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Dictionary of 



Sir Sidney Lee 











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Kennett Lambart 






Kennett Lambart 





A. A The Rev. Canon Ainuer. 

O. A. A. . . O. A. Aitken. 

J. O. A. . . J. O. Algbr. 
xE. H.-A. . . E. Huron- Allkn. 
R. E. A. . . R. E. Anderson. 
W. A. J. A. . W. A. J. Archbold. 
G. E. P. A. G. E. P. Arxwright. 
R. B-l. . . . Richard Bagwell. 
G. F. R. B. . G. F. Russell Barker. 

R. B Thb Rbv. Ronald Baynb. 

T. B. .... Thomas Baynb. 

G. T. B. . . The late G. T. Bbttant. 

B. H. B. . . Thb late Rby. B. H. Blacbbb. 
H. E. D. B. The Rev. H. E. D. Blakiston. 
G. C. B. . . G. 0. Boasb. 

G. S. B. . . G. S. BOULGBR. 

E. T. B. . . Miss Bbadlby. 

A. H. B. . . A. H. Bullbn. 

A. J. B. . . Arthur John Butler. 

H. M. C. . . H. Manners Chichester. 

A, M. C. . . Miss A. M. Clerks. 

J. C The Rby. James Cooper. 

T. C Thompson Cooper, F.8.A. 

W. P. C. . . W. P. Courtney. 

M. C The Bishop op Peterborough. 

C. A. H. C. Mrs. Andrew Crosse. 
I* C Lionel Cust, F.S.A. 

R. K. D. . . Professor R. K. Douglas. 

R. D Robert Dunlop. 

C H. F. . . C. H. Fibth. 

J. D. F. . . J. D. Fitzgerald. 


R » G Richard Garnett, LL.D. 

GK Q Gordon Goodwin. 

A. G The Rby. Alexander Gordon. 

R. E. G.. . . R. E. Gbayes. 

W. A. G. . . W. A. Gbbbnhill, M.D. 


J. A. H. . . J. A. Hamilton. 

T - U Thb Rby. Thomas Hamilton, D.D. 

T. F. H. . . T. F. Henderson. 

G. J. H. . . G. J. Holyoake. 

W. H. ... Thb Rby. William Hunt. 

B. D. J. . . B. D. Jackson. 

T. B. J.. . . The Rev. T. B. Johnstone. 
J. K-y. . . . James Kennedy. 

C. K Charles Kent. 

C L. K. . . C. L. ElNGSFORD. 

J* K Joseph Knight. 

H. K Colonel Henry Knoll ys, R.A. 

J. K. L. . . Professor J. K. Laugh-ton. 
T. G. L. . . T. G. Law. 
S. L. .... Sidney Lee. 
R. H. L. . . R. H. Leoge. 



List of Writers. 

A. G. L. . . A. G. Little. 

H. R. L. . . The late Rev. H.R.Luard,D.D. 

M. M. ... JSneas Mackay, LL.D. 

W. D. M. .The Ret. W. D. Macray, B.D., 

A. H. M. . . A. H. Millab. 
CM..'... Cosmo Monkhousb. 

N. M Norman Moore, M.D. 

G. P. M-y.. G. P. Moriarty. 
J. B. M. . . J. Bass Mullingkr. 

A. N Albert Nicholson. 

P. L. N. . . P. L. Nolan. 

F. M. OD. . F. M. O'Donoqhue. 

S. P. 0. . . Captain S. Pasfield Oliveu. 

J. H. 0. . . Tub Rev. Canon Oyerton. 

H. P Henry Paton. 

S. L.-P. . . . Stanley Lane-Poole. 

B. P Miss Pobtbr. 

R. B. P. . . R. B. Pbossbb. 
J. M. R. . . J. M. Rioo. 

L. C. S. . 

. Lloyd C Sanders. 


T. B. S. . 

. T. Bailey Saunders. 

T. 8. . . . 

. Thomas Sbccombe. 


R. F. S. . 

. R. Fabquharson Sharp. 

W. A. S. . 

. W. A. Shaw. 

C. F. S. . 

. Miss Fell Smith. 

L. T. S. . 

. Miss Toulmin Smith. 

G. W. S. . 

. The Rev. G. W. Sprott, D.D. 

L. S. . . . 

. Leslie Stephen. 

G. S-h. . . 

. Geo roe Stronach. 

C W. S. . 

. C. W. Sutton. 

H. R.T. . 

. H. R. Tedder. 

T. F. T. . 

. Professor T. F. Tout. 

, J. S. V. . . 

. J. Savill Vaizby. 

E. V. . . . 

. The Rev. Canon Venables. 

| R. H. V. . 

. Colonel R. H. Vetch, R.E. 

; A. W. W. 

. A. W. Wabd, Litt.D. 

M. G. W. . 

. The Rev. M. G. Watkins. 

C. W-H. . 

. Chables Welch, F.S.A. 

W. W. 

. Wabwick Wroth, F.S.A. 






KENNETT, BASIL (1674-1715), mis- 
cellaneous writer, born at Jostling, Kent, on 
21 Oct. 1674, was younger brother of White 
Kennett [q. v.], bisnop of Peterborough. He 
was educated under the care of his brother 
at Bicester grammar school and in the family 
of Sir William Glynne at Ambrosden, Ox- 
fordshire. In 1689 he entered St. Edmund 
Hall, Oxford, under the tuition of his brother, 
who was then vice-principal. In 1690 he was 
elected scholar of Corpus Christi College as 
a native of Kent, and graduated B.A. in 
1693, M.A. in 1696. In 1697 he became 
fellow and tutor of Corpus. His learning 
and amiable qualities won him the regard of 
all parties. In 1706 he was appointed, chap- 
lain to the British factory at Leghorn, being 
the first to fill that office, and received the 
degree of B.D. by decree of convocation. He 
was at first much harassed by the Inquisition, 
and had to seek the intervention of the Eng- 
lish government. Hi-health, caused by the 
climate and his dislike of exercise, obliged him 
to resign, and he preached for the last time 
on 8 Jan. 1712-13. He returned home by way 
of Florence, Rome, and Naples, and through 
France, collecting books, sculpture, and curi- 
osities. He resumed residence at Corpus 
Christi in 1714, became D.D., and during the 
same year was elected president of his college, 
although he was ' even then,' as Hearne says, 
' very sickly.' He died of slow fever on 8 Jan. 
1714-15 (Bawl MS. C. 916), and was buried 
in the college chapel. 

Kennett was author of: 1. 'Rom® An- 
tique Notitia, or the Antiquities of Borne. 
... To which are prefixed two Essays con- 
cerning the Roman Learning and the Roman 
Education,' 8vo, London, 1696. This work, 
which passed through many editions, is dedi- 
cated to the Duke of Gloucester. A Dutch 


translation by W. Sewel appeared in pt. ii. of 
Seine's ' Beschryving van Oud en Niew Rome,' 
fol. 1704. 2. 'The Lives and Characters of 
the Ancient Grecian Poets,' 2 pts. 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1697, also dedicated to the duke. 3. 'A 
Brief Exposition of the Apostles' Creed, ac- 
cording to Bishop Pearson, in a new method,' 
8vo, 1705; other editions 1721 and 1726. 

4. ' An Essay towards a Paraphrase on the 
Psalms in Verse, with a Paraphrase on the 
Third Chapter of the Revelations,' 8vo, 1706. 

5. ' Sermons preached ... to a Society of 
British Merchants in Foreign Parts,' 8vo, 
London, 1715 j 2nd edit., as ' Twenty Ser- 
mons,' 1727. 

Among the Lansdowne MSS. are the fol- 
lowing works by Kennett: 1. 'Poem to 
Queen Anne' (MS. 722, f. 1). 2. 'Collec- 
tions on various subjects' (MSS. 924-34). 
3. 'Oratio' (MS. 927, f. 19). 4. 'Lives of 
the Latin Poets' (MS. 930). 5. 'Letters to 
S. Blackwell' (MS. 1019). 6. ' Notes on the 
Church Catechism' (MS. 1043). 7. ' Notes 
on the New Testament' (MS. 1044). 

He translated from the French : 1. Bishop 
Godeau's ' Pastoral Instructions for an An- 
nual Retirement of Ten Days ' [anon.], 8vo, 
1703 ; another edition in ' A Plea for Seasons 
of Spiritual Retirement,' 1860. 2. Pascal's 
' Thoughts upon Religion' [anon.], 8vo, 1704 ; 
other editions 1727 and 1741. 8. La Pla- 
cette's 'The Christian Casuist,' 8vo, 1705. 
4. ' Politics in Select Discourses of Monsieur 
Balzac which he called his Aristippus/ 8vo, 
1709, with a preface by White Kennett. 
5. ' The Whole Critical Works of Monsieur 
Rapin,' 8vo, 1716. He also helped to trans- 
late Puffendorf s ' Of the Law of Nature and 
Nations,' fol. 1710 (1729 and 1749), and 
translated Horace's Art of Poetry' (Brit. 
Mw. MS. Addit. 28726, f. 173). Hearne 



states, on the authority of James Tyrrell, 
that the third volume of White Kennett's 
' History of England,' fol. 1706, was in reality 
the work of Basil Kennett. 

Kennett likewise edited Bishop Vida's 
'Poetica/ 8vo, 1701. 

[Biographia Britannica; Xansd. MSS. 987 
f. 363, 989 f. 156 ; Hearne's Notes and Col- 
lections (Oxf. Hist. Soc.), i. 286, 295, 311, 332, 
ii. 179, 234.] G. G. 

KENNETT, WHITE, D.D. (1660-1728), 
hishop of Peterborough, born in the parish 
of St. Mary, Dover, on 10 Aug. 1660, was 
son of Basil Kennett, M.A., rector of Dim- 
church and vicar of Postling, Kent, by his 
wife Mary, eldest daughter of Thomas White, 
a wealthy magistrate and master-shipwright 
of Dover. After receiving a preliminary edu- 
cation at Elham and Wye, ne was placed at 
Westminster ' above the curtain/ or in the 
upper school ; but as he was suffering from 
small-pox at the period of the election of 
scholars on the foundation, his father re- 
called him home. After his recovery he spent 
a year at Beaksbourne, in the family of Mr. 
Tolson, whose three sons he taught 'with 
great content and success.' He was entered 
a batler or semi-commoner of St. Edmund 
Hall, Oxford, in June 1678, being placed 
under the tuition of Andrew Allam [q. v.l 
According to Hearne he ' sometimes waited 
on Dr. Wallis to church with his skarlett,' 
and performed other menial offices (Remarks 
and Collections, i. 311), but, on the other 
hand, he associated with the gentlemen-com- 
moners. While an undergraduate he began 
his career as a writer by publishing anony- 
mously, just before the assembling of parlia- 
ment at Oxford on 21 March 1680-1, < A 
Letter from a Student at Oxford to a Friend 
in the Country, concerning the approaching 
Parliament, in vindication of his Majesty, 
the Church of England, and the University/ 
The whig party endeavoured to discover the 
author, with a view to his punishment, but 
the sudden dissolution of the parliament put 
an end to the incident and occasioned the 
publication of Kennett's second piece, *A 
Poem to Mr. E. L. on his Majesty s dissolv- 
ing the late Parliament at Oxford/ 28 March 
1681. About this period Kennett was in- 
troduced to Anthony a Wood, who employed 
him in collecting epitaphs and notices of 
eminent Oxford men. In his diary, 2 March 
1681-2, Wood notes that he had directed five 
shillings to be given to Kennett ' for pains he 
hath taken for me in Kent.' On 2 Miy 1682 
Kennett graduated B.A. (Cat of Oxford 
Graduates, 1851, p. 381), and next year pub- 
lished a version of Erasmus's 'Morire En- 

comium,' under the title of 'Wit against 
Wisdom : or a Panegyric upon Folly/ 1688, 
8vo. In the following year he contributed 
the life of Chabrias to the edition of Cor- 
nelius Nepos, ' done into English by several 
hands.' He commenced M.A. on 22 Jan. 
1684, and having taken holy orders he be- 
came curate and assistant to Samuel Black- 
well, B.D., vicar and schoolmaster of Bicester, 
Oxfordshire. Sir William Glynne, bart., pre- 
sented him in September 1685 to the neigh- 
bouring vicarage of Ambrosden (Kennett, 
Parochial Antiquities, p. 676). Soon after- 
wards he published ' An Address of Thanks 
to a good Prince ; presented in the Panegyric 
of Pliny upon Trajan, the best of Roman 
Emperors,' London, 1686, 8vo, with a high- 
flown preface expressing his loyalty to the 
throne (Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. ii. 441). 

Kennett's political views were quickly 
modified by dislike of the ecclesiastical policy 
of James II. He preached a series of dis- 
courses against ' popery/ refused to read the 
' Declaration for Liberty of Conscience ' in 
1688, and acted with the majority of the 
clergy in the diocese of Oxford when they 
rejected an address to the king recommended 
by -Bishop Parker. Hearne relates that at 
the beginning of the revolution Kennett lent 
Dodwell a manuscript treatise, composed by 
himself and never printed, offering arguments 
for takingthe oaths of allegiance and supre- 
macy to William and Mary (Remarks and 
Collections, i. 71). Subsequently Kennett 
openly supported the cause of the revolution, 
and thereby exposed himself to much obloquy 
from his former friends, who called him 
' Weathercock Kennett ' (Nichols, Lit. 
Anecd. i. 393 n.) In January 1689, while 
shooting at Middleton Stoney, his gun burst 
and fractured his skull. The operation of 
trepanning was successfully performed, but 
he was obliged to wear a large mack patch of 
velvet on his forehead during the remainder 
of his life. 

After a few years' absence at Ambrosden he 
returned to Oxford as tutor and vice-principal 
of St. Edmund Hall, and in September 1691 
was chosen lecturer of St. Martin's, commonly 
called Carfax, Oxford. He was also appointed 
a public lecturer in the schools, and filled the 
office of pro-proctor for two successive years. 
He proceeded B.D. on 6 May 1694 (cf. Life 
of Wood, ed. Bliss, p. cxvii). In February 
1694-5 he was presented by William Cherry, 
esq^., to the rectory of Shottesbrook, Berk- 
shire. He was created D.D. at Oxford on 
19 July 1700, and in the same year was pre- 
sented to the rectory of St. Botolph, Aldgate 
(Newoottot, Repertorium, i. 917). He re- 
signed the vicarage of Ambrosden, and did 



not obtain possession of St. Botolph's without 
a lawsuit. On 15 Feb. 1701 he was installed 
in the prebend of Combe and Harnham, in 
the church of Salisbury (Lb Neve, Fasti, ed. 
Hardy, ii. 665). 

Kennett*8 historical and antiquarian re- 
searches had meanwhile procured: him some 
reputation. From Dr. George Hickes [q. v.] 
(afterwards nonjuring bishop of Thetford), 
who lived for a time in seclusion with him 
at Ambrosden, he received instruction in the 
Anglo-Saxon and other northern tongues. 
For several years the two scholars were on 
the most friendly terms, but eventually 
there was an open rupture between them, 
owing to religious and political differences. 
Kennett contributed a life of William Somner 
to the Rev. James Brome's edition of that 
antiquary's 'Treatise of the Roman Ports and 
Forts in Kent ' (1693), and the biography was 
enlarged and reissued in Somner's ' Treatise of 
Gavelkind/ 2nd edition 1726. His reputation 
as a topographer and philologist was enhanced 
by his ' Parochial Antiquities attempted in the 
History of Ambrosden, Burcester, and other 
adjacent parts in the counties of Oxford and 
Bucks, with a Glossary of Obsolete Terms/ 
Oxford, 1695, 4to, dedicated to his patron, Sir 
W. Glynne. A new edition, greatly enlarged 
from the author's manuscript notes, was 
issued at Oxford (2 vols. 1818, 4to) under 
the editorship of Bulkeley Bandinel. While 
engaged on this work the question of lay 
impropriations had come much under his 
notice, and he published ' for the terror of 
evil-doers' the 'History and Fate of Sacri- 
lege, discovered by examples of Scripture, 
of Heathens, of Christians/ London, 1698, 
8vo, written by Sir Henry Spelman in 1632, 
but omitted from the edition of that author's 
' Posthumous Works.' 

Kennett was now chaplain to Bishop Gar- 
diner of Lincoln, and on 15 May 1701 became 
archdeacon of Huntingdon. Thereupon he 
entered into the famous controversy with 
Atterbury about the rights of convocation, 
and ably supported Dr. Wake and Edmund 
Gibson in their contention that convocation 
had few inherent rights of independent action. 
In Warburton's view, Kennett's arguments 
were based on precedents, while Atterbury's 
rested on principles. On Archbishop Tenison's 
recommendation he was appointed in 1701 
one of the original members of the Society 
for Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts, 
In a sermon preached in his parish church of 
Aldgate on 31 Jan. 1703-4, the fast day for 
the martyrdom of Charles I, Kennett ac- 
knowledged that there had been some errors 
in his reign, owing to a ' popish ' queen and 
a corrupt ministry, whose policy tended in 

the direction of an absolute tyranny. To 
correct exaggerated statements made about 
this sermon, Kennett printed it under the 
title of ' A Compassionate Enquiry into the 
Causes of the Civil War/ London (three 
editions}, 1704, 4to. It elicited many angry 
replies irom his high-church opponents. 

In 1704 he published 'The Case of Im- 
propriations, and of the Augmentation of 
Vicarages, and other insufficient Cures, stated 
by History and Law, from the first Usurpa- 
tions of the Popes and Monks, to her Majesty's 
Koyal Bounty lately extended to the poorer 
Clergy of the Church of England.' A copy 
of this work, bound in two vols., with copious 
additions by the author, was formerly in the 
possession of Richard Gough, and is now in 
the Bodleian Library. In 1705 some book- 
sellers undertook a collection of the best 
works on English history down to the reign 
of Charles II, and induced Kennett to write 
a continuation to the time of Queen Anne 
(Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. viii. 343). Al- 
though it appeared anonymously as the third 
volume of tne ' Compleat History of Eng- 
land/ 1706, fol., the author's name soon be- 
came known, and he was exposed to renewed 
attacks from his Jacobite enemies. A new edi- 
tion, with corrections, was published in 1719, 
but it was not until 1740 that there appeared 
Roger North's ' Examen, or an Inquiry into 
the Credit and Veracity of a pretended Com- 
plete History, viz. Dr. White Kennett's " His- 
tory of England." ' His popularity at court 
was increased by the published denunciations 
of his views, and he was appointed chaplain 
in ordinary to her majesty (cf. Luttrell, 
Brief Relation, vi. 207). He was installed in 
the deanery of Peterborough 21 Feb. 1707-8 

i Birch, Life of Tillotson, ed. 1753, p. 212 ; 
jTJTTRBLL, vi. 223, 254). A few days previ- 
ously he had been collated to the prebend 
of Marston St. Laurence, in the church of 

A sermon which he preached at the funeral 
of the first Duke of Devonshire on 5 Sept. 
1707, and which laid him open to the charge 
of encouraging a deathbed repentance, was 
published by Henry Hills, without a dedica- 
tion, in 1707. To a second edition, published 
by John Churchill in 1708, with a dedication 
to William, second duke of Devonshire, was 
appended 'Memoirs of the Family of Caven- 
dish/ a separate edition of which was pub- 
lished by Hills in the same year. A new edi- 
tion of the sermon, with the author's manu- 
script corrections, was published by John 
Nichols in 1797, but very few copies were 
sold, and the remainder were destroyed by 
fire (Nichols, Lit. Anted, i. 396 n.) The 
imputation against Kennett was fresn in the 




memory of Pope when in the 'Essay on 
Criticism' he wrote : 

Then unbelieving priests reformed the nation, 
And taught more pleasing methods of salvation 

(see Jortin's note, Pope, ed. Elwin, ii. 68, iii. 
329). Kennett's subsequent preferment was 
naturally connected by nis enemies with the 
strain of adulatory reference to the second 
duke with which the sermon concludes. 

In 1707, desiring more leisure for study, 
he resigned the rectory of St. Botolph, Aid- 
gate, and obtained the less remunerative 
rectory of St. Mary, Aldermary, London. 
During this period he published numerous 
sermons, and his pen was actively engaged 
in support of his party. He zealously opposed 
the doctrine of the invalidity of lay baptism, 
and his answer to Dr. Sacheverelrs sermon 

f reached before the lord mayor on 5 Nov. 
709 raised a storm of indignation. In 1710 
he was severely censured for not joining in 
the congratulatory address of the London 
clergy to the queen, which was drawn up on 
the accession of the tories to office after 
SacheverelTs trial. Kennett and others who 
declined to subscribe it were represented as 
enemies to the crown and ministry (cf. Dtbb, 
Newsletter, 4 Aug. 1710). Dr. Welton, 
rector of Whitechapel, introduced into an 
altar-piece in his church a portrait of Kennett 
to represent Judas Iscariot {Lansdowne MS. 
702, f. 101 ; Shabpe, Short Remarks, p. 30). 
It was stated that the rector had caused 
Kennett's figure to be substituted for that of 
Burnet at the suggestion of the painter, who 
feared an action or soandalum magnatum if 
Burnet were introduced. A print of the 
picture in the library of the Society of Anti- 

Suaries is accompanied with these manuscript 
nes by Maittaire : — 
To say the picture does to him belong, 
Kennett does Judas and the Painter wrong. 
False is the image, the resemblance faint : 
Judas compared to Kennett is a Saint. 

Multitudes of people visited the church daily 
to see the painting, but Compton, bishop of 
London, soon ordered its removal. For many 
years afterwards it is said to have orna- 
mented the high altar at St. Albans (Ni- 
chols, Lit. Anecd. viii. 869; Notes and 
Queries, 3rd ser. iii. 409). 

In order to advance the interests of the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts, Kennett made a collection of 
books, charts, maps, and documents, with the 
intention of composing a 'History of the 
Propagation of Christianity in the English- 
Ajnencan Colonies,' and on the relinquish- 
ment of that project he presented his col- 
lections to the corporation, and printed a 

catalogue entitled * Bibliotheca American© 
Primordial London, 1713, 4to, afterwards re- 
published with additions by Henry Homer the 
elder, 1789, 4to. He also founded an antiqua- 
rian and historical library at Peterborough, 
and enriched the library of that church with 
some scarce books, including an abstract of 
the manuscript collections made by Dr. John 

about fifteen hundred books and tracts, was 
placed in a private room at Peterborough, 
and a manuscript catalogue was drawn up 
and subscribed ' Index librorum aliquot ve- 
tustorum quos in commune bonum congessit 
W. K., Decan.Petribur^MDCCXii/ (Nichols, 
Lit. Anecd. i. 257). This library is now 
arranged in the chapel over the west porch 
of the cathedral. 
On 25 July 1713 Kennett was installed 

?rebendary of Farrendon-cum-Balderton at 
iincoln. He preached vehemently against 
the rebellion of 1715, and in the two follow- 
ing years warmly advocated the repeal of 
the acts against occasional conformity. In 
the Bangorian controversy he opposed the 
proceedings of convocation against Bishop 
Hoadly. By the influence of nis friend Dr. 
Charles Trimnell, bishop of Norwich and 
afterwards of Winchester, he was appointed 
bishop of Peterborough; he was consecrated 
at Lambeth on 9 Nov. 1718, and had permis- 
sion to hold the archdeaconry of Huntingdon 
and a prebend in Salisbury in commendam 
(Stxtbbs, Registrum AngUcanum y p. 1 1 1 ). He 
died tenyears later at his house in St. James's 
Street, Westminster, on 19 Dec. 1728. He 
was buried in Peterborough Cathedral, where 
a marble monument with a brief Latin in- 
scription was erected to his memory (cf. 
Nichols, Lit. Anecd. ix. 319). 

He married first, on 6 June 1693, Sarah, 
only daughter of Robert and Mary Carver 
of Bicester (she died on 2 March 1693-4, 
sine prole) ; secondly, on 6 June 1695, Sarah, 
sister of Richard Smith, M.D., of London 
and Aylesbury (she died in August 1702) ; 
thirdly, in 1703, Dorcas, daughter of Thomas 
Fuller, D.D., rector of Weflinghale, Essex, 
and widow of Clopton Havers, M.D. By 
his second wife he had issue a son, White 
Kennett, who became rector of Burton-le- 
Ooggles, Lincolnshire, and prebendary of 
Peterborough, Lincoln, and London, and 
died on 6 May 1740; and a daughter Sarah, 
who married John Newman of Shottes- 
brook, Berkshire, and died on 22 Feb. 1756 
(Howabd, Miscellanea Genealogica et He- 
raldica, new ser. ii. 287). Hearne, writing 
on 26 April 1707, says that Kennett's 'pre- 



sent wife wears the breeches, as his haughty, 
insolent temper deserves* (Remains and Col- 
lections, ii. 9). 

His biographer, the Rev. William Newton, 
admits that his zeal as a whig partisan some- 
times carried him to extremes, but he was 
very charitable, and displayed great modera- 
tion in his relations with the dissenters. 
He is now remembered chiefly as a pains- 
taking and laborious antiquary, especially 
in the department of ecclesiastical biography. 
The number of his works both in print and 
manuscript shows him to have been through- 
out his life a man of incredible diligence and 
application. He was always ready to com- 
municate the results of his researches to 
fellow-students. Probably his best- known 
work, apart from his 'Compleat History' 
already noticed, was his ' Register and 
Chronicle, Ecclesiastical and Civil : contain- 
taining Matters of Fact delivered in the 
words of the most Authentick Books, Papers, 
and Records ; digested in exact order of time. 
With papers, notes, and references towards 
discovering and connecting the true History 
of England from the Restauration of King 
Charles 11/ vol. i. (all published), London, 
1728, fol. The original materials for this 
valuable work are preserved in the British 
Museum among the Lansdowne MSS. 1002- 
1010. The manuscript volumes bring the re- 
gister to 1679. The published volume begins 
with the Restoration, and only comes down 
to December 1662. 

Kennett published more than twelve sepa- 
rate sermons preached on public occasions 
between 1694 and 1728, and others in sup- 
port of charity schools (cf. The Excellent 
Daughter, 1708; 11th edit. 1807) or of the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
(cf. sermon issued in 1712). His addresses 
to his clergy at Peterborough on his first 
visitation were issued in 1720. Kennett was 
also the author of the following, besides the 
works already noticed : 1. * Remarks on the 
Life, Death, and Burial of Henry Cornish/ 
London, 1699, 4to. 2. ' Ecclesiastical Synods, 
and Parliamentary Convocations in the 
Church of England, Historically stated, and 
justly Vindicated from the misrepresenta- 
tions of Mr. Atterbury/ pt. i. London, 1701, 
8vo. 3. ' An Occasional Letter, on the sub- 
ject of English Convocations/ London, 1701, 
8vo. 4. * The History of the Convocation of 
the Prelates and Clergy of the Province of 
Canterbury, summoned to meet in the Cathe- 
dral Church of St. Paul, London, on Feb. 6, 
1700. In answer to a Narrative of the Pro- 
ceedings of the Lower House of Convoca- 
tion/ London, 1702, 4to. 5. ' An Account 
of the Society for Propagating the Gospel 

in Foreign Parts, established by the Royal 
Charter of Kim? William III/ London, 1706, 
4to ; translated into French by Claude Gro- 
te*te de la Mothe, Rotterdam, 1708, 8vo. 
6. 'The Christian Scholar, in Rules and 
Directions for Children & Youth sent to 
English Schools; more especially designed 
for the poor boys taught & cloath'd by 
charity in the parish of St. Botolph, Aid- 
gate/ London, 1708, 8vo ; 6th edit. 1710, 
8vo; 14th edit. London, 1800, 12mo; 15th 
edit, in 'The Christian Scholar/ vol. vi. 1807, 
12mo; 20th edit. London, 1811, 12mo; new 
edit. London, 1836, 12mo. 7. * A Vindica- 
tion of the Church and Clergy of England 
from some late reproaches rudely and un- 
justly cast upon them/ London, 1709, 8vo. 
8. 'A true Answer to Dr. SacheverelTs 
Sermon before the Lord Mayor, Nov. 5, 1709. 
In a Letter to one of the Aldermen/ Lon- 
don, 1709, 8vo. 9. ' A Letter to Mr. Bar- 
ville upon occasion of his being reconciled to 
the Church of England/ printed in 'An Ac- 
count of the late Conversion of Mr. John 
Barville, alias Barton/ London, 1710, 8vo. 
10. ' A Letter, about a Motion in Convoca- 
tion, to the Rev. Thomas Brett, LL.D./ Lon- 
don, 1712. 11. 'A Memorial for Protestants 
on the 5th of Novemb., containing a more full 
discovery of some particulars relating to the 
happy deliverance of King James I, and the 
three Estates of the Realm of England from 
the most traiterous and bloody intended Mas- 
sacre by Gunpowder, anno 1605. In a Letter 
to a Peer of Great-Britain/ London, 1713. 
12. ' A Letter to the Lord Bishop of Carlisle, 
concerning one of his predecessors, Bishop 
Merks; on occasion of a new volume [by 
George Harbin] for the Pretender, intituled 
The Hereditary Right of the Crown of Eng- 
land asserted/ London, 1713, 8vo (two edi- 
tions in one year) ; 4th edit. London, 1717, 
8vo. 13. < The Wisdom of Looking Back- 
wards to judge the better on one side and 
t'other ; by the Speeches, Writings, Actions, 
and other matters of fact on both sides for the 
four last years/ London, 1715, 8vo. 14. ' A 
Second Letter to the Lord Bishop of Carlisle, 
upon the subject of Bishop Merks ; by occa- 
sion of seizing some Libels, particularly a Col- 
lection of Papers written by the late R. Reve- 
rend George Hickes, D.D./ London, 1716, 8vo. 
15. ' A Third Letter to the Lord Bishop of 
Carlisle, upon the subject of Bishop Merks ; 
wherein the Nomination, Election, Investi- 
ture, and Deprivation of English Prelates are 
shew'd to have been originally constituted & 
govern'd by the Sovereign Power of Kings 
and their Parliaments . . . against the Pre- 
tensions of our new Fanaticks/ London, 
1717, 8vo. This and the two preceding 

Kennett < 

letters to the Bishop of Carlisle, Dr. Wil- 
liam Nicholson, gave rise to a heated con- 
troversy. 16. ' Dr. Snape instructed in some 
matters, especially relating to Convocations 
and Converts from Popery/ London, 1718, 
8vo. 17. ' An Historical Account of the Dis- 
cipline & Jurisdiction of the Church of Eng- 
land/ 2nd edit. London, 1730, 8vo. 

Hearne published in his edition of Leland's 
'Itinerary (vol. vii. Pref. p. xvii) a letter 
from Kennett ' concerning a passage ' in vol. 
iv. of the same work (1711). Some manu- 
script verses by Kennett on ' Religious and 
Moral Subjects, translated from some of the 
chief Italian Poets/ belonged to S. W. Rix 
in 1855, and manuscript notes by Kennett, 
written in a Bible, were printed in * Notes 
and Queries' for 1885. Sir Walter Scott 
first printed, in his ' Life of Swift/ p. 137, 
from a manuscript in the British Museum, 
the well-known description by Kennett of 
Swift's attendance in Queen Anne's ante- 
chamber (November 1713). 
. Many of Kennett's manuscripts, which 
once formed part of the library of James 
West, president of the Royal Society, were 

!>urchased in 1773 by the Earl of Shelburne 
afterwards Marquis of Lansdowne), with 
whose collection they passed, in 1807, to 
the British Museum. They are now num- 
bered 935-1041 in the Lansdowne collec- 
tion. Among them are : 1. ' Diptycha 
Ecclesi© Anglican®; sive Tabulae Sacrae 
in quibus facili ordine recensentur Archi- 
episcopi, Episcopi, eorumque Suffraganei, 
Vicarii Generales, et Cancellarii. Eccle- 
siarum insuper Cathedralium Priores, De- 
cani, Thesaurarii, Praecentores, Cancellarii, 
Archidiaconi, et melioris not© Canonici 
continua serie deducti a Gulielmi I con- 
quaestu ad auspicata Qui. Ill tempora/ 935. 
2. ' Diaries and Accounts ' (chiefly common- 
place books), 936, 937. 3. ' An Alphabetical 
Catalogue of English Archbishops, Bishops, 
Deans, Archdeacons, &c., from the 12th to 
the 17th century/ 962. 4. 'Biographical Me- 
moranda, many of them relating to the Eng- 
lish Clergy from 1500 to 1717/ 978-87. 
5. 'Materials for an Ecclesiastical History of 
England from 1500 to 1717/ 1021-4. 6. * Col- 
lections for a History of the Diocese of Peter- 
borough; with Particulars of all the Parishes 
in Northamptonshire/ 1025-9. 7 . ' Notes and 
Memoranda of Proceedings in Parliament and 
Convocation/ 1037. 8. ' Collections for the 
Life of Dr. John Colet, Dean of St. Paul's, 
with a Letter of Advice and Instruction to 
Dr. Samuel Knight [q. v.], by whom they 
were Digested and Published/ 1030. 9. 'Ma- 
terials relating to the History of Convoca- 
tions/1031. 10. 'Etymological Collections 


of English Words and Provincial Expres- 
sions/ 1033. 11. 'Letters to Bishop Kennett 
from Dorcas his wife, 1702-28/ 1015. 

He also made copious annotations in an 
interleaved copy of the first edition of Wood's 
' Athen® Oxonienses.' This copy was pur- 
chased by Richard Gough, from the library 
of James West, president of the Royal So- 
ciety, and it is now preserved in the Bod- 
leian Library. Kennett's notes are incorpo- 
rated by Bliss in his edition of Wood. They 
consist chiefly of extracts from parish regis- 
ters and from other ecclesiastical documents 
(Wood, Athena Oxon. ed. Bliss, vol. L Pref. 
p. 13). 

His portrait was engraved in mezzotint by 
Faber from life in 1719, and by J. Smith. 
There is also a portrait, engraved by James 
Fittler, A.R.A., prefixed to the second edi- 
tion of the ' Parochial Antiquities/ 

[Life (anon.), London, 1730, 8vo, by the Rev. 
William Newton, vicar of Giliingham, Dorset ; 
Short Remarks on some Passages in the Life of 
Dr. Kennett, by a Lover of Truth (J. 8harpe f 
M.A., curate of Stepney), London, 1730, 8vo; 
Wood's Athena Oxon. (Bliss), iv. 792, 1003; 
Burnet's Own Time, ii. 81 ; Gent. Mag. lxxv. 971 
(and general index); Biog. Brit.; Nichols's Lit. 
Anecd. ; Nichols's Iilustr. of Lit. ; Gutch's Collec- 
tanea Curiosa, ii'. 403 ; Addit. MS. 5874, f. 49 ; 
Watt's Bibl. Brit.; Nichols's Atterbury, edit 
1789-98, i. 114, 401, ii. 145; Catalogue of MSS. 
in Univ. Iibr. Cambridge ; Hackman's Cat. of 
Tanner MSS. p. 988 ; Walker's Letters written 
by Eminent Persons, i. 224, ii. 62, 74, 108, 113 ; 
Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bonn); Notes and Queries 
(general indexes) ; Le Neve's Fasti (Hardy) ; 
Georgian Era, i. 203; Hollis's Memoirs, pp. 588, 
689.] T. C. 

1865), controversialist, born in 1776 or 1777, 
was the youngest son of Edward Kenney, 
vicar-choral and prebendary of Cork, by Fran- 
ces, daughter of Thomas Herbert, M.P., of 
Muckross, co. Kerry (Burke, Landed Gen- 
try, 1868, p. 686; Cotton, Fasti Eccl. Hibern. 
i. (1847), 221, 234). In 1790 he entered the 
university of Dublin, was elected a founda- 
tion scholar in 1793, and graduated B.A. in 
1795. In 1800 he proceeded M.A., and was 
elected to a junior fellowship, which he va- 
cated in 1809 for the college living of Kil- 
macrenan, co. Donegal. He became B.D. in 
1806, and D.D. in 1812 {Dublin Graduates, 
1591-1868, p. 317). On 27 June 1812 he 
was instituted to the deanery of Achonry, 
which he resigned in May 1821 on becoming 
rector of St. Olave, Southwark (Cotton, iv. 
105). He soon became popular among his 
parishioners, but his living was eventually 
sequestered on account of pecuniary difficul- 

Kenney : 

ties, and he was obliged to reside abroad 
during the last ten years of his life. He 
died at Boulogne-sur-Mer on 27 Jan. 1855, 
aged 78. He was twice married, and had 
issue by both marriages. Under the initials 
of A. H. K., Kenney edited the fifth edition 
of Archbishop Magee's * Discourses on the 
Scriptural Doctrines of Atonement and Sa- 
crifice/ 3 vols. 8vo, London, 1832. He also 
wrote a memoir of Magee prefixed to the lat- 
ter^ ' Works/ 2 vols. 8vo, London, 1842. 

Kenney's own writings are : 1. ' An En- 
quiry concerning some of the Doctrines main- 
tained by the Church of Home : in Answer 
to the Charge of Intolerance brought by 
Members of that Church against Members of 
the Church of England/ 8vo, London, 1818. 
2. 'Principles and Practices of Pretended 
Reformers in Church and State/ 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1819. 3. ' Facts and Documents illus- 
trative of the History of the Period immedi- 
ately preceding the Accession of William III, 

/ 8vo, London, 1827. 4. ' The Dangerous 

Nature of Popish Power in these Countries, 
especially as illustrated from Awful Records 
of the Time of James the Second/ &c, 8vo, 
London, 1839. 5. ' A Comment, Explana- 
tory and Practical, on the Epistles and Gos- 
pels for the Sundays of the Year, and on 
those for Holy Days immediately relating 
to Our Blessed Saviour/ 2 vols. 12mo, Lon- 
don, 1842. 

[Gent. Mag. new ser. xliv. 544-5; Taylor's 
Univ. of Dublin, pp. 445, 490 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

G. a. 

1881), journalist and author, son of James 
Kenney [q. v.], dramatist, was horn at Belle- 
vue, near Paris, 29 April 1821, and had 
Charles Lamb for one of his godfathers. In 
July 1829 he was entered at the Merchant 
Taylors' School, and in 1837 became a clerk 
in the General Post Office. He commenced 
his literary career at the age of nineteen 
as assistant foreign editor, dramatic critic, 
and scientific reporter on the * Times/ con- 
tributing at the same time to magazines and 
writing plays. In 1851 he aided in pro- 
moting the Great Exhibition in Hyde Park. 
Ill-health obliging him to give up his position 
on the daily press, he became secretary to Sir 
Joseph Paxton during his organisation of the 
transport service for the Crimea in 1855. On 
17 Nov. 1856 he was called to the bar at the 
Inner Temple, and was appointed secretary 
to M. de Lesseps. He advocated the advan- 
tages of the Suez Canal when the enterprise 
was opposed by Lord Palmerston, and wrote 
a book on the subject entitled ' The Gates of 
the East ' (1867). Partly owing to his exer- 


tions a complete revolution was effected in 
public opinion, and he received from Seyd 
Pasha a letter of thanks accompanied by a 
diamond ring. A misunderstanding with De 
Lesseps deprived him of the secretaryship, and 
his connection with the Suez Canal ceased. 
In 1858 he joined the staff of the 'Standard.' 
In 1862 he was active in support of the Inter- 
national Exhibition at South Kensington. He 
belonged to a literary circle which included 
Thackeray and Dickens, and was noted for his 
impromptu and satirical skits in rhyme upon 
the celebrities of the day. With the excep- 
tions of Boucicault and Vivier, he was said to 
be the wittiest man of his period. He had a 
prominent share in the introduction of modern 
opera-bouffe, having written the libretti of 
the ' Grand Duchess/ the ' Princess of Trebi- 
zonde/ and ' La Belle Helene.' Some of his 
dramatic pieces were brought out in con- 
junction with Albert Smitn, Tom Taylor, 
Shirley Brooks, and Dion Boucicault, but the 
rate of remuneration at that time did not 
exceed 100/. for a burlesque and 25/. for a 
farce. Kenney also wrote ' The Vagabond ' 
and many other popular songs. He suffered 
for several years from an incurable disease, 
and a performance for his benefit was given 
at the Gaiety Theatre on 20 June 1877. He 
died at Eldon Road, Kensington, on 25 Aug. 
1881, aged 60, and was buried in Brompton 
cemetery on 30 Aug. By his marriage at the 
English embassy, Paris, in 1859, with Miss 
Rosa Stewart, he left two children, Charles 
Horace Kenney and Rosa Kenney, who made 
her first appearance on the stage as Juliet at 
Drury Lane on 23 Jan. 1879. 

Kenney was the author of : 1. ' Mr. Phelps 
and the Critics of his Correspondence with 
the Stratford Committee/ 1864. 2. 'Wanted, 
Husbands/ musical sketch, Drurv Lane, 
11 March 1867. 3. 'Valentine and Orson,' 
pantomime, New Holborn Theatre, 24 Dec. 
1867. 4. ' Our Autumn Manoeuvres/ farce, 
Adelphi Theatre, 21 Oct. 1871. 5. ' Memoir 
of M. W. Balfe/ 1875. 6. ' Maid of Honour/ 
comedietta, Holborn Theatre, 24 April 1876. 
7. 'The Correspondence of H. de Balzac/ 
translated, 1878. He contributed ' Co vent 
Garden/ pp. 28-32, to Albert Smith VGa- 
varni in London/ 1859, and translated (with 
others) Count Hamilton's ' Fairy Tales and 
Romances/ 1849, and Demidoffs 'Travels 
in Southern Russia,' 1853. Books of words 
for the following operas were furnished by 
Kenney: 'The Mock Doctor/ 1865; 'Fair 
Helen/ 1866 ; ' Princess of Trebizonde/ 1870 ; 
'The Grand Duchess of Gerolstein/ 1871 ; 
'Don Pasquale/ 1871; 'La Figlia del Reggi- 
mento/1871; ' Lucia di Lammermoor/ 1871; 
' Le Nozze di Figaro/ 1871 ; ' Un Ballo in 




Maschera,' 1871; 'La Muette de Portice/ 
1872; 'La Favorita/ 1872; 'Semiramide/ 
1872 ; < Le Domino Noir/ 1872 ; ' Ali Baba/ 
1873;'The Wonderful Duck/1873; 'L'Elisir 
d'Amore/ 1876; and 'La Jolie Parfumeuse/ 
1875. He also wrote the words to a ' Requiem ' 
by Verdi in 1875, as well as numerous songs, 
the most popular of which were ' Soft and 
Low/ 1866 ; ' Ever my Queen/ 1806 ; ' The 
Vagabond/ 1871 ; and 'A Russet Cloak o'er 
Motley Gear/ 1876. 

[Illustrated London News, 3 Sept. 1881, pp. 
223, 242; Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic 
News, 3 Sept. 1881, p. 583; Era, 3 Sept. 1881, 
p. 6 ; information from Miss Rosa Kenney.] 

G. C. 6. 

KENNEY, JAMES (1780-1849), dra- 
matist, was born in Ireland in 1780. His 
father, James Kenney, was for many years 
manager of Boodle's Club, St. James's Street, 
London, of which he was also part pro- 
prietor and institutor, and was well known 
in the sporting world. The son when a 
youth was placed in the banking-house of 
Henries, Farquhar, & Co., and while there 
indulged in private theatricals. His first 
literary attempt was a small volume pub- 
lished in 1808, entitled ' Society, a Poem in 
two parts, with other Poems/ He next 
wrote a farce called 'Raising the Wind/ 
which in 1803 to as produced at a perform- 
ance of amateurs, he himself taking the part 
of Jeremy Diddler. The success of this farce 
induced him to offer it to the managers of 
Covent Garden, where it was produced on 
6 Nov. 1803, the character of Jeremy Diddler, 
played by Lewis, securing an immediate popu- 
larity. It ran for thirty-eight nights, and has 
often been revived since. On 20 Nov. 1804 
Kenney's second piece, ' Matrimony/ a petite 
opera taken from Marsollier's 'Adolpne et 
Claire/ was given at Drury Lane , and repeated 
ten times during the season. ' False Alarms, or 
my Cousin/ a comic opera in three acts, with 
music by Braham and Matthew Peter King 
[q. v.], had a run of twenty-one nights at the 
same theatre early in 1807. In this piece Ban- 
nister had a comic song, ' Major M/Pherson/ 
which was long chanted in the streets, and 
Braham introduced for the first time his 
popular ballad, * Said a Smile to a Tear.' The 
piece was praised by Genest, in spite of its 
poor underplot, and it was revived in 1810, 
with Foote, Russell, and Madame Vestris in 
the cast. ' Ellen Rosenberg/ a melodrama, 
first performed at Drury Lane on 19 Nov. 
1807, with EUiston, Bannister, and Mrs. 
Siddons as Rosenberg, Storm, and Ella re- 
spectively, was also very successful (cf. 
Monthly Mirror, November 1807, pp. 361-8). 
Kenney's next venture, an original comedy, 

'The World/ which came out at Drury Lane 
on 31 March 1808, had a run of twenty-three 
nights, and was frequently played in the fol- 
lowing season. Lord Byron, however, speaks 
harshly of this piece in ' English Bards and 
Scotch Reviewers/ He wrote that : 

Kenny's World — ah ! -where is Kenny's wit ? — 
Tires the sad gallery, lulls the listless pit 

On 7 March 1812 a musical afterpiece, ' Turn 
him out/ described by Genest as tolerable, 
was acted at the Lyceum, was repeated 
twenty-eight times, and still keeps the stage. 
Before the close of the same year another ex- 
cellent farce, 'Love, Law, and Physic/ added 
considerably to Kenney's reputation. It ran 
forty-four nights, and was much indebted to> 
the Lubin Log of Liston for its popularity. 
In 1816 'The Fortune of War/ a farce, was 
produced at Covent Garden, and in 1817, in 
conjunction with Howard Payne, Kenney 
wrote a drama called ' The Portfolio, or the 
Family of Anglade/ taken from the French. 
This was played at Covent Garden on 1 Feb.,. 
the rival house, Drury Lane, producing an- 
other version on the same night. 'Match 
Breaking, or the Prince's Present/ a drama 
in three acts, and ' John Buzzby, or a Day's- 
Pleasure/ were attractive pieces at the Hay- 
market in 1821 and 1822. 

In 1821 Kenney was residing at Bellevue, 
near Paris, and he entertained Charles Lamb 
and his sister at Versailles in 1822. He still 
continued his dramatic work, and for the 
Haymarket on 7 July 1823 he wrote one of the 
most popular dramas overproduced, ' Sweet- 
hearts and Wives/ which ran for fifty-one 
nights and is still a great favourite. Madame 
Vestris was in the cast, and Liston as Billy 
Lackaday was at his very best. In July 1826 
his farce 'Thirteen to the Dozen' was played 
at the Haymarket, with Liston and John 
Reeve in the chief characters. One of Ken- 
ney's most fortunate pieces, ' Spring and 
Atuumn/ came out at the Haymarket on 
6 Sept. 1827, and ran with much applause 
during the remainder of the season. On the 
opening of Drury Lane in October 1827 he 
produced a most successful farce, ' The Illus- 
trious Stranger, or Married and Buried/ 
written expressly for Liston. This piece, 
which probably owed some of its incidents 
to ' Le Naufrage/ by Lafont, printed in 1710, 
was received with great favour, and has con- 
tinued to keep the stage. On 4 May 1829 he 
brought out at Drurv Lane an adaptation of 
Auber's opera, 'La Muette de Portici/ which 
under the title of ' Masaniello ' pleased the 
musical and theatrical world. For the Surrey 
Theatre he wrote in 1840 ' The Sicilian Ves- 
pers/ a tragedy, in which Power sustained 


the chief character with great reputation. 
Kenney 's last production was a serious drama 
entitled ' Infatuation/ a tale of the French 
empire, written in 1845 for Charlotte Cush- 
man, then acting at the Princess's Theatre. 

Kenney was a frequent guest at Samuel 
Rogers's breakfasts and dinners, and met 
there most of the notabilities of the day. 
He long suffered from a nervous affection, 
which gave him such an eccentric appear- 
ance that he was more than once taken for 
an escaped lunatic. He died of heart disease 
at 22 South Terrace, Alexander Square, 
Brompton, 25 July 1849. He had received 
large sums for his writings, but was not in 
affluent circumstances; a performance for his 
benefit took place at Drury Lane on the day 
of his death, and produced 500/. for his 
family. He married Louisa, daughter of 
Louis Sebastian Mercier, the French critic, 
and widow of Thomas Holcroft [q. vj the 
dramatist. By her he had two sons, James 
and Charles Lamb Kenney [q. v.], and two 
daughters, Virginia and Maria. Mrs. Kenney 
on 13 Oct. 1849 received a civil list pension 
of 40/. a year, which was continued to her 
daughters on her death, 17 Julv 1853. 

Besides the plays mentioned, Kenney wrote 
for Covent Garden, ' Too many Cooks/ a 
musical farce, 12 Feb. 1805 ; ' The Blind Boy/ 
a melodrama, 1 Dec. 1807 ; ' Debtor and Cre- 
ditor/ a comedy, 20 April 1814 ; ' A Word 
for the Ladies/ 17 Dec. 1818 ; and < The 
Green Room/ a comedy, 18 Oct. 1826. For 
the Lyceum he wrote, ' Oh ! this Love, or 
the Masqueraders/ June 1810, and 'The 
Magic Bell.' For Drury Lane he wrote, ' The 
Touchstone, or the World as it goes/ a 
comedy, 3 May 1817; 'A House out at Win- 
dows/ a musical farce, 10 May 1817 : ' Beny- 
owsky, or the Exile of Kamschatka/ an 
operatic play, 16 March 1826; 'Forget and 
Forgive, or a Rencontre in Paris/ 21 Nov. 
1827, reproduced as 'Frolics in France' 
15 March 1828; 'Peter the Great, or the 
Battle of Pultowa/ 21 Feb. 1829 ; ' Hernani, 
or the Pledge of Honour/ a play, 8 April 
1831 ; * A Good-looking Fellow/ in con- 
junction with A. Bunn; and 'The King's 
Seal/ with Mrs. Gore. For the Haymarket 
he wrote, * The Alcaid, or Secrets of Office/ 
a comic opera, 10 Aug. 1824 ; ' Spring and 
Autumn, or Married for Money, a comic 
drama, 6 Sept. 1827; and 'Love Extem- 
pore.' For Madame Vestris at the Olympic 
he wrote 'Fighting by Proxy/ a farce, 9 Dec. 
1833, followed by ' Dancing for Life ' and 
' Not a Word.' Other plays were ' Dominique 
the Possessed;' 'False Alarms/ an opera; 
' Spirit of the Bell/ a comic opera ; ' Hush ! ' 
a musical drama ; ' The Black Domino/ an 

» Kenney 

opera; 'Barbara, Macintosh, & Co./ a farce, 
written for Power ; and ' The Irish Ambas- 
sador.' He also wrote ' Valdi, or the Liber- 
tine's Son/ a poem, 1820. 

[Gent. Mag. January 1850, p. 99 ; Yon have 
heard of them, by Q., 1854, pp. 347-53; Ge- 
nest's English Stage, vii. 613 et seq., viii. 594 
et seq.; CJajden's Rogers and His Contempo- 
raries, passim (Kenney's christian name is 
wrongly given as John in the index) ; Baker's 
Biog. Dram. i. 430; Pascoe's Dramatic List, 
1880, p. 240; Dublin University Mag. January 
1856, pp. 15-24.] G. C. B. 

1841), Irish Jesuit, was born in Dublin on 
7 July 1779. While serving as an apprentice 
to a coachbuilder he attracted the attention 
of Dr. Thomas Betagh [a. v.J, whose evening 
school he attended, and by whom he was 
sent to Carlow College. He afterwards went 
to Stonyhurst College, and entered the So- 
ciety of Jesus on 20 Sept. 1804. He com- 
pleted his studies with much distinction at 
the Jesuit college in Palermo, where he was 
ordained priest. The English, who occupied 
Sicily at the time, formed a plan, which came 
to nothing, for liberating Pope Pius VII, 
then held captive by the French, and Kenney 
was selected to act as interpreter between 
the pope and his rescuers. He also ministered 
as catholic chaplain to the British troops in 
Sicily, but was ordered to discontinue his 
services by the governor of Malta, and the pro- 
hibition was denounced by Grattan in parlia- 
ment. He returned to Ireland in 1811, and 
served one of the parochial chapels in Dublin, 
where he acmureagreat renown as a preacher. 
His friend Dr. Murray, who was then co- 
adjutor to the Archbishop of Dublin, on be- 
coming president of Maynooth College in 
1812, nominated Kenney as vice-president, 
which post he held for about a year. Kenney 
was mainly instrumental in reviving the 
Jesuit mission in Ireland, and was its superior 
for many years, becoming subsequently its 
vice-provincial after the Irish mission was 
made a vice-province of the society. In May 
1814, a few months previous to the restoration 
of the Jesuit order by papal bull, he opened 
Clongowes Wood College, co. Kildare, which 
has since been the leading catholic lay school 
in Ireland, and in later years he aided in the 
establishment of St. Stanislaus College, Tul- 
labeg, King's County, and of thejesuit resi- 
dence of St. Francis Xavier in Dublin ; he 
was also of much assistance to Mary Aiken- 
head [q. v.}, the foundress of the Irish sisters 
of chanty in the institution of her religious 
congregation. In 1819 and in 1830 he was 
sent by the father-general of the order as 
visitor to the Jesuit mission in the United 




States, and in July 1833, during the period 
of his second visit, he published the general's 
decree constituting the American mission a 
province of the society. In Ireland he was 
constantly employed in conducting missions 
and retreats. He died in Rome on 19 Nov. 
1841, and was buried in the church of the 
Gesu in that city. 

Kenney was one of the most eminent 
preachers and theologians in the catholic 
church in Ireland in the early part of this 
century. His style of eloquence resembled 
that of O'Connell, and was, it is stated, much 
admired by Grattan. Manuscript copies of 
his * Meditations ' are preserved. He^began 
several times a history of the Jesuits in Ire- 
land, but did not continue it. There is a 
portrait of him in Maynooth College. 

[Hogan's Chron. Cat. of the Irish Province 
S. J., pp. 85-6; Foley's Records, vii. 414; 
Oliver's Collectanea S. J.; Battersby's Dublin 
Jesuits, pp. 113-16; Meagher's Life of Arch- 
bishop Murray, pp. 89-93 ; Life of Mary Aiken- 
head, by S. A., Dublin, 1879; Eighth Report 
of Commissioners of Irish Education Inquiry — 
Evidence of the Rev. Peter Kenney, London, 
1827; Irish Monthly, xviii. 1, 2, 4, 6, 6, 9, 10; 
Irish Ecclesiastical Record, 3rd ser. xii. 794-9.] 

P. L. N. 

1783), biblical scholar, was son of Benjamin 
Kennicott, barber and parish clerk of Totnes, 
Devonshire, buried 28 March 1770, and of 
his wife Elizabeth, buried 13 Jan. 1749-50, 
over whose remains their son in after years 
erected a large table-tomb in Totnes church- 
yard. He was born at Totnes on 4 April 
1718, and spent seven years as a foundation 
boy at the grammar school, under the Rev. 
Nicholas Roe. When young he was very 
fond of books and of music. The regulations 
which he drew up for the practice of the 
Totnes ringers, and dated 8 Nov. 1742, are 
quoted in Polwhele's 'Devonshire/ i. 320, 
and he gave a brass eight-light candlestick 
for the use of the ringers in the belfry. His 
first appointment was that of master of the 
bluecoat or charity school at Totnes, where 
he attracted attention by some short poems, 
the chief of which was ' On the Recovery of 
the Hon. Mrs. Eliz. Courtenay from her late 
dangerous Illness/ This was printed in 
1743 and 1747, and the manuscripts of several 
others are in the possession of Mr. E. Win- 
deatt of Totnes (Western Antiq. iii. 249). 
Subscriptions were opened for his support at 
Oxford, and, mainly through the Courtenays, 
Ralph Allen, and the Rev. William Daddo, 
master of BlundelFs school at Tiverton, he 
matriculated as servitor at Wadham College, 
Oxford, 6 March 1743-4, whence he wrote a 

warm letter of thanks to Daddo on 30 March 
1744 (Habding, Tiverton, bk. iv. pp. 89-90 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1791, p. 222). He was Pigott ex- 
hibitioner 1744 and 1746, Hody (i.e. Hebrew) 
exhibitioner 1745-7, and bible clerk 3 May 
1746. In order that he might be eligible for 
a fellowship at Exeter College, and as he had 
not resided long enough to qualify in the 
usual way, he was made (m accordance with 
the recommendation of Lord Arran, chan- 
cellor of the university) B.A. by decree and 
without ' examination, determination at Lent, 
or fees/ 20 June 1747, and was duly elected 
to a fellowship, which he retained until 1771. 
His subsequent degrees were M.A. 4 May 
1750, B.D. 6 Dec. 1761, and D.D. 10 Dec. 
1761, and in 1764 he was elected F.R.S. 
Kennicott was instructed in Hebrew by Pro- 
fessor Thomas Hunt (1696-1774) [q. v.J, and 
the greater part of his life was spent in the 
collation of Hebrew manuscripts, nis pre- 
ferments were for many years inconsiderable. 
He was Whitehall preacher about 1753, vicar 
of Culham, Oxfordshire, from 21 Sept. 1753 
to 1783, chaplain to the new bishop of Oxford 
in 1766, and Kadcliffe librarian at Oxford from 
November 1767 to 1783. In July 1770 he 
was appointed to a canonry at Westminster 
Abbey, but soon resigned it for the fourth 
stall at Christ Church, Oxford (1 Nov. 1770). 
From 1771 to 1781 Kennicott held the vicar- 
age of Menheniot, Cornwall, which was given 
to him as a fellow of Exeter College, Oxford, 
by the dean and chapter of Exeter, on the 
recommendation of his steady friend Bishop 
Lowth. This preferment he voluntarily re- 
signed in 1781 in consequence of his inability 
to reside there. After a lingering illness 
Kennicott died at Oxford, 18 Aug. 1783, 
and was buried in Christ Church Cathedral, 
close to Bishop Berkeley's grave, on 21 Aug. 
He married, on 3 Jan. 1771, Ann, sister of 
Edward Chamberlayne (afterwards secretary 
of the treasury). Another of Chamberlavne s 
sisters was wife of William Hayward Roberts 
[q. v.l provost of Eton. Mrs. Kennicott was 
very friendly with Richard Owen Cambridge, 
Mrs.Garrick, Hannah More, and Miss Burnev, 
the last of whom made her acquaintance in 
1786, and praised her as ' famous by having 
studied Hebrew after marriage in order to . 
assist her husband in his edition of the bible; 
she learnt it so well as to enable herself to 
aid him very essentially in copying, examin- 
ing, and revising ,f (Diary of Madame <TAr- 
blay, iii. 237). Bishop Barrington left her an 
annuity of 100/., and from Bishop Porteus 
she received a legacy of 500/. 3/. per cent, 
stock as his ' dear and pleasant friend Mrs. 
Kennicott.' In memory of her husband and 
for the promotion of the study of Hebrew she 




founded two scholarships at Oxford, which 
took effect on her death at Windsor, 25 Feb. 
1830, and her name is perpetuated in the 
bidding prayer among the benefactors of the 
university. Numerous letters to and from her 
are in Roberts's ' Memoirs of Hannah More.' 
Kennicott's great work was his ' Vetus 
Testamentum Hebraicum cum Variis Lec- 
tionibus,' 1st vol. Oxford, 1776, fol. ; 2nd vol. 
1780, fol. To the second volume was an- 
nexed a ' Dissertatio Generalis ' on the manu- 
scripts of the Old Testament, which was 
published separately at Oxford in the same 
year and reprinted at Brunswick in 1783 by 
Paul James Brans, a native of Liibeck, who 
was employed by Kennicott in collating manu- 
scripts at Rome and elsewhere. A copy of 
the entire work, the result of many years as- 
siduous labour, was presented by Kennicott 
in person to George III. In 1753 he issued 
* The State of the printed Hebrew Text of the 
Old Testament considered, a Dissertation,' 
and in 1759 he brought out a second disserta- 
tion on the same subject. These volumes 
were translated into Latin by W. A. Teller, 
and published at Leipzig, the first in 1756, 
the second with additions in 1765. Bishop 
Lowth inspired him with a desire to test 
the accuracy of the Hebrew text of the 
Old Testament. His critical examination of 
the manuscripts began in 1751, and when 
Seeker, then bishop of Oxford,, urged him in 
March 1758 to undertake their regular colla- 
tion, he yielded to the request. His labours 
met with much support. The subscriptions 
made in England for his aid amounted to 
9,1 1 9/. 7*. 6d. In France the Due de N i vernois 
encouraged his design, and he was permitted 
to examine dertain manuscripts at Paris in 
1767. By the king of Denmark's order the 
use of six very ancient manuscripts was 
offered, four quarto volumes of various read- 
ings were sent to him by the command of the 
king of Sardinia, and the stadtholder of Hol- 
land gave a yearly donation of thirty guineas. 
His first report ' On the Collation of the 
Hebrew Manuscripts of the Old Testament ' 
was forwarded to the subscribers in Decem- 
ber 1760, and a similar statement appeared 
each year until 1769. The complete series 
was issued in one volume at Oxford in 1770, 
and the reports to 1768 were translated into 
Latin and included in the ' Bibliotheca Ha- 
gana ... a Nicolao Barkey.' Kennicott was 
twice (1758 and 1769) refused permission 
to borrow manuscripts from the Bodleian 
Library, but he sent to it on 17 Dec. 1760 the 
manuscript collations which he had then 
made. The rest of his collations, with his 
correspondence and miscellaneous codices, 
were at first deposited in the Radcliffe Li- 

brary, transferred to the Bodleian Library on 
10 May 1872, and now rest in the new mu- 
seum. Bishop Barrington gave in 1820 to 
the Bodleian Library a mass of Arabic tracts 
and papers which belonged to Kennicott. 

Johnson said of these investigations that 
'although the text should not be much 
mended thereby, yet it was no small advan- 
tage to know that we had as good a text as 
the most consummate industry and diligence 
could procure ; ' but they were censured by 
some critics for inaccuracy, and by the Hutch- 
insonians through the feeling that they might 
lead men to value the letter rather than the 
spirit of the bible. A volume called * The 
printed Hebrew Text of the Old Testament 
vindicated. An Answer to Mr. Kennicott's 
"Dissertation,"' was written by Fowler Com- 
ings in 1753 (Mbs. Dblany, Autobiography, 
iii. 526), and Julius Bate [q. v.] published 
' The Integrity of the Hebrew Text vindi* 
cated from the Objections and Misconstruc- 
tions of Mr. Kennicott,' 1754. An anony- 
mous pamphlet, ' A Word to the Hutchin- 
sonians, or Remarks on three Sermons lately 
preached before the University of Oxford/ 
1756, was written by Kennicott, and George 
Home [q. vj retaliated with * An Apology 
for certain Gentlemen in the University of 
Oxford,' 1756. Home subsequently issued 
' A View of Mr. Kennicott's Method of Cor- 
recting the Hebrew Text,' 1760 ; but in the 
end they became attached friends. Thomas 
Rutherforth, D.D., King's professor of divinity 
in Cambridge, issued in 1761 a letter to 
Kennicott on his ' Dissertation,' to which he 
at once replied, whereupon Rutherforth pub- 
lished a second letter, and the Rev. Richard 
Parry came out with * Remarks on Dr. Ken- 
nicott's Letters,' 1763. 

Kennicott met with great opposition 
abroad. There appeared in 1771 ' Lettres 
de M. l'Abbe de • • • ex-professeur en He- 
breu . . . au S r Kennicott,' purporting to be 
printed at Rome and sold at Paris, and an 
English translation was struck off in 1772. 
In reply to this work Kennicott at once 
wrote ' A Letter to a Friend occasioned by 
a French Pamphlet [anon.],' 1772. stating 
that it was the composition of six (Januchins 
in the convent of St. Honore at Paris ; but 
it is said by Jones to have been inspired by 
a Jew called Dumay, who had been an as- 
sistant to Kennicott (Jones, Life of Home, 
pp. x-xi, 84-109). Brans published at Rome 
in 1782 a Latin version of this letter by Ken- 
nicott, and added some letters of his own. 
Another defence in reply to this attack was 
written in 1775 by the Rev. George Sheldon, 
vicar of Edwardston, Suffolk. In Italy there 
appeared a censure upon Kennicott's letters 




in ' Des titres primitifs de la Revelation par 
Gabr. Fabricy, Rom»/ 1772, 2 vols. ; but his 
chief opponents were in Germany. O. G. 
Tychsen pronounced bis work * ingens, cui 
lumen ademptum,' and in the ' Bibliotheca 
Orientalis ' of J. I). Michaelis^ pt. xi., there 
appeared a severe criticism on his first volume. 
Kennicott then sent out a long Latin epistle 
to Michaelis, which was printed at Oxford 
in 1777, reprinted in the same year at Leip- 
zig, and inserted in the twelfth part of the 
' Bibliotheca Orientalis ' with the criticisms 
of Michaelis. After the publication of his 
second volume Kennicott drew up a brief 
defence in Latin, ' Contra ephemeridum Goet- 
tigensium criminationes,' 1782. A full list 
oi the pieces against Kennicott is said to 
have appeared in the ' Catalogue of English 
Divinity/ sold by the Dyers of Exeter in 

The four volumes of De Rossi, published 
at Parma, 1784-7, with an appendix in 1798, 
form a supplement to the ' Collations of 
Kennicott. On them are based the editions 
of Doederlein and Meisner (Leipzig, 1793), 
Jahn (Vienna, 1806), and Boothroyd (Pon- 
tefract, 1810-16). Parkhurst, in his * He- 
brew Lexicon/ made much use of Kennicott's 
inquiries, and J. L. Schulze translated into 
Latin and published at Halle in 1782 the 
Hebrew interpretation of the books of Daniel 
and Ezra, which Kennicott had first edited. 

His other works were : 1. ' Poem on the 
Recovery of the Hon. Mrs. Elizabeth Cour- 
lenay' £anon.], Exeter, 1743 ; 2nd edit. [Ox- 
ford], 1 1 47. Only a few copies were printed 
of the first edition. The lady was the Hon. 
Elizabeth Montagu, who had married Kellond 
Courtenay of Painsford, near Totnes,and con- 
tributed to Kennicott's maintenance at Ox- 
ford. Kennicott's sister was her lady's-maid. 
2. ' On the Tree of Life in Paradise : a Critical 
Dissertation on Genesis ii. 8-24/ 1747, 8vo. 
This provoked an anonymous answer called 
' An Enquiry into the Meaning of that Text 
Genesis i. 26, with an Answer to Mr. Ken- 
nicott's Interpretation of the same/ 1748, 
and ' Remarks on Mr. Kennicott's Disserta- 
tion/ by Richard Gifford [q. v.], 1748. 
3. l On the Oblation of Cain and Abel/ 1747 ; 
2nd edit, of this andpreceding volume, 1747 
also. 4. ' Duty of Thanksgiving for Peace/ 
1749. 5. * A Letter to Dr. King, occasion'd 
by his late Apology, and in particular by such 
parts of it as are meant to defame Mr. Ken- 
nicott/ 1755 ; a caustic attack. [See King, 
William, 1685-1763.1 6. ' Christian Forti- 
tude. A Sermon preached before the Univer- 
sity at St. Mary's, Oxford, 25 Jan. 1757/ It 
was much criticised, and was attacked in ' Re- 
marks on Dr. Kennicott's Sermon/ n.d. [1 757], 

and in * A Critical Dissertation on Isaiah viL 
13-16, in which the sentiments of Dr. Kenni- 
cott are cordially and impartially examined/ 
1757. A second edition of the sermon, ' with 
a list of the falsehoods in the Remarks/ came 
out in 1757. 7. ' Sermon before the Uni- 
versity of Oxford/ 1765. 8. * Remarks on a 
Printed Paper entitled li A Catalogue of the 
Sacred Vessels restored by Cyrus,"' 1765, 
attributed to him by Watt. 9. 'Remarks 
on the 42 and 43 Psalms ' [anon.], n.d. [1765]. 
This was soon followed bv a similar trea- 
tise on Psalms 48 and 89. These, when 
translated into Latin with an appendix by 
Bruns, were published by J. C. F. Schulz at 
Leipzig in 1/72. In 1791 the Rev. Henry 
Dimock published ' Notes on the Psalms/ to 
correct the errors of the text in grammar, 
from the collations by Kennicott and De 
Rossi. 10. ' Observations on First Book of 
Samuel, chap. xvi. verse 19/ 1768 ; translated 
into French. 11. 'Critica Sacra, or a Short 
Introduction to Hebrew Criticism' [anon.], 
1774. 12. * Observations on Several Pas- 
sages in Proverbs. With two Sermons. By 
Thomas Hunt/ 1775; they were edited by 
Kennicott. 13. 'The Sabbath. A Sermon 
preached at Whitehall and before the Uni- 
versity of Oxford/ 1781. 14. « Remarks on 
Select Passages in the Old Testament. With 
Eight Sermons, by the late Benjamin Ken- 
nicott/ 1787. Published in consequence of 
directions in his will. Kennicott also con- 
tributed to the Oxford verses on the death of 
Frederick, prince of Wales. His library was 
sold by Tom Payne in 1784. 

[Gent. Mag. 1747 pp. 471-2, 605, 1768 pp. 
147-0, 203-6, 251-3, 366-8, 1771 p. 520, 1783 
pt. ii. pp. 718, 744, 1789 pt. i. p. 289, 1830 pt. i. 
pp. 282, 374; Macray's Bodleian Library, 2nd 
ed. pp. 118, 260, 263, 306, 372 ; Nichols's Iilustr. 
of Lit. iv. 656, v. 627 ; Nichols's Literary Anec- 
dotes, passim ; Boswell's Johnson, ed. G-. B. Hill r 
ii. 128. iv. 288 ; Diary of Madame d'Arblay, iii. 
237 ; Miscell. Qeneal. et Herald. 2nd ser. i. 146; 
Trans. Devon. Assoc. 1 878 ; information from Mr. 
E. Windeatt of Totnes, Mr. T. M. Davenport of 
Oxford, and Mr. R. B. Gardiner of St. Paul's 
School.] W. P. C. 

KENNION, EDWARD (1744-1809), 
artist, was born on 15 Jan. 1743-4 in Liver- 
pool, where his father, James Kennion, was- 
engaged in business. His grandfather, John 
Kennion, was for many years minister of the 
(unitarian) Ancient Chapel of Toxteth Park, 
Liverpool, and was a man of high education. 
A kinsman, John Kennion, took charge of 
Edward's education, placing him first at John 
Holt's school in Liverpool, and sending him 
when he was fifteen to Mr. Fuller s academy 
in London, where he probably first learned 




drawing. In 1762 he sailed for Jamaica, and 
joined the expedition against the Havannah 
under Sir George Pococke and the Earl of 
Albemarle, in which John Kennion was com- 
missary. After the capture of the place he 
returned to England for a time, but again 
went out to Jamaica in 1765 to superintend 
John Kennion's estates, and remained there 
almost continuously till July 1769, when he 
returned to England. By a commission dated 
11 April of that year he was appointed an 
aide-de-camp, with the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel, to the commander-in-chief of the 

On settling in England he engaged in trade 
in London. His marriage in 1774 with Ann 
Bengough, a Worcester lady, brought him 
some property, but he continued in business 
till 1782, when he retired to Rydd-Green, 
near Malvern. About 1771 he had made 
the acquaintance of George Barret ; R.A.,and 
in the following years accompanied him on 
sketching tours. At Rydd-Green he occupied 
himself in making drawings for a book on 
landscape-painting which he had long con- 
templated, in 1784 appeared in 4to No. 1 
of a work on remains of antiquity, which con- 
tained five perspective views of ancient castles 
on the Welsh border, and three ground plans 
engraved in line by R. Godfrey, with full de- 
scriptions by Kennion (cf. Notes and Queries, 
4th ser. iii. 263). The winters of 1787 and 
1788 were passed in London, where he gave 
-drawing lessons, and in 1789 he removed 
thither altogether, adopting the profession of 
a teacher and artist. He was admitted a 
member of the Society of Artists, and was 
a constant contributor of landscapes to its 
exhibitions, sending in all twenty-four works. 
He was also a fellow of the Society of An- 
tiquaries. He exhibited eight landscapes at 
the Royal Academy between 1790 and 1807. 
Meanwhile he continued to work at his book 
on landscapes during frequent visits to the 
neighbourhood of Liverpool and the English 
lakes. In 1790 he etched eight plates as ex- 
amples of the oak-tree, which were published 
with a preface as No. 1 of 'Elements of 
Landscape and Picturesque Beauty/ ob. 4to. 
The death of an uncle, Dr. Kennion, a Liver- 
pool physician, in 1791, increased his re- 
sources, and in 1803 he issued a full prospectus 
of the proposed work. His project had ex- 
panded into an exhaustive treatise on the 
graphic art in 4 vols. He laboured at it con- 
scientiously, and final arrangements were 
made for the publication of a first volume 
early in 1809. But before matters went 
further Kennion died suddenly in London on 
14 April. He left a widow and four children. 

Of all Kennion's collections for his large 

enterprise, ' An Essay on Trees in Landscape ' 
was alone found ready for press. This was 
issued in 1815, many of the plates being en- 
graved or finished in aquatint and soft ground 
etching by his son Charles [see infra]. The 
volume, which is in folio, contains fifty etched 
and aquatinted plates, a preface, a biogra- 
phical notice, and forty-eight pages of letter- 
?ress. With a copy in the Manchester Free 
abrary ' four large unpublished landscapes 
by Kennion, and six studies of trees beauti- 
fully etched by H. W. Williams/ were bound 
up in 1844. The four landscapes are soft ground 
etchings after Kennion by Vivares, folded on 
guards. There seems no reason to suppose the 
six studies were after Kennion's drawings. 
A soft ground etching (in the present writer's 
collection), numbered plate xxi, and dated 
1 Dec. 1796, was published in the volume as 
' plate xx, June 27, 1814.* It is signed ' C. J. 
Kennion/ and is mainly by Kennion's son. A 
small proof soft ground etching, on which 
is written 'Oak at Northan, near Enfield' 
(also belonging to the present writer), has a 
figure and cattle introduced, as was usually 
the case in Kennion's finished drawings. 
Kennion seldom painted in oil, and his earlier 
work was usually executed in Indian ink and 
pencil, but he subsequently tinted his draw- 
ings, and finally, under the influence of his 
friend, George Barret, painted with a full 
strength of colour. He contended that it 
was possible by the touch and manner of the 
execution to indicate the exact foliage re- 
presented, and he practically illustrated his 
opinion in his drawings. He had a very 
thorough knowledge of the principles of art, 
and drew with great skill and accuracy. 

Chables John Kennion (1789-1858) 
painted in water-colour much in the style of 
his father, and his drawings are interesting 
and well finished. He exhibited between 
1804 and 1853 twenty-six landscapes at the 
Royal Academy, and five at the Suffolk Street 
Gallery. He died in Robert Street, Regent's 
Park, London, on 10 Sept. 1853 (Gent, Mag. 
1853, ii. 538). 

[Memoir in Kennion's Essay on Trees ; Da- 
vis's ToxtethPark Chapel, 1884; Graves's Diet, 
of Artists ; private information.] A. N. 

KENNY, Saint (d. 598 P), abbot of 
Achadh-bo. [See Cainnech or Cannictts, 


(1788-1867), compiler of educational works, 
born in 1788, kept for many years a ' classi- 
cal establishment ' at 5 Fitzroy Street, Fitz- 
roy Square, London. He was an accomplished 
chess-player. He died on 16 Nov. 1867, aged 
79 (Gent. Mag. 4th ser. v. 113). His com- 




pilation8 include: 1. 'Practical Chess Gram- 
mar/ 4to, London, 1817 ; 2nd edit, same year. 
2. 'Practical Chess Exercises/ 8vo, London, 
1818. 3. 'Why and Because, being a collec- 
tion of familiar Questions and Answers on 
subjects relating to Air, Water, Light, and 
Fire, altered from the French/ 12mo, London, 
1830; 18th edit. 1854. 4. 'The Manual of 
Science/ 18mo, London, 1844. 5. ' One Thou- 
sand Questions, with their Solutions, onGold- 
emith's Grammar of Geography/ 18mo, Lon- 
don, 1853. 6. ' The Grammatical Omnibus ; 
or, a Methodical Arrangement of the Impro- 
prieties frequent in Writing and Conversation, 
with Corrections/ 8th edit. 8vo, London, 1853. 
7. ' The Improved French Word-Book . . . 
revised by J. Duprat Merigon/ 18mo, London 
(1854). 8. ' The Improved Italian Word- 
Book/ 18mo, London (1854). 9. 'The Im- 
proved Italian Phrase-Book/ 32mo, London 
(1854). 10. 'Improved French Phrase-Book 
. . . revised by J. Duprat Merigon/ 12mo, 
London (1856?). 11. 'School Geography 
. . . [witn] a Treatise on Astronomy, 12mo, 
London, 1856. Kenny edited educational 
works by other writers, and translated, with 
notes, A. Danican Philidor's 'Analysis of the 
Game of Chess/ 12mo, 1819. 

[Kenny** Works.] 



0. 1685), physician and poet, son of Samuel 
enrick of Leigh, Gloucestershire, was born 
about 1052, and entered as a servitor at 
Christ Church, Oxford, on 31 March 1666, 
whence he proceeded B.A. 1669, and M.A. 
1674. At the age of thirty-two, when his 
portrait was engraved by R. White, Kenrick 
was practising as a doctor at his native town 
of Worcester, and was much esteemed there 
as ' a man of wit and a jolly companion.' 
Several poems by ' Dr. Kenrick ' appear in 
' The Grove, or a Collection of Original 
Poems, by W. Walsh, Dr. J. Donne, Mr. 
Dryden, Mr. Butler, Sir John Suckling, and 
other eminent hands/ London, 1721. Ken- 
rick's ' talents/ it is declared in the preface, 
' seem equal in paneygrick, satire, and lvric. 
There is a fire and sprightliness of thinking 
Which runs through all his copies, and to 
this perhaps he owed that haste in his writ- 
ing which made him sometimes negligent of 
Harmony both in Rimes and Numbers/ We 
gather from the same source that Kenrick 
was on terms of intimacy with Mrs. Behn 
and Purcell the musician, and that he died 
before the publication of 'The Grove' in 
1721. There are some verses signed by Ken- 
rick in the fifth vol. of Dryden's ' Miscellany 
Poems/ entitled ' Upon a Giant Angling/ 
These, however, are said by Granger, ' on the 

information of Dr. John Wall/ to have been 
freelv borrowed from a work called 'The 
Mock Romans/ London, 1653, while in 
Pratt's ' Cabinet of Poetry ' (1808) these same 
lines are assigned to Dr. W illiam King (1663- 
1712) [q. v.] The preface to 'The Grove' 
declares that Kenrick took degrees in divinity 
as well as physic. He may therefore be 
identical with Daniel Kenrick, D.D., who 

? reached the assize sermon at Worcester in 
688. . 

[Granger's Biographical Hist. iv. 326; the 
Dean's Entrance Book, Christ Church, Oxford ; 
Dryden's Miscellany Poems, ed. 1727, v. 136; 
Brit. Mus. Cat., where, however, Kenrick is 
entered without christian name.] T. S. 

KENRICK, JOHN (1788-1877), clas- 
sical scholar and historian, was eldest son of 
Timothy Kenrick [q. v.], by his first wife, 
Mary, whose maiden name was Waymouth. 
He was born at Exeter on 4 Feb. 1788. In 
1793, the year of his mother's death, he began 
his education under Charles Lloyd, LL.D. 
[q. v.], and made such progress that in his 
twelfth year he was admitted (1799) to the 
Exeter academy as a student for the ministry 
under his father and Joseph Bretland Tq. v. | 
Thomas Foster Barham (1766-1844) [<j. v.] 
taught him German. His first experience 
in teaching was as locum tenens for James 
Hews Bran8by fa. v.] at Moreton Hampstead, 
Devonshire, in November 1804, when ne had 
Sir John Bowring Tq. v.] as a pupil. On the 
dissolution of the Exeter academy (25 March 
1805) he continued his theological studies 
under John Kentish [q. v.], in whose house 
at Birmingham he was a pupil from June 
1805 till 1807, when he entered at Glasgow 
University on an exhibition from the Dr. 
Daniel Williams trust. Sir Benjamin Hey- 
wood [q. v.] was his fellow-lodger during his 
second and third years at Glasgow. The long 
vacations gave him time forpedestrian tours 
in the western highlands. He obtained dis- 
tinctions in logic, classics, and physical 
science, and gained the Gartmore gold medal 
for an essay on the English constitution dur- 
ing the Tudor period ; he graduated M.A. on 
1 May 1810. 

On leaving Glasgow he accepted a tutor- 
ship in classics, history, and literature at the- 
Manchester College, York (now Manchester 
New College, Oxford), under Charles Well- 
beloved [c[. vj After a summer spent in 
preaching in Exeter and the neighbourhood,, 
he settled in York, and at once made his 
mark as a scholar and disciplinarian. The 
duties devolving on a resident tutor rendered 
his position anxious and irksome. He twice 
tendered his resignation (181 1 and 1817), but 
in July 1817 he was relieved of all residential 

Ken rick 



responsibility, and granted a year's absence for 
study in Germany. He was accompanied 
abroad by tbe theological tutor's second son, 
John Wellbeloved, who died at Homburg. 
During the winter semester he studied history 
at Gottingen under Heeren, attending also 
the lectures of Eichhorn and Blumenbach ; 
the following summer semester he devoted to 
classical study at Berlin under F. A. Wolf, 
Boeckh, and Zumpt, and attended Schleier- 
macher's course of philosophy. He had valu- 
able introductions, including one to the Duke 
of Cumberland, then residing at Berlin, of 
which, however, he was unwilling to avail 
himself. After a tour in southern Germany 
and Switzerland he returned to York in 
September 1820. 

In 1825 Thomas Belsham [q. v.], Mother 
of his stepmother, endeavoured to secure him 
as assistant at Essex Street Chapel, London ; 
but Kenrick had now fixed himself in aca- 
demic life, and though an able exponent of 
his own theological position, had none of the 
gifts of a popular preacher. He remained in 
office as tutor at York till 1840, his place 
being supplied by assistant-tutors during his 
absence from ill-health in the two sessions 
1837-9. In 1840, when the college reverted 
from York to Manchester, and took the name 
of Manchester New College, he became pro- 
fessor of history, and held this chair till 1©50; 
he continued to reside in York, going to Man- 
chester to deliver his lectures. In 1861 he 
was appointed one of the visitors of the col- 
lege, a jjost which he retained until his death. 

Kenrick was, beyond question, the greatest 
scholar of his denomination, the equal of 
Eliezer Cogan [q.v.] in erudition, and his 
superior in culture. His philological publi- 
cations belong to the period following upon 
his studies in Germany ; his historical works 
to his later years of increased leisure. Dr. 
Martineau, who has spoken of Kenrick as 
' the wisest man he ever knew,' describes his 
historical lectures as 'models of selection, 
compression, and proportion/ and regards his 
volume on ' Phoenicia' as his most permanent 
contribution to history. He was a fellow of 
the Society of Antiquaries, one of the founders 
of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society, and 
curator of the department of antiquities in its 
museum ; the Cook collection in the hospi- 
tium was his gift, as also the cast of the obe- 
lisk of Nimrod in the entrance hall of the 
museum. His theology, while essentially 
that of the older unitarian school, was modi- 
fied in its conservatism both by his critical 
judgments and by the simplicity of his reli- 
gious trust. In private intercourse his cour- 
teous dignity, sparing and accurate speech, and 
incisive humour left a strong impression of 

reserve of power and force of character. Id 
person he was of middle height, with a light 
but well-knit frame, and a noble forehead. 

He died at York on 7 May 1877, having 
preserved his faculties to the great age or 
eighty-nine. He was buried on 12 May in 
the York cemetery ; his funeral sermon was 
preached by Charles Wicksteed. His portrait 
has been engraved. He married, on 13 Aug. 
1821, Lastitia (d. 27 Sept, 1879, aged 84), 
eldest daughter of Charles Wellbeloved, his 
colleague, but had no issue. 

He published, besides seven single sermons 
(1814-36), including a sermon (7 June 1827) 
before the British and Foreign Unitarian As- 
sociation : 1. 'A Grammar of the Latin Lan- 
guage, by C. G. Zumpt. Translated . . . 
with Additions/ &c, 1823, 8vo; 4th edit. 
1836, 8vo. 2. ' Exercises of Latin Syntax/ 
&c, 3rd edit. 1835, 12mo(also 'Key' to this). 

3. ' An Introduction to Greek Prose Com- 
position,' &c, pt. i. 2nd edit. 1836, 12mo ; 
pt. ii. 1835, 12mo (also 'Keys' to both parts), 

4. ' 'Hpodorov ol AiyCimoi Aoyoi. The Egypt 
of Herodotus,' &c, 1841 , 8vo. 5. ' An Essay 
on Primaeval History,' &c, 1846, 12mo. 
6. ' Ancient Egypt under the Pharaohs,' &c, 
1850, 8vo, 2 vols. 7. ' The Value of the 
Holy Scriptures,' &c, 1851, 12mo. 8. 'Me- 
moir of Jonn Kentish,' prefixed to 'Sermons,' 
1854, 12mo. 9. ' Phoenicia,' &c, 1855, 8vo. 
10. ' Biographical Memoir of Charles "Well- 
beloved,' &c, 1860, 8vo (reprinted from the 
'Christian Reformer'). 11. 'Biblical Essays,' 
&c, 1864, 12mo (reprinted from periodicals, 
the most important being 'On the Gospel of 
Mark,' regarded as the protevangelion). 
12. 'Papers on Archaeology and History/ 
&c, 1864, 12mo. 13. ' Memorials of the 
Presbyterian Chapel, St. Saviourgate, York,' 
&c, York, 1869, 8vo (originally contributed 
to the ' Unitarian Herald ' in 1862). In 1832 
he edited for Bishop Blomfield the fifth edi- 
tion of the translation of Matthiae's ' Greek 
Grammar,' by Edward Valentine Blomfield 
[q.v.], the bishop's younger brother; and 
published separately (1833) an 'Index of 
Quotations from Greek Authors' contained 
in it. His inaugural lecture in the chair of 
history is in the 'Introductory Discourses 
... in Manchester New College,' &c, 1841, 
8vo. He contributed biographical and cri- 
tical articles to the ' Monthly Repository/ 
' Christian Reformer,' ' Prospective Review,' 
and other periodicals. 

[Manuscript autobiography to 1810, begun 
1870 and finished 14 Feb. 1872; Roll of Stu- 
dents, Manchester College, 1868 (with manu- 
script additions) ; Christian Life, 12 May 1877, 
llOct.1879; Inquirer, 19May 1877 ; Martineau's 
In Memoriam, in Essays, Reviews, and Addresses, 




1890, i. 397 sq. (reprinted from the Theological 
Beview) ; Palmer's Older Nonconformity of 
Wrexham [18891, p. 52; imprinted letters of 
Belsham, Wellbeloved, and Kenrick.] A. G-. 

KENRICK, TIMOTHY (1759-1804), 
unitarian commentator, third son of John 
Kenrick of Wynne Hall in the parish of 
Ruabon, Denbighshire, by Mary, daughter 
of Timothy Quarrell of Llanfyllin, Mont- 
gomeryshire, was born at Wynne Hall on 
26 Jan., and baptised on 6 Feb. 1759. His 
ancestor, Edward Kenrick, was owner of the 
Talbot Inn, Wrexham, in 1672. In 1774 he 
entered Daventry academy under Caleb Ash- 
worth, D.D. [q.v.l succeeded in 1775 by 
Thomas Robins. While yet a student he 
was chosen assistant-tutor in classics ; dur- 
ing one session he read lectures for Robins, 
who lost his voice, and on Robins's resigna- 
tion (1781) he continued under Thomas 
Belsham [g. v.] as classical and afterwards as 
mathematical tutor. In January 1784 he be- 
came colleague to James Manning at George's 
Meeting, Exeter, and was ordained there on 
28 July 1785. The two pastors worked well 
together, though Manning was an Arian, 
while Kenrick followed Belsham in theology, 
and drew up (1792) the preamble of the 
Western Unitarian Society, excluding Arians. 

In 1798 he declined an invitation to the 
divinity chair in the Manchester Academy 
(now Manchester New College, Oxford). In 
the summer of 1799 he opened a noncon- 
formist academy at Exeter, having Joseph 
Bretland [q. v.] as his coadjutor. He followed 
the Daventry model, and had the use of a 
library formed for the academy carried on 
(1690-1720) by Joseph HaUett (1656-1722) 
fq. v.], and revived (1760-71) under Samuel 
Merivale. In Kenrick's academy, which was 
finally closed on 25 March 1805, eleven 
students, including James Hews Bransby 
fq. v.], received the whole, and four others, 
including Kenrick's eldest son, a part of their 
training. Kenrick died suddenly while on a 
visit to Wrexham, on 22 Aug. 1804. He was 
buried on 26 Aug. in the dissenters' graveyard 
*t Rhosddu, near Wrexham, where there is 
an inscription to his memory. He married, 
first, in 1786, Mary (d. 1793), daughter of 
John Waymouth of Exeter, who died in giving 
birth to her sixth child ; John, the eldest son, 
is separately noticed. He married/secondly, 
in 1794, Elizabeth (d. 1819), second daughter 
of James Belsham, and sister of his former 
tutor, but had no issue by the second marriage. 

He published four single sermons (1788- 
1795), and there appeared posthumously: 
1. ' Discourses on Various Topics/ &c, 1805, 
8vo, 2 vols. 2. 'An Exposition of the His- 
torical Writings of the New Testament/ &c, 

1807, 8vo, 3 vols, (with ' Memoir' by John 
Kentish [q. v.]), a work of gTeat ability, which 
well represents the exegesis of the older uni- 
tarian school. 

Kbnbick, Gbobgb (1792-1874), fourth son 
of the above, born at Exeter on 28 Oct. 1792, 
became a pupil of Lant Carpenter, LL.D. 
[q. v.1 studied at Glasgow College (1808-10) 
and Manchester College, York (1810-13V and 
was unitarian minister at Chesterfield (1813- 
1814), Hull (1815-21), Maidstone (1822-6), 
Hampstead (1829-45% and Battle (1845-7). 
He was a trustee of Dr. Williams's founda- 
tions, 1833-60. In 1860 he retired in en- 
feebled health to Tunbridge Wells, where 
he died on 2 Dec. 1874. He married, first, 
in 1817, the youngest daughter of Richard 
Hodgson, unitarian minister at Doncaster ; 
secondly, Lucy, sister of Sir John Bowring 
fq. v.]; thirdly, Sarah (d. 1888), daughter of 
Thomas Walters. He published sermons and 
contributed to the 'Monthly Repository ' and 
other periodicals. 

[Memoir prefixed to Exposition, 1807 (re- 
printed in Monthly Repository, 1808, pp. 87 sq.) ; 
Monthly Repository, 1818 p. 230, 1822 pp. 197, 
557 sq. ; Murch's Hist. Presb. and Gen. Bapt. 
Churches in West of England, 1835, pp. 406 sq , 
507 sq.; Inquirer, 12 Dec. 1874; Jeremy's Pres- 
byterian Fund, 1885, pp. 202 sq. ; Palmer's Older 
Nonconformity of Wrexham [1889], p. 76.] 

A. G. 

KENRICK, WILLIAM (1725 P-1779), 
miscellaneous writer, born about 1725, was 
the son of a staymaker at or near Watford, 
Hertfordshire. He was brought up as a scale- 
maker, or in some such employment, but early 
became a hack writer. He nad a strong love of 
notoriety, a jealous and perverse temper, and 
was often drunk and violent. He became the 
enemy of every decent and successful person, 
and so notorious as a libeller that few con- 
descended to answer him. His vanity led 
him to fancy himself equal to any task with- 
out serious study. 

His first publication was a verse satire 
called < The Town/ 4to, London, 1748. He 
next edited a miscellany of prose and verse, 
ostensibly contributed by various writers, 
entitled * The Kapelion, or Poetical Ordinary ; 
consisting of great variety of Dishes in Prose 
and Verse ; recommended to All who have 
a good Taste or keen Appetite. By Archi- 
magirus Metaphoricus/ 8vo, London. It was 
published in sixpenny numbers from August 
to December 1750. He wrote a ' Monody ' 
on the death of Frederick, prince of Wales, 
London, 1751 ; 2nd edition, same year. Under 
the pseudonym ' Ontologos ' he published a 
tract called * The Grand Question Debated ; 
or, an Essay to Prove that the Soul of Man 




is not, neither can it be, Immortal/ 8vo, 
Dublin, 1751 ; which was followed by * A 
Reply to the Grand Question Debated ; fully 
Proving that the Soul of Man is, and must 
be, Immortal/ 8vo, London, 1751, dedicated 
to the Archbishop of Canterbury. This was 
his first experiment in the plan of answering 
himself when no one else cared to do so (cf. 
his Pasquinade, p. 18 ».) In 1762 he pub- 
lished a burlesque <»Ued ' Fun : a Parodi- 
tragi-comical Satire/ attacking Fielding and 
Dr. John Hill (1716 P-1775) [q. v.l An in- 
tended private performance at the Castle 
Tavern, Paternoster Row, on 13 Feb. 1752, 
was suppressed, at Fielding's desire, by a 
special oraer from the lord mayor and court of 
aldermen. It was anonymously printed, and 
copies were presented to all who had taken 
tickets (Baker, Bxog. Dram. 1812, ii. 253). 
Kenrick next attacked Hill (anonymously) 
in ' The Pasquinade. With Wotes variorum. 
Book the First/ 4to, London, 1753. A second 
book, apparently never written, was to have 
libelled Christopher Smart, with whom he 
was at the time involved in controversy. Ac- 
cording to Kenrick's account, Smart had ad- 
vertised an ' Old Woman's Dunciad/ directed 
against Kenrick, but Kenrick had imme- 
diately published a piece under the same 
title, upon which Smart abandoned his de- 
sign (Pasquinade, p. 20 n. } During the same 
year Kenrick wrote an imitation 01 Dodsley's 
'(Economy of Human Life' (which then 
passed for Lord Chesterfield's), called ' The 
Whole Duty of Woman. By a Lady. Written 
at the desire of a Noble Lord/ 12mo, London, 
1753; 3rd edition the same year. In 1756 
he published without his name a few copies of 
a philosophical poem in octosyllabics, called 
* Epistles to Lorenzo/ 8vo, London, which 
obtained the praises of the * Critical Review ' 
(iii. 162-7). It was republished with altera- 
tions as * Epistles, Philosophical and Moral/ 
8vo, London, 1759 [1758] ; 4th edition, as 
'Epistles to Lorenzo/ 1773. Its sceptical 
tone having been censured in the ' Critical 
Review' (vi. 439-53), Kenrick defended him- 
self in an anonymous pamphlet called ' A 
Scrutiny, or the Criticks criticis'd/ &c, 8vo, 
London, 1759. 

In January 1759 Kenrick was appointed 
to succeed Goldsmith as a writer in the 
' Monthly Review/ and states that he con- 
tributed the review of foreign literature for 
vols, xxiii. to xxxiii. He also reviewed Gold- 
smith's ' Enquiry ' in November 1759 (xxi. 
389), inserting at the request of the proprie- 
tor, Ralph Griffiths [q. v.], so vile an attack 
upon Goldsmith that even Griffiths was 
ashamed of it Kenrick was therefore in- 
structed to explain away his insinuations in 


a favourable critique of Goldsmith's 'Citi- 
zen of the World/ which appeared in the 
4 Monthly Review ' for June 1762 (xxvi. 477). 

Kenrick (anonymously) translated Rous- 
seau's ' Eloisa/ 4 vols. 12mo, Dublin, 1761, 
and ' Emilius/ 3 vols. 12mo, Edinburgh, 1763. 
For the ' Eloisa ' he received the degree of 
LL.D. from the university of St. Andrews 
(European Mag. x. 20 ».) He also translated 
Rousseau's ' Miscellaneous Works/ 5 vols. 
12mo, London, 1767. 

Kenrick assailed Johnson's ' Shakespeare ' 
(published October 1765), not without a cer- 
tain coarse smartness, in * A Review of Dr. 
Johnson's new edition of Shakespeare; in 
which the Ignorance, or Inattention of that 
Editor is exposed, and the Poet defended from 
the Persecution of his Commentators/ 8vo, 
London, 1765 (Bos well, Life of Johnson, ed. 
G. B. Hill, i. 497). A threatened continua- 
tion never appeared, nor did a promised 
castigation 01 Johnson's ' Dictionary/ to be 
entitled* A Ramble through the Idler's Dic- 
tionary : in which are picked up several 
thousand Etymological, Orthographical, and 
Lexicographical Blunders.' Kenrick's atten- 
tion was diverted by a pamphlet written by 
an Oxford student named Barclay, entitled 
4 An Examination of Mr. Kenrick's Review ' 
[of Johnson's ' Shakespeare '], 1766. He re- 
taliated with ' A Defence of Dr. Kenrick's Re- 
view. ... By a Friend/ subscribed ' R. R./ 
8vo, London, 1766. Johnson was displeased 
with Barclay for doing what he disdained to 
do for himself (ib. ii. 209, v. 273). Kenrick 
again attacked Johnson in 'An Epistle to J. 
Boswell, Esq., occasioned by his having trans- 
mitted the Moral Writings of Dr. S. Johnson 
to Pascal Paoli : with a Postscript, containing 
Thoughts on Liberty ; and a Parallel after the 
manner of Plutarch, between the celebrated 
Patriot of Corte and John Wilkes, Esq., M.P. 
By W. K., Esq./ 8vo, London, 1768. At 
Johnson's request Boswell refrained from 
answering that and another scurrilous libel by 
Kenrick, called 'A Letter to James Boswell, 
Esq., on the Moral System of the Idler/ 8vo. 

Kenrick used to lecture at the ' Devil/ 
Temple Bar, and other taverns on every con- 
ceivable subject, from Shakespeare to the 
perpetual motion, which he thought he had 
discovered. Soon after his attack on John- 
son he issued proposals for a new edition of 
' Shakespeare/ with a commentary ' in a man- 
ner hitherto unattempted.' A few people 
were foolish enough to subscribe. After 
eight years had passed he informed them that, 
in consequence of George Steevens's com- 
mentary, the 4 intended publication ' was for 
the present 'laid aside.' To console his sub- 
scribers he presented them with a meagre 




instalment of his public lectures, called an 
' Introduction to the School of Shakespeare. 
,- . . To which is added a Retort Courteous 
on the Criticks/ &c, 8vo, London [1774], 

Kenrick wrote for the stage, and ibr a time 
was patronised by Garrick. An abridgment 
Of his comedy ' FalstaJTs Wedding,' in con- 
tinuation of Shakespeare's ' Henry IV ' (pub- 
lished in 1760), was performed once at Drury 
Lane, 12 April 1766 (Genest, v. 05). Two 
editions were issued in 1766; others in 1773 
and 1781. Garrick's refusal to risk a further 
representation produced Kenrick's ' Letter to 
David Garrick, Esq., on the non-perform- 
ance of " Falstaff's Wedding," &c./4to (two 
editions). Another of his comedies, 'The 
Widow'd Wife' (printed in 1767 and 1768), 
was acted on 5 Dec. 1767, and reached a ninth 
night, though only through Garrick's j udicious 
alterations (ib. ill. 405-7). Garrick is said 
to have acted ungenerously in the division 
of the profits {European Mag. x. 19-21), and 
a quarrel followed. Kenrick challenged Gar- 
rick to a duel, but had not the courage to fight 
(Garrick Correspondence, ii. 341). When in 
1772 Isaac Bickerstaffe [q. v.] was driven 
from society, Kenrick grossly connected it by 
allusion with Garrick in a satire entitled 
' Love in the Suds ; a Town Eclogue. Being 
the Lamentation of Roscius for the Loss of 
his Nyky/fol. London, 1772, ostensibly edited 
for an anonymous author. Prefixed is a most 
impudent letter to Garrick signed ' W. K.' 
Despite Garrick's attempts to suppress it, five 
editions of the libel were published during the 
year, each with additional papers and letters. 
The last edition contains ' The Poetical Alter- 
cation between Benedick and Beatrice/ ex- 
tracted from the 'Morning Chronicle, 1 and 
written in defence of Garrick by Joseph Reed, 
the ropemaker and dramatist, though he had 
himself quarrelled with Garrick (Lysons, 
Environs, ii. 431 ; Nichols, Lit. Anecd. ix. 
118). Kenrick gave a minute account of his 
quarrel in ' A Letter to David Garrick, Esq. ; 
occasioned by his having moved the Court 
of King's Bench against the publication of 
" Love in the Suds/' ' &c., 4to, London, 1772. 
Kenrick finally inserted an abject apology in 
the newspapers for 26 Nov. 1772, with which 
Garrick professed to be satisfied (Garrick 
Correspondence, i. 477). Kenrick afterwards 
told Thomas Evans (1742-17&4) [q. v.], the 
bookseller, that he did not believe Garrick 
guilty, but 'did it to plague the fellow/ 
Evans never spoke to him again. In 1773 
Kenrick publisned a venomous anonymous 
' Letter to D. Garrick, Esq., on his Conduct 
as principal Manager and Actor at Drury 
Lane. With a Preface and Notes by the 
Editor/ 4to, London [1773]. 

Kenrick now offered his plays to Colman at 
Covent Garden. He had haa in 1768 a violent 
quarrel with Colman, who in his ' True State of 
the Differences, &c./ 1768 (p. 60) had ridiculed 
the ' philosophical experiments ' of Kenrick, 
and hinted that Kenrick was treacherously 
trying to supplant him as manager. KenricK 
retorted with a verse ' Epistle to G. Colman/ 
4to, London, 1768 ; 2nd edition same year. 
By March 1771 they had composed their dif- 
ferences (Colman, Posthumous Letters, 1820, 
pp. 168-61), and on 20 Nov. 1773 (Genest, 
v. 414) Colman produced Kenrick's comedy 
' The Duellist/ of which three editions were 

Srinted in the same year. The play was 
amned at once, on account, says Kenrick in 
his preface, of the resentment of the audience 
at Macklin's discharge. His comic opera, 
' The Lady of the Manor/ with music by 
James Hook, altered from Charles Johnson's 
' Country Lasses/ failed in 1778 (ib. vi. 
89). Three editions and an altered version 
appeared in the same year. Another farce, 
called 'The Spendthrift, or a Christmas 
Gambol' (not printed), was acted for two 
nights also in 1778 according to the ' Bio- 
graphia Dramatica ' (iii. 295). 

It was perhaps with some desire to pro- 
pitiate Kenrick that Goldsmith consented in 
1768 to take part in editing Griffin's ' Gentle- 
man's Journal/ in which Kenrick was a lead- 
ing writer. In 1771 Kenrick, having grossly 
libelled Goldsmith in the ' Morning Chro- 
nicle/ was forced by Goldsmith, upon an 
accidental meeting in the Chapter Coffee- 
house, to admit that he had lied. As soon 
as Goldsmith had left the room Kenrick 
abused him to the company, repeating various 
slanders. He was probably also the author 
of the atrocious attack upon Goldsmith and 
Miss Horneck, published in the 'London 
Packet ' in 1773, for which Goldsmith thrashed 
the publisher, Evans [see under Goldsmith, 
Oliver, where the date is misprinted 1771]. 
Kenrick is said to have been in the house at 
the time, and to have separated the com- 
batants, and sent Goldsmith home in a coach 
(Fobstbe, Life of Goldsmith, 1888, ii. 347- 

Kenrick ceased writing for the ' Monthly 
Review ' in 1766, when he announced in the 
newspapers that he was about to establish a 
new literary review. The first number of 
his ' London Review of English and Foreign 
Literature' did not appear until January 
1775. In the editing Kenrick was latterly 
assisted by his son, William Shakespeare 
Kenrick, who carried it on after his father's 
death until June 1780. The review contains 
attacks upon members of every profession. 
Kenrick's ' Observations on S. Jenyns's " View 




of the Internal Evidences of the Christian 
Religion " ' (vol. iii., appendix), was reissued 
in an enlarged form, 12mo, London, 1776. 

In 1770 Kenrick published i An Account 
of the famous Wheel of Hesse-Cassel, in- 
vented by Orn^Teus,' 4to ; and in 1771 ' Two 
Lectures on the Perpetual Motion, as dis- 
covered by the Author/ 4to. In 1774 he col- 
lected in part the ' Poetical Works ' of Ro- 
bert Lloya in two octavo volumes, with a life 
of the author, remarkable for being written 
without dates. In 1775 he commenced a 
translation of Button's * Natural History,' and 
in 1778 a translation of some of Voltaire's 
works. His last undertaking was an anony- 
mous translation of Millot's 'Elements of 
General History/ 2 pts. 8vo, London, 1778- 
1779. On 19 May 1779 he petitioned the 
attorney-general for a patent for a mechani- 
cal principle of self-motion (Gent. Mag. xlix. 
269). He died on 10 June 1779 (xb. xlix. 
327), and was buried on the 13th in Chelsea 
Old Church (Lysons, ii. 141). His portrait 
was engraved by Worlidge in. 1766. 

In his later years Kenrick seldom wrote 
without a bottle of brandy at his elbow. 
Though a superlative scoundrel, he was 
clever, and especially proud of the rapidity 
of his writing ; even his more serious works 
seldom occupied him more than two days 
(Pasquinade, p. 20 n.) His other writings are : 
1. ' Poems ; Ludicrous, Satirical, and Moral/ 
8vo, London, 1768 ; new edition, with addi- 
tions, 1770. 2. ' A new Dictionary of the 
English Language.- . . . To which is prefixed 
a Rhetorical Grammar/ 4to, London, 1773. 
3. ' An Address . . . respecting an Applica- 
tion to Parliament for the farther Encourage- 
ment of new Discoveries and Inventions . . ./ 
with an appendix upon ' the late decision on 
literary property/ 4to, London, 1774 4. 'Ob- 
servations, Civil and Canonical, on the Mar- 
riage Contract, as entered into conformably 
to the Rites ... of the Church of England/ 
8vo, London, 1776. 5. ' Free Thoughts on 
Seduction, Adultery, and Divorce/ 8vo. 
6. ' Rural Poems, translated from the Ger- 
man of Gesner/ 8vo. 

[Prior's life of Goldsmith, 1837, pp. 293-6 ; 
Forster's Life of Goldsmith, 1888, passim; Chal- 
mers's Biog. Diet. xix. 323-7; Baker's Biog. 
Dram. 1812, i. 430-1 ; Faulkner's Chelsea, 1829, 
ii. 137; Georgian Era, iii. 546-7; Goldsmith's 
Miscellaneous Works, 1801, i. 103; Davies's 
life of Garrick, ii. 132 ; Murphy's Life of Gar- 
rick, ii. 32, 33 ; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. xi. 
480, 4th ser. x. 9, 5th ser. iv. 209, 6th ser. viii. 
267, 410 ; Cat of Advocates' Library, iv. 831-2 ; 
The Recantation and Confession of Dr. Kenvick 
(a satirical piece), 1772 ; The Kenrickiad (a satire 
by 'Ariel'), 1772; Poetical Review . . . a Sa- 

tirical Display of the literal Characters of Dr. 
K*nr**k (no date) ; Evans's Cat. of Engraved 
Portraits, ii. 231.] G. G. 

KENT, Dtjke of (1664P-1740). [See 
under Grey, Henby, 1594-1651.] 

AUGUSTUS, Duke of (1767-1820), prince, 
fourth son of George III, by Q ueen Charlotte, 
born on 2 Nov. 1767 at Buckingham House, 
had his early education in England under 
John Fisher, successively bishop of Exeter 
and Salisbury [q. v.], and completed it on 
the continent under Baron Wangenheim, with 
whom he spent two years (1785-7) at Lune- 
burg and Hanover, and two years more at Ge- 
neva. On 30 May 1 786 he was gazetted brevet- 
colonel. Wangenheim treated him with 
needless rigour, allowed him only a guinea 
and a half a week pocket-money out of the an- 
nuity of 6,000/. provided for his maintenance, 
and intercepted nis letters home. The prince 
accordingly borrowed largely, and the debts 
thus contracted were a burden to him through- 
out life. In June 1790 he came home from 
Geneva without leave. The king was much 
displeased, gave him peremptory orders to 
embark for Gibraltar, and saw him for only 
five minutes on the night before he sailed 
(1 Feb.) At Gibraltar he was put in com- 
mand of the 7th regiment of foot (royal 
fusiliers). He at once showed himself a 
thorough martinet, and became so unpopular 
with his men that in May 1791 he was sent 
to Canada. 

He was now in receipt of an income of 
5,000/. a year, but out of this he had to pay 
the interest on his debts. In October 1793 
he was advanced to the rank of major-general, 
and received at his own request orders to join 
Sir Charles (afterwards Lord) Grey's force in 
the West Indies. The navigation of the St. 
Lawrence being interrupted, he travelled by 
land at considerable risk from Quebec to 
Boston, and there took ship for Martinique, 
where he arrived on 4 March 1794. In com- 
mand of a brigade of grenadiers he took part 
in the reduction of tnat island, and also of 
St. Lucia, was honourably mentioned in des- 
patches, and received the thanks of parlia- 
ment. On the close of the operations he re- 
turned to Canada, and on 16 Jan. 1796 was 
promoted to the rank of lieutenant-general. 
In October 1798 he was invalided by a fall 
from his horse, and returned to England. 

In March 1799 parliament granted him an 
annual income of 12,000/., and on 23 April 
he was raised to the peerage as Duke of Kent 
and Strathern and Earl of Dublin. On 
10 May he was gazetted general, and on 
17 May commander-in-chief of the forces in 





British North America. He sailed in July, 
but was compelled by ill-health to return to 
England in the autumn of the following year. 
On 27 March 1802 he was appointed governor 
of Gibraltar, where he arrived on 10 May 
with express instructions from the Duke of 
York, then commander-in-chief, to restore 
the discipline of the garrison, which was seri- 
ously demoralised. He accordingly issued a 
general order, forbidding any but commis- 
sioned officers to enter the wine-shops, half 
of which — there were ninety on the Kock — 
he summarily closed at a personal sacrifice 
of 4,000/. a year in licensing fees. The in- 
censed wine-sellers plied the soldiers with 
liquor gratis, and a mutiny, to which it was 
thought some of the officers were privy, broke 
out on Christmas eve 1802. The mutiny 
was promptly quelled, three of the ringleaders 
were shot, discipline was thoroughly restored, 
and in the following March tne duke was 
recalled. On his return to England he de- 
manded a formal investigation of his conduct, 
Which was refused. He then asked to be 
permitted to return to Gibraltar ; this also 
was refused. He still remained nominally 
governor, but without pay; the standing 
orders he had issued while in command were 
set aside by the lieutenant-governor, Sir 
Thomas Trigge, and the garrison relapsed 
into its former condition. On 7 Sept. 1805 
the duke was gazetted field-marshal, and on 
25 Nov. following keeper and paler of Hamp- 
ton Court. For some years he resided at 
Castle Hill, near Ealing, taking little part 
in state affairs. He was, however, the con- 
fidant and adviser of the Prince of Wales in 
his matrimonial difficulties. In 1810 he op- 
posed the Regency Bill as unconstitutional. 
In 1812 he spoke in favour of catholic emanci- 
pation, and became a patron of the British and 
Foreign School Society, the Anti-Slavery So- 
ciety, the Society for Promoting Christianity 
among the Jews, and the Bible Society. In 
1815 and 1816 he took the chair at the Literary 
Fund dinner. Finding his pecuniary embar- 
rassments increase, and getting no relief from 
government, he made in 1815 an assignment 
of the bulk of his property in favour of his 
creditors, and retired to Brussels, where he 
lived in the simplest possible style. In 1818 
he married, for reasons of state, Victoria 
Mary Louisa [see Kent, Victoria. Mary 
Louisa, Duchess of], widow of Emich 
Charles, prince of Leiningen. The marriage 
was solemnised on 29 May at Coburg, and on 
13 July following at Kew. Returning with 
his bride to the continent, he resided with 
her at her palace of Amorbach, Leiningen, 
until the spring of 1819, when he brought her 
to England for her confinement. After the 

birth of the child (now Queen Victoria) on 
24 May, at Kensington Palace, he took the 
duchess and the princess to Sidmouth, Devon- 
shire, and applied to parliament for authority 
to dispose or his establishment at Ealing by 
lottery, a sale being unadvisable, for the 
benefit of his creditors. The petition was re- 
fused, and the duke had made up his mind 
to return to Amorbach, when he died sud- 
denly of inflammation of the lungs at Sid- 
mouth on 23 Jan. 1820. During his illness- 
he was attended with the utmost devotion 
by the duchess, to whom he left his entire 
property. He was buried in St. George's* 
Chapel, "Windsor, on 11 Feb. 

As a soldier the duke never had an oppor- 
tunity of gaining high distinction, ana his 
pedantic, almost superstitious, insistence 
upon minutiae of military etiquette, dis- 
cipline, dress, and equipments, made him un- 
popular in the army. He was, however, the 
first to abandon flogging and to establish a 
regimental school. He was extremely regular 
in his habits, a model of punctuality and 
despatch in the discharge of duty, and sin- 
cerely pious. He was a knight of the orders 
of the Garter, Bath, and St. Patrick, and a 
knight grand cross of the Bath and of the- 
order of the Guelphs. There is a portrait of 
the duke, together with his elder brother the 
Duke of Clarence (afterwards William IV), 
at Hampton Court Palace, dated 1779. A 
bronze statue by Gahagon is in Park Cres- 
cent, Portland Place. 

[The principal authority is the Life by Erskine 
Neale, 1850. There are also obituaries in the 
Gent. Mag. and European Mag. for 1820. Refe- 
rence may also be made to Nicolas's Hist, of 
British Knighthood; Smeeton's The Unique, 
vol. i. (with portrait); London Gazette for 
1793, 1796, 1799, 1802, 1805; Annual Re- 
gister, 1767 p. 170, and 1794 App. 68 et seq.; 
Commons' Journals, liv. 311 ; Geut. Mag. 1790 
p. 80, 1818 pt. i. p. 562, pt. ii. p. 79, 1819 pr. 
l. p. 479 ; and the Duke of Buckingham's Memoirs 
of the Regency, ii. 390.] J. M. R. 

Duchess of (1786-1861), fourth daughter x)f 
Francis Frederic Antony, hereditary prince 
(afterwards duke) of Saxe-Saalfeld-Coburg, 
by Augusta Carolina Sophia, daughter of 
Henry, count Reuss-Eberstadt, was born at 
Coburg on 17 Aug. 1786, and married on 
21 Dec. 1803 to Emich Charles, hereditary 
prince, afterwards prince of Leiningen-Dachs- 
burg-Hardenburg, a widower twenty-three 
years her senior. The marriage was happy, 
and on the death of the prince (4 July 1814) 
he left his widow guardian of their only son, 
Charles Frederick William Ernest (1804- 
1856), and regent of the principality. Her 




only other child by the prince was Anne 
Peodorowna Augusta Charlotte Wilhelmina 
<1807-1872), who resided with her mother 
till her marriage on 18 Feb. 1828 to Ernest 
Christian Charles, prince of Hohenlohe-Lan- 

Princess Victoria Mary married in 1818 a 
second husband, Edward Augustus, duke of 
Kent [q.v.], fourth son of George III. The 
marriage ceremony took place at Coburg on 
29 May, and was repeated at Kew on 13 July. 
By the Duke of Kent she had an only 
•daughter, Alexandrina Victoria, now queen 
of England. On the duke's death on 23 Jan. 
1820 the duchess was in straitened circum- 
-stances, having only a jointure of 6,000/. and 
an allowance of 3fi00l. made her by her 
brother Leopold. In 1825, however, parlia- 
ment voted ner an annuity of 6,000/. towards 
the support and education of her daughter 
Victoria, and a further annuity of 10,000/. 
was granted her in 1831. In the previous 
year she had been appointed regent of the 
realm in the event of her daughter succeeding 
to the throne while yet a minor. She resided 
at Kensington Palace, devoting herself to the 
-education of her daughter, and during the 
reign of George IV saw little society ; but as 
the Princess Victoria grew up she took her 
from time to time to visit most of the places 
of interest in England, and withered round 
lier at Kensington a small highly intellectual 
coterie. She regretted the princess's accession 
to the throne in 1837 as depriving her of her 
one interest and occupation. Thenceforward 
she accompanied the court on its periodical 

She died of cancer atFrogmore on 16 March 
1861, and was buried in St. George's Chapel, 
"Windsor, on 25 March, whence her remains 
were transferred to the royal mausoleum at 

[Almanach de Gotha for 1790, 1805-6, 1817, 
1829; Commons' Journals, lxxx. 471, lxxxvi. 
pt. ii. p. 727 ; Duke of Buckingham's Memoirs of 
the Courts and Cabinets of William IV and 
Victoria, ii. 24 ; Greville Memoirs, 1837-52, i. 
15; Gent. Mag. 1861, pt. i. p. 456; Sir Theodore 
Martin's Life of the Prince Consort.] J. M. B. 

KENT, Eabls of. [See Burgh, Hubert 
de, d. 1243 ; Edmund 'of Woodstock/ 1301- 
1329 ; Grey, Edmund, first Earl (of the 
Grey line), 1420P-1489; Grey, George, se- 
cond Earl, d. 1503 (under Grey, Edmund, 
first Earl); Grey, Henry, ninth Earl, 
1594-1651; Holland, Edmund, fourth Earl 
<of the Holland line), d. 1408 (under Hol- 
xand, Thomas, second Earl); Holland, 
Sir Thomas, first Earl, d. 1360 ; Holland, 
Thomas, second Earl, 1350-1397; Hol- 
land, Thomas, third Earl, and Duke of 

Surrey, 1374-1400; Neville, William, rf. 
1463 ; Odo, d. 1097, bishop of BayeuxJ 

KENT, Maid of. [See Barton, Eliza- 
beth, 1506 P-1534.] 

KENT, JAMES (1700-1776), organist and 
composer, born at Winchester on 13 March 
1700, was admitted in November 1711 as 
chorister of Winchester Cathedral, under 
Vauffhan Richardson. In 1714 he was sent to 
London, and was for four years a chorister of 
the Chapel Royal, under Dr. William Croft 
[q. v.l In 1718, through the influence of the 
sub-dean (the Rev. John Dolben),he was ap- 
pointed organist to the parish church of Fine- 
don, Northamptonshire. 4 An organ stool is 
still preserved at Finedon, on which Kent 
carved the initials and date, " J. K., 1717," 
probably a record of a visit anticipatory of his 
becoming organist there ' (Bemrose). In 1731 
he was elected organist to Trinity College, 
Cambridge, and held the post till 1737, when 
he succeeded John Bishop [a. v.] as organist of 
Winchester Cathedral and College. The lat- 
ter appointment he resigned in 1/74 to Peter 
Fussefi, and died in "Winchester on 6 May 
1776. He was married to Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of John Freeman. 

In 1773 Kent published, in London, a col- 
lection of twelve anthems. He also wrote 
services in C and D, and assisted Dr. Bovce 
in the compilation of the latter's ' Cathedral 
Music' His anthems were republished in 
London by T. Gresham in 1844. A selec- 
tion of eight of them, together with Kent's 
two services, was edited in two volumes by 
Joseph Corfe. 

Kent's music never rose above mediocrity, 
and he unscrupulously plagiarised the worts 
of the Italian composers, especially Bassani, 
and also of Dr. Croft, whose style he closely 
followed. He took the chorus ' Thy Righteous- 
ness/ in the anthem 'Lord, what love,' from 
Bassani's i Magnificat * in G minor, with very 
little alteration ; and the * Hallelujah ' in the 
anthem ' Hearken unto this ' is transcribed 
note for note from Bassani's ' Alma Mater* 

[Grove's Diet, of Music, ii. 50, and i. 150; 
Bemrose's Choir Chant Book, App. p. xxii; 
Hogarth's Musical Hist. p. 299 ; Winchester 
Chapter Books ; Kent's music in Brit. Mus.l 

R. F. S« 

KENT, JOHN, or Sion Cent (J. 1400), 
also called John op Kentchurch, Welsh 
bard, is said to have been born at Cwm 
Tridwr in the parish of Egllwisilan, or, ac- 
cording to others, at Kilgerran, Pembroke- 
shire. He was educated By an uncle named 
Davydd Ddu o Lwyn Davydd Ddu, who 




lived at Pentyrch, and was afterwards a 
farm-servant near Caerphilly, but being ill— 
.treated fled to Kentchurch,Herefordshire, and 
entered the service of the Scudamore family 
there. His patrons sent him to Oxford, and 
eventually he became a parish priest, first at 
Newcastle Emlyn, and then at Kentchurch. 
He is said to have lived to the age of a 
hundred and twenty. The popular legends 
make Kent a magician, and many stones of 
his power are still current in Monmouthshire ; 
' as great as the devil and John of Kent ' is 
a local proverb. One legend relates that he 
outwitted the devil by being buried half 
within and half without the church at Kent- 
church. Another tombstone, without an in- 
scription, is shown as Kent's at Grosmont, 
Monmouthshire (Symonds, Diary, p. 204, 
Camd. Soc.) In the possession of the Scuda- 
more family at Kentchurch there is an an- 
cient portrait, supposed to represent Kent ; 
it is engraved in Coxe's ' Tour in Monmouth- 
shire/ p. 338. The Scudamores are descended 
from a daughter of Owen Glendower, and 
hence some have conjectured that Kent was 
Glendower in disguise. 

Kent apparently sympathised with Old- 
castle, ana it has been conjectured that he 
was the pretended chaplain John, whose 
services at the lollard leader's house in Kent 
excited the censure of Archbishop Arundel 
(Wilkins, Concilia, iii. 330-1); but for this 
there is no sufficient authority. Kent sati- 
rised the clergy and friars ; but there seems 
to be no evidence for describing him as a 
lollard. He is one of the best of the Welsh 
poets, and one of the first and most success- 
ful cultivators of ' continued ' verse. Numer- 
ous Welsh poems are extant under his name. 
Wilkins gives a list of forty-four pieces. Four 
are printed in the 'Iolo MSS.,' pp. 285, 286, 
•290, 304 (Welsh MSS. Soc. 1848). . One of 
his poems is a ' Lamentation on the Condi- 
tion of the Welsh under Henry IV,' and in 
another poem he alludes to the death of Sir 
John Oldcastle. Poems by Kent are to be 
found in Additional MS. 24980, and in the 
Myfyr MSS. (Add. MSS. 14962, 14965-7, 
14972; 14974, 14977-9, 14984, 14988, 15004- 
15008, 15010, 15038) in the British Museum. 
Besides his poems, Kent is said to have been 
the 'author of a grammar, of ' The Apologue 
of Einiawn abGwalchmai/ 'LlyfryrOfferen,' 
'Araith y Tri Brodyr/ of a version of St. 
John's Gosnel in Welsh, and of some fables, 
besides Latin theological treatises. 

The suggestion that John Kent is identi- 
cal with John Kent or Gwent ( fl. 1348) is 
impossible. The latter was a Franciscan, 
and doctor of theology at Oxford, where he 
was" divinity reader for his order. He was 

twentieth provincial of the IVanciscans in 
England, is said to have worked miracles, 
and was the author of a commentary on the 
' Sentences ' of Peter Lombard. He died at 
Hereford, and was buried there (Monumentu 
Franciscana, i. 538, 554 ; Leland, Comment, 
de Scriptt. pp. 376-7). 

[Information supplied by the Rev. M. G-. Wat- 
kins; Wilkins's Hist, of Literature of Wales, pp. 
50-9 ; Iolo MSS. pp. 676-7, 682, 687 ; Williams's 
Eminent Welshmen, pp. 268-9 ; Coxe's Tour in 
Monmouthshire, pp. 336-8 ; Cambrian Journal, 
Tenby, 1859, pp. 268-75 ; Phillips's History of 
Cilgerran, p. 151 ; two biographical sketches in 
Welsh are contained in G-eirlyfr Bywgraphiadol 
o Enwogion Cymru, pt. ii. and Geiriadur Byw- 
graffyddol o Enwogion Cymru.] C. L. K. 

KENT, NATHANIEL (1737-1 810), land 
valuer and agriculturist, born in 1737, was 
first employed in the diplomatic service as 
secretary to Sir James Porter at Brussels. 
During his stay there he set himself to study 
the husbandry of the Austrian Netherlands, 
which was at that time held to be the best in 
Europe. Some of Kent's letters to Sir James 
Porter dated 1765 and 1766 are in Brit. Mus. 
MS. Egerton 2157. Returning to England in 
1766, he drew up an account of Flemish hus- 
bandry at the request of Sir John Cust, speaker 
of the House of Commons, and was persuaded 
by him to quit diplomacy and devote himself 
to agriculture. He shortly afterwards made 
the valuable acquaintance of Benjamin Still- 
ingfleet [a. v.] the naturalist. Kent pub- 
lished in 1 / 75 ' Hints to Gentlemen of Landed 
Property/ London, 8vo (3rd edit. 1793), con* 
taining, among other valuable suggestions, 
some designs for labourers' cottages, which 
were greatly in advance of his time (Donald- 
son, Agricult. Biog. p. 59). The book brought 
him employment on a large scale as an estate 
agent and land valuer, and he did much to 
improve English methods of land manage- 
ment (cf. Gent. Mag. 1811, pt. i. p. 182). 
His work lay chiefly in Norfolk, the farmers 
of which county presented him in 1808 with 
a silver goblet in acknowledgment of his ser- 
vices to agriculture, but he also suggested 
extensive embankments in Lincolnshire, 
which were successfully executed. Besides 
the ' Hints ' he contributed ' A General View 
of the Agriculture of the County of Norfolk 9 
to the ' Survey ' issued by the board of agri- 
culture in 1794, with supplementary remarks, 
Norwich, 1796, and several papers to vols. iv. 
v. and vi. of Hunter's l Georgical Essays/ 
York, 1803. Kent was for a short time bailiff 
of George Ill's farm in the Great Park at 
Windsor. Particulars concerning the king's 
farm, communicated by him to the Society 
of Arts in 1798, were subsequently published 




in pamphlet form. He died of apoplexy at 
Fulham, Middlesex, 10 Oct. 1810. 

Another Nathaniel Kent (Jl. 1730), 
scholar, born at Weedon, Northamptonshire, 
was educated at Eton and King's College, 
Cambridge. He proceeded B.A. 1729, A.M. 
1733, and became a fellow of King's College. 
In 1744 he was for a time deranged, but re- 
covered, and in 1748 was head-master of 
Wisbech school, and afterwards curate of 
Kersey in Suffolk. While at Cambridge he 
published 'Excerpta qussdam ex Luciani 
Samosatensis Operibus. In usum Tyronum/ 
Cambridge, 17o0, 8vo. Latin notes and a 
Latin version accompany the text. The 
work was several times reprinted in London ; 
the third edition ' prioribus auctior et emen- 
datior ' appeared in 1767 ; another ed. 1788. 

[For the land valuer see Gent. Mag. 1810, 
pt. ii. pp. 396, 452 ; Kent's books in Brit. Mus. 
Cat.; and authorities quoted; for the scholar see 
Harwood's Alumni Etonenses, p. 315; Cat. of 
Cambridge Graduates; Cooper's Memorials of 
Cambridge, i. 220; Brit. Mus. Cat.] R. B. 

KENT, ODO of {d. 1200), abbot of Battle. 
[See Odo.] 

