of 
character ana illustrations by William Bever- 
ley, but always keeping Mont Blanc as the 
central point of attraction. On 24 Aug. 1854 
he gave nis performance before the queen and 
the prince consort at Osborne House. 

In July 1858 he started for Hong Kong, 
and on his return published ' To China and 
Back/ 1869. On 22 Dec. 1868 he commenced 
a new entertainment under the title of 
' China,' which was also very popular. His 
last appearance at the Egyptian Hall was on 
Saturday, 19 May; he died of bronchitis at 
North End Lodge, Fulham, on 23 May 1860, 
and was buried in Brompton cemetery on 
26 May. He married, on 1 Aug. 1859, Mary 
Lucy, who had been an actress, and was 
elder daughter of Robert Keelev, the come- 
dian. She died on 19 March 1870. 

A lithograph of Smith at Chamonix, by 
C. Bougmet, belongs to Mr. Ashby-Sterry. 

Smith's novels are still popular. They 
are: 1. 'The Wassail Bowl/ 1843, 2 vols. 
2. ' The Adventures of Mr. Ledbury and his 
Friend Jack Johnson/ 1844, 3 vols. 3. 'The 
Adventures of Jack Holyday, with something 
about his Sister/ 1844. 4. ' The Fortunes 
of the Scattergood Family/ 1845, 3 vols. 

5. ' The Marchioness of Brinvilliers/ 1846. 

6. ' The Struggles and Adventures of Chris- 
topher Tadpole at Home and Abroad/ 1848. 

7. 'The Pottleton Legacy : a Story of Town 
and Country Life/ 1849. 8. ' Wild Oats and 
Dead Leaves/ 1860. 




Smith's satiric essays, which were illus- 
trated by John Leech, Crowquill, Kenny 
Meadows, Gavarni, and H. K. Browne, were 
published in successive volumes bearing the 
titles : ' Beauty and the Beast/ 1843 ; * The 
Physiology of Evening Parties/ 1843; 'The 
Natural History of the Gent/ 1847 ; ' The 
Natural History of the Ballet Girl/ 1847; 
'The Natural History of Stuck-up People/ 
1847; 'The Natural History of the Idler 
upon Town/ 1848 ; « The Natural History of 
the Flirt/ 1848 ; ' A Bowl of Punch/ 1848 ; 
' Comic Sketches/ 1848 ; « A Pottle of Straw- 
berries/ 1848; ' The Miscellany, a Book for 
the Field and Fireside/ 1850 ; ' Comic Tales 
and Sketches/ 1852; 'Picture of Life at 
Home and Abroad/ 1852; 'The English 
Hotel Nuisance/ 1855; 'Sketches of the 
Day/ 1856, two series, consisting of pirated 
reprints of ' The Flirt/ &c. ; ' The London 
Medical Student, 1861, edited by Arthur 
Smith. He also wrote: 'A Handbook of 
Mr. Albert Smith's Ascent of Mont Blanc/ 
1852, four editions, and edited 'The Mont 
Blanc Gazette/ 1858. 

Abthur W. W. Smith (1825-1861), 
brother of the above, was born at Chertsey 
in 1825, and educated for the medical pro- 
fession. "With talents which might have 
qualified him for attaining high honours in 
science and literature, he devoted himself to 
the interests of his brother. Besides having 
the entire management of the entertainments 
at the Egvptian Hall from 1852 to 1860, he 
had confided to him by Charles Dickens the 
direction and arrangement of his readings 
in 1858 ; he also planned the second series 
of readings in 1861, but lived to attend only 
the first six in St. James's Hall. Dickens 
said of him, 'Arthur Smith was always every- 
where, but his successor is only somewhere ' 
g^ORSTEB, C. Dickens, 1874, iii. 145,548). 
e was one of the committee of the Thames 
Fisheries Protection Society, and in 1861 
wrote for it a brochure called ' The Thames 
Angler.' He edited the ' London Medical 
Student ' in 1861, and contemplated issuing 
a collected edition of his brother's writings. 
He died at 24 Wilton Street, Belgrave Square, 
London, on 1 Oct. 1861, and was buried in 
Brompton cemetery {Era, 6 Oct. 1861, p. 9; 
Blanchabd, Life, 1891, pp. 73, 261). 

[Mont Blanc, 1860, with a Memoir by E. 
Yates, pp. vii-xxxvi ; Illustrated Times, 8 Dec. 
1855, pp. 437-8, with portrait; Illustrated 
Loudon News, 1844 iv. 389 with portrait, 1853 
xxii. 493 with portrait, 1860 xxxvi. 516, 534 
with portrait ; Illustrated News of the World, 
1858, vol. i. portrait xxi. ; Era, 27 May 1860, 
pp. 9, 10, 10 June p. 10 ; Lancet, 1860, i. 535 ; 
Drawing-room Portrait Gallery, 1st ser. 1859, 

portrait xxxv. ; Lennox's Celebrities I have 
known, 2nd ser. 1877, ". 5-20; Hodder's Me- 
mories of my Time, 1870, pp. 87-97 ; Yates's 
Keco'lections, 1885, pp. 151-68; Reynolds's 
Miscellany, 1853, x. 276-7, with portrait; 
Bianchard's Life, 1891, pp. 31, 728; Slater's 
Rare Editions, 1894, pp. 260-8; Goodman's The 
Keeleys, 1895, pp. 193, 224-34, 342-5, with por- 
traits of A. R. Smith and bis wife ; Spielmann's 
History of Punch, 1895, pp. 49, 591; Fort- 
nightly Review, May 1886, pp. 636-42; Lon- 
don Sketch Book, January 1874, pp. 3-6, with 
view of the Egyptian Hall, and Cuthbert Bede's 
Twelfth Night characters there at Christmas, 
1855 ; see also Mr. Hardup's Ascent of the Mont 
dePiete, by Albert Smiff, in Yates and Brough's 
Our Miscellany, 1857, pp. 157-68.] G. C. B. 

SMITH, ALEXANDER (fl. 1714-1726), 
biographer of highwaymen, called himself 

1 Captain Smith/ but is known exclusively 
for the compilations executed for the book- 
sellers during the reign of George I, which 
suggest that he was better known as a fre- 
quenter of police-courts and taverns than in 
military circles. It is not improbable that 
his industry was stimulated by the success 
obtained by Theophilus Lucas [q. v.] from 
his ' Lives of the Gamesters/ published in 
1714. The works issued in Captain Alex- 
ander Smith's name were: 1. * A Complete 
History of the Lives and Robberies of the 
most notorious Highwaymen, Footpads, 
Shoplifts, and Cheats of both Sexes in and 
about London and Westminster' (2nd edit. 
London, 1714, 12mo, supplementary volume, 
1720, 12mo ; another edit., 2 vols. 1719, 12mo ; 
1719-20, 8 vols. 12mo) ; this curious work, 
which commands a high price, commences 
with a humorous account of Sir John Falstaff, 
and gives details, frequently no less mythical, 
about the Golden Farmer, Nevison, Duval, 
Moll Cutpurse, and a score of other notorious 
persons. The supplement of 1720 includes 
a * Thieves' Grammar.' 2. ' Secret History 
of the Lives of the most celebrated Beauties, 
Ladies of Quality, and Jilts, from Fair Rosa- 
mond down to this Time, ' London, 1716, 

2 vols. 12mo. 3. ' Court of Venus, or Cupid 
restored to Sight,' London, 1716, 2 vols. 
12mo. 4. ' Thieves' New Canting Dictionary 
of the Words, Proverbs, Terms, and Phrases 
used in the Language of Thieves,' London, 
1719, 12mo. 5. ' The Comical and Tragical 
History of the Lives and Adventures oi the 
most noted Bayliffs in and about London 
and Westminster. . . disco verinff their strata- 
gems and tricks, wherein the wnole Art and 
Mistery of Bumming is fully exposed,' Lon- 
don, 1723, 8 vo ; 3rd edit. 1723. This shilling 
brochure had a great sale, mainly on account 
of the extreme coarseness of the drolleries, 




-which reaches its climax in the account of 
the indignities inflicted upon a bailiff caught 
within the liberties of the Mint (this is 
effectively utilised in the opening chapters of 
Ainsworth's ' Jack Sheppard'). 7. ' Memoirs 
of the Life and Times of the famous Jonathan 
"Wild, together with the Lives of modern 
Rogues. . .that have been executed since 
his death,' London, 1726, 12mo (with cuts). 
8. ' Court Intrigue, or an Account of the 
Secret Memoirs of the British Nobility and 
others/ London, 1730, 12mo. 

[Smith's Works in British Museum Library; 
Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn), p. 2417; Watt's 
Bibliotheca Britaonica; Allibone'sDict.of Engl. 
Lit.] T. S. 

1766), Roman catholic prelate, born at Focha- 
bers, Morayshire, in 1684, was admitted into 
the Scots College at Paris in 1698. He re- 
turned to Scotland in deacon's orders in 1709, 
but was not ordained priest till 1712. From 
1718 to 1730 he was procurator of the Scots 
College at Paris. In 1735 he was consecrated 
bishop of Mosinopolis in partibus infidclium, 
and appointed coadjutor to Bishop James 
Gordon, vicar-apostolic of the Lowland dis- 
trict, on whose death in 1746 he succeeded 
to the vicariate. He died at Edinburgh on 
21 Aug. 1766. 

He published two catechisms for the use 
of the catholics of Scotland. These received 
the formal approbation of the holy office on 
20 March 1749-60. 

[London and Dublin Weekly Orthodox Journal, 
1837, iv. 84; Stothert's Catholic Mission in 
Scotland, p. 9 ; Brady's Episcopal Succession, 
in. 459.] T. C. 

SMITH; ALEXANDER (1760P-1829), 
seaman, mutineer, and settler. [See Adams, 

SMITH, ALEXANDER (1830-1867), 
Scottish poet, was the son of Peter Smith, a 
lace-pattern designer in Kilmarnock, where 
he was born on 31 Dec. 1830 (Notes and 
Queries, 8th ser. xii. 311). His mother, 
whose name was Helen Murray, was of good 
highland lineage. In his childhood the family 
removed to Paisley, and thence to Glasgow. 
After a good general education, and some 
hesitation as to whether he should not study 
for the church, Smith learned pattern-design- 
ing, at which he worked both in Glasgow 
and Paisley. His literary tastes quickly 
developed ; his mind was usually busy with 
verse, and he proved apparently an indifferent 
designer of lace patterns. Some of his most 
intelligent Glasgow friends reckoned him also 
but a sorry poet, in spite of the distinction 

he gained in the local debating club, the 
Addisonian Society ; and it was only after 
he had submitted some of his work to George 
Gil 61 Ian [q. v.] that his characteristic indi- 
viduality came to be recognised. Through 
Gilfillan's instrumentality specimens of his 
verse appeared in 1861-2 in the 'Critic' and 
the ' Eclectic Review.' From the first his 
work was the subject of keen controversy, 
and the appearance of his ' Life Drama ' in 
1863 provoked a literary warfare. Re- 
ceiving 100/. for his book, Smith deserted 
pattern-designing, and visited London with 
his friend John Nichol, afterwards professor 
of English literature at Glasgow. Passing 
south they saw Miss Martineau at Ambleside, 
and Mr. P. J. Bailey at Nottingham. In Lon- 
don they made the acquaintance of Arthur 
Helps, G. H. Lewes (who strenuously up- 
held Smith's work in the ' Leader '), and 
other persons of note. Returning, Smith was 
for a week the guest of the Duke of Argyll 
at Inverary. Here he met Lord Duffer in, 
whom he subsequently visited in Ireland. 
After editing for a short time the ' Glasgow 
Miscellany' and doing other journalistic and 
literary work in Glasgow, he was appointed 
in 1864 secretary to Edinburgh University. 
Smith's official work occupied him daily 
from ten to four, and he gave his evenings 
to literature and society. He was perhaps 
the founder — he was at least a member— of 
the Raleigh Club, at which on occasional 
evenings men of letters and artists smoked 
together. His salary of 150/. as university 
secretary was increased to 200/. on his under- 
taking the additional duties of registrar and 
secretary to the university council. In the 
winter of 1864 he made the acquaintance of 
Sydney Dobell, then sojourning in Edinburgh, 
and they collaborated in a series of sonnets 
on the Crimean war. This co-operation em- 
phasised the attitude of both writers, whose 
style as ' spasmodic ' poets had just been cari- 
catured in ' Blackwood's Magazine ' for Mav 
1864. After his marriage in 1857 Smith 
passed his summer holidays in Skye,his wife's 
home. Skye influenced the literary produc- 
tion of his best days. Meanwhile his official 
and literary work went on, and as family de- 
mands increased he found prose more readily 
profitable than verse, and contributed to 
newspapers, magazines, and encyclopedias. 
Incessant labour overtaxed his strength. He 
became seriously ill in the late autumn of 
1866, and he died on 6 Jan. 1867 at Wardie, 
near Granton, Midlothian ; he was buried in 
Warriston cemetery, Edinburgh. His friends 
erected over his grave an Iona cross, having 
in the centre a bronze medallion with profile 
by the sculptor Brodie. 


Smith married, in 1867, Flora Macdonald, 
of the same lineage as her famous namesake, 
and daughter of Mr. Macdonald of Ord in 
Skye. His wife, with a family, survived him. 
His eldest daughter, gracefully introduced 
into his Skye lyric, ' Blaavin/died two months 
after him. 

The ' Life Drama and other Poems/ pub- 
lished in 1853, reached a second edition 
that year, and passed into a third in 1854, 
and into a fourth in 1855. Marked by 
youthful inexperience, and extravagant in 
form and imagery, the poems (especially the 
title-piece) abound in strong gnomic lines and 
display fine imaginative power. In April 
1853 J ohn Forster elaborately reviewed the 
book in the ' Examiner/ prompting Mat- 
thew Arnold's opinion that Smith ' has cer- 
tainly an extraordinary faculty, although I 
think that he is a phenomenon of a very 
dubious character ' (Arnold, letters, i. 29). 
4 The latest disciple of the school of Keats/ 
Clough called him in the ' North American 
Review ' for July 1853. * The poems/ said the 
critic, ' have something substantive and life- 
like, immediate and first-hand about them ' 
(CLOireH, Prose Remains, p. 368). The lead- 
ing periodicals of the time were agreed as to 
the striking character of the poems, but they 
differed regarding their absolute merits. In 
May 1854 an ostensible review of a forth- 
coming volume to be entitled ' Firmilian ' 
aroused attention and curiosity in ' Black- 
wood/ and in the course of the year there 
was published ' Firmilian, or the Student of 
Badajoz : a Spasmodic Tragedy, by P. Percy 
Jones.' It was so good that Mr. Jones was at 
first accepted as a new bard, but it presently 
appeared that the work was an elaborate jest 
by Professor Aytoun, who satirised in ' Fir- 
milian ' the extravagances of Mr. P. J. Bailey, 
Dobell, and Alexander Smith. ' Spasmodic ' 
was so happily descriptive of the peculiarities 
ridiculed that it instantly attained standard 
value (Sir Theodore Martin, Memoir of 
Aytoun, p. 146). 

' Sonnets on the Crimean War/ bv Smith 
and Dobell, appeared in 1856. They are 
forgotten. As a sonneteer, while he was 
thoughtful and readable, Smith lacks fluency 
and harmony of movement. In 1857 he 
issued * City Poems/ in which he touches a 
high level with < Glasgow/ < The Boy's Poem/ 
and especially ' Squire Maurice/ probably his 
most compact and impressive achievement in 
verse. The * Athenaeum/ No. 1056 (December 
1857), found evidence in the ' City Poems' 
of 'mutilated property of the bards/ and 
there arose a sharp discussion over charges of 
plagiarism freely laid against Smith. Even 
4 Punch ' (probably by the hand of Shirley 



Brooks) was stirred to active interference, 
and entered for the defence. The charge was 
at once as valid and as futile as a similar accu- 
sation would be against Milton, for example, 
and Gray, and Burns. The question is dis- 
cussed with adequate fulness in an appendix 
to ' Last Leaves/ a posthumous volume of 
Smith's miscellanies, edited with memoir by 
his friend, P. P. Alexander. In ' Edwin of 
Deira ' (Cambridge and London, 1861, 8vo), 
Smith writes an attractive and spirited poem, 
exhibiting commendable self-restraint and a 
chastened method. Unfortunately, the poem 
challenged attention almost simultaneously 
with Tennyson's ' Idylls of the King/ and it 
is surprising that, under such a disadvantage, 
it reached a second edition in a few months. 
Still, Smith did not escape the old charge 
of plagiarism and imitation. He was even 
blamed for utilising Tennyson's latest work, 
though his poem was mainly, if not en- 
tirely, written before the ' Idylls ' appeared 
(Alexander, Memoir, p. lxxxii). Envious 
comparisons thus instituted were inevitably 
detrimental, and a fine poem has probably 
never received its due. 

Smith wrote the life of Cowper for the 
eighth edition of the ' Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica/ 1854. To a volume of ' Edinburgh 
Essays/ 1857, he contributed a sympathetic 
and discriminating article on ' Scottish Bal- 
lads ' (republished in * Last Leaves '). This 
essay Thomas Spencer Baynes characterised 
at the time as ' beautiful/ adding, ' His prose 
is quite peculiar for its condensed poetic 
strength' (Table Talk of Shirley, p. 63). 
Although Aytoun enjoyed the fun of ridi- 
culing the excesses of the ' Spasmodic School/ 
he had (like Blackie and the other univer- 
sity professors) a real admiration for Smith, 
whose work he introduced to ' Blackwood.' 
Other outlets were also found — ' Macmillan/ 
the ' Museum/ Chambers's ' Encyclopaedia/ 
various newspapers — and in 1863 appeared 
' Dreamthorp : a Book of Essays written in 
the Country.' Occasionally florid in style, 
nor wholly destitute of trivial conceits, these 
essays embody some excellent descriptive and 
literary work. In 1865 he published 'A 
Summer in Skye/ a delightful holiday 
book, vivacious in narrative, bright and 
picturesque in description, and overflowing 
with individuality. Tor Messrs. Macmil- 
lan's 'Golden Treasury Series' he edited, 
in two volumes, in 1865, the * Poetical 
Works of Burns/ prefixing a memoir which 
is second only to Lockhart's in grasp and 
appreciative delineation. A graphic but 
somewhat unequal story of Scottish life, 
largely autobiographical, and entitled 'Alfred 
Hagart's Household/ with sequel, ' Miss Dona 




M'Quarrie/ was republished from 'Good 
Words,' in two volumes, 12mo, 1866, and 
8vo,1867. In 1866 he edited Howe's 'Golden 
Leaves from the American Poets/ In 1868 
appeared ' Last Leaves/ edited by Patrick 
Proctor Alexander. 

[Brisbane's Early Years of Alexander Smith, 
1869; Alexander's Memoir in Last Leaves; 
Memorial notice in Scotsman of 8 Jan. 1867 ; 
James Hannay's Reminiscences in Oassell's Mag. 
1867; Sheriff Nicolson's Memoir in Good 
Words, 1867 ; Gilfillan's Gallery of Literary 
Portraits, 3rd ser. ; Life and Letteis of Sydney 
Dobell ; Letters of Elizabeth Barrett Browning, 
ed. Kenyon, 1897, vol. ii.] T. B. 

SMITH, Sib ANDREW (1797-1872), 
director-general army medical department, 
the son of T. P. Smith of Heron Hall, Rox- 
burghshire, was born in 1797. He commenced 
the study of medicine with Mr. Graham, a 
surgeon in the county, with whom he served 
an apprenticeship of three years. He after- 
wards studied medicine at the university 
of Edinburgh, attending the Charles House 
Square Infirmary, the Royal Infirmary, and 
Lying-in Hospital. He graduated M.D. on 
1 Aug. 1819, taking as the subject of his 
thesis ' De variolis secundariis.' He entered 
the army as a hospital mate on 15 Aug. 1815. 
His intelligence and energy soon brought 
him into notice, and his rise was rapid. 
Becoming temporary hospital mate on 16 Auff. 
1815 and hospital assistant on 14 March 
1816, he went to the Cape in 1821 and re- 
mained there sixteen years, being promoted 
assistant surgeon 98th foot on 27 Oct. 1825, 
staff assistant surgeon on 23 Feb. 1826, and 
staff surgeon on 7 July 1837. In 1828, at 
the request of the government and com- 
mander-in-chief of the Cape, he reported on 
the bushmen, and in 1831 on the Amazooloo 
and on Port Natal. In 1834 he superintended 
an expedition for exploring Central Africa 
from tne Cape, fitted out by the Cape of Good 
Hope Association (expedition 1834-6), and 
was directed to negotiate treaties with the 
native chiefs beyond the northern boundary 
of the colony. For several years he per- 
formed the duties of director of the govern- 
ment civil museum at Cape Town without 
salary. He received the thanks of the home 
government for these services. His scientific 
researches in southern Africa he embodied in 
many able papers on the origin and history 
of Bushmen, and in his ' Illustrations of the 
Zoology of South Africa/ 1838-47,4to, 5vols. 
Some copious and valuable notes regarding 
the aborigines of South Africa and the diffe- 
rent Kaffir tribes have not been fully pub- 
lished. On all questions relating to South 
Africa he was regarded as an authority, and 

it was due to his representation and counsel 
that Natal became a colony of the British 

After returning to England in 1837 Smith 
acted as principal medical officer at Fort 
Pitt, Chatham. On 19 Dec. 1845 he was made 
deputy inspector-general, and in 1846, at the 
instance of Sir James McGrigor,the director- 
general of the army medical department, he 
was transferred to London as ' professional 
assistant/ He was promoted inspector-gene- 
ral on 7 Feb. 1851, and on 20 Feb. following, 
when Sir James retired, Smith was appointed 
by the Duke of Wellington his successor as 
inspector-general and superintendent of the 
army medical department. On 25 Feb. 1853 
he was nominated director-general of the 
army and ordnance medical departments. 
During the Crimean campaign he was accused 
of dereliction of duty in the press and else- 
where, and grave imputations were cast upon 
his department. The evidence and docu- 
ments laid before the Sebastopol and other 
committees did much to vindicate his reputa- 
tion as an administrator. He resigned his 
post as director-general, owing to impaired 
health, on 22 June 1858, and was on 9 July 
following created K.C.B. 

Smith was elected a fellow of theWernerian 
Society in 1819, an honorary fellow of the 
Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons of Glas- 
gow in 1855, of the College o? Surgeons of 
Edinburgh in 1856, of the fledico-Chirurgical 
Society of Aberdeen in 1855, and a doctor of 
medicine honoris causa of Trinity College, 
Dublin, in 1856. Acuteness of mind and 
varied accomplishments left their impress on 
every enterprise he embarked upon. He died 
on 12 Aug. 1872 at his residence in Alexander 
Square, firompton. His portrait in oils now 
hangs in the ante-room of the officers' mess, 
Netley, Hampshire. 

[Lancet, 1872 ; British Medical Journal, 1872 ; 
Medical Times and Gazette, 1872; Catalogue 
Brit. Mu8. Library; Royal Society's Cat. of 
Scientific Papers ; Army Lists : Record of ser- 
vices preserved at the War Office ; Men of the 
Reign ; Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit.] 

W. W. W. 

SMITH, ANKER (1759-1819), en- 
graver, was born in 1759 in Cheapside, 
London, where his father was a silk mer- 
chant. He is said to have owed his curious 
Christian name to the fact that he was' re- 
garded as the ' anchor ' or sole hope of his 
parents. He was educated at Merchant 
Taylors' school, and at first articled to an 
uncle named Hoole, a solicitor ; but, show- 
ing singular skill in making pen-and-ink 
copies of engravings, he was transferred to 
James Taylor, an engraver, with whom he re- 




mained until 1782. Subsequently he became 
an assistant to James Heath (1757-1834) 
[q. v.] In 1787 Smith obtained his first inde- 
pendent employment from John Bell (1745- 
1831) [q. v.], for whose series of 'British 
Poets' he engraved many of the illustra- 
tions. He became one of the ablest of Eng- 
lish line engravers, his small plates being 
specially distinguished for correctness of 
drawing and beauty of finish. Through his 
relative John Hoole [q. v.l, the translator, 
he became known to Alderman Boydell, 
who commissioned him to engrave North- 
cote's picture of the < Death of Wat Tyler; ' 
the print was published in 1796, and earned 
for him his election as an associate of the 
Royal Academy in the following year. In 
1798 he executed a large plate from Leo- 
nardo da Vinci's cartoon of the Holy Family 
in the possession of the academy. During 
the remainder of his life Smith was ex- 
tensively employed upon the illustrations 
to fine editions of standard works, such as 
Macklin's Bible, 1800; Boydell's 'Shake- 
speare' (the smaller series), 1802; Kears- 
ley's ' Shakespeare,' 1806 ; Bowyer's edition 
of Hume's ' History of England,' 1806 ; and 
Sharpe's 'British Classics.' He engraved 
many of R. Smirke's designs for the 
'Arabian Nights,' 1802; 'Gil Bias,' 1809; 
and 'Don Quixote,' 1818; and was one of 
the artists employed upon the official publi- 
cation, 'Ancient Marbles in the British 
Museum.' His latest work was a large 
plate from Heaphy's picture, 'The Duke of 
Wellington giving Orders to his Generals, 
which he did not live to complete. He 
died of apoplexy on 23 June 1819. Smith 
married in 1791, and left a widow, one 
daughter, and four sons ; two of the latter 
are noticed below. His sister Maria, who 
was an artist, and exhibited portraits be- 
tween 1791 and 1814, married W illiam Ross, 
a miniature-painter, and was the mother of 
Sir William Charles Ross [q. v.] 

Frederick William Smith (d. 183o), 
sculptor, second son of Anker Smith, was 
born at Pimlico, London. He studied at 
the Royal Academy, and was the first pupil 
of Sir Francis Legatt Chantrey [q. v. J He 
began to exhibit in 1818, sending a bust of 
his father, and in 1821 gained the academy 
jrold medal with a group of Hsemon and An- 
tigone ; in 1824 he exhibited a beautiful 
group of a mother and child from the ' Mur- 
der of the Innocents,' and he also modelled 
some excellent busts of Chantrey, Brunei, 
Allan Cunningham, and others, appearing 
at the academy for the last time in 1828. 
Smith was a sculptor of great talent and 
promise, but died prematurely at Shrews- 

bury on 18 Jan. 1835 (Gent. Mag. 1855, i. 

His younger brother, Hbbbebt Luther 
Smith (1811-1870), was a painter of scrip- 
tural and historical subjects, exhibiting at 
the Royal Academy and British Institution 
from 1830 to 1854 ; later he was employed as 
a copyist by the queen. He died on 13 March 

[Redgrave's Diet, of British Artists ; Sandby's 
History of the Royal Academy; Knight's 
Cyclopaedia of Biography ; Dodd's manuscript 
Hist, of Engravers in Brit. Mus. (Addit. MS. 
33405) ; Athenaeum, 1835, p. 75.] F. M. O'D. 

SMITH, AQUILLA, M.D. (1806-1890), 
Irish antiquary, born at Nenagh, co. Tip- 
perary, on 28 April 1806, was the youngest 
child of William Smith of that town, and 
of Catherine Doolan, his wife. He received 
his education first at private schools in 
Dublin, and afterwards at Trinity College. 
He embraced the medical profession, in 
which his career was distinguished. He 
received the degree of M.D. honoris causa 
from his university in 1839, was king's pro- 
fessor of materia medica and pharmacy in the 
school of physic from 1864 to 1881, and from 
1851 to 1890 represented the Irish College 
of Physicians on the council of medical edu- 

Smith was an active member of the Royal 
Irish Academy from 1835 until his death in 
1890, and was reckoned in his lifetime the 
best authority on Irish coins, of which he was 
a large collector. At his death his collection 
of Irish coins and tokens was acquired by the 
academy for 350/. The Numismatic Society 
acknowledged his services by conferring its 
medal upon him in 1884. Smith was a copious 
writer on antiquarian subjects, mainly numis- 
matics. His more important contributions to 
the department of arcneeology were published 
in the * Transactions and Proceedings of the 
Royal Irish Academy/ 1839-53; ' Trans- 
actions of the Kilkenny Archaeological So- 
ciety/ 1852-63; the ' Numismatic Chronicle,' 
1863-83, and by the Irish Archaeological 
Society. Of his papers on medical topics, 
the most valuable is his account of the 
' Origin and Early History of the College of 
Physicians in Ireland/ published in the 
' Journal of Medical Science ' (vol. xix.) 

[Memoir by J. W. M., privately published ; 
private information.] C. L. F. 

SMITH, ARCHIBALD (1813-1872), 
mathematician, born on 10 Aug. 1813 at 
Greenhead, Glasgow, was the only son of 
James Smith (1782-1867) [q. v.], merchant, 
of Glasgow, by his wife Mary, daughter of 
Alexander Wilson, professor of astronomy 




in Glasgow University. Archibald entered 
Glasgo wUni versity in 1828, and distinguished 
himself in classics, mathematics, and physics. 
He proceeded to Trinity College, Cambridge, 
whence he graduated B.A. in 1836 and 
M.A. in 1839. In 1836 he was senior 
wrangler and first Smith's prizeman, and 
was elected a fellow of Trinity College. He 
entered the society of Lincoln's Inn, and was 
called to the bar in Hilary term 1841. He 
practised for many years as an equity 
draughtsman in Stone Buildings, Lincoln's 
Inn, and became an eminent real-property 
lawyer. While still an undergraduate Smith 
communicated to the Cambridge Philoso- 
phical Society a paper on Fresnel's wave- 
surface, in which he deduced its algebraical 
equations by the symmetrical method, one 
01 the first instances of its employment in 
analytical geometry in England. In No- 
vember 1837, in conjunction with Duncan 
Farquhareon Gregory [q. v.], he founded the 
Cambridge ' Mathematical Journal.' Be- 
tween 1842 and 1847 Smith, at the request 
of General Sir Edward Sabine [q. v.], deduced 
from Poisson's general equation practical for- 
mulae for the correction of observations made 
on board ship, which Sabine published in the 
' Transactions ' of the Royal Society. In 186 1 
he deduced convenient tabular forms from the 
formula, and in 1859 he edited the ' Journal 
of a Voyage to Australia,' by William Scoresby 
the younger [q. v.], giving in the introduction 
an exact formula for the effect of the iron of 
a ship on the compass. In 1862, in conjunc- 
tion with Sir Frederick John Owen Evans 
Sq. v.], he published an ' Admiralty Manual 
or ascertaining and applying the Devia- 
tions of the Compass caused by the Iron in a 
Ship ' (London, 8vo). This work was trans- 
lated into French, German, Russian, and 
Spanish. In recognition of his services 
Smith received the honorary degree of LL.D. 
from the university of Glasgow in 1864, and 
in the following year was awarded a gold 
medal by the Royal Society, of which he had 
been elected a fellow on 5 June 1866. In 
1872 he received a grant of 2,000/. from 
government. In addition he was elected a 
corresponding member of the scientific com- 
mittee of the imperial Russian navy. Smith 
died in London on 26 Dec. 1872. In 1863 
he married Susan Emma, daughter of Sir 
James Parker of Rothley Temple, Leicester- 
shire. By her he had six sons and two daugh- 
ters. His eldest son, James Parker Smith, is 
M.P. for the Partick division of Lanarkshire. 
A portrait is prefixed to the Russian edition 
of the ' Manual on the Deviation of the Com- 
Besides the works mentioned, Smith was 


the author of: 1. ' Supplement to the Rules 
for ascertaining the Deviations of the Compass 
caused by the Ship's Iron,' London, 1865, 
8vo. 2. ' A Graphic Method of correcting 
the Deviations of a Ship's Compass,' London, 

1865, 8vo. 

[Proceedings of the Royal Society, vol. xxii. 
App. pp. i-xxiv ; biographical sketch prefixed to 
the Russian edition of Smith's Manual on the 
Deviation of the Compass, St. Petersburg, 1865 ; 
Ward's Men of the Reign; Irving's Book of 
Scotsmen; Law Times, 11 Jan. 1873; Gent. 
Mag. 1867, i. 393 ; Burke's Landed Gentry, 8th 
edit ; Luard's Grad. Cantabr.] E. I. C. 

1872), lessee of the Scilly Islands, was son of 
James Smith (b. 1768, d. at Ashlvn Hall, 
Hertfordshire, on 16 Feb. 1843)," by his 
second wife, Mary Isabella (b. 1784, d. 
Paris, 14 Feb. 1823), eldest daughter of 
Augustus Pecheli of Great Berkhamstead. 
He was born in Harley Street, London, on 
16 Sept. 1804, entered at Harrow school 
about 1814, and matriculated from Christ's 
Church, Oxford, on 23 April 1822, graduat- 
ing B.A. on 23 Feb. 1826. By inheritance 
he was the owner of considerable property 
in Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire, and 
he obtained a lease under the crown for 
ninety-nine years, contingent on three lives, 
from 10 Oct. 1834, of the Scilly Islands. For 
this lease he paid a fine of 20,000/., and 
undertook the payment of an annual rent of 
40/. and of some stipends. 

Very early in lite Smith interested him- 
self in the working of the poor laws, and 
advocated a system of national education on 
a broad basis. After the passing of the Re- 
form Bill in 1832, when three members 
were assigned to Hertfordshire, he was 
asked to stand for that constituency, but de- 
clined the request. He published in 1836 
an 'Apology for Parochial Education on 
Comprehensive Principles ' as illustrated in 
the school of industry at Great Berkham- 
stead, in which he anticipated the adoption 
of a conscience clause, and in 1841, after 
having actively promoted for four years a 
suit in chancery, he obtained the reopening 
of the free grammar school at Great Berk- 
hamstead. When the second Earl Brownlow 
enclosed with strong iron fences about a third 
of the common land of that parish which was 
in front of the earl's seat, Ashridge Park, 
Smith engaged a band of navvies from Lon- 
don who pulled the fences down. This inci- 
dent attracted much attention at the time, 
and was the subject of a poem ('A Lay of 
Modern England ') in ' Punch ' for 24 March 

1866. He vindicated his opposition to the 
enclosure in ' Berkhamstead Common : State* 




ment by Augustus Smith,' 1866. In 1870 
he obtained an injunction against any future 
enclosure of the common. From 1868 to 
1872 he was engaged in controversy with 
the board of trade and Trinity House on 
lightships and pilotage. 

Smith's action at Scilly, though despotic 
in character, was attended by beneficent 
results. The church at St. Mary's, the 
principal island, was completed at his ex- 
pense, and when that at St. Martin's was 
nearly destroyed by lightning in 1866, it 
was rebuilt mainly at his cost. He built a 
pier at Hugh Town in St. Mary's, and con- 
structed for his own habitation the house of 
Tresco Abbey, with its grounds and fish- 
ponds. His 'red geranium beds' are de- 
scribed as ' a fine blaze of colour a mile oft* 
at sea ' (Mortimer Collins, Princess Clarice, 
i. 97). He consolidated the farm-holdings 
and rebuilt the homesteads, but would not 
allow the admittance of a second family in 
any dwelling ; he weeded out the idle, and 
stringently enforced education. These im- 
provements cost 80,000/., and during the 
first twelve years of his term absorbed the 
whole of the revenue. They were set out 
by him in a tract entitled ' Thirteen Years' 
Stewardship of the Isles of Scilly,' 1848, 
and were described by J. A. Froude in his 
address at the Philosophical Institution at 
Edinburgh on 6 Nov. 1876 ' On the Uses of 
a Landed Gentry ' (Short Studies on Great 
Subject*, 3rd ser. p. 275). 

Smith contested in 1852, in the liberal 
interest, the borough of Truro in Cornwall, 
but was defeated by eight votes. In 1857 
he was returned without a contest, and he 
represented the constituency until 1865, by 
which time his views had been modified. 
He was president of the Royal Geological 
Society of Cornwall at Penzance from 1858 
to 1864, and he held the presidency of the 
Royal Institution of Cornwall at Truro from 
November 1863 to November 1865. His ad- 
dresses and papers for these societies are 
specified in the ' Bibliotheca Cornubiensis.' 
As provincial grandmaster for the freemasons 
of Cornwall from July 1863, he promoted 
the establishment of a county fund for aged 
and infirm freemasons. After a severe illness 
he died at the Duke of Cornwall hotel, Ply- 
mouth, on 31 July 1872, and was buried in 
the churchyard of St. Buryan, Cornwall, on 
6 Aug. His will and seven codicils were 
proved in March 1873, and the lesseeship 
in the Scilly Isles was left to his nephew, 
Thomas Algernon Smith-Dorrien-Smith. A 
statue of him stands on the hill above Tresco 

Smith compiled a 'True and Faithful 

History of the Family of Smith ' from Not- 
tinghamshire, which was printed in 1861. 
He explained his views on parliamentary 
reform in ' Constitutional Reflections on the 
present Aspects of Parliamentary Govern- 
ment,' 1866. 

[Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. n. 660- 
661, 671, Hi. 992, 1004, 1337; Boase's Col- 
lectanea Coroub. pp.905, 1463; Parochial Hist, 
of Cornwall, iv. 342-8; Illustrated London 
News, lxii. 318; Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Free- 
mason, v. 477, 489-90.] W. P. C. 

SMITH, BENJAMIN (d. 1833), en- 
graver, was a pupil of Francesco Bartolozzi 
[q. v.], and practised wholly in the dot or 
stipple manner. For some years he was 
largely employed by the Boydells, for whom 
all his important plates were executed; 
these include ^ve after Romney, T. Banks, 
and M. Browne, for the large ' Shakespeare ' 
series; Sigismunda after Hogarth, 1795; the 
portrait of Hogarth with his dog Trump, 
1795; portrait of Lord Cornwallis, after 
Copley, 1798; portrait of George III, after 
Beechey (frontispiece to BoydelTs ' Shake- 
speare ; ' portrait of Napoleon, after Appiani ; 
'The Ceremony of administering the Oath to 
Alderman Newnham at the Guildhall/ after 
W. Miller, 1801 ; and several allegorical and 
biblical subjects after John Francis Rigaud 
[q. v.J and Benjamin West [q. v.] Among 
Smith's smaller plates, some of which he pub- 
lished himself, are portraits of Lord Charle- 
mont ; Barrymore and William Smith, the 
actors ; and Charles and Anne Dibdin. His 
latest work, 'Christ and his Disciples at 
Emmaus,' after Guercino, is dated 1825. He 
died in very reduced circumstances in Judd 
Place, London, in 1833. Among his pupils 
were William Holl the elder fq. v.], Henry 
Meyer [q. v.], and Thomas Uwins [q. v.] A 
watercolour portrait of Smith is in the print- 
room of the British Museum. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists.] F. M. O'D. 

SMITH, formerly Schmidt, BERNARD 
(1630P-1708), called 'Father Smith/ organ- 
builder, born about 1630 in Germany, pro- 
bably learnt his art from Christian former 
of Wettin, near Halle (Rimbatjlt). Accom- 
panied by his nephews, Smith settled in Eng- 
land in response to the encouragement held 
out to foreigners to revive organ-building in 
this country. Upon his arrival Smith pro- 
ceeded to erect an organ for the then ban- 
queting-room of Whitehall. The specification 
of this, his earliest work, is given in Grove's 
' Dictionary' (iL 591). His appointment as 
organ-maker in ordinary to Charles n would 
date from this period, together with a grant 




of rooms formerly called ' The Organ-builder's 
Workhouse/ in Whitehall Palace itself. 

The opening of Smith's new organ for 
Westminster Abbey in 1660 was recorded 
by Pepys : ' 30 December (Lord's Day) . . . 
I to the Abbey, and walked there, seeing the 
great confusion of people that come there 
to hear the organs ' (Pepys). The commission 
for Wells Cathedral organ in 1664 changed 
for a short time only the scene of Smith's 
activity, for he returned to supply organs to 
St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, 1667, St. Giles's- 
in-the-Fields, 1671 (the last payment in 1699 
being made to Christian Smith), and St. Mar- 
garet's, Westminster, 1676. Smith accepted 
in 1676, and held until his death, the post 
of organist to this church. Before 1671 he 
completed the organ for the new Sheldonian 
theatre at Oxford at a cost of 120/. (Wood, 
Life and Times, ed. Clark, ii. 223). The 
date of Smith's work at St. Mary's, Ox- 
ford, and the theatre, is uncertain, but the 
organ for Christ Church was erected in 1680. 
St. Peter's, Cornhill,and St. Mary Woolnoth 
were in 1681 supplied with Smith's organs ; 
that for Durham Cathedral, begun in 1683, 
was practically finished by 1686, but quar- 
ter-tones and other improvements were added 
(cf. Dr. Armes's note in Grove's Diet. 
ii. 693), and the final payment, bringing the 
total to 800/., was received in 1691 (specifi- 
cation in History of the Organ). 

The erection of this magnificent instru- 
ment almost coincided in point of time with 
the famous competition in organ-building 
carried on at the Temple Church, when the 
rivalry between Smith and Renatus Harris 
[q. v.] became a matter of public interest. 
The order for the Temple organ was given 
to Smith in September 1682. Harris, bring- 
ing influence to bear upon certain benchers, 
obtained leave to build and submit his instru- 
ment to the judgment of the committee. 
By virtue of the stress in competition, both 
organs were supplied with the newest stops : 
the cromorne, the vox humana, and the 
double courtel, while Smith (and possibly 
Harris) divided certain keys into quarter- 
notes, communicating with different sets of 
pipes, so that G sharp and A flat, and D sharp 
and E flat were not synonymous sounds 

SIubney; McCrort). On 2 June 1685 the 
iddle Temple made choice of Smith's organ, 
a choice confirmed by the decision of the 
joint committee. The deed of sale by which 
Smith received 1,000/. bore the date 21 June 
1688 (specification in History of the Organ, 
and Grovb, Diet.} 

The superiority of Smith's work was now 
so far established that after their meeting 
of 19 Oct. 1694 the committee for the build- 

ing of the organ in St. Paul's Cathedral 
treated immediately with Smith. No doubt 
a claim was put in by Harris prior to his 
crabbed queries during the construction of 
Smith's instrument, and his later appeals 
(sounding the patriotic note) to *be allowed 
to erect a supplementary organ. Assailed 
from without, Smith was not secure from 
opposition within. Wren, after fruitlessly 
disputing the position of the organ, refused 
to enlarge the case, his own design, with a 
view to the reception of the full number of 
stops. At length, on 2 Dec. 1697, the organ 
was formally opened at a service in thanks- 
giving for the peace of Ry swick (specification 
in Simpson's Documents ; Grove, Dicty 

The setting up of an organ for Trinity 
College chapel, Cambridge, was attended 
with the inevitable dissensions. While the 
master and fellows were disputing, Smith 
died in 1708, leaving his organ to receive the 
last touches from Schrider. Smith's appoint- 
ment as organ-maker to the crown was con- 
tinued in the reign of Anne, and ceased only 
with his death, which took place before 
17 March 1707-8. On this date his will was 
proved by Elizabeth Smith, alias Houghton, 
his wife. He left one shilling apiece to his 
brothers, sisters, nephews, and nieces. A 
portrait of Smith is in the Oxford music 
school, and is printed by Hawkins. 

About forty to fifty organs are known to 
have been Smith's. They are, besides those 
already described: St. Mary's, Cambridge 
(University), 1697 ; Ripon Cathedral ; St. 
David's, 1704; St. Mary at Hill, 1693 ; St. 
Clement Danes ; St. George's Chapel, Wind- 
sor; Eton College chapel ; Southwell coUe- 
Sate church ; Chapel Royal, Hampton Court ; 
anchester Cathedral choir organ; St. 
James's, Garlickhithe ; St. Dunstan's, Tower 
Street (removed to St. Albans Abbey) ; 
High Church, Hull; All Saints', Derby; 
St. Margaret's, Leicester; West Walton, 
Norfolk ; All Saints', Isleworth ; Pembroke, 
Emmanuel, and Christ's College chapels, 
Cambridge ; St. Katherine Cree, Leadenhall 
Street; Chester Cathedral; St. Olave's, 
South wark; St. Martin's, Ludgate Hill; 
Danish Church, Wellclose Square; Sedge- 
field parish church, co. Durham ; Whalley, 
Lancashire; Hadleigh, Suffolk; Chelsea 
old church ; and St. Nicholas, Deptford. 

Smith undertook his works with extreme 
conscientiousness and a fastidious choice of 
material, and a pure and even quality of 
tone was maintained through the series of 
stops (cf. Bubnbt). He used for the Temple 
organ a composition of tin and lead in the 
proportions of 16 to 6, or rather less than 
three-fourths tin (Rdcbattlt) ; but no metal 





pipes were made for Roger North's organ at 
Kougham (Burney in Rees's Ct/clopadia,&rt. 

Smith's daughter married Christopher 
Schrider, one of his workmen, who after- 
wards built organs for the Royal Chapel of St. 
James, 1710; St. Mary Abbott's. Kensing- 
ton, 1716; St. Mary,Whitechapel, 1716 (Mal- 
colm) ; St. Martin-in-the-Fields, 1726 ; St. 
Mary Magdalen, Bermondsey ; Whitchurch, 
Shropshire, and Westminster Abbey, 1780. 

The repairing of organs was an employ- 
ment chiefly pursued by Smith's nephews, 
whose work was known all over the country. 
In 1702 one of them, Gerard Smith, put in 
order and superintended the removal of an 
organ in Lincoln Cathedral (Maddison). He 
built church organs for Bedford parish, 1715 ; 
All Hallows, Bread Street, 1717; Finedon, 
Northamptonshire, 1717; Little Stanmore; 
and St. George's, Hanover Square. 

Of Christian Smith, organ-builder, of Hart 
Street, Bloomsbury, it may be assumed that 
he was brother to the great organ-maker, as 
one of his instruments (at Norwich) is dated 
1643. He built for Tiverton church, Devon- 
shire, 1696; and Boston church, Lincoln- 
shire, 1717. 

[Hopkins and Rimbault's History of the 
Organ," 1877, pp. 102-38; Hawkins's History 
of Music, with portrait, p. 691 ; Barney's Hist, 
of Music, iii. 436 et seq.; Grove's Diet, of 
Music, iii. 539, and for pitch and specifications, 
ii. 690 ; Dr. Sparrow Simpson's Documents rela- 
ting to St. Paul's Cathedral, pp. lxi, 161-4, 167; 
Pepys's Diary (Bray brooke), vol. i.; Walcott's St. 
Margaret's, pp. 67, 77; North's Memoires of 
Musicke, pp. xv, 20 ; Mrs. Delany's Correspon- 
dence (containing some notes on Smith's method 
of construction, which are ascribed to Handel), 
iii. 405, 668, iv. 568; Chamberlayne's Angliae 
Notitia, 1700 ; Jones and Freeman's Hist, of St. 
David's, pp. 95, 369 ; Warren's Tonometer, p. 8 ; 
Harding's Hist, of Tiverton, i. 90, iv. 10; Register 
of Wills, P.C.C., ' Barrett,' p. 72 : Malcolm's Lon- 
dinium Redivivum, iv. 447 ; Webb's Collection 
of Epitaphs, ii. 76 ; McCrory's A few Notes on 
the Temple Organ.] L. M. M. 

SMITH, CHARLES (1715 P-1762), Irish 
county historian, born about 1715, was a 
native of Waterford, and followed the calling 
of an apothecary at Dungar van in that county. 
In 1744 he published, in conjunction with 
Walter Harris [q. v.], the editor of Ware's 
' Works/ a history of the county Down. This 
was the first Irish county history on a large 
scale ever written. The preface to this book 
contains the outline of a plan for a series of 
Irish county histories, which appears to have 
led in 1744 to his foundation at Dublin of the 
Physico-Historical Society for the purpose of 
providing topographical materials for such a 

series. With the imprimatur of this body were 
published successively Smith's important his- 
tories of Waterford and Cork. The history 
of Kerry was published independently after 
this society had broken up. Although en- 
cumbered with much irrelevant matter, these 
volumes form a valuable contribution to 
Irish topography, of which Smith may be 
regarded as the pioneer. Smith's statements 
of fact are generally to be trusted, though it 
was said of him in the counties of which he 
was the historian that his descriptions were 
regulated by the reception he was given in 
the houses he visited while making his 
investigations. His books are warmly com- 
mended by Macaulay, who frequently refers 
to them in his « History ' (1855, iii. 136 n.) 

In 1756 Smith, with a number of eminent 
physicians, founded at Dublin the Medico- 
Philosophical Society, a learned association 
which survived till 1784. Of this body 
Smith was the first secretary, and the author 
of a ' Discourse ' setting forth its objects. Its 
memoirs or minutes are preserved in part at 
the Royal Irish Academy, and in part at the 
Irish College of Physicians. Smith died at 
Bristol in July 1762. 

His works are: 1. 'The Antient and 
Present State of the County of Down,' 1744, 
in collaboration with Walter Harris. 2. ' The 
Antient and Present State of the County and 
City of Waterford,' 1746. 3. ' The Antient 
and Present State of the County and City of 
Cork,* 1750. 4. ' The Ancient and Present 
State of the County of Kerry,' 1756. 

[Webb's Compendium of Irish Biography ; 
notice by M. J. Hurley in Waterford Society's 
Journal, No. 1 ; Dublin Mag. 1762 ; Minutes of 
the Physico-Historical Soc. (unprinted), in R. I. 
Academy; Memoirs of Medico-Philosophical 
Soc (unprinted).] C. L. F. 

SMITH, CHARLES (1713-1777), writer 
on the corn trade, born at Stepney in 1713, 
was the son of Charles Smith, a mill-owner of 
Croydon, Surrey, by his wife Anne, daugh- 
ter of James Marrener of Fange, Essex, a 
naval captain in the service of the East 
India Company. Charles was educated at 
the grammar school of Ratcliff, Middlesex, 
entered his father's business, realised a for- 
tune, married and settled at Stratford in 
Essex, and became a county magistrate. 
From an early period Smith devoted much 
attention to the subject of the corn trade and 
to the laws regulating it. The scarcity of 
1757 turned public attention to the subject, 
and a strong feeling arose against the farmers 
and dealers of corn, whose avarice was con- 
sidered to have caused it. In consequence, 
in the following year, Smith published ' A 
Short Essay on the Corn-trade and Corn- 




laws/ in which he demonstrated that, in a 
country largely dependent on home supplies, 
variations in price were the natural outcome 
of good or bad seasons. This treatise was 
followed in 1769 by ' Considerations on the 
Laws relating to the Import and Export of 
Corn,' and by ' A Collection of Papers rela- 
tive to the Price, Exportation, and Importa- 
tion of Corn/ These papers, which were 
republished with notes in 1804 by George 
Chalmers under the title of ' Tracts on the 
Corn Trade/ show an intimate acquaintance 
with the subject, and are written with much 
clearness and ability. They earned the praise 
of Adam Smith, and are valuable from the 
light they throw on the English corn trade 
in the eighteenth century. Smith was killed 
by a fall from his horse on 8 Feb. 1777. 
He married, in 1748, Judith, eldest daughter 
of Isaac Lefevre, son of a Huguenot refugee. 
By her he had two children : Charles Smith of 
Suttons, near Ongar in Essex, M.P. for West- 
bury in Wiltshire in 1802, and a daughter. 

[Memoir by George Chalmers, prefixed to 
Tracts on the Corn Trade ; Chalmers's Biogr. 
Diet. 1816; Georgian Era, iv. 466; M'Culloch's 
Literature of Political Economy, p. 68 ; Smith's 
Wealth of Nations. 1839, p. 224.] E. I. C. 

SMITH, CHARLES (1749P-1824), 
painter, born about 1749, was a native of 
the Orkneys and a nephew of Caleb White- 
foord [q. v.] After studying at the Royal 
Academy, where he was befriended by Sir 
Joshua Reynolds, he attempted to establish 
himself as a portrait- painter in London, but 
lost his natrons in consequence of his extreme 
and violently expressed political opinions. 
About 1783 he went to India, where he re- 
mained some years, and after his return 
styled himself ' painter to the Great Mogul/ 
From 1789 to 1797 Smith resided chiefly in 
London, and was an exhibitor at the Royal 
Academy, sending mythological and fancy 
compositions as well as portraits. In Octo- 
ber 1798 a musical entertainment entitled 'A 
Day at Rome/ written by Smith, was unsuc- 
cessfully performed at Co vent GardenTheatre, 
and he subsequently printed it. In 1802 he 
published ' A Trip to Bengal, a musical en- 
tertainment.' He died at Leith on 19 Dec. 
1824. A portrait of Smith, in oriental 
dress, painted by himself, was mezzotinted 
by S. W. Reynolds, and a small plate, also 
by Reynolds from the same picture, is pre- 
fixed to his ' Trip to Bengal.' 

[Miller's Biogr. Sketches ; Redgrave's Diet, of 
Artists ; Royal Academy Cat] F. M. O'D. 

SMITH, CHARLES (1786-1856), singer, 
born in London in 1786, was grandson of 
Edward Smith, page to the Princess Amelia, 

and son of Felton Smith, a chorister at 
Christ Church, Oxford. At the age of five, 
owing to his precocity, he became a pupil of 
Costellow for singing. Later, in 1796, on the 
advice of Dr. Arnold, he became a chorister 
at the Chapel Royal under Ayrton, and sang 
the principal solo in the anthem on the mar- 
riage of Charlotte Augusta Matilda, the prin- 
cess royal, to the Prince of Wurtemberg on 
18 May 1797 [see Chablottb, 1766-18281 
In 1798 he was articled to John Ashley, and 
in the following year was engaged to sing at 
Ranelagh, the Oratorio, and other concerts. 
In 1803 he went on tour in Scotland, but, his 
voice having broken, he renounced singing 
temporarily, and devoted himself to teaching 
and organ-playing, in which he was suffi- 
ciently proficient to act as deputy for Knyvett 
and John Stafford Smith at the Chapel Royal 
and for Bartleman at Croydon. On the tatter's 
retirement, Smith was appointed organist 
there ; but shortly afterwards he went to Ire- 
land with a theatrical party as tenor singer, 
and on his return, a year later, he became 
organist of the Welbeck chapel in succession 
to Charles Wesley. In conjunction with 
Isaac Pocock [q. v.J, he next turned his atten- 
tion to writing for the theatres, and pro- 
duced in rapid succession the music to the 
farces ' Yes or No * (produced at the Hay- 
market on 31 Aug. 1808 and published next 
year) ; ' Hit or Miss ' (produced at the Lyceum 
on 26 Feb. 1810); 'Anything New 1 * (pro- 
duced on 1 July 1811) ; and « The Tourist's 
Friend/ a melodrama; but withdrew from 
theatrical matters when Pocock left Drury 
Lane. In 1813 he was singing bass parts 
at the Oratorio concerts ; in 1815 he married 
Miss Booth of Norwich ; and in 1816 went 
to fill a lucrative post at Liverpool. He ulti- 
mately retired to Crediton in Devon, where 
he died on 22 Nov. 1866. He was an excel- 
lent organist and a fine singer. Many of his 
compositions enjoyed a considerable vogue, 
the most popular being a setting of Camp- 
bell's ' Battle of Hohenlinden,' ' a work of 
rare and extraordinary merit/ 

[Quarterly Mus. Mag. and Rev. ii. 214; 
Georgian Era, iv. 304-5 ; Diet, of Musicians, 
1824.] R. H. L. 

1858}, lieutenant-general, and colonel com- 
manaant of royal engineers, second son of 
George Smith of Burn Hall, Durham, by his 
wife Juliet, daughter and sole heiress of Ri- 
chard Mott of Carlton, Suffolk, was born on 
9 July 1786 at Piercefield, Monmouthshire. 
Elizabeth Smith [q. v.] was his sister, and 

George Smith (1693-1766) [a. v.] was his 
great-grandfather. He joined the Royal 




Military Academy at Woolwich on 15 June 

1801, and received a commission as second 
lieutenant in the royal engineers on 1 Oct. 

1802. On the 9th of the same month he was 
promoted to be first lieutenant. He was sent 
to the south-eastern military district, and 
was employed on the defences of the south 
coast of Kent. 

On 16 Dec. 1804 he embarked for the 
West Indies, where he served under Sir 
Charles Shipley [q. v.], the commanding royal 
engineer. He was promoted to be second 
captain on 18 Nov. 1807. In December 1807 
he accompanied the expedition under General 
Bowyer from Barbados against the Danish 
West India Islands, and took part under 
Shipley in the operations which resulted in 
the capture of St. Thomas, St. John, and 
Santa Cruz. In January 1809 he accom- 
panied the expedition under Sir George Beck- 
with to attack Martinique, and took part 
under Shipley in the attack on, and capture 
of, Pigeon Island on 4 Feb., and in the siege 
and capture of Fort Bourbon, which led to 
the capitulation of the whole island on 
23 Feb. He was severely wounded on this 
occasion, and on his return to England on 
31 March 1810 he received a pension of 100/. 
per annum for his wounds. 

On 25 Oct. of the same year Smith em- 
barked for the Peninsula, and joined the 
force of Sir Thomas Graham at Cadiz, then 
blockaded by the French. In the spring of 
1811 an attempt to raise the siege was made 
by sending a force by water to Tarifa to 
march on the flank of the enemy, while at 
the same time a sortie was made by the 
garrison of Cadiz and La Isla across the 
river San Pedro. Smith was left in Cadiz 
as senior engineer officer in charge of it, as 
well as of La Isla and the adjacent country, 
during the operations which comprised the 
battle of Barossa (5 March 1811). In spite 
of this victory the siege was not raised, and 
the British retired within the lines of La Isla. 

Smith's health suffered a good deal at 
Cadiz, and he was sent to Tarifa, near Gi- 
braltar, where he was commanding royal 
engineer during the siege by the French, 
eight thousand strong, under General Laval. 
Colonel Skerrett commanded the garrison, 
which was made up of drafts from regiments 
at Gibraltar and Spanish details, numbering 
some 2,300 men. The outposts were driven 
in on 19 Dec, and in ten days the French 
batteries opened fire. During this time Smith 
was busy making such preparations as he could 
for the defence of a very weak place* When, 
however, a gaping breach was made by the 
French after a lew hours' firing, Skerrett 
called a council of war, proposed to abandon 

the defence, to embark the garrison on board 
the transports lying in the roadstead, and to 
sail for Gibraltar. Smith vehemently opposed 
the proposal, and prepared to make the most 
desperate resistance. Intimation of the state 
of affairs was sent to the governor of Gi- 
braltar, who promptly removed the transports 
and so compelled Skerrett to hold out. He 
also arranged to send assistance from Gi- 
braltar. On 31 Dec. 1811 the French made 
an unsuccessful assault. Bad weather and 
a continuous downpour of rain greatly 
damaged the French batteries and trenches, 
and supply became difficult owing to the 
state of the roads. On the night of 4 Jan. 

1812 it became known to the garrison that 
the French were preparing to raise the siege, 
and on the morning of the 5th the allies as- 
sumed the offensive, drove the French from 
their batteries and trenches, and compelled 
them to make a hurried retreat, leaving 
everything in the hands of the garrison. 
By general consent the chief merit of the 
defence has been given to Smith. Napier, 
in his ' History of the War in the Peninsula ' 
(iv. 59, 60), points out that though Skerrett 
eventually yielded to Smith's energy, he did 
it with reluctance, and constantly during 
the siege impeded the works by calling on 
the labourers to prepare posts of retreat. 
' To the British engineer, therefore, belongs 
the praise of this splendid action/ 

Smith was promoted for his services at 
Tarifa to be orevet major, to date from 
31 Dec. 1811. He was promoted to be first 
captain in the royal engineers on 12 April 
1812, and returned to Cadiz, where he was 
commanding royal engineer until the siege 
was raised in July of that year. In the 
following year he took part in the action of 
Osma (18 June 1813), the battle of Vittoria 
(21 June), and the engagements at Villa 
Franca and Tolosa (24 and 25 June), when 
he had a horse shot under him. He accom- 
panied Sir Thomas Graham on 1 July to 
take part in the siege of San Sebastian. On 
the visit of the Duke of Wellington on the 
12th, he attended him round the positions as 
senior officer (for the time being) of royal en- 
gineers, and nis proposed plans of operation 
met with Wellington's approval. Tne place 
fell on 9 Sept., and, having been mentioned 
in Graham's despatch, Smith was promoted 
to be brevet lieutenant-colonel on 21 Sept. 

1813 'for conduct before the enemy at San 

Smith arrived in Belgium and Holland 
from the south of France in July 1814, 
and reached England in August. He was 
knighted by the prince regent on 10 Nov., 
and on the same date he received permission to 






accept and wear the crosses of the royal orders 
of Carlos III and San Fernando of Spain, 
given to him by the king for his services in 
the Peninsula, particularly at the defence of 
Tarifa. On 28 April 1815 he was appointed 
commanding royal engineer of the Sussex 
military district. • On I June he was made a 
companion of the order of the Bath, military 
division. He received the gold medal with 
clasn for Vittoria and San Sebastian. The 
previous pension of 100/. for his wounds at 
Martinique was increased to 300/. a year on 
18 June 1815, as he had partially lost the 
sight of an eye in the Peninsula. 

On 19 June 1815 Smith-joined the British 
army in Belgium as commanding royal en- 
gineer of the second corps, marched with it 
to Paris, and took part in the entry into 
that city on 7 July. He was one of the 
officers selected by the Duke of Wellington 
to take over the French fortresses to be occu- 
pied by the British. He remained with the 
army of occupation and commanded the 
engineers at Vincennes. He was one of the 
officers who introduced stage-coaches-and- 
four into Paris. The coaches used to meet 
opposite Demidoft's house, afterwards the 
Cafe de Paris. He was also a great sup- 
porter of the turf, and was the first to im- 
port English thoroughbred horses for racing. 
His trainer was Tom Hurst, afterwards of 
Chantilly. He organised races at Vincennes, 
and the racing tnere was considerably su- 
perior to that under royal patronage in the 
Champ de Mars. Smith was a noted duellist, 
and was equally at home with rapier, sabre, 
and pistol. Although never seeking a quarrel, 
he never permitted an insult, and he killed 
three Frenchmen in duels during his stay 
in Paris. He was also an expert boxer. He 
returned to England on 8 Nov. 1818. 

Smith was employed in the south ot Eng- 
land as commanding royal engineer until 
1 Jan. 1823, when he was appointed com- 
manding royal engineer in the West Indies, 
with headquarters at Barbados. With eleven 
different island colonies occupied by troops, 
he had only five officers of royal engineers 
under him, and was obliged to supplement 
his staff by making eleven officers of the line 
assistant engineers. A commission sent from 
England in 1828 to report on requirements 
in the West Indies recommended the addi- 
tion of fourteen military engineers to the 
establishment to enable the work to be 
properly carried out. Smith was promoted 
to De lieutenant-colonel in the royal en- 
gineers on 29 July 1825, and to be colonel 
in the army on 22 July 1880. During the 
fourteen consecutive years which he passed 
in the West Indies he was acting governor 

of Trinidad in 1828, in 1830, and during the 
whole of 1881. In 1883 he was acting go- 
vernor of Demerara and Berbice, and in 1834 
of St. Lucia. He commanded the forces in 
the West Indies from June 1886 to Fe- 
bruary 1837. He was promoted to be colonel 
in the royal engineers on 10 Jan. 1837. He 
received the thanks of Lord Hill, the general 
commanding-in-chief, for his exercise of 
military command in the West Indies. 

On 8 May 1837 Smith was appointed 
commanding royal engineer at Gibraltar, 
where in 1838 he was acting governor and 
commanded the forces. He returned to Eng- 
land in the summer of 1840 to go on par- 
ticular service to Syria, for which duty he 
had been specially selected. He embarked 
in the Pique frigate on 9 Aug. 1840, arriv- 
ing at Beyrout on 1 Sept. A landing was 
effected on the 10th, but Smith was too ill 
to take active command. He was invested, 
by imperial firman dated 30 Sept. 1840, with 
the command of the Sultan's army in Syria, 
and on 9 Oct. following was given by the 
British government the local rank of major- 
general in Syria in command of the allied 
land forces. After a bombardment Beyrout 
surrendered on II Oct. On 3 Nov. Smith 
took part in the attack on, and capture of, 
St. Jean d'Acre, where he was severely 
wounded. Upon him devolved the duty of 
repairing the injuries done to the fortifica- 
tions by the British fire and of nutting the 
place in a state of defence again, in addition 
to the adoption of measures for the tempo- 
rary administration of the pashalic of Acre. 

Smith returned to his command at Gi- 
braltar in March 1841. For his services in 
Syria he received the thanks of both houses 
of parliament and also of the government, 
through Lord Palmerston ; the sultan pre- 
sented him with the Nishan Ichtatha and 
diamond medal and sword. He was granted 
one year's pay for his wound at St. Jean 
d'Acre. He was promoted to be major- 
general in the army on 23 Nov. 1841, re- 
turned home from Gibraltar on 15 May 
1842, and was made a knight commander of 
the Bath (military division) on 27 Sept. 1843. 

On 1 June 1847 Smith was granted the 
silver medal, then bestowed upon surviving 
officers of the wars from 1806 to 1814 for 
their services. He had also a clasp for Mar- 
tinique, and received the naval medal for 
Syria. He was employed on special ser- 
vice as a major-general on the staff in Ireland 
during the disturbances of 1848. He was 
promoted to be lieutenant-general on 11 Nov. 
1851, and colonel-commandant of the corps 
of royal engineers on 6 March 1856. He 
died at Worthing, Sussex, on 11 Aug. 1853. 




Smith married, first, in 1821, a daughter 
of Thomas Bell, esq., of Bristol (she died at 
their residence in Onslow Square, London, 
on 18 June 1849); and, secondly, in 1862, 
the eldest daughter of Thomas Croft, esq. 
There was no issue of either marriage. 

[War Office Records ; Despatches ; Royal En- 

g'neers' Records ; London Gazette ; Napier's 
ist. of the War in the Peninsula; Jones's 
Sieges in Spain ; Porter's Hist, of the Corps of 
Royal Engineers; Conolly's Hist, of the Royal 
Sappers and Miners; Wrottesley's Life and 
Correspondence of Field Marshal John Bur- 
goyne ; Letters of Colonel Sir Augustus Simon 
Frazer during the Peninsular and Waterloo 
Campaigns ; Sperling's Letters of an Officer of 
the Corps of Royal Engineers from the British 
Army in Holland, Belgium, and France, to his 
Father from 1813 to 1816; Gent. Mag. 1812, 
1815,1858; Ann.Ifrg. 1858; Proc. Royal United 
Service Institution, 1835; Reminiscences of Capt. 
Gronow, formerly of the Grenadier Guards, &c, 
related by Himself, 1862.] R. H. V. 

1859), soldier and writer on natural history, 
a descendant of a Flemish protestant family 
of good position called Smet, was born at 
Vrommen-hofen in East Flanders (then an 
Austrian province) on 26 Dec. 1776. At an 
early age he was sent to school at Richmond, 
Surrey, but on the outbreak of revolution 
in the Low Countries in 1778, returned to 
Flanders, and pursued his studies in the Aus- 
trian academy for artillery and engineers at 
Malinesandat Louvain. After having served, 
under the patronage of Lord Moira, in the 
British forces as a volunteer in the 8th light 
dragoons, and as a cornet in Hompesch's 
hussars, he ioined in December 1797 the 60th 
regiment of the British forces in the West 
Indies, and was for ten years brigade-major 
under Major-general Carmichael. In 1809 he 
was on recruiting service at Coventry, and 
soon afterwards was engaged as deputy quar- 
termaster-general in the Walcheren expedi- 
tion. He served with distinction in Holland 
and Brabant, capturing the fortress of Tholen, 
near Bergen-op-Zoom, with a handful of 
German auxiliaries. In January 1811 he was 
again at Coventry, and was then captain in 
the 6th regiment, but was called away from 
this position to active service, and the preface 
to his work on ancient costume is dated from 
' his majesty's ship Horatio, in the Ram-Pot, 
on the coast of Zeeland, 6 Dec. 1818/ In 
March 1815 he furnished Lord Lynedoch with 
information as to the roads and towns in the 
forest of the Ardennes. He was sent in 
1816 on a mission to the United States and 
Canada, and his scheme for the defence of 
Canada was printed by the government. 

Smith retired on half-pay in 1820, and was 

never again actively employed. He received 
the brevet rank of lieutenant-colonel in 1830, 
and was also a knight of Hanover. On 
settling into private life he fixed his home 
at Plymouth, and devoted the rest of his life 
to studious labours. He began sketching 
before he was fifteen years old, and from 
that time was unwearied, whether he waa 
voyaging down the coast of Africa or ex- 
ploring the West Indies, in making drawings* 
and in accumulating scientific data. History, 
zoology, and archaeology were his favourite 
subjects of research. He left behind him 
twenty thick volumes of manuscript notes, 
and thousands of his own watercolour draw- 
ings, which were always at the free disposal 
of a student. Many of his manuscripts, 
chiefly consisting of unpublished lectures 
and papers, are in the library of the Ply- 
mouth Institution. His library overflowed 
into every room of his house. Some account 
of his collections is given in the ' Transac- 
tions of the Plymouth Institution ' (i. 265-88). 
A club of west-country artists and lovers, 
of art was originated by Smith at Plymouth, 
and called 'The Artists and Amateurs' 
(BBNTLBr, Miscellany, lxii. 197-8, 301). He- 
frequently lectured at the Plymouth Athe- 
nseum, and he designed in 1837 the modern 
seal for the borough of Plymouth (Wokth, 
Hist, of Plymouth, 1890, p. 197). 

Smith was a pall-bearer at the funeral of 
the elder Charles Mathews, often gave infor- 
mation to Macready and the Keans on the 
proper costumes for the pieces they were 
about to bring on the stage, and supplied Sir 
Charles Barry with designs for the neraldic 
decorations of the houses of parliament. He 
used to be constantly with the Cuviers in 
Paris, and Sir Richard Owen was an inti- 
mate friend {Life of Owen, i. 182-4). Landor, 
during his visits to Charles Armitage Brown 
at Plymouth, became acquainted with Smith, 
whose daughters fell in love with the poet 
(F0R8TBR, Life of Landor, ii. 387-8; cf. 




(pp. 100-5). Smith was elected F.R.S. in 
1824 and F.L.S. in 1826. 

After an active life he died at 40 Park 
Street, Plymouth, on 21 Sept. 1859, and was 
buried in the family vault at Pennycross. 
He married, in 1808, Mary Anne Mauger, 
daughter of Joseph Mauger (pronounced 
Major) of Guernsey. She died before 1841. 
Their issue was one son, Charles Hamilton 
Smith (a captain in the British army, who 
accepted a grant of land in Australia and 
died there), and four daughters, three of 
whom survived him ; the eldest, Emma, who 




never married, was her father's companion 
and assistant until his death. 

Smith's portrait, painted by Edward Opie, 
belonged to Mrs. Rendel in 1868 {Cat, Nat 
Portraits at South Kensington, 1868). An 
engraving by James Scott was published at 
Plymouth in 1841. 

A great naturalist and an accurate and 
unwearied artist, Smith was a student of 
profound knowledge in many branches of 
learning. His writings comprised: 1. 'History 
of the Seven Years' War in Germany by 
Generals Lloyd and Tempelhoff. With Ob- 
servations, Maxims, &c, of General Jomini. 
Translated from the German and French, 1 
vol. i. n.d. [1809]. 2. 'Secret Strategical 
Instructions of Frederic the Second. Trans- 
lated from the German/ 181 1 . 8. ' Selections 
of Ancient Costume of Great Britain and Ire- 
land, Seventh to Sixteenth Century/ 1814. 

4. ' Costume of Original Inhabitants of the 
British Islands to the Sixth Century. By 

5. R.Meyrick and C. H. Smith/ 1815. 5. * The 
Class Mammalia, arranged by Baron Cuvier, 
with Specific Descriptions by Edward Griffith, 
C. H. Smith, and Edward Pidgeon/ 2 vols. 
1827. 6. « Natural History of Dogs/ vol. i. 
1839, vol. ii. 1840. Afterwards reissued in 
1843 as vols. iv. and v. of the ' Naturalists' 
Library.' 7. 'Natural History of Horses/ 
1841. In 1843 this was vol. xii. in the ' Na- 
turalists' Library.' 8. * Introduction to the 
Mammalia/ 1842; issued in 1843 as vol. i. in 
the same 'Library.* 9. ' Natural History of 
the Human Species/ 1848. This volume was 
devised to harmonise with the publications 
in the 'Naturalists' Library.' Prefixed to 
it was his portrait. It was reprinted at 
Boston, U.S.A., in 1861, with an Introduction 
by Samuel Kneeland, jun. M.D. Most of his 
works were illustrated bv his own drawings. 

Smith wrote the military part of Coxe's 
' Life of the Duke of Marlborough/ and the 
plane of the battles andcampaigns were mainly 
constructed under his inspection. From the 
knowledge of military affairs displayed in 
this work it excited Napoleon's interest at 
St. Helena. A narrative of the retreat of 
Napoleon from Moscow was written by him 
in French, and is said to have been dissemi- 
nated abroad by the English government. 
The articles on subjects of natural history 
and warfare in Kitto's ' Cyclopaedia of Bibli- 
cal Literature' were contributed by Smith ; 
that on ' War/ in the eighth edition of the 
' Encyclopaedia Britannica/ was his compo- 
sition, revised by Major-general Portlock; 
and he was the author of the introductory 
paper on ' the Science of War ' in the ' Aide- 
Memoire of the Military Science by Officers 
of the Royal Engineers/ 

Smith contributed to the 'Transactions 
of the Linnean Society/ 1822, pp. 28-40, an 
article on the ' Animals of America allied to 
the Antelope/ and a paper by him ' On the Ori- 
ginal Population of America' appeared in the 
'Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal for 
1845/ pp. 1-20. He issued in 1840 a ' Model 
of a proposed Statistical Survey of Devon and 
Cornwall, arranged in Tables ; ' the scheme 
included a bibliography of the counties. 

[Worth's Plymouth (1890 edit.), pp. 471-2 ; 
Proc. of Linnean Soc. 24 May 1860 pp. xxx-ixxi ; 
Proc. of Royal Soc. vol. x. pp. xxiv-vi ; Trans. 
Devon. Assoc, xxiii. 379-80 ; Kyland's Memoir of 
John Kitto, pp. 663-6 ; information from Sidney 
T. Whiteford, esq., his grandson. A Memoir of 
Lieutenant-colonel Smith, written in French, was 
published at Ghent about 1860; it contains a 
good lithographed portrait.] W. P. C. 

1864), architect, born in London on 1 Feb. 
1792, was the son of Joseph Smith, monu- 
mental sculptor, of Portland Road, Maryle- 
bone. Leaving school at the age of twelve, 
he entered his father's business, employing 
himself in drawing and modelling after work- 
ing hours. In 1813 he became a life mem- 
ber of the Society of Arts, and in the fol- 
lowing year entered the Royal Academy, 
where he passed through all the classes, and 
in 1817 obtained the academy gold medal 
for his ' Design for a Royal Academy.' 
Acquiring a knowledge of geology, minera- 
logy, and chemistry, he became an autho- 
rity on building stones, and was in 1836 ap- 
pointed one of the four commissioners for 
the selection of a suitable stone for the new 
houses of parliament. Smith executed the 
ornamental stone-carving of the Royal Ex- 
change, of the National Gallery, and of Dor- 
chester and Bridgewater houses. In 1855 he 
was elected a member of the Royal Institute 
of British Architects. He died in London 
on 21 Oct. 1864, leaving one son, Percy 
Gordon Smith, architect for many years to 
the local government board. 

Smith contributed numerous sessional pa- 
pers to the Royal Institute of British Arcni- 
tects.of which the most important was entitled 
'Lithology, or Observations on Stone used 
for Buildings/ 1842. He also wrote an 
essay on linear and aerial perspective for 
Arnold's ' Library of the Fine Arts/ He 
frequently exhibited in the Royal Academy 
designs in architecture, portrait-busts, and 
monumental compositions. 

[Diet, of Arch. 1887, vii.93; Builder, 5 Nov. 
1864; Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Journal of 
Society of Arts, 16 Dec. 1864 ; Gent. Mag. 1864, 
ii. 805 ; Papers read at the Royal Institute of 
British Architects, 1864-5, p. 8.] E. I. C. 




SMITH, CHARLES JOHN (1803-1838), 
engraver, was born in 1803 at Chelsea, 
where his father, James Smith, practised as 
a surgeon. He was a pupil of Charles Pye 
fa. v.], and became a good engraver of book 
illustrations of a topographical and anti- 
quarian character. He executed a few of the 
later plates in Charles Stothard's 'Monu- 
mental Effigies/ the views of houses and 
monuments in E. Cartwright's 'Rape of 
Bramber,' 1830, and several of the plates 
from illuminated manuscripts for Dunlin's 
4 Tour in the Northern Counties of England/ 
1838. In 1829 Smith published a series of 
1 Autographs of Royal, Noble, and Illus- 
trious Persons/ with memoirs by John 
Gough Nichols [q.v.l and later undertook 
another serial wort, ' Historical and Literary 
Curiosities/ which he did not live to com- 
plete. He was elected a fellow of the Society 
of Antiquaries in 1837, and died of para- 
lysis in Albany Street, London, on 23 Nov. 

[Gent. Mag. 1839, i. 101 ; Redgrave's Diet, 
of Artists.] F. M. O'D. 

1890), antiquary, born at Landguard Manor- 
house, near Shanklin, Isle of Wight, on 
20 Aug. 1807, was the youngest child of ten 
children of John Smith, a farmer, who 
married Ann, daughter of Henry Roach of 
Arreton Manor in the same island. The 
father died when the child was very young, 
and his maternal grandfather's house at Arre- 
ton became his second home. The mother 
died about 1824. The lad went to the school 
of a Mr. Crouch at Swathling, and when the 
master migrated to St. Cross, near Winches- 
ter, Charles followed him. About 1820 he 
went to the larger establishment of Mr. 
Withers at Lymington. 

In 1821 Smith was placed in the office of 
Francis Worsley, a solicitor at Newport, 
Isle of Wight, but soon tired of this occu- 
pation. The army was then suggested for 
nim, but in February 1822 he was appren- 
ticed to a Mr. Follett, a chemist at Chichester. 
After remaining there for about six years he 
went to the firm of Wilson, Ashmore, & Co., 
chemists at SnowHill, London, and then set 
up for himself at the corner of Founders' 
Court, Lothbury. His premises were taken 
over by the city at a great loss to him, and 
he removed to 5 Liverpool Street, Finsbury 
Circus, where he dwelt from 1840 to 1855, 
The business had now dwindled, and he pur- 
chased, as a place of retirement, the small pro- 
perty of Temple Place, Strood, near Roches- 
ter. In 1864 he was involved in an action 
at law with the dean and chapter of Rochester 

over some reclaimed land adjoining his pro- 
perty, and 4 won the case. 

At a very early date in his life Smith felt 
the passion of collecting Roman and British 
remains, and, with the encouragement of 
Alfred John Kempe [q. v.], his ' antiquarian 
godfather/ his desires grew apace. For 
twenty years during the excavations of the 
soil of London or the operations of dredging 
the Thames, he was on the alert for anti- 
quities, and his energies were amply re- 
warded. The knowledge of his acquisitions 
spread far and wide when he published in 

1854 a 'Catalogue of the Museum of London 
Antiquities/ which he had obtained. His 
fellow-antiquaries urged that the collection 
should be secured by the nation, but his 
offer of it to the British Museum in March 

1855 at the price of 3,000/. was declined. 
A cheque for that sum was sent to him by 
Lord Londesborough, but, as the antiquities 
would not be kept intact, the cheque was 
returned. In the next year they were trans- 
ferred to the British Museum for 2,000/., and 
they formed the nucleus of the national col- 
lection of Romano-British antiquities. Smith 
was by this time accepted as the leading 
authority on Roman London. 

The garden at Temple Place was in later life 
his chief recreation, and his energies found 
full vent in the cultivation of its grounds. He 
especially applied himself ' to pomology and 
to the culture of the vine in the open ground/ 
making considerable quantities of wine from 
the grapes which he reared. Hispamphlet'On 
the Scarcity of Home-grown Fruits in Great 
Britain/ which first appeared in the ' Pro- 
ceedings of the Historical Society of Lanca- 
shire and Cheshire ' in 1863, passed into a 
second edition, and fully a thousand copies 
were distributed in France and Germany. 
In this tract he advocated the planting of 
the waste ground on the sides of railways 
with dwarf apple trees and with other kinds 
of fruit, and this suggestion was adopted to 
a considerable extent abroad and to a limited 
degree in England. 

Smith belonged to many learned societies 
at home and abroad. He was elected F.S. A. 
on 22 Dec. 1836, and much of his earliest work 
was contributed to the ' Archseologia ' (cf. 
Literary Gazette, 6 Nov. 1852, pp. 828-9). 
For more than fifty years Smith took a keen 
interest in the work of the London Numis- 
matic Society ; from 1841 to 1844 he was one 
of its honorary secretaries, and from 1852 he 
was an honorary member. To the 'Numis- 
matic Chronicle ' he made a variety of con- 
tributions, and he received in 1883 the first 
medal of the society, in especial recognition 
of his services in promoting the knowledge 




of Romano-British coins. In conjunction 
with Thomas Wright he founded the British 
Archaeological Association in 1843, and he 
frequently wrote in its journal. After his 
retirement to Strood he actively assisted in 
the work of the Kent Archaeological Associa- 
tion, and contributed many papers to the 
* Archaeologia Cantiana.' For many years 
he compiled the monthly article of ' Anti- 
quarian Notes ' in the ' Gentleman's Magazine.' 
He was a writer in the 'Athenaeum, in the 
' ^Eliana* of the Newcastle Society (of which 
he was a member), and in the 'Transactions ' 
of several other antiquarian bodies. When, 
through the medium of his friend, the Abbe 
Cochet, he intervened successfully with Na- 
poleon III for the preservation of the Roman 
walls of Dax, a medal was struck in France 
in his honour to commemorate the event 

Smith was unmarried, and a sister kept 
house for him. She died in 1874, and 
was buried in Frindsbury churchyard. After 
a confinement to his bed for six days, he 
died at Temple Place on 2 Aug. 1890, and 
was buried in the same churchyard on 7 Aug. 
At a meeting, early in 1890, of the Society 
of Antiquaries, it had been proposed to 
strike a medal in his honour, and to present 
him with the balance of any fund that might 
be collected. The medal, in silver, was 

S resented to him on 80 July (only three 
ays before his death), and there remained 
for him the sum of one hundred guineas. A 
marble medallion by G. Fontana belongs to 
the Society of Antiquaries. 

Smith's works comprised : 1. ' List of Ro- 
man Coins found near Strood/ 1889. 2. 'Col- 
lectanea Antiqua : etchings and notices of 
ancient remaln8, , 1848-80, 7 vols. The 
articles are chiefly on Roman remains, coins, 
ornaments, and monuments, in England, 
France, and Italy. The ' notes on the an- 
tiquities of Treves, Mayence, Wiesbaden, 
Bonn, and Cologne ' in the second volume, 
the details in volume ill. of the 'Faussett 
Collection of Anglo-Saxon Antiquities, 1 and 
the account in the next volume of the public 
dinner to Smith at Newport, Isle of Wight, 
on 28 Aug. 1855, were issued separately in 
1851, 1854, and 1855 respectively. 3. ' An- 
tiquities of Richborough, Reculver, Lymne 
in Kent/ 1850. A supplement on Lymne 
Jin which he was assisted by James Elliott, 
jun.) came out in 1852, and one on Pevensey, 
with the aid of Mark Anthony Lower, was 
issued in 1858. 4. 'Inventorium Sepul- 
chrale :' the antiquities dug up in Kent, 1757- 
1773, by Rev. Bryan Faussett, 1856. 5. 'Illus- 
trations of Roman London/ 1859. 6. 'The 
Importance of Public Museums for Historical 

Collections/ 1860. 7. ' Remarks on Shake* 
speare, his Birthplace/ 1868; 2nd edit. 1877. 
8. 'Rural Life of Shakespeare/ 1870; 2nd 
edit. 1874 ; a third edition was afterwards 
in preparation. 9. ' South Kensington Mu- 
seum Catalogue of Anglo-Saxon and other 
Antiquities discovered at Faversham by 
William Gibbs/ 1871. 10. 'Address to 
Strood Institute Elocution Class/ 1879. 
11. ' Retrospections, Social and Archaeo- 
logical/ 1883, 1886, and 1891, 3 vols. Pre- 
fixed to volume i. is the medallion bust of him 
4 from the marble by Signor Fontana/ His 
portrait is the frontispiece of volume iii., 
which was edited from page 186 by Mr. 
John Green Waller. 

A list of « Isle of Wight Words, Super- 
stitions, Sports/ &c, by Roach Smith and his 
brother, Major Henry Smith, R.M., was pub- 
lished by the English Dialect Society as part 
xxiii. (series C. original glossaries). 

[Men of the Time, 12th ed. ; Athenaeum, 
9 Aug. 1890, p. 202 ; Isle of Wight County Press, 
2 Aug. 1890 ; Times, 14 Aug. 1890, p. 9; Proc. 
Soc. of Antiquaries, 1889-91, pp. 310-12; Por- 
traits of Men of Eminence, vol. v. ed. Walford, 
pp. 13-15; Proc. of Numismatic Soc in Nu- 
mismatic Chronicle, x. 39, xi. 18-21 ; Journ. Brit. 
ArchaeoL Assoc, xlvi. preface, pp. 237-43, 318- 
330.] W. P. C. 

SMITH. CHARLOTTE (1749-1806> 
poetess and novelist, the eldest daughter of 
Nicholas Turner of Stoke House, Surrey, and 
Bignor Park, Sussex, by his wife, Anna 
Towers, was born in London on 4 May 1749 
at King Street, St. James's. When Char- 
lotte was little more than three years old her 
mother died, and the child was brought up by 
an aunt, who sent her at the early age of six 
to a school at Chichester, and afterwards to 
another at Kensington. The education thus 
received was exceedingly superficial, and 
ceased entirely at the age of twelve, when 
Charlotte entered society. Two years later 
she received an offer of marriage, which was 
refused by her father on the score of her 
youth. In 1764 the father married a second 
wife, a woman of fortune. Charlotte's aunt 
at that time had an aversion to stepmothers, 
and hurriedly arranged a marriage for her 
niece with Benjamin Smith, second son of 
Richard Smith, a West India merchant, and 
director of the East India Company. The 
wedding took place on 23 Feb. 1766. The 
youthful couple (the husband was only 
twenty-one) lived over the elder Smith's 
house of business in the city of London, and 
Charlotte was in enforced attendance on an 
invalid mother-in-law of exacting disposi- 
tion. The marriage was not one of affection ; 
both parties had been talked into it by offi- 




cious relatives, and it is not surprising that 
Charlotte found life dreary. Her father-in- 
law, on the death of his wife, married Char- 
lotte's aunt. 

Charlotte was now free to indulge her 
desire of living in the country. Her father- 
in-law, however, entertained a high opinion 
of her abilities, and offered her a consider- 
able allowance if she would live in London 
and assist him in his business. He had on 
one occasion when he was libelled employed 
her to write a vindication of his character, 
a task that she fulfilled admirably. But 
a town life had never pleased her, and in 
1774, with her husband and seven children, 
she went to live at Lys Farm, Hampshire. 
Her husband was at one time high sheriff of 
Hampshire (cf. L'Estrange, Life of M. R. 
Mitford, iii. 148; Letters of M. R. Mitford, 
ed. Chorley, 2nd ser. i. 29). But his ex- 
travagance and his attempts to realise wild 
and ruinous projects, propensities somewhat 
kept in check while he was living in his 
father's house, began to cause his wife un- 
easiness. She once expressed to a friend a 
desire that her husband should find rational 
employment. The friend suggested that his 
enthusiasm might be directed towards reli- 
gion. ' Oh ! ' replied Charlotte, ' for heaven's 
sake do not put it into his head to take to 
religion, for if he does he will instantly begin 
by building a cathedral' (Nichols, Illustra- 
tions, viii. §5). In 1776 the elder Smith died, 
leaving a complicated will. The ensuing liti- 
gation increased the pecuniary difficulties of 
Charlotte and her husband ; the Hampshire 
estate was sold, and in 1782 Smith was im- 
prisoned for debt. His wife shared his con- 
finement, which lasted for seven months. 

For some years Charlotte Smith had been 
in the habit of writing sonnets, and it oc- 
curred to her that her compositions might 
afford a means of livelihood. She showed 
fourteen or fifteen of them to Dodsley, and 
afterwards to Dilly, but neither would pub- 
lish them. She then appealed to Hayley — 
known to her by reputation, and a neigh- 
bour of her family in Sussex — who permitted 
her to dedicate to him a thin quarto volume 
of sonnets (' Elegiac Sonnets and other Es- 
says '). It was printed at Chichester at her 
own expense, and published by Dodsley at 
Hay ley's persuasion in 1784. The poems 
found favour with the public ; a second edition 
was called for the same year, and a fifth in 
1789. They were reissued with a second 
volume and plates by Stothard, under the 
title of ' Elegiac Sonnets and other poems/ 
in 1797. Among the subscribers to that 
edition were the archbishop of Canterbury, 
Cowper, Charles James Fox, Horace Wal- 

5ole, Mrs. Siddons, and the two Wartons. 
'here were altogether eleven editions of the 
poems, the last dated in 1651 . 

But the circumstances of Mrs. Smith's 
family scarcely improved. They lived for a 
while in a dilapidated chateau near Dieppe in 
France, and there Mrs. Smith translated Pre- 
vost's ' Manon Lescaut ' (1786), and wrote the 
1 Romance of Real Life/ an English version 
of some of the most remarkable trials from 
* Les Causes Celebres ; ' it appeared in 1786. 
About this time the family returned to Eng- 
land and settled at Woolbeding House, near 
Midhurst in Sussex. Mrs. Smith soon de- 
cided that a separation from her husband 
would be best for all concerned. The only 
reason assigned was incompatibility of 
temper, and the children remained with the 
mother. The husband and wife occasionally 
met and constantly corresponded ; Mrs. 
Smith continued to give her husband pecu- 
niary assistance, but firmly refused to live 
with him again. He died in March 1806. 

In 1788 Charlotte Smith published her 
first novel, 'Emmeline, or the Orphan of 
the Castle/ in 4 vols., and it was so success- 
ful that her publisher, Cadell, supplemented 
the sum originally paid. It was admired by 
Sir Egerton Brydges and Sir Walter Scott. 
The latter indulgently declared the 'tale 
of love and passion ' to be ' told in a most 
interesting manner/ praised the mingling of 
humour and satire with pathos, and considered 
that the ' characters both of sentiment and 
of manners were sketched with a firmness 
of pencil and liveliness of colouring which 
belong to the highest branch of fictitious 
narrative.' Hayley was even more extra- 
vagant in his praises (cf. Nichols, Lit, 
Illustr. vii. 708). Miss Seward, on the other 
hand, found it a servile imitation of Miss 
Burney's ' Cecilia ; ' and stated that the cha- 
racters of Mr. and Mrs. Stafford were drawn 
from Mrs. Smith and her husband (Letters, 
ii. 213). A second novel, 'Celestina/ in 
4 vols., came out in 1792, and was charac- 
terised as ' a work of no common merit ' (cf. 
Nichols, Lit. Illustr. vii. 715), and a third, 
' Desmond/ in 3 vols., in 1792. The character 
of Mrs. Manby in the last is said to repre- 
sent Hannah More (Seward, Letters, iii. 
329). In 1792 Mrs. Smith visited Hayley 
at Eartham, and met there Cowper, and 
probably Romney (Hayley, Memoirs, i. 
432). 'The Old Manor House/ in 4 vols., 
considered by Scott her best piece of work, 
appeared in 1793. 

Failing health was now added to the ever 
present pecuniary and family troubles. But 
Mrs. Smith's cheerful temperament enabled 
her to abstract herself from her cares, and 




publish a novel each year till 1799. Cald- 
well, writing to Bishop Percy in 1801, says : 
1 Charlotte Smith is writing more volumes of 
"The Solitary Wanderer "for immediate 
subsistence. . . . She is a woman full of 
sorrows. One of her daughters made an 
imprudent marriage, and the man, after be- 
having extremely ill and tormenting the 
family, died. The widow has come to her 
mother not worth a shilling, and with three 
young children ' (Nichols, Lit. Illustr. viii. 
88). In 1804 appeared her ' Conversations 
introducing Poetry,' a book treating chiefly 
of subjects connected with natural history 
for the use of children. It contains her 
versions of the well-known poems 'The 
Ladybird' and 'The Snail.' During the 
latter years of her life Mrs. Smith made 
many changes of residence, living at London, 
Brighthelmstone, and Bath. In 1805 she re- 
moved to Tetford, near Farnham in Surrey, 
where she died on 28 Oct. 1806. She was 
buried in Stoke church, near Guildford ; a 
monument by Bacon marks her resting- 
place. Of her twelve children, eight survived 
ner. Her youngest son, George Augustus, 
a lieutenant in the 16th foot, died at Surinam 
on 16 Sept., five weeks before his mother ; 
another son, Lionel [q. v.], was a distin- 
guished soldier. 

If there is nothing great in Mrs. Smith's 
poems, they are ' natural and touching ' (cf. 
Leigh Htot, Men, Women, and Books, ii. 
189). Miss Mitford told Miss Barrett that 
she never took a spring walk without feeling 
Charlotte Smith's love of external nature and 
her power of describing it (cf. L'Estrangb, 
Life of M. R. Mitford, iii. 148), and in a 
letter to Mrs. Hofland declared that ' she had, 
with all her faults, the eye and the mind of 
a landscape poet' (Letters ofM. R, Mitford, 
ed. Chorley, 2nd ser. i. 29). As a novelist 
she shows skill in portraying character, but 
the deficiencies of the plots render her novels 
tedious. Her Engiisn style is good, and it 
is said that whenever Erskine had a great 
speech to make, he used to read Charlotte 
Smith's works in order to catch their grace 
of composition (L'Estrange, Life of M R. 
Mitford, iii. 299). 

Her portrait was painted by Opie. A draw- 
ing from the picture by G. Clint, A.R. A., was 
engraved by A. Duncan and by Freeman. 
There is an engraving by Ridley and Holt 
of what seems to be another picture, and an 
unsigned engraving in which Mrs. Smith is 
represented in a curious dress. Her head in 
outline appears in 'Public Characters' 

Other works by Charlotte Smith are: 1. 
'Ethelinde, or the Recluse of the Lake,' 

5 vols. 1790 ; 2nd edit. 1814. 2. 'The Ban- 
ished Man,' 4 vols. 1794. 8. ' Montalbert,' 
1795. 4. ' Marchmont.' 6. ' Rural Walks.' 
6. 'Rambles Farther,' 1796. 7. 'Minor 
Morals interspersed with Sketches,' 2 vols. 
1798; other editions 1799, 1800, 1816, 
1825. 8. ' The Young Philosopher,' a novel, 
1798. 9. ' The Solitary Wanderer,' 1799. 
10. ' Beachy Head,' a poem, 1807. 

[Scott's biography, the facts for which were 
communicated to him by Mrs. Dorset, a sister 
of Charlotte Smith, in Miscellaneous Prose 
Works, i. 349-69, is the chief authority; see 
also Elwood's Literary Ladies, i. 284-309 ; and 
authorities cited.] E. L. 

SMITH, COLVIN (1795-1875), portrait- 
painter and royal Scottish academician, born 
at Brechin in Scotland in 1795, was son of 
John Smith, merchant, manufacturer, and 
magistrate of Brechin, a descendant of the 
family of Lindsay, alias Smith, heritable 
armourers to the bishop of Brechin. His 
mother was Cecilia, daughter of Richard 
Gillies of Little Keithock, Forfarshire, and 
sister of Adam, lord Gillies [q. v.], and John 
Gillies (1747-1836) [q. v.] When young, 
Smith went to London and became a student 
in the schools of the Royal Academy, and also 
studied under Joseph Nollekens [q. v.] He 
then travelled abroad, and studied the works 
of the old masters, making friends at Rome 
with Sir David Wilkie [q. v.l, whose portrait 
he painted. On his return ne settled about 
1826 in Edinburgh, where he purchased the 
studio and gallery in York Place which had 
been erected by Sir Henry Raeburn [<j. v.] 
His powerful family connections quickly 
gained him employment at Edinburgh, and 
many of the most prominent personages in 
that city sat to him. He first appears as an 
exhibitor at the Royal Institution, Edinburgh, 
in 1826, 1828, and 1829, but subsequently, 
along with twelve other artist members of 
the institution, he transferred his interests 
to the (Royal) Scottish Academy, where he 
continued to exhibit during the remainder 
of his life. Colvin Smith is best known for 
his portraits of Sir Walter Scott, the first of 
which was painted in 1828 for Lord-chief- 
commissioner William Adam [q. v.] This 
was considered so successful that several of 
Scott's friends had replicas painted for them, 
about twenty in all, for some of which Scott 
gave separate sittings to please his friends. 
Among other notable people painted by 
Smith were Lord Jeffrey (considered the best 
likeness of him), Henry Mackenzie, Sir James 
Mackintosh, Robert, second viscount Mel- 
ville, Lord Neaves, John, lord Hope, and 
others . Smith's portraits were remarkable for 
correct drawing, simplicity of treatment, and 




a considerable grasp of character, rather than 
for the more pleasing graces of pictorial art. 
He was but a rare contributor to the London 
exhibitions. Smith exhibited for the last 
time in 1870, and died in his own house at 
Edinburgh on 21 July 1876. 

[Cat. of Scottish National Gallery, Loan Ex- 
hibition of Scottish National Portraits, Edin- 
burgh, 1884, and Sir Walter Scott Centenary 
Exhibition, 1872 ; Lockhart's Life of Sir Walter 
Scott; Sir Walter Scott's Journal, vol. ii. ; 
Irvmg's Eminent Scotsmen: Redgrave's Dic- 
tionary; information from Messrs. Adam and 
Cecil Gillies-Smith and J. L Caw.] L. C. 

SMITH, EDMUND 0672-1710), poet, 
born in 1672 either at Hanley, the seat of 
the Lechmeres, or at Tenbury in Worcester- 
shire, was only son of Edmund Neale, a 
London merchant, by Margaret, daughter of 
Sir Nicholas Lechmere fa. v.] The father fell 
into poverty and soon died, and the boy was 
brought up by a kinsman, whose name was 
Smith—doubtless Mathew Smith of Lon- 
don, who married Margaret, Sir Nicholas 
Lechmere's sister. His guardian treated 
him as his own child, and he adopted his 
surname (cf. E. P. Shirley's Hartley and 
the House of Lechmere, p. 19). Educated 
at Westminster under Dr. Busby, he was 
elected to both Trinity College, Cambridge, 
and Christ Church, Oxford, but decided to 
proceed to Oxford, where he matriculated 
25 June 1688, aged 16. He was a promising 
lad, and was soon well read in the classics 
and in modern literature. His contributions 
to collections of Oxford verse on the birth of 
the Prince of Wales in 1688, on the coronation 
of William III and Mary, and on William's 
returnfrom the battle of the Boyne won him 
a high reputation (cf. Nichols, Select Collec- 
tion, ii. 62, vii. 105-8). In 1691 he wrote an 
excellent Latin ode in alcaics on the death of 
Dr. Edward Pococke Tq. v.], the orientalist 
(Musce Anglican^, vol. ii.) Johnson, who 
knew the poem by heart, declared it to be 
unequalled among modern writers (Boswbll, 
Life, iii. 269). Smith's carelessness about 
his dress, combined with his handsome ap- 
pearance, gave him the nicknames of ' the 
handsome sloven ' and ' Captain Rag ' (Gent 
Mag. June 1780, p. 280). On 24 Dec. 1694 
he was publicly admonished by the authori- 
ties of Christ Church for licentious conduct, 
and was threatened with expulsion. He pro- 
ceeded M.A. on 8 July 1696, and on 8 fcov. 
1701 was chosen to deliver the annual ora- 
tion in praise of Sir Thomas Bodley, founder 
of the Bodleian Library. The manuscript of 
his speech — beautifully written, to imitate 
typography — is still preserved in the library. 
It was published by William Bowyer in 1711 

(cf. Moray's Annals of ^ the Bodleian Li- 
brary, p. 151). Meanwhile Smith's irregu- 
larities did not abate, and on 24 April 1700 
the dean and chapter declared his place 
' void, he having been convicted of riotous 
behaviour in the house of Mr. Cole, an 
apothecary.' Further action was delayed. 
But, on failing in his candidature for the 
office of censor of Christ Church, Smith 
avenged his defeat by lampooning the dean, 
Dr. Aldrich. On 20 Dec. 1705 the patience 
of the authorities was exhausted, and the 
sentence of expulsion was carried into effect 
f cf. Gent. Mag. 1822, ii. 223). Driven to Lon- 
don, where he had already in 1690 entered 
himself as a student at the Inner Temple, 
Smith sought to make a livelihood by his pen. 
He professed himself a champion of the 
whigs, and Addison, who is said to have in- 
vited him to write a history of the revolu- 
tion, at once befriended him. But he made 
influential friends among all parties. 

On 21 April 1707 his tragedy of ' Phcedra 
and Hippolitus' — an artificial and bombastic 
effort modelled on Racine's ' Phedre ' rather 
than on Seneca's 'Hippolytus' — was pro- 
duced at the Haymarket Theatre, and was 
acted four times. The prologue was written 
by Addison, and the epilogue by Prior. The 
chief actors of the day— Betterton, Booth, 
Mrs. Barry, and Mrs. Oldfield — took part in 
it. Despite such advantages, the public were 
demonstrative in their liostility, and the 
piece was 'hardly heard the third night' 
(cf. Gbnest, ii. 368 sq.) The critics, how- 
ever, were loud in their praises. ' Would one 
think/ wrote Addison in the 'Spectator/ 
No. 18, ' it was possible (at a Time when 
an Author lived that was able to write the 
"Phaedra and Hippolitus") for a People to 
be so stupidly fond of the Italian Opera, as 
scarce to give a third Day's Hearing to that 
admirable Tragedy P ' George Stepney [q. v.l 
in a published epistle, complimented Smith 
on his dramatic talents. Lintot purchased 
the piece for publication at the current rate 
of 50/. (11 March 1705-6), and Halifax 
agreed to accept the dedication which Smith 
wrote after many months' delay. He was too 
indolent to present the dedication in person 
to his patron, and thus lost 300/. Prior 
described the dedication as nonsense, and 
attributed a decline in Smith's powers to his 
close association with Steele and Addison. 
Eight revivals of Smith's tragedy are noticed 
by Genest. In one of them, at Covent 
Garden, on 7 Nov. 1754, Peg Woffington 
played the heroine. 

In 1708 Lintot published an elegy by 
Smith on John Philips, who was his mend 
at Oxford. Johnson places it 'among the 




best elegies which, our language can show ; 
an elegant mixture of fondness and admira- 
tion, of dignity and softness.' 

Anxious to try his fortune again on the 
stage, Smith designed a tragedy on the subject 
of Lady Jane Grey, and his friend, George 
Duckett [q. v.], invited him to his house at 
Hartham, Wiltshire, in order that he might 
concentrate his attention on the work. But 
indulgence in strong ale ' rendered him ple- 
thoric, 1 and prescribing for himself a purge, 
of the dangers of which an apothecary warned 
him, he defiantly drank it off with fatal 
effects. He was buried at Hartham in July 

Duckett inaccurately told Oldm ixon that 
Smith was employed by Aldrich, Smalridge, 
and Atterbury to garble Clarendon's history 
before it was published. He is said to have 
left in manuscript translations from Pindar 
and Longinus. 'Two quires of hints' which 
he had gathered for his tragedy of Lady Jane 
Grey were examined by Nicholas Rowe [q. v.], 
but Rowe made no use of them when he 
wrote his play on the same theme. His 
works — his poem on Philips, his tragedy, and 
his 'Oratio Bodleiana/ with some odes — were 
issued in 1719, with a life by William Oldia- 
worth [q. v.] Another edition, including the 
poems or John Armstrong, appeared in 1781. 
Smith's poems also appear in Dr. Johnson's 
and in Chalmers's • Collections.' 

In 1751 F. Newbery published in quarto 
' Thales, a Monody, sacred to the memory of 
Dr. Pococke. In imitation of Spenser. From 
an authentic Manuscript by Mr. Edmund 
Smith, formerlv of Christ's Church, Oxon.' 
This poem, in the Spenserian stanza, is a para- 

Ehrase in English, apparently by another 
and, of Smith s Latin ode on the same theme. 
In the ad vertisement prefixed the editor states 
that he ' has several other very valuable pieces 
of Mr. Smith in his possession which he in- 
tends shortly to communicate to the public' 

Smith's* writings justify a very moderate 
estimate of his abilities. But his fame, owing 
to the praises of his friends, survived through- 
out the eighteenth century. Johnson de- 
scribed him as ' one of those lucky writers 
who have, without much labour, attained 
high reputation, and who are mentioned with 
reverence rather for the possession than the 
exertion of uncommon abdities.' 

[Oldisworth's Life, prefixed to Phaedra and 
Hippolitus, 1719, 3rd edit.; Johnson's Lives of 
the Poets, ed. Cunningham, ii. 41 et seq. ; Welch's 
Alumni Westraon. pp. 211-12; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon.] S. L. 

1720), bishop of Down and Connor, born at 
Lisbura in Antrim in 1665, was the son of 

James Smyth of Mountown, co. Down, by 
his wife Francisca, daughter of Edward 
Dowdall of Mountown. He became a scholar 
at Dublin University in 1678, and graduated 
B.A. in 1681. In 1684 he proceeded M.A. 
and was elected a fellow. He afterwards 
obtained the degrees of LL.B. in 1687, B.D. 
in 1694, and D.D. in 1696. In 1689, when 
Dublin was in possession of James II, he 
fled to England, where he was recommended 
to the Smyrna Company, and made chaplain 
to their factory at Smyrna. He returned to 
England in 1693 with a considerable private 
fortune, and was appointed chaplain to Wil- 
liam III, whom he attended for four years 
during the war in the Low Countries. On 

3 March 1695-6 he was made dean of St. 
Patrick's, Dublin. In 1697 he became vice- 
chancellor of Dublin University, and on 
2 April 1699 he was consecrated bishop of 
Down and Connor. He died at Bath on 

4 Nov. 1720. He was twice married. By 
his first wife, his cousin Elizabeth, daughter 
of William Smyth, bishop of Kilmore, he 
had Elizabeth, who married James, first earl 
of Courtown. By his second wife Mary, 
daughter of Clotworthy Skeffington, third 
viscount Massereene [q. v.], he had two sons, 
Skeffington Randal and James. 

Smyth was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society in 1695. He was also a member of 
the Philosophical Society of Dublin. He 
was the author of several sermons, and con- 
tributed various papers to the ' Philosophical 
Transactions' of the Royal Society, chiefly 
relating to oriental usages. 

[Ware's Irish Bishops, ed. Harris, p. 214 ; 
Ware's Writers of Ireland, ed. Harris, p. 273 ; 
Thomson's Hist, of the Royal Soc. App. iv. ; 
Pearson's Chaplains to the Levant Company, 
1883, p. 34; Burke's Landed Gentry, 6th edit, 
ii. 1482.] E. I. C. 

SMITH, EDWARD (1818 P-l 874), phy- 
sician and medical writer, born at Heanor, 
Derbyshire, about 1818, was educated at 
Queen's College, Birmingham, and graduated 
at London University, M.B. in 1841, M.D. 
in 1843, and B.A. and LL.B. in 1848. Next 
year he visited north-east Texas, to examine 
its capacity as a place of settlement for emi- 
grants, and published an account of the jour- 
ney and a report with charts of temperature 
and the new constitution of the state (Lon- 
don, 1849, 12mo). In 1851 he passed the ex- 
amination for the diploma of fellow of the 
Royal College of Surgeons of England ; in 
1854 he became a member of the Royal 
College of Physicians, London, and in 1863 
was elected a fellow of the college. 

Physiological chemistry occupied much of 
his attention. In 1856 he read his first 




paper before the Royal Society (cf. Proceed- 
ings y vol. viii.) ' On Inquiries into the Quantity 
of Air inspired through the Day and Night, 
and under the Influence of Exercise, Food, 
Medicine, and Temperature.' This he fol- 
lowed up with kindred contributions— In- 
quiries into the Phenomena of Respiration ; ' 
' Experiments on the Action of Food upon 
the Respiration ' (ib. vol. ix.) ; ' Experimental 
Inquiries into the Chemical and other Phe- 
nomena of Respiration, and their Modifi- 
cations by various Physical Agencies ' (publ. 
1859, with two plates) ; and ' On the Action 
of Foods upon the Respiration during the 
Primary Processes of Digestion ' (publ. 1859, 
two plates). In 1859 he also invented an 
instrument to measure the inspired air, and 
to collect the carbonic acid in the expired 
air. These researches on respiration won 
for him the fellowship of the Royal Society 
on 7 June 1860. Later on he read a paper 
before the society * On the Elimination of 
Urea and Urinary Water, in relation to the 
period of the Day, Season, Exertion, Food, 
Prison Discipline, Weight of Body, and other 
influences acting in the Cycle of the Year ' 
(Phil. Trans., with five plates, 1861). The 
last paper which he read before the society 
was entitled ' Remarks upon the most correct 
Methods of Inquiry in reference to Pulsation, 
Respiration, Urinary Products, Weight of 
the Body, and Food* (Proc. vol.xi. 1860-2). 

Meanwhile Smith, in 1853, held the office 
of lecturer and demonstrator of anatomy at 
the Charing Cross Hospital school of medi- 
cine, and was appointed in 1861 assistant 
physician to the Brompton Hospital for Con- 
sumption. In 1862 he published 'Consump- 
tion: its Early and Remediable Stages; ' 
he had previously published several papers 
on the pulse and the use of certain remedies 
in phthisis. 

Dietetics formed the subject of most of his 
subsequent literary work. In the appendix 
to (Sir) John Simon's * Sixth Report ' he pub- 
lished ' A Report to the Privy Council on the 
Food of the 10 west-fed Classes in the King- 
dom ' (1862). As a consequence he was con- 
sulted by the government on poor-law and 
prison dietaries, and was appointed medical 
officer of the poor-law boara. In his official 
capacity he placed poor-law dietaries on a 
scientific practical basis. He also did much 
work in reforming, hygienically, the struc- 
tural arrangements of workhouses and work- 
house infirmaries. In its regulations on the 
subject of cubic space the poor-law board 
mainly adopted Smith's opinions, although 
they differed from those generally accepted 
by the medical profession. In 1871, when 
the poor-law board was merged in the newly 

created local government board, Smith was 
transferred to the medical department, with 
the title of assistant medical officer for 
poor-law purposes. His official reports, 
which were published as parliamentary 
papers, dealt, among other subjects, with 
* Metropolitan Workhouse Infirmaries and 
Sick-wards/ 1866, and « The Care and Treat- 
ment of the Sick Poor in Provincial Work- 
houses/ 1867. He resided in London, first 
at No. 6 Queen Anne Street, but afterwards 
at 140 Harley Street. He died of double 
pneumonia on 16 Nov. 1874. 

Smith possessed a rare faculty of sys- 
tematising his knowledge and great facility 
as a writer. His chief publications, in addi- 
tion to those already mentioned and to his 
contributions to periodicals, were : 1. ' Struc- 
tural and Systematic Botany/ 1864 ; with 
new title-page, I860. 2. ' Natural History 
of the Inanimate Creation/ 1856, 8vo (with 
D. I. Ansted and others). 3. ' Practical Die- 
tary for Families, Schools, and the Working 
Classes/ 1864, 8vo; 3rd and 4th editions, 
1866,'8vo. 4. 'Health and Disease, as in- 
fluenced by the Daily, Seasonal, and other 
Cyclical Changes in the Human System/ 
1861, 8vo. 6. ' Reports to Privy Council on 
the Dietary of Lancashire Operatives, and of 
other Low-fed Populations/ &c, 1862-3. 
6. < How to get Fat/ 1865, 8vo. 7. ' Foods/ 
in 'International Scientific Series/ 1872. 
8. ' A Manual for Medical Officers of Health/ 
1873; 2nd edit. 1874. 9. 'A Handbook 
for Inspectors of Nuisances/ 1873, 8vo. 
10. 'Health: a Handbook for Households 
and Schools/ 1874, 8vo. 

[Lancet, 1874; Medical Times and Gazette, 
1 874 ; Churchill's Medical Directory ; Brit. Mus. 
Cat. ; Royal Society's Cat. of Scientific Papers ; 
Records of the Royal Society and University of 
London.] W. W. W. 

SMITH, ELIZABETH (1776-1806), 
oriental scholar, second child and eldest 
daughter of George and Juliet Smith, was 
born at Burn Hall, a family property near 
Durham, in December 1776. Sir Charles 
Felix Smith [q. v.l was her brother. A clever 
and bookish cnila, she was never at school, 
and was chiefly educated by her mother, 
whose accomplishments do not seem to have 
been literary. At the beginning of 1782 the 
family moved into Suffolk, to be near a blind 
relative, who died in 1784. They were then 
at Burn Hall till June 1785, when the father, 
who was partner in a west of England bank- 
ing firm, took Piercefield Park, near Chep- 
stow, Monmouthshire. By this time Eliza- 
beth had made good progress in music. For 
three years from the spring of 1786 she was 




under a governess, who taught her French 
and a little Italian. All her other linguistic 
attainments were of her own acquiring. Her 
father had a good library, and she read with 
avidity, especially the poets. Devoting some 
hours before breakfast each morning to study, | 
she improved her Italian, and by 1793 could 
read Spanish without difficulty. 

The declaration of war by France (1 Feb. 
1793) produced a financial crisis which 
proved fatal to several banks, Smith's among 
the number. In March he gave up Pierce- 
field, and in 1794 took a commission in the 
army, serving for some years in Ireland. 
Elizabeth spent seven or eight months at 
Bath, where her friend Mary Hunt en- 
couraged her to study German and botany. 
At the end of the year she began Arabic and 
Persian. She began Latin in November 
1794, and by February 1795 had 'read 
Caesar's Commentaries, Livy, and some vo- 
lumes of Cicero/ and was ' very impatient to 
begin Virgil.' After she and her mother 

^"oined her father at Sligo, she picked up an 
[rish grammar at Armagh, and at once 
began to study it. She must have begun 
Hebrew soon after returning to Bath in 
October 1796, as she was translating from 
Genesis in 1797. In 1799 she found at 
Shirley a Syriac New Testament, printed in 
Hebrew characters, and could ' read it very 
well.' Buxtorf 's * Florilegium ' she carried 
always in her pocket. In the summer of 
1799 the family settled at Ballitore, co. 
Kildare, removing in May 1801 to Coniston, 
Lancashire, where Elizabeth ended her days. 
In May 1802 she met Elizabeth Hamilton 
(1768-1816) [q. v.], who thought that ' with 
a little of the Scotch frankness . . . she would 
be one of the most perfect of human beings.' 

Evidently she was overtaxing every 
faculty. She died at Coniston, after a year s 
decline of health, on 7 Aug. 1806, and was 
buried at Hawkshead, where there is a 
tablet to her memory in the parish church. 

Miss Smith's powers of memory and of 
divination must have been alike remarkable, 
for she rarelyconsulted a dictionary. Trans- 
lation from Hebrew was her ' Sunday work.' 
With her intellectual accomplishment went, 
we are assured, facility in women's work, 
like cooking and needlework, and she was a 
horsewoman. Her verses have no merit, 
and her reflections are of the obvious kind, 
gracefully expressed. Her translations are 
flowing and good. Among her philological 
collections were lists of words in Welsh, 
Chinese, and African dialects, with some Ice- 
landic studies. The following were published 
from her papers: 1. 'Fragments, in Prose 
and Verse . . . with some Account of her 

vol. Lin. 

Life, by H. M. Bowdler,' &c. 1808, 8vo (por- 
trait) ; contains translations of Jonah ii. and 
Habakkuk iii. ; numerous editions, the latest 
being 1842, 8vo. 2. « Memoirs of Frederick 
and Margaret Klopstock, translated from 
the German/ &c. 1§08, 8vo (from materials 
supplied by Dr. Mumssen of Altona); in 
many issues this is treated as a second 
volume of No. 1. 3. 'The Book of Job, 
translated,' &c, 1810, 8vo, edited by Francis 
Randolph [q. v.], himself no great hebraist, 
on the recommendation of Archbishop Wil- 
liam Magee [(j. v.], who read the manuscript, 
and thought it the best version of Job ne 
knew ; dedicated (18 Jan. 1810) to Thomas 
Burgess, D.D. (1756-1837) [q. v.] 4. 'A 
Vocabulary, Hebrew, Arabic, and Persian/ 
&c. 1814, 8vo; edited, with 'Praxis on the 
Arabic Alphabet/ by John Frederick Usko, 
vicar of Orsett, Essex, who notes that the 
authoress had no predecessor in this sys- 
tematic collation of the three languages; 
prefixed is letter (1 July 1814) by Bishop 
burgess. Selections from the authoress's 
didactic writings are in 'The Lady's 
Monitor/ 1828, 8vo. 

[A. somewhat confused Life by Henrietta 
Maria Bowdler [q. v.], a personal friend from 
1789; Jones's Christian Biography, 1820, pp. 
385 sq.; Notes and Queries, 25 Jan. 1868, 
p. 76.] A. G. 

