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Full text of "Dictionary of National Biography Volume 40"

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Sir Sidney Lee 



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DICTIONARY 

OF 

NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 

MYLLAR NlCHOLLS 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



EDITED BY 



SIDNEY LEE 



VOL. XL 



MYLLAR NlCHOLLS 



MACMILLAN AND CO. 

LONDON : SMITH, ELDER, & CO. 

1894 



LIST OF WBITERS 



IN THE FORTIETH VOLUME. 



0. A. A. . . G. A. Aitkin. 
J. W. A. . . J. W. Allen. 

W. A. J. A. . W. A. J. Abchbold. 

B. B-l. . . . Richard Bagwell. 

G. F. R. B. . G. F. Russell Barker. 

M. B Bliss Bateson. 

R. B The Rev. Ronald Batne. 

T. B Thomas Baynb. 

H. L. B. . . The Rev. Canon Leigh Bennett. 

W. G. B-k. W. G. Black. 

H. E. D. B. The Rey. H. E. D. Blakiston. 

G. C. B. . . G. C. Boase. 

G. S. B. . . G. S. Boulger. 

1. B Profbs80R Ingram Btwatbr. 

W. C-R. . . William Carr. 

H. M. C. . . The late H. Manners Chi- 
chester. 

A. M. C. . . Miss A. M. Clerke. 

A. M. C-e. . Miss A. M. Cooke. 

T. C Thompson Cooper, F.S.A. 

W. P. C. . . W. P. Courtney. 

L. C Lionel Cust, F.S.A. 

A. D Austin Dobson. 

J. A. D. . . J. A. Doyle. 

R. D Robert Dunlop. 

J. P. E. . . J. P. Earwaker, F.S.A. 

F. E Francis Espinassb. 

C. H. F. . . C. H. Firth. 



J. G. F. . . J. G. Fotheringham. 

R. G Richard Garnstt, LL.D. 

. T. G. . . J. T. Gilbert, LL.D., F.S.A. 
R. T. G. . . R. T. Glazbbrook, F.R.S. 
G. G Gordon Goodwin. 

A. G The Rev. Alexander Gordon. 

R. E. G. . . R. E. Graves. 

J. M. G. . . The late J. M. Gray. 

W. A. G. . . W. A. Grebnhill, M.D. 

J. C. H. . . J. Cuthbert Haddbn. 

J. A. H. . . J. A. Hamilton. 

T. H The Rev. Thomas Hamilton, 

D.D. 

T. F. H. . . T. F, Henderson. 

W. A. S. H.. W. A. S. Hewinb. 

W. H The Rev. William Hunt. 

W. H. H. . The Rev. W. H. Hutton. 

B. D. J. . . B. D. Jackson. 

J. A. J.. . . The Rev. J. A. Jenkins. 

C. L. K. . . C. L. ElNGSFORD. 

J. K Joseph Knight, F.SJL 

J. K. L. . . Professor J. E. Laughton. 

S. L Sidney Lee. 

R. H. L. . . Robin H. Lbgge. 

W. S. L. . . W. S. Lilly. 

A. G. L. . . A. G. Little. 

J. E. L. . . John Edward Lloyd. 

W. B. L. . . The Rev. W. B. Lowthbr. 



350288 



VI 



List of Writers. 



J. H. L. . . The Bbv. J. H. Lupton, B.D. 
W. B. M-d. W. Bab Macdonald. 
M. M. ... Shebiff Maceay. 

E. CM... E. C. Mabchant. 
L. M. M. . . Miss Middlbton. 
A. H. M. . . A. H. Millab. 

N. M Nobman Moore, M.D. 

W. B. M.. . W. B. Mobfill. 

G. P. M-Y. . G. P. MOBIABTY. 

J. B. M. . . J. Bass Mullinoeb. 
P. L. N. . . P. L. Nolan. 
G. Lb G. N. G. Lb Gets Nobgatb. 
D. J. O'D. . D. J. O'Donoghub. 

F. M. O'D.. F. M. O'Donoghub. 

J. H. 0. . . The Bev. Canon Ovebton. 
W. P-h. . . The late Wyatt Papwobth. 
C. P The Rev. Chables Platts. 

A. F. P. . . A. F. Pollabd. 

B. P Miss Pobteb. 

.E. G. P. . . Miss E. G. Powbll. 
D'A. P. . . . D'Abcy Poweb, F.B.C.S. 



B. B. P. . 
E. L. B. . 
J. M. B. . 
T. S. . . . 

B. F. S. . 
W. A. S. . 

C. F. S. . 
L. S. . . . 
G. S-h. . . 

C. W. S. . 
J. T-t. . . 
H. B. T. . 

D. Ll. T.. 

B. H. V. . 

E. W 

F. W-n. . 
W. W. W. 

C. W 

H. G. W.. 
B. B. W. . 
W. W. . . 



. B. B. Pbobsbb. 

. Mbs. Radford. 

. J. M. Bigg. 

. Thomas Seocombx. 

. B. Fabquhabson Sharp. 

. W. A. Shaw. 

. Miss C. Fell Smith. 

. Leslie Stephen. 

. George Stbonaoh. 

. C. W. Sutton. 

. James Tatt. 

. H. B. Teddbb, F.S.A. 

. D. Llbufeb Thomas. 

. Colonel B. H. Vetch, B.E. 

. Edward Walfobd. 

. Foster Watson. 

. Surgeon-Captain W. W. Webb. 

. Chables Welsh. 

. H. G. Willine. 

. B. B. Woodwabd. 

. Wabwick Wboth, F.S.A. 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



Myllar 



Myllar 



MYLLAR, ANDROW (J. 1503-1508), 
the first Scottish printer, was a burgess of 
Edinburgh and a bookseller, but perhaps com- 
bined the sale of books with some other oc- 
cupation. On 29 March 1503 the sum of 
10?. was paid by the lord high treasurer 
* to Andro Millar for thir bukis undirwritten, 
Tiz., Decretum Magnum, Decretales Sextus 
cum Clementinis, Scotus super quatuor libris 
Sententiarum, Quartum Scoti, Opera Ger- 
sonis in tribus voluminibus.' Another pay- 
ment of fifty shillings was made on 22 Dec. 
1507 ' for iii prentit bukis to the King, tane 
fra Andro Millaris wif.' The first book on 
which Myllar's name appears is an edition, 
printed in 1505, of Joannes de Garlandia's 
' Multorum vocabulorum equiuocorum inter- 
pretation of which the only copy known is 
in the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris. It 
has a colophon which states that Androw 
Myllar, a Scotsman, had been solicitous 
that the work should be printed with admir- 
able art and corrected with diligent care. 
The second book is the ' Expositio Sequen- 
tiarum/ according to the use of Sarum, 
printed in 1506, the copy of which in the 
British Museum is believed to be unique. 
The last page contains Myllar's punning 
device, representing a windmill with the 
miller ascending the outside ladder and carry- 
ing a sack of grain upon his back. Beneath 
is the printer's monogram and name. These 
two books were undoubtedly printed abroad. 
M. Claudin, who discovered them, and Dr. 
Dickson have ascribed them to the press of 
Laurence Hostiiurue of Rouen; but Mr. Gor- 
don Duff has produced evidence to show that 
they should rather be assigned to that of 
Pierre Violette, another printer at Rouen. 

JVOU XL, 



It was probably due to the influence of 
William Elphinstone fa. v.], bishop of Aber- 
deen, who was engaged m preparing an adap- 
tation of the Sarum breviary for the use of 
his diocese, that James IV on 15 Sept. 1507" 
granted a patent to Walter Chepman [q. v.] 
and Androw Myllar 'to furnis and brinjr 
hame ane prent, with all stuff belangand 
tharto, and expert men to use the samyne, 
for imprenting within our Realme of .the- 
bukis of our Lawis, actis of parliament, cro- 
niclis, mess bukis, and portuus efter the use 
of our Realme, with additions and legend is 
of Scottis Sanctis, now guderit to be ekit 
tharto, and al utheris bukis that salbe sene 
necessar, and to sel the sammyn for com- 
petent pricis.' 

Chepman having found the necessary- 
capital, and Myllar having obtained the type- 
from France, probably from Rouen, they 
set up their press in a house at the foot of 
Blackfriars Wynd, in the Southgait, now 
the Cowgate, of Edinburgh, and on 4 April 
1508 issued the first book known to have- 
been printed in Scotland, i The Maying or 
Disport of Chaucer/ better known as 'The- 
Complaint of the Black Knight/ and written 
not by Chaucer but by Lydgate. This tract 
consists of fourteen leaves, and has Chep- 
man's device on the title-page, and MyllarV 
device at the end. The only copy known is 
in the library of the Faculty of Advocates at 
Edinburgh* 

Bound with this work are ten other unique 
pieces, eight of which are also from the 
Southgait press, but two only of all are per- 
fect, 'The Maying or Disport of Chaucer * 
and l The Goldyn Targe ' of William Dunbar. 
Four of the tracts bear the devices both of 

B 



Mylne 



Chepman and of Myllar, and three others 
that of Myllar alone. 

The titles of the other pieces, two only of 
which are dated, are as follows: 1. 'The 
Knightly Tale of Golagros and Gawane/ 
8 April 1508. 2. « The Porteous of Noble- 
nes,' 20 April 1508. 3. * Syr Eglamoure of 
Artoys.' 4. < The Goldyn Targe/ by William 
Dunbar. 5. ' Ane Buke of Gude Counsale 
to the King.' 6. 'The Flyting of Dunbar 
and Kennedy.' 7. ' The Tale of Orpheus and 
Eurydice/ by Robert Henryson. 8. 'The 
Ballade of Lord Barnard Stewart/ by Wil- 
liam Dunbar. 

Two other pieces, ' The Twa MarritWemen 
and the Wedo/ also by Dunbar, and 'A 
Gest of Robyn Hode,' are contained in the 
same volume, but they are printed with dif- 
ferent types, and there is no evidence to prove 
that they emanated from the first Scottish 
press. About two years later, in 1510, the 
Aberdeen Breviary, the main cause of the 
introduction of printing into Scotland, was 
executed by the command and at the ex- 
pense of Walter Chepman ; but doubt exists 
as to the actual printer of this, the last but 
most important work of the primitive Scot- 
tish press. Neither in connection with the 
Breviary nor elsewhere does Androw Myl- 
lar's name again occur. 

[Dickson and Edmond's Annals of Scottish 
Printing, 1890; Gordon Duff's Early Printed 
Books, 1893; The Knightly Tale of Golagros and 
Gawane and other Ancient Poems, edited by 
David Latng. 1827; Breuiarium Aberdonense, 
with preface by David Laing (Bannatyne Club), 
1864.1 R. E. G. 

MYLNE or MYLN, ALEXANDER 
(1474-1548 P), abbot of Cambuskenneth and 
president of the court of session in Scotland, 

Jrobably a native of Angus, was the son of 
ohn Mylne (d. before 1513), who in 1481 
was appointed master-mason to the crown 
of Scotland, and served that office under 
James III and James IV. Alexander was 
educated at St. Andrews, where he graduated 
in 1494. Having taken orders, he became 
first a canon of the cathedral of Aberdeen 
and afterwards prebendary of Monithie in the 
cathedral of Dunkeld and rector of Lundie. 
He was also scribe of the chapter and official 
of the bishop, George Brown. Brown having 
divided his diocese into deaneries made Mvln 
dean of Angus, and on 18 May 1510 he be- 
came master of the monks for the building 
of the bridge of Dunkeld, of which one arch 
was completed in 1513 (see his accounts pre- 
served in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh). 
After the death of Brown in 1515, Myln wrote 
a history in Latin of the bishops of the see 
from its foundation to the death of Brown, 



Mylne 

which he dedicated to Gavin Douglas [q. v.] 
The work is well written, and contains a vivid 
description of the contest for the possession 
of the cathedral between Andrew Stewart, 
a brother of the Earl of Atholl, and Gavin 
Douglas. Myln was recommended by the 
regent Albany for the important abbacy of 
Cambuskenneth, vacant by the death of 
Patrick Panther [q. v.], and Leo X appointed 
him abbot in 1517. About the same time he 
was appointed master-mason to James V. 

He was a diligent and reforming head of his 
chapter ; collected the records of the abbey, 
which were falling into decay, and preserved 
them in a new register; made an agreement 
with the abbot of St. Victor in Paris for the 
better education of novices both in arts and 
theology, and enforced on the members a 
stricter observance of their rules. Richard- 
son, one of these novices, afterwards a canon 
at Cambuskenneth, mentions in his ' Exegesis 
of the Rule of St. Augustine ' that Myln spe- 
cially required the reading of scripture during 
dinner, frequently preached himself, and gave 
the other monks an opportunity of preach- 
ing. He also erected the great altar and 
chapter-house of the abbey cnurch, and two 
new cemeteries which were consecrated by 
the bishop of Dunblane in 1521. Like 
other leading churchmen, he took part in 
secular affairs, went in 1524 on an em- 
bassy to the English court to treat of the 
marriage of James V and Mary Tudor, and 
was one of the lords to whom parliament 
entrusted the custody of James V in 1525. 
James, after he obtained independence, gave 
Myln the administration of the abbey of 
Holyrood and the priory of St. Andrews 
during the infancy of the royal bastards, on 
whom the pope had conferred these rich pre- 
ferments. Myln also served in successive 
parliaments from 1532 to 1542 as lord of the 
articles. When in 1532 the kin* instituted the 
court of session as the central and supreme 
civil court for Scotland, it was arranged that 
the president should be an ecclesiastic, partly 
because a large part of its revenues were 
supplied by the church, and partly because 
the clergy were the only class at that time 
thoroughly trained in law. Myln presided 
over the court until his death in 1548 or 
1549, being succeeded on 24 Feb. 1549 by 
Robert Reid, bishop of Orkney. 

Myln's capacity for judicial office was 
shown by the careful rules of court drawn 
up by him and embodied in the first Act of 
Sederunt. He was an example of the me- 
diaeval ecclesiastic who was a man of busi- 
ness and learning rather than a pastor or 
theologian. His brother Robert (d. 1549) be- 
came provost of Dundee, and was the father of 



Mylne 



Mylne 



Thomas Mylne (d. 1605), master-mason [see 
under Mtlnb, John, d. 1621]. 

[Vtoe Episcoporum Dunkeldensium, published 
by the Bannatyne Club in 1831 (the manuscript 
is in the Advocates' Library) ; Registrant Ab- 
bacise Oarabuskennethensis, published by Gram- 
pian Club ; Epistoiae Regum Scotorum, curante 
Ruddiman, ii. 72; R. Richardson's Exegesis, 
Paris, 1630 ; Acts of Sederunt of the Court of 
Session from 1532 to 1563, edited by Sir Hay 
Campbell, 1811 ; Acts of Parliament of Scotland, 
Record edition, vol. ii. ; Brunton and Haig's 
Senators of the College of Justice ; Mylne's Mas- 
ter Masons, pp. 2, 5, 8, 17-34.] JE. M. 

MYLNE, JAMES (d. 1788), poet, was 
laird of Lochill or Loch-hill, a small estate 
near Prestonpans, Haddingtonshire. His 
' Poems, consisting of Miscellaneous Pieces 
and two Tragedies/ were published pos- 
thumously (Edinburgh, 8vo, 1790) by his son 
George, who obtained a very long list of sub- 
scribers. Some of the verses are in dialect, 
and all show taste and reading ; the best is 
perhaps an invitation from the poet to Robert 
Burns to visit him on his farm. The two 
tragedies, 'The British Kings' and 'Dar- 
thula,' dealing respectively with prehistoric 
Britain and prehistoric Ulster, are not so 
well inspired. Mylne died at Lochill on 
9 Dec. 1788. 

[Scots Magazine, 1788, p. 623; Baker's Biog. 
Dramatic*, 1812, p. 537 ; Advocates' Library and 
Brit. Museum library Catalogues.] T. S. 

MYLNE or MYLN, JOHN (d. 1621), 
mason, was the son of Thomas Mylne, master- 
mason between 1661 and 1579 to the crown 
of Scotland, who was admitted a burgess of 
Dundee in 1593, and dying in 1605 was buried 
at Elgin. Robert Mylne (d. 1549), provost of 
Dundee, was his grandfather, while his great- 
uncle was Alexander Mylne [q. v.], abbot of 
Cambuskenneth. John, who had succeeded 
his father as master-mason before 1584, com- 
menced in June 1584 the erection of Drum 
House, Edinburghshire,which was completed 
in 1585. He was afterwards engaged in 
several public works at Dundee, and was on 
12 Sept. 1587 admitted a burgess, 'for ser- 
vice done and to be done ' to the burgh, but 
chiefly for his services in renewing the whole 
of the harbour works. He erected in 1586 the 
market cross in the High Street, which was 
removed in 1777, and in 1874 was set up 
again in the grounds of the town's church 
(cf. Thomson, Hist, of Dundee, pp. 177-8; 
view in Mylne, Master Masons, p. 65). Its 
original position is marked by a circle in the 
paving of the street. In 1589 he contracted 
with Thomas Bannatyne, senator of the 
College of Justice, for a gallery and other 



additions to his house at Newtyle, of which 
portions still exist. In 1599 he went to 
Perth to undertake the erection of the bridge 
over the Tay ; in 1604 'he entered as master- 
mason to the brijg of Tay,' and on 17 July 
1605 he and his men commenced work 
(Chronicle of Perth, Maitland Club, 1831 p. 
11). In consequence of his connection with 
the work he was admitted ' frelie ' a burpe&s 
in 1607. After considerable delay, the bridge 
appears to have been completed soon after 
1617. It was destroyed by a flood on 4 Oct. 

1621, and was not replaced. The present 
bridge, by J. Smeaton, 1770, is built over a 
broader part of the river. On 19 Jan. 1620 
Mylne entered into a contract with David, 
lord of Scone, to erect a church at Falkland. 
The work was to be accomplished by the 
following November (Gen. Meg. of Deeds, 
vol. ccclvi., 12 May 1624). As master of the 
lodge of Scone he entered James VI, at his 
own request, as ' frieman Meason and fellow 
craft/ He died in 1621, and was buried in 
the Greyfriare churchyard at Perth, where 
there is a stone, originally the top stone of a 
table-monument, with a quaint epitaph in 
verse to his memory {Notes and Queries, 2nd 
ser. xii. 228). Robert Mylne (1734-1811) 
[q. v.] placed a mural tablet near to the tomb 
in 1774. The original stone was restored in 
1849. 

John Mtlnb (d. 1657), his son (by his 
wife, Helen Kenneries), who had assisted 
him since 1610 as mason on the bridge at 
Perth, was called to Edinburgh in 1616 by 
the town council to complete a statue of 
James I at the Netherbow Port, and in 
acknowledgment of this and other works in 
the town was made a burgess of Edinburgh 
on 8 Aug. 1617. In 1619 he went to Falk- 
land to assist his father in the church there. 
He was engaged from 1622 to 1629 on the 
present steeple of the Tolbooth at Aberdeen 
(Aberdeen Burgh Hecords, Spalding Club, 
1848, ii. 379), and was in consequence made 
a burgess of the city ex gratia on 12 May 

1622. He made alterations at Drummond 
Castle, Perthshire, in 1629-30 ; constructed 
a water-pond by Holyrood Palace for the 
king in i629; executed, with the help of 
his sons, John (1611-1667) [q. v.] and 
Alexander [see under Mtlnb, John, 1611- 
1667], the sundial at Holyrood Palace in 
1633; was principal master-mason of all 
Scotland to Charles I from 1631 to 1636 ; 
was engaged on the church steeple, tolbooth, 
and fortifications at Dundee from 1643 to 
1651 ; and on the steeple of the town-hall in 
1644. He was made fellow of craft in the 
lodge of Edinburgh in October 1633, and was 
master of the lodge at Scone from 1621 to 

b2 



Mylne 



Mylne 



1657. He was admitted a burgess of Perth, 
gratis, on 24 March 1627, and of Kirkcaldy 
on 23 March 1643, having probably taken 
part in the design of Gladney House in that 
burgh. He married Isobel Wilson of Perth 
early in 1610, and died in 1657. His daugh- 
ter Barbara, born in Edinburgh, is frequently 
mentioned in the 'Canongate and Burgh 
Records ' as being accused of witchcraft. 
There is a portrait of John Mylne in Mylne's 
* Master Masons ' (p. 104). 

[Diet, of Architecture ; Mylne's Master Ma- 
sons, pp. 65-128 ; Lyon's Hist, of the Lodge of 
Edinburgh, p. 92; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. 
vii. 198-9 ; Chronicle of Perth (Maitland Club), 
p. 22 ; Cant's Notes to Adatnson's Muses Thre- 
nodie, 1774, pp. i. 81-2, 96; Kennedy's Annals 
of Aberdeen, i. 403; Gateshead Observer, 20 Oct. 
1860, p. 6.] B. P. 

MYLNE, JOHN (1611-1667), mason, 
son of John Mylne (d. 1657) [see under 
Mylne, John, d. 1621], was born in Perth 
in 1611. On 9 Oct. 1633 he was admitted a 
burgess of Edinburgh, by right of descent, 
and on the same day was made fellow of 
craft in the Edinburgh masonic lodge. He 
succeeded his father as principal master- 
mason on 1 Feb. 1036, and in the same year, 
as deacon of the masons of Edinburgh, was 
elected a member of the town council. In 
1637-8 he was appointed master-mason to 
the town of Edinburgh. He designed the 
Iron Church in Edinburgh, begun in 1637 and 
opened in 1647. The spire was not completed 
tul 1663. A portion of it was burnt about 
1826, when it was rebuilt in its present form. 
In August 1637 he repaired portions of St. 
Giles's Church. In 1642 he was employed 
in surveying and reporting on the condition 
of the abbey church at Jedburgh, and was 
appointed a burgess of Jedburgh ; in 1643 he 
was appointed master-mason toHeriot's Hos- 
pital, and continued the works there till their 
completion in 1659 ; in 1646-7 he made ad- 
ditions to the college of Edinburgh, probably 
including the library; in 1648 he repaired the 
crown of the steeple of St. Giles's Church ; in 
1650 he was busy on the fortifications of 
Leith, and in 1666 he commenced the erection, 
from his own designs, of Panmure House, 
Forfarshire, of which portions still exist. 
The town-hall, or tolbooth, at Linlithgow 
was erected from his designs in 1668-70 

S Plans in Mylne, Master Masons, p. 240). 
le also made designs for a new palace at 
Holyrood, a plan of which (dated October 
1663) is in the Bodleian Library, and for a 
grammar school at Linlithgow. 

Mylne's activity was not confined to his 
professional work. He was ten times dea- 
con of the lodge of Edinburgh and warden 



in 1636. In 1640-1 he was with the Scottish 
army at Newcastle ; on 4 Sept. 1646 he was 
made by the king captain of pioneers and 
principal master-gunner of all Scotland,which 
offices were confirmed to him by Charles II 
on 81 Dec. 1664 ; and in August 1652 he was 
chosen by the ' Commissioneris from the 
schvres and burghes of Scotland convenit in 
Edinburgh ' to be one of the ' Commissioneris 
to go to Lundoun to hold the Parliament 
thair/ He returned to Edinburgh in July 
1653, and was present at Perth on 12 May 
1654 on the proclamation of Cromwell as 
lord protector. In 1655, when a member of 
the Edinburgh town council, he was accused 
of having led the town into much expense by 
a constant alteration of the churches. He re- 
tained his seat in the council till 1664. From 
1656 to 1659 he represented the city of Edin- 
burgh at the convention of royal burghs. In 
1662 he was elected M.P. for Edinburgh in 
the parliament of Scotland, and attended the 
second and third sessions (till 9 Oct. 1663) of 
Charles IPs first parliament in Edinburgh. 
Late in 1667 he was in treaty with the town 
council of Perth for the erection of a market 
cross in that town, but died in Edinburgh 
on 24 Dec. A handsome monument in the 
Grey friars church vard, erected by his nephew, 
Robert Mylne (1633-1710) [a. v.], marks his 
burial-place. He is described there as 

the Fourth John 
And, by descent from Father unto Son, 
Sixth Master Mason to a Royal Race 
Of seven successive Kings .... 

A view of it is given in Brown's ' Inscrip- 
tions in Greyfriars/ p. 248, and in Mylne's 
* Master Masons/ p. 160. Mylne's portrait is 
given in Lyon's * Lodge of Edinburgh/ p. 
85, and in Mylne's l Master Masons/ p. 133. 
His signature, as commissioner of estates, is 
appended to two letters, August and October 
1660, to Lord Lauderdale and Charles II 
(Addit. MS. 23114, ff.42, 62). Before 1634 
he married Agnes Fraser of Edinburgh ; she 
dying, he married, on 11 Feb. 1647, Janet 
Primrose, who survived only a short time, 
when he married, on 27 April 1648, Janet 
Fowlis. 

Alexander Mylne (1613-1643), brother 
of the above, was a sculptor of some re- 
pute [see under Mylne, John, d. 16211. He 
worked on many of his brother's buildings, 
on the Parliament House and other public 
buildings in Edinburgh. He was made fellow 
of craft in the lodge of Edinburgh on 2 June 
1635. He died 20 Feb. 1643, it is believed 
of the plague, and was buried in Holyrood 
Abbey, where a monument, with Latin and 
English inscriptions to his memory, is fixed 



Mylne 



Mylne 



. against the north-east buttress of the abbey 
church. In 1632 he married Anna Vegilman, 
by whom he had two sons and one daughter. 
Robert, the elder son (1633-1710), is sepa- 
rately noticed. 

[Diet, of Architecture; Mylne's Master Ma- 
sons, pp. 130-9, 146-8; Maitland's Edinburgh, 
pp. 166, 193.282; Wilson's Memorials of Edin- 
burgh, ii. 203 ; Groome's Ordnance Gazetteer of 
Scotland ; Grant's Story of the University of 
Edinburgh, i. 208, ii. 189 ; Ritchie's Report as to 
who was the Architect of Heriot's Hospital, p. 20 ; 
Monteith's Theatre of Mortality, pp. 13, 14, 64 ; 
Chronicle of Perth (Maitland Club. 1831), pp. 
42-3; Nicoll's Diarv of Public Transactions, 
1650-67 (Bannatyne'Club, 1836), pp. 98-9, 170; 
Lyon's Hist of the Lo<*ge of Edinburgh, pp. 
92-3; Hackett's Epitaphs, ii. 12; Mom be rs of 
Parliament of Scotland, p. 573 ; Hist, of Holy- 
rood House, pp. 68-9.] B. P. 

. MYLNE, ROBERT (1633-1710), mason, 
eldest, son of Alexander Mylne (1613-1643), 
[see under Mylne, John (1611-1667)], and 
of his wife, Anna Vegilman, was born in 
Edinburgh in 1633. He was apprenticed to 
his uncle, John Mylne, and succeeded him as 

frincipal master-mason to Charles II in 1668. 
n 1665 he erected Wood's Hospital at Largo 
(rebuilt in 1830), and in 1668 entered into 
an agreement with the magistrates of Perth to 
build a market cross, the old one having been 
destroyed by Cromwell's army in 1652 (cf. 
Penny, Traditions of Perth, p. 15). Mylne's 
cross, which stood in the High Street, between 
the Kirkgate and the Skinner Gate, was com- 
pleted in May 1669. It was taken down and 
.sold in 1765, when increased traffic rendered 
it inconvenient. In 1669 Mylne was occupied 
in reclaiming the foreshore at Leith, where 
he constructed a sea wall, and on the land 
thus acquired he in 1685 erected stone dwel- 
lings, which are still in existence; in 1670 
he was assisting Sir William Bruce [q. v.] in 
the designs for Holyrood Palace, the founda- 
tion-stone of which was laid 15 July 1671 by 
Mylne, who directed the erection of thebuild- 
ing till its completion in 1679. Mylne's name 
and the date 1671 are cut on a pillar in the 
piazza of the quadrangle. Six of his original 
drawings prepared for the king remained in 
his family, and are reproduced in Mylne's 
* Master Masons,' p. 168. Leslie House, Fife- 
shire, which had been commenced by his 
uncle, was erected under his direction about 
1670. It was partially destroyed by fire in 
1763. As master-mason or surveyor to the 
city of Edinburgh Mylne constructed cisterns 
in various parts of the town in connection 
with the new water supply from Comiston, be- 
tween 1674 and 1681. lie effected one of the 
first improvements in the old town by the 



construction of Mylne Square in 1689 (view 
in Casseirs Old and New Edinburgh, i. 287^, 
and in the same year assisted in the repair 
of Edinburgh Castle, one of the bastions 
being called after him, Mylne's Mount. 

At that time he was not only king's master- 
mason, but also hereditary master-gunner of 
the fortress. On 30 March 1682 he contracted 
for building a bridge of one arch over the 
Clyde at Romellweill Crags, now known as 
Ram's Horn Pool, Lanarkshire. After the 
revolution he seems to have been superseded 
as master-mason by Sir A. Murray of Black- 
barony, but was employed on Holyrood 
Palace in June and July 1689. In November 
1708 he was petitioning for twenty years' ar- 
rears due to him as master-mason. In 1690 
he erected Mylne's Court, and about that time 
completed many buildings inEdinburgh under 
the new regulation for the erection of stone 
buildings in lieu of timber in the principal 
streets. In March 1693 he entered into a 
contract to complete the steeple of Heriot's 
Hospital, which had been begun in 1676. 
Mylne had been instructed on 8 May 1675 
' to think on a drawing thereof against the 
next council meeting ;' it is not known 
whether the work carried out was entirely 
his own design. He executed the statue of 
Heriot over the archway within the court, 
from an original painting. After the great 
fire in Edinburgh in 1700 Mylne bought 
many sites in the town, and on them erected 
buildings, in which his style may still be 
traced. 

Mylne was active in his connection with 
the masonic lodge of Edinburgh. He was 
' entered prentice ' to his uncle on 27 Dec. 
1653, made fellow craft on 23 Sspt. 1660, 
chosen warden in 1663, re-elected in 1664, 
and filled the deacon's chair during 1681- 
1683 and 1687-8. Till 1707 he took a leading 
part in the business of the lodge. He was 
made burgess of Edinburgh on 23 May 1660, 
and guild brother on 12 April 1665. As 
magistrate of Edinburgh his signature is at- 
tached to letters to the Duke of Lauderdale 
and to Charles II, dated 1674 and 1675 
(Addit MSS. 23136 f. 206, 23137 f. 72). 

He acquired the estate of Balfarge in Fife- 
shire, and died at his house at Inveresk on 

10 Dec. 1710, aged 77. He married, on 

11 April 1661, Elizabeth Meikle, by whom he 
had a large family. He is commemorated on 
the monument to his uncle at Greyfriars. A 
portrait of him from a picture by Roderick 
Chalmers is reproduced in Mylne's ' Master 
Masons '(p. 217). 

William Mylne (1662-1728), master- 
mason, son of the above, was born in 1662. 
He was entered in the lodge of Edinburgh 



Mylne 



Mylne 



on 27 Dec. 1681, fellow craft on 9 Nov. 1685, 
and freeman mason on 16 July 1687. He 
was warden of the lodge in 1695-7. He 
settled in Leith,and died 9 March 1728. By 
his wife Elizabeth Thomson he had several 
children [see under Mylne, Robert, 1734- 
18111. He also is commemorated on the 
family monument. 

[Diet, of Architecture; Mylne's Master Ma- 
sons, pp. 171-249; Lyon's Hist, of the Lodge 
of Edinburgh, pp. 93-4; Groome's Ordnance 
Gazetteer of Scotland ; Cant's notes to Adam- 
son's Muses Threnodie, 1774, pp. 129, 134- 
135; Builder, 1866, p. 187 ; Hist, of Holyrood 
House, pp. 89-94 ; Mai t land's Edinburgh, p. 205 ; 
Steven's Hist of Heriot's Hospital, pp. 87, 236; 
Ritchie's Report as to who was the architect of 
Heriot's Hospital, pp. 23-4 ; Brown's Inscriptions 
at Greyfriars, p. 249.] B. P. 

MYLNE, ROBERT (1643 P-1747), writer 
of pasquils and antiquary, said to have been 
related to Sir Robert Mylne of Barn ton, North 
Edinburghshire, was probably born in No- 
vember 1643. He is generally described as 
a ' writer ' of Edinburgh, but also as an en- 
graver; he gained notoriety by his bitter and 
often scurrilous political squibs against the 
whigs, but he also devoted much time and 
labour to copying manuscripts of antiquarian 
and historical interest. George Crawiurd, in 
the preface to his ' History of the Shire of 
Renfrew,' acknowledges his indebtedness to 
the ' vast collections of public records ' be- 
longing to Mylne, ' a person well known to 
be indefatigable in the study of Scots anti- 
quities.' Amongr Mylne's other friends was 
Archibald Pitcairne [q. v.] Mylne died at 
Edinburgh on 21 Nov. 1747, aged 103 ac- 
cording to some accounts, and 105 according 
to others, and was buried on the anniversary 
of his birthday. 

Mylne married on 29 Aug. 1678, in the 
Tolbooth Church, Edinburgh,Barbara, second 
daughter of John Govean, minister at Muck- 
art, Perthshire ; she died on 11 Dec. 1725, 
having had twelve children, all of whom, 
except one daughter, Margaret, predeceased 
their father. 

Many of Mylne's pasquils were separately 
issued in his lifetime, but others were cir- 
culated only in manuscript. From a collec- 
tion brought together by Mylne's son Robert, 
James Maidment published, with an intro- 
duction and a few similar compositions by 
other writers, ' A Book of Scotish Pasquils,' 
8 pts., Edinburgh, 1827 ; another edition ap- 
pearea in 1868. In the Advocates' Library, 
Edinburgh, there is a pamphlet, apparently 
by Mylne, entitled 'The Oath of Abjuration 
Considered,' 1712, 4to, and a complete manu- 
script catalogue of Mylne's printed broadsides. 



[Introduction to A Book of Scotish Pasquils,, 
1827 ; Cat. of Advocates' Library; Crawford's 
Hist, of the Shire of Renfrew, p. vi; Scots Mag. 
1747, p. 610; British Mag. December 1747; in- 
formation from W. T. Fowie, esq.] A. F. P. 

MYLNE, ROBERT (1734-1811), archi- 
tect and engineer, was the eldest son of 
Thomas Mylne (d. 1763) of Powderhall, near 
Edinburgh, mason, eldest son of William 
Mylne (1662-1728), mason [see under Mylne, 
Robekt, 1633-1710]. The father was city 
surveyor in Edinburgh, and, besides having- 
an extensive private practice, designed the 
Edinburgh Inhrmary, completed in 1745, and 
recently pulled down. He was apprenticed 
to the masonic lodge of Edinburgh 27 Dec. 
1721, admitted fellow craft on 27 Dec 1729, 
master in 1736-6, in which latter year he re- 
presented it in the erection of the grand lodge 
of freemasons of Scotland, and was grand 
treasurer from November 1737 to December 
1756. He was elected burgess of Edinburgh 
on 26 March 1729. He died 5 March 1763 
at Powderhall, and was buried in the family 
tomb at Greyfriars. By his wife Elizabeth 
Duncan he had seven children. A portrait 
by Mossman, painted in 1752, is in the posses- 
sion of the family. A copy was presented to 
the grand lodge in 1868, and it is reproduced 
in Mylne's ' Master Masons ' (p. 261). The 
old term ' mason ' was dropped, and that of 
' architect ' adopted, during his lifetime. 

Robert was Dorn in Eainburgh 4 Jan. 
1734, and began his architectural studies 
under his father. He was admitted ' pren- 
tice as honorary member' to the grand lodge 
on 14 Jan. 1764, and was raised to the degree 
of master-mason on 8 April of the same year. 
He left Edinburgh in April 1764 and pro- 
ceeded to Rome, where he studied for four 
years. On 18 Sept. 1768 he gained the gold 
and silver medals for architecture in St. 
Luke's Academy in Rome — a distinction not 
previously granted to a British subject. The 
following year he was elected a member of 
St. Luke s Academy, but, being a protestant, 
a dispensation from the pope was necessary 
to enable him to take his place. This was 
obtained through Prince Altieri, himself a 
student of art. lie was also made member of 
the Academies of Florence and of Bologna. 
He visited Naples and Sicily, and took care- 
ful drawings and measurements of antiquities. 
His notes were still in manuscript at the 
time of his death, though he was working on 
them with a view to publication in 1/74. 
After travelling through Switzerland and 
Holland he reached London in 1769, bearing 
a very flattering recommendation from the 
Abbe Grant of Rome to Lord Charlemont 
{Hist. MSS. Comm. 12th Rep. x. p. 262). 



Mylne 

At the date of Mylne's arrival in London 
designs for the construction of Blackfriars 
Bridge were being invited. Mylne, though 
a stranger in London, submitted one, which 
was approved in February 1760. His choice 
of elliptical arches in lieu of semicircular 
gave rise to some discussion, in which Dr. 
Johnson took part in three letters in the 
'Daily Gazetteer/ 1, 8, and 16 Dec. 1759, in 
support of his friend John Gwynn [q. v.] It 
is to the credit of those concerned that the 
acquaintance thus formed between Johnson 
and Mylne developed later into a warm 
friendship, despite tnis difference of opinion. 
On 7 June 1760 the first pile of Mylne's 
bridge was driven. The first stone was 
laid on 81 Oct. (view of ceremony, from 
a contemporary print in Thobnbuby, Old 
and New London, i. 205), and it was opened 
on 19 Nov. 1769. During the years of 
construction Mylne was often abused and 
ridiculed, and the popular feeling was ex- 
pressed by Charles Cnurchill in his poem 
of 'The Ghost/ 1763 (p. 174). A view of 
the approved design was engraved in 1760 ; 
an engraved plan and elevation by R. Bald- 
win, a view of a portion of the bridge by 
Piranesi in Borne, and another by £. Booker 
in London, were all published in 1766. 
Mylne's method of centering has been much 
commended, and his design has been fre- 
quently engraved. Despite the feet that 
the bridge was constructed for something 
less than the estimate, Mylne had to resort 
to legal measures to obtain his remuneration. 
The bridge was removed in 1868. 

Among Mylne's other engineering and 
architectural works may be mentioned : St. 
Cecilia's Hall in Edinburgh, on the model of 
the Opera House at Parma, since used as a 
school, 1762-5 (view in CasselTs Old and 
New Edinburgh, i. 252) ; a bridge at Wel- 
beck for the Duke of Portland, 1764; the 
pavilion and wings of Northumberland 
House, Strand, 1765 ; Almack's (now Willis's) 
Rooms in King Street, St. James's, 1765-6 ; 
house for Dr. Hunter in Lichfield Street, 
1766; Blaise Castle, Bristol, 1766 (views 
in Neale, Seats, vol. iv. 1821, and Bbeweb, 
Gloucestershire, p. 104) ; the Manor House, 
Wormleybury, Hertfordshire, 1767; the 
Jamaica Street Bridge, Glasgow, in con- 
junction with his brother William, noticed 
below, 1767-72 ; offices for the New River 
Company in Clerkenwell, 1770 (elevation in 
Maitlakd, London, Entick, 1776, vol. i. plate 
128); Clumber Park, Nottinghamshire, 1770 
(view in Thoboton, Nottinghamshire, iii. 
405); City of London Lying-in Hospital, 
1770-3 (Maitlawd, ib. vol i. plate 127) ; 
Tusmore House, Oxfordshire (plan and eleva- 



' Mylne 



tions in Righabbsojet, New ViU Brit. vol. L 

Slates 3-5); Addington Lodge, near Crov- 
on, since 1808 the residence of the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, 1772-9 (ib. vol. i. 
plates 32—8) ; the Bishop of Durham's portion 
of the bridge over the Tyne at Newcastle, 
removed in 1873 (Wooler being the archi- 
tect of the corporation of Newcastle's por- 
tion), 1774 ; house for himself at the corner 
of Little Bridge Street, 1780 (cf. Thobk- 
btjbt, Old and New London, i. 207), after- 
wards the York Hotel, taken down in 1863, 
and the ground now occupied by Ludgate 
Hill railway station; works at Inverary 
Castle, 1780 and 1806 [see Mobkis, Robebt, 
fl, 1754]; bridge over the Tyne at Hexham, 
Northumberland, 1784 ; hospital in Belfast, 
1792 ; Mr. Coutts's house in Stratton Street, 
Piccadilly, 1797 ; the east front of the haU 
of the Stationers' Company, 1800 ; Kidhrook 
Park, Sussex, about 1804 (view in Nbaxe, 
Seats, i v. 1 821 ). He made considerable altera- 
tions to King's Weston, Gloucestershire, and 
Roseneath Castle, Dumbartonshire (1786), 
and repairs to Northumberland House in the 
Strand, Syon House, Middlesex, and Ardin- 
caple House, Dumbartonshire. 

Two of Mylne's great engineering designs 
were that for the Gloucester and Berkeley 
Canal, which has recently been completed to 
Sharpness Point, and that for the improve- 
ment to the fen level drainage, by means of 
the Eau Brink Cut above Lvnn, which after 
much opposition was carried out by Rennie 
in 1817. Mylne drew up many reports on 
engineering projects, on which he was con- 
sulted. In 1772, after the destruction of 
the old bridge over the Tyne at Newcastle, 
he chose the site for a new one (many of his 
suggestions as to improvement in the ap- 
proaches have been carried out in recent 
years); in 1775 he sounded the harbour and 
bridge at Great Yarmouth ; in 1781 he sur- 
veyed the harbour of Wells-next-the-Sea in 
Norfolk ; and in 1802 the Thames as far as 
Reading. In 1783 he reported on the disaster 
to Smeaton's bridge at Hexham; in 1784 on 
the Severn navigation ; in 1789 on the state 
of the mills, waterworks, &c, of the city of 
Norwich ; in 1790 on the Worcester canal ; 
in 1791, 1793, 1794, and 1802 on the navi- 

gition of the Thames ; in 1792 on the Eau 
rink Cut ; in 1799 and 1802 on the bed of 
the Thames in London, with reference to the 
reconstruction of London Bridge; in 1807 on 
the East London water works; and in 1808 
on Woolwich dockyard. He was unsuccess- 
ful in his design for the new London Bridge 
in 1800. 

Mylne was appointed surveyor of St. Paul's 
Cathedral in October 1766, and held the post 



I 



Mylne 



8 



till his death. In the cathedral, over the 
-entrance to the choir, he put up the inscrip- 
tion to Sir Christopher Wren, designed the 
pulpit and fitted up the building in 1789 for 
the visit of the houses of parliament (view 
among J. C. Crowles's collection to illus- 
trate rennant's ' London/ xi. 95, in Brit.Mus.), 
and again in 1797, &c, for the charity chil- 
dren. He was made joint-engineer (with 
Henry Mill [q.v.]) to the New River Com- 
pany in 1767, sole engineer after Mill's death 
in 1770, and resigned the post in favour of 
his son, William Chadwell Mylne [q. v.], in 
1811. In 1800 he erected an urn with in- 
scription at Amwell, Hertfordshire, to the 
memory of Sir Hugh Myddelton [q. v.], pro- 
jector of the New Kiver. He was appointed 
surveyor to Canterbury Cathedral m 1767, 
and clerk of the works to Greenwich Hospital 
(where he executed improvements^ in 1776. 

He published in 1757 a map or ' The Is- 
land and Kingdom of Sicily/ improved from 
earlier maps (reissued, London, 1799). In 
1819 an elevation was issued of the ' Tempio 
•della Sibylla Tiburtina,' at Rome, restored 
-according to the precepts of Vitruvius and 
drawn by Mylne. 

He became a fellow of the Royal Society 
in 1767, and was an original member of the 
Architects' Club, founded in 1791. Mylne's 
architectural style was almost too thoroughly 
Roman to suit his time. He was the last 
architect of note who combined to any great 
•degree the two avocations of architect and en- 
gineer. "With his death the connection of the 
family with the ancient masonic lodge of Edin- 
burgh, which had been maintained for five 
.successive generations, ceased. He was ad- 
mitted * prentice* on 14 Jan. 1754, and raised 
to the degree of master-mason 8 April 1754. 
His name appears for the last time in 1759. 

Mylne married on 10 Sept. 1770 Mary, 
daughter of Robert Home (1748-1797) the 
•surgeon, and sister to Sir Everard Home 
[q. v.], by whom he had ten children, four of 
whom survived him. His wife died 13 July 
1797. Mylne died 5 May 181 1 ,and was, at his 
own desire, buried in the crypt of St. Paul's 
. Cathedral, near to the remains of Sir Chris- 
topher Wren. For the latter years of his life 
he had resided at Great Amwell, Hertford- 
shire. His portrait, painted by Brompton in 
Rome in 1757, was engraved by Vangelisti 
in Paris in 1783. It is reproduced on a 
smaller scale in Nichols's * Literary Anec- 
dotes,' ix. 233. A drawing of him by George 
Dance and engraved by W. Daniell was 
published in 1810, and again in 1814 in 
Dance's ' Collection of Portraits/ Another 
portrait is in Mylne's 'Master Masons.' 
Among the satirical prints in the British 



Mylne 

Museum are two concerning Mylne. No. 
3733, entitled * Just arriv'd from Italy The 
Puffing Phenomenon with his Fiery Tail 
turn'd Bridge builder,' dated October 1760, 
represents Mylne perched on an abutment of 
the bridge, with the rival competitors and 
others down below, freely commenting on 
him. The plate was afterwards altered and 
the title changed to 'The Northern Comet 
with his Fiery Tail &c.' No. 3741, 'The 
(Boot) Interest in the (City) or the (Bridge) 
in the (Hole),' represents a conclave of archi- 
tects, of whom Mylne is one. Some accom- 
panying verses refer to the influence of Lord 
Bute (Boot) alleged to have been used in his 
favour. Mylne was reported to be of sharp 
temper, but he was always scrupulously just. 
William Mylne (d. 1790), brother of 
Robert, was entered apprentice on 27 Dec. 
1750, and was with his brother in Rome in 
1755-6. He was admitted freemason in 
Edinburgh in 1758, and was deacon of 
masons in 1761-2 and 1765. He became 
architect to the city of Edinburgh, member 
of the town council, and convener of trades 
in 1765. On 27 Aug. 1765 he contracted for 
the erection of the North Bridge, part of 
the walls and abutments on the north side 
of which gave way on 3 Aug. 1769, when 
the work was already well advanced towards 
completion. Differences arose between the 
town council and Mylne respecting the in- 
creased expense of finishing the bridge, and 
the question was brought before the House of 
Lords in 1770. Terms were, however, agreed 
upon, and the bridge was completed in 1772 
(view in Cassell's Old and New Edinburgh, 
i. 338). He afterwards removed to Dublin, 
where he effected great improvements in the 
waterworks of the city. He died 6 March 
1790, and was buried in St. Catherine's 
Church, Dublin, where a tablet to his memory 
was placed by his brother Robert. 

[Diet, of Architecture ; Mylne's Master Masons, 
pp. 250-83 ; Laurie's Hist, of Free Masonry, p. 
514; Maitland's Edinburgh, p. 182; Scots Mag. 
1758, p. 550; Gent. Mag. 1811, pp. 409-500; 
Hist. MSS. Comm. 12th Rep. App. x. pp. 252- 
253 ; Cresy's Encyclopaedia of Engineering, pp. 
427-9, where is a history of the construction of 
Blackfriars Bridge (views of the bridge in figs. 
431, 432, 433); diagrams in Weale's Bridges, ii. 
163 ; see also Encycl. Brit. 8th edit, article 'Arch/ 
iii. 409 (plate xlix. opposite p. 408), and article 
' Centre/ vi. 382. For criticisms of the bridge see 
Gent. Mag. 1797 p. 623, 1813 pt. i. pp. 124, 411, 
pt. ii. pp. 223 ; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. xii. 
121-2, 159,233,3rd ser. vii. 177, viii. 41. Bos- 
well's Life of Johnson, ed.Birkbeck Hill, i. 251-2; 
Hawkins's Life of Johnson, pp. 373-8 ; Smiles's 
Lires of the Engineers, i. 264-5; Builder, 1855, 
p. 429 ; Annual Register, 1760 pp. 74-5, 122, 143, 



Mylne 

.1761 p. 124, 1770 pp. 154, 176, 1771 p. 124; 
Casseli's Old and New Edinburgh, i. 251-2; 
Thoroton's Nottinghamshire, iii. 383 n., 406 ; 
Lysons's Environs, i. 4; Wheatley's London, ii. 
604; Wheatley's Bound about Piccadilly, pp. 
197,383; Wright's Hexham, p. 208; Brayley's 
Surrey, iv. 27; Gateshead Observer, 20 Oct. 
1860, p. 6; London Mag. 1760 p. 164, 1766 
p. 549; Ciutterbuck's Hertfordshire, ii. 234; 
Scots Mag. 1769 pp. 461-9, 1770 p. 518, 1790 
p. 154; Prin. Probate Reg. Crickett, p. 297; 
Nichols's Lit.Anecd. viii. 610 ; Lyon's Lodge of 
Edinburgh, pp. 94-5 ; Maitland's London (cont. 
byEntick), 1775, i. 34; Cat. of King's Prints 
and Drawings; Benn's Belfast, i. 608-9 ; Nash's 
Worcestershire, ii. Suppl. p. 8; inscriptions on 
tomb at Great Amwell, given in Cussans's Hert- 
fordshire, ii. 126-7; Lords' Journals, 1770, pp. 
4115,412a, 414 6, 436 5; Cleland's Annals of I 
Glasgow, i. 71 ; Kincaid's Edinburgh, pp. 128- 
134 ; Picture of Dublin, 1835, p. 177.] B. P. j 

MYLNE or MILN, WALTER (d. 

1558), the last Scottish protestant martyr, 
in his early years visited Germany, where 
he imbibed the doctrines of the Reformation, 
and afterwards became priest in the church | 
of Lunan in Angus. During the time of 
Cardinal Beaton information was laid against 
him as a heretic, whereupon he fled the 
country, and was condemned to be burnt 
wherever he might be found. Long after 
the cardinal's death he was at the instance 
of John Hamilton, bishop of St. Andrews, 
apprehended in April 1558 in the town of 
Dysart, Fifeshire, where, according to Pits- 
cottie, he ' was warmand him in ane poor 
wyfes hous, and was teaching her the com- 
mandments of God' (Chronicles, p. 517). 
After being for some time confined in the 
castle of St. Andrews, he was brought 
for trial before an assemblage of bishops, 
abbots, and doctors in the cathedral church. 
He was then over eighty years of age, and 
so weak and infirm that he coidd scarce 
climb up to the pulpit where he had to answer 
before them. Yet, says Foxe, ' when he began 
to speak he made the church to ring and 
sound again with so great courage and 
stoutness that the Christians which were 
present were no less rejoiced than the ad- 
versaries were confounded and ashamed.' So 
far from pretending to deny the accusations 
against him, he made use of the opportunity 
boldly to denounce what he regarded as the 
special errors of the Romish church; his trial 
was soon over, and he was condemned to be 
burnt as a heret ic on 28 April 1568. Accord- 
ing to George Buchanan, the commonalty of 
St. Andrews were so offended at the sentence 
that they shut up their shops in order that 
they might sell no materials for his execu- 
tion ; and after his death they heaped up in his 



Mylne 



memory a great pile of stones on the place 
where he was burned. Mylne was married, 
and his widow was alive in 1573, when she 
received 61. 13*. 4d. out of the thirds of the 
benefices. 

[Histories of Lindsay of Pitscottie, Buchanan, 
Knox, and Calderwood ; Foxe's Book of Martyrs.] 

T. F. H. 

MYLNE, WILLIAM CHADWELL 

(1781-1863), engineer and architect, born on 
5 or 6 April 1781, was the second son of 
Robert Mylne (1734-181 1 ) [q. v.] In 1797 
he was already assisting his father to stake 
out the lands for the Eau Brink Cut, and 
he also worked on the Gloucester and Berke- 
ley Ship Canal. In 1804 he was appointed 
assistant engineer to the New River Com- 
pany, succeeding in 1811 to the sole con- 
trol of the works. This appointment he 
held for fifty years. In 1810 he was em- 
ployed on the Colchester water works ; in 
1811 and 1813 he made surveys of the 
Thames; in 1813 he surveyed Portsmouth 
harbour for the lords of the admiralty, and 
was engaged in engineering works in Paris 
and the surrounding country in the autumn 
of 1816. In 1821 he designed and executed 
water works for the city of Lichfield, and in 
1836 those for Stamford in Lincolnshire. 
As surveyor to the New River Company 
he laid out fifty acres of land for building 
purposes near Islington, and designed St. 
Mark's Church, Myddelton Square, 1826-8. 
The property has since become a large source 
of income to the company. He converted 
also, for the New River Company, Sir Hugh 
Myddelton's old wooden mains and service 
pipes between Charing Cross and Bishops- 
gate Street into cast-iron. In 1828 he con- 
structed many settling reservoirs at Stoke 
Newin^ton, for the better supply of the out? 
lying districts of the north of London. Al- 
though undertaking architectural work, and 
making additions and alterations to many 
private residences, the bulk of his practice 
consisted of engineering projects in connec- 
tion with water-supply and drainage. 

In 1837 he designed . Garrard's Hostel 
Bridge at Cambridge (plate in Hann and 
Hosking, Bridges). In the fen country he 
was much occupied. He effected improve- 
ments in the river Ouse between Littleport 
and Ely in 1826, in the river Cam in 1829, 
and in the drainage of the district of Burnt 
Fen. He constructed the intercepting drain 
at Bristol, thus removing the sewage from 
the floating harbour. The Metropolis Water- 
works Act of 1852 necessitated extensive 
alterations and improvements in the works 
of the New River Company, which Mylne. 



Mylne 



to 



Myngs 



carried out, with the assistance of his son 
Robert William Mylne (see below). 

In 1840 he gave evidence before commit- 
tees of the House of Lords on the supply of 
water to the metropolis (again in 1850 before 
the sanitary commission of the board of 
health), and (with Sir John Rennie) on the 
embanking of the river Thames (Papers and 
Peports, xii. [236-8] 68, [867-62] 83; xxii. 
[464-9] 42). With H. B. Gunning he was 
employed as surveyor under the Act for 
making preliminary inquiries in certain cases 
of application for Local Acts in 1847, at 
Leeds, Rochdale, and elsewhere. His many 
printed reports include one on the intended 
Eau Brink Cut (with J. Walker), Cambridge, 
1826, and one addressed to the New River 
Company on the supply of water to the city 
sewers, London, 1864 (cf. also Trans, of Inst, 
of Civil Eng. iii. 284). In 1881 he wrote an 
account to the Society of Antiquaries, Lon- 
don, of some Roman remains discovered at 
Ware in Hertfordshire. Mylne succeeded to 
the surveyorship of the Stationers' Company 
on the death of his father in 1811, and neld 
the post till 1861. 

He was elected fellow of the Royal Astro- 
nomical Society in 1821,F.R.S. on 16 March 
1826, fellow of the Institute of British Ar- 
chitects in 1884, member of the Institute of 
Civil Engineers 28 June 1842 (on the council 
from 1844 to 1848), and was for many years 
treasurer to the Smeatonian Society of En- 
gineers. 

He retired from his profession in 1861, 
and died at Amwell in Hertfordshire on 
25 Dec. 1863. He married Mary Smith (1791- 
1874), daughter of George S. Coxhead, by 
whom he had three sons and three daughters. 
His widow died on 10 Feb. 1874. His por- 
trait, painted by H. W. Phillips in 1856, was 
engraved by H. Adlard in 1860, and is repro- 
duced in Mylne's ' Master Masons/ 

His son, Robekt William Mylne (1817- 
1890), architect, engineer, and geologist, was 
born 14 June 1817, and practised as an archi- 
tect and engineer. He was occupied on the 
harbour at Sunderland in 1886, and travelled 
in Italy and Sicily in 1841-2. He assisted 
his father for about twenty vears, and became 
an authority on questions of water-supply and 
drainage. He held the post of engineer to the 
Limerick Water Company for some time. His 
most noticeable work was the providing of a 
good supply of water for one of the sunk forts 
in the sea at Spithead. He succeeded his 
father in 1860 as surveyor to the Stationers' 
Company, and held the post till his death. He 
was associate of the Institute of British Ar- 
chitects in 1839, fellow in 1849, retiring in 
1889 ; member of the Geological Society in 



1848, was on the council from 1854 to 1868, 
and again in 1879, and was one of the secre- 
taries in 1856-7. He was also a member of 
the Smeatonian Society of Civil Engineers, of 
which he acted as treasurer for some time, and 
belonged both to the London and Edinburgh 
Societies of Antiquaries. He was preparing 
a work on the architectural antiquities of 
Eastern Scotland at the time of his death. 
He married, on 1 7 March 1 852, Hannah (1826- 
1886), daughter of George Scott, J.P., of 
Ravenscourt Park, Middlesex, and died at 
Home Lodge, Great Amwell, on 2 July 1890. 
He published: 1. 'On the Supply of 
Water from Artesian Wells in the London 
Basin,' London, 1840. For this Mylne was 
awarded the Telford bronze medal by the 
Institute of Civil Engineers (cf. Minutes of 
Proceedings of the Institute, 1839, pp. 59 et 
seq). 2. ' Account of the Ancient Basilica 
of San Clemente at Rome,' London, 1845, 
and in Weale's * Quarterly Papers on Archi- 
tecture,' vol. iv. 3. ' Sections of the Lon- 
don Strata,' London, 1850. 4. ' Topographical 
Map of London and its Environs,' London, 
1851 and 1855. 5. ' Man of the Geology and 
Contours of London ana its Environs,' Lon- 
don, 1856— a work which was used officially 
until superseded by the ordnance survey. 
6. ' Map of London, Geological — Water- 
works and Sewers/ London, 1858. 

[Diet of Architecture; Mylne's Master Masons, 
pp. 284-98; Builder, 1864, p. 8 ; Cooper's Annals 
of Cambridge, iv. 608 ; Inst, of Civ. Eng., 
Minutes of Proceedings, xxx. 448-51 ; Cussans's 
Hertfordshire, ii. 126-7 ; Archaeologia, vol. xxiv. 
App. p. 350; Proc. of Royal S«ks. 1865, pp. xii, 
xiii ; Monthly Notices of the Astronomical So- 
ciety, 1865, xxv. 82; Probate Registry at 
Somerset House ; Transactions of Inst, of Civ. 
Eng. iii. 229 ; Geological Magazine, 1890, p. 384; 
Quarterly Journal of Geological Soc. 1891, pp. 
59-61 ; Proc. of Royal Soc. 1890, pp. xx, xxi.] 

B. P. 

MYNGS, Sib CHRISTOPHER (1625- 
1666), vice-admiral, is said by Pepys to have 
been of very humble origin, 'his father being 
always, and at this day, a shoemaker, and 
his mother, a hoyman's daughter, of which 
he was used frequently to boast 1 (Diary t 
13 June 1666; cf. 26 Oct. 1665). This is 
certainly exaggerated, if not entirely false. 
His parents were of well-to-do families in 
the north of Norfolk. His father, John 
Myngs, though described in the register of 
Salthouse, where he was married on 28 Sept. 
1628, as ' of the parish of St. Katherine in the 
city of London, seems to have been a near 
kinsman, if not a son, of Nicholas Mynnes, 
the representative of a good old Norfolk 
family (Blomefibld, Topographical History 



Myngs 



IX 



Myngs 



of Norfolk, Index j cf. Add. MS. 14299, ff. 
56, 148), one of whose sons, Christopher, 
was baptised at Blakeney on 8 March 1686 
(MAB8HALL,G^a%t*£,i.38-9). His mother, 
Katherine Parr (baptised at Kelling on 
16 June 1606), was the daughter of Christo- 
pher Parr, the owner of property in the neigh- 
bourhood. The son, Christopher, was baptised 
at Salthouse on 22 Nov. 1626 (Kelling and 
Salthouse registers, by the kindness of the 
rector, the Rev. C. E. Lowe). It is probable 
that from his early youth he was Drought 
up to the sea in the local coasting-trade; 
but while still a mere lad he entered on 
board one of the state's ships, and served, as 
a shipmate of Thomas Brooks [q.v.], for 
' several years ' before 1648 {State Papers, 
Dom. Interregnum, ciii. 128). In 1662 he 
was serving in the squadron in the Medi- 
terranean under Commodore Richard Badi- 
ley fa«vO> probably as lieutenant or master 
of the Elizabeth . On the homeward pas- 
sage in May 1663 the captain of the Eliza- 
beth was killed in an engagement with a 
Dutch ship (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 16 June 
1663 ; cf. Lediakd, p. 661 n.), and Mvngs was 
promoted to the vacancy. On arriving in 
England, the men of the Elizabeth, with 
those of the other ships, insisted on being 
paid off; but the ship was refitted and re- 
manned as soon as possible ( Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 24-27 June 1663), and, under Myngs's 
command, took part in the final action of 
the war, 29-31 July 1663 (Add. MS. 22646, 
f. 186V On 3 Oct. she had just carried the 
vice-cnancellor of Poland and his retinue 
across to Dieppe, when, on her return voyage, 
she fell in with a fleet of Dutch merchant- 
vessels under convoy of two men-of-war, 
which, after a sharp action, Myngs brought 
into the Downs. He reported the affair on 
the 4th, and on the 6th it was ordered by 
parliament ' that the Council of State take 
notice of the captain of the Elizabeth, and 
consider the widow and children of the 
master/ who had been killed in the fight 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom.) The Elizabeth 
afterwards carried Whitelocke, the ambas- 
sador to Sweden, to Gothenburg, where he 
arrived on 16 Nov. The ship was detained 
there by contrary winds, and her men became 
very sickly ; ninety men, Myngs wrote, were 
sick, and five had died. She was thus so 
weak that when, on her way home, she met 
a Dutch convoy, she was obliged to leave 
them after an interchange of shot (ib. 2 Jan. 
1664). Myngs continued to command the 
Elizabeth in the Channel and on the coast 
of France during 1664 and the early months 
of 1666. On 30 Jan. 1664-6 his old ship- 
mate and friend, Thomas Brooks, wrote to 



the commissioners of the admiralty, recom- 
mending him for preferment. 'He is, 9 he 
said, 'a man fearing the Lord; a man of 
sound principles, and of a blameless life and 
conversation ; he is one of much valour, and 
has shown it again and again in several en- 
gagements and by the prizes he has taken. 
Vice-admiral Goodsonn and Vice-admiral 
Badiley, if they were here, would under- 
write this writing from their knowledge of 
him and their love to him: more than I 
have written I have heard them say ' (State 
Papers. Dom. Inter, ciii. 128). 

In October 1666 Myngs was appointed to 
the Marston Moor, which had come home 
from Jamaica, and whose men were in a 
state of mutiny on being ordered back to 
the West Indies (cf. ib. 1 Oct. 1666). When 
Myngs joined the ship at Portsmouth, he 
found tne men ' in such an attitude as did 
not admit of further employment.' They 
were mostlv all strangers to him, he said, so 
that he had no personal influence with them 
(ib. 12 Oct.) Some of the worst were made 
prisoners; the rest were paid their wages, 
and within a few days the ship sailed for the 
West Indies, where during tne next six or 
seven years ' he came into great renown ' 
(Pepys, 13 June 1666), though the par- 
ticulars of his service there have not been 
preserved. In July 1667 the Marston Moor 
returned to England, was paid off and or- 
dered to be refitted. Myngs, meanwhile, 
obtained leave of absence and was married 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 7, 14 July, 31 Aug. 
1667) ; but by the beginning of December 
was again, with the Marston Moor, in the 
Downs, waiting for a small convoy he was 
to take to Jamaica. He seems to have been 
still in the West Indies at the Restoration, 
and to have been one of the very few who 
were not affected by the change of govern- 
ment. In 1662 he was appointed to the 
Centurion, in which he was again at Jamaica 
in 1663 (cf. Cal. State Papers, America and 
West Indies, 31 July 1668, 1 and 20 June 
1660, 26 May 1664). In 1664 he commanded, 
in quick succession, the Gloucester, Portland, 
and Royal Oak, in which last he hoisted hie 
flag as vice-admiral of a Channel squadron 
commanded by Prince Rupert. In 1666 he 
was vice-admiral of the white squadron, with 
his flag in the Triumph, in the battle of 
Lowestoft on 3 June ; and for his services 
on this day was knighted on 27 June (Lb 
Neve, Pediarees of the Knights). When 
the Duke of York retired from the command 
and the fleet was reorganised under the 
Earl of Sandwich, Myngs became vice-ad- 
miral of the blue squadron, and served in 
that capacity during the autumn campaign 



Myngs 

on the coast of Norway and at the capture 
of the Dutch East Indiamen [see Montagu, 
Edwabd, first Eakl op Sandwich]. After- 
wards, with his flag in the Fairfax, he com- 
manded a strong squadron for the winter 
5uard and the protection of trade. In 
anuary 1665-6 it was reported from Ports- 
mouth that * by sending out ships constantly 
to cruise about, he hath kept this coast very 
free from all the enemy's men-of-war* (Ga- 
zette, No. 18) ; and again, some weeks later, 
1 his vigilance is such that hardly anything 
can escape our frigates that come through 
the Channel' (ib. No. 39). In March he 
convoyed the Hamburg trade from the Elbe 
to the Thames ; and in April when the fleet 
Assembled for the summer, under Prince 
llupert and the Duke of Albemarle, he 
hoisted his flag in the Victory as vice-ad- 
miral of the red squadron (State Papers, 
Dom. Charles II, cliv. 128). On 29 May 
he was detached to the westward with the 
prince (ib. clvii. 40, 41 ; cf. Monck, Gbobge, 
Huke of Albemarle; Rupert, Prince), 
and was thus absent during the first three 
days of the great battle off the North Fore- 
land, 1-4 June. On the fourth day, Myngs, 
in the Victory, led the van, and engaged tlie 
Dutch vice-admiral, De Liefde, broadside to 
broadside, the yardarms of the two ships 
almost touching. De Liefde's ship was dis- 
masted, whereupon Myngs made an unsuc- 
cessful attempt to burn her with a fireship. 
The Dutch pressed in to support De Liefde ; 
the two admirals, Van Nes and Ruyter, 
brought up other ships, and the battle raged 
fiercely. Myngs was shot through the throat. 
He refused to leave the deck, even to have 
the wound dressed, but remained standing, 
compressing it with his fingers till he fell, 
mortally wounded by another bullet which, 
passing through his neck, lodged in his 
shoulder (Brandt, Vie de Michel de Ruiter, 
pp. 359, 363; State Papers, Dom. Charles II, 
clviii. 48 ; Pepts, 8 June 1666). The wound 
was, it was hoped on the 7th, * without 
danger*/ but on the 10th Pepys recorded 
the news of the admiral's death. As he was 
buried in London on the 13th, it would seem 
probable that he died at his own house in 
Goodman's Fields, Whitechapel. Pepys, who 
was at the funeral, noted that no person of 

Juality was there but Sir William Coventry 
q. v.], and described how * about a dozen 
able, lusty, proper men came to the coach 
side with tears in their eyes, and one of them, 
that spoke for the rest, said to Sir W. 
Coventry, " "VVe are here a dozen of us that 
have long known and loved and served our 
dead commander, Sir Christopher Myngs, 
and have now done the last office of laying 



12 



Myngs 



him in the ground. We would be glad we 
had any other to offer after him and in re- 
venge of him. All we have is our lives ; if 
you will please to get his Royal Highness to 
give us a fireship among us all, choose you 
one to be commander, and the rest of us, 
whoever he is, will serve him, and if pos- 
sible, do that that shall show our memory 
of our dead commander and our revenge " ' 
(Diary, 13 June ; cf. Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 28,29 June 1666). 'The truth is/ 
continues Pepys, * Sir Christopher Myngs was 
a very stout man, and a man of great parts, 
and most excellent tongue among ordinary 
men ; and as Sir W. Coventry says, could 
have been the most useful man at such a 
pinch of time as this. . . . He had brought 
his family into a way of being great ; but 
dying at this time, his memory and name 
will be quite forgot in a few months as if he 
had never been, nor any of his name be the 
better by it ; he having not had time to will 
any estate, but is dead poor rather than 
rich.' By his will (at Somerset House, Mico, 
167) he left 300/. to Mary, his daughter by 
his first wife ; and his lands, in the parish of 
Salthouse, to his second wife, Rebecca, and 
after her death, to his son by her, Christopher 
Myngs, who commanded the Namur in the 
battle of Malaga in 1704; was afterwards 
commissioner of the navy at Portsmouth, and 
died in 1725, leaving issue (Charnock, ii. 
188; Le Neve, Pedigrees of th$ Knights; 
Marshall, Genealogist,!. 38-9; will, proved 
February 1725-6). There was also a daugh- 
ter, Rebecca, born of the second wife. The 
John Myngs whom he requested to have 
appointed surgeon of the Gloucester (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 27 May 1664) may have 
been his brother. Myngs s portrait, by Sir 
Peter Lely, one of those mentioned by Pepys, 
18 April 1666, is in the Painted Hall at 
Greenwich ; there is a contemporary en- 
graved portrait in Priorato's ' Historia di 
Leopoldo Cesare* (1670, ii. 714). 

[The memoir in Charnock's Biog. Nav. i. 82 
is very imperfect; the details of Myngs's career 
are only to be found in the Calendars of State 
Papers, Domestic; and, more fully, in the State 
Papers themselves. There are also many notices 
of him in Pepys's Diary. The writer has also to 
acknowledge some notes and suggestions kindly 
furnished by the Rev. G. "W. Minns, himself a 
member of the same family, by Mr. G. E. 
Cokayne, and by Mr. Daniel Uipwell. The 
spelling of the name here followed is that of 
Myngs's signature. It is not improbable that 
he adopted it as a difference from that of the 
elder branch of his family, which retained the 
form Mynnes. But other writers have invented 
a very great number of diverse spellings — 
among them Minns, Mims, Minnes, Mennes — 



Mynn 



13 



Myrddin 



which have led to occasional confusion with Sir 
John Mennes [q. v.] So far as can be ascertained, 
the two families were not related.] J. K. L. 

MYNN, ALFRED (1807-1861 ), cricketer, 
bom at Goudhurst, Kent, 19 Jan. 1807, was 
the fourth son of William Mynn, a gentleman 
farmer, whose ancestors were renowned for 
their great stature and physical strength. He 
was educated privately, and in 1825 removed 
with his family to Harrietsham, near Leeds 
in Kent, which at that time boasted of the 
best cricket club in the county. Here he 
learned his early cricket under the tuition of 
Willes, the reintroducer (1807) of round-arm 
bowling, which had been invented by Tom 
Walker of the Hambledon Club in 1790. 
Mynn was for a time in his brother's business 
as a hop merchant, but appears to have ne- 
glected business for cricket, which he played 
continually. He made his first appearance at 
Lord's in 1832, and thenceforward for more 
than twenty years played in all important 
matches. He played with the Gentlemen 
against the Players twenty times, and for his 
county regularly till 1854, and occasionally 
till 1860. Without him the Gentlemen could 
not have met the Players on equal terms, and 
their victories in 1842, 1843, and 1848 were 
mainly due to his fine all-round play. It was 
largely due to him also that his count v was for 
twenty years pre-eminent in the crictet-field. 
He was a member of the touring All-England 
eleven formed by Clarke of Nottingham from 
1846 to 1854. His last appearances were at 
Lord's for Kent v. M.C.C., 1854, at the Oval 
in the Veterans' match (eighteen Veterans v. 
England), 1858, and for his county (Kent v, 
Middlesex), 1860. In his later years he lived 
alternately in Thnrnham, near Maidstone, 
and London, where he died 1 Nov. 1861. 
He was buried at Thurnham with military 
honours, the Leeds and Hillingbourne volun- 
teers, of which corps he was a member, fol- 
lowing him to the grave. He was remarkable 
for his genial temper. About 1830 he married 
Sarah, daughter of Dr. Powell of Lenham, 
by whom he had seven children. 