KENT, THOMAS {d. 1489), mathema- 
tician, was elected fellow of Merton College, 
Oxford, in 1480. According to Tanner and 
Pits, he had no small reputation as an astro- 
nomer and mathematician, and issued pre- 
dictions as to the severe winter and famine 
of 1490. He died, however, of the plague 
7 Sept. 1489, and was buried in the Merton 
burying-ground. He is said to have written 
a treatise on astronomy, but if he did so it 
has perished. 

Another Thomas Kent (Jl. 146(F) was 
clerk to the privy council. He graduated 
as a doctor of civil and canon law, probably 
at Cambridge, and was clerk to tne privy 
council as early as 1444. His name conse- 
quently appears at the foot of many acts of 
the privy council (cf. Nicolas, Proceedings 
of the Privy Council, vi. 31, 87, 38, &c; 
Stevenson, Letters and Papers illustrative 
of the Wars of the English in France during 
the Reign of Henry F7,i.490,493,&c; forhis 
signature see Brit. Mus. Cotton. MS. Galba, 
B. I. 151). Kent was frequently employed 
as an ambassador to various countries. On 
4 July 1444 he was appointed, with Sir Hum- 
frey Stafford, William Pyrton, and William 
Cote8broke, to treat for commercial inter- 
course with Holland and Zealand (Rymer, 
JFcedera, xi. 67). On 20 July 1459 he was 
one of several commissioners, among whom 
was the Bishop of Durham, to treat with the 
king of Scotland about a truce (ib. xi. 424) ; 
las last embassy seems to have been entered 

upon 20 Sept. 1467, when he made arrange- 
ments for the marriage of Charles the Bold 
, with Margaret, sister of Edward IV (ib. p. 
; 390). His salary when on an embassy seems 
1 to have been 20*. a day {ib. p. 504). Mean- 
| while, on 7 Jan. 1444-5, he had been appointed 
sub-constable of England, at a salary of one 
! hundred marks a year from the customs of 
Southampton {ib. p. 75). A Thomas Kent, 
1 who may have been the same as the ambas- 
| sador, resigned the rectory of St. Dunstan-in- 
the-East, London, in 1443, and was presented 
1 to the rectory of Woodford, Essex, 22 Aug. 
, 1458. 

I [Tanner's Biog. Brit. ; Pits, ReL Hist, de Eeb. 
, AngL p. 91 4 ; Wood's Hist, and Antiq. of Univ. of 
, Oxf. ed. Guteh, App. p. 203 ; Brodrick's Memo- 
rials of Merton (Oxf. Hist. 80c.), pp. 37, 64, 241. 
For the ambassador see authorities quoted; New- 
1 court's Repert. i. 333, ii. 662 ; and for his other 
1 embassies see Rymer's Feeder*, pp. 138, 186,187, 
I 189, 229, 233, 241, 269, 272, 274,304,415,424, 
504, 524, 541, 542, 563, 565, 576, 578, 590.1 

W. A. J. A. 

KENT, WILLIAM (1684-1 748), painter, 
sculptor, architect, and landscape gardener, 
was born in the North Riding of Yorkshire 
in 1684, and was apprenticed to a coach- 
painter in his fourteenth year. Five years 
afterwards he left his employer without 
leave and came to London. There he made 
some attempts at portrait and historical 
painting, which, says Walpole, induced some 
* gentlemen of his country (county ?) to send 
him to Rome. He went to Rome in company 
with John Talman [<j. v.], the first director 
of the Society of Antiquaries, studied under 
the Cavalier Luti, and gained a second prize 
in the second class at the academy. At 
Home also he met with other patrons. Sir 
William Wentworth allowed him 40/. a year 
for seven years, and in 1716 he attracted the 
notice of the Earl of Burlington [see Boyle, 
Richard, third Earl of Burlington! who 
brought him to England with him, ana gavo 
him apartments in his town house for the re- 
mainder of his life. Through the influence 
of the earl he soon obtained extensive em- 
ployment in portrait-painting, and covered 
the walls and ceilings in the houses of the 
aristocracy with historical and allegorical sub- 
jects. Among the works mentioned by Horace 
Walpole are ' full-lengths y (for the Right 
Hon. Henry Felham [a. v.]) at Esher, Surrey; 
frescoes in the hall at Wanstead House (now 
destroyed), Essex; ceilings and staircases for 
Sir Robert Walpole at Houghton, Norfolk ; 
and a staircase at Rainham, Norfolk, for 
Lord Townshend. But his talents did not 
lie in this direction. Hogarth's verdict, that 
neither England nor Italy ever produced a- 




more contemptible dauber than Kent, has 
not been reversed since. William Mason, 
in the 'English Garden/ praises Kent's land- 
scape gardening at the expense of his paint- 
ing ; and even Horace Walpole, who regarded 
him as a 'genius in other branches of art, 
tells us that Kent's portraits * bore little re- 
semblance to the persons who sat for them, 
and the colouring was worse/ and that ' in 
his ceilings Kent's drawing was as defective 
as the colouring of his portraits, and as void 
of every merit. He adds that Sir Robert 
Walpole would not permit him to work in 
colours at Houghton, but restrained him to 
chiaroscuro. His portrait-painting was also 
the theme of a witty epigram by Lord Chester- 
field :— 

As to Apelles, Amnion's son 
Would only deign to sit ; 

So, to thy pencil, Kent ! alone 
Will Brunswick's form submit ! 

Equal your envied wonders! save 

This difference we see, 
One would no other painter have — 

No other would have thee. 

Hogarth did not spare him or his patron. 
In two plates,' Masquerades and Operas, Bur- 
lington Gate ' (1724), and 'TheMan of Taste ' 
(1732) — the Man of Taste was Burlington, 
not Kent — he introduced the statue of 
Kent surmounting the gate of Burlington 
House, and supported on a lower level by 
those of Raphael and Michael Angelo ; and 
in his ' Burlesque on Kent's Altar-piece at 
St. Clement's* (St. Clement Danes in the 
Strand, 1725) he caricatured without mercy 
the feeble composition and bad draughts- 
manship, which nad already led Bishop Gib- 
son to order its removal from the church. But 
Kent was able by his influence at court to re- 
taliate upon Hogarth by preventing him from 
executing a portrait group of the royal family 
and other works (see ' Notes by George Vertue ' 
in the Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 23076, p. 66). 

Nevertheless Kent easily made his way in 
high society by his winning manners and the 
authority with which he spoke on questions 
of art, and he soon became the fashionable 
oracle in all matters of taste. His skill in 
design was so prized that, according to Horace 
Walpole, ' he was not only consulted for fur- 
niture, as frames of pictures, glasses, tables, 
chairs, &c, but for plate, for a barge, for 
a cradle. And so impetuous was fashion 
that two great ladies prevailed on him to 
make designs for their birthday gowns. The 
one he dressed in a petticoat decorated with 
columns of the five orders ; the other like a 
bronze, in a copper-coloured satin with orna- 
ments of gold. 

] When he first seriously turned his atten- 
| tion to architecture is not clearly ascertained, 
but he probably began at an early date to assist 
the Earl of Burlington in his architectural 
designs ; and in 1727, with the assistance of 
his lordship, he published two folio volumes 
of the ' Designs of Inigo Jones/ with a few 
by the earl and himself, and one by Palladio, 
the master and guide of them all. Kent's 
designs in this volume were mostly of chim- 
| neypieces and doors, but included one for a 
royal art gallery, in which panels for paintings 
alternated with niches for sculpture. Many of 
the nobility and some of the royal family were 
among the subscribers to this handsome work. 
Kent went a second time to Home, before 
1719, and in 1730 he paid a third visit there to 
study architecture and buy pictures for Lord 
Burlington. It was perhaps on this occasion 
that he acquired the collection of engravings 
formed by his old master Luti, who had died 
in 1724. After his return he added largely 
to his reputation as an architect and a land- 
scape gardener. He altered and decorated 
Kensington Palace, of which the staircase 
was thought by Horace Walpole to be ' the 
least defective work of his pencil.' He built 
the Horse Guards and the mock of treasury 
buildings (the central portion of a design 
never fully executed) which overlook the 
parade at Whitehall. Devonshire House in 
Piccadilly, the Earl of Yarborough's in Ar- 
lington Street, and Holkham, Norfolk, the 
seat of the Earl of Leicester, are also examples 
of his skill in the Palladian style, and do more 
than any other of his existing works to justify 
the high patronage whieh he enjoyed. 

Despite his poor ability he was selected 
to execute the statue of Shakespeare for 
Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey, and 
was appointed principal painter to the crown 
after the death of Charles Jervas [q. v.] in 
1739. Besides this office he held those of 
master-carpenter, architect, and keeper of the 
pictures, all of which, together with a pension 
of 100/. a year for his works at Kensington 
Palace, brought him an income of §001. 
' Kent's style, says Walpole, ' predominated 
authoritatively during his life.' He was still 
engaged on his most important and favourite 
work (Holkham) when he died at Burlington 
House of an attack of inflammation in the 
bowels on 12 April 1748. He was buried 'in 
a very handsome manner ' in Lord Burling- 
ton's vault at Chiswick. ' His fortune/ says 
Walpole, 'which with pictures and books 
amounted to about 10,000/., he divided be- 
tween his relations and an actress, with whom 
he had long lived in particular friendship.' 

It is only as an architect that Kent's 
artistic reputation now survives. If, as has 




been asserted, he had any hand in designing 
the beautiful colonnade of Burlington House 
(now lying neglected on the embankment 
at Battersea), this reputation might stand 
higher, but there appears to be no sufficient 
reason for depriving the Earl of JBurlington 
of the full merit of this work. On the other 
hand, there seems to be no doubt that he 
was the real designer of Holkham, although 
the plans were published after Kent's death 
by his pupil and assistant, Matthew Bret- 
tingham, without any mention of Kent [see 
Brettingham, Matthew, the elder, and 
Brettikghah, Robert FurzeJ. He was a 
faithful follower of the Palladian style, the 
principles of which he understood, and his 
Duildings, especially the Horse Guards, have 
the merit of fine proportion. As a decorator 
and designer of furniture he was heavy, but 
not without style. 

Other works of Kent which are praised by 
Walpole are a staircase at Lady Isabella 
Fincn's in Berkeley Square, the 'Temple of 
Venus ' at Stowe, and the great room at the 
Right Hon. Henry Pelham's in Arlington 
Street. For this statesman he also built a 
Gothic house at Esher ; and other works in the 
same style were the law courts at Westminster 
and a choir screen in Gloucester Cathedral ; 
but all these have been demolished. His most 
important ' gardens ' were those of Sir Charles 
Cotterel Dormer and of Carlton House, but 
they no longer exist. Walpole calls him 
the ' father of modern gardening/ ' the in- 
ventor of an art that realizes painting and 
improves nature. Mahomet imagined an Ely- 
sium, but Kent created many. His claim 
to be the inventor of that more natural style 
of gardening and planting which was after- 
wards developed so greatly by 'Capability* 
Brown [see Brown, Lancelot] and others 
seems to be well founded, although Bridg- 
man, who invented the * haha,' was to some 
extent his predecessor. The principles Kent 
followed were those laid down by Pope in his 
4 Epistle to the Earl of Burlington/ and had 
been illustrated by Pope himself in his famous 
garden at Twickenham. Mason, in his 'Eng- 
lish Garden/ speaks of Kent as Pope's ' bold 
associate.' In connection with John Wootton 
fq. v.] Kent designed some illustrations to 
Cay's 'Fables/ and he executed the vignettes 
to the large edition of Pope's ' Works/ and 
plates to Spenser's ' Fairy Queen/ 1751. All 
of these are poor, and the last are execrable. 

Kent designed the decorations of the chapel- 
royal at the marriage in 1734 of Princess 
Anne and the Prince of Orange, and published 
an engraving of the scene. He also published 
a print of Wolsey's hall at Hampton Court. 

Two pictures by Kent are still exhibited 

at Hampton Court Palace, ' The Interview of 
Henry V and the Princess Katharine* (784>, 
and the marriage of the same persons (788); 
and a model by Kent for a palace in Hyde 
Park is also to be seen there. A portrait of 
Kent by himself was lent by the Rev. W. V. 
Harcourt to the Loan Exhibition of Portraits 
at South Kensington in 1867. 

[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting; Redgrave's 
Diet. ; Bryan's Diet. (Graves and Armstrong); 
Redgraves' Century of Painters ; Cunningham 8 
Lives of British Artists, 1831 ; The English 
Garden, by W. Mason, Commentary, &c, by W. 
Burgh, 1783 ; Fergusson's History of Architec- 
ture; Gwilt'a Encyclopedia of Architecture; 
Sarsfield Taylor's Fine Arts in Great Britain and 
Ireland ; Cat. of Loan Exhibition of Portraits at 
South Kensington, 1867 ; Biographic Universelle, 
article 'Luti, Benoit; ' Nichols's Literary Anec- 
dotes, v. 329, vi. 150; Chalmers's Diet.; Gould's 
Sketches of Artists ; Pye's Patronage of British 
Art ; Seguier's Diet. ; Nagler's Kiinstler-Lexi- 
kon; Hist.MSS. Comm. 12th Rep. (1891), App. 
pt. ix. p. 191 ; Dobson s Hogarth (1891).] 


KENT, WILLIAM (1751-1812),captain 
in the navy, born in 1761, son of Henry Kent 
of Newcastle-on-Tyne, and of his wife Mary, 
sister of Vice-admiral John Hunter [qyv.], was 
promoted to the rank of lieutenant in 1781, 
and after continuous service in the Channel 
and North Sea was appointed in 1795 to the 
command of the Supply, in which, on 15 Feb., 
he sailed for New South Wales, in company 
with his uncle, Captain Hunter, in the Re- 
liance. The ships arrived at Sydney on 
7 Sept., and for the next five years Kent 
was employed in the service of the colony, 
making several voyages to Norfolk Island 
and the Cape of Good Hope, and surveying 
parts of the coast of New South Wales. In 
October 1800 he sailed for England in com- 
mand of the Buffalo, and on his arrival was 
reappointed to her, June 1801, for the re- 
turn voyage to Sydney, where, in October 
1802, he was promoted by the governor, 
Captain King, to the rank of commander. 
In the following April he was ordered to go 
to Norfolk Island with stores, and thence 
through the islands examining their capa- 
bilities as to the supply of cattle and forage. 
He was afterwards to go to Calcutta and 
bring back as many cows as possible of the 
best breed. On 19 May he made the south- 
west coast of New Caledonia, and discovered 
a ' beautiful and extensive harbour/ which 
he named Port St. Vincent, where he re- 
mained for several weeks (Kent, Journal, 
Quoted in 'Quarterly Review,' iii. 32). In 
January 1804 he was at Calcutta (Addit. 
MS. 13758, f. 96), and returned to Port 




Jackson in June, bringing back a supply of 
cattle and other stores. He was afterwards 
moved into the Investigator, which had 
undergone a thorough repair [cf. Flutdebs, 
Matthew], and in 1805 was sent home with 
important information about the state of 
Peru. The Investigator was paid off at 
Plymouth on 22 Dec. 1806, and on 22 Jan. 
1806 Kent was advanced to post rank. In 
November 1808 he was appointed to the 
Agincourt, and from her was moved to the 
Union of 98 guns, in command of which, off 
Toulon, he died 29 Aug. 1812. 

In 1791 Kent married his cousin Eliza, 
daughter of William Kent of Newcastle-on- 
Tyne, and left issue one son, born at Sydney 
in 1799. A portrait of Kent in pastel is in the 
possession of his grandson Mr. Charles Kent. 

[Information from Mr. Charles Kent ; Gent. 
Mag. 1810 pt. i. p. 288. 1812 pt. ii. p. 400; 
O'Byrne's Naval Bio£. Diet s.n. 'Kent, William 
George Carlile ; ' Collms's Account of the English 
Colony in New South Wales, if. 306 ; Flinders's 
Voyage to Terra Austral is ; official letters, &c, 
in the Public Record Office.] J. K. L. 

KENTEN (d. 686), West-Saxon King. 
[See Centwine.] 

KENTIGERN or St. Muxgo (518P-603) 
was the apostle of the Strathclyde Britons. 
There is a fragment of a life of Kentigern by 
an unknown author of the twelfth century, 
and a biography written near the close of that 
Century by Jocelyn, a monk of Furness, who 
tells us that he had before him two lives of 
the saint, one used in the church, and another 
in the vernacular; that in both of these there 
was something contrary to sound doctrine and 
the catholic faith, and that his purpose was 
to compile a life free from these blemishes, 
and to ' season what had been composed in a 
barbarous way with Roman salt.' The main 
facts given by these writers of the twelfth 
Century are regarded as historical, and are 
to some extent confirmed by the records of 
Wales, Adamnan's ' Life of St. Columba/ and 
the dedication of churches to St. Kentigern 
in the localities associated with his life. 

Kentiffern was born probably in 518. His 
mother, Thenaw, was tne daughter of Loth, 
a British prince, after whom the Lothians 
are called, and whose seat was at Traprain 
Law, then named Dunpelder, halfway be- 
tween Haddington and Dunbar. Prior to 
that time there had been a church at Dun- 
pelder, and though Loth is described as a 
semi-pagan, his daughter was a Christian, and 
perhaps a nun. She was sought in marriage 
dv Owen or Ewen, a Briton of the noblest 
stock, but she refused his offer, preferring a 
life of virginity. Her father was so indignant 
that he handed her over to the charge of a 

swineherd, who was secretly a Christian, 
Her suitor met her by stratagem in a wood, 
and having violated her she became pregnant. 
When her father heard of her condition, he 
caused her to be hurled from the top of a hill 
called Kepduff, but she escaped without in- 
jury. He then put her in a coracle, or boat of 
hides, in Aberlady Bay, and left her to theT 
mercy of the winds and waves. The boat was 
first carried out beyond the Isle of May, then 
driven up the Frith to Culross, where she 
landed, and where her child, a son, was born. 
Mother and son were brought into the pre- 
sence of a Christian pastor, an earlier St. Serf, 
or one to whom that name was afterwards 
erroneously given, who on seeing the child 
( exclaimed in Celtic, ' Mungo/i.e. my dear one. 
1 Mother and child were baptised by him, the 
1 latter receiving the christian name of Kenti- 
gern, or head chief, in allusion to his descent. 
I He was trained in the monastic school at 
I Culross kept by the saint, and became one of 
his chief favourites. In early manhood he left 
his protector to become a missionary to the 
people of his own race, and took up his resi- 
dence at Cathures (now Glasgow), beside a 
cemetery and a church founded by St. Ninian 

E<j. v.], but then in ruins. There he was chosen 
ushop by the king, clergy, and people who 
remained Christian, and was consecrated, ac- 
cording to Jocelyn, by a bishop summoned 
from Ireland for the purpose. After some 
years he suffered such persecution from hea- 
thens in the neighbourhood, the kindred of a 
King Morken, that he removed to Wales. On 
the way he stopped for a time in the Cumber- 
land mountains, where he converted many 
to the faith, and then went to Menevia (now 
St. Davids). Having obtained a grant of land 
from the king of North Wales or the king's 
son, he founded the monastery of Llanelwy 
(afterwards St. Asaph's) in the vale of Clwycf, 
and gathered around him 965 monks, some of 
whom were employed in agriculture, others in 
education and the conducting of divine ser- 
vice, while the more experienced accompanied * 
Kentigern on his missionary tours. The Dattle 
of Arthuret, near Carlisle, fought in 573, esta- 
blished the supremacy of the Christian party 
among the Britons of the north, and Redde- 
rech the Bountiful, who then became king of 
Strathclyde, sent messengers to recall Kenti- 
gern. The latter appointed Asaph his suc- 
cessor in the monastery, and returned to the 
north with many of his monks. Redderech * 
and his people met him at Hoddam in Dum- 
friesshire, and welcomed him with great joy. 
There he fixed his see for some years, found- 
ing churches and ordaining clergy ; and at this 
gjriod he visited Galloway, and reclaimed ite 
ictish inhabitants from the idolatry and 




heresy into which they had fallen after the 
death of St. Ninian. After this Kentigern 
returned to Glasgow, which hecame hence- 
forth the headquarters of Christianity among 
the Strathclyde Britons. He was the great 
means of planting or restoring Christianity in 
that large district which afterwards formed 
the diocese of Glasgow. He also visited 
Alban, i.e. Scotland north-east of the Forth, 
and the dedication of some churches in Aber- 
deenshire bears witness to his labours in that 
quarter. He is also said somewhat doubt- 
fully to have sent missionaries to Orkney, 
Norway, and Iceland. In his later years St. 
Columba (of whose intercourse with King 
Hedderech we have traces inAd amnan's 'Life' ) 
came from Iona with many followers to visit 
him. Kentigern went out to meet him with 
a large retinue, and as the two bands ap- 
proached they sang alternately appropriate 
verses of the Psalms. The two venerable men 
exchanged crosiers in token of mutual affec- 
tion. Kentigern died on 13 Jan. 603, and his 
grave is shown in the crypt of Glasgow Cathe- 
dral, named from him St. Mungo's. Jocelyn 
says he lived to the age of 187, but historians 
are agreed in striking off the century. Many 
miracles were in after times attributed to 
him ; e.g. he ploughed his fields with a stag 
and a wolf from the forest, sowed sand and 
reaped wheat, caused the Clyde to overflow 
its banks, and to bring the barns of the king 
who persecuted him to his own dwelling. 
When some of the highland clergy who 
came with St. Columba stole one of his rams 
and cut off its head, he caused the decapitated 
animal to run back to the flock, and turned 
the head to stone in the hands of the thief. 
"When a boy at Culross he restored to life a 
pet robin which his companions had torn in 
pieces, and kindled a fire with a frozen oak 
branch. King Hedderech found a ring which 
he had given to his queen on the finger of a 
sleeping knight, threw it into the Clyde, and 
then demanded it of his spouse. In her distress 
she applied to the saint, and he sent a monk 
to the river to fish, who caught a salmon with 
the ring in its mouth. Hence the bird, tree, 
fish, and ring in the arms of Glasgow. 

[Bishop Forbes's St. Kentigern in vol. v. of 
the Historians of Scotland ; Skene's Celtic Scot- 
land, vol. ii. ; Notes and Queries, 2nd series, i. 
194, ii. 13, 92 ; Diet, of Christian Biog.] 

G. W. S. 

KENTISH, JOHN (1768-1853), unita- 
rian divine, only son of John Kentish (d. 
1814), was born at St. Albans, Hertfordshire, 
On 26 June 1768. His father, at one time a 
draper, was the youngest son, and ultimately 
the neir, of Thomas Kentish, who in 1723 was 
High sheriff of Hertfordshire. His mother 

was Hannah (d. 1793), daughter and heiress 
of Keaser Vanderplank. After passing 
through the school of John Worsley at Hert- 
ford, he was entered in 1784 as a divinity 
student at Daventry academy, under Thomas 
Belsham [q. v.], William Broadbent [q. v.T, 
and Eliezer Cogan [q. v.] In September 1788 
he removed, with two fellow-students, to the 
new college at Hackney, in consequence of 
a prohibition by the Coward trustees of any 
use of written prayers at Daventry. In the 
autumn of 179K) he left Hackney to become 
the first minister of a newly formed unita- 
rian congregation at Plymouth Dock (now 
I Devonport), Devonshire. A chapel was built 
in George Street (opened 27 April 1791 by 
TheophUus Lindsey [q. v.]), and a prayer^ 
book drawn up by Kentish and Thomas Porter 
of Plymouth. In 1794 he succeeded Porter 
as minister of the Treville Street congrega- 
tion, Plymouth. In 1795 he removed to Lon- 
don as afternoon preacher at the Gravel Pit",. 
Hackney, adding to this office in 1802 that 
of morning preacher at St. Thomas's Chapel, 
South wark. On 23 Jan. 1803 he undertook 
the pastorate of the New Meeting, Birming- 
ham. In 1832 he declined the emolument but 
retained the office of pastor, and continued to 
preach frequently till 1844. He retained his 
faculties to a great age, and died of pneumonia, 
on Sunday, 6 March 1853, at his residence, 
Park Vale, Edgbaston. On ft March he was 
buried in Kaye Hill cemetery, Birmingham; 
A mural tablet to his memory was placed in 
the New Meeting, removed in 1862 to the 
church of the Messiah, Birmingham. His 
portrait, painted in 1840 by Phillips, was en-- 
graved by Lupton ; a full-length silhouettej. 
executed in 1851, exhibits his short stature, 
portly figure, and old-fashioned costume with 
knee-breeches. He married, in October 1805; 
Mary (b. 21 March 1775, d. 9 March 1864); 
daughter of John Kettle of Birmingham, but 
had no issue. 

Kentish was a man of great personal dig-^ 
nity, and his weight of character, extensive 
learning, and ample fortune munificently ad- 
ministered, secured for him a consideration 
rarely accorded to a nonconformist minister.* 
His favourite study was biblical exegesis 7 
he was a scholar of solid attainment, versed 
in oriental languages, and familiar with the 
labours of German critics. In politics an old 
whig, he was in religion a unitarian of the 
most conservative type, holding closely tc 
the miraculous basis of revelation. His ser- 
mons were remarkable for beauty of style. 

He published, in addition to separate ser-. 
mohs (179(5-1844): 1. 'Letter to James* 
White/ &c., 1794, 8vo. 2. « Reply to FullerV 
Examination of the Calvinistic and Socmianr 




Systems/ &c., 2nd edit. 1798, 8vo. 3. i Notes 
and Comments on Passages of Scripture/ &c, 
1844, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1846, 8vo ; 3rd edit. 
1848, 8vo. 4. ' Biographical Notice of Rev. 
George Wiche/ &c, 1847, 8vo. 6. « Sermons/ 
&c, Birmingham, 1848, 8vo ; 2nd edit, with 
4 Memoir' by JohnKenrickfq.v/], 1864, 8vo. 
His ' Memoir ' of Timothy Kenrick [q. v.] is 
prefixed to the latter's 'Exposition/ 1807, 
Jto, 3 vols. To the ' Monthly Repository ' 
and i Christian Reformer ' he was a frequent 
^contributor, usually with the signature ' N/ 

[Biographical Dictionary of Living Authors, 
1816, p. 187 ; Murch's Hist. Presb. and Gen. 
Bapt. Churches in the West of England, 1835, 
pp. 504 sq., 526 sq.; Inquirer, 19 March 1853, 
p. 180 (article by John Kenrick, reprinted from 
the Birmingham Mercury) ; Christian Reformer, 
1853 pp. 262, 265 sq. (memoir by John Kenrick, 
reprinted with Sermons, 1854), 1854 p. 223; 
Unitarian Herald, 1 8 March 1864, p. 99 ; Addit 
MS. 24870; personal recollection.] A. G. 

KENTON, BENJAMIN (1719-1802), 
vintner and philanthropist, was born in Fiela- 
gate Street, Whitechapel, on 19 Nov. 1719. 
Sis mother kept a greengrocer's shop, and 
he was educated in tne charity school of the 
parish. At the age of fifteen he was appren- 
ticed to the keeper of the Angel and Crown 
Inn, Whitechapel, and when he had served 
his time became waiter and drawer at the 
Crown and Magpie in Aldgate. A large crown 
of stone surmounted by a magpie of pear-tree 
wood was the sign, and sea-captains were the 
principal customers. The owner wantonly let 
the Magpie decay and changed the name to 
the Crown. Custom fell off; he died, and 
the business passed into Kenton v s hands. The 
sea-captains who had previously purchased 
their ale for long voyages at the tavern still 
bought it of Kenton, who was famous as an 
attentive waiter. It often excited their ad- 
miration that, when they were dining above 
stairs, the waiter below in the bar knew when 
the candles wanted snuffing, and his explana- 
tion that his knowledge was due to no extraor- 
dinary instinct, but merely to the observation 
of a contemporary light in the bar, does not 
seem to have diminished their opinion of his 
sagacity. lie restored the sign of the magpie, 
And became possessed of a secret which made 
hisfortune, that of bottling ale so that it could 
pass through the changes of climate on the 
voyage to India round the Cape, without the 
cork lying out of the bottle. Thomas Harley 
[q. v.] was alderman of Portsoken, the ward in 
wnicn Kenton took a house, and gave him 
judicious advice as to investments. He thus 
attained to great wealth, and on retiring from 
active business went to live in Gower Street, 
and there died25 May 1802. He had been en- 

rolled a member of the Vintners' Company 
3 April 1734, and was elected master in 177o. 
A portrait of him in their court-room shows 
that he was a man of solid proportions with a 
slight inward squint. He was married and 
had one son, whom he bred a druggist, but who 
died young, and one daughter, who became 
attached to his clerk, but died before her 
father would allow the marriage. The clerk 
behaved in so honourable and considerate a 
manner in the difficult circumstances of the 
engagement that Kenton made him his chief 
friend, and bequeathed to him 300,000/. He 
was a liberal benefactor of the parish school 
where he was educated, of Sir John Cass's 
school in Portsoken, and of the Vintners' 
Company. He gave 5,000/. to St. Bartholo- 
mew s Hospital, of which his friend Harley 
was treasurer, and a surgical ward in the 
north wing is called after him. He was 
buried in Stepney Church, where he has a 
monument by "Westmacott, and the master 
and court of the Vintners attend an annual 
sermon to commemorate his benefactions. A 
street near Brunswick Square, London, is 
named after him. 

[Herbert's History of the Twelve Great Livery 
Companies, ii. 634, 637 ; Benjamin Standing's 
B. Kenton, a Biographical Sketch, London, 
1878; Monthly Magazine, 1802; information 
received at Vintners' Hall.] N. M. 

KENTON, NICHOLAS (</. 1468), Car- 
melite, born at Kenton, near Framlingham, 
Suffolk, became a Carmelite at Ipswich, 
and studied at Cambridge. On 2 March 
1419, being then resident at Whitefriars, 
London, he was ordained sub-deacon, and on 
1 Dec. 1420 priest. In 1444 he was chosen 
twenty-fifth provincial of his order in Eng- 
land in a council held at Stamford, and re- 
tained his office twelve years. He died in 
London 4 Sept. 1468, and was buried at 
Whitefriars. Weever quotes his epitaph 
(Funerall Monuments, p. 438). Leland 
wrongly gives the date of death as 1460. 

Kenton is credited with a commentary on 
the ' Song of Songs ' and a variety of theo- 
logical treatises. He is also said to have 
written lives of saints belonging to his order; 
among them was a ' Life of St. Cvril.' The 
Bollandists suggest that this collection of 
lives may possibly be identical with an anony- 
mous collection in their possession {Acta 
Sanctorum, January, iii. 688). Bale specifies 
a number of letters of Kenton's with some 
exactness, and in Brit. Mus. Harieian MS. 
1819, f. 196 b, gives the purport of one. Ken- 
ton is also credited with ' Carmen votorum 
ad dominum Albertum Carmelitam et do* 
milium Andream episcopum' (i.e. St. An- 




drew of Fiesole) ; St. Andrew is said to have 
worked a miracle for Kenton's benefit (ib. 
January, iii. 687). 

[Leland's Comment, de Scriptt. p. 459 ; Bale, 
viii. 28 ; Harleian MS. 3838, ff. 91 cz-92 a (Bale's 
Heliades) ; Pits, p. 658 ; Davy's Atheose Suf- 
folcienses in Addit. MS. 19165, ff. 75-6 ; 0. de 
Villiers's Bibl. Carmelit. ii. 499-501.J C.L. K. 

KENULF (d. 1006), bishop of Winches- 
ter. [See Cbnwulf.] 

KENULF or CYNEWULF (fl. 800), 
Anglo-Saxon poet. [See Kykewulf.] 

KENWEALH (d. 672), king of the West 
Saxons. ("See Cenwalh.] 

KENYON, JOHN (1784-1856), poet and 
philanthropist, was born in 1784 in the parish 
of Trelawney, Jamaica, where his father owned 
extensive sugar plantations. His mother was 
a daughter of John Simpson of Bounty Hall 
in the same parish, also a sugar planter. Both 
parents died while Kenyon was a boy at 
r ort Bristol School, Bristol. Thence he went 
for a time to the Charterhouse, and after 
some desultory dabbling in experimental 
science at Nicholson's Philosophical Institute, 
Soho, proceeded in 1802 to Peterhouse, Cam- 
bridge. Kenyon left Cambridge without a 
degree in 1808, married, and settled at Wood- 
lands, between Alfoxden and Nether Stowey 
in Somerset. Here he made the acquaint- 
ance of Thomas Poole [a. v. J and through 
him of Coleridge, Wordsworth, Southey, 
Charles Lamb, and an ever-widening circle 
of men of letters. Rich, and without ambi- 
tion, he spent his life in society, travel, di- 
lettantism, dining, and dispensing charity. 
Among the first to profit by nis philanthropy 
were Coleridge's family. In later life he 
distributed his alms in a systematic manner 
through the medium of sisters of charity, 
who investigated every case. At Paris in 
1817 Kenyon met Ticknor, the historian of 
Spanish literature, who corresponded with 
him for years, and introduced to him many 
Americans, to whom his house was always 
open. Among these were Bayard Taylor and 
James T. Fields. 

Other of Kenyon's friends about this period 
were Bryan Waller Procter (Barry Cornwall) 
[q.v.l, Augustus William Hare [q. v.], Julius 
Charles Hare [q. v.], and Crabb Ilobinson 
fq.v.] At Fiesole in 1830 he met Landor, who 
when in England was frequently his guest, 
and wrote part of ' Orestes at Delphos ' under 
his roof. Kenyon was one of Southey's travel- 
ling companions on his French tour in 1838, 
and when, to jprocure him complete relief, 
they persuaded him to play, as if in jest, the 
part of a prince, while they divided among 

themselves the offices of his suite, Kenyon 
selected that of master of the horse, and made 
all the necessary arrangements for posting; 
Meeting Browning at a dinner-party, he dis- 
covered in him the son of one of his school- 
fellows at Fort Bristol, whom he had lost 
sight of. This was the beginning of a warm 
and close friendship broken only by death. 
Kenyon first introduced Browning, at the 
house of her parents, to Elizabeth Barrett, 
a distant relative and soi-disant cousin of 
Kenyon, who became Browning's wife. To 
Kenyon Browning dedicated his ' Dramatic 
Romances and Lyrics.' Failing to procure 
for Kenyon a copy of the picture of 'Andrea 
del Sarto and his wife ' in the Pitti Palace, 
Browning wrote and sent to him from Flo- 
rence the poem 'Andrea del Sarto.' When 
the Brownings visited England, Kenyon's 
house was their home, and here in 1856 Mrs, 
Browning finished ' Aurora Leigh,' and dedi- 
cated it to Kenyon in grateful remembrance 
of a friendship 'far beyond the common uses 
of mere relationship and sympathy of mind.' 

Kenyon was early left a widower, and in 
1823 married Caroline, sister of John Curteis, 
a wealthy bachelor, whose residence, 89 De- 
vonshire Place, he shared when in London. 
He had also a villa at Torquay, and others 
in later life at Wimbledon (Lime Cottage) 
and Cowes. His second wife died on 7 Aug. 
1835, and her brother on 27 April 1849, 
leaving Kenyon the bulk of his property, 
amounting to 100,000/., great part of which 
with characteristic generosity he made over 
to the next-of-kin, some distant relatives of 
the testator. 

Crabb Ilobinson says that Kenyon had 
'the face of a Benedictine monk and the 
joyous talk of a good fellow;' other of his 
friends saw in him an idealised impersona- 
tion of the Mr. Pickwick of Seymour s plates. 
He was the beau ideal of a host, his exuberant 
geniality communicating itself as by a con- 
tagion to his guests, and bringing people of 
the most opposite characters into sympathetic 
accord. He was also, like his friend Philip 
Courtenay, Q.C., a thorough gastronome. On 
one occasion he commended to his guests' at- 
tention one of the earliest brace of canvas- 
backed ducks ever seen in Europe, with an 
exhortation 'not to talk, but to eat and think/ 
He died after a lingering and painful illness 
at Cowes on 3 Bee. 1856, and was buried in 
the vault belonging to his wife's family in 
Lewisham churchyard. By his will he divided 
his property between his friends and various 
charities, the largest legacy, 10,000/., being* 
taken by Browning. A portrait of Kenyon 
in oils by William Fisher, the property of 
Mr. George Scharf, C.B., F.S.A., is at the 




National Portrait Gallery. Another, by the 
some artist, a companion picture to the Lan- 
dor in the National Portrait Gallery, is in the 
.possession of Mr. George Scharf, and was ex- 
hibited in the Victorian Exhibition (No. 223) 
held in London in 1892. A marble bust of 
Jiim,done at Rome in 1841 by T. Crawford, 
was in the possession of Browning. A litho- 
graph of a half-length in water-colours, by 
Moore, was presented by him to his friends ; 
and a fine cameo profile of him was executed 
by Saulini at Rome. 

Kenyon published 'A Rhymed Plea for 
Tolerance/ London, 1833, 8vo ; ' Poems, for 
the most part occasional/ London, 1838, 
jBvo; and 'A Day at Tivoli, with other 
.Verses/ London, 1849, 8vo. These produc- 
tions hardly pass muster as poetry. The 
* Rhymed Plea ' is a didactic dialogue in the 
heroic couplet on the duty of tempering re- 
ligious zeal with charity. The other two 
.volumes contain some graceful verses. 

[Many interesting reminiscences and anecdotes 
of Kenyon are collected by Mrs. Andrew Crosse 
in Temple Bar, April 1 890, January 1892, and re- 
ferences to him occur in Southey's Life, Ticknor's 
life, Letters, and Journals, L'Estrange's Life of 
Mary Russell Mitford, Home's Letters of Eliza- 
beth Barrett Browning, Ingram's Life of Eliza- 
beth Barrett Prowning, Crabb Robinson's Diary, 
Clayden's Rogers and his Contemporaries, Mac- 
ready's Reminiscences, Field's Old Acquaintance. 
See also Forster's Life of Landor ; Sharp's Life of 
Robert Browning; Mrs. Sutherland Orr's Life 
and Letters of Robert Browning, pp. 105, 145, 
154, 209; Sandford's Thomas Poole and his 
Friends, ii. 312; Gent Mag. 1835 pt. ii. p. 331, 
1849 pt. i. p. 664, 1857 pt. i. pp. 105, 309; 
Notes and Queries, 5th ser. vii. 285 ; Edinburgh 
Review, xlviii. 401 et seq. ; Blackwood, xliv. 
779 et seq. ; North American Review, xlviii. 401 
et seq. Material for the present sketch has also 
been furnished by Mr. George Scharf of the 
National Portrait Gallery.] J. M. R. 

KENYON, LLOYD, first Lokd Kenyon 
(1732-1802), master of the rolls, the second 
son of Lloyd Kenyon of Gredington, Flint- 
shire, a landed proprietor and farmer of good 
education but limited means, by his wife Jane, 
eldest daughter of Robert Eddowes of Gre- 
dington and of Eagle Hall, Chester, was born 
at Gredington on 5 Oct. 1732. He was edu- 
cated under Br. Hughes — whom in after-life 
he appointed preacher at the Rolls Chapel — 
at first at his day-school in the neighbouring 
Tillage of Hanmer, and afterwards at Ruthin 

Cmmar school, of which Hughes became 
d-master. He learnt a little Latin — 
though his bad Latin was always jeered at 
when he was a judge — and enough French 
to be subsequently improved into tolerable 
French scholarship, but no Greek. Being a 

younger son, he was at seventeen years of age 
articled to a solicitor of Nantwich, Cheshire, 
named Tomkinson, in whose office he re- 
mained even after his elder brother had died, 
and he had been entered as a student of the 
Middle Temple on 7 Nov. 1750. His mental 
alertness soon showed itself, and he made great 
progress, so that, upon Tomkinson's refusal to 
take him into partnership, he left Nantwich 
in February 1755 a rapia and accurate con- 
veyancer. He proceeded to London, and was 
called to the bar on 10 Feb. 1756. (Lord 
Campbell, however, rightly points out that his 
reports of cases begin with Easter term 1753, 
and thence infers, with some probability, that 
he must have been resident in London from 
that time.) For some years he had no prac- 
tice. He lived on the 80/. a year furnished 
by his father, lodged frugally near the Temple 
in Bell Yard, by day took notes of Lord Mans- 
field's judgments (from 1753 to 1759) in the 
king's bench, which were published posthu- 
mously by J. "W. Hanmer in 1819, and read 
law sedulously by night. At last he obtained 
a little conveyancing, and contrived to pay the 
expenses of going the North Wales circuit and 
the Stafford, Oxford, and Shrewsbury sessions 
by the briefs procured for him bv friends. The 
friendship or John Dunning (afterwards Lord 
Ashburton), which he obtained in 1759 and 
kept till D mining's death in 1782, first brought 
him regular employment, and while acting as 
Dunning's ' devil ' he obtained a junior prac- 
tice of his own. He was retained for the 
Duke of Portland in election contests in 
Cumberland, was introduced to Thurlow, and 
supplied by his industry the defects of Thur- 
lows indolence, and in his turn became the 
patron and helper of John Scott (afterwards 
Lord Eldon). His fee-book shows both his 
rise and the gains of lawyers in his day. Till 
1764 he made nothing. In that year he re- 
ceived 80/.; in 1770 1,124/.; in 1771 2,487/.; 
in 1772 3,134/. ; in 1775 4,225/. ; in 1776 
5,008/. ; in 1780, the year in which he became 
a king's counsel, 6,359/. ; in 1781 7,437/. ; 
and in 1782, having become attorney-general, 
11,038/. He made 80,000/. in sixteen years; 
his fees for opinions on cases alone were in 
1780 2,578 guineas, in 1781 2,936 guineas, 
and in 1782 3,020 guineas. On the death of 
his father in 1775 he succeeded to the family 
estates at Gredington, and, marrying his 
cousin Mary, daughter of George Kenyon of 
Peel Hall, Bolton, Lancashire, went to live 
in Lincoln's Inn Fields. On the death of Sir 
R. Aston in 1778 he was sounded by Thur- 
low and Wedderburn about taking the vacant 
judgeship, but on the advice of Thurlow re- 
fused it ; and he again declined a similar offer 
in 1780, on the death of Sir William Black- 




stone. He was now leader of his circuit, 
received a silk gown on 30 June 1780, and 
was the same year appointed chief justice of 
Chester, a post which he much coveted and 
prized. On the trial of Lord George Gordon 
(5 Feb. 1781) he was briefed with Erskine, 
and, though the latter had been called only 
two years, Kenyon yielded to him, as the 
first orator at the bar, the lead in the case, 
and supplied hhn with learning and experi- 
ence. He opened the defence in a speech 
which Lord Campbell calls 'very honest but 
very inefficient/ and cross-examined most of 
the witnesses, but left to Erskine the reply 
(see State Trials, vol. xxi.) At the general 
election of 1780 he was returned, through 
Thurlow's influence, for the borough of Hin- 
don in "Wiltshire, and took his seat on 
31 Oct. He acted with the opposition, 
but until Lord North's fall only SpoKe once, 
on a motion to expedite the hearing of an 
election petition. He was, in fact, a very bad 
speaker, thick and hurried in his utterance, 
awkward in delivery, obscure in expression, , 
and irritable under opposition or interrup- 
tion. With some hesitation, and acting as 
usual upon the advice of Dunning and Thur- 
low, he accepted the offer of the attorney- 
generalship which Lord Rockingham made 
him on taking office (23 April 1782). He set 
himself, against the wish of his colleagues, to 
remedy the abuse which permitted the re- 
ceivers of the funds in the different govern- 
ment offices to retain balances in their hands 
for long periods together without accounting 
for them, and proposed resolutions calling 
on Rigby, late paymaster-general, and Wel- 
bore Ellis, late treasurer of the navy, to file 
statements of the balances, said to amount 
to 1,100,000/., which were in their hands on 
quitting office. His resolutions were rejected, 
but he pressed the matter till a subsequent 
ministry introduced a bill to pay exchequer 
auditors and tellers by salary and not by lees. 
When Lord Shelburne came in, Kenyon ad- 
hered to him, and, quitting office with him, 
resigned on 15 April 1783. He resumed it 
reluctantly under Pitt (26 Dec. 1783), for he 
disliked both the business of his office and 
the duties of parliament. His health was 
impaired, and accordingly, upon the death 
of Sewell, master of the rolls, shortly before 
parliament was dissolved, he yielded to the 
pressure of Pitt and Shelburne, resigned his 
chief-justiceship of Chester, accepted the 
mastership of the rolls, small as its emolu- 
ments were, was sworn in on 30 March 1784, 
became a member of the privy council 2 April 
1784, and was knighted. As master of the 
rolls, and sitting often for the lord chancellor, 
he was one of the most expeditious judges who 

ever sat in chancery, and cleared off many 
arrears of causes. He avoided enunciating 
principles, and was content to decide each 
case barely on its merits. Retaining his right 
to sit in parliament, and being returned for 
Tregoney in Cornwall, he was entrusted by 
Pitt with the task of justifying the conduct of 
the high bailiff in the case of the Westminster 
scrutiny, and in the result the previous ques- 
tion was carried by 233 votes to 136. During 
the debates upon the motion for the impeach- 
ment of Warren Hastings he was a constant 
speaker in his defence, and especially (May 
1786} resisted the motion for production of 
Hastings's correspondence with Middleton, 
minister at Lucknow, upon the ground that 
in a quasi-criminal proceeding discovery of 
documents ought not to be ordered. His best 
speech was made in defence of his old friend 
Sir Elijah Impey [q. v.] On 28 July 1784 
he was created a baronet, and was already 
understood to be designated as Lord Mans- 
field's successor; but Lord Mansfield, who 
wished Buller to have the chief-justiceship, 
clung to office until 1788, when on 9 June 
Kenyon was sworn in as chief justice, with 
the title of Baron Kenyon of Gredington, 
and was installed in November. The ap- 
pointment was not popular. His manners 
were rough, blunt, ana somewhat boorish. 
' Little conversant with the manners of polite 
life/says Wraxall (Memoirs, 1st ser. p. 165), 
' he retained all the original coarse homeli- 
ness of his early habits. Irascible, destitute of 
all refinement, parsimonious even in a degree 
approaching to avarice,' he was the subject of 
innumerable jests and stories. It was said of 
him by Lord Eilenborough that the words on 
his tomb, ' mors janua vita/ were not the re- 
sult of a blunder, but of an attempt at thrift 
by sparing the expense of a diphthong. But his 
life was, and had been from youth, strict and 
temperate, and his integrity was as undoubted 
as his learning, quickness, and industry were 

He was much consulted by Pitt and Thur- 
low upon the regency question during the 
king's illness in 1788, and was even summoned 
to attend cabinet councils. His principal trials 
were Rex v. Stockdale (StateTrials, xxii. 253), 
in which he ruled in favour of making the 
question of libel or no libel a question for the 
jury, a view which he tenaciously opposed 
m the subsequent debates on Fox's Libel 
Act in 1792 ; the trials of Frost and of the 
publishers of the 'Morning Chronicle' for 
seditious libels in 1794, in which he pressed 
somewhat hardly upon the prisoners, though 
in the year following he voted with Thurlow 
against the Treasonable Attempts and the 
Seditious Meetings Bills; the trial of Beeves 


in 1796 for libelling the constitution by de- 
scribing the House of Commons as a mere 
adjunct of monarchy {ib. xxvi. 590) ; the trial 
of Thomas Williams in 1798 for publishing 
Paine's 'Age of Reason' {ib. 703) ; and the 
trial of Hadfield for attempting the life of 
George III. Like Mansfield, Holt, Lough- 
borough, and Eyre, he attended the exami- 
nations before the privy council of state 
prisoners, whom in many instances he after- 
wards tried (Lord Colchester, Diary, ii. 
42). He took up the position of a judicial 
censor of public morals, denounced gaming, 
directed heavy damages in actions of crim. 
con,, and in 1800 charged grand juries, by 
way of remedy for the prevailing scarcity, 
to present indictments under the long obso- 
lete laws against regrating and forestalling. 
Both as master of the rolls and as chief 
justice he set his face against the practice of 
selling offices in his gift, by which his salary, 
which during the fourteen years that he held 
the chief-justiceship averaged only 6,500/., 
might have been much increased ; and though 
he successfully urged Pitt to raise the salaries 
of puisne judges to 8,000/., he refused any 
increase of his own, and himself brought in a 
bill to abolish sinecure clerkships of assize. 
He did, however, bestow valuable sinecures 
— those of custos brevium and of filazer of 
the king's bench — upon his two eldest sons 
as they attained their majority. George III 
honoured him with his particular friendship, 
constantly asked his advice, and visited him 
at his house at the Marshgate, Richmond 
Park. He was commissioned by the king to 
endeavour to make peace between Pitt and 
Thurlow on several occasions between 1789 
and 1792, and was much consulted by him 
in 1795 on the extent to which the corona- 
tion oath would forbid the royal assent to 
any relaxation of the laws against Roman 
catholics. Attendance in the House of Lords 
became increasingly distasteful to him, and 
he almost ceased to speak in debate. In 1794 
he presided in the House of Lords during 
Lord Loughborough's illness and at Hastings's 
trial, which he in vain endeavoured to shorten 
and bring within reasonable bounds. The 
death of his eldest son in 1800 so distressed 
him that he was all but compelled to resign 
the chief-justiceship. In the autumn of 1801 
his health failed ; ne in vain tried to sit in 
court during Hilary term 1802, and, dying 
at Bath on 4 April, was buried at Hanmer 
Church — where there is an effigy of him by 
Bacon — and was succeeded in the barony by 
his eldest surviving son, George. 

In person he was about five feet ten inches 
in height, spare of figure, stern in counte- 
nance, chary of speech. He was a pure lawyer, 



rarely wrony, but rarely venturing on any 
broad exposition of the law. and always 
leaning to the strictness of law rather than 
to the flexibility of equity. No judge who 
presided so long in the king's bench has been 
as seldom overruled; yet he hardly ever con- 
sulted a book, and could dispose of a score 
of cases in a day. He was no statesman and 
disliked politics. His gains, which were 
large, ana his savings, which were larger, he 
invested in land in Wales, often buying es- 
tates on indifferent titles ; for, as he said, if 
he bought property he would find law to 
keep it till twenty years' occupation gave 
him a title better than deeds. He became 
lord-lieutenant of Flintshire in 1797. There 
are two portraits of him by Romney and one 
by Opie. 

[The principal authority is G. T. Kenyon's 
Life, published 1873, which corrects the errors 
of Townshend's anecdotic life in the Lives of 
Twelve Eminent Judges, and of Lord Campbell's 
very hostile life in the Lives of the Chief Jus- 
tices. See, too, Foss's Lives of the Judges ; Es- 
pinasse's Note-book of a Retired Barrister; 
Twiss's Life of Lord Eldon ; Campbells Lives 
of the Lord Chancellors, vol. v. (Lord Thur- 
low's Life); WraxaU's Posthumous Memoirs; 
Stevens's Memoirs of Home Tooke.] J. A. H. 

KEOGH, JOHN (1660 ?-l 725), Irish 
divine, born at Ciooncleagh, near Limerick, 
about 1650, was son of Denis Keogh, of an 
old Irish family, which had lost its possessions 
in the Cromwellian wars, by his wife, the 
widow of a clergyman named Eyres. His 
mother's maiden name was Wittington. 
Keogh entered Trinity College, Dublin, in 
1669, and proceeded M.A. in 1678. He 
obtained some reputation for his skill in 
mathematics, was appointed to a living by his 
kinsman, John Hudson, bishop of Elphin, and 
settled down to a scholar's life at Strolcestown, 
co. Roscommon. The prebend of Termon- 
barry in the church of Elphin was conferred 
on him in February 1678, and he appears for 
some time to have kept a school and prepared 
pupils for Dublin University {Vindication of 
Antiquities of Ireland, p. 1 40). His favourite 
studies seem to have been Hebrew and the 
application of mathematics to the solution 
of mystical religious problems. Among his 
works was * A Demonstration in Latin verse^ 
of the Trinity/ which * he was often heard 
to say was as plain to him as two and three 
make five.' Keogh's son, during a visit to 
London, showed this work to Sir Isaac New- 
ton, * who seemed to approve of it mighty 
well. , In his 'Scala Metaphysica' Keogh 
demonstrated mathematically 'what depend- 
ence the several degrees of beings have on 
God Almighty, from the highest angel to 




the lowest insect.' A large number of other 
4 ingenious treatises' from his hand were un- 
fortunately destroyed by an accidental fire 
At his residence ; but his ' Hebrew Lexicon/ 
a book ' De Orthographia,' Latin and Greek 
grammars, and an 'Analogy of the Four 
Gospels' still exist in manuscript in Trinity 
College Library. He died in 1725. Keogh 
married in 1679 Avis Olopton, daughter of 
Dr. Rous Clopton, of the old Warwickshire 
family. He had twenty-one children. 

The second son, John Keogh, D.D.(1 681 P- 
1764), entered the church, and after actingfor 
some time as chaplain to James King, fourth 
lord Kingston, obtained the living of Mitchels- 
town, co. Cork. He was the author of three 
curious works : 1. ' Botanologia Universalis 
Hibernica' (a list of medicinal plants growing 
in Ireland), Cork, 1735 (see Pultenby, Pro- 
yress of Botany ■, ii. 201 , cf. Addit.MS. 25586). 
2. ' Zoologica Medica Hibernica,' Dublin,1739. 
3. l A Vindication of the Antiquities of Ire- 
land,' Dublin, 1748. He married Elizabeth, 
•daughter of Dr. Henry Jennings, a cousin of 
the Duchess of Marlborough, by whom he had 
three sons and three daughters. He died in 
1754, at the age of seventy-three. 

[Webb's Compendium of Irish Biog. ; Walker's 
Hibernian Mag. 1778, p. 327; Cotton's Fasti, iv. 
155; Account of the Keogh or MacEochaohs 
family in Vindication of the Antiquities of Ire- 
land, Appendix.] T. S. 

KEOGH, JOHN (1740-1817),Irish catho- 
lic leader, born in 1740, the son of humble 
parents, began life as a small tradesman in 
Dublin. He prospered in business, and ac- 
quired, as a zealous Roman catholic, consider- 
able influence among his co-religionists in the 
Irish metropolis. In 1790 or thereabouts he 
was elected a member of the catholic com- 
mittee, at that time under the leadership of 
Lord Kenmare. His efforts to promote a more 
active agitation on behalf of catholic emanci- 
pation were not at first successful. Early in 
1791 he obtained the sanction of the com- 
mittee to lay the grievances of the Irish catho- 
lics before theEnglish ministry, and after three 
months' sojourn in England he returned to Ire- 
land with a favourable answer to his petition. 
Meanwhile, however, ' the Kenmareites,' act- 
ing, as was supposed, under the influence of 
the Irish government, had resolved to refrain 
for the time from further petitioning, and to 
leave the matter in the hands of the Irish par- 
liament. To this policy Keogh was altogether 
opposed, and on a vote in general committee 
he succeeded in carrying the majority with 
him. The defeat of the Kenmareites was fol- 
lowed by their secession, and by the recon- 
struction of the committee on a wider and 


more popular basis. Keogh himself, by every 
means within his power, strove to rouse the 
catholics from their lethargy, and it was 
mainly owing to his enthusiasm that the 
catholic convention assembled in Dublin on 
8 Dec. 1792. Acting under his advice, the 
convention appointed a deputation, of which 
Keogh was a member, to present to the 
king a statement of the grievances under 
which the catholics of Ireland laboured. The 
deputation was favourably received, and a 
direct consequence of it was the Relief Act 
of 1793. The measure owed much to the 
judicious management of Keogh while it was 
passing through parliament. Notwithstand- 
ing his svmpathy with the objects of the 
United Irishmen, he steadily refused to allow 
the catholic claims to be compromised by any 
connection with them. The Relief Act was 
the great triumph of Keogh's life. When it 
had passed he felt that the convention had 
done its work, and forthwith prompted its 

Keogh had several ardent friends among 
the United Irishmen, and Wolfe Tone speaks 
in his letters of sympathetic meetings with 
Keogh at the latter's house. The Irish go- 
vernment had long possessed certain infor- 
mation that Keogh was in the habit of attend- 
ing the meetings of the committee of United 
Irishmen, and shortly before the French ex- 
pedition sailed in December 1796, he and 
others of the United Irishmen on whose co- 
operation the French had counted were 
{•laced under arrest. He was subsequently 
iberated, but the rebellion of 1798 greatly 
depressed him. Bodily infirmity also con- 
fined him to his residence at Mount Jerome, 
and he gradually ceased to take any active 
part in public affairs, though he occasionally 
spoke at catholic meetings. He lived to see 
the revival of the catholic agitation bv 
O'Connell, but was strongly impressed with 
the impossibility of obtaining complete 
emancipation until the catholics could secure 
the return to parliament of one of their own 
body. He died on 13 Nov. 1817, and was 
buried in St. Kevin's churchyard, under a 
stone erected to his father and mother. Eight 
years later his wife was laid in the same spot. 

Keogh was a man of rough manners, Dut 
possessed much natural ability. He was some- 
what vain of his personal appearance, and his 
conduct on the occasion of the catholic depu- 
tation toLondon caused much merriment to nis 
companions; but 'when he returned home he 
laid aside his court wig and his court manner, 
and only retained his Irish feelings/ His 
enemies charged him with insincerity, but the 
charge was unfounded. To Keogh's boast that 
it was he that had made men of the catholics 




O'Connell replied with some truth : 'If you did, 
they are such men as realise Shakespeare's idea 
of Nature's journeymen having made them, 
and made them badly.' But the Relief Act of 
1793 was very largely due to his generalship of 
the catholics at a time when they were sunk 
in apathy and despair. 

[Webb's Compendium ; Wyse's Catholic Asso- 
ciation, i. 123, 137, 144 ; T. Wolfe Tone's Auto- 
biography, i. 48 ; Grattan's Life, iv. 81 ; Mac- 
Nevin's Pieces of Irish History, p. 18 ; Fitz- 
patrick's Correspondence of Daniel O'Connell, i. 
160, ii. 430 ; Lecky*s England in the Eighteenth 
Century; Dublin Evening Post, 22 Nov. 1817.] 


(18J7-1878), Irish judge, belonged to a 
Roman catholic family formerly settled at 
Keoghville, co. Roscommon. He was born 
at Galway on 7 Dec. 1817. His father, Wil- 
liam M. Keogh, was a solicitor, and sometime 
clerk of the crown for the county of Kilkenny ; 
his mother was Mary, daughter of Mr. Austin 
Ffrench of Rahoon, co. Galway. He was 
educated at the school of the Rev. Dr. Hud- 
dard in Mountjoy Square, Dublin, then in 
high repute, entered Trinity College, Dublin, 
in 1832, and obtained honours in science in 
his first and second years. He left in his 
third year without having taken a degree. 
While at Trinity he was a frequent speaker 
in the debates of the Historical Society, and 
was awarded the first prize for oratory at 
the age of nineteen. In Michaelmas term 
1836 he was admitted a student of the King's 
Inns, Dublin, and in Michaelmas term 1837 
of Lincoln's Inn. In Hilary term 1840 he 
was called to the Irish bar, and joined the 
Connaught circuit, where his family connec- 
tions lay. In the same year he published, in 
conjunction with Mr. M. J. Barry, 'A Treatise 
on the Practice of the High Court of Chancery 
in Ireland/ but he never obtained any con- 
siderable practice in that court. His natural 
gifts were those of an advocate rather than 
of a lawyer ; a powerful voice, an impressive 
face, and impassioned delivery were com- 
bined with a ready flow of vigorous and or- 
nate language. 

He soon acquired a fair practice, princi- 
pally on circuit, where, as a junior, he held 
leading briefs in the most important cases, 
and his powers of advocacy were considered 
so formidable that special counsel were some- 
times brought down to oppose him. At the 
general election of 1847 he was returned for 
Athlone as an independent conservative,being 
the only Roman catholic conservative elected 
to that parliament. After a time he was 
ranked as a Peelite. In 1849 he was made 
a Q.C. In 1861 he took an active and pro- 

minent part in opposition to the Ecclesiastical 
Titles Bill passed by Lord John Russell. 
His action largely increased his reputation 
and popularity in Ireland. He was the 
principal speaker at a mass-meeting of Roman 
catholics held in Dublin in August 1861 to 
protest against the measure, and was one of 
the founaers of the Catholic Defence Asso- 
ciation established in consequence of it. He 
also took part in the tenant-right move- 
ment, speaking at various meetings held in 
support of it, and in the session of 1862 
seconded in the House of Commons the Tenant 
Right Bill of William Sharman Crawford 
[q. v.] At the general election of 1862 he was 
again returned for Athlone. In December 
1862 Keogh and the bulk of the Irish party 
voted in the majority which upset Lord 
Derby's ministry. In the new ministry of Lord 
Aberdeen Keogh became solicitor-general for 
Ireland (December 1862). His acceptance 
of office gave great offence to the extreme 
wing of the Irish party, who considered it 
inconsistent with the speeches which he had 
made in Ireland during the preceding eighteen 
months. He was bitterly assailed by Gavan 
Dufly in the ' Nation ' and by Lucas in the 
* Tablet/ and his re-election for Athlone was 
opposed. His appointment was also distaste- 
ful to the conservatives, and was attacked by 
Lord Westmeath in the House of Lords. 
At Athlone he was supported by the catholic 
bishop (Dr. Browne) and clergy, and was 
re-elected by a large majority. In January 
1856 the Aberdeen ministry resigned; a new 
ministry was formed by Lord J?almerston, 
Keogh was appointed attorney-general for 
Ireland and was sworn of the Irish privy 
council. He was re-elected at Athlone with- 
out opposition. In April 1856, on the death 
of Mr. Justice Torrens, he was appointed a 
judge of the court of common pleas in Ire- 
land. Among the remarkable cases in which 
he was counsel while at the bar were Birch 
v. Somerville (December 1851), an action 
by the proprietor of the ' World ' newspaper 
against the Irish chief secretary on an alleged 
agreement to pay him for supporting law and 
order in his paper; Handcock v. Selacour, 
in the court of chancery (February 1855), a 
case of a painful nature, involving the title 
to a large estate in Galway, in which Keogb's 
reply for the plaintiff was so touching and 
eloquent as to draw tears from the chancel- 
lor; and Reg. v. Petcherine (December 1855), 
the trial of a Redemptorist monk on a charge 
of profanely and contemptuously burning a 
copy of the authorised version of the Bible ; 
Keogh conducted the prosecution as attorney- 
On the bench he soon acquired the repu- 


tation of a judge of ability and discernment. 

Though not a profound lawyer, he never 
failed to appreciate a legal argument, and 
his judgments were clear and to the point. 
He excelled in the trial of nisi prius cases ; 
his perception was quick, he grasped the 
facts of the case rapidly, and presented them 
to the jury with clearness and precision. In 
1866 he was appointed, with Mr. Justice Fitz- 
gerald, on the special commission for the trial 
of the Fenian prisoners at Dublin and Cork, 
and before them Luby, O'Leary, O'Donovan 
Rossa, and the other principal conspirators 
were tried. Luby, in nis speech after con- 
viction, acknowledged the fairness of Keogh's 
summing-up to the jury. In 1872 the cele- 
brated Galway county election petition was 
tried before nim. The candidates at the 
election were Captain J. P. Nolan (home 
ruler) and Captain Le Poer Trench ^con- 
servative}; the former was returned oy a 
large majority. His return was petitioned 
against mainly on the ground of undue in- 
fluence exercised on his behalf by the Roman 
catholic clergy. The trial lasted from 1 April 
to 27 May, and resulted in Captain Nolan 
being unseated, and three Roman catholic 
bishops and thirty-one priests were reported to 
the house as guilty of undue influence and inti- 
midation. That Captain Nolan was properly 
unseated on the evidence could hardly be 
contested, but the judge in the course of his 
judgment commented on the action of the 
Roman catholic bishops and priests in terms 
of unusual severity. His remarks were deeply 
resented, and aroused much popular feeling. 
Meetings were held at which he was de- 
nounced, he was burnt in effigy in numerous 
places, and the excitement became so great 
that special precautions had to be taken 
by the government for his protection. In 
the House of Commons Isaac Butt [q. v.], 
the home-rule leader, brought forward a 
motion impugning the conduct of the judge; 
it was defeated by a large majority, only 
twenty-three voting in its favour (9 Aug. 
1872). For the remainder of his life Keo gn 
was the subject of constant attack by tne 
home-rule party. In 1878 his health began to 
mil, and he died at Bingen-on-the-Rhine on 
30 Sept. of that year. During the greater 
part of his tenure of office he had been one 
of the most conspicuous figures on the Irish 
bench. Genial and good-natured, he was 
popular in private life, where his ready wit 
and conversational powers made him a most 
agreeable companion ; he possessed an un- 
usually retentive memory, and his fund of 
anecdote was varied and entertaining. 

In 1867 the university of Dublin conferred 
vpon him the honorary degree of LL JD. He 



married, in 1841, Kate, daughter of Mr. 
Thomas Roney, surgeon, by whom be had a 
son (called to the Irish bar in 1871) and a 
daughter (married to the Hon. Mr. Justice 
Murphy). Both survived him. In addition 
to the ' Chancery Practice ' already mentioned, 
he was author of two pamphlets, 'Ireland 
under Lord de Grey/ 1844, and ' Ireland Im- 
perialised/ and of 'An Essay on Milton's 
Prose Writings/ 1863. 

[Law Magazine and Review, November 1878 ; 
Ann. Reg. 1878; Times, 2 Oct. 1878; Hansard, 
1848-65 and 1872; New Ireland, 1877; Life of 
Frederick Lucas, M.P., 1886 ; Galway County 
Election Petition Judgment, and Minutes of Evi- 
dence, Parliamentary Papers (241) of 1872, vol. 
xlviii. ; information from family.] J. D. F. 

KEON, MILES GERALD (1821-1 875), 
novelist and colonial secretary, last male de- 
scendant of an old Irish family, the Keons of 
Keonhrooke, co. Leitrim, was born on 20 Feb.- 
1821 in the paternal castle on the banks of 
the Shannon, which was built entirely of 
white marble quarried on the estate, and still' 
known as Keon's Folly. Miles was the only 
son of Myles Gerald Keon, barrister-at-law, 
by his second wife, Mary Jane, fifth daughter 
of Patrick, count Magawly, and of Jane, 
daughter of Christopher Fallon of Runny- 
mede, co. Roscommon. His father having 
died at Keonbrooke in 1824, and his mother 
in 1825 at Temora, he and his younger sister, 
Ellen Benedicts, were left to the care of 
their maternal grandmother, Countess Ma- 
gawly, and upon her death to the care of 
their uncle, Francis Philip, count Magawly, 
sometime prime minister of Marie Louise in 
the duchies of Parma, Placentia, and Gua- 
stalia. On 27 March 1832 Keon was entered 
as a student at the Jesuit college of Stony- 
hurst, then under the presidency of Father 
Parker. He won many prizes, including one 
for a poem on Queen Victoria's accession, 
reprinted in the jubilee year, in the thirty- 
second number of the 'Stonyhurst Maga- 
zine/ On quitting Stonyhurst he made a 
pedestrian tour through France and crossed 
to Algeria, where he served for a short time 
in the French army under Bugeaud. He 
afterwards became a law student at Gray's 
Inn, but soon abandoned law for literature. 
In 1843 he published at Dublin an octavo 
pamphlet entitled (see the Tablet, iv. 532) 
* The Irish Revolution, or What can the Re- 
pealers do? And what shall be the New 
Constitution ? ' His earliest success as a 
writer was a vindication of the Jesuits, pub- 
lished in the third number of the ' Oxford 
and Cambridge Review,' September 1845. 
Appearing in the nominal organ of both 
universities it provoked a smart controversy. 





The author's name was revealed, and the 
paper itself was reissued as a separate pub- 
lication. Messrs. Longman announced as 
in preparation a history of the Jesuits by 
Keon, which never appeared. In September 
1845 Keon began a series of contributions 
to Colburn's 'United Service Magazine/ 
pp. 59-71, entitled ' The Late Struggles of 
Abd-el-Kader, and the Campaign of Isly. 
By one who has served in the French 
Army.' They contain vivid sketches of Abd- 
el-Kader, Horace Vernet, and Lamoriciere. 
Two other instalments appeared in the July 
and October numbers under the title of 'An 
Idler's Journey on Foot through France/ 
From April to November 1846 he was the 
editor of 'Dolman's Magazine.' In 1847 he 
published ' The Life of Saint Alexis, the 
Roman Patrician.' Shortly afterwards he 
secured an appointment on the staff of the 
'Morning Post,' with which he was con- 
nected for twelve years. In 1850 he went as 
its representative to St. Petersburg, whence 
he wrote ' A Letter on the Greek Question.' 
Between 22 Feb. and 32 Aug. 1851 he con- 
tributed a series of twentv-six 'Lessons in 
French ' to ' Cassell's Working Matfs Friend,' 
which afterwards came into extensive use 
in the United States and Canada. In 1852 
Keon wrote in the ' London Journal' a serial 
novel called ' Harding, the Money-Spinner,' 
which was published posthumously in 1879 
in three volumes. In 1856 he was sent 
for the second time by the 'Morning Post' 
to St. Petersburg, to describe the coronation 
of the emperor, Alexander II. He there 
made the acquaintance of M. Boucher de 
Perthes, who, in his 'Voyage en Russie' 
(1859), has written pleasantly of their inter- 
course. In 1858, under a mistaken arrange- 
ment, Keon went out to Calcutta to edit 
the ' Bengal Hurkaru.' He returned in 1859, 
and was appointed in March the colonial 
secretary at Bermuda by the then secre- 
tary of state for the colonies, Sir Edward 
Bulwer Lytton. He held the post till his 
death. In 1866 he published in two volumes 
octavo ' Dion and tne Sibyls, a Romance of 
the First Century.' In the winter of 1869 
he obtained leave of absence, and visited 
Rome at the opening of the council of the 
Vatican. In 1867 he had delivered in the 
Mechanics' Hall at Hamilton a course of lec- 
tures on ' Government ; its Source, its Form, 
and its Means.' He was invited to lecture 
in the United States, but declined on ac- 
count of his official position. On 3 June 
1875 he died at Bermuda. On 21 Nov. 1846 
Keon married Anne de la Pierre, third 
daughter of Major Hawkes of the 21st light 

[Personal recollections of the writer ; Hewit- 
son's Stonyhurst Present and Past, 8vo, pp. 244- 
246 ; Hatt's two papers on A Colonial Secretary 
in the Stonyhurst Magazine for March and June 
1886 ; Burke's Peerage, under ' Foreign Titles of 
Nobility,' p. 1535, ed. 1890 ; Boucher de Perthes' 
Voyage en Russie en 1856, 12mo, passim, 1859 ; 
Gillow's Bibl. Diet. vol. iv. 1891.] C. K. 

KEPER, JOHN (Jl. 1580), poet, appears 
to have been born at Wells, Somerset, about 
1547. He entered Hart Hall, Oxford, in 
1564, and graduated B.A. on 11 Feb. 1568- 
1569 (Oaf. Univ.Beg. t Oxf. Hist. Soc.,i. 268). 
He was still in residence at college in 1572. 
On 8 July 1580, bein* then M.A. of Lou- 
vain, he petitioned to be incorporated at Ox- 
ford, but the grace was refused, as he was 
supposed to be a Romanist (ib. vol. ii. pt. i. 
pp. 35, 156-7, 377). 

Wood, on the authority of Bishop Bar- 
low, assigns to Keper the authorship of 'The 
whole Psalter, translated into English Metre ' 
(1567 P), which is known to have been written 
by Archbishop Matthew Parker. Keper is 
author of three complimentary poems, be- 
sides an address to the reader, in Thomas 
Howell's 'Arbor of Auntie/ 8vo, 1568. 
J. K. (who, as Bliss conjectures, may be 
John Keper) translated from the Italian of 
Count Annibale Romei 'The Courtiers Aca- 
demie,' 4to, London, 1598. 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. (Bliss), i. 416-18; 
Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. p. 464.] GK G. 

Earl op Albemarle (1669-1718), stated to 
be descended from Walter van Keppel (1179- 
1223), lord of Keppel in the Low Countries, 
was born in Holland in 1669. He was son of 
Oswald van Keppel and his wife Anna Geer- 
truid van Lintelo. Nothing is known of his 
early history (Van der Aa, vol. x.) He came 
to England in 1688 with William of Orange 
as a page of honour, and after the accession 
of William and Mary was made a groom of 
the bedchamber and master of the robes. By 
letters patent of 10 Feb. 1696 he was created 
Baron Ashford of Ashford in the county of 
Kent, Viscount Bury of Bury in the county 
palatine of Lancaster, and Earl of Albemarle, 
the latter being a town and territory in the 
dukedom of Normandy (cf. Notes and Queries, 
1st ser. ii. 466). He was a major-general 
16 June 1697, in which year he was employed 
in the camp at Promelles. The year after he 
was made colonel of the first troop of British 
horse-guards, which he resigned to the Earl 
(Duke) of Portland ' for a valuable considera- 
tion 'in 1710. He introduced the Polish envoy 
to King William at Loo, which seat William 
afterwards presented to him. On 14 May 
1700 he was made K.G. In 1701 he was 




appointed colonel of the first regiment of 
Swiss in the Dutch service, and some years 
later deputy-forester of Holland, colonel of 
the Dutch carabineers, and governor of Bois- 
le-Duc. He was Williams constant com- 

Sinion, and completely engrossed the royal 
vour. During William's last illness Albe- 
marle was sent to communicate his future 
plans to the deputy Heinsius at the Hague. 
On his deathbed William handed to Albe- 
marle the keys of his cabinet and private 
drawers. 'You know what to do with 
them/ he said (Macaulay, v. 81-3; cf. 
Hist. MSS. Comm. 10th Rep. v. 193). After 
William's death (8 March 1702) Albemarle 
returned to his own country, took his seat 
as a member of the nobility in the States- 
general, and was made a general of horse in 
the Dutch army. William bequeathed him 
a sum of two hundred thousand guilders and 
the lordship of Brevost. A Dutch manu- 
script in the British Museum shows that he 
instituted a suit against the Princess-dowager 
of Nassau in respect of the legacy (Egerton 
MS. 1708, f. 104). In 1705 he paid a visit 
to England, and, attending Queen Anne On 
a visit to Cambridge, is said to have received 
the honorary degree of doctor of laws. His 
name does not appear in ' Graduati Canta- 
brigienses.' Soon after his return home he 
left the Hague to join the army under Auver- 
querque. Marlborough, who appears to have 
been on the best terms with Albemarle, 
courteously expressed pleasure at his rejoin- 
ing the army (Marlb. Vesp. ii. 437V Albe- 
marle was present at the forcing of tne French 
lines at Tirlemont, at Ramillies in 1706, and 
at Oudenarde in 1708. During the siege of 
lisle, Marlborough detached him with thirty 
squadrons to cover a convoy of guns and 
ammunition which the enemy were trying 
to intercept, a service he successfully accom- 
plished. He was made governor of Tournay 
in 1709. He was employed at the siege of 
Bouchain, and commanded at the siege of 
Aire. In 1712 he commanded and was made 

Srisoner at the battle of Denain, but was re- 
used, and entertained the Prince Eugene 
during the winter season in his house at the 
Hague. On the death of Queen Anne, Albe- 
marle was sent to Hanover by the States- 
general to congratulate George I on his ac- 
cession to the British throne, and afterwards 
received the new king and the Prince of 
Wales (George H) on the Dutch frontier. 
A resolution in favour of Albemarle's claim 
to a seat in the Dutch assembly in 1715 is 
in the British Museum Addit. MS. 16886, 
f. 242. He died 30 May 1718. 

Bishop Burnet describes him as a cheerful 
young man, who had the art to please, but 

was so much taken up with his own plea- 
sures that he could scarcely submit to the 
restraints of a court. He snared in all the 
recreations of William III, which brought him 
under the lash of Swift ; but he was equally 
esteemed by Queen Anne and George I; and 
his handsome, person and openhandedness, 
his obliging temper and winning manners, 
in marked contrast with the cold reserve of 
his rival Portland, rendered him a general 
favourite with the English people. 

Albemarle married, in 1701, Geertruid 
Johanna Quirina van der Duyn, daughter 
of Adama van der Duyn, lord of St. Grave- 
moer, governor of Bergen-on-Zoom, and mas- 
ter of the buckhounds to William HI. By 
her he had a son, William Anne [q. v.], who 
succeeded to the title, and a daughter. 

[Van der Aa's Biog. Wordenboek der Neder- 
landen, Haarlem, 1862, vol. x. and Dutch autho- 
rities there given ; Foster's Peerage, under ' Al- 
bemarle ; ' Doyle's Official Baronage ; Macaulay's 
Hist, of England, particularly vol. v. ; Marl- 
borough Despatches, vols. ii-v. ; Georgian Era, 
ii. 462. Collections of Albemarle's letters, &c, 
are noticed in Hist. MSS. Comm. Reps. ii. 188-9, 
iii. 193, viii. (i. ii.) x. (v.) 193.] H. M. C. 

KEPPEL, AUGUSTUS, Viscofnt Kep- 
pel (1725-1786), admiral, second son of Wil- 
liam Anne Keppel, second earl of Albemarle 
[q. v.], was born on 25 April 1725. After a few 
years at Westminster School, he entered the 
navy in 1735, on board the Oxford, in which 
he served for two years on the coast of Guinea. 
He was afterwards for three years in the Medi- 
terranean, on board the Gloucester, carrying 
the broad pennant of Commodore Clinton. 
On his return to England in the summer of 
1740 he was appointed to the Prince Frede- 
rick, and in September was moved to the 
Centurion, under the command of Commo- 
dore Anson [see Anson, Geobge, Lord An- 
son]. In her he served during the celebrated 
voyage round the world, and is specially men- 
tioned as having been landed at the sacking 
and burning of Payta, 13 Nov. 1741, where 
the peak of his cap * was shaved off close to 
his temple* by a musket bullet [see Brett, 
Sir Peirct]. In March 1 742 he was promoted 
by the commodore to be acting lieutenant, in 
which rank he was confirmed on the Cen- 
turion's arrival in England and his passing 
his examination, on 25 July 1744. On 4 Aug. 
he was appointed to the Dreadnought, on 
7 Nov. was promoted to be commander of 
the Wolf sloop, and on 11 Dec. was posted 
to the Greyhound frigate. In February 1744- 
1745 he was appointed to the Sapphire of 40 
guns, in which he cruised with some success 
on the south coast of Ireland. In November 
1745 he was moved to the Maidstone of 50 



guns, and in her was again employed in con- 
tinuous cruising in the Soundings and in the 
Bay of Biscay till, on the morning of 27 June 
17l7, haying chased an enemy's ship in-shore 
off Belle Isle, he ran aground, and the Maid- 
stone being a total wreck, Keppel and his 
men were made prisoners. After a few weeks 
he was permitted to return to England on 
parole, and, on being exchanged, was tried 
by court-martial ana honourably acquitted 
on 31 Oct. He had already been promised 
the command of another ship still on the 
stocks, which was launched in October and 
christened the Anson. He was now formally 
appointed to her, and on 25 Nov. and follow- 
ing days sat as a member of the court-martial 
on Captain Fox of the Kent, notable as the 
first in which depositions taken beforehand 
were disallowed. 

The Anson was employed in active cruising 
till the peace of 1748, and, being then made 
a guardsnip, Keppel with his officers was trans- 
ferred to the Centurion, reduced from 60 to 
50 guns, and in her was sent out as commodore 
to the Mediterranean, with a special mission 
to treat with the dey of Algiers, or, if neces- 
sary, to compel him to restrain the insolence 
of his cruisers. The story goes that the dey 
angrily expressed surprise that ' the king of 
Great Britain should have sent a beardless boy 
to treat with him ; ' to which Keppel replied, 
* Had my master supposed that wisdom was 
measured by the length of the beard, he 
would have sent your deyship a he-goat.' 
Thereupon the dey threatened him with in- 
stant death, but Keppel, pointing to the 
squadron in the bay, said there were Eng- 
lishmen enough there to make him a glorious 
funeral pile. The dey then consented to 
treat; but it was not till June 1751 that the 

Joints at issue could be arranged, and in 
uly the Centurion returned to England and 
was paid off. 

In the latter part of 1754 Keppel was 
ordered to hoist a oroad pennant on board the 
Norwich, and to take command of the ships 
on the North American station. He arrived 
in Hampton Roads in February 1755, and 
during the next few months co-operated 
with General Braddock and the governors of 
the several colonies in the measures for the 
summer campaign. The arrival of Boscawen 
on the station with several senior captains 
necessarily superseded him, and he returned 
to England with the intelligence of Brad- 
dock's defeat and death. Keppel was then 
appointed to the Swiftsure of 70 guns, and 
in June 1756 was moved to the Torbay of 74, 
in which, in command of a small squadron, 
he cruised off Cape Finisterre during the 
autumn, returning to Spithead in December. 


In January he aat as a member of the court- 
martial on Admiral John Byng [q. v.], and, 
finding that the recommendation to mercy 
was not likely to receive attention, he vainly 
exerted himself to procure the intervention 
of parliament. In September 1 757 the Torbay 
was one of the fleet under Sir Edward (after- 
wards Lord) Hawke [q. v.] in the expedition 
to Basque Roads, and continued attached to 
the grand fleet, under Hawke and Anson, 
till in September 1758 Keppel was appointed 
to the command of a squadron of ships of 
war and transports sent out to reduce the 
French settlement of Goree. The service 
was effected with little loss on 29 Dec, and, 
having reinforced the garrison of Fort Louis 
on the Senegal, Keppel returned to England. 
During the summer and autumn of 1759 the 
Torbay was again attached to the grand fleet 
off Brest under Hawke, and on 20 Nov. was 
the leading ship in the battle of Quiberon 
Bay, and was closely engaged with the French 
ThGsee, which ultimately sank, though 
whether from the effect of the Torbay's fire, 
or swamped through her lower deck ports, 
has been doubted. The Torbay herself took 
in a great deal of water through the lee ports, 
and for a short time was in danger of a similar 

In March 1761 Keppel was moved from 
the Torbay to the Valiant, and appointed 
to command the squadron co-operating with 
the troops sent to reduce Belie Isle. This 
squadron, supported by another off Brest 
under Captain Buckle, and a third under Sir 
Thomas Stanhope off Rochefort, completely 
covered the military operations, and the island 
surrendered in June. Keppel continued in 
command off Brest and Belle Isle till the 
following January, when a violent gale forced 
him to bear up for Torbay. Most of his 
ships were much damaged ; the Valiant, in 
particular, was making a great deal of water, 
and had to go round to Portsmouth for 
repairs. Almost at the same time war was 
declared with Spain, and Keppel was ap- 
pointed commodore and second m command, 
under Sir George Pocock [q. v.], of the ex- 
pedition against Havana, his brother, George 
Keppel, second earl of Albemarle [q. v.], being 
the commander-in-chief of the land forces 
employed. The fleet arrived off Havana on 
5 June, the landing was effected on the 7th, and 
after a two montus 1 siege by sea and land, in 
which the climate pro red the deadliest enemy, 
the place surrendered on 14 Aug. The prize- 
money was estimated at upwards of three mil- 
lions sterling, of which nearly 25,000/. fell to 
Keppel's share, nis younger brother, a general 
officer serving on the staff, probably received 
the same, while the elder brother received 




about five times as much. Notwithstanding 
the blow inflicted on the Spanish navy and 
on Spain, it was not unnaturally saia that 
4 the expedition was undertaken solely to put 
money into the Keppels' pockets.' Immedi- 
ately after the reduction of Havana Pocock 
returned to England, leaving the command 
of the remaining ships with Keppel, who on 
21 Oct. 1762 was advanced to be rear-ad- 
miral of the blue, the promotion being, it is 
said, extended so as to include his name. 
At the peace Havana was restored to the 
Spaniards, and the troops were sent home ; 
but Keppel retained the command at Jamaica 
till the beginning of 1764, when he was re- 
lieved by Sir William Burnaby. In May he 
sailed for England. 

From July 1766 till November 1766 he 
was one of the lords commissioners of the 
admiralty, and in September 1766 hoisted his 
flag on board the Catherine yacht, to convey 
the Princess Caroline Matilda to Rotterdam, 
on the occasion of her unfortunate marriage 
to the king of Denmark. He seems, too, to 
have attached himself closely to the political 

Sirty of the Marquis of Rockingham and the 
uke of Richmond, and during the years im- 
mediately following to have identified himself 
with the intrigues and schemes of which they 
were the centre. On 24 Oct. 1770 he was 
promoted to the rank of vice-admiral, and 
was nominated for the command of the fleet 
fitting out against Spain ; the dispute was, 
however, arranged, and Keppel did not hoist 
his flag. 

During the following years, in which party 
animosity raged with great virulence, Keppel 
was closely associated with the opponents of 
the government, and the relations between 
him and the Earl of Sandwich, then first lord 
of the admiralty, would seem to have been 
the reverse of friendly. Still, his standing 
in the service was so high that it was im- 
possible to pass him over, and as early as 
November 1776, on the probability of war 
with France, he was asked by the king in 
person to undertake the command of the 
Channel fleet. Keppel felt bound to accept 
it, but he represented to his majesty the 
hostility with which the ministry regarded 
him. He had an uneasy feeling that the offer 
might be a trap of his political enemy. * If 
Lord Sandwich has but a bad fleet to send 
out/ wrote the Duke of Richmond to him, 
4 'tis doing him no injustice to suppose he 
would be glad to put it under the command 
of a man whom he does not love, and yet 
whose name will justify the choice to the 
nation. If we meet with a misfortune, he 
hopes to get off. . . . If blame is to be borne 
lie will endeavour by every art he is but too 

much master of, to throw it on your shoulders.' 
Jt was, however, more than a year before 
Keppel was called on to serve. On 29 Jan. 
1778 he was promoted to be admiral of the 
blue, and on 22 March received his com- 
mission as commander-in-chief of the grand 
fleet. At Portsmouth everything was still 
unprepared ; and in spite of Sandwich's boast 
in the House of Lords, 18 Nov. 1777, that 
' there were thirty-five ships of the line com- 
pletely manned and fit for sea at a moment's 
warning,' Keppel found there were not more 
than six ' fit to meet a seaman's eye.' The 
dockyard, too, was depleted of stores, and it 
was only by the most unremitting exertion 
that by the beginning of June twenty ships 
could be got ready. With these he sailed 
from St. Helens on 18 June, with instructions 
to prevent the French fleet in Brest from 
putting to sea, or the Toulon fleet from join- 
ing it. To either of these singly he was sup- 
posed to be superior. Presently, however, 
on detaining the French frigates Licorne and 
Pallas, he obtained certain intelligence that 
the fleet at Brest consisted of thirty-two ships 
of the line ready for sea, and acting on the 
spirit of his instructions, he fell back to Spit- 
head, 27 June, to wait for reinforcements. 
His instructions were kept strictly secret ; 
but to naval men it was clear that, under 
the circumstances, no other line of conduct 
was open to him, and the admiralty tacitly 
admitted as much by continuing their efforts 
to strengthen the fleet. The government, 
however, was much enraged at the imputation 
which his return to Spithead cast on them, 
and, as the Earl of Bristol said in the House 
of Lords, 23 April 1779, * Instead of applause 
and testimonies of approbation for his con- 
duct, the tools and scribblers of power were 
employed in every quarter of the town to 
whisper and write away his exalted character. 
. . . The pensioned vehicles of infamy, de- 
traction, and villany poured forth the dictates 
of their more infamous and profligate pro- 
tectors and paymaster, not only by asserting 
that Admiral KeppeFs return to port was 
in hopes of ruining the ministry, but also by 
a constant abuse on all those whose experi- 
ence and whose judgment in naval matters 
justified the admirars conduct.' 

On 9 July Keppel again put to sea with 
twenty-four ships of the line, a fleet which 
was raised to thirty two days later. On the 
8th the French fleet of thirty-two sail, under 
Count d'Orvilliers, had also put to sea, appa- 
rently on the report that tne English fleet 
consisted of only twenty ships. The weather 
was very thick ; but on the afternoon of the 
23rd the fog clearing discovered the two fleets 
to each other, distant only some four or five 




miles. Both formed line of battle, and an en- 
gagement appeared imminent ; but as D'Or- 
vifliers made out the numbers of the English, 
he acted more cautiously, and, aided by a 
slight shift of wind, while Keppel was lying 
to for the night, succeeded in passing ahead 
of the Englisn line and obtaining the weather- 
gage, though in the manoeuvre two of his 
ships were partially dismasted and obliged 
to return to Brest. At daybreak on the 24th 
the fleets were still in sight of each other ; 
but Keppel being now to leeward was unable 
to bring on the engagement which D'Orvil- 
liers no longer offered. And thus in foggy, 
squally, unsettled weather the fleets con- 
tinued in presence of each other till the fore- 
noon of the 27th, when a sudden shift of 
wind enabled Keppel to lie up for the French 
line and to engage it, as the two fleets passed 
each other on opposite tacks. ' Our van/ 
wrote Jervis, who commanded the Foudrov- 
ant, next astern of the Victory, Keppers 
flagship, 'passed the French line without 
receiving heavy damage; but this firing 
brought the enemy down so much that most 
of their centre and rear passed the greatest 
part of our centre and rear within musket 
shot, and the wind having been quite abated 
by the concussion of the air, a very sharp 
cannonade continued on the centre till near 
one o'clock, and on the rear till forty minutes 
after one, when the firing ceased.' 

As the two lines drew clear of each other 
D'Orvilliers made the signal to wear in 
succession. The signal was not obeyed, a 
blunder which popular report attributed to 
the cowardice of the Due de Chartres, who 
commanded the van. On the side of the 
English a part of the van, under Sir Robert 
Harland, had tacked at once, and was standing 
towards the enemy; the rest of it was too 
much disabled, and dropped to leeward. The 
ships of the centre also were much disabled, 
those of the rear perhaps still more so ; and 
though both Keppel in the Victory, and Sir 
Hugh Palliser [q. v.], who commanded the 
rear, in the Formidable, wore as soon as they 
were well clear of the enemy's line, it was at 
once apparent that the fleet could not be got 
together for an immediate renewal of the 
action, and they wore back again. 

About three o'clock the French fleet had 
got round, and was standing to the south, 
with the apparent intention of cutting off 
fkYe ships much disabled, which had fallen to 
leeward. Keppel, seeing the danger, hastily 
formed so much of his lme as he could, and 
stood towards them, a manoeuvre which was 
afterwards described as flying before the 
French. The action was not renewed, for 
the French bore away to leeward and formed 

their line, waiting for the attack which was- 
not made. It was in vain that Keppel made 
the signal for the line of battle, and for ships 
to windward to come into the admiral's wake. 
Palliser did not obey. The Fox frigate wa» 
sent with a distinct message to Palliser that 
the admiral was only waiting for him to re- 
new the attack, but it was not till after 
dark that Palliser and his division bore down. 
The next morning, 28 July, the fleet was in 
line of battle, but the French were no longer 
there. They could only be seen from the 
masthead, hull down to the eastward. It 
was clearly useless to follow them, for Brest 
was under their lee and offered them a ready 
shelter ; while in the uncertain and squally 
weather it might be dangerous to take so- 
many crippled ships near a hostile lee shore. 
On the 29th the French went into Brest, and 
Keppel, leaving a few ships to cruise for the 
protection of trade, drew back to Plymouth, 
where he anchored on the 31st. 

The fleet was ordered to refit without de- 
lay. Keppel was deeply hurt by the conduct 
of Palliser on the 27th, but the emergency 
called for haste, and he conceived that to 
institute an inquiry or to hold a court-mar- 
tial would destroy the possibility of unani-* 
mous exertion. He therefore expressed no- 
dissatisfaction, and even wrote to the admi- 
ralty in nraise of ' the spirited conduct of 
Vice-admiral Sir Hugh Palliser.' * I do not 
conceive,' he said afterwards in his defence, 
' that a commander-in-chief is bound to dis- 
close to all Europe, in the midst of a critical 
service, the real state of his fleet, or his opi- 
nion of any of his officers.' There can, how- 
ever, be no doubt that he ought to have re- 
ferred the matter at once to the admiralty, 
and his failure to do so was mainly, if not en- 
tirely, due to his distrust of Lord Sandwich. 

But the real circumstances were known to 
too many to admit of any possibility of con- 
cealment. On 23 Aug. the fleet put to sea, 
cruised vainly off Ushant for a couple of 
months, and anchored at Spithead on 28 Oct., 
when Palliser, learning that a full statement 
of the case had appeared in a London paper,, 
wrote to Keppel, ' requiring' him to contradict 
the ' scandalous report ; ' and as he received 
no reply he called on him to insist on his doing^ 
so. An angry quarrel was the result ; other 
letters appeared in the papers ; the subj ect was 
mentioned in the House of Commons ; and 
Palliser applied for a court-martial on Keppel 
on a charge of misconduct and neglect of duty* 
Palliser was one of the lords of the admiralty, 
and his colleagues had no hesitation in com- 
plying with his request. His official letter 
was dated 9 Dec, and the very same day the- 
secretary of the admiralty notified the deci-- 




sion of the board to Keppel. The conduct 
of the admiralty in thus ordering- the trial 
of the commander-in-chief on charges ex- 
hibited by an inferior, five months after date, 
and under circumstances which were strongly 
suggestive of a personal motive, called fortn 
an expression of surprise from Keppel, and 
of disapproval from tne House of Commons 
and the country at large. A memorial to 
the same effect was addressed to the king by 
Lord Hawke and most of the senior admi- 
rals ; but no notice was taken of it, and the 
court assembled at Portsmouth as ordered, 
on 7 Jan. 1779 ; for the first day on board 
the Britannia, and afterwards, through a 
period of five weeks, at the governor's house 
on shore, in consideration of Keppel's infirm 
health, and in accordance with a special act 
of parliament. 

He was charged with not marshalling his 
fleet, going into the fight in an unofncer- 
like manner, scandalous haste in quitting it, 
running away, and not pursuing the flying 
enemy — each one a capital offence. Palliser. 
in person was the prosecutor; Sir Robert 
Harland, Rear-admiral Campbell, most of 
the captains, some lieutenants, and several 
masters were the witnesses. Of these, 
whether called for the prosecution or de- 
fence, the unanimity was remarkable. With 
scarcely an exception they were agreed that 
if the admiral had waited to form his fleet in 
line he could not have brought the enemy to 
action at all ; that the enemy was very far 
from being in a perfect line; that after passing 
the enemy the admiral had turned towards 
them as soon as he could do so without block- 
ing the course of the ships astern ; that he 
turned from them and hauled down the signal 
for battle only when it was evident that many 
of his ships were too shattered to renew the 
fight at once; that his standing towards the 
south was a judicious manoeuvre, and neither 
was, nor had the appearance of being, a flight 
from the enemy ; and that any chase on the 
morning of the 28th would certainly have 
been unavailing, and would probably have 
been dangerous. And after examining and 
considering an enormous body of technical 
evidence, the court, on 11 Feb., pronounced 
the charge to be ' malicious and ill-founded ; ' 
that Keppel had behaved as became ' a judi- 
cious, brave, and experienced officer;' and 
thereupon unanimously and honourably ac- 
quitted him. 

Keppel became the hero of the hour. It 
was honestly believed that he would have 
won a victory had not Palliser prevented 
him, and Palliser's backwardness was attri- 
buted to the malign influence of Lord Sand- 
wich. Keppel's acquittal was thus not only 

a triumph of innocence over vice and fraud, 
it was a triumph of the popular party over 
the unpopular ministry. The admiralty gates 
were torn down ; the windows of the official 
residences were smashed; Palliser's house in 
Pall Mall was gutted, and his effigy was 
burnt. Bonfires blazed in Keppers honour ; 
the rioters drank Keppers health ; and the 
publicans painted Keppel's head on their 

On the conclusion of the court-martial 
Keppel addressed a letter to the king per- 
sonally, relating the facts of the conduct of 
the admiralty towards him, and imploring 
his majesty's permission not to go again to 
sea under men on whom, as he had learned 
by experience, he could not depend for sup- 
port. * I am ready/ he wrote, ' to quit my 
command to-day, or to preserve it as long 
as may be convenient for your majesty's 
arrangements and consistent with my own 
honour ; but I trust your majesty will see 
my reputation cannot continue safe in hands 
who have already done all they could to 
ruin it.' The king would seem to have 
handed the letter over to the admiralty, who 
wrote on 12 March expressing their desire 
to know with certainty whether he intended 
to continue in his present command. Keppel 
replied that he had laid his situation and the 
treatment he had received before the king ; 
and after a further exchange of acrimonious 
letters he was ordered, 18 March 1779, to 
strike his flag. 

He had naturally no further service under 
Lord Sandwich. But he had long been a 
member of the House of Commons, being 
elected for Windsor to the parliaments of 
1761, 1768, and 1774, and for Surrey to the 
parliament of 1780, and from his place in the 
house he lost no opportunity of criticising 
the misconduct of naval affairs. On the fafl 
of Lord North's administration, 20 March 

1782, and the formation of Rockingham's, 
Keppel was appointed first lord of the ad- 
miralty, and on 26 April was raised to the 
peerage as Viscount Keppel and Baron Elden. 
After the death of Rockingham Keppel was 
succeeded at the admiralty by Lord Howe, 
but resumed office on the formation of the 
coalition ministry. On its downfall, 30 Dec. 

1783, he was again succeeded by Howe, and 
retired altogether from public life. His health, 
which had suffered severely from the climate 
of Havana, had never been quite re-esta- 
blished, and during his later years was very 
much broken. In the autumn of 1785 he wa& 
advised not to risk the winter in England, 
and went to Naples, from which he returned 
in the spring of 1786. The change, however, 
effected no lasting good, and he died a few 




months later, on 2 Oct. He had not married, 
and the title on his death became extinct. 

His portrait, by Reynolds, in 1763, formerly 
belonging to theEarl of Albemarle, was bought 
by Mr. Agnew in 1888. It is engraved as the 
frontispiece to his ' Life.' After the court- 
martial Reynolds again painted his portrait 
five times. Three oi these were presented to 
the lawyers who had assisted him in his de- 
fence — John Dunning (afterwards Lord Ash- 
burton), John Lee, and Thomas (afterwards 
Lord) Erskine ; the fourth was presented to 
Edmund Burke; the fifth was bought by 
Agnew in 1888. Dunning's copy is now in 
the National Portrait Gallery; feurke's is in 
the National Gallery ; Lee's was lent to the 
Guelph Exhibition (1891) by the Hon. Wil- 
liam Massey-Mainwaring. 

[The Life of Keppel, by bis grandnephew, the 
Rev. Thomas Keppel, is comprehensive, and on 
the whole fair, though with a natural bias ; the 
memoirs in Charnock's Biog. Nav. v. 308, Balfe's 
Nav. Biog. i. 35, and Nav. Chron. vii. 277, con- 
tain little or nothing additional; official corre- 
spondence and other documents are in the Public 
Record Office ; the minutes of the court-martial 
and those of the subsequent court-martial on Pal- 
liser have both been published. The circum- 
stances of the trial, and its baneful effects, gave 
rise to many pamphlets, of which the most im- 
portant is Considerations on the Principles of 
Naval Discipline, 1781, 8vo. See also Walpole's 
Letters, ed. Cunningham, vii. 86 et seq. ; Beat- 
son's Nav. and Mil. Memoirs, ii. 456 et seq., iv. 
41 1 et seq. ; Chevalier's Hist, de la Marine fran- 
■gaise pendant la Guerre de l'lndependance ame- 
ricaine, livre ii.] J. K. L. 

KEPPEL, FREDERICK (1729-1777), 
bishop of Exeter, fourth son of William Anne 
Keppel, second earl of Albemarle [q. v.], was 
born on 19 Jan. 1728-9. He was admitted 
at Westminster School in 1743, and matri- 
culated at Christ Church, Oxford, on 26 June 
1747, graduating B.A. in 1752, M.A. in 1754, 
and D.D., by diploma, on 19 Oct. 1762. Hav- 
ing been ordained in the English church, he 
soon obtained ample preferment. He acted 
as chaplain in ordinary to George II and III, 
and from 19 April 1754 to 1762 enjoyed a 
<sanonry at Windsor. His father-in-law, Sir 
Edward Walpole, wrote to Pitt in August 
1761, asking whether it was * agreeable to 
him to make Mr. Keppel a bishop at this 
juncture/ and although this application was 
unsuccessful he was consecrated bishop of 
Exeter on 7 Nov. 1762, when it was ru- 
moured that the preferment was bestowed 
upon him on account of the capture of 
Havana by his brother ; but Horace Wal- 
pole says that the mitre was promised to 
nim the day before the news came. With 
this see he held in commendam the arch- 

deaconry of Exeter and a prebendal stall in 
that cathedral, and he also obtained the 
promise of translation to the more lucrative 
bishopric of Salisbury on the next vacancy. 
He refused the deanery of Exeter in 1763, 
but relinquished this promise of the see of 
Salisbury for the deanery of Windsor, which 
became vacant first, and to it he was ap- 
pointed, with the registrarship of the order 
of the Garter, in 1765, the general comment 
being that 'all things are crowded into three 
or four people's pockets/ He spent large 
sums of money in improving the episcopal 
palace at Exeter and in relieving the needs 
of the poorer clergy in his diocese. Keppel 
enjoyed good living, and his portrait, a half- 
length, in the palace at Exeter shows him 
as a jovial man with homely features, Pol- 
whele says that he conferred favours in the 
most handsome manner, and it is to his credit 
that Jonathan Toup the philologist [q.v.] 
was among those whom he promoted. After 
a long illness he died at the deanery, Windsor, 
on 27 Dec. 1777, and was buried in St. George's 
Chapel, Windsor. A post-mortem examina- 
tion showed that he died from dropsy in the 
stomach. He married, on 13 Sept. 1758, 
Laura, eldest natural daughter of Sir Ed- 
ward Walpole, who left her in 1784 Lacy 
House, Isleworth, and most of his fortune. 
The issue was Frederick Keppel of Lexham 
Hall, Norfolk, who died in 1830, and three 

Keppel contributed a set of verses to his 
university's collection of poems on the death 
of the Prince of Wales in 1751, and published 
two sermons. He was a whig, of sufficient 
courage in preaching before the king in March 
1776 to recommend a peace with the American 
colonies, and on his deathbed he ' thanked 
God that he had not given one vote for shed- 
ding American blood/ 

[Walpole's Letters (Cunningham), iii. 165, 
iv. 38, 40, vii. 18, viii. 372, 450, 487; Wal- 
pole's Journal, 1771-83, ii. 27-8,175 ; Chatham 
Corresp. ii. 134-5 ; Corresp. of George III and 
Lord North, ii. 61 ; Admiral Keppel's Life, i. 
424, ii. 7 ; Grenville Papers, iii. 91 ; Oliver's 
Bishops of Exeter, pp. 163, 273; Gent. Mag. 
1758 p. 452, 1778 p. 43 ; Trans. Devon. Assoc, 
xvi. 130 ; Polwhele's Devon, i. 314 ; Carthew's 
Launditch, pt. iii. p. 251 ; Aungier's Isleworth, 
p. 232 ; Welch's Alumni Westmon. ed. Philli- 
more, pp. 327, 340, 341; Le Neve's Fasti; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon.] W. P. C. 

KEPPEL, GEORGE, third Eabl of 
Albemarle (1724-1772), general, colonel 
3rd dragoons (now hussars), was the eldest 
son of William Anne, second earl [q. v.], and 
his wife, the Lady Anne Lennox. He was 
born 8 April 1724, and on 1 Feb. 1738 was 




appointed ensign in the Coldstream guards. 
He was promoted to captain-lieutenant in 
the 1st royal dragoons 25 April 1741, was 
transferred to the Coldstream guards 14 April 
1743, and became captain and lieutenant- 
colonel therein 27 May 1746. Albemarle, 
then Lord Bury, was the favourite aide-de- 
camp of William, duke of Cumberland, with 
whom he was present at Fontenoy and at 
Culloden. On the morning of Culloden 
he had a narrow escape from death at the 
hands of a highlander, who had found his 
way into the camp, and, snatching a musket 
from a soldier, fired at Bury point-blank, 
believing him from his showy dress to be the 
duke. Bury brought the Culloden despatches 
to London (by sea from Inverness), receiv- 
ing from the King a gift of 1 ,000/. He was also 
made aide-de-camp to the king/and a lord of 
the bedchamber to the Duke of Cumberland. 
He was returned as member for Chichester, 
which city he represented until his removal 
to the upper house. On 1 Nov. 1749 he was 
appointed colonel of the 20th foot. Wolfe, 
then lieutenant-colonel of the regiment, calls 
him ' one of those showy men who are seen 
in palaces and in the courts of men. . . . 
He desires never to see his regiment, and 
wishes that no officer would ever leave it ' 
(Weight, chap, ix.) Bury, however, after- 
wards joined his regiment at Inverness, and 
signalised himself by very high-handed deal- 
ing with the magistrates, who invited him 
to an entertainment on the Duke of Cum- 
berland^ birthday. He insisted, under pain 
of reprisals from the soldiers, that the ban- 
quet should be deferred till the anniversary 
of Culloden (tb.) He succeeded to the earl- 
dom on the death of his father in 1754, and 
the same year was transferred to the colonelcy 
of the 3rd dragoons. He became a major- 

feneral in 1766, and lieutenant-general in 
769, and a privy councillor and governor 
of Jersey in 1761. He was a member of 
the court-martial of Lord George Sackville 
(afterwards Germain) [q.v.], and was said 
to have shown much animus against the 
prisoner in the cross-examination of the wit- 
nesses. On 5 March 1762 he was sent with 
a force of ten thousand troops on board Ad- 
miral Pocock's fleet to attack the Havana. 
The conquest was achieved by the capture 
of Moro Castle, in the face of difficulties 
supposed to be insurmountable, on 30 July 
17o2. Albemarle's share as commander-in- 
chief was 122,000/. His conduct as a con- 
queror was alleged to be harsh and exacting. 
He banished the Bishop of Havana to Florida 
for appointing clergy without his approval, 
and he exacted contributions from tne mer- 
chants which the government at home denied 

his right to levy. He was consequently 
obliged to refund the money. He returned 
home in February 1768. He was made a K.B. 
in December 176£, and a K.G. in July 1771. 
In politics his views were very liberal. He 
distinguished himself by his opposition to 
the Royal Marriage Act and the rescinding 
of the East India dividends, and in 1770 
by pledging himself, with forty-seven other 
peers, to oppose any future infringement of 
popular rignts at elections. 

Albemarle married, in 1771, Anne (d. 
1824), daughter of Sir John Miller, bart., 
of Chichester, by whom he had an only son, 
William Charles, who succeeded him. Horace 
Walpole, who was Albemarle's intimate 
friend, speaks of his marriage as disappoint- 
ing ' his brothers and my niece/ Albemarle 
died 13 Oct. 1772, aged 48, and was buried 
at Quiddenham, Norfolk. His official cor- 
respondence, 1746-1768, is in the Brit. Mua. 
Addit. MSS. 32708-33072. 

[Collins's Peerage, 1812 ed. vol. iii.; Doyle's 
Official Baronage ; Foster's Peerage, under * Al- 
bemarle;' Georgian Era, ii. 72; Wright's Life 
of Wolfe, London, 1864, chap. ix. ; Campbell- 
Maclachlan's Order Book of William, duke of 
Cumberland, London, 1875 ; Beatson's Naval and 
Military Memoirs, London, 1794, vols. ii. and iii.; 
George Thomas, sixth earl of Albemarle's Lord 
Rockingham and his Contemporaries, London, 
1852, vol. i. ; Horace Walpole's Letters, vols, 
i-vii.j H. M. 0. 

Earl op Albbmaele (1799-1891), second 
son of "William Charles, fourth earl, by his 
first wife, the Hon. Elizabeth Southwell, 
daughter of Lord de Clifford, and grandson 
of George Keppel, third earl of Albemarle 
[q. v.], was born 13 June 1799. His child- 
hood was passed with his grandmother, the 
Dowager Lady De Clifford, who at the time 
was governess to the Princess Charlotte of 
Wales. The princess, three years his senior, 
often 'tipped* him liberally. He idled at 
Westminster School from the age of nine until 
nearly sixteen. When Dr. Page, the head- 
master, had pronounced him unfit for any 
learned profession, an ensigncy was obtained 
for him in the old third battalion of 14th foot 
(now West Yorkshire regiment). The bat- 
talion, consisting chiefly of raw recruits, was 
in Belgium, and young Keppel, whose com- 
mission was dated 4 April 1815, joined it 
in time to be present with it at the oattle of 
Waterloo. Footsore and ragged, he marched 
with the victorious troops to Paris. He re- 
turned home with the battalion at the end 
of the year, and when it was disbanded 
served with the second battalion of the regi* 
ment in the Ionian Islands. This battalion 




was disbanded at Chichester in 1818, when 
Keppel was appointed to the 22nd (Cheshire) 
foot, with which he was in Mauritius and at 
the Cape, returning home with the regiment 
in 1819. For a time he was equerry to the 
Duke of Sussex. In 1821 he was promoted to 
a lieutenancy in the 24th foot, was transferred 
to the 20th, and ordered to India. There he 
served as aide-de-camp to the governor-gene- 
ral, the Marquis of Hastings, but upon Hast- 
ings's resignation in 1823 he obtained leave 
to return home overland. Relying on a scanty 
stock of Persian acquired during the long 
and weary passage out, he visited the ruins 
of Babylon and tne court of Teheran, thence 
journeying to England by way of Baku, 
Astrakan, Moscow, and St. Petersburg, a rare 
feat in those days. His published narrative 
is an interesting volume. He next served 
as aide-de-camp to the Marquis Wellesley 
when lord-lieutenant of Ireland ; obtained 
a company in the 62nd foot in 1825, and 
after studying at the senior department of 
the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, ob- 
tained a majority on half-pay unattached, 
20 March 1827. He was not on full pay 
again, but he rose step by step, finally 
attaining the honorary rank of full general 
(on half-pay of his former commission), 7 Feb. 
1874. In 1829 he paid a visit to the seat of 
war between the Russians and Turks, was 
with the English fleet in Turkish waters, 
visited Constantinople and Adrianople, and 
crossed the Balkans. In 1832 he was re- 
turned, in the whig interest, for East Nor- 
folk, in the first reformed parliament, and 
sat until 1835. In 1846 he became one of 
the private secretaries to Lord John Russell, 
the new premier, and in 1847 was returned 
for Lymington, for which he sat until 1849, 
the year of his father's death. On the death 
of his brother, Augustus Frederick, the fifth 
earl, 15 March 1851, he succeeded to the 
title. He was appointed a trustee of West- 
minster School in 1854, in succession to 
the (first) Marquis of Anglesey, and was 
long the ' father of the trust/ Few men 
have been longer known or more generally 
popular in London society. He retained his 
faculties to the end of his life, during the 
latter part of which he held receptions on 
each anniversary of Waterloo, at his daugh- 
ter's house in Fortman Square (see Broad 
Arrow, 28 Feb. 1891, p. 278, and 13 June 
1891, p. 749). 

Albemarle died at his London residence in 
Portman Square, 21 Feb. 1891, in his ninety- 
second year, and was buried at Quiddenham, 
Norfolk. He married in 1831 Susan, third 
daughter of Sir Coutts Trotter, bart., and by 
her had a son, the present earl, best known as 

Viscount Bury, who in 1876 was summoned tc* 
the upper house under the family title of Lord 
Ashford, and four daughters, two of whom 

Sredeceased their parents. Lady Albemarlo 
ied in 1885. . 

Albemarle was author of: 1. 'Personal 
Narrative of a Journey from India to Eng- 
land . . .,' London, 1825, 2 vols. A third 
edition of this work appeared as ' Travels in 
Babylonia, Media, Assyria, and Scythia^ Lon- 
don, 1827. 2. ' Narrative of a Journey across 
the Balkans . . . and a Visit to . . . newly 
discovered Ruins in Asia Minor,' London, 
1830. A volume of extracts from the narra- 
tive, with added letters, appeared in Dublin 
in 1831. 3. 'Memoirs of the Marquis of 
Rockingham and his Contemporaries/ Lon- 
don, 1852, 2 vols. 4. l Fifty Years of my 
Life/ London, 1876. A third and revised 
edition appeared in London, 1877. Some of 
Albemarle's speeches in the House of Lords, 
as on the Marriage Bill in 1856 and on ' Tor- 
ture in the Madras Presidency ' in the same- 
year, were printed in pamphlet form. 

[Doyle's Official Baronage, vol. i. ; Foster's 
Peerage ; Albemarle's Fifty Years of my Life 
(rev. ed), and other works ; Pari. Debates under 
dates; Times, February 1891.] H. M. C. 

Eakl of Albemarle (1702-1754), lieute- 
nant-general, colonel Coldstream guards, son 
of Arnold Joost van Keppel, first earl [q.v.], 
and his wife Geertruid Johanna Quirina van 
der Duyn, was born at Whitehall on 5 June 
1 702 j was baptised at the Chapel Roy al,Queen 
Anne being his godmother; was educated in 
Holland j and on his return to England (as 
Viscount Bury) was appointed, 25 Aug. 1717, 
captain and lieutenant-colonel of the grena- 
dier company of the Coldstream guards. In 
1718 he succeeded to his father's title and 
estates, and in 1722, at his family seat in 
Guelderland, entertained the Bishop of Mini- 
ster. In 1725 he was made K.B., in 1727 
aide-de-camp to the king ; and on 22 Nov. 
1731 was appointed to the colonelcy of the- 
29th foot, then at Gibraltar, which he held 
until 7 May 1738, when he was appointed 
colonel of the third troop of horse-guards. 
He was made governor of Virginia in 1737 r 
a brigadier-general Julv 1739, major-gene- 
ral February 1742, and was transferred to 
the colonelcy of the Coldstream guards in 
October 1744. He went to Flanders with 
Lord Stair in 1742, and was a general on the 
staff at Dettingen, where he had a horse shot 
under him, and at Fontehoy, where he was 
wounded. He commanded the first line of 
Cumberland's army at Culloden, and was 
again on the staff in Flanders, and present 
at the battle of Val. At the peace of 174ft 




he was sent as ambassador extraordinary and 
minister plenipotentiary to Paris, ana was 
appointed commander-in-chief in North Bri- 
tain, and in 1749 was made K.G. The year 
after he was made groom of the stole and a 
privy councillor, and in 1752 was one of the 
lords justices during the king's absence in 
Hanover. In 1754 he was sent back to 
Paris to demand the liberation of some Bri- 
tish subjects detained by the French in Ame- 
rica, and died in Paris suddenly on 22 Dec. 
1754. His remains were brought over and 
buried in the chapel in South Audley Street, 

Albemarle married in 1723 Lady Anne 
Lennox, daughter of Charles, first duke of 
Richmond, and by her had eight sons and 
seven daughters. His sons George, the 
third earl, Augustus, viscount Keppel, the 
admiral, and Frederick, bishop of Exeter, 
are separately noticed. 

Horace Walpole calls Albemarle 'the 
spendthrift earl, and says that the British 
embassy in Paris was kept up for his benefit 
(Letters, ii. 331). Walpole adds that Albe- 
marle had 90,000/. in the funds when he was 
married, and his wife brought him 25,000/. 
more, all of which, with the exception of 
about 14,000/., he squandered, without leav* 
ing a penny for his debts or for his children, 
legitimate and illegitimate, who were many 
(tb. ii. 420-1). George H conferred a pension 
of 1,200/. a year on his widow. His corre- 
spondence in 1732-54 is in Brit. Mus. Add. 
MSS. 32687-33066. 

[Collins's Peerage, 1812 ed. iii. 728 et seq.; 
Foster's Peerage, under 'Albemarle;' Doyle's 
Official Baronage ; Mackinnon's Origin and His- 
tory of the Coldstream Guards, London, 1832, 
vol. ii. ; Campbell-Maclachlan's Order Book of 
William, duke of Cumberland, London, 1875; 
Georgian Era, ii. 49 ; Horace Walpole's Letters, 
vols. i. and ii.] H. M. C. 

KER. [See also Kebb.] 

KER, Sib ANDREW (d. 1526), of Cess- 
furd or Cessford, Scottish borderer, was the 
eldest son of Sir Robert Ker of Caverton, 
Roxburghshire, cupbearer and master of 
artillery to James IV, by his wife Christina, 
daughter of James Rutherford of Rutherford. 
He was served heir to his grandfather 30 Sept. 
1511 , being then of lawful age. Shortly after- 
wards, to avenge the death of his father, who 
some years previously had been slain by 
Starhed and two other Englishmen, Ker sent 
two of his vassals, who entered Starhed's 
house, ninety miles beyond the borders, killed 
him, and brought his head to Ker. Ker sent 
it to Edinburgh, where it was set up in a 
conspicuous position (Buchanan, ok. xiii. 
c xzvi.) At flodden Ker fought under Lord 

Home with the other 'moron-men,' who, after 
defeating the English vanguard, dispersed in 
search of pillage. He was one of those who 
signed the letter to the king of France, 15 
May 1515, proposing that Scotland should be 
comprehended in the treaty with England 
(Rtmbb, Fcedera, xiii. 309). In August of 
the same year he was appointed warden of 
the middle marches (Albany to Dacre, Col. 
State Papers, Hen. VIII, vol. ii. entry 795). 
Dacre expressed surprise at the appointment 
of Ker, ' a young man without wisdom and 
substance ; ' but two years afterwards con- 
fessed that he had no fault to find with him, 
* but that he is some forgitfyll and rakles 
(tb. entry 3393). In January 1520 Ker de- 
feated a force of four hundred Mersemen 
who, under Sir James Hamilton of Finnart, 
were hastening to support Andrew Ker [q. v.] 
of Ferniehirst m his assumption of the power 
to hold courts at Jedburgh, claimed as an ex- 
clusive right by the Earl of Angus. The action 
of Ker was submitted to the decision of 
arbiters. The final decision of the arbiters, 
given on 24 Sept., was that Ker and his friends 
should for their lifetimes take the Earl of 
Arran's ' trew and afuld part/ and in par- 
ticular should henceforth assist him against 
the Earl of Angus and his party (Hamilton 
Manuscripts, Hist MSS. Uorrvm. 11th Rep. 
App. pt. yi. pp. 32-3). On 22 Jan. 1521 Ker 
was appointed one of a commission for a 
treaty with England (Fcedera, xiii. 735), 
which was signed on the 30th (ib. p. 739). 
In September 1524 he and Scott of Buccleuch, 
' on account of a variance with each other/ 
were called before the council and committed 
to prison (Cal. State Papers, Hen. VIII, 
iv. 651). In 1526, he with Lord Home 
accompanied the king to Melrose when he 
went to hold justice eyres in the southern 
shires. Shortly after taking leave they learned 
that Scott of Buccleuch with one thousand 
men was approaching to deliver the king 
from the power of Angus. Returning imme- 
diately, they succeeded in turning the tide of 
battle against Buccleuch ; but Ker, while in 
pursuit of the foe, was slain, 23 Jan., by a 
spear hurled at him by one of Buccleucns 
servants. By his wife Agnes, daughter of 
Robert, second lord Crichton of Sanquhar, he 
had three sons : Sir Walter [q. vA Mark, com- 
mendator of Newbattle [see Kebb, Mark], 
and Andrew; and two daughters: Cathe- 
rine, married to Sir John Ker of Ferniehirst, 
and Margaret, to Sir John Home of Colding- 

[Histories of Buchanan and Leslie; Rymer's 
Fcedera; Cal. State Papers, Hen. VIH; Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 11th Rep. App. pt. vi.; Douglas's 
Scottish Peerage (Wood), ii. 445.] T. F. H. 


4 6 


KER, ANDREW (1471P-1545), of Fer- 
niehirst, border chieftain, was eldest son of 
Thomas Ker, eighth laird of Kersheugh in 
Teviotdale,by his wife Catharine, daughter of 
Sir Robert Colvill of Ochiltree. Thomas Ker 
built a house in the middle of the forest of Jed- 
burgh, and gave it the name of Ferniehirst,by 
which title this branch of the Ker family was 
afterwards known. Andrew was probably 
born about 1471, for we find him appearing as 
bail for men charged with border robbery in 
1493, and he can hardly have done so before 
he was of full age (Pitcairn, Criminal Trials, 
vol. i. pt. ii. pp. 17-18, 28). In 1499 he suc- 
ceeded his father as laird of Ferniehirst, and 
in 1511 inherited through his mother the 
barony of Oxenham and had confirmation of 
the lands of Ferniehirst from his feudal su- 
perior, Archibald, earl of Angus. In 1612 
he sat at Edinburgh on an assize for the trial 
of several borderers accused of theft (ib. p. 
88). The disturbed state of Scotland after 
the defeat of Flodden Field seems to have 
inspired Ker with a desire to secure for him- 
self a strong position on the Scottish border. 
On 9 Sept. 1513, the night after the battle, 
he broke into the abbey of Kelso, then held 
in commendam by Andrew Stewart, bishop 
of Caithness, turned the superior out of doors, 
and set up in his stead his brother Thomas, 
who seems to have maintained the position 
thus forcibly won, and on the death of the 
Bishop of Caithness in 1518 became abbot of 
Kelso (Morton, Monastic Annals of Teviot- 
dale, p. 96). In the struggle between Angus 
and Arran which arose after the marriage of 
Queen Margaret with Angus [see Douglas, 
Archibald, sixth Earl op Angus] Ker 
joined Lord Home in helping Angus, and 
when Margaret took refuge in England in 
December 1515 Ker was one of her escort 
(Brewer, Calendar of State Papers, vol. ii. 
No. 1350). He was arrested in Edinburgh 
with Home in October 1516 by the orders of 
the governor, the Duke of Albany. Hume 
was beheaded, but Ker contrived to escape 

S)RUMM0in), Hist, of Scotland, p. 1 68). After 
argaret's quarrel with Angus the Earl of 
Arran was made warden of the marches, and 
Ker took advantage of the conflict between 
the two to claim for himself the bailiwick of 
Jedburgh forest (ib. p. 174). For some time 
he was a source of disorder on the borders, 
and in 1521 the English warden, Lord Dacre, 
joined with Andrew Ker of Cessfurd in com- 

flaining of his lawlessness (Calendar, iii. 
171). In September 1523 Lord Dacre led his 
forces against Ferniehirst, 'the lord whereof 
was his mortal enemy/ and after a resolute 
defence captured it and made Ker prisoner 
(Ellis, Original Letters, 1st ser. i. 216-17). 

He soon escaped, and in November com- 
manded under the Duke of Albany at the 
unsuccessful siege of Wark (Holinbhed, 
Scottish Chronicle, p. 311). At the beginning 
of 1524 he was reckoned as one of the chief 
supporters of the Earl of Lennox in his at- 
tempt to govern Scotland (Calendar, iv. 43). 
But when Angus returned at the end of the 
year and was made warden of the east and 
middle marches Ker promised his allegiance 
(Pitcairn, p. 127). A feud soon broke out 
between him and Angus, and at the begin- 
ning of 1526 he joined Arran, who was raising 
forces against Angus (Calendar, iv. 1878). 
He was accused of treason, but the process 
was abandoned. After that he made peace 
with Angus, and rendered him signal service 
in July 1526, when Scott of Buccleuch made 
an attempt to seize the young king, who was 
with Angus at Melrose. Ker and the Homes 
had departed, but returned in answer to a 
summons, fell upon the Scotts in their flank, 
and routed them (Drtjmmond, p. 189). The 
death of Andrew Ker of Cessfurd in this en- 
counter was the beginning of a feud between 
the Kers and the Scotts which long con- 
tinued, in spite of attempts at pacification, 
one of which was signed by Ker in 1530 
(Wade, Hist, of Melrose, p. 63). After his 
agreement with Angus, Ker settled down to a 
more orderly life, and busied himself in re- 
storing order, for which he was praised by 
the English warden in September 1527 (Ca- 
lendar, iv. 3421). On the forfeiture of the 
Earl of Angus he received a grant of Fernie- 
hirst from the crown on 5 Sept. 1528. He 
undertook the rule of Teviotaale, and was 
one of three commissioners empowered to 
make an agreement with England, which 
was signed on 2 Dec. (Rymer, Fcedera, xiv. 
276). In 1530 James V took the manage- 
ment of the borders into his own hands and 
committed Ker's eldest son, John, to prison. 
He was soon released, and seems to have 
acted for his father in military undertakings. 
In 1533 it was computed that the Kers, the 
Homes, and the Scotts could together bring 
into the field five thousand men. When, in 
1543, war broke out between Scotland and 
England, Ker found it impossible to with- 
stand the superior forces of the English. He 
made promises to help them, and his son 
John assisted them in their raids upon his 
neighbours (Haynes, Burghley Papers, pp. 
43-51). In October 1544 Ker made a cove- 
nant with Sir Ralph Eure to serve England 
(State Papers of Henry VIII, v. 398), and 
in November was in receipt of English pay 
(Lodge, Illustrations, i. 79). In September 
1545 he pleaded his services against the 
threatened ravages of the Earl of Hertford 




and made submission to him, thereby saving 
his lands. He died soon afterwards. 

Ker married Janet, second daughter of Sir 
Patrick Home of Polwarth, by whom he had 
three sons and two daughters. His son John 
succeeded him as lord of Ferniehirst, and 
had a son Sir Thomas Ker [q. v.] His 
daughter Isabel married Sir Walter Ker of 
Cessfurd [q. v.] 

[Authorities in text; Douglas's Peerage of 
Scotland, ed. Wood, ii. 132; Jeffrey's Hist, of 
Roxburghshire, i. 261-5 ; Armstrong's Hist of 
Liddesdale, pp. 213-60; Marquis of Lothian's 
manuscripts at Newbattle Abbey.] M. C. 

DEN (1786 P-1871), legal reformer, son of 
John Bellenden Ker [q. v.], was born about 
1786. He was called to the bar in Lincoln's 
Inn in Trinity term 1814, and obtained a 
large practice as a conveyancer. Active in 
promoting parliamentary reform from 1830 
to 1832, he was a member of the boundary 
commission {House of Commons' Papers, 1836, 
vol. xxxv.), and contested Norwich unsuc- 
ce88fuUy in the whig interest. He was a 
member of the public records commission, and 
in 1833 he was appointed one of the royal 
commissioners to report upon the expediency 
of digesting the criminal law and consolidat- 
ing the other branches of the statute law. 
Various bills for the amendment of the cri- 
minal law were founded on the reports of the 
commission. In 1846, with Messrs. Hayes 
and Christie, Ker drew for Lord-chancellor 
Lyndhurst a short bill which, when passed 
into an act (8 & 9 Vict. c. 106), was a most 
valuable amendment of the law of real pro- 
perty. In 1853 Lord Cranworth appointed 
Ker head of a board nominated to consider 
the consolidation of the statute law, and when 
that board was replaced in 1864 by a royal 
commission, Ker became the chief working 
member (Lord Cranworth's Speeches, Ann. 
Beg. 1863 p. 4, 1864 p. 142; Mr. Ker>s First 
Beport, 13 Aug. 1863, App. p. 209 ; House of 
Ocmmons* Papers, p. 438 ; tb. 1864, vol. xv.) 
The action of the board and commission led 
to the revised edition of the statutes, the suc- 
cessive Statute Law Revision Acts, the issue 
of the chronological tables of the statute law, 
and to the Criminal Law Acts of 1861. Ker 
also suggested and prepared the useful Leases 
and Sales of Settled Estates Act of 1866, and 
Lord Cranworth's act of 1860, which were 
finally superseded by the Conveyancing and 
Settled Land Acts, modelled to a great ex- 
tent upon Ker's work. In 1862 the office of 
master in chancery was abolished, and that 
of conveyancing counsel to the court of 
chancery was instituted. To that post Ker 

was soon afterwards appointed. For some 
years he was recorder of Andover. 