SMITH, ERASMUS (1611-1691), edu- 
cational benefactor, son of Sir Roger Smith, 
alias Heriz or Harris (d. 1655, aged 84), of 
Husbands Bosworth and Edmondthorpe, 
Leicester, by his second wife, Anna (d. 1652, 
aged 66), daughter of Thomas Goodman of 
London, was born in 1611 (baptised 8 April) 
at Husbands Bosworth ( Reg. ) Henry Smith 
— 'silver-tongued' Smith [q. v.] — was his 
uncle. Erasmus was a Turkey merchant, 
and a member of the Grocers' Company 
of London. A petition in the state papers, 
without date, calendared ' 1662 May P ' sets 
forth that the petitioner, Erasmus Smith, 
had been for twenty-two years ' a servant in 
ordinarie' to the king's 'royal father/ had 
1 also served His Majesty's Koyal Father in 
the warres, for which there were great arrears 
due to him/ and asks for the place of carver 
in ordinary to the queen. His service was 
probably of a purely husiness character. In 
1650 he appears in the state papers as an 
army contractor, supplying large quantities 
of oatmeal, wheat, and cheese for the troops 
in Ireland and in Scotland. Under the 
confiscating acts of 1642 he was an adven- 
turer of 300/. towards prosecuting the war 
against the Irish insurgents of 1641 ; for 
this, at the Cromwellian settlement of 1652, 
he received 666 acres of land in co. Tipperary. 





He subsequently largely increased his hold- 
ings, till they reached in 1684 a total of 
46,449 acres in nine counties. He early pro- 
jected a scheme for the education of children 
on his estates ' in the fear of God, and good 
literature, and to speak the English tongue/ 
His petition of 22 June 1655 contemplates 
the establishment of five free schools. On 
28 April 1657 he was elected alderman of 
Billingsgate ward, and sworn on 5 May ; but 
on 26 May he obtained his discharge on 
paying a fine of 420/. By indenture of 1 Dec. 
1657 he founded five grammar schools, having 
bursaries at Trinity College, Dublin, and five 
elementary schools. Of eighteen trustees, the 
first in order was Henry Jones, D.D. [q. v.], 
followed by five nonconformist divines, offi- 
ciating in Dublin as independents, and in- 
cluding Thomas Harrison {ft. 1658) [q. v.] 
and Samuel Mather [q.v.]; the children 
were to be taught the assembly's catechism. 
The trustees, reduced to seven, still headed 
by Jones, now bishop of Meath, obtained 
royal letters patent (3 Nov. 1667) directing 
them to pay 100/. a year to Christ's Hospital, 
London, adding an apprenticeship scheme, 
reducing the grammar schools to three, and 
dropping the assembly's catechism. On 
Smith's petition a royal charter (26 March 
1669) incorporated a body of thirty-two go- 
vernors, including as official governors the 
two primates, the lord chancellor of Ireland, 
the two chief justices, the chief baron of the 
exchequer, and the provost of Trinity Col- 
lege. Further powers were given by an act 
of the Irish parliament (1723) and by a royal 
charter of 27 July 1833. In 1794 the Fagel 
library was purchased by the governors for 
8.000/., and presented to Trinity College. 
The estates now administered by the go- 
vernors contain over 12,400 acres, yielding a 
rental (1892) of over 9,100/., with funded 
property amounting to 14,679/. Besides the 
payment to Christ's Hospital, payments are 
made in aid of lectureships, fellowships, and 
exhibitions at Trinity College; grammar 
schools are maintained at Drogheda, Gal way, 
and Tipperary, a high school and a com- 
mercial school at Dublin, where also twenty 
boys are maintained at the Blue Coat Hos- 
pital ; and thirty-eight elementary schools 
for boys, with four for girls, are kept up. 
The scheme of a new constitution was pre- 
pared in 1892 by the educational endow- 
ments (Ireland) commission, but has not 
advanced beyond the draft stage. 

Smith's London residence was at Clerken- 
well Green. He bought from Sir William 
Scroggs (1652 P-1695) Tsee under Scroggs, 
Sir William! Weald Hall in the parish of 
South Weald, Essex. He died between 

25 Aug. and 9 Oct. 1691. His will directs 
his burial beside his wife, at Hamerton, 
Huntingdonshire (the burial register is defec- 
tive). He married Mary, daughter of Hugh 
Hare, first Lord Coleraine [q. v."|, and had 
six sons and three daughters. His fourth 
son, Hugh Smith (1672-1745), of Weald 
Hall, married Dorothy, daughter of Dacre- 
Barret Lennard of Belhouse, and had issue 
two daughters ; Lucy, the younger (dt 5 Feb. 
1 759), married (17 March 1747) James Stanley 
lord Strange (1717-1771), who took (1749) 
the name of Smith-Stanley, which is retained 
by the earls of Derby, his descendants [see 
under Stanley, Edward Smith, thirteenth 

His portrait is at Christ's Hospital and 
has been engraved by George White, who en- 
graved also the portrait ot his wife, ' Madam 
Smith,' from a painting by Kneller, 1680. 

[Webb's Compendium of Irish Biography, 1878, 
pp. 484 sq. ; Granger's Biographical Hist, of 
England, 1779, iii. 404 sq., iv. 183; Burke's 
Extinct Baronetcies, 1841, p. 492; Debrett's 
Peerage, 1829, i. 98 sq. ; Burke's Peerage, 1895, 
p. 418; Morant's Essex, 1768, i. 119; London 
Directory of 1677 (1878 reprint) ; Endowed 
Schools (Ireland) Report, 1858; Social Science 
Congress Report, 1861 ; Educational Endow- 
ments (Ireland) Commission, Erasmus Smith 
Endowments, Draft Scheme, No. 144 (14 May 
1892); Cal. of State Papers (Dom.), 1650, 1662, 
1665 ; Smith's will at Somerset House; private 
information.] A. G-. 

SMITH, FRANCIS (Jl. 1770), painter, 
was born in Italy, presumably of English 
parents. He became associated with the 
notorious Frederick Calvert, seventh lord 
Baltimore [q. v.], whom he accompanied on a 
visit to the east in 1763, and for whom he 
made some interesting drawings of the 
ceremonies of the court of Constantinople 
and of various oriental costumes. A set of 
plates from these, engraved by R. Pranker, 
Vitalba, and others, was published in Lon- 
don in 1769. Smith exhibited a view of 
Vesuvius with the Incorporated Society of 
Artists in 1768, and in 1770, 1772, and 1773 
was a contributor to the Royal Academy, 
sending a panoramic view of Constantinople 
and its environs, and views of Naples and 
London. He died in London before 1780. 

[Edwards's Anecdotes of Painting; Red- 
grave's Diet, of Artists ; Exhibition Catalogues.] 

F. M. O'D. 

1874), inventor of the screw-propeller for 
steamships, only son of Charles Smith, post- 
master of Hythe, by Sarah, daughter of 
Francis Pettit of Hythe, was born there on 




$ Feb. 1808. He was educated at a private 
school at Ashford in Kent, and began life as 
a grazing farmer in Romney Marsh, after- 
wards removing to Hendon, Middlesex. In 
boyhood Smith acquired great skill in the con- 
struction of model boats, and displayed much 
ingenuity in contriving methods of propulsion 
for them. Continuing to devote much of his 
spare time to the subject, he in 1836 con- 
structed a model which was propelled by a 
screw, actuated by a spring, and wnicb proved 
so successful that he became convinced that 
this form of propeller would be preferable to 
the paddle-wheels at that time exclusively 

The scheme of using some form of screw 
as a propeller had been advocated by Robert 
Hooke m. v.] as early as 1681, and by Daniel 
Bernouilli and others in the eighteenth cen- 
tury. On 9 May 1796 Joseph firamah [q. v.] 
took out a patent for a screw propeller, but 
did not apparently construct one. But be- 
tween 1791 and 1807 John Cox Stevens, an 
American mechanician, made practical ex- 
periments with a steam-boat propelled by a 
screw at Hoboken, New Jersey. Moreover, 
simultaneously with Smith's first efforts, 
Captain John Ericsson, a Swede, was actively 
working in the same direction. 

Smith was wholly ignorant of these en- 
deavours. Impressed with the importance 
of the appliance, of which he believed himself 
the sole discoverer, he practically abandoned 
his farming, and devoted himself with whole- 
hearted enthusiasm to the development and 
perfecting of his idea. 

By the following year (1836) he had con- 
structed a superior model, which was exhi- 
bited in operation to friends upon a pond on 
his farm at Hendon, and afterwards to the 
public at the Adelaide Gallery, London. On 
81 May in the same year he took out a 
patent, based upon this model, for ' propelling 
vessels by means of a screw revolving beneath 
the water at* the stern. Six weeks later, on 
13 July — it is curious to note — Captain Erics- 
son took out, also in London, a similar patent. 
Smith quickly perfected his invention. With 
the pecuniary assistance of Mr. "Wright, a 
banker, and the technical assistance of Mr. 
Thomas Pilgrim, a practical engineer whose 
services Smith engaged, he soon constructed 
a small boat of ten tons burden and fitted 
her with a wooden screw of two turns, 
driven by an engine of about six horse- 
power. This was exhibited to the public 
in operation in November 1836. An acci- 
dent to the propeller led him to the conclu- 
sion that a shortened screw would give more 
satisfactory results, and in 1837 a screw of a 
single turn was fitted. With a view to 

proving the efficiency of this method of pro- 
pulsion under all circumstances, the little 
vessel was taken to Ramsgate, thence to 
Dover and Hythe, returning in boisterous 
and stormy weather. The propeller proved 
itself efficient to an unexpected degree in 
both smooth and rough water. 

The attention of the admiralty was now 
invited to the new invention, to which at the 
outset the sentiment of the engineering world 
was almost universally opposed. The admi- 
ralty considered it to be desirable that ex- 
periments should be made with a larger vessel 
before recommending the adoption of the screw 
in the navy. Accordingly a small company 
was formed, and the construction of a new 
screw steam er, the Archimedes, resolved upon. 
This was a, vessel of 237 tons, fitted with a 
screw of one convolution, propelled by engines 
of eighty horse-power, the understanding with 
the admiralty Deing that her performance 
would be considered satisfactory if a speed of 
five knots an hour were maintained. Double 
this speed was actually achieved, and the 
vessel, after various trials on the Thames 
and at Sheerness, proceeded to Portsmouth, 
where she was tried against the Vulcan, one 
of the fastest paddle steamers in her ma- 
jesty's service, with the most gratifyingresult. 
This was in October 1839, and in the following 
year the admiralty experts deputed to conduct 
a series of experiments with her reported that 
they considered the success of the new pro- 
peller completely demonstrated. The admi- 
ralty would not even then, however, defi* 
nitely commit themselves, and it was not 
until a year later — in 1841 — that orders were 
given for the Rattler, the first war screw 
steamer in the British navy, to be laid down 
at Sheerness. In the meantime the Archi- 
medes was taken to the principal ports in- 
Great Britain, to Amsterdam, and across the 
Bay of Biscay to Oporto, everywhere ex- 
citing interest, and leaving the impression 
that the value of the screw had been fully 
proved. When at Bristol Isambard Kingdom 
Brunei [q. v.] was invited to visit the vessel, 
and he was so satisfied with the new propeller 
that the Great Britain, the first large iron 
ocean-going steamer, which was originally in- 
tended to be fitted with paddles, was altered 
to adapt her for the reception of a screw. 
The Rattler was launched in 1843, and on 
18 March 1844 Smith's four-bladed screw 
was tested in her with complete success. 
Orders were soon given for twenty war 
vessels to be fitted with it under Smith's 
superintendence. The hitherto accepted 
theory that the screw could not economi- 
cally compete with the paddle because of 
the loss of power arising from the obliquity 





of its motion was also completely refuted, 
and its universal adoption for ships of war and 
ocean steamers became a mere question of 

Smith acted as adviser to the admiralty 
until 1850, but derived from his work for 
the government and from his commercial 
operations very inadequate remuneration. In 
1856 his patent — upon which an extension 
of time had been granted — expired, and he 
retired to Guernsey to devote himself once 
more to agriculture. But he was in 1 860 com- 
pelled, by lack of pecuniary means, to accept 
the post of curator of the patent office mu- 
seum, South Kensington. This office he 
held until his death. Some recognition of 
his services was made by Lord Palmerston in 
1855, when a pension of 200/. was conferred 
upon him, and in 1857 he was the recipient 
at St. James's Hall of a national testimonial, 
comprising a service of plate and a purse of 
nearly 8,000/., which were subscribed for by 
the whole of the shipbuilding and engineer- 
ing world. Later, in 1871, the honour of 
knighthood was conferred on him. He was 
an associate of the Institution of Civil En- 
gineers, member of the Institute of Naval 
Architects, and of the Royal Society of Arts 
for Scotland ; also corresponding member of 
the American Institute. He died at South 
Kensington on 12 Feb. 1874. He was twice 
married : first, in 1830, to Ann, daughter of 
William Buck of Folkestone, by whom he 
had two sons ; and secondly, in 1866, to 
Susannah, daughter of John Wallis of Boxley, 
Kent. His widow and two sons survived 

[On the Introduction and Progress of the 
Screw Propeller, 1856 (consisting of biographical 
notices of Smith published in various journals 
in 1856) ; Woodcroft's Origin and Progress of 
Steam Navigation, 1848; Treatise on the Screw 
Propeller by Bourne ; Smiles's Industrial Biogr. ; 
Men of tho Reign; Illustrated London News; 
Times, 1 7 Feb. 1 874.] W. F. W. 

SMITH, GABRIEL (d. 1783), engraver, 
was born in London, and there obtained his 
earliest instruction. About 1760 he accom- 
panied William Wynne Ryland [a. v.] to 
Paris, where he learnt the methoa of en- 
graving in imitation of chalk drawings, and 
on his return to England executed a series 
of plates in this style from designs by 
Watteau, Boucher, Le Brun, Bouchardon, 
and others, which were published by J. 
Bowles with the title, ' The School of Art, 
or most complete Drawing-book extant/ 
1766. In and about 1767 Smith engraved 
in the line manner, for Boydell, l Tobit and 
the Angel ' after Salvator Rosa, ' The Blind 
leading the Blind' after Tintoretto, 'The 

Queen of Sheba's Visit to Solomon ' after 
E. Le Sueur, and 'Boar Hunting' after 
Snyders. He also engraved a portrait of the 
Rev. John Glen King, F.R.S., alter Falconet, 
and etched, from his own drawings, ' Mr. 
Garrick in the Character of Lord Chalkstone 
in the Farce of Lethe/ and ' Mr. Foote in 
the Character of the Englishman returned 
from Paris/ He died in 1783. 

[Strutt's Diet, of Engravers ; Dodd's manu- 
script Hist, of Engravers in British Museum 
(Addit. MS. 33405); Redgrave's Diet, of Artists.] 

F. M. O'D. 

SMITH, GEORGE (1693-1756), nonjur- 
ing divine, son of John Smith (1659-1716) 

tq. v.], prebendary of Durham, was born at 
)urham on 7 May 1693, and was named 
after his godfather, Sir George Wheler of 
Charing, Kent,father-in-lawof his uncle,Pos- 
thumus Smith (Smith MSS.) After receiv- 
ing his early education at Westminster, where 
he boardea at the house of Hilkiah Bed- 
ford [q. v J, whose wife was sister of Smith's 
mother, Mary, daughter of William Cooper, he 
matriculated at Cambridge, as a pensioner of 
St. John's College, in 1709. His name, how- 
ever, was on 15 Nov. 1710 entered at Queen's 
College, Oxford, where his uncle, Joseph 
Smith (1670-1756) [q. v.], afterwards pro- 
vost, was then a fellow, and he matriculated 
there on 18 April 1711. His tutor was Ed- 
ward Thwaites [q. v.], afterwards Regius 
professor of Greek and a considerable Anglo- 
Saxon scholar. He was for a time a student 
of the Inner Temple. On his father's death in 
1715 he inherited a good fortune, and in 1717 
bought New Burn Hall, near Durham, where 
he thenceforth resided, the adjoining estate 
of Old Burn Hall having been bought by his 
uncle Posthumus in 1715. He had studied 
Anglo-Saxon and early English history while 
at Oxford, and when only twenty-two under- 
took with modest misgiving to complete the 
edition of Bede's historical works, on which 
his father had laboured for many years, and 
left unfinished at his death. He carried out 
this difficult task with remarkable success, 
adding many valuable notes to his father's 
work. This splendid folio edition was pub- 
lished at Cambridge in 1722. He received 
orders in the nonjuring church, and in 1728 
was consecrated bishop, with the denomina- 
tion of Durham, by Henry Gandy and others 
of the section that rejected the ' usages ' 
adopted by a portion of the nonjurors fiom 
the communion office of 1549* In 1731 he 
joined Thomas Brett [q. v.] in advocating a 
reunion among the nonjurors, and in answer- 
ing a representation made by those opposed 
to it; and assisted the two Bretts, who 




belonged to the other section, in consecrating 
Thomas Mawman. Again, in 1741, he joined 
the younger Brett and Mawman in conse- 
crating Robert Gordon, the last bishop of the 
regular nonjurors. He died on 4 Nov. 1766, 
and was buried in the churchyard of St. 
Oswald's, Durham, an English inscription 
being placed on his tomb and a Latin in- 
scription on a monument to him in the 
south aisle of the church. He was a man 
of learning and high character. 

By his wife Christian, who died on 23 July 
1781, aged 79, and who was the eldest 
daughter of Hilkiah Bedford, Smith had a 
numerous family, twelve of his children dying 
in infancy, and his eldest son being John 
Smith, M.D., of Burn Hall, who married 
Anne, daughter of Nicholas Shuttleworth of 
Elvet in St. Oswald's parish in 1760, and 
died in 1762, aged 29, leaving a son named 
George, who bought Piercefield, Monmouth- 
shire, became a lieutenant-colonel, and was 
father of Sir Charles Felix Smith [q. v.] and 
of Elizabeth Smith [q. v.] 

Besides his edition of tfede, Smith wrote 
some anonymous ^pamphlets, of which are 
known : 1. i An Epistolary Dissertation ad- 
dressed to the Clergy of Middlesex ... by 
way of Reply to Dr. Waterland's late Charge 
to them, by a Divine of the University of 
Cambridge/ London, 8vo, 1739. 2. 'A Brief 
Historical Account of the Primitive Invoca- 
tion/ &c, London, 8vo, 1740. 8. * A Defence 
of the Communion Office of the Church of 
England/ &c. f 'in a Letter to a Friend/ 
Edinburgh, 1744 ; published with a preface 
by another writer. 4. ' Britons and Saxons 
not converted to Popery ' (Smith MSS.) 
6. 'Remarks upon the Life of the Most 
Rev. Dr. John Tillotson, compiled by Thomas 
Birch, D.D./ London, 8vo, 1764. He gave 
Thomas Carte [a. v.] some help in writing 
his 'History of England;' and also aided 
his brother-in-law, Thomas Bedford (d. 1773) 
[q. v.], in preparing his edition of Symeon of 
Durham's ' Libellus de exordio . . . Dunhel- 
mensis Ecclesiro.' His portrait is in the library 
of St. John's College, Cambridge. 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecd. i. 170, 234, 704-5, and 
Lit. Illustr. v. 157 ; Surtees's Hist, of Durham, 
iv. 76-7, 96, 98; preface to Smith's idition of 
Bede; Lathbury's Hist, of the Nonjurors, pp. 
360, 370, 378-81, 396, 466 ; information kindly 
supplied by Rev. J. R. Hapath, provost of 
Queen's College, Oxford, chiefly from manu- 
scripts relating to Joseph Smith, provost of 
Queen's, in his possession.] W. H. 

SMITH, GEORGE (1713-1776), land- 
scape-painter, was born in 1713 at Chichester, 
where his father, William Smith, was a 
tradesman and baptist minister. He was 

the second and most gifted of three brothers, 
who all practised painting and were known 
as ' the Smiths of Chichester.' When a boy 
he was placed with his uncle, a cooper, but, 
preferring art, became a pupil of his brother 
William, whom ho accompanied to Glouces- 
ter ; there and in other places he spent some 
years, painting chiefly portraits, and then 
returned to his native city, where, under the 
patronage of the Duke of Richmond, he 
settled as a landscape-painter. He depicted 
the rural and pastoral scenery of Sussex and 
other parts of England in a pleasing but ar- 
tificial manner, based on the study of Claude 
and Poussin, which appealed to the taste of 
the day, and he was throughout his life a 
much-admired artist. His reputation ex- 
tended to the continent, where he was known 
as the 'British Gessner.' In 1760 Smith 
gained from the Society of Arts their first 
premium for a landscape, and repeated his 
success in 1761 and 1763. He exhibited 
with the Incorporated Society of Artists in 

1760, but in 1761 joined the Free Society, 
of which he was one of the chief supporters 
until 1774 ; in that year only he was a con- 
tributor to the Royal Academy. Smith's 
works, which are now chiefly met with at 
Goodwood and other country houses of Sus- 
sex and Hampshire, were largely engraved 
by Wooliett, Elliott, Peake, Vivares, and 
other able artists; a series of twenty-seven 
plates from his pictures, with the title ' Pic- 
turesque Scenery of England and Wales,' 
was published between 1757 and 1769. A 
set of fifty-three etchings and engravings by 
him and his brother John, from their own 
works and those of other masters, was pub- 
lished in 1770. George Smith was a good 
performer on the violoncello and also wrote 
poetry; in 1770 he printed a volume of 
4 Pastorals/ of which a second edition, accom- 

Eanied by a memoir of him, was issued by 
is daught ere in 181 1 . He died at Chichester 
on 7 Septal 776. 

John Smith (I717-1764),younger brother 
of George, was nis pupil, and painted land- 
scapes of a similar character ; the two fre- 
quently worked on the same canvas. John 
exhibited with the Incorporated Society of 
Artists in 1760 and with the Free Society 
from 1761 to 1764. In 1760, again in 

1761, he was awarded the second premium 
of the Society of Arts, and in 1762, when 
his brother George was not a candidate, the 
first ; his ' premium ' landscape of 1760 
was engraved by Wooliett. He died at 
Chichester on 29 July 1764. 

William Smith (1707-1764), the eldest 
of the brothers, born at Guildford in 1707, 
was placed by the Duke of Richmond with 




a portrait-painter in London, and for a time 
practised portraiture, first in London and 
then for eight or nine years at Gloucester. 
On his return to the metropolis he painted 
fruit and flowers with success until his health 
gave way, when he retired to Shopwyke, 
near Chichester. There he died on 4 Oct. 

The three brothers all lie in the church- 
yard of St. Pancras, Chichester. A portrait* 
group of them, painted by William Pethier, 
was engraved in mezzotint by him in 1765. 

[G. Smith's Pastorals, 2nd ed. 1811; Daily's 
Chichester Guide, 1831, p. 96; Redgrave's Diet, 
of Artists ; Graves's Diet, of Artists, 1760-1893 ; 
Seguier'a Diet, of Painters ; Nagler's Kiinstler- 
Lexikon.] F. M. O'D. 

in the navy, born about 1797, entered the 
navy in September 1808 on board the Princess 
Caroline ot 74 guns, and, remaining in her for 
upwards of four years, served in the North 
Sea, Baltic, and Channel. In February 1813 
he was moved into the Undaunted with Cap- 
tain Thomas Ussher [q. v."], whom he accom- 
fanied to the Duncan of ^4 guns in August 
814. On 20 Sept. 1815 he was promoted 
to be lieutenant. He afterwards served in 
the Mediterranean and on the coast of South 
America till his promotion, on 8 Sept. 1829, 
to the rank of commander. In 1830 he was 
appointed to superintend the instruction of 
officers and seamen in gunnery on board the 
Excellent at Portsmouth, and was advanced 
to post rank on 13 April 1832. His con- 
nection with the gunnery school at Ports- 
mouth led him to invent a new method of 
sighting ships' guns, a lever target, and the 
paddle-box lifeboats, which were widely 
adopted upon paddle-wheel steamers. In 
June 1819 he was appointed superintendent 
of packets at Southampton, where he died, 
unmarried, on 6 April 1850. He was the 
author of * An Account of the Siege of Ant- 
werp ' {1833) and some minor pamphlets on 
professional subjects. 

[O'Byrne's Nav. Biogr.Dict. ; Gent. Mag. I860, 
i. 664.] J. K. L. 

SMITH, GEORGE (1800-1868), historian 
and theologian, born at Condurrow, near 
Camborne, Cornwall, on 31 Aug. 1800, was 
the son of William Smith, a carpenter and 
small farmer at Condurrow (d. 1852), by 
his wife, Philippa Moneypenny (d. 1834). 
He was educated at the British and Foreign 
schools at Falmouth and Plymouth, to which 
town his father retired in 1808, when the 
lease of his small farm expired. In 1812 he 
returned with his parents to Cornwall, and 
was employed for several years in farm work 

and carpentering. Having accumulated a 
small sum of money, he became a builder in 
1824, and still further increased his re- 
sources. He married at Camborne church, 
on 81 Oct. 1826, Elizabeth Burrall, youngest 
daughter of William Bickford and Susan 
Burrall. Bickford was a manufacturer, who 
afterwards invented 'the miners' safety fuse,' 
and Smith became a partner in his enter- 
prises, taking out separately or in conjunction 
with his fellow-adventurers several patents 
for improvements in that article. Through 
his business he amassed a considerable for- 

Smith's energy largely contributed to the 
completion of the Cornwall railway, which 
ran from Plymouth to Truro and Falmouth, 
and he was the chairman of the company 
to January 1864. All his life he was a 
diligent student, and he was famed through- 
out Cornwall for his powers in speaking 
and lecturing. In 1823 he became a local 
preacher among the Wesleyan methodists, 
and for many years before his death was 
one of the leading lavmen in that society. 
He was a member of the Royal Asiatic So- 
ciety, of the Society of Antiquaries (23 Dec. 
1841), of the Royal Society of Literature, 
and of the Irish Archaeological Society. In 
1859 he was created LL.D. of New York. 

Smith died at his house, Trevu, Camborne, 
on 30 Aug. 1868, and was buried in the 
Wesleyan Centenary Chapel cemetery on 
4 Sept. His widow died at Trevu on 
4 March 1886, aged 81, and was buried in 
the same cemetery on 9 March. They had 
four children, the eldest of whom, William 
Bickford-Smith, represented in parliament 
the Truro division of Cornwall from 1886 to 

The writings of Smith included: 1. 'An 
Attempt to ascertain the True Chronology of 
the Book of Genesis/ 1842. 2. « A Disser- 
tation on the very Early Origin of Alphabeti- 
cal Characters,' 1 842. 3. * Religion of Ancient 
Britain to the Norman Conquest/ 1844 ; 2nd 
edit. 1846; 3rd edit, revised and edited by 
his eldest son, 1865. 4. ' Perilous Times, or 
the Aggressions of Antichristian Error, '1845, 
an attack on tractarianism. 5. ' The Cornish 
Banner : a Religious, Literary, and Histori- 
cal Register/ 1840-7 ; published in monthly 
numbers, July 1846 to October 1847, both 
inclusive, at the cost of Smith. 6. ' Sacred 
Annals:' vol. i. 'The Patriarchal Age/ 1847 
(2nd edit, revised, 1859) ; vol. ii. « The He- 
brew People/ 1850; vol. iii. 'The Gentile 
Nations/ 1853. The three volumes were re- 
issued at New York in 1 850-4. 7 . ' Wesleyan 
Ministers and their Slanderers/ 1849 ; 2nd 
edit. 1849, referring to the charges of the 




'Fly Sheets' and the action of the expelled 
ministers, Dunn, Everett, and Griffiths 
(Bibl Cornub. iii. 1163). 8. ' Doctrine of 
theCherubim/ 1850. 9. ' Polity of Wesleyan 
Methodism exhibited and defended/ 1851. 
10. 'Doctrine of the Pastorate/ 1851; 2nd 
edit. 1 851 . 11.' Wesleyan Local Preachers' 
Manual/ 1855. 12. ' Harmony of the Divine 
Dispensations/ 1 856. 13.' History of Wesleyan 
Methodism :' vol. i. ' Wesley and his Times/ 
1857 ; vol. ii. ' The Middle Age/ 1858; vol. 
iii. 'Modern Methodism/ 1861, a work of 
permanent value; the second and revised 
edition came out in 1859-62, and the fourth 
edition appeared in 1865. 14. 'The Cas- 
siterides, or the Commercial Operations of 
the Phoenicians in Western Europe, with 

Particular reference to the British tin trade/ 
863. 15. ' Book of Prophecy : a Proof of 
the Plenary Inspiration of Holy Scripture/ 
1865. 16. ' Life and Reign of David/ 1868. 
A companion work on Daniel was left in- 

SBoase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. ii. 662-4 
ere particulars are given of his sermons and 
patents and of several publications relating to 
him) ; Boase's Collectanea Cornub. pp. 906-7 ; 
City Road Mag. iii. 338-42; West Briton, 3 
and 10 Sept. 1868 ; Cornish Telegraph, 27 Jan. 
1864, pp. 2-3.] W. P. C. 

SMITH, GEORGE (1815-1871), bishop 
of Victoria, born in 1815, was the only son 
of George Smith of Wellington, Somerset. 
He matriculated from Magdalen Hall, Ox- 
ford, on 17 Dec. 1831, graduating B.A. in 
1837 and M.A. in 1843. He was ordained 
deacon in 1839 and priest in the following 
year. In 1841 he became incumbent of Goole, 
Yorkshire, and in 1844 he undertook a mis- 
sion of exploration in China for the Church 
Missionary Society. On his return he pub- 
lished the results of his expedition under the 
title ' A Narrative of an Exploratory Visit 
to each of the Consular Cities of China, and 
to the Islands of Hong Kong and Chusan,' 
London, 1847, 8vo. He was consecrated 
bishop of Victoria in Hong Kong on 29 March 
1849, resigned the see in 1865, and died 
on 14 Dec. 1871, at his residence at Black- 
heath, Kent. He married a daughter of 
Andrew Brandram, rector of Beckenham, 
Kent, and secretary of the British and 
Foreign Bible Society. 

Besides the work mentioned, Smith was 
the author of: 1. 'Hints for the Times/ 
London, 1848, 16mo. 2. 'A Letter on the 
Chinese Version of the Holy Scriptures to 
the British and Foreign Bible Society,' Hong 
Kong, 1851 , 8vo. 8. ' Lewchew and the Lew- 
chewans/London, 1858, 8vo. 4. ( Our National 

Relations with China/ London, 1857, 8vo. 
5. ' Ten Weeks in Japan/ London, 1861, 8vo. 

[Times, 16 Dec. 1871 ; Men of the Time, 7th 
edit. ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886 ; Crock- 
ford's Clerical Directory.] E. I. C. 

SMITH, GEORGE (1840-1876), Assyrio- 
logist, was born at Chelsea of parents in a 
humble station of life on 26 March 1840, and 
was apprenticed in 1854 to Bradbury & Evans 
to learn bank-note engraving. His imagina- 
tion had been fired from an early age by the 
accounts which he had read of the oriental 
explorations of Layard andRawlinson,andhe 
frequently spent the greater portion of his 
dinner hour at the British Museum, while his 
spare earnings were devoted to the purchase 
of books on Assyrian subjects. Sir Henry 
Rawlinson was struck by his intelligence 
and enthusiasm, and in 1866 gave him per- 
mission to study the paper casts in his work- 
room at the museum. Concentrating his 
attention at first upon the annals of Tiglath 
Pileser, Smith achieved his first success by 
the discovery of a new and confirmatory text 
which enabled him to assign a precise date to 
the tribute paid by Jehu, the son of Omri, to 
Shalmane8er II. A short account of this dis- 
covery was published by Smith in the'Athe- 
nseum , (1866, ii.410); and, being encouraged 
by Rawlinson and Dr. Birch, he next set to 
work upon the cylinders containing the his- 
tory of Assurbampal (Sardanapalus), and was 
gradually enabled to introduce some order 
into the confusion which had reigned among 
those documents. His remarkable success led 
Rawlinson to propose to the museum trustees 
that Smith should be associated with himself 
in preparing a new volume of the ' Cunei- 
form Inscriptions of Western Asia/ The 
suggestion was adopted, and in January 1867 
Smith entered upon his official life at the 
museum, and definitely devoted himself to 
the study of the Assyrian monuments. The 
first fruits of his labours were the discovery 
of two inscriptions — one fixing a date of the 
total eclipse of the sun in the month Sivan in 
B.C. 763, and the other the date of an invasion 
of Babylonia by the Elamites in B.C. 2280 ; 
while, in a series of articles in the ' Zeitschrift 
fur agyptische Sprache/ he threw a flood 
of light upon later Assyrian history and the 
political relations bet ween Assyria and Egypt. 
In 1870 Smith was appointed senior assistant 
to Dr. Birch, the keeper of oriental antiquities, 
and during 1871 he published his invaluable 
'Annals of Assur-lbani-pal,' transliterated 
and translated, an expensive and laborious 
work, issued at the cost of J. W. Bosanquet 
and H. Fox Talbot. On 6 June in this same 
year Smith read before the newly founded 




Society of Biblical Archseoiogy a valuable 
introductory paper on the ' Early History of 
Babylonia* (Transactions, 1. i. 28-92), and 
this was followed, on 7 Nov., by a paper on 
' The Reading of the Cypriote Inscriptions/ 
the Cypriote syllabary, as determined by 
him, proving a solid basis for the subsequent 
studies of Birch, Brandis, and others. It was 
in 1872, however, that Smith made the dis- 
covery which caused his name to be almost 
a household word in Great Britain — his dis- 
covery, namely, among the tablets sent home 
by Layard, of the ' Chaldean Account of the 
Deluge/ his translation of which was read 
before a meeting of the Society of Biblical 
Archaeology held on 3 Dec. 1872, at which 
Mr. Gladstone was present (ib, 11. i. 213-34). 
The interest of the discovery was accentuated 
by the modest way in which it was announced. 
In consequence of the wide interest taken 
in Smith's discoveries, the proprietors of the 
'Daily Telegraph* newspaper came forward 
and offered to advance one thousand guineas 
for fresh researches at Nineveh, on condition 
that Smith should conduct the expedition. 
The offer was accepted by the trustees of the 
British Museum, and Smith started for the 
east on 20 Jan. 1873, on six months' leave 
of absence. He reached the ruins of Nineveh 
on 2 March, and entered upon the field of 
active research which had been inaugurated 
by Botta in 1842, and by his own fellow- 
countrymen, Layard and Kawlinson. With 
great expedition he unearthed the missing 
fragments of the Deluge story from the so- 
called ' library ' at Kouyunjik, and returned 
to England with an important collection of 
objects and inscriptions. The proprietors of 
the 'Daily Telegraph' now presented the 
firman (necessary for the prosecution of the 
research) and the excavating plant to the 
trustees of the British Museum, who deter- 
mined to take advantage of the time remain- 
ing before the expiry of the firman by 
despatching Smith once more to the scene 
of the excavations. In spite of vexatious 
difficulties thrown in his way by Ottoman 
officials, he succeeded in bringing home a 
large number of fragmentary tablets, many 
of them belonging to the great Solar Epic 
in twelve books, of which the episode of the 
Deluge forms the eleventh lay. He reached 
home (by way of Aleppo and Alexandria) on 
9 June 1874, and early next year published 
an account of his travels and researches in 
'Assyrian Discoveries ' (London, 8vo, with 
maps and illustrations), which he dedicated 
to his chief, Dr. Birch. The remainder of 
1875 was occupied in piecing together and 
translating a number of fragments of the 
highest importance, relating to the Creation, 

the Fall, the Tower of Babel, and similar 
myths held in common by the Chaldeans and 
the people of the Pentateuch. The results of 
these labours were embodied in his ' Chaldean 
Account of Genesis* (London, 1876 [1875], 
8vo; again ed. Sayce, 1880, 8vo; German 
version, Leipzig, 1876, 8vo). 

The value of these discoveries induced the 
trustees of the British Museum to send Smith 
on yet another expedition to excavate the 
remainder of Assur-bani-pal's library at 
Kouyunjik, and so complete the collection 
of tablets in the museum. He accordingly 
started for Constantinople in October 1875, 
and, after much trouble, succeeded in getting 
the necessary firman. In March 1876 he left 
for Mosul and Nineveh, in company with Dr. 
Eneberg, a Finnish Assyriologist. While 
detained at Aleppo on account of the plague, 
he explored the banks of the Euphrates from 
the Balis northwards, and at Jerabolus dis- 
covered the ancient Hittite capital Carche- 
mish. After visiting Deri (or Thapsacus) 
and other places, he made his way to Bagdad, 
where he procured between two thousand 
and three thousand tablets, discovered by 
some Arabs in an ancient Babylonian library 
near Hillah. From Bagdad he went to 
Kouyunjik, and found, to his intense disap- 
pointment, that it was impossible to excavate 
on account of the troubled state of the 
country. Meanwhile Eneberg had died, and 
Smith, worn out by fatigue and anxiety, 
broke down at Ikisji, a small village sixty 
miles north-west of Aleppo. He was Drought 
to Aleppo through the agency of the British 
consul, James Henry Skene, from whose wife 
he received every possible attention, but after a 
short rally he died at the consulate on the even- 
ing of 19 Aug. He left a widow and family, 
for whose benefit a public subscription was 
set on foot by Professor Sayce, and in October 
1876 a civil list pension of 150/. was settled 
upon Mrs. Smith, in consideration of her hus- 
band's eminent services to biblical research. 

In addition to the works mentioned, Smith 
published : 1 . ' The Phonetic Values of Cunei- 
form Characters/ 1871, 8vo. 2. ' History of 
Assurbanipal/ 1871, 8vo. 3. ' Notes on the 
Early History of Assyria and Babylonia,' 
1872, 8vo. 4. < Ancient History from the 
Monuments : Assyria/ 1875. 5. ' The Assy- 
rian Eponym Canon/ London, 1875, 8vo; an 
invaluable pioneer work on Assyrian chro- 
nology. 6. ' Ancient History from the Monu- 
ments : Babylonia' (posthumous), London, 
1877, 8vo ; 2nd edit., revised by Sayce, 1895. 
7. 'The History of Sennacherib' (for the 
benefit of Mrs. Smith), 1878, 4to. 

[Memoir by Professor Sayce in Nature, 1 4 Sept. 
1876; Smith's Assyrian Discoveries; Trans- 




fictions of the Soc. of Biblical Archaeology, vols. 
i.-v. ; Times, 4 Dec. 1875, 5, 7, 10 and 13 Sept. 
1876; Daily Telegraph, 11 Sept. 1876; Levant 
Herald, 4 Sept. 1876 ; Menant's Bibliotheque da 
Palais de Niuire, 1 880, p. 1 7 ; Ragozin's Chaldea, 
pp. 42 seq.; Brit. Mus. Cat.] T. S. 

SMITH, GEORGE (1831-1895), of Coal- 
ville, philanthropist, born at Clayhills, Tun- 
stall, Staffordshire, on 16 Feb. 1831, was the 
son of William Smith (1807-1872), brick- 
maker, by his wife, Hannah Hollins (Gbo- 
sart, Hanani, or Memories of William Smith, 
1874, with portrait). At nine years of age 
George commenced working at his father's 
trade, carrying about forty pounds weight of 
clay or bricks on his head. The labour lasted 
thirteen hours daily, and to it was some- 
times added night-work at the kilns. He 
managed to obtain some education, and saved 
his earnings to buy books. In this manner, 
while still a young man, he raised himselt 
above the level of his associates. "While 
manager of large brick and tile works at 
Humberetone in Staffordshire in 1855, he 
visited Coalville in Leicestershire in 1857, 
where he discovered several valuable seams 
of clay. His imprudence in revealing his 
discovery prematurely prevented his reaping 
the full benefit of it ; but in the capacity of 
manager he succeeded in forming a large 
business there. 

During this time he persistently advocated 
the necessity of legislation on behalf of the 
brickmakers. He lectured on the degrada- 
tion, immorality, and ignorance of the work- 
men, and on the cruelties to which the 
children were subjected. In one instance a 
boy weighing fifty-three pounds had to carry 
a load of forty-four pounds of clay upon his 
head. In 1863 he obtained the support of 
Robert Baker, C.B., an inspector of factories, 
and from that time his efforts were unceasing. 
He created a powerful impression at several 
of the social science congresses, particularly 
those of 1870 and 1872. In 1871 he pub- 
lished ' The Cry of the Children ' (London, 
8vo, 6th edit. 1879), which roused the interest 
of Anthony Ashley Cooper, seventh earl of 
Shaftesbury Tq. v.J, and of Anthony John 
Mundella. In the same year an act (34 & 
36 Vict. cap. 104) was passed, providing for 
the inspection of brickyards and the regu- 
lation of juvenile and female labour therein. 
In recognition of his services Smith received 
a purse of sovereigns, accompanied by an 
address at a meeting presided over by Lord 
Shaftesbury. He had, however, roused con- 
siderable ill will within the trade, and to- 
wards the close of 1872 he lost his position 
of manager at Coalville. 

In 1873 Smith turned his attention to the 

conditions of life of the one hundred thou- 
sand men, women, and children living on 
canals and navigable rivers. He found 
drunkenness and immorality alarmingly rife 
among them. In 1874 Mr. John Money ad- 
mitted an article by him on the subject to the 
1 Fortnightly Review/ and in the following 
year he published * Our Canal Population : 
a Cry from the Boat Cabins/ London, 8vo. 
In 1876 he failed to dissuade Lord Sandon, 
in his first Education Bill, from applying the 
two-mile limit to children living in canal 
boats, but in the following year, in conse- 
quence of his representations, George Sclater- 
Booth f afterwards lord Basing) [q. v.] intro- 
duced tne Canal Boats Bill, which came into 
force on 1 Jan. 1878. This act enforced the 
registration of all canal boats under the name 
of a place where there was a school for the 
children to attend, as provided by the ele- 
mentary education acts. It also regulated 
the sanitary conditions of life on board. The 
act, however, left too much to the discretion 
of local authorities to insure any great ame- 
lioration of the condition of the canal popu- 
lation. In 1881 a bill to amend its provi- 
sions and render it more workable was blocked 
by Sir Edward Watkin and others, but it was 
passed in 1884. By its provisions the local 
authorities were required to make annual 
reports to the local government board, and 
the board to parliament. The board-school 
inspectors were instructed to enforce the 
attendance of the children at the schools, 
and an inspector of canal boats was appointed. 

For several vears Smith had sought to draw 
attention to the condition of the gipsy chil- 
dren, and after the passing of the Canal Boats 
Amendment Act he gave all his time to that 
subject. In 1880 he published ' Gipsy Life : 
being an Account of our Gipsies and their 
Children/ London, 8vo, a work containing 
much information on the history of the race 
in England. A Moveable Dwellings Bill, 
framed in accordance with Smith's views, was 
several times introduced into parliament by 
Messrs. Charles Isaac Elton, Thomas Burt, 
and Matthew Fowler. It provided for the 
registration of travelling vans and for the 
regulation of the sanitary condition of the 
dwellers. The education of the children pre- 
sented such difficulties that it was left for 
further consideration. Despite Smith's en- 
thusiastic energy, the opposition the bill 
encountered was too determined to permit 
its passage. 

After his dismissal from his post at Coal- 
ville in 1872, Smith passed thirteen years in 
great poverty. In 1885 he received a grant 
from tne royal bounty fund, with which he 
purchased a house at Crick, near Rugby. 




In 1886 he formed the 'George Smith of 
Coalville Society* at Rugby, the members of 
which were to assist in furthering his phi- 
lanthropic works. Smith died at Crick on 
21 June 1895. He was twice married, first 
to Mary Mayfield, by whom he had three 
children, and, secondly, to Mary Ann Lehman. 

Besides the works mentioned, Smith's most 
important publications were : 1. ' Canal Ad- 
ventures by Moonlight/ London, 1881, 8vo. 
2. ' I've been a Gipsying, or Rambles among 
our Gipsies and their Children/ London, 
1883, 8vo. 3. < Gypsy Children ; or a Stroll 
in Gypsydom/ London, 1889, 8vo ; new edit. 
1891. 4. ' An Open Letter to my Friends ; 
or Sorrows and Joys at Bosvil, lleek/ 1892, 

[Hodder's George Smith of Coalville, the 
Story of an Enthusiast, 1896, -with portrait ; 
George Smith of Coalville : a Chapter in Phi- 
lanthropy, 1 880, with portrait ; Times, 24 June 
1895; Graphic, 1879 p. 508 with portrait, 
1895 p. 778 with portrait; Illustrated London 
News, 1895, p. 798, with portrait; Biograph, 
May 1879, pp. 316-38 ; Fortnightly Review, 
February 1875, pp. 233-42.] E. I. C. 

1863), known as * Boatswain Smith/ was 
born in Castje Street, Leicester Square, 
London (now Charing Cross Road), on 
19 March 1782, and was apprenticed to a 
bookseller in Tooley Street from 1794 to 
1796. In the latter year he was apprenticed 
to the master of an American brig, but when 
at Surinam, Guiana, was pressed into the 
English naval service. "According to his 
own account, he was soon appointed a mid- 
shipman in the Scipio, and in 1797 a mid- 
shipman in the Agamemnon, serving in the 
North Sea fleet. He then became master's 
mate, was present in the battle of Copen- 
hagen in 1801, and in 1803 left the navy. 
From 1803 to 1807 he was a student under 
the Rev. Isaiah Birt at Devonport, and a 
preacher to sailors and fishermen at Ply- 
mouth, Dartmouth, and Brixham. In 1807 
he was chosen pastor of the Octagon baptist 
chapel at Penzance, where he served until 
1825, and again from 1843 to 1863. In 1822 
he converted the chapel into the Jordan 
baptist chapel. Between 1812 and 1816 he 
built six chapels in villages around Penzance, 
and educated men to supply them. 

But his energies were chiefly devoted to 
providing soldiers, and especially sailors, with 
religious teaching, and to forming in their 
behalf philanthropic institutions. On mis- 
sions connected with these objects he often 
left his charge at Penzance. From March 
to July 1814 he served as a voluntary chap- 
lain with the English army in Spain. After- 

wards he brought to England two French 
ministers, through whom he introduced the 
Lancasterian system of education into France. 

He commenced open-air preaching in Devon 
and Somerset in 1816, encountering much 
opposition, but his efforts led to the forma- 
tion of the Home Missionary Society in 1819. 
In 1817 he began prayer meetings and preach- 
ing on board ship among sailors on the 
Thames, when the Bethel flag was first used 
as a signal for divine service on board a 
vessel. He opened the first floating chapel 
for the sailors on the Thames in 1819, and 
soon after established similar ship-chapels in 
Liverpool, Bristol, and Hull. In 1822 he 
commenced open-air preaching in Tavistock 
Square, London, and, carrying out similar 
services all over the provinces, set an ex- 
ample which has since been widely fol- 
lowed. He formed the Thames Watermen's 
Friend Society for giving religious instruc- 
tion to watermen, bargemen, and coal-whip- 
pers in 1822, and a society for river and 
canal men at Paddington, where he also 
opened a chapel. In 1823 he originated the 
Merchant Seamen's Orphan Asylum for 
Boys, which is now a flourishing institution 
at Snaresbrook. In 1824 he formed the 
Shipwrecked and Distressed Sailors' Family 
Fund, which is now continued as the Ship- 
wrecked Mariners' and Fishermen's Society. 

In 1824 Smith formed the London City 
Mission Society, and in the same year opened 
the Danish Church, Wellclose Square, Lon- 
don Docks (which had been closed for twenty 
years), as the Mariners' Church. In 1827 
he established the London Domestic City 
Mission for holding Sunday services and 
visiting the poor in their houses. He claimed 
to have established in 1828 the first tempe- 
rance society in England, and in 1829 he 
commenced the Maritime Penitent Female 
Refuge, now carried on at Bethnal Green. 

On the site of the Brunswick theatre, 
Wellclose Square, of the falling down of 
which on 28 Feb. 1828 he printed an account, 
Smith erected the Sailors' Home, the first 
establishment of the kind, it is believed, in 
the world. In 1830 he established the 
Sailors' Orphan Homes for Boys and Girls. 
To pay the expenses of these establishments 
he made open-air preaching tours through 
Great Britain, having with him twelve 
orphan boys, six dressed as sailors and six 
as soldiers, who were trained to sing hymns 
and patriotic songs. At this time he fantas- 
tically entitled himself ' George Charles 
Smith, B.B.U.' (i.e. Burning Bush Uncon- 
sumed). In 1861, at the age of eighty, he 
visited America on the invitation 01 the 
Mariners' Church and the superintendent of 




the Sailors' Home, New York. He preached 
there and at Boston, Philadelphia, and Salem. 

He died in poverty at Jordan House, Pen- 
zance, on 10 Jan. 1863 ; the coastguard, the 
naval reserve, and two thousand people 
attended his funeral on 16 Jan. He married, 
in June 1808,Theodosia (d. 1866), daughter 
of John Skipwith. By her he had a nume- 
rous family. 

His name is found on upwards of eighty 
publications, chiefly small books and tracts. 
An almost complete bibliography is given in 
Boase and Courtney's ' Bibliotheca Cornu- 
biensis ' (pp. 664-9, 1337). Some of his most 
popular works were: 1. 'The Boatswain's 
Mate/ a dialogue, 181 2, many editions. 2. * The 
Prose and Poetical Works of the Kev. G. C. 
Smith/ 1819, a collected edition of twenty- 
four pieces. 3. ' Intemperance, or a General 
View of the Abundance, the Influence, and 
the horrible Conseauences of Ardent Spirits/ 
1829. He also edited ' The Sailor's Maga- 
zine/ 1820-7, and 'The New Sailor's Maga- 
zine and Naval Chronicle/ 1827, which, under 
various changes of name, he conducted to 

Theophiltjs Ahijah Smith (1809-1879), 
philanthropist, eldest son of the above, was 
born in Chapel Street, Penzance, on 2 July 
1809. In June 1824 he was apprenticed to 
Thomas Vigurs, a printer. From 1831 to 
1837 he was employed under his father in 
the Sailors' Society, and during that time he 
assisted informing the English and American 
Sailors' Society at Havre. In conjunction 
with Messrs. Giles and Grosjean, he in 1835 
inaugurated the first temperance society in 
London, and in 1839 formed the Church of 
England Temperance Society. From 1840 
to 1847 he was assistant secretary to the 
Protestant Association, and from 1847 to 
1861 secretary of the Female Aid Society. 
In 1860 he originated the midnight meeting 
movement, and was the secretary from 1861 
to 1864. Finally he was the secretary of 
the Protestant Association from 1865 to 
1868. He was permanently crippled by a 
railway accident in 1868, and died at Cardi- 

fan Road, Richmond, Surrey on 13 Jan. 
879. He married, first, in June 1836, Annie, 
daughter of James Summerland ; secondly, 
Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Cronk. He 
published an account of his father in 1874 
under the title of ' The Great Moral Refor- 
mation of Sailors.' 

[Gent. Mag. 1863, i. 260, 890-1; Congre- 
gational Year Book, 1862, p. 223; Cornish 
Telegraph, 14 Jan. 1863, p. 3, 21 Jan. p. 2; 
Baptist Mag. 1848, xl. 203, 563, 690; Boase's 
Collect. Cornub. 1890, p. 907; TheCornishman, 
29 Dec. 1881, p. 8.] G. C. B. 

1881), botanist and divine, born at Camber- 
well, Surrey, in 1804, was sixth son of Henry 
Smith. He entered Merchant Taylors' school 
in January 1814, and St. John's College, 
Oxford, as Andrew's exhibitioner, in 1822; 
he graduated B.A. in 1829. Before being 
ordained he published his principal botanical 
work, * A Catalogue of rare or remarkable 
Phanogamous Plants collected in South 
Kent,' London, 1829, which is dated from 
Sandgate. The 4 Catalogue,' which occupies 
only seventy-six pages, is arranged on the 
Linnsean system, deals critically with several 
groups, and has five coloured plates drawn 
by the author. Smith was vicar of St. 
Peter-the-Less, Chichester, from 1835 to 
1836, rector of North Harden, Sussex, from 
1836 to 1843, vicar of Cant ley, near Don- 
caster, Yorkshire, from 1844 to 1846, per- 
petual curate of Ashton Hayes, Cheshire, 
from 1849 to 1853, and vicar of Osmaston- 
by-Ashbourne, Derbyshire, from 1854 to 
1871. He died at Ockbrook, Derby, on 
21 Dec. 1881. 

Smith was the first to recognise several 
British plants, describing Statice occidentalis 
under the name S. binervosa in the ' Supple- 
ment to English Botany ' (1831, d. 63), and 
Filago apiculata in the i Phytolopst ' for 
1846 (p. 575). His herbarium, which does 
not bear witness to any great care, is pre- 
served at University College, Nottingham. 

Smith contributed ' Remarks on Ophrys ' 
to Loudon's ' Magazine of Natural History ' 
in 1828 (i. 398) ; ' On the Claims of Alyssum 
calycinum to a place in the British Flora ' to 
the < Phytologist ' for 1845 (ii. 232) ; a pre- 
face to W. E. Howe's ' Ferns of Derbyshire f 
in 1861, enlarged in the edition of 1877; 
and ' Notes on the Flora of Derbyshire ' to 
the 'Journal of Botany' for 1881. Besides 
the South Kent Catalogue and two sermons 
he published separately: 1. ' Stonehenge, a 
poem,' Oxford, 1823, 8vo, signed * Sir Oracle, 
Ox. Coll.,' and intended to be humorous. 
2. ' Are the Teachings of Modern Science 
antagonistic to the Doctrine of an Infallible 
Bible ? ' London, 1863, 8vo. 3. 'The Holy 
Scriptures the original Great Exhibition for 
all Nations,' an allegory, London, 1865, 8vo. 
4. ' What a Pretty Garden ! or Cause and 
Effect in Floriculture,' Ashbourne, 1865, 

[Robinson's Reg. of Merchant Taylors' School, 
ii. 197 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; Jour- 
nal of Botany, 1882, p. 63.] G. S. B. 

WAKELYN,baronet (1788-1860), the victor 
at Aliwal and governor of the Cape of Good 




Hope, fifth of a family of thirteen, was born 
in 1788 at Whittlesea in the Isle of Ely, 
where his father, John Smith, was a surgeon 
in fair practice. His mother, Eleanor, was 
daughter of George Moore, minor canon of 
Peterborough. A sister, Mrs. Jane Alice 
Sargant, who kept a school at Hackney, and 
died 23 Feb. 1869, was the author of « Ring- 
stead Abbey/ a novel (1830) ; of a drama 
* Joan of Arc ; ' and many religious and poli- 
tical tracts. A younger brother, Thomas 
Lawrence Smith (1792-1877), joined the 95th 
regiment on 3 March 1808; served with much 
distinction throughout the Peninsular war ; 
took part in the battle of Waterloo ; and, 
riding in front of his battalion, was the first 
British officer to enter Paris on 7 July 1815. 
From 1824 to 1855 he was barrack-master 
under the board of ordnance — until 1838 in 
Ireland and then at Chatham. From 1855 
he was principal barrack-master at Alder- 
shot, but in 1868, when he was made C.B., 
he retired from the army. Of his seven 
sons, six entered the army and one the navy. 
Another of Sir Harry's brothers, Charles 
Smith (1795-1854), served at Quatre Bras 
and Waterloo, where he was wounded, but 
retired early from the army. 

Harry received a commission as ensign in 
the 95tn foot, afterwards the rifle brigade, 
on 17 May 1805, and, being promoted to be 
lieutenant on 15 Aug. the same year, was 
quartered at Shorncliffe. In June 1806 he 
embarked for service under Sir Samuel Auch- 
muty [a. v.] in South America. In January 
1807 a landing was effected at Maldonado, 
near the mouth of the La Plata river, after 
some fighting, and the suburbs of Monte Video 
were occupied. On the 20th the enemy made 
a sortie with six thousand men, when the 
riflemen suffered severely. The attack, after 
a breach had been made on 3 Feb., was led 
by the riflemen and the place captured. 
Smith also took part on 5 July in the attack 
on Buenos Ayres, which ended disastrously 
for the British, and he returned with his 
regiment to England, arriving at Hythe in 
December 1807. 

In the autumn of 1808 Smith embarked 
with some companies of the second battalion 
for the Peninsula, and landed at Corufia on 
26 Oct. In December he was brigaded with 
the 43rd and 52nd foot under Brigadier- 
general Robert Craufurd [q. v.], and served 
throughout the retreat to and the battle of 
Corufia on 16 Jan. 1809. Embarking the 
same night, he arrived at Portsmouth on 
the 21st and proceeded to Hythe. 

In May 1809 Smith sailed with the 1st 
battalion under Lieutenant-colonel Beck- 
with for Lisbon, where they landed on 2 July, 

and joined Brigadier-general Robert Crau- 
furd's brigade. Smith was seriously wounded 
at the action of the Coa, near Almeida, on 
24 July 1810. In March 1811 he commanded 
a company in the pursuit of Masse 1 na from the 
lines of Lisbon, and was engaged in the ac- 
tions of Redinha on the 12th, of Condeixa on 
the 13th, and of Foz d'Aronce on 15 March. 
He was appointed to the staff as brigade- 
major to the 2nd light brigade of the light 
division in March 1811. In this capacity 
he was engaged in the action of Sabugal on 
3 April, the battle of Fuentes d'Onoro on 
5 May, and at the siege and at the storm of 
Ciudad Rodrigo on 19 Jan. 1812. After being 
promoted to be captain on 28 Feb. 1812, he 
was at the siege and at the storm of Badajos 
on 6 April. The day after the assault two 
handsome Spanish ladies, one the wife of a 
Spanish officer serving in a distant part of 
Spain, and the other her sister, a girl of 
fourteen years of age — Juana Maria de los 
Dolores de Leon — claimed the protection of 
Smith and a brother otficer, representing 
that they had fled to the camp from Bada- 
jos, where they had suffered violence from 
the infuriated soldiery, having had their ear- 
rings brutally torn from their ears. They 
were conveyed by Smith and his friend 
to a place of safety, and within two years 
the younger became Smith's wife. She 
was well known afterwards in English 

Smith took part in the battle of Salamanca 
on 22 July 1812, the battle of Vittoria 
21 June 1813, the passage of the Bidassoa 
7 Oct., the attack on the heights of Vera and 
in the battle of Sarre, the attack upon the 
position of St. Jean de Luz and the heights 
of Arcangues in November, the battle of 
Orthez on 27 Feb. 1814, the combat at Tarbes 
on 20 March, and the battle of Toulouse on 
10 April 1814. 

On the termination of hostilities with 
France, Smith was appointed in May assis- 
tant adjutant-general to the force sent under 
Major-general Ross to carry on the war with 
America. He embarked at Bordeaux on 
board the fleet of Rear-admiral Malcombe, 
which carried the expedition, and sailed on 
2 June. After calling at St. Michael's and 
at Bermuda, where additional troops joined 
them, they arrived in Chesapeake Bay early 
in August, landed at St. Benedict in the 
Patuxent river on the 19th, and marched 
on Washington. On the 24th Smith took 
part in the Dattle of Bladensburg and in the 
capture and burning of Washington. When 
Ross was killed in a skirmish near Balti- 
more on 12 Sept. [see Ross, Robebt], Smith 
was sent home with despatches in recog- 




nition of his services, and was promoted to be 
brevet major on 29 Sept. 1814. He left 
England again at once, with reinforcements 
under Sir Edward Michael Pakenham [a. v.], 
and joined the British land and sea forces 
before New Orleans on 25 Dec. Pakenham 
took the command ashore, and Smith resumed 
his duties as assistant adjutant-general. In 
the unsuccessful attack on New Orleans on 
8 Jan. 1815 Pakenham was killed and fell 
into Smith's arms. Sir John Lambert as- 
sumed the command, appointed Smith his 
military secretary, and employed him to nego- 
tiate with the enemy. During the night a 
truce for two days was with difficulty effected 
by Smith, who passed and repassed frequently 
between the opposing forces. 

Smith sailed in the fleet with the expedi- 
tion, on 27 Jan., to attempt the capture of 
Mobile, one hundred miles to the eastward 
of New Orleans. Troops were landed to 
attack Fort Bowyer and on He Dauphine, on 
the opposite side of the entrance. On the 
completion of the siege approaches to Fort 
Bowyer, Smith was sent in with a summons 
to surrender. The commandant, having 
elicited from Smith that the place would 
certainly be taken if stormed, capitulated 
on 11 Feb. On the 14th hostilities ceased, 
news having arrived that preliminaries of 
peace between England and the United 
States had been settled at Ghent on 24 Dec. 
1814. When intelligence of the ratification j 
of the treaty arrived on 5 March, the force , 
embarked, and Smith reached England in 
time to proceed to the Netherlands as assist- 
ant quartermaster-general to the sixth divi- 
sion of the army of the Duke of Welling- 
ton. Smith took part in the battle of 
Waterloo, and was left commandant of Cam- 
bray when the allied army marched on Paris. 
He was made a companion of the Bath, 
military division, and promoted to be brevet 
lieutenant-colonel from 18 June 1815. He 
received the Waterloo medal, and the war 
medal with twelve clasps for the Peninsula. 
He returned to England in 181 8, and served 
with the 2nd battalion of the rifle brigade in 
Ireland. On 19 Dec. 1826 he became un- 

On 23 Nov. 1826 Smith was appointed de- 
puty quartermaster-general of the forces in 
Jamaica. On 24 July 1828 he was transferred, 
in the same capacity, to the Cape of Good 
Hope, under his old commander in the Pen- 
insula, Sir Galbraith Lowry Cole [q. v.], at 
that time governor and commanding the 
forces in the Cape Colony. On the outbreak 
of the Kaffir war, at the end of 1834, Sir 
Benjamin D'Urban [q. v.], who had succeeded 
Sir Lowry Cole, appointed Smith to be colonel 

on the staff and commandant of the regular 
and burgher forces, and second in command 
in the colon v from 1 Jan. 1835. Smith at once 
rode from Cape Town to Graham's Town, 
accomplishing the seven hundred miles, over 
a rough and roadless country, in the extra- 
ordinarily short period of six days. The feat 
is still deservedly remembered in the colony 
as ' an historical ride/ In February he leit 
Graham's Town with a force of eleven hun- 
dred men to clear the country between 
the Fish and the Keiskamma rivers. On 
12 Feb. he fought a successful action with 
the Kaffirs. In March he prepared a central 
camp at Fort Willshire, where three thou- 
sand troops were assembled before advanc- 
ing. He had another successful action with 
the Kaffirs on 7 April at T'Slambies Kop, 
and towards the end of the month carried 
on operations in Hintza's country across the 
Kei river. Hintza, the chief of the Amakosa 
Kaffirs, gave himself up as a hostage, but 
played false, and endeavouring to escape on 
12 May, when riding with Smith on the 
march with his column, was pursued and 
overtaken by Smith, who dragged him from 
his saddle. Hintza, however, managed to 
get away, and was shot the same day in the 
bush by Lieutenant George Southey, whom 
he was about to assegai. On 28 May Smith 
took a column of six hundred men to clear 
the country near the sea and examine the 
mouth of the Buffalo river. On 4 June he 
made another expedition, scouring the country 
about the river Keiskamma, when the war 
practically came to an end. 

The Kei river was made the new boundary, 
and the country between the Great Fish and 
the Kei rivers was annexed and secured by 
a series of forts. On Sir Benjamin Durban 
leaving the front for Graham's Town on 
10 June, he appointed Smith to command the 
troops and to administer the new province 
of 'Queen Adelaide/ as he named it. On 
17 Sept. a formal treaty with the Kaffir 
chiefs was concluded by Smith at Fort Will- 
shire, and a commission, over which Smith 
presided, was appointed to carry it into 
effect. As chief commissioner Smith de- 
fined the boundaries of the land given to 
each tribe, and reduced the country to order. 
Having completed this work, he returned to 
Capetown and resumed his duties as deputy 
quartermaster-general on 13 Sept. 1886. Un- 
fortunately, the labour of the commission 
was speedily undone by the action of Lord 
Glenelg, secretary of state for the colonies. 
Although Glenelg wrote to Smith in Sep- 
tember 1837 praising the latter's 'zealous, 
humane, and enlightened administration/ he 
considered the Kaffirs the aggrieved party 




and their invasion of the colony justifiable, 
and ordered the territory which had been 
annexed to be restored to them. 

On 10 Jan. 1837 Smith was promoted to 
be brevet-colonel. On 6 March 1840 he was 
appointed adjutant-general of the queen's 
army in India. On 13 May 1842 he was 
brought into the 3rd foot, but was again un- 
attached on 20 Aug. 1843. In December of 
this year he took part as adjutant-general in 
the Gwalior campaign under the commander- 
in-chief in India, Sir Hugh (afterwards Lord) 
Gough [q. v.], and for his distinguished ser- 
vices at the battle of Maharajpur on 29 Dec. 
was thanked in despatches and made a knight 
commander of the Bath. 

Early in December 1845, on the Sikh in- 
vasion, Smith was with Gough at Ambala. 
He was given the command of a division 
with the honorary rank of major-general. 
He took a prominent part in the battle of 
Mudki on 18 Dec., and again distinguished 
himself at the battle of Firozshah on 21 and 
22 Dec. He was mentioned in despatches 
for his ' unceasing exertions ' on both occa- 
sions. On 18 Jan. 1846 Smith, with a bri- 
gade, reduced the fort of Dharmkote and 
captured the town, containing a large supply 
of grain. He then marched towards Ludiana, 
and, by means of some very delicate com- 
binations, executed with great skill but 
severe loss, he effected communication with 
that place. On 28 Jan. he encountered the 
Sikhs in open battle at Aliwal, and, leading 
the final charge in person, he drove the enemy 
headlong over the difficult ford of a broad 
river (the Satlaj), taking over sixty pieces of 
ordnance (all that the enemy had in the field), 
and wresting from him his camp, baggage, 
and stores of ammunition and of grain. The 
Duke of Wellington, in the House of Lords 
(3 April 1846), said of Smith's conduct at 
Aliwal: 'I never read an account of any 
affair in which an officer has shown himself 
more capable than this officer did of com- 
manding troops in the field.' Of Smith's 
despatch announcing his victory Thackeray 
wrote in his essay ' On Military Snobs: ' 'A 
noble deed was never told in nobler lan- 

Smith rejoined headquarters on 8 Feb., and 
on the 10th commanded the first division of 
infantry at the crowning victory of the cam- 
paign — the battle of Sobraon. Smith was 
highly commended in despatches, both by 
the commander-in-chief ana by the governor- 
general, Sir Arthur Hardinge, who had taken 
part in the campaign. A treaty was re- 
luctantly concluded by the Sikhs, by which 
the country between the Beas and the Satlaj 
rivers was annexed by the British, and on 

20 Feb. Smith arrived with the army at 
Lahore, the Sikh capital. 

Smith was promoted to be major-general 
in the East Indies on 1 April 1846. For his 
services in the Sikh war, and especially for 
his victory at Aliwal, he was created a 
baronet and given the grand cross of the 
Bath. He received the thanks of both houses 
of parliament, of the East India Company, 
and of the Duke of Wellington, commander- 
in-chief ; the freedom of the cities of London 
and Glasgow was conferred on him, and on 
9 Nov. of the same year he was promoted to 
be major-general. In 1847 he was granted 
the honorary degree of LL.D. at Cambridge, 
at the installation of the prince consort as 
chancellor (cf. Clare and Hughes, Life of 

On 18 Jan. 1847 Smith was gazetted 
colonel of the 47th foot, and on 16 April of 
the same year he was transferred to the rifle 
brigade as colonel-commandant of the 2nd 
battalion. He returned to England, and on 
3 Sept. 1847 was appointed governor of the 
Cape of Good Hope and its dependencies, and 
promoted to be local lieutenant-general to 
command the troops there. On his arrival at 
the Cape on 1 Dec. 1847 Smith was most 
enthusiastically received. War with the 
Kaffirs, which had been going on for some 
time, had just ended in the capture of Sandili 
and other chiefs. Smith hastened to King 
William's Town, where he arrived on 23 Dec. 
He inspected the 1st battalion of his own 
regiment quartered there, and held a meeting 
of all the Kaffir chiefs, releasing Sandili and 
the others. He issued a proclamation ex- 
tending the Cape Colony to the Orange 
river on the north, and, on the East, to the 
Keiskamma, from the sea to the junction of 
the Chumie river,' and then along the Chumie 
to its source. He announced himself, as re- 
presentative of the queen, the head chief of 
the Kaffirs. The chiefs made their submission, 
and Smith ordered the annexed territory to 
be called British Kaffraria. Smith then 
visited Natal, and succeeded in stopping an 
exodus of the Dutch, or Boers, due to the 
support of the natives by the British go- 

Pretorius, the Boer leader, objected to a 
proclamation issued by Smith when in camp 
on the Tugela, which extended British sove- 
reignty over the country between the Vaal 
and Orange rivers. Early in July 1848 
Pretorius raised a commando and, establish- 
ing himself at Bloemfontein, expelled the 
British resident. Smith, who was at Cape- 
town when the news arrived, acted with 
vigour, directed a column composed of two 
companies of the rifle brigade, two of the 




46th, and two of the 91st regiments, with 
two squadrons of Cape mounted rifles, to 
march from Graham's Town to Colesberg ; he 
himself met them near the Orange river on 
21 Aug. 1848, and on the 29th of that 
month he arrived with the column at Boom 
Plaatz, where he found the Boers, one thou- 
sand strong, holding a formidable position 
and well covered by dry stone walls hastily 
thrown up. He attacked in the middle of 
the day and stormed the position. The Boers, 
who were better mounted and whose guns 
were heavier than Smith's, were completely 
beaten, and broke and fled. Many of the 
farmers crossed the Vaal with Pretorius and 
founded the Transvaal state (recognised in 
1852) ; the remainder returned to their farms 
and waited the course of events. Smith 
continued his pursuit the following day 
towards Bloemfontein, where he arrived on 
2 Sept. and reinstated the British resident. 
Families from the Cape moved into the 
Orange river country, and occupied the lands 
of those who had crossed the Vaal, and the 
territory eventually became (1854) the Orange 
Free State. 

During 1848 and 1849 there was consider- 
able excitement at Capetown, caused by the 
proposal of the home government to form 
a penal settlement there. After a very strong 
representation had been made by Smith as 
governor to Earl Grey on the subject, point- 
ing out the ill feeling and opposition that 
had been raised, and intimating that he 
would resign if the proposal were forced 
upon the colony rather than carry it out, 
Earl Grey decided that the convicts who 
had already sailed in the Neptune, which 
was detained at Pernambuco, should be landed 
at the Cape, but that no more should be sent. 
On the arrival of the Neptune on 20 Sept. 
1849, the tolling of bells and the sounding 
of the fire-alarm gong announced the un- 
welcome news. Shops were closed and 
business suspended. A committee was formed 
to prevent the landing of the convicts, and 
was supported by the community. It was 
resolved not to furnish the Neptune, nor 
indeed any one connected with government, 
with supplies. Smith acted with great for- 
bearance. He frankly told the people that 
neither he nor the troops would go hungry 
so long as they had arms in their hands, but 
he did his best to induce the home govern- 
ment to send away the Neptune, and in the 
meantime he would not allow the convicts 
to be landed. His representations resulted 
in the arrival of orders in February 1850 to 
send the convicts in the Neptune to Tasmania. 

On 31 May 1850 Smith inspected the 1st 
battalion of the rifle brigade prior to its 

departure for England, and issued a very 
complimentary and characteristic general 
order. During this year there were warnings 
of a Kaffir rising. Smith summoned a meet- 
ing of chiefs, and went to King William's 
Town. The head chief, Sandili, refused to 
attend, and was deposed on 30 Oct., when 
Smith returned to Capetown. Sandili's de- 
position had no effect, and Smith had scarcely 
reached Capetown when he received accounts 
which made him hasten back to the frontier 
with all available troops. On 24 Dec. a 
column of troops, moving to arrest the deposed 
chief, was attacked with some success near 
Keiskamma Hoek, and on Christmas day a 
horrible massacre of the Europeans of the 
villages of Johannesburg, Woburn, and Auck- 
land in the Chumie valley took place. At 
the same time Smith was besieged at Fort 
Cox by nearly the whole force of the Kaffirs. 
On 29 Dec. Colonel Somerset failed in an 
attempt to relieve Smith, and on the 31st 
Smith sallied out with all his troops, and, 
making a dash through the enemy, succeeded 
in reaching King William's Town. A large 
body of Hottentots of the Kat river joining 
in the rebellion made it the more serious, 
particularly as they acted in small bodies, 
raiding the country in which the farms and 
villages were scattered at considerable dis- 
tances. Smith could do little without rein- 
forcements, but while awaiting them he called 
all the loyal inhabitants, both European and 
native, to arms, concentrating the women 
and children where they could be protected. 
He took the field in person on 18 March, 
and' went to the relief of Fort Hare, which 
he accomplished by a clever movement, and 
then, with a rapidity which astonished the 
Kaffirs, marched on Forts Cox and "White, 
defeating the enemy in a spirited engagement. 
Reinforcements began to arrive in May, and 
Smith organised columns to scour the country 
and attack some of the strongholds of the 
enemy in the mountains; but on 7 April 
1852 Smith was superseded by Lieutenant- 
general the Hon. George Cathcart, the home 
government being dissatisfied with the slow 
progress made in crushing the rising. This 
action of the secretary of state for the co- 
lonies did not add to nis popularity. 

On 18 Nov. Smith was a pall-bearer at the 
funeral of the Duke of Wellington at St. 
Paul's. On 21 Jan. 1853 he was appointed 
to the command of the western military 
district, and made lieutenant-governor of 
Plymouth. He was promoted to be lieu- 
tenant-general on 20 June 1854, and on 
29 Sept. of the same year was transferred to 
the command of the northern military dis- 
trict, with headquarters at Manchester, which 


4 8 


he held until 30 June 1859. He died without 
issue on 12 Oct. 1860, at his residence in 
Eaton Place West, London. His widow died 
on 10 Oct. 1872. Both he and his wife were 
buried in the cemetery at Whittlesea, his 
native place. By way of memorial to him 
the chancel aisle of St. Mary's, Whittlesea, 
was restored in 1862, and a marble monu- 
ment with his bust was placed there. The 
aisle is known as ' Sir Harry's Chapel ' (cf. 
Sweeting, Churches of Northamptonshire and 
Cambridgeshire). The sabre Smith wore from 
1835 to 1857 is now the property of Queen Vic- 
toria. The South African towns Harrismith 
(Orange. Free State), Ladysmith (Natal), 
Whittlesey, and Aliwal commemorate 
Smith's connection with Cape Colony. 

Smith was not devoid of the self-assertion 
characteristic of men who fight their own 
way in the world and owe their successes 
solely to their own energy and ability ; but 
he was popular with his colleagues and sub- 
ordinates, who were fascinated by his daring 
energy and originality, and admired his rough 
and ready wit. 

A crayon portrait by Isabey belongs to the 
Baroness Burdett-Coutts ; another, in oils, 
belongs to Mrs. Waddelow of Whittlesea. 
Smith is a prominent figure in W. Taylor's 
picture 'The Triumphal Reception of the 
Seikh Guns,' engraved by F. C. Lewis and 
C. G. Lewis. A photograph of Smith was 

[War Office Records ; Obituary Notices in the 
Annual Register and Gent. Mag. 1860; Des- 
patches ; Alison's Hist, of Europe ; Cope's Hist, 
of the Rifle Brigade ; Napier's Hist, of the War 
in the Peninsula ; Siborne's Hist, of the Waterloo 
Campaign; Alexander's Excursions in Western 
Africa and Narrative of a Campaign in Kaffir- 
land in 1835-6; Hough's Political and Military 
Events in India ; Trotter's Hist, of India, 1844- 
1862; Theal's Compendium of the Hist, and 
Geography of South Africa ; King's Campaign- 
ing in Kaffirland, 1851-2 ; Ward's Five Years 
in Kaffirland, with Sketches of the late War, 
1848.] R. H. V. 

SMITH, HENRY (1550 P-1591), puritan 
divine, known as ' silver-tonged Smith/ 
eldest son and heir of Erasmus Smith of 
Somerby and Husbands Bosworth, Leices- 
tershire, by his first wife, widow of one "Wye 
and daughter of one Baiard, was born about 
1550 at Withcote, Leicestershire, the seat of 
his grandfather, John Smith (d. 1 546). Eras- 
mus Smith [a. v.] was his nephew. He was 
admitted a fellow-commoner of Queens' Col- 
lege, Cambridge, on 17 July 1573, but does 
not appear to have matriculated, and soon 
left the university (Cooper, Athena Cantabr. 

ii. 103). He continued his studies with 
Richard Greenham [a. v.], rector of Dry 
Drayton, Cambridgeshire, who imbued him 
with puritanic principles. On 15 March 
1575-6 he was matriculated at Oxford as a 
member of Lincoln College, and graduated 
B.A. on 16 Feb. 1578-9 (Fosteb, Alumni 
Oxon. 1500-1714, iv. 1372). He cannot be 
identified with either of two students of the 
same names of Hart Hall, who proceeded 
M.A. in 1579 and 1583 respectively. The 
puritan divine terms himself ' theologus f 
(never M.A.), and is so described by others. 
Although he was heir-apparent to a large 
patrimony, he resolved to enter the ministry, 
but, owing to conscientious scruples with 
regard to subscription, he determined not to 
undertake a pastoral charge and to content 
himself with a lectureship. Thomas Nash 
relates that Smith, before entering into the 
' wonderful ways ' of theology, ' refined, pre- 
pared, and purified his wings with sweet 
poetry' (Pierce Pennilesse, ed. Collier, p. 40), 
none of which, however, is now known. 
For some time he officiated in the church 
of Husbands Bosworth, but it is uncertain 
whether he obtained the rectory, which was 
in his father's patronage. In 1582 he brought 
to his senses one Robert Dickins of Mans- 
field, a visionary, who pretended to be the 
prophet Elias; and on this occasion he 
preached a sermon, afterwards published 
under the title of 'The lost Sheep is found/ 
Subsequently he preached in London and 
its vicinity with great success, and in 1587 
he was elected lecturer of St. Clement Danes, 
without Temple Bar, by the rector and con- 
gregation. Smith's father had married, as 
his second wife, Lord Burghley's sister Mar- 
caret, widow of Roger Cave, esq., and 
Burghley, who resided in the prish of St. 
Clement Danes, aided his candidature. He 
soon obtained unbounded popularity, and 
came to be regarded as the ' prime preacher 
of the nation/ Wood says he was ' esteemed 
the miracle and wonder of his age, for his pro- 
digious memory, and for his fluent, eloquent, 
and practical way of preaching* (Athena 
Oxon. i. 603); and Fuller states that he 
was commonly called 'the silver-tongued 
Smith, being but one metal in price and 
purity beneath St. Chrysostom himself r 
(Church Hist bk. ix. cent. xvi. p. 142). 
Fuller remarks that 'persons of quality 
brought their own pues with them — I mean 
their legs to stand there upon in the allies/ 
In 1588 Aylmer, bishop of London, was 
informed that Smith had spoken in deroga- 
tion of the Book of Common Prayer, and had 
not subscribed the articles. Nor did he hold 
a license from Aylmer, his diocesan. The? 




bishop accordingly suspended him from 
preaching. Smith addressed a brief vindica- 
tion to Lord Burghley, in which he stated 
that the bishop had himself called upon him 
to preach at St. Paul's Cross, and denied 
that he had spoken against the prayer-book. 
He said he yielded his full consent to all 
the articles ' of faith and doctrine/ but he 
avoided reference to matters of discipline. 
The parishioners sent a testimonial and sup- 
plication on his behalf. Lord Burghley ac- 
tively interposed in his favour, and he was 
restored to his ministry (Strypb, Life of 
Aylmer, ed. 1701 pp. 152-6, 1821 pp. 100-3 ; 
Lansdowne MS. 61, art. 26 ; Marsden, Early 
Puritans, p. 181). 

During the last illness of William Har- 
ward, rector of St. Clement Danes, and 
again on his death, strenuous efforts were 
made by the parishioners to obtain for Smith 
that benefice, which was in the patronage 
of Lord Burghley; but Richard Webster, 
B.D., was instituted on 22 May 1589, pro- 
bably after Smith had declined the prefer- 
ment. Owing to ill-health he resigned his 
lectureship about the end of 1590, and re- 
tired to Husbands Bosworth. During his 
sickness he occupied himself in preparing his 
works for the press, and in revising his ser- 
mons, some of which had been 'taken by 
character ie ' and printed, without his consent, 
from these imperfect shorthand notes (Notes 
and Queries, 8th ser. x. 189). His collected 
sermons he dedicated to Lord Burghley, but 
he died before the collection was published. 
Smith was buried at Husbands Bosworth 
on 4 July 1591 (Parish Register). His 
father survived him many years. 

Although puritanically inclined, Smith 
was in sympathy with tie church of Eng- 
land, and regarded the followers of Brown 
and Barrow as enemies of the church. His 
sermons are noble examples of English 
prose and pulpit eloquence. They are free, 
in an astonishing degree, from the besetting 
vices of his age — vulgarity and quaintness 
and affected learning (Marsden). 

The bibliography of Smith's works is be- 
wildering. The ' Collected Sermons ' passed 
through the following editions: London, 
1592, 8vo, 1593, 1594, 1595, 1599, 1604, 
1607, 1609, 1612, 1613, 1614, 1617-19, 
1620-2, and 1631-2. Another edition of the 
' Sermons/ including the ' Prayers ' and other 
works with a very meagre life of the author 
by Thomas Fuller, B.D., appeared at London 
in 1657, and again in 1675, 4to. Both edi- 
tions are very scarce, especially the former ; 
the latest edition was printed at London in 
2 vols. 8vo in 1866. 

Among his other works are: 1. 'A prepa- 

vol. mi. 

rative to marriage: The summe whereof 
was spoken at a contract and enlarged after. 
W hereunto is annexed a treatise of the Lords 
Supper, and another of usurie/ London, 1591, 
16mo; Edinburgh, 1595, 8vo. 2. 'Juris- 
prudentioe, Medicinse et Theologies Dialogue 
dulcis/ London, 1592, 8vo. In Latin hexa- 
meters and pentameters. Published by his 
kinsman, Brian Cave, who dedicated the 
work to his uncle, Thomas Cave, esq., of 
Baggrave, Leicestershire. 3. ' Vit® Suppli- 
cium: sive de misera Hominis conditione 
querela,' London, 1592, 8vo ; in Latin 
sapphics. This is annexed to the ' Dialogus.' 
An English translation appeared under the 
title of * Micro-Co8mo-Graphia ; The Little- 
Worlds Description : or, the Map of Man 
(From Latin Saphiks of that Famous, late, 
Preacher in London, Mr. Hen. Smith) trans- 
lated [into English verse] by Iosvah Sylves- 
ter/ printed with ' The Parliament of Ver- 
tues Royal/ London [1614], 8vo, and re- 
printed in 'Du Bartas his Diuine Weekes 
and Workes/ London, 1621, fol. 4. 'Gods 
Arrow against Atheists/ London, 1593, 4to, 
with his sermons ; London, 1614,1621,1632, 
4to, and 1872, 8vo; translated into Latin, 
Oppenheim, 1594, 8vo. 

His portrait has been engraved by T. Cross, 
James Basire, and by an unknown engraver. 

[Life, by Thomas Fuller ; Addit. MS. 24400, 
p. 392; Ames's Typogr. Antiq., ed. Herbert; 
Bailey's Life of Fuller, pp. 201, 609, 752; 
Brook's Puritans, ii. 108; Burton's Leicester- 
shire, p. 313 ; Granger's Biogr. Hist, of England ; 
Harington's Epigrams, iii. 16; Holmes's Descrip- 
tive Cat. of Books ; Hunter's Illustr. of Shake- 
speare, ii. 49, 21 1 ; Lansdowne MS. 982, art. Ill; 
Nichols's Leicestershire, ii. 185, 389-91, 468, 
889, plate lxxi; Notes and Queries, 1st ser. iii. 
222, vi. 129, 231, vii. 223, 2nd ser. viii. 152, 254, 
330, 501, iz. 65, 285; Betrospective Beview, 
2nd ser. ii. 11 ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.] T. C. 

SMITH,HENRY (1620-1668 P), regicide, 
born in 1620, was the only sonof Henry Smith 
of Withcote in Leicestershire, descended from 
the family of Smith, alias Heriz or Harris, 
in Nottinghamshire, to which belonged 
-m •.! tt Smith 

shire. Henry the elder dying in 1628, the 
future regicide became a ward of the king. He 
matriculated at Oxford from Magdalen Hall 
(now Hertford College) on 26 Jan. 1687-8, 
and graduated B.A. from St. Mary Hall on 
9 June 1640. In the same year he became 
a student of Lincoln's Inn. He represented 
the county of Leicester in the parliament of 
1640 as a ' recruiter ; ' he was probably elected 
in the place of Henry, lord Grey de Ruthin 


5* Smith 


v.], who was called to the upper house as 
larl of Kent in November 1643. Attaching 
himself to the cause of the parliament, Smith 
received a place in the six clerks' office, and 
was added to the committee for compound- 
ing on 18 Dec. 1648. He joined in a protest 
against the votes for a treaty with the king 
in the Isle of Wiffht on 20 Dec. 1648. Smith 
was one of the judges at the trial of Charles I, 
attended all the sittings (10-29 Jan. 1648-9), 
both in the Painted Chamber and in West- 
minster Hall, and signed the death-warrant. 
He sat as a recruiter in the restored Rump 
of 1659. 

At the Restoration he was excepted from 
the general act of oblivion (9 June 1660), 
but surrendered himself in pursuance of the 
king's declaration (6 June), and was put 
into the charge of the serjeant-at-arms on 
19 June. He was excepted from the In- 
demnity Bill of August 1660, with the sav- 
ing clause of suspension of execution till a 
further act should have passed. He was 
arraigned at the Sessions House, Old Bailey, 
on 10 Oct. 1660, when he pleaded not guilty, 
and appeared to defend himself on 16 Oct. 
He pleaded youth and ignorance, and asserted 
that he had no recollection of having signed 
the death-warrant. When confronted with 
his signature, he was unable to say whether 
the writing was his own or not, but confessed 
that it resembled it. He handed in a petition 
for life, in which the part he had taken in 
the proceedings against the king were attri- 
buted to * ye tnreatenings of those that then 
ruled ye army with noe less than loss of life 
and estate, and incessant importunity off such 
as had relacon to him and power over him.' 
He was included in the act of attainder of 
December 1660, as one of those condemned 
but under respite. On 25 Nov. 1661 a bill 
for the execution of the attainted persons 
was read in the commons, and Smith (with 
others) was called to the bar of the house. 
He threw himself on the mercy of the mem- 
bers, begged for their mediation with the 
king, and for the benefit of the king's procla- 
mation, upon which he had surrendered him- 
self, having been advised that by so doing 
he would secure his life. On 7 Feb. 1661-2 
he was brought to the bar of the House of 
Lords, when he again pleaded compelling 
circumstances and his surrender. Smith was 
not executed, and is usually stated to have 
died in the Tower of London ; but he had 
probably left the Tower before November 
1666, as his name is not included in a list of 
thirty-eight prisoners confined there at the 
time (Cal. State Papers, 1666-7, p. 235). 
He appears to have been in the Old Castle 
at Jersey in February 1667-8. His wife, a 

daughter of Cornelius Holland [q. v.], the 
regicide, died of the plague in rooms attached 
to the six clerks' office in August 1664. 
Smith is believed to have left an only 

Smith seems to have been weak and 
cowardly. His entry at Lincoln's Inn would 
point to some legal education; but in his 
speech of 16 Oct. 1660 he disclaimed all 
knowledge of the law. Heath (Chronicle, 
p. 200) speaks of him as ' Henry Smith, a 
lawyer, but a mean one.' 

[Nichols's Leicestershire, ii. 391, 889, iii. 626 ; 
Nichols's Topographer and Genealogist, iii. 255- 
260 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Official 
Lists of Members of Parliament, i. 490 ; Walker's 
Hist, of Independency, ii. 49 ; Masson's Milton, 
iii. 533-4 ; Cal. of Comm. for Compounding, p. 
135; Commons' Journals, iii. 594, viii. 61, 68, 
139, 319 : Lords' Journals, xi. 380 ; Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 7th Rep. pp. 155-6, 11th Rep. ii. 4 ; Cal. 
State Papers, 1660-1 p. 558, 1667-8 p. 229; 
Noble's Lives of the Regicides; Nalson's Trial of 
Charles J, passim ; Exact and Impartial Ac- 
compt of the Trials of Twenty-nine Regicides, 
pp. 28, 254.] B. P. 

(1826-1883), mathematician, born in Dublin 
on 2 Nov. 1826, was the youngest of the four 
children (two sons and two daughters) of 
John Smith (1792-1828), an Irish barrister, 
who married, in 1818 Mary, one of fourteen 
children of John Murphy, a country gentle- 
man living near Bantry Bay. The mathe- 
matician was named after his father's law 
tutor, Henry John Stephen [q. v.] After 
the eider Smith's death, in 1828, his widow 
removed to the Isle of Man in 1829, and 
settled at Ryde in the Isle of Wight in 1831. 

Henry Smith, who was a delicate child, 
taught himself some Greek at the age of four, 
and at seven became absorbed in Prideaux's 
'Connection/ His education was entirely 
conducted by his mother, a highly accom- 
plished woman, until 1838, when he was 
placed under his first tutor, Mr. R. Wheler 
Bush, who was astonished by his classical 
proficiency. In 1840 Mrs. Smith came to 
reside at Oxford, where Henry became the 
pupil of Henry Highton [q.v.] Next year he 
went to Rugby, where Highton had been ap- 
pointed a master; but in 1843, after the death 
of his brother Charles of rapid consumption, 
he spent the winter at Nice, and the following 
summer by the Lake of Lucerne. Never- 
theless he won the Balliol scholarship easily 
on 30 Nov. 1844, and at the examination 
made the acquaintance of Benjamin Jowett, 
then tutor, who became his lifelong friend. 
' He was/ wrote Jowett, ' possessed of greater 
natural abilities than any one else whom I 




have known at Oxford. He had the clearest 
and most lucid mind, and a natural expe- 
rience of the world and of human character 
hardly ever to be found in one so young.' 

Smith passed the years 1845-33 on the 
continent. At Rome, where he suffered a 
severe illness, he acquired a sound knowledge 
of Roman antiquities and inscriptions, and 
a satisfactory command of Italian, German, 
and French. While still convalescent he 
attended lectures in Paris, at the Sorbonne 
and the College de France, and was the de- 
lighted auditor of Arago and Milne-Edwards. 
He resumed his Oxford career at Easter 1847. 
It proved of almost unexampled brilliancy. 
He gamed the Ireland University scholarship 
in 1848 ; he took a double first-class, and was 
elected a fellow of Balliol in 1849(B.A. 1860, 
M.A. 1855). In 1850 he accepted a mathe- 
matical lectureship at Balliol College, and ob- 
tained the senior mathematical scholarship in 
1851. Up to this date he was undecided 
whether to pursue classics or mathematics, 
and showed as much aptitude for the one as 
for the other. ' I do not know/ John Con- 
ington [q. v.] once said, ' what Henry Smith 
may be at the subjects of which he professes 
to Know something ; but I never go to him 
about a matter of scholarship, in a line where 
he professes to know nothing, without learn- 
ing more from him than I can get from any 
one else/ He continued to lecture on mathe- 
matics at Balliol till 1878, when he resigned 
his fellowship and lectureship on receiving 
a sinecure fellowship at Corpus Christi Col- 
lege. He was elected an honorary fellow of 
Balliol in 1882. 

In 1853 there seemed a danger of his 
being diverted to chemistry. Being called 
upon to lecture on the subject, he studied 
under Professor Story-Maskelyne, with 
whom he formed an enduring friendship, 
and reached the conviction that the pro- 
perties of the elements are so connected by 
mathematical relations as to be discoverable 
by reasoning in anticipation of experience. 

Smith was elected in 1860 to the Savilian 
chair of geometry, and became both F.R.S. 
and F.R.A.S. in 1861. He acted as president 
of the mathematical section of the British 
Association at Bradford in 1873, and of the 
Mathematical Society of London in 1874-6. 
In 1877 he became the first chairman of the 
meteorological council in London ; and at- 
tended, as its representative, the interna- 
tional meteorological congress at Rome in 

On the death of his mother, in 1857, he had 
been joined at Oxford by his sister, Eleanor 
Elizabeth Smith (1822-1896), a woman of 
exceptional ability and judgment, whose 

main energies were devoted to philanthropic 
and educational objects, and their house was 
the scene of much genial hospitality. During 
the vacations Smith travelled in Italy, Greece, 
Spain, Sweden, and Norway, and attended 
the meetings of the British Association. In 
1874 he was appointed keeper of the uni- 
versity museum. The office 'gave him a 
pleasant house, a small stipend, and not very 
uncongenial duties/ But much of his time 
was still taken up with educational business. 
He was for many years a member of the Heb- 
domadal Council, as well as of innumerable 
boards and delegacies. From 1870 he sat on 
the royal commission on scientific education, 
and in great measure drafted its report. In 
the same year he accepted the post of mathe- 
matical examiner at the university of Lon- 
don, and was in 1871 appointed by the Royal 
Society a member of the governing body of 
Rugby school. In commenting on his nomi- 
nation in 1877 as one of the Oxford Univer- 
sity commissioners, Sir M. E. Grant Buff 
spoke of him in the House of Commons as 
'a man of very extraordinary attainments/ 
even apart from the special qualifications im- 
plied by his position in the first rank of 
European mathematicians, while 'his con- 
ciliatory character made him perhaps the 
only man in Oxford who was without an 
enemy/ He received the honorary degrees of 
LL.D. from the universities of Cambridge 
and Dublin. 

In 1878 Smith unsuccessfully contested 
the parliamentary representation of the uni- 
versity of Oxford in the liberal interest. He 
was a ready and telling speaker, but his 
candidature was urged on academic rather 
than on political grounds. 

Smith's health had strengthened as he-grew 
up ; but in 1881 it began to be impaired by 
overwork. He died unmarried on 9 Feb. 
1883, aged 56, and was buried at St. Se- 
pulchre's cemetery, Oxford. His death 
evoked a chorus *of eulogies. ' Among 1 the 
world's celebrities,' in Lord Bowen's opinion, 
'it would be difficult to find one who in 
gifts and nature was his superior/ He im- 
pressed Professor Huxley 'as one of the 
ablest men I ever met with ; and the effect 
of his great powers was almost whimsically 
exaggerated by his extreme gentleness of 
manner, and the playful way in which his 
epigrams were scattered about. I think that 
he would have been one of the greatest men 
of our time if he had added to his wonder- 
fully keen intellect and strangely varied and 
extensive knowledge the power of caring 
very strongly about the attainment of any 

Smith was, in fact, devoid of ambition and 





initiative. His strong sense of public duty 
almost compelled him to accede to the in- 
numerable demands upon his time ; and the 
work for which he was supremely fitted was 
constantly pushed on one side by tasks 
within the range of ordinary capacity. Many 
of his intimate friends scarcely knew that he 
was a great mathematician. Some of his 
witticisms are worth preserving. Thus, to 
the remark, ' What a wonderful man Kuskin 
is, but he has a bee in his bonnet,' he replied 
' Yes, a whole hive of them ; but how pleasant 
it is to hear the humming ! ' In appearance 
Smith was tall and good-looking, with an air 
of intellectual nobility. He was ' very manly 
in his bearing/ according to Professor Jowett, 
and 'a thorough man of the world/ His 
manner to all classes was singularly urbane. 
A bust by Sir Edgar Boehm is in the Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery, and an engraved 
portrait is prefixed to his ' Collected Mathe- 
matical Papers/ 

As a mathematician, Smith was the greatest 
disciple of Gauss. He resembled him in the 
finish of his style, in the rigour of his de- 
monstrations, above all in the special bent 
of his genius. 'The Theory of Numbers' 
predominantly attracted him; his magnum 
opus was to have been a treatise on the sub- 
ject, his preliminary studies for which were 
embodied in his masterly 'Report on the 
Theory of Numbers/ presented to the British 
Association in six parts, during 1859-1865. 
This is an account of the progress and state 
of knowledge in that branch, with critical 
commentary and original developments. Two 
final sections remained unwritten. The most 
important advance in the higher arithmetic 
since Gauss's time was made in Smith's 
papers, ' On Systems of Linear Indeterminate 
Equations and Congruences ' (Phil. Trans. 
cli. 293, 1861), and 'On the Orders and 
Genera of Quadratic Forms ' (jb. clvii. 255, 
1867), with a supplementary communica- 
tion, in which he extended and generalised 
the results already enounced. Through an 
unaccountable oversight, the problem which 
he had thus completely solved, was proposed 
by the French Academy as the subject 
of their ' Grand Prix des Sciences Math6- 
matiques' for 1882. Smith was induced 
to compete by the assurance that full jus- 
tice should be done to his earlier investiga- 
tion ; but the promise was forgotten. Two 
months after his death two prizes were 
awarded — one to a memoir in which Smith 
had given the demonstrations of his former 
theorems, the other to the work of a com- 
petitor who mi^ht have followed the indica- 
tions which Smith had previously published. 
M. Bertrand offered a partial apology for this 

obvious injustice at the sitting of the aca- 
demy on 16 April 1883 (Comptes Rendus, 
xcvi. 1096). 

Smith had a remarkable power of verbal ex- 
position in abstruse mathematical subjects. A 
great number of his researches, never written 
out for publication, were thus laid before the 
British Association and the Mathematical 
Society. Only their titles have been pre- 
served (for a list of them, see Dr. Glaisher's 
' Introduction ' to Smith's Mathematical 
Papers, p. 76). He was less concerned to 
record than to obtain new results. ' Most 
of his mathematical work he did in his head 
by sheer mental effort. . . . The fact that he 
used pen and paper so little, relying on his 
brain as it were, increased the mental strain 
of his mathematical production/ 'More- 
I over, the high standard of completeness 
I which he exacted from himself in his pub- 
lished writing* added considerably to the 
effort with which his finished work was pro- 
; duced ' (ib. p. 87). Unfinished results ac- 
| cumulated, and, towards the end, inspired 
him with uneasiness about their fate. 

Smith left forty mathematical notebooks, 
more than a dozen of which were filled with 
records of original theorems, suggestions or 
divinations ; but in too disjointed a condi- 
tion to be rescued from oblivion by print. His 
published writings were, however, brought 
together under the editorship of Dr. Glaisher, 
and issued from the Clarendon Press in 1894, 
with the title, ' The Collected Mathematical 
Papers of Henry John Stephen Smith, M. A., 
F.R.S.' (2 vols. 4to); and biographical 
sketches and recollections by Dr. Cnarles 
Henry Pearson [q. v.], Professor Jowett, 
Lord Bowen, and Mr. Strachan-Davidson, 
besides a mathematical introduction by the 
editor, were prefixed. The contents of the 
volumes fall under three headings : (1) geo- 
metry ; (2) the theory of numbers ; (3) elliptic 
functions. The memoirs are models of form. 
The reasonings wrought out in them are of 
invincible strength, and the clear-cut sym- 
metrical manner of their presentation attests 
both labour and genius. Their author fol- 
lowed Gauss's maxim, Pauca sed matura. 

Smith contributed to the 'Oxford Essays ' 
in 1855 a brilliant paper on the ' Plurality 
of Worlds ; ' wrote a memoir of Professor 
Conington, prefixed to his ' Miscellaneous 
Writings '(London, 1872); and an introduc- 
tion to the ' Mathematical Papers of Wil- 
liam Kingdon Clifford ' (London, 1882). 

[Authorities cited; Times, 10 Feb. 1883, and 
(for Mis* Smith) 18 Sept. 1896; Fortnightly 
Review, xxxiii. 653 (Glaisher); Monthly Notices 
Royal Astronomical Society, xliv. 138; Nature, 
16 Feb. 1883 (Spottiswoode), and 27 Sept. 1894 




(MacMahon); Athenaeum, 17 Feb. 1883; Aca- 
demy, 17 Feb. 1883 ; Comptes Rendus, xcvi. 
1095 (Jordan); Rouse Ball's Short History of 
Mathematics, p. 424 ; Fosters Alumni Oxon. ; 
Rugby School Register, i. 224 ; Proceedings 
London Math. Society, xiv. 322.] A. M. C. 

SMITH, HORATIO, always known as 
Horace (1779-1849), poet and author, born 
in 1779, was second son of Robert Smith (d. 
1832), and younger brother of James Smith 
(1775-1839) fq. v.] A sister was the mother of 
Maria Abdy fq.v.J The father, Robert Smith, 
was born at Bridgwater, Somerset, where his 
father, Samuel, was a custom-house officer, 
on 22 Nov. 1747; he entered a solicitor's 
office in London in 1765, and married in 
1773 Mary, daughter of James Bogle French, 
a wealthy London merchant. She died, aged 
55, at her husband's residence in Basinghall 
Street, on 3 Nov. 1804. Robert Smith was 
for many years solicitor to the board of ord- 
nance, a post he resigned in 1812, and he 
was elected F.R.S. on 24 Nov. 1796, and a 
fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. He was 
eighty-five when he died, on 27 Sept. 1832, 
at St. Anne's Hill, Wandsworth (Gent. Mag. 
1832, ii. 573; cf. ib. 1804, ii. 1078 and 1050, 
containing a poem by H[orace] S[mith] upon 
his mother's death). 

Like his brother, Horace was educated at 
a school at Chigwell, kept by the Rev. Mr. 
Burford, but, unlike James, was placed in a 
merchant's counting-house. Less attentive 
to business than to the drama and the amuse- 
ments of the town, he produced a poem lament- 
ing the decay of public taste as evinced in 
the neglect of the plays of Richard Cum- 
berland, who, highly flattered, hunted him 
out of his counting-house and introduced 
him to literary society. He published 
two novels, ' The Runaway ' in 1800, and 
' Trevanion, or Matrimonial Ventures,' in 
1802. A third, ' Horatio, or Memoirs of the 
Dayennort Family,' followed in 1807. Mean- 
while, in 1802, Smith joined with Cumber- 
land, his brother James, Sir James Bland 
Burges, and others in writing for ' The Pic 
Nic, a magazine which was edited by the 
notorious William Combe [q. v.], but had 
only a brief existence. At Cumberland's 
request, Horace and James wrote several 
prefaces for plays in ' Bell's British Theatre,' 
edited by him ; and their acquaintance with 
Thomas Hill led both, but especially James, 
to contribute for four years to his ' Monthly 
Mirror.' They acquired a character as wits, 
and as gay, though not dissipated, young 
men about town, but were little known to 
the public, when they suddenly found them- 
selves raised to the pinnacle of contem- 
porary reputation by the utterly unforeseen 

success of their < Rejected Addresses ' (1812). 
These were parodies of the most popular 
poets of the day in the guise of imaginary 
addresses from their pens which purported 
to have been prepared in competition for a 
prize that had been offered by the managers 
on occasion of the reopening of Drury Lane 
Theatre after its destruction by fire (10 Oct. 
1812). - Horace Smith himself had been a 
serious competitor, and the commission had 
been entrusted to one of the poets parodied, 
Byron. The idea had been suggested to the 
Smiths by the secretary to the theatre, Mr. 
Ward, Sheridan's brother-in-law, who, having 
seen the addresses submitted bona fide, had 
been struck by their prevailing silliness, 
no less than sixty-nine competitors having 
invoked the aid of the Phoenix. The brothers 
had great difficulty in finding a publisher, 
until at last John" Miller, of Bow Street, 
agreed to print at his own expense, and give 
them half the profits, * if any.' The volume 
appeared on the day of the opening of the 
theatre, with the title ' Rejected Addresses, 
or the New Theatrum Poetarum ' (18th edit. 
1833, with new preface by Horace Smith). 
Success was instantaneous, and in truth 
there has been nothing better of the kind in 
the language, excepting only Hogg's inimi- 
table parody of Wordsworth, ' The Flying 
Tailor? In the 'Rejected Addresses' the 
best parodies were those of Cobbett and 
Crabbe, and were the work of James Smith, 
who also wrote the hardly less successful 
parodies of Wordsworth and Southey . Horace 
Smith's best are those of Byron and Scott, 
and the delectable nonsense of ' A Loyal 
Effusion' by William Thomas Fitzgerald 
[q. v.] Horace inserted his genuine rejected 
poem under the title of ' An Address with- 
out a Phoenix.' Neither brother did any- 
thing half so good again, though each has 
bequeathed a considerable amount of comic 
verse, never destitute of merit, but always 
courting comparison with the similar pro- 
ductions of Thomas Hood, and hopelessly 
distanced by them. Their only subsequent 
joint production, entitled ' Horace in Lon- 
don, by the authors of Rejected Addresses,' 
appeared in 1813. 

After his apprenticeship in the counting- 
house was over, Horace Smith went on the 
stock exchange. He was probably a good 
man of business, for he throve so fast as to 
be able to retire in 1820, and was blamed 
for throwing away the prospect of a fortune. 
But when the panic of 1826 came, he con- 
gratulated himself on his good sense. Before 
retiring he had gained the friendship of poets 
and performed numberless generous actions. 
His good sense and conciliatory disposition 




are admirably shown in his letter to Sir 
Timothy Shelley on the temporary stoppage 
of Shelley's income. He was Shefley's guest 
at Mario w in 1817, and he was probably the 
first to communicate Keats's death to the 
poet in March 1821. Shelley wrote of him 
in his epistle to Maria Gisborne : 

"Wit and sense, 
Virtue and human knowledge, all that might 
Make this dull world a business of delight, 
Are all combined in Horace Smith. 

To Leigh Hunt he was equally friendly and 
equally serviceable, joining with Shelley in 
the vain effort to rescue him from his em- 
barrassments. His endeavours, however, to 
follow in the footsteps of these poets were 
not always fortunate. Nevertheless, ' Ama- 
rynthus the Nvmpholept,' a pastoral drama 
in imitation of Fletcher (1821), is full of 
pleasant fancy. Not much can be said in 
favour of his other serious poems (first col- 
lected as i Poetical Works, London, 1846, 
2 vols. 8vo), except the fine lines on occa- 
sion of the funeral of Campbell in West- 
minster Abbey, when, late in life, the deep 
feeling aroused by the recollection of a long 
friendship supplies the deficiencies of poetic 
art. There is, however, a class of poems in 
which Smith really excels, those halfway 
between the serious and the humorous. One 
of these, l An Address to a Mummy/ has 
deservedly gained great popularity, and is an 
admirable example of the mutual interpene- 
tration of wit and feeling. 

On his retirement from business, Smith 
set out to join Shelley in Italy, but on hear- 
ing of his death stopped short at Paris and 
lived for three years at Versailles; on his 
return he settled at Brighton. He now 
added Cobden to the list of his friends, and 
became a warm advocate of free trade. He 
aided Campbell in the ' New Monthly ' and 
John Scott in the ' London Magazine.' Some 
of his pieces were collected as ' Gaieties and 
Gravities ' (London, 1825, 3 vols. 8vo). But 
about the same year he gave up periodical 
literature to resume his early pursuit of 
novel- writing. In 1 826 he produced i Bram- 
bletye House, or Cavaliers and Roundheads,' 
a romance in Scott's style, connected with 
a ruined mansion of the name still exist- 
ing in Ashdown Forest, Sussex. It ranks 
among the best imitations of Scott, and has 
been frequently republished. 'The Tor 
Hill' and 'Reuben Apsley,' two good his- 
torical novels, followed in 1826 and 1827, 
and in 1828 he varied his style by imi- 
tating Lockhart and Croly in ' Zillah, a Tale 
of the Holy City ' (London, 12mo). Both 
this work and 'Tor Hill' were translated 

into French by Defauconpret, the translator 
of Scott and of Mrs. Radcliffe. A severe 
attack on 'Zillah' in the 'Quarterly' gained 
him the friendship of Southey, after he had 
done penance for 'some impertinences re- 
garding Wordsworth.' His later novels, 
rarely historical in subject, obtained little 
success ; they include ' The New Forest ' 
(1829), 'Walter Colyton ' (1830), 'Gale 
Middleton' (1833), 'The Involuntary Pro- 
phet' (1835), 'Jane Lomax' (1838), 'The 
Moneyed Man' (1841), 'Adam Brown' 
(1843), and ' Love and Mesmerism.' (1846). 
A posthumous fragment from his pen, pro- 
fessedly but not really autobiographic, ap- 
peared in vols, lxxxvi. and lxxxvii. of the 
| New Monthly Magazine.' His other writings 
include ' First Impressions,' an unsuccessful 
comedy (1813); 'Festivals, Games, and 
Amusements, Ancient and Modern ' (1831), a 
useful compilation ; and ' The Tin Trumpet 
(1836), a medley of remarks, ethical, political, 
and , philosophical. It was published under 
the name of Jefferson Saunders, and the 
authorship was not acknowledged until the 
appearance of a new edition in 1890. Keats, 
in a letter written in February 1818, men- 
tions having seen in manuscript a satire by 
Smith entitled 'Nehemiah M^iggs, an Ex- 
posure of the Methodists,' but it does not 
appear to have been published. He died at 
Tunbridge Wells on 12 July 1849. He left 
three daughters, of whom the youngest Laura 
(d. 1864) married John Round of West 
Bergholt, Essex. 

All contemporary testimony respecting 
Horace Smith is unanimous as regards the 
beauty of his character, which was associated 
not only with wit, but with strong common- 
sense and justness of perception. His is a 
remarkable instance of a reputation rescued 
from undue neglect by the perhaps excessive 
applause bestowed upon a single lucky hit. 
Thackeray wrote warmly of Smith's truth 
and loyalty as a friend, and, after his death, 
he frequently visited his daughters at Brigh- 
ton ; after tne youngest of them he named 
his Laura in ' Pendennis.' 

A portrait of Horatio and James Smith in 
early life by Harlow is in the possession of 
Mr. John Murray. A portrait of Horace by 
Masquerier and a miniature are now the 
property of his eldest daughter. 

[Memoir by Epes Sargent, prefixed to Rejected 
Addresses, New York, 1871 ; Fitzgerald's edition 
of Rejected Addresses, 1890 ; New Monthly 
Magazine, vol. xlix. ; Gent. Mag. 1849, ii. 320; 
Athenaeum and Literary Gazette, July 1849 ; S. C. 
Hall's Memoirs, 1877 ; Dowden's Life of Shelley ; 
Marzials and Meri vale's Life of Thackeray, p. 
228 ; Walter Hamilton's Parodies.] B. G. 




SMITH, HUGH (d. 1790), medical writer, 
flon of a surgeon and apothecary, was born at 
Hemel Hempstead in Hertfordshire. He 
studied medicine at Edinburgh University, 
and obtained the degree of M.D. on 22 April 
1755. He at first practised in Essex, but 
came to London in 1759, and fixed his resi- 
dence in Mincing Lane. In 1760 he com- 
menced a course of lectures on the theory 
and practice of physic, which were nume- 
rously attended. These, together with the 
publication of ' Essays on Circulation of the 
Blood, with Reflections on Blood-letting/ 
1761, gave him a wide reputation. In 1762 
he was admitted a licentiate of the College 
of Physicians. In 1765 he was elected phy- 
sician to Middlesex Hospital, and in 1770 
was chosen alderman of the Tower ward, a 
dignity which his professional duties com- 
pelled him to resign in 1772. About this 
time he removed to Blackfriars and devoted 
himself chiefly to consulting practice at home. 
He was accustomed to give two days of the 
"week to the poor, from whom he would take 
no fee. He also assisted some of his patients 
pecuniarily. In 1780 he purchased a country 
residence at Streatham in Surrey. He died 
at Stratford in Essex on 26 Dec. 1790, and 
was buried in the church of West Ham. 
Besides the work mentioned above, he 
wrote * Formuhe Medicamentorum/ London, 
1772, 12mo. He must be distinguished from 

Hugh Smith (1736 P-l 789), possibly his 
eon. The latter graduated M.D. at Leyden 
on 11 Nov. 1755, and practised at Hatton 
Garden, London. He married the daughter 
of Archibald Maclean, a lady of fortune, who 
inherited Trevor Park, East Barnet. He 
died, aged 53, on 6 June 1789, and was 
buried in East Barnet church. He was 
author of: 1. 'The Family Physician/ Lon- 
don, 1760, 4to; 5th edit. 1770. 2. 'Letters 
to Married Women/ 3rd edit. London, 1774, 
12mo ; republished in France, Germany, and 
America. 8. ' A Treatise on the Use and 
Abuse of Mineral Waters/ London, 1776, 
8vo ; 4th edit., 1780. 4. * Philosophical In- 
quiries into the Laws of Animal Life/ 
London, 1780, 4to. 5. 'An Essay on the 
Nerves/ London, 1780, 8vo. 

[For the elder Hugh Smith, see Life prefixed 
to Formulae Medicamentorum, ed. 1791 ; Euro- 
pean Mag. 17Ql,i. 21 ; Gent. Mag. 1790, ii. 1154, 
1213. For the younger Hugh Smith, see Gent. 
Mag. 1789, i. 678; Clutterbuck's Hertfordshire, 
i. 156; Lysons's Environs, iv. 23, 259. They 
are confused together in Munk's Coll. of Phys. 
ii. 241 and in Georgian Era, ii. 566.] E. 1. C. 

SMITH, HUMPHREY (<U663),quaker, 
was born probably at Little Cowarne, Here- 
fordshire, where nis father was a prosperous 

farmer. He was brought up strictly in the 
church of England, and well educated, 
although he can hardly be the Humphrey 
Smithy son of John, of the parish of Edvin 
Ralphe (seven miles from Cowarne), who 
matriculated at Jesus College, Oxford, on 
8 Sept. 1634, aged seventeen, and graduated 
B. A. on 3 July 1636 (Foster, Alumni Oxon. 
early ser. p. 1372). 

He soon occupied a farm worth 30/. a 
year, and married. He early began preach- 
ing, perhaps as an independent ; George Fox 
say 8 ' he had been a priest/ His addresses 
were ' admired' by hundreds, and he preached 
daily in the pulpits. After a time 'his 
mouth was stopped ' owing to doubts of his 
own sincerity, and he held his last meeting 
at Stoke Bliss, a village near Cowarne. 

About 1664 he fell in with the quakers, 
and before long gave up his occupation to 
be ready for the 'call to go hither and 
thither preaching. On 14 Aug. 1655 he was 
arrested at a meeting in Bengeworth, close 
by Evesham, and confined for some weeks in 
a noisome cellar, the only aperture in which 
was four inches high. He seems to have 
specially annoyed the magistrates before 
whom he was brought for examination by 
the figurative statements that he ' came from 
Egypt ' and * walked not the earth.' George 
Fox visited him in prison (Journal, 1891, i. 

On 9 Feb. 1658 Smith was charged with 
misdemeanour for being at a meeting at 
Andover, where he was the first quaker to 
preach. He was committed by Judge Wind- 
ham to Winchester gaol until he would give 
security for his good behaviour (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1658-9, p. 158). He remained 
there until after March 1659, composing seve- 
ral of his books in prison. During 1660 he 
was at liberty. In May he wrote down a re- 
markable * Vision' (published London, 1660, 
4to), which he had of the great fire of 1666, 
and of the famine and fear which followed 
the appearance of the Dutch fleet in the 
Medway (Notes and Queries, 1st ser. vii. 80, 
182 ; Collectitia, 1824, pp. 174-6). 

On 14 Oct. 1061, while proceeding west 
to visit his only son Humphrey (afterwards 
of Saffron Walden, Essex), he was arrested 
at a meeting at Alton, Hampshire, and again 
lodged in Winchester gaol. Here he re- 
mained 'from sessions to sizes, and from 
sizes to sessions/ until in April 1663 he 
was attacked with gaol fever, and died in 

Erison on 4 May 1663. A last letter to 
is son, dated 23 April, was printed as a 
broadside in 1663, and is in his works, pub- 
lished by the latter, London 1683, 4to. A 
fellow prisoner, Nicholas Complin, contri- 




buted a short narrative of his imprisonment, 
written 21 June 1663. To some pages of 
verse Smith appended an apology for writ- 
ing in ' meeter, it being apt to beget light- 
ness in the reader ' [cf. art. Perbot, John]. 
The following were separately published : 

1. ' Something in Reply to Edmund Skipp's 
" The World's Wonder, or the Quaker's Blaz- 
ing Star," &c.' London, 1665, 4to. Skipp 
was a preacher at Bodenham, Herefordshire. 

2. « The Sufferings ... of the Saints at 
Evesham 1 [1656], 4to. 3. * An Alarum sound- 
ing forth/ 1658, 4to. 4. 'Divine Love 
spreading forth over all Nations,' London, 
n.d., 4to. 6. ' The True and Everlasting 
Rule/ 1658, 4to. 6. « Hidden Things made 
manifest by the Light/ 1658, 4to, reprinted 
1664. 7. 'To all Parents of Children/ 1660, 
8vo ; 2nd edit., 1667. 8. ' For the Honour 
of the King/ 1661, 4to. 9. < Sound Things 
asserted,' 1662, 4to. 10. « Forty-four Queries 
propounded to all the Clergymen of the 
Liturgy, by One whom they trained up/ 
1662, 4to. 

[Complin's Faithfulnesseof the Upright, 1663 ; 
Smith's Collected Writings, 1683 ; Sewei's Hist, 
of the Rise, &c., i. 175, ii. 73 ; Besse's Sufferings, 
i. 150, 166, 167, 206, 229, 233, 234, ii. 50-8; 
Tuke's Biogr. Notices, ii. 181; Collectitiae or 
Pieces adapted to the Society of Friends, 48, 64; 
Smith's Cat. of Friends' Books, ii. 586-94.] 