As a cricketer Mynn held high rank. He 
was a very powerful man, 6 feet 1 inch in 
height, and in his best day weighed from 
eighteen to nineteen stone. He was a fine 
though not very stylish batsman, and was 
especially good against fast bowling. He had 
a strong defence, and was a powerful and 
resolute hitter, especially on the on side of 
the wicket. Perhaps his most remarkable per- 
formance with the bat was in 1836, when he 
scored 283 runs in four consecutive innings, 
and was twice not out. 

It was as a bowler, however, that Mynn 
made his chief reputation. He was the first 



fast round-arm bowler of eminence, and in 
the long list of his successors has had few if 
any superiors. His great strength enabled 
him to maintain a terrific pace for hours with- 
out fatigue. Before his appearance the chief 
round-arm bowlers, Frederick William Lilly- 
white [q. v.] and Broadbridge and their imi- 
tators, were slow bowlers, who depended for 
their success upon break, accuracy of pitch, 
and head bowling. It was Mynn who added 
pace to accuracy. He was also a great single- 
wicket player, beating twice each Hills of 
Kent in 1832, Dearman, the champion of the 
north, in 1838, and Felix [see Wanostbocht, 
Nathaniel], his old colleague, in 1846. 

Several portraits exist. The best is pro- 
bably that by Felix, now in the possession of 
Mynn's daughter, Mrs. Kenning, which repre- 
sents him at the age of forty-one. 

[Denison's Sketches of the Players; Lillywhite's 
Scores and Biographies of Celebrated Cricketers ; 
Notes and Queries, 6th ser. x. 58.] J. W. A. 

MYNORS, ROBERT (1739-1806), sur- 
geon, born in 1739, practised with consider- 
able reputation at Birmingham for more than 
forty years. He died there in 1806. A son, 
Robert Edward Eden Mynors, student of Lin- 
coln's Inn, 1806, and M.A. of University Col- 
lege, Oxford, 1813, died at Weatheroak Hill, 
Worcestershire, on 15 Dec. 1842, aged 64 
(Foster, Alumni O.von. 1715-1886, iii. 1004 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1843, pt. i. p. 222). 

Mynors wrote: 1. 'Practical Observations 
on Amputation,' 12mo, Birmingham, 1783. 
2. ' History of the Practice of Trepanning 
the Skull, and the after Treatment,' &c, 8vo, 
Birmingham, 1785. He also contributed an 
' Account of some Improvements in Surgery ' 
to Duncan's ' Medical and Philosophical Com- 
mentaries.' 

[Cat. of Libr.of Med.andChimrg. Soc.; Reuss's 
Alphabetical Register, 1790-1803, pt. ii. p. 129 ^ 
Diet, of Living Authors, 1816, pp. 247, 442; 
Watt's Bibl. Brit.] • G. G. 

MYNSHUL, GEFFRAY (1594-1668), 
author. [See Minshull.] 

MYRDDIN EMRYS, legendary en- 
chanter. [See Merlin Ambrosius.] 

MYRDDIN Wyllt, i.e. the Mad (fl. 
580?), Welsh poet, is in mediaeval Welsh 
literature credited with the authorship of six 
poems printed in the ' My vyrian Archaiology,* 
2nd edit. pp. 104-18, 348. In two sets of the 
Triads he is styled Myrddin mab Morfryn, or 
ap Madog Morfrvn (Myvyrian Archaiology, 
pp. 394, 411). The searching analysis of 
Thomas Stephens (Literature of the Kymry r 
2nd edit. pp. 202-70), though needing re- 
vision in some of its details, has clearly shown 



Mytens 

that these Myrddin poems cannot be the work 
of any poet of the sixth century, and are in 
fact the product of the Welsh national revival 
of the twelfth and thirteenth. Stephens's 
assumption that the Myrddin Wyllt who is 
traditionally associated with the authorship 
of the poems is identical with Myrddin Emrys, 
i.e. Merlin or Merlinus Ambrosius [q. v.], the 
legendary enchanter, seems, on the other 
hand, improbable. 

As early as the end of the twelfth century 
Giraldus Cambrensis sharply distinguishes 
4 Merlinus Ambrosius ' (Myrddin Emrys), 
who was found at Carmarthen and prophesied 
before Vortigern, from another ' Merlinus ' 
called ' Silvester* or ' Celidonius/ who came 
from the North (Albania), was a contem- 
porary of Arthur, saw a horrible portent in 
the sky while fighting in a battle, and spent 
the rest of his days a madman in the woods. 
Each of the two legends appears to deal with 
a different person, and while it is the former 
legend which Geoffrey of Monmouth, in the 
4 Historia Regum Britannise,' connects with 
Merlin the enchanter, the latter legend sup- 
plies the basis of the ' Vita Merlim,' a work 
also attributed to Geoffrey. There is reason 
to believe, however, that Myrddin Wyllt 
was in no way connected with either of 
these Merlins, and that he may be identified 
with another person, who was probably called 
in his own lifetime Llallogan. Jocelvn of 
Furness, in his 'Life of St. Kentigern f (end 
of twelfth century), says that there was at 
the court of Rhydderch Hael, king of the 
Strathclyde Britons about 680, a fool named 
Laloicen, who had the gift of prophecy; and 
another fragment of a life of the same saint 
adds that some identified Laloicen with Mer- 
lin ( Cymmrodor, xi. 47). Accordingly, in the 
dialogue entitled ' Cyfoesi Myrddin a Gwen- 
ddydd eiChwaer' (Myvyrian Archaiology, 2nd 
edit. pp. 108-15), Gwenddydd addresses her 
brother (Myrddin or Merlin) as ' Llallogan.' 
It is not too much to assume that a bard 
named Llallogan lost his wits in connection 
with the battle of Arderydd (fought about 
578, and traditionally associated with Myr- 
ddin Wyllt), and, wandering in the forest, was 
subsequently revered as a seer and prophet. 
[Myvyrian Archaiology; Stephens's Literature 
oftheltymry; Giraldus Cambrensis* Itinerarium 
Cambria* ; cf. art on Merlin.] J. E. L. 

MYTENS, DANIEL (1590 P - 1642), 
portrait-painter, son of Maerten Mytens, a 
saddler, was born about 1590 at the Hague 
in Holland. It is uncertain from what 
master he received his instructions in art, 
but it is very likely that it was in the school 
of the portrait-painter Michiel van Miere- 
veldt at Delft. Subsequently he was much 



14 



Mytens 



influenced by the style of Rubens. In 1610 he 
was made a member of the guild of St. Luke 
at the Hague. He came over to England be- 
fore 1618, and quickly obtained favour among 
the court and nobility. Mytens received from 
James I, in 1624, a grant of a house in St. 
Martin's Lane (Illuttr. London News, 6 June 
1857), and on the accession of Charles I was 
made 'king's painter/ with a pension for life 
(Rymer, Pcedera, xxviii. 8). His earlier por- 
traits are with difficulty to be distinguished 
from those by Paul van isomer [q. v.], on whose 
death in 1621 Mytens was left without a rival. 
There is no ground for Walpole's suggestion, 
that the full-length portraits by these two 
artiste can be distinguished through those 
standing on matting being by Van Somer, 
and those on oriental carpets by Mytens. The 
full-length portraits by Mytens, though stiff 
in attitude and costume, have great dignity, 
and are frequently painted with much care 
and excellence, lie was a versatile artist, 
and was employed by Charles I to copy 
pictures by older masters. Among such copies 
may be noted that of Titian's ' Venus ' (now 
at Hampton Court), for which Mytens was 
paid 120/. in 1625 (Illustr. London News, 
27 March 1858), a set of copies of Raphael's 
cartoons (now at Knole), less than the ori- 
ginal size, and the full-length portraits of 
Margaret Tudor, queen of Scotland, and Mary 
Queen of Scots (both now at Hampton Court), 
and James IV, king of Scotland (at Keir). 
Many pictures by Mytens are included in the 
catalogue of Charles I's collection. He also 
painted small portraits; on 18 Aug. 1618 he 
wrote to Sir Dudley Carleton concerning 
' that picture or portrait of the Ld of Arundel 
and his lady together in a small forme/ and 
' rowled up in a small case ' (Cabpenter, 
Hist Notices of Vandyck, p. 176). Vertue 
narrates in his 'Diary* (Brit. Mus. Addit. 
MS. 23075, f. 32) that on the arrival of Van- 
dyck in England Mytens felt himself over- 
matched, and begged leave from the king to 
withdraw into Holland, but without success. 
It would appear, however, that he was on very 
friendly terms with Vandyck, as the latter in- 
cluded My tens's portrait in his famous series 
known as the ' Centum Icones,' and painted 
a fine portrait of Mytens and his wire (now 
at Woburn Abbey). 

Among the existing portraits signed and 
dated by Mytens may be noted James, mar- 
quis of Hamilton, 1622 (Hampton Court 
and Knole) ; Lionel Cranfield, earl of Middle- 
sex, 1623 (Knole); Lodovick Stuart, duke 
of Richmond, 1623 (Hampton Court) ; Er- 
nest, count Mansfeldt, and Christian, duke 
of Brunswick, 1624 (Hampton Court), in the 
year of their embassy to solicit help from 



Mytton 



*5 



Mytton 



James I ; the Countess of Newcastle, 1624 
(Duke of Portland) ; George Calvert, lord 
Baltimore, 1627 (Wentworth Woodhouse) ; 
Charles I, "with architectural background 
by H. Steenwyck, 1627 (Turin Gallery) ; 
Charles I, 1629, and Henrietta Maria, 1630, 
both engraved by W. J. Delff ; Robert Rich, 
earl of Warwick, 1632 (Sir C. S. Rich, bart.) ; 
Anne Clifford, countess of Dorset, 1632 
(Knole, half-length) ; Philip, earl of Pem- 
broke, 1634 (Harowick) . Among others may 
be noticed a large picture of Charles I, Hen- 
rietta Maria, and the dwarf, Sir Jeffrey Hud- 
son, with horses, dogs, and servants, of which 
versions exist at Windsor Castle, Serlby, and 
Knowsley; Sir Jeffrey Hudson (Hampton 
Court) ; Charles I (Cobham Hall) ; George, 
duke of Buckingham (formerly at Blenheim 
Palace) ; William, second duke of Hamilton 
(Scottish National Portrait Gallery, Edin- 
burgh, from Hamilton Palace) ; Charles 
Howard, earl of Nottingham (at Arundel 
Castle, Greenwich, and elsewhere); Henry 
Wriothesley, earl of Southampton; and his 
own portrait by himself (Hampton Court). 
Portraits of Henry, prince of Wales (d. 1612), 
at Hampton Court and Knole, are ascribed to 
Mytens, and are probably copies from some 
older picture. 

Mytens returned to Holland in 1630, and 
died there in 1642 ; but there is great un- 
certainty as to the end of his life. Mytens 
married at the Hague, in 161 2, Gratia Clej tser. 
He was remarried, on 2 Sept. 1628, at the 
Dutch Church, Austin Friars, London, to 
Johanna Drossaert, widow of Joos de Neve, 
by whom he had two children, Elisabeth and 
Susanna, baptised at the same church on 1 July 
1629 (Mobns, Register of the Dutch Church, 
Austin Friars). Care must be taken to dis- 
tinguish his works from those of his younger 
brother, Isaac Mytens (d. 1632), his nephew 
(son of his elder brother, David), Johannes 
Mytens and his son, Daniel Mytens the 
younger, and another nephew (son of Isaac), 
Maerten Mytens, who all became portrait- 
painters, but in no instance worked in Eng- 

[Walpole's Anecd. of Painting, ed. Wornum ; 
Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Seguier's Diet, of 
Painters ; Catalogues of Exhibitions and Picture 
Galleries; information from George Scharf,esq., 
C.B., and E. W. Moes (Amsterdam); authorities 
cited in the text.] L. C. 

MYTTON, JOHN (1796-1834), sports- 
man and eccentric, born on 30 Sept. 1796, 
was the only son of John Mytton of Halston, 
Shropshire, by his wife Harriet, third daugh- 
ter or William Mostyn Owen of Woodhouse 
in the same county. Before he was two 
years old his father died, and he became the 



heir to a fortune which by the time he came 
of age amounted to an income of more than 
10,000/. a year, and 60,000/. in ready money. 
On 6 June 1807 he was admitted to West- 
minster School, where he remained until 
1811. It is said that he was also educated 
at Harrow, that he was expelled from both 
schools, and that he knocked down the pri- 
vate tutor to whom he was subsequently sent. 
He became a cornet in the 7th hussars on 
30 May 1816, and served with them in 
France for a short time, but left the army in 
the following year. From 1817 to 1821 he 
was master of foxhounds, hunting what was 
afterwards known as the Albrighton country. 
He was on the turf from 1817 to 1830, but 
though he kept a large racing stable he 
never once bred a good horse. At a by- 
election in May 1819 he was returned in the 
tory interest for Shrewsbury, but resigned 
his seat at the dissolution in February 1820. 
He served the office of high sheriff for Shrop- 
shire and Merionethshire respectively, and 
in May 1831 unsuccessfully contested Shrop- 
shire as a reformer. ' Jack Mytton,' as he 
was popularly called, was a man of great 
physical strength and foolhardy courage, with 
an inordinate love of conviviality and a 
strongly developed taste for practical joking. 
He was a daring horseman and a splendid 
shot. Of his foolhardiness there are num- 
berless stories. On one occasion he is said 
to have actually galloped at full speed over 
a rabbit warren just to try whether or not 
his horse would fall, which of course it 
did, and moreover rolled over him. On an- 
other occasion he drove a tandem at night 
across country for a wager, and successfully 
surmounted a sunk fence three yards wide, 
a broad deep drain, and two stiff quickset 
hedges. He would sometimes strip to the 
shirt to follow wild fowl in hard weather ; 
and once he is said to have followed some 
ducks in puris naturalibus. One night he even 
set fire to his night-shirt in order to frighten 
away the hiccoughs. His average allowance 
was from four to six bottles of port daily, 
which he commenced in the morning while 
shaving. Owing to his reckless way of 
living Mytton lost his entire fortune, and 
his effects at Halston were sold up. In the 
autumn of 1831 he was obliged to take re- 
fuge from his creditors at Calais. He died 
of delirium tremens in the King's Bench 
prison on 29 March 1834, aged 37, and was 
buried on 9 April following in the private 
chapel at Halston. 

Mytton married first, on 21 May 1818, 
Harriet Emma, eldest daughter of Sir Tho- 
mas Tyrwhitt Jones, bart., of Stanley Hall, 
Shropshire, by whom he had an only daugh- 



Mytton 



16 



Mytton 



ter, Harriet Emma Charlotte, who married, 
on 26 June 1841, Clement Delves Hill, a 
brother of Rowland, second viscount Hill. 
Mytton's first wife died on 2 July 1820, and 
on 29 Oct. 1821 he married secondly Caro- 
line Mallett, sixth daughter of Thomas Gif- 
fard of Chillington, Staffordshire, by whom 
he had with other issue a son, John Fox 
Mytton, who died in 1875. There is an 
engrave^ portrait of Mytton on horseback, 
by W. Oilier, after W. Webb. 

[Nimrod's Memoirs of the Life of John Myt- 
ton, 1837 ; Bice's History of the British Turf, 
1879, i. 17&-81 ; Cecil's Records of the Chase, 
1877, pp. 218-21; Thormanby's Men of the 
Turf, pp. 55-63 ; Burke's Vicissitudes of Fami- 
lies, 1869, i. 330-44; Burke's Landed Gentry, 
1879, ii. 1590; Gent. Mag. 1834, pt. i. p. 
657; Shrewsbury Chronicle, 4 and 11 April 
1834 ; Notes and Queries, 5th ser. vii. 108, 197, 
236 ; Official Return of Lists of Members of 
Parliament, pt. ii. p. 276; Army List for 1817.] 

G.F. R.B. 

MYTTON, THOMAS (1597 P-1656), 

?arliamentarian, born about 1597, son of 
lichard Mytton of Halston, Shropshire, by 
Margaret, daughter of Thomas Owen of Con- 
dover, matriculated at Balliol College, Ox- 
ford, on 11 May 1615, aged 18 (Clark, Reg. 
Unio. Oxf ii. 338). He became a student of 
Lincoln's Inn in 1616. In 1629 Mytton mar- 
ried Magdalen, daughter of Sir Robert Napier 
of Luton, Bedfordshire, and sister of the 
second wife of Sir Thomas Myddelton (1586- 
1666) [q-v.] of Chirk. This connection was 
probably one of the reasons which led Mytton 
to take the parliamentary side during the 
civil war. The gentlemen of Shropshire were 
mostly royalists, and Mytton was throughout 
the guiding spirit of the parliamentarian party 
in the county. On 10 April 1643 the parlia- 
ment associated Shropshire with the counties 
of Warwick and Stailord under the command 
of Basil, earl of Denbigh, Mytton being 
named as one of the committee for Shrop- 
shire (Husbands, Ordinances, folio, 1646, 
p. 30). On 11 Sept. 1643 Myddelton and 
Mytton seized Wem, and established there 
the first parliamentary garrison in Shrop- 
shire. Mytton was made governor, and in 
October distinguished himself by defeating 
Lord Capel's attempt to recapture Wem 
(Vicars, God's Ark, p. 63; Phillips, Civil 
War in Wales, i. 172, ii. 86). On 12 Jan. 
1644 he surprised the cavaliers at Ellesmere, 
capturing Sir Nicholas Byron, Sir Richard 
Willis, and a convoy of ammunition (ib. ii. 
122). On 23 June 1644 Mytton, in conjunc- 
tion with Lord Denbigh, captured Oswestry, 
and succeeded in holding it against a royalist 
attempt at recapture (ib. ii. 171-88; Vicabs, 



GocTs Ark, p. 260). He was appointed go- 
vernor of Oswestry, and the newspapers are 
full of praises of his vigilance and activity. 
His most important service was the capture 
of Shrewsbury (22 Feb. 1645), though the 
honour of the exploit was violently contested 
between Mytton and Lieutenant-colonel 
Reinking, one of his coadjutors in the com- 
mand of the forces brought together for the 
assault. Both published narratives of the 
surprise (Phillips, i. 287, ii. 235 ; Fairfax, 
Correspondence, iii. 170; Vicars, Burning 
Bush, p. 113 ; Owen and Blakeway, Hist, 
of Shrewsbury, i. 448, ii. 498). 

On the passing of the self-denying ordi- 
nance Sir Thomas Myddelton was obliged 
to lay down his commission, and Mytton 
succeeded to his post as commander-in-chief 
of the forces of the six counties of North 
Wales, 12 May 1645 (Lords 1 Journals, vii. 
367). He was also appointed high sheriff 
of Shropshire, 30 Sept. 1645 (ib. vii. 613). 
Henceforth he is frequently described as 
Major-general Mytton. He took part in the 
defeat of Sir William Vaughan near Denbigh 
on 1 Nov. 1645, thus frustrating the royalist 
attempts to relieve Chester, and after the fall 
of that city was charged to besiege the rest of 
the royalist garrisons in North Wales (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1645-7, p. 349 ; Phillips, 
ii. 282). Ruthin (12 April 1646), Carnarvon 
(5 June 1646), Beaumaris (14 June 1646), 
Conway town and castle (9 Aug., 18 Nov. 
1646), Denbigh (26 Oct, 1646), Holt Castle 
(13 Jan. 1647 ), and Harlech Castle (15 March 
1647) surrendered in succession to Mytton's 
forces (ib. ii. 301, 306, 312, 325, 328, 332; 
Cal State Papers, Dom. 1645-7, p. 515). In 
return for these services parliament main- 
tained Mytton as commander-in-chief in 
North Wales when the army was disbanded 
(8 April 1647), and appointed him vice-admi- 
ral of North Wales in place of Glvn (30 Dec. 
1647). He was also granted 5,000/. out of 
the estates of royalist delinquents (Lords 9 
Journals, ix. 622, 676, viii. 403, x. 556; 
Commons' Journals, v. 137 ; Collections for 
the History of Montgomeryshire, viii. 156). 

In the second civil war Mytton was equally 
active on the parliamentary side, and re- 
covered Anglesea from the royalists (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1648-9, pp. 128-31; 
Phillips, ii. 382, 401; Clarendon State 
Papers, ii. 418). The kings execution did 
not shake his adherence to the parliament, 
and in September 1651 he consented to act 
as a member of the court-martial which 
sentenced the Earl of Derby to death ( Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 7th Rep. p. 95). He is said to 
have been a strong presDyterian, but his pub- 
lic action does not support this theory. It is 



Myvyr 



17 



Nabbes 



also stated that he disapproved of Cromwell's 
government, but there is no evidence of this, 
and he represented Shropshire in the first 
parliament called by Cromwell (Old Parlia- 
mentary Hist. xx. 302). 

Mytton died in London in 1656, and was 
interred on 29 Nov. in St. Chad's Church, 
Shrewsbury (Owen and Blakeway, ii. 223). 
His portrait is given in 'England's Worthies/ 
by John Vicars, 1647, p. 105. 

Mytton left a son, Richard, who was sheriff 
of Shropshire in 1686, and a daughter, Mary, 
married to the royalist Sir Thomas Harris of 
Boreatton (Collections for the History of 
Montgomeryshire, viii. 299, 309). Another 
daughter is said to have married Colonel 
Roger Pope, a parliamentarian (Baewick, 
Life of John Bamnck, p. 50). 



[Phillips's Civil War in Wales, 1874; Pen- 
nant's Tour in Wales, ed. Rhys, i. 303, ii. 121, 
158, 184, 277, iii. 29, 126, 246; Owen and 
Blakeway's Hist, of Shrewsbury, 1825; Blake- 
way's Sheriffs of Shropshire, 1 831. A collection 
of Mytton's correspondence is in the hands of 
Mr. Stanley Leighton, and has been printed by 
him in the Collections for the History and Ar- 
chaeology of Montgomeryshire, vii. 353, viii. 151, 
293 ; cf. Hist. MSS. Comm. 10th Rep. iv. 374. 
Other letters of Mytton's are to be found in 
5th Rep. pp. 104, 421, and 4th Rep. pp. 267-9, 
in the Old Parliamentary Hist. xiv. 355, xv. 2, 
171, and in tbe Calendar of Domestic State 
Papers. The Tanner MSS. in the Bodleian 
Library contain twenty-two letters.] C. H. F. 

MYVYR, OWAIN (1741-1814), Welsh 
antiquary. [See Jones, Owen.] 



N 



NAAS, Lokd. [See Botjkke, Richaed 
Southwell, sixth Earl op Mayo, 1822- 

1872.] 

NABBES, THOMAS (fl. 1638), drama- 
tist, born in 1605, belonged to a humble 
Worcestershire family. On 3 May 1621 he 
matriculated from Exeter College, Oxford 
(Oxf. Univ. Beg. Oxf. Hist. Soc. 11. ii. 387), 
but left the university without a degree. 
He seems to have been employed subse- 
quently in the household of a nobleman near 
Worcester, and he describes in a poem 
' upon the losing of his way in a forest ' a 
midnight adventure in the neighbourhood of 
his master's mansion after he had indulged 
freely in perry. Another spirited poem ' upon 
excellent strong beer which he drank at the 
town of Wich in Worcestershire ' proves 
Nabbes to have been of a convivial disposi- 
tion. 

About 1630 Nabbes seems to have settled 
in London, resolved to try his fortunes as a 
dramatist. He was always a stranger to the 
best literary society, but found congenial 
companions in Chamberlain, Jordan, Mar- 
mion, and Tatham, and was known to many 
' gentlemen of the Inns of Court ' (cf. Bride, 
Ded.) About January 1632-3 his first 
comedy, ' Covent Garden/ was acted by the 
queen's servants, and was published in 1638 
with a modest dedication addressed to Sir 
John Suckling. In the prologue he defends 
himself from stealing the title of the piece — 
in allusion doubtless to Richard Brome's 
'Covent Garden Weeded/ acted in 1682— 
and describes his ' muse ' as ' solitary. 1 His 

TOL. XL. 



second comedy, ' Totenham Court/ was acted 
at the private house in Salisbury Court in 
1633, and was also printed in 1638, with a 
dedication to William Mills. A third piece, 
* Hannibal and Scipio, an hysterical Tragedy/ 
in five acts of blank verse, was produced in 
1635 by the queen's servants at their pri- 
vate house in Drury Lane. Nabbes obviously 
modelled his play upon Marston's 'Sopho- 
nisba.' It was published in 1637, with a list 
of the actors' names. A third comedy, 'The 
Bride/ acted at the private house in Drury 
Lane, again by the queen's servants, in 1638, 
was published two years later, with a prefa- 
tory epistle addressed 'to the generalty of 
his noble friends, gentlemen of the severall 
honorable houses of the Inns of Court.' One 
of the characters, Mrs. Ferret, the imperious 
wife, has been compared to Jonson's Mistress 
Otter. An unreadable and tedious tragedy, 
entitled ' The Unfortunate Mother/ was pub- 
lished in 1640, with a dedication to Ri- 
chard Brathwaite, a stranger to him, whom 
he apologises for addressing. It is said to have 
been written as a rival to Shirley's ' Politi- 
cian/ but was never acted, owing to the re • 
fusal of the actors to undertake the perform- 
ance. Three friends (Efdward] B[enlowes], 
C. G., and R. W.) prefixed commendatory 
verses by way of consoling the author for the 
slight thus cast upon him. 

Langbaine reckons Nabbes among the 
poets of the third rate. The author of Cip- 
her's ' Lives of the Poets ' declares that in 
strict justice ' he cannot rise above a fifth.' 
This severe verdict is ill justified. He is a 
passable writer of comedies, inventing his 





Nabbes 



18 



Naden 



own plots, and lightly censuring the foibles 
of middle-class London society. His tra- 
gedies are not attractive. But Samuel Shep- 
pard in the sixth sestiad ('the Assizes of 
Apollo 1 ) of his ' Times Display'd,' 1646, asso- 
ciates Nabbes's name with the names of 
D' Avenant, Shirley, Beaumont, and Fletcher, 
and selects his tragedy of 'Hannibal and 
Scipio ' for special commendation. Nabbes 
displays a satisfactory command of the 
niceties of dramatic blank verse, in which 
all his plays, excluding the two earliest 
comedies, were mainly written. Although 
he was far more refined in sentiment than 
most of his contemporaries, he is capable at 
times of considerable coarseness. 

As a writer of masques Nabbes deserves 
more consideration. His touch was usually 
light and his machinery ingenious. The 
least satisfactory was the one first published, 
viz. ' Microco8mus. A M orall Maske, pre- 
sented with generall liking, at the Private 
House in Salisbury Court, and heere set down 
according to the intention of the Authour, 
Thomas Nabbes,' 1637. A reference to the 
approaching publication of the work was 
made in 'Don Zara del Fogo,' a mock 
romance, which was written before 1637, 
though not published till 1656. Richard 
Brome contributed prefatory verses. His 

* Spring's Glory ' (1638) bears some resem- 
blance to Middle ton's ' Inner Temple Masque,' 
published in 1618. The 'Presentation in- 
tended for the Prince his Highnesse on his 
Birthday' (1638) is bright and attractive, al- 
though it does not appear to have been ac- 
tually performed. It was printed with ' The 
Spring^ Glory,' together with some occa- 
sional verses. The volume, which was dedi- 
cated to William, son of Peter Balle, was 
entitled 'The Spring's Glory, a Maske. To- 
gether with sundry Poems, Epigrams, Elegies, 
and Epithalamiums. By Thomas Nabbes,' 
1639. Of the poems, the verses on a ' Mis- 
tresse of whose Affection hee was doubtfull ' 
have a certain charm ; they are included in 
Mr. Linton's 'Collection of Rare Poems.' 
Nabbes contributed commendatory verses to 
Shackerley Marmion's 'Legend of Cupid and 
Psyche,' 1637; Robert Chamberlain's 'Noc- 
turnal Lucubrations,' 1 638 ; Thomas Jordan's 
'Poeticall Varieties/ 1640 ; John Tatham's 

* Fancies Theater,' 1640 ; Humphrey Mills's 
<A Night's Search,' 1640; Thomas Bee- 
dome's ' Poems Divine and Humane,' 1641 ; 
and the ' Phoenix of these Late Times ; or, 
the Life of Mr. Henry Welby, Esq.' (1637). 
Welby was an eccentric, who was credited 
with living without food or drink for the last 
forty-four years of his life". To the fifth edi- 
tion of Richard Knolles's ' Generall Historic 



of the Turkes ' (1638) Nabbes appended ' A 
Continuation of the Turkish Historie, from 
the Yeare of our Lord 1628 to the end of the 
Yeare 1637. Collected out of the Dispatches 
of S r . Peter Wyche, Knight, Embassador at 
Constantinople, and others.' The dedication 
is addressed to Sir Thomas Roe, whom Nabbes 
describes as a stranger to him [see Knolles, 
Richard]. 

According to Nabbes's ' Encomium on the 
Leaden Steeple at Worcester, repayred in 
1628,' he desired to be buried in Worcester 
Cathedral ; but Coxeter was of opinion that 
his grave was 'in the Temple Church, under 
the organ on the inner side.' The Temple 
burial register contains no record of Nabbes, 
but the register often fails to mention the 
names of those who, although buried there, 
had, in the opinion of the authorities, no 
obvious claim to a posthumous reputation. 

All Nabbes's works, excluding only the 
continuation of Knolles, were brought to- 
gether by Mr. A. H. Bullen in 1887. This 
collected edition forms vols. i. and ii. of the 
new series of Mr. Bulien's privately printed 
' Old English Plays.' 

[Mr. Bulien's preface to the collected edition 
of Nabbes's -works ; Hunter's MS. Chorus Vatum 
in Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 24487, f. 334; 
Brydges's Censure, i. 439 ; Langbaine's English 
Dramatick Poets ; Gibber s Lives of the Poets, ii. 
24 ; Fleay's Biographical Chronicle of the English 
Drama.] S. L. 

NADEN, CONSTANCE CAROLINE 
WOODHILL (1858-1889), poetess, born on 
24 Jan. 1858 at 15 Francis Road, Edgbaston, 
Birmingham, was the only child of Thomas 
Naden, afterwards president of the Birming- 
ham Architectural Association, by his wife 
Caroline Anne, daughter of J. C. Woodhill 
of Pakenham House, Edgbaston. Her mother 
died within a fortnight of the child's birth, 
and Constance was brought up by her grand- 
parents. Mr. Woodhill was a retired jeweller 
of high character, an elder of a baptist 
church, and a man of some literary taste. 
From the age of eight till the age of sixteen or 
seventeen Miss Naden attended a day-school 
in Edgbaston kept by two unitarian ladies, the 
Misses Martin. She learnt flower-painting, 
and told fairy stories to her schoolfellows. 
After leaving school she remained with her 
grandparents. The rejection of some of her 
pictures by the Birmingham Society of Ar- 
tists, after the acceptance of a first attempt, 
turned her thoughts to other studies. Sne 
learnt French, German, Latin, and some 
Greek, and was much attracted by the writ- 
ings of James Hinton [q. v.], and by R. A. 
Vaughan's ' Hours with the Mystics.' She 
wrote at odd moments her ' Songs and Son- 



Naden 



19 



Nadin 



nets of Springtime/ which was published in 
1881. In 1879-80 and 1880-1 she attended 
botany classes at the Birmingham and Mid- 
Land institute, and acquired an interest in 
science. In the autumn of 1881 she became 
a student at Mason College. She there went 
through courses of ' physics, chemistry, bo- 
tany, zoology, physiology, and geology.' She 
took a very lively part in debating societies, 
and she was especially interested in a socio- 
logical section of the Birmingham Natural 
History Society, which was started in 1883 
in order to study the system of Mr. Herbert 
Spencer. She became a very eager and sym- 
pathetic student of Mr. Spencer's philosophy. 
In 1885 she won the ' Paxton prize ' for an 
essay upon the geology of the district ; and 
in 1887 won the ' Heslop ' gold medal by an 
essay upon ' Induction and Deduction.' She 
also wrote in the 'Journal of Science,' 
1 Knowledge,' and other periodicals (list in 
Memoir, pp. 29-81). In 1887 she published 
her second volume of poems, 'A modern 
Apostle, the Elixir of Life, the Story of 
Clarice, and other Poems.' Mr. Wooahill 
died 27 Dec. 1881 , and his widow on 21 June 
1887. Miss Naden inherited a fortune upon 
the death of her grandmother, and in the 
autumn of 1887 made a tour with a friend 
through Constantinople, Palestine, Egypt, 
and India, where she was hospitably received 
by Lord Dufferin, the governor-general. She 
returned to England in June 1888, and soon 
afterwards bought a house in Park Street, 
Grosvenor Square. She joined the Aristote- 
lian Society, endeavoured to form a Spencer 
society, and belonged to various societies of 
benevolent aims. On 22 Oct. 1889 she de- 
livered an address upon Mr. Herbert Spencer's 
' Principles of Sociology ' to the sociological 
section at Mason College. Symptoms of a 
dangerous disease showed themselves shortly 
afterwards, and she underwent a severe 
operation on 5 Dec. She sank from the 
effects, and died on 28 Dec. 1889. She was 
buried beside her mother in the old cemetery, 
Warstone Lane, Birmingham. 

Miss Naden was slight and tall, with a 
delicate face and ' clear blue-grey eyes.' She 
was regular and active in her habits. She 
had a penetrating voice, and was thoroughly 
self-possessed in public speaking. She ap- 
pears to have been rather aggressive and 
sarcastic in discussion, but had. very warm 
friendships, and was always fond of iun and 
harmless frolics. 

Miss Naden's poems had attracted little 
notice until Mr. Gladstone called attention 
to them in an article upon British poetesses 
in an early number of the ' Speaker.' Mr. 
Gladstone named her as one of eight who 



had shown splendid powers. The poems 
undoubtedly show freshness and command 
of language. Miss Naden had in 1876 met 
Dr. Lewins, and became his disciple. The 
doctrine taught by both is called 'Hylo- 
Idealism,' and has been described as ' monistic 
positivism.' It is an attempt to give a meta- 
physical system in accordance with modern 
scientific thought. Miss Naden's writings 
upon this topic, as an opponent of her theory 
(Dr. Dale) remarks, show great acuteness, 
gracefulness of style, and felicity of illus- 
tration. Her chief attempt in philosophy, 
however, the essay upon ' Induction and De- 
duction,' though of great promise as the 
work of a student, is based upon inadequate 
knowledge ; and she died before her powers, 
obviously remarkable, had fully ripened. 

Miss Naden's works, besides the two 
volumes of poetry above mentioned, are col- 
lected in (1) * Induction and Deduction . . . 
and other Essays. . . . Edited by R. Lewins, 
M.D., Medical Department,' 1890; and (2) 
'Further Reliques of Constance Naden,' 
edited by George M. McCrie, 1891. Two 
pamphlets, ' Miss Naden's World Scheme,' 
by George M. McCrie, and ' Constance Na- 
den and Hylo-Idealism,' by E. Cobham 
Brewer, LL.D., both annotated by Dr. 
Lewins, give accounts of her philosophy. A 
selection from her writings, edited by the 
Misses Hughes of Birmingham, appeared in 
1893. 

[Constance Naden: a Memoir, by W. R. 
Hughes, with an Introduction by Professor Lap- 
worth, and Additions by Professor Tilden and 
Robert Lewins, M.D., 1890; article by the Rev. 
Dr. R. W. Dale (with personal recollections) in 
the Contemporary Review for April 1891 (also 
reprinted in ' Farther Reliques.'] 

NADIN, JOSEPH (1766-1848), deputy- 
constable of Manchester, son of Joseph 
Nadin, a farmer, was born at Fairfield, Derby- 
shire, in 1765. At the age of twelve he 
began work at Stockport, and subsequently 
was successful in business as a cotton-spin- 
ner. During the time that the cotton opera- 
tives were making raids on cotton mills in 
Lancashire and elsewhere, for the purpose of 
destroying machinery, Nadin made himself 
conspicuous in detecting the plotters and 
bringing them to justice. He was prevailed 
upon in 1801 to take the office of deputy-con- 
stable of Manchester, and he thereby became 
chief executive officer to the governing body 
of the town, which was then under the 
court-leet of the manor. 

His life as a public officer was eventful 
and dangerous, and he was a zealous, able, 
and courageous servant of the authorities. 
Some said that he was the real ruler of Man- 

c2 



Naesmith 



20 



Nagle 



Chester, and that the magistrates thought 
they exercised a wholesome authority when, 
at his suggestion, they sought to repress by 
every means of coercion the rising demand 
for political and social rights. The course 
he took with regard to Samuel Bamford 
[q. v.] and other reformers, as well as in the 
'Peterl©©' meeting in 1819, rendered him 
very unpopular; but he earned the gratitude 
of the ruling classes, by whom he was pre- 
sented with costly testimonials. He figures 
as a sort of Jonathan Wild in Mrs. Banks's 
novel of ' God's Providence House.' He had 
a magnificent physique, as is shown both by 
his portraits and by a graphic passage in 
Bamford's ' Life of a Radical/ where, how- 
ever, he is described as coarse, illiterate, and 
ill-mannered. He amassed considerable pro- 

ferty, and on his retirement from office in 
821 he went to live on an estate which he 
possessed at Cheadle, in Cheshire. He died 
there on 4 March 1848, aged 83, and was 
buried in St. James's Church, Manchester. 
He married Mary Rowlinson in 1792, and 
left several children. 

[Bamford'a Life of a Radical, i. 82 ; Pren- 
tice's Manchester, 1851, p. 34; Manchester Notes 
and Queries, vol. i.; Trans. Lancashire and Che- 
shire Antiquarian Soc. vol. xi. ; information kindly 
supplied by Mr. W. S. Nadin.] C. W. S. 

NAESMITH. [See Nasmith and Na- 

8MYTH.] 

NAFTEL, PAUL JACOB (1817-1891), 
painter in water-colours, born at Guernsey 
on 10 Sept. 1817, was son of Paul and Sophia 
Naftel of Guernsey. He resided during the 
earlier part of his life in Guernsey, where he 
was educated; and, although a self-taught 
artist, was appointed professor of drawing at 
Elizabeth College. Becoming known for his 
delicate and refined studies in water-colour, he 
was elected an associate of the * Old ' Society 
of Painters in Water-colours on 11 Feb. I860, 
and a full member on 13 June 1859. He 
did not settle in England till 1870, when 
he resided at 4 St. Stephen's Square, West- 
bourne Park, London, continuing to practise 
as a drawing-master, and to be a prolific ex- 
hibitor at the exhibition of the f Old ' Society. 
He subsequently moved to 76 Elm Park Road, 
Chelsea, and later to a house at Strawberry 
Hill, where he died on 13 Sept. 1891. Naftel's 
subjects were in his earlier days the scenery 
of his native Channel Islands, and latterly 
views in the United Kingdom and Italy. 
They were remarkable for tender and light 
effects rather than strength, and in his earlier 
days he was lavish in his use of body colour. 
He made the designs to illustrate Ansted and 
Latham's book on the 'Channel Islands/ 



1862. Naftel married, first, Miss Robilliard 
of Alderney ; and, secondly, Isabel, youngest 
daughter of Octavius Oakley [q. v.J, water- 
colour painter. 

Naftel, Maud (1856-1890), painter, 
daughter of the above by his second wife, 
was born on 1 June 1856. At firRt a pupil 
of her father, she afterwards studied at the 
Slade School of Art in London, and in Paris 
under M.CarolusDuran. She attained distinc- 
tion as a painter in water-colours, and was 
especially noted for her paintings of flowers. 
She was elected an associate of the 'Old* 
Society of Painters in Water-colours in March 
1887, but died in her father's house at Elm 
Park Road, on 18 Feb. 1890. She published 
a book on ' Flowers and how to paint them.' 

[Private information ; Roget's Hist, of the 
4 Old Water-colour ' Society.] L. C. 

NAGLE, SirEDMUND (1757-1830), ad- 
miral, born in 1757, is said to have been a 
nephew of Edmund Burke. It would seem 
more probable that he was a son of Burke's 
first-cousin. He entered the navy in 1770, 
under the care of Captain John Stott, on board 
the Juno frigate, in which he went to the Falk- 
land Islands, on the occasion of their being 
surrendered by Spain in 1771 (Beatson, Nav. 
and Mil. Memoirs, vi. 15 ; cr. art. Farmer, 
George). He afterwards served in the Win- 
chelsea, Deal Castle, Thetis, and Bienfaisant, 
on the Mediterranean and home stations, and 
passed his examination on 7 May 1777 (Pas- 
sing Certificate). On 25 Oct 1777 he was 
promoted to be lieutenant of the Greenwich 
storeship, on the North American station. 
In 1779 he was in the Syren, in the North 
Sea, and from 1780 to 1782 was again on 
the coast of North America in the Warwick, 
with Captain Elphinstone Tsee Elphinstone, 
George Keith, Viscount Keith], On 1 Aug. 
1782 he was promoted to the command of 
the Racoon brig, which was shortly after- 
wards captured off the Delaware by the 
French frigate Aigle. A few days later, 
11 Sept., Nagle regained his liberty, the Aigle 
being in turn captured by the Warwick. He 
was then appointed to the Hound sloop, and 
on 27 Jan. 1783 was posted to the Grana, 
which he brought home and paid off. In 
1793 he commissioned the Active frigate, 
and early in 1794 was moved into the Artois 
of 44 guns, in which for the next three years 
he was actively employed, under the com- 
mand of Sir John Borlase Warren [a. v.], or 
Sir Edward Pellew, afterwards Viscount 
Exmouth [q. v.] On 21 Oct. 1794, off Ushant, 
the little squadron, then commanded by 
Pellew, sighted the Revolutionnaire, French 
frigate, also of 44 guns, which was chased 



Nagle 



21 



Nagle 



and brought to action by the Artois. On the 
other frigates coming up the Revolutionnaire 
surrendered. She was a new and very fine 
ship, and was for several years one of the 
crack frigates in the English navy. For his 
gallant service Nagle was knighted. The 
next year the Artois was with Warren in the 
expedition to Quiberon, and, continuing on 
the French coast, was lost on a sandbank off 
Rochelle on 31 July 1797, when in chase of 
a French frigate. 

In August 1798 Nagle married 'a lady 
of ample fortune — the widow of John Lucie 
Blackman of Craven Street ' — after which he 
had little service at sea. In 1801-2 he com- 
manded the Majestic, and afterwards the 
Juste for a few months, and in 1803 was ap- 
pointed to command the sea fencibles of the 
Sussex coast. At this time, making his head- 
quarters at Brighton, he was introduced to 
the Prince of Wales, and, telling a good 
story, and overflowing with rollicking Irish 
humour, became a great favourite. He was 
made rear-admiral on 9 Nov. 1805, and for 
a short time hoisted his flag on board the 
Inconstant at Guernsey. He was promoted 
to be vice-admiral on 31 July 1810, and, 
again for a short time, was commander-in- 
chief at Leith. In 1813 he was governor 
of Newfoundland, and in 1814, when the 
allied monarchs reviewed the fleet at Spit- 
head, he was nominated aide-de-camp to the 
prince-regent. On 2 Jan. 1815 he was made 
a KC.B., and on 12 Aug. 1819 was promoted 
to the rank of admiral. 

During all this time, however, with these 
few intermissions, he was in attendance on 
the prince, and in 1820, on the prince's ac- 
cession to the throne, was appointed groom 
of the bedchamber. He is described as a man 
of great good nature and a simplicity of 
mind which was said to make him the butt 
for some coarse practical jokes. He died at 
his house'at East Molesey, Surrey , on 14 March 
1830, leaving no issue. 

[Marshall's Roy. Nav. Biog. i. 277 ; Gent. 
Mag. 1830, i.469; Brenton's Naval History.] 

J. K. L. 
NAGLE, NANO or HONORA (1728- 
1784), foundress of the Presentation order 
of nuns, born in 1728, was daughter of 
Garrett Nagle of Ballygriffin near Mallow, 
co. Cork. The Nagles were of Anglo-Nor- 
man origin: a kinswoman (Miss Nagle of 
Shanballyduff, co. Cork) was mother of 
Burke. Nano's mother belonged to the 
Mathew family of Thomastown, co. Tip- 
perary, and was connected with Father 
Mathew [q. v.], the apostle of temperance. 
Nano was educated at home, and afterwards 
at Paris, where a glimpse, early one morning 



on her return from a ball, of some poor 
people waiting outside a church door in 
order to attend mass is said to have given a 
serious turn to her thoughts. 

She returned to Ireland about 1750, deter- 
mined to devote herself to the poor of her 
own country ; but, deterred by the penal 
laws, she went back to France with the in- 
tention of entering a convent. But again 
she was driven home by a sense of her voca- 
tion. Her father was dead, but she re- 
mained in Dublin with her mother and 
sister until their death forced her to take 
up her residence with her brother in Cork. 
There the poor Catholic population was desti- 
tute of all means of education. With her 
own fortune, and afterwards with the support 
of some members of her family, she secretly 
started a poor school for catholic girls. She 
also visited the sick, and at her own expense 
established an asylum for aged females, 
which still exists. The narrowness of her 
own resources subsequently led her to charge 
fees at her school, and she herself collected 
them. But her health was bad, and, finding 
that her own energies were unequal to the 
task of carrying on the school, she deter- 
mined to put it under the care of a religious 
community — a dangerous expedient in face 
of the stringency of the penal laws, which 
proscribed all religious communities. Four 
young ladies entered a convent of the Ursu- 
line nuns in Paris to prepare themselves to 
undertake Miss Nagle's work, and after a 
period of training they reached Cork in 1771 
in the charge of Dr. Francis Moylan [a. v.], 
subsequently bishop of the diocese, ana oc- 
cupied the convent founded by Miss Nagle. 
She did not become one of their number. 

The order of Ursuline nuns is mainly 
occupied in the education of girls of the 
well-to-do classes, but Miss Nagle interested 
I herself mainly in the poor. The corpora- 
tion refrained from enforcing the laws against 
the new community in consideration of its 
beneficent objects. In further pursuit of 
her high aims Miss Nagle in 1775 laid the 
foundation of a new order, which was to 
devote itself exclusively (unlike the Ur- 
sulines) to the education of the female chil- 
dren ot the poor. To this congregation she 
gave the name of the Order of the Presentation 
of the Blessed Virgin Mary. A convent and 
schools, specially erected by Miss Nagle, at 
her own expense, for the new order, were 
opened on Christmas day 1777, and the 
occasion was celebrated by a dinner to fifty 
beggars, on whom the foundress waited her- 
self. The rules of the community were 
approved of by Pope Pius VI in 1791, and 
confirmed on 9 April 1805 by Pius VII 



Nagle 



22 



who constituted the congregation an order 
of the catholic church. It was thus that 
systematic education was, since the days of 
the Reformation, first brought within reach 
of the poor in Ireland. 

Worn out by her hard work and by aus- 
terities, Miss Nagle died at her convent in 
Cork on 20 April 1784, at the age of fifty- 
six. 

There is an oil-painting of her in the Ur- 
suline convent, Blackrock, co. Cork. 

The Ursuline order, which Miss Nagle in- 
troduced into Ireland, has numerous con- 
vents in that country, offshoots of her foun- 
dation; and in 1874 her own order (the 
Presentation) had fifty-two houses in Ire- 
land, one in England, twelve in British North 
America, four in Australia, three in the 
United States, and one in India. 

[Hutch's Life of Nano Nagle; Coppingers 
Lite of Nano Nagle; Webb's Compendium of 
Irish Biography; the Catholic Dictionary] 

P. L. N. 

NAGLE, Sir RICHARD (fl. 1689), at- 
torney-general for Ireland, was of an an- 
cient family in the county of Cork. By old 
authors the name is often incorrectly written 
Nangle. Carrigacunna Castle, on the Black- 
water, between Mallow and Fermoy, belonged 
to him, and some neighbouring hills still bear j 
the family name. According to the commonly 
received but very scanty authorities, he was 
educated by the Jesuits and intended for the 
priesthood. Preferring the law, ' he arrived 
to a good perfection, and was employed by 
many protestants, so that he knew the weak 
part of most of their titles' (Kino, ch. iii. 
sec. iii. p. 9). 

Charles II died 6 Feb. 1684-5, and Or- 
monde, though ' with dismal sadness at his 
heart/ proclaimed James II in Dublin. He 
was at once removed, and Henry Hyde, earl 
of Clarendon [q. v.], was made lord -lieutenant 
in October, and landed in Ireland 29 Dec. ; 
but Richard Talbot, earl of Tyrconnel [q. v.], 
who was in London, thwarted him at every 
step, and soon took Nagle into consultation. 
In February 1685-6 Nagle proposed to the 
lord-lieutenant that the outlawries on which 
the protectant settlement rested should be 
reversed {Clarendon Correspondence, i. 273). 
In May he became a privy councillor, but 
refused to be sworn, ostensibly on account 
of the great professional loss likelv to follow 
(ib. i. 445). At the end of July 1686 Nagle 
was consulted by Clarendon and dined with 
him, the lord-lieutenant regarding him as the 
authorised representative of the Irish Roman 
catholics (ib. i. 516). He was already con- 
templating a parliament (ib. p. 538) which 
might dispossess the English settlers, though 



Nagle 

he as yet admitted that they would have to 
be compensated (ib. p. 564). At the end of 
August Tyrconnel went to London again to 
arrange with James for the supersession of 
Clarendon, and for the further depression of 
the protestant interest in Ireland. Nagle 
accompanied him, and was consulted by the 
king as well as by Sunderland. He returned 
to Ireland before Tyrconnel, after address- 
ing to him the famous letter, bearing date 
26 Oct., in which the repeal of the Act of 
Settlement was first seriously suggested 
(Jacobite Narrative, p. 193). Clarendon did 
not see a copy of this letter until January 
following (Corresp. ii. 142). Though dated 
from Coventry and nominally written on the 
road, this document bears no mark of haste, 
and was probably composed in London after 
careful consultation with Tyrconnel and 
Sunderland (Harris, p. 107). Nagle was 
knighted by James, and at the end of 1686 
was appointed attorney-general for Ireland, 
displacing a protestant who had held the 
office since the Restoration. In August 1687 
Tyrconnel, who had then superseded Claren- 
don as viceroy, went to Chester with Nagle 
and Rice, and Bishop Cartwright entertained 
the party during James IPs visit (Diary, 
pp. 73-5). 

The anti-English interest in Ireland was 
strengthened by this meeting, and Nagle 
was active in the matter of the quo war- 
rantos which destroyed the protestant cor- 
poral ions, often by means of mere legal 
quibbles (King, ch. iii. sec. v. p. 2). In the 
spring of 1688 Nagle joined in the attempt 
to force Doyle upon Trinity College, Dub- 
lin, as a fellow (ib. sec. xv. p. 2). A little 
later he was more friendly to the college 
(Stubbs, p. 127), but its protestant charac- 
ter would have been destroyed if James had 
succeeded. Outlawries arising out of the 
rebellion of 1641 were reversed wholesale, 
and Nagle told those who were in a hurry 
to sue for their confiscated estates ' to have 
a little patience, perhaps they would come 
more easily ' (Kino, ch. iii. sec. xii. p. 2). He 
went to France about the end of 1688, and 
returned with James {Jacobite Narrative, p. 
316), who landed at Kinsale 12 March 1688- 
1689. Means were at once taken to carry 
out the new policy. A parliament was 
called, which met in Dublin on 7 May, and 
Nagle sat for the county of Cork with Jus- 
tin MacCarthy [q. v.] as a colleague. He 
was at once chosen speaker, and had a prin- 
cipal part in repealing the Acts of Settle- 
ment and Explanation, and in passing the 
great Act of Attainder, which deprived 2,455 
landowners of their estates and vested them 
in the crown. King says that when Nagle 



Nagle 



23 



Nairne 



presented the bill for the royal assent he re- 
marked that many of these persons had been 
attainted on common fame. Pardons granted 
after 1 Nov. were made null and void, and 
the act was not published, but kept carefully 
secret, lest absentees should return within the 
specified time. We are told that James him- 
self did not know what was in the act, that 
he had read without understanding it, thus 
destroying his own prerogative by mistake, 
and tnat he upbraided Isagle for deceiving 
him (Kino, ch. iii. sec. xii.) The attorney- 
general was also zealous in depriving pro- 
testants of their churches (ib. sec. xviii.), and 
in making the position of their clergy in- 
tolerable (ib. sec. xx.) 

Schomberg landed at Carrickfergus in 
August, and advantage was taken of the 
subsequent mortality among his troops to 
tamper with them. A letter bearing Nagle's 
imprimatur, and perhaps written by him, 
was circulated among the soldiers reminding 
them of the fate of Sennacherib's host, and 
exhorting them to return to their legitimate 
king (Jacobite Narrative, p. 251). At Tyr- 
connel 8 request, James in September made 
Nagle his chief secretary as well as attor- 
ney-general, with Albeville for a colleague 
(Berwick, i. 360). After the Boyne, 1 July 
1690, he was one of those who urged James's 
immediate flight to France. In the Septem- 
ber following, if not sooner, he was at St. 
Germain with Tyrconnel and Rice, and re- 
turned with them to Galway in January 
1690-1, bringing about 8,000/. and some in- 
ferior stores (Story, Cont. p. 51). Chief- 
justice Nugent acted as Jacobite secretary 
during his absence. After the battle of 
Aughrim in July following, and the conse- 
quent fall of Galway, Nagle remained at 
Limerick with Tyrconnel, who trusted him 
in the most secret matters (Macarics Exci- 
dium, p. 109), and he remained in the city 
during the siege by Ginkel. Tyrconnel died 
on 14 Aug., and a commission from James 
was produced which left the wreck of his 
authority in the hands of Fitton, Nagle, and 
Francis Plowden, as lords justices, but with- 
out power in military matters (Jacobite Nar- 
rative, p. 156). After the surrender of Lime- 
rick they all three sailed together in the same 
vessel with Sarsfield on 22 Dec, and reached 
France in safety (ib. p. 191; Cardinal 
Moran, Spicilegium Ossoriense, ii. 303). 
With the title of secretary of state for Ire- 
land Nagle was for a time one of the junto 
of five who ruled at the melancholy court of 
St. Germain (Clarke, ii. 411). He probably 
died abroad, )>ut the date is uncertain. He 
had a large family, and one son at least was 
married in France to Margaret, younger 



daughter of Walter Bourke of Turlogh. 
Mr. Garrett Nagle, now a resident magistrate 
in Ireland, is Sir Richard's descendant. 

Berwick (i. 360) says Nagle was a ' very 
honest man, of good sense, and very clever 
in his profession, but not at all versed in 
affairs of state.' At the beginning of 1686 
Clarendon wrote of him as ' the lawyer, a 
Roman Catholic, and a man of the best re- 
pute for learning as well as honesty among 
that people ' (Corresp. i. 273), and for some 
months alter he often backs that opinion ; but 
in his diary a year later is ' sure that he is 
both a covetous and an ambitious man/ and 
does not in the least believe his most solemn 
asseverations (ib. ii. 150). 

[Archbishop King's State of the Protestants 
under James 11, with Charles Leslie's Answer, 
1692 ; Singer's Clarendon and Rochester Corre- 
spondence ; Journal of the Parliament in Ire- 
land, 1689 ; Clarke's Life of James II ; Macaw© 
Excidium, or Destruction of Cyprus, ed. O'Cal- 
laghan; Bishop Carturright's Diary (Camden 
Soc.) ; Stubbs's Hist, of Dubl. Univ. ; Memoires 
du Marechal de Berwick, Collection Petitot and 
Monmerque ; Harris's Life of William III ; 
Story's Hist, and Coot. 1693; Lodge's Peerage 
of Ireland, ed. Archdall ; Jacobite Narrative, ed. 
Gilbert, from Lord Fingall's manuscript. This 
last is the work quoted by Macaulay as ' light 
to the blind.'] R. B-l. 

NAIRNE, Baroness. [SeeELPiiiNSTONE, 
Mabgaret Mercer, 1788-1867.] 

NAIRNE, CAROLINA, Baroness 
Nairne (1766-1845), Scottish ballad writer, 
born at Gask, Perthshire, 16 Aug. 1766, was 
i the daughter of Laurence Oliphant. The 
1 latter, like his father, whom he succeeded in 
; 1767, was an ardent Jacobite, and married in 
• 1755 his first-cousin Margaret, eldest daugh- 
i ter of Duncan Robertson of Strowan, Perth- 
| shire, chief of the clan Donnochy. Carolina 
I was named after Prince Charles Stuart ; in a 
' list of births and deaths in her father's hand 
I it is written ' Carolina, after the Kin^, at Gask, 
| Aug. 16th 1766 ' (Oliphant, Jacobite Lairds 
1 of Gask. p. 349). She soon became ' a sturdy 
tod' in her mother's esteem, and a nonjuring 
' clergyman, who was her tutor for a time, 
' reported that she was a very promising 
■ student. Although somewhat delicate in her 
I early years — ' a paper miss ' her nurse called 
her — she became a skilful rider, and sang and 
danced admirably. Her beauty gained for 
her the title of 'pretty Miss Car/ and subse- 
quently of ' the Flower of Stratbearn.' 

Carolina induced her brother Laurence to 
become a subscriber to Burns's poems, an- 
nounced from Edinburgh in 1786. She fol- 
lowed with eager interest Burns's improve- 
ments on the old Scottish songs in Johnson's 



Nairne 



24 



Nairne 



' Musical Museum ' and Thomson's ' Songs 
of Scotland/ The first important result of 
this new stimulus was in 1792, when she 
gave her brother in strict secrecy a new ver- 
sion of ' The Pleuchman ' (ploughman) to 
sing at a gathering of the Gask tenantry. It 
instantly oecame popular. She followed up 
her success by writing other humorous and 
Jacobite songs. In 1797 she joined her 
brother, who was about this time serving in 
the Perthshire light dragoons, when he went 
with his company to quarters in the north of 
England. There is a legend that during this 
sojourn she had the distinction of declining a 
royal duke in marriage. On 27 July 1797 
another brother, Charles, died, and the foil ow- 
ing year when her friend, Mrs. Campbell Coi- 
quhoun, the sister of Scott's ' Willie Erskine,' 
lost her firstborn child, Carolina sent her a 
copy of ' The Land 0' the Leal.' On 2 June 
1806 she was married at Gask to her cousin, 
Major William Murray Nairne, assistant in- 
spector of barracks (son of Lieutenant-colonel 
John Nairne). Major Nairne's duties required 
his presence at Edinburgh, and he and his wife 
settled first at Portobello and afterwards at 
Wester Duddingston, in a house named Caro- 
lina Cottage, presented to them by their re- 
lative, Robertson of Strowan. Here their 
only child, William Murray, was born in 
1808. 

Major Nairne was of a humorous, joyous 
temperament, but was restrained by the reti- 
cence of his wife, who was a victim of that 
4 unseasonable modesty' impatiently noted by 
the historian of the family as a failing of the 
Oliphants (Jacobite Lairds of Gask, p. 225). 
They met Sir Walter Scott occasionally, but 
the acquaintance never became intimate. Al- 
though her friends admired her artistic ac- 
complishments (she could draw and paint), 
and her wide knowledge of Scottish songs 
attracted attention in private life, she con- 
cealed, even from her husband, her poetic 
achievements. From 1821 to 1824, as Mrs. 
Bogan of Bo^an, she contributed lyrics to the 
' Scottish Minstrel ' of R. A. Smith, but even 
the publisher was not made aware of her 
identity. Without committing herself she 
managed to write and copy Jacobite songs 
and tunes for her kinsman Robertson of 
Strowan, who died in 1822. That year 
George IV visited Scotland, and, on the in- 
vitation of Sir Walter Scott, interested him- 
self in the fallen Jacobite adherents. The 
result was the bill of 17 June 1824, which 
restored them to their birthright. Major 
Nairne thus became a peer (being the fifth 
Lord Nairne of Nairne, Perthshire), and his 
wife was thenceforth known as Baroness 
Nairne. 



Lady Nairne's chief object in life was now 
the training of her only son. Up to his fif- 
teenth year she mainly taught him herself. 
Then she selected tutors with the greatest 
care. On the death of Lord Nairne in 1829 
she left Edinburgh with the boy, settling first 
with relatives at Clifton, near Bristol. It 
was probably at this time that she wrote her 
vigorous and touching * Farewell to Edin- 
burgh.' In July 1831 they went to Kings- 
town, Dublin, and thence to Enniskerry, cow 
Wicklow. Here, as at Edinburgh, her friends 
noticed her artistic tastes, and she drew a 
striking landscape, with common blacklead, 
on the damp back wall of her dwelling 
(Rogers, memoir, p. 60). The summer of 
1834 young Lord Nairne and his mother 
spent in Scotland. 

The young man's delicate health, however, 
constrained them to move in the autumn, and, 
along with Mrs. Keith (Lady Nairne's sister) 
and their niece, Miss Margaret II. Steuart 
of Dalguise, Perthshire, they went to the 
continent, visiting Paris, the chief Italian 
cities, Geneva, Interlachen,and Baden. They 
spent the winter of 1835-6 in Mannheim ; 
but after an attack of influenza the young 
Lord Nairne died at Brussels on 7 Dec. 1837. 
From June 1838 to the summer of 1841, with 
a little party of relatives and friends, Lady 
Nairne again visited various continental re- 
sorts. In 1842-3 the party was at Paris, and 
in the latter year Lady Nairne returned to 
Gask as the guest of her nephew, James Blair 
Oliphant, and his wife. Her health was grow- 
ing uncertain, but she corresponded with her 
friends, and evinced a deep interest in the 
great movement which was just culminating- 
in the disruption of the church of Scotland! 
In the winter of 1843 she had a stroke of 
paralysis, from which she rallied sufficiently 
to be able to interest herself in various Chris* 
tian benefactions, to watch the development 
of the free kirk, and to give practical aid to 
the social schemes of Dr. Chalmers. She died 
on 26 Oct. 1845, and was buried within the 
chapel at Gask. Her portrait at Gask was 
painted by Sir John Watson Gordon. 

Lady Nairne had in her last years con- 
sented to the anonymous publication of her 
poems, and a collection was in preparation 
at her death. With the consent of her sister, 
Mrs. Keith, in 1846, they were published in a 
handsome folio as * Lays from Strathearn, by 
Carolina, Baroness Nairne ; arranged with 
Symphonies and Accompaniments by Finlay 
Dun.' In 1869 the ' Life and Songs of the 
Baroness Nairne ' appeared, under the editor- 
ship of Dr. Charles Rogers, the life being 
largely written by Mr. T. L. Kington Oli- 
phant of Gask {Jacobite Lairds of Qasky 



Nairne 



25 



Nairne 



p. 433). Dr. Rogers revised and amended 
this volume in a new edition published in 
1886. 

Lady Nairne excels in the humorous ballad, 
the Jacobite song, and sonjjs of sentiment and 
domestic pathos. She skilfully utilised the 
example of Burns in fitting beautiful old tunes 
with interesting words; her admirable com- 
mand of lowland Scotch enabled her to write 
for the Scottish people, and her ease of gene- 
ralisation gave breadth of significance to 
special themes. In her ' Land o' the Leal/ 
' Laird o' Cockpen/ and ' Caller HerrinV she 
is hardly, if at all, second to Burns himself. 
* The Land o' the Leal/ set to the old tune 
'Hey tutti taiti/ also used by Burns for 
' Scots wha ha'e/ was translated into Greek 
verse by the lie v. J. lliddell, fellow of Balliol 
College, Oxford. ' Caller Herein' ' was writ- 
ten for the benefit of Nathaniel Gow, son of 
the famous Perthshire fiddler Neil Gow [q. v.], 
whose melody for the song, with its echoes 
from the peal of church bells, has been a 
favourite with composers of variations. Two 
well-known settings are those by Charles 
CzernyandPhilii)KnaDton(178&-1833)[q.y.] 
Lady Nairne ranks witn Hogg in her Jacobite 
songs, but in several she stands first and alone. 
Nothing in the language surpasses the exube- 
rant buoyancy of her * Charlie is my darling/ 
the swift triumphant movement of ' The Hun- 
dred Pipers/ and the wail of forlorn desola- 
tion in 'Will ye no* come back again P* 
Excellent in structure, these songs are en- 
riched by strong conviction and natural feel- 
ing. The same holds true of all Lady Nairne's 
domestic verses and occasional pieces, 'The 
Auld House/ 'The Rowan Tree/ 'Cradle 
Song/ the ' Alitherless Lammie/ 'Kind Robin 
lo'es me ' (a tribute to Lord Nairne), and ' G ude 
Nicht and joy be wi* ye a'/ ' Would you be 
young again ? ' was written in 1842, when 
the authoress was seventy-six. 

[Rogers's Life and Songs of Lady Nairne ; 
Kington Oliphant's Jacobite Lairds of Gask; 
TV tier and Watson's Songstresses of Scotland.] 

T. B. I 

NAIRNE, EDWARD (1726-1806), elec- ' 
trician, born in 1726, was probably a member | 
of the family of Nairne resident at Sand- 
wich, Kent. He early interested himself in ' 
scientific studies, and established a shop at | 
20 Cornhill, London, as an ' optical, mathe- I 
matical,and philosophical instrument maker/ 
in which capacity he enjoyed royal patronage. 
In 1771 he began to contribute papers on scien- 
tific subjects to the ' Philosophical Transac- 
tions/ and probably about this time made the 
acquaintance of Joseph Priestley [q. v.] In 
1774 he contributed to the 'Philosophical 
Transactions ' the results of a series of experi- 



ments, showing the superiority of points over 
balls as electrical conductors, and constructed, 
on plans supplied by Priestley, the first con- 
siderable electrical machine made in England 
(PRiESTLEY,AfemoiVs,ed.l809, p. 59; Nichol- 
son's Journal, ii. 525-6). In the specification 
of the patent which he took out for this 
machine in 1782 it is described as a ' new 
invention and most usefull improvement in 
the common electrical machine (which I call 
the insulated medical electrical machine) by 
insulating the whole in a particular manner, 
and constructing the conductors so that either 
shocks or sparks may be received from them.' 
Nairne publ ished a description of this machine, 
which reached an eighth edition, in 1796. It 
is still well known as ' Nairne's electrical 
machine* (Woodcroft, Specifications of Pa- 
tents, Electricity and Magnetism, p. 8 ; Sib 
Humphry Davy, Works, v. 31 ; Deschanel, 
Treatises on Natural Philosophy, p. 577; 
Ganot, Physics, p. 741). 

On 20 March 1776 Nairne was elected 
F.R.S., being admitted on 27 June (Thom- 
son, History of the Royal Society, p. 449). 
In the same year he made some experi- 
ments to determine the specific gravity of 
sea-water, the degree of cold at whicn it 
begins to freeze, and whether the ice be 
salt or not ; his results were published in a 
pamphlet dedicated to Sir John Pringle. 
lie also invented the process of artificial 
desiccation by means of sulphuric acid acting 
under the receiver of an air-pump, of which 
he published an account (Phil. Trans. Index ; 
Edinburgh Phil. Journal, iii. 56-9). He im- 
proved the astronomical apparatus at Green- 
wich (Lysons, Environs), constructed many 
excellent scientific instruments, and contri- 
buted numerous papers, besides those already 
mentioned, to the ' Philosophical Transac- 
tions ' (Nicholson's Journal, passim ; Phil. 
Trans. ; Ronald, Catalogue of Books and 
Papers relating to Electricity). 

In 1800 Nairne became one of the pro- 
prietors of the newly founded Royal Insti- 
tution, but does not seem to have taken an 
active part in its proceedings. In the fol- 
lowing year he gave up his business in Corn- 
hill and removed to Chelsea, where he died 
on 1 Sept. 1806, aged 80 (Gent. Mag., 1800, 
ii. 880; London Directory, 1801-7). 

The electrician must not be confused with 
a contemporary Edward Nairne (1742 P- 
1799), attorney and supervisor of customs at 
Sandwich, who was born there about 1742, 
and wrote : 1. ' Ilumorous Poems/ Canter- 
bury, 1791 ; 2nd edit., published as ' Kentish 
Tales/ Sandgate, 1824. 2. 'The Dog-tax: 
a Poem/ Canterbury, 1797. He was known 
as the ' Sandwich bard/ and died at Sand- 



Nairne 



26 



Nairne 



wich on 5 July 1799 (Gent. Mag. 1799 ii. 
626 ; Bbydges, Centura Litt. iii. 419). 

[Authorities quoted ; works in Brit. Mus. 
Library ; Lists of Royal Society ; Weld's Hist, 
of Royal Soc. ii. 52 ; Royal Institution Collec- 
tion of Circulars, &c. ; Bence Jones's Royal In- 
stitution : its Founders and its first Professors ; 
Journals of the Royal Institution ; Nichols's II- 
lustr. of Lit. i. 165; Hill's Boswell, iii. 21, note; 
Rutt's Life and Correspondence of Dr. Priestley, 
i. 79 ; Bolton's Correspondence of Dr. Priestley, 
p. 116; Mountaine's Description of the Lines 
on Gunter's Scale, as improved by ... J. Ro- 
bertson, and executed by Messrs. Nairne and 
Blunt, Lond. 1778, 8vo; Lalande's Bibliographle 
Astronomique ; Nicholson's Journal, ii. 420, 525- 
526, iv, 265 (new ser.), vi. 235, viii. 81, xiii. 5tf ; 
Monthly Review (or Literary Journal), passim ; 
Watt's Bibl. Brit.; Royal Society's Cat. of Scien- 
tific Papers; Notes and Queries, 6th ser. vii. 408.1 

A. F. P. 

NAIRNE, JOHN, third Lord Naiknb (d. 
1770}, Jacobite, was the eldest son of Lord 
"William Murray, second lord Nairne, by Mar- 
garet, only daughter and heiress of Robert, 
Erst lord Nairne [q. v.] William Nairne, 
second Lord Nairne (d. 1724), who assumed 
his wife's surname and succeeded to her 
father's title, was the fourth son of John Mur- 
ray, first marquis of Atholl [q. v.] In 1685 
he accompanied his father in the expedition 
to Argyllshire (Hist. MSS. Comm. 12th Rep. 
Appendix, pt. viii. p. 17). Some time after- 
wards he distinguished himself as a naval 
officer (Patten, History of the Rebellion in 
1715, ed. 1745, p. 44). At the revolution he 
did not take the oaths to the government, 
and refrained from taking his seat in parlia- 
ment. Subsequently he strongly opposed 
the union, and he was one ot those who 
signed a paper to support the prince 2 May 
1707 (Hooke, Negotiations, Roxburghe Club, 
ii. 230). At the revolution in 1715 he joined 
the standard of Mar, and having with his 
men crossed the Forth and marched into 
England, was taken prisoner at Preston on 
14 Nov. and sent to the Tower. At his trial 
on 19 Jan. 1716 he pleaded guilty, and on 
9 Feb. he was sentenced to death, but he 
was reprieved, and in May, through the in- 
tervention of the Duke of Atholl, obtained 
a remission (Hist. MSS. Comm. 12th Rep. 
App. pt. viii. p. 70). In 1718 Captain 
Straiton, deceived by a false messenger, sent 
an express to acquaint Lord Nairne in 
Perthshire that the l Duke of Ormond was 
on the coast, and certainly landed by that 
time, and desiring his lordship to forward the 
good newes to Marishall \Lockhart Papers, ii. 
§2) ; but Lockhart, discovering that the intel- 
ligence was false, sent word to Nairne in time 
to prevent him from joining Marischal and 



thus endangeringhis life (ib. p. 23). The Duke 
of Atholl attributed Nairne's strong Jacobite 
leanings to the influence of his wite, daugh- 
ter of the first Lord Nairne, and to her arti- 
fices he also imputed the 'ruin' of his own 
three sons (Hist . MSS. Comm. 12th Rep. Ap- 
pendix, pt. viii. p. 71). The second Lord 
Nairne died in 1724. 