Ker was an ardent advocate of popular 
education, and of the diffusion of literature 
and art. Charles Knight, in ' Passages of a 
Working Life/ ii. 120, 121, says that he was 
' the most fertile in projects of any member 
of the committee ' of the Society for the Dif- 
fusion of Useful Knowledge, and suggested 
many publishing schemes apart from the 
society. Two of Eastlake's most beautiful 
works were painted for Ker. He was himself 
a contributor of woodcuts as well as lives of 
Wren and Michael Angelo to the * Penny 
Magazine/ He was an original member of 
the Arundel Society, was much interested in 
the foundation of scnools of design, and helped 
to promote the establishment of the Depart- 
ment of Science and Art. He was one of the 
first private growers of orchids, and he wrote 
a series of articles under the pseudonym ' Dod- 
man ' in the ' Gardeners' Chronicle.' He was 
in early life a fellow of the Royal Society, but 
resigned his fellowship when in 1830 the 
Duke of Sussex was chosen president. In 
1860 he retired from practice, and lived during 
the rest of his life at Cannes, where he died 
2 Nov. 1871. Charles Knight speaks warmly 
of his charm in all social relations. Bfe 
married Elizabeth Anne, daughter of Edward 
Clarke, a solicitor, but had no issue. 

[Authorities cited above; personal know- 
ledge; information from Mr. M. I. Fortescue 
Brickdale.] J. S. V. 

KER, JAMES INNES-, fifth Duxb of 
Roxburgh (1738-1823), born at Innes 
House, Elginshire, in 1738, was second son of 
Sir Hary Innes, fifth baronet and twenty- 
eighth laird of Innes, by his wife Ann, 
daughter of Sir James Grant of Grant, and a 
sister of Jean, first countess Fife. During 
the insurrection of 1746-6 Elginshire was 
held by the Jacobites, and to escape falling 
into their hands younglnnes was sent across 
the Moray Firth to Dunrobin Castle. He 
was captain of the 88th regiment of foot in 
1759, and of the 58th regiment in 1779. On 
the death of his father in 1762 he, as the 
eldest surviving son, was served heir to the 
baronetcy 7 Feb. 1764. His family claimed 
to have held Innes since 1160, and at one time 

Possessed the whole territory between the 
pey and the Lossie, besides estates in Banff- 
shire ; but for a century their fortunes had 
been ebbing, and in 1767 Innes was obliged 
to sell his ancient barony of Innes to his first 
cousin, the second Earl Fife. On 19 April 
1769 he married his first wife, Mary, eldest 
daughter of Sir John Wray, bart., of Glent- 
worth, Lincolnshire, by Frances, daughter of 
Fairfax Norcliffe of Langton, Yorkshire. His 


4 8 


wife inherited the Langton estate soon after- 
wards, and Innes thereupon assumed by royal 
license the additional surname of Norcliffe ; 
but on his wife's death without issue, on 
20 July 1807, the Langton estate went to 
her nephew, and Innes dropped the name of 
Norcliffe. Eight days later he married his 
second wife, Harriet, daughter of Benjamin 
Charlewood of Windlesham, Surrey, by whom 
he had an only son, James Henry. 

Meanwhile William Ker, fourth duke of 
Roxburgh, had died on 22 Oct. 1805, with- 
out surviving issue. Innes's great-grandfather, 
Sir James Innes, third baronet, had married 
in 1666 Margaret Ker, granddaughter by a 
second marriage of Sir Robert Ker, first earl 
of Roxburgh [a. vj On the ground of this dis- 
tant relationship Lines, who now called him- 
self Innes-Ker, claimed to succeed to the duke- 
dom and its estates. His pretensions were 
disputed by Lady Essex Ker, by Major-general 
Walter Ker of Littledean, Roxburghshire, and 
by John Bellenden Ker fa. v.], in whose favour 
the last duke had entailed the property. Lord- 
chancellor Eldon took three days (15, 16, and 
20 June 1809) to state in the House of Lords 
the grounds on which he preferred Sir James 
Innes to the other claimants. The litigation 
continued till 11 May 1812, when the House 
of Lords finally granted the title to Innes- 
Ker, and in the following year the deeds by 
which the fourth duke haa attempted to be- 
queath to Bellenden Ker the greater part of 
the property were set aside. The duke died, 
aged 85, at Floors, near Kelso, on 19 July 
1823, and was buried in the family vault at 
Bowden. His widow re-married Colonel 
Walter Frederick O'Reilly, C.B., of the 41st 
regiment of foot (d. 1844), and died 19 Jan. 
1855. His only son, James Henry (1816- 
1879), succeeded as seventh duke. 

[The Familie of Innes, edited for the Spalding 
Club by Cosmo Innes ; Douglas's Peerage ; Re- 
ports of Cases decided in the House of Lords 
upon Appeal from Scotland, vol. v.] J. C. 

KER, JOHN (1673-1726), of Kersland, 
Ayrshire, government spy, eldest son of 
Alexander Crawfurd of Fergushill, second 
son of John Crawfurd, seventeenth laird of 
Crawfurdland, by Elizabeth, daughter of John 
Maxwell of Southburn, was born, according 
to the preface to his ' Memoirs/ in the family 
house of Crawfurdland on 8 Aug. 1673. In 
1693 he married Anna, the younger of two 
daughters of the deceased Robert Ker of 
Kersland. On the death of their only brother, 
Major Daniel Ker of the Cameronians, at the 
battle of Steinkirk in 1692, the estate had 
been settled on the elder sister Jean, married 
to Major William Borthwick of Johnston- 
burn, but in 1697 she sold it to her sister's 

husband, who thereupon assumed the title 
and arms of Ker of Kersland. Between 1689 
and 1704 Ker became so overloaded with 
debts that he found it necessary to grant 
irredeemable feu charters to sundry mort- 
: gages to the extent of half the property. 
I His impecuniosity was probably the cause 
of his shameless abuse of his position as the 
• recognised leader of the Cameronians. The 
' support of this sect being claimed both by 
, the government and the Jacobites, he set his 
1 wits to discover how best he could prey upon 
both parties, or, failing this, which party he 
could prey upon to most advantage. Lock- 
hart states that he tried to gain credit with 
the Jacobites by opposing the union {Papers, 
i. 302). Ker's version is that the Jacobites 
concealed their own intentions in favour of 
the Pretender, and tried to persuade the Came- 
ronians to a rising against the union by argu- 
ments suited to the principles of the sect 
(Memoirs, 1726, pt. i. p. 28). He moreover 
affirms that against his own conviction he 
was so beguiled by 'the rhetorical* (a gloss 
for pecuniary) 'arguments' of the Duke of 
Queensberry, that he cajoled the Camero- 
nians into peace (ib. pp. 30-4). He professes 
deeply to regret his action in favour of the 
union (ib. p. §7). At the same time he naively 
confesses that his main motive was an as- 
surance of the queen's favour from the duke. 
Immediately after the union he says that 
he was sounded by some Jacobite agents as 
to his ' terms.' Feigning to take the bait, he 
endeavoured to gain their confidence in order 
to betray them. That he was simply a govern- 
ment spy may be held as proved, if we accept 
as genuine the royal license of 7 July 1707 
(printed as a frontispiece to his Memoirs), 
permitting him to associate with disaffected 
persons. He boasts that he had spies and 
agents in all parts of the country. Lock- 
hart affirms that, as ' Ker was known to be a 
Con highly immoral and guilty of several 
actions, such as forgery and the like, no 
person of the least note would have the least 
intercourse with him* (Papers, i. 302). This 
is partly confirmed by the Hooke ' Corre- 
spondence/ as is also the statement that ' his 
chief correspondence was with the Duchess 
of Gordon and some catholic priests.' He 
figures in the * Correspondence' under the 
names of Thomas Trustie, Wilks, "Wicks, and 
the * Cameronian mealmonger.' On 20 April 
1707 Mr. Strachan, a catholic gentleman, 
treated with him as representing the Came- 
ronians of five shires. Ker in their name 
offered thirteen thousand men for the king's 
service, and volunteered to go to France and 
remain there as a hostage for the fidelity of 
his party (Hooeb, p. 309). Strachan also gave 




Hooke a 'memoir' from Ker on the disposi- 
tion of the presbyterians (printed ib. pp. 370- 
871) ; but on 18 Nov. the Duchess of Gordon 
wrote that 'Mr. Wicks is turned a knave' 
(ib. p. 617). The probability is that before 
his treachery was discovered he had wormed 
himself into some Jacobite secrets, and there 
is reason to suppose that he helped to frus- 
trate a plot to seize Edinburgh Castle in 
1707. fii the latter end of March 1709 he 
came to London, and according to his own 
account the lord treasurer upon his arrival 
paid all accounts due to himself, but would 
do nothing ' in the matter of the Cameronian 
arrears' (Memoirs, p. 66). Lockhart, how- 
ever, prints a copy of a letter of Ker to the 
Duke of Roxburgh, dated 4 May (Papers, 
i. 302-6), simply asking to be repaid the ex- 
penses he had incurred in ' managing of these 
people.' This letter, according to Lockhart, 
was shown to certain Jacobites by a kept 
mistress of Ker's, who allowed them to make 
a copy. Lockhart states that Ker obtained 
in all from the government about 500/. or 
600/., and finding that Godolphin 'would 
give no more,' he * tacked about to the whigs 
and tories,' and, on the promise to give evi- 
dence of Godolphin's connection with the 
Jacobites, obtained at least two thousand 
guineas from the leaders of both parties un- 
known to one another (ib. p. 308). 

In 17 13 Ker was, according to his own testi- 
mony, sent on a private mission to the em- 
peror of Austria in connection with a scheme 
for employing buccaneers to harass the trade 
of France and Spain (Memoirs, p. 75). On 
his arrival in Vienna in January 1713-14, he 
told his 'story' to Leibnitz, who privately 
arranged with the emperor an interview 
between Ker and the emperor's secretary. 
The enterprise being unfavourably received, 
Ker thereupon ' drops' it, to ' inform pos- 
terity that 1 employed my spare hours at 
Vienna in sending to the Electress Sophia 
all the light I got.' For the ill-success of 
his mission he was consoled by a present of 
r the emperor's picture in gold set round with 
diamonds' (ib. p. 87). He arrived in Hanover 
in July 1714, and thus, according to his own 
account, was useful in securing the Hano- 
verian succession (ib. p. 92), besides giving 
good advice to the elector as to the method 
of ruling the English nation. He asked the 
government of the Bermudas as a reward, 
but, as he scorned to bribe officials, it was be- 
stowed on another. He professes also to have 
given important information against the Ja- 
cobites in 1715, but no notice was taken of 
his communications. Being ' disappointed ' of 
all his ' endeavours to prevent the rebellion,' 
he embarked for Holland, but returned to 
VOL. zxxi. 

London, where Leibnitz told him that his 
presence would be ' very necessary,' in March 
1715 (ib. p. 110). His offers of service were 
declined, and he only received ' a hundred 
dollars from the king.' He now offered his 
services to the East India Company, to arrange 
matters between them and the emperor of 
Austria; but disappointed here also, he in 
1721 directed his efforts ' to form a scheme and 
charter for erecting a new company of com- 
merce in the Austrian Netherlands.' The 
affair came to nothing, and henceforth ill-luck 
continued to dog his footsteps till his death, 
which took place in the King s Bench debtors' 
prison on 8 July 1726. He was buried in St. 
George's churchyard, Southwark. On his re- 
turn from abroad in 1718 he sold the estate of 
Fergushill to John Asgill [a. v.] and Robert 
Hackett for 3,800/., and in 1721 Hackett 
conveyed his moiety of the estate to Asgill, 
which moiety Asgill afterwards mortgaged 
to Ker for 2,600/., ' which remained at his 
death' (ib. pt. iii. pp. 63-4). During his 
absence on the continent his wife had been 
obliged to impropriate the plate and furniture 
of Kersland to three friends who undertook 
to support her. After Ker's death she tried 
to save the estate from creditors by pro- 
ducing a forged deed in the name of her elder 
sister Jean. Ultimately the property, with 
thft superiority of the barony, was sold in 
1738. Ker left three daughters : Elizabeth, 
married to John Campbell of Ellangieg, Ar- 
gyllshire, and Anna and Jean, of whom 
nothing further is known. 

The ' Memoirs of John Ker of Kersland, 
part i., published by himself,' appeared in 1726, 
and parts ii. and iii.also in the same year. The 
publisher of all the three parts was Edmund 
Curll [q. v.] Part ii. was published by Ker's 
' express direction,' and though part iii. was 
published posthumously, it claimed to be 
* faithfully printed from the original manu- 
script of the said John Ker, Esq.; and other 
authorities serving to illustrate the said work,' 
and also to be ' prepared for the press under his 
express direction.' Part iii. contained 'Maxims 
of Trade,' and there was also added by Curll 
the indictment for publishing part i. For pub- 
lishing the 'Memoirs,' which contained pro- 
fessed revelations reflecting on the govern- 
ment, and for other similar offences, Curll was 
fined twenty marks, and had to stand in the 
pillory an hour at Charing Cross (State Trials, 
xvii. 160; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. iii. 
143-4). A third edition of part i. appeared 
at London in 1727 (Catalogue of Advocates' 
Library, Edinburgh), and another edition 
of part ii. in the same year (ib.) ' Castra- 
tions of the Memoirs of John Ker of Kers- 
land ' also appeared in 1727. (There is a copy 




in the Grenville Library in the British Mu- 
seum.) His 'Memoirs were translated into 
French under the title, ' Meinoires contenant 
dee reflexions intereesantes sur le commerce 
et une histoire abregee de File de Majorque,' 
Rotterdam, 1726-8, 3 vols. Ker's portrait 
bv Hammond is prefixed to part i. of his 
' Memoirs. 1 

[Lockhart Papers; Ker's Memoirs, and pre- 
face to parti.; Nathaniel Hooke's Correspond- 
ence (Abbotsford Clnb) ; Political State of Great 
Britain, 1826, xxxii. 97 ; Paterson's Hist, of the 
County of Ayr, i. 425-6.] T. F. H. 

KER, JOHN, fifth Eabl and first Dvke 
of Roxburgh (d. 1741), was brother of Ro- 
bert, fourth earl, and second son of Robert, 
third earl, by Lady Margaret Hay, eldest 
daughter of John, first marquis of Tweeddale. 
He was, according to Patten, carefully edu- 
cated by his father (History of the Rebellion), 
and Macky refers to him as ' a young gentle- 
man of great learning and virtue,' who 
' knows all the ancient languages thoroughly, 
and speaks most of the modern perfectly well ' 
{Secret Memoirs). He also describes him 
as ' brown-complexioned ' and 'handsome.' 
Lockhart calls him perhaps ' the best accom- 
plished young man of quality in Europe' 
(Memoirs, p. 96"). He had also great personal 
charm. ' By all that are so happy as to be 
acquainted with him,' writes Fatten, 'he 
gains their affection and applause.' He ' had 
so charming a way of expressing his thoughts,' 
laments Lockhart, 'that he pleased even 
those against whom he spoke.' On 22 Oct. 
1696 he was served heir male and of entail 
of his brother in the earldom of Roxburgh, 
when, according to Lockhart, ' he made his 
first appearance in the world to the general 
satisfaction of all men.' In 1704 he was ap- 
pointed one of the secretaries of state for 
Scotland, and the same year he accompanied 
the Earl of Rothes and Baillie of Jervis- 
wood as a deputation to London to protest 
against the payment of Scots troops from the 
English treasury (Marchmont Papers, ill. 
264). The deputation were assured that no 
purpose of this kind had been contemplated. 
Subsequently Roxburgh joined thesguadrone, 
and as one of its principal leaders he took a 
very prominent part in the debates in favour 
of the union ana the protestant succession. 
On 25 April 1707 Roxburgh's great services to 
the government were recognised by creating 
him in the Scots peerage Duke of Roxburgh, 
Marquis of Bowmont and Cessfurd, Earl of 
Kelso, Viscount Broxmouth, and Lord Ker 
of Cessfurd and Caverton. The same year 
he was chosen one of the sixteen Scottish re- 
presentative peers, and he was rechosen in 

1708, and again in 1715 and 1722. Dissatis- 
fied with the influence exercised by the Duke 
of Queensberry in the management of Scot-* 
tish business, Roxburgh, after the union, again 
set himself with other nobles to oppose his 
administration and to carry the elections in 
Scotland against him, but with very indif- 
ferent success. Roxburgh was one of the 
council of regency appointed in 1714 before 
the arrival in England of George I, by whom 
he was, on 24 Sept., named keeper of the privy 
seal of Scotland, and also appointed lord- 
lieutenant of Roxburgh and Selkirk. On 
14 Oct. he was sworn a privy councillor. On 
the outbreak of the rebellion in the following 
year he accompanied the Duke of Argyll to 
Scotland, and in a troop of horse volunteers, 
composed chiefly of gentlemen of position, 
specially distinguishea himself at the battle 
of Sheriffmuir (Fatten, History of the Rebel- 
lion), He was also able to raise about five 
hundred men in support of the Hanoverian 
succession. In 1716 he was reappointed one 
of the secretaries of state for Scotland, and 
during the king's absence from England in 
1716, 1720, 1723, and 1725 he acted as one 
of the lords justices. He zealously supported 
Carteret and Cadogan in their opposition to 
TownsendandWaipole. Walpole triumphed, 
but for some time he was unable to obtain 
j Roxburgh's removal. At last, however, 
' Roxburgh was dismissed on 25 Aug. 1725, 
' on the ground that he had used his official 
position to encourage the discontent in Scot- 
Land on account of the malt-tax. Roxburgh's 
j opposition to this tax seems to have been 
j quite sincere. His dismissal arose, in fact, 
I partly from a constitutional difficulty — the 
difficulty of harmonising the discharge of the 
| functions of the office with due subordination 
to the cabinet. Consequently, no one was 
immediately appointed to succeed him, and 
although subsequently the office was nomi- 
nally held by Lord Selkirk and the Marquis 
of Tweeddale, Roxburgh was the last to ex- 
ercise the full functions of the office until its 
revival in modern times. Roxburgh spent 
his subsequent years chiefly in retirement on 
his estates ; but at the coronation of George II 
he officiated as deputy to the Countess of 
Errol, high constable of Scotland. He was 
a fellow of the Royal Society, and acted as 
a pall-bearer at the funeral of Sir Isaac New- 
ton in Westminster Abbey on 28 March 1727. 
He died at Floors 24 Feb. 1741, and was 
buried at Bowden. 

He married, on 1 Jan. 1708, Lady Mary 
Finch, only child of Daniel, earl of Winchel- 
sea and Nottingham, and widow of William 
Savile, marquis of Halifax. She died on 
19 Sept. 1718, and was buried in Westminster 




Abbey, leaving one son, Robert, second duke 
of Roxburgh, who befriended Fielding, was 
father of John Ker, third duke [q. v. J, and 
died at Bath 23 Aug. 1755. 

[Patten's History of the Rebellion ; Lockhart 
of Carnwath's Memoirs; Macky's Secret Me- 
moirs; Marchmont Papers; Burnet's Own Time ; 
Coxe's Life of Walpole ; Douglas's Scottish Peer- 
age (Wood), ii. 451-2.] T. F. H. 

KER, JOHN, third Dttke of Roxburgh 
< 1740-1804), book-collector, born in Hanover 
Square, London, 23 April 1740, was elder 
son of Robert Ker, second duke, by his wife 
Essex (d. 7 Dec. 1764), daughter of Sir 
Roger Mostyn, bart. In 1755 he succeeded 
his father in the dukedom, and in 1761 paid 
his addresses, while travelling on the conti- 
nent, to Christiana Sophia Albertina, eldest 
daughter of the Duke of Mecklenburg-Stre- 
litz, but the lady's younger sister, Charlotte, 
was affianced very soon afterwards to 
George HI (September 1761), and it was 
deemed necessary, on political grounds, to 
break off the match between the duke and 
Christiana. ' Both parties/ it is said, ' evinced 
the strength of their attachment by devot- 
ing their after-lives to celibacy.' The dis- 
appointment induced in Roxburgh a 're- 
served melancholy which prefers retirement 
to splendid scenes of gaiety 1 (Sib Walter 
Scott). Roxburgh's sisters, Essex and Mary, 
both acted as bridesmaids at the kings 
marriage. George HI showed much friend- 
ship for Roxburgh, and appointed him a 
lord of the bedchamber in 1 767. He received 
the knighthood of the Thistle on 24 Nov. 
1768, became groom of the stole and a privy 
councillor 30 Nov. 1796, and was invested 
on 3 June 1801 with the order of the Garter, 
which he held — a very rare distinction — 
along with that of the Thistle. He died at 
his house in St. James's Square on 19 March 
1804, and was buried at fiowden. His Bri- 
tish titles of Earl and Baron Ker of Wakefield 
became extinct at his death, but his Scottish 
honours devolved on a kinsman, William, 
seventh lord Beilenden, born about 1728, 
who succeeded as fourth duke, and died with- 
out surviving issue 22 Oct. 1805 [see Keb, 
James Innes-, fifth Duke]. 

The third duke was a man of many accom- 
plishments. According to Sir Walter Scott, 
who was well acquainted with him, his 'lofty 
presence and felicitous address' suggested 
Lord Chesterfield. When in Scotland he was 
an ardent sportsman, but his time in London 
was chiefly spent in book-collecting, and he 
devoted ' hours, nay, days, in collating ' his 
rare editions. George III and he were often 
competitors for the purchase of the same book, 

and the duke was rarely unsuccessful in such 
contests. He secured an unrivalled collec- 
tion of books from Caxton's press. Scott de- 
scribes him as ' a curious and unwearied reader 
of romance,' making ' many observations in 
writing,' including a genealogy of the Knights 
of the Round Table (Lockhart, Life of Scott, 
1839, iii. 35). He possessed the two rare 
editions, dated in 1566, of the Scottish acts 
of parliaments ' of the five first Jameses and 
Queen Mary,' and printed separately the few 
statutes omitted in the later impression for 
the use of those who only possessed that im- 
pression. His splendid library was housed in 
his residence in St. James's Square, London, 
and was dispersed by sale there during forty- 
five days between 18 May and 8 July 1812. 
The lots numbered 9,353, and though the 
duke is said to have only expended 5,000/. on 
the collection, 23,341/. was realised. Brunet 
asserts that the sale marked the highest point 
reached by 'the thermometer of bioliomania' 
in England. Valdarfer's edition of Boccaccio, 
for which the second Duke of Roxburgh had 
paid one hundred guineas, was sold to the 
Marquis of Blandford for 2,260/., after a severe 
competition with Lord Spencer, and Caxton's 
* Recuyell of the Historye of Troye ' fell to the 
Duke of Devonshire for 1,070/. 10*. (Gent. 
Mag. 1812, pt. ii. pp. 112-16). Roxburgh 
possessed a rare collection of broadside ballads 
bound in three volumes. Two of these had 
originally formed part of the Earl of Oxford's 
library, and after passing into the possession 
successively of James West and Major Thomas 
Pearson, had been bought by the duke at 
Pearson's sale in 1788 for 36/. 14*. 6d. Pear- 
son had, with the help of Isaac Reed, made 
valuable additions to the collection, but the 
duke devoted himself to perfecting it, and the 
number of broadsides in his hands reached 
1,340. They fetched 477/. 15>. at the sale in 
1812, and were acquired by Benjamin Hey- 
wood Bright, after whose death in 1843 they 
were purchased by the British Museum in 
1845. The whole collection has since been 
carefully edited for the Ballad Society by 
William Chappell and the Rev. J. W. Ebs- 

To celebrate the sale of the Boccaccio on 
24 June 1812, the chief bibliophiles of the 
day dined together in the evening at St. 
Allan's Tavern, St. Alban's Street, under the 
presidency of Lord Spencer, and there in- 
augurated the Roxburghe Club, consisting 
of twenty-four members (Gent. Mag. 1812, 
pt. ii. p. 79). 

A portrait of the duke by Thomas Patch, 
in the manner of an Italian caricatura, was 
presented in 1884 by Sir Richard Wallace to 
the National Portrait Gallery. 





[Douglas's Peerage, ed. Wood; Gent Mag. 
1804, pt. i. p. 383; Sir Walter Scott in Quar- 
terly Review, xliv. 446-7 ; Chambers's Eminent 
Scotsmen, ii. 440-1 ; Lockhart's Life of Scott ; 
Edwards's Memoirs of Libraries, ii. 132; 
Lowndes" 8 Bibliographer's Manual, ed. Bohn ; 
G. and W. Nicol's Sale Catalogue of the Duke of 
Roxburgh's Library, 1812.] S. L. 

KER, JOHN (1819-1886), divine, was 
born in the farmhouse of Bield, in the parish 
of Tweedsmuir, Peeblesshire, on 7 April 1819. 
His parents moved successively to Fillyside, 
between Leith and Portobello, and to Abbey- 
hill. Ker was much impressed as a child by 
the preaching of John Brown (1784-1858) 
fq. v.] He was educated at the Edinburgh 
High School, and in 1835 he became a stu- 
dent in the university of Edinburgh. He 
gained the first prize in Sir William Hamil- 
ton's class, and was second in both the moral 
fhilosophy and natural philosophy classes, 
n 1838 he entered the divinity hall of the 
united secession church. During the recesses 
he studied the French and German languages, 
getting the whole German dictionary by 
heart. He also learnt Hebrew and Arabic. 
He spent six months at Halle under Tholuck, 
and attended Neander's lectures at Berlin. 
He was well read in history, and fond of 
Scottish songs and romances. In February 
1845 he was ordained in Alnwick, Northum- 
berland, as minister of Clayport Street 
Church, in connection with the associate 
presbvtery of Edinburgh. His congregation 
rapidly increased, and he helped to found a 
ragged school, besides giving literary lectures. 
He was called to Barrhead in 1849, and 
he was inducted in East Campbell Street 
Church, Glasgow, on 19 March 1851. He 
became known as a preacher and platform 
orator. His large church became crowded, 
and the centre of many agencies. He declined 
a call to Bristol in 1855, and an offer of the 
post of the first home mission secretary made 
by the synod (now the United Presbyterian 
Synod) in 1857. On 28 Nov. 1857 his con- 
gregation removed to a new church erected 
in Sydney Place at a cost of over 8,000/. In 
May 1858 his health broke down from over- 
work, and he had to spend many winters 
abroad, not being able to resume full work 
till 1872. A volume of his ' Sermons * ran 
through thirteen editions, and is remarkable 
bothfor style and power of thought. In 1869 
he received the degree of D.D. from Edin- 
burgh University. In 1876 Ker was chosen 
professor of practical training in the recon- 
structed theological hall of his church. His 
weakness obliged him to limit his labours ; 
but, in spite of much suffering, he performed 
his duties successfully till his death on 4 Oct. 

1886. Besides the volume of sermons already 
mentioned Ker published various sermons and 
pamphlets. He contributed to the ' United 
Presbyterian Magazine ' articles on * Echoes 
of the Psalms in the Experience of Life and 
Death/ 1884 (afterwards published as a 
volume entitled ' The Psalms in History and 
Biography/ 1886, 8vo) ; and on ' The Revoca- 
tion of the Edict of Nantes/ 1886, &c. There 
appeared posthumously ' Scottish Nationality 
and other Papers/ 1887; 'Lectures on, the 
History of Preaching/ 1888; and an interest- 
ing volume of his letters in 1890. 

[See Scotsman, 6 and 11 Oct. 1S86 ; Christian 
Leader, 28 Oct. 1886 ('Dr. John Ker as Preacher 
and Professor/ by the Rev. W. Dickie, M.A., 
Perth), and 18 Nov. 1886 ('Dr. John Ker as a 
Pastor ') ; Biographical Sketch of the late Rev. . 
Dr. John Ker, by the Rev. Dr. Leckie, Ibrox, 
Glasgow, in United Presbyterian Magazine, De- 
cember 1886 ; and other notices and reviews.] 

T. B. J. 

1842), botanist, wit, and man of fashion, waa 
the eldest son of John Gawler of Ramridge, 
near Andover, Hampshire, and of the Inner 
Temple (d. at Bath 24 Dec. 1803, aged 77). 
His mother was Caroline, eldest surviving 
daughter of John, third baron Bellenden (d. 
1740). John Gawler (as he was at first called) 
obtained a commission in the second regiment 
of life-guards ; was appointed captain 20 Jan. 
1790, and was senior captain in the regiment 
in 1793, when he was compelled to quit the 
army owing to his displays of sympatny with 
the French revolution. On 5 Nov. 1804 
George III, out of regard for Gawler's mother, 
and at the instance of his second cousin, Wil- 
liam, seventh baron Bellenden and fourth 
duke of Roxburgh, granted him a license 
to take the name of Ker Bellenden in lieu 
of Gawler; but he was invariably known as 
Bellenden Ker. William, fourth duke of 
Roxburgh, died in 1805 without direct heir. 
During his lifetime he sedulously endeavoured 
to divert the succession in favour of Ker, and 
entailed his estates upon him. But both the 
entail and Ker's claim to the title were, after 
much litigation, set aside by the House of 
Lords in favour of James Innes-Ker, fifth 
duke of Roxburgh [q.v.] on 11 May 1812 
(cf. 2 Dow's Reports). Ker was long known 
as a wit and man of fashion in London. Many 
stories were told of the charm of his conver- 
sation, and he was the hero of some ' affairs 
of gallantry.' 

His attention must, however, have been 
early turned to botany, for in 1801 he brought 
out anonymously his ' Recensio Plantarum/ 
a review of all the plants figured up to that 
time in Andrews's 'Botanist's Repository/ 




About the same date he began to contribute 
occasional descriptions of new plants to 
Curtis'* ' Botanical Magazine/ then under 
the editorship of Dr. Sims, who highly com- 
mended Ker in the preface to the fifteenth 
volume. In 1804 he printed an important 
memoir on a group of plants, the Indaceae, 
in Konig and Simss ' Annals of Botany.' In 
1812 the ' Botanical Register ' was started in 
opposition to the ' Botanical Magazine ' [see 
Ed wards, Sydenham Teak], and Ker became 
the first editor. He held the office till about 
1823, when Dr. Lindley took sole control. 
When freed from botanical journalism, he 
revised his memoir on the IridacetB of 1804, 
and brought out his * Iridearum Genera/ 
Brussels, 1828, 8vo, which was his last im- 
portant work on botany. An illness super- 
vened, and on resuming work he busied 
himself on ' An Essay on the Archaeology 
cf Popular English Phrases and Nursery 
Rhymes/ Southampton, 1834, 8vo, which 
reached a second edition, London, 1835-7, 
2 vols. 12mo. Supplemental volumes are 
dated 1840 and 1842. Until within twenty 
years before his death he wrote occasional 
articles in the gardening papers. 

During the later period of his life Ker lived 
at Ramndge, where he died in June 1842. 
The genus Bellendena commemorates him. 
He was married. His son, Charles Henry 
Bellenden Ker, is separately noticed. 

A painting by Sir Joshua Reynolds of Ker 
and his brother Henry Gawler (afterwards 
of Lincoln's Inn) as boys, was engraved by 
J. R. Smith. The picture was sold in 1887 
for 2,415/. {Times, 5 May 1887). 

[House of Lords, Roxburgh Succession, Ker 
and others appellants, &c, 1808, &c; Douglass 
Peerage of Scotland, ed. Wood, ii. 453-4 ; Gent. 
Mag. 1842, pt. ii. p. 220; information kindly 
supplied by Mr. M. I. Fortescue Brickdale,'and 
Mr. J. Savill Vaizey of Lincoln's Inn.] 

B. D. J. 

KER, PATRICK Of. 1691), poet,has been 
«upposed, with some support from internal 
evidence, to have been a Scottish episcopa- 
lian who migrated to London during the 
reign of Charles II. ' Flosculum Poeticum. 
Poems divine and humane. Panegyrical, 
satyrical, ironical, by P. K. . . .' (London, 
1684, 12mo), a volume of ultra-loyalist verse, 
though assigned by Lowndes to P. Kirk 
(Bibl. Man. ii. 1252), may be safely attributed 
to him. Facing the title-page appears the 
triangle symbolical of the Trinity, which ap- 
pears in another work, * The Map of Mans 
Misery/ with the author's name, P. Ker, in 
full. The ' Flosculum ' includes a grotesque 
cut of Charles II in the oak, accompanied by 
verses equally grotesque (p. 19), and a num- 

ber of scurrilous rhymes and anagrams on 
Oliver Cromwell. The Luttrell Collection of 
Broadsides at the British Museum contains 
two elegies on Charles II, one dated 9 Feb. 
1685, and signed P. K., the other dated 15 Feb., 
as well as a ' PanegvrickPoem on the Corona- 
tion of James 11/ all of which are by Ker. In 
1 690 appeared his ' Map of Mans Misery, or the 
Poor Man's Pocket Book. Being a Perpetual 
Almanack of Spiritual Meditations, or Com- 
pleat Directory for our Endlesse Week. . . . 
To which is added a Poem, entituled The 
Glass of Vain Glory. For Jn. Lawrence at 
the Angel in the Poultry/ 1690, 12mo. The 
author's tory tendencies are here suppressed, 
the work being dedicated to Rachel, lady 
Russell, and subscribed P. Ker, 24 Jan. 1689 
(O.S.) In the following year was pub- 
lished ' Aoyopaxia, or the Conquest of Elo- 
quence: containing two witty orations (in 
aoggerel verse) as they may be read in Ovid's 
"Metamorphoses/' lib. xiii. ByP.K/ This 
is attributed in Heber's ' Catalogue ' (p. 
169), followed by Lowndes, to P. Kirk, but 
there is no apparent foundation for this 
theory of authorship. The last work trace- 
able to Ker appeared in 1691. It is called 
' UoXiTucbs ptyas. The Grand Politician, or 
the Secret Art of State Policy discovered. 
Written originally in Latin by Conradus 
Reinking, Chancellor to his Electoral High- 
ness the Duke of Brandenburgh, and now 
done into English/ The so-called translation 
is supplementary toMachiavelli's well-known 
treatise, being addressed for the most part to 
statesmen and instructing them 'How to Dis- 
semble/ ' How to abrogate Privileges/ ' How 
to reveal a secret without giving offence to 
him who did inform you of it/ ' How to 
collect taxes without offending the subjects.' 
The writer dedicates his ' small treatise or 
wandering meteor ' to the Earl of Notting- 
ham, and subscribes himself * Pat. Ker/ This 
volume was published by Thos. Howkins, the 
publisher of the ' Aoyofui^ta/ with which 
work it was in some cases originally bound 
up. There seems little reason for supposing 
that Patrick Ker was identical with a Rev. 
Dr. Kerr, an eminent schoolmaster of High- 
gate, who is referred to by Dunton {Life and 
Errors, passim). 

[Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. i. 281, 4th ser. 
ii. 102; Hazlitt's Bibl. Collections, 3rd ser. p. 
132 ; Ker's works in Brit. Mus. Library, cata- 
logued under K., P.] T. S. 

KER, ROBERT, Earl of Somerset (dl 
1045). [See Carr.] 

KER, ROBERT, first Earl of Roxburgh 
(1570 P-1650), eldest son of William Ker of 
Cessfurd, by Janet, daughter of Sir William 




Douglas of Drumlanrig, was born about 1570. 
His fatter was grandson of that Sir Andrew 
Ker [q. v.] of Cessfurd who was father of 
Mark Kerr [q. v.], abbot of Newbattle. He 
had charters of lands in the barony of Caver- 
ton on 22 March 1578 (Reg. Mag. Sig. Scot. 
154&-80, entry 2213), and also on the same 
date a charter of the barony of Cessfurd and 
other lands (ib. 2214). It was Sir Robert Ker s 
father (not himself, as stated sometimes) who 
in 1585 assisted the banished lords in driv- 
ing Arran from power, and towards the close 
of 1587 was, at the same time as Scott of 
Buccleuch, committed to ward, at the instance 
of Lord Hunsdon, for making excursions on 
the borders. In 1590 Sir Robert conspired 
the murder of William Ker of Ancrum, 
which was committed in Edinburgh ' under 
silence of night * (Hist. James the Sext, p. 
245). He fled to England (t*.),but nl8Nov. 

1591 obtained a remission under the great 
seal (Reg. Mag. Sig. Scot. 1580-93, entry 
1961). He was an adherent of the Chan- 
cellor Maitland of Thirlestane, whom in 

1592 he succeeded in reconciling with the 
queen (Sir James Melville, Memoirs, p. 
405). In October 1593 Ker, with two or 
three hundred horse, joined the king at Lin- 
lithgow to support him against the Both- 
well party (Motsie, Memoirs, p. 105), and 
while returning homewards in December, 
accompanied by only one servant, accident- 
ally encountered Bothwell, who also was 
accompanied by only one attendant. They 
fought on horseback two by two for several 
hours without decisive result, until at length 
both parties were so exhausted with their 
exertions that they separated by mutual con- 
sent (ib. p. 111). On 27 March 1594 Ker, 
as warden-depute of the middle marches, 
received a commission from the privy coun- 
cil for the pursuit of Bothwell (Reg. P. C. 
Scotl. v. 137), and in August Ker of Fernie- 
hirst and others were ordered into ward for 
declining to subscribe an association to assist 
him in the pursuit (ib. p. 161). On 16 Oct. 
following he was 'denounced a rebel' for 
failing to present before the council Andrew 
Ker of Newhall (ib. v. 230). On 2 Dec. 
the Earl of Morton complained that Sir 
Robert had evaded the act by formally pre- 
senting Andrew Ker before some of the coun- 
cil in Edinburgh (ib. pp. 240-1). On 5 July 
1596, for neglecting to appear before the king 
and council to give advice regarding the 
means to be used for the quieting of the bor- 
ders, he and others were denounced as rebels 
(ib. p. 300), but on the 24th he found cau- 
tion that he would keep good rule (ib. p. 742). 
The chief reason for his non-appearance was, 
probably, that he was himself tne prime pro- 

moter of the disorders. Sir Robert Carey 

Sq. v.l, afterwards earl of Monmouth, who 
lesciibes Ker as a ' brave, active young man ' 
(Memoirs, ed. 1808, p. 67), gives a graphic 
description of his exploits, and of the manner 
in which he checkmated him by the capture* 
of Geordie Bourne, one of Ker's most daring 
subordinates. In December 1596 a settle- 
ment of the disputes on the borders had been 
arranged, including an exchange of prisoners,, 
and Ker, having tailed to deliver up some 
English prisoners, surrendered himself in the 
following year to Sir Robert Carey, by whom 
he was courteously treated. Not long after- 
wards he was released, and on 24 July 1599 
he was admitted a member of the privy coun- 
cil of Scotland (Reg. P. C. Scotl.v. 557). In 
the following year he was created Lord Rox- 
burgh. Douglas and others state that the 
date of creation is uncertain, all that is 
known being that it was previous to that of 
Lindores (created 31 March 1600-1), before 
whom his name appears in the ranking of 
the nobility in 1606 ; but, according to Sir 
James Balfour, the creation took place on 
29 Dec. 1600 (Annals, i. 409). His name 
appears as Roxburgh in the council sede- 
runt of 10 Feb. 1601 (Reg. P. C. Scotl. vi. 
203). On 3 Aug. 1602 a commission of war- 
dency was appointed for the middle marches 
in view of Roxburgh's intention to go abroad 
(ib. p. 441). He accompanied King James 
in his journey to London in 1603, after his 
succession to the English crown, and sub- 
sequently retained a position of influence in 
his counsels. At the parliament held at 
Perth in July 1604 he was appointed a com- 
missioner to treat with the English commis- 
sioners regarding a union with England. On 
24 July 1606 he was served heir to his father, 
and subsequently he received a large num- 
ber of charters of other lands, including 
(15 Aug. 1630) that of the burgh of Canon- 
gate, united into the barony of Broughton. 
On 24 June 1606 the council ordained that 
a deadly feud between him and the Kers of 
Ancrum on account of the slaughter of their 
father should be submitted to arbitration 
(ib. vii. 215), and on 20 Nov. the Kers of 
Ancrum, although declining to submit the 
feud to arbitration, agreed to be reconciled 
(ib. vii. 272). 

In October 1607 Roxburgh was sent as the 
king's commissioner to the synod of Merse 
and Teviotdale, to urge its compliance with 
the enactment of the Linlithgow convention 
by admitting one of the ' constant modera- 
tors ' of the presbytery to be moderator of 
the synod, but 'got a flat nolumus' (Calder- 
wood, vi. 680). He was retained a member 
of the privy council on its reconstruction by 




royal letter 20 Jan. 1610 (Reg. P. C. Scotl. 
▼iii. 815). On 18 Sept. 1616 he was created 
Earl of Roxburgh and Lord Ker of Cessfurd 
and Caverton. He was, however, disap- 
pointed at not obtaining the place of cham- 
berlain to the prince, and aoout the same 
time his lady lost the favour of the queen 
and left the court (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
Ser. 1611-18, p. 415). In the parliament 
which met at Edinburgh on 25 July 1621 
he was chosen a lord of the articles, and in 
the same parliament he voted for the con- 
firmation of the five articles of Perth. He 
was a member of the committee appointed 
by King James, 19 May 1623, to sit every 
week for the purpose of hearing grievances 
(Caldbbwood, vii. 576). In 1637 he was 
made lord privy seal of Scotland. After the 
afternoon service in St. Giles's Church on 
23 July of this year, which followed the dis- 
turbance caused in the forenoon by the reading 
of the service, Roxburgh drove the bishop to 
his lodgings in his carriage amidst the stone- 
throwing of an enraged mob (Gobdok, Scots 
Affairs, i. 11 ; Spalding, Memorials, i. 80). 
Subsequently he favoured a conference with 
the ministers in order that the matters in 
dispute might be arranged, although he was 
supposed to be a secret supporter of episco- 
pacy. In November he was sent from Lon- 
don by the king with secret instructions for 
the council to take decisive action (king's 
letter in Balfottb, Annals, ii. 237), the re- 
sult being that all meetings held in opposi- 
tion to the service-book were discharged 
under pain of treason (Gordon, i. 32). Rox- 
burgh was one of those who, on 22 Sept. 
1638, subscribed the king's covenant at Holy- 
rood (ib. p. 108). He was one of the six 
assessors named by the king to sit in the 
general assembly held at Glasgow in Novem- 
ber (ib. p. 144 ; Spalding, p. 118), but not 
allowed by the assembly to take part in the 
business. On the outbreak of the civil war 
in 1639 he joined the king, but his son having 
joined the covenanters, he himself was for se- 
curity committed on 15 May to the mayor's 
house at Newcastle {Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
Ser. 1639, p. 173). In June he, however, 
again kissed the king's hands (ib. p. 265), and 
a little later was received into ^reat favour 
(ib. p. 268). After the pacification of Ber- 
wick he returned home. As he had not sub- 
scribed the covenant, he was not permitted 
to enter the Scottish parliament when it was 
opened by the king in 1641, but, along with 
other noblemen under similar disabilities, 
J stayed in the next room ' (Balfottb, Annals, 
iii. 44). Having, however, subscribed on 
18 Aug., he toon his seat (ib. p. 45), and 
besides having his office of privy seal con- 

firmed to him, served on several important 
committees. He also took a prominent part 
in most of the discussions, supporting so far 
as possible a policy consonant to the wishes 
of the king. When Charles in 1642 at- 
tempted the arrest of the five members, Rox- 
burgh kept the door of the house open that 
members might see the inadvisability of re- 
sistance. In the following year he was stated 
to have been concerned in the writing of a 
letter to the queen from Derby, informing 
her of the intention of the Scots to take up 
arms. He remained, however, practically 
neutral until in 1648 he supported the ' en- 
gagement ' for the king's rescue. For doing 
so he was on 13 Feb. of the following year 
deprived of the office of privy seal. He died 
18 Jan. 1650, in his eightieth year, at his 
house of Floors (now known as Floors 
Castle), near Kelso, and was buried in Bow- 
den Church on 20 March. 

Roxburgh was thrice married. By his 
first wife, Margaret, only daughter of Sir 
William Maitland of Lethington, he had one 
son, William, lord Ker, who graduated at 
Edinburgh University 28 July 1610 and 
died while travelling in France in 1618 ; and 
three daughters: Jean, married 1655 to Sir 
William JDrummond, fourth son of John, 
second earl of Perth ; Isabel, married to 
James Scrimgeour, second viscount Dundee; 
and Mary, married first to James Halyburton 
of Pitcairn, and secondly to James, second 
earl of Southesk. By his second wife, Jean, 
third daughter of Patrick, third lord Drum- 
mond, he had a son, Harry, lord Ker, who 
died in January 1643, and whose daughter, 
Margaret, wife of Sir James Innes, third 
baronet, was ultimately great-grandmother 
of James Innes-Ker, fifth duke of Roxburgh 
[q. v.] By his third wife, Isabel Douglas, 
fifth daughter of William, earl of Morton, 
Roxburgh had no issue. Having no heirs 
male, the titles and estates, in accordance 
with a new destination obtained in 1643, re- 
newed by charter under the great seal 31 July 
1646, and executed 23 Feb. 1648, passed to 
Sir William Drummond, the husband of 
Roxburgh's eldest daughter, Jean. 

[Reg. Mag. Sig. Scot. vols, ii-iii.; Reg. P. C. 
Scotl. vols. v-ix. ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. Ser. 
reigns of James I and Charles I ; Hist. James 
the Sext, Sir James Melville's Memoirs, Robert 
Baillie's Letters and Journals, and Moysie's 
Memoirs (last four Bannatyne Club) ; Gordon's 
Scots Affairs and Spalding's Memorialls of 
the Trubles (both Spalding Club) ; Sir James 
Balfour's Annals; Calderwood's Hist, of the 
Church of Scotland ; Sir Robert Carey's Memoirs ; 
Douglas's Scottish Peerage (Wood), ii. 447-8.] 





KER, ROBERT, first Eabl of Ancrum 
(1578-1654), eldest son of William Ker of 
Ancrum, by Margaret, daughter of Alexan- 
der Dundas of Fingask, who afterwards be- 
came wife of Sir George Douglas of Mording- 
ton, was (see Correspondence, p. 379) born 
9 Dec. 1578. William Ker of Ancrum was 
grandson of Andrew Ker of Ferniehirst 
[q. v.] He succeeded to the family estates 
on the assassination of his father in 1590 
by Sir Robert Ker of Cessfurd, afterwards 
first earl of Roxburgh [q. v.] In 1603 he 
was appointed groom of the bedchamber in 
the household of Prince Henry, and shortly 
afterwards knighted. On 1 Oct. of the same 
year he signed, as provost of Jedburgh, the 
general bond against thieves and robbers of 
the borders {Beg. P. C. Scotl. vi. 825). On 
24 June 1606 he consented to drop the feud 
with Roxburgh [see under Ker, Robert, first 
Earl of Roxbtjroh]. He was one of the 
commissioners appointed in 1607 to see to the 
acceptance of * constant moderators ' by the 
presbytery (t&. vii. 376). After a foreign 
journey he was appointed one of the gentle- 
men-in-ordinary to Henry, prince of Wales. 
He was also frequently employed on special 
missions to Scotland. On 13 Nov. 1613 he 
resigned the captaincy of the guard in fa- 
vour of Sir Andrew Ker of Oxenhame, in 
order to attend on the king's son, Charles. 
In the beginning of February 1620 Charles 
Maxwell of Terregles accused Ker of saying 
something about the Duke of Buckingham, 
which led to a duel at Newmarket. Max- 
well was slain. Maxwell was clearly the 
offending party, and a verdict of manslaugh- 
ter having been returned at the coroner's in- 
quest, Ker, after six months' banishment, re- 
ceived a special pardon on 23 Oct 1620. In 
1623 Ker joinea Prince Charles in Spain as 
gentleman of the bedchamber ( Verney Papers, 
Camden Soc. 1853, p. 107). In April follow- 
ing a pension was bestowed on him and his 
wife. On the accession of Charles in 1625 
he was promoted to be a lord of the bed- 
chamber. Subsequently he was made mas- 
ter of the privy purse, and on the occasion of 
the coronation of Charles in Scotland was 
in 1633 created Earl of Ancrum, Lord Nis- 
bet, Langnewton, and Dolphinton. On 7 Jan. 
1634-5 he obtained a grant for seven years of 
the ten-shilling impost on the ton of foreign 
starch, and of the tour-shilling impost paid 
by the makers of starch in the kingdom to 
the king, 200/. a year of the grant being re- 
served tor the king(Ca/. State Papers, Dom. 
Ser. 1634-5, p. 454). On 23 June 1638 he 
received powers for thirty-one years for the 
discovery of ambergris and things lost at sea 
(ib. 1 638, p. 527). On 22 Aug. he was nomi- 

nated a member of the commission on cot* 
tages, and also of that appointed to inquire 
into breaches of the law against the taking 
of excessive usury (ib. pp. 602-8). On 23 Sept. 
he made a complaint regarding certain grants 
out of his perquisites to others, explaining 
that his diligence in encouraging the starch 
trade had raised the value (ib. 1638-9, p. 24), 
and the matter was referred to the attorney- 
general (ib. 1639-40, p. 92). On 28 March of 
the following year a pension of 2,000/. per 
annum was assigned to him and his wife for 
both their lives (ib. 1638-9, p. 620). He 
seems to have retired from the office of privy 
purse in the end of February of this year, 
for in April he received a discharge for all 
sums received by him up to the previous 
March (ib. 1639, p. 100). In October 1640 
his wife received a gift of 1,700/. in recog- 
nition of her services as governess to the 
three princesses and also to the Duke of 
Gloucester (ib. 1G40-1, p. 172). Although 
Ancrum's son William, third earl of Lothian, 
joined the covenanting party, Ancrum him- 
self continued faithful to the royalist cause 
during the whole of the puritan conflict. He, 
however, remained aloof from public affairs 
from 1641 to 1650. On the death of Charles 
he retired to Amsterdam. He died there in 
great poverty towards the close of 1654. His 
dead body was arrested in May 1655 by his 
creditors to secure payment of his debts, 
but through the intermediation of Cromwell 
with the Dutch authorities directions were 
given that the funeral should not be dis- 

Ancrum was twice married. By his first 
wife, Elizabeth, daughter of .Sir John Mur- 
ray of Blackbarony, he had one son, William 
Kerr [q. v.], who married Anne, countess of 
Lothian, and was created third earl of Lothian 
31 Oct. 1631. By his second wife, Lady 
Anne Stanley, daughter of William, sixth 
earl of Derby, by Elizabeth Vere, he had one 
son, Charles, earl of Ancrum, and several 

Ancrum was a man of cultivated tastes, 
i and lived on terms of intimacy with some 
of the most famous literary men of his time, 
including John Donne and Drummond of 
Hawthornden. His ' Sonnet in Praise of a 
Solitary Life,' sent in 1624 to Drummond, 
was published in Drummond's works, and 
reprinted in 1875 in his own ' Correspond- 
ence. 7 While abroad he also wrote a metri- 
cal version of the Psalms, to fit them to tunes 
he had heard them sung to in the Low 
Countries. These have been also published 
in his ' Correspondence.' His portrait, by 
Blyenbach, is at Newbattle Abbey, and has 
been engraved in his * Correspondence.' There 




is also an engraved portrait in Walpoie's 
' Royal and Noble Authors/ and in Pinker- 
ton's ' Iconographia Scotica.' 

[Reg. P. C. Scotl. vi-ix. ; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. Ser., reign of Charles I ; Sir James Bal- 
four's Annals of Scotland; Correspondence of 
Sir Robert Ker, Earl of Ancrum, and his son, 
William Ker, third Earl of Lothian, 1875 ; Wal- 
pole's Royal and Noble Authors, ed. Park ; Pin- 
kerton's Iconographia Scotica; Douglas's Scot- 
tish Peerage (Wood), ii. 136-7.] T. F. H. 

KER, Sib THOMAS (d. 1586), of Fernie- 
hirst, eldest son of Sir John Ker of Fernie- 
hir8t, by his wife Catherine, daughter of Sir 
Andrew Ker of Cessfurd [q. v.], succeeded his 
father in July 1562. His father was second 
son of Andrew Ker of Ferniehirst [q.v.] 
Sureties were given in August of the same 
year for his appearance before the council in 
November {Meg. P. C. Scotl. i. 216), in con- 
sequence of the feud between the Kers and 
the Scotts of Buccleuch, but on 6 Dec. he 
was freed from all blame (ib. i. 227). In 
December 1564 he was warded in the castle 
of Edinburgh for the non-payment of certain 
teinds to the commendator of Jedburgh (ib. 
i. 304). He was one of the members of the 
privy council specially chosen in 1565 on ac- 
count of the rebellion of Moray and his adher- 
ents at the time of the Darnley marriage, and 
in October attended the queen in 1 he * Round- 
about Raid* to Dumfries. While in the 
southern districts the queen commanded 
him to raise the royal standard at the head 
of his followers, ana placed herself under his 
immediate protection. On the escape of the 
queen from Lochleven in 1568 Ker joined 
her at Hamilton. Although he signed the 
bond of Teviotdale, 10 April 1569, in support 
of the authority of the regent on the borders 
{ib. i. 651), his maintenance of border thieves 
compelled the regent to make, a special ex- 
cursion into Liddesdale in the following Sep- 
tember (Calderwood, ii. 505). He made no 
concealment of the protection given by him 
to the Earl of Westmorland on his flight 
from England in November, and Douglas of 
Cavers told Sir Ralph Sadler that * his 
master* [Sir Thomas Ker] ' cared not so much 
for the regent as the regent cared for him ' 
(Sadler, State Papers, ii. 114). Cavers also 
affirmed that Ker was well able to raise three 
thousand men ' within his own rule.' Ker 
and Scott of Buccleuch were supposed to 
have had some knowledge of the conspiracy 
against the regent, and on the night of the 
murder made an excursion into the English 
borders, 'not so much for greediness of booty 
as to provoke the English ' (Calderwood, ii. 
513 ; also Herries, Memoirs, p. 121). In 
February he met with the Hamiltons and 

others at Glasgow, whence they sent a letter 
to Morton declaring their ignorance of the 
agent in the regent^ murder, and professing 
their willingness to consult with the rest of 
the nobility for securing justice (Calderwood, 
p. 529). Ker also about the same time wrote 
a letter to his father-in-law, Kirkcaldy of 
Grange, offering to quiet the borders if the 
queen of England ' would stay her army' (ib.) 
In April, Sussex and Lord Hunsdon entered 
Scotland, and, besides ravaging the lands of 
Ker, demolished his castle ot Ferniehirst, 
which remained in ruins till 1598. In 1570 
Ker conspired, along with Lord Herries and 
others, to surprise Edinburgh, but the pro- 
ject miscarried (Herries, Memoirs, p. 130). 
Subsequently he joined Kirkcaldy of Grange, 
in the castle of Edinburgh, with ' seventy 
spears or thereabout ' (^Calderwood, iii 75). 
lie also brought with nim his charter chest, 
which at the surrender of the castle was de- 
stroyed by Morton. By the party of the 
queen Ker was chosen provost of the city 
of Edinburgh (Herries, Memoirs, p. 138). 
He was one of those forfeited at the parlia- 
ment of the opposite party held at Stirling 
in August 1571 (Calderwood, iii. 136). Ker 
took part in the raid of September, in which 
Lennox was slain. The borderers under 
him and Scott of Buccleuch began to pillage 
prematurely, and a sally put the raiders to 
flight (Herries, p. 148). In the following 
October Ker assembled a force to attack 
Jedburgh, and on account of complaints 
of the inhabitants a bond was on 12 Feb. 
1571-2 subscribed for his pursuit (Beg. P. C. 
Scotl. ii. 117). Some time before the sur- 
render of the castle of Edinburgh he sought 
refuge abroad, but through the influence 
of Esme Stuart, earl of Lennox, he ob- 
tained license to return home at the close of 
1579. Although believed to have been di- 
rectly implicated in the murder of Darnley, 
Ker, at tne execution of Morton on 2 June 
1581 on the charge of having been ' art and 
part in the murder/ stood ' in a shott over 
against the scaffold, with his large ruffles, 
delighting in this spectacle ' (Calderwood, 
iii. 575). Shortly afterwards he was restored 
to his estates, and on 26 Nov. 1583 he re- 
ceived from parliament a formal and full 
pardon. He continued to be one of the chief 
supporters of Lennox, accompanying him 
after the Kuthven raid to Glasgow. On 
30 Nov. Ker failed in an attempt to seize 
Edinburgh (ib, p. 691). At the general as- 
sembly of the kirk held in October of this 
year the session of Haddington were en- 
loined to call before them the Laird of Fernie- 
hirst, his wife, and his daughter, on the charge 
of going to mass in France and other parts 




beyond sea, and also to require them to sub- 
scribe the confession of faith (ib. p. 682). 
In 1684 Ker was appointed warden of the 
middle marches ana keeper of Liddesdale. 
During a meeting held by him on 27 July 
1686 with Sir John Forster, the English war- 
den, a fray arose between the Scots and Eng- 
lish, in which Francis, lord Russell, was 
fatally wounded. The English suspected 
this to be a deliberate plot of Ferniehirst, 
prompted hy Arran, to break off the confer- 
ence. The Scottish kin? talked for a time 
of sending them into England to be tried, but 
afterwards changed his mind. On 18 Aug. 
Ferniehirst appeared before the council and 
made a declaration absolving Arran from all 
connection with the murder (Reg. P. C. Scotl. 
iv. 4). Shortly afterwards Kerwas committed 
to ward in Aberdeen, where he died some 
time in 1686. He is described by Camden 
as ' a stout and able warrior, ready for any 
great attempt and undertaking, and of an im- 
movable fidelity to the Queen of Scots and 
the king, her son; having been once or twice 
turned out of all his lands and fortunes, and 
banished the sight of his country and chil- 
dren, which yet he endured patiently, and, 
after so many crosses falling upon him to- 
gether, persisted unshaken and always like 
himself. He was twice married. By his first 
wife, Janet, daughter of Sir William Kirkaldy 
of Grange [q. v.], he had a son, Andrew, 
who succeeded him, and two daughters: 
Janet, married, first to Sir Patrick Hume of 
Polwarth, and secondly to Thomas earl of 
Haddington ; and Margaret, married to Ro- 
bert, second lord Melville of Monimail. By 
his second wife, Janet, sister of Sir Walter 
Scott of Buccleuch, he had three sons : Sir 
James Ker of Crailing ; Thomas, who inherited 
from his father the lands of Oxenhame; and 
Robert [see Cabk, Robbbt, Eabl op Somek- 
sbt], the favourite of King James; and a 
daughter, Janet, married to John, lord 

[Sadler's State Papers; Reg. P. C. Scotl. vols, 
i-iv. ; Lord Herri es's Memoirs (Bannatyne Club); 
Calderwood's Hist, of the Church of Scotland ; 
Douglas's Scottish Peerage (Wood), ii. 1 33-4.] 

T. F. H. 

KER, Sib WALTER (d. 1584 P), of 
Cessfurd, eldest son of Sir Andrew Ker of 
Cessfurd [q. v.], by his wife Agnes, daughter 
of Robert, second lord Crichton of Sanquhar, 
was served heir to his father 12 May 1528. 
He had charters of various lands on 23 April 
and 21 Sept. 1542, and in 1543 he received the 
lands and barony of Cessfurd, with the castle 
of the same and their annexes (Reg. Mag. Sig. 
1613-46, entry 2785). In October 1552 Sir 
Walter Scott of Buccleuch was killed in the 

High Street of Edinburgh in a nocturnal en- 
counter with the Kers, headed by Sir Walter 
of Cessfurd. On 8 Dec. they petitioned the 
privy council regarding the 'unhappy chance/ 
offering to submit to anything to save their 
lives and heritages (Reg. P. C. Scotl. i. 133). 
It was decided that they should be banished to 
France, but on 16 May 1553 they received a 
full pardon (ib. p. 141). On 9 Aug. of this 
year Cessfurd, with John Ker of Ferniehirst 
and Andrew Ker of Hirseil, signed a bond to 
be ' leill and trew men ' to John Hamilton, 
archbishop of St. Andrews, and James, earl 
of Arran, &c. (Hamilton MSS., Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 11th Rep. App. pt. vi. p. 39). On 
28 Aug. 1559 he was appointed one of the 
commissioners to treat for the ransoming of 
prisoners taken by the English in the late 
war {Cal. State Papers, For. Ser. 1558-9, 
entry 1266). Cessfurd as a catholic sym- 

?athised with the cjueen-regent, but in April 
560 he came with Lord Home to the 
camp of the lords of the congregation (ib. 
Scott. Ser. p. 140). On the return of the 
young Queen Mary to Scotland Cessfurd was 
reappointed to his old office of warden of the 
middle marches (Reg. P. C. Scotl. i. 169). 
When the chiefs of the border clans were 
ordered in 1567 to enter the castle of Edin- 
burgh on the pretext that they might hinder 
the success oil Bothwell's expedition into 
Liddesdale, Cessfurd, ' a weill-meaning man, 
suspecting nothing/ was the only one except 
Ker of Ferniehirst who obeyed (Caldebwood, 
ii. 360). He was one of the chief leadere 
against the queen at Carberry Hill (ib. p. 
363), and also at Langside, where he fought 
side by side with Lord Home (Sir Jambs 
Melville, Memoirs, p. 201). On 3 April 
1569 he signed the bond of Teviotdale, pro- 
mising obedience to the regent (Reg. P. C. 
i. 653), and he served under Morton at the 
siege of Edinburgh. When Ker of Fernie- 
hirst and others of the queen's party ad- 
vanced to plunder Jedburgh in 1571, the in- 
habitants sent to Cessfurd for assistance, and 
by his aid and that of Lord Ruthven they 
were completely routed (Caldebwood, iii. 
1 55). Cessfurd was one of those who, under 
Atholl and Argyll, took up arms against 
Morton in 1578. In 1582 he signed the bond 
which resulted in the raid of Ruthven. He 
died in 1584 or 1585. By his wife Isabel, daugh- 
ter of Andrew Ker of Ferniehirst [a. v.], he 
had two sons : Andrew, who predeceased 
him, and William, warden of the middle 
marches ; and two daughters : Agnes, married 
to John Edmonstoune of Edmonstoune, and 
Margaret, to Alexander, fourth earl of Home. 
[Reg. Mag. Sig. Scot. vol. i.; Reg. P. C. 
Scotl. vols. i. and ii. ; Cal. State Papers, For. 




8er., reign of Elizabeth; Calderwood's History 
of the Church of Scotland ; M8S. of the Earl of 
Home (Hist. MSS. Comm. 12th Rep. App. viij.); 
Sir James Melville's Memoirs ; Douglas's Scottish 
Peerage (Wood), ii. 445-6.] T. F. H. 

Stanhope and Countess of Chesterfield 
(d. 1667). [See Kirxhoven.] 

KERNE, Sie EDWARD (d. 1561), diplo- 
matist. [See Carne.] 

Duchess of Portsmouth and Aubigny 
(1649-1734), was the elder of the two daugh- 
ters of Guillaume de Penancoet, sieur de 
Keroualle, a Breton gentleman of very ancient 
lineage, whose wife was through her mother 
connected with the De Rieux. Evelyn, who 
made the acquaintance of her parents on 
their visit to England in 1675, gives a pleasant 
account of them (Diary, ii. 310). Her only 
brother, Sebastian, tookpart in the campaign 
in Candia under the Duke of Beaufort in : 
1669 (Fobneron). Before this date Louise I 
de Keroualle had become maid of honour to ' 
Henrietta, duchess of Orleans, the sister of 
Charles II. In 1670 she accompanied to Eng- j 
land the Duchess of Orleans, who was nego- 
tiating the first treaty of Dover. There is no : 
nf of the existence at the time of any j 
jn to establish her as the mistress of ; 
Charles II. But he was growing weary of j 
Lady Castlemaine. The effect produced on ■ 
him by his sisters attendant was at once 
obvious, and probably contributed to a pro- I 
longation of the negotiations. A coldness 
on the part of Charles towards Louis XIV re- , 
suited from the sudden death of the Duchess 
of Orleans after her return to France (June), 
and Louise de Keroualle was thereupon sent 
back to England, Charles ordering a royal 
yacht to meet her at Calais. On arriving in 
London she was named maid of honour to 
Queen Catherine. 

Mile, de Keroualle at first played her 
game so cautiously as to dispirit the French 
ambassador, Colbert de Croissy. In No- 
vember Evelyn first saw the new 'famous 
beauty, but in my opinion of a childish, simple, 
and baby face' (Diary ', ii. 253). Gradually, 
however, her charms and her coyness pre- 
vailed, and the ministers began to pay court 
to her. During a sojourn of the king at 
Newmarket she was, in October 1671, in- 
vited to Lady Arlington's country seat of 
Euston, where, with the co-operation of the 
French ambassador and others, she was esta- 
blished as mistress en titre (ib. ii. 266- 
267). Louis XIV sent her congratulations ; 
and though, notwithstanding her entreaties, 
Charles delayed his profession of Catholicism, 

the declaration of war against the Dutch, in 
accordance with the treaty of Dover, was not 
long in coming (March 1672 ; cf. Mme. db 
Sevigne, ed. Monmerque, 1862, ii. 546). 

On 29 July 1672 Louise bore the king a 
son, Charles Lennox, first duke of Richmond 
[q. v.] But for a time her position was un- 
certain (cf. ib. iv. 128-9). Although univer- 
sally unpopular in England as a Frenchwoman 
and catholic, she nevertheless contrived to 
hold her own, and having been, at the request 
of Louis XIV, naturalised as an English 
subject, she was on 19 Aug. 1673 created 
Baroness Petersfield, Countess of Fareham f 
and Duchess of Portsmouth (Doyle). The 
ducal title at first granted to her, but imme- 
diately altered, is said to have been that of 
Pendennis. In the same year she was sworn 
lady of the bedchamber to the queen (ib.) 

In 1674 Charles induced Louis XTV to 
grant the duchess, who was obliged to seclude 
herself at the time, the fief of Aubigny in 
Berry, with remainder to such of her natural 
children bv Charles as should be designated by 
him. The nefhad reverted to the French crown 
in December 1672 by the death of Charles 
Stuart, duke of Richmond, on whose family 
it had been first bestowed by Charles VH 
of France in 1422 (Collins, i. 182; Doyle, 
iii. 127 ; Lingard, 6th edit. 1855, ix. 256- 
257). The title of Duchess of Aubigny, carry- 
ing with it the coveted right of a tabouret 
at the French court, was for the present with- 
held. The disgrace of Buckingham at the 
time was widely attributed to her influence 
(Reresby, pp. 192-3). In December 1674 
an annuity of 10,000/. was settled upon her 
out of the wine licenses. In the same month 
the king endowed the Duchess of Ports- 
mouth's younger sister, Henrietta, on her mar- 
riage to Philip Herbert, seventh earl of Pem- 
broke [see under Herbert, Philip, fourth 
earl]. In August 1675 the duchess's son, 
Charles, was created Duke of Richmond. 

During the administration of Danby the 
Duchess of Portsmouth consistently exerted 
herself to keep Charles in dependence on 
France, notwithstanding his outward pre- 
tences to the contrary; but she was anxious 
to keep on good terms with Danby (ib. p. 
165), to whom it is said that she at one 
time granted a share of her favours. Her 
ascendency over the king, which seemed as- 
sured by the retirement from court of the 
Duchess of Cleveland, was imperilled by the 
arrival in England, about the end of 1675, 
of Hortensia Mancini, duchess of Mazarin. 
The rising influence of Monmouth was also 
used against her. Yet in the contest which en- 
sued (see WALLER'spoem, The Triple Combat,, 
1675; Rochester's Farewell, 1680), although 




she found little support either at court or in 
the public at large, the duchess was in the 
end altogether successful (see Fobnebon, p. 
143). At the close of 1677 she fell seriously 
ill, but maintained herself in power, with the 
help of Barillon, the new French ambassador. 
On the outbreak of the ' Popish plot' troubles j 
the duchess was thoroughly frightened, and ■ 
inclined to fly to France. On 26 April 1679 \ 
she was reflected on by name in both houses 
of parliament, but no further step was taken 
against her (Rekbsbt, p. 168 ; cf. A. Sidney, 
JLetters to H. Saville (1742), p. 46 ; but see ( 
Fobnebon, p. 177 note). By way of pre- 
caution, she hereupon made advances to 
Shaftesbury, and sought to ingratiate her- 
self with Monmouth, with the help of her 
confidential servant, the notorious Mrs. Wall 1 
(cf. H. Sidney, Diary, ii. 22, and i. 190-1, 
and note. Fobnebon regards the supposed , 
letters of the duchess to Monmouth in the 
British Museum as forgeries). At the same 
time she took special pains to secure the 
confidence and goodwill of the Prince of 
Orange (H. Sidney, Diary, i. 10, &c), and ; 
contnvea to remain on good terms with the 
Duke of York (ib. i. 176, 189). Although 
she was never more unpopular, her influence 
over the king remained unbroken despite his 
periodical infidelities. In December 1679 
the removal of herself and Sunderland from 
court was once more demanded by parlia- 
ment, and she deemed it prudent to dismiss 
her catholic servants (ib. p. 217). There 
seems no doubt that sne was brought to 
favour the Exclusion Bill as unavoidable in 
itself and likely to advance the interest of 
the Duke of Richmond (Bubnet, ii. 259 seqq. ; 
cf. Clabke, Life of James II, i. 645). Both 
she and Nell Gwyn were at Oxford during 
the parliament of 1681 (Ltjttbell, i. 71). 

During the remainder of the reign she was 
not exposed to any serious rivalry (H. Sidney, 
ii. 226 seqq.) Her feeling of security is best 
shown by her visit to France from March to 
July 1682, which was at first represented by 
her enemies as her final withdrawal, and was 
attributed to the Duke of York's resentment. 
She had already, in November 1681, pressed 
for his return from Scotland, with a view 
to his settling on her a rent-charge of 5,000/. 
on the revenue of the post-office for fifty 
years, to be made up to him out of the excise, 
and, though the plan fell through, his recall 
followed (Macphebson, Original Papers, i. 
129 seqq. ; Life of James II, i. 722 seqq.) In 
France she not only benefited by the waters 
of Bourbon, where she spent part of May and 
June with Lady Pembroke, but also strength- 
ened her position at Versailles. St.-Simon 
describes her warm reception at the French 

court. She also paid a visit to her estate of 
Aubigny. On her return to England she found 
the kmg and the Duke of York on cordial 
terms, and contrived to bring about the reap- 
pointment of Sunderland as secretary of state 
(ib. i. 736). She sided with Rochester in his 
quarrel with Halifax (Rebesb y, pp. 272, 276). 
Nothing could now shake her sway over 
the enervated king, not even his jealousy of 
her intrigue with Philip de Vendome, whom 
Charles proved unable to drive out of the 
country, till Louis XIV, anxious for the 
maintenance of the duchess's ascendency, had 
brought about his return to France (Fobne- 
bon ; see Hansabd, Parliamentary Debates, 
xxxiv. 627). Treated by both king and duke 
as a member of the royal family, she took part 
in negotiating the marriage of the Princess 
Anne with Prince George of Denmark. The 
erection of the estate of Aubigny into a duchy 
was granted her by Louis in letters patent 
of January 1684, and a year later the Duke 
of Richmond was naturalised in France, in 
order to be able to succeed to her estates and 
title there. 

Her splendid apartment at the end of the 
gallery at Whitehall (Evelyn, ii. 314, 419- 
420 ; cf. II. Sidney, 1. 208) was, according 
to Evelyn, ' twice or thrice pull'd down and 
rebuilt to satisfy her prodigal and expensive 
pleasures; 1 it was ultimately burnt down, 
with all the buildings adjoining, 9 April 
1691 (Evelyn, iii. 93 ; cf. Autobiography of 
Sir J. Bramston, Camden Soc, 1845, p. 366). 
"When the post-office job failed, she had been 
allowed 10,000/. a quarter out of the privy 
purse (Macphebson, Original Papers, i. 133) ; 
but the sums paid to her varied, and in 1681 
amounted to the enormous total of 136,668/. 
None of the king's other mistresses appear 
to have approached her in rapacity (see J. Y. 
Akebman, Secret Services of Charles II and 
James II, 1679-88, Camden Soc., 1851, and 
the comments of Fobnebon). 

During Charles's fatal illness she was ex- 
cluded from the royal chamber ; but, accord- 
ing to Barillon (cf. C. J. Fox, History of the 
Beign of James II, edit. 1808, Appendix, p. 
xii),it was she who informed him of the king*s 
membership of the church of Rome, and thus 
obtained for him the last consolations of his 
faitb. She is said to have suspected James of 
having poisoned his brother (ib. p. 67 and note ; 
cf. Hallam, Constitutional Hist. 10th edit, 
ii. 468 note). Immediately, however, after 
the death of Charles II she was visited by 
James, and received assurances of protection 
from both him and Louis XIV. A sum ex- 
ceeding 12,000/., probably due to her on her 
pension, was at once paid. But, notwith- 
standing the courtesies of the king and the 




goodwill of Rochester, she grew uneasy, and 
was further disquieted by the dismissal of 
Richmond from the mastership of the horse. 
She desired that the pension of 3,000/. offered 
to her might be added to that of 2,000/. pro- 
posed for her son ; but claimed in vain the ful- 
filment of a supposed promise by Charles II 
of a large Irish estate or interest. Fully 
aware of the general hatred against her, and 
apprehensive of a direct attack in parliament, 
she crossed to France, where she had large 
investments, in August 16S5. 

In France she met with a cold welcome. 
Although in a personal interview Louis XIV 
destroyed a formal sentence of banishment 
against her, she soon returned to England, 
and remained at "Whitehall {Ellis Corre- 
spondence, i. 178) till the end of July 1688, 
when her sudden departure to France gave 
rise to 'great conjectures ' (t<6. ii. 78, 105). 
At New Year 1689 the Duke of Richmond 
gave explanations to Louis on behalf of him- 
self and of his mother, who was charged 
with scandalous utterances about the birth 
of the Prince of Wales (Dangeau, ii. 286) ; 
there had been an old grudge between her 
and Queen Mary of Modena. At the same 
time she made vain endeavours to recall to 
William III her former (supposed) services 
to his interest (cf. Henry Sidney in his 
Diary, &c, ii. 307-8). Her pension was 
withdrawn; in April 1691 a fire consumed 
her apartments and the treasures accumu- 
lated in them ; in the previous year her father 
had died, and early in 1692 Richmond left 
France to reconcile himself to the new regime 
in England. His allowance was generously 
continued to his mother by Louis XIV. 

The remainder of her life, chiefly spent on 
her estate at Aubigny, which she managed 
with much care, was a struggle against pecu- 
niary difficulties, a royal decree year after 
year staying execution. In 1697 she received 
permission from Louis to visit London, but 
William HI forbade her landing. In 1704 
the estates of Brittany reluctantly paid her 
a compensation for her father's manor, appro- 
priated by the government for the harbour 
at Brest. Under the regency her pension 
was raised to twenty thousand livres, and 
converted into an annuity. St.-Simon in 
1718 speaks of her as old, embarrassed in her 
affairs, and ' very converted and penitent' 
(Memoires, edit. 1863, x. 48). In 1723 she 
lost her worthless son, the Duke of Rich- 
mond. She died on 14 Nov. 1734 at Paris, 
whither she had journeyed to consult her 
physicians. She was buried in the church 
of the Barefooted Carmelites, in the chapel 
belonging to the De Rieux family. Among 
those who saw her in her old age were Vol- 

taire, who thought her still very beautiful, her 
great-granddaughter (the mother of Charles* 
Fox), the first Lord Holland, and George 
Selwyn. The influence of the duchess was 
due in part to her courage, to what her bio- 
grapher terms her esprit froid, and to her 
business capacity. But the chief source of 
her power lay of course in her personal 
beauty (Evelyn, Diary, ii. 253\ In contrast 
to the Duchess of Cleveland, she was said at 
times of difficulty to rely chiefly on the influ- 
ence of tears (H. Sidney, Diary, ed. Blencowe, 
ii. 114 n.) There is no reason to suppose that 
she had any literary tastes, though Nathaniel 
Lee dedicated two plays to her. Albeit reck- 
lessly extravagant, she does not appear to 
have carried the vice of gambling to the same 
extent as the Duchess of Mazarin. The people 
detested ' Madam Carwell,' or ' Carewell/ as 
she was familiarly called, more heartily than 
any other of the king's favourites. 

The earliest portrait of the Duchess of 
Portsmouth is a miniature by Samuel Cooper 

tq. v.], who died in 1672. Other nortraits of 
ler remain by Lelv, Kneller, H. (5ascar, and 
Mignard (at the National Portrait Gallery). 
Engravings of her appear in several series of 
portraits of ladies of the court of France (For- 
NER0N,p. 195, note, and ib. p. 237). Her motto, 
1 En la rose je fleuris/ is still borne by her 
descendants, the Dukes of Richmond and 

[H. Forneron\s Louise do Keroualle, Duchesse 
de Portsmouth (Paris, 1886), is an excellent bio- 
graphy, of which an English translation has 
been published by Mrs. Crawford (1888). Cape- 
figue's La Duchesse de Portsmouth et la Cour 
Oalante des Stuarts (Paris, 1861) is valueless 
and blundering. See also the brief accounts of 
Mademoiselle de Keroualle, Duchesse de Ports- 
mouth, et le Due de Hichemont, son fils, in Ecrits 
Ineditsde St.-Simon,ed.P.Faugere(Paris, 1880), 
iv. 485-7 ; and in Letters of William III and 
Louis XIV, &c, ed. P. Grimblot (1848), vol. i. 
App. i. ; .T. H. Jesse's England under the Stuarts, 
vol. ili- ; Diary of the Times of Charles II by 
Henry Sidney, ed. Blencowe J Reresby's Memoirs, 
ed.Cartwright; Burnet's Hist, of his own Time; 
Lettres de Mme. de Sevigne. Of the scurrilous 
attacks upon the duchess in verse, specimens by 
Rochester and others are contained in Poems on- 
State Affairs (1697) ; she was also attacked in 
the Essay on Satire, ascribed at the time to 
Dryden. Of the attacks in prose, the most 
notable is The Secret Hist of the Duchess of 
Portsmouth, London, 1690, of which a French 
translation was published in the same year. It 
was followed by a second English edition, entitled 
The Life, Amours, and Secret Hist, of Francelia, 
D. of P — h, London, 1734, and Forneron states 
that a second French edition likewise appeared. 
It is a romance in the New Atalaotis style, con- 
taining, however, more facts than fiction. AXt 




the earlier part is sheer invention; the re- 
mainder is diversified by snch charges as that of 
complicity in the deaths of Sir Edmund Berry 
Godfrey and of Charles II himself. The proper 
names are slightly disguised. The Memoirea 
Secrets de la Duchesse de Portsmouth, publ. avec 
des Notes historiques, 2 vols., Paris, 1805, and 
ascribed to J. Lacombe, are a mere elaboration 
of the above, with a good deal of padding and 
some original additions (e.g. Monmouth here 
appears as the son of the Duchess of Ports- 
mouth). A virulent pamphlet against her, under 
the title of Articles of High Treason, &c, against 
the Duchess of Portsmouth, is printed in Somers 
Tracts, viii. 137-40.] A. W. W. 

KERR or KER, MARK (d. 1584), abbot 
of Newbattle, was the second son of Sir 
Andrew Ker of Cessfurd [q. v.], by Agnes, 
daughter of Robert, second lord Onchton of 
Sanquhar. In 1546 he was promoted abbot of 
Newbattle, and on renouncing popery in 1560 
continued to hold the benefice mcommendam. 
He was one of those who, on 26 April of this 
year, signed at Edinburgh the contract to 
defend the ' evangell of Christ ' (Knox, ii. 64). 
Subseauently he was presented to the vicar- 
age of Linton, Peeblesshire, by the abbot and 
convent of Kelso, and his presentation was 
confirmed by the commissioners 4 Aug. 1567, 
in opposition to one made by the crown. 
At a parliament held at Edinburgh on 15 Dec. 
of this year he was appointed one of a com- 
mission to inquire into the jurisdiction that 
should pertain to the kirk. On 20 April 1569 
he was nominated an extraordinary lord of 
session, and he was also chosen a member of 
the privy council. By one of the articles of 
the Pacification of Perth in February 1572-3 
he was nominated one of the judges for the 
trial ' of all attempts committed against the 
abstinence be soutn the water of Tay ' (Reg, 
P. C. Scotl ii. 195). At the fall of Morton 
in 1578 he was one of the extraordinary 
council of twelve appointed to carry on the 
government in the King's name (Motsie, 
Memoirs, p. 6 ; Calderwood, iii. 897). He 
was also one of the four delegates deputed on 
28 Sept., after Morton had seized Stirling 
Castle, to meet Morton's delegates for the 
purpose of arranging the terms of a recon- 
ciliation. Receiving in 1581, after the second 
fall of Morton, a ratification of the commen- 
datorship of Newbattle, he continued to be a 
steadfast supporter of Esm6 Stuart, duke of 
Lennox. On 15 July 1581 he was appointed 
to hear and report on the case of Sir James 
Balfour, who was endeavouring to get rein- 
stated in his rights of citizenship (Reg. P. C. 
Scotl iii. 463). After the raid of Ruthyen 
the commendator was, with Lord Herries, 
despatched by Lennox with offers of concilia- 

tion to the now dominant party. The proposals 
were rejected. Kerr died in 1584. By his 
wife, Lady Helen Lesley, second daughter of 
George, fourth earl of Rothes, he had four 
sons: Mark, first earl of Lothian [q. v.]; 
Andrew of Fenton; George, the catholic 
emissary, in whose possession the ' Spanish 
blanks' were found, and William; and a 
daughter, Catherine, married to William, 
lord Herries. There are portraits of Kerr 
and his wife, ascribed to Sir Antonio More 
[q. v. J preserved at Newbattle. 

[Histories of Knox and Calderwood ; Moysie's 
Memoirs (Bannatyne Club); Hist. King James 
the Sext (Bannatyne Club); Register of the 
Privy Council of Scotland, vols. ii. and iii.; 
Douglas's Scottish Peerage (Wood), ii. 130.1 

T. F. &. 

KERR or KER, MARK, first Eabl of 
Lothian (d. 1609), master of requests, was 
the eldest son of Mark Kerr, commendator 
of Newbattle [q. v.], by Lady Helen Lesley, 
second daughter or George, fourth earl of 
Rothes. He was appointed master of re- 
quests in 1577, and the office was confirmed 
to him by King James in 1581. On the 
death of his father the reversion of the com- 
mendatorship of Newbattle granted him by 
Queen Mary was ratified to him by letters 
under the great seal 24 Aug. 1584. He was 
also, on 12 Nov. of the same year, appointed 
to succeed his father as an extraordinary lord 
of session. On 28 July 1587 his lands of 
Newbattle were by charter erected into a 
barony, and on 1 Aug. of the same year he was 
chosen by parliament one of his majesty's 
'ordiner and davlie privie council. On 
15 Oct. 1591 the baronies of Prestongrange 
and Newbattle being united into the lordship 
of Newbattle, he was created a lord of parlia- 
ment. He was appointed, 4 March 1596-7, 
one of a commission to arrange for the issue 
of a new coinage (Reg. P. C. Scotl v. 369). 
He was one of the commissioners for holding 
the parliament of 1597, and the same year 
was appointed collector-general of the tax 
of two hundred thousand merks levied in 
connection with certain foreign embassies 
(Acta Pari Scot. iv. 142-3). A commission 
was appointed, 2 March 1598-9, to examine 
Newbattle's accounts (Reg. P. C. Scotl v. 
534), the result being entirely satisfactory. 

Notwithstanding the attempt of the king 
to influence the court of session to an adverse 
decision against Robert Bruce, minister of 
Edinburgh, in regard to his life pension out 
of the rents of the abbey of Arbroath, New- 
battle, with the other judges, declined to be 
influenced in their judgment, either by en- 
treaties or threats. Newbattle was one of 
the special members of the privy council 




chosen on 8 Dec. 1598 to sit in the palace of 
Holyrood on Tuesdays and Thursdays to as- 
sist the king in the discharge of business 
(Caldbbwood, v. 727). On 10 July 1600 he 
was appointed one of a commission to con- 
sider means for the more effectual concur- 
rence of the lieges with the sheriffs and ma- 
gistrates in the execution of their offices (Reg. 
P. C, Sootl vi. 68), and, on 1 April of the 
same year, one of a commission for reporting 
on remedies for abuses in cloth-making (ib. 
p. 98). In order more effectually to carry 
out tne act of 1567 for the pursuit of thieves 
he was, on 28 July 1600, ordered to repair 
to and reside within his castle of Neidpath 
(ib. p. 138). On 19 Sept. 1604 he was nomi- 
nated to act as interim chancellor during the 
absence of the Earl of Montrose in England 
as a commissioner for the union (ib. vii. 15). 
He was one of the assessors chosen at Lin- 
lithgow in January 1605-6 for the trial of the 
ministers imprisoned in Blackness (Caldeb- 
wood, vi. 375). On 10 Feb. of the same year 
he was created Earl of Lothian by patent to 
him and heirs male of his body. On 11 July 
he resigned the office of master of requests 
in favour of his eldest son, Robert (Reg. P. C. 
Scotl. vii. 226). In 1608 Lothian acted as 
assessor to the Earl of Dunbar, the kind's 
commissioner to the assembly of the kirk 
(Caldbbwood, vi. 752). On 6 Feb. 1608- 
1609 he was appointed one of a commission 
to advise the king as to the best means of 
assuring the peace of the Isles and planting 
4 religion and civilitie therein ' (Reg. P. C. 
Scotl viii. 742). 

He died on 8 April 1609. By his wife, 
Margaret Maxwell, daughter of John, lord 
Hemes, he had four sons: Robert, second 
earl of Lothian, Sir William Ker of Black- 
hope, Sir Mark Ker, and Hon. Henry Ker, 
and seven daughters: Janet, married, first 
to Robert, master of Boyd, and secondly to 
David, tenth earl of Crawford ; Janet, married 
to William, eighth earl of Glencairn ; Mar- 
garet (founder of Lady Yester's Church, 
Edinburgh), married, first to James, seventh 
lord Yester, and secondly to Andrew, master 
of Jedburgh; Isabell, married to William, 
first earl of Queensberry ; Lilias, married to 
John, lord Borthwick; Mary, married to Sir 
James Richardson of Smeaton ; and Elizabeth, 
married to Sir Alexander Hamilton of Inner- 
wick. Scot of Scotstarvet affirms that in all 
the Earl of Lothian had by his wife thirty- 
one children. The statement is probably, 
however, as baseless as is Scot's story that 
the countess was addicted to the black art, 
and that, ' being vexed with a cancer in her 
breast/ she was healed by ' a notable war- 
lock/ on condition ' that the sore should fall 

on them she loved best : * her husband died 
of a boil in his throat. 

[Acta Pari. Scot. vols. iii. and iv. ; Reg. P. C. 
Scotl. vols, iv— viii . ; Calderwood's Hist, of Church 
of Scotland ; Moysie's Memoirs (Bannatyne Club) ; 
Scot's Staggering State of Scottish Statesmen ; 
Douglas's Scottish Peerage (Wood), ii. 130-1.1 

T. F. H. 

KERR, ROBERT, fourth Eael and first 
Mabqitcs op Lothian (1636-1703), born in 
1636, was the eldest son of William, third 
earl [q. v.], by his wife Anne, countess of 
Lothian in her own right. In 1673 he served 
as a volunteer in the Dutch war. He suc- 
ceeded his father in 1675, and on 23 Oct. 
1678 a patent of the earldom of Lothian was 
granted to him and heirs male of his body, 
with the original precedency. On 4 Jan. 
1686 he was sworn a privy councillor (Lauder 
of Fountainhall, Hist. Notices, p. 686), but on 
14 Sept. a letter was read in the council from 
James II removing him and four other privy 
councillors (ib. p. 750). He was a supporter 
of the revolution, and on 25 June wrote to 
the Earl Melville suggesting 'some return 
suitable to the capacity I think I can best 
serve his majesty in' (Leven and Melville 
Papers, Bannatyne Club,p. 79). He was ap- 
pointed a privy councillor to King William, 
and in August was also constituted justice- 
general. Cm the death of his brother Charles, 
second earl of Ancrum, in 1690, he united 
that earldom to his other titles. 

In 1692 Lothian was appointed commis- 
sioner of the king to the general assembly 
of the kirk of Scotland. The occasion was 
notable, on account of the recommendation 
of the king that episcopal ministers who 
were prepared to accept the confession of 
faith and submit to the authority of the eccle- 
siastical courts should be received into the 
kirk. The royal recommendation was en- 
forced by Lothian in a speech the liberality 
and kindliness of which tended rather to 
awaken than allay presbyterian prejudice. 
After a month spent in routine business the 
assembly still refrained from taking into con- 
sideration the subject pressed upon their at- 
tention, and it was dissolved Dy Lothian, 
who declined to fix any date for the next 
assembly. Thereupon the moderator, not- 
withstanding the protest of Lothian, ap- 
nointed the third Wednesday of August 1693. 
No assembly was, however, held on that date 
(see narrative in Bumorfa Hist, of Scotl. vii. 
450-3, founded on the Register of the Actings 
and Proceedings of the Assembly, printed for 
private circulation). 

Lothian was created marquis by patent on 
23 June 1701. He died on 15 Feb. 1703. A 
portrait of him, attributed to Scougal, dated 




1654, is at Newbattle. He married Lady Jean 
Campbell, second daughter of Archibald, mar- 
quis of Argyll. His eldest son, William, second 
marquis of Lothian, was a lieutenant-general 
in the army, was elected representative peer 
for Scotland in 1715, died 28 Feb. 1722, and 
was buried inWestminster Abbey (see Ma.ce y, 
Memoirs of Secret Services). The first mar- 
quis had four other sons : Charles (d. 1735), 
who was made a director in chancery in 1703 ; 
John (d. 1728), who for some time had the com- 
mand of the 31 st regiment ; Lord Mark Kerr 
(d. 1752), who became captain in the army 
8 June 1693, was wounded at Almanza on 
25 April 1707, acted as brigadier-general at 
the capture of Vigo in 1719, was governor of 
Guernsey in 1740, obtained the rank of general 
in 1743, was made governor of Edinburgh 
Castle in 1745, and died in London 2 Feb. 
1752 ; and James. Of the first marquis's five 
daughters, Mary married James, marquis of 

[Burton's Hist, of Scotland; Douglas's Scottish 
Peerage (Wood), ii. 139-40.] T. F. H. 

KERR, ROBERT (1755-1813), scientific 
writer and translator, was born at his father's 
seat, Bughtridge, Roxburghshire, in 1755. 
His father, James Kerr, convener of the 
trades (1746) and M.P. for Edinburgh from 
1747 to 1754, was great-grandson of Sir 
Thomas Ker of Redden, brother of Robert 
Ker, first earl of Ancrum [q. v.] His mother, 
Elizabeth Kerr, was grand-daughter of Ro- 
bert Kerr [q. vj, first marquis of Lothian. 
He studied at Edinburgh High School and 
at the university with a view to the me- 
dical profession, and became surgeon to the 
Edinburgh Foundling Hospital, but relin- 
quished a successful medical career for the 
management of a paper mill at Ayton, Ber- 
wickshire, which eventually proved a failure. 
He returned to Edinburgh about 1810, and 
occupied himself with historical and biogra- 
phical work. His valuable translations from 
Lavoisier and Linnaeus procured his election 
as fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 
in 1805. He was also a member of the 
Scottish Society of Antiquaries. He died 
at Edinburgh 11 Oct. 1813. 

The following is a list of his works : 1 . ' Ele- 
ments of Chemistry' (from the French of 
Lavoisier), Edinburgh, 1790; 2nd edit. 1793. 
2. ' Essay on the New Method of Bleaching 
by means of Oxygenated Muriatic Acid ' 
(from the French of Berthollet), Edinburgh, 
1790. 3. ' The Animal Kingdom, or Zoolo- 
gical System of Linnaeus.' A translation of 
part i. of the 4 Systema Naturae/ with addi- 
tions, Edinburgh, 1792, 4to. 4. 'The Na- 
tural History of Oviparous Quadrupeds and 

Serpents' (from the French of Lacepede), 
London, 1802. 5. ' Statistical, Agricultural, 
and Political Survey of Berwickshire,' 1809, 
8vo. 6. * Memoirs of the Life, Writings, and 
Correspondence of the late Mr. William 
Smellie,' Edinburgh, 1811. 7. 'The History 
of Scotland during the reign of Robert I, sur- 
named the Bruce,' Edinburgh, 1811, 8vo. 
8. ' Essay on the Theory of the Earth ' (from 
the French of Cuvier), 1813, 8vo. Ker com- 
piled vols. i-x. of 'A General History and 
Collection of Voyages and Travels,' London. 
1811-24, 18 vols. 

[Scots Mag. 1813, p. 880 ; Irving's Eminent 
Scotsmen, p. 254; Timperley's Anecdotes, pp. 
788, 035 ; Donaldson's Agricultural Biography ; 
Foster's Members of Parlt. Scotland; Watt's 
Bibl. Brit.; Brit. Mus. Cat; Gent. Mag. May 
1814 (pt. i. p. 624), where the date of death is 
wrong. T. S. 

KERR or KER, WILLIAM, third 
Earl op Lothian (1605 P-1675), eldest son 
of Robert, first earl of Ancrum [q. v.], by 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Murray of 
Blackbarony, was born about 1605. He was 
\ at the university of Cambridge in 1621, 
but he did not graduate, and probably com- 
pleted his education in Paris. On 6 Nov. 
1626 he set out from Paris on a tour through 
France, Italy, and Switzerland. A journal 
of the tour is preserved at Newbattle Abbey. 
In 1627 he accompanied George, duke of 
Buckingham, in his expedition to the Isle of 
Rhe, and he witnessed next year the duke's 
murder by Felton. He also joined the expedi- 
tion in aid of the States-general against the 
Spanish forces in 1629, and was present at the 
capitulation of Bois-le-Duc to the Prince of 
Orange on 14 Sept. He returned to Scotland in 
1630, and about January 1631 married Anne, 
daughter of Robert, second earl of Lothian, 
and countess of Lothian in her own right. 
On 31 Oct. of the same year he was created 
third Earl of Lothian, and the next brother 
of Robert, second earl of Lothian, Sir Wil- 
liam Ker of Blackhope, on laying claim to 
the title as nearest heir male, was prevented 
by the lords of the privy council from as- 
suming it (8 March 1632). The earl was one 
of the suppliants against the service-book in 
1638, and on 28 Feb. signed the national 
, covenant in Old Grey Friars Church, Edin- 
| burgh. He also, on 3 Oct., attached his 
signature to a complaint against the means 
taken to force the people to sign the king's 
covenant (Gordon, Scots Affairs, i. 122). 
He was a member of the assembly of the 
kirk which met at Glasgow in October of 
this year, and he supported the action there 
taken against the service-book. He was also 
one of the most prompt to lend aid to the 


covenanters when, in the spring of the fol- 
lowing year, they resolved to take up arms. 
On 22 March — the day succeeding the seizure 
of Edinburgh — he and other leading cove- 
nanters marched out from the city to Dal- 
keith House, and compelled the lord trea- 
surer Traquair to deliver it up £Balfoub, 
Annals, ii. 321}. With a force of fifteen hun- 
dred men he also joined the army of Leslie 
which advanced into England in August 1640 
<#. p. 383 ; Cal State Papers, Dom. Ser. 

1640, p. 447 ; Robert Baillie, Letters and 
Journals, i. 257). He was present at the de- 
feat of the royalists at Newbury, and on the 
-arrival of the Scottish army at Newcastle he 
was appointed governor of the town, with a 
•garrison of two thousand (Balfour, Annals, 
ii. 388; Cal State Papers, Dom. Ser. 1640- 

1641, p. 27). Lothian was the supposed 
-author of 'A True Representation of the 
Proceedings of the Kingdome of Scotland 
since the late Pacification, by the Estates of 
the Kingdome, against mistakings in the 
late Declaration/ 1640. On 7 June 1641 he 
left Newcastle to attend the meeting of the 
parliament in Edinburgh. On 16 July he was 
chosen a member of tne committee for the 
ordering of the house (Balfour, iii. 9), and on 
the 20th one of the committee of the articles 
iib. p. 21). On the conclusion of a treaty 
with the English on 25 Aug. the Scottish 
•army was disbanded, and Lothian's governor- 
ship of Newcastle came to an end. He was 
one of the commissioners appointed on the 
king * anent the preparing of matters left by 
the treaty ' (ib. p. 63), and also served on 
other important committees. 

In 1641 Lothian was named one of the 
four commissioners of the treasury. In Oc- 
tober he was appointed to the command of 
one of the regiments sent to Ireland, and ac- 
cording to his own statement was lieutenant- 
general of the Scots army in Ireland, but 
without payment( Cal.StatePapers, Dom. Ser. 
1666-6, p. 296). His regiment remained there 
till February 1644, but he appears himself 
to have been in Ireland for only a short 
period. In November 1641 his name was in- 
serted by the estates in the list of the privy 
council in place of one of the names which 
they had deleted from the king's list (Bal- 
four, iii. 149}. On 6 March 1642 he obtained 
a charter of tne lordship of Jedburgh, and in 
December of the same year he was sent by 
the privy council of Scotland, with the ap- 
proval of Charles I, on a mission to the court 
of France in relation to the position of the 
Scots guard in France. On his return he 
went to the king at Oxford to give an account 
of his embassy, but the king would not re- 
ceive him, and, on account of rumours known 




afterwards to be unfounded, that he had been 
engaged abroad in treacherous designs, he 
was, after being kept for some time under 
restraint at Oxiord, sent a prisoner to Bristol 
Castle. As his health, weakened by a severe 
attack of fever in France, suffered from close 
confinement to one room, the king granted 
him ultimately the liberty of the town 
(Baiuab, Letters and Journals, ii. 124) ; but 
he did not receive his freedom till the follow- 
ing March, and then only by exchange with 
Sir Charles Goring. Lothian was present at 
the parliament which met in June 1644, and 
on 17 July the house approved of his conduct 
and voted a sum of money to defray his ex- 
penses (Balfouk, iii. 222). In the same year 
ne joined Argyll in command of the unsuc- 
cessful expedition against Montrose. He de- 
clined to accept the commission when thrown 
up by Argyll (Baillib, Letters and Journals, 
ii. 262). He was one of the commissioners 
sent to treat with the king at Newcastle in 
1647, and, with James McDouall of Garth- 
land, was specially appointed by the Scottish 
parliament to attend on the king on his journey 
to Holmby House, where they continued with 
him for some weeks. The parliament of 1647, 
in payment of his expenses in the public 
service, apportioned him 1,600/. out of the 
20,000/. agreed to be paid to the Scots army by 
the parliamentarians, but according to his own 
statement he never received the money (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. Ser. 1665-6, p. 20V He 
protested against the * engagement ' or 1648, 
and after it had been condemned by parlia- 
ment was appointed to the office of secretary 
of state, in succession to the Earl of Lanerick, 
who was deprived by the Act of Classes. He 
was one of the commissioners sent by the par- 
liament of Scotland in 1649 to protest against 
proceeding to extremities against the king. 
According to Clarendon there was a secret 
understanding between Lothian and Argyll 
(Hist, of Rebellion, Oxford ed. iii. 384-6), but 
there is no tangible proof of any such under- 
standing. The commissioners were, accord- 
ing to their orders, proceeding to Holland to 
communicate with Charles II, when they were 
arrested at Gravesend by a troop of Crom- 
well's horse (Balfour, iii. 388). They were 
treated with courtesy, and sent under a strong 
escort to Berwick, there to be detained until 
the estates of Scotland should own their ac- 
tion. This being done, they were permitted 
to proceed to Edinburgh. Lothian was a 
member of the second commission appointed 
by the estates to proceed on 9 Marcn 1660 
to treat with the king at Breda. On the ar- 
rival of Charles in Scotland in 1660 the kirk 
desired that Lothian (who apparently de- 
clined) should be made general or the Scottish 




forces ( Whitelocke, Memorial*). On 9 Aug. 
he was sent by the committee or the army to 
the king at Dunfermline to induce him to 
sign a declaration in favour of the covenanters 
(Baltottb, iv. 77). When, on 4 Oct. follow- 
ing, the king escaped from the thraldom 
of the covenanters at Perth and joined the 
northern loyalists, Lothian was appointed 
one of a commission to induce him to return 
. (ib. p. 115). They succeeded, but had to 
make terms with the strictly loyalist party 
and pass an act of indemnity for them on 
12 Oct. This procedure was severely blamed 
by the synod of Perth (ib. p. 119). Along 
with Argyll, Lothian took an active but 
unsuccessful part in inducing the extreme 
covenanters of the west of Scotland to come 
to terms with the northern loyalists. Sub- 
sequently he acted generally in concert with 
Argyll. On 14 Oct. he was appointed one 
of a committee to arrange for the king's 
coronation at Scone (ib. p. 123). According 
.to his own account, he intended to have 
joined the Duke of Hamilton in his expedition 
into England in the following year, but could 
not get ready in time. He was about to sail 
to join the king when he heard of the battle 
at Worcester. He also states that when he 
ceased to be secretary on the triumph of 
Cromwell, he retired to his own house at 
Newbattle, and never passed any writs under 
the great seal, which he preserved until able 
to offer his services to the king (Correspond- 
ence, p. 434). The Laird of Brodie. however, 
relates that Argyll told him that Lothian 
had been tampering with the Protector (Diary 
of the Laird of Brodie, Spalding Club, p. 
153\ In any case, he endeavoured in 1655 
tooDtain not merely payment for his expenses 
in the cause of the covenant, but also com- 
pensation for having been deprived of the 
office of secretary of state in 1652 (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. Ser. 1655-6, p. 20). At the 
Restoration he went to London and pre- 
sented a vindication of his conduct in the 
past (Correspondence, pp. 431-8). The king 
promised him some reward, and according to 
Sir George Mackenzie he received a grant of 
1,000/.; but he himself affirmed that he re- 
ceived more promises than revenue. Having 
refused in 1662 to take the abjuration oath, 
he was fined 6,000/. Scots, and his finances 
having been previously in a crippled condi- 
tion he found it necessary to part with his 
paternal estate of Ancrum. He died at New- 
battle in October 1675. 

By his wife he had five sons : Robert, fourth 
earl of Lothian [q. v/], Sir William Ker, 
Charles, Harry, and John; and nine daugh- 
ters : Anne, married to Alexander, master of 
Salton ; Elizabeth, to John, lord Borthwick ; 

Jean, died young; Margaret, died young; 
Mary, married to James Brodie of Brodie ; 
Margaret, to James Richardson of Smeaton ; 
Vere, to Lord Neill Campbell of Ardmaddie ; 
Henrietta, to Sir Francis Scott of Thirlestane ; 
and Lilias, died unmarried. A portrait of the 
Earl of Lothian by Jamiesone is at Newbattle 

[Sir James Balfour's Annals of Scotland; 
Robert Baillie's Letters and Journals (Bannatvne 
Club) ; Gordon's Scots Affairs (Spalding Club); 
Clarendon's History of the Rebellion ; Diary of 
the Lairds of Brodie (Spalding Club); Corre- 
spondence of Sir Robert Ker, earl of Ancrum, by 
his son William, third earl of Lothian, 1875; 
Douglas's Peerage (Wood), ii. 137-8.] T. F. H. 

KERR, WILLIAM, second Mabquis op 
Lothian (1662 P-l 722), eldest son of Robert, 
first marquis [q. v.l and grandson of William 
Kerr, third earl of Lothian [q. v.], was born 
about 1662. On the death of his kinsman 
Robert Kerr, third Lord Jedburgh, in 1692, 
he succeeded to that title, and sat in parlia- 
ment as Lord Jedburgh. He was colonel of 
the 7th regiment of dragoons, 1 Oct. 1696, and 
a stout adherent of the revolution. On his 
father's death, 15 Feb. 1703, he became Mar- 
quis of Lothian, was created a knight of the 
Thistle in 1705, cordially supported the union, 
and was chosen a representative peer of Scot- 
land in 1708. On account, however, of some 
informalities this election was cancelled, but 
he was re-elected in 1715. He obtained the 
command of the 3rd foot-guards, 25 April 

1707, with the rank of lieutenant-general, 

1708, and was deprived of his regiment on a 
change of administration in 1713, but after- 
wards became major-general on the North 
British staff. Macky, the court spy in the 
time of Queen Anne, describes him about 
the date of his succession to the marquisate 
in the following terms: 'He hath abundance 
of fire, and may prove himself a man of busi- 
ness when he applies himself that way; 
laughs at all revealed religion, yet sets up 
for a pillar of presbytery, and proves the 
surest card in their pack, being very zealous 
though not devout ; he is brave in his person, 
loves his country and his bottle, a thorough 
libertine, very handsome, black, with a fine 
eye, forty-five years old* (Memoirs, pp. 197, 
198). This character is generally borne out 
by references to him in letters of the period. 
He married his first cousin, Lady Jean Camp- 
bell, daughter of Archibald, ninth earl of 
Argyll, who was beheaded in 1685, and he 
did so purely from a chivalrous desire to be- 
friend those who he believed were suffering' 
wrongfully (ib.). The marquis died at Lon- 
don on 28 Feb. 1722, aged 60, and was in- 
terred in King Henry VII's Chapel in West- 




minster Abbey. A full-length portrait of 
Lothian, attributed to Scougal, is at New- 
battle. He was succeeded by his son Wil- 
liam, and left four daughters: Anne, married 
to Alexander, seventh earl of Home ; Jean, 
married to William, fifth lord Cranston; 
Elizabeth, married to George, twelfth lord 
Ross ; and Mary, married to Alexander Hamil- 
ton of Ballincrief. 

[Douglas's Peerage of Scotland (Wood), ii. 
140.] H. P. 

Mabquis op Lothian (d. 1775), the elder 
son of William, third marquis, and Margaret 
Nicholson of Kempney, was a captain in the 
first regiment of foot-guards in 1741. He 
acted as aide-de-camp to the Duke of Cumber- 
land atFontenoy, 80 April 1746, when he was 
severely wounded by a shot in the head. He 
also attended the duke at Culloden, having 
command there of the cavalry on the extreme 
left wing of the royal army, after which he 
was placed for a short time in charge of all 
the forces on the east of Scotland. In De- 
cember 1746 he again accompanied the duke 
to the continent. On the death of his grand- 
uncle, Lord Mark Kerr, he was promoted to 
be colonel of his regiment, the 11th dragoons, 
and was, as lieutenant-general, with the duke 
in his expedition to the east coast of France 
in 1758. He was styled Lord Jedburgh 
until his marriage in 1735, when he assumed 
the title of Earl of Ancrum. He represented 
Richmond in parliament in 1747, and was re- 
elected by the same constituency in 1754 and 
1761, but resigned in 1763. He succeeded 
as fourth Marquis of Lothian on his father's 
death on 28 July 1 767. In 1 768 he was chosen 
one of the sixteen representative peers of Scot- 
land, and on the same day, 26 Oct., was in- 
vested as a knight of the Thistle at St. James's 
Palace. He was promoted to the rank of gene- 
ral in the army in 1770, and died at Bath on 
12 April 1775. He married in 1735 Caroline 
d'Arcy, only daughter of Robert, third earl 
of Holderness. The marchioness died in 
October 1778. By her Lothian left a son 
and successor, William John, fifth marquis, 
and two daughters, Louisa, married to Lord 
George Henry Lennox, and Willielmina 
Emilia, married to John Macleod, colonel 

[Douglas's Peerage of Scotland (Wood), ii. 
141.] H. P. 

KERRICH, THOMAS (1748-1828), li- 
brarian of the university of Cambridge, born 
4 Feb. 1748, was son of Samuel Kerrich, D.D., 
vicar of Dersingham and rector of Wolferton 
and West Newton, Norfolk, by his second 

wife, Barbara, elder daughter of Matthew 
Postlethwayt, archdeacon of Norwich. He 
was educated at Magdalene College, Cam- 
bridge, graduated B.A. in 1771 as second 
senior optime, and was elected one of Worts's 
travelling bachelors. Kerrich was accom- 
panied in his travels by a pupil, John Petti- 
ward, fellow-commoner of Trinity, and jour- 
neyed through France, the Low Countries, 
and Italy, residing at Paris for six months 
and at Rome for two years. At Antwerp the 
Academy of Painting awarded to him a silver 
medal for the best drawing. During his tenure 
of the travelling fellowship he devoted most 
of his time to artistic pursuits and antiquarian 
research, and made a fine collection of draw- 
ings from old monuments. 

Returning to Cambridge he proceeded M. A. 
in 1775, and about the same time was elected 
a fellow of his college. In 1784 he was pre- 
sented to the vicarage of Dersingham, which 
had previously been held by his father ; and 
to the vicarage of Hemisby, Norfolk, in 1786. 
In 1793 he served the university office of 
taxor. On 21 Sept. 1797 he was elected prin- 
cipal librarian of the university on the death 
orDr . Richard Farmer [q. v.] (Coopeb, Annals 
of Cambridge, iv. 460). In the same vear he 
was elected a fellow of the Society of Anti- 
quaries of London. He was collated to a 
prebend in the church of Lincoln in 1798, 
and to one in the church of Wells in 1812 
(Lb Neve, Fasti, ed. Hardy, i. 197, 200, ii. 
215). He died at his residence in Free School 
Lane, Cambridge, on 10 May 1828. 

He married Sophia, fourth daughter of 
Richard Hayles, M.D., of Cambridge. By 
that lady, who died on 23 July 1835, he had 

1 one son and two daughters, one of whom, 
Frances Margaretta, became the wife of the 

I Rev. Charles Henry Hartshorne [q. v."], and 
died 3 Jan. 1892. The son, Richard Edward 

[ Kerrich, M. A ., of Christ's College, Cambridge, 
died in 1872. 

To great antiquarian and architectural 

, knowledge Kerricn united the most accurate 
skill as a painter and a draughtsman. He 
was also a miniature-painter and a practised 
etcher, contributing some highly finished 
drawings to Gough's ' Sepulchral Monuments.' 
He was one of the earliest lithographers, and 
executed the portraits of Henry VI and 
Richard HI for Fenn's 'Paston Letters.' His 
very curious collection of early royal portraits 
he bequeathed to the Society of Antiquaries. 
A list of them is printed in Nichols's 'Illus- 
trations of Literature/ vi. 818, and a cata- 
logue raisonn6 by Mr. G. Scharf in the 'Fine 
Arts Quarterly Review' for 1866. To the 
British Museum he bequeathed his extensive 
manuscript collections and sketches in illus- 





tration of ancient costumes, consisting chiefly 
of drawings from monuments, sepulchral 
brasses, stained windows, seals, and armour. 
These are contained in forty-eight volumes 
of various sizes, Addit, MSS. 6728-73. The 
volumes 6760-73, which form part of the 
legacy, contain the collections of James Essex 
[q. v.}, architect, of Cambridge. The vol. 6736 
contains drawings and plans by Kerrich of 
various ecclesiastical buildings, and of Eng- 
lish castles and camps illustrative of military 
architecture. Kerrich's son presented his 
father's large collection of coins to the Society 
of Antiquaries, and bequeathed to the Fitz- 
william Museum at Cambridge seven pictures, 
two hundred volumes of books, and many 
valuable portfolios of early prints. 

To the ' Archroologia F Kerrich contributed : 
1. « Some Observations on the Gothic Build- 
ings abroad, particularly those in Italy, and 
on Gothic Architecture in General/ 1809, 
xvi. 292-325, illustrated by eighteen plates 
of sketches and sections of cathedrals. 2. 'Ac- 
count of some Lids of Stone Coffins discovered 
inCambridge Castle in 1810/ with two plates, 

1813, xvii. §28. 3. ' Observations upon some 
Sepulchral Monuments in Italy and France/ 

1814, xviii. 186-96, accompanied by eight 
plates either etched by Kerrich or copied 
from his etchings. 4. 'Observations on the 
use of the mysterious figure called Vesica 
Piscis in the Architecture of the Middle Ages, 
and in Gothic Architecture/ 1820, xix. 353- 
368, accompanied by fifteen plates containing 
no fewer than sixty-five drafts of the ground 
plans and arches of ancient ecclesiastical edi- 
fices, both abroad and at home. 

A posthumous work of his is entitled ' A 
Catalogue of the Prints which have been en- 
graved after Martin Heemskerck ; or rather, 
an Essay towards such a Catalogue/ Cam- 
bridge, 1829, 8vo. 

The portraits of Robert Glynn (afterwards 
Clobery), M.D. [q. v.], Thomas Wale of Shel- 
ford, Dr. Waring, Joseph Browne [q.v.l, 
Isaac Milner [q. v.], William Pearce fo v l 
James Bentham, Robert Masters, Dr. Hill, 
and William Cole [a. v.] were engraved by 
the brothers Facius, from drawings by Ker- 
rich. A portrait of Kerrich, painted by H. P. 
Briggs, R. A. [q. v.], and formerly in the pos- 
session of Mrs. F. M. Hartshorne, was en- 
graved by Facius in folio, and is copied in 
Nichols's ' Literary Illustrations.' There is a 
replica of Briggs's portrait in Magdalene Col- 
lege, Cambridge. 

[Private information ; Addit. MSS. 5824 f. 
1266, 6856 pp. 108, 109, 5874 f. 69 b ; Cooper's 
Annals of Cambridge, iv. 557 ; Gent. Mag. xcviii. 
pt ii. p. 185, new series, iv. 332; Gradnati 
Cantabr. ; Gunning's Reminiscences, ii. 76-8; 

Nichols's Lit. Illustr. ; Nichols's Lit. A need. ; 
Wilson's Miscellanies (Raines), p. 161.] T. C. 

1853), general, only son of Matthias Kerrison, 
by Mary, daughter of Edward Barnes of 
Barnham, Suffolk, was born at his father's 
seat, Hexne Hall, near Bungay^ in 1774. 
He entered the army as cornet in the 6th 
dragoons on 23 June 1796. He attained the 
rank of captain in October 1798, and was 
transferred to the 7th hussars in the same 
year. With the last-mentioned regiment he 
served in the Helder expedition of 1799. 
taking part in the actions of 19 Sept. and 
2 and 6 Oct. In October 1808, being then 
lieutenant-colonel, he embarked with his 
regiment for Spain, and in the following De- 
cember was severely wounded on the plains 
of Leon. He commanded his regiment at 
the passage of the Oleron, in the action of 
Sauveterne, and at the battles of Orthes and 
Toulouse. At the battle of Orthes the charge 
headed by Lord Edward Somerset, in which 
Kerrison with the 7th hussars took the chief 
part, was highly commended by the Duke of 
Wellington (Despatches, vii. 440). 

Kerrison next served in the campaign of 
1815, and was'slightly wounded at Waterloo, 
where his horse was shot under him ; but he 
continued with his regiment, and took part 
in the occupation of Paris. On his return 
to England he was nominated a commander 
of theBath, and knighted 5 Jan. 1816. He 
was subsequently created a baronet by patent 
dated 27 July 1821. He represented the 
borough of Shaftesbury from 1812 to 1818, 
that of Northampton from 1818 to 1824, and 
Eye from 1824 to 1852, in the conservative in- 
terest. Promoted to the rank of lieutenant- 
general in 1837, he became general in 1851, 
and died at his house in Great Stanhope 
Street, London, on 9 March 1853. 

Kerrison married, on 20 Oct. 1813, Mary 
Martha, daughter of Alexander Ellice of Pit- 
tencrieff, Fifeshire. By her he had issue one 
son, Edward Clarence Kerrison (6. 1821), 
present baronet, and three daughters, the 
second of whom, Emily Harriet (d. 1873), 
married in 1834 Philip Henry, viscount 
Mahon, the historian, afterwards fifth earl 
Stanhope [q.v.] 

[Ann. Reg. 1853, p. 219 ; Gent Mag. 1853, i. 
542; United Service Gaz. 1853 ; Fosters Peerage 
and Baronetage ; Cannon's Hist. Records of Bri- 
tish Army (7th Hussars), pp. 75, 78.] T. S. 

KERRY, Knights of. [See Fitzgerald, 
Maurice, 1774-1849; Fitzgerald, Sib 
Peter George, 1808-1880.] 

KERRY, Lords. [See FrrzM auriob, 
Thomas, 1502-1590, sixteenth Lord ; Fitz- 


6 9 


maurice, Patrick, 1651 P-1600, seventeenth 
Lord; Fitzmaurice, Thomas, 1574-1630, 
eighteenth Lord.] 

1690), painter, born in 1632 at Solingen in 
Germany, studied painting in Amsterdam, 
andin I06O settled in Paris, where he worked 
under Charles Le Brun. He subsequently 
went to Rome, and remained there for four- 
teen years, two of which he spent under 
Nicolas Poussin, apparently engaged in land- 
scape-painting. On leaving Rome he came 
to England, where he devoted himself to por- 
trait-painting. His best-known portrait is 
that of Robert Boyle [q. v.l of which there 
are versions at the National Portrait Gallery, 
the Royal Society, and Hampton Court ; it 
was painted in 1689. Pepys, in a letter to 
John Evelyn, dated 30 Aug. 1689, writes that 
Boyle had ' newly beene prevayled with by 
Br. King to have his head taken by one of 
much lesse name than Kneller & a strang r , 
one Causabon.' It is this letter perhaps that 
has led to the notion that Kerseboom was 
related to the great scholar, Casaubon. He 
painted a portrait of Sophia Dorothea, wife 
of George I, from which there is a scarce 
mezzotint engraving by William Faithorne, 
jun. A few other portraits by Kerseboom 
were engraved. Kerseboom died in London 
in 1690, and was buried in St. Andrew's 
Church, Holborn. 

[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, ed. Wor- 
num ; Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Abecedario 
de P. J. Mariette; Chaloner Smith's British 
Mezzotinto Portraits ; Pepys's Diary and Corre- 
spondence.] L. C. 

KERSEY, JOHN, theelder (1616-1690?), 
mathematician, son of Anthony Carsaye or 
Kersey and Alice Fenimore, was baptised 
at Bodicote, near Banbury, Oxfordshire, on 
23 Nov. 1616 (cf. Hearne, Coll., ed. Doble, 
Oxf.Hist.Soc.,ii.ll). Kersey early came to 
London, where he seems to have had relatives 
(cf. Robinson, Reg. Merchant Taylors' School, 
i. 104 ; Chester, London Marrtage Licenses, 
p. 790), and gained a livelihood as a teacher. 
At first (1660) he lived at the corner house 
(opposite to the White Lion) in Charles Street, 
near the piazza in Covent Garden, but after- 
wards moved to Chandos Street, St. Martin's 
Lane. He was acquainted with John Collins 
[q. v.], the ' attorney-general for the mathe- 
matics,' who persuadea him to write his work 
on algebra. He was a friend of Edmund 
Wingate [q. v.], and edited the second edi- 
tion of his ' Arithmetic ' in 1660, and sub- 
sequent issues till 1683. Kersey obtained a 
wide reputation as a teacher of mathematics. 
At one time he was tutor to the sons of 

Sir Alexander Denton of Hillesden House, 
Buckinghamshire, * whose family,' he writes, 
'gave both birth and nourishment to his 
mathematical studies ' (Elements, Ded. ; cf. 
Hearne, Coll. ii. 11}. To his pupils Alex- 
ander and Edmund Denton he dedicated 
his first and principal original work, ' The 
Elements of Mathematical Art, commonly 
called Algebra,' in two folio volumes, dated 
respectively 1673 and 1674. A portrait of 
the author, by Faithorne, was prefixed to 
the first volume. Both Wallis and Collins 
wrote in 1672 in the highest terms of their 
anticipations of this work (cf. Corresp. of 
Scientific Men, ii. 664 ; and Nichols, Lit. 
Illustrations, iv. 46), and on its publication it 
became a standard authority. It was honour- 
ably mentioned in the 'Philosophical Trans- 
actions ' (viii. 6073-4), and was commended 
by Hutton. Kersey's method of algebra was 
employed in Cocker's ' Arithmetic of 1703. 
Kersey is said (Beeslet, Hist, of Banbury, 
p. 486]) to have died about 1677, but the date 
must oe later, as the eighth edition of Win- 
gate was edited by him in 1 683. In the tenth, 
published in 1699, he is spoken of as 'late 
teacher of the Mathematicks.' 

John Kerset the younger (Jl. 1720), lexi- 
cographer, son of John Kersey the elder, with 
whom he has been much confused, revised 
the work of his father in the fourteenth edi- 
tion of Wingate (1720), and he, more pro- 
bably than his father, contributed the ' Dis- 
course to an unlearned Prince ' to the ' Trans- 
lation of Plutarch's Morals,' which appeared 
1684-5 (republished 1870). He was mainly 
occupied with lexicography. The sixth edi- 
tion of Phillips's' IN ew World of Words,' 
which was published in 1706, was edited by 
him (Pref. to Diet. Anglo-Britannicum, 1 708). 
He greatly added to the number of words (cf. 
H. B. Wheatley, ' Chronological Notice of 
the Dictionaries of the English Language,' 
in Proc. Phil. Soc. 1866), and published a 
seventh edition in 1720. Another dictionary, 
the ' New English Dictionary,' of which the 
first edition is said to have appeared in 1702 
(2nd 1713, 3rd 1731, &c/), was also assigned 
on the title-page to J. K., but Kersey's re- 
sponsibility for the work has been auestioned. 
In 1708 was printed his ' Dictionarium An^lo- 
Britannicum, comprehending a brief explica- 
tion of all sorts of difficult words;' a new 
edition in 1716 contained ' words and phrases 
made use of in our ancient statutes, old re- 
cords, charters;' the third edition appeared in 
1721. The date of his death is uncertain. 
Froui Kersey's ' Dictionarium ' Chatterton 
borrowed part of his archaic vocabulary (cf. 
Professor Shears essay in Chattertoris 
Poems, Aldine ed., ii. xxx sq.) 




[Granger's Biog. History, iv. 81 ; information 
kindly supplied by the Re*. A. Short ; authori- 
ties quoted; Be Morgan's Arithmetical Books, 
pp. 48, 68, 73 ; Biog. Brit. (Suppl.), p. 33 ; Notes 
and Queries, 4th ser. vii. 323.] 

KERSHAW, JAMES (1730P-1797), 
methodist preacher, a native of Halifax, was 
born about 1730. He joined a Socinian club 
in Halifax, whose members deputed him and 
another, in 1761, to attend a sermon to be 
delivered by Henry Venn [q. v.] at Hudders- 
field, in order * to furnish matter of merriment 
for the next meeting.' But Kershaw left the 
church after the sermon exclaiming, * Surely 
God is in this place ; there is no matter for 
laughter here/ He subsequently called on the 
preacher, was converted, and became one of 
Venn's constant correspondents {Life and 
Letters of Henry Venn, 1836, passim). 

Kershaw soon afterwards became known 
as an itinerant methodist preacher, and accom- 
panied John Wesley on more than one occa- 
sion in his rapid journeys about the north of 
England. He settled down at Gainsborough 
about 1770, and was famous in the neigh- 
bourhood for his quack medicines. He still 
continued to preach, but only at irregular 
intervals, and occupied his leisure in writing. 
He died at Ashby-de-la-Zouch in 1797. 

Besides some tracts Kershaw wrote : 1. ' An 
Essay on the Principal Parts of the Book of 
the Revelations, in a series of Dialogues be- 
tween Didaskalos and Phylotheos/ Stockton, 
1780, 2 vols. 12mo. 2. 'The Methodist at- 
tempted in Plain Metre/ a sort of Wesleyan 
epic, published at Nottingham in 1780, but 
not approved by Wesley, who feared it might 
deter the elect from perusing more edifying 
works, and determined henceforth to exer- 
cise a censorship over methodist publications. 
3. ' The Grand and Extensive Plan of Human 
Redemption, from the Ruins of the Fall . . . 
in twelve familiar Dialogues/ Louth, 1797. 
A note appended to this volume states that 
Kershaw died ' shortly after this work was 
put to press/ 

Abthttb Kershaw {fl. 1800), apparently 
James Kershaw's son, was educated at Wes- 
ley's school near Kingswood. He contributed 
to the ' Monthly Magazine/ and was employed 
by London booksellers in the enlargement of 
Walker's * Gazetteer ' and similar work at 
the beginning of the present century. 

[Atmore's Methodist Memorial, p. 128 ; Tyer- 
man's Wesley, ii. 531, lit. 362 ; Creswell's Hist, 
of Printing in Nottingham, p. 37 ; Biog. Diet, 
of Living Authors, p. 188 ; Kershaw's works in 
Brit Mus. Library.] T. S. 

KERSLAKE, THOMAS (1812-1891), 
bookseller, born in Exeter in July 1812, pro- 
ceeded in 1828 to Bristol, and soon afterwards 

commenced business as a second-hand book- 
seller in Barton Alley, together with his 
brother-in-law, Samuel Cornish. In 1839 
the partnership was dissolved, and Kerslake 
removed to a shop at the bottom of Park 
Street. A disastrous fire occurred here in 
1860. Kerslake continued on the same site, 
however, until 1870, when he removed to 
Queen's Road, and shortly afterwards retired. 
For over twenty years after his retirement he 
devoted himself to antiquarian controversy. 
Kerslake died at his private residence, Wyn- 
fred, Clevedon, on 5 Jan. 1891. His wife, 
Catherine Morgan, a native of Bath, prede- 
ceased him in 1887. He had no issue. 

Previous to the fire, in which many works 
of great value and scarcity were destroyed, 
Kerslake had amassed a collection especially 
valuable in its antiquarian and archaeologi- 
cal departments. He was also distinguished 
as an antiquary. Though self-taught, he had 
a good command of Latin and of modern lan- 
guages, and his series of articles and pam- 
phlets on antiquarian subjects is remarkable 
alike for shrewdness and originality. Kers- 
lake's individuality is well exemplified in his 
sturdy defence of the historic phrase * Anglo- 
Saxon' (see infra). 'His pamphlets were 
usually published at his own expense ' (cf. 
Proc. Somerset Archceolog. Assoc. 1892). 

The following are Kerslake's chief works : 
1 . ' A Vindication of the Autographs of Sir 
Roger de Coverley's " Perverse Widow" and 
her " Malicious Confident " from a disparaging 
statement thrown out in the " Athenaeum, 
Bristol [1855], 8vo. 2. « Saint Ewen, Bristol, 
and the Welsh Border, circiter a.d. 577-926/ 
Bristol, 1875, 8vo. 3. ' A Primeval British 
Metropolis, with some Notes on the Ancient 
Topography of the South- Western Peninsula 
of Britain/ Bristol, 1877, 8vo. Revised and re- 
edited, with additions, under the title of Caer 
Pensauelcoit, a long-lost Unromanized British 
Metropolis/ London, 1882, 8vo. 4. ' Traces of 
the Ancient Kingdom of Damnonia, outside 
Cornwall, in remains of Celtic Hagiology/ 
London, 1878, 8vo. 5. ' Vestices of the Su- 

Sremacy of Mercia in the South of England 
uring the Eighth Century/ Bristol, 1879, 
8vo. 6. < The Word "MetrojKrtis.'" 'The An- 
cient Word " A nfflo-Saxon. ' ' Anglo-Saxon 
Bristol and Fossil Taunton/ Three essays, 
Bristol, 1880, 8vo. 7. < The Celtic Sub- 
stratum of England/ London, 1883, 8vo. 
8. 'The Liberty of Independent Historical 
Research/ London, 1885, 8vo. This is a some- 
what caustic attack upon the office of her 
majesty's inspector of ancient monuments, 
and on a preliminary report entitled ' Exca- 
vations in the Pen Pits, Penselwood, Somer- 
set/ issued by the first holder of the office, 




General A. Pitts-Rivers. 9. 'Gyfia, the Scir 
or Pagus of the Ivel Valley,' Somerset, 1887, 
8vo. 10. ' Saint Richard the king of English- 
men and his territory, a.d. 700-7i8) '(privately 
printed), 1890. 