C. F. S. 

SMITH, JAMES (1605-1667), divine 
and poet, born at Marston-Morteyne, Bed- 
fordshire, in 1605, was son of Thomas Smith, 
rector of Marston. He matriculated from 
Christ Church, Oxford, on 7 March 1622-3, 
aged 18, but soon migrated to Lincoln Col- 
lege. After graduating, he took holy orders 
and accompanied Henry Rich, earl of Hol- 
land, as chaplain, when the earl was sent 
with a fleet and army to reinforce Bucking- 
ham at the Isle of Rh6. He subsequently 
acted as chaplain to Thomas Wentworth, 
earl of Cleveland, who was also engaged in 
the expedition to France. Smith was appa- 
rently a genial companion, and from an 
early period attempted the lighter forms of 
poetry. He corresponded in verse with Sir 
John Mennes [q. v.] lie came to know Philip 
Massinffer, who, in verses addressed to Smith, 
called him his son. On the execution of 
John Felton (1595 P-1628) [a. v.], he penned 
an epitaph in verse (Ashmole MS. 36, f. 31 ; 
cf. Musarum Delicto). 

Smith proceeded B.D. in 1633, and next 
year became rector of Wainfleet All Saints, 
Lincolnshire. In 1639 he removed to 
King's Nympton, Devonshire, and in the 
same year resumed his former post of chap- 
lain to the Earl of Holland when the 

latter went north in command of the cavalry 
engaged in the first war with the Scotsv 
During the civil wars and under the Com- 
monwealth Smith managed to remain at 
King's Nympton unmolested. But his sym- 
pathies were always with the royalists, and 
at the Restoration he was not forgotten. 
He was made archdeacon of Barnstaple in 
1660 and canon of Exeter in 1661, proceed- 
ing D.D. at Oxford in the same year. In 
1662 he was also appointed precentor of 
Exeter Cathedral, and turned his literary 
capacity to account by writing words for 
anthems, which others set to music. Before 
the year ended he resigned all other prefer* 
ments on being instituted to the rectory of 
Alphington. In 1661 he also became rector 
of JExminster. He died at Alphington on 
22 June 1667, and was buried in the chancel 
of King's Nympton. 

Smith's verse, the sportive tone of which 
contrasted oddly with his profession, was 
widely circulated in manuscript. Many 
specimens of it were incorporated, apparently 
without his permission, in a series of antho- 
logies of contemporary poetry. These vo- 
lumes owed their vogue to the licentious 
pieces included by the publishers; but 
although in some cases it was stated that 
most of their contents came from the pen of 
Smith and Mennes, very few of the poems 
are signed, and there is no evidence that 
Smith was responsible for the more blatantly 
coarse contributions. The earliest of these 

Sublications, in which work by Smith and 
lennes appeared, was * Wits' Recreations, 
selected from the finest Fancies of Moderne 
Muses,' 1640 ; other editions, with slightly 
different title-pages, bear the dates 1641, 
1654, and 1663. There followed a second an- 
thology, entitled ' Musarum Delicise, or the 
Muses s Recreation ; containing several pieces 
of Sportive Wit by S r J. M. and Ja. S.' 
(28 Aug. 1655 ; new edit. 1656). The pub- 
lisher, Henry Herringman, informed the 
reader in a prefatory advertisement that, in 
order to regale ' the curious palates of these 
times,' he had collected on his own respon- 
sibility ' Sir John Mennis and Dr. Smith's 
drolish intercourses.' A third anthology, of 
like character, was ' Wit Restored, or several 
select Poems not formerly publisht,' London, 
1658. This opens with a series of poetical 
letters avowedly addressed by Smith to his 
friend Mennes, * then commanding a troop of 
horse against the Scots.' Another piece was 
inscribed to Mennes * on the Surrender of 
Conway Castle.' A separate title-page intro- 
duces Smith's longest extant production, 
* The Innovation of Penelope and Ulysses. 
A Mock Poem by J. S.' It is prefaced by 




commendatory poems by Massinger, Jasper 
Mayne, and other friends, and by poems ad- 
dressed by the author to himself. The volume 
concludes with the i Rebell Scott/ by John 
Cleveland. These three anthologies were 
printed together by Thomas Park in 1817, 
and again by James Camden Hotten in 1874, 
under the general title of ' Musarum Deliciae.' 
Smith's and Mennes's names were less 
justifiably associated with a fourth collec- 
tion, * Wit and Drollery : Jovial Poems never 
before printed by Sir J[ohn] M[ennes], 
J[ames] STmith], Sir W[illiam] DfavenantJ, 
J. I)[onneT, and other admirable W its/ Lon- 
don (for Nathaniel Brook, 18 Jan. 1655-6 ; 
another edit. 1661). * These poems (accord- 
ing to the publisher's advertisement), never 
before printed, are a collection from the best 
wits of what above fifteen years since were 
begun to be preserved for mirth and friends.' 
Probably very few of the nieces are by Smith, 
and in the direct production of the compila- 
tion he was as little concerned as Donne. It 
seems to have been edited by John Phillips 
(1631-1706) [q.v.], Milton's nephew. « Choyce 
Drollery ' (1656 ; reprinted by the Rev. J. W. 
Ebsworth m 1876), a somewhat similar effort, 
was, with the rare * Sportive Wit/ another 
of Phillips's ventures, suppressed by order of 
the council of state in 1656. (Copies of 
* Sportive Wit ' are at Britwell and in the 
Bodleian). It is possible that Smith was in- 
voluntarily represented to a small extent in 
both volumes. 

[Wood's Athena?, Hi. 776; Foster's Alumni; 
Masson's Milton, v. 260-2; see art. Mennbs, 
Sir John.] S. L. 

SMITH, JAMES, D.D. (1645-1711), 
Roman catholic prelate, born at Winchester 
in 1645, was educated in the English College 
at Douay, and was created D.D. on 5 Feb. 
1679-80. He was appointed president of 
Douay College, in succession to Dr. Francis 
Gage [q. v.], on 28 Aug. 1682, and while occu- 
pying that post he succeeded to a large paternal 
estate, the chief part of which he granted to 
a younger brother. In 1687 he was nomi- 
nated by James II to be one of the four 
vicars-apostolic of England, each of whom 
had an annual stipend of 1,000/. out of the 
royal exchequer, with 500/. upon entering 
into office. He was elected by Propaganda 
on 12 Jan. 1678, and was consecrated at 
Somerset House on 13 May (O.S.) 1688 as 
bishop of Calliopolis in partibus. After his 
consecration he went to his vicariate, arriving 
on 2 Aug. at York, where he was received 
with great ceremony by the secular and 
regular clergy, who sangthe Te Deum pub- 
licly. In one of his visitations Smith was 

deprived of his large crozier by Thomas Os- 
borne, earl of Danby and first duke of Leeds 
fa. v.], who deposited it in York Minster. 
Tnis Deautiful work of art was exhibited 
before the Society of Antiquaries on 23 Feb. 
1888 (Proc. Soc. Antiq. 2nd ser. xii. 105). 
On the flight of the king, Smith left York 
and sought refuge in the house of Francis 
Tunstall, esq. of Wyclifie, who afforded him 
hospitality and protection till the time of his 
death, in 1700 it was contemplated that 
he should be promoted to the cardinalate and 
to the office of Protector of England, which 
had been vacant since the death of Cardinal 
Howard ; the Duke of Berwick and Dr. George 
Witham were commissioned from St. Ger- 
mains to solicit this appointment from Cle- 
ment XI. Smith died at Wycl iffe on 1 3 May 
1711. Dodd characterises him as 'a fine 
gentleman, a good scholar, and a zealous 

His name is subscribed to ' A Pastoral Letter 
from the four Catholic Bishops to the Lay 
Catholics of England/ on the re-establishment 
of Catholic episcopal authority in England, 
London, 1688 and 1747, 8vo. His portrait, 
engraved from the original picture in the 
chapel-house at York, appeared in the ' Laity's 
Directory' for 1819. 

S Brady's Episcopal Succession ; Catholic Mis- 
any, 1827, vii. 243; Dodd's Church Hist. iii. 
468 ; Notes and Queries, 1st per. vii. 243, 3rd 
ser. xii. 278 ; Palmer's Life of Cardinal Howard, 
pp. 203-6; Panzani's Memoirs, pp. 365, 373, 
399.] T. C. 

SMITH, JAMES (1775-1839), author 
and humourist, born in London on 10 Feb. 
1775, was elder brother of Horatio Smith 
[a. v.] Like his brother, he received his 
education at Chigwell, but, instead of being 
sent to business, entered his father's office 
and succeeded him as solicitor to the board 
of ordnance in 1812. Like Horatio, James 
greatly preferred theatrical and literary 
amusement to the dry details of business, 
but, like him too, gave business an attention 
particularly exemplary under the circum- 
stances, and eventually attained considerable 
eminence in his profession. His first pro- 
duction was a hoax, being a series of letters 
descriptive of alleged natural phenomena 
which imposed upon the 'Gentleman's Maga- 
zine.' lie was closely connected with his 
brother in his literary undertakings, writing 
in particular the larger and better portion 
of the metrical imitations of Horace, which 
appeared in Thomas Hill's ' Monthly Mirror/ 
and were subsequently collected and pub- 
lished under the title of ' Horace in London ' 
(1813). To the « Rejected Addresses' (1812) 
he contributed Xos. 2, 5, 7, 13, 14, 16, 17, 




18 [see under Smith, Horatio]. James 
Smith's contributions to these famous pa- 
rodies were perhaps the best, though not 
the most numerous, but he appeared con- 
tented with the celebrity they nad brought 
Mm, and never again produced anything 
considerable. Universally known, and every- 
where socially acceptable, ' he wanted/ says 
his brother, ' all motive for further and more 
serious exertion/ He produced, however, 
the text for Charles Mathews's comic enter- 
tainments, * The Country Cousins,' 'The Trip 
to France,' 'The Trip to America' (1820-2), 
and the two latter brought him in 1,000/. 
1 James Smith/ said Mathews, ' is the only 
man who can write clever nonsense.' He also 
produced much comic verse and prose for 
periodicals, not generally of a very high order, 
but occasionally including an epigram turned 
with point and neatness. His reputation 
rather rested upon his character as a wit and 
diner-out ; most of the excellent things attri- 
buted to him, however, were, in the opinion 
of his biographer in the * Law Magazine/ 
impromptus fails a loisir. He was less 
genial than his brother, 'circumscribed in 
the extent of his information, and, as a na- 
tural consequence, more concentrated in him- 
self/ says a writer in the 'New Monthly 
Magazine.' When in his office 'he looked 
as serious as the parchments surrounding 
him.' Keats, after dining with both the 
Smiths and their friends, left with a con- 
viction of the superiority of humour to wit. 
James Smith, nevertheless, was a general 
favourite, and tempered his powers of sarcasm 
with much good nature. He died, unmarried, 
at his house in Craven Street, Strand, on 
24 Dec. 1839, and was buried in the vaults 
of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields. His 'Comic 
Miscellanies' were edited in 1840, with a 
memoir, by his brother (London, 2 vols. 

A portrait by Lonsdale was bequeathed 
by him to the Torrholme family. Smith also 
figures in the ' Maclise Portrait Gallery ' (ed. 
Bates, p. 277). 

[Memoir by Horace Smith, 1841 ; Law Mag. 
vol. xxiii. February 18-10 ; New Monthly Mag. 
vol. lxxxvii, 1849 ; Kejected Addresses, edited 
by Percy Fitzgerald, 1890.] R. G. 

SMITH, JAMES (1789-1850), of Deans- 
ton, agricultural engineer, born in Glas- 
gow on 3 Jan. 1789, was son of a merchant 
of that city, a native of Galloway by birth, 
who died two months after James's birth. 
He was brought up by his maternal uncle, 
Archibald Buchanan, a pupil of Arkwright, 
and managing partner of the cotton works 
at Deanston, Perthshire, till his removal to 

the factory of Catrine in Ayrshire. After 
studying at the Glasgow University, Smith 
was, at the age of eighteen, put in charge of 
the Deanston works. He quickly improved 
and reorganised the factory, which had be- 
come dilapidated since the departure of his 
uncle. He was also at this time planning a 
reaping-machine, and in 1811 he had a work- 
ing model made. Next year he competed 
unsuccessfully for a premium of 600/. offered 
by the Dalkeith Farmers' Club for an effec- 
tive one-horse machine. Smith's reaper 
differed in principle from the type in use at 

E resent. It was not pulled but pushed from 
ehind, and the corn was cut by means of a 
cylinder revolving horizontally (see illustra- 
tive plate, frontispiece, Farmer's Magazine, 
xvii. 1816). In 1813 Smith made a second 
attempt with a two-horse machine. Again 
the judges refused to award him the pre- 
mium ; but the ingenuity of his invention 
was acknowledged, and it attracted much 
attention from agricultural societies at home 
and abroad, including the Highland Society 
of Scotland and the Imperial Agricultural 
Society of St. Petersburg. Considerable 
discussion took place as to its merits and the 
priority of invention, which was also claimed 
by Archibald Kerr, a mathematical instru- 
ment maker in Edinburgh. 

Smith had devoted his attention at a very 
earlv period to land draining. When, in 
1823, became into possession of the farm at 
Deanston, he at once set to work to experi- 
ment upon it with a system of deep and 
thorough drainage. He drained the farm 
throughout the whole of its extent by means 
of parallel trenches placed from sixteen to 
twenty-one feet apart, and thirty inches deep, 
which were filled up with broken stones to a 
depth of one foot. A coating of thin turf 
was then laid over the stones, and the re- 
maining eighteen inches were filled in with 
earth to permit of the working of the plough. 
The partial failure of this system led 
Smith to his second and supplementary inven- 
tion of the subsoil plough, by means of which 
the barren lower strata of the land were broken 
ud and fertilised without being intermixed 
with the richer surface soil. By thesemethods 
the unproductive Deanston farm, formerly 
overgrown with rushes, furze, and broom, 
was in a few years brought into a state of 
garden cultivation. The word * Deanstonis- 
ing' passed into common use to signify deep 
ploughing and thorough draining. The farm 
was visited by a large number of agricul- 
turists from all parts of the kingdom, as well 
as from the continent of Europe and America. 
Especially was this the case after 1831, when 
Smith published a paper on ' Thorough Drain- 




ing and Deep Working.' In 1834 he was 
examined before a committee of the House 
of Commons on agricultural depression, on 
the subject of his system of cultivation, 
which in the opinion of Mr. Shaw Lefevre, 
Chairman of the committee, was ' the only 
thing likely to promote the general improve- 
ment of a^culture.' Another high autho- 
rity, John Claudius Loudon [q. v. J, referred 
to it in the ' Gardener's Magazine ' as ' the 
most extraordinary agricultural improve- 
ment of modern times.' 

In addition to the subsoil plough, Smith 
invented a turn-wrest plough and the web- 
chain harrow. He also experimented in 
manures, and devoted much attention to 
engineering operations, mechanism, and ma- 
nufactures. He constructed the water-wheel 
at the Shawswater cotton mill, Greenock, 
and the bridge at Gargunnock on the Carse 
of Stirling. He also invented and patented 
an improved self-acting mule. But it was 
in connection with the factory of Peanston 
that his talent for invention and organisation 
found greatest scope. He increased the 
water-power at the command of the factory 
bv constructing a weir on the river Teith. 
T*his weir was of such height as to prevent 
the passage of the salmon up the river. 
Smith removed the difficulty by the inven- 
tion and construction of the ' salmon ladder,' 
which deserves a prominent place among his 
inventions (see Edinb. Rev. 1873, cxxxvii. 
172). The factory itself he enlarged, and 
built a model village for the accommodation 
of his workpeople. 

Suddenly, in 1842, he abandoned his em- 
ployment at Deanston, and, coming to Lon- 
don, established himself there as an ' agricul- 
tural engineer' {Quarterly Rev. 1844, lxxiii. 
490 sq.) Soon afterwards he was appointed 
one of the commissioners for the inquiry into 
the sanitary condition of large towns. He 
was an advocate of the use of sewage water 
for agricultural purposes, and his paper on 
this subject was published in the appendix 
to the * 'Report ' of the health of towns com- 
mission. After two years of investigation 
and experiment to determine the practica- 
bility of his scheme for the utilisation of 
London sewage, parliament was approached 
on the subject, but nothing was done. 

Smith was about this time largely em- 
ployed, especially during the railway mania 
of 1844, in the examination and valuation of 
land intended to be used in the construction 
of railroads. 

He died unmarried, on 10 June 1850, when 
on a visit to his cousin, Archibald Buchanan, 
at Kingencleuch in Ayrshire. He had many 
inventions in view at the time, and was 

taking out a patent for a sheep dip of a new 
composition intended to supersede the sys- 
tem of 'tarring.' He had also extensive 
plans for improvements in farmsteadings, for 
the better housing of cattle, and for watering 
the fields in time of drought. 

There is a small full-length portrait of 
him by Ansdell in the possession of the 
Royal Agricultural Society of England, and 
a life-size half-length portrait now in the 
South Kensington Museum. The latter is 
reproduced in the 'Farmer's Magazine' for 
September 1846 (facing page 191). 

[Farmers Magazine, Edinburgh, 1812 xiii. 
441, 1813 xiv. 397, 1814 xv. 10, xvii. 1, 94, 
160,261, 318, 450; London, (1846) (2nd ser.), 
xiv. 191, (1850) xxii. 66 ; Quarterly Journal of 
Agriculture, xvii. 457; Mark Lane Express, 
17 June 1850.] E. C-k. 

SMITH, JAMES, known as l Smith of 
Jordanhill ' (1782-1867), geologist and man 
of letters, was born at Glasgow 15 Aug. 
1782. He was the eldest son of Archibald 
Smith (d. 1821), West India merchant, and 
Isobel Ewing (d. 1865, aged 100). He was 
educated at the grammar school, Edinburgh, 
and the university of Glasgow, and became 
a sleeping partner in the firm of Leitch & 
Smith, West India merchants. Science, lite- 
rature, and the fine arts were, however, the 
business of his life, and he was a collector of 
rare books, particularly those relating to 
early voyages and travels. He was also an 
enthusiastic yachtsman, one of the earliest 
members of both the Royal and the Royal 
Northern Yacht clubs ; his first cruise in his 
own vessel being made in 1806, and his last 
in 1866. He was for a time an officer in the 
Renfrewshire militia, and happened to be 
on duty at the Tower of London during the 
imprisonment of Sir Francis Burdett [q. v.l 

Smith's fondness for the sea and practical 
knowledge of navigation were indirectly help- 
ful in his scientific and literary work. His 
earliest published paper was on * A Whirl- 
wind at Roseneatn * (Edinb. Phil. Journ. 
1822, p. 331); his next on 'A Vitrified 
Fort' (Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinb. x. 79), dis- 
coverea accidentally on landing from his 
yacht in the Kyles of Bute. The raised 
beaches and other indications of compara- 
tively recent changes in the relative level 
of sea and land, so conspicuous on the west 
coast of Scotland, next attracted his atten- 
tion, and he perceived that the molluscs 
which occur in them differ in certain respects 
from those now living" on the same coast. 
An explanation of this fact was sought in 
cruises for dredging in the northern seas, 
when he ascertained that species now extinct 
in Scottish waters were still living in more 




arctic regions. This led him to maintain, 
in a paper read to the Geological Society of 
London in 1836, that in Britain, at a time 
comparatively recent, the temperature had 
been much lower than at present. 

Jordanhill, near Glasgow, was Smith's 
residence, but from 1839 to 1846 regard for 
the health of some members of his family 
caused him to spend much time out of Britain, 
and he wintered successively at Madeira, 
Gibraltar, Lisbon, and Malta. He seized the 
opportunities of studying the geology of these 
places, and communicated the results to the 
Geological Society of London, in the journal 
of which he also published a paper (iii. 234) on 
changes of land and sea in the Mediterranean, 
especially as indicated by the well-known 
Temple of Serapis near Pozzuoli. Glacial 
questions were resumed in a paper to the same 
society in 1845, and the subject was continued 
in 1847 and 1848. Here, while admitting the 
former existence of glaciers in Britain, he 
combatted the extreme views as to the ex- 
tension of land-ice which then were being 
advocated by Agassiz, and he preferred to 
attribute much of the boulder clay to the 
action of coast-ice during a period of sub- 
mergence. Altogether he appears to have 
written sixteen separate papers on scientific 
subjects, most of them published in the 
journal of the above-named society. In 
1862 he republished the majority of them, 
after some revision, in a small volume en- 
titled * Studies in Newer Pliocene and Post- 
Tertiary Geology,' which indicates the impor- 
tance of his contributions to this branch of 
the science. 

But Smith's most important book was 
historical rather than geological, viz. his 
' Voyage and Shipwreck of St. Paul,' pub- 
lished in 1848 (4th edit. 1880). His prac- 
tical knowledge of seamanship fitted him to 
discuss this question, and his treatise is one 
of the highest value, in regard not only to 
the place of the shipwreck, but also to some 
wider questions. He maintained that in- 
ternal evidence proved the account to have 
been written by an eye-witness and a lands- 
man, repudiating the idea that the island 
was Melida in the Adriatic, and identifying 
the locality of the wreck with St. Paul's 
Bay, Malta, to which it had been tradi- 
tionally assigned. Smith read the proof- 
sheets of Conybeare and Howson's ' Life of 
St. Paul,' which embodies his conclusions 
respecting the wreck. Smith's treatise was 
translated into German, and is generally 
recognised as a standard authority on ancient 
ship-building and navigation. Incidentally 
Smith was led into a discussion relating to 
the authors of the synoptic gospels, and in a 

later treatise (' Dissertation on the Origin 
and Connection of the Gospels,' 1853) he 
worked out the question by a minute com- 
parison of the parallel passages in the three 
authors, maintaining that St. Luke, in 
writing his gospel, made use of the other 
two, viz. that by St. Matthew, and a Hebrew 
original (probably written by St. Peter) 
afterwards translated by St. Mark. 

He was elected F.G.S. in 1836 and F.R.S. 
in 1830. He was also F.R.S.E. and F.R.G.S., 
fellow and for a time president of the Geo- 
logical Society of Glasgow, and for many 
years president of the Andersonian Uni- 
versity, cf which he was an active supporter, 
presenting its museum with valuable collec- 
tions. He enjoyed excellent health till the 
spring of 1866, when he had a slight paralytic 
stroke; he recovered from this, but another 
at the end of the year proved fatal on 
17 Jan. 1867. In 1809 he married Mary 
(d. 1847), daughter of Alexander Wilson 
and granddaughter of Professor Alexander 
Wilson of Glasgow. Archibald Smith [q. v.] 
was their son. 

A photographic portrait was prefixed to 
Smith's 'Voyage of St. Paul' (2nd edit. 

[Obituary Notices, Glasgow Geol. Soc. Trans, 
ii. 228 ; Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxii. ; Proc. 
p. xlvi ; Proc. Roy. Soc. 1868, p. xlii ; Roy. Soc. 
Cat. of Papers.] T. G. B. 

SMITH, JAMES (1805-1872), merchant, 
son of Joshua Smitn, was born in Liver- 
pool on 26 March 1805. He entered a mer- 
chant's office at an early age, and, after re- 
maining there seventeen years, commenced 
business on his own account, retiring in 1855. 
He studied geometry and mathematics for 
practical purposes, and made some mechani- 
cal experiments with a view to facilitating 
mining operations. His attention being 
called to the problem of squaring the circle, 
in 1859 he published a work entitled ' The 
Problem of squaring the Circle solved* 
(London, 8vo), which was followed in 1861 
by 'The Quadrature of the Circle: Corre- 
spondence between an Eminent Mathema- 
tician and J. Smith, Esq./ London, 8vo. 
This was ridiculed in the ' Athenaeum ' (1861 , 
i. 627,664,674), and Smith replied in a letter 
which was inserted as an advertisement (ib. 
i. 679). From this time the establishment 
of his theory became the central interest of 
his life, and he bombarded the Royal Society 
and most of the mathematicians of the day 
with interminable letters and pamphlets on 
the subject. De Morgan was selected as his 
peculiar victim on account of certain reflec- 
tions he had cast on him in the ' Atheneeum.' 




Smith was not content to claim that he was 
able graphically to construct a square equal 
in area to a given circle, but boldly laid 
down the proposition that the diameter of a 
circle was to the circumference in the exact 
proportion of 1 to 3*125. In ordinary busi- 
ness matters, however, he was shrewd and 
capable. He was nominated by the board of 
trade to a seat on the Liverpool local marine 
board, and was a member of the Mersey docks 
and harbour board. He died at his residence, 
Barkeley House, Seaforth, near Liverpool, in 
March 1872. 

Besides those mentioned, his principal 
works were: 1. 'A Nut to Crack for the 
Readers of Professor De Morgan's " Budget 
of Paradoxes," ' Liverpool, 1863, 8 vo. 2. « The 
Quadrature of the Circle, or the True Batio 
between the Diameter and Circumference 
geometrically and mathematically demon- 
strated/ Liverpool, 1865, 8vo. 3. 'Euclid 
at Fault/ Liverpool, 1868, 8vo. 4. ' The 
Geometry of the Circle a Mockery, Delusion, 
andaSnare/Liverpool,1869,8vo. 5. 'Curio- 
sities of Mathematics/ Liverpool, 1870, 8vo ; 
2nd edit. 1870. 6. 'The Ratio between 
Diameter and Circumference demonstrated 
by Angles/ Liverpool, 1870, 8vo. 

[Smith's Works; Men of the Time, 7th edit. 
p. 741 ; De Morgan's Budget of Paradoxes, 
passim ; Alii bone's Diet, of English Literature.] 

E. I. C. 

1828), botanist, was born at Norwich on 
2 Dec. 1759. He was the eldest child of 
James Smith, a wealthy nonconformist wool 
merchant, by his wife Frances, only daughter 
of the Rev. J ohn Kinderley . Being delicate, 
Smith was at first educated at home. He 
inherited a love of flowers from his mother, 
but did not begin the study of botany 
as a science until he was eighteen, and 
then, curiously enough, on the very day of 
Linnets death {Transactions of the Linnean 
Soc. vol. vii.) He was guided in his early 
studies by his friends, James Crowe of Laken- 
ham, Hugh Rose, John Pitchford, and Rev. 
Henry Bryant; and, though originally de- 
stined for a commercial career, was sent in 
1781 to the university of Edinburgh to study 
medicine. Here he studied botany under 
Dr. John Hope, one of the earliest teachers 
of the Linnsean method, won a gold medal 
awarded by him, and established a natural 
history society. In September 1783 he came 
to London to study under John Hunter and 
Dr. William Pitcairn, with an introduction 
from Dr. Hope to Sir Joseph Banks [q. v.], 
then president of the Roval Society. On the 
death of the younger Linnaeus in that year, 

the whole of the library, manuscripts, her- 
barium, and natural history collections made 
by him and by his father were offered to 
Banks for a thousand guineas. Banks de- 
clined the offer, but on nis recommendation 
Smith purchased it, with his father's consent. 
Subsequent offers from John Sibthorp [q. v.] 
and from the Empress of Russia were re- 
ceived by the executors. In September 1784 
Smith took apartments in Paradise Row, 
Chelsea, where the Linnsean collections ar- 
rived in the following month. The total 
cost, including freight, was 1,088/. It is 
stated {Memoir and Correspondence of Sir 
J. E. Smith, edited by Lady Smith, i. 126) 
that Gustavus III of Sweden, who had been 
absent in France, hearing of the despatch of 
the collections, vainly sent a belated vessel 
to the Sound to intercept the ship which 
carried them. This probably apocryphal 
story is perpetuated on the portrait of Smith 
published in Thornton's ' Temple of Flora.' 
'With no premeditated design of relin- 

?uishing physic as a profession {op. cit. p. 
28), Smith now became entirely devoted to 
natural history, and mainly to botany. During 
the following winter Banks and Dryander 
went through the collections with him at 
Chelsea, and Pitchford urged him to prepare 
' a Flora Britannica, the most correct that 
can appear in the Linntean dress* {op. cit. p. 
130). Elected a fellow of the Royal Society 
in 1785, he made his first appearance as an 
author by translating the preface to Linne's 
' Museum Regis Adolphi Frederici/ under the 
title of ' Reflexions on the Study of Nature/ 
in 1785. In June 1786 he started on a con- 
tinental tour, and after obtaining a medical 
degree at Leyden (23 June), with a thesis 'De 
Generatione/ he travelled through Holland, 
France, Italy, and Switzerland. He visited 
Allamand and Van Royen at Leyden, the 
widow of Rousseau (for whom, as a botanist 
of the Linnsean school, he had a great admi- 
ration), Broussonet at Montpellier, Gerard at 
Cottignac, the Marquis Durazzo at Genoa, 
Mascagni the anatomist at Sienna, Sir Wil- 
liam Hamilton and the Duke of Gloucester 
at Naples, Bonnet, De Saussure, and others 
at Geneva, La Chenal at Basle, and Herman 
at Strasburg. At the same time he care- 
fully examined the picture galleries, the her- 
baria, and botanical libraries en route. His 
tour is fully described in the three-volume 
' Sketch ' which he first published in 

Before his departure Smith appears to have 
broached to his friends, Samuel Goodenough 
[q. v.], afterwards bishop of Carlisle, and 
Thomas Marsham the iaea of superseding 
a somewhat somnolent natural history so- 




ciety, of which they were members, by one 
bearing the name of Linnaeus. On his return 
to England in the autumn of 1787, he left 
Chelsea, with a view to practising as a phy- 
sician in London, and in 1788 took a house 
in Great Marlborough Street. There the first 
meeting of the Linnean Society was held 
on 8 April 1788. Smith was elected pre- 
sident, and delivered an ' Introductory Dis- 
course on the Rise and Progress of Natural 
IIistory. , Marsham became secretary, Good- 
enough treasurer, and Dryander librarian. 
The society started with thirty-six fellows, 
sixteen associates, and about fifty foreign 
members, mostly those naturalists whose 
acquaintance Smith had made during his 
tour. Banks joined the new societv as an 
honorary member. From this period Smith 
gave lectures at his own house on botany 
and zoology, numbering among his pupils 
the Duchess of Portland, Viscountess Cre- 
morne, and Lady Amelia Hume, and about 
the same time he became lecturer on botanv 
at Guy's Hospital. In 1789 he republished, 
unde/the title of ' Reliquiae Rudbeckianaa,' 
those wood-blocks of plants, prepared bv 
Olof Rudbeck for his ' Campi Elysii,' which 
had escaped the great fire at Upsal in 1702, 
and during the four following years he issued 
parts of several illustrated botanical works, 
which, owing to want of patronage, he failed 
to complete. In 1790, however, he began the 

Sublication of what has proved his most en- 
uring work, though as his name did not ap- 
pear on the first three volumes, it is still often 
known as Sowerby's ' English Botany,' from 
the name of its illustrator, James Sowerby 
[q. v.] It formed thirty-six octavo volumes, 
with 2,592 plates, comprising all known Bri- 
tish plants, with the exception of the fungi ; 
its publication was not completed until 1814. 
In 1791 Smith was chosen, oy the interest of 
Goodenough and Lady Cremorne, to arrange 
the queen's herbarium, and to teach her and 
her daughters botany and zoology at Frog- 
more; out some passages in his 'Tour,' 
praising Rousseau, and speaking of Marie- 
Antoinette as Messalina, although they were 
removed from the second edition, gave offence 
at court. Soon after his marriage, which 
took place in 1796, Smith retired to nis native 
city, only coming to London for two or three 
months in each year to deliver an annual 
course of lectures at the Royal Institution, 
which he continued down to 1825. He was, 
however, annually re-elected president of the 
Linnean Society until his death. After he 
had completed his important 'Flora Bri- 
tannica,' in three octavo volumes, 1800-4, 
Smith was chosen by the executors to edit 
the 'Flora Graeca' of his friend, John Sib- 

thorp [q. v.] He published the ' Prodromus ' 
in two octavo volumes in 1806 and 1813, and 
completed six volumes of the 'Flora' itself 
before his death. In 1807 appeared the first 
edition of his most successful work, 'The 
Introduction to Physiological and Systematic 
Botany,' which passed through six editions 
during the authors lifetime. In 1808, on 
the retirement through illness, which termi- 
nated fatally, of the Rev. William Wood, 
! who had contributed the botanical articles 
! to Rees's 'Cyclopaedia' down to 'Cyperus,' 
I the editor applied for assistance to Smith. 
He wrote 3,348 botanical articles, among" 
1 which were fifty-seven biographies of emi- 
nent botanists, including Adanson, Clusius, 
Peter Collinson, and William Curtis. All 
were signed ' S.' as he disliked anonymous 
writing. In 1814, when the prince regent 
accepted the position of patron of the Linnean 
Society, Smith received the honour of knight- 
hood. In 1818 his friend, Thomas Martyn 
(1735-1825) [q.v.l, professor of botany at 
Cambridge, who was then over eighty years 
of age, invited him to lecture for him ; but 
the university authorities objected, on the 
ground that Smith was a unitarian. The 
incident led him to write two somewhat 
acrimonious pamphlets. 

What has been described as his 'last and 
best work,' 'The English Flora,' occupied 
Smith during the last seven years of his life, 
the first two volumes appearing in 1824, the 
third in 1825, and the fourth in March 1828, 
on the very day when he was seized with his 
fatal illness. The ' Compendium,' in one 
volume, appeared posthumously in 1829, and 
the fifth volume, containing the mosses by 
Sir W. J. Hooker, and the fungi by the Rev. 
M. J. Berkeley, in 1833-6. Smith died in 
Surrey Street,* Norwich, on 17 March 1828, 
and was buried at Lowestoft, in the vault 
of the Reeve family. He married, in 1796, 
Pleasance, only daughter of Robert Reeve of 
Lowestoft; she is separately noticed [see 
Smith, Pleasance, Lady]. 

Sprengel's eulogy of Smith as fUya jo/Jo? 
Bpiravp&v is extravagant, but his easy, 
fluent style, happy illustration, extensive 
knowledge, and elegant scholarship, both in 
his lectures and in his writings, did much 
to popularise botany. His possession of the 
LinnsBan collections invested him, in his 
own opinion, with the magician's wand, 
and he set a value on his judgment in all 
botanical questions which his own attain- 
ments did not wholly warrant (B. D. Jackson, 
Guide to the Literature of Botany, p. xxxvii). 
But his ownership of the Linnaean treasures 
secured him a great influence abroad, and 
he was elected a member of the Academy 




of Sciences at Paris, the Imperial Academy 
' Naturae Curiosorum,' and tne academies of 
Stockholm, Upsal, Turin, Lisbon, Philadel- 
phia, and New York. His name was comme- 
morated by Dryander and Salisbury in Aiton's 
' Hortus Kewensis ' by the genus Smithia, a 
small group of sensitive leguminous plants. 
His library and collections, including those 
of Linnaeus, were offered by hifc executors to 
the Linnean Society for 4,000/., and ulti- 
mately bought by private subscription for 
3,000/., and presented to the society. 

There is a bust of Smith by Chantrey at the 
Linnean Society's apartments, an engraving 
from which forms the frontispiece of the * Me- 
moir ; ' another engraving, by Audinet, ap- 
peared in the 'Gentleman's Magazine' for 
1828, and was reissued with the date 1831 
in Nichols's ' Literary Illustrations/ vol. vi., 
and there is a folio engraving in Thornton's 
' Temple of Flora.' 

Smith was the author of several hymns in 
the collection used in the Octagon Chapel, 
Norwich, of which he was a deacon at the 
time of his death. He contributed a paper 
'On the Irritability of Vegetables' (to the 
' Philosophical Transactions') ; ' De Filicum 
generibus' (to the 'Memoirs of the Turin 
Academy,' 1790-1, pp. 401-22); fifty-two 
papers to the 'Transactions of the Linnean 
Society,' vols, i.-xiii., and a slight memoir 
of John Ray [q. v.] to Derham's ' Memorials' 
of Ray in 1846. The following are his 
independent works: 1. 'Reflections on the 
Study of Nature,' translated from Linnaeus's 

Sreface to his ' Museum Regis Adolphi Fre- 
erici,' London, 1785, 8vo; Dublin, 1786. 
2. ' Dissertation on the Sexes of Plants, from 
the Latin of Linnaeus,' London, 1786, 8vo ; 
Dublin, 1786. 3. 'Dissertatio qusedam de 
Generatione complectens,' Leyden, 1786. 
4. ' Disquisitio de Sexu Plantarum cum annot. 
J. E. Smith et P. M. A. Broussonet,' from 
Linne's ' Amoenitates Academic®,' vol. x., 
London, 1787, 8vo. 5. ' Introductory Dis- 
course on the Rise and Progress of Natural 
nistory,' from the ' Transactions of the Lin- 
nean Society,' i. 1-56, London, 1791, 4to, 
translated into Italian by G. Fontana, Pavia, 
1792, 8vo, and into Greek, with notes, by 
Demetrios Poulos, 1807, 8vo. 6. ' Reliquiae 
Rudbeckianae,' London, 1789, fol. 7. ' Plan- 
tarum Icones hactenus ineditae,' three fasci- 
culi, 1789, 1790, and 1791, fol., with seventy- 
five plates and seventy-five pages of Latin 
text. 8. ' Icones pictae Plantarum rariorum,' 
three fasciculi, 1790-3, fol., with eighteen 
coloured plates and thirty-six pages of Latin 
and English text. 9. ' English Botany,' 36 
vols. 8vo, 1790-1814, with 2,592 coloured 
plates by James Sowerby. 10. ' Spicilegium 

Botanicum,' two fasciculi, 1791-2, fol., with 
twenty-four coloured plates and twenty-two 
pages of Latin and English text. 11. 'Linnaei 
Flora Lapponica/London, 1792, 8vo. 12. ' Spe- 
cimen of the Botany of New Holland,' Lon- 
don, 1793, 4to, with sixteen coloured plates. 

13. ' Sketch of a Tour on the Continent/ 
London, 3 vols. 8vo, 1793; 2nd edit. 1807. 

14. ' Natural History of the rarer Lepido- 
pterous Insects of Georgia, from Observations 
by J. Abbot,' 2 vols. fol. 1797, which ap- 
peared simultaneously in both English and 
French. 15. 'Tracts relating to Natural 
History,' London, 1798, 8vo, including re- 
prints of 1, 2, and 5. 16. 'Flora Bri- 
tannica,' London, 3 vols. 8vo, 1800-4; with 
notes by Johann Jakob Roemer, and ad- 
ditional English localities by L. W. Dill- 
wyn, Zurich, 1804-5. 17. ' Compendium 
Florae Britannicae,' 1800; 2nd edit. 1816 ; 3rd 
edit. 1818; 5th edit. 1828 ; ' in usum Florae 
Germanicae,' Erlangen, 1801. 18. 'Exotic 
Botany,' London, 2 vols. 8vo and 4to, 1804- 

1805, with 120 coloured plates by Sowerby. 

19. 'Flora Graeca,' vols, i.-vii. fol. 1806-28. 

20. ' Prodromus Florae Graecae,' 2 vols. 8vo, 

1806, 1813. 21. 'Introduction to Physio- 
logical and Systematic Botany,' London, 

1807, 8vo; 2nd edit. 1809; 3rd edit. 1814; 
4th edit. 1819; 5th edit. 1825; 6th edit. 
1827 ; 7th edit., edited by W. J. Hooker, 
1833; another, edited by William Macgil- 
livray, 1838 ; American edit., with notes by 
J. Bigelow, Boston, 1814, 8vo ; translated 
into German by Joseph August Schultes, 
Vienna, 1819. 22. 'Tour to Hafod,' fol., 
1810, with fifteen coloured views ; only a 
hundred copies printed. 23. ' Lachesis Lap- 
ponica,' translated from Linnaeus, London, 
2 vols. 8vo, 181 1. 24. ' Review of the Modern 
State of Botany,' chiefly taken from Linnaeus's 
' Praelectiones as published by Giseke, from 
the second volume of the supplement to the 
' Encyclopaedia Britannica,' London, 1817, 
4to, pp. 48, reprinted in Lady Smith's 
'Memoir,' ii. 441-591. 25. 'Considerations 
respecting Cambridge, more especially re- 
lating to the Botanical Professorship,' 1818, 
8vo. 26. ' A Defence of the Church and Uni- 
versities of England against such injudicious 
Advocates as Professor Monk and the Quar- 
terly Review,' 1819, 8vo. 27. ' Grammar of 
Botany,' 1821 ; 2nd edit. 1826 ; American 
edition, by H. Muhlenberg, New York, 1822 ; 
German edition, Weimar, 1822. 28. ' Corre- 
spondence of Linnaeus and other Naturalists/ 
London, 1821, 2 vols. 8vo. 29. 'English 
Flora/London,4vols.8vo, 1824-8. 30. 'Com- 
pendium of the English Flora,' London, 1829, 
8vo; 2nd edit., edited by W. J. Hooker, 
1836, 12mo. 


6 4 


[Memoir and Correspondence, bv Lady Smith, 
2 yols. 1832; Nichols's Illustrations, yol. vi.; 
Georgian Era, iii. 230 ; Nicholson's Journal.] 

G. S. B. 

monly known as * Shepherd Smith/ (1801- 
1857), divine and essayist, son of John 
Smith of London, by his wife Janet, daugh- 
ter of James Thomson, was born at Glasgow 
on 22 Nov. 1801, and was the brother of Dr. 
Robert Angus Smith [q. v.] The family was 
numerous and the father in narrow circum- 
stances. A fervent, disputatious, well-read 
but poorly taught man, moving and breathing 
in an atmosphere of theology, it was his 
ambition to see all his sons in the ministry, 
which had the good effect of making him 
anxious about their education. By the aid 
of the university of Glasgow, James Smith 
acquired a fair amount of general knowledge 
ana a degree, and went forth at the age of 
seventeen to become a private tutor and a 
probationer for the church. He continued 
to teach in various families until 1829, but, 
though occasionally preaching, made no 
serious attempt to enter the Scottish church. 
Already estranged in sympathy from that 
body, he fell about 1827 under the influence 
of John Wroe fa. v.], the Southcottian * pro- 
phet.' He took up tis residence with Wroe 
at Ashton-under-Lyne in 1829, and remained 
there until 1831, when he returned to Scot- 
land. He had soon tired of Wroe, whom he 
nevertheless subsequently described as a 
very remarkable man, and set up a doctrine 
of his own, which might be described 
as a mystical universalism. On his return 
to Scotland he for a time practised painting, 
for which he evinced much talent, but only 
with a view to raising funds to take him to 
London, where he arrived in September 
1832. He opened a chapel, charging a penny 
for admission, and circulating tracts and lec- 
tures. At first he appeared to have consider- 
able success, but as tne novelty of his views 
wore off he connected himself with Robert 
Owen [q. v.], and lectured at the socialist 
institution in Charlotte Street, editing at the 
same time various socialist journals. A 
breach with Owen soon ensued, and at the 
end of August 1834 Smith established his 
own organ, 'The Shepherd/ in which he 
discussed the subjects that interested him 
in his own way. He came to examine the 
grounds of his own opinions, and quietly 
dropped much that he now recognised as 
wild and eccentric. The substance of his 
thinking nevertheless remained the same, 
and might be described as oriental pantheism 
translated into Scotch. The chief peculi- 
arity was his style, homely and conversa- 

tional, yet like that of no other man. It 
might seem an illustration of his doctrine 
of the indifference of good and evil that upon 
the suspension of ' The Shepherd/ he should 
take refuge with the 'Penny Satirist/ for 
which, however, he wrote only the leading 
article. He was enabled to return to his 
own 'pulpit, which he called newspaper' 
(Carlylb), by the generosity of two ladies, 
Mrs. Chichester and Mrs. Welsh, who in that 
day spent large sums in fostering enthusiasm 
and eccentricity of every sort. Smith also 
took up Fourierism, and wrote in its organ 
the ' Phalanx/ but ' longed to get out of it/ 
and soon got into one of the most remarkable 
ventures in the history of cheap periodical 
literature, 'The Family Herald/ the first 
number of which appeared on 13 May 1843. 

This celebrated publication, issued weekly 
at one penny, and mainly devoted to fiction 
of a very popular type, was, according to the 
prospectus, 'the first specimen of a publi- 
cation produced entirely by machinery, 
types, inn, paper, and printing. It met with 
an immediate success, and provided its 
ex-Southcottian, ex-Owenite, ex-Fourierist 
contributor, hitherto one of the obscurest of 
public teachers, with a platform from which 
he came to address weekly half a million 
readers. Smith's sphere was the leading 
essay and the answers to, frequently ima- 
ginary, correspondents, under cover of which 
he contrived to bring his own views before a 
very numerous public. As long as he re- 
mained connected with the ' Herald/ and the 
connection lasted until his death, there never 
was a number without something worth 
reading. He became ambitious, however, of 
a more select audience, and produced in 1854 
his only book of importance, 'The Divine 
Drama of History and Civilisation/ a striking 
and grandiose view of the development of 
human destiny as it presented itself to his 
untrained but fertile imagination. His 
posthumous 'Coming Man/ not published 
until 1873, repeats the ideas of his principal 
work in the form of a novel. From tnis 
point of view it is ineffective, but it is valuable 
irom its portraits of some of the socialist 
lecturers and religious enthusiasts whom the 
writer had known. He died of decline during 
a visit to Scotland in June 1857. 

Though an enthusiast, Smith was by no 
means a fanatic, and his enthusiasm was quali- 
fied by a copious infusion of Scottish shrewd- 
ness. The general drift of his speculation 
is well expressed by a reviewer in the ' In- 
quirer:' 'In the divine government of the 
world, all ages, all nations, all mythologies, 
all religions, all fanaticisms, all social phe- 
nomena, moral or abnormal, have had an ap- 




pointed place and function, a brief or abiding 
purpose to fulfil, and a spiritual meaning 
symbolically to convey.' 

[Shepherd Smith the Universalist : the Story 
of a Mind. By (his nephew) W. Anderson Smith, 
1892, which it based on his correspondence with 
his family and with the late Lady Lytton, whose 
mother, Mrs. Wheeler, had been one of his first 
patrons upon his coming to London.] R. G-. 

(d. 1676), admiral, grandson of John Smyth 
of Much Warlingfield, Suffolk, and third son 
of Jeremiah Smyth of Canterbury, was pre- 
sumably settled at Hull as a merchant, and 
shipowner, living at Birkin, where his wife, 
Frances, died in ner fortieth year, on 3 Sept. 
1666. "Whether he served in the parlia- 
mentary army during the civil war is un- 
certain ; in connection with the sea service 
his name first appears as one of the signa- 
tories to the declaration of confidence in 
Cromwell made by the admirals and cap- 
tains of the fleet on 22 April 1663. He had 
then been recently appointed captain of the 
Advice, a ship of 4z guns, which he com- 
manded during the summer and in the battles 
of 2 and 3 June, and of 29 and 31 July. In 
December he was appointed to the Essex, a 
new ship, and during the next three years 
seems to have had the command of a small 
squadron for the police of the North Sea. 

In 1664 Smyth was appointed to the 
command of the Mary, from which, on the 
imminence of the Dutch war in the spring 
of 1666, he was moved to the Sovereign, and 
sent to the Mediterranean as commander-in- 
chief of a email squadron. He is said by 
Charnock to have been ordered to hoist the 
union flag at the main when clear of the 
Channel, but this seems very doubtful. On 
his return he was appointed admiral of the 
blue squadron in the grand fleet, and, re- 
maining with the duke of Albemarle when 
the fleet was divided, took part in the ' Four 
Days' Fight,' 1-4 June. The same month he 
was knighted (cf. Pepys, Diary, iv. 439). 
He was still admiral of the blue squadron 
in the battle of 25 July, where, by with- 
drawing from the line, he tempted Tromp 
to follow him with a very superior force, 
thus weakening the Dutch line of battle. 
It was doubted at the time, and may be 
doubted still, whether this was done of set 
purpose in consequence of some accident or 
of shoal water, or from being beaten out of 
his station. Sir Robert Holmes [q. v.], who 
had got separated from the red sauadron and 
joined the blue, fiercely maintained that it 
was cowardice, of which a court-martial fully 
acquitted Smyth. The quarrel, however, con- 
tinued with bitterness, and extended through 


all ranks of the fleet, Albemarle taking part 
with Smyth, and Prince Rupert with Holmes. 
It is said that between the two there was a 
duel, which in itself is not improbable, though 
there is no evidence of the fact. In 1667 
Smyth commanded a small squadron in the 
North Sea to prey on the enemy's commerce, 
while the Thames and Medway were left 
open to the enemy's fleet, and in 1668 was 
vice-admiral of the fleet under Sir Thomas 
Allin [q. v.] in the Channel. In the follow- 
ing year he was appointed one of the com- 
missioners of the navy as comptroller of the 
victualling, and this office he held till his 
death at Clapham in October or November 
1676. His body was brought from Clapham 
toHemingbrough, where, in the church, is a 
monument to his memory. His will, dated 
18 Oct., was proved on 13 Nov. In 1662 he 
bought Prior House in Hemingbrough, near 
Selby; he afterwards bought various pieces 
of land in Hemingbrough and the neighbour- 
hood, and in 1668 he bought the manor of 
Osgodby. He married, for a second wife, 
Ajine, daughter of John Pockley of Thorp 
Willoughby, and by her had three sons. 

[Chornock's Biogr. Nav. i. 136 ; Calendars of 
State Papers, Dom. ; Burton's Hist, of Heming- 
brough, edited by Raine, pp. 322-4.] 

J. K. Li. 

SMITH, JEREMIAH (d. 1723), divine, 
was minister of a congregation at Andover, 
Hampshire, and in 1 708 became co-pastor with 
Samuel Rosewell [q. v.] of the Silver Street 
Presbyterian Chapel, London. He took a 
prominent part in the debates at Salters'HaU 
in 1719 concerning the Trinity, and was one 
of four London ministers who wrote ' The 
Doctrine of the Ever Blessed Trinity stated 
and defended.' He was author of the por- 
tion relating to the 'Epistles to Titus and 
Philemon ' in the continuation of Matthew 
Henry's 'Exposition,' and published, with 
other discourses, funeral sermons on Sir 
Thomas Abney (1722) and Samuel Rosewell 
(1723). He died on 20 Aug. 1723, aged 
nearly seventy. Matthew Clarke preached 
and published a funeral sermon. 

[Wilson's Dissenting Churches in London, 
1810, iii. 68; Williams's Memoir of Matthew 
Henry, 1827, pp. 232, 233, 308.] C. W. S. 

SMITH, JEREMIAH (1771-1854), 
master of Manchester grammar school, son of 
Jeremiah and Ann Smith, was born at Bre- 
wood, Staffordshire, on 22 July 1771, and 
educated under Dr. George Croft at Brewood 
school. He entered Hertford College, Ox- 
ford, in 1790, and graduated B.A. in 1794, 
M.A. in 1797, B.D. in 1810,andD.D. in 1811. 
He was ordained in 1794 to the curacy of 





Edgbaston, Birmingham, which he soon ex- 
changed for that of St. Mary's, Moseley. He 
was also assistant, and then second master, 
in King Edward's School, Birmingham ; and 
on 6 May 1807 was appointed high master of 
the Manchester grammar school, a position 
he retained for thirty years. An enduring 
memorial of the success which distinguished 
his career as a schoolmaster exists in the third 
Tolume of the ' Admission Register of the 
Manchester School/ which was edited by his 
eldest son. While at Manchester he held suc- 
cessively the curacies of St. Mark's, Cheetham 
Hill, St. George's, Carrington, and Sacred 
Trinity, Salford, and the incumbency of St. 
Peter's, Manchester (1813-25), and the 
rectory of St. Ann's in the same town (1822- 
1837). He also held the small vicarage of 
Great Wilbraham, near Cambridge, from 
1832 to 1847, and was from 1824 one of the 
four ' king's preachers ' for Lancashire, a 
sinecure office which was abolished in 1845. 
His sole publication was a sermon preached 
before the North Worcester volunteers in 

He died at Brewood on 21 Dec. 1854. 
There is a portrait of him, from a miniature 
by G. Hargreaves, in the * History of the 
Foundations in Manchester' (vol. li. 1831), 
apd in the 'Manchester School Register' 
(vol. iii.) Another portrait, by Colman, is 
in the possession of the family. 

He married, at King's Norton, Worcester- 
shire, on 27 July 1811, Felicia, daughter of 
William Anderton of Moseley Wake Green, 
by whom he had eight children. 

His eldest son, Jeremiah Finch Smith 
(1815-1895), was rector of Aldridge, Staf- 
fordshire, from 1849, rural dean of Walsall 
from 1862, and nrebendary of Lichfield Cathe- 
dral. He published, besides many sermons 
and tracts, the valuable and admirably edited 
' Admission Register of the Manchester 
School,' 3 vols., 1866-1874, and < Notes on 
the Parish of Aldridge, Staffordshire,' 1884-9, 
2 pts. (Manchester Guardian, 17 Sept. 1895). 

The third son, James Hicks Smith (1822- 
1 88 1 ), barrister-at-law, was author of : 1 . * Bre- 
wood, a R6sum6, Historical and Topographi- 
cal,' 1867. 2. ' Reminiscences of Thirty Years, 
by an Hereditary High Churchman/ 1868. 
3. ' Brewood Church, the Tombs of the Gif- 
fards,' 1870. 4. ' The Parish in History, and 
in Church and State,' 1871. 5. 'Collegiate 
and other Ancient Manchester,' 1877 (Man- 
chester Guardian,4J&n. 1882; Church Review, 
6 Jan. 1882). 

Isaac Gregory Smith (b. 1827), prebendary 
of Hereford Cathedral, and John George 
Smith (h. 1829), barrister-at-law, were re- 
spectively fourth and fifth sons. 

[Manchester School Regipter (Chetham Soc.), 
vol. iii. ; Simms's Bibliotheca Staffordiensis, 
1894.] C. W. S. 

1607), diplomatist and military writer, born 
about 1534, was eldest son of Sir Clement 
Smith or Smythe, who resided at Little 
Baddow, near Chelmsford, Essex; owned the 
manor of Rivenhall and other property in 
the same county ; was knighted in 1547 ; was 
' chidden ' by Edward VI for hearing mass 
in 1550; and died at Little Baddow on 
26 Aug. 1552 (MoRAanr, Essex ; Nichols, 
Lit. Remains of Edward FI,pp. cccvi, 310). 
Sir Clement married Dorothy, joungest 
daughter of Sir John Seymour of W olf Hall, 
Wiltshire, and sister of Edward Seymour, 
duke of Somerset [q. v.], and of Jane Sey- 
mour, Henry VIII s queen [see Jane], John 
was thus first cousin of Edward VI, but 
he fully cherished the Roman catholic senti- 
ments with which his father imbued him. 
Wood states that he was educated at Oxford, 
'but in what House 'tis difficult to find, 
because both his names are very common.' 
The ascertained facts of Sir John Smith's 
career render it impossible to identify him 
with any of the three Oxford graduates 
named John Smith who matriculated be- 
tween 1537 and 1551. It is certain that he 
took no decree. Dissatisfied with the pro- 
testant policy that was favoured by his royal 
cousin and by his mother's family, he probably 
left England at an early age to seek his fortune 
abroad. According to his own account, he 
served as a volunteer or soldier of fortune in 
France while Edward VT was still king (Dis- 
courses, p. 23). For nearly twenty years fol- 
lowing he maintained like relations with 
foreign armies and saw active service not 
only in France, but in the Low Countries, 
where he enlisted under the Spanish flag, 
and in the east of Europe. In 1566 he fought 
against the Turks in Hungary, and came under 
the notice of the Emperor Maximilian II. A 
man of much general intelligence, he became 
an expert linguist, especially in Spanish, and 
lost no opportunity of studying the art of 
war as practised by the chief generals of the 
continent. Despite his catholic predilections, 
he remained devotedly attached to the inte- 
rests of his own country, and often disavowed 
sympathy with catholic priests. 

In 1572 the queen granted him the manor 
of Little Baddow, with the advowson of the 
church there (MoBA.irr, ii. 21); and in 1574 
he received, through Sir Henry Lee, while 
still abroad, an invitation from the English 
government to return home and enter the 
government service. * Refusing very great 
entertainments that he was offered by certain 




great and foreign princes/ he at once accepted 
the offer. At first he had no ground to 
complain of the trust reposed in nim. He 
went to France in April 1576 to watch 
events. In his despatches home he gave dis- 
paraging accounts of the beauty of the ladies 
of the French court when compared with that 
of Queen Elizabeth. He was Knighted in the 
same year, apparently on revisiting London 
(MetCalfe, Knights, p. 130). In the spring 
of 1577 he was entrusted with a diplomatic 
mission of high importance to Madrid. He 
was directed to explain to Philip II Eliza- 
beth's conduct in the Netherlands, to renew 
her offer of mediation between Spain and the 
revolted provinces of the Netherlands, and to 
demand for English traders off the coast of 
Spain and elsewhere protection from the as- 
saults of Spanish ships (Fkotjde, History, x. 
389-91). Philip and Alva received him com- 
placently, but Quiroga, archbishop of Toledo, 
the inquisitor-general, haughtily scorned his 
advances. At the end of ten months, however, 
Smith returned home with friendly assurances 
from Philip, and the diplomatic relations be- 
tween the two countries seemed to be placed 
on a permanently amicable footing (cf. Jbeyces- 
ter Correspondence, p. 93). Smith's ' Collec- 
tions and Observations relating to the con- 
dition of Spain during his residence there in 
1577/ chiefly in Spanish, are preserved in 
manuscript at Lambeth (No. 271). 

Thenceforth Smith's life was a long series 
of disappointments. He sought further offi- 
cial employment in vain. A querulous tem- 
per ana defective judgment doubtless ac- 
counted for the neglect. His importunate 
appeals to the queen and her ministers did 
not improve his prospects. He had borrowed 
money of the queen and was hopelessly in- 
volved in pecuniary difficulties. On 21 Sept. 
1578 the queen released ' unto him the mort- 
gage of his lands upon the debt which he 
oweth her ' on condition that he gave a bond 
for the payment of 2,000/. at Michaelmas 
twelvemonth (Nicolas, Life of Hatton, p. 
98; cf. Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1547-80, p. 

In view of the threatened armada, Smith, 
whose reputation as a soldier remained high, 
was directed to train the regiments of foot 
soldiers raised in his own county of Essex. 
He boasted that he admitted to his troops 
only men of proved respectability, but other- 
wise evinced little discretion. When in July 
1588 he brought his detachment to the camp 
at Tilbury, he pointed out to Leicester, the 
commander-in-chief, the defective training of 
the rest of the army. Leicester, though he 
privately held much the same view, resented 
Smith's severe criticisms, and Smith inoppor- 

tunely asked for leave of absence on the 
ground of ill-health, which necessitated a 
visit to 'thebaths.' The request was refused, 
and he continued to give voice to what Leices- 
ter denounced as 'foolish and vainglorious 
Cdoxes.' After a review by Smith of the 
x contingent, ' he entered again (accord- 
ing to Leicester) into such strange cries for 
ordering of men and for fight with the 
weapon as made me think he was not well ' 
(Motley, United Netherlands, ii. 492-3). The 
armada was soon dispersed at sea, and Smith's 
services were not put to further test. 

On 28 Jan. 1589-90 he wrote to Burghley 
from Baddow, sensibly warning him of the 
danger of permitting the formation of regi- 
ments for foreign service from men of ' the 
baser sort/ H e complained of his long neglect 
at the hands of the queen, and vainly begged 
permission to visit the spas and foreign coun- 
tries for a year or two, and to assign his lands 
so as to pay off his debts to the queen and 
others, and to maintain his wife and family 
( Cal. Hatfield MSS. iv. 4, 5). To distract his 
mind from his grievances he composed be- 
tweenl589 andl591 'four or five little books' 
treating of ' matters of arms/ and in 1590 
he published one of them, consisting of a 
series of discourses on the uses of military 
weapons. He strongly favoured the con T 
tinued use of the bow m warfare, and drew 
from his foreign experience much interesting 
detail respecting the equipment of armies at 
home and abroad. The work was entitled 
'Certain Discourses written by Sir John 
Smythe, knight, concerning the formes and 
effects of diuers sorts of Weapons, and other 
verie important matters Militarie greatlie 
mistaken by diuers of our men of warre in 
these daies, and chiefly of the Mosquet, the 
Caliuer, and the Long-bow ; as also of the 
great sufficiencie, exceUencie, and wonderful 
effects of Archers ; with many notable ex- 
amples and other particularities by him pre- 
sented to the Nobilitie of this Realme, and 
published for the benefite of this his native 
Countrie of England/ 4 to , London (byRichard 
Johnes), 1590. In the dedication, which he ad- 
dressed to the English nobility, and in other 
sections of the work Smith gave vent to his 
resentment at failing to obtain regular mili- 
tary employment, and charged Leicester and 
others of the queen's advisers with incompe- 
tence and corruption. These charges were 
brought to the queen's notice, and she di- 
rected that all copies of the book be ' called 
in, both because they be printed without 
privilege, and that they may breed much 
question and quarrelT (Sir Thomas Heneage 
to Burghley, 14 May 1590). In a long letter 
to Burghley, 20 May 1590, Smith hotly pro- 





tested against this indignity, and rehearsed 
his grievances anew. On 3 June he addressed 
himself in similar terms to the queen, and no 
further restriction seems to have heen placed 
on the book's circulation. Smith's views on 
the value of archery were attacked about 
1591 by Humfrey Barwick in his 'Breefe 
discourse concerning the force and effect of 
all manuaU weapons of fire.' 

In 1694 Smith published a second military 
treatise of a more practical character than 
its forerunner ; it was called ' Instructions, 
Observations, and Orders Militarie, requisite 
for all Chieftaines, Captains, and higher and 
lower men of charge, and Officers, to under- 
stand, knowe, and observe. Composed by 
Sir John Smythe,. knight e, 1591, and now 
first imprinted, 1594/ London, by Richard 
Jones, 4to. It had some sale, and was re- 
issued in the following year. The dedica- 
tion, inscribed to the ' knights, esquires, and 
gentlemen of England that are honorablie 
delighted in the arte and science militarie/ 
displayed much knowledge of history. 

At length, on 2 March 1595-6, Smith 
obtained the permission he had long sought 
to sell Little Baddow, and Anthony Pen- 
nyng of Kettleberg, Suffolk, purchased it 
on 80 April (Moraitt). Smith continued to 
reside in the village. In June 1596 he was 
at Colchester with Sir Thomas Lucas, who 
was training the county militia. In their 
company was Smith's kinsman, Thomas 
Seymour, second son of Edward Seymour, 
earl of Hertford [q. v.], and brother of Ed- 
ward Seymour, lora Beauchamp, a claimant 
to the royal succession. On the morning of 
13 June Smith rode into the field where the 

Sikemen were practising, and bade the sol- 
iers forsake their colonel and follow Sey- 
mour and himself. i The common people/ 
he added, ' have been oppressed and used as 
bondmen these thirty years ; but if you will 
go with me I will see a reformation, and you 
shall be used as freemen' (Stbype, Annals, 
iv. 13). The words were at once reported 
to Lord Burghley. Smith was arrested on 
a charge of treason and sent to the Tower. 
When examined in the Star-chamber on 
Id June, he confessed the truth of the facts 
as reported, but pleaded that he had supped 
too generously for the state of his health the 
night before. On the 26th of the month he 
sent an abject apology to Burghley, offering 
to confine himself thenceforth to his house 
at Little Baddow, and to publish a confession 
of his fault in the market-place at Colchester. 
No further steps were taken against him, but 
he remained in the Tower till February 1598, 
when the queen directed that he might repair 
to his house in Essex on giving good security 

not to go a mile from it without special license. 
This condition was enforced till the end of 
the queen's reign (ib. pp. 414-18 ; Letters of 
Eminent Literary Men % Camden Soc. pp. 8£- 
97 ; Cat. State Papers, Dom. 1595-7, pp. 235 
seq., 1598-1601, pp. 2, 17, 408, 417). . He was 
buried in the church of Little Baddow on 
1 Sept. 1607 (JBty.) 

[Authorities cited.] S. L. 

SMITH or SMYTH, JOHN (d. 1612), th* 
Se-baptist and reputed father of the English 
general baptists, was, according to the prin- 
cipal authorities, matriculated as a sizar of 
Christ's College, Cambridge, on 26 Nov. 1671, 
graduated B.A. in 1575-6, was afterwards 
elected a fellow of his college, and commenced 
M.A. in 1579 (Cooper, Athena Cantabr. Hi. 
38 ; Dexter, True Story of John Smyth, p. 1). 
Francis Johnson (1562-1618) [q. v.] is said 
to have been at one time his tutor (Young, 
Chron. of the Pilgrim Fathers, 1844, p. 450)* 
But Johnson was not matriculated as a pen- 
sioner at Christ's College until April 1579. 
The suggestion that the Se-baptist was the 
John Smith of Christ's College who com- 
menced M.A. in 1598 does not seem well sup- 
ported (Arber, Story of the Pilgrim Fathers^ 
1897, p. 131). Smyth was ordained a clergy- 
man by William Wickham, bishop of Lincoln 
between 1584 and 1595. In a sermon ad 
clerum preached by him on Ash Wednes- 
day 1585-6 Smyth advocated a judaical ob- 
servance of the Sabbath. He was conse-» 
quently cited before the vice-chancellor of 
the university and heads of colleges, and in 
the end he undertook to interpret his opinion 
of such things as had been by him doubt- 
fully and uncertainly delivered, more clearly, 
in another sermon ad clerum, first submit- 
ting it to the vice-chancellor for his approval 
(Cooper, Annals of Cambridge, ii. 415). The 
Se-baptist must not be identified, as has been 
alleged, with the clergyman named Smith 
who was confined for eleven months in the 
Marshalsea in 1597 ; the Christian name of 
that divine was William. The Se-baptist 
was preacher or lecturer in the city of Lin- 
coln from 1603 to 1605. During the latter 
year he separated from the established church 
after nine months of doubt and study. Ac- 
cording to his own account, he held at Coven- 
try, with Masters Dod, Hildersham, and 
Barbon, a conference ' about withdrawing 
from true Churches, Ministers, and Worship 
corrupted.' In 1606 he established a con- 
gregation of separatists at Gainsborough. 
This church or congregation was not orga- 
nised on the lines of the ' Holy Discipline,' 
but upon original principles. Its pastor 
held that Scripture knew of but one class of 


6 9 


elders, in opposition to the * Holy Discipline ' 
theory of the three separate offices of pastor, 
teacher, and elder. Smyth was known to 
William Brewster [q. v.], and the ' gathered 
church* meeting at Brewster's residence, 
Scrooby Manor, Nottinghamshire, was formed 
on lines suggested by Smyth. 

In or about 1608 Smyth, with his wife and 
children and his congregation, left Gains- 
borough and went to Amsterdam, where they 
joined Francis Johnson [a. v.] and Henry 
Ainsworth [q. v.], who haa been his tutor. 
His arrival produced further dissension in the 
already agitated English congregation at that 
place. Smyth imbibed with avidity the doc- 
trines held by the Dutch remonstrants, and, 
throwing off the Calvinistic doctrines, em- 
braced Arminianism. At the same time his 
peculiar sentiments on baptism, with his 
practice, procured for him tne appellation of 
the Se-baptist, because at a solemn religious 
service, held probably in October 160o, he 
performed the rite of baptism upon himself 
<and afterwards baptised others, to the num- 
ber of about forty. His opinions, which 
frequently and rapidly changed, involved him 
in controversy with Joseph Hall (afterwards 
bishop), Henry Ainsworth, Richard Bernard, 
John Robinson, Richard Clifton, John Paget, 
and Francis Jessop. He was a fearless and 
an able, though by no means a courteous, 
disputant. He styled the 'ancient exiled 
church ' at Amsterdam the ' ancient brethren 
of the separation,' and his own community 
-he called 'the brethren of the separation 
of the second English church at Amster- 

A few months after he had baptised him- 
self, Smyth moved on to another plane of 
thought and action, first suspecting, and 
then affirming, that they had all been in 
error in holding the right to baptise and — 
in his own phrase — to church themselves. 
FHirther modification of his theological views 
-accompanied and exaggerated this difficulty, 
'which soon constrained the majority of the 
new church to excommunicate Smyth and 
twenty or thirty who thought with him. 
Smyth and his excluded friends sought ad- 
mission into a church of the Mennonites, 
who, however, refused to receive them. 
Thereupon he and his little congregation 
took refuge in a room at the back of the 
'great cake-house* or bakery belonging to 
Jan Hunter. Meanwhile, some time after 
nis arrival at Amsterdam he began to prac- 
tise physic. He died there of consumption 
in August 1612, and on 1 Sept. was buried 
in the Nieuwekerke. On 20 Jan. 1615 what 
remained of his company was admitted into 
oneoftheMennonite churches. For a short 

time a separate English service was held by 
them in the cake-nouse, but they soon be- 
came absorbed among the Dutch, leaving no 
trace in history of separate existence. 

The somewhat shadowy claim popularly 
advanced in Smith's behalf to be the father of 
the English general baptists appears to rest on 
his autnorship of some of the earliest exposi- 
tions of general baptist principles that were 
printed in England. The titles of his pub- 
lished works are : 1 . ' A True Description out 
of the Word of God of the Visible Church,' 
1589; reprinted in Allison's ' Confutation/ 
in Lawne 8 'Brownism turned the inside out- 
ward' (1603), in Wall's 'More Work for 
the Dean' (1681), and separately 1641, 4to. 
2. ' The Bright Morning Star, or the Resolu- 
tion and Exposition of the Twenty-second 
Psalm ; preached publicly in four sermons at 
Lincoln, Cambridge (John Legat), 1603, 8vo. 
3. 'A Patterne of True Prayer. A learned 
and comfortable Exposition or Commentarie 
upon the Lords Prayer/ London, 1605 and 
1624, 8vo, 452 pages. Dedicated to Edmund 
Sheffield, lord Sheffield (afterwards Earl of 
Mulgrave). Apparently every copy of the 
first edition has disappeared. 4. * The Diffe- 
rences of the Churches of the Separation : 
containing a Description of the Leitourgie & 
Ministerie of the Visible Church/ 1608, 4to. 
5. ' Parallels, Censures, Observations, apper- 
taining to Three several Writings: (1) "A 
Letter to Mr. Richard Bernard, by John 
Smyth ;" (2) " A Book entituled The Sepa- 
ratists Schism, published by Mr. Bernard ;" 
(3) "An Answer to the Separatists Schism," 
by Mr. H. Ainsworth,' London, 1609, 4to. 
6. ' The Character of the Beast, or the False 
Constitution of the Church discovered in 
certain passages betwixt Mr. R. Clifton 
and John Smyth concerning true Chris- 
tian Baptism of New Creatures or New-born 
Babes in Christ : and False Baptism of 
Infants born after the Flesh. Referred to 
two propositions : (1) That Infants are not 
to be baptised; (2) That Antichristians 
converted are to be admitted into the True 
Church by Baptism/ 1609, 4to. 7. * A 
Reply to Mr. R. Clyfton's •« Christian Plea," ' 

In the library of York Minster there is a 
tract without title or date, and believed to 
be unique, containing 'The last book of 
John Smith, called the Retractation of his 
Errors and the Confirmation of the Truth ; ' 
and ' The Life and Death of John Smith/ 
by Thomas Piffott ; as well as John Smyth's 
1 Confession of Faith/ in one hundred pro- 
positions. The last was replied to by John 
Robinson of Leyden, in his ' Survey of the 
" Confessions of Faith." ' The whole tract 


was reprinted in Robert Barclay's' Inner Life 
of the Religious Societies of the Common- 
wealth,' London (1876, pp. 117 and 118). 

[Arbers Story of the Pilgrim Fathers, 1897, 
p. 630 ; Bodleian Catalogue, iii. 498 ; Brooks's 
Puritans, ii. 195 ; Crosby's Hist, of the English 
Baptists, i. 91-9, 265-71, Appendix, p. 67; 
Dexter's True Story of J. Smyth, the Se-Baptist, 
Boston, 1881 ; Bernard on Ruth, ed. Grosart ; 
Bishop Hall's Works (Pratt), vii. 171 ; Banbury's 
Hist. Memorials of the Independents ; Howell's 
State Trials, xxii. 709; Hunter's Founders of 
New Plymouth, pp. 32 sea. 160; Ivimey's Hist, 
of the English Baptists, l. 113-122, ii. 503-5; 
Neal's Puritans, i. 302, 349, 422 ; Notes and 
Queries, 4th *er. vi. 629 ; Strype's Annals, iii. 
341, iv. 134 fol. ; Taylor's General Baptists, i. 
65 seq. ; WhU's Bibl. Brit, under 'Smith ;' Wil- 
son's Dissenting Churches, i. 21, 28 seq.] T. C. 

SMITH, JOHN (1563-1616), divine, born 
at or near Coventry, Warwickshire, in 1563, 
was educated at the Coventry grammar 
school recently founded by John Hales, and 
elected at the age of fourteen to a Coventry 
scholarship at St. John's College, Oxford. He 

?roceeded M.A. in 1585, and B.D. in 1591. 
le was made a fellow of his college, and 
highly valued in the university * for his piety 
and parts.' He was chosen lecturer at St. 
Paul 8 Cathedral, in the place of Lancelot 
Andrewes fq. v.], and became minister of 
Clavering, Essex, in 1592. He died in No- 
vember 1616, leaving benefactions to St. 
John's College, to Clavering parish, and to 
ten faithful and good ministers who had been 
deprived on the question of ceremonies. He 
obtained a license to marry Frances, daughter 
of William Babbington of Chorley, Cheshire, 
on 21 Oct. 1594 (Foster, London Marriage 
Licenses, p. 1244). 

He was author of : 1 . ' * AnoXoyia rr\ s "AvyXw v 
*EKK\rj(rias . . . Apologia Ecclesiie Anglican© 
Grace versa interprete J. S.,' Oxford, 1614, 
12mo ; this was a Greek version of Bishop 
Jewel's ' Apology,' and was published again 
with the Latin in 1 639, 8vo (cf . M adan, Early 
Oxford Press, pp. 97, 214). 2. 'Essex Dove, 
presenting the world with a few of her olive 
branches ; or, a taste of the works of that 
Reverend, Faithfull, Judicious, Learned, and 
holy Minister of the Word, Mr. John Smith 
. . . delivered in three severall Treatises, viz. 
(1) His Grounds of Religion ; (2) An Exposi- 
tion on the Lord's Prayer ; (3) A Treatise of 
Repentance,' 3 parts, London, 1629, 4to, 2nd 
edit, enlarged, London, 1633, 8vo, 3rd edit., 
corrected and amended, London, 1637, 8vo. 
3. ' An Exposition of the Creed, delivered 
in many afternoone Sermons, and now pub- 
lished by Anthony Palmer,' London, 1632, 
fol. Palmer married Smith's widow. The 



seventy-three sermons in this volume ineludo 
the ' Explanation of the Articles of our 
Christian Faith' mentioned by Wood as a 
separate book. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1 500-1 714; Clark and 
Boase's Register of University of Oxford, i. 93, 
ii.78,iii.98; Wood's Athenae Oxon. ii. 188, Fasti, 
i. 217; Morant's Essex, ii. 614 ; Colvile's War- 
wiekshireWorthies, p. 698 ; Brit. Museum Library 
Cat. ; Bodleian Library Cat.] R. B. 

SMITH, JOHN (1580-1631), soldier and 
colonist, baptised in the parish church at 
Willoughby in Lincolnshire, on 6 Jan. 1579- 
1580, was son of George and Alice Smith of 
that place. His father was buried on 3 April 
1596, shortly after which he went to seek his 
fortune in the French army. In 1598, how- 
ever, peace was made between France and 
Spain, and Smith then offered his services to 
the insurgents in the Low Countries, with 
whom he remained for three or four years. 
About 1600 he returned to England and 
abode at home in Lincolnshire for a short 
time, studying the theory of war and prac- 
tising the exercise of a cavalry soldier. In 
1600 Smith again sought foreign service, and 
went through, according to his own vivid 
testimony, a number of startling adventures. 
Mr. Paltrey, in his ' History of New Eng- 
land ' (vol. i.), showed that Smith's stories 
of his career in eastern Europe harmonise 
to some extent with what we know from 
independent chroniclers ; but this is denied 
by later investigators, and especially by Alex- 
ander Brown in his memoir of Smith (Ge- 
nesis of United States of America), Ac- 
cording to Smith's own account, which may 
be credited with a substratum of fact at any 
rate, he first voyaged to Italy in company 
with a number of French pilgrims bound for 
Rome, and having been thrown overboard as 
a huguenot, was rescued by a pirate or pri- 
vateer, with whom he served for some time. 
Then, travelling through Italy and Dal- 
matia, he reached Styria, and took service 
under the Archduke of Austria. He asserts 
that he did specially good service when the 
imperial army was endeavouring to raise the 
siege of 'Olumpagh' (Limbach) by intro- 
ducing a system of signalling between them 
and the garrison, and afterwards helped by 
like means to bring about the fall of Stiihl- 
weissenburg. After this he killed three 
Turkish champions in a series of single com- 
bats fought in sight of the two armies, and 
for this he received a coat of arms from 
Sigismund Bathori, prince of Transylvania, 
under whom he was then serving. At the 
battle of Rothenthurm he was taken prisoner, 
sold for a slave, and sent to Constanti- 


7. 1 


nople. Befriended by a Turkish lady of 
quality, he was removed to Varna in the 
J3lack Sea. There, after much cruel treat- 
ment from his master, a pasha, Smith killed 
his tyrant and made his escape. After long 
wanderings through Europe ne reached Mo- 
rocco, and, there falling in with an English 
man-of-war, came home in 1605. 

In the next year he purposed to join an 
English settlement in Guiana, but the scheme 
was frustrated by the death of Charles Lee, 
the intended leader of the colonists. Smith 
then entered on the best known portion of 
his career, the conduct of the Virginian 
colony, and was among the 105 emigrants 
who, on 19 Dec. 1606, set out from Black- 
wall to found Virginia. They sailed in three 
vessels, the Susan Constant, under Chris- 
topher Newport [q. v.l ; the Godspeed, under 
Bartholomew Gosnold [q. v.] ; and the Dis- 
covery, under John Katcliffe [see under 
Sicklemobe]. Smith is described in the list 
of passengers as a planter. By a most un- 
happy arrangement the names of the council, 
of whom Smith was one, were sealed up in a 
box not to be opened till the settlers reached 
America, and the temporary control during 
the voyage was vested in Captain Newport. 
Smith in some unrecorded fashion came into 
conflict with him, was put under arrest, and, 
although a member of the council (under the 
sealed orders, which were opened on arriving 
in Chesapeake Bay on 26 April), was at first 
not allowed to act. Nevertheless, from the 
outset he did good service. The settlers, 
who had come in search of an Eldorado, 
such as that pictured in the popular play of 
« Eastward Ho !' (1605), had neither the in- 
telligence nor the industry to support them- 
selves by tillage, and they had to subsist on 
the supplies which they could buy, beg, or 
steal from the natives. In the various ex- 

§ editions into the country in search of food 
mith proved himself an energetic and effec- 
tive leader. In one of these, in December 
1607, he was taken prisoner, and was re- 
leased, according to a statement made by 
himself many years later (see his publica- 
tions Nos. 5 and 7), through the intervention 
of the Indian princess Pocahontas [see under 
Rolfe, John]. The whole incident is matter 
of controversy. In all likelihood his rescue 
by Pocahontas owes the general acceptance 
which it long enjoyed to the fact of its un- 
questioned adoption in 1747 by Stith, the 
nrst historian of Virginia. Later writers 
have pointed out that it is at least wholly 
inconsistent with the story told by Smith in 
his earlier publications (cf. No. 1 and No. 2). 
Meanwhile, in September 1607, the first 
elected president, Edward Maria Wingfield 

[q. v.l, an arrogant man of no special capacity, 
was deposed, a proceeding in which Smith 
took a leading part. Wingfield was suc- 
ceeded by John Katcliffe. He held office 
for one year, and Smith then (10 Sept. 1608) 
became the titular head of the colony, as he 
had been almost from the outset its guiding 
and animating spirit. With resolute disci- 
pline Smith introduced something of order 
and industry among the thriftless and help- 
less settlers. They built houses and finished 
the church, fortified the settlement at James- 
town, and took some steps towards support- 
ing themselves by tillage and fishing. 

During the summer of 1608 he explored 
the coasts of the Chesapeake as far as the 
mouth of the Patapsco, and further explored 
the head of the Chesapeake. On these two 
voyages Smith computed that he sailed three 
thousand miles. From his surveys he con- 
structed a map of the bay and its environs 
(see No. 2 below). His dealings with the 
natives were marked by honesty and good 

In August 1609 a fresh party of colonists 
arrived, deprived unhappily of their leaders 
by a storm which separated the fleet [see 
Somees, Sir GeobgeI Further dissensions 
arose, leading to cabals against Smith and to 
difficulties with the natives. In the following 
September Smith was badly hurt by the 
accidental explosion of a bag of gunpowder, 
and left the colony, never to revisit it. 
Henceforth he took no part in the proceed- 
ings of the Virginia Company, but devoted 
himself to encouraging in England colonisa- 
tion and the establishment of fisheries in 
what was afterwards known as New Eng- 
land. Thither he sailed with two ships on 
a voyage of exploration in 1614. On his 
return he presented to Prince Charles a map 
of the coast from the Penobscot to Cape 
Cod, in which the real contour of the New 
England coast was for the first time indi- 
cated. In this the territory south of the 
Hudson was called New England, and among 
other English names adopted that of Ply- 
mouth was assigned to the mainland oppo- 
site Cape Cod, two names which by a happy 
chance so well fitted in with the feelings 
of the later settlers as to be permanently 

Smith now became intimate with one of 
the chief patrons of New England explora- 
tion, Sir F erdinando Gorges, and in 1615 he 
made two attempts to visit New England. 
The first failed through a storm in which 
Smith's ship was dismasted. At the next 
attempt he was taken by a French ship of 
war, and, after serving with his captors 
against the Spaniards, was set free. In 1617 




he made a last attempt, but the three vessels 
in which he and his company were embarked 
were kept in port by baa weather, and the 
expedition was abandoned. Henceforth 
Smith's exertions on behalf of American 
colonisation were confined to the produc- 
tion in London of maps and pamphlets. He 
died in June 1631, and was buried in St. 
Sepulchre's Church, London. His will, which 
was proved on 1 July, is at Somerset House 
(P.C.C. St. John, 89). It is printed in Mr. 
Arber^s edition of his works. 

Much controversy has arisen as to the 
truth of the stories published by Smith 
about his own adventures. But the modern 
historian, while recognising the extravagance 
of the details of many of the more picturesque 
of Smith's self-recorded exploits, is bound to 
give full weight to his record of his more 
prosaic achievements — in laying the solid 
foundations of the prosperity of the new 
settlement of Virginia. Of his works those 
numbered 2 and I below contain numerous 
passages professedly written not by Smith 
himself, but by those who were associated 
with him in Virginia. 

Smith's published writings are : 1. ' A true 
Relation of such Occurrences and Accidents 
of Note as hath passed in Virginia since the 
first planting of that Colony/ 1608; ed. C. 
Deane, 1866. 2. « A Map of Virginia, with 
a Description of the Country,' Oxford, 1612 
(cf. Madan, Early Oxford Press, pp. 8S-6). 
3. * A Description of New England,' 1616; 
other editions 1792, 1836, 1865 ; translated 
into German 1628. 4. ' New England's 
Trials,' 1620 ; 2nd edit. 1622 ; other editions 
1836, 1867. 5. 'The General History of 
Virginia, Summer Isles, and New England/ 
1624; other editions 1626, 1627, 1632. 
6. ' An Accidence, or the Pathway to expe- 
rience necessary for all Young Seamen . . .,' 
1626; republished in the next year, enlarged 
by another hand, under the title of ' The 
Seaman's Grammar;' other editions under 
the latter title 1653 and 1691 . 7. ' The True 
Travels, Adventures, and Observations of 
Captain John Smith in Europe, Asia, Africa, 
and America, from Anno Domini 1593 to 
1629, together with a Continuation of his 
General History of Virginia,' &c, 1630; 
other editions 1732, 1744, and 1819 ; trans- 
lated into Dutch 1678, 1707, and' 1727. 
8. ' Advertisements for the Unexperienced 
Planters of New England,' 1631; edited 
for the Massachusetts Historical Society 
1792, and translated into Dutch 1706 and 

A portrait of Smith was engraved by 
Simon Pass in 1616, 'set. 37/ and prefixed 
to his later works. Copies and reproduc- 

tions of this form the frontispiece to most 
of the modern ' Lives.' 

[A complete list and full account of Smith's 
writings is in Mr. Arbor's introduction to the re- 
print of them in the English Scholar's Library 
(1884). After Smith's own works, which consti- 
tute our sole authority for many of his exploits, 
the most valuable contemporary sources are 
Newport's Discoveries in Virginia (first pub- 
lished in 1860 in Arch. Americana, iv. 40-65), 
Wingfield's Discourse of America (ib. pp. 67- 
163), and Spelman's Relation of Virginia (Lon- 
don, 1872). Slightly later in origin are Robert 
Johnson's New Life of Virginia (1612) and 
Whitaker's Good Newes from Virginia (1613). 
These chronicles of eye-witnesses were followed 
in the eighteenth century by Keith's History of 
Virginia (1738) and by the important History 
of the First Discovery and Settlement of Vir- 
ginia, by William Stith, Williamsburg, 1 747. A 
much less trustful view of Smith's statements is 
taken by Mr. Edward Duffield Neill in his Vir- 
ginia Company in London (1869) and his valuable 
English Colonisation of America (1871). Similar 
suspicion, with varying degrees of reservation, 
I is expressed in Coit Tyler's History of American 
Literature (1879), in Mr. J. A. Boyle's English 
in America (1881-2), in Professor S. R. Gar- 
diner's History (vol. ii. 1883), in Winsor's His- 
tory of America (vol. iii. 1886), and in the later 
editions of Bancroft's History of the United 
States. An extremely pessimistic view of Smith's 
character and influence is taken by Alexander 
Brown in Genesis of the United States of America 
(vol. ii. 1890). 

Fuller, in his Worthies of England, was the 
first to give a biographical account of Smith, 
whose exploits formed the subject of numerous 
' marvellous ' biographies, especially in America, 
during the next two hundred years. A type of 
these is that by J. Bilknap, published at Boston in 
1820, with startling coloured illustrations. More 
serious productions were the Lives by George S. 
Hillard (in vol. ii. of Sparks's Library of Ame- 
rican Biogr. 1834), by Mrs. Edward Robinson 
(London, 1845), by W. Gilmore Simms (New 
York, 1846), and by George C. Hill (New York, 
1858). But the first critical investigation of 
Smith's career was that made by Charles Deane in 
his Notes on Wingfield's Discourse of America, 
I printed at Boston in 1859, and in his edition of 
j Smith's Relation, issued in 1866. The line of 
research thus indicated was followed up with 
I much iugenuity by the Virginia Historical So- 
ciety, which published in 1888 its invaluable 
Abstract of the Proceedings of the Virginia 
Society in London. The new evidence adduced 
by these biographical investigations led to the 
rewriting of the early chapters of the history of 
Virginia by Neill and others (see above). It 
also bore fruit in the ultra-iconoclastic Life and 
Writings of John Smith, by Charles Dudley 
Warner (1881). An attempt at strict impartiality 
is maintained in the Memoir by Charles Kilt- 
ridge True (New York, 1882) and in Appleton's 




Cyclopaedia of American Biography (vol. t. 
1888). But Smith has found warm defenders of 
the substantial troth of his story in Professor 
Arber in his Memoir of John Smith in the 
Encyclopaedia Britannica (9th edit. 1887) and 
in his edition of Smith's Works ; in W. Wirt 
Henry (Address to Virginia Hist. Soc. February 
1882); in Mr. John Ash ton, who published a 
richavfih of Smith's Adventures and Discourses 
in 1883 ; and in J. Poindexter in Captain John 
Smith and his Critics (1893). For a fuller 
account of the evidence as to the credibility 
of the Pocahontas episode, see under Rolfk, 
John.] J. A. D. 

SMITH or SMYTH, JOHN (1567- 
1640), genealogical antiquary, the son of 
Thomas Smyth of Hoby, Leicestershire, and 
grandson of William Smyth of Humberston 
in Lincolnshire, was born in 1667 and edu- 
cated at the free school, Derby. His mother, 
Joan, was a daughter of a citizen of Derby 
named Richard Alan. From Derby Smyth 
proceeded in 1584 to Callowden to attend 
upon Thomas, son and heir of Henry, seven- 
teenth lord Berkeley. He studied under 
the same tutor, and went up with the young 
lord to Magdalen College, Oxford, in 1589. 
In 1594 Smyth removed to the Middle 
Temple, and two years later, having com- 
pleted his studies there, returned to the 
Berkeley family as household steward, a 
post which he exchanged in 1597 for the 
more lucrative and dignified office of steward 
of the hundred and liberty of Berkeley. 
About the same time he took up his resi- 
dence at Nibley in Gloucestershire, where, 
in process of time, he acquired two adjacent 
manor-houses, ' adorned with gardens and 
groves and a large park well wooded.' So 
bountiful were the Berkeleys to him that 
the family fool is said on one occasion to 
have tied Berkeley Castle to the church with 
twine ' to prevent the former from going to 
Nibley.' As steward of the manor, Smyth 
had charge of the muniment-room at the 
castle, and, devoting himself with assiduity 
to the rich treasures which centuries had 
accumulated there, he was led eventually to 
write a history of the lives of the first twenty- 
one lords of Berkeley, from the Norman 
conquest down to 1628. Smyth sat for 
Midnurst in the parliament of 1621, but he 
took no part in politics in the stormy times 
that were coming, and died at Nibley, on 
the eve of the troubles, in the autumn of 
1640. His first wife, Grace, a native of 
Nibley, died in 1609, without issue, and 
Smyth married as his second wife (9 Jan. 
1609-10) Mary, daughter of John Browning 
of Cowley. By this marriage he had five 
sons and three daughters. His eldest son, 

John, was buried in Nibley church in 1692, 
aged 81. John Smith or Smyth (1662- 
1717) [q. v.], the playwright, is believed to 
have been a great-grandson. 

Smyth's style is quaint and somewhat 
rude, and his orthography very irregular; 
but, irrespective of the allusions to the im- 
portant public events in which the Berkeley 
family participated, his 'Lives' are very 
valuable for the light they reflect upon the 
social condition of the people in mediaeval 
times, the methods of cultivation adopted, 
the simplicity of manners, and the fluctua- 
tions of prices. As an antiquary the author 
showed an accomplished knowledge of an- 
cient documents and public records. Dug- 
dale embodied a large portion of his work in 
hie ' Baronage of England,' 1675-6. After 
1676 the documents were practically undis- 
turbed at Berkeley Castle until, in 1821, 
Thomas Dudley Fosbroke [q. v.] published 
his 'Abstracts and Extracts of Smyth's 
Lives of the Berkeleys,' London, 4to. The 
first-rate archaeological character of the docu- 
ments was now established. In vol. v. of 
the 'Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeo- 
logical Society's Transactions ' (1880-1), Mr. 
James Herbert Cooke published a valuable 
monograph on ' The Berkeley MSS. and their 
Author,' and two years later (1883-6) the same 
society published in extenso l The Berkeley 

MSS by John Smyth of Nibley,' edited 

by Sir John Maclean, 3 vols. 4to. Smyth 
left a number of other works in manuscript, 
of which he made a schedule at the end of 
the ' Lives of the Berkeleys.' Of these only 
three appear to be extant : 1 (at Berkeley 
Castle), ' A Register of Tenures by Knight 
Service, mainly in the county of Gloucester ; ' 
2 (at Condover Hall, Shropshire), the first 
portion of i Three Bookes in folio, containinge 
the names of each inhabitant in this county 
of Glouc, how they stood charged with 
armor in a° 6*° Jacobi ; ' and 3 (also at Con- 
dover), ' Abstracts of all the Offices or In- 
quisitions post mortem and of ad quod 
damnum in the co. of Gloucester from 
10 Henry HI to 28 Henry VIII.' 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 1030 ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714 ; Hyett and 
Bazeley's Manual of Gloucestershire Lit. ii. 23 ; 
Atkyns's Gloucestershire, 1712, p. 303; Fos- 
broke's Gloucestershire, i. 468; Rudder's New 
History of Gloucestershire, 1779.] T. S. 

SMITH, Sir JOHN (161 0-l 644), royalist, 
born in 1616 at Skilts in the parish of Stud- 
ley, Warwickshire, was fourth son of Sir 
Francis Smith of Queeniborough, Leicester- 
shire, by his wife Anne, daughter of Thomas 
Markham of Kirkby Beler and of Allerton, 




Nottinghamshire. His eldest brother, Sir 
Charles Smith, was elevated to thepeerage 
in 1643 as Baron Carrington of Wootton 
"Wawen in Warwickshire and Viscount Car- 
rington of Barreford in Connaught (G. E. 
C[okayne], Complete Peerage, ii. 167). 

He was brought up a Roman catholic, his 
earlier education being entrusted to a kins- 
man. At a later date he was sent abroad to 
Germany to complete his studies. He always 
had a strong disposition for a military life, and 
ventured to return home without leave, to 
urge his relatives to permit him to follow his 
bent. His projects, however, were received 
with no favour, and he was sent to resume his 
studies in the Spanish Netherlands. He soon 
joined the Spanish army which was defend- 
ing Flanders against the French and Dutch. 
He distinguished himself by several deeds of 
daring ; but hearing of the Scottish disturb- 
ances, he resolved to return to England and 
offer his services to Charles I. He received 
a lieutenant's commission, and was victorious 
in a skirmish with the Scots at Stapleford in 
the neighbourhood of the Tees. After the 
conclusion of the treaty of Ripon,on 28 Oct. 
1640, he retired to his mother's house at 
Ashby Folville in Leicestershire. When the 
English civil war broke out he joined the 
royalists and was made a captain-lieutenant 
under Lord John Stewart ( d. 1644) [q . v.l On 
9 Aug. 1642 he disarmed the people of Kilsby 
in Northamptonshire, who had declared for 
parliament, and on 23 Sept. he took part in 
the fight at Powick Bridge. At Edgehill 
his troop was in Lord Grandison's regiment, 
on the left wing. In the battle the royal 
standard-bearer, Sir Edmund Verney [q. v.], 
was killed and the standard taken. Smith, 
with two others, recovered it. For this 
service he was knighted on the field, being, 
it is said, the last knight banneret created in 
England. He also received a troop of his 
own, and was appointed by Lord Grandison 
major of his regiment. Being sent into the 
south, he was taken prisoner on 13 Dec. by 
Waller in Winchester Castle, and did not 
obtain his liberty till the September follow- 
ing. On his release he proceeded to Oxford, 
and was made lieutenant-colonel of Lord 
Herbert of llaglan's regiment of horse [see 
Somerset, Edwakd, second Marquis of 
Worcester]. In 1644 he was despatched 
to the western army, as major-general of 
the horse under Lord John Stewart. On 
29 March the royalists under Patrick Ruth- 
ven,earl of Forth [q. v.], engaged the parlia- 
mentarians under Waller at Cheriton in 
Hampshire. The rashness of Henry Bard 
(afterwards Viscount Bellamont) [q. v.] in- 
volved the royalist cavalry in a premature 

engagement. Smith was mortally wounded, 
and the dismay occasioned by his fall is said 
to have hastened his companions' retreat. 
He died the next day, and was buried on 
the south side of the choir in Christ Church, 
Oxford. An elegy on him appears in Sir 
Francis Wortley's * Characters and Elegies/ 
London, 1646, 4to. 

[The fullest biography is in Edward Walsing- 
ham's Britannicse Virtutis Imago, 1644, Oxford; 
but it is too eulogistic to be altogether trust- 
worthy, and it differs in many instances from 
other contemporary accounts. Other authorities 
are Ludlow's Memoirs, ed. 1751, Edinburgh, i. 42, 
95 ; Lloyd's Memoires, ed. 1668, p. 658 ; Claren- 
don's History of the Rebellion, vi. 85, viii. 15, 
16 ; Mugent's Memoirs of Hampden, ii. 298-300 ; 
Gardiner's Great Civil War, i. 49-50, 326; 
Colvile's Worthies of Warwickshire, p. 699 ; Le 
Neve's Monumenta Anglicana, i. 213.] E. I. C. 

SMITH, JOHN (1618-1652), Cambridge 
Platonist, was born at Achurch, near Oundle 
in Northamptonshire, in 1618. Of his parents 
his biograpner only states that they had 
* long been childless and were grown aged.' 
In 1636 he was entered as a pensioner at 
Emmanuel College, at that time the lead- 
ing puritan foundation in the university. He 
proceeded B.A. in 1640, M.A. in 1644; and 
m the latter year (11 June) was transferred 
by the Earl of Manchester, along with seven 
other members of his college, to Queens' 
College, 'they having bine examined and 
approved by the Assembly of Divines sitting 
in Westminster ... as fitt to be fellowes ' 
(Seakle, Hist, of Queens' College, p. 648). 
His college tutor at Emmanuel was Benjamin 
Whichcote [q. v.] (afterwards provost of King's 
College), who not only directed his studies,but 
aided him with his purse. At Queens' College 
he lectured with marked success on ' mathe- 
matics,' although it is doubtful whether the 
term implied anything more than arithmetic. 
His chief reputation, however, was acquired 
as one of the rising school of Cambridge 
Platonists. John Worthington [q. v.] assigns 
him the praise of being both dUaios and 
dyados, i.e. of being not only just and up- 
right in his conversation, but also genuinely 
good at heart, and doubts whether more to 
admire his learning or his humility. Smith 
died of consumption on 7 Aug. 1652, and 
was buried in his college chapel. Although 
only in his thirty-fifth year, ne had already 
become known as a ' living library,' his ac- 
quirements being chiefly in theology and the 
oriental languages. Hispapers were handed 
by his executor, Samuel Cradock, fellow of 
Emmanuel, to Worthington, who published 
such of them as were 'nomogeneal and re- 
lated to the same discourse,' under the title of 




4 Select Discourses ' (London, 1660), a volume 
still read and admired for its refinement of 
thought and literary ability. His funeral 
sermon was preached by Simon Patrick (1626- 
1707) [q. v.], one of the younger fellows of 
Queens and his warm admirer. Smith be- 
queathed his library to the society. 

[Copy of Select Discourses in library of St. 
John's College, Cambridge, with manuscript 
notes by Thomas Baker ; Searle's Hist, of Queens' 
College, pp. 550, 568 ; Tulloch's Rational Theo- 
logy in England, vol. ii.] J. B. M. 

SMITH, JOHN 0?. 1633-1673), writer 
on trade, was apprenticed to Matthew Cra- 
dock, a London merchant, a member of the 
Society for the Fishing Trade of Great 
Britain, and afterwards became himself a 
merchant of London. In 1633, while still 
an apprentice, he was sent by Philip Her- 
bert, earl of Montgomery and fourth earl 
of Pembroke [q. v.], to visit the Shetland 
Islands, and to make a report on their trade 
and industries. He remained in the Orkneys 
and Shetlands more than a year, and drew 
up an interesting account of the general 
condition of the islands and their chief in- 
dustrv, the fishing trade, which he published 
as ' The Trade and Fishing of Great Britain 
displayed ; with a Description of the Islands 
of Orkney and Shot land, by Captain John 
Smith/ London, 1661, 4to. 

In 1670 Smith published a more elaborate 
work, in which his former treatise was in- 
cluded, entitled ' England's Improvement 
Reviv'd : in a treatise of all Manner of Hus- 
bandry and Trade, by Land and Sea/ Lon- 
don, 4to. This work is prefaced by a eulo- 
gistic notice from John Evelyn [q. v.] The 
chief attention of the writer is devoted to 
forestry, but it also deals with live-stock and 
the reclamation of waste land. It is very 
practical, and is not concerned with eco- 
nomic theory. Another edition was pub- 
lished in 1673. 

[Smith's works; Donaldson's Agricultural 
Biography, p. 34.] E. I. C. 

SMITH, JOHN (1630-1679), physician, 
was born in Buckinghamshire in 1630. He 
entered Brasenose College, Oxford, on 7 Au£. 
1647, and graduated B.A. in 1651, M.A. in 
1653, and M.D. on 9 July 1652. He was ad- 
mitted a candidate of the College of Physi- 
cians on 22 Dec. 1659, and a fellow on 2 April 
1672. He died at his house in Great St. 
Helen's, Bishopsgate, in the winter of 1679, 
and was buried in the parish church. 

He was the author of ' T^poKOfila Bao-t- 
Xwf^: King Solomon's Portraiture of Old 
Age. Wherein is contained a Sacred Ana- 
tomy both of Soul and Body. And a Perfect 

Account of the Infirmities of Age, incident 
to them both. Printed by J. Hayes for 
S. Thomson, at the Sign of the Bishop's 
Head in St. Paul's Churchyard, 1666.' A 
second edition appeared in 1676, and a third 
in 1752. The book consists of a commen- 
tary on Ecclesiastes xii. 1-6, and seeks to 
show that Solomon was acquainted with 
the circulation of the blood. 

The author has been doubtfully identified 
with John Smith, doctor in physic, author 
of ' A Compleat Practice of Physick. Where*- 
in is plainly described the Nature, Causes, 
Differences, and Sigms of all Diseases in the 
Body of Man. With the choicest Cures for 
the same,' London, 1656. 

[Monk's Roll of the Royal Coll. of Physicians, ?• 
366; Woods Athena Oxon., ed. Bliss, iii. 1200 ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon., 1500-1714.] £. I. C. 

SMITH, JOHN O*. 1673-1680), 'philo- 
math,' was the author of: 1. ' Stereometrie/ 
London, 1673, 8vo. 2. ' Horological Dia- 
logues, in three parts, shewing the nature, 
use, and right management of Clocks and 
Watches . . . by J. S., clockmaker/ London, 
1675, 12mo. To the same John Smith is 
also attributed a technical treatise entitled 
3. ' The Art of Painting, wherein is included 
The whole Art of Vulgar Painting, accord- 
ing to the best and most approved Rules for 
preparing and laying on of Oyl Colours . . . 
with directions for painting Sun Dials and 
all manner of Timber work,' London, 1676, 
8vo ; the second impression, with some 
alterations and useful additions, 1687, 8vo ; 
4th ed. « The Art of Painting in Oyl ... to 
which is how added the Art and Mystery 
of. Colouring Maps and other Prints with 
Water Colours,' London, 1705, 12mo; another 
edition 1723, 8vo; 9th ed. 1788. 4. 'A 
Complete Discourse of the Nature, Use, and 
right managing of that Wonderful instru- 
ment the Baroscope or quick silver weather 
glass,' London, 1688, 8vo. 5. ' Horolo^ical 
Disquisitions concerning the Nature of Time/ 
&c.,London,1694,8vo; 2nded.l708. 6.'The 
Curiosities of Common Water, or the advan- 
tages thereof in preventing and curing many 
distempers. Gather'd from the Writings of 
several Eminent Physicians, and also from 
more than 40 years' experience,' London, 
1722, 8vo ; 3rd. ed. 1723 ; 10th ed. curante 
Balph Thoresby. This was an elaborate 
compilation from medical writers, such as 
Sir John Floyer [q. v.], Joseph Browne (JL 
1706) [q.v.], Daniel Duncan £q.v.], and others, 
advocating hydropathy and in praise of tem- 

Eerance and common-sense treatment. It 
ad not only a large circulation in England, 
but was translated into German and into 


7 6 


French as ' Traite des Vertus de l'Eau com- 
mune/ Paris, 1725; 2nd ed. 1626 [1726]; 
3rd ed. 1730. 

[Smith's Work in the British Museum ; Alli- 
bone's Diet, of English Literature.] T. S. 

SMITH, JOHN (1669-1715), divine, was 
grandson of Matthew Smith (1589-1640), 
a barrister of the Inner Temple, and a strong 
adherent of the royal prerogative, who was 
in 1639 appointed a member of the council 
of the north. He left behind him in manu- 
script some * valuable annotations' on Little- 
ton^ 'Tenures/ and two dramatic pieces, 
* The Country Squire, or the Merry Mounte- 
bank : a Ballad Opera/ and ' The Masquerade 
du Oiel : a Masque/ The last-named was pub- 
lished in the year of his death by his eldest 
son, John Smith of Knaresborough (the 
divine's uncle), who subsequently fought 
under the command of Prince Rupert at 
Marston Moor in 1644 (cf. Cibbeb, Lives of 
the Poets, ii. 324). A younger son, William 
Smith, married in 1657 Elizabeth, daughter 
of Giles Wetherall of Stockton, and was 
father of the subject of this article. 

John Smith, born at Lowther in West- 
moreland on 10 Nov. 1659, was one of 
eleven brothers, all of whom rose to promi- 
nent positions. William, a well-known phy- 
sician of Leeds, died in 1729; George, a 
chaplain-general in the army, died in 1725 ; 
Joseph Smith (1670-1756) [q. v.] became 

frovost of Queen's College, Oxford; and 
osthumus, an eminent civilian, died in 
1725. John was educated by his father at 
Bradford, Yorkshire, under Christopher Ness 
or Nesse [q. v.], where he made little progress, 
and subsequently at Appleby school, whence 
he was admitted to St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, on 11 June 1674. He distinguished 
himself at college, where he graduated B.A. 
1677, M.A. 1681, and D.D. July 1696, and 
was, on leaving St. John's, ordained deacon and 
priest by Archbishop Richard Sterne [q. v.] 
In July 1682 he was admitted a minor canon 
of Durham, and shortly afterwards collated to 
the curacy of Croxdale, and on 1 July 1684 
to that of Witten Gilbert. From 1686 to 
1689 he acted as chaplain to Lord Lansdowne, 
the English ambassador at Madrid. In 1694 
he was appointed domestic chaplain to Na- 
thaniel Crew £q. v.], who in the following 
year collated him to the rectory and hospital 
of Gateshead, and on 25 Sept. 1695 to the 
seventh prebendal stall in Durham Cathedral. 
In 1696 he was created D.D. at Cambridge, 
and three years later was made treasurer of 
Durham, to which the bishop added in July 
1704 the rectorv of Bishop- Wearmouth. 
Here he rebuilt the rectory and restored the 

chancel of the church, but he spent the larger 
portion of his time at Cambridge, labouring 
at an edition of Bede's ' History' which he 
did not live to complete. In 1713 his health 
began to fail, and he died at Cambridge on 
30 July 1715. He was buried in the chapel 
of St. John's College, where a monument was 
erected, with an inscription by his friend, 
Thomas Baker (1656-1740) [q. v.], the histo- 
rian of the college. John Smith married in 
1692 Mary, eldest daughter of William Cooper 
of Scarborough, who gave his daughter a 
portion of 4,500/. ; by her he had, with four 
other sons, George (1693-1756) [q. v.], who 
inherited his father's scholarly tastes, and 
brought out from his materials in 1722 the 
'Histori© Ecclesiastic® Gentis Anglorum 
Libri Quinque, auctore Venerabili Bseda . . . 
cura et studio Johannis Smith, S.T.P./ Cam- 
bridge University Press, fol., which was ad- 
mittedly the best of the older editions of Bede. 
Besides some published sermons, John Smith 
projected a history of Durham, and furnished 
some materials to Bishop Gibson for his edi- 
tion of Camden, and to James Anderson ( 1662- 
1728) [q.v.]for his 'Historical Essay' in 1705. 

[Le Neve's Fasti, in. 315; Biograpbia Bri- 
tannica ; Nichols's Lit. A need. i. 233 ; Hutchin- 
son's Durham, i. 61, 198; Surtees's Hist, of 
Durham, iv. 76 ; Nicolson's Letters, i. 224 ; 
Chalmers's Biogr. Diet, xxviii. 119; Allibone's 
Diet, of English Lit.] T. S. 

SMITH or SMYTH, JOHN (1662-1717), 
dramatist, born in 1662, was son of John 
Smyth of Barton in Gloucestershire, and 
probably great-grandson of John Smith or 
Smyth (1567-1640) [q.v.l In 1676 John 
became a chorister of Magdalen College, Ox- 
ford, and matriculated on 10 July 1679, gra- 
duating B.A. in 1683, and M.A. in 1686. 
In 1682 he became a clerk of the college, 
and in 1689 usher of the college school. He 
died at Oxford on 16 July 1717, and was 
buried in the college chapel. 

He was the author of * Win her and take 
her, or Old Fools will be Medling: a 
Comedy, as it is acted at the Theatre Koyal 
by their Majesties Servants,' London, 1691, 
4to. This play, which was issued anony- 
mouslv, was dedicated 'to the Right Honour- 
able JPeregrine, Earl of Danby,' by Cave 
Underhill the player [q. v.], for whom the 
part of Dulhead seems to have been specially 
written. It contains an epilogue by Thomas 
D'Urfey [q. v.] The plot bears some re- 
semblance to that of Shadwell's ' Virtuoso,* 
and the character of Waspish appears to be 
modelled on that of Snarl in that comedy 
(Genest, ii. 13). 

According to Wood, he was also the author 
of: 1. 'Odes Paraphras'd and imitated, in 




Miscellanv Poems and Translations by Ox- 
ford Hancls/ London, 1685, 8vo. 2. ' Scarro- 
nides, or Virgil Travesty : a Mock-Poem on 
the second Book of Virgil's ^Eneis, in Eng- 
lish Burlesque/ London, 1691, 8vo. 

[Wood's Athen© Oxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 601; 
Baker's Biographia Dramatica, i. 678, iii. 411 ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Bloxam's 
Magdalen Coll. Register, iii. 221.] £. 1. C. 

SMITH, JOHN (1655-1723), politician, 
born in 1655, son of John Smith (d. 1690) 
of South Tedworth or Tidworth in Hamp- 
shire, matriculated from St. John's College, 
Oxford, on 18 May 1672, but did not take 
a degree, and was admitted student at the 
Middle Temple in 1674, although he was 
not called to the bar. As the son and heir 
of the owner of * a good estate/ he entered 
upon political life, and represented in par- 
liament : Ludgershall in Wiltshire, 1678-9, 
1680-1, and in the Convention parliament of 
1688-9; Beeralston in Devonshire, Decem- 
ber 1691 to 1695; Andover in Hampshire 
for eight parliaments (1695-1713); and East 
Looe in Cornwall from 1715 to his death. 
Smith was throughout life a staunch whig 
and a firm adherent of the protestant cause ; 
but from his excellent address and as ' a very 
agreeable companion in conversation ' (Mackt, 
Secret Services, Roxburghe Club, 1895, pp. 90- 
91) he remained on good terms with the tories. 
He was a bold speaker, with keen views which 
be expressed with clearness, and filled many 
important posts with reputation. In the 
Convention parliament he was the leading 
whip for the whigs ; during the debates of 
the session 1693-4 he took an active part in 
the proceedings ; he was a lord of the treasury 
from 3 May 1694 to 15 Nov. 1699, and chan- 
cellor of the exchequer from the last date to 
29 March 1701. But he disapproved of the 
' partition ' treaty, and for some vears was 
out of office ; but on 24 Oct. 1705 he was 
elected speaker of the House of Commons, 
beating William Bromley [q. v.] by forty- 
three votes (Hist. MSS. Coram. 12th Rep. 
app. v. p. 183). In 1706 he was one of the 
commissioners for arranging the union with 
Scotland, and in October 1707, when the 
house assembled, with the addition of the 
Scottish members, he was re-elected speaker 
without a contest; but on 1 Nov. 1708 he 
resigned the post to Sir Richard Onslow. 
From November 1708 to August 1710 he 

Xin held the post of chancellor of the ex- 
quer, and on his retirement he secured 
for himself a lucrative place as one of the 
four principal tellers of the exchequer, which 
he kept until death. 
Sunderland was the object of his detesta- 

tion, and Godolphin was his especial friend* 
He acted as a manager in the impeachment 
of Sacheverell, and is said to have been the 
messenger by whom Queen Anne sent the 
letter dismissing Godolphin from her ser- 
vice. Afterwards he joined the adherents 
of Sir Robert Walpole, in opposition to the 
ministry of Stanhope, and in 1719 resisted 
the proposal for limiting the numbers of the 
members of the House of Lords. He died 
on 30 Sept. 1723, and was buried near hi* 
father in the old church of South Tedworth 
on 4 Oct., a marble tablet being erected to 
his memory and to that of his father and 
eldest son by his fourth son, Henry Smith. 
He is described as of ' middle stature, fair 
complexion ' (Mackt, Secret Services,vj>. 90- 
91). His estate afterwards passed to xhomaa 
A&sheton of Ashley Hall, near Bowden in 
Cheshire, who took the name of Smith. His 
daughter Mary married in 1705 the Hon. Ro- 
bert Sawyer Herbert, second son of Thomas 
Herbert, eighth earl of Pembroke. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Manning's Speakers, 
pp. 408-12; Members of Parliament, Official 
Return ; LuttrelTs State A flairs, iv. 495, 520,523, 
v. 30, 32, 605, vi. 27, 226, 604, 616, 633; Mac- 
aulay's Hist. iv. 508; information from Rev. 
H. E. Delme-Radcliffe.] W. P. C. 

SMITH, JOHN (1657-1726), judge, son 
of Roger Smith of Frolesworth, Leicester- 
shire, was born on 6 Jan. 1657, and matri- 
culated from Lincoln College, Oxford, on 
12 Sept. 1676, at the age of nineteen (Foster, 
Alumni Oxon.) He entered Gray's Inn on 
1 June 1678, was called to the bar on 2 May 
1684, and, having been made a serjeant-at- 
law on 30 Oct. 1700, was appointed a justice 
of the common pleas in Ireland on 24 Dec. 
1700, but was transferred to be a baron of the 
court of exchequer in England on 24 June 
1702. In the leading case of Ashby v. White, 
arising out of the Aylesbury election, he gave 
his decision in opposition to the judgment of 
the majority of tne court of queen^ bench, 
and concurred in the view expressed by Lord- 
chief-justice Sir John Holt [q. v.] in favour 
of the plaintiff Ashby whose vote the return- 
ing officer, White (the defendant), had de- 
clined to record. On appeal to the House of 
Lords, the judgment was reversed, and the 
opinion of the chief justice and Baron Smith 
was confirmed (State Trials, xiv. 695 ; Hal- 
lam, Constitutional Hist. iii. 271-4). In 
May 1708 he was selected to settle the court 
of exchequer in Scotland, subsequently to the 
union with England, and for that purpose 
was made lord chief baron of the exchequer 
in Scotland, being still allowed (though an- 
other baron was appointed) to retain his 
place in the English court, and receiving 




600/. a year in addition to his salary. He 
was re-sworn on the accession of George I as 
a baron of the English exchequer, although 
he performed none of the duties, and enjoyed 
both his English and his Scottish office until 
his death on 24 June 1726, at the age of 
sixty-nine. Smith was much attached to his 
native village of Frolesworth, where, by his 
will, he founded and endowed a hospital for 
fourteen poor widows of the communion of 
the church of England, who were each to 
have 12/. a year and a separate house. 

[Nichols's Leicestershire; Foss's Judges of Eng- 
land ; Foster's Gray's Inn Registers.] 

W. R. W. 

SMITH, JOHN (1652 P-1742), mezzotint 
engraver, was born at Daventry, Northamp- 
tonshire, about 1652. He was articled to an 
obscure painter named Tillet in London, and 
studied mezzotint engraving under Isaac 
Beckett [q. v.] and Jan Vander Vaart [q. v.] 
He became the ablest and most industrious 
worker in mezzotint of his time, and the 
favourite engraver of Sir Godfrey Kneller, 
whose paintings he extensively reproduced, 
and in whose house he is said to have resided 
for some time. Smith's plates, which are 
executed in a remarkably brilliant and effec- 
tive style, number about five hundred, and 
of these nearly three hundred are portraits 
of distinguished men and women of the 
period between the reigns of Charles II and 
George II, from pictures by Lely, Kneller, 
Wissmg, Dahl, Riley, Closterman, Gibson, 
Murray, and others. The remainder are 
sacred, mythological, and genre subjects after 
Titian, Correggio, Parmegiano, C. Maratti, 
G. Schalken, E. Heemskerk, M. Laroon, and 
others. Previous to 1700 his plates were 
mostly published by Edward Cooper [q. v.], 
but about that date he established himself 
as a printseller at the Lyon and Crown in 
Covent Garden ; he there published his own 
works and also reissued many of those by 
Beckett, Lens, Williams, and others, cleverly 
retouching them and erasing the original en- 
gravers' names. Smith's latest print appears 
to have been the portrait of the youthful 
Duke of Cumberland, after Highmore, dated 
1729. On giving up business he retired to 
his native county, where he died on 17 Jan. 
1742 at the age of ninety. He was buried 
in the churchyard of St. Peter's, Northamp- 
ton, where there is a tablet to his memory 
and that of his wife Sarah, who died in 1717. 
The bulk of his copperplates eventually came 
into the hands of Boydell, who reprinted 
them in large numbers. A portrait of John 
Smith, in which he appears holding his en- 
graving of Kneller, was painted and pre- 

sented to him by that artist in 1696, and he 
executed a print from it in 1716 ; it has also 
been engraved by S. Freeman for Walpole's 
' Anecdotes.' The original is now in the 
National Portrait Gallery. 

[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting (Dallaway 
and Wornum) ; Chaloner Smith's British Mezzo- 
tin to Portraits ; Dodd's manuscript Hist, of 
Engravers in Brit. Mus. (Addit. MS. 33405).] 