The third Lord Nairne, with his father, 
joined the rebellion of 1716, and became 
lieutenant-colonel of Lord Charles Murray's 
regiment. According to Patten he ' took a 
great deal of pains to encourage the High- 
landers by his own. experience in their hard 
marches, and always went with them on . 
foot through the worst and deepest ways, and 
in highland dress ' (History of the Rebellion, 
ed. 1745, p. 44). Like his father, he was 
taken prisoner at the battle of Preston, and 
was forfeited, but was reprieved and received 
his liberty. In 1738 an act was also passed by 
parliament enabling him to sue or maintain 
any action or suit, and to inherit any real or 

Srsonal estate that might descend to him. 
e nevertheless remained a staunch Jacobite, 
and was thoroughly conversant with the 
plans for a rising in 1745. It was his daughter, 
Mrs. Robertson of Lude, who, at the request 
of the Marquis of Tullibardine, prepared Blair 
Castle for the reception of the prince ; and 
soon after the latter's arrival Nairne joined 
him at Blair wi th a number of his men. From 
Blair he and Cameron of Lochiel, with four 
hundred men, were sent forward to take pos- 
session of Dunkeld, and on the arrival 01 the 
prince there on 3 Sept. Nairne was again sent 
torward to take possession of Perth. On the 
day before the battle of Prestonpans (21 Sept.) 
he was posted with five hundred men to the 
west of the forces of Cope, to prevent any ad- 
vance in that direction. The force was called 
in at nightfall ; and at the battle Nairne held 
command of the second line, consisting of 
Athollmen, the Robertsons, the Macdonalds of 
Glencoe, and the Maclachlans. He was chosen 
one of the prince's privy council, and during 
the march into England he held command of 
a lowland regiment of two hundred men. He 
was also present at the battles of Falkirk and 
Culloden. After Culloden he joined Lord 
George Murray at Ruthven in Badenoch, 
but on learning that the prince had resolved 
not to continue the contest further, he es- 
caped to the continent. He was included in 
the act of attainder passed in 1746, and 
died in France 11 July 1770. Bv Lady Cathe- 
rine Murray, third daughter 01 Charles, first 
earl of Dunmore, he had eight sons and four 
daughters. Five of the children died young. 
The sons who survived were James, who 
died unmarried ; John, who became a lieu- 



Nairne 



27 



Nairne 



tenant-colonel in the army, and to whose 
eon, "William Murray Nairne, husband of 
Caroline, lady Nairne J~q. v.], the title was 
restored by parliament 17 June 1824; Charles, 
an officer in the service of the States-General, 
who died in June 1775 ; Thomas, who was 
an officer in Lord John Drummond's regi- 
ment, and was captured in October 1745 on 
board the French ship L'Esperance, on his 
way to join the prince in Scotland, but after- 
wards ODtained his pardon, and died at San- 
cerre, in France, 3 April 1777 ; and Henry, 
who was an officer in the French service. 

[Histories of the Rebellion by Patten, Rae, 
Ray, Home, and Chambers ; Lockhart Papers ; 
Nathaniel Hooke's Negotiations ( Roxburgh e 
Club); Hist.MSS. Comm. 1 2th Rep. App. pt. viii.; 
Douglas's Scottish Peerage (Wood), ii. 280-1.] 

T. F. H. 

NAIRNE, Sik ROBERT, of Strath- 
ord, first Lord Nairne (1600-1683), lord 
of session, was representative of a family 
which claimed descent from Michael de 
Nairne, who on 10 Feb. 1406-7 was witness 
to a charter of Robert, duke of Albany. He 
was the eldest son of Robert Nairne of 
Muckersie, and afterwards of Strathord, both 
in Perthshire, by Margaret, daughter of Sir 
John Preston of Penicuick, Midlothian, lord- 
president of the court of session. Like his I 
lather, he became a member of the Faculty of ' 
Advocates. With other royalists he was 
captured by a detachment from General 
Monck at Alyth, Forfarshire, 28 Aug. 1051, 
and sent a prisoner to the Tower, where he 
remained till the Restoration. By Charles II 
he was appointed one of the lords of session, 
1 June 1661, receiving also the honour of 
knighthood; and on ll Jan. 1671 he was 
appointed one of the court of justiciary. On 1 
23 Jan. 1631 he was created a peer of Scot- ( 
land by the title of Baron Nairne, to himself | 
for life, and after his decease to his son-in- | 
law, Lord William Murray, who assumed 
the surname of Nairne [see under Nairne, 
John, third Lord Nairne]. At the trial 
of the Earl of Argyll in 1681 Nairne was 
compelled from fatigue to retire while the 
pleadings on the relevancy were still pro- 
ceeding. The judges who remained being 
equally divided as to the relevancy, and the 
Duke of Queensberry, who presided, being 
unwilling to vote, Nairne was sent for to 
give his vote. According to Wodrow he fell 
asleep while the pleadings for the relevancy 
were being read to him, but being awakened 
after this ceremony had been performed, voted 
for the relevancy of the indictment {Suffer- 
ings of the Kirk of Scotland, iii. 336). On 
10 April 1683 Lord Castlehill was appointed 
to be one of the criminal lords in place of | 



Lord Nairne, who was excused from atten- 
dance on account of his great age. 'This/ 
according to Lauder of Fountainhall, ' pro- 
voked the old man to reflect that when he 
was lying in the Tower for the king Castle- 
hill was one of Oliver Crom well's pages and 
servants, and Nairne died within six weeks 
after this ' {Historical Notices, p. 436). By his 
wife Margaret, daughter of Patrick Graham 
of Inchbrakie, Perthshire, he had an only 
daughter, Margaret, married to Lord William 
Murray, who became second Lord Nairne. 

[Wodrow's Sufferings of the Church of Scot- 
land; Lauder of FountainhaU's Historical Notices; 
Brunton and Ilaig's Senators of the College of 
Justice ; Douglas's Scottish Peerage (Wood), ii. 
279-80 1 T F H 

NAIRNE, Sir WILLIAM, Lokd Dun- 
sinane (1731 P-1811), Scottish judge, born 
about 1781, the younger son of Sir William 
Nairne, bart., of Dunsinane, Perthshire, by 
his wife, Emelia Graham of Fintry, Forfar- 
shire, was admitted an advocate on 11 March 
1755, and in 1758 was appointed joint com- 
missary clerk of Edinburgh with Alexander 
Nairne. He was uncle to the notorious Ka- 
tharine Nairne or Ogilvie, whose trial for 
murder and incest attracted great attention 
in August 1765. He is supposed to have 
connived at her subsequent escape from the 
Toibooth. He succeeded Robert Bruce of 
Kennet as an ordinary lord of session, and took 
his seat on the bench, with the title of Lord 
Dunsinane, on 9 March 1786. He succeeded 
to the baronetcy on the death of his nephew 
William, the fourth baronet, in January 1790, 
and at the same time purchased the estate of 
Dunsinane from another nephew for 16,000/. 
On the resignation of John Campbell of 
Stonefield, Nairne was appointed a lord of 
justiciary, 24 Dec. 1792. He resigned his 
seat in the court of justiciary in 1808, and 
his seat in the court of session in 1809. He 
died at Dunsinane House on 23 March 1811. 

Nairne was unmarried. The baronetcy be- 
came extinct upon his death, while his estates 
devolved upon his nephew, John Mellis, 
who subsequently assumed the surname of 
Nairne. 

Nairne was not a rich man ; and in order 
to clear off the purchase money of Dunsinane 
he had to adopt the most rigid economy. 
To save the expense of entertaining visitors, 
he is said to have kept only one bed at Dun- 
sinane, and upon one occasion, after trying 
every expedient to get rid of his friend 
George Dempster, he exclaimed in despair, 
' George, if you stay, you will go to bed at ten 
and rise at three, and then I shall get the bed 
after you » (Kay, i. 217-18). 

Two etchings of Nairne will be found in 



Naish 



28 



Naish 



Kay's ' Original Portraits ' (Nos. xci. and ccc.) 
His ' DisDutatio Juridica ad tit. 4 Lib. xx. 
Pand. Qui potiores in pignore vel hypotheca 
habeantur/ &c, was published in 1755, Edin- 
burgh, 4to. He assisted in the collection of 
the ' Decisions of the Court of Session from 
the end of the year 1756 to the end of the 
year 1760/ Edinburgh, 1765, fol. 

[Kay's Series of Original Portraits and Cari- 
cature Etchings, 1877, i. 217-19, 307, 392, ii. 
opp. 380; Brunton and Haig's Senators of the 
College of Justice, 1832, p. 538; Anderson's 
Scottish Nation, 1863, iii. 236-7 ; Irving's Book 
of Scotsmen, 1881, p. 381; Adam's Political 
State of Scotland, 1S87, p. 262 ; Burke's Extinct 
Baronetage, 1844, p. 634 ; Burke's Landed 
Gentry, 1879. ii. 1151 ; Scots Mag. xx. 613, lii. 
51, lxxiii. 320 ; Edinburgh Star, 2 April 1811 ; 
Brit. Mus. Cat.] G. F. K. B. 

NAISH, JOHN (1841-1890), lord chan- 
cellor of Ireland, son of Carrol Naish of 
Ballycullen, co. Limerick, was born in 1841. 
He was educated at the Jesuit school of 
Clongowes Wood in Kildare, and, on leaving 
school, entered Dublin University, where he 
obtained numerous distinctions, including a 
non-foundation scholarship in science in 1861 
(scholarships on the foundation being at that 
time open to none but members of the then 
established church), the Lloyd exhibition 
for proficiency in mathematics and physics 
(1862), and a senior moderatorship both in 
mathematical science and in experimental 
and natural science (1 863). After graduating 
B.A., he entered the law school of the uni- 
versity, and was first prizeman in civil law in 
1863, and in feudal and English law in 1864 ? 
also winning the single competitive student- 
ship then given by the London Inns of Court. 
Called to the Irish bar in Michaelmas term 
of 1865, he joined the Munster circuit. His 
industry and knowledge soon brought him 
into good practice, and in 1870 he was re- 
tained in the important case of O'Keefe v. 
Cullen. In 1871, in conjunction with Mr. 
(now Judge) Bewley, he published a treatise 
on the Common Law Procedure Acts, which 
is still much used in Ireland. In 1880 he 
took silk, and became law adviser to the 
Castle, a post since abolished. In those 
troublous times the office entailed extremelv 
arduous labours, and he was credited by his 
political opponents with having unearthed 
the now lamiliar statute of Ldward III, 
which was put in force against the supporters 
of the Land League. He was appointed by 
Mr. Gladstone solicitor-general for Ireland 
in 1883, and in the same year stood as a 
liberal for Mallow, where he was beaten by 
Mr. William O'Brien, the nationalist can- 
didate. In December of the next year he 



was promoted to be attorney-general, and 
was sworn of the Irish privy council in the 
January following. In May 1885, at the 
early age of forty-four, he was made by 
Mr. Gladstone's government lord chancellor 
of Ireland, in succession to Sir Edward Sul- 
livan, being the second catholic chancellor 
since the Reformation ; but he held the seals 
only until July, in which month the liberal 
government resigned office. He was ap- 
pointed a lord justice of appeal in August of 
the same year, and became again lord chan- 
cellor when Mr. Gladstone returned to office 
in February 1886. But in June the govern- 
ment again resigned, and Naish with them. 
He thereupon resumed the duties of lord 
justice of appeal. In the summer of 1890 
he went to Ems for his health, and he died 
there on 17 Aug. 1890, at the age of forty- 
nine. He was buried at Ems. 

He married in 1884 Maud, daughter of 
James Arthur Dease of Turbotston, West- 
meath, and had by her three children. 

Naish was by no means a brilliant advo- 
cate, being naturally nervous and retiring ; 
but he was probably the most eminent 
lawyer of his time in Ireland. His clear 
judgment and his immense learning gave 
great weight to his decisions in the court of 
appeal. 

An engraving of him was published in 
London. 

[Irish Law Times, 23 Aug. 1890; Times, 
19 Aug. 1890; Freeman s Journal, 19 Aug. 1890; 
Dublin University Calendar.] P. L. N. 

NAISH, WILLIAM (d . 1800), miniature- 
paiuter, was born at Axbridge, Somerset, 
and practised with success in London. He 
exhibited at the Royal Academy almost con- 
tinuously from 1783 until his death in 1800. 
His portraits of Morton the dramatist and 
Mrs. Twisleton and Mrs. Wells, actresses, 
were engraved by Ridley for the * Monthly 
Mirror.' 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Royal Academy 
Catalogues.] F. M. OD. 

NAISH, WILLIAM (1785-1860), Quaker 
writer, son of Francis Naish, silversmith, by 
Susanna, his wife, was born in High Street, 
Bath, on 9 March 1785. Coming to London, 
he opened a haberdasher's shop in Grace- 
church Street. He interested himself in the 
anti-slavery movement, and published a large 
number of tracts and pamphlets in favour of 
that cause. D uring 1 829 and 1830 he opened 
a depository at his shop in Gracechurch Street 
for the sale of these and other publica- 
tions. He afterwards lived at Maidstone and 
at Bath, where he died on 4 March 1860y 



Nalson 



29 



Nalson 



aged 75. He was buried in the Friends' 
burial-ground at Widcombe Hill, near Bath. 
He married Frances, daughter of Jasper 
Capper, and sister of Samuel Capper, author 
of 'The Acknowledged Doctrines of the 
Church of Rome/ London, 1849. His son, 
Arthur John Naish (1816-1889), was co- 
founder with Paul Bevan [see under Bevan, 
Joseph Gitbney] of the valuable 'Bevan- 
Naish Library ' of Friends' books, now de- 
posited in the library, Dr. Johnson Passage, 
Birmingham. 

Naisirs chief publications, nearly all un- 
dated, are : 1. ' The Negro's Remembrancer/ 
in thirteen numbers; many of the later 
numbers ran to second and third editions. 
2. ' The Negro's Friend/ in twenty-six num- 
bers. 3. 'A Short History of the Poor 
Black Slaves who are employed in culti- 
vating Sugar, Cotton, Coffee, &c. Intended to 
make little Children in England pity them, 
and use their Endeavours to relieve them 
from Bondage.' 4. ' Reasons for using East 
Indian Sugar/ 1828: this proceeded to a 
fifth edition. 5. ' A Brief Description of the 
Toil and Sufferings of Slaves in the British 
Sugar Colonies . . .by several Eye-witnesses.' 

6. 'The Negro Mother's Appeal' (in verse). 

7. ' A Comparison between Distressed Eng- 
lish Labourers and the Coloured People and 
Slaves of the West Indies, from a Jamaica 
Paper.' 8. 'Plead the Cause of the Poor 
and Needy.' 9. ' The Advantages of Free 
Labour over the Labour of Slaves. Eluci- 
dated in the Cultivation of Pimento, Ginger, 
and Sugar.' 10. ' Biographical Anecdotes : 
Persons of Colour/ in five numbers. 11. 'A 
Sketch of the African Slave Trade, and 
the Slavery of Negroes under their Chris- 
tian Masters in the European Colonies.' 
12. ' Sketches from the History of Pennsyl- 
vania/ 1845. 13. ' The Fulfilment of the 
Prophecy of Isaiah/ &c, London, 1853. 
14. ' George Fox and his Friends as Leaders 
in the Peace Cause/ London, 1859. A tale, 
'The Negro Slave/ 1830, 8vo, is also attri- 
buted to Naish in the 'British Museum Cata- 
logue;' but from the preface it is evidently 
the work of a lady. 

[Smith's Cat. ii. 210-14; registers at Devon- 
shire Bouse ; information from Mr. G. E. 
Naish.] C. F. S. 

NALSON, JOHN (1638P-1686), his- 
torian and royalist pamphleteer, born about 
1638, is said to have been educated at St. 
John's College, Cambridge, but his name 
does not appear in the list of admissions. 
He entered the church, and became rector of 
Doddington in the Isle of Ely. In 1678 he 
took the degree of LL.D. (Graduati Can- 
tabrigienses, p. 336). Nalson was an active 



polemical writer on the side of the govern- 
ment during the latter part of the reign of 
Charles II. In a petition addressed to the 
king in 1682 he describes himself as having 

Sublished ' a number of treatises for the vin- 
icating of truth and his majesty's preroga- 
tive in church and state from the aspersions 
of the dissenters ' ( Tanner MSS. chi. 247). 
The first of these was ' The Countermine/ 
published in 1677, which at once went 
through three editions, and was highly 
praised by Roger L'Estrange [q. v.] (Ni- 
chols, Illustrations of Literary History, iv. 
69). Though published anonymously its au- 
thorship was soon discovered, and the parlia- 
ment ot 1678, in which the opposition, whom 
he had attacked, had the majority, resolved to 
call Nalson to account. On 26 March 1678 
he was sent for on the charge of having 
written a pamphlet called ' A Letter from a 
Jesuit in Paris, showing the most efficient 
way to ruin the Government and the Pro- 
testant Religion/ a clumsy jeu oTesprit, in 
which the names of various members of par- 
liament were introduced. After being kept 
in custody for about a month, he was dis- 
charged, but ordered to be put out of the com- 
mission of the peace, and to be reprimanded by 
the speaker (1 May). ' "What you have done/ 
said the speaker, ' was beneath the gravity 
of your calling and a desertion of your pro- 
fession ' (Commons' Journals, ix. 572, 576, 
592, 608; Grey's Debates, vii. 32, 103, 164- 
167 ; Preface to the 4th edit, of The Counter- 
mine, 1684, pp. ii-ix). Nalson, however, un- 
deterred by this experience, published several 
other pamphlets, undertook to make a collec- 
tion of documents in answer to Rushworth 
(1682), and printed the 'Trial of Charles I ' 
(1684), prefixing to his historical works long 
polemical attacks on the whigs. He estimated 
the value of his services very highly, and 
lost no chance of begging for preferment. ' A 
little oil/ he wrote to Bancroft, ' will make 
the wheels go easy, which truly hitherto 
without complaining I have found a very 
heavy draught. It is some discouragement 
to see others, who I am sure have not out- 
stript me in the race of loyal and hearty 
endeavours to serve the king and church, 
carry away the prize '(14 July 1683; Tanner 
MSS, xxxiv. 80). He asked on 14 Aug. 1680 
for the mastership of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, which he justly terms 'preternatural 
confidence/ on 21 July 1680 for the deanery 
of Worcester, and to be given a prebend 
either at Westminster or lay (ib. xxxiv. 79, 
135, xxxvii. 117, ciii. 247). In 1684 he was 
at length collated to a prebend at Ely. He 
died on 24 March 1685-6, aged 48, and was 
buried at Ely. His epitaph is printed in Le 



Nalson 



30 



Nalson 



Neve's 'Fasti Anglicani/ iii. 75, in Bentham's 
1 Elv/ p. 262, and in Willis's * Cathedrals/ 
p. 388. His will is given in Chester Waters's 
' Chesters of Chicheley/ i. 320. 

Nalson married Alice Peyton, who married, 
after his death, John Cremer {d. 1703), of a 
Norfolk family, and was buried in Ely Ca- 
thedral in 1717. By Nalson she had ten 
children, seven of whom survived their 
father. The eldest son, Valentine (1683- 
1723), was a graduate of St. John's College, 
Cambridge (B.A. 1702 and M. A. 1711) ; vicar 
of St. Martin's, Conyng Street, York ; pre- 
bendary of Ripon from 1713 ; and author of 
'Twenty Sermons preached in the Cathedral 
of York/ ed. Francis Hildyard (London, 1724, 
8vo; 2nd edit. 1737). Nalson's daughter 
Elizabeth married, in 1687, Peter Williams, 
her father's successor in the rectory of Dodd- 
ington (cf. Nichols, iv. 865). 

Nalson's only important work is the ' Im- 
partial Collection of the Great Affairs of 
State, from the beginning of the Scotch Re- 
bellion in the vear 1639 to the murder of 
King Charles I. The first volume was pub- 
lished in 1682, and the second in 1683, but the 
collection ends in January 1642. Its avowed 
object was to serve as an antidote to the 
similar collection of Rushworth, whom Nal- 
son accuses of misrepresentations and sup- 
pressions intended to blacken the memory 
and the government of Charles I. Some 
letters aadressed to Nalson on the subject 
of Rushworth's demerits are printed in the 
' Old Parliamentary History,' which contains 
also Nalson's scheme for the next volume of 
his work (xxiii. 219-42). As the work was 
undertaken under the special patronage of 
Charles II, the compiler was allowed free 
access to various repositories of state papers. 
From the documents in the office of the clerk 
of the parliament ' he was apparently allowed 
to take almost anything he pleased, although 
in June 1684 the clerk of the house wrote 
for a list of the books in his possession be- 
longing to the office. He also had access to 
the Paper Office, though there he was ap- 
parently allowed only to take copies ' {Re- 
port on the MSS. of the Duke of Portland, 
Preface, p. i). Finding that the paper office 
contained very few documents on the Irish 
rebellion he applied to the Duke of Ormonde, 
and obtained permission to copy some of the 
papers {Tanner MSS. xxxv. 56 ; Report on 
the Carte and Carew Papers, 1864, p. 9). 
Lord Guilford communicated to him ex- 
tracts from the memoirs of the Earl of Man- 
chester, and he hoped to obtain help from 
the Earl of Macclesfield, one of the last sur- 
vivors of the king's generals {Old Parlia- 
mentary History, xxiii. 232 ; Collections, ii. 



206). By these means Nalson brought to- 
gether a great body of manuscripts illus- 
trating the history of the period between 
1638 and 1660, to form the basis of the docu- 
mentary history which he proposed to write. 
Had it been completed it would have been 
a work of the greatest value, in spite of the 
prejudices of the editor and the partiality of 
his narrative. On the death of Nalson both 
the manuscripts which should have been re- 
turned to the clerk of the parliament and the 
transcripts which he had made himself re- 
mained in the possession of his family. The 
collection was gradually broken up, and 
passed into various hands. Its history is traced 
in Mr. Blackburne Daniel's preface to the 
manuscripts of the Duke of Portland {Hist, 
MSS. Comm. 13th Rep. pt. i.) Some of the 
Irish transcripts came into the hands of 
Thomas Carte, and a considerable number 
of the parliamentary papers were abstracted 
by Dr. Tanner. These portions of the collec- 
tion are in the Bodleian Library. Of the rest 
twenty-two volumes are in the possession 
of the Duke of Portland, were discovered 
at Welbeck Abbey by Mr. Maxwell Lyte in 
1886, and are calendared in the report men- 
tioned above. Four volumes were purchased 
by the British Museum in 1846, and four 
others are still missing. Some documents 
from Nalson's collection were printed by Dr. 
Zachary Grev in his answer to Neal's * His- 
tory of the Puritans ' (1737-9), and others 
by Francis Peck [a. v.J in his 'Desiderata 
Curiosa' (1735). Nalson's only other histo- 



rical work was 'A True Copy of the Journal 
of the High Court of Justice for the Trial of 
K. Charles I . . . with a large Introduction, 
by J. Nalson, D.D./ folio, 1684. 

He was also the author of the following 
pamphlets: 1. ' The Countermine, or a short 
but true Discovery of the Dangerous Prin- 
ciples and Secret Practices of the Dissenting 
Party, especially the Presbyterians, showing- 
that Religion is pretended, but Rebellion in- 
tended,' 1677, 8vo. 2. < The Common In- 
terest of King and People, showing the 
Original, Antiquity, and Excellency 01 Mo- 
narchy, compared with Aristocracy and De- 
mocracy, and particularly of our English 
Monarchy,' &c, 1677, 8vo. 3. 'The True 
Liberty and Dominion of Conscience vindi- 
cated from the Usurpations and Abuses of 
Opinion and Persuasion/ 1677, 8vo. 4. ' A 
Letter from a Jesuit in Paris/ 1678. 5. 'The 
Project of Peace, or Unity of Faith and 
Government the only expedient to procure 
Peace, both Foreign and Domestic, by the 
Author of "The Countermine,''' 1678, 8vo. 
6. ' Foxes and Firebrands, or a Specimen of 
the Danger and Harmony of Popery and 



Nalton 



3* 



Nanfan 



Separation/ 4to, 1080, published under the 
pseudonym of ' Philirenes.' It was republished 
in 1682 and 1689, with a second and a third 
part added by Robert Ware. 7. ' The Pre- 
sent Interest of England, or a Confutation 
of the Whiggish Conspirators' Antinomian 
Principles/ 1683, 4to, by N. N. (attributed to 
Nalson in the Bodleian and British Museum 
catalogues). 

Nalson translated from the French: 
1. Maimbourg's ' History of the Crusades/ 
folio, 1686. 2. ' A Short Letter of Instruc- 
tion shewing the surest way to Christian 
Perfection, by Francis de la Combe ' (Rav>- 
linson MS. C. 602, Bodleian Library). 

Some letters from Roger L'Estrange to 
Nalson concerning his pamphlets are printed 
by Nichols, iv. 68-70, and a series of news- 
letters addressed to him by John Brydall, to- 
gether with letters from Nalson himself to 
Sancroft and others, are among the Tanner 
MSS. in the Bodleian Library. 

[A brief life of Nalson is given in Athens 
Oxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 283, under 'Rush worth.' See 
also Nichols's Illustrations of the Literary His- 
tory of the Eighteenth Century, iv. 68, 865; Lit. 
Anecd. ii. 549, viii. 415; Waters's Chesters of 
Chicheiey, pp. 320-1 ; other authorities men- 
tioned in the article.] C. II. F. 

NALTON, JAMES (1600 P-1662), 'the 
weeping prophet/ born about 1600, son of a 
London minister, was educated at Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, whence he graduated B.A. 
in 1619, and M.A. in 1623. According to Bax- 
ter, he acted for a time as assistant to a certain 
Richard Conder, either in or near London, 
and in 1632 he obtained the living of Rugby, 
in Warwickshire. In 1642 he signed a peti- 
tion addressed to Lord Dunsmore respecting 
the appointment of a master to the grammar 
school, which was not only rejected, but was 
apparently the cause of his ieaving Rugby. 
He subsequently acted as chaplain to Colonel 
Grantham's regiment; but about 1644 he was 
appointed incumbent of St. Leonard's, Foster 
Lane, London, where he remained, with a 
short interval, until his death. On 29 April 
1646 he preached before the House of Com- 
mons at St. Margaret's, Westminster, on 
' The Delay of Reformation provoking God's 
further Indignation ' (London, 1646, 8vo), his 
fellow preacher on this occasion being Dr. 
John Owen [q. v.l In 1651 Nalton was in- 
directly concerned in Love's plot [see Love, 
Christopher], and had to take refuge in 
Holland, becoming for a short period one of 
the ministers of the English Church at Rot- 
terdam ; but he returned to England by per- 
mission at the end of six months, and re- 
sumed his work at St. Leonard's until he was 
ejected in 1662. He died in December of 



that year, and was buried on 1 Jan. 1662-8. 
His funeral sermon, entitled ' Rich Treasure 
in Earthen Vessels,' was preached by Thomas 
Horton (d. 1673) [q. v.] 

Nalton is described by Baxter as a good 
linguist, a man of primitive sincerity, and an 
excellent and zealous preacher. He was 
called the ' weeping prophet ' because ' his 
seriousness often expressed itself by tears/ 
He seems also to have been subject to an 
acute form of melancholia. ' Less than a 
year before he died,' writes Baxter, ' he fell 
into a grievous fit, in which he often cried 
out, " O not one spark of grace ! not a good 
desire or thought ! I can no more pray than 
a post " (thougn at that very time he did pray 
very well).' 

He was the first signatory of the preface 
to Jeremiah Burroughes's * Saint's Treasury,' 
1654, and he himself published several sepa- 
rate sermons. Twenty of these, with a highly 
eulogistic preface and a portrait engraved by 
J. Chantrey, were issued by Matthew Poole 
[q. v.], London, 1677, 8vo. Another por- 
trait of Nalton preaching is mentioned by 
Bromley. 

[Calamy and Palmer 8 Nonconformist's Memo- 
rial, 1802, i. 142-4 ; Baxter's Life and Times in 
Orme's edition, i. 243-4 ; Colvile's Warwickshire 
Worthies, p. 540 ; Inderwick's Interregnum, 
pp. 286 pq. ; Granger's Biog. Hist, of England, 
1779, iii. 47; Bloxam's Register of the Vicars of 
Rugby, appended to Derwent Coleridge's edition 
of Moultrie ; M'Clintock and Strong's Cyclo- 
paedia, vi. 835 ; Allibone's Diet, of English Li- 
terature, 1397.] T. S. 

NANFAN or NANPHANT, Sib 
RICHARD (d. 1607), deputy of Calais, son 
of John Nanfan of Birtsmorton, Worcester- 
shire, belonged to a family which originally 
1 sprang from Tresize, Cornwall. His father- 
was sheriff of Cornwall in 1451 and 1467, 
and in 1463 became governor of Jersey and 
Guernsey, and collector of the customs there. 
Richard Nanfan was in the ^commission of 
the peace for Cornwall in 1485, and is said 
to have been esquire of the king's body in the 
same year. Throughout Henry VH's reign 
he received frequent grants of stewardships, 
and must have become very rich in later life. 
On 21 Dec. 1488 he was elected, in company 
with Dr. Savage and Roger Machado [q. v. J, 
the Norroy king at arms, for a mission into 
Spain and Portugal. Before starting Nan- 
fan was knighted. The party left South- 
ampton early in 1489, and reached Medina 
del Campo on 12 March. They had inter- 
views with Ferdinand and Isabella, and left 
for Beja in Portugal on 22 April. After 
staying a month there and treating with the 
king the party left for Lisbon, and Nanfan 



Nangle 



32 



Nanmor 



came home in a salt-laden ship of twenty 
tons' burden. 

At some time soon after 1488 (he was 
sheriff of Cornwall in 1489) Nanfan, as 
Cavendish says, ' had a great room in Calais.' 
Though some have said that he was only 
treasurer there, it seems certain that he was 
deputy (Letters . . . of Richard III and 
Henry VII ', Rolls Ser. i. 231). He is men- 
tioned as being at Calais in 1492, and in 
1600 was one of the witnesses at a trea- 
sonable conversation of Sir Hugh Conway, 
the treasurer, of which John Flamank sent 
home an account. At Calais he was an early 
patron of Wolsey, who was his chaplain, and 
who through Nanfan became known to the 
king. He returned to Birtsmorton early in 
the sixteenth century, and died in January 
1506-7. Wolsey was one of his executors. 
His widow Margaret died in 1510. He left 
no legitimate children ; but a natural son, 
John, who went to Spain with him, took his 
Worcestershire estates. 

His great-great-grandson, John Nanfan 
( fl. 1634), was grandfather of Captain John 
Nanfan (d. 1716) of Birtsmorton, Worcester- 
shire, who was captain in Sir John Jacob's 
regiment of foot, and sailed in 1697 for New 
York, where, by the influence of the governor, 
Richard Coote, earl of Bellamont [q. v.], who 
had married Nanfan's cousin Catherine, he 
was made lieutenant-governor. On Bella- 
mont's death in 1700 the government of New 
York devolved upon Nanfan till the arrival 
of Lord Cornbury in 1702. In 1705 Nanfan 
returned to England ; he died at Greenwich 
in 1716, and was buried at St. Mary Ab- 
church, London. His wife was Elizabeth, 
daughter of William Chester of Barbados 
(Wateks, Chester* of Chicheley, pp. 172-3 ; 
Nash, Worcestershire, i. 86, &c. ; Lodge, 
Peerage, ed. Archdall, 8. v. ' Bellamont ; ' 
Winsor, Hist, of America, v. 195 ; Roose- 
velt, New York, p. 84 ; Pawl. MS. in Bodl. 
Libr. A. 272, 289). 

[Notes and Queries, 2nd per. viii. 228, 294, 
357, 5th ser. viii. 472, ix. 129 ; Letters ... of 
Richard III and Henry VII, ed. Gairdner (Rolls 
Ser.),i. 231, 238, ii. 292, 380 ; Nash's Worcester- 
shire, i. 86 ; Cavendish's Life of Wolsey, ed. 
Holmes, p. 7 ; Chron. of Calais (Camd. Soc), zl. 
50 ; Memorials of Henry VII, ed. Gairdner (Rolls 
Ser.), passim ; Materials for tbeHist.of Hen. VII, 
ed. Campbell (Rolls Ser.), i. 25, 38, 313, ii. 
$7, &c. ; Maclean's Hist, of Trigg Minor, passim.] 

W. A. J. A. 

NANGLE, RICHARD (d. 1541 P), bishop 
of Clonfert, came of an old Irish family 
settled in Mayo and Galway, and early entered 
the order of the Austin Friars, from whom he 
received his educat ion. He was subsequently 



created doctor of divinity, and became pro- 
vincial of his order in Ireland. In 1608 his 
earnest solicitations led to the foundation of 
the Augustinian friary at Galway (Ruddi- 
man, Hist, of Galway, p. 272). On the 
death of Denis More, bishop of Clonfert, in 
1534, Rowland Burke was appointed his suc- 
cessor by papal provision ; but Henry VIII, 
who had determined to assert his right as 
head of the church in Ireland, in 1536 ap- 
pointed Nangle, who was recommended to 
him by Archbishop Browne as being ' not 
only well learned, but a right honest man, 
and one will set forth the Word of God in 
the Irish tongue.' Nangle, however, was ex- 
pelled from the see, and forced to remain 
shut up in Galway ' for fear of Burgh and his 
complices ' (Gairdner, Letters and Papers 
of Henry VIII, xn. i. 1052 j Carew MSS.) 
Henry therefore directed the deputy, Lord 
Grey, to prosecute the intruder under the 
Statute of Provisors ; but nothing was done, 
and Burke remained in possession of the see. 
Nangle died apparently in 1541, and Burke 
received Henrys assent to his election on 
24 Oct. of the same year. 

[Cal. State Papers, Ireland, 1509-73 ; Carew 
MSS. 1515-74; Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, 
ed. Gairdner, xn. i. 1052, xm. i. 114, 1450; 
Lascelles's Liber Munerum, ii. 83 ; Ware's Ire- 
land, i. 642 ; Mant's Church of Ireland, i. 163 ; 
Brady's Episcopal Succession, iii. 212 ; Cotton's 
Fasti, iv. 165-6 ; Froude's Hist, of England, iii. 
425; Ruddiman's Galway, p. 272.] A. F. P. 

NANMOR, DAFYDD (Jl. 1400}, Welsh 
hard, was a native of Nanmor, a valley near 
Beddgelert. From a poem by Rhys Goch 
Eryri ( Gorchestion Beirdd Cymru, 2nd edit, 
p. 126) it appears he was a contemporary 
and neighbour of that poet, though possibly, 
as his successful rival in love, somewhat 
younger. Tradition has it that Rhys Goch 
gave Nanmor out of his estate of Hafod Gare- 
gog the holding subsequently known as Cae 
Ddafydd. His later years seem to have been 
spent in South Wales, where he sang in 
honour of the house of Gogerddan (Cardigan- 
shire), and, according to one (not very 
trustworthy) account, won distinction at an 
Eisteddfod, said to have been at Carmarthen 
about 1443 (Oyfrinach y Beirdd, pp. 239, 
240). 

The poet Rhys Nanmor (fl. 1440) of 
Maenor Fynyw, Pembrokeshire, is generally 
believed to nave been his son (Iolo MSS. 
815), though Lewis Dwnn gives a different 
parentage (Heraldic Visitations of Wales, ii. 
284). Rhys had again a son who was a poet, 
and bore the name of Dafydd Nanmor (Jl. 
1480), and much confusion has naturally 
arisen from this duplication of the title. 



Nantglyn 



33 



•Napier 



Of the printed pieces attributed to the Nan- 
mors, (1) the Cywydd to the Hair of Llio, 
daughter of Rhydderch ab Ieuan Llwyd of 
Gogerddan ; (2) that to Liio's brother David ; 
ana (8) the elegy upon the bard's dead love 
(Cymru Fydd, ni. 22-3) appear to belong to 
the elder Dafydd. A poem referring to the 
troubles of the Wars of the Roses (' Cawn o 
ddau arwydd barlamant cynddeiriog'), printed 
by Charles Ashton in ' Cymru,' ii. 86, is attri- 
buted to Rhys, and this seems also the better 
ascription in the case of the c jrwydd to Henry 
of Richmond, ' when a babe in his cradle in 
Pembroke Castle ' (1457), which is printed in 
« Brython/ iv. 221-2. The cywydd to Rhvs 
ab Maredudd of Tywyn, near Cardigan, the 
ode to the same person and the elegy upon 
his son Thomas (all printed, with 1 and 2 
above, in Gorchestion Beirdd Cymru, 2nd 
edit., pp. 132-42), must be assigned to the 
younger Dafydd, who was probably also the 
author of the poem to Henry VII, printed 
in the Iolo MSS. 313-5. The fragments of 
a cywydd to ' Rhys of Ystrad Ty wi,' given 
in the introduction to Glanmor's ' Records 
of Denbigh ' (pp. vii, viii), do not enable 
the critic to assign the poem to either Dafydd, 
and the chronology of the three poets' lives 
must remain somewhat uncertain, pending 
the publication of a complete edition of their 
poems, the great bulk of which are still in 
manuscript in various collections of mediaeval 
Welsh poetry. 

[Gorchestion Beirdd Cymru ; Iolo MSS.l 

J. E. L. 

NANTGLYN, BARDD. [See Davibs, 
Robebt, 1769P-1835, Welsh poet.] 

NAPIER, Sib ALEXANDER (d. 1473 ?), 
second of Merchiston, comptroller of Scot- 
land, was the elder son of Alexander Napier, 
burgess of Edinburgh and provost of the city 
in 1437, who made a fortune by his extensive 
dealings in wool, had money transactions 
with James I previous to 1433, and as 
security got a charge over the lands of 
Merchiston, which were then in the king's 
hands. In 1436 he secured a charter of these 
lands, reserving a power of redemption to 
the king. But the redemption never took 
place, probably owing to the confusion caused 
by the king's murder at Perth on 20 Feb. 
1636-7 (Exchequer Rolls, iv. and v.) Alex- 
ander died about 1454. The son was one of 
the household of the queen-mother, Jane 
Beaufort (widow of James I, who after- 
wards married Sir James Stewart, called the 
Black Knight of Lorn), and was wounded in 
assisting to rescue her and her husband when 
they were captured on 8 Aug. 1439 by Alex- 
ander Livingstone and others in Stirling 

VOL. XL. 



Castle. As a reward for his conduct on this 
occasion Napier, after the forfeiture of Living- 
stone, obtained from James II on 7 March 
1449-50 the lands of Philde (or Fiiledy- 
Fraser), forming part of the lordship of Meth- 
ven, Perthshire (Reg. Mag. Sig. Scot. 1424- 
1518, entry 324), and the charter was con- 
firmed to him and his wife Elizabeth, 9 March 
1450-1 (ib. entry 425). These lands were 
again, however, in the possession of the 
Livingstones before December 1466 (ib. entry 
898). After the arrest, on 23 Sept. 1449, of 
Robert Livingstone, comptroller of the house- 
hold, Napier succeeded to his office (Exche- 
quer Rolls, v. 369), and he held this office, with 
occasional intervals, until 7 July 1461. He 
was one of the ambassadors to England who 
on 14 Aug. 1451 signed a three years' truce 
(Rthbr, Fcedera, xi. 298; Cal. Documents 
relating to Scotl. 1357-1509, entry 1139), and 
took advantage of his visit to London to make 
a pilgrimage to the tomb of Thomas Becket 
at Canterbury. 

Napier had a charter of the lands of 
Lindores and Kinloch in the county of Fife, 
24 May 1452 (Reg. Mag. %. Scot. 1424- 
1513, entry 565), as security for the sum of 
1,000/. advanced by him to the king. In 
1452, 1453, 1454, 1456, 1469, and 1470 he 
was provost of Edinburgh (List of Provosts 
in Extracts from the Records of the Burgh of 
Edinburgh, 1403-1528, pp. 258-261, Burgh 
Record Society's Publications). During his 
tenure of office the choir of St. Giles's was 
building, and this may account for his arms 
appearing over the capital of one of the 
pillars. On 10 May 1459 Napier, along with 
the Abbot of Melrose and others, had a safe- 
conduct from the king of England to go to 
Scotland and return at pleasure (Cal. Docu- 
ments relating to Scotland, 1357-1509, entry 
1299). He was knighted and made vice-ad- 
miral some time before 24 Sept. 1461, when he 
was appointed one of the ambassadors to the 
court of England. By commission under the 
privy seal, 24 Feb. 1464-5, he was appointed 
one of the searchers of the port ana haven 
of Leith to prevent the exportation of gold 
and silver, and he had a similar appointment 
in 1473. In 1468 he was named joint- 
commissioner with Andrew Stewart, lord 
chancellor, to negotiate a marriage between 
James III and Margaret, daughter of Chris- 
tian I of Denmark. He was one of the 
commissioners appointed by the parliament 
of 6 May 1471 with power to determine all 
matters that should occur for the welfare of 
the king and common good of the realm. In 
1472 he was in Bruges ' taking up finance ' 
and purchasing armour for the ting (Re- 
ceipt in Wood's Peerage, ed. Douglas, ii. 284 ; 

D 



Napier 



34 



Napier 



and Napier's Life of John Napier, p. 26). 
He also held the office of master of the 
household, and in this capacity he provided 
'travelling gear* for the king and queen 
when, after tne birth of an heir to the throne 
—James IV— 17 March 1472-3, they went 
on a pilgrimage to the shrine of St. Ninian 
at "Whithorn, Galloway {Accounts of the Lord 
High Treasurer, i. 44). In May 1473 he 
was sent on a special embassy to the court 
of Burgundy, with secret instructions from 
James III, respecting the king's claims to 
the duchy of Gueldres. He died some time 
between 24 Oct. 1473 and 15 Feb. 1473-4, 
when his son was infeft as heir. He was 
buried in St. Giles's Church, Edinburgh. By 
his wife Elizabeth Lauder, probably a daugh- 
ter of the laird of Halton or Hatton, he had 
three sons — John, his heir, who married 
Elizabeth,daughter and coheiress of Menteith 
of Rusky, who on 19 June 1492 was declared 
legal possessor of a fourth part of the earl- 
dom of Lennox; Henry, who married Janet, 
daughter of John Ramsay of Oolluthie; and 
Alexander — and a daughter, Janet, married 
to Sir David Edmonston of that ilk. 

The eldest son, John (third of Merchiston), 
known as John of Rusky, was killed at the 
battle of Sauchieburn on 11 June 1488. His 
eldest son, Archibald, fourth of Merchiston 
(d. 1522), was three times married. By his 
first wife he had issue Alexander, fifth of 
Merchiston, who was knighted in 1507, and 
was killed at Flodden Field 9 Sept. 1513, 
leaving issue a son Alexander, who was killed 
at the battle of Pinkie in 1547, and left a 
son, Sir Archibald Napier (1534-1608) [a. v.] 
By his third wife Archibald, fourth of Mer- 
chiston, had two sons, Alexander and Mungo, 
of whom the elder settled at Exeter, where 
he was known as Sandy, and became father of 
Richard Napier (1559-1634) [q. v.] 

[Information kindly supplied by "W. Rae Mac- 
donald, esq., of Edinburgh ; Reg. Mag. Sig. 
Scot.; Exchequer Rolls of Scotland; Accounts 
of the Lord High Treasurer; Cal. Documents re- 
lating to Scotland; Rymer's Fcedera; Napier's 
Life of John Napier; Douglass Scottish Peerage 
(Wood), ii. 284.] T. F. H. 

NAPIER, Sir ARCHIBALD (1534- 
1608), seventh of Merchiston, master of the 
Scottish mint, born in 1534, was eldest son 
of Alexander Napier, sixth of Merchiston, 
who was killed at the battle of Pinkie in 
1547. His mother was Annabella, youngest 
daughter of Sir Duncan Campbell of Glen- 
urchy. His paternal ffrandfather was Sir 
Alexander, fifth of Mercniston, who was killed 
at Flodden Field on 9 Sept. 1513 (Cambus- 
kennetk Charters, p. 207 ; see art. Napier, 



Sir Alexander, d. 1478?). Archibald was 
infeft in the barony of Edenbellie as heir to 
his father on 8 Nov.1548, a royal dispensation 
enabling him, though a minor, to feudalise his 
right to his paternal barony in contemplation 
of his marriage with Janet Bothwell, which 
took place about 1549. He soon began to 
clear his property of encumbrances. On 1 Juno 
i 1555 he redeemed his lands of Gartnes, Stir- 
lingshire, and others from Duncan Forester, 
and on 14 June 1558 he obtained a precept of 
I sasine for infefting him in the lands of Blair- 
waddis, Isle of Inchcolm {Reg. Maq. Sig. 
1546-80, entry 1285). In 1565 he received 
the order of knighthood. He seems to have 
sided with Queen Mary after her escape from 
Lochleven Castle {Beg. P. C. Scotl. i. 637). 
During the siege of Edinburgh Castle, held by 
Kirkcaldy of Grange for the queen, he was re- 
quired on 1 May 1572 to deliver up his house 
of Merchiston (ib. ii. 730) to the king's party, 
who placed in it a company of soldiers to 
prevent victuals being carried past it to the 
castle. On this account the defenders of 
the castle made an attempt to burn it, which 
was unsuccessful (Calderwood, History t iii. 
213). Napier's name appears with those of 
others in a contract with the regent for 
working for the space of twelve years certain 

fold, silver, copper, and lead mines {Beg. 
\ C. Scotl. i. 637). He was appointed gene- 
ral of the cunzie-house (master of the mint) 
in 1576 (Patrick, Records of Coinage of 
Scotland, i. 216), and on 25 April 1581 he 
was directed, with others, to take proceedings 
against John Achesoun, the king's master- 
coiner (Reg. P. C. Scotl. iii. 376). In May 
1580 he received a payment of 400/. for the ex- 

fenses of his mission to England. On 24 April 
582 he was named one of the assessors to 
prepare the matters to be submitted to the 
general assembly of the kirk of Scotland {Book 
of the Universal Kirk, ii. 548), and his name 
frequently occurs in following years as an 
ordinary member of assembly, and also as 
acting on special commissions and deputa- 
tions. On 8 Feb. 1587-8 the king granted 
to him, Elizabeth Mowbray, his second wife, 
and Alexander, their son and heir, the lands 
called the King's Meadow (Reg. Mag. Sig. 
1580-93, entry 1455). On 6 March 1589-90 
he was appointed one of a commission for 
putting the acts in force against the Jesuits 
(Reg. P. C. Scotl. iv. 463). On 25 Marcn 1591 
his double claim for the assize of gold and 
silver as master of the cunzie-house was dis- 
allowed by the council, the money being 
ordered to be distributed to the poor (ib. 
p. 603); but on 15 Feb. 1602-3 the decision 
was declared to '.in no way prejudge him and 
his successors anent their right to the whole 



Napier 



35 



Napier 



gold, silver, and alloy which shall be found in 
the box in time coming ' (ib. vi. 540). 

In January 1592-8 mpier was appointed 
by a convention of ministers in Eainburgh 
one of a deputation to wait on the king to 
urge him to more strenuous action against 
the catholic nobles (Caxdebwood, v. 216), 
and he was appointed one of a similar com- 
mission at a meeting of the general assembly 
of the kirk in April (ib. p. 240), and also by 
a convention held in October (ib. p. 270). On 
16 Nov. 1593 he obtained a grant of half the 
lands of Laurieston, where he built the castle 
of Laurieston. On account of the non-ap- 
pearance before the council of his son Alex- 
ander, charged with a serious assault, he was 
on 2 July 1601 ordained to ' keep ward in 
Edinburgh ' until the king declared his will 
(Reg. P. C. Scotl. vi. 267). In September 
1604 he went to London to treat with Eng- 
lish commissioners 'anent the cunzie/ when, 
according to Sir James Balfour, * to the great 
amazement of the English, he carried his 
business with a great deal of dexterity and 
skill ' (Annals, iii. 2). He continued till the 
end or his life to take an active part in 
matters connected with mining and the cur- 
rency. On 14 Jan. 1608 be was appointed 
along with two others to repair to the mines 
in succession to try the quality of the ore 
{Beg. P. C. Scotl. viii. 34). lie died on 
15 May 1608, aged 74. 

By his first wife, Janet (d. 20 Dec. 1563), 
only daughter of Sir Francis Bothwell,lord of 
session, he had two sons— John (1550-1617) 
[q. v.], the mathematician ; and Francis, ap- 
pointed assayer to the cunzie-house 1 Dec. 
1581 — and one daughter, Janet. By his 
second wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Robert 
Mowbray of Barnbougle, Linlithgowshire, he 
had three sons — Sir Alexander of Laurieston, 
appointed a senator of the College of Justice 
14 Feb. 1626 ; Archibald, slain in November 
1600 in revenge for a murder committed in 
self-defence: William — and two daughters: 
Helene, married to Sir William Balfour; 
and Elizabeth, married, first, to James, lord 
Ogilvie of Airlie, and, secondly, to Alexan- 
der Auchmoutie, gentleman of his majesty's 
privy chamber. 

[Information from W. Eae Macdonald, esq. ; 
Reg. Mag. Sig. Scot. ; Reg P. C. Scotl. ; Caider- 
•wood's Hist, of the Kirk of Scotland ; Sir James 
Balfour's Annals ; Douglas's Scottish Peerage 
(Wood), ii. 288-9.] T. F. H. 

NAPIER, Sib ARCHIBALD, first Lobd 
Napieb (1576-1045), ninth of Merchiston, 
treasurer-depute of Scotland, eldest son of 
John Napier of Merchiston [q. v.] by Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Sir James Stirling of Keir, 



Stirlingshire, was born in 1576. He was edu- 
cated at the university of Glasgow, where he 
matriculated in March 1593. He was infeft 
in the barony of Merchiston 18 June 1597, 
probably soon after attaining the age of 
twenty-one. At an early period he, under his 
father's guidance, devoted special attention 
to agricultural pursuits, and on 22 June 1598 
he received from James VI a patent for 
twenty-one years for the manuring of all 
lands in the kingdom by his new method. 
In the same year he published ' The New 
Order of Gooding and Manuring all sorts of 
Field Land with Common Salt, whereby the 
same may bring forth in more abundance both 
of Grass and Corn of all sorts, and far cheaper 
than by the common way of Dunging used 
heretofore in Scotland/ For this work his 
father was doubtless mainly responsible. 

On 12 Dec. 1598 he had a charter of the 
lands of Auchlenschee in the lordship of 
Menteith (Reg. Mag. Sig. Scotxi. No. 809). 
On 16 June 1601 Napier was brought before 
the privy council for assault on a servant of 
the lord treasurer on the stairhead of the Tol- 
booth, but was assoilzied through the pursuer 
failing in his proof (Reg. P. C. Scotl. vi. 259). 
On the accession oi James VI to the English 
throne in 1603 he accompanied him to Lon- 
don, and was appointed gentleman of the bed- 
chamber. He was sworn a privy councillor 
20 July 1615, appointed treasurer-depute of 
Scotland for life 21 Oct. 1622, and named jus- 
tice clerk 23 Nov. 1623 on the death of Sir 
John Cockburn of Ormiston, whom on 25 Nov. 
he succeeded as ordinary lord of session. On 
9 Aug. 1624 he resigned the office of justice 
clerk. On 14 Jan. 1625 he had a license to 
transport twelve thousand stoneweight of 
tallow annually for seven years * in remem- 
brance of the mony good services done to his 
majesty these mony years bigane.' 

Napier attended the funeral of King James 
in London in May 1625 (Caldebwood, 
History, vii. 634). After the accession of 
Charles I he was on 15 Feb. 1626 created 
one of the extraordinary lords of session, and 
on 2 March 1627 he was created a baronet 
of Nova Scotia. By warrant of the privy 
seal on 1 May of the same year he received 
a pension of 2,400/. Scots yearly, for having 
at the king's desire advanced 5,000/. Scots 
to Walter Steward, gentleman of the privy 
chamber. On 4 May 1627 he was created a 
peer of Scotland by the title of Baron Napier 
of Merchiston; he was also appointed a 
commissioner of tithes, and obtained a lease 
of the crown lands of Orkney for forty-five 
thousand merks annually, which he subleased 
to Sir William Dick for fifty-two thousand 
merks. In March 1631 he resigned the lease 

d2 



Napier 



36 



Napier 



of Orkney, the pension, and the office of 
treasurer-depute, receiving a letter of appro- 
bation and an allowance of 4,000/. sterling. 
The question of the resignation gave rise for 
a time to some misunderstanding between 
him and the king, which, however, was 
entirely removed by a personal interview 
(Napier, Life of Montrose, i. 107; Douglas, 
ed. Wood, ii. 293). 

The political conduct of Napier during the 
covenanting struggle closely coincided with 
that of his brother-in-law, the Marauis of 
Montrose, who was considerably under his 
influence. At first he by no means favoured 
the ecclesiastical policy of Charles, espe- 
cially in the political prominence given to the 
bishops, holding that, while to give them a 
competency is ' agreeable to the law of God 
and man,' to ' invest them into great estates 
and principal offices of state is neither con- 
venient for the church, for the king, nor for 
the state* (ib. p. 70). With the members 
of the council he on 25 Aug. 1637 sent a 
letter to the king explaining the difficulty 
in enforcing the use of the service-book 
(Balfoub, Annals, ii. 230). He was one of 
those who subscribed the king's confession 
at Holyrood on 22 Sept. 1638 (Spalding, 
Memortalls, i. 107), and he was appointed a 
commissioner for pressing subscriptions to it. 

In the list of commissioners in Spalding's 
' History ' the word dubito appears opposite 
Napier's name, apparently to indicate dis- 
trust of the strength of his adherence to the 
policy of the kirk. When the king's fleet 
with the Marquis of Hamilton arrived in 
Leith Roads in May 1639, he was deputed 
by the estates to make a conciliatory pro- 
posal, and the fleet soon afterwards left the 
roads. In 1640 he was named one of three 
to act as commissioner to the Scots parlia- 
ment in the event of the absence of the king's 
commissioner Traquair, and on his order; 
but when Traquair was not sent down, he 
declined to act as commissioner on the ground 
that he had no order from Traquair. 

Along with Montrose Napier drew up the 
band of Cumbernauld, which was signed by 
them and others in August 1640. On this 
account they were on 11 June 1641 com- 
mitted prisoners to the castle of Edinburgh. 
On 1 July he petitioned the estates that 
nothing might be read in the house ' which 
might give the house a bad information of 
them, until that first they were heard to 
clear themselves' (Balfour, iii. 14), and 
his petition for an audience having been 
granted he pleaded that not only had nothing 
been done by them contrary to the law, but 
that their main motive had been a regard 
'to the honour of the nation' (ib. p. 20). 



No decision was then arrived at, and they 
were recommitted to the castle; but on 
20 Aug. they were again brought before par- 
liament, when in presence of the king Napier 
declared that in tne course they had pursued 
they thought they were doing good service 
to the king and to the estates and subjects 
of the kingdom. At the conclusion of his 
speech, the king, he said, nodded to him and 
seemea well pleased (manuscript quoted in 
NaMbr, i. 355). They were, however, de- 
tained in prison until 14 Nov., when they 
were liberated on caution that ' from hence- 
forth they carry themselves soberly and dis- 
creetly,' and that they appear before a com- 
mittee of the king and parliament on 4 Jan. 
(Balfour, iii. 158). By act of parliament 
the proceedings of this committee were to 
be concluded on 1 March 1642, but no pro- 
ceedings were taken, and on 28 Feb. tney 
presented a protestation to the effect that by 
the fact that they were not granted a trial 
they must be held free of all charge (Napier, 
i. 307 : Hist. MSS. Comm. 2nd Rep. p. 169). 

In October 1644, owing to the successes 
of Montrose in the north of Scotland, Naj)ier 
together with his son, the Master of Napier, 
and his son-in-law, Sir George Stirling of 
Keir, was ordered to confine himself to his 
apartments in Holyrood Palace, and not to 
stir from thence under a penalty of 1,000/. 
(Guthrie, Memoirs, 2nd ed. p. 170). This 
penalty he incurred on the escape of his son 
to Montrose on 21 April 1645 (ib. p. 185) ; 
and, in addition, he himself and his wife and 
daughter were sent to close confinement in 
the castle of Edinburgh (ib.) Thence, on ac- 
count of the pestilence in Edinburgh, they 
were transferred to the prison of Linlithgow 
(ib. p. 190), from which they were released 
by the Master of Napier after the victory 
of Montrose at Kilsyth on 15 Aug. Napier 
accompanied Montrose to the south of Scot- 
land, and after his defeat at Philiphaugh on 
13 Sept. escaped with him to Atholl ; but 
there fell sicK and had to be left at Fin 
Castle, where he died in November. He 
'was so very old,' says Guthry, 'that he 
coidd not have marched with them, yet in 
respect of his great worth and experience he 
might have been very useful in his councils ' 
(ib. p. 209). Montrose made special arrange- 
ments for a fitting funeral at the kirk of 
Blair. In 1647 the covenanting party gave 
notice to his son that they intended to raise 
his bones and pass sentence of forfaulture 
thereupon, but on the payment of five thou- 
sand marks the intended forfaulture was 
discharged (ib. p. 200). 

Napier is described by Wishart as ' a man 
of most innocent life and happy parts ; a 



Napier 



37 



Napier 



truly noble gentleman, and chief of an an- 
cient family ; one who equalled his father 
and grandfather, Napiers — philosophers and 
mathematicians famous through all the 
world — in other things, but iar excelled 
them in his dexterity in civil business ' 
(Wishabt, Memoirs of Montrose). 

By his wife, Lady Margaret Graham, second 
daughter of John, fourth earl of Montrose, and 
sister of James, first marquis of Montrose, 
Napifer had two sons — John, died young; and 
Archibald, second lord Napier [<j. v.J— and 
two daughters : Margaret, married to Sir 
George Stirling of Keir ; and Lilias, who died 
unmarried. Both daughters, on account of 
their devotion to Montrose and the king, were 
subjected to imprisonment and other hard- 
ships, and ultimately took refuge in Holland. 

Napier was the author of ' A True Rela- 
tion of the Unjust Pursuit against the Lord 
Napier, written by himself, containing an 
account of some court intrigues in which he 
was the sufferer/ which, under the title of 
' Memoirs of Archibald, first Lord Napier, 
written by himself/ was published at Edin- 
burgh in 1793. In Mark Napier's ' Memoirs 
of John Napier of Merchiston ' (1834, p. 299) 
there is an engraving by R. Bell of a portrait 
of Napier by Jameson; and this is repro- 
duced in the same writer's 'Memoirs of 
Montrose ' (i. 108). 

[Bishop Guthrie's Memoirs; Gordon's Scots 
Affairs and Spalding's Memorial Is of the Tru- 
bles, both in the Spalding Club ; Robert Baillie's 
Letters and Journals in the Bannatyne Club ; 
Sir James Balfour's Annals ; "Wishart's Memoirs 
of Montrose ; Napier's Memoirs of Montrose ; 
Lord Napier's own Memoirs ; Brunton and Haig's 
Senators of the College of Justice; Douglas's 
Scottish Peerage (Wood), ii. 292-4.] T. F. H. 

NAPIER, ARCHIBALD, second Lobd 
Napier (d. 1658^, tenth of Merchiston, was 
the second son oi Archibald, first lord Napier 
[q. v.],"by Lady Margaret Graham. Some time 
before he had attained his majority he was or- 
dered, along with his father, in October 1644 
to confine himself within apartments in Holy- 
rood Palace ; but, notwithstanding the heavy 
penalty that his father might incur, he left 
his confinement, and on 21 April 1645 joined 
Montrose at the fords of Caraross. He spe- 
cially distinguished himself at the battle of 
Auldearn on 9 May ; and at the battle of 
Alford on 2 July he commanded the reserve, 
which was concealed behind a hill, and on 
being ordered up at an opportune moment 
by Montrose completed the rout of the cove- 
nanters. After Montrose's victory at Kil- 
syth on 15 Aug. he was despatched with 
the cavalry to take Edinburgh under his 
protection 9 and set free the royalist prisoners 



(Gtjthby, Memoirs j p. 196); and on the way 
thither he also released his father and other 
relatives from Linlithgow prison. Along 
with his father and Montrose he escaped 
from Philiphaugh on 13 Sept. and found re- 
fuge in Atholl. On the death of his father 
in the following November he succeeded to 
the title. In February 1646 he left Mont- 
rose to go to the relief of his tenants in 
Menteith and the Lennox, and passing 
thence into Strathearn, garrisoned the castle 
of Montrose at Kincardine with fifty men. 
The castle was invested by General Middle- 
ton, but, although it was assaulted by can- 
non, the defenders held out for fourteen 
days, when the failure of their water-supply 
compelled them to capitulate. On 16 March 
terms were arranged, Before the castle was 
given up Napier and his cousin, the laird of 
Bailoch, left during the night by a postern 
gate and escaped on horseback to Montrose. 

After Montrose disbanded his forces, Na- 
pier, who was included in the capitulation, 
went to the continent. Before leaving Scot- 
land he on 28 July 1646 wrote a letter to 
Charles from Cluny, in which he said : 'Now, 
since it is free for your majesty's servants in 
this kingdom to live at home or repair abroad 
at their pleasure, I have taken the boldness 
before my departure humbly to show your 
majesty the passionate desire I have to do 
you service * (Hist MSS. Comm. 11th Rep. 
App. pt. vi. p. 113; and printed also m 
Napier, Montrose, p. 645\ On 18 Nov. he 
was served heir to his fatner in his proper- 
ties in the counties of Dumbarton, Edin- 
burgh, Perth, and Stirling, and on 10 May 
1647 he was infeft in the barony of Eden- 
bellie. Previous to his departure to the 
continent he granted a commission to John, 
lord Erskine, and Elizabeth, lady Napier, 
his wife, and others, to manage his estates. 

Notwithstanding a deliverance of the com- 
mittee of the estates, 23 Oct. 1646, against 
Lord Napier conversing with Montrose, he 
joined him in Paris, where, according to 
himself, the common report was 'that Mont- 
rose and his nephew were like the pope and 
the church, who would be inseparable (Let- 
ter to his wife from Brussels, 4 June 1648, 
in Napier, Montrose, p. 666). According 
to Scot of Scotstarvet, Napier was ' robbed 
of all his monev on his way towards Paris ' 
(Staggering State, ed. 1872, p. 67). When 
Montrose left Paris to travel through Swit- 
zerland and Germany, Napier proceeded to 
Brussels, where Montrose afterwards ioined 
him. So desirous was he to be near Mont- 
rose and aid him in any possible schemes in 
behalf of the royal cause that he declined 
the offer of a regiment from the king of 



Napier 



38 



Napier 



Spain. After the execution of Charles he 
supported the proposal of Montrose at the 
Hague for a descent on Scotland. Subse- 
quently he proceeded with Montrose to Ham- 
burg, where he was left to superintend ne- 
gotiations there while Montrose proceeded 
to Denmark and Sweden. After Montrose 
ventured on his quixotic expedition to Scot- 
land, Napier applied for leave to join him 
there, which was granted by Charles ; but 
before he could avail himself of this permis- 
sion Montrose's scheme had met with irre- 
trievable disaster, and Montrose himself had 
been taken prisoner. 

Napier was one of those who on 18 May 
1650 were, by decree of the estates, excluded 
from entering Scotland ' from beyond seas * 
until they gave satisfaction to the church and 
state* (Balfour, Annals 9 iv. 14), and he was 
also one of those who on 4 June were de- 
barred from having access to his majesty's 
person (ib. p. 42). He was also specially 
excepted from Cromwell's Act of Grace in 
1654. In June 1656 the yearly value of his 
estate was stated at 600/ , and the charges 
on it amounted to 9,786/. 18*. 4d.(Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. Ser. 1655-6, p. 362). Lady 
Napier was allowed out of the forfeited 
estates an annuity of 100/., and in July 
1658 a further sum of 50/. In 1658 Napier 
was at Brussels, whence on 21 April he 
wrote a letter to Secretary Nicholas, in which 
he expressed the purpose of going to Flush- 
ing, and there staying until he heard from 
his friends, and especially whether the Duke 
of York would have any employment for 
bim (ib. 1657-8, p. 376). He died in Hol- 
land, not in the beginning of 1660 as usually 
stated, but in or before September 1658 
(Letter of the third Lord Napier to the king, 
16-26 Sept. 1658, ib. 1658-9, p. 141). By 
Lady Elizabeth Erskine, eldest daughter of 
John, eighth earl of Mar— who after the 
Restoration, in consideration of her hus- 
band's loyalty, obtained an allowance of 
500/. per annum — he had two sons — Archi- 
bald, third lord Napier (who being unmar- 
ried resigned his peerage on 26 Nov. 1676, 
and obtained a new patent of the same with 
the former precedency, granting the title to 
himself and, failing heirs male of his body, to 
the heirs of his sisters) ; and John, killed in 
a sea-fight against the Dutch in 1672 — and 
three daughters: Jean, married to Sir Thomas 
Nicolson of Carnock, Fifeshire, whose son on 
the death of the third Lord Napier in 1683 
became fourth Lord Napier; Margaret, who 
married John Brisbane, esq., and after his 
death became Baroness Napier on the death 
of her nephew in 1086 ; and Mary, died un- 
married. 



[Bishop Guthrie's Memoirs ; Gordon's Britanea 
Distemper (Spalding Club) ; Sir James Balfour's 
Annals ; ChI. State Papers, Dom. Ser., time of 
the Commonwealth ; Mark Napier's Memoirs of 
John Napier of Merchiston and Life of Mont- 
rose ; Douglas's Scottish Peerage (Wood), ii. 
295.] T. F. H. 

NAPIER, Sir CHARLES (1786-1860), 
admiral, born on 6 March 1786, was the eldest 
son of the Hon. Charles Napier (1781-1807) 
of Merchiston Hall, Stirlingshire, captain in 
the navy, by Christian, daughter of Gabriel 
Hamilton of West Burn ; grandson of Francis 
Scott Napier, fifth lord Napier; first-cousin 
of the half-blood of General Sir Charles James 
Napier [q.v.], of Henry Edward Napier [q.v.l, 
and of General Sir William Francis Patrick 
Napier [q. v.] He entered the navy in 1799 
on board the Martin sloop, then on the coast 
of Scotland ; in 1800 he was moved into the 
Renown, carrying the flag of Sir John Borlase 
Warren [q. v.l in the Channel, and after- 
wards in the Mediterranean, where, in No- 
vember 1802, he was moved into the Grey- 
hound, and served for a few months under 
Captain (afterwards Sir) William Hoste [q.v.] 
He then served in the Egyptienne in a voy- 
age to St. Helena in charge of convoy, and in 
1804-5 in the Mediator and Renommee off 
Boulogne. On 30 Nov. 1805 he was pro- 
moted to be lieutenant of the Courageux, one 
of the little squadron with Warren when 
he captured the Marengo and Belle Poule on 
13 March 1806. He afterwards went out to 
the West Indies in the St. George, and from 
her was appointed acting-commander of the 
Pultusk brig, a promotion which the ad- 
miralty confirmed to 30 Nov. 1807. In De- 
cember 1807 he was present at the reduc- 
tion of the Danish islands, St. Thomas and 
Santa Cruz. In August 1808 he was moved 
into the 18-gun brig Recruit, and in her, on 
6 Sept., fought a spirited but indecisive action 
with the French sloop Diligente. Napier 
had his thigh broken, but refused to leave 
the deck till the engagement ended by the 
fall of the Kecruit's mainmast. In February 
1809 he distinguished himself at the reduc- 
tion of Martinique; and still more in the 
capture, on 17 April, of the Hautpoult of 74 
guns, which was brought to action by the 
Pompee, mainly by the gallant manner in 
which the little Recruit embarrassed her 
flight during the three days of the chase 
(Trotjde, Batailles 71a vales de la France, iv. 
32 ; cf. art. Fame, Sir William Charles). 
The commander - in - chief, Sir Alexander 
Forester Inglis Cochrane [q. v.], was so well 
pleased with Napier's conduct that he com- 
missioned the Hautpoult as an English ship 
under the name of Abercromby, with Napier 



Napier 



39 



Napier 



as acting-captain of her ; the promotion was 
confirmed by the admiralty to 22 May 1809, 
the date of their receiving Cochrane's des- 
patch. He was afterwards appointed to the 
Jason frigate, in which he returned to Eng- 
land with convoy. 

Much to his disgust, he was then placed 
on half-pay ; and during the session 1809- 
1810 he attended classes in Edinburgh ; but 
dancing, driving, or hunting, probably occu- 
pied more of his time. At the end of the 
session, resolving to pay a visit to his cousins, 
then in the Peninsula, he got a passage out 
from Portsmouth, landed at Oporto about 
the middle of September, and joined the army 
just in time to take an amateurs share in 
the battle of Busaco, in which he received 
a smart flesh wound in the leg. He after- 
wards accompanied the army in its retreat 
to the lines of Torres Vedras, and remained 
with it till November, when he made his 
way southward to Cadiz, stayed some weeks 
with his brother there in garrison, took lessons 
in French and Spanish under more charming 
professors than at Edinburgh, and so returned 
to England. 

Early in 1811 he was appointed to the 
Thames frigate, and in her lor the next two 
ye** *=A8 actively engaged on the west 
c«*«9t* oi Italy, and more especially of Naples, 
etopping the coasting trade, intercepting the 
enemy's supplies, and destroying their bat- 
teries. Sometimes alone, sometimes in con- 
junction with other frigates or sloops, the 
Thames during these two years captured or 
destroyed upwards of eighty gunboats and 
coasting vessels, generally after a sharp en- 
gagement with covering batteries or musketry 
on shore ; Napier also reduced the island of 
Ponza, which, though strongly armed and 
with a garrison of 180 regular troops besides 
militia, yielded in confusion when the 
Thames, followed by the Furieuse, ran the 
gauntlet of the batteries under a press of 
sail, and anchored within the mole. It was 
probably the credit of this success which led 
to Napier's transference in the following 
month to the Euryalus, a much finer frigate. 
The change took him away from his familiar 
cruising ground to the south coast of France ; 
but the work was of the same nature, and 
was well or, in some instances, brilliantly 
performed. Having driven all the coasting 
trade from Toulon to the eastward into Ca- 
valarie Bay, where it was protected by bat- 
teries and a 10-gun xebec, on 16 May 1813 the 
boats of the Euryalus and of the 74-gun ship 
Berwick went in, destroyed the batteries, 
and brought out the xebec and twenty-two 
trading vessels, large and small, with the 
very trifling loss,J)f one man killed and one 



missing. In June 1814 the Euryalus was 
one of a squadron convoying a fleet of trans- 
ports to North America, where Napier took 
a distinguished part in the expedition against 
Alexandria, and in the operations against 
Baltimore. In the summer of 1815 he re- 
turned to England, and on 4 June was nomi- 
nated a O.B. 