[Information kindly supplied by Mr. William 
George, Bristol; Athenaeum, 10 Jan. 1891; 
Kerslake's Works (for a full list of which see 
Index Catalogue of the Somerset Archaeological 
8ociety Library, Taunton, 1 889, p. 99).] T. S. 

KETCH, JOHN, commonly known as 
4 Jack Retch ' (d. 1686), executioner, is sup- 
posed to have been the immediate successor 
m the office of hangman to Edward Dun, 
who had in his turn succeeded Richard 
Brandon [q. v.], the executioner of Charles I. 
The last known reference to * Squire Dun's ' 
official activity is in a curious pamphlet 
dated 1662, and entitled ' Qui chetat cneta- 
bitur, or Tyburn cheated.' It is believed 
that Ketch took office in the following year, 
but no printed notice of the new hangman 
occurs until 2 Dec. 1678, when a broadside 
appeared called ' The Plotters Ballad, being 
Jack Ketch's incomparable Receipt for the 
Cure of Traytorous Recusants, or Wholesome 
Physick for a Popish Contagion.' On the top 
of the sheet is a woodcut, in which is repre- 
sented Edward Coleman [q. v.] drawn in a 
sledge to the place of execution, exclaiming, 
4 1 am sick of a traytorous disease/ while 
Jack Ketch, with a hatchet in one hand and 
a rope in the other, is saying, ' Here's your 
cure, sir.! In 1679 it appears from another 
pamphlet purporting to be written by Ketch 
himself, and entitled ' The Man of Destiny's 
Hard Fortune,' that the hangman was con- 
fined for a time in the Marshalsea prison, 
4 whereby his hopeful harvest was like to 
have been blasted.' A short entry in the 
autobiography of Anthony a Wood for 
31 Aug. 1681 states how Stephen College 
was hung in the Castle Yard, Oxford, and 
4 when he had hanged about half an hour, 
was cut down by Catch or Ketch, and quar- 
tered under the gallows' (cf. Hist. M8S. 
Comm. 12th Rep. App. vii. 183). In a pam- 
phlet probably written by Ketch himself, 
and entitled ' The Apologie of John Ketch, 
Esauire ' (the title of ' esquire ' being still 
claimed by the hangmen in confirmation of 
the arms granted to Richard Brandon), in 
' vindication of himself as to the execution of 
the late Lord Russell, 21 July 1688,' Ketch 
repudiated the charge that he had been given 
4 twenty jraennies the night before that after 
the first blow my lord should say, "You 
dog, did I give you ten guennies to use me 
so inhumanly ? " ' He attributed the bun- 
gling of the execution (described by Evelyn 
as done in a 'butcherly fashion') to the fact 

that Lord Russell ' did not dispose himself 
for receiving the fatal stroke in such a posi- 
tion as was most ratable,' and that he moved 
his body, while he himself ' receaVd some in- 
terruption just as he was taking Aim.' Ketch 
successfully struck for higher wages in 1682 — 
action to which allusion is made in D'Urfey's 
popular < Butler's Ghost ' (1682). In the ' Sup- 
plement to the last Will and Testament of 
Anthony, Earl of Shaftesbury ' (1683, foL 
p. 3), Ketch is referred to under the name of 
Catch as a person of established reputation, 
and in the epilogue to Dryden's 'Duke of 
Guise ' he is termed an ' excellent physician.' 
From the fact that the manor of Tyburn, 
' where felons are now and for time out of 
mind have been executed,' was leased for a 
considerable time during the seventeenth 
century to the family of Jacquet, Arthur 
Collins, in his ' Memorials of the Sidneys,' 
assumes that the ' name of the executioner 
has corruptly been called Jack Ketch.' But 
this, which was written in 1746, can hardly 
be regarded as more than an ingenious theory 
(Collins, i. 86). 

At Monmouth's execution, 15 July 1685, 
Ketch played a prominent part. Monmouth, 
in his address to him on the scaffold, alluded 
to his treatment of Russell, and this appears 
to have totally unnerved him. After three 
ineffectual blows he threw down the axe with 
the words, * I can't do it,' and was only in- 
duced to complete his task by the threats of 
the sheriffs. Sir John Bramston (Autobiog. 

S. 192) and others confirm the fact that Ketch 
ealt at least five strokes, and even then, ac- 
cording to Macaulay, he had recourse to a 
knife to completely sever the head from the 
trunk (Macattlay, Hist ; Somers Tracts, x. 
264-5). In January 1686 Ketch, for affront- 
ing the sheriff, was turned out of his place 
and committed to Bridewell, one Pascha 
Rose, a butcher, taking his place. But on 
28 May following Rose himself was hanged 
at Tyburn and Ketch was reinstated. 

His behaviour at the executions of Russell 
and Monmouth, combined with the prominent 
position he occupied in carrying out the bar- 
barous sentences passed on Titus Oates and 
his fellows (cf. Thomson, Loyal Poems, 1685, 
p. 291), greatly increased Ketch's notoriety. 
This was perpetuated bv the natural applica- 
tion of his name to the executioner, who 
regularly figured in the puppet-show drama 
of * Punchinello,' introduced into England 
just about this time from Italy, and popu- 
larised by Robert Powell [q. v.] and others 
during the reign of Anne. A letter ' From 
Charon to the Most Illustrious and High 
Born Jack Ketch, Esqre.,' in Tom Brown's 
1 Letters from the Dead to the Living ' (1702, 




p v 48), shows that the office of executioner 
was very soon specially identified with his 
name. That Ketch deserved his reputation 
for excessive and inhuman barbarity is ren- 
dered veryprobable by a letter from Dr. 
Hutton to Thomas Comber, D.D. [q. v.], dean 
of Durham, dated 4 Dec 1686, in which it is 
said 'Mr. [Samuel! Johnson [1649-1703, q. v.l 
was whipped on Wednesday, but civilly used 
by the new hangman, Jack Ketch being buried 
two days before/ It appears, therefore, that 
Ketch died towards the close of November 

A fictitious 'Autobiography* of Ketch, 
with illustrations from designs by Meadows, 
was published in 1836, and a ' Life of Jack 
Ketch with Cuts of his own Execution ' was 
among the humorous titles furnished by Tom 
Hood for the Duke of Devonshire's library at 

[LuttrelTs Diary, i. 271, 353; Notes and 
Queries, 1st ser. xii. 293, 2nd ser. xi. 151, 256, 
314, 447, 5th ser. xi. 349, 510; Butler's Hudi- 
bras, ed.Zach. Grey, ii. 341 ; Evelyn's Diary, ii. 
182; Burnet's Own Time, i. 646; Macaulay's 
History, chap. v. p. 306 (popular ed.) ; Wheatley 
and Cunningham's London, iii. 418; Hone's 
Table Book, p. 695 ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; authorities 
quoted in text. Fegge, in Curialia Miscellanea, 
argues that Ketch's real name was Catch ; and 
Gent in his Canting Diet, calls him Kitch.l 


KETEL, CORNELIS H548-1616), por- 
trait-painter, born at Gouaa in Holland on 
18 March 1648, was the illegitimate son of 
Govert Jansz van Proven, and of Elizabeth, 
daughter of Jacob Ketel. His fathers daugh- 
ter was married to Wouter Pietersz Cra- 
beth, the famous glass-painter at Gouda. 
Ketel showed an early aptitude for painting, 
and was instructed in the art, especially in 
glass-painting, by his uncle, Cornells Jacobsz 
Ketel, at Gouda. There his work attracted 
the notice of the glass-painter Dirk Crabeth, 
brother of Wouter Pietersz Crabeth. In 
1566 Ketel went to Delft to study under 
Anthonie Blocklandt, and thence in 1566 to 
France, where he was associated with other 
young artists from the Netherlands on work 
at Fontainebleau. He resided for some time 
at Paris with the court glass-painter, Jean de 
la Hamee. In 1568 he returned to Gouda, to 
avoid the religious wars in France, and prac- 
tised there for six years. In 1573 he came 
to England, and worked in London for eight 
years. He lodged with a statuary, who was 
a friend of his uncle, and received commis- 
sions from the Hanse merchants at the Steel- 
yard. It is stated that a merchant friend pre- 
sented to Sir Christopher Hatton [q. v.l an 
allegorical painting by him of * Force Van- 

quished by Wisdom/ and that he thus ob- 
tained an introduction to court circles. He 
undoubtedly soon obtained a high reputation 
among the English nobility as a portrait- 
painter. He painted Hatton at full length 
more than once ; examples of the portrait are 
in the collections both of the Earl of Win- 
chilsea (Tudor Exhibition, 1890, No. 345) 
and of Viscount Dillon at Ditchley Park, 
Oxfordshire. He also painted, among others,. 
Henry Fitzalan, earl of Arundel (one is in 
the collection of the Duke of Norfolk at 
Arundel Castle (Tudor Exhibition, 1890, No. 
211), and another in that of the Marquis 
of Bath at Lonrieat, Wiltshire); Edward 
Clinton, first earl of Lincoln (in the collec- 
tion of the Duke of Bedford at Woburn 
Abbey) ; James Hamilton, second earl of" 
Arran (in the collection of the Duke of" 
Hamilton at Hamilton Palace); Edward 
Vere, earl of Oxford ; Sir James Gresham 
(1579) (in the collection of G. W. Leveson- 
Gower at Titsey) ; and Sir George Penrud- 
docke (Tudor Exhibition, 1890, No. 222). In 
1577 Ketel was employed to paint for Queen 
Elizabeth and the Cathay Company portraits 
of Sir Martin Frobisher fa. v.] and the Esqui- 
maux brought back by him to England from 
Greenland ; as well as of Frobisher s ship, the 
Gabriel. The Portrait of Frobisher is now in 
the Bodleian Library at Oxford (Tudor Exhi- 
bition, 1890, No. 827). In 1578 the Duchess- 
of Somerset received Elizabeth in state at 
Hanworth, Middlesex, and her son, the Earl 
of Hertford, employed Ketel to paint a por- 
trait of the queen to celebrate the occasion* 
Ketel returned to Holland in 1581, having 
married in England Aeltgen (Adelaide) Ger- 
rits,by whom he had a son, Raphael, baptised 
at Amsterdam on 16 Nov. 1581. 

Ketel now settled at Amsterdam, where he 
quickly became the leading portrait-painter. 
He was especially patronised; by the guilds of 
marksmen, for whom he painted some large 
groups of portraits, and was the forerunner in 
this fine of Frans Hals and Van der Heist. Two 
of these portrait-groups are now in the Ryks- 
museum at Amsterdam, one, painted in 1588, 
showing a group under the corporalship of 
Dirk Rosencrans ; the other was painted in 
1596. Four similar pictures in the same 
museum are attributed to Ketel, and por- 
traits of Jacob Bas, burgomaster of Amster- 
dam, in 1581, and of Gnetje Codde, his wife, 
painted in 1586, are in the same collection^ 
Four portraits by Ketel are in the collec- 
tion of Mr. Hugo Gevers at the Hague. 
Carel van Mander, the intimate friend and 
biographer of Ketel, who wrote while KeteL 
was still living, gives a list of the principal 
works executed by Ketel in Amsterdam, in- 

Ketel 73 


eluding his allegorical and poetical produc- 
tions. From him we learn that Ketel in 
his later years took to modelling- in wax, 
painting entirely with his fingers instead of 
brushes, and finally in 1600 painting with 
his feet alone. Ketel died at Amsterdam in 
1616, and was buried on 8 Aug. in the old 
church there. In a will dated 16 March 
1610, to which he added numerous codicils, 
he mentions his wife, Aeltgen Jans, appa- 
rently his second wife, and a son Andnes, 
who died young. 

Ketel frequently painted his own por- 
trait : one, at Hampton Court, was engraved 
by H. Bary. Two allegorical pictures by 
him, 'The Triumph of Virtue^ and 'The 
Triumph of Vice,' painted for an Amsterdam 
merchant, were subsequently in the collec- 
tion of the Duke of Buckingham. Ketel was 
one of the most remarkable portrait-painters 
of his time, and such works of his as have 
survived are of the highest interest. Pieter 
Isaacsz, the famous painter in Denmark, was 
his pupil. 

[Carol van Mander's Livre des Peintres, ed. 
Hymans, 1885 ; Bredius'sMeisterwerke des Ry ke- 
rn useums zu Amsterdam ; Bredius's Catalogue of 
the Ryksmuseum; Taurers L'Art Chretien en 
Hollande, ii. 176 ; Ond Holland, iii. 74 ; Obreen's 
Archief voor Ned e Hand sche Kunstgesehiedenis, 
iii. 62, &c. ; Vertue's MSS. (Brit. Mus. Add. 
MS. 23068) ; Scharf s Catalogue of Pictures at 
Woburn Abbey ; Law's Catalogue of the Pic- 
tures at Hampton Court ; Tudor Exhibition Cata- 
logue.] L. C. 

1160), hagiographer, was a canon of Bever- 
ley. He wrote a narrative 'De Miraculis 
Sancti Joannis Beverlacensis/ wherein he 
says that he had only entered things of which 
he had personal knowledge or which he had 
learnt from others worthy of credit. Almost 
all that he relates took place during the reign 
of William I (1066-87). Ketel dedicated his 
work, according to the version in the ' Acta 
Sanctorum/ to Thurstin, prior of Beverley in 
1 101, or, according to Leland, to Thomas, prior 
of Beverley. One Thomas was prior in 1092 
and another in 1108. But Mr.Kaine points 
out that the treatise contains quotations from 
Aelred of Beverley, whose chronicle was 
written about 1150, and that there was a 
prior Thurstin who died in 1153 or 1154. 
Tanner is clearly mistaken in giving Ketel 
the date 1320. The editors of the « Histoire 
Litteraire ' consider that Ketel (or Kecel as 
they spell it) was a Norman or French name ; 
Leland suggests that it is a corruption of 

The 'De Miraculis ' is given in the ' Acta 
Sanctorum/ 7 May, 172-9, 3rd edit; in 

the original edition it was printed from a* 
transcript supplied by LeanderPritchard ; in 
the last edition this version is collated with 
a copy in Cotton. MS. Faustina B. iv. ff. 164 b- 
178 a. It is also printed by Mr. Kaine in 
1 Historians of the Church of York and its 
Archbishops/ i. 261-91 (Rolls Ser.) Ketel's 
style is pious and diffuse, and his work is of 
little interest ; he is named as the author by 
a continuator of slightly later date. Bale 
ascribes to him two other treatises, 'De Rebus 
Beverlacensis Ecclesiae ' and ' Vita S. Joannis 
Beverlacensis j ' but his statement is not 

[Leland 's Comment, de Scriptt. p. 1 75 ; Bale, v. 
5 ; Pits, p. 411 ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. p. 176;. 
Hist Litt. de la France, viii. 317-18; Hardy's 
Descript. Cat. Brit. Hist. iii. 369 ; Bollandists' 
Acta Sanct. 7 May, 172-9, and App. ; Raine's 
Historians of the Church of York and its Arch- 
bishops, i. p. liv.] C. L. K. 

KETHE, WILLIAM to 1608?), pro- 
testant divine, is generally believed to have 
been a native of Scotland. He was one of 
thecongjregation of protestant exiles at Frank- 
fort during the Marian persecution in Decem- 
ber 1554 (Brieff Discours, p. 26). During 
the ritualistic controversies among the exiles 
in November 1556. Kethe, with William 
WTiittingham [q. v. J and others, removed ta 
Geneva (tb.) Here he was frequently em- 
ployed by the English congregation as a dele- 
gate to the exiles m other parts of the country > 
and when Mary died (1558) was sent to visit 
and confer with various bodies of refugees, 
for the purpose of bringing about recon- 
ciliation and unity of action. He seems 
to have remained at Geneva till 1561 (cf. 
i£.p. 187; Livingston, p. 66). He returned 
to England in that year, and was at once 
instituted to the rectory of Okeford Superior, 
in the parish of Child Okeford, Dorset. Ha 
accompanied Ambrose Dudley, earl of War- 
wick [q. v.], on the expedition to Havre in 
1563, as ' minister and preacher ' of the Eng- 
lish army, and in 1569 went to the * north 
partes* as one of the preachers to the troops 
which were engaged in subduing the popish 
rebels. His sermon (on John xv. 22) * made 
at Blandford Forum ... at the session holden 
there . . . 1571/ was published by John Daye 
in 1572 (8vo), with a dedication to the Earl 
of Warwick. A successor was appointed at 
Okeford Superior in 1608, which may be as- 
sumed to be the date of Kethe's death. 

Kethe is now remembered chiefly for his 
metrical psalms, especially for his version of 
the 100th psalm, * All people that on earth 
do dwell.' The latter was m some carelessly 
revised early psalters ascribed to Hopkins 
(Warton attributes it to Whittingham), but 

Kethe 74 

the earliest published versions are signed 
with Kethe's initials, and all the later and 
best authorities agree in assigning it to him. 
Kethe wrote in all twenty-five metrical 
psalms ; these were first printed in the Eng- 
lish Psalter issued at Geneva in 1561, and 
were subsequently transferred to the com- 
plete Scottish Psalter (1564), ten only being 
adopted in the English Psalter (1562). A 
rendering by Kethe of the 94th psalm was 
published in 1558, attached to a tract called 
4 The Appellation of John Knox.' Kethe's 
100th psalm appeared in the appendix of 
the first complete English metrical Psalter 
(1562), but was admitted into the text of the 
edition of 1565. Warton describes Kethe as 
1 no unready rhymer ; ' and if regard be had 
to the different elements of varietv, fidelity, 
energy, and elegance, he is entitled to a high 
place among the psalter versifiers. His ' long ' 
and * peculiar ' metres are superior to most of 
his day. 

Besides his psalms he wrote some popular 
religious ballads; the most noted was 'A 
Ballet, declaringe the fal of the Whore of 
Baby lone, inty tided Tye thy Mare, Tom-boye, 
with other; and therunto annexid a Prologue 
to the Reders.' A copy of this very rare 
tract, consisting of sixteen leaves in black 
letter, belonged to Heber. The * Ballet ' ends 
4 Finis, quod William Kythe/ and a con- 
cluding ' exhortation to the papists/ ' Finis, 
quod Wyllyam Kith.' Another of Kethe's 
Droadside poems bore the title ' Of Misrules 
contending with Gods Worde by name. . . . 
Quod Wyflym Kethe ' (London, by Hugh Sin- 
gleton, n.d.), twenty-two four-line stanzas. 
While with the exiles he acted as one of the 
translators of the Geneva Bible. He also pro- 
duced * William Kethe, his seeing Glasse, sent 
to the nobles and gentlemen of England, 
whereunto is added the Praier of Daniel in 
meeter ' (Mattnsell's Cat.) ; and contributed 
an English poem to Christopher Goodman's 
4 How Superior Powers oght to be obeyed of 
their Subjects ' (Geneva, 1558). 

[Brieff Discours of the Troubles begoune at 
Franckford, &c, 1575; Notes and Queries, 4th 
cer. ix. 59, 170 ; Warton'sHist. of English Poetry ; 
Heber's Cat. ed. Collier ; Hutchins's Dorset, iv. 
84 ; Strype's Annals; Holland's Psalmists of Great 
Britain, 1843; Notices regarding the Metrical 
Versions of the Psalms in Baillie's Letters and 
Journals, edited by Laing, iii. 527 (Bannatyne 
Club), 1841-2; Dissertation prefixed to Living- 
stone's reprint of 1635 Scottish Psalter (Glasgow, 
1864) ; Julian's Diet of Hymnology ; Ames's 
Typogr. Antiq. ed. Herbert.] J. C. H. 

KBTT or KET, FRANCIS (A 1589), 
clergyman, executed for heresy, son of Wil- 
liam Kett, and grandson of Robert Kett 


fq. v.], was probably born at Wymondham, 
Norfolk. He was admitted of Corpus Christi 
College, Cambridge, proceeded B. A. 1569, and 
M. A. 1573 ; and was elected fellow in the same 
year. On 27 Dec. 1575 he joined in a letter 
of thanks to Burghley, as chancellor, for a 
settlement of college disputes. In 1580 he 
resigned his fellowship and left the university, 
probably for some preferment. Though de- 
scribed as of Wymondham, he does not ap- 
pear to have been vicar of that parish. He 
has been identified with the ' Francis Kett, 
doctor of phisick/ who published 'The 
Glorious and Beautiful Garland of Man's 
Glorification ' (prose) in 1585, with a dedi- 
cation to Queen Elizabeth. In 1588 Edmund 
Scam bier, bishop of Norwich, summoned him 
1 to his court, and condemned him on charges 
of heresy. Scambler in a letter (7 Oct. 1588) 
to Burghley, as lord high treasurer, urged his 
' speedy execution/ as a ' dangerous ' person, 
of ' blasphemous opinions/ The ' Articles 
| of Heretical Pravity objected by ' Scambler 
I against Kett (in Lansd. MS. 982, f. 162), 
and the ' Blasphemous Heresyes of one Kett ' 
(Record Office, cexvii. f. 11), are both printed 
( in Storojenko's ' Life of Greene/ and ade- 
1 quately dispose of the allegation, sometimes 
' brought against Kett, that he indoctrinated 
Greene and Marlowe in atheism. William 
Burton (d. 1616) [a . v.], who classes him with 
Arians, correctly describes him as a sort of 
millenarian, holding that ' Christ wyth his 
Apostles are nowe personally in Iudea gather- 
ing of his church/ and that the faithful must 
1 goe to Ierusalem/ there to be * fed with 
Angelles foode/ Underlying this theory was 
a view of Christ as ' not God, but a good man/ 
who ' suffered once for his owne sinnes ' and is 
to 'suffer againe for the sinnes of the world/ 
and * be made God after his second resurrecti©.' 
It seems probable that Kett was a mystic of 
the type of Johann Schemer (1624-1677). 
Strype thinks he may have belonged to the 
' family of love/ Burton notes ' how holy he 
would seemeto bee . . . the sacred Bible almost 
neuer out of his handes, himselfe alwayes in 

Srayer/ He was burned alive in the castle 
itch at Norwich on 14 Jan. 1589. Burton, 
who witnessed the execution, and deemed 
Kett ' a deuill incarnate/ says that ' when he 
went to the fire he was clothed in sackecloth, 
he went leaping and dauncing : being in the 
fire, aboue twenty times together, clapping 
his hands, he cried nothing but blessed bee 
God . . . and so continued vntill the fire had 
consumed all his neather partes, and vntill 
he was stifled with the smoke.' The pre- 
sentation of his surname as 'Knight* arises 
from a mere blunder. Ket having been read 
Kt. 8 




[Burton's Dauid's Euidence, 1596, pp. 124 
sq.; Blomefield's Norfolk, 1805 ii. 508, 1806 
iii. 293 sq. ; Strype's Annals, 1824, toL iii. pt. 
ii. p. 78 ; Wallace's Antitrinitarian Biog. 1860, 
i. 38 sq. ; Heywood and Wright's Cambridge 
University Transactions, 1864, i. 190 sq. ; Gabriel 
Harvey's Works, ed. Grosart ; Cooper's Athen© 
Cantabr. 1861, ii. 38, 543 ; Storojenko's Life of 
Greene, in Greene's Works, ed. Grosart, i. 42-5, 
and App. pp. 259-61.] A. G. 

KETT, HENRY (1761-1825), miscel- 
laneous writer, son of Benjamin and Mary 
Kett, was born in the parish of St. Peters 
Mancroft, Norwich, 12 Feb. 1761. His father 
was a cordwainer and freeman of Norwich, 
and he himself was admitted to the freedom of 
the city on 28 Aug. 1784. He was educated 
at Norwich grammar school by the Eev. Wil- 
liam Lemon, and matriculated as commoner 
inf. ord. of Trinity College, Oxford, on 
18 March 1777, graduating B.A. 1780, M. A. 
1788, B.D. 1793. He was elected Blount 
exhibitioner 26 May 1777, scholar 15 June 
1778, and fellow 5 June 1784, retaining his 
fellowship until 1824. His name occurs as 
the tutor of various undergraduates from 
1784 to 1809, but the period during which he 
acted as college tutor probably ranged from 
1799 to 1808. In 1789 Kett, who was fond 
of travel, visited France, to observe the first 
ferment of the revolution. He was Bamp- 
ton lecturer in 1790, and in the same year 
was chiefly instrumental in raising a sub- 
scription for the venerable scholar, Dr. John 
Uri [q. v.], when the latter was discharged 
by the delegates of the Clarendon Press from 
his position as cataloguer of the Oriental 
MSS. in the Bodleian. He was select 

Treacher 1801-2, and classical examiner 
urinff 1803-4. On 31 Oct. 1793 he unsuc- 
cessfully contested the professorship of poetry 
at Oxford against James Hurdis [q. v.] In 
1802 he canvassed again for the same post, 
but refrained from going to the poll. On 
the first occasion he published, as his cre- 
dentials for the professorship, a volume of 
1 Juvenile Poems, most of which had ap- 
peared in the ' Gentleman's Magazine/ but 
he afterwards endeavoured to suppress it as 
beneath the proper dignity of poetry. On 
these productions Tom Warton composed 
the epigram in allusion to their author's 
large nose : — 

Our Kett not a poet, 

Why how can you say so ? 
For if he's no Ovid, 
I'm sure he's a Naso. 

The length of Kett's face also led the wits to 
nickname him ' Horse ' Kett, and Copleston 
incurred much censure by reprinting, on the 
title-page of his pamphlet against him, the 

lines of Virgil ending with ' equo ne credite 
Teucri.' His person lent itself to caricature, 
and in June 1807 he was depicted by Digh- 
ton in ' A View from Trinity ' as a tall man, 
with his hands behind his back. In his 
younger days Kett was conspicuous for gra- 
vity, but he afterwards became a beau, learnt 
dancing, and sought a reputation for gallan- 
try. He rejected many college livings, and 
twice missed the college headship. Through 
the kindness of Dr. Chapman, the president 
of his college, he held the incumbency of 
Elsfield, near Oxford, from 22 May 1785 to 
28 June 1804 ; from July 1812 to 1820 he 
was vicar of Sutton Benger, Wiltshire, and 
in 1814 he was nominated by Bishop Tom- 
line as perpetual curate of Hykeham in Lin- 
colnshire. He was also king's preacher at 
Whitehall ; but these appointments did not 
compel him to leave Oxford, and he resided 
in college until his marriage at Charlton 
Kings, Gloucestershire, in December 1823, 
to Miss White. Kett was independent in 
principle, but of extreme vanity, and subject 
to fits of depression. His mind became un- 
hinged, and he was found drowned at Stan- 
well, Middlesex, on 30 June 1825. His 
widow married at St. James's, Piccadilly, 
on 28 Nov. 1828, the Rev. Thomas NichoIL 
Kett gjave to his college, in addition to large 
subscriptions to various buildings and some 
plate, portraits of William Pope, earl of 
Downe, and the first earl of Chatnam. The 
bulk of his fortune, about 25,000/., was left 
after his widow's death to three public chari- 
ties, one being the Radcliffe Infirmary at Ox- 

Kett was the author of : 1. ' Bampton Ser- 
mons,' 1791, consisting of ' A Representation 
of the Conduct and Opinions of the Primitive 
Christians, with Remarks on Gibbon and 
Priestley;' 2nd edit., with corrections and 
additions, 1792. It has been suggested that 
Parr assisted him in this work. 2. * Juve- 
nile Poems/ 1793. 3. * History the Inter- 
preter of Prophecy,' 1799, 3 vols. ; and nume- 
rous editions in later years. It was dedicated 
to Bishop Pretyman, afterwards known as 
Tomline, to whom Kett on his death left the 
copyright. 4. ' Elements of General Know- 
ledge/ 1802, 2 vols., forming the substance 
of a course of lectures which he had read to 
his pupils during the previous twelve years. 
The appendix of fifty-two pages contained a 
list ol oooks, in the classical part of which 
Porson was consulted. There were numerous 
editions of this work, the eighth appearing in 
1815. Some of its blunders were pointed out 
by John Davison [a. v.] in * A Short Account 
of certain Notable Discoveries contained in a 
Recent Work/ pt. i. 1803 [by Phileleutheros 




Orielensisl pt. ii. 1804. It was defended, pro- 
bably by Kett himself in the disguise of* S. 
Nobody, of King's College, Oxford, 1 in 'The 
Biter Bit, or Discoveries Discovered ina Pam- 
phlet of certain Notable Discoveries/ 1804 ; 
and by Frederick Nolan of Exeter College, in 
'A Letter to Phileleutheros Orielensis,' 1804, 
upholding the view that Kett's errors were 
due to carelessness rather than ignorance, and 
had been unduly magnified (see Gent . Mag. 
1805, pp. 41-5). 5. ' Emily, a moral Tale/ 
2nd edit. 1809. 6. ' A Tour to the Lakes of 
Cumberland and Westmoreland in August 
1798/ This was published in Mavor's ' British 
Tourists' Companion/ v. 117-57. 7. ' Loffic 
made Easy, or a short View of the Aristotelic 
System of Reasoning/ 1809. A very severe 
attack on it was made in ' The Examiner 
Examined, or Logic Vindicated. By a Gra- 
duate ' [i.e. Bishop Copleston], 1809, and it 
was afterwards rigidly suppressed by Kett. 
8. ' The Flowers of Wit, or a Choice Col- 
lection of Bon Mots/ 1814, 2 vols. 

Kett contributed five papers (4, 22, 27, 39, 
and 42, all signed ' Q/) to the < Olla Podrida ' 
of Thomas Monro. His life of William Ben- 
well [q.vj was appended to a volume of 
'Poems, Odes, Prologues, and Epilogues 
spoken at Reading School/ 1804, np. 205-23; 
and his memoir of Henry Headley [q. v.], 
with some verses on Headley's death, was 
inserted in the ' Select Beauties of Ancient 
English; Poetry ' (1810 edit., pp. xx-ii). 
To ShoberFs translation of Chateaubriand's 
' Beauties of Christianity ' he supplied a pre- 
face and notes. His translations of Jortin's 
poems were reprinted in Jortin's miscella- 
neous works; numerous pieces by him ap- 
peared in the ' Gentleman's Magazine/ and 
several letters to and from him are in John- 
stone's ' Parr/ i. 328-31, vii. 577-93, viii. 
212-15; and in T. F. Dibdin's 'Remi- 
niscences/ ii. 791-2. He left many manu- 
scripts, including an edition of Greek pro- 
verbs by Lubinus, with English translation 
and notes, on which he was long engaged. 

[Gent. Mag. 1812 pt. ii. p. 81, 1825 pt. ii. pp. 
184-5, 1828 pt. ii. p. 558 ; Notes and Queries, 4th 
ser. ix. 380, 448, 617 (1872) ; Annual Biog. 1826, 
pp. 15-25; Johnstone's Parr, i. 282, vii. 653; 
G. V. Cox's Recollections of Oxford, p. 16; 
information from the Rev. William Hudson of 
Norwich, and from Trinity College, per the Rev. 
H. E. D. Blakiston.] W. P. C. 

KETT, ROBERT (d. 1649), rebel, was a 
member of an old Norman family, whose name 
passed through the forms of Le Chat,Cat,Kett, 
Ket, and Knight. A branch of this family 
settled at Wymondham, Norfolk, and held 
lands there in 1483. In 1549 Robert Kett is 
called a tanner, and his brother William a 

butcher or mercer; but both were landowners 
and men of some position in the neighbour- 
hood. Robert held the manor of W vmondham 
from John Dudley, earl of Warwick, and other 
lands as well. He belonged to the class of 
landlords, and only through accident took 
the side of the people. This accident arose 
from a local quarrel. The parish church of 
Wymondham was joined to the priory church, 
and after the dissolution of the monasteries 
the men of Wymondham in 1639 bought 
from the crown the choir of the priory 
church and other parts of the monastic build- 
ings. In spite of this the tenant of the 
royal grantee, Serjeant Flowerden, who lived 
at Hathersett in the neighbourhood, stripped 
the lead from the roofs and carried away the 
bells (Blomemeld, Hist of Norfolk, i. 733- 
734). The Ketts, as the chief people in the 
town, resented this, and a feud grew up in 
consequence. There were many hardships- 
arising from the harsh conduct of the new 
landlords, especially in the enclosure of com- 
mon lands ; and on 20 June 1549 there was- 
a riot at Attleborough, and fences were torn 
down. On 7 July an annual festival, with a 

Elay in honour of St. Thomas of Canter- 
ury, was held at Wymondham. The gather- 
ing of excited rustics ended in the destruc- 
tion of more fences, among them some erected 
by Flowerden at Hathersett. Flowerden 
gave the rioters money to pull down Kett's 
fences as well ; and Kett, in his anger at 
this treatment, helped them to level his own 
fences, and then led them back to make a 
clean sweep of Flowerden's. In this Kett 
was helped by his brother William, and the- 
riot became important when it was headed 
by two men of position. The excitement of 
leadership awakened in Kett's mind a sym- 
pathy with popular aims. He led the rioters 
to dringleford, and thence to Bowthorpe, 
where the sheriff, Sir Edmund Windham, 
boldly ordered them to disperse. He was 
assailed, and fled to Norwich, where the 
rioters followed and pulled down the fences 
of the Town Close. The mayor of Norwich 
sent off a messenger to London, and tried 
meanwhile to save the city. Kett occupied 
Mousehold Heath as a camp, and his fol- 
lowers soon reached the number of sixteen 
thousand men, who scoured the country for 
provisions and blockaded the city. Yet Kett 
maintained order. He established law courts, 
which sat under an oak-tree; there were 
chaplains,who said daily prayers and preached 
to the people ; among others Matthew Parker, 
afterwards archbishop of Canterbury, ven- 
tured into the camp and addressed the rioters. 
A petition of grievances was drawn up and 
signed by twenty-two delegates of the hun- 




<dreds of Norfolk and one of Suffolk. The 
•demands were singularly moderate, and 
aimed at redressing the hardships of the 
feudal system by diminishing the power of 
lords of manors as regards enclosures, out- 
goings which were unjustly thrown upon 
tenants, restrictions of rights of fishing, 
keeping of dovecots, and such like. The 
only general principle laid down is, 'We 
pray that all bondmen may be made free ; 
tor God made all free with his Drecious 
bloodshedding.' There is no ground tor find- 
ing in this rising any sympathy with the 
■old form of the church ; clerical residence 
and diligence in teaching are the only de- 
mands of a religious nature. On 21 July 
came a royal herald, offering pardon, whom 
Kett answered, 'Kings were wont to pardon 
wicked persons, not innocent and just men.' 
After being thus treated as a rebel, Kett 
began the siege of Norwich, and William 
Parr, marquis of Northampton, was sent 
with 2,600 men to its succour. Among his 
troops were some Italian mercenaries, who 
were worsted in a skirmish, and on 1 Aug. 
Kett attacked Norwich, slew Lord Sheffield, 
and drove the royal troops out of the city. 
The privy council was in great anxiety, and 
not till 16 Aug. was John Dudley, earl of 
Warwick, named commander against the 
Tebels. On 23 Aug. he reached Norwich, 
and sent a herald offering pardon to all ex- 
cept Kett. While the herald was delivering 
his message one of his escort shot a boy who 
affronted nim, and the herald was almost 
torn to pieces. Kett interposed to save him, 
and for a moment hesitated whether or no 
he should accompany him to Warwick. But 
his followers seized his bridle, and the chances 
of peace were at an end. Warwick forced 
his way into one end of Norwich while the 
Tebels held the other, and there was confused 
fighting in the streets till, on 26 Aug., War- 
wick was reinforced by eleven hundred lanz- 
knechts, and was strong enough to meditate 
an attack on the camp at Household. Moved 
by a local prophecy, which foretold that ' the 
country gnuffes should fill up Dussindale 
with blood/ Kett moved from Mousehold to 
Dussindale below, and there awaited War- 
wick's onslaught. In the open field trained 
soldiers easily prevailed; the lanzknechts 
fired a volley, and charged the centre of the 
rebels, who gave way, and their forces were 
thus cut into, and fled on different sides. 
At least 3,600 men were slain on the field, 
and so fulfilled the prophecy. Kett rode 
away to Swanninffton ; but his horse was 
weary and he could go no further. He was 
taken and brought back to Norwich, whence 
be was sent with three brothers to London. 

Only he and William were brought to trial ; 
they pleaded guilty, and were condemned to 
death as traitors. On 29 Nov. they were 
handed over to the sheriff, and were taken 
back to Norwich, where Robert was executed 
on 7 Dec. 1549, and his body was hanged in 
chains from the top of the castle. William 
was sent to Wymondham, and was similarly 
hanged from the church tower. 

[Russell, Kett's Rebellion in Norfolk, has col- 
lected most of the documents relating to the 
rising. There are two contemporary accounts, 
Neville's De Fnroribus Norfolcensium, first pub- 
lished 1575, and Southerton's The Commoyson 
in Norfolk (Harl. MSS.), 1576. Besides these: 
Hayward's Reign of Edward VI ; Holinshed's 
Chronicle; Strype's Ecclesiastical Memorials 
and Life of Parker ; Blomefield's Hist, of Nor- 
folk, ii. 160, &c. Of modern writers: Fronde's 
Hist, of England ; Dixon's Hist, of the Church 
of England; Rye's Popular Hist, of Norfolk.] 

M. C. 

KETTELL, RALPH (1563-1643), third 
president of Trinity College, Oxford, born 
in 1563, was the third son of John Kettell, 
gentleman, of King's Langley, Hertfordshire. 
He was nominated to a scholarship at Trinity 
College, Oxford, in 1579 by Lady Elizabeth 
Paulet of Tittenhanger, the widow of Sir 
Thomas Pope, knt., founder of the college ; 
and was elected fellow in 1583. One of his 
contemporaries and friends was Sir Edward 
Hoby [q. v.] The Christopher Kettell who 
became a commoner of the college in 1583, and 
the George Kettell who became a commoner 
in 1588, were Ralph's younger brothers, and 
John Kettell of King's Langley, whose family 
bible is in the college library, was his elder 
brother (King's Langley reg. ) Ralph Kett ell 
graduated B.A. 1582, M.A. 1586, B.D. 1594, 
andD.D. 1597, and, after filling various col- 
lege offices, was elected president in 1598-9, 
on the death of Dr. Yeldard. Among those 
who as young men were under his care while 
he was either tutor or president were Arch- 
bishop Sheldon, Bishops Glemham, Lucy, 
Ironside, and Skinner, Sir John Denham, 
James Harrington, Ludlow, Ireton, George 
and Cecil Calvert, Lord Baltimore, William, 
earl of Craven, and Sir Henry Blount. Many 
documents drawn up in his very curious and 
marked handwriting remain in the college 
archives. He exercised great vigilance in 
dealing with the college estates and college 
discipline, rebuilt the college hall, and added 
attics or ' cocklofts ' to the old Durham Col- 
lege quadrangle, of which the east side still 
remains. About 1620 he built for the use 
of commoners, on the site of ' Perilous Hall,' 
the fine stone house in Broad Street which 
is still known as Kettell Hall. 




Kettell was one of the older heads of 
houses who, without being inclined to the 
' factious in religion/ disliked Laud's high- 
handed reforms. He was a c right church 
of England man;' saved the old paintings in 
the college chapel from the puritan commis- 
sioner. Lord Say and Sele ; lectured on the 
Thirty-nine Articles, and talked of roodlofbs, 
wafers, and the old rites which he could just 
remember. Outside Oxford Kettell held the 
rectory of Garsington, which was attached 
to his office of president, and was private 
chaplain to Sir Francis Walsingham's widow 
and to Bishop Bilson of Winchester. Aubrey, 
who was admitted a commoner of Trinity in 
1642, and knew Kettell in his old age, nar- 
rates many anecdotes of his eccentricities, 
and quotes specimens of his quaint remarks. 
Aubrey also mentions his secret charity to 
poor scholars, and his contemptuous treat- 
ment of the strange visitors whom the civil 
wars brought to the university. His death, 
in Aubrey's opinion, was hastened by ' the 
dissoluteness of the time/ He died about 
17 July 1643, and was buried at Garsington 
on 5 Aug. 

Kettell's portrait, preserved at Trinity, is 
a mere daub, but agrees fairly with Aubrey's 
description of him as 'a very tall well-grown 
man, with a fresh ruddy complexion; he was 
soon white; his gowne, and surplice, and 
hood being on, he had a terrible gigantique 
aspect, with his sharp gray eies. The ordi- 
nary gowne he wore was a russet cloath.' 

He does not seem to have published any- 
thing. A large book of manuscript pieces in 
his handwriting, given by President Bathurst 
to Wood (now Bodleian Library MSS. Wood, 
f. 21), probably contains nothing original. 

Aubrey states that ' he had two wives, if 
not three, but no child,' and that his second 
wife was the widow of Edward Villiers of 
Hothorpe, Northamptonshire, whose daugh- 
ter Elizabeth married George Bathurst, and 
was the mother of Ralph Bathurst [q. v.], 
president of Trinity College, Oxford; but 
there are probably some inaccuracies here. 
His wife was buried at Garsington in 1622M:, 
and an infant daughter in 1606; one, 'Mrs. 
Barbara Villiers, widow/ was the wife of his 
brother John Kettell. 

[Registers and other documents in the archives 
of Trinity College, Oxford ; notes in War ton's 
Lives of Pope and Bathurst ; Life by John 
Aubrey, printed in Bodleian Letters, ii. 417; 
Pope's Life of Seth Ward; information from 
King's Langley and Garsington parish registers, 
kindly communicated by the Rev, A. B. Stret- 
tell, vicar, and the Rev. David Thomas, rector ; 
Clark's University Register, vol. ii. pts. ii. and 
iii.l H. E. D. B. 

1419), successively bishop of St. Davids, 
Lichfield and Coventry, and Exeter, was 
probably educated at one of the universities, 
since he is described as LL.B., and as a 
licentiate in decretals (Nicolas, Proe. Privy 
Council, iii. 5, 20). From his later career it 
may be conjectured that he became a clerk 
in the royal service, but the first mention of 
him is on 1 Jan. 1402, when he obtained the 
prebend of Brampton at Lincoln. He sub- 
sequently receivea a variety of preferments : 
the prebends of Croperdy, Lincoln, on 14 July 
1402, of Stow Longa, Lincoln, 3 April 1406, 
and of Osbaldwick, York, 20 Jan. 1407. On 
25 March 1406 he was made treasurer of 
Lincoln, but exchanged this post for the 
mastership of St. Mary Magdalen's Hospital, 
Sandown, Surrey, on 14 Nov. following. From 
1410 to 1414 he was archdeacon of Surrey. 
Between 1406 and 1411 he was frequently 
employed on embassies to the French king* 
and the Duke of Burgundy (Fcedera, viii. 
432, 504, 546, 571, 586-6, 599, 636-7, 677, 
694). On 22 May 1413 he was appointed 
king's proctor at tne papal court (ib. ix. 12). 
On 27 April 1414 he was papally provided to 
the see of St. Davids, was consecrated by 
John XXIII at Bologna on 29 April, and 
received possession of the temporalities on 
2 June. But on 13 Oct. he received custody 
of the temporalities of Lichfield and Coventry 
during a vacancy, and on 1 Feb. 1415 was 
translated to that see, the spiritualities being 
restored on 21 June. 

Meanwhile, on 20 Oct. 1414, Ketterich 
was appointed one of the English representa- 
tives at the council of Constance, and was 
apparently present throughout its sittings. 
He took part in the proceedings which at- 
tended the deposition of John XXIH, being 
one of the commissaries for receiving evidence 
against that pontiff. He was also one of those 
appointed to elect the new pope, Martin V r 
11 Nov. 1417 (H. von deb Habdt, iv. 171, 
182, v. 16; Walsingham, Hist. Angl. ii. 
318). In 1416 Ketterich was concerned in a 
variety of negotiations with the Duke of Bur- 
gundy, with Alfonso of Arragon, the princes 
of Germany, the Hanse, and Genoa (Fatdera, 
ix. 374, 410-15). After the death of Robert 
Hallam [q. v.} in September 1417, the Car- 
dinal des Ursins wrote to Henry V recom- 
mending Ketterich as his successor at Salis- 
bury on account of the judgment and learning 
he had shown during the council (ib. ix. 489). 
On the conclusion of the council he accom- 
panied Martin V into Italy at the beginning 
of 1418, and apparently resumed his old 
position at the papal court. In April 1419 
he had authority to take all Normans at 




the court of Home into the king's favour (ib. 
ix. 730). On 20 Nov. of that year he was 
postulated to the see of Exeter. But before 
the translation could be completed he died, 
on 28 Dec. 1419, at Florence, where the papal 
court had been since the previous February. 
In accordance with his will he was buried 
in the church of Santa Oroce, where a marble 
slab still marks his tomb in the centre of the 
nave near the choir. His name is variously 
spelt Catrik, Catryk, Oatterich, or Ketterich ; 
trie first is the form that appears on his tomb, 
and is probably the best. 

[Le Neve's Fasti Eccl. Angl. i. 296, 373, 552, 
ii. 89, 117, 140, 214, iii. 29, 207, ed. Hardy; 
Rymer's Foedera, orig. edit. ; Wharton's Anglia 
Sacra, i. 452; Godwin, De Pwesulibus, pp. 321, 
412, 582, ed. Richardson; H. von der Hardt's 
Concilium Constantiense ; Labbe's Concilia, vol. 
xxvii.] C. L. K. 

(jl. 1324), reputed witch, lived in Kilkenny 
in the fourteenth century. Her relatives were 
wealthy. Robert le Kyteler was a trader with 
Flanders towards the close of the thirteenth 
century. She is frequently referred to in the 
history of the English Pale. According to 
Holinshed she was accused in 1324, by Ri- 
chard de Lederede, bishop of Ossory, with 
two accomplices, Petronilla of Meath and 
Bassilla her daughter, of holding ' nightlie 
conference with a spirit called Robert Artis- 
son, to whome she sacrificed in the high waie 
nine red cocks and nine peacocks' eies/ The 
accused persons abjured and did penance, 
but were afterwards found to have relapsed. 
One of the accomplices was burnt at Kil- 
kenny, and at her death declared that Lady 
Kettle's son was an accomplice. He was im- 
prisoned by the bishop for nine weeks, but 
delivered by Arnold le Powre, seneschal of 
Kilkenny (a relative of Lady Kettle's fourth 
husband). Lady Kettle's son then bribed 
le Powre to imprison the bishop. Lady 
Kettle was again cited to appear at Dublin 
before the Dean of St. Patrick's, but some 
of the nobility supported her, and got her 
over to England, where no more was heard 
of her. In her closet was found a sacra- 
mental wafer, with a print of the devil, and 
some ointment which converted a staff into 
a practicable steed. Wright gives Lady 
Kettle four husbands: 1. William Outlaw 
of Kilkenny, 'banker.' 2. Adam le Blound 
of Callah, whom she married about 1302. 
3. Richard de Valle, whom she married about 
1311 ; and 4. John le Poer or Powre, to 
whom she was married in 1324. She bore a 
son to William Outlaw, also called William. 
A 'Narrative of the Proceedings against 
Dame Alice Kyteler, prosecuted lor sorcery 

in 1324 by Richard de Lederede, bishop of 
Ossory,' in Latin, was edited by Thomas 
Wright for the Camden Society in 1843, from 
Harl. MS. 641, f. 187; a transcript is in 
Sloane MS. 4800. 

[Wright's edit, of the Proceedings; Cal. of 
Carew MSS.,Book of Howth (Rolls Ser.), pp. 147- 
148 ; Chartularies of St. Mary's Abbey, Dublin 
(Rolls Ser.), ii. cxxxiii-v, 362-4 ; Holinshed's 
Chron. of Ireland, p. 69 ; Irish Eccles. Journ. 
(October 1843), ii. 261 , where is another letter by 
James Heathorn Todd, D.D.] B. H. B. 

KETTLE, TILLY (1740P-1786), por- 
trait-painter, born in London about 1740, 
was the son of a house-painter, apparently 
Henry Kettle, sen., who in 1772 was re- 
siding in Silver Street, Wood Street, and 
exhibited at the Society of Arts a cylindrical 
painting. Kettle learnt first from his father, 
then studied in the Duke of Richmond's 
gallery of casts, and later at the academy in 
St. Martin's Lane. He practised as a por- 
trait-painter, and in 1761 exhibited a portrait 
at the Free Society of Artists. In 1762 he 
was employed to repair Streater's painting 
on the ceiling of the theatre at Oxford. In 
1765 he exhibited at the Society of Artists, 
of which he afterwards became a fellow, a 
full-length portrait of Mrs. Yates as ' Man- 
dane,' and a kit-cat portrait of Mrs. Powell, 
wife of the actor, in Turkish dress. In 1767 
he exhibited a portrait of Miss Eliot as ' Juno/ 
and in 1768 'Dead Game/ He continued 
to exhibit portraits and conversation-pieces 
until 1770, when he went to India. He re- 
mained there seven years, and acquired a 
considerable fortune. He sent home many 
pictures for exhibition. One contained full- 
length portraits of Mahomed Ali Caun, nabob 
of Arcot, and his five sons in 1771 ; another 
in 1772 depicted native dancing girls. In 
1775 he exhibited a painting representing 
Sujah Dowlah, vizier of the Mogul Empire, 
and his four sons meeting Sir Robert Barker, 
his two aides-de-camp and interpreter at 
Fyzabad, in order to conclude a treaty with 
the East India Company in 1772. This 
group, painted for Sir Robert Barker [q. v.], 
was afterwards placed at Bushbridge Park, 
near Godalming, Surrey. In 1776 Kettle 
forwarded to the Academy 'The Ceremony 
of a Gentoo woman taking leave of her re- 
lations, and distributing her jewels prior to 
ascending the funeral pile of her deceased 
husband. Kettle returned to England about 
1777, settled in London, and married the 
younger daughter of James Paine, senior 
[q. v.], the architect. In 1779 he exhibited 
a portrait at the Royal Academy, and in 1781, 
with other portraits, ' The Great Moff ul, Shah 
AUum, reviewing the third Brigade of the 




East India Company's Troops at Allahabad' 
(now at Bushbridge Park). In 1782, the 
last year but one that he exhibited, he sent 
* full-length portrait of Admiral Kempen- 
feldt (now at Greenwich Hospital, engraved 
by J. H. Robinson as three-quarters for 
Locker's ' British Admirals *). Kettle built 
ft house for himself in Old Bond Street, 
opposite Burlington Gardens, but fell into 
financial difficulties, became bankrupt, and 
retired to Dublin. In 1786 he started on a 
second visit to India, which he determined 
to reach overland. He was taken ill near 
Aleppo and died there. He left a widow 
und two children. 

Kettle's portraits show great merit in 
colour and drawing, and have been mistaken 
for the work of Sir Joshua Reynolds. He 
often apparently placed his sitter with the 
light on a level with the face. In the Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery there is a portrait of 
Warren Hastings by him, and in the Bodleian 
Library one of Sir William Blackstone. He 
tdso painted for Sir Robert Barker of Bush- 
bridge a large picture of ' The Mother and 
her seven Sons martyred by Antiochus,' 
1 Maccabees chap. vir. Many of his portraits 
were engraved. 

[Edwards's Anecd. of Painters; Redgrave's 
Diet, of Artists; Gent. Mag. 1786, pt. ii. 1091, 
1145; Graves's Diet, of Artists, 1760-1880; 
Catalogues of the Royal Academy, &c. ; informa- 
tion from George Scharf, esq., C.B.] L. C. 

KETTLEWELL, JOHN (1653-1695), 
nonjuror and devotional writer, second son 
of John Kettlewell, a merchant at North 
Allerton, Yorkshire, by his wife, Elizabeth 
Ogle, was born 10 March 1652-3, and was 
educated at North Allerton school under 
Thomas Smelt, a zealous royalist. Among 
other pupils who attained distinction were 
Dean Hickes, William Palliser, archbishop 
of Cashel, Dr. Thomas Burnet of the Charter- 
house, Thomas Rymer, editor of the ' Fcedera,' 
and Dr. Radcliffe. Kettlewell matriculated 
at St. Edmund Hall, Oxford, 11 Nov. 1670, 
and graduated B. A. 20 June 1674. On Rad- 
cliffe s resignation of a fellowship at Lin- 
coln College, Kettlewell was elected in his 
Slace in July 1675, largely through the in- 
uence of Dr. George Hickes Tq. v.], then 
himself a fellow. For about five years he 
Acted as tutor in college, and proceeded M.A, 
3 May 1677, by which time he had, we are 
told, in preparation for his ordination, ' laid 
up a large iund, near one hundred, of ser- 
mons ' of his own composition (L\fe). He 
was ordained deacon by the Bishop of Ox- 
ford in Christ Church Cathedral 10 June 
1677, and priest 24 Feb. following {Rawlinson 
MS. J. 63, Bodl. Libr.) His first book, 'The 

Measures of Christian Obedience/ a summary 
of Christian morals as involved in obedience 
to the laws of the Gospel, was written be- 
tween Christmas 1677 and Easter 1678, but 
was not published until 1681, when, at 
Hickes's suggestion, Kettlewell dedicated it 
to Compton, bishop of London, but this dedi- 
cation he suppressed after Compton had 
appeared in military array on behalf of the 
Prince of Orange at the revolution. The 
reputation which the book secured for him 
lea to his appointment as chaplain to the 
Countess of Bedford, and to his presentation 
by Simon, lord Digby, to the vicarage of 
Coleshill, Warwickshire (December 1682). 
Through the countess he oecame known to 
Lord William Russell, who, despite political 
differences, esteemed him so highly that he 
sent him a message of remembrance from 
the scaffold. At Coleshill Kettlewell was 
exemplary in attention to his pastoral duties, 
and supplied all the poor famines with copies 
of the Bible and the ' Whole Duty of Man.' 
By his influence with the patron he procured 
the restoration to the living of great tithes to 
the value of 100/. His second publication 
resulted from his parochial work; he was in 
the habit of preaching preparation-sermons 
before administering the holy communion 
(which he did eight or nine times in the 
year), and of these he printed a summary in 
1683 under the title of 'An Help and Ex- 
hortation to Worthy Communicating,' dedi- 
cating the book to Lord Digby. He resigned 
his fellowship at Lincoln College on 22 Nov. 
1683, and thenceforward devoted himself en- 
tirely to his parish. Here, in prospect of the 
disturbed times which shortly followed, he 
frequently inculcated passive obedience, and 
shortly after the suppression of Monmouth's 
rebellion preached a sermon ad clerum, which 
was printed after his death in his collected 
works with the title of 'Measures of Chris- 
tian Subjection.' On the death of George 
Downing, archdeacon of Coventry, in 1684, 
Kettlewell made unsuccessful application 
to Archbishop Sancroft for that post and for 
the prebend of Alrewas, which Downing 
held as chancellor of Lichfield ; a copy by 
Bishop Thomas Tanner of his letter, dated 
15 Nov. 1684, is in 'Rawlinson MS. Letters,' 
xxx. 27, in the Bodleian Library. 

In 1685 Kettlewell married, and gave to 
Coleshill Church a service of communion 
plate, which was solemnly consecrated by 
Archbishop Sancroft ; a formal record of the 
act, drawn up at the time, was printed in 
1703 (with the omission of names and date), 
together with the form of service used. As 
a supplement to his first book, that on 
' Christian Obedience,' he published in Fe- 




bruary 1687-8 his 'Practical Believer/ treat- 
ing of doctrines. This book became very 
popular, and passed through many editions. 
During the confusions of the revolution year 
he preached strongly against rebellion upon 
any pretence. He adhered consistently to 
this principle, and was deprived of his vicar* 
age in 1690. No notice of his deprivation is 
found in the parish books. He then removed 
to London, where, or in the neighbourhood 
(for a letter of his of 26 May 1694 is dated 
from Bagshot Park, Bawlinson MS. D. 373, 
f. 100, fiodl.), he quietly spent the short 
remainder of his life, occupied in the com- 
position of devotional books and of a few 
controversial tracts. He wrote from Lon- 
don, on 4 Dec. 1694, a letter to Sir William 
Boothby, on behalf of Dr. William Sheridan, 
the deprived bishop of Kilmore (a copy exists 
in Bodleian MS. ' English Hist.' d. i. 137). 
Shortly before his death he proposed to 
Bishop Ken the establishment oi a fund for 
the relief of the suffering deprived clergy. 
The proposal was adopted, and circulars 
asking for subscriptions were issued. But 
the charitable scheme was regarded by the 
government as a seditious usurpation of au- 
thority, and prosecutions were instituted. 
Kettlewell died at his house in Gray's Inn 
Lane on 12 April 1695, at the age of forty- 
two, and was thus exempted from prosecu- 
tion. His warm friend, Robert Nelson [q. v.], 
has given an account of his last days, which 
was sent to Hickes. He was buried on 1 5 April 
in the church of All Hallows Barking, in 
the same grave in which Laud had been in- 
terred, and is commemorated in a Latin in- 
scription on a marble tablet erected by his 
widow at the east end of the church. Hearne, 
in a pencil-written memorandum preserved 
in a Bodleian MS. (Bawl. D. 800, 144), gives 
an account of Kettlewell's funeral. Ken, 
who officiated for the only time in public 
after his deprivation (cf. Rawlinson MS. 
Letters, Bodl. xvii. 86), 'performed the office 
in his lawn sleeves/ and 'prayed for the 
king— and the queens' (sic), &c. 'There 
were besides Mr. Gascarth, the minister, 
between thirty and forty clergy and as many 
of the laity, some of them of good quality.' 

Kettlewell had married at Whitchurch, 
near Reading, on 4 Oct. 1685, Jane, daugh- 
ter of AnthonyLybb of Hardwick House in 
the parish of Whitchurch. His married life 
was one of great happiness; his wife, by 
whom he had no children, survived him, but 
the date of her death has not been found ; it 
seems, however, to have occurred about or 
before 1719 (Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. i. 
91). His papers were entrusted by his 
widow to Robert Nelson, who published 


some of them. Several charities were esta- 
blished by his means at Coleshill, through 
gifts from Simon, lord Digby, Mrs. Rawlins, 
and himself. He exhibited in his character a 
perfect pattern of <juiet Christian devotion and 
unfailing charity in the midst of heated con- 
troversies. Ken said, in a letter to Nelson, 
' He was certainly as saint-like a man as ever 
I knew.' In Hearne's pencil note quoted 
above, Bishop Henry Gandy (from whom the 
note seems to be den ved) appears to be quoted 
as saying: ' His books show him to be a 
very pious as well as learned person, and 
will outlast any monument his friends can 
bestow upon him. He was, as far as ever I 
could perceive, of a sweet and courteous dis- 
position and very communicative.' His chief 
recreation lay in music ; he was skilled in 
the theory, and performed on the violoncello, 
base-viol, and violin. His portrait was painted 
by Henry Tilson, and engravings by Vander- 
gucht, vertue, and J. Smith are found pre- 
fixed to some of his books. 

KettlewelTs works are: 1. 'Measures of 
Christian Obedience/ 1681; 2nd edit. 1683- 
1684, 3rd 1696, 4th 1700, 6th 1709 (with 
portrait), 6th 1714. 2. 'Help and Exhorta- 
tion to Worthy Communicating,' 1683; eight 
editions up to 1717, the fourth printed at 
Cambridge in 1701. 8. 'A Discourse ex- 
plaining the Nature of Edification/ in a visi- 
tation sermon at Coventry, 1684. 4. 'A 
Funeral Sermon for the Lady Frances Digby/ 
1684. 5. ' The Religious Loyalist ; ' a visi- 
tation sermon at Coleshill, 1686. 6. ' Sermon 
on Occasion of the Death of Simon, Lord 
Digby/ 1686. 7. 'The Practical Believer; 
or the Articles of the Apostles' Creed drawn 
out to form a true Christian's Heart and 
Practice/ two parts [anon., with initials 
J. K], 1688 ; published by William Allen,. 
D.D., fol. 1703; 3rd edit., with a preface by 
Robert Nelson, and additions, 1712-13; trans- 
lated into Welsh by Richard ap Robert, 1768. 
8. * Of Christian Prudence, or Religious Wis- 
dom, not degenerating into Irreligious Crafti- 
ness in Trying Times' [anon., with initials 
J. K.], 1691. 9. ' Christianity, a Doctrine 
of the Cross ; or Passive Obedience under any 
pretended Invasion of Legal Rights and Li- 
berties' [anon/1, 1691 ; 1695, with the author's 
name. 10. ' The Duty of Allegiance settled 
upon its True Grounds ... in Answer to a 
late Book of Dr. Will. Sherlock, entituled 
The Case of the Allegiance due to Sovereign 
Powers ' [anon.], 1691. 11. ' Of Christian 
Communion, to be kept on in the Unity of 
Christ's Church . . . and of the Obligations 
both of faithful Pastors to administer Or- 
thodox and Holy Offices, and of faithful 
People to Communicate in the same/ three 





parts [anon.], 1098 ; reissued in 1695 with 
a general title of 'Four several Tracts of the 
Rev. John Kettlewell/ without specification 
of any others. 12. ' A Companion for the 
Persecuted ; or an Office for those who Suffer 
for Righteousness/ 1694. 13. l A Companion 
for the Penitent and for Persons troubled in 
Mind,' 1694 ; of this Kettlewell sent down 
copies to Coleshill, to the people of which 
parish it was addressed, for distribution ; it 
was reissued in 1696, together with the 
' Companion for the Persecuted ' dated 1693. 
14. ' Death made Comfortable, or the Way 
to Die well/ 1695 ; with an office for the 
sick 1702, and 2nd edit. 1722. 15. 'De- 
claration and Profession made by [him]at the 
receiving of the Holy Sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper, 28 March 1694/ printed, Wood says, 
in a half-sheet in 1695; reprinted in his 
'Life.' 16. 'Five Discourses on so many 
important Points of Practical Religion/ with 
a preface giving some account of his life 
(by Robert Nelson), 1696 ; 2nd edit., with 
four sermons, two parts, 1708. 17. 'An 
Office for Prisoners for Crimes, together with 
another for Prisoners for Debt ' (with a pre- 
face by Robert Nelson), 1697. 18. ' The 
Great Evil and Danger of Profuseness and 
Prodigality ' (published by Nelson), 1705. 
19. 'Works/ 2 vols. fol. 1719, with 'Life' 

Srefixed ; the several tracts have title-pages 
ated 1718. 20. ' The True Church of Eng- 
land Man's Companion ' (a manual of devo- 
tion compiled from his works), 1749. 21. A 
treatise ' of the new oaths' was left by him 
in manuscript, but never printed. 

[Memoirs of (Kettlewell's) Life . . . compiled 
from the collections of Dr. George Hickes and 
Robert Nelson, and edited anonymously by Fran- 
cis Lee of St. John's College, Oxford, and M.D. 
of the university of Padua, 8vo, London, 1718 ; 
"Wood's Athen® Oxon. ; Secretan's Life of Nel- 
son, 1860, pp. 60-62 ; private information from 
the vicar of Coleshill and rector of Whitchurch. 
A letter from Kettlewell to Bishop W. Lloyd, 
the deprived bishop of Norwich, dated 20 Dec. 
1694, upon sending Lloyd a cony of his Com- 
panion for the Penitent, and describing his scheme 
for charitable relief, is printed from the original 
in the possession of the late Dr. D. Williams, 
warden of New College, Oxford, in J. L. Ander- 
don's Life of Sen, 1854, 2nd edit. nt. ii. p. 666. 
Some letters to Colonel James Graham (brother 
of Lord Preston) are among the manuscripts of 
Captain Bagot at Levens Hall, Westmoreland, 
and a letter to Sancroft, dated 15 Oct. 1684, 
among the manuscripts at Stonyhurst College 
(Hist. MSS. Comm. 10th Rep. pt. iv. p. 327, 
3rd Rep. p. 340).] W. D. M. 

KEUGH, MATTHEW (1744P-1798), 
governor of Wexford, born 01 a protestant 
family in Ireland about 1744, rose by his 

ability during the American war from the 
position of private to that of ensign, being 
gazetted in the 60th or royal American regi- 
ment of foot on 81 Oct. 1763. On 14 July 
1769 he was appointed lieutenant in the 
45th regiment of foot (Ireland), from which 
he was transferred on 14 March 1772 to the 
27th or Inniskilling regiment of foot (Ire- 
land). On retiring from the army in 1774 
{Army Lists) he went to live upon his pro- 
perty in the town of Wexford. He became 
a J.f\, but was deprived of his commission 
in 1796 for his revolutionary sympathies. 
Upon the occupation of Wexrord by the in- 
surgents on 30 May 1798, Keugh was chosen 
by them military governor of the town. 
Though he endeavoured to protect such of 
the royalists as remained, he was powerless 
to prevent the piking on the bridge on 20 June 
of 97 out of the 260 prisoners who were 
charged with having wronged the peasantry. 
When the capture of Wexford by the mili- 
tary was inevitable, Keugh formally placed 
the government in the hands of the loyalist 
Lord Kingsborough, hoping thereby to save 
the town from massacre and plunder. He 
was ultimately brought to a drumhead trial. 
Lord Kingsborough, Colonel Le Hunte, and 
other witnesses ofgood social standing stated 
that Keugh had acted on all occasions with 
singular humanity, and had tried to pre- 
vent effusion of blood, and that they owed 
their lives to his personal interference. He 
was nevertheless executed on the bridge on 
25 June 1798 ; his body was thrown into 
the river, and his head placed on the court- 
house. In private life Keugh was esteemed 
for his many amiable Qualities and accom- 
plishments. He married an aunt of the wife 
of Sir Jonah Barrington. 

[Webb's Compendium of Irish Biography; 
Musgrave's Hist, of the Irish Rebellions ; Mad- 
den's United Irishmen ; Lecky's England in the 
Eighteenth Century, vol. viii. ; Barrington's 
Personal Sketches.] Gk €K 

KEVIN, Sautt (498-618). [See Cobm- 


KEY. [See also Caius.] 

1888), admiral, son of Charles Aston Key 
[q. v.J, entered the navy in 1838, passed his 
examination in 1840, and on 22 JDec. 1842 
was awarded the lieutenant's commission, at 
that time competed for in a special course of 
study, on board the Excellent gunnery-ship 
and at the Royal Naval College at Ports- 
mouth. In February 1848 he joined the 
Curacoa going out to the east coast of South 
America, where, in February 1844, he was 
transferred to the Gorgon, with Captain 




Charles Hotham [q.v.] On 10 May the 
Gorgon, then at anchor off Monte Video, 

Sarted her cables in a violent gale, and was 
riven on shore, far above high-water mark. 
When the sea returned to its usual level, the 
ship was dry to within a few feet of her 
stern-post, and imbedded in the sand to a 
depth of thirteen feet. Key was only the 
junior lieutenant, but his scientific training 
enabled him to take a prominent share in the 
work of getting her afloat, and at once marked 
him as a rising man. He was appointed to 
command the Fanny tender, and after the 
action at Obligado (20 Nov. 1846), in which 
he was slightly wounded, he was promoted 
to the rank of commander, his commission 
being antedated to 18 Nov. From 1847 to 
1850 he commanded the Bulldog steamer in 
the Mediterranean, and on 11 Oct. I860 was 
advanced to post-rank. During the Russian 
war of 1854-6 he commanded the Amphion 
frigate in the Baltic, took part in the reduc- 
tion of Bomarsund and in the bombardment 
of Sveaborg, and was repeatedly engaged 
with the enemy's batteries, especially in the 
gulf of Vibonr. On 6 July 1865 he was 
nominated a C.B. In 1867 he went out to 
China in command of the screw line-of-battle 
ship Sanspareil, in which he was at once sent 
with a detachment of marines to Calcutta; 
and, bringing them back when the urgent 
need had passed, he commanded a battalion 
of the naval brigade at the capture of Can- 
ton (28-9 Dec. 1867), and a few days later 
with his own hands seized Yeh, the Chinese 
governor, as he was seeking to escape in the 
disguise of a coolie (Oliphaot:, Narrative of 
the Earl of Elgin's Mission to China, i. 141) 
[see Sbtmoub, Sib Michael, 1802-1887]. 

From 1868 to 1860 Key was a member of 
the royal commission on national defence; 
in 186\) he was appointed captain of the 
steam reserve at Devonport, and in 1863 cap- 
tain of the Excellent and superintendent of 
the Royal Naval College. On 20 Nov. 1866 
he was promoted to be rear-admiral; he had 
already been consulted by the admiralty 
about the organisation of the new depart- 
ment of naval ordnance, and was now ap- 
pointed to the office of director, which he 
held till the summer of 1869, when he ac- 
cepted the post of superintendent of Ports- 
mouth dockyard, from which he was shortly 
afterwards moved to Malta, at once as super- 
intendent of the dockyard and second in 
command in the Mediterranean. In 1872, 
when it was determined to establish the 
Royal Naval College at Greenwich on a much 
enlarged plan, Key was called home for the 
purpose of organising it. The whole scheme 
was drawn out by him, and the college^with 

Key as president, was opened in February 
1873. On 30 April 1878 he was advanced 
to be vice-admiral, and on 24 May was nomi- 
nated a K.C.B. He continued at Greenwich 
till the beginning of 1876, when he was ap- 
pointed commander-in-chief on the North 
American and West Indian station. On at- 
taining the rank of admiral, 21 March 1878, 
he returned to England, and for a couple of 
months in the summer had command of an 
evolutionary squadron in the Channel. In 
June 1879 he was appointed principal naval 
aide-de-camp to the queen, and in August 
first naval lord of the admiralty, in which 
post he remained till the change of ministry 
in the summer of 1885, when he was granted 
a special pension of 500/. a year, in addition 
to his half-pay. The G.C.B. was conferred 
on him on 24 Nov. 1882, and on 11 Aug. 
1884 he was appointed a member of the privy 
council. He was also F.R.S., F.R.G.S., and 
D.C.L. ; and was author of * A Narrative of 
the Recovery of H.M.S. Gorgon, stranded 
in the Bay of Monte Video, 10 May 1844/ 
8vo, 1847. After his retirement he resided 
at Maidenhead, and there he died on 3 March 
1888. He was twice married, and left issue. 
A portrait, presented by the subscribers in 
1876, is in the library of the Royal Naval 

[CByrne's Naval Biog. Diet. ; obituary notices 
in Times, 6, 7, and 8 March, and Morning Post, 
5 March 1888; information from the family; 
personal knowledge. The official correspondence 
in July 1885 relating to the special pension was 
published as a parliamentary paper.] J. K. L. 

KEY, CHARLES ASTON (1793-1849), 
surgeon, born in Southwark on 6 Oct. 1793, 
was eldest son of Thomas Key, medical prac- 
titioner, and Margaret Barry. Thomas Hewitt 
Key £ q. v.] was a half-brother by a second 
marriage. Aston Key was educated at Bunt- 
ingford grammar school, Hertfordshire, and 
was apprenticed to his father in 1810. He 
attended the lectures at the United Borough 
Hospitals in 1812, and became a pupil at 
Gurs in 1814. In 1815 his apprenticeship 
to his father was cancelled, and he became 
pupil of Astley Cooper at a large premium. 
In 1817-18 he lived with Cooper, and in 
1818 married Cooper's niece, Anne Cooper, 
Key became demonstrator of anatomy at St. 
Thomas's Hospital, but resigned the post in 
February 1823, though he gave some of Sir 
Astley Cooper's surgical lectures for two ses- 
sions afterwards. Key had qualified at the 
Royal College of Surgeons in 1821, and in the 
autumn of the same year was appointed the 
first assistant surgeon to Guy's, succeeding 
to a full surgeoncy in January 1824. In this 
vear he introduced the operation for litho- 
J g2 


8 4 


tomy with the straight staff, using only a 
single knife all through ; the success of his 
operations established his reputation as a 
surgeon. He gained a large practice, and 
was elected a fellow of the Royal Society. 
In 1826, on the separation of Guy's from St. 
Thomas's medical schools [see Cooper, Sib 
Astley Paston], Key was appointed lec- 
turer on surgery at Guy's, and his classes 
were for many years very popular. He re- 
signed the lectureship in 1844. In 1845 he 
was one of the first elected fellows of the 
Royal College of Surgeons, and in the same 
year became a member of its council. In 
1847 he was appointed surgeon to Prince Al- 
bert. He died of cholera on 23 Aug. 1849, 
leaving nine children. His son Sir Astley 
Cooper Key is separately noticed. 

Key was a great surgical operator and 
lecturer, his lectures being largely the re- 
sults of his own experience. He was not a 
well-read man nor a scientific pathologist. 
He was one of the first surgeons in London 
to use ether as an anaesthetic. His dexterity 
with the knife was remarkable ; he was 
never known to make a mistake through in- 
attention to details. In person he was of 
commanding presence, thin, and rather tall, 
with a slightly aquiline nose. 

Key contributed to the l Guy's Hospital 
Reports' some valuable papers on hernia, 
lithotomy, and other subjects. He also wrote : 
1. ' A Short Treatise on the Section of the 
Prostate Gland in Lithotomy/ 4to, 4 plates, 
London, 1824. 2. * A Memoir on the Advan- 
tages and Practicability of Dividing the Stric- 
ture in Strangulated Hernia on the outside 
of the Sac,' 8vo, London, 1833 ; and he edited 
the second edition of Sir Astley Cooper s 
work on hernia, 1827. 

[Brit, and For. Med.-Chir. Review, \v. 572-7; 
Lancet, 1849, ii. 300, 411 ; Wiiks and Bettany's 
Biog. Hist, of Guy's Hospital.] G. T. B. 

KEY, Sib JOHN (1794-1858), lord 
mayor of London, eldest son of John Key of 
Denmark Hill, Surrey, was born on 16 Aug. 
1794. He entered his father's business, that 
of a wholesale stationer, about 1818. The 
firm had been established in the last century, 
and then traded as Key Brothers & Son, at 
30 Abchurch Lane. After several changes 
of abode the business was finally removed to 
97 and 103 Newgate Street. Key was elected 
alderman for the ward of Langbourn on 
8 April 1823, and served the office of sheriff 
of London and Middlesex in the ensuing 
year. He served the office of master of the 
Stationers' Company in 1830, and in the 
same year was elected lord mayor. He was 
one of the leading supporters of the Reform 
Bill in the city, and received the unusual 

honour of re-election to the mayoralty in 
the following year. During his second 
mayoralty, when William IV* and Queen 
Adelaide had arranged to visit the city in 
order to open new London Bridge, Key suf- 
fered some loss of popularity by advising tho 
king and his ministers not to come to the 
city on account of the supposed unpopularity 
of the Duke of Wellington. The visit passed 
off satisfactorily, and Key was created a 
baronet by William IV on 17 Aug. 1831. 
He was elected member of parliament for 
the city in 1833. He removed in 1851 from 
Langbourn to the ward of Bridge Without, 
which he represented until 1863. In that 
year he was elected chamberlain of London 
after a poll, his opponent being Benjamin 
Scott [q. v.], who afterwards succeeded him 
in that office. 

Key died on 15 July 1858, leaving by bis- 
wife Charlotte, youngest daughter of Francia 
Green, esq., of Dorking, Surrey, a son, Sir 
Kingsmill Key, who succeeded him in the 
baronetcy, ana three daughters. 

[Records of the Corporation of London ; City 
Press. 1858 ; Orridge's Citizens of London and 
their Rulers ; Foster's Peerage and Baronetage ; 
Kent's and Post Office London Directories.] 

C. W-H. 

KEY, THOMAS HEWITT (1799-1875), 
Latin scholar, born in Southwark, London,- 
on 20 March 1799, was the youngest son of 
Thomas Key, M.D., a London physician, 
by his second wife, Mary Lux Barry. Charles 
Aston Key [q. v.], the surgeon, was his half- 
brother. The family of Key was an old one, 
settled for six hundred years at Standon in 
Staffordshire, and for about two hundred of 
them at Weston Hall. Thomas was edu- 
cated for nearly ten years at Buntingford 
grammar school, Hertfordshire, where, under 
the Rev. Samuel Dewe, Latin, French, and 
mathematics were especially well taught. 
In October 1817 he entered St. John's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, and was elected a scholar, 
but in the spring of 1819 migrated to Trinity 
College, where he also obtained a scholarship. 
He graduated B.A. in 1821 (as nineteenth 
wrangler), M. A. 1824. At his father's desire 
Key studied medicine (1821-4) at Cambridge 
and at Guy's Hospital, London. In July 1824 
he met in Praed's rooms at Cambridge an ac- 
complished American, Francis W. Gilmer, 
who had been deputed to select professors for 
the newly founded university of Virginia at 
Charlottesville, U.S.A. Key was induced to 
accept the professorship of pure mathematics, 
and entered on his duties 1 April 1825. He 
taught successfully till the autumn of 1827, 
when he resigned on account of the unsuit- 
ability of the climate, and returned to Eng- 




land. In America Key had devoted part of 
liis leisure to the etymological study ot Latin 
{Teent, ' English Culture in Virginia/ in John 
Hopkins Univ. Studies, 7th ser. vols, v-vi., 
1889; H. B. Adams, 4 T. Jefferson and the 
Univ. of Virginia/ in No. 2 of U.S. Bureau 
of Education Circular of Information,' Wash- 
ington, 1888). In the autumn of 1828 Key 
was appointed professor of Latin at the 
newly founded London University in Gower 
Street (now University College). In 1842 
he resigned this professorship for that of 
comparative grammar, discharging the duties 
of the latter chair without salary until his 
death. In 1833 he had heen appointed, 
jointly with Professor Henry Maiden (his 
contemporary at St. John's College), head- 
master of the new school attached to Uni- 
versity College. From 1842 till his death 
Key was sole head-master. Between 1868 
and 1875 the numbers of the school rose from 
about four hundred to over six hundred. As 
a. schoolmaster Key was a man of ideas. He 
introduced the crude-form system of teaching 
the classical languages, and his school was 
one of the first in England to include natu- 
ral science in the ordinary curriculum. Key 
maintained the discipline firmly but without 
severity. He died of bronchitis, after a fort- 
night's illness, on 29 Nov. 1875, and was 
buried in Highgate cemetery. He married, 
on 28 Sept. 1824, Sarah Troward, younger 
•daughter of Richard Ironmonger Troward, 
who had been solicitor to the prosecution in 
the Warren Hastings trial. Key's wife and 
seven children survived him. 

Key was an enthusiastic and widely read 
Latin scholar, and had especially a minute 
acquaintance with Plautus and Terence. His 
best-known work is his ' Latin Grammar 1 
(published in 1846), a book ' recommended * 
(says Mr. Robinson Ellis) l by its simplicity, 
the newness of its examples, and the clearness 
with which it presents the elementary or 
crude forms of Latin words apart from their 
inflexions.' In January 1831, in reviewing 
Zumpt'8 ' Latin Grammar ' (Quarterly Jour- 
nal of Education), Key haa made the first 
proposal in print to apply the method of the 
Sanskrit grammarians to the study and teach- 
ing of Latin and Greek, but previously to 
1831 the crude-form system had been ex- 
pounded in his classical lectures. An ac- 
count of the system is given in Appendix i. 
in the second and third editions of the ' Latin 
Grammar/ About 1846 Key had begun to 
prepare a Latin dictionary for schools ; but 
ne abandoned this work, and about 1866 
undertook a large dictionary, the manuscript 
of which, left incomplete at his death, was 
published without additions in 1888 by the 

svndics of the Cambridge University Press. 
T?he letter A is tolerably complete, but only 
portions of the remaining letters are finished. 
The work displays wide reading and origi- 
nality, though the etymologies have been 
partly superseded by later philological know- 
ledge (see Academy, Saturday Review, and 
Spectator, all of 5 May 1888 ; Atheneeum, 
21 Sept. 1889). Key's chief works are: 
1. * The Alphabet/ &c. (partly a reprint of 
his articles from the 'Penny Cyclopaedia/ 
1833-43), London, 1844, 12mo ; 2nd edition, 
1849. 2. ' The Controversy about the " Var- 
ronianus " ' (between Key and J. W. Donald- 
son, five pamphlets reprinted), London, 1845, 
8vo, privately printed. 3. ' A Latin Gram- 
mar on the System of Crude Forms/ London, 
1846, 12mo ; 2nd edition, London, 1858, 8vo ; 
3rd edition, 1862, 8vo. 4. * A Short Latin 
Grammar/ London, 1852, 12mo. 5. 'Philo- 
logical Essays/ London, 1868, 8vo (partly 
incorporating papers contributed by Key to 
the Pnilological Society). 6. ' Caesar's Hel- 
vetic War/ with translation and notes, pt. 
i. cc. 1-29, 1872. 7. ' Language, its Origin 
and Development/ London, 1874, 8vo. 8. ' A 
Latin-English Dictionary/ Cambridge, 1888, 

Key was a fellow of the Royal Society 
(elected I860), and for some years president 
of the Philological Society of London, to 
whose ' Transactions ' he contributed more 
than sixty-three papers. He was one of the 
founders of the London Library, and for 
some years a member of the committee of the 
Society for the Diffusion of Useful Know- 
ledge. For the atlas of this society he pre- 
pared the maps of ' Gallia' and ' France in 
Provinces/ and was a contributor to its 
' Quarterly Journal of Education/ 1831-2. 
As a politician, Key was a zealous supporter 
of the Reform Bill, of the repeal of the corn 
laws, and of the abolition of the paper duty 
He also took an active part in the movement 
which resulted in the formation of the volun- 
teer force in 1859. 

A marble bust of Key by T.Woolner,R.A., 
subscribed for by old pupils and friends as a 
testimonial a few months before his death, 
was presented to University College. Key 
was tall, and of striking personal appearance. 
Professor George Long, nis contemporary at 
Trinity College and his intimate friend 
through life, speaks of him as a man of kindly 
temperament, unaffected and modest, though 
bold in his opinions, and as ' a teacher beloved 
by his pupils.' 

[Information kindly furnished by Thomas 
Key, esq., son of Professor Key, and by J. Power 
Hicks, esq., of Lincoln College, Oxford, an old 
pupil and friend of Key's; obituary notice by 




George Long in Proceedings of Boy. Soc. No. 
169, 1876 ; art. « T. H. Key' in Knight's Engl. 
Cyclop. Biography, 1856 (for this Key supplied 
information) ; R. Ellis in the Academy, 4 Dec. 
1875, p. 576 ; Athenaeum, 11 Dec 1875, p. 791 ; 
Ward's Men of the Reign, 1885 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 


KEYES or KEYS, ROGER (d. 1477), 
architect and warden of All Soul8 , College, 
Oxford, is first mentioned in 1437, when, to- 
gether with John Druell, afterwards arch- 
deacon of Exeter, he was architect and in- 
spector of works at the building of All Souls' 
College, Oxford, by Archbishop Chichele 
[q. v.] He was one of the original fellows of 
the college, and succeeded Richard Andrews 
as warden in 1442, holding that post for three 
years. In 1448 Keyes was summoned by 
Henry VI to act as clerk of the works for 
the new royal foundation of Eton College, 
with a salary of 50/. a year. For his services 
at Eton he and his brother, Thomas Keys, 
received a grant of arms and patent of nobility 
from the king on 19 May 1449, and he was 
collated to the archdeaconry of Barnstaple, 
25 Jan. 1449-50. Keyes acted as precentor 
of Exeter Cathedral in 1467 and 1469, and 
apparently held the post till his death. In 
1469 he made a present of books to Exeter 
College, Oxford. Keyes died on 11 Nov. 
1477, and was buried at Exeter. 

[Diet, of Architecture; Burrows's Worthies of 
All Souls; Bentley's Excerpta Historica; An- 
thony a Wood's Hist, of Oxford ; Willis and 
Clark's Architectural Hist, of Cambridge; Le 
Neve's Fasti Eccl. Angl. i. 407, 411.] L. C. 

(Fkiedbich Wilhelm) (1823-1873), animal 

fainter, born at Frankfort-on-the-Maine on 
7 Sept. 1823, showed at an early age a taste 
for drawing animals, and became a pupil of 
Eugene Verboeckhoven at Brussels. In May 
1846 he came to London for the purpose of 
studying under Sir Edwin Landseer [q. v.] 
Landseer received Keyl as a pupil, and be- 
came much attached to h im. Through Lan d- 
seer Keyl was introduced to the notice of the 
queen and the prince consort, and obtained 
many commissions from the royal family. 
Keyl was a frequent exhibitor at the Royal 
Academy and British Institution, though he 
was naturally averse to exhibiting his works. 
He died in London on 5 Dec. 1873, and was 
buried in Kensal Green cemetery. There 
are three pleasing drawings by Keyl in the 
print room at the British Museum. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Graves's Diet, of 
Artists, 1760-1880; Bryan's Diet, of Painters, 
ed. Graves ; Men of the Reign.] L. C. 

KEYMIS, LAWRENCE (d.1618), naval 
commander. [See Kbmts.] 

KEYNES, GEORGE, alias Bkbtt (1630- 
1659), Jesuit, son of Edward Keynes of 
Compton Pauncefoot and his wife, Ann Brett, 
both of old Roman catholic families resident 
in Somerset, was born in 1630, and entered his 
novitiate as a Jesuit at Rome 2 Jan. 1649. He 
studied at St. Omer, and, havingbeen ordained 

Eriest, sailed for the China mission in Decem- 
er 1654, but died at the Philippine Islands 
in 1659. He published a translation of the 
' Roman Martyrology/ of which a second and 
much enlarged edition was printed at St. 
Omer in 1667. 

[Foley's Records, iv. and vi. 371 ; Oliver's Col- 
lections, p. 125; Visitation of Somerset (Harl. 
Soc.), vol. xi.] T. S. 

KEYNES, JOHN (1625 P-1697), Jesuit, 
born at Compton Pauncefoot, Somerset, about 
1625, was probably brother of George Keynes 
[q. v.] After studying humanities in the 
college of the English Jesuits at St. Omer, 
he removed to the college of St. Alban at 
Valladolid, and entered the Society of Jesus 
on 30 July 1645. Subsequently he taught 
philosophy at Compostella, and theology 
for nine years at Valladolid, Salamanca, and 
Pampeluna. He was made prefect oi the 
higher studies at Liege, and obtained per- 
mission to devote himself to the care of the 
English soldiers in the Low Countries while 
the plague was raging among them. In 
this service he caught the infection, and 
for the recovery of his health was sent to 
England . He was professed of the four vows 
on 15 Aug. 1662. At the time of the pre- 
tended popish plot he was superior of his 
brethren in the l college of St. Ignatius' or 
London district, and although the govern- 
ment diligently, searched for him, lie suc- 
ceeded in escaping to the continent in March 
1678-9. His name is in the list of the in- 
tended victims of Titus Oates, who frequently 
mentioned Keynes. In 1680 he was ap- 
pointed rector of the college at Liege, and 
three years later provincial of the English 
province, in succession to John Warner. He 
, held the latter office for six years, being suc- 
' ceeded in 1689 by William Morgan. Dr. 
Oliver states that he governed the province 
* with singular ability, prudence, and credit/ 
The establishment of the Jesuit college at the 
Savoy Hospital in the Strand in 1687, and of 
the smaller college near the residence of the 
Bavarian ambassador in the city of London, 
was effected by Keynes, who also witnessed 
the destruction of the two colleges at the 
outbreak of the revolution in 1688. Keynes 
then withdrew to the continent, and died at 
Watten, near St. Omer, on 15 May 1697, in 
his seventy-third year. 



He composed 'A Rational Compendious 
Way to Convince, without any dispute, all 
Persons whatever dissenting rrom the true 
Religion, by J. K./ sine loco, 1674, 12mo. 
This work was translated into Latin by the 
author, Liege, 1684, and into Frencn by 
Gonneau, under the title of ' La Guide des 
Croyans/ St. Omer, 1688, 8vo. It was an- 
swered by Dr. Gilbert Burnet, afterwards 
bishop of Salisbury, in 'A Rational Method 
for proving the Truth of the Christian Reli- 
gion/ London, 1675, 8vo. Keynes was the 
principal author of ' Floras Anglo-Bavaricvs 
Serenissimo Principi Maximiliano Emma- 
nveli Dlici Bavarite, &c. et Marice Antoni® 
Leopoldi Caesaris filiae, auspicato Nuptiarum 
fcedere conjunctis inscriptus/ Liege, 1685, 
4to, pp. 207. The first part of this rare work 
contains an account of the foundation of the 
English Jesuit college at Liege, with a brief 
history of that institution, and the second 
part gives a curious history of Oates's plot, 
with biographies of the English Jesuits who 
were alleged to be implicated in it. 

the authorship of two pamphlets attacking 
Stillingfleet, dated 1671 and 1673 respec- 
tively. Both were by the Jesuit John Warner. 

[De Backer's BibL de la Compagnie de Jesus ; 
Dodd's Church Hist. iii. 315; Foley's Records, 
v. 296, vii. 416; Oliver's Jesuit Collections, 
p. 126 ; Southwell's Bibl. Scriptorum Soc. Jesu, 
p. 466.] T. C. 

KEYS, Lady MARY (1540P-1578), third 
surviving daughter of Henry Grey, third mar- 
quis of Dorset [q. v.l by nis wife Frances, 
daughter of Charles Brandon, duke of Suf- 
folk, was born at Bradgate Hall, Leicester- 
shire, probably in 1540. Her sister Lady Jane 
[see Dudley, Jane] and father were beheaded 
in 1554, and her mother died in November 
1559. It would seem that Queen Elizabeth 
soon after her accession took the two remain- 
ing daughters, Mary and her elder sister, 
Catherine, who were the last representatives 
of the Brandon line of the Tudor house, 
as maids of honour into her court, that she 
might keep close watch over their matri- 
monial plans. Great was the dismay of all 
the ministers when, in August 1565, it became 
known that Lady Mary Grey had secretly 
married Thomas Keys, the queen's serjeant- 
^orter (Letter of Cecil in Weight, Queen 
Elizabeth, i. 207V The matter was ludicrous, 
because Mary Grey was almost a dwarf, and 
Keys, who had been chosen for his office for 
his size, was of huge proportions. Further, 
there was the disparity of age and station. 
Keys was a native of Kent, probably related 
to Richard Keys of Folkestone, who received 
from Henry VlH a grant of the monastery of 


St. Rhadegund in that town. He had been 
twenty-two years at court, and was a widower 
with several children. Elizabeth showed her 
anger by committing Keys to the Fleet, and 
sending Lady Mary to the care of William 
Hawtrey at Chequers, Buckinghamshire. In 
August 1567 she was transferred to the charge 
of the Dowager Duchess of Suffolk, and in 
June 1569 to Sir Thomas Gresham. Mean- 
while the luckless Keys was pestered by a 
lawsuit which he had on hand at the time of 
his committal, and pleaded vainly for release. 
The question of the legality of the marriage 
was referred to Grindal, bishop of London, 
who reported to Cecil that it was impossible 
to accept a renunciation of the marriage ; if 
its validity was questioned, he must judge 
according to the evidence. Elizabeth seems 
to have thought it best to keep the culprits in 
custody. Keys was liberated from prison in 
1568, but was ordered to live at Lewisham ; 
in May 1570 he was at Sandgate Castle, 
whence he implored Archbishop Parker to 
intercede on his behalf. On 8 Sept. 1571 he 
died, and Gresham had to write to Cecil for 
permission for his widow to wear mourning. 
She grieved over her husband's death, ex- 
pressed her determination to keep and bring 
up his children, and from that time forward 
signed herself Mary Keys. As she was then 
harmless to the queen, she was allowed to 
leave Gresham's custody in 1573, and died 
in a little house in London on 20 April 1578. 
She was buried in the church of St. Botolph 
Without. Her will is given in Strype's ' An- 
nals/ 11. ii. 210-11. 

[Burgon's Life of Sir Thomas Gresham, ii. 386 - 
416 : Cal. of State Papers, Dom. Elizabeth.] 

M. C. 

KEYS, SAMUEL (1771-1850), china- 
painter, born in 1771, was one of the prin- 
cipal gilders and china-painters in the old 
Derby china factory under William Duesbury 
the elder [q. v.], to whom Keys was articled. 
He was an excellent workman, and much of 
the success of the china, especially the figures 
in the Dresden style, was owing to his skill 
in decoration. Keys quitted Derby some 
years before the close of the factory, and 
went to work under Minton at Stoke-upon- 
Trent. He returned later to Derby, where 
he died in 1850, in his eightieth year. Keys 
preserved his delicacy of execution to the 
last. He collected materials for the history 
of the Derby china factory, which form the 
foundation of subsequent accounts. 

Keys left three sons, all apprenticed at the 
Derby factory. John Keys (1797-1825) be- 
came a skillea flower-painter m water-colour, 
and teacher of that art. Edward Keys left 
Derby, and subsequently went to work for 




Messrs. Minton, Danieli, and others in the 
Potteries. Samuel Keys the younger excelled 
in modelling small figures ; he left Derby in 
1830, and went to the Potteries, where he 
carried on a small manufactory of his own, 
besides working for the leading manufac- 
turers there. 

[HasWs Old Derby China Factory.] L. C. 

KEYSE, THOMAS (1722-1800), still- 
life-painter, and proprietor of the Bermondsey 
Spa, born in 1722, and a self-taught artist, 
was a member of the Free Society of Artists, 
and exhibited with them from 1761 to 1764. 
He painted skilful imitations . of still life, 
flowers or fruit. From 1765 to 1768 he was 
an occasional exhibitor at the Society of 
Artists, and twice sent pictures to the Royal 
Academy. In 1768 he obtained a premium 
from the Society of Arts for a new method 
of setting crayon drawings. About 1770 
Keyse opened a tea-garden in Bermondsey, 
where a chalybeate spring had been found, 
which was known as the Bermondsey Spa. 
Here, among other attractions, Keyse Kept a 
permanent exhibition of his own drawings. 
Obtaining a music license, he made the gar- 
dens a kind of Vauxhall, open in the evening 
during the summer months, and provided 
fireworks, including a set-piece of the siege of 
Gibraltar, constructed and designed by Keyse 
himself. Keyse died at his gardens 8 Feb. 
1800, in his seventy-ninth year. The gardens 
remained open for about five years longer, and 
their memory is preserved bv the Spa Road, 
Bermondsey. A portrait of Keyse, painted 
by S. Drummond, A.R.A., was engraved. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Gent. Mag. 
1800, pt. i. 284; Lysons's Environs of London, 
i. 558 ; Catalogues of the Free Society of Artists, 
&c. ; Wheatley and Cunningham's London Past 
and Present.] L. C. 

KEYSER, WILLIAM de (1047-1692?), 
painter. [See De Ketser.] 

KEYWORTH, THOMAS (1782-1852), 
divine and hebraist, son of Thomas Key- 
worth, a bookseller, of Nottingham, was born 
in that town in 1782. Going to London as 
a young man, he was converted from uni- 
tarianism by the preaching of Dr. Draper, 
and entered Cheshunt College to prepare him- 
self for the congregational ministry. Called 
in the first instance to Sleaford, Lincolnshire, 
he was afterwards minister successively at 
Runcorn, Wantage, Faversham, and Notting- 
ham. He also occupied for short periods the 
pulpits of several London chapels. From 
1842 to December 1851 he was in charge of 
a congregation at Aston Tirrold in Berkshire. 

He retired at the close of 1851, and died at 
Cheltenham on 7 Nov. 1852. 

Keyworth was distinguished for modesty 
and simplicity of character. He was an 
active advocate of a scheme for garden allot- 
ments to the poor, and while in London was 
an able promoter of missionary work. In 
addition to his hebraical knowledge, he was 
no mean scholar in general literature. His 
chief works are: 1. 'Principia Hebraica,' 
London, 1817, 8vo (written in conjunction 
with David Jones). 2. ' A Daily Expositor 
of the New Testament,' London, 1825, 8vo. 
3. ' A Practical Exposition of the Revelation 
of St. John/ 1828, 8vo. 4. 'A Pocket Ex- 
positor of the New Testament/ 1834, 12mo 
2nd edit. 1835. 

[Congregational Year-Book, 1853, p. 212 
Liverpool Congregational Mag. April 1882, 
p. 56; Eclectic Review, November 1818; Brit. 
Mus. Cat. ; information from the Rev. Thomas 
Keyworth.] T. S. 

GEORGE (1781-1835}, musical composer, 
born at King's Lynn in 1781, was the son 
of John Kiallmark, an officer in the Swedish 
navy, and of Margaret (or Marggrit, as it is 
written in the parish register) Meggitt, a 
Yorkshire heiress, who lived at Wakefield 
and was a descendant of Sir Joseph Banks. 
His parents' marriage took place in St. Ni- 
cholas's Chapel, Lynn, 4 Oct. 1775. Shortly 
after Georges birth his father, who had run 
through his property, disappeared and soon 
died. Thereupon his widow married her 
butler, a man named Pottle, and George was 
adopted by his mother's family. He began 
his education under the care of a Dr. and 
Mrs. Gardiner {nie Meggitt) ; but he showed 
at an early age a strong taste for music, and 
he was placed under a German professor for 

Purposes of musical instruction from 1796 to 
798. For some time after 1798 Kiallmark 
maintained himself by teaching the violin 
and piano, and when he had accumulated 
sufficient funds, took further lessons from 
Barthelemon, Cobham, and Spagnoletti in 
violin-playing, and from Von Esch and (later) 
from Logier in composition. He held many 
important posts, was a member of all the 
principal concert and theatre orchestras, and 
leader of the music at Sadler's Wells. In 
1803 he married Mary Carmichael, a cousin of 
the Countess of Rothes, and settled in Isling- 
ton, London. Here he devoted himself to 
teaching the harp, violin, and piano, and soon 
acquired a large and lucrative connection. 
He resigned his public engagements, and de- 
voted himself entirely to his pupils and to 
composition, entering into arrangements with 
Chappell and D'Almaine to supply them 


8 9 


annually with a fixed number of composi- 
tions. He died in March 1835, leaving a 
large family. 

His chief works were : 1. Introduction and 
variations to * Roy's Wife.' 2. Introduction 
to ' Last Rose of Summer.' 3. Variations on 
4 Home, sweet Home.' 4. ' Les Fleurs de 
Printems,' in six books. Also a number of 
songs, of which the only one that survives is 
4 Maid of Athens.' Many of his compositions 
are still extant in manuscript. 

His eldest son, George Frederick Kiall- 
mabk (1804-1887), musician, born at Camden 
Street, Islington, 7 Nov. 1804, was educated 
at Margate. He began his musical career at 
the age of fourteen, assisting his father in the 
work of musical tuition ; afterwards he studied 
under Logier and taught his system. At six- 
teen he went to Rouen and thence to Paris 
to place himself successively under Zimmer- 
mann and Kalkbrenner. Returning to Eng- 
land in 1825 he became intimate with de- 
menti, by whose advice he sought further 
instruction from Moscheles. In 1829 he 
married the eldest daughter of Dr. Bryant of 
the Edgware Road, and gave his first public 
concert at the King's Theatre in 1832. 

When in Paris, Kiallmark formed a great 
friendship withThalberg, upon whose method 
and style he moulded his own. His playing 
was remarkable for delicacy of touch, and 
he was a superb player of Chopin's works. 
On hearing Kiallmark play, Mendelssohn 
said : * A fine sketch of what piano-playing 
should be, and what he will one day make 
it.' Niecks, in his 'Life of Chopin' (pp. 
280-1), writes: 'Kiallmark is said to have 
had a thorough appreciation and under- 
standing of Chopin 8 genius ; ' and he took 
especial delight in playing Chopin's 'Noc- 

In 1842 Kiallmark opened an academy for 
the study of the piano at his residence, 
29 Percy Street. During his long life he 
was associated with every great pianist from 
Clementi to Rubinstein, and at the age of 
seventy-eight he studied the sonatas of Gade 
and Rubinstein. At eighty he was still daily 

Practising dementi's ' Gradus.' He died on 
3 Dec. 1887, having only a week before 
played a Thalberg transcription with much 
of his old fire and brilliancy. He was a fine 
extempore player, but his compositions have 
not survived. 

Of the Kiallmarks, father and son, there 
exist several portraits. Of the father, one by 
W. Simpson, 1820, half-length, life size. Of 
the son : one by J. Slater, in ' Musical Keep- 
sake,' 1834 ; another by H. C. Selous, 1836, 
three-quarter length, life size ; and a third 
"by J. P. Knight, R.A., 1845, three-quarter 

length, life size. There is also a bust of the 
younger Kiallmark by Edward H. Baily 
fq. v.], 1845, companion to a bust of Thalberg 
by the same sculptor. These are in the posses- 
sion of the descendants of Kiallmark. 

[Georgian Era, iv. 549 ; Goulding's and Chap- 
pell's Catalogues ; Mas. Times, January 1888 ; 
Dram, and Mus. Rev. 17 Dec. 1842; Niecks's 
Chopin, 1888, pp. 280-1 notes ; Mus. Keepsake, 
1834 ; parish reg. ; private sources.] R. H. L. 

KIARAN, Saint (516-549), of Clon- 
macnoise. [See Ciaran.] 


S 826-1882), journalist, was born in 1826 at 
ullinahone, co. Tipperary, where his father 
was a prosperous shopkeeper. He was in- 
tended for the medical profession, but a gun- 
powder accident, when he was returning from 
shooting, so injured his sight and hearing that 
this career became impossible. He took part 
in the ' Young Ireland movement/ and in 
1848 busied himself with the preparation of 
pikes at Mullinahone for the use of the forces 
of Smith O'Brien. 

He became a Fenian about 1860, and in 
1865 James Stephens, the Fenian head-centre, 
appointed him, T. C. Luby, and John OTieary 
the supreme executive of his Irish republic, 
and editors of the ' Irish People ' newspaper. 
Kickham and his associates were not, how- 
ever, fitted by nature for the business of re- 
volution. Their newspaper was suppressed ; 
the supreme executive was taken into cus- 
tody, and the rising miserably failed (cf. W. 
O'Bbien, When we were Boys). Kickham 
was arrested at Fairfield House, Sandymount, 
Dublin, on 11 Nov. 1865, was tried for treason 
felony, and was sentenced to fourteen years' 
penal servitude. His friends asserted that he 
was grossly maltreated in prison, and J. F. 
Maguire, M.P. for Cork city, called the at- 
tention of parliament to the subject in 1867 
(Times, 8, 9, 11, and 27 May 1867). After 
serving four years in Woking and in Port- 
land convict prisons, he was set at liberty. 
When the election of O'Donovan Rossafor co. 
Tipperary in 1869 was declared void. Kick- 
ham was brought forward as the nationalist 
candidate. He was returned, but upon a 
scrutiny he was defeated by Mr. Heron, Q.C., 
by four votes, 26 Feb. 1870. He thenceforth 
confined himself to literary work. About 
1878 a * Kickham Tribute ' was collected for 
his benefit. He died at Blackrock, near 
Dublin, on 21 Aug. 1882. 

Kickham was the author of several poems 
and stories dealing with Irish subjects and 
scenes from a nationalist point of view. These 
were collected in 'Poems, Sketches, and 
Narratives illustrative of Irish Life/ 1870. 




Sir Charles Gavan Duffy puts him ' next ] 
after Carleton, Griffin, and Banim/ and far ' 
before Lever and Lady Morgan as a painter 
of national manners. He also published 
' Sally Cavanagh, or the Untenanted Graves,' 
a novel, 1869 Jwritten in prison) ; * Knock- 
agow, or the Homes of Tipperary/ a novel, 
1879; and 'For the Old Land, a Tale of 
Twenty Years Ago/ 1886. His portrait is 
prefixed to l Sally Cavanagh.' 

[Times, 24 Aug. 1882 ; Charles Gavan Duny's j 
Young Ireland; Introduction to James Duffy's j 
edition of Knockagow, Dublin, 1879 ; Justin H. | 
McCarthy's Ireland since the Union.] J.A.H. , 

KIDBROOKE, Lobd HERVEY of (d. ! 
1642). [See Hebvbt, William.] 

KIDD, JAMES (1761-1834}, presby- 
terian divine, born on 6 Nov. 1761, was the 
youngest son of poor presbyterian parents 
residing near Loughbrickland, co. Down. 
His father dying soon after his birth, the 
family removed to Broughshane, co. Antrim. 
A friendly farmer sent him to a good classical 
school, and before long enabled him to open 
a school of his own at Elginy, a neighbour- 
ing farm-town. The school was successful, 
but Kidd found means to go to Belfast to 
study English. He next set up a school at 
Kildownie, twenty miles from Belfast. He 
stayed there about four years, and married 
Jane, second daughter of Sobert Boyd, farmer, 
of Carnlea, near Ballymena. Kidd and his 
wife emigrated to America in April 1784 ; 
he soon joined Little, a fellow-countryman, 
in a school at Philadelphia, and next be- 
came usher to Pennsylvania College, where 
he also studied and corrected for the press. 
The sight of the Hebrew character set him 
upon learning the language ; he bought a 
Hebrew bible, and with the help of a Portu- 
guese Jew, and by dint of attending the Jew- 
ish synagogue in Philadelphia, acquired some 
fluency in the language. Oriental tongues 
became thenceforward his favourite study; 
He returned to Edinburgh, became a student 
at the university, read chemistry and ana- 
tomy, and joined the theological classes of 
the university, supporting himself by form- 
ing extra-collegiate classes in the oriental 
languages. In the autumn of 1793 he was 
appointed professor of oriental languages in 
Marischal College, Aberdeen. He there com- 
pleted his theological courses, obtained for- 
mal license as a preacher from the presbytery 
of Aberdeen on 3 Feb. 1796, ana was ap- 
pointed evening lecturer in Trinity Chapel 
in the Shiprow. On 18 June 1801 he became 
minister of Gilcomston Chapel of Ease, in the 
immediate suburbs of Aberdeen, where he 

preached for above a quarter of a century to 
one of the most numerous congregations in 
Scotland. His popularity as a preacher con- 
tinued undiminished to the end. He was at 
pains to secure variety and freshness in his 
preaching, constantly looking out for new 
illustrations, and keeping up his student's 
habit of rising at three c^clock every morn- 
ing. In October 1818 the College of New 
Jersey conferred on him the honorary degree of 
D.D. (Hew Scott, Fasti Eccl. Scot vol. iii. 
pt. ii. pp. 489-90). 

Kidd's powerful preaching and vigorous 
character overcame violent opposition, and 
ultimately gained for him an extraordinary 
popularity. It became an article of popular 
belief that no one who ever resisted ' the 
Doctor 1 had prospered. Stories of his courage, 
benevolence, and eccentricity are numerous. 
On the accession of George IV he prayed in 

Eublic that he ' might be a better King than 
e had been a prince regent/ and when the 
local authorities complained, asked, 'And 
Where's the man that can't improve P ' Kidd 
not only lectured on vaccination from the 
pulpit, but employed a medical man to vacci- 
nate his converts, and finally forced hundreds 
into his own house and vaccinated them 
himself. He is said to have given a stimulus 
to the study of Hebrew in the north of Scot- 
land, but was not a very profound hebraist. 
Kidd died on 24 Dec. 1834. By his wife, 
who died on 4 June 1829, he had two sons 
and three daughters. He was a strenuous 
supporter of the Anti-patronage Society, and 
eagerly advocated the popular election of 
ministers. He was author of : 1. ' A Course 
of Sermons,' 8vo, Aberdeen, 1808. 2. ' An 
Essay on the Doctrine of the Trinity : at- 
tempting to prove it by reason and demon- 
stration, founded upon duration and space : 
and upon some of the divine perfections; 
some of the powers of the human soul ; the 
language of scripture ; and tradition among 
all nations/ 8vo, London, Aberdeen (printed), 
1813. 3. < A Short Treatise on Infant Bap- 
tism/ §vo, Aberdeen, 1822 (also appended to 
Peter Edwards's ' Candid Reasons for Re- 

mcingthe Principles of Antipsedobaptis: 
>, Aberdeen, 1830). 4. l A Dissertation 



the Eternal Sonship of Christ/ 8vo, Aber- 
deen, 1822 (new edition, with an introduction, 
biographical and theological, by R. S. Cand- 
lish, 8vo, London, Aberdeen (printed), 1872). 

5. 'A Catechism for Assisting the Young 
preparing to Approach the Lord's Table 
for the first time/ 18mo, Aberdeen, 1831. 

6. 4 Rights and Liberties of the Church vin- 
dicated against Patronages/ 8vo, Aberdeen, 
1834. 7. 'Sermons and. Skeletons of Ser- 
mons/ 12mo, Aberdeen, 1835. 8. 'A Fare- 



well Address (Recollections)/ 12mo, Aber- 
deen, 1835. He also edited Park's ' Rights 
and Liberties of the Church/ 1834, and wrote 
the second part of the preface to ' Memoirs, 
Diary, and other Writings of Alexander 
Wood/ 12mo, Aberdeen, 1818. 

[Prof. David Masson in MacmiUan's Mag. ix. 
143-69 ; Candlish's biog. introduction as above ; 
article in Aberdeen Evening Gazette, 28 March 
1892 ; flew Scott's Fasti, v. 491.] G. G. 

KIDD, JOHN (1775-1851), physician, 
born in London 10 Sept. 1775, was son of 
John Kidd, captain of a merchant vessel, the 
Swallow, which conveyed Lord Cornwallis 
out to India as governor-general in 1786. 
His mother was the daughter of Samuel 
Burslem, vicar of Etwall, near Derby ; she 
was left a widow in early life with three 
sons to bring up. John was first sent to the 
school at Bury St. Edmunds, but in 1789 
obtained a king*s scholarship at Westminster. 
There he attracted the special notice of the 
head-master, Dr. William Vincent [q. v.], 
afterwards dean of Westminster, who con- 
tinued his lifelong friend. He was elected 
to a studentship at Christ Church, Oxford, in 
1793. The exceptional abilitv of Kidd and 
the schoolfellows elected with him to scho- 
larships at Oxford and Cambridge secured 
for the election the epithet of * golden ' in 
the annals of Westminster School (Welch, 
Queen's Scholars at Westminster, p. 437). 
Kidd graduated B.A. in 1797, M.A. in 1800, 
M.B. in 1801, and M.D. in 1804. He studied 
at Guy's Hospital for four years, 1797 to 
1801, and was for a time a pupil of Astley 
Paston Cooper [q. v.], with whom he con- 
tinued on intimate terms for the rest of his 

On leaving Guy's Kidd took up his resi- 
dence in Oxford, where he was appointed 
chemical reader in 1801, and first Aldrichian 
professor of chemistry in 1803. He was very 
successful in his chemical experiments, and 
retained the professorship till 1822, when he 
resigned in favour of Dr. Charles Giles Bridle 
Daubeny [q. v.] He was also one of the phy- 
sicians to the Radcliffe Infirmary from 1808 to 
182G, and at one time had a large private prac- 
tice, chiefly among members of the university. 
For several years before the endowment by 
the prince regent of the chairs of mineralogy 
and geology, Kidd delivered public courses 
of lectures on those sciences. In 1809 he pub- 
lished his ' Outlines of Mineralogy ' (2 vols. 
8vo, Oxford), which were reviewed by Dr. 
Thomas Thomson of Edinburgh in the ' Quar- 
terly Review ' (vol. ii.) in an article which 
Gifford, the editor, altered in some parts 
as being ' very splenetic and very severe, 
and much too wantonly so/ Gifford added : 


'Kidd is a modest and unassuming man, and 
is not to be attacked with sticks and stone? 
like a savage ' (Smiles, Memoir of John Mur 7 
ray, i. 162V With the assistance of some of 
his frienas he considerably increased the 
geological collection in the Ashmolean Mu T 
seum, and also the anatomical and patho- 
logical specimens in the Christ Church Mu- 
seum, when he was appointed Lee's reader 
in anatomy in 1816. In 1817 he was ad- 
mitted a candidate of the London College of 
Physicians, in 1818 he was elected a fellow, 
and in 1836 he delivered the Harveian ora* 
tion. In 1822, on the death of Sir Chris- 
topher Pegge, regius professor of physic at 
Oxford, Lord Liverpool, on the recommenda- 
tion of Sir Astley Cooper (Life of Sir Astley 
Cooper, ii. 200), appointed Kidd his successor. 
In this office his principal service to the 
medical profession was the active part he 
took in the enactment of what was popularly 
called after him, * Dr. Kidd's Examination 
Statute * for the degree of M.B. He did not 
lecture as regius professor, but continued the 
practice of his predecessor of giving courses 
of non-professional lectures on anatomy an<J 
physiology ; occasionally, but not often, he 
procured from London a subject for dissection 
by the few medical students that were then 
at Oxford. 

Kidd was a deeply religious man, and in 
1824 published * An introductory Lecture to» 
a Course in Comparative Anatomy, illustra- 
tive of Paley's " Natural Theology." ' He 
undertook a similar work on a larger scale 
when, on the recommendation of Archbishop 
William Howley fy. v.], he was selected to 
write one of the eight * Bridgewater Trea- 
tises ' (see xvii. 156), for which he received 
a thousand pounds. Its title was 'On the 
Adaptation of External Nature to the Phy- 
sical Condition of Man: principally with re- 
ference to the Supply of his Wants and the 
Exercise of his Intellectual Faculties.' It 
was published in 1833, and was one of the 
most popular of the series, reaching a sixth 
edition in 1852. It is not an original or 
strictly scientific treatise, as he himself ad- 
mits in his preface ; but the intention of the 
testator 'seemed to him to require a popular 
rather than a scientific exposition of facts.' 
In the appendix he gave an interesting com- 
parison m parallel columns of some points 
of the zoology of Aristotle and Cuvier. In 
1834 Kidd was appointed keeper of the Rad- 
cliffe Library. He superintended the com- 
pilation of a classed catalogue of the sci- 
entific part of the collection (Oxford, 8vo, 
1835), and he made the library as convenient 
as possible to the few readers who then made 
use of it. This office (for which he was 




-admirably suited, both by his learning and his 
«xact and studious taste) he retained till his 
death, which took place, after a few hours' ill- 
ness, on 17 Sept. 1861, at Oxford. He mar- 
ried Miss Savery, daughter of the chaplain 
of St. Thomas's Hospital, who survived him, 
and by her had four daughters. 

Kidd was 'gifted with a real scientific 
insight/ and took a prominent part with 
W. Auckland, Philip Bury Duncan [q. v.], 
and Charles Giles Bridle Daubeny in the 
promotion of science at Oxford. His admi- 
rable behaviour during the two outbreaks of 
cholera in Oxford in 1830 and 1848, which 
is specially commemorated in the printed 
accounts of both those visitations, illustrates 
his practical benevolence. The mastership 
of the hospital at Ewehne, near Oxford, is an- 
nexed to the office of regius professor of medi- 
cine. The restoration of the hospital, and of 
such part of the parish church as belongs to it, 
was carried out during Kidd's mastership ; 
and he introduced some wise regulations for 
the comfort and welfare of the bedesmen. 
He was a fellow of the Royal Society, and 
contributed to the 'Philosophical Transac- 
tions ' (1815) an * Essay on the Spontaneous 
Production of Salt-Petre ; ' and (1825) an 
elaborate paper on the 'Anatomy of the 
Mole-cricket/ He was eminently straight- 
forward, somewhat hasty and hot-tempered, 
and averse to all show and pretence, so that 
he is said to have been the first physician in 
Oxford who laid aside the traditional wig 
and large-brimmed hat and gold-headed cane. 

Besides the works already mentioned Kidd 
wrote : 1 . ' AGeological Essay on the Imperfect 
Evidence in support of a Theory of the Earth, 
deducible either from its General Structure, 
or from the Changes produced on its Surface 
by the operation of existing Causes/ 8vo, 
Oxford, 1815. 2. ' An Answer to a Charge 
against the English Universities in the Sup- 
plement to the " Edinburgh Encyclopaedia, ' 
8vo, Oxford, 1818. 3. 'Observations on 
Medical Reform/ 8vo, Oxford, 1841, with 
* Further Observations/ 1842. 

[Picture of the Present State of the College of 
Physicians in London, 1817, p. 43 ; Monk's Coll. 
of Phys. iii. 178; Oxford Chronicle, 20 Sept. 
1851; Lancet, 1851, ii. 286; Medical Times, 
1851, iii. 315 ; Daubeny's Inaugural Chemical 
Lecture, 1823, pp. 7, 8; Acland's Oxford and 
Modern Medicine, 1890, pp. 12, 14, 17 ; O. V. 
Cox's Recollections of Oxford, pp. 133, 431 ; 
Pantheon of the Age, ii. 468 ; private informa- 
tion.] W. A. G. 


(1808-1889), painter, born in 1808, perhaps 
at Edinburgh, was a pupil of the Rev. John 
Thomson [q. v.] of Duddingston. On the foun- 

dation of the Royal Scottish Academy in 
1826 Kidd was elected one of the original asso- 
ciates, and became an academician in 1829. 
He practised painting at Edinburgh till about 
1836, when he came to London, resigning his 
membership of the Royal Scottish Academy 
in 1838. He then settled as a teacher of 
drawing at Greenwich, where he resided 
until his death in May 1889, at the age of 
eighty-one. Kidd chiefly painted the scenery 
of his native country, and executed a few 
etchings of highland views. Some of his 

Sictures were engraved. Not long before his 
eath he painted a portrait of the queen for 
the Royal Hospital Schools, Greenwich. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Athenaeum, 25 May 
1889; Queen, 18 May 1889.] L. C. 

KIDD, SAMUEL (1804-1843), mission- 
ary at Malacca and professor of Chinese at 
University College, London, born 22 Nov. 
1804 at Welton, near Hull, was educated at 
the village school of that place. In 1818 
he was sent to Hull, where his thoughts 
were directed towards a missionary career, 
and in 1820 he entered the London Mis- 
sionary Society's training college at Gosport. 
In April 1824 he married Hannah, second 
daughter of William Irving of Hull. At the 
end of the same month he sailed under the 
auspices of the London Missionary Society 
to Madras, and thence to Malacca, where he 
arrived in the November following. He at 
once began the study of the Fuhkien dialect 
of Chinese, and under the advice and direction 
of the Rev. David Collie made rapid progress. 
In the course of 1826 he published several 
small tracts in Chinese, and in the year follow- 
ing he was appointed professor of Chinese in 
the Ajiglo-Chinese College of Malacca. From 
this time he took an active part in missionary 
labours, preaching constantly and preparing 
tracts for publication. In 1829 Mrs. Kidd 
was obliged to return to England on account 
of her health, and three years later attacks of 
epilepsy, to which he had become subject, 
compelled Kidd himself to adopt the same 
remedy. He had fully intended to return to 
Malacca, but the state of his health forbade 
him, and in 1833 he was appointed pastor of a 
church at Manningtree in Essex. In 1837 he 
was appointed professor of Chinese at Univer- 
sity College, London, for a term of five years. 
It was understood at the time of his nomina- 
tion that his appointment would be renewed 
at the end of that term, but the condition 
was disregarded, and it was while the matter 
was in debate that he died suddenly on 
12 June 1843, at his residence in Camden 
Town. Besides a number of small Chinese 
tracts, Kidd was the author of * Critical 




Notices of Br. Robert Morrison's Literary 
Labours ' in ' Memoir of Morrison/ 1838, ii. 
1-87; an inaugural lecture at University 
College on the Chinese language, 1838; a 
catalogue of the Chinese library at the Royal 
Asiatic Society; and ' China, or Illustrations 
of the Philosophy, Government, and Litera- 
ture of the Chinese/ London, 1841, 8vo. 

[Evangelical Magazine, 1843, p. 685; Gent. 
Hag. 1843, pt. ii. p. 209; information kindly 
supplied byW. G. B. Page, esq., of Hnll.] 

R.K. D. 

KIDD, THOMAS (1770-1850), Greelc 
scholar and schoolmaster, born in 1770, was 
the son of Thomas Kidd of Kidd, Yorkshire. 
After being educated at Giggleswick school 
under Paley, he was entered as a sizar 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, on 14 Dec. 
1789, where he took the degrees of A.B. (as 
fifth junior optime) in 1794 and A.M. in 
1797. He was for some time second master 
of Merchant Taylors' School, and in 1818 was 
appointed head-master of Lynn school; he 
next became master of Wymondham school, 
and lastly of Norwich. Having taken holy 
orders, he was successively instituted to the 
rectory of St. James, Garlick Hythe, Lon- 
don, in 1802 ; to that of Croxton, Cambridge- 
shire, in 1813 ; to the vicarage of Eltisley, 
Cambridgeshire, in 1814; to that of Bed- 
ingham, Norfolk, in 1831 ; and, for a second 
time, to both the vicarage of Eltisley and the 
rectory of Croxton in 1835. 

At Cambridge Kidd became acquainted 
with Porson, who was considerably his senior, 
and his affection and reverence for him in- 
fluenced his whole life. Though himself a 
genuine Greek scholar and steeped in Greek 
literature, he is chiefly remembered for 
editing the critical works of others. Thus 
he edited Ruhnken's minor works, Dawes's 
' Miscellanea Critica,' as well as the very 
valuable volume of Porson's 'Tracts and 
Criticisms.' He took especial interest in 
collecting lists of the works of several of the 
chief English and Dutch scholars. In his 
preface to ' Opuscula Kuhnkeniana ' there 
is a complete list of Tyrwhitt's works, while 
his collation of Tyrwhitt's smaller pieces 
is in the Dyce collection at South Kensing- 
ton Museum. In his review of Sluiter's ' Lec- 
tiones Andocide®' in the 'British Critick' 
for October 1805 he catalogues Valckenaer's 
criticisms and classical editions. It was due 
to him that the collection of Bentley's books, 
which had lain neglected at Lackingtons, 
was in 1807 rescued and obtained for the 
nation {Gent Mag. November 1807, p. 1047). 
At one time he contemplated an edition of 
Homer, and a series of very elaborate cri- 
ticisms on the Grenville edition from his pen 

will be found in the 'Critical Review' for 
1803 and 1804. He reviewed R. P. Knight's 
* Analytical Essay on the Greek Alphabet r 
in the 'Gentleman's Magazine' for October 
and November 1797, and Valpy's ' Greek 
Grammar ' in the ' British Critick' for June 
1806 ; contributed some ' cur» novissimae r 
of Bentley on Horace to the ' Museum Cri- 
ticum ' (i. 194), and wrote in the ' Classical 
Journal,' among other articles, ' On the Quan- 
tity of a final short Vowel before sc,' &c 
Q. 71, 283), 'Ionic Temple in Blenheim Gar- 
dens' (ii. 521, 897), notices of Bishop Pear- 
son's minor works in vols. vii. ix. xii. xiiu 
xvii., and ' Literary Coincidences ' in vols. xvii. 
and xxxvii. His English style is sometimes- 
confused, and always quaint. His ' imper- 
fect outline of the Life of R. P.,' was pre- 
fixed to Porson's 'Traits and Criticisms/ 
Beloe, in his ' Sexagenarian ' (i. 138), in a 
short account full of errors, calls him ' the 
modern Parson Adams.' He married, in 
1801, Miss Smith of Hoxton Square. In 
1842 Lord Melbourne gave him a civil list 
pension of 100/. A strong testimonial to* 
his merits as a Greek scholar and to his gene- 
ral character, from the pen of Dr. Parr, will 
be found in Barker's ' Parriana,' i. 372. He 
died 27 Aug. 1850, and is buried in Croxton 

His published works are: 1. 'Opuscula 
Ruhnkeniana,' London, 1807. 2. 'Tracts and 
Criticisms of the late R. Porson, Esq.,' Lon- 
don, 1815. 3. ' Horatii Opera ad exemplar 
recensionis Bentleianae plerumque emendata 
et brevibus notis instructa,' Cambridge, 1817. 
4. ' Ricardi Dawesii Miscellanea Critica, r 
Cambridge, 1817; 2nd edit, 1827. 5.'A Ser- 
mon preached at the Visitation of the Arch- 
deacon of Norwich, May 10, 1831.' Letters 
from him will be found in Parr's ' Correspond- 
ence' (Works, ed. Johnstone, viii. 215-19) 
and Porson's 'Correspondence ' (Cambr. Ant. 
Soc), p. 113. 

[Gent. Mag. 1850, pt. ii. p. 557; Foster's 
Index Eccl. 1800-40, p. 104.] fl. R. L. 

KIDD, WILLIAM (d. 1701), pirate, is- 
said to have been a native of Greenock, to 
have settled in Boston, Massachusetts, to- 
have commanded a trading vessel in the 
West Indies, and to have distinguished him- 
self in command of a privateer during Wil- 
liam Ill's war with France. In 1695, when 
the Earl of Bellomont was appointed gover- 
nor of Massachusetts Bay, with especial 
instructions to suppress the piracy which in- 
fested the coast, Robert Livingstone, a man 
of good repute in the colony, brought Kidd 
to the earl s notice in London as a fit man 
for the work [see Cootb, Richaed, Eabl of 




Bbllomont]. Bellomont's suggestion to the 
admiralty that Kidd should be appointed to 
the command of a small ship of war was 
judged irregular, and it was determined to 
send, him out in command of a privateer, 
with, in addition to the ordinary letter of 
marque, a special commission under the 
great seal empowering him to seize and bring 
in such pirates as he should meet with on 
the coast of America or elsewhere. Kidd 
and Livingstone undertook to pay one-fifth 
of the expenses ; Bellomont paid the other 
four-fifths, in conjunction with Orford, then 
first lord of the admiralty, Somers, the lord 
chancellor, Komney, a secretary of state, and 
Shrewsbury, one of the lords justices. A 
vessel named the Adventure was accordingly 
fitted out, and sailed from Plymouth in May 
1696. After visiting New York, where she 
raised her complement of men to 155, the 
Adventure proceeded to Madagascar, then 
known as the haunt of pirates. In the course 
of 1698 and the beginning of 1699 com- 
plaints reached the government that Kidd, 
instead of capturing or destroying the pirates 
and preying on the king's enemies, was him- 
self a very active pirate, seizing and plun- 
dering native ships belonging to friendly 
powers. Orders were sent out to Lord Bel- 
lomont to apprehend Kidd if he should re- 
turn to North America; and accordingly, 
when he returned to Boston in July 1699, 
he was thrown into gaol. He admitted that 
acts of piracy had been committed, but 
alleged that he at the time had been over- 
powered by a mutinous crew and imprisoned 
in the cabin. Others of the ships taken were 
sailing under French passes, and were legal 
prizes, but the desertion of his men, who had 
joined the pirates, had prevented his sending 
them in to be condemned. He affirmed, 
moreover, that the Adventure being no 
longer seaworthy had been destroyed, and 
Kidd and the few men who had remained 
loyal were (according to his own account) 
on their way home in the Queda Merchant, 
a richly laden ship of some 400 tons, which 
had a iFrench pass and had been captured 
under French colours, when, touching at the 
island of Hispaniola, he heard that he had 
been proclaimed a pirate, and that a warrant 
was out for his apprehension. Leaving the 
Queda Merchant, ne bought a small sloop, 
and came on to Boston to know the truth. 
Bellomont was anxious to learn where the 
Queda Merchant had been left ; her cargo, 
he wrote to England, was, by the best com- 
putation he could make, worth about 70,0001. 
Kidd, however, declined to give any infor- 
mation, and the ship was apparently never 
found. Some small part of the treasure 

was seized in the sloop ; a portion that he 
had buried in Gardiner's Island was not re- 
covered by the government; but, like the 
larger amount left in the ship, it was pro- 
bably at the disposal of Kidd's friends. Popu- 
lar traditions which recount its burial, and 
the failure of attempts to recover it, enor- 
mously exaggerate its value ; even of the 
estimated 70,000/. the greater part was in 
perishable bale goods. In the spring of 1700 
Kidd and his companions were sent to Eng- 
land in the Advice frigate, and on their 
arrival on 8 April were taken in charge by 
the marshal of the admiralty, who also 
seized Kidd's papers {Admiralty Minute, 
14 April 1700). The enemies of the govern- 
ment now charged the subscribers to the 
Adventure's equipment with having fitted 
out a notorious pirate, and attempts were 
especially made to implicate Somers, who 
had not only subscribed, but had affixed the 
great seal to Kidd's commission. The charge 
was formally preferred in the House of Com- 
mons, and was debated with all the viru- 
lence of faction, but was too evidently absurd 
to be affirmed by a majority. In the follow- 
ing May, Kidd, with several of his crew, was 
put on his trial at the Old Bailey. He was 
charged with the murder of one Moore, the 
gunner of the Adventure, whom he had hit 
violently on the head with a bucket. His 
defence was that Moore was mutinous and 
insolent, and that he had knocked him down 
in a fit of passion ; but the judge directed the 
jury that it was done with malice prepense, 
and was therefore murder. He was further 
charged with piratically seizing and plun- 
dering six different ships. His defence was 
that the ships were sailing under French 
passes, and were legal prizes according to 
the terms of his commission. These passes, 
he said, he had preserved, but they had 
been taken from him, and Lord Bello- 
mont and the admiralty had refused to re- 
store them. No further inquiry was made 
for them by the court ; he had no properly 
constituted legal adviser or counsel; the 
only witnesses against him were two of the 
Adventure's men, who were accepted as 
king's evidence. The judge summed up 
against him ; he was found guilty of murder 
and piracy, was with several of his com- 
panions sentenced to death, and was duly 
hanged at Execution Dock on 23 May 1701. 
Whatever may have been Kidd's crimes, it 
is clear that he had not a fair trial, and was 
found guilty on insufficient evidence. Kidd's 
effects to the value of 6,472/. 1*. were for- 
feited to the crown, and the money was given 
by Queen Anne to Greenwich Hospital in 
1705 (Ltsows, Environ*, iv. 448). 