F. M. O'D. 

SMITH, JOHN {ft. 1747), author of 
i Chronicon Rusticum-Commerciale, or 
Memoirs of Wool/ was born about 1700, 
and educated at Trinity Hall, Cambridge. 
Tie was admitted pensioner of the college on 
18 Dec. 1718, fellow-commoner on 31 Jan. 
1721-22, and his name was taken off the 
books on 18 Dec. 1724 {Register of Trinity 
Hall). In 1725 he graduated LL.B. He 
entered the church, but devoted himself very 
largely to the study of the development of 
the woollen industry, especially in England. 
The result of these researches was published 
in 1747, in two octavo volumes, as * Chroni- 
con Rusticum-Commerciale, or Memoirs of 
Wool.' A second and more limited quarto 
edition was issued in 1767 (the library at 
Trinity College, Dublin, has a copy of the 
' second edition ' with the date 1765). Smith 
opposed the restrictions on the exportation ot 
wool, and it was chiefly on this point that 
his conclusions were attacked by William 
Temple of Trowbridge, a zealous whig who 
wrote under the pseudonym of I. B., M.D. 
Smith replied to Temple's attack in a pam- 
phlet ' The Case of the English Farmer and 
his Landlord. In answer to Mr. Temple's 
(pretended) Refutation of one of the princi- 

¥al Arguments in "Memoirs of Wool." ' 
his pamphlet was printed at Lincoln, and 
dedicated to the ' nobility, gentry, and clergy ' 
of Lincolnshire. The dispute centres in the 
main round the question of the price of wool 
in England as compared with its value on 
the continent. Smith defends the statement 
in the * Memoirs' (p. 616 of edit, of 1747) 
that ' English wool in England is not sold 
to its intrinsic worth. 7 

In Lincolnshire Smith, according to his 
own statement, spent a great part of his life 
(' Lincolnshire where I am most conversant/ 
Review of the Manufacturer's Complaints 
against the Wool Grower, 1753, p. 7). He 
held, however, no living in Lincolnshire, 
and the date of his death is uncertain, unless 
he can be identified with the Rev. John 
Smith, who died in 1774, possessed of several 
livings in the south of England. 

Smith's great work is a laborious compila- 
tion from many sources of facts bearing 
upon the history of the wool trade. He 




gives a digest, with copious extracts of the 
terature — especially tne English literature 
— on the subject from the early seventeenth 
century onward. The book has always been 
regarded as a standard work, and is referred 
to in terms of high praise by Arthur Young 
in his ' Annals of Agriculture ' (vi. 606) : 
* The history of wool, in England, has been 
admirably written by Smith, with so much 
accuracy that scarcely any measure relative 
to that commodity can be stated which has 
not been fully explained and considered on the 
most liberal and enlightened principles ; not 
deduced from vague theories, but from the 
clear page of ample experience/ More re- 
cently M'Culloch has described it as ' one 
of the most carefully compiled and valuable 
works' ever published with regard to the 
history of any branch of trade (M'Cfl- 
loch, Literature of Political Economy, 1845). 
In addition to this work, and the ' Answer * 
to Temple's ' Refutation ' referred to above, 
Smith also wrote ' A Review of the Manu- 
facturer's Complaint against the Wool- 
grower,' 1753, dealing with certain minutiae 
of his favourite subject, such as the effect of 
pitch and tar marks on the wool of sheep. 

[Register of Trinity Hall; Brit. Mus. Cat.; 
Smith's Works — see especially the list of sub- 
scribers to the 1747 edition of Memoirs of 
Wool, from which several important facts may 
be gleaned. The identification of John Smith, 
LL.B. of Trinity Hall, with John Smith, LL.B., 
the author, is a conjectural one, though rendered 
practically certain by the facts that Professor 
F. Diekins, LL.D. of Trinity Hall, the master 
(Dr. Simpson), seven fellows, and the Library of 
Trinity Hall, are all entered as subscribers to 
the Memoirs, and that the degree of LL.B. of 
Cambridge was that specially in vogue among, 
and was practically limited to, Trinity Hall men 
at that period.] E. C-e. 

SMITH, JOHN (1747-1807), antiquary 
and Gaelic scholar, was born in 1747 at Croft 
Brackley in the parish of Glenorchy in Argyll- 
shire. He studied for the ministry at the 
university of St. Andrews, and was licensed 
by the presbytery of Kintyre on 28 April 
1773. On 18 Oct. 1775 he was ordained as 
a minister at Tarbert, and in 1777 he was 
presented by John, duke of Argyll, to the 
parish of Kilbrandon, as assistant and suc- 
cessor to James Stewart. In 1781 he was 
translated to the highland church at Camp- 
beltown, and in 1787 received the honorary 
degree of D.D. from the university of Edin- 
burgh. He died at Campbeltown on 26 June 
1807. In 1783 he married Helen M'Dougall, 
who died on 6 May 1 843. By her he had 
two sons, John and Donald, and three daugh- 

Smith was an accomplished Gaelic scholar, 
and took part in translating the scriptures 
into Gaelic, besides publishing Gaelic trans- 
lations of Alleine's ' Alarm to the Uncon- 
verted/ Joseph Watts's Catechism, and other 
small religious works. He also revised a 
metrical version of the Psalms in the same 
tongue, which was used in the southern high- 
lands. His other works include: 1. 'Gaelic 
Antiquities/ Edinburgh, 1 780, 4to ; this work 
contamed an English translation of Gaelic 
poems, some of which purport to be by Ossian 
[q.v.l ; French and Italian versions of Smith's 
translation were made in 1810 and 1813 re- 
spectively. 2. 'View of the Last Judgement/ 
Edinburgh, 1783, 8vo; 4th edit. London, 
1847. 3. ' Sean Dana, or Ancient Poems of 
Ossian, Orran, Ulann, &c/ Edinburgh, 1787, 
8vo. 4. 4 Summary View and Explanation 
of the Writings of the Prophets/ Edinburgh, 
1787, 12mo; od. by Peter Hall, London, 
1835, 12mo. 6. ' Life of St. Columba, from 
the Latin of Cummin and Adamnan/ Edin- 
burgh, 1798, 4to. 6. ' General View of the 
Agriculture of the county of Argyll/ 1798, 
8vo. 8. ' An Affectionate Address to the 
Middling and Lower Classes on the present 
Alarming Crisis/ Edinburgh, 1798, 12mo. 
9. ' Lectures on the Nature and End of the 
Sacred Office/ Glasgow, 1808, 8vo. He also 
edited Robert Lowth's ' Isaiah/ London, 1791 , 
12mo, and wrote the article on the parish 
of Campbeltown for Sinclair's ' Statistical 

[Scott's Fasti Eccles. Scot in. i. 36, 69: 
Edinburgh Graduates, p. 246 ; New Statistical 
Account, vii. ii. 93.] E. I. C. 

SMITH, JOHN (1790-1824), missionary, 
son of a soldier killed in battle in Egypt, 
was born on 27 June 1790 at Roth well, near 
Kettering in Northamptonshire. All his edu- 
cation he derived from occasional attendance 
at a Sunday school. At the age of fourteen 
he entered the service of a biscuit-maker in 
London named Blunden. His master dying 
in 1806, Davies, his successor, took him as 
an apprentice, and assisted him to improve 
I his education. Under the influence of the 
J Rev. John Stevens he became earnest in 
1 matters of religion and zealous for study. 
He was accepted by the London Missionary 
Society, and in December 1816 was ordained 
as successor to JohnWray at Le Resouvenir, 
near Demerara or Georgetown, in British 
Guiana. He arrived at Demerara on 23 Feb. 
1817, and in his first interview with the 
governor, Major-general John Murray, the 
latter threatened that if he taught any negro- 
slave to read he should be banished. Not- 
withstanding the undisguised hostility of 




the white population, he laboured among 
the negroes with considerable success. In 
August 1823 his health broke down, and he 
was recommended by his doctor to leave the 
colony. On 18 Aug., however, a rising of 
the negroes took place, and three days later 
Smith was arrested for refusing to take up 
arms against the negroes. He was tried by 
court-martial on the charge of having pro- 
moted discontent among them. On the worth- 
less evidence of terrorised slaves he was found 
guilty, and sentenced to be hanged. His exe- 
cution was postponed until the pleasure of 
the home government should be known. But 
he was confined in the meantime in an un- 
healthy dungeon, and died there on 24 Feb. 
1824. His wife Jane, whom he married about 
the time of his ordination, died in 1828 at 
Rye in Sussex. They had no children. 

When the news of Smith's imprison- 
ment reached England, popular interest was 
aroused. The publication of the documents 
connected with the case by the London Mis- 
sionary Society intensified the excitement, 
and upwards 01 two hundred petitions on his 
behalf were presented to parliament in eleven 
days. On 1 June 1825 his trial was debated 
in the House of Commons. Lord Brougham 
brought forward a motion condemning the 
action of the Demerara government, and as- 
serted that ' in Smith's trial there had been 
more violation of justice, in form as well as 
in substance, than in any other inquiry in 
modern times that could be called a judicial 
proceeding/ After an adjournment, how- 
ever, the motion, which was opposed by go- 
vernment, was negatived by 193 to 146. 

[Wallbridge's Memoirs of the Rev. John 
Smith; Gent. Mag. 1824, ii. 281 ; Speeches de- 
livered in the House of Commons regarding the 
proceedings at Demerara, Edinburgh, 1824; 
Minutes of Evidence on the Trial of John Smith, 
London, 1824 ; Statement of the Proceedings of 
the Directors of the London Missionary Society 
in the case of Rev. John Smith ; Missionary 
Chronicle, March 1824 ; The London Missionary 
Society's Report of the Proceedings against 
John Smith, London, 1824; The Missionary 
Smith, London, 1824; New Times, 11 April 
1824; C. Buxton's Memoirs of Sir Thomas 
Fowell Buxton, pp. 138-40 ; Edinburgh Review, 
xL 244; Eclectic Review, 1848, ii. 728; Black- 
wood's Mag. June 1824.] E. I. C. 

SMITH, JOHN (1749-1831), water- 
colour-painter, known as * Warwick ' Smith, 
was born at Irthington, Cumberland, in 1749, 
and educated at St. Bees. Becoming known as 
a skilful topographical draughtsman, he was 
employed upon Middiman's * Select Views in 
Great Britain,' and obtained the patronage 
of the Earl of Warwick, with whom he 

visited Italy about 1783 ; hence he came to 
be styled ' Warwick ' and * Italian ' Smith. 
In his subsequent works, which were largely 
views in Italy, he gradually abandoned the 
simple tinting to which watercolour work 
had hitherto been limited for a more effective 
mode of colouring, the novelty and beauty of 
which created much admiration. Smith 
joined the Watercolour Society in 1805, 
and was a large contributor to its exhibitions 
from 1807 to 1823, when he resigned his 
membership; he was elected president in 
1814, 1817, and 1818, secretary in 1816, and 
treasurer in 1819, 1821, and 1822. Of his 
engraved works, which are numerous, the 
most important are : ' Select Views in Italy/ 
1792-6 ; * Views of the Lakes of Cumber- 
land, 1 twenty aquatints by Merigot, 1791-5 ; 
and illustrations to Byrne's * Britannia 
Depicta,' W. Sotheby's < Tour through Wales/ 
1794, and < A Tour to Hafod,' 1810. Smith 
died in Middlesex Place, London, on 22 March 
1831, and was interred in the St. George's 
burial-ground in the Uxbridge Road. Good 
examples of his work are in the British and 
South Kensington Museums. 

[Roget's Hist, of the 'Old Watercolour' 
Society ; Redgrave's Diet, of Artists.] 

F. M. O'D. 

SMITH, Sir JOHN (1754-1837), general, 
colonel- commandant royal artillery, was bora 
at Brighton, Sussex, on 22 Feb. 1754. He 
entered the Royal Military Academy at Wool- 
wich on 1 March 1768, and received a com- 
mission as second lieutenant in the royal 
artillery on 15 March 1771. In 1773 he 
went to Canada. He was at Fort St. John 
when the American generals Schuyler and 
Montgomery attacked it in September 1775. 
The fort was garrisoned by some seven hun- 
dred men under Major Preston, who, after a 
gallant defence, surrendered it on 3 Nov. 
Smith, who had been twice wounded, became 
a prisoner of war. 

Smith was exchanged in January 1777, 
and joined the army under the command of 
Earl Percy at Rhode Island, and shortly 
after was transferred to the army at New 
York under the command of Sir William 
Howe. He took part in the operations to 
draw Washington from his defensive posi- 
tion on the Rariton river. He accompanied 
Howe's force to the Delaware and Chesa- 
peake, and was present at the battle of 
Brandywine on 11 Sept. 1777, at the cap- 
ture 01 Philadelphia on 26 Sept., at the 
battle of Germanstown on the Delaware on 
3 Oct., at the attack on Fort Island on 
22 Oct., and at the siege of Mud Island and 
capture of it on 16 Nov. The last achieve- 


ment completed the removal of all obstacles 
to the free navigation of the Delaware by 
the royalists. In May 1778 Smith was en- 
gaged in the operations for the destruction 
of American men-of-war in the Delaware 
river, driving back the Americans at Bill's 
Island, and burning the Washington (32) and 
the Effingham (28), with fifty-four smaller 
vessels. He took part in the battle of Mon- 
mouth or Freehold, under Sir Henry Clinton, 
on 27 June, and marched with the army the 
following day to Novesink, near Sandy Hook, 
where it arrived on the 30th. Thence the 
fleet under Lord Howe conveyed Smith and 
his companions to New York in July. 

Smith was promoted to be first lieutenant 
on 1 July 1779. On 11 Feb. 1780 he arrived 
with Sir Henry Clinton's force from New 
York at the harbour of Edisto, on the coast 
of South Carolina. The islands of St. James 
and St. John, which stretch to the south of 
Charleston harbour, were seized at once; 
but it was not until 1 April that Clinton 
broke ground, and Smith's duties as a gunner 
became heavy. On 11 May Charleston sur- 
rendered. In September Smith went with 
the army to Charlottesburg in North Caro- 
lina, and accompanied it in its retreat to 
South Carolina at the end of the following 
month. Early in 1781 he moved with Oorn- 
wallis towards the borders of the Carolinas, 
and later into Virginia, where he took part 
in the battle of Guildford on 15 March, and 
in the other actions of the campaign, which 
ended in the British occupation of Yorkto wn. 
He was engaged in the defence of Yorktown 
in October, and on its capitulation on the 
19th of the month again became a prisoner 
of war. He was, however, given his parole, 
and returned to England. 

Smith was promoted to be captain-lieu- 
tenant on 28 Feb. 1782. In 1785 he went 
to Gibraltar, and was stationed there for five 
years. He was promoted to be captain on 
21 May 1790, and appointed to command the 
6th company of the 1st battalion royal 
artillery at home. On 1 March 1794 he 
was promoted to be brevet major, and regi- 
mental major on 6 March 1795. In the 
latter year he joined the army under Lord 
Moira at Southampton as major in command 
of the royal artillery drivers, and as second 
in command of the artillery under Brigadier- 
general Stewart for foreign service. Towards 
the end of 1795 he went to the West Indies 
in the expedition under the command of Sir 
Ralph AWcromby [q. v.] He took part in 
the attack on the island of St. Lucia and 
in the siege of Morne FortunS (28 April to 
24 May 1796), when the French capitulated, 
and in the attack and capture of the island of 




St. Vincent on 8 and 9 June of the same* 
year. He commanded the royal artillery at 
the capture of Trinidad from the Spaniards 
(16 to 18 Feb. 1797), and at the unsuc- 
cessful attack on Porto Rico in March. He 
then commanded the royal artillery in the 
West Indies, the strength being thirteen 
companies; he was promoted regimental lieu- 
tenant-colonel on 27 Aug. 1797, when he 
returned to England in consequence of ill- 

In September and October 1799 Smith 
commanded the artillery of the reserve under 
the Duke of York in the expedition to Hol- 
land. He took part in the battles of 2 and 
6 Oct. near Bergen, was mentioned in 
despatches, and received the thanks of the 
commander-in-chief for his services. The 
convention of Alkmaar terminated opera- 
tions, and Smith returned to England on 
3 Nov. He was promoted to be regimental 
colonel on 20 July 1804, and the same year 
was appointed to the command of the royal 
artillery in Gibraltar. There he remained 
for ten years, and twice temporarily com- 
manded the fortress. He was promoted to 
be brigadier-general on 6 May 1805, and 
major-general on 25 July 1810. 

Smith returned home in 1814, was ap- 
pointed colonel-commandant of a battalion of 
royal artillery on 3 July 1815, and was pro- 
moted to be lieutenant-general on 12 Aug. 
1819. He was made a knight grand cross of 
the military Guelphic order on 10 Aug. 1831, 
for services in America, the West Indies, 
the Continent, and Gibraltar. On 27 Jan. 
1833 he was transferred to the royal horse 
artillery as colonel-commandant, and was 
promoted to be general on 10 Jan. 1837. 

Smith was three times shipwrecked dur- 
ing the course of his service, losing on each 
occasion every article of baggage. He died 
at Charlton, tent, on 2 July 1837. 

[Despatches ; Royal Artillery Records ; Royal 
Military Calendar; Duncan's History of the 
Royal Artillery ; Stedman's Hist, of the Ameri- 
can War, 2 toIs. 4to, 1794 ; Cust's Annals of 
the Wars of the Eighteenth Century; Gent. 
Mag. 1837, ii. 531 ; Proceedings of the Royal 
Artillery Institution, vol. xv. pt. ii. ; Kane's List 
of Officers of the Royal Artillery; Ludlow's War 
of American Independence.] R. H. V. 

SMITH, JOHN (1797-1861), musician, 
was born at Cambridge in 1797, and educated 
as a chorister in one of the chapel choirs. 
In 1815 he entered the choir of Christ 
Church, Dublin, and on 9 Feb. 1819 was ap- 
pointed a vicar choral of St. Patrick's Cathe- 
dral. He also held the offices of chief com- 
poser of state music, master of the king's 
band of state musicians in Ireland, and com- 




poser to the Chapel Royal, Dublin. He pos- 
sessed a fine tenore robusto voice, and con- 
siderable gifts as a composer of church music. 
His most important work was an oratorio, 

I The Revelation/ In 1837 he published a 
volume of cathedral music, comprising ser- 
vices and anthems, a ' Veni Creator ' and a 
' Magnificat ' and Nunc Dimittis in B flat, 
which are well known in English cathe- 
drals. Of his secular music, the trio 'O 
Beata Virgine* (1840?) and the quartet 
* Love wakes and weeps ' attained consider- 
able popularity. Smith died in Dublin on 
12 Nov. 1861, and was succeeded in his pro- 
fessorship by Dr. (afterwards Sir Robert) 
Stewart [q. v.] 

[Grove's Dictionary of Music, iii. 540 ; Musical 
Times, 1 Jan. 1862.] R. N. 

SMITH, JOHN ABEL (1801-1871), 
banker and politician, born in 1801, was the 
eldest son ot John Smith of Blendon Hall, 
Kent, a member of the banking family of 
which Robert Smith, first baron Carrington 
[q. v.], was the head. His mother was Mary, 
daughter of Lieutenant-colonel Tucker. He 
was educated at Christ's College, Cambridge 
(B.A. in 1824 and M.A. in 1827), and joined 
the family banking firm of Smith, Payne, & 
Smith, of which he became chief partner. 
He entered parliament as M.P. for Midhurst 
in 1830, but at the general election in the fol- 
lowing year he was returned for Chichester, 
for which he sat till 1859. He was again 
elected in 1863, and retained his seat till 
1868, when the borough lost one of its repre- 
sentatives {Official Returns of Members of 
Parliament , vol. ii. index). A staunch liberal, 
he took an active part in the first Reform 
Bill, and was one of the leaders of the party 
which advocated the admission of Jews into 
parliament. In 1869 he introduced a bill 
for a further limitation of the hours during 
which public-houses might be kept open. 
He died on 7 Jan. 1871 at Kippington, near 
Sevenoaks. He was a magistrate for Mid- 
dlesex and Sussex. 

In 1827 he married Anne, daughter of Sir 
Samuel Clarke-Jervoise, bart., and widow of 
Ralph William Grey of Back worth House 
in Northumberland, by whom he had two 
sons, Jervoise, born in 1828, and Dudley 
Robert, born in 1830. 

[Ward's Men of the Reign, p. 872 ; Times, 

II Jan. 1871; Burke's Landed Gentry, 4th 
edit.] E. I. C. 

1895), civil engineer and writer on British 
mezzotints, was born in Dublin on 19 Aug. 
1827. His father was a proctor of the eccle- 

siastical courts, and married a granddaughter 
of Travers Hartley, M.P. for Dublin in the 
Irish parliament. Chaloner Smith was ad- 
mitted to Trinity College, Dublin, in 1846, 
and in 1849 graduated B.A. He was articled 
to George Willoughby Hemans the engineer, 
and in 1857 was appointed engineer to the 
Waterford and Limerick railway. In 1868 
he obtained a similar position from the Dub- 
lin, Wicklow, and Wexford Railway, and 
held it till 1894. He carried out some im- 
portant extensions of the line, and was mainly 
responsible for the loop-line crossing the 
Liffey, connecting the dreat Northern and 
South-Eastern railways of Ireland. 

But beyond his reputation as an engineer 
Chaloner Smith will be remembered for his* 
notable work on 'British Mezzotinto Por- 
traits . . . with Biographical Notes' (Lon- 
don, 1878-84, 4 pts.), which consists of a 
full catalogue of plates executed before 1820, 
with 125 autotypes from plates in Smith's 
possession. The latter were also issued 
separately. The print-room at the British 
Museum contains an interleaved copy with 
manuscript notes. Smith was an enthu- 
siastic collector of engravings, principally 
mezzotints, which were sold after the com- 
pletion of his book. Some of the best of the 
examples (especially those by Irish en- 
gravers) were purchased for the Dublin 
National Gallery through the liberality of 
Sir Edward Guinness (now Lord Iveagh). 

For many years Chaloner Smith took a 
deep interest in the question of the finan- 
cial relations between England and Ireland, 
and published two or three pamphlets 'on 
the subject. Just before his death he was 
examined before the royal commission which 
was appointed to consider the question. He 
died at Bray, co. Wicklow, on 13 March 

[Irish Times, 15 March 1895; information 
from Rev. Canon Travers Smith of Dublin.] 

D. J. O'D. 

1795), musician, born at Anspach in 1712, 
was the son of John Christopher Schmidt, a 
wool merchant of that city. The father, an 
enthusiastic amateur of music, threw un his 
business in 1716 and followed his friend 
Handel to England in the capacity of 
treasurer. Four years later he sent for the 
family he had left behind him in Germany. 
His eldest son, John Christopher, was sent 
to school at Clare's academy, Soho Square. 
He showed considerable aptitude for music, 
and at thirteen Handel offered to give him 
his first instruction in the art. He was, 
says Fetis, the only pupil Handel ever took 




(BiograpMe Umverselle des Micsiciens, viii. 
221). Smith also studied theory under Dr. 
John Christopher Pepusch [q.v.] and Tho- 
mas Roseingrave [see under, 
Daniel], very early in life he was esta- 
blished as a successful teacher. At eighteen 
his health suffered from excessive application 
to music, and the physician Dr. Arbuthnot 
invited him to spend the summer at his 
house in Highgate. The rest proved bene- 
ficial, and the symptoms of consumption 
were arrested. At Highgate Smith had the 
advantage of meeting Swift, Pope, Gay, and 
Congreve. In 1732 he composed an English 
opera, ' Teraminta/ and the following year 
a second opera, ' Ulysses.' Subsequently he 
spent several years on the continent. 

In 1751 Handel's sight became affected, 
and, at his desire, Smith returned to Eng- 
land to fill his place at the organ during the 
oratorio performances. He also acted as the 
composer's amanuensis, and Handel's latest 
compositions were dictated to him. In 1750 
he was appointed first organist of the Found- 
ling Hospital. Smith was intimately ac- 
quainted with Garrick, who was instrumental 
in producing his opera, 'The Fairies/ at 
Drurv Lane in 1754. This musical drama, 
which was adapted from ' Midsummer 
Night's Dream/ had an excellent reception. 
A similar work, arranged from the 'Tem- 
pest/ was less appreciated, though the song 
'Full fathom five' became permanently 

Handel bequeathed to his old pupil all his 
manuscript scores, his harpsichord, his por- 
trait by Denner, and his bust by Roubiliac. 
When Handel announced a wish to alter the 
bequest, and present his manuscripts to Ox- 
ford University, Smith declined an offer of a 
legacy of 3,000/. by way of compensation. 
Alter Handel's death in 1759 Smith, with 
the assistance of John Stanley, carried on the 
oratorio performances until 1774, when, the 
attendance having greatly fallen off, he gave 
up the conductorship and retired to his house 
in Upper Church Street, Bath. He com- 
posed several oratorios, ' Paradise Lost/ ' Re- 
becca/ 'Judith/ ' Jehoshaphat/ and 'Re- 
demption/ as well as the Italian operas 
' Dario/ ' H Ciro riconosciuto/ and ' Issipile.' 
He taught the harpsichord to the Dowager 
Princess of Wales, one of his most generous 
patrons, whose death in 1772 he commemo- 
rated by a setting of the burial service. Out 
of gratitude for the many favours received 
from the royal family, Smith presented 
George III with Handel's manuscript scores 
— which are now at Buckingham Palace — 
as well as Handel's harpsichord and the 
bust by Roubiliac, which are now preserved 

at Windsor Castle. Smith died at Bath on 
3 Oct. 1795. 

[Anecdotes of Smith and Handel by the Rev. 
"William Coxe, containing a portrait of Smith 
engraved from an original picture by Zoffany; 
Burney's History of Music ; Rocfcstro's Life of 
Handel; Georgian Era, iv. 515; Grove's Dic- 
tionary of Music, iii. 540.] R. N. 

SMITH, JOHN GORDON (1792-1833), 
professor of medical jurisprudence, born in 
1792, was educated at Edinburgh and gra- 
duated in the university in 1810 with the 
highest honours in medicine. He entered 
the army as a surgeon, and was attached 
to the 12th lancers at the battle of Water- 
loo, when he received the thanks of Colonel 
Ponsonby, whose life he saved, for his ser- 
vices to the wounded. He retired from the 
army on half-pay when peace was con- 
cluded in 1815, and settled in London. 
Here he found it difficult to establish him- 
self in practice, as he held a Scottish de- 
gree only, and was therefore not entitled to 
practise in England. He accepted the ap- 
pointment of physician to the Duke of 
Sutherland, and resided with him for four 
years, occupying his leisure in composing a 
work on forensic medicine. At the same 
time he acted as surgeon to the Royal West- 
minster Ophthalmic Hospital. He also lec- 
tured on medical jurisprudence at the Royal 
Institution of Great Britain in 1825 and 
again in 1826, and at the Mechanics' Insti- 
tute ; and in 1829 he was elected the first 
professor of medical jurisprudence at the 
London University (now University College) 
in Gower Street. None of the licensing 
bodies in London required any evidence of 
instruction in forensic medicine, and there 
was consequently no class. Smith lectured 
for two years, and then resigned his office. 
For a time he edited the * London Medical 
Repository/ He died in a debtor's prison, 
after fifteen months' confinement, on 16 Sept. 

An ardent reformer in politics as well as 
medicine, Smith was an enthusiastic pioneer 
of the study of medical jurisprudence, which 
(Sir) Robert Christison [q.v.] was endea- 
vouring at the same time to set on a scien- 
tific basis. Smith fought hard, but again 
unsuccessfully, to place Scottish and Eng- 
lish degrees and licenses in medicine upon 
an equal footing. 

He published, besides various contribu- 
tions to the 'Edinburgh Medical and Sur- 
gical Journal :' 1. 'De Asthmati,' Edin- 
burgh, 1810. 2. « The Principles of Forensic 
Medicine/ 8vo, London, 1821 ; 2nd edit. 
1824; 3rd edit. 1827. 3. 'An Analysis of 
Medical Evidence/ London, 8vo, 1825. 



8 4 


4. 'The Claims of Forensic Medicine/ 8vo, 
1829. 6. 'Hints for the Examination of 
Medical Witnesses/ 12mo, 1829. 

[Obituary notice in the Lond. Med. and Surg. 
Journ. 1833, iv. 287; additional information 
kindly given by Mr. Henry Young, assistant- 
secretary to the Koyai Institution of Great 
Britain.] D'A. P. 

RICK (1790-1874), general, colonel-com- 
mandant royal engineers, son of Major- 
general Sir John Frederick Sigismund Smith, 
K.C.H., of the royal artillery (d. 1834), and 
grand-nephew of Field-marshal Baron yon 
jiaikreuth, commander-in-chief of the Prus- 
sian army, was born at the Manor House, 
Paddington, Middlesex, on 11 Jan. 1790. 
After passing through the military school at 
Great Marlow and the Royal Military Aca- 
demy at Woolwich, Smith received a com- 
mission as second lieutenant in the royal en- 
gineers on 1 Dec. 1805, and in January 1806 
joined his corps at Chatham. 

In 1807 Smith went to Sicily. He served 
in 1809 under Major-general Sir A. Bryce, 
the commanding royal engineer of the force 
of Sir John Stuart [q. v. J, at the siege and 
capture of the castle of Iscnia and at the cap- 
ture of Procida in the Bay of Naples. He also 
took part, in the same year, in the capture 
of the islands of Zante and Kephalonia under 
Major-general Frederick Rennell Thackeray 

!q. v.], commanding royal engineer of the 
brce of Sir John Oswald. Smith was deputy- 
assistant quartermaster-general and senior 
officer of tne quartermaster-general's depart- 
ment under Sir Hudson Lowe [q. v.] in 1810, 
in the battle before Santa Maura. He re- 
signed his staff appointment from a sense of 
duty in order to serve as an engineer officer in 
the trenches during the siege of Santa Maura 
under Oswald, the only engineer officer in 
addition to Thackeray and himself, Captain 
Parker having been wounded. This deficiency 
of engineer officers threw upon Smith all the 
executive work during the most arduous part 
of the siege, and he had no relaxation from 
duty in the trenches until the place sur- 
rendered. Not only, however, did he receive 
no special recognition of his services, but the 
officer who tooK his place upon the staff was 
given the brevet promotion which Smith 
would have received, had he not resigned the 
staff appointment to undertake a more diffi- 
cult ana dangerous duty. He was mentioned 
in Sir John Oswald's despatches, and some 
years afterwards an effort was unsuccessfully 
made to get him a brevet majority for his ser- 
vices at Santa Maura. 

Smith was promoted to be second captain 

on 1 May 1811. He served in Albania and 
in Sicily, and in 1812 returned to England to 
take up the appointment of adjutant to the 
corps of the royal sappers and miners at their 
headquarters at Woolwich on 1 Dec. He 
held this appointment until 26 Feb. 1815. He 
was promoted to be first captain on 26 Aug. 
1817, and in 1819, on the reduction of the 
corps of royal engineers, was placed on half- 
pay for seven months. 

During the next ten years Smith was em- 
ployed on various military duties in Eng- 
land. He was promoted to be regimental 
lieutenant-colonel on 16 March 1830, and 
was appointed commanding royal engineer 
of the London district. In 1831 he was 
made a knight of the Royal Hanoverian 
Guelphic order by William IV, a knight 
bachelor on 13 Sept. of the same year, an 
extra gentleman usher of the privy chamber 
in 1833, and on 17 March 1834 one of the 
ordinary gentlemen ushers. The last post he 
held until his death. On 2 Dec. 1840 he was 
also appointed inspector-general of railways, 
in which capacity he examined and reported 
on the London and Birmingham and the 
other principal railways before they were 
opened to the public. In 1841 Smith, in 
conjunction witn Professor Barlow, made 
a report to the treasury respecting railway 
communication between London, Edinburgh, 
and Glasgow. Smith resigned the appoint- 
ment of inspector-general of railways at the 
end of 1841, and became director of the 
royal engineer establishment at Chatham on 
1 Jan. 1842. 

On 5 July 1846 Smith and Professors Airy 
and Barlow were constituted a commission 
to inquire whether future parliamentary rail- 
way Dills should provide for a uniform 
gauge, and whether it would be expedient or 
practicable to bring railways already con- 
structed or in course of construction into 
uniformity of gauge, or whether any other 
mode of obviating or mitigating the serious 
impediments to the internal traffic of the 
country could be adopted. On 30 March 1846 
he was appointed one of the five commis- 
sioners to investigate and report upon the 
various railway projects in which it was pro- 
posed to have a terminus in the metropolis 
or its vicinity. On 9 Nov. 1846 Smith was 

?romoted to be colonel in the army, and on 
May 1851 he was moved from Chatham 
to be commanding royal engineer of the 
southern district, with his headquarters at 

In July 1852 Smith was returned to par- 
liament as member for Chatham in the con- 
servative interest, but in March 1853 he was 
unseated on petition. He was promoted to 




be major-general on 20 Jan. 1854. In 1855 
he was transferred from Portsmouth to the 
command of the royal engineers at Alder- 
shot. He was appointed public examiner 
and inspector of the Military College of the 
East India Company at Addiscombe in 1856. 
In March 1857 he was again returned to 
parliament as member for Chatham. He re- 
signed his command at Aldershot, finding 
his time fully occupied with parliamentary 
and kindred duties. He was a member of 
the royal commission on harbours of refuge 
in 1858. and of the commission on promotion 
and retirement in the army. He was again 
returned as member for Chatham at the 
election of April 1859, and continued to sit 
for that borough until 1868. He was pro- 
moted to be lieutenant-general on 25 Oct. 
1859, colonel-commandant of royal engineers 
on 6 July 1860, and general on 3 Aug. 1863. 

Smith died on 20 Nov. 1874 at his resi- 
dence, 62 Pembridge Villas, Notting Hill 
Gate, London, and was buried in Kensal 
Green cemetery. He was a fellow of the 
Royal Society, an associate of the Institution 
of Civil Engineers, and a member of many 
learned bodies. A good engraved portrait 
appears in Vibart's ' Addiscombe ' (p. 297). 

Smith married at Buckland, near Dover, 
on 31 Jan. 1813, Harriet, daughter of Thomas 
Thorn, esq. of Buckland House. There was 
no issue. 

Smith was the author of ' The Military 
Course of Engineering at Arras,' 8vo, Chat- 
ham, 1850, and he translated, with notes, 
Marshal Marmont's 'Present State of the 
Turkish Empire/ 8vo, London, 1839; 2nded. 

[Despatches; London Gazette; Royal En- 
gineers Records; War Office Records; Royal 
Engineers' Journal, 1874, obituary notice; 
Minutes of Proceedings of the Institution of 
Civil Engineers, vol. xxxix., obituary notice; 
Porter's History of the Corps of Royal En- 
gineers ; Conolly's History of the Royal Sappers 
and Miners; Vibart's Addiscombe, its Heroes 
and Men of Note ; Parliamentary Blue-books.] 

R. H. V. 

SMITH, JOHN ORRIN (1799-1843), 
wood engraver, was born at Colchester in 
1799. About 1818 he came up to London, 
and was for a short time in training as an 
architect. On coming of age in 1821 he in- 
herited some money, with a portion of which 
he bought a part-proprietorsnip in a weekly 
newspaper, ' The Sunday Monitor/ on which 
Douglas Jerrold Tq. v.] worked as a com- 
positor. The rest ne invested in the purchase 
of houses, the title of which proved bad, 
and by the time he was twenty-four he found 
himself penniless. 

William Harvey [q. v.], the draughtsman 
on wood, came to nis assistance, and in- 
structed him in the art of wood-engraving. 
Smith showed great aptitude and soon found 
employment, the only complaint being that 
some of the printers of that date declared 
that his ' cuts ' were too fine to print. After 
much hack-work, he was employed by Leon 
Curmer of Paris to engrave a number of the 
blocks for his beautiful edition of ' Paul et 
Virginie ' (1835). Wood-engraving had not 
revived at this time in France as it had under 
Bewick and his successors in England. In 
1837 he prepared engravings for Seeley and 
Burnsides 'Solace of Song/ which marked 
a new departure in wood-engraving. In 
it high finish, tone, and delicacy of graver 
work contrast with the crisp, somewhat hard, 
though admirable work of Clennell, Nesbit, 
and Thompson. Where, however, there was 
gain in refinement, there was doubtless a 
loss in virility. 

There followed, besides much other work, in 
1839, Herder's ' Cid/ published at Stuttgart, 
and an English edition of Paul et Virginie ; ' 
in 1840 Dr. Wordsworth's l Greece ;' in 
1840-1 < Heads of the People/ by (Joseph) 
Kenny Meadows [q. v.] ; in 1839-48 Shake- 
speare's ' Works/ with nearly 1,000 designs 
by Kenny Meadows. Of the last two works 
Smith was part proprietor with Henry Vixe- 
telly and the artist. In 1842 he took into 
partnership the eminent wood-engraver Mr. 
W. J. Linton, with whom, under the style 
of ' Smith & Linton/ much good work was 
produced for the ' Illustrated London News.' 
Among the books engraved by them was 
'Whist, its History and Practice/ illustrated 
by Meadows (1843). 

Smith died from a stroke of apoplexy on 
15 Oct. 1843, at 11 Mabledon Place, Burton 
Crescent, London. In 1821 he married Jane 
Elizabeth, daughter of Joseph Barney [a. v.] 
His widow survived him with four children. 
The son, Mr. Harvey Edward Orrinsmith 
(the name is now so spelt), at one time prac- 
tised wood-engraving, but subsequently be- 
came a director of the firm of James Burn & 
Co., bookbinders. 

A portrait of Orrin Smith was engraved 
for Curmer's * Paul et Virginie.' 

[Vizetelly's Glances Back ; Bryan's Diet, of 
Painters and Engravers ; information from Mr. 
Harvey E. Orrinsmith.] G. 8. L. 

SMITH, JOHN PRINCE (1774P-1822), 
law reporter, only son of Edward Smith of 
Walthamstow, Essex, born about 1774, was 
admitted on 15 Nov. 1794 a student at Gray's 
Inn, where he was called to the bar on 
6 May 1801. He practised on the home 




circuit, and as a special pleader and equity 
draughtsman, and was one of Daniel Isaac 
Eaton's counsel on his trial for blasphemous 
libel on 6 March 181 2. He was appointed 
in 1817 second fiscal in Demerara and Esse- 
quibo, and died at Demerara in 1822, leaving 
a son (see below) and a daughter. 

Among Smith s works were : 1. 'Elements 
of the Science of Money founded on the 
Principles of the Law of Nature/ London, 
1813, 8vo. 2. * Practical Summary and Re- 
view of the Statute 53 Geo. Ill, or Law for 
the Surrender of Effects, and for the Per- 
sonal Liberation of Prisoners for Debt/ Lon- 
don, 1814, 8vo. 3. « Advice for the Peti- 
tioners against the Corn Bill/ London, 1815, 

Smith edited: (1) 'The Law Journal/ 
London, 1804-6, 3 vols. 8vo; (2) 'An 
Abridgment of the Public General Statutes, 
44-6 Geo. Ill/ London, 1804-7, 3 vols. 8vo ; 
(3) ' Reports of Cases argued and deter- 
mined in the Court of King's Bench, 44-6 
Geo. Ill/ London, 1804-7, 3 vols. 8vo. 

John Prince Smith, the younger (1809- 
1874), political economist, son of the pre- 
ceding, born at London on 20 Jan. 1809, 
accompanied his father to Demerara, and 
was placed at Eton in 1820. On his father's 
death he entered the employ of Messrs. 
Daniel, merchants, of 4 Mincing Lane, which 
he quitted in 1828. After two years of irre- 
gular occupation as banker's clerk, parlia- 
mentary reporter, and journalist, in Ixradon 
and Hamburg, he obtained on 5 April 1831 
the place of English and French master in 
Oowle's Gymnasium at Elbing. Resigning 
this post in 1840, he remained at Elbing, 
and, resuming journalistic work, gained no 
little celebrity by his able advocacy of free- 
trade principles in the ' Elbinger Anzeigen.' 
Removing to Berlin in 1846, he married 
Auguste, daughter of the eminent banker, 
Sommerbrod, and was elected a member 
of the Free Trade Union in the same year, 
and common councillor in 1848. He took 
an active part in the proceedings of the 
economic congresses at Gotha (1858), Hano- 
ver (1862), and Brunswick (1866), was de- 
puty for Stettin in the Prussian House of 
Representatives (1862-6), and president of 
the Berlin Economic Society from 1862, and 
of the standing committee of the Liibeck 
Economic Congress from 1870 until shortly 
before his death . In 1 870 he was returned to 
the Reichstag for Anhalt-Zerbst. He died 
at Berlin on 3 Feb. 1874. His < Gesam- 
melte Werken/ ed. Braun, Wiesbaden, and 
Michaelis, with * Lebensskizze ' by Wolff, 
appeared at Berlin, 1877-80, 3 vols. 8vo. 
His only English work is ' System of Poli- 

tical Economy by Charles Henry Hager, 
LL.D. Translated from the German/ Lon- 
don, 1844, 8vo. 

['Lebensskizze* by Wolff, above mentioned ; 
Gray's Inn. Reg.; Law List, 1802; Rider's Bri- 
tish Merlin, 1818-22 ; Gent. Mag. 1822, ii. 646 ; 
Howell's State Trials, xxxi. 953 ; Diet. Living 
Authors, 1816; Brit. Mus. Cat. J. M. R. 

SMITH, JOHN PYE (1774-1861), non- 
conformist divine, only son of John Smith, 
bookseller, of Angel Street, Sheffield, by 
Martha, daughter of Joseph Sheard, and sister- 
in-law of Matthew Talbot of Leeds [see 
Baines, Edward, 1774-1848], was born in 
Sheffield on 25 May 1774. Without regular 
school education he picked up a considerable 
knowledge of the classics, and of English and 
French literature, by desultory reading in his 
father's shop. As he evinced no precocious 
piety, it was not until 21 Nov. 1792 that he 
was admitted to membership in the con- 
gregational church to which his parents be- 
longed. Meanwhile (April 1790) he was 
apprenticed to his fathers business, and in 
1796 he served his literary apprenticeship as 
editor of the ' Iris ' newspaper during the 
imprisonment of his friend, James Mont- 
gomery [q. v.] He appears also to have 
had transient relations with Coleridge and 
"William Roscoe [q. v.] On the expiry of his 
indentures he gave up business, and, after 
studying for nearly four years under Dr. 
Edward Williams at the Kotherham Aca- 
demy, was appointed in September 1800 
resident tutor at Homerton College, where, 
besides the Uteres humaniores, he lectured on 
Hebrew, the Greek Testament, logic, rhe- 
toric, mathematics, and the more modern 
branches of science. Ordained on 11 April 
1804, he was advanced in the summer of 
1806 to the theological tutorship, which he 
held until shortly before his death, on 5 Feb. 
1851. He was buried in Abney Park 
cemetery (15 Feb.) Pye Smith was D.D. of 
Yale College, LL.D. of Marischal College, 
Aberdeen, F.R.S. and F.G.S. 

Pye Smith married twice : first, at Tun- 
bridge, on 20 Aug. 1801, a daughter of 
Thomas Hodgson of Hackney, who died on 
23 Nov. 1832; secondly, at Islington, on 
12 Jan. 1843, Catherine Elizabeth, widow of 
the Rev. William Clayton. By his first wife 
he had four sons and two daughters; by 
his second wife no issue. 

Without brilliance or metaphysical depth, 
Pye Smith had no small learning, industry, 
and versatility. Though ignorant of German 
until he was past middle life, and though 
much of his time was frittered away in 
ephemeral controversies, he made in his 
' Scripture Testimony to the Messiah ' (Lon- 




don, 1818-21, 2 vols. 8vo, subsequent edi- 
tions, 1829, 1837, 1847, 3 vols.) a solid con- 
tribution to tbe defence of the Trinitarian 
doctrine, and in his ' Relation between the 
Holy Scriptures and some parts of Geological 
Science/ London, 1839, 8vo (5th edit, in 
Bonn's Scientific Library, 1852), he did 
more than any other British theologian of 
his day to bring the exegesis of Genesis into 
accord with geological fact. This work was 
warmly commended by Whewell, Herschel, 
Sedgwick, and Baden PowelL 

For nearly half a century he was a frequent 
contributor to the ' Eclectic Review.' Among 
his minor works were : 1. ' Letters to the 
Rev. Thomas Belsham on some important 
subjects of Theological Discussion,' London, 
1804, 8vo. 2. ' The Reasons of the Protestant 
Religion,' London, 1815, 8vo. 3. 'Four 
Discourses on the Sacrifice and Priesthood 
of Jesus Christ, and on Atonement and Re- 
demption,' London, 1828, 1842, 1847, 8vo. 
4. ' On the Principles of Interpretation as 
applied to the Prophecies of Holy Scripture/ 
London, 1829, 8vo. 

[Gent. Mag. 1801 ii. 764, 1843 i. 312, 
1851 i. 668; Congregational Yearbook, 1851, 
p. 233 ; Sketch prefixed to Bonn's edition 
of 'The Relation between Holy Scripture and 
some parts of Geological Science ; ' Medway's 
Memoirs of the Life and Writings of John Pye 
Smith, 1853.] J. M. R. 

1812), portrait and miniature painter and 
mezzotint engraver, the youngest son of 
Thomas Smith (d. 1767) [q. v.], known as 
'Smith of Derby,' landscape-painter, was 
born at Derby in 1752. He oegan lite as an 
apprentice to alinendraper in his native town, 
but about 1767 he came to London, and, 
while still serving as a shopman, devoted his 
leisure to the practice of miniature-painting. 
He also attempted engraving, and his earliest 
plate, a portrait of Pascal Paoli, after Henry 
Bembridge, is dated 1769. He made rapicl 
progress in this art, and soon gained a high 
position. Many of his plates from the works 
of Reynolds, Romney, and others, as well as 
from nis own designs, are among the master- 
pieces of mezzotint engraving. His portraits 
after Sir Joshua Reynolds include those of 
Lady Catharine Pelham -Clinton, Lady Ger- 
trude Fitzpatrick, the Hon. Mrs. Stanhope, 
'Offie' Palmer (the 'Girl with a Muff'), 
Mrs. Carnac, Mrs. Montagu, Mrs. Musters, 
Mademoiselle Baccelli, Madame Schindlerin, 
and Lady Hamilton as a Bacchante ; also 
Philippe ' EgaliteV duke of Orleans ; Henry 
Dundas, viscount Melville ; William Mark- 
ham, archbishop of York ; Richard Robinson, 
archbishop of Armagh; John Deane Bourke, 

archbishop of Tuam and earl of Mayo ; Dr. 
Joseph Warton ; John Gawler and his sons; 
Master Herbert as Bacchus; and Master 
Crewe as Henry VIII. Other portraits by 
Smith are: The Gower Family, 'Nature' 
(Lady Hamilton), Mrs. Robinson (' Per- 
dita'), and 'The Clavering Children,' after 
George Romney ; ' The Fortune Teller,' after 
the Rev. Matthew William Peters, R.A. ; 
George IV, when prince of Wales, after 
Gainsborough ; Sir Joseph Banks, after Ben- 
jamin West, P.R.A., John, earl of Eldon, 
Mrs. Siddons in the character of ' Zara,' and 
John Philpot Curran, after Sir Thomas Law- 
rence; Napoleon I, after Andrea Appiani; 
Sir Richard Arkwright and 'The Synnot 
Children,' after Joseph Wright of Derby ; the 
Walton family ('The Fruit Barrow '), after 
Henry Walton : James Heath, A.R. A., after 
Lemuel Abbott; and 'The Watercress Girl,' 
after Johann Zoffany, R.A. Among the 
most important of his subject plates are: 
' The Calling of Samuel,' ' The Infant Jupiter,' 
' The Student/ and ' The Snake in the Grass,' 
after Sir Joshua Reynolds ; ' Ezzelino of 
Ravenna musing over the body of his mur- 
dered wife/ ' Belisarius and Parcival/ ' Lear 
and Cordelia/ 'The Three Witches,' and 
' Lady Macbeth/ after Henry Fuseli, R.A. ; 
'The Cherubs/ after William Pether; 'Age 
and Infancy/ after John Opie, R.A. ; ' W T is- 
dom directing Beauty and Virtue to sacri- 
fice at the Altar of Diana/ after Richard 
Cosway, R.A. ; 'A Lady at Haymaking/ 
' Palemon and Lavinia/ ' Cymon and Iphi- 

ffenia/ and ' Rosalind and Celia/ after Wil- 
iam Lawranson ; ' Mercury inventing the 
Lyre/ after James Barry, K.A. ; 'Edwin/ 
from Beattie's ' Minstrel/ after Joseph 
Wright of Derby ; ' A Promenade at Carlisle 
House/ 1781 ; * and ' Christmas Gambols ' 
and several others after the works of George 
Morland, whose boon companion he was, 
and whose portrait he engraved. 

Smith likewise carried on an extensive 
business as a publisher of engravings, and 
employed Girtin and Turner to colour prints. 
Desirous of himself becoming a painter, he 
neglected engraving when at the zenith of 
his fame, and turned his attention to draw- 
ing crayon portraits, which he executed with 
great rapidity and success. Six of these are 
in the South Kensington Museum. Among 
others he drew small full-length portraits of 
Charles James Fox and of Earl Stanhope. 
He visited York and other provincial towns, 
where he found many patrons. His later 
works, however, were very slight, and some- 
times finished in an hour. He also painted 
some fancy subjects in a style resembling 
those of Morland and of "Yv'heatley. His 




works appeared at the exhibitions of the 
Incorporated Society of Artists, the Free 
Society of Artists, and the Royal Academy 
between 1773 and 1805. 

Smith died at Doncaster, where he resided 
during the last three years of his life, on 
2 March 1812, in his sixtieth year, and was 
buried in Doncaster churchyard. He pos- 
sessed great artistic talent, combined with a 
humorous and convivial temperament, which 
led him much into society and often into 
dissipation. A bust of him was modelled 
by Sir Francis Chantrey, R.A., whose early 
talent he had encouraged. William Hilton, 
R.A., and Peter De Wint were among his 

John Rubens Smith, his son, painted 
portraits in the style of his father, and ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy between 1796 
and 1811. 

Emma Smith, his daughter, was born 
about 1787. She painted water-colour draw- 
ings and miniatures, and exhibited at the 
Royal Academy between 1799 and 1808. 
She was also for a time a member of the 
Associated Artists in Watercolours, and 
had five drawings in their first exhibition 
in 1808. 

[Gent. Mag. 1812, i. 488 ; Redgrave's Diet, 
of Artists of the English School, 1 878 ; Bryan's 
Diet, of Painters and Engravers, ed. Graves and 
Armstrong, 1886-9, ii. 508 ; John Chaloner 
Smith's British Mezzotinto Portraits, 1878-83, 
pp. 1241-1321 ; Exhibition Catalogues of the 
Koyal Academy, Incorporated Society of Artists, 
and Free Society of Artists, 1773-1805.] 

R. E. G. 

SMITH, JOHN RUSSELL (1810-1894), 
bookseller and bibliographer, was born at 
Sevenoaks, Kent, in 1810, and was ap- 
prenticed to John Bryant of Wardour 
Street, London. He took a shop at 4 Old 
Compton Street, Soho, devoted himself to 
English topography and philology, and 
issued in 1837 his useful ' Bibliotheca Can- 
tiana ; or a Bibliographical Account of what 
has been published on the History, Anti- 
quities, Customs, and Family History of the 
County of Kent ' (large octavo}. The titles are 
classified with collations ana notes. Smith 
left two copies, with manuscript annotations, 
to the British Museum. Among his sup- 
porters was John Sheepshanks Jq.v.], the 
well-known collector. His * Bibliographical 
List of the Works that have been published 
towards illustrating the Provincial Dialects 
of England,' arranged under counties, 8vo, 
appeared in 1839, as well as ''Westmoreland 
and Cumberland Dialects: Dialogues, Poems, 
Songs, and Ballads by various "Writers in 
the Westmoreland and Cumberland Dialects, 

now first collected, with a copious Glossary/ 

In 1842, on the occasion of the schism in 
the Archaeological Association, one section 
of the members, including Thomas Wright, 
Mark Anthony Lower, Halliwell-Phillipps, 
and Henfrey, transferred their publications to 
Russell Smith. Increase of business caused 
Russell Smith to move to 36 Soho Square. 
Among the books he published there were 
Nares's ' Glossary ' (edited by Wright and Hal- 
liwell-PhillippsjjBarnes's' Dialect Poems and 
Grammar/ Vernon's ' Guide to the Anglo- 
Saxon Tongue/ and Bosworth's 'Anglo- 
Saxon Dictionary, 1 abridged. He is best 
remembered by his ' Library of Old Authors,' 
an interesting and valuable series of reprints, 
chiefly of sixteenth and seventeenth century 
literature. The volumes, which were neatly 
printed by the Chiswick Press in small 
octavo, were for the most part carefully 
edited, and were issued between 1856 and 

Among the catalogues of secondhand 
books issued by Russell Smith may be 
mentioned one of topographical prints, 
drawings, and books printed before 1700 
(1849), ' Shakesperiana' (1864), 'Ameri- 
cana' (1865), tracts, twenty-six thousand 
in number (1874), and engraved Portraits 
(1883). He contributed the first complete 
list of English writers on fishes and fishing to 
R. Blakey's 'Historical Sketches of Angling 
Literature' (1855). Some copies were 
separately issued as * Bibliographical Cata- 
logue of English Writers on Angling and 
Ichthyology ' (1856). 

Smith retired from business about 1884, 
when his stock and copvrights were sold. 
The ' Library of Old Authors' was disposed 
of to William Reeves for 1,000/. He died 
on 19 Oct. 1894, at Kentish Town, aged 84. 
His industry and literary taste are noticed 
by Saunders (Salad for the Social, 1856, 
p. 46), and his ' integrity in the publishing 
way' by W T . C. Hazlitt (Four Generations of 
a Literary Family, 1897, ii. 367). A portrait 
after a photograph is prefixed to his ' Cata- 
logue of Engraved Portraits ' (1883). 

[Athenaeum, 10 Nov. 1894, p. 644; Book- 
seller, 6 Nov. 1894, p. 1025; Allibone's Diet. 
1870, ii. 2148.] H.R.T. 

SMITH, JOHN SIDNEY (1804-1871), 
legal writer, son of John Sidney Smith of 
9 Woburn Square, London, was born in 
1804, and held a situation in the six clerks' 
office in the court of chancery until 23 Oct. 
1842, when the establishment was abolished. 
He soon after entered Trinity Hall, Cam- 
bridge, and graduated B.A. 1847 and M.A. 


8 9 


1850. He was called to the bar at the 
Middle Temple on 7 Nov. 1845, and prac- 
tised in the court of chancery. He died 
at Sidney Lodge, Wimbledon, Surrey, on 
14 Jan. 1871. 

In 1884-5 he published, in two volumes, 
' A Treatise on the Practice of the Court of 
Chancery/ a very useful work, the seventh 
edition of which he brought out in conjunc- 
tion with Alfred Smith in 1862 ; there was 
also an American edition (Philadelphia, 
1839). Smith likewise wrote ' A Handbook 
of the Practice of the Court of Chancery/ 
1848 (2nd edit. 1855), and < ATreatise on the 
Principles of Equity/ 1866. 

[Matric. Regist. Trinity Hall, Cambridge; 
Law Times, 1871, iv. 369; Hardy's Catalogue 
of Lord Chancellors, &c. 1843, p. 116.] G. C. B. 

1836), composer and musical antiquary, son 
of Martin Smith, organist of Gloucester 
Cathedral, was born at Gloucester in 1750. 
He received his earliest musical instruction 
from his father, and subsequently became a 
pupil of Dr. Boyce and a chorister of the 
Chapel Royal under James Nares [q. v.] In 
1784 he was appointed a gentleman of the 
Chapel Royal, and in 1785 a lay vicar of 
Westminster Abbey. In 1802 he succeeded 
Dr. Arnold as one of the organists of the 
Chapel Royal, and from 1805 to 1817 held 
the office of master of the children. He 
published five collections of glees, many of 
which have enjoyed well-deserved popu- 
larity. ' Let happy lovers fly/ ' Blest pair of 
syrens/ ' While fools their time/ and ' Return, 
blest days/ all gained prizes between 1773 
and 1777 ; other familiar compositions by 
Smith are ' What shall he have that killed 
the deer P ' ' Hark, the hollow woods resound- 
ing/ and the madrigal, ' Flora now calleth 
forth each flower.' In 1779 he published a 
collection of English songs composed about 
1500, taken from manuscripts oi that date. 
In 1793 appeared a volume of anthems, and 
in 1812 his most important work, 'Musica 
Antiqua/ a collection of old music from the 
twelfth to the eighteenth centuries. Sir 
John Hawkins, in the preface to his ' History 
of Music/ acknowledges the valuable assist- 
ance which Smith gave him in the prepara- 
tion of the work. He died on 20 Sept. 1 836. 
In 1844 his interesting library was dispersed 
at an obscure auction-room in Gray s Inn 
Road, and — no connoisseurs being present — 
many valuable manuscripts were lost to the 
musical world. 

[Grove's Dictionary of Music, iii. 540; F&is's 
Biographic Unirerselle des Musi ei ens, viii. 222; 
NaumamVs Hist, of Music, p. 1 276.] R. N. 

SMITH, JOHN THOMAS (1766-1833), 
topographical draughtsman and antiquary, 
son of Nathaniel Smith, a sculptor who after- 
wards became a printseller at the sign of 
Rembrandt's Head in May's Buildings, St. 
Martin's Lane, was born on 28 June 1766 in 
a hackney coach in which his mother was re- 
turning home from a visit to her brother in 
Seven Dials, London. His father was then 
chief assistant to Joseph Nollekens, R. A., the 
sculptor, whose studio young Smith entered 
in 1778, but left it in 1781 to become a pupil 
of John Keyse Sherwin [<l«v.], the mezzo- 
tint-engraver. At the end of three years he 
gave up engraving and found employment in 
making topographical drawings of London 
for Mr. Crowle, and others in the neighbour- 
hood of Windsor for Mr. Richard Wyatt. He 
had thoughts of going on the stage, but 
eventually settled down in 1788 as a drawing- 
master at Edmonton. In 1791 he began the 
compilation of his favourite work, 'Anti- 
quities of London and its Environs/ which 
was finished in 1800. He returned to London 
in 1795, and for some time practised as a 
portrait-nainter and engraver. In 1797 he 
published ' Remarks on Rural Scenery/ with 
twenty etchings of cottages by himself, and 
in 1807 the * Antiquities of Westminster/ 
for part of which the descriptive text was 
written by John Sidney Hawkins [q. v.] ; but 
a disagreement having arisen between him 
and Smith, it was continued by the latter, 
who prefixed an ' Advertisement ' describing 
the dispute. Smith's statement was chal- 
lenged by Hawkins in a ' Correct Statement 
and Vindication ' of his conduct, which was 
answered by Smith in a ' Vindication ' (1808), 
to which Hawkins issued a ' Reply ' (1808). 
' Sixty-two additional Plates ' to this worJk 
were published in 1809. There followed 
'The Ancient Topography of London/ begun 
in 1810 and completea in 1815. 

In September 1816 Smith was appointed 
to succeed William Alexander (1767-1816) 
[q. v.] as keeper of the prints and drawings in 
the British Museum, and retained that office 
until his death. His official duties did not 
interfere with the continuance of his lite- 
rary work. In 1817 he published ' Vagabon- 
diana, or Anecdotes of Mendicant Wanderers 
through the Streets of London/ illustrated 
with portraits of notorious beggars drawn 
and etched by himself from the life ; an in- 
troduction was written by Francis Douce 
[q. v.] His last and best known work was 
' Nollekens and his Times/ issued in 1828. 
This has been said to be ' perhaps the most 
candid biography ever published in the Eng- 
lish language, and was probably influenced 
by the smallness of the legacy left to him by 


9 o 


Nollekens, who appointed him co-executor 
of his will with Sir William Beechey and 
Francis Douce. A new edition, with an 
introduction by Mr. Edmund Gosse, ap- 
peared in 1894. After Smith's death there 
appeared his ' Cries of London ' (1839), with 

Sates etched by himself, edited by John 
Dwyer Nichols [q. v.] ; his entertaining and 
discursive 'Book for a Rainy Day' (1845); 
and his ' Antiquarian Ramble in the Streets 
of London ' (1846), edited by Charles Mackay 

Smith died at 22 University Street, Totten- 
ham Court Road, London, from inflamma- 
tion of the lungs, on 8 March 1833, and was 
buried in St. George's burial-ground in the 
Bayswater Road. 

A three-quarter portrait was painted by 
John Jackson, R.A. A drawing by the same 
artist was engraved by William Skelton 
v.] and prefixed to the * Cries of London,' 

[Smith's Book for a Rainy Day, 1828; Memoir 
by John Bowyer Nichols, prefixed to Smith's 
dries of London, 1839 ; Short Account, by Ed- 
mund Gosse, prefixed to Smith's Nollekens and 
his Times, 1894; Gent. Mag. 1833, i. 641-4; 
Redgrave's Dictionary of Artists of the English 
School, 1 878 ; Bryan's Dictionary of Painters 
and Engravers, ed. Graves and Armstrong, 
1886-9, ii. 508.] R. E. G. 

SMITH, JOHN THOMAS (1805-1882), 
colonel royal engineers, second son of George 
Smith of Edwafton, Nottinghamshire, and 
afterwards of Foelallt, Cardiganshire, by his 
wife Eliza Margaret, daughter of Welham 
Davis, elder brother of the Trinity House, 
was born at Foelallt on 16 April 1805. He 
was educated at Eepton and at the high 
school, Edinburgh, entered the military col- 
lege of the East India Company at Addis- 
combe in 1822, and received a commission 
as second lieutenant in the Madras engineers 
on 17 June 1824. He was promoted to be 
first lieutenant on the following day, and 
went to Chatham for a course of instruction 
in professional subjects. Smith left Chat- 
ham on 4 Feb. 1825, and arrived at Madras 
on 2 Sept. of the same year. 

On 28 April 1826 Smith was appointed 
acting superintending engineer in the public 
works department for the northern division 
of the presidency, and on 2 May 1828 he 
was confirmed in the appointment. He there- 
upon began a series of investigations in re- 
ference to lighthouse-lanterns, devising a 
reciprocating light. Smith suggested to 

government the improvement of the light- 
ouse at Hope's Island, off Coringa, and at 
the end of 1833 his services were placed at 
the disposal of the marine board, with a view 

to the improvement of the lighthouse at 
Madras. On 11 Feb. 1834 ill-health com- 
pelled Smith to sail for England on leave of 
absence. Before his departure the governor 
in council informed him in very compli- 
mentary terms that the marine board had 
adopted his plans for remodelling the light- 
houses both at Madras and at Hope's Island. 
He was promoted to be captain on 5 March 

Smith remained in England until 28 July 
1837, and in the same year he was elected a 
fellow of the Royal Society. He was given 
an extension of furlough to superintend the 
manufacture of apparatus for the Madras 
lighthouse. He employed his leisure in the 
translation of J. L. Vicat's valuable treatise 
on mortars and cements, to which he added, 
the results of many original experiments, and 
saw the work through tne press before leaving 
for India. It appeared as ' A Practical and 
Scientific Treatise on Calcareous Mortars 
and Cements, Artificial and Natural, with 
Additions/ 8vo, London, 1837. On his return 
to Madras on 18 Dec. 1837 he was appointed 
to the command of the Madras sappers and 
miners, but remained at Madras on special 
duty. On 20 March 1838 he was appointed 
to the first division of the public works de- 
partment, comprising the districts of Gan- 
jam, Rajamandry, and Vizagapatam, and on 
24 April he took charge of the office of the 
chief engineer. He served on a committee 
to inspect and report upon the state of the 
Red-hill railroad and canal, and he surveyed 
the Ennore and Pulicat lakes, to ascertain 
the practicabilitv and cost of keeping open 
the bar of the Kuam river by artificially 
closing that of the Ennore river ; thereby 
the whole of the waters collected in the 
Pulicat lake would be turned into the Kuam, 
a measure which he considered would afford 
peculiar facilities for cleansing the Black 
Town, besides improving the water com- 
munication between Madras and Sulurpet. 
Meanwhile he superintended the erection of 
the Madras lighthouse, which was begun in 

1838 and completed in 1839. On 5 April 

1839 Smith was appointed to the sixth divi- 
sion of the public works department, and on 
7 May to officiate as superintending engineer 
at Madras. 

On 24 Sept. 1839 Smith was relieved from 
all other duties to enable him to inspect and 
report upon the machinery of the mint at 
Madras. On 7 Feb. 1840, the date of the re- 
establishment of the mint, Smith was ap- 
pointed mint-master, and by a thorough re- 
formation of the whole establishment soon 
brought the mint into a high state of effi- 
ciency. The satisfactory results obtained by 




Smith's skilful adaptation to steam power 
of the old and simple mint machinery driven 
bv animal power were referred to in a finan- 
cial despatch of 16 March 1841 to the court 
of directors as highly creditable. On 13 Jan. 
1846 he visited the Cape of Good Hope on 
leave of absence, returning to the mint on 
28 Dec. 1847. An innovation which Smith 
introduced of adjusting the weights of the 
blanks by means of the diameters of the 
pieces, instead of by their thickness, resulted 
in his design of a very ingenious and beauti- 
ful machine, by which twenty or a hundred 
blanks could be weighed to half a grain and 
deposited in a separate cell by a single person 
with two motions of the hand. After the 
pieces had been thus sorted they were passed 
through a set of circular cutters, which re- 
moved a certain weight according to the 
excess of each over the standard. By this 
means almost the whole of the blanks were 
obtained of the exact weight without further 
correction. This machine gained an award 
at the London International Exhibition of 

Smith was promoted to be major on 
2 March 1852, and lieutenant-colonel on 
1 Aug. 1854. About this time he made 
some ingenious inventions, which he pro- 
posed to apply to the demolition of Cron- 
stadt; and he also invented a refracting 
sight for rifles. On 21 Sept. 1855 he was 
appointed mint-master at Calcutta. The fol- 
lowing year he went to England to arrange 
about copper machinery for the mint, and did 
not go back, retiring on a pension, with the 
honorary rank of colonel, on 23 Oct. 1857. 
After his return to England he devoted him- 
self to currency problems, and favoured the 
introduction 01 a gold standard into India. 
He was deputed to attend the international 
monetary congress held in Paris in 1865, be- 
sides taking active part in the proceedings of 
many learned societies. 

Smith was for a longtime consulting engi- 
neer to the Madras Irrigation Company ; he 
was also a director of the Delhi bank and of 
the Madras Railway Company, of which he 
was for some years chairman. On 17 May 
1866 he was appointed a member of the consult- 
ing committee, military fund department, at 
the India office, which post he held until the 
committee was abolished on 1 April 1880. 
He died at his residence. 10 Gleahow Gar- 
dens, London, on 14 May 1882. Sir Arthur 
Cotton observes of him : ' He was one of the 
most talented, laborious, clear-headed, and 
sound-judging men I have ever met with, or 
known of by other means. 1 He married, on 
27 June 1837, Maria Sarah, daughter of R. 
Tyser, M.D., by whom he had lire sons (for 

the eldest of whom see below) and eight 
daughters. A portrait is in possession of 
his daughter-in-law, Mrs. Percy Smith. 

Smith, who was a member of many learned 
bodies, was author of: 1. ' Observations on 
the Management of Mints,' 3 vo, Madras, 1848. 
2. ' Observations on the Duties and Respon- 
sibilities involved in the Management of 
Mints/ 8vo, London, 1848. 8. * Report on 
the Madras Military Fund, containing New 
Tables of Mortality, Marriage, &c, deduced 
from the Fifty Years' Experience, 1808-1858/ 
by Smith, in conjunction with S. Brown and 
P. Hardy. 4. ' Remarks on a Gold Currency 
for India, and Proposal of Measures for the 
Introduction of the British Sovereign/ 8vo, 
London, 1868. 5. * Silver and the Indian 
Exchanges/ 8vo, London, 1880. 

Smith initiated the ' Professional Papers 
of the Madras Engineers/ and edited vols, 
i. ii. and iii. of ' Reports, Correspondence, 
and Original Papers on various Professional 
Subjects connected with the Duties of the 
Corps of Engineers, Madras Presidency ' (4to, 
Madras, printed between 1845 and 1855 ; the 
third edition of the first four volumes was 
printed at the American Press, Madras, in 
1859). Smith contributed to these volumes 
many papers, mainly on mintage and light- 
house construction. 

The eldest son, Percy Guillbmakd 
Llbwbllin Smith (1838-1898), was born at 
Madras on 15 June 1838, became a lieutenant 
in the royal engineers on 28 Feb. 1855, served 
in South Africa from August 1857 to January 
1862, was promoted captain on 31 Dec. 1861, 
and was employed on the defences of Portland 
and Weymouth until 1869, and on the con- 
struction of Mary hill Barracks, Glasgow, until 
1874. On 5 July 1872 he was promoted to be 
major, and in 1874 was appointed instructor 
in construction at the School of Military En- 
gineering at Chatham. He was promoted to 
be lieutenant-colonel on 20 Dec. 1879, in 
which year he became an assistant director 
of works under the admiralty at Portsmouth. 
In October 1882 he succeeded Major-general 
Charles Pasley [q. v.] as director of works 
at the admiralty, and during ten years of 
office carried out many important works, 
both at home and at Malta, Gibraltar, Ber- 
muda, Halifax, and Newfoundland. He was 
promoted to be brevet colonel on 20 Dec. 1888. 
He retired from the military service on 31 Dec. 
1887 with the honorary rank of major-gene- 
ral, but retained his admiralty appointment. 
He died at Bournemouth on 25 April 1893. 
He was twice married : first, in 1886, to a 
daughter of Captain Bailey, R.N. ; and, se- 
condly, in 1886, to Miss Ethel Parkyns. He 
was the author of * Notes on Building Con- 




struct ion, 'published anonymously, 1875-9, 
in 3 vols. 8vo. It is the best book on the 
subject published in this country. A fourth 
volume, on the 'Theory of Construction/ 
was published in 1891. He contributed to 
vols. xvi. and xviii. new ser. of the 'Profes- 
sional Papers of the Corps of Royal Engineers.' 

[India Office Records; obituary notices in 
Royal Engineers' Journal, 1882, 1803; Times, 
17 May 1882; Proceedings of the Royal Soc. 
vol. xxxiv. 1882-3 ; Minutes of Proceedings of 
the Institution of Civil Engineers, vol. lxxi. 
1882-3, and in Vibart's Addiscombe, its Heroes 
and Men of Note ; Allibone's Diet of English 
Literature; Indian Government Despatches; 
Professional Papers of the Corps of Royal Engi- 
neers ; Professional Papers of the Madras Engi- 
neers.] R. H. V. 

1845), legal writer, born in Chapel Street, 
Belgrade Square, London, on 23 Jan. 1809, 
was eldest son of John Smith, who was 
appointed in 1830 paymaster of the forces 
in Ireland. His mother was a sister of 
George Connor, master in chancery in Ire- 
land. After exhibiting remarkable precocity 
at a private school in Isleworth, he passed 
in 1821 to Westminster School, where he was 
elected queen's scholar in 1828. He en- 
tered in 1826 Trinity College, Dublin, where 
he obtained a scholarship in 1829, and was 
awarded the gold medal in classics in the 
following year. He joined on 20 June 1827 
the Inner Temple, where, after practising 
for some years as a special pleader, he was 
called to the bar on 3 May 1834. In the same 
year appeared his ' Compendium of Mer- 
cantile Law/ London, 8vo, a work distin- 
guished equally by profound learning and 
luminous exposition. * An Elementary View 
of the Proceedings in an Action at Law ' 
followed in 1836, London, 8vo, and *A 
Selection of Leading Cases on Various 
Branches of the Law/ a work of incalculable 
benefit to the student, in 1837-1840, Lon- 
don, 2 vols. 8vo. From 1837 to 1843 Smith 
was lecturer at the Law Institution, and in 
1840 was appointed to a revising barrister- 
ship. He practised for a time on the Oxford 
circuit ana at the Hereford and Gloucester 
sessions, but latterly only in the metropolis, 
where he died of consumption induced by 
overwork on 17 Dec 1845. He was buriea 
in Kensal Green cemetery, and a tablet was 
placed to his memory in the Temple Church. 

In Smith an ungainly person, a harsh 
voice, and awkward manners served as a 
foil to mental endowments of a high order. 
To a veritable genius for the discovery and 
exposition of legal principles he added a 
large erudition not only in the ancient 

classics, but in the masterpieces of English, 
Italian, and Spanish literature. He was also 
well read in theology and a devout Chris- 
tian. Smith's ' Mercantile Law ' reached a 
third edition in its author's lifetime ; later 
editions by Dowdesweil appeared at London 
in 1848, 1855, 1871, and 1877, 8vo, and by 
Macdonell and Humphreys in 1890, London, 
2 vols. 8vo. The ' Elementary View of the 
Proceedings in an Action at Law ' reached a 
fourteenth edition byFoulkes in 1884, Lon- 
don, 12mo ; and the 'Leading Cases/ a tenth 
edition, edited by Chitty, Williams, & Chitty, 
in 1896, London, 2 vols. 8vo. Other (posthu- 
mous) works by Smith are: (1) 'The Law 
of Contracts: in a course of lectures de- 
livered at the Law Institution ; with notes 
and appendix by Jelinger C. Symons/ Lon- 
don, 1847, 8vo ; subsequent editions by Mal- 
colm in 1855 and 1868, and by Thompson 
in 1874 and 1885, 8vo. 2. « The Law of 
Landlord and Tenant: being a Course of 
Lectures delivered at the Law Institution ; 
with notes and additions by Frederic Philip 
Maude/ London, 1855, 1866, 1882, 8vo. 

[Westminster School Reg. ed. Barker and 
Stenning, p. 213; Law Mag. xxxv. 177; Law- 
Times, vi. 473 ; Warren's Misc. ed. 1865, i. 116- 
184, and Law Studies, ed. 1863; Albany Law 
Journ. vi. 393.] J. M. R. 

SMITH, JOSEPH (1670-1756), provost 
of Queen's College, Oxford, fifth son of Wil- 
liam Smith, rector of Lowther, and younger 
brother of John Smith (1659-1715) [a. v.], 
was born at Lowther, Westmoreland, on 
10 Oct. 1670. On his father's death when five 
years old, his mother removed to Guisbrough 
m Yorkshire, where he attended the gram- 
mar school. Thence he proceeded to the 
fublic school at Durham, and on 10 May 
689 he was admitted a scholar of Queen's 
College, Oxford. In 1693 he was chosen a 
tabarder and graduated B.A. in 1694. He 
proceeded M.A. by diploma in 1697, having 
accompanied Sir Joseph Williamson [q. v. J, 
his godfather, who was one of the British 
plenipotentiaries, to Ryswick as his private 
secretary. On 31 Oct. 1698, in his absence, 
he was elected a fellow of the college. Soon 
after his return in 1700 he took holy orders 
and obtained from the provost, Dr. Timothy 
Halton [q. v.], the living of Iftiey, near Ox- 
ford. In 1702 he was chosen to address 
Queen Anne upon her visit to the university. 
In 1704 he was elected senior proctor, and 
dubbed 'handsome Smith' to distinguish 
him from his colleague, Thomas Smith of 
St. John's. In the same year Dr. Halton died, 
and Smith's friends proposed him as a can- 
didate. He, however, would not hear of it, 
but gave all his interest to Dr. William Lan- 




er [q. v.], who had formerly been Jus 
r, and who 


tutor, anil who was accordingly elected. The 
new provost presented him to Russell Court 
Chapel and to the lectureship of Trinity 
Chapel, Hanover Square, which he held until 
1731. These promotions brought Smith to 
town, where he became chaplain to Edward 
VilHers, first earl of Jersey [q. v.], who, 
before his death in 1711, introduced him to 
the queen, gave him several opportunities of 
preaching before her, and obtained for him 
the promise of the first vacant canonry in 
the church at Windsor. In 1708 he took 
the degrees of B.D. and D.D., and on 29 Nov. 
was presented by the college to the rectory 
of Knights Enham and to the donative of 
Upton Grey in Hampshire. In 1716 he ex- 
changed Upton Grey for the rectory of St. 
Dioms, Lime Street, London. 

On the accession of George I he was 
again introduced to court by the Earl of 
Grantham, and was made chaplain to the 
Princess of Wales, afterwards Queen Caro- 
line. In 1723 Edmund Gibson [a. v.], bishop 
of Lincoln, an old college friend, appointed 
him to the prebend of Dunholm, and on Gib- 
son's transfer to the see of London he gave 
him the donative of Paddington. In 1724 
he was appointed to the lectureship of the 
new church of St. George's, Hanover Square, 
and on 8 May 1728 Gibson gave him the 
prebend of St. Mary Newington in the 
cathedral church of St. Paul's. 

But in 1730, on the demise of John 
Gibson, Dr. Smith, without any solicitation 
on his part, was chosen provost of Queen's 
College. He was particularly pleased with 
this appointment and devoted himself to the 
service of the college, of which he improved 
both the discipline and instruction. In 1731 
he drew up a statement of its architectural 
condition with an ichnography of the whole 
(this was an expansion of a statement first 
issued inProvost Gibson's time), and ordered 
cuts of the buildings by M. Burghers (d. 
1727) to be engraved in quarto. Through the 
good offices of Arthur Onslow [q. v.], speaker 
of the House of Commons, and of Colonel 
John Selwyn [see under Selwtn, Geobge 
Augustus, 1719-1791], Queen Caroline's 
treasurer, he obtained from her majesty a 
benefaction of 1000/. towards adorning the 
college. In recognition of this gift he had 
the queen's statue, in marble, ' placed over 
the gateway in an open temple, supported 
by eight duplicated columns, crowned with 
entablatures on which stand eight arches 
covered with a tholus.' He also induced Lady 
Elizabeth Hastings Tq- v.] to settle several 
exhibitions on the college. His zeal obtained 
an order in chancery which forced Sir 

Orlando Bridgeman to pay over a donation 
of Sir Francis Bridgeman's. His exertions 
also procured the foundation of eight addi- 
tional fellowships as well as four scholarships 
by John Michel of Richmond in Surrey. 
Dr. Smith died in Queen's College on 
23 Nov. 1766, and was interred in the vault 
under the new chapel. In 1709 he married 
Mary Lowther, youngest daughter of Henry 
Lowther of Ingleton Hall in Yorkshire and 
of Lowther in Fermanagh, and niece of 
Timothy Halton, the former provost. She 
died on 29 April 1745. By her he had three 
children: Joseph, an advocate of Doctors' 
Commons; Anne, married, first, to Pre- 
bendary Lamplugh, a grandson oi the arch- 
bishop, and, secondly, to Captain James 
Hargraves ; and William, who died young. 
His portrait was painted by J. Maubert and 
engraved by Bernard Baron [q. v.J (Beomlet, 
Catalogue of Engraved Portraits, p. 280), 
and there is a life-size bust over his monu- 
ment near the entrance of Queen's College 
chapel. The college has a large collection 
of his manuscripts and letters. 

Smith was the author of: 1. 'Modern 
Pleas for Schism and Infidelity Reviewed/ 
London, 1717, 8vo. 2. * A Modest Review 
of the Bishop of Bangor's Answer to 
Dr. Snape/ London, 1717, 8vo. 3. 'Some 
Considerations offered to the Bishop of 
Bangor on his Preservative against the Prin- 
ciples of the Nonjurors,' London, 1717, 8vo. 
4. 'The Unreasonableness of Deism /London. 
1720, 8vo. 5. 'Anarchy and Rebellion/ 
1720, 8vo. 6. ' A View of the Being, Nature, 
and Attributes of God/ Oxford, 1756, 8vo ; 
besides several sermons. To him has also 
been attributed ' The Difference between the 
Nonjurors and the Present Public Assem- 
blies/ 1716, 8vo, which provoked the reply, 
' Joseph and Benjamin ; or Little Demetrius 
tossed in a Blanket/ London, 1717, 8vo. 
Some manuscript notes of Smith's also are 
preserved in the copy of the ' Resigned and 
Resolved Christian' (1689, 4to), by Denis 
Grenville, in the Grenville collection at the 
British Museum. 

[Notes kindly furnished by the Rev. Dr. J. R. 
Magrath, provost of Queen's College, Oxford; 
Biographia Britannica, vi. 3734-3744; Chal- 
mers's Biogr. Diet. 1816; Wood's Antiquities, 
ed. Gutch, i. 170 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500- 
1714; Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit.] E. I. C. 

SMITH, JOSEPH (1682-1770), British 
consul at Venice, born m 1682, took up his 
residence at Venice at the age of eighteen, 
and was apparently engaged in commerce 
there. He made a wide reputation as a col- 
lector of books, manuscripts, pictures, coins, 
and gems. He patronised painters, and 




among his proteges were the Florentine 
Zuccarelli and the Venetian Zais. Horace 
Walpole sneered at him as 'the merchant 
of Venice/ who knew nothing of his books 
except their title-pages ( Walpole, Letters, 
i. 239-807), but the censure seems unde- 
served. In 1729 Smith prepared an edition 
of Boccaccio's ' Decamerone,' which was pub- 
lished by Passinelio (Ebbbt, Bibliographical 
Dictionary, i. 201). It is so nearly an exact 
reproduction of the rare edition of 1527 that 
only those who are acquainted with the 
minute differences can distinguish the copy 
from the original. Of Smith^ edition only 
three hundred copies were printed, including 
a few on large paper; these latter are ex- 
tremely rare, a fire having destroyed a por- 
tion of the edition (see Count Gio. Batista 
Baldelli Boni's Vita di G. Boccaccio, 
Firenze, 1806, p. 311). About the same 
time Smith issued a 'Catalogus Librorum 
Rarissimorum ' (without date), which was 
limited to twenty-five copies. The volumes 
noticed were in Smith's own possession. 
A second edition, containing the titles of 
thirty-one additional books, was published in 
Venice in 1737. Of his general library a cata- 
logue was printed at Venice in 1765, under 
the title ' Bibiiotheca Smithiana, seu Cata- 
logue Librorum D. Josephi Smithii Angli.' 

Meanwhile in 1740 Smith was appointed 
British consul at Venice, and was thence- 
forth known familiarly as Consul Smith. 
He retained the post till 1760. In 1766 
George III began to form his library by 
purchasing Smiths books en bloc for 10,000/., 
and they now form an important part of the 
king's library at the British Museum! Smith 
continued to collect, and at his death the 
books which he had acquired subsequently to 
the sale of his library to George III were 
sold at public auction in London by Baker 
& Leigh in January and February 1773, the 
sale occupying thirteen days. His art trea- 
sures also were bought by George III for 
20,000/. (see Ed. Edwards's Lives of the 
Founders of the British Museum, 1670-1870, 
ii. 469). A valuable portion of his manu- 
scripts was purchased for Blenheim Palace by 
Lord Sunderland, who gave, according to 
Humphry Wanle/s ' Diary/ 1,500/. for them 
(Lansdowne MS. 771, fol. 34). Smith's an- 
tique gems were described and illustrated in 
A. F. Gori's ' Dactyliotheca Smithiana,' 
2 vols, folio, 1767. 

Smith died at Venice on 6 Nov. 1770, 
aged 88. About 1768 he married a sister of 
John Murray, resident at Venice, and after- 
wards ambassador at the Porte (see Lady 
Mart WoRTLEY-Moimoir's Letters and 
Works, ed. 1893, ii. 319). 

[Supplement to Dr. T. F. Dibdin's Biblio- 
mania, ed. 1842, pp. 33-5; Scots Map. 1770, 
p. 631 ; information from the foreign office, and 
from the British Consulate at Venice.] 

G. W. M. 
1854 was always known as Toulmin Smith 
(1816-1869), publicist and constitutional 
lawyer, born on 29 May 1816 at Birmingham, 
was eldest son of William Hawkes Smith 
(1786-1840), of that town, an economic and 
educational reformer. His grandmother was 
sister to Job Orton [q. v.], and his great- 
grandfather was Dr. Joshua Toulmin [p^.v.] 
Joshua was educated at home and at a private . 
school at Hale, Cheshire, kept by Charles 
Wallace. An eager student of literature and 
philosophy, he was at first destined for the 
unitarian ministry, but that vocation was 
abandoned in favour of the law, and at 
sixteen he was articled to a local solicitor. 
Removing in 1835 to London, he was entered 
at Lincoln's Inn with a view to the bar. 
Meanwhile he showed a precocious literary 
activity. At seventeen he wrote an ' In- 
troduction to the Latin Language' for a 
class at the Birmingham Mechanics'Institute, 
and in 1836 produced a work on ' Philosophy 
among the Ancients.' 

Marrying in 1837 Martha, daughter of Wil- 
liam Jones Kendall of Wakefield, he went to 
the United States, first settling at Detroit, 
then at Utica, and afterwards in Boston, 
At Boston he lectured, chieflv on phrenology 
and on philosophy. Attracted by Kafh's pub- 
lication at Copenhagen of the narratives of 
early Icelandic voyages to America, he pub- 
lished in 1839 ' The Discovery of America 
by the Northmen in the Tenth Century,' a 
study from the originals, which he was the 
first to introduce to English readers; the 
work gained him the diploma of the Royal 
Society of Antiquaries of Copenhagen. Seve- 
ral other minor publications, educational and 
historical, occupied his pen till, in 1842, he 
returned to England, and, settling at High- 
gate, near London, resumed his legal studies, 
and was called to the bar in 1849. At this 
period he found recreation in the pursuit of 
geology. Especially directing his attention 
to the upper chalk, he printed a series of papers 
(Ann. and Mag. of Natural History, August 
1847-May 1848, issued as a volume 1848) on 
1 The Ventriculidffi of the Chalk.' The mono- 
graph, which was illustrated by his own 
pencil, was based on laborious microscopic 
investigations ; it established the true cha- 
racter, hitherto imperfectly known, of the 
class of fossils of which it treated, and still 
remains a chief authority on the subject. This 
work drew round him the leading geologists 




of the day. When the Geologists' Associa- 
tion was formed Toulmin Smith was invited 
to be president, but, beyond delivering the 
inaugural address (11 Jan. 1869), he took 
little active part in its proceedings. 

Meanwhile, in the autumn of 1847, when 
the dreaded approach of cholera roused atten- 
tion to matters of health, Smith became leader 
of effective action in his own neighbourhood 
at Ilighgate ; and his inquiries into the for- 
mer law and practice on the subject of local 
responsibilities were the beginning of efforts 
extending over many years, with consider- 
able success in spite of difficulties, to raise 
the sanitary condition and municipal life of 
the suburban parish where he lived. He 
watched the course of public legislation, and 
brought his researches into constitutional 
law, joined to his local experience, to bear 
upon it by weighty speech and untiring pen. 
He strongly opposed the Public Health Act 
of 1848, an opposition which subsequent 
events justified. Reform of the corporation 
of London, the sewerage and administration 
of the metropolis, highway boards, the main- 
tenance of public footpaths, the functions of 
the coroner s court, the volunteer movement, 
parish rights and duties, and the church-rate 
question are some of the subjects on which 
his research and action between 1850 and 
1860 were incessant. In 1851 appeared his 
'Local Self-Government and Centralization/ 
a deduction of English constitutional prin- 
ciples from the national records ; and in 1854 
'The Parish: its Obligations and Powers: 
its Officers and their Duties/ by the second 
edition of which (1857) he is perhaps best 

Meanwhile his sympathy was strongly 
drawn to the Hungarians in their gallant 
struggle for liberty in 1848-9, and among 
other aids to their cause he published ' Paral- 
lels between . . . England and Hungary* 
(1849), in which he compared the funda- 
mental institutions of the two countries. 
Through many years, and to his own detri- 
ment, he continued a firm friend to Hungary, 
successfully defended Kossuth in the suit as 
to paper money brought against him by the 
Austrian government in 1861, issued two 
important pamphlets on the then political 
position of the country, and was tne only 
person who dared to publish in England the 
full text of Deal^s speeches {Parliamentary 
Remembrancer, vol. iv.) 

Smith declined an invitation to stand as 
candidate for parliament for Sheffield in 
1852. In 1854 he, with Mr. W. J. Evelyn, 
M.P. for Surrey, and the Rev. M. W. Maiet, 
formed the Anti-Centralisation Union, and 
wrota the thirteen papers issued during the 

three years of its existence. He then took 
a wider means of instructing the public on 
the attempts and methods of modern legis- 
lators, by tne establishment of the ' Parliamen- 
tary Remembrancer y (1857-1865), a weekly 
record of action in parliament, with valuable 
historical commentaries and illustrations. 
The great labour entailed by this periodical 
— which he conducted single-handed, only 
helped by his family — added to his other 
undertakings and his practice at the parlia- 
mentary bar, finally broke down his health. 
He was drowned while bathing at Lancing, 
Sussex, on 28 April 1869, and was buried in 
Hornsey churchyard. His wife survived 
him with two sons and two daughters. The 
great aim of Smith's life was to spread a 
knowledge of the historic principles of local 
government and true democratic liberty, and 
of the means of adapting them to modern 

Besides the works mentioned he published : 
'Laws of England relating to Public Health/ 
1848 ; ' Government by Commissions Illegal 
and Pernicious/ 1849 ; ' The Law of Nui- 
sances/ 1855, which went through four edi- 
tions, the last in 1867 ; ' Memorials of Old 
Birmingham/ two vols. viz. ' The Old Crown 
House/ 1863, and 'Men and Names/ 1864; 
and edited several acts of parliament. His 
historical work on ' English Gilds/ which 
has exercised a wide influence, was completed 
after his death (Early Engl. Text Soc. 1870). 

[Regist. and Magazine of Biography, 1869, ii. 
88 ; family papers ; personal recollections.] 

L. T. S. 

1887), legal writer, only child of the Rev. 
John Smith, rector of Baldock, Hertfordshire, 
was born on 3 April 1816, and graduated 
LL.B. from Trinity Hall, Cambridge, 1841 
(Luard, Graduati Cantabriffienses). He en- 
tered himself a student of Lincoln's Inn on 
9 Nov. 1836, where he was called to the bar on 
6 May 1841, and chiefly practised in the court 
of chancerv. He was the draughtsman of 
the ' Consolidated General Orders of the High 
Court of Chancery ' (1860), and also edited 
Fearne's ' Contingent Remainders ' and Mit- 
ford's ' Chancery Pleadings.' But he is best 
remembered as the author of the 'Manual of 
Equity' (1845), 'Compendium of the Law 
of Real and Personal Property ' (1855), and 
' Manual of Common Law and Bankruptcy ' 
(1804). These works, clearly and concisely 
written, went through many editions, and 
are standard works. In addition he com- 
piled several small manuals of devotion and 
a ' Summary of the Law of Christ' (1859 
and 1860). Having attained the rank of 


9 6 


queen's counsel on 25 Feb. 1861, Smith was 
chosen a bencher of Lincoln's Inn on 13 March 
following, and in September 1866 became 
county-court judge for Herefordshire and 
Shropshire (circuit No. 27). He was a judge 
of very strong individuality, resented being 
overruled by a superior court, and on one 
occasion, shortly before his retirement, de- 
clared his reason for not giving leave to 
appeal to be that if he was overruled the court 
would be deciding contrary to law and 
justice. This drew down upon him a re- 
buke from the court of queen's bench, Jus- 
tice Mellor pronouncing him ' an extraor- 
dinary specimen of a county-court jud^e.' 
Credit was, however, given him for good in- 
tentions. Smith, who was a J.P. for Here- 
fordshire, retired from the bench on a pen- 
sion in February 1879. He died at Clifton 
on 10 Ajpril 1887, and was buried at Bal- 
dock. He married in 1844 Mary, second 
daughter of George Henry Hicks, M.D., of 

[Foster's Men at the Bar; Debrett's Judicial 
Bench ; Law Journal.] W. R. W. 

SMITH, Sir LIONEL (1778-1842), lieu- 
tenant-general, born on 9 Oct. 1778, was the 
younger son of Benjamin Smith of Liss in 
Hampshire, a West India merchant (d. 1806), 
by his wife Charlotte Smith [q. v.], thepoetess. 
In March 1795 Lionel was appointed, with- 
out purchase, to an ensigncy in the 24th regi- 
ment of foot, then in Canada ; in October of 
the same year he obtained his lieutenancy. 
While in America he attracted the notice of 
the Duke of Kent, who materially assisted 
hie advancement. After beinjj quartered in 
Canada for some time, his regiment was re- 
moved to Halifax in Nova Scotia, and thence 
he was ordered to cross to the west coast of 
Africa to quell an insurrection in Sierra 
Leone. In May 1801 he obtained his company 
in the 16th regiment, and in April 1802 was 
promoted to the rank of major. In the same 
year he proceeded to the West Indies, and 
was present at the taking of Surinam, Esse- 
quibo, Berbice, and other foreign possessions. 
He became lieutenant-colonel in June 1805, 
in the 18th regiment, but about 1807 was 
transferred to the command of the 65th, then 
at Bombay. In 1809 and 1810 he conducted 
expeditions against the pirates who infested 
the Persian Gulf, and received for his ser- 
vices the thanks of the imaum of Muscat. 
In 1810 he was present with his regiment at 
the reduction of Mauritius, and obtained his 
full colonelcy in June 1818. On 17 Nov. 
1817 he commanded the fourth division of 
the army of the Deccan at the capture of 
Poonah, and in the following year he was 

severely wounded in the cavalry action at 
Ashta. On 12 Aug. 1819 he was advanced 
to the rank of major-general, but, after serving 
for some time on the Bombay staff, he left 
India, and on 9 April 1832 was nominated 
colonel of the 96th foot. On 3 Dec. of the 
same year he was created K.C.B., and in 
October 1834 was appointed colonel of the 
74th regiment. 

From 27 April 1833 he was stationed at 
Barbados as governor and commander-in- 
chief of the Windward and Leeward Islands. 
The recent enactment of the Emancipation 
Act had produced much bitter feeling among 
the Europeans, and Sir Lionel incurred much 
unpopularity by his sympathy with the 
coloured population. His attitude towards 
the House of Assembly was unconciliatory, 
and he was charged with unconstitutional 
procedure. In 183o he succeeded the Marquis 
of Slijgo as captain-general and commander- 
in-chief of Jamaica, and in the same vear 
was appointed a knight grand cross of the 
order of the Guelphs of Hanover. In Jamaica 
he found even greater difficulties than in 
Barbados. The expiration of the term of 
apprenticeship and the complete emancipa- 
tion of the slaves in 1838 were followed by 
an attempt on the part of the planters to 
keep the negroes in subjection by charging 
them heavy rents for their huts, by pervert- 
ing the vagrancy laws, and by ejecting 
offenders from then* estates. By these means 
they drove large numbers of labourers to 
tracts of virgin land, where they could live 
in independence. Sir Lionel endeavoured to 
restrain these abuses, but his measures only 
hastened a crisis, and earned for him the 
hatred of the proprietors and managers of 
estates. On the publication of an imperial 
act ' for the better government of prisons in 
the West Indies,' framed with a view to 
preventing the ill-treatment of negroes, the 
House of Assembly declared its rights in- 
fringed and refused to legislate. Lord Mel- 
bourne was defeated in the British parliament 
in an attempt to pass an act to suspend the 
constitution of Jamaica, and for a time mat- 
ters were at a deadlock. In 1839 a modified 
bill was carried by the local legislature, and as 
Smith was hopelessly unpopular, Sir Charles 
Metcalfe [q. v.] was selected to succeed him 
as governor. 

While governor, Sir Lionel was appointed 
a lieutenant-general in January 1837, and in 
February he succeeded George Cooke as 
colonel of the 40th regiment. At the corona- 
tion of Queen Victoria he was included in 
the list of baronets, and in 1840 he succeeded 
Sir William Nicolay as governor of the 
Mauritius. In 1841 he was created G.C.B., 




and he died at Mauritius on 3 Jan. 1842. 
He was twice married. By his first wife, 
Ellen Marianne (d. 1814), daughter of Thomas 
Gal way of Kilkerry, co. Kerry, he had two 
daughters, Ellen Maria and Mary Anne. On 
20 Nov. 1819 he married Isabella Curwen, 
youngest daughter of Eldred Curwen Pot- 
tinger of Mount Pottinger, co. Down, and 
sister of Sir Henry Pottinger [q. v.] She 
died three days after her husband, leaving 
four children, Lionel Eldred, Augusta, Isa- 
bella, and Charlotte. 

[Gent. Mag. 1842, ii. 93-4; Annual Register, 
1842, pp. 242-3 ; Dodd's Annual Biogr. for 1842, 
pp. 4-8; Burr's Appeal to the Marquis of 
Hastings, 1819 ; Asiatic Annual Register, vol. 
xi. Chron. p. 161, vol. xii. Chron. p. 122 ; 
Asiatic Monthly Journal, ii. 341 ; Mill's Hist, 
of India, ed. Wilson, vii. 316-18, viii. 309-11 ; ' 
Paton's Records of the Twenty-fourth Regiment, 
p. 332 ; Schomburgk's Hist, of Barbados, 1848, ' 
pp. 450-75; Gardner's Hist, of Jamaica, 1873, , 
pp. 394-404.] E. I. C. I 

SMITH, MATTHEW ( rf. 1696), in- ' 
former, nephew of Sir William Parkyns [q. v.], i 
was connected with several good Jacobite j 
families. He obtained an ensigncy in Vis- | 
count Castleton'8 regiment of foot in May 
1693, but he was discharged from the regi- ! 
ment in the following January. Thereupon i 
he took rooms in the Middle Temple, sought , 
the society of Jacobites, and acquired know- 
ledge of their intrigues. Duringthe summer 
of 1695 he signified to Charles Talbot, duke 
of Shrewsbury [q. v.], and to James Vernon | 
[q. v.], then under-secretary of state, that he 
was willing to traffic in such information as , 
he possessed. In December (seven or eight 
weeks, that is to say, before it was revealed 
by Thomas Prendergast [q. v.]) he threw out 
a number of obscure but unmistakable hints 
of a plot for the assassination of William ; 
but Shrewsbury's vigilance was benumbed 
hy a guilty consciousness of his own in- 
trigues with the exiles. When the conspiracy 
had been proved, Smith accused Shrews- 
bury and Vernon of crassly neglecting the 
intelligence which he had furnished. The 
charge would have had little consequence 
but for the fact that it coincided with the 
damaging statements which were being circu- 
lated by Sir John Fenwick [q. v.] and his wife, 
and with the strenuous efforts being made by 
Lord Monmouth (afterwards Earl of Peter- 
borough) to convict the whig leaders (and 
especially Shrewsbury and Marlborough) of 
complicity in Jacobite intrigue [see Mor- 
datjnt, Charles]. Monmouth's aim was 
to graft the facts supplied by Smith, and 
which contained a substratum of truth, upon 
Fenwick's confession, by which means he 

vol. un. 

hoped to obtain a powerful leverage against 
his enemies. Smith, however, was a weak 
tool, and his main object was to blackmail 
Shrewsbury and Vernon, whose correspon- 
dence during October and November 1696 was 
full of anxiety as to his proceedings. The 
king himself relieved them from suspicions 
which he could not afford to entertain. He 
told Smith that he had been cognisant of 
his warnings, but had decided to ignore them ; 
at the same time he sent him 50/. through 
Portland, and promised him a place in 
Flanders. So reckless, however, was Smith 
in exploiting his new sources of wealth, that 
before a week had elapsed he was thrown into 
the Fleet prison for debt. Thence Somers 
rescued him and 'quieted him/ and on 
10 Dec. Vernon gave him another twenty 
guineas. It was indispensable to keep him 
in a good humour pending his examination 
by the House of Lords. This took place 
on 11 and 13 Jan. 1697, when Smith held 
his tongue as to anything that he knew to 
the disadvantage of Shrewsbury and Marl- 
borough. He was also extremely reticent as 
to his relations with Monmouth, but com- 
plained of the ingratitude with which his 
revelations had been received. The house 
decided that his reward was sufficient, inas- 
much as his object had been to keep well 
both with the conspirators and the govern- 
ment. His patron Monmouth was shortly 
afterwards committed to the Tower, on the 
presumption that he had endeavoured to 
suborn false witnesses against his private 
enemies. Smith, in the meantime, withdrew 
into retirement, and published his ' Memoirs 
of Secret Service . . . humbly offered to the 
Hon. the House of Commons' (London, 1699, 
8vo), in which he bitterly complains of his 
treatment by Shrewsbury and Vernon. It 
caused a sensation by its outspoken language, 
and in spite of some attempts made by Peter- 
borough to screenhis discreditable ally, Smith 
was on 12 Dec. 1699 committed to the Gate- 
house by order of the upper house. His 
book was answered by Richard Kingston in 
1700, whereupon Smith retorted in ' A Reply 
to an Unjust and Scandalous Libel* (1700), 
and Kingston followed suit with 'Impudence, 
Lying, and Forgery detected and cnastised, 
in a Rejoinder to a Reply' (1700), in which 
he stigmatised his adversary as a squire of 
Alsatia, while he attributed his adroit use 
of invective to the assistance of a skilled 
hand, that of the ' Infamous Town-poet, Tom 
Brown/ who had, however, little, if anything, 
to do with the controversy. Nothing further 
is known of Matthew Smith. 

[Vernon Correspondence, ed. James, passim ; 
House of Lords' Journals, xri. 63-d; Dalton's 



9 8 


English Army Lists, i. 331 ; LuttrelTs Brief 
Hist. Relation, iv. 691 ; Burnet's Own Time ; 
Maoaulay's Hist, of England ; Stebbing's Peter- 
borough, pp. 30 seq. ; Smith's Memoirs ; Brit. 
Mus. Oat. ; see art. Pbhndrhoast or Pkndeb- 
gass, Sir Thomas.! T. S. 

1891), general, was the posthumous son of 
Sir Michael Smith, bart. (1740-1808), master 
of the rolls in Ireland, by his second wife, 
Eleanor, daughter of Michael Smith, his 
cousin-merman. He was born on 27 April 
1809, lour months after his father's death, 
and was commissioned as ensign in the 82nd 
foot on 19 Nov. 1830. He became lieutenant 
on 21 Feb. 1884, and exchanged into the 15th 
hussars on 29 Aug. 1835. He was promoted 
captain on 23 April 1839, and in November 
obtained a first-class certificate at the senior 
department of the Royal Military College, 
Sandhurst. He afterwards served tor several 
years in India, becoming major on 9 Feb. 
1847, and lieutenant-colonel on 8 March 

During the Crimean war he commanded 
Osmanli irregular cavalry, and received the 
Medjidie (second class). He was made 
colonel in the army on 28 Nov. 1854. He 
had exchanged from his regiment to half-pay 
on 25 Aug. 1854, and on 16 June 1857 he 
became lieutenant-colonel of the 3rd dra- 
goon guards, which served in India during 
the mutiny. In 1858 he was placed in com- 
mand of a brigade of the Rajputana field 
force, and was detached from the main body 
of that force to assist Sir Hugh Rose (after- 
wards Baron Strathnairn [cj. v.] in his opera- 
tions against Tantia Topi. On 17 June 
he attacked the mutineers between Kotah- 
ki-serai and Gwalior, and drove them back 
after some severe fighting, in which the 
famous rani of Jhansi was killed. He took 

?art in the capture of Gwalior on the 19th. 
n August he was sent against Man Singh, 
rajah of Narwar, who had rebelled against 
Sindhia. His own force proved insufficient, 
but he was soon joined by Sir Robert Cor- 
nelis Napier [a.v.J (afterwards Lord Napier 
of Magdala), who had succeeded Rose in com- 
mand of the Central India force ; and he took 
part in the siege and capture of Paori, and 
in the subsequent pursuit of Tantia Topi 
In November he surprised the camp of Man 
Singh at Koondrye. He was several times 
mentioned in despatches (London Gazette, 
5 Oct. 1858, 81 Jan., 24 March, and 18 April 
1869). He received the medal with clasp, 
and was made C.B. on 21 March 1859, and 
was given a reward for distinguished service 
on 6 April 1860. 

He left his regiment and went on half- 

pay on 25 April 1862, after being appointed to 
the command of the Poonah division with 
the local rank of major-general. He held 
this command till 1 June 1867. He was 
promoted major-general' on 4 July 1864, lieu* 
tenant-general on 19 Jan. 1873, and general 
on 1 Oct. 1877. On 27 April 1879 he was 
placed on the retired list. He had been 

fiven the colonelcy of the 20th hussars on 
2 Nov. 1870, and was transferred to his old 
regiment, the 15th hussars, on 21 Aug. 
1883. He died at West Brighton on 18 April 
1891. In 1830 he'married Charlotte, eldest 
daughter of George Whitmore Carr of Ard- 
ros8, and he left one son, Major William 
Whitmore Smith, R.A., and one daughter. 

Smith was not merely a practical soldier, 
but thought and wrote with originality on 
military, especially cavalry, topics. He was 
author of: 1. 'A Treatise on Drill and 
Manoeuvres of Cavalry/ 8vo, London, 1865. 

2. 'Cavalry Outpost Drill, with a Chapter 
on Cavalry Skirmishing/ 8vo, London, 1867. 

3. * Modern Tactics of the Three Arms' 
(with illustrations by himself), 8vo, London, 
1869. 4. * A New System of Perspective/ 
8vo, 1881. 

[Times, 22 April 1891 ; Foster's Baronetage ; 
Malleson's Indian Mutiny.] E. M. L. 

SMITH, MILES (d. 1624), bishop of 
Gloucester, son of a butcher, was born at 
Hereford, and became, about 1568, a stu- 
dent of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, from 
which college he migrated to Brasenose. 
He graduated B.A. in 1573 and M.A. in 
1576, proceeding B.D. in 1585 and D.D. in 
1594. About 1576 he was made a chaplain 
or petty canon of Christ Church ; in 1580 he 
obtained the prebend of Hinton in Hereford 
cathedral, and in 1595 he was made a pre- 
bendary of Exeter cathedral. He also held 
the rectory of Hartlebury, and, possibly, that 
of Upton-upon-Severn, in Worcestershire. 

Smith was a distinguished classical scholar, 
but his chief reputation was made as an 
orientalist. ' Chaldiac, Syriac, and Arabic/ 
says Wood, were 'as familiar to him almost 
as his own native tongue/ He acted as one 
of the translators of the authorised version 
of the Bible, and took part in the translation 
of the prophetic books, but he and Thomas 
Bilson [a. v.], bishop of Winchester, were 
appointed to make a final revision of the 
text of the Old Testament, and to Smith was 
assigned the honour of writing the preface to 
the completed work. As a reward for his 
labour he was appointed bishop of Glouces- 
ter, and consecrated at Croydon on 20 Sept. 

In theology Smith held puritan views. 




His dislike of ceremonial observances at- 
tracted the notice of James I, Smith having 
allowed Gloucester Cathedral to fall into 
decay, while he retained the communion 
table in the middle of the choir. To correct 
these irregularities, James in 1616 appointed 
Laud to the deanery of Gloucester, with 
instructions to bring about a reformation. 
Laud, without consulting the bishop, sum- 
moned the chapter, and laid the king's com- 
mands before them. He induced them to 
give orders for the repair of the cathedral 
and for the removal of the communion table 
to the east end of the chancel. The conse- 
quence was a tumult among the townsfolk 
and the clergy of the district, which Smith 
aggravated by declaring that he would not 
enter the cathedral again till the causes of 
offence had been removed. Laud, however, 
secure of the countenance of the king, re- 
mained steadfast, and the puritans were 
obliged to relinquish a hopeless contest 
(Laud, Works, v. 495 ; Hbylin, Cyprianus 
Anglicus, p. 70). 

Smith died on 20 Oct. 1624 (Willis, 
Cathedrals, 'Gloucester/ p. 74; Lb Nevb, 
Fasti, i. 489). He was twice married. By 
his! first wife, Mary Hawkins, of Cardiff, he 
had two sons : Gervase, of the Middle Temple, 
and Miles. 

Smith was the author of a volume of ser- 
mons published in London (1632, fol.) He 
also edited the works of Gervase Babington 
rq. v.], bishop of Worcester (London, 1615 f 
fbl.), and wrote a commendatory preface to 
Babington's 'Certaine plaine, briefe, and 
comfortable Notes upon every Chapter of 
Genesis' (London, 1596, 4to). In 1602 one 
of Smith's sermons was published, without 
his consent, by Robert Burhill [q. v.], under 
the title of ' A learned and godly Sermon, 
preached at Worcester, at an Assize, by the 
Rev. and learned Miles Smith, Doctor of 

A near kinsman of the bishop, Miles 
Smith (1618-1671), son of Miles Smith, a 
priest in Gloucester, matriculated from Mag- 
dalen College, Oxford, on 20 March 1634-5, 
graduated B.A. on 3 Dec. 1638, and was 
created B.C.L. on 4 Aug. 1646. From 1634 
to 1641 he was a chorister at his college. He 
was a royalist, and, suffering for his opinions, 
became a retainer of Gilbert Sheldon fa. v.] 
On the latter being made archbishop of Can- 
terbury in 1660, Smith became his secretary. 
Me died on 17 Feb. 1670-1, and was buried 
in the chancel of Lambeth church. He was 
the author of ' The Psalms of King David, 
paraphrased into English Meetre,' London, 
1668, 8vo. This was based on the ' Para- 
phrase of the Psalms ' by Henry Hammond 

[q. v.] He had one son, Miles, a gentleman 
commoner of Trinity, who died at Oxford on 

17 Oct. 1682 (Wood, Athence Oxon. ed. Bliss, 
iii. 951, and Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 94; 
Fostbb, Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714). 

[Wood's Athens Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 359, 863 ; 
Stephens's Preface to Smith's Sermons; Fune- 
ral Sermon, by Thomas Prior, affiled to Smith's 
Sermons; Barksdale's Memoirs, decade 111; 
Lansdowne MS. 984, f. 39 ; Chambers's Biogr. 
Illustrations of Worcestershire, p. 84 ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Fowler's History of 
Corpus Christi College, pp. 150, 156, 163; 
Anderson's Annals of the English Bible, ii. 376, 
378.] E. I. C. 

(1809-1891), judge, was the eldest son of 
Thomas Smith, solicitor and town clerk of 
Bideford, Devonshire, by his wife, Margaret 
Colville, daughter of M. Jenkvn of St. Mawes, 
Cornwall, commander in the royal navy. 
He was born at Bideford on 25 Dec. 1809, 
and was educated at the grammar school of 
his native town. He started in life as an 
attorney, but was admitted to Gray's Inn on 
11 Nov. 1830, and was called to the bar on 

18 Nov. 1835. Smith joined the western 
circuit, and on 11 May 1839 was admitted 
to the Middle Temple. He was appointed 
a queen's counsel in Trinity vacation 1853, 
and was elected a bencher of the Middle 
Temple on 22 Nov. in that year. After un- 
successfully contesting Truro in January 
1849 and July 1852, ne was returned for 
that constituency in the conservative inte- 
rest at the general election in April 1859. 
He occasionally spoke in the house on legal 
topics, but took little part in the debates. 
In the session of 1861 he brought in a bill 
for the limitation of crown suits (Pari. De- 
bates, 3rd ser. clxiii. 1584-6), which received 
the royal assent on 1 Aug. (24 & 25 Vict, 
cap. 62). In 1863, and again in 1864, he 
called the attention of the house to the in- 
sufficient accommodation in the law courts 
(Pari. Debates, 3rd ser. clxxii. 605-7, clxxvi. 
363-6). He served as the treasurer of the 
Middle Temple in 1863. He was appointed 
a justice of the common pleas by Lora West- 
bury on 7 Feb. 1865, and duly received the 
order of the coif. He was knighted on 18 May 
following. After sitting in the common pleas 
for six years and a half he was (November 
1871) appointed, under the provisions of 34 & 
35 Vict. cap. 91, a member of the judicial 
committee of the privy council, with a salary 
of 5,000/. a year. He was appointed a com- 
missioner under the Courts of Justice Build- 
ing Act, 1865, on 29 June in that year (Pari. 
Papers, 1871, vol. xx.), and a member of the 
universities committee of the privy council 





on 12 Dec. 1877 {London Gazette, 1877, ii. 
7241). He resigned his judicial office on 

12 Dec. 1881, and died, unmarried, at No. 32 
Park Lane, London, on 8 May 1891. 

Smith was a sound lawyer and a per- 
suasive rather than an eloquent advocate. 
He excelled in clear analysis of facts and 
authorities, and made an accurate and pains- 
taking judge. 

[Ann. Beg. 1801, ii. 161 ; Men and Women 
of the Time, 13th edit. p. 832; Boase's Col- 
lect. Cornub. 1890, pp. 909-10; Poss's Bio- 
graphia Juridica, 1870, p. 61 7 ; Foster's Register 
of Admissions to Gray's Inn, 1889, p. 441 ; 
Shaw's Inns of Court Calendar, 1878, p. 8; 
Foster's Men at the Bar, 1885, p. 434 ; Block's 
Table of Judges, &c, 1887, pp. 9, 16, 23 ; Times, 
5 and 8 May 1891 ; McCalmont's Parliamentary 
Poll Book, 1879, p. 256 ; Dod's Pari. Companion, 
1865, p. 290; Official Return of Lists of Mem- 
bers of Parliament, ii. 446 ; Haydn's Book of 
Dignities, 1890.] O. F. R. B. 

SMITH, PHILIP (1817-1885), writer on 
ancient history, son of William Smith of 
Enfield, and younger brother of Sir Wil- 
liam Smith fq. v.], was born in 1817. He 
was educated at Mill Hill school, and en- 
tered Coward College as a student for the 
congregational ministry in April 1834. He 
graduated B. A. at London in May 1 840. He 
was professor of classics and mathematics 
in Cheshunt College from 1840 to 1850, and 
pastor of the congregational church at Cross- 
brook from 1840 to 1846. From 1850 to 
1852 he was first professor of mathematics 
and ecclesiastical history in New College, 
and from 1858 to 1860 headmaster of Mill 
Hill school. The remainder of his life was 
spent in writing for his brother's dictionaries 
and in historical work. He was editor of the 
1 Biblical Review* from 1846 to 1851, and a 
frequent contributor to the ' Quarterly Re- 
view,' while his brother William was its 
editor. He died at Putney on 12 May 1885. 

Smith published : 1. « A Smaller History 
of England/ London, 1862, 8vo ; 28th edit. 
1890. 2. < A History of the Ancient World/ 
the only portion published of a projected ' His- 
tory of the World/ London, 1863-6,8vo. 3. 'A 
Smaller Ancient History of the East/ Lon- 
don, 1871, 8vo. 4. « The Student's Ancient 
History/ London, 1871, 8vo. 5. ' The Stu- 
dent's Ecclesiastical History/ London, 1878- 
1885, 8vo. He also edited: 1. 'The Pos- 
thumous Works of John Harris, D.D./ 1857, 
8vo. 2. Schliemann's <Troy/ 1875, 8vo. 
3. Brugsch's ' History of Egypt/ 1879, 8vo ; 
new edit. 1881. 

[Information communicated by Dr. Samuel 
Newthof Acton ; Athenaeum, 1885,i. 664; Times, 

13 May 1885 ; Smith's Works.] E. C. M. 

SMITH, PLEASANCE, Lady (1773- 
1877), centenarian, fifth child of Robert (d. 
15 July 1815, aged 76) and Pleasance (d\ 
27 March 1820, aged 81) Reeve of Lowestoft, 
Suffolk, was born at Lowestoft on 11 May 
1773. Her mother shortly before marriage 
had recovered with difficulty from small-pox > 
having been treated by being wrapped in 
scarlet flannel and kept in a heated room 
without fresh air. The first child of her 
parents was Pleasance, born 1766, who lived 
five or six hours; the second, in 1767, a 
daughter, still-born ; the third, in 1768, a 
son, who lived a few hours ; the fourth, Ro- 
bert, born in 1770, who died 9 May 1840. 
The family bible has this entry by the father: 
' 11th May 1773.— The said Pleasance was 
delivered of a daughter about one in the 
afternoon, and [she] was baptized by the 
name of Pleasance.' The Lowestoft parish 
register, under the heading ' Christenings in 
Lowestoft, a.d. 1773/ has the following at 

L393: 'May 12. — Pleasance, daughter of 
bert and Pleasance Reeve.— John Arrow, 
Vicar/ Subsequently (1778) was born a son, 
James, who died 26 June 1827. Pleasance 
was trained by both her parents to a love of 
nature and of literature ; her love of poetry 
was innate. She married, in 1796, (Sir) James 
Edward Smith [q. v.], had no child, and sur- 
vived her husband nearly forty-nine years. 
Soon after her marriage she was painted, as 
a gipsy, by Opie. In 1804 William Roscoe 
[q. v.] wrote to his wife that ' he who could 
see and hear Mrs. Smith without being en- 
chanted has a heart not worth a farthing.' 
The impression of her stately beauty in middle 
life is still a memory in Norwich, her home 
from 1797. In 1849 she removed to a house 
built by her father in High Street, Lowestoft. 
On her hundredth birthday in 1873 a dinner 
was given in the Public Hall, Lowestoft, to 
aged poor of the neighbourhood, and she re- 
ceived from the queen a copy of ' Our Life in 
the Highlands/ with the autograph inscrip- 
tion : 'To Ladv Smith, on her 100th birthday, 
from her friend Victoria R., May 11th, 1873.' 
Up to this time she scarcely knew the mean- 
ing of illness ; her colour was fresh, she had 
kept nearly all her teeth, and her eyes were 
bright, though the sight was beginning to 
fail. On 16 Feb. 1873 she had written : « I 
can yet see the landscape. This is a great 
alleviation, but I cannot see the lines I at- 
tempt to write.' She continued, however, 
to write letters till barely a fortnight be- 
fore her death. She had curious optical 
illusions, seeing spectral figures which en- 
larged as they receded; fortunately this 
only caused ber amusement. Her hearing 
was almost unimpaired to the last, and her 




memory was singularly accurate and tena- 
cious ; a few days before her death she re- 
peated a great part of Gray's ' Elegy.' She 
never lost her interest in political and lite- 
rary topics, or her sympathy with modern 
movements; did not think the past age 
better than the present, and met fears of 
the dangerous tendencies of modern science 
with the remark, ' I am for inquiry/ Among 
her friends were Sarah Austin [q. v.], Wil- 
liam Whewell[q.v.], Adam Sedgwick fq. v.], 
and Arthur Penrhyn Stanley [q.v.] In the 
winter of 1873-4 she had a severe attack of 
bronchitis, but got quite well again; and 
till near the end of 1876 entertained her 
friends at table, and took almost daily drives 
in her carriage. Her strength was weaken- 
ing, and in January 1877 she sank rapidly. 
On Saturday, 3 Feb. 1877, she asked to be 
carried down to her favourite room ; the wish 
could not be gratified ; half an hour later she 
passed calmly away. She was buried on 

9 Feb. beside her husband, in her father's 
vault in the churchyard of St. Margaret's, 
Lowestoft. In the church there is a window 
to her memory. She published ' Memoir and 
Correspondence of the late Sir J. E. Smith,' 
&c. (1832, 8vo, 2 vols.) Tradition ascribes 
to her a share in the composition of her 
husband's hymns. 