Shortly after this he married Frances Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Lieutenant Younghusband, 
R.N., and widow of Lieutenant Edward Elers, 
R.N. ; by Elers she had four young children, 
who afterwards took the name of Napier. 
For a few weeks he and his bride lived at 
Alverstoke, in Hampshire, but, on the news 
of the occupation of Paris by the allies, 
they started thither in a curricle, which 
they took across the Channel. They after- 
wards settled for a time at Versailles, where 
they were joined by the children; and, 
tiring of that, drove on — always in the cur- 
ricle, the children, with their nurse, follow- 
ing in a four-wheeled carriage — as far as 
Naples, where they spent a ffreat part of 
1816. Afterwards they went back through 
Venice to Switzerland, where they stayed 
some time ; and in the winter of 1818 they 
returned to Paris. Here Napier took a house, 
and, having succeeded to a handsome fortune, 
lived in good style. In 1819 be entered into 
a speculative attempt to promote iron steamers 
on the Seine, and being the moneyed man of 
the company, and at the same time quite 
ignorant of business, was allowed to spend 
freely for the good of the concern, without 
receiving any profit. 

In 1820 he took a house near Alverstoke, 
and for the following years led an un- 
settled life, sometimes at Alverstoke, some- 
times in Paris, St. Cloud, or, later on, at 
Havre. In 1827 ' the steam-boat bubble 
completely burst/ and left Napier a com- 
paratively poor man. He settled down 
at Rowland s Castle, near Portsmouth, but, 
after many endeavours to get employed in 
the navy, was appointed in January 1829 to 
the Galatea frigate, and, by special permis- 
sion, was allowed to fit her with paddles 
worked by winches on the main deck. Dur- 
ing the commission he carried out a series of 
trials of these paddles, as the result of which 
it appeared that in a calm the ship could 
be propelled at the rate of three knots, and 
that she could tow a line-of-battle ship at 
from one to one and a half; the paddles could 
be shipped or unshipped in about a quarter of 
an hour, and were on one occasion shipped, 
turned round, and unshipped again in twenty 
minutes. Of the many attempts that were 
made to render a ship independent of the 
wind this seems to have been the most sue- 



Napier 



40 



Napier 



cessful ; but it was rendered useless by the 
adoption of steam power in the navy. 

During the first two years of her commis- 
sion the Galatea was twice sent to the West 
Indies, and once, in August 1830, to Lisbon, 
where Napier was instructed to demand the 
restitution of certain British vessels which 
had been seized by Dom Miguel, at that time 
the de facto king of Portugal. In the sum- 
mer of 1831 he was sent to watch over Bri- 
tish interests in the Azores, where the par- 
tisans of the little queen, the daughter of 
Dom Pedro, had established themselves in 
Terceira in opposition to Dom Miguel. The 
queen's party gained strength, and ultimately 
organised an invasion of Portugal. Napier 
came into close intercourse with the chiefs 
of the party, and took a lively interest in 
Portuguese affairs. The Galatea was paid 
off in January 1832, and after a year on shore, 
during which he unsuccessfully contested the 
borough of Portsmouth in the general elec- 
tion, in February 1833 he was formally 
offered the command of the Portuguese fleet 
in the cause of Dona Maria and her father, 
Dom Pedro. After some negotiation he ac- 
cepted it, on the resignation of Admiral Sar- 
torius [see Saktokius, Sib George Rose], 
and, to avoid the penalties of the Foreign 
Enlistment Act, went out to Oporto under 
the name of Carlos de Ponza. He wrote to 
his wife on 30 April : ' If nothing unexpected 
happens, in one month I hope either to be in 
Lisbon or in heaven.' But it was 28 May 
before he sailed from Falmouth, and 2 June 
before he arrived at Oporto. He was accom- 
panied by a small party of English officers, 
mostly old shipmates, including his stepson, 
Charles Elers Napier, a lieutenant in the 
navy, and by a flotilla of five steamers, carry- 
ing out about 160 officers and seamen, and an 
English and Belgian regiment. 

On 8 June Napier received his commission 
as vice-admiral, major-general of the Portu- 
guese navy, and commander-in-chief of the 
fleet, and on 10 June he hoisted his flag. 
The force at his disposal consisted of three 
vessels of from 40 to 50 guns, 18-pounder 
and 32-pounder carronades, and two cor- 
vettes, besides some small steamers, the 
aggregate crews of which numbered barely 
more than one thousand, but were mostly 
English, with a large proportion of old men- 
of-war's men ; all the superior officers were 
English. On 20 June the little squadron 
sailed from Oporto, conveying a small army, 
under the command of Count Villa Flor, 
afterwards Duke of Terceira. The troops 
were landed at the south-eastern corner of 
Portugal, near the mouth of the Guadiana, 
and, marching along the coast, secured the 



several southern ports without difficulty. 
At Lagos the sea and land forces separated. 
Villa Flor went north, and captured Lisbon ; 
Napier with the squadron put to sea on 
2 July, and on the 3rd sighted the squadron 
of Dom Miguel off Cape St. Vincent. In 
material force this squadron was very far 
superior to that of the queen, although in 
fignting efficiency it was inferior. After 
waiting two days for favourable weather the 
action began. Napier's flagship grappled 
with one of the enemy's two line-of-battle 
ships, boarded, and hauled down her flag ; 
the other tried to make off, but was chased, 
and struck after a merely nominal resistance. 
Two 50-gun ships were also captured ; the 
smaller craft escaped. The victory was credit- 
able to Napier and his officers ; but Napier's 
statement * that at no time was a naval action 
fought with such a disparity of force' implies 
more than the fact : t ne disparity was only 
apparent. The Miguel officers were incompe- 
tent, the crews untrained, and both officers 
and men bore so little goodwill to the cause 
that most of them volunteered immediately 
for the queen's service. 

Napier returned to Lagos, and there or- 
ganised his force, now nearly treble what it 
was on the morning of 5 July, and, with his 
flag on board one of the captured line-of- 
battle ships, put to sea again on the 13th. 
The next day he received official news of 
his promotion to the rank of admiral, and 
of his being ennobled in the peerage of Por- 
tugal as Viscount Cape St. Vincent. At 
the same time a virulent attack of cholera 
broke out in his squadron, and in the flag- 
ship worst of all. In five days she buried 
fifty men, and had two hundred on the sick 
list. As the best chance of shaking off the 
deadly infection, Napier steered away to the 
westward, and the ship * had not proceeded 
many leagues ere the disease most suddenly 
disappeared.' By the evening of the 24th 
the squadron was off the mouth of the Tagus, 
when Napier learned that Lisbon had sur- 
rendered to the Duke of Terceira the night 
before. He entered the river the next day, 
and paid a visit to Rear-admiral Parker, 
commanding the English fleet then lying 
there [see Parker, Sir William, 1781- 
1866J, when he was much gratified at being 
received according to his Portuguese rank. 
' When 1 came on shore/ he wrote to his 
wife, ' I was hailed as the liberator of Por- 
tugal, was cheered, kissed, and embraced by 
everybody.' Dom Pedro conferred on him 
the grand cross of the order of the Tower 
and Sword. In England his victory had 
been considered an English success, and at 
a large public meeting, with the Duke of 



Napier 



41 



Napier 



Sussex in the chair, resolutions were now 
unanimously carried in favour of Napier 
being restored to his rank in the English 
navy. But, in fact, the removal of his name 
from the ' Navy List ' was a matter of course 
when it was officially known that he had 
gone abroad without leave. When ho re- 
turned to England and reported himself at 
the admiralty, his name was, equally as 
a matter of course, restored to its former 
place. 

Meanwhile Napier's position in Lisbon 
was by no means easy. At tirst he exulted 
in having the full control of the dockyards. 
But everything was in a wretched condition. 
' I soon found out/ he wrote, * that from the 
minister to the lowest clerk in the establish- 
ment I was opposed by every species of in- 
trigue/ Worn out by insuperable difficulties, 
he sought relief in more active operations, and, 
though not without considerable opposition, 
obtained leave to make an attempt on the 
northern ports, which were still held for Dom 
Miguel. Accordingly, about the middle of 
March, he sailed from Setuval, and landing 
his men, about one thousand marines and sea- 
men, in the Minho, entered on a very remark- 
able campaign, with the result that ' in ten 
days the whole of the Entre-Douro-e-Minho 
was secured, the siege of Oporto raised, and 
the enemy cut off from one of the richest 
provinces of Portugal/ Miguel's garrisons, 
it must, however, be noted, offered no more 
than a pretence at resistance. Napier was 
none the less received in triumph by the 
populace at Oporto, and Dom Pedro raised 
nim to the dignity of a count, as Count Cape 
St. Vincent, a title afterwards changed to 
Count Napier St. Vincent, and invested Mrs. 
Napier with the order of Isabella. 

A few weeks later Napier conducted an- 
other expedition against Figuera, which was 
abandoned to him. He then marched inland 
and summoned Ourem, which also surren- 
dered. With the conclusion of the civil 
war Napier's work was done. He still hoped 
to carry out the reforms he had contemplated, 
but in June he went to England for a few 
weeks. On his return to Lisbon the queen was 
declared of age, and on 24 Sept. her father 
died. Napier submitted to the new minis- 
ter of war a scheme for the government of 
the navy, and on its rejection he sent in his 
resignation. The queen on 15 Oct. relieved 
him of the command, but desired him to re- 
tain ' the honorary post of admiral.' He 
struck his flag the same day, and on 4 Nov. 
sailed for England in the packet. 

Considered solely in reference to the busi- 
ness for which he had been engaged, Napier's 
conduct was admirable, but it is incorrect to 



describe him as an enthusiast fighting in the 
cause of constitutional freedom ; he had, in 
fact, refused to stir till he received six months' 
pay in advance, and a policy of life insurance 
for 10,000/. His services were worth the 
money, but have no claim to be ranked as 
patriotic. Napier employed himself for the 
next two years in writing ' An Account of 
the War in Portugal between Don Pedro and 
Don Miguel ' (2 vols, post 8vo, 1836), a book 
in which the author's achievements and his 
share in the war are unpleasantly exagge- 
rated. 

About the same time he purchased a small 
estate in Hampshire, near Catherington, 
1 formerly known as Quallett's Grove, but to 
it he now gave the name of Merchistoun, in 
memory of the old place in Stirlingshire 
which he had sold in 1816. 

In January 1839 Napier commissioned the 
84-gun ship Powerful, which was sent out 
to the Mediterranean in the summer, when 
the troubled state of the Levant made it 
necessary to reinforce the fleet under Sir 
Robert Stopford [q. v.] In June 1840 he was 
sent in command of a small squadron to 
watch the course of events in Syria ; and on 
10 Aug. was ordered to hoist a blue broad 
pennant as commodore of the second class, 
and to go off Beyrout. It was then that he 
first learned the intention of the English 
government, in concert with Russia, Austria, 
and Prussia, to support the Turk, and to com- 
pel Mohammed Ali to withdraw. Notwith- 
standing the formidable name of the alliance, 
there was no force on the coast except Napier's 
squadron; and though he could threatenBey- 
rout, which the Egyptians held with a force 
of fifteen thousand men, he could not do any- 
j thing till, early in September, much to his 
1 disgust, he was joined by the admiral. 
I Brigadier-general Sir Charles Smith too had 
1 come out, with a small body of engineers and 
artillerymen, to command the operations on 
shore. But Smith fell sick, and the military 
officer next in seniority was a lieutenant- 
colonel of marines, a man of neither ability nor 
energy. The admiral consequently directed 
Napier to take the command of the forces on 
shore, and the commodore thus found himself 
general of a mixed force of marines, engi- 
neers, artillery, and Turks. Though in ap- 
pearance and manner a sailor of the old school, 
Napier had, since his experience at Busaco, be- 
lieved himself to be a born general ; but vanity 
and desire for theatrical effect characterised 
much of his military work. On 20 Sept. he 
wrote to Lord Minto, the first lord of the 
admiralty : ' I wish you would send out as- 
many marines as can be spared j and if Sir 
Charles Smith does not return I trust an 



Napier 



42 



Napier 



engineer of lower rank may be sent out, 
who will not interfere witn me. I have 
begun this business successfully, and I feel 
myself quite equal to go on with it, for it is 
nothing new to me.' But a few days later, 
when he learned that a detached squadron 
was to be sent against Sidon, under the com- 
mand of Captain Maurice Berkeley fa. v.] of 
the Thunderer, he wrote very strongly to the 
admiral, complaining that he should have all 
the * fag ' of the service, while a junior was 
to have the opportunity of distinction. Stop- 
ford gave way, and appointed him to com- 
mand the expedition, wnich returned within 
two days, having taken possession of Sidon 
without much difficulty. 

On "his return to the camp Napier found 
the admiral intent on a combined attack on 
Beyrout. The marines were sent to their 
ships, and Napier, in command of the Turks, 
advanced through the mountains to the posi- 
tion of the Egyptian army, on the heights to 
the south of the Nahr-el-Kelb. On 10 Oct., 
as he was preparing to attack, he received a 
formal order to retire and hand over the com- 
mand to Sir Charles Smith, who had just 
returned from Constantinople with a firman 
appointing him commander-in-chief of the 
Turkish army. Napier judged that to at- 
tempt a retreat at that time might be disas- 
trous, and took on himself to disobey the 
order. For some time the battle raged 
fiercely ; at a critical moment a Turkish bat- 
talion quailed and refused to advance; 
Napier threw himself among them, and, as 
he expressed it, ' stirred them up with his 
stick/ or pelted them with etones, till, to 
avoid the attack of the commodore in their 
rear, they drove out the less furious enemy 
in their front. The result of the victory was 
immediate. The Egyptians evacuated Bey- 
rout ; and Napier, mollified by so brilliant 
a close to his command, went on board the 
Powerful without reluctance. 

Acre was now the only position on the 
coast held by the enemy. By the end of 
October the admiral had instructions to take 
possession of it also, and accordingly the 
fleet went thither. On 2 Nov. the ships an- 
chored some distance to the southward, and 
went in with the sea-breeze on the after- 
noon of the 3rd. Their fire was overwhelm- 
ing ; within two hours most of the enemy's 
guns were silenced, and the explosion of the 
principal magazine virtually finished the ac- 
tion. The next morning the town surren- 
dered. Napier's conduct,bowever, had given 
rise to much dissatisfaction. In order to see 
more clearly what was going on, Stopford 
moved his flag to the Phoenix steamer, and 
ordered Napier in the Powerful to lead in j 



from the south against the western face. He 
was to anchor abreast of the southern fort 
on that side, the ships astern passing on and 
anchoring in succession to the nortn of the 
Powerful. Contrary to his orders, and with- 
out any apparent reason, he passed outside the 
reef in front of the town, came in from the 
north, and anchored considerably to the north 
of the position assigned him, thus crowding 
the ships astern, and leaving the space ahead 
unprovided for. It was not till after some 
delay that the admiral succeeded in placing 
a ship in the vacant position (Codbington, 
pp. 202-3). The next morning he sharply 
expressed his disapproval of Napier's con- 
duct, on which Napier applied for a court- 
martial. The general wish in the squadron 
was that the dispute might be settled 
amicably, in order not to lessen the credit of 
the action. Stopford, who was a very old 
man, wrote that a difference of opinion did 
not imply censure, to which Napier, in a rude 
note, replied : ' I placed my ship to the best 
of my judgment ; I could do no more.' Stop- 
ford condoned the offence, but the many offi- 
cers in the fleet who had suffered by Napier's 
capricious disobedience neither forgave it nor 
forgot it. 

It was, however, necessary to strengthen 
the squadron off Alexandria, and Napier was 
ordered to take command of it. He arrived 
there en 21 Nov., and understanding, by the 
copy of a letter addressed to Lord Ponsonby, 
the ambassador at Constantinople, that the 

fovernment would approve of recognising 
lohammed Ali as hereditary pasha, subject 
to his restoring the Turkish fleet and eva- 
cuating Syria, he forthwith proposed, agreed 
to, and signed a convention on these terms ; 
and that without authority, without instruc- 
tions, and without consulting the admiral, 
from whom he was not forty-eight hours 
distant. The first intelligence that Stopford 
had of the negotiation was the announce- 
ment that the convention was signed. He 
immediately repudiated it, and wrote to that 
effect both to Napier and the pasha. The 
Porte protested against it as unauthorised, 
and the several ministers of the allied powers 
at Constantinople declared it null and void. 
The home governments took a more favour- 
able view of it, and, though they refused to 
guarantee the succession to Mohammed Ali's 
adopted son, the convention was otherwise 
accepted as the basis of the negotiations. 
Napier himself considered this as a com- 
plete justification of his conduct ; but Cap- 
tain (afterwards Sir) Henry John Codrington 
[q. v.], then commanding the Talbot, wrote 
with justice to his father of Napier's beha- 
viour : ' It was not only disrespectful to an 



Napier 



43 



Napier 



officer of Sir Robert Stopford's rank and ser- 
vices, but it was highly ungrateful. In this 
convention business there is not a soark of 

f-atitude to his kind old chief; but indeed 
don't think the soil fitted for a plant of 
that nature. I wonder what commander- 
in-chief will ever trust him again' (ib. p. 
213). 

On 2 Pec. 1840, in acknowledgment of the 
capture of Acre, all the captains present 
were nominated C.B's., and Napier, as second 
in command, was made a K.C.B. He also 
received from the European sovereigns of 
the alliance the order of Maria Theresa of 
Austria, of St. George of Russia, and of the 
Red Eagle of Prussia. From the sultan he 
received a diamond-hilted sword and the 
first class of the Medjidie, with a diamond 
star. In January 1841 he was sent on a 
special mission to Alexandria and Cairo, to 
see the convention duly carried out. He re- 
joined the Powerful early in March, and being 
then sent to Malta obtained a month's leave 
and went home. His fame and his achieve- 
ments, with a good deal of embellishment, 
had been noised abroad. At Liverpool and 
Manchester he was cheered by crowds and 
entertained at civic banquets. He was pre- 
sented with the freedom of the city of Lon- 
don ; he was invited by Marylebone and by 
Falmouth to stand for parliament, and, as 
his leave was within a couple of days of ex- 
piring, he applied to Lord Minto for an ex- 
tension. • It takes time/ he said, ' to make 
inquiries before pledging oneself.' For such 
a purpose the application was refused, 
whereupon Napier requested to be placed on 
half-pay. This was done, and at the general 
election he was returned to the House of 
Commons as member for Marylebone. 

During the next few years he was mainly 
occupied with parliamentary business, speak- 
ing on naval topics, more especially on pro- 
posals to improve the condition of seamen, 
and on the necessity of increasing the strength 
of the navy. His ideas, in themselves fre- 
quently sound, were spoiled by the extrava- 
gance or inaccuracy of their presentment ; 
and though some of them found favour with 
the ministers, they had little difficulty in 
showing others to be absurd or impracti- 
cable. He was busy, too, in writing his 
' History of the War in Syria ' (2 vols, post 
8vo, 1842), a book deprived of most of its 
value by want of care and accuracy. On 
9 Nov. 1846 he attained the rank of rear- 
admiral, and in the following May hoisted 
his flag on board the St. Vincent, of 120 guns, 
in command of the Channel fleet. In August 
the fleet was sent to Lisbon, and Napier, on 
the ground that it would be a compliment 



to the Portuguese, applied for permission to 
assume his Portuguese title. Lord Palmer- 
ston refused in a semi-bantering letter : * W e 
cannot afford to lose the British admiral Sir 
Charles Napier, and to have him converted 
into a Portuguese count.' During the greater 
part of 1848 the squadron was on the coast 
of Ireland, and in December was sent to 
Gibraltar and the coast of Morocco, to restrain 
and, if possible, to punish the insolence and 
depredations of the Riff pirates. 

In April 1849 the squadron returned to 
Spithead, and Napier was ordered to strike 
his flag. He had expected to hold the com- 
mand for three years, and the disappoint- 
ment perhaps gave increased bitterness to 
the many letters which he wrote to the 
' Times ' denouncing the policy of the admi- 
ralty. Many of these, as well as some of 
earlier date, were collected and edited by 
Sir William Napier under the title of ' The 
Navy, its Past and Present State' (8vo, 
1861). Many of the reforms which he urged 
were salutary, and many of his criticisms 
just ; but the tone of the book as a whole 
was offensive to the service. He had already 
applied for the Mediterranean station when 
it should be vacant ; but the admiralty and 
the prime minister were agreed that they 
could not trust to his discretion. This led 
to further correspondence, and to an extra- 
ordinary letter to Lord John Russell, in 
which Napier maintained that the appoint- 
ment of Rear-admiral Dundas [see Dundas, 
Sik James Whitley Deans] to the com- 
mand was defrauding him of his just rights, 
and, recapitulating the several events in 
which he had taken part, arrogated to him- 
self the whole of the merit. This letter, 
with others which he published in the ' Times ' 
of 19 Dec. 1851, brought down many well- 
substantiated contradictions (Times, 23 and 
27 Dec), and was cleverly travestied in 
verse with historical notes (Morning Herald, 
9 Jan. 1852). 

On 28 May 1853 he was promoted to be 
vice-admiral, and in February 1854 was 
nominated to the command of the fleet to be 
sent to the Baltic. Popular enthusiasm in- 
dulged in the most extravagant expectations 
as to what the squadron might accomplish if 
war with Russia should be declared (Eabp, 
p. 14), and at a semi-public dinner at the 
Reform Club on 7 March there was a great 
deal of ill-timed boasting (Times, 8 and 
9 March). It was reported that Napier pro- 
mised, within a month after entering the 
Baltic, either to be in Cronstadt or in heaven : 
words corresponding to those — then unpub- 
lished — whicn he had addressed to his wife 
twenty years before, on sailing to take com- 



Napier 



44 



Napier 



mand of the Portuguese fleet. At the time 
Napier's idea, which was shared by the ad- 
miralty and the general public, was that what 
had been done at Sidon and at Acre was to 
be repeated at Cronstadt or Helsingfors. But 
when the admiral got into the Baltic he 
realised, in view of the frowning casemates 
of Sveaborgor Cronstadt, or Re vat or Bomar- 
sund, that it was not for line-of-battle 
ships to engage a first-class fortress. What, 
unaer the circumstances, ships could do was 
done. The Russian ports were absolutely 
sealed; but beyond this most stringent 
blockade nothing was attempted, though 
Bomarsund was captured, mainly by a land 
force of ten thousand men specially sent 
from France. 

The reality fell so far short of what had 
been expected that everybody asked who was 
to blame. Napier, in no measured language, 
laid the blame on the admiralty, for not 
having supplied him with gunboats, and on 
his fleet, as very badly manned and still 
worse disciplined (Ea.rp, freq. ; Times, 7 Feb. 
1856 ; Codmngton, p. 497). The admiralty 
and public opinion, on the other hand, laid 
the blame on Napier himself, on his capri- 
cious humour or want of nerve, whicn — 
there were people who said — had been de- 
stroyed by too liberal and long continued 
potations of Scotch whisky ; while others 
referred to his own published words : * Most 
men of sixty are too old for dash and enter- 
prise. . . . When a man's body begins to 
shake, the mind follows, and he is always the 
last to find it out 7 {The Navy, &c, pp. 73, 
100 ; cf. Edinburgh Review, cxviii. 179 nJ) 

In July 1855 Sir Charles Wood, then first 
lord of the admiralty, recommended Napier 
for the G.C.B. He declined to accept it, 
and wrote at length to Prince Albert, as 
grand master of the order, explaining his 
reasons and stating his grievances. His 
enemies, real or imaginary, were numerous, 
and the abusive language which he scattered 
around continually added to them. In 1855 
he was elected M.P. for Southwark, and in 
and out of parliament devoted himself to 
denouncing Sir James Graham and the board 
of admiralty. During the intervals of his 
attendance in the House of Commons he re- 
sided almost entirely at Merchistoun, where 
he had all along tafcen great interest in ex- 
perimental farming, considering himself an 
authority, more especially on turnips and 
lambs. He became an admiral on 6 March 
1858, and died on 6 Nov. 1860. 

The angry and often unseemly quarrels of 
his later days gave an impression of Napier 
as much below his real merits as that pre- 
viously entertained was above them. As a 



man of action, within a perhaps limited 
scone, his conduct was often brilliant ; but 
his insolence and ingratitude to Sir Robert 
Stopford, his selfish insubordination, and his 
arrogant representation of himself as the 
hero of the hour, left very bitter memories 
in the minds of his colleagues. 

As a young man, from his very dark com- 
plexion, he was often spoken of as Black 
Charley; and frequently, from the eccen- 
tricities of his conduct — many of which are 
recorded by his stepson— as Mad Charley. 
His portrait by T. M. Joy [q. v.], now in 
the Painted Hall at Greenwich, is an ad- 
mirable likeness, though, as has been fre- 
quently pointed out, it looks too clean and 
too well dressed, points on which Napier 
was notoriously negligent. Another por- 
trait of Napier in naval uniform, by John 
Simpson, is in the National Portrait Gallery, 
Edinburgh. A partial observer has described 
him in 1840 as * about fourteen stone, stout 
and broad built ; stoops from a wound in his 
neck, walks lame from another in his leg, 
turns out one of his feet, and has a most 
slouching, slovenly gait; a large round face, 
with black, bushy eyebrows, a double chin, 
scraggy, grey, uncurled whiskers and thin 
hair ; wears a superfluity of shirt collar and 
small neck-handkerchief, always bedaubed 
with snuff, which he takes in immense quan- 
tities ; usually his trousers far too short, and 
wears the ugliest pair of old shoes he can 
find' (Elers Napier, ii. 126). As years 
went on he did not improve, and in Novem- 
ber 1854 his appearance on shore at Kiel, in 
plain clothes, used to excite wonder amount- 
ing almost to consternation. 

By his wife (d. 19 Dec. 1857) he had issue 
a son, who died in infancy, and a daughter, 
married in 1843 to the Rev. Henry Jodrell, 
rector of Gisleham, in Suffolk. Of his step- 
children, who took the name of Napier, the 
eldest, Edward Delaval Hungerford Elers 
Napier, is separately noticed. The second, 
Charles George, who was with Napier through 
the Portuguese war, and both then and after- 
wards was spoken of as an officer of great 
promise, was captain of the Avenger frigate, 
and was lost with her on 20 Dec. 1847 
(O'Byrne). 

[The Life and Correspondence of Admiral Sir 
Charles Napier, by his stepson, General Elers 
Napier (2 vols. 8ro, 1862), loses much of its 
value and interest by the intensity of its parti- 
sanship; Napier's own works, named in the 
text ; Earp's History of the Baltic Campaign of 
1854 ; Letters of Sir H. J. Codrington (privately 

Srinted); Times, 7 Nov. I860, 23 Jan. 1862; 
[rs. JodreU's Letter to the Editor of the Times 
in reply to an attack upon her father's conduct 



Napier 



45 



Napier 



of the Baltic Fleet ; Hansard's Parliamentary 
Debates ; Gove's Sir Charles Napier in the Medi- 
terranean and the Baltic and elsewhere.] 

J. K. L. 

NAPIER, Sib CHARLES JAMES 
(1782-1853), conqueror of Sind (Scinde), 
eldest son of Colonel the Hon. George Napier 
[q. v.] and his second wife, Lady Sarah Bun- 
bury, was born at Whitehall, London, on 
10 Aug. 1782. George Thomas Napier [q. v.], 
Henry Edward Napier [q. v.], and William 
Francis Patrick Napier [q. v.] were his bro- 
thers. When he was only three, the family 
moved to Celbridge, on the Liffey ten miles 
from Dublin. His father was a very hand- 
some man, with a fine figure and great 
strength, both of body and of mind. His 
mother was, says Horace Walpole, 'more 
beautiful than you can conceive . . . she 
shone, besides, with all the graces of un- 
affected but animate nature.' Charles Napier, 
owing to an accident, was sickly as a child, 
and never attained the fine proportions for 
which the family were remarkable. He was 
also short-sighted; but he had an admirable 
constitution and a high spirit. 

On 81 Jan. 1794 he obtained a commis- 
sion as ensign in the 83rd regiment, from 
which he was promoted to be lieutenant in 
the 89th regiment on 8 May the same year. 
He joined the regiment at Netley Camp,where 
it formed part of an army assembling under 
Lord Moira [see Hastings, Francis Raw- 
don-]. His father was assistant quarter- 
master-general to the force, and when it 
sailed for Ostend Napier was sent back to 
Ireland, having exchanged into the 4th regi- 
ment ; but, instead of joining his regiment, 
was placed with his brother William as a 
day-scholar at a large grammar school in 
Celbridge. When the rebellion took place in 
1798, Colonel Napier fortified his house, armed 
his five boys, and offered an asylum to all who 
were willing to resist the insurgents. The 
elder Napier, with Charles at his side, used 
to scour the country on horseback, keeping 
a sharp look-out. In 1799 Charles became 
aide-de-camp to Sir James Duff [a. v.], com- 
manding the Limerick district. In 1800 he 
resigned his staff appointment to join the 
95th regiment, or rifle corps, which was being 
formed at Blatchington, Sussex, by a selec- 
tion of men and officers from other regiments. 
He was quartered for the next two vears at 
Weymouth, Hy the, and Shorncliffe. In June 
1808 he was appointed aide-de-camp to his 
cousin, General Henry Edward Fox [q. v.l 
commander-in-chief of the forces in Ireland, 
and served against the insurgents. He accom- 
panied General Fox to London when he was 
transferred to the command of the home dis- 



trict. While serving on the London staff he 
saw much of his cousin, Charles James Fox 
fa. v.], and the cheerful society at St. Anne's 
Hill was a pleasant interlude in his life. 

On 22 Dec. 1803 he was promoted captain 
in the staff corps, a newly organised body of 
artificers to assist the royal engineers and 
the quartermaster-general. In 1804 he was 
quartered at Chelmsford and Chatham. In 
October his father died ; the family were left 
in straitened circumstances, but Pitt be- 
stowed pensions on the widow and daughters. 
In the middle of 1806 Napier went with his 
corps to Hythe, where he was employed in 
the construction of the Military Canal, and 
came under the personal supervision of Sir 
John Moore Pq. v.l, who was at that time 
training the 43rd, 52nd, and rifle regiments, to 
fit them for the distinguished part they were 
to play as the light division in the Peninsula. 
Napier's brothers William (in the 43rd) and 
George (in the 52nd) were thus in the same 
command. 

On 29 May 1806, on the accession of Fox 
to power, Napier was promoted to a majority 
in a Cape Colonial corps, from which he ex- 
changed into the 50th regiment, then quar- 
tered at Bognor, Sussex. During the next 
two years and a half he was moved about with 
the regiment to Guernsey, Deal, Hythe, and 
Ashford, and was frequently in command of 
the battalion. After the battle of Vimiera 
(August 1808) Napier was ordered to join the 
first battalion of the 60th at Lisbon, and, as 
the colonel had obtained leave of absence, 
Napier found himself on arrival at Lisbon in 
command of the battalion. Sir John Moore 
at once incorporated the regiment in the 
army going to Spain. Napier's battalion was 
in Lord William Bentinck's brigade, and 
distinguished itself throughout the famous 
retreat. On 16 Jan. 1809, at Coruna, it be- 
haved splendidly, with Napier leading it. 
Napier was five times wounded : his leg was 
broken by a musket shot, he received a sabre 
cut on the head, a bayonet wound in the 
back, severe contusions from the butt end of 
a musket, and his ribs were broken by a gun- 
shot. Eventually he was taken prisoner; 
his name was returned among the killed, but 
his life was saved by a French drummer. He 
was taken to Marshal Soult's quarters, where 
he received every attention. Marshal Ney, 
who succeeded Soult in command at Coruna, 
was particularly kind, and on 20 March set 
him at liberty, on parole not to serve again 
until exchanged, it having been represented 
to Ney that ISapier's mother was a widow, 
old and blind. It was not until January 1810 
that an exchange was effected, and Napier 
was able to rejoin his regiment. Finding it 



Napier 



4 6 



Napier 



in quarters in Portugal, he obtained leave of 
absence and permission to join, as a volunteer, 
the light brigade in which his brothers were 
serving. He acted as aide-de camp to Robert 
Craufurd [q. v.] at the battle on the Coa 
(24 July 1810), and had two horses killed 
under him. On the fall of Almeida the army 
retreated, and Napier was attached to Lord 
Wellington's staff; at the battle of Busaco 
(27 Sept. 1810) he was shot through the face, 
his jaw broken, and his eye injured. He was 
sent to Lisbon, where he was laid up for some 
months. On 6 March 1811 he started to rejoin 
the army, his wound still bandaged. On the 
13th he rode ninety miles on one horse and 
in one course, including a three hours' halt, 
and reached the army between Redinha and 
Condeixa. The light division was in advance, 
and in constant contact with Massena's rear 
guard under Ney. On the 14th, advancing 
with his regiment, Napier met his brothers 
"William (of the 43rd regiment) and George 
being earned to the rear; both were wounded, 
the former, it was supposed, mortally. He 
was engaged at the battle of Fuentes aOnoro 
(6 May 1811). At the second siege of 
Badajos he was employed on particular ser- 
vice near Medellin. 

On 27 June 1811 he was promoted to the 
lieutenant-colonelcy of the 102nd regiment, 
which had just arrived at Guernsey from 
Botany Bay. He embarked for England on 
25 Aug., and spent some months with his 
mother before joining his regiment in Guern- 
sey. Lord Liverpool conferred on Napier the 
small non-resident and sinecure government 
of the Virgin Isles, in consideration of his 
wounds and services, and he held it for a 
year or two ; but when pensions for wounds 
were granted he resigned it. Napier went 
to Guernsey in January 1812. 

In July he embarked with his regiment 
for Bermuda, where he arrived in Septem- 
ber. In May 1813 he was appointed to com- 
mand a brigade, composed of his own regi- 
ment, a body of royal marines, and a corps of 
Frenchmen enlisted from the war prisoners, 
to take part in the expedition under General 
Sir Thomas Sydney Beckwith [q. v.], which 
engaged in desultory operations against the 
United States of America. The expedition 
went with the fleet to Hampton Roaas, when 
Craney Island, at the mouth of the Elizabeth 
river, was seized, and the town of Little 
Hampton, at the attack on which Napier 
was in command, taken and plundered. In 
August Napier was detached, with Admiral 
Sir George Cockburn [q. v.], to the coast of 
Carolina, where various minor operations took 
place. Thence he proceeded with the regi- 
ment to Halifax, Nova Scotia. Anxious to 



serve again in the Peninsula, he exchanged 
back into the 50th regiment, and on leaving 
the 102nd regiment the officers presented him 
with a sword of honour. He sailed for Eng- 
land in September 1813, and arrived to find 
the war with France concluded. He served 
with the 50th regiment until December 1814, 
when he was placed by reduction on half- 
pay. Napier at once entered the military 
college at Farnham, where he was joined by 
his brother William. 

When in March 1815 Napoleon escaped 
from Elba, Napier went as a volunteer to 
Ghent. He took part in the storming of 
Cambrai, and marched into Paris with the 
allied armies. He was mentioned in des- 
patches from the Peninsula and North 
America. For his services in the Peninsula 
he received the gold medal for Coruna, where 
he commanded a regiment, and the silver war 
medal with two clasps for Busaco and 
Fuentes d'Onoro. When the order of the 
Bath was reconstituted he was made a C.B. 
While on his way home from Ostend in 1815 
the ship sank at the mouth of the harbour, 
and Napier was nearly drowned. He re- 
joined the military college at Farnham, and 
remained until the end of 1817, reading dili- 
gently, not only military and political his- 
tory, but also general literature, and study- 
ing agriculture, building construction, and 
political economy. 

In May 1819 he was appointed an inspect- 
ing field officer in the Ionian Islands, and in 
1820 he was sent on a confidential mission 
to Ali Pasha at Joannina. In 1821 he went 
on leave of absence to Greece, to study the 
military advantages of the position of the 
Isthmus of Corinth, as he had thoughts of 
throwing in his lot with the Greeks, and hoped 
to lead tneir army. He returned to Corfu in 
the beginning of 1822, and .in March was ap- 
pointed resident of Cephalonia. This office, 
created by Sir Thomas Maitland [q. v.], the 
high commissioner, conferred almost absolute 
power on the holder, and was designed to 

Protect the people against feudal oppression, 
'his was probably the happiest period of 
Napier's life. He threw himself with all his 
determination and energy into the reform of 
abuses of all kinds, and into the development 
of everything that could conduce to the wel- 
fare of the Cephalonians. He carried out 
a number of public works and covered the 
island with a network of good roads. He was 
ably seconded by Captain (afterwards Major) 
John Pitt Kennedy [q. v.], who remained 
through life his attached friend. He did not 
lose sight of the Greek question, and received 
constant demands for advice from Prince 
Mavrocordato. Napier sent the Greek go- 



Napier 



47 



Napier 



verament a masterly memorandum on the 
military situation, including a plan of opera- 
tions and a strong recommendation to appoint 
Mavrocordato dictator. In the summer and 
autumn of 1823 he saw a good deal of Byron, 
who in January 1824, when Napier was going 
to England on leave, gave him a letter to the 
Greek committee in London, recommending 
him as ' our man to lead a regular force or 
to organise a national one for the Greeks/ 
He made a deep impression on Byron, who 
spoke of him on his deathbed. ISapier re- 
turned to England in the beginning of 1824, 
and put himself in communication with the 
Greek committee. His services were, how- 
ever, declined. He wrote a pamphlet on the 
Greek question, and a memoir on the roads 
of Cephalonia. 

In May 1825 he was back again in Ce- 

Shalonia. Maitland was dead, and Sir Fre- 
erick Adam [q. v.] had taken his place as high 
commissioner. Napier was promoted colonel 
in the army on 27 May 1825. He made the 
acquaintance of the missionary Joseph Wolff, 
who was wrecked off Cephalonia ; ror Wolff 
he had a great admiration. 

In September 1825 Ibrahim Pasha was 
ravaging the Morea, and the Greeks turned 
to Napier for help. Napier sent his condi- 
tions ; but the Greek government were per- 
suaded by the London committee to spend 
on ships of war the money which would 
have furnished Napier with an army. They 
still desired to secure his services, and offered 
a larger remuneration than he had asked for ; 
but he was not inclined to be dependent on 
the mismanagement and intrigues of the 
Greek government, and, failing to obtain com- 
plete power, he declined the offer, and tried 
to forget his disappointment in renewed 
efforts for the prosperity of his government. 
In 1826 he was suddenly called to England 
by the death of his mother. In April 1827 he 
married, and in July returned to Cephalonia. 
He could not brook the interference of the 
new high commissioner, and a coldness arose 
between them, which soon grew into hos- 
tility. The roads and public works in which 
he delighted were taken out of Napier's hands ; 
and the feudal proprietors, from whom Napier 
had exacted the duties of their position while 
curtailing some of their privileges, aggra- 
vated the ill-feeling by laying many com- 
plaints before the high commissioner. 

Early in 1830 Napier was obliged to take 
his wife to England on account of her health. 
Some months after his departure Adam sent 
home charges against Napier, seized his official 
papers, and publicly declared he would not 
allow him to return. Lord Goderich, who 
thought there were, no doubt, faults on both 



sides, offered Napier the residencv of Zante, 
a higher post than that of Cephatonia. But 
Napier declined the offer ; he considered his 
character was not vindicated unless he re- 
turned to Cephalonia. He lived with his 
family at one time in Berkshire, and at an- 
other in Hampshire, and then settled at 
Bath. During this interval of retirement he 
took an interest in politics, and occupied 
himself in writing a book on his government 
of Cephalonia. In 1833 he had a severe 
attack of cholera, and on 31 July of that year 
was completely prostrated by the death of 
his wife. He removed to Caen in Normandy, 
and devoted himself to the education of his 
daughters. 

In August 1834 a company received a 
charter to settle in South Australia, and the 
colonists petitioned for the appointment of 
Napier as governor. Many months of sus- 
pense ensued, during which Napier wrote a 
work on colonisation. In May 1835 he was 
informed that the terms which he proposed 
on behalf of the colonists were not acceptable 
to the company, and he declined the appoint- 
ment at the end of 1836. He married & 
second time in 1835, and again settled at 
Bath, where he entered eagerly into politics. 
He had a bitter controversy with O'Connell, 
which led to his publishing a dialogue on 
the poor laws. He also published a book 
on military law, and edited 'Lights and 
Shadows of Military Life/ from the French 
of Count Alfred de Vigny and Elzear Blase. 
But his principal literary work at this time was 
an historical romance entitled ' Harold/ the 
manuscript of which strangely disappeared. 
On 10 Jan. 1837 he was promoted major- 
general. In March 1838 he moved to Pater, 
Milford Havenw In July he was made a 
K.C.B. He applied for the command and 
lieutenant-governorship of Jersey, and, after 
considerable suspense, was refused. He then 
made a short tour in Ireland, visiting his old 
friend Kennedy, and the model farm at 
Glasnevin. A pamphlet on the state of 
Ireland was the result of his visit. 

In April 1839 Lord Hill appointed Napier 
to the command of the troops in the northern 
district, comprising the eleven northern coun- 
ties of England. Chartism was rife at the 
time; outrages were not infrequent, and 
Napier's political opinions were on the side of 
the people. He felt the responsibility, and, 
while sympathising with the distress that 
prevailed, determined to uphold law and 
order with a firm hand. He had excellent 
subordinates in Hew Ross, afterwards field- 
marshal, and Colin Campbell, afterwards 
Lord Clyde £<j. v.] Napier's well-organised 
measures judiciously maintained the law in a 



Napier 



48 



Napier 



time of considerable disaffection, and the 
crisis passed. 

In April 1841 he accepted an Indian com- 
mand offered to him by Lord Hill, and in 
October left for India. He assumed com- 
mand at Poona at the end of December. On 
the arrival in India of Lord Ellenborough as 
governor-general in 1842, he applied to Napier 
ior a statement of his view on the military 
situation. Napiersenthimamemorandumon 
4 March, recommending as the first step the 
prompt relief of Sale, who was holding Jalala- 
bad, and the formation of two strong columns 
to move on Kabul— one from Peshawar, the 
other from Kandahar by Ghazni. 

In August he was ordered to take com- 
mand in Upper and Lower Sind. He sailed 
from Bombay on 3 Sept. Cholera broke out 
on the voyage, and fifty-four lives were lost 
before Karachi was reached. A few days 
after landing, at a review of the troops, he 
was severely injured in the leg by the burst- 
ing of a rocket. On his recovery he sailed 
up the Indus to Haidarabad and Sakhar. 
Here he found himself chief agent in Sind 
of the governor-general, as well as general 
officer commanding the troops. Sind was 
divided under three distinct sets of rulers — 
the amirs of Khairpur or Upper Sind, the 
amirs of Haidarabad or Lower Sind, and 
the amir of Mirpur. The British occupied 
Shikarpur, Bakhar, and Karachi by treaty. 
The amirs were in a state of excitement, due 
to the recent British reverses in Afghanistan, 
while the return to India of General Eng- 
land's force through the Bolan pass, when 
both advanced on Kandahar, was interpreted 
as a retreat. The situation was critical. The 
governor-general had instructed Captain 
(afterwards General Sir) James Outram 
[q. v.], who was chief political officer before 
the arrival of Napier, in case any of the 
amirs proved faithless, to confiscate their 
dominions ; and Napier, after reading Lord 
Ellenborough's instructions, and receiving 
reports from Outram and others of the dis- 
affection of the amirs, made up his mind that 
the practical annexation of Sind was inevi- 
table, and could not be long delayed. The 
chief complaint against the amirs was the 
continued levying of tolls in violation of the 
treaty, notwithstanding frequent protests. 
Then came the discovery that negotiations 
were going on with neighbouring tribes for an 
offensive alliance against the British. Napier 
was impressed with the natural wealth of the 
country, and the oppression of the Pindis 
and Hindus by the governing class. ' They ' 
(the poor people), he says, ' live in a larder 
and yet starve . . . The ameers rob by taxes, 
the hill-tribes by matchlocks. 1 



Napier moved at the end of November to 
Shikarpur. A fresh treaty, based on Napier's 
reports, was ordered by the governor-general 
to be offered as an ultimatum. The pro- 
posal produced strong remonstrances from 
both Khairpur and Haidarabad. On 15 Dec. 
the British troops commenced the passage of 
the Indus, in order to occupy the territories 
mentioned in the treaty. Napier fixed his 
headquarters at Rohri, where, with his right 
resting on the river and his left on the 
desert, he barred the amirs from Subzalkot 
and Bhang-Bara, which were taken posses- 
sion of by Bengal troops. On 31 Dec. 1842 
Napier determined to seize the fortress of 
Imamghar, the impregnable refuge of the 
amirs, in the midst of the great desert in the 
east of Sind. He mounted 350 men of the 
Queen's 22nd regiment on camels, two sol- 
diers on each, and, taking two 24-pound howit- 
zers and two hundred Sind horse, started on 

5 Jan. 1843. On arriving on 12 Jan. at 
Imamghar, it was found to have been eva- 
cuated only a few hours by a garrison of two 
thousand men. After three days' rest the 
fortress was blown up, and Napier made for 
the Indus at Pir Abu Bakar, where he halted 
on 21 Jan. for the main body of his troops, 
and whence he could fall, if necessary, either 
upon the amirs of Haidarabad or those of 
Khairpur. The masterly stroke by which 
Napier seized Imamghar before hostilities 
haa actually commenced, and deprived the 
amirs of their last retreat in case of danger, 
elicited the warm praise of the Duke of Wel- 
lington. 

Napier at this time had the governor- 
general's authority to compel the amirs to 
accept the new treaty. Outram thought 
that its acceptance could be obtained by 
negotiations, while Napier knew that every 
day's delay would bring him nearer to the 
hot weather, when operations in the field 
would be difficult. He nevertheless was so 
far influenced by Outram that he decided to 
try what peaceable measures would do, and 
sent Outram to Khairpur as his commissioner 
to issue a proclamation calling on the amirs 
of both provinces to jJPpear on 20 Jan. to 
complete the treaty. The time was extended 
to 25 Jan. and then to 1 Feb., and again to 

6 Feb. Meanwhile Napier sent Outram, at 
his own request, to Haidarabad, and himself 
moved with his army slowly southward. He 
reached Nowshera on 30 Jan. Outram was 
still sanguine of a peaceful issue, and, report- 
ing that not a man in arms was at Haidara- 
bad, suggested that the only thing wanting 
was that Napier should leave his army and go 
in person to Haidarabad. But Napier had in- 
telligence that some twenty-five thousand 



Napier 



49 



Napier 



men were collected within six miles of Hai- 
darabad, that ten thousand of the Khandesh 
tribe were coming down the left bank of the 
Indus, that seven thousand men under Rustam 
were in rear of his left flank at Khunhera, that 
ten thousand under Shir Muhammad were 
marching from Mirpur, while in the moun- 
tains on the right bank of the Indus thousands 
were ready at a signal to pour down upon the 
plains. He therefore ridiculed Outranks pro- 
posal. On 12 Feb. 1843 Outram met the 
amirs, who, with the exception of Nasir 
Khan, signed the draft treaties ; but the ex- 
citement in the city was so great that Outram 
and his staff" were threatened and insulted 
on their way back to their quarters. Next 
day the amirs represented tnat they could 
not restrain their followers, and on the 16th 
the residency was attacked, and Outram 
and his gallant band, after some hours' 
siege, fought their way to the steamers, 
which carried them off to rejoin the main 
force. 

Napier had waited at Nowshera until 
6 Feb. He then marched to Sakarand, where 
he halted on 11 Feb. After three days he 
reached Sindabad, and on 16 Feb. he was at 
MatarL Towards evening he heard that the 
enemy were ten miles off, entrenched in the 
bed of the Falaili river near Miani (Meanee). 
The lowest estimate of the enemy's strength 
was twenty-two thousand. Napier's force 
was less tnan 2,800, and this number was 
further reduced by six hundred men, of whom 
two hundred were sent with Outram to fire 
the forests on the enemy's flank, while four 
hundred men were in charge of baggage. Of 
the 2,200 men remaining, fewer than five 
hundred were Europeans. 

The enemy was discovered at daybreak of 
the 17th, and at nine o'clock in the morning 
the British line of battle was formed. The 
baggage, the animals, and the large body of 
camp followers were formed up in the feri- 
tish rear, and surrounded with a ring of camels 
facing inwards, with bales between them for 
the armed followers to fire over. This impro- 
vised defence was guarded by 250 Poona horse 
and four companies of infantry. Napier's 
order of battle was — artillery with twelve 
guns and fifty sappers on the right, 22nd 
Queen's regiment next, and on the left the 
25th, 12th, and 1st grenadier native regi- 
ments in succession, the whole in echelon ; 
on the left of the line were the 9th Bengal 
cavalry and the Sind or Jacob's horse. The 
enemy had eighteen guns, and were strongly 
posted on a curve of the river, convex to the 
British, with a skikargah on each side flank- 
ing their front. The skikargah, or woody 
enclosure, on the left was covered towards , 

TOL. XL. 



the plain by a stone wall ; behind the wall 
six thousand Baluchis were posted. 

Giving the order to advance, Napier rode 
forward, and noting an opening in the wall on 
his right flank, with an inspiration of genius 
thrust a company of the 22nd regiment and 
a gun into the space, telling Captain Tew to 
block the gap, and if necessary die there, thus 
paralysing tne six thousand Baluchis within 
with a force of eighty men. Tew died at his 
post, but his diminished company held the 
gap to the end. The main body of the 
British, advancing in columns of regiments 
in echelon under heavy fire, formed into line 
successively as each regiment approached 
the river Falaili, and charged up tne bank, 
but staggered back on seeing the sea of tur- 
bans and of waving swords that filled all 
the broad, deep bea of the river, now dry. 
For over two hours the British line remained 
a few yards from the top of the bank, ad- 
vancing to deliver their fire into the masses 
of the enemy in the river-bed, and returning 
to load. The Baluchis, driven desperate by 
the increasing volleys of the British, pressed 
upon from behind, and unable to retreat, 
made frequent charges ; but, as these were 
not executed in concert along their line, the 
British troops were able to overlap round 
their flanks and push them back over the 
edge. The Balucnis fought stubbornly. No* 
fire of musketry, discharge of grape, or push 
of bayonet could drive them hack. Leap- 
ing at the guns, they were blown away by 
scores at a time, their gaps being continually 
filled from the rear, rfapier could not leave 
this desperate conflict. He saw the struggle 
could not last much longer, and, judging* 
that the supreme moment nad come, he sent 
orders to his cavalry on the left to charge on 
the enemy's right. He himself rode up and 
down his infantry line, holding, as it seemed,, 
a charmed life, while urging his men to sus- 
tain the increasing fury of the enemy. The 
British cavalry swept down on the enemy's 
right, dashed through their guns, rode over 
the high bank of the river, crossed its bed, 
gained the plain beyond, and charged into 
the enemy's rear with irresistible fury. Then 
the Baluchis in front looked behind, and the 
British infantry, seizing the opportunity, 
charged with a shout, pushed the Baluchis 
into the ravine, and closed in hand-to-hand 
fight. The battle was won. The Baluchis 
slowly moved off, as if half inclined to renew 
the conflict. With a British loss of twenty 
officers and 250 men out of 2,200, no less 
than 6,000 Baluchis were killed or wounded, 
and more than three times as many were in 
retreat. Napier was content. Quarter was 
neither asked nor given, but there was n» 



Napier 



5° 



Napier 



desire to follow up the beaten foe. Haidar- 
abad surrendered, and six amirs gave up their 
swords. 

Shir Muhammad, the Lion of Mirpur, con- 
fident in the defeat of the British, and un- 
willing to swell the triumph of his rivals, 
was a few miles off, with ten thousand men. 
lie now retreated on Mirpur, where he soon 
found himself at the head of twenty-five 
thousand men. The position was one that 
called forth all Napier's powers. His force 
was greatly reduced, the thermometer was 
110° in the shade, he had no transport, and 
Haidarabad, in which he was obliged to place 
a garrison of five hundred men, was too far 
from the Indus to serve as a base or depot. 
Knowing that Shir Muhammad was a good 
soldier, but deficient in wealth, he resolved 
to give him time, hoping that a large army 
and no money would compel him to attack. 
Napier sent to Sakhar for all available troops 
to join him by river. These reinforcements, 
consisting of a regiment of Bengal cavalry, 
a regiment of native infantry, and a troop 
of horse artillery, duly arrived ; while Major 
Stack's brigade of fifteen hundred men and 
^ve guns joined him from the north on 
22 March. Napier had entrenched a camp 
close to the Indus, with a strong work on the 
other side of the river to protect his steamers. 
In the camp he placed his stores and hos- 
pital, with every appearance of the greatest 
caution, in February, and sat down to wait. 
During this time of suspense he, in the words 
of his hero, the Duke of Wellington, ' mani- 
fested all the discretion and ability of an officer 
familiar with the most difficult operations of 
war.' On 23 March reinforcements reached 
him from Bombay and from Sakhar. The 
Lion was slowly approaching, and sent en- 
voys to summon iSapier to surrender. On 
the morning of the 24th Napier marched to 
attack the enemy. He crossed diagonally the 
front of Haidarabad towards Dubba, eight 
miles to the north-west of the city. He found 
the Lion posted at Dubba with fifteen guns 
and twenty-six thousand men. Two lines of 
infantry were entrenched. The right rested 
on a curve of the river Falaili and could not 
be turned by reason of soft mud in the bed of 
the river, while the bank was covered with 
dense wood ; in front of the position was a 
scarped nullah, behind which the first line of 
infantry extended for two miles to another 
wood, and then bent back behind a second 
nullah. The cavalry were massed in advance 
of the left, under cover of the wood. Behind 
the right, where it rested in the Falaili, was 
the village of Dubba, filled with men. 

Napiers force numbered five thousand 
men, of which eleven hundred were cavalry, 



with nineteen guns, of which five were horse 
artillery. The battle began about 9 a.m. 
Napier brought his horse artillery to his left 
flank and advanced by echelon of battalions 
from the left, the horse artillery leading, with 
two cavalry regiments in support resting on 
the Falaili. The 22nd Queen's regiment 
formed the left of the infantry, then came 
four native regiments, and on tne right were 
the 3rd cavalry and Sind horse. The horse 
artillery opened a raking fire, and the infantry 
pushed on for the village. The Baluchis closed 
at a run to their right. It was soon dis- 
covered that neither the village nor the nullah 
in front had been neglected. The 22nd, who 
led the way, were met by a destructive fire, 
and the existence of the enemy's second line 
became known. Napier had undervalued the 
skill of the Lion, and there was nothing for 
it but to make up for the mistake by per- 
sistent courage. He himself led the charge, 
and, by dint of hard fighting and indomitable 
resolution, Dubba was at length carried. The 
Baluchis lounged off, as at Miani, slowly, 
and with apparent indifference to the volleys 
of musketry which, at only a few yards' 
range, continually rolled them in the dust. 
Five thousand of the enemy were killed, 
while Napier's loss amounted to 270, of whom 
147 were of the 22nd regiment. Napier's es- 
cape was marvellous, considering that he led 
the regiment in person. His orderly's horse 
was struck and his own sword-hilt. Towards 
the end of the battle a field magazine of the 
enemy, close to Napier, blew up and killed 
all around him ; but, although his sword was 
broken in his hand, he was not hurt. Sending 
his wounded to Haidarabad, Napier pursued 
Shir Muhammad with forced marches in 
spite of the heat, ne reached Mirpur on 
27 March, to find that the Lion had aban- 
doned his capital and fled, with his family 
and treasure, to Omerkot. Napier remained 
at Mirpur, and sent the Sind horse and a 
camel battery to follow up the Lion. On 
4 April the troops entered Omerkot, a hun- 
dred miles from Dubba, and in the heart of 
the desert. The Lion had fled northwards 
with a few followers. On 8 April Napier was 
back at Haidarabad. So long as the Lion 
was at large in the country Napier felt that 
the settlement of Sind could not be effected, 
and all through the hot weather his troops 
were on his track. Napier surrounded him 
gradually by forces unaer Colonel Roberts 
and Major John Jacob [q.v.] Many men 
were lost, and Napier was himself knocked 
over with sunstroke, when Jacob, on 14 June 
at Shah-dal-pur, finally defeated Shir Mu- 
hammad, who escaped to his family across 
the Indus into the Kachi hills. 



Napier 



51 



Napier 



The war was now at an end, and the task 
of annexing and settling the country was to 
begin. A great controversy took place as 
to the necessity for the conquest of Sind, in 
which Outram and Napier took opposite 
sides. On the one side it was alleged that 
Lord Ellenborough and Napier had made up 
their minds that Sind should be annexed, but 
that the amirs might have been safely left to 
rule their country ; and that, had they been 
differently treated, there need have been no 
war. On the other side it was stated that 
the disaffection of Sind could not be allayed 
by pacific measures ; that it was ' the tail of 
the Afghan storm/ to use Napier's expres- 
sion, and that it was necessary to act with 
promptitude, decision, and firmness. Napier 
found a state of things bordering on war. 
For a short time he listened to his political 
adviser, then he acted for himself, and in 
the course of a few months Sind was con- 
quered. The conquered country had now to 
be organised. Napier had a great talent for 
administration. His administrative staff was 
composed principally of military men, who 
were naturally unfavourably criticised by 
their civilian brethren; but Napier knew he 
had the support of the ffovernor-general, and 
he energetically pushed forward the work of 
settlement. He lost no time in receiving 
the submission of the chiefs, and he con- 
ciliated more than four hundred of them. 
He organised the military occupation of the 
country. He established a civil government 
in all its branches, social, financial, and 
judicial, and organised an effective police 
force. He exammed in person the principal 
mouths of the Indus, with a view to com- 
merce, and entered enthusiastically into a 
scheme to make Karachi the second port of 
the Indian empire. He was a prolific writer, 
and, though twice struck down with disease, 
he maintained a large private correspond- 
ence, carried on a considerable public one, 
and entered into all the schemes for the 
government of the new state with an energy 
that never sank under labour. On 24 May 
1844 he celebrated the queen's birthday by 
holding a durbar at Haidarabad, and sum- 
moned all the Sindian Baluchi chiefs to do 
homage. Some three thousand chiefs, with 
twenty thousand men, attended, and ex- 
pressed their contentment with the new 
order of things. 

The hot contention on the question of the 
annexation of Sind had delayed the vote of 
the thanks of parliament for the success of 
the military operation, and the vote was not 
taken until February 1844. The Duke of 
Wellington had already written to Napier, 
congratulating him warmly on 'the two glo- 



rious battles of Meanee and Hyderabad ; ' 
and in his place in the House of Lords 
he stated that he had 'never known any 
instance of an officer who had shown in a 
higher degree that he possesses all the quali- 
ties and qualifications necessary to enable 
him to conduct great operations. He has 
maintained the utmost discretion and pru- 
dence in the formation of his plans, the ut- 
most activity in all the preparations to insure 
his success, and, finally, the utmost zeal and 
gallantry and science m carrying them into 
execution.' Sir Robert Peel was enthusiastic 
in his admiration not only for Napier's cha- 
racter and military achievements, but for the 
matter and form of his despatches. ' No one/ 
he said, ' ever doubted Sir Charles Napier's 
military powers ; but in his other character he 
does surprise me — he is possessed of extra- 
ordinary talent for civil administration.' To 
Edward Coleridge, Peel said that as a writer 
he was much inclined to rank Charles Napier 
above his brother William ; that not only he, 
but all the members of the government who 
had read his letters and despatches from Sind, 
had been immensely struck by their masterly" 
clearness of mind and vigour of expression. 
Napier was made a G.CJB., and on 21 Nov. 
1843 was given the colonelcy of the 22nd 
regiment. He was quite content, and, speak- 
ing of Wellington's praise of him, said: ' The 
hundred-gun ship has taken the little cock- 
boat in tow, and it will follow for ever over 
the ocean of time.' 

At the end of 1844 Napier began his cam- 
paign against the hill tribes on the northern 
frontier, who had been raiding into Sind. 
He reached Sakhar the week before Christ- 
mas 1844. He made Sakhar his base for his 
operations against Beja Khan Dumki, the 
leading hill chief, and his eight thousand fol- 
lowers. Napier's men were attacked by fever, 
and the greater part of the 78th highlanders 
perished. Beja heard of the sickness, and, 
presuming that it would stop Napier's ope- 
rations, the hillmen remained with their 
flocks and herds on the level and compara- 
tively fertile land at the foot of the Kachi 
hills. Napier then suddenly sallied forth in 
three columns, moved by forced marches, 
surprised the tribes, captured thousands of 
cattle, most of their grain supplv, forced the 
enemy into the hills, and waited at the en- 
trances to the passes for his guns and com- 
missariat. It was early in January 1845 
when the advance began. His energetic 
operations and the indefatigable exertions 
of Jacob and Fitzgerald with the irregular 
horse soon put him in possession of Pulaji, 
Shahpur, and Ooch, with small loss. But 
Beja Khan was not easily caught, and it was 

b2 



Napier 



5* 



Napier 



not until after many weary marches, with 
little water to be had, and many sharp fights, 
that Beja and his men were driven into 
Traki, a curious fastness, of a basin-like 
form, with sides of perpendicular rock six 
hundred feet high all round it with only two 
openings, north and south. Beja and his fol- 
lowers were captured on 9 March 1845. Lord 
Ellenborough nad been recalled, much to 
Napier's grief ; but Sir Henry Hardinjje [q. v.l 
the new governor-general, was lavish with 
his praise. No word of recognition of his 
arduous campaign reached him, however, 
from home. By the end of March Napier 
had returned to his administrative duties in 
Sind. 

The first Sikh war broke out on 13 Dec. 
1845, and on 24 Dec. Napier received orders 
to assemble with all speed an army of fifteen 
thousand men, with a siege train, at Rohri. 
By 6 Feb. 1846 he was at Kohri with fifteen 
thousand men, many of whom had been 
brought from Bombay, eighty-six pieces of 
cannon, and three hundred yards of bridge, 
' the whole ready to march, carriage and 
everything complete, and such a spirit in 
the troops as cannot be surpassed.' While 
he was in the midst of his preparations the 
battle of Ferozeshah was fought. Hardinge 
ordered Napier to direct his forces upon 
Bhawalpur, and to come himself to head- 
quarters. Leaving his army on 10 Feb., he 
reached Lahore on 3 March, to find Sobraon 
had been fought and the war was over. 
Early in April Napier was back at Karachi. 
Cholera broke out, and seven thousand per- 
sons died in Karachi, of whom eight hundred 
were soldiers. He lost his favourite nephew, 
John Napier (an able soldier), and also a 
favourite little ^randniece. This affliction, 
with the harassing work and great respon- 
sibility, began to tell on his health, and as 
time went on he had many worries with the 
court of directors of the East India Com- 
pany, for whom he had no affection, and who 
treated him with little consideration. On 
9 Nov. 1846 he was promoted lieutenant- 
general. In July 184? he resigned the go- 
vernment of Sind, and on 1 Oct. left India 
for Europe, staying some time at Nice with 
his brother George. On his way to Eng- 
land, in May 1848, he paid a visit to Mar- 
shal Soult in Paris, and recalled Coruna. The 
marshal paid him the highest compliment, 
telling him he had studied all his operations 
in China (!) and entirely approved them. He 
met with a cordial reception, on arriving in 
London, from Wellington and Peel, and Lord 
EUenborough, whom, strange to say, he had 
never before met, though they had worked 
so loyally together in India, 



After a short visit to Ireland, where he 
received an enthusiastic welcome, he settled 
down at Cheltenham, and occupied himself 
in writing a pamphlet advocating the orga- 
nisation of a baggage corps for the Indian 
army. Early in 1849 the Sikh troubles pro- 
duced a general demand in England for a 
change in the command. The court of direc- 
tors applied to the Duke of Wellington to 
recommend to them a general for the crisis, 
and he named Napier. The suggestion was 
ill received, and the duke was asked to name 
some one else; he then named Sir George 
Napier, who declined. Sir William Mavnard 
Gomm [q. v.l was eventually selected, and 
sailed from Mauritius. Late in February 
came the news of the battle of Chillian- 
wallah. A most unjust outcry arose against 
Lord Gough, and there was a popular call 
for Charles Napier. The directors yielded, 
but tried to arrange that he should not have 
a seat in the supreme council. Napier de- 
clined to go unless he were given the seat, 
and this was at last conceded. After the usual 
banquet at the India House, Napier left Eng- 
land on 24 March, reached Calcutta on 6 May, 
and assumed the command ; the war was, 
however, over, and Napier unstintedly praised 
Lord Gough's conduct of it. 

In November 1849 a mutinous spirit ex- 
hibited itself in the native army, which Na- 
pier was determined to put down. The 66th 
regiment, on its way from Lucknow into the 
Punjab in January 1860, halted at Gorind- 
ghur, where they refused their pay, and tried 
to shut the gates of the fortress, and were 
only prevented by the accidental presence 
of a cavalry regiment on its way back from 
the Punjab. Is apier ordered that the native 
officers, non-commissioned officers, and pri- 
vate sepoys of the 66th regiment should be 
marched to Ambala, and there struck off 
the rolls, and that the colours should be de- 
livered to the loyal men of the Nasiri Ghurkha 
battalion, who should in future be called the 
66th or Ghurka regiment. About the same 
time the regulation by which an allowance 
was made to the sepoys for purchasing their 
food was called in question. Heareey, the 
brigadier-general in command at Waiira- 
bad, where the regulation was unknown, 
deemed it unsafe to enforce it until it had 
been carefully explained to the sepoys on 
parade. Hearsey s opinion was endorsed 
by the divisional commander, Sir Walter 
Raleigh Gilbert [a. v.], and was laid before 
Napier by the adjutant-general of the In- 
dian army, with a recommendation that the 
regulation should not be enforced. Lord 
Dalhousie, the governor-general, was on a 
sea voyage, and the members of the supreme 



Napier 



S3 



Napier 



council separated from the scene by journeys 
of weeks. Napier therefore took upon him- 
self the responsibility of suspending the re- 
gulation pending a reference to the supreme 
council. Greatly to his surprise, three 
months later he received a severe reprimand 
from the governor-general for exercising 
powers which belonged to the supreme coun- 
cil. Napier resigned. He left Simla on 
16 Nov. 1850, and went down the Indus. At 
Haidarabad the sirdars collected for many 
miles round, and presented him with a sword 
of honour. At Bombay a public banquet 
was given to him. 

In March 1851 he was back in England. 
He took a small property at Oaklands on the 
Hampshire Downs, a few miles from Ports- 
mouth. The disease which had settled on 
his liver ever since his ride to Lahore in 
1846 was making rapid strides ; but he was 
not a man to remain idle, and he commenced 
a work entitled ' Defects, Civil and Military, 
of the Indian Government,' which he did not 
live to complete, but which was eventually 
edited and published by his brother William. 
In February 1852 he published a 'Letter 
on the Defence of England by Corps of 
Volunteers and Militia,' which did some- 
thing to prepare the way for the great volun- 
teer movement of 1859. In spite of illness, 
he took his place as one of the pall-bearers 
at the Duke of Wellington's funeral, where 
he caught a severe cold, which could not be 
shaken off. He never recovered his health, 
and died on 29 Aug. 1853. He was buried in 
the small churchyard of the garrison chapel at 
Portsmouth. His funeral was a private one, 
but Lords Ellenborough and Hardinge and 
many distinguished officers attended it, and 
the whole garrison crowded to the grave. 

On the north side of the entrance to the 
north transept of St. Paul's Cathedral is a 
marble statue of Napier by G. G. Adams, 
with the simple inscription of his name and 
the words : ' A prescient general, a beneficent 
governor, a j ust man.' In Trafalgar Square, 
London, is a colossal statue or Napier in 
bronze, by the same sculptor, which was 
erected by public subscription. By far the 
larger number of subscribers were private 
soldiers. A portrait of Napier, painted in 
1853 by E. Williams, is in the possession of 
Lady McMurdo; another, sketched in oils 
by George Jones, R.A., is in the National 
Portrait Gallery, London, having been pre- 
sented by Napier's widow. 

Napier was essentially a hero. With his 
keen, hawklike eye, aquiline nose, and im- 
pressive features, his appearance exercised a 
powerful fascination ; while his disregard of 
luxury, simplicity of manner, careful atten- 



tion to the wants of the soldiers under his 
command, and enthusiasm for duty and right 
won him the love and admiration of his men. 
His journals testify to his religious convic- 
tions, while his life was one long protest 
against oppression, injustice, and wrong- 
doing. Generous to a iault, a radical in poli- 
tics yet an autocrat in government, not- 
tempered and impetuous, he was a man 
to inspire strong affection or the reverse, 
and his enemies were as numerous as his 
friends. 

Napier was twice married : first, in 1827, 
to Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Oakeley, 
and widow of Francis John Kelly ; she died 
on 31 July 1833. Secondly, in 1835, to 
Frances, daughter of William Philips, esq., 
of Court Henry, Carmarthenshire, and widow 
of Richard AJcock, esq., royal navy. She 
survived him, and died on 22 June 1872. 

Napier was the author of the following 
works : 1. ' Memoir on the Roads of Cepha- 
lonia .... accompanied by Statistical Tables, 
State of the Thermometer,' &c, 8vo, London, 
1825. 2. 'The Colonies; treating of their 
value generally, of the Ionian Islands in par- 
ticular .... Strictures on the Administra- 
tion of Sir F. Adam/ 8vo, London, 1833. 
3. 'Colonisation, particularly in Southern 
Australia; with some Remarks on Small 
Farms and Overpopulation,' 8vo, London, 
1835. 4. 'Remarks on Military Law and 
the Punishment of Flogging,' 8vo, London, 
1837. 5. 'A Dialogue on the Poor Laws,' 
1838 (?) 6. 'Lights and Shadows of Mili- 
tary Life,' a volume containing translations 
of Count A. de Vigny's 'Servitude et Gran- 
deur Militaires,' and Elzear Blase's ' Military 
Life in Bivouac, Camp, Garrison,' to which 
were added essays by Napier, 12mo, London, 
1840. 7. 'A Letter to the Right Hon. Sir J. 
Hobhouse ... on the Baggage of the In- 
dian Army,' 3rd edit. 8vo, London, 1849; 
4th edit, same date. 8. ' A Letter on the 
Defence of England by Corps of Volunteers 
and Militia, &c,' 8vo, London, 1852. 9. ' De- 
fects, Civil and Military, of the Indian Govern- 
ment. . . . Edited (with a supplementary 
chapter) by Sir W. F. P. Napier,' 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1853. 10. 'William the Conqueror: 
a Historical Romance . . . Sir W. Napier, 
editor,' 8vo, London, 1858. He also edited 
' The Nursery Governess (with the addition 
of two other stories)/ London, 1834, 12mo, 
written by his first wife, Elizabeth Napier ; 
and contributed to ' Minutes on the Resig- 
nation of the late General Sir Charles Napier/ 
London, 1854, 8vo. A compilation ot his 
general orders issued between 1842 and 1847 
was published in 1850 by Edward Green, and 
' Records of the Indian Command of General 



Napier 



54 



Napier 



Sir C. J. Napier, comprising all his General 
Orders, Remarks on Courts-Martial, &c, with 
an Appendix containing Reports of Speeches, 
Copies of Letters . . . extracted from Con- 
temporaneous Prints, by J. Mawson/ ap- 
peared at Calcutta in 1854. 