[Johnson's General History of the Pirates ; 
Macaulay*s History of England (Cab. ed.), viii. 
240-4. Macaulay's account is more than usually 
inaccurate. Kidd was brought to Lord Bello- 
mont's notice in London, not in New York; and 
the whole story, as told in brilliant language 
with picturesque detail, is very doubtful. The 
contemporary pamphlets, which £ive the com- 
monly accepted account, are : Articles of Agree- 
ment made this 10th day of October 1695 be- 
tween the Right Honourable Richard. Earl of 
Bellomont, on the one part, and Robert Levings- 
ton, Esq., and Capt, William Kid of the other 
part (printed 1701); The Arraignment, Trial, 
and Condemnation of Captain "William Kidd for 
Murder and Piracy. . . . Perused by the Judges 
and Council (fol. 1701) ; A True Account of the 
Behaviour, Confession, and last Dying Speeches 
of Captain William Kidd and the rest of the 
Pirates . . . (1701); A Full Account of the Pro- 
ceedings in relation to Captain Kidd, in two 
Letters written by a Person of Quality to a 
kinsman of the Earl of Bellomont . . . (4to, 
1701). Lord Bellomont's Official Correspondence 
in the Public Record Office (Colonial, Board of 
Trade, New England, vol. ix.) gives a full account 
of Kidd's arrest; one paper, 24 June 1699, is a 
letter from Kidd, apparently written and signed 
by himself. Cf. Admiralty Minutes, 8-15 April 
1700. Watson's Annals of Philadelphia (ii. 212) 
is very inaccurate.] J. K. L. 

born about 1790 in Edinburgh, was first ap- 
prenticed to a house-painter, but on the com- 
pletion of his term made his way to London 
to study painting. He was an enthusiastic 
admirer of the works of Alexander Carse 
[q. v.] and of Sir David Wilkie, and deter- 
mined to paint domestic scenes from Scottish 
life in their manner. He first exhibited at 
the Royal Academy in 1817, and at the 
British Institution in 1818, and was from 
that time a frequent contributor to both ex- 
hibitions, and also to the Society of British 
Artists in Suffolk Street. Kidd was very suc- 
cessful in depicting the pathos and humour 
of rustic life, and his pictures have main- 
tained their popularity. Many were en- 
rived, such as 'The Poacher Detected/ by 
Lupton, the same picture as ' Le Bracon- 
nierPris/ and another, 'LeBaiser Surpris/ in 
aquatint by P. Jazet at Paris; 'Indulging/ 
by J. H. Watt; 'The Poacher's Snare/ by 
J. Stewart, &c. In 1849 Kidd was elected 
an honorary member of the Royal Scottish 
Academy. Never able to manage his own 
affairs, itidd fell at the end of his life into 
hopeless financial embarrassment, and was 
supported finally by his friends and a pen- 
don from the Royal Academy. He died in 
London on Christmas eve, 1863. A picture 
by him, 'Contemplating the Times/ was lent 

' to the Century of British Art Exhibition 
at the Grosvenor Gallery in 1888-9 (No, 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Graves's Diet, 
of Artists, 1760-1880; Catalogue of 'Century 
of British Art Exhibition, Grosvenor Gallery, 
1888-9.] L. C. 

KIDD, WILLIAM (1803-1867), natu- 
ralist, born in 1803, was apprenticed early 
in life to Baldwin, Craddock, & Joy, a firm 
of London booksellers. He afterwards en- 
tered business on his own account, and had 
shops successively in Chandos and Regent 
Streets. While at Chandos Street he pub- 
lished a 'Guide- o Gravesend/ 'Popular 
Little Secrets/ and other short essays written 
by himself. Between May and October 1835 
he published twenty-four numbers of a 
weekly ' London Journal ' dealing- with na- 
tural history ; from 1862 to 1864 he brought 
out a similar monthly periodical called 
'Kidd's Own Journal/ which was subse- 
quently reissued in five volumes, royal 8vo, 
and during 1863-4 he issued ten numbers of 
'Essays and Sketches' on miscellaneous sub- 
jects. By that date he had sold his business, 
and devoted himself entirely to his favourite 
studies. He was always an earnest student 
of nature, and he possessed an astonishing 
gift of endearing nimself to animals. In 
the later years oi his life he resided in the 
New Road, Hammersmith, and set up a fine 
aviary, which was burnt down and never 
rebuilt. Kidd was an independent and ec- 
centric thinker and talker on religious and 
social subjects, and delivered many lectures 
in various parts of the country on such sub- 
jects as 'Genial Gossip/ 'Fashion and its 
Victims/ 'The Value of Little Things/ and 
' Happiness made comparatively easy' (Liver- 
pool Mercury, 8 March 1866). He died at 
Hammersmith, 7 Jan. 1867. He was married 
and his wife survived him. 

As a naturalist Kidd's chief works were : 
'The Canary/ London, 1864 ; ' The Aviary 
and its Occupants/ two parts, 1866, and a 
number of small books on the goldfinch, the 
linnet, and other British songsters, which 
are still valuable. He also wrote an intro- 
duction to Westcott's ' Autobiography of a 
Gossamer Spider/ 1867, and, in conjunction 
with F. Buckland, several papers in ' Birds 
and Bird Life/ 1863, besides contributing 
papers on birds and kindred subjects to the 
4 Gardeners' Chronicle ' and similar periodi- 
cals. A long series of tracts and essays 
which he published on very miscellaneous 
subjects are either weakly imitative of Leigh 
Hunt, or characterised only by ignorance 
and superficiality. The chief of these pam- 


9 6 


phlets are: 1. 'The Heart's Proper Element.' 
2. ' The World and its Two Faces,' 1864. 
3. ' Honest Thoughts for Plain and Honest 
People.' 4. ' The Strange Spirits of the Day, 
or a Rap for the Rappers.' 6. ' Friendly Ap- 
peals to the People ' (only two numbers pub- 
lished). 6. # Example, its Power for Good 
or Evil,' 1856. 7. 'The Charmed Ring.' 
8. 'Man, viewed with Reference to his Words, 
his Deeds, and his Motives.' 9. 'Life, its 
Tints and its Shadows,' 1866. 

[Gent. Mag. 1867, pt. i. p. 247 ; Athenaeum, 
12 Jan. 1867 ; Kidd's Works.] M. G. W. 

KIDDER, RICHARD (1633-1703), bi- 
shop of Bath and Wells, was born at East 
Grinstead in Sussex in 1633. His father 
belonged to the class of yeomen or lesser 
gentry. His mother was a woman of great 
piety, of puritan sympathies. He was edu- 
cated at a grammar school in the neigh- 
bourhood under the mastership of a Mr. 
Rayner Harman, of whom he speaks in the 
highest terms. He was sent to an apothe- 
cary at Sevenoaks to study medicine ; but 
his friends raised a sum of money to send 
him to Cambridge, and in June 1649 he was 
admitted as a sizar at Emmanuel College. 
Samuel Cradock [<j. v.], then a fellow of the 
college, directed his studies, encouraged him 
in a religious life, and helped him with money. 
He graduated B.A. in 1652, and in 1656 
was elected fellow of Emmanuel. In 1658 
he was ordained deacon and priest, in one 
day, by Dr. Brownri^g, the deprived bishop 
of Exeter. The ordination took place in a 
private house at Bury St. Edmunds. In 
1659 the vicarage of Stanground, Hunting- 
donshire, which was in the gift of his college, 
fell vacant, and Kidder was appointed to it. 
In 1662 he was ejected by the Bartholomew 
Act, because he 'did not think fit to sub- 
scribe to what he never saw,' that is, of course, 
the amended Book of Common Prayer. He 
declares that he had 'never taken the co- 
venant or engagement, was entirely satisfied 
in episcopacy, and with a liturgy ; had no 
hand in the late confusions, and was so far 
from it that he lamented them, and was de- 
prived of his living only for not subscribing 
to a book that was not, as it ought to have 
been, laid before him.' For a time he took 
chance duty in London and the country, but 
in 1664, having by that time ' conformed,' he 
was appointed by Arthur, earl of Essex, to 
the rectory of Raine (now spelt Rayne), near 
Braintree. He found the people ' factious to 
the last degree,' and used to call the ten years 
he spent among them ' the lost part of his 
life.' The great plague of London in 1666 
spread to Essex, and added to his troubles j 

and he also lost (not through the plague^ 
three children there. In 1674 he was offered 
the living of St.Helen's in London by Sancroft, 
then dean of St. Paul's, who had known him 
at Emmanuel College; but though he offi- 
ciated there for a while, and was much 
pleased with the people, he would not be 
instituted on the terms of refusing the holy 
communion to those who would not kneel. 
He was appointed also in 1674 preacher at the 
Rolls by Sir Harbottle Grimston [q. v.], the 
master, and in the same year was presented by 
the Merchant Taylors' Company to the rectory 
of St. Martin Outwich, the next parish to St. 
Helen's. Soon afterwards he was also chosen 
to be a week-day lecturer at Blackfriars. In 
1680 he lost three children by the small-pox. 
He was now a popular preacher, and was 
offered various preferments. In 1681 he was 
appointed to a prebend at Norwich by the lord 
chancellor, the Earl of Nottingham, and a 
few years later was twice chosen lecturer of 
Ipswich, but declined both times. In 1688 
his old friend Sancroft, now archbishop of 
Canterbury, offered him the living of Sund- 
ridge, Kent, and he was also recommended 
by Robert Nelson to Tillotson, then dean of 
St. Paul's, for the living of Barnes, but he 
accepted neither preferment. 

In 1689, soon after the accession of William 
and Mary, he was made one of the royal chap- 
lains, without his knowledge, and was also 
appointed on the royal commission to consider 
such alterations in the liturgy, &c, as might 
give satisfaction to the dissenters in connec- 
tion with the Comprehension Bill. He pre- 
pared a new version of the Psalms, but the 
commission had not time to examine it. In 
the same year, on the elevation of Dean Pa- 
trick to the see of Chichester, he was ap- 
pointed by the crown dean of Peterborough 
and finally, through the instrumentality of 
Tillotson, now archbishop of Canterbury, was 
offered the bishopric of Bath and Wells, of 
which Thomas Ken had been deprived. He 
says that he was very unwilling to accept 
the see, but after some days consented. He 
afterwards thought that he had not been wise ; 
for ' though he could not say that he had 
acted against his conscience, he did not con- 
sult his ease,' and often repented. He was 
consecrated at Bow Church on 30 Aug. 1691 r 
and ' presently took up his residence at Wells.' 
' I am sure,' he says, ' no man living could 
come into a place with a more hearty desire 
to do good than I did.' But his position was 
most unfortunate, for the whole sympathies 
of the diocese were probably with his deprived 
predecessor, Ken. Ken himself greatly dis- 
liked the appointment, and spoke of Kidder 
as a ' latitudinarian traditor,' a ' hireling/ 




who, ' instead of keeping his flock within the 
fold, encouraged them to stray/ ' a stranger 
ravaging his flock.' Kidder seems to have 
been continually in trouble with the cathe- 
dral chapter ; they refused to attend his or- 
dinations, thinking that he ordained noncon- 
formists without having properly ascertained 
that they had really become churchmen. The 
whole tone of his charges to the clergy, and 
also of his autobiography, shows his false 
position. Kidder and his wife were both 
killed in their bed in the palace at Wells by 
the falling of a stack of chimneys through the 
roof in the great storm of 26 Nov. 1703. 

Few men were more obnoxious to high 
churchmen than Kidder, but it is hardly fair 
to charge him, as he has been charged, with 
being a mere time-server. He refused many 
offers of preferment, including at least one 
bishopric, that of Peterborough ; and his lite- 
rary work, if nothing else, certainly pointed 
him out for advancement. A story is told, 
much to his credit, that in 1696-7 it was in- 
timated to him that he must go up to the 
House of Lords and vote for the attainder of 
Sir John Fenwick, and upon his replying that 
he must wait to know the merits of the case, 
he was asked, ' Don't you know whose bread 
you are eating P ' To which he replied, 'I eat 
no man's bread but poor Dr. Ken's/ and, to 
show his principles, went up and voted against 
the bill. The story that he made the deprived 
bishop an allowance from the see is apo- 

Kidder was a most industrious and, in 
many respects, valuable writer. His first 
work of any importance was entitled ' Convi- 
vium Cceleste : a Plain and Familiar Discourse 
concerning the Lord's Supper.' It was pub- 
lished in 1674, but was a reprint of what he 
had preached to his recalcitrant parishioners 
at Raine some years before. In 1684 he 
published the first part of his ' Demonstra- 
tion of the Messias.' Other parts were pub- 
lished at different times, and the whole was 
not completed until 1700. In 1693 he was 
appointed Boyle lecturer, and he inserted the 
substance of the lectures he then delivered in 
the ' Demonstration.' It was intended in the 
first instance to promote the conversion of 
the Jews, and his knowledge of Hebrew and 
the oriental languages well qualified him for 
the task ; but it was also directed against 
the arguments of the deists. In 1684 he 
undertook the translation of Dr. Lightfoot's 
works into Latin. In 1694 he published ' A 
Commentary on the Five Books of Moses, 
with a Dissertation concerning the Author 
of the said Books, and a general Argument 
to each of them/ 2 vols. This was part of 
a joint work which was to be executed by 


London clergymen for the use of families. It 
was to have embraced the whole of the Old 
and New Testaments, but the scheme fell 
through because the attention of the writers 
was diverted to the Roman controversy. In 
1692 he published * A Charge to the Clergy 
of his Diocese at his Primary Visitation be- 
gun at Oxbridge June 2, 1692/ In 1698 ap- 
peared his ' Lite of Anthony Horneck ' [q. v.] 
His last work was a posthumous one, ' Criti- 
cal Remarks upon some Difficult Passages of 
Scripture, in a Letter to Sir Peter King/ 
1719 and 1725. 

Kidder also published a vast number of 
sermons, tracts, and fugitive pieces. Of the 
sermons the first was entitled ' The Young 
Man's Duty; a Discourse showing the ne- 
cessity of seeking the Lord betimes/ &c, 
which was published as early as 1663, and 
became so popular that it reached a tenth 
edition in 1750 ; ' The Christian Sufferer Sup- 
ported.' 1680, a sermon preached at Guild- 
hall Cnapel on 16 July 1682 ; a funeral ser- 
mon on Mr. W. Allen, a London citizen 
who wrote in defence of the church of Eng- 
land, on 17 Aug. 1686; another on Thomas 
Pakeman in 1691 ; one ' On the Resurrec- 
tion/ 1694 ; ' Twelve Sermons preached upon 
several occasions/ 1697 ; and ' A Discourse 
concerning Sins of Infirmity and Wilful 
Sins/ and another ' Of Restitution/ which 
were to be distributed among the poor of his 
diocese, and were sent to the press a very 
short time before his death. His 'Tracts 
against Popery ' include ' A Second Dialogue 
between a new Catholic Convert and a Pro- 
testant, shewing why he cannot believe the 
Doctrine of Transubstantiation ' (1686} ; ' An 
Examination of BeUarmme's Thirteenth Note 
of the Church, Of the Confession of Ad- 
versaries ' (1687); 'The Judgment of Pri- 
vate Discretion in Matters of Religion De- 
fended' (1687) (this was originally preached 
as a sermon at St. Paul's, Covent Garden, 
1686} ; 'Texts which the Papists cite for 
proof of their Doctrine of the Sacrifice of 
the Mass examined ' (1686) ; ' Reflections on 
a French Testament printed at Bordeaux in 
1686 ; pretended to be translated out of the 
Latin into French by the Divines of Lou vain ' 
(1690). Among his tracts on other subjects 
were ' Charity Directed, or the Way to give 
Alms to the ffreatest advantage, in a Letter 
to a Friend r (1677); 'A Discourse of the 
Sacraments/ with some heads of examina- 
tion and prayers (1684); 'Help for Children's 
understanding the Church Catechism ' (un- 
dated). He also collected a number ot 
Hebrew proverbs, which were published in 
an appendix to Ray's 'Collection of Pro- 
verbs. Some Latin letters passed between 



9 8 


him and LeClerc on the meaning of Genesis 
xxxvi. 31. Both Le Clerc and Du Pin had 
a, high opinion of Kidder's powers. 

[Autobiography of Bishop Kidder, first pub- 
lished in Cassan's Lives of the Bishops of Bath and 
Wells; Dean Plumptre's and other biographies 
of Bishop Ken ; Hunt's Religious Thought in 
England ; Kidder's own writings.] J. H. 0. 

(d. 1531), abbot of Winchcombe. [See 

KIDGELL, JOHN (ft. 1766), divine, 
baptised on 28 April 1722 at St. Mary Wool- 
noth, London, was son of John Kidgell of 
St. Mary Woolchurch (Registers, ed. firooke 
and Hallen, p. 100). He was admitted to 
Winchester in 1733 (Kikbt, Winchester 
Scholars, p. 238), matriculated at Oxford 
from Hertford College on 21 March 1740-1, 
graduated B.A. in 1744, and M.A. in 1747 
(Fosteb, Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886, ii. 792), 
and was elected fellow. He was a man of 
some talent, but dissolute and dishonest. 
James Douglas, earl of March and Ruglen 
(afterwards the well-known Duke of Queens- 
berry), appropriately appointed him his chap- 
lain. In 1756 he was assistant-preacher to 
the Bishop of Bangor, in December 1758 be- 
came rector of Woolverston, Suffolk (Addit. 
MS. 19105, f. 250), and by 1761 was morning 

freacher at Berkeley Chapel, London. On 
4 May 1762 he was instituted to the rectory 
of Godstone, Surrey (Manitcito and Brat, 
Surrey, ii. 337), and on 24 June following 
to that of Home in the same county (ib. 
ii. 320-1 ). He habitually neglected his duty, 
and lived as a man about town, under the 
auspices of Lord March. Walpole describes 
him as a ' dainty, priggish parson, much in 
vogue among the old ladies for his gossiping 
and quaint sermons' (Reign of George HI, 
i. 311). When in 1763 the government 
wanted a second copy of Wilkes^ ' Essay on 
Woman/ Kidgell secured one of the proof- 
sheets, and by the treachery of one of Wilkes's 
printers succeeded by degrees in procuring 
the whole. This he handed to Lord March, 
who was in secret consultation with Lord 
Bute and Lord Sandwich. He then at- 
tempted to defend his conduct and replenish 
his purse by publishing ' A genuine and suc- 
cinct Narrative of a scandalous, obscene, and 
exceedingly profane Libel, entitled " An Essay 
on Woman,"' &c., 4to, London, 1763, which 
completely blasted his reputation. An at- 
tempt on the part of Lord Sandwich to obtain 
for him the wealthy rectory of St. James, 
Westminster, failed (Nichols, Literary Anec- 
dotes, ix. 659), and Kidgell, who was deeply 
in debt, had to fly the country, and is said 

to have died in Flanders (Bbatley and 
Bkitton, Surrey, iv. 148). In June 1766 the 
churchwarden of Home instituted proceed- 
ings against him in the court of arches for 
non-residence, but the cause, as being * im* 
properly begun/ was dismissed ' for the pre- 
sent* (Ann. Reg. ix. 105). 

Kidgell was author of: 1. 'The Card* 
[anon.J, 2 vols. 12 mo, London, 1765, a series 
of tales partly in the epistolary form. 2. ' Ori- 
ginal Fables/ in English and French, 2 vols. 
12mo, London, 1763. Both were printed for 
private circulation only. In the l Oxford 
Sausage* (ed. 1764, pp. 119-24) are some 
amusing lines by him, entitled * Table Talk/ 
which were written in 1745. 

[KidgelTs Works; pamphlets in answer to 
his Narrative, 1763 ; Forster's Charles Churchill, 
1855, p. 93 ; Gent Mag. 1768, p. 613.] G. G. 

KIDLEY, WILLIAM (ft. 1624), poet, 
was son of John Kidley of Dartmouth, De- 
vonshire, where he was born in 1606. In 
matriculating at Oxford he gave his name as 
Kidley, alias Tointer. lie entered at Exeter 
College on 16 July 1625, and graduated B.A. 
12 Nov. 1627. He speaks, in a marginal 
note interpolated in the work noticed below, 
of returning to the college after a twelve 
years' absence, apparently in 1639. In 1624 
he composed in his leisure ' A Poetical Rela- 
tion of the Voyage of S r Richard Hawkins 
[q. v.], Knight, unto Mare del Zur/ and 
' History of the year 1588, w* other His- 
torical ^Passages of these Tymes (during the 
Raigne of the B. Q. Elizabeth)/ Hawkins's 
account of his voyage to the South Sea 
had been published in 1622. Kidle/s poem, 
which is now among the manuscripts at the 
British Museum (Sloane Coll. 2024), and 
has not been printed, is entitled 'Kidley's 
Hawkins/ It was designed to be in eight 
books, but six only were completed. Kidley 
refers to other attempts made by him inverse, 
both at Oxford and at Dartmouth. 

[Wood's Athena Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 367-74 ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714.] T. B. S. 

(1616-1701), merchant and baptist minister, 
was born in London early in 1616. His 
family appears to have been of Welsh de- 
scent. Both his parents died of the plague 
which broke out in June 1625. His father 
left property which was invested by some 
relatives in their business ; on their failure 
little was saved. Kiffin was apprenticed in 
1629 to John Lilburne (1618-1657) [q. v.], 
then a brewer ; he left Lilburne in 1631, and 
seems to have been apprenticed to a glover. 
In that year he attended the sermons of many 
puritan divines, including John Davenport 




[q. v.] and Lewis du Moulin [q. v.], but at- 
tached himself next year to John Goodwin 
[q. v.] the independent. Hejoined a religious 
society of apprentices, and became (1634) 
a member of the separatist congregation 
gathered in Southwark by Henry Jacob 
(1663-1624) [q. v.], and then ministered to 
by John Lathrop [q. v.] Kiffin preached oc- 
casionally. In 1638, during the ministry of 
Henry Jessey [q. v."), he and others became 
baptists, and seceded, to the particular baptist 
church at Wapping, under John Spilsbury. 
Early in 1641 ne was arrested at a South- 
wark conventicle and committed by Judge 
Mallet to the White Lion prison, bail being 
refused. Mallet was himself committed to 
the Tower in the following July, whereupon 
Kiffin obtained his release. On 17 Oct. 1642 
he was one of four baptist disputants encoun- 
tered at Southwark by Daniel Featley [q. v.] 
In 1643 Kiffin began business in woollen 
cloth on his own account with Holland. His 
success was encouraging, and he rapidly be- 
came rich. In 1647 he was parliamentary 
assessor of taxes for Middlesex. In 1649 he 
made good use of the five weeks' grace before 
the coming into force of restrictions upon 
the import of foreign goods. In 1652, on the 
outbreak of the Dutch war, he gained money 
and privileges by furnishing requisites for the 
English fleet. Meanwhile he was pursuing 
his religious labours. His name heads in 
1644 the signatories to a confession of faith 
drawn up by seven churches 'commonly (but 
uniustly) called anabaptists/ Joshua Ri craft, 
a presbyterian merchant, attacked him (1645) 
as ' the grand ringleader ' of the baptists. 
Thomas Edwards (1599-1647) [q. v.] assailed 
him in 1646 as a ' mountebank/ and as adopt- 
ing the ' atheistical ' practice of unction for 
the recovery of the sick (Qangraena^ iii. 19). 
Kiffin had offered in vain (15 Nov. 1644) to 
discuss matters publicly with Edwards in his 
church (St. Botolph's, Aldgate). He joined 
Hanserd Knollys [q. v.] in a public disputa- 
tion (1646) at Trinity Church, Coventry, with 
John Bryan, D.D. fq. v.], and Obadiah Grew, 
D.D. [q. v.] In January 1649 parliament, 
in response to a petition from Ipswich, gave 
him liberty to preach in any part of Suffolk. 
He travelled in that county with Thomas 
Patience, or Patient, his assistant. He corre- 
sponded also (1653) with the baptist churches 
in Ireland and Wales. His settlement with 
the congregation, which, on 1 March 1687, 
opened a meeting-house in Meeting-house 
\ard, Devonshire Square, London, is usually 
dated in 1653. But as early as 1643 Kiffin 
and Patience ministered to this congregation, 
which consisted of seceders from Wapping 
practising clow communion. On 12 July 1655 

Kiffin was brought before John Dethick, the 
lord mayor, for preaching that infant baptism 
was unlawful, a heresy visited with severe 
penalties under the 'draconick ordinance' of 
1648. The execution of the penalty seems to 
have been indefinitely postponed. A contem- 
porary pamphlet ( <f rtie Spirit of Persecution 
again Broke Loose/ &c, 1655, 4to) contrasts 
this leniency to baptists with the severity 
used towards John Biddle [q. vj 

Between 1654 and 1059 Kiffin is spoken 
of as captain and lieutenant-colonel in the 
London militia. This may account for his 
arrest, and the seizure of arms at his house 
in Little Moorfields, shortly before the Re- 
storation, in 1660, by order of Monck, who 
was quartered near him. He was released 
by order of the common council, and the 
arms were restored to him. A more serious 
trouble befell him later in the year. A forged 
letter, dated 21 Dec. 1660, and professing to 
come from Taunton, implicated him in an al- 
leged plot, foUowing the death of the Prin- 
cess of Orange (24 Dec.) He was arrested on 
29 Dec., and kept in the guard-house at White- 
hall, but released on 31 Dec. by Sir Robert 
Foster [q. v.], the chief justice, the date and 
other circumstances proving the letter a for- 
gery. On 7 Jan. 1661 Venner's insurrection 
broke out. Kiffin at once headed a ' protesta- 
tion ' of London baptists, but nevertheless was 
arrested at his meeting-house and detained 
in prison for four days. 

About 1663 he gave evidence before a 
committee of the House of Commons, and 
before the privy council, against granting to 
the ' Hamburg Companv ' a monopoly of the 
woollen trade with Holland and Germany. 
His evidence is said to have permanently 
impressed Charles II in his favour, and to 
have gained him the goodwill of Clarendon. 
A year later he was arrested at the instance 
of George Villiers, second duke of Bucking- 
ham [q. v.], on suspicion of being concerned 
in an anabaptist plot against the king's life. 
He addressed a letter to Clarendon, and was 
at once released by the privy council, and 
though a prosecution was threatened nothing 
came of it. On two occasions, in 1670 and 
1682, Kiffin, when prosecuted for conven- 
ticle-keeping, successfully pleaded technical 
flaws in the proceedings. On two other oc- 
casions (one in 1673) he obtained interviews 
with the king, securing the suppression of 
a libel against baptists, and the pardon of 
twelve Aylesbury baptists who nad been 
sentenced to death under 35 Eliz. c. 1 . Crosby 
relates that Charles wanted a loan of 40,000/. 
from Kiffin, who made him a present of 
10,000/., and said afterwards that he had 
thus saved 30,000/. In 1675 he took part 





in a scheme for ministerial education among 
baptists; and in the following year went 
into Wiltshire, to aid in dealing with the 
Socinian tendencies of Thomas Collier [q. v.] 
In 1683. his house was searched on suspicion 
of his complicity with the Rye House plot ; 
his son-in-law, Joseph Hayes, a banker, was 
tried for remitting money to Sir Thomas 
Armstrong [q. v.], and narrowly escaped with 
his life, ' a jury of merchants ' (Bttbnet) re- 
fusing to convict him. Treasonable letters 
were forwarded to Baffin ; he at once placed 
them in the hands of Judge Jeffreys. Two 
of his grandsons, Benjamin and William 
Howling, the former being just of age, were 
executed (Benjamin at Taunton on 30 Sent., 
William at Lyme Regis on 12 Sept. 1686) 
for haying joined the Monmouth rebellion. 
Kiffin offered 3,000/. for their acquittal, but 
4 missed the right door/ not having gone to 
' Jeffreys. The latter is said to have remarked 
to William Hewling : ' You have a grand- 
father who deserves to be hanged as richly 
as you ' (cf. Macattlay, cap. v. popular edit. 
p. 316). Though his near relatives were thus 
involved, Kiffin himself was neither a plotter 
nor, in any active sense, a politician. 

On the revocation (1685) of the edict of 
Nantes, Kiffin maintained at his own ex- 
pense an exiled Huguenot family of rank. 
Both on constitutional and on anti-popish 

f rounds he refused to avail himself of 
ames IPs declaration for liberty of con- 
science (April 1687), and did all in his power 
to keep his denomination from countenancing 
it ; not a single baptist congregation admitted 
the dispensing power, though prominent indi- 
vidual baptists did, e.g. Nehemiah Cox. In 
August 1687 James sent for Kiffin to court, 
and told him he had included his name as an 
alderman for the city of London in his new 
charter. Kiffin pleaded his age and retire- 
ment from business, and reminded the king 
of the death of his grandsons. ' I shall find/ 
said James, ' a balsam for that sore.' Kiffin 
was put into the commission of the peace and 
the lieutenancy. He delayed four months 
before qualifying as alderman, and did so at 
length (27 Oct. 1687) because there was no 
limit to the fine which might have been im- 
posed on him. He gave 50/. towards the 
lord mayor's feast, but would not have done 
so had he known the papal nuncio (Cardinal 
Ferdinand Dada) was invited. For nearly 
a year he held office as alderman of Cheap 
ward, being succeeded on 21 Oct. 1688 by 
Sir Humphrey Edwin [q. v.] 

After the death of Patience (1666) he was 
assisted in his ministry by Daniel Dyke 
(1617-1688) [q. v.] and Richard Adams (d. 
1716). He resigned his charge in 1692. He 

died on 29 Dec. 1701 in his eighty-sixth 
year, and was buried in Bunhill Fields ; the 
inscription on his tomb is given in StoVs 
1 Survey/ ed. Strype, 1720. His portrait was 
in 1808 in the possession of the Rev. Richard 
Frost of Duninow, Essex, a descendant ; an 
engraving is given in Wilson, and reproduced 
in Orme and Ivimey. He married late in 
1634 ; his wife, Hanna, died 6 Oct. 1682, aged 
66. His eldest son William died 31 Aug. 
1669, aged 20 ; his second son died at Venice, 
and was supposed to have been poisoned; 
Harry, another son, died on 8 Dec. 1698, 
aged 44. His daughter Priscilla (d. 15 March 
1679) married Robert Liddel. 

Kiffin published : 1. ' A Glimpse of Sion's 
Glory/ &c, 1641, 4to. 2. 'The Christian 
Man's Trial/ &c, 1641 (Angus). 3. * Ob- 
servations on Hosea ii. 7, 8/ &c, 1642 (tb.) 
4. 'A Letter to Mr. Edwards/ &c, 1644, 
12mo (dated 15 Nov.) 5. l A Briefe Remon- 
strance of the . . . Grounds of . . . Ana- 
baptists for their Separation/ &c, 1645, 4to 
S answered by Ricrart in 'A Looking-glass 
or the Anabaptists/ &c, 1645, 4to). 6. ' A 
Declaration concerning the Publicke Dispute/ 
&c, 1645, 4to (by Kiffin, Hanserd Knollys 
[q. v.], and Benjamin Cox [q. v.]) 7. 'WaJ- 
wyn's Wiles/ &c., 1649 (#.) 8. ' A Letter 
to the Lord Mayor, by Lieut.-Col. Kiffin/ 
&c, 1659, fol. 9. 'A Sober Discourse of 
Right to Church Communion/ &c, 1681, 
12mo (against open communion, in reply to 
Bunyan). He wroteprefaces to an edition 
of Samuel How's 'The Sufficiency of the 
Spirit's Teaching/ &c, 1640, 4to, and to 
' The Quakers Appeal Answered/ &c, 1674, 
8vo; and edited, with a continuation, the 
'Life of Hanserd Knollys/ 1692, 8vo. He 
spelt his name Kiffen and (later) Kiffin, 
which is the form given in the 16/7 direc- 
tory ; Featley calls him Cufin. 

[Kiffin wrote his autobiography to 1693; the 
manuscript was used by Wilson, Dissenting 
Churches of London, 1808, i. 400 sq., and edited 
by Orme as Remarkable Passages in the Life of 
William Kiffin, 1823 ; it is also incorporated in 
Ivimey's Life of Kiffin, 1833. See also Discourse 
between Captain Kiffin and Dr. Chamberlain, 
1654 ; the Life and Approaching Death of Wil- 
liam Kiffin, 1 669 (an abusive pamphlet) ; Burnet's 
Own Time, 1724, i. 599 sq.; English Presby- 
terian Eloquence, 1720, p. 141 ; Pike's Ancient 
Meeting Houses, 1870, p. 689 ; Crosby's Hist, of 
English Baptists, 1738-40, i. 215 sq., ii. 180 sq., 
iii. 4 sq. ; Tracts on Liberty of Conscience, 1846, 
p. 315; Records of Broadmead, Bristol, 1847, 
pp.xcii, 123, 149, 359; Confessions of Faith (the 
last three Hanserd Knollys Soc), 1854, pp. 17, 
23, 26, 310, 326; Macaulay's History; London 
Directory of 1677, 1878 ; Angus's Early Baptist 
Authors, 1886.] A. G. 




KILBURN, WILLIAM (1746-1818), 
artist and calico-printer, born in Capel Street, 
Dublin, in 1745, was only son of Samuel 
Kilburn, architect, of Dublin, and Sarah 
Johnston his wife. He showed an early 
taste for drawing, and was apprenticed to 
John Lisson, an English calico-printer at 
Leixlip, near Dublin, but devoted much of 
his spare time to drawing and engraving. 
The family was in embarrassed circumstances 
at the father's death, and Kilburn came to 
London, where he obtained a good sale for 
his calico designs. He also became acquainted 
with William Curtis [q. v.] the botanist, and 
executed the exquisite plates of flowers, drawn 
and engraved from nature, for Curtis's 'Flora 
Londinensis.' He was able to return to Ire- 
land and fetch his mother and sister, settling 
with them in Page's Walk, Bermondsey. 
Soon afterwards he accepted the manage- 
ment of Newton's calico-printing factory at 
Wallington, Surrey ; after seven years he j 

Surchased the business. The beauty of his 
esigns established him as one of the most I 
eminent calico-printers in Europe, and he ac- | 
quired great wealth. He induced Edmund j 
Burke to introduce a bill into parliament to | 
secure to calico-printers the copyright of: 
original designs. He died at Wallington on 
23 Dec. 1818, in his seventy-third year. Kil- 
burn married the eldest daughter of Thomas 
Brown, an East India director, by whom he 
left a large family. 

[Gent. Mag. 1818, cii. 222; Webb's Com- 
pendium of Irish Biography.] L. C. 

KILBURNE, RICHARD (1605-1678), 
Kentish topographer, born in 1605, was the 
fifth and youngest son of Isack Kilburne of 
London, by Mary,daughter of Thomas Clarke ' 
of Saffron Walden, Essex ( Visitation of Lon- 
don, 1633-5, Harl. Soc. ii. 31 ; Ktlboubne, 
Family of Kilbourn, pedigrees facing p. 8). 
He was baptised, 6 Oct. 1605, at St. Mary 
"Woolchurch Haw (Registers, ed. Brooke and 
Hallen, p. 314). He entered Staple Inn, be- 
came an eminent solicitor in chancery, and 
was five times principal of his inn. By 1631 
he had entered into possession of Fowlers, 
an estate in the parish of Hawkhurst, Kent, 
which he greatly improved. As a J.P. for the 
county he was deputed for three or four 
years during the commonwealth to celebrate 
weddings at Hawkhurst without sacred rites, 
but married only two couples (Archceologia 
Cantiana, ix. 263). In 1650 he appears as 
steward of the manors of Brede and Bodiam, 
Sussex. In 1657 he published as an epitome 
of a larger work 'A Brief Survey of the 
County of Kent, viz. the names of the 
parishes in the same ; in what bailiwick . . . 

and division . . . every of the said Parishes 
is ... ; the day on which any Market or 
Faireis kept therein ; the ancient names of the 
Parish Churches, &c.' (oblong quarto) ; it is' 
exceedingly rare. Two years later Kilburne 
issued his promised' larger survey ' entitled 'A 
Topographic, or Survey of the County of Kent, 
with . . . historically and other matters touch- 
ing the same, &c.,'4to, London, 1659, to which 
his portrait by T. Cross is affixed. Although 
mostly a meagre gazetteer, the book contains 
much curious information about Kilburne's 
own parish of Hawkhurst (cf. ib. v. 59). 
Kilburne was also author of * Choice Presi- 
dents upon all Acts of Parliament relating 
to the office and duty of a Justice of Peace 
... as also a more usefuU method of making 
up Court-Rolls than hath been hitherto 
known or published in print/ of which a 
third edition, 'very much enlarged/ was 
' made publick by G. F. of Gray's Lin, Esq./ 
in 1685, 12 mo, London. An eighth edition 
appeared in 1715. 

Kilburne died on 15 Nov. 1678, ajred 74, 
and was buried in the north cbancel of Hawk- 
hurst Church, where there is a flat stone to 
his memory (Hasted, Kent, fol. ed. iii. 71}. 
He married, first, Elizabeth, daughter of Wil- 
liam Davy of Beckley, Sussex, by whom he 
had six sons and three daughters, and se- 
condly, in 1656, Sarah, daughter of James 
Short, and apparently widow of one Birchett, 
who brought him no issue (cf. Kilburne's 
will registered in P. C. C. 6, King). A por- 
trait of Kilburne was engraved by Cook 
(Evans, Cat . of Engraved Portraits, i. 195). 
A few of Kilburne's letters, preserved among 
the Frewen MSS. at Brickwall, Northiam, 
Su8sex,have been printed in ' Sussex Archaeo- 
logical Collections ' (xvi. 302-4). 

[J. K. Smith's Bibl. Cantiana, p. 4 ; Sussex 
Arch. Coll. ii. 167, ix. 295 ; Granger's Biog. Hist, 
of England, 2nd edit. iii. 118 ; Marvin's Legal 
Bibliography.] G. G. 

KILBYE, RICHARD (1561 P-1620), 
biblical scholar, born of humble parentage 
at Ratcliffe on the Wreak, Leicestershire, 
about 1561, matriculated at Oxford from Lin- 
coln College on 20 Dec. 1577, and was elected 
fellow on 18 Jan. 1577-8 (Oaf. Univ. Bep., 
Oxf. Hist. Soc., vol. ii. pt. ii. p. 75, pt. iii. 
p. 77). He was admitted B.A. on 9 Dec. 
1578, M.A. in 1582, B.D. and D.D. in 1596 
(ib. vol. ii. pt. i.pp. 139, 198, 263). On 10 Dec. 
1590 he was elected rector of Lincoln Col- 
lege (Lb Nevb, Fasti, ed. Hardy, iii. 557), 
and became prebendary of Lincoln Cathedral 
on 28 Sept. 1601 (ib. ii. 188). In 1610 he 
was appointed regius professor of Hebrew 
(ib. iii. 514). He died on 7 Nov. 1620, and 




was buried in the college chancel of All 
Saints* Church, Oxford. By his will he gave 
to the parish a double-gilt chalice and 60*. 
to buy a silver-gilt paten. Both utensils 
are still in use in the church. 

Kilbye, who was an able preacher, pub- 
lished a funeral sermon on Thomas Holland 
(d. 1612) [q.v.], 4to, Oxford, 1613. He was 
one of the translators of the Bible appointed 
by James I in 1604, and took part in the 
version of the prophetical books. He wrote 
also Latin commentaries on ' Exodus/ part ii. 
of which came into the possession of William 
Gilbert, fellow of Lincoln, and prepared a 
continuation of John Mercer's commentary 
on ' Genesis' (1598), but was not allowed to 
print it. 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 287.1 

G. G. 

KILDARE, Earls of. [See Fitzthom as, 
John, d. 1316, first Earl; Fitzgerald, 
Thomas, tf. 1328,8econd Earl; Fitzgerald, 
Maurice, 1318-1390, fourth Earl; Fitz- 
gerald, Thomas, d. 1477, seventh Earl; 
Fitzgerald, Gerald, d. 1513, eighth Earl; 
Fitzgerald, Gerald, 1487-1534, ninth 
Earl ; Fitzgerald, Thomas, 1513-1537, 
tenth Earl; Fitzgerald, Gerald, 1525- 
1585, eleventh Earl.] 

KILDELITH, ROBERT (d. 1273), chan- 
cellor of Scotland. [See Keldeleth.] 

TETT/ftam, ALEXANDER (1762-1798), 
founder of the ' methodist new connexion/ 
was born of methodist parents at Epworth, 
Lincolnshire, on 10 July 1762. As a lad of 
eighteen he worked at Owston Ferry, Lin- 
colnshire. Returning to Epworth he joined 
the Methodist Society, during a local revival 
of methodism, and began to preach in his 
twenty-first year, his nrst sermon being at 
Luddington, Lincolnshire. In 1783 he was en- 
gaged, as travelling companion and assistant 
in preaching, by Robert Carr Brackenbury of 
Raithby Hall, Lincolnshire, a gentleman of 
fortune indelicate health, and one of Wesley's 
followers. Kilham travelled with Bracken- 
bury in Lincolnshire, and accompanied him to 
Jersey, where Brackenbury conducted a mis- 
sion. In June 1784 they returned to England. 
Brackenbury was admitted on the regular 
list of itinerant preachers at the conference 
in July. Kilham, on the advice of William 
Duffiton, had applied (6 June 1784), and he 
was regularly admitted at the conference in 
July of the following year. He was employed 
in the Grimsby circuit, where he encountered 
opposition from his patron's brother, Edward 
Brackenbury, vicar of Skendleby, Lincoln- 
shire. To secure his position he registered 

! himself under the Toleration Act. His ap- 
' pointments for the next few years were in 

On Wesley's death (2 March 1791) Kil- 
ham, though under thirty, at once became 
an energetic leader of the party opposed to 
the restriction, in the interests of the esta- 
blished church, of methodist operations. In 
May 1791 the Hull circular, officially issued 
by that circuit, advised methodist s not to 
rank themselves as dissenters, but to meet 
only out of church hours, and to receive the 
Lord's Supper only in the parish churches. 
Kilham prepared a reply (anonymous), which 
was adopted by the Newcastle-on-Tyne cir- 
cuit. He repudiated Wesley's personal dic- 
tation, on scriptural grounds, and argued 
that methodists were de facto dissenters, and 
their preachers qualified to administer all 
Christian ordinances. The conference at 
Manchester in July passed over Thomas 
Coke, D.C.L. [q. v.], the conservative leader, 
and elected as president William Thompson, 
a moderate man. Kilham was appointed to 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, where he was ordained 
by Joseph Cownley. The latter had been 
ordained by Wesley himself. The preachers 
in this circuit began (January 1792) to 
administer the Lord's Supper. An angry 
controversy ensued, to which, Kilham con- 
tributed a printed * Address/ He was sum- 
moned to the 1 792 conference, held in London, 
and censured for his pamphlet by a large 
majority, Coke even moving his expulsion. 
The conference transferred him to Aberdeen, 
where he was stationed for three years. The 
conference of 1793 conceded the right of 
preachers to administer the Lord's Supper 
under certain restrictions. 

In 1794 Kilham wrote, but did not publish, 
a pamphlet, signed ' Martin Luther,' de- 
nouncing the hierarchical scheme drawn up 
at a private meeting in Lichfield [see Coke, 
Thomas, D.C.L.J, and was especially severe 
on Alexander Mather, whom Wesley had 
ordained in 1788 as a ' superintendent.' The 
1794 conference was marked by fierce de- 
bates ; an address on the sacrament question 
presented by Kilham was ordered to be torn 
up by the president. The resolutions actually 
arrived at went too far in their concessions 
to suit the conservative leaders, and a stormy 
agitation was raised throughout the body. 
Kilham published a pamphlet, signed ' Aquila 
and Priscilla,' going over the whole ground 
of controversy. Shortly before the confer- 
ence met in Manchester in 1795 he issued 
his ' Martin Luther ' pamphlet. During the 
meeting of the conference he printed another 
in Manchester, signed ' Paul and Silas,' vindi- 
cating the progressive nature of Wesley's 




principles of organisation. The conference 
adopted a 'plan of pacification/ which Kil- 
ham thought had 'an appearance of du- 
plicity.' He wished to remain in Scotland, 
but the conference appointed him to Aln- 
wick, Northumberland. Here he printed a 
new pamphlet, 'The Progress of Liberty/ 
pleading for the recognition of popular rights 
in the organisation of methodism. For this 
he was arraigned before successive district 
meetings, but decision was referred to the con- 
ference. Kilham meanwhile issued several 
fresh pamphlets, including an 'Appeal* to 
his circuit (24 May 1796). 

The conference of 1796, held in London, 
at once proceeded to try Kilham on charges 
founded on his various publications, which 
certainly contained an undue proportion of 
invective. Such expressions as 'persecuting 
Neros/ applied to methodist leaders, he was 
prepared to explain, but not to withdraw. 
On the other hand, his agitation was viewed, 
absurdly enough, as inspired by the political 
principles of Thomas Faine. After three 
days' trial he was condemned by a unani- 
mous vote, and solemnly ' expelled from the 
connexion/ all the preachers (about one 
hundred and fifty) standing up, and each one 
attesting the justice of the proceeding by 
signing a paper which was placed on the 
communion-table. Efforts were made to in- 
duce Kilham to express penitence and apply 
for restoration. Six days after his expulsion 
he wrote to the president asking whether the 
sentence removed him from the society, and 
whether he could retain a place among the 
' local ' a? distinct from the itinerant preachers. 
The reply was an offer to confer with him on 
condition that his letter might be taken as an 
acknowledgment of fault. He made a con- 
ciliatory response, and met a delegation from 
conference. Negotiation was at an end as 
soon as he was informed that he must bind 
himself by the ' plan of pacification.' 

Kilham spent the next few months in 
visiting his sympathisers in the north of 
England. In October, acting on the sug- 
gestion of Moir of Aberdeen, he began a 
monthly magazine, 'The Methodist Monitor.' 
The first step towards a separation from the 
main body of methodism was taken at Leeds, 
where Ebenezer Chapel, purchased from the 
baptists, was openea by Kilham on 5 May 
1797. In July the conference met at Leeds. 
Kilham had been appointed a lay delegate, 
but did not present himself. The conference 
definitely decided against the admission of 
lay representatives, either to its own meet- 
ing or to district meetings, or to form ' a 
second house of legislature.' On 9 Aug. 
Kilham, with three preachers who had with- 

drawn from the conference, met a number of 
laymen in Ebenezer Chapel, and formed a 
' new methodist connexion/ Kilham becom- 
ing the secretary. The total number who 
joined the new society was about five thou- 
sand. Kilham was now stationed at Sheffield. 
In January 1798 his magazine appeared as 
the ' Methodist New Connexion Magazine.' 
The organisation of the new body was com- 
pleted at its conference held in Sheffield at 
Whitsuntide 1798, when Kilham was re- 
moved to Nottingham. 

Late in 1798 he undertook a journey with 
a view to extending his connection in Wales. 
He returned to Nottingham at the end of No- 
vember, completely exhausted, yet struggled 
on with some of his engagements. He died 
at Nottingham on 20 Dec. 1798, at the early 
age of thirty-six. He was buried in Hockley 
Chapel (now primitive methodist), Notting- 
ham. A marble monument to his memory 
was removed (before 1838) to Parliament 
Street Chapel, Nottingham. His portrait, 
engraved by W. Collard from a likeness taken 
in 1797, is prefixed to his ' Life/ 1838. An 
earlier engraving, from a drawing taken after 
death, is less satisfactory. He married, first, 
at Easter 1788, Sarah Grey of Pickering, 
North Riding of Yorkshire (d. 1797), by 
whom he had, besides children who died in 
infancy, a daughter Sarah, who became Mrs. 
Biller ; secondly, on 12 April 1798, Hannah, 
daughter of Peter Spurr 01 Sheffield, by whom 
he had a posthumous daughter, who died in 
infancy. His widow, Hannah Kilham, who 
became a quakeress, is separately noticed. 

Kilham's publications nave only a deno- 
minational interest. Had he lived it is not im- 
probable that he might have brought his new 
connexion (now numbering over thirty thou- 
sand members) into reunion with the main 
body. The subsequent course of methodism 
may be taken as vindicating his cause. He 
injured it by an occasional virulence of asper- 
sion that was not in harmony with his general 

[Life of Mr. Alexander Kilham [1799], an 
autobiography with additions ; Life, 1838, based 
on original materials furnished by his widow 
and daughter ; Townsend's Alexander Kilham 
[18891; Myles's Chronological Hist, of Metho- 
dists [1799] ; Tyerman's Life and Times of John 
Wesley, 1871, iii- 408, 504.] A. 0. 

TtTTJTAM , Mrs. HANNAH (1774- 
1832), missionary and student of African 
languages, born at Sheffield on 12 Aug. 1774, 
was seventh child of Peter and Hannah 
Spurr, respectable tradespeople of Sheffield. 
Although brought up as a member of the 
established church, she was permitted to 




attend Wesley's early morning services, and 
at the age of twenty joined the Wesleyans. 
Her mother's death when she was twelve 
(1786) placed her at the head of the house- 
hold, which consisted of her father and five 
brothers. Two years after her father died, 
and she was sent to a boarding-school at 
Chesterfield, where she made more rapid 
progress than her master approved. On 
12 April 1798 she became the second wife 
of Alexander Kilham [q. v.], founder of the 
* methodist new connexion/ who died at Not- 
tingham eight months later (20 Dec. 1798). 
Mrs. Kilham thereupon opened a day-school 
in Nottingham, spending the vacations atEp- 
worth, her husband's early home. There she 
became acquainted with the quakers, and in 
1802 joined their society. She returned to 
Sheffield, and though still teaching, busied 
herself in philanthropic work. She origi- 
nated a Societv for the Bettering of the Con- 

charge of all children rescued from slave- 
ships, Mrs. Kilham, with the aid of a matron, 
founded a large school at Charlotte, a moun- 
tain village near Bathurst, and spent the 
rainy season there with her pupils. She then 
proceeded to Liberia (the Free State), visited 
the schools in Monrovia, and arranged for 
sending the children of the most influential 
natives to England to be trained. About 
23 Feb. 1832 she sailed for Sierra Leone. 
The vessel was struck by lightning, and put 
back to Liberia. Mrs. Kilham never re- 
covered from the shock, and died three days 
afterwards, at sea, on 31 March 1832. There 
is a silhouette portrait of her in the Friends' 
picture gallery at Devonshire House, Bishops- 
gate Street. 

Besides the works above mentioned Mrs. 
Kilham was the author of several smaller 
educational books: 'Scripture Selections/ 
London, 1817; 'Lessons on Language/ 1818; 

dition of the l\>or, which proved a model for , ' Family Maxims/ 1818 ; * First Lessons in 
many others. : Spelling/ 1818 ; • Report on a Recent Visit 

In 1817 Mrs. Kilham commenced to study 
the best means of reducing the unwritten 
languages of Africa to print, so that the na- 
tives might be instructed in Christianity, 
and produced an elementary grammar for 
the children in missionary schools at Sierra 
Leone. From two native African sailors 
who were being educated at Tottenham Mrs. 
Kilham acquired a good knowledge of the 
Jaloof and Mandingo languages, and in 1820 
printed anonymously 'First Lessons in Ja- 

to Africa/ 1827 ; < The Claims of West Africa 
to Christian Instruction/ 1830, &c. Her 
step-daughter, Mrs. Sarah Biller of St. Peters- 
burg, edited her memoirs and diaries in 1837. 

[Life of Alexander Kilham, Nottingham, 
1799 ; Memoir of Mr9. H. Kilham, by her step- 
daughter, S. Biller, London, 1837 ; a Sketch of 
H. Kilham by Mrs. C. L. Balfour, London, 1854 : 
Letters of H. K., reprinted from the Friends' 
Magazine, London, 1831 ; Smith's Catalogue.] 

C. F. S. 

t''/wu iqoq ^ 4.x. c^ KILIAN, Saint (d. 697), apostle of 

In October 1 823, under the auspices of the Franconia . ' [See ClLI ^-, 

Friends committee * for promoting African L J 

instruction/ she sailed with three of their i KILKENNY, WILLIAM de (d. 1256), 

missionaries and the two native sailors fori bishop of Ely and keeper of the seal, was 

St. Mary's, in the Gambia. Here she at once i possibly a member of the Durham family of 

started a school, and made herself readily I Kilkenny, but was no doubt of Irish descent 

understood in Jaloof to the natives on the (Suetees, Hist. Durham, ii. 229 ; Hist. 

coast. She taught also at Sierra Leone, and 
in July 1824, after thoroughly reconnoitring 
the fields of labour, she returned to England 
to report to the committee of Friends. On 

Dunelm. Script. Tres, pp. lxxii, lxxiv, lxxv, 
Surtees Soc.) He is first mentioned as one 
of the royal clerks in 1235, when he was sent 
by Henry III on a mission to the emperor 

her arrival she at once proceeded to Ireland, j. Frederic (Shirley, Royal and Historical 
and spent several months at work under the Letters, i. 463, 475). Some time previously 
< Hfif iaVi anA TimqIi t .n/ii'oa' Rnniofr » ff\r> r>tA \af to 1248 he was made archdeaconof Coventry; 

he also held the prebend of Consumpta per 

1 British and Irish Ladies' Society ' for relief 
of the famine. On 11 Nov. 1827 she once 
more started for Sierra Leone, taking with her 
a number of 'African School Tracts ' (London , 
1 827),which she had published in the interval. 
She visited Free Town and the villages round, 
and in little more than two months put into 

i writing the numerals and leading words in 
twenty-five languages. The stat e of her health 
soon compelled her to return home again, 

. but on 17 Oct. 1830 she set out on her third 
and last voyage to Free Town. Having ob- 

, tained permission from the governor to take 

Mare at St. Paul's, London (Le Neve, Fast t, 
i. 568 ; ii. 379). In 1251 the abbey of Tewkes- 
bury had to provide him with a benefice 
worth forty marks (Ann. Mon. i. 147, Rolls 
Ser.) Between Michaelmas 1249 and Fe- 
bruary 1252 he attests the accounts of Peter 
Chaceporc, one of the keepers of the ward- 
robe. In 1250 Kilkenny and Peter de Rivallis 
were temporarily entrusted with the seal (Rot. 
Claus. 34 Hen. HI, m. 15). Shortly afterwards 
Kilkenny received the sole charge, according 




to Matthew Paris in the same year (1250) 
(iv. 130), but certainly before May 1253, 
when it was entrusted temporarily to Peter 
Chaceporc and John de Lexington, ' because 
William de Kilkenny was ill ' (Hot Fin, 87 
Hen. Ill, m. 9). Kilkenny was again in sole 
possession in the following July (Madox, 
Exchequer, i. 69). Matthew Paris speaks of 
him in 1254 as a clerk and special councillor 
of the king, who was then honourably dis- 
charging tne duties of chancellor (v. 464). 
At Michaelmas of this year Kilkenny was 
chosen bishop of Ely, and the royal assent 
was given to his election on 25 Dec. He 
thereupon resigned the seal on 5 Jan. 1255, 
and on 15 Aug. was consecrated by Arch- 
bishop Boniface at Belley in Savoy ; the per- 
formance of the ceremony abroad is said to 
have angered the bishops and the canons of 
Canterbury (ib. v. 464, 485, 508 ; Lb Neve, 
i. 329). Kilkenny made peace with the abbot 
of Ramsey respecting the boundaries of the 
abbey ana the episcopal property in the fens 
(Matt. Paris, v. 570), and gave the monks 
the churches of Melbourn and Swaffham. In 
June 1256 Kilkenny was appointed to go 
on a mission to the king of Castile, and seems 
to have departed next month (Fcedera, i. 343, 
Record ed.) He died at Surgho in Spain on 
22 Sept., and was buried there, but his heart 
was brought back to be interred in his own 
cathedral (Matt. Paris, v. 588). By his will 
Kilkenny left his church a cope, and two hun- 
dred marks for two chaplains to pray for his 
soul (Wharton, Anglia Sacra, i. 636). He 
was also a benefactor of the hospital of St. 
John the Evangelist at Cambridge (Mttl- 
linger, Hist Univ. Cambr. p. 233). 

Matthew Paris calls Kilkenny 'cancel- 
larius,' bit Foss says that he had only found 
two instances in which he is called by that 
title, both in 37 Hen. Ill, 1253-4 (Fosdera, 
i. 238 ; Abbrev. Placit. p. 133) ; while in the 
quittance granted to him at the close of his 
service he is described as ' Custos sigilli 
nostri in Anglia ' (Madox, Exchequer, i. 71). 
It therefore seems probable that he was 
simply keeper, and not chancellor. Matthew 
Pans describes him as ' a truly modest, 
-faithful, and well-read man, skilled in the 
canon and civil law, handsome in person, and 
eloquent and prudent ' (v. 130, 464). It does 
not appear wnether or no he was a relative 
of the lawyer, Odo de Kilkenny, who was 
concerned in the riot at Oxford in 1238 (ib. 
ill. 483-4). 

[Matthew Paris (Rolls Ser.) ; Foss's Judges of 
England, ii. 375-7; authorities quoted.] 

C. L.K. 

KILKERRAN, Lord (1 688-1759), Scot- 
tish judge. [See Fbrousson, Sib James.] 

KILLEN, JOHN (d. 1803), Irish rebel, 
kept an eating-house at the corner of Thomas 
Street, Dublin. Killen was arrested for parti- 
cipation in Emmet's movement of 23 July 
1803. His trial commenced on 7 Sept. before 
Mr. Baron Daly. Two informers, Michael 
Mahaffey and John Ryan, pedlars by trade, 
swore that on the night of 23 July they were 
met by an armed mob, of whom Killen was one, 
and were forced to take pikes in their hands 
and join the insurrection. They also testified 
to a definite act of cold-blooded murder com- 
mitted by Killen himself. On the other side, 
however, numerous witnesses, among them 
James Crosbie, an army pensioner, swore posi- 
tively that on the commencement of the 
outbreak, at nine o'clock in the evening of 
23 July, Killen had locked his door, and had 
not only not gone out himself, but had tried to 
prevent others from doing so. He and several 
of the witnesses, in fact, had, it was stated, 
remained in the cellar at Thomas Street till 
the morning of 24 July. James Smith, Kil- 
len's landlord, moreover testified to his cha- 
racter for loyalty. The evidence in Killen's 
favour was ably summarised and commented 
on by Curran, who defended him. The judge, 
however, summed up against the prisoner, 
and the jury brought in a verdict of guilty. 
A careful reading of the whole case points to 
the conclusion that this decision was entirely 
unjust. Killen protested bitterly from the 
dock against the verdict, but no reprieve was 
granted. He was executed on 10 Sept. 1803. 

[Hibernian Magazine for 1803 ; Killen's Trial, 
in Howell's State Trials, vol. xxviii.1 

G. P. M-t. 

1886), Irish presbyterian divine, son of Ed- 
ward Killen, a merchant in Ballymena, co. 
Antrim, was born at Ballymena on 30 Oct. 
1826. His boyhood was spent at Glen- 
wherry, to which his father removed in 1832. 
He was principally taught by a private tutor, 
and in 1842 entered the old Belfast College, 
where he took several prizes. At the close 
of his fifth session he was sent by the mission 
board of the general assembly as a missionary 
to Camlin, co. Roscommon, where he la- 
boured for two years. On 19 May 1848 he 
was licensed to preach by the presbytery of 
Carrickfergus, and on 25 Sept. 1860 was or- 
dained by the presbytery of Letterkenny 
as minister of 3rd Ramelton, co. Donegal, 
where his pastorate proved very successful. 
In 1867 he received a call from the congre- 
gation of Ballykelly, co. Londonderry, and 
was installed there on 31 March. He took 
a leading part in the Ulster revival of 1869. 
In 1862 he became one of the ministers of 


1 06 


Belfast, being installed on 26 Feb. as the 
first minister of the new Duncairn Church, 
•which prospered so much under his care that 
it was twice enlarged. He rose to be one of 
the foremost ecclesiastics of the Irish general 
assembly, of which in 1882 he was elected 
moderator. In 1883 the degree of D.D. was 
conferred on him by the presbyterian theo- 
logical faculty (Ireland). He died suddenly 
on 21 Oct. 1886, leaving a widow and seven 

He was author of ' A Sacramental Cate- 
chism ' (Belfast, 1874), which ran through 
several editions, and was republished in Ame- 
rica. For fouryears he edited a monthly 
magazine, the * Evangelical Witness,' and on 
the establishment of the ' Witness 'newspaper 
in Belfast he wrote much in its columns. He 
also published several sermons and tracts. 

[Personal knowledge.] T. H. 

KILLIGREW, ANNE (1660-1685), 
poetess and painter, daughter of Dr. Henry 
Killigrew [q. v.], master of the Savoy, was 
born in 1660 in St. Martin's Lane, Lon- 
don, shortly before the Restoration, and was 
christened privately, as the offices of the com- 
t mon prayer were not then publicly allowed. 
Her father was chaplain to the Duke of York, 
and in due course she became maid of honour 
to Mary of Modena, duchess of York ; but in 
her twenty-fifth (or twenty-sixth P) year she 
was attacked by small-pox, and in June 1685 
she died in her father's rooms in the cloisters 
of Westminster Abbey. She was buried 
15 June 1685 in the chancel of St. John the 
Baptist's Chapel in the Savoy (entry in re- 
gister, communicated by the late Rev. Henry 
white). According to the copy of the in- 
scription upon her monument, and given in 
her poems of 1686, since destroyed by fire, 
she died on 16 June. 

In 1686 a quarto volume, ' Poems by Mrs. 
Anne Killigrew,' was published. To the 
hundred pages of verses there was prefixed 
a mezzotint engraving of the author by Becket, 
after a painting by herself, and by way of in- 
troduction there was Dryden's ode ' To the 
pious memory of the accomplished young 
lady, Mrs. Anne Killigrew, excellent m the 
two sister arts of Poesy and Painting.' John- 
eon considered this ode to be the noblest in 
our language — a judgment then bold and 
now scarcely intelligible. Her own verses 
are forgotten, but she seems to have been a 
woman of sincere piety and much charm of 
character. Dryden alludes to paintings of 
James II and his queen by Anne Killigrew, 
and to pictures of country scenery. Three 
of her paintings are mentioned in her poems, 
and six others were sold in her brother Ad- 

miral Killigrew's collection in 1727. Besides 
Becket's engraving of Anne Killigrew, an 
engraving was made by Chambers from her 
own painting for Walpole's ' Anecdotes of 
Painting ; ' and there is a scarce mezzotint from 
the same painting by Blosteling. Lowndes 
mentions large-paper (folio) copies of Anne 
Killigrew's ' Poems,' with a portrait different 
from that in the ordinary copies. 

[Ballard's Memoirs of Several Ladies of Great 
Britain, 1742, pp. 337-45; Wood's Athense 
Oxon. ed. Bliss, ir. 623 ; Lottie's Memorials of 
the Savoy, 1878, pp. 199-206; Cibbers Lives 
of the Poets, ii. 224-6; Grangers Biog. Hist. 
1775, vol, iv. class x. p. 129 ; Boase and Court- 
ney's Bibliotheca Cornubiensis, 1874, i. 286; 
Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, 1849, ii. 456, 
457 ; Miss E. C. Clayton's English Female Ar- 
tists, pp. 59-70.] G. A. A. 

THERINE, Lady (1630 P-1583), a learned 
lady, wife of Sir Henry Killigrew [q. vj, was 
the fourth daughter of Sir Anthony Uooke, 
knt. [q. v.], of Giddy Hall, Essex, by Alice, 
daughter of Sir William Waldegrave, knt., 
of Suffolk ( Visitation of Essex, Harl. Soc. 
PubL, xiii. 39). Her eider sister was wife 
of Sir Nicholas Bacon [q. v.] She is said to 
have been proficient in Hebrew, Greek, and 
Latin. She married Sir Henry Killigrew on 
4 Nov. 1565. Sir John Harington, in the 
notes to book xxxvii. of his translation of 
' Orlando Furies©/ has preserved some Latin 
lines in which she asked her sister Mildred, 
wife of Cecil, lord Burghley, to use her influ- 
ence to get her husband excused from going 
on an embassy to France. The verses were re- 
printed in Fuller's * Worthies/ On 21 Dec. 
1583 she gave birth to a still-born child, and 
on 27 Dec. she died. She was buried in the 
church of St. Thomas the Apostle, London. 
It was burnt down during the great fire, but 
Stow, in his ' Survey/ has preserved the four 
Latin inscriptions on her monument, includ- 
ing one by herself and one by Andrew Mel- 
ville (1545-1622) [q. v.] 

[Sir John Harington's Notes to Orlando 
Furioso ; Fuller's Worthies ; Ballard's Memoirs 
of Learned Ladies ; StoVs London ; Harl. Soc. 
Registers, voL vi. ; Archaeolog. xviii. 100.1 

T. F. H. 

KILLIGREW, CHARLES (1655-1725), 
master of the revels, born at Maastricht on 
29 Dec. 1655, was son of Thomas Killigrew 
the elder [q. v.], by his second wife, Char- 
lotte, daughter of John de Hesse of Hol- 
land (, Collectanea Cornubiensia, s. v.) 
He was gentleman of the privy chamber to 
Charles II, 1670, James II, 1685, and Wil- 
liam and Mary, 1689, master of the revels 




in 1680, patentee of Drury Lane Theatre in 
1682, and commissioner of prizes in 1707. 
He lived at Somerset House, London, and 
Thomham Hall, Suffolk. His varied ac- 
quirements won him the friendship of Dryden 
(cf. Dedication of Juvenal, 1693, p. xxiii), 
Humphrey Prideaux, and others. He was 
buried in the Savoy on 8 Jan. 1724-5, leaving 
by his wife Jemima, niece of Richard Boken- 
ham, mercer, of London, two sons, Charles 
(d. 1756) and Guilford (will registered in 
P. C. 0. 13, Romney). Ilis library was sold 
in December following. 

[Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. ; Mal- 
colm's Anecdotes, pp. 427, 431 ; Notes and 
Queries, 1st ser. i. 204, 219; Gent. Mag. 1833, 
i. 27 ; Downes's Roscius Anglicanus, pp. 16, 
39; Moneys for Secret Services (Camd. Soc.), 
p. 34; Academy, 25 April 1874, p. 458; Fitz- 
gerald's Hist, of the Stage ; CaL State Papers, 
Treas. Ser.; Addit. MSS. 12201, 20726 ff. 16, 
37, 28227 f. 32 ; Chester's London Marriage 
Licences (Foster), col. 792.] G. G. 

KILLIGREW, Sib HENRY (d. 1603), 
diplomatist and ambassador, was tne fourth 
son of John Killigrew of Arwenack, of an 
old Cornish family, by Elizabeth, second 
daughter of James Trewenard of Trewenard 
(pedigree in Vivian's Visitations 0/ Cornwall, 
p. 268). He was probably educated at Cam- 
bridge, but there is no definite information 
on the point. On 18 Feb. 1552-3 he was re- 
turned member of parliament for Launces- 
ton {Members of the Parliament of England, 
pt. i. p. 378). He assisted Sir Peter Carew 
fq. v. Jin escaping to the continent in January 
1653-4, and during the remainder of Mary's 
reign appears to nave been in exile. He 
was at Paris in July 1556, when he was de- 
scribed by the English authorities as a rebel 
(CaL State Papers, For. Ser. 1553-8, p. 238). 
Sir James Melvillestates that ' Harry Killy- 
grew, an Englis jjentilman, my auld friend/ 
held his horse whde he got his wound dressed 
after his escape from St. Quentin (Memoirs, 
p. 35). Killigrew was recalled to England 
on the accession of Elizabeth, and she em- 
ployed him on various diplomatic missions, 
including one to Germany in connection with 
negotiations for a defensive league. In July 
1559 he went for a short time to assist 
Throckmorton in France. In June 1566 he 
was sent on a mission from Elizabeth to the 
Queen of Scots, for the ' declaration of sundry 
things necessary to be reformed between them 
forthe preservation of their amity ' (Instruc- 
tions to Henry Killigrew, CaL State Papers, 
Scott. Ser. i. 235V He returned in the follow- 
ing July, and alter the murder of Darnley 
was again sent to Scotland with a special 
message to the Queen of Scots, which he 

delivered t6 her ' in a dark chamber ' (id. p. 
243). On 20 April 1572 he was elected 
M.P. for Truro. In September 1572 he was 
again sent to Scotland, in connection with 
the negotiations for the surrender of the 
Queen of Scots to the protestant lords. 
They came to nothing, but Killigrew ulti- 
mately succeeded in persuading Elizabeth 
to send an English force to assist in the 
siege of the castle of Edinburgh He re- 
mained in Scotland till the castle fell, and 
in numerous letters to Burghley minutely 
described the siege, and the negotiations con- 
nected with its surrender (ib. Scott. Ser. and 
For. Ser.) Subsequently ne was employed 
in similar diplomatic missions in Scotland, 
Germany, France, and the Low Countries. 
While in attendance on the Earl of Essex 
in France he was knighted on 22 Nov. 1591. 
He died in the spring of 1602-3, his will 
being proved on 16 April. 

Lloyd eulogises Killigrew in his ' Worthies ' 
for his learning and his artistic accomplish- 
ments. He states that, while a good mu- 
sician, he was specially skilled as a painter, 
being *a Diirer for proportion; a Goltzius 
for a bold touch, variety of posture, a curious 
and true shadow ; an Angelo for his happy 
fancy, and an Holbein for oyl works/ but no 
authenticated work of his brush is known. 
Killigrew gave 140/. to Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge, for the purchase of St. Nicholas 
Hostel, the materials of which were applied 
to the construction of the lodge for Dr. Lau- 
rence Chaderton [q. v.], the first master. His 
London residence was in Lothbury. 

On 4 Nov. 1565 Killigrew married in the 
church of St. Peter-le-Poor, London, Cathe- 
rine, fourth daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke 
fsee Killigrew, Catherine]. She died in 
1583, and on 7 Nov. 1590 he was married 
in the same church to Jael de Peigne, a 
Frenchwoman. She was naturalised in June 
1601 (ib. Dom. Ser. 1601-3, p. 50), and on 
19 April 1617 she married George Down- 
ham [q. v.], bishop of Derry (Boase, Collect. 
Cornubiensia, p. 454). By his first wife 
Killigrew had four daughters : Anne, mar- 
ried first to Sir Henry Neville, and secondly 
to George Carleton [<j. v.], bishop of ChicheB- 
ter ; Elizabeth, married first to Sir Jonathan 
Trelawny, knt., secondly to Sir Thomas Rey- 
nell, knt., and thirdly to Sir Thomas Lower, 
knt,; Mary, to Sir Reginald Mohun; and 
Dorothy, to Sir Edwin Seymour. By his 
second wife he had a daughter, Jane, and 
two sons, Joseph and Henry, the former of 
whom, only ten years of age at his father's 
death, succeeded to the estates. 

[A Remembrance of Henry Kyllegrew's Jour- 
nyes in her Majesty's service, and by command- 




ment from Lorde Treasurer, from the last yeare 
of Queene Marye, is printed in Leonard Howard's 
Collection of Letters, pp. 184-8, from the British 
Museum Lansd. MS. 106. There are numerous 
diplomatic letters by him in the British Museum, 
the Record Office, and elsewhere, the majority 
of which have now been calendared in tho State 
Papers series. For the facts of his life see 
Vivian's Visitations of Cornwall, 1887, pp. 268-0 ; 
Boase's Bibliotheca Cornubiensis and Collec- 
tanea Cornubiensia ; Parochial History of Corn- 
wall, i. 397-400 ; Wootton's Baronetage ; Peck's 
Desiderata ; David Lloyd's Worthies ; Sir James 
Melville's Memoirs ; Cooper's Athenae Cantabr. 
ii. 345-9, 553.] T. F. H. 

1700), divine, the fifth son of Sir Robert 
Killigrew [q. v.], by Mary, daughter of Sir 
Henry Woodhouse of Kimberley, Norfolk, 
was born at the manor of Hanworth, near 
Hampton Court, on 11 Feb. 1612-13. He 
was educated under Thomas Farnaby [q. v.], 
entered Christ Church, Oxford, as a com- 
moner in 1628, and soon afterwards became 
a student. Two years later he contributed 
Latin verses to a volume, ' Britanniro Na- 
talis/ published at the university. He gra- 
duated B.A. on 5 July 1632, and became 
one of the quadragesimal collectors. On 
4 July 1638 he was created M. A. On 13 March 
1638 a play called 'The Conspiracy* was 
entered at Stationers' Hall (Akbek, Tran- 
script of the Registers, iv. 386). It was sur- 
reptitiously published in quarto form from an 
imperfect transcript from the original copy, 
which, with its author, was then in Italy. 
It was to be performed before the king on 
occasion of the marriage of the eldest son of 
the fourth Earl Pembroke to the daughter 
of the first Duke of Buckingham, and it was , 
afterwards acted at the Blackfriars Theatre. 
In 1653 Killigrew published a corrected ver- 
sion of the play, in folio, with a fresh title, 
' Pallantus and Eudora.' The preface states 
that Ben Jonson had praised it ; while, ac- 
cording to Langbaine, Lord Falkland de- 
fended it against some critics by saying that 
the author was only seventeen (really twenty- 
one) when he put language suited ior a man ; 
of thirty into the mouth of a lad of seventeen, j 
The play shows some skill for a youthful au- | 
thor. Sir Charles Sedley's * Tyrant King of 
Crete* was an adaptation from Killigrew's 

Upon the outbreak of the civil war in 
1642 Killigrew became chaplain to the king's 
army, and in November he was created D.I). 
at Oxford. Immediately afterwards he was 
appointed chaplain to James, duke of York, 
and at the Restoration in 1660 was made al- 
moner to the Duke of York, superintendent 

of the affairs of his chapel, prebendary of the 
twelfth stall at Westminster, and rector of 
Wheathamsted in Hertfordshire. Killigrew 
resigned the rectory in 1673 in favour of Dr. 
John Lambe, husband of his daughter Eliza- 
beth, who died on 28 Oct. 1701, in her fifty- 
first year. Killigrew had a salary of 100/. a 
year as chaplain and almoner to the Duke of 
York {Hist. MSS. Comm. 8th Rep. pt. i. p. 
278), and in 1663 he was appointed master of 
the Savoy, in succession to Sheldon. Killi- 
grew's sister, Lady Shannon, was one of 
Charles IPs mistresses. 

According to some writers the final ruin 
of the Savoy Hospital was the result of Killi- 
grew's improvidence and greed. A bill was 
passed in 1697 abolishing its privileges of sanc- 
tuary. The hospital was leased out in tene- 
ments, and the master appropriated the pro- 
fits; among the leases granted was one (1699) 
to Henry Killigrew, the patentee of Drury 
Lane Theatre, for his lodgings in the Savoy, at 
a rent of 1/. a year for forty years. Killigrew 
and other masters granted licenses of mar- 
riage. Each of the tour chaplains had 26/. a 
year, and when Killigrew died all of them 
were holding pluralities. Among them was 
his son-in-law, Dr. Lambe (appointed in 
1677). In 1702 the chaplains were deprived 
of office, and the hospital dissolved. The 
chaplains pointed out that about 1674 
Charles II had taken for other uses parts of 
the hospital allotted to the master and poorer 
persons in the hospital. Killigrew, after 
vainly trying to get them back, compensated 
some of the sufferers by pensions and doles. 
He had also spent money on the chapel of 
the hospital and Henry VII's Chapel at 
Westminster. Killigrew gave 50/. towards 
the completion of the building of Christ 
Church, Oxford, finished in 1665 (Wood, 
Antiquities, &c, 1786, iii. 448). He died on 
14 March 1699-1700 (Ltjttrell, Brief Rela- 
tion of State Affairs, 1857). Killigrew's 
wife, Judith, was buried at the Savoy on 
2 Feb. 1682-3. His daughter Anne and 
sons Henry and James are noticed sepa- 

Killigrew published: 1. 'Sermons [22] 
preached ... at Whitehall . . . and ... at 
the Chappell at St. James/ London, 1685. 
2. 'Twenty-five Sermons preached before 
the King, London, 1695 ; published by 
Bishop Patrick (Lowndes, Bibl. Manual), 
and some separate sermons. He contributed 
Latin verses to the Oxford collections : ' Bri- 
tannia Natalis/ 1630 ; * Musarum Oxonien- 
sium pro Rege suo Soteria/ 1633 ; ' Musarum 
Oxoniensium Charisteria pro Serenissima Re- 
gina Maria/ 1638; 'IIporAcia Anglo-Batava/ 
1641. A poem by killigrew is among the 




Malone MSS., Bodleian Library, No. 13, ' 
p. 71. I 

[Boase and Courtney's Bibliotheca Cornnbien- I 
sis, 1874, i. 290-1, hi. 1256; Genest's History 
of the English Stage, 1832, x. 109, 150; Wood's 
Fasti Oxonienses, 1815, i. 465, 506; Wood's 
Athenae Oxonienses, 1820, iv. 621-3; Walker's 
Numbers and Sufferings of the Clergy of the 
Church of England, 17 14, pt.ii. p. 290; Malcolm's 
Londinium Redivivmn, 1803, iii. 400, 408, 412- 
413, 420 ; Rev. W. J. Loftie's Memorials of the 
Savoy, 1878, pp. 152-3, 156-8, 209; Lang- , 
baine's Dramatick Poets, 1698, p. 82 ; Clutter- 
buck's Hertfordshire, 1815, i. 517-19; Pepys's 1 
Diary, 22 Nov. 1663 ; Le Neve's Knights, Harl. 
Soc. Publ. viii. 39.] G. A. A. | 

KILLIGREW, HENRY (d. 1712), ad- 
miral, son of Henry Killigrew, D.D. [q. v.], 
and brother of James Killigrew [q. v.], was 
made, after some service as a volunteer, lieu- 
tenant of the Cambridge in 1666 ; from her ' 
he was moved to the Sapphire, and in 1668 
to the Constant Warwick. In January 1672- . 
1673 he was made captain of the Forester, ' 
from which he was moved to the Bonadven- | 
ture, and afterwards to the Monck, one of | 
the ships with Prince Rupert through the 
summer of 1673. After tne peace he was 
continuously employed in the Mediterranean, 
on the African coast, where he successively 
commanded the Swan prize in 1674, the Har- 
wich and the Henrietta in 1676, the Bristol 
and the Royal Oak in 1676, and the Mary 
in 1678-9, returning to England in her in 
June 1679. In 1080 he commanded the 
Leopard and the Foresight; in 1683-4 he 
was captain of the Montagu in the expedition 
to Tangier under Lord Dartmouth, and of 
the Mordaunt in 1684-5 for a voyage to the 
Gambia. In 1686 he went out to the Medi- 
terranean in the Dragon as commodore of a 
small squadron for the suppression of piracy. 
A detailed account of this voyage, with a 
description of the several places visited, was 
written by G. Wood, Knligrew's clerk in 
the Dragon, and formerly in the Royal Oak 
and Mary (Addit MS. 19306). However 
interesting, the commission was uneventful, 
with the exception of a running fight on 8 Dec. 
1687 with a Sallee cruiser, which shot away 
the Dragon's fore and main topmasts, and thus 
escaped. In the course of tne action Killi- 
grew was severely wounded by the bursting 
of a gun. He returned to England in May 
1689, was promoted to be vice-admiral of the 
blue, and during the summer had his flag in 
the Kent in the Channel. In December he was 
appointed commander-in-chief of a powerful 
squadron, which in the following March sailed 
for the Mediterranean to oppose the passage 
of the Toulon fleet to Brest. On 9 May 1690 

he was refitting at Cadiz after a stormy pas- 
sage, when he learned that Chateau-Renault 
was at sea, with ten ships of the line. On 
the 10th Killigrew, having been joined by 
some of his ships from Gibraltar, was able to 
pursue with fifteen ; but they were foul, and 
sailed badly, and Chateau-Renault, having 
waited to ascertain their force, easily sailed 
away from them [cf. Herbert, Arthur, 
Earl op Torrington]. By the next morning 
the French squadron was hull down from the 
English van, which itself was hull down from 
the rear; and Killigrew, judging further 
pursuit useless, returned to Cadiz, whence, 
after arranging for the several services in 
the Mediterranean, he sailed home. Bad 
weather still opposed him. He was thirty- 
five days on the passage to Plymouth, and 
when he arrived the battle of Beachy Head 
had been fought, and the French for the time 
were masters of the Channel. On the super- 
session of the Earl of Torrington, Killigrew, 
Sir Richard Haddock [q. vJ, and Sir John 
Ashby [<}•▼•] were appointed ioint comman- 
ders-in-chief till December, when they were 
superseded by Admiral Edward Russell 
(afterwards Earl of Orford) [g. v.], Killigrew 
remaining with him as admiral of the clue 
squadron. In 1692 he had no command, but 
in 1693 was again one of the joint admirals, 
with Sir Clowdisley Shovell fq. v.] and Sir 
Ralph Delavall fq. v.] On 15 April 1693 he 
was appointed also a lord commissioner of the 
admiralty. After the disaster which befell 
the Smyrna fleet in June 1693 [see Rooxe, 
Sir George], Killigrew, together with De- 
lavall, was dismissed from tne command. It 
was said, and by many believed, that they 
were both in the interest of King James, 
and that the loss was due to treachery on 
their part (Burnet, Hist, of his own Time, 
Oxford ed., iv. 180). It is possible that Kil- 
ligrew's sympathies were, theoretically, with 
the banished king ; but there was no reason 
to suspect him of giving them a practical 
form, and though deprived of his command, 
he remained at the admiralty till May 1694. 
In 1702 he pointed out, in a memorial to the 
crown, that, although discharged from the 
command of the fleet on 6 Nov. 1693, he had 
not received any pay or allowance till 1699, 
when he had been granted half-pay as admiral 
j of the blue from 1 Oct. 1697. His prayer 
that he might be allowed full pay from 1693 
to 1697, and that his present allowance might 
be increased to full pay as admiral of the 
blue, was refused, the report on the petition 
further stating that, as war had been again 
declared, he could not receive half-pay or 
any other allowance except by special grant 
from her majesty. He was accordingly given 



a pension of 700/. a year (Home Office Re- 
cords, Admiralty, vol. xL), rather more than 
half-pay. He died at his seat near St. Albans 
on 9 Nov. 1712. 

[Charnock's Biog. Nav. i. 338 ; commission 
lists and other documents in Public Record 
Office ; Burchett's Transactions at Sea ; Lediard's 
Naval History; Boase and Courtney's Bibl. 
Cornub. i. 291, Hi. 1256.] J. K. L. 

KILLIGREW, JAMES (d. 1695), cap- 
tain in the navy, son of Henry Killigrew, 
D.D. [q. v.], ana brother of Admiral Henry 
Killigrew [q. v.], was appointed lieutenant 
of the Portsmouth on 5 Sept. 1688. On 
11 April 1690 he was promoted to be captain 
of the Sapphire, was employed in her cruis- 
ing in the Channel, and in July 1691 cap- 
tured a large French privateer. In 1692 he 
commanded the York, in 1693 the Crown, 
from which he was moved into the Plymouth 
of 60 guns, and sent with Admiral Russell 
to the Mediterranean. In January 1694-6 
he was cruising to the southward of Sardinia 
in command of a detached squadron of five 
ships, when, on the 18th, they sighted two 
French men-of-war, the Content of 60, and 
the Trident of 52 guns. In the chase the 
Plymouth, being far ahead of her consorts, 
closed with and engaged the enemy. She 
was much over-matched, and suffered se- 
verely. Killigrew and many of his men 
were killed. But the French ships had been 
delayed till the other English ships came up, 
and, being unable to escape, were both cap- 
tured. They were taken into Messina, and 
were afterwards added to the English navy. 
The question was afterwards raised by his 
brother, the admiral, whether his estate was 
not entitled to share in the prize-money, and 
evidence was adduced to the effect that the 
two French ships were disabled and virtu- 
ally beaten by the Plymouth's fire. Rus- 
sell, who was commander-in-chief in the 
Mediterranean at the time, presided over the 
admiralty, and he decided that as Killigrew 
was killed early in the action, and the Ply- 
mouth was beaten off by the French ships, 
the nrize-money was payable only to the 
captains of the Carlisle, Falmouth, and Ad- 
venture, which actually took them. Al- 
though presumably in accordance with the 
regulations of the day, such an award now 
appears unjust. 

[Charnock's Biog. Nav. ii. 327 ; Home Office 
Records (Admiralty), vol. iv. 16 July, 31 Aug. 
1C96.] J. K. L. 

1683), courtier, grandson of John Killigrew 
of Arwennack, Cornwall, and son of Six 
William Killigbew, by Margaret, daughter 

of Thomas Saunders of Uxbridge, Middlesex, 
was born in London, probably in 1579. His 
father, though always in debt, kept up a large 
house in Lothbury, London, and held the post 
of groom of the privy chamber to Queen 
Elizabeth, by whom he was granted the right 
to farm the profits of the seals of the queen's 
bench and common pleas. This privilege was, 
in spite of numerous protests, confirmed to 
him by the queen in 1577 (see Burghley 
Paper s, Lansdowne MSS. 25 and 83). In 
return for his perquisite Killigrew supported 
the court interest in parliament, where he re- 
presented Helston in 1572, Penryn in 1584, 
and the county of Cornwall in 1597. He was 
knighted by James I at Theobalds on 7 May 
1603, and represented Liskeard in the par- 
liament of 1604. Appointed chamberlain of 
the exchequer for 1605-6, Sir William Killi- 
grew sat once more for Penryn in 1614, and 
died in Lothbury on 23 Nov. 1622 (P. C. C. 
Savile,p. 96). 

As * Robert Killegrew of Hampshire ' he 
matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford, on 
29 Jan. 1590-1, aged 11. In 1601 he was 
returned to parliament for St. Mawes, Corn- 
wall. Knighted by James I at Hanworth 
on 23 July 1603, he sat for Newport in the 
parliament of the following year, and was 
sitting for Helston in May 1614, when during 
the debate on ' undertaking' he ' offered to 
pluck Sir Roger Owen off his chair/ or at 
any rate ' laid hands on him, used an unkind 
countenance to him, and sharp words.' His 
sequestration was demanded, but on the in- 
tercession of Sir Edward Montagu, and con- 
sidering the circumstance that 'his father, 
brother, and uncle, all in the house do con- 
demn the fact,' he was allowed to acknow- 
ledge his error at the bar ( Commons 9 Journals, 
i. 483). Killigrew represented Newport again 
in 1621, Penryn in 1623, Cornwall in 1625, 
Tregony in 1620, and Bodmin in 1628. The 
family interest in Cornish boroughs must 
have been very strong, since in 1614, while 
his father was still alive, and other members 
of the family held Cornish seats, Sir Robert 
gave a seat at Helston to Sir James White- 
locke (Liber Famelicus, p. 41 ; cf. Court- 
ney, Pari. Representation of Cornwall, p. 18). 

In the middle of May 1613 Killigrew, who 
had just emerged from the Fleet prison — 
the cause of his confinement is unknown — 
paid a visit to Sir Walter Raleigh in the 
Tower. On leaving Raleigh he was hailed 
from a window by another prisoner, Sir 
Thomas Overbury. Killigrew had been on, 
friendly terms with Overbury, and stood for 
some minutes in private conversation with 
him. For this offence he was on 19 May 
committed once more to the Fleet (Win- 




wood, Memorials, iii. 465), but his detention 
was a short one, as on 7 July 1613 he was 
appointed captain or keeper of Pendennis 
Castle for life (State Papers, Dom. Ser. 1611- 
1613, p. 242). That he permitted Killigrew 
to converse with Overbury was one of the 
charges brought against Sir William Waad, 
lieutenant of the Tower, previous to his dis- 
missal in June 1613. But Killigrew was 
more intimately concerned with the mystery 
in which Overbury's death was involved. 
He had obtained a great reputation among 
the courtiers as a concoctor of drugs and 
cordials, and as a man of general scientific 
attainments (see a letter of his to Sir Dudley 
Carleton on a perspective glass ; ib. 1618-19). 
According to a statement made by Killigrew 
at the investigation regarding Overbury's 
last days (3 Oct. 1616) Somerset had in May 
1613 sent to him on three separate occasions 
for one of his white powders. The first of these 
powders was avowedly for Overbury, and 
was to be forwarded, he was told, in answer 
to the prisoner's own request for an emetic 
(see Gakdiner, History, li. 182). Somerset 
alleged that it was one of Killigrew's powders 
that had such bad effects on Overbury on 
the night of 3 June 1613. But it came out 
in the evidence that these effects were attri- 
butable to a fourth powder, and Killigrew 
solemnly affirmed that Somerset had from 
him but three, all of which were quite harm- 
less, and similar to those he was in the habit 
of dispensing (Amos, The Great Oyer of 
Poisoning, j>t>. 106-7, 144). On Somerset's 
downfall Killigrew found a friend in Buck- 
ingham, who wrote on his behalf to Bacon 
in 1619 about a suit for certain concealed 
lands. He lost favour by a duel which he 
had with Captain Burton on 7 Jan. 1618, but 
recovered it sufficiently to be appointed pro- 
thonotary of chancery for life on 31 Oct. 
1618. In 1619 he was granted some lands 
in Windsor Forest, and from this date until 
his death he accumulated small perquisites 
about the court. He would have obtained 
more both for his sons and on his own ac- 
count if he had not given offence to Bucking- 
ham by his complaints against his agent, Sir 
James Bagge (see Killigrew's letter to Lord 
Conway, Fobbtbb, Eliot, ii. 67). In 1625 
a grant of 350/. was made to him by parlia- 
ment for the repair of three Cornish strong- 
holds, the castles of St. Mawes, St. MichaePs 
Mount, and Pendennis. In this year also, 
in a debate concerning the supply demanded 
by the new king, Killigrew moved in the 
interest of the court that the question should 
not be put, thus averting from the royal 
party the humiliation of open defeat (Debates 
tnPar/ta»M»^,1625,Camd.Soc.,p.l20). On 

8 Sept. 1625 it was mentioned that he was 
likely to succeed Sir Dudley Carleton as resi- 
dent ambassador to the States-general, and 
he was actually appointed on 7 Feb. follow- 
ing (Cal. State Papers, Dom. Ser. 1625-6). 
On 2 Jan. 1630, once more in England, he 
was appointed vice-chamberlain to the queen. 
Killigrew was an original shareholder in the 
New River Company, incorporated 21 June 
1619, and bore a part in the draining of the 
Lindsey Level in 1630 (ib. 1629-31, p. 426). 
He died at his country seat, Kineton Park, 
Han worth, in the spring of 1633. His will 
was proved 12 May 1633 (P. C. C. Russell, 
69). Although he shared the fiery temper 
characteristic of his family, Killigrew was a 
man of much originality and business capacity. 

He married Mary, daughter of Sir Henry 
Woodhouse of Kimberley, Norfolk, and niece 
of Sir Francis Bacon (Blomefield, Norfolk, 
ix. 353). She survived him, and remarried 
Sir Thomas Stafford, gentleman-usher to 
Queen Henrietta Maria. The Countess of 
Warwick remarks of her in her autobiography 
(Percy Soc. 1848, p. 9), ' she was a cunning 
old woman who had been herself too much, 
and was too long versed in amours.' Killi- 
grew had five sons, including William (after- 
wards Sir William), Thomas the dramatist, 
and Henry the divine, who are separately 
noticed, and seven daughters, one of whom, 
Elizabeth, married Francis Boyle, first vis- 
count Shannon. She had a daughter by 
Charles II, Charlotte Jemima Henrietta 
Boyle, alias Fitzroy (d. 1684), who became 
Countess of Yarmouth (Jacob, English Peer- 
age, ii. 482 ; Notes and Queries, 4th ser. vii. 
258, viii. 98). 

[Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Conrab. ; Ar- 
chaeologia. xviii. 99 (pedigree) ; Vivian's Visita- 
tions of Cornwall, 1887, pp. 268, 271 ; Miscellanea 
Genealog. and Herald, new ser. i. 370 ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Metcalfe's Knights, 
Append, p. 222; Spedding's Bacon, passim ; Harl. 
MSS. 7002 and 7006 ; Sloane MS. 203, fol. 38; 
Dugdale's Hist, of Irabanking, 1772, p. 424 ; 
Nichols's Progresses of James I, ii. 641 ; W. P. 
Courtney's Pari. Representation of Cornwall, pp. 
42, 169, &c. ; Gardiner's History, v. 429 ; Re- 
turns of Members of Pari. ; Notes and Queries, 
4th ser. vii. 454, 550.] T. S. 

KILLIGREW, THOMAS (1612-1683), 
dramatist, son of Sir Robert Killigrew [<!•▼•]> 
by Mary, daughter of Sir Henry Woodhouse, 
born in Lothbury, London, 7 Feb. 1611-12, 
was baptised on the 20th at St. Margaret's, 
Lothbury. While a child he used, according 
to Sir John Mennis, to go to the Red Bull, 
and when the manager asked for boys to 
personate devils, to volunteer and thus see 
the play for nothing. Appointed in 1633 




page to Charles I, he remained constant to 
the fortunes of that monarch and his suc- 
cessor. He married, 29 June 1636, Cecilia 
or Cicely, daughter of Sir John Crofts of 
Saxham, Suffolk, by whom he had a son 
Henry. A dispute on jealousy between Killi- 
grew and Miss Crofts supplied Thomas Carew 
[q. v.] with the subject of a duet, which, 
with full acknowledgment of indebtedness, 
is printed by Killigrew at the close of oart ii. 
of nis ' Cicilia and Clorinda,' whence it was 
transferred to the 1671 edition of Carew's 
poems. Carew also wrote a poem ' On the 
Mariage of T. K. and C. C. The morning 
stormie/ which appears in his ' Poems,' ed. 

1640, and an anonymous epithalamium was 
among Sir Thomas Phillipps's MSS. 4001. 
The lady died 1 Jan. 1637-8, and in 1640 
Quarles issued his ' Sighes at the contem- 
porary deaths ' of ' Mistress Cicely Killegrve ' 
and her sister the Countess of Cleveland. 

KiUigrew was in France in 1635, and 
while tnere wrote a letter concerning the 
' Possessing and Dispossessing of several 
Nuns in the Nunnery at Tours in France/ 
three sheets folio, dated Orleans, 7 Dec. 1635. 
Manuscripts of this are in the Bodleian (Ash- 
molean MS. 800, art. iii. ff. 21-7) and in 
the library of Magdalene College, Cambridge 
(Pepys Coll. No. 8383). It is reprinted in 
the * European Magazine/ 1803, xliii. 102- 
106. This was followed by the * Prisoners ' 
and ' Claracilla/ two tragi-comedies, 12mo, 

1641. In the 1664 collection of Killigrew's 
works the former, the scene of which is Sar- 
dinia, is dedicated to his ' Dear Niece, the Lady 
Crompton/ and is the only play in the col- 
lection which is said to have been written in 
London ; the second piece, ' Claracilla/ which 
is dedicated to his ' Dear Sister, the Lady 
Shannon/ and has its scene in Sicily, was 
written while he was in Home. Both were 
produced at the Phoenix, otherwise the Cock- 
pit, in Drury Lane. Mr. Fleay puts the date 
of both performances before 1636, and dates 
the representation of a third play by Killi- 
grew, the 'Parson's Wedding/ his best- 
known comedy, between 1637 and 1642. 
This piece, written at ' Basil in Switzerland/ 
seems to have first seen the light in the folio 
of 1664. 

Killigrew was in London on 3 Sept. 1642, 
when he was committed by a warrant from 
the parliament to the custody of Sir John 
Lentnall, on a charge of taking up arms for 
the king. On 16 May 1643 he successfully 
petitioned the House of Lords from the 
King's Bench prison to make void all suits 
begun against Trim since he was in confine- 
ment. After his release he went to Oxford 
in 1644, and seems to have subsequently con- 

tinued his travels; in 1647 he joined Prince 
Charles in his exile in Paris. A brilliant 
conversationist, and a man little disturbed 
by moral scruples, Killigrew warmly com- 
mended himself to Charles II, by whom, in 
spite of some remonstrances, he was appointed 
resident at Venice in 1651. His proceedings 
there, the manner in which, with royal con- 
nivance, he borrowed money for his master 
and for his own subsistence, and his general 
debauchery led in June 1652 to his compul- 
sory withdrawal and a complaint to Charles 
from the Venetian ambassador in Paris. 
Killigrew'8 vindication is among the Claren- 
don MSS. (Col. Clarendon Papers, ii. 143). 
His recall from Venice was the subject of some 
waggishness on the part of the English poets. 
Denham's lines concerning him are well 

Our resident Tom 

From Venice is come, 
And has left all the statesman behind him ; 

Talks at the same pitch, 

Is as wise, is as rich, 
And just where you left him yon find him. 

But who says he is not 

A man of much plot 
May repent of his false accusation, 

Having plotted and penned 

Six plays to attend 
The Farce of his negotiation. 

His travels during this, his second conti- 
nental tour, included Italy and Spain, and 
he spent some time in Florence, Turin, and 
Madrid, as well as in Paris and Venice. 
He occupied part of his time in writing a 
new series of plays. Besides his plays Killi- 
grew brought back with him, on returning 
to London at the Restoration, a second wife, 
Charlotte, born 16 July 1629, daughter of 
John de Hesse, whom he married at the 
Hague 28 Jan. 1654-5. She was appointed 
keeper of the sweet coffer for the queen in 
May 1662, and first lady of the queen's privy 
chamber 4 June 1662 {Brit. Mm. Addit. MS. 
20032, f. 44). 

Immediately after his return home Killi- 
grew was appointed in 1660 groom of the 
bedchamber to Charles II, and subsequently 
chamberlain to the queen. The greatest proof 
of royal favour consisted, however, in the 
grant by Charles II, in August 1660, to Killi- 
grew and Sir William D'Avenant [<j. v.] of 
S stents to erect two new playhouses in Iion- 
on, Westminster, or the suburbs thereof, 
to raise two new companies of plavers, and 
to have the sole regulation thereof Leave 
was also given to the two managers to 
license their own plays. This interference 
with the privileges of Sir Henry Herbert, 




the master of the revels, involved both 
managers in disputes and litigation with 
that functionary [see ILeebbkt, Sib Henry.] 
More pliable or amenable than D'Avenant, 
Killigrew came to terms with his opponent, 
and articles of agreement between them 
were signed 4 June 1662, by which ' a 
firme amity ' was concluded, and Killigrew, 
who is described as 'Thomas Killigrew of 
Covent Garden, Esq., agrees to pay before 
4 Aug. next all monies due to Sir Henry 
Herbert from the King and Queenes com- 
pany of players ... for the new plays at 
forty shillings a play, and for the revived 
plays at twenty shillings a play/ This agree- 
ment carried costs and a solatium of 50/. to 
Sir Henry for the damage he had suffered. 
Killigrew also formally abjured D'Avenant 
and all his works with ' any of his pretended 
company of players/ or any other company 
of players (Halliwell, Ancient Doc.) On 
15 Jan. 1662-3 a second patent was granted 
to Killigrew ; it is identical with one given 
to D'Avenant at the same time (cf. Colley 
Cibbeb, Apology i ed. Lowe, preface). 

Killigrew's actors were soon officially re- 
cognised as the king's servants, but the exact 
date is not clear. His company seems, ac- 
cording to Downes, who received the infor- 
mation at second hand, to have first ' Acted at 
the [Red] Bull, and [to have] Built them a 
New House in Gibbons Tennis Court in Clare 
Market, in which Two Places they continu'd 
Acting all 1660, 1661, 1662, and part of 1663.' 
Malone gives a list of the stock plays of the 
king's company at the Red Bull, twenty in 
all. They include Shakespeare's ' First Fart 
of Henry IV,' * Merry Wives/ and « Othello/ 
Killigrew's ' Claracilla, , and some pieces by 
Beaumont and Fletcher. On 4 July 1661 
Pepys saw ' Claracilla ' at ' the theatre ' for 
the first time, and on 5 Jan. 1662-3 the 
same play at the Cockpit done by the king's 
players. Killigrew's company then consisted, 
according to Downes, of Theophilus Bird, 
Hart, Mohun, Lacy, Burt, Cartwright, Clun, 
Baxter, Robert and William Shatterel,Duke, 
Hancock, Wintersel, Bateman, and Blagden j 
Mrs. Corey, Mrs. Ann Marshall, Mrs. East- 
land, Mrs. Weaver, Mrs. Uphill, Mrs. Knep, 
and Mrs. Hughs, besides Kynaston, whose 
feminine characters did something to popu- 
larise the king's company, and at least eleven 
other boys. 

Meanwhile, Killigrew and the principal 
actors of his company obtained from the Earl 
of Bedford a lease for forty-one years of a 
piece of ground lying in the parishes of St. 
Martin-in-the-Fields and St. Paul's, Covent 
Garden, known by the name of the Riding 
Yard, the lessees engaging to pay a ground- 


rent of 50/. and to erect a theatre at an ex- 
pense of 1,500/. On this site, which is now 
occupied by Drury Lane Theatre, Killigrew 
built a house 112 feet in length from east to 
west, and 59 feet in depth from north to 
south. It was known at first as the Theatre 
Royal, and subsequently as Drury Lane, and 
was opened 8 April 1663 with the * Humour- 
ous Lieutenant of Beaumont and Fletcher, 
which was acted twelve days consecutively. 
'Rule a Wife and Have a Wife/ by Beau- 
mont and Fletcher, was given during the same 
season, when the company was strengthened 
by the accession of Mrs. Boutel, Mrs. Ellen 
Gwin, Mrs. James, Mrs. Rebecca Marshall, 
Mrs. Rutter, Mrs. Verjuice, and Mrs. Knight ; 
Hains, Griffin, Goodman, Lyddal, Charleton, 
Sherly, and Beeston. 

Killigrew revived his ' Parson's Wedding ' 
at the Theatre Royal or Drury Lane in Octo- 
ber 1664, and again in 1672 or 1673 at Lin- 
coln's Inn Fields, which was then occupied 
by his company. On both occasions it was 
acted, presumably on account of its obscenity, 
only by women, Mrs. Marshall at each re- 
vival speaking the prologue and epilogue (in- 
cluded in 'Covent Garden Drolleries') in 
masculine attire. On 11 Oct. 1664 Lueilin re- 
marked to Pepys : * What an obscene loose play 
this " Parson s Wedding " is, that it is acted 
by nothing but women at the king's house ! ' 

According to Malone, Killigrew drew from 
the profits of the theatre in 1666 two shares 
and three-quarters out of a total of twelve 
shares and three-quarters. Each share was 
supposed to produce 250/. Cibber declares 
that Killigrew's company was better than 
that of his rival D'Avenant until D'Avenant 
gained superior populari ty by adding spectacle 
and music to his performances. But Killigrew 
also interested himself in the improvement of 
the scenery of the theatre, and in the introduc- 
tion of good music. He told Pepys that he had 
been eight or ten times to Rome to hear good 
music (12 Feb. 1666-7), but had not been able 
to supply his English patrons with anything 
better than ballads. In August 1664 he 
announced his intention of building a theatre 
in Moorfields in order to have common plays 
acted. ' Four operas were to be given in the 
year for six weeks each, with the best scenes, 
music, and everything as magnificent as is 
in Christendom, painters and singers to be 
brought from Italy ' (Pepys). On 12 Feb. 
1666-7 Pepys was told that Killigrew was 
about to produce an opera by Giovanni Bat- 
tista Draghi [q. v.], but nothing further is 
known of the intention. In January 1672 
Drury Lane Theatre was burnt down, and 
Killigrew's company played at Lincoln's Inn 
Fields till Drury Lane was rebuilt and re- 





opened 26 March 1674 (cf. Shakespeare So- 
cieties Papers, iv. 147 sq.) On the death of 
Sir Henry Herbert in 1673, Killigrew suc- 
ceeded him as master of the revels. Her- 
bert gave to Killigrew some manuscript di- 
rections concerning the duties of the office 
on 29 March 1664 (see Notes and Queries, 
1st ser. i. 279). 

Oldys spoke of Killigrew as the king's 
jester, and Pepys was told on 13 Feb. 1667-8 
that ' Tom Killigrew hath a fee out of the 
wardrobe for cap and bells under the title of 
the king's jester, and may revile or geere 
anybody, the greatest person without oflence, 
by the privilege of his place/ Pepys calls 
him ' a merry aroll, but a gentleman of great 
esteem with the king,' and says that he ' told 
us many merry stories ' (24 May 1660). 

Killigrew is certainly best remembered as 
a wit, and he appears to have treated his 
royal master with remarkable freedom. He 
told Charles on one occasion that he was 
going ' to hell to fetch back Oliver Crom- 
well, that he may take some care of the 
affairs of England, for his successor takes 
none at all.' He is said to have won a wager 
of 100/. from the Duke of Lauderdale, who 
was deploring Charles's continued absence 
from the council-table, by persuading the 
king to repair thither immediately. Accord- 
ing to Pepys, when Charles spoke of the 
Duke of York as Tom Otter, a henpecked 
husband in Ben Jonson's ' Epiccene/ Kiuigrew 
remarked to him, ' Sir, pray which is the best 
for a man to be, a Tom Otter to his wife or to his 
mistress P ' a reference to the king's relations 
with Lady Castlemaine. Nor, it is said some- 
what apocryphally, did he treat Louis XIV 
more ceremoniously. "When Louis showed 
him at Paris a picture of the crucifixion 
hanging between portraits of himself and the 
pope, Killigrew is alleged to have remarked : 
' Though I have often heard that our Saviour 
was buried between two thieves, yet I never 
knew who they were till now' (Hals, Paro- 
chial History of Cornwall, under ' Falmouth '). 
Grammont {Memoirs) speaks of Killigrew 
as a man of honour, and tells stories concern- 
ing him that at any other period, and in most 
other courts, would have deprived him of all 
claim to the title. He mentions, however, 
that Killigrew, while returning from the Duke 
of York's, received three passes with a sword 
through his chair, one of which went entirely 
through his arm, the cause of the attack being 
his intemperate language. This was not the 
only occasion on which ne had to pay for the 
license he allowed himself. On 16 Feb. 1668- 
1669, Rochester, while in the company of 
the king, gave Killigrew a box on the ear. 
Instead of resenting this violence in his 

presence, Charles shortly afterwards took 
the earl's arm, and Killigrew was forced to 
stomach the affront. 

Killigrew survived the union of the two 
companies — the king's and the duke's — in 
1682, though his name does not appear to the 
agreement [for which see Betterton, Tho- 
mas, and Habt, Charles, d. 1683]. He 
died at Whitehall on 19 March 1682-8, and 
is buried in "Westminster Abbey. Fifty pounds 
was paid by the king towards his funeral 
charges (Akerhan, Secret Service Money of 
Charles II and James II, Camd. Soc.) His 
wife survived him. Letters of administra- 
tion were granted to her estate, 15 May 1716, 
when she was in her eighty-seventh year (see 
Howard, Monthly Miscellanea, i. 370). By 
her Killigrew had four sons and two daugh- 
ters. She and three of her sons by Killigrew 
were naturalised by act of parliament, 3 June 
1664 (Lords 9 Journals, xi. 420). Killigrew's 
eldest son Robert, brigadier-general, was 
killed at Almanza 14 April 1707, aged 47. 
His younger sons Charles and Thomas are 
separately noticed. 

Portraits of Killigrew and Carew in the 
same picture are in the Vandyck Room at 
Windsor Castle. Faithorne has engraved 
many portraits. One represents Killigrew in 
the dress of a pilgrim, with the distich 

You see my face, and if you'd know my mind, 
'Tis this : I hate myself and all mankind. 

His portrait, with that of Lord Coleraine, 
appears in an engraving known as 'The 
Princely Shepherds.' It is supposed to have 
been done for a masque. Another portrait 
was purchased in 1892 for the National Por- 
trait Gallery. 

In 1664 was published the folio edition 
of Killigrew's ' Works,' with a portrait by 
Faithorne of the author with a dog. It is en- 
titled ' Comedies and Tragedies written by 
Thomas Killigrew, Pace of Honour to King 
Charles the First, and Groom of the Bed 
Chamber to King Charles the Second,' Lon- 
don, by Henry Ilerringman. The volume 
contains : (1) ' The Princesse, or Love at First 
Sight,' a tragi-comedy; (2) 'The Parson's 
Wedding,' a comedy, which has been re- 
printed m successive editions of Hodsley's 
' Old Plays ;' (3) ' The Pilgrim,' a tragedy ; 
(4) the first part of ' Cicilia and Clorinda, 
or Love in Arms,' a tragi-comedy ; (5) the 
second part of the same ; (6) ' Thomaso, or 
the Wanderer/ a comedy; (7) the second 
part of ' Thomaso ;' (8) ' Claracilla,' a tragi- 
comedy; (9) 'The Prisoners,' a tragi-comedy; 

(10) the first part of ' Bellamira her Dream, 
or the Love of Shadows/ a tragi-comedy ; 

(11) the second part of 'Bellamira.' Each 




of these plays, or parts of plays, has a sepa- 
rate title-page dated 1663 or 1664. Three of 
them (Nos. 1, 2, and 8) were, as has been 
seen, acted before the civil war, and there is 
no record of a performance of any of the 
others. Few of them, indeed, seem to have 
been intended for the stage, those that are 
in two parts consisting, as Genest observes, 
of plays in ten acts divided into halves, the 
first part bringing with it nothing in the 
shape of a denouement of action. The ' Par- 
son s Wedding* is outspoken enough for 
Wycherley, and verbose enough for the 
Duchess of Newcastle. It has wit of a sort, 
and Congreve has condescended to adopt 
some of its jokes. According to Langbaine, 
its intrigue of ' Careless and Wild circum- 
venting the Lady Wild and Mrs. Pleasance 
into marriage is an incident in several plays, 
as " Ram Alley," " Antiquary," &c, but in 
none so well managed as m this play.' Kil- 
ligrew's other comic pieces are less flagrantly 
indecent, but also less amusing. In his serious 
pieces Killigrew is seen to no great advan- 
tage. Genest affirms that the 'Pilgrim ' is a 
good tragedy, which, with judicious altera- 
tions, might have been made fit for represen- 
tation. Portions of it are indeed written 
with some vigour, but poetry and imagina- 
tion are absent, and the excisions that would 
fil it for performance would have to be nume- 
rous. Of the second part of 'Cicilia and 
Clorinda ' Langbaine says that the first scene 
between Amadeo, Lucius, and Manlius 
' seems copied from the characters of Agla- 
tidas, Artabes, and Megabises in the " Grand 
Cyrus : " see "The History of Aglatidas and 
Amestris," pt. i. bk. in.' In affirming that 
ornaments in ' Thomaso ' are taken from the 
' Captain ' by Fletcher, and that a character 
and some words are copied from Jonson's 
'Fox/ Langbaine acquits Killigrew of the 
intention to conceal his theft, and adds that 
' if every poet that borrows knew as well as 
Mr. Killigrew how to dispose of it, 'twould 
certainly be very excusable.' In Moseley's 
edition of William Cartwright's 'Poems,' 
1651, are lines of somewhat turgid praise 
dedicated to ' Mr. Thomas Killigrew on his 
two playes, the " Prisoners " and " Clara- 
cilia. ' ' Killigrew's separate plays are dedi- 
cated mostly to ladies of rank. The opinion 
generally entertained of Killigrew is ex- 
pressed m two lines of Denham — 

Had Cowley ne'er spoke, Killigrew ne'er writ, 
Combin'd in one, they'd made a matchless wit. 

Manuscripts relating to Killigrew are in 
various collections. The most important 
of these, ' An Account of T. Killigrew's Re- 
sidence at Venice,' with many documents 

in his handwriting, 1649, is in the British 
Museum (Add. MS. 20032). Other papers 
relating to his residence in Venice are among 
the Clarendon MSS. in the Bodleian Library. 
Killigrew's abstract of title to the playhouse, 
Drury Lane, from 14th Charles II to 1684, is in 
the Addit. MS. 20726, f. 1, British Museum. 
Suggestions for alterations in 'Julius Caesar,' 
signed T. Killigrew, are in Add. MS. 22629, 
art. 41. Numerous indentures and agree- 
ments concerning Drury Lane Theatre also 
exist in manuscript, and ' Mr. Thomas Killi- 
grew's Letters of his Travels,' in the manu- 
scripts of Trinity College, Dublin, seem to 
call for publication. 

[Books cited ; Clarendon's Hist, of the Re- 
bellion ; Langbaine's Dramatic Poets ; Genest's 
Account of the Stage; Malone's Suppl. to the 
Biographia Dramatica; Boase and Courtney's 
Bibliotneca Coruubiensis ; Downes's Roscius An- 
glican us ; Wood's Athena Oxonienses, ed. Bliss ; 
Hal li well's Ancient Documents concerning the 
Office of Master of the Bevels ; Lowndes's Bibl. 
Man. ; Williams's Dramatic Censor ; Notes and 
Queries, 1st and 3rd ser.; Cibber's Apology; 
Chester's Westminster Abbey Registers ; infor- 
mation kindly supplied by C. H. Firth, esq.] 

J. K. 

KILLIGREW, THOMAS, the younger 
(1657-1719), dramatist, son of Thomas Killi- 
grew [q. v.J, by his second wife, Charlotte 
de Hesse, was born in February 1667 (Miscell. 
Genealog. et Herald, new ser. i. 370). He 
fought a duel, according to LuttrelTs ' Brief 
Relation,' on 31 Jan. 1692, and was subse- 
quently gentleman of the bedchamber to 
George H when Prince of Wales. He is 
the author of ' Chit Chat, a Comedy in fiye 
acts. Ais it is acted at the Theatre Royal, 
in Drury Lane, by his Majesties servants. 
Written by Mr. falligrew, Lond., Printed 
for Bernard Lintot,' 8vo, no date (1719). 
It is dedicated to the Duke of Argyll, and is 
a pleasant, gossipping, happily named piece, 
with very little plot, as the author acknow- 
ledges in the prologue, but some moderately 
felicitous dialogue. It was played at Drury 
Lane 14 Feb. 1719, withWilks, Booth, Cibber, 
Mrs. Thurmond, Mrs. Porter, and Mrs. Old- 
field in the principal parts. Thanks to the 
zeal of the Duke of Argyll and other friends 
of the author, it kept the stage eleven nights, 
and brought its author no less than 1,000/., 
which, however, he did not live to enjoy, 
since he died a few months afterwards, and 
was buried at Kensington 21 July 1719. 
His play went through two editions in 1719. 
'Miscellanea Aurea, or the Golden Medley,' 
London, printed for A. Bettes worth, 1720, 
contains 'The Fable of Aumilius and the 
Statue of Venus/ which is signed T. Killi- 





grew. An agreement for the sale of ' Chit 
Chat ' to Bernard Lintot for 84/. was on sale 
by T. Thorpe in 1843. A portrait of a l Cap- 
tain ' Killigrew is mentioned by Nichols (viii. 
722) as in Xumley Castle. It appears to be 
that of another Killigrew. 

[Genest's Accountof the English Stage ; Baker's 
Biographia Dramatica; Boase and Courtney's 
Bibliotheca Cornubiensis ; Lysons's Environs of 
London.] J. K. 

1695), dramatist, the eldest son of Sir Robert 
Killigrew [q. v.], was baptised at Hanworth, 
Middlesex, 28 May 1606, and entered a gen- 
tleman-commoner of St. John's College, Ox- 
ford, 4 July 1623. He was knighted 12 May 
1626, and made what was called the tour of 
Europe. He was elected by double returns 
member of parliament for Newport and Pen- 
ryn, both in Cornwall, and sat for the latter, 
1628-9; was appointed governor of Pen- 
dennis Castle and Falmouth Haven, and ob- 
tained the command of the West Cornwall 
militia. He succeeded to the family man- 
sion in Lothbury, and to Kineton Park, near 
Hampton Court, on his father's death in 1633. 
He was made gentleman-usher to Charles I, 
and had command of one of the two troops of 
horse that guarded the person of the ting 
during the civil war. While in attendance 
on Charles I at Oxford, he took, 1 or 2 Nov. 
1642, the degree of D.C.L. After the defeat 
of the royal cause he compounded for his 
estate with the committee of sequestration. 
He was in much trouble with his neighbours, 
who resented his efforts to drain portions of 
the Lancashire fens for his own benefit. In 
the manuscripts of the House of Lords there 
are, among many similar papers, a petition 
of Henry Carr and others of Donnington, 
Lincolnshire, respecting their imprisonment 
in the Fleet for a riot in the Fens by the 
House of Lords at the suggestion of Sir W. 
Killigrew, 1641 ; a petition of Thomas Kirke 
of Burne (Bourn, Lincolnshire), respecting 
the impounding of his cattle and other per- 
secutions at the hands of Sir William Killi- 
grew, 14 Dec. 1640 ; petition of Sir W. Killi- 
grew and others respecting Lindsey's Level, 
in Lincolnshire, 9 May 1642, with the copy 
of order therein ; petition of Sir W. Killi- 
grew about Thomas Kirke, the Earl of Lind- 
sey, and the riots at Lindsey Level, 22 Feb. 
1647-8, 3 Sept. 1660; and another petition 
against the same, in which Killigrew states 
that he owes 11,000/. Killigrew and the 
other drainers in Lindsey Level had lost 
30,000/. by Kirke's conduct, and Killigrew 
on 22 Feb. 1647-8 ' prays the house to con- 
sider the estate of himself, his wife, and 
family, who do beg their bread, which misery 

is fallen on them through the riotous conduct 
of Kirke.' Killigrew was one of the first to 
taste of the not too lavishly accorded bounty 
of Charles n, who after the Restoration re- 
stored him to his former post of gentle- 
man-usher of the privy chamber. After his 
marriage to Catherine of Portugal, Charles 
appointed him vice-chamberlain to the queen, 
a post he held for two-and-twenty years. On 
9 April 1664 he was elected M.F. for Rich- 
mond, Yorkshire, vice Sir John Yorke, de- 
ceased, and continued to sit for the borough 
until 1678. After 1682 Killigrew disappeared 
from court. Two grants of 20/. were made 
to him by Charles II (Akerman, Secret Ser- 
vice Mvney, Camd. Soc. 1851, pp. 24, 42). 
He was buried in the Savoy Chapel 17 Oct. 
1696. By his wife Mary, daughter of John 
Hill of Honilay, Warwickshire, he had three 
sons, Henry (d. 1661), William, a captain 
in the army, and Sir Robert. A daughter 
Elizabeth married Sir Francis Clinton. 

In 1665 appeared, in 8vo, 'Three Playes, 
written by Sir William Killigrew, Vice- 
Chamberlain to her Majesty the Queen Con- 
sort. 1 664 ; viz., Selindra, Pandora, Or- 
masdes.' These were reprinted in 8vo in 1674. 
Among the contributors of commendatory 
verses, English or Latin, are : R. Stapylton, 
the translator of Juvenal, whose lines are 
suggestively headed ' To Envy ; f Edmund 
Waller, 'Of Pandoras not being approved 
upon the Stage as a Tragedy ; ' T. P. (? Thomas 
Porter) ; T. L., whose verses Lamb gives in 
extenso in his ' Dramatic Poets j ' and Lodo- 
wick Carlisle. Of 'Pandora' as a tragedy 
nothing is known. It was played as a comedy 
at Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre, and is for the 
epoch both well written and passably decent. 
Much of its dialogue and one or two of the 
female characters are vivacious. ' Selindra ' 
and ' Ormasdes ' are fairly interesting works, 
happy in termination, but called tragi-come- 
dies, as some deaths by violence are intro- 
duced. ' Selindra ' is mentioned by Downes 
as having been given at the Theatre Royal. 
Of the performance of ' Ormasdes ' no record 
is extant. In 1666 was published in folio, 
Oxford, printed by Henry Hall, printer to 
the university, for Richard Davis, ' Fovr new 
Playes ; viz., The Seege of Urbin, Selindra, 
Love and Friendship, Tragy-Comedies : and 
Pandora. A Comedy. Written by Sir Wil- 
liam Killigrew, Vice^Chamberlaine to Her Ma- 
jesty .' ' Love and Friendship ' is ' Orma8des. , 
The* Siege of Urbin/ also unacted, is a capable 
and sympathetic play. The plays have sepa- 
rate title-pages, and the volume contains some 
further commendatory verses. In 1663 ap- 
peared ' A Proposal shewing how the Nation 
may be vast Gamers by all the Sums of Money 




given to the Crown without lessening the 
Sterogative ... by W. Killigrew. To which 
is prefixed The late Honourable Sir James 
Sheenes Letter on the same Subject/ no place 
or date [London, 166STJ, 4to, 16 pp. In Lon- 
don, 1684, appeared ' The Artless Midnight 
Thoughts of a Gentleman at Court ; who 
for many Years built on Sand, which every 
Blast of cross Fortune has defaced ; but now 
he has laid new Foundations on the Bock of 
his Salvation, which no Storms can shake ; 
and will last out the conflagration of the 
world, when time shall melt into eternity/ 
8vo, 1684; 2nd edition, 12mo, 1684. The first 
dedication to Charles II bears no name, but 
the second to James II is signed "W. Killi- 

Srew. Following this came ' Midnight and 
aily Thoughts, in Prose and Verse, by Sir 
W. Killigrew/ London, 1694, 8vo (see Sib 
E. Bbydges, Bestituta, ii. 130-6). Giles 
Jacob (Poetical Begister, i. 157-8), like the 
anonymous author of a 'Continuation of 
Langbaine/ p. 83, assigns to Killigrew the 
'Imperial Tragedy; taken out of a later 
Play and verv much altered by a Gentleman 
for his own Diversion/ &c, London, 1669, 
folio. It was acted at the Nursery in the Bar- 
bican. A sonnet by Killigrew is in Lawes's 
' Ayres and Dialogues for one, two, and three 
voices/ two books, 1653-5. 

In addition to these works Killigrew is 
responsible for the whole or portions of: 
1. 'An Answer to the Objections made by 
some Commoners of Lincolnshire against 
Robert, Earl of Lincolnshire, and his Partici- 
pants concerning the Drayning of those Fens 
which lye between Lincoln, Berne, and 
Boston. Set forth by Sir W. Killigrew. 
Printed for the Author, 1647/ 4to. 2. ' Cer- 
taine Papers concerning the Earl of Lind- 
sey his Fennes. . . . With a Paper directed 
to Sir W. Killigrew, and signed William 
Howell. And also an Answer to that Paper 
by Sir W T . Killigrew/ no place or date 
[August 1649], 4to, 8 pp. 3. ' Sir William 
Killigrew his Answer to the Fennemen's 
objections against the Earl of Lindsev his 
drayning in Lincolnshire. Printed at Lon- 
don, 1649/ 4to, single sheet and a title-page. 
4. ' The Rioters in Lindsey and their Abet- 
tors/ single sheet, no place or date [1654], 
fol. 5. 'The late Earl of Lindsey his Title/ 
&c, asingle sheet, n.d., signed ' Henry Heron, 
W. Killigrew, 1 July 1661/ Further con- 
tributions to the controversy by William 
Killigrew, son of Sir William, appeared in 
1695 and 1705. In Heber's 'Catalogue/ 
pt. v., is a pamphlet privately printed for the 
judges, entitled 'Proofs that Jane Berkeley 
and Sir W. Killigrew combined to defraud 
Richard Lygon of an estate left him by H. 

Killigrew ; ' ' Letters from Col. Doleman to 
CoL W. Killigrew ' are in the ' Thurloe State 
Papers/ and 'Letters from Killigrew to Arch- 
bishop Sancroft and Tobias Rustat, under- 
housekeeper at Hampton Court, dated respec- 
tively 81 Dec. 1677 and 1682/ are among the 
Tanner MSS. in the Bodleian Library. 

A portrait of Killigrew was in the first 
Exhibition of National Portraits. 

[Boase and Courtney's Bibliotheca Coma- 
biensis is the chief source of information. Mr. 
Joseph Foster, editor of Alumni Oxonienses, 
has supplied notes of Killigrew's parliamentary 
career and the dates of his Oxford progress. 
See also Vivian's Visitation of Corn-wall ; Genest's 
Account of the English Stage, Wood's Fasti 
Oxonienses, the Biographia Dramatic*, Watt's 
Bibl. Brit., and Langbaine's Dramatic Poets have 
been consulted.] J. K. 


(1699-1778), baptist controversialist, grand- 
son of Thomas Grantham (16&H692) [q. v.], 
was born in Norwich in 1699. He was a 
layman, a personal friend of William Whis- 
ton, whom he supplied with evidence of cures 
effected through 'prayer, fasting, and an- 
nointing with oyl ' by a unitarian baptist 
minister, William Barron (d, 7 Feb. 1731, 
aged 51). Killingworth wrote on the perpe- 
tuity of baptism, against Thomas Emlyn 
Tq. v/h in favour of adult baptism, against 
John Taylor, D.D., and Michajah Towgood ; 
and of close communion, against James Foster 
[q. v.], John Wiche, and Charles Bulkley 
[q. v.] He died in 1778, leaving a consider- 
able endowment to the Priory Yard general 
baptist chapel, Norwich. , 

Among his publications are: l.'A Supple- 
ment to the Sermons ... at Salters' Hall 
against Popery/ 1785, 8vo; 3rd ed. 1736, 
8vo; 5th ed. 1738, 8vo, with appendices, 
including his answer to Emlyn's 'Previous 
Question/ 1710, 4to. 2. 'An Examination/ 
&c, 1741, 8vo, of Foster's ' Discourse' (1744) 
on ' catholic communion/ 3. ' An Answer to 
the Defence of Dr. Foster/ &c, 1752, 8vo 
(the ' Defence ' was by ' Philocatholicus/ i.e. 
John Wiche, general baptist minister at 
Maidstone). 4. 'An Answer to Mr. Charles 
Bulkley's Pleas for Mixt Communion/ 1756, 
8vo.. 6. 'A Letter ... to the late . . . Mr. 
Whiston/ &c, 1757, 8vo. 