[Times, 5 Feb. 1877 ; Christian Life, 10 Feb. 
1877 p. 73, 17 Feb. 1877 p. 87; Spectator, 
17 Feb. 1877, article on ' The Ideal of Old Age;' 
James's Memoir of Thomas Madge, 1871. p. 
291; tombstones at Lowestoft; personal recol- 
lection.] A. G. 

SMITH, RICHARD, D.D. (1500-1563), 
described by Wood as ' the greatest pillar 
for the Roman catholic cause in his time,' 
was born in Worcestershire in 1500. In 
the title-page to his treatise, 'De Missae 
Sacrificio, he styles himself ' Wigornensis, 
Anglus, sacra theologiae professor,' and Bale, 
who knew him personally, numbers him 
among English writers. Stanihurst and 
Ussher erroneously assert that he was the 
son of a blacksmith, and that he was a na- 
tive of Rathmacknee, a village in Ireland 
three miles from Wexford. He was elected 
a probationer fellow of Merton College, Ox- 
ford, in 1527, was admitted B.A. on 5 April 
in that year, and commenced M.A. 18 July 
1530 {Oxford Univ. Register, i. 146). He 
became the public scribe or registrar of the 
university on 8 Feb. 1531-2, was appointed 
the first regius professor of divinity on the 
foundation of that chair by Henry VIII, 
was admitted B.D. 13 May 1536, and D.D. 

10 July the same year. On 9 Sept. 1537 he 
was admitted master of Whittington Col- 
lege, London, and he was one of the divines 

who were commissioned in that year to com- 
pose ' The Institution of a Christian Man.' 
Archbishop Cranmer collated him to the 
rectory of St. Dunstan's-in-the-East (New- 
court, Repertorium, i. 334). He was also 
rector of Cuxham, Oxfordshire, principal of 
St. Alban's Hall, and divinity reader in 
Magdalen College. 

On the accession of Edward VI he com- 
plied with the change of religion, and on 
15 May 1547 he made his recantation at St. 
Paul's Cross, declaring that the authority of 
the bishop of Rome had been justly and 
lawfully abolished in this realm (Strtpb, 
Cranmer, p. 171, app. p. 84, fol.) This state- 
ment he repeated at Oxford on 24 Julv, but 
he maintained that, while retracting, he did 
not recant (Strtpe, Memorials, ii. 39, seq.; 
Lit. Rem. of Edw. VI, p. 214). He was ac- 
cordingly deprived of his regius professorship, 
being succeeded by Peter Martyr. Early in 
1549 he had a famous disputation with Peter 
Martyr at Oxford (Orig. Letters, Parker Soc. 
ii. 478-9). A few days later Smith was im- 
prisoned. He was released on finding secu- 
rity for good behaviour, but fled first to 
St. Andrews in Scotland, then to Paris, and 
afterwards to Louvain, where he was received 
with solemnity on 9 April 1549 (Andreas, 
Fasti Academici Studii Generalis Lovanien- 
sis, 1650, p. 85); he was afterwards ap- 
pointed public professor of divinity in Lou- 
vain university. 

On Mary's accession he was not only re- 
stored to his professorship at Oxford and 
to the mastership of Whittington College, 
but appointed one of her majesty's chap- 
lains and a canon of Christ Church (Lb 
Neve, Fasti, ii. 530). He was one of the 
witnesses against Archbishop Cranmer, his 
former friend, was the principal opponent of 
Ridley in the disputation held at Oxford on 
7 April 1554, and took part in the disputa- 
tions with Latimer (see Foxb, Actes). When 
those prelates were about to be burnt he 
preached a sermon before a large auditory 
near Balliol College on the text, ' If I give 
my body to be burnt, and have no charity, 
it profiteth nothing.' 

After the accession of Elizabeth he lost 
all his preferments, and was committed in 
1559 to the custody of Archbishop Parker, 
who induced him to recant what he had 
written in defence of the celibacy of priests 
(cf. Dodd, Church History, ii. 101). Accord- 
ing to Jewel he was removed from his pro- 
fessorship owing to a charge of adultery 
being brought against him {Zurich Letters, 
i. 12, 45). Smith's attempt to take refuge 
in Scotland failed. Subsequently, 'giving 
Matthew [Parker] the slip,' he reached Douay, 




and was constituted dean of St. Peter's 
Church in that city by Philip II, king of 
Spain, who made him one of the royal chap- 
lains. The new university of Douay was 
solemnly installed on 5 Oct. 1562, and Smith 
was appointed chancellor (Records of the 
English Catholics, vol. i. p. xxvii). He was 
also professor of theology. He died on 9 July 
(N.S. ) 1563, and was buried in the lady-chapel 
within the church of St. Peter, Douay. 

His works are: 1. 'The Assertion and 
Defence of the Sacramento of the aulter,' 
London, 1546, 8vo, dedicated to Henry VIII. 
2. * A defence of the sacrifice of the masse/ 
London, 1 Feb. 1546-7, 8vo, also dedicated 
to Henry VIII. 3. ' A brief treatyse set- 
tynge forth diuers truthes necessary both to 
be helieued of chrysten people, & kept 
also, whiche are not expressed in the scrip- 
ture but left to y e church by the apostles 
tradition/ London, 1547, 8vo ; to this Cran- 
mer replied in his * Confutation of Unwritten 
Verities/ 1558. 4. 'A godly and faythfull 
retractation made and published at Paules 
Crosse in London, by mayster Rich. Smyth/ 
London, 1547, 8vo. 5. ' A Playne Declara- 
tion made at Oxforde, the 24 daye of July 
. . . M.D.xlvij/ London, 1547, 8vo. 6. 'A 
Confutation of a certen Booke, called a de- 
fence of the true and Catholike doctrine of 
the sacramet, &c, sette fourth of late in the 
name of Thomas f Cranmer] Archebysshope 
of Canterburye/ ff. 166, printed abroad [1550], 
8vo ; to this Cranmer again replied. 7. ' De- 
fensio coelebatus sacerdotum, contra P. Mart./ 
Louvain, 1550, 8vo. This volume contains 
also ' Confutatio quorundam articulorum de 
votis monasticis Pet. Martyris Itali.' As the 
work was disfigured by many typographical 
errors, both the treatises were reprintea with 
the following title, ' Defensio Sacri Episco- 
porum & Sacerdotum Coelibatus contra impias 
& indoctas Petri Martyris Vermilii nupas & 
calumnias/ Paris, 1550, 8vo. 8. ' Diatnba de 
hominis justificatione edita Oxoniro aduersus 
Pet. Martyrem/ Louvain, 1550, 8vo. 9. * A 
Bouclier of the catbolike fayth of Christes 
church/ 2 parts, London, 1555-6, 8vo. Dedi- 
cated to Queen Mary. 10. ' A sermon by 
Dr. Smith, with which he entertained his 
congregation in queen Mary's reign/ was 
published in 1572 by Richard Tottel, who 
affirmed that he was both eye and ear wit- 
ness (Morgan, Phoenix Britannicus, p. 18). 
11. 'De Missse Sacrificio succincta quaedam 
enarratio, ac brevis repulsio praBcipuorum 
arjrumentorum, qu» Phil. Melanchthon et 
alii sectarii objecerunt aduersus illud et Pur- 
gatorium/ Louvain, 1562, 8vo. 12. 'De 
Infantium Baptismo, contra Jo. Caluinum, 
ac de operibus supererogationis, et merito I 

mortis Christi, adversus eundem Caluinum et 
ejus discipulos/ Louvain, 1562, 8vo; Cologne, 
1563, 8vo. 13. 'Refut&tio luculenta crassse et 
exitiosre haeresis JohannisCalvini& Christop. 
Carlili Angli, qua astruunt Christum non de- 
scendisse ad inferos alios, quam ad infernum 
infimum/ printed abroad, 1562. 14. ' Refu- 
tatio J. Calvini erroris de Christi merito et 
hominis redemptione/ Louvain, 1562, 8vo. 
15. 'Confutatio eorumqueePhil. Melanchthon 
objicit contra Miss® sacrificium propitiato- 
rium . . . Cui accessit et repulsio calumniarum 
Jo. Caluini, et Musculi, et Jo. Juelli contra 
missam, ejus canonem, et purgatorium/ Lou- 
vain, 156z, 8vo. 16. ' Defensio compendiaria 
et orthodoxa sacri externi et visibilis Jesu 
Christi Sacerdotii. Cui addita est sacrato- 
rum Catholic© Ecclesiie altarium propug- 
natio, ac Caluinian® Communionis succincta 
Refutatio/ Louvain, 1562, 8vo. 17. 'Re- 
ligionis et Regis adversus exitiosas Calvini, 
Bezee, et Ottomani coniuratorum factiones, 
defensio prima/ Cologne, 1562, 8vo. 18. ' Re- 
futatio Locorum communium Theologicorum 
Philippi Melanchthon is/ Douay (Jacques Bos- 
card), 1568, 8 vo ; dedicated to Philip, king of 
Spain. 19. 'Delibero hominis arbitno adver- 
sus Jo. Cal uinum, et quotquot impie illud aufe- 
runt, Lutherum imitati/ Louvain, 1563, 8vo. 

[Bale, De Scriptoribus, ix. 46 ; Bloxam's 
Magd. Coll. Reg. viii. 128; Bodleian Cat.; 
Brodrick's Memorials of Merton College, p. 
408 ; Burnet's Hist, of the Reformation ; Cham- 
bers's Biogr. Illustr. of Worcestershire, p. 60 ; 
Dixon's Hist, of Church of England ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. early ser. iv. 1378 ; Foxe's Actes 
and Mon. ; Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, 
ed. Gairdner; Humfredus, Vita Juelli (1573), 
p. 42; Lansdowne MS. 981, f. 19; Le Neve's 
Fasti ; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn) ; Molanus, 
Historian Loraniensium, ii. 787 ; Newcourt's Re- 
pertorium, i. 494 ; Pits, De Angliae Scriptoribus, 
p. 761 ; Stan i hurst's Description of Ireland, pre- 
fixed to Holinshed's Chronicle, p. 43 ; Tanner's 
Bibl. Brit. ; Strype's Works (general index) ; 
Ussher'a Dissertation, prefixed toIgnatiiEpistoto 
(1644), p. 123 ; Ware's Writers (Harris), p. 96 ; 
Wood's Athena? and Fasti Oxonienses.] T. C. 

SMITH, RICHARD (1566-1655), bishop 
of Chalcedon, was born at Han worth, Lin- 
colnshire, in 1566. He was sent to Trinity 
College, Oxford, about 1 583 ; but, there be- 
coming a Roman catholic, he repaired in 1586 
to Rome, where he entered the English Col- 
lege and studied under Bellarmine. In 1587 
he engaged to return to England as a mis- 
sionary, and in 1592 he was ordained. Ar- 
riving at Valladolid in February 1595, he 
took nis doctor's degree and was professor 
of philosophy till 1598, when he settled 
at Seville as professor of controversy. In 
1602-3 he visited Douay, where an uncle, a 


io 3 


physician, died during his stay. In 1603 he 
landed in England. Thence after some years 
he was sent to Home to obtain the settle- 
ment of disputes between the regular and 
secular clergy, and he thus came into col- 
lision with Robert Parsons (1546-1610) fa. v.], 
who said of him, 'I never dealt with any 
man in my life more heady and resolute 
in his opinions/ Quitting Koine without 
having effected his purpose, Smith arrived in 
Paris, where he presided at the College 
d* Arras over a small company of English 
priests, engaged there, from 1613 to 1631, in 
writing controversial works. On the death 
of the vicar-apostolic for England and Scot- 
land, William Bishop [q. v.], Urban VIII, by 
the advice of Barloe, prior of the English 
College at Douay, chose Smith as his suc- 
cessor, and on 12 Jan. 1625 he was conse- 
crated to that office as bishop of Chalcedon by 
the papal nuncio in Paris, Cardinal Spada. 

He entered on his post in April 1625, re- 
siding mostly at Turvey, Bedfordshire, in a 
house belonging to Anthony Browne, second 
Viscount Montague. For two years harmony 

{irevailed among the Roman catholics in Eng- 
and, but Smith then became embroiled with 
the regulars by claiming the full episcopal 

frerogatives enjoyed in catholic countries. 
[e required the regulars to obtain his license 
for hearing confessions, he remodelled the 
ehapter, and he created a probate court and 
ordered visitations of private houses. Some 
of these innovations gave umbrage- to the 
catholic nobles, as rendering them liable to 
prosecution for misprision of treason. The 
pope was appealed to, and on 16 Dec. 1627 
condemned some of Smith's pretensions. The 
quarrel brought him under the notice of the 
English government, which, on 11 Dec. 1628, 
issued a proclamation for his arrest, and on 
24 March following offered a reward of 100/. 
for his capture. The object, however, seems 
to have been merely to frighten him into 
quietude, for he was in perfect security at the 
French embassy, where his sermons drew large 
congregations. When, however, the pope 
ordered the suspension, pending his decision, 
of controversial writings and disciplinary 
measures, Smith, in 1629, retired to France 
and apprised the nuncio of his readiness to 
resign, but when called upon for his resig- 
nation he refused to give it. The Vatican 
thenceforth ceased to recognise him, and Pan- 
zani's mission to England led to the virtual 
suppression of the episcopate. Cardinal 
Richelieu conferred on Smith the sinecure 
abbey of Charroux in Poitou, and offered him 
a home in his palace at Paris. The Sorbonne 
also sided with him, and Cardinal de Gondi, 
archbishop of Paris, delegated ordinations to 

him. In 1630 an unfounded rumour of his 
return to the French embassy at London 
elicited an offer by a Frenchman to the Eng- 
lish government to inveigle and arrest him. 
On the death of Richelieu in 1642, Smith, de- 
prived both of a home and the abbey, found a 
refuge at the English Austin nunnery in Paris, 
which he had assisted in founding, and there 
he remained till his death on 18 March 1655. 
He was buried in the convent chapel, and 
his tomb was preserved till the removal of 
the community to Neuilly in 1860. He be- 
queathed to the nuns St. Cuthbert's pastoral 
ring, which in 1856 was presented to Ushaw 
College, and a chaplet styled ' My Lord,' 
which each nun in rotation holds for a week, 
using it in prayers for the welfare of the 
community and the restoration of Catholicism 
in England. An original portrait of Smith 
is at Neuilly. 

Smith wrote : 1. ' An Answer to T. Bels 
late Challeng named by him the Downfal of 
Popery/ 1605, 8vo. 2. 'The Prudentiall 
Ballance of Religion/ 1609, 16mo. 3. ' Vita 
. . . Dominae Magdalen© Montis-Acuti in 
Anglia Comitiss®' [i.e. Magdalen, second 
wife of Anthony Browne, first viscount Mont- 
ague, q. v.], Rome, 1609, 8vo ; a German 
translation appeared at Augsburg in 1611 
and an English one at Douai (?) in 1627. 
4. 'De Auctore et Essentia PTotestanticro 
Ecclesics et religionis libri duo/ Paris, 1619, 
8vo; English translation 1621, 8vo. 5. 'Col- 
latio Doctrinse Catholicorum ac Protestan- 
tium cum Expressis S. Scripturse/ Paris, 
1622, 4to; English translation, 1631, 4to. 

6. ' Of the Distinction of Fundamental and 
not Fundamental Points of Faith/ 1645, 8vo. 

7. ' Monita qusedam utilia pro Sacerdotibus, 
Semtnaristis, Missionariis Anglia?/ Paris, 
1647, 12mo. 8. 'A Treatise of the best 
Kinde of Confessors/ London, 1651, 12mo. 
9. ' Of the al-sufficient Eternal Proposer of 
Matters of Faith/ 1653, 8vo. 10. < Florum 
Historic Ecclesiastic® gentis Anglorum libri 
septem . . . collectore R. Smitheo/ Paris, 
1654, fol. 

[Dodd's Church History is the chief authority, 
and has been paraphrased or abridged by all 
subsequent catholic historians, who, like him, 
side with Smith ; but some additional facts are 

fivenby Cedoz, Couvent de Religieuses Anglaises 
Paris, 1891. See also Cal. State Papers, Dom., 
1626-31; Carre's Pietas Parisiensis; Mem. of 
Panzani ; Butler's Memoirs ; Wood's Athena) 
Ozon. iii. 384; Weldon's Chron. Notes; Flana- 
gan's History of the Church in England, 1 850 ; 
Brady's Episcopal Succession.] J. G-. A. 

1675), book-collector and author of ' Obitu- 
ary/ son of the Rev. Richard Smith of Abing- 




don, Berkshire, by his wife Martha, daughter 
of Paul Dayrell, esq., of Lillingston Dayrell, 
Buckinghamshire, was born at Lillingston 
Dayrell, and baptised there on 20 Sept. 
1690. He was sent for a short time to Ox- 
ford, but did not matriculate, and was after- 
wards articled to a solicitor in the city of 
London. On 15 Oct. 1644 he was admitted 
to the office of secondary of the Poultry 
Compter, which was worth about 700/. a 
year. On the death of his eldest son, John, 
in 1655 he sold his office and lived in retire- 
ment, spending most of his time in his library. 
Wood says * he was constantly known every 
day to walk his rounds among the booksellers' 
shops (especially in Little Britain) in Lon- 
don, and by his great skill and experience 
he made choice of such books that were not 
obvious to every man's eye.' He was also a 
great collector of manuscripts, and he anno- 
tated many of the books in his extensive 
library. For a long time he resided in Little 
Moorfields. He died on 26 March 1675, and 
was buried in the church of St. Giles, Crip- 

By his wife Elizabeth, daughter of George 
Dean of Stepney, Middlesex, he had ^ve 
sons and three daughters. 

His valuable library was dispersed by 
auctionin 1682,and produced 1,414/. 12*. lid. 
A copy of the sale catalogue, ' Bibliotheca 
Smithiana/ with manuscript prices, is pre- 
served in the British Museum. A manu- 
script catalogue of his books, with notes and 
observations in his autograph (1670), ap- 
pears in Thomas Thorpe's ' Catalogue of 
Manuscripts/ 1836, No. 104. 

He is now chiefly known as the compiler 
of: 1. * The Obituary of Richard Smyth . . . 
being a catalogue of all such persons as he 
knew in their life : extending from a.d. 1627 
to a.d. 1674 ; which is extant in Sloane MS. 
in the British Museum, No. 886. A few 
extracts are preserved in the Harleian MS. 
3361, in the handwriting of John Bagford; 
and a selection, perhaps to the amount of a 
fourth part, was printed by Peck in his ' De- 
siderata Curiosa.' The whole work was edited 
by Sir Henry Ellis, K.H., for the Camden 
Society in 1849. 

Smith was also author of 2. 'A Letter to 
Dr. Henry Hammond, concerning the Sence 
of that Article in the Creed, He descended 
into Hell,' written in 1659, and printed, with 
Hammond's reply, London, 1684, 8vo. He 
left in manuscript a ' Collection of Arms be- 
longing to the name of Smith, in Colours,' 
8vo ; such a collection, in 2 vols. 8vo, is now 
in the library of the College of Arms, but 
whether it be the same is not quite clear. 
Smith's manuscript remains also included 

1 The Wonders of the World collected out of 
divers approved Authors ; ' Sloane MS. 838 ; 
' Of the First Invention of the Art of Print- 
ing,' Sloane MS. 772; 'Observations con- 
cerning the Three Grand Impostors,' Sloane 
MS. 1024. 

His portrait, engraved by W. Sherwin, is 
very rare (Gkangbb, Biogr. Hist, of Eng- 
land, 1824, v. 186). 

[Ayscough's Cat. of M8S. ; Bromley's Cat. of 
Engraved Portraits, p. 129; Dibdin's Bibl. 
Decameron, iii. 74; Sir H. Ellis's Preface to the 
Obituary ; Grazebrook's Heraldry of Fish, pref. 
p. xiii ; Notes and Queries, 1st ser. ii. 389, 2nd 
ser. iii. 112, xi. 444, viii. 87; Wood's Athenae 
Oxon. (Bliss) ; Yeowell's Memoir of Oldys, p. 
96.] T. C. 

1861), chief engineer at the siege of Delhi, 
born on 31 Dec. 181 8, was son of Richard Smith 
(1794-1863), surgeon, royal navy, of Lass- 
wade, Midlothian, where he was in good pri- 
vate practice, by his wife, Margaret Young 
(1800-1829). He was educated at the Lass- 
wade school and at Dunse Academy, entered 
the military college of the East India Com- 
pany at Addiscombe on 6 Feb. 1835, and 
passed out at the end of his term, obtaining 
a commission as second lieutenant in the 
Madras engineers on 9 Dec. 1836. He went 
to Chatham for the usual course of professional 
instruction on 2 Feb. 1837 and left on 4 Oct., 
having obtained six months 1 leave of absence 
to enable him to improve himself in civil en- 
gineering and geology. He arrived at Madras 
on 6 July 1838, and was posted to the corps 
of Madras sappers and miners, joining the 
headquarters in the Nilgiri Hills on the 13th 
of the same month. He was appointed acting 
adjutant to the corps on 20 Feb. 1839. On 
12 Aug., on an increase to the establishment 
of the Bengal engineers, Baird Smith was 
transferred to that corps, and on 23 Sept. was 
appointed adj utant. A week later he became 
temporarily an assistant to Captain M. R. 
Fitzgerald of the Bengal engineers in the 
canal and iron bridge department of the 
public works. 

On 6 Jan. 1840 Baird Smith was appointed 
temporarily a member of the arsenal com- 
mittee. On 12 Aug. he was appointed 
assistant to the superintendent of the Doab 
canal, Sir Proby Thomas Cautlev [q. v.] On 
28 Sept. he went to Dakha to relieve Captain 
Hunter in the charge of the 6th company of 
the Bengal sappers and miners on the march 
from Silhat to Danapur. He was relieved 
of this charge on 21 Jan. 1841. He was pro- 
moted to be first lieutenant on 28 Aug. 1841. 
On 30 Oct. 1844 his meteorological observa- 
tions, which were considered ' highly credit- 




able/ were mentioned in a despatch from 
the Bengal government. When Sir Proby 
Gautley commenced the Ganges canal works 
in 1843, Baird Smith was left in charge, 
under him, of the Jamna canal. 

On the outbreak of the first Sikh war 
Baird Smith, with the other officers of the 
canal department, joined the army of the 
Satlaj. Although he made rapid marches, 
he arrived in camp a few days after the 
battle of Firozshah (22 Dec. 1846). He was 
attached to the command of Major-general 
Sir Harry George Wakelyn Smith [q. v.], 
whom on 18 Jan. 1846 he accompanied 
to Dharmkote, and thence towards Ludiana. 
He was with him at Badiwal and at the 
battle of Aliwal (28 Jan. 1846). In Sir 
Harry Smith's despatch of 30 Jan. he men- 
tions that ' Strachey and Baird Smith of the 
engineers greatly contributed to the com- 
pletion of my plans and arrangements, and 
were ever ready to act in any capacity ; they 
are two most promising and gallant officers ' 
(cf. London Gazette Extraordinary, 27 March 
1840). Baird Smith returned with Sir Harry 
Smith to headquarters on the evening of 
8 Feb., and was on the staff at the battle of 
Sobraon on 10 Feb. He received the medal 
for Aliwal with clasp for Sobraon. He was 
one of the selected officers who accompanied 
the secretary to the government of India on 
20 Feb., when the Maharaja Dhuleep Singh 
was publicly conducted to his palace in the 
citadel of Lahore. On the termination of 
the campaign Baird Smith returned to his 
canal duties. In addition, on 12 Aug. 1848 
he took over temporarily the duties of super- 
intendent of botanical gardens in the North- 
West Provinces during the absence of Dr. 

The second Sikh war gave Baird further 
opportunities of distinction. On 26 Nov. 
1848 he was attached to the army of the 
Punjab, which was engaged in repressing 
the new Sikh revolt. He had previously 
joined the headquarters of the army at Firoz- 

Sur, and having been detached with Briga- 
ier-general Colin Campbell to watch the 
movements of Sher Singh on the Chenab, 
was with Campbell at the action of Ram- 
nagar on 22 Nov. He then joined the force 
of Sir Joseph Thackwell [0^. v.], consisting of 
twenty-eignt guns, four regiments of cavalry, 
and seven regiments of infantry, with baggage 
and trains. Under his direction the force 
crossed the Chenab at Wazirabad. The opera- 
tion commenced at 6 p.m. on 1 Dec. and was 
completed by noon on the 2nd. Baird Smith 
took part in the action at Sadulapur on the 
3rd, and marched with Thackwell to Helah, 
where Lord Gough with the main army ar- 

rived a fortnight later. He was present at 
the battles of Chilianwala (13 Jan. 1849) 
and of Gujrat (21 Feb.) He was honourably 
mentioned for nis services in the despatches 
reporting the passage of the Chenab and the 
battles of Chilianwala and Gujrat. 

The war being ended and the Punjab 
annexed, Baird Smith returned to irrigation 
work on 12 March 1849. On 10 Feb. 1850 he 
obtained furlough to Europe for three years. 
In October the court of directors commis- 
sioned him to examine in detail (with a view 
to reproduction in India) the canals of irri- 
gation in Northern Italy. Baird Smith was 
promoted to be brevet-captain on 9 Dec. 
1851. In January 1852 he finished his re- 
port on Italian irrigation, which was printed 
under his supervision in two volumes and 
published the same year ('Italian Irriga- 
tion, being a Report on the Agricultural 
Canals of Piedmont and Lombardy,' Edin- 
burgh and London, 8vo, 2 vols, plates atlas 
fol. 1st edit. 1852). A second edition was 
issued in 1855. Presentation copies of Baird 
Smith's work were placed by the Sardinian 
government in the Royal Academy of Science 
at Turin, and the king of Sardinia offered 
Baird Smith the insignia of a knight of the 
order of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus. The 
regulations of the British service did not 
admit of the acceptance of this honour, but 
the court of directors expressed to Smith 
their high satisfaction with the manner in 
which he had executed his commission, and 
permitted him to visit the irrigation works 
of the Madras presidency before returning 
to duty. He arrived in Madras on 1 Jan. 
1853, and soon afterwards published a de- 
scription of the irrigation works of that 
presidency (' The Cauvery, Kistnah, and Go- 
da very, being a Report on the Works con- 
structed on these Rivers for the Irrigation of 
the Provinces of Tanjore, Guntoor, Masuli- 
patam, and Rajahmundry, in the Presidency 
of Madras/ 8vo, London, 1856). 

On 10 March 1853 Baird Smith was ap- 
pointed deputy superintendent of canals, 
North- West Provinces. He was promoted 
to be captain on 15 Feb. 1854, and the fol- 
lowing day to be brevet major for service 
in the field. On 17 May he was appointed 
director of the Ganges canal and super- 
intendent of canals in the North- West Pro- 
vinces, in succession to Cautley, with the 
temporary rank of lieutenant-colonel while 
holding the appointment. Hence it was that 
at the outbreak of the mutiny Baird Smith 
was living at Rurki, the irrigation head- 
quarters, some sixty miles from Mirat ; and 
when Major Fraser, commanding the Bengal 
sappers and miners, was ordered, on 13 May 


1 06 


1857, to proceed with five hundred men by 
forced marches to Mirat, he took his men, at 
Baird Smith's suggestion, by the canal, and 
was thus enabled to reach Mirat on the 15th 
in a perfectly fresh condition. Unfortunately 
they mutinied the next day, and Fraser was 
killed. Baird Smith meanwhile was assist- 
ing in defensive measures for Kurki ; the 
workshops were converted into a citadel, in 
which the women and children were accom- 
modated, while the two companies of sappers 
and miners left at Kurki were placed in the 
Thomason College buildings. It was known 
that the Sirmur battalion under Major Reid 
was coming to Rurki from Dhera on its way 
to Mirat, and fearing that the Rurki sappers 
would imagine their arrival to be a hostile 
demonstration against them, Baird Smith 
sent word to Reid to march straight to the 
canal and embark in boats, whicn he had 
ready for him, without entering Rurki. 
Baird Smith's foresight and prompt action 
on this occasion were generally considered 
to have saved Rurki and the lives of the 
women and children there. Always hopeful, 
on 30 May Baird Smith wrote to a friend in 
England : * As to the empire, it will be all 
the stronger after this storm, and I have 
never had a moment's fear for it . . . and 
though we small fragments of the great 
machine may fall at our posts, there is that 
vitality in the English people that will 
bound stronger against misfortunes and 
build up the damaged fabric anew.' 

In the last week of June Baird Smith was 
ordered to Delhi to take up the duties of 
chief engineer. He improvised a body of six 
hundred pioneers to follow him, and, being 
pressed to hasten his arrival so as to take 
part in the assault, started on the 27th, and 
reached Delhi at 3 a.m. on 3 July to find that 
the assault had been, as usual, postponed. 
He had already an intimate knowledge of the 
city, and he at once examined the means of 
attack. He found both artillery and ammu- 
nition and also the engineer party quite in- 
adequate for a regular and successful siege, 
and urged ineffectually upon the general 
commanding, as had already been done by 
others, an immediate assault by storming and 
blowing in certain gates. Baird Smith con- 
sidered that if the place had been assaulted 
at any time between 4 and 14 July it would 
have been carried. On the 5th Sir Henry 
"William Barnard [q.v.], dying of cholera, was 
succeeded in the command by Major-general 
Reed, who was at the time ill. Reed would 
not take the risk of an assault, and before he 
resigned on 17 July two severe actions had 
been fought and had so weakened the British 
that the chances of a successful assault had 

been much diminished, if not altogether de- 
stroyed. Baird Smith, however, sedulously at- 
tended to the defence of the Ridge, strengthen- 
ing the position by every possible means. 

Since the beginning of the month a retro- 
grade movement had been discussed, and when 
Brigadier-general (afterwards Sir) Archdale 
Wilson [q. v.l assumed command on 17 July 
it required all Baird Smith's energy and en- 
thusiasm to sweep away Wilson's doubts, and 
to persuade him, as he wrote to him, 'to 
hold on like grim death until the place is 
ours.' At the same time Baird Smith as- 
sured him that as soon as a siege-train of 
sufficient magnitude and weight to silence 
the guns on the walls of Delhi could be 
brought up, success would be certain. On 
12 Aug. Baird Smith, who was in bad health, 
was struck by the splinter of a shell in the 
ankle-joint, but he did not allow either the 
wound or his sickness to interfere with his 
duties as chief engineer. 

The siege train arrived on 6 Sept., and in 
consultation with Captain (afterwards Sir) 
Alexander Taylor, his second in command, 
Baird Smith submitted a plan of attack which 
General Wilson, despite his divergence from 
Smith's views, had already directed him to 
prepare. It was supported by Colonel John 
Nicholson and Neville Chamberlain, the adju- 
tant-general, and the assault was decided 
upon. Wilson recorded that he yielded to 
the judgment of his chief engineer. Thus a 
heavy responsibility fell upon Baird Smith. 

TJie first siege battery for ten guns was 
commenced on the night of 7 Sept. ; others 
rapidly followed, until fifty-six guns opened 
fire. The attacking force completed its work 
triumphantly. After a heavy bombardment 
practicable breaches were made, and the 
assault took place on 14 Sept. A lodgment 
was made, but at heavy loss, and the pro- 
gress inside Delhi was so slow and difficult 
that Wilson thought it might be necessary 
to withdraw to the Ridge, but Baird Smith 
asserted ' W r e must retain the ground we 
have won.' He deprecated street fighting, 
and by his advice the open ground inside 
the Kashmir gate was secured, the college, 
magazine, and other strong forts gained, and 
progress gradually made, under cover, till the 
rear of the enemy's positions was reached, 
and the enemy compelled to evacuate them 
on the 20th, when headquarters were esta- 
blished in the palace. 

Baird Smith had been ably seconded in 
all his exertions by Captain Alexander 
Taylor, and he expressed his obligations in no 
stinted terms. The picture, however, which 
is sometimes presented of Baird Smith dis- 
abled, and in the background, while his 




second in command did all the work, is in- 
correct. The error originated no doubt in 
Taylor's energy and zeal in carrying out Baird 
Smith's orders, and in Nicholson's deathbed 
exclamations that if he lived he would let 
the world know that Taylor took Delhi. 
Wilson's despatch stated that in ill-health, 
and while suffering from the effects of a pain- 
ful wound, Baird Smith devoted himself with 
the greatest ability and assiduity to the con- 
duct of the difficult and important operations 
of the siege, and that his thanks and acknow- 
ledgments are especially due to Baird Smith 
for having planned and successfully carried 
out, in the iace of extreme and unusual diffi- 
culties, an attack almost without parallel in 
the annals of sie^e operations (Malleson, 
History of the Indian Mutiny). The rewards 
bestowed upon Baird Smith were in no way 
commensurate with his great services. He 
waspromoted to be brevet lieutenant-colonel 

Sa rank he already held temporarily) on 
.9 Jan. 1858, for service in the field ; he 
was made a companion of the Bath military 
division on the 22nd of the same month ; he 
received the medal and the thanks of the 
several commanders under whom he served, 
and of the government of India (London 
Gazette, 14 and 24 Nov. and 15 Dec. 1857, 
and 16 Jan. 1858). 

It was not until 23 Sept. that Baird Smith 
gave up his command at Delhi, and went by 
slow marches to Rurki, where he arrived on 
the 29th, suffering from scurvy, the effect of 
exposure and worn, aggravated by the state 
of his wound. He was laid up for some 
weeks, and then went to Mussuri to recruit 
his health. On his recovery he was appointed 
to the military charge of the Saharanpur and 
Mozaffarnagar districts, which he held along 
with the appointment of superintendent- 
general of irrigation. 

On 1 Sept. 1858 Baird Smith was appointed 
mint master at Calcutta, in . succession to 
Colonel John Thomas Smith [q. v.] On 

25 Jan. 1859 he became a member of the 
senate of the university of Calcutta. On 

26 April the same year he was appointed 
aide-de-camp to the queen, and promoted to 
be colonel in the army. From 5 Aug. to 
October 1859 Baird Smith officiated as se- 
cretary to the government of India in the 
public works department. The appointment 
of mint master afforded him leisure for other 
public services, which made his manifold 
powers of usefulness better known and ap- 
preciated. His crowning service was the 
survey of the great famine of 1861, the pro- 
vision of relief, and the safeguards proposed 
to prevent such disaster in future. The 
labour and fatigue of long journeys, in- 

vestigations, and reports, followed by the 
depressing wet season, renewed the illness 
from which he suffered after the capture of 
Delhi. He was carried on board the Candia 
at Calcutta, and died on 18 Dec. 1861. His 
body was landed at Madras and buried 
there with military honours. A memorial 
of him was placed in Calcutta Cathedral, 
the epitaph being written by Colonel Sir 
Henry Yule [q. v.l A memorial was also 
erected at Lasswade, Midlothian. 

Baird Smith married, on 10 Jan. 185C, in 
the cathedral at Calcutta, Florence Elizabeth, 
second daughter of Thomas De Quincey [q. v.] 
His widow and two daughters, Florence May 
and Margaret Eleanor, survived him. Of his 
two brothers, John Young (d. 1887) was a 
deputy surgeon-general in the Bombay army, 
and Andrew Simpson, a colonel in the In- 
dian army, saw a good deal of active service 
in Upper India. 

Besides the works mentioned Baird Smith 
published : 1. ' Agricultural Resources of the 
J?unjab ; being a Memorandum on the Appli- 
cation of the Waste Waters of the Punjab to 
Purposes of Irrigation/ London, 8vo, 1849. 
He contributed 'Report of some Experiments 
in Tamping Mines ' to the ' Papers on various 
Professional Subjects connected with the 
Duties of the Corps of Engineers, Madras 
Presidency/ edited by Colonel John Thomas 
Smith [q. v.J vol. i. 1839, and 'Some Re- 
marks on the Use of the Science of Geology ' 
to ' The Professional Papers of the Corps of 
Royal Engineers/ Corps Papers Series, 1849. 

Baird Smith left unpublished notes for a 
history of the siege of Delhi, which are em- 
bodied in ' Richard Baird Smith, a Biogra- 
phical Sketch, by Colonel H. M.Vibart/ Lon- 
don, 1897, 8vo. 

[India Office Records; Despatches ; London 
Gazette; private sources ; Memoir in Vibart's 
Addiscombe, its Heroes and Men of Note; 
Kaye's Hist, of the Sepoy War in India ; Malle- 
son's Hist, of the Indian Mutiny; Medley's Year's 
Campaigning in India; An Officer's Narrative 
of the Siege of Delhi ; Colonel Samuel Dewe 
White's Complete History of the Indian Mutiny; 
Bosworth Smith's Life of Lord Lawrence ; Nor- 
man's Narrative of the Campaign in 1857 
asainst the Mutineers at Delhi ; article by Sir 
Henry Norman in the Fortnightly Magazine, 
April 1883 ; Letter from Baird Smith to Colonel 
Lefroy, R.A., published by the latter in the 
Times, 11 May 1858; Lord Roberts's Forty-one 
Years in India; Holmes's Hist, of the Mutiny ; 
Thackeray's Two Indian Campaigns; Thack- 
well's Second Sikh War.] R. H. V. 

1856), actor, commonly known as Smith, 
the son of an actor named Smith, whomDoran 


1 08 


confounds with 'Gentleman' Smith [see 
Smith, William, 1730 P-1819], was born in 
York in 1786. His mother, whose maiden 
name was Scrace, played leading parts in 
Dublin. After being all but killed in Dublin 
by Reddish, who as Gastalio ran him, while 
playing Polydore, through the body, the 
father brought his wife in 1779 to York- 
shire. At Hull and York under Tate Wil- 
kinson, Mrs. Smith appeared as Beatrice and 
speedily became a favourite. She accom- 

fanied Tate Wilkinson to Edinburgh, and in 
791 made, as Estifania, her first appearance 
in Bath. 

Young Smith is said to have been first 
seen in Bath as Ariel in Dr. Hawkesworth's 
'Edgar and Emmeline.' He played there 
other juvenile parts. Put into a solicitor's 
office, he neglected his duties, spending his 
time in the painting-room of the theatre, and 
finally ran away and embarked from Bristol 
as a sailor for the Guinea coast. He had some 
romantic adventures, assisting upon the river 
Gaboon in the escape of some slaves, an inci- 
dent related in ' A Toug h Yarn/ which he pub- 
lished in Bentley's ' Miscellany .' Ihe gover- 
nor of Sierra Leone, struck by his painting, 
offered to befriend him, but the captain of 
the vessel refused to release him. Returning 
to Bath, he found his parents obdurate, and 
again ran away, rambling in Wales and Ire- 
land. Seized in Liverpool by a press gang, he 
was taken on board the receiving ship, but 
was released on stating that he was an actor, 
and giving as proof a recitation. Engaged 
by the elder Macready as painter, prompter, 
and actor of all work, he was rewarded with 
twelve shillings weekly, and all but lost his 
life in a snowstorm while travelling on foot 
from Sheffield to Rochdale. He then went to 
Edinburgh and Glasgow theatres, returning 
to Bath in 1807, and playing in the panto- 

His performance as Robert in the panto- 
mime of ' Raymond and Apies ' attracted 
the attention of Robert William Elliston 
[q. v.], who engaged him in 1810 for the pan- 
tomime at the Surrey. Taking in * Bom- 
bastes Furioso ' the part of Bombastes, va- 
cated through illness by another actor, he 
gave an exhibition of intensity such as esta- 
blished his position in burlesque. A perfor- 
mance of ' Obi/ in the melodrama of ' Three- 
fingered Jack/ got him his sobriquet of ' O ' 
(otherwise Obi) Smith. In 1813 Smith ac- 
companied Elliston to the Olympic, where 
he played Mandeviile in the ' False Friend/ a 
role in which Edmund Kean [a. v.] was to 
have appeared. After acting at the Lyceum, 
he is said to have been engaged in 1823 at 
Drury Lane, at which house he had pre- 

viously been seen in pantomime. He also 
seems to have played at Covent Garden. His 
performance in the ' Bottle Imp ' at the Ly- 
ceum attracted attention, leading him to 
complain, but half in jest : ' For the last five 
years of my life I have played nothing but 
demons, devils, monsters, and assassins, and 
this line of business, however amusing it 
may be to the public or profitable to mana- 
gers, has proved totally destructive of my 
peace of mind, detrimental to my interests, 
and injurious to my health. I find myself 
banished from all respectable society ; what 
man will receive the Devil upon friendly 
terms, or introduce a demon into his family 
circle P My infernal reputation follows me 
every where/ A writer in the 'Monthly 
Magazine ' declares him eminent in assassins, 
sorcerers, the moss-trooping heroes in Sir 
W alter Scott's poems, and other wild, gloomy, 
and ominous characters in which a bold, or 
rather a gigantic figure, and deep sepul- 
chral voice could be turned to good account. 
Smith had, however, some control over ten- 
derness, his performance at the Lyceum, in 
the 'Cornisn Miners/ of a maniac who 
visits the grave of his dead child, being 
very pathetic. At Drury Lane he was, on 
10 Nov. 1824, the first Zamiel in Soane's 
version of * Der Freischutz.' When, in 1828, 
Yates and Mathews took the Adelphi, Smith 
joined the company. With this theatre his 
subsequent reputation was chiefly connected. 
In the ' Black Vulture/ October 1829, he 
played the villain so named. In 1831, at 
the Adelphi, Edinburgh, he superintended 
the production of the * Wreck Ashore.' In 
January 1833 he played at the Adelphi, 
London, a part contrasting strongly with 
those of which he complained, namely, Don 
Quixote in the piece so named. He had also 
a part in Holrs « Grace Huntley/ In 1836 
he played in an adaptation of Bulwer's 
'Rienzi.' He was Newman Noggs in an 
adaptation of « Nicholas Nickleby. In 1839 
he was Fagin in * Oliver Twist/ and in Janu- 
ary 1843 Hugh in ' Barnaby Rudge.' Among 
numerous characters played at the Adelphi 
were Murtogh in 4 Green Bushes/ the part 
of a Mendicant in the ' Bohemians, or the 
Rogues of Paris/ October 1843 ; the Miser in 
an adaptation of 'A Christmas Carol ' in 
February 1844; Laroche inE. Stirling's adap- 
tation ' Clarisse, or the Merchant's Daughter/ 
in September 1845; Mongeraud in Holl's 
' Leohne, or Life's Trials/ in February 1846 ; 
Pierre in Peake's 'Devil of Marseilles, or 
the Spirit of Avarice/ in July 1846 ; and a 
cabdnver, a pathetic part, in Peake's ' Title 
Deeds/ in June 1857. In June 1842 he had, 
at the Lyceum, given a characteristic per- 




formance in a piece entitled ' The Dice of 
Death; ' and on 1 April 1853 he played at 
the Adelphi in ' Mr. Webster at Home.' On 
20 April 1854, at the same house, he was 
Musgrave in Tom Taylor and Charles Reade's 

* Two Loves and a Life,' and this appears to 
have been his last original part. 

About 1826 Joseph Smith, the bookseller 
of Holborn, having produced a set of thea- 
trical engravings, applied to ' O Smith, the 
famous comedian/ for an account of the Eng- 
lish stage, to accompany the plates. An 
agreement was accordingly drawn up, but 
the author eventually deemed his prospect 
of credit from the work to be unsatisfactory, 
and withdrew from the undertaking. He 
nevertheless continued to accumulate mate- 
rials, such as theatrical prints, newspaper 
cuttings, magazine articles, playbills, cata- 
logues, &c, relating to stage history, and 
also to interleave and annotate theatrical 
memoirs. Before his death his collections 
filled twenty-five large quarto volumes. Of 
these, vols, xx-xxiii. comprise a manuscript 

* Dramatic Chronology ; ' the remainder con- 
sist chiefly of printed matter, scantily anno- 
tated, but interspersed with many valuable 
prints. The twenty-five volumes are now 
in the British Museum Library, catalogued 
under Smith's name as 'A Collection of 
Material towards a History of the Stage.' 

Smith died, after a long illness, on Thurs- 
day, 1 Feb. 1855, and was buried on the 8th 
in Norwood cemetery. A portrait accom- 
panies the memoir in the * Theatrical Times.' 

[The preceding particulars, some of them of 
very dubious authority, are extracted from Ge- 
nesis Account of the Stage. Tallis's Drawing- 
Koom Table-Book of Theatrical Portraits ; Thea- 
trical Times, i. 121 ; Scott and Howard's Life 
of Blanchard ; Dibdin's Edinburgh Stage ; Dra- 
matic and Musical Review, various years; Era 
Almanack, various years ; Era Newspaper. 4 and 
11 Feb. 1855.] J. K. 

SMITH, ROBERT (Jl. 1689-1729), 
schoolmaster, was educated at Marischal Col- 
lege, Aberdeen. At the time of the revolution 
John Murray, second marquis, and afterwards 
first duke of Atholl [q. v.], procured a small 
grant to endow a school at Kerrow, in Glen- 
shee, in the parish of Kirkmichael, Perth- 
shire, and Smith was chosen as master. The 
heritors, however, showed no zeal to provide 
him with a dwelling, and, after waiting in 
vain for some months, he showed his resent- 
ment by publishing * A Poem on the Build- 
ing of the Schoolhouse of Glenshee,' in which 
he roundly abused the lairds for their ne- 
glect. This provoked a reply from a whig 
poet, Jasper Craig, who, Smith insinuates, 
was a disappointed candidate for the post. 

Several poetical rejoinders were forthcoming 
on either side, but Smith surpassed his anta- 

fonist both in coarseness and bad verse. In 
729 Smith removed from Glenshee and 
was schoolmaster at Glamis in Forfar. He 
had a son, Robert Smith, schoolmaster at 
Kinnaird in Perthshire ; some of his verses 
appear in NicoPs 'Rural Muse,' 1753, of 
which there is a copy in the Advocates' Li- 
brary, Edinburgh [see Nicol, Alexandeb]. 
Smith published : 1. ' Poems of Contro- 
versy betwixt Episcopacy and Presbytery: 
being the substance of what passed 'twixt 
him and several other Poets ; As also, Several 
Poems and Merry Songs on other Subjects. 
With some Funeral Elegies on several Noble- 
men and Gentlemen, two Parts,' 1714, 12mo. 
It contains two prefaces, one to the ' World/ 
the other to the ' Reader.' Copies are in the 
British Museum, in Sir Walter Scott's library, 
and in the library of the Free Church Col- 
lege, Edinburgh. The last contains in addi- 
tion a printed address in verse to ' William 
Seton, the younger, of Pitsmedden.' 2. ' The 
Assembly '8 Shorter Catechism in Metre. For 
the Use of young ones. By Mr. Robert 
Smith, Schoolmaster at Glammis,' Edin- 
burgh, 1829. It contains also the Lord's 
Prayer and the Creed in verse. Only one 
copy is known to be extant, which, in 1872, 
was in the possession of William Bonar, of St. 
Michael's Alley, Cornhill, London. Limited 
reprints of both works have been issued by 
Thomas George Stevenson— of the former in 
1869 and of the latter in 1872. 

[Stevenson's prefaces to Smith's works; Notes 
and Queries, 4th ser. iv. 321 ; Nicol's Rural 
Muse contains several curious particulars con- 
cerning Smith and Craig.] E. I. C. 

SMITH, ROBERT (1689-1768), mathe- 
matician and founder of Smith's prizes at 
Cambridge, was born in 1689, and probably 
at Lea, near Gainsborough, to whicn living 
his father was instituted in October 1679. 
His father, John Smith, had married Hannah 
(d. 1719), the aunt of Roger Cotes [q. v.] ; he 
became rector of Gate Burton, Lincolnshire, 
and was buried at Lea on 28 Dec. 1710. 
Robert was educated at the Leicester gram- 
mar school, and admitted pensioner at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, on 28 May 1708, and 
scholar on 13 Mav 1709. At Trinity he was 
under the care of Cotes, his cousin, who was 
them Plumian professor of astronomy, and 
lived with him as his assistant. He graduated 
B.A. 1711, M.A. 1715,LL.D. 1723, and D.D. 
per literas regias 1739. He was elected minor 
fellow, 1714, major fellow, 1715, sublector 
quartus, 1715, lector lingu® Latin®, 1724, 
lector linguce Grraj®, 1725, lector primarius, 




1727, and senior fellow, 11 June 1739. He 
took pupils at Cambridge, was master of me- 
chanics to George II, and held the post of 
mathematical preceptor to William, duke of 
Cumberland, from June 1739 to July 1740. 
Smith, like his cousin Cotes, was through- 
out life the 'decided partizan' of Richard 
Ben tie y, the master of Trinity, in his struggles 
with the fellows. 

On 16 July 1716 Smith was elected to 
succeed Cotes as Plumian professor of astro- 
nomy, and on 21 May 1718 he was admitted 
F.R.S. Early in 1739 the observatory over 
the great gate of Trinity College, for the use 
of the professor, was completed under his 
direction (Bbntlbt, Correspondence, ii. 448, 
451, 786). The telescope in the library, 
which is described in Smith's work on ' Op- 
ticks/ and is shown to strangers as Sir Isaac 
Newton's telescope, was made for him. He 
retained the professorship until 1760. 

Smith was literary executor to Cotes, and 
communicated notes for the memoir of him 
in the < General Biographical Dictionary* of 
Lockman and others (1736, iv. 441-5). In 
1722 he edited and augmented with some of 
his own theorems Cotes's ' Harmonia Men- 
surarum et alia opuscula Mathematical and 
in 1738 he edited, with notes, his cousin's 
' Hydrostatical and Pneumatical Lectures' of 
Cotes. The first work was dedicated to Dr. 
Mead, the second (which was republished in 
1747 and 1775, and translated into French 
by Le Monnier in 1720) to the Duke of Cum- 
berland. He projected, but did not proceed 
with, the publication of others of his cousin's 
works. The monument to Cotes's memory, 
with the epitaph by Bentley, was erected at 
the cost of Smith, and he presented to the 
library of the college in 1758 a marble bust 
of his cousin by P. Scheemakers. 

At Bentley's death Smith was appointed, 
on 20 July 1742, master of Trinity College, 
and he also acted in 1742-3 as vice-chancellor 
of the university. As master his ' equitable 
and judicious conduct healed all wounds 
and conciliated all parties' (Monk, Life of 
Bentley, ii. 420). His acts of kindness were 
numerous, and his influence in the university 
was considerable. He recommended John 
Colson |"q. v.] to come to Cambridge, and ob- 
tained for him in 1739 the Lucasian chair. 
He advised Richard Cumberland to apply 
himself to mathematics, and supported his 
claims to a fellowship. His encouragement 
gave Bishop Watson, when an undergraduate, 
* a spur to nis industry and wings to his am- 
bition,' for which the bishop always revered 
Smith's memory. Israel Lyons, the younger, 
was aided by him in his studies, and in re- 
turn dedicated to Smith his 'Treatise of 

Fluxions,' 1758. At the contest between 
Lords Hardwicke and Sandwich for the post 
of high steward of the university of Cam- 
bridge, he was a supporter of Sandwich. He 
was consequently introduced by Churchill 
into the poem of the ' Candidate' (lines 615- 
620) as 

Black Smith of Trinity; on Christian ground 
For faith in mysteries none more renowned. 

A recluse and a student, Smith, whose 
health was for many years precarious, lived 
in the lodge with an unmarried sister, Eliz- 
mar (168&-1758), who was buried in the 
ante-chapel at Trinity, and with a niece. 
He was fond of music, and played the violon- 
cello. Smith died in the lodge on 2 Feb. 
1768, and was buried on the south side of the 
communion table in the college chapel, where 
he is commemorated by a Latin epitaph. A 
funeral oration in Latin on his death was de- 
livered by the Rev. Thomas Zouch in the chapel 
on 8 Feb. (Zouch, Works, 1820, i. 438-43). 

Richard Cumberland records that he was 
thin in frame, with an aquiline nose, a pene- 
trating eye, and shrill nasal voice. A bust 
of Smith by P. Scheemakers was placed in 
the library of the college in 1758, with the 
inscription ' Praesenti tibi maturos largimur 
honores.' A portrait of him, painted by Van- 
derbank in 1730, and given by Thomas Riddell, 
one of the fellows, in 1827, hangs in the lodge ; 
another, painted by J. Freeman in 1788, and 
said to have been jpven by the Rev. Edward 
Howkins in 1779, is in the hall. It was pro- 
bably paid for by moneys bequeathed by Haw- 
kins for that purpose. 

Smith's benefactions to the university and 
to Trinity College were munificent. TV> the 
former he left by will the sum of 3,500/. 
South Sea stock, part of the interest to be 
applied in a dinner to the trustees, and of the 
remainder, half to the Plumian professor, and 
half between two junior B.A.8 who have 
made the greatest progress in mathematics 
and naturalphilo8ophy. The Smith's prizes, 
which now amount to about 23/. each, ' proved 
productive of the best results, and at a later 
time enabled the university to encourage 
some of the higher branches of mathema- 
tics.' The college, to which during his life- 
time he had presented many pictures and 
sculptures, obtained under the will the sum 
of 2,000/. of the same stock, which was ordered 
to be sold on 15 Dec., 1770, and applied to- 
wards the new combination-room in the great 
court, and the painted window, containing 
nearly 140 square feet of glass, at the south 
end of the library. The grotesque design 
(by Cipriani) for the window, which was 
completed by 1775, represented George III 




under a canopy, giving a laurel chaplet to 
Sir Isaac Newton, while Bacon is at the 
king's feet. 

Smith published two works. The first was 
4 A compleat System of Opticks, in four 
books/ 1738, 2 vols. ; dedicated, with unusual 
warmth of expression, to Right Hon., after- 
wards Sir Edward Walpole, a personal friend 
at Cambridge, through whose aid the work 
was started and finished, and under Smith's 
will and codicil Walpole received legacies of 
2,000/. South Sea stock. The ' elementary 
parts ' of these volumes, selected and arranged 
for the use of students at the universities, 
were published separately at Cambridge in 
1778. They were translated, with additions, 
into German by Kaestner in 1755, and into 
French, with additions, by Dural le Roy, 
at Brest in 1767, with a supplement in 1783, 
and by L. P. P. [Le. le Pere Pezenas] at 
Avignon in 1767. Benjamin Robins [q. v.] 
published a criticism upon them in 1739. 
From this treatise on optics, Smith went by 
the nickname of ' Old Focus.' Smith's second 
volume was 'Harmonics, or the Philosophy 
of Musical Sounds/ 1749, dedicated to the 
Duke of Cumberland; 2nd edit. 1759, and 
postscript, 1762. The latter was inscribed 
to Sir Edward Walpole. Both works were 
of the highest value. They were recom- 
mended to Gibbon by George Lewis Scott 
[q. v.], with the words that the treatise on 
optics entered 'into too great details for 
beginners,' and that the volume on har- 
monics 'is the principal book of the kind' 
(Gibbon, Miscellaneous Work's 1837, pp. 

Smith left numerous papers on Cotes and 
Newton to the Rev. Edward Howkins, who in 
1779 bequeathed them to the college. From 
them was collected the ' Correspondence of 
Newton and Cotes,' edited by the Rev. J. 
Edleston in 1850, and afterwards republished 
at Amsterdam. Twenty to thirty letters 
from Newton to Cotes were borrowed from 
Smith by Conduit t for his projected life of 
Newton, and never returned (Bbntlet, Cor- 
respondence f ii. 776-7). Letters to Smith 
are printed in the ' Correspondence of Newton 
and Cotes' (pp. 231-9), in Brewster's ' Me- 
moirs of Newton' (2nd edit.), ii. 47-9, and in 
James Bradley's ' Works and Correspondence ' 
(1832), pp. 401-3. His name frequently 
occurs in the diaries of John Byrom, with 
whom he was contemporary at Cambridge, 
and Byrom's verses on John Gilbert Cooper's 
' Epistles from Aristippus in retirement,' in 
a letter to Dr. S — , are supposed to be ad- 
dressed to Smith. When Zachary Grey [q. v.] 
published an ' Examination of the Fourteenth 
Chapter of Newton's Observations on Daniel/ 

Smith wrote 'Three Observations' upon it 
which were not published. 

[Gent. Mag. 1768, p. 94 ; Willis and Clark's 
Cambridge, ii. 500, 547-50, 583, 600, 606; 
Boose Ball's Mathematics at Cambridge, 1889, 
pp. 91-101 ; Wordsworth's Schol» Academic*, 
pp. 67, 236 ; Corresp. of Newton and Cotes, pp. 
xvi-xix, 199, 200, 227-9; Brewster's Memoirs 
of Newton, ii. 319-20; Hartshorne's Cambr. 
Book Rarities, pp. 275, 481, 484-5 ; Byrom's 
Remains, i. 296, 623-34, ii. 34, 135, 206-7,833- 
841 ; Byrom's Poems, ed. Ward, vol. i. pt. ii. p. 
408 ; J. J. Smith s Cambr. Portfolio, p. 97 ; 
Monk's Bentley, L 203, 401-2; Cumberland's 
Memoirs, 1806 edit. pp. 70, 107-9 ; Anecdotes 
of Watson 1817, pp. 9, 21 ; information from 
W. Aldis Wright, esq. of Trin. Coll. Cambr.] 

W. P. C. 

SMITH, ROBERT, first Babon Cabbing- 
ton (1752-1838), the third but eldest sur- 
viving son of Abel Smith (d. 1788) by his 
wife Mary, daughter of Thomas Bird of 
Barton, Warwickshire, was born at Notting- 
ham on 2 Feb. 1752 and baptised at St. 
Peter's on the 21st. His father, a member 
of the banking firm of Smith, Payne, & Co. 
of Nottingham and London, sat in parlia- 
ment for Aldborough in 1774, St. Ives in 
1780, and St. Germains in 1785. On the ' 
death of his elder brother Abel in 1779 
Robert succeeded him as member of parlia- 
ment for Nottingham, which he represented 
in five successive parliaments, until his ele- 
vation to the peerage in 1797. From the 
first he attached himself to the fortunes of 
the younger Pitt, and a close friendship 
sprang up between the two. In 1786 Pitt 
selected Smith to examine into the state of 
his disordered private affairs (Stanhope, 
Life of Pitt, ed. 1879, i. 223). According 
to Wraxall, Smith's character was ' without 
reproach and his fortune ample/ but he 
'possessed no parliamentary talents' (Pos- 
thumous Memoirs, 1836, i. 66-9). He was 
generous in the use of his wealth, and one 
of his benefactions was to place considerable 
sums of money in the hands of the poet 
Cowper for the benefit of the poor at Olney 
(Sotjthey, Life and Works of Cowper, l. 
254r-5). On 11 July 1796, as a rewardfor his 
fidelity and the support which he secured to 
Pitt through his pocket-boroughs Midhurst 
and Wendover, Smith was created Baron 
Carrington of Bulcot Lodge in the peerage of 
Ireland, and on 20 Oct. 1797 Baron Carring- 
ton of Upton, Nottinghamshire, in the Eng- 
lish peerage. According to Wraxall, this 
was tne only instance in which George IH's 
objections to giving English peerages to 
those engaged in trade were overcome ; he 
also insinuates that the honour was the 




reward of financial assistance rendered by 
Smith to Pitt. Carrington refuted this 
charge on the appearance of Wraxall's 
' Memoirs ' in 1836 by a letter printed in the 
* Quarterly Review ' (No. cxiv. p. 456). In 
1802 Pitt, as warden of the Cinque ports, 
appointed Carrington captain of Deal, and in 
the following year he became lieutenant- 
colonel of the second battalion of the Cinque 
ports volunteers. In April 1803 he enter- 
tained Pitt at his seat, Wycombe Abbey. 
On 3 July 1810 he was created D.C.L. of 
Oxford, and in 1819 LL.D. of Cambridge 
University. He was also a vice-president of 
the Literary Fund, F.R.S., and F.S.A. He 
was a firm supporter of the tory party, and, 
when in later years unable to attend the 
House of Lords, he entrusted his proxy to 
the Duke of Wellington. He died on 
18 Sept. 1838 at his mansion in Whitehall, 
and was buried at High Wycombe on 2 Oct. 

Carrington married, first, on 6 July 1780, 
Anne, eldest daughter of Lewyns Boldero 
Barnard of Cave Castle, Yorkshire ; by her 
he had one son, Robert John, born 16 Jan. 
1796, who succeeded to the peerage, took the 
name Carrington instead of Smith by royal 
license, dated 26 Aug. 1839, and died on 
17 March 1868, being succeeded by his eldest 
son, Charles Robert, the present Lord Car- 
rington, who changed the family name 
from Carrington to Carington. The first 
lord had also seven daughters, of whom the 
second, Catherine Lucy, married Philip 
Henry, fourth earl Stanhope, and was 
mother of Philip Henry, fifth earl Stanhope 
~q. v.l and the seventh, Emily, married 
1 iord Granville Charles Henry Somerset. 

[Annual Register, 1838, p. 225 (by Carring- 
ton's grandson, Earl Stanhope) ; Gent. Mag. 
1838, ii. 645-6, 678 ; Official Returns of Members 
of Pari.; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; 
Burke's and G. E. C.'s Peerages; Stanhope's Life 
of Pitt, passim ; Wraxall's Posthumous Memoirs, 
1836; Life of Wilberforce, i. 77; Martin's 
Stories of Banks and Bankers.] A. F. P. 

1884), chemist, horn in Glasgow on 15 Feb. 
1817, was twelfth child and seventh son of 
John Smith of Loudoun, Ayrshire, and his 
wife Janet, daughter of James Thomson, a 
millowner at Strathaven (see W. Andekson 
Smith's ' Shepherd* Smithy p. 13). 

An elder brother, John (1800-1871), mas- 
ter at Perth Academy, wrote a paper on the 
'Origin of Colour and Theory of Light' 
(Memoirs of Manchester Lit, and Phil, Soc, 
[31 i. 1, 1859), which contains original and 
still unexplained experiments on the pro- 
duction of colour phenomena by rotating 
discs marked with black and white patterns. 


These have been recently reinvestigated 
without reference to Smith s work by C. E. 
Benham and others ('An Artificial Spec- 
trum Top/ Nature, vol. 1. [1894-5] passim). 
Another brother, James Elimalet Smith, 
is separately noticed, and a third brother, 
Micaiah Smith (1807-1867), was a minister 
of the Scottish kirk, and an orientalist. 

At nine Angus went to the Glasgow 
grammar school, and at thirteen to the 
Glasgow University, where he received a 
classical education, but, with his brother 
John, read Priestley's and other scientific 
works. On leaving the university he became 
tutor to several families in succession, first 
in the highlands and then in England. He 
spent two years with the Hon. and Rev. E. 
Bridgeman, with whom he went to Germany. 
He there heard of the great chemist Justus 
Liebig (1802-1875), who had created the 
first German school of chemistry at Giessen ; 
and worked under him at that town during 
1839-41, proceeding Ph.D. in 1841. He 
was a fellow-worker there with A. W. 
Hofmann (1818-1892), Lyon (now Lord) 
Playfair, Dr. Edward Schunck, F.R.S., and 
John Stenhouse [q. v.] During his stay he 
gave much time to philosophy as well as 
chemistry. On his return to England at the 
end of 1841 he published a translation of 
Liebig's work 'On the Azotised Nutritive 
Principles of Plants.' An early inclination 
towards a theological career revived, but was 
abandoned ; and in 1842 he became assistant 
to Dr. Playfair, who was at the time professor 
of chemistry at the Manchester Royal Insti- 
tution. Dr. Playfair's interest in the work 
of the health of towns commission, of which 
the sanitary reformer, Edwin (afterwards 
Sir Edwin) Chadwick (1801-1890), was the 
moving spirit, led Smith to pay attention to 
sanitary chemistry, and to this subject he de- 
voted the greater part, of his life. He decided 
to settle as a consulting chemist in Man- 
chester, and on 29 April 1845 he was elected 
member of the Manchester Literary and 
Philosophical Society, of which he was pre- 
sident from April 1864 till April 1866. In 
1847 he published his first paper on air 
(Memoirs of the Chemical Society, iii. 311), 
in which he made the important suggestion 
that the organic matter given out in re- 
spiration may be more injurious than the 
carbonic acid. He collected the moisture 
condensed on the window-pane of a crowded 
room, and examined the residue left after 
evaporation. In the same year he reported 
to tne metropolitan sanitary commission on 
this subject ; and also examined water de- 
rived from peaty soil. In 1848 ( Brit, Assoc, 
Report, p. 16) he pointed out that the or- 




ganic matter introduced into natural waters is 
got rid of in nature, especially in porous soils, 
by means of oxidation, nitrogenous matter 
being partially converted into nitrates. This 
theory he supported by numerous subsequent 
experiments. In 1849 he examined various 
problems connected with sewage, and made 
important suggestions, which are still under 
discussion, with regard to its canalisation 
and treatment. 

In 1851 Smith began his most extensive 
research. The fact that the ratio between the 
amounts of oxygen and nitrogen present in 
the air varies exceedingly little under the 
most varied conditions of time and place had 
led to the impression that chemical analysis 
was unable to discover the impurities of town 
air which were made evident by their effect 
on human health, and even in certain cases 
by smell. Smith set himself systematically 
to combat this notion, and began by making 
a series of determinations of the sulphur 
compounds introduced into the air by the 
combustion of coal (Brit. Assoc. Report, 
1851, pt. ii. p. 52). He followed this work 
up later by numerous determinations of 
other impurities — e.g. ammonia and carbonic 
acid. In 1856 Smith published a memoir 
of John Dalton (1766-1844) [q. v.], which 
embraced a history of the atomic theory from 
early times. The book displays erudition, 
common-sense, and impartiality of judgment 
wherever the issues were simple ; but Smith 
had not sufficient clearness of mind or of 
style (in spite of occasional happiness of ex- 
pression) to make a first-rate historian, and he 
failed to explain the genesis of Dal ton's ideas 
(see Roscob and Harden's New View of the 
Atomic Theory). In 1857 he was elected 
F.R.S. In 1859 he lectured on the organic 
impurities of the air before the Koyal 
Institution, and described an ingenious me- 
thod for a comparison of the relative 
amounts in different places. In 1864 Smith 
contributed to the report of the royal mines 
commission an elaborate examination of the 
air of mines and a comparison with that 
from various districts in large towns, and a 
physiological investigation of the effect of 
carbonic acid. In the same year Smith was 
elected chief inspector, under the Alkali 
Act of 28 July 1863, which provided for 
the inspection of alkali-works and other 
classes of factories (extended by the act of 
1872), and for the infliction of fines when 
excessive amounts of acid vapours, likely to 
damage health and vegetation, were emitted. 
Smith performed his duties with tact and skill, 
insuring the co-operation of the previously 
hostile manufacturers in the working of the 
act, which he showed to be to their financial 

VOL. Lin. 

benefit. His twenty annual reports (con- 
tinued till his death) contain a large amount 
of information on the condensation of hydro- 
chloric acid and kindred subjects. 

In April 1865 Smith proposed an ingenious 
' minimetric ' method of estimating carbonic 
acid in the air. In 1869 he published a book 
on ' Disinfectants and Disinfection/ con- 
taining a summary of other work, together 
with experiments of his own performed for 
the cattle plague commission. In it he 
recognised the fact that Pasteur's work on 
perms would revolutionise the subject, but 
it was only later that he became practically 
acquainted with Pasteur's methods. Smith s 
work led to the manufacture on a large 
scale by his friend Mr. Alexander McDou- 
gall of a useful disinfectant powder, con- 
sisting of a mixture of calcium sulphite 
and calcium phenate. In 1872 Smith pub- 
lished his ' Air and Rain, the beginnings of 
a Chemical Climatology/ in which he col- 
lected a large amount of experimental 
material from his previous papers. Less 
attention has been paid to this work than it 
deserves, partly because of its defects in 
composition (of which Smith was conscious), 
partly because Pasteur's work has diverted 
attention from the inorganic impurities of 
air. In the same year he published a study 
on peat-formation (Memoirs of Manchester 
Lit. and Phil. Soc. [5] iii. 281). 

After going in the autumn of 1872 to Ice- 
land in the yacht of his friend, the chemist, 
James Young (1811-1883) [q.vA he wrote 
an essay ' On some Ruins at Ellida Vatu 
and Kjarlanes,' and a book, ' To Iceland in 
a Yacht ' (privately printed in May 1873). 
In the same year he paid a visit, also with 
Young, to the island of St. Kilda, which he 
described in ' Good Words ' for 1875, and in 
a pamphlet, 'A Visit to St. Kilda' (privately 
printed in 1879). In 1876 he edited ' The 
Chemical and Physical Researches of Thomas 
Graham ' [q. v.], with a useful analysis of the 
separate memoirs, and an introduction on 
Graham's place as a chemist. The book was 
privately printed at the expense of Young 
for distribution among chemists. In 1 884 the 
introduction was republished, together with 
many of Graham's letters and explanatory 
notes by Smith, under the title 'An Account 
of the Life and Works of T. Graham.' In 
1879 Smith, who was passionately devoted 
to archaeology, and especially to Scottish 
archaeology, published anonymously a book 
on ' Loch Etive,' where he had spent many 
vacations, and on the legend of the ' Sons 
of Uisnach; ' a second edition appeared with 
his name, posthumously, in 1885. The work, 
which is written in dialogue form, is valuable 





for its description of the vitrified fort of Dun 
MacUisneachan, and its recognition, in anti- 
cipation of William Forbes Skene [q. v.] in 
his ' Celtic Scotland/ of the extremely early 
and close connection between the populations 
of western Scotland and north-east Ireland 
(Professor Boyd Dawkins). 

In 1880 Smith proposed to measure the 
1 actinism of the sun's rays ' by their effect 
on a dilute acid solution of potassium iodide, 
from which they liberate an amount of iodine 
that is approximately proportional to the in- 
tensity or the light and length of exposure. 
This method, originally invented by Dr. 
Albert R. Leeds, tnough independently dis- 
covered by Smith, is of considerable practical 
value, and was employed by the Manchester 
air analysis committee in 1891-2 (Proceedings 
of the Manchester Field Naturalists' Society, 
1892, p. 87). In 1883, at the request of 
the Manchester Literary and Philosophical 
Society, Smith published, under the title 
' A Centenary of Science in Manchester,' an 
interesting sketch of the history of the so- 
ciety (not altogether accurate in detail), with 
notices of many of its members. Smith 
and Mr. Robert Rawlinson, C.B., had been 
appointed the first inspectors under the 
Rivers Pollution Act of 1876 ; Smith wrote 
two official reports in this capacity, in 1882 
and in 1884 (published posthumously). In 
the latter report he showed incidentally 
that under certain conditions the fermenta- 
tion of sugar by the microbes found in water 
produces hydrogen, of which the amount 
evolved varies, cceteris paribus, with the 
water ; and he made one of the first applica- 
tions of Dr. Robert Koch's * gelatine ' method 
for determining the number of microbes in 
water. He also invented a process for lining 
iron waterpipes with an impermeable var- 
nish which is widely used (Rivers Pollution 
Commission, 6th Rep. (1874), p. 221). He 
was made an honorary LL.D. of Glasgow in 
1881, and of Edinburgh in 1882. In spite 
of declining health during the last few years 
of his life, Smith retained almost to the last 
his active habits of work. He died on 12 May 
1884 at Colwyn Bay, North Wales, and was 
buried in the churchyard of St. Paul's, Kersal, 
Manchester. He was unmarried ; his niece, 
Miss Jessie Knox-Smith, had for some years 
previous to his deathlived with him and helped 
him with his literary work. 

It is scarcely an exaggeration to say that, 
' as the chemist of sanitary science, Smith 
worked alone ' (Thorpe) ; but the work of 
which he was the pioneer in this country is 
now being largely developed in many direc- 
tions. He was of so unruffled a temper that 
he was called by his friends ' Agnus,' and 

was of an exceptionally kindly, winning, and 
generous disposition. 

A bronze bust of Smith was sculptured in 
1886 by T. Nelson Maclean, and presented 
to the Manchester Literary and Philosophical 
Society by his friend Dr. Schunck; and 
another bust by Brodie belonged to another 
friend, James Young. A bust of him is also 
in the library of the Owens College. His 
countenance was of the pure Gaelic type. 

The ' Royal Society's Catalogue ' gives a 
list of forty-eight papers by Smith ; in addi- 
tion to these and the books mentioned 
above, he published anonymously various 
articles in lire's 'Dictionary* and the 
' Chemical News,' and many articles on an- 
tiquarian subjects. 

His library, which was rich in works on 
chemistry and on Celtic literature, was 
bought by the 'Angus Smith Memorial 
Committee' and presented to the Owens 
College, Manchester, after his death. 

[Besides the sources quoted, Smith's own 
works; Obituaries in Manchester Lit. and 
Phil. Soc. Proceedings, xxiv. 97, and Memoirs [3] 
x. 90, by Dr. Edward Schunck, F.R.S. ; Nature, 
xxx. 104, by T. E. Thorpe; Manchester Guar- 
dian ; Manchester Courier and Manchester Ex- 
aminer for 13 May 1884; Chemical Soc. 
Journal, xlvii. 335 ; Chemical News, xl. 222, 1. 
200; Ber. der deutschen Chem. Gesellschaft, by 
A. W. Hofmann, xvii. 1211; W. Anderson 
Smith's ' Shepherd' Smith, passim ; Thompson's 
Owens College, pp. 232-3 ; Biograph and Review, 
v.142; G-. Seton's St. Kilda, p. 334; Catalogue 
of the Library of the Surgeon-general's Office, 
U.S. A xiii. 217 : Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Roscoe and 
Harden's New View of Dalton's Atomic Theory ; 
Dr. J. C. Thresh's Water . . . Supplies, pp. 20, 
207 ; Report on the Progress ... of Manufac- 
turing Chemistry ... in South Lancashire, by 
E. Schunck, R. Angus Smith, and H. E. Roscoe, 
Brit. Assoc. Report, 1861. p. 108 ; private infor- 
mation from Professor Boyd Dawkins, A. E. 
Fletcher, esq. (late chief inspector under the 
Alkali Act), R. F. Gwyther, esq., Professor 
Strachan, and Dr. Edward Schunck, Frank 
Scudder, esq. (for many years Smith's assis- 
tant).] P. J. H. 

1829), musical composer, son of Robert Smith, 
silk-weaver, was born at Reading on 16 Nov. 
1780. His father, a native of East Kilbride, 
Lanarkshire, had been a silk- weaver in Pais- 
ley, whence dull business sent him to Read- 
ing. Here he married Ann Whitcher, who 
| succeeded to a small property and the interest 
1 of a little money, which was invested for 
] her son after her death. Ignoring Robert's 
I precocious musical talent, his father appren- 
ticed him to silk-weaving. He early joined 
| a church choir in Reading, and played on 




flute or clarionet in the band of a volunteer 
regiment. In 1800 the family removed to 
Paisley, where father and son became muslin- 
weavers. For a time dislike of his occupa- 
tion and environment depressed Smith, and 
threatened his health, but recognition of his 
musical gifts, and particularly the friendship 
of the poet Tannahill, gave him fresh 
stimulus. He joined a volunteer company, 
played in its band, and composed its marches 
and quick-steps. 

Becoming a teacher of music, Smith was 
in 1807 appointed leader of psalmody in the 
abbey church, Paisley, and soon formed an 
excellent choir. Dr. Boog, the incumbent 
of the parish, introduced him to Dr. Young, 
minister of Erskine, Renfrewshire, from 
whose extensive and exact knowledge of 
harmony he profited. In 1817 he success- 
fully conducted his first public performance 
of sacred music in the abbey church, an 
innovation which became a precedent. In 
August 1823 Smith was appointed musical 
conductor in St. George's Church, Edinburgh, 
the minister of which was Dr. Andrew Thom- 
son (1779-1831) [q.v.l, an accomplished musi- 
cian. Smith straightway obtained an ex- 
cellent professional standing in Edinburgh. 
His health, however, failed while still busily 
employed in Edinburgh in teaching, com- 
posing, and editing ; he died there on 3 Jan. 

Smith marrieci in 1802, Mary MacNicol, a 
native of Arran, who survived him with five 

As a boy Smith wrote out notes of music 
that interested him, and in later years he 
displayed great facility in reproducing airs 
to which he had listened. He early set to 
music some trifling verses of his own, and a 
song by Burns's eldest son. In * Devotional 
Music, original and selected,' 1810, twenty- 
four of the numbers are Smith's. His setting 
of Tannahill's songs, especially of ' Jessie, the 
FloWr o' Dumblane ' (1816), brought him re- 
nown. This air, said a contemporary critic, 
' has no common claim to general admiration. 
The descant consists throughout of the most 
graceful and euphonious intervals, and the 
cadence at the words " the flow'r o' Dum- 
blane " is remarkably beautiful and happy ' 
(' European Magazine,' January 1816). His 
' Scotish Minstrel, a selection from the vocal 
melodies of Scotland ancient and modern/ 
was published in six volumes, 1821-4, and 
reached a third edition, 1838-43. It is one 
of the best works on its subject, and many 
of the striking anonymous melodies are attri- 
butable to the editor. Songs by Tannahill, 
and others appropriately set by Smith, first 
appeared in this work. The editor erred in 

allowing certain female coadjutors, without 
acknowledgment, to tamper with the original 
words of some of the older songs. The ' Irish 
Minstrel,' with similar musical equipment, 
appeared in one volume in 1825. In 1826 
Smith published a practical 'Introduction 
to Singing.' A first volume of Smith's ' Se- 
lect Melodies, with appropriate Words, 
chiefly original, selected and arranged, with 
Symphonies and Accompaniments for the 
Pianoforte,' appeared in 1827. Ambitious 
and comprehensive, this work includes ex- 
amples of the greatest song-writers, but was 
not completed. Many pieces by contem- 
porary lyrists are anonymously set by Smith 
himself. To one of these, Motherwell's 
pathetic ' Midnight Wind,' Tom Moore gave 
special praise. Smith further published: 
1. ' Sacred Music for the Use of St. George's, 
Edinburgh.' 2. 'The Sacred Harmony of 
the Church of Scotland ' ( 1820). 3. ' Sacred 
Music, consisting of Tunes, Sanctuses, &c, 
sung in St. George's Church' (1825 ; other 
editions, 1830?, 1856, and 1867). 4. 'An- 
thems for George Heriot's Day.' His music, 
virile, strenuous, and fluent, is still heard 
in the Scottish churches. His setting of the 
anthem 'How beautiful upon the moun- 
tains ' has been often reprinted. 

[Memoir of R. A. Smith, prefixed by P. A. 
Ramsay to his edition of TaDnahuTs works ; 
Semple's Poems and SoDgs, and Correspondence 
of Robert Tannahill; McCoDeohy's Life of 
Motherwell; Harp of Renfrewshire; Brown's 
Paisley Poets.] T. B. 

(1822-1890), keeper of the Art Librarv, 
South Kensington, was born on 25 Feb. 
1822. His father, Robert Smith of Dirleton, 
Haddingtonshire, was a captain in the 44th 
regiment, and served for some years in India. 
On his return he received the appointment of 
Athlone pursuivant-at-arms under Sir Ber- 
nard Burke, and settled in Dublin. 

The son, Robert Henry, was brought up 
in Scotland, and then sent to Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, with a view to his ordination, 
but that design was not fulfilled. He became 
tutor to John Charles Pratt, earl of Breck- 
nock (afterwards third Marquis Camden V 
and formed a lasting friendship with his pupil. 
On 1 March 1857 he was chosen a member 
of the staff at the South Kensington Museum, 
London, was appointed assistant keeper of 
the art museum and library on 25 June 
following, and became keeper of the national 
Art Library on 3 April 1868. The library 
was in an embryonic stage in 1857 when 
Smith entered on his work, and he was 
really the organiser of this branch of the 





museum, in which he gave a free rein to his 
keen instinct as a collector. 

A lover of nature in every form, Smith 
made a special study of the freshwater 
shells. In antiquarian pursuits he was 
equally interested in English and oriental 
pottery, and of both he formed large collec- 
tions. He also paid much attention to the 
history and forms of finger rings. As a juror 
he drew up the report on the porcelain at 
the exhibition of 1871. He also prepared 
the catalogue of the jewellery exhibited at 
South Kensington in 1872. He officially 
edited and partly compiled, for the use of 
students, several classified lists of books 
dealing with various arts and art industries, 
which are represented in the South Kensing- 
ton Museum. He resided at 65 The Grove, 
Hammersmith, but died, unmarried, in a 
private nursing home near Cavendish Square, 
on 20 June 1890. 

With his friend Professor A. H. Church, 
Smith brought out in 1890 some poems 
entitled ' Flower and Bird Posies.' 

[The. Academy, 5 July 1890, p. 16, signed 3, 
i.e. C. Drnry £. Fortnum ; Athenaeum, 28 June 
1890, p. 839 ; Times, 23 June 1890, p. 6 ; Illus- 
trated London News, 12 July 1890, p. 53, with 
portrait; information from W. H. James 
Weale, esq.] G. C. B. 

1895), dean of Canterbury. [See Payne 

'Bobus' Smith (1770-1845), advocate-gene- 
ral of Bengal, born in 1770, was eldest son 
of Robert Smith, and brother of Sydney 
Smith [a. v.] He entered Eton College in 
1782, ana became very intimate with John 
Hookham Frere [q.v.l, George Canning fa. v.], 
and Henry Richard vassal! Fox, third lord 
Holland [q. v.] With them in 1786 he started 
the school magazine entitled 'The Micro- 
cosm,' which ran for nearly a year, and pro- 
cured for Smith an introduction to Queen 
Charlotte. In 1788 he became a scholar on 
Dr. Battie'8 foundation, and in 1791 obtained 
Sir William Browne's medal for the best 
Latin ode. In the same year he entered 
King's College, Cambridge, and graduated 
B.A. in 1794 and M.A. in 1797. On 4 July 
of the same year he was called to the bar of 
Lincoln's Inn. In 1803, through the influ- 
ence of William Petty, first marquis of 
Lansdowne [q. v.], and Sir Francis Baring 
[q. v.], he obtained the appointment of ad- 
vocate-general of Bengal. In seven years he 
returned to England with a fortune, and 
settled in London. While in India he allowed 
his brother Sydney 100/. a year, and on his 

return lent him 500/. towards the expenses 
of his move into the country, and gave 100/. 
a year to support Sydney's eldest son at West- 

In 1812 Smith entered parliament as mem- 
ber for Grantham, but made no reputation as 
a speaker. At the general election of 1818 
he contested Lincoln unsuccessfully, but two 
years later he won the seat and sat as the 
representative of the borough until his retire- 
ment after the dissolution of 1826. 

Although Robert Percy never attained the 
fame of his brother Sydney, with whom he 
always maintained very affectionate rela- 
tions, yet those who were intimate with both 
held that ' Bobus ' equalled, if he did not 
surpass, him in the very qualities for which 
the younger was renowned. He was a man 
of great originality, a profound thinker, and 
of wide grasp of mind. His wit was pro- 
verbial, and his conversation provoked the 
admiration of Madame de Stael. His lan- 
guage was characterised by Canning as ' the 
essence of English,' and Landor declared that 
his Latin hexameters would not have dis- 
credited Lucretius. He died on 10 March 
1845 at his house in Savile Row, London. 
His country residence was at Cheam, Surrey. 
In 1797 he married Caroline, daughter of 
Richard Vernon, M.P. for Tavistock. She 
was half-sister of the mothers of the third 
Lord Holland and of the third Lord Lans- 
downe. By her Smith was father of Robert 
Vernon Smith, baron Lyveden [q. v.] 

A number of Smith's Latin verses were 
published by his son under the title of ' Early 
Writings of Robert Percy Smith,' Chiswick, 
1850, 4to. 

[Reid's Life and Times of Sydney Smith, 
pp. 4-14; Annual Register, 1845, p. 258; 
obituary notice by Lord Morpeth in the Morn- 
ing Chronicle, March 1845, reproduced as a pre- 
face to Early Writings; Harwood's Alumni 
Etonenses, p. 357; Memoirs of Sir James 
Mackintosh, i. 137, 208.] E. L C. 

SMITH (afterwards Vernon), ROBERT 
VERNON, Baron Lyveden (1800-1873), 
who was the nephew of Sydney Smith [q. v.], 
the witty canon of St. Paul's, was the only 
surviving son of Robert Percy Smith (' Bobus ' 
Smith) fa. v.] He was born on 23 Feb. 1800, 
and, having spent several years at Eton, ma- 
triculated from Christ Church, Oxford, on 
2 Feb. 1819, graduating B.A. (second class in 
classics) 1822, and the same year became a 
student of the Inner Temple, but was never 
called to the bar. Smith married, on 16 July 
1823, Emma Mary, daughter of John, second 
earl of Upper Ossory, and, being attracted 
by a political career, was chosen at a by-elec- 
tion for Tralee in June 1829, and re-elected 




the following year. On the accession of the 
whigs to power under Earl Grey, he accepted 
office as a junior lord of the treasury in 
November 1880, and discharged its duties 
until the fall of Melbourne's first administra- 
tion in November 1834. In Melbourne's 
second ministry he was joint secretary to 
the board of control for the affairs of India, 
April 1885 to September 1889, and under- 
secretary of state for war and the colonies 
from that date till September 1841, being 
sworn a member of the privy council on 
21 Aug. 1841. When Lord John Russell 
formed his first ministry in 1846, he did not 
apportion any office to Smith, who, how- 
ever, joined his government as secretary- 
at-war during the last three weeks of its 
existence, 6 to 28 Feb. 1862. Under Lord 
Palmerston he was president of the board of 
control, with a seat in the cabinet from 
February 1866 to March 1868, during the 
eventful period of the Indian mutiny. At 
the general election of 1881 he was elected 
M.P. for Northampton, for which he was 
afterwards re-elected ten times (at every 
election except one at the head of the poll), 
but vacated nis seat on being raised to the 

Storage as Baron Lyveden on 28 June 1869. 
y royal license on 14 July following he re- 
ceived permission to use the surname of Ver- 
non only instead of Smith, and to bear the 
arms of Vernon quarterly in the first quarter 
with his paternal arms, his issue having pre- 
viously been similarly authorised by royal 
license on 6 Aug. 1846. Lyveden, who was 
for many years a metropolitan commissioner 
in lunacy (established pursuant to 2 and 3 
Will. IV, c. 107), had his country seat at 
Farming Woods, near Thrapstone, Northamp- 
tonshire, of which county he was a deputy 
lieutenant. He was created a G.C.B. on 
13 July 1872, and died on 10 Nov. 1873. 

Lyveden edited in 1848 'Horace Wal- 
pole s Letters to the Countess of Ossory,' and 
in 1860 the ' Early Writings ' of his father, 
His speech in proposing the second reading 
of the Church Kates Abolition Bill in the 
House of Lords was printed in 1860. 

[Official Return of Members of Parliament; 
Foster's Peerage; Alison's Autobiography; Fos- 
ter's Alumni Oxon.] W. R. W. 

SMITH, SAMUEL (1587-1620), writer 
on logic, born in Lincolnshire in 1587, was 
entered as a commoner at Magdalen Hall, 
Oxford, on 19 Oct. 1604, and became a fellow 
of Magdalen College in 1608. He graduated 
B.A. on 25 Jan. 1608-9, M.A. 23 May 1612, 
and bachelor of medicine 15 April 1620. 
He was appointed junior proctor of the uni- 
versity on 28 April 1620, being then * ac- 

counted the most accurate disputant and 
profound philosopher in the university' 
(Wood, Athena Oxon. ii. 283). He died on 
17 June 1620, and was buried in the chapel 
of Magdalen College. 

Besides contributing verses to the univer- 
sity collections on the death of Henry, prince 
of Wales, 1612, and on the marriage of the 
Prince Palatine, 1613, he was author of a 
popular elementary manual of logic, entitled 
'Aditus ad Lojaficam, in usum eorum qui 

?rimo Academiam salutant,' Oxford, 1613, 
621, 1627, 1633, 1639, &c, 8vo. 

[Bloxam's Beg. of Magd. Coll. v. 29 ; Oxford 
Univ. Beg. vol. ii. pt. iv. 388 ; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon., early ser. iv. 1380; Madan's Oxford 
Press.] T. C. 

SMITH, SAMUEL (1684-1662 ?), ejected 
divine, born near Dudley about 1584, was 
the son of a clergyman. In the beginning of 
1603 he entered St. Mary Hall, Oxford, as a 
batler, but left the university without a degree. 
He was presented to the living of Prittlewell 
in Essex on 80 Nov. 1616 by Robert, lord Rich 
[see under Rich, Penelope, Lady Rich]. On 
the outbreak of the civil war Smith retired 
to London for safety, and identified himself 
with the presbyterians. He became famed 
as a preacher, and in 1648 received from 
parliament the perpetual curacy of Cound 
and Cre&sage in Shropshire, on the death 
of Richard Wood, the rector, sequestered 
for delinquency (2Z&£. MSS. Comm/fth. Rep. 
i. 26 a). On his settlement in the county he 
was appointed an assistant to the commis- 
sion for the ejection of 'scandalous and 
ignorant ministers and schoolmasters.' In 
1654 he was temporarily appointed to preach 
in Hereford Minster and the adjacent 
country, in place of Richard Delamain (Chi. 
State Papers, Dom. 1664, p. 224). On the 
Restoration he was ejected from his living 
at Cound. The date of his death is un- 
certain. Wood says that he was living in 
1663, but if he be identical with Samuel 
Smith of Sandon in Essex, as Calamy be- 
lieves, he was buried on 2 April 1662 (Obi- 
tuary of Richard Smyth, ed. Ellis, p. 65). 

Besides many separate sermons, Smith 
published : 1. ' David's Repentance, or a 
plain and familiar exposition of the Fifty- 
first Psalm,' London, 1618, 12 mo, which 
went through many editions. About 1765 a 
so-called thirty-first edition was printed at 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, which bears no resem- 
blance to the original work. 2. ' Joseph and 
his Mistress : five Sermons,' London, 1619, 
8vo. 3. ' Christ's Last Supper, or the Doc- 
trine of the Sacrament : five Sermons,' Lon- 
don, 1620, 8vo. 4. « The Great Assize ; or the 




Day of Jubilee/ London, 1628 (4th ed.) ; 1642, 
12mo ; 47th ed. 1757, 12mo. 5. « The Ethio- 
pian Eunuch's Conversion, the sum of Thirty 
Sermons/ London, 1632, 8vo. 6. ' David's 
Blessed Man : a short exposition of the First 
Psalm/ London, 1685, 8vo ; several editions. 
7. * Malice Stript and Whipt/ an attack on 
the Quakers, which called forth in answer 
* Innocency cleared from Lyes, in Reply to 
"Malice Stript and Whipt/* ' by I. B., Lon- 
don, 1658, 4to, and as a counter rejoinder, 
' Innocents no Saints, or a Pair of Spectacles 
for a dark-sighted Quaker/ London, 1658, 
4to. 8. 'A Fold for Christ's Sheep/ 82nd ed. 
London, 1684, 8vo. 

Wood says he had seen many editions of 
Smith's ' Christian's Guide, with Rules and 
Directions for a Holy Life.' 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 656; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Calamy's 
Nonconformist's Memorial, ed. Palmer, ii. 214, 
iii. 144; Chambers's Biographical Illustrations 
of Worcestershire, p. 115; Notes and Queries, 
3rd ser. iv. 501, xii. 200, 501 ; Bodleian Library 
Cat.] E. I. C. 

SMITH, Sir SIDNEY (1764-1840), ad- 
miral. [See Smith, Sir William Sidney.] 

SMITH,STEPHEN (162&-1678), quaker, 
born on 19 Sept. 1623, was a foreign mer- 
chant, and in tne early part of his life lived 
for a time at Scanderoon, the port of Aleppo 
in Asia Minor. Returning to England, he 
married, and lived at Pirbright. There, in 
1665, he became a <juaker through the preach- 
ing of George Whitehead [q. v.] His brother, 
John Smith of Worplesdon, Surrey, was first 
convinced. Stephen was imprisoned at South- 
wark with Whitehead and others for a month 
in 1668 for holding a meeting at Elsted. In 
1670 he was fined 24/. for preaching in the 
street at Guildford, the quakers being at the 
time barred out of their meeting-house. 
George Fox stayed with Smith soon after, and 
speaks of his losses (Journal, ed. 1891, ii. 
180). A few months later, while preaching 
at Ratclifle, Smith was arrested by soldiers 
and sent to Newgate for six months. In 
1673 Fox held a meeting of several hundreds 
of persons at his house. Gabriel or Giles 
Offley, the vicar of Worplesdon, in which 
parish he held land, sent him to the Mar- 
shalsea prison for six months for non-pay- 
ment of tithes. Offley also seized his five 
head of cattle in 1677, in lieu of 50*. tithe 
due. A few years later Smith travelled 
with Fox in Somerset, where they drew up 
' a breviat of sufferings ' for that county to 

S resent to the judges at Gloucester. Smith 
ied on 22 Sept. 1678 ; he was buried at 
Worplesdon on the 26th. His wife Susanna 

survived him. Three or four children prede- 
ceased him. He was author of : 1. ' A Trum- 
pet sounded in the Ears of Persecutors/ 
1670, 4to. 2. < A Proclamation to all the 
Inhabitants of England concerning Fasting 
and Prayer/ 1672-3, 4to. 8. 'The Blessed 
Works of the Light of God's Holy and 
Blessed Spirit/ 1673, 4to. 4. < Wholesome 
Advice and Information/ 1676, 4to; here he 
contrasts the conduct of the Turks with that 
of some Christians. 

[Whitehead's Christian Progress, pp. 291, 
319, 320; Whiting's Persecution Exposed, p. 
12 ; Marsh's Early Friends in Surrey and Sussex, 
p. 20 ; Besse's Sufferings, i. 481, 699, 700 ; Fox's 
Journal, ed. 1891, pp. 203, 264,318; Smith's 
Cat. of Friends' Books, ii. 699; Registers at 
Devonshire House.] C. F. S. 

(1806-1872), portrait-painter and president 
of the Royal Hibernian Academy, born at 
Skipton in Craven, Yorkshire, on 12 March 
1806, was son of Joseph Smith, artist and 
coach-painter, and Anne, his wife, daughter 
of Stephen Catterson of Gawflat, Yorkshire. 
His parents removed early in his life to 
Hull, and at the age of about sixteen Smith 
came up to London to support himself by the 
practical study of art. Obtaining admission 
to the schools of the Royal Academy, he 
distinguished himself in the competitions 
there, and afterwards studied in Paris. He 
first attracted notice by his skill in drawing 
portraits in black chalk, many of these being 
published in lithography by Richard James 
Lane, A.R.A. [q. vJ He made drawings of 
this class for H.K.H. the Duchess of Kent, 
of Queen Victoria (as princess), the duchess 
herself, the King of Hanover, and other 
members of the royal family. He then re- 
moved for a few years to Yeovil in Somerset- 
shire, returning, however, to London about 
1838, when he exhibited some portraits at 
the Royal Academy, About 1840 ne received 
some commissions to paint portraits in Ire- 
land, which led him to settle first at London- 
derry, and afterwards at Dublin, where he 
spent the remainder of his life. At Dublin 
Smith quickly became the leading portrait- 
painter of the day, and was considered very 
successful with his likenesses both in male 
and female portraits, painting something in 
the manner of Sir Thomas Lawrence [q. v.l 
Nearly every distinguished person in Ireland 
sat to Smith during his career in Dublin, in- 
cluding all the lord-lieutenants of Ireland for 
thirty years. In 1864 he painted from the 
life a full-length portrait or Queen Victoria 
for the corporation of Dublin. Many of his 
portraits were engraved. Smith was elected 
an associate of the Royal Hibernian Aca- 




demy of Arte on 11 May 1844, a full mem- 
ber on 13 Sept. following, and was elected 
president on 7 March 1869, holding this post 
until 1864. He was re-elected in 1868, but 
held the post for only a few months. He 
continued to paint up to the time of his death, 
which occurred suddenly on 20 May 1872. 

Smith married, in 1846, Anne, daughter of 
Robert Titus Wyke, an English artist, resid- 
ing at Wexford* She was herself a minia- 
ture-painter. By her Smith left six sons and 
four daughters," of whom Stephen Catter- 
eon Smith (a member of the Royal Hiber- 
nian Academy and practising in Dublin) and 
Robert Catterson Smith (practising in Lon- 
don) also adopted art as a profession. 

[Private information.] L. C. 

SMITH, SYDNEY (1771-1845), canon of 
St. Paul's, born on 3 June 1771 at Woodford, 
Essex, was the second son of Robert Smith. 
The latter had lost his father, a London 
merchant, in early youth. He retired from 
business, married Maria Olier, daughter of a 
French refugee, left her at the church door to 
'wander over the world/ and, after returning, 
bought, spoilt, and then sold nineteen dif- 
ferent places in England, ultimately settling 
at Bishop's Lydiard, Somerset, where he died 
in 1827, aged 88. Mrs. Smith was vivacious, 
modest, and beautiful, resembling Mrs. Sid- 
dons. The Smiths had four other children : 
Robert Percy Smith (known as ' Bobus ') [q.v.], 
born in 1770; Cecil in 1772; Courtenay in 
1773, and Maria in 1774. The sister, after 
her mother's death in 1802, took care of her 
father till her own death in 1816. The 
boys showed talent at an early age, especially 
by incessant argumentation. In the interests 
of fraternal peace the father sent Robert and 
Cecil to Eton, while Sydney and Courtenay 
went to Winchester. Sydney, after some time 
under a Mr. Marsh at Southampton, was ad- 
mitted upon the foundation at Winchester 
on 19 July 1782. He was bullied and half 
starved, and had to write ' about ten thousand 
Latin verses/ which were probably worse than 
his brother's, and which he at any rate re- 
gretted as sheer waste of life and time. He 
and Courtenay, however, won so many prizes 
that their schoolfellows sent in a round-robin 
refusing to compete against him. He was 
4 prefect of the hall' in his last year, and on 
6 Feb. 1789 became a scholar of New Col- 
lege, Oxford. At the end of his second year's 
residence he succeeded to a fellowship, which 
then brought 100/. a year. On this he sup- 
ported himself without help from his father, 
and managed to pay a debt of 80/. for his 
brother Courtenay. Nothing is known of 
Smith's Oxford career. He spent some months 

during this time in Normandy, where he had 
to join a Jacobin club in order to avoid sus- 
picion, and became a good French scholar. 
His father thought that he had done enough 
for his family by supporting ' Bobus' during 
his studies for the bar, and obtaining Indian 
writership8 for Cecil and Courtenay. He 
told Sydney that he might be ' a tutor or a 
parson/ Sydney, who had wished to go to 
the bar, was compelled to take orders. He 
was ordained in 1794 to the curacy of Nether 
Avon on Salisbury Plain. The squire of the 
parish was Michael Hicks Beach of William- 
strip Park, Fairford, Gloucestershire. Beach 
helped Smith in plans for improving the con- 
dition of the poor in that secluded parish, 
and in setting up a Sunday school, then the 
novelty of the day. He took a great liking 
to the young curate, and in 1797 asked him 
to become travelling tutor to his eldest son, 
Michael, the grandfather of the present Sir 
M. Hicks Beach. A scheme for a sojourn 
at Weimar was given up on account of the 
war, and Smith ultimately took his pupil to 
Edinburgh, which he reached in June 1798 
(Stuabt J. Reid, p. 39). Many other young 
men in a similar position were attracted to 
Edinburgh at this time by the fame of Dugald 
Stewart and the difficulties of access to the 
continent. Smith, always the most sociable 
of men, formed many intimacies with them 
and with the natives. Though he made end- 
less fun about the incapacity of Scots to take 
a joke without ' a surgical operation/ they at 
least appreciated the humour of Smith him- 
self. He formed lasting friendships with 
Jeffrey, Brougham, Francis Horner, Lord 
Webb Seymour, and others, and before 
leaving became an original member of the 
< Friday Club' with Dugald Stewart, Play- 
fair, Alison, and Scott, lie was on the most 
cordial terms with his pupil, and wrote letters 
full of fun and sense to the parents. In 
1800 he went to England to marry Catherine 
Amelia, daughter of John Pybus of Cheam, 
Surrey, a friend of his sister's, to whom he 
had long been engaged. The marriage took 
place at Cheam on 2 July 1800. The lady's 
father was dead, and, though her mother ap- 
proved, her brother Charles, at one time a 
lord of the admiralty, was indignant, and 
broke off all relations with his sister. Smith's 
whole fortune consisted of ' six small silver 
teaspoons;' but his bride had a small dowry, 
which he settled upon her. Mr. Beach pre- 
sented the Smiths with a cheque for 750/. 
Smith gave 100/. to an old lady in distress, 
and invested the remainder in the funds. 
He then returned to Edinburgh. His pupil 
had entered Christ Church, but was replaced 
by a younger brother. Smith had a second 





iupil, Alexander Gordon of Ellon Castle. 

tor each of them he received 400/. a year, 
the * highest sum which had then been given 
to any one except Dugald Stewart ' (Lady 
Holland, p. 98). During his stay at 
Edinburgh he preached occasionally at the 
Charlotte Chapel, and published in 1800 six 
of his sermons. Dugald Stewart declared 
that Smith's preaching gave him ' a thrilling 
sensation of sublimity never before awakened 
by any oratory' (ib. i. 127). 

In March 1802 Smith proposed to his 
friends Jeffrey and Brougham to start the 
'Edinburgh Review' (accounts in detail are 
given by Smith in the preface to his Col- 
lected Articles; Cocxbubn, Jeffrey, i. 125- 
187; and in Brougham's Life and Times, 
i. 251, 252), suggesting as a motto ' Tenui 
Musam meditamur avena.' Though not for- 
mally editor, he superintended the first three 
numbers. Smith contributed nearly eighty 
articles during the next twenty-five years 
(see list in Lady Holland, vol. i. App.) The 
great success of the review brought a repu- 
tation to the chief contributors. Smith's 
articles are among the best, and are now the 
most readable. Many of them are mere 
trifles, but nearly all show his characteristic 
style. He deserves the credit of vigorously 
defending doctrines then unpopular, and now 
generally accepted. Smith was a thorough 
whig of the more enlightened variety, and 
his attacks upon various abuses, though not 
in advance of the liberalism of the day, gave 
him a bad name among the dispensers of 
patronage at the time. His honesty and 
manliness are indisputable. Smith now re- 
solved to leave Edinburgh, in spite of a 
request from the Beaches, with whom he 
always retained his friendship, that he would 
continue his tutorial duties. He resolved to 
settle in London, in order to make a more 
permanent position. He settled after a time 
at a small house in Doughty Street, and 
looked about for a preacherehip. His wife 
sold some jewels presented to her by her 
mother for 500/. II e presumably made some- 
thing from the ' Edinburgh Review,' and he 
derived assistance from his brother ' Bobus.' 
Lady Holland says, however, that Sydney's 
finances at this period are' enigmatic ' (p. 123). 
Congregations to which he gave two or three 
1 random sermons' thought nim mad, and the 
clerk, he says, was afraid that he might bite. 
Sir Thomas Bernard [q.v.] took a more favour- 
able view of his style, and obtained his appoint- 
ment to the preachership at the Foundling 
Hospital , worth 50/. a year. He also preached 
alternately at the Fitzroy Chapel and the 
Berkeley Chapel. His fresh and racy preach- 
ing filled seats and the pockets of the proprie- 

tor. Through Bernard he was also invited to 
lecture upon ' Moral Philosophy ' at the Royal 
Institution. He gave three courses in 1804> 
1805, and 1806, receiving 50/. for the first 
and 120/. for the second, which enabled him 
to move into a better house in Orchard 
Street. The lecturer modestly professed to 
aim at no more than a popular exposition of 
'moral philosophy,' by which he meant Scot- 
tish psychology; but the ingenuity and 
humour of his illustrations, and his frequent 
touches of shrewd morality, made them sin- 
gularly successful. Albemarle Street was 
impassable. Galleries had to be added in 
the lecture-hall. There was such ' an uproar/ 
says Smith (Lady Holiand, ii. 487), as h& 
1 never remembered to have been excited by 
any other literary imposture.' Mrs. Marcet 
was alternately in fits of laughter and rapt 
enthusiasm, and Miss Fanshawe [q.v.] bought- 
a new bonnet to go to them, and wrote an ode 
to celebrate the occasion. Smith's friendships- 
lay chiefly among rising lawyers and men of 
letters. He provided weekly suppers at his 
house, with leave for any of his circle to drop 
in as they pleased. He belonged to the ' King 
of Clubs founded by his brother and Mackin- 
tosh, which included Romilly, Sam Rogers, 
Brougham, and others, chieny of the whig* 
persuasion {Life of Mackintosh, i. 1 38). Smith 
was naturally introduced at Holland House, 
the social centre of all the whig party, his* 
sister-in-law being Lord Holland's aunt. 
Smith was for once shy when entering the- 
august house of which the true whig spoke 
with ' bated breath,' but soon learnt to hold 
his own even with Lady Holland. When, 
the whigs were in power in 1806, Erskine, 
at the request of the Hollands, gave Smith 
the chancery living of Foston-le-Clay, eight 
miles from York, worth 500/. a year, fiis 
preacherehip at the Foundling Hospitalmade- 
residence unnecessary, and, after settling that 
a clergyman should go over from York to- 

ferform services, he continued in London, 
n 1807 he published the Plymley letters in 
defence of catholic emancipation — his most 
effectual piece of work. Sixteen editions 
were printed in the year. The letters were 
anonymous. The government, he says (pre- 
face to Works), took pains, without success, 
to discover the author. Somehow or other 
the authorship came to be guessed, he adds, 
though he ' always denied it.' The secret 
was probably not very serious, and was cer- 
tainly known to his mends, Lords Holland 
and Grenville (Lady Holland, i. 131), who» 
agreed in pointing out that Swift, the only 
author whom it recalled, ' had lost a bi- 
shoprick for his wittiest performance.' When 
the ' residence bill' was passed in 1808 




the archbishop of York called upon Smith 
to attend personally to his parish. XCo clergy- 
man had resided for 160 years, and the par- 
sonage-house was a ' hovel,' worth 60/. at 
the highest estimate. Smith had either to 
exchange his living or to build with the help 
of Queen Anne's bounty. He took his family 
to Hesslington, two miles from York, in 
June 1809. He could thence perform his 
duties at Foston, and try to arrange for an 
exchange. As an exchange could, not be 
effected, he resolved to build in 1813, though 
the archbishop ultimately excused him, and 
finally moved into his new house in March 
1814. The exile from London was painful, 
and Smith's biographers appear to think that 
he was somehow hardly treated. He took 
his position, however, cheerfully, and settled 
down to a country life. 

Smith was his own architect, and built a 
comfortable parsonage-house and good farm 
buildings. He bought an 'ancient green 
chariot, which he christened the ' Immortal/ 
to be drawn by his carthorses; had his 
furniture made by the village carpenter; 
caught up a girl ' made like a milestone/ 
christened her ' Bunch/ and appointed her 
butler. He made her repeat a quaint cate- 
chism, defining her various faults. Her 
real name was Annie Kay, and she nursed 
him in his last illness. His servants never 
left him except from death or marriage. 
He learnt farming, and wrote an amusing 
account of his first experiments to the 
* Farmers' Journal ' (given in Constable and 
his Correspondents, lii. 131 n.) He bred 
horses, though he could seldom ride with- 
out a fall. He was full of quaint devices ; 
directed his labourers with the help of a 
telescope and a speaking-trumpet ; and 
invented a ' universal scratcher ' for his 
cattle. He became a magistrate, got up 
Blackstone, and was famous for making up 
quarrels and treating poachers gently. He 
had attended medical lectures at Edinburgh, 
and by his presence of mind had saved the 
lives of more than one person in emergencies. 
He now set up a dispensary and oecame 
village doctor. He helped the poor bv pro- 
viding them with gardens at a nominal rent, 
still called « Sydney's Orchards ' ( S. J. Reid, 
p. 184). He was on the friendliest terms 
with the farmers, whom he had to dinner, 
and learnt, in Johnson's phrase, to 'talk of 
runts.' He studied Rumford to discover the 
best modes of providing cheap food for the 
poor, and his ingenious shrewdness recalls 
Franklin, whom he specially admired (Lady 
Holland, ii. 136). Smith found time for a 
good deal of reading, laying out systematic 
plans for keeping up his classics as well as 

reading miscellaneous literature. He was 
writing French exercises in the last year of 
his life (Moore, Diaries, vii. 370}. He 
had to work in the midst of his family. He 
was devoted to children, lived with his own 
on the most intimate terms, and delighted 
them with his stories. Smith's retirement 
and comparative poverty cut him off from 
much social intercourse ; but he occasionally 
made trips to London or Edinburgh, or 
received old friends on their travels. He 
became specially intimate with Lord Grey, 
to whom he paid an annual visit at Howick, 
and with the fifth and sixth earls of Car- 
lisle, whose seat, Castle Howard, is four 
miles from Foston. His position was im- 
proved by the death of his fathers sister in 
1820, who left him a fortune of 400/. a year. 
The Duke of Devonshire, at Lord Carlisle's 
request, soon afterwards gave him the 
living of Londesborough, near Foston, to be 
held till his nephew (a son of Lord Carlisle) 
should be of age to take it. Smith kept a 
curate, visiting the parish, which is within a 
drive, two or throe times a year. He now, 
for the first time, was at his ease. Anxiety 
about money matters had hitherto been a 
frequent cause of depression (Lady Holland, 
i. 264). His opinions or other causes had 
excluded him from preferment. In the 
spring of 1825 meetings of the clergy of 
Cleveland and Yorkshire were held to pro- 
test against catholic emancipation. Smith 
attended both, and made his first political 
speeches. He proposed a petition in favour 
of emancipation, which received only two 
other signatures, and at the second meeting 
was in a minority of one. The change of 
ministry in 1827 improved his chances. 
After Canning's death he wrote to a friend 
in power, stating his claims (Lady Holland, 
i. 268). At last, in January 1828, Lord 
Lyndhuret, the chancellor, though a politi- 
cal opponent, gave him a prebend at Bristol, 
from private friendship. Smith confessed 
frankly his delight on at last finding the 
spell broken which had prevented his prefer- 
ment. He confessed with equal frankness 
that he was ' the happier ' every guinea he 
gained (Lady Holland, i. 273). He gave 
up writing in the ' Edinburgh Review ' as 
not becoming to a dignitary. He offended the 
corporation of Bristol by preaching in favour 
of catholic emancipation ; and a sermon on 
6 Nov. 1828 induced them to give up for 
many years their custom of celebrating the 
day by a state visit to the cathedral. He 
now exchanged Foston for Combe-Florey, 
Somerset, six miles from Taunton, to which 
he moved in 1829. He brought his old ser- 
vants, while he could now for the first time* 




afford a library, began at once to rebuild his 
parsonage, welcomed his old friend Jeffrey, 
and soon made friends of his parishioners. 
He attended reform meetings, and on 
11 Oct. 1881 made his famous speech at 
Taunton, comparing the House of Lords to 
Mrs. Partington resisting the Atlantic Ocean. 
Mrs. Partington at once became proverbial. 
Lord Grey had, in the previous month, made 
him canon-residentiary of St. Paul's. He 
had now made up his mind that he was un- 
equal to a bishopric, but, as his daughter 
tells us, he was deeply hurt that his friends 
never gave him the opportunity of refusing 
one (Lady Holland, i. 282V Henceforth 
he had to reside three months of the year 
in London. He showed himself to be a good 
man of business in cathedral matters, and 
his sermons were admitted to be forcible 
and dignified. He was, however, chiefly 
famous for his social charm. He was ac- 
quainted with everybody of any mark, and 
a familiar figure at the Athenaeum Club. 
On the death of his brother Courtenay, in 
1839, he inherited 50,000/., and took a house, 
No. 56 Green Street, Gros venor Square (pulled 
down in December 1896), where he could 
fully indulge his hospitable propensities. 

Smith's reforming zeal showed its limits 
on the appointment of the ecclesiastical com- 
mission. He found himself ' arguing against 
the archbishop of Canterbury and the bishop 
of London for the existence of the National 
Church/ namely, in the 'Letters to Arch- 
deacon Thomas Singleton ' [q. v.], published 
in 1837. Nobody could put more wittily the 
argument that, by levelling church incomes, 
the inducements to men of ability to become 
clergymen would be seriously diminished. 
He of course did not object to reform ' in 
the abstract/ but to a given reform. Smith, 
however, though a good whig, had a 
thorough aversion to radicals or levellers, 
and had expressed similar opinions in early 
articles (Lady Holland, i. 324 ; and article 
on « Curates' Salary Bill '). 

Smith wrote a pamphlet against the 
ballot in 1839. His last literary perfor- 
mance was a petition to the United States 
congress in 1843 complaining of the state of 
Pennsylvania, which had suspended the 
interest on its bond; he published it in 
the ' Morning Chronicle/ and followed it 
by letters which made some sensation in 
both countries. Payments were resumed 
soon after his death. The last years of his 
life, however, passed peacefully; and his 
letters show the old spirit to the end. In 
the autumn of 1844 he was brought from 
Combe-Florey to be under the care of his 
son-in-law, Dr. Holland. He died at Green 

Street on 22 Feb. 1845, and was buried at 
Eensal Green. 

Mrs. Smith died in 1852. Four of Smith's 
children survived infancy. Saba, born in 
1802 (a. name which he invented in order 
that sue might not have two commonplace 
names), married Dr. (afterwards Sir) Henry 
Holland in 1834, wrote her father's life, and 
died in 1866 ; Douglas, born 1805, was dis- 
tinguished at Westminster and Christ 
Church, and died on 15 April 1829, to his 
father's lasting sorrow ; Emily, born in 1807, 
married Nathaniel Ilibbert of Munden 
House, Watford, on 1 Jan. 1828, and died 
in 1874; Windham was born in 1813, and 
survived his father. 

Bishop Monk of Gloucester said (see third 
Letter to Singleton) that Smith had got his 
canonry for being a scoffer and a jester. 
The same qualities were said by others to 
have prevented his preferment in the vir- 
tuous day 8 of tory ministers. His jesting 
is undeniable. People, as Greville says 
(Journals, 2nd ser. ii. 273), met him prepared 
to laugh ; and conversation became a series 
of ' pegs ' for Smith ' to hang his jokes on.' 
His drollery produced uproarious merriment. 
Mackintosh is described as rolling on the 
floor, and his servants had often to leave 
the room in fits of laughter (Moore, Jour- 
nals, vol. vi. p. xiii ; Brougham, Life and 
Times, i. 246). If he sometimes verged upon 
buffoonery, he avoided the worst faults of the 
professional wit. His fun was the sponta- 
neous overflow of superabundant animal 
spirits. He was neither vulgar nor malicious. 
'You have been laughing at me for seven 
years/ said Lord Dudley, ' and have not said a 
word that I wished unsaid' (Lady Holland, 
i. 417). He burnt a pamphlet of his own 
which he thought one of ' the cleverest he 
had ever read/ because he feared that it 
might pive pain to his antagonists (ib. ii. 427). 
His wildest extravagances, too, were often 
the] vehicle of sound arguments, and his 
humour generally played over the surface of 
strong good sense. His exuberant fun did 
not imply scoffing. He was sensitive to the 
charge of indifference to the creed which he 
professed. He took pains to protest against 
any writing by his allies which might shock 
believers. He had strong religious convic- 
tions, and could utter them solemnly and 
impressively. It must, however, be admitted 
that his creed was such as fully to account 
for the suspicion. In theology he followed 
Paley, and was utterly averse to all mysti- 
cism in literature or religion. He ridiculed 
the ' evangelicals/ and attacked the metho- 
dists with a bitterness exceptional in his 
writings. He equally despised in later days 


I2 3 


the party then called ' Puseyites.' He was 
far more suspicious of an excess than of a 
defect of zeal. His writings upon the esta- 
blished church show a purely secular view of 
the questions at issue. He assumes that a 
clergyman is simply a human being in a 
surplice, and the church a branch of the 
civil service. He had apparently few cleri- 
cal intimacies, and his chief friends of the 
'Edinburgh Review' and Holland House 
were anything but orthodox. Like other 
clergymen of similar tendencies, he was 
naturally regarded by his brethren as some- 
thing of a traitor to their order. Nobody, 
however, could discharge the philanthropic 
duties of a parish clergyman more ener- 
getically, and his general goodness and the 
strength of his affections are as unmistak- 
able as his sincerity and the masculine force 
of his mind. 

A portrait in oils, by E. U. Eddis, belongs 
to Miss Holland. 