[Despatches ; War Office Records; India Office 
Records; Works by his brother, Sir W. F. P. 
Napier; Life by William Napier Bruce, 1855; 
Life by Sir W. F. Butler, 1890 ; Corrections of 
a few of the Errors contained in Sir W. Napier's 
Life of Sir Charles Napier, by G. Buist, 1857; 
Remarks on the Native Troops of the Indian 
Army, and Notes on certain Passages in Sir 
Charles Napier's Posthumous Work on the De- 
fects of the Indian Government, by John Jacob, 
C.B., 1854 ; a Few Brief Comments on Sir Charles 
Napier's Letter on the Baggage of the Indian 
Army, by Lieutenant-colonel W. Barton, 1849; 
Sir Charles Napier's Indian Baggage Corps ; Re- 
ply to Lieutenant-colonel Burton's Attack (on a 
pamphlet by the former), 1850 ; Finlay's Hist, 
of Greece, vols. vi. and vii. ; Four Famous Sol- 
diers, by T. R E. Holmes, 1889; The Career 
and Conduct of Sir Charles Napier, the Con- 
queror of Scinde, by W. MacColl, 1857 ; General 
Sir C. J. Napier as Conqueror and Governor of 
Scinde, by P. L. MacDougall, 1860 ; History of 
the Indian Administration of Lord Ellenborough, 
edited by Lord Colchester, 1874.1 R. H. V. 

NAPIER, DAVID (1790-1869), marine 
engineer, was born in 1790, and with his 
cousin, Robert Napier (1791-1876) [q. v.] 
laid the foundation of the well-known firm 
of Napier & Sons, shipbuilders and marine 
engineers, of Govan, Glasgow. In 1818 he 
was the first to introduce British coasting 
steamers as well as steam-packets for the 
post-office service. He was also the first 
to establish a regular steam communication 
between Greenock and Belfast. For two 
winters his vessel, the Rob Roy, of about 
90 tons burden and 30 horse-power, plied 
with regularity between these ports, and 
was then transferred to the English Chan- 
nel to serve as a packet-boat between Dover 
and Calais. Shortlv afterwards Napier caused 
an elaborate vessel, named the Talbot, to be 
built for him, and, placing in her two en- 
gines of 30 horse-power each, thus made 
her the finest steam vessel of her time. He 
employed her in running between Holyhead 
and Dublin. In 1822 he established a line of 
steam vessels between Liverpool, Greenock, 
and Glasgow, applying to the purpose the 
Robert Bruce, of 160 tons, with two 30-horse- 
power engines ; the Superb, of 240 tons, with 
two35-horse-power engines ; and the Eclipse, 
of 240 tons, with two 30- horse-power engines. 
In 1826 Napier constructed machinery for 



Greenock, and was 160 feet long, 26J feet 
beam, and 200 horse-power. 

Napier invented the steeple engine, which 
was a great improvement on the side lever 
as occupying much less space, and was one 
of the first, if not the first, to try the appli- 
cation of the surface condenser in marine 
engines.^ Probably, with the exception of 
Robert Napier, no man individually aid more 
to improve the steam navigation of the world. 
For many years previous to his death he lived 
in retirement at Worcester. Late in life 
he proposed a plan for the removal of the 
Glasgow sewage by means of barges, and 
offered to subscribe 600/. towards testing the 
scheme. He died at 8 Upper Phillimore 
Gardens, Kensington, London, on 23 Nov. 
1869, aged 79. 

[Glasgow Daily Herald, 27 Nov. 1869, pp. 4, 5 ; 
Engineering, 3 Dec. 1869, p. 365 ; Dlust. Lon- 
don News, 11 Dec. 1869, p. 602.] G. C. B. 

NAPIER, EDWARD DELAVAL 
HUNGERFORD ELERS (1808-1870), 
lieutenant-general and author, born in 1808, 
was elder son of Edward Elers, lieutenant in 
the royal navy, who was grandson of Paul 
Elers [see Elers, John Philip], and died in 
1814. His mother, Frances Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Lieutenant George Younghusband, 
R.N., married in 1815— after her first hus- 
band's death— Captain (afterwards Admiral 
Sir) Charles Napier [q. v.], who adopted her 
four children, the latter taking the name of 
Napier in addition to that of Elers. 

Edward was educated at the Royal Military 
College, Sandhurst, and on 11 Aug. 1825 was 
appointed ensign in the 46th foot, in which 
he became lieutenant on 11 Oct. 1826, and 
captain on 21 June 1831. He served with 
his regiment in India, and was present with 
the nizam's subsidiary force at the siege of 
Haidarabad in 1830. The regiment returned 
home in 1833, and in 1836 Napier entered 
the senior department of the Royal Military 
College, but left in 1837, before passing his 
examination, on the regiment being ordered 
to Gibraltar. He commanded the light 
company for several years. While at Gibraltar 
he made frequent excursions into Spain and 
Barbary in pursuit of field sports, and also 
took a cruise in his stepfather's ship, the 
Powerful, 84 guns, in which he visitea Con- 
stantinople and Asia Minor, and acquired a 
knowledge of Levantine countries, which led 
to his subsequent employment on special 
service there. At this time he published 
some ' Remarks on the Troady which at- 
tracted attention, and presented a highly 



the United Kingdom, the largest vessel yet finished map of the locality, from his own 
designed ; she was built by Mr. Steele of surveys, to the Royal Geographical Society, 



Napier 



55 



Napier 



London. He obtained his majority on 1 1 Oct. 
1839. When the British fleet was engaged 
on the coast of Syria in 1840, Napier was 
sent out with the local rank of lieutenant- 
colonel and assistant adjutant-general, and 
was despatched to the Nablous Mountains 
to keep the Druse and Maronite chiefs firm 
in their allegiance to the sultan. In the 
depth of winter, which was very severe in the 
mountains, he collected a force of fifteen 
hundred irregular cavalry, whom he declared 
to be ' as ruffianly a lot of cut- throats as ever a 
Christian gentleman had command of,' with 
which he watched Ibrahim Pasha, the leader 
of the Egyptians, who had opened hostilities 
with the Turks, so closely that Ibrahim 
retreated through the desert east and south 
of Palestine instead of occupying Jerusalem 
and ravaging the settled country round about 
as he had intended ; but Napier 8 cut-throats, 
coming suddenly upon an outpost of Ibra- 
him's cavalry, shortly afterwards decamped, 
leaving Napier and three other Europeans to 
themselves. Napier repaired to the Turkish 
headquarters, where he was appointed mili- 
tary commissioner, but the convention of 
Alexandria put an end to the war. In 
January 1841 Napier was despatched to bring 
back the chiefs of the Lebanon, whom Ibra- 
him Pasha had sent to work in the gold 
mines of Sennaars, a service he successfully 
completed. He had not long rejoined the 
46th at Gibraltar when he was despatched 
to Egypt by the foreign office to demand the 
release of the Syrian troops detained by 
Mahomet Ali, and to conduct them to Bey- 
rout. In this mission he was also successful. 
It occupied him from May to September 1841, 
during which time the plague was raging in 
Alexandria. He escaped the pestilence, hut 
contracted the seeds of ophthalmia, which 
caused him much suffering in after years. For 
his services in Syria and Egypt he was made 
brevet lieutenant-colonel from 31 Dec. 1841, 
and received the Syrian medal and a gold 
medal from the Sultan. Being reported 
medically unfit to accompany his regiment 
to the "West Indies, he retired on half-pay 
unattached in 1843, and afterwards resided 
some time in Portugal. In 1846 he was sent 
to the Cape with other special service field 
officers to organise the native levies, and 
commanded bodies of irregulars during the 
Kaffir war of 1846-7. He became brevet- 
colonel, while still on half-pay, on 20 June 
1854. Admiral Sir Charles Napier, then in 
command of the Baltic fleet, applied to Lord 
Hardinge for the services of his stepson 
as British military commissioner with the 
French force in the Baltic under General 
Baraguay d'Hilliers,but the letter was never 



answered, and Napier's applications for em- 
ployment in the Crimea were not accepted. 
With characteristic energy he did much 
good work during the first winter in the 
Crimea in collecting funds for warm clothing 
for the troops, and personally superintending 
its shipment. He became a major-general on 
26 Oct. 1858,wa8 appointed colonel of the 61st 
regiment in 1864, was promoted to lieutenant- 
general on 3 Oct. 1864, and transferred to 
the colonelcy of his old corps, the 46th, on 

22 Feb. 1870. 

Napier married in 1844 Ellen Louisa, 
heiress of Thomas Daniel, of the Madras civil 
service, by whom he had two children. He 
died at Westhill, Shanklin, Isle of Wight, 
on 19 June 1870, aged 63. 

Napier was a man of literary and artistic 
ability, and a frequent and very practical 
writer in the public press and elsewhere on 
professional topics. Besides contributing to 
the magazines, chiefly 'Bailey's' and the 
' United Service Magazine,' for over twenty 
years, he was author of the following works : 
1. ' Scenes and Sports in Foreign Lands/ 
2 vols. 1840. 2. 'Excursions on the Shores 
of the Mediterranean/ 2 vols. 1842. 3. 'Remi- 
niscences of Syria/ 1843. 4. ' Wild Sports 
in Europe, Asia, and Africa/ 1844. 6. ' Ex- 
cursions in South Africa, including a History 
of the Cape Colony' ('Book of me Cape'), 
1849. 6. ' Life and Correspondence of Ad- 
miral Sir Charles Napier/ 1862. 

[Hart's Army Lists; Life of Admiral Sir 
Charles Napier, London, 1862; Memoir in Col- 
burn's United Service Mag., August 1870.] 

H. M. C. 

NAPIER, FRANCIS, seventh Lobd 
Napier (1768-1823), born at Ipswich on 

23 Feb. 1758, was eldest son of William, 
sixth lord Napier, who from 17 Jan. 1763 
until his death on 2 Jan. 1775 was adjutant- 

General of the forces in Scotland, by his wife, 
fainie (or Marion Anne), fourth daughter 
of Charles, eighth lord Cathcart. He entered 
the army on 3 Dec. 1774 as ensign in the 
3l8t regiment of foot, and on 21 March 1776 
obtained a lieutenancy in the same regiment. 
Having accompanied his regiment to Canada 
under General Burgoyne, he was one of those 
who surrendered to the American general, 
Gates, at Saratoga on 16 Oct. 1777. For six 
months he was detained a prisoner at Cam- 
bridge, but obtained permission to return to 
Europe on giving his parole not to serve in 
America until regularly exchanged. This 
took place in October 1780. On 7 JSov. 1779 
he purchased a captain's commission in the 
35th foot, which, at the peace in 1788, was 
reduced to half-pay. On 81 May 1784 he 



Napier 



56 



Napier 



exchanged to full pay as captain of the 4th 
regiment of foot, and on 29 Dec. purchased 
the majority of that corps, which ne sold in 
1789. 

On 16 Sept. 1789 Napier laid the founda- 
tion-stone of the new buildings of Edin- 
burgh University, and on 11 Nov. following 
the university conferred on him the degree 
of LL.D. At the election of Scottish peers 
on 24 July 1790 the vote of Napier was 
protested against, on account of an error in 
writing sexagenmo instead of septvagesimo in 
the second patent of the barony of Napier 
when referring to the date of the original 
charter in 1677 ; but on 25 Feb. 1793 the 
lord chancellor moved the committee of 
privileges to resolve that Napier was entitled 
to vote at the election of 1790, and the reso- 
lution was unanimously agreed to, and con- 
firmed by the House of Lords on 4 July. He 
was chosen a representative peer in 1796, 
and again in 1802 and in 1807. On 12 Nov. 
1797 he was appointed lord-lieutenant of 
Selkirkshire. He was lieutenant-colonel of 
the Hopetoun fencibles from the embodiment 
of the regiment in 1793 until its disbandment 
in 1799. From 1802 until the close of his 
life he was annually nominated lord high 
commissioner to the general assembly of 
the church of Scotland. On 10 Nov. 1803 he 
became a member of the Society in Scotland 
for Propagating Christian Knowledge, and 
on 3 Jan. 1805 was elected president of the 
society. On 5 July 1806 he was constituted 
a member of the board of trustees for the 
encouragement of Scottish fisheries and manu- 
factures. He died on 1 Aug. 1823. 

Napier compiled with great care a digest 
of his charters and private papers, forming a 
genealogical account of his family, which 
remains in manuscript. He also supplied 
Wood with important information regarding 
the Napiers for his edition of Douglas's 
'Peerage.' By his wife, Maria Margaret, 
oldest daughter of Lieutenant-general Sir 
John Clavering, he had nine children — four 
eons and five daughters — of whom William 
John succeeded him as eighth lord, and is 
separately noticed. 

[Douglas's Scottish Peerage (Wood), ii. 302, 
303 ; Mark Napier s Memoirs of John Napier ; 
Gent. Mag. 1823, pt. ii. p. 467.] T. F. H. 

NAPIER, GEORGE (1751-1804), 
colonel, was the eldest son of Francis Scott, 
afterwards Napier, fifth Lord Napier of Mer- 
chiston (d. 1773), by his second wife, the 
daughter of George Johnston of Dublin. He 
was born in Edinburgh on 11 March 1751. 
«ducated under the supervision of David 
Hume, the historian, and on 8 Oct. 1767 was 



appointed ensign in the 25th foot, then known 
as the Edinburgh regiment. The regiment 
was in Minorca and commanded by Lord 
George Lennox. Napier became lieutenant 
in it on 4 March 1771. He subsequently ob- 
tained a company in the old 80th royal Edin- 
burgh volunteers, raised in 1778, and served 
on the staff of Sir Henry Clinton (1738?- 
1795) [cj. v.] in America. There Napier, who 
stood six feet two, with a faultless figure, 
was reputed one of the handsomest and most 
active men in the army. He was at the siege 
of Charleston, South Carolina, and, when 
Major John Andre [q. v.] was taken, offered 
to continue Andre's services as a spy in uni- 
form . CI inton refused to sanction the proposal. 
Napier lost his wife and young children by 
yellow fever, and was himself put on board 
ship insensible and, it was thought, dying. 
Clinton took upon himself to sell his com- 
mission for the benefit of the remaining 
child, an infant daughter. Napier recovered 
on the voyage, and in August 1781 married 
again. 

On 30 Oct. 1782 he re-entered the army as 
ensign in the 1st foot guards, of which he be- 
came adjutant, and was afterwards promoted 
to a company in the old 100th foot. His 
brother-in-law, the Duke of Richmond [see 
Lennox, Charles, third Duke of Richmond 
and Lennox], as master-general of the ord- 
nance, found. Napier a temporary berth as 
superintendent of Woolwich laboratory. In 
1788 Napier communicated to the Royal Irish 
Academy, of which he was a member, a me- 
moir on the ' Composition of Gunpowder/ in 
which he states, ' I was ably assisted when 
superintending the Royal Laboratory at 
Woolwich.* It is probable that Sir William 
Congreve [q. v.], who was appointed controller 
of the laboratory in 1783, had a considerable 
share in the experiments. This paper appeared 
in the * Royal Institute of Artillery Trans- 
actions/ 1788, ii. 97-118, and was translated 
into Italian and, it is believed, other lan- 
guages. In 1793, Napier, a captain on half- 
pay of the disbanded 100th foot, was ap- 
pointed deputy quartermaster-general, with 
the rank of major, in the force collected under 
the Earl of Moira [see Hastings, Francis 
Rawdon] to assist the French royalists in 
La Vendee, which eventually joined the Duke 
of York's army at Mechlin in July 1794. 
Napier was appointed lieutenant-colonel of 
the newly raised Londonderry regiment on 
25 Aug. 1794, and worked hard to discipline 
the regiment, which was at Macclesfield; but 
it was drafted to the West Indies the year 
after, to Napier's disgust and in defiance of 
the men's engagements. A place was then 
created for Napier as ' chief field engineer ' 



Napier 



57 



Napier 



on the staff of Lord Carhampton, the Irish 
commander-in-chief. When the troubles 
broke out in 1798, Napier did not fly, like 
most of the gentry, but fortified his mansion 
at Celbridge, Kildare, and armed his sons and 
servants. Eventually he removed his family 
to Castletown. He commanded a yeomanry 
corps in the rebellion. Marquis Cornwalhs 
appointed him comptroller of army accounts 
in Ireland; and Napier, a man of varied 
attainments, set to work loyally to reduce 
to order the military accounts, which were 
in disgraceful confusion. He became a 
brevet-colonel on 1 Jan. 1800. He died of 
consumption on 13 Oct. 1804 at Clifton, Bris- 
tol. There is a memorial slab in the Red- 
lands Chapel there. 

Napier married, first, Elizabeth, daughter 
of Captain Robert Pollock, by whom he had 
several children, all of whom, together with 
their mother, died in America, with the ex- 
ception of Louisa Mary, who survived and 
died unmarried on 26 Aug. 1856 ; secondly, 
the Lady Sarah Bunbury, fourth daugh- 
ter of the second Duke of Richmond [see 
Lennox, Chakles, second Duke of Rich- 
mond, Lennox, and Attbigny]. At the 
age of seventeen she captivated the youth- 
ful George IH, and it was thought would 
have become queen. Horace Walpole speaks 
of her as by far the most charmine of the ten 
noble maidens who bore the bride's train at 
the subsequent marriage of the king with 
Charlotte of Mecklenburg on 8 Sept. 1761 
(Letters, iii. 374, 432 ;' Jesse, Memoirs of 
George III, i. 64-9; Thackebay, Four 
Georges). She married in 1762 Sir Charles 
Thomas Bunbury, M.P., the well-known 
racing baronet, from whom she was divorced 
in 1776. By her marriage with Napier she 
had five sons and three daughters, among 
the former being the distinguished soldiers 
Charles James Napier fqj. v.], George Thomas 
Napier [q. v.l, and William Francis Patrick 
Napier [q. v. j[, and the historian, Henry Ed- 
ward Napier [q. v.] George IH settled 1,000/. 
a year on her and her children at Napier's 
death. Lady Sarah, who had been long 
totally blind, died in London in 1826, aged 
88. She was said to be the last surviving 
great-granddaughter of Charles II. 

[Burke's Peerage, under 'Napier of Mer- 
chistoun ' and 'Richmond and Lennox ; ' Napier's 
Life and Opinions of Sir Charles James Napier, 
i. 47-55; Passages in Early Military Life of 
Sir George Thomas Napier, p. 24 ; Army Lists ; 
Jesse's Life and Reign of Geo. HI, vol. i. ; 
Walpole's Letters, vols, iii— ix.] H. M. C. 

NAPIER, Sib GEORGE THOMAS 
(1784-1855), general and governor of the 
Cape of Good Hope, second son by his 



second wife of Colonel George Napier 
[q. v.], was born at Whitehall, London, on 
80 June 1784. Unlike his elder brother 
Charles, he was a dunce at school. On 25 Jan. 
1800 he was appointed cernet in the 24th 
light dragoons ^disbanded in 1802), an Irish 
corps bearing ' Death or Glory* for its motto, 
in which he learned such habits of dissipation 
that his father speedily effected his transfer 
to a foot regiment. He became lieutenant on 

18 June 1800, and was placed on half-pay of 
the 46th foot in 1802. He was brought into 
the 52nd light infantry in 1808, became can- 
tain on 5 Jan. 1804, and served with the regi- 
ment under Sir John Moore at Shorncliffe, 
in Sicily, Sweden, and Portugal. He was a 
favourite with Moore from the first, and one 
of his aides-de-camp at Coruiia. Through 
some mistake he was represented in the army 
list as having received a gold medal in Fe- 
bruary 1809 for the capture of Martinique, at 
which action he was not present. He served 
with the 52nd in the Peninsular campaigns of 
1809-1 1 . At Busaco he was wounded slightly 
when in the act of striking with his sword 
at a French grenadier at the head of an op- 
posing column. He and his brother "William 
were two out of the eleven officers promoted 
in honour of Massena's retreat. He became an 
effective major in the 52nd foot in 1811, and 
volunteered for the command of the stormers 
of the light division at the assault on Ciudad 
Rodrigo on 19 Jan. 1812. John Gurwood 
[q. v.] of the 52nd led the forlorn hope. Napier 
on this occasion lost his right arm, which he 
had had broken by a fragment of shell at Casal 
Novo three days before (Gubwood, Welling- 
ton Despatches, v. 473-7, 478). Napier re- 
ceived a brevet lieutenant-colonelcy and a 
gold medal. He went home, married his first 
wife, and was appointed deputy adjutant- 
general of the York district. He rejoined 
the 52nd as major at St. Jean de Luz at the 
beginning of 1814, and was present with it at 
Orthez, Tarbes, and Toulouse. Immediately 
after the latter battle he was appointed lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the 71st highland light in- 
fantry, which he brought home to Scotland. 
On 25 July the same year he was appointed 
captain and lieutenant-colonel 3rd foot guards 
(Scots guards), in which he served until 

19 AprU 1821, when he retired on half-pay 
of the late Sicilian regiment. He was made 
C.B. on 4 June 1815, became a brevet-colonel 
on 27 Aug. 1825, major-general 10 Jan. 1837, 
K.C.B. 10 July 1838, colonel 1st West India 
regiment 29 Feb. 1844, lieutenant-general 
9 Nov. 1846, general 20 June 1854. He had 
the Peninsular gold medal for Ciudad Rodrigo, 
and the silver medal and four clasps. 

Napier was governor and commander-in- 



Napier 



58 



chief at the Cape of Good Hope from 4 Oct. 
1837 to 12 Dec, 1843. He enforced the 
abolition of slavery, abolished inland taxa- 
tion, depending for colonial revenue on the 
customs duties, and ruled the colony for 
nearly seven years without a Kaffir war. 
He sent a detachment of troops to Port Natal, 
and the Boers were driven out of that ter- 
ritory during his government (see Ann. Beg. 
1842 ; Mloovie, Battles in South Africa , vol. L) 
After his return in 1844 Napier resided 
chiefly at Nice. King Charles Albert offered 
him the command of the Sardinian army, 
which he declined. After Chillian walla Napier 
was proposed for the chief command in India, 
' but thought, in common with the people of 
England, that it belonged by right to his 
brother Charles/ He died at Geneva on 
16 Sept. 1865. Napier married, first, on 
28 Oct. 1812, Margaret, daughter of John 
Craig of Glasgow ; secondly, in 1839, Frances 
Dorothea, eldest daughter of R. W. Blen- 
cowe, and widow of William Peere Wil- 
liams-Freeman of Fawley Court, Oxfordshire. 
By his first wife he had two daughters and 
three sons — the late General Thomas Conolly 
Napier, C.B., some time of the late Cape 
mounted riflemen; Captain John Moore 
Napier, 62nd regiment, who died in Sind in 
1846 ; and General William Craig Emilius 
Napier, now colonel of the King's Own Scot- 
tish Borderers (late 25th foot). 

Napier wrote for his children * Passages in 
the Early Military Life of General Sir G. T. 
Napier/ a work of exceptional interest, which 
was published by his surviving son in 1885. 

[Burke's Peerage under ' Napier of Merchis- 
toun ; ' Napier's Passages in Early Military Life ; 
Hart's Army Lists ; Gur wood's Wellington Des- 
patches, vols. iv. and v. ; Moorsom's Hist, of 
o2nd Light Infantry; Gent. Mag., 1855, pt. ii. 
p. 429.] H. M. C. 

NAPIER, Sib GERARD (1606-1673), 
royalist, baptised at Steeple, Dorset, on 
19 Oct. 1606, was eldest son of Sir Na- 
thaniel Napier, of More Crichel, in the same 
county, by Elizabeth, daughter and heiress 
of John Gerard of Hyde, in the Isle of Pur- 
beck (Htttchins, Dorset, 3rd ed. iii. 125). 
Sir Robert Napier (d. 1615) [q. v.] was his 

Edfather, and Robert Napier (1611-1686) 
,] was his brother. During his father's 
ime he was seated at Middlemarsh Hall, 
Dorset. In April 1640 Napier, as deputy- 
lieutenant of Dorset, was employed with his 
colleague, Sir George Hastings, in pressing 
men for the king's service, but was not 
considered energetic enough by the lord- 
lieutenant, Theophilus Howard, second earl 
of Suffolk [q. v.], who reported his remissness 
to Charles. He was accordingly ordered to 



Napier 

be examined by the attorney-general and 
afterwards to be brought up before the lords 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1640, pp. 55, 120, 
125). On 21 Oct. he was elected M.P. for 
Melcombe Regis, and in June 1641, having 
made his peace at court, he was created a 
knight and a baronet (Metcalfe, Book of 
Knights, p. 196). The House of Commons, 
having ineffectually summoned him to at- 
tend in his place in July and again in October 
1642, ordered that he be sent for as a delin- 
quent on 12 Nov. (Commons' Journals, ii. 
685, 804, 845). On 5 Jan. 1643 he was 
required to lend 500/. *for the service of 
parliament ' (id. ii. 916), but as he did not 
comply, directions were given to apprehend 
him on 10 April (ib. iii. 38\ At length he 
sent a letter expressing ids readiness to 
make a contribution, whereupon the com- 
mons, on 26 May, voted that his attendance 
in the house be dispensed with, to the end 
that he might better further their interests 
in the country (ib. iii. 105; Tanner MS. 
lxii. 100). As a commissioner from the king, 
Napier, alony with Sir Anthony Ashley 
Cooper and Sir John Hele, addressed a let- 
ter on 3 Aug. to the mayor and corporation 
of Dorchester, Dorset, urging the surrender 
of the town (ib. lxii. 21/). The commons 
retaliated on 22 Jan. 1644 by voting him 
incapable of sitting ' during this parliament ' 
(Commons' Journals, iii. 374). He deemed 
it prudent to make his submission to the 
parliament on 20 Sept., when he took the 
covenant, advanced 500/. for the relief of 
parliament garrisons, and apologised very 
humbly for his loyalty. As he subse- 
quently asserted that he had sustained much 
aamage at the hands of the king's party, by 
whom his estate was sequestered, his fine 
was fixed at the comparatively small sum of 
3,514/. (Cal. of Committee for Compounding, 
p. 1061). During the Commonwealth Napier 
is said to have sent bv Sir Gilbert Taylor 
500/. to Charles II. Baylor detained the 
money, and for his dishonesty he was prose- 
cuted by Napier after the Restoration. In 
December 1662 he was appointed with eleven 
others a commissioner for discovering all 
waste lands belonging to the crown in 
twenty-three parishes in Dorset (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1663-4, pp. 43, 81, 655). 
Charles II, with whom Napier became a 
favourite, ordered a number of deer to be 
sent to him annually from the New Forest 
without fee. He entertained the king and 
queen at More Crichel, when the court re- 
moved to Salisbury on account of the plague 
in 1665. Napier died at More Cricnel on 
14 May 1673, and was buried in Minterne 
Church, Dorset (Hutchins, iv. 483). By 



Napier 



59 



Napier 



his wife, Margaret (d. 1660), daughter and 
co-heiress of John Colles of Barton, Somer- 
set, he left one surviving son, Sir Nathaniel 
Napier [q.v.], and two daughters. 

[Visitation of Dorset, 1623 (Harl. Soc), p. 
74 ; Burke's Extinct Baronetage ; will registered 
m P. C. C. 128, Pye.] G. G. 

NAPIER, HENRY EDWARD (1789- 
1858), historian, born on 5 March 1789, was 
son of Colonel George Napier [q . v.], younger 

sNi 



MapierTq.v.], 
> Thomas 



brother of Sir Charles James 
conqueror of Scinde, of Sir George 
Napier [q. v.], governor of the Cape of Good 
Hope, and of Sir William Francis Patrick 
Napier [q. v.], historian and general. He 
entered the Royal Naval Academy on 5 May 
1803, and, embarking on 20 Sept. 1806 on 
board the Spencer, 74 guns, was present in 
the expedition against Copenhagen in 1807, 
and assisted at the destruction of Fleckeroe 
Castle on the coast of Norway. From 1808 
till 1811 he served in the East Indies, and 
on 4 May 1810 received his commission as 
lieutenant. On 7 June 1814 he was promoted 
to the command of the Goree, 18 guns, and, 
soon after removing to the Rifleman, 18 
guns, was for a considerable time entrusted 
with the charge of the trade in the Bay of 
Fundy. In August 1815 he went on half- 
pay, having previously declined a piece of 
plate which had been voted to him for his 
care in the conduct of convoys between the 
port of St. John's, New Brunswick, and Cas- 
tine. On 31 Dec. 1830 he was gazetted to 
the rank of captain, and was put on half-pay. 

His chief claim to notice is that he was 
the author of ' Florentine History from the 
earliest Authentic Records to the Accession 
of Ferdinand the Third, Grandduke of 
Tuscany,' six vols., 1846-7, a work showing 
much independence of judgment and vivacity 
of style, but marred by prolixity. He was 
elected a fellow of the Royal Society on 
18 May 1820, and died at 62 Cadogan Place, 
London, on 13 Oct. 1853. 

He married on 17 Nov. 1823 Caroline 
Bennet, a natural daughter of Charles Len- 
nox, third duke of Richmond ; she died at 
Florence on 5 Sept. 1836, leaving three chil- 
dren. 

[O'Byrne's Naval Biographical Diet. 1849, 
p. 804; Gent. Mag. 1854, pt. ii. p. 90.1 

G. C. B. 

NAPIER, JAMES (1810-1884), dyer and 
antiquary, was born at Partick, Glasgow, in 
June 18l0, and started life as a ' draw-boy ' 
to a weaver. Subsequently he became an 
apprentice dyer, and, being interested in 
chemistry, he with David Livingstone [q. v.] 
and James Young [q. v.], celebrated for his 



discoveries regarding paraffin, attended the 
classes in Glasgow of Professor Thomas 
Graham, who was later master of the mint. 
Subsequently Napier went to England, and 
lived several years in London and Swansea. 
About 1849-3)0 he returned to Glasgow, 
where he became closely associated with 
Anderson's college and the technical school 
founded by James Young ; he died at Both- 
well on 1 Dec. 1884. 

Napier wrote : 1. ' A Manual of Electro- 
Metallurgy ,'1851, 8 vo (5th edit. 1876). 2. 'A 
Manual of the Art of Dyeing/ Glasgow, 1853, 
12mo (3rd edit. 1876, 8vo). 3. 'The Ancient 
Workers and Artificers in Metal^ 1856, 12mo. 
4. ' Stonehaven and its Historical Associa- 
tions/ 2nd edit. 1870, 16mo. 5. 'Notes and 
Reminiscences relating to Partick/ Glasgow, 
1873, 8vo. 6. ' Manufacturing Arts in Ancient 
Times/ Edinburgh, 1874, 8vo. 7. ' Folklore ; 
or Superstitious Beliefs in the West of Scot- 
land within this Century/ Paisley, 1879, 8vo. 
By this last work Napier will be best remem- 
bered. It is an admirable example of folklore 
of a district, honestly collected, and narrated 
without ostentation. It is invaluable to any 
student of Scottish folklore. He also con- 
tributed various papers to the Glasgow Ar- 
chceological Society, one paper on ' Ballad 
Folklore ' to the ' Folklore Record/ vol. ii., 
and numerous others to the Glasgow Philo- 
sophical Society's ' Proceedings ' (cf. The 
Royal Societt/s Cat. of Scientific Papers). 
He also published additions to Byrnes 
' Practical Metal-worker's Assistant/ 1864, 
8vo, and illustrated MacArthur's 'Anti- 
quities of Arran/ 1861, 8vo. 

[Brit. Mus. Cat.; Allibone's Diet, of Engl. 
Lit; Athenaeum, 1884, ii. 810; other newspaper 
notices, and personal knowledge.] W. G. B-k. 

NAPIER or NEPER, JOHN (1550- 
1617), laird of Merchiston, inventor of loga- 
rithms, was the eldest son of Sir Archibald 
Napier (1534-1608) [q. v.], by his first wife, 
Janet Both well. He was born in 1550, before 
his father had completed his sixteenth year, 
at Merchiston Castle, near Edinburgh. There 
he resided during his childhood with his 
youthful father and mother, a younger brother 
Francis, and a sister Janet. The only brother 
of his mother, Adam Both well [q. v. J, elected 
bishop of Orkney in 1559, wrote to his father 
on 5 Dec. 1660, 'I pray you, sir, to send John 
to the schools either to France or Flanders, 
for he can learn no good at home/ This 
advice was afterwards followed. In the be- 
ginning of 1561 the bishop executed a will 
in favour of his nephew, but nothing came 
of it, as he subsequently married and had a 
son (Marx Napier, Memoirs, p. 63, &c.) 

At the age of thirteen John went to St. 



Napier 



60 



Napier 



Andrews, his name appearing in the books 
of the college of St. Salvator for the session 
1 Oct. 1563 to July 1564. He was boarded 
with John Rutherford, the principal of his 
college (ib. pp. 91-5). On 20 Dec. 1563 his 
mother died, and in the inventory of debts 
due by her is a sum of 18/. (Scots) to John 
Rutherford for her son's board (ib. p. 93). 

In the address to the ' Godly and Chris- 
tian Reader ' prefixed to his work on ' Reve- 
lation/ Napier states that, while at St. An- 
drews, he, 'on the one part, contracted a 
loving familiarity with a certain gentleman, 
a papist, and on the other part, was atten- 
tive to the sermons of that worthy man of 
God, Master Christopher Goodman [q.v.], 
teaching upon the Apocalypse.' He ' was so 
moved, he continues, 'in admiration against 
the blindness of papists that could not most 
evidently see their seven-hilled city of Rome 
painted out there so lively by St. John as 
the mother of all spiritual whoredom, that 
not only bursted |*hej out in continual reason- 
ing against [his] "said familiar, butjalso from 
thenceforth [he] determined with [himself] 
by the assistance of Gods spirit to employ 
[his] study and diligence to search out the 
remanent mysteries of that holy book.' 

The absence of his name from the list of 
determinants for 1506, or of masters of arts 
for 1568, makes it probable that after one or 
perhaps two sessions Napier was sent abroad 
to prosecute his studies ; Mackenzie (Scots 
Writers, iii. 519) says he stayed for some 
years in the Low Countries, France, and 
Italy ; but nothing definite is known. 

By 1571 Napier had returned home. On 
24 Oct. 1571 his uncle, Adam Both well, no w 
commendator of Holyrood House as well as 
bishop of Orkney, assigned to Sir Archibald 
and his sons, John and Francis, the teinds 
of Merchiston for nineteen years (Memoirs, 

L129), and, immediately after, negotiations 
gan for John's marriage with Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir James Stirling of Keir. In 
December 1571 a contract was entered into 
by the respective fathers, Sir Archibald ap- 
parently undertaking to infeft his son in the 
oaronies of Edenbeflie-Napier and Merchis- 
ton, and Sir James agreeing to pay Sir Archi- 
bald three thousand merks in name of tocher. 
Other deeds, dated 16 and 23 Feb. follow- 
ing, are in the Stirling and Napier charter 
chests; and on 2 April 1572 a deed was 
signed at Merchiston by John Napier and 
Elizabeth Stirling, preliminary to their mar- 
riage (Stirling* of Keir, p. 43 ; Memoirs, 
p. 130). After some delay, due to the poli- 
tical disturbances in whicn Napier's father 
was involved, a royal charter, on 8 Oct. 1572, 
granted to Napier and his future wife, in con- 



junct fee, the lands of Edenbellie, Gartnes, 
while Napier also received 'the lands of Mer- 
chiston with its tower and the Pultrielands; 
half the lands of Ardewnan, &c, half the 
lands of Rusky, Thorn, &c, with the house of 
Barnisdale ; the third of the lands of Calzie- 
muck ; and the lands of Auchinlesh.' The 
life-rent of all the lands save those in con- 
junct fee was reserved to Sir Archibald and 
nis wife. 

The couple being thus provided for, the 
marriage followed, and Napier and his wife 
settled on their property. A castle, beau- 
tifully situated on the banks of the Endrick, 
was built at Gartnes, with garden, orchard, 
and suitable offices ; it was completed in 1574, 
as appears from a sculptured stone bearing 
that date, still preserved in a wall of one 
of the buildings of an adjacent mill. Two 
sundials from the castle have been recently 
taken to Helensburgh, and these are now 
almost the sole remnants of Napier's home. 
On the opposite side of the Endrick was a 
lint mill, and the old ' Statistical Account of 
Scotland ' ( xvi. 107) records that the clack 
of this mill greatly disturbed Napier, and 
that he would sometimes desire the miller 
to stop the mill so that the train of his ideas 
might not be interrupted. His residence at 
Gartnes extended from 1573 to 1608, when 
the death of his father put him in possession 
of Merchiston Castle. Towards the end of 
1579, after bearing two children, his wife 
died, and he subsequently married Agnes, 
daughter of Sir James Chisholm of Cromlix, 
Perthshire. 

The political activity of his father-in-law, 
Sir James Chisholm, involved Napier in 
some anxieties. In February 1592-3 the 
conspiracy known as 'the Spanish Blanks' 
was discovered, and Chisholm, 'the king's 
master of the household/ was deeply impli- 
cated, along with the popish earls Angus, 
Huntly, and Erroll. The king, disinclined to 
proceed to extremities, desired that the con- 
spirators should keep out of the way for a time, 
with this view, apparently, a bond of caution 
in 5,000/. (Scots) was signed, on 28 July and 
3 Aug. 1593, by John Napier and another, that 
Chisholm, ' during his absence furth the realm, 
conform to his majesty's licence, shall do 
nothing to hurt his majesty, the realm, or 
the true religion' (Reg. Privy Council, v. 
610). Chisholm and the earls, however, re- 
mained in the country; Accordingly, a small 
deputation of commissioners of tne church 
followed the king to Jedburgh in October, 
and urged their speedy trial and punishment. 
One of the deputies was, according to Ry mer 
(Fcedera, 1715, xvi. 223-5), 'the laird of 
Markinston younger,' that is John Napier, 



Napier 



61 



Napier 



who is thus represented as urging the king 
to take proceedings against his father-in- 
law (Memoirs, p. 162). Calderwood (Hist 
Church of Scot?. 1678, p. 292) calls the de- 
puty, however, ' the Laird of Merchistoun,' 
that is, Napier's father. 

As a landlord Napier also had his troubles. 
There had been disputes of long standing, 
occasionally leading to violence (see Reg. 
Mag. Big. 2 Nov. 1583), between his 
father's tenants of Calziemuck and the Gra- 
hams of Boquhopple and other feuars of 
neighbouring lands in Menteith. In August 
1591 matters came to a crisis, with reference 
to the ploughing and sowing by Napier's 
tenants of land which the feuars alleged to be 
commonalty; and on the 20th of that month 
Napier, who appears to have managed the 
Menteith property for his father, wrote to 
him from Keir describing how the feuars had 
summoned him and his tenants to find law 
burrows (i.e. sureties that they would not 
harm the person or property of the com- 
plainers) and had put an arrestment on their 
crops, 'so that there is certainly appear- 
ance of cummer to fall shortly betwixt them 
and our folks.' As he had no mind 'to 
mell with na sik extraordinar doings,' he 
prayed his father to find caution for nim in 
a thousand merks (Memoirs, p. 148). This 
was accordingly done on 23 Auff. (Reg. 
Privy Council, iv. 678). Disputes between 
the same parties were repeated in 1611, 1612, 
and 1613 (ib. vols. ix. and x.), but at length 
on 14 June 1616 Napier obtained a disposi- 
tion of the lands of Boquhopple in favour of 
himself and his son Robert (Douglas, Peer- 
age, ii. 291). In July 1594 he entered into 
a curious contract with Robert Logan of 
Re8talrig. The document is in Napier's 
handwriting throughout. After referring 
to divers old reports of a treasure hidden 
in Logan's dwelling-place of Fast Castle, 
he agreed to go thither, and ' by all craft and 
ingyne endeavour to find the same, and by 
the grace of God, either shall find it, or make 
sure that no such thing is there so far as 
his utter diligence may reach.' Should the 
treasure be found, Napier was to have a 
third as his share, and he further bargained 
that Logan was himself to accompany him 
back to Edinburgh to insure his safe return 
without being robbed, a contingency not 
unlikely if the laird of Restalrig were absent 
and free to give a hint to his retainers that 
money might be got by robbery (Memoirs, 
p. 220). That Napier's experience of Logan 
was unsatisfactory seems proved by the terms 
of a lease granted by him at Gartnes, on 
14 Sept. 1596, in which it was expressly 
stipulated that the lessee should neither di- 



rectly nor indirectly suffer or permit any 
person bearing the name of Logan to enter 
into possession. At the same time a like ex- 
ception was made with reference to Napier's 
nearest neighbour at Gartnes, Cunningham 
of the house of Drumquhassil, with whom he 
had a dispute respecting crops in 1591 (ib. 
pp. 148, 223). Towards the close of 1600 his 
half-brother Archibald was murdered by the 
Scotts of Bowhill, and Napier and his father 
had much trouble in restraining the dead 
man's family from taking the law into their 
own hands (Memoirs, p. 302 ; Pitcairn, Crim. 
Trials, ii. 339 ; Reg. Privy Council, vi. 259, 
267). On 30 April 1601 he became cautioner 
for his father's brother, Andrew Napier, 
' touching the mass which was said in his 
house' (Reg. Privy Council, vi. 632). On 
11 March 1602 he brought a complaint 
against the provost and baillies of Edin- 
burgh that they had caused * build scheillis 
and ludgeis to their seik personis infectit 
with the pest upoun the said complenaris 
yairdis of his proper lands of the schenis * 
(ib. vi. 359). On 20 Jan. 1604 Napier's 
turbulent neighbours, Allaster McGregor of 
Glenstrae, Argyllshire, and four of the Mao- 
gregor clan, were brought to trial at Edin- 
burgh for making a raid on their foes the 
Oolquhouns, and Napier was one of the assize 
of fifteen persons who found them guilty of 
capital crimes (Crim. Trials, ii. 420). On 
30 July 1605 he and another were named 
arbitrators by Matthew Stewart of Dunduff 
concerning the slaughter of his brother (Reg. 
Prim/ Council, vii. 106). 

On Sir Archibald's death, on 15 May 1608, 
Napier, who came into full possession of the 
family estates, at once took up his abode in 
the castle of Merchiston. Ilis position as 
| laird was first publicly recognised by the 
I lords of the privy council on 20 May, when 
j he was appointed a commissioner to fix the 
I price of Doots and shoes twice a year for 
Edinburgh (ib. viii. 93). A bitter quarrel fol- 
lowed between Napier and his half-brother 
Alexander and his naif-sisters as to their re- 
spective rights over the family property (Me- 
moirs, p. 317). Alexander disputed Napier's 
title to the lands of Over-Merchiston, and a 
long litigation, which was not concluded until 
9 June 1613, was necessary before Napier was 
served heir to that property (ib. p. 313). In 
another dispute regarding the teind sheafs of 
Merchiston, the privy council was informed 
on 1 Sept. 1608 that Napier and his relatives 
each intended 'to convoke their kin and 
friends and such as will do for them in arms, 
for leading and withstanding of leading of 
the said teinds.' Consequently the lords ap- 
pointed William Napier of Wrichtishousis 



Napier 



62 



Napier 



as a neutral person to lead and stack the 
said teinds in his own barnyard {Reg. Privy 
Council, viii. 159), and Napier, in a letter 
to his son, expressed himself satisfied with 
this arrangement (Memoirs, p. 316). 

In 1610 Napier sold the Tultrielands to 
Nisbet of Dean for seventeen hundred merks 
(Douglas, Peerage, ii. 291); and to protect his 
property at Gartnes he entered, on 24 Dec. 
1611, into an agreement with Campbell of 
Lawers, Stirling, and his brothers that 'if 
the Macgregors or other hieland broken men 
should trouble his lands in Lennox or Men- 
teith,' the Campbells should do their utmost 
to punish them (Memoirs, p. 326). 

A man of wide intellectual interests and 
great versatility, Napier, as a landowner, 
gave considerable attention to agriculture, 
which, owing to the disturbed state of the 
country, was at a low ebb, resulting in fre- 
quent scarcity of corn and cattle. He ap- 
pears to have instituted experiments in the 
use of manures, and to have discovered the 
value of common salt for the purpose. The 
details of his method are explained in a 
pamphlet nominally written by his eldest son 
Archibald [q. v.], to whom a monopoly of 
this mode of tillage was granted on 22 June 
1598 (ib. p. 283). His soil's share in these 
experiments — he was only twenty-three — 
cannot have been great. With somewhat 
similar ends in view he invented an hydraulic 
screw and revolving axle, by which, at a 
moderate expense, water could be kept down 
in coal-pits while being worked, and many 
flooded pits could be cleared of water ana 
recovered, to the great advantage of the 
country. In order that he might in part reap 
the profits of his invention, the king, on 
30 Jan. 1596-7, granted him a monopoly 
for making, erecting, and working these 
machines (Reg. Mag. %.vi. 172). in 1599 
Sir John Skene published his ' De Verborum 
Significatione,' in which he mentions that 
he had consulted Napier — whom he there 
styles ' a gentleman of singular judgement and 
learning, especially in mathematic sciences' 
— in reference to the proper methods to be 
used in the measuring of lands. 

To mathematics Napier chiefly devoted his 
leisure through life; but soon after settling 
at Gartnes he interrupted his favourite study 
in order to cross swords with Roman catho- 
lic apologists. In 1593 he completed with 
that object a work on ' Revelation,' which 
had occupied him for five years. He had 
thought at first to write it in Latin, but the 
' insolency of Papists determined him to 
haste [it] out in English.' It was entitled 
' A Plaine Discovery of the whole Revela- 
tion of St. John/ ana appeared at Edinburgh 



early in 1594. In his dedication to James VI, 
dated 29 Jan. 1593-4, Napier urged the king 
to see ' that justice be done against the ene- 
mies of Goa's church,' and counselled him 
' to reform the universal enormities of his 
country, and first to begin at his own house, 
family, and court.' The volume includes nine 
pages of English verse by himself. It met 
with success at home and abroad (Memoirs, 

S326). In 1600 Michiel Panneel produced a 
utch translation, and this reached a second 
edition in 1607. In 1602 the work appeared at 
La Roche! le in a French version, by Georges 
Thomson, revised by Napier, and that also 
went through several editions (1603, 1605, 
and 1607). A new edition of the English 
original was called for in 1611, when it was 
revised and corrected by the author, and 
enlarged by the addition of ' A Resolution of 
certain Doubts proponed by well-affected 
brethren;' this appeared simultaneously at 
Edinburgh and London. The author stated 
that he still intended to publish a Latin edi- 
tion, but, 'being advertised that our papistical 
adversaries were to write largely against the 
editions already set out,' he deferred it till 
he had seen their objections. The Latin edi- 
tion never appeared, and his opponents' 
works proved unimportant. A German trans- 
lation, by Leo de jDromna, of the first part 
of Napier's work appeared at Gera in 1611 
(some copies are dated 1612), and of the 
whole by Wolfgang Meyer at Frankfort-on- 
the-Maine, in 1615 (new edit. 1627). 

But other instruments besides the pen 
suggested themselves to Napier as a means 
of confounding the foes of his religion and 
country. On 7 June 1596 he forwarded to 
Anthony Bacon [q. v.], elder brother of 
Francis, lord Verulam, ' Secret Inventions, 
profitable and necessary in these Days for 
Defence of this Island, and withstanding of 
Strangers, Enemies of God's Truth and Re- 
ligion' (the manuscript is at Lambeth). 
Four inventions are specified : two varieties 
of burning mirrors, a piece of artillery, and 
a chariot of metal, double musket proof, the 
motion of which was controlled by those 
within, and from which shot was discharged 
through small holes, ' the enemy meantime 
being abased and altogether uncertain what 
defence or pursuit to use against a moving 
mouth of metal' (Memoirs, p. 247). A curious 
story of a trial of the last invention in Scot- 
land is given by Sir Thomas Urquhart in 
1 The Jewell ' (London, 1652, p. 79). Napier 
desired that these instruments of destruction 
should be kept secret unless necessity com- 
pelled their use. 

Napier's permanent fame rests on his ma- 
thematical discoveries. His earliest invests 



Napier 



63 



Napier 



gations, begun soon after his first marriage, 
seem to nave been directed to system atising 
and developing the sciences of algebra and 
arithmetic, and the fragments published for 
the first time in 1839, under the title ' De 
Arte Logistica,' were the result of his initial 
studies. He here mentions that he was con- 
sidering imaginary roots, a subject he refers 
to as a great algebraic secret, and that he had 
discovered a general method for the extrac- 
tion of roots of all degrees. After five years' 
interruption, while engaged on his theologi- 
cal work, Napier again, in 1594, resumed his 
mathematical labours. A letter, presumably 
from a common friend, Dr. Craig, to Tycho 
Brahe, indicates that in the course of 1594 
he had already conceived the general prin- 
ciples of logarithms (Epistolce ad Joannem 
J&pjp/crMm, Frankfort, 1718, p. 460; Athena 
OxonienseSfhondon, 1691, p. 469; Memoirs, 
pp. 361-6) ; and the next twenty years of his 
life were spent in developing the theory of 
logarithms, in perfecting the method of their 
construction, and in computing the canon or 
table itself. While thus engaged he invented 
the present notation of decimal fractions. 

Napier's earliest work on logarithms ex- 
plained the method of their construction, but 
was written before he had invented the word 
logarithms, which were there called artificial 
numbers, in contradistinction to natural 
numbers, or simply artificials and naturals. 
This work, known as the ' Constructio,' was 
not published till after his death. The de- 
scription of the table (known as the ' De- 
scriptio '), throughout which the name loga- 
rithms is used, was composed later, but was 
given to the world in his lifetime. This 
famous work, ' Mirifici Logarithmorum Cano- 
nis Descriptio,' which embodied the trium- 
phant termination of Napier's labours, con- 
tained, besides the canon or table, an ex- 
planation of the nature of logarithms, and 
of their use in numeration and in trigono- 
metry. Published in 1614, with a dedication 
to Prince Charles, afterwards Charles I, it 
soon found its way into the hands of two 
enthusiastic admirers, Edward Wright [q. v.] 
and Henry Briggs [q. v.] The former at once 
translated it into English, and sent his ver- 
sion for revision to tne author, who found 
it 'most exact and precisely conformable to 
his mind and the original.' The translation 
was returned to Wright shortly before the 
latter^ death in 1615, and was next year 
seen through the press by Wright's son. 

Brings received the work with delight, and 
made it his constant companion. While ex- 
pounding it to his students in London at 
Gresham College, he observed that it would 
facilitate its use were the canon altered so 



that ' still remaining the logarithm of the 
whole sine or radius, the logarithm of one- 
tenth thereof should become 10 000 000 000' 
instead of 23025850, as in Napier's table. 
He wrote to Napier concerning tnis change, 
and, having computed some logarithms of 
this kind, proceeded to Edinburgh to visit 
the ' Baron of Merchiston,' in his own house, 
in the summer of 1615. There, being hos- 
pitably entertained, he lingered a month. 
ft apier told Briggs that he had himself for 
a long time determined on the same change 
as Briggs suggested, but that he had pre- 
ferred to publish the logarithms already 
prepared, 'rather than wait for leisure and 
health to re-compute them. But he was of 
opinion that the alteration should be made 
thus : that should become the logarithm 
of unity, and 10 000 000 000 the logarithm 
of the whole sine ; which, adds Briggs, ' I 
could not but acknowledge to be far the 
most convenient.' Briggs undertook the 
heavy task of computing tne new canon, and 
Napier promised to write an explanation of 
its construction and use, but this he did not 
live to accomplish. In the following summer 
(1616) Briggs proceeded to Edinburgh a 
second time, and showed Napier so much of 
the new canon as he had completed. The 
first thousand logarithms of the new canon 
were published by Briggs, without place or 
date (but at London before 6 Dec. 1617), 
after Napier's death (Briggs, Logarithmorum 
Chilias Prima, 1617, title-page; Briggs, 
Arithmetica Logarithmica, 1624, 'To the 
Reader;' Napier, Mir. Log. Can. Constructio, 
1619, 'To the Reader,' by Robert Napier). 
The original edition of Napier's ' Descriptio ' 
was reprinted at Lyons, 1620, and in London, 
1807 (inMaseresV Scriptores Logarithmici'). 
Copies of the 1620 edition are known, with 
date 1619, and the remainder-copies were 
reissued in 1658, with title-page and pre- 
liminary matter reset. Wright's English 
translation, which first appeared in 1616, was 
reissued with additional matter and a sub- 
stituted title-page in 1618 ; another English 
translation was published at Edinburgh in 
1857. 

In the ' Descriptio ' Napier had promised 
to publish his previously completed 'Con- 
structio' — i.e. his method of constructing the 
table — should his invention meet with the 
approval of the learned. Kepler, who largely 
helped to extend the employment of loga- 
rithms, had expressed a desire to see this 
work published, in a letter to the author 
dated 28 July 1619, before news of Napier's 
death had reached him. Kepler's fetter 
was prefixed to his ' Ephemerides ' for 1620 
{Memoirs, pp. 432, 521). Shortly after Na- 



Napier 



64 



Napier 



pier's death his son Robert transmitted the 
manuscript to Briggs, by whom it was 
edited, and published at Edinburgh in 1619 
under the title 'Mirifici Logarithmorum 
Canonis Construction una cum Annota- 
tionibus aliquot doctissimi Henrici BrigguV 
Along with it were printed some very re- 
markable propositions for the solution of 
spherical triangles, which Napier was en- 
gaged in perfecting at the time of his death ; 
there are also added ' Remarks' and 'Notes' 
by Briggs, and a preface by the author's 
eldest son by his second wife, Robert Napier. 
TheTolume was reprinted at Lyons in 1620, 
and appeared in an English translation at 
Edinburgh in 1889. 

Napier probably commenced his last work, 
' Rabdologi® seu numerationis per virgulas 
libri duo,' in 1615, that date being appended 
to his first example. He published it in 
Latin at Edinburgh early in 1617, with a 
dedication to Chancellor Seton, earl of Dun- 
fermline; he there stated that he had always 
endeavoured, according to his strength and 
ability, to do away with the tediousness of 
calculations. With that aim he had pub- 
lished the 'Canon of Logarithms.' He ex- 
plains the title 'Rabdologia' as 'numeration 
by little rods.' These rods, being usually made 
01 bone or ivory, were familiarly called ' Na- 
pier's bones ' (cf. Butleb, Hudibras, ed. Grey, 
1819, iii. 48). By means of them multiplica- 
tion and division could be performed by me- 
thods which, though they now seem cumbrous 
enough, were received throughout Europe as a 
valuable aid to the rude arithmetic of the day. 
The extraction of the square and cube root 
could also be performed by their help, in con- 
junction with two larger rods, the method of 
constructing which is described. In an ap- 
pendix, 'de expeditissimo Multiplicationis 
Promptuario,' he explains another invention 
for the performance of multiplication and 
division — 'the most expeditious of all' — by 
means of metal plates arranged in a box. 
This is the earliest known attempt at the 
invention of a calculating machine [see Mor- 
latto, Sib Samuel, and Babbage, Charles]. 
There is also added his 'Local Arithmetic,' 
wherein he describes how multiplication and 
division, and even the extraction of roots, may 
be performed on a chessboard by the move- 
ment of counters. The ' Rabdologia ' was 
reprinted at Leyden (1626), and copies of this 
are found, with substituted title-page, dated 
1628. An Italian translation was issued at 
Verona (1623), and a Dutch one at Gouda 
(1626). In 1667 William Leybourn fa. v.] 
published ' The Art of Numbering by Speak- 
ing Rods, vulgarly termed Napier's Bones.' 
An enlarged account by Leybourn of ' the 



Use of Nepiar's Bones ' was appended to his 
' Description and Use of Gunter's Quadrant ' 
(2nd edit. London, 1721). 

Continuous study and the arduous work of 
computation, which, Napier says, ' ought to 
have been accomplished by the labour and 
assistance of many computers, but had been 
completed by the strength and industry of 
himself alone/ told severely on his health. 
In a complaint against the Grahams of Bo- 
quhopple, his old opponents, which was pre- 
sented to the privy council on 28 April 1613, 
he stated that he was 'heavily diseased with 
the pain of the gout' (Beg. Privy Council, 
x. 41). ' Johne Naipper of Merchistoun, being 
sick in body at the plesour of God, but haill in 
mynd and spereit,' made his will and signed it 
on 1 April 1617, ' with my hand at the pen 
led be the nottars underwrittine at my com- 
mand in respect I dow not writ myself for 
my present infirmitie and sickness ' (Memoirs, 
p. 430). Worn out by overwork and gout, 
he breathed his last at Merchiston on 4 April 
1617, and was buried outside the west port 
of Edinburgh in the church of St. Cuthbert, 
the parish in which Merchiston is situated 
(J. Hume, TraitS de la Trigonomitrie, Paris, 
1636, p. 116). 

By nis first wife, Elizabeth Stirling, he 
had one son, Archibald (1576-1646) [q. v.], 
and one daughter, Joanne, to whom he 
granted an annuity of 100/. (Scots) by charter 
dated 13 Nov. 1595. By his second wife, 
Agnes Chisholm, he had five sons : John, 
Robert (to whom he granted the lands of 
Ballacharne and Tomdarroch on 13 Nov. 
1595), Alexander, William, and Adam; and 
five daughters : Margaret (who married Sir 
James Stewart of Rossytn before 1 Jan. 
1608), Jean, Agnes, Elizabeth, and Helen. 
On 13 April 1610 Napier granted the follow- 
ing annuities to the children of his second 
marriage, viz. : 250 merks to Robert, 200 to 
Alexander, 300 to Jean, and 200 to Eliza- 
beth (Memoirs, p. 823: Douglas, Peerage. 
ii. 291). 

Napier appears, in the fragmentary records 
that have survived, as a man both just in 
his dealings with his neighbours and firmly 
resolved to obtain like justice from them. In 
his disputes with his father, his step-brothers, 
the Grahams of Boquhopple, and the magis- 
trates of Edinburgh, he seems invariably to 
have carried his point. He was a strict Cal- 
vinist, and a resolute opponent of papal ag- 
gression. His powerful intellect and deter- 
mined will are best indicated in his prolonged 
and successful efforts to facilitate numerical 
calculation which resulted in his discovery 
of logarithms. The advantages of a table 
of logarithms are that by its employment 



Napier 



6s 



Napier 



multiplication and division can be performed 
by simple addition and subtraction, the extrac- 
tion of the roots of numbers by division, and 
the raising of them to any power by multi- 
plication. By these simple processes the most 
complicated problems in astronomy, naviga- 
tion, and cognate sciences can be solved by 
an easy and certain method. The invention 
necessarily gave a great impulse to all the 
sciences which depend for tneir progress on 
exact computation. Napier's place among 
great originators in mathematics is fully ac- 
knowledged, and the improvements that he 
introduced constitute a new epoch in the 
history of the science. He was the earliest 
British writer to make a contribution of com- 
manding value to the progres8of mathematics. 
The original portraits of Napier, known to 
the author of the ' Memoirs ' in 1834, were six 
in number, all in oil, viz. : (1) three-quarter 
length, seated, dated 1616, set. 66, presented 
to Edinburgh University by Margaret, 
baroness Napier, who succeeded in 1686, en- 
graved in 'Memoirs;' (2) three-quarter 
length, seated, with cowl, set. 66, belonging 
to Lord Napier, and never out of the family, 
engraved in ' De Arte Logistica ; ' (3) half- 
length, with cowl, in possession of Mr. Napier 
of Blackstone ; (4) a similar one in possession 
of Aytoun of Inchdairnie ; (5) half-length, 
without cowl, acquired by Lord Napier, the 
history of which is unknown; (6) half- 
length,with cowl, belonging to Professor Mac- 
vey Napier, and attributed to Jameson (3fe- 
tnoirs, pp. ix, x). There is also an engraving 
by Francisco Delaram dated 1620, a hal£ 
length, with ruff, using his ' bones,' of which 
an original impression is at Keir. From this 
a lithographic reproduction was executed for 
Sir William Stirling-Maxwell, which, how- 
ever, appears never to have been published. 

[Mark Napier's Memoirs* 1834; Registrum 
Magni Sigilli Regum Scotorum ; Register of 
the Privy Council of Scotland ; Exchequer Rolls 
of Scotland; Douglas's Peerage, 1813, vol. 
ii. ; Crawford's Peerage, ! 1716; Mackenzie's 
Eminent Writers of the Scots Nation, vol. iii. 
1722; Earl of Buchan's (D. S. Erskine) Life of 
Napier, 1787. In an appendix to the English 
translation of the Mirifici Logarithmorum 
Canonis Constructio (Edinburgh, 18S9) appear 
full details of the editions of Napier's works, as 
well as an account of works by other authors, 
interesting from their connection with the works 
of Napier.] W. R. M-d. 

NAPIER, Sir JOSEPH (1804-1882), 
lord chancellor of Ireland, born at Belfast on 
26 Dec.1804, was youngest son of William 
Napier, a merchant of Belfast, and was a de- 
scendant of the Napiers of Merchiston. His 
mother was Rosetta Macnaghten of Bally- 

V0L. XL. 



reagh House, co. Antrim. His only sister 
Rosetta married James Whiteside [q. v.], chief 
justice of Ireland. He was educated in the 
Belfast Academical Institution under James 
Sheridan Knowles [q. v.], and in November 
1820 was entered at Trinity College, Dublin, 
under the tutorship of Dr. Singer, afterwards 
bishop of Meath. At the end of his first year 
he brought himself into notice by publishing 
a paper on the binomial theorem. Obtaining 
honours in classics and science, he graduated 
B.A.inl826,andM.A.inl828. After taking 
his bachelor's degree he resided within the 
walls of Trinity College, occupied himself in 
writing for periodicals, and took a conspicuous 
part in the establishment of an oratorical so- 
ciety outside the walls of the college, some- 
what resembling the Union at Oxford. He 
was also successful in reviving the old Col- 
lege Historical Society, and his connection 
with it lasted fifty-eight years. From 1864 
till his death he was president, and he insti- 
tuted an annual prize— designated the ' Na- 
pier Prose Composition Prize ' — for the best 
essay on a subject to be selected by himself. 

From the beginning of his career Napier 
adopted tory principles, while his religious 
views inclined to those of theprotestant evan- 
gelical party. Through 1828 he actively op- 
posed the movement for Roman catholic 
emancipation. Marrying in the same year, 
he determined to go to the English bar. 
Having entered himself at Gray^ Inn, he 
became a pupil at the law school of the 
London University, and attended the lectures 
of Mr. Amos. After a few months he passed 
into the chambers of Mr. (afterwards Justice) 
Patteson, then the leading practitioner in 
common law, and in 1830, upon the pro- 
motion of Patteson to the bench, successfully 
practised for a term as a pleader in London. 

Called to the Irish bar in the Easter term of 
1881, he attached himself to the north-eastern 
circuit, and at once commanded an extensive 
practice in Dublin ; he was the only lawyer 
there who had pupils. He published in 1831 
a ' Manual of Precedents of Forms and De- 
clarations on Bills of Exchange and Pro- 
missory Notes/ and a ' Treatise on the Prac- 
tice of the Civil Bill Courts and Courts of 
Appeal/ and edited the law reports known 
as ' Albeck and Napier's Reports of Cases 
argued in the King's Bench 1 in 1832-4. For 
many years this volume of reports was the 
only Irish authority ever referred to in Eng- 
lish courts of justice. At this period, too, 
Napier delivered lectures on the common 
law, which attracted much attention both in 
Dublin and London, and was busy establish- 
ing a law institute. At the Lent assizes of 
1843, held in Monaghan,he was engaged for 



Napier 



66 



Napier 



the defence in the criminal trial of the Queen 
v. Samuel Gray, when he was refused per- 
mission to challenge one of the jurors. A 
verdict of guilty was returned, but Napier 
sued out a writ of error to the House of , 
Lords, on the ground that the jury had been I 
illegally constituted, and his contention was ' 
upheld (Clahkb and Fijtctelly, Reports, vol. ' 
ix.) In 1844 he was engaged as counsel for 
the crown in a second case of writ of error, 
following the conviction of O'Connell and 
others for seditious conspiracy arising out of 
the Clontarf meeting. A brief was sent by 
O'Connell ; but the crown had sent theirs a 
few hours sooner, a fact publicly regretted 
by O'Connell. It was the latter who gave 
Napier the sobriquet of ' Holy Joe/ as indi- 
cating a feature of his character which spe- 
cially attracted the notice of contemporaries. 
In November 1844 Napier received a silk 
gown from Sir Edward Sugden, lord chan- 
cellor of Ireland, and thenceforth there was 
scarcely a trial of note in which he was not 
retained. In 1846 one of the most important 
suits entrusted to him was that of Lord Dun- 
gannon v. Smith. Lord Dungannon appealed 
from the Irish courts to the House or Lords, 
and Napier's conduct of his case there drew 
high commendation from Lords Lyndhurst 
and Brougham. He was subsequently much 
employed in appeals before tne House of 
Lords. 

In 1847 he unsuccessfully contested the 
representation of his university in parliament, 
but in 1848 he was returned witnout a con- 
test. Lord John Russell was then prime 
minister, and Napier sat on the opposition 
benches, but he at first declined to identify 
himself either with Peelites or protectionists. 
He was constant in his attendance, and spoke 
whenever he deemed the interests of either 
protestantism or his country endangered. In 
his maiden speech, 14 March 1848, he argued 
in favour of capital punishment. In a speech 
delivered on 17 March 1848 he opposed the 
extension of the income-tax to Ireland, since 
Ireland, he argued, was already sufficiently 
taxed for the purpose of swelling the revenues 
of the imperial exchequer. When, on 5 April 
1848, the Outgoing Tenants (Ireland) Bill 
was discussed, he sought to prove, by a com- 
parison between the condition of Ulster and 
that of the southern and disaffected districts 
of Ireland, that the misery of the tenant was 
not due to the land laws or the greed of his j 
landlord, but to the peasant's indolence and j 
fondness for sedition. The efforts of Lord John ' 
Russell in the cause of Jewish emancipation 
Napier strenuously opposed ; and he disap- 
proved of opening diplomatic relations with 
Rome. He attacked the withdrawal of a grant 



called Ministers' Money — a tax for the support 
of protestant clergy levied upon the Roman 
catholics living in certain corporate towns 
in the south of Ireland. He next opposed 
the motion, brought forward by Sir Charles 
Wood, to grant 60,000/. out of the imperial 
exchequer for the relief of certain poor-law 
unions in Ireland. He contended that the 
grant was inadequate, and that the system 
involved was vicious in principle. A select 
committee was appointed, largely owing to 
his action, to inquire into the state of the 
Irish poor law, and of this committee he was 
a member. Upon the issue of the report of 
the committee Lord John Russell introduced 
the Rate in Aid Bill. Napier opposed the 
resolution, denying the justice of making the 
solvent unions bear the defalcations of the 
insolvent, and censured the government for 
its persistence in temporary expedients. The 
speech won a high eulogy from Sir Robert 
Peel. In 1849 he revised and criticised the 
various acts to facilitate the sale of encum- 
bered estates in Ireland. The report upon the 
receivers under the Irish courts of equity 
was prepared by him, and in the Process 
and Practice Act he afforded valuable assist- 
ance, which was acknowledged by Sir John 
Romill v [q. v.] ; while he prepared and carried 
through tne house the ecclesiastical code, a 
substantial boon to the Irish protestant church 
and clergy, which afterwards went by the 
name of Napier's Ecclesiastical Code. He 
resisted Lord John Russell's suggestion that 
the office of lord-lieutenant of Ireland should 
be abolished, and in 1850 took part in the 
agitation against the assumption by catholic 
bishops in England of the titles of their sees. 
In March 1852 ne was appointed Irish 
attorney-general in the administration of 
Lord Derby, and was made a privy councillor. 
He dedicated himself wholly to his duties, 
and in November 1852 was entrusted by Lord 
Derby with the refraining of the land laws 
of Ireland. His scheme consisted of four 
bills, a Land Improvement Bill, a Leasing 
Power Bill, the Tenants' Improvement Com- 

Emsation Bill, and the Landlord and Tenant 
aw Amendment Bill, which he introduced 
on 22 Nov. 1852, in a lucid speech, but none 
of his measures became law, though most of 
his suggestions were adopted by later ad- 
ministrations. Upon the defeat of the go- 
vernment in December Napierreturned to the 
opposition benches, and actively aided his 

n. He had proceeded LL.B. and LL.D. 
jblin in 1851, and on the installation 
of Lord Derby as chancellor of Oxford on 
7 June 1853 he was created D.C.L. there. To 
the question of legal education he had de- 
voted much attention, and he carried amotion 



Napier 



67 



Napier 



in the house for an address to the crown for 
a commission of inquiry into the inns of court, 
which was followed by useful reforms. In 
February 1856 Napier carried a resolution in 
favour of the appointment of a minister of 
justice for the United Kingdom. The dissolu- 
tion of parliament, however, prevented fur- 
ther steps being taken. In the same session 
Napier spoke m opposition to the Sunday 
opening of the museums, and his speech has 
since been published by the Working Men's 
Lord's Day Rest Association. 

"When Lord Derby formed his second 
administration in February 1868, Napier be- 
came lord chancellor of Ireland, although his 
practice had been confined to common law. 
Among many letters of congratulation sent ' 
him was an address from three hundred 
clergymen of the church of Ireland, accom- 
panied by a handsomely bound bible. His 
judgments as chancellor will be found in 
vols. viL viii. and ix. of the * Irish Chancery 
Beports ; ' a selection was published under his 
supervision and with his authority by Mr. 
W. B. Drury . Upon the fall of Lord Derby's 
government in June 1859 Napier retired. An 
attempt was then made, with the approval 
of Lord Palmerston and Lord Campbell, the 
lord chancellor, to transfer him to the judi- 
cial committee of the privy council in London ; | 
but it was found that the Act of Parliament , 
under which the committee was constituted 
did not provide for the admission of ex-judges 
of Ireland or Scotland. j 

Thereupon Napier, who was thus without , 
professional employment, travelled on the 
continent, spending the autumn and winter 
of 1860 in the Tyrol and Italy. On his return 
he mainly devoted himself to evangelical re- 
ligious work, but he incurred much adverse 
criticism by abandoning his early attitude of 
hostility to any scheme of national education 
which should exclude the perusal of the 
scriptures from the protestant schools in Ire- 
land. He had come to the conclusion that 
state aid was essential to any good system 
of education, and that no state aid could be 
expected unless the bible were omitted from 
the curriculum. He was vice-president and 
an eloquent advocate of the Church Mis- 
sionary Society, and one of his best speeches 
(delivered at Exeter Hall on SO April 1861) 
was in favour of the admission of the bible 
into the government schools of India. He 
also wrote pamphlets on the current topics 
of the day, penned the preface to John Nash 
Griffin's ' Seven Answers to the Seven Essays 
and Reviews,' and lectured on Edmund 
Burke and other eminent Irishmen to the 
Dublin Young Men's Christian Association, 
and published two volumes of lectures on 



Butler's 'Analogy' (1862-4). When the 
Social Science Association met at Liverpool 
in 1858, and at Dublin in 1861, Napier was 
on each occasion chosen president of the sec- 
tion of jurisprudence. He was unable to 
attend the earlier meeting, and his address on 
' Jurisprudence and Amendment of the Law' 
was read by Lord John Russell. He was a 
constant attendant at the Church Congress 
until 1868, when the subject of his paper was 
' How to increase the Efficiency of Church 
Service.' Many of his suggestions have since 
been adopted. In 1864 he was appointed a 
member of a royal commission for consider- 
ing the forms of subscriptions and declara- 
tions of assent required from the clergy of 
the churches of England and Ireland. The 
commissioners issued their report in Fe- 
bruary of the following year. The ' declara- 
tion of assent' now made by priests and 
deacons is substantially the one drafted by 
Napier and submitted to his brother commis- 
sioners. At the close of the commission Dean 
Milman, in * Eraser's Magazine,' declared that 
subscription to the Thirty-nine Articles was 
objectionable, and that the only subscription 
required was that to the Book of Common 
Prayer. These views Napier tried to refute 
in a lucid pamphlet published in 1865. 