[Whiston's Memoirs, 1753, pp. 297, 306, 372 
Bulkley s Notes on the Bible, 1 802, 111. xv sq. ; 
Toulmin's Historical View of Dissenters, 1814, 
p. 363 ; NeaTs Puritans, 1822, 1. xxvii ; Christian 
Life, 12 Aug. 1876, p. 164.] A. G. 

SAUL JENNINGS (1751-1799), general in 
the French army, was horn at Dublin 19 Oct. 
1751, accompanied his father, whose surname 




was Jennings, at eleven yearsof age to France, 
and took the name of Kilmaine from a village 
in Mayo where a branchof the Jennings family 
had resided. He entered the army as a cavalry 
officer in 1774, serving in the American war 
of independence under Rochambeau, and in 
Senegal under Biron. In August 1791, as a 
retired captain, he took the civic oath and, 
being recalled to active service, became briga- 
dier-general in March 1793 and lieutenant- 
general in the following May. Hecommanded 
the vanguard in the Ardennes and Flanders, 
distinguished himself at Jemappes, and was 
reported by the convention commissaries as 
brave, active, and dashing, though they did 
not think it prudent to allow an Irishman a 
command-in-cbief. 'He is a foreigner/ they 
said ; ' he is Irish ; republicanism does not 
easily penetrate such skulls/ He was, how- 
ever, recommended bvDubois-Dubay, though 
unsuccessfully, for the command in Vendee, 
as the only general whose ability and energy 
could be relied on. In August 1798 he tem- 
porarily succeeded Custine, against whom he 
pave evidence before the revolutionary tri- 
bunal; but being forced to retreat before the 
superior forces of the Duke of York, he was 
superseded, and was imprisoned for eighteen 
months. Susan Kilmaine, who was also 
imprisoned, was apparently his wife. In 
1795 he helped to defend the convention 
against the Prairial insurgents. In 1796 he 
served in Italy under Bonaparte, and by 
establishing a second blockade contributed 
to the reduction of Mantua. Summoned to 
Paris to discuss a descent on Ireland, he was 
appointed, in the absence of Desaix, to the 
temporary command of the so-called army of 
England. On this expedition being aban- 
doned, he had, in June 1798, the command 
of the territorial (inland) troops, and was for 
a time general-in-chief in Switzerland, but, 
not giving satisfaction in that capaci ,y, was 
superseded by Massena. He returned to 
Paris, where he died 15 Dec. 1799. His 
great failing was rapacity. 

[Moniteur, 28 Nov. 1799 ; Webb's Compendium 
of Irish Biography ; Fieffe's Hist, des Troupes 
Etrangeres, ii. 62, Paris, 1854; Alger's English- 
men in French Revolution, pp. 162-8.1 

J. G. A. 

KILMARNOCK, fourth Eakl op. [See 
Boyd, William, 1704-1746.] 

KTLMOREY, first Eabl op. [See 
Nebdham, Francis Jack, 1748-1832.] 

KILMOREY, fourth Viscount. [See 
Needhah, Charlbs, d. 1660.] 

KILSYTH, first Viscount. [See Living- 
stone, James, 1616-1661.] 

KILVERT, FRANCIS (1793-1863), an- 
tiquary, born at Westgate Street, Bath, on 
Good Friday 1793, was the eldest son of 
Francis Kilvert, coachmaker, and of Anna 
his wife. His uncle was Richard Kilvert, 
domestic chaplain to Bishop Hurd [q. v.l 
and rector of Hartlebury. His parents died 
while he was young, and, as the eldest of 
seven sons, he became guardian and instructor 
to his brothers. For a time he was educated 
under Dr. Michael Rowlandson at Hunger- 
ford. He afterwards proceeded to the gram- 
mar school at Bath, where he became liead- 
boy ; his attainments induced the then chief 
master, Nathaniel Morgan, to engage him 
as an assistant even before he entered at Ox- 
ford. He matriculated at Worcester Col- 
lege, Oxford, on 6 Nov. 1811, and graduated 
B.A. in 1819 and M.A. in 1824. Kilvert 
was ordained deacon by Beadon, bishop of 
Bath and Wells, in 1816 and priest in 
1817 ; his first curacy was that of Claver- 
ton, near Bath. He loved his native city ; 
no one knew its history better, and in order 
to dwell there he declined the post of prin- 
cipal of Queen's College, Birmingham. At 
Bath he filled in turn several small offices, 
including those of minister of St. Mary Mag- 
dalen's Chapel, chaplain of the General Hos- 
pital, and evening lecturer at St. Mary's, 
Bathwick, but his chief source of income lay 
in keeping pupils. His success in that di- 
rection led him to purchase in 1837 Claverton 
Lodge, on the southern slope of Bathwick 
Hill, where he took scholars until his death. 
Kilvert was one of the earliest members of 
the Bath Literary Club, and read before its 
members many papers on the literary asso- 
ciations of the city, some of which have not 
been printed. He died at Claverton Lodge 
on 16 Sept. 1863, and was buried in Old 
Widcombe churchyard, near the grave of 
his father and two of his brothers. A brass 
tablet to his memory is on the walls of St. 
Mary, Bathwick. He married at the close 
of 1822 Adelaide Sophia de Chievre, a re- 
fugee of French extraction, then living at 
Clapham, near London. Their issue was 
three daughters. 

Kilvert wrote: 1. 'Sermons at Christ 
Church, Bath, before the National Schools,' 
1827. 2. 'Sermons at St. Mary's Church, 
Bathwick,' 1837. 3. 'Sermon preached at 
Wrington,' 1840. 4. 'Selections from un- 
published Papers of Bishop Warburton,' 
1841 ; also issued in same year as vol. xiv., sup- 
plemental, of Warburton's ' Works.' 5. ' Pina- 
cothecae Historic® specimen. Auctore F.K., 
A.M.,' 1848 ; pt. u\, with name in full, 
1850. A series of inscriptions on illustrious 
men, which have been much praised for hap- 




piness of expression and for command of the 
Latin language. 6. ' Ralph Allen and Prior 
Park,' 1867. 7. 'Richard Graves of Cla- 
verton,' 1858. 8. ' Memoirs of Life and 
Writings of Bishop Kurd/ 1860. After 
his death there was published in 1866 a 
volume of his ' Remains in Verse and Prose, 
with a brief Memoir* by the Rev. W. L. 
Nichols, assisted by Mr. William Long. It 
included a paper on Pope's connection with 
the West ot England, and particularly 
with Bath; but other articles which he 
read to the Bath Literary Society, notably 
those on Philip Thicknesse and the Bath- 
easton vase, were omitted. His last com- 
munication to the Bath Theological Book 
Society, lines on * Over the Water to War- 
leigh,' were printed by Mr. H. D. Skrine at 
Bath in October 1863. He was a frequent 
contributor to ' Notes and Queries/ and he 
wrote many memoirs for the ' Bath Chronicle.' 

Mrs. Kilvert published in 1841 a work on 
4 Home Discipline.' There was only one 
edition, though it was reissued with fresh 
title-pages in 1843 and 1847. 

[Gent. Mag. 1823 p. 82, 1863 pp. 652-6; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Peach's Bath Houses, 
2nd ser. pp. 7-10; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. 
xi. 188 ; information from Mr. R. E. Peach of 
Bath.] W. P. C. 

KILVERT, RICHARD (d. 1649), law- 
yer, rose from a subordinate position in the 
prerogative court at Canterbury to the office 
of a proctor practising there. When it was 
proposed to impeach Sir John Bennet [q. v.], 
judge of the court, in 1621 on the ground of 
corruption,Kiivert laid an information against 
Bennet before the House of Lords, and the 
lords at his request guaranteed him as an 
informer freedom from arrest (Lords 1 Jour- 
nals, iii. 163, 185 ; State Papers, Dom. 1619, 
pp. 249, 252). Hacket states that Kilvert 
was subsequent! v branded for perjury by 
order of the parliament of 1621. But he 
probably gave evidence in the Star-chamber 
prosecution instigated in 1622 by the crown 
after that parliament was dissolved. Three 
years later Kilvert petitioned the privy coun- 
cil for power to levy Sir John Bennet's fine, 
some part of which was awarded apparently 
to him as an informer. 

Kilvert was subsequently used as a tool in 
the proceedings in the Star-chamber against 
Bishop Williams on a frivolous charge of 
betraying secrets as a privy councillor. He 
raked up evidence against the moral charac- 
ter of Williams's principal witness, Pregion 
(1634), and Williams, in his endeavours to 
rebut it, exposed himself to a charge of sub- 
ornation of perjury (see State Papers, Dom. 
1634, pp. 456^99). Williams foolishly at- 

tempted to bribe Kilvert into inactivity, but 
Kilvert informed Secretary Windebank of 
the attempt. In the later trial of the bishop 
in 1637 in the Star-chamber for publishing 
an unorthodox work on 'The Holy Table/ 
Kilvert acted as solicitor for the prosecution, 
and was awarded 1,500/. out of the total fine 
imposed Q0,000/.) 

In 1637 Kilvert became concerned with 
Alderman Abell [q. v.] in the promotion of 
the wine monopoly. Since 1634 the Vintners' 
Company had been exposed to a Star-chamber 

'he crown proposed to compound the offence 
if the Vintners would agree to an imposition, 
and Kilvert was introduced to the company 
by Abell, in that year master, in order to 
coerce them by threats of prosecution. The 
Vintners gave way, and agreed to the imposi- 
tion in return for a grant of the monopoly 
of wines. Kilvert was paid 1,000/. out of 
the purse of the Vintners' Company, al- 
though without the consent of the 'gene- 
rality.' Immediately on the assembling of 
the Long parliament he was called into 
question, along with Alderman Abell, for his 
snare in this transaction. He was arrested 
on 18 Nov. 1640, and only released on bail 
1 Sept. 1641. In the meantime (May 1641) 
the commons had ordered the bill to be pre- 
pared to declare the offence of Alderman 
Abell and Richard Kilvert ' to the end that 
they may be made exemplary.' What was 
finally done does not appear. He was at 
liberty in December 1643, and in 1647 was 
living in apparently comfortable circum- 
stances at his own house in St. Martin's 
Lane. He died there suddenly on 16 Dec. 
1649. His brother Roger was a wine mer- 
chant in London, and also aided in the wine 
monopoly ; he was released 2 May 1645 on 
payment of 40/. 

Kilvert wrote in his own defence ' A Reply 
to a most untrue Relation made by certain 
Vintners,' 1641. He is also identified by a 
note in Thomasson's hand as the author of 
a ' Discourse concerning the interest Eng- 
land hath in the Siege of Graveling,' 1644. 
Some biographical details, together with a 
portrait, are contained in ' A Dialogue . . . 
betwixt Alderman Abel and Richard Kil- 
vert,' 1641, and 'The Vintners' Answer to 
. . . Kilver,' 1641. 

[The tracts mentioned above ; Commons' Jour- 
nals, ii. 26-279 ; Lords' Journals, iii. 153, vi. 
127; State Papers, Dom. 1619-41; Hist. MS8. 
Comm. 12th Rep. pt. i. p. 172, pt. ii. p. 153, 
pt. iv. p. 73, 14th Rep. p. 203, pt. vi. p. 472; 
Harl. MS. 1219, f. 3: State Trials; Rushworth's 
Collections ; Smyth's Obituary (Camden Soc) ; 
Gardiner's Hist. viii. 251 , 287-] W. A S. 


1 20 


archbishop of Canterbury and cardinal-bishop 
of- Porto, was an Englishman by birth, though 
nothing is known of his family and origin, 
except that a namesake, Robert Kilwardby, 
resigned in 1283 the living of All Saints, 
Gracechurch Street, London (Peckham, Re- 
gister, iii. 1018, Rolls Ser.) He studied at 
the university of Paris, and probably also 
at Oxford. At Paris he taught for several 
years as a master of arts, and became espe- 
cially distinguished as a teacher and writer 
on grammar and logic (TEiVET,p. 278, Enpl. 
Hist. Soc.) It is to this portion of his life 
that his important grammatical and his 
thirty-nine philosophical treatises must be 
assigned. Kilwardby finally abandoned his 
secular career and entered the order of St. 
Dominic. He now devoted himself exclu- 
sively to theology, and especially to the 
study of the scriptures, St. Augustine, and 
others of the fathers. He was famous for 
dividing nearly all St. Augustine's works 
into chapters, and prefixing to each a short 
analysis of its contents (ib.v. 278). Among 
his pupils in theology was Thomas of Cante- 
lupe [q. v.], the future bishop of Hereford 
(ib. p. 306). 

In 1261 Kilwardby was chosen provincial 
prior of the Dominicans in England, and dis- 
charged the duties of that post with great 
success for eleven years. In 1271 he was 
present at the general chapter of his order at 
Montpellier, and was described as a ' great 
master of theology.' In 1272 the general 
chapter at Florence relieved him of his office, 
but in the same year the English province 
again appointed him prior. 

• The archbishopric of Canterbury had been 
vacant since the death of Boniface of Savoy 
in 1270, as the monks of Canterbury insisted 
on the election of their prior. Adam of Chil- 
lenden, and Edward, the King's son, was eager 
for the appointment of Robert Burnell [q. v.] 
Adam went to Rome to press his claims, but 
Gregory X at last persuaded him to resign 
them, and appointed of his own authority 
the provincial of the Dominicans. Kil- 
wardDy's appointment was on 11 Oct. 1272. 
He received the spiritualities of his see from 
Bishop Bronescombe of Exeter on 11 Dec, 
and the temporalities three days later ( Win- 
chester Annals in Annates Monastics, ii. 112- 
113). But he had already, on 21 Nov., joined 
with Gilbert of Gloucester and other mag- 
nates in recognising Edward I as king on the 
day after Henry Ill's funeral, and in appoint- 
ing a regency to act until the new king's re- 
turn from the East (Trivet, p. 283). He 
also successfully intervened in the strife be- 
tween the Bishop of Norwich and his towns- 

men, and procured a relaxation of the inter- 
dict pronounced against that city (Cotton, 
p. 150). The pope having granted Kilwardby 
a license to be consecrated by any catholic 
bishop, he chose the saintly William Button II 
[q. v.J, bishop of Bath and "Wells, to perform 
that office. He was consecrated on 26 Feb. 
1273 at Canterbury. Besides the Bishop 
of Bath, twelve other suffragans of Canter- 
bury took part in the ceremony. Yet it was 
not until 8 May that Kilwardby received the 

? allium at Teynham ( Winchester Annals, ii. 
16), and his enthronement only took place 
in September. At the pope's request he 
compensated Adam Chillenden for his ex- 
penses incurred in his bootless journey to 
Rome (Hist MSS. Comm. 5th Rep. p. 429). 
Kilwardby was the first Mendicant ad- 
vanced to a great post in the English church. 
His interests remained exclusively theolo- 
gical and ecclesiastical, and he took little 
part in political affairs, remaining on good 
terms with Edward I, whom he crowned 
along with Queen Eleanor on 19 Aug. 1274. 
He joined with his suffragans in 1276 in ex- 
horting Llewelyn of Wales to perform his 
feudal duties to Edward, sending his fa- 
vourite clerk, William Middleton, archdeacon 
of Canterbury, on a special mission to the 
Lord of Snowdon (F&dera, i. 535-6). On 
Llewelyn refusing to accept his mediation 9 
Kilwardby excommunicated him in February 
1277 (ib. 1. 541). 

Kilwardby devoted himself with some 
energy to the systematic visitation of his 
diocese and province. After holding a con- 
vocation in London, and making an agree- 
ment with the chapter of St. Paul's as to 
jurisdiction during the vacancies of the see of 
London ( Wilkins, Concilia, ii. 26-7), he held 
in December 1273 a visitation at Worcester 
{Annals of Worcester in Ann. Mon. iv. 465). 
But in the summer of 1274 he attended the 
council of Lyons, upholding during its ses- 
| sions the papal power in its strongest forms 
(cf. Baluze, Mxstoire de la Maison oVAu- 
vergne % ii. 113-14). Returning to England 
Kilwardby again busied himself with visita- 
! tions. In November 1274 he visited the dio- 
[ cese of Winchester, being received on 26 Nov. 
I on his arrival by the bishop, Nicholas of Ely 
1 [a. v.], and subsequently holding visitations 
\ of the neighbouring monasteries. He kept 
Christmas at the bishop's manor of Bitterne, 
near Southampton (Winchester Annals in 
Ann. Mon. ii. 118). In 1276 he made a pro- 
longed visitation of the vast diocese of Lin- 
coln. His zeal for monastic rigour was shown 
by his expulsion of some disorderly monks 
from Baraney Abbey, Lincolnshire ; but the 
canons of Osney, whom he visited on 7 March, 




bitterly complained that he exacted from 
them procurations amounting to over twenty- 
four marks, while his predecessor Boniface 
had been contented with four marks only 
(Ann. Osney in Ann. Man. iv. 270). He now 
visited the university of Oxfora, and, with 
the consent of the regent and non-regent 
masters, solemnly condemned various errone- 
ous opinions in grammar, logic, and natural 
philosophy that were then current in the 
university. Among the grammatical heresies 
was the doctrine ' quod ego currit, tu currit 
et curro eque sunt perfecte et congrue.' But 
some of the other errors were of a more seri- 
ous kind. Masters found guilty of these 
errors were to be deprived ; bachelors were 
to be forbidden access to the mastership and 
expelled the university. Similar errors were 
condemned a little later at Paris, and the 
same doctrines at Oxford were again censured 
in 1284 by Archbishop Peckham. The list 
of errors condemned by Kilwardby has been 
several times printed (Paris, n.d., ? 1500, 4to ; 
Basel, 1613 and 1628). Among the persons 
censured was one Richard Clapwell, a friar 
of Kilwardby's own order (Ann. Dunst. in 
Ann. Mon. iii. 325). In 1277 he again 
visited the diocese of Lincoln; and the monks 
of Dunstable spoke highly of his liberality 
and justice (ib. iii. 276). 

On 16 June 1276 Kilwardby was present 
at the translation of the remains of St. 
Richard at Chichester ( Wyxes in Ann. Mon. 
iv. 268). "When first provincial in England 
he had been one of the commission appointed 
to examine into Richard's claims to sanctity, 
and he afterwards encouraged the Dominican 
Ralph Booking to write his life of the saintly 
bishop (Bollandist Acta Sanctorum, April, i. 
283). He was always a good friend of his 
order. He bought a new and convenient site 
for the London house of the Dominicans near 
Castle Baynard, and contributed towards the 
building of the new church and monastery 
(Lblakd, Scriptt. Brit. \>.287). ife 
was conspicuous for his sanctity and care for 
the noor. He mediated between the citizens 
of Canterbury in their dispute with Christ 
Church, when the monks refused to take any 
share in providing soldiers for the Welsh 
war. He held frequent synods, those of 1273 
and 1277 marking important developments 
in the representation of the lower clergy, 
which was finally systematically organised 
by his successor (Stubbs, Select Charters, pp. 
444-5 ; Const Hist. ii. 205). 

On 12 March 1278 Pope Nicholas III, a 
great friend of the Mendicants, nominated 
Kilwardby, at his first creation of cardinals, 
to the cardinal-bishopric of Porto and Santa 
Rufina — an appointment which necessitated 

his resignation of the see of Canterbury and 
his residence at Rome. Kilwardby accepted 
the post, though the temporalities of the 
church of Porto were incomparably inferior 
to those of Canterbury. Some dissatisfaction 
with his work at Canterbury rather than a 
desire to do honour to Kilwardby probably 
inspired the pope to make the translation. 
As soon as the appointment was known 
doubts were raised as to the validity of his 
recent acts as archbishop (Peckham, Register, 
j i. 48). On 26 July Kilwardby solemnly took 
I his leave of his suffragans and departed for 
I Italy. He sought to increase his lessened in- 
> come by selling to the king the crops and rents 
' of his estates for the year, and took away with 
| him five thousand marks in money, precious 
. vessels, church ornaments, and manuscripts, 
I including a costly new bible, all of which be- 
! longed to the see (ib. i. 17, 277, 650). More im- 
portant than all, he removed all the registers 
I and judicial records of Canterbury. Peck- 
I ham and his successor sought in vain to re- 
■ cover the property of their church, but never 
I succeeded in getting any back. To this day 
the oldest records of Canterbury begin with 
Peckham's archbishopric. Yet Peckham con- 
tinued to consult Kilwardby on English eccle- 
siastical matters, and believed that, if he 
had lived longer, he would have sent back the 

Kilwardby was already an old man and in 
poor health. Soon after joining the papal 
curia at Viterbo he fell sick. He was,how- 
ever, employed by the pope to write letters 
to the ' king of the Tartars ' urging his con- 
version to Christianity (Ciacconius, Vita 
Pontificum,u. 224). But he died on 11 Sept. 
1279, and was buried at the Dominican con- 
vent at Viterbo. There was some suspicion 
of poison (Cotton, p. 371). 

Kilwardby was a very voluminous writer 
on grammatical, philosophical, and theologi- 
cal subjects. Trivet (p. 278) regards his chief 
works to be these : * be Tempore/ * De Uni- 
versalis ' De Relatione/ and * De Ortu Scie»- 
tiarum/ and describes the last as ' a curious 
and useful book. 1 It may be regarded as the 
most important of Kilwardby's writings, and 
is identical with the treatise ' De Divisione 
Scientiarum/ which is sometimes considered 
as an independent work. The large number 
of surviving manuscripts shows that it was 
widely studied. Two are in the Bibliotheaue 
Nationale at Paris, and two in the Bodleian 
Library. It is a commentary on Avicenna's 
work with the same title. M. Haureau con- 
siders it worth printing, and speaks of its 
clearness and accuracy. In all thirty-nine 
philosophical works by Kilwardby are enu- 
merated in Qu6tif and Echard's ' Scriptores 




Ordinis Predicatorum/ i. 376-80. They are 
mainly commentaries on Aristotle's * Logic/ 
with a few treatises on Aristotle's ' Psycho- 
logy/ ' Physics/ and * Metaphysics/ His com- 
mentaries on various parts of the ' Organon ' 
show, says Haurfiau, that he was a scrupulous 
and minute logician, and he was one of the 
most important teachers of the time in de- 
veloping the doctrine of the syllogism. Hau- 
reau (ii. 2, 30-2) gives a long extract from 
his ' De Ortu ' as a specimen of his power 
of abridging Aristotle clearly and faithfully. 
Tie says that he was a disciple of Thomas 
Aquinas, but never seems to have attempted 
any real investigation of his writings. 

Kilwardby's treatises on gpammar were 
frequently cited as an authority during the 
fourteenth century. There are manuscripts 
of his 'In Priscianum de Constructione Com- 
mentarius' at Merton and Corpus Christi 
Colleges, Oxford. Large extracts are given 
in Quetif and Echard (pp. 377-8) from his 
'Commentary on the Sentences/ of which 
there is also a manuscript at Merton College. 
He also wrote commentaries on scripture, 
' De Passione Christi ' and ' De Sacramento 
Altaris.' I 

[Leland's Com men tar ii de Scriptoribus Bri- ( 
tannicis, pp. 286-8 ; Quetif and Echard's Scrip- \ 
tores Ordinis Predicatorum, i. 374-80; Bale's , 
Scriptt. Brit. Cntal. Cent. Quart. p. xlvi (Basel); 
Tanner's Bibl.Brit.-Hib. pp. 455-7; Hook's Lives ! 
of the Archbishops of Canterbury, iii. 304-26 ; 
Turon's Bistoire des hommes illustres de l'ordre ' 
de Saint-Dominique, i. 397-404 ; HaureWs His- ( 
toire de la Philosophie Scolastique, ii. ii. 28- 
33 ; Stockl's Geschichte der Philosophie des 
Mittelalters, ii. 735-6 ; Catalogus Librorum 
MSS.Angliae et Hib.(1697); Notices des Manus- 
crits de la Bibliotheque Nationale, xxn. ii. 
39, 95, 97 ; Coxe's Cat. Cod. MSS. in Coll. et 
Aul.Oxon.; Trivet (Engl. Hist Soc.) ; Peckham's 
Register, Annales Monastici, Cotton, Chron. of 
Edward I and Edward II (the last four in Rolls 
Ser.) ; Rymer's Fcedera, vol. i. ; Prynne's Re- 
cords.] T. F. T. 

KILWARDEN, Viscount. [See Wolfe, 
Abthtjr, 1739-1803.] 

KIMBER, EDWARD (1719-1769), no- 
velist and compiler, born in 1719, was son 
of Isaac Kimber [q. v. J He gained a scanty 
subsistence by compiling for booksellers, and 
died, worn out witn such drudgery, in 1769 
(R. Johnson, preface to Wotton's Baronet- 
age, 1771). His works are : 1. ' The Life and 
Adventures of Joe Thompson, a Narrative 
founded on fact, written by himself' [anon.], 
2 vols. 12mo, London, 1760 ; other editions, 
1751, 1775, 1783. A French translation ap- 
peared in 1762. 2. 'The Peerage of Eng- 
land/ 12mo, London, 1766; 2nd edit. 1769. 

3. ' The Peerage of Scotland,' 8vo, London, 
1767. 4. < The Peerage of Ireland/ 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1 768. 5. ' The Extinct Peerage of Eng- 
land/ 12mo, London, 1769. He also wrote 
memoirs of his father, together with a poem 
to his memory, prefixed to the latter's ' Ser- 
mons/ 1756. With Richard Johnson he edited 
and continued Thomas Wotton's ' Baronetage 
of England/ 3 vols. 8vo, London, 1771. 
Kimber's father, not himself, as Nichols {Lit. 
Anecd. v. 251) asserts, superintended a third 
edition of Ainsworth's ' Latin Dictionary ' in 

[Chalmers's Biog. Diet. xix. 349; Nichols's 
Lit. Anecd. iii. 441 ; Cat. of Advocates' Library.] 

G. G. 

KIMBER, ISAAC (1692-1755), general 
baptist minister, biographer, and journalist, 
was born at Wantage, Berkshire, on 1 Dec. 
1692. He studied languages under John 
Ward, LL.D., professor of rhetoric at Gres- 
ham College, and went through a course of 

E philosophy and divinity under John Eames 
q. v.] His first settlement was early in 1722, 
as assistant to Joseph Burroughs [q. v."], 
at Paul's Alley, Barbican. lie was a dull 
preacher, and very near-sighted, eventually 
losing the sight ol one eye. lie left Paul's 
Alley on 28 June 1724, and became assistant 
to Samuel Acton at Nantwich, Cheshire. 
Here he published (1727) a funeral sermon 
for Mrs. milton, who is said to have been 
the third wife of the poet John Milton, Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Sir Edward Minshull,who 
died at Nantwich March 1727. Milton's 
widow was certainly a member of his congre- 
gation, but her identity with the subject of 
the sermon has been disputed, as there were 
two other ladies of the same surname at 
Nantwich. He left Nantwich in 1727, and 
became assistant at the general baptist con- 
gregation in Old Artillery Lane, London, and 
also at a neighbouring congregation. On the 
amalgamation of the two places his services 
were dispensed with, and he left the active 
ministry. He started a periodical called 
' The Morning Chronicle/ which lasted from 
January 1728 to May 1732. In 1734 Ward 
made over his school near Moorfields to Kim- 
ber and Edward Sandercock, but the school 
declined in a few years, and Kimber gave it up 
and took to writing for the booksellers, editing 
Ainsworth's * Latin Dictionary ' in 1751. He 
died of apoplexy early in 1755; his funeral 
sermon was preached at Paul's Alley by Bur- 
roughs on 9 Feb. He was unfortunate in his 
marriage, his wife being insane for twenty- 
three years. His son Edward is separately 

Among his publications were: 1. * The Life 
, of Oliver Cromwell/ &c, 1724, 8vo (six edi- 




tions); a French translation appeared in 
1725. 2. ' An Abridgement of tne History 
of England/ 1746, 8vo. 

Posthumous were : 3. ' Twenty Sermons/ 
&c, 1756, 8vo. 4. * Sermons/ &c, 1758, 8vo 
(with life}. He edited the 'Works/ 1729, 
fol., 2 vols., of William Beveridge [a. v.], 
prefixing a ' Life ; ' and contributed the ac- 
count of the reign of George II to the 1740 
8vo edition of the ' Medulla Histories An- 
glican® ' of William Howell (1638P-1083) 

{Funeral Sermon by Burroughs, 1755 ; Life 
prefixed to Sermons, 1758; Wilson's Dissenting 
Churches of London, 1810 iii. 257, 1814 iv. 370 ; 
Urwick's Nonconformity in Cheshire, 1864, pp. 
117,184.] A. G. 

KINASTON. [See Kynaston.] 

KINCAID, Mas. JEAN (1579-1000), 
murderess, daughter of John Livingstoun of 
Dunipace, was born in 1679. She married 
John Kincaid of Warriston, who was a man 
of. influence in Edinburgh, being nearly con- 
nected with the ancient family of Kincaid of 
that ilk in Stirlingshire, and possessed of ex- 
tensive estates in Midlothian and Linlith- 
gowshire. Owing to alleged maltreatment, 
the young wife conceived a deadly hatred for 
her husband, and a nurse who lived in her 
house urged her to take revenge. A servant 
of her father, a youth named Robert Weir, 
was admitted by Mrs. Kincaid into her hus- 
band's chamber in his house at Warriston at 
an early hour on the morning of Tuesday, 
1 July 1600, and he killed Kincaid with his 
fists. News of the murder quickly reached 
Edinburgh, and ' the Lady Wa^ristoun, , ' the 
fause nourise,' and her two ' hyred women/ 
were arrested 'red-handed/ Weir escaped, 
refusing to allow Mrs. Kincaid to accompany 
him in his flight. The prisoners were im- 
mediately brought before the magistrates of 
Edinburgh, and sentence of death was passed 
upon them. No official records of the trial 
are extant. ' Scho was tane to the girth- 
crosse, upon the 5 day of July, and her heid 
struck fra her bodie, at the Cannagait-fi t ; 
quha deit very patiently. Her nurische was 
brunt at the same tyme, at 4 houres in the 
morneing, the 5 of July ' (Bikbel, Diary, p. 
49). According to Calderwood, ' the nurse 
and ane hyred woman, her complices, were 
Durnt in the Castell Hill of Edinburgh* (Cal- 
derwood, History of the Kirk of Scotland, 
vi. 27). In the brief interval between the 
sentence and execution Mrs. Kincaid was 
brought, hy the efforts of a clergyman, from 
a state of callous indifference to one of reli- 
gious resignation. An authentic and inte- 
resting ' memorial ' of her ' conversion,' ' with 

an account of her carriage at her execution,' 
bv an eye-witness, was privately printed at 
Edinburgh in 1827, from a paper preserved 
among Wodrow's MSS. in the Advocates' 
Library, by Charles Kirkpatrick Sharpe. The 
youth and beauty of Mrs. Kincaid were dwelt 
upon in numerous popular ballads, which are 
to be found in Jamieson's, Kinloch's, and 
Buchan's collections. Weir, who was ar- 
rested four years afterwards, was broken on 
the wheel (26 June 1604), a rare mode of 
execution in Scotland. 

[Pitcairn's Criminal Trials, ii. 445-50 ; Cham- 
bers's Domestic Annals of Scotland, i. 316-17 ; 
Memorial of the Conversion of Jean Livingston, 
1827.] G. S-h. 

KINCAID. Sib JOHN (1787-1862), of 
the rifle brigade, second son of John Kincaid 
of Dalheath, near Falkirk, and his wife, the 
daughter of John Gaff, was born at Dalheath 
in January 1787. He was educated at Pol- 
mont school, and served for a time as lieu- 
tenant in the North York militia. On the 
formation of the old 3rd battalion (after- 
wards disbanded) of the 95th rifles, now the 
rifle brigade, at Hythe, Kent, in 1809, Kin- 
caid joined with a draft of militia volunteers 
from the North York, and received a second 
lieutenancy in the 95th, with which corps 
he served through the Peninsular campaigns 
of 1811-14 and at Waterloo (medal). He 
led the forlorn hope at one of the assaults of 
Ciudad Rodrigo ; was severely wounded, and 
had a horse shot under him as acting adjutant 
at Waterloo. He attained the rank of captain 
in the rifle brigade in 1826, and retired by sale 
of his commissions 21 June 1831. For his 
Peninsular services he afterwards received 
the medal with clasps for Fuentes d'Onor, 
Ciudad Rodrigo, Badajoz, Salamanca, Vit- 
toria, Pvrenees, Nivelle, Nive, and Toulouse. 
Kincaid was appointed exon of the royal 
bodyguard of yeomen of the guard on 25 Oct. 
1844, and, on becoming senior exon in 1852, 
was knighted according to custom. In 1847 
he was appointed government inspector of 
prisons for Scotland, and in 1850 Sir George 
Grey [q. v.] conferred on him the appoint- 
ment or inspector of factories and prisons for 
Scotland, which he resigned through ill- 
health shortly before his death. He died 
at Hastings, unmarried, on 22 April 1862, 
aged 75. 

Kincaid was author of 'Adventures in 
the Rifle Brigade ' (London, 1830 ; 2nd edi- 
tion, London, 1838) and 'Random Shots of 
a Rifleman ' (London, 1835). Cope, the his- 
torian of the rifle brigade, says that, although 
written with too much levity, they contain 
many facts of interest, and the dates and 



' King 

statements are confirmed by more formal 

[Dod's Knightage, 1862 ; Militia and Army 
Lists, under dates; Cope's Hist, of the Rifle 
Brigade (London, 1880); Preston's Hist, of the 
Royal Body Guard (London, 1887) ; Gent. Mag. 
3rd ser. xii. 658.] H. M. C. 

KINCARDINE, Earls of. [See Bruce, 
Alexander, d. 1681, second Earl; Bruce, 
Thomas, 1766-1841, eleventh Earl; Bruce, 
James, 1811-1863, twelfth Earl.] 

(1792-1879), vice-chancellor, eldest son of 
Nathaniel Edward Kindersley of Sunning- 
hill, Berkshire, was born at Madras, where 
his father was in the civil service of the East 
India Company, on 5 Oct. 1792. He was 
educated first at Haileybury, with the in- 
tention of entering the Indian civil service, 
but subsequently he proceeded to Trinity 
College, Cambridge, where he was fourth 
wrangler, and graduated B.A. in January 
1 814. In October of the following year he was 
elected a fellow of his college, and proceeded 
M.A. in July 1817. He was called to the bar 
at Lincoln's Inn on 10 Feb. 1818, and after 
enjoying a considerable junior practice was 
appointed a king's counsel in January 1835. 
He took a leading position in the rolls court ; 
in 1847 became chancellor of the county pala- 
tine of Durham, and in March 1848 a master 
in chancery. He was not a politician, and 
was recommended only by his deep learning 
and sound judgment. On 20 Oct. 1851 he 
was appointed a vice-chancellor and was 
knighted. His judgments are mainly re- 
ported in Drewry's 'Reports/ Drewry and 
©male's ' Reports,' and tne ' Law Reports,' 
Equity Ser. vols. i. and ii. He retired from 
the bench in 1866, when he was sworn of 
the privy council, and received a pension of 
3,500/. per annum. He died at his residence, 
Clyffe, near Dorchester, on 22 Oct. 1879. He 
married in 1824 Mary Anne, only daughter 
of the Rev. James Leigh Bennett of Thorpe 
Place, Surrey, and by her had four children. 

[Foss's Lives of the Judges; Times, 25 Oct. 
1879; Law Times. 8 Nov. 1879 ; Law Journal, 
xiv.657, 723; Solicitors' Journal, 1 Nov. 1879.] 

J. A. H. 

KINDLEMARSH. [See Kinwel- 


KING, CHARLES (ft. 1721), writer on 
economics, a London merchant in the reign 
of Queen Anne, wrote several papers in the 
'British Merchant,' a periodical which ap- 
peared twice a week during the summer of 
1713, at the time of the proposed treaty of 
commerce with France. The object of the 

paper was to refute the reciprocity arguments 
propounded by Defoe in favour of the treaty 
in his ' Mercator ; ' it was started by Henry 
Martin, and numbered among its contributors 
Joshua Gee (concerning whose influence see 
Hume, Philosophical Works, 1884, iii. 340), 
Sir Charles Cooke, Sir Theodore Janssen, 
Nathaniel Torriano, and other leading mer- 
chants, several of whom had a special audi- 
ence in the House of Lords on the subject 
of the treaty (2 and 4 June 1713). Backed 
up by the Earl of Halifax, ' the support and 
very spirit of the paper ' {Brit. Merch. Pre- 
face, p. xv ii), Lord Stanhope, and the bulk 
of the commercial classes in the country, the 
'British Merchant' more than neutralised 
the effect of Defoe's paper, and finally secured 
a majority of nine against the eighth and 
ninth articles of the treaty [see under Moore, 
Arthur, fl. 1712]. Its object achieved, the 
' British Merchant ' ceased to appear, but the 
most important numbers were collected and 
edited by King in book form under the title 
of ' The British Merchant, or Commerce Pre- 
served,' 3 vols. 8vo, London, 1721. King was 
at that time chamber-keeper to the treasury, 
and he dedicated the concluding volume of 
the work to Paul Methuen, son of the framer 
of the Methuen treaty, and comptroller of 
his majesty's household. He was allowed 
395/. 16s. from the exchequer for expenses of 
printing, and copies were sent to ' each of the 
corporations of Great Britain which send 
members to parliament ' at the cost of the 
treasury (CaL Treas. Papers, 1720-8, ccxl. 
32). The work may thus be supposed to re- 
present the views of Walpole's government 
(though not perhaps of Walpoie himself) 
upon economic matters. It was, however, less 
an exposition of theory than an appeal to con- 
temporary common sense, and to the interests 
involved in the Methuen treaty of 1703 
with Portugal against the supposed fallacious 
doctrine of reciprocity advanced by Boling- 
broke, and set forth in Defoe's 'Essay on 
the Treaty of Commerce with France,' 1713. 
Such general theories as it did contain were 
based without alteration upon the treatise 
(reprinted in 1713) of Thomas Mun [q. v.], 
showing that the object of commercial policy 
was ' to encrease the exportation of our com- 
modities and to decrease the consumption of 
foreign wares.' The ' British Merchant ' en- 
joyed unique authority during the forty years 
following its publication, and its statistics 
(though by no means invariably accurate) 
on British commerce, the extent of markets, 
price of labour, and kindred subjects render 
it indispensable to the historian of commerce 
during the early Georgian era. The book was 
republished in 1743, but there is no evidence 




to show if King was living at that time, or ' 
if he was identical with the Charles King ' of 
Westminster Hall/ printer and publisher, 
who issued the ' Tracts against Popery ' of 
Michael Geddes Tq. v.] in 171 5, and the ' Gene- , 
ral Treatise of Mortality' of Richard Fiddes 
[q. v.] in 1724. j 

[Information kindly supplied by W. A. S. 
Hewing esq., of Oxford ; Tindal's Continuation of , 
Rapin, vi. 83 ; Boyer's Quadriennium Anns Pos- I 
tremuro, vol. v. ; W. Lee's Defoe, i. 2 1 5 ; Daily Cou- 
rant, 3 Jan. 1734 ; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. viii. 298; \ 
Willis's Current Notes, 1856, p. 38; M'Culloch's j 
Literature of Pol. Econ., and bis edition of Adam t 
Smith's Works, xxiv. »., xxxv. n. ; Macpherson's 
Annals, iii. 30 ; Roscher, i. 270 ; Watt's Bibl. 
Brit.; Brit. Mus. Cat.] T. S. 

KING, CHARLES (1687-1748), musical 
composer, the son of Charles and Mary King, 
was horn at Bury St. Edmunds in 1687, and 
was baptised in St. Mary's Church in that 
town 5 June 1693. He became a chorister 
of St. Paul's Cathedral, under Dr. Blow and 
Jeremiah Clark, and was subsequently ap- 
pointed supernumerary singer in the same 
choir at an annual salary of 14/. On 12 July 
1707 he proceeded to the degree of Mus.Bac. 
at Oxford, and in the same year married 
Clark's sister. At Clark's death (1 Dec. 
1707) King received the appointments of 
almoner and ' master of the children ' of St. 
Paul's, and in 1708 was elected, in addition, 
to the post of organist of St. Benet Finck, 
Royal Exchange. In 1730 he was nomi- 
nated a vicar-choral of St. Paul's, and held 
that office with his organistship until his 
death on 17 March 1748. 

King composed a large number of anthems 
and church services — a fact which gave rise to 
Maurice Greene's remark that 'Mr. King 
was a very serviceable man.' The titles of 
his best-known works are: 1. Anthems — 

* Rejoice in the Lord/ ' Hear, O Lord/ ' O pray 
for the peace of Jerusalem/ ' Wherewithal 
shall a young man.' 2. Services in F,C, 
B flat, and D, which are still occasionally 
performed. Four of his anthems are to be 
found in Page's ' Harmonia Sacra/ and two 
in Stevens's ' Sacred Music' Other of his 
compositions are included in Arnold's ' Ca- 
thedral Music/ and the Tudway Collection 
(Harl. MSS. 7341-2). Some services and an- 
thems by King were published separately 
in 1859 and 1866. Hawkins remarks that 

* King's inferiority was due rather to indo- 
lence than want of ability.' 

[Georgian Era, iv. 512 ; Diet, of Mus. 1824 ; 
Grove's Diet. ; parish registers.] R. H. L. 

1888), author of works on engraved gems, 
was born on 5 Sept. 1818 at Newport, Mon- 

mouthshire, where his father was engaged as 
a shipping agent in the iron trade. He en- 
tered Trinity College, Cambridge, as a sizar, 
in October 1836, and was elected scholar of 
his college in 1839, and fellow in 1&12. He 
graduated in 1840 as sixth in class I. of the 
classical tripos. About 1842 King went to 
Italy, and there spent several years studying 
the Italian language and literature and in 
collecting antique gems, which he procured 
at moderate prices, especially in Rome and 
Florence. King afterwards increased his col- 
lection by many gems purchased of Eastwood, 
the London dealer, and acquired specimens 
at the sale in London of several important 
cabinets, such as the Mertens-Schaaf hausen 
(Praun), the Hertz, and the Uzielli. The 
collection, formed between 1845 and 1877, 
ultimately consisted of 331 engraved stones, 
more than two-thirds of which were Greek 
and Roman, the remainder being Sassanian, 
Gnostic, and Oriental. About 1878, when 
his eyesight was seriously failing, King sold 
his collection, and it is now in the Metro- 
politan Museum of Art at New York, to which 
it was presented in October 1881 by Mr. John 
Taylor Johnston, the president of that insti- 
tution. A catalogue has been printed, with- 
out change, from King's own manuscript 
(dated 28 Feb. 1878),. with the title, 4 The 
Johnston Collection of Engraved Gems' 
(Metrop. Mus., New York, Handbook No. 9). 
Three Grreek marbles which belonged to King 
are described by Michaelis in his ' Ancient 
Marbles in Great Britain/ pp. 271-2. 

After King's return from Italy his life was 
chiefly spent at Trinity College, Cambridge. 
He was in holy orders, but had no cure. 
About 1866 he was one of her majesty's in- 
spectors of schools {Clergy List, 1866). At 
Cambridge King passed a very retired exist- 
ence, engaged in the composition of various 
works, but taking no part in the educational 
life of the place. The few friends who knew 
him well found him a kind-hearted man and 
a delightful companion, full of curious know- 
ledge and quaint humour (Aldis Wright 
in Athenaum). He was widely read in the 
Greek and Roman classics, without having, 
however, a minute philological knowledge. 
He had specially studied Pausanias and 
Pliny's 'Historia.' His short-sightedness 
always rendered reading difficult' for him, 
though he had ' a microscopic power of dis- 
cernment ' for objects such as gems. His writ- 
ings on ancient gems are original, and evince 
the experience of the practical collector. In 
England they have stimulated an interest in 
glyptography, though they are often marred 
by defects due to insufficient numismatic and 
archaeological training. King died in London, 




after a brief illness, of a bronchial cold, on 
25 March 1888. There is a portrait of him, 
in a travelling costume, by George Mason, one 
of his friends when in Rome. 

King's principal publications are : 1. ' An- 
tique Gems/ London, 1860, 8vo. 2. 'The 
Gnostics and their Remains/ London, 1864, 
8vo ; 2nd edit. London, 1887, 8vo (for a con- 
troversy as to misprints and alterations in 
this edition see Athenceum, January-June 
1888, pp. 441, 468, 499, 535, 662, 696). 
3. ' The Natural History ... of Precious 
Stones and Gems and of the Precious Metals/ 
London, 1865, 8vo ; also a 2nd edit, in 2 vols., 
published as ' The Natural History of Gems, 
or Decorative Stones/ Cambridge, 1867, 8vo, 
and ' The Natural History of Precious Stones 
and of the Precious Metals/ Cambridge, 1867, 
8vo. 4. ' The Handbook of Engraved Gems/ 
London, 1866, 8vo; 2nd edit. 1885, 8vo. 
5. 'Horatii Opera/ illustrated by antique 

rms selected by C. W. K., 1869, 8vo. 
' Antique Gems and Rings/ vol. i. text, 
vol. ii. illustrations, London, 1872, 8vo. 
7. 'Early Christian Numismatic and other 
Antiquarian Tracts/ London, 1873, 8vo. 
8. ' Plutarch's Morals/ Translated by C.W. K., 
1882 (Bonn's Classical Library). 9. * Julian 
the Emperor . . . Theosophical Works/ &c. 
Translated bv C. W. K., 1888 (Bonn's Clas- 
sical Library). 

[W. Aldis Wright in Athenaeum for 7 April 
1888, p. 441 ; Athenaeum for 31 March 1888, p. 
412; Academy for 7 April 1888, p. 247 ; Cat. 
of Johnston Coll.; Brit. Mus. Cat.] W. W. 

KING, DANIEL (d. 1664?), engraver, 
son of William King of Chester, baker, was 
apprenticed on 3 Sept. 1630 as painter for 
ten years to Randle Holme the elder [q. v.] 
After carrying on business for some years at 
Chester, he removed to London, where in 
1656 he published < The Vale Royall of Eng- 
land, or the County Palatine of Chester Il- 
lustrated/ folio. This was written byWilliam 
Smith, William Webb, and Samuel Lee, with 
an appendix on the Isle of Man by James 
Chaloner. The dedication alone is by King; 
indeed, Dugdale told Wood that he was not 
able to write one word of true English, being 
' a most ignorant, silly fellow/ and moreover 
' an arrant knave/ The engravings to the 
' Vale Royall ' are admirably done by King 
himself in the style of Hollar. The ' Vale 
Royall ' is embodied in Ormerod's ' History 
of Cheshire/ 1819, and an abridgment with 
notes by Thomas Hughes, F.S.A., was pub- 
lished in 1852. King also published : 1 . 'The 
Cathedrall and Conventual! Churches of Eng- 
land andWales Orthographically Delineated/ 
1656, oblong 4to, containing fifty engravings, 

three or four of them by Hollar. 2. A trans- 
lation of the ' Universal Way of Dyaling, 
by G. de Desargues/ 1659, 4to (Brit. Mus. 
Cat.) 3. ' An Orthographical Design of 
severall Viewes upon y e Road in England and 
Wales/ about 1660. He etched some plates 
for Dugdale's ' Monasticon.' On visiting Ches- 
ter in 1660 he was received and entertained by 
the Stationers' Company of that city. Wood 
states that he made an unfortunate marriage, 
and that after his wife had robbed and left 
him, he died heartbroken near York House, 
in the Strand, about 1664. 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 503 ; T. 
Hughes in Chester Archseol. Soc. Journal, ii. 
25, 256; Sir W, Dugdale's Diary (Hamper), 
1827, p. 108 ; Bryan's Diet, of Painters and En- 
gravers (Graves), i. 732 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

C. W. S. 

KING, DAVID, LL.D. (1806-1883), 
Scottish divine, son of John King (1762- 
1827), nastor of the second united associate 
church in Montrose, by his wife Eliza, daugh- 
ter of Mr. Young, a Montrose merchant, was 
born in Montrose on 20 May 1806. His an- 
cestors had been tenants of GiiFen Mill, near 
Beith, for several generations. Bang began 
his education in the high school 01 Mont- 
rose, and matriculated at Aberdeen Univer- 
sity in 1820, but after a year was transferred 
by his parents to Edinburgh University. 
Here he became a good classical scholar and 
showed a taste for science. Having com- 
pleted his arts course at Edinburgh, he re- 
moved to Glasgow to study theology under 
John Dick [q. v.] of the secession church. 
He was licensed as a probationer by the pres- 
bytery of Edinburgh. On 13 Jan. 1830 he 
became minister of the first united secession 
church of Dalkeith, and after the death of 
Dr. Dick he removed to Greyfriars secession 
church, Glasgow, 15 Oct. 1833. At Glas- 
gow he displayed marked organising power 
and enthusiasm. He began a systematic 
series of missions to the poor ; was the first 
to establish homes for poor boys there ; and set 
up classes for the instruction of young men 
in both sacred and secular subjects. The first 
foreign mission to Trinidad connected with 
the secession church was originated by him, 
and was supported during the early years of 
its existence principally through his exertions. 
His refined and sympathetic style of preaching 
was especially attractive to young men, and 
students of all denominations attended his 
ministry in Greyfriars. He took a deter- 
mined position in favour of the disestablish- 
ment of the church, and was associated 
with Lord Brougham, O'Connell, and other 
leaders of the time in the anti-slavery move- 
ment of 1838. The university of Glasgow 




conferred the degree of LL.D. upon him in 
1840. He took an active part in the foun- 
dation of the Evangelical Alliance in 1845, 
and attended many of the annual conferences 
held in various parts of Europe. He helped 
to bring about the union of the secession and 
relief churches in 1847 to form the united 
presbyterian church. In 1848 his health gave 
way, and he employed his enforced leisure in 
visiting Jamaica and making a tour through 
the United States, returning to Scotland in 
the following year. Until 1853 he continued 
actively engaged in the multifarious schemes 
connected with his denomination. Illness 
compelled him to resign his position at Grey- 
friars Church 12 Feb. 1855. He retired to 
Kilcreggan in the Firth of Clyde, and in 1860 
removed to London. Having settled at Bays- 
water, he founded a presbyterian congrega- 
tion there, and laboured in this quarter, amid 
many discouragements, till 1869. He still 
preserved his connection with the united 
presbyterian church in Scotland, and was 
chosen moderator of the synod of that body 
in 1863, taking a prominent share in the 
movement (1863-73) for the union of the 
free church of Scotland, the reformed pres- 
byterian church, the united presbyterian 
church, and the presbyterian church in Eng- 
land. Though this union was only partially 
realised, King's attitude helped to promote 
conciliatory feeling. In March 1869 he ac- 
cepted a call to the small congregation of 
Morningside, near Edinburgh, but in February 
1873 he was forced to resign all ministerial 
work. He died, after much travel in search 
of health, in London on 20 Dec. 1883. 

King's popularity as a preacher over- 
shadowed his reputation as a writer, though 
the few books which he wrote were very suc- 
cessful. His principal works were: 1. 'The 
Ruling Eldership/ 1 845, which went through 
three editions. 2. 'The Lord's Supper/ 1846. 
3. ' Geology and Religion/ 1849, an attempt 
at a reconciliation of the scriptural and scien- 
tific accounts of the creation, of which five 
editions were published. 4. ' The State and 
Prospects of Jamaica/ 1850. A volume of 
his sermons was published posthumously in 
1885, with a memoir of him written by his 
widow, the daughter of Professor James 
Thomson and sister of Sir William Thomson 
of Glasgow University. 

[Memoir as above.] 

A. H. M. 

KING, Sir EDMUND (1629-1709), 
physician, born in 1629, practised, after ap- 
" " p, as a surgeon in London. lie 

lived at first in Little Britain, and had a 
museum in his house which he took pleasure 
in showing to students. He used to keep 

dried specimens, such as the ileo-c«cal valve, 
pressed in a large paper book, and he dis- 
sected animals as well as the human subject 
(Shane MS. 1906). About 1665 he took a 
house in Hatton Garden, and was married 
at St. Andrew's Church, Holborn, on 20 June 
1666, to Rebecca Polsted of the adjoining 
parish of St. Sepulchre. In the same year 
he published in the ' Philosophical Transac- 
tions ' a paper on the parenchymatous parts 
of the oody, and maintained, from micro- 
scopic observation, that they contained enor- 
mous numbers of minute blood-vessels. In 
1667 the 'Philosophical Transactions' con- 
tained a long account by him of the trans- 
fusion of the blood of a calf into a sheep, 
with a view to proving that one animal may 
live with the blood of another. The experi- 
ment was carefully conducted by means of 
an apparatus of pipes and quills. In 1669 
he published further microscopic researches 
to show that glands consisted^ of tubes and 
vessels only. He was fond of insects, and in 
1667 published a paper on ants, and in 1670 
one on leaf cutter bees (both in 'Philoso- 
phical Transactions'). He had examined the 
eggs of ants microscopically, and studied 
the ways of life in ant-hills. He is probably 
one of the investigators described as antmen 
and bearmen by the Duchess of Newcastle 
(Description of a New World, 1668, p. 15). 
He was acquainted with Lord Arundel, Sir 
William Petty, Dr. Needham, and Robert 
Boyle, and some of his experiments were car- 
ried on at Arundel House in the Strand. 
Sheldon, the archbishop of Canterbury, 
created him M.D.; he was incorporated at 
Cambridge in 1671, and in 1677, on bringing 
a commendatory letter from the king, was 
admitted an honorary fellow of the College 
of Physicians of London. He was admitted 
a regular fellow 12 April 1687, being one of 
the nominees of James II's charter, and was 
thus completely converted from a surgeon 
into a physician. He was knighted and 
sworn physician to the king in 1676. 

On the morning of 2 Feb. 1684-5 King 
was sent for by Charles II. Charles talked 
incoherently, but the physician did not ascer- 
tain the morbid change at work (Burnet, 
History of his own Time, edit. 1724, i. 606). 
By Lord Peterborough's advice he paid a se- 
cond visit to the bedchamber, and at the 
moment that he entered Charles fell down in a 
fit. King bled him immediately. Charles 
gradually regained consciousness. The other 
physicians who arrived approved the bleed- 
ing, and the privy council advised that King 
should receive a reward of 1,000/. ; but as 
that body has no command of funds, and as 
the subsequent fatal termination prevented 




any expression of royal gratitude, King never 
received his fee. King a] 

of viper 
powder, but liked the volatile salt better 
(original letter to Sir Hans Sloane). In 
the * Philosophical Transactions ' for 1686 he 
published an account of the autopsy of Mr. 
Robert Bacon, a demented person, who had a 
calcified pineal gland in his brain, renal and 
vesical calculi and gallstones. He mentions 
that he had dissected one hundred brains. 
In the preface to the ' Pharmaceutice Ra- 
tionalis of Br. Thomas Willis [q. v.], who 
became his close friend, King's dexterous 
dissections are commended. His next obser- 
vations (Phil. Trans.) were on animalculae 
in pepper. He had looked at them ' with my 
best microscope,' and had noticed that when 
oats and some herbs were left in water, living 
organisms became discoverable in it. He triea 
the effects of sack, ink, sulphuric acid, and 
other fluids on these amoebae. In November 
1688 he published a further paper in the 
' Philosophical Transactions ' on the tubular 
structure of reproductive glands in men, 
guinea-pigs, and bulls. He had a consider- 
able practice, from which he did not retire 
till he was seventy-two, and thenceforward 
he spent much time in the country. His own 
loss of strength compelled him in 1701 to 
give up attending the aged poet, Sir Charles 
Sedley, whose death he had foretold at his 
first visit, and he handed on the patient to 
Sir Hans Sloane (original letters in Sloane 
MS. 4050). He died in Hatton Garden 
30 May 1709. His portrait by Lely, which 
he bequeathed to the College of Physicians, 
and which hangs in the reading-room of the 
college, represents him with a large aquiline 
nose and a dark complexion. It was en- 
graved by Williams. 

[Hunk's Coll. of Phya. i. 448 ; Phil. Trans, 
of the Royal Society ; Burnet's Hist, of his own 
Time, London, 1724 ; Wilkin's Sir Thomas 
Browne's Works, London, 1836, i. 62; Sloane 
MS. 1906 in British Museum; Mr. Edward 
Browne's Journal; Sloane MS. 4050, ff. 169, 
177, 179. The last, a letter on the death of 
Sir Charles Sedley, is dated in error by Sir E. 
King himself 1601 for 1701.] N. M 

KING, EDWARD (1612-1637), friend of 
Milton, was younger son of Sir John King 
(d. 1637) [q. v.], at one time of Feathercock 
Hall, Northallerton, Yorkshire, but after- 
wards an active civil officer in Ireland. Ed- 
ward King, bishop of Elphin, was his god- 
father, and Sir Robert King [q. v.] was his 
eldest brother. Edward was born in Ireland 
in 1612, and seems to have been partly edu- 
cated at the school of Thomas Farnaby [q. v.] 
in London (cf. JustaEdotardoKing . . . 1638). 
He was admitted a pensioner of Christ's Col- 

lege, Cambridge, on 9 June 1626, at the same 
time as another brother, Roger, who was two 
years his senior {College Admission Book). In 
1630, in compliance with a royal mandate, 
Edward was elected to a fellowship at Christ's. 
Milton, who was also two years his senior, 
was at that time hoping to obtain a like dis- 
tinction. In the mandate, which is dated 
10 June, his majesty is said to be * well ascer- 
tained both of the present sufficiency and 
future hopes' of the new fellow (Baker MS. 
ix. 220). King, however, having been born 
in Ireland, his election, as the son of a York- 
shireman, gave rise to some dispute, and the 
questions arising out of his election were not 
settled until 1696 (ib. ix. 247). King did not 
discredit the royal recommendation. He ap- 
pears to have been popular in the college, and 
Milton himself became warmly attached to 
his rival, on account both of his amiable dis- 
position and scholarly tastes. During 1633-4 
King was prelector of his college, and the 
admissions are in his handwriting. He was 
also one of the tutors, and was looking for- 
ward to the career of a parish priest. At the 
close of the academic year 1636-7 King set 
out for Ireland, on a visit to his brother 
Robert and two of his sisters. The vessel on 
which he had embarked left the estuary of 
the Dee, and was coasting in calm weather 
along the Welsh shore, when it struck on a 
rock and foundered. With the exception of 
a few who managed to get into a boat, all 
on board perished. King is said to have 
behaved with calm heroism; after a vain 
endeavour to prevail upon him to enter the 
boat he was left on board, and was last seen 
kneeling on deck in the act of praver (Ac- 
count prefixed to the Obsequies), if is death, 
according to Baker, took place on 10 Aug. 
(4 Id. Sextilis) 1637; but his name in the 
audit books occurs in the list of Lady day 
1638; it is also entered, but erased, in the 
list of midsummer 1638. His name, written 
by himself in a small and very beautiful hand, 
occurs in a college order written in an old 
lease book. 

King's reputation for poetical ability is 
hardly sustained by his extant compositions, 
all of which were contributed to various col- 
lections of poems by Cambridge scholars. 
They are as follows : 1. Four metrical com- 
positions in Latin, signed * Ed. King, Coll. 
Christi Socius,' in pp. 36-9 of a volume en- 
titled ' Genethliacum illustrissimorum prin- 
cipum, Caroli et Marice, a Musis Cantabri- 
giensibus celebratum/ Cambridge, 1631, on 
the occasion of the birth of the Princess Mary 
on 4 Nov. 1631. 2. Some Latin iambics on 
pp. 43-4 of a collection of Cambridge verses 
celebrating the king's recovery from the 




small-pox in the winter of 1632, and en- 
titled ' Anthologia in Regis Exanthemata ; 
seu gratulatio Musarum Cantab, de felicis- 
sime asservata Regis Caroli valetudine/ Cam- 
bridge, 1683 (reprinted in Nichols's Collec- 
tion of Poems, yii. 76-85). 8. Latin iambics 
in a similar collection congratulating the 
king on his safe return from Scotland in July 
1633, entitled ' Rex redux, sive Musa Canta- 
brigiensis, etc., de incolumitate et felici re- 
ditu Regis Caroli post receptam coronam 
comitiaque peracta in Scotia/ Cambridge, 
1633. 4. Latin iambics prefixed to ' Senile 
Odium,' by Peter Hausted [q. v.], 1633. 
5. Latin elegiacs in another collection on the 
birth of the Duke of York on 15 Oct. 1633, 
entitled ' Ducis Eboracensis Fasciss a Musis 
Cantabrigiensibus raptim context®,' Cam- 
bridge, 1633. 6. Latin stanzas in a like col- 
lection in honour of the birth of the Princess 
Elizabeth on 28 Dec. 1635, entitled ' Carmen 
Natalitium ad cunas illustrissimss principis 
Elizabeth© decantatum, intra nativitatis 
Domini solemnia, per humiles CantabrigisB 
musas, a.d. 1635/ 7. Iambic Latin verses 
in another collection, which was entitled 
i 2w»dia, sive Musarum Cantabrigiensium 
concentus et congratulatio ad serenissimum 
Britanniarum Regem Carolum de quinta sua 
subole, clarissima Principe sibi nuper felicis- 
sime nata, A.D. 1637.' 

On the intelligence of his death reaching 
Cambridge, King's fate was commemorated 
by members of the university in a series of 
effusions which clearly show that he had in- 
spired among his friends no ordinary esteem 
and regard. These compositions appeared in 
two parts, both printed at the university 
press in 1638 ; the former containing twenty- 
three pieces in Latin and Greek, including 
one by Farnaby, was entitled ' Just a Edo- 
vardo King naufrago ab amicis mcerentibus, 
amoris et pvtias x°P lv - f The second part 
contains thirteen English poems, and is en- 
titled * Obsequies to the Memorie of Mr. 
Edward King, Anno Dom. 1638.' Of these 
Milton's 'Lycidas' is the last. Milton pro- 
bably modelled his poem after an Italian 
eclogue entitled ' Phyllis,' recording the fate 
of another Lycidas ; the author, Actius Syn- 
cenis Sannazarius, was one of Milton's fa- 
vourite poets of the Renaissance. 

[Masson's Life of Milton, vol. i. ; information 
supplied from college documents by Dr. Peile, 
master of Christ's College ; letter by Professor 
J. W. Hales in Athenaeum, July 1891, pp. 169- 
160.] J. B. M. 

KING, EDWARD (1735 P-1807), miscel- 
laneous writer, born about 1735, was the only 
son of Edward King of Norwich. He studied 


for a time at Clare Hall, Cambridge, as a 
fellow-commoner. On 18 Sept. 1758 he was 
admitted a member of Lincoln's Inn, and was 
called to the bar in Michaelmas term 1763 
(Lincoln's Inn Register and Bar Book). An 
ample fortune bequeathed to him by his 
uncle, Mr. Brown, a wholesale linendraper 
of Exeter, rendered him independent of his 
profession, but he regularly attended the 
Norfolk circuit for some years, and was ap- 
pointed recorder of King's Lynn. In his at- 
tendance on the circuit he defended a lady 
from a faithless lover, and afterwards married 
her. King was elected F.R.S. on 14 May 
1767 (Thomson, Hist of Roy. Soc. Append, 
iv. p. lii) and F.S.A. on 3 May 1770 (Gotjgh, 
Chronological List of Soc. Antiq. 1798, p. 23). 
He contributed several papers to the * Archaeo- 
logia,' among which were ' Remarks on the 
Abbey Church of Bury St. Edmunds in Suf- 
folk' (iii. 311-14), reprinted separately in 
1774, 'Observations on Antient Castles,' with 
four plates (iv. 364-413), and « A Sequel to 
Observations/ with thirty-one plates (vi. 
231-375\ also issued separately in 1782. On 
the deatn of Jeremiah Milles [q. v.] in Fe- 
bruary 1784, King was elected his successor 
in the presidency of the Society of Anti- 
quaries on the understanding that Lord De 
Ferrars (afterwards Earl of Leicester) wOuld 
assume the office on the ensuing 23 April 
(Nichols, Illustr. of Lit. vii. 461). King, 
however, sought to obtain re-election, and 
that by the employment of ungenerous tac- 
tics, but was defeated by an overwhelming 
majority. His speech on quitting the chair 
was printed, and he subsequently printed a 
letter in vindication of his conduct and re- 
flecting upon the earl, and thenceforward 
ceased to make any communications to the 
Society (Nichols, Lit. Anecd. viii. 57). 

Bang's first separate work appeared in 1767 
under the title of ' An Essay on the English 
Constitution and Government/ 8vo. Inl780 
he issued, without his name, ' Hymns to the 
Supreme Being, in Imitation of the Eastern 
Songs,' 8vo, of which two editions were issued 
in 1795 and 1798. In 1785 he circulated, also 
anonymously, ' Proposals for Establishing at 
Sea a Marine School, or Seminary for Sea- 
men,' &c, 8vo, in a letter addressed to John 
Frere, vice-president of the Marine Society. 
Jonas Hanway, in a report made to the so- 
ciety in July of that year, had proposed a 
large marine school on land. King pointed 
out objections to this scheme, and suggested 
the fitting up a man-of-war as a marine school 
(cf. Gent. Mag. vol. Iv. pt. ii. pp. 904-5). In 
1788 he published ' Morsels of Criticism, 
tending to illustrate some few passages in the 
Holy Scriptures, upon philosophical principles 




and an enlarged view of things/ large 4to. 
.Among other absurdities King attempted to 
prove that John the Baptist was an angel 
from heaven, and the same who formerly ap- 
peared in the person of Elijah. The work 
on its first appearance was severely criticised 
by Richard Gough [q. v.] in the ' Gentleman's 
Magazine ' (voL lvni. pt. i. pp. 141-5). A 
notice of the book in Mathias's 'Pursuits 
of Literature ' created some demand for it, 
and a second edition, to which was added a 
'supplemental part designed to show, still 
more fully, the perfect consistency of philo- 
sophical discoveries, and of historical facts, 
with the revealed Will of God/ was pub- 
lished in 1800 (3 vols, folio), and also a second 
part of the quarto edition (Literary Memoirs 
of Living Authors, i. 338). In 1793 King 
published l An Imitation of the Prayer of 
Abel/ and during the same year * Considera- 
tions on the Utility of the National Debt : 
and on the Present Alarming Crisis ; with a 
Short Plan of a Mode of Relief/ 8vo. In 1796 
he wrote some whimsical ' Remarks concern- 
ing Stones said to have fallen from the clouds, 
both in these days and in antient times/ 8vo, 
occasioned by a supposed shower of stones in 
Tuscany on 16 June of that year. Bang's 
next treatise, called 'Vestiges of Oxford 
Castle ; or, a small fragment of a work in- 
tended to be published speedily on the His- 
tory of Ancient Castles, &c, fol., London, 
1796, was followed by his great work entitled 
'Munimenta Antiqua; or, Observations on 
ancient Castles, including remarks on the . . . 
progress of Architecture ... in Great Britain, 
and on the . . . changes in . . . Laws and 
Customs ' (with Appendix), 4 vols. fol. Lon- 
don, 1799-1806. The book is full of foolish 
theories, misplaced learning, and blunders, 
but the importance of its plans and details, 
despite inaccuracies, is generally recognised 
by antiquaries. Louis Dutens having taken 
exception to King's theories on the invention 
of the arch in ' Recherches sur le terns le plus 
recule de l'usage des voutes chez lea anciens/ 
4to, 1805, King anticipated his fourth volume 
by publishing during the same year an ' Intro- 
duction* of twenty-one pages, in which he 
vigorously defended his views. Dutens con- 
tinued the controversy in three more tracts, to 
. which King replied in an 'Appendix ' to ' Muni- 
menta Antiqua ' issued in 1806. In 1 798 King 
wrote another extraordinary pamphlet called 
' Remarks on the Signs of the Times/ 4to, in 
which he demonstrated the genuineness of the 
second book of Esdras. Irritated by Gough's 
critique on this tract in the 'Gentleman's 
Magazine ' (vol. lxviii. pt. ii. pp. 591-8), he 
wrote a violent letter to the printer, John 
Nichols. King added a ' Supplement ' to his 

' Remarks ' in 1799, but this was demolished 
by Bishop Horsley in ' Critical Disquisitions 
on the Eighteenth Chapter of Isaiah, in a 
letter to E. King/4to, 1799 (Gent. Mag. vol. 
lxix. pt. ii. pp. 49&-503). In 1803 King pub- 
lished anonymously * Honest Apprehensions ; 
or, the unbiassed . . . Confession of Faith of 
a plain honest Lay-man/ 8vo. It is strictly 
orthodox. King died on 16 April 1807, 
aged 72, and was buried in the churchyard at 
Beckenham, Kent, where was his country 
seat, 'The Oakery/ on Clay Hill. He had 
read much, was exceedingly tenacious of his 
opinions, and would contend with as much 
zeal for the genuineness of the correspondence 
between St. Paul and Seneca and of the 
apocryphal writings as for the canonical 
books. His collections of prints and draw- 
ings were sold by auction in 1808. 

[Chalmers's Biog. Diet.] G. G. 

KING, EDWARD, Viscount Kings- 
bobottgh (1795-1837), born on 16 Nov. 1795, 
was eldest son of George, third carl of Kings- 
ton, by Lady Helena Moore, only daughter 
of Stephen, first earl of Mountcashell ("Burke, 
Peerage, 1891, p. 789). After his father suc- 
ceeded to the earldom in 1799 he was known 
by the courtesy title of Viscount Kings- 
borough. He matriculated at Oxford from 
Exeter College on 25 June 1814, and in 
Michaelmas term 1818 gained a second class 
in classics, but did not graduate (Fosteb, 
Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886, ii. 794). In 1818 
and again in 1820 he was elected M.P. for 
Cork count v, but resigned his seat in 1826 
in favour of his younger brother Robert {Lists 
of Members of Parliament, pt. ii.) 

The sight of a Mexican manuscript in the 
Bodleian Library determined King to devote 
his life to the study of the antiquities of that 
country. He promoted and edited, with 
copious notes, a magnificent work entitled 
'Antiquities of Mexico, comprising facsimiles 
of Ancient Mexican Paintings and Hiero- 
glyphics preserved in . . . various Libraries, 
together with the Monuments of New Spain, 
by M. Dupaix, with . . . accompanying De- 
scriptions. The whole illustrated by many 
valuable Manuscripts by Augustine Aglio/ 
9 vols, imperial fol, London, 1830-48, in- 
cluding sixty pages of a projected tenth 
volume. Four copies were printed on vellum , 
with the plates coloured. It is said that the 
work was undertaken by the encouragement 
and with the advice of Sir Thomas Phillipps, 
in whose collection many of the manuscripts 
and drawings used in it were preserved 
(Macray, Annals of the Bodleian Library, 
2nd edition, p. 322). The drift of King's 
speculations is to establish the colonisation 




of Mexico by the- Israelites. The book cost 
King upwards of 32,000/. and his life. On- 
pressed with debt, he .was arrested at the suit 
of a paper manufacturer, and lodged in the 
sheriff's prison, Dublin, where he died of 
typhus fever on 27 Feb. 1837, and was buried 
at Mitchelstown. He was unmarried. 

[Gent. Mag. new ser. vii. 537-8 ; Ann. Reg. 
1 837 ; Webb's Compendium of Irish Biog. p. 275 ; 
Allibone's Diet.] G. G. 


(1757-1821), authoress. [See under King, 
Richard, 1748-1810.] 

KING, GREGORY (1648-1712), herald, 
genealogist, engraver, and statistician, born 
at Ljchfield, Staffordshire, on 15 Dec. 1648, 
was eldest son of Gregory King of that city, 
by his first wife, Elizabeth, daughter of J. 
Andrews of Sandwich, Kent. His father, an 
accomplished mathematician, gained a live- 
lihood by surveying land, laying out orna- 
mental gardens, and constructing sun-dials, 
but his habits were irregular and his income 
precarious. The son was educated under 
Thomas Bevans, head-master of Lichfield 
grammar school. When he left school at 
the age of fourteen he knew Latin and Greek 
and the Hebrew grammar. In December 
1662 he became clerk to Sir William Dugdale 
[q. v.], Norroy king of arms. Dugdale held 
a visitation 01 the whole of his province be- 
tween 1662 and 1666, and in many of the 
northern counties his little clerk, who was 
very small for his age, delineated ' the pro- 
spects of towns, castles, and other remar- 
juables,' besides emblazoning armorial bear- 
ings on vellum. 

Between 1667 and 1669 King was in the 
service of Lord Hatton, who was forming a 
collection of the arms of the nobility. In 
1669 he returned to Lichfield, where he 
supported himself by teaching writing and 
arithmetic, by painting hatchments, signs, 
and coaches, ana by giving instruction in the 
decipherment of ancient records. He like- 
wise transcribed the family muniments of 
Walter Chetwynd [q. v.] of Ingestre. At 
the end of 1669 he became the steward, 
auditor, and secretary of the Dowager Lady 
Gerard of Gerard's Bromley, widow of 
Charles, and mother of Digby, lord Gerard. 
He resided with the lady^ father, George 
Digby of Sandon, Staffordshire, until August 
1672, when he came back to London. On the 
recommendation of Hollar the engraver, John 
Ogilby the printer employed him to etch 
plates for Sir Peter Leycester's * Historical 
Antiquities ; ' for the edition of '^Esop's 
Fables' (2 vols. London, 1672-8, 8vo), the 
4 Description of Persia ' (1673), and for a new 

edition of Camden's ' Britannia.' While en- 
gaged on the last work King travelled into 
Essex with a surveyor named Falgate, and 
in the winter of 1672 they constructed maps 
of Ipswich in Suffolk and Maiden in Essex, 
which were afterwards i very curiously 
finished.' King also assisted in drawing the 
man of London, subsequently engraved by 
Hollar, and he superintended its production. 
He projected and managed a lottery of books 
to recoup Ogilby for the expenses incurred 
in these undertakings, and a similar lottery 
which he superintended for Bristol fair 
proved very profitable. He next edited the 
4 Book of Roads,' digesting the notes and 
directing the engravings, three or four of 
which he executed with his own hand, these 
being his earliest exneriments with the graver. 
He undertook on his own account the map 
of Westminster (1675), and with the assist- 
ance of Falgate completed it in a year. After- 
wards he was employed in engraving the 
letter-work of maps. He continued to en- 
grave from 1676 to 1680, and compiled a 
portion of Francis Sandford's 'Genealogical 
History of the Kings and Queens of England/ 
while his friend the author was prostrated 
by illness. 

London was indebted to King for the lay- 
ing out of the streets and squares in Soho 
Fields. Soho Square was formerly called 
King's Square, and Rimbault suggests that 
Greek Street, formerly Grig Street, was so 
called after King's christian name. Many 
of the first building articles or leases in 
various parts of London were drawn up by 

At the College of Arms he formed a close 
friendship with Thomas Lee, Chester herald ; 
and the Earl of Norwich, deputy earl-mar- 
shal, on Lee's recommendation, created him 
Rouge Dragon pursuivant on 24 June 1677 
(Noble, College of Arms, p. 294). In Michael- 
mas term of that year King brought an 
action for libel in the court of king's bench 
against one who had charged him with 
cheating (Keble, Reports, ii. 265). 

In 1680 he removed from his house in 
Covent Garden to the college. He assisted 
Sir Henry St. George, Norroy king of arms, 
in his visitations in 1681 and 1682; and in 
1684 he was nominated by the Duke of Nor- 
folk to the office of registrar of the College of 
Arms. He was consulted about the corona- 
tion of James II and his queen, and was the 
principal author of the superb volume con- 
taining descriptions and splendid engravings 
of that ceremony (London, 1687,fol.), though 
he allowed Francis Sandford to affix his name 
to the title-page. King contented himself 
with one-third of the profits, but the book 





did not appear until just before the landing 
of the Prince of Orange, and the authors 
barely cleared their expenses, which amounted 
to nearly 600/. (Noble, pp. 823, 324). 

In 16&7 King assisted Sir Henry St. George 
in his visitation of London. After the revo- 
lution he was engaged in the ceremonial of 
William andMary*s coronation, and succeeded 
Sandford, who resigned on account of his 
Jacobite sympathies, in the office of Lancas- 
ter herald. He took part in the investitures 
with the insignia of the Garter of the elector 
of Brandenburg (afterwards Frederick I, king 
of Prussia) in 1689 and of the Duke of Zefl 
in 1691. He was sent to Dresden on similar 
business in 1692, and although the elector of 
Saxony, who was to be invested with the in- 
signia of the order, died before the ceremony, 
the achievements were hung up, and the in- 
stallation took place on 5 July 1694. A 
quarrel with the earl-marshal respecting the 
arrangements at the funeral of Queen Mary 
led to King's dismissal from the office of 
registrar, and a charge brought against him 
by the earl of embezzling fees caused him to 
be temporarily suspended from service in the 
college. He became, however, secretary to 
the commissioners for taking and stating the 
public accounts and also secretary to the con- 
trollers of the accounts of the army. He was 
in 1710 a candidate for the patent of Claren- 
cieux, and wrote a long letter to Harley 
stating his claims, but, as his biographer, 
Chalmers, puts it, the wit of his rival, Sir 
John Vanbrugh, ' prevailed over King's arith- 
metick.' He died on 29 Aug. 1712, and was 
buried in the chancel of the church of St. 
Benet, Paul's Wharf, where a handsome 
mural monument of stone, with an inscrip- 
tion in English, was erected to his memory. 

He married, first, 1 July 1674, Anne, daugh- 
ter of John Powel of Firley in the parish of 
Forthampton, Gloucestershire ; secondly, in 
1701, Frances G rattan, by whom he had three 
children, who all died in infancy. 

King was a man of remarkable versatility. 
As a herald and genealogist he was the equal 
of his master, Sir William Dugdale ; and as 
a statistician he surpassed Sir William Petty. 

His chief statistical work is entitled 
'Natural and Political Observations and 
Conclusions upon the State and Condition 
of England, 1696' (Thorpe, Cat. of MSS. 
pt. v. for 1839, p. 62). It supplies the best 
account accessible of the population and 
wealth of England at the close of the seven- 
teenth century. Some extracts from it were 
published by Charles Davenant, but the trea- 
tise itself was not published till 1801, when 
George Chalmers added it, with a notice of 
King, to his ' Estimate of the Comparative J 

Strength of Great Britain.' Chalmers, who 
drew attention to King's originality as a 
political arithmetician, his local knowledge, 
and scientific methods, appended to the * Ob- 
servations ' two other tracts by King, viz. 
' A Scheme of the Inhabitants of the City of 
Gloucester,' laid before the board of trade 
in 1696, and 'A Computation of the En- 
dowed Hospitals and Almshouses in England,' 
presented to the same board in 1697. Another 
of King's statistical undertakings was 'A 
Scheme of the Rates and Duties granted 
to his Majesty upon Marriages, Births, and 
Burials, and upon Batchelors and Widowers, 
for the term of five years from May 1, 1695/ 
London, 1695, fol. An interesting account 
of the chief conclusions in King's 'very 
valuable estimate' is given by Mr. Lecky in 
his ' England in the Eighteenth Century,' L 
King's heraldic or genealogical works are : 

1. ' The Order of the Installation of Prince 
George of Denmark, Charles, Duke of Somer- 
set, and George, Duke of Northumberland, 
at Windsor, April 8, 1684,' London, 1684,fol. 

2. 'The Order of the Installation of Henry, 
Duke of Norfolk, Henrv, Earl of Peter- 
borough, and Laurence, Earl of Rochester, 
at Windsor, July 22, 1685,' London, 1685, 
fol. 8. 'An Account of the Ceremony of 
investing his Electoral Highness of Branden- 
burgh with the Order of the Garter,' London, 
1690, 4to. 4. * The usual Ceremony observed 
by the Lord High Steward and Peers of 
Great Britain, the officers of the Court, their 
assistants and attendants, on the Arraign- 
ment and Trial of some Peer or Peeress . . . 
for Treason or Felony,' London, 1746, fol. 
5. ' The Visitation of Worcester, begun by 
Thomas May, Chester, and Gregory King, 
Rouge Dragon . . . 1682, and finished by 
Henry Dethick, Richmond, and the said 
Rouge Dragon . . . 1683. With additions by 
Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart. Edited by 
W. C. Metcalfe,' Exeter (privately printed), 
1883, 4to. 6. < The Visitation of the County 
of Gloucester, begun by Thomas May, 
Chester, and Gregory King, Rouge Dragon 
. . . and finished by Henry Dethick, Rich- 
mond, and the said Rouge Dragon. With 
additions. Edited by T. Fitz-Roy Feiiwick, 
and W. C. Metcalfe,' Exeter, 1884, 4to. 

Some of King's collections are printed in 
Arthur Collins's 'Proceedings, Precedents, 
and Arguments in Claims and Controversies 
concerning Baronies by Writ and other 
Honours,' 1734. 

An autobiography bringing King's career 
down to his quarrel with the earl-marshal, 
entitled ' Some Miscellaneous Notes of the 
Birth, Education, and Advancement of Gre- 




gory King,' remains in manuscript in the Raw- 
linson collection in the Bodleian Library. It 
was printed in the appendix to Dallaway's 
' Inquiries into the Origin and Progress of 
the Science of Heraldry in England/ Glouces- 
ter, 1793, 4to, and also in the anonymous 
* Heraldic Miscellanies/ London, n.d.4to. 

The following writings of King have not 
been printed: 1. Letter to H. St. George 
describing a masquerade at the Court of 
Dresden, 10 Feb. 1698 (Brit. Mus. Addit. 
MS. 6321, f. 44). 2. Ordinary of Arms (Addit. 
MS. 26690). 3. Transcripts of the Council 
Books of tne reign of Edward VI (Addit. 
MSS. 14024-6). 4. Arms of Families of the 
name of Russell (Addit. MS. 26690, f. 28). 
6. Heraldic Miscellanies (HarL MSS. 6691, 
6821, 6832, 6833). 

King painted a pack of cards with the 
arms of the English nobility in imitation of 
' Claud Oronce Fine Brianille.' 

[King's Autobiography; Chalmers's Memoir 
of King; Gent. Mag. 1800, pt. i. p. 973, vol. xc. 
pt. i. p. 233 ; McCulloch's Lit Pol. Econ. p. 
210 ; Noble's College of Arms, pp. 294, 313, 324, 
335 ; Nichols's Lit Anecd. i. 98 ; Hamper's Life 
of Dugdale ; Macaulay's Hist, of England, chap, 
iii. ; Pepys's Memoirs, v. 183.] T. 0. 

KING, HENRY (1592-1669), bishop of 
Chichester, eldest son of John King [q. v.], 
bishop of London, by his wife, Joan Free- 
man, was baptised at Worminghall, Bucking- 
hamshire, 16 Jan. 1591-2. Robert King, first 
bishop of Oxford [q. v.], was his great-grand- 
uncle. He was educated at W estmmster, 
whence, in 1608, he was elected, with his 
brother John [see under King, John, D.D., 
1559P-1621], student of Christ Church, Ox- 
ford. The brothers were matriculated 20 Jan. 
1608-9, and were admitted on the same days 
(19 June 1611 and 7 July 1614) to the de- 
grees of bachelor and master of arts. On 
24 Jan. 1615-16 Henry was collated to the 

¥rebend of St. Pancras in the cathedral of St. 
'aul's, receiving at the same time the office 
of penitentiary or confessor in that cathe- 
dral, together with the rectory and patronage 
of Chigwell, Essex. He was made arch- 
deacon of Colchester on 10 April 1617, and 
soon afterwards received the sinecure rec- 
tory of Fulham, in addition to being ap- 
pointed one of the royal chaplains. All 
these various preferments he held until he 
was advanced to the episcopal bench. Cham- 
berlain, in a letter to Carleton, dated 8 Nov. 
1617, mentions that ' young King, the Bishop 
of London's eldest son,' had preached a ser- 
mon at Paul's Cross. ' It was thought/ he 
writes, ' a bold part of them, both that so 
young a man should play his first prizes in 
such a place and such a time, it being, as he 

professed, the primitive of his vocation, and 
the first sermon that ever he made. He did 
reasonably well, but nothing extraordinary, 
being rather slow of utterance and orator 
parum vehement.' About this time King 
married Anne, eldest daughter of Robert 
Berkeley, esq., and granddaughter of Sir 
Maurice Berkeley. There were four or five 
children of the marriage, but only two sur- 
vived. His wife died about 1624, and was 
buried in St. Paul's Cathedral. From his 
elegy on her we learn that she had barely 
reached her twenty-fourth year. 

After his fathers death, on Good Friday 
1621, and the circulation of the false rumour 
that he had died in communion with the 
church of Rome, King preached a sermon (on 
John xv. 20) at St. Paul's Cross, on 25 Nov. 
1621 , * Upon Occasion of that false and scanda- 
lous Report touching the supposed Apostasie 
of ... J . King, late Bishop of London/ 4to. 
He was made canon of Christ Church 8 March 
1623-4, and John was made canon in the fol- 
lowing August. On 19 May 1625 they were 
admitted to the degrees of B.D. and D.D. 
as accumulators and compounders, and on 
10 July (Act Sunday) they both preached at 
St. Mary's, the elder in the morning and the 
younger in the afternoon, the two sermons 
being published together, with the appro- 
priate motto, ' Behold, how good and now 
pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together 
in unitie.' 

King's amiability endeared him to his 
friends. Among tnese were Ben Jonson, 
George Sandys, Sir Henry Blount, and James 
Howell. His friendship with Izaak Walton 
began about 1624, and continued till death. 
He was on terms of closest intimacy with John 
Donne (1573-1631) [q. v.], who appointed 
him one of his executors, and bequeathed to 
him the gold medal struck in commemora- 
tion of the synod of Dort. An elegy by King 
is prefixed to the 1638 edition of Donne's 

From time to time he published sermons. 
In 1626 appeared * A Sermon of Deliverance/ 
4to, preacned on Easter Sunday at the Spittle 
by request of the lord mayor and aldermen ; 
in 1627 'Two Sermons, preached at White- 
hall in Lent, March 3. 1625. andFebruarie 20- 
1626,' 4to ; and in 1628 'An Exposition upon 
the Lord's Prayer. Deliuered in certaine 
Sermons in the Cathedrall Church of St. 
Pavl,' 4to ; 2nd edit. 1634. On 6 Feb. 1638- 
1639, shortly after the death of his brother 
John, he was made dean of Rochester, and 
on 6 Feb. 1641-2, the day after the lords had 
consented to pass the bill for depriving the 
bishop of their votes, he was elevated to the 
see of Chichester, being also presented to the 




rich rectory of Petworth in Sussex. He was 
residing at his episcopal palace when Chi- 
chester surrendered to the parliament in 1643. 
In his will he complains that his library was 
seized * contrary to the condicon and con- 
tracte of the Generall and Counsell of warre 
at the taking of that attic. 1 Walker (Suf- 
ferings of the Clergy, ii. 63) declares that he 
was ' most Barbarously Treated/ He was de- 
prived of the rectory of Petworth, which was 
given by parliament to Francis Cheynell, 
and by a resolution of the House of Com- 
mons, 27 June 1643, his estates were ordered 
to be forthwith sequestrated, a petition for 
delay being rejected on 3 Oct. From 1643 
to 1661 he lived in the house of his brother- 
in-law, Sir Richard Hobart of Langley, 
Buckinghamshire. In 1649 he published an 
elegy on Charles I, dated ' from my sad Re- 
tirement, March 11, 1648-9 ; ' another elegy, 
' A Deepe Groane . . . by D. H. K./ has been 
doubtfully assigned to him. ' The Psalmes 
of David. ... To be sung after the Old Tunes 
vsed in y e Churches/ appeared in 1651 ; 2nd 
edit. 1671. 

Shortly afterwards King retired to Ritch- 
ings, near Langley, the residence of Lady 
Salter (supposed to be a sister of Bishop 
Duppa), where other members of the King 
family and John Hales of Eton found refuge. 
In 1657 his scattered ' Poems/ 8vo, were col- 
lected. The unsold copies were reissued in 
1664 with a new title-page and some ad- 
ditional elegies. In the edition of 1700 the 
additional elegies were cancelled, and the 
volume was entitled ' Ben Jonson's Poems, 
Paradoxes, and Sonnets.' Some of the poems 
had been published before 1657. The elegy 
on Gustavus Adolphus appeared in the ' Swe- 
dish Intelligencer/ pt. iu. 1633 ; another on 
Donne was prefixed to Donne's * Poems/ ! 
1633 ; another on Ben Jonson was contri- ! 
buted to * Jonsonus Virbius/ 1638 ; and the 
epistle to George Sandys was printed in 1638. 
King did not prepare the volume for publi- 
cation, and some of the poems appear not to 
belong to him. The verses on Lord Dorset's 
death are found in Bishop Corbet's poems. 
i My Midnight Meditation ' is ascribed on early 
manuscript authority to his brother Dr. John ' 
King, and two pieces are found among the ' 
poems attributed (often wrongly) to the Earl 
of Pembroke and Sir Benjamin Rudyard. A 
poem beginning 'Like to the falling of a star ' 
is found among Francis Beaumont's poems ; 
but probably it belongs neither to Beaumont 
nor l£m{j. Ae additional poems in the edition 
of 1664 include elegies on the Earl of Essex, 
Sir Charles Lucas, Sir George Lisle, and Lady 
Stanhope. King's best poem is his elegy on 
his wife. I 

In 1659 King was engaged in negotiations 
for supplying the vacant bishoprics, and in 
the next year returned to Chichester. Wood 
says that at the Restoration he ' became dis- 
contented, as I have heard, and a favourer 
thereupon of the presbyterians in his diocese.' 
On 29 May 1661, < being the happy day of 
his majesties inauguration and birth/ he 
preached a sermon (published in 1661, 4to) 
at Whitehall, and on 24 April 1662 he de- 
livered an impressive funeral sermon (pub- 
lished in 1662, 4to) on Bishop Duppa at 
Westminster Abbey. In 1662 he published 
' Articles of Visitation and Enquiry/ 4to ; in 
1663 * A Sermon preached at Lewis in the 
Diocese of Chichester, Oct. 8, 1662 ; ' and in 
1664-5 < A Sermon preached the 30th of 
January at Whitehall, 1664/ His letter to 
Izaak Walton was printed before Walton's 
'Life of Hooker/ 1665. 

King died at Chichester 30 Sept. 1669, and 
was buried in the cathedral, where the widow 
of his son John erected a monument to his 
memory and that of her husband. His second 
son, Henry, died 21 Feb. 1668-9 ; his eldest 
son, John, died 10 March 1670-1. Izaak 
Walton (Life of Donne) describes King as 

* a man generally known by the clergy of this 
nation, and as generally noted for his obliging 
nature/ and Wood (Athena, ed. Bliss, iii. 
842) declares that he was ' the epitome of all 
honours, virtues, and generous nobleness, and 
a person never to be forgotten by his tenants 
and by the poor.' Vicars maliciously styles 
him ' a proud prelate* and ' a most pragmati- 
call malignant/ 

King was among the contributors to ' Justa 
Oxoniensium/ 1612, on the death of Henry, 
prince of Wales ; ' Epithalamia/ 1613, on the 
marriage of Princess Elizabeth ; ' Justa Fu- 
nebriaFtolemaBi Oxoniensis, Thomas Bodleii 
EquitisAurati/ 1613-14; ' Jacobi Ara/ 1617 ; 

* Ann® Funebria Sacra/ 1619; and 'Paren- 
talia Jacobo/ 1625. In 1843 the late Arch- 
deacon Hannah edited King's * Poems and 
Psalms/ with an elaborate biographical notice. 
King's portrait hangs in Christ Church hall. 

[Biographical notice by J. Hannah before 
King's Poems and Psalms, 1843; Welch's Alumni 
Westmonasterienses.] A. H. B. 

KING, HUMPHREY (ft. 1613), verse- 
writer, a seller of tobacco in London, was 
author of ' An Hal fe-penny- worth of Wit, in 
a Pennyworth of Paper. Or, The Hermites 
Tale. The third impression/ London, 1613, 
4to, pp. 48. No earlier edition is known, but 
it must have been printed some years pre^ 
viously. ' Robin the Devil his Two Penni- 
worth of Wit in Half a Penniworth of 
Paper. By Robert Lee, a famous fencer of 
London, alias Robin the Devil ' (London, for 




N. Ling, 1607, 4to), is mentioned in West's 
' Sale Catalogue/ 1773^ and- may have been 
an earlier edition, but it is, not now known 
to be extant. As early as 1599 Nashe had 
dedicated his ' Lenten Stuffe ' to ' his worthie 
good patron, Lustie Humfrey, according as 
the townsmen doo christen him, little Numps 
as the Nobilitie and Courtiers do name him, 
and Honest Humfrey, as all his friendes and 
acquaintance esteeme him, king of the Tobac- 
conists hie Sf ubique, and a singular Mecaenas 
to the Pipe and the Tabour; ' and at the end 
of the dedicatory epistle refers to the forth- 
coming * sacred Poeme of the Hermites Tale, 
that will restore the golden age amongst us/ 
Prefixed to King's poem is a jocular dedica- 
tory epistle to the Countess of Sussex. He 
aclcnowledges that his work is * a course 
homespun linsey woolsey webbe of wit;' 
but, seeing his 'inferiours in the gifts of 
learning, wisedome, and vnderstanding tor- 
ment the Print daily/ he is ' the bolder to 
shoulder in amongst the.' The epistle is fol- 
lowed by an address to the reader, to which 
succeed three short copies of verses (the 
second being 'In discommendation of the 
Author '), and three unsigned sonnets. * The 
Hermites Tale ' takes the form of a dialogue 
between a hermit and a young man concern- 
ing the vices and follies of the age. Com- 
plaint is made of the growth of luxury and 
decay of hospitality, and the puritans are 
vigorously assailed. 

[Collier's Bibliographical Catalogue ; Corser's 
Collectanea ; Hazlitt's Handbook.] A. H. B. 

KING, JAMES, Lord Eythin (1589?- 
1652 ?), born about 1589, was son of James 
King of Barracht, Aberdeenshire. He en- 
tered the service of the king of Sweden, and 
by 1632 had risen to be ' general-major/ In 
1638, while commanding in Munster under 
the Swedish general Baner, King received 
orders to join Rupert and the Prince Palatine, 
who had raised a small army. At the battle 
of Lemgo, near Minden, in which the Elector 
was routed by Hatzfeldt, the Austrian gene- 
ral, King has been unfairly charged with mis- 
conduct and treachery (Warbttbton, Prince 
Rupert, i. 452). It appears that Rupert was 
attacked before his army was collected, and 
defeated before King could bring up the foot 
to support the cavalry, and that finally King 
rallied, and skilfully conducted the retreat of 
the remainder of the troops. In January 1640 
he was recalled to England (Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1639-40, p. 367), and was graciously 
received by the king, who gave him a diamond 
1 of good value ' and a pension of 1 ,000/. a year 
(ib. 1640, pp. 208,450). In the following July 
he was despatched to Hamburg and Gluck- 

stadt, apparently to bring over horse and foot 
to be employed against the covenanters (ib. 
1640, pp. 492, 502). He did not return, but 
retired to Stockholm (ib. 1640-l,p. 320). On 
being again pressed to enter Charles's service 
he came as far as Hamburg, whence he wrote 
an outspoken letter to Secretary Vane re- 
questing a recognised position in the army 
and the regular payment of his pension (ib. 
pp. 579-80). He was given a command under ' 
Lord Newcastle (Ellis, Original Letters, 1st 
ser. iii. 297). On 28 March 1643 he was 
created a peer of Scotland as Lord Ey thin and 
Kerrey, tne former title being prooably de- 
rived from the river Ythan in Aberdeenshire. 
At the siege of Leeds in April of that year 
Eythin ana all the old officers from Holland 
were of opinion that an assault was too dan- 
gerous, and in favour of raising the siege 
(Letters of Henrietta Maria, Camd. Soc, p. 
189). According to Sir Philip Warwick (me- 
moirs, p. 264), he was the chief advocate of the 
policy of reducing Hull rather than marching 
south to join the king, and it was he who in- 
spired Newcastle's defensive strategy during 
the campaign against the Scots/displaying 
a treacherous sympathy with his fellow- 
countrymen (ib. p. 2/7). So much did these 
accusations weigh with Eythin, that in April 
1644 he seriously thought of retiring from 
the royal service, and returning to the con- 
tinent. Both Charles and Henrietta pressed 
him to stay (Letters of Henrietta Maria, 
p. 238; Ellis, iii. 298). On 26 July 1644 
the Scottish parliament passed a decreet of 
forfaulture against him, wnich was rescinded 
on 14 Jan. 1647, and on 19 Feb. following 
another act in his favour was passed (Douglas, 
Peerage of Scotland, ed.Wood, i. 558). During 
the siege of York even Warwick (Memoirs, 
p. 278) admits that he * showed eminency in 
soldiery J and ' no want of loyalty,' for now he 
' fought not singly agai nst his own nation.' At 
Marston Moorne opposed Rupert's desire to 
engage, and disapproved of the plan of battle. 
Eythin subsequently accompanied Newcastle 
to Hamburg. His conduct was severely con- 
demned (Clarendon, History, 1849, viii. 87), 
even, it seems, by Rupert, to whom Eythin 
wrote a letter in his defence (Pyt house Papers, 
p. 21). Eythin's last services in the royalist 
cause appear to have been performed in con- 
nection with the expedition of Montrose, 
under whom he was appointed lieutenant- 
general by warrant dated 19 March 1650. A 
letterof 13 March 1650 shows that he was also 
engaged in some negotiations for bringing 
Charles II to Sweden ( Cal.State Papers, Dom. 
1650, np. 52, 611). Eythin died in Sweden 
some time between October 1651 and April 
1652, and was buried in the Reddarholme 




Church. He was married and had a daughter 
(&. 1640, p. 443). Administration of his 
estate in Scotland was granted on 28 Oct. 
1652 to Thomas Watson, a principal creditor 
(Administration Act Book, P. C. C. 1662, f. 
1 86, where he is called Edward) . A letter from 
Eythin to the Earl of Forth is in Patrick 
Ruthven's * Correspondence ' (Roxburghe 
Club, p. 81 ; cf. also p. xxzviii n.) t and an- 
other from him to the Marquis of Hamil- 
ton, dated 12 Sept. 1638, in the Historical 
Manuscripts Commission's 11th Rep. (Ap- 
pendix vi. p. 93). 

[Duchess of Newcastle's Life of William, Duke 
of Newcastle (Firth), pp. 77, 370; notes kindly 
supplied by C. H. Firth, esq. ; Memoirs of Sir J. 
Turner (Bannatyne Club), pp. 9, 11, 31 ; Letters 
of Henrietta Maria (Camd. Soc). p. 149; Gar- 
diner's Hist, of the Great Civil War (1642-9), 
i. 283, &c] G. G. 

KING, JAMES (1760-1784), captain in 
the navy, second son of James King, curate 
of Clitheroe, Lancashire, and afterwards dean 
of Raphoe, was born at Clitheroe in 1750. 
Dr. Walker King, bishop of Rochester, was 
his younger brother. At the age of twelve 
he entered the navy under the patronage of 
his kinsman, Captain William Norton, bro- 
ther of the first Lord Grantley, and at that 
time in command of the Africa guardship. 
He afterwards served under Captain Pal- 
liser on the Newfoundland station, where he 
must have had some acquaintance with Cook, 
who was then surveying that coast [see Cook, 
James] ; and he was in the Alarm with Cap- 
tain Jervis, in the Mediterranean. He was 
fromoted to be lieutenant in January 1771. 
n 1774 he spent some time in Paris, de- 
voting himself principally to scientific study, 
and on his return settled at Oxford to be 
with his brother Walker, then a fellow of 
Corpus Christi College. Here he made the 
acquaintance of Dr.Tnomas Hornsby [q.v.], 
who in 1776 recommended him as a com- 
petent astronomer to accompany Cook's third 
voyage. He was accordingly appointed to 
the Resolution as second lieutenant. At the 
time of Cook's death, 14 Feb. 1779, King was 
on shore, apparent] v taking sights. He had 
with him only a few men, but was rein- 
forced by some of a boat's crew who had 
been rowing off the mouth of the bay before 
the disturbance with the natives began. This 
brought the number of the partv up to 
twenty-four, and fortifying themselves in a 
neighbouring burial-place, they succeeded in 
repelling the attack of the natives, till they 
were relieved, two Jiours afterwards, by the 
ships' boats (Gilberts Journal , quoted in 
Besant, Captain Cook, pp. 162-3). On the 
death of Captain Charles Clerke [q.v J, 22 Aug. 

1779, King succeeded to the command of the 
Discovery, and on arriving in England was 
advanced to post-rank, 3 Oct. 1780. He was 
then appointed to the Crocodile frigate, at- 
tached to the Channel fleet, and towards the 
end of 1781 was moved to the Resistance of 
40 guns, in which he went out to the West 
Indies in charge of a convoy of five hundred 
merchant ships, which he succeeded in con- 
ducting safely to their destination ; but the 
intense anxiety of the duty is said to have 
turned his hair grey. His constitution was 
never strong, and he came back to England 
in an advanced decline. It was under this 
disadvantage that he assisted in preparing 
Cook's journal of the third voyage for the 
press, and wrote the narrative of its conclu- 
sion, which formed the third volume. In 
1783 the state of his health compelled him 
to go to Nice, and he died there in October 
1784. He was buried at Nice, but there is 
a tablet to his memory in Clitheroe Church. 
King's 'Astronomical Observations' were 
published by order of the board of longitude 
in 1782 [see Bayly, William], and procured 
his election as F.R.S. The narrative of the 
voyage (3 vols. 4to, and atlas in fol.) was 
issued in 1784. 

[Alice King's A Cluster of Lives, p. 137 ; Es* 
pinasse's Lancashire Worthies, 2nd ser. p. 195; 
Baines's History of Lancashire (edit, of 1836), 
iii. 218; Correspondence with Dr. John Dou- 
glas [q. v.] (afterwards bishop of Salisbury), 
1780-4, in Egerton MS. 2180; and his own 
narrative already referred to.] J. K. L. 

KING, JOHN, D.D. (1559P-162D, bishop 
of London, born at Worminghall, Bucking- 
hamshire, in or about 1559, was son of Philip 
King of that place, by Elizabeth, daughter of 
Edmund Conquest of Houghton Conquest, 
Bedfordshire. He was a great-nephew of 
Robert King [q.v.], the first bishop of Oxford. 
He received nis education at Westminster 
School, and thence was elected to Christ 
Church, Oxford, in 1576 (Welch, Alumni 
Westmon. ed. Phillimore, p.53). He graduated 
B.A. in 1579-80, and commenced MA. in 
1582-3 (Wood, Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 212, 
221). After taking holy orders he becsme 
domestic chaplain to John Piers, archbishop 
of York, by wnom he was collated to the arch- 
deaconry of Nottingham on 1 2 Aug. 1 590. He 
proceeded B.D. on 2 July 1 591 . Strype gives 
extracts from a lecture delivered by King at 
York on the plague and the severe storms by 
which England was visited in 1593-4 (Annals 
of the Reformation, iv. 293, 8vo). On 17 Nov. 
1594 King preached the sermon at the funeral 
of Archbishop Piers. Afterwards he was ap- 
pointed chaplain to Sir Thomas Egerton, lord- 
teeper of the great seal. He was admitted to 




the rectory of St. Andrew, Holbom, onlOMay 
1697, on the promotion of Richard Bancroft 
to the see of London, and to the prebend of 
Sneating in the church of St. Paul on 16 Aug. 
1599, on the promotion of William Cotton to 
the see of Exeter (Nbwcoxjkt, Eepertorium, 
i. 211, 275). He also became one of Queen 
Elizabeth's chaplains. On 17 Dec. 1601 he 
was created D.D. at Oxford. He was ap- 
pointed by the privy council to preach before 
James I on his entry into London, and the 
king retained him in his service as one of the 
royal chaplains, commending him as 'the 
king of preachers.' He became dean of Christ 
Church, Oxford, on 4 Aug. 1605, in accord- 
ance with the petition of thirty-two students 
there. Soon afterwards King was selected 
as one of the four preachers at the Hampton 
Court Conference. He was vice-chancellor 
of the university of Oxford from 1607 to 
1610. On 16 Dec. 1610 he obtained the pre- 
bend of Milton Manor in the church of Lin- 
coln (Willis, Survey of Cathedrals, ii. 223). 

In 1611 the king bestowed upon him the 
bishopric of London, which had become 
vacant by the translation of Dr. George 
Abbot to the see of Canterbury. He was 
consecrated in Lambeth Chapel on 8 Sept., 
and had restitution of the temporalities on 
the 18th of the same month. In 1613 he 
was appointed a member of the commission 
engaged in hearing the Countess of Essex's 
suit for divorce (Gakdiner, Hist. ii. 170). 
On 26 March 1620 he pleaded in a sermon 
preached at St. Paul's Cross in the king's 

Presence for contributions to the repair of 
It. Paul's Cathedral. James selected the 
text, and popular curiosity was excited by 
rumours that King was instructed to declare 
James's resolve to intervene in the German 
wars in behalf of his son-in-law, the king 
of Bohemia ; but although one of his hearers 
wrote that the bishop's heart was in Bo- 
hemia, he made no reference to European 
politics (ib. iii. 341-2). While bishop, King 
always preached on Sundays in some pulpit 
in or near London (Fuller, Church Hist. ed. 
Brewer, v. 500). lie died on Good Friday, 
30 March 1621, and was buried in the south 
aisle of St. Paul's Cathedral, under a plain 
stone on which was inscribed only the word 
1 Resurgam,' but on a mural tablet near it 
was a very long and eulogistic inscription to 
his memory (Dug dale, Hist of St. Pouts, 
ed. 1658, p. 73). Wood says ' he was a solid 
and profound divine, of great gravity and 
piety, and had so excellent a volubibty of 
speech, that Sir Edward Coke would often 
say of him that he was the best speaker 
in the Star-chamber in his time 1 (Athena 
Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 295). 

During his last illness and after his death 
a renort was circulated that he had been re- 
conciled on his deathbed to the church of 
Home. Many catholics gave credence to the 
rumour, and in ' The ftotestant's Plea for 
Priests and Papists,' a pamphlet issued in 
September 1621, King's conversion was an- 
nounced as a matter of fact. Richard Brough- 
ton [q. v.] sent an account of the grounds of 
the report to Dr. Eellison, president of Douay 
College, but it does not clearly appear that 
he was himself convinced of the truth of the 
alleged conversion (Dodd, Church Hist. i. 
490 j Hist. MSS. Comm. 5th Rep. p. 464). 
The bishop's son Henry indignantly denied 
the report m a sermon preached at St. Paul's 
Cross on 25 Nov. 1621, but the baseless 
statement was repeated in an anonymous 
book written bv George Musket, afterwards 
president of Douay College, and entitled 
'The Bishop of London nis Legacy. Or 
Certaine Motiues of D. King, late Bishop 
of London, for his change of Religion, ana 
dying in the Catholike, and Roman Church, 
With a Conclusion to his Brethren, the LL. 
Bishops of England. Permissu Superiorum ' 
[St. Omer], 1624, 4to, pp. 174 (Gee, Foot out 
of the Snare, ed. 1624, pp. 77-80, 99) ; 
Bktdges, British Bibliographer, i. 506). 

King married Joan, daughter of Henry 
Freeman of Staffordshire. His eldest son, 
Henry, is noticed separately. His second 
son, John King (1595-1639), educated with 
his brother at Westminster and Christ Church, 
Oxford (B.A. 1611, M.A. 1614, and B.D. and 
D.D. 1625), became prebendary of St. Paul's 
Cathedral (1616), public orator of Oxford 
(1622), canon of Christ Church (1624), arch- 
deacon of Colchester and canon of Windsor 
(1625). He was also rector of Remenham, 
Berkshire. He died on 2 Jan. 1638-9, and 
was buried in Christ Church Cathedral. He 
published three Latin orations delivered as 
orator at Oxford (London, 1623, 4to, and Ox- 
ford, 1625), a separate sermon preached at 
Oxford in 1625, and poems in the university 
collections of 1613 and 1619. 

The bishop contributed to many of the 
Oxford collections of poems, and published : 
1. ' Lectures upon Jonas, delivered at Yorke 
in the yeare of our Lorde 1594/ Oxford, 
1597, 4to, pp. 660. Dedicated to Sir Thomas 
Egerton, lord-keeper. Reprinted, Oxford, 
1699 and 1600, 4to; London, 1611, 4to, 
' newly corrected/ and again 1618. 2. ' A 
Sermon preached at the Funeralles of . . . 
John [Piers] late Arch-bishoppe of Yorke, 
Nov. 17, 1594/ Oxford, 1597, 4to (printed at 
the end of the ' Lectures upon Jonas ') ; 
separately Oxford, 1599, 4to. 3. 'The Fourth 
Sermon preached at Hampton Court on Tues- 




day the last of Sept. 1606/ Oxford, 1606, 4to. 
4. ' Vitis Palatina. A Sermon appointed to 
be preached at Whitehall upon the Tuesday 
after the marriage of the Ladie Elizabeth , 
her Grace,' London, 1614, 4to ; reprinted in ; 
* Conjugal Duty set forth in a collection of 
Wedding-Sermons,' 1732. A \ery singular , 
composition, concluding with an ejaculation ' 
against the * papists/ 5. 'A Sermon of Public 
Thanksgiving for the happie recoverie of his 
majestie from his late dangerous sicknesse/ 
London, 1619, 4to. 6. * A Sermon at Paules 
Crosse on behalf of Paules Church,' London, 
1620, 4to (cf. Notes and Queries, 1st ser. iii. 
368-9). Some copies of his letters are in 
Brit. Mus. Addit. MSS. 29439, fF. 184 £-192. 

A portrait, by Cornelius Janssen, is pre- 
served at Christ Church, Oxford. There are 
engravings by Simon Pass and Francis 
Delaram (Granger, Biog. Hist, of England, 
5th edit. ii. 48). 

[Bedford's Blazon of Episcopacy; Collier's 
Church Hist. vii. 420, 421 ; Dodd's Church Hist, 
ii. 327, 351 ; Fuller's Church Hist. (Brewer), iii. 
28, v. 266, 371, 420, 499 ; Fuller's Worthies 
(Nichols), i. 139 ; Godwin, De Pwesulibus (Ri- 
chardson), p. 194; Lansd. MS. 984, f . 3 ; Lo 
Neve's Fasti (Hardy); Lowndes's Bibl. Man. 
(Bohn), pp. 63, 1273; Newcourt's Repertorium, 
i. 29 ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. (Addenda 1580- 
1625) pp. 621, 622, (1603-10) pp. 362, 445,527, 
(1619-23) p. 675; Strype's Works (general 
index); Willis's Survey of Cathedrals, i. 107, ii. 
440 ; Wood's Athenae Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 294, 634, 
861, iii. 839, Fasti, i. 248, 255; Wood's Annals 
(Gutch), ii. 295, 299, 300, 322, 788, 791 ; Wood's 
Colleges and Halls (Gutch), pp. 439, 458, 463, 
Appendix pp. 112, 118-19, 281, 289.] T. C. 

KING, Sir JOHN (d. 1637), Irish ad- 
ministrator, came of a family formerly seated 
at Feathercock Hall, near Northallerton, 
Yorkshire. By July 1585 he was acting as 
secretary to Sir Richard Bingham [q. v.], 
governor of Connaught (Cal. State Papers, 
Irish, 1574-85, p. 571). His services were 
rewarded by Queen Elizabeth with a lease 
of the abbey of Boyle, co. Roscommon. 
Under James I he enjoyed many profitable 
offices and privileges, and had lands granted 
to him in twenty-one different counties (ib. 
1603-6, pp. 113, 269, &c.) On 12 July 1603 
he was made clerk of the crown in chan- 
cery and clerk of the hanaper, both of which 
places he surrendered on 20 Jan. 1606, and 
with Francis Edgeworth had a new grant 
thereof on 29 Jan. (ib. 1603-6 p. 430, 1606- 
1608 pp. 81, 387). In 1603 he was receiver 
of the revenue (ib. 1606-8, p. 54), and in 
March 1605 deputy vice-treasurer (ib. 1603- 
1606, p. 429). In May 1607, being then con- 
stable of the abbey of Boyle, he commenced 

to build, along with John Bingley, a massive 
castle on the river Boyle, and to cultivate 
much of the surrounding district (ib. 1606- 
1608, pp. 87, 150, &c.) On 11 May 1609 
he was appointed mustermaster-general and 
clerk of tne cheque for Ireland, with a rever- 
sionary grant of both offices to his eldest son ; 
in June of the same year he was sworn of the 
privy council (ib. 1608-10, pp. 202, 218, 507), 
and on 7 July following he was knighted 
(Metcalfe, Book of Knights, p. 161). In Octo- 
ber 1611 he was a commissioner for com- 
positions ; in 1613 was returned M.P. for 
co. Roscommon by the aid of Vice-president 
Oliver St. John's soldiery, and in 1614 was 
appointed to assist in the plantation of Wex- 
ford (Cal. State Papers, Irish, 1611-14, pp. 
138, 862, 496). On 20 May 1615, when 
living at Baggotrath, near Dublin, he was 
appointed one of the council for the province 
of Munster ; and on 9 June following he was 
authorised, with Sir Thomas Rotherham, to 
act as governor of Connaught during the 
absence of the president and vice-president. 
On 24 Sept. 1616 he was joined in commis- 
sion with Lord-deputy St. John and others 
to aid in the settlement of the British ' un- 
dertakers ' in Ulster. On 23 Sept. 1617 he 
was nominated a commissioner of the court 
of wards in Ireland, and on 18 Jan. 1621 
was made, with Francis Edgeworth, receiver 
of the fines of that court, and of all other 
fines upon letters and grants. 

By privy seal (8 Aug. 1619) King was ap- 
pointed a commissioner for the plantation 
of co. Longford and the territory of Elye 
O'Carroll in King's County, and on 15 July 
1624 was constituted a commissioner, jus- 
tice, and keeper of the peace in Leinster and 
Ulster during the absence of Lord-deputy 
Falkland. By commission dated 9 Dec. 1625 
he was authorised, with four others, to exa- 
mine abuses committed in the army in order 
to their redress, and to take a general muster 
J of all the forces throughout the kingdom. 

King died in the Close at Lichfield, Staf- 
! fordshire, on 4 Jan. 1636-7, and was buried 
1 in the church of Boyle on 30 March fol- 
lowing. He married Catherine (d. 1617), 
i daughter of Robert Drury, nephew of Sir 
1 William Drury, lord deputy of Ireland. Of 
his six sons, Sir Robert King (1599 P-1657) 
I and Edward King (1612-1637), Milton's 
friend, are separately noticed. Of three 
daughters, Mary (d. 1663) married William 
Caulfeild, second baron Charlemont,and Mar- 
garet married Sir Gerard Lowther, chief 
justice of the common pleas in Ireland. 

[Lodge's Peerage of Ireland (Archdall), iii. 
223; Cal. State Papers, Irish, 1585-1625; 
Carew MSS. 1603-24] G. G. 





KING, JOHN, first Lord Kingston (d. 
1676), was eldest son of Sir Robert King 
(1599 ?-l 657) [a. v.], by his first wife, Frances, 
aaughter of Sir Henry Folliott, the first lord 
Folfiott of Ballyshannon. His father, on 
going to England in 1642, entrusted him 
with the command of Boyle Castle, co. Ros- 
common. His abilities as a leader were dis- 
played on many occasions, particularly at 
the relief of Elphin Castle and at the defeat 
of the Ulster army on 21 June 1650, when 
he took prisoner with his own hands the gene- 
ral of the catholic army, the popish bishop of 
Clogher. The parliament accorded him full 
powers, and on 26 July 1649 ordered him 
to be paid 100/. from delinquents' estates 
'in consideration of long attendance 1 (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1049-50, p. 582). He 
was then a colonel. On 7 June 1658 he was 
knighted by Henry Cromwell, lord deputy- 
general of Ireland (Metcalfe, Book of 
Knights, p. 215). Having worked hard for 
the restoration of Charles II, he was created 
on 4 Sept. 1660 an Irish peer by the title of 
Baron Kingston, was sworn of the Irish privy 
council, and was appointed on 19 Marcn 
1660-1 a commissioner of the court of claims 
for the settlement of Ireland. On 8 May 
1661 he took his seat in the Irish House of 
Lords, on 1 1 May he was made commissary- 
general of the horse, and on 31 May was 
added to the committee appointed to con- 
sider the erection of a college of physicians 
in Dublin. On 15 Nov. following he was 
appointed captain of a troop. With John, 
lord Berkeley, King was constituted on 
2 April 1666 joint-president of Connaught, 
and on 5 May following sole governor of 
that province. On 20 April previously he 
was made colonel of a regiment of horse. 
On 1 Oct. 1670 he was appointed one of the 
commissioners to examine and state the 
arrears due to the king before the commence- 
ment of that year, of tne farm of the revenue 
for seven years, and on 15 July 1674 had a 
grant by patent of a substantial yearly pen- 
sion. It was also provided by the act of settle- 
ment that all his claims to land should be rati- 
fied and confirmed to him and his heirs. For 
his arrears of service before 5 June 1649 he re- 
ceived four several grants of land. By letters 
patent dated 25 Jan. 1664 he had confirmed 
to him the town and lands of Kilcolman, 
with other lands, amounting to some thou- 
sands of acres, in the counties of Limerick, 
Cork, and Kildare. 

King died in 1676. He married Catherine 
(d. 1669), daughter of Sir William Fenton, 
int., of Mitchelstown, co. Cork, and left two 
sons, Robert {d. 1693) £q. v.] and John, suc- 
cessively second and third lords Kingston. 


of Ireland (Archdall), iii. 

a. g. 

KING, Sir JOHN (163&-1677), lawyer, 
of a Huguenot family of Rouen, originally- 
named Le Roy, was eldest son of John Kin£, 
M.D., of Aldersgate Street, London, by his 
second wife, Elizabeth, youngest daughter of 
Barne Roberts of Willesden, Middlesex. He 
was born at St. Albans on 5 Feb. 1638-9, and 
was educated first at the free school there, 
and then, from the age of thirteen, at Eton,, 
where he obtained a foundation scholarship 
and became head of the school. He proceeded 
to Queens' College, Cambridge, in November 
1655, and graduated B. A. Though personally 
desirous of taking orders, by his father's de- 
sire in November 1660 he was admitted a 
member of the Inner Temple, and on 9 Feb. 
1667 was called to the bar. He became a 
bencher of the inn 81 Jan. 1674, and treasurer 
in 1675. He began his practice by appearing 
before the commission tor the rebuilding of 
London after the fire, but soon obtained busi- 
ness in Westminster Hall, and eventually a 
very large chancery practice. He was made 
a king's counsel and attorney-general to the 
Duke of York, and on 10 Dec. 1674 was 
knighted. In 1676 his fees amounted to 
4,700/. His fine memory, his polished elo- 
quence, his affable manners, and still more 
his incredible industry, had secured for him 
an enormous amount of work, and he was in 
the front rank of his profession in nine years 
from his call. Burnet says of him that the 
court party were weary of ' Sir William Jones 
[q. vj, Attorney-general, and were raising 
Sir John King to vie with him, but he died 
in his rise, which indeed went on very quick ' 
{Hist of his own Time, fol. ed. i. 396). His 
health broke down under the strain of work, 
and in his later years he could not sleep more 
than three hours together. He died at his 
house in Salisbury Court on 29 June 1677. 
He was buried in the Temple Church on 
4 July, where there is an inscription in the 
trifonum and a stone in the churchyard to 
his memory. 

King married, on 20 Feb. 1666-7, Joyce, 
daughter and heiress of William Bennett of 
High Rothing, Essex, by whom he had two 
sons and five daughters. 

[From a family manuscript written by his father 
in 1677, and contributed to Gent. Mag. Hi. 110, 
reprinted with additions in 1855 ; Roger North's 
Life of Lord Keeper Guildford ; Chauncy's Hert- 
fordshire, p. 467 a ; Echard's History of England, 
ed. 1718, iii. 438.] J. A. H. 

KING, JOHN (d. 1079), covenanting 
preacher, was for some time domestic chap- 
lain to Henry Erskine, third lord Cardross, 




and in 1674 was apprehended and tried be- 
fore the privy council of Scotland for holding 
conventicles. Lord Cardross was heavily 
fined at the same time for permitting King 
to conduct worship in his family. King was 
admitted to bail in five thousand merles to 
appear when called upon. In the following 
year he was again seized at Cardross House 
during the night ; but in the morning the 
country people assembled and took him out j 
of the hands of the soldiers. This incident 
was made the occasion of a letter from King ! 
Charles II to the Scottish council, dated 
12 June 1675, complaining of their supine- 
ness(2R«£. M8S. Comm. 11th Rep. App. pt. ' 
vi. j>. 159). King was now by letters of m- I 
tercommuning, 6 Aug. 1675, declared an out- 
law. On 2 June 1679 he was apprehended in 
the town of Hamilton by Graham of Claver- 
house. The battle of Drumclog took place 
next day, and Claverhouse's prisoners were 
rescued. King, however, was recaptured by 
stratagem on the estate of Blair, in the parish 
of Dairy, Ayrshire, shortly after the defeat 
of the covenanters at Bothwell, and was con- 
veyed to Edinburgh. One of his escort of 
dragoons, being asked whither they were 
bound, is said to have answered, ' To carry 
King to hell/' The same day the dragoon was 
killed by the accidental discharge of his car- 
bine. King was brought before the council 
on 9 July 1679, along with a fellow-minister, 
John Kid. After several appearances and a 
futile petition by counsel on their behalf, 
they were condemned and executed at the 
cross of Edinburgh on 14 Aug. following, 
their heads and limbs being severed from 
their bodies and placed on the Nether Bow 
port. Proclamation was made immediately 
before the execution of an indulgence to the 
' outed ' ministers, and King and Kid were 
pressed by Robert Fleming the elder [q. v.], 
then a fellow-prisoner, to signify their ap- 
proval of it, which they resolutely declined to 
do. King's last speech on the scaffold was 
printed. In it he makes mention of his wife 
and one child. The only sermon by him 
which is known to exist is included in the col- 
lection made by John Howie [q. v.] (Glasgow, 

[Wodrow's History of the Sufferings of the 
Church of Scotland, Burn's ed. 1831, ii. 270- 
286, iii. 69-136; Crookshank's History of the 
Church of Scotland, ii. 32-65 ; Patrick Walker's 
Biographia Presbyteriana, i. 247-94."] H. P. 

KING, JOHN (1696-1728), classical 
writer, eldest son of John King (1652- 
1732) [q. v.], was bora at Adstone, North- 
amptonshire, on 5 Aug. 1696. He was edu- 
cated at Eton and King's College, Cambridge, 

graduating B.A. 1718 and M.A. 1722, and 
being elected a feUow. Though he did not 
take a medical degree, he settled at Stam- 
ford as a physician, and soon acquired a 
great reputation. In 1 727 he married Lucy, 
daughter of Thomas Morice, paymaster of 
the forces at Lisbon, and his intention then 
was to settle in London, under the direction 
of John Freind [q. v.], who married his wife's 
sister, but he was cut off by fever at Stam- 
ford, 12 Oct. 1728. He was buried at Per- 
tenhall, Bedfordshire. His only son, John 
King, patron and rector of Pertenhall 1752- 
1800, and also fellow of King's College, Cam- 
bridge, died 6 Oct. 1812, aged 85. 

King was author of : 1. 'Epistola ad Jo- 
hannem Freind, in qua D. W. Trilleri epi- 
stolam Medico-criticam super primo et tertio 
Enidemicorum ad examen revocavit,' Cam- 
bridge, 1722; an attack on the remarks of 
Triller on the treatises of Hippocrates on 
epidemics. 2. 'Euripidis Hecuba, Orestes 
et Phoenissae/ Cambridge, 1726 ; the original 
Greek, with a Latin translation; this had 
occupied him nearly five years, as he had 
collated ten manuscripts. Thomas Morell 
published for use at Eton in 1748 the same 
three plays, with the addition of ' Alcestis,' 
in which he gave nearly the whole of King's 
translation and notes. King was elected on 
12 Aug. 1724 a member of the Gentlemen's 
Society at Spalding. In the ' Bel. Galeanre * 
(Bibl. Topogr. Brit. iii. 80) is the statement of 
Roger Gale, under date 1742, that he ' always 
took Dr. King's skill in medals to be more 
that of a trader than a scholar.' 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecdotes, iii. 752, vi. 13, 93 ; 
Gent. Mag. October 1812, p. 405; Harwood's 
Alumni Eton. p. 294.] W. P. C. 

KING, JOHN (1652-1732), miscellaneous 
writer, born at St. Columb, Cornwall, 1 May 
1652, matriculated at Exeter College, Oxford, 
as a poor scholar on 7 July 1674, being de- 
scribed as aged twenty, and as the eon of 
John King of Manaccan in Cornwall. He 
graduated B.A. 1678 and M.A. 1680, and in 
1698, when his friend Sir William Dawes 
£q. v.], afterwards archbishop of York, was 
its master, took the degree of D.D. at Catha- 
rine Hall, Cambridge. When first in clerical 
orders he was curate of Bray, Berkshire.where 
he married Anne, youngest daughter of Wil- 
liam Durham, whose wife was Lsetitia, grand- 
daughter of Sir Francis Knollys, treasurer of 
the household of Queen Elizabeth. He had 
no children by his first wife. On 3 June 
1690 King married, as his second wife, Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Joseph Aris of Adstone, 
Northamptonshire, and widow of the Rev. 
John Eston, through whom he acquired the 




living of Pertenhall, Bedfordshire, to which 
he was at once instituted (7 June 1690). This 
benefice he vacated for institution to Chelsea 
on 22 Nov. 1694, the two preferments being 
then of equal value, but the income of his 
new living was greatlv increased by the 
letting of the glebe for building. His other 
preferment was the prebendal stall of Weigh- 
ton in York Cathedral, to which he was col- 
lated by Archbishop Dawes on 1 May 1718. 
King died at Chelsea 30 May 1782, and was 
buried in Pertenhall chancel on 13 June, a 
large mural monument being erected to 
his memory. His wife died at Chelsea on 
22 June 1727, aged 61, and was also buried 
at Pertenhall. Their youngest daughter, 
Eulalia, married, on 20 Aug. 1732, John 
Martyn, professor of botany at Cambridge, 
and died on 13 Feb. 1748-9, aged 45 (Lips- 
comb, Buckinghamshire, i. 529). The eldest 
son, John (1696-1728), is separately noticed. 
Another son, Joseph, was buried at Ashby 
Canons (Baker, Northamptonshire, ii. 16). 

King wrote, in addition to two sermons : 
1. 'Animadversions on a Pamphlet [by 
Increase Mather] intituled a Letter of Advice 
to the Nonconformists/ 1701, as ' by a Divine 
of the Church of England ; ' 2nd edit., with 
his name, 1702. 2. ' Case of John Atherton, 
Bishop of Waterford, fairly represented ' 
(anon!), 1710. 3. ' Tolando-pseudologo-mas- 
tix, an Answer to Toland's "Hypatia ,,, 
(anon.), 1721 . Among the Sloane MISS, at the 
British Museum is one by King (No. 4455), 
containing a supplement of remarks in 1717 
on the life of Sir Thomas More, a letter on 
More's house at Chelsea, which is printed 
by Faulkner (pp. 289-99), epitaphs and 
verses. From a manuscript account of Chel- 
sea by King in the possession of its rector Ion? 
extracts are made by Lysons, Faulkner, and 
Beaver. King's diary and memoranda are in 
the Plymouth Proprietary Library. He was 
one of the earliest subscribers to the Society 
for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecdotes, iii. 156, 638 ; Ly- 
sons's Environs, iii. 115; Halkett and Lai rig's 
Anon. Literature, i. 95 ; Gorham's Martyn Family, 
pp. 48, &c. ; Faulkner's Chelsea, pp. 53-7; 
leavers Chelsea, passim; McClure's Chapter 
in Church History, pp. 4-H.] W. P. C. 