An engraving from a portrait of Smith is 
in later editions of his ' Works ; ' and one 
from a miniature is in the ' Life ' by Mr. Reid. 
A caricature is in the Maclise Portrait 

Smith's works are: 1. Six Sermons, 
preached at Charlotte Chapel, Edinburgh, 
1800. 2. Sermons, 1801. 8. 'Letters on 
the Subject of the Catholics to my brother 
Abraham, who lives in the Country, by 
Peter Plymley,' 1807-8; collected 1808. 
4. Sermons, 1809, 2 vols. 8vo. 5. ' Letter to 
the Electors on the Catholic Question/ 1808. 
6. ' Three Letters to Archdeacon Singleton/ 
1887-8-9, collected. 7. 'The Ballot/ 1839. 
8. 'Works/ 1889, 3 vols. 8vo. A fourth 
volume in 1840. Later editions in 8 vols., 
1845, 1847, 1848. The « Travellers' edition ' 
appeared in 1850, and was reprinted in 1851 
and 1854. The ' Pocket edition/ in 3 vols. 
8vo, 1854; the 'People's edition/ 2 vols. 
cr. 8vo, in 1859 ; and a new edition, in 1 vol. 
cr. 8vo, in 1869. This collection includes the 
Plvmley and Singleton letters, most of the 
'Edinburgh Review* articles, the 'Ballot' 
pamphlet, notices of Mackintosh and Horner, 
a few sermons, speeches, and fragments. 
9. ' A Fragment on the Irish Roman Catho- 
lic Church/ 1845 (six editions). 10. 'Ser- 
mons at St. Paul's, the Foundling Hospi- 
tal, and several churches in London/ 1846. 
11. 'Elementary Sketches of Moral Philo- 
sophy/ delivered at the Royal Institution in 
1804, 1805, 1806 (privately printed and 
afterwards published in 1850) ; some sermons 
were separately printed. ' Selections ' were 

Sublished in 1855, and his ' Wit and Wis- 
om' in 1861. Smith wrote an account 
of English misrule in Ireland, which made 

' so fearful a picture ' that he hesitated to 
publish it. In 1847 Mrs. Smith showed it 
to Macaulay, by whose advice it was sup- 
pressed as a repetition of grievances since 
abolished, and likely to serve demagogues 
(Lady Holland, i. 189). 

[The chief authority for Smith's life is A 
Memoir of the Reverend Sydney Smith, by his 
daughter, Lady Holland, with a selection from 
his Letters, edited by Mrs. Austin, 2 vols. 8vo, 
1865 (cited from 3rd edition). This contains 
many anecdotes collected by Smith's widow, and, 
after her death, prepared by his daughter. A 
Sketch of the Life and Times of Smith, by Stuart 
J. Reid, 1884 (cited from 2nd edition), supplies 
a few facts with additional information from the 
family. See also Houghton's Monographs ( 1 8 78), 
pp. 259-93 ; Crabb Robinson's Diary, iii. 97, 
148, 187, 197, 215, 344; Ticknor's Life and 
Letters.i. 265,413,414, 417,418, ii. 146, 150, 214, 
216 ; Moore's Journals, iv. 52, 53, v. 70, 75, 80, vi., 
xii. 263, 264, 315, vii. 13, 15, 150, 173 ; Constable 
and his Literary Correspondents, iii. 131, 132, 
&c. ; Brougham 8 Life and Times, i. 246-54 ; Gre- 
vi lie Memoirs (first series), iii. 39, 44, 166, 317, 
394 (second series), ii. 273-4 ; Horner's Memoirs, 
i. 151, 293, 299 ; Princess Liechtenstein's Hol- 
land House, i. 99, 159, 162, ii. 131 ; Barham's 
Life and Letters (1870), ii. 167-8.] L. S. 

1852), divine, son of Thomas Smith of Mid- 
dlesex, was born in 1798. He was originally 
a presbyterian, and studied at Glasgow Uni- 
versity, but being convinced by reading 
Hooker that episcopacy was the scriptural 
form of church government, he resolved to 
enter the English church. He accordingly 
matriculated from Queens' College, Cam- 
bridge, on 4 Jan. 1828, graduating B.A. in 
1827, and M.A. in 1830. After serving a 
curacy in Huntingdonshire and another in 
Essex, he was appointed assistant preacher 
at the Temple in 1885. In 1839 and 1840 he 
filled the post of Hulsean lecturer at Cam- 
bridge, and in 1845 he was presented to the 
living of Newhaven in Sussex. In March 
1848, when Louis-Philippe took refuge in 
England after his deposition, Theyre Towns- 
end received him on his landing at New- 
haven. In the same year Thomas Turton 
[q. v.], bishop of Ely, who had expressed 
great approbation of his lectures, collated 
him to the vicarage of Wymondham in Nor- 
folk. In 1850 he was appointed honorary 
canon of Norwich. He died on 4 May 1852 
at Wymondham. 

He married Eebecca, second daughter of 
Thomas Williams of Coate in Oxfordshire. 

Smith was the author of: 1. ' Sermons 
preached at the Temple Church and before 
the University of Cambridge,' London, 1838, 
8vo. 2. 'Hulsean Lectures for the Year 




1839/ London, 1840, 8vo. 3. l Hulsean 
Lectures for the Year 1840/ London, 1841, 
8vo. 4. 'Remarks on the Influence of Trac- 
tarianism in promoting Secessions to the 
Church of Rome/ London, 1851, 8vo. 
6. « The Sacrifice of the Death of Christ/ 
London, 1851, 12mo. 

[Oent. Mag. 1852, ii. 97, 317 ; English Re- 
view, xvii. 445 ; Burke's Landed Gentry, ed. 
1850, ii. 1599 ; information kindly supplied by 
the master of Queens' College, Cambridge.] 

E. I. C. 

SMITH, Sib THOMAS (1513-1577), 
statesman, scholar, and author, eldest son of 
John Smith {d. 1557), by his wife, Agnes 
Chamock (d. 1547), a native of Lancashire, 
was born at Safiron Walden, Essex, on 
23 Dec. 1513 {Archceoloyia, xxxviii. 104). 
The father, who claimed descent from Sir 
Roger de Clarendon, an illegitimate son of 
the Black Prince {Essex Visitations, Harl. 
Soc. pp. 710-11), was a man of wealth and 
position. In 1538-9 he served as sheriff of 
Essex and Hertfordshire, and in 1545 the 
grant of a coat-of-arms was confirmed to 
him (Stbtpb, Life of Sir T. Smith, pp. 2-3 ; 
see many references to him in Letters and 
Papers of Henry VIII, esp. vol. iy.) A 
younger brother, John, was mainly instru- 
mental in procuring a charter of incorpora- 
tion for Safiron Walden in 1549. 

From Thomas's circumstantial account of 
his own infancy (extant in Addit. MS. 325), 
he appears to have been a child of weak 
health, but was strongly addicted to reading 
history, to painting, writing, and even to carv- 
ing. He was educated at a grammar school 
{Letters and Papers, iv. 1314), probably at 
Safiron Walden, and before May 1525 was 
placed under the care of Henry Gold of 
St. John's College, Cambridge. Among 
other instructions as to his education, his 
father desired Gold to teach him * plain song, 
which, afore he went to grammar school, he 
could sing perfectlv, and had some insight 
in his prick-song' (ib.} In 1526 he entered 
Queens' College, and aoout Michaelmas 1527, 
apparently through Cromwell's influence, he 
was appointed king's scholar {id. p. 3406). 
On 25 Jan. 1529-30, being then B.A., he was 
elected fellow of Queens'. He graduated M. A. 
in the summer of 1533, and in the following 
autumn, having been appointed a public 
reader or professor, he lectured on natural 
philosophy in the schools, and on Greek in his 
own rooms. Among his pupils were John 
Ponet [q.v.], afterwards bishop of Winchester, 
and Ricnard Eden [q. v.] In 1538 he became 
public orator, and soon afterwards came under 
the notice of Henry VIII, before whom, 
shortly after Queen Jane's death, he and his 

friend John Cheke [q. v.] declaimed on the 
question whether the king should marry an 
Englishwoman or a foreigner. In the same 
year he was sent by the university to ask the 
king to grant it one of the dissolved mona- 
steries, and to found a college ' as an eternal 
monument of his name ' {ib. xui. ii. 496). 

In May 1540 Smith went abroad to pursue 
his studies ; he was not therefore, as Tanner 
says, the Thomas Smith, clerk of the council 
to the queen, who, with William Gray, late 
servant to Cromwell, was on 4 Jan. 1540-1 
committed to the Fleet ' for writing invec- 
tives against one another ' (Nicolas, Acts of 
the Privy Council, vii. 105, 107 ; Letters and 
Papers, xv. 21). After visiting Paris and 
Orleans, Smith proceeded to Padua, where 
he graduated D.C.L. On his return in 1642 
he was incorporated LL.D. at Cambridge. 
Smith now took a leading part in reforming 
the pronunciation of Greet. The early re- 
nascence scholars had adopted, from modern 
Greeks, the corrupt method of pronouncing 
fj t c, and t all as 1, and Smith sought to re- 
store the correct pronunciation of tj and L 
The attempt caused a prolonged agitation in 
the university ; Smith, Cheke, and their ad- 
herents were called ' etists,' and their oppo- 
nents ' itists ' (Hallam, Lit. of Europe, i. 
340 ; A. J. Ellis, English Pronunciation of 
Greek, 1876, pp. 6-6). Gardiner, as chan- 
cellor of the university, ordered a return to 
the old pronunciation, and in reply Smith 
wrote an epistle to him dated 12 Aug. 1542, 
and subsequently published (Paris, 15o8, 4to) 
under the title ' De recta et emendata Linguae 
Grffic» Pronuntiatione.' To it was appended 
Smith's tract advocating a reform of the 
English alphabet, and extending the number 
of vowels to ten, a scheme of which is 
printed in the appendix to Strype's ' Life of 
Smith,' p. 183. 

Tn January 1543-4 Smith was appointed 
regius professor of civil law at Cambridge ; 
in the same year he served as vice-chancellor 
of the university, and became chancellor to 
Goodrich, bishop of Ely, by whom, in 1545, 
he was collated to the rectory of Levering- 
ton, Cambridgeshire, and in 1546 was or- 
dained priest {Archceologia, xxxviii. 106). 
According to Smith's own statement, which 
is not confirmed by Le Neve, he received a 
prebend in Lincoln Cathedral. Shortly be- 
fore the end of Henry's reign he was deputed 
by the university to secure Queen Catherine 
Parr's influence m preventing the acquisition 
of college property by the king. 

Smith had earlv adopted protestant views, 
and had distinguished himself in protecting 
reformers at Cambridge from Gardiner's hos- 
tility. The accession of Edward VI accord- 




ingly brought him into greater prominence, 
and in February 1646-7 ne entered the ser- 
vice of Protector Somerset, whose brother-in- 
law, Sir Clement Smith of Little Baddow, 
Essex [see under Smith, Sib John, 1634 P- 
16071, was perhaps a relative of Thomas 
Smith. The latter was made clerk of the 
privy council, steward of the stannary court, 
and master of the court of requests which 
the Protector set up in his own house to 
deal with the claims of poor suitors. Smith 
set out with Somerset on the Scottish ex- 
pedition (August-September 1647), hut was 
laid up at York witn a fever. Before the 
end of the year he became provost of Eton 
and dean of Carlisle. On 17 April 1648 
he was sworn one of the two principal 
secretaries of state in succession to Paget, 
his colleague being Sir William Petre [q. v.] 
In the following June he was sent on a 
special mission to Flanders, to negotiate for 
the levy of mercenaries, and to secure as far 
as possible the support of the emperor in the 
impending war with France. He reached 
Brussels on 1 July, but met with little suc- 
cess, and returned in August. In October 
he was employed in formulating the English 
claims of feudal suzerainty over Scotland. In 
the following January he took an activepart in 
the examinations of Sir William Shanngton 
[q. v.] and Thomas Seymour, lord Seymour 
of Sudeley [a. v.] Soon afterwards he was 
knighted. He was likewise consulted about 
the reform of the coinage, and advised the 
prohibition of ( testons.' He was a member 
of the commissions appointed to visit the 
universities (November 1648), to examine 
Arians and anabaptists (April 1649), and 
to deal with Bonner (September 1649). His 
proceedings on the latter were especially 
obnoxious to Bonner, who was imprisoned in 
the Tower for his behaviour to Smith. 

Smith remained faithful to the Protector 
to the last. He was with him at Hampton 
Court in October, and accompanied him 
thence to Windsor, where, on the 10th, he 
was removed from the council and from his 
post of secretary, and deprived of his pro- 
fessorship at Cambridge. On the 14th he 
was imprisoned in the Tower, whence he 
was released on 10 March 1649-60, on ac- 
knowledging a debt of 3,000/. to the king. 
In the same year he was summoned as a 
witness against Gardiner, and, with Cecil, 
drew up the articles for the bishop to sign ; 
but he seems to have used his influence in 
Gardiner's favour, a service which Gardiner 
repaid under Mary's reign. In May 1661 
Smith accompanied Northampton on his em- 
bassy to the French court. He returned in 
August, and in October was placed on a 

commission to ' rough-hew the canon law.' 
But for the most part he lived at Eton, 
where his relations with the fellows were 
somewhat strained. Early in 1662 he was 
summoned before the council to answer their 
complaints; but in the following autumn 
Northumberland and his principal adherents 
dined with Smith at Eton and decided the 
dispute in his favour. In October he was 
selected to discuss with the French commis- 
sioners the claims for compensation on the 
part of French merchants. 

In August 1668, a month after Mary's ac- 
cession, Smith was summoned before the 
queen's commissioners, but Gardiner's friend- 
snip secured him from molestation, and he 
even obtained an indulgence from the pope 
(Stktpb, p. 47). On 8 Sept. he was re- 
turned to parliament as member for Gram- 
pound, Cornwall. In the following year, 
however, he resigned the provostship of Eton 
and deanery of Carlisle quasi sponte, as he 
says himself, and perhaps in order to marry 
his second wife. For the remainder of 
Mary's reign he lived in retirement, busy 
with his studies and building. The accession 
of Elizabeth once more brought him public 
employment. On 22 Dec. 1668 he was 
placed on a commission ' for the considera- 
tion of things necessary for a parliament,' 
and on 6 Jan. 1668-9 was elected member 
for Liverpool. He was also a member of the 
ecclesiastical commission to revise the Book 
of Common Prayer, which met at his house 
in Cannon Row, Westminster. In the fol- 
lowing year he was in attendance on John, 
duke of Friesland, son of the king of Sweden, 
during his visit to England, and in 1660 
wrote a dialogue on the question of the 
queen's marriage, which is extant in Addit. 
MS. 4149, Ashmole MS. 829, and Cambr. 
Univ. MS. Gg. 8, and is printed in the Ap- 
pendix to his life by Strype (pp. 184-269). 

In September 1662 Smith was sent am- 
bassador to France, a post of great difficulty 
and some danger, owing to the civil war 
between the Guises and the Huguenots. 
Elizabeth had decided to help the latter and 
herself at the same time by seizing Havre, 
and Smith's position at Paris was threatened 
by the Guise party. From 28 Aug. to 1 7 Sept. 
1663 he was even imprisoned at Melun. His 
task was rendered more difficult by the re- 
tention of Sir Nicholas Throgmorton [q.v.] 
as joint ambassador, and the lack of con- 
fidence with which the two were treated by 
Elizabeth, coupled with mutual jealousy, led 
on one occasion to a violent outbreak between 
them (Lettres de Catherine de Mtdicis, ii. 
171 ; Henry M. Baird, Rise of the Hugue- 
nots, ii. 128). At length, on 12 April 1664, 




the peace of Troyes was signed between Eng- 
land and France. Smith remained two years 
longer in France, following the court. In 
May 1564 he set out to visit Geneva ; in No- 
vember he was at Tarascon, and in January 
1564-5 was ill at Toulouse. He returned to 
England in May 1566. Between three and 
four hundred letters from him describing his 
embassy are calendared among the foreign 
state papers, and these are supplemented by 
numerous references in the ' Lettres de Ca- 
therine de M6dicis/ 5 vols., printed in * Col- 
lection de Documents in6dits,' 1880-95. On 
22 March 1566-7 Smith was again sent to 
France to make a formal demand for the 
surrender of Calais, returning in June. 

After an ineffectual suit for the chancel- 
lorship of the duchy of Lancaster, which was 
given to Sir Ralph Sadler [q. v.], and after 
spending three years in retirement in Essex, 
Smith was on 5 March 1570-1 readmitted a 
member of the privy council. In the autumn 
of that year he was commissioned to inquire 
into the conspiracy of the Duke of Norfolk, 
and in the examination of two of the duke's 
servants torture was used, much to Smith's 
disgust. Early in 1572 Smith was once 
more sent as ambassador to France to dis- 
cuss the marriage of D'Alencon with Eliza- 
beth, and the formation of a league against 
Spain. During his absence he was in April 
made chancellor of the order of the Garter 
in succession to Burghley, and on the 15th 
of that month was elected knight of the 
shire for Essex. Soon after his return he 
was on 13 July appointed secretary of state. 
In the same year he persuaded Elizabeth 
to send help to the Scottish protestants. 
During the following years, besides his official 
work, Smith was engaged in his project for 
a colony at Ards, co. Down (cf. A Letter . . . 
wherein is a large discourse of the peopling 
. . .the Ardes . . . taken in hand by Sir T. 
Smithy 1572), and his experiments for trans- 
muting iron into copper. For the latter 
purpose he formed a company, called the 
i Society of the New Art/ which was joined 
by Burghley and Leicester, but was soon 
abandoned, after involving all the parties in 
considerable loss. In 1575 he accompanied 
the queen in her progress, and in the same 
year procured an act ' for the better mainte- 
nance of learning ' (Fuller, Hist, Catnbr. 
p. 144). His health failed in March 1575-6, 
when his attendance at the council ceased, 
and he died at Theydon Mount, Essex, on 
12 Aug. 1577. He was buried in the chancel 
of the parish church, where a monument 
was raised to his memory, with inscriptions 

Printed by Strype. By his will, dated 18 Feb. 
576-7, and printed in Strype, he left his 

library (of which Strype prints a catalogue) 
to Queens' College, Cambridge, to which he 
had in 1573 given an annuity for the mainte- 
nance of two scholars. Verses to Smith are 
in Leiand's ' Encomia ' (p. 87), and Gabriel 
Harvey [q. v.], apparently a kinsman, pub- 
lished m 1578 a laudatory poem on him, en- 
titled ' Smythus Valdinatus [i.e. of Walden], 
sive Musarum Lachrymae pro obitu clarissimi 
Thorn© Smyth ' (cf. Harvey's Letter-book, 
Camden Soc. 1884). 

A portrait of Smith, [by Holbein, is at 
Theydon Mount, and a copy made in 1856 
by P. Fisher was presented to Eton College 
by Lady Bowyer Smijth. An engraving by 
Houbraken was prefixed to Birch's ' Lives/ 
another by James Fittler, AJI.A., after a 
drawing by William Skelton, to Strype's Life, 
1820, and a third to Gabriel Harvey's « La- 
chrym» pro Obitu,' 1578. Another portrait 
is at Queens' College, Cambridge. 

Smith was twice married, first, on 15 April 
1548, to Elizabeth, daughter of William Uar- 
kek or Carkyke, who, born on 29 Nov. 1529, 
died without issue in 1552 ; and, secondly, 
on 23 July 1554, to Philippa, daughter of 
John Wilford of London, and widow of Sir 
John Hampden (d. 21 Dec. 1553) of Theydon 
Mount, Essex ; sne survived him, dying with- 
out issue in 1584. Smith's principal heir was 
his nephew William (d. 1626), son of his 
brother George, a draper of London. It has 
been suggested that he was the ' W. Smithe ' 
to whom has been attributed the authorship 
of 'A Discourse of the Common Weal,' 1581 ; 
but there is no evidence to support the con- 
jecture (Lamond, Discourse, p. 35 ; cf. art. 
Stafford, William, 1554-1612). William's 
son Thomas was created a baronet in 1661, 
and was ancestor of the present baronet, 
whose family adopted the spelling Smijth. 
Sir Thomas's illegitimate son Thomas, born 
on 15 March 1546-7, accompanied his father 
on his French embassies, and was subse- 
quently placed in charge of his father's colony 
at Ards, where he was killed, in an encoun- 
ter with the Irish, on 18 Oct. 1573, leaving 
no issue. 

Smith has generally been considered one 
of the most upright statesmen of his time. 
He adhered to moderate protestant views 
consistently through life, and his fidelity to 
Somerset is in striking contrast with the 
conduct of most of his contemporaries. That 
his morals were somewhat lax is proved 
by his confession that his illegitimate son 
was born just a year after he took priest's 
orders. He shared the prevailing faith in 
astrology, a volume of nis collections on 
which subject is extant in Addit. MS. 825. 
Nor was he quite free from the prevailing 




passion for worldly goods. In a letter (Harl. 
MS. 6989, ff. 141 et seq.) written to the 
Duchess of Somerset, who had countenanced 
charges of rapacity and bribery brought 
against him, Smith gives an account of nis 
income. From his professorship he derived 
40/. a year, from the chancellorship of Ely 
60/., and from the rectory of Leverington 
36/.; but though he kept three servants, 
' three summer nags, and three winter geld- 
ings/ he spent but 30/. a year, and saved the 
rest. His fee as secretary of state was 100/. 
a year, and his income from Eton varied from 
80/. in one year to nothing- in the next. On 
his resignation of it and tne deanery of Car- 
lisle, which produced 80/. a year, Queen 
Mary allowed him a pension of 100/. He 
purchased from the chantry commissioners 
the ' college of Derby,' worth 84/. a year. 
He built a new mansion at Ankerwick, near 
Eton, 1551-3, and commenced another, Hill 
Hall, Theydon Mount, Essex, with which 
his second wife was jointured. 

A 8 a classical scholar Smith was the rival 
of Cheke, and his friends included the chief 
scholars of the time both in England and on 
the continent. He was also an accomplished 
'physician, mathematician, astronomer, ar- 
chitect, historian, and orator.' Besides his 
tracts on the reform of the Greek and Eng- 
lish languages, and on the marriage of Eliza- 
beth, mentioned above, and his voluminous 
diplomatic and private correspondence, se- 
lections of which were published in Digges's 
' Compleat Ambassador/ 1655, and inWnght's 
'Queen Elizabeth/ 1838, Smith translated 
* Certaigne Psalms or Songues of David/ 
extant in Brit. Museum Royal MS. 17 A. 
xvii., and wrote tracts on the wages of a 
Roman foot-soldier and on the coinage, both 
of which are printed in Strype's Appendix. 
But his principal work was his 'De Re- 
publica Anglorum ; the Maner of Govern- 
ment or Policie of the Realm of England/ 
which he wrote in English during his first 
embassy in France. It is the most important 
description of the constitution and govern- 
ment of England written in the Tudor age. 
It was first printed at London in 1583, 4to ; 
it passed through eleven editions in English 
in little more than a century, viz. 1584, 1589, 
1594, 1601, 1609, 1621, 1633, 1635, 1640, 
and 1691. The editions from 1589 onwards 
have the title 'The Common Welth of Eng- 
land.' Latin translations were published 
in 1610? 1625, 1680, and 1641. A Dutch 
version of the portions dealing with parlia- 
ment appeared at Amsterdam in 1673, and 
a German version at Hamburg in 1688. 

[Strype's Life of Sir T. Smith was first pub- 
lished in 1 698. The edition quoted above is that 

published at Oxford in 1 820. On this is mainly 
based the unusually fall account in Cooper's 
Athenie Cantabr. i. 368-75. But neither 8trype 
nor Cooper, though referring to it, made any 
use of Smith's volume of astrological collections 
extant in Addit. MS. 325. This contains valuable 
autobiographical details, which supplement and 
correct Strype in many essential particulars, e.g. 
the date of his birth, his ordination, &c. At- 
tention was first directed to it by John Gough 
Nichols, who in 1859 published in Archseologia, 
xixviii. 98-126, the principal additions thus 
supplied. Some information was added in the 
Wiltshire Archool. Mag. xviii. 257 et seq., where 
Canon Jackson published some letters from 
Smith extant among the Longleat Papers. See 
also, besides authorities cited, Gairdner's Letters 
and Papers of Henry VIII ; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. Foreign and Venetian Ser. ; Cal. Hatfield 
MSS. ; Haynes and Murdin's Burghley Papers ; 
Acts of the Privy Council, ed. Dasent, 1542- 
1577; Lettres de Catherine de Medicis, 1880- 
1895 ; Lit. Remains of Edward VI (Roxburghe 
Club); Wriothesley's Chron. (Camden Soc) ; 
Parker Corr. (Parker Soc) ; Corr. Polit. de Odet 
de Selve, 1886; Stow's Annals and Holinshed's 
Chron. ; Camden's Elisabeth, ii. 318-19 ; Foxe's 
Actes and Monuments; Fuller's Church Hist, 
ii. 254 ; Burnet's Hist. Reformation, ed. Pocock ; 
H. M. Baird's Rise of the Huguenots, 1880, 
vol. ii. passim ; Hume's Courtships of Queen 
Elizabeth, 1897; Granger's Biogr. Hist.; Tan- 
ner's Bibl. Brit -Hi b. ; Le Neve's Fasti, ed. Hardy ; 
Official Return of Members of Pari. ; Harwood's 
Alumni Eton. pp. 4 et seq. ; Maxwell-Lyte's Hist. 
Eton Coll. ; Creasy's Eminent Etonians ; Lloyd's 
State Worthies ; Morant's Essex ; Lipscomb's 
Bucks; Barrett's Highways, &c of Essex, i. 158- 
159,ii.l71,191 : Burke's Peerage, s.v. 'Smyth;' 
Tytler's, Lingard's.and Froude's Histories ; R.W. 
Dixon's Hist, of Church of England.] A. F. P. 

SMITH, Sib THOMAS (1566 P-1609), 
master of requests, born at Abingdon, Berk- 
shire, about 1556, was the son of Thomas 
Smith, who is probably to be identified with 
the Thomas Smith who was mayor of Abing- 
don in 1584(C«/. State Papers, Dom. 1581-90, 
p. 177). He must be distinguished from Sir 
Thomas Smith or Smythe (1558P-1625) 
[q.v.l governor of the East India Company, 
and from the latter's father, Thomas Smythe 
(d. 1591), ' customer ' of the port of London 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1581-91, passim). 
He was educated at Abingdon grammar 
school and at Christ Church, Oxford, where 
he was elected student in 1573, graduated 
B.A. in December 1574, and M.A. in June 
1578. He was chosen public orator on 
9 April 1582, and proctor on 29 April 1584. 
Soon afterwards he became secretary to Ro- 
bert Devereux, second earl of Es&ex [a. v.], 
and in 1587 was appointed cLerk 01 the 
privy council. In December 1&91 he wrote 






to Cecil urging Essex's claims to the chan- 
cellorship of Oxford University (Murdin, 
pp. 649-50). He represented Cricklade in 
the parliament of 1588-9, Tarn worth in that 
of 1593 (cf. Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th Rep. 
App. i. 330 a), and Aylesbury in that of 
1597-8. On 30 Sept. 1597 he received a 
grant of the clerkship of parliament, in suc- 
cession to Anthony Wyckes, alias Mason [see 
under Mason, Sib John]. He kept aloof from 
Essex's intrigues, and on 29 Nov. 1599 was 
sent by the lords to summon the earl before 
the privy council (Collins, Mem. of State, ii. 
126, 129). On the accession of James I he 
received further promotion, perhaps owing to 
his friendship with Carleton, Edmondes, Win- 
wood, and Bacon (Spedding, Letters and Life 
of Bacon, iv. 138-9). He was knighted at 
Greenwich on 20 May 1603, and in the fol- 
lowing month was granted the Latin secre- 
taryship for life, and the reversion to the secre- 
taryship of the council of the north. On 8 June 
1604 he obtained the manor of Wing, Rutland, 
and in 1608 he was made master of requests. 
On 20 May in the same year he received a 
pension of 100/. He died on 27 Nov. 1609 
at his residence, afterwards Peterborough 
House, Parsons Green, Fulham, and was 
buried on 7 Dec. in the chancel of Fulham 
church, where a monument, with an inscrip- 
tion to his memory, is extant (Faulkner, 
Fulham, p. 73). He married Frances ( 1 580- 
1663), daughter of William Brydges, fourth 
baron Chandos, and sister of Grey, fifth baron 
[q. v.] His only son, Robert, died a minor, 
and nis only daughter, Margaret, married 
Thomas, second son of Robert Carey, first 
earl of Monmouth [q. v.] Smith's widow 
married Thomas Cecil, first earl of Exeter 
q. v.], and survived till 1663. By his will, 
lated 12 Sept. 1609, Smith left 100/. to the 
poor of Abingdon, and a similar sum to the 
Bodleian Library. 

[Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1580-1609 passim; 
Cal Hatfield MSS. pts. ir.-vi. ; Lansd. MS. 983, 
f. 145 ; Addit. MS. 22583, ff. 56, 57, 78 ; Official 
Return of Members of Pari. ; Winwood's Me- 
morials, ii. 35, 57, 198, 399; Collins's Sydney 
Papers, passim ; Birch's Memoirs of Queen Eliza- 
beth, i. 112, ii. 38-9; Spedding's Letters and 
Life of Bacon, i. 294, iii. 366, iv. 138-9; 
D'Ewes's Journals ; Camden's Elizabeth, vol. iii. ; 
Wood's Athens* Oxon. ii. 53 ; Brown's Genesis 
U.S.A. ii. 1018; Clark's Reg. Univ. Oxon. 11. i. 
250, ii. 134, iii. 44 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500- 
1714; Faulkner's Fulham, pp. 73, 283-5; Col- 
lins's Peerage, iii. 133.] A. F. P. 


(1558 P-l 625), merchant, governor of tbe 
East India Company, born about 1558, was 
second surviving son of Thomas Smythe of 

Ostenhanger (now Westenhanger) in Kent, 
by his wife Alice, daughter of Sir Andrew 
Judd. His grandfather, John Smythe of 
Corsham, Wiltshire, is described as yeoman, 
haberdasher, and clothier. His father carried 
on the business of a haberdasher in the city 
of London, and was ' customer ' of the port 
of London. He purchased Ostenhanger of 
Sir Thomas Sackville and much other pro- 
perty from Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester; 
ne died on 7 June 1591, and was buried at 
Ashford, where there is a beautiful monu- 
ment to his memory (engraved in Gent Mag. 
1835, i. 257). His elder son, Sir John Smythe 
or Smith (1556 P-1608) of Ostenhanger, was 
high sheriff of Kent in 1600, and was father 
of Sir Thomas Smythe, first viscount Strang- 
ford [see under Smythe, Perot Cliittoh 
Sidney, sixth Viscount Strangford], 

Thomas, one of thirteen children, was 
brought up to his father's business. In 1580 
he was admitted to the freedom of the Haber- 
dashers' Company and also of the Skinners'. 
He rapidly rose to wealth and distinction. 
When the East India Company was formed 
in October 1600, he was elected the first 
governor, and was so appointed by the char- 
ter dated 81 Dec, though at this time he held 
the office for only four months (Stevens, 
Court Records of the East India Company, 
1599-1603). In 1599 he was chosen one of 
the sheriffs of London. In February 1600-1 
he was believed to be a supporter of the Earl 
of Essex [see Devereux, Robert, second 
Earl op Essex], who on 8 Feb. went to his 
house in Gracechurch Street. Smvthe went 
out to him, laid his hand on his horse's 
bridle, and advised him to yield himself to 
the lord mayor. As Essex refused to do this 
and insisted on coming into the house, 
Smythe made his escape by the back door 
and went to confer with the lord mayor. 
Afterwards he was accused of complicity 
with the earl's rebellion, was examined 
before the council, was discharged from his 
office of sheriff, and was committed to the 
Tower (Cal State Papers, Dom. 1601-3,13, 
18, 24 Feb.) His imprisonment was for but 
a short time ; and on 13 May 1603, on the 
accession of James I, he was knighted. In 
1604 he was appointed one of the receivers 
for the Duchy of Cornwall (ib. 11 April), 
and, in June, to be special ambassador to 
the tsar of Russia. His grandfather, Sir 
Andrew Judd, was one of the founders of 
the Muscovy Company, and he himself would 
seem to have been largely interested in the 
Muscovy trade. Sailing from Gravesend on 
13 June, he, with his party, arrived at Arch- 
angel on 22 July, and was conducted byway 
of Kholmogori and Vologhda [cf. JENEOfSOW, 




AuTHOirr] to Jaroslav, where the emperor 
then was." -In the course of the winter he 
obtained a grant of new privileges for the 
company, and in the spring went on to 
Moscow, whence he returned to Archangel 
and sailed for England on 28 May. 

In 1603 Smith was re-elected governor of 
the East India Company, and, with one break, 
1606-7, continued to hold the office till July 
1621, during which time the company's trade 
was developed and established. In January 
1618-19 he was appointed one of the commis- 
sioners for the settlement of the differences 
with the Dutch, which, however, after some 
years of discussion, remained, for the time, 
unsettled (Cat. State Papers, Dom. 8 Jan. 
1619, 6? Dec. 1624). His connection with 
the East India Company and the Muscovy 
Company led him to promote and support 
voyages for the discovery of the North- 
west Passage, and his name, as given by 
William Baffin [q. v.] to Smith's Sound, 
stands as a memorial to all time of his en- 
lightened and liberal energy. In 1609 he 
obtained the charter for the Virginia Com- 
pany, of which he was the treasurer, an 
office which he held till 1620, when, on 
being charged with enriching himself at the 
expense of the company, and on a demand 
for inquiry, he resigned [see Sandys, Sib 
Edwin). The charges against him, which 
were urged with great virulence, were for- 
mally pronounced to be false and slanderous, 
though Smythe was not held to be altogether 
free from blame (Cal. State Papers, North 
American, 16 July 1622, 20 Feb., 8 Oct. 1629, 
23 April, 13 May, 16 June 1625) ; and the 
renewed inquiry was still going on, when he 
died at Sutton-at-Hone in Kent on 4 Sept. 
1625. He was buried at Sutton, where, in tne 
church, there is an elaborate monument to 
his memory. The charges against him had 
met with no acceptance from the king; to 
the last he was consulted on all important 
matters relating to shipping and to eastern 
trade (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 11 Dec. 1624), 
and for several years was one of the chief 
commissioners of the navy, as also governor 
of the French and Somer Islands companies. 

Smythe amassed a large fortune, a consider- 
able part of which he devoted to charitable 
purposes, and, among others, to the endow- 
ment of the free school of Tonbridge, which 
was originally founded by his grandfather, 
Sir Andrew Judd. He also established 
several charities for the poor of the parish 
of Tonbridge. He was three times married. 
The first two wives must have died com- 
paratively young and without issue. He was 
already married to the third, Sarah, daughter 
of William Blount, when he was sheriff of 

vol. Lin. 

London. By her he had one daughter (died 
unmarried in 1627) and three sons, two of 
whom seem to have predeceased their father. 
The eldest son, Sir John Smythe of Bid- 
borough, married and had issue. The family, 
in the male line, ended with his great-great- 
grandson, Sir Sidney Stafford Smythe (1705- 
1778} [q. v.] The name, which is often spelt 
Smitn, was always written Smythe by the 
man himself, as well as by the collateral 
family of Strangford. 

A portrait belonging to the Skinners' Com- 
pany nas been identified with Smythe, though 
it has been supposed to be rather that of Sir 
Daniel Judd. An engraving by Simon Pass 
is inserted in the Grenville copy of Smith's 
* Voiage and Entertainment in Rushia' (Lon- 
don, 1605, 4to). It is reproduced in Wad- 
more's memoir (1892). 

[Sir Thomas Smith's Voiage and Entertain- 
ment in Rushia (4to, 1605). Wadmore's Sir 
Thomas Smythe, knt. (reprinted from Archseo- 
logia Cantiana, 1892); Stacker's Pedigree of 
Smythe of Ostenhanger (reprinted from Archaeo- 
logy a Cantiana, 1892); Markham's Voyages of 
William Baffin, with a copy of the portrait by 
Pass (Hakluyt Soc.), pp. ii-ix ; Lefroy's Hist, 
of the Bermudas (Hakluyt Soc), Index; Cal. 
State Papers, Dom., East Indies, North America; 
Hist. MSS. Comm. 8tb Hep. App. pt. ii. ; notes 
kindly supplied by William Foster, esq., of the 
India Office.] J. K. L. 

SMITH, THOMAS (J. 160Q-1627), 
soldier, of Berwick-upon-Tweed, as he styles 
himself on the title-page of the first edition 
(4to, 1600) of ' The Art of Gunnery : where- 
in is set forth a number of serviceable 
secrets and practicall conclusions belong- 
ing to the Art of Gunnerie, by Arithmeticke 
skill to be accomplished : both pretie, 
pleasant and profitable for all such as are 

Srofessors of the same facultie.' In the 
edication to Peregrine Bertie, lord Wil- 
loughby, 'lord-governor of the town and 
castle of Berwick-upon-Tweed, and lord- 
warden of the east marches of England,' he 
describes himself as 'but one of the meanest 
soldiers in this garrison/ though he claims 
to have been 'brought up from childhood 
under a valiant captain in military pro- 
fession, in which I have had a desire to 
practise and learn some secrets touching the 
orders of the field and training of soldiers, 
as also concerning the art of managing and 
shooting in great artillery.' From the open 
preference which he gives to theory over 
practice it may be inferred that ' he never 
buckled with the enemy in the field/ In 
1627 he published 'Certain Additions to 
the Booke of Gunnery, with a Supply of 




Fire-Workes' (4to), in which he still styles 
himself 'Soldier of Berwi(&-upon-Tweed.' 
He speaks also, in 1600, of having written 
* two or three years since/ ' " Arithmeticall 
Military Conclusions," and bestowed on my 
Captain, Sir John Carie, knight : the which, 
God sparing my life, I mean to conect and 
enlarge and perhaps put to the press.' It 
does not seem to have been published. 

[Smith's works in Brit. Mas. Libr. ; Hazlitl's 
Collections, ii. 643.] J. K. L. 

SMITH, THOMAS (1615-1702), bishop 
of Carlisle, bora in 1615, son of John Smith 
of Whitewell in the parish of Asby, Cum- 
berland, after education at the free school, 
Appleby, matriculated from Queen's College, 
Oxford, on 4 Nov. 1631, aged 16. Having 
graduated B.A. in 1635 and M.A. in 1639, 
he became a fellow of his college and distin- 
guished himself as a tutor. He was a select 
preacher before Charles I at Christ Church, 
Oxford, in 1645. When that city fell he * re- 
tired to the north,' where he married Catha- 
rine, widow of Sir Henry Fletcher of Hulton 
in Cumberland, and only emerged on the 
Restoration, proceeding B.D. on 2 Aug. 
1660, and D.D. by diploma in the following 
November. He was appointed chaplain to 
Charles II, and was rewarded with the first 
prebendal stall in Carlisle Cathedral (Novem- 
ber 1660). Within a few months of this he 
was collated to a rich prebend in the cathedral 
of Durham, the prebendal house attached to 
which he restored. On the promotion of Guy 
Carleton [q. v.] to the see of Bristol, Smith 
was instituted dean of Carlisle (4 March 
1671-2), in which capacity he rebuilt the 
deanery and presented the cathedral with an 
organ. In conjunction with his first cousin, 
Thomas Barlow [q. v.], bishop of Lincoln, 
and Randall Sanderson, he gave 600/. for 
the improvement of Appleby school. 

The profusion with which he endowed 
Carlisle grammar school, the chapter library, 
and the cathedral treasury (as well as dona- 
tions to his old college at Oxford and to the 
poor), made him highly popular. He suc- 
ceeded Edward Rainbowe as bishop in 1684 
(consecrated 19 June), and died at Rose 
Castle on 12 April 1702. A flat stone near 
the altar in the cathedral is inscribed to his 
memory. A number of his letters are calen- 
dared among the Rydal MSS. (Hist MSS. 
Comm. 12th Rep. App. vii. passim). His 
portrait was engraved by J. Smith after an 
oil-painting by Stephenson, a full-length, 
now preserved at Rose Castle. He was 
succeeded at Carlisle by another fellow of 
Queen's, the great antiquary, William Nicol- 
son [q. v.] 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1600-1714 ; Wood's 
Athense, ed. Bliss, iv. 892 ; Le Neve's Fasti, iii. ; 
Nicolson and Burn's Cumberland, ii. 290 ; Cum- 
berland and Westmoreland Archaeological Soc. 
Trans, iv. 6, 59 (where Smith's will is printed); 
Jefferson's Hist, and Antiq. of Carlisle, 1838, pp. 
182, 231-2 ; Carlisle's Endowed Grammar 
Schools, i. 175, ii. 695 ; Noble's Continuation of 
GraDger, i. 82.] T. S. 

SMITH, THOMAS (d. 1708), captain in 
the navy and renegade, the son of English 
parents, was born at sea between Holland 
and England, and was brought up in North 
Yarmouth. Between 1680 and 1690 he 
commanded different merchant ships, and in 
1691 was commander and one-third owner 
of a ship trading from Plymouth. He then 
entered on board the Portsmouth galley and 
was rated by Captain (Sir) William Whetstone 
[q. vj as a midshipman. His knowledge of 
the French coast proved useful, and Smith 
was led by Whetstone, and afterwards by 
Captain John Bridges, to expect promotion 
through their recommendation ; but on 
Bridges being wounded and sent to hospital, 
Smith was put on shore by the first lieu- 
tenant, who was acting as captain, and re- 
ceived nothing but his pay ticket as midship- 
man. In 1693 he shipped as pilot of the at. 
Martin's prize, and, being discharged from 
her, married a widow with five young chil- 
dren, whom he was called on to maintain. 
He then got the command of a transport and 
carried stores to Kinsale, where he was en- 
gaged by Captain John Lapthorne as pilot 
of the Mercury, which was going off Brest 
to gain intelligence of the French fleet. 
Smith was put on shore and returned with 
exact details of the enemy's fleet, for which 
service he was paid a grant of 80/., and 
was promoted to command the Germoon on 
22 Sept. 1696. In the Germoon he continued 
for two years, carrying despatches to the 
West Indies, and was then ordered to go out 
with Rear-admiral John Benbow [q.v.]; 
but was afterwards superseded, and for three 
years was left unemployed, nor could he get 
his pay. After the accession of Queen Anne, 
much to his disappointment, as having ex- 
pected something better, he was appointed 
to the Bonetta, a small sloop employed in 
convoy service in the North Sea— a paltry 
command which did not, he alleged, com- 
pensate him for the loss he had sustained by 
being kept waiting so long. 

The grievance was no doubt a real one, 

and was not uncommon both then and long 

afterwards. Smith endeavoured to take the 

remedy into his own hands, and when he 

I had been in the Bonetta about fifteen months, 

I he was charged by his officers and men with 




many irregularities, such as hiring out the 
men to merchant ships, taking money for 
discharging prest men, making false musters, 
being drunk, and often absent for several 
days together. On these charges he was 
tried by court-martial on 1 Sept. 1703, was 
found guilty, and was dismissed from his 
command, with a fine of six months' pay. 
For upwards of two years he continued 
memorialising the queen, but without success; 
he then offered himself as a midshipman on 
board some flagship, but was refused by Sir 
Olowdisley Shovell, the commander-in-chief 
of the fleet ; and in February 1706-7, being 
almost destitute, he took a passage in a 
Swedish ship bound to Lisbon, where he 
thought he had some interest. Off the Isle 
of Wight, however, the Swede was over- 
hauled by a Dunkirk privateer, and Smith 
was taken out of her and carried to Dunkirk. 
There, apparently without much pressing, 
he entered the French service, and was 
appointed to serve — probably as pilot — on 
board the admiral-galley of the squadron 
which captured the Nightingale off Harwich 
on 24 Aug. 1707 [see Jbbmy, Sbth]. 

When Jenny was brought on board the 
admiral-galley, he saw and recognised 
Smith and threw himself on him, sword 
in hand, exclaiming ' Traitor, you shall not 
escape me as you have done the hangman.' 
Jenny, however, was seized and held back, 
but when Smith angrily desired that the 
prisoner might be sent to another galley, 
he was disdainfully told that he might go him- 
self if he liked. The squadron had been 
intended to attack Harwich, and Smith now 
urged that the attempt should be made. 
The French admiral, De Langeron, refused, 
as the galleys had suffered severely in the 
engagement with the Nightingale. On their 
return Smith laid a formal complaint against 
De Langeron, whose reasons were held to be 
sufficient. He then suggested that, with the 
Nightingale and another ship then at Dun- 
kirk, he should be allowed to make the at- 
tempt. He accordingly received a commis- 
sion to command the Nightingale, and on 
24 Dec. he put to sea, in company with the 
Squirrel, another English prize. On the 
forenoon of the 27th, as they were approach- 
ing Harwich, they were sighted ana chased 
by Captain Nicholas Haddock [q. v.] in the 
Ludlow Castle. After a chase of ten hours 
the Nightingale was overtaken, and after a 
short resistance was captured. The Squirrel 
escaped. Smith, it was said, had wished to 
blow up the ship, but was forcibly prevented 
by his men. When taken, he was put on 
shore at Hull, whence he was sent up to 
London, tried at the Old Bailey on 2 June 

1708, found guilty of bearing arms against 
his country, was sentenced to death, and was 
executed on 18 June with all the barbarities 
directed by law. 

[The Captains of the Nightingale, in English 
Hist. Review, January 1889, p. 65, where the 
whole story is examined by the light of the 
original documents.] J. K. L. 

SMITH, THOMAS (1638-1710), non- 
juring divine and scholar, the son of John 
Smith, a London merchant, was born in the 
parish of Allhallows, Barking, on 3 June 
1638. He was admitted batler of Queen's 
College, Oxford, on 7 Aug. 1667, and matri- 
culated as servitor on 29 Oct. following, 
graduating B.A. on 15 March 1661, and 
M.A. on 13 Oct. 1663, in which year he was 
appointed master of Magdalen school in suc- 
cession to Timothy Parker. He was elected 
probationer-fellow of Magdalen College in 
1666 (when he resigned the schoolmaster- 
ship), actual fellow in 1667, and dean in 
1674, the year in which he graduated B.D. 
Elected vice-president of Magdalen in 1682, 
he proceeded D.D. in 1683, and became 
bursar of the college in 1686. 

Meanwhile, in 1668, Smith went out to 
the east as chaplain to Sir Daniel Harvey, 
ambassador at Constantinople, whence he 
returned after a sojourn of three years, bring- 
ing with him a number of Greek manuscripts, 
three of which he presented to the Bodleian 
Library. He now devoted several years to 
the expression of his opinions and observa- 
tions upon the affairs of the Levant, and 
especially upon the state of the Greek church, 
and he gained the name at Oxford of ' Rabbi' 
Smith or ' Tograi ' Smith. Though he lacked 
the profoundly tolerant spirit of his contem- 
porary. Sir Paul Rycaut fq. v.], he seems to 
have shared his project of a rapprochement 
with the eastern church. In 1676 he was 
once more abroad, travelling in western and 
southern France, and in the following year 
he was urged by Bishop Pearson, Dr. Fell, 
and others to undertake another journey to 
the east in quest of manuscripts; but Smith's 
scholarship was not fortified with an adven- 
turous spirit, and he declined the risks of 
another journey. He held for about two 
years (1678-9) the post of chaplain to Sir 
Joseph Williamson [o* ▼•]> one °f ^ e * wo 
secretaries of state. Wood states that ' he 
performed a great deal of drudgery ' for Wil- 
liamson for years, but was ' at length dis- 
missed without any reward/ He returned 
to Magdalen upon his election as vice-pre- 
sident in 1682, with a view to following up 
his career at Oxford. He failed, in spite of 
an appeal to the visitor, to obtain the post 





of lecturer in divinity at the college, to 
which a junior fellow, Thomas Baily , was pre- 
ferred. As a sort of consolation he was, on 
20 Dec. 1684, presented by the president and 
fellows to the rectory of Standlake, but he 
soon resigned this preferment, and in January 
1687 he was collated to a prebend in the 
church of Heytesbury, Wiltshire. When 
the president of Magdalen (Dr. Clerke) died 
on 24 March 1687, Smith at first vainly 
endeavoured, through Bishop Samuel Parker, 
to obtain the kingfs recommendation as his 
successor. When he learned James IPs in- 
tention of imposing a president of his own 
choosing on tie college, he soon determined 
to submit unreservedly. But this postponed 
his ejection for only a very short period. 

In August 1688, as an * anti-papist/ but 
'under tne pretence of non-residence/ he 
was deprived of his fellowship by Dr. Gif- 
fard. He was restored in October 1688, but 
he detested the revolution that ensued, and, 
losing touch with the other fellows, he left 
Oxford finally for London on 1 Aug. 1689. 
His fellowship was declared void on 25 July 
1692, after he had repeatedly refused to 
subscribe the oaths to William and Mary. 
After some vicissitudes he settled in the 
household of Sir John Cotton, the grandson 
of the great antiauary, and after his death 
in 1702 enjoyed for a time the hospitality of 
his elder son. For twelve years at least, he 
seems to have had the principal charge of 
the Cottonian manuscripts. He himself was a 
judicious collector both of printed books and 
manuscripts, so that for some years previous 
to his death, as Hearne observes, ' his know- 
ledge of books was so extensive that men of 
the best reputation, such as have spent not 
only hundreds but thousands of pounds for 
furnishing libraries, applied themselves to 
him for advice and direction, and were glad 
when they could receive a line or two from 
him to assist them in that office.' During 
this period he had several learned corre- 

Sondents in Italy, Greece, and Asia Minor, 
e was one of the later friends of Samuel 
Pepys, for whose ' bravery and public spirit ' 
he had the highest esteem. Among those 
who invoked Smith's aid informing a library 
was Archbishop Narcissus Marsh [q. v.] (see 
letters in Mant, Church of Ireland, ii. 110 
sqq.) His chief correspondents at Oxford 
were Hearne and Humphrey Wanley [q. v.] 
Although Smith was impeded in his studies 
by the difficulty of consulting scarce books, he 
at the same time stoutly defended the policy 
of refusing to lend books, as adopted at the 
Bodleian Library ; and bluntly refused to lend 
to Wanley the 'invaluable' volume of Saxon 
charters from the Cottonian Library, a book 

which had ' never been lent out of the house' 
— ' no, not to Mr. Selden, nor to Sir William 
Dugdale ' (cf. Smith's interesting letters [7] 
in Letters of Eminent Lit. Men, Camden Soc» 
pp. 238 sq.) Smith appears to have moved 
from the Cottons' at Westminster before his 
death, which took place on 11 May 1710 in 
Dean Street, Soho, m the house of his friend 
Hilkiah Bedford fq. v.] He was buried on 
the night of Saturday, 18 May, in St. Anne's 
Church, Soho. He left Hearne a large col- 
lection of books and papers. On Hearne's 
death, on 10 June 1735, fifteen of Smith's 
manuscripts came to the Bodleian Library, 
and with them copies of Camden's ' Britannia ' 
and ' Annales,' with manuscript notes by the 
author. The rest of Smith s manuscripts 
came to the library with the mass of Hearne's 
' Collections ' included in the Eawlinson be- 
quest of 1755, and consisted of 138 thin 
volumes of notes, extracts, and letters, with 
a full written catalogue in two volumes. 

Smith's works were: 1. 'Diatriba de 
Chaidaicis Paraphrastis eorumque Versioni- 
bus ex utraaue Talmude et Scriptis Rabbi- 
norum concinnata' (a scholarly work, show- 
ing the writer's early bent towards oriental 
learning), Oxford, 1662, 8vo. 2. < Syntagma 
de Druidum Moribus ac Institutis,' London, 
1664, 8vo. 3. * Epistolae du® : quarum altera 
de Moribus et Institutis Turcarum agit, 
altera septem Asiae Ecclesiarum notitiam 
continet,' Oxford, 1672, 8vo ; two more 
epistles were added and printed at Oxford 
with a revised title in 1674, 8vo, and the 
whole translated by the author in 1678 as 
' Remarks upon the Manners, Religion, and 
Government of the Turks, together with a 
Survey of the Seven Churches of Asia as 
they now lie in their Ruins, and a brief 
description of Constantinople,' London, 8vo. 
A few comments derived from Smith's account 
of the ' Seven Churches ' are appended to the 
1 Marmora Oxoniensia' of 167o. A portion 
of his account of Constantinople appeared in 
the ' Philosophical Transactions,' No. 152, 
with a continuation on * Prusa in Bithynia ' 
in No. 163 (cf. Rat, Collect, of Voyages and 
Travels, ii. 85). 4. 'De Graac® Ecclesi® 
Hodierno Statu Epistola,' Oxford, 1676, 8vo. 
translated by the author as * An Account of 
the Greek Church under Cyrillus Lucaris 
. . . with a relation of his Sufferings and 
Death.' Nos. 3 and 4 were printed together 
as 'Opuscula Thomas Smitnii,' Rotterdam, 
1716. 5. 'De Causis et Remediis Dissi- 
diorum,' Oxford, 1675, 4to ; this was trans- 
lated bv the author as 'A Pacific Dis- 
course,' liondon, 1688, 8vo, and doubtless 
exercised some influence upon the nonjur- 
ing scheme of 1716 for a closer union with 




the Eastern church [see Collibb, Jeremy]. 
This discourse on 'reunion' was reprinted 
in 6. ' Miscellanea/ London, 1686, 8vo, and 
1692, 2 vols. 4to, with other essays in 
ecclesiastical history and biblical criticism. 
7. ' Gulielmi Camdeni Vita/ London, 1691, 
4to. 8.'CatalogusLibroirumManuscriptorum 
Bibl. Cottonianae,' Oxford, 1696, folio ; very 
valuable as affording a clue to the manu- 
scripts burned in the fire at Ashburnham 
House on 23 Oct. 1731 (cf. Notes and Queries, 
2nd 8er. xi. 382 ; Nichols, Lit Anecd. v. 
114). 9. 'Roberti Huntingtoni necnon E. 
BernardiVitaB/London,1704,8vo. lO.'Vit® 
quorundam Eruditissimorum et Ulustriiun 
Virorum' (i.e. James Ussher, J. Cosin, Henry 
Briggs, John Bainbrig-ge, John Greaves, Sir 
Patrick Young, Patrick Young, junior, and 
Dr. John Dee), London, 1707, 4to. 11. ' Col- 
lectanea de Cyrillo Lucario . . .' (including 
a dissertation on some old orthodox hymns), 
London, 1707, 8vo. Besides some minor 
discourses and sermons, he edited ' S. Ignatii 
Epistolss Genuine Annotationibus illus- 
traUe,' Oxford, 1709, 4to, and translated from 
the French ' The Life of St. Mary Magdalen 
of Pazzi, a Carmelite Nun/ London, 1687, 
4to. In addition to the letters already men- 
tioned, several are printed in ' Letters from 
the Bodleian Library/ 1813, and in the ' Euro- 
pean Magazine/ vol. xxxii. 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 598; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Bloxam's 
Begist. of Magdalen Coll. Oxford, iii. 182 et seq., 
and Magdalen College and James II (Oxford 
Hist. 80c.), passim ; Aubrey's Bodleian Letters, 
1813, 8vo; Hearne'8 Collections, ed. Doble, 
passim ; Trivier s Un Patriarche de Constanti- 
nople, Paris, 1877; Oxoniana, iii. 114-20; 
Nichols's Literary Anecd. i. 14 sq., vi, 298 ; Wil- 
mot's Life of Hough, p. 53 ; Macray's Annals of 
the Bodleian Library; Darling's Cyclopsed. p. 
2782 ; Biogr. Britannica; Chalmers's Biogr.Dict.; 
Brit. Mus. Cat.] T. S. 

SMITH, THOMAS (d. 1762), admiral, 
by repute the illegitimate son of Sir Thomas 
Lyttelton, bart., and half-brother of George, 
first lord Lyttelton [q. v.], was on 6 Feb. 
1727-8 appointed by Sir Charles Wager 
[q. v.] to be junior lieutenant of the Royal 
Oak. In June he was moved to the Gosport, 
with Captain Duncombe Drake. In No- 
vember 1728 the Gosport was lying oft* Ply- 
mouth, inside Drake's Island, when on the 
23rd, the French corvette Gironde came into 
the Sound, apparently to avoid a fresh 
southerly gale, and to pick up any news that 
she could about the anticipations of a war. 
Smith was sent on board her, as officer of 
the guard, to ask whence she came and 
whither bound, and was told from Havre to 

Rochfort. Smith proceeded to ask the cap- 
tain of the corvette ' if it was not usual to 
pay some acknowledgment on coming into 
our ports/ and was answered, ' No, unless to 
flags.' As Drake was on board the Gosport, 
Smith pressed the matter no further and 
returned to his ship. After six days in 
Hamoaze the Gironde came out on the 29th, 
and as she passed the Gosport, Smith, who, 
though her junior lieutenant, happened to 
be commanding officer, in the absence of 
Drake and the other lieutenants, hailed her 
in French and desired her captain ' to haul 
in his pennant in respect to the king of 
Great Britain's colours/ The Frenchman 
answered that he would not, but would 
salute the citadel ; on which Smith told him 
tliat was nothing to him, but that if he did 
not haul down his pennant he should be 
obliged to compel him. On this the French- 
man hauled down his pennant and shortly 
afterwards fired a salute of eleven guns, 
which Smith, not knowing of any agree- 
ment between him and the citadel, answered, 
gun for gun, the citadel also answering it, 
as had been previously arranged. The French 
captain afterwards complained of the insult 
to which he had been subjected, and Smith, 
Drake, and the captain of the Winchester 
in Hamoaze were called on for an explana- 
tion. On their reports, which are in virtual 
agreement with the Frenchman's letter, 
Smith was summarily dismissed from the 
navy, 27 March 1729, by the king's order, for 
having 'exceeded his instructions.' On 
12 May following he was restored to his 
rank and appointed second lieutenant of the 
Enterprise, from which on 14 Oct. he was 
discharged to half-pay, and on 6 May 1730 
he was promoted to be captain of the Success. 
The circumstances of this incident were, 
even at the time, grossly exaggerated by 
popular report. Smith was described as 
having been commanding officer of the Gos- 
port when the Gironde came into the Sound, 
and as having fired into her at once to com- 
pel her to lower her topsails to the king's 
Hag. By the popular voice he was dubbed 
by the approving name of 'Tom of Ten- 
thousand^ (a title which had fifty years 
before been conferred on Thomas Thynne 
[q. v.]); and it was said that, though, in 
deference to the French ambassador, he was 
tried by court-martial and dismissed the 
service, he was reinstated the next day, with 
the rank of post-captain. 

From May 1732 to October 1740 Smith 
commanded the Dursley galley on the home 
station and in the Mediterranean; from 
January 1740-1 to April 1742 he was captain 
of the Romney, for the protection of the 




Newfoundland fisheries; but Charnock's 
statement that while in command of her he 
was tried by court-martial on a charge of 
converting the ship's .stores to his own use 
appears to be unfounded. In October 1742 
he was appointed to the Princess Mary, 
which in 1744 was one of the fleet under Sir 
John Norris [q. v.] off Dungeness, and after- 
wards under Sir Charles Hardy (the elder) 
[q. v.], and Sir John Balchen £<j. v.] on the 
coast of Portugal. From the Princess Mary 
Smith was appointed in November 1744 to 
the Royal Sovereign, as commodore and 
commander-in-chief in the Downs, and 
during July and August 1745, off Ostend. 
In September 1745 he was appointed com- 
mander-in-chief at the Nore ; and on 11 Feb. 
1745-6 commander-in-chief at Leith and on 
the coast of Scotland, with the special duty 
of preventing communication between Scot- 
land and France. He held this post till 
January 1746-7, when he was placed on 
half-pay. On 15 July 1747 he was promoted 
to be rear-admiral of the red, and on 18 May 
1748 to be vice-admiral of the white. In 
August 1755 he was appointed commander- 
in-chief in the Downs, where he was pro- 
moted on 8 Dec. 1756 to be vice-admiral of 
the red, and on 24 Feb. 1757 to be admiral 
of the blue. 

When on 28 Dec. 1756 the court-martial 
was convened at Portsmouth for the trial of 
Admiral John Byng [q. v.], Smith, as the 
senior flag-officer available, was appointed 
president, and as such had the duty of pro- 
nouncing the sentence on 27 Jan. 1757, and 
of forwarding the recommendation to mercy. 
"When the question of absolving the members 
of the court from their oath of secrecy came 
before the House of Commons, Smith wrote 
to his half-brother, Sir Richard Lyttelton, 
begging him to support the application. 
Similarly, he wrote to Lord Lyttelton ; but 
when examined before the House of Lords 
and asked if he desired the bill to pass, re- 
plied, * I have no desire for it myself. It will 
not be disagreeable to me, if it will be a relief 
to the consciences of any of my brethren/ 
In October 1758 he retired from active 
service, and died on 28 Au£. 1762. He was 
not married. He is described by Walpole, 
when before the House of Lords, as ' a grey- 
headed man, of comely and respectable 
appearance, but of no capacity.' There is, 
in fact, no reason to suppose that he was 
more than a good average officer ; his pecu- 
liar fame is entirely based on the exaggerated 
report of the Gosport-Gironde incident, which 
in itself seems to have been caused primarily 
by a misunderstanding of instructions. 

Smith's portrait, by Richard Wilson, R.A., 

is in the Painted Hall at Greenwich; it has 
been engraved. 

[The memoir in Charnock's Biogr. Nav. iv. 209,. 
is grossly inaccurate ; the facts are here given 
from the official documents in the Public Record 
Office, and especially, copy of the complaint of 
M. de Joyeux, captain of the Gironde, in Home 
Office Records, Admiralty, No. 55 ; Burchett to 
Drake, 4 Feb. 1728-9, in Secretary's Letter- 
Book, No. 86, p. 347 ; Drake to Burchett, 7 Feb., 
in Home Office Becords, Admiralty, No. 66; 
Smith to Burchett, 23 Feb. 1728-9, ib. ; Admi- 
ralty report on the case, 3 March, ib. ; Duke of 
Newcastle to the Admiralty, 27 March 1729, in 
Secretary of State's Letters, Admiralty, No. 21 ; 
Commission and Warrant books, Paybooks, &c; 
see also Beatson's Nav. and Mil. Memoirs; Wal- 
pole's Memoirs of George II, ii. 359.1 

J. K. L. 

SMITH, THOMAS (d. 17G7), landscape- 
painter, was born and chiefly resided at 
I)erby. He was self-taught, but attained to* 
considerable proficiency, and, as one of the 
earliest delineators of the beauties of Eng- 
lish scenery, enjoyed a great reputation m 
his day. He was generally called ' Smith of 
Derby ' to distinguish him from the Smiths 
of Chichester. He painted views of the most 
interesting and picturesque places in Derby- 
shire, Yorkshire, and other parts, many plates- 
from which, by Vivares, Elliott, Scotin, and 
other able engravers, were published by him- 
self and Boy dell. A collection of these, 
with the title ' Recueil de 40 vues du Pic 
de Derby et autres lieux peintes par Smith 
et gravees par Vivares et autres,' was issued 
in 1760. In 1769 Boydell published a set of 
four views of Rome, painted by Smith from 
sketches by James Basire (1730-1802) [q. v.] ; 
also six plates from his designs illustrating 
the mode of training racenorses. Smith 
handled the graver himself, and in 1751 pro- 
duced a * Book of Landskips ; ' he also en- 
graved from his own pictures a set of four 
views of the lakes of Cumberland, 1767. He- 
died at the Hot Wells, Bristol, on 12 Sept. 
1767. Smith had two sons, Thomas Correggio 
and John Raphael Smith [q. v.] ; the former 
practised for some years as a miniature- 
painter, and died at Uttoxeter in middle life j 
the latter is separately noticed. 

[Edwards's Anecdotes of Painting; Redgrave** 
Diet, of Artists; Nagler's Kunstler-Lexikon.] 

F. M. O'D. 

1858), sport sman, son of Thomas Assheton 
Smith (1752-1828), was born in Queen Anne 
Street, Cavendish Square, London, on 2 Aug. 
1776 [for ancestry see Smith, John, 1666- 
1723]. He was educated at Eton (1783-94), 




and while there fought Jack Musters (d. 
1839), afterwards a well-known sportsman. 
Smith was in residence at Christ Church, 
Oxford, as a gentleman commoner, from 
February 1795 until 1798, but did not gra- 
duate. He sat in parliament, in the conser- 
vative interest, for Andover, 1821-31, and 
for Carnarvonshire, 1832-41. His life was 
almost entirely devoted to sport. In youth 
he was an active cricketer. While at Eton 
in 1793 he was in the school cricket eleven, 
and at Oxford he played with the Bulling- 
don Club. He first appeared at Lord's on 
11 July 1796, in the match Bullingdon 
Clubversiis Marylebone Club ; he made fifty- 
two in his first innings and fifty-nine in his 
second. He was frequently seen at Lord's 
up to 1821. Still more conspicuous was he 
in the hunting field. From 1806 to 1816 he 
was the master of the Quorn hounds in 
Leicestershire, and from 1816 to 1824 of the 
Burton hounds in Lincolnshire. His first 
pack in Hampshire was introduced at Penton, 
near Andover, in 1826, and consisted of a 
selection from Sir Richard Sutton's and other 
kennels. In 1834 he purchased a large por- 
tion of Sir Thomas Burghley's hounds, and 
in 1842 he added the Duke of Grafton's 
entire pack. He usually had at this time 
about one hundred couple of hounds in his 
kennel. He hunted his own hounds four 
days in the week, and sometimes had two 
packs out at the same time. He maintained 
this large establishment entirely at his own 
expense, and conducted all his arrange- 
ments with great judgment. After the death 
of his father, he in 1830 removed his stable 
and kennels to Tedworth, where he'extended 
a lavish hospitality to his fox-hunting neigh- 
bours. In 1832, in consequence of the Re- 
form riots, he raised a corps of yeomanry 
cavalry at his own expense; he was the 
captain, and the troopers were chiefly his 
own tenants and small farmers. 

On 20 March 1840 he accepted an invita- 
tion to take his hounds to Rolleston, Henry 
Greene's seat in Leicestershire, where he 
was received by an assembly of two thousand 
horsemen and acclaimed the first fox-hunter 
of the day (Sporting Mag, June 1840, 
pp. 130-2). In 1846 he built a glass con- 
servatory at Tedworth, 315 feet long and 
40 feet wide, in which he took horse exercise 
in his later years. He continued in the 
hunting field up to his eightieth year. 

Besides his residence at Tedworth, he 
owned an estate in Carnarvonshire with a 
house called Vaenol. There yachting occu- 
pied much of his attention. He was for 
many years, until 1830, a member of the 
Royal Yacht Squadron, and during that 

period five sailing yachts were built for him. 
In 1830 he quarrelled with the club com- 
mittee on their refusal to admit steam yachts, 
and commissioned Robert Napier (1791- 
1876) [q. v.] of Glasgow to build for him 
a steam yacht, christened the Menai, 400 
tons and 120 horse-power. This was the 
first of eight steam yachts built for him 
between 1830 and 1851. In 1840 the Fire- 
king was constructed for him according to 
his own model, with long and very fine hollow 
water-lines. He claimed to have been the 
originator of this wave-line construction, but 
to John Scott Russell [q. v.] belongs some of 
the credit of the invention. 

Among other improvements upon his 
Welsh estate, Smith erected the Victoria 
Hotel at Llanberis, enlarged and improved 
Port Dinorwic, worked the Victoria slate 
quarries, and constructed the Padarn rail- 
way. He died at Vaenol, Carnarvonshire, 
on 9 Sept. 1858, and was buried at Ted- 
worth. He married, on 29 Oct. 1827, Matilda, 
second daughter of William Webber of 
Binfield Lodge, Berkshire, but had no issue. 
His widow died at Compton-Basset, near 
Devizes, on 18 May 1859. 

[Eardley-Wilmot's Reminiscences of T. A. 
Smith, 1862, with portrait; Nimrod's Hunting 
Reminiscences, 1843, pp. 294-303; DelmeRad- 
cliffe'sThe Noble Science, 1893, pp. 21, 329; 
J. N. Fitt's Covereide Sketches, 1878, passim; 
Cecil's Kecords of the Chase, 1877, pp. 107, 
249-51 ; Illustrated London News, 1856, xxix. 
571; Gent. Mag. 1858, ii. 532; Lilly white's 
Cricket Scores, 1862, i. 203; Practical Mag. 
1873, ii. 280; Burke's Landed Gentry, 1894.] 

G. C. B. 

M.D. (1788-1861), sanitary reformer, was 
born at Martock, Somerset, on 21 Dec. 1788. 
His studies for the ministry were encou- 
raged by William Blake (1773-1821) [q. v.], 
of whom he wrote a touching memoir. Ac- 
cording to family tradition, his ministry was 
first exercised among evangelical dissenters 
in the west of England. Haying become a 
widower, and intending to combine with the 
preacher's office the practice of medicine, he 
entered as a medical student at Edinburgh 
in October 1812, and in November took the 
vacant charge of the unitarian congregation 
[see Purves, James] then meeting in Skin- 
ners 1 Hall, Canongate, where he raised the 
attendance from twenty to nearly two hun- 
dred. In June 1813 he began a course of fort- 
nightly evening lectures on universal re- 
storation ; these were published by subscrip- 
tion as ' Illustrations of the Divine Govern- 
ment' (Glasgow, 1816, 8vo; 6th edit, 
called 5th, 1866, 12mo), and form a closely 




reasoned treatise, rising on occasion to pas- 
sages of remarkable eloquence. The main 
thesis is that pain is corrective. The work 
won the favour of poets; Byron, Moore, 
Wordsworth, Orabbe were its warm ad- 
mirers. On 28 July 1813 he assisted in the 
formation of the Scottish Unitarian Associa- 
tion, became its first secretary, and published 
an ' Appeal ' (1815) in defence of its cause. 
In 1814 his congregation moved to an old 
episcopal chapel (St. Andrew's) in Carrub- 
bers Close, High Street. He graduated 
M.D. on 1 Aug. 1816, publishing his thesis, 
' De mente morbis lsesa/ with a dedication 
to Thomas Belsham [q.v.] In the same year 
he succeeded Samuel Fawcett [see under 
Fawcett, Benjamin] as minister at Vicarage 
Street Chapel, Yeovil, Somerset, practising 
also as a physician. He published a few 
sermons of merit ; his funeral sermon (1821) 
for Thomas Howe (1759P-1820) is specially 
noted by Dr. James Martineau (Study of 
Religion, 1888, i. 398). In 1820 he removed 
to London, devoting himself to the medical 
profession, yet still preaching occasionally. 

Southwood Smith was admitted a licen- 
tiate of the College of Physicians on 25 June 
1821 (fellow, 9 July 1847). He was one of 
the projectors of the ' Westminster Review/ 
and wrote for its first number (January 
1824) an article on Bentham's system of 
education. In the same vear he contributed 
an article, 'The Use of the Dead to the 
Living/ advocating facilities for dissection ; 
this was reprinted in 1824 and subsequently. 
In 1824 he was appointed physician to the 
London Fever Hospital and subsequently to 
the Eastern Dispensary and to the Jews' 
Hospital. He was one of the original 
committee (April 1825) of the 'Useful 
Knowledge ' society ; wrote for it a ' Trea- 
tise on Animal Physiology' (1829, 8vo), 
contributed to its 'Penny Cyclopaedia* 
(1832-45) the chief articles on anatomy, 
medicine, and physiology ; and added to its 
publications a treatise on ' The Philosophv 
of Health' (1835-7, 12mo, 2 vols.; lltn 
edit. 1865, 8vo). Meanwhile he had em- 
bodied the result of devoted labours for his 
public patients, in ward and home, in ' A 
Treatise on Fever' (1830, 8vo), which at 
once took rank as an authority. To epidemic 
fever he largely traced the impoverishment 
of the poor, and showed that it is pre- 
ventible. From this work dates his remark- 
able career as a sanitary reformer. 

Jeremy Bentham [q. v.] had by will left 
his body to Smith, to be the subject of dis- 
section and an anatomical lecture. Smith 
performed this task at the anatomy school, 
Webb Street, Maze Pond, on 9 June 1832, 

delivering a lecture, of which two editions 
were published in the same year. It em- 
bodied a sketch of Bentham's philosophy and 
an account of his last moments. A thun- 
derstorm shook the building during its deli- 
very, jet Smith proceeded ' with a clear un- 
faltering voice, but with a face as white as 
that of the dead philosopher before him.' 
Brougham, Mill, and Grote were present. 
The skeleton, dressed in Bentham's clothes, 
with a waxen head, was kept in a mahogany 
cabinet in Smith's consulting-room at Fins- 
bury Square; when he left this, it was 
transferred to University College, Gower 
Street, where it still remains. 

In 1832 Smith was placed on the central 
board for inquiry into the condition of fac- 
tory children, an inquiry the precursor of 
the existing factory acts. More than once 
the poor-law commissioners sought his aid in 
typhus epidemic ; hence his reports (1835- 
1839) on the preventible causes of sickness 
and mortality among the poor. His first re- 
port on sanitary improvement (1838) began 
a series, presented at intervals till 1857. 
In 1839 ne was a main founder of the 
' Health of Towns Association/ gave evi- 
dence on this subject (1840) to a committee 
of the House of Commons, and served 
(1840) on the children's employment com- 
mission. He did much to founa (1842) the 
* Metropolitan Association for improving the 
Dwellings of the Industrial Classes/ which 
built the first 'model' dwellings, designed 
to exclude epidemics by due sanitary con- 
ditions ; gave evidence (1844) before a com- 
mission of inquiry into the health of towns, 
was on the metropolitan sanitary commission 
(1847), and was appointed (1848) medical 
member of the ' general board of health/ 
giving his services gratuitously at first, but 
receiving a permanent appointment in 1850, 
when he gave up professional practice. His 
reports on quarantine (1845), cnolera (1850), 
yellow fever (1852), and on the results of 
sanitary improvement (1854) were of world- 
wide use. 

In 1855 he delivered two lectures on 
'Epidemics' (1856, 8vo; 2nd edit. 1866, 
8vo)at the Edinburgh 'philosophical institu- 
tion;' on this occasion he revisited Skinners' 
Hall, then occupied bv one of the ragged 
schools established by Thomas Guthrie, Dj). 
[q. v.] His unsparing devotion to philan- 
thropic labour had told upon his constitu- 
tion, and he seemed an older man than he 
was ; his speech was slow, but his rich voice 
and dignified manner made his delivery very 
impressive. Though he had earned the gra- 
titude of nations, he retired on a very mode- 
rate pension. In October 1861, having re- 




covered from a serious illness, he went to 
winter at Florence. At the beginning of 
December a short attack of bronchitis proved 
fatal. He died on 10 Dec. 1861, and was 
buried in the protestant cemetery outside the 
Porta Pinti, Florence, where is a monument 
to his memory with medallion portrait. His 
bust, executed (1856) at Florence by J. Hart, 
is in the National Portrait Gallery, pre- 
sented (February 1872) by a committee for 
the purpose. He was twice married, and 
left by nis first marriage (to Miss Reade) 
two daughters ; by his second marriage (to 
a daughter of John Christie of Hackney) an 
only son, Herman (d. 23 July 1897, aged 77). 

[Monk's Coll. of Phys. 1878, iii. 235 sq.; 
Monthly Repository, 1813 p. 536, 1815 pp. 118, 
653, 1821 pp. 262 sq. ; March's Hist. Presb. and 
Gen. Bapt. Churches in West of Engl. 1835, 
p. 218; Home's New Spirit of the Age, 1844, 
vol. i. (article ' Lord Ashley and Dr. Sonthwood 
Smith'); Christian Reformer, 1860, p. 720; 
Obituary from the Lancet, December 1861 ; 
Inquirer, 21 Dec. 1861 p. 936, 31 July 1897 
p. 503; Nonsubscriber, February 1862, pp. 
18 sq. ; personal recollection.] A. G. 

SMITH, WALTER (Jl. 1525), wrote in 
verse an account of a roguish adventuress 
named Edyth, daughter of one John Han- 
kin, and widow of one Thomas Ellys. Smith's 
work was entitled 'The Widow Edyth; 
Twelue merry Gestys of one called Edyth, 
the lyeng YVydow.' It was * emprinted at 
London at the sygne of the meremayde at 
Polli8 gate next chejpeside by J. Kastell 
23 March MvCxxv.' The printer notes that 
at the date of publication the heroine was 
still alive. The work is divided into twelve 
chapters, each called a ' mery jeste.' The 
coarse tricks which the widow is described 
as playing on tradesmen, tavern-keepers, and 
servants of great men, including the bishop 
of Rochester and Sir Thomas More, are some- 
times diverting, but their narrator displays 
few literary gifts. The work is of the 
greatest rarity. A copy was noticed in 
•Bibliotheca Smithiana, 1686, and in the 
catalogue of the Harleian collection, but it is 
doubtful if any now survive. Of a reprint 
issued by Richard Jones in 1578, two copies 
are known — one in the Bodleian Library, 
and the other in the Huth Library. A modern 
reprint is in W. C. Hazlitt's ' Old English 
Jest Books/ 1864, vol. iii. 

[Ames's Typogr. Antiq. ed. Dibdin, iii. 87 ; 
Collier's Bibliogr. Cat. ii. 357 ; Hazlitt's Bibliogr. 
Collections.] S. L. 

SMITH, WENTWORTH (ft. 1601- 
1623), dramatist, wrote many plays for the 
Admiral's company of actors at the Rose 

Theatre, in partnership with other authors 
employed by Philip Henslowe [q. v.JL the 
theatrical manager. From the tatter's ' Diary ' 
it appears that he was associated between 
1601 and 1603 in the composition of the fol- 
lowing thirteen pieces, none of which seem 
to have been published, and none are now 
extant. Their titles are : 1. * The Conquest of 
the West Indies ' (with Day and Haughton), 
1601. 2. ' The Rising of Cardinal Wolsey ' 
(with Chettle, Drayton, and Munday), 1601. 
3. 'Six Clothiers' (with Hathway and 
Haughton), 1601. 4. ' Too Good to be True, 
or the Northern Man' (with Chettle and 
Hathway), 1601. 5. ' Love parts Friend- 
ship ' (with Chettle), 1602. 6. ' As merry 
as may be ' (with Day and Hathway), 1602, 
written for the court and for the earl of 
Worcester's men at the Rose. 7. ' Albert 
Galles ' (with Heywood), 1602 ; possibly the 
title should be * Archigallus.' o. ' Marshal 
Osric ' (completed by Heywood, and doubt- 
fully assumed by Fleay to be identical in 
its revised form with Heywood's 'Royal 
King and Loyal Subject,' London, 1637, 
4to), 1602. 9. « The ii (iii) Brothers,' 1602. 
10. ' Lady Jane ' (with Chettle, Dekker, 
Heywood, and Webster), 1602. 11. 'The 
Black Dog of Newgate ' (with Day, Hathway, 
and 'the other poet,' probably Haughton), 
1602-3. 12. ' The Unfortunate General, a 
French History ' (with Day, Hathway, and 
'the other poet'), 1603. 13. 'An Italian 
Tragedv,' 1603. 

To W entworth may be ascribed the extant 
play, by 'W. Smith,' called 'The Hector of 
Germanie, or the Palsgrave, Prime Elector. 
A New Play, an Honourable Hystorie. As 
it hath beene publikely Acted at the Red 
Bull and at the Curtaine, by a Companie of 
Young men of this Citie. Made by W. 
Smith, with new Additions. London, printed 
by Thomas Creede for Josias Harrison, and 
are to be soldo in Pater-Noster Row, at the 
Signe of the Golden Anker,' 1615, 4to. 
Written in 1613, it was dedicated to ' the 
Right Worshipfull the great Favorer of the 
Muses, Syr Jonn Swinnerton, Knight, some- 
times Lord Mayor of this honourable Cittie 
of London.' Baker is mistaken in asserting 
that this was the last play acted at the 
Curtain. From the dedication we learn 
that the author also wrote ' The Freeman's 
Honour,' another piece not known to be ex- 
tant, which he says was ' acted by the Ser- 
vants of the King's Majesty to dignify the 
worthy company of Merchant Taylors ' 
(Fleay, Biogr. Chron. ; Nichols, Progresses 
of James I, ii. 732). An endeavour has been 
made to place both these plays to the credit 
of another dramatist named William Smith, 




for whose existence no satisfactory proof is 
forthcoming. Warburton asserts that one 
of the pieces destroyed by his cook was ' St. 
George for England by William Smith/ and 
that the same writer was also the author 
of ' Hector of Germanic,' of ' The Freeman's 
Honour/ and of ' The Fair Foul One, or the 
Baiting of the Jealous Knight/ which was 
licensed by Herbert in 1623 for performance 
at the Red Bull Inn. But Warburton seems 
to have expanded on his own authority the 
initial ' W/ in ' W. Smith ' on the title-page 
of 'St. George* into William instead of 
Wentworth. The only writers of the time 
named William Smith of whom we have 
contemporary evidence were the sonnetteer 
and the herald, neither of whom is there 
the smallest reason for crediting with the 
authorship of plays [see Smith, William, 
fl. 1596; Smith, William, 1550P-1618]. 
All the plays assigned in the early seven- 
teenth century to ' W. Smith ' were in 
all probability from the pen of Wentworth 

To Wentworth Smith have been unwar- 
rantably ascribed the three plays — * Locrine/ 
4 The Puritan/ and ' Cromwell —which were 
published in Shakespeare's lifetime under 
the initials of ' W. S.' These pieces, together 
with 'Oldcastle/ 'London Prodigal/ and 
'Yorkshire Tragedy' (which were fraudu- 
lently issued as by ' W. Shakespeare'), were 
included as Shakespeare's work in the folio 
of 1664. There is no clue to the authorship 
of any of these six plays, and the initials 
' W. S./ like Shakespeare's full name, were 
placed on the title-pages by the publishers 
merely to give purchasers the false impres- 
sion that Shakespeare was their author. 

[Henslowe's Diary, pp. 185, 204, 206, 207, &c. ; 
Warner's Dulwich MSS. pp. 21, 24, 157 ; Fleay's 
Chronicle of the English Drama, i. 160, 300, 
ii. 249-51 ; Langbaine's Lives of the English 
Dramatic Poets, ed. 1712, p. 134 ; Baker's Bio- 
graphia Dramatica, i. 676, 677, ii. 11, 250, 287, 
238, 333 ; Halliwell's Dictionary of Old English 
Plays, passim.] E. I. C. 

1514), bishop of Lincoln and co-founder of 
Brasenose College, Oxford, born about 1460, 
was fourth son of Robert Smyth of Peelhouse 
in the parish of Prescot, Lancashire. His 
father appears to have been a country squire 
of moderate estate. It is a probable tradi- 
tion that William was educated in the house- 
hold of Margaret, countess of Richmond and 
Derby, mother of Henry VII and second wife 
of Thomas Stanley , first earl of Derby [q . v.], at 
Knowsley, within which parish his birtnplace 
is situate [see Beaufort, Margaret]. The 
Lady Margaret maintained a sort of private 

school, 'certayn yonge gentilmen at her find- 
yng ' being educated at Knowsley by Maurice 
Westbury, whom she had brought from Ox- 
ford for that purpose. Smyth's biographer, 
Churton, after completely disproving Wood's 
assertion that Smyth was a migrant from 
Oxford to Cambridge, inclines to identify him 
with William Smyth, a commoner of Lincoln 
College in 1478. He would then probably 
be about eighteen years old. In tnat case 
he must t have been only twenty-five when 
he, being already qualified by the degree of 
bachelor of law, was appointed (20 Sept. 
1486) to the lucrative office of keeper or 
clerk of the hanaper of the chancery for 
life, with a salary of 40/. yearly in excess 
of that enjoyed by his predecessor, a knight, 
besides an allowance of eighteenpence a day 
when in attendance on the chancellor (Camp- 
bell, Materials^ i. 16). The fact that this 
grant was made within a month after the 
battle of Bosworth, and that it was fol- 
lowed a few days later (2 Oct.) by prefer- 
ment to a canonry of St. Stephen's, West- 
minster (ib. p. 71), shows that Smith's friends 
must have been active as well as powerful 
at the new court. Among the state papers 
is one belonging to 1485, showing the issue 
of 200/. to William Smyth, keeper of the 
hanaper, for the custody of two daughters of 
Edward IV. Another document of 24 Feb. 
1486 recites that this 200/. was delivered by 
Smyth to the Lady Margaret, who ' of late 
hadde the keping and guiding of the ladies, 
daughters of King Edward the iiiith.' On 
17 Feb. in the same year he is described as 
a member of the king's council. Smyth's 
first parochial preferment was on 13 Mav 
1486 to the living of Combe Martyn, north 
Devon, in the gift of the crown (ib. i. 434 ; 
Pat . Roll, 1 Hen. VII, pt. iii. m. 13). He was 
also presented, under the style of the king's 
chaplain, to the living of Great Grimsby on 
4 May 1487 (ib. 2 Hen. VII, pt. ii. m. 8). In 
1491 he was made dean of the collegiate and 
royal chapel of St. Stephen's, Westminster. 
This preferment he had resigned before 1496. 
On 14 June 1492 he was presented by the 
Lady Margaret to the rectory of Cheshunt, 
Hertfordshire. This he held for two years, 
resigning it on his promotion to a bishopric. 
In the same year (1492) Smyth, together with 
Richard Foxe [q. v.], then bishop of Exeter, 
and Sir Elias Dawbeney, was made a co- 
feoffee of her estates in Somerset and Devon 
for the performance of Lady Margaret's will. 
At the beginning of 1493 Smith was made 
bishop of Coventry and Lichfield. He had 
been entrusted with the custody of the tem- 
poralities of the see since 30 March 1491, his 
predecessor, Bishop John Hales, having died 




on the last day of 1400, with liberty to apply 
its revenues to his own use without rendering 
account to the crown (Exch. Q. H. Mem. Roll, 
21 Hen. VII, inter brevia, Easter Term 
m. iiii.) The Lichfield registers show that 
he at once diligently entered upon his epi- 
scopal duties, but within three months ne 
was acting as a member of Prince Arthur's 
council in the marches of Wales. This ne- 
cessitated the nomination by him, after the 
example of Foxe and other contemporary 
prelates, of a suffragan bishop, Thomas Fort, 
bishop of Achonry in Ireland, in 1494. He 
presumably resigned at the same time his 
office of keeper or clerk of the hanaper, his 
successor, Edmund Martyn, who also fol- 
lowed him as dean of St. Stephen's, being 
appointed to the place on 6 Feb. 1493 {Pat. 
Moll, 8 Hen. VII, pt. ii. m. 18}. While bishop 
of Lichfield, Smyth refounded the ruinous 
hospital of St. John, originally a priory of 
friars, but transformed by him into an alms- 
house and free grammar school. To it he 
annexed the hospital of Denhall or Den wall in 
Cheshire, and secured for it liberal patronage 
from Henry VH. This hospital of St. John 
still survives at Lichfield as a monument to 
Smyth's memory. 

On 31 Jan. 1496 Smyth was translated to 
Lincoln, at that time the most extensive 
diocese in England, stretching, as it did, 
from the Humber to the Thames. But he 
was generally an absentee, resident at Lud- 
low or Bewdley in attendance upon Prince 
Arthur, though he found time m the first 
year of his episcopate to make a visitation at 
Oxford. Even as long after his translation 
as 1500, when he proposed to make his first 
entry into his cathedral city, affairs of state 
recalled him to Bewdley ; nor was his visita- 
tion carried out until the spring of 1 501 . The 
wealth now at his disposal enabled him in 
the same year to acquire private property in 
land, and he purchased an estate at St. 
John's, Bedwardyn, near Worcester. 

On 22 Aug. 1501 Smyth was appointed 
lord president of Wales, upon the reform of 
the administration of that principality, with 
a salary of 20/. a week, equivalent to about 
12,000/. a year of our money, for a table for 
himself and the council. He had already for 
some years presided at Prince Arthur's coun- 
cil. His new office was one comprising both 
administrative and judicial functions. On 
5 Nov. 1500, within a few days after Cardinal 
Morton's death, Smyth, who had previously 
been recommended for the post in 1495 by 
Henry VII, was elected the cardinal's suc- 
cessor in the chancellorship of Oxford Uni- 
versity. He resigned it in August 1503. 
During his chancellorship in September 1501 

the Prince of Wales (Arthur), with Smyth in 
attendance, visited Oxford. In April 1502 
the prince died in Ludlow Castle, and Smyth 
officiated at his funeral in Worcester Cathe- 
dra]. He still remained lord president of 
Wales, and retained the office during life ; 
but there are indications that after Prince 
Arthur's death his attention was less ab* 
sorbed by Welsh affairs. In 1503 he took 
part in the investiture of Warham, of whom 
*he had been an early patron, as archbishop of 
Canterbury. In November 1504 he joined 
in a celebrated decree of the Star-chamber re- 
gulating the relations of the staplers and mer- 
chant adventurers. On 3 June 1505 he was 
condemned by the commissioners of sewers 
at Newark, Nottinghamshire, to pay a fine 
of eight hundred marks (533/. 6*. &d.) for 
erecting weirs and mills in the Trent ' to the 
noysaunce of the passage of boats and other 
vesselles.' The fine was remitted by the king 
on the following 11 April {Exch. Q. R. Mem. 
Moll, 21 Hen. VII, E. T. inter brevia, 
m. i.) At some time towards the close of 
Henry VII's reign Smyth's wealth invited ex- 
tortion of the kind generally associated with 
the names of Sir Richard Empson [q. v.] and 
Edmund Dudley [q. v.] An information was 
laid against him that he had paid English 
gold to a foreigner, presumably for exporta* 
tion abroad, in violation of the statute of 
1488-9 (4 Hen. VII, c. 23). He was con- 
demned in the immense sum of 1,800/., the 
penalty being double the amount of gold 
alienated by the offender. Of this sum, it 
appears from an account rendered by the exe- 
cutors of Henry VII, Smyth paid in ready 
money two instalments of 100/. and 1,200/. 
respectively. Henry VII having left instruc- 
tions that this and other extortions from 
dignified ecclesiastics should be restored, 
Smyth received the money back again about 
1509 (State Papers, Dom. 1 Hen. VIII, 776). 
But his apprehension of a continuance of 
similar proceedings led him to procure for 
himself a pardon, dated less than three weeks 
after Henry VIIFs accession, for every con- 
ceivable common-law or statutory offence 
which might have been committed by him, 
beginning with homicide and ending with 
breaches of the manufacturing regulations 
(Exch. Q. It. Mem. Roll, 1 Hen. VIII, Trinity 
Term, m. vii.) 

In 1507 Smyth began a series of benefac- 
tions which elicited Fuller's eulogy that ' this 
man wheresoever he went may De followed 
by the perfume of charity he left behind him/ 
In the course of this year he founded a fel- 
lowship in Oriel College ; he established a 
free school at Farnworth in Lancashire, 
where he added a south aisle to the church; 




and he presented two estates to Lincoln 
College, the manor of Bushbery, or Ailleston, 
near firewood, in Staffordshire, and the manor 
of Sencleres in Chalgrave, Oxfordshire. In 
the same year he first formed the design, 
in concert with Richard Sutton [q.v.], of 
founding a new college in Oxford. The 
earliest steps towards effecting this purpose 
were taken by Sutton, but in 1509 Bishop 
Smyth appears in conjunction with Sutton 
as lessee of a stone quarry at Headington, 
and is represented by an inscription on the 
foundation-stone of Brasenose College to have 
laid it, together with Sutton, on 1 June of the 
same year. The core of the new foundation 
was Brasenose Hall, dating at least from 
the thirteenth century. This Smyth rebuilt. 
With it he incorporated other adjacent halls, 
and gave to the whole the name of ' the king's 
hall and college of Brasenose/ at first some- 
times designated ' the king's college of Bra- 
senose/ or ' Collegium Regale de Brasenose.' 
The charter of foundation is dated 15 Jan. 
1512 (Rtmbb, xiii. 320). In the following 
year Smyth transferred to the new college the 
estates of the dissolved priory of Cold Norton, 
Oxfordshire, purchased by him from the dean 
and convent of St. Stephen's, Westminster, to 
whom they had been granted. He added an 
estate near Oxford, known as Basset's fee. The 
objects of his new college, as set forth in the 
charter, were ' to study philosophy and sacred 
theology. . .to the praise and honour of 
Almighty God ; for the furtherance of divine 
worship, for the advancement of holy church, 
and for the support and exaltation of the 
Christian faith.' It was to consist of a prin- 
cipal and twelve fellows, all of them born 
within the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, 
with preference to the natives of Lancashire 
and Cheshire, and especially those of Prescot 
in Lancashire and Presbury in Cheshire. 
Apparently the principal and all the fellows 
were to be in holy orders. The first statutes 
were drawn up by Smyth himself, largely 
borrowed from those of Magdalen, and pre- 
scribing both the diet and dress of the members 
of the house. The severity of Smyth's rules 
was somewhat mitigated after his death by 
his surviving co-founder, Sutton, at the re- 
quest of the college. Meanwhile Smyth took 
part in the conversion of the property of 
another religious house to educational pur- 
poses, having in 1510 assisted in the suppres- 
sion of the priory of St. John, Cambridge, 
with a view to the foundation of St. John's 
College, Cambridge. 

The deaths of Smyth's patrons, Henry VII 
and the Lady Margaret, took place respec- 
tively in April and June 1609. The person 
foremost in Henry VIII's council at this time 

was Richard Foxe [q.v.], bishop of Winches- 
ter, who, together with Smyth, was among 
the executors of Henry VII. With Foxe 
Smyth had had frequent official relations, and 
in 1509 joined witn him, Fitzjames, bishop 
of London, and Oldham, bishop of Exeter, 
in the successful assault upon the jurisdic- 
tion of the archbishop of Canterbury's pro- 
bate court [see Wabham, William]. On 
the other hand, there were differences of 
opinion between them, Foxe favouring the 
lioeral tendencies of ' the new learning. The 
sense of rivalry disclosed itself in riotous 
attacks, in which a former principal of 
Brasenose Hall was concerned, upon the 
builders of Foxe's new college of Corpus 
Christi. Although Smyth retained till nis 
death his office of president of Wales, his 
name, after his patrons' deaths, practically 
disappears from the domestic state papers. 
Foxe^» influence was probably the cause of 
his retirement. He seems to have spent 
his later years within the limits of his vast 
diocese. His will is dated 26 Dec. 1513. 
fie died at Buckden in Huntingdonshire, 
one of his ten palaces as bishop of Lin- 
coln, on 2 Jan. 1514. In his will he de- 
sired to be buried in his cathedral, and he 
left certain sums for religious services. To 
the college of Brasenose he bequeathed, for 
the use of the chapel, the books, chalices, 
and vestments of his domestic chapel . These, 
of which an inventory was left, appear never 
to have come into possession of the college. 
They were probably appropriated by Wolsey, 
his successor in the see, one of the charges 
against whom was that he 'had the more 

?art of the goods of Dr. Smyth, bishop of 
iincoln,' as well as of other bishops whom 
he succeeded, ' contrary to their wills and to 
law and justice.' Smith also bequeathed 
100/. to the hospital of St. John Baptist in 
Banbury, where another of his episcopal 
palaces was situate, and certain sums to nis 
relatives. The residue of his goods was to 
be disposed of by his executors in works of 
piety and charity for the welfare of his soul. 
The will was proved on 80 Jan. 1514. He 
was buried in a stone coffin, one of the 
latest instances of this practice, under a 
marble gravestone, inlaid with a rich brass 
effigy and inscription. This was destroyed 
during the civil wars, but a copy made in 
1641 by Sir William Dugdale is extant. A 
mural monument near the west door of the 
cathedral, erected by Dr. Ralph Cawley, prin- 
cipal of Brasenose in 1775, bears a long Latin 
inscription to his memory. 

Smyth was one of the enlightened states- 
men-prelates of his age. He evidently 
shared with his lifelong friend, Hugh Old- 




ham [q. v.libishop of Exeter, some of the 
dislike ana suspicion of the regulars then 
current even among ecclesiastics. During 
the short time that he was at Lichfield he 
twice rejected the incompetent presentees 
of monastic houses to livings, and made a 
visitation of the religious foundations within 
his diocese. Not long after his translation 
to Lincoln in 1499, we find him suspending 
the abbot of Oseney, and enforcing a re- 
formation of that house. That he was a 
man of learning is apparent from his elec- 
tion as chancellor of Oxford, and from the 
specimen of his Latin composition which has 
survived. Though a contemporary of Eras- 
mus and Foxe, he does not seem, if we may 
judge by the statutes of his college, to have 
been alive to the importance of Greek. On 
the contrary, his design seems to have been 
to establish an ecclesiastical and conserva- 
tive institution adhering to the traditional 
studies of scholastic philosophy and theology. 
In this respect his statutes differ amazingly 
from the far more progressive provisions 
which Foxe drew up for his college of Corpus. 
Sutton's mind, it is evident, was cast in the 
same mould as that of Smvth, and it can 
readily be believed that he deferred entirely 
to the guidance of the former chancellor of 
the university. It can be understood, there- 
fore, that Smyth displayed no liberal ten- 
dencies in his theology, and in 1506 he is 
recorded to have enforced the law against 
heresy both by imprisonment and burning. 
But John Foxe [q. v.], the martyrologist, who 
as a Brasenose man was probably indisposed 
to be severe upon the founder of his college, 
records of Smyth ' that in the time of tne 
great abjuration, divers he sent quietly home 
without punishment and penance, bidding 
them go home and live as good Christian men 
should do.' Judged by the high standard of 
clerical duty held by Latimer, Smyth, what- 
ever his wishes may have been, was an ' un- 
preaching prelate.' He must have been too 
absorbed in business of state, at any rate 
down to the death of Prince Arthur in 1502, 
to exercise any effective personal supervision 
over his immense diocese. Nor can he be 
acquitted of the prevailing ecclesiastical vice 
of nepotism. His biographer Churton devotes 
a chapter to his kinsmen and the ecclesi- 
astical preferments he heaped upon them. 
Three of his nephews he made archdeacons 
in his diocese, appointing one of them, Wil- 
liam Smyth, archdeacon of Lincoln, to the 
most valuable prebend, it is said, in England. 
Another of them, Gilbert Smyth, he made a 

Erebendary in 1498, nearly six years before 
e took sub-deacon's orders. Matthew Smyth, 
the last principal of Brasenose Hall, and the 

first of Brasenose College, in all probability 
a relation of the bishop, was presented by 
him to a prebend in Lincoln Cathedral in 
1508, though he was not ordained sub-deacon 
till 1512. One of Bishop Smyth's last acts 
was to grant a lease, probably on beneficial 
terms, of the manor of Nettleham in Lin- 
colnshire to Richard Smyth, doubtless a 
kinsman. Churton complains that in Smyth's 
time the cathedral of Lincoln was ' peopled 
with persons of the name of William Smyth/ 
and, from what we know of the bishop's care 
for his kinsmen, it is not unfair to suspect 
that most of them were relatives whom he 
indemnified in this way for the diversion of 
the bulk of his property to his college. 

In the appendix to the fourth report of the 
Historical Manuscripts Commission (1874, 
p. 173) it is stated that in a bundle of sixty 
papers belonging to the dean and chapter of 
Westminster, chiefly letters addressed to Sir 
Reginald Bray [q.v.J, are some letters from 
the bishop of Lincoln (Smyth). These letters 
had previously been seen by J. A. Manning, 
author of the ' Lives of the Sneakers' in 1851 
(p. 146), but have since disappeared from 
their place in the muniment-room of the 
abbey. The bishop's portrait, which hangs 
in the hall of Brasenose, is unfortunately un- 
dated. A replica exists at his hospital at 
Lichfield. The picture apparently represents 
him in his closing years. The eyes are fine, 
and the cast of countenance one of serene in- 

[Fuller's Worthies; Wood's Athens* Oxon.; 
Churton's Lives of Smyth and Sutton, Oxford, 
1800 ; Campbell's Materials for the Hist, of 
the Reign of Henry VII ; State Papers, Dom. 
Henry VIII, rols. i. ii.] I. S. L. 

SMITH, WILLIAM ( rf. 1596), poet, 
avowed himself a disciple of Spenser, and in 
1596 published a collection of sonnets, en- 
titled 'Chloris, or the Complaint of the 
passionate despised Shepheard,' printed by 
Edmund Bollifant, 1596, 4to. The volume 
opens with two sonnets, inscribed 'To the 
most excellent and learned shepheard, Collin 
Cloute' (i. e. Spenser), and signed ' W. Smith.' 
In a third sonnet addressed to Spenser at the 
close of the book Smith calls Spenser the 
patron of his maiden verse. The intervening 
pages are occupied by forty-eight sonnets, 
very artificially constructed, and by a poem of 
greater literary power, in twenty lines, called 
' Corins Dreame of the faire Cnloris.' One 
of the sonnets, ' A Notable Description of the 
World,' had been previously published in 
'The Phcenix-nest, 1595, ana there bore 
the signature 'W. S. gentleman.' 'Corins 
Dreame ' was transferred to ' England's Heli- 
con' (1600 and 1614). Two copies of Smith's 




Tare volume are now known : one is in the 
Bodleian Library; the other, in the Huth 
Library, formerly belonged successively to 
Narcissus LuttreU and to Thomas Park. It 
was reprinted in Mr. Edward Arber's 'Eng- 
lish Garner/ viii. 171 sqq. 

There is no means of determining whether 
the writer is identical with the ' W. S.' who 
prefixed verses 'in commendation of the 
author' to Orange's 'Golden Aphroditis,' 
1577, or with the ' W. S.' who paid Breton 
a like compliment in his « Wil of Wit/ 1606. 

Heber owned a manuscript entitled 'A 
New Yeares Guift, or a posie upon certen 
flowers presented to the Countesse of Pem- 
brooke by the author of " Chloris, or the 
passionate despised Shepherd ;" ' but its pre- 
sent whereabouts is unknown. 

'A booke called Amours by J. D., with 
certein other Sonnetes by W. S.,' was 
licensed for publication by Eleazar Edgar, 
3 Jan. 1599-1600 (Akbbb, Transcript, ill. 
153). Collier suggested that ' J. D.' was a 
misprint for 'M. D./ and that this entry 
implied an intention on the part of the pub- 
lisher to reissue Michael Drayton's ' Sonnets' 
which the poet had entitled 'Amours' in the 
first edition of 1594, in conjunction with a 
collection of sonnets by 'W. S.' — initials 
which Collier identified as those of Drayton's 
friend, Shakespeare. Shakespeare's ' Sonnets ' 
were not published till 1609. It seems more 
likely that the publisher Edgar contemplated 
a republication of Smith's collection of son- 
nets with some work (since lost) by Sir 
John Davies [q. v.], but the point cannot be 
decided positively. Edgar does not seem to 
have actually published any book which can 
be identified with the description given in 
the Stationers' ' Registers.' Nine years later 
Edgar published a prose treatise of a different 
calibre by an author signing himself ' W. S.' 
It was entitled 'Instructions for the in- 
creasing of Mulberie Trees and the breeding 
of Silk-wormes ' (London, 1609, 4to, with 

Smith appears to have usually signed his 
name ' W. Smith/ and some plays bearing 
that signature have been assigned to William 
Smith, but these were in all probability the 
work of Wentworth Smith [q. v.] 

[Collier's Bibliographical Account; Ritson's 
Bibliograpbia Anglo-Poetica ; Hunter's MS. 
Chorus Vatum in Brit. Mus. MS. Addit. 24489, 
p. 78.] S. L. 

SMITH, WILLIAM (1550P-1618), 
herald, born about 1550 at Warmingham in 
Cheshire, was a younger son of Randle Smith 
of Oldhaugh in Warmingham, by his wife 
Jane, daughter of Ralph Bostock of Norcroft 

in Cheshire. The Smiths of Oldhaugh were 
a branch of the Smiths of Cuerdley in Lan- 
cashire. William is said to have been edu- 
cated at Oxford. He may be the William 
Smith who graduated B.A., 8 Feb. 1566-7, 
at Brasenose College, which was founded by a 
collateral ancestor, William Smith or Smyth 
(146QP-1614) [a. v.] In March 1561-2 
his mother diea, and in July 1568 he 
paid a visit to Bristol. About 1575 Smith 
became a citizen of London and a member 
of the Haberdashers' Company. He pro- 
ceeded to Germany about 1578, and for some 
years kept an inn at Niirnberg with the sign 
of the Goose. On the death of his father, on 
6 Oct. 1584, he returned to England, and in 
1585 took up his residence in Cheshire. On 
23 Oct. 1597 he was created rouge dragon 
pursuivant on the recommendation of Sir 
George Carey, knight marshal. He never 
attained higher office, owing partly to a lack 
of amiability and a sharp tongue. He died 
on 10 Oct. 1618, and was buried, as Wood 
thinks, in the churchyard of St. Benedict, 
near Paul's Wharf. About 1580 he married 
Veronica, daughter of Francis Altensteig of 
Niirnberg. By her he had two sons — Wil- 
liam, born in 1581 ; and Paul, born in 1588 
— and three daughters, Jane, Frances, and 

Smith was the author of: 1. 'The Vale 
Royall of England, or Countie Palatine of 
Chester; containing a Geographicall De- 
scription of the said Count rey or ohyre, with 
other things thereunto appertayning. Col- 
lected and written by William Smith,' 1585 
(Ashmolean MS. 765; Rawlinson MSS. B. 
Nos. 282-3), which was published in 1656 
by Daniel King [q. v.], together with another 
work with a similar title by William Webb, 
under the title 'The Vale Royall of Eng- 
land . . . with maps and prospects, per- 
formed by W. Smith and W. Webb,' Lon- 
don, fol. 2. 'The Particuler Description of 
England, with Portratures of certaine of the 
cheifest Citties and Townes.' The manu- 
script, which is among the Sloane MSS. 
(No. 2596) in the British Museum, was pub- 
lished by Henry B. Wheatley and Edmund 
W. Ashbee, London, 1879, 8vo. 

Smith also wrote the following unpub- 
lished manuscripts : 1. ' Genealogical Tables 
of the Kings of England and Scotland, and 
the Sovereigns of Europe, to the years 
1578-9, with their arms, in colours,' 1579 
(Rawlinson MS. B. No. 141). 2. '1580 
AngliaB Descriptio,' dedicated : ' Amplissimo 
Viro, D. Christophoro Fhurero, Reipub. Nori- 
bergenss. senatori Prudentiss. (Brit. Mus. 
Add. MS. 10620). 3. ' How Germany is 
devyded into 10 Ereises, that is to say Cir- 




cutes, and the names of all such Estates as 
dwell in ech of them particulerly/ Niirnberg, 
1682 (Brit. Mus. Harl. MS. 994). 4. ' The 
Armes and Descents of all the Dukes, Mar- 
quesses, Erlls, Viscounts, and Lords created 
in England since the tyme of the Conqueror 
until this present yeare 1584 ' (Brit. Mus. 
Harl. MS. 6099). 5. Heraldic tracts and 
miscellanies, 1586 (Rawlinson MS. B. No. 
120). 6. ' Baronagium Angli®/ 1587 (Harl. 
MS. 806); another copy, 1597 (Harl. MS. 
1160). 7. 'A Brief Description of the Famous 
Cittie of London,' 1588 (Harl. MS. 6363). 
8. 'A Treatise on the History and Antiquities 
of Cheshire/ 1588 (Harl. MS. 1046, ff. 122- 
168). 9. ' German Coats collected by Wil- 
liam Smith during his abode in Germany/ 
1591 (Philipot's Press, College of Arms). 
10. ' A Breef Description of the famous Cittie 
of Norenberg/ 1594 (circa) (Lambeth MS. 
508). 11. ' The Names of all the Knights 
in England that served [in Scotland] under 
Edward I, with the Blazon of their Armes/ 
1597 (Harl. MS. 4628). 12. < The Visitacion 
of Lancashire ; made in 1567/ 1598 (Harl. 
MS. 6159). 13. 'A Book of Miscellaneous 
Pedigrees/ 1599 (Philipot's Press, College 
of Arms). 14. ' Stemmata Magnatum/ 1600 
(Harl. MS. 6156). 15. 'Cooke's orders for the 
feast of St. George.' Enlarged by Smith, 
1600 (Ashmolean MS. 1108). 16. "' Book of 
Coates and Creasts/1602 (Harl. MS. 5807). 

17. ' A large alphabet in blazon, beginning 
with the letter B/ 1604 (Harl. MS. 2092). 

18. ' W. Smith's Alphabet of Arms/ 1604 
(Harl. MS. 5798). 19. ' The XH Worshm- 
full Companies or Misteries of London/ 1605 
(Moule's 'Bibliotheca Heraldica/ p. 104). 
20. 'The Visitation of Dorsetshire, copied 
by Smith, 1612. 21. ' The Armes and De- 
scents of all the Kinges of England ' (Brit. 
Mus. Add. MS. 27438). There are also 
several smaller manuscripts by him extant. 

[Wheatley's Introduction to the Particular 
Description of England ; Wood's Athene Oxon. 
ed. Bliss, ii. 233 ; Gough's British Topography, 
i. 37, 91, 247 ; Ormerod's Cheshire, i. 92, iii. 
123, 141 ; Noble's Hist, of the College of Arms, 
p. 217.] E. I. C. 

SMITH, WILLIAM (d. 1673), ouaker, 
a native of Besthorpe, Nottinghamshire, was 
son of a yeoman of good estate. He was well 
educated, served for several years as chief 
constable, and became an independent pastor. 
In 1658 he joined the quakers, and in the 
same year he replied to the anabaptist Enoch 
Howitt's 'The Doctrine of the Light within 
. . . examined/ in * The Lying Spirit in the 
Mouth of the False Prophet,' London, 1668, 
4to. Howitt retaliated with ' The Beast that 
was and is not, and yet is/ London, 1659, 

4to. Smith also suffered in 1658 imprison- 
ment for nine weeks for non-payment of 
tithes. On the Restoration Smith wrote ' An 
Alarum beat in the Holy Mountain/ an 
address to Charles II, which is printed in 
' The Copies of several Letters wnich were 
delivered to the King/ London, 1660, 4to. 
He was arrested while preaching at Wor- 
cester in March 1661, and for refusing the 
oath of allegiance was detained some time 
in prison, where he wrote at least five of his 
books. Others were written in Nottingham 
gaol, where he was many times confined 
between 1661 and 1665. Smith published 
his account of his imprisonment for non- 
payment of tithe, at the instance of William 
rocklington of North Collington, in 'The 
Standing Truth/ 1663, 8vo (reprinted in 
Croppers 'Sufferings of the Quakers in 
Notts/ 1891). He died on 9 Jan. 1673. He 
was twice married. By his first wife, Anne 
(d. 1659), he had seven children. Elizabeth 
Newton of Nottingham, his second wife, 
whom he married on 11 March 1666, sur- 
vived him. 

Smith was a voluminous writer. His chief 
works are: 1. 'The Faithful Witness, or a 
Hand of Love reached forth/ 1659, 4to; 
part in answer to Jonathan Johnson, a 
baptist of Lincolnshire. 2. ' The Morning 
Watch, or a Spiritual Glass opened/ 1660, 
4to. 3. 'The New Creation brought forth 
in the Holy Order of Life/ 1661, 4to. 
4. 'Universal Love' [separate addresses to 
persons in every class of life], 1663, 8vo ; 
reprinted 1668. 5. ' A New Primmer/ 1663, 
8vo; reprinted 1665, with 'Something of 
Truth/ &c. ; both reprinted 1668, 8vo. 6. ' A 
Briefe Answer ' to ' Shetinah [sic], 1 in which 
John Stillingfleet attacked the quakers, 
1664, 4to. 7. 'A New Catechism/ 1665; 
another edition 1667. 8. 'The Baptists 
Sophistry discovered/ 1672-3, 4to, in answer 
to ' The Quakers Subterfuge ' by Ralph James, 
baptist, of Willingham, Lincolnshire. Smith's 
collected works were published in 1675, folio, 
under the title of ' Balm from Gilead/ with 
a dedicatory epistle from Ellis Hookes, the 
first recording clerk of the society. The 
pagination of the volume is irregular, owing 
to the book being printed in different places 
(see note at end of contents). Some extracts 
were published by George Richardson (1778- 
1862) [q.v.l Newcastle, 1835. 

Another William Smith (Jl. 1660), suc- 
cessively of Sileby and Market Harborough, 
Leicestershire, was author of ' The Wisdom 
of the Earthly Wise confounded/ 1679, 4to : 
an answer to Thomas Wilson, rector of Arrow, 
Warwickshire, who wrote against the quakers 
(Smith, Bibl. Anti- Quakeriana, p. 453). At 




his house at Sileby George Fox held great 
meetings in 1655 and 1677 (Journal, i. 251, 
ii. 259). 

[Balm from Gilead, 1675 ; Besse's Sufferings, 
i. 552 ; Fox's Journal, ii. 81 ; Croppers Suf- 
ferings of the Quakers in Nottinghamshire, 
xt.; Smith's Cat. Friends' Books, ii. 601-12; 
Begisters at Devonshire House, Bishopsgate 
Street.] C. F. S. 

SMITH, WILLIAM (dU696), actor, was 
a barrister of Gray's Inn, and joined the 
Duke of York's company, under Sir William 
D'Avenant, a year after its formation. He 
was a man of social position, and acknow- 
ledged as such in aristocratic circles and in 
his profession. At Lincoln's Inn Fields, at 
Dorset Garden, and ultimately at the Theatre 
Royal and the new house in Little Lincoln's 
Inn Fields, he held a position in the first 
rank, and created many original parts of 

Erimary importance. His name appears on 
Jan. 1663 to the part of the Corrigidor (sic) in 
Sir SamuelTuke's 'Adventures of Five Hours.' 
He was on 28 May Lugo in Sir Robert 
Stapleton's ' Slighted Maid ;' on 1 Jan. 1664 
he was Buckingham in a revival of ' King 
Henry VIH,' and on 13 Aug. the Duke of 
Burgundy in * Henry V,' by the Earl of 
Orrery. In Etherege's 'Comical Revenge, 
or Love in a Tub,' he was Colonel Bruce; in 
' The Rivals,' D'Avenant's alteration of the 
'Two Noble Kinsmen,' Polynices; and 
Antonio in a revival of Webster's ' Duchess 
of Malfi.' On 3 April 1665 he was Zanger 
in Lord Orrery's 'Mustapha.' After the 
cessation of performances on account of the 
plague, he distinguished himself on 7 March 
1667 as Sir William Stanley in Caryl's 
' English Princess, or the Death of Richard 
the Third.' On 14 Nov. preceding, Pepys 
writes : ' Knipp tells me how Smith of the 
Duke's house hath killed a man upon a 
quarrel in play, which makes everybody 
sorry, he being a good actor, and, they say, 
a good man, nowever this happens. The 
ladies of the court do much bemoan him, 
she says ' (Diary, ed. Wheatley, vi. 62). 

In ' Sir Martin Marrall, or Feigned Inno- 
cence,' by Dryden and the Duke of New- 
castle, 16 Aug. (second time), Smith was 
Sir John Swallow. On 6 Feb. 1668 in ' She 
would if she could,' by Etherege, he was 
Oourtall, and on 5 May Stanford in Shad well's 
♦ Sullen Lovers.' The piece had, says Downes, 
a wonderful success, and was played before 
the court at Dover. In Caryl's ' Sir Solomon, 
or the Cautious Coxcomb,* played -in 1669, 
he was Young Single. Betterton s ' Amorous 
Widow ' followed in 1670, showing Smith as 
Cunningham. Foscaris in Edward Howard's 

' Women's Conquest ' was seen in 1671, as 
was Sharnofaky in Crowne's 'Juliana, or the 
Princess of Poland.' 