In the summer of 1866 Lord Derby formed 
his third administration, but Napier was 

Ced over, and Francis Blackburne [q. v.] 
me lord chancellor of Ireland. 2sapier 
had made some enemies by his change of 
opinion on the church education question, 
and they had successfully urged that a slight 
deafness from which he had long suffered in- 
capacitated him for the office. He, however, 
accepted Lord Derby's offer of the lord jus- 
ticeship of appeal, rendered vacant by Black- 
burne'8 promotion. But the appointment 
excited hostile comment, and Napier retired 
so as not to embarrass the government. On 
26 March 1867 he received the dignity of a 
baronetcy. 

Napier was looked upon in England as the 
special champion of the Irish church, and both 
by speaking and writing he endeavoured to 
avert its disestablishment. From 1867 to his 
death he was vice-chancellor of Dublin Uni- 
versity, and he summed up the case against 
Fawcett's proposal to throw open the endow- 
ments of Trinity College to all creeds (June 
1867). In the same month he was appointed 
one of the twenty-six members of the ritual 
commission, and was constant in his attend- 
ance at the meetings. All the reports of the 
commission were signed by Napier, but the 
third and fourth with protests. 

On 28 March 1868 Napier was recalled by 
Disraeli to professional life by his nomi- 

p2 



Napier 



68 



Napier 



nation to a vacancy in the judicial committee 
of the privy council (sitting at Westminster) 
caused by the death of Lord Kingsdown. 
For six years he was frequent in his attend- 
ance on the committee, and hisjudgments are 
reported in ' Moore's Privy Council Cases' 
(new ser. vol. v. sea.) Appeals from the ad- 
miralty and from the supreme courts of New 
South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, 
Hong-Kong, and the Cape of Good Hope 
were the cases which chiefly fell within his 
province, and he sat in judgment on the three 
notorious ecclesiastical suits, the Bishop of 
Capetown v. the Bishop of Natal, Martin v. 
Mackonochie, and Sheppard v. Bennett. 

Upon the disestablishment of the Irish 
church Napier took an active part in its 
reconstruction. He helped largely in the re- 
vision of the prayer-book, opposing the intro- 
duction of any material alterations. During 
the parliament of 1870, Disraeli frequently 
consulted him on Mr. Gladstone's Irish land 
legislation. About this time a controversy 
arose with regard to the constitution of the 
university of Dublin,andits relation to Trinity 
College, and the matter was referred to 
Napier as vice-chancellor. The results of his 
investigation appeared in his tract, entitled 
'The College and the University,' which were 
warmly approved by Lord Cairns, the chan- 
cellor of tne university. 

In 1 874, when Disraeli once more became 
prime minister, the great seal of Ireland was 
put in commission, with Sir Joseph as chief 
commissioner, while the new lord chancellor, 
Ball, was detained in the House of Commons. 
The death of Napier's eldest son (3 Dec. 1874) 
impaired his health, and at the close of 1878 
he was attacked by paralysis. In January 
1881 he resigned his seat on the judicial com- 
mittee of the privy council. From Merrion 
Square, where he had long dwelt, he had 
removed after 1874 to South Kensington. 
In 1880 he retired to St. Leonard's-on-Sea, 
and there he died on 9 Dec. 1882, in the 
seventy-eighth year of his age. He was 
buried in Mount Jerome cemetery, Dublin. 
There are tablets to his memory in the mor- 
tuary chapel of the cemetery and in St. Pa- 
trick's Cathedral. His coat of arms is in a 
memorial window in the hall of Gray's Inn. 
He was rightly described after his death as 
an indubitable type of the protestantism of 
the North of Ireland in its best form. But 
he inherited a full share of the indomitable 
energy and talent of his Scottish ancestry. 
The extreme views which he had adopted in 
religion and politics in his youth were modi- 
fied in his later years by a spirit of toleration 
proveu rendered him popular even with his 
Borne. ii% 



In 1828 he married Charity, the second 
daughter of John Grace of Dublin, a de- 
scendant of the ancient family of the Graces 
of Courtstown, Kilkenny. They had two 
sons and three daughters*. While at South 
Kensington he and Lady Napier erected a 
Napier ward in the Brompton Hospital, in 
memory of their elder son, and through life 
he was a generous contributor to church and 
other charities. 

Among his publications not already men- 
tioned were many separate addresses, and an 
' Essay on the Communion Service of the 
Church of England and Ireland.' His ' Lec- 
tures, Essays, and Letters,' with an intro- 
duction by his daughter, appeared in 1888. 
A portrait is prefixed to the latter volume, 
ana a second portrait, in his robes as lord 
chancellor, is given in his life by Ewald. 

[Life of Sir Joseph Napier, Bart., Ex-Lord 
Chancellor of Ireland, from his private Corre- 
spondence, by Alex. Charles Ewald, F.S.A., 1887 
(another edition, 1 892) ; Dublin University Mag. 
xli. 300; Times, 12 Dec. 1882; Hist, of the 
Lord Chancellors of Ireland from 1186 to 1874, 
by Oliver J. Burke, A.B.T.C.D., Barrister-at- 
law ; Law Times ; Burke's Baronetage.] 

w. w. w. 

NAPIER, MACVEY (1776-1847), editor 
of the i Edinburgh Review/ born on 1 1 April 
1776 at Kirkintilloch, Dumbartonshire, was 
a son of John Macvey, merchant, of Kirkin- 
tilloch, by a daughter of John Napier of 
Crai^annet, Stirlingshire. He was christened 
Napier, but afterwards changed his name to 
Macvey Napier in deference to the wish of 
his grandfather. He was educated in the 
school of his native parish. In 1789 he went 
to the university of Glasgow, and two or 
three years later to Edinburgh. He there 
studied law, and in 1799 was admitted to 
the society of writers to the signet. His 
tastes, however, were rather literary than 
legal. In 1798 he made acquaintance with 
Archibald Constable [q. v.], who then kept 
a bookshop, and was just setting up as a 
publisher. They formed a close friendship, 
which lasted till Constable's death. In 1805 
the writers to the signet appointed him their 
librarian, and for the next thirty years, 
according to a successor, Mr. Law, he was 
* the life and soul ' of every enterprise in 
'connection with the library. ' In tne same 
year he wrote an article upon De Gerando in 
the 'Edinburgh Review, and was subse- 
quently a regular contributor. In 1814 he 
undertook to edit for Constable a supple- 
ment to the sixth edition of the ' Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica/ which was ultimately 
completed in six volumes in 1824. He went 
to London in 1814 with an introduction 



Napier 



6 9 



Napier 



from Dugald Stewart to Francis Horner, in 
order to collect contributors. The under- 
taking brought him into friendly relations 
with some eminent writers, especially Mack- 
intosh, Malthus, and James Mill — Mill, in 
particular, writing some of the most valu- 
able articles in the ' Supplement/ Napier 
had attended Dugald Stewart's lectures in 
1795, and in 1811 had contributed an article 
upon Stewart's 'Philosophical Essays' to 
the ' Quarterly Review.' When, in 1820, 
Stewart finally resigned the professorship of 
moral philosophy, upon the death of his col- 
league, Thomas Brown, he strongly recom- 
mended Napier as his successor in a letter 
to the lord provost. He stated that Napier 
agreed with Trim in philosophy, and had given 
proofs of ability by his writings unon Bacon, 
De Gerando, and Stewart himself. Napier, 
hbwever, declined to become a candidate, 
knowing that his whig principles would be 
an insuperable objection. In later years 
Napier made arrangements with the pub- 
lishers for Stewart's last writings. 

In 1824 Napier became the first professor 
of conveyancing at the university of Edin- 
burgh. He had already, from 1816, held 
the lectureship, founded by the writers to 
the signet in 1793, and they congratulated 
him officially upon the erection of the office 
into a professorship. His lectures were much 
valued, and he supplemented them by cate- 
chetical instruction. 

Constable wished Napier, upon the com- 
pletion of the ' Supplement,' to become editor 
of a new (seventh) edition of the ' Ency- 
clopaedia.' Constable's bankruptcy and death 
in 1827 interfered with this undertaking, 
the property in which was acquired by Adam 
Black [q. v!] and two others. Napier was 
continued as editor, although he had some 
difficulty with the new proprietors, who 
wished to limit the new edition to twenty 
instead of twenty-four volumes. Napier 
completed the work in 1842, the edition 
containing twenty-two volumes, of which 
the first is formed of ' dissertations ' by 
Stewart, Mackintosh, Playfair, and Leslie. 
The editor was to receive 7,000/., but he 
gave up 600/. of this in order to increase 
the sum payable to contributors from 6,500/. 
to 7,000/. 

Meanwhile, upon Jeffrey's resignation of 
the editorship of the ' Edinburgh Review 'in 
1829, Napier became his successor. The in- 
teresting volume of correspondence published 
in 1879, although it includes few of Napier's 
own letters, incidentally shows that he per- 
formed his duties with great tact and firm- 
ness. He had to withstand the overbearing 
pretensions of Brougham, who tried to drag 



the ' Review ' into his own quarrel with the 
whig ministers ; while the mutual antipathy 
of Brougham and Macaulay — his most valu- 
able contributor — produced many awkward 
discords. Napier won the respect even of 
these powerful supporters without losing 
their help. The * Review ' had now many 
more rivals, and therefore occupied a less 
prominent position than under Jeffrey's rule. 
The articles, however, were probably superior 
in literary merit, and Napier obtained con- 
tributions from the most eminent writers of 
the day. In his first number he persuaded 
Sir William Hamilton to write the meta- 
physical article which made his reputation ; 
and the correspondence records assistance 
from Carlyle, J. S. Mill, Thackeray, Bulwer, 
Hallam, Sir G. Cornewall Lewis, G. H. 
Lewes, Nassau Senior, Sir James Stephen, 
and many other distinguished authors. 

Napier's ' Remarks on the Scope and In- 
fluence of the Philosophical Writings of 
Lord Bacon,' originally contributed to the 
' Transactions of the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh,' was privately printed in 1818, and 
published, with a * Life of Raleigh,' in 1853. 

In 1837 Napier was appointed one of the 
principal clerks of session in Edinburgh, and 
thereupon resigned his librarianship, when 
he was warmly thanked for his long ser- 
vices. He was F.R.S. of London and Edin- 
burgh. He died on 11 Feb. 1847. 

Napier married Catharine, daughter of 
Captain Skene, on 2 Dec. 1797; she died 
17 March 182G. They had seven sons and 
three daughters. One son, Macvey, who 
edited his father's correspondence, died in 
July 1893. The sixth son, Alexander 
Napier (1814-1887), was bom at Edinburgh 
in 1814, educated at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, and was vicar of Holkham, Norfolk, 
from 1847 till his death in 1887. He was 
chaplain and librarian to the Earl of Leicester. 
He edited Barrow's 'Works' in 1859 and 
Bosweirs ' Life of Johnson ' in 1885. He 
also translated and edited Elze's ' Byron ' in 
1872 and Payers ' Arctic Circle' in 1876. 

[Introduction to Correspondence, 1879; infor- 
mation from his son, the late Mr. Macvey Napier; 
History of Society of Writers to the Signet, 1890, 
pp. lxzi, lxxix-bcxx, cxyii, cxxi, &c. ; Cham- 
bers's Eminent Scotsmen, 1855,7. 480; Gent. 
Mag. 1847, i. 436; Biographical Notice, 1847.] 

L. S. 

NAPIER, MARK (1798-1879), Scottish 
historical biographer, horn on 24 July 1798, 
was descended from the Napiers of Merchis- 
ton. His great-grandfather, Sir Francis 
Scott (fifth lord Napier), inherited the barony 
of Napier on the death of his grandmother, 
the Baroness Napier, in 1706, and through his 



Napier 



70 



Napier 



marriage with a daughter of the Earl of Hope- 
toun had five sons, of whom the youngest, 
Mark, a major-general in the army, was the 
grandfather of the biographer. His father 
was Francis Napier, a writer to the signet in 
Edinburgh, and his mother was Mary Eliza- 
beth Jane Douglas, eldest daughter of Colonel 
Archibald Hamilton of Inner wick, Hadding- 
tonshire. He was educated at the high school 
and the university of Edinburgh, and passed 
advocate at the Scottish bar in 1820. In 1844 
he was appointed sheriff-depute of Dumfries- 
shire, to which Galloway was subsequently 
added, and he held office till his deatn. Al- 
though a learned lawyer in all branches of 
Scots law, his reputation was literary rather 
than legal. His only strictly legal works 
are ' The Law of Prescription in Scotland,' 
1839, 2nd edit. 1864, a standard work, and 
' Letters to the Commissioners of Supply of 
the County of Dumfries, in Reply to a Re- 
port of a Committee of their Number on the 
Subject of Sheriff Courts/ 1862, 2nd edit. 
1862. In 1835 he published a ' History of 
the Partition of Lennox/ with which earl- 
dom theNapiers had an historical connection. 
In 1834 he published his valuable ' Memoirs 
of John Napier of Merchiston ; ' and in 1839 
he edited Napier's unpublished manuscripts 
with an introduction. His works on the 
Marquis of Montrose and Graham of Claver- 
house are the fruit of much original research, 
but as historical guides their value is much 
impaired by their controversial tone and 
violent language. His jacobitism was of 
the old-fashioned fanatical type, and although 
in many cases his representations are sub- 
stantially founded on fact, his exaggeration 
necessarily awakens distrust, even when he 
has a good case. On Montrose he published 
' Montrose and the Covenanters/ 1838, ' Life 
and Times of Montrose/ 1840, ' Memorials 
of Montrose and his Times/ a collection of 
original documents edited for the Maitland 
Club (vol. i. 1848, and vol. ii. 1850) ; and 
' Memoirs of the Marquis of Montrose/ two 
vols. 1856, which comprehends the substance 
of the previous works and the results of 
later researches. His ' Memorials of G raham 
of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee/ 1859-62, I 
also includes a large number of the letters i 
of Claverhouse and other documents not 1 
previously published. Its publication led to ' 
a keen controversy in regard to the drowning \ 
of the two women, Margaret Maclachlan and 
Margaret Wilson, known as the ' Wigtown 
Martyrs.' Napier had endeavoured to raise 
doubts as to whether the execution took 
place ; and he replied to his objectors in the 
4 Case for the Crown in re the Wigtown Mar- 
tyrs proved to be Myths versus Wodrow and j 



Lord Macaulay, Patrick the Pedlar and Prin- 
cipal Tulloch/ 1863 j and in ' History Res- 
cued, in Reply to History Vindicated pby the 
Rev. Archibald Stewart]/ 1870. Napier also 
edited vols. ii. and iii. of Spotiswooas ' His- 
tory of the Church of Scotland ' for the Ban- 
natyne Club in 1847. 'The Lennox of Auld, 
an Epistolary Review of "The Lennox" by 
William Fraser/ was published posthumously 
in 1880, edited by his son Francis. He occa- 
sionallv wrote ' very touching as well as very 
spirited ' verse (Athenceum, 29 Nov. 1879), 
and possessed a valuable collection of paint- 
ings and china. 

Napier died at his residence at Ainslie 
Place, Edinburgh, on 23 Nov. 1879, being 
the oldest member of the Faculty of Advo- 
cates then discharging legal duties. He 
married his cousin Charlotte, daughter of 
Alexander Ogilvie, and widow of William 
Dick Macfarlane, and by her had a son and 
a daughter : Francis John Hamilton Scott, 
commander in the royal navy, and Frances 
Anne, married to Lieutenant-colonel Cecil 
Rice. ' Though a keen controversialist and 
most unsparing in epithets of abuse, Mark 
Napier was in person and address a genial 
polished gentleman of the old school — a 
really beautiful old man, worn to a shadow, 
but with a never failing kindly smile, and a 
lively, pleasant, intellectual face, in which 
the pallid cheek of age was always relieved 
by a little trace of seemingly hectic or of 
youthful colour' {Scotsman, 24 Nov. 1879). 

[Obituary notices in Athenaeum, Scotsman, 
Edinburgh Courant, and Dumfries Courier ; 
Foster's Peerage.] T. F. H. 

NAPIER, Sib NATHANIEL (1633- 
1709), dilettante, born in 1636, was the third 
son of Sir Gerard Napier [q. v.], of More 
Crichel or Critchell, Dorset, by Margaret, 
daughter and coheiress of John Colles ot Bar- 
ton, Somerset. He matriculated at Oxford, 
16 March 1654, as a fellow-commoner of 
Oriel College, to which he presented a fine 
bronze eagle lectern, still in the chapel ; but, 
being sickly, did not take a degree. In 1666 
his father married him to Blanch, daughter 
and coheiress of Sir Hugh Wyndham, jus- 
tice of the common pleas, and he lived quietly 
at Edmondsbam, Dorset. He was knighted 
on 16 Jan. 1662, and in 1667 went for three 
months to Holland with his mother's brother- 
in-law, Henry Coventry £q. v.], then ambas- 
sador to the States ; on his return he wrote a 
' Particular Tract' describing his travels. In 
1671-2 he paid a visit to France, and wrote 
another ' Tract.' 

In 1673 he succeeded his father as second 
baronet, and settled down to the ordinary. 



Napier 



71 



Napier 



occupations of a country gentleman. He re- 
novated Middlemarsh Bfafl and Crichel Hall, 
and represented the county of Dorset from 
April 1677 to February 1678, when he was 
unseated. He next sat as member for Corfe 
Castle in the two parliaments of 1679, and 
in those of 1681 and 1685-7. In 1689 he 
took his seat in the Convention parliament 
as member for Poole, for which town he had 
procured the restoration in 1688 of the char- 
ter forfeited in 1687 ; but a double return had 
been made for the second seat for that borough, 
and a committee of the House of Commons 
reported, 9 Feb. 1689, that Thomas Chaffin, 
who had a majority of the votes of the com- 
monalty paying scot and lot, was entitled 
to the seat. The house, however, resolved 
that the franchise should be confined to the 
4 select body/ i.e. the mayor, aldermen, and 
burgesses, who had voted for Napier by a 
majority of 33 to 22 (Hist, of Boroughs, i. 
219). Napier continued to represent Poole 
till 1698. He sat for Dorchester from Fe- 
bruary 1702 until 1705. 

Lady Napier died in 1695, and, their first 
four sons having also died before 1690, Sir 
Nathaniel married a Gloucestershire lady, 
Susanna Guise, in 1697. In 1697 also he re- 
commenced his travels by a tour in France 
and Italy, the events of which he ' noted in a 
journal in which he has given a full and true 
relation of all his travels ' (Wotton, Baronet- 
age, ii. 161-4). In October 1701 he revisited 
Holland, and in 1704 spent three months in 
Rotterdam, intending to proceed to Hanover. 
From March 1706 to September 1707 he was 
at Spa for his health ; and eventually died in 
England on 21 Jan. 1708-9. He was buried 
with his ancestors at Great Minterne, Dorset, 
where he had erected a monument during his 
lifetime. A. mural inscription was added by 
his son. He was succeeded by his only sur- 
ving son, Nathaniel, who was member for 
Dorchester in nine parliaments between 1695 
and 1722. On the death of his grandson, the 
sixth baronet, in 1765, the estates passed to 
a cousin, Humphry Sturt, with whose re- 
presentative, Lord Alington, they remain. 

Napier is described by the author of the 
1 Memoir ' in Wotton's ' Baronetage,' who 
seems to have been a member of the family, 
as ' a gay, ingenious gentleman, well versed 
in several languages/ who * understood very 
well architecture and painting ; he has left 
behind him several pieces of his own draw- 
ing, besides many others of good value, which 
he had collected on his travels/ A portrait 
is at Crichel Hall. The whereabouts of his 
manuscripts and drawings is unknown. 
. [Wottou's English Baronetage, ii. 161-4 (ap- 
parently a first-hand memoir); Foster's Alumni 



Oxon.; Shadwell's Oriel College Kegister; 
Hutchins's Dorset, ed. 1868, iii. 123-5, iv. 483; 
Pari. Hist; Sydenham's Hist, of Poole, pp. 209 
seq. 259, 281.] H.E.D.B. 

NAPIER or NAPPER, RICHARD 

il 559-1 634), astrologer, born at Exeter on 
May 1559, was third son of Alexander 
Napier, by his wife Ann or Agnes Burchley. 
The father, who was sometimes known by 
the alternative surname of ' Sandy/ was elder 
son by a third wife of Sir Archibald Napier, 



fourth laird of Merchiston (d. 1522) [see 
under Napibb, Albxandbb (d. 1473)1; he 
settled at Exeter about 1540. Richard ma- 
triculated at Exeter College, Oxford, as a 
commoner on 20 Dec. 1577, but took no de- 
gree, although he was occasionally described 
at a later date as M.A., and he sent a donation 
to the fund for building the college kitchen 
in 1624. On leaving the university he was 
ordained, and on 12 March 1589-90 was 
admitted to the rectory of Great Linford, 
Buckinghamshire, which he held for forty- 
four years. According to Lilly, he broke 
down one day in the pulpit, and thenceforth 
ceased to preach, ' keeping in his house some 
excellent scholar or other to officiate for him, 
with allowance of a good salary .' But he 
was always 'a person of great abstinence, 
innocence, and piety j he spent every day 
two hours in family prayer ... his knees were 
horny with frequent praying ' (Aubbey). 

In his youth Napier had been attracted by 
astrology, and before settling at Great Lin- 
ford apparently spent some time in London 
as the pupil ot Simon Forman [q. v.] For- 
man ' was used to say he would be a dunce ' 
(Lilly}, but Napier ultimately developed so 
much skill that Forman on his death in 1611 
bequeathed to him all his manuscripts. He 
claimed to be in continual communication 
with the angel Raphael (Aubbey). With 
the practice of astrology he combmed from 
an early period that of medicine, and thus 
made a large income, great part of which he 
bestowed on the poor (ib.) On 20 Dec. 1604 
he received a formal license to practise medi- 
cine from Erasmus Webb, archdeacon of Buck- 
ingham (Ashmol.M S. 1293). Throughout the 
midlands his clients were numerous. His 
medical patients included Emanuel Scrope, 
eleventh Daron Scrope of Bolton and earl of 
Sunderland [q. v.l who resided at Great Lin- 
ford in 1627 (ib. 421 ff. 162-4, and 1730, f. 
186). He also ' instructed many ministers in 
astrology, would lend them whole cloak-bags 
of books ; protected them from harm and vio- 
lence by means of his power with [Oliver St. 
John, nrst] earl of Bolingbroke.' William 
Lilly, who occasionally visited him in 1632 
and*1633, describes his library ' as excellently 



Napier 



12 



Napier 



furnished with very choice books.' Like all 
the popular astrologers of the day, he had his 
enemies, and John Gotta [q. v.l is said to have 
attacked him obliquely in his 'Triall of 
Witchcraft/ 1616. He died, * praying upon 
his knees/ at Great Linford on 1 April lo34, 
and "was buried on 15 April. He left all 
his property to his nephew and pupil Ri- 
chard, second son of his elder brother Robert 
[see below]. Napier's property included, be- 
sides the advowson of Great Linford, manu- 
script books and notes of his astrological and 
medical practice between 1597 and the year 
of his death, his correspondence, and some 
manuscript religious tracts. A portrait is 
in the Asnmolean Museum, Oxford. 

The astrologer's brother, Sib Robebt 
Napieb ( 1560-1 637), born in 1560, esta- 
blished himself in Bishopsgate Street, Lon- 
don, as a successful Turkey merchant, and was 
a member of the Grocers' Company. He pur- 
chased an estate at Luton Hoo, Bedfordshire, 
and was high sheriff of that county in 1611. 
He was knighted in 161 2, and was created a 
baronet on 25 Nov. of the same year. He de- 
clined to serve the office of sheriff of London 
when elected to it on 24 June 1613, and was 
fined four hundred marks. On 24 Oct. 1614 
he protested that he would be more beneficial 
to the city if the common council relieved 
him of the liability of serving either as alder- 
man or sheriff (Oveball, Remembrancia, 
S). 461-2). Sir Robert died in April 1637. 
y his will, dated 15 April 1637, he left 
charities to the poor of Luton. He married 
thrice. He was succeeded in the baronetcy by 
Robert, his eldest son by his third wife (cf. 
Ashmol. MS. 339, No. 29). Sir Robert, the 
second baronet (1602-1660), matriculated at 
Exeter College, Oxford, in 1619, became a 
student of Gray's Inn in 1620, was knighted 
at Whitehall in 1623, and was M.P. for Corfe 
Castle (1625-6), and Weymouth and Mel- 
combe Regis (1627-8). He represented Peter- 
borough in the Long parliament till 1648, 
when ne was secluded (cf. Letters of Lady 
B. Harley, Camden Soc, p. 86). Dying in 
1660, he was succeeded by his grandson 
Robert, heir of his eldest son, who nad died 
before him. With the death of the third 
baronet in 1675 the title expired. But mean- 
while a new baronetcy was granted, 4 March 
1660-1, to John, the second baronet's son by 
a second marriage. That title became extinct 
on the death of Sir John Napier, the grand- 
son of the first holder, in 1747. 

SibRichabd NAPiEB(1607-1670),nephew 
and heir of the astrologer and second son of 
the first Sir Robert Napier, was born in Lon- 
don in 1607. He became a student of Gray's 
Inn in 1622 ; entered Wadham College, Ox- 



ford, as a fellow-commoner in 1624 ; graduated 
B.A. on 4 Dec. 1626, and on 31 Dec. 1627 
was created M. A. by virtue of letters of the 
chancellor, which described him as a kins- 
man of the Duchess of Richmond. (The 
Napiers claimed connection with the Stuarts, 
earls of Lennox, from whom the duchess's 
husband (d. 1624) was descended.) He was 
elected a fellow of All Souls College in 1628, 
and proceeded B.C.L. on 16 July 1630. He 
was the favourite nephew of his uncle Richard, 
who instructed him in astrology and medi- 
cine during his vacations. As early as 1625 
he attended some of his uncle's patients at 
Great Linford. In 1683 he obtained from John 
Williams, bishop of Lincoln, a license to prac- 
tise medicine, and next year he inherited all 
his uncle's property and manuscripts. He 
settled at Great Linford, the manor of which 
his father appears to have purchased for him. 
On 1 Nov. 1642 he took the degree of M.D. 
at Oxford. He was knighted on 4 July 1647. 
He was incorporated M.D. at Cambridge in 
1663, and in December 1664 became an 
honorary fellow of the College of Physicians 
in London; he had given to the college 
library in 1652 the Greek commentators on 
Aristotle in thirteen finely bound volumes. 
Wood describes him as ' one of the first 
members of the Royal Society, and a great 

Sretender to virtu and astrology.' His name 
oes not figure, however, in the lists of the 
members of the Royal Society. He ' made,' 
Wood adds, ' a great noise in the world, yet 
he did little or nothing towards the public/ 
While on his way to visit Sir John Lenthall 
at Besselsleigh, near Abingdon, Berkshire, 
in January 1675-6, he rested at an inn where,, 
according to Aubrey, as soon as the chamber- 
lain had shown him his chamber, he ' saw 
a dead man lying upon the bed; he looked 
more wistly and saw it was himself.' He died 
shortly after his arrival at Lenthall's house 
on 17 Jan. 1675-6, and was buried in Great 
Linford Church (Wood, Fasti Oxon. ed. 
Bliss, i. 437, ii. 47). He married, first, Ann, 
youngest daughter of Sir Thomas Tyringham 
(Le Neve, Knights, p. 24) ; and, secondly, in 
1645, Anne, daughter of Sir Thomas Vyner, 
lord mayor in 1653. The estate of Linford he 
left, with all his medical and astrological 
books, papers, and correspondence, to Thomas 
(born in 1646), his eldest son by his second 
wife. Thomas sold the estate in 1679 for 
nearly 20,000/. to Sir William Pritchard, 
lord mayor in 1682. The manuscript col- 
lections of his father and great-uncle he made 
over to Elias Ashmole, and they are now pre- 
served at the Bodleian Library, Oxford. 

Sir Richard's eldest son by his first wife, 
Robert, after spending some time at Oriel 



Napier 



73 



Napier 



I 



College, Oxford, travelled in Italy, and gra- 
duated M.D. at Padua on 29 Aug. 1662. He 
was admitted an honorary fellow of the Col- 
lege of Physicians in December 1664, and, 
dying in 1670, was buried at Great Linford 
on 6 Oct. A few of his papers are among 
the Ashmolean MSS. 

[For the astrologer and his relatives Black's 
Cat. of the Ashmolean MSS. is the main authority. 
See also for the astrologer Lilly's Life, 1774, 
pp. 23, 77-80 ; Aubrey's Miscellanies, 1857, pp. 
90, 159-61 ; Lysons's Bedfordshire ; Lipscombes 
Buckinghamshire, iv. 222 seq. For other mem- 
bers of the family see Overall's Remembrancia, 
. 76; Burke's Extinct Baronetage; Munk's 
oil. of Phys.i. 828-9 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; 
Wadham Coll. Reg. ed. Gardiner, and the au- 
thorities cited.] S. L. 

NAPIER, Sib ROBERT (d. 1615), judge, 
was the third son of James Napier of Punc- 
knowle, Dorset, and his wife, whose maiden 
name is variously given as Hilliard, Hillary, 
and Illery ; he was a distant cousin of the 
Napiers of Merchiston (Hutchins, Dorset, 
ii. 784). Robert joined the Middle Temple, 
and in 1686 was elected member of parlia- 
ment for Dorchester, Dorset. He was 
knighted by Elizabeth before 1593, when he 
was appointed chief baron of the exchequer 
in Ireland, under a writ of privy seal dated 
10 April. He was not satisfied with the ap- 
pointment, and complained that there was 
' little profit incident to the office, dealing in 
an honest and upright course ; ' he conse- 
quently managed to obtain additional grants. 
He arrived at Dublin in August 1593, and 
seems to have found his chief occupation in re- 
ceiving information from spies, and troubling 
the home government with complaints about 
the grants he had received. In 1595 he ob- 
tained leave to return to England for three 
months after Easter, arid was again at the 
Middle Temple in June 1597, in which year he 
was recommended for the chief justiceship of 
common pleas in Ireland. This recommenda- 
tion was not adopted, but Napier received 
further grants of lands from the government 
in 1599, and in 1600 was complimented on the 
valuable services he had performed. In 1602, 
however, his frequent absences in England 
caused dissatisfaction, and his administration 
does not appear to have been successful ; in 
consequence he was discharged, and Sir Ed- 
mund Pelham [q. v.] appointed in his stead. 
He sat in the parliament of 1601 for Brid- 
port, Dorset, and in that of 1603-4 for Ware- 
nam; he died on 20 Sept. 1615, and was 
buried in Great Minterne Church, Dorset, 
where there is an inscription to his memory. 

Napier was a considerable benefactor to 
Dorchester, where he erected a handsome 



almshouse, called Napier's Mite, which he 
endowed with a fourth of the manor of Little* 
Puddle, Dorset. Middlemarsh, which he 
purchased, became the family seat. He mar- 
ried, first, Catherine, daughter of John Ware- 
ham, by whom he had one daughter, who 
married Sir John Ry ves ; secondly, Magda- 
len, daughter of Sir Anthony Denton. She* 
died in 1635, and was buried by her hus- 
band's side in Great Minterne Church. By 
her Napier had one 6on, Sir Nathaniel, whose 
sons, Robert (1611-1686) and Sir Gerard, 
and grandson, Sir Nathaniel (1636-1709), 
are separately noticed. 

[Hutchins's Dorset, ed. Shipp and Hodson, 
passim ; Burke's Extinct Baronetage; Cal. State 
Papers, Ireland, 1589-1603, passim; Carew 
MSS.; Motrin's Cal. Close and Patent Rolls, 
Ireland; Lascelles's Liber Muncrum Hiberni- 
corum; Smyth's Law Officers of Ireland, p. 138 ; 
Visitation of Dorset (Harl. Soc.); Official Re- 
turns of Members of Parliament.] A. F. P. 

NAPIER, ROBERT (1611-1686), 
royalist, born in 1611, was second son of Sir 
Nathaniel Napier of More Crichel, Dorset, 
grandson of Sir Robert Napier (d. 1615)[q.v.], 
and was younger brother of Sir Gerard Napier 
[q. v.] On 21 Nov. 1628 he matriculated at 
Queen's College, Oxford, but did not graduate, 
and in 1637 he was called to the bar from the 
Middle Temple, being then seated at Punc- 
knowle, Dorset (Foster, Alumni Oxon. 1500- 
1714, iii. 1052). He was subsequently ap- 
pointed receiver-general and auditor of the 
duchy of Cornwall. During the civil war 
he busied himself in collecting money to 
maintain the king's forces. He lived in 
Exeter while it was held as a royalist gar- 
rison, and afterwards at Truro. On the sur- 
render of Truro to the parliament in March 
1646, Sir Thomas Fairfax, in a letter to 
Speaker Lenthall, recommended Napier to 
the favourable consideration of the house, 
* as well in respect of the treaty as that he is 
a gentleman of whom I hear a very good 
report* {Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1646-7, p. 
381 ). On 30 June 1646, having in the mean- 
time taken the national covenant and nega- 
tive oath, he begged to be allowed to com- 
pound, and was, on 12 Feb. 1649, fined only 
505/. 1 Is. (Cal. of Committee for Compounding, 
p. 1372 ; cf. Cal. of Committee for Advance 
of Money, p. 1377). After the Restoration 
the king, in February 1663, granted him a 
renewal of the office of receiver-general (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1663-4, p. 62). 

Napier died at Puncknowle in the winter 
of 1686, his will (P. C. C. 170, Lloyd) being 
proved on 4 Dec. He married, first, by 
license dated 12 July 1637, Anne, daughter 
of Allan Corrance of Wykin, Suffolk (Chbs- 



Napier 



74 



Napier 



tee, London Marriage Licenses, ed. Foster, 
col. 968); secondly, Catherine, sister of 
Lord Hawley ; and thirdly, by license dated 
18 March 1668, Mary, daughter of Sir 
Thomas Evelyn, bart., of Long Ditton, Sur- 
rey, and -widow of Edmond Ironside of 
Rickmansworth, Hertfordshire, who survived 
him. By his first wife he left a son and a 
daughter, Anne, who married John Fry of 
Yarty, Devonshire, son of the regicide John 
Fry (1609-1657) [q. v.] 

His son, Sib Robert Napier (1642 ?- 
1700), born about 1642, matriculated at 
Oxford from Trinity College on 1 April 
1656, but did not graduate, and became a 
member of the Middle Temple in 1660. He 
is wrongly stated to have been master of 
the hanaper office. On 27 Jan. 1681, being 
then high sheriff for Dorset, he was knighted 
(Luttrell, Brief Historical Relation, i. 64), 
and on 25 Feb. 1682 became a baronet. He 
was M.P. for Weymouth and Melcombe 
Regis in 1689-90, and for Dorchester in 
1690 till unseated on 6 Oct. 1690. He was, 
however, re-elected in 1698. Napier died 
on 31 Oct. 1700. By license dated 25 Oct. 
1667 he married Sophia Evelyn of Long 
Ditton. 

[Hutchins's Dorset, 3rd ed. ii. 770 ; Burke's 
Extinct Baronetage.] G-. G. 

NAPIER, ROBERTa791-1876),marine 
engineer, born at Dumbarton on 18 June 
1791, was the son of a well-to-do blacksmith 
and burgess of that town. After receiving 
a good general education at the Dumbarton 
grammar school, and acquiring considerable 
skill in mathematical and architectural 
drawing under the instruction of a friend 
of his father, named Traill, who was con- 
nected with Messrs. Dixon's works, Napier 
was in 1807, at his own request, apprenticed 
to his father for five years. He occupied his 
spare time in making small tools, drawing- 
instruments, guns, and gun-locks, and exe- 
cuted the smith's work for Messrs. Stirling's 
extensive calico-printing works. At the end 
of his apprenticeship in 1812 Napier went to 
Edinburgh, where, after precarious employ- 
ment at low wages, he obtained a post in 
Robert Stevenson's works. A blunder in his 
first attempt to construct the boiler of a steam- 
engine led to Napier's return to his father, 
and in 1815 he purchased a small blacksmith's 
business in Greyfriars' Wynd, Glasgow. He 
succeeded so well as to be able to remove 
his business to the Camlachie works in Gal- 
lowgate, which had been previously occupied 
by his cousin, David Napier [a. v.] Here he 
engaged in ironfounding and engineering, 
and in 1828 constructed his first marine 



engine for the steamship Leven, which was 
to ply between Glasgow and Dumbarton. 
In 1826 he constructed the engines for the 
Eclipse, for the Glasgow and Belfast route ; 
and in 1827, in a steamboat race on the 
Clyde, two vessels with engines provided by 
Napier proved the fastest. The following 
year Napier took over more extensive works 
at the Vulcan foundry in Washington Street, 
near the harbour, the deepening of which 
enabled vessels of larger size to be built, and 
provided with engines at Glasgow. In 1830 he 
joined the Glasgow Steam-packet Company, 
and supplied the engines for most of its 
vessels running between Glasgow and Liver- 
pool. Three years later he was consulted 
as to the practicability of running steamships 
between England and New York ; his report 
was favourable, but the project was aban- 
doned for lack of funds. In 1834 Napier 
engined three steam-packets to ply between 
London and Dundee, and in the following 
year succeeded his cousin David at the Lance- 
field foundry on Anderston Quay. 

In 1836 Napier supplied engines of 230 
horse-power for the East India Company's 
vessel Berenice, and soon after engines of 280 
horse-power for the same company's Zenobia 
(drawings of the Berenice are given on plates 
xcv. and xc vi. in Trkdgold, The Steam Engine, 
ed. Woolhouse). In 1839 he engined the Bri- 
tish Queen,which was to run between England 
and New York, and the Fire King, a steam 
yacht belonging to Mr. Assheton Smith,which 
proved the fastest vessel then afloat. In 1840 
he became member of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers, and executed his first commission 
for the government by supplying engines for 
the Vesuvius and the Stromboli. About the 
same time he contracted to supply Samuel 
Cunard with engines of 300 horse-power for 
three vessels of 1,000 tons, to carry mails to 
North America. Convinced that these were 
not large enough, Napier induced Cunard to 
order four vessels of 1 ,200 tons and 400 horse- 
power ; and, to meet the expense, others were 
induced to join in the contract. This was 
the origin oi the Cunard Company ; and for 
fifteen years Napier engined all their paddle- 
wheel ships. 

Hitherto Napier had confined himself to 
constructing engines, but in 1841 he opened 
his shipbuilding yard at Go van, and in 1843 
he built his first ship, the Vanguard, of 680 
tons, for the Glasgow and Dublin route. In 
1850 he began constructing iron ships, his 
first being one for the Peninsular and Oriental 
Company in 1852 ; in 1851 he was a juror at 
the Great Exhibition, London. In 1854 he 
built for the Cunard Company the Persia, of 
8,300 tons ; in 1855 he was a juror at the Paris 



Napier 



75 



Napier 



exhibition, and received the gold medal and 
decoration of knight of the Legion of Honour 
from Napoleon III. In 1866 he constructed 
for the government the Erebus, and in 1860 
the Black Prince, of 6,040 tons, one of the 
two armour-clad vessels first built; and from 
this time onwards built more than three 
hundred vessels for the government and great 
companies, first paddle-wheel, and then 
screw steamers. Among them was the troop- 
ship Malabar, the Scotia for the Cunard 
Company, the Hector, Agitator, Audacious, 
and Invincible. He also built men-of-war 
for the French, Turkish, Danish, and Dutch 
governments. 

In 1862 Napier was chairman of the jury 
on naval architecture at the London inter- 
national exhibition ; from 1863 to 1865 he 
was president of the Institution of Mecha- 
nical Engineers, of which he had become a 
member in 1866. In 1866 he took out two 
patents — one for a new method of con- 
structing the upper deck of ships of war, the 
other for an improved method of constructing 
turrets. In 186/ he was royal commissioner at 
the Paris exhibition, and in 1868 the kin* of 
Denmark conferred on him the commanaer- 
ship of the most ancient order of Dannebrog. 
Napier died at West Shandon, Glasgow, on 
23 June 1876, and his valuable collection of 
works of art was sold by Messrs. Christie. 

He married in 1816 the sister of his cousin 
David, and by her, who died in 1875, he had 
three daughters and four sons, two of whom 
died young. The other two, James Robert 
and John, were taken into partnership in 1853. 
An engraving of Napier is given in* Engineer- 
ing,' iv. 594, and another in * The Clyde/ &c, 
p. 209. 

[Engineering, 1867, pp. 594-7; 1876, pp. 554- 
555; Proc. Inst. Civil Engineers, xlv. 246-51 ; 
Proc. Inst. Mechanical Engineers, 1877, pp. 3, 
20-1; Scotsman and Times, 24 June 1876; 
Imperial Diet, of Biography ; English Cyclo- 
pedia ; Men of the Time, 9th edit. ; Men of 
the Reign ; Griffin's Contemporary Biography 
in Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 28511; Armstrong's 
British Navy; Pollock's Modern Shipbuilding; 
Woodcroft's Abridgments of Specifications for 
Patents (Shipbuilding, &c), pp. 613, 687]. 

A. F. P. 

NAPIER, ROBERT CORNELIS, Lokd 
Napiek op Magdala (1811-1890), field- 
marshal, son of Major Charles Frederick 
Napier, royal artillery, and of Catherine, his 
"wife, daughter of Codrin^ton Carrington, 
esq., of the Chapel and Carrington, Barbados, 
"West Indies, was born in Colombo, Ceylon, 
on 6 Dec. 1810. His second name commemo- 
rated the storming, on 26 Aug. 1810, of Fort 
Cornells in Java, in which his father was 



engaged. It was during this campaign that 
his father was wounded, and he died on his 
way to England. Napier entered the military 
college of the East India Company at Addis- 
combe in 1824, and on 15 Dec 1826 received 
his commission as second lieutenant in the 
Bengal engineers. After the usual course of 
instruction at the royal engineer establish- 
ment at Chatham, during which he was pro- 
moted first lieutenant, he sailed for India, 
and landed at Calcutta in November 1828. 

After a few months spent at Alighur, then 
the headquarters of the Bengal sappers and 
miners, £\ apier was sent to Delhi to command 
a company. In 1830 a serious illness com- 
pelled him to take sick leave to Mussori, 
where he made an extensive collection of 
plants, which he presented to the govern- 
ment museum of Saharunpiir. In March 
1831 he was employed in the irrigation 
branch of the public works department on 
the Eastern Jamna Canal with Captain (after- 
wards Sir) Proby Thomas Cautley [q.v.] At 
the time- of his arrival the canal was in a 
critical state, and it was a daily fight against 
time and nature to save it. Napier's recrea- 
tions were the study of geology, under the 
guidance of Falconer the palaeontologist, 
whose discoveries in the miocene beds of the 
Siwalik hills he followed up, and made the 
first drawing of a Siwalik fossil. At Addis- 
combe he had been a pupil of Theodore Henry 
Adolphus Fielding [q.v.], brother of Copley 
Fielding, and showed some skill both in land- 
scape and portrait painting. The former was 
a favourite amusement to the end of his life. 
In 1835 he had another severe illness, brought 
on by exposure, and in April 1836 he ob- 
tained three years' furlough, went to Europe, 
and was indefatigable in visiting all sorts of 
engineering works, both civil and military. 
He made the acquaintance of Stephenson and 
Brunei, and visited with them the railways 
on which they were engaged. He spent 
some time in Belgium, Germany, and Italy, 
and, as he was proficient in French, he gained 
valuable knowledge about irrigation. 

Early in 1838 he returned to Bengal, and, 
after a tour of travel, was sent to Darjiling, 
the beautiful station in the hill country of 
Sikkim, which at that time consisted of a few 
mud huts and wooden houses, cut off by the 
dense forests from the world, and without 
roads or even regular supply of provisions. 
Napier laid out the new settlement and 
established easy communication with the 
plain, some seven thousand feet below. To 
supply the deficiency of skilled workmen 
and of labourers he completed the organisa- 
tion of a local corps, called ' Sebundy sap- 
pers/ which owed its origin to Gilmore. 



Napier 



76 



Napier 



This corps was composed of mountaineers, 
whom he himself instructed, although only 
one of them understood Hindustani, and his 
instruction had to be interpreted. The corps 
was armed, and expected to fight if neces- 
sary. Napier drilled them himself, and was 
for long his own sergeant. At a later date, 
when labour became plentiful, the ' Sebundy 
sappers ' were disbanded. Napier lived in a 
log hut, and his fare was rice and sardines, 
varied occasionally by a jungle fowl. 

In 1840 he was appointed to Sirhind, but 
his services at Darjiling were in such request 
that it was not until September 1842 that he 
was allowed to leave. In the meantime, on 
28 Jan. 1841, he was promoted second captain. 
At Sirhind his duty was to lay out a can- 
tonment to take the place of that at Karnal, 
which it was intended to abandon on ac- 
count of its unhealthiness, and also to pro- 
vide immediate accommodation for the troops 
then returning from Afghanistan in great 
numbers. Napier chose a stretch of land 
about four miles south of Ambala, and, im- 
pressed with the importance of the free cir- 
culation of air around dwellings as a pre- 
ventive measure against sickness, he arranged 
the buildings in echelon on the slopes. This 
arrangement was freely adopted by the go- 
vernment in many other cantonments, and 
went by the name of * Napier's system/ 

The work at Ambala was progressing when, 
on 15 Dec. 1845, Napier was ordered to join 
the army of the Satlaj under Sir Hugh (after- 
wards Lord) Gough [q. v.], on the outbreak 
of the first Sikh war. He left Ambala on 
horseback, and covered 150 miles in three 
days, arriving just in time to take command 
of the engineers at the battle of Mudki, 
where he had a horse killed under him. At 
the battle of Ferozeshah on 21 Dec. he again 
lost a horse, and, having joined the 31st regi- 
ment on foot, he was severely wounded when 
storming the entrenched Sikh camp. Napier 
was present at the battle of Sobraon on 1 1 4 eb. 
1846, no longer in command of the engineers, 
as officers senior to himself had joined, but he 
was brigade major of engineers, and accom- 
panied the headquarter force in its advance 
on Lahore. Napier was mentioned in des- 
patches, and for his services received the 
medal with two clasps and was promoted 
brevet major on 3 April 1846. 

The part of the Punjab between the Bias 
and Satlaj rivers was annexed to the British 



dominion andadministered by John (after- 
ace [q- I 
the Punjab was ruled by Henry Lawrence, as 



wards Lord) Lawrence [q. v.] The rest of 



British resident, with assistants in different 

Sarts of the country, acting with the Sikh 
urbar, or council of regency, on the part of 



the young Maharaja Dhalip Singh. This new 
order of things was naturally distasteful to 
the old Sikh soldiery of Rani it Singh, and 
the garrison of the strong hill fort of Koto 
Kangra, 130 miles east of Lahore, determined 
to resist; and in May 1846 Napier served as 
chief engineer in the force sent under Briga- 
dier-general Wheeler to reduce it. Napier's 
extraordinary energy in dragging thirty-three 
guns and mortars by elephants over mountain 
paths, and the skilful execution of the engi- 
neering work, secured the capitulation of the 
fort. Napier was mentioned in despatches, 
and received the special thanks of the govern- 
ment. 

Napier returned for a time to Ambala and 
the construction of the cantonment. His 
charge also included the hill cantonments of 
Kasauli and Subathu. He took great in- 
terest in Lawrence's asylum for children of 
European soldiers, which was being built at 
Sanawar, near Kasauli. In October 1846 
Napier selected the site of Dagshai for a new 
cantonment. Napier was at this time one 
of a group of men who were destined to be 
famous, and who were thrown together for 
some days at Subathu and Kasauli — Henry 
Lawrence, Herbert Edwardes, John Becher, 
"William Hodson, and others. On the esta- 
blishment of the Lahore regency Henry 
Lawrence obtained for Napier the appoint- 
ment of consulting engineer to the resident 
and council of regency of the Punjab, and 
Napier set to work with vigour to make 
roads and supervise public works. 

The murder of Vans Agnew and Anderson 
at Multan brought on the second Sikh war 
in 1848, and Lieutenant (afterwards Sir) 
Herbert Benjamin Edwardes [q. v.] recom- 
mended that "Napier should be sent to aid in 
the siege of Multan. The siege accordingly 
began under Napier's direction as chief en- 
gineer. Napier took part in the storming of 
the entrenched position on 9 and 12 Sept., 
and was wounded. The Sikh army through- 
out the Punjab was eager for an opportunity 
of a fresh trial of strength with tne British. 
Shir Singh, who had a large body of men in 
the field, openly joined Diwan Mulrai, who 
was shut up in Multan. This made it diffi- 
cult to carry on the siege without a much 
stronger force, and although Napier was in 
favour of an immediate concentrated attack, 
his opinion was overruled, and it was decided 
to await reinforcements. With the reinforce- 
ments came Colonel (afterwards Sir) John 
Cheape [q. v.], of the engineers, who, as senior 
officer, took over the direction of the siege 
operations. Napier was engaged in the action 
01 Surjkund, in the capture of the suburbs, 
storm of the city, and surrender of the fortress 



Napier 



77 



Napier 



of Multan on 23 Jan. 1849. He was also pre- 
sent at the surrender of the fort and garri- 
son of Cheniote. The troops then j oined Lord 
Gough, and Napier was in time to take part 
as commanding engineer of the right wing in 
the battle of Gujrat on 21 Feb. 1849. Napier 
accompanied Sir Walter Raleigh Gilbert 
[q. v.] as civil engineer in his pursuit of the 
defeated Sikhs and their Afghan allies, and 
was present at the passage ofthe Jhelum, the 
surrender of the Sikh army, and the surprise 
of Attock. He was mentioned in despatches, 
received the war medal and two clasps, and 
was promoted brevet lieutenant-colonel 
7 June 1849. 

At the close of the war Napier was 
appointed civil engineer to the board of ad- 
ministration of the annexed province of the 
Punjab, and during the time he occupied the 
post he carried out a great scheme of impor- 
tant public works, among which was the 
construction of the high road from Lahore 
to Peshawar, 275 miles, a great part of it 
through very difficult country, together with 
many thousands of miles of byways with 
daks ; the great Bari-Doab canal, 250 miles 
long, which transformed a desert into culti- 
vated country, was partly completed; the old 
Shah Nahr or Hash canal was repaired and 
many smaller ones dujr; the principal towns 
were embellished with public buildings ; 
the great salt-mines of Pind Dadur Khan 
were made more efficient; new cantonments 
were laid out ; the frontier defences were 
strengthened and connected with advanced 
posts; bridges were placed in order; and 
all this was done in a country where the 
simplest tool as well as the more complicated 
apparatus had to be manufactured on the 
spot. The board of administration reported 
in 1852: 'For the energetic and able manner 
in which these important works have been 
executed, as well as for the zealous co-opera- 
tion in all engineering and military ques- 
tions, the board are indebted to Lieutenant- 
colonel Napier, who has spared neither time, 
health, nor convenience in the duties en- 
trusted to him.' 

In December 1852 Napier commanded 
the right column in the first Black Mountain 
Hazara expedition, under Colonel Frederick 
Mackeson [q. v.], against the Hassmezia tribe. 
Napier's services were highly commended by 
government. In November 1853 he was 
employed in a similar expedition under 
Colonel S. B. Boileau against the Bori clan 
of the Jawaki Afridis in the Peshawar dis- 
trict, was mentioned in despatches, and re- 
ceived the special thanks of government and 
the medal with clasp. On his return to 
civil work he found the board of adminis- 



tration had ceased to exist, and John Law- 
rence reigned supreme. Napier's designation 
was changed to chief engineer, in accordance 
with the practice in other provinces. He 
pushed on the works as before ; but the out- 
lay made the chief commissioner uneasy, and 
Lawrence endeavoured to check it. This 
led to a difference between the two men, and 
some friction ensued. Each, however, ap- 
preciated the other ; and some years later 
Lawrence, in writing to Lord Canning after 
the mutiny, acknowledged that the large 
and energetic development of labour, and the 
expenditure by which it was accompanied 
under Napier's advice and direction, was one, 
at least, of the elements which impressed the 
most manly race in India with the vigour 
and beneficence of British rule, and tended, 
through the maintenance of order and active 
loyalty in the Punjab, to the recovery of 
Hindustan. Napier was promoted brevet 
colonel in the army on 28 Nov. 1854, in re- 
cognition of his services on the two frontier 
expeditions, and regimental lieutenant- 
colonel on 15 April 1856. In the autumn of 
1856 he went on furlough to England. On 
Napier relinquishing the post, Lord Dal- 
housie wrote in the most nattering terms of 
the results of his seven years 1 service at the 
head of the public works department of the 
Punjab. 

Isapier left England again in May 1857, 
before news had been received of the Indian 
mutiny, and his intention was to retire after 
three years' further service. On arrival at 
Calcutta he was appointed officiating chief 
engineer of Bengal. When General Sir James 
Out ram [q. v.] returned to India from the 
campaign in Persia, and was appointed chief 
commissioner in Oudh and to command the 
force for the relief of Lucknow, Napier was 
appointed military secretary and chief of the 
adjutant-general's department with him. 
They left Calcutta on 5 Aug. 1857. Sir Henry 
Havelock [q. v.] was then at Cawnpore at the 
head of the force intended for the relief of 
Lucknow, and was awaiting reinforcements 
before marching. Outram arrived at Cawn- 
pore on 15 Sept., and relinquished the military 
command to Havelock, accompanying him 
in his civil capacity, and giving his military 
services as a volunteer. Napier was engaged 
in the actions of Mangalwar, Alambagh, and 
Charbagh. The entry to Lucknow was made 
on 25 Sept. The rear guard of Havelock's 
force, with the siege train and the wounded, 
had, however, become separated from the 
main body, and was not in sight on the fol- 
lowing morning, while the enemy intervened. 
On the 26th 250 men were sent to their 
assistance, but could neither help the rear 



Napier 



78 



Napier 



guard nor themselves get back to Lucknow. 
Napier volunteered to rescue both, and 
Outram, who had assumed military com- 
mand when the first relief was effected, 
feeling the difficulty of the undertaking, 
gave Napier permission not only to go, but 
authorised him, if it were necessary in order 
to secure the safety of the wounded, to 
abandon the siege train and baggage. On the 
afternoon of the 26th Napier set out, taking 
with him Captain Olpherts, one hundred 
highlanders, some Sikhs, and artillery. lie 
reached the rear guard under a sharp fire, 
removed the wounded into Lucknow under 
cover of night, and finally got the whole of 
the baggage, train, and guard safely to the 
residency. 

The union of the relieving force with the 
garrison was thus completed. This was the 
first relief of Lucknow ; but their united 
strength was insufficient to overpower the be- 
siegers or to convey the women and children 
in safety to Cawnpore. The second siege en- 
sued. Frequent sorties were made. Napier 
headed a strong party that was sent out 
against Phillips^ garden battery, which had 
proved particularly offensive. He carried 
rt with very small loss, capturing the guns. 
Then the position occupied by the troops 
had to be extended ana the defences ad- 
vanced. The extension work was much of 
it, in the first instance, underground. It 
was work which had been carried out very 
efficiently by the engineers of the original 
garrison, and Napier undertook the general 
direction of it. The extent and effect of 
these mining operations in strengthening the 
position and counteracting the schemes of 
the enemy gave great satisfaction to Outram. 
On 17 Nov. 1857 the second relief of Luck- 
now was effected, and Napier on that day, 
when accompanying Outram and Havelock 
to meet Sir Colin Campbell (afterwards Lord 
Clyde) [q. v.] across a very exposed space, 
was severely wounded. He accompanied 
Campbell as his guest to Cawnpore, where he 
remained in hospital for some weeks. 

As soon as Napier was convalescent he 
rejoined Outram as chief of the staff at the 
position of the Alambagh, outside the city 
of Lucknow, which had been evacuated by 
the British. He drew up an outline of pro- 
posed operations for the reduction of Luck- 
now, which was submitted to Campbell, who 
summoned Napier to Cawnpore, and decided, 
in accordance with his views, to attack from 
the east side of Lucknow. Napier's argu- 
ments are given in the ' Royal Engineers' 
Professional Papers/ vol. x. Campbell com- 
menced the attack on 4 March 1858, with 
Napier as brigadier-general commanding a 



brigade of engineers. On the 21st Lucknow 
fell, and the commander-in-chief in his 
despatch wrote that Napier's ' great profes- 
sional skill and thorough acquaintance with 
the value of his enemy have been of the 
greatest service, and I recommend him moat 
cordially to your Lordship's protection. I 
am under very great obligations to him/ 

A week later Napier submitted to Camp- 
bell memoranda of the defensive measures 
by which he considered the control of Luck- 
now could be secured with a garrison of 
three thousand men. Campbell had esti- 
mated in writing to the viceroy that ten 
thousand men would be required. For his 
services at Lucknow Napier was mentioned 
in despatches and made a C.B. 

In the middle of May Napier went to Allah- 
abad, where he received instructions to take 
over the command of the Central Indian force 
from Sir Hugh Rose, who had been invalided. 
Just at this moment the beaten army of 
Tantia Topi and the Ranee of Jhansi marched 
on Gwalior, defeated Sindhia, and took pos- 
session of the stronghold. Sir Hugh Rose 
threw up his leave and marched on Gwalior, 
and Napier joined him as second in command. 
He took over the command of the 2nd bri- 
gade at Bahadurpur on 16 June, and the 
same day Sir Hugh Rose attacked the can- 
tonments of Morar, and after a sharp action 
routed the enemy. Rose expressed his 
warmest thanks to Napier for his skilful 
management. On the 18th Rose left for 
Gwalior, leaving Napier at Morar to guard 
the cantonment and pursue the enemy on 
receipt of orders. Gwalior was captured on 
the 19th, and orders sent to Napier to pursue 
the flying enemy as far and as closely as he 
could. Napier, with seven hundred men, 
came up with Tantia Topi, who had with 
him twelve thousand men and twenty-five 
guns, on the plains of Jaora Alipiir. He 
took Tantia completely by surprise, and 
secured a signal victory, capturing all his 
guns, ammunition, and baggage. On 29 June 
Napier assumed command of the Gwalior 
division on the departure of Sir Hugh Rose 
from India. The country was now clear of 
any large organised force of rebels ; but small 
parties contmued to give trouble, and it was 
necessary to prevent their amalgamation. 
Napier dealt with this state of affairs by 
sending out flying columns, concentrating 
the body of his troops at Gwalior to rest 
and prepare for fresh exertions. 

In August Rajah Man Singh of Narwar, 
with twelve thousand men, surprised the 
strongly fortified town of Paori, eighty-three 
miles south-west of Gwalior and eighteen 
miles west of Sipri, and garrisoned it with 



Napier 



79 



Napier 



nearly four thousand men. Brigadier-gene- 
ral Smith, commanding at Sipri, advanced 
towards Paori, but, finding himself too weak 
to capture the place, applied to Napier for 
reinforcements. Napier started at once with 
a force of six hundred men and artillery, and 
by forced marches reached Smith on 19 Aug. 
Operations against Paori commenced on the 
following day, when, having singled out the 
only possible point of attack, Napier opened 
fire with his 18-pounders and mortars, and 
maintained the bombardment continuously 
for thirty hours. When he was about to storm 
he found the enemy had evacuated the place 
in the night. A column was despatched in 
pursuit, and, having demolished the fortifica- 
tions of Paori, Napier returned to Gwalior. 

On 12 Dec. Napier took the field against 
Ferozeshah, a prince of the house of Delhi, 
who, having been driven out of Rohilkund 
and Oudh on the restoration of order, crossed 
the Ganges and Jamna, cut the telegraph 
wires, and joined Tantia Topi. Napier had 
thrown out three small columns to intersect 
the anticipated route of the enemy, and held a 
fourth ready to act under his own command. 
He was at this time very ill and hardly able 
to sit a horse; but on learning that the rebels 
would pass through the jungles of the Sind 
river south-west of Gwalior, he set off 
through the jungle to cut them oft". At 
Bitowar, on the 14th, he learnt that Feroze- 
shah was nearly nine miles ahead. Con- 
tinuing his pursuit, through Narwar he there 
dropped his artillery, and, mounting his 
hignlanders on baggage animals, pressed for- 
ward with his cavalry and mounted infantry 
through the jungle and struck the enemy at 
Ranode. So unexpected was the onslaught, 
and so extended was the front of Feroze- 
shah's army, that Napier completely routed 
it. The rebels lost 450 men killed, while 
only sixteen British were wounded. 

At the end of January 18o9 Tantia Topi, 
beaten in the north-west, fled southward 
to the Parone jungles, a belt of hill and 
jungle little known, flanked at each end by 
a hill fort, with plenty of guns and a gar- 
rison the reverse of friendly. This tract 
Napier determined to control. He caused 
the forts of Parone to be destroyed and clear- 
ings to be cut through the jungle past the 
most notorious haunts of the rebels. The 
policy proved successful : and on 4 April Na- 
pier reported to Campbell, 'Man Singh has 
surrendered just as his last retreats were laid 
open bv the road. . . . Since the days of 
General Wade the efficacy of roads so ap- 
plied has not diminished.' Shortly after 
Tantia Topi was also caught. The two rebel 
leaders were tried and executed. The mutiny 



was stamped out. For his services in Cen- 
tral India and the mutiny Napier received 
the medal and three clasps. He also re- 
ceived the thanks of parliament and of the 
Indian government, and he was made a 
K.C.B. 

In January 1860 Napier was appointed to 
the command of the second division in the 
expedition to China. He went to Calcutta 
and superintended the equipment and em- 
barkation of the Indian troops ; and it was 
due to the great care he bestowed upon the 
sanitary arrangements and ventilation of the 
transports that the men arrived at their des- 
tination in good condition. Hong Kong was 
reached in the middle of April, and here 
Sir Hope Grant [q. v.] assembled his force and 
arranged his plans. On 11 June Napier 
started for Tahlien Bay, which had been 
selected as the rendezvous. On 26 July the 
expedition sailed for the Pehtang-ho. The 
first division disembarked between 1 and 
3 Aug. on the right bank, and seized on the 
town of Pehtang. Napier's division landed 
between the 5th and 7th, and was ordered to» 
attack the village of Sin-ho, strongly occu- 
pied by the enemy. They had to cross with 
great labour a mud flat, making a road with 
fascines and brushwood; but the Tartars, 
finding themselves taken in flank, were 
speedily driven out. The French were now 
desirous to attack the south forts of thePeiho, 
while Grant, who was cordially supported 
by Napier, preferred to attack the north 
forts. Eventually the French general Mont- 
auban yielded ; and on 21 Aug. Napier's 
division, with Collinot's French brigade, at- 
tacked and took the first upper fort. The 
second north fort was taken without oppo- 
sition, and then the whole of the Peiho forts, 
north and south, were abandoned, with up- 
wards of six hundred guns. Napier had his 
field-glass shot out of his hand, his sword- 
hilt broken by a shell fragment, three bullet- 
holes in his coat, and one in his boot, but 
he escaped unhurt. 

The torts were dismantled by Napier, who 
had been left behind for the purpose, while 
the remainder of the forces of the allies 
advanced. His work accomplished, Napier 
reached Tientsin on 5 Sept., and remained 
there while the expedition pushed on to- 
wards Pekin. On Napier devolved the duty 
of seeing to communications and pushing on 
supplies to the front. After the battle of 
Chang-kia-wan Grant summoned Napier to> 
the front. He reached headquarters on the 
24th, having marched seventy miles in sixty 
hours, and brought a supply of ammunition, 
which was much required. Although not in 
time for the battle of Pa-le-cheaon, he was 



Napier 



80 



Napier 



able to take part in the entry to Pekin on 
24 Oct. Napier and his staff embarked for 
Hong Kong on 19 Nov. for India. Napier re- 
ceived for his services in the expedition the 
medal and two clasps. He was thanked by 

farliament, and promoted major-general on 
5 Feb. 1861 for distinguished service in the 
field. 

In January 1861 Napier was appointed 
military member of the council of the go- 
vernor-general of India. For four years he 
did a great deal of valuable work. With 
the aid of a committee he arranged the de- 
tails of the amalgamation of the army of 
the East India Company with that of the 
queen. On the sudden death of Lord Elgin, 
Napier for a short time acted as governor- 
general until the arrival of Sir William 
Thomas- Denison [q. v.] from Madras. In 
January 1865 Napier was appointed com- 
mander-in-chief or the Bombay army. In 
March 1867 he was promoted lieutenant- 
general. 

Meanwhile the English government was 
arriving at the conclusion that a military ex- 
pedition to Abyssinia would be needful to 
compel Theodore, king of that country, to 
release certain Englishmen who were con- 
fined in Abyssinian prisons. In July 1867 
Napier was asked by telegram how soon a 
corps could be equipped and provisioned to 
sail from Bombay to Abyssinia in case an 
•expedition were decided upon. Long before 
Napier had carefully considered the question, 
ana amassed information on the subject, which 
enabled him to reply promptly and satisfac- 
torily. It was, however, some months before 
his advice was acted upon. It was due to the 
personal influence of the Duke of Cambridge, 
warmly supported by Sir Stafford Northcote 
{afterwards Lord Iddesleigh), that Napier 
was appointed to command the expedition. 
He was allowed to choose his own troops, 
and he naturally selected those with whom 
he had had most to do ; for, as he put it in 
an official minute, in an expedition in which 
hardship, fatigue, and privation of no ordi- 
nary kind may be expected, it is important 
that the troops should know each other and 
their commander. 

The equipment of the troops occupied 
Napier till December, and on 2 Jan. 1868 
the expedition to Abyssinia landed at Zoulah 
in Annesley Bay. Napier worked indefatig- 
ably on the hot sea coast until all was ready 
for the march, and he instilled activity and 
zeal into everyone. Two piers, nine hundred 
feet long, were constructed, and a railway 
laid, involving eight bridges, to the camp 
inland some twelve miles. Reservoirs were 
constructed and steamers kept condensing 



water to fill them at the rate of two hundred 
tons daily. The march to Magdala com- 
menced on 25 Jan.; 420 miles had to be 
traversed and an elevation of 7,400 feet 
crossed. On 10 April the plateau of Mag- 
dala was reached, and the troops of Theo- 
dore were defeated. On the 13th Magdala 
was stormed, and Theodore found dead.m his 
stronghold. The English captives were set 
at liberty, Magdala razed, ana the campaign 
was over. On 18 June, in perfect order, the 
last man of the expedition had left Africa. 
In this wonderful campaign Napier displayed 
all the qualities of a great commander. 
He organised his base, provided for his com- 
munications, and then, launching his army 
over four hundred miles into an unknown 
and hostile country, defeated his enemy, at- 
tained the object of his mission, and returned. 

Napier went to England, where honours and 
festivities awaited him. A new government 
had just come into power, and both parties 
competed to do him honour. He received the 
war medal. Parliament voted him its thanks 
and a pension. The queen created him a 
peer on 17 July 1868, with the title of Baron 
Napier of Magdala, and made him a G.C.S.I. 
ana G.C.B. The freedom of the city of Lon- 
don was conferred upon him and a sword of 
honour presented to him. The city of Edin- 
burgh also made him a citizen. He was 
appointed hon. colonel of the 3rd London 
rifle corps. Subsequently, on 26 June 1878, 
he was created D.C.L. of Oxford University. 

In December 1869 Napier was elected a 
fellow of the Royal Society. In January 
1870 he was appointed commander-in-chief 
in India, and in May he was made, in addi- 
tion, fifth ordinary member of the council of 
the governor-general. During the six years 
he was commander-in-chief he endeavoured 
to raise the moral tone and to improve the 
physique of the soldier, both European and 
native. He bestowed much personal atten- 
tion on the new regulations issued in 1873 
for the Bengal army. He encouraged rifle 

Eractice, and gave annually three prizes to 
e shot for. He advocated the provision of 
reasonable pleasures for all ranks, and insti- 
tuted a weekly holiday on Thursday, known 
in some parts of India as St. Napier's Day. On 
1 April 1874 Napier was promoted general 
and appointed a colonel-commandant of the 
corps of royal engineers. 

Early in 1876 Napier was nominated to 
the government of Gibraltar, and on 10 April 
he finally left India, to the regret of all 
classes. He was present in 1876 at the Ger- 
man military manceuvres, when he was the 
guest of the crown prince, and was enter- 
tained by the Emperor William. In Sep- 



Napier 



81 



Napier 



tember he went to Gibraltar as governor. 
In 1879 he was appointed a member of the 
royal commission on army reorganisation. 
In November he was sent to Madrid as am- 
bassador-extraordinary to represent her ma- 
jesty at the second marriage of the king of 
Spain. Napier was much opposed to the ces- 
sion of Kandahar, and his memorandum on the 
subject in 1880 was included in the Kanda- 
har blue-book. On 1 Jan. 1883 Napier was 
made a field-marshal on his retirement from 
the government of Gibraltar. He spoke 
occasionally in the House of Lords, and 
always with effect, for he had a charming 
voice and ease of manner. He left no means 
untried in 1884 to induce the government 
to do its duty to General Gordon at Khar- 
toum. In December 1886 he was appointed 
constable of the Tower of London and lieu- 
tenant and custos rotulorum of the Tower 
Hamlets. 

Napier was a man of singular modesty and 
simplicity of character. No one who knew 
him could forget the magic of his voice and 
his courteous bearing. He had a great love 
for children. His delight in art remained to 
the last ; and, always ready to learn, at the 
age of seventy-eight he took lessons in a 
new method of mixing colours. He had a 

Seat love of books, especially of poetry, 
e never obtruded his knowledge or attain- 
ments, and only those who knew him inti- 
mately had any idea of their extent and 
denth. 

Napier died at his residence in Eaton 
Square, London, on 14 Jan. 1890, from an 
attack of influenza. On his death a special 
army order was issued by command of the 
queen, conveying to the army her majesty's 
deep regret, and announcing a message from 
the German emperor, in which his majesty 
said : * I deeply grieve for the loss of the ex- 
cellent Lord Napier of Magdala. . . . His 
noble character, fine gentlemanly bearing, 
his simplicity and splendid soldiering were 
qualities for which my grandfather and father 
always held him in high esteem/ 

Napier's remains were interred on 21 Jan., 
with all the pomp of a state military funeral, 
in St. Pauls Cathedral. No funeral since 
that of the Duke of Wellington in 1852 had 
been so imposing a spectacle. 

When Napier finally left India an eques- 
trian statue of him, by Boehm, was erected 
by public subscription in Calcutta ; and after 
his death a replica of this statue, also by 
Boehm, was erected by public subscription 
in Waterloo Place. In the royal engineers' 
mess at Chatham are two portraits of Napier, 
a full-length by Sir Francis Grant, and a 
three-quarter length by Lowes Dickenson. A 

VOL. XL. 



medallion, in the possession of Miss A. F. 
Yule, was the original model for the marble 
memorial in the crypt of St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral. The corps of royal engineers erected a 
large recreation-room for the Gordon Boys' 
| Home at Chobham, in memory of their bro- 
• ther officer. 