KING, JOHN (1788-1847), painter, 
was born at Dartmouth in 1788, and at the 
age of twenty entered the schools of the 
Koyal Academy. He first exhibited at the 
British Institution in 1814 and at the Aca- 
demy in 1817, and throughout his life was 
a frequent contributor to both of biblical, 
Shakespearean, and historical subjects, as 
well as of portraits. Meeting with little 
success in London he paid frequent and ex- 

tended visits to Bristol, where his art was 
better appreciated ; for St. Thomas's Church 
in that city he painted in 1828 the * Incre- 
dulity of St. Thomas/ and for St. Mark's 
Chanel the ' Dead Christ surrounded by His 
Disciples.' For the former, a very large but 
poor work, he received 200/. ; the latter is 
smaller and of better quality. King also 
painted the portraits of many of the leading 
citizens of Bristol, and he is referred to in 
4 Felix Farley's Rhymes' as a member of the 
1 Bristol School.' His portrait of the Rev. 
Henry Francis Lyte [q. v.] the hvmn-writer 
has been engraved by G. H. Phillips. King 
died of apoplexy at Dartmouth 12 July 1847. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Graves's Diet, 
of Artists, 1760-1880; Felix Farley's Bristol 
Journal, 17 July 1847; British Institution and 
Royal Academy Catalogues ; George's Ljte's 
Cary Manor House, 1879, p. 11; information 
from the Rev. C. Taylor, vicar of St. Thomas's, 
Bristol.] F. M. O'D. 

KING, JOHN DUNCAN (1789-1863), 
captain in the army and landscape-painter, 
born in 1789, entered the army in August 
1806, and became lieutenant in February 
1808. He served in the Walcheren expe- 
dition and in the Peninsular war, and was 
present at the battles of Busaco, Vittoria, 
and the Pyrenees, being wounded severely on 
28 July 1813. He was present at the occu- 
pation of Paris by the allies in 1815. On 
16 March 1830 he was promoted to be cap- 
tain, and on 28 Dec. 1830 was placed on half- 
pay. King had a talent for painting, and in 
1824 exhibited at the Royal Academy a view 
in Spain, from a drawing by Lieutenant- 
general Hawker. In 1836 he sent a view in 
Portugal, and subsequently was an occasional 
honorary exhibitor of views near Killarney, 
Boulogne, and other places. In 1843 he ex- 
hibited a picture called 'A Pilgrim/ He 
also exhibited thirty-nine landscapes at the 
British Institution; the last was sent in 
1858. About 1852 King was made a mili- 
tary kniffht of Windsor, and resided in Wind- 
sor Castle until his death on 21 Aug. 1863. 

[Gent. Mag. 3rd ser. 1863, pt. ii. p. 518 ; Red- 
grave's Diet, of Artists ; Windsor and Eton Ex- 
press, 19 Aug. 1863; Catalogues of the Royal 
Academy and British Institution ; Graves's Diet- 
of Artists.] L. C. 

KING, JOHN GLEN, D.D. (1732-1787), 
divine, horn in Norfolk in 1732, was edu- 
cated at Caius College, Cambridge, where he 
graduated B.A. in 1752 and M.A. in 1763. 
After taking orders he was presented by 
the king in 1760 to the vicarage of Berwick 
Parva, Norfolk (Blomefield, Hist, of Nor- 
folk, x. 297), and subsequently was appointed 




chaplain to the English factory at St. Peters- 
burg. During his residence in Russia he was 
appointed medallist to the empress ; and he 
devoted much time to the study of the his- 
tory and liturgical rites of the Greek church, 
lie became a fellow of the Society of Anti- 
quaries of London on 10 Jan. 1771, and on 
21 Feb. in the same year was elected a fellow 
of the Royal Society (Thomson, Hist . of the 
Royal Society, Append, iv. p. liv). He was 
incorporated M.A. at Oxford, on 19 March 

1771, as a member of Christ Church, and 
four days later took the degrees of B.D. and 
D.D. in that university. He was presented 
to the rectory of Wormley, Hertfordshire, 
by Sir Abraham Hume, bart., in July 1783 ; 
and in the summer of 1786 he purchased the 
chapelry of Spring Gardens, Somerset. He 
also purchased, though at what date is not 
statea, Dr. John Warner's chapel in Long 
Acre, London (Nichols, Lit Anecd. ii. 416). 
He died at his house in Edward Street, Lon- 
don, after a few hours' illness, on 3 Nov. 
1787, and was buried in the churchyard of 

He married, first, Ann Magdalene, daugh- 
ter of Michael Combrune, by whom he had 
one daughter, Anna Henrietta; and secondly, 
in August 1776, at Greenwich, Jane, daugh- 
ter of John Hyde, esq., of Blackheath (she 
died in August 1789). 

He was the author of: 1. Verses in the 
Cambridge University collection on the death 
of Frederick, prince of Wales, 1752. 2. 'The 
Rites and Ceremonies of the Greek Church 
in Russia ; containing an Account of its Doc- 
trine, Worship, and Discipline/ London, 

1772, 4to, dedicated to the king. A learned 
work, illustrated with copper-plate engrav- 
ings. 3. ' A Letter to the Bishop of Dur- 
ham, containing some Observations on the Cli- 
mate of Russia, and the Northern Countries, 
with a View of the Flying Mountains at 
Zarsko Sello, near St. Petersburg/ 1778. 
Printed in the 'Westminster Magazine/ 1780, 
viii. 60. 4. ' Observations on the Barberini 
Vase/ 1786; in ' Archieologia/ viii. 307. 
5. 'Catalogue of a small Librarvat St. Peters- 
burg/ London, 1786, 8 vo. 6. 'NummiFami- 
liarum et Imperatorum Romanorum , [Lon- 
don P 1787 P], 4to, consisting of 102 plates, 
without letterpress. 

There is a neat print of him by Fourdrinier. 
Another portrait of him, painted by Falconet, 
was engraved by Gabriel Smith. 

[Addit, MS. 5874, f. 45 ; Gent. Mag. vol. lvii. 

£t. ii. p. 1030, vol. lix. pt. ii. p. 916 ; Nichols's 
it. Anecd. iii. 623, 624, 760, ix. 6, 169 ; Cat. of 
Oxford Graduates, 1851, p. 385 ; Graduati Can- 
tabr. 1823, p. 275 ; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn), 
p. 1274.] T. C. 

1823), musical composer, born in 1773, stu« 
died musical composition under Charles Fre- 
derick Horn. He lived mainly in London, 
where he died in January 1823. 

King wrote the music to a number of dra- 
matic pieces, most of which were produced 
at the Lyceum Theatre. These include: 
' Matrimony/ comic opera, words by James 
Kenney [a. v.], 1804; 'The Invisible Girl' 
and 'The Weathercock/ 1806; 'False Alarms/ 
comic opera, music by King and Braham, 
words by J. Kenney, 1807 ; ' One o'Clock, or 
the Wood Demon/ comic opera, music by 
King and Kenney, words by M. G. Lewis, 
1807; 'Ella Rosenberg/ melodrama, by J. 
Kenney, 1807 ; ' Up all Night, or The Smug- 
glers' Cave/ comic opera, words bv S. J. 
Arnold, 1809 ; ' Plots, or the North Tower,' 
melodramatic opera, words by S. J. Arnold, 
1810 ; ' Oh ! this Love/ comic opera, words 
by J. Kenney, 1810 ; ' The Americans/ music 
by King and Braham, 1811 ; 'Timour the 
Tartar/ romantic melodrama, by M. G. Lewis, 
1811; 'Turn him out/ musical farce, words 
by J. Kenney, 1812 ; « The Fisherman's Hut/ 
music by King and Davy, 1819. 

King composed a number of glees, ballads, 
and pianoforte pieces, as well as an oratorio, 
' The Intercession/ which was produced at 
Covent Garden in 1817. In this, Eve's la- 
mentation, 'Must I leave thee, Paradise P' 
became very popular. 

He was the author of 'Thorough Bass 
made easy to every Capacity/ London, 1796; 
' A General Treatise on Music, particularly 
on Harmony or Thorough Bass/ a work of 
considerable repute, London, 1800, new edit. 
1 809 ; ' Introduction to the Theory and Prac- 
tice of Singing at First Sight/ London, 1806; 
and he edited 'The Harmonist, a Collection 
of Glees and Madrigals from the Classic 
Poets/ London, 1814. 

His son, C. M. King, published some songs 
in 1826. 

[Grove's Diet, of Music, ii.57; Brown's Diet, 
of Music, p. 359 ; Brit. Mus. Catalogues.] 

K. F. S. 

KING, OLIVER (d. 1503), bishop of 
Bath and Wells, a native of London, became 
scholar of Eton in 1449 (IIarwood, Alumni 
Eton. p. 107), and was elected fellow of King's 
College, Cambridge. He is said to have been 
secretary to Edward, prince of Wales, son 
of Henry VI, and in 1476 was appointed by 
Edward IV his chief secretary in French for 
life, being described as a ' master of the seven 
liberal arts' and a licentiate of laws. In 
1480 he was made a canon of Windsor, re- 
signing in that year a prebend at Hereford. 




He was registrar of the order of the Garter, 
and in 1482 received the archdeaconry of 
•Oxford. Richard III on his accession in 
1483 deprived him of the office of secretary. 
Having been reinstated by Henry VII in 
1485, he received a commission on 3 Dec. to 
meet the commissioners of Charles VIII of 
France, and treat for a prolongation of the 
truce. For his expenses on this embassy he 
received the following year fifty marks, and 
was further employed on a commission to 
ascertain the rights of the crown in Calais, 
Hammes, and Guisnes. He was appointed j 
to the deanery of Hereford in 1487. A 
grant in 1488 to him, Lord Daubeny, and 
another of the next canonry which should 
fall vacant at Windsor is probably connected 
with a license granted to him in the same 
year to found the guild of the Holy Trinity 
at Windsor. On 12 July 1489 ho was in- 
stalled at Wells archdeacon of Taunton 
through his proctor ("Reynolds, from Liber 
Ruber). Being appointed bishop of Exeter 
by a papal provision dated October 1492, he 
was consecrated to that see in St. Stephen's, 
Westminster, on 3 Feb. following. It is 
doubtful whether he ever entered his dio- 
cese (Oliveb). That he stood high in the 
king's favour is proved by the prominent 
part assigned to him in the ceremony of the 
creation of the king's son Henry as duke of 
York. In 1495 he was translated by a papal 
bull to the diocese of Bath and Wells. In 
September 1497 he wrote to acquaint the 
king of the landing of Perkin \\ arbeck in 
Cornwall, and on the 20th Henry wrote to 
him telling him of the progress of affairs. 
Three days later he was with the king at 
Woodstock. He accompanied the king on 
his march into Somerset, and entered Wells 
with him on the 30th, which seems to have 
been the bishop's first visit to his cathedral 
city. He is said to have visited Bath in 
1499, and while there to have had a re- 
markable dream. The abbey church was in 
ruins. At night he had a vision of the Trinity 
and a ladder with angels ascending and de- 
scending, and at the foot an olive-tree sup- 
porting a crown. He heard a voice saying, 
i Let an olive establish the crown, and a 
king restore the church ' (Hakington). The 
words fitting his name, he applied them to 
himself, and, in conjunction with PriorBirde, 
began to rebuild tne church, ordering that 
all the surplus revenues of the house, after 
the payment of certain fixed allowances to 
the prior, monks, and others, should be de- 
voted to the work, nis church, which he 
did not live to finish, is built on the nave 
only of the older church. He caused his 
dream to be represented on the west front, 

with the lines, 'Trees going to chuse their 
king said, Be to us the olive king' (Judges 
ix . e). The ladders and angels (now headless) 
of his dream are still to be seen on the west 
front. Sir John Harington represents him 
as apt to listen to wizards and soothsayers, 
and says that it was thought that he fell 
into a melancholy after the death of Prince 
Arthur in 1502, on account of a prophecy 
foretelling the evils which Henry, after- 
wards king, would bring on the church. 
He died on 29 Aug. 1503 (Reynolds, from 
Liber Ruber: Wharton; Godwin's date, 
24 Jan., is wrong). He is said to have 
been buried, according to the directions in 
his will, on the north side of the choir of 
Bath Abbey, near the high altar, though it 
is also asserted that he was laid in the south 
aisle of St. George's Chapel at Windsor, 
within a chantry chapel which he founded 
and which still retains his name. In this 
chapel there is a tomb of grey marble which 
is assigned to him, and near it is an incom- 
plete inscription concerning him. A statue 
of him, standing by the west door of Bath 
Abbey, was erected early in the seventeenth 

[L« Neve's Fasti Eccl. i. 142, 167, 376,477, 
534, iii. 389 (Hardy) ; Rymer's Foedera, xii. 26, 
279, ed. 1711 ; Materials illustrative of Reign 
of Hen. VII, i. 193, 356, ii. 49, 104, 474 (Rolls 
Ser.); Letters, &e., Ric. Ill and Hen. VII, i. 392, 
ii. 407 (Rolls Ser.) ; Ellis's Orig. Letters, 1st 
ser. i. 34 sq. ; Davies's York Records, p. 165; 
Harington's Nug» Antiq. ii. 136, ed. 1804 ; 
Wharton's Anglia Sacra, i. 575; Oliver's Bishops 
of Exeter, p. 114; Cassan's Bishops of Bath and 
Wells, pp. 315-30 ; Godwin, De Prsesulibus, p. 
384; Reynolds's Wells Cathedral, pp. 179,209; 
Warner's Bath, p. 131 ; Somerset Archaeol. and 
Nat. Hist. Soc.'s Proc. xii. ii. 37, xxii. i.29,xxv. 
ii. 64.] W. H. 

KING, PAUL (d. 1655), Irish Francis- 
can, was the son of Cornelius King, who was 
employed by Lord Upper Ossory as a clerk 
or secretary. His uncle, the Rev. Murtagh 
King, was a convert to protestantism, and 
beneficed by "William Bedell [q. v.], bishop 
of Kilmore, who employed him to translate 
the Old Testament into Irish. According to 
Richard Bellings [q. v.], King was christened 
David. His name in religion was Paul us a 
Spiritu Sancto. In early life he was im- 
prisoned among the Moors, and owed his 
liberation to Luke "Wadding [q. v.] In 1641 
he taught moral theology at Brindisi, and 
in 1644 he was doing similar work at Kil- 
kenny, where he was made guardian of the 
convent and, as it seems, of the whole pro- 
vince, by the nuncio Rinuccini, whose cause 
he espoused both against Ormonde and against 




the supreme council of the confederate ca- 
tholics. In July 1648, when acting as the 
nuncio's confidential agent (Cardinal Mo- 
bah, Spicilegium Ossortense, i. 422), he was 
arrested by order of the council, and his 
guardianship of the convent conferred on Peter 
Walsh (Aphort8Tnical Discovery, ed. Gilbert, 
i. 238). A few days later he wrote to Mac- 
mahon, bishop of Clogher, inviting Owen Roe 
O'Neill [q. v.J to seize Kilkenny and all the 
nuncio's enemies before Ormonde's arrival in 
Ireland. The letter was intercepted, and King 
fled to the continent. According to Bellings 
he had openly committed innumerable crimes, 
but the abortive plot to betray Kilkenny is 
alone mentioned. At Louvain he wrote a 
bitter diatribe against Rinuccini's opponents 
and the Anglo-Irish party generally ; and 
this pamphlet, which professes to have been 
written from the Irish camp some months 
before, was carefully circulated by the wan- 
dering Franciscans in France, Spain, and 
Italy. Bellings dissects it sentence by sen- 
tence in the second part of the ' Vindiciffl.' 
Innocent X is believed to have blamed the 
nuncio much, but the Franciscan order gene- 
rally sustained him, and in 1649 King was 
made guardian of St. Isidore's at Rome 

i Spicilegium Ossortense, i. 826). The famous 
ohn Colgan [q. v.] recommended him as a 
proper person to be commissary over the Fran- 
ciscan colleges on the continent, and he was for 
some years secretary to the procurator-general 
of the order. Bellings regrets (VmdicUe, 
preface to part ii.) having had no opportunity 
of showing that punishment was deserved 
rather than promotion ; but his antagonist 
John Ponce, himself a Franciscan, says King 
was worthy of even much greater honours, 
and defends him against a charge of publish- 
ing scurrilous verses. While at Rome King 
projected a book in ten volumes in honour of 
his order ('nostri seraphici ordinis'), but 
only lived to publish a kind of syllabus, 
which was licensed for the ' Index' as ' earnest 
of a great work.' King, who was a professor 
of theology, was learned in Greek and He- 
brew. He records his preference for an 
obvious and easy style, and wrote with vi- 
gour, but incorrectly, though he was a pupil 
of the famous latinist, Bonaventure Baron 
, v.] He died, it is believed at Rome, in 

King's published writings, all in Latin, 
are: 1. Letter to the Bishop of Clogher, 
August 1648, printed in Bellings's ' Vindicise,' 
i. chap. 14, and in Cox's * Hibernia Anglicana.' 
2. 'Epistola nobilis Hiberni ad amicum 
Belgam scripta ex castris catholicis ejusdem 
regni, die 4 Maii, anno 1649,' printed in 
' Vindicise,' pt. ii., and in Gilbert's ' Contem- 

porary History,' ii. 211. 3. ' Idea Cosmo- 
graphiss Seraphic© concepts et concinnata a 
Fr. Paulo King, Hiberno, . . . Romas,' 1654. 
4. An Elegy on Cardinal Ximenes. 

[Vindici&Catholicorum Hiberni®, authoro Phi- 
lopatro Irenseo (Richard Bellings), Paris, 1650 ; 
John Ponce's Vindiciae Eversae, Paris, 1653; 
Gilbert's Contemporary Hist, of Aftairs in Ire- 
land ; information kindly supplied by the Rev. 
F. L. Carey, late guardian of St. Isidore's.] 

R. B l. 

KING, PETER, first Lobd Kino, Babon 
op Ockham in Surrey (1669-1 7&4), lord chan- 
cellor, son of Jerome King, grocer and dry- 
salter, of Exeter, by Anne, daughter of Peter 
Locke, uncle of the philosopher John Locke, 
was born in Exeter in 16(fe. He was edu- 
cated in Exeter at the nonconformist aca- 
demy kept by Joseph Hallett (1666-1722) 
[q. v.] and bred to his father's business, but 
showed a studious disposition, and spent 
all his pocket-money in buying books. He 
was trained as a presbvterian, and interested 
himself in the early history of the Christian 
church. In 1691 he published anonymously 
'An Enquiry into the Constitution, Discipline, 
Unity and Worship of the Primitive Church 
that flourished within the first three hun- 
dred years after Christ. Faithfully collected 
out of the extant Writings of those Ages/ 
London, 12mo. Locke was interested by the 
treatise, and persuaded King's father to send 
him to the university of Leyden, where he 
spent about three years. He was entered as 
a student at the Middle Temple on 23 Oct. 
1694, and was called to the bar on 8 June 
1698 by the recommendation of Chief-justice 
Treby[q.v.] He rapidly made his way both 
on circuit and at Westminster, and on 10 Jan. 
1700-1 was returned to parliament in the 
whig interest for the close borough of Beer- 
alston, Devonshire. The election gave the 
whigs an immense majority, and King, by 
Locke's advice, sacrificed the spring circuit 
to remain in town and watch the course ot 
events. He made his maiden speech in the 
house in February 1702, and was, according 
to a congratulatory letter from Locke, well 
received. His first reported speech, however, 
was delivered in the debate on the Aylesbury 
election case in 1704, when he ably vindicated 
the rights of the electors. In 1705 he was 
appointed recorder of Glastonbury, and on 
27 July 1708 recorder of London. He was 
knighted at Windsor on the ensuing 12 Sept., 
after conveying to the queen the congratula- 
tions of the city upon the battle of Oudenarde. 
At this time he was regarded as one of the 
mainstays of the whig party. In 1710 he was 
one of the managers of the impeachment 
of Sacheverell, and aggravated the doctor's 




peevish censure of the Toleration Act into a 
* malicious, scandalous, and seditious libel/ 
On their return to power after the general 
election, the tories retaliated by moving 
(10 June 1712) that the preface to the re- 
cently published sermons of Fleet wood,bishop 
of St. Asaph, deserved burning by the common 
hangman, a motion which King stoutly, but 
in vain, resisted. He defended gratuitously 
William Whiston [q. v.], on his trial for 
heresy in July 1713 (Whiston, Memoirs, 
1749, p. 227). On the arrival of George I 
in the country, King, as recorder of London, 
attended with the mayor and corporation to 
receive him at St. Margaret's Hill, South- I 
wark, on his progress from Greenwich to | 
St. James's (20 Sept. 1714). Soon after- i 
wards, at the suggestion of Lord Cowper 
fq. v.], he was designated to succeed Lord 
Trevor [q. v.] in the common pleas, and 
accordingly on 26 Oct. 1714 he took the I 
degree of serjeant-of-law, and on 22 Nov. the 
oaths, as chief justice of the common pleas. 
His salary was fixed at 2,000/., double that 
of his predecessor. On his consequent re- 
signation of the recordership of London he 
was presented by the mayor and corporation 
with a piece of plate ' as a loving remem- 
brance of his many good services done to 
the city.' On 29 March 1715 he was sworn 
of the privy council (Boyer, Polit. State of 
Great Britain, ix. 238). During the tenure 
of his new office 'King gained the reputation 
of an eminently able, learned, and impartial 
judge, but, as the business of his court was 
entirely civil, had not much opportunity of 
trying notorious cases. He tried the com- 
moners implicated in the rebellion of 1715 ; 
but these cases are not reported, though, from 
some excerpts printed by Lord Campbell from 
his manuscript report to the secretary of state, 
he appears to have been lenient. In a case 
tried by him in 1722 King has been censured 
for putting too liberal a construction upon the 
Coventry Act (22 & 23 Car. II. c. 1), which 
made malicious maiming or wounding, with 
intent to disfigure the person, felony, without 
benefit of clergy. A man had been left for 
dead by his intending murderers, but had re- 
covered. King directed the jury that the 
intent to murder included the intent to maim 
or wound, and the prisoners were convicted 
and executed. 

In January 1717-18 King concurred with 
the majority of his colleagues in advising 
George I that the custody of the royal grand- 
children was vested not in their rather, but 
in the crown, a fact which was probably 
not forgotten when the Earl of Macclesfield 
resigned the great seal in January 1724-5 
[see Pakkeb, Thomas, Eahl op Maccles- 

yol. XXXI. 

field, 1666-1732]. King was at once com- 
missioned to supply the late chancellor's 
place as speaker of the House of Lords, in 
which capacity he presided at his trial on the 
articles of impeacnment subsequently exhi- 
bited against Macclesfield, and read the sen- 
tence of the house on 25 May. On 28 May 
he was raised to the peerage as Lord King, 
baron of Ockham, Surrey, and took his seat in 
the House of Lords on the 31st. On 1 June 
the king delivered to him the great seal, and 
he was forthwith sworn lord chancellor and 
appointed one of the lords justices in whom 
the regency was vested during the king's ap- 
proaching visit to Hanover. A patent of the 
office of lord chancellor was also made out 
to him in the form ' guamdiu se bene gesserit/ 
and besides the ordinary emoluments of his 
office, which then consisted chiefly of fees, a 
pension of 6,000/. a year was settled upon 
nim, with an additional 1,200/. a year in lieu 
of the profits arising from the sale of offices, 
then for the first time expressly declared ille- 

fal. He resigned the chief justiceship on 
June. On the occasion of George Fs last 
visit to Hanover he was again nominated one 
of the lords justices, 31 May 1727 (Boyer, 
Polit. State of Great Britain, xxix. 500, 553, 
xxxiii. 516). On 16 June following he sur- 
rendered the great seal to George II on his 
accession, but immediately received it back, 
and took the oaths as lord chancellor, being 
informed by George (8 July) that he intended 
to nominate to all benefices and prebends that 
were in the gift of the chancellor. This pre- 
tension King quietly, but firmly and success- 
fully, resisted, hoping his majesty l would not 
put things out of their ancient course,' and 
after some discussion the matter dropped. 

Few chancellors ever took their seat on 
the woolsack with greater reputation than 
King, and quitted it with less. An admir- 
able common lawyer, he was little versed in 
either the theory or the practice of equity; 
and though he diligently studied abridgments 
and reports, and even took private lessons 
from eminent counsel, he was never able to 
acquire a competent knowledge of the law 
he nad to administer. He was morbidly diffi- 
dent, and inclined to defer judgment as long 
as possible, thus grievously aggravating the 
dilatoriness of chancery procedure. Arrears 
multiplied exorbitantly, and King was com- 
pelled to prolong his sittings far into the 
night. Still the arrears were not overtaken, 
and the decrees thus tardily pronounced were 
only too frequently reversed by the House 
of Lords. During the last few years of his 
life he became so drowsy and inattentive that 
the suitors were left almost entirely at the 
mercy of the leading counsel, the decrees 




being usually settled by Attorney-general 
Yorke and Solicitor-general Talbot. 

Nevertheless King established some impor- 
tant legal principles, e.g. that a will of Eng- 
lish land, though made abroad, must be made 
according to the formalities of English law ; 
and that, where a husband had a legal title 
to his wife's personal estate, a court of equity 
would not help him to ' reduce it into pos- 
session ' without compelling him to settle a 
part of it upon her, which did something to 
mitigate the harshness of the old law. He 
was the author of the act which substituted 
English for Latin as the language of writs 
and similar documents, and also of the sta- 
tute 12 Geo. I, c. 32, which, by requiring 
masters in chancery to pay all sums deposited 
with them in their official capacity into the 
Bank of England as soon as received, rendered 
impossible a recurrence of the frauds perpe- 
trated during Lord Macclesfield's tenure of 
office. He is charged by Whiston, whom he 
had offended by refusing to join his Society for 
Promoting Primitive Christianity, with being 
wholly guided by worldly considerations in 
dispensing church patronage, and with jus- 
tifying subscription by unbelievers on the 
ground that ' we must not lose our useful- 
ness for scruples ' (Whiston, Memoirs, pt. i. 
pp. 35, 162). As a minister he made no 
considerable figure. He was an F.R.S., a 
friend of Newton and one of his pall-bearers, 
a governor of the Charterhouse, a member of 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gos- 
pel in Foreign Parts and of a commission 
for the building of new churches. 

A paralytic stroke compelled King to re- 
sign the great seal on 19 Nov. 1733. He was 
offered a pension of 4,000/., or a capital sum 
of 20,000/., and chose the latter. He died 
on 22 July 1734 at his seat at Ockhara, and 
was buried in the parish church, where a 
splendid monument by Rysbrach perpetuates 
his memory. Lord Hervey has left a clever 
and ill-natured character, or perhaps carica- 
ture, of him in his ' Memoirs/ i. 280-1 ; an 
extravagant panegyric by the Duke of Whar- 
ton, written while he was still lord chief 
justice of the common pleas, will be found 
in the 'True Briton,' No. xxxix. (See also 
an absurd adulatory 'Letter to the Right 
Honourable the Lord Chief Justice King on 
, his Lordship's being designed a Peer,' Lon- 
don, 1725, 4to.) King married, in September 
1704, Anne, daughter of Richard Seys of 
Boverton, Glamorganshire, by whom he had 
four sons — John, Peter, William, and Tho- 
mas — and two daughters. Each of his sons 
in turn succeeded to the title. King's por- 
trait by Daniel de Coning, painted in 1720, 
is in the National Portrait Gallery. 

In 1702 King published a ' History of the 
Apostles' Creed : with Critical Observations 
on its several Articles.' It was received 
more favourably abroad than at home, and 
was highly praised in Bernard's ' Nouvelles 
de la Kepuolique des Lettres' (November 
and December 1702). A Latin translation 
by Gottfried Olearius was published at Leip- 
zig in 1706, and reprinted at Basel in 1750. 
Later English editions appeared in 1703, 
1711, 1719, and 1737. This, the first at- 
tempt to trace the evolution of the creed, 
gave a great impulse to research, and deter- 
mined the main lines upon which it was to 
be conducted. The creed, according to King, 
was originally a baptismal formula, which 
varied in different churches, and did not 
assume its present shape till four centuries 
after the close of the apostolic age. Later 
writers (see Schafp, Creeds of the Greek and 
Latin Churches, p. 52) have given 750 as the 
approximate date. John Simson, professor 
of divinity in Glasgow, accused of Arianism 
in 1727, tried to shelter himself behind some 
words in King's ' History.' King made no 
reply to this misrepresentation of his views, 
but was defended in a ' Vindication ' by an 
anonymous author in 1731. Joseph Bingham 
in his ' Antiquities ' frequently refers to King, 
and with invariable respect, though without 
accepting all his conclusions. 

In 1712 and 1713 King published a second 
edition of his early ' Enquiry,' with a second 
part treating of ceremonies and worship. 
The book, though intended to promote the 
comprehension of the dissenters, is impartial 
and critical. A correspondence with Ed- 
mund Elys [q. v.] upon liturgical forms, oc- 
casioned by the first edition, is printed in 
Elys's 'Letters on several Subjects' (1694). 
In 1717 King was attacked by the anonv- 
mous author of ' The Invalidity of the Dis- 
senting or Presbyterian Ordination,' and by 
William Sclater, a nonjuring clergyman, in 
his 'Original Draught of the Primitive 
Church.' Charles Daubeny [q. v.], in his 
' Eight Discourses, &c.,' 1804, declares, but 
without justification, that King was himself 
converted by this work. John Wesley in 
1746 read the ' Enquiry,' and, in spite of his 
high church prejudices, admitted it to be an 
' impartial draught ' (Journal). It was re- 
printed in 1839 and 1843, with an abridgment 
of Sclater by way of antidote, and was not 
really superseded until the publication in 
1881 of the Bampton lectures of Edwin 
Hatch [q. v.] on ' The Organisation of the 
Early Christian Churches.' 

King was erroneously identified by Mos- 

heim with a ' Mr. K ,' who defended the 

legend of the thundering legion in corre- 




spondence with Walter Moyle [q. v.] The 
real author was a London clergyman named 
Richard King. 

During his tenure of the great seal King 
kept a diary chiefly of affairs of state, which 
was printed by his descendant, the seventh 
baron, as an appendix to his * Life of Locke ' 
[see King, Peter, seventh Lord Kino]. 

The reports of Peere Williams, W. Ke- 
lvnge, and Mosely (the two latter works of 
slight authority) contain King's decisions 
while lord chancellor. 

[Notes and Queries, 1st ser. xi. 327 ; Hist. 
Beg. Chron. Diary, 1734 ; Chaufepi6's Nouveau 
Diet. Hist.;Biog. Brit.; Biog. Univ. ; LordKing's 
Diary; Campbell's Lives of the Lord Chan- 
cellors ; Foss's Lives of the Judges ; Welsby's 
Lives of Eminent English Judges ; Pari. Hist, 
vi. 294, 1155; Luttrell's Kelation of State 
Aflairs ; Hearne's Collect, ed. Doble (Oxf. Hist. 
Soc.), ii. 32; Howell's State Trials, xv. 134 
et seq., 418 et seq., 1222, 1323-1404, xvi. 767 
et seq. ; Lord Raymond's Rep. ed. Gale, 1318, 
1319; Lords' Journ. xxii. 377; Collins's Peer- 
age, ed. Brydges, vii. 223 ; Burke's Peerage, 
'Lovelace;' Brayley and Brit ton's Surrey, iii. 
112 et seq.] J. M. R. 

KING, PETER, seventh Lord King, 
Baron of Ockham, Surrey (1776-1833), born 
31 Aug. 1776, was eldest son of Peter, the 
sixth baron, by Charlotte, daughter of Ed- 
ward Tredcroft of Horsham, and was great- 
grandson of Lord-chancellor King [see King, 
Peter, first Lord King]. He was educated 
at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge, and 
succeeded to the title in 1793. After a short 
tour on the continent he returned to England 
on coming of age, and took his seat in the 
House of Lords. True to the whig traditions 
of his family, he acted with Lord Holland 
[see Fox, Henry Richard Vassall], whose 
motion for an inquiry into the causes of the 
failure of the expedition to the Low Coun- 
tries he supported in his maiden speech, 
12 Feb. 1800. His habits, however, were 
somewhat recluse, and except to oppose a 
Habeas Corpus Suspension Bill, or a bill to 
prolong the suspension of cash payments by 
the Banks of England and Ireland, begun in 
1797, he at first rarely intervened in debate. 
Of the currency question he made a profound 
study, the fruit of which was seen in a 
pamphlet entitled * Thoughts on the Restric- 
tion of Payments in Specie at the Banks of 
England and Ireland/ London, 1803, 8vo, 
2nd edit. Much enlarged, it was reissued as 
1 Thoughts on the Effects of the Bank Restric- 
tions/ 1804, 8vo, and was reprinted in 'A 
Selection' from King's speeches and writings, 
edited by Earl Fortescue, London, 1844, 8vo. 
In this classical tract King established that 

I the suspension had caused an excessive issue 
of notes, particularly by the Bank of Ireland, 
and a consequent depreciation of the paper 
and appreciation of bullion, and advocated a 
gradual return to the system of specie pay- 
ment. It was reviewed by Horner in the 
'Edinburgh Review* (ii. 402 et seq.), and 
attracted much attention, but produced no 
practical result; and, the depreciation in- 
creasing, King in 1811 gave his leasehold 
tenantry notice that he could no longer accept 
notes in payment of rent, except at a discount 
varying according to the date of the lease. 
Ministers, alarmed lest his example should 
be followed generally, hastily introduced a 
measure making notes of the Banks of Eng- 
land and Ireland payable on demand legal 
tender in payment of rent out of court, and 
prohibiting the acceptance or payment of 
more than 21*. for a guinea. King opposed 
the bill, and justified his own conduct m an 
able and spirited speech (afterwards pub- 
lished in pamphlet form) ; but it passed into 
law, and was followed in 1812 by a measure 
making the notes legal tender in all cases 
(stat. 61 Geo. Ill, c. 127, 52 Geo. HI, c. 50). 
King was from the first, and as long as he 
lived, a determined opponent of the corn 
laws, which he denounced as a 'job of jobs/ 
He supported catholic emancipation and the 
commutation of tithes, and opposed grants 
in aid of the Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel in Foreign Parts, pluralities and 
other abuses, and was suspected of a leaning 
to presbyter ianism (BeeHierarchta versus An- 
archiam, &c, by Antischismaticus, London, 
1831, 8vo, and A Letter to Lord King con- 
troverting the sentiments lately delivered in 
Parliament by his Lordship, Mr. CfConnell, 
and Mr. Sheil, as to the fourfold division 
of Tithes, by James Thomas Law, London, 
1832, 8vo). A career of increasing distinc- 
tion was, by his sudden death, cut short 
on 4 June 1833. King married, on 26 May 
1804, Lady Hester Fortescue, daughter of 
Hugh, first earl Fortescue, by whom he had 
(with two daughters) two sons — William 
King, who was created Earl of Lovelace in 
1838, and Peter John Locke King [q. v.] 

Besides the tract on the currency, King 
published : 1. A pamphlet ' On the Conduct 
of the British Government towards the 
Catholics of Ireland/ 1807. 2. l Speech in 
the House of Lords on the second reading 
of Earl Stanhope r 8 Bill respecting Guineas 
and Bank Notes/ 3. 'The Life of John 
Locke, with extracts from his Correspond- 
ence, Journals, and Commonplace Books/ 
London, 1829, 4to ; new edition, with con- 
siderable additions, 1830, 2 vols. 8vo; another 
in Bonn's Standard Library, London, 1858, 





1 vol. 8vo. 4. ' A Short History of the Job 
of Jobs/ written in 1825, first published as 
an anti-cornlaw pamphlet, London, 1846, 

[The principal authority is A Selection from 
the Speeches and Writings of the late Lord 
King, with a short introductory Memoir by Earl 
Fortescue, London, 1844, 8vo. See also Gent. 
Mag. 1833, pt. ii. p. 80; Brougham's Historical 
Sketches of Statesmen who flourished in the 
time of Geo. Ill, 2nd ser.pp. 172 et seq. ; Yonge's 
Life of Lord Liverpool, iii. 170; Lord Colches- 
ter's Diary, vol. iii. ; Pari. Hist, and Hansard ; 
Horner's Memoirs, ii. 92; Collins's Peerage 
(Brydges), vii. 226 ; Burke's Peerage, ' Lovelace; ' 
Edinburgh Review, 1. 1 et seq.] J. M. R. 

1886), politician, second son of Peter King, 
seventh baron King [q. v.], and brother of 
Ayilliam King-Noel, first earl of Lovelace, 
-was born at Ockham, Surrey, on 25 Jan. 
1811. He was educated at Harrow and at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, where he gra- 
duated B.A. 1831, and M.A. 1833. In 1837 
he unsuccessfully contested East Surrey, but 
was elected for that constituency on 11 Aug. 
1847, and retained his seat until the con- 
servative reaction at the general election in 
February 1874. He supported an alteration 
in the law of primogeniture for many sessions. 
On 15 March 1855 he delivered a speech in 
which he showed emphatically ' the crying 
injustice of the law.' On 11 Aug. 1854 he 
passed the Real Estate Charges Act, accord- 
ing to which mortgaged estates descend with 
and bear their own burdens. In the session 
of 1856 he was successful in obtaining the 
Tepeal of 120 sleeping statutes which were 
liable to be put in force from time to time. 
He also waged war against the statute law 
commission, and more than once denounced it 
as a job. King introduced a bill for abolish- 
ing the property qualification of members, 
which passed the House of Lords on 28 June 
1858, and in eight successive sessions he 
brought forward the county franchise bill, 
on one occasion, 20 Feb. 1851, defeating and 
causing the resignation of the Russell minis- 
try. He succeeded in carrying through the 
Hx>use of Commons a bill for extending the 
10/. franchise to the county constituencies, 
so as to include >every adult male who came 
within the conditions of the borough suffrage. 
He was also well known for his advocacy of 
the ballot and of the abolition of church 
rates, and for his strenuous opposition to the 
principle and practice alike 01 endowments 
for religious purposes. He died at Brook- 
lands, WeybrWe, on 12 Nov. 1885. He 
married, on 22 March 1836, Louisa Elizabeth, 
daughter of William Henry Hoare of Mitcham 

Grove, Surrey. She died in 1884, leaving two 
sons and four daughters. 

King was the author of: 1. ' Injustice of 
the Law of Succession to the Real Property of 
Intestates,' 1854 ; 3rd edit. 1855. 2. * Speech 
on the Laws relating to the Property of In- 
testates/ 15 March 1855. 3. ' Speech on the 
Laws relating to the Property of Intestates 
in the House of Commons/ 17 Feb. 1859. 
4. ' Speech on the Law relating to the Real 
Estates of Intestates/ 14 July 1869. Four 
letters which King wrote to the ' Times' in 
1855 on * Chancery Reform' are reprinted in 
1 A Bleak House Narrative of Real Life/ 
1856, pp. 55-66. 

[Hansard, 1849, ciii. 88 etseq.; Statesmen of 
England, 1862, No. 46, with portrait ; Drawing- 
room Portrait Gallery, 2nd ser. 1859, with por- 
trait; Foster's Peerage; Times, 14 Nov. 1885, 
p. 9.] G. C. B. 

KING, PHILIP GIDLEY (1758-1808), 
first governor of Norfolk Island and governor 
of New South Wales, was horn 23 April 
1758 at Launceston in Cornwall, where nis 
father. Philip King, was a draper ; his mother 
was a daughter of John Gidley, attorney, 
of Exeter. He was educated at Yarmouth 
by a Mr. Bailey, but went to sea at the age 
of twelve as a midshipman in the Swallow 
frigate, Captain Shirley, and served five years 
in the East Indies, returning to England 
' with much knowledge of his business and 
some acquaintance with the world ' (Phillip, 
Voyage). In 1775 he went to Virginia with 
Captain Bellew in the Liverpool. His ship, 
after seeing some service, was wrecked in 
Delaware Bay, whereupon King entered on 
board the Princess Royal, October 1778. He 
was promoted to the Itenown, with the rank 
of lieutenant, 26 Nov. following. In 1779 
he again returned home, and for four years 
served in the Channel on board the Kite 
cutter and Ariadne frigate. He was asso- 
ciated as lieutenant with Captain Phillip of 
the Europe in 1783, and this officer's high 
appreciation of his qualities — his merit as a 
seaman and perseverance — led to his selec- 
tion of King (25 Oct. 1786) for the post of 
second lieutenant on his own ship, the Sirius, 
when he commanded the famous ' First 
Fleet' which sailed for Australia on 13 May 

1787, and arrived at Botany Bay in January 

1 788. Immediately after his landing Phillip 
appointed King commandant of Norfolk 
Island. King set sail thither on 14 Feb. 1788, 
taking with him only a petty officer, a sur- 
geon's mate, two marines, two men who were 
supposed to understand the cultivation of 
flax, and nine male and six female convicts, 
for the purpose of settling the island as a 




branch colony. At that time Norfolk Island 
was covered with scrub, and to convert it 
into a source of supply for flax for the navy 
(an object dear to thehome government, but 
never realised}, and to form gardens . and 
cultivated fields, was no easy task with the 
small force at Bang's command. In two years, 
however, by unflagging energy, he had some 
fifty acres of land under cultivation, and the 
population had risen to 418, besides the eighty 
men belonging to the Sirius. His duties were 
manifold; he was at once magistrate and 
chaplain, farmer and governor of convicts. 
Though he was obliged to have recourse to the 
lash, he was not unduly severe, and never 
abused his almost autocratic powers ; indeed 
Sir Joseph Banks found fault with his too 
ready clemency (letter to King, 1804 ; Bar- 
ton, i. 239). In March 1790 he left Norfolk 
Island for Sydney Cove, whence he was sent 
in April with despatches from Phillip to the 
government. He sailed by way of Batavia, 
where he embarked on a small vessel of the 
Dutch East India Companv. The captain 
and most of the crew fell ill with fever con- 
tracted at Batavia, and King had to navi- 
gate the ship with a crew of only four sound 
men. Seventeen of the crew died before they 
made Mauritius, and it was not till eight 
months after leaving A ustralia that he reached 
England (December 1790). Phillip had re- 
commended him for promotion to the rank 
of master and commander in a letter to the 
secretary of state, 10 July 1788, as ' a very 
steady officer ' who was doing good work in 
a difficult situation (tb. i. 329) ; and on his 
arrival in London with his despatches he 
was informed that the government had al- 
ready appointed him lieutenant-governor of 
Norfolk Island with an allowance of 250/. a 
year (commission dated 28 Jan. 1790; let- 
ter from Lord Grenville, 1 Feb. 1790 ; Bab- 
ton, i. 194, 526). He obtained the rank of 
commander in March 1791. After {jiving 
the government every information in his pos- 
session on the condition, prospects, and pre- 
sent necessities of the new colonies at Syd- 
ney Cove and Norfolk Island, King sailed, 
15 March 1791, with his wife, Anna Josepha 
Coombes of Bedford, whom he had recently 
married, on board the Gorgon, Captain Par- 
ker, and arrived at Port Jackson 21 Sept. 
(the voyage is described by Mrs. Parker, 
Voyage, &c, London, 1795) ; and on 26 Oct. 
he departed for Norfolk Island, where he 
remained at his post till he was appointed 

fovernor of New South Wales, 28 Sept. 1800. 
le retired on 12 Aug. 1806, returned to Eng- 
land, and died at Tooting, Surrey, 3 Sept. 
1808. His son, Rear-admiral Philip Parker 
King, is noticed separately. 

[Voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay, 
1789, "with a portrait of King facing p. 95, 
drawn by J. Wright, 1 789, and engraved by W. 
Skelton; John Hunter's Historical Journal of 
the Transactions at Port Jackson and Norfolk 
Island, 1793, containing King's Journal as com- 
mandant at Norfolk Island, 1788-90, and an 
account of his voyage home, at pp. 287-448 ; 
G. B. Barton's History of New South Wales from 
the Records, vol. i. 1889; Heaton's Australian 
Diet of Dates, 1879. A manuscript journal by 
King (311 pp.), describing the voyage of the First 
Fleet, is in the possession of the Hon. P. G. King, 
M.L.O. of New South Wales.] S. L.-P. 

KING, PHILIP PARKER {1793-1856), 
rear-admiral, born at Norfolk Island 13 Dec. 
1793, was son of Captain Philip Gidley King 

Sq. v.] He entered the navy in November 
807, on board the Diana frigate ; and after 
six years of active service in the Bay of Bis- 
cay, the North Sea, and the Mediterranean, 
was promoted by Sir Edward Pellew to bo • 
lieutenant of the Trident, 28 Feb. 1814. In 
the beginning of 1817 he was appointed to 
conduct a survey of the coast 01 Australia, 
and was sent out, a passenger in a transport, 
to take command of the Mermaid, a cutter of 
eighty-four tons, with a complement of eigh- 
teen officers and men. He arrived in Port 
Jackson in September 1817, and for the next 
five years was engaged, almost without in- 
termission, on the work of the survey. During 
that time he examined and delineated the 
greater part of the west, north, and north- 
east coasts, and laid down a new route from 
Sydney to Torres Strait, inside the Barrier 
Iteef. In December 1820 the Mermaid was 
found to be no longer seaworthy, and King 
was transferred to a newly purchased ship, 
which was renamed the Bathurst. This was 
about double the size of the Mermaid, and 
carrying twice the number of men, but the 
wort on which she was employed was essenti- 
ally the same. King was promoted to the rank 
of commander, 17 July 1821, but continued 
the survey till the April of 1822. In Sep- 
tember the Bathurst sailed for England, 
where she arrived in April 1823, and during 
the next two years King was occupied with 
the narrative and the charts of his survey. 
The charts were published by the hydro- 
graphic office, and form the basis of those 
now in use : the ' Narrative of the Survey 
of the Intertropical and Western Coasts of 
Australia' (2 vols. 8vo) was published in 
1827. Meantime, on 26 Feb. 1824, King 
was elected a fellow of the Royal Society ; 
and in September 1825 was appointed to the 
Adventure, with instructions to undertake 
the survey of ' the southern coast of South 
America from the Rio Plata round to Chiloe, 




and of Tierra del Fuego.' In this service the 
Adventure was accompanied by the Beagle, 
commanded by Captain Stokes, and after the 
latter's death by Captain Robert Fitzroy [q. v.], 
and during the four years 1826-30 the work 
was carried on wi th unremitting diligence and 
an exactness which established the reputa- 
tions of both King and Fitzroy in the very 
first rank of hydrographers. King was ad- 
vanced to post-rank on 25 Feb. 1830, and in 
the following November the two ships re- 
turned to England. In April and May 1831 
King read some account of the results of his 
voyage before the Royal Geographical So- 
ciety, and in the following yearne published 
a- volume of ' Sailing Directions to the Coasts 
of Eastern and Western Patagonia, includ- 
ing the Straits of Magalhaen and the Sea- 
Coast of Tierra del Fuego.' In 1839 a more 
popular account of his and Fitzroy's voyage 
was published in the first volume oi the 
* Voyages of the Adventure and Beagle,' 
• edited by Captain Fitzroy. King had no 
further service in the navy, but returning 
to New South Wales, settled in Sydney and 
entered busily into the affairs of the colony ; 
he was for many years manager of the Aus- 
tralian Agricultural Society, and a member 
of the legislative council. In September 
1856 he became a rear-admiral on the re- 
tired list. lie died in February 1856, leaving 
a widow and a large family. lie had married 
in 1817 Harriet, daughter of Christopher 
Lethbridge of Madfora, Launceston, Corn- 

[Marshall's Roy. Nav. Biog. x. (vol. iii. pt. 
ii.) 200 ; O'Byrne's Nav. Biog. Diet. ; Gent. 
Mag. 1856, new ser. i. 426; Heaton's Austra- 
lian Diet. ; and King's works mentioned in the 
text.] J. K. L. 

KING, Sib RICHARD, the elder (1730- 
1806), admiral, son of Curtis King, master 
in the navy, and afterwards master-attendant 
at Woolwich, and of his wife Mary, sister of 
Commodore Curtis Barnett [q.v.], was born 
at Gosport on 10 Aug. 1730. He entered the 
navy in 1738 on board the Berwick, of which 
his father was master, but was shortly after- 
wards moved into the Dragon, then com- 
manded by his uncle, whom he accompanied 
to the Mediterranean and to the East Indies, 
where he was promoted to be lieutenant, 
1 Feb. 1745-6. In 1754 he again went to the 
East Indies as lieutenant of the Tiger, from 
which he was moved into the flagship by the 
commander-in-chief, Rear-admiral Charles 
Watson [q. v.], formerly a lieutenant of the 
Berwick. On 23 July 1/56 he was promoted 
to be commander of the Blaze fireship, and 
in the following January commanded the 

boats and the landing party at the capture 
of Calcutta and Hoogly. lie was then sent 
home with despatches, and was immediately 
ordered to the West Indies in the Bonetta 
sloop, from which he was posted, by Com- 
modore Moore, to the Rye frigate, 29 Jan. 
1759. In May he was moved to the Ludlow 
Castle and sent home with convoy. In Janu- 
ary 1760 he was appointed to the Argo, in 
which he cruised with some success on the 
coast of France and in the North Sea. In 
1762 he carried out General Draper to the 
East Indies ; took part in the expedition to 
Manila [see Draper, SibWilliam ; Cornish, 
Sib Samuel], and with Captain Hyde Parker 
(1713-1783) [q. v.] assisted in the capture 
of an extraordinarily rich galeon, his personal 
share in the prize-money amounting to up- 
wards of 30,000/. In the following year he re- 
turned to England in command of the Graf- 
ton. In the Spanish armament of 1770 King 
commissioned the Northumberland; from her 
he was moved to the Ardent, and afterwards 
to the Asia, which he commanded for three 
years, as a guardship. In January 1778 he was 
appointed to the Monmouth, was soon after- 
wards transferred to the Pallas, and, in Janu- 
ary 1779, to the Exeter of 64 guns, in which 
he* went out to the East Indies with Sir 
Edward Hughes [q. v.] On arriving on the 
station he was ordered to wear a broad pen- 
nant as an established commodore and second 
in command. In the action ofi'Sadras, 17 Feb. 
1782, the Exeter was the rearmost ship of the 
English line, and was for some time in great 
danger of being overpowered, the French ad- 
miral having ably concentrated his attack on 
the English rear. She was almost entirely 
dismasted, had received several shot under 
water, had ten men killed and forty-seven 
wounded. The flag-captain, Reynolds, was 
killed, and his brains were dashed in King's 
face, temporarily blinding him, just as the 
master, seeing yet another enemy's ship bear- 
ing down on them, asked * What was to be 
done P ' Wiping his face with his handker- 
chief, King answered, 'There is nothing to be 
done but to fight her till she sinks.' A lucky 
shift of wind, however, enabled the van to tack 
to the assistance of the rear, when the French 
retired. In the other four actions between 
Hughes and Sufiren, the Exeter played a 
distinguished part, though not such an ex- 
ceptional one as in the first, and on the pas- 
sage home had to be condemned at the Uape 
of Good Hope as no longer seaworthy. On 
arriving in England King was knighted. 
He was promoted to be rear-admiral 24 Sept. 
1787, was commander-in-chief in the Downs 
in 1790, and had a junior command in the 
fleet at Spithead in 1791. In 1792 he waa 




created a baronet, and appointed governor 
and commander-in-chief at Newfoundland. 
He became a vice-admiral on 1 Feb. 1793, 
and returning to England was elected M.P. 
for Rochester.. In December 1794 he was 
appointed commander-in-chief at Plymouth, 
and was advanced to the rank of admiral 
oh 1 June 1795. He died 7 Nov. 1806. He 
married Susannah Margaretta, daughter of 
William Coker of Mappowder, Dorset, and 
left, besides three daugnters, a son, Richard 
(1774-1834) fq. v.], who succeeded to the 
baronetcy. His portrait by Sir William 
Beechey is in the possession of the family. 

[Charnock's Biog. Nav. vi. 369; Ralfe's Naval 
Biog. i. 225 ; Beatson's Nav. and Mil. Memoirs ; 
Chevalier 3 Histoire de la Marine franchise (pt. 
i.) ; Commission and Warrant Books in the Pub- 
lic Record Office.] J. K. L. 

KING, RICHARD (1748-1810), dhine, 
born on 30 Nov. 1748, was son of Henry 
Kinjj of St. Augustine, Bristol He was 
admitted scholar of Winchester in 1762 
(Kirby, Winchester Scholars, p. 258), matri- 
culated at Oxford from Queen's College on 
4 ApriL 1767, and was elected fellow of New 
College in 1768, graduating B.A. in 1772, 
and M.A: in 1776 (Foster, Alumni Oxon. 
1716-1886, it 796). In 1782 he resigned his 
fellowship, receiving the college livings of 
Worthen, Shropshire, and Steeple Morden, 
Cambridgeshire. He died at the latter place 
on 30 Oct. 1810 (Gent Mag. vol. lxxx. pt. ii. 
p. 589). 

King wrote: 1. 'A Discourse on the In- 
spiration of the Scriptures/ 8vo, London, 
1805. 2. ' Remarks on the Alliance between 
Church and State, and on the Test Laws/ 
8vo, London, 1807. 3. ' Brother Abraham's 
Answer to Peter Plymley [i. e. to the " Letters 
on the subject of the Catholics to my brother 
Abraham, who lives in the Country," bv 
Sydney Smith] ... in two Letters ; to which 
is prefixed a " Postliminious" Preface/ 8vo, 
London, 1808. 

On 17 Aug. 1782 he married Frances Eliza- 
beth, third daughter of Sir Francis Bernard, 
bart. [q. v.] 

His wife, Frances Elizabeth King, was 
born on 25 July 1 757. After the death of her 
husband she resided at Gateshead, Durham, 
so as to be near her two married daughters, 
and died there on 23 Dec. 1821 (Gent. Mag. 
vol. xcii. pt. i. p. 90). An intimate friend of 
Hannah More, she established under her guid- 
ance societies for visiting the sick poor and 
schools for their children. To the ' Reports ' 
issued bv the Society for Bettering the Con- 
dition 01 the Poor, under the editorship of her 
brother, Sir Thomas Bernard [q. v.], she con- 

tributed many papers. Her other writings 
afe : 1. ' A Tour in France/ 12mo, London, 
1803. 2. 'The Beneficial Effects of the 
Christian Temper on Domestic Happiness/ 
2nd edit. 8vo, London, 1807 ; 6th edit. 1825. 

3. ' Female Scripture Characters ; exempli- 
fying Female Virtues/ 16mo, London, 1813 ; 
10th edit. 1826, to which her portrait, en- 
graved by Scriven after Hastings, is prefixed. 

4. ' The Rector's Memorandum Book, being 
Memoirs of a Family in the North '[anon. J, 
12mo, London, 1814 (and 1819). Her por- 
trait was also engraved by Woolnoth. 

[Memoir prefixed to Mrs. King's Female 
Scripture Characters, 3rd edit. ; Evans's Cat. of 
Eograved Portraits, ii. 233.] Gr. Gr. 

KING, Sib RICHARD, the younger 
(1774-1834), vice-admiral, born in 1774, was 
only son of Admiral Sir Richard King [q. v.] 
He entered the navy in 1788 on board the 
Crown in the East Indies with Commodore 
(afterwards Sir William) Cornwallis [q. v.], 
by whom he was made lieutenant in 1791, 
commander in 1793, and captain in 1794. 
On his return to England he was appointed 
in November 1794 to the Aurora for cruis- 
ing service in the Channel. During the con- 
tinuance of the war he commanded different 
ships with credit in the Channel and the 
North Sea. In April 1804 he was appointed 
to the Achille of 74 guns, in which, on 21 Oct, 
1805, he took part in the battle of Trafalgar. 
On the death of his father in November 1806, 
King succeeded to the baronetcy, but con- 
tinued in the Achille, emploved on the west 
coast of France or Spain till 1811, when he 
was appointed captain of the fleet to Sir 
Charles Cotton [q. v.] in the Mediterranean 
and afterwards in the Channel. He was pro- 
moted to be rear-admiral on 12 Aug. 1812, 
and for the rest of the war had his flag in the 
San Josef, in the Mediterranean, as second in 
command to Sir Edward Pellew [q. v.], after- 
wards Viscount Exmouth. He was nominated 
a K.C.B. 2 Jan. 1815, was commander-in- 
chief in the East Indies from 1816 to 1820, 
and became a vice-admiral on 19 July 1821. 
In July 1833 he was appointed commander- 
in-chief at the Nore, and died at Admiralty 
House, Sheerness, on 5 Aug. 1834. King was 
twice married, first, in 1803, to Sarah Anne, 
only daughter of Sir John Thomas Duckworth 

Sq. v.] ; secondly, in 1822, to Maria Susanna, 
laughter of Sir Charles Cotton, and left issue 
by both wives. His second son by the first 
marriage, Admiral Sir George St. Vincent 
Duckworth King, K.C.B. (d. 1891), suc- 
ceeded to the baronetcy on the death of his 
elder brother in 1847, was captain of the 
Leander, and afterwards of the Rodney, in * 




the Black Sea during the Russian war in 
1854-5, and was second in command of the 
naval brigade at the siege of Sebastopol. 
He became a rear-admiral in 1863, was com- 
mander-in-chief in China from 1863 to 1867, 
was made vice-admiral in 1867, and admiral 
in 1875. He died on 18 Aug. 1891. 

[Marshall's Royal Nav. Biog. vol. i. pt. ii. 
p. 545; Ralfe's Nav. Biog. iii. 126; O'Byrne's 
Nav. Biog. Diet. (s. n. * King, George St. Vin- 
cent') ; United Service Journal, 1834, iii. 232 ; 
see also Fosters Baronetage.] J. K. L. 

KING, RICHARD (1811P-1876), arctic 
traveller and ethnologist, was born about 
1811, and educated at Guy's and St. Tho- 
mas's Hospitals. He became M.R.C.S. on 
29 June,L.S.A. 16 Aug. 1832, and obtained 
in the following year the honorary degree of 
M.D. of New York. He was subsequently 
made a member of the court of examiners 
of the Apothecaries' Society in London. 
Shortly after qualifying as a medical man he 
obtained the post of surgeon and naturalist 
in the expedition led by Captain (afterwards 
Sir) George Back [q. v.] to the mouth of the 
Great Fish River between 1833 and 1835, in 
search of Captain Ross. He took a prominent 
part in the expedition, and he is frequently 
mentioned in Back's ' Narrative ' (1836), to 
which he contributed botanical and meteoro- 
logical appendices. He subsequently pub- 
lished an independent account of the expe- 
dition, entitled ' Narrative of a Journey to 
the Shore of the Arctic Ocean under com- 
mand of Captain Back/ 2 vols. 8vo, 1836, in 
which he took a more sanguine view than his 
commander of the value of the Great Fish 
River as a basis for future arctic exploration. 
On 20 July 1842 King issued the prospectus 
which originated the Ethnological Society. 
He published an address to the society, of 
which he was the first secretary, in 1844, 
and when both it and its successor, the An- 
thropological Society, were in 1870 merged 
in the Anthropological Institute of Great 
Britain, King became a member of the council 
of the institute. He was also a member of 
the general council of the British Associa- 
tion. When in 1845 the admiralty proposed 
the Franklin expedition, King wrote very 
strongly to Lord Derby, then colonial secre- 
tary, recommending, in lieu of the polar sea 
journey, a polar land journey by the Great 
Fish River, and proffering his services. The 
admiralty lent a cold ear both to this project 
and to those which King would have sub- 
stituted for the measures proposed for the 
relief of Franklin in 1849. King was, how- 
ever, in 1850 appointed assistant-surgeon to 
the Resolute, in the expedition sent out to 

search for Franklin under Captain Horatio 
Austin, and in 1857 he received the arctic 
medal for his services. In 1855 he drew up 
a summary of his correspondence with the ad- 
miralty on the subject, entitled 'The Franklin 
Expedition from first to last/ in which he 
animadverted very severely on the treatment 
he had undergone at the hands of the govern- 
ment. He received much sympathy in his 
grievances from the newspapers of tne time, 
But his eccentricity and excitability were 
prejudicial to his advancement, and he died 
in obscurity at his residence in Blandford 
Street, Manchester Square, London, on 4 Feb. 

King was a copious contributor to the 
Ethnological and Statistical Societies' ' Jour- 
nals, to the ' Medical Times/ of which he 
was for some time editor, and to other papers. 
Besides the works mentioned above and two 
small medical books on the cause of death 
in still-born infants he published : 1. ' The 
Physical and Intellectual Character and In- 
dustrial Arts of the Esquimaux/ 1844. 
2. ' The Natives of Vancouver's Island and 
British Columbia/ 1869. 3. 'The Manx of 
the Isle of Man/ 1 870. 4. « The Laplanders/ 
1871. None of these works appears in the 
British Museum Library Catalogue. 

[Medical Times, 12 Feb. 1876; Athenaeum, 
12 Feb. 1876 ; Medical Directory, 1875, and 
Obituary, 1876, where, however, the date of 
King's death is wrongly given as 18 Feb. ; Mark- 
ham's Arctic Navy List; information kindly 
supplied by J. B. Bailey, esq., Royal College of 
Surgeons; King's works in British Museum 
Library.] T. S. 

KING, RICHARD JOHN (1818-1879), 
antiquary, eldest son of Richard King, who 
married at Berry Pomeroy, Devonshire, in 
April 1816, Mary Grace Windeatt, was born 
on 18 Jan. 1818 at Montpelier, Pennycross, a 
chapelry attached to St. Andrew, Plymouth. 
His father died in April 1829 ; his mother 
survived until 13 Jan. 1884. He matricu- 
lated at Exeter College, Oxford, on i7 Nov. 
1836, and graduated B.A. in 1841. On his 
father's death he inherited a considerable 
property, including the estate of Bigadon in 
feuckfastleigh, Devonshire, where he lived 
until 1864 ; out the lands were heavily mort- 
gaged, and in that year they were sold under 
pecuniary pressure, when he was also forced 
to part with his father's collection of pictures 
ana the magnificent library which he him- 
self had amassed. King then withdrew to 
The Limes, Crediton, and supported himself 
by his writings. No one has in this genera- 
tion equalled him in the knowledge of the 
literature and history of the west country, 




and he was gifted with the art of interesting 
others in the fruits of his researches. He 
was elected a member of the Devonshire As- 
sociation in 1874, and filled the office of pre- 
sident in 1875, when his address dealt with 
the early history of Devonshire. He con- 
tributed several papers to its ' Transactions/ 
and at the time of his death was on no less 
than eight of its special committees. "With 
several of its members he was engaged in 
translating and editing the 'Devonshire 
Domesday.' King died at The Limes, Cre- 
diton, on 10 Feb. 1879, and was buried in 
its churchyard, the east window of the lady- 
chapel being filled with stained glass in his 
memory. The east window and four smaller 
windows in Buckfastleigh Church were given 
by him when he was residing at Bigadon. 

When an undergraduate King printed in 
1840, for private distribution, thirty-three 
copies of two lectures read before the Essay 
Society of Exeter College. Their subjects 
were 'The Supernatural Beings of the 
Middle Ages' and ' The Origin of the Romance 
Literature of the XII and XIII Centuries,' 
and they were dedicated to the Rev. R. C. 
Powles,the schoolfellow and friend of Charles 
Kingsley. To the l Oxford Essays ' for 1856 
(pp. 271-94) he contributed a paper on 
' Carlovingian Romance/ which was after- 
wards included in his ' Sketches and Studies.' 
His first separate work consisted of ' Selec- 
tions from Early Ballad Poetry/ 1842, to 
which were added many notes and prelimi- 
nary observations. A novel by him, en- 
titled ' Anschar : a Story of the North/ Ply- 
mouth, was published anonymously in 1850. 
It depicted the apostle of the north while en- 
gaged on his mission of converting the Norse- 
men to Christianity, but its success was not 
great. At one time he contemplated tracing 
' The History of Devonshire from the British 
Period to our own Time/ but this enterprise 
proved too ambitious, and he contented him- J 
self with publishing the first two chapters, | 
under the title of ' The Forest of Dartmoor ; 
and its Borders : an Historical Sketch.' j 

To Murray's series of handbooks to the 
English counties King was a large con- , 
tributor. He prepared ' Handbooks to Kent 
and Sussex' (1858), ' Surrey and Hampshire' 
(1858), 'Eastern Counties' (1861), and; 
' Yorkshire' (1866-8). Those for 'North- | 
amptonshire' (1872-7) and 'Warwickshire 
witn Hertfordshire' (1872-5) were partly 
written by him, though the last volume has . 
not yet been published, and the fifth and ( 
later editions of that for ' Devon and Corn- ' 
wall ' were supervised by him. He was the 
chief writer in the same publisher's series of 
' Handbooks to the Cathedrals of England/ | 

which were issued during 1861-9, and in 
the subsequent volume on the ' Cathedrals 
of Wales ' (1873). The ' Handbook to Here- 
ford Cathearal' was struck off separately in 
1864, and the account of the three choirs, 
Gloucester, Hereford, and Worcester, ap- 
peared in one volume in 1866. For many 
years he was a constant contributor to the 
' Saturday Review/ the ' Quarterly Review/ 
and ' Eraser's Magazine.' A delightful selec- 
tion from his articles was published in 1874 
under the title of ' Sketches and Studies/ 
and in them his extensive learning was em- , 
bodied in a permanent form. He frequently 
wrote in the ' Academy ' and in ' Notes and 
Queries/ and to the ninth edition of the 
' Encyclopaedia Britannica ' he supplied ac- 
counts of Cornwall and Devon. The first 
five parts of ' Our Own Country ' were written 
by him for Cassell & Co., and he assisted in 
the compilation of 'Picturesque Europe.' 
His paper on ' Bristol Cathedral ' appeared 
in the 'Transactions of the Bristol and 
Gloucestershire Archaeological Society/ iii. 
99-105, and a letter by him ' On the Family 
and Parentage of Judhael de Totnais ' is in 
Cotton's ' Totnes/ App. pp. 77-88. 

[Devon. Assoc. Trans, xi. 58-60; Academy, 
1879, p. 165; Notesand Queries, 6th ser. xi. 
180 (1879) ; information from Miss King, his 
sister, of Crediton, and from Mr. John Murray.] 

W. P. C. 

KING, ROBERT (d. 1557), bishop of 
Oxford, although stated to have belonged to 
the Devonshire family of that name, appears 
to have been second son of William King of . 
Thame, Oxfordshire, yeoman, who was living 
in 1508 (F. G. Lee, Hist, of the Prebendal 
Church . . .of Thame, pp. 383, &c. ; Hannah, 
Poems and Psalms by Henry King, Bishop of 
Chichester, lxxxiii. lxxxvi. ; Brit. Mus. Add. 
MS. 24488, ff.1-3). His brother, William King 
of Thame and Worminghall, Buckingham- 
shire, gentleman, married Anne, daughter of 
Sir John Williams of Burghneld, Berkshire, 
and sister of Joan Williams, prioress of Stud- 
ley, Oxfordshire, and of Sir John Williams of 
Thame ; Robert King was thus connected with 
the same family as Thomas Cromwell [q. v.] 
He joined the Cistercians at Rewley Abbey, 
near Oxford, but, as was not unusual, passed 
some of his early years in the Oxford house of 
the Bernardines (cf. Wood, City of Oxford, 
ed. Clark, Oxf. Hist. Soc, ii. 306-9). He pro- 
ceeded B.D. in February 1506-7, was abbot 
of Brewem, Oxfordshire, in May 1515, and 
proceeded D.D. on 1 March 1518-19. John 
Longland fa. v.], bishop of Lincoln, was a 
patron of King, and helped him to obtain the 
office of abbot of Thame in 1530. King seems 




to have continued to hold Brewern, for at I 
the dissolution he received a pension of 22/. \ 
a year in respect of it. King probably be- 
came suffragan to the Bishop of Lincoln on 
7 Jan. 1527, taking the title Keonensis, from 
the name of a diocese in the province of 
Athens. He is thus described on 15 April 
1535, when he received the prebend of Crack- 
pole St. Mary in the cathedral of Lincoln. 
He exchanged this on 28 Nov. 1536, for 
Biggleswade, which he held till 1541. 

On 22 Dec. 1537 King was elected abbot 
of Oseney, Oxfordshire, hy the management 
of John London [q. v.] and John Iregon- 
well [q. v.], who acted on Cromwell's in- 
structions. In 1539 he was a preacher at 
St. Mary's, Stamford, and is said to have 
preached there against those who used the 
English translation of the New Testament 
(Strype, Cranmer, i. 136). The abbey of ! 
Thame surrendered on 16 Nov., and that of | 
Oseney on 17 Nov. 1539. 

King was made bishop of Oseney and 
Thame probably in 1541 (io.), but the letters j 
patent were not issued till 1 Sept. 1542. He i 
lived in Gloucester College until 9 June 1545, | 
when he was made bishop of Oxford. He , 
managed to retain his bishopric during the 
reigns of Edward VI and Mary. He sat j 
at Cranmer's trial, and Foxe (Acts and Monu- ' 
ments, ed. Townsend, viii. 636), who is fol- 
lowed by Strype, includes 'King, Bishop of 
Thame,' " among ' persecuting bishops that 
died before Queen Mary.' King died on 
4 Dec. 1557, and was buried at Oxford, in 
Christ Church Cathedral, where a tomb was 
erected to his memory. This tomb, of which 
an engraving was published, was, with a 
stained window containing a portrait, moved 
later to another part of the cathedral by his 
great-grand-nephews, John and Henry King 
[q. v.], bishop of Chichester. Wood asserts 
that they found a coat of arms for the bishop 
which he never had or knew of himself. A 
painting of the window is at Ty thorpe House, j 

[Authorities quoted ; Strype's Annals, iv. 173 ; ! 
Memorials, 1. ii. 407, 11. ii. 172 ; Cranmer, pp. 52, 
481,1049; Wood's Athenae Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 774; 
Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 18, 48; Woods Hist. ' 
and Antiq. oftheUniv.of Oxf. ed. Guteh,pp. 431, 
629 ; Reg. of the Unir. of Oxf. ed. Boase (Oxf. | 
Hist. Soc), i. 47 ; Browne Willis's Hist, of Mitred . 
Abbeys, 11. 172, 181, 187; Rymer's Foedera, 
x\v. 755, xv. 12, 75, 671; Letters and Papers 
Henry VIII, ed. Gairdner, xn. i. 360, ii. 124G; I 
Le Neve's Fasti, ii. 112, 138 ; Turner's Selections ! 
from the Records of the City of Oxf. pp. 152, | 
155 ; Oxf. City Docs. ed. Thorold Rogers (Oxf. 
Hist. Soc), p.* 133 ; Burnet's Hist, of the Refor- 
mation, 1. i. 260, ii. 252 ; Godwin, De Praesuli- 
bus, p. 545.] W. A. J. A. 

KING, Sib ROBERT (1599P-1657), 
Irish soldier and statesman, born in Ireland 
about 1599, was eldest son of Sir John King 
(d. 1637) [q. v.] He enjoyed the offices of 
mustermaster-peneral and clerk of the cheque 
in Ireland by virtue of his reversionary grant, 
dated 8 May 1618 (Cal. State Papers, Irish, 
1616-25, p. 193), which was renewed to him 
on 11 Jan. 1637-8. On 19 Aug. 1621 he 
was knighted (Metcalfe, Book of Knights, 
p. 179). He entered parliament as member 
tor Boyle, co. Roscommon, in 1634, was re- 
elected in 1639, and in 1640 was returned 
for Roscommon county. In November 1641 
he was appointed governor of Boyle Castle, 
and soon became conspicuous for his military 
skill and activity. During the Irish rebellion 
he distinguished himself at the battle of 
Balintobber, co. Roscommon, in 1642. But 
he lost heavily during the rebellion, and left 
Ireland in 1642 for London, where Cecil or 
Wimbledon House, in the Strand, had come 
to him through his second marriage. He now 
entered the service of the parliament, and 
was sent in October 1645 to Ulster, with two 
others, to manage the parliament's affairs. 
In 1647 he was one of the five commissioners 
appointed to receive the sword from the Mar- 
quis of Ormonde, the viceroy of Charles. He 
contrived to increase his estate by easy pur- 
chases and the allotment of lands in satis- 
faction of his arrears for service in Ireland. 
By act of parliament dated 8 March 1649-50 
he was nominated a trustee for the new uni- 
versity of Dublin ( Cal. State Papers, Irish, 
1603-6, p. xcvii). On 15 Dec. following he 
was desired, along with the attorney-general, 
to have a complete inventory taken of all 
books and records concerning the herald's 

On 24 Sept. 1651 King was empowered, 
with Colonel Hewson, to sign warrants for 
2,000/. for payment of the Leinster forces, 
which order was renewed on 8 Oct. ensuing, 
and on 17 Nov. he was authorised to issue 
warrants for 1,000/. towards payment of the 
forces in Dublin. On 13 Dec.he was ordered 
to receive 100/. for his services as commis- 
sioner of the public revenue for one year, 
commencing on 1 May previously. On 23 May 
1653 he was appointed an overseer of the 
poor within Dublin and parts adjacent, and 
was also made overseer for stating the ac- 
counts of the army. He was sworn a mem- 
ber of the council of state on 4 Nov. of that 
year (ib. Dom. 1653-4, p. 230), and sat in . 
Cromwell's parliament of 1654 as member 
for Sligo, Roscommon, and Leitrim counties 
(Official Return of Members of Parliament, 
pt. ii.) 

King died at Cecil House about June 1657. 




He married, first, Frances (d. 1638), daughter 
of Sir Henry Folliott, the first lord FoUiott 
of Bally shannon, by whom he had John, first 
lord Kingston [q. v.], and three other sons 
and six daughters j and secondly, Sophia 
(d. 1691), daughter of Sir William Zouch of 
Woking, Surrey, and widow of Sir Edward 
Cecil, viscount Wimbledon, by whom he had 
two daughters. 

[Lodge's Peerage of Ireland (Archdall), Hi. 
223-6; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1644-57.] 

G. G. 

KING, ROBERT, LL.D. (1600-1676), 
master of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, born in 
1600, was a native of Kent. He matriculated 
as a pensioner of Christ's College, Cambridge, 
5 July 1617, graduated B.A. in 1620-1, and 
proceeded M.A. in 1624. In 1625 he was 
elected to a fellowship at Trinity Hall, which 
he held till 1636 ( Karl. MS. 7073, ff. 142-3). 
On 16 June 1628 he was sworn and admitted 
a proctor in the Bishop of Ely's consistorial 
court by Dr. Thomas Eden (Addit. MS. 
5808, f. 214). In 1636 he took the degree of 
LL.D. (Xotitia Academiaa Cantabrigiensis, 
Lambeth MS. 770, p. 252), and on 10 Oct. 
1641 was admitted an advocate of the court 
of arches at Doctors' Commons, London (MS. 
Admissions to College of Doctors of Law in 
Lambeth Library, tf. 50, 110). From 1641 
to 1662 he was official to the Archdeacon of 
Suffolk, and from 1642-5 commissary of the 
Suffolk archdeaconry. He was commissary 
of Sudbury archdeaconry for 1645 only, and 
official to the archdeacon of Sudbury, 1645- 

On the death of Thomas Eden [q. v.] 
(18 July 1645), the parliament (20 Aug.) 
ordered the fellows of Trinity Hall to sus- 
pend the election of any master until the uni- 
lersity regulations had been carried out; but 
the fellows on 26 Sept. petitioned for leave 
to elect in consequence of various incon- 
veniences (Lords* Journals, vii. 600). Their 
prayer being granted, they elected John Sel- 
den (23 July), and upon his refusal to act 
King was chosen on 28 Oct., and his elec- 
tion approved by the lords on 6 Nov. ; but 
the commons objecting, he was constrained 
to resign, and the fellows proceeded on 
7 Marcn 1646 to elect John Bond [q. v.], 
which election received the approval of both 
houses on 26 March (for particulars concern- 
ing these elections, see Baker MSS. xxv. 12, 
ff. 381-97 in Cambr. Univ. Libr.) 

At the Restoration King was ^elected 
and admitted to the mastership, 20 Aug. 
1660. He is addressed as chancellor of Ely 
by Bishop Wren in 1660 and 1661 (Ilarl. 
MS. 7043, ff. 21, 25). In 1661 he was 

made vicar-general and principal official to 
Bishop Wren, who confirmed him in these 
offices by patent, dated 10 Dec. 1662 (Addit 
MS. 5808, f. 214), and on 30 June 1662 the 
bishop placed him at the head of a commission 
to visit the diocese (Harl. MS. 7043, f. 30). 
On 2 Feb. 1661-2 he appeared before the 
house of convocation, and with other law- 
yers gave his written opinion that the bishops 
1 were in no danger of irregularity ' by sitting 
with the lords in cases of high treason (Gib- 
son, Codex, i. 145). 

He retained his chancellorship of Ely 
under Bishop Laney, and was one of the 
commissioners for visiting the diocese in 
1674 (* Registr. Laney,' quoted in Stevenson's 
Suppl. to Bentham's Ely, p. 11). A collec- 
tion of forms of licenses, citations, seques- 
trations, &c, issued in his name, is preserved 
in the Cambridge University Library. King 
died on 6 Nov. 1676, aged 76, and was 
buried in the chapel of Trinity Hall. A 
black marble slab to his memory, with a 
Latin inscription and coat of arms, is placed 
near the altar. His arms also appear on a 
window in the master's lodge. 

King married Frances, daughter of Jasper 
Wareyn of Great Thurlow, Suffolk. By her 
he had a son and daughter, who both pre- 
deceased him. Land which he had purchased 
at Great Thurlow he left by will to three 
grandsons, Robert, Henry, and Thomas King. 
His widow was buried at Great Thurlow on 
18 April 1684. 

[Cambridge Univ. Registers, communicated 
by the late Rev. H. R. Luard, D.D. ; Steven- 
son's Suppl. to Bentham's Ely ; Le Neve's Fasti, 
ed. Hardy, iii. 679 ; Blomefield's Norfolk, iii. 
657-8, 661 ; Lords' Journals, vii. 524, 630, 678, 
viii. 237 ; Commons' Journals, iv. 228, 308, 489 j 
Wilkins's Life of Selden prefixed to Works, pp. 
xxxvii, xxx viii ; Carter's Cambridge, p. 106 ; 
Cooper's Annals of Cambr. iii. 376-7 ; Kennett's 
Register, pp. 222, 620, 882, 885 ; Gibson's Sy- 
nodus Anglicana (Cardwell), p. 223 ; Le Neve's 
Monumenta Anglicana, iii. 172; Addit. MS. 
5807, ff. 86, 93, 110; Blomefield's Collectanea 
Cantabrigiensia, pp. 106, 209, 211,215; Prin. 
Prob. Reg. (Bence, 141); Addit. MS. 19138, f. 
211 (Davy's Suffolk Collections) ; Cat. of MSS. 
in Cambr. Univ. Libr. ; Todd's Cat, of MSS. at 
Lambeth Palace.] B. P. 

. KING, ROBERT, second Lobd Kings- 
ton (d. 1693), was eldest son of John, first 
lord Kingston [q. v.|, by Catherine (d. 1669), 
daughter of SirWilliam Fenton, knt., of Mit- 
chelstown, co. Cork. He was brought up by 
his uncle, Sir Robert King, who sent him to 
Brasenose College, Oxford, where he com- 
menced M.A. on 25 June 1670. On 4 Jan. 
1689 the protestant association for the county 




of Sligo chose King and Captain Chidley 
Coote their chief commanders. King ar- 
rived at Ballyshannon on 24 Jan. There he 
received a letterfrom the committee in Derry, 
with orders (as they said) from Colonel 
Lundy to keep the passes on the Erne Water. 
He ODeyed these instructions with signal 
success, but on 15 April he received direc- 
tions from Lundy to bring his men suddenly 
into the immediate neighbourhood of Derry. 
The scattered position of his troops rendered 
this impossible. ^He himself went at sunrise 
the next morning towards Derry to inquire 
into the situation of affairs, and learnt on 
coming within five miles of Raphoe that 
Lundy with his forces had fled to Deny, and 
that the Irish, who had reached Raphoe, 
would prevent him from approaching Derry. 
King thereupon hastened back to his troops, 
despatched orders for the horse to secure 
themselves in Enniskillen, and the foot at 
Donegal, Ballyshannon, and other places, and 
then with some of his officers went to Scot- 
land in a French vessel, which they seized 
at Killybegs, co. Donegal, and hurried to give 
"William an account ot affairs (Harris, Life 
of William III, pp. 197-9). By Tyrconnel's 
proclamation of 7 March King was exempted 
from mercy or James's favour ; he was at- 
tainted by the parliament on 7 May, and had 
his estate sequestered ; but on 26 Aug. fol- 
lowing he commanded a regiment of foot at 
the taking of Carrickfergus, and on the re- 
duction of the kingdom took his seat in par- 
liament on 5 Oct. 1692. 

By deeds dated 19 and 20 Dec. 1693 King 
demised to Henry, lord Capel, Sir Robert 
King, and others the castle, manor, and lands 
of Newcastle, and part of the manor of 
Mitchelstown, in cos. Tipperary and Cork, 
for building, endowing, and establishing for 
ever a college in or near the borough of 
Boyle, co. Roscommon, to be called by the 
name of Kingston College, for one master 
and usher and a chaplain, with apartments 
for them and twenty poor widows, together 
with a free school and a chapel. He alienated 
his estate from his brother and successor, 
John, because he had become a Roman ca- 
tholic and had married a servant girl ; but 
John recovered it in 1708. King died with- 
out issue in December 1693. 

[Lodge's Peerage of Ireland (Archdall), iii. 
229 ». ; A Vindication of Sir Robert King's De- 
signs and Actions, 1699.] G. G. 

KING, ROBERT (fl. 1684-1711), com- 
poser, was a member of the band of music to 
William and Mary under the mastership of 
Nicholas Staggins. He was the composer of 
several songs in ' Choice Ay res, Songs, and 

Dialogues/ 1684, and wrote the music for 
the songs in Crowne's most popular comedy, 
' Sir Courtly Nice.' These were printed sepa- 
rately in the * Theater of Musick' (vol. ii. ed. 
1686). King was also a contributor to 
'Comes Amoris,' 1687-93; 'The Banquet of 
Musick/ 1688-92; the 'Gentleman's Jour- 
nal/ 1692-4; and 'Thesaurus Musicus/ 
1695-6. In 1690 he set Shadwell's ode on 
St. Cecilia's day, ' Sacred Harmony ; ' and 
in 1693 ' an ode on the Rt. Hon. John Cecil, 
earl of Exeter, his birthday/ commencing 
'Once more 'tis born the happy day/ the 
words of which were written by Peter Anthony 
Motteux [q. v.] In 1696 he took the degree of 
Mus.Bac. from St. Catharine College, Cam- 
bridge, and subsequently served in the band 
of music to Queen Anne. There are two songs 
by King, ' With thee for ever ' and ' Only tell 
her/ among the manuscript collections of the 
Sacred Harmonic Society (Catalogue, p. 233), 
and a collection of twenty-four songs by him, 
entitled ' Songs forgone, two, or three Voices, 
composed to a Thorough Basse for ye Organ 
or Harpsichord, engraved on copper, was pub- 
lished by John Walsh (the elder) in 1711. 
King appears to have been living at this date, 
but the time of his death is not known. 

[Grove's Diet, of Music, ii. 57 ; Fetis's Biog. 
Universelle des Musiciens, v. 33 ; Brown's Biog. 
Diet, of Musicians, p. 359; Graduati Cantabn- 
gienses, p. 275.] T. S. 

KING, ROBERT, second Eablof Kings- 
ton (1754-1799), born in 1754, was eldest 
son of Edward, first earl of Kingston (1726- 
1797), by Jane, daughter of Thomas Caul- 
feild of Donamon, co. Roscommon ^Lodge, 
Peerage of Ireland, ed. Archdall, iii. 237). 
As Viscount Kingsborough he was returned . 
M.P. for co. Cork in 1783, 1790, and 1798, 
when he was called to the House of Lords 
{Official Return of Members of Parliament , 
pt. ii.) On 5 Dec. 1769 he married a cousin, 
Caroline, only daughter and heiress of Richard 
Fitzgerald of Mount Ophaly, co. Kildare, by 
the daughter and heiress of James, fourth and 
last baron Kingston. By their marriage the 
family estates were reunited. They had issue 
six sons and five daughters. Henry Gerard 
Fitzgerald, an illegitimate son of Lady Kings- 
borough's brother, was brought up with her 
own fomily. He became a colonel in the 
army, and was married, but in the summer 
of 1797 eloped with Mary Elizabeth, Lord 
and Lady Kingsborough's third daughter. 
Fitzgerald successfully deceived the girl's 
parents, but his guilt was discovered and the 
lady restored to her parents. Her brother, 
Colonel Robert Edward King (afterwards 
Viscount Lorton), fought a duel with Fitz- 




ferald in Hyde Park on Sunday morning, 
Oct. 1797. After exchanging no fewer 
than six shots! they separated and agreed 
to meet at the same hour and place upon 
the following morning. Both, however, 
were put under arrest that day {Gent. Mag. 
vol. lxvii. pt. ii. pp. 1120-1). Fitzgerald in 
disguise soon pursued Miss King to the 
family residence at Mitchelstown, co. Cork, 
lodging in December 1797 at the inn there. 
The suspicions of Lord Kingsboroughand his 
son, Colonel King, were aroused, and on the 
night of 11 Dec. they burst into his room at 
the Kilworth hotel. Colonel King grappled 
with him, and Lord Kingsborough, to protect 
his son, shot Fitzgerald dead {Annual Reg. 
1797, xxxix. 55-7). True bills were found 
against father and son by the grand jury of 
co. Cork. But on 13 Nov. 1797 the first 
Earl of Kingston died, and Lord Kings- 
borough, on succeeding to the title, demanded 
to be tried by his peers. On 18 May 1798 
the trial came on in the House of Lords, 
Curran appearing for the prisoner. No 
evidence was offered by the crown, and the 
accused was unanimously acquitted (Lords 1 
Journals, Irish, viii. 83-92). Colonel King 
had been acquitted at the Cork assizes in the 
previous April. 

Lord Kingston died at Mitchelstown House, 
which he had rebuilt in magnificent style, on 
17 April 1799 {Gent. Mag. 1799, pt. i. pp. 
350-1). His wife, from whom he had been 
separated for some years, survived until 
13 Jan. 1823, and was buried in Putney 
cemetery (ib. 1823, pt. i. pp. 374-5, vol. xciv. 
pt. up. 648). 

Miss King lived under a feigned name in 
the family of a clergyman in Wales. Her 
brilliant conversational powers made her a 
general favourite. She married, in April 
1805, George Galbraith Meares of Clifton, 
-and died at Shirehampton, Gloucestershire, 
in 1819 (ib. 1819, pt. i. p. 587). 

[Burke's Peerage ; Sharpe's Peerage ; Madden's 
Revelations of Ireland, ch. iii. ; Lecky's England 
in the Eighteenth Century, viii. 39-40; Barring- 
ton's Personal Sketches, i. 195, 201.] G. G. 

1868), traveller and man of science, eldest 
son of W. H. King, vicar of Nuneaton, 
Warwickshire, was born in 1821. He gra- 
duated B. A. 1845, and proceeded M.A. 1853 
from St. Catharine's College, Cambridge. 
He became rector of Saxlingham Nethergate, 
Norfolk, in 1851. King was an enthusiastic 
entomologist and geologist, and helped Sir 
Charles Lyell, who was a personal friend, 
in his investigations both in England and 
abroad. In i860 the two explored the de- 

posits at Hoxne, Suffolk, together, and in 1865 
King investigated the cave at Aurignac (cf. 
Propessob Boyd Dawkins in Nature, 13 July 
1871). King travelled frequently on the con- 
tinent, and was an enthusiastic mountain 
climber. His wife usually accompanied him, 
and the records of a long expedition made 
about 1855 are contained in King's only book, 
'The Italian Valleys of the Pennine Alps/ 
London, 1858. It is illustrated from draw- 
ings made by the author. King was a fellow 
of the Royal Geographical Society (1858), the 
Geological Society (I860), and of the Society 
of Antiquaries. He died at Pontresina in 
1868, and was buried there. His collection of 
fossil mammalia from the Norfolk forest beds 
he bequeathed to the Museum of Practical 
Geology, Jermyn Street, London. 

[Information from Colonel "W. Ross King; 
Crockford's Clerical Directory ; Lyell's Antiquity 
of Man, 4th ed. pp. 132, 219, 261, 268.1 

W. A. J. A. 

KING, THOMAS (d. 1769), portrait- 
painter, was a pupil of George Knapton 
Lq. v.], and was an artist of ability, but ec- 
centric and thriftless in his habits. Four 
of his portraits have been engraved in mezzo- 
tinto : Anthony Maddox the rope-dancer and 
Matthew Skeggs the actor, as Signor Bum- 
basto playing on a broomstick, both by R. 
Houston ;* John Keeling, J.P., by J. Mc Ardell ; 
and John Harrison the chronometer maker, 
by P. J. Tassaert. He died in John Street, 
Oxford Road, in 1769, and was buried in St. 
Marylebone churchyard. 

[Edwards's Anecdotes of Painting ; Chaloner 
Smith's British Mezzotinto Portraits.] 

F. M. O'D. 

KING, THOMAS (1730-1805), actor 
and dramatist, born 20 Aug. 1730, in the 
parish of St. George's, Hanover Square, Lon- 
don, where his father was a tradesman, was 
educated at a grammar school in Yorkshire, 
whence he proceeded to Westminster School. 
According to the school-list preserved in the 
Harleian MSS. at the British Museum, Tho- 
mas King was in the second form at West- 
minster in 1 736. Genest says (Account of the 
Stage, iv. 259) : ( A gentleman told me that 
King's father kept a coffee-house, and that 
King, when a boy, had often brought him a 
dish of coffee/ Other accounts are that King 
was born in a northern town in which his 
father lived, and that he was descended from 
a respectable family in Hampshire. Articled 
to a London solicitor, he was taken to a dra- 
matic school, and conceived such a fancy for 
the stage that in October, or, according to 
another account, May 1747, in company with 
Edward Shuter [q.v.], he ran away, and 




joined on sharing terms a travelling com- 
pany at Tunbridge, where for the sum of 
fburpence he recited a prologue and an epi- 
logue and acted the two characters of Hamlet 
and Sharp in the ' Lying Lover ' of Garrick. 
After a short experience of acting in barns, in 
the course of which (June 1748) he played 
in a booth at Windsor, directed by x ates, 
he was seen by Garrick, who, on the recom- 
mendation of Yates, engaged him for Drury 
Lane. His first part was the Herald in 
1 King Lear/ presumably on 8 Oct. 1748. 
On 19 Oct., when Massinger's * New Way to 
Pay Old Debts ' was given for the first time 
at Drury Lane, he played Allworth, the oc- 
casion being disingenuously announced in 
the bills as nis first appearance in any cha- 
racter. Salanio in the 'Merchant of Venice/ 
Cinthio in the ' Emperor of the Moon/ 
Truman in the ' Squire of Alsatia/ Tattoo 
in ' Lethe/ Clerimont in the ' Miser/ and 
Don Philip in ' She would and she would 
not/ followed during the season, in which 
also he was the original Murza in Dr. John- 
son's ' Irene/ and played a part in the ' Hen- 
PeckM Captain/ a farce said to be founded 
on the 'Campaigners' of D'Urfey. During 
the summer he played, with Mrs. Pritchard, 
Romeo, Benedick, hanger, and George Barn- 
well, with much success, at Jacobs Well 
Theatre, Bristol. There he was seen by 
Whitehead, who formed a high estimate of 
him. On his return to Drury Lane he found 
himself announced for George Barnwell. 
During his second season he played, among 
other parts, the Younger Brother in * Com us/ j 
Rosse in ' Macbeth/ Claudio in ' Much Ado 
about Nothing/ and Ferdinand in the ' Tem- 
pest/ and was the original Duke of Athens 
■in * Edward the Black Prince/ by Wil- 
liam Shirley, and Valeria in the * Roman 
Father ' of Whitehead. He also played 
in the ' Little French Lawyer ' and the 
' Spanish Curate/ converted after Garrick's 
fashion into farces. At the close of the 
season he went with a Miss Cole, a pleasing 
actress, to Dublin. His first appearance 
under Sheridan at the Smock Alley Theatre 
took place in September 1750 as Ranger in 
the ' Suspicious Husband.' Except for one 
season, beginning in September 1755, when 
he was the manager and principal actor at 
the Bath Theatre — a fact unrecorded by 
Genest — King remained at Smock Alley 
Theatre for eight years, and while there rose 
to the highest rank in comedy. Tom in 
the * Conscious Lovers,' Jeremy in ' Love 
for Love/ Mercutio, Sir Andrew A^ue- 
cheek, Autolicus in ' Florizel and Perdita/ 
the Miser, Abel Drugger, Duretete, Marplot in 
the ' Busy Body/ Scrub, Lord Lace, Tattle, 

Osric, Trinculo, Iago, Bayes, and Harlequin 
in the ' Emperor of the Moon/ were among 
his parts. On 23 Oct. 1768 he appeared at 
the Crow Street Theatre as Trappanti in * She 
would and she would not.' 

The difficulties and dissensions of the Dub- 
lin theatres at length drove him back to Drury 
Lane, where, as Tom in the ' Conscious Lovers/ 
he appeared on 2 Oct. 1 759. He had greatly im- 
proved in style, and was assigned leading parts. 
With occasional visits to Dublin or to country 
towns, and with one season at Covent Garden 
and a summer visit to the Haymarket, he 
remained at Drury Lane, of whicn he became 
the mainstay, until 1802. On his reappear- 
ance at Drury Lane he was accompanied by 
Miss Baker, a hornpipe dancer, who then 
made her first appearance at Drury Lane. 
He married her in 1766, and she retired from 
the stage 9 May 1772. Genest gives a list of 
King's characters, which is confessedly in- 
complete. Nevertheless it extends to nearly 
one hundred and fifty parts, and embraces 
the whole range of comedy, from Falstaff, 
Sir Peter Teazle, Sir Anthony Absolute, and 
Puff, to Ben in * Love for Love ' and Scrub, 
from Benedick and Sir Harry Wildair to 
Parolles, Bobadil, and Cloten. At Drury 
Lane King was, on 31 Oct. 1759, the original 
Sir Harry's servant in ' High Life below 
Stairs/ and on 12 Dec. the original Squire 
Groom in Macklin's ' Love a la Mode.' He 
took part during the same season in the first 
production of Murphy's ' Way to Keep him/ 
and * Every Woman in her flumour, attri- 
buted to Mrs. Clive. Scribble in Colman'g 
1 Polly Honeycombe/ Florimond in Hawkes- 
worth's 'Edgar and Emmeline/ Sir Harry 
Beagle in Column's ' Jealous Wife/ and Cap- 
tain Le Brush in Reed's ' Register Office ' 
were also among his original parts in the 
following season. But not until his perform- 
ance of Lord Ogleby in the ' Clandestine Mar- 
riage 'of Garrick and Colman, on 20 Feb. 1766, 
was the highest rank allotted to him. Garrick 
studied the part and resigned it to King, who 
accepted it with reluctance. GarricK was 
pleased with his conception, and his perform- 
ance was declared to be in the same pre- 
eminent class with Garrick's Hamlet and 
Kemble's Coriolanus. In July 1766 King 
broke his leg, and was unable to act until 
the following November. His reputation at- 
tained its climax on 8 May 1777, when he 
was the original Sir Peter Teazle in the famous 
first representation of the * School for Scan- 
dal.' Of that representation it was said a 
generation later that ' no new performer has 
ever appeared in any of the principal cha- 
racters that was not inferior to the person 
who acted i£ originally ' (Genest, v. 555). 




King also spoke Garrick's prologue. On 
29 .Oct. 1779, in the scarcely less famous 
original cast of the ' Critic/ King was Puff. 
. Other original characters, to the number of 
about eighty, which he took at Drury Lane, 
and nearly all of which were of primary im- 

Ewtance, include Mask in Column's 4 Musical 
ady/ Prattle in his ' Deuce is in Him,' 
Spatter in his 'English Merchant/ Rufus 
Kubrick in his 'Spleen/ Sharply in Mrs. 
Sheridan's ill-starred piece, * The Dupe/ 
Glib in Garrick's ' A Peep behind the Cur- 
tain' — which, on the strength of the line 
spoken by King, 

I, Thomas King, of King Street, am the poet, 

was for some time assigned to the actor- 
Cecil in Kelly's ' False Delicacy/ Dr. Cant- 
well in the ' Hypocrite/ Bickerstaffe's altera- 
tion of the 'Nonjuror/ Muskato in Kenrick's 

. * Tis well it's no worse/ Belcour in Cumber- 
land's ' West Indian/ Mortimer in his * Fa- 
shionable Lover/ General Savage in Kelly's 
' School for Wives/ Nightshade in his 
' Choleric Man/ Jack Hustings in his ' Na- 
tural Son/ Governor Tempest in his 'Wheel 
of Fortune/ Sir John Trotley in Garrick's 
1 Bon Ton/ Sir Miles Mowbray in his ' First 
Love/ Sir George Boricour in Fielding's 
' Fathers/ Gradus in Mrs. Cowley's ' Who's 
the Dupe P ' Sir Clement Flint in Burgoyne's 
'Heiress/ Don Alexis in Mrs. Cowley's 
'School for Greybeards/ Gabriel in Hoi- 
croft's ' Seduction/ Sir Paul Panick in Ed- 
ward Morris's 'False Colours/ Sir Adam 
Contest in Mrs. Inchbald's ' Wedding Day/ 
the Fool in ' Vortigera/ Sir Solomon Cynic 
in Reynolds's ' Will/ Sir Marmaduke Maxim 
in Hoare's ' Indiscretion/ and Sir Valentine 
Vapour in ' Fashionable Friends.' 

To these must be added the parts he played 
in his own pieces. ' Love at First Sight/ a 
not very brilliant ballad-farce, by him (8vo, 
1763), was acted at Drury Lane on 17 Oct. 
1763, King playing in it Smatter, a servant 
who personates his master. In a short pre- 
face King says it was conceived, written, 
and delivered to the managers within fifteen 
days, and neglects to add that it was forgotten 
within a similar space. ' Wit's Last Stake ' 
(8vo, 1769), his second farce, was given at 
Drury Lane on 14 April 1768. It is an 
adaptation of ' Le Legataire Universel ' of 
Regnard, and its great success was due to 
King's reading of the part of Martin, the 
Crispin of the original, a servant who per- 
sonates a man supposed to be dying, and 

. dictates a will by which he himself benefits. 
Under the title of 'A Will and no Will, or 
Wit's Last Stake/ it was revived on 24 April 
1799 for King's benefit, on which occasion 

King was Linger the invalid, and Bannister, 
jun., Martin. 

Upon the death of William Powell j~q. v.] 
King bought his share in the King Street 
Theatre, at which during the summer seasons 
of 1770 and 1771 he was actor and sole 
manager. He then sold his share to James 
William Dodd [q. v.], and purchased of the 
builder for 9,000/. three-fourths of Sadler's 
Wells, in which he was associated with 
Arnold. He made some changes in the per- 
formances, raised the prices of admission, and 
provided horse patrols, to guard through the 
dangerous district the fashionable visitors 
whom he attracted. His prices, three shil- 
lings boxes, eighteenpence pit, and a shilling 
gallery, entitled the visitor to receive a pint 
of wine at an added cost of sixpence. In 
1778 King sold his share, and was succeeded 
by Wroughton. As successor to Garrick he 
was elected, on 14 Feb. 1779, master of the 
Drury Lane Theatrical Fund, and held the 
office until September 1782, when, on accept- 
ance of the management of Drury Lane, ne 
resigned it, the discharge of the functions of 
the two offices being held incompatible. His 
earnings as an actor were at that time 700/. 
a year. As manager and actor he found them 
reduced to 564/. 13*. 10c/., being one-eighth 
share of the profits, his guaranteed remunera- 
tion. In June 1783, accordingly, he laid down 
his functions and issued an address, dated 
from Gerrard Street, in which he contradicted 
a rumour that he was about to retire from 
the stage, though he admitted it was ' barely 
possible' he might not act at Drury Lane 
during the coming season. He is said, ac- 
cordingly, to have acted at Edinburgh and 
Glasgow as well as in Dublin. Mr. James 
C. Dibdin, the historian of the Edinburgh 
stage, does not mention his presence in this 
year, and speaks of his performance of Lord 
Ogleby on 28 March 1/89 as his first ap- 
pearance in Edinburgh. In October 1783 it 
was announced in the newspapers that King 
was not connected with the management of 
Drury Lane, but that his abilities and long 
service induced the management to offer him 
for his performance, advice, and attention a 
! very liberal salary, stated to be 1,200/., but 
in fact only a thousand guineas. He delivered 
1 on his reappearance an address in verse, by 
' Cumberland. In 1785 he seems to have re- 
sumed his management of Drury Lane, and 
I is said to have been responsible for the suc- 
' cessful pantomime of that year, 'Hurly Burly, 
! or the Fairy of the Well/ for which lie 
received 165/. In September 1788 he again 
' resigned the management and his connec- 
I tion with the theatre, announcing as his 
reason, in an explanation which appeared on 

I- i 



1 60 


13 Sept., that his authority had been nominal 
rather than real. Of Sheridan, who was au- 
thorised to negotiate with him, he spoke 
pleasantly, but said that when appointments 
were made he found Sheridan 'in a great 
hurry or surrounded by company/ until his 
patience being exhausted he wrote relinquish- 
ing his engagement in all its parts, and, for 
fear of being induced to reconsider his de- 
termination, left town. On 20 Nov. 1789 he 
made, as Touchstone, his first appearance at 
Covent Garden, and the same evening was 
the original Sir John Trotley in ' Bon Ton/ 
After playing several of his best-known cha- 
racters, he appeared for his benefit on 2 Feb. 
1790 as Sancho in ' Lovers' Quarrels/ an 
alteration, attributed to himself, of Van- 
brugh's 'Mistake/ On 23 Oct. 1790, as 
Lord Ogleby, he reappeared at Drury Lane, 
and during the rebuilding of the theatre went 
with the company to the Haymarket Opera 
House. On 2 Aug. 1792 he played at the 
Haymarket Falstaff in the 'First Part of 
King Henry I V/ and on the 23rd was General 
Touchwood in 'Cross Partners/ a comedy 
announced as by a lady. In September 1792 
he rejoined the Drury Lane company, then 
playing at the Haymarket, and in March 
1794 appeared with them at their newly 
built home, where he remained till the close 
of his career. On 24 May 1802, for his last 
benefit, King played his great character of 
Sir Peter Teazle. At the close he spoke, 
amidst lively demonstrations of sympathy, an 
address written for him by R. Cumberland. 
When, much exhausted, he reached the green- 
room, Mrs. Jordan presented him with a silver 
cup worth a hundred guineas, subscribed for 
by the company. Around the rim were en- 
graved the lines from ' King Henry V ' (act 
v. sc. 2), ' If he be not fellow with the best 
king, thou shalt find the best king of good 

About 1783 King had a villa at Hamp- 
ton, and was at that date robbed by high- 
waymen on his journey home. He took 
to gambling in middle life, with disastrous 
results. One night, when he had recovered 
2,000/. of his heavy losses, he made an oath, 
in the presence of Garrick and his wife, that 
he would never touch dice again. This he 
kept until the death of Garrick. In 1786 he 
entered his name at Miles's Club in St. 
James's Street. Shortly afterwards he yielded 
to the old temptation, lost all his savings, was 
compelled to forego a proposed purchase of 
a share in Drury Lane, to sell his villa at 
Hampton, and remove to a house in Store 
Street. There he died on 11 Dec. 1805. 
On the 20th he was buried in the vault of 
St. Paul's, Covent Garden. His pall-bearers 

included Pope, Moody, Wroughton, Palmer, 
Powell, H. Siddons, and other actors. A 
benefit for Mrs. King followed, and brought 
a respectable addition to a limited income. 
She died on 30 Nov. 1813. 

Apart from his incapacity to resist the 
temptation to gambling, King was a worthy 
and an honourable man. Davies gives him 
exemplary eulogy : ' No man ever exerted his 
abilities to greater satisfaction of the public, 
or consulted the interests of his employers 
with more cordiality and assiduity. . . . 
Booth's character of the great actor, Smith, 
may be applied with justice to Mr. King: 
" By his impartial management of the stage 
and the affability of his temper he merited 
the respect and esteem of all within the 
theatre, the applause of those without, and 
the goodwill and love of all mankind" ' 
{Dram. Misc. iii. 372). Dibdin likens King to 
Preville as regards his performance of valets, 
and adds : ' King is a performer who has 
thrown novelty into old characters, conse- 
quence into new, and nature into all ' (Hist, 
of the Stage, v. 348). Of his acting, as of his 
life, he says that integrity is the guiding 
principle, and he credits King with the exer- 
cise 01 benevolence, good humour, and every 
other sacred virtue. Ilazlitt describes his 
acting in later life as leaving ' a taste on the 
palate sharp and sweet like a quince ; with an 
old, hard, rough, withered face, like a John- 
apple, puckered up into a thousand wrinkles, 
with shrewd hints and tart replies ; ' he 
was ' the real amorous, wheedling, or hasty, 
choleric, peremptory old gentleman in Sir 
Peter Teazle and Sir Anthony Absolute ; and 
the true, that is the pretended, clown in 
Touchstone, with wit sprouting from his head 
like a pair of ass's ears, and folly perched on 
his cap like the horned owl. Churchill 
satirises King in his customary fashion for 
shamelessness acquired in Ireland. 

His countenance is said to have been ex- 
pressive of benignity and of archness, his 
action slow, his voice musical. In method of 
speech he was sententious, conveying always 
an idea of epigram. He was consequently 
most in request of any actor for the delivery 
of prologues, epilogues, and occasional ad- 
dresses. King was also a fair singer. Be- 
sides the pieces mentioned, the ' Secret His- 
tory of the Green-Room ' credits him with 
the authorship of an interlude called 'A 
Dramatic Ojglio ' (sic), which was received 
with much iavour. He also recited, at his 
benefit at Drury Lane on 29 April 1796, 
' Kitty Connolly and Jack the Painter/ ver- 
sified by himself. King kept a diary, now 
untraceable, in which were preserved some 
curious facts concerning Sheridan's manage- 




naent of Drury Lane. He announced, and 
then withdrew, a pamphlet called ' A Word 
or two at Parting, or a Letter to R. B. 
Sheridan, Esq./ &c, and was rather fond 
of addressing the public upon his grievances, 
real or imaginary. Some letters of his in the 
' Garrick Correspondence ' show that, though 
his relations with Garrick were friendly, 
there were occasional divergences of inte- 
rests or opinion. Other letters appear in 
the 'Manager's Note-Book* contributed to 
the ' New Monthly Magazine.' 

[Works cited ; Genest's Account of the Stage ; 
Biographia Dramatica; Thespian Dictionary; 
Theatrical Biography, 1772; Hazlitt's Dramatic 
Essays; Dut ton Cook's Honrs with the Players; 
Clark Russell's Representative Actors ; Drama- 
tic Censor, 1770 ; Monthly Mirror, various years ; 
Theatrical Inquisitor, various years ; Bernard's 
Recollections ; Life of F. Reynolds ; O'Keeffe's 
Recollections; Jenkins's Bristol Stage; Dibdin's 
Edinburgh Stage; Georgian Era.] J. K. 

KING, WILLIAM (1624-1680), musi- 
cian, born in 1624, son of George King, or- 
ganist of Winchester Cathedral, was admitted 
a clerk of Magdalen College, Oxford, on 18 Oct. 
1648, graduated B. A. 6 June 1649, and in 1652 
was promoted to a chaplaincy at Magdalen. 
This he held until 25 Aug. 1664, when he 
became a probationer-fellow of All Souls' 
College. He was incorporated M. A. at Cam- 
bridge in 1655. On 10 Dec. 1664 he was ap- 
pointed successor to Pickover as organist of 
New College, to preside over the new organ 
there at a salary of 50/. a year. He continued 
organist until his death on 7 Nov. 1680. He 
was buried in New College cloisters, where a 
Latin inscription marks his grave. 

King composed a full service in B flat, and 
some anthems, preserved among the Elvey 
MSS. at the Bodleian. He also set to music 
Cowley's ' Mistress/ under the title, ' Poems 
of Mr. Cowley and others, composed into 
Songes and Ayres, with Thorough Basse for 
the Theorbo, Harpsecon, or Basse- Violl/ Ox- 
ford, 1668, fol. 

[Bloxam's Magd. Reg. ii. 66, 158; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. 1600-1714; Hawkins's Hist of 
Music, v. 23 ; Grove's Diet, of Music, ii. 57 ; 
Brown's Diet, of Music, p. 360.] T. S. 

KING, WILLIAM, D.C.L. (1663-1712), 
miscellaneous writer, born in 1663, was the 
son of Ezekiel King, gentleman, of London, 
from whom he inherited a small estate in 
Middlesex. In his ' Adversaria* he mentions 
his great-grandfather, a merchant named La 
Motte, and his cousin Harcourt ; and he had 
some connection with the Hyde family. In 
1678 he was admitted a scholar of Westmin- 
ster, and was elected student of Christ Church, 

vol. xxzi. 

Oxford, where he matriculated on 16 Dec. 
1681. On 8 Dec. 1686 he graduated B.A. as a 
grand compounder, proceeding M.A. on 6 July 
1688, and B.C.L. and D.C.L. 7 July 1692. 
He early became fond of desultory reading. 
In 1688 he joined Edward Hannes [q. v.] Si 

' Tl/vfla/»fJfYno iit\tvt» TVf/vne Vonilloo'a IT ;«+,%_ 

published an amusing 'Dia- 
logue shewing the way to Modern Prefer- 
ment.' In November 1692 he obtained a 
fiat from Archbishop Tillotson admitting 
him an advocate at Doctors' Commons. He 
continued to use his talents as a humorous 
writer upon the side of the tories and high 
church party. In 1693 he contributed a pam- 
phlet to the famous Sherlock controversy 
(see Macattlay, Hist, chap, xvii.) In 1694 
he published ' Animadversions ' on the ac- 
count of Denmark, by Robert (afterwards 
Lord) MolesworthjTq. y.l, a sound whig, who 
had attacked the Danish system of govern- 
ment. The Danish envoy supplied materials 
to King, and he received the thanks of the 
university of Copenhagen. Prince George 
of Denmark also obtained his appointment 
as secretary to the Princess Anne. 

Charles Boyle, in the book commonly 
called ' Boyle upon Bentley ' [see under 
Bentley, Richaed, 1662-1742J; mentions 
an interview between Bentley and a book- 
seller at which King was present, and gives 
a letter from King describing Bentley s in- 
solence. Bentley attacked King in his famous 
' Dissertation ' (1699) ; and in the same year 
appeared ' A Short Account of Dr. Bentley's 
Humanity and Justice/ with a second letter 
from King to Boyle. King probably gave 
other help to Boyle, and, according to Pope, 
as reported by "Warburton, contributed the 
I droll argument to prove that Bentley was 
' not the author of the ' Dissertation ' and the 
index (Letters from an Eminent Prelate, 
1809, p. 11). King's 'Dialogues of the Dead,' 
1699, one of his cleverest productions, at- 
tacks Bentley in a series of ten dialogues. 

Another very characteristic work appeared, 
probably a few months earlier than the ' Dia- 
logues of the Dead.' This was ' A Journey 
to London in the year 1698. After the in- 
genious method of that made by Dr. Martin 
Lister to Paris in the same year. Written 
originally in French, by Monsieur Sorbiere, 
and newly translated into English,' 1699. 
This was a travesty of a very recent book upon 
Paris by Martin Lister [a. v.] Sorbiere had 
published a much-abusea book of travels in 
England (1664), and King adopts the name to 
insinuate a comparison between their styles. 
He thought this his best work, and described 
many of his later writings as ' by the author 




of " A Journey to London." ' A poem, ' The 
Furmetory,' was published in 1699, and 
others were circulated in manuscript. In 
1700 King published anonymously ' The 
Transactioner, with some of his Philosophi- 
cal Fancies, in two Dialogues/ a satire upon ; 
Sir Hans Sloane, who edited the ' Transac- | 
tions' of the Royal Society. In 1701 King 
defended his friend the Earl of Anglesea in an 
action for separation brought by the countess. 
He is said to have shown ability in spite of 
his usual indolence. Directly afterwards he 
was appointed judge of the admiralty court 
in Ireland, and, as appears by a letter in the 
British Museum (Add. MS. 28887, f. 369), 
was in Ireland by 13 Nov. 1701. He pro- 
bably obtained his post through the influ- 
ence of the Earl of Rochester, lord-lieutenant 
from 1700 to February 1703, or of Pem- 
broke, then lord high admiral, to whose son 
he afterwards dedicated his ' Miscellanies/ 
On 10 Jan. 1703 King wrote to John Ellis, 
M.P., begging that an order might be sent 
to swear him, delay being caused by the ob- 
stinacy of a Scottish lord mayor, in whose 
hands was his commission. King also asked 
Ellis to support his reauest for the post 
(which he obtained) of vicar-general of Ar- 
magh (t&. 28890, f. 17). King was likewise 
sole commissioner of the prizes, but appears 
to have neglected all his duties. While idling 
at Mountown, near Dublin, the house of his 
friend Judge Upton, he wrote ' Mully of Moun- 
town/ Mully being the red cow that fur- 
nished him with milk. It was surreptitiously 
published in 1704, together with another 
poem, 'Orpheus and Eurydice,'as the 'Fairy 
Feast.' King reprinted the poems, asserting 
that they had no hidden meaning, and added 
' Some Remarks on the Tale of a Tub.' 

In 1706, or a little later, King published 
a collection of ' Miscellanies.' On 19 June 
1707 he was appointed keeper of the records 
in the Bermingham Tower at Dublin Castle, 
but resigned on 28 Nov. (Lascelles, Liber 
Munerum Publicorum Hibernia, 1824, pt. ii. 
p. 78). Probably King returned to England 
at the close of 1707. It seems that he had by 
this time spent his private fortune, and had 
nothing to rely upon except his studentship at 
Christ Church. In February 1708 Lintot paid 
him 32/. 6s. for ' The Art of Cookery, in imita- 
tion of Horace's Art of Poetry ; with some 
Letters to Dr. Lister and others, occasioned 
principally by the title of a book published 
by the Doctor, being the Works of Apicius 
tiislius, concerning tne Soups and Sauces of 
the Ancients.' It was published in the fol- 
lowing month without date (Daily Courant, 
13 March 1708). Two spurious editions of 
this amusing poem, perhaps his best work. 

appeared, and it was coarsely attacked in ' A 
Letter to Dr. W. King, occasioned by his 
Art of Cookery.' In February 1709 Lintot 
paid King 32/. 6>. for ' The Art of Love,' in 
imitation of Ovid, but dealing with ' inno- 
cent and virtuous ' love, if not always within 
modern bounds of propriety. 

In 1709 appeared also the amusing ' Use- 
ful Transactions in Philosophy and other 
sorts of Learning,' which were ' to be con- 
tinued monthly, as they sell.' Three parts 
appeared, for each of which King received 
only 51. These ' Transactions' are a parody 
of the ' Philosophical Transactions,' and the 
third part again satirises Sloane. The ' Me- 
moirs of Martin Scriblerus ' probably owe 
some hints to this book. 

King supported the high church party in 
the Sacheverell controversy by several pam- 
phlets, including ' A Friendly Letter from 
honest Tom Boggy to the Rev. Mr. Goddard, 
Canon of Windsor ; ' ' A Second Letter to 
Mr. Goddard, occasioned by the late Pane- 
gyric given him by the Review,' 1710 ; ' A 
Vindication of the Rev. Dr. Sacheverell,' 
1711 (in which King was assisted by Charles 
Lambe of Christ Church, and probably by 
Sacheverell himself); ' Mr.Bisset's Recanta- 
tion, in a Letter to the Rev. Dr. Henry Sache- 
verell,' 1711 ; and 'An Answer to a second 
scandalous Book that Mr. Bissett is now 
writing, to be published as soon as possible.' 
King contributed to the early numbers of 
the ' Examiner,' started in August 1710, but 
it is not known that he had any connection 
with the paper after Swift undertook the 
management of it in November. 

At the end of 1710 King published his 
' Historical Account of the Heathen Gods 
and Heroes,' a compilation which was used 
in schools for many years, and for which the 
author was paid 50/. In 1711 he wrote a 
bitter attack upon the Duke of Marlborough, 
which was published late in the year, with 
the date 1712, entitled ' Rufinus, or an His- 
torical Essay on the favourite Ministry under 
Theodosius and his son Arcadius,' with a 
poem, 'Rufinus, or the Favourite,' annexed. 
In December 1711 King, on Swift's recom- 
mendation, was appointed to succeed Steele 
in the post of gazetteer. King had been in 
great difficulties. Gay, writing earlier in 
the year, says, in 'The Present State of Wit/ 
that King deserved better than to ' languish 
out the small remainder of his life in the Fleet 
Prison.' Swift, in the 'Journal to Stella' 
(19 Dec.), speaks of Bang as a ' poor starving 
wit;' but on 31 Dec. mentions the appoint- 
ment to the ' Gazette,' which he values at 200/. 
a year. He afterwards (8 Jan. 1711-12) tells 
Archbishop King ' that it will be worth 250/, 




per annum to him if he he diligent and sober.' 
.King, however, was incapable of diligence. 
Upon the influx of an unusual amount of 
matter he had to sit up till three or four 
in the morning to correct the proofs. King 
therefore resigned the office on 1 July 1712. 
On the same day Lintot paid him 41. 1«. 6d. 
for the ' Useful Miscellanies, Part the First/ 
containing the tragi-comedy of * Joan of 
Hedington ' and an ' Account of Horace's 
behaviour during his stay at Trinity College 
in Cambridge.' In August he published some 
verses, 'Britain's Palladium, or Lord Bo- 
Jingbroke's Welcome from France.' 

During the summer of 1712 King lived in 
a friend's house between Lambeth and Vaux- 
hall. He visited his friends in London, espe- 
cially his relation Lord Clarendon at So- 
merset House. In the autumn his health 
grew worse. Clarendon had him conveyed 
on 24 Dec. to a lodging opposite Somerset 
House. That night he made his will, by 
which he appointed his sister, Elizabeth King, 
sole executrix and residuary legatee ; and on 
the following day he died. " On 27 Dec. he 
was buried in the north cloister of Westmin- 
ster Abbey. King seems to have been sin- 
cerely religious and moral in his life, though 
E'ven to occasional conviviality. Pope told 
ord Burlington in 1716, ' I remember Dr. 
King would write verses in a tavern three 
hours after he could not speak.' He some- 
times said ill-natured things, but was gene- 
rally amiable and easy-going. His ' Adver- 
saria ' proves the width of his general reading, 
and he was certainly well skilled in law. A 
eulogistic 'Pindarick Ode to the memory 
of Dr. William King' appeared after his 

Many of King's writings were published 
anonymously, and some without date. Among 
the fragments left by him are an ' Essay on 
Civil Government ' (reprinted by Dr. John- 
son in 1776), and ' Crapulia,' translated from 
Joseph Hall's ' Mundus alter et idem.' King 
wrote also several papers for Harrison's con- 
tinuation of the • Tatler, 9 and a few songs 
and tales in verse, which are of little value. 
One of these, 'Apple Pye,' was printed in 
1 The Northern Atalantis,' 1713, and in the 
following vear it was included in Hill's col- 
lection 01 ' Original Poems and Transla- 
tions.' King in his early years translated 
some books from the French, and was one of 
the translators, from the French of De la 
Croix, of 'The Persian and the Turkish Tales 
compleat,' published in 1714, having begun 
the work, as the dedication states, at the 
request of Lady Theodosia Blye, baroness 
of Clifton. In 1732 King's ' Remains ' were 
published, with an account of his life, and a 

dedication to Lord Orrery; and in 1734 
they were edited as ' Posthumous Works,' by 
Joseph Browne, M.D. A portrait, engraved 
by J. Vandergucht from a painting by Del* 
low, was prefixed to both collections. In 
1776 the l Original Works of William King, 
LL.D.,' in three volumes, were published, 
carefully edited by John Nichols. On the 
title-page is a portrait in a circle, engraved 
by Cook. 

[Memoirs of Dr. King, prefixed to Nichols's 
edition of the Original Works; Biog. Brit.; 
Add. MSS. 28883 ff. 137, 180, 255, 28885 f. 16&, 
28887 f. 369, 28890 f. 17 (Brit. Mus.) ; Welch's 
Alumni Westmonasterienses, 1852, pp. 147, 183, 
190-2; Swift's Works, ed. Scott, 1824, vols. i. 
ii. vi. x. xv. ; T. Cibber's Lives of the Poets, iii. 
228 ; Gent. Mag. 1776, 465 ; European Mag. vin 
400; Johnson's Lives of the Poets; Coote's 
Catalogue of Civilians, pp. 104-5 ; Monk's Life 
of Bentley, 1833; Oxford Graduates ; Chester's 
Registers of Westminster, 1876, p. 275; Noble's 
Continuation of Granger, ii. 260; Pope's Works, 
ed. Elwin and Courthope, x. 207, 295; Ideal 
Commonwealths, 1885 (Morley's Universal Li- 
brary), pp. 273-84 ; Nichols's Lit Anecd. 18 12; 
i. 25, 32-5, 327, iii. 227, iv. 715 ; D'Israeli's 
Quarrels of Authors (Miscellanies, 1840), pp. 
206, 219-21. Dr. King is constantly confused, 
especially in indexes, with Dr. William King 
[q. v.], archbishop of Dublin, or with Dr. Wil- 
liam King [q. v.] of St. Mary Hall, Oxford, the 
author of • The Toast.'] G. A. A. 

KING, WILLIAM, D.D. (1650-1729), 
archbishop of Dublin, son of James King, a 
native of Barrain Aberdeenshire, the original 
seat of the family, was born on 1 May 1650 
in the town of Antrim in Ireland, whither 
his father had migrated some time between 
1639 and 1649, in order to escape the solemn 
league and covenant, and where he is said to 
have pursued the calling of a miller {Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 3rd Rep. p. 416 ; Noble, Con- 
tinuation of Granger, ii. 103). At the age of 
twelve King was sent to a Latin school at 
Dungannon, co. Tyrone, and on 7 April 1666 
(Mason, St. Patrick's, p. 207) he was ad- 
mitted a sizar into Trinity College, Dublin. 
lie studied hard, and having obtained a 
scholarship he graduated B.A. on 23 Feb. 
1670, was ordained deacon by Dr. Robert 
Mos8om, bishop of Derry, on 25 Oct. 1671. 
and proceeded M. A. in 1673. He failed to 
obtain a fellowship, but having attracted the 
attention of John Parker, archbishop of Tuam, 
he was by him ordained a priest on 12 April 
1674, and was collated to the prebend of Kil- 
mainmore on 14 July in the same year, and 
to the provostship of the cathedral church 
of Tuam on 26 Oct. 1676. On the transla- 
tion of Parker to the see of Dublin in 1678, 
King was on 27 Oct. 1679 collated to th* 




chancellorship of St. Patrick's and the parish 
of St.Werburgh's annexed, where he laboured 
zealously to prevent the spread of Roman 
Catholicism in the metropolis. Shortly after 
his appointment he was involved in a dispute 
with Dean Worth as to the right of the 
dean to visit independently of the chapter. 
Judgment was finally given against King in 
1681, and as a punishment for his ' conten- 
tiousness ' he was required to build a number 
of stalls in the chapter-house (ib. pp. 201-2). 
In 1687 King entered upon a prolonged con- 
troversy with Peter Manby fa. v.], sometime 
dean of Derry, who had been lately converted 
to the churcn of Rome. Manny's ' Considera- 
tions which obliged Peter Manby to embrace 
the Catholic Religion ' drew from King an 
' Answer to the Considerations/ in which 
Manby's motives were ascribed to a desire to 
curry favour with James II. Manby there- 
upon replied with f A Reformed Catechism/ 
which King answered in ' A Vindication of 
the Answer to the Considerations/ 1688. 
Subsequently Manby, according to Harris 
( Ware, Bishops), 'dispersed a short paper, 
artfully written/ under the title ' A Letter to 
a Friend, shewing the vanity of this opinion, 
that every man's sense and reason is to guide 
him in matters of Faith/ which led to lung's 
1 Vindication of the Christian Religion and 
Reformation against the Attempts of a late 
Letter/ Owing to some disparaging remarks 
about presbyterianism made by him during 
this controversy, King was vigorously at- 
tacked by Joseph Boyse [q. v.], a presbyterian 
minister in Dublin. On the death of Dean 
Worth in 1688, King was elected his successor, 
and was formally installed on 1 Feb. 1688-9, 
taking his degree of D.D. shortly afterwards. 
Hitherto he had been noted as a strenuous 
advocate of the doctrine of passive resistance 
(Leslie, Answer, p. 113), but the govern- 
ment of Tyrconnel converted him mto an 
ardent whig. He openly espoused the cause 
of the Prince of Orange, and falling under 
the suspicion of the Jacobite government he 
was arrested and confined to the castle. He 
was liberated after a short imprisonment by 
the good offices of Lord-chief-justice Sir 
Edward Herbert [(j. v.], but continued to 
suffer insults and indignities in public till 
the beginning of 1690, when he was recom- 
mitted on a charge of having furnished trea- 
sonable information to the Duke of Schom- 
berg (ib. p. 105). The battle of the Boyne, 
however, put an end to his sufferings. On 
16 Nov. he preached before the lords jus- 
tices Sidney and Coningsbv in St. Patrick's 
Cathedral on the occasion 01 the thanksgiving 
for ' the preservation of his Majesty's person, 
his good success in our deliverance, and his 

safe and happy return into England/ and on 
9 Jan. 1690^-1 he was promoted to the see of 
Derry. In 1691 he published his « State of 
the Protestants of Ireland under the late 
King James's Government/ for which he had 
partly collected the materials during his im- 
prisonment. Though more of a party pam- 
phlet than an impartial history, it is a power- 
ful vindication of the principles of the revo- 
lution, and was, as Bishop Burnet described 
it, 'not only the best book that hath been 
written for the service of the government, but 
without any figure it is worth all the rest 
put together, and will do more than all our 
scribblings for settling the minds of the nation.' 
Three editions were at once exhausted. An 
'Answer' was published anonymously in 
1692 from the pen of the nonjuror, Charles 
Leslie [q. v.] The charge of inconsistency 
in the matter ofpassive resistance was pressed 
home against King with considerable skill, 
and from certain memoranda still extant 
( Hist MSS. Comm. 2nd Rep. p. 236) it would 
seem as if Kin? at one time meditated a reply 
to Leslie's book. Immediately after his con- 
secration (25 Jan. 1690-1) King proceeded to 
his diocese, where he busied himself in repair- 
ing the ravages created by the war, in restor- 
ing and rebuilding parish churches, towards 
which he himself contributed liberally, in en- 
forcing the residence of his clergy, in aug- 
menting the revenues of the see, and generally 
in endeavouring to restore the church under 
his care to a position of efficiency and respecta- 
bility. In December 1693 he was appointed, 
along with Dopping, bishop of Meath, and 
Wiseman, bishop of Dromore, ecclesiastical 
commissioner for the visitation of the bishop 
and clergy of the diocese of Down and Connor, 
in consequence of which Bishop Hacket, 
satirically styled the bishop of Hammersmith, 
the archdeacon of Down, and several other 
clergymen were suspended (Lansdovme MS, 
446, f. 36). 