The new theatre in Dorset Garden was 
opened by the Duke's company, under Lady 
D'Avenant, with 'Sir Martin Marrall,' on 
9 Nov., when Smith presumably played his 
original part. He was here Prince of Salerne 
in Crowne 8 'Charles VI n, or the Invasion 
of Naples.' At Dorset Garden Smith re- 
mained until the junction of the two com- 
panies in 1682. He was in 1672 Woodly in 
Shad well's 'Epsom Wells ; ' Pisauro in Arrow- 
smith's 'Reformation; ' Banquo, one of his 
great parts, in 'Macbeth,' converted into 
an opera; Don Antonio in Nevil Payne's 
' Fatal Jealousy ;' Philander in Mrs. Behn's 
' Forced Marriage.' The year 1673 saw him 
as Ruffle in Nevil Payne's ' Morning Ramble/ 
Careless in Ravenscroft's ' Careless Lovers,' 
Muley Hamet in Settle's 'Empress of 
Morocco,' Horatio in a revival of ' Hamlet ;' 
1674 as Quitazo in Settle's ' Conquest of 
China by the Tartars,' and Tyriaates in 
'Herod and Mariamne;' and 1675 as Clo- 
tair in Settle's 'Love and Revenge.' In 
Settle's ' Ibrahim the Illustrious Bassa,' 
1676, he was Ibrahim ; in Etherege's ' Man 
of the Mode, or Sir Fopling Flutter,' Sir 
Fopling; in Otway's 'Don Carlos, Prince of 
Spain/Don Carlos; inD'Urfey's 'Fond Hus- 
band,' Rashley ; in Ravenscroft's Wrangling 
Lovers,' Don Diego ; in D'Urfey's ' Madame 
Fickle,' Manley ; and in Settle's ' Pastor 
Fido, or the Faithful Shepherd,' Mirtillo, 
the faithful shepherd. Antiochus in Ot- 
way's ' Titus and Berenice ' was apparently 
the first novelty in 1677, in which year 
Smith was also the first Caesar in Sedley's 
'Antony and Cleopatra;' Willmore the 
rover in Mrs. Behn's 'Rover;' Perdicas in 
Pordage's 'Siege of Babylon;' Philip in Mrs. 
Behn's ' Abdelazer, or tne Moore's Revenge/ 
Ulysses in Banks s ' Destruction of Troy ' 
belong to 1678, as do Lodwick Knowell in 
Mrs. Behn's ' Sir Patient Fancy ;' Malagene 
in Otway's ' Friendship in Fashion,' Henry 
Raymond in D'Urfey's 'Squire Oldsapp,' 
Peralta in Leanerd's 'Counterfeits,' and 
Alcibiades in Shadwell's ' Timon of Athens, 
or the Man-Hater.' Genest, with some 
reason, supposes that he was Woodall in 
Dryden's'Limberham,'the cast of which has 
not survived. To 1679 belong Adrastus in 
Dryden and Lee's ' (Edipus ;' Hector in 
'Troilus and Creasida, or Truth found 
too late,' altered by Dryden from Shake- 
speare; and Sir Harry Fillamour in Mrs. 
Behn's ' Feigned Courtezans.' In 1680 he 
was Machiavel in Lee's 'Caesar Borgia,' 
Chamont in 'The Orphan/ Marius Junior in 




Otway's ' History and Fall of Caius Marius ' 
(long the accepted adaptation of ' Romeo and 
Juliet 'V, Beaufort in D'Urfey's 'Virtuous 
Wife,' Wellman in Mrs. Behn's ' Revenge/ 
and Marcian in Lee's ' Theodosius.' The year 
1681 led off with the /First Part of Henry VI,' 
altered by Crowne, in which Smith was the 
Duke of Suffolk. In the second part of the 
same play he was Edward Plantagenet. He 
was, oesides, Edgar in Tate's alteration of 

* Lear/ Willmore in the second part of Mrs. 
Behn's ' Rover/ Titus in Lee's ' Lucius Junius 
Brutus/ Courtine in Otway's ' Soldier's 
Fortune/ and Lorenzo in Dryden's ' Spanish 
Friar.' The following year (1682) witnessed 
the junetion of the two companies. Before 
this event occurred Smith was, at Dorset 
Garden, the original Pierre in Otway's 

* Venice Preserved/ Sir Charles Kinglove 
inD'UrfeyV Royalist/King Harry in Banks's 

* Virtue Betrayed, or Anna Bulien/ Don 
Carlos in Mrs. Behn's 'False Count/ and 
Ramble in Ravenscroft's ' London Cuckolds.' 
After the union he was, at the Theatre 
Royal, Grillon in Dryden's 'Duke of Guise/ 

In die memorandum of agreement, 14 Oct. 
1682, the name of Smith is joined with those 
of Dr. Charles D'Avenant [q. v.] and Thomas 
Betterton [q. v.] on the one side, as against 
Charles Hart (d. 1683) [q. v.] and Edward 
Kynaston [q. v.l on the other [see Bettebton, 
Thomas]. Smith's connection with the united 
companies was soon severed, though the 
retirement of Harris left none but Betterton 
to dispute his supremacy. He played, at 
the Tneatre Royal, Leon in ' Rule a Wife 
and have a Wife/ and Cassius in 'Julius 
Caesar/ neither of them original parts ; and 
was the first Constantino in Lee's 'Con- 
stantino the Great/ Courtine in Otway's 
'Atheist/ and Lorenzo in Southerne's ' Dis- 

After James ITs accession his name dis- 
appears from the bills for eleven years. Cibber 
mentions the circumstances under which his 
retirement took place. Smith, ' whose cha- 
racter as a gentleman could have been no way 
impeached had he not degraded it by being 
a celebrated actor/ was struck behind the 
scenes by a man of fashion with whom he 
had a dispute. James II, on hearing a full 
account of the circumstances, forbade the 
offender his presence. This was resented 
by the mohocks of the court, and a party 
was formed to humble the actor. On his 
appearance Smith was received with a chorus 
of cat-calls. Convinced that he would not be 
allowed to proceed, he composedly ordered 
the curtain to be lowered, and 'having a 
competent fortune of his own, thought the 
conditions of adding to it by his remaining on 

vol. Lin. 

the stage even too dear, and from that day 
entirely quitted it' (Cibber, Apology, ed. 
Lowe, i. 79). Smith is said to have been 
greatly attached to James II, whose army, 
according to Chetwood, the actor joined as 
a volunteer upon the outbreak of the revo- 
lution, in company with two attendants. 

On the secession of the actors from the 
Theatre Royal in 1695, Smith was prevailed 
on by Betterton and Mrs. Barry, his old 
associates, as well as by friends of high rank, 
and at the direct intercession of Con^reve, 
to return to the stage. On the opening of 
the theatre in Little Lincoln's Inn Fields, 
with Congreve's ' Love for Love/ Smith took 
the part of Scandal. He was received with 
much enthusiasm. In 1696 he played War- 
ner in a revival of ' Sir Martin Marrall/ and 
was the original Cyaxares in Banks's ' Cyrus 
the Great/ On the day of the fourth repre- 
sentation he was taken ill, and died shortly 
afterwards (Genest, ii. 96). 

Smith is believed to have had a command- 
ing figure. What Otway says in ' Venice Pre- 
served ' of the figure of Pierre is supposed to 
depict Smith, who was intended for this part. 
Don Carlos, another of Smith's original parts, 
is described as a ' tall able slave.' Barton Booth 
[q. v.] wrote a Latin epitaph on Smith, placed 
under 'his picture. 1 Wnat portrait is re- 
ferred to, however, cannot now be ascer- 
tained. Booth's lines describe him as an 
excellent player in the reign of Charles II, 
the friend of Betterton, and almost his equal ; 
a man of no ignoble family nor destitute of 
polite learning. Smith's unbroken friend- 
ship with Betterton reflects high credit upon 
him, as does indeed all that is known con- 
cerning him. He is one of the most in- 
teresting and distinguished figures of the 
Restoration stage. 

[Genest's Account of the English 8taffe 
(esp. ii. 97-8, with list of original parts); 
Downes's Roscius Anglicanus ; Curll's History of 
the English Stage, assigned to Betterton; 
Cibber's Apology, ed. Lowe; Life of Barton 
Booth, by Theophilus Cibber; Chet wood's His- 
tory of the Stage; Doran's Annals of the Stage, 
ed. Lowe.l J. K. 

SMITH, WILLIAM (1651 P-1735), an- 
tiquary, born about 1651, was the son of 
William Smith of Easby, near Richmond in 
Yorkshire, by his wife Anne, daughter of 
Francis Layton of Rawden, master of the 
jewel-house in the reign of Charles I. On 
28 May 1668 William matriculated from 
University College, Oxford, and graduated 
B.A. in 1672, proceeding M.A. on 18 March 
1674-5. In 1678 he was appointed rector 
of Goodmanham in Yorkshire, in 1675 
elected a fellow of University College, and 





in 1678 incorporated M.A. at Cambridge. In 
1704 he was presented by the college to the 
rectory of Melsonby in Yorkshire. Owing 
to some informality he was twice inducted, 
on 22 Oct. 1704 and on 23 June 1706. In 
1705, haying married, he was obliged to 
resign his fellowship ; but he retained the 
revenues until 1711 (Heabne, Collections, i. 
62, iii. 126). He died in December 1736, 
and was buried at Melsonby. By his wife 
Mary, widow of Gerard Langbaine (1656- 
1692) [q. v.l he had one child at least, 
according to Hearne, although he appears to 
have left no family at his death. 

Smith was the author of: 1. ' The Annals 
of University College/ Newcastle-upon- 
Tjrne, 1728, 8vo. 2. « Litteree de Re ]Sum- 
maria,' Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1729, 8vo. 
He also wrote twenty-seven manuscript vo- 
lumes relating to Oxford, the result of his 
researches into the archives of the university 
and of his own college, which are in posses- 
sion of the Society of Antiquaries. 

A contemporary William Smith (Jl. 
1726), surveyor to the Royal African Com- 
pany, proceeded to Africa in 1726 to make 
surveys and drafts of the English forts and 
settlements in Guinea. On nis return he 
published the results of his labours in a 
volume entitled ' Thirty different Draughts 
of Guinea/ London, fol. He also left an 
account of his visit in a manuscript, pub- 
lished in 1744 under the title of ' A New 
Voyage to Guinea/ in which his own obser- 
vations were eked out with long extracts 
from Bosnian's 'New Description of the 
Coast of Guinea.' The importance of the 
part of the narrative actually written by 
Smith is very slight (Pinkerton, Collection 
of Voyages and Travels, 1745, ii. 464-81). 

[Gent. Mag. 1853, ii: 163; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. 1500-171*; Nichols's Illustrations of 
Literature, v. 485.] E. I. C. 

SMITH, WILLIAM (1711-1787), trans- 
lator from the Greek, was born on 30 May 
1711 at Worcester, where his father, 
Richard Smith, was rector of All Saints' 
Church. He entered Worcester grammar 
school (Queen Elizabeth's) in 1722, and pro- 
ceeded in 1728 to New College, Oxford. He 
was there a contemporary of Robert Lowth 
[q. v.] (afterwards bishop of London), with 
whom he contracted a lifelong friendship. 
He graduated B.A. in 1732, M.A. in 1737, 
and fi.D. and D.D. in 1 758. Soon after taking 
his bachelor's degree, Smith had the good for- 
tune of becoming known to James Stanley, 
tenth earl of Derby, and he resided with 
him for three years in the capacity of his 
reader. In June 1735 he took deacon's | 

orders, and the earl presented him on 1 1 Sept- 
with the rectory of Holy Trinity, Chester. 
His first publication, a translation of ' Lon- 
ginus on the Sublime/ appeared in 1739, and 
established his reputation as a classical 
scholar. In 1743 he was appointed chaplain 
to Lord Derby, the successor of his former 
patron, and in 1748 headmaster of Brent- 
wood grammar school. The life of a peda- 
gogue proved distasteful, and Smith resigned 
at the close of a year. 

In 1753 he became one of the ministers 
of St. George's, Liverpool, and in the same 
year he published his translation of Thucy- 
dides. In 1 758, mainly through the influence 
of Lord Derby, he was presented to the 
deanery of Chester, with which he held other 
preferments. He resigned St. George's, Liver- 
pool, in 1767, and Holy Trinity, Chester, in 
1780, but he was rector of Handley from 
1766 to 1787, and of West Kirby from 
1780 to 1787. Smith died at Chester on 
12 Jan. 1787, and was buried in the south 
aisle of the cathedral, where a monument 
was erected to his memory by his widow, 
Elizabeth, of the Heber family of Essex. He 
left no children. 

Smith spoke Latin fluently, and was an 
excellent Greek and Hebrew scholar. He is 
best known by his translations from the 
Greek : 1. •' Longinus on the Sublime, with 
Notes and Life,' London, 1739, 8vo; the 
best edition is the fourth, which appeared in 
1757 ; subsequent editions, 1770, 1800, and 
1819. This was based upon the Latin edi- 
tion of Zachary Pearce [q. v.], 1724 ; though 
much praised at the time, and read by Ed- 
mund JBurke among others, Smith's version 
has been as completely superseded as those 
of his predecessors, J. Hall (1662) and 
Leonard Welstead [q.v.l, which he censured, 
the text of Longinus having undergone a 
complete recension since his day. 2. ' His- 
tory of the Peloponnesian War, from the 
Greek of Thucydides, with Notes/ 2 vols. 
1753, 4to ; 1781 ; 4th edit. 1805 ; and seve- 
ral American editions. A mediocre effort, 
in which the ruggedness and conciseness of 
the original are lost (cf. Gent. Mag. 1860, ii. 
213). A rumour was formerly current that 
Lord Chatham had contributed the * Funeral 
Oration ' in Book ii., ' but the hand of the 
great orator is nowhere discernible' (Jowbtt, 
Thucydides, Introd. p. viii). 3. ' Xenophon's 
History of Greece, by the Translator of Thucy- 
dides,' 1770, 4to ; 1781, and 1812. Smith 
also published ' Nine Sermons on the Beati- 
tudes ' (London, 1782, 8vo), and his friend, 
Thomas Crane, issued after his death ' The 
Poetic Works of William Smith, D.D.' 
(Chester, 1788, 12mo), including a para- 




phrase of Downe's ' Third Satyr ' and other 
trifles in verse, some of which had already 
appeared in the 'Gentleman's Magazine.' 
To this was prefixed a brief memoir of the 

A portrait was prefixed to his translation 
of Thucydides. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1716-1886; Ormerod's 
Cheshire, i. 221; Gent. Mag. 1791, ii. 745; 
Chambers's Worcestershire Biogr. pp. 431-2 ; 
Works of the Learned, May 1739 ; Chalmers's 
Biogr. Diet. ; Allibone s Diet, of English Lit. ; 
Brit. Mus. Cat] F. S. 

SMITH, WILLIAM (1780P-1819), 
actor, commonly known as 'Gentleman' 
Smith, the son of William Smith, a whole- 
sale grocer and teadealer in the city of Lon- 
don, was horn in London about 1730. He 
was educated at Eton under Dr. Somner, and, 
with a view to entering the church, was ad- 
mitted on 23 Oct. 1747, aged over sixteen, 
at St. John's College, Cambridge. Here 
his conduct was irregular, and at the close 
of a drunken frolic he snapped at the proc- 
tor an unloaded pistol. Refusing to sub- 
mit to the punishment imposed, he came to 
London and put himself under the tuition 
of Spranger Barry [q. v.], through whom he 
obtained an engagement at Covent Garden. 
There, as Theodosius in Lee's ' Theodosius/ 
he made his first appearance, 8 Jan. 1753, to 
the Varanes of Barry and the Athenais of 
Mrs. Cibber ; the performance was repeated 
on the three following days. On 13 Feb. he 
was Polydore in the ' Orphan/ and on the 
21 st the original Southampton in Jones's 
'Earl of Essex/ After an uninterrupted 
run of sixteen nights the piece last named 
was withdrawn in favour of ' All for Love/ 
in which Smith was Dolabella. For his 
benefit on 7 April he played Abudah in the 
' Siege of Damascus/ His impersonations 
had hitherto been tragic. On 22 Oct. he 
made, with Orlando in ' As yon like it/ his 
first appearance in comedy, and on 26 Nov. 
played 1 oung Mirabel in the 'Inconstant/ 
On the first appearance on the stage of Mrs. 
Gregory as Hermione in the ' Distrest Mother/ 
10 Jan. 1754, Smith spoke a prologue, and on 
the 20th or 22nd was the original Musidorus 
in McNamara Morgan's ' Philoclea.' He was, 
23 Feb., the orginal Aurelian in Francis's 
' Constantine/ and played during the season 
Axalla in 'Tamerlane/ Loveless in the 
' Relapse/ Myrtle in the ' Conscious Lovers/ 
Carlos in ' Love makes a Man/ and Valen- 
tine in ' Love for Love/ At Covent Garden 
Smith remained until the close of the season 
of 1773-4. While there he created the fol- 
lowing original parts : Icilius in MoncriefPs 

' Appius/ 6 March 1755 ; Glenalvon in 
'Douglas' on its production in London, 
14 March 1757 (the part had previously 
been played in Edinburgh by Love) ; Palador, 
otherwise Guiderius, in Hawkins's alteration 
of ' Cvmbeline/ 16 Feb. 1759; Bellfield in 
Murphy's 'No one's Enemy but his own/ 
9 Jan. 17G4 ; Sir Charles Somerville in the 
' Double Mistake/ by Mrs. Griffiths, 9 Jan. 
1766; Bellford in Murphy's 'School for 
Guardians/ 10 Jan. 1767 ; Don Antonio in 
'Perplexities/ Hull's adaptation of the 
' Adventures of Five Hours/ 31 Jan. ; 
Cambyses in 'Cyrus/ Hoole's adaptation 
from Metastasio, 3 Dec. 1768 ; Lord Clair- 
ville in the ' Sister/ by Mrs. Lennox, 18 Jan. 
1769; Orestes in Lord Warwick's adapta- 
tion from Voltaire, 13 March ; Belneld 
junior in Cumberland's ' Brothers/ 2 Dec. ; 
Timanthes in Hoole's adaptation so named, 
24 Feb. 1770; Athamand in Cradock's 
'Zobeide/ 11 Dec. 1771; Lord Seaton in 
Mrs. Griffiths's 'Wife in the Right/ 
9 March 1772; Athelwold in Mason's 
'Elfrida/ 21 Nov.; Alzumar in Murphy's 
piece so named, 28 Feb. 1773 ; King Henry 
in Hull's ' Henry H/ 1 May ; and Captain 
Boothby in Kenrick's 'Duellist/ 20 Oct. 
During these years he had been seen in a 
large variety of parts, among which the fol- 
lowing stand conspicuous: Hippolitus in 
' Phaadra/ Juba in ' Cato/ Antony in ' Julius 
Caesar/ Henry V, Romeo, Comus, Hotspur, 
Hastings, Oswyn in ' Mourning Bride/ Bas- 
tard and Edgar in 'Lear/ Archer, Lothario, 
Hamlet, Young Bevil, Coriolanus, Lord Fop- 
pi ngton, Sir Harry Wildair, Demetrius m 
' Humorous Lieutenant/ Falconridge, Pierre, 
Copper Captain, Richard III, Bajazet, 
Mirabel in ' Way of the World/ Iago, 
Antony in 'All for Love/ Alexander tne 
Great, Castalio, Iachimo, Lord Townly, 
Macbeth, Volpone, and Don Sebastian. 

To Garrick Smith wrote a letter, dated 
24 Aug. 1773, giving a list of fifty-two parts 
in which he was ready at short notice to ap- 
pear. This means, says Boaden, a recollec- 
tion of twenty-five thousand lines. The 
letter in question forms one of a correspon- 
dence in which Smith, who had quarrelled 
with Colman, seeks an engagement, but 
wrangles whether the terms shall be twelve 
pounds or guineasper week. Garrick is very 
acrimonious, and Smith finally a little abject. 
Smith asked Garrick to destroy the corre- 
spondence, which however still exists. In 
an address to the public at Covent Garden, 
10 March 1774, as Macbeth, he spoke, accord- 
ing to the manager's notebook, some verses, 
apparently of his own composition, announce 
ing his intention to play Macbeth and Richard 




no more, but to devote himself to fox-hunt- 
ing and country pursuits : 

Then take the circuit of my little fields, 

And taste the comfort that contentment yields. 

He also declared (quite erroneously) that 
he had served the public thirty-five years. 
The retirement thus contemplated had a 
duration of barely more than six months. 

Smith's first appearance at Drury Lane 
was made under Grarrick, 22 Sept. 1774, as 
Richard III. Iachimo, Hamlet, Orestes in 
' Electra,' Hastings in ' Jane Shore,' Duke 
in ' Measure for Measure, 1 Bajazet, and other 
parts followed, and he was the original 
Edwin, earl of Northumberland, in Dr. 
Franklin's 'Matilda,' 21 Jan. 1775, and 
Velasquez in Jephson's ' Braganza,' 17 Feb. 
His otter new parts at Drury Lane consisted 
of George Hargrave in Mrs. Cowley's ' Run- 
away,' 15 Feb. 1776 ; Arzaces in Ayscough's 
' Semiramis,' adapted from Voltaire, 13 Dec. ; 
Loveless in Sheridan's ' Trip to Scarborough,' 
24 Feb. 1777 ; Charles Surface in the « School 
for Scandal,' 8 May; a part unnamed in 
the ' Roman Sacrifice ' of William Shirley, 
18 Dec.; Paladore in Jephson's 'Law of 
Lombardy,' 8 Feb. 1779; Almaimon in 
Hodson's 'Zoraida,' 13 Dec; Acamas in 
' Royal Suppliants,' adapted by Delap from 
Euripides, 17 Feb. 1781 ; Hamet in Pratt's 
'Fair Circassian,' 27 Nov.; Morley in 
' Variety,' assigned hesitatingly to Richard 
Griffith, 25 Feb. 1782; Montague in Hull's 
'Fatal Interview,' 16 Nov.; St. Valori in 
Cumberland's 'Carmelite,' 2 Dec. 1784; 
Clifford in Burgoyne's 'Heiress,' 14 Jan. 
1786 ; and Erragon in Delap's adaptation 
from Euripides 'The Captives,' 9 March. 
Among other parts in which he was first 
seen at Drury Lane are Don Felix, Captain 
Absolute, Ford, Alwin in the ' Countess of 
Salisbury,' and King Arthur. 

He made his last professional appearance 
on the stage as Charles Surface, 9 June 
1788, after which he retired, settling at Bury 
St. Edmunds. He returned to the stage of 
Drury Lane for one night, 18 May 1798, 
playing Charles Surface for the benefit of 
King. He died, 13 Sept. 1819, in his house 
at Bury St. Edmunds. His fortune, de- 
clared under 18,000/., he left principally to 
his widow, his will being proved on 14 Oct. 
1819. At his request his funeral was with- 
out pomp, and no stone or other indication 
is erected to show his place of sepulture. 
He also directed that no biographical record 
should be issued after his death. Smith 
had married, in May 1754, Elizabeth, widow 
of Kelland Courtenay ; she was second daugh- 
ter of Edward Richard Montagu, viscount 

Hinchinbroke, and was thus a sister of John 
Montagu, the notorious fourth earl of Sand- 
wich [q. v.] Great outcry being raised con- 
cerning the disgrace to the family, Smith 
offered to retire from the stage if an annuity 
equal to the income he made by his profes- 
sion were given him. This proposal was 
declined, and the lady died on 11 Dec. 1762. 
He subsequently married another widow, of 
humbler station, but possessed of consider- 
able property, who survived him and forgave 
him a solitary but too notorious escapade, 
when in the spring of 1774 he went to Paris 
in company with Mrs. Hartley, his Lady 

Smith's youthful reputation as a 'buck,' 
the circumstances of his early life, and his 
marriage to the sister of a peer, conspired to 
secure him the appellation of ' Gentleman.' 
He deserved the name, however, for other 
reasons. He was by no means deficient in 
tact, and his rancour against the critics had 
less of absurdity in it than is common with 
the generality oTf actors. His manners were 

Solished ; his voice, though monotonous, was 
istinct, smooth, and powerful ; his person 
was pleasing and his countenance ' engag- 
ing ; ' he was always easy and never deficient 
in spirit. In tragedy he did not stand fore- 
most, though his Richard III was held a 
fine performance, and his Hamlet, Hotspur, t 
Lothario, Edgar, and Henry V won recog- 
nition. In characters less essentially heroic 
he was esteemed. His Kitely was held better 
than Garrick's, and his Leon, Oakly, Ford, 
Clifford, Falconbridge, and Iachimo were 
warmly commended. His chief success was 
in gay comedy. His original performance of 
Charles Surface is held never to have been 
equalled, and in Plume, Archer, and other 
characters he had few successful rivals. 
Churchill, in the ' Rosciad,' speaks of 
Smith, the genteel, the airy, and the smart. 

During his long connection with the stage 
Smith only twice acted out of London dur- 
ing the summer season. There seems some- 
thing like affectation in his boast that he had 
never played in an afterpiece and never 
worn a beard or gone down a trap ; but he 
is said to have had a clause in his engage- 
ments that he should not be called on to act 
on a Monday in the hunting season. Horse- 
racing and hunting were his delight; he some- 
times hunted in the morning, and took relays 
of horses so as to act at night, riding once, it 
is said, eighteen miles in an hour. When 
he came from his retirement to play Charles 
Surface for King's benefit, though nearly 
seventy years old and portly in figure, he 
showed signs of his old grace of movement. 




In the Mathews collection of pictures, 
now in the Garrick Club, is a portrait of 
Smith as Charles Surface in 'the screen 
scene/ with King as Sir Peter, Palmer as 
Joseph Surface, and Mrs. Abington as Lady 
Teazle. Prints of the same characters were 
published by John Harris in 1778, and Sayer 
in 1789. A portrait of Smith as Iachimo by 
William Lawranson has also been engraved. 
A portrait by Hoppner (1788} was presented 
to the nation by Serjeant Taady in 1837, and 
was transferred from the National to the 
National Portrait Gallery in 1888 ( Cat . 1896, 
p. 869). John Jackson U778-1831) [q.v.], 
at the instance of Sir George Beaumont, 
went down to Bury in 1811 to paint a por- 
trait of Smith, then over eighty years of 
age; this was engraved by William A. £. 
Ward [q. v.], and published in 1819. 

[Genest's Account of the English Stage ; Mana- 
ger's Note-Book; Thespian Dictionary; Gilli- 
land's Dramatic Mirror; Theatrical Inquisitor, 
1819; Clark Russell's Representative Actors; 
Boaden's Life of Mrs. Jordan, i. 122 ; O'Keeffe's 
Recollections; Smith's Gat.; Garrick Corre- 
spondence; Davies's Life of Garrick; Dntton 
Cook's Hours with the Players ; Georgian Era ; 
Walpole Letters, ed. Cunningham; Boswell's 
Johnson, ed. Hill ; Taylor's Records of my Life ; 
note from R. F. Scott, esq., of St. John's, Cam- 
bridge.! J- K. 

SMITH, WILLIAM (1766-1835), poli- 
tician, only son of Samuel Smith, of Clap- 
ham Common, a merchant of London, and 
his wife, Martha Adams, was born on 22 Sept. 
1756. His family belonged to the Isle of 
"Wight, and had owned a small estate there 
since the reign of James I. He was edu- 
cated at the college of Daventry, and early 
acquired a taste for literature and art, which 
was exhibited in after life in his fine library 
and collection of pictures. He was pro- 
bably the ' William Smith, stockbroker/ a 
pupil of Butler Clowes [q. v.], who en- 
graved his portrait (Bbomlbt, Cat. Engr. 
FortraiU, p. 413). On 2 April in the 
general election of 1784 he was elected 
M.P. for Sudbury in Suffolk, and sat till the 
dissolution in June 1790. He was not re- 
elected, but obtained a seat for Camelford, 
Cornwall, on 8 Jan. 1791, on the vacancy 
caused by the death of Sir Samuel Hannay, 
and sat till 1796. In the next parliament 
he was elected on 25 May 1796 for Sudbury, 
but after the dissolution on 29 June 1802 he 
was elected on 6 July 1802 for Norwich. 
He did not obtain a seat in the next parlia- 
ment, which sat from 15 Dec. 1806 to 
29 April 1807, but on 4 May 1807 he was 
again elected for Norwich, and re-elected in 
the four successive parliaments of 1812, 1818, 

1820, and 1826, retiring from parliamentary 
life at the dissolution of 24 July 1830. He 
had been brought up in the principles of the 
revolution of 1688, and adhered to them 
throughout life. His father and uncle were 
ground landlords of a great' part of the city 
of Savannah, but sympathised so strongly 
with the Americans that they made no 
claim for the loss of their property after 
the declaration of American independence. 
The first important debate in which Smith 
took part {Pari. History, vol. xxv. 824) was 
that on Mr. Beaufoy's motion in 1787 for a 
repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts. 
He spoke at great length on the same sub- 
ject in 1789, when he was answered by 
Lord North; in 1790 on Fox's motion on 
the same subject ; on 1 March 1791 he spoke 
last in a great debate in which Burke, Fox, 
and Pitt spoke on a motion for leave to bring 
in a bill for the relief of catholic dissenters, 
and twice on the same bill in April 1791. In 
1792 he attacked Burke on Foxs motion for 
the repeal of certain penal statutes respect- 
ing religious opinions, and again attacked 
him on the address of thanks on 13 Dec. 
1792, but often afterwards quoted him and 

Xke of him with respect. He took part in 
lost every discussion on religious dis- 
abilities till the repeal of the Test and Cor- 
poration Acts in 1828, when he was vice- 
chairman at the banquet on 8 May 1828 
held to celebrate the repeal, under the presi- 
dency of the Duke of Sussex. In a speech 
made in 1790 in defence of Dr. Priestley, he 
stated that he was himself a dissenter, and 
in 1792, in another debate on religious dis- 
abilities, ' that as long as his name was 
William he would stand up for his prin- 
ciples.' His position as chairman of the 
deputies of the three denominations and as 
the chief advocate of their interests in par- 
liament, and the frequent length of his 
speeches, were satirised in a political poem 
of the time : 

At length, when the candles burn low in their 

Up gets William Smith with, both hands in his 

On a course of morality fearlessly enters, 
With all the opinions of all the Dissenters. 

On 26 May 1788 he supported the motion of 
Sir William Dolben on the African slave 
bill, and in 1789 spoke in favour of William 
Wilberforce's resolution on the slave trade. 
In 1791 he spoke at great length in the same 
cause, giving much varied information on 
slavery, and the speech seems to have pro- 
duced some effect on Pitt. He frequently 
used classical quotations, and on tnis 00- 




casion quoted Macrobius, perhaps the only 
instance in which that author has been 
mentioned in the House of Commons. He 
continued to support Wilberforce's motions 
till the abolition of slavery in the British 
colonies. He supported mr. Grey's motion 
of parliamentary reform in 1792, and again 
in May 1797, then stating that he had at- 
tended every meeting on the subject for 
twenty-two years, and voted for similar 
resolutions to the end of his parliamen- 
tary career. In the debates on Fox's re- 
solution against war with France, on 18 Feb. 
1793, and in all debates connected with the 
revolution in France, he spoke and voted 
with the new whigs, and he was elected a 
member of the Whig Club, from which Burke 
and Windham had retired, on 12 Jan. 1796. 
He had been mentioned as a proper person 
to represent the city of London, and justified 
this opinion by attention to finance and 
other commercial questions. On 3 Feb. 
1797 he made a report on a proposed loan, 
and on 22 Feb., after a very long speech, 
moved forty resolutions in favour of open 
competition for government loans. His first 
resolution was put and received twenty- 
three votes in the affirmative, and 171 noes. 
On 10 May 1805 he opposed the corn regu- 
lation bill, and in 1806 discussed the pig- 
iron bill. He supported in 1802 Mr. DenPs 
bill to prevent bull-baiting with a quota- 
tion from Ovid, but agreed with Windham 
on 29 Jan. 1806 in opposing the proposed 
funeral honours to Pitt. He voted for the 
impeachment of Lord Melville, and spoke 
in favour of the dismissal of the Duke of 
York from the command of the army. In 
1817 he expressed some indignation at the 
difference oetween the views of Robert 
Southey, as laureate and writer in the ' Quar- 
terly Review,' and as author of ' Wat Tyler,' 
an early effort which had just been printed 
without Southey's permission. Southey re- 
torted in 'A Letter to William Smith, Esq., 
M.P.' Smith was made a commissioner 
of highland roads and bridges, and in 
that capacity travelled through the high- 
lands in the first years of this century, and 
was hospitablv entertained by the chiefs at 
Castle Grant, t)unvegan, and elsewhere. It 
added to his popularity that his father had 
been kind to Flora Macdonald fq. v.] when 
she was in the Tower, sending her tea and 
other luxuries. 

Smith was a patron of Opieand of Cotman, 
and Reynolds sometimes dined at his house. 
He was the second purchaser of the picture 
of Mrs. Siddons as the Tragic Muse, now in 
the collection of the Duke of Westminster, 
and he possessed two fine Rembrandts. He 

knew Dr. Richard Brocklesby [q. v.], and met 
Br. Johnson at his house. Samuel Rogers 
begins his recollections with an account of 
a dinner at William Smith's on 19 March 
1796, where the company consisted of Charles 
James Fox, Dr. Parr, Tierney John Cour- 
tenay, Sir Francis Baring, Dr. Aikin, Sir 
James Mackintosh, and Sir Philip Francis. 
Rogers presented Mrs. Smith in 1792 with a 
handsome copy of the 'Pleasures of Memory.' 
Fox, Priestley, Dr. John Moore, Gilbert Wake- 
field, Sir James Mackintosh, Thomas Clark- 
son, and Zachary Macaulay were frequent 
visitors at his house ; Wilberforce was his 
friend and associate throughout life, and his 
portrait is drawn by the skilful hand of Sir 
James Stephen in his famous essay on the 
Clapham sect. He lived in Alderman- 
bury when he began public life, and after- 
wards at Clapham Common. During the 
parliament of 1812 he bought a house and 
estate at Parndon in Essex, while his town 
house was for many years before and after 
that time in Park Street, Westminster. He 
died on 81 May 1835 at the house of his 
eldest son, Benjamin, 5 Blandford Square, 
a district demolished in 1897 for the Great 
Central railway. Sir James Stephen says : 
'When he had nearly completed fourscore 
years, he could still gratefully acknow- 
ledge that he had no remembrance of any 
bodily pain or illness, and that of the very 
numerous family of which he was the head, 
every member still lived to support and to 
gladden his old age ; and yet, if ne had gone 
mourning all his days, he could scarcely 
have acquired a more tender pity for the 
miserable, or have laboured more habitually 
for their relief.' He married, on 12 Jan. 1781, 
Frances Coape, and had five sons and five 
daughters, of whom the youngest died at 
sixty-nine, two lived to more than seventy- 
five, six to more than eighty, and one to 
more than ninety. 

His portrait and that of his wife by Opie 
are at Scalands, Sussex, and there is a full- 
length portrait, painted by H. Thompson, 
R.A., for his constituents, in St. Andrew's 
Hall, Norwich ; both have been engraved. 
His family also possess a paintiug repre- 
senting him as a boy talking to his father. 

Benjamin Smith (1783-1860), his eldest 
son, was born on 28 April 1783, married 
Anne Longden, and died on 16 April 1860. 
He contested Norwich at the election of July 
1837, when Sir William Scarlett and Lord 
Douro were successful. Scarlett's election 
was declared void, and he became member 
on 14 May 1838. At the next election, on 
28 June 1841, Smith wasreturned with Lord 
Douro, and continued to sit until the dis- 




solution in 1847. He was an active sup- 
porter of the liberal party and of the repeal 
of the corn laws. He was a patron of 
William Hunt, the watercolour-painter. He 
was painted playing chess with his son 
William Leigh Smith, at whose house of 
Crowham, Sussex, the picture is preserved. 

[Short Memoir, privately printed, Hastings, 
1835 ; Parliamentary History and Hansard's 
Debates ; Wilberforce's Life of William Wilber- 
fbrce, 1838; Recollections by Samuel Rogers, 
2nd ed. 1859; Sir James Stephen's Essays in 
Ecclesiastical Biography; Dowden's Southey, 
1879; Whig Club Rulers List, London, 1799; 
family papers and information.] N. M. 

SMITH, WILLIAM (1769-1839), geolo- 
gist and civil engineer, was born on 23 March 
1769 at Churchill, Oxfordshire. His father, 
John Smith, who had some local repute as 
a mechanician, was descended from a race of 
small farmers owning their land ; his mother 
was Anne Smith of Longcompton, Glouces- 
tershire. William was the eldest child, two 
other boys and a sister completing the family. 
In 1777 his father died ; his mother married 
a^ain and survived t ill 1 807. W illiam received 
his education at the village school. He. was 
even then a collector of fossils, given to quiet 
solitary rambles, but of studious habits, and 
was occasionally helped in getting books by 
an uncle, also named William. With these 
he taught himself some geometry, and such 
elementary knowledge as was required for 
surveying. He was thus fitted to become 
assistant, at the age of eighteen, to Edward 
Webb of Stow-on-the-Wold, in whose house 
he lived. Webb was a surveyor in good 
business, self-taught, but ingenious as a 
mechanician and stimulating as a teacher. 
Under this master Smith in tne course of his 
emplovment gained a good knowledge of 
the soils and underlying rocks in Oxfordshire 
and the adjoining counties, till in 1793 he 
was entrusted with the survey of a canal 
through the Somerset coal-field. There 
lie produced so favourable an impression 
on his employers that in 1794 he accom- 
panied two of them on a journey undertaken 
to inquire into the construction and work- 
ing of canals. This gave him an invalu- 
able opportunity, for he had already begun 
those investigations into stratigraphy which 
ultimately brought him fame and poverty. 
The party went as far north as Newcastle- 
on-Tyne, going and returning by different 
routes. Thus Smith not only extended 
liis knowledge of the geology of England, 
but also was able to verify his ideas as to 
i;he succession of the strata. After his re- 
turn he was continuously employed till 1799 
on the works of the Somerset Coal Canal ; 

but as early as 1796 he had sketched in out- 
line a general work on the stratification of 
Britain. This, on the conclusion of his en- 
gagement, assumed a more definite form, so 
that he announced his intention of publish- 
ing, for he was convinced that he had found 
the key to stratigraphy — viz. the identifica- 
tion of strata by their fossil contents. He 
lived for a time at High Littleton, but in 
1795 he removed to Bath, near to which in 
1798 he bought a small property. His geo- 
logical investigations were greatly encouraged 
by the Rev. Benjamin Richardson of Farleigh, 
near Bath, and the Rev. Joseph Townsend 
[q. v.] of Pewsey ; and in 1799 the former, 
in the house of the latter, wrote at Smith's 
dictation a list of the strata in order of suc- 
cession, from the chalk downwards to the 
coal measures. This document now belongs 
to the Geological Society of London, to whom 
it was presented in 1831. 

Meanwhile Smith became more widely 
known as an engineer. His mastery of scien- 
tific principles, his success in dealing with 
difficulties in drainage and all other ques- 
tions connected with water, led to his being 
summoned to distant localities, and enabled 
him to increase his scale of charges. But 
whatever might be earned was swallowed 
up by the expenses of the map of the strata 
in England and Wales, on which he was now 
definitely engaged. In 1801 he issued a pro- 
spectus of a work on the natural order of 
the various strata in England and Wales, 
but failed to carry out the project. He was 
consulted by Francis Russell, fifth duke of 
Bedford [q. v.], but was almost immediately 
deprived by premature death of one who 
would have t>een a most helpful patron. 
His name, however, was rapidly becoming 
known in scientific circles. The next duke 
was a friend ; Arthur Young [q. v.], secre- 
tary to the board of agriculture, consulted 
him ; William Crawshay [q. v.], ' the iron 
king/ and Sir Joseph Banns [q. v.] gave 
substantial help towards the publication of 
his map, but outward obstacles continued 
to impede the accomplishment of his de- 
sign. Still, in 1806 he overcame his reluc- 
tance to authorship, and published l Obser- 
vations on the Utility, Form, and Manage- 
ment of Water Meadows/ Norwich, 8vo ; 
and he received during the previous year a 
medal from the Society of Arts for his suc- 
cess in draining Prisley Bog. By this time 
he had almost a monopoly of work for 
drainage and irrigation, and was constantly 
engaged in travelling, sometimes covering 
ten thousand miles in a year, and this 
before the days of railways. Among other 
important engineering works, he was en- 




gaged in stopping irruptions of the sea into 
the marshland of East Norfolk, from Hap- 
pisburg to Yarmouth, and in improving its 
drainage. This occupied him at intervals 
from 1800 to 1809. In 1810 his services were 
required in Bath, the prosperity of which was 
threatened by a failure of its hot springs. 
Their waters had found a new channel ; this 
Smith detected and stopped, so that they 
flowed more copiously than before. At the 
same time he successfully checked an influx 
of water into a coal-pit at Batheaston, to 
which some persons had attributed the 
failure at the springs; and in 1811-12 he 
was employed in stopping some serious leak- 
ages in the Somerset Coal Canal. 

Meanwhile he had removed his geological ' 
collections to London, placing them in a I 
house in Buckingham Street, Strand, which 1 
he had rented from 1805, and was endeavour- | 
ing to complete his geological map. Among 
other difficulties under which he laboured 
must be reckoned the want of a topographi- 
cal map suitable for geological colouring. 
This was overcome by the enterprise of Wil- 
liam Cary fa. v.], who in 1812 had under- 
taken to publish Smith's map, and had a new 
topographical one (8J feet high by 6J wide) 
engraved for the purpose. At last the work 
was completed, was submitted to the Society 
of Arts, received from them a premium of 
60/., and was published on 1 Aug. 1815. 
' From that hour the fame of its author as a 
great original discoverer in English geology 
was secured ' (J. Phillips). 

The first marked public tribute to Smith's 
services to science was in 1818 from Dr. 
William Henry Fitton Tq. v.], in an article 
on the progress of English geology (Edinb. 
Bev. xxix. p. 3 J 0). Meanwhile he was busily 
engaged in Suffolk and Norfolk on drainage 
operations, in Yorkshire planning canals, and 
in the Forest of Dean as a surveyor of the 
coal-field. But in 1816 he began to issue a 
work entitled * Strata identified by Organised 
Fossils/ which, however, stopped at the fourth 
number ; and next year he published ' A Strati- 
graphical System of Organised Fossils/ com- 
piled from his own collection, which had 
been purchased for the British Museum early 
in the previous year. A geological map on 
a reduced scale was published in 1819, and 
the issue of a 'New Geological Atlas of Eng- 
land and Wales/ &c, was begun the same 
year (six parts appeared, the last in 1824). 

But whrie his fame was spreading and his 
professional prospects were still good, ill- 
fortune was near at hand. He had sacrificed 
all his earnings, even his little patrimony, in 
the preparation of his map, and had involved 
himself in an unsuccessful speculation con- 

nected with his small estate near Bath. Pe- 
cuniary difficulties at last became so pressing 
that in the autumn of 1819 he was obliged 
to give up his house in London, to sell his 
boots and everything he possessed ; even his 
papers, drawings, and maps would have 
gone had they not been secured by the kind- 
ness of a friend. At the time he was en- 
gaged in Yorkshire ; but the blow, though 
endured with apparent fortitude, was a sore 
one, and after that he came but seldom to 
London. To add to his anxieties, his wife's 
health failed, and in the next year her mind 
became deranged. 

For some years after this Smith had no 
regular home, but moved about as his pro- 
fessional engagements or his geological in- 
vestigations dictated, chiefly in the north of 
England, having for a time as companion his 
nephew, John Phillips (1800-1874) [a. v.] 
He lingered long at Kirkby Lonsdale. Hence- 
forth geology, notwithstanding straitened cir- 
cumstances, evidently more and more en- 
grossed his thoughts. In 1824 he made, at 
York, his first attempt as a lecturer, and was 
encouraged by the results to appear in the like 
capacity in Hull, Sheffield, and Scarborough. 
After this he fixed his residence at Scar- 
borough, where he designed the museum, im- 
proved the water supply, and worked at geo- 
logy. But over-exertion in examining a 
fault displayed on the north side of the Castle 
Hill brought on muscular paralysis in his 
legs. This confined him to his bed during 
the early part of 1825, but it gradually passed 
away in the course of the year. 

At last, in 1828 he settled down atHack- 
ne88 as land steward to Sir John V. B, 
Johnstone. The latter used every friendly 
endeavour to stimulate Smith to publish 
more of his vast stores of geological infor- 
mation; but, though so ready to impart know- 
ledge to friends by word of mouth, he had 
an aversion to proof-sheets. 'Mr. Smith 
meditated and wrote, but did not arrange his 
papers; and, excepting a beautiful geological 
map of the Hackness estate, executed in great 
detail and with extreme exactitude, nothing 
of importance came from his hands to the 
public* (J. Phillips, Memoirs, p. 113). 

But Smith's position as the 'father of 
British geology' was now acknowledged. 
In February 1831 the council of the Geologi- 
cal Society voted him the Wollaston medal, 
and Professor Adam Sedgwick [q. v.], the 
president, took the opportunity of this, the 
first award, to expatiate upon Smith's seiv 
vices to the science. The medal itself had 
not then been made, so it was actually pre- 
sented to him at Oxford during the second 
meeting of the British Association, when he 




also received the welcome news that the 
.government, at the instance of the represen- 
tatives of British science, had granted him 
a pension of 100/. a year. "When the asso- 
ciation visited Dublin in 1836 he received 
the honorary degree of LL.D. from Trinity 

He resigned his post with Sir J. V. B. 
Johnstone in 1834, but continued to act as 
his scientific adviser, and in 1838 was em- 
ployed by the government as one of a small 
commission to select the stone for the new 
houses of parliament. When the report was 
signed he had nearly completed his seventieth 
year, but an increasing deafness was almost 
the only indication of old age. In August 
1839 he was specially invited to attend the 
meeting of the British Association at Bir- 
mingham. On his way thither he stayed 
with some friends at Northampton. A cold 
of which he had made light assumed a serious 
form ; he sank rapidly, and died on the 28th 
of the month. His grave is at the west end 
of St. Peter's Church, on the walls of which 
a memorial tablet and bust have been placed. 

A strongly made man of good stature, 
Smith enjoyed on the whole good health, 
though in mid life he suffered from ague, 
contracted during his work in the marsh- 
lands, and from about his fiftieth to his six- 
tieth year was troubled with gravel; this, 
however, was cured 'by temperance and 
camomile tea/ His equanimity, patience, 
industry, and memory were alike remarkable ; 
80 also was his ingenuity in all mechanical 
devices for overcoming professional difficul- 
ties. His geological knowledge was freely 
imparted, so that, notwithstanding his re- 
luctance to publish, his labours bore fruit 
in the hands of other workers, and his posi- 
tion as the real founder of stratigraphical 
geology has never been questioned. 

According to his own statement {Me- 
moirs, p. 126), three portraits of Smith were 
painted; the best, completed at a single sit- 
ting, by M.Fourau, was presented by his grand- 
nephew, W. Smith of Cheltenham, to the 
Geological Society, which also possesses a 
cast of the bust in St. Peters Church, 
Northampton. Other portraits are by Solo- 
mon "Williams and John Jackson (1778- 
1881) [q. v.] 

[Geikie's Life of R. I. Murchison ; Life and 
Letters of Sedgwick (Clark and Hughes) ; Obi- 
tuary Notice, Proc. GeoL Soc. iii. 248 ; Trans. 
Geol. Soc. i. 325 ; Geolog. Mag. new ser. 1892, 
pp. 94-6 ; Edinb. Rev. xxix. 71-2, 310, lii. 45, 
lxiii. 4; Quarterly Rev. xlvii, 104-5; Phil. 
Mag. zxzv. 114, xlii. 249, liii. 112-19 ; Memoirs 
of William Smith, LL.D., by John Phillips, 
FJLS., 1844.] T. G. B. 

SMITH, WILLIAM (1808-1876), print- 
seller, son of a London print-seller, was born 
on 11 July 1808 in Lisle Street, Leicester 
Square. lie proceeded to Cambridge Uni- 
versity, but on the death of his father in 
1836 he and his brother George succeeded to 
the business, and he was obliged to abandon 
his studies there. In 183o he purchased 
the collection of engravings formed by John 
Sheepshanks [q. v.] The fiutch and Flemish 
portions, which were considered to be the 
most perfect in Europe, he sold to the British 
Museum for 5,000/., although he received 
larger offers from Holland. This was the 
first of a series of large transactions in which 
Smith rendered eminent services to the print- 
room. Among the collections which reached 
the Museum through his exertions were those 
of ' Mr. Harding of Finchley ' (a very fine 
all-round collection) in 1841, of Coningham 
(engravings by early German and Italian 
artists) in 1844 and 1845, selections from 
the Aylesford and Woodburn collections in 
1847, and some etchings of the utmost raritv 
by Rembrandt, procured at Baron Verstolk s 
sale at Amsterdam in 1847. 

In 1848 Smith and his brother retired from 
business. From that time his labours ' were 
wholly honorary and patriotic.' He took a 
prominent part in establishing the National 
Portrait Gallery, being appointed an original 
trustee, and chosen deputy chairman in 1858. 
He was also actively engaged in the manage- 
ment of the Art Union of London. At one 
time he interested himself in acquiring an 
historical series of watercolour drawings by 
British artists, but, learning that the mana- 
gers of South Kensington Museum were 
forming a similar collection, he allowed them, 
in his lifetime, to select what they pleased, 
and presented the remainder to the National 
Gallery of Ireland. 

He was elected a fellow of the Society of 
Antiquaries in 1852. 

Smith died on 6 Sept. 1876, and was 
buried at Kensal Green cemetery. His col* 
lections, which included many rare cata- 
logues of galleries and exhibitions, with 
copious manuscript notes, he bequeathed to 
the library of the South Kensington Mu- 

[Times, 16 Sept 1876; Athenaeum, 1876, ii. 
377 ; Notes and Queries, 6th ser. vi. 259 ; Men 
of the Time, 9th ed. p. 910.] £. I. C. 

SMITH, Sib WILLIAM (181S-1893), 
lexicographer, born in 1818, was the eldest 
son of William Smith of Enfield. His parents 
were nonconformists. Philip Smith [q. v.] 
was a y ounger brother. After some time spent 
as a theological student, William adopted the 




law as a profession, and was articled to Mr. 
Parker, a well-known solicitor. While thus 
employed, he acquired by his own exertions 
so thorough a knowledge of the classics that, 
entering University College, he gained the 
first prizes in the Greek and Latin classes. 
He was entered at Gray's Inn on 8 May 
1830, but, soon abandoning the pursuit of 
law, became a master at University College 
school under Thomas Hewitt Key [q. v.], 
and it was from Key that he learned many 
principles which he afterwards used in his 
classical grammars and exercise-books. He 
early engaged in writing on scholarly topics, 
and in editing Latin and Greek classics. 
He contributed articles to the 'Penny Cyclo- 
paedia/ and edited the 'Apology' and other 
works of Plato, and a selection from Tacitus. 
But it was as a collector of classical informa- 
tion in a lexicographical form that Smith first 
made a reputation. In 1842 there appeared 
the ' Dictionary of Greek and Roman Anti- 
quities/ which was in considerable part 
written by himself. For upwards of half a 
century this work held its own as the best of 
its kind which English scholarship had pro- 
duced; and, a few months before his death, 
Smith had the satisfaction of publishing a 
new edition, which extends to double the 
size of the original book and is now accepted 
by all scholars as a work of authority on 
the subjects with which it deals. The ' Dic- 
tionary of Greek and Roman Biography ' was 
finished in 1849, and that of ' Greek and Ro- 
man Geography ' in 1867. In the compila- 
tion of these valuable works he associated 
with himself the chief scholars of the day. 
The publication of his ' smaller ' school dic- 
tionaries of Latin and classical subjects began 
in 1850. In 1853, in conjunction with the 

Eublisher, John Murray (1808-1892) [q. v.], 
e started his ' Principia series, the method 
of which, originated by himself, has been 
very widely adopted by the leading teachers 
of languages. A series of 4 Student's Manuals 
of History and Literature' followed. He 
himself wrote the ' Student's Greece ' (1854). 
The greatest work in which he engaged 
was the ' Bible Dictionary ' (1860-5\ a sub- 
ject that had been already treatea lexico- 
graphically by John Kitto (q. v.] ; but Smith 
aimed at a far higher standard of scholar- 
ship, and embraced a wider range of topics. 
He also edited with Archdeacon Cheetham a 
' Dictionary of Christian Antiquities' (1875- 
1880), and with Dr. Wace a ' Dictionary of 
Christian Biography' (1877-87). His atlas 
(of which Sir George Grove was the joint 
editor) was finished in 1875. He produced 
an elaborately annotated edition of Gibbon, 
including the notes of Milman and Guizot, in 

eight vol umes in 1854-5. In 1867 he became 
editor of the ' Quarterly Review/ and re- 
tained the post until his death. Under his 
direction the reputation of the 'Review' 
was fully maintained. 

Smith was a member of the commission 
on copyright (1875), and in 1857 was elected 
a member of the general committee, and on 
11 March 1869 registrar of the Royal Lite- 
rary Fund. From 1858 to 1869 he was 
classical examiner in London University, 
and was member of the senate from 1869. 
In 1870 he received the honorary degree of 
D.C.L. at Oxford, and in 1890 at Dublin. 
He was also honorary LL.D. of Glasgow, 
and honorary Ph.D. of Leipzig, and was for 
many years a member of The Club.' In 1892 
he reluctantly accepted the honour of knight- 
hood. He died in London on 7 Oct. 1893. 
He married in 1834 Mary, daughter of James 
Crump of Birmingham. 

Smith's remarkable success as an editor of 
works of the most varied kind bears testi- 
mony to his quick discernment of the public 
need; to his ability in the choice of his 
assistants ; to his skill as an organiser ; and, 
above all, to the tact, judgment, and courtesy 
which enabled him to work with men of all 
degrees and of varied character in a spirit of 
perfect harmony and friendliness. His name 
will always be associated with a revival of 
classical teaching in this country. 

[Times, 10 Oct. 1893 ; Athenaeum, October 
1803, p. 434 ; Annual Register, 1893, pt. ii. p. 
185; Fosters Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; pri- 
vate information.] £. C. M. 

SMITH, WILLIAM,LL.D. (1816-1896), 
actuary and translator of Fichte, was born in 
Liverpool of Scottish parents on 30 Dec. 1816. 
His father dying while he was an infant, he 
was brought up at Edinburgh in the house of 
his maternal grandfather, Robert Cumming, 
who, though a descendant of John Brown 
(1627 P-1685), the martyr of the covenant, 
was himself a disciple of James Purves [q. v.] 
Apprenticed to a bookseller in his thirteenth 
year, after serving seven years he was for 
another seven years engaged as clerk in a 
newspaper office. In 1845 he entered the 
insurance business as head clerk to the 
British Guarantee Association. In 1847 he 
became manager of the English and Scottish 
Law Life Assurance Association, a post 
which he held with the highest distinction 
for forty-five years, retiring in 1892, when 
he became a director. He became a fellow 
of the Institute of Actuaries of Great Britain 
and Ireland in 1846, and of Scotland in 
1866. In 1862 he served on the committee 
for collection of the mortality experiences of 




British life offices. From 1879 to 1881 he 
-was chairman of the Association of Scottish 
Managers, and as such drafted the Married 
Women's Policies of Assurance (Scotland) 
Act, 1880. 
Smith made his mark in letters and 

Ehilosophy as the translator (1845-9) and 
iograpner (1845) of Johann Gottlieb Fichte 
(1762-1814), with whose idealism he was in 
strong sympathy. He had no classical tastes 
or training, but was widely read in French 
and German, as well as in English litera- 
ture. His familiarity with modern Euro- 
jean thought was extended by foreign travel. 
In 1846 he was one of the founders of the 
Edinburgh Philosophical Institution, and 
was long its most active vice-president and 
chairman of its directors. The selection of 
its library and the arrangements for its 
winter lectures owed much to his insight 
and enterprise, and to his admirable com- 
bination of courage and strong sense. The 
honorary degree of LL.D., conferred upon 
him by Edinburgh University in 1872, was 
a well-earned tribute to one who, without 
the aid of an academic career, had done 
much to foster the true spirit of modern 

In politics a strong liberal, he took an 
active part in the second return of Macaulay 
for Edinburgh (1852), in the election of 
Adam Black [q. v.] as Macaulay's successor 
fl.856), and in tne successive elections of Mr. 
Gladstone for Midlothian. He was a J. P. 
for Midlothian. For some time he was an 
office-bearer, subsequently an attendant, at 
St. Mark's Chapel (unitarian). Among his 
closest friends were Robert Cox [q. v. J and 
William Ballantyne Hodgson [q. v.] His 
genial humour, generous kindness, andstead- 
fast will made Trim a powerful personality 
in the circles in which he moved. He died 
at his residence, Lennox Lea, Currie, Mid- 
lothian, on 28 May 1896, and was buried at 
the Dean cemetery, Edinburgh. He married 
(1844) Martha (d. 16 May 1887), daughter of 
Robert Hardie, manager of the Edinburgh 
University printing press, and had nine chil- 
dren, of whom seven survived him. 

His translations of Fichte (forming part 
of 'The Catholic Series' published by John 
Chapman) comprise: 'The Nature of the 
Scholar . . . with a Memoir,' 1845, 8vo; 

1 The Vocation of the Scholar/ 1847, 8vo ; 
'The Characteristics of the Present Age/ 
1847, 8vo; 'The Vocation of Man/ 1848, 
8vo ; * The Way towards the Blessed Life/ 
1849, 8vo. These were collected with addi- 
tions, as ' The Popular Works of Fichte . . . 
with a Memoir/ 1849, 8vo, 2 vols. (1889, 8v0, 

2 vols.) 

[Scotsman, 29 May 1896. 30 May 1896 (letter 
by W. T. Gairdner, M.D.); Christian Life, 
6 June 1896, p. 278 ; personal knowledge.] 


(1766-1836), Irish judge, and pamphleteer, 
born on 23 Jan. 1766, was the eldest son of 
Sir Michael Smith, an Irish lawyer of emi- 
nence, who, after sitting for eleven years in 
the Irish parliament, was from 1794 to 1801 
a baron ot the court of exchequer, and from 
1801 to 1806 master of the rolls in Ireland. 
Sir Michael was created a baronet in 1799, 
in recognition as well of his son's parliamen- 
tary services to the government as of his 
own judicial eminence, and died on 17 Dec. 
1808, having retired from the bench in 1806. 

William Cusac Smith was the only son of 
Sir Michael and of Mary, daughter and heiress 
of James Cusac of Coolmine. On his mother's 
death he assumed the additional surname of 
Cusac. He was educated at Eton and at 
Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated in 
1788. While at the university Smith became 
acquainted with Edmund Burke, with whom 
he corresponded (Burke, Correspondence, iv. 
37), at whose house he passed some of his 
vacations (Prior, Life of Burke, ii.), and to 
whom he dedicated in 1792 two pamphlets, 
entitled < The Rights of Artisans* and ' The 
Patriot' (Burke, Correspondence, iv. 266). 
He was called to the Irish bar in 1788, ana, 
rapidly acquiring a substantial practice, was 
made a king's counsel in 1795. In the same 
year he entered parliament for the borough 
of Donegal. Though holding liberal views 
on catholic emancipation, as might be ex- 
pected from a disciple of Burke, ne became 
a strong supporter of the government, and 
was one of the first and most strenuous ad- 
vocates of the union. His speech in the 
union debate in 1799 was esteemed one of 
the ablest on that side, and was published 
as a pamphlet (Castlereagh Correspondence, 
ii. 130). He was an active member of the 
minority of the Irish bar which favoured the 
union, and the author of a protest against 
the action of the majority (ib. i. 344). Several 
letters and pamphlets which he wrote at the 
time were republished in 'Tracts on the 
Union' in 1831. 

In December 1800 Smith was appointed 
solicitor-general. While holding that office 
he was appointed deputy judge of assize, and 
went the north-east circuit as the colleague 
of his own father. In 1801 he became a 
baron of the exchequer. For many years he 
enjoyed the highest respect and confidence 
in this position, his leanings towards catholic 
emancipation rendering him popular with the 
Irish public. In his latter years, however, 




he gave offence to O'Connell and the popular 
party in consequence of the strong language 
he employed in charging grand juries at the 
assizes, in condemnation of the tithe agita- 
tion, and his conduct was brought before 
Earliament. Smith was a man ot eccentric 
abits, and was in the habit of holding his 
court at inconvenient hours. O'Connell skil- 
fully availed himself of this to support his 
political objections. On 13 Feb. 1834 it was 
resolved by the House of Commons, at the 
instance of O'Connell, to appoint a select 
committee 'to inquire into the conduct of 
Baron Smith in respect of his neglect of duty 
as a judge, and the introduction of political 
topics in his charges to grand juries.' It 
was soon felt, however, that such a resolu- 
tion threatened the independence of the 
judges. Smith's friends brought forward 
the question afresh a week later, when the 
resolution was rescinded by a majority of 
six, chiefly through the exertions of Frede- 
rick (afterwards Sir Frederick) Shaw [q. v.] 
He received congratulatory addresses on this 
occasion from nearly every grand jury in 
Ireland. Smith survived this for two years, 
dying at his seat, Newtown, in the King's 
CSounty, on 21 Aug. 1836. He married, in 
1737, Hester, daughter of Thomas Berry of 
Eglish, Queen's County. 

Smith was a cultivated and active-minded 
man. nis political writings on the union 
and other questions are marked by great 

Xur of thought, though the style is some- 
t turgid. As ' Paul Puck Peeradeal ' he 
issued a small volume of verse entitled ' The 
Goblins of Neapolis ' (Dublin, 1836). His 
' Verses ' (Dublin, 1830) were privately 
printed without an anthor's name; while 
nis ' Metaphysic Rambles ' (in three ' strolls ' 
or parts, 1836-6) appeared as by ' Warner 
Christian Search.' Under these pseudonyms 
and that of ' A Yeoman,' he issued many 
other essays, tracts, and addresses of no dis- 
tinctive merit. The sale of his valuable 
library took place in Dublin in 1837, and 
occupied four days. 

Thomas Babbt Cusack-Smith (1795- 
1866), second son of the above, became, like 
his father and grandfather, a distinguished 
lawyer and judge. He received his edu- 
cation at Trinity College, Dublin, where he 
graduated in 1813. In 1819 he was called 
to the bar, and received a silk gown in 
1830. In September 1842 he was appointed 
solicitor-general for Ireland in Sir Kobert 
Peel's administration, and in November of 
the same year succeeded Francis Black- 
burne [<j. v.] as attorney-general. In this 
office his most important duty was to con- 
duct the prosecution of O'Connell, whom 

he succeeded in convicting before the Irish 
judges, though the conviction was subse- 
quently reversed in the House of Lords. 
In the course of the trial Smith, who was a 
hot-tempered man, committed the indiscre- 
tion of challenging one of the opposing 
counsel to a duel. The matter was brought 
before the court, when Smith publicly apolo- 
gised. It was considered that the memory 
of this unfortunate incident cost him the 
Irish chancellorship later in his career. He 
was christened by O'Connell, who had a 
talent for nicknames, ( Alphabet ' Smith and 
4 The Vinegar Cruet.' From 1843 to 1846 
Smith sat in the House of Commons as 
member for Ripon, having previouslv con- 
tested Youghal unsuccessfully against O'Con- 
nelTs son. In the latter year he succeeded 
Blackburne in the office of master of the rolls, 
and retained this position till his death, which 
occurred suddenly at his shooting-lodge at 
Blairgowrie in Scotland on 13 Aug. 1866. 
Smith was a man of harsh manners and 
rough exterior, but his abilities were of a 
high order. Sir Robert Peel considered his 
speech in the House of Commons in 1844, 
in defence of his action as attorney-general 
in the O'Connell prosecution, as ranking, 
with Canning's Lisbon embassy speech and 
Plunket's on catholic emancipation in 1821, 
among the three speeches most effective for 
their immediate purpose which he ever 
listened to (Quarterly Review, cxxx. 199). 
He married, in 1827, Louisa, daughter of 
Thomas Smith-Barry of Fota, co. Cork, and 
his grandson is now heir-presumptive to the 

SFor Sir William Smith: Madden's Ireland 
L its Rulers, ii. 98-142; Wills's Lives of Il- 
lustrious Irishmen, vi. 257 ; Whiteside's Early 
Sketches, p. 274 ; Webb's Compendium ; Burke s 
Peerage and Baronetcy. For T. B. C. Smith : 
O'Connor Morris's Memoirs of a Life ; O'Connell 
Correspondence, ed. Fitzpatrick; Dublin daily 
papers, 15-16 Aug. 1866.] C. L. F. 

1872), philosopher, poet, and miscellaneous 
writer, son] of Kichard Smith, barrister-at- 
law, was born at North End, Hammer- 
smith, in January 1808, of parents in easy 
circumstances. He was educated at Radley 
school, then a nonconformist institution, and 
afterwards at Glasgow University, where he 
made many valuable friends and imbibed 
the habits of thought which influenced his 
subsequent life. After his father's death in 
1823 he was placed with Sharon Turner to 
study law, and served out his articles as 
a solicitor with excessive distaste. He was 
afterwards called to the bar, and went circuit 
for a while, but obtained no practice. Having 




a small independence, he mainly led the life 
of a recluse man of letters, reading, thinking, 
writing, and enjoying the friendship of Mill, 
Maurice, and Sterling, having assisted the 
latter two when they edited the ' Athenaum/ 
Caroline Fox notices hispersonal likeness to 
Maurice. His poems ' Guidone ' and ' Soli- 
tude ' were published together in 1886, and 
about the same time he reviewed Bulwer and 
Landor in the ' Quarterly.' In 1889 he pub- 
lished his ' Discourse on Ethics of the Scnool 
of Paley/ which was, in Professor Ferrier's 
opinion, ' one of the best written and most in- 

Seniously reasoned attacks upon Cudworth's 
octrine that ever appeared/ In the same 
year he began his connection with ' Black- 
wood's Magazine,' continued to nearly the 
end of his life. He contributed altogether 
126 articles on the most diverse subjects, 
stories, poems, essays in philosophy and poli- 
tics, but principally reviews and criticisms, 
all valuable, and all distinguished by ele- 
gance and lucidity of style. His novel, 
4 Ernesto,' a story connected with the con- 
spiracy of Fiesco, had appeared in 1885. It 
has considerable psychological but little nar- 
rative interest. Similar qualities and defects 
characterise his tragedy of i Athelwold ' 
(1842), although it was greatly admired by 
Mrs. Taylor, the Egeria of Stuart Mill, whose 
scrap of criticism is one of the very few 
utterances of hers that have found their way 
into print. Macreadv produced a curtailed 
version in 1843, and his and Helen Faucit's 
acting procured it a successful first night ; 
more was hardly to be anticipated. It was 
published in 1846 along with ' Sir William 
Crichton,' another tragedy, and 'Guidone' 
and ' Solitude.' From this time Smith lived 
chiefly at Keswick in the Lake district. In 
1851 he unexpectedly received an offer from 
Professor Wilson to supply temporarily his 
place as professor of moral philosophy at 
Edinburgh, but he was diffident, and had 
begun to write t Thorndale/ and the tempt- 
ing offer was declined. ' Thorndale, or the 
Conflict of Opinions,' was published in 1857, 
and, notwithstanding its length and occa- 
sional abstruseness, speedily gained accep- 
tance with thoughtful readers. In the pre- 
vious year he had become acquainted with 
his future wife, Lucy Caroline, daughter of 
George Cumming, M.D., whom he married at 
St. John's Church, Notting Hill, on 5 March 
1861. ' Gravenhurst, or Thoughts on Good 
and Evil,' was published in the same year. 
It confirmed and extended the reputation 
acquired by 'Thorndale,' but Smith owes 
much more to his wife's beautiful and affec- 
tionate record of their married life, almost 
devoid of incident as it is. His health began 

to decline in 1869, and he died at Brighton 
on 28 March 1872. Mrs. Smith survived 
until 14 Dec. 1881. Apart from her memoir 
of her husband, her literary work had prin- 
cipally consisted of translations from the 
German, both in prose and verse. 

Next after the biography which has em- 
balmed his name, Smith will chiefly be re- 
membered by his philosophical dialogues, 
' Thorndale ' and ' Gravenhurst.' The mu- 
tual relation of the books is indicated by 
the author himself when he says that 
' Thorndale ' is a conflict of opinions and 
' Gravenhurst ' a harmony. No man was 
better qualified by innate candour and impar- 
tiality to balance conflicting opinions against 
each other, or by acuteness to exhibit the 
strong and weak points of all. The eclectic 
character of his mind aided the diffusion of 
the books ; every one found much that com- 
mended itself to nim, while less popular views 
were expressed with an urbanity which dis- 
armed hostility, and the hesitation to draw 
definite conclusions was an additional attrac- 
tion to a public weary of dogmatism. If these 
really charming compositions have become in 
a measure obsolete, the chief reason is the 
importation of physical science as an element 
in moral discussions, but their classic ele- 
gance will always secure them an honourable, 
if not an influential, place in the history of 

I modern speculation. Smith's dramatic gift 
was not inconsiderable ; his personages are 

I well individualised both in his dialogues and 
his dramas. Of the latter, 'Sir William 

! Crichton,' a play of the stormy times of 
James II of Scotland, is the more effective. 
' Athelwold ' is a clear imitation of the style 
of Sir Henry Taylor, and, like the latter's 
1 Edwin the Fair,' brings Dunstan upon the 
stage. Both plays are full of wisdom, beau- 
tifully expressed, but neither is very vital 
nor very real. 

[Memoir of William Smith, by his widow, 
originally printed privately in 1873, and after- 
wards prefixed to the second edition of Graven- 
hurst, 1875; The Story of William and Lucy 
Smith, by George H. Merriam, 1880, a reprint 
of the memoir with copious additions from the 
correspondence of both and extracts from Smith's 
writings and with a portrait from a bust. A 
thorough description and analysis of Smith's 
philosophy (especially as expressed in ' Graven- 
hurst') is given by M. Joseph Milsand in one 
of a series of eleven essays called ' Literature 
Anglaise et Philosophic,' Dijon, 1893, pp. 173- 
197 ] B. G. 


1891), statesman, born in Duke Street, 

Grosvenor Square, London, on 24 June 1825, 

( was only son of William Henry Smith, 




newsagent, and his wife, Mary Anne Cooper. 
His parents were strict methodists. Smith 
was educated entirely at home, except for 
some months in 1839 spent as a boarder at 
Tavistock grammar school, of which his 
brother-in-law, the Rev. W. Beal, was head- 
master. At sixteen he expressed a strong 
wish to go to Oxford and prepare for holv 
orders, but, in deference to his fathers 
wishes, he entered the news-agency house in 
the Strand. Though keenly disappointed, 
young Smith applied himself resolutely to 
business, and became his father's partner in 
1846. The elder Smith, by his energy and 
business instinct, had secured already the 

S)sition of leading newsagent in the country, 
ut his strength was failing, and the manage- 
ment of the concern passed gradually into his 
son's hands. The development of railways 
afforded an opportunity which the young 
man was not slow to seize (cf. Athenaum, 
1891, ii. 486). Although the father resented 
any attempt to extend the enterprise be- 
yond the confines of an agency for the sale of 
newspapers, the son opened negotiations with 
the different railway companies for the right 
to erect bookstalls at their stations, and in 
1851 secured a monopoly of those on the 
London and North- Western system. From 
the scrupulous care devoted to excluding all 
pernicious literature, which had hitherto 
made these railway bookstalls notorious, 
voung Smith got the name of ' the North- 
Western Missionary/ and by 1862 this repu- 
tation had secured for the firm the exclusive 
right of selling books and newspapers on all 
the important railways in England. The 
repeal of the newspaper stamp duty in 1854 
gave an enormous impetus to the circulation 
of journals, and W. H. Smith & Son were 
in a position to derive immediate advantage 
from it. Previous to that, the Great Indus- 
trial Exhibition of 1851 had inaugurated the 
novelty ol open-air advertisement. Smith 
was first in the field, and secured, at what 
was considered by his father an extravagant 
outlay, a lease of the blank walls in all the 
principal railway stations. The profits 
steadily grew till they became prodigious. 
Next came the circulating library, arising 
naturally out of the bookstall business. At 
the present day it contains upwards of three 
hundred thousand volumes. Last of all, by 
arrangement with Messrs. Chapman & Hall, 
the purchase of copyrights and the publica- 
tion of cheap* yellow-backed ' editions were 
undertaken, a branch of business which was 
disposed of in 1883 to Messrs. Ward & Lock. 
The elder Smith died in 1865, leaving his 
son at the head of a very large and lucrative 

Meanwhile the younger Smith had been 
taking an increasing share in public and 
philanthropic business. In 1849 he became 
one of the managing committee of King's 
College Hospital, m 1855 he was elected to 
the metropolitan board of works, and on 
the formation of the bishop of London's 
fund in 1861 he was appointed one of a 
small working committee. He held also the 
offices of treasurer of the Society for Pro- 
moting Christian Knowledge and of the 
London Diocesan Council for the Welfare of 
Young Men. He remained, till the close of 
his life, a munificent subscriber to philan- 
thropic schemes, especially those conducted 
by the church of England. 

Naturally inclined to liberalism in politics, 
owing to the connection of his famuy with 
the Wesleyan body, Smith perhaps owed his 
first approach to the conservative party to 
his rejection as a candidate for election to 
the Reform Club in 1862. He accepted an 
invitation to stand for Westminster in 1866 
as a liberal-conservative against Captain 
Grosvenor (whig) and John Stuart Mill 
(radical). He was left at the bottom of the 
poll ; but in 1868 (the franchise having been 
extended in the meantime to householders in 
boroughs) he was returned to parliament for 
the same constituency by a majority of 1,193 
over Grosvenor and 1,513 over Mill. In this 
year the uniform liberalism of the metropo- 
litan representatives was broken by Smith's 
election, and that of a conservative for one 
of the four city seats. The expenditure on the 
Westminster election had been enormous. 
Smith's return was petitioned against, and 
the indiscretion of his agents proved well- 
nigh fatal to his retaining the seat ; but, as 
the ' Times ' observed in a leader on the ver- 
dict, ' a good character has, to Mr. Smith at 
any rate, proved better than riches. It may 
be a question whether the latter won the seat 
for him, but there can be no question that 
the former has saved it.' 

Once in parliament, Smith devoted himselt 
with energy to social questions, making his 
maiden speech on a motion relating to 
pauperism and vagrancy. At no time an 
eloquent or even a fluent speaker, his repu- 
tation for combined philanthropic and busi- 
nesslike qualities caused him to be heard 
with respect. The introduction of the Edu- 
cation Bill in 1870 brought him into frequent 
consultation with William Edward Forster 
[q. v.], who had charge of it ; and he and 
lx)rd Sandon (now Earl of Harrowby) were 
chiefly instrumental in persuading the go- 
vernment to abandon their project of creating 
twenty-three school boards for the metropolis 
and to substitute a single large one. Smith 




was elected a member of the first London 
school board in 1871, and a resolution framed 
by him was adopted as a compromise on 
the vexed question of religious teaching in 

On Mr. Disraeli forming his administration 
in 1874, Smith was offered and accepted the 
post of secretary to the treasury; and in 
1877, on the death of George Ward Hunt 
[q. v.], he joined the cabinet as first lord of 
the admiralty. This office had generally 
been held by persons of high rank, and Dis- 
raeli incurred some sharp criticism from his 
own party by conferring it on a London 
tradesman (the incongruity of the choice 
found popular expression in the comic opera 
of 'ILM.S. Pinafore/ by Messrs. Gilbert 
and Sullivan). But Smith's appointment 
belied all misgivings and proved a complete 
success. In the trying time when war with 
Russia seemed inevitable, and the cabinet 
was weakened in the early part of 1878 by 
the secession of the Earls of Derby and Car- 
narvon, Smith showed much firmnessin coun- 
cil. Slow in forming a judgment, he had 
the enviable gift, once it was formed, of ad- 
hering to it without anxiety. 

After Mr. Gladstone's great victory at the 
polls in 1880, the official conservative oppo- 
sition in the House of Commons provea too 
mild and inoffensive for the younger members 
of the party. Of these, Lord Randolph 
Churchill, Mr. Arthur James Balfour, Sir 
John Gorst, and Sir Henry Drummond 
Wolff, who were known as the 'Fourth 
Party/ made frequent attacks on their 
leaders, Smith, Sir Stafford Henry Northcote 
(afterwards earl of Iddesleigh) [q. v.], and 
Sir Richard (now Viscount) Cross. Mr. Glad- 
stone's ministry resigned office after their 
defeat in June 1885 on the beer duties, and 
Lord Salisbury formed a cabinet to complete 
the scheme of redistribution of seats ren- 
dered necessary by the Reform Act. Smith 
became secretary of state for war. West- 
minster, which had previously returned two 
members, was divided by the new Redistri- 
bution Act into three single-seated con- 
stituencies. Smith appropriately chose to 
represent the Strand division, for which he 
was returned by 5,646 against 2,486 votes 
in November 1885. In December Lord Car- 
narvon resigned the viceroyalty of Ireland 
and Sir William Hart Dyke that of chief 
secretary. The latter was a difficult post 
to fill. Lord Salisbury turned to Smith, who 
at once entered upon the duties of that in- 
vidious office. He was relieved of them in the 
following month by the defeat and resigna- 
tion of the government. Mr. Gladstone suc- 
ceeded Lord Salisbury as prime minister, but 

was overthrown in June 1886 on the rejec- 
tion by the House of Commons of his bill 
for conferring home rule upon Ireland. In 
the general election which followed Smith 
increased his majority in the Strand division 
to 3,526. As a member of Lord Salisbury's 
second administration, he returned to the* 
war office, Lord Randolph Churchill be- 
coming chancellor of the exchequer and 
leader of the House of Commons. Thoroughly 
as Smith had earned the confidence of his 
colleagues and the esteem of the house, few 
people suspected him of possessing' the pecu- 
liar gifts essential to a leader of the house. 
Yet, when Lord Randolph Churchill suddenly 
resigned the leadership on 23 Dec. 1886, 
Lord Salisbury turned to Smith once more. 
He became first lord of the treasury and 
leader of the House of Commons, while Mr. 
Goschen joined the cabinet as chancellor of 
the exchequer. Despite the mediocrity of 
his oratorical power, Smith's leadership was 
an undoubted success. His judgment was ad- 
mirable, and all parties acknowledged in him 
a conscientious politician removed by his 
great wealth from all suspicion of anxiety 
for office. The work 01 parliament had 
grown unmanageable; sittings were pro- 
longed to extravagant hours ; the Irish party 
had acquired a new importance by their alli- 
ance with the liberal party, and had lost 
none of their power of protracting debate [see 
under Paknell, Charlbs Stewabt], During 
four sessions and part of a fifth Smith was 
incessantly at his post ; latterly, during the 
session of 1891, it was obvious that his health 
was giving way under the strain. His last 
attendance in the House of Commons was on 
10 July. On 20 Aug. he was moved down 
to W aimer Castle, his official residence as 
warden of the Cinque ports, to which he 
had been appointed on the previous 1 May. 
He died there on 6 Oct. 1891. 

Few men have secured so much honest 
respect from the House of Commons; he 
owed it to no brilliant qualities in debate, 
but to sterling sound sense and perfect in- 
tegrity. ' Punch/ in its weekly sketches of 
parliament, conferred on him the sobriquet of 
4 Old Morality.' 

A portrait of Smith in middle age, by 
George Richmond, belongs to his son, and 
marble busts were executed after his death 
for the House of Commons and the Carlton 

In 1858 Smith married Emily, widow of 
an old friend, Benjamin Auber Leach, and 
eldest daughter of Frederick Dawes Dan- 
vers, clerk to the council of the duchy of 
Lancaster. She was created on 10 Isov. 
1891 Viscountess Hambleden, with remainder 


1 60 


to Smith's heirs. The eldest son, the Hon. 
William Frederick Danvers Smith, on his 
father's death, became head of the great 
business in the Strand, and M.P. for the 
Strand division of Westminster. 

[Maxwell's Life and Times of the Right Hon. 
W. H, Smith, M.P., 1893.] H. E. M. 

(1846-1894), theologian and Semitic scholar, 
born at New Farm, Keig, in the Vale of 
Alford, Aberdeenshire, on 8 Nov. 1846, was 
eldest son of William Pirie Smith, free 
church minister of Keig and Tough, a man 
of intellectual vigour and learning, who had 
formerly been a teacher in the West End 
Academy, Aberdeen. Robertson Smith's 
mother, Jane, was daughter of William 
Robertson, who for many years had been 
head of the same academy. Smith's literary 
and scientific tastes declared themselves at 
an early age. He never went to school, 
but, with a younger brother, George, was 
educated at home by his father with a view 
to entering Aberdeen University. He was 
elected to a bursary there in November 
1861, obtaining at the close of his under- 
graduate career the town council's medal for 
' the best student.' 

At a very early age William definitely 
chose the ministry of the free church of 
Scotland as his vocation, and this deliberate 
choice was greatly strengthened in his deeply 
religious and conscientious nature by the 
death of his brother and constant companion 
George within a few weeks after his gradua- 
tion in 1865. Illness compelled William to 
postpone entering New College, the theolo- 
gical hall of the free church in Edinburgh, 
till November 1866; but the interval was 
devoted partly to the study of German (in 
which he ultimately acquired great profi- 
ciency) and partly to successful competition 
for the Ferguson scholarship in mathematics, 
open to all Scottish graduates of not more 
than three years' standing. At New College 
he was a most important contributor both in 
essay and debate to the work of the theolo- 
gical society. As a theological student he 
passed two summers in Germany. In 1867 
he was at Bonn under the roof of Professor 
Schaarschmidt, whose lectures in philosophy 
he attended, as well as those of Lange, Kamp- 
hausen, and Koehler in theology. Pliicker, 
the eminent mathematician, he also met, and 
with Pliicker's assistant, Klein, he formed 
an acquaintance which afterwards ripened 
into close friendship. The summer of 1869 
was spent at Gottingen, where he heard 
Lotze in philosophy and Ritschl and Bertheau 
in theology. By Ritschl especially he was 

powerfully and permanently influenced, pro- 
nouncing his lectures on theological etnics 
* by far the best course of lectures he had 
ever heard;' Ritschl, on the other hand, bore 
written testimony to Smith's ' zeal for science, 
many-sided knowledge, and extraordinary 
versatility.' During the last two winters 
(1868-9 'and 1869-70) of his theological 
course in Edinburgh he held the post of as- 
sistant to Professor P. G. Tait, professor of 
natural philosophy in the university, and in 
connection with his work in the physical 
laboratory he published more than one paper 
that attracted: some attention in the ' Pro- 
ceedings ' of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 
of which he became a fellow. Another im- 
portant influence belonging to this period of 
his life was that of John Ferguson McLennan 

1q. v.] (* one of the best friends 1 ever had,' 
le wrote in 1883), whose researches in pri- 
mitive social institutions always had a strong 
fascination for Smith, and gave definite 
direction to much of his own work at a later 

In May 1870 a vacancy occurred in the 
chair of oriental languages and exegesis of 
the Old Testament in the Free Church Col- 
lege of Aberdeen. Smith was chosen by the 
assembly to fill the post. His inaugural 
discourse, ' What History teaches us to look 
for in the Bible ' (published in November 
1870), indicated the lines that he proposed to 
take as a professor. In 1875 he was ap- 
pointed a member of the Old Testament 
revision committee, and while actively ful- 
filling the duties attached to his chair, he 
found time to attend regularly the com- 
mittee's meetings in London, as well as to 
prepare numerous articles and reviews, or 
summaries of contemporary continental lite- 
rature, for publication in the theological 
quarterlies. The summer of 1872 was again 
spent in Gottingen, mainly in working at 
Arabic with Lagarde. Lagarde assured his 
pupil at the close of the session that he had 
nothing more to teach him. At Gottingen 
he now became personally acquainted with 
Wellhausen, and saw something of Benfey 
and Clebsch. In the course of the Summer 
he also had some intercourse with Riehm, 
Diestel, and Fleischer. 

When, in 1870, arrangements were made 
for the issue of a ninth edition of the ' Ency- 
clopaedia Britannica,' the editor, Professor 
Spencer Baynes of St. Andrews, invited 
Smith to contribute on subjects bearing upon 
biblical criticism, and especially on tnat of 
the Old Testament. The subject was a some- 
what delicate one ; in no department had the 
interval between the eighth and ninth edi- 
tions been more fruitful in new questions or 




in new answers. Apart from the contro- 
versies connected with ' Essays and Reviews ' 
(1860), and with the writings of Bishop 
Colenso (1863 et.seq.), much valuable work 
had been subsequently done by foreign scho- 
lars — Graf, Noldeke, Kuenen, and others. 
With the work of the latter very few in 
Britain were familiar. Smith was thoroughly 
competent as a scholar to deal with modern 
biblical theories, and at the same time his 
position and character were supposed to 
guarantee that any articles written by him 
would, while stating the latest results of 
scholarship, be so framed as to avoid need- 
less offence to those who still clung to the 
time-honoured traditions of the churches, 
which were still taught in the colleges. 
The article 'Angjel,' by Smith, in vol. ii. of 
the * Encyclopaedia Britannica,' and that on 
' Bible' in vol. iii., both appeared in 1875, and 
almost immediately it became known that 
they were regarded by men of influence in the 
free church with suspicion and dislike. A 
committee was appointed by the assembly of 
1876 to investigate the articles ; its report, 
laid before the assembly of 1877, was so hos- 
tile that, availing himself of a constitutional 
privilege. Smith found it necessary to de- 
mand a formal trial by ' libel ' (indictment) 
for his alleged heresies and errors. The pro- 
ceedings that followed were protracted and 
involved. As a result, Smith practically 
ceased to be an acting professor in 1878. 
Eventually the entire series of his ' Ency- 
clopaedia ' articles — ' Angel,' ' Bible,' 'Chro- 
nicles,' < Canticles,' < David,' ' Eve,' ' Haggai,' 
'Hebrew Language and Literature,' as well as 
an article on ' Animal Worship and Animal 
Tribes ' in the ' Cambridge Journal of Philo- 
logy 'for 1879 (a study in totemism) — were 
challenged as being written in such a way 
as to suggest to the reader that ' the Bible 
does not present a reliable statement of the 
truth of God, and that God is not the au- 
thor of it.' After various vicissitudes the 
written indictment in all its forms disap- 
peared, but its place was taken by a vote of 
want of confidence, followed by his summary 
removal from his chair in June 1881. 

Long before this ignominious ending of a 
harassing discussion it had dawned upon 
Smith that he was occupying a somewnat 
false position, and as early at least as January 
1879 he wrote to an intimate friend that 
he would willingly retire from the chair if 
by so doing he could secure a peaceful end- 
ing of the whole controversy. But he went 
on to say that he felt it due to certain 
friends to carry on the struggle to the end, as 
there could be no doubt that his abandon- 
ment of the field would only be taken as an 

vol. mi. 

encouragement to a repetition of similar 
prosecutions in the case of others. The net 
result of the famous ' case ' with which his 
name is still intimately associated in Scot- 
land consisted in the liberalising influence, 
the force of which is not even yet spent, 
which it enabled him to exert on all classes 
of the community. His debating speeches, 
delivered in the course of the proceedings, 
often rose to a high standard oi eloquence, 
and his 'Answers' to the libel were most 
instructive and informing. In the winter of 
1870-80 and again in 1881 he delivered in 
Edinburgh and Glasgow by request two 
series of popular lectures, which were after- 
wards published as the 'Old Testament in the 
Jewish Church' (1881 ; 2nd edit. 1892), and 
'The Prophets of Israel' (1882; 2nd. edit. 
1895). As a mark of the sympathy that 
was widely felt for him during tne anxious 
proceedings, a valuable gift of Arabic books 
and manuscripts was publicly presented to 
him in Edinburgh in 1881. 

Immediately after his dismissal Smith ac- 
cepted an invitation to become colleague to 
Professor Baynes, now in somewhat failing 
health, as # editor in chief of the ' Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica,' and he consequently trans- 
ferred his residence from Aberdeen to Edin- 
burgh. He threw himself into his new duties 
with characteristic energy; and it was to 
his clearness and breadth of outlook, as well 
as to the painstaking care in the manage- 
ment of details, that the successful comple- 
tion of the work in 1888 was largely due. 
By the consent of all who came in contact 
with him, and especially of those who were 
in daily communication with him in this 
connection, he displayed a combination of 
qualities such as is rarely met with in work 
of this kind, demanding, as it does, know- 
ledge of men as well as of subjects, and skill 
and tact in dealing with both. Nor did he 
edit merely ; the articles he himself contri- 
buted were both numerous and important, 
including such subjects as ' Levites,' ' Mes- 
siah,' ' Prophet,' l Priest,' ' Sacrifice,' ' Tithes,' 
as well as articles on most of the books of the 
Old Testament. 

In spite of the labour involved in seeing 
the concluding twelve volumes of the ' En- 
cyclopaedia' through the press in the course 
of seven years (l§81-8), Smith fully main- 
tained his interest in Semitic subjects, and 
found time for much work in that direction. 
The Arabic studies he had carried so far in 
the early years of his professorship in Aber- 
deen he had already extended during the 
years of his ' suspension,' the winter of 1879- 
1880 being devoted to a prolonged stay in 
Egypt with a visit to Syria and Palestine, 




while that of 1880-1 was spent in Egypt 
and Arabia, mainly in Jeddah, but with a 
somewhat arduous excursion into the inte- 
rior as far as Taif, of which he published an 
account in the ' Scotsman ' newspaper. On 
the death of Edward Henry Palmer [q. v.], 
lord almoner's professor of Arabic at Cam- 
bridge, he, on the suggestion of his friend, 
Professor William Wright (1830-1889) [q.v.J, 
applied for the vacant post, and the appli- 
cation, which was supported by testimonials 
from practically all the specialists in Europe 
— including De Goeje, Guidi, Kuenen, Von 
Kremer, Spitta, Wellhausen — was success- 
ful. The letter announcing his appointment 
reached him on new year's day 18o3. 

Although the somewhat light duties and 
correspondingly light emoluments of his new 
office aid not demand or greatly encourage 
residence at the university, Smith neverthe- 
less decided to settle there, and Cambridge 
was his congenial home for the rest of his 
life. For some time he was the guest of 
Trinity College, where he had rooms in the 
masters court, but from October 1885, on 
his election to a fellowship at Christ's, his re- 
sidence was in the fellows' buildings there. 
The lord almoner's professorship he held 
till December 1886, when he was elected to 
the chief librarianship of the university, va- 
cated by the death of Henry Bradshaw. This 
in turn he exchanged in 1889 for the Adams 
professorship of Arabic in succession to Wil- 
liam Wright. 

Apart from his ' Encyclopaedia ' work and 
the duties of his other offices, he found time 
to see through the press in 188*5 a work on 
1 Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia,' 
the substance of which had been delivered 
as professorial lectures. And in 1887 he 
was appointed by the Burnett trustees to 
be their lecturer in Aberdeen for 1888-91, 
the subject assigned being ' The Primitive 
Keligions of the Semitic Peoples, viewed in 
relation to other Ancient Religions, and to 
the Spiritual Religion of the Old Testament 
and Christianity .' Three series were deli- 
vered, but only the first was published, under 
the title 'Religion of the Semites: Funda- 
mental Institutions' (1889 ; 2nd edit. 1894). 
In 1892 he issued a second and finally re- 
vised edition of his ' Old Testament in the 
Jewish Church.' 

Though never of robust appearance, he 
enjoyed uniformly vigorous health until 
1890 (he was an ardent pedestrian, and no 
despicable mountaineer) ; but early in 1890 
obscure symptoms, suggesting the presence of 
a grave constitutional malady, began to show 
themselves. Gradually their true character 
became apparent. After a prolonged struggle, 

carried on hopefully to the last, for the most 
part in unobtrusive silence, and always with 
the most delicate and thoughtful considera- 
tion for others, the end came, at Christ's 
College, on 31 March 1894. He was buried 
in the churchyard of his native parish, when 
a noteworthy tribute of respect was paid by 
his former fellow citizens and fellow parish- 
ioners, as well as by numerous representatives 
of the scholarship of England and Scotland. 
Smith was the recipient of many academic 
distinctions. He was created M. A. of Cam- 
bridge, LL.D. of Dublin, and D.D. of Stras- 

Intellectually Smith was characterised by 
a singular quickness of perception and power 
of generalisation, combined with unwearying 
patience in treatment of details. He often 
spoke gratefully of his father's training in 
accuracy, and still more in rapidity, of work ; 
but his power, in every investigation, of 
seizing the essential and dismissing the irre- 
levant was entirely his own. His ready 
command of every subject he had once mas- 
tered made him in private a brilliant con- 
versationalist and in public an effective and 
convincing speaker. If in the earlier period 
of his public life circumstances had made 
him rather a populariser and apologist or 
' mediator,' he ultimately took his rightful 
place as an investigator and pioneer, and the 
originality of the researches embodied in 
his later works is cordially acknowledged 
by all whose own labours in the same field 
have given them a right to judge. Many 
pupils and fellow workers have borne testi- 
mony in their books to his generous help and 

Smith bequeathed some oriental manu- 
scripts to the Cambridge University library, 
and all the rest of his books to the library of 
Christ's College, Cambridge. 

Two portraits were painted by Sir George 
Reid, P.R.S.A. One, dated 1875, is now in 
custody of his mother, Mrs. Smith, in Aber- 
deen, but is destined (by Smith's will) for 
the combination room of Christ's College, 
Cambridge. The second portrait, painted in 
1896, was placed by subscribers in the com- 
mon hall of Free Church College, Aberdeen. 

[Information from the family; personal ac- 
quaintance since 1865.] J. S. B. 

known as Sir Sidney Smith (1764-1840), 
admiral, born on 21 June 1764, was second 
son of John Smith, a captain in the guards, 
and grandson of Edward Smith, a captain 
in the navy, who, in command of the Eltnam, 
was mortally wounded in the attack on La 
Guayra on 18 Feb. 1742-3 [see Knowlbs, 




8m Charles]. It has been supposed that 
the name Sidney referred to a kinship with 
the Strangford family of Smy the, which had 
intermarried with the Sidneys [see Smythb, 
Percy Clinton Sydney, sixth Viscount 
Strangford]. After a few years at school at 
Tonbridge and at Bath, Smith entered the 
navy in June 1777, on board the Tortoise 
atoreship, going out to North America. In 
January 1778 he was moved from her to the 
Unicorn, a small 20-gun frigate, which was 
in company with the Experiment on 25 Sept. 
1778 when, near Boston, she drove on shore, 
and captured the American frigate Raleigh ; 
and again, on 8 May 1779, when she drove 
on shore, and captured or destroyed three 
French frigates in Cancale Bay [see Wal- 
lace, Sir Jakes]. From September to No- 
vember 1779 Smith was borne on the books 
of the Arrogant, then fitting 1 at Portsmouth, 
and on 25 Nov. he joined the Sandwich, 
flagship of Sir George Brydges Rodney (after- 
wards Lord Rodney) [q. v.], and in her was 
Present in the action on Cape St. Vincent on 
6 Jan. 1780, and in the three actions with De 
Ouichen on 17 April and 15 and 19 May 1780. 
On 25 Sept. 1780 Smith was promoted by 
Rodney to be lieutenant of the Alcide, with 
Captain (afterwards Sir) Charles Thompson 
[a. v.], and in her was present in the action 
off the Chesapeake on 5 Sept. 1781, in the 
operations at St. Kitts in January 1782 [see 
Hood, Samuel, Viscount Hood], and in the 
battle of Dominica on 12 April 1782. On 
6 May 1782 he was promoted: by Rodney to 
the command of the Fury sloop, and on 7 May 
1783 he was posted to the Alcmene. Early 
in 1784 the Alcmene returned to England 
and was paid off, and in the spring of 1785 
Smith went to France, where, for the next 
two years, he resided for the most part at 
Caen, studying French and going much into 
French society, so that he acquired perfect 
familiarity with the language. His excur- 
sions led him along the coast, visiting the 
places which he had learnt to know from the 
sea some seven or eight years before. At 
Cancale a fisherman told him that he had 
picked up forty round-shot near a windmill, 
which, wrote Smith to his brother, ' I re- 
member amusing myself with firing at. Tis 
an ill wind that blows nobody any good ; for 
he sold them for old iron for twelve sous a 

In 1787 Smith paid a visit to Gibraltar, 
and conceiving, from reports of the excessive 
insolence of tne emperor of Morocco, that a 
war was imminent, undertook a journey 
through his dominions ' in order to acquire 
a knowledge of his coasts, harbours, and 
force.' On his return in May 1788 he for- 

warded to the admiralty a report of his ob- 
servations, accompanied with a request that 
he might have the command of a small 
squadron on the coast, his local knowledge, 
he submitted, making up for his want of 
seniority and experience. As the war, how- 
ever, did not take place, he went, in the 
summer of 1789, to Stockholm with six 
months' leave of absence. In December he 
applied for a twelve months' extension of this 
leave, but in January suddenly returned to 
England, with a view to obtaining permis- 
sion to accept the offer of a command in the 
Swedish fleet. At the same time he charged 
himself with the English ambassador's des- 

Eatches, and with a direct message from the 
ing of Sweden. It was probably this irregu- 
larity which led to his cold reception by the 
government, who refused to recognise him as 
the self-constituted representative of Sweden, 
and declined to give him any answer to the 
message he had brought. He returned to 
Sweden without even the permission to ac- 
cept the king's offers, and thus, though during 
the campaign against Russia in the Gulf 
of Finland in the summer of 1790 he served 
sometimes with the fleet, as aide-de-camp to 
the Duke of Sudermania,the commander-in- 
chief, and sometimes on shore, on the personal 
staff of the king, it was only as a volunteer, 
and without well-defined authority. The posi- 
tion was one of great difficulty, and excited 
much jealousy. Neither the king, nor the 
duke, nor any of the responsible officers knew 
anything about the conduct of a fleet, and if 
they escaped defeat in the action of 3-4 June, 
or blundered into victory on 9 July, it was 
only that the equal ignorance of the Russians 
permitted Smith's efforts to balance those of 
the English officers in the Russian service, 
or, after their death, to turn the scale [see 
Tkbvenbn, James]. The armistice which 
followed the battle of 9 July led to a peace 
between the contending powers, and in 
August Smith returned to England. Gus- 
tavus III constituted him a knight grand 
cross of the order of the Sword, with the 
insignia of which George III formally in- 
vested him at St. Jameses on 16 May 1792. 

Almost immediately after this he went out 
to Constantinople on a visit to his younger 
brother, Charles Spencer Smith, then am- 
bassador to the Porte, being entrusted, he 
used afterwards to say, with a secret mission, 
and probably intending to volunteer for ser- 
vice with the Turks, should the war with 
Russia continue. Towards the end of 1798 
he received the news of the war and the 
general order to return to England at once. 
Calling at Smyrna, he found there a con- 
siderable number of seamen, similarly called 




home, but unable to get a passage. On his 
own responsibility he purchased a small 
vessel, shipped some forty of them on board 
her, and with her joined Lord Hood at 
Toulon. When the evacuation of the place 
became necessary, Smith volunteered to hum 
the French ships which had to be left behind 
— a duty which, in the haste and confusion 
incident to the time, was carried out so im- 
perfectly that several of the ships reported 
as burnt and destroyed formed part of the 
French fleets during the next and following 
years- The distinction conferred on Smith, 
an officer on half-pay, by assigning to him a 
task of difficulty and distinction, added to his 
own habitual and excessive self-assertion, ob- 
tained for him much ill will in the fleet, and 
it was freely said that he talked too much 
to be of any great use. In the emergency, 
however, Hood was glad to have a spare man 
at hand, and sent him home with the des- 
patches. He was at once appointed to the 
Diamond frigate, which, after being employed 
during 1794 in the North Sea, was through 
1795-6 employed on the north coast of 
France, where, in command of a flotilla of 
small craft, Smith displayed unusual ability 
for partisan warfare, captured or destroyed 
great numbers of the enemy's armed vessels, 
and completely stopped the coasting trade. 
On 18 April 1796 the ship was off Havre, 
and Smith learnt that a noted privateer 
lugger, which, by her superior speed and the 
ability of her commander, had done much 
damage to our trade, was then lying in the 
port. Smith determined to send in the boats 
to brinff her out, and, finding at the last mo- 
ment that he had no available lieutenant, 
went himself in command of the enterprise. 
The lugger was taken by surprise and cap- 
tured, almost without resistance ; but when 
she was in the river, with Smith on board, 
she was caught by the flood-tide and swept 
up some distance above the town, where, the 
wind having fallen very light, she still was 
at daybreak. She was then attacked by a 
very superior force of gunboats and otner 
armed vessels and recaptured, with Smith 
and his officers and men. Smith and his 
companions were taken to Havre; but, 
though he was treated with proper courtesy, 
the proposals made by the English govern- 
ment for his exchange were bluntly rejected, 
and within a few days he was sent to Paris, 
where he was closely confined in the Temple. 
The French government and the French 
people were greatly exasperated against him. 
It was known that he had directed the burn- 
ing of the ships at Toulon ; it was understood 
that, at the time, he held no commission, and 
it was maintained that his piratical action 

put him out of the recognised category of pri- 
soners of war. His eighteen months' cruise 
on the coast of France had won for him a 
dangerous notoriety ; and it was even urged 
that at the moment of his capture, in a place 
where no English officer had any ostensible 
business, he was attempting to carry out 
some deep-laid and nefarious plot for the 
destruction of Havre (Babkow, i. 199-200)* 
In consequence, though not harshly treated, 
he was retained a prisoner for two weary 
years. He then, with the assistance of a 
Colonel PhSlypeaux, an officer of engineers 
in the old royal army of France, and aided, 
it was supposed, by a feminine intrigue, 
succeeded in effecting his escape, reached 
Havre, and was taken off by a fishing-boat 
to the Argo frigate, which landed him at 
Portsmouth a few days later. Sir William 
Hotham [q.v.], senior officer off Havre at the 
time, noted in his ' Characters' that he was 
one morning invited by the captain of the 
Argo to breakfast. ' As he had designedly 
kept the circumstance [of Smith's arrival on 
board] from me, I was some minutes sitting 
next to him at breakfast without at all 
knowing who he was, he was so completely 
disguised, and was such a perfect French- 
man.' Smith had, in fact, already deceived 
sharper eyes and more capable ears than 
Hotnam's, unless, indeed, we accept Barrow's 
unsupported suggestion that the escape was 
connived at by the Directory (i. 230). 

On arriving in London, on 8 May 1798, 
Smith was taken by Lord Spencer, the first 
lord of the admiralty, to wait on the king, 
and a few weeks later he was appointed to 
the Tigre of 80 guns, in which, in October, 
he was sent out to join Lord St. Vincent at 
Cadiz or Gibraltar, but with a commission 
from the foreign office appointing him joint 
plenipotentiary with his brother at Con- 
stantinople, and instructions to St. Vincent 
to send him to the Levant (Nicolas, iii. 
214). The anomalous position led to what 
threatened to be a very serious misunder- 
standing ; for St. Vincent, conceiving it to be 
Lord Spencer's intention that Smith should 
conduct the further operations on the coast 
of Egypt, did not formally put him under Nel- 
son's orders, and Smith, who was not at all 
the man to minimise his authority, assumed 
the airs of an independent commander, con- 
stituted himself a commodore, and hoisted 
a broad pennant; all which gave — as it 
could not help doing— great offence to Nel- 
son, on whose prerogative of command Smith 
was unduly trespassing (tb. iii. 218, 216). 
It has indeed been asserted that there was 
no such intention, either on the part of 
i Smith or Spencer ; but both of them had had 




sufficient experience of the admiralty and 
the navy to know the evils that might 
result from an error in form. It was only 
after very sharp letters from St. Vincent 
and Nelson that Smith was convinced of his 
mistake, and, while remaining senior officer 
in the Levant, conducted the business as 
subordinate to Nelson. 

Meantime he had undertaken the defence 
of Saint Jean d'Acre, which was to render 
his name famous. On 8 March 1799 he took 
over the command of Alexandria, and the 
same evening learnt that Bonaparte, on his 
way to Syria, had stormed Jaffa. He at once 
sent the Theseus to Acre, and with her, 
Colonel Phelvpeaux, who, having shared his 
escape from Paris, was now serving with 
him as a volunteer. Phelypeaux and Miller, 
the captain of the Theseus, made what ar- 
rangements were possible for the defence of 
the town, and on the 15th they were joined 
by Smith in the Tigre. But their prepara- 
tions would have been of little value had 
not the superiority at sea enabled him on 
the 18th to capture the whole of the siege 
artillery, stores, and ammunition on which 
Bonaparte was dependent for the prosecu- 
tion of his design. The eight gunhoats in 
which these had been embarked were also a 
most valuable reinforcement ; and while the 
siege guns were mounted on the walls of 
the fortress, the gunboats, supported by the 
Tigre and Theseus, took up positions from 
which they enfiladed the French lines. To 
carry on the attack the French had only 
their field guns, and it was not till 25 April 
that they were able to bring up six heavy 
guns from Jaffa. Time had t hus been gained, 
and the defences of the town put into a 
better state. On 4 May, after six weeks of 
mining, countermining, and hard fighting at 
very close quarters, a practicable breach was 
made, the mine was finished, and a general 
assault was ordered for the 5th. During 
the night, however, the besieged destroyed 
the mine, and the assault was postponed. 
On the evening of the 7th the long-expected 
reinforcement of Turkish troops from Rhodes 
came in sight, and Bonaparte, seeing" the 
necessity of anticipating them, delivered 
the assault at once. The combat raged 
through the night with the utmost fury, and 
at daybreak the French held one of the 
towers. The Turkish ships were still some 
distance off becalmed, and Smith, seeing the 
critical nature of the struggle, landed a 
strong party of seamen armed with pikes, 
who held the breach till the troops arrived. 
All day the battle raged. At nightfall the 
assailants withdrew. Twelve days later the 
siege was raised. 'In Smith's character 

there was a strong fantastic and vainglorious 
strain ; but, so far as appears, he showed at 
Acre discretion and soundjudgment, as well 
as energy and courage. He had to be much 
on shore as well as afloat ; but he seems to 
have shown Phelypeaux and, after his death, 
Colonel Douglas the confidence and defe- 
rence which their professional skill demanded, 
as he certainly was most generous in recog- 
nising their services and those of others. 
The good sense which defers to superior ex- 
perience, the lofty spirit which bears the 
weight of responsibility and sustains the 
courage of waverers, ungrudging expendi- 
ture of means and effort, unshaken determi- 
nation to endure to the end, and heroic in- 
spiration at the critical moment of the last 
assault, all these fine qualities must in can- 
dour be allowed to Smith at the siege of 
Acre ' (Mah an, Influence of Sea Power upon 
the French Revolution and Empire, i. 308-4). 
The news of this decisive check to the 
progress of the French arms in the east was 
received in England with great enthusiasm. 
The thanks of both houses of parliament 
were voted to Smith, and a year later a pen- 
sion of 1,000/. a year was settled on him. 
He was given also the thanks of the city 
of London and the freedom of the Levant 
Company, together with a piece of plate and, 
some years later, a grant of 1,500/. From 
the sultan he received a pelisse and the 
chelingk or plume of triumph, such as were 
given also to Nelson for the victory in 
Aboukir Bay. The glory so deservedly ac- 
corded to Smith for his triumph at Acre 
rekindled the too exuberant vanity which 
the reprimands of St. Vincent and of Nelson 
had previously reduced within manageable 
limits. He again fancied himself com- 
mander-in-chiei, independent of even the 
government, and plenipotentiary, controlled 
only by his younger brother, who was a long 
way off, at Constantinople ; and thus, setting 
aside the positive orders from home that no 
terms were to be made with the enemy which 
did not involve the surrender of the French 
troops in Egypt as prisoners of war, he took 
on himself to conclude (24 Jan. 1800) the 
treaty of El Arish, by the terms of which the 
French soldiers, with their arms, baggage, and 
effects, were to be transported to France at 
the charge of the sultan and his allies. It 
was impossible for Lord Keith, who was in 
chief command, to approve of such a treaty 
["see Elphinstonb, George Keith, Viscottnt 
Keith] ; and the war recommenced, to be 
brought to an end by the campaign of 1801, 
through which the Tigre formed part of the 
squadron under Keith, and Smith was landed 
in command of the seamen employed on shore. 




After the surrender of Alexandria, 2 Sept. 
1801, he was sent home with despatches, and 
arrived in London on 10 Nov. 

In the general election of 1802 he was re- 
turned as M.P. for Rochester, and during 
1803 had, under Lord Keith, command of a 
squadron of small craft on the coast of 
Flanders and Holland. On 9 Nov. 1805 he 
was promoted to he rear-admiral, and in 
January 1806 he hoisted his flag on hoard 
the Pompee for service in the Mediterranean, 
where Lord Collingwood was instructed to 
employ him in a detached command on the 
coast of Naples. From May to August 1806 
he carried on a successful war of outposts 
against the French, and another, more bitter 
and not so successful, against the English 
military officers, with whom he was supposed 
to be co-operating, and especially against 
Sir John Moore (1761-1809) [q. v.], who 
was quite unable to understand the real merit 
hidden beneath so much extravagance and 
vanity. Colonel (afterwards Sir Henry Ed- 
ward) Bunbury [q. v.], then chief of the staff 
under Stuart or Aloore, tells many stories of 
Smith's absurdities, and says 'he was an 
enthusiast, always panting for distinction, 
restlessly active, but desultory in his views, 
extravagantly vain, daring, quick-sighted, and 
fertile in those resources which bent a parti- 
san leader ; but he possessed no great depth of 
judgment, nor any fixity of purpose save that 
of persuading mankind, as ne was fully per- 
suaded himself, that Sidney Smith was the 
most brilliant of chevaliers. He was kind- 
tempered, generous, and as agreeable as a 
man can be supposed to be who is always 
talking of himself' {Narrative of some Pas- 
sages m the great War with France, p. 232). 
Moore described Smith as ' most impudent ; ' 
but Bunbury, although naturally taking the 
soldier's estimate of the man, says 'the 
coming of the admiral and the energy of his 
first proceedings soon produced a wide effect. 
Arms and ammunition were conveyed into 
the mountains of Calabria ; the smaller de- 
tachments of the enemy were driven from 
the shores, and some of the strongest points 
were armed and occupied by the insurgents 
and parties of English marines and seamen. 
The admiral spread his ships and small craft 
along the coasts from Scylla to the Bay of 
Naples; he took the island of Capri: 
threatened Salerno and Policastro ; scattered 
through the interior his proclamations as 
" commander-in-chief on behalf of King Fer- 
dinand," and the insurrection soon kindled 
throughout the Basilicata and the two 
Calabrias, though the bands acted in general 
with little concert or collective strength' 

In August Smith had instructions to put 
himself under the orders of Sir John Thomas 
Duckworth [q. v.], with whom he co-operated 
in the futile demonstration off Constantinople 
in February-March 1807. In the summer 
he returned to England, and in November 
was sent out as senior officer to the Tagus, 
with his flag in the Hibernia. At Lisbon 
he made the arrangements for the departure 
of the prince regent and the royal family to 
the Brazils, and sent several of the ships 
under his orders as a convoy to the Portu- 
guese squadron. In February 1808 he was 
himself sent out to Rio de Janeiro, to take 
command of the South American station, but 
a bitter quarrel which broke out between 
him and Lord Strangford, the English 
minister, led to his being summarily recalled 
in the summer of 1809. A later correspon- 
dence with Canning seems to show that the 
parts of Smith's conduct which Strangford 
had represented as irregular were strictly in 
accordance with his secret instructions ; but 
in any case it was obviously impossible to 
permit the minister at a foreign court and 
the commander-in-chief on the station to 
be writing abusive letters to or at each other 
[see Smythe, Percy Clinton Sydney]. 

On 81 July 1810 Smith was promoted to 
be vice-admiral, and in July 1812 went out 
to the Mediterranean as second in command 
under Sir Edward Pellew (afterwards Vis- 
count Exmouth) [q. v.] In March 1814, 
being in very bad health, he was allowed to 
return to England with his flag flying in the 
Hibernia. With her arrival at Plymouth in 
July Smith's service came to an end. In 
June 1815 he found himself, at the critical 
moment, at Brussels, and on the afternoon 
of the 18th rode out to the army, joined the 
Duke of Wellington, and rode with him from 
St. Jean to Waterloo. 'Thus/ he wrote, 
' though I was not allowed to have any of 
the fun, I had the heartfelt gratification of 
being the first Englishman that was not in 
the battle who shook hands with him.' He 
accompanied the army to Paris, where, in 
the Palais Bourbon, on 29 Dec., he was in- 
vested by the Duke of Wellington with the 
insignia of the K.C.B., to which he had been 
nominated in the previous January. On 
19 July 1821 he attained the rank of admiral. 
During his later years he lived principally in 
Paris, amusing himself with a fictitious order 
of ' Knights Liberators ' or ' Knights Tem- 
plars/ which he had formed and of which he 
constituted himself president. It had for its 
proposed aim the liberation of Christian slaves 
from the Barbary pirates ; but its efforts seem 
to have been limited to correspondence. 
On 4 July 1838 Smith was nominated a. 




G.C.B. He died in Paris on 26 May 1840 
and was buried at Pere-Lachaise, where 
there is a monument to his memory. He 
married, in October 1810, Caroline, widow 
of Sir George Berriman Rumbold [q. v.], who 
died in 1826, having no issue by her second 

A characteristically theatrical portrait by 
Eckstein, in the National Portrait Gallery, 
has been engraved. A more pleas wgportrait 
by Chandler has been engraved by E. Bell. 

[Barrow's Life of Smith (2 vols. 8vo, 1848) was 
wntton to a great extent from Smith's papers, 
and incorporates many of his letters. It has 
thus a biographical value of which the extreme 
carelessness with which it has been put to- 
gether cannot entirely deprive it. Howard's Life 
(2 vols. 8vo) is pleasantly written, but with no 
special sources of information. The memoirs in 
Naval Chronicle, iv. 445 (with a portrait by 
Ridley), vol. xxvi. (see Index), and Marshall's 
Roy. Nav. Biogr. i. 291, are useful. See also 
O'Neil's Account of the Proceedings of the 
Squadron of Sir S. Smith in effecting the Escape 
of the Royal Family of Portugal; Croker's 
Correspondence and Diaries, i. 848-0 ; Nicolns's 
Nelson Despatches (see Index).] J. K. L. 

1878), obstetrician, son of humble parents, 
was born in the neighbourhood of Bristol on 
10 April 1815. lie was educated at the 
Bristol school of medicine, where he be- 
came prosector and post-mortem clerk. He 
graduated as bachelor of medicine at the 
university of London in 1840, and eight 
years later proceeded M.D. He became a 
licentiate of the College of Physicians, Lon- 
don, in 1850, and was elected to the fellow- 
ship in 1859. He began his career as a 
teacher in the private school of Mr. Dermott 
in Bedford Square, and became, despite an 
ungainly manner and bad delivery, an im- 
pressive and effective lecturer and speaker. 
When St. Mary's Hospital was founded, 
Smith was appointed obstetric physician and 
lecturer on obstetrics. He continued his 
teaching there for the allotted term of twenty 
years, and on retirement was elected con- 
sulting physician accoucheur. He held the 
office or examiner in obstetrics at the uni- 
versity of London for the usual term of five 
years. He resided, at first, at 7 Bolton 
Street, Piccadilly, thence removed to 7 Upper 
Grosvenor Street, and subsequently to No. 21 
in the same street. 

For several years he was largely depen- 
dent upon literary work, and his skill as a 
writer greatly aided his professional reputa- 
tion and influence. He was long engaged 
upon the editorial staff of the ' Lancet, at 
first only as an occasional contributor, but 

soon as one of its sub-editors. Among his con- 
tributions were valuable papers ' On Quacks 
and Quackery,' and a series of biographical 
sketches of the leading physicians and sur- 
geons of the metropolis. 

At the instance of his intimate friend Mar- 
shall Hall [q. v.], he studied the applications 
of the reflex function to obstetrics, with the 
result that the practice of obstetrics became, 
for the first time, guided by physiological 
principle. The results of his researches he 
reduced to the form of lectures, which he 
published week by week in the 'Lancet/ 
The earliest series he collected and issued 
separately as 'Parturition, and the Prin- 
ciples and Practice of Obstetrics,' 1849, a 
book which he dedicated to Hall. Some 
further lectures similarly contributed to the 
4 Lancet' formed the basis of his ' Manual of 
Obstetrics,' 1858. Both books take a place 
in obstetric literature only second to the 
writings of Thomas Denman the elder [q. v.], 
and are the more remarkable because at the 
time they were written Smith had no large 
practical experience. The ' Manual of Ob- 
stetrics,' although defective in some practical 
points, especially as regards the operations, 
immediately became, and long remained, the 
favourite text-book in this country. 

Tyler Smith raised the position of obste- 
tric medicine not only by nis teaching, oral 
and written, but by the foundation of the 
Obstetrical Society of London. The subse- 
quent success of the society was largely due 
to his contributions in memoirs and in de- 
bate and to his capacity for business. On 
the death of Edward Kigby (1804-1860) 
[q. v.] in December 1860, Smith was elected 

Smith was associated with Thomas Wakley 
j~q. v.] in the establishment of the New 
Equitable Life Assurance Society, one aim 
of which was to secure the just acknowledg- 
ment of the professional services of medical 
men. He was one of the first directors (cf. 
Spkigge, Life and Times of Thomas Wakley, 
1897). When the society was united to 
the Briton Life Office, he became deputy 
chairman of the united companies. He con- 
ceived the idea of raising the ancient Cinque- 
port town of Seaford to the position of a 
sanatorium and fashionable watering-place. 
He purchased a considerable piece of land 
in and adjoining the town, and leased more 
from the corporation on the condition that 
he should secure it against the frequent sub- 
mersion by the sea and build upon it. He 
was active in promoting the foundation and 
success of the convalescent hospital at Sea- 
ford, and was bailiff of the town in 1861, 
1864, 1867, 1868, and 1870. He was magi- 




strata for the town and port from 1861 to the 
time of his death at Richmond on Whit- 
Monday 1873. He was buried at Blatching- 
ton, near Seaford. 

He married Tryphena, daughter of J. 
Yearsley, esq., of Southwick Park, near 
Tewkesbury, and had seven children, two of 
whom died in infancy. Engraved portraits 
of him are at St. Mary's Hospital and at the 
Obstetrical Society of London. 

His chief works, apart from those men- 
tioned above and numerous contributions to 
the ' Medico-Chirurgical Transactions/ ' Ob- 
stetrical Transactions/ and * Pathological 
Transactions/ were : 1. 'Scrofula: its Nature, 
Causes, and Treatment/ 8vo, 1844. 2. 'The 
Periodoscope, with its application to Obstetric 
Calculations in the Periodicities of the Sex/ 
8vo, 1848. 3. 'Treatment of Sterility by Re- 
moval of Obstructions of the fallopian 
Tubes/ 4. 'Pathology and Treatment of 
Leucorrhoea/ 8vo, London, 1865. 

[Lancet, 1873; Medical Times and Gazette, 
1873 ; British Medical Journal, 1873; Churchill's 
Medical Directory ; Brit. Mus. Cat.; private in- 
formation.] W. W. W. 

SMITH, WILLOUGHBY (1828-1891), 
telegraphic engineer, was born at Great 
Yarmouth on 16 April 1828. In 1848 he 
entered the service of the Gutta Percha 
Company, London, and soon after this he 
commenced experimenting on covering iron 
or copper wire with gutta-percha for tele- 
graphic or other electric purposes. In 1849 
the company had so far succeeded with the 
experiments that they undertook to supply 
thirty miles of copper wire, covered with 
gutta-percha, to be laid from Dover to 
Calais. During 1849-50 Smith was engaged 
in the manufacture and laying of this line. 
The trouble caused by the imperfect system 
of making the joints induced him to give 
this subject special attention ; in the cable 
laid over the same course in the following 
year, in the manufacture and laying of which 
he was actively engaged, he introduced a sys- 
tem of joint-making which proved a great 
success, and in 1855 he invented the present 
plan of joining and insulating the conductor. 