Napier was twice married : first, on 3 Sept. 
1840, to Anne Sarah, eldest daughter of 
! George Pearse, M.D., H.E.I.C.S. (she died 
| on 30 Dec. 1849) ; secondly, on 2 April 1861, 
! to Mary Cecilia, daughter of Major-general 
1 E. W. Smythe Scott, royal artillery, in- 
t spector-general of ordnance and magazines 
, in India. Lady Napier survived him. 
I By his first wife he had three sons : Ro- 
j bert William, second and present peer, born 
, on 11 Feb. 1845; George Campbell (twin 
j with his brother Robert), major-general, 
J Bengal, and CLE. ; James Pearse, born on 
! 30 Dec. 1849, lieutenant-colonel 10th hus- 
I sars and deputy assistant-adjutant- general. 
| Also three daughters : Catherine Anne Ca- 
rington, born 12 Oct. 1841, married in 1863 
i to Henry Robert Dundas ; Anne Amelia, 
born on 11 Nov. 1842, married in 1864 to 
| Henry R. Madocks, late Bengal civil ser- 
I vice ; Clara Frances, who died in childhood. 
| By his second wife he had six sons, three 
of whom are officers in the armv, and three 
daughters ; the eldest of whom, Slary Grant, 
I married in 1889 North More Nisbets, esq., 
I of Cairnhill, Lanarkshire. 
1 [Despatches; India Office Records; Royal 
Engineer Corps' Records; Royal Engineers' 
Journal, vol. xx. ; Memoir by General R. Macla- 
gan, R.E. ; Porter's Hist, of the Corps of Royal 
Engineers; Feldmarschall Lord Napier of Mag- 
dala, Breslau, 1890.] R. H. V. 

NAPIER, Sir THOMAS ERSKINE 
(1790-1863), general, second son by his 
second wife of Captain Charles Napier of 
Merchiston, Stirlingshire, and brother of 
Admiral Sir Charles Napier [q. v.\ was born 
on 10 May 1790. On 3 July 1805 he was 
appointed ensign in the 52nd light infantry, 
and on 1 May 1806 he became lieutenant. He 
served with the 52nd at Copenhagen in 1807 ; 
was aide-de-camp to Sir John Hope [see 
Hope, John, fourth Earl of Hopetouhj in 
the expedition to Sweden in 1808, and after- 
wards served at Cor una and in Portugal. 
On 27 Oct. 1809 he was promoted to be cap- 
tain in the Chasseurs Britanniaues, a corps 
of foreigners in British pay, with which he 
served in Sicily, at Fuentes d'Onoro, at the 
defence of Cadiz, and in Spain in 1812-18. 
When Sir John Hope joined the Peninsular 
army in 1813, Napier resumed his position of 
aide-de-camp ; in the great battles on the Nive 
he was slightly wounded on 10 Dec. 1813, 



Napier 



82 



Napier 



and he lost his left arm on the following day. 
The Chasseurs Britanniques were disbanded 
at the peace of 1814, and Napier was placed 
on half-pay. He received a brevet majority 
26 Dec. 1818, and became brevet lieutenant- 
colonel 21 June 1817, and colonel 16 Jan. 
1837. He was for some years assistant 
adjutant-general at Belfast. He became a 
major-general in 1846, and was general officer 
commanding the troops in Scotland and 
governor of Edinburgh Castle from May 1852 
until his promotion to lieutenant-general 
20 June 1854. He became a full general 
20 Sept. 1861. He was appointed colonel 
16th foot in 1854, and transferred to the 71st 
highland light infantry on the death of Sir 
James Macdonell [q. v.] in 1857. He was 
made a C.B. in 1838, K.C.B. in 1860, and 
had the Peninsular silver medal, with clasps 
for Corunna, Fuentes d'Onoro, Salamanca, 
Vittoria, Pyrenees, Nivelle, and Nive. 

Napier married Margaret, daughter and 
coheiress of Mr. Falconer of Woodcot, Ox- 
fordshire, and by her had one daughter, who, 
with her mother, predeceased him. He died 
at Polton House, Lasswade, near Edinburgh, 
5 July 1863, aged 73. 

[Burke's and Foster's Peerages, under ' Napier 
of Merchistoun ; ' Hart's Army Lists ; Gent. 
Mag. 1863, pt. ii. p. 240. Incidental notices of 
Napier will be found in the Life and Corre- 
spondence of Admiral Sir Charles Napier, Lon- 
don, 1862, and in the published letters of his 
cousins, Charles James, George Thomas, and 
William F. P. Napier.] H. M. C. 

NAPIER, Sir WILLIAM FRANCIS 
PATRICK (1785-1860), general and histo- 
rian of the Peninsular war, born at Cel bridge, 
co. Kildare, on 17 Dec. 1785, was third son of 
Colonel the Hon. George Napier [q. v.] and of 
Lady Sarah Bunbury, seventh daughter of the 
second Duke of Richmond. His father was 
sixth son of Francis, fifth lord Napier. His 
brothers, Charles James, George Thomas, and 
Henry Edward, are noticed separately. Ad- 
miral Sir Charles Napier Tq. v.] was his first- 
cousin. William received some education at 
a grammar school at Celbridge, but mainly 
spent his youth in field sports and manly 
exercises. When the insurrection of 1798 
broke out, Colonel Napier armed his five sons 
and put his house in a state of defence. At 
the early age of fourteen William received 
his first commission as ensign in the Royal 
Irish artillery, on 1 4 June 1 800. He was soon 
after transferred to the 62nd regiment. He 
was promoted lieutenant on 18 April 1801, 
and reduced to half-pay at the treaty of 
Amiens in March 1802. A few months later 
his uncle, the Duke of Richmond, brought him 
into the ' Blues/ and Napier joined the troop, 



then stationed at Canterbury, of Captain 
Robert Hill, brother of Lord Hill. 

In 1803 Sir John Moore (1761-1809) [q. v.], 
who was forming his celebrated experimental 
brigade at Shorncliffe, proposed that Napier 
should take a lieutenancy in the 52nd regi- 
ment, at which young Napier caught eagerly. 
Moore was pleased by his readiness to learn 
his profession in earnest, and, on 2 June 1804, 
obtained for him a company in a West India 
regiment, whence he caused him to be re- 
moved into a battalion of the army of reserve, 
and finally secured for him, on 11 Aug., the 
post of ninth captain of the 43rd regiment, 
belonging to Moore's own brigade. Napier 
threw himself into his duties with ardour, 
and his company was soon second to none. 

At this time Napier was exceptionally 
handsome, high-spirited, and robust. Six 
feet high, and of athletic build, he excelled 
in outdoor exercises, while his memory was 
unusually retentive, and he had a rare facility 
for rapid reading. In 1804 he made the ac- 
quaintance of Pitt, on the introduction of the 
latter's nephew, Charles Stanhope, an officer 
of Napier's regiment. He spent some time 
at Pitt's house at Putney, where he was 
treated with great kindness by Lady Hester 
Stanhope, and the great man was wont to 
unbend and engage in practical jokes with 
the two young officers. In 1806 Napier was 
selected to procure volunteers from the Irish 
militia to serve in the line. In 1807 he 
accompanied his regiment in the expedition 
against Copenhagen, was present at the siege, 
and afterwards marched under Sir Arthur 
Wellesley to attack the Danish levies as- 
sembled in the rear of the besieging force. 
He took part in the battle of Kioge, and in 
the subsequent pursuit of the enemy. On 
the return of the 43rd from Denmark in No- 
vember, Napier accompanied the regiment to 
Maldon, ana in the summer of 1808 moved 
to Colchester. 

On 13 Sept. 1808 he embarked with his 
' regiment at Harwich for Spain, and arrived 
at Cor una on 13 Oct. He reached Villa 
Franca on 9 Nov., and took part in the cam- 
paign of Sir John Moore. Napier's com- 
pany and that of his friend Captain Lloyd 
were employed in the rear-guard to delay 
the French pursuit by destroying the com- 
munications. Napier speut two days and 
nights without relief at the bridge of Castro 
Gonzalo on the Esla river, half his men 
working at the demolition, and the other 
half protectingthe workmen from the enemy's 
cavalry. Then he retired to Benavente, and 
to regain the army had to make a forced 
march of thirty miles. During the subse- 
quent retreat to Vigo, Napier was charged 



Napier 



*s 



Napier 



with the care of a large convoy of sick and 
wounded men and of stores, with which he 
crossed the mountain between Orense and 
Vigo without loss ; but the hardship suffered 
during this retreat, in which he marched for 
several days with bare and bleeding feet, and 
only a jacket and pair of linen trousers for 
clothes, threw him into a fever which nearly 
proved fatal, and permanently weakened his 
constitution. 

On his return home in February 1809 
Napier was appointed aide-de-camp to his 
uncle, the Duke of Richmond, lord-lieutenant 
of Ireland, but gave up the appointment to go 
with his regiment to Portugal in May. On 
the march to Talavera he was attacked with 
pleurisy, and was left behind at Placentia ; 
but, hearing that the army had been defeated, 
and that the French, under Soult, were clos- 
ing on Placentia, he got out of bed, walked 
forty-eight miles to Oropesa, and, there get- 
ting post-horses, rode to Talavera to join the 
army. He fell from his horse at the gate of 
Talavera, but was succoured by an officer of 
the 45th regiment. He was soon carried off 
by his brother George to the light division 
at the outposts of the army, and was 
afterwards in quarters at Campo Mayor, 
where his regiment in six weeks lost 150 
men by the Guadiana fever. 

At the fight on the Coa in July 1810, Na- 
pier highly distinguished himself. On the 
occasion General Robert Craufurd [q. v.], 
with five thousand men and six guns, stood to 
receive the attack of thirty thousand French, 
having a steep ravine and river in his rear, 
and only one bridge for retreat . Napier rallied 
his company under a heavy fire, and thereby 
gave time to gather a force to cover the pas- 
sage of the broken troops over the bridge. 
He received on the field the thanks of his 
commanding officer. His company lost thirty- 
five men killed and wounded out of the three 
hundred, the loss in the whole division. To- 
wards the end of the action he was shot in 
the left hip ; but the bone was not broken, 
and, although suffering considerably, he con- 
tinued with his regiment until the battle of 
Busaco, 27 Sept. 1810, where both his bro- 
thers were wounded. He took part in the 
actions of Pombal and Redinha. At the 
combat of Casal Novo on 14 March 1811, 
during Massena's retreat, Napier was danger- 
ously wounded when at the head of six com- 
panies supporting the 52nd regiment, and his 
brother tfeorge had his arm broken by a 
bullet. It was after this fight that his brother 
Charles, hastening to the front with the 
wound that he himself had received at Bu- 
saco unhealed, met the litters carrying his 
two wounded brothers, and was informed 



that William was mortally injured. Na- 

Eier rejoined the army with a bullet near 
is spine and his wound still open. He was 
appointed brigade major to the Portuguese 
brigade of the light division. He took part 
in the battle of Fuentes d'Onoro on 5 May 
1811, and on the 30th was promoted brevet- 
major for his services. He continued to serve 
until after the raising of the second siege of 
Badajos,when he was attacked by fever. Ill as 
he was, he would not quit the army until Lord 
Wellington directed liis brother to take him 
to Lisbon in a headquarter caleche. Welling- 
ton took a great interest in the Napiers, and 
himself wrote to acquaint their mother when- 
ever they were wounded. From Lisbon in the 
autumn of 1811 Napier was sent to England, 
and in February 1812 he married Caroline 
Amelia, daughter of General the Hon. Henry 
Fox and niece of the statesman. 

Three weeks after his marriage Napier 
sailed again for Portugal, on hearing that 
Badajos was besieged. Before he reached 
Lisbon Badajos was taken, 6 April 1812, 
and his dearest friend, Lieutenant-colonel 
Charles Macleod of the 43rd regiment, had 
been killed in the breach. Napier was deeply 
affected by this loss. He took, command: of 
his regiment as the senior officer, having 
become a regimental major on 14 May 1812. 
At the battle of Salamanca on 23 July 1812, 
the 43rd, with Napier at its head, led the 
heavy column employed to drive back Foy's 
division and seize the ford of Huerta. Napier 
rode in front of the regiment, which advanced 
in line for a distance of three miles under a 
constant cannonade, keeping as good a line 
as at a review. After Salamanca Welling- 
ton with his victorious army entered Madrid 
on 12 Aug., and here Napier remained with 
his regiment until the siege of Burgos was 
raised, when the 43rd joined the army on its 
retreat into Portugal. 

Napier obtained leave to go to England in 
January 1813, and remained at home until 
August, when he rejoined his regiment in the 
Peninsula as regimental major. He landed 
at Passages, and found the 43rd regiment at 
the camp above Vera, in the Pyrenees. On 
10 Nov., at the battle of the Nivelle, Colonel 
Hearn fell sick, and the command of the regi- 
ment devolved upon Napier, who was directed 
to storm the hog's back of the smaller Rhune 
mountain. This position had been entrenched 
by six weeks' continuous labour on the part 
of the enemy. Napier and the 43rd carried 
it with great gallantry. When Lord Wel- 
lington forced the passage of the Nive, the 
light division, in which was the 43rd regi- 
ment, remained on the left bank, and on 
10 Dec. the divisions on the left bank were 

g2 



Napier 



8 4 



Napier 



suddenly attacked by Soult. Napier and 
the 43rd were on picquet duty in front, and 
fortunately detected suspicious movements 
of the enemy, so that General Kempt was 
prepared. When the picquet was attacked, 
& apier withdrew without the loss of a man 
to the church of Arcangues, the defence of 
which had been assigned to him. Here he 
was twice wounded; but he continued to 
defend the church and churchyard until the 
13th, when the fighting terminated by Lord 
Hill's victory at St. Pierre. Napier was pro- 
moted brevet lieutenant-colonel on 22 Nov. 
1813. 

Napier was present at the battle of Orthez 
on 27 Feb. 1814, but his wounds and ill-health 
afterwards compelled him to go to England. 
On his recovery from a protracted illness he 
joined the military college at Farnham, where 
his brother Charles was also studying. On 
the return of Napoleon from Elba, Napier 
made arrangements to rejoin his regiment, 
and embarked at Dover on 18 June 1815, too 
late for Waterloo. He accompanied the 
army to Paris. Napier, with the 43rd, was 
quartered at Bapaume and Valenciennes. On 
tne return home of the army of occupation, 
the regiment was sent to Belfast. Want of 
means to purchase the regimental lieutenant- 
colonelcy of his regiment determined Napier 
to go on half-pay, and he accordingly retired 
from the active list at the end of 1819. He 
received from the officers of the 43rd a very 
handsome sword, with a flattering inscrip- 
tion, and was granted the gold medal and 
two clasps for Salamanca, Nivelle, and Nive, 
and the silver medal with three clasps for 
Busaco, Fuentes d'Onoro, and Orthez. He 
was also made a C.B. 

Napier took a house in Sloane Street, 
London, and devoted himself to painting 
and sculpture, for which he had considerable 
talent, spending much of his time with the 
sculptor Chantrey, George Jones, R.A., Mr. 
Bickersteth (afterwards Lord Langdale), and 
several old friends of the Peninsula. He 
contributed to periodical literature and wrote 
an able article which appeared in the ' Edin- 
burgh Review* in 1821 on JominiVPrincipes 
de la Guerre/ In connection with this con- 
tribution he visited Edinburgh, where he 
made the acquaintance of Jeffrey and other 
literary celebrities. H e also visited Paris with 
Bickersteth, and was introduced to Soult. 

In 1823, on the suggestion of Lord Lang- 
dale, Napier decided to write a ' History of 
the Peninsular War/ He lost no time in 
collecting materials. He went for some time 
to Paris, where he consulted Soult, and then 
to Strathfieldsaye, to be near the Duke of 
Wellington. The duke handed over to him 



the whole of Joseph Bonaparte's correspon- 
dence which had been taken at the battle of 
Vittoria, and which was deciphered with in- 
finite patience by Mrs. Napier. 

In the autumn of 1826 Napier moved with 
his family to Battle House, Bromham, near 
Devizes. Here he was only a quarter of a 
mile from Sloperton, the residence of the well- 
known poet, Thomas Moore, and a warm 
friendship sprang up between the two families. 
At the end of 1831 he settled at Freshford, 
near Bath. 

In the spring of 1828 the first volume of 
his ' History ' was published, and Napier 
found himself at a bound placed high among 
historical writers. The proofs were sent to 
Marshal Soult, who had arranged that Count 
Dumas should make a French translation. 
Although the book was well received, John 
Murray the publisher lost money by it, and 
would not undertake the publication of the 
second volume on the same terms. Napier 
determined to publish the remainder of the 
work on his own account. The second volume 
appeared in 1829, when he had a very large 
subscription list. The third volume was 
issued in 1831. Early in 1834 the fourth 
volume was published, and the description of 
the battle of Albuera and the sieges of Bada- 
jos and Ciudad Rodrigo elicited unqualified 
admiration. Towards the end of 1836 Napier 
was introduced to the King of Oude's minis- 
ter, then in London, who told him that his 
master had desired him to translate six 
works into Persian for him, and that Napier's 
' History ' was one. In the spring of 1840 
Napier completed his ' History ' by the pub- 
lication of the sixth volume. Tne French 
translation by Count Mathieu Dumas was 
completed shortly after, and translations ap- 
peared in Spanish, Italian, and German. The 
work steadily grew in popularity, and has 
become a classic of the English language, 
while the previous attempts of Captain Ha- 
milton, of Southey, and of Lord Londonderry 
have been completely forgotten. It is com- 
mended to the general reader no less by its 
impartial admiration for the heroes on both 
sides than by the spontaneity of its style. Its 
accuracy was the more firmly established by 
the inevitable attacks of actors in the scenes 
described, who thought the parts they had 
played undervalued. 

Napier was promoted colonel on 22 July 
1830. In April 1831 he declined, on account 
of his ill-health, his large family, and his 
small means, an offer of a seat in parliament 
from Sir Francis Burdett. Other offers 
came in succeeding years from Bath, Devizes, 
Birmingham, Glasgow, Nottingham, West- 
minster, Oldham, and Kendal, but Napier de- 



Napier 



35 



Napier 



clined them all. Nevertheless, he took great 
interest in politics. lie was extremely demo- 
cratic in his views, and spoke with great effect 
at public meetings. Owing to the wide in- 
fluence exerted by his speeches, the younger 
and more determined reformers thought in 
1831 that Napier was well fitted to assume 
the leadership of a movement to establish a 
national guard whereby to secure the success 
of the political changes then advocated by 
the radicals, and to save the country from 
the dangers of insurrection. Burdett was 
the president of the movement, and both 
Erskine Perry and Charles Buller wrote to 
Napier pressing him to undertake the mili- 
tary leadership. Napier refused. 'A military 
leader in civil commotions,' he said, ' should 
be in good health, and free from personal 
ties. I am in bad health, and I have a family 
of eight children.' 

An insatiable controversialist, Napier, in 
letters to the daily papers or in pamphlets, 
waged incessant warfare with those who 
dissented from his views, besides writing 
many critical articles on historical or mili- 
tary topics. In 1832 Napier had published 
a pamphlet, 'Observations illustrating Sir 
John Moore's Campaign,' in answer to re- 
marks on Moore which appeared in Major 
Moyle Sherer's ' Recollections in the Penin- 
sula.' Napier offered to insert, as an appen- 
dix to his ' History,' any reply Major Sherer 
might desire to make. 1 he offer was declined. 
Napier entered the lists on every occasion 
against the real or supposed enemies of Sir 
John Moore ; and when a biography, written 
by Moore's brother, appeared, Napier ex- 
pressed his dissatisfaction with it in a severe 
article on it in the ' Edinburgh Review ' for 
April 1834. 

In the summer of 1838 Marshal Soult 
visited England as the representative of 
Louis-Philippe at the coronation of Queen 
Victoria. Napier wrote a very warm letter 
to the * Morning Chronicle' in defence of the 
marshal, who had been attacked in the ' Quar- 
terly Review,' and he accompanied Soult on a 
tour to Manchester, Liverpool, Birmingham, 
and other places. In December Napier de- 
fended, in a letter to the ' Times,' the cha- 
racter and intellect of Lady Hester Stanhope. 
Lady Hester appreciated his intervention, 
and a long and kindly correspondence ensued. 
During 1839 the Chartist agitation reached 
its climax in the deplorable Bull-ring riots 
at Birmingham. Napier regarded these pro- 
ceedings with abhorrence ; out in a letter to 
the Duke of Wellington he expressed the 
belief that the rioters were treated with a 
severity unjustifiable in a whig government, 
which, as he thought, had been ready to avail 



itself of the excesses of the people for its own 
advantage in 1832. 

On 29 May 1841 Napier was given a 
special grant of 150/. per annum for his dis- 
tinguished services. On 23 Nov. he was 
promoted major-general, and in February 
1842 was appointed lieutenant-governor of 
Guernsey and major-general commanding 
the troops in Guernsey and Alderney. He 
landed at Guernsey on April, and threw 
himself into his new duties heart and soul ; 
but he found much to discourage him. The 
defences were wretched, the militia wanted 
complete reorganisation, and the adminis- 
tration of justice was scandalous. In the 
five years of his government, despite local 
obstruction, he devised a scheme of defence 
which was generally accepted by a special 
committee from London of artillery and en- 

S'neer officers, and was partially executed, 
e reorganised and rearmed the militia. He 
powerfully influenced the states of the island 
! to adopt a new constitution, by which feuds 
between the country and town parties, which 
had lasted eighty years and impeded improve- 
ment, were set at rest. Finally, he procured 
the appointment of a royal commission of 
inquiry into the civil and criminal laws of 
the island, whose recommendations tended 
to remove the evils in the administration of 
justice. 

At Guernsey he devoted his spare time to 
writing a history of the 'Conquest of Scinde,' 
the achievement in which his Drother Charles 
had recently been engaged. On the return of 
Lord Ellenborough from India he wrote, offer- 
ing to publish the political part of the his- 
tory first, and after some correspondence 
which established a lifelong friendship be- 
tween him and Ellenborough, this was done. 
In November 1844 the first part was pub- 
lished, and was read by the public with 
avidity ; but, as with the ' History of the 
Peninsular War,' it involved Napier in end- 
less controversy. There was this difference, 
however : the ' History of the Conquest of 
Scinde ' was written with a purpose. It was 
not only the history of Sind, but the defence 
of a brother who had been cruelly misrepre- 
sented. The descriptions of the battles are 
not surpassed by any in the Peninsular war, 
but the calmness and impartiality of the 
historian are too often wanting. The publica- 
tion of the second part of the ' Conquest of 
Scinde' in 1846 drew upon him further at- 
tacks, and the strength of his language in 
reply often exceeded conventional usage. 

At the end of 1847 Napier resigned his 
appoint ment as lieutenant-governor of Guern- 
sey. In February 1848 he was given the 
colonelcy of the 27th regiment of foot, and in 



Napier 



S6 



Napier 



May he was made a K.C.B. In the same 
year Napier wrote some * Notes on the State 
of Europe/ Towards the end of 1848 the 
Liverpool Financial Reform Association pub- 
lished some tracts attacking the system by 
which the soldiers of the army were clothed 
through the medium of the colonels of regi- 
ments. The association sent its tracts to 
Napier, himself a clothing colonel, upon which 
he wrote a series of six vindicatory letters to 
the ' Times newspaper, dating 29 Dec. 1848 
to 1 Feb. 1849. They form Appendix VII. to 
Brace's ' Life of General Sir William Napier.' 

Napier moved in 1849 with his family to 
Scinde House, Clapham Park, where he 
spent the rest of his life. In 1850 his brother 
Charles, then commander-in-chief in India, 
resigned his command because he had been 
censured by Lord Dalhousie. He arrived in 
England in March 1851. Napier was indig- 
nant, and, after Sir Charles Napier's death, 
defended him in a pamphlet. 

In 1851 Napier completed and published 
the ' History of the Administration of Scaide.' 
This work, recording the gradual introduc- 
tion of good government into the country, 
contains some masterly narratives of the 
hill campaigns. In 1856 Carlyle read it, and 
wrote to ISapier: 'There is a great talent 
in this book, apart from its subject. The 
narrative moves on with strong, weighty 
step, like a marching phalanx, with the 
gleam of clear steel in them.' 

When the Birkenhead transport went 
down in Simon's Bay, Cape of Good Hope, 
Napier, impressed with the heroism of the 
officers, and seeing no step taken to reward 
the survivors, wrote letters to every member 
of parliament he knew in both houses. The 
result was that Henry Drummond brought 
the matter before the House of Commons, 
and the two surviving officers were promoted 
and all the survivors received pecuniary com- 
pensation for their losses. 

Napier was much affected by the death of 
the Duke of Wellington in September 1852. 
He was one of the general officers selected to 
carrv banderoles at the funeral. He watched 
at tne death-bed of his brother Charles in 
August 1853, and succeeded him in the colo- 
nelcy of the 22nd regiment. He had been 
promoted lieu tenant-general on 11 Nov. 1851. 
On 13 Oct. 1853 followed the death of his 
brother Henry, captain in the royal navy. 
Napier solaced himself in his grief by prepar- 
ing for the press the book which Charles nad 
left not quite completed, viz. 'Defects, Civil 
and Military, of the Indian Government/ and 
by commencing the story of Charles's life, 
which he published in 1857. The work is 
that of a partisan. 



During 1857 and 1858 Napier became in- 
creasingly feeble. He had long been unable 
to walk. In October 1858 he had a violent 
paroxysm of illness, and, although he rallied, 
he never recovered. He was promoted gene- 
ral on 17 Oct. 1859, and died on 10 Feb. 1860. 
He was buried at Norwood. His wife sur- 
vived him only six weeks. She was a woman 
of great intellectual power, and assisted her 
husband in his literary labours. 

His only son, John, was deaf and dumb, 
but held a clerkship in the quartermaster- 
general's office at Dublin. His second sur- 
viving daughter married in 1836 the Earl of 
Arran. The third daughter died on 8 Sept. 
1856. In 1846 his fifth daughter married 
Philip Miles, esq., M.P., of Bristol. His 
youngestdaughter, Norah, married, in August 
1854, H. A.Bruce, afterwards Lord Aberdare 
and Napier's biographer. 

Napier was noble and generous by nature, 
resembling his brother Charles in hatred of 
oppression and wrong, in a chivalrous defence 
of the weak, and a warm and active benevo- 
lence. He was an eloquent public speaker, 
but sometimes formed his judgments too 
hastily. He had a great love of art, and was 
no mean artist. His statuette of Alcibiades, 
in virtue of which he was made an honorary 
member of the Royal Academy, received the 
warm praise of Chantrey. When at Strath- 
fieldsaye, obtaining information from the 
Duke of Wellington for his 'History/ he 
copied some of the paintings very success- 
fully, and made two very fine paintings of 
the duke's horse Blanco. The activity of his 
mind to the very last was extraordinary, con- 
sidering the helpless state of his body. He 
was one of the first to advocate the right of 
the private soldier to share in the honours as 
he had done in the dangers of the battlefield. 
On the south side of the entrance to the north 
transept of St. Paul's Cathedral is a statue 
by G. G. Adams of Napier, with the simple 
inscription of his name, and the words, * His- 
torian of the Peninsular War.' On the other 
side of the entrance is a statue of his brother 
Charles. A portrait in crayons, by Mr. G. F. 
Watts, R.A., is in the possession of Napier's 
son-in-law, Lord Aberdare. 

Napier's chief works are : 1. ' History of 
the War in the Peninsula and in the South 
of France from the year 1807 to the year 
1814,' including answers to some attacks 
in Robinson's * Life of Picton ' and in the 
* Quarterly Review ; ' with counter-re- 
marks to Mr. D. M. Perceval's ' Remarks/ 
&c. ; justificatory pieces in reply to Colonel 
Gurwood, Mr. Alison, Sir W. Scott, Lord 
Beresford, and the ' Quarterlv Review/ 
6 vols. London, 1828-40, 8vo;' 2nd edit., 



Napier 



87 



Napier 



to which is prefixed a 'Reply to Various 
Opponents, together with Observations 
illustrating Sir John Moore's Campaign/ 
vols. i. to iii., London, 1832-3, 8vo. No more 
appears to have been published of this edition ; 
3rd edit, of vols. i. to 'iii., London, 1835-40, 
8vo; 4th edit, of vol. i., London, 1848, 8vo. 
A new revised edition, in 6 vols., appeared in 
London, 1851, 8vo; another edition, 3 vols. 
London and New York, 1877-82. Various 
epitomes and abridgments of the ' History ' 
have appeared, the most valuable being 
Napier's own ' English Battles and Sieges in 
the Peninsula/ 1862, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1855. 
2. 'The Conquest of Scinde, with some 
Introductory Passages in the Life of Major- 

feneral Sir Charles James Napier/ &c, 
vols. London, 1845, 8vo. 3. ' History of 
Sir Charles Napier's Administration of 
Scinde and Campaign in the Cutchee Hills/ 
with maps and dlustration, London, 1851, 
8vo. 4. ' The Life and Opinions of General 
Sir C. J. Napier/ 4 vols. London, 1857, 8vo ; 
2nd edition same year. Tn addition Napier 
wrote innumerable controversial pamphlets 
and articles in the ' Times ' and other news- 
papers. He contributed ' an explanation of 
the Battle of Meanee' to the tenth volume 
of the ' Professional Papers of the Royal En- 
gineers 1 (1844). 

[The main authority is Brace's (Lord Aber- 
dare's) Life of General Sir W. F. P. Napier, with 
portraits, 2 vols. London, 1864 ; but War Office 
Records and Despatches hare been consulted for 
this article. The controversies excited by Napier's 
writings are mainly dealt with in the following 
works: — Smythe's Lord Strangford : Observa- 
tions on tome passages in Lieutenant-colonel Na- 
pier's Hist, of the Peninsular "W ar, 1 828 ; Further 
Observations occasioned by Lieutenant-colonel 
Napier's Reply, &c, 1828 ; Sorell's Notes of the 
Campaign of 1808-9 in the North of Spain in 
reference to some passages in Lieutenant-colonel 
Napier's History of the War in the Peninsula, 
1828; Strictures on Certain Passages of Lieute- 
nant-colonel Napier's History of the Peninsular 
War which relate to the Military Opinions and 
Conduct of General Lord Viscount Strangford, 
1831 ; Further Strictures on those parts of Colonel 
Napier's History of the Peninsular War which 
relate to Viscount Beresford, to which is added 
a Report of the Operations in the Alemtejo and 
Spanish Estramadura during the Campaign of 
1811, by Sir B. D'Urban, 1832; Gurwood's 
Major-general Gurwood and Colonel Gurwood, 
1845 ; Reviews of the work entitled 'The Con- 
quest of Scinde ' ... by ... W. F. P. Napier, 
&c (republished from the 'Bombay Monthly 
Times' of March 1845), Bombay, 1845, 8yo ; 
The Scinde Policy — a few Comments on Major- 

fmeral W. F. P. Napier's Defence of Lord 
llenborough'8 Government, 1845 ; Perceval's 
Remarks on the Character ascribed bv Colonel 



Napier in his History of the War in the 
Peninsula to the late Right Hon. Spencer Per- 
ceval ; Beresford's Refutation of Colonel 
Napier's Justification of his Third Volume, 1834 ; 
Long's Reply to the Misrepresentations and 
Aspersions on the Military Reputation of the 
late Lieutenant-general R. B. Long, contained 
in Further Strictures on those parts of Colonel 
Napier's History of the Peninsular War which 
relate to Viscount Beresford, &c, 1832; Buist's 
Correction of a few of the Errors contained in 
SirW. Napier's Life of Sir C. Napier, 1857; 
Cruikshank's (the Elder) A Pop- gun fired off by 
George Cruikshank in defence of the British 
Volunteers of 1803 against the uncivil attack 
upon that body by General Sir William Napie r, 
I860; Holmes's Four Famous Soldiers, 1889. 
An admirable criticism of Napier's History, 
in which Napier is described as the compeer of 
Thucydides, Caesar, and Davila, was contributed 
by Mr. Morse Stephens to the 9th edit, of the 
Encyclopaedia Britannica.] R. H. V. 

NAPIER, WILLIAM JOHN, eighth 
Lord Napier (1786-1834), captain in the 
navy, eldest son of Francis, seventh lord 
Napier [q. v.], was born on 13 Oct. 1786, 
and entered the navy in 1803 on board the 
Chiffonne, with Captain Charles Adam [q. v.] 
During 1804 and 1805 he was with Captain 
George Hope in the Defence, and in her was 
present at the battle of Trafalgar. He was 
then for a year in the Foudroyant, carrying 
the flag of Sir John Borlase Warren [q. v.T, 
and was present at the capture of Linois s 
squadron on 13 March 1800. From November 
1806 to September 1809 he was in the Im- 
perieuse with Lord Cochrane, during his re- 
markable service on the coasts of France and 
Spain, and in the attack on the French fleet 
in Aix roads [see Cochrane, Thomas, tenth 
Earl op Dundoxald]. He was promoted to 
be lieutenant on 6 Oct. 1809, and for the 
next two years served in the Kent, on the 
Mediterranean station. He was afterwards 
with Captain Pringle in the Sparrowhawk, 
on the coast of Catalonia, and being promoted, 
on 1 June 1812, to the command of the 
Goshawk, continued on the same service till 
September 1813. He then went out to the 
coast of North America in the Erne, and, 
though promoted to post rank on 4 June 1814, 
remained in the same command till Septem- 
ber 1816, when the Erne returned to England 
and was paid off. 

In the following March Napier married 
Elizabeth, daughter of the Hon. Andrew 
James Cochrane Johnstone [q. v.], and cousin 
of his old captain, Lord Cochrane, and, set- 
tling down in Selkirkshire, applied himself 
vigorously to sheep-farming. In January 1818 
he was elected a tellow of the Royal Society 
of Edinburgh. With great personal labour, 



Napleton 



88 



Napleton 



and against much opposition and ignorant 
prejudice, he opened out the country by new 
roads, in the survey of which he himself 
took part. He drained the land, built shelters 
for the sheep, and largely contributed to 
bringing in the white-faced sheep of the 
Cheviots as a more profitable breed than the 
black-faced sheep of the district, some account 
of all which he published under the title of 
' A Treatise on Practical Store-farming as 
applicable to the Mountainous Region of 
Etterick Forest and the Pastoral District of 
Scotland in general' (8vo, 1822). 

On 1 Aug. 1823, by the death of his father, 
he succeeded to the peerage, and from 1824 
to 1826 he commanded the Diamond frigate 
on the South American station. In December 
1833 he was appointed chief superintendent 
of trade in Cnma, and took a passage out 
with Captain Chads in the Andromache. He 
arrived at Macao on 15 July 1834, and after 
arranging the establishment, as it was called, 
went up to Canton, which he reached on the 
25th. This measure was contrary to and in 
defiance of the wishes of the viceroy, Loo, 
who refused to hold any correspondence with 
him, as, by established custom, all commu- 
nications regarding trade passed through the 
hong merchants. It was Napier's object to 
break down this custom, and open direct in- 
tercourse with the government. Loo, on the 
other hand, was determined not to admit this, 
and ordered Napier toreturn to Macao. Napier 
refused to go, and was in consequence sub- . 
jected to many petty annoyances, such as the 
withdrawal of all domestic servants, while 
at the same time the trade was stopped. 
Anxiety, worry, and annoyance, added to 
the heat and confinement, now made Napier 
seriously ill, and the surgeon on his stafFde- 
cided that he must leave Canton. 

Napier reached Macao on 26 Sept., and died 
there on 11 Oct. 1834. He left a family of 
five daughters and two sons, of whom the 
eldest, Francis, succeeded as ninth baron. 

[Marshall's Roy. Nav.Biog. vii. (Supplement, 
pt. iii.) 255; Gent. Mag. 1835, i. 267-9, 429; 
Blackwood's Mag. xiii. 175; Pari. Papers, 1840, 
vol. xxxvi., including correspondence relating 
to China, 1840, pp. 1-51 ; Additional Papers re- 
lating to China, 1 840, pp. 1-4, and Paper relating 
to China, 3 April 1840; Foster's Peerage.] 

J. K. L. 

NAPLETON, JOHN (1738 P-1817), 
divine and educational reformer, was the son 
of the Rev. John Napleton of Pembridge, 
Herefordshire. He matriculated at Brasenose 
College, Oxford, on 22 March 1756, at the 
age of sixteen, and graduated B.A. 1758, 
M.A. 1761, B.D. and D.D. 1789. On 13 Dec. 
1760 he was elected to a fellowship at his 



college, and he remained in residence as a 
tutor until the close of 1777. During this 
period he endeavoured to raise the standard 
of education at Oxford, with the result that 
he was condemned by many of his contem- 
poraries as a * martinet ' (Polwhble, Remi- 
niscences, i. 107). He was inducted as vicar 
of Tarrington, Herefordshire, on 27 Sept. 
1777, and as rector of Wold, Northampton- 
shire, a college living, on 24 Oct. 1777 ; he 
resigned his fellowship on 20 Sept. 1778. 
When Dr. John Butler [q. v.] was translated 
to the see of Hereford, he called to his aid 
the services of Napleton, who became the 
golden prebendary in Hereford Cathedral on 
8 May 1789, and the bishop's chaplain. He 
now endeavoured to effect an exchange of 
benefices, but his college ultimately refused 
its consent, and he was compelled to vacate 
the living of Wold on 28 Nov. 1789. In the 
diocese of Hereford he was soon rewarded 
with ample preferment. He was made chan- 
cellor of the diocese (1796), master of the 
hospital at Ledbury, rector of Stoke Edith, 
vicar of Lugwardine, in the gift of the dean 
and chapter (1810), and was nominated by 
Bishop Luxmoore as praelector of divinity at 
Hereford Cathedral (1810), retaining most of 
these appointments until his death. He died 
at Hereford on 9 Dec. 1817, and was buried 
in a vault in the centre of the cathedral choir. 
A small white tablet, formerly over his grave, 
has been removed to the eighth bay of the 
bishop's cloister. A more elaborate inscrip- 
tion on a similar tablet is over the door, on 
the south side of the nave, which leads to the 
same cloister. 

Napleton married on 4 Dec. 1798 Eliza- 
beth, the only daughter of Thomas Daniell of 
Truro, and the sister of Ralph Allen Daniell, 
M.P. for West Looe, Cornwall. There was 
no issue of the marriage. Polwhele praised 
Napleton's conversation : ' he had anecdote 
ana told a story well/ He confessed that he 
was somewhat over-strict in his examination 
of candidates for ordination. His portrait, 
painted by T. Leeming, of Corn Market, Ox- 
ford, in 1814, was engraved by Charles Picart. 
Another, apparently by Opie, which cost 70/., 
was afterwards sold at Bath for 71. 

Napleton wrote many works. While at 
Oxford he published: 1. ' Elementa logic©, 
subjicitur appendix de usu logicsa et con- 
spectus organi Aristotelis , (1770), which was 
not a reproduction of any previous text-book 
on logic, but his own composition in style 
and arrangement. 2. * Considerations on the 
Public Exercises for the First and Second 
Degrees in the University of Oxford* (1773). 
Both of these works were anonymous. The 
second was reprinted at Gloucester in 1805. 



Napper-Tandy 89 



Narbrough 



After quitting the university he issued : 
3. ' Advice to a Student in the University 
concerning the Qualifications and Duties of 
a Minister of the Gospel in the Church of 
England/ 1795. 4. 'The Dutv of Church- 
wardens respecting the Church/ 1799; 2nd 
edit. 1800. 5. 'Sermons for the Use of 
Schools and Families/ 1800, 1802, and 1804. 
6. ' Advice to a Minister of the Gospel in 
the United Church of England and Ireland/ 
1801. 7. ' Sermons for the Use of Colleges, 
Schools, and Families/ 1806 and 1809. Na- 
pleton contributed a set of Greek verses to 
the Oxford ' Epithalamia'on the marriage of 
George III, and was the author of many 
single sermons, the most important of which 
was that on the consecration of Bishop 
Buckner. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Manchester School 
Register (Chetham Soc.),i. 153 ; Nichols's I llustr. 
of Lit. vi. 727-8; Gent. Mag., 1817,pt.ii.p.630; 
Boase's Collectanea Cornub. p. 611 ; Havergal's 
Hereford Inscriptions, pp. xxi, 51-2 ; Havergal's 
Fasti Hereford, p. 66 ; Allen's Bibl. Hereford, 
p. 96 ; Pohrhele's Reminiscences, i. 107, ii. 182 ; 
information through Mr. F. Madan, Bodleian 
Lib. Oxford.] W. P. C. 

NAPPER-TANDY, JAMES (1747- 
1803), United Irishman. [See Tandy.] 

NARBONNE, PETER REMI (1806- 
1839), Canadian insurgent, was born in 1806 
at St. Remi in Lower Canada, of an old French 
Canadian family. He took an active part in 
the events preceding the Lower Canadian 
rebellion of 1837, and was among the insur- 

fents defeated at St. Charles on 23 Nov. 
837, but managed to escape to American 
soil. He now entered a band of insurgents 
collected together by Louis Gagnon, with 
whom he recrossed the frontier, but was de- 
feated and driven back by the loyalists at 
Moore's Corner on 28 Feb. 1838. He then 
joined another body of insurgents, and with 
them made a fresh attack on Canada in March 
1838. He was taken prisoner at St. Eustache, 
nineteen miles from Montreal, and brought 
a captive to St. Jean. 

Narbonne was released from prison in July, 
but immediately joined the fresh rebel army 
organised across the frontier by Robert Nel- 
son in the autumn of 1838. He took part I 
in a number of raids on the Canadian terri- ' 
tory, the chief of which was checked by the I 
loyalists at Odeltown Church on 9 Nov. 1838. I 
Narbonne was captured after the latter defeat, | 
and taken to Montreal. He was tried there i 
for high treason, convicted, and hanged on 
15 Feb. 1839. ; 

[Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Bio- 
aphy; Histories of Canada by Garneau and 
ithrow; Canadian State Trials.] G. P. M-y. 



graphy 
Withro 



NARBROUGH, Sir JOHN (1640-1688), 
admiral, son of Gregory Narbrough of Cock- 
thorpe, Norfolk, was baptised at Cockthorpe 
on 11 October 1640. His early career in the 
navy was closely associated with that of Sir 
Christopher Myngs [(j. v.], who was probably 
a relation or connection. Whether he first 
went to sea with Myngs is, however, doubt- 
ful. He has himself recorded that he made 
more than one voyage to the coast of Guinea 
and to St. Helena, apparently in the mer- 
chant service ; he mentions also having been 
in the West Indies, presumably with Myngs. 
In 1664 he was appointed to be lieutenant 
of the Portland, and during the next two 
years he followed Myngs very closely ; was 
with him successively in the Royal Oak, 
Triumph, Fairfax and Victory, and when he 
was mortally wounded on 4 J une 1666. For 
his conduct in this battle Narbrough was 
promoted to the command of the Assurance, 
from which he was moved some months later 
to the Bonaventure. In May 1669 he was 
appointed to the Sweepstakes, of 300 tons, 
with 36 guns and 80 men, for a voyage to 
the South Seas, and sailed from the Thames 
on 26 Sept. In November 1670 the Sweep- 
stakes passed through the Straits of Magel- 
lan, and on 15 Dec. arrived in Valdivia Bay, 
where, after some friendly intercourse with 
the Spaniards, two of her officers, with the 
interpreter and a seaman, being on shore with 
a message, were forcibly detained. The go- 
vernor alleged that he was acting on orders 
from the governor-general of Chili, and de- 
clared his inability to let them go. Nar- 
brough attributed it to the old prohibitive 
policy of the Spaniards, and believed that 
they wished to seize the ship. It is probable 
that there was also some idea of reprisal for 
the ravages of the buccaneers in the West 
Indies and on the Spanish Main [cf. Morgan, 
Sir Henry]. Being unable to recover his 
men, having neither force nor authority to 
wage a war of reprisals, and finding the 
Spanish ports thus closed to him, Narbrough 
judged it best to return; and accordingly, 
repassing the Straits in January, he arrived 
in England in June 1671. 

In 1672 he was second captain of the 
Prince, the flagship of the Duke of York, and 
in the battle of Solebay, 28 May, was left in 
command when Sir John Cox, the first cap- 
tain, was slain, and the Duke of York shifted 
his flag to the St. Michael. By Narbrough's 
exertions the ship was fit for service again 
in a few hours, and the duke rehoisted his 
flag on board the same evening. Narbrough 
was then appointed first captain of the Prince, 
but on the duke's retiring from the command 
was moved into the Fairfax, in which in 



Narbrough 



9 o 



Narbrough 



November he sailed for the Mediterranean in 
charge of convoy. By the end of May 1673 
he was back in England, and was appointed 
to the St. Michael, but was shortly after- 
wards moved into the Henrietta, which he 
commanded in the action of 11 Aug. On 
17 Sept. he was promoted to be rear-admiral 
of the red, and on the 30th was knighted by 
the king at Whitehall. 

In October 1674 he was sent out to the 
Mediterranean as admiral and commander- 
in-chief of a squadron against the Tripoli 
corsairs. As the bey paid no attention to the 
complaints which were laid before him Nar- 
brough blockaded the port, and through the 
summer and autumn 01 1675 captured or de- 
stroyed several of the largest Tripoli frigates ; 
.on 14 Jan. 1675-6 the boats of the squa- 
dron under the immediate command of Lieu- 
tenant Shovell of the Harwich, the flagshin, 
forced their way into the harbour of Tripoli, 
and there burnt four men-of-war; ana in 
February four others were very roughly 
handled at sea, though they managed to es- 
cape into port. These successive losses brought 
the bey to terms ; he consented to release all 
English captives, to pay 80,000 dollars as 
compensation for injuries, and to grant seve- 
ral exclusive commercial privileges. The 
treaty was afterwards ratified by the new 
bey whom a popular revolution placed at the 
head of the government, and Narbrough re- 
turned to England early in 1677. 

Within a verv few months he was ordered 
back to the Mediterranean to punish and re- 
strain the piracies of the Algerine corsairs. 
In the autumn of 1677 and during 1678 he 
waged a successful war of reprisals against 
the ships of Algiers, blockading their ports, 
destroying their men-of-war, seizing their 
merchant ships, and finally, in November 
1678, capturing five large frigates which the 
corsairs had newly fitted out in the hopes of 
recouping their losses. This so far broke 
the spirit of the Algerines that in May 1679 
Narbrough was able to leave the command 
with Vice-admiral Herbert [see Herbert, 
Abthuk, Eabl of Tobeington], and return 
to England with a great part of the fleet. 

In March 1680 he was appointed a com- 
missioner of the navy, and so he continued 
till September 1687, when he hoisted his 
flag in the Foresight as commander-in-chief 
of a small squadron sent to the West Indies. 
In the end of November he was at Barbados, 
and, at the desire of the Duke of Albemarle, 
went to the scene of a wreck near Cape 
Samana in St. Domingo, where an attempt 
was being made to recover the treasure [see 
Phipps, Sib William ; Dartmouth MSS. ; 
Hist MSS. Comm. 11th Rep. v. 135-6]. 



Here he was joined by Lord Mordaunt, then 
in command of a Dutch squadron, and wish- 
ing, it has been supposed, to sound Narbrough 
as to his adhesion to the reigning king [see 
Mobdaunt, Chables, third Eabl op Peteb- 
bobough]. This ' treasure fishing ' was carried 
on with some success for several months; 
but the ships became very sickly. Narbrough 
himself caught the fever, and died on 27 May 
1688. It was proposed to embalm the body, 
and so take it to England ; but, that being 
found impossible, it was buried at sea the same 
afternoon, the bowels being carried to Eng- 
land and buried in the church of Knowlton, 
near Deal, in which parish he had acquired 
an estate, where a handsome monument 
bears the inscription, ' Here lie the remains 
of Sir John Narbrough.' 

Narbrough was twice married. First, on 
9 April 1677, at Wembury in Devonshire, to 
Elizabeth, daughter of Josias Calmady ; she 
died on 1 Jan. 1677-8, being, according to 
the inscription on her monument in Wem- 
bury Church, 'mightily attiicted with a cough, 
and big with child/ Secondly, on 20 June 
1681, at Wanstead in Essex, to Elizabeth, 
daughter of Captain John Hill of Shadweli ; 
she survived him, afterwards married Sir 
Clowdisley Shovell [q. v.\ and died 15 April 
1732. By hi 8 second wife he had five chil- 
dren, of whom two sons and a daughter sur- 
vived him. The elder son, John, born in 
1684, created a baronet 15 Nov. 1688, and 
his brother James, born in 1685, were both 
serving with their stepfather, Shovell, as 
lieutenants of the Association, and were lost 
with him on 22 Oct. 1707. The daughter, 
Elizabeth, born in 1682, married in 1701 
Thomas d'Aeth, created a baronet in 1716, 
in whose family the Knowlton property still 
remains. A portrait of Narbrough, believed 
to be the only one, is at Knowlton Court. 

[Cbarnock's Biog. Nav. i. 245 ; A particular 
Narrative of the burning in the Port of Tripoli, 
four men-of-war belonging to those Corsairs by Sir 
John Narbrough.Admiralof hisMajesty'sFleet in 
the Mediterranean, on the 14th of January 1 675-6, 
together with an Account of his taking afterwards 
five barks laden with corn, and of his farther 
action on that coast, published by Authority, 
1676. Narbrough's Journal is printed in An 
Account of several late Voyages and Discoveries 
to the South and North : Printed for Samuel 
Smith and Benjamin Walford, 1694. The original 
is in the Bodleian Library. See al&o Ducket t's 
Naval Commissioners, 1 660-1 760, and Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 12th Rpp. A. pp. vii. passim (Fleming 
MSS. at Rydal). The family history is given 
in a very full notice by the Hon. Robert Mar- 
sham-Townshend in Notes and Queries, 7th ser. 
vi. 502. The Mariner's Jewel, or a Pocket Com- 
1 pass for the Ingenious . . . from a MS. of Sir 



Nares 



91 



Nares 



John Narbrough's and methodised by James 
Lightbody, seems to be partly pocket-book 
memoranda and partly common -place book]. 

J. K. L. 

NARES, EDWARD (1762-1841), mis- 
cellaneous writer, born in London in 1762, 
was the third and youngest son of Sir George 
Nares [q. v.], judge of the court of com- 
mon pleas, who married on 23 Sept. 1751 
Mary (d. 1 782), daughter of Sir John Strange, 
master of the rolls. Edward was admitted 
at Westminster School on 9 July 1770, but 
was not upon the foundation, and left in 1779. 
On 22 March in that year he matriculated at 
Christ Church, Oxford, and graduated B.A. 
1783, MA. 1789. From 2 Aug. 1788 to his 
marriage in 1797 he held a fellowship at his 
college, and about 1791 he was living, as libra- 
rian, at Blenheim Palace, where he played in 
private theatricals with the daughters of the 
l)uke of Marlborough, and one of them, with 
whom he is said to have eloped, subsequently 
became his wife. In 1792 he was ordained, 
and was almost immediately appointed to the 
vicarage of St. Peter-in-the-east, Oxford. On 
the nomination of the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury he was collated to the rectory of Bid- 
denden, Kent, in 1798, and retained it until 
his death. Nares was Bampton lecturer in 
1805, and select preacher in 1807, 1814, and 
1825. From 1813 to 1841 he filled the regius 
professorship of modern history at Oxford, to 
which he was appointed by the crown, on the 
recommendation of Lord Liverpool. G. V. Cox 
remarks that he took his prolessorial duties 
easily, not always attracting an audience, 
* though he was an accomplished scholar, a 
perfect gentleman, and an amusing writer.' 
His range of knowledge was wide, and he is 
said to have been a friend of J. A. De Luc 
[q. v.], the geologist. He died at Biddenden 
on 20 Aug. 1841. Nares married at Henley- 
on-Thames 16 April 1797 Lady Georgina 
Charlotte, third daughter of George Churchill 
Spencer, duke of Marlborough. She died at 
Bath on 15 Jan. 1802, at the age of thirty- 
one. His second wife, whom he married in 
June 1803, was Cordelia, second daughter of 
Thomas Adams of Osborne Lodge, Cran- 
brook, Kent. He had issue by both wives. 
He was nephew, as well as trustee and exe- 
cutor under his will, to John Strange, British 
resident at Venice, a great collector of books 
and curiosities. 

Nares's best known work was his monu- 
mental ' Memoirs of the Life and Adminis- 
tration of William Cecil, Lord Burghley/ 
1828-31, in three volumes. These enormous 
tomes were reviewed by Macaulay in the 
1 Edinburgh Review ' for April 1832, and were 
described by him as consisting of about two 



thousand closely printed quarto pages, occu- 
pying fifteen hunared inches cubic measure, 
and weighing sixty pounds avoirdupois. The 
author tried to retaliate in ' A few Observa- 
tions on the " Edinburgh Review n of Dr. 
Nares's Memoirs of Lord Burghley. ' 

Ilia other writings are: 1 l Thinks-I-to- 
myself. A serio-ludicro, tragico-comico tale, 
written by Thinks-I-to-myself who?' 1811, 
2 vols. ; 8th edit. 1812 ? another edit. 1824. 

2. ' I says, says I. A Novel, by Thinks- 1- 
to-myself,' 1812, 2 vols.; 2nd edit. 1812. 
These novels, which contain much censure of 
fashionable and social life, have been praised 
for their ' dry humour and satirical pleasantry.' 

3. ' Heraldic Anomalies. By it matters not 
who,' 1823, 2 vols. 2nd edit, (anon.) 1824. 
A work of many curious anecdotes. 4. • Eir 
0c or €ir tuo-tTTjs, or an Attempt to show how 
far the Notion of the Plurality of Worlds is 

! consistent with the Scriptures/ 1801. The 
I first impression was issued anonymously in 
1 July 1801. 5. 'View of the Evidences of 
• Christianity at the Close of the Pretended 

Age of Reason.' Bampton lectures, 1805. 
' 6. ' Remarks on the Version of the New 
I Testament lately edited by the Unitarians,' 
I 1810 ; 2nd edit. 1814, with letter to the Rev. 
j Francis Stone, originally written and oub- 
: lished in 1807 on his support of unitarianism. 
' Some portion of these remarks appeared in 
! the ' British Critic.' 7. ' Discourses on the 
j three Creeds and on the Homage offered to 
I our Saviour,' 1819. 8. * Man as known to 

us theologically and geologically.' 
' Nares added in 1822 to Lord'Woodhouse- 
! lee's ' Elements of General History, Ancient 
! and Modern,' a third volume, bringing the 
j compilation down to the close of the reign of 
I George III, which was reissued and continued 
j by successive editors in 1840 and 1855. He 

supplied in 1824 a series of historical pre- 
' faces for an issue of the bible, l embellisned 
1 by the most eminent British Artists,' 1824, 
1 3 vols, fol., and he contributed a preface to 
i an edition of Burnet's ' History of the Re- 
' formation,' which came out at Oxford in 1829. 

He was also the author of many single ser- 
i mons. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Gent. Mag., 1797> 
! pt. i. p. 349, 1802 pt. i. p. 93, 1803 pt. ii. p. 689> 

1841 pt. ii. pp. 435-6; Welch's West. School, 

p. 405 ; Barker and Stenning's West. School Re- 
I gister.p. 168; Le Neve's Fasti, iii 530; Nichols's 
j Illnstr. of Lit. vii. 614, 634-5; Notes and 
I Queries, 2nd ser. ix. 230, 5tb ser. ix. 53-4, 275, 
I 8th ser. ii. 91-2 ; G. V. Cox's Recollections of 

Oxford, 2nd edit. pp. 9, 152.] W. P. C. 

NARES, Sir GEORGE (17 10-1786), 
judge, born at Hanwell, Middlesex, in 1716, 
was the younger son of George Nares of 



Nares 



9* 



Nares 



Albury, Oxfordshire, steward to the Earl of 
Abingdon. James Nares [q. v.] was his elder 
brother. He was educated at Magdalen Col- 
lege School, and having been admitted a 
member of the Inner Temple on 19 Oct. 1738, 
was called to the bar on 12 June 1741. He 
appears to have practised chiefly in the crimi- 
nal courts. He defended Timothy Murphy, 
charged with felony and forgery, in January 
1753 (Howell, State Trials, 1813, xix. 702), 
and Elizabeth Canning, charged with per- 
jury, in April 1754 (tb. xix. 451). He re- 
ceived the degree of the coif on 6 Feb. 1759, 
and in the same year was appointed one of 
the king's serjeauts. He was employed as 
one of the counsel for the crown in several 
of the cases arising out of the seizure of 
No. 45 of the 4 North Briton ' (ib. xix. 1153; 
Harris, Life of Lord Chancellor Hardwieke, 
1847, iii. 349). At the general election in 
March 1768 he was returned to the House 
of Commons for the city of Oxford, of which 
he was already recorder. lie spoke in favour 
of Lord Barrington's motion for the expul- 
sion of Wilkes on 3 Feb. 1769, and declared 
that he would * rather appear before this 
house as an idolater of a minister than a 
ridiculer of his Maker' (Cavendish, De- 
bates, i. 156). On the delivery of the great 
seal to Bathurst, Nares was appointed a 
justice of the common pleas, and was sworn 
in at the lord-chancellor's house in Dean 
Street, Soho, on 26 Jan. 1771 (Sir William 
Blackstone, Reports, 1781, ii. 734-5). He 
was knighted on the following day. 

Nares took part in the hearing of Brass 
Crosby's case (Howell, State Trials, xix. 
1152), Fabrigas v. Mostyn (ib. xx. 183), and 
Sayre v. Earl of Rochford (ib. xx. 1316). A 
number of his judgments will be found in 
the second volume of Sir William Black- 
stone's ' Reports.' After holding office for 
more than fifteen years, Nares died at Rams- 
gate on 20 July 1 786, and was buried at E vers- 
ley, Hampshire, where there is a monument 
to his memory (Nichols, Illustrations of the 
Literary History of the Eighteenth Century, 
vii. 635). He married, on 23 Sept. 1751, 
Mary, third daughter of Sir John Strange, 
master of the rolls, who died on 6 Aug. 1782, 
aged 55. Their eldest son, John, a magistrate 
at Bow Street and a bencher of the Inner 
Temple, died on 16 Dec. 1816, and was the 

frandfather of Sir George Strong Nares, 
I.C.B., the well-known Arctic explorer. 
George Strange, their second son, became a 
captain in the 70th regiment of foot, and 
died in the West Indies in 1794. Their 
youngest son, Edward, is noticed separately. 
Nares was created a D.C.L. of Oxford 
University on 7 July 1773. He is ridiculed J 



by Foote in his farcical comedy of the ' Lame 
Lover,' under the character of Serjeant Cir- 
cuit. There is a mezzotint engraving of 
Nares by W. Dickinson after N. Hone. 

[Foss's Judges of England, 1864, viii. 348-9 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1751 p. 427, 1782 p. 406, 1786 pt. 
ii. p. 622; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; 
Martin's Masters of the Bench of the Inner 
Temple, 1883, p. 92; Alumni Westmon. 1852, 
p. 405; Official Return of Lists of Members of 
Parliament, pf. ii. p. 141 ; Haydn's Book of Dig- 
nities, 1890; Notes and Queries, 8th ser. ii. 29, 
91,173,478.] G. F.R. B. 

NARES, JAMES (1715-1783), composer, 
son of George Nares and brother of Sir 
George Nares [q. v.] the judge, was born at 
Stan well, Middlesex, in 1716, and baptised 
19 April (parish register). The family re- 
moved to Oxfordshire, and he became a 
chorister in the Chapel Royal under Dr. Croft 
and Bernard Gates. He subsequently studied 
under Dr. Pepusch, and, alter acting as 
deputy organist at St. George's Chapel, 
Windsor, was in 1734 appointed organist of 
York Cathedral. By the interest of Dr. 
Fountayne, dean of York, he was in 1756 
chosen to succeed Dr. Greene as organist 
and composer to the king ; and in 1757 gra- 
duated Mus. Doc. at Cambridge. In the same 
year he succeeded Gates as master of the 
children of the Chapel Royal, and held the 
post until ill-health compelled him to resign 
in July 1780. He died 10 Feb. 1783, and 
was buried in St. Margaret's, Westminster. 
He married Miss Bacon of York, who sur- 
vived him forty years, and by her he had 
four children. The eldest son, Robert, is 
noticed separately. 

It is as a composer for the church that 
Nares is now known, and, although he has 
left nothing of great merit, several of his 
anthems and other pieces are still in use. 
They include three sets of harpsichord lessons, 
two treatises on singing, * A Regular Intro- 
duction to Playing on the Harpsichord or 
Organ ' (1759), six organ fugues, and twenty 
anthems composed for the Chapel Royal 
(1778). A ' Morning and Evening Service 
and Six Anthems ' were published in 1788. 
This volume contains his portrait, engraved 
by W. Ward after Engleheart, cetate 65, and 
a biographical notice by his son, which is 
reprinted in the ' Harmonicon,' 1829. His 
compositions are to be found in Arnold's 
* Cathedral Music ' (vol. iii.), Steven's ' Sacred 
Music/ and Warren's collections. 

[His son's biographical notice and Harmoni- 
con as above ; Chalmers's Biog. Diet. ; Didot's 
Nourelle Biographie Generale, xxxvii. ; Biogra- 
phical Diet, of Musicians, 1824 ; Brown's and 
Grove s Dictionaries of Musicians ; Love's Scot- 



Nares 



93 



Nares 



tish Church Music ; Parr's Church of England 
Psalmody ; Notes and Queries, 6th ser. viii. 346 ; 
AbJy Williams's Degrees in Music, p. 135.1 

J. C. H. 

NARES, ROBERT (1758-1829), philo- 
logist, was born on 9 June 1763 at York, of 
the minster of which city his father, James 
Nares [q. v.], Mus.Doc, was then organist. 
He was the nephew of Sir George Nares [q. v.] 
the judge. He was sent to Westminster 
School, where in 1767 he was elected a king's 
scholar. Li 1771 he was elected to a student- 
ship at Christ Church, Oxford, where he gra- 
duated B.A. 1775, M.A. 1778. From 1779 
to 1783 he was tutor to Sir Watkin and 
Charles Williams Wynn, living with them 
in London and at Wynnstay, Wrexham. 
George Colman the younger mentions him 
as one of the actors in the Wynnstay thea- 
tricals of that period. In 1782 he was pre- 
sented by his college to the small living of 
Easton Mauduit, Northamptonshire, and in 
1784 received from the lord chancellor the 
vicarage of Great Doddington, Northampton- 
shire. In 1784 he published his first pnilo- 
logical work, ' The Elements of Orthoepy/ 
which was highly commended by Boswell. 
From 1786 to 1788 he was usher at West- 
minster School, acting as tutor to the Wynns, 
who had been sent to the school. In 1787 
he was appointed chaplain to the Duke of 
York, and from 1788 till 1803 was assistant 
preacher at Lincoln's Inn. 

In 1793 Nares established the 'British 
Critic/ and edited the first forty-two numbers 
(May 1793-December 1813), in conjunction 
with the Rev. William Beloe [q. v.], his life- 
long friend. In 1795 he was appointed as- 
sistant librarian in the department of manu- 
scripts at the British Museum, and in 1799 
was promoted to be keeper of manuscripts. 
The third volume of the ' Catalogue of the 
Harleian MSS.' was published under his edi- 
torship. He resigned his keepership in 1807. 

Nares was a member in 1791 of the Na- 
tural History Society in London (ib. vi. 
835), and was elected fellow of the Society 
of Antiquaries in 1795, and fellow of the 
Royal Society in 1804. He was a founder 
of the Royal Societv of Literature and vice- 
president in 1823. In 1822 he published his 
principal work, the ' Glossary ' (No. 9 below), 
a book described in 1859 by Halliwell and 
Wright as indispensable to readers of Eliza- 
bethan literature, and it contains nume- 
rous sensible criticisms of the text of Shake- 
speare. Nares says that he collected the 
various illustrative passages in a somewhat 
desultory way during a long course of reading. 
The correspondence of Nares with Bishop 
Percy and others, dealing with a variety of 



literary topics, is printed in Nichols's 'Lite- 
rary illustrations ' (vii. 678}. During this 
Eenod he received the following preferment : 
e was vicar of Dalby, Leicestershire, 1796 ; 
rector of Sharnford, Leicestershire, 1798 to* 
1799; canon residentiary of Lichfield from 
1798 till his death; prebend of St. Paul's 
Cathedral, 1798; archdeacon of Stafford from 
28 April 1801 till his death : vicar of St. 
Mary 8, Reading (having in 1805 resigned 
Easton-Mauduit), from 1805 till 1818, when 
he! exchanged to the rectory of Allhallows, 
London Wall. There he ministered till 
within a month of his death, which took 
place at his house, 22 Hart Street, Blooms- 
bury, London, on 23 March 1829. A monu- 
ment bearing some verses by W. L. Bowles 
was erected to him in Lichfield Cathedral. 
Nares is described by Beloe (Nichols, Lit. 
Illwtr. vii. 585-7) as a sound and widely- 
read scholar, and as a witty and cheerful 
companion to his intimates (cp. ib. vii. 584). 
A portrait, engraved in the * National Por- 
trait Gallery/ vol. ii., is taken from the paint- 
ing by J. Hoppner, R.A., who had known 
Nares well from his youth. 

Nares married, first, Elizabeth Bayley, 
youngest daughter of Thomas Bayley of 
Chelmsford, died 1785 ; secondly, a daughter 
of Charles Fleetwood, died 1794 ; thirdly, the 
youngest daughter of Dr. Samuel Smith, 
head-master of Westminster School, who 
survived her husband. He left no children. 
Nares's principal publications, excluding' 
separately issuea sermons, are: 1. 'An Es- 
say on the Demon or Divination of Socrates/ 
London, 1782, 8vo. 2. ' Elements of Or- 
thoepy, containing . . . the whole Analogy of 
the English Language, so far as it relates to 
Pronunciation, Accent, and Quantity/ Lon- 
don, 1784, 8vo. 3. ' General Rules for the 
Pronunciation of the English Language,' 
London, 1792, 8vo. 4. ' Principles of Govern- 
ment deduced from Reason/ London, 1792, 
8vo. 5. ' A short Account of the Character 
and Reign of Louis X VI/ 1793, 8vo. 6. ' A 
Connected and Chronological View of the 
Prophecies relating to the Christian Church' 
(the Warburtonian Lecture, 1800-2), Lon- 
don, 1805, 8vo. 7. 'Essavs. . .chiefly re- 
printed/ 2 vols. London, 1810, 8vo. 8. ' The 
Veracity of the Evangelists demonstrated by 
a comparative View of their Histories/ Lon- 
don, 1816, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1819, 12mo. 9. « A 
Glossary, or Collection of Words, Phrases, 
Names, and Allusions to Customs, Proverbs, 
&c, which have been thought to require 
Illustration in the Works of English Authors, 
particularly Shakespeare and his Contem- 
poraries/ London, 1822, 4to; another edit. 
Stralsund, 1825, 8vo ; edit, by Halliwell and 



Narford 



94 



Narrien 



Wright, London, 1859, 8vo ; also London, ! 
1888, 8vo. ' A Thanksgiving for Plenty and 
Warning against Avarice/ published in 1801, ! 
was reviewed by Sydney Smith in the ' Edin- . 
burgh Review for 1802, and ridiculed as j 
illogical. I 

In 1790 Nares assisted in completing : 
Bridges* ' History of Northamptonshire.' In , 
1798, in conjunction with W. Tooke and W. 
Beloe, he revised the ' General Biographical ! 
Dictionary/ himself undertaking vols. vi. j 
viii. x. xii. and xiv. He also edited Dr. W. j 
Vincent's 'Sermons' (1817), and Purdv's ! 
'Lectures on the Church Catechism* (1815), j 
writing memoirs. He was a contributor to 
the ' Gentleman's Magazine/ the ' Classical . 
Journal/ and the ' Arc^l8eologia. , 

[Preface to Nares's Glossary, ed. Halliwell and 
Wright; Gent. Mag. 1829, pt. i. pp. 370, 371 ; 
Nichols's Lit. Illustrations, vii. 598 If. ; Biog. 
Diet of Living Authors, 1816, p. 248 ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon.; Welch's Alumni Westmonast. ; 
BoswelTs Johnson, ed. Hill, iv. 389 ; Brit. Mus. 
Cat.] W. W. 

NARFORD, NERFORD, or NERE- 
FORD, ROBERT (d. 1225), constable of 
Dover Castle, was the son of Sir Richard de 
Nerford, by his wife, Christian, and inherited 
from his parents Nerford Manor in Norfolk 
(Blomepield, Hist, of Norfolk, y. 119 ; he 
does not name his authority). He married 
Alice, daughter and coheiress of John 
Pouchard, and so came into possession of 
lands between Creyk and Burnham Thorp. 
On a meadow there called Lingerescroft he 
founded a little chapel (1206) called Sancta 
Maria de Pratis (Mon. Angl. vi. 487). His 
wife's sister Joan married Reyner de Burgh, 
and her two sons were Hubert de Burgh r q. v.] 
and Geoffrey de Burgh, bishop of Ely (both- 
worth MS. exxx. f. 3, and the Harl. MS. 
294, f. 148 b ; see, too, Blomefield, x. 26.5, 
quoting Philipps MS.) To his relationship 
with Hubert, Narford no doubt owed the 
favour of King John ; in October 1215 John 
ordered Hubert de Burgh to give Narford 
seisin of lands in Kent (Rot. Claus. i. 230). 
On 18 March 1216 John addressed a patent 
to Narford as bailiff at one of the seaports 
(Rot. Pat. p. 1706); probably he was a cus- 
todian of Dover Castle, of which Hubert de 
Burgh was chief constable (Richard de 
Coggeshall, ed. Stevenson, p. 185 ; cf. Rot. 
Claus. p. 259). When Hubert de Burgh 
defeated Eustace le Moine in the naval battle 
of the Straits of Dover, fought on St. Bar- 
tholomew's day (24 Aug. 1216), Narford was 
present ; and, to commemorate the victory, 
he founded, at his wife's desire, a hospital for 
thirteen poor men, one master, and four chap- 
lains, by the side of his earlier foundation at 



Lingerescroft. His cousin Geoffrey, bishop 
of Ely, dedicated the house to St. Bartholo- 
mew in 1221 (Mon. Angl. vi. 487). After 
Narford's death the master, at his widow's 
wish, took the Austin habit, and was called 
Prior of the Canons of St. Mary de Pratis ; 
in 1230 Henry III accepted the patronage of 
the house and made it an abbey (ib. vi. 488). 

When Hubert de Burgh became chief 
justiciar, Narford was made chief constable 
of Dover (ib. vi. 487), and received a salary 
of twenty marks a year (Rot. Claus. i. 514). 
In 1220 he received a precept to summon 
the barons of the Cinque Ports to his court 
at Shepway (Pat. 5, Hen. 3, quoted by J. 
Lyon, ii. 203). 

In March 1224 he received payments as 
an ambassador to foreign parts (Rot. Claus. 
i. 582 seq.) Narford died in 1225, and his 
son Nicholas succeeded to his estates (ib. 
ii. 40). 

[Rutuli Literarum Clausarum, vols. i. ii. ; 
Rot. Lit. Pateutium. ed. Hardy ; Lyon's Hist, 
of Dover, ii. 203; Blomefield's Hist, of Nor- 
folk, vols. v. x. ; Monasticon Anglicanum, vi. 
486 seq ; Harl. MS. 294, f. 148 6, No. 2898.] 