The prevalency of nonconformity in his 
diocese, and particularly in the city of Derry, 
where, as he expressed it, the presbyterians 
were ( mighty insolent/ caused King much 
annoyance. Mainly with the intention of 
repressing the growth of sectarianism he en- 
tered upon a lawsuit with the London So- 
ciety in order to prevent the letting of waste 
lands to presbyterians. The case raised the 
whole question of the judicial independence 
of the Irish House of Lords, and led to much 
wider consequences than King had antici- 
pated. Pending its settlement ne published 
in 1694 a tract entitled ' A Discourse con- 
cerning the Inventions of Man in the Worship 
of God.' The pamphlet, according to Reid 
(Hist of the Presbyterian Church, iii. 27), 




was a ' clever and plausible performance/ 
' written in a spirit of affected friendship 
for presbyterians/ but ' full of unworthy in- 
sinuations and unfounded charges/ It was 
immediately reprinted in London. Joseph 
Boyse replied on behalf of presbyterianism in 
his ' Remarks ' on the ' Discourse/ which King 
immediately answered in 'An Admonition 
to the Dissenting Inhabitants of the Diocese 
of Deny.' King denied that he wished to 
stir up old animosities, and declared himself 
solely anxious to remove the objections of 
those who refused to attend the established 
church. Boyse's 'Vindication* of his 'Re- 
marks' and King's ' Second Admonition' 
closed the controversy so far as the chief 
combatants were concerned. But King's stric- 
tures on the ignorance of many presbyterians 
as to their own creed and the inadequacy of 
the means provided for their religious in- 
struction stimulated the presbyterians to new 
and effective exertions. 

Meanwhile King sought more profitably 
to meet the religious requirements of a colony 
of Scottish highlanders who had recently 
settled in the barony of Inishowen by pro- 
viding them with clergymen able to speak 
their own language, and at a later period he 
promoted the teaching of Irish at Trinity Col- 
lege. In the parliament of 1695 he supported 
the penal legislation against the Roman ca- 
tholics, opposed the Toleration Bill, and was 
one of the seven bishops and seven lay lords 
who in 1697 protested against the act to con- 
firm the Articles of Limerick. He strongly 
resented the growing interference of the Eng- 
lish parliament in Irish affairs, and chiefly for 
this reason opposed the bill for the preser- 
vation of the King's person in 1697. He de- 
nounced, too, the taxation by parliament of the 
clergy without their consent, and strenuously 
urged the necessity of summoning convoca- 
tion. King's private letters of the time of 
Queen Mary's death, 1694, reveal his deep 
sense of the prevailing laxity in matters of 
religion. A severe attack of gout in the 
spring of 1696 nearly proved fatal, and led to 
a rumour that he was dead. 

With the work of his diocese King man- 
aged to combine the preparation of his mag- 
num opus, 'De Origine Mali/ which was 
published in 1702 simultaneously in Dublin 
and London, with a dedication to Sir Robert 
Southwell. The work attempts, on a Lockean 
basis, to reconcile the existence of evil, and 
particularly of moral evil, with the idea of 
an omnipotent and beneficent deity. It at- 
tracted immediate attention on the conti- 
nent, where it was favourably noticed in 
' Les Nouvelles de la Republique des Lettres ' 
(May and June 1703), at that time under the 

editorship of Jacques Bernard. The review 
was criticised by Bayle adversely to King in* 
his ' Reponse aux Questions d'un Provincial' 
(chaps. Ixxi v-xcii/) Bernard replied in ' Nou- 
velles de la RepuDlique/ January 1706, and 
Bayle, having read lung's book, made seve- 
ral new observations upon it, which were 
published after his death in ' Reponse aux 
Questions d'un Provincial/ vol. v. Leibnitz 
also published a criticism ' Adnotationes in 
librum De Origine Mali haud ita pridem in 
Anglia evulgatum/ which was mainly di- 
rected to a confutation of King's doctrine of 
free will {Opera, ed. L. Dutens, i. 430-69 ; 
also Lettre xvi. a M. Thoe. Burnet, ib. vi. 286). 
I And J. 0. Wolff, in his work 'Manichsoismus 
ante Manichseos' (Hamburg, 1707), devotes 
considerable space to King's arguments. In 
England the book appears to have been ne- 
glected till it was translated by Edmund Law, 
afterwards bishop of Carlisle, m 1729, and the 
translation probably suggested to Pope some 
of the ideas contained in nis ' Essay on Man.' 
On 11 March 1702-3 King was by letters 
patent translated to the archbishopric of 
Dublin, in succession to Narcissus Marsh 
[q. v.] The appropriations and impropriations 
of ecclesiastical property in the diocese were 
very numerous, and King at once recognised 
ho w formidable an obstacle these would pre- 
sent to any attempt at reformation. In order 
the better to assert his authority in the mat- 
ter, he therefore insisted on being conse- 
crated by the dean and chapter of Ohrist 
Church, who alone appropriated twenty- 
seven parishes, many of them being not 
supplied at all, and most of them very indif- 
ferently. The dean and chapter refused to 
comply. King held a visitation, and in their 
absence pronounced sentence of contumacy 
against them. The case was transferred to Eng- 
land, and an inhibition was obtained against 
him in chancery. King thereupon appealed to 
the English House of Lords, and alter much 
controversy the case was finally decided in 
1 724 in his favour. The dean and chapter then 
joined him in making provision for the cures 
dependent on them. Meanwhile King had 
been labouring successfully to promote the 
welfare of his diocese by building new and 
rebuilding old parish churches, by supplying 
them with capable clergymen, and by making 
better provision for their livelihood, partly 
by annexing the prebends of St. Patrick's as 
they fell vacant to the vicarages from which 
they had become separated, and partly by 
establishing a fund for the purchase of glebes 
and impropriate tithes. His endeavours to 
obtain for the church of Ireland the restora- 
tion of the first-fruits and twentieth parts 
brought him into close relationship with 




Swift, whom he sent to London in 1707 to 
further the project. Four years later the 
matter was satisfactorily settled through 
Swift's exertions and his influence with Bar- 
ley. The result raised Swift in King's esti- 
mation, but King only saw in him a clergy- 
man of very unclerical habits, of considerable 
ability, but of ill-regulated ambition and of 
overweening egotism. His advice to him to 
turn his attention seriously to the study of 
theology, although well-intentioned, was un- 
accompanied by any substantial preferment, 
and consequently appeared to Swift imperti- 
nent, and even slightly malicious. Though 
there was no open breach, the friendly corre- 
spondence that had existed between them 
was interrupted between 1711 and 1716. 

On 15 May 1709, after a severe attack of 
gout, King preached before the lord-lieu- 
tenant, the Earl of Wharton, at the opening 
of parliament, on ' Divine Predestination and 
Foreknowledge, consistent with the Freedom 
of Man's Will/ King attempting to reconcile 
the doctrine of predestination with that of 
free will. Our knowledge of God being of 
necessity limited, is, he are ues, like the know- 
ledge that a man born bund has of colour, 
only by way of analogy. This doctrine of 
analogical knowledge was attacked by An- 
thony Collins [a. v.] in his l Vindication of 
the Divine Attributes,' 1710, and by Dr. John 
Edwards (1637-1716) [a. v.] in ' The Divine 
Perfections Vindicated/ 1710. On the death 
of Archbishop Marsh in 1713, King's whiggism 
led the English ministry to pass over his claims 
to the primacy in favour of Thomas Lindsay 
{a. v.], oishop of Raphoe. But at the time of 
Queen Anne 8 death he was joined with the 
Earl of Kildare and the Arcnbishop of Tuam 
in the commission for the government of 
Ireland, and it was, according to Harris, 
largely due to his prudence and influence 
',that the city of Dublin was preserved steady 
.... to the succession of the royal family of 
Hanover/ In 1717 he was reappointed one 
qf the lords justices, and again in 1718; but 
having by his opposition to the Bill of Tole- 
ration incurred the displeasure of govern- 
ment, he was omitted from the commission 
in 1719. He manifested no resentment, and 
during the absence of the Duke of Grafton in 
1721-3 was again included in the commis- 
sion. On the death of Archbishop Lindsay, 
IS July 1724, King was chosen administrator 
of the spiritualities of the see by the dean 
and chapter of Armagh, and the compliment 
was the more gratifying to him by reason of 
the appointment by the government for poli- 
tical considerations of Hugh Boulter [q. v.] 
to the primacy. 

Though a whig, King was also an Irish 

. , . y, a 

doctrines enunciated by William Molyneux 
[q. v.], and he was in effect the leader of the 
opposition to the party of the English interest 
in Ireland. His own suit with the London 
Society, in which the judgment of the Irish 
House of Lords had finally, in 1708, been 
reversed by that of England, had given point 
to Molyneux's argument. He had supported 
Swift's agitation against Wood's halfpence, 
and by his amendment to the address upon 
the lord-lieutenant's speech in September 
1726, adding the words ' great wisaom ' to 
his majesty's ' goodness and condescension ' 
in putting an end to Wood's patent, he drew 
down upon himself the wrath of Archbishop 
Boulter. King was at the same time a high 
churchman ; and having laboured all his life 
to advance the welfare of the church in Ire- 
land by improving its revenues, and by rais- 
ing up a body of efficient clergymen, he was 
indignant at the callous indifference with 
which the English ministry conferred the best 
preferments in the church on Englishmen, as 
rewards for their own or their mends' poli- 
tical subserviency. His protests proving 
unavailing, and old age and disease pressing 
heavily upon him, he gradually retired from 
active life. Since 1716 he had again been 
on terms of friendly if not very cordial in- 
tercourse with Swift, but an attempt on his 
Sart in 1727 to interfere in the affairs of the 
eanery, which Swift regarded as an en- 
croachment on his personal liberty, led to 
a fresh explosion, and an open quarrel was 
only averted by King's timely withdrawal of 
his claim. In April 1728 he emerged from 
his retirement in order to support the Privi- 
leges of Parliament Bill. He died on 8 May 
1729, and was buried on the 10th (his funeral 
sermon being preached by R[ichard] D[aniel], 
dean of Armagh) in the north side of St. 
Mary's Church, Donnvbrook, near Dublin, 
but, according to a wish expressed by him in 
his lifetime, no monument or memorial slab 
was erected. King was unmarried, and by 
his will he left all his property, amounting 
to nearly 17,000/., to public charities (Notes 
and Queries, 2nd ser. ix. 329, 5th ser. xi. 
217). He founded in 1718 the Archbishop 
King's lectureship in divinity at Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin. 

At the time of his death there were at 
least three portraits of King in existence, in 
the possession respectively of Lord Carteret, 
Sir Hans Sloane, and Mr. Annesley. One of 
these was engraved by Faber. Mention also 
is made (Notes and Queries, 1st ser. vii. 430) 
of a small and rather curious engraving by 
Kane O'Hara, the celebrated burletta writer, - 
published on 20 Sept. 1803 in London. 


£6 7 


King was a voluminous letter- writer, and 
his letters throw a flood of light on the state 
of Ireland in his day. A number of these 
in the possession of Trinity College, Dublin, 
were printed by Mant in the second volume 
of his ' History of the Church of Ireland.' 
Others addressed to Sir Robert Southwell, 
forming two folio volumes, are in the Phil- 
lipps library of Cheltenham, Cat. No. 8556 
(Thorpe, Cat. 1834, pt. iv. p. 265). Another 
very valuable collection, including King's 
draft of a reply to Leslie's * Answer/ and 
papers relating to his suit with the London 
Society, is that of Robert D. Lyons, esq., 
M.D., of Dublin. According to Mr. J. T. 
Gilbert ( Hist. MSS. Comm. 2nd Rep. p. 235), 
who adds that there are other collections of 
King's extant in Ireland, these papers ori- 
ginally belonged to King's relative, the Rev. 
Robert Spence, rector of Donaghmore, co. 
Donegal. King's ' Diary,' written during the 
time of his imprisonment, with some other 
autograph manuscripts, are mentioned (ib. 
3rd Rep. p. 416) as being in the possession of 
Colonel Ross-King of Kinellar, Aberdeen- 
shire. A few letters and other papers will be 
found among the Egerton and Additional 
MSS. in the British Museum, but these have 
been utilised by Mant. 

To the printed works mentioned above 
may be added : 1. 'A Sermon preached 7 Sept. 
1704, being the Thanksgiving Day for the 
Victory ... at Blenheim,' London, 1704, 
4to. % 'Christian Humility: a Sermon 
preached before the Queen,' London, 1705, 
4to. 3. 'The Advantages of Education, Reli- 

fiousand Political : a Sermon,' London, 1706, 
to. 4. ' The Mischief of Delaying Sentence 
against an Evil Work : a Sermon,' London, 
1707, 4to. 5. ' The Right of Monarchy As- 
serted: a Sermon,' London, 1713, 8vo. 6. 'A 
Key to Divinity, or a Philosophical Essay on 
Free Will/ London, 1716, 12mo. 7. ' The 
Irish Historical Library : pointing at most 
of the Authors and Records in print or MS. 
which may be serviceable to the compiler of 
a General History in Ireland,' Dublin, 1724, 

[There is do regular biography of Archbishop 
King, nor any collected edition of his works. 
The life by Harris in his edition of Ware's 
Bishops, with the additional information fur- 
nished by Mant in his History of the Church of 
Ireland, is still the chief source of our informa- 
tion. The life in Willis's Irish Nation is chiefly 
abstracted from Mant. Some interesting and 
authentic matter will be found in Monck Mason s 
History of St. Patrick's. The correspondence 
between King and Swift, and to a less. extent 
the earlier letters in the Journal to Stella, in Sir 
Walter Scott's edition of Swift's Works, throw 

much light on King's character and on the sub* 
ject of the first-fruits. To these may be added, 
for incidental reference, J. W. Stubbs's Hist, of 
the University of Dublin ; the Rev. John Richard- 
son's Short Hist, of the Attempts to Convert the 
Popish Natives of Ireland, London, 1712; Cotton's 
Fasti Eccl. Hib. ; Burdy's Life of Skelton ; Bishop 
Nicholson's Letters on Various Subjects ; Arch- 
bishop Boulter's Letters ; Locke's Familiar Let^- 
ters; George Faulkner's edition of Swift's Works, 
Dublin, 1763; Dublin Intelligencer, 10 May 1729 ; 
Notes and Queries ; Hist. MSS. Comm. Reports, 
ii. 231-57, Hi. 416 ; Leslie Stephen's English 
Thought in the Eighteenth Century; Craik's 
Life of Swift.] R. D. 

KING, WILLIAM (1685-1763), princi- 
pal of St. Mary Hall, Oxford, born at Step- 
ney, Middlesex, on 16 March 1685, was the 
son of the Rev. Peregrine King and Mar-* 
garet, daughter of Sir William Smyth, bart., 
of 'Radclive, Buckinghamshire (Anecdotes, -p. 
62 ; Lysons, Environs, iii. 456). After at- 
tending Salisbury grammar school (Anec- 
dotes, p. 136) he entered Balliol College, Ox- 
ford, on 9 July 1701, and graduated B.C.L. 
on 12 July 1709, D.C.L. on 8 July 1715. 
He was admitted a civilian on 20 Jan. 1716, 
but being possessed of a modest patrimony, 
he never sought practice (Coote, English Ci- 
vilians, pp. 111-12). He devoted his life to 
scholarship and literature, interested himself 
in politics, and was long at the head of the 
Jacobite party at Oxford. From want of 
( ' human prudence ' he twice in his life lost 
! the opportunity of acquiring a very large 
| fortune ' in the most irreproachable manner/ 
I and owing to the same defect his own for* 
tune became much impaired (Anecdotes, pp. 
2, 3). For a time he acted as secretary to 
the Duke of Ormonde and the Earl of Arran, 
when chancellors of the university, and he wag 
elected principal of St. Mary Hall in 1719* 
He resigned his secretaryship in 1722, when 
he stood for the parliamentary representar 
tion of .the university, but was easily der 
feated by George Clarke (1660-1736) [<j. v.] 
(H. S. Smith, Parliaments of England, ii. 7). 
A lawsuit about an estate in Gal way to which 
he laid claim obliged him to go to Ireland in 
1727. His learning, his turn for satire, and 
his hatred of the existing government re- 
commended him to Swift. He thought him- 
self injured in the course of his suit, and at- 
tacked his enemies in a mock-heroic poem, 
in two books, called ' The Toast/ supposed 
to have been originally composed in Latin by 
a Laplander, ' Frederick Scheffer/ and trans- 
lated into English, with notes and observa- 
tions, by 'Peregrine O'Donald, Esq.' The 
heroine, 'Mira,' is the Countess of Newburgh, 
who had secretly married as her third hue- 




band Sir Thomas Smyth, King's uncle. It 
was published in octavo at Dublin in 1782, 
a second volume being promised. Swift, 
after seeing the manuscript, declared that if 
he had read it when he was only twenty 
years of age he never would have written a 
satire. Hereupon 'The Toast 7 was com- 
pleted in four books, inscribed to Swift, and 
> printed in handsome quarto at London in 
1736, with a frontispiece by H. Gravelot ; it 
was reissued in 174/ (Notes and Queries, 1st 
ser. ii. 480, ill. 13, 4th ser. iv. 411, 6th ser. 
iii. passim). In his old age King regretted 
that he had not expunged many of the pas- 
sages (Anecdotes, pp. 97-100), and at his 
death the remaining copies were burnt (Ni- 
chols, Lit. Anecd. viii. 241 ). The poem was 
reissued without the annotations in Almon's 
' New Foundling Hospital of Wit.' A key 
to the characters is given in William Davis 8 
' Second Journey round the Library of a 
Bibliomaniac/ 1825, pp. 106-15, and an ana- 
lysis of it in ' Bentley's Miscellany ' for June 
1857, pp. 616-25. About April 1737 King 
wrote a witty political paper called ' Common 
Sense/ in which he proposed a new scheme 
of government to the people of Corsica [i.e. 
Great Britain], advising tnem to make tneir 
king of the same stuff of which the Indians 
fashion their gods. He enclosed a copy in a 
letter to Swift, but both were intercepted at 
the post-office (Swift, Works, ed. Scott, 1824, 
xix. 81). It seems to be identical with ' An- 
tonietti ducis Corseorum epistola ad Corseos 
de rege elij^endo' included in King's col- 
lected writings. Through King, Swift en- 
deavoured in the ensuing July to arrange for 
the publication in London of his 'History of 
the Four Last Years of the Queen.' lung 
remonstrated, and ultimately Swift aban- 
doned the intention for a time (Pope, Works, 
ed. Elwin and Courthope, vii. 363). In Ja- 
nuary 1738-9 Swift entrusted King with a 
copy of the verses on his own death, that 
they might be published in London. King, 
alarmed at the satire uponWalpole and Queen 
Caroline, omitted more than a hundred lines, 
' in deference/ he said, l to the judgment of 
Pope and other friends of Swift's^ but greatly 
to Swift's annoyance (ib. viii. 444 ; Swift, 
Works, xix. 176, 179). During the same year 
King met Nathaniel Hooke [q. v.] at Dr. 
Cheyne's house at Bath, and often acted as 
his amanuensis while he was translating 
Ramsay's ' Travels of Cyrus ' (Nichols, Lit. 
Anecd. ii. 607). In this year also he issued 
his anonymous political satire entitled ' Mil- 
toni Epistola ad Pollionem ' (Lord Polwarth), 
1738, fol., London, dedicated to Pope (Notes 
and Queries, 2nd ser. i. 256 ; Anecdotes, p. 
151), of which a second edition appeared in 

1740 (Nichols, Lit. Anecd. ii. 139). When 
honorary degrees were conferred upon the 
Duke of Hamilton, and Lords Lichfield and 
Orrery at Oxford in 1748, King delivered the 
Latin speeches, afterwards published as ' Tres 
Oratiunculffi habitae in Domo Convocationia 
Oxon./ 4to, London, Oxford (printed), 1743. 
The preface implies that he had been attacked 
by some anti-Jacobite canon. To keep up 
public interest in the affair, King himself 
wrote ' Epistola Objurgatoria ad Guilielmum 
King, LL.D./ 4to, London, 1744, to which is 
attached a doggerel ' Epistola Canonici reve- 
rendi admodum ad Archidiaconum reveren- 
dum admodum/ Lastly appeared ' A Letter 
to a Friend occasioned by Epistola Objurga- 
toria, &c., by S. P. Y. B./ 4to, London, 1744 ; 
the writer pretends to have been wrongly 
credited with the authorship of the ' Epi- 
stola/ The ' Letter ' was douotless by King, 
who thus in all probability created and wrote 
the whole controversy (Notes and Queries, 
6th ser. xi. 33-4). Soon after the rebellion 
of 1745, King described the Duke of Cum- 
berland as a man ' qui timet omnia prater 
Deum/ In 1748 he ridiculed Edward Bent- 
ham (q. v.], who had published a guide to 
intending students, in ' A Proposal for pub- 
lishing a Poetical Translation, both in Latin 
and English, of the Reverend Mr. Tutor 
Bentham's Letter to a Young Gentleman of 
Oxford. By a Master of Arts/ 4to, London, 
1748 (another edit. 8vo, 1749). 

At the opening of RadclinVs Library, on. 
13 April 1749, King delivered a Latin speech 
in the Sheldonian Theatre, in whicn he 
adroitly contrived to express his Jacobitism. 
He introduced six times in his peroration 
the word ' redeat/ pausing each time for a 
considerable space, amid loud applause from 
a distinguished audience (Fitzmaubice, Life 
of Lord Shelburne, i. 35). Thomas Warton, 
in his poem 'The Triumph of Isis/ eulo- 

?i8es King's powers of oratory. The oration 
printed in 1749, and again in 1750) gave 
rise to violent attacks. King was charged 
with barbarous Latin, Jacobitism, and pro- 
pagation of sedition in the university. John 
Burton (1696-1771) [q.v.],cousin and patron 
of Edward Bentham, published some virulent 

« Remarks on Dr. K 's Speech/ by < Phi- 

leleutherus Londinensis/ 1 750. King retorted 
savagely in 'Elogium Famre inserviens Jacci 
Etonensis sive Gigantis ; or, the Praises of 
Jack of Eton, commonly called Jack the 
Giant; collected into Latin and English 
Metre, after the Manner of Thomas Stern- 
hold, John Hopkins, John Burton, and 
others. To which is added, a Dissertation 
on the Burtonian style. By a Master of 
Arts/ 8vo, Oxford, 1750. The satire also at- 




tacks William Bowyer the younger [a. v.l, 
who had said something against King's 
latinitv (Nichols, Lit. Anecd. ii. 223-6). 
King further translated all the abusive names 
which Burton had bestowed on him, and the 
complimentary phrases applied by Burton to 
himself, and printing the whole catalogue on a 
large sheet of coarse paper, gave it to a scaven- 
ger to be cried about the streets of Oxford, 
Windsor, and Eton (Anecdotes^ j>p.*153-7). 

King was presented to the Pretender in 
September 1750. The Pretender was then 
paying a stealthy visit to England, and 
drank tea one evening at the doctor's lodg- 
ings at Oxford. They subsequently corre- 
sponded, but as the intimacy advanced King 
came to dislike the Pretender (ib. pp. 196- 

King took part in the memorable contested 
election for Oxfordshire in 1764, and was in 
consequence vigorously libelled. He was ac- 
cused of having defrauded subscribers for 
books never published to the extent of 1,600/., 
was taunted with having offered himself to 
sale both in England and Ireland, and was 
accused of inspiring the Jacobite ' London 
Evening Post/ During the same year he 
published without his name a volume of 
fanciful essays called 'The Dreamer/ 8vo, 
London, 1754, which was assailed in the 
whig papers as tainted with Jacobitism. In 
February 1755 King had the pleasing duty 
of taking to Johnson his diploma of M.A., 
and found in him a warm admirer of both 
his scholarship and politics (Boswbll, Life 
of Johnson, ed. G. B. Hill, i. 279). During 
the same year he replied to his assailants in 
a vigorously written pamphlet entitled * Doc- 
tor King's Apology ; or, Vindication of him- 
self from the several matters charged on him 
by the Society of Informers/ 4to, Oxford, 
1755 (2nd and 3rd editions the same year). 
He retaliated warmly on the authors of va- 
rious libels which had appeared in the ' Even- 
ing Advertiser/ attacked a pestilent tract 
called * A Defence of the Rector and Fellows 
of Exeter College/ and spoke severely of a 
canon of Windsor named Richard Blacow. 
Blacow thereupon printed a ' Letter to Wil- 
liam King, LL.D./ 8vo, 1755, in which he 
sought to make King responsible for a Jaco- 
bite demonstration by some undergraduates 
in February 1747. 

On the fiarl of Arran's death the Jacobite 
Earl of Westmoreland was elected chancel- 
lor. At his installation on 7 July 1759 
King made a speech, at which Johnson 
'clapped his hands till they were sore* (Bos- 
well, i. 348). A collective edition of his 
writings was published as ' Opera Guilielmi 
King/ 4to, London, 1760 (cf. Notes and 

Queries, 6th ser. ix. 14). King publicly 
severed his connection with the Jacobite 
party in 1761, when he accompanied a de- 
putation from the university to present the 
king with an address of congratulation on his 
marriage. He was personally introduced to 
the king by Lord Shelburne. His desertion 
did not escape censure (Anecdotes, pp. 189- 

At the Encaenia of 1763 King, amid great 
applause, delivered an oration with all his 
wonted animation and grace. Churchill, who 
was present, condescended to approve of his 
style, but afterwards sneered at his ' piebald 
Latin' in the 'Candidate' (Nichols, LiU 
Anecd. viii. 236). 

King died on 30 Dec. 1763, and was buried 
on 5 Jan. following at Ealing, Middlesex 
(Ltsons, ii. 236), where he had resided for 
many years on an estate called Newby, near 
the church. He was also lessee of the rec- 
tory of Ealing (Fatjlkneb, Hist, of Brent- 
ford, &c, 1845, pp. 177, 248). His heart, 
having been enclosed in a silver urn, was de- 
posited by his own directions in the chapel 
of St. Mary Hall, where there is a monu- 
ment to his memory, with a Latin epitaph 
written by himself (Wood, Colleges and 
Halls, ed. Gutch, p. 675). His son, Charles 
Kinff, born about 1711, was M.A. of St. Mary 
Hall, and in holy orders (Fosteb, Alumni 
Oxon. 1715-1886, ii. 794). His daughter. 
Dorothy married William Melmoth the 
younger (1710-1799) [q. v.] (Nichols, Lit. 
Anecd. iii. 41). 

Assisted by the contributions of old menw 
bers of St. Mary Hall, King rebuilt the east 
side of the quadrangle, and added a new 
room to the principal^ lodgings (Wood, Col- 
leges, &c, p. 674). 

King wrote also an inscription for the col- 
lection of statues presented to the university 
in 1756 by the Countess Dowager of Pomfret 
(Wood, Antiquities of Oxford, ed. Gutch, 
vol ii. pt. ii. p. 811) ; an ' Elogium' in 1753 
on Chevalier John Taylor the oculist, of 
which he printed a few copies to oblige his 
friends {Anecdotes, p. 136), and an epitaph 
on Beau Nash (id. p. 248). His posthumous 
'Political and Literary Anecdotes of his 
own Times/ 8vo, London, 1818 (2nd edit. 
1819), mostly written in his seventy-sixth 
year to beguile the languor of a sick-room,* 
and edited for the benefit of two of his lady 
relatives by Philip Bury Duncan [3. v.] 
(Gent Mag. 3rd ser. xvi. 125), show him to 
have been a man of sense, acuteness, and 
cultivation. Throughout his life he was a 
water-drinker (Anecdotes, p. 11). 

There is a striking likeness of King in 
the orator's rostrum in Worlidge's picture 




of the installation of Lord Westmoreland. 
His portrait by Williams hangs in the pic- 
ture gallery at Oxford (Nichols, Lit. Anecd. 
viii. 241 ; Wood, Antiquities, &c, vol. ii. pt. 
ii. p. 977). It was engraved by Faber ; an- 
other portrait by Hudson was engraved by 
MacArdell ; both are in mezzotint (Evajjs, 
Cat. of Engraved Portraits, i. 197). 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ii. 607.] G. G. 

KING, WILLIAM (1701-1769), inde- 
pendent minister, was born in Wiltshire on 
9 June 1701, and educated at a local school, 
and afterwards at the university of Utrecht. 
He passed his trials there, returned to Eng- 
land in 1724, and was at once called by the 
independent church at Chesham, Bucking- 
shire, where he was ordained on 25 April 
1725. He removed to London in 1740, and 
on 14 Feb. in that year became pastor of the 
independent churcn in Hare Court, Alders- 
gate Street, as successor to Samuel Bruce. 
Shortly afterwards he received from a Scottish 
university a diploma creating him D.D. On 
14 Jan. 1748 he was chosen Merchants' lec- 
turer at Pinners' Hall, where he died on 
8 March 1769. He was buried in Bunhill 
Fields. Besides 192 lectures at Pinners' 
Hall, of which at his death he was the eldest 
lecturer, he delivered evening lectures at 
Silver Street and Lime Street chapels. An 
oil-portrait of King, which has been engraved 
by Ilopwood, is preserved in the vestry at 
Hare Court. 

• [Musgrave's Obituaries; Wilson's Dissenting 
Churches, iii. 299 ; Jones's Bunhill Memorials, 
p. 135; Evans's Cat. of Engraved Portraits, i. 
196; Gent. Mag. 1769, p. 168; London Mag. 
1769, p. 333 ; Funeral Sermon by Dr. James 
Watson, from Isaiah Ix. 19.] T. S. 

KING, WILLIAM (1786-1865), pro- 
moter of co-operation, born at Ipswich on 
17 April 1786, was the son of the Kev. John 
King, many years master of the Ipswich 
grammar school. He was educated at Peter- 
house, Cambridge, of which he became a fel- 
low. He graduated B.A. in 1809 (as twelfth 
wrangler), M. A. in 1812, licensed by the uni- 
versity 11 June 1817, and commenced M.D. 
at Cambridge in 1819. He became a fellow of 
the Royal College of Physicians in 1820, and 
delivered the Harveian oration in 1843. He 
was for atimeprivate tutor of Lord Overstone, 
who highly esteemed him. In 1823 he settled 
at Brighton, and became known as a writer on 
co-operation and social questions. King, who 
was remarkable for his conversational power, 
obtained the confidence of Ladv Byron. He 
was her adviser in schemes for improving the 
condition of the poor upon her estates, and 
she actively promoted the co-operative sys- 
tem, of which he was a remarkable advocate. 

From May 1828 to July 1830 he wrote a small 
monthly periodical, entitled 'The Co-opera- 
tor/ the first which bore that name. No such 
publication before or since has excelled it in 
simplicity, persuasiveness, or in grasp of the 
ethical and economical principles to which 
the name of ' co-operation ' was first given. 
Though each number consisted but of four 
pages, published at Id., and issued anony- 
mously, it was the most influential publica- 
tion of the kind at that time. Lady Byron 
left 300/. with a view to publishing a selec- 
tion of King's writings. This has not yet 
been adequately done. 

King died at Brighton on 20 Oct. 1866, 
He was consulting physician to the Sussex 
County Hospital (1842-1861), and first pre- 
sident of the Brighton ' Medical Chirurgical 
Society/ Besides the * Co-operator,' he wrote : 
1 The Institutions of De Fellenberg/ 1842 ; 
'Medical Essays/ 1850; 'Address to the 
Provincial Medical Surgical Society/ 1851 ; 
an ' Essay on Scrofula/ in the ' Medical Ga- 
zette ; ' and (posthumous) ' Thoughts on the 
Teaching of Christ/ 1872. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. iii. 226 ; Gent. Mag. 
1865, ii. 797; personal knowledge.] G. J. H. 

KING, WILLIAM (1809-1886), geolo- 
gist, was born at Hartlepool, Durham, in 
April 1809, and became in 1841 curator of 
the Museum of Natural History at New- 
castle-on-Tyne ; he was also lecturer on geo- 
logy in the school of medicine there. In 1§49, 
on the foundation of Queen's College, Gal- 
way, he was appointed professor of geology, 
and organised the formation of the geological 
museum. In 1870 the Queen's University of 
Ireland conferred on him its first honorary 
degree of D.Sc. In 1882 the professorship 
of natural history was added to King's other 
duties, but he resigned in 1883. The college 
nominated him emeritus professor of geology, 
mineralogy, and natural history, and pre- 
sented him with a testimonial. King died 
at Glenoir, Taylor's Hill, Galway, on 24 June 
1886, and was buried in the Galway new 
cemetery. He was married, and left issue. 
King's chief work was his * Monograph of 
the Permian Fossils/ published by the Pa- 
laeontographical Society, London, 1850. He 
also contributed a large number of papers on 
geological subjects to various scientific jour- 
nals ; a catalogue will be found in the printed 
' Catalogue of the Library of Queen's College, 
Galway' (1877), pp. 403-8. With J. H. 
Rowney he published ' An Old Chapter of 
the Geological Record, with a new Inter- 
pretation/ London, 1881, 8vo. 

[Nature, 1 July 1886 ; private information.] 
W. A J. A 




~ KLNUHOKN, JOSEPH <T76o^lB32), 
particular baptist minister, was born at 
uateshead-on-Tyne, Durham, on 17 Jan. 
1766. His father, David Kinghorn (5. 3 Oct. 
1737 ; d, 18 Feb. 1822), was a shoemaker 
and baptist preacher at Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
who was ordained on 1 May 1771 as minister 
of a baptist congregation at Burton-Bishop, 
East Riding of Yorkshire, where he remained 
till July 1799, when he retired to Norwich. 
Joseph was his eldest son by his second wife, 
Elizabeth (d. 25 Jan. 1810, aged 72), second 
daughter of Joseph Jopling of Satley, co. Dur- 
ham. After four years' schooling, Kinghorn 
was taken on trial as apprentice to watch- and 
clock-making at Hull in 1779, but in March 
1 781 became a clerk in the white-lead works at 
Elswick, Northumberland. In April 1783 he 
was baptised by his father at Burton-Bishop, 
and looked forward to entering the ministry. 
He made the acquaintance of Robert Hall 
(1764-1831) [q.v/],and had thoughts of join- 
ing him at the university of Aberdeen. On 
20 Aug. 1784 he entered the baptist academy 
at Bristol, under Caleb Evans, D.D. Among 
his fellow-students his most intimate friend 
was James Hinton, father of John Howard 
Hinton [q. v.] On leaving the academy he 
ministered for several months (from May 
1788) at Fairford, Gloucestershire. He re- 
ceived an invitation from the baptist con- 
gregation at St. Mary's Chapel, Norwich, so 
called because it is situate in the parish of 
St. Mary-in-Coslany. On 27 March 1789 he 
settled in Norwich, and was ordained on 
20 May 1790. 

Kinghora's ministry at Norwich, which 
lasted till his death, was one of much public 
usefulness. He was famed for the unction 
of his preaching, and his power of apt illus- 
tration was noted by Edward Irving. His 
old chapel was replaced in 1811 by a very 
handsome structure on the same site. On 
2 Aug. 1804 he was invited to the headship 
of the Northern Baptist Academy, then on 
the point of being established in Bradford, 
but he preferred pastoral work. In a contro- 
versy with Robert Hall, which began in 1816, 
he took the side of close communion, making 
adult baptism a term of participation in the 
Lord's Supper. He made mission journeys 
to Scotland in 1818 and 1822, and in every 
enterprise connected with his own body he 

Slaved a prominent part. The intellectual 
fe of Norwich was in his time considerable. 
From 1790 he was a member of a 'speculative 
society/ of which William Taylor Jq.v.], the 
German scholar, was the leading spirit, and in 
which the cultured Roman catholic was wel- 
comed along with the representatives of all 
protestant churches. In later life Kinghorn 

gave much time to Hebrew and rabbinical 
studies. He died unmarried on 1 Sept. 1832, 
and was buried on 7 Sept. in the vestibule 
of St. Mary's Chapel ; Joseph John Gurney 

Eq. v.], the quaker philanthropist, spoke at 
us funeral; the sermon was preached by 
John Alexander, minister of Prince's Street 
congregational church. 

A list of twenty of his publications is given 
by Wilkin, including : 1. ' A Defence of Infant 
Baptism its best confutation,' &c, Norwich, 
1795, 12mo. 2. < Public Worship,' &c, Nor- 
wich, 1800, 12mo. 3. 'Address ... on 
Church Communion,' &c, Norwich, 1803, 
1818,1824. 4. 'Arguments . . .against the 
Roman Catholic Doctrines,' &c, Norwich, 
1804. 5. ' Serious Considerations addressed 
to the House of Israel,' &c, 1811, 12mo. 

6. ' The Miracles of Jesus not performed by 
the power of the Shemhamphorash,'&c, 1812. 

7. ' Scriptural Arguments for the Divinity of 
Christ,' &c, Norwich, 1813, 12mo ; 1814, 8vo. 

8. ' Advice ... to Young Ministers,' &c, 
Norwich, 1814, 12mo. 9. ' Baptism a Term 
of Communion,' Norwich, 1816, 8vo ; two 
editions same year ; 1876, 8vo ; also ' A De- 
fence ' of this, Norwich, 1820, 8vo. 10. < Prac- 
tical Cautions to Students,' &c, Norwich, 
1817, 8vo. 11. ' The Argument in support of 
Infant Baptism from . . . Circumcision,' &c. 
1823, 12mo. 12. ' Arguments . . . against 
Mixed Communion,' &c, 1827, 12mo. 
13. « Sketch of the Life of the Rev. Isaac Slee,' 
&c, 1827, 12mo. 14. « Remarks on . . . the 
Visible Church,' &c, Norwich, 1829, 12mo. 
He edited Robertson's ' Clavis Pentateuchi,' 
&c, Norwich, 1824, 8vo, and the 9th (1814) 
and 10th (1827) editions of Ash and Evans's 
' Collection of Hymns ' (1769). His sermon 
on the ' Separate State^ is in vol. ii. of the 
' British Preacher,' 1831. Wilkin enumerates 
twelve of his unpublished manuscripts, chiefly 
controversial. The catalogue of his library 
was published at Norwich, 1833, 8vo. 

[Wilkin's Joseph Kinghorn, 1855; Browne's 
Hist.Congr. Norf. and Suff. 1877, p. 552; Todd's 
Brief Histor. Sketch of the Baptist Church in St. 
Mary's, Norwich [1886], pp. 14 sq ; Julian's Dic- 
tionary of Hymnology, 1892, p. 112.] A Q. 

KINGHORNE, third Eabl of. [See 
Lrow, Patrick, 1642-1695.] 

LIAM (1809-1891), historian of the Crimean 
war, born 6 Aug. 1809, was the eldest son of 
William Kinglake, banker and solicitor, of 
Taunton, Somerset, by Mary, daughter of 
Thomas Woodforde, esq., of Taunton. He 
had two brotliera^Ilobert Arthur and John 
Hamilton. The Kinglake family is said to 
have been of Scottish origin, the original 




name being Kinloch, and to have come to 
England in the reign of James I, and settled 
in Somerset. It there acquired the estate of 
Saltmoor, which descended to the historian. 

Kinglake says of his mother: 'The most 
humble and pious of women was yet so proud 
a mother that she could teach her first-born 
son no Watt 8*8 hymns, no collects for the 
day ; she could teach him in earliest child- 
hood no less than this — to find a home in his 
saddle and to love old Homer and all that 
Homer sang* CEothen, chap, iv.) The Homer, 
he adds, was Pope's. He retained his skill 
in horsemanship, and though he did not gain 
the usual scholastic honours, he certainly 
acquired a classical refinement of taste. He 
was educated at Eton under Keate, of whom 
he has left a most characteristic portrait (ib. 
ch. xviii.), and in 1828 he entered Trinity 
College, Cambridge. He was the college 
contemporary and friend of Thackeray and 
Lord Tennyson. He became B.A. in 1832, 
and M.A. in 1836. He entered Lincoln's Inn 
on 14 April 1832, and was called to the bar 
on 6 May 1837. He had about 1835 made 
the Eastern tour described afterwards in 
' Eothen, or Traces of Travel brought home 
from the East/ The Methley of that book 
was Lord Pollington. Mysseri, his drago- 
man, was an hotel-keeper at Constantinople 
during the Crimean war. The book, as the 
preface informs us, was the result of a third 
attempt after he had twice failed to satisfy 
himself, and did not appear until 1844. It 
showed Kinglake to be a master of a most re- 
fined style and subtle humour, although he 
thinks it necessary to apologise for the possible 
failure of his attempts to subdue the * almost 
boisterous tone ' of the original writing. He 
has endeavoured, he adds, and he thinks suc- 
cessfully, to exclude from it 'all valuable 
matter derived from the works of others.' In 
truth, though the book was rather absurdly 
compared with the ordinary records of travel, 
it is more akin to Sterne's 'Sentimental 
Journey,' and is a delightful record of per- 
sonal impressions rather than outward facts. 

Although a barrister, and obtaining some 
little emplovment as a conveyancer, King- 
lake cared little for his profession. He had 
always been interested in military history, 
and in 1845 he went to Algiers and accom- 
panied the flying column of St. Arnaud, 
whom he afterwards described from per- 
sonal knowledge (Invasion of the Crimea, 
vol. ii. ch. i.) In 1854 he followed the 
English expedition to the Crimea, and was 

Present at the battle of the Alma (20 Sept. 
854). A fall from his pony on the morning 
of the day introduced nim to Lord Raglan, 
who happened to be near, and he dined with 

Raglan in the evening. He stayed with the 
army until the opening of the siege. In 1856 
Lady Raglan asked him to undertake the 
history of the campaign, and communicated 
to him all the papers in her possession. 
Kinglake undertook the task, and executed 
it with extraordinary care. He made the 
most elaborate inquiry into every incident 
of the war, carefully compared all the avail- 
able evidence, and spared no labour in polish- 
ing the style of his narrative. The first two 
volumes of the 'Invasion of the Crimea * 
appeared in 1863, the third and fourth in 
1868, the fifth in 1875, the sixth in 1880, 
and the seventh and eighth in 1887. The 
scale upon which he worked was probably 
excessive, and, as the interest in the war 
declined, readers had less patience with the 
full description of minute incidents. His 
strong prejudices, especially his moral indig- 
nation against Napoleon III and his loyalty 
to his friend Lord Raglan, gave a party 
tone to the narrative, for which allowance 
must be made. Military experts have found 
fault with some of the judgments of an ama- 
teur in war, though admitting his skill in 
dealing even with technical details. His 
friend Abraham Hayward defended him in 
'Mr. Kinglake and the Quarterly s,' 1863. 
The literary ability in any case is remark- 
able ; the spirit of the writing is never 
quenched by the masses of diplomatic and 
military information; the occasional por- 
traits of remarkable men are admirably 
incisive ; the style is invariably polished to 
the last degree, and the narrative as lucid as 
it is animated. Kinglake in 1857 was elected 
in the liberal interest for Bridgewater. He 
held his seat until 1868, in which year he 
was unseated upon petition and the borough 
disfranchised. Kinglake himself, however, 
was entirely incapable of the slightest com- 
plicity in the corruption which was disclosed, 
and was only too innocent to suspect its 
existence. A weak voice and feeble delivery ' 
prevented him commanding the attention of 
the house. He took a part, however, in de- 
fending all those whom ne held to be victims 
of oppression. He moved the first amend- 
ment to the Conspiracy Bill in 1858, and in 
1860 vigorously denounced the annexation 
of Savoy and Nice. 

During many years Kinglake was fully oc- 
cupied by his history. He lived in Hyde rark 
Place, and was a member of the Travellers' 
and the Athenaeum Clubs. He constantly 
dined at the Athenaeum, in company with 
his friends, Abraham Hayward [q.v.l Thomas 
Chenery [q. v.], and Sir Henry Bunbury. 
A singularly gentle and attractive manner 
covered without concealing the generosity 




of sentiment and chivalrous sense of honour 
which prompted his eloquent denunciations 
of wrong-doing. He suffered at the last from 
cancer of the tongue, and bore with admir- 
able patience sufferings happily not very 
long protracted. He died on 2 Jan. 1891. 
He requested his executor, Dr. J. H. King- 
lake, to 'prevent the publication of any writ- 
ings of his that might be found,' and destroy 
all such papers as were not necessary to be 

Kinglake is said to have contributed to 
the ' Owl/ with which his friend Laurence 
Oliphant was connected ; and he wrote an 
article upon Mme. de Lafayette in 'Black- 
wood's Magazine ' for September 1872. He 
wrote two articles in the ' Quarterly Review/ 
one upon the ' Rights of Women ' (Decem- 
ber 1844), the other ( The Mediterranean a 
French Lake ' (March 1845). His only other 
works are mentioned above. 

[Times, 3 Jan. 1891; Blackwood's Magazine 
for February 1891.1 L. S. 

1842), medical writer, born in 1 765, graduated 
M.l). at Gottingen, and also studied at Edin- 
burgh. After practising for some years as a 
surgeon at Chipping Norton, Oxfordshire, he 
removed to Chilton-upon-Polden, Somerset, 
and in 1802 to Taunton in the same county. 
At Taunton he frequently attended public 
meetings and made many eloquent speeches 
in support of the first Reform Bill. He died 
on 26 Sept. 1842 at West Monk ton rectory, 
near Taunton, the residence of his son, the 
Rev. W. 0. Kinglake (Gent Mag. 1842, ii. 
556J. He was a member of the Royal Medical 
Society of Edinburgh, the Physical Society 
of Gottingen, and other learned bodies. 

Kinglake attracted considerable attention 
by his writings on gout, in which he advo- 
cated the cooling treatment. His first papers 
on the subject appeared in 1801 and 1803 
in the ' Medical and Physical Journal ' (Nos. 
33 and 48). His views were combated by 
Wadd, W. Perry, John Hunt, J. King, and 
others. He replied to his antagonists in : 
1. ' A Dissertation on Gout* (with appendix), 
8vo, London, 1804. 2. ' Reply to Mr. Edlin's 
two Cases of Gout/ 8vo, Taunton, 1804. 
3. ' Additional Cases of Gout/ 8vo, Taunton, 
1807. 4. ' Strictures on Mr. Parkinson's Ob- 
servations on the Nature and Cure of Gout. 
... To which are added, Two Letters to 
Dr. Haygarth, containing Remarks on the 
Opinions he has lately published on Acute 
Rheumatism/ 8vo, Taunton, 1807. He also 
published some curious ' Observations on the 
Medical Effects of Digitalis' in the 4 Medical 
and Physical Journal* for 1800, iii. 120. In 

Macnish's ' Anatomy of Drunkenness/ there 
is a short article by the author on Kinglake's 
experiment with ether. 

[Watt's BibL Brit.] 

KINGSBOROUGH, Viscount. [See 
King, Edwakd, 1795-1837.] 

1818), dissenting minister, was born in 
Bishopsgate Street, London, on 12 July 1744. 
On the death of his father, Thomas Kings- 
bury, in 1763, he was placed at Merchant 
Taylors' School, but some two years later 
received a nomination from Sir John Bar- 
nard [<j. v.] for Christ's Hospital. Leaving 
there in 1758 he entered the congregational 
academy at Mile End, where he studied under 
John Conder [q. v.] and Thomas Gibbons 
[q. v.] After much mental conflict he was 
converted towards the close of 1760, preached 
his first sermon at Bethnal Green in August 
1763, and was ordained minister to the inde- 

r mdent congregation at Southampton on 
Aug. 1765. There he remained some forty- 
five, years, attracting a large congregation by 
the evident earnestness of his preacning. In 
1770, when John Howard the philanthropist 
was at Southampton, Kingsbury laid the 
foundations of a lifelong intimacy with him, 
and contributed some particulars to the life 
of Howard by James ^Baldwin Brown the 
elder [q. v.] Another close friend was John 
Newton [q. v.], the intimate of the poet Cow- 
per. Kingsbury was a strong supporter of the 
movement which developed into the London 
Missionary Society, and in 1796 he drew 
up by request a circular letter of appeal 
to the independent churches throughout the 
country. Some disparaging remarks let fall 
in a sermon by Richard Mant, D.D., rector 
of All Souls', Southampton, in this same 
year, drew from Kingsbury his one contro- 
versial work, ' The Manner in which Pro- 
testant Dissenters perform Prayer in Public 
Worship vindicated/ London, 1796, 12mo ; 
the tract rapidly passed through two editions. 
In 1809 Kingsbury, who had since 1772 con- 
ducted a small school in addition to his 
pastoral duties, found himself unequal to his 
work. He formally resigned his pastorate on 
29 July in that year, when a stipend of 200/. 
per annum, of which he would only accept 
120/., was offered him. He died at Caversham 
on 18 Feb. 1818, and a mural tablet waserected 
to his memory in the independent chapel at 
Southampton. Kingsbury married in Novem- 
ber 1768 a Miss Andrews, daughter of Morde- 
cai Andrews, an independent minister in Lon- 
don, by whom a son, Thomas, and a daugh- 
ter, Sarah, who married one Jameson, sur- 
vived him. A memoir, together with a de- 




votional diary kept by Kingsbury during the 
latter years of his life, was published by 
John Bullar of Southampton in 1819. 

Kingsbury published, besides the work 
mentioned above, a number of funeral ser- 
mons. A copy of one, which is not mentioned 
in the British Museum Catalogue, on the 
'Life, Labors, and Departure of the Rev. 
Edward Ashburner/ delivered at Poole in 
Dorset, 6 July 1804, is in Dr. Williams's 
Library. Another sermon^published in 1789, 
on 'The Sickness and Recovery of King 
Hezekiah,' was ' occasioned by the happy 
recovery of his Majesty ' (George III). 

[Life by Bullar; Wilson's Disseuting Churches, 
i. 190, ii. 549, iii. 503 ; Biog. Diet, of Living Au- 
thors, p. 190; Brown's Life of Howard, p. 101 ; 
Darling's Cyclop. Bibl. 1732; Morison's Mis- 
sionary Fathers.] T. 8. 

1882), philanthropist, was born on 25 May 
1802. lie was second son of Thomas Kings- 
cote (d. 1811), who was brother of Robert 
Kingscote of Kingscote, Gloucestershire ; his 
mother was Harriet, fourth daughter of Sir 
Henry Peyton of Dodington in the same 
county. lie was educated at Harrow, and 
early became a cricketer and rider to hounds. 
He was six feet five inches in height. He 

?layed his first match at Lord's on 21 May 
823. In 1827 he was elected president of the 
Marylebone Cricket Club. A narrow escape 
from drowning turned his attention to reli- 
gious matters ; he became a friend of Bishop 
Blomfield, and with him was instrumental 
in founding the Church of England Scrip- 
ture Readers' Association and the Metropo- 
litan Visiting and Relief Association, of 
which he was a trustee all his life. In 1846 
he published a pamphlet-letter to the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury on the needs of the 
churcn, which ran through several editions, 
and in it he urged the extension of lay agency \ 
and the foundation of new bishoprics. In ! 
1846 he helped to found the Southwark 
fund for schools and churches, and in 1847 j 
he helped in alleviating the distress in Ire- 
land. He sent out supplies to the troops 
during the Crimean war. In 1868 Kingscote 
was one of the founders of the British and 
Colonial Emigration Society; he was also 
the founder of the scheme for establishing 
workshops for the indigent blind, which was 
not very successful, and of the National 
Orphan Asylum at Ham Common. Kings- 
cote died on 13 July 1882. He married, on 
11 July 1833, Harriet Elizabeth Tower of 
Weald Hall, Essex, and by her had three 
sons and five daughters. 

[Times, 14 July 1882; Lillywhite's Cricket 
Scores and Biographies, i. 468; Box's English 

Game of Cricket, p. 101 ; Nimrod's Hunting 
Tour, p. 198 ; Men of the Reign ; Burke's Landed 
Gentry.] W. A. J. A. 

KINGSDOWN,Lord. [See Pemberton- 
Leigh, Thomas, 1793-1867.] 

KINGSFORD, Mrs. ANNA (1846- 
1888), doctor of medicine and religious writer, 
daughter of John Bonus, was born at Mary- 
land Point, Stratford, Essex, 16 Sept. 1&46, 
and was baptised Annie. She married in 
1867 Algernon Godfrey Kingsford, vicar of 
Atcham, Shropshire. From 1868 to 1872 
she wrote stones in the ' Penny Post,' signed 
Ninon Kingsford and Mrs. Algernon Kings- 
ford. In 1870 she was received into the 
Roman catholic church by Cardinal Manning, 
and she adopted the christian names Annie 
Mary Magdalen Maria Johanna. In 1872 she 
purchased and edited in her own name ' The 
Lady's Own Paper,' in which she strenuously 
supported the movement against vivisection, 
but she gave up the paper in 1873, and in 1874 
went to Paris to commence medical studies. 
On 22 July 1880 she received the degree of 
M.D. from the faculty of Paris. She had then 
adopted vegetarian principles, and the title of 
her thesis was ' De l'alimentation veg6tale chez 
Fhomme ; ' this, translated and enlarged, was 
published in London, 1881, as 'The Perfect 
Way in Diet.' Mrs. Kingsford soon engaged 
in the active practice of a London physician, 
but her attention was largely devoted to 
mystical subjects. She became president of 
the Theosophical Society in 1883, and founded 
in 1884 the Hermetic Society. In 1887 a cold 
caught while visiting M. Pasteur's laboratory 
on a snowy day developed into pulmonary 
consumption. She removed to the Riviera 
without benefit, and, returning to London, 
died at Wynnstay Gardens, Kensington, 
22 Feb. 1888, being buried in Atcham church- 
yard. She left a daughter. 

In person Mrs. Kingsford was singularly 
beautiful ; as a doctor she was very successful 
with women ; she also was one of the pioneers 
in the cause of the higher education of women. 
Much doubt exists as to the faith in which she 
died. Her aim as a religious teacher was to 
reconcile Christianity with her own mystical 
theories, and to bring prominently forward 
the connection of Christianity with eastern 
faiths, a connection which had in her opinion 
been long obscured. The Hermetic Society 
still exists in this country, and has a certain: 
following in the United States. 

Mrs. Kingsford's chief works were : 1. ' Bea- 
trice, a Tale of the Early Christians,' Lon- 
don, 1863, 12mo, remarkable on account of 
the youthful age of the authoress. 2. ' River 
Reeds/ a volume of verse, anon., London, 




1866. 8. ' The Perfect Way, or the Finding of 
Chri8t, , London, 1882, 4to; revised ed. 1887; 
3rd ed. 1890 ; in this work Mr. Edward 
Maitland assisted. 4. 'The Virgin of the 
World/ translated, with a preface, from 
' Hermes Mercurius Trismegistus,' 1885, 4to. 
5. * Astrology theologised,' 1886, 4to, a reprint, 
with a preface, of a work of Valentine Wei- 
gelius. 6. ' Health, Beauty, and the Toilet/ 
London, 1886, 8vo (2nd ed. same year), a 
reprint of letters which appeared, 1884-6, in 
the 'Lady's Pictorial/ These occasioned 
some adverse criticism, as sanctioning arti- 
ficial aids to beauty. Posthumous, and edited 
by Mr. Eld ward Maitland, were : 7. ' Dreams 
and Dream Stories/ 1888, 8vo. 8. « Clothed 
with the Sun/ New York, 1889, 4to, a curious 
collection of what are termed by the editor 
' illuminations.' 

[Times, 27 Feb. 1888; Lady's Pictorial, 
3 March 1888 (portrait from a photograph and 
reminiscences by Mrs. Fen wick-Miller) ; Tablet, 
1888 (letters from Mr. Edward Maitland as to 
whether Mrs. Kingsford died in the catholic 
faith) ; Hays's Women of the Day ; private in- 
formation.] W. A. J. A. 

KINGSLAND, Viscounts. [SeeBARNE- 
wall, Nicholas, 1592-1663, first Viscount; 
Barnewall, Nicholas, 1668-1725, third 

KINGSLEY, CHARLES (1819-1875), 
author, son of the Rev. Charles Kingsley, first 
of Battram8ley House in the New Forest, by 
his wife, daughter of Nathan Lucas of Bar- 
badoes and Rushford Lodge, Norfolk, was 
born on 12 June 1819 at Holne Vicarage, 
Devonshire. His father, a descendant of an 
old family which had produced many soldiers, 
had been bred as a country gentleman ; but, 
from the carelessness of his guardians during 
a long minority, had been forced to adopt a 
profession, and had taken orders after thirty. 
lie became acquainted, while studying at 
Trinity Hall, Cambridge, with Herbert Marsh 
Tq. v.J, then professor of divinity, and in 
1819 tishop of Peterborough. He took a 
curacy in the fens, and afterwards at Holne, 
whence he moved to Burton-on-Trent and 
Clifton in Nottinghamshire. He held the 
valuable living of Barnack in Northampton- 
shire (between Peterborough and Stamford) 
from 1824 to 1830, until the son of Bishop 
Marsh could take orders. He caught ague 
in the fen country, and was advised to re- 
move to Devonshire, where he was presented 
to Clovelly . He remained there till, in 1 836, 
he became rector of St. Luke's, Chelsea. He 
died on 29 Feb. 1860 at the Chelsea rectory, 
in his seventy-eighth year. 

Charles was a precocious child, writing 

sermons and poems at the age of four. He 
was delicate and sensitive, and retained 
through life the impressions made upon him 
by the scenery of the fen9 and of Clovelly. 
At Clovelly he learnt to boat, to ride, and 
to collect shells. In 1831 he was sent to a 
school at Clifton, and saw the Bristol riots 
of August 1831, which he says for some 
years made him a thorough aristocrat. In 
1832 he was sent to the grammar school at 
Helston, Cornwall, then under Derwent Cole- 
ridge [q. v.], though it is said that E. C. 
Hawtrey [q. v.] wished him to go to Eton, 
from reports of nis early promise. Kingsley 
was not a close student, though he showed 
great intellectual activity. He was not 
popular, rather despising his fellows, caring 
little for the regular games, although fond of 
feats of agility and of long excursions in 
search of plants and geological specimens. 
He wrote a good deal of poetry ana poetical 
prose. In 1836 he went with his family to 
London, and became a student at King's 
College, London, walking in and out from 
Chelsea. He worked hard, but found Lon- 
don life dismal, and was not a little bored 
by the parish work in which his father and 
mother were absorbed. He describes the 
district visitors as ugly and splay-footed 
beings, ' three-fourths of whom can't sing, 
and the other q uarter sing miles out of tune, 
with voices like love-sick parrots.' In Oc- 
tober 1838 he entered Magdalene College, 
Cambridge, and at the end of his first year 
gained a scholarship. In the following vaca- 
tion, while staying with his father in the 
country, he met, on 6 July 1839, his future 
wife, Fanny, daughter of Pascoe Grenfell. 
That, he said afterwards, was ' my real wed- 
ding-day.' They began an occasional corre- 
spondence, in which Kingsley confessed very 
fully to the religious doubts by which he, like 
others, was tormented at the time of the 
Oxford movement. He was occasionally so 
much depressed by these thoughts, and by 
the uncertainty of any fulfilment of his 
hopes, that he sometimes thought of leaving 
Cambridge to ' become a wild prairie hunter.' 
His attachment to Miss Grenfell operated 
as an invaluable restraint. He read Cole- 
ridge, Carlyle, and Maurice with great inte- 
rest. Meanwhile, though his studies seem 
to have been rather desultory, he was popular 
at college, and threw himself into every kind 
of sport to distract his mind. He rowed, 
though he did not attain to the first boat, 
but specially delighted in fishing expeditions 
into the fens and elsewhere, rode out to 
Sedgwick's equestrian lectures on geology, 
and learnt boxing under a negro prize-fighter. 
He was a good pedestrian, and once walked 




to London in a day. His distractions, in- 
tellectual, emotional, and athletic, made him 
regard the regular course of study as a pain- 
ful drudgery. He read classics with W. II . 
Bateson [<j. v.], afterwards master of St. 
John's, during his first and third years, but 
could not be induced to work hard till his 
last six months. He then by great effort 
succeeded in obtaining the last place in the 
first class of the classical tripos of 1842. He 
was a 'senior optime'in the previous mathe- 
matical tripos. He had by this time decided 
to take orders, and in July 1842 was ordained 
by the Bishop of Winchester to the curacy of 
Eversley, Hampshire. Eversley is on the 
borders of Windsor Forest, a wild heather- 
covered country, with a then neglected popu- 
lation of ' broom squires ' and deerstealers, 
and with a considerable infusion of gipsies. 
Kingsley disliked the Oxford school, which 
to him represented sacerdotalism, asceticism, 
and Manichaeism, and was eagerly reading 
Maurice's ' Kingdom of Christ/ Carlyle ana 
Arnold were also among his prophets. He 
soon became popular by hard work in his parish 
and genuine sympathy with the poor, but 
lived a secluded life, with little society beyond 
that of a few friends in the Military College 
at Sandhurst. A year's interruption in the 
correspondence with his future wife implies 
a cause for depression. In September 1843, 
however, he obtained through one of her re- 
lations, Lord Sidney Godolphin Osborne, a 
promise of a living from Lord Portman, and 
was advised to apply in the meantime for the 
curacy of Pimperne, near Blandford. The 
curacy was promised, and the correspondence 
was renewed. Early in 1844 he married. The 
Kving of Eversley fell vacant at the time, and 
the parishioners were anxious that he should 
succeed to it. In May 1844 he was accord- 
ingly presented to it by Sir John Cope, the 
patron, and settled there as rector soon after- 

Heavy dilapidations and arrears of poor- 
rate fell upon the new incumbent ; the house 
was unwnolesome, and much drainage was 
required. The church was empty ; no grown- 
up labourers in the parish could read or 
write, and everything was in a state of ne- 
glect. Kingsley set to work vigorously, and 
in time successfully, to remedy this state of 
things. His only recreation was an occasional 
day's fishing, and sometimes a day with the 
hounds on an old horse ' picked up cheap for 
parson's work.' In 1844 he made acquaint- 
ance with Maurice, to whom he had written 
for advice upon some of his difficulties. 
Maurice soon became a revered friend, whom 
he delighted to call his ' master.' In 1846 
lie was appointed a canon of Middleham by 

Dean Wood, father of an old college friend, 
a post which was merely honorary, though 
historically interesting. 

In 1842, just after taking his degree, he 
had begun to write the life of St. Elizabeth 
of Hungary. He finally changed his original 
prose into a drama, which was accepted, after 
some refusals from publishers, by Messrs. 
Parker, and appeared at the beginning of 
1848 with a preface by Maurice. The book 
excited interest both in Oxford and in Ger- 
many. It was much admired by Bunsen, and 
a review by Conington, though not very fa- 
vourable, led to a friendship with the critic. 
While showing high poetical promise, and 
indeed containing some of his best work, it 
is also an exposition of his sentiments upon 
the social and religious movements of the 
day. Though expressing sympathy with 
mediaeval life, it is a characteristic protest 
against the ascetic theories which, as he 
thought, tended to degrade the doctrine of 
the marriage bond. The events of 1848 led 
to a more direct utterance. His admiration 
for Maurice brought about a close association 
with the group who, with Maurice for leader, 
were attempting to give a Christian direction 
to the socialist movement then becoming 
conspicuous. Among others he came to 
know A. P. Stanley, Mr. Froude, Mr. Lud- 
low, and especially Mr. Thomas Hughes, 
afterwards his most intimate friend. He was 
appointed professor of English literature in 
Queen's College, Harley Street, just founded, 
with Maurice as president, and gave a course 
of weekly lectures, though ill-health forced 
him to give up the post a year later. His 
work at Eversley prevented him from taking 
so active a part as some of his friends, but 
he heartily sympathised with their aims, and 
was a trusted adviser in their schemes for 
promoting co-operation and 'Christian so- 
cialism.' His literary gifts were especially 
valuable, and his writings were marked by a 
fervid and genuine enthusiasm on behalf of 
the poor. He contributed papers to the 
* Politics for the People/ of which the first 
number (of seventeen published) appeared on 
6 May 1848. He took the signature ' Parson 
Lot,' on account of a discussion with his 
friends, in which, being in a minority of one, 
he had said that he felt like Lot, ' when he 
seemed as one that mocked to his sons-in- 
law.' Under the same name he published a 
pamphlet called ' Cheap Clothes and Nasty ' 
in 1850, and a good many contributions to 
the ' Christian Socialist : a Journal of Asso- 
ciation,' which appeared from 2 Nov. 1850 to 
28 June 1851. The pamphlet was reprinted 
with ' Alton Locke and a preface by Mr. 
Thomas Hughes in 1881. He produced his 




first two novels under the same influence. 
' Yeast ' was published in ' Fraser's Magazine ' 
in the autumn of 1848. He had been greatly 
excited by the events of the previous months, 
and wrote it at night, after days spent in hard 
parish work. A complete breakdown of health 
iollowed. He went for rest to Bournemouth 
in October, and after a second collapse spent 
the winter in North Devon. A further holi- 
day, also spent in Devonshire, became neces- 
sary in 1849. The expenses of sickness and 
the heavy rates at Eversley tried his finances. 
He resigned the office of clerk-in-orders at 
St. Luke's, Chelsea, which he had held since 
his marriage, but which he now felt to be a 
sinecure. To make up his income he resolved 
to take pupils, and by a great effort finished 
' Alton Locke ' in the winter of 1849-50. 
Messrs. Parker declined it, thinking that they 
had suffered in reputation by the publica- 
tion of * Yeast/ It was, however, accepted 
by Messrs. Chapman & Hall on the recom- 
mendation of Carlyle, and appears to have 
brought the author 150/. (Kingsley, i. 277). 
It was published in August 1850, and was de- 
scribed by Carlyle as a ' fervid creation still 
left half chaotic.' 

Kingsley's writings exposed him at this 
time to many and often grossly unfair attacks. 
In 1851 he preached a sermon in a London 
church which, with the full knowledge of 
the incumbent, was to give the views of the 
Christian socialists, and was called 'The 
Message of the Church to the Labouring 
Man.' At the end of the sermon, however, 
the incumbent rose and protested against its 
teaching. The press took the matter up, and 
the Bishop of London (Blomfield) forbade 
Kingsley to preach in his diocese. A meet- 
ing of working-men was held on Kennington 
Common to support Kingsley. The sermon 
was printed, and the bishop, after seeing 
Kingsley, withdrew the prohibition. 

The fear of anything called socialism was 
natural at the time; but Kingsley never 
adopted the socialist creed in a sense which 
could now shock the most conservative. In 
politics he was in later life rather a tory 
than a radical. He fervently believed in the 
House of Lords (see e.g. Kingsley, iL 241-3), 
detested the Manchester school, and was 
opposed to most of the radical platform. 
' Yeast ' and ' Alton Locke ' indeed show an 
even passionate sympathy for the sufferings 
of the agricultural labourer and of the London 
artisan. The ballad of the ' poacher's widow ' 
in ' Yeast ' is a denunciation of game-pre-> 
servers vigorous enough to satisfy the most 
thoroughgoing chartist. But Kingsley's sen- 
timent was thoroughly in harmony with the 
class of squires ana country clergymen, who 


required in his opinion to be roused to their 
duties, not deprived of their privileges. He 
therefore did not sympathise with the truly 
revolutionarv movement, but looked for a 
remedy of admitted evils to the promotion of 
co-operation, and to sound sanitary legisla- 
tion (in which he was always strongly inte- 
rested). He strove above all to direct popu- 
lar aspirations by Christian principles, which 
alone, as he hela, could produce true liberty 
and equality. Thus, when the passions roused 
in 1848 had cooled down, he ceased to be an 
active agitator, and became tolerably recon- 
ciled to the existing order. 

In 1851 he was attacked with gross un- 
fairness or stupidity for the supposed immo- 
rality of ' Yeast,' and replied in a letter to 
the ' Guardian ' by a mentiris impudentu/sime, 
which showed how deeply he had been stung. 
He sought relief from worry and work in 
the autumn of 1851 by his first tour abroad, 
bringing back from the Rhine impressions 
afterwards used in ' Two Years Ago.' One 
of his private pupils, Mr. John Martineau, has 
given a very vivid account of his home life at 
Eversley during this period (Kingsley, i. 297- 
308). He had brought things into better 
order, and after his holiday in 1851 was able 
for some time to work without a curate. 
Not being able to get another pupil, he 
was compelled to continue his work single- 
handed, and again became over-exhausted. 
His remarkable novel, * Hypatia,' certainly 
one of the most successful attempts in a very 
difficult literary style, appeared in 1853, after 
passing through ' Erasers Magazine.' It was 
well received in Germany as well as England, 
and highly praised by Bun sen (Memoirs, ii. 
309^. Maurice took a part in criticising it 
during its progress, and gave suggestions 
which Kingsley turned to account. Like his 
previous books, it is intended to convey a 
lesson for the day, dealing with an analogous 
period of intellectual fermentation. It shows 
his brilliant power of constructing a vivid, if 
not too accurate, picture of a past social state. 
The winter of 1853-4 was passed at Torquay 
for the sake of his wife, whose health had suf- 
fered from the damp of Everslev. Here his 
strong love of natural history led him to a 
study of seashore objects and to an article 
on the ' Wonders of the Shore ' in the * North 
British Review,' afterwards developed into 
' Glaucus.' In February he gave some lec- 
tures at Edinburgh on the ' Schools of Alex- 
andria,' and in the spring settled with his 
family at Bideford, his wife being still un- 
able to return to Eversley. Here he wrote 
' Westward Ho ! ' It was dedicated to Bishop 
Selwyn and Rajah Brooke. Brooke was a 
hero after his own heart, whom he knew per* 





sonally and had heartily endeavoured to sup- 
port {Kingsley, i. 222, 369-70, 444-5). It is 
in some ways his most characteristic book, 
and the descriptions of Devonshire scenery, 
his hearty sympathy with the Elizabethan 
heroes, and the unflagging spirit of the story, 
make the reader indifferent to its obviously 
one-sided view of history. 

While staying at Bideford Kingsley dis- 
played one of his many gifts by getting up 
and teaching a drawing class for young men. 
In the course of 1855 he again settled at 
•Eversley, spending the winter at a house 
on Farley Hill, for the benefit of his wife's 
health. Besides frequent lectures, sermons, 
and articles, he was now writing ' Two Years 
Ago/ which appeared in 185/. Kingsley 
had been deeply interested in the Crimean 
war. Some thousands of copies of a tract 
by him, called 'Brave Words to Brave Sol- 
diers/ had been distributed to the army. 
He always had keen military tastes; he 
studied military history with especial inte- 
rest ; many of the officers from Sandhurst and 
Aldershot became his warm friends ; and he 
delighted in lecturing, preaching, or bless- 
ing new colours for the regiments in camp. 
Such tastes help to explain the view ex- 

Eressed in 'Two Years Ago/ which was then 
3ss startling than may now seem possible, 
that the war was to exercise a great regene- 
rating influence. The novel is much weaker 
than its predecessors, and shows clearly 
that if his desire for social reform was not 
lessened, he had no. longer so strong a 
sense that the times were out of joint. His 
health and prospects had improved, a result 
which he naturally attributed to a general 
improvement of the world. 

The Crimean pamphlet had been published 
anonymously, on account of the prejudices 
against him in the religious world. The 
prejudices rapidly diminished from this time. 
In 1859 he became one of the queen's chap- 
lains in ordinary. He was presented to the 
queen and to the prince consort, for whom 
he entertained a specially warm admiration. 
He still felt the strain of overwork, having 
no curate, and shrank from London bustle, 
confining himself chiefly to Eversley. In 
May 1860 he was appointed to the profes- 
sorship of modern nistory at Cambridge, 
vacant by the death in the previous autumn 
of Sir James Stephen. He took a house at 
Cambridge, but after three years found that 
the expense of a double establishment was 
beyond his means, and from 1863 resided at 
Eversley, only going to Cambridge twice a 
year to deliver his lectures. During the first 
period his duties at Eversley were under- 
taken by the Rev. Septimus Hansard. The | 

salary of the professorship was 371/., and 
the preparation of lectures interfered with 
other literary work. During the residence 
of the Prince of Wales at Cambridge a special 
class under Kingsley was formed for his 
benefit, and the prince won the affectionate 
regard of his teacher. The prince recom- 
mended him for an honorary degree at Ox- 
ford on the commemoration or 1863, but 
the threatened opposition of the high church 
party under Pusey induced Kingsley to retire, 
with the advice of his friends. Kingsley's 
tenure of the professorship can hardly be 
described as successful. The difficulties were 
great. The attempt to restore the profes- 
sorial system had at that time only succeeded 
in filling the class-rooms with candidates for 
the ordinary degree. History formed no part 
of the course of serious students, and the 
lectures were in the main merely ornamental. 
Kingsley's geniality, however, won many 
friends both among the authorities and the 
undergraduates. Some young men expressed 
sincere gratitude for the intellectual and 
moral impulse which they received from him. 
Professor Max Miiller says (Kingsley, ii. 266) 
' history was but his text/ and his lectures 
gave the thoughts of 'a poet and a moralist, 
a politician and a theologian, and, above all, 
a friend and counsellor of young men.' They 
roused interest, but they did not lead to a 
serious study of history or an elevation of 
the position held by the study at the uni- 
versity. Kingsley's versatile mind, distracted 
by a great variety of interests, had caught 
brilliant glimpses, but had not been practised 
in systematic study. His lectures, wnen pub- 
lished, were severely criticised by writers of 
authority as savouring more of the historical 
novelist than of the trained inquirer. He was 
sensible of this weakness, and towards the 
end of his tenure of office became anxious to 
resign. His inability to reside prevented him 
from keeping up the intimacies with young 
men which, at the beginning of his course, 
he had rightly regarded as of great value. 

In the beginning of 1864 Kingsley had an 
unfortunate controversy with John Henry 
Newman [q. v.] He had asserted in a review 
of Mr. Froude's 'History' in 'Macmillan's 
Magazine ' for January 1860 that ' Truth, 
for its own sake, had never been a virtue 
with the Roman catholic clergy/ and attri- 
buted this opinion to Newman in particular. 
Upon Newman's protest, a correspondence 
followed, which was published by Newman 
(dated 31 Jan. 1864), with a brief, but 
cutting, comment. Kingsley replied in a 
pamphlet called ' What, then, does Dr. New- 
man mean P ' which produced Newman's 
famous 'Apologia.' Kingsley was clearly 




both rash in his first statement and un- 
satisfactory in the apology which he pub- 
lished in * Macmillan's Magazine' (this is 
given in the correspondence). That New- 
man triumphantly vindicated his personal 
character is also beyond doubt. The best 
that can be said for Kingsley is that he was 
aiming at a real blot on the philosophical 
system of his opponent j but, if so, it must 
lie also allowed that he contrived to confuse 
the issue, and by obvious misunderstandings 
to give a complete victory to a powerful 
antagonist. With all his merits as an imagi- 
native writer, Kingsley never showed any 
genuine dialectical ability. 

Kingsley's health was now showing symp 
toms of decline. The 'Water Babies/ pub- 
lished in 1863, was, says Mrs. Kingsley, 
'perhaps the last book, except his West 
Indian one, that he wrote with any real 
ease.' Rest and change of air had been 
strongly advised, and in the spring of 1864 
he made a short tour in France with Mr. 
Froude. In 1865 he was forced by further 
illness to retire for three months to the coast 
of Norfolk. From 1868 the Rev. William 
Harrison was his curate, and lightened his 
work at Eversley. Mr. Harrison contributed 
some interesting reminiscences to the memoir 
{ETingsley, ii. 281-8). In 1869 Kingsley re- 
signed his professorship at Cambridge, stating 
that his brains as well as his purse rendered 
the step necessary (ib. ii. 293). Relieved from 
the strain, he gave many lectures and ad- 
dresses ; he was president of the education 
section at the Social Science Congress held 
in October 1869 at Bristol, and delivered an 
inaugural address, which was printed by the 
Education League; about 100,000 copies 
were distributed. He had joined the league, 
which was generally opposed by the clergy, 
in despair of otherwise obtaining a national 
system of education, but withdrew to become 
a supporter of W. E. Forster's Education Bill. 
At the end of the year he sailed to the West 
Indies on the invitation of his friend Sir 
Arthur Gordon, then governor of Trinidad. 
His 'At Last,' a graphic description of his 
travels, appeared in 1870. In August 1869 
Kingsley was appointed canon of Chester, and 
was installed in November. Next year he 
began his residence on 1 Mav, and found 
congenial society among the catnedral clergy. 
He started a botany class, which developed 
into the Chester Natural History Society, lie 

fave some excellent lectures, published in 
872 as ' Town Geology,' and acted as guide 
to excursions into the country for botanical 
and jjeological purposes. A lecture delivered 
at Sion College upon the ' Theology of the 
Future' (published in ' Macmillanfs Maga- 

zine') stated his views of the relations 
between scientific theories and theological 
doctrine, and for the later part of his life 
his interest in natural history determined a 
large part of his enerjjy. He came to believe 
in Darwinism, holding that it was in full 
accordance with theology. Sanitary science 
also occupied much of his attention, and an 
address delivered by him in Birmingham in 
1872, as president of the Midland Institute, 
led to the foundation of classes at the insti- 
tute and at Saltley College (a place of train- 
ing for schoolmasters) for the study of the 
laws of health. 

In 1873 he was appointed canon of West- 
minster, and left Chester, to the general 
regret of his colleagues and the people. His 
son, Maurice, had gone to America in 1870, 
and was there employed as a railway en- 
gineer. Returning in 1873, he found his 
father much changed, and urged a sea- voyage 
and rest. At the beginning of 1874 Kings- 
ley sailed for America, was received with 
the usual American hospitality in the chief 
cities, and gave some lectures. After a visit 
to Canada, he went to the west, saw Salt Lake 
city, San Francisco, the Yosemite valley, and 
had a severe attack of pleurisy, during which 
he stayed at Colorado Springs. It weakened 
him seriously, and after his return in August 
1874 he had an attack at Westminster, by 
which he was further shaken. His wife had 
a dangerous illness soon afterwards. He 
was able to preach at Westminster in Novem- 
ber, but was painfully changed in appearance. 
On 3 Dec. he went with his wife to Eversley, 
catching fresh cold just before. At Evers- 
ley he soon became dangerously ill. His 
wife was at the same time confined to her 
room with an illness supposed to be mortal, 
and he could only send messages for a time. 
He died peacefully on 23 Jan. 1875. He was 
buried at Eversley on 28 Jan., amid a great 
concourse of friends, including men of poli- 
tical and military distinction, villagers, and 
the huntsmen of the pack, with the horses 
and hounds outside the churchyard. Dean 
Stanley took part in the service, and preached 
a funeral sermon in Westminster Abbey 
(published) on 31 Jan. A cross was erected 
by his wife in Eversley churchyard. A 
Kingsley Memorial Fund provided a restora- 
tion of the church and a bust (by Mr. Wool- 
ner) in Westminster Abbey. A portrait is 
prefixed to the first volume of the 'Memoirs, 
and an engraving from Mr. Woolner's bust 
to the second. 

A civil list pension was granted to Mrs. 
Kingsley upon her husband s death, but she 
declined the queen's offer of rooms in Hamp- 
ton Court Palace. She died at her residence 





at Bishop's Tachbrook, near Leamington, on 
Saturday, 12 Dec. 1891, aged 77. Kingsley's 
four children, all born at Eversley, were : 
1. Rose Georgina (b. 1845); 2. Maurice (b. 
1847), now of New Rochelle in the state of 
New York ; 3. Mary St. Leger (b. 1852), 
now wife of the Rev. W. Harrison, rector of 
Ciovelly ; and 4. Grenville Arthur to. 1857), 
now resident in Queensland. Mrs. Harrison 
has written some well-known novels under 
the pseudonym ' Lucas Malet.' 

Kingsley was above middle height, of spare 
but muscular and vigorous frame, with a 
strongly marked face, to which the deep lines 
between the brows gave an expression of 
sternness. He was troubled by a stammer. 
He prescribed and practised rules for its cure, 
but never overcame it in conversation, al- 
though in public speaking he could avoid it. 
The name of 'muscular Christianity/ first 
given in the ' Saturday Review/ and some 
of his verses suggested the tough athlete ; 
but he had a highly nervous temperament, 
and his characteristic restlessness made it 
difficult for him to sit still through a meal 
(Martineau in Kingsley, i. 300). He had 
taken to smoking at college to soothe his 
nerves, and, finding the practice beneficial, 
acquired the love of tobacco which he ex- 
presses in ' Westward Ho ! ' His impetuous 
and excitable temper led him to overwork 
himself from the first, and his early writings 
gave promise of still higher achievements 
than he ever produced. The excessive fer- 
vour of his emotions caused early exhaustion, 
and was connected with his obvious weak- 
nesses. He neither thought nor studied 
systematically, and his beliefs were more 
matters of instinct than of reason. He was 
distracted by the wide range and quickness 
of his sympathy. He had great powers of 
enjoyment. He had a passion for the beau- 
tinil in art and nature. No one surpassed 
him in first-hand descriptions of the scenery 
that he loved. He was enthusiastic in 
natural history, recognised every country 
sight and sound, and studied birds, beasts, 
fishes, and geology with the keenest interest. 
In theology he was a disciple of Maurice, 
attracted by the generous feeling and catholic 
spirit of his master. He called himself a 
'rlatonist' in philosophy, and had a taste 
for the mystics, liking to recognise a divine 
symbolism in nature. At the same time his 
scientific enthusiasm led him to admire Dar- 
win, Professor Huxley, and Lyell without 
reserve. He corresponded with J. S. Mill, 
expressed the strongest admiration of his 
books, and shared in his desire for the emanci- 
pation of women. Certain tendencies of the ad- 
vocates of women's rights caused him to draw 

back ; but he was always anxious to see women 
admitted to medical studies. His domestic 
character was admirable, and he was a most 
energetic country parson. He loved and 
respected the poor, and did his utmost to 
raise their standard of life. ' He was/ said 
Matthew Arnold in a letter of condolence to 
his family, ' the most generous man I have 
ever known ; the most forward to praise what 
he thought good, the most willing to admire, 
the most free from all thought of himself, in 
praising and in admiring, and the most in- 
capable of being made ill-natured or even in- 
different by having to support ill-natured 
attacks himself.' This quality made him at- 
tractive to all who met him personally, how- 
ever averse to some of his views. It went 
along with a distaste for creeds embodying 
a narrow and distorted ideal of life — a dis- 
taste which biassed his judgment of ecclesias- 
tical matters, and gives the impression that 
the ancient Greeks or Teutons had more of 
his real sympathies than the early Christians. 
He was a genuine poet, if not of the very 
highest kind. Some of his stirring lyrics are 
likely to last long, and his beautiful poem, 
' Andromeda/ is perhaps the best example of 
the English hexameter. 

Kingsley's works are: 1. 'The Saint's 
Tragedy/ 1848. 2. 'Twenty-five Village 
Sermons/ 1849. 8. 'Alton Locke/ 1850. 
4. ' Yeast, a Problem/ 1851 (published in 
' Fraser's Magazine ' in 1848, and cut short 
to please the proprietors ; for intended con- 
clusion see Kingsley, i. 219). 6. ' Phaethon, 
or Loose Thoughts for Loose Thinkers/ 1852. 
6. ' Sermons on National Subjects/ 1st ser. 
1852, 2nd ser. 1854. 7. 'Hypatia/ 1853 
(from ' Fraser's Magazine '). 8. ' Alexandria 
and her Schools' (lectures at Edinburgh), 

1854. 9. ' Who causes Pestilence ? ' (four ser- 
mons), 1854. 10. ' Sermons for the Times/ 

1855. 11. 'Westward Ho! '1855. 12. 'Glau- 
cus, or the Wonders of the Shore/ 1855. 
13. ' The Heroes, or Greek Fairy Tales/ 1856. 
14. 'Two Years Ago/ 1857. 15. 'Andro- 
meda, and other Poems/ 1858; ' Poems ' 
(1875) includes these and ' The Saint's Tra- 
gedy.' 16. ' The Good News of God/ a volume 
of sermons, 1859. 17. ' Miscellanies/ 1859. 
18. ' Limits of Exact Science, as applied to 
History ' (inaugural lecture at Cambridge), 

1860. 19. 'Town and Country Sermons/ 

1861. 20. 'Sermons on the Pentateuch/ 
1863. 21. 'The Water Babies/ 1863. 
22. 'David' (four sermons before the uni- 
versity), 1865. 23. 'Hereward the Wake/ 

1866. 24. 'The Ancien Regime' (three 
lectures at the Royal Institution), 1867. 
25. ' The Water of Life, and other Sermons/ 

1867. 26. ' The Hermits ' (Sunday Library, 




vol. ii.), 1868. 27. ' Discipline, and other 
Sermons,' 1868. 28. ' Madam How and Lady 
Why' (from 'Good Words for Children'), 
1869. 29. 'At Last: a Christmas in the 
West Indies/ 1871. 30. 'Town Geology ' 
(lectures at Chester), 1872. 81. 'Prose 
Idylls/ 1873. 32. 'Plays and Puritans/ 
1873. 33. ' Health and Education/ 1874. 
34. ' Westminster Sermons/ 1874. 36. ' Lec- 
tures delivered in America/ 1875. 36. ' All 
Saints' Day, and other Sermons ' (edited by 
W. Harrison), 1878. 

Kingsley also published some single ser- 
mons and pamphlets besides those mentioned 
in the text. Various selections hate also 
been published. He wrote prefaces to Miss 
Wordsworth's translation of 'Tauler' and 
the * Theologia Germanica/ and to Brooke's 
'Fool of Quality.' 

[Charles Kingsley : his Letters and Memories 
of his Life, by his Wife, 2 vols. 8vo, 1877 ; see 
also A. P. Stanley's Funeral Sermon ; T. Hughes's 
Memoir prefixed to Alton Locke, 1881 ; Dr. 
Bigg's Memoir in Modern Anglican Theology, 
3rd edit. ; Life of F. D. Maurice, by his Son.] 


1892), traveller and author, son of the Rev. 
Charles Kingsley of Battramsley House in 
the New Forest, was born at Barnack, North- 
amptonshire, 14 Feb. 1827. Charles Kings- 
leyTq. v.] and Henry Kingsley [q. v.l were his 
brothers. He was educated at King s College 
School, London, at Edinburgh University, 
where he graduated M.D. in 1846, and at 
Paris, where he was slightly wounded during 
the barricades of 1848. Later in 1848 his 
activity in combating the outbreak of cholera 
in England was commemorated by his brother 
Charles in the portrait of Tom Thurnall in 
4 Two Years Ago/ He completed his medical 
education at Heidelberg, and returning to 
England about 1860, devoted himself from the 
commencement of his career to a special line 
of practice, the charge of individual patients. 
He adopted foreign travel as his method of 
treatment, and either in the capacity of medi- 
cal adviser, or merely as travelling compa- 
nion, he explored most of the countries of the 
world. Travelling in Polynesia between 1867 
and 1870 with the young Earl of Pembroke, 
he recorded his experiences in the volume by 
which he is chiefly remembered, ' South Sea 
Bubbles by the Earl and the Doctor,' London, 
1872, 8vo. Frank and unconventional in 
style, graphic and humorous in its descrip- 
tions, this book of travel and adventure won 
great and instant success, reaching a fifth 
edition by 1873. 

Travelling subsequently with Lord Dun- 
raven and other noblemen, Kingsley did much 

work as a field naturalist, and made nume- 
rous communications to the 'Field* under 
the signature of 'The Doctor/ A large 
amount of his manuscript on subjects con- 
nected with folklore ana ethnology is now 
in the possession of his son. "While acting 
as medical adviser to the Earl of EUesmere's 
family, he had the partial care of the library 
at Bndgewater House, and in 1866 he edited, 
from a manuscript preserved there, Francis 
Thynne's ' Animadversions uppon the Anno- 
tations and Corrections of some Imperfec- 
tions of Impressiones of Chaucer's Workes 
. . . reprinted in 1598/ which was re-edited, 
with additions by Dr. Furnivall, for the 
Chaucer Society, in 1876. 

Kingsley's genial manners, versatility, and 
store of picturesque information rendered him 
extremely popular in society. He was a keen 
and experienced sportsman, an excellent lin- 
guist, and a brilliant talker. Dying onFriday, 

5 Feb. 1892, at his house, 7 Mortimer Road, 
Cambridge, he was buried on 15 Feb. in High- 

fite cemetery. He married in 1860 Mary 
ailey, who died in April 1892, leaving a 
son, Charles, and a daughter. 

Besides the works mentioned above Kings- 
ley published : 1. ' Four Phases of Love. 
Translated from the German of Heyse,' 1857, 
8vo. 2. 'A Gossip on a Sutherland Hill- 
side/ 1861, 8vo: a descriptive sketch of a 
stalking expedition in Sutherland, included 
by Francis Galton in his ' Vacation Tourists 
and Notes of Travel/ 

[Athenaeum, 13 Feb. 1892 ; Cambridge Chron. 
12 and 19 Feb. ; Manchester Guardian, 8 Feb. ; 
Brit. Mus. Cat. ; private information.] T. S. 

KINGSLEY, HENRY (1830-1876), 
novelist, third son of the Rev. Charles 
Kingsley, and younger brother of Charles 
Kingsley [q. v. J and George Henry Kings- 
ley fq. v.], was born at Barnack, Northamp- 
tonshire, on 2 Jan. 1830. He was educated 
at King's College, London, and at Worces- 
ter College, Oxford, where he matriculated 

6 March 1850. He left college in 1858 to 
go to the Australian goldfields with some 
fellow-students. After five years' desul- 
tory and unremunerative employment he 
returned to England, and soon afterwards 
made himself known by the spirited and suc- 
cessful novel, ' Geoffrey Hamlyn,' in which 
his Australian experience was turned to ac- 
count. It was followed in 1861 by ' Ravens- 
hoe/ which also made its mark, and after- 
wards by many others. In 1864 he married 
his second cousin, Sarah Maria Kingsley, and 
settled at Wargrave, near Henley-on-Thames. 
He was afterwards for eighteen months 
editor of the ' Edinburgh Daily Review/ an 
organ of the free church. During his editor- 




ship the Franco-German war broke out, and 
Kingsley went out as correspondent for his 
paper. lie was present at the battle of Sedan 
(1 Sept. 1870), and was the first Englishman 
to enter the town afterwards. After giving 
up the paper he settled for a time in London, 
and renewed his work as a novelist. He sub- 
sequently retired to the Attrees, Cuckfield, 
Sussex, where he died of a cancer in the 
tongue after some months' illness on 24 May 

Kingsley's works are: 1. 'The Recollec- 
tions of Geoffrey Hamlyn,' 3 vols. 1869. 
2. 'Ravenshoe,' 3 vols. 1862. 3. 'Austin 
Elliott/ 2 vols. 1863 (French translation by 
Daurand Forgues, 1866). 4. ' The Hillyars 
and Burtons: a Story of two Families/ 
3 vols. 1865. 5. ' Leighton Court : a Country 
House Story/ 2 vols. 1866. 6. ' Silcote of 
Silcotes/ 3 vols. 1867. 7. ' Mademoiselle 
Mathilde/ 3 vols. 1868. 8. ' Stretton/ 3 vols. 
1869. 9. 'Old Margaret/ 2 vols. 1871. 
10. ' The Lost Child ' (illustrated by L. Fro- 
lich), 1871. 11. 'The Boy in Grev/ 1871. 
12. 'Hetty, and other Stories/ 1871. 13. 'The 
Harveys/ 2 vols. 1872. 14. ' Hornby Mills, 
and other Stories/ 1872. 15. 'Valentin: 
a French Boy's Story of Sedan/ 1872. 

16. 'Reginald Hetherege/ 3 vols. 1874. 

17. 'Number Seventeen/ 2 vols. 1875. 
18. ' The Grange Garden : a Romance/ 3 vols. 
1876. 19. ' Fireside Studies/ 2 vols. 1876. 

He also edited the Globe edition of Robin- 
son Crusoe ' in 1868, with a biographical in- 
troduction, and published in 1869 ' Tales of 
Old Travels re-narrated.' 

[Information from Mrs. Henry Kingsley.] 

L. S. 

KINGSLEY, WILLIAM (1698P-1769), 
lieutenant-general, son of William Kingsley 
and his wife Alice, daughter and heir of Wil- 
liam Randolph of Maidstone, Kent, was born 
about 1698. He was a direct descendant from 
William Kingsley, archdeacon of Canterbury 
(d. 1647), from whom Charles Kingsley [q. v.] 
the novelist also traced his descent. The 
Kingsleys are stated to have been of Lanca- 
shire origin (Berby), and a ' William Kings- 
ley» gentleman, of Canterbury/ appears in a 
roll of Roman catholic estate-holders in York- 
shire (North Riding) during theperiod 1717- 
1780 (cf. Hist . MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. i. 346 a). 

Kingsley seems to have become cornet in 
Hony wood's dragoons (now 11th hussars) in 
May 1 721. He was lieutenant and captain in 
the 3rd foot-guards (now Scots guards) in the 
company commanded by Lieutenant-colonel 
Wolfe, father of General James Wolfe. His 
commission bore date 29 June 1721 (Some 
Of. Mil. Entry Book, vol. xii. f. 238). He 

was promoted captain-lieutenant in the same 
regiment in 1743; captain and lieutenant- 
colonel in 1745 ; brevet-colonel in 1750 ; and 
regimental major, with the rank of colonel of 
foot, on 29 Jan. 1751 (ib. vol. xxii. f. 173). He 
was aide-de-camp to his colonel, Lord Dun- 
more, at Dettingen, and was present with the 
1st battalion of his regiment at the battle of 
Fontenoy, where a cannon-ball passed be- 
tween his legs and killed four men behind 
him, on 11 May 1745. When the collected 
grenadier companies of the several regiments 
of guards marched from London for the north 
in the following December (the ' march to 
Finchley '), he was one of the officers sent 
ahead into Northamptonshire by the Duke 
of Cumberland to obtain information of the 
enemy's movements (Hamilton, ii. 135). On 
22 May 1 756 Kingsley was made colonel of the 
20th foot (now Lancashire fusiliers). James 
Wolfe, then lieutenant-colonel of the regi- 
ment at Devizes, wrote of him : ' Our new 
colonel is a sensible man, and very sociable 
and polite ' (Wright, p. 345). Kingsley was 
with his regiment in the Rochefort expedition 
of 1757, and afterwards went to Germany as 
major-general. He greatly disti nguished him- 
self at the battle of Minden on 1 Aug. 1759, at 
the head of a brigade composed of the 20th 
(Kingsley's), 25th (Home's), and 51st (Bru- 
denelTs) foot, which was very prominently 
engaged. ' Kingsley's grenadiers, as the 20th 
was popularly called, is said to have fought 
among some rose-gardens or hedges, a cir- 
cumstance still commemorated by the regi- 
mental custom of wearing ' Minden roses ' in 
the caps on each anniversary of the day. The 
regiment had six officers and eighty men killed 
and eleven officers and 224 men wounded, 
and was excused from all further duty on 
account of its losses. A general order of 
three days' later date announced that 'Kings- 
ley's regiment of the British line will resume 
its share of the duty at its own request/ 
Kingsley was afterwards engaged at Ziezen- 
berg and elsewhere. He became a lieutenant- 
general in December 1760, and was appointed 
to the command of a secret expedition, with 
William Draper [q. v.] as his quartermaster- 
general. The force was at first destined for 
eastward of the Cape, but was afterwards 
ordered to rendezvous at Quiberon for an at- 
tempt on Belle Isle on the coast of Brittany. 
The death of George II and other circum- 
stances delayed the expedition, which was 
eventually countermanded (Beatson, ii. 420, 
iii. 167 n.) Kingsley was not actively em- 
ployed again. lie was an outspoken, inde- 
pendent Englishman, extremely popular with 
his soldiers, and an active freemason. He 
was over seventy y»iars of age and unmarried 




at the time of his death at Kingsley House, 
Stone Street, Maidstone, on 9 Oct. 1769 (Scots 
Mag. 1769). He was buried in the family 
vault at Kennington Ashford, Kent (see 
Russell, Hist . of Maidstone, p. 340). 

Kingsley's portrait was painted by Sir 
Joshua Reynolds in March 1760, and two 
engraved portraits are catalogued by Evans 
( Cat . Engraved Portraits, vol. ii.) Marginal 
notes by him appear in a history of the seven 
years' war in possession of the Hon. Mrs. 
Stopford Sackville (Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th 
Rep. ill. 81 a), and some of his letters are in 
British Museum Addit. MSS. 32732, 32896, 

[Berry's Genealogies (Kent), p. 306 ; cf. Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. i. 346 a; also Hasted's 
Kent, fol. ed. iii. 268 «. Home Office Military 
Entry Books in Public Rec. Office, London, vols, 
xii-xxii., various ; Georgian Era, vol. ii. ; * The 
Guards at Fontenoy,' in Colburn's United Service 
Mag. February 1868 ; Hamilton's Gren. Guards 
(London, 1872), vol. ii. ; Wright's Life of Wolfe 
(London, 1864) ; Beatson's Nav.and Mil. Memoirs 
(London, 1794), vols, ii-iii. ; Gent. Mag. 1759 
pp. 385 et seq., 1760 pp. 44, 155, 485, 541 ; 
Cannon's Hist. Kec. 20th (East Devon) Regt. ; 
Memoirs of Sir James Campbell (Callendar) 
(Edinburgh, 1832), vol. i.; Smith's Story of the 
20thRegiment, 1688-1 888 (London, 1888) ;Scots 
Mag. 1769, also afford incidental notices.] 

H. M. C. 

KINGSMILL, ANDREW (1538-1569}, 
puritan divine, son of John Kingsmill of Sid- 
monton in Hampshire, was probably born at 
Sidmonton in 1538. He matriculated on 
23 Aug. 1553 at Corpus Christi College, Ox- 
ford, and in 1558 was elected fellow of All 
Souls' College. He was admitted B.C.L. in 
the beginning of 1563, and acquired a high re- 
putation as a student of civil law, but gradu- 
ally turned towards divinity. He soon knew 
by heart considerable portions of the Old and 
New Testaments in (ireek, and was a keen 
student of Hebrew. ' A young bachelor of 
All Souls' who frequently supplied the ser- 
mon at St. Mary's at the beginning of Eliza- 
beth's reign is identified as Kingsmill by 
Wood. In order to qualify himself thoroughly 
for the ministry Kingsmill spent three years 
at Geneva, and removing thence to Lausanne, 
died there in September 1569. His papers 
came into the hands of his friend Francis 
Mills, sub-warden of All Souls, who describes 
him, in a short sketch of his life, as ( a phoenix 
. among lawyers, and a rare example of god- 
liness among gentlemen' (View of Man 1 s 
Estate, Pret) 

Mills edited the following works by Kings- 
mill: 1. 'A Viewe of Mans Estate, wherein 
the greate Mercie of God in Mans free Justifi- 

cation by Christ is verie comfortably declared. 
By Andrewe Kyngesmill. Divided: into Cha- 
piters in such sorte as maie beste serve for 
the commoditie of the Reader. Whereunto 
is annexed a Godlie Advise given by the 
Author touchyng Manage . . . London, by 
H. Bynneman,' 1574, 1576, 1580, 8vo. The 
'Advise' is addressed to the author's sister, 
who had lost her first husband. 2. ' A most 
excellent and comfortable Treatise for all 
such as are any maner of way either troubled 
in Mynde or afflicted in Bodie. Made by 
Andrew Kingesmyl, Gentleman, sometime 
fellow of Alsoule Colledge in Oxford. Im- 
printed at London by Christopher Barkar,' 
1577, 1578, 1585, 8vo. This also was written 
by Kingsmill for his sister. Printed along 
with this tract are two treatises usually 
ascribed to Kingsmill, but Mills, in his pre- 
fatory note, declares himself unable to con- 
jecture the author of. the second treatise, and 
says nothing about the third. They are en- 
titled : ' A verie and learned Exhortation to 
suffer natiently all Afflictions for the Gospel 
of Christ Jesus,' ' A Conference conteynmg 
a Conflict had with Satan,' &c. Wood ascribes 
to Kingsmill ' A Sermon on St. John iii. 16' 
(perhaps the 'View'); ' Resolutions concern- 
ing the Sacraments ; ' ' Resolutions of some 
Questions relating to Bishops, Priests, and 
Deacons,' and papers on ' other matters re- 
lating to the Reformation.' Strype mentions 
a long letter written by Kingsmill to Arch- 
bishop Parker ' against urging the habits.' 

[Wood's Athen*, ed. Bliss, i. 373; Fasti, 
i. 162 ; Boase's Reg. of Univ. of Oxford, i. 238, 
250, 11. ii. 1 ; Strype's Parker (Clar. Press, 1821), 
i. 313 ; Catalogues of Brit. Mus. and Bodleian 
Libraries ; Lowndes's Bibliog. Manual.] R. B. 

(1730-1805), admiral, son of Charles Brice, 
a captain in the army, was made a lieutenant 
on 29 April 1756, was appointed commander 
of the Swallow sloop in February 1761, and 
was confirmed in the rank on 3 July, conse- 
quent on his capture of a 10-gun privateer 
on the coast of France. In 1762 he com- 
manded the Basilisk bomb at the reduction 
of Martinique and St. Lucia by Sir George 
Rodney, and on 26 May was posted to the 
Crescent. He returned to England in 1764. 
He had already married Elizabeth, only 
daughter of Hugh Corry of Newton, co. Down, 
and of his wife, Frances, only daughter of Sir 
William Kingsmill (d. 1698), knight, of Sid- 
monton, Hampshire. On the death of her last 
surviving maternal uncle,William Kingsmill, 
a bachelor, in 1766, Brice's wife succeeded to 
her grandfather's estates; on which Brice 
assumed by act of parliament the surname of 




Kingsmill by royal license. He commanded 
the Vigilant of 64 guns in the action off Ushant 
on 27 July 1778 [see Keppel, Augustus, Vis- 
count], but after the courts-martial quitted 
the ship in disgust at the action of the admi- 
ralty. On the change of ministry in 1782 he 
was appointed to the Elizabeth, which after 
the peace was employed as a guardship. He 
was elected M.P. for Tregony, Cornwall, on 
5 April 1784. In the Spanish armament of 
1790 he commanded the Duke of 90 guns. 
On 1 Feb. 1793 he was promoted to be rear- 
admiral, and was shortly afterwards appointed 
commander-in-chief on the coast of Ireland, 
an arduous, though not brilliant post, which 
he held continuously till 1800, being ad- 
vanced meanwhile to the rank of vice-ad- 
miral on 4 July 1794, and of admiral on 
14 Feb. 1799. lie was created a baronet on 
24 Nov. 1800, and died without issue at Sid- 
mouth on 23 Nov. 1806. 

His brother Edward, principal surveyor 
of revenue at Belfast, also assumed the sur- 
name of Kingsmill in December 1787, and 
his son Robert succeeded his uncle as second 
baronet. On the second baronet's death in 
1823 the title became extinct. 

[Charnock's Biog. Nav. vi. 485 ; Ralfe's Nav. 
Biog. i. 354; Burke's Dormant and Extinct Ba- 
ronetcies.] J. K. L. 

regius professor of Hebrew at Oxford, was 
seventh son of Sir John Kingsmill of Fri- 
bock, Hampshire. Entering Magdalen Col- 
lege, Oxford, as a demy, he graduated B.A. 
in 1559, M.A. in 1564, and supplicated for 
the B.D. degree in 1572 {Oxf. Univ. Reg., 
Oxf. Hist. Soc, vol. i.) He was probationer 
fellow from 1559 to 1568, natural philosophy 
lecturer in 1563, Hebrew lecturer in 1565, 
and junior dean of arts in 1 567. On 1 5 Dec. 
1565 he was appointed public orator, and on 
2 Nov. 1570 regius professor of Hebrew. 
He became mad for a time, and was obliged 
to resign his professorship in 1591. 

He wrote : 1. ' A Complaint against Se- 
curitie in these perilous Times,' 8vo, London, 
1602. 2. * Classicum Poenitentiale (Tracta- 
tus de Scandalo, &c.)/ 2 pts. 4to, Oxford, 
1605. 3. < The Drunkards Warning : a Ser- 
mon/ 8vo, London, 1631. 

[Wood's Athen® Oxon. (Bliss), i. 758 ; 
Bloxam's Reg. of Magd. Coll., Oxford, ir. 153 ; 
Le Neve's Fasti, iii. 514, 534.] G. G. 

baptist minister, seems to have been a 
Kentish farmer, although it has been sug- 
gested that he was connected with the cloth- 
making trade. He was led to adopt baptist 
views through the arguments of the Kev. 

Francis Cornwell, vicar of Marden, Kent, 
who announced his own conversion to bap- 
tist views in a visitation sermon at Cranbrook 
in 1644. Christopher Blackwood [q. v.], vicar 
of Staplehurst, Kent, undertook to confute 
Cornwell, but, while considering his answer, 
also became a convert. After being baptised 
by William Jeffery of Sevenoaks, Blackwood 
and Kingsworth founded a baptist congrega- 
tion which met at Spilshill House, the resi- 
dence of Kingsnorth, about half a mile from 
Staplehurst Church. Kingsnorth and most 
of the congregation were general baptists, 
and on this account he was chosen and or- 
dained minister. Blackwood, who held the 
doctrine of particular election, assisted in the 
ministry until he joined the parliamentary 
army and went to Ireland. 

The church increased under Kingsnorth, 
spread to adjacent parts, and held meet- 
ings at Headcorn, Smarden, and Frittenden. 
Kingsnorth died in 1677, at which time five 
of his sons were engaged in the ministry. He 
is said to have written two works vindicating 
the doctrine of universal redemption, entitled 
* The Pearl of Truth, found out between two 
Rocks of Error/ printed in 1670 (Hazlewood, 
Smarden, p. 198) ; and ' Gospel Certainty of 
Everlasting Felicity/ but they do not appear 
to be extant. 

After his death a division arose in the 
church on the subject of the Trinity, and a 
separation was agreed upon. Two of Kings- 
north's sons, with several ministers and mem- 
bers of the congregation, withdrew and formed 
a separate church, meeting at Biddenden and 
Frittenden, whileabrother and two other sons 
remained and upheld the leading tenets of 
the original foundation. A long list of eiders 
and ministers is given in Hazlewood's ' Me- 
morials of Sma^den. , 

[Taylor's General Baptists, i. 286-8; Ivimev's 
English Baptists, ii. 233-7 : Bailey's Struggles 
for Conscience, or Religious Annals of Staple- 
hurst, pp. 12-15; Hazlewood's Memorials of 
Smarden, pp. 198-9 ; Kent Examiner and Chro- 
nicle, 9 Dec. 1887; information from Mr. W. 
Tarbutt.] B. P. 


Franciscan. [See Ingworth.] 

KINGSTON, Dukes op. [See Pierrb- 


KINGSTON, self-styled Duchess op. 
[See Chudleigh, Elizabeth, 1720-1788.] 

KINGSTON, Earls op, in the peerage of 
England. [See Pierrepont.] 

KINGSTON, Earl of, in the peerage of 
Ireland. [See King, Robert, second Earl. 




KINGSTON, Viscounts, in the peerage 
of Scotland. [See Sbton.] 

KINGSTON, L0KD8. [See King, John, 
d. 1676, first Lobd; Kino, Robbbt, d. 1693, 
second Lobd.] 

1566), provost-marshal in Cornwall, born in 
1519, was the son of Sir William Kingston 
[(j. v.] of Gloucestershire, comptroller of the 
king's household. Anthony served at the 
head of a thousand Gloucestershire men 
under the Duke of Norfolk in the suppres- 
sion of the Pilgrimage of Grace, 1536-7, 
and fought in the defeat (13 Oct. 1536) of 
the rebels at Louth. He was knighted by 
Henry VIII, 18 Oct. 1637, probably as a re- 
ward for his services. He held small offices 
about the court, such as that of serjeant of 
the king's hawks, at 2s. a day, and received 
grants of land belonging to the suppressed 
monasteries in Gloucestershire, including a 
regrant of the site of the Cistercian abbey 
of Flaxley. 

After the death of Sir William Courtenay 
in 1536, Kingston married his widow, Mary, 
daughter of Sir John Gainsford, and left 
Gloucestershire to reside at Chudleigh, Devon- 
shire, which, with Honiton, belonged to his 
wife's jointure. When the western rebellion 
broke out in 1549, under Edward VI — the 
rebels demanding the restoration of the old 
liturgy — Kingston was appointed provost- 
marshal of the king's army in Cornwall, and 
suppressed the outbreak at the expense of 
much bloodshed. His conduct has been com- 
pared with that of Judge Jeffreys. He is 
said to have entertained the mayor of Bod- 
min at a banquet and to have hanged him 
after dinner on the gallows which the mayor 
had himself been directed to make ready. 
The mayors of Clevedon and St. Ives shared 
a like fate. Carew defends Kingston on the 
score of the guilt of his victims, and says,' He 
did nothing herein as a judge by discretion, 
but as an officer by direction ' (Ca.rew, Sur- 
vey of Cornwall, p. 294). No other writers, 
however, take this view. Kingston was a 
member of Edward VI's council for the 
marches of Wales. When Lady Jane Grey 
succeeded Edward, she sent orders to Kings- 
ton and Sir John St. Loe to levy forces and 
march towards Buckinghamshire (16 July 
1663), but her reign was over before they 
had time to obey (Hist MSS. Comm. 3rd 
Rep. p. 158). In 1552 Kingston was cited 
before Hooper, bishop of Gloucester, on a 
charge of aaultery. Burnet quotes the case 
as an instance of Hooper's impartial adminis- 
tration of affairs in his diocese. At first 
Kingston refused to appear, and when at 

length he came, he beat and abused the 
bishop, who sternly rebuked him, fined him 
500/., and forced him to do penance (Bub- 
net, Reformation, ed. 1829, iii! 402). He 
afterwards owned that Hooper had converted 
him from his evil life, and took a touching 
farewell of the bishop (8 Feb. 1556) before 
his martyrdom (Froude, Hist. vi. 820). 
Kingston sat in the House of Commons for 
Gloucestershire in the parliaments of 1545, 
1552-3, and 1555. He was knight-marshal 
in the narliament of 1555 and ' a main stickler 
in it ' tor the protestant religion, as Burnet 
infers from his action against the catholic 
rebels in the west, under Edward C Reforma- 
tion, ii. 650). It is said that he took the keys 
of the house away from the sergeant, with, it 
seems, the approval of the majority. But on 
10 Dec., the day after parliament was dis- 
solved, he was sent to the Tower on a charge 
of conspiring to put Elizabeth on the throne 
( Hist. MSS. Comm. 5th Rep. pp. xvi-165). 
He remained there till the 23rd, when he 
submitted, asked pardon, and was discharged 
(cf. Machtn, Diary, Camd. Soc., p. 347). In 
the next year, 1566, however, Kingston was 
concerned in the plot to rob the exchequer 
in order to provide funds for the conspiracy 
devised by Sir Henry Dudley with the object 
of making Elizabeth queen and marrying her 
to Courtenay, earl of Devonshire (Froudb, 
Hist. vi. 6-11). Six confederates were exe- 
cuted, but Kingston died 14 April 1556 at 
Cirencester, Froude says probably by his own 
hand from despair (Hist. vi. 442), while jour- 
neying from Devonshire to stand his trial in 
London. He left two illegitimate sons, An- 
thony and Edmund, on whom by a deed of 
feoffment he settled part of his estates in 
5147 (cf. Lodge, Illustrations, i. 16). 

[Polwhele's History of Cornwall, iv. 64, 65 ; 
Parochial History of Cornwall (Davies and Gil- 
bert), i. 88, ii. 197 ; Bristol and Gloucestershire 
Archseol. Soc. Trans, vi. 284 sq. ; Baker's Chro- 
nicle, p. 305 ; Cleaveland's History of the Cour- 
tenay Family, p. 29 ; Strype's Memorials, 1. i. 
15, 11. i. 9, 11. ii. 161 ; Fuller's Church History, iv. 
49 ; Calendar of State Papers, Dora., Henry VIII, 
x. 333, 389, xi. 155, 290, 374 ; Rudder's Glouces- 
tershire, pp. 140, 554 ; Tanner's Notitia Monas- 
tica, pp. xi, xxvii, xxviii ; Metcalfe's Knights, p. 
68 ; Nicolas's Privy Purse Expenses of Hen. VIII, 
pp. 226, 229.] E. T. B. 

KINGSTON, RICHARD (fl. 1700), 
political pamphleteer, was born about 1635. 
According to his own statements he was a 
M.A. of some university, and was ordained 
by the Bishop of Galloway, 17 July 1662, at 
Westminster, but Matthew Smith [q. v. J in 
1700, when engaged with Kingston in a bitter 
political controversy, charged him, with some 


1 86 


show of justification, with having forged his 
letters of orders (Smith, Reply to a Modest 
Answer, p. 11). All the proof Kingston 
could bring of their validity was a certificate 
signed by one Thomas Beesly, asserting that 
he had been ordained at the same time, but 
Beesly had in 1700 been dead three years. 
Smith, among other charges, tells a scandalous 
story of Kingston's conduct in the west of 
England; but he does not seem to have had 
any benefice in the diocese of Exeter, as is 
thereby implied. 

In 1665 Kingston became minister at St. 
James's, Clerken well, and worked hard during 
the plague, but he resigned this preferment 
before 17 Sept. 1667. In 1678 he received the 
living of Henbury in Gloucestershire, and on 
6 Feb. 1681-2 was made chaplain in ordinary 
to Charles II. He asserts that a prebend and 
a rectory were added to Henbury. What the 
prebend was is uncertain, but he seems in 1688 
to have been rector of Raydon in Suffolk. 
Kingston also states that he suffered for 
preaching against the Romanists. He re- 
mained at Henbury, where he had a small 
estate, till the revolution, when he sold his 
property and came up to London. He was 
soon lured by a pension to write for the 
government, but his pension fell into arrears 
and he suffered extreme poverty. A petition 
from him dated 1699 states that 600/. was 
due to him, that he had assisted as a witness 
at the conviction of three traitors, that he had 
brought 1 ,225/. into the treasury by the seizure 
of French silks, and that he had printed thir- 
teen books on behalf of the government at his 
own expense. 

In 1700 Kingston attacked Smith, who 
had just published his ' Memoirs of Secret 
Service/ and a violent controversy ensued. 
Kingston always attributed Smith's works to 
Tom Brown (1663-1704) [q. v.] Kingston 
also intervened in the controversy which 
raged in 1707-9 about the so-called French 
Prophets. In 1707 his attack on Dr. John 
Freind's vindication of the Earl of Peter- 
borough's conduct in Spain appeared, and he 
was promptly arrested by an order of the 
House of Lords. He was, however, released, 
19 Jan. 1707-8, and the attorney-general was 
instructed to prosecute him. Kingston was 
married (perhaps he was the man who married 
Elizabeth Webb at St. James's, Clerkenwell, 
28 Jan. 1667-8, see Regist. of St. James's, 
Clerkenwell, Harl. Soc. 138, cf. 189), and 
in 1699 had nine children. An engraved 
portrait of Kingston is said by Bromley to 
have formed the frontispiece to the ' Pillules 
Pestilentiales,' but it has disappeared from 
the copy in the British Museum. 

Kingston wrote: 1. ' Pillul© Pestilentiales, 

a Sermon at St. Paul's/ London, 1665. 2. * The 
Cause and Cure of Offences,' a sermon, Lon- 
don, 1682, 4to. 3. ' Vivat Rex,' a sermon 
preached before the Mayor of Bristol after 
the discovery of the Rye House plot, London, 
1683, 4to. 4. * God's Sovereignty and Man's 
Duty asserted,' London, 1688. 5. 'A True 
History of the several Designs and Con- 
spiracies against his Majesties Sacred Person 
and Government from 1688 to 1697,' London, 
1698. 6. i Tyranny detected, and the late 
Revolution justified,' London, 1699. 7. 'A 
Modest Answer to Captain Smith's Immodest 
Memorial of Secret Service,' London, 1700. 
8. * Impudence, Lying, and Forgery detected 
and Chastia'd,' London, 1700, an answer to 
Smith, and the chief source of information 
respecting Kingston's history, 9. ' A Dis- 
course on Divine Providence,' London, 1702. 
10. * Impartial Remarks upon Dr. Freind's 
Account of the Earl of Peterborough's Con- 
duct in Spain,' London, 1706. 11. ' En- 
thusiastick Impostors no Divinely Inspired 
Prophets,' part i. 1707, part ii. 1709. 
12. ' Apophthegmata Curiosa, or Reflections, 
Sentences, and Maxims,' London, 1709. 
Kingston also mentions that he wrote a 
work called * Cursory Remarks.' 

[Pink's Clerkenwell, pp. 68, 283, 619-21 
(citing Notes and Queries) ; Lutt roll's Brief Hist. 
Rel. vi. 257-8; Bromley's Cat. of Engraved 
Portraits, p. 136 ; Matthew Smith's Works; 
Kingston's Works.] W. A. J. A. 

KINGSTON, Sir WILLIAM (d. 1540), 
constable of the Tower, was of a Gloucester- 
shire family, settled at Painswick. A bro- 
ther George is mentioned in the inquisition 
taken after his death. William appears to 
have been a yeoman of the guard before June 
1509 {Letters and Papers Henry VIII, i. 
248). In 1512 he was an under-marshai in 
the army ; went to the Spanish coast ; was 
with Br. W r illiam Knight [q. v.] in October 
of that year at San Sebastian, and discussed 
with him the course to be pursued with the 
disheartened English forces who had come to 
Spain under Thomas Grey, second marquis of 
Dorset [q. v.] (t&. p. 3451). He fought well 
at Flodden, was knighted in 1513, became 
sewer to the king, and later (1521) was 
carver (ib. iii. 1899). He seems to have been 
with Sir Richard Wingtield, the ambassador, 
at the French court early in 1520, for Wing- 
field wrote to Henry VIII (20 April) that 
the dauphin ' took a marvellous pleasure in 
young Kyngston,whom after he haa seen once 
he called him beau fils, whom he would some- 
time have kneel down and sometime stand 
up ' (t&. iii. 752). Kingston took part in the 
tilting at the Field of the Cloth of Gold, and 




was at the meeting with Charles V in July. 
Henry seems to have liked him, and pre- 
sented him with a horse of very great value. 
For the next year or two he was a diligent 
country magistrate and courtier, levying men 
for the kings service in the west, and living 
when in London with the Black Friars (ib, 
in. ii. App. 28, in. ii. 3274). In April 1623 
Kingston joined Dacre on the disturbed 
northern frontier, and with Sir Half Eller- 
ker had the most dangerous posts assigned 
him (ib. pp. 29-55, 2960) ; he was present at 
the capture of Cessfurd, the stronghold of 
the Kers, on 18 May (ib. p. 3039). He re- 
turned rather suddenly to London, and was 
made knight of the king's body and captain 
of the guard. On 30 Aug. 1523 he landed 
at Calais in the army of the Duke of Suffolk 
(ib. p. 3288). Surrey wrote from the north 
lamenting his absence. On 28 May 1524 he 
became constable of the Tower at a salary of 
100/. lie appears among those who signed 
the petition to Clement VTI for the hasten- 
ing of the divorce, 13 July 1530. 

In November 1530 Kingston went down 
to Sheffield Park, Nottinghamshire, to take 
charge of Wolsey. The cardinal is said to 
have been alarmed at his coming because it had 
been foretold that he should meet his death at 
Kingston. Kingston tried to reassure him, and 
was with him at the time of his death, riding 
to London to acquaint the king with the cir- 
cumstances (Cavendish, Life of Wolsey, ed. 
1827, pp. 371 so.) On 1 1 Oct. 1532 he landed 
at Calais with Henry on the way to the se- 
cond interview with Francis at Boulogne, 
and on 29 May 1533 he took an official part 
in the coronation of Anne Boleyn. He is said 
to have been of Catherine's party, though the 
emperor not unreasonably distrusted him (cf. 
Fbiedmann, Anne Boleyn, ii. 61; Letters 
and Papers, viii. 327). On 21 Feb. 1535- 
1536 Kingston wrote to Lord Lisle, an old 
Gloucestershire neighbour, ' I have done with 
play, but with my lord of Carlisle, penny 
gleek, this is our pastime ' (ib. x. 336). He 
seems to have become prematurely old, but 
continued to be constable. He received Anne 
Boleyn 2 May 1536, when committed a 
prisoner to the Tower, and with his wife 
took charge of her and reported her con- 
versations to Cromwell. To him Anne joked 
about the size of her neck and the skill of the 
executioner (ib. pp. 793, 797-8, 910). Kings- 
ton was made controller of the household 
9 March 1539, and knight of the Garter 
24 April following. He had many small 
grants, and on the dissolution of monasteries 
received the site of the Cistercian abbey of 
Flaxley, Gloucestershire. He died at Pains- 
wick, Gloucestershire, 14 Sept. 1540, and was 

buried there. He married, first, Elizabeth, of 
whom nothing seems known, and by her 
had Anthony, who is separately noticed, and 
Bridget, married to Sir George Baynham of 
Clearwell, Gloucestershire ; secondly, Mary, 
daughter of Sir Richard Scrope of Upsall, 
Yorkshire, and widow of Sir Edward Jern- 
ingham of Somerleyton, Suffolk. 

[Metcalfe's Knights; Nicolas's Testamenta 
of Calais (Camd. Soc), pp. 33, 41 ; Wriothes- 
ley's Chron. (Camd. Soc.), pp. 36, 37, 94 ; Fuller's 
Church Hist. v. 178 ; Trans, of the Bristol and 
Gloucestershire Arch. Soc. vi. 284 sq. ; authori- 
ties quoted.] W. A. J. A. 

GILES (1814-1880), novelist, born in Har- 
ley Street, London, 28 Feb. 1814, was eldest 
son of Lucy Henry Kingston, and grandson 
by the mother's side of Sir Giles Rooke [q. v.], 
justice of the common pleas. His father was 
in business in Oporto, and therefor many years 
the son lived, making frequent voyages to 
England, and contracting a lifelong aftection 
for the sea. He entered his father's business, 
but soon indulged his natural bent for writing. 
His newspaper articles on Portugal were 
translated into Portuguese, and assisted the 
conclusion of the commercial treaty with Por- 
tugal in 1842, when he received from Donna 
Maria da Gloria an order of Portuguese knight- 
hood and a pension. His first book was * The 
Circassian Chief/ a story published in 1844, 
and while still living in Oporto, he wrote 
' The Prime Minister/ an historical novel, and 
i Lusitanian Sketches/ descriptions of travels 
in Portugal. Settling in England, he inte- 
rested himself in the emigration movement, 
edited in 1844 ' The Colonist ' and < The Colo- 
nial Magazine and East India Review/ was 
honorary secretary of a colonisation society, 
wrote in 1848 * Some Suggestions for a Sys- 
tem of General Emigration/ lectured on colo- 
nisation in 1849, published a manual for 
colonists, ' How to Emigrate/ in 1860, and 
visited the western highlands on behalf of 
the emigration commissioners. He was after- 
wards a zealous volunteer and worked actively 
for the improvement of the condition of sea- 
men. But from 1 860 his chief occupation was 
writing books for boys, or editing boys' an- 
nuals and weekly periodicals. Tne ' Union 
Jack/ a paper for boys, he started only a few 
months before his death. The best known 
of his stories, which numbered more than a 
hundred, are : ' Peter the Whaler/ 1851 ; 
'Blue Jackets/ 1864; < Digby Heathcote/ 
1860 ; * The Cruise of the Frolic/ 1860 ; « The 
Fireships/ 1862 ; < Foxholme Hall/ 1867 ; ' Ben 
Burton/ 1872 ; « The Three Midshipmen/ 




1873 ; ' The Three Lieutenants,' 1876 ; « The 
Three Commanders/ 1876; and 'The Three 
Admirals/ 1878 ; ' Kidnapping in the Pacific/ 
1879; and 'Hendriks the Hunter/ 1884. 
He travelled widely on the ordinary routes 
of travel, and described his experience for the 
young in ' Western Wanderings/ a Canadian 
tour, 1856 ; ' My Travels in Many Lands ' 
(France, Italy, and Portugal), 1862 ; ' The 
Western World/ 1874 ; and ' A Yacht Voyage 
round England/ 1879. His popular records 
of adventure and of discovery included : ' Ad- 
ventures in the Far West/ 1881 ; in Africa, 
1883; in India, 1884; in Australia, 1886 ; a 
« Life of Captain Cook/ 1871 ; * Great African 
Travellers/ 1874 ; a ' Popular History of the 
Navy/ 1876; 'Notable Voyages from Co- 
lumbus to Parry/ 1 880, subsequently brought 
down to 1886 ; ' Livingstone's Travels/ 1886 ; 
'Mungo Park's Travels/ 1886. He trans- 
lated several of Jules Verne's stories from 
the French, and wrote many historical tales 
dealing with almost all periods and countries, 
from ' Eldol the Druid, 1874, and ' Jovinian, 
a tale of Early Papal Rome/ 1877, down- 
wards, and undertook some popular histori- 
cal compilations like ' Half-Hours with the 
Kings and Queens of England/ 1876. His 
writings occupy nine pages and a half of the 
British Museum Catalogue. They were very 
popular ; his tales were quite innocuous, but 
most of them proved ephemeral. Feeling 
his health failing, he wrote a farewell letter 
in touching terms to the boys for whom he 
had written so much and so long on 2 Aug. 
1880, and died three days later at Stormont 
Lodge, Willesden, near London. 

[Boy's Own Paper, 11 Sept. 1880, which con- 
tains his portrait ; preface to his novel James 
Braithwaite, 1882; Athenaeum, 14 Aug. 1880; 
Times, 10 Aug. 1880.] J. A. H. 

(1796P-1877), editor of 'Ancient Scottish 
Ballads/ was born at Stonehaven, Kincar- 
dineshire, about 1796, and became a lawyer. 
He was clerk to three successive advocates- 
depute, and at Stirling, in 1817 or 1818, he 
acted for an absent crown-agent. For several 
years he was secretary to Scott's friend, 
George Cranstoun, Lord Corehouse, enjoy- 
ing also the friendship of Lord Colonsay. 
Appointed in 1842 assistant-keeper of the 
register of deeds in Edinburgh Register 
House, he became head of his department in 
1851, and retired in 1869. A noted philan- 
thropist, Kinloch was for many years trea- 
surer of the Patterson and Pope fund for re- 
lief of deserving poor. Dr. Jamieson, in the 
preface to the supplementary volume of his 
'Scottish Dictionary/ 1825, acknowledged 

indebtedness to him for valuable help. Kin- 
loch died at Edinburgh, 19 April 1877. 

In 1824 Kinloch projected, without pub- 
lishing, a ' Collection of Scottish Proverbs/ 
In 1827 appeared his ' Ancient Scottish Bal- 
lads, recovered from Tradition, and never 
before published/ This collection fully de- 
serves the commendation given to it by Scott 
in ' Border Minstrelsv/ i. 88. A miscellaneous 
' Ballad Book' of little value, issued the same 
year, was reprinted in 1885. For the Mait- 
land Club Kinloch edited, in 1830, Dr. Archi- 
bald Pitcairne's very droll and whimsical pro- 
duction, 'Babell; a Satirical Poem on the 
Proceedings of the General As