From this time onward he was engaged 
either upon cable work or upon underground 
land lines. Early in 1854 the first cable to 
be laid in the Mediterranean was commenced. 
He had charge of the electrical department 
during its manufacture, and assisted Sir 
Charles Wheatstone with his experiments 
on the retardation of signals through this 
cable, while coiled at the works of Glass, 
Elliott, & Co. at East Greenwich. Smith 
took charge of the electrical department 

during the laying of this cable between 
Spezzia and Corsica, and Corsica and Sar- 
dinia, and in the following year was em- 
ployed in the manufacture and laying of a 
cable between Sardinia and Bona in Algeria. 
On his return he became electrician and 
manager of the wire department of the Gutta 
Percha works, and commenced making 2,500 
miles of core for a cable from Ireland to 
Newfoundland. In 1858 he gave up using 
coal-tar naphtha between the gutta-percha 
coverings of the wires, having invented an 
insulating and adhesive compound of a more 
suitable nature. This compound was gene- 
rally adopted and is still in use. 

In 1864 the works of Glass, Elliot, & Co. 
at Greenwich and the Gutta Percha Company 
were formed into The Telegraph Construc- 
tion and Maintenance Company, when Smith 
retained his position at the works. In 1865 
he accompanied the Great Eastern steam- 
ship, and rendered assistance in the laying 
of the cable from Ireland to Newfoundland. 
Early in 1866 he was appointed chief elec- 
trician to the Telegraph Construction Com- 
pany, and was engaged on board the Great 
Eastern during the successful laying of the 
second cable from Ireland to Newfoundland, 
and the recovery and completion of the cable 
lost the previous year. Subsequently he took 
charge of the French Atlantic cable expedi- 
tion. The cable was successfully laid, but 
the strain on his mind was so great that for 
a time he was quite incapacitated for work. 
After his recovery he experimented upon, 
and improved the manufacture of, gutta- 
percha for cable work. He died at East- 
oourne on 17 July 1891, and was buried in 
Highgate cemetery on 21 July. 

Smith made many contributions to periodi- 
cal literature and to the * Journal of the In- 
stitute of Telegraphic Engineers/ of which 
institution he was president in 1882-8. In 
1891 he published 'The Rise and Progress 
of Submarine Telegraphy/ in which he 
described some of his own work and expe- 

[Electrical Engineer, 24 July 1891, p. 85 ; 
Gordon's Physical Treatise on Electricity, 1883, 
ii. 299; Nature, 30 July 1891, p. 302; Times, 
25 July 1891, p. 7.] O. C. B. 


(1810-1857), brigadier general. [See 

afterwards Madame Berlioz (1800-1854), 
actress, born at Ennis, co. Clare, on 18 March 
1800, was daughter of William Joseph Smith- 
son, a man of Gloucestershire descent, who 
was for many years manager of the theatres 




[a. v. 

in the Waterford and Kilkenny circuit. 
Adopted at the age of two by the Rev. Dr. 
James Barrett of Ennis, she lived with him, 
apart from stage knowledge or influences, 
until his death m 1809, when she was placed 
at Mrs. Tounier's school at Waterford. Her 
father's health failing, she was reluctantly 
induced to turn to the stage, and, through 
the influence of Lord and Lady Castle-Coote, 
was engaged by Frederick Edward Jones 
. v.], and made her first appearance at the 
•ow Street Theatre about 1815 as Albina 
Mandeville, Mrs. Jordan's part in Reynolds's 

* Will.' She also played Lady Teazle. At 
Belfast on 1 Jan. 1816 she joined Montagu 
Talbot's company, of which during the pre- 
vious season ner father and mother had been 
members, and on the 3rd played Mrs. Mor- 
timer, Mrs. Pope's part in Reynolds's ' Laugh 
when you can/ During the season, which 
ended on 3 July, she was seen as Albina 
Mandeville, Aurelia in Mrs. Inchbald's 
' Lovers' Vows,' Floranthe in Colman's 
' Mountaineers/ Lady Emily Gerald in Mrs. 
C. Kemble's ' Smiles and Tears,' and for her 
benefit, on 1 April, as Letitia Hardy in the 

* Belle's Stratagem,' to the Doricourt of her 
manager, Montagu Talbot [q. v.] She was 
seen to be inexperienced, but praised for 
naivett and promise. With Talbot s company 
she visited Cork and Limerick, returning to 
Dublin, where she played Lady Contest in 
the ' Wedding Day,' Yarico in ' Inkle and 
Yarico/ Cora in ' Pizarro,' Mrs. Haller and 
Miss Woodburn in ' Every one has his Fault.' 

On the recommendation of the Castle- 
Cootes she was next engaged by Elliston at 
Birmingham, where she was seen by Henry 
Erskine Johnston [q.v.], and through him 
obtained an introduction to the committee of 
management at Drury Lane. There, under 
the title of Miss Smithson from Dublin, she 
made, as Letitia Hardy, her first appearance 
on 20 Jan. 1818. The theatre was at the 
nadir of poverty and in disrepute, and her 
performance attracted little attention. The 
'Theatrical Inquisitor,' however, spoke of her 
as tall and well formed, with a handsome 
countenance, and a voice distinct rather than 
powerful. She ' acted with spirit, over acting 
a little in the broadly comic scenes, singing 
with more humour than sweetness, and danc- 
ing gracefully in the Minuet de la Cour.' As 
Ellen, in the * Falls of the Clyde,' she won 
from the ' Morning Herald ' a more favourable 
opinion. Her voice had the ' tremulous and 
thrilling tones giving an irresistible charm to 
expressions of grief and tenderness.' She 
played Lady Racket in ' Three Weeks after 
Marriage,' Eliza in the ' Jew,' and other parts, 
and was on 25 March the original Diana 

Vernon in Soane's * Rob Roy the Gregarach/ 
After revisiting Dublin in the summer, she 
reappeared at Drury Lane, now under the 
management of Stephen Kemble at reduced 
prices, and was on 26 Sept. the original Eu- 
genia inWalker's ' Sigesmarthe Switzer.' She 
played Julia in the * Way to get married ;' 
Mary in the ' Innkeepers Daughter;' on 
3 April the original Scipio, an improvisatore, 
in Buck's 'Italians;' 3 Mav, the original 
Lillian Eden in Moncrieff 's ' Wanted a W ife ; ' 
11 May, the original Jella in Milner's ' Jew of 
Lubeck ; ' and the original Amestris in Jod- 
drell's ' Persian Heroine' on 2 June. Next 
season Elliston took Drury Lane, and Miss 
Smithson went to the Coburg, where she 
played Selima in a version ot ' Selima and 
Azur.' On 7 Nov. 1820, as Rosalie Summers 
in ' Town and Country,' she reappeared at 
Drury Lane. On the 21st she was the 
original Maria in Jameson's 'Wild Goose 
Chace, 1 on 24 March 1821 the first Rhoda in 
' Mother and Son,' on 2 July Lavinia in Mon- 
crieff's ' Spectre Bridegroom,' and on 8 Sept. 
Countess in ' Giraldi Duval, or the Bandit of 
Bohemia.' For her benefit she played ' Lydia 
Languish.' She subsequently appeared in 
Liverpool, Manchester, Margate, and else- 
where in the provinces. Oxberry charges the 
management of Drury Lane with studied 
neglect in keeping- her out of parts such as 
Desdemona, in which she was excellent, and 
Cordelia, Juliet, and Imogen, to which she 
was well suited ; but she played Lady Anne 
to Kean's Richard III, and Desdemona to his 
Othello. In Howard Payne's 'Adeline, or 
the Victim of Seduction/ she was, on 9 Feb. 
1822, the original Countess ; on 15 Feb. 1823 
she was the first Amy Templeton in Poole's 
' Deaf as a Post.' Lady Percy in the ' First 
Part of Henry IV,' Louisa in the ' Dramatist,' 
Lisette, an original part in Beazley's ' Philan- 
dering,' Margaret in ' A New Way to pay 
Old Debts,' Ellen in ' A Cure for the Heart- 
ache,' Anne Bullen in ' King Henry VIII/ 
Virgilia in 'Coriolanus' were assigned her 
during 1823-4. For three seasons longer she 
remained at Drury Lane without adding to 
her reputation. The only parts worth men- 
tioning are Blanche in ' King John,' Florimel 
in the ' Fatal Dowry,' Princess Eglantine in 
• Valentine and Orson,' Amanda (an original 
part) in ' Oberon, or the Charmed House ' 
(27 March 1826), and Helen in the 'Iron 
Chest' (20 June 1827). 

In the meantime, through her brother, 
who was manager of the English theatre at 
Boulogne, Miss Smithson appeared there on 
9 Oct. 1824 as Juliana in the ' Honeymoon,' 
and Ellen Enfield in the 'Falls of Clyde.' 
She also played at Calais. Subsequently she 




yed in the country with Macready, was 
with him in Dublin, and acted with him in 
Edinburgh and Glasgow in 1829-30; she was 
thus seen in 'Jane Shore' by Christopher 
North, who describes her in the ' Noctes 
Ambrosianae ' as ' an actress not only of great 
talent, but of genius — a very lovely woman 
— and, like Miss Jarman, altogether a lady 
in private life/ 

In April 1828 Miss Smithson accompanied 
Macready to Paris, and appeared at the Salle 
Favart (Theatre Italien) in Desdemona, in 
which character she made a profound im- 
pression, further strengthened by her appear- 
ance as Virginia in ' Virginius.' Next spring 
she returned to London, and made her first 
appearance at Covent Garden as Belvidera 
in ' Venice Preserved ' on 11 April, when 
Genest declared her much improved. In 
November 1832 she was again in Paris, and 
engaged the Theatre Italien and the Odeon, 
acting on alternate nights; opening the 
former house with 'Jane Shore/ in which 
she played the heroine, and the latter with 
Kenney's 'Raising the Wind.' An effort to 
engage Macready failed in consequence of 
the terms he demanded, and the actress, who 
was supported by an actor named Archer, 
remained the ch ief attraction. ' Jane Shore ' 
ran for twenty-five nights. Macready states 
that when in that piece she declared that 
she had not tasted food for three long days, 
a deep murmur ' Oh, mon Dieu ! ' audible 
through the house, showed how complete 
was tne illusion she created. In Juliet and 
in Ophelia she achieved her greatest triumphs. 
It was the period when in France roman- 
ticism was rampant, and Miss Smithson 
raised the enthusiasm on behalf of Shake- 

rre to its height. Her Irish accent, an 
acle to her success in London, was un- 
perceived in Paris, and she was for some 
months the rage with the enthusiastic but 
volatile public of that city. Years later her 
name survived, and her pathetic outbursts 
and powerful gestures were commended by 
Theophile Gautier. 

Among those most passionately enamoured 
of her and her art was Hector Berlioz, the 
musical composer, whose memoirs are full of 
extravagant utterances concerning 'la belle 
Smidson/the ' artiste inspiree dont tout Paris 
delirait.' Poor, and as yet unknown, he 
dared to make advances to her which filled 
her with consternation rather than delight. 
But the success of the English theatre in 
Paris was not sustained. A trip to Am- 
sterdam and to French provincial towns — 
such as Havre, Rouen, and Bordeaux — had 
an effect upon Miss Smithson's finances op- 
posite to that desired, and her company 

had to be disbanded. Vanity had led her 
into many extravagances. The Parisian 
public proved fickle, and she had the mis- 
fortune to break her leg above the ankle in 
getting out of her carriage. Berlioz returned 
from Italy in the summer of 1833, and found 
her burdened with debts. He chivalrously 
renewed his offer, and was married to Miss 
Smithson early in October at the British 
Embassy, Paris. The announcement in the 
' Court Journal ' is ungraciously coupled with 
the expression of a wish that the marriage 
would prevent her reappearance on the Eng- 
lish boards. Though Horace Smith wrote 
of her ' picturesque variety ' of pose, English 
opinion was almost uniformly hostile to her, 
and even attributed her accident to a thea- 
trical ruse. It is scarcely surprising that 
she had no wish in later life to revisit Great 

A special performance was given in Paris at 
the Theatre Italien with a view towards pay- 
ing the debts of the bride. The programme 
comprised the ' Antony ' of Alexandre Dumas, 
supported by Madame Dorval and Firmin, 
the fourth act of 'Hamlet/ and a performance 
of Berlioz's ' Symphonie Fantastique/ ' Sar- 
danapale/ and an overture to ' Les Francs- 
Juges.' The sum obtained, seven thousand 
francs, was inadequate, and the result was 
mortification to tne actress, who, on her 
rising with difficulty from the stage as Ophelia, 
did not even receive a call, and saw all the 
homage accorded to Madame Dorval. She did 
not again appear on the stage. Sharing her 
husband's privations, she became, according 
to his 8tatement,sharp-tempered, jealous, and 
exacting. In 1840 husoand and wile separated 
by mutual consent, and Berlioz chose another 
partner. He saw his wife occasionally, and 
contributed to her support. During the last 
four years of her life she suffered from para- 
lysis, depriving her of speech and motion. 
An inscription in the cemetery of Montmartre 
reads: ' Henriette Constance Berlioz Smith- 
son, ne6 h Ennis en Irlande, morte a Mont- 
martre le 3 mars 1854/ Ten years later her 
remains were disinterred and placed in a 
vault in the larger cemetery of Montmartre, 
next those of the second wife of Berlioz. 
By Berlioz she left a son, Louis, who entered 
the navy and was with the French fleet in 
the Baltic in 1855, but predeceased his father; 
the latter died at Paris on 8 March 1869. 

A portrait of her, described as of Henrietta 
Smithson, by R. E. Drummond, stippled by 
J. Thomson, is among the engraved portraits 
at South Kensington. A portrait of her as 
Maria, presumably in the 'Wild Goose 
Chase/ accompanies her life in Oxberry's 
' Dramatic Biography.' A portrait as Mar- 

Smith son 



caret in ' A New Way to pay Old Debts ' is 
in Cumberland's 'British Theatre/ vol. vii., 
and another, a coloured print after Clint, as 
Miss Dorillon in ' Wives as they were and 
Maids as they are/ is in Terry's 'British 
Theatrical Gallery.' 

[Particulars of Miss Smithson's early life were 
supplied by herself to Oxberry, and appear in 
the second volume of his Dramatic Biography. 
Information, concerning her performances in 
Ireland is kindly supplied by Mr. W. J. Lawrence, 
who is engaged on a History of the Belfast Stage. 
Her characters in London are taken from 
Genest's Account of the English Stage. Genest, 
however, omits much. Such few particulars as 
can be gleaned concerning her performances in 
France are taken from the Court Journal (1832 
and 1833), Lady's Magazine, and Gautier's His- 
toire de l'Art Dramatique en France. Her life as 
Madame Berlioz appears in the Memoires de Hec- 
tor Berlioz, 1878, i. 292-4 sq., and is summarised 
in a paper by Dutton Cook in the Gent. Mag. 
June 1879. The Autobiography of Hector Ber- 
lioz, from 1803 to 1865, and published in 1884, 
supplies some further details. A short memoir is 
in Cumberland's British Theatre, vol. vii. See 
also Grove's Diet, of Musicians; Marshall's Cat. 
of Engraved National Portraits; Clark Russell's 
Representative Actors; Dramatic Magazine, 1829 
and 1830; Pollock's Macready ; New Monthly 
Magazine, various years; Di bain's Hist, of the 
Scottish Stage; Hist, of the Theatre Royal, Dub- 
lin, 1870 ; and the Theatrical Censor. 1818-20.1 

J. K. 

SMITHSON, HUGH, afterwards Pekcy, 
first Duke of Northumberland of the third 
creation (1715-1786). [See Pebcy.] 

SMITHSON, JAMES (1766-1829), 
founder of the Smithsonian Institution at 
Washington, United States, was known in 
early life as James Lewis or Louis Macie. 
Born in France in 1765 (the date of 1754, long 
accepted as correct, is taken from the inscrip- 
tion on his tombstone), he was the illegitimate 
son of Hugh Smithson (1715-1786), who after- 
wards assumed the name of Percy [q. v.], and 
was the first Duke of Northumberland of the 
third creation. His mother, who was cousin 
of his father's wife, was Elizabeth Hunger- 
ford Keate (reputed to be daughter of Henry 
Keate, brother of George Keate [q. v.]) She 
was, according to her son James, great- 
grandniece of Charles Seymour, the 'proud ' 
duke of Somerset, and ' heiress ' to the family 
of Hungerford of Studley ; to a member of 
that family her sister was married. She had 
apparently been twice a widow before her 
illegitimate son was born. Her first husband's 
surname seems to have been Dickinson. Her 
second husband was James Macie, a country 
gentleman of an old family belonging to 

Weston, near Bath. Both husbands seem to 
have left her well provided for. In the will of 
her mother, Penelope Keate, dated 13 July 

1764, she was described as ' my daughter 
Elizabeth Macie of Bath, widow.' Her 
second husband, Macie, was therefore dead 
before the birth of her illegitimate son in 

1765. In 1766, on the death of her brother, 
Lumley Hungerford Keate, she inherited the 
property of the Hungerfords of Studley, 
which was doubtless one of the sources of her 
son's great wealth. 

Young Smithson was brought from France 
at an early age, naturalised, and entered as 
a gentleman commoner at Pembroke College, 
Oxford. He matriculated on 7 May 1782 as 
' Jacobus Ludo vicus Macie [changed to Smith- 
son], 17, de Civit. Londin. — arm. Fil.' (Add. 
MS. 38412, Brit. Mus.; Fosteb, Alumni 
Oxonienses, iii. 893, iv. 1323). He is said to 
have been the best chemist and mineralogist 
of his year. In 1784, at the age of nineteen, 
he made a geological tour to Oban, Staffa, and 
the Western Isles of Scotland, in company 
with Faujas de St. Fond, Count Andriom, 
and others, and noted in his journals obser- 
vations on mining and manufacturing pro- 
cesses. His vacations were usually devoted 
to similar excursions and the collection of 
minerals. He was created M. A. 26 May 1786, 
and was admitted a fellow of the Royal So- 
ciety on 26 April 1787, -being described as 
' late of Pembroke College, Oxford, and now 
of John Street, 4+olden Square, a gentleman 
well versed in various branches of natural 
philosophy, and particularly in chymistry and 
mineralogy.' Among the five fellows who 
recommended him was Henry Cavendish. He 
lodged for some time in Bentinck Street, and 
there probably prepared his first scientific 
paper, ' An Account of some Chemical Experi- 
ments on Tabasheer,' read before the Royal 
Society on 7 July 1791 (Phil. Tram. vol. 
lxxxi. pt. ii. p. 368). The following year he 
travelled from Geneva to Italy and in Tyrol. 
His political views found expression in a 
letter from Paris : * The office of king is not 
yet abolished, but they daily feel the inu- 
tility, or rather the great inconvenience, of 
continuing it. . . . May other nations, at the 
time of their reforms, be wise enough to cast 
off, at first, the contemptible incumbrance.' 

It is not known when he received permis- 
sion from the crown to change his name, but 
in 1794, eight years after his father's death, 
he is mentioned in the will of his half-sister, 
Dorothy Percy, as Macie. She was also an 
illegitimate daughter of the duke, and died 
on 2 Nov. 1794 (Chestbb, Registers of West- 
minster, p. 453). The first public announce- 
ment of the name of Smithson is in the second 




contribution to the 'Transactions' of the 
Royal Society, being ' A Chemical Analysis 
of some Calamines, by James Smithson, Esq./ 
read on 18 Nov. 1802 (Phil. Tram. xciii. 
12). This analysis quite upset the opinion 
of the Abb6 Haiiy that calamines were all 
mere oxides or * calces ' of zinc, and esta- 
blished these minerals in the rank of true 
carbonates. To commemorate this discovery 
the name Smithsonite was conferred on a 
native carbonate of zinc. Another paper, ' On 
Quadruple and Binary Compounds, particu- 
larly Sulphurets,' appeared in the ' Philoso- 
phical Magazine/ 1807 (xxix.276). Hisother ! 
contributions to the 'Philosophical Transac- 
tions' were : ' Account of a Discovery of 
Native Minium ' (1806, vol. xcvi. pt. i. p. 267) ; 
' On the Composition of the Compound Sul- 
phuret from Iluel Boys, and an Account of 
its Crystals ' (1808, vol. xcviii. pt. i. p. 55) ; 
'On the Composition of Zeolite* (1811, 
ci. 171) ; ' On a Substance from the Elm 
Tree called Ulmin' (1813, vol. ciii. pt. i. p. 
64) ; ' On a Saline Substance from Mount 
Vesuvius ' (1813, vol. ciii. pt. i. p. 256) ; ' A 
few Facts relative to the Colouring Matters 
of some Vegetables' (1817, cviii. 110). His 
name disappears from the ' Philosophical 
Transactions ' after 1817, but is frequently to 
be found in the ' Annals of Philosophy 'from 
1819. In 1822 he published in that lournal 
a paper ' On the Detection of very Minute 
Quantities of Arsenic and Mercury,' descrip- 
tive of a method for a long time used by 
chemists. He wrote altogether eighteen 
articles in Thomson's ' Annals of Philosophy ' 
(1819-1825). These, with the eight papers 
read before the Royal Society, twenty-seven 
in all, were issued under the title of ' The 
Scientific Writings of James Smithson, edited 
by W. J. Rhees ' (Smithsonian Misc. Collec- 
tions, 1879, No. 327). In the opinion of Pro- 
fessor Clarke, ' the most notable feature of 
Smithson's writings, from the standpoint of 
the modern analytical chemist, is the suc- 
cess obtained with the most primitive and 
unsatisfactory appliances. ... He is not to 
be classed among the leaders of scientific 
thought ; but his ability, and the usefulness 
of his contributions to knowledge, cannot be 
doubted.' In an obituary notice Davies Gil- 
bert, president of the Royal Society, associated 
the name of Smithson with those of Wollas- 
ton, Young, and Davy ; ' he was distinguished 
by the intimate friendship of Mr. Cavendish, 
and rivalled our most expert chemists in ele- 
gant analyses.' Berzelius refers to him as 
' Fun desmineralogistes les plus experimented 
de l'Europe.' He left a great quantity of un- 
printed matter. About two hundred manu- 
scripts were forwarded to the United States 

with his effects, besides thousands of separate 
memoranda. Unfortunately, with the excep- 
tion of a single volume, all perished in a fire at 
the Smithsonian Institution in 1865. W. R. 
Johnson, who examined the papers before the 
formation of the institution, states that they 
dealt not only with science, but with history, 
the arts, language, gardening, and building, 
and such topics ' as are likely to occupy the 
thought and to constitute the reading of a 
gentleman of extensive acquirements and 
liberal views' (Misc. Coll. ut supra, p. 138). 
His cabinet, which was also destroyed, in- 
cluded eight thousand or ten thousand spe- 
cimens ot minerals. 

A large part of Smithson's life was passed 
on the continent. He lived in Berlin, Paris, 
Rome, Florence, and Geneva, and associated 
everywhere with scientific men. Among his 
correspondents were Davy, Gilbert, Banks, 
Thomson, Black, Arago, Biot, and Klap- 
roth. In later years, when his health be- 
came very feeble, he resided chiefly in Paris, 
at 121 rue Montmartre. He died at Genoa, 
Italy, on 27 June 1829, aged 64, and was 
buried in the little English cemetery on the 
heights of San Benigno. The authorities of 
the Smithsonian Institution have recently 
placed a tablet on the tomb, and another in 
the English church at Genoa. 

In his will, dated 23 Oct. 1826, Smithson 
describes himself as ' son of Hugh, first duke 
of Northumberland, and Elizabeth, heiress 
of the Hungerfords of Studley and niece of 
Charles the Proud, duke of Somerset, now 
residing in Bentinck Street, Cavendish 
Square. There was a bequest to an old 
servant, and the income of the property was 
left for life to a nephew, Henry James 
Hungerford, also known as Dickinson, and 
afterwards as Baron Eunice de la Batut 
(d. 1835). Subject to these provisions, the 
whole was bequeathed ' to the United States 
of America, to found at Washington, under 
the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an 
establishment for the increase and diffusion 
of knowledge among men.' The value of 
the effects was sworn as under 120,000/. in 
the prerogative court at Canterbury. The 
money is believed to have come chiefly from 
Colonel Henry Louis Dickinson (d. 1820), a 
son of his mother by a former marriage. A 
legacy of 3,000/. from Dorothy Percy, his 
half-sister on the paternal side, seems to have 
been all that Smithson received from his 
father's family. It is not known why the be- 
quest was made to the United States, although 
his political sympathies appear to have 
been republican. In 1835 the United States 
legation in London was informed that the 
court of chancery was in possession of the 




estate, valued at about 100,000/. Acceptance 
of the gift was opposed in Congress, but, 
through the influence of John Quincy 
Adams, Richard Rush was sent to England 
to enter a suit in the name of the president 
of the United States. A decision was given 
within two years, and the sum of 104,960/. 
in gold was delivered at the Philadelphia 
mint. In 1867, inclusive of a residuary 
legacy, the total amount of the bequest haa 
increased to six hundred and fifty thousand 
dollars. The Smithsonian Institution was 
established by act of Congress, approved on 
10 Aug. 184o, and the first meeting of the 
board of regents took place on 7 Sept. in 
the same year. Joseph Henry was the first 
secretary (1846-78) ; to him are due the form 
of the publications, the system of inter- 
national exchanges, and the weather bureau. 
Under the second secretary, Spencer Fuller- 
ton Baird (1878-87), the new museum build- 
ing was erected, and much attention was 
given to zoological and ethnological explo- 
rations. Professor Sam uei Pierpon t Langley, 
the third and present holder of the office, 
established the National Zoological Park and 
the Astrophysical Observatory, and has given 
great encouragement to the physical as well 
as the biological sciences. The special work 
of the bureau of ethnology was begun in 1872. 
The Smithsonian building is one of the finest 
in Washington. The library forms part of the 
congressional library, and comprehends per- 
haps one-fourth of the national collection. The 
institution publishes periodically valuable 
series of scientific publications, entitled re- 
spectively 'Smithsonian Contributions to 
Knowledge' since 1848, in 4to; 'Miscella- 
neous Collections' since 1862, 8vo ; and 'An- 
nual Reports.' The ' Bulletins ' of the Na- 
tional Museum commenced in 1875 and the 
' Proceedings ' in 1878. The ' Annual Re- 

¥orts ' of the Bureau of Ethnology date from 
878. The Bureau also issues ' Bulletins.' 
Smithson was a man of gentle character 
whose life was devoted to study uncheered 
by domestic affection. He had one relaxation. 
Arago, in the course of his ' Jfiioge d* Ampere,' 
without mentioning Smithson byname, says : 
' Je connaissais a Paris, il y a quelques annees, 
un etranger de distinction, a la fois tres- 
riche et tres-mal portant, dont les iournees, 
sauf un petit nombre cTheures de repos, 
etaient regulierement partakes entre d'in- 
teressantes recherches scientifiques et le jeu ' 
(CEuTtres, 1864, ii. 27). Ampere demonstrated 
to his friend that, according to the doctrine of 
chances, he was each year cheated out of a 
large sum ; but Smithson was unable to forego 
the stimulus of play. His writings are marked 
by terse and lucid expression, and his theory 

of work is well illustrated by the noble words 
found in one of his notebooks, which have 
been adopted as a motto for the publications 
of the institution : ' Every man is a valuable 
member of society who by his observations, 
researches, and experiments procures know- 
ledge for men.' Although he deeply felt the 
circumstances of his birth, he was proud of his 
descent, and once wrote : ' The best blood of 
England flows in my veins. On my father's 
side I am a Northumberland, on my mother's 
I am related to kings ; but this avails me not. 
My name shall live in the memory of man 
when the titles of the Northumberland's and 
the Percys are extinct and forgotten.' One 
part of this statement has already been real- 
ised, and, as the founder of the famous in- 
stitution which bears his name, he is already 
illustrious. The position of the Smithsonian 
Institution is without a parallel in any 

There is an oil painting representing him 
as an Oxford student (1786), and a miniature 
by Johns (1816), both in the possession of 
the institution. A medallion round among 
his effects was marked 'my likeness' in 
Smithson's hand ; from this have been en- 
graved the portrait published by the institu- 
tion, the great seal, and the vignette to be 
seen on all its publications. 

[Materials have been kindly contributed by 
Professor 8. P. Langley, secretary of the Smith- 
sonian Institution. Mr. G. B. Henderson lent 
some family documents. See also Smithson and 
his Bequest, by W. J. Rhees, 1880, and ac- 
counts by W. R. Johnson and J. R. McD. Irby 
of the writings of Smithson, 1879, in Misc. Col- 
lections, voL xxi. 1881 ; Report of R. Rush to 
the Department of State, 1838; Gent. Mag. 
March 1830, p. 275; Goode's Account of the 
Smithsonian Institution, 1895,] H. R. T. 

SMITZ, CASPAR (d. 1707 ?), painter, is 
believed to have been a native of Tlanders. 
About 1660 he came to London, where he 
gained a reputation for his small portraits in 
oil,group8 of fruit and flowers, and especially 
pictures of the penitent Magdalene, in the 
foreground of wnich he usually introduced 
a large and carefully painted thistle plant. 
From his works of tnis class he received 
the sobriquet of 'Magdalene ' Smith ; several 
of them were engraved by John Smith, P. 
Schenk, and E. Petit. Being induced by 
a lady who had been his pupil to remove to 
Ireland,Smitz practised there during the latter 
part of his life. Though his art was admired 
and well remunerated, he was always impecu- 
nious, and died in poverty in Dublin about 
1707. Among his pupils were William 
Gandy [q. v.] and James Maubert, 




[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting (Dallaway 
and Wonrom); Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; 
Nagler's Kunstler-Lexikon.] F. M. O'D. 

1771), novelist, came of a family long pos- 
sessed of much local importance in Dumbar- 
tonshire. An ancestor, Tobias, grandson of 
John Smollett, a prominent citizen and 
bailie of Dumbarton in 1616, was slain in 
February 1603 in the conflict at Glenfruin. 
The family's influence had been consider- 
ably extended by the novelist's grandfather, 

Sir Jambs Smollett (1648-1731), first of 
Bonhill. Born in 1648, James was appren- 
ticed in 1665 to Walter E wing, a writer to the 
signet ; he was elected provost of Dumbarton 
in 1683, and filled that office until 1686, when 
the ordinary election was superseded by 
James II. In 1685 he was chosen commis- 
sioner for the burgh to the Scottish parlia- 
ment, and sat no less than twelve times. 
Having been an active supporter of the 
revolution, he was knighted by William III 
in 1698, and was appointed to one of the 
judgeships of the commissary or consistory 
court in Edinburgh. As a zealous advocate 
of the proposed union between England and 
Scotland, he was in 1707 made one of the 
commissioners for framing the articles upon 
which the union was based (MacKinnon, 
Hist of the Union), and, after the measure 
had been carried, he was the first represen- 
tative of the Dumbartonshire boroughs in 
the British parliament. In his old age he 
lived chiefly at his seat of Bonhill, whither 
a goodly number of derivative Smolletts 
looked up to him as chief. Sir James died 
in 1731 (his curious manuscript autobio- 
graphy is in possession of the family at Bon- 
hill). By his first marriage with Jane (d. 
1698), daughter of Sir Aulay Macaulay of 
Ardincaple, bart., he had four sons and two 
daughters. He married secondly, in June 
1709, Elizabeth, daughter of William Hamil- 
ton, but by her had no issue. Of Sir James's 
four sons, the eldest, Tobias, went into the 
army and died young ; the second, James, and 
the third, George, were both called to the 
Scottish bar. Sir James's estates passed to 
the issue of his second son, James, and when 
that failed, in 1738, to another grandson, 
James, the son of George Smollett, the third 
son. Sir James's youngest son, Archibald 
(the novelist's father), though he remained 
without a profession, took the step of marry- 
ing, without his father's consent, Barbara, 
daughter of Robert Cunningham of Gilbert- 
field. As she had little fortune, the old 
knight found it necessary, on forgiving them, 
to settle upon his youngest son the life rent 
of the farm of Dalquhurn, near Bonhill, 

in the vale of Leven, parish of Cardross, 
Dumbartonshire, making up their income to 
near 300/. a year. In the old grange of 
Dalquhurn were born a daughter Jean and 
two sons, James and the novelist. 

Smollett's father, Archibald, a cultivated 
man but of weak and petulant disposition, 
died about 1723. His mother — a proud ill- 
natured-looking woman, with a sense of 
humour and a passion for cards— seems to 
have remained at Dalquhurn until 1731, 
when, her circumstances being further 
straitened by the death of her father-in- 
law, she removed to Edinburgh and settled 
in a floor at the head of St. John Street 
(Chambers, Traditions of Old Edinburgh). 
Tobias, who was christened on 19 March 
1721, received a good education at Dum- 
barton school under the grammarian, John 
Love [q. v.] His desire had been to enter 
the army, but in this he was thwarted by his 
grandfather, who had already obtained a 
commission for his elder brother, James. In 
1736, therefore, he was sent to Glasgow to 
attend the university and qualify for the 
medical profession, and on 30 May 1736 he 
was apprenticed for five years to Dr. John 
Gordon {Faculty Records). There is no 
ground for disputing the tradition that he 
was a mischievous stripling and a restive 
apprentice ; but in spite of some peccadilloes 
the ' bubblv-nosed callant with the stane in 
his pouch, as his master called him, seems 
to have gained the iatter's regard, while he 
succeeded in adding an acquaintance with 
Greek to the fair stock of Latin he possessed. 
He had already developed a taste for satire, 
which he expended upon the square-toed 
writers of Glasgow, and he compiled a tra- 
gedy based upon Buchanan's account of the 
murder of James I {the theme also of Ros- 
setti's 'King's Tragedy'), and called the 
' Regicide.' 

During 1739 Smollett determined to seek 
his fortune in London. He set out with the 
tragedy in his pocket and very little else, 
beyond some letters of introduction which 
proved of small avail. His journey south- 
wards is described with infinite spirit in the 
earlier chapters of 'Roderick Random.' 
How far these and subsequent chapters are 
strictly autobiographic has been disputed; 
but each of four separate claimants to the 
honour of being the original of Strap vowed 
that he had shared with Smollett the vicis- 
situdes ascribed in the novel to Random and 
his comrade (cf. Chambers, Smollett, p. 62 n.) 
He lost no time in submitting his play to 
George Lyttelton, first baron Lyttelton fa. v.], 
the patron of Thomson and of Mallet. Months 
elapsed before Lyttelton, with vague polite- 




ness, deprecated the honour of sponsorship for 
the play, which was, indeed, exceptionally 
bad. Smollett retorted at once by 'dis- 
carding his patron/ exhibiting thus early the 
'systema nervosum maxime irritabile' of 
which he complained in later life to a French 
physician. That same autumn, probably 
through the influence of Sir Andrew Mitchell 
(1708^1771) [q. v.l, he obtained a post as sur- 
geon on board a King's ship. Next year he 
sailed in the Cumberland in the squadron 
under Sir Chaloner Ogle [q. v.] to join Ver- 
non's fleet in the West Indies, and served 
during the whole of the operations of the com- 
bined fleet and land forces against Carthagena 
in the soring of 1741, including the terrible 
bombardment of Bocca Chica. When this 
enterprise was abandoned the fleet returned 
to Jamaica, where part remained for further 
service in the West Indies. Smollett was 
with this portion during 1741 and 1742. 
Residing for a while in Jamaica, he became 
enamoured of a Creole beautv, Nancy Las- 
celles, the daughter of an English planter, 
whom he married some time alter his return 
to England, probably in 1747. 

Smollett seems to have removed his name 
from the navy books in May 1744, whereupon 
he settled as a surgeon in Downing Street, 
Westminster. He took kindly to tavern life 
and to coffee-house society, among which he 
shone as a raconteur. He was a great ac- 
quisition to the Scottish circle in London, 
and Dr. Alexander Carlyle, during his visit 
to the metropolis in 1746, dilates upon the 
charm of his society. His indignation was 
excited by the rigour with which the High- 
land rebellion was crushed in this year, and 
he penned the most spontaneous and best 
remembered of his poems, 'The Tears of 
Scotland. 1 The years 1746 and 1747 saw his 
shilling satires ' Advice ' and ' Reproof/ two 
admonitions to the whig party, with whom 
he was rapidly losing patience ; but they 
attracted little attention. In 1747 also ap- 
peared his ' Burlesque Ode on the Loss of a 
Grandmother,' an unfeeling parody of Lyt- 
telton's 'Monody' to the memory of his 

Smollett's marriage should have brought 
him a dowry of at least 3,000/. invested in 
land and slaves in Jamaica, but, after a 
complicated lawsuit with trustees upon the 
death of his wife's father, only a fraction of 
this was recoverable. He seems to have 
migrated from Downing Street to Mayfair 
in search of practice, but his demeanour can 
hardly have been of a kind to reassure 
patients, while a rare facility for plain and 
forcible composition seemed to beckon him 
into the busiest part of the world of letters. 

From the prospect of pamphleteering he 
was soon to be diverted to prose fiction. 
Richardson had published his ' Pamela ' in 
1741, and Fielding his 'Joseph Andrews' 
in 1742. To these, however, Smollett, 
when he produced the two small volumes of 
'Roderick Random' in 1748, owed little 
beyond the first impulse. The analytical 
method of Richardson had little attraction 
for him, while he was for the most part in- 
sensible to, as he was incapable of, the literary 
blandishments of Fieldmg. He preferred 
to adapt to his purpose the 'picaresque' 
method of Le Sage, to whom he frankly 
admits in the preface his obligation. His 
appreciation of the ' humours ' of Ben Jonson 
and Shadwell is shown very markedly in 
his fondness for grotesque colouring, while 
many touches betray the influence of Swift 
and Defoe. Smollett's hero, like ' Gil Bias,' 
recounts a life of varied adventures, which he 
experiences in the company of a servant ; he 
enters the service of a physician and meets 
with old schoolfellows, robbers, disillusions, 
and in the end an unexpected fortune (cf. 
Wbrshoven, Smollett et Lesage, Berlin, 
1883). The novel owed its savour to its 
studies of eccentric character. Uncle Bow- 
ling in ' Roderick Random,' said Thackeray, 
was as good a character as Squire Western, 
and Mr. Morgan as pleasant as Mr. Caius, 
while Strap has often been preferred to his con- 
gener Partridge. There was no author's name 
on the title-page of ' Roderick Random,' and 
Ladv Mary W ortley-Montagu, among others, 
attributed the work to Fielding (in whose 
name it was actually translated into French), 
while many said that Fielding would have 
to look to his laurels. The first use Smollett 
made of his popularity was to publish ' The 
Regicide ' at five shillings a copy, as by the 
'author of Roderick Random.' Lyttelton 
was so intimidated by the ferocity with 
which Smollett bore his triumph that ' fear 
of Smollett ' is said to have been the primary 
cause of the protracted delay in the ap- 
pearance of his ' Henry II.' 

Smollett now became a centre of at- 
traction to the group of able Scotsmen who 
were in London, and especially to those of 
the medical profession, such as Clephane, 
Macaulay, Hunter, Armstrong, Pitcairne, 
and Smellie. The latter had the benefit of 
Smollett's literary adroitness in the revision 
of his ' Treatise on Midwifery ' published in 
1762 (Glaistbr, Dr. William Smellie and 
his Contemporaries, 1894, p. 113). Smollett 
himself seems to have still designed to com- 
bine the practice of medicine with author- 
ship, and in June 1750 he obtained the degree 
of M.D. from Marischal College, Aberdeen. 




But in the autumn of this year he already 
had another novel in prospect, and went 
over to Paris with a new acquaintance, Dr. 
John Moore (his future biographer and author 
of ' Zeluco '), in guest of materials, or rather 
'subjects for caricature. One of these was 
found in the person of Smollett's compatriot, 
Mark Akenside. Smollett published his 
second novel, ' The Adventures of Peregrine 
Pickle ' (1751, 4 vols. 12mo), with prompti- 
tude after his return. From the outset it 
met with an immense success, and was forth- 
with translated into French. Like its pre- 
decessor, it was a loosely constructed series 
of adventures. But the faculty of eccentric 
characterisation which rendered 'Roderick 
Random' notable was surpassed in 'Pere- 
grine Pickle ' in the humorous study of Com- 
modore Trunnion, the description of whose 
death shows Smollett's powers at their best 
(cf. Retrospective Review, iii. 362). Two 
capital defects in the story are the grossly 
inartistic interpolation, for a handsome fee, 
of ' The Memoirs of a Lady of Quality ' [see 
Vane, Frances, Viscottntess Vane], and 
the debased character of the hero, the ' savage 
and ferocious Pickle ' as he is called by Scott. 
The work was further disfigured by the 
splenetic attacks which Smollett made upon 
Lyttelton (Sir Gosling Scrag), and upon 
Garrick, Cibber, Rich, Akenside, and Field- 
ing ; these offensive passages were removed 
from the second edition. Smollett, however, 
pursued his resentment against Fielding, 
which must be attributed, in part at least, to 
an unworthy jealousy, in a pamphlet written 
in 1752, and entitled ' A Faithful Narrative 
of the Base and Inhuman Arts that were 
lately practised upon the Brain of Habbakuk 
Hilding, Justice, Dealer, and Chapman, who 
now lies at his house in Covent Garden in a 
deplorable State of Lunacy ... by Draw- 
cansir Alexander, Fencing Master and Philo- 
math. 1 The great novelist and his friend 
Lyttelton were here attacked in the coarsest 
strain of personal abuse. 

In the meantime Smollett had migrated 
to Bath, and was making a last determined 
attempt to establish himself as a physician ; 
but neither place nor profession was suited 
to a man so frank ana so combative. In 
1762 he published ' An Essay on the Ex- 
ternal Use of Water' (London, 8vo), in 
which he sought to prove that, for hydro- 
pathic purposes, the mineral water of Bath 
had little advantage over any other water. 
He seems to have left Bath shortly after- 
wards with some valuable material for sub- 
sequent satire upon the medical profession 
(cf . E veritt, Doctors, p. 282). His patience 
had proved insufficient for the trials of a 

struggling physician, and he returned to 
London to devote himself wholly to literary 
work. He established himself at Monmouth 
House, or the 'Great House/ Chelsea, an 
Elizabethan mansion formerly known as 
Lawrence House ; it was taken down in 
1835, but before that date it was drawn and 
etched by R. Schnebellie. He was a regular 
frequenter of the ' Swan/ where he for- 
gatnered with ' a circle of phlegmatic and 
honest Englishmen/ The humours of 
tavern life had always a rare attraction for 
him. At Saitero's (to the museum attached 
to which he was a 'benefactor;' see Cat. 
35th ed. p. 19) he met more distinguished 
friends, and he was visited at his Chelsea 
home, where the garden proved an attrac- 
tion, by Johnson, Goldsmith, Sterne, Garrick, 
Wilkes, and John Hunter. Every Sunday 
his house was open to ' unfortunate brothers, 
of the quill/ whom he treated with ' beef, 
pudding, and potatoes, port, punch, and 
Calvert 8 entire Dutt-beer. 

One of his first exploits at Chelsea was 
the personal chastisement of a man called 
Peter Gordon, who had borrowed money 
from Smollett and had sought to cancel his 
obligations by taking up his quarters in the 
king's bench prison, whence ne despatched 
insolent messages to his creditor. An action 
brought by Gordon against his assailant was 
compromised to Smollett's disadvantage. In 
the same year (1753) appeared Smollett'a 
third novel, ' Ferdinand Count Fathom/ his 
most sustained effort. The irony of the open- 
ing chapters, the ruthless characterisation of 
a scoundrel, and the description of the robbers' 
hut in the Black Forest exhibit a striking 
reserve of power. Few novels have been 
more imitated. 

During the whole of this year and the 
next Smollett was constantly in pecuniary 
difficulties ; he had anticipated his income, 
and, pending the arrival of a remittance 
from the West Indies, had to borrow from 
his friend Dr. Macaulay. His embarrass- 
ments seem to have reached a climax in 
December 1754, when on the night of the 
10th he was robbed of his watch and purse- 
in the stage-coach between Chelsea and 
London. A few months later, in March 
1755, appeared his translation of 'Don 
Quixote/ at which he had been working 
intermittently for many months, and for 
which he had been paid soon after the ap- 
pearance of ' Roderick Random/ Though 
many of Smollett's humorous paraphrases 
are excellent, his claims to adequate know- 
ledge of the original were at once questioned 
in 'A Letter from a Gentleman in the 
Country to his Friend in Town* (anon* 




London, 1765). Lord Woodhouselee, in 
his ' Essay on Translation ' (1813), stigma- 
tised the work as a rifacimento of Jervas, 
and this judgment is substantially confirmed 
by later critics (cf. Obmsby, Don Quixote, 
iv. 420; Mr. H. E. Watts, Quixote, i. 
xxii.) Published at 2/. 10*., and dedicated 
to * Don Ricardo Wall ' [q.v.l it was, how- 
ever, a commercial success, ana was for many 
years the reigning English version. 

In the summer that followed its publica- 
cation Smollett revisited Scotland. His 
sister had married, in 1739, Alexander Telfer 
of Symington, Lanarkshire, who had pro- 
spered, and in 1749 bought for 2,062/. the 
estate of Scotston in Peeblesshire. Thither 
Smollett's mother had removed in 1759, and 
thither Tobias now directed his steps. Mrs. 
Smollett, runs the story, did not recognise 
her son at first, but he soon betrayed nim- 
self by his ' roguish smile. 1 lie also revisited 
Glasgow, and saw his friend Dr. Moore. 

Severe labours awaited his return to Lon- 
don. A thriving printer, Archibald Hamilton, 
who had been compelled to leave Edinburgh 
owing to his share in the Porteous riot, de- 
termined to start a literary periodical in op- 
position to the 'Monthly Review 1 of Ralph 
Griffiths [q. v.], and to put Smollett at the 
head of the syndicate or ' Society of Gentle- 
men ' who were to direct it. The first num- 
ber of ' The Critical Review,' as it was called, 
appeared in February 1756. Its position was 
established by capable reviews of such works 
as Birch's ' History of the Royal Society/ 
Voltaire's 'Pucelle/ Hume's 'History,' Dyer's 
'Fleece/ Gray's 'Odes/ Home's ' Douglas/ 
and Richardson's ' Clarissa.' Smollett wrote 
to explain to the last two authors that he 
was not personally responsible for the want 
of cordiality displayed towards them. Other 
victims were not so placable as Home and 
Richardson. In December 1759 Smollett 
unmercifully ridiculed Dr. James Grainger's 
'Tibullus/ and Grainier, after some de- 
liberation (see an amusing letter to Percy, 
Nichols, Illustrations, vii. 263), decided on 
reprisals. These took the form of ' A Letter 
to Tobias Smollett, M.D./ the sting of which 
lay in the insultingly familiar appeals to 
' Dr. Toby/ a name which Smollett detested. 
A more abusive pamphlet came from the pen 
of Joseph Reed [q. y7\ In April 1761 Smol- 
lett criticised the 'Kosciad' with a free- 
dom little appreciated by the then unknown 
author, and Churchill lost no time in retali- 
ating by a savage attack upon Smollett's 
character and his plays — the productions 
about which he was most sensitive. An- 
other steady opponent was John Shebbeare 
[q. v.], who tried to convert his ' Occasional 


Critic ' into an engine of systematic abuse of 
Smollett and his ' Scotch gentlemen critics.' 

Simultaneously with his work upon the 
' Critical Review/ Smollett was writing his 
large ' History of England/ from the earliest 
times down to 1748, at the rate of about a 
century a month. It was primarily a book- 
seller s venture, designed to take the wind 
out of the sails of Hume, who had published 
two volumes on the Stuart period, and was 
working backwards. In this object, at least, 
it succeeded when it appeared in four bulky 
quarto volumes at the close of 1757. Hume 
wrote ironically of his rival as seated on the 
historical summit of Parnassus, and warned 
his publisher, Millar, in April 1758, of the 
' disagreeable ' effects to be anticipated from 
the ' extraordinary run on Smollett. 1 Less 
restrained was tne wrath of Warburton, 
who wrote of the ' vagabond Scot who has 
presumed to follow Clarendon and Temple ' 
(Letters to Kurd, p. 278). Smollett states 
with pride in his preface that he had con- 
sulted more than three hundred books in 
compiling the work ; he started, he admits, 
with a certain bias towards the whig prin- 
ciples in which he had been educated, but 
this predilection wore off as the work pro- 
ceeded. He dedicated it, when finished, 
without permission, to William Pitt (after- 
wards earl of Chatham), who wrote him a 
polite letter. 

Among the minor tasks of 1756 and 1757, 
two years during which he undermined his 
health by excessive application, were the 
compilation for Dodsley of ' The Compen- 
dium of Voyages/ in seven volumes (the agree- 
ment is among Mr. Alfred Morrison's auto- 
graphs), and tne production of his farce of 
sea life entitled 'The Reprisal, or the Tars 
of Old England/ which had a moderate suc- 
cess at Drury Lane on 22 Jan. 1757, and was 
in request for about half a century afterwards 
as a popular and patriotic piece. Largely 
owing to the generosity of Garrick, it brought 
the author a profit of nearly 200/. Smollett 
did penance for ' Marmozet ' (his caricature 
of Garrick in Pickled by writing a grateful 
letter, and he soon afterwards passed a high 
eulogium upon the player in the ' Critical 
Review/ In 1758 Smollett undertook the 
superintendence of a voluminous ' Universal 
History/ which was to be produced in colla- 
boration. One of his assistants was the 
veteran Dr. John Campbell (1708-1775) 
fq. v.], whose books ' no man can number.' 
The work of the lesser members of the con- 
federation required much polishing, and Smol- 
lett felt the drudgery keenly, lie himself 
wrote the portions relating to France, Italy, 
and Germany. About the same time he Corn- 




menced the revision of his l History/ which 
now appeared in weekly numbers and with 
portraits. These sixpenny parts had an enor- 
mous circulation (amounting, it is said, to 
twenty thousand), which the publisher stimu- 
lated by sending a parcel of prospectuses for 
distribution in church pews, accompanied by 
a douceur of half a crown to every parish 
clerk in the country (Timpeblet, EncycL 
p. 703). 

Next year (1759) was signalised by two 
events. In March Smollett petitioned John 
Wilkes (an occasional visitor at Chelsea), on 
behalf of 'that great Cham of Literature, 
Samuel Johnson/ and was instrumental in 
obtaining the release from the clutches of the 
press-gang of Johnson's black servant, Barber. 
Two months later Smollett was tried at the 
king's bench, in an action brought by Admiral 
Sir Charles Knowles fq. v.] for defamation 
of character, fined 100/. for aspersing the 
admiral's courage in the ' Critical Review ' 
(v. 439), and sentenced to three months' im- 
prisonment in the king's bench prison. 
There he received the visits of many friends, 
and, freed from domestic cares, carried on 
his profession with a fresh access of energy. 
Among his visitors were Garrick, Goldsmith, 
and Newbery, who engaged Smollett's ser- 
vices for the new sixpenny monthly maga- 
zine he was planning. Smollett succeeded 
in getting a royal patent for the new publi- 
cation through the influence of Pitt, and the 
first number of the ' British Magazine ' ap- 
peared in January 1760. Through its earlier 
numbers ran ' The Adventures of Sir Laun- 
celot Greaves/ the least worthy of Smollett's 
novels, embodying a squalid imitation of 
' Don Quixote.' The lawyer, Ferret, was a 
caricature of his old enemy Shebbeare. More 
distinctive is the vivid bit of description with 
which the story opens, Smollett once for all 
discarding the conventional exordium and 
setting an example which later novelists 
have not been slow to follow. Scott relates 
that Smollett while engaged upon this work 
was at Paxten in Berwickshire on a visit to 
George Home. "When post time drew near 
he retired for an hour to scribble off the neces- 
sary amount of copy. Serial publication of 
a novel in a monthly magazine was an inno- 
vation. Before the end of the same year 
(1761) appeared the first volume of his 
1 Continuation of the History of England ; ' 
a second, third, and fourth appeared in 1762, 
and a fifth instalment brought the work 
down to 1765. The handsome terms in 
which he alludes in the last volume to some 
of his old enemies and rivals — such as Aken- 
side and Fielding, Lyttelton f Robertson, and 
Hume — may be taken as a sign that some at 

least of his animosities had been softened by 
the lapse of years. The work as a whole « is 
not more confused and inaccurate than such 
hasty productions unavoidably must be' (Ro- 
bert Anderson). Meanwhile, in 1762, 
Smollett undertook the editorship of the 
' Briton,' which was called into existence by 
the need of defending the tory minister, Lord 
Bute. This was on 30 May, and on 5 June 
appeared the first number of the ' North 
Briton ' of John Wilkes, whose systematic 
vilification of Scotland and Scotsmen excited 
Smollett to such a pitch of irascibility that 
in eight months time he threw up his task in 
disgust. The ' Briton ' expired on 12 Feb. 
1763; its circulation seems never to have 
exceeded 260 a week, and its chief interest is 
due to the fact that it brought Wilkes into 
the field ( Almon, Review of Lord Bute's Ad- 
ministration, p. 65). All the while it was 
running, Smollett was wellnigh overwhelmed 
by his other and multifarious editorial duties. 
The tasks which he undertook at this period 
included a huge geographical compendium 
in eight bulky volumes, entitled * The Pre- 
sent State of all Nations/ and a thirty-eight- 
volume translation of Voltaire. A grim in- 
sight into his methods of work is afforded by 
Dr. Carlylein 1759, when Smollett's literary- 
factory was in full swing. Dr. Robertson, 
the historian, was anxious to make the ac- 
quaintance of Smollett, and an appointment 
was finally made at Forrest's coffee-house. 
There Smollett ' had several of his minions 
about him, to whom he prescribed tasks 
of translation, compilation, or abridgment. 
After dinner he gave ' audience to his myr- 
midons, from whom he expected copy.' Of 
five authors who were introduced, he kept 
two to supper to amuse his guests. Robert- 
son expressed surprise at Smollett's urbanity. 
Smollett seems to have consistently lived 
beyond his income (which is estimated be- 
tween 1755 and 1765 at 600/. a year), but, 
despite debts and the harassing conditions 
of his work, he was happy in his Chelsea 
home. He was specially devoted to his 
little daughter, Elizabeth. ' Many a time, 
he says in one of his letters, ' do I stop my 
task and betake me to a game of romps with 
Betty, while my wife looks on smiling, and 
longing in her heart to join in the sport; 
then back to the cursed round of duty. His 
' Nancy and little Bet ' rarely saw the sour 
visage with which he confronted the world. 
When his daughter died in April 1763, at 
the age of fifteen (she was buried on 11 April 
at St. Luke's, Chelsea), his grief was intense, 
and, being already overwrought and suffer- 
ing from nervous strain, he was never the 
same man again. His friend Armstrong ad- 




vised recourse again to the Bath waters, which 
'had been useful to him in the preceding 
winter ; ' but his wife earnestly begged him 
to ' convey her from a country where every 
object served to nourish grief/ He followed 
her advice. ' Traduced by malice, persecuted 
by faction, abandoned by false patrons/ as 
he bitterly complains, and ' overwhelmed by 
the loss of his only child/ he fled ' with 
eagerness ' from his country, where men 
seemed every year to grow ' more malicious/ 
Churchill, whose malice was remorseless, had 
just attacked him in the ' Author ' as Publius, 
* too mean to have a foe — too proud to have 
a friend/ and once more by name in the 
' Ghost/ A meaner assailant was Cuthbert 
Shaw [q. v.], who, in his dull imitation of 
the ' Dunciad/ entitled * The Race/ directs 
thirty-two lines of feeble invective against 
the ' Scottish critic/ 

Smollett crossed the Channel to Boulogne 
in June 1763 ; he remained at Boulogne till 
September, and proceeded thence by Paris, 
Lyons, and Montpellier to Nice. A pioneer 
of the Riviera as a health resort, he made 
Nice his headquarters from November 1763 
to May 1766 (during the greater part of 
which time he made careful observations of 
the weather). His shrewdness anticipated 
the great future that lay before the Cornice 
road(afterwards designed by Napoleon), and 
he foresaw the possibilities of Cannes, then 
1 a neat village/ as a sanatorium. From Nice 
he sailed in a felucca to Qenoa, and thence 
visited Rome and other Italian cities, return- 
ing to England through France in June 1765. 
Early next year he published his 'Travels ' 
in the form of letters sent home from 
Boulogne, Paris, Nice, and other places along 
his route. The book is replete with learning 
and with sound and often very acute obser- 
vation, but Smollett, who in England saw 
in Durham and York minsters ' gloomy and 
depressing piles/ took an even more jaundiced 
view of what he saw abroad. Philip Thick- 
nesse wondered that he ever got home alive 
to tell the tale (Letters, 1767, 8vo; cf. 
Hillard, Sir Months in Italy, 1863, ii. 295- 
298). Sterne encountered the ' choleric Phi- 
listine/ probably in Italy, and gibbeted him 
as ' Smelf ungus ' in the ' Sentimental Jour- 
ney/ Sterne's concluding bit of advice, that 
Smollett should confide his grievances to 
his physician, shows that he attributed his 
splenetic view of things to the right cause. 

In spite of his profound mistrust of foreign 
doctors, Smollett had consulted physicians, 
and at first upon his return he seemed much 
better, but a few months in London un- 
deceived him. His health was thoroughly 
undermined by chronic rheumatism, while 

the pain arising from a neglected ulcer, 
which had developed into a chronic sore, 
helped to sap his strength. As soon, there- 
fore, as his • Travels ' were out of hand, he 
resolved on a summer journey to Scotland. 
He reached Edinburgh in June 1766, and 
stayed with his sister, Mrs. Telfer, in St. 
John Street. The society of Edinburgh, then 
at the apogee of its brilliance, paid due at- 
tention to 'the famous Dr. Smollett/ He 
was visited bv Hume, Home, Robertson, 
Adam Smith, iBlair, Dr. Carlyle, Cullen, the 
Monros, and many old friends. In company 
with his mother, he went on to Glasgow, 
stayed with Dr. Moore, and patted the head 
of the future hero of Coruiia. Finally he 
proceeded to the scenes of his childhood, in 
the vale of Leven, and stayed with his 
cousin, James Smollett, in his newly built 
mansion of Cameron. Smollett's mother 
died in the autumn, and, still in a very pre- 
carious state of health, he proceeded to Bath, 
spending the Christmas of 1766 in Gay Street, 
where his health at last took a turn for the 
better, and where it is quite possible that 
he may have commenced a rough draft of 
* Humphrey Clinker/ It is practically cer- 
tain tnat he owed his conception of the 
framework of it to a reperusal of Anstey's 
'New Bath Guide/ 

In 1768 he was again in London, and with 
a return of vital energy came a recrudescence 
of his old savagery. His next work, ' The His^ 
tory and Adventures of an Atom/ is a kind 
of Rabelaisian satire on the whole course of 
public affairs in England from 1754 to the 
date of publication in 1769. He lashes out 
against king and ministers on both sides with 
equal venom. His old patrons, Pitt and 
Bute, are attacked with no less fury than old 
enemies such as Cumberland and Lord 
Mansfield, or his journalistic rival, John 
Wilkes (for a key to the characters see W. 
Davis, Second Journey round the Library of 
a Bibliomaniac, 1825). Its publication was 
followed by a serious relapse. His friends 
decided that, to prolong his life, he must re- 
turn to Italy. Hume generously applied to 
Shelburne for a consulate ; there were several 
vacancies in Italy, and Smollett was well 
qualified for such a post. But no such favour 
was forthcoming from a member of the 
' pack/ as Smollett had designated all con- 
temporary politicians (Shelburne's letter of 
refusal is printed among 'Some Inedited 
Memorials of Smollett ' in the ' Atlantic 
Monthly/ June 1859). 

In December 1769 he left England for the 
last time, and proceeded to Lucca and Pisa, 
then the chief accredited health resort in the 
Mediterranean. At Pisa he was visited by 



1 80 


Sir Horace Mann, who did what he could for 
him(DoRAN, Mann and Manners at the Court 
of Florence, pp. 217-18), and was anxious to 
learn his views as to the identity of Junius. 
Smollett seems to have acquired a fair know- 
ledge of Italian. Among the books sold 
after his death by his widow were anno- 
tated copies of Goldoni and other Italian 
authors, along with odd volumes of Field- 
ing and Sterne. During the spring of 1770 
he and his wife and two other compatriots 
secured contiguous villas about two miles 
out of Leghorn, near Antignano, under the 
shadow of Monte Nero. The site, now occu- 

Iried by the Villa Gamba, upon one of the 
ower spurs of the mountain, commands a 
beautiful prospect over the sea. Smollett 
describes the situation in a letter to Caleb 
Whitefoord of 18 May 1770. Here, while 
tended with devotion by his wife, he gra- 
dually became weaker. He was visited by 
the friendly author of the ' Art of preserv- 
ing Health ' in the summer of 1770 (A Short 
Ramble through tome Parts of France and 
Italy, by Lancelot Temple [i.e. Dr. John 
Armstrong], London, 1771, pp. 51-2), and 
during the autumn he penned the bulk of 
the immortal 'Humphrey Clinker.' 

Horace Walpole stands almost alone as a 
detractor of ' Humphrey Clinker,' which he 
unwarrantably described as ' a party novel 
written by that profligate hireling Smollett 
to vindicate the Scots and cry down juries ' 
(Mem. of George III, iv. 328). From the 
first the work, which bears traces of Sterne's 
influence, was regarded as a rare example of 
a late maturity of literary power and fecun- 
dity of humour. The workmanship is un- 
equal, and the itinerary, which is largely 
autobiographic, is too often the means of 
introducing Smollett's contemptible views 
on aesthetic subjects; but as a whole the 
setting is worthy of the characters — the 
kindly but irascible Bramble, the desperate 
old maid Tabitha, the diverting Winifred 
Jenkins (direct progenitors of Mrs. Mala- 
prop), and ' the flower of the flock ' — the 
pedant Lismahago. The original of the last 
is said to have been a certain Major Robert 
Stobo, who drew up a curious ' Memorial ' 
in 1760 (reprinted Pittsburg, 1854 ; cf. Jour- 
nal of Lieut Simon Stevens, Boston, 1760); 
Scott, in drawing Sir Dugald Dalgetty, 
admits his direct debt to Smollett (Legend 
of Montrose, Introduction). 

Smollett had the satisfaction of seeing his 
masterpiece in print, but not of hearing the 
chorus of praise that greeted it. He wrote 
to his friend John Hunter in the spring of 
1771 : ' If I can prevail upon my wife to 
execute my last will, you shall receive my 

poor carcase in a box after I am dead to be 
placed among your rarities. I am already 
so dry and emaciated that I may pass for an 
Egyptian mummy without any other pre- 

S ration than some pitch and painted linen.' 
is last words were spoken to his wife, 'All 
is well, my dear/ and on 17 Sept. 1771 he 
died at the age of fifty-one. An interesting 
account of his last illness is given by the 
accomplished Italian physician, Giovanni 
Gentili (Gentili MSS. in Riccardian Library 
at Florence, codici 3280 sq., cited in Pera'e 
' Curiosita Livornesi,' p. 316). Gentili com- 
ments on his perfect attachment to his wife, 
and his ' temperamento molto collerico, ma 
riflessivo.' He assigns his death to the night 
of 17 Sept. He was buried two days after 
death (the Westminster Journal of 26 Oct. 
1771 contains the most circumstantial ac- 
count; the Evening Post of 17 Oct. 1771 says 
he died ' on 20 Sept. at Pisa ; ' cf. Scots Maga- 
zine for October 1771). His grave is in the old 
English cemetery in the Via degli Elisi at 
Leghorn (the only town in north Italy where 
protestants at that time had rights of burial), 
and the sea lies to the west of him, as of 
Fielding at Oporto. A Latin inscription 
(inaccurate as to dates) was written for his 
tombstone by Armstrong, and has recently 
been recut. Three years later a monument 
was erected by the novelist's cousin, Com- 
missary James Smollett, on the banks of the 
Leven — a tall Tuscan column, which still 
attracts the eye of tourists on their way be- 
tween the Clyde and Loch Lomond. The 
inscription was revised and in part written 
by Dr. Johnson, who visited Bonhill with 
Boswell in 1774 (Letters, ed. Hill, i. 286). 

In November 1775 Commissary Smollett 
died (Gent. Mag. 1775, p. 551), and the 
novelist, had he iived, would have come into 
the property, which passed to his sister, Jean 
Teller. On succeeding to the estate she re- 
sumed her maiden name, and during her occu- 
pation bleaching and other works sprang up 
in the vale of Leven, and there came into 
existence the prosperous village of Renton, 
named after the ' Miss [Cecilia] RTenton],' 
daughter of John Renton of Blackadder, who 
appears in ' Humphrey Clinker ' as one of the 
belles of Edinburgh. Cecilia subsequently 
married Jean Smollett's son, Alexander Tel- 
fer, and was mother of Lieut.-colonel Alex- 
ander Smollett, killed at the battle of Alk- 
maar in 1799. The latter was succeeded at 
Bonhill by his brother, Admiral John Rouett 
Smollett (d. 1842), father of Patrick Smol- 
lett (1804-1895). 

Smollett's widow continued to live at 
Leghorn, in receipt, it would appear, of a 
small pittance from the Bonhill family. In 




September 1782 she lost the small remnant 
of her property in a disastrous fire in Jamaica, 
and made a pathetic appeal to the charitable 
for assistance (London Chronicle, 14 Sept. ; 
cf. European Mag. November 1803). On 
3 March 1784 ' Venice Preserved ' was per- 
formed at the Edinburgh Theatre Royal for 
her benefit, and a sum of 366/. was remitted 
to her. She appears to have died soon after- 

In a brochure entitled ' Wonderful Pro- 
phecies/ issued twenty-four years after his 
death (London, 1795, 8vo, p. 65), Smollett 
was credited with some very remarkable 
predictions alleged to have been written in 
a letter addressed a few months before his 
death to a parson in Northumberland. ' The 
North American colonists/ he is said to have 
declared, ' republican to a man, will embrace 
the first fair opportunity entirely to shake 
off; ' and again : ' The present political state 
of France can hardly continue more than 
twenty years longer . . . and, come when it 
will, the change must be thorough, violent, 
and bloody/ But there is no means of test- 
ing the authenticity of this document, which 
must be regarded with suspicion. 

Smollett was placed in a very high rank 
by his contemporaries. Lady Wortley- 
Montagu praised her ' dear Smollett ' to all 
her friends (including Mrs. Delany and 
other pious people), Johnson commended his 
ability, Burke delighted in ' Roderick Ran- 
dom/ and Lydia Languish seems to have 
had an impartial affection for all his novels. 
Of later generations, Scott readily grants to 
him an equality with his great rival Fielding. 
Elia makes his imaginary aunt refer with a 
sigh of regret to the days when she thought 
it proper to read ' Peregrine Pickle/ Oblivious 
of Dickens, Leigh Hunt calls Smollett the 
finest of all caricaturists. Talfourd puts 
his Strap far above Fielding's Partridge, 
and Thackeray gives to * Clinker 1 the palm 
among laughable stories since the art of 
novel- writing was invented. More critical 
is the estimate of Hazlitt. Smollett, he says, 
portrays the eccentricities rather than the 
characters of human life, but no one has 

? raised so well the charm of 'Humphrey 
linker ' or the ' force and mastery ' of many 
episodes in ' Count Fathom. 1 Taine would 
appear to sympathise with Mr. Leslie 
Stephen in a much lower estimate of Smollett 
as the interpreter of the extravagant humours 
of 'ponderous well-fed masses of animated 
beefsteak.' Of the five great eighteenth- 
century novelists, Defoe, Richardson, Field- 
ing, Smollett, and Sterne, Smollett is now 
valued the least ; yet in the influence he has 
exercised upon successors he is approached 

by Sterne alone of his contemporaries. The 
tide of subsequent fictitious literature is 
strewn on every hand with the disjecta 
membra of ' Peregrine Pickle/ of ' Count 
Fathom/ and ' Humphrey Clinker/ Not 
only does Trunnion live again in Uncle 
Toby, in John Gilpin, in Captain Cuttle ; a 
similar immortality has overtaken whole 
scenes in the ' The Reprisal ' and numerous 
incidents in ' Count Fathom ; ' while Scott 
(especially in 'Guy Mannering'), Dibdin, 
Marry at (in ' The Three Cutters '), and Thacke- 
ray (in ' Barry Lyndon ' J owe scarcely less 
to Smollett in one direction or another than 
avowed disciples such as Charles Johnstone, 
the author of ' Chrysal/ or Charles Dickens, 
whose style is frequently reminiscent of his 
less gifted and less fortunate predecessor. 

Beneath a very surly exterior there was in 
Smollett a vein of rugged generosity and 
romantic feeling (cf. IntermSdiaire des Cher- 
cAeurs et Curieux, i. 364, an excellent ap- 
preciation}. His dominant mood is well 
expressed in his ' Ode to Independence/ pub- 
lished shortly after his death. He was es- 
sentially a difficult man, hugging his na- 
tionality, a 'proud, retiring, independent 
fellow/ far more disposed to cultivate the 
acquaintance of those he could serve than 
of those who could serve him. He was, as 
his physician says, ' un uomo di talento 
svegliato, sofferente gli acciacchi della vita 
umana, ma quasi misantropo.' He had a 
marked dislike for modish society. He hated 
ceremony of any kind, and characteristically 
compared Roman Catholicism to comedy, and 
Calvinism to tragedy. Of English writers 
who have any pretension to a place in the 
first rank, few, if any, are so consistently 
pagan. The religious point of view never 
occurred to him. He was no metaphysician, 
like Fielding, and the last word of his phi- 
losophy, as expressed in a letter to Garnck, 
was that the world was a sort of debtors' 
prison, in which ' we are all playthings of 
fortune. 1 As a stylist, he carried on the 
robust tradition of Swift and Defoe. Unlike 
the majority of his contemporaries, especially 
those who had crossed the Tweed, he had a 
thorough grasp of English idiom, and, as 
compared with Fielding, he is singularly free 
from archaisms and from conceits of every 
kind (cf. Hazlitt). His manuscript was 
very good and clear. Some interesting auto- 
biographical letters written by him to ad- 
mirers in America are printed in the ' Atlantic 
Monthly* (June 1859). Some of his auto- 
graphs are in the Morrison Collection and in 
the British Museum (Addit. MSS. 28275, 
30877), and many are preserved at Cameron 
House, Bonhill. 




The best extant portrait of Smollett is a 
half-length painted by Verelst in 1756, which 
belonged to Mrs. Smollett, and is now in 
possession of the family at Cameron House. 
This portrait was formerly in the posses- 
sion 01 Lord Woodhouselee, and depicts the 
novelist in 'full dress; a stone-coloured, 
full-mounted coat, with hanging sleeves ; a 
green satin waistcoat, trimmed with gold 
lace; a tye-wig; long ruffles and sword 
agreeably to the costume of the London 
pnysician of the time — size 4 ft. 4 in. high 
by 3ft. 4 in. wide' {Cat. ap. Irving's Dum- 
bartonshire). The best engraving is that by 
Freeman (1831). A portrait by Reynolds 
was engraved by Ravenet and by Rialey in 
1777, from an original then in the possession 
of D. Smith, which cannot now Be traced. 
An anonymous Italian portrait in oils, painted 
at Pisa about 1770 (and formerly in the 
possession of the novelist), belongs to the 
Rev. R. L. Douglas of Oxford. Chambers 
also mentions a rumour that Smollett was 
painted by Fuseli. As the editor of the 
* Briton/ Smollett during the spring of 1763 
was the object of several caricatures, in 
which he if* represented as the creature of 
Bute and persecutor of the patriot Wilkes (cf. 
Wright, Caricature History, pp. 270 seq.), 
and came in generally for much of the obloquy 
levelled against the Scots (see Stephens s 
Cat. of Satirical Prints, Nos. 3825, 3876 se<j.) 

The following is a list of Smollett's chief 
works: 1. 'Advice: a Satire [in verse]/ Lon- 
don, 1746, fol. 2. 'Reproof: a Satire [in 
verse]/ London, 1747, fol. These two satires 
were reprinted as 'Advice and Reproof/ 
London, 1748, 4to ; Glasgow, 1826, 12mo. 

3. ' The Adventures of Roderick Random/ 
2 vols. London, 1748, 12mo; 3rd edit. 1760; 
8th edit. 1770; 12th edit. 1784, with a life 
[1793], 12mo; 1831, in Roscoe's ' Novelist's 
Library' (ii.), with illustrations by Cruik- 
shank ; Leipzig, 1845 (Tauchnitz) ; 1857 
(with memoir by G. H. Townsend) ; 1836, 
and frequently reprinted in the sixpenny 
4 Railway Library. ' Roderick Random de 
l'Anglais de M. Fielding' appeared in 1761, 
Paris, 12mo, and also at Amsterdam (1762), 
Lausanne (1782), Reims and Geneva (1782). 

4. ' The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle/ in 
which is included ' Memoirs of a Lady of 
Quality/ 4 vols. London, 1751, 12mo; 2nd 
edit. 1751; 5th edit. 1773; 7th edit. 1784; 
Edinburgh, 4 vols. 8vo, 1805, with plates bv 
Rowlandson; 1831, in Roscoe's 'Novelists 
Library' (iii.), with Cruikshank's plates; 
London, 1857, 8vo, illustrated by 'Phiz;' 
London, 2 vols. 1882 (* Sixpenny Novels') ; 
' Aventures de Sir William Pickle/ Amster- 
dam, 1753; a German version was issued 

in 1785. 5. ' The Adventures of Ferdinand 
Count Fathom/ 2 vols. London, 1753, 12mo ; 
2nd edit. 1771, 1780; London, 2 vols. 8vo, 
1782 [1795], 12mo. A French translation 
by T. P. Bertin appeared at Paris, 'an vi ' 
[1798], 12mo. 6. ' A Compendium of Authen- 
tic and Entertaining Voyages, digested in a 
Chronological Series/ 7 vols. London, 1756, 
12mo ; 2nd edit. London, 1766, 12mo. 7. ' A 
Compleat History of England, deduced from 
the Descent of Julius Caesar to the Treaty 
of Aix-la-Chapelle, 1748, containing the 
Transactions of one thousand eight hundred 
and three years/ 4 vols. London, 1757-8, 
4to; 2nd edit. 11 vols. London, 1758-60, 
8vo ; French version by Targe, Orleans, 1759. 
8. ' Continuation of the Complete History of 
England/ 5 vols. London, 1763-5, 8vo ; 2nd 
edit. 11 vols. London, 1758-60. This was 
modified, and re-entitled 'The History of 
England from the Revolution to the Death 
of George II (designed as a continuation of 
Mr. Hume's History)/ in which form it went 
through numerous editions, and was in turn 
continued by Thomas Smart Hughes [q. v.] ; 
a French version is dated Paris, 1819-22. 
9. ' The Adventures of Sir Launcelot Greaves, 
by the Author of " Roderick Random," ' 2 vols. 
London, 1762, 12mo ; 5th edit. 2 vols. Lon- 
don, 1782, 8vo ; 1810, 24mo ; 1832, in Roscoe's 
' Novelist's Library' (x.), with Cruikshank's 
plates; French translation, Paris, 1824. 

10. 'The Present State of all Nations, con- 
taining a Geographical, Natural, Commercial, 
and Political History of all the Countries in 
the known World/8 vols. London, 1764, 8vo ; 
another edition, 8 vols. London, 1768-9. 

11. 'Travels through France and Italy, 
2 vols. London, 1 766, 8 vo (the British Museum 
copy contains some manuscript notes by the 
author); 2nd edit. 2 vols. Dublin, 1772, 
12mo; another edit. 2 vols. London, 1778, 
12mo. 12. ' The History and Adventures of 
an Atom/ by Nathaniel Peacock [i.e. T.S.I, 
2 vols. London, 1749 [17691 12mo ; 10th 
edit. 2 vols. London, 1778 ; Edinburgh, 1784, 
1 2mo ; London, 1 786, 8 vo. 1 3. ' The Expedi- 
tion of Humphrey Clinker, by the Author of 
"Roderick Random/" 3 vols. London, 1671 
[1771], 12mo (the second and third volumes 
are correctly dated); 1772, 8vo; 2 vols. 
Dublin, 1774 ; Edinburgh, 1788, 8vo ; 3 vols. 
London, 1792, 8vo; 2 vols. [1794], 12mo ; 
2 vols. London, 1805, 8vo, with ten plates 
after Rowlandson ; 1808, 12mo ; 2 vols. 1810, 
12mo; London, 1815, 24mo; 1831, 12mo, in 
Roscoe's * Novelist's Library ' (i.), with Cruik- 
shank's plates; Leipzig, 1846, 16mo (Tauch- 
nitz) ; London, 1857, 8vo, with illustrations 
by ' Phiz ; ' London, 1882, 8vo ; French trans- 
lation, Paris, 1826, 12mo. 14. (Posthumous) 




4 Ode to Independence, with Notes and 
Observations/ Glasgow, 1773, 4to ; London, 
1773, 4to; Glasgow [1800], 12mo. 

In addition to his version of i Don Quixote/ 
Smollett executed the standard translation 
of Le Sage's 'Adventures of Gil Bias of 
Santillane . . . from the best French edition/ 
4 vols. London, 1749, 12mo (4th edit. 1773, 
and very numerous subsequent editions) ; in 
conjunction with Thomas Francklin [q. v 
he also superintended the translation ot ' The 
Works of M. de Voltaire. . .with Notes 
Historical and Critical/ in 38 vols. London, 
1761-74, 12mo (2nd edit. 1778) ; and five 
years after his death there was issued in his 
name a translation of Fenelon's ' Adventures 
of Telemachus/ 2 vols. London, 1776, 12mo 
(Dublin, 1793, 12mo). 

Collective editions of Smollett's works were 
issued in 6 vols. Edinburgh, 1790, 8vo, 
with a short account of the author (reprinted 
in 6 vols. 1809, 8vo); in 6 vols. London, 
1796, 8vo, with * Memoirs of Smollett's Life 
and Writings, by R. Anderson* (seven edi- 
tions^ ; l Works, with Memoirs of Life, to 
whicn is prefixed a View of the Commence- 
ment and Progress of Romance by J. Moore/ 
8 vols. London, 1797, 8vo (a reissue edited 
by J. P. Browne, in 8 vols. London, 1872, 
8vo, constitutes the best library edition); 
'. Miscellaneous Works/ complete in one 
volume, with ' Memoir ' by Thomas Roscoe, 
London, 1841, 8vo ; ' Works/ illustrated by 
George Cruikshank, London, 1845, 8vo ; 
' Works . . . with Historical Notes and a 
Life by David Herbert/ Edinburgh, 1870 
[1869], 8vo; 'Works' (i.e. prose novels), 
edited by G. Saintsbury and illustrated by 
Frank Richards, 12 vols. London, 1895. 

The novels were issued separately, with a 
Memoir by Sir Walter Scott ('Novelist's 
Library/ ii. iii.), London, 1821, 8vo. Se- 
lections were issued in 1772, 1775, and 1832, 
and in 1834 as 'The Beauties of Smollett/ 
edited by A. Howard, London, 8vo. The 
4 Plays and Poems' appeared with a memoir 
in 1777, 8vo, while the 'Poetical Works' 
are included in the collections of Anderson 
(x.), Park (xli.), Chalmers (xv.), 'British 
Poets' (xxxiii.), with life by S. W. Singer, 
1822; in conjunction with the poems of 
Johnson, Parnell, and Gray, edited by Gil- 
fillan, 1855; another edition edited by C. C. 
Clarke, 1878, and together with the poems 
of Goldsmith, Johnson, and Shenstone, 

[Lives of Smollett are numerous. A memoir 
was prefixed to an edition of his works in 1797 
by Dr. John Moore (Zeluco), and this is to some 
extent the basis of all subsequent biographies. 
Another life by Dr. Robert Anderson was pre- 

fixed to the edition of 1796, but, though earlier 
in date, this is mainly a secondhand dissertation 
upon the novelist's character ; to the fifth edition 
( 1 806) there is an interesting Appendix of Letters 
to Smollett from Robertson, Hume, Boswell, 
Armstrong, and others. A shrewd and sympa- 
thetic biography was prefixed by Scott to his 
edition of the Poems in 1821, and a more de- 
tailed memoir by Thomas Roscoe to the Works 
in one volume issued in 1 84 1 . Far more valuable 
than any of its predecessors in point of research 
is ' Smollett : his Life and a Selection from his 
Writings,' published by Robert Chambers in 
1867. This was followed by a careful memoir 
by David Herbert for the Selected Works, Edin- 
burgh, 1870. A Life by Mr. David Hannay (valu- 
able especially for the naval bearings of Smollett's 
career) is included in the Great Writers Series, 
1887 (with useful bibliography by Mr. J. P.An- 
derson). Prefixed to the 1 895 edition of the novels 
is a life by Professor Saintsbury (with an in- 
teresting development of Scott's parallel between 
Fielding and Smollett), and a life by Mr. Oli- 
phant Smeaton appeared in the Famous Scots 
Series, 1897. There are good notices in the 
Encyclopaedia Britannica (by Professor Minto) 
and English Cyclopaedia; but of more value 
perhaps than any of these is the admirable 
summary of facts and opinions in the Quarterly 
Review (vol. ciii.), though this must be corrected 
as regards some genealogical details by Joseph 
Irving's Book of Dumbartonshire, 1879, i. 290, 
ii. 175 seq. The writer is indebted to the Rev. 
R. L. Douglas for some interesting notes upon 
the place and circumstances of the novelist's 
death. See also Macleod's Hist, of Dumbarton, 
p. 167 ; Dr. A. Carlyle's Autobiogr. passim ; 
Anderson's Scottish Nation, iii. 483; Nichols's 
Literary Anecd. i. 302, iii. 346, 398, 759, vi. 459, 
viii. 229, 412, 497, ix. 261, 480; Literary Illus- 
trations, v. 776, vii. 228, 268; Gent. Mag. 1771 
p. 349, 1799 ii. 817, 899, 1810 i. 597, 1846 ii. 
347; Fasti Aberdonenses, p. 374; Duncan's 
Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow, 
1896, p. 120 ; Wilkes's Correspondence, i. 50 (on 
Smollett's alleged duplicity towards Wilkes) ; 
Churchill's Works, 18fc2, i. 61, 65, 68, 74, 106, 
ii. 6, 10, 61 ; Grenville Papers, i. 415 ; Walpole's 
Correspondence, ed. Cunningham, ii. 242, 285, 
341, v. 231 ; Walpole's Hist, of the Reign of 
George III, ed. Barker ; Warburton's Horace 
Walpole and his Contemporaries, i. 393 ; Lady 
Mary Wortley-Montagu's Letters, 1837, iii. 106, 
199 ; Mrs. Delany's Life and Correspondence, ii. 
6, 7, iii. 34, 162, 216, 223; Da view's Garrick, 
1780; Boswell's Life of Johnson, ed. Birkbeck 
Hill, passim ; Andrew Henderson's Second Letter 
to Dr. Johnson, 1775 (containing a coarse lam- 
poon on Smollett) ; Memoirs of Lord Karnes, i. 
226, 447 ; Mathias's Pursuits of Literature, i. 
26 ; Mahoo's Hist, of Eogland, vii. 325 ; Pope's 
Works, ed. Elwin, iii. 268, 468; Morrison's 
Autographs, vi. 1 4 6 (facsi mi le letter to Dr. George 
Macaulay requesting a loan) ; Brougham's Men 
of Letters under George III, 1855, p. 246 w. ; 




Genest's Hist, of Stage, iv. 479, x. 176 ; Baker's 
Biogr. Dramatics, 1812, i. 677-9 (attributing to 
Smollett, without authority, a posthumous farce, 
•The Israelites,' 1785); Wadd's Nugae Chirur- 
gicse, p. 259 ; John Taylor's Records of my Life, 
p. 409 ; Laurence's Life of Fielding, 1855. pp. 
308-11 ; Glaister's Dr. William Smeilie and his 
Contemporaries, 1894, pp. 111-18; Burton's 
Hume, ii. 63 ; Hume's Letters to Strahan, ed. 
Hill, 1888, pp.38, 66, 229, 258, 281; Allar- 
dyce's Scotland in the Eighteenth Century, i. 31 1 ; 
Chambers's Traditions of Old Edinburgh, p. 217 ; 
Forster's Life of Goldsmith, passim ; Knight's 
Shadows of the Old Booksellers, pp. 222-3; 
Babeau's Les Voyageurs en France. 1 886 : ' Un 
Anglais de mauraise humeur,' pp. 2 1 3-34 ; Thick- 
nesse's Correspondence ; Stephens's Life of Home 
Tooke, i. 356 ; A. Fraser-Tytler s (Lord Wood- 
hoaselee's) Essay on Translation, 1813, pp. 242, 
266; Leigh Hunt's Table-Talk, 1870, p. 40; 
Hazlitt's Selections, ed. Ireland, pp. 159 seq. ; 
Masson's British Novelists, 1859 ; Disraeli's Mis- 
cellanies of Literature, p. 54 (a sad picture of 
his suffering) ; Thackeray's English Humourists ; 
Fox Bourne's Hist, of Newspapers, i. 154 seq. ; 
Stephen's English Thought in the Eighteenth 
Century, bk.xii. pp. 42-56, 68, 71 ; Taine's English 
Literature, ii. 176-9; Wright's Caricature Hist, 
pp. 271-4; Tuckerman's Hist, of English Fic- 
tion, pp. 211-17 ; Forsyth's Novels and Novelists, 
1871, pp. 279-304; Craik's English Prose Se- 
lections, \v. 257-69 ; Querard's France Litteraire, 
ix. 198; Ticknor's Hist, of Spanish Lit. 1888, 
iii. 513-14 ; Beaver's Memorials of Old Chelsea, 
1892, pp. 90-2 ; Faulkner's Chelseo,pp. 266-72 ; 
Martin's Old Chelsea, 1888, pp. 138-42; Wheat- 
ley and Cunningham's London, i. 380, 439, 520 ; 
Hutton's Literary Landmarks, pp. 280-2 ; 
Groome's Ordnance Gazetteer of Scotland, p.v. 
'Bonhill ; ' Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. iii. 326, 
3rd ser. i. 232, viii. 393, xi. 491, 5th ser. i. 384. 
6th ser. i. 330, xi. 487, xii. 349, 7th ser. i. 178, 
▼. 58, ix. 408, xii. 205, 333; The Portfolio, 
Philadelphia, November 1811 (a comparison of 
Sterne, Fielding, and Smollett); Macmillan's 
Mag. xxi. 527 (an account of his doings on the 
Riviera, and a testimony to his accuracy in matters 
of detail) ; Atlantic Monthly, iii. 693 ; New York 
Nation, 30 May 1889.] T. S. 

SMYTH. [See also Smith and Smtthe.] 

SMYTH, EDWARD (1749-1812), sculp- 
tor, born in co. Meath in 1749, was son 
of a stonecutter who went to Dublin about 
1760. The younger Smyth was appren- 
ticed to Simon Vierpyl (whose name is 
sometimes incorrectly given as Verpyle), a 
sculptor, of Bachelor's Walk, Dublin, and 
was afterwards employed in mantelpiece 
work by Henry Darley, a master stone- 
cutter. Here he attracted the notice of 
James Oandon [q. v.], who engaged him to 
execute the sculpture for the custom-house, 
then in course of erection. Gandon thought 

Smyth the best artist Ireland had produced, 
and considered his talent remarkable in one 
who had never been out of the country. 
Smyth executed, besides nearly all the figures 
on the custom-house, the statues of Justice, 
Wisdom, and Liberty, over the eastern por- 
tico of the Irish parliament-house, and later 
on the figures over the southern portico of 
the building. As early as 1772 he exhibited 
in Dublin a model of the statue of Dr. Charles- 
Lucas [q. v.], now in the Royal Exchange of 
that city, and among his other works were 
the statues of Faith, Hope, and Charity in 
the Castle chapel, and the busts of the tour 
evangelists for the same building, the bas- 
reliefs over the entrance to the Four Courts, 
and all the sculptures on the Inns of Court. 
He also executed the statue of St. Andrew 
on the portico of St. Andrew's Church in 
Dublin, and the heads on the keystones of 
the arches of Carlisle (now O'Connell) 
Bridge. His wax models of figures personi- 
fying the twelve most important rivers of 
Ireland were exhibited in 1800-2, and won 
high praise. They are now in the possession 
of the Royal Hibernian Academy. Smyth 
died in 1812. A portrait of him by an anony- 
mous artist was sold at the Whaley sale in 
Dublin, 1848. 

Of Edward Smyth's manv children John* 
Smyth (1775 ?-l 834 ?), sculptor, born in Dub- 
lin about 1775, studied under his father. 
Many of his works in Dublin have merit, 
particularly the statues of Hibernia, Mercury f 
and Fidelity over the portico of the General 
Post Office (1817); the statues of ^Escula- 
pius, Minerva, and Hygeia on the Royal Col- 
lege of Surgeons (the royal arms of which 
were also sculptured by him) ; and the monu- 
ment of George Ogle (1742-1814) [q. v.] in 
St. Patrick's Cathedral. He also designed 
the monument of Archbishop Arthur Smythe 
in that edifice, and executed some of the 
sculptural work in the south transept, and 
two busts by him of Irish surgeons are 
in the Royal College of Surgeons, Dub- 
lin. John Smyth was an associate of the 
Royal Hibernian Academy, and died about 

[Gilbert's Hist, of Dublin; Mulranv's Life of 
Gandon ; Pasqu in's Artists of Ireland ; Dublin 
Monthly Mag. for 1842 ; Dublin Directories, 
1760-1834 ; Cat. of Exhibitions of Pictures in 
Dublin (deposited in Royal Hibernian Academy 
and Royal Irish Academy).] D. J. O'D. 


(1741-1821), medical writer, only son of 
Thomas Carmichael of Balmadie and Mar- 
garet Smyth of Athenry, was born in Fife- 
shire in 1741. He assumed the name and 




arms of Smyth in addition to his own. 
After studying for six years at Edinburgh 
University, he graduated as M.D. in 1764, 
taking for his thesis ' De Paralysi,' and in- 
troducing into it a short history of medical 
electricity. He then visited France, Italy, 
and Holland. In 1768 he settled in London, 
and received the appointment of physician 
to the Middlesex Hospital. He engaged in 
experiments with nitrous-acid gas for preven- 
tion of contagion in cases of fever, these ex- 
periments being continued at the request of 
the government on board the Spanish prison- 
ship at Winchester, where an epidemic pre- 
vailed. In 1802, for his services in this 
respect, parliament voted him a reward of 
6,000/. His claim to the merit of the dis- 
covery was disputed by Dr. James John- 
stone of Kidderminster, for his father, and 
by M. Chaptal, a Frenchman, for Guyton- 
Morveau ; but, after a keen controversy, 
Smyth's claims were upheld. He subse- 
quently went to the south of France for his 
health, and on his return settled at Sunbury. 
He was elected fellow of the Royal Society 
in May 1779 (Thomson, Hist, of Royal Soc. 
App. p. lvii), and was also a fellow of the 
Royal College of Physicians, and physician- 
extraordinary to George III. He died on 
18 June 1821. In 1775 he married Mary, 
only child and heiress of Thomas Holyland 
of Bromley, Kent, and had by her eight sons 
and two daughters. His eldest son was 
General Sir James Carmichael Smyth (1779- 
1838) fq. v.] His eldest daughter, Maria, 
married, in 1800, Dr. Alexander Monro 
' tertius ' [q. v.] 

Smyth was the author of a large number 
of medical treatises illustrative of nis experi- 
ments. Among them were : 1. l An Account 
of the Effects of Swinging, employed as a 
remedy in Pulmonary Consumption/ Lon- 
don, 1787, 8vo. 2. ' A Description of the Jail 
Distemper, as it appeared among the Spanish 
Prisoners at Winchester in 1780/ London, 

1795, 8vo. 3. < An Account of the Experi- 
ments made on board the Union Hospital 
Ship to determine the Effect of the Nitrous 
Acid in destroying Contagion/ London, 

1796, 8yo. 4. 'The Effect of the Nitrous 
Vapour in preventing and destroying Con- 
tagion/ London, 1799, 8vo. 5. ' Letter to 
"William Wilberforce ' [on Dr. Johnstone's 
claim], 1805, London, 8vo. 6. 'Remarks 
on a Report of M. Chaptal/ 1805, London, 
8vo. 7. 'A Treatise on Hydrocephalus/ 
1814, London, 8vo. Smyth also edited the 
'Works of the late Dr. William Stark/ 
1788, London, 4to. 

[Gent. Mag. 1821 , ii. 88-9 ; Anderson's Scottish 
Nation.] G. S-h. 

baronet (1779-1888), military engineer, and 

fovernor of British Guiana, eldest son of 
ames Carmichael Smyth [q. v.], was born in 
London on 22 Feb. 1779. He was educated 
at the Charterhouse school, and entered the 
Royal Military Academy at Woolwich on 
1 March 1793. He received a commission as 
second lieutenant in the royal artillery on 
20 Nov. 1794, and was transferred to the 
royal engineers on 13 March 1795. 

In May 1795 Smyth was sent to Ports- 
mouth, and in April of the following year to 
the Cape of Good Hope, where he arrived in 
June. He served under Generals Craig and 
Doyle in the operations that year against 
the Dutch. He was promoted to be lieu- 
tenant on 8 March 1797. He took part 
under Generals Dundas and Vandeleur in 
the operations 1798 to 1800. After a visit 
to England, 1800-1, he was promoted to be 
second captain on 1 July 1802. On the re- 
storation of Cape Colony to the Dutch in 
1803, Smyth returned to England. In Oc- 
tober 1805 he joined Sir David Baird's ex- 
pedition to the Cape of Good Hope as com- 
manding royal engineer. He arrived on 
4 Jan. 1§06. At Smyth's suggestion a land- 
ing was effected on the beach near Blaauwberg 
on the 7th. Smyth was detached on board 
the sloop Espoir to Saldanha Bay, and was, 
to Baird's regret, absent from the battle of 
Blaauwberg (8 Jan.) On the surrender of 
Capetown, Baird appointed Smyth acting 
colonial secretary in addition to his military 
duties. He was promoted to be first captain 
on 1 July 1806, and was employed in 
strengthening and repairing the defences of 
Table Bay and Simon's Bay. He relinquished 
the appointment of colonial secretary on 
the arrival in May 1807 of the Earl of Cale- 
don as governor with a complete staff, and 
returned to England in September 1808. In 
the following winter he was with Sir John 
Moore at Corufia, returning with the remnant 
of the army to England in February. In 
April he constructed Leith Fort, and on 
20 Oct. 1813 was promoted lieutenant- 

In December of the same year he joined 
the expedition to Holland under his relative, 
General Sir Thomas Graham (afterwards 
Lord Lynedoch) [q. v.], as commanding 
royal engineer. He landed the same month 
with Graham at Zeyrick Zee, and head- 
quarters were established at Tolen. He was 
engaged in the action of Merxem on 13 Jan. 
1814, and the subsequent bombardment of 
Antwerp early in February. Having care- 
fully reconnoitred the fortress of Bergen-op- 
Zoom, Smyth advised its assault, which 


1 86 


took place on 8 March 1814, when he ac- 
companied the central column. Although 
the assault was successful, owing to incon- 
ceivable blunders the British retreated at 
daybreak. Hostilities having terminated and 
the French troops having withdrawn, Smyth 
on 5 May took over the fortress of Antwerp 
and all the defences of the Scheldt, and was 
afterwards busily engaged in the reconstruc- 
tion and strengthening of all the important 
fortresses evacuated by the French. He ac- 
companied the Duke of Wellington and the 
Prince of Orange on several tours of inspec- 
tion of the works, upon which he had about 
ten thousand labourers employed under a 
large staff of engineer officers. Early in 181 5 
Smyth accompanied the Prince of Orange to 
London, but on 6 March, Napoleon having 
escaped from Elba, Smyth again joined the 
headquarters of the English army at Brus- 
sels as commanding royal engineer. Dur- 
ing April and May, under the immediate 
instructions of the Duke of Wellington, he 
placed the defences of the Netherlands in as 
efficient a state as possible against the ex- 
pected invasion of theFrench, which occurred 
on 15 June. At the battles of Quatre Bras 
and Waterloo Smyth served on Wellington's 
staff, and on 7 July entered Paris with him. 
Smyth was promoted on 29 June 1816 to be 
colonel in the army and aide-de-camp to the 
prince regent. He was also made a com- 
panion of the Bath, and received the orders 
of knighthood of Maria Theresa and fourth 
class of St. Vladimir from the emperors of 
Austria and Russia respectively. He re- 
mained in command of the royal engineers 
at Cambrai until December 1815, and was 
then placed on half-pay. 

On 25 Aug. 1821, on Wellington's recom- 
mendation, Smyth was created a baronet. In 
1823, in company with Lord Lynedoch, he 
made a military tour of inspection of the 
fortresses of the Low Countries, and in Octo- 
ber he was sent to the West Indies to report 
on the military defences and engineering 
establishments and military requirements of 
the British possessions there. He arrived 
with his colleagues at Barbados on 27 Nov., 
and visited Berbice and Georgetown in 
Demerara, Tobago, Trinidad, Grenada, St. 
Vincent, St. Lucia, Dominica, Antigua, and 
St. Kitts. Their report was dated 20 Jan. 

In the spring of 1825 Wellington selected 
Smyth to proceed to Canada on a similar 
service. He embarked on 16 April and 
returned on 7 Oct. 1825. Smyth wrote a 
very able report upon the defence of the 
Canadian frontier, dated 31 March 1826. In 
the meantime, on 27 May 1825, he was pro- 

moted to be major-general, and on 29 July 
following he became a regimental colonel. 
In July 1828 he was sent to Ireland on 
special service to report upon the state of 
the Irish survey, returning in September. 
With this report his career as a military 
engineer closed. 

On 8 May 1829 Smyth was appointed 

§)vernor and commander-in-chief of the 
ahama Islands, and before his departure 
George I Vconferred on him the order of knight 
commander of Hanover, in recognition of the 
Hanoverian engineers having been placed 
under his command in the last campaign in 
the Netherlands. After four years' success- 
ful administration of the government of the 
Bahamas, where he abolished the flogging 
of female slaves, Smyth was removed to the 
more important government of Brit ish Guiana 
in June 1833. He arrived at Georgetown, 
Demerara, the seat of government, a short 
time before the emancipation of slaves, when 
much depended upon the character and ability 
of the governor. Unmoved by the reckless 
hostility of a section of the planters, Smyth 
by a firm, impartial, and vigorous government 
secured the confidence of the negroes. He 
brought his personal supervision to bear so 
closely on every department in his government 
that, as he himself observed, he could sleep 
satisfied that no person in the colony could be 
punished without his knowledge and sanc- 
tion. Smyth died suddenly at Camp House, 
Georgetown, Demerara, of brain fever, after 
four days' illness, on 4 March 1838, es- 
teemed and regretted by all classes of the 
community. Lord Glenelg, the minister for 
the colonies, wrote a warm eulogy of him 
in a despatch to the officer administering 
the government. 

Smyth married, on 28 May 1816, Harriet, 
the only child of General Robert Morse 
[q. v.] of the royal engineers, and by her left 
an only son, James Robert Carmichael 
(1817-1883), who on 25 Feb. 1841, by royal 
license, dropped the name of Smyth and 
resumed the family name of Carmichael 
alone. The same year he married Louisa 
Charlotte, daughter of Sir Thomas Butler, 
bart. He was chairman of the first sub- 
marine telegraph company, and died on 
7 June 1883, at his residence, 12 Sussex 
Place, London ; his son, James Morse Car- 
michael (b. 1844) is the present baronet. 

There is a bust, by Chantrey, of Car- 
michael Smyth in the cathedral church of 
Georgetownj Demerara ; and a replica, also 
by Chantrey, in the town-hall of Berbice, 
with inscription. They were placed there 
by public subscription. Smyth's portrait was, 
painted by E. II. Latilla and engraved by 




Hodgett8(8ee Evans, Catalogue of Engraved 
Portraits, vol. ii.) 

Smyth was the author of: 1. ' Instructions 
and Standing Orders for the Royal Engineer 
Department serving with the Army on the 
Continent/ 8vo, London, 1815. 2. * Flans 
of the Attacks upon Antwerp, Bergen-op- 
Zoom, Cambray, Peronne, Maubeuge, Lan- 
drecy, Marienbourg,Phillipville,and Rocroy, 
by the British and Prussian Armies in 1814- 
1815, with Explanatory Remarks, dedicated 
to the Duke of Wellington/ fol. Cambrai, 
1817. 8. * Questions and Answers relative to 
the Duties of the Non-commissioned Officers 
and Men of the Royal Sappers and Miners/ 
8vo, Cambrai, 1817. 4. * Chronological Epi- 
tome of the Wars in the Low Countries from 
the Peace of the Pyrenees in 1659 to that of 
Paris in 1815, with Reflections, Military and 
Political/ 8vo, London, 1825. 5. ' Pr6cis of 
the Wars in Canada from 1755 to the Treaty 
of Ghent in 1814, with Military and Politi- 
cal Reflections/ 8vo, London, 1826 (printed 
for official use only) ; a second edition, edited 
by his son, with a memoir of the author, was 
published, 8 vo, London 1862. 6.* Reflec- 
tions upon the Value of the British West 
Indian Colonies and of the British North 
American Provinces in 1825/ 8vo, London, 
1826. 7. ' Memoir upon the Topographical 
System of Colonel van Gorkeran, with Re- 
marks and Reflections upon various other 
Methods of representing Ground, addressed 
to Lieu tenant-General Sir Herbert Taylor, 
Surveyor-General of H. M. Ordnance/ 8vo, 
London, 1828. 8. 'Letter to a Member of 
the Bahamas Assembly upon the subject of 
Flogging Female Slaves/ pamphlet, 8vo, 
Nassau, Bahamas, 1831. 

[Despatches; Royal Engineers' Records; Royal 
Artillery Records ; War Office Records ; Ander- 
son's Scottish Nation ; Gent. Mag. 1838, ii. 112; 
Ann. Reg. 1838 ; Porter's History of the Corps 
of Royal Engineers ; Conolly's History of the 
Royal Sappers and Miners; Sperling's Letters 
of an Officer . . . from the British Army in Hol- 
land, Belgium, and France, to his Father; Me- 
moir in preface to 1862 edition of Precis of the 
Wars in Canada; Demerary, Transition de 
l'Escluvage a la Libert e, par Felix Milliroux, 
1843.] R. H. V. 

1873), lieutenant-general, was fifth son of 
Grice Smyth of Ballynatray, co. Waterford, 
by Mary, daughter and coheiress of H. 
Mitchell of Mitchellsfort, co. Cork. He was 
educated at Trinity College, Dublin, and 
was commissioned as cornet in the 16th 
lancers on 5 July 1821. He was promoted 
lieutenant on 26 May 1826, and in the fol- 
lowing year was present at the capture of 

Bhartpur (18 Jan.) On 22 April he was 
made captain on the half-pay list, from 
which he exchanged to the 82nd foot on 
29 Nov. 1827. After ten years' service in 
that regiment, mostly in Canada, he returned 
to half-pay on 6 April 1888, and exchanged 
from it to the 6th dragoon guards (Carabiniers) 
on 10 May 1839. 

On 17 Aug. 1841 he obtained a half-pay 
majority, and on 6 May 1842 he returned to 
his old regiment, the 16th lancers. He 
served with it in the Gwalior campaign of 
1843, commanding the advanced wing of 
cavalry at Maharajpur, and in the Sutlej 
campaign of 1846, (during which he was in 
command of the regiment. It greatly dis- 
tinguished itself at Aliwal by routing the 
Sikh cavalry and breaking up a square of 
infantry, Smyth being severely wounded 
while leading it. He was mentioned in 
despatches, and was made brevet lieutenant- 
colonel and C.B. He received the medal 
and clasp for this campaign, having already 
received the medal and clasp for Bhartpur 
and the bronze star for Maharajpur. 

Smyth was lieutenant-colonel of the 16th 
lancers from 10 Dec. 1847 till 2 Nov. 1855, 
when he exchanged to half-pay. He had 
been given one of the rewards for distin- 
guished service on 1 June 1854, and had 
been made colonel in the army on 20 June. 
He became major-general on 22 Dec. 1860, 
and lieutenant-general on 1 April 1870, and 
was given the colonelcy of the 6th dragoon 
guards on 21 Jan. 1868. 

Smyth died at Kensington on 14 May 
1873. He married Catherine, daughter of 
the first Lord Tenterden, and had one daugh- 
ter, who married the fourth Lord Tenterden. 

[Ti mes, 1 7 May 1873; Burke's Landed Gentry ; 
Despatches of Lord Hardinge, Lord Gough,&c, 
p. 79.] E. M. L. 

1851), engraver, was born in Edinburgh 
about 1819, and, after studying for a time at 
the Trustees* Academy there, devoted him- 
self to line engraving. Though practically 
self-taught in this art, he was eventually 
able to produce plates of great merit. His 
earliest published works were 'A Child's 
Head ' after Sir J. Watson Gordon, and ' The 
Stirrup Cup ' after Sir William Allan. In 
1838 he removed to Glasgow, but, after re- 
siding there a few years, returned to Edin- 
burgh, where he worked with extreme indus- 
try during the remainder of his life. Smyth en- 
graved for the London ' Art Journal' Wilkie's 
* John Knox dispensing the Sacrament/ Ary 
Scheffer's ' The Comforter/ Mulready's 'The 
Last in/ and Allan's 'Banditti dividing 




Spoil.' He was engaged upon a plate from 
Ijaed's ' First Step "when he died at Edin- 
burgh on 18 May 1851, at the age of thirty- 

[Art Journal, 1851; Redgrave's Diet, of 
Artists.] F. M. OD. 

SMYTH, Sib LEICESTER (1829-1891), 
general, born on 25 Oct. 1829, was seventh 
son of Richard William Penn Curzon, after- 
wards Curzon-Howe, first earl Howe, by his 
first wife, Harriet, daughter of Robert, sixth 
earl of Cardigan. He was educated at Eton, 
and obtained a commission as second lieu- 
tenant in the rifle brigade on 29 Nov. 1845. 
He joined the reserve battalion at Quebec 
in 1846 ; became lieutenant on 12 Nov. 1847 ; 
returned to England, and went out with the 
first battalion to the Cape in January 1852. 
He served in the Kaffir war of that year, 
andgreatly distinguished himself in the action 
of Berea on 20 Dec. He commanded one 
of two companies which mounted almost in- 
accessible heights under fire, and drove a 
large force of fiasutos before them. He was 
highly praised in despatches by Sir G. Cath- 
cart, and received the medal. 

On 23 Feb. 1854 he was appointed aide- 
de-camp to Lord Raglan, accompanied him 
to Turkey and the Crimea, and was present 
at Alma and Inkerman, and throughout the 
siege of Sebastopol [see Somerset, Fitzroy 
James Henry]. He was assistant mili- 
tary secretary from 7 Oct. 1854 to 11 Nov. 
1855, first under Lord Raglan, and after- 
wards under General Simpson. He became 
captain in his corps on 22 Dec. 1854, was made 
brevet major on 17 July 1855, and brevet 
lieutenant-colonel from 8 Sept., having taken 
home the despatches announcing the fall of 
Sebastopol. He continued to serve in the 
Crimea as aide-de-camp to General Codring- 
ton till 30 June 1856. He received the 
Crimean medal with three clasps, the Sar- 
dinian and Turkish medals, the legion of 
honour (fifth class), and the Medjidie (fifth 

Smyth was assistant military secretary in 
the Ionian Islands from 23 Nov. 1856 to 
23 Aug. 1861. He then rejoined the 1st 
battalion of the rifle brigade, in which he 
had become major on 30 April, and served 
with it at Malta and Gibraltar till 4 Aug. 
1865, when he went on half-pay. He had 
become colonel in the army on 9 Feb. 1861. 
On 12 Feb. 1866 he married Alicia Maria, 
eldest daughter and heiress of Robert Smyth, 
J.P. of Drumcree, co. Westmeath, and in the 
following November he took the surname of 
Smyth. He was made C.B. on 13 May 1867. 
He was military secretary at headquarters 

in Ireland from 1 July 1865 to 30 June 1870, 
and deputy quartermaster-general there from 
17 July 1872 to 26 Feb. 1874. 

On 7 Feb. 1874 he became major-general 
(being afterwards antedated to 6 March 
1868), and on 13 Feb. 1878 lieutenant- 
general. He had the command of the 
troops in the western district from 2 April 
1877 to 31 March 1880, and at the Cape 
from 10 Nov. 1880 to 9 Nov. 1885. During 
part of this time (in 1882-3) he administered 
the government and acted as high com- 
missioner for South Africa. He was made 
K.C.M.G. on 1 Feb. 1884, and K.C.B. on 
16 Jan. 1886. He was given a reward for 
distinguished service on 1 April 1885, and 
promoted general on 18 July in that year. 
He held the command of the troops in the 
southern district from 1 May 1889 to 
25 Sept. 1890, when he was appointed 
governor of Gibraltar. But after a few 
months there he returned to England on 
sick leave, and died in London on 27 Jan. 
1891, leaving no issue. He was buried at 
Gopsall, Warwickshire. 

[Times, 29 Jan. 1891; art. by Sir William 
Henry Cope in Rifle Brigade Chronicle for 1890; 
Lodge's Peerage.] E. M. L. 

1885), Irish politician, was born in 1826 in 
Dublin, where his father, James Smyth, a 
native of Cavan, was a prosperous tanner. 
His mother, Anne, was daughter of Maurice 
Bruton of Portane, co. Meath. Patrick re- 
ceived his education at Clongoweswood 
College, where he made the acquaintance of 
Thomas Francis Meagher [q. v.] The two be- 
came fast friends, and in 1844 both joined 
the Repeal Association. In the cleavage 
between * Old Ireland ' and 'Young Ireland/ 
Smyth, like Meagher, sided with the latter, 
and became one of the active members of 
that body. After the failure of the abortive 
insurrection of 1848 he managed to escape 
to America disguised as a drover. He sup- 
ported himself by journalism for some years, 
becoming prominently identified with the 
Irish national movement in America. In. 
1854 he visited Tasmania, and planned and 
carried out the escape of John Mitchel [q.v.l 
from his Tasmanian prison (cf. Mitchel, Jail 
Journal). In 1855 ne married Miss Jeanie 
Myers of Hobart Town, Tasmania, and in 
1856 returned to Ireland and began to study 
for the bar. He was called in 1858, but never 
practised. For a short time, about 1860, he 
was proprietor of the ' Irishman/ an advanced 
nationalist newspaper. 

Smyth was made a chevalier of the Legion 
of Honour on 29 Aug. 1871 in recognition of 




his services to France in organising the 
Irish ambulance aid to that country during 
the Franco-German war. 

In 1870 Smyth made an unsuccessful at- 
tempt to enter parliament as a member of 
Isaac Butt's home-rule party. In June of 
the following year he was returned as 
M.P. for Westmeath, and sat for the con- 
stituency uninterruptedly till 1880, when 
he became M.P. for Tipperary. In parlia- 
ment Smyth's oratorical gifts were nighly 
appreciated. A speech delivered by him on 
home rule on 80 June 1876 was published; 
but he disapproved of the extreme policy of 
Charles Stewart Parnell [q. v.], and became 
an unsparing and bitter enemy of the land 
league, which he described as a 'League of 
Hell/ His popularity in Ireland conse- 
quently waned, and he retired from parlia- 
ment in 1882. At the close of 1884 he was 
appointed secretary of the Irish Loan Repro- 
ductive Fund, but survived his appointment 
only a few weeks. He died at Belgrave 
Square, Rathmines, Dublin, on 12 Jan. 1885, 
leaving his widow and family in straitened 
circumstances. A fund was raised for their 

Smyth published: 1. * Australasia/ a lec- 
ture ; 2nd edit. Dublin, 8vo, 1861. 2. « France 
and European Neutrality,' a lecture, Dublin, 
1870. 3. ' The Part taken by the Irish Boy 
in the Fight at Dame Europa's School ; ' 3rd 
edit. Dublin, 1871. 4. « A Plea for a Peasant 
Proprietary in Ireland/ Dublin, 1871. 
6. ' Materialism/ a lecture, Dublin, 1876. 
6. ' The Priest in Politics, by the late P. J. 
Smyth/ 4to edit. Dublin, 1885. 

[Mitchel'8 Jail Journal; Pigott's Remini- 
scences of an Irish National Journalist; Duffy's 
Four Years of Irish History ; Freeman's Jour- 
nal, 13 Jan. 1885; Evening Mail (Dublin), 
14 Jan. 1885; information from Mr. John 
O'Leary, Dublin.] D. J. 0*D. 

SMYTH, RICHARD (1826-1878), Irish 
politician, son of Hugh Smyth of Bush- 
mills, co. Antrim, by Sarah Anne, daughter 
of J. Wray, was born at Dervock, co. An- 
trim, on 4 Oct. 1826. He was educated at 
the university of Bonn and at the university 
of Glasgow, where he graduated B.A. in 
1847, M.A. in 1850, and received the hono- 
rary D.D. and LL.D. degrees in 1867. For 
eight years he was assistant-collegiate mini- 
ster of the first presbyterian church of Lon- 
donderry, and in 1865 was appointed pro- 
fessor of oriental languages and biblical 
literature in Magee College, Londonderry. 
In 1870 he became Dillprofeasor of theology 
in the same college. lie was a supporter of 
Mr. Gladstone's policy of disestablishment 
in Ireland, and in 1869 was raised to the 

moderatorship of the general assembly of the 
presbyterian church. In 1870 he was re- 
elected moderator, and took an active part in 
settling the financial affairs of the church in 
connection with the withdrawal of the regium 
donum. He was one of the trustees incor- 
porated by royal charter under the Presby- 
terian Church Act for administering the com- 
mutation fund. He supported the Irish 
University Bill of 1873, and, as a liberal, was 
elected member of parliament for co. Lon- 
donderry on 16 Feb. 1874 to support the 
general policy of Mr. Gladstone's administra- 
tion, especially with respect to land tenure 
and grand jury reform. He sat until his 
death, which took place at Antrim road, 
Belfast, on 4 Dec. lo78. He was buried at 
Dervock on 6 Dec. 

Besides numerous pamphlets, he was the 
author of: 1. 'Philanthropy, Proselytism, 
and Crime : a Review of the Irish Refor- 
matory System/ London, 1861, 8vo. 2. « The 
Bartholomew Expulsion in 1662/ London- 
derry, 1862, 18mo. 

[Men of the Time, 1875, p. 912; Debrett's 
House of Commons. 1 875, p. 220 ; Illustrated 
London News, 1874, lxv. 52; Belfast News- 
Letter, 5 Dec. 1878 pp. 1, 5, 7 Dec. p. 8.1 

G. C. B. 

1889), mining surveyor, son of Edward 
Smyth, a mining engineer, was born at Car- 
ville, near Newcastle, Northumberland, in 
1830. He was educated at Whickham in 
the county of Durham. Soon turning his at- 
tention to natural science, especially to 
chemistry and geology, he began work about 
1846 as an assistant at the Derwent Iron- 
works. There he remained over five years. 
In 1852 he emigrated to Victoria, Australia. 
After some experience on the goldfields, he 
entered the survey department as draughts- 
man under Captain (afterwards Sir Andrew) 
Clarke, R.E. Subsequently he acted for a 
brief period as chief draughtsman, and in 
1854 was appointed to take charge of the 
meteorological observations. In 1858 he 
was appointed secretary to the board of 
science, which included the charge of the 
mining surveys of the colony. In 1860 he 
was appointed secretary for mines, with a 
salary of 750/., and acted for some time as 
chief inspector of mines and reorganised the 
geological survey, of which he became direc- 
tor. At the beginning of 1876, owing to the 
result of an inquiry into his treatment of 
his subordinates, he resigned all his offices. 
He subsequently went to India, where he 
helped to promote the disastrous ' boom ' in 
Indian gold-mines. He died on 10 Oct. 1889. 
He had been elected a fellow of the Geo- 




logical Society in 1856 and of the Linnean 
in November 1874 ; he was also a member 
of the Societe* Geologique de France, of the 
Society of Arts and Sciences at Utrecht, and 
an honorary corresponding member of the 
Boston Society of Natural History. 

Besides many official reports and various 
lists and statistics tor different international 
exhibitions, Smyth was author of: 1. 'The 
Prospectors' Handbook/ 8vo, Melbourne, 
1863. 2. 'The Gold Fields and Mineral 
Districts of Victoria/ 4to, Melbourne, 1869. 
8. 'Hints for the Guidance of Surveyors/ 
8vo, Melbourne, 1871. 4. 'The Aborigines 
of Victoria/ 2 vols. 4to, Melbourne, 1878. 
He also contributed papers on mineralogical 
and geological subjects to scientific journals 
between 1855 and 1872. 

[Mennell's Diet. Australian Biogr. ; Colonial 
Office Lists, 1 858-76 ; Lists of the Linnean and 
Geological Societies ; Reports of the Mines De- 
partment of Victoria ; Brit. Mas. Cat. ; Royal 
Soc Cat. of Scientific Papers.] B. B. W. 

SON (1817-1890), geologist and mineralo- 
gist, was born at Naples on 26 Aug. 1817, 
being the eldest son of Captain (afterwards 
Admiral) William Henry Smyth [q. v.] and 
Annarella Warington, whose father, Thomas 
Warington,was then British consul at Naples. 
He was educated at Westminster and Bedford 
schools and