M. B. 

NARRIEN, JOHN (1782-1860), astro- 
nomical writer, was the son of a stonemason, 
and was born at Chertsey, in Surrey, in 1782. 
He kept for some years an optician's shop in 
Pall Mall, and his talents having procured 
him friends and patronage, he was nominated 
in 1814 one of the teaching staff of the Royal 
Military College at Sandhurst. Promoted 
in 1820 to be mathematical professor in the 
senior department, he was long the virtual 
head of the establishment. His useful and 
honourable career terminated with his re- 
signation, on the failure of his eyesight, in 
1858. He was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society in 1840, and retired from the Royal 
Astronomical Society in 1858. He died at 
Kensington on 30 March 1860, aged 77. He 
had lost his wife eight years previously. 

He published in 1853 ' An Historical Ac- 
count of the Origin and Progress of Astro- 
nomy/ a work of considerable merit and 
research ; and compiled a series of mathe- 
matical text-books ior use in Sandhurst Col- 
lege, of which the principal were entitled 
' Elements of Geometry, London, 1842 ; 
' Practical Astronomy and Geodesy,' 1845 ; 
and i Analytical Geometry/ 1846. He ob- 
served the partial solar eclipse of 6 May 1845, 
at the observatory of Sandhurst College 
(Monthly Notices, vi. 240). 

[Monthly Notices Royal Astron. Soc. xviii. 
100, xxi. 102; Ann. Reg. 1860, p. 475; Alli- 
bone's Critical Diet, of English Literature ; Ob- 
servatory, xi. 300 (W. T. Lynn).] A. JM. C. 



Nary 



95 Nash 



NARY, CORNELIUS (1660-1788), Irish 
catholic divine, was born in co. Kildare in 
1660, and received his early education at 
Naas in the same county. He was ordained 
priest by the Bishop of Ossory at Kilkenny 
in 1682, and soon afterwards entered the 
Irish College in Paris, of which he was sub- 
sequently provisor for seven years. While 
in raris he graduated doctor of divinity in 
the university in 1694, and he was also twice 
appointed procurator of the German or Eng- 
lish ' Nation ' at the university of Paris, and, 
as such, was for the time being a member 
of the academic governing body. Leaving 
France about 1096, he went to London, where 
he acted for a while as tutor to the Earl of 
Antrim, an Irish catholic peer ; but after- 
wards removing to Dublin, he was arrested 
and imprisoned for his religion in 1702. In 
the ' Registry of Popish Clergy' for 1703-4 
he is descrioed as popish parish priest of 
St. Michan, and so he remained until his 
death, at the age of seventy-eight, on 3 March 
1738. He is described by Harris, the editor 
of Sir James Ware's * Works/ as l a man of 
learning and of a good character/ 

An anonymous mezzotint portrait is men- 
tioned by Bromley. 

He was the author of the following works : 
1. 'A Modest and True Account of the 
Chief Points in Controversy between the 
Roman Catholicks and the Protestants/ Ant- 
werp and London, 1699, 8vo. 2. ' Prayers 
and Meditations/ Dublin, 1705, 12mo. 3. ' The 
New Testament translated into English from 
the Latin, with Marginal Notes/ London, 
1705 and 1718, 8vo. 4. « Rules and Godly 
Instructions/ Dublin, 1716, 12mo. 5. 'A 
Brief History of St. Patrick's Purgatory 
and its Pilgrimages ; written in favour of 
those who are curious to know the Particu- 
lars of that famous Place and Pilgrimage, so 
much celebrated in Antiquity/ Dublin, 1718, 
12mo. 6. 'A Catechism for the use of the 
Parish/ Dublin, 1718, 12mo. 7. ' A Letter 
to His Grace Edward, Lord Archbishop of 
Tuam, in answer to his charitable Address 
to all who are of the Communion of the 
Church of Rome/ Dublin, 1719, 1720,1728, 
8vo. 8. 'A New History of the World, 
containing an Historical and Chronological 
Account of the Times and Transactions from 
the Creation to the Birth of Christ, accord- 
ing to the Computation of the Septuagint/ 
Dublin, 1720, fol. 9. ' The Case of the 
Catholics of Ireland/ Dublin, 1724. 

He was also the author of several contro- 
versial pamphlets and the translator of 
others, and left in manuscript a work en- 
titled * An Argument showing the Difficul- 
ties in Sacred Writ as well in the Old as 



New Testament ; ' he is also stated by Ander- 
son (Sketches of the Native Irish) to have 
published a short ' History of Ireland.' 

[Harris's Works of Sir James Ware; Bat- 
tersby's Dublin Jesuits ; Anderson's Sketches of 
the Native Irish; Bellesheim's Geschichte der 
Katholischen Kirche in Irland t vol. ii. ; Webb's 
Compendium of Irish Biography.] P. L. N. 

NASH, FREDERICK (1782-1856), 
water-colour painter, was born in Lambeth, 
London, on 28 March 1782. He was the son 
of a builder, and at an early age became a 
pupil of Thomas Malton the younger [q. v.], 
although a wealthy relative had offered to 
give him a legal education. He studied also 
at the Royal Academy, and began to exhibit 
there in 1800 by sending a drawing of ' The 
North Entrance of Westminster Abbey.' 
He was afterwards employed by Sir Robert 
Smirke [q. v.] the architect, and bet ween 1801 
and 1809 he made some of the drawings for 
Britton and Brayley's * Beauties of England 
and Wales,' and for Britton's * Architectural 
Antiquities.' In 1807 he was appointed 
architectural draftsman to the Society of 
Antiquaries. He had three drawings in 
the first exhibition of the Associated Artists 
in Water-Colours in 1808, and in 1809 ex- 
hibited six drawings as a member of that 
short-lived society. These included two in- 
teriors of Westminster Abbey, the west front 
of St. Paul's, and a large drawing of the 
choir of Canterbury Cathedral. In 1810 he 
was elected an associate, and six months 
later a full member, of the Society of 
Painters in Water-Colours ; he seceded in 
1812, in consequence of his disapproval of 
certain changes made in its constitution, but 
he was re-elected in 1824. 

His first published work was l A Series of 
Views of the Collegiate Chapel of St. George 
at Windsor,' 1805, drawn and etched by 
himself, and finished in aquatint by Frederick 
C. Lewis and others. This was followed 
by 'Twelve Views of the Antiquities of 
London,' 1805-10. In 1811 he exhibited a 
fine drawing of the * Interior of Westmin- 
ster Abbey,' with a funeral procession, which 
was highly praised by Benjamin West, and 
in 1812 some of the drawings which were 
engraved in Ackermann's l History of the 
University of Oxford,' 1814. In 1813 and 
1815 appeared the drawings of Glastonbury 
Abbey and the Tower of London, in 1816 
those of Malmesbury Abbey, and in 1818 
those of the Temple Church, all made for 
the ' Vetusta Monumenta.' He visited 
Switzerland in 1816, and in 1819 began the 
series of drawings of Paris and Versailles, 
1 which were engraved by John Pye, John 



Nash 



9 6 



Nash 



Byrne, Edward Goodall, Robert Wallis, 
William R. Smith, George Cooke, and others, 
for his ' Picturesque Views of the City of 
Paris and its Environs/ published between 
1820 and 1823. In 1821 he exhibited his 
drawings of Tewkesbury Abbey, also made 
for the ' Vetusta Monumenta.' lie was 
again in Paris in 1824 to make a series of 
drawings of its environs for M. J. F. d'Os- 
tervald, and in 1825 he returned thither 
with Sir Thomas Lawrence, whom he as- 
sisted by painting the accessories in a por- 
trait group of Louis XVIII and the French 
royal family. He had previously painted in 
oil, and among the works whicn he con- 
tributed to the British Institution between 
1812 and 1852 was a picture representing 
'The Enthronation of King George the 
Fourth,' exhibited in 1824, and engraved 
in mezzotint by Charles Turner. In 

1824 he exhibited at the Society of Painters 
in Water-Colours a very large drawing 
of the 'Interior of Westminster Abbey/ 
this time with a royal procession, and in 

1825 a ' View of Calais Harbour.' A view 
of 'Paris from Pere-La-Chaise/ engraved by 
Edward Finden, appeared in the ' Literary 
Souvenir' for 1825. In 1828 he sent six 
drawings of Durham Cathedral, and in 1829 
seven drawings of the ruins of St. Mary's 
Abbey, York ; the latter he drew on stone 
for the ' Vetusta Monumenta.' In 1830 he 
was sketching in Normandy, and he ex- 
hibited some views in the Netherlands, of 
which ' The Packet Boat entering the Har- 
bour of Ghent ' was engraved by Edward ! 
Goodall for the' Literary Souvenir' of 1831. I 
Nash retired to Brighton in 1834, but con- 
tinued to send drawings to the Royal j 
Academy until 1847, and to the Society of | 
Painters in Water-Colours until 1856, his 
contributions to the latter exhibition num- 
baring in all niarly five hundred. 1 

The subjects of Nash's later works were 
generally drawn from the locality in which ' 
he lived and the adjacent parts of Sussex. 
While painting a view of Arundel, in 1837, 
he had a narrow escape from being killed by 
the fall of a stack of chimneys through the 
roof of the room in which he was at work. In 
1837 he made a tour on the Moselle, and in 
1843 visited the Rhine. His usual practice 
was to make and colour on the spot three 
drawings of the subject which he had in 
hand, one representing the effects of early 
morning, another that of midday, and a 
third that of evening. His later style, 
which commenced with his Paris views, 
although lighter in touch and brighter in 
colour, did not equal that of his earlier 
drawings, whose grandeur of effect led 



j Turner to pronounce Nash to be the finest 
architectural painter of his day. 
j Nash died at 4 Montpellier Road, Brighton , 
from an attack of bronchitis, on 5 Dec. 1856, 
and was buried there in the extra-mural 
cemetery. The contents of his studio, in- 
cluding the palette of Sir Thomas Lawrence, 
were subsequently sold at Brighton. 

The South Kensington Museum pos- 
sesses four examples of his art : ' The 
Waterworks at Versailles,' ' Tintern Abbey/ 
* Distant View of London from Holloway,' 
and a ' View of the Mansion House and the 
Poultry, looking down Cheapside.' 

[Art Journal, notice by J. J. Jenkins, 18-57, 
p. 61 ; Redgrave's Diet, of Artists of the Eng- 
lish School, 1878 ; Roget's History of the Old 
Water-Colour Society, 1891 ; Royal Academy 
Exhibition Catalogues, 1800-47; Exhibition 
Catalogues of the Society of Painters in Water- 
Colours, 1810-1856; British Institution Ex- 
hibition Catalogues (Living Artists), 1812- 
1852.] R. E. G. 

NASH, JOHN (1752-1835), architect, of 
Welsh extraction, was born in 1752, at Car- 
digan in Wales, or, according to another 
account, in London. He was placed by his 
parents as pupil to Sir Robert Taylor [q. v.], 
but on leaving him he discontinued the pro- 
fession of an architect, and retired to a pro- 
perty near Carmarthen. About 1793 he was 
induced by his former fellow-pupil, Samuel 
Pepys Cockerell [q. v.], and others, to resume 
practice as an architect. He soon obtained 
a large local practice in public and private 
architecture, extending rapidly throughout 
the country. Among his early works were 
the county gaol, Cardigan (1793), the county 
gaol, Hereford (1797), the west front and 
chapter-house of the cathedral at St. David's 
(1798), and various private commissions, such 
as Sundridge in Kent, Luscombe in Devon- 
shire, Killymore Castle in county Tyrone, 
Childwali Hall, Lancashire, and alterations 
or additions to Corsham House in "Wiltshire, 
Bulstrode in Buckinghamshire, Hale Hall in 
Lancashire, &c. In 1814, at the celebration 
of the peace bv fireworks and other enter- 
tainments in St. James's Park, Nash de- 
signed the temporary bridge over the lake 
(which remained for some years after), and 
also the Temple of Concordia in the Green 
Park. 

Nash had by this time obtained as an archi- 
tect a large share of the patronage of royalty, 
the nobility and gentry, and public bodies, 
and became the favourite architect of the 
prince regent. He designed or remodelled 
numbers of mansions, bridges, market-places, 
&c. It is, however, with his share in London 
architectural improvements that his name 



Nash 



97 



Nash 



will be inseparably connected. When the 
crown in January 1811 re-entered into pos- 
session of the land known as Marylebone 
Park, an act of parliament was obtained to 
form a public park there and to build on the 
ground adjoining it. The plans were made 
by Nash, who obtained the premium of 1 ,000/. 
offered by the treasury in 1793. Nash also 
designed the terraces along the edge of the 



in these he followed out a design previously 
adopted by the brothers Adam, of uniting 
several houses in a single facade, faced with 
stucco. A special clause was inserted in the 
leases whereby the lessees covenanted to 
renew the stucco exteriors every 4th August 
during their lease. The park was christened 
the Regent's Park. Park Crescent and 
Square, with Albany and other adjoining 
streets, were also erected from Nash's designs. 
He also projected the Regent's Canal, con- 
necting the Thames at Limehouse with the 
Grand Junction Canal at Paddington. This 
was commenced in October 1812, and finally 
completed in August 1820. 

A desire was now felt to make a wide 
street as a means of communication from 
Carlton House, the residence of the prince 
regent, to the Regent's Park. An act of par- 
liament for this important work was obtamed 
in 1813, and the new street was nearly com- 

?leted in 1820. The street started from 
iarlton House, sweeping away St. Alban's 
Street and the rest of the small streets known 
as St. James's Market ; it then crossed Picca- 
dilly, and, following the course of the old 
Swallow Street, was originally intended to 
open straight into Portland Place. Foley 
House and its grounds, on which the Lang- 
ham Hotel now stands, were purchased by 
Nash for this purpose at a price of 70,000/., 
but he subsequently altered his plan through 
a disagreement with Sir James Langham, 
and diverted the new street so as to make 
a sharp turn into Portland Place. At this 
turn Nash built All Souls' Church, to ter- 
minate the view up the new street, which 
was christened Regent Street. This church, 
with its pointed spire and round colonnade, 
which was advanced unduly forward towards 
the street^ was the butt of many caricaturists 
of the period. For the buildings Nash adopted 
his former principle of severafsingle facades; 
these gave a continuous architectural effect, 
but owing to the great length of the street 
became featureless and monotonous. Among 
the important features of Nash's design was 
the Quadrant, extending from Glasshouse 
Street to Piccadilly, consisting of two rows 
of shops with projecting colonnades. The 
colonnades, however, in themselves a very 

VOL. XL. 



striking piece of architecture, were removed 
in 1848 at the request of the shopkeepers, and 
for other public reasons. Among the build- 
ings erected by Nash in this street were the 
Argyll Rooms (burnt down in 1834), and a 
spacious residence, situated halfway between 
Piccadilly Circus and Waterloo Place, on the 
east side, which he built for himself; he re- 
moved to it from his former house at 29 Dover 
Street, Piccadilly, and resided there until he 
retired from the profession. To this house 
he added a picture gallery, decorated with 
copies of paintings by Raphael, to make 
which he obtained the special permission of 
the pope, and employed artists ior four years 
at Rome. The house subsequently passed 
through various hands, was known at one 
time as ' The Gallery of Illustration/ and 
was the temporary home of the Constitu- 
tional and Junior Constitutional Clubs. 
Nash also altered and enlarged the opera- 
house in the Haymarket (pulled down in 
1893}, and addedthe arcade and colonnade. 
He designed the Haymarket Theatre; the 
Gallery of British Artists, Suffolk Street 
(with James Elmes [q. v.l) ; the Church of 
St. Mary, Haggerston ; the United Service 
Club, Pall Mall ; the east wing of Carlton 
House Terrace ; and he completed the laying 
out of St. James's Park. Nash was employed 
by the prince regent to repair and enlarge 
Buckingham House ; contrary to the inten- 
tion of parliament in voting the money, this 
resulted in its complete reconstruction as 
Buckingham Palace (again altered by Ed- 
ward filore [q.v.] after the accession of 
Queen Victoria). One of the features of 
Nash's design was a large entrance archway, 
modelled on the arch of Constantino at Rome ; 
but this was removed to Cumberland Gate, 
Hyde Park, in 1850-1 , and is generally known 
as the Marble Arch. Nash also designed the 
entrance to the Royal Mews in Buckingham 
Palace Road. He was further employed 
by the prince regent in making extensive 
alterations and additions to the Pavilion at 
Brighton. About 1831 Nash retired from 
business, and went to reside at East Cowes 
Castle, Isle of Wight, which he had erected 
in earlier days for himself. He died there 
on 13 May 1836, in his eighty-third year. 

Few architects have Deen given such 
opportunities of distinction as Nash, but it 
cannot be said that he proved himself quite 
worthy of them. Regent Street ranks among 
the great thoroughfares of the world, but its 
architecture is its least satisfactory feature. 
Never original in his ideas, Nash seemed de- 
void of any sense of grandeur or freedom in 
his fctyle. No one of the buildings designed 
by him qualifies him to rank as a great archi- 

H 



Nash 



9 8 



Nash 



tect ; and where an effect of solidity and mas- 
sive repose is produced, it is marred by his 
persistent use of stucco in the same monoto- 
nous tint. This gave rise to the well-known 
epigram (Quarterly Review, June 1826): 

Augustus at Rome was for building renown'd, 
For of marble he left what of brick he had found ; 
But is not our Nash, too, a very great master? 
He finds us all brick and he leaves us all plaster. 

Nash made great use of cast-iron in his 
buildings, and took out several patents for 
this purpose. He had many pupils and assist- 
ants, among them being Augustus Pugin 
[q. v.], who was led very much by Nash's 
advice and encouragement to the study of 
Gothic architecture. Nash was in every way 
a liberal encourager of art and artists, and 
in private life was highly esteemed; but the 
excessive patronage lavished on Nash by 
George IV brought him many enemies, espe- 
cially after the king's death. His books, 
prints, and drawings, including a large num- 
ber of his original architectural designs, were 
sold by auction at Evans's, Pall Mall, on 
16 July 1835, and following days. A portrait 
of Nash by Sir Thomas Lawrence is at Jesus 
College, Oxford, placed there at his own re- 
quest, instead of pecuniary recompense for 
work done on behalf of the college ; and a 
bust of him is in the Royal Institute of 
British Architects. He frequently exhibited 
his designs at the Royal Academy. 

[Papworth's Diet, of Architecture (where an 
extensive list of authorities is given); Gent. 
Mag. 1835, ii. 437; Redgrave's Diet, of Artists.] 

L. C. 

NASH, JOSEPH (1809-1878), water- 
colour painter and lithographer, son of the 
Rev. Okey Nash, who kept the Manor House 
School at Croydon, was born at Great Mar- 
low, Buckinghamshire, on 17 Dec. 1809. He 
was educated by his father, and at the age of 
twenty-one commenced the study of archi- 
tecture under the elder Pugin [see Pugin, 
Augustus, 1762-1832], whom he accompa- 
nied to France, and for whose work, ' Paris 
and its Environs/ 1830, he made some of 
the drawings. In the early stage of his 
career Nash was much occupied on figure 
subjects illustrating the poets and novelists, 
and exhibited many drawings of that class 
with the Society of Painters in Water- 
Colours, of which he was elected an as- 
sociate in 1834 ; of these some were engraved 
for the ' Keepsake/ and similar publications. 
But he earned celebrity by his picturesque 
views of late Gothic buildings, English and 
foreign, which he enlivened with figures 
grouped to illustrate the habits of their 



owners in bygone days, somewhat in the 
manner of Cattermole. Having at an early 
period mastered the art of lithography, Nash 
utilised it in the production of several excel- 
lent publications ; his * Architecture of the 
Middle Ages' appeared in 1838, and between 
1839 and 1849 his great work, in four series, 
' Mansions of England in the Olden Time/ 
which was highly successful, and has main- 
tained its reputation. In 1846 he lithographed 
Wilkie's ' Oriental Sketches/ and in 1848 a 
set of views of Windsor Castle from his own 
drawings. Other works to which Nash con- 
tributed were Lawson's ' Scotland Delineated/ 
1847-64, 'Comprehensive Pictures of the 
Great Exhibition of 1851/ McDermot's 'The 
Merrie Days of England/ 1858-9, and ' Eng- 
lish Ballads/ 1864. He became a full member 
of the Water-Colour Society in 1842, and 
was a constant exhibitor up to 1875, sending 
many of the original drawings for the above 

Eublications, with occasionally subjects from 
hakespeare, &c. In his views of* buildings 
Nash aimed chiefly at picturesque effect, pay- 
ing little attention to structural detail ; he 
followed James Duffield Harding \q. v.] in 
his free use of body colour, and his lithographs 
are executed in the tinted style made popular 
by that artist. He died at Hereford Road, 
Bayswater, London, 19 Dec. 1878, having a 
few months before been granted a civil-list 
pension of 100/. His only son, Joseph, is 
a painter of marine subjects, and has been a 
member of the Royal Institute of Painters in 
Water-Colours since 1886. The South Ken- 
sington Museum possesses some examples of 
Nash's art. 

[Roget's Hist, of the Old Water-Colour Society, 
1891, ii. 240 ; Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Uni- 
versal Cat. of Books on Art ; Great Marlow parish 
register.] F. M. O'D. 

NASH, MICHAEL ( fl. 1796), protes- 
testant conversialist, may have been the son 
of Richard Nash, who married Sarah Joyce 
on 26 Aug. 1723 at St. James's, Clerkenwell, 
London (Harl. 80c, Reg, xiii. 248), though a 
passage in one of his controversial pamphlets 
( The Windmill Overturned, p. 43) reads like 
a confession of illegitimate birth. Nash is 
conjecturally credited with the authorship 
of 'Stenography, or the most easy and concise 
Method of writing Shorthand, on an entire 
new Plan, adapted to every Capacity, and to 
the use of Schools,' Norwich, 1783. In 1 784 
one 'Michael Nash of Homerton, Middle- 
sex, gentleman,' was granted a patent speci- 
fication for making blacking, No. 1421. 

Although often described as a methodist 
minister, Nash was a member of the church of 
England. In December 1791 he was ap- 



Nash 



99 



Nash 



pointed a collector of subscriptions or can- 
vasser for the Societas Evangelica, a society 
for the maintenance of itinerant preachers ; 
but he soon embroiled himself with the com- 
mittee by publishing an attack on the well- 
known Dr. William Romaine [q. v.] It was 
entitled * Gideon's Cake of Barley Meal, a 
letter to the Rev. William Romaine on his 
Preaching for the Emigrant Popish Clergy, 
with some Strictures on Mrs. Hannah More's 
Remarks, published for their Benefit, 1793/ 
London, 1798. A second edition of the same 
year contains 'another letter sent to Mr. 
Romaine prior to this, and sundry notes 
and remarks, wherein all the objections and 
replies of opponents that have come to the 
author s knowledge, are fully answered.' ' The 
Barley Cake defended from the Foxes . . . 
addressed to the editors of the " Evangelical 
Magazine," ' appeared a few months later. 
It seems that Nash was also secretary of 
the Society for the Promotion of the French 
Protestant Bible, and in that capacity called 
on Romaine in November 1792, and foiled to 
induce him to preach on behalf of the society. 
But he found shortly after that Romaine 
had preached in his own church, and made 
a collection on behalf of the French catholic 
refugees. 

The committee of the Societas Evangelica, 
disapproving of Nash's attacks, dismissed 
him on 17 Jan. 1794. Subsequently one of 
the committee, a Mr. Parker, * of the Mews/ 
denounced Nash in ' A Charitable Morsel 
of Unleavened Bread for the Author of 
. . . Gideon's Cake of Barley Meal,' 1793, 
and Nash retaliated in 'An Answer . . . 

Proving that Pamphlet to be a Beast with 
even Heads, and Thirty Horns or False- 
hoods,' London, 1798, and in ' The Windmill 
Overturned by the Barley Cake . . . with a 
Faithful Narrative of the Dark Transactions 
of a Religious Society called Societas Evan- 
gelica,' London, 1794. On page 19 Nash claims 
to be extremely loyal, and to have sent 
through Lord Salisbury to the king expres- 
sions of loyalty in a manuscript which he 
himself valued at fifty guineas, and which 
was graciously received. Nash's strong pro- 
testant sympathies are revealed in his latest 
extant tract, 'The Ignis Fatuus or Will o' the 
Wisp at Providence Chapel Detected and 
Exposed, with a Seasonable Caution to his 
infatuated Admirers to avoid the Bogs of 
his Ambiguous Watch Word and Lying 
Warning,' London, 1798, an attack on Wil- 
liam Huntington [q. v.] Other tracts by 
Nash of the same land are extant. 

[Cadogan's Life of William Romaine in Works, 
vol. vii.; Nash's Tracts ut supra; Evangelical 
Magazine, 1793, i. 85, contains a short review 



of Gideon's Cake of Barley Meal ; Reuss's Alpha- 
betical Register; Watt's Bibl. Brit.; West by- 
Gibson's Bibl. of Shorthand.] W. A. S. 

NASH, RICHARD, Beau Nash (1674- 
1762), born at Swansea on 18 Oct. 1674, was 
the son of Richard Nash, a native of Pem- 
broke, who, as partner in a glass-house at 
Swansea, had earned the means of giving his 
son an excellent education. It was commonly 
stated, by Dr. Cheyne among others, that 
Nash had no father, and the Duchess of Marl- 
borough once twitted him with the obscurity 
of his birth ; but Nash rejoined with charac- 
teristic felicity, ' Madam, I seldom mention 
my father in company, not because I have any 
reason to be ashamed of him, but because he 
has some reason to be ashamed of me.' The 
' Beau's ' mother was niece to Colonel John 
Poyer [q. v.] 

After some years spent at Carmarthen 
grammar school Nash matriculated from 
Jesus College, Oxford, on 19 March 1691-2; 
but he left the university without a degree. 
His father next purchased him a pair of 
colours in the army, and Nash dressed the 
part, says Goldsmith, ' to the very edge of 
his finances;' but he soon found that 'the 

Srofession of arms required attendance and 
uty, and often encroached upon those hours 
he could have wished to dedicate to softer 
purposes.' He accordingly reverted to the 
law, for which profession he had originally 
been intended, and entered as a student of 
the Inner Temple in 1693. There he dis- 
tinguished himself by his good manners, by 
his taste in dress, and by leading so gay a 
life without visible means of support that 
his most intimate friends suspected him of 
being a highwayman. He was selected by the 
students of the Middle Temple to superin- 
tend the pageant which they exhibited before 
"William III in 1695, and displayed so much 
skill in the matter that William offered to 
knight him. Nash, however, evaded the 
honour by the remark, ' If your majesty is 
pleased to make me a knight, I wish it may 
be one of your poor knights at ^Windsor, for 
then I shall have a fortune at least able to 
support my title/ He is said to have been 
offered a knighthood subsequently by Queen 
Anne, but refused to receive the distinction, 
simultaneously with Sir William Read [q. v.], 
the empirical oculist. Between 1695 and 1705 
he must have been reduced to strange ex- 
pedients in quest of a livelihood. A favourite 
resource was the acceptance of extravagant 
wagers, such as that he would ride through 
a village on cowback naked. On one occa- 
sion he won fifty guineas by standing at the 
great door of York Minster as the congrega- 
tion came out, clad only in a blanket. To 

h2 



Nash 



100 



Nash 



the gaming tables he was soon indebted 
for a handsome addition to his income, and 
his addiction to gambling drew him to bath 
in 1706. 

Bath had been rendered fashionable as 
a health resort by Queen Anne's visit in 
1703. But the wealthy and leisured people 
who visited the springs found no arrange- 
ments made for their comfort or amusement. 
Dancing was conducted on the bowling- 
green; there was no assembly, and no code 
of etiquette, nor of dress ; men smoked in 
the presence of the ladies who met for tea and 
cards in a canvas booth ; gentlemen appeared 
at the dance in top-boots, and ladies in white 
aprons; the lodgings, for which exorbitant 
prices were charged, were mean and dirty ; 
the sedan chairmen were rude and uncon- 
trolled ; there was no machinery for introduc- 
tions ; the gentlemen habitually wore swords, 
and duels were frequent. In 1704 Captain 
Webster, a gamester, had endeavoured to im- 
prove matters by establishing a series of sub- 
scription balls at the town-hall ; but Webster 
was killed in a duel shortly after Nash's ar- 
rival. Nash soon resolved to correct the pro- 
vincial tone of the place, and, as an agreeable 
and ingenious person of organising capacity, 
he obtained a paramount influence among the 
visitors. He readily obtained the goodwill 
of the corporation, and engaged a good band 
of music ; ne then set on foot a subscription 
of a guinea, subsequently raised to two 
guineas, per annum, provided an assembly 
house, drew up a code of rules, and caused 
them to be posted in the pump-room, which 
was henceforth put under tne care of an 
officer called ' the pumper.' The company 
consequently increased ; new houses of a more 
ambitious type began to be built, and in 1706 
Nash raised 18,000/. by subscription for re- 
pairing the roads in the neighbourhood of the 
city. He also conducted a successful crusade 
against the practice of habitually wearing 
swords, against duelling, against informali- 
ties of dress, promiscuous smoking, the bar- 
barities of the chairmen, and the exorbitant 
charges of the lodging-house keepers. His 
command of the band gave him the control 
of the hours for the balls and assemblies, and 
his judicious regulations were despotically en- 
forced. Royalty in the person of the Princess 
Amelia was compelled to submit to his au- 
thority, and deviations from his code by per- 
sons oi inferior rank were severely dealt with. 
It is related how on one occasion the Duchess 
of Queensbery came one night to the as- 
sembly in a white apron. Nash, on perceiv- 
ing this infringement of his rules, promptly 
approached her grace, and, with every ges- 
ture of profound respect, untied her apron, 



and threw it among the ladies' women on the 
back benches, observing that such a garment 
was proper only for Abigails. By such dis- 
plays Nash arrived at the position of un- 
questioned autocrat of Batn and 'arbiter 
elegantiarum.' He became formally known 
as master of the ceremonies, and informally 
as king of Bath. The corporation hung his 
portrait, by Hoare, in the pump-room, be- 
tween the busts of Newton and Pope, a pro- 
ceeding which occasioned Chesterfield's epi- 
gram : 

This picture plac'd the busts between, 

Gives satyr all his strength ; 
Wisdom and wit are little seen, 

But folly at full length. 

(The various reasons given for disputing 
Chesterfield's authorship in 1741 are quite 
inconclusive. See Notes and Queries, 5th ser. 
xi. 357). 

Nash now had his levee, his flatterers, his 
buffoons, and even his dedicators. His vanity 
was proportionately large ; he habitually tra- 
velled in a post chariot, drawn by six greys, 
with outriders, footmen, and French horns ; 
his dress was covered with the most expen- 
sive embroidery and lace ; he always wore an 
immense cream-coloured beaver hat, and as- 
signed as a reason for this singularity that 
he did so to secure it from being stolen. In 
1737 his reputation suffered considerably by 
his failure to recover the commission due to 
him on winnings at the gaming tables from 
Walter Wiltshire, lessee of the Assembly 
Rooms, the court deciding that the compact 
was immoral. In 1738, however, Nash took 
a leading part in the welcome given by the 
city to Frederick, prince of Wales, in me- 
mory of whose visit he erected an obelisk, 
for which, after some correspondence, he in- 
duced Pope, who had described him as an im- 
pudent fellow, to write the inscription. 

In addition to being a sleeping partner 
in Wiltshire's, and very possibly in other 
gambling-houses in the city, Nash was him- 
self a regular frequenter of the gaming tables, 
at which he made large sums, until by the act 
of 1740 severe penalties were enacted against 
all games of chance. He managed to evade 
the law for a time by the invention of new 
games, among which one called E became 
the favourite ; but in 1745 a more stringent 
law was passed. His income now became 
very precarious, and as a new generation 
sprang up, to which Nash was a stranger, his 
splendour gradually faded. Embittered by 
neglect, he lost the remainder of his popu- 
larity, and about 1758 the corporation voted 
him an allowance of 10/. a month. He long 
occupied a house in St. John's Court, known 



Nash 



IOI 



Nash 



as the Garrick's Head, and subsequently 
rented by Mrs. Delaney, but moved to a 
smaller house near to it in Gaecoyne Place, 
before his death, at the age of eignty-seven, 
on 8 Feb. 1762. The corporation having voted 
60/. towards his funeral, he was buried with 
great pomp on 8 Feb. in Bath Abbey, where a 
monumental tablet bears an epitaph written 
by Dr. Henry Harington [q. v.] A long epi- 
taph was also composed by Nash's old friend, 
Dr. William Oliver, and an elaborate * Epi- 
taphium Ricardi Nash ' by Dr. William King, 
principal of St. Mary Hall, Oxford (all three 
are printed in Richard Warner's * Modern 
History of Bath/ 1801, pp. 370-2). 

' Nature/ says Goldsmith, * had by no 
means favoured Mr. Nash for a beau garcon ; 
his person was clumsy, too large and awk- 
ward, and his features harsh, strong, and 
peculiarly irregular; yet, even with these 
disadvantages he made love, became a uni- 
versal admirer, and was universally admired. 
He was possessed at least of some requisites 
as a lover. He had assiduity, flattery, fine 
cl oaths, and as much wit as the ladies he 
addressed.' His successes with the fair sex ex- 
tended to Miss Fanny Murray, whose charms 
were supposed to have inspired Wilkes's 
famous * Essay on Woman ' (see Notes and 
Queries, 4th ser. iv. 1). 

Nash's foibles were compensated by many 
sterling qualities. According to Goldsmith, 
his virtues sprang from an honest, benevolent 
mind, and his vices from too much good 
nature. With Ralph Allen and Dr. Oliver, 
he was mainly instrumental in establishing 
the mineral-water hospital at Bath. He is 
praised for the great care he took of young 
ladies, whom he attended at the balls at the 
assemblv-room, and warned against adven- 
turers like himself. He was free alike from 
meanness and brutality, and the stories 
of his generosity at the gamins; table are 
numerous. The humorous author of the 
anonymous life of Quin, published in 1766, 
describes Nash as in everything original: 
'There was a whimsical refinement in his 
person, dress, and behaviour, which was 
habitual to and sat so easily upon him that 
no stranger who came to Bath ever expressed 
any surprise at his uncommon manner and 
appearance.' Many of his sayings have found 
their way into familiar collections. His flow 
of conversation was irresistible, and examples 
of his monologue en gasconade have been pre- 
served in the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' and 
elsewhere. He was notorious as a scoffer at 
religion, but on one occasion he was effec- 
tually silenced by John Wesley (Wbslbt, 
Journal, 6 June 1739). 

Nash's portrait, by Hoare, engraved by A. 



Walton, is prefixed to Goldsmith's 'Life.' 
Another portrait, painted by T. Hudson in 
1740, has been engraved by Greatbatch and 
by J. Faber. 

[Goldsmith'sadmirably written Life of Richard 
Nash, bought by Newbery for 14/., and published 
in 1762, was added by Dr. Johnson to his select 
library, and remains a classic; but the amount of 
information contained in it is, like Nash's own 
gold, • spread out as thinly and as far as it would 
go.' G oldsmith speaks, however, as if he had been 
personally acquainted with the • Bean.' An excel- 
lent memoir appeared in the Gentleman's Maga- 
zine for 1762. See also Anstey's New Bath Guide 
for 1762; Newbery's Biog. Mag. 1776, pp. 499, 
500; Hist. MSS. Comm. 11th Rep. App. v. 327 
(a letter from Lord Orrery giving an account of 
Bath in 1731); Wright's Historic Bath ; Peach's 
Historic Houses in Bath, pp. 44-6 ; Doran's Me- 
mories of our Great Towns, 1878, pp. 83-9; 
"Williams's Eminent Welshmen, pp. 865-6 ; Lon- 
don Mag. xxxi. 515-17; Univ. Mag. xxxi. 265; 
Blackwood's Mag. xlviii. 773; Grace Wharton's 
Wits and Beaux of Society ; Lecky's Hist, of 
England, ii. 54 ; Richard Warner's Literary Re- 
collections, vol. ii. passim ; Chambers's Book of 
Days, i. 217-18; Letters of Henrietta, Countess 
of Suffolk, ed. Croker, ii. 114 sq.; Elwin and 
Courthope's Pope. Nash's history has also been 
treated with discernment in two modern novels, 
Mrs. Hibbert Ware's King of Bath and Mary 
Deane's Mr. Zinzan of Bath.] T. S. 

NASH or NASHE, THOMAS (1567- 
1601), author, son of William Nash, ' mi- 
nister/ and Margaret, his second wife, was 
baptised at Lowestoft in November 1667. 
According to Nash's own account the family 
was of Herefordshire origin, andHtoasted 
* longer pedigrees than patrimonies' (Lenten 
Stuff e). His father, who is called in the 
Lowestoft parish register ' preacher' as well 
as 'minister,' seems to have been curate 
there, and never obtained preferment. Tho- 
mas describes him asputting ' good meat in 
poor men's mouths ' ( Have with you to Saffron 
Walden, ed. Grosart, iii. 189). Two older 
sons, Nathaniel (1563-1566) and Israel (b. 
1566), were born at Lowestoft, as well as 
four daughters, Mary (b. 1662), Rebecca (b. 
1573), and two named Martha, who both died 
in infancy. The nomenclature of the chil- 
dren suggests that the parents inclined to 
puritanism. The father survived his , son 
Thomas, and was buried in Lowestoft Church 
on 25 Aug. 1603. 

In October 1582 Nash matriculated as a 
sizar at St. John's College, Cambridge, having 
possibly resided there a year or two before. 
In his youth he described his college (in 
Roger Ascham's phrase) as at one time ' an 
university within itself' (Epistle to Mena- 
phon) ; and in his latest work he declared 



Nash 



I02 



Nash 



that he ' loved it still, for it ever was and 
is the sweetest nurse of knowledge in all 
that university ' (Lenten Stuffe, v. 241). 
Some Latin verses on Eccleaiastes (xli. 1), 
by himself and fellow-scholars belonging to 
the Lady Margaret Foundation, are preserved 
at the Record Office (Cal. State Papers , Dom. 
Addenda, 1680-1 625, p. 166). He graduated 
B. A. in 1685-6, and remained at Cambridge, 
he states, for ' seven yere together, lacking a 
quarter.' ' It is well known/ he wrote, * I 
might have been a fellow if I had would ' {Have 
with you to Saffron Walden, iii. 189). His 
malignant foe, Gabriel Harvev, represents his 
academic career as briefer and less creditable. 
He is charged by Harvey with habitually 
insulting the townsmen, ' insomuch that to 
this day [they] call every untoward scholar of 
whom there is great hope " a verie Nashe." ' 
After graduating (Harvey proceeds) he ' had 
a hand in a show called " Terminus et non 
Terminus," for which ' his partner in it was 
expelled the college/ Nasn ' plaved in it ' 
(Harvey conjectured) ' the varlet of clubs. . . . 
Then, suspecting that he should be staied for 
egregie dunsus, and not attain the next degree, 
said he had commenced enough, and so forsook 
Cambridge, being bachelor of the third year* 
( Harvey, Trimming of Thomas Nashe). In 
Clerke's 'Polimanteia'(1591 ) the university 
of Cambridge is reproached with having been 
'unkind* to Nash in 'weaning him before his 
time.' The words may merely mean that he 
left before proceeding to the degree of M.A. 
That he contrived to make a hasty tour 
through France and Italy before seriously 
seeking a profession in his own country is 
to be inferred from a few passages in the 
works assigned to him (cf. The Unfortunate 
Traveller, v. 65 sq.) 

By 1588 Nash had settled in London. A 
fair classical scholar, and an appreciative 
reader of much foreign and English literature, 
he resolved to seek a livelihood by his pen. 
Robert Greene, Lodge, Daniel, and Marlowe, 
whose acquaintance he early made, were at- 
tracted by his sarcastic temper and his over- 
mastering scorn of pretentious ignorance and 
insincerity. But with these stern character- 
istics he combined some generous traits. Sir 
George Carey [q. v.], heir of the first Lord 
Hunsdon, recognised his promise, and to Sir 
George's wife and daughter respectively he 
dedicated in grateful language his ' Chnstes 
Teares ' and his ' Terrors of the Night.' He 
seems to have resided for a time at Carey's 
house at Beddington, near Croydon. In 1592 
he wrote that ' tear of infection detained me 
with my lord in the country ' (Pierce Penni- 
lesse, 2nd ed. Epistle). Nash also made deter- 
mined efforts to gain the patronage of the 



Earl of Southampton. He once tasted (he 
wrote) ' in his forsaken extremities ' the 
' full spring ' of the earl's liberality, and paid 
him a visit in the Isle of Wight, of which 
the earl was governor and Sir George Carey 
captain-general ( Terrors of the Night, 1594). 
To Southampton Nash dedicated his ' Unfor- 
tunate Traveller,' his most ambitious produc- 
tion. Nash essayed, too, to attract the favour 
of the Earl of Derby, but he did not retain 
the favour of any patron long. Till his death 
he suffered the keenest pangs of poverty, and 
was (he confesses) often so reduced as to pen 
unedifvins' ' toyes for gentlemen,' by which 
he probably meant licentious songs. , 

His first publication was an epistle ad- 
dressed i to the Gentlemen Students of both 
Universities,' prefixed to Greene's romance 
of ' Menaphon.' Although written earlier, 
it was not published till 1589. It is an acrid 
review of recent efforts in English literature, 
and makes stinging attacks on poetasters like 
Stanihurst, the translator of Virgil, and on 
some unnamed writers of bombastic tragedies 
in blank verse. Kyd seems to have been the 
dramatist at whom Nash chiefly aimed. His 
appreciative references to Marlowe elsewhere 
render it improbable that his censure was in- 
tended for that poet. Nash always appre- 
ciated true poetry, and his denunciation of 
those whom ne viewed as impostors is in this 
earliest work balanced by sympathetic refer- 
ences to ' divine Master Spencer,' to Peele, 
to William Warner, and a few others. 

At the close of the essay Nash announced 
that he was engaged upon his * Anatomie of 
Absurdities,' which was to disclose his ' skill 
in surgery,' and to further inquire into the 
current * diseases of Art.' It was entered on 
the * Stationers' Registers' 17 Sept. 1588, but 
appeared only late in 1589, with a flattering 
dedication to Sir Charles Blount (afterwards 
Earl of Devonshire) [q. v.] The title, which 
was doubtless modelled on Greene's ' Ana- 
tomie of Flatterie ' or the ' Anatomie of 
Fortune ' (the second title of his ' Arbasto'), 
ran: 'The Anatomie of Absurditie, con- - 
tayning a breefe Confutation of the slender 
imputed Pravses to Feminine Perfection, 
with a short Description of the severall Prac- 
tises of Youth and sundry Follies of our licen- 
tious Times/ London, 1589. The book, which 
the author describes as ' the embrion of my 
infancy ' and the outcome of a disappointment 
in love, consists of moral reflections of a 
euphuistic type, and a further supply of sar- 
castic reflections on contemporary writers, 
some of whom it is difficult to identify. One 
reference to ' the Homer of Women' appears 
to be an unfriendly criticism of Nash^ ally, 
Robert Greene; and a contemptuous comment 



NasK 



"3 



Nash 



on those who ' anatomize abuses and stub up 
sinne by the roots ' is an attack on Philip 
Stubbes, the puritan author of the ' Anatomie 
of Abuses' (1683). 

At the time puritan pamphleteers under 
the pseudonym of Martin Mar-Prelate were 
waging a desperately coarse and libellous 
war upon the bishops and episcopal church- 
government. Nash's hatred of puritanism 
was ingrained. His powers of sarcasm ren- 
dered him an effective controversialist. The 
fray consequently attracted him, and he en- 
tered it with spirit. The publisher John 
Danter doubtless encouraged him to engage 
in the strife, and Gabriel Harvey afterwards 
sneered at Nash as * Danter's gentleman.' All 
the actors in this controversial drama wrote 
anonymously, and it is not easy to describe 
with certainty the part any one man played 
in it. Internal evidence shows that Nash's 
customary nom de guerre was Pasquil. This 
pseudonym he probably borrowed from the 
satiric 'Pasquil the Playne' (1640) of Sir 
Thomas Elyot [q. v.], a writer whom he fre- 
quently mentioned with respect. The earliest 
of the tracts claiming to proceed from Pas- 
quil's pen seems to have been circulated in 
August 1689 ; it was entitled * A Counter- 
cufte given to Martin Junior, by the ven- 
turous, hardie, and renowned Pasquill of 
England Cauiliero. Not of olde Martin's 
making, which newlie knighted the Saints in 
Heauen, with rise uppe fcJir Peter and Sir 
Paule. But latelie dubd for his seruice at 
home in the defence of his Countrey, and for 
the cleane breaking of his staffe vpon Mar- 
tins face. Printed between the skye and the 
grounde, wythin a myle of an Oake, and 
not manie Fields off from the vnnriuiledged 
Presse of the Ass-ignes of Martin Junior,' 
4to, 1589 (cf. Brit. Bibl. ii. 124). Nash re- 
entered the combat in October, with * The 
Returne of the renouned Cavaliero Pasquil, 
of England from the other side of the Seas 
and his meeting with Marforius at London 
upon the Royall Exchange, where they en- 
counter with a little housUold Talke of Mar- 
tin and Martinisme, discovering the Scabbe 
that is bredde in England, and conferring 
together about the speedie Dispersing of the 
Golden Legende of the Lives of the Saints 
. . .' 4to, 1689. The latest contribution to the 
controversy that can safely be assigned to 
Nash was * The First Parte of Pasquiis Apo- 
logie. Wherein he renders a reason to his 
Friendes of his long Silence, and gallops the 
fielde with the treatise of Reformation, late 
written by a fugitive, John Penrie, Anno 
Domini, 1590/ 4to. 

Frequent references are made by Pasquil 
and other writers to Pasquil's resolve to ex- 



pose exhaustively the theories and practices 
of the puritans in a volume to be entitled 
* The Lives of the Saints ' or the new ' Golden 
Legend.' He also promised in the same in- 
terest an ' Owls' Almanack ' and * The May- 
game of Martinisme,' but the battle seems to 
have ceased before these pieces of artillery 
were constructed. That Nash was respon- 
sible for other published attacks on Martin 
Mar-Prelate is, however, very possible. A 
marginal note in the ' Stationers' Registers' 
tentatively assigns to Nash ' A Mirror for 
Martinists ' (22 Dec. 1689). This was * pub- 
lished by T. T.,' doubtfully interpreted as 
Thomas Thorpe, and * printed by Iohn Wolfe, 
1590 ' (Lambeth and Britwell). Two other 
clever pamphlets which did notable havoc on 
the enemy nave been repeatedly assigned to 
Nash, with some plausibility. " The first is 
' Martins months minde that is, a certaine 
Report and true Description of Death and 
Funeralls of olde Martin Marre-prelate, the 
great Makebate of England and Father of the 
Factious, contayning the cause of his death, 
the manner of his buriall, and the right copies 
both of his will and such epitaphs as by sundrie 
his dearest friends and other liis well wishers 
were framed for him . . .' August 1689, 4to. 
But the fact that the dedication is addressed 
by a pseudonymous Marphoreus to 'Pasquin/ 
i.e. Pasquil, renders it probable that it is by 
an intimate associate of Nash, but not by 
himself (cf. Brit Bibl ii. 124, 127). To the 
same pen should probably be allotted one 
of the latest of the Martin Mar-Prelate lucu- 
brations: 'An Almond for a Parrat, or 
Cuthbert Curry-knaues Almes ' (1690). This 
is dedicated to William Kemp [q. v.] the 
actor, and the writer claims to have travelled 
in Italy. John Lyly [q. v.] was closely as- 
sociated with Nash during the controversy, 
but it is unlikely that he was responsible 
for these two sparkling libels. To Lyly, 
however, should De ascribed the * Pappe with 
a Hatchet,' which often figures in lists of 
Nash's works. 

In the opinion of the next generation, 
Nash's unbridled pen chiefly led to the dis- 
comfiture of the * Martinists.' Many pam- 
phleteers claiming to be his disciples at- 
tempted to employ his weapons against the 
sectaries of Charles I's reign. In 1640 John 
Taylor the water-poet issued ' Differing Wor- 
ships ... or Tom Nash his ghost (the old 
Martin queller) newly rous'd and is come to 
chide . . . nonconformists, schismatiques, 
separatists, and scandalous libellers.' In 
1042 another disciple published * Tom Nash 
his Ghost to the three scurvy Fellowes of the 
upstart family of the Snuftiers, Rufliers, and 
Shufflers ... a little revived since the 80 



Nash 



104 



Nash 



yeare of the late Queen Elizabeth when 
Martin Marprelate was as mad as any of his 
Tubmen are now/ Nash's ghost in a verse- 
preface claims to have 'made the nest of 
Martins take their flight.' On 17 Feb. 1644 
there appeared a third work of like calibre, 
* Crop-eare curried, or Tom Nash his Ghost : 
declaring the pruining of Prinnes two last 
Parricidicall Pamphlets,' by John Taylor. 
Nash's 'merry wit/ wrote Izaak Walton, 
' made some sport and such a discovery of 
[the Martini8t8'] absurdities as — which is 
strange — he put a greater stop to these 
malicious pamphlets than a much wiser man 
had been able (Life of Hooker, ed. Bullen, 
p. 208). 

When the controversy subsided, Nash 
sought employment in more peaceful paths, 
and apparently tried his hand at poetry. 
The publisher Thomas Newman employed 
him in 1591 to edit an unauthorised edition 
of Sidney's ' Astrophel and Stella/ But it 
was quickly withdrawn, and in Newman's 
revised edition of the same year Nash's con- 
tributions were suppressed (cf. Abber, Gar- 
ner, i. 467 seq.) In a prefatory address, en- 
titled 'Somewhat to reade for them that 
list,' Nash had bestowed profuse and appa- 
rently sincere commendations on Sidney and 
his sister, the Countess of Pembroke, and 
only showed his satiric vein when mockingly 
apologising- for his ' witless youth ' and ' the 
dulness of his style/ More serious offence was 
probably given by Nash's, or the publisher's, 
boldness in appending to Sidney's poems 
verses by Daniel and ' sundry other noblemen 
and gentlemen/ without apparently asking 
the consent of the authors. An anonymous 
poem of two stanzas, which in the unautho- 
rised edition concludes the collection ('If 
floods of tears could cleanse my follies past '}, 
has been reasonably assigned to Nash himself 
(Pierce Pennilesse, ed. Collier, xxi.) These 
stanzas, transposed in order, were again 
printed with music in Dowland's 'Second 
Booke of Songs/ 1600. A manuscript copy 
of them is found in a printed edition of 
Nicholas Breton's ' Melancholike Humours/ 
1600, among Tanner's books in the Bodleian 
Library, and there an admirable third stanza 
is added (* Praise blindness, eyes, for seeing 
is deceit *). The additional lines, however, 
properly belong to a separate poem, which is 
also set to music in Dowland's ' Second Booke,' 
and possibly came likewise from Nash's pen ' 
(Shakspeare Soc. Paper*, i. 76-9, ii. 62-4). 

As a professional controversialist, Nash 
was not willing to let the Martin Mar-Pre- 
late controversy wholly die without making 
a strenuous effort to revive it. Circumstances 
favoured his ambition. In a lame and im- 



potent way, Richard Harvey [<j. v.], astro- 
loger and divine, had taken part in the latest 
stages of the warfare. He had recommended 
peace, but his contributions were largely cha- 
racterised by savage denunciations of the men 
of letters who had, he argued, irresponsibly 
embittered the strife. In his 'Theological 
Discourse of the Lamb of God ' (1590), and in 
his ' Plaine Percevall/ he especially singled 
out Nash, Greene, and Lyly for attack. Nash 
he openly referred to as ' the Cavaliero Pas- 
quir (cf. Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. iv. 320 
sea.) Nash retaliated by satirising his as- 
sailant's notoriously ineffective efforts in as- 
trology in ' A wonderful, strange, and miracu- 
lous Astrologicall Prognostication for this 
year of our Lord God 1591, by Adam Foule- 
weather, student in Asse-tronomy, , Lon- 
don, by Thomas Scarlet/ Next year Nash's' 
friend Greene carried the dispute a step fur- 
ther in his ' Quip for an Upstart Courtier ' by 
contemptuously describing Richard Harvey 
and his well-known brothers Gabriel and John 
as the sons of a poor ropemaker of Saffron 
Walden. Moreover, in his ' Groatsworth of 
Wit/ which he completed on his deathbed, 
Greene encouraged Nash to carry on the con- 
troversy by apostrophising him as ' young 
Juvenal, that biting satirist/ whose business, 
in life it was to ' inveigh against vain men/ 
In the autumn Nash liberally followed 
this advice by penning his 'Pierce Penni- 
lesse his Supplication to the Divell/ which was 
first entered on the ' Stationers' Registers r 
on 8 Aug. 1592. It was an uncompromising 
exposure of the deceits by which worldly 
prosperity was fostered, and satirised con- 
temporary society with all the bitterness of 
a disappointed aspirant to fortune. Some- 
verse in the opening chapter — containing the* 
lines: 

Divines and dying men may talk of hell, 
But in my heart ber several torments dwell 

— illustrates the depths of Nash's despond- 
ency. The couplet was effectively introauced 
into thepopularplay ' The Yorkshire Tragedy/ 
1606. At the close of Nash's pamphlet is a 
fine sonnet commending Spenser's 'Faerie- 
Queene,' but lamenting the omission of the 
name of a great nobleman (doubtless the Earl 
of Derby) from the list of those whom Spen- 
ser had commemorated in his prefatory son- 
nets. ' Pierce Pennilesse ' was first published 
by Richard Jones with a pretentious title-page- 
of the publisher's composition. The words ran : 
'Pierce Pennilesse his Supplication to the* 
Divell. Describing the overspreading of Vice 
and the suppression of Vertue. Pleasantly 
interlac'd with variable delights and pathe- 
tically intermixt with conceipted reproofes- 



Nash 



i°5 



Nash 



"Written by Thomas Nash, Gentleman, Lon- 
don, by Richard Jhones, 1592.' Of this 
' long-tailed ' verbiage Nash disapproved, and 
he contrived that Abel Jeffes, another sta- 
tioner, should issue at once a second edition 
with the first seven words alone upon the 
title-page, along with the motto ' Barbaria 
grandis habere nihil/ In a ' private epistle,' 
Nash here explained that fear of the plague 
kept him from London while the book was 
going through the press, and that he had no 
intention of attacking any save those who 
attacked him. The work was well received ; 
it was six times reprinted within the year, 
and was ' maimedly translated ' into French. 
In 1696 H. 0. (perhaps Henry Chettle) pub- 
lished a feeble imitation, entitled 'Piers 
Plainnes seaven yeres Prentiship. , About 
1606, after Nash's death, an anonymous 
writer issued an ineffective sequel, ' The Re- 
turne of the Knight of the Post from Hell 
with the Devils Answeare to the Supplica- 
tion of Piers Penniless.' Nash had himself 
contemplated the continuation of his ' Piers ' 
under some such title. Dekker, as the cham- 
pion of Nash's reputation, adversely criti- 
cised this effort in his 'Newes from Hell 
brought by the Divells Carrier ' (1606). 

In one bitter passage of 'Pierce -Penni- 
lesse,' Nash pursued his attack on the Har- 
veys. Immediately afterwards Gabriel Har- 
vey descended into the arena, avowedly to 
avenge Greene's attacks in his ' Quip on 
himself and his brothers. Greene was now 
dead, but Gabriel had no scruple in defam- 
ing his memory in his 'Foure Letters and 
certain Sonnets,' which was licensed for pub- 
lication in December 1692. Nash sprang to 
the rescue, as he asserted, of his friend's repu- 
tation. In his epistle to ' Menaphon ' he had 
written respectfully of Gabriel Harvey as a 
writer of admirable Latin verse, and Gabriel 
Harvey had hitherto spoken courteously of 
Nash. He numbered him in his 'Foure 
Letters ' among ' the dear lovers and professed 
sons of the Muses,' and had excused his on- 
slaughts on Richard Harvey on the ground of 
his youth. But Nash now scorned compli- 
ments, and wholly devoted his next publica- 
tion to a vigorous denunciation of Gabriel. 
He was seeking free play for his gladiatorial 
instincts, and his claim to intervene solely as 
Greene's champion cannot be accepted quite 
literally. In the second edition of his ' Pierce,' 
issued within a month of Greene's death, he 
had himself denounced Greene's ' Groatsworth 
of Wit/his friend's dying utterance, as ' a scald 
trivial lying pamphlet. His new tract was 
entitled ' Strange Newes of the Intercepting 
certaine Letters and a Conuoy of Verses as 
they were going priuilie to victuall the Low 



Countries,' i.e. to be applied to very undignified 
purposes, London, by John Danter, 1693. The- 
work was licensed for the press on 12 Jan. 
1692-3, under a title beginning ' The Apologie 
of Pierce Pennilesse,' and the second edition 
of 1693 was so designated. The dedication 
was addressed to ' William Apis-Lapis,' i.e. 
Bee-stone, whom Nash describes as 'the 
most copious Carminist of our time, and 
famous persecutor of Priscian ' (Christopher 
Beestone, possibly son of William, was a 
well-known actor). Harvey replied to Nash's 
strictures in his venomous ' Pierce's Super- 
erogation.' But a novel experience for Nash 
followed. He grew troubled by religious 
doubts ; his temper took a pacific turn, and 
he was anxious to come to terms with Har- 
vey. On 8 Sept. 1593 he obtained a license* 
for publishing a series of repentant reflec- 
tions on the sins of himself and his London 
neighbours, called 'Christes Teares over 
Jerusalem.' The dedication is addressed to 
Elizabeth, wife of Sir George Carey. There* 
he affected to bid ' a hundred unfortunate 
farewels to fantasticall satirisme, in whose* 
veines heretofore I misspent my spirit and 
prodigally conspired against good houres. 
Nothing is there now so much in my vowes a& 
to be at peace with all men, and make submis- 
sive amends where I have most displeased/ 
Declaring himself tired of the controversy 
with Harvey, he acknowledged in generous) 
terms that he had rashly assailed Harvey's 
1 fame and reputation.' But Harvey was deaf 
to the appeal ; ' the tears of the crocodile/ 
he declared, did not move him. He at once 
renewed the battle in his ' New Letter of 
Notable Contents.' In a second edition of 
his ' Christes Teares ' Nash accordingly with- 
drew his offers of peace, and lashea Harvey 
anew with unbounded fury. Thereupon for 
a season the combatants refrained from hos- 
tilities, and in 1696 Clarke in his ' Poleman- 
teia ' made a pathetic appeal to Cambridge 
University to make her two children friends. 
In the intervals of the strife Nash had 
written a hack-piece, 'The Terrors of the 
Night, or a Discourse of Apparitions,' London, 
by John Danter, 1594, 4to. It was dedicated 
to Elizabeth, daughter of Sir George Carey, 
and he acknowledges obligations to her family r 
but was obviously writing in great pecuniary 
d ifliculties. The dedication is rendered notable 
by its frank praise of Daniel's ' Delia,' The 
work was licensed on 30 June 1693. A new 
literary experiment, and one of lasting in- 
fluence ana interest, followed. In 1594 ap- 
peared Nash's 'Unfortunate Traveller, or 
the Life of Jack Wilton,' which he dedicated 
to the Earl of Southampton. It was entered 
on the 'Stationers' Register,' 7 Sept. 1593. 



Nash 



1 06 



Nash 



It is a romance of reckless adventure, and, 
although it is a work of fiction, a few histo- 
rical personages and episodes are introduced 
without much regard to strict accuracy, but 
greatly to the advantage of the vraisemblance 
of the story. The hero is a page, ' a little 
superior in rank to the ordinary picaro ; ' he 
has served in the English army at Tournay, 
but lives on his wits and prospers by his im- 
pudent devices. He visits Italy in attendance 
on the Earl of Surrey the poet, of whose re- 
lations with the ' fair Geraldine ' Nash tells 
a romantic but untrustworthy story, long ac- 
cepted as authentic by Surrey's biographers. 
After hairbreadth escapes from the punish- 
ment due to his manifold offences, Jack Wil- 
ton marries a rich Venetian lady, and rejoins 
the English army while Francis I and 
Henry VIII are celebrating the Field of the 
Cloth of Gold. Thomas Deloney [q. v.] may 
have suggested such an effort to Nash by 
his pedestrian * Jack of Newbery ' or 'Tho- 
mas of Reading,' but Nash doubtless de- 
signed his romance as a parody of those 
mediaeval story-books of King Arthur and 
Sir Tristram which he had already ridiculed 
in his ' Anatomie of Absurdities Whatever 
Nash's object, the minute details with which 
he describes each episode and character 
anticipate the manner of Defoe. No one of 
Nash's successors before Defoe, at any rate, 
displayed similar powers as a writer of realis- 
tic fiction. The ' Unfortunate Traveller ' was, 
unhappily, Nash's sole excursion into this 
attractive field of literature. 

In 1596 Nash returned to his satiric vein. 
He had learned that Harvey boasted of hav- 
ing silenced him. To prove the emptiness of 
the vaunt, he accordingly issued the most 
scornful of all his tracts : ' Haue with you 
to Saffron- Walden, or Gabriel Harueys Hunt 
is Up, containing a Full Answere to the Eldest 
Sonne of the Hatter-Maker . . . 1596.' The 
work was dedicated, in burlesque fashion, to 
Richard Litchfield, barber of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, and includes a burlesque bio- 
graphy of Ilarvey, which is very comically 
devised. Harvey sought to improve on this 
sally by publishing his * Trimming of Thomas 
Nashe ' late in 1597, while Nash was suffer- 
ing imprisonment in the Fleet. The heated 
conflict now attracted the attention of the 
licensers of the press. The two authors were 
directed to desist from further action ; and 
in 1599 it was ordered by the Archbishop of 
Canterbury and others * ' that all Nashe's 
bookes and Dr. Harvey's bookes be taken, 
whersoever they may be, and that none of 
the same bookes be euer printed hereafter.' 
Nash undoubtedly won much sympathy from 
many spectators of this protracted duel. 



Francis Meres wrote in his * Palladis Tamia ' 
(1698), 'As Eupolis of Athens used great 
liberty in taxing the vices of men : so doth 
Thomas Nash. Witness the brood of the 
Harveys.' Sir John Harington was less 
complimentary in his epigram (bk. ii. 86) : 

The proverb says who fights with dirty foes 
Must needs be soil'd, admit they win or lose; 

Then think it doth a doctor's credit dash 
To make himself antagonist to Nash. 

Thomas Middleton in his ' Ant and the 
Nightingale,' 1604, generously apostrophises 
Nash, who was then dead : 

Thou hadst a strife with that Tergemini ; 
Thou hurt'st them not till they had injured thee. 

Dekker wrote that Nash ' made the doctor 
[Harvey] a flat dunce, and beat him at his 
two sundry tall weapons, poetrie and ora- 
torie ' (Newesfrom Hell, 1606). 

Like all the men of letters of his day, Nash 
meanwhile paid some attention to the stage. 
The great comic actor Tarleton had befriended 
him on his arrival in London, and he has 
been credited with compiling ' Tarltons 
Newes out of Purgatorie,' 1590. Alleyn he 
had eulogised in his 'Piers Penniless.' In 
1593 he prepared a ' Pleasant Comedie, called 
Summers Last Will and Testament.' It was 
privately acted about Michaelmas at Bedding- 
ton, near Croydon, at the house of Sir George 
Carey. It was not published till 1600. The 
piece is a nondescript masque, in which "Will 
Summers, Henry VIII's jester, figures as a 
loquacious and bitter-tongued chorus (in 
prose), while the Four Seasons, the god Bac- 
chus, Orion, Harvest, Solstitium, ana similar 
abstractions soliloquise in competent blank- 
verse on their place in human economy. A 
few songs, breathing the genuine Elizabethan 
fire, are introduced ; that entitled * Spring ' 
has been set to music by Mr. Henschel. For 
Marlowe's achievements in poetry and the 
drama Nash, too, had undisguised regard, and 
in 1594 he completed and saw through the 
press Marlowe's unfinished ' Tragedie of Dido ' 
[see Mablowe, Chbistophek] (cf. Lenten 
Stufie, v. 262). Nash's contribution to the 
work is bald, and lacks true dramatic quality. 
But Nash was not discouraged, and in 1597 
attempted to convert to dramatic uses his ' fan- 
tastical' powers of satire. Henslowe agreed 
to accept a comedy for the lord admiral's com- 
pany to be called * The Isle of Do^s.' At the 
time Nash was in exceptional distress, and 
had to apply to Henslowe for payments on 
account. ' Lent the 14 May 1597 to Jubie/ 
wrote Henslowe in his ' Diary ' (p. 94), * uppon 
a notte from Nashe, twentie shellinges more 
for the Jylle of dogges, w ch he is wrytinge 



Nash 



107 



Nash 



s 



for the company.' The play duly appeared 
a month later, but Nash asserts that, as far 
as he was concerned, it was ' an imperfect 
embrio.' He had himself only completed 
4 the induction and first act of it ; the other 
five acts, without my consent or the least 
guess of my drift or scope, by the players 
were supplied ' (Lenten Stuffe, v. 200). The 
piece, however,attacked many current abuses 
in the state with so much violence as to 
rouse the anger of the privy council. The 
license to Henslowe's theatre was withdrawn, 
and Nosh, who protested that the acts written 
by others • bred ' the trouble, was sent to the 
Fleet prison, after his lodgings had been 
searched and his papers seized (Privy Coun- 
cil MS. Reg. October 1596-September 1597, 
p. 346). Henslowe notes (p. 98) : ' P* this 
23 of auguste 1597 to harey Porter, to carve 
to T Nashe no we at this in the Flete, for 
wrytinge of the eylle of Doggesteu shellinges, 
to be paid agen to me when he canned The 
restraint on the company was removed on 
27 Aug., but Nash was not apparently re- 
leased for many months ; and, when released, 
he was for a time banished from London. ' As 
Actseon was worried by his own hounds/ 
wrote Francis Meres in his ' Palladia Tamia/ 
•so is Tom Nash of his Isle of Dogs. Dogs 
were the death of Euripides, but be not dis- 
consolate, gallant young Juvenal I Linus, the 
son of Apollo, died the same death. Yet God 
forbid that so brave a wit should so basely 
perish ! Thine are but paper dogs, neither 
is thy banishment like Ovid's, eternally to 
converse with the barbarous Get«. Therefore 
comfort thyself, sweet Tom! with Cicero's 
glorious return to Rome, and with the coun- 
sel ^Eneas gives to his sea-beaten soldiers 
(Ub.'x.Mneidy But persecution did not curb 
Nash's satiric tongue. In the printed version 
of his ' Summers Last Will* (1600) he in- 
serted a contemptuous reference to the hubbub 
caused by the suppressed play : ' Here's a coil 
about dogs without wit ! If I had thought 
the ship of fools would have stay'd to take 
in fresh water at the Isle of Dogs, I would 
have f urnish'd it with a whole kennel of col- 
lections to the purpose.' The incident was 
long remembered. In the 'Returne from 
Pernassus' one of the characters says 'Writs 
are out for me to apprehend me for my plays, 
and now I am bound for the Isle of Dogs.' 

In 1597 Nash, in despair of recovering 
his credit, and being ' without a penny in his 
purse/ appealed for assistance to Sir Robert 
Cotton, but, with characteristic effrontery, 
chiefly filled his letter with abuse of Sir 
John Harington's recent pamphlet, 'Meta- 
morphosis of A-jax.' He signed himself 
* Yours, in acknowledgment of the deepest 



bond/ but his earlier relations with Cotton 
are unknown (Collier, Annals, i. 302). In 
1592, in the second edition of his 'Pierce 
Penniles8e/ he had complained that 'the 
antiquaries/ of whom Cotton was the most 
conspicuous representative, 'were offended 
without cause ' by his writings, and had pro- 
tested that he reverenced that excellent pro- 
fession ' as much as any of them all/ Nash's 
bitter temper certainly alienated patrons, and 
no permanent help seems to have reached him 
now. Selden, in his ' Table Talk ' (ed. Arber, p. 
71),teUsa8tory of the scorn poured by Nash — 
' a poet poor enough as poets used to be ' — on a 
wealthy alderman because ' the fellow' could 
not make ' a blank verse.' In 1599 he showed 
all his pristine vigour in what was probably 
his latest publication, 'Nashe's Lenten 
Stuffe, containing the description and first 
procreation and increase of the towne of 
Great Yarmouth, in Norfolke.' This is a 
comically burlesque panegyric of the red 
herring, and is dedicated to Humfrey King, 
tobacconist and author. Nash had, he ex- 
plains, recently visited Yarmouth, and had 
obtained a loan of money and very hospi- 
table entertainment there (v. 202-3). Hence 
his warm commendation of the town and its 
industry. In the course of the work he an- 
nounced that he was about to go to Ireland 
(v. 192). Next year he published his ' Sum- 
mers Last Will, and he nas been doubtfully 
credited with a translation from the Italian 
of Garzoni's ' Hospitall of Incurable Fooles/ 
a satiric essay published by Edward Blount 
in 1600. But Blount seems to claim the 
work for himself. At the same time Nash's 
name figures among the 'modern and ex- 
tant poets ' whose work is quoted in John 
Bodenham's 'Belvedere, or Garden of the 
Muses ' (1600). In 1601 Nash was dead ; he 
had not completed his thirty-fourth year. 
A laudatory ' Cenotaphia ' to his memory 
is appended by Charles Fitzgeflrey to his 
' Affanice ' (p. 195), which was published in 
that year. A less respectful epitaph among 
the Sloane MSS. states that he ' never in his 
life paid shoemaker or tailor ' (Dodslet, Old 
Plays, 1874, viii. 9). 

Nash's original personality gives him a 
unique place in Elizabethan literature. In 
rough vigour and plain speaking he excelled 
all his contemporaries ; like them, he could 
be mirthful, but his mirth fulness was always 
spiced with somewhat bitter sarcasm, lie 
was widely read in the classics, and was well 
versed in the Italian satires of Pietro Are- 
tino, whose disciple he occasionally avowed 
himself. ' Sebastian Brandt's ' Narren-schiff ' 
he also appreciated, and he was doubtless 
familiar with the work of Rabelais. He had 



Nash 



108 



Nash 



real sympathy at the same time with great 
English poetry, and he never wavered in his 
admiration of Surrey, Spenser, Sir Philip 
Sidney, and Thomas Watson. 'The poets 
of our time . . . have cleansed our language 
from barbarism/ he wrote in his 'Fierce 
Pennilesse.' His own excursions into verse 
are few, but some of the lyrics in ' Summers 
Last Will' come from a poet's pen. His 
rich prose vocabulary was peculiar to him- 
self as far as his English contemporaries 
were concerned, and he boasted, with some 
justice, that he therein imitated no man. 
* Is my style,' he asks, ' like Greene's, or my 
jests like Tarleton's P ' On euphuism, with 
its 'talk of counterfeit birds or herbs or 
stones/ he poured unmeasured scorn, and 
he tolerated none of the current English 
affectations. But foreign influences — the in- 
fluences of Rabelais and Aretino — are per- 
ceptible in many of the eccentricities on 
which he chiefly prided himself (cf. Harvey, 
New Letter j in Grosart's edit i. 272-3, 289). 
Like Rabelais and Aretino, he depended 
largely on a free use of the vernacular for 
his burlesque effects. But when he found 
no word quite fitted to his purpose, he fol- 
lowed the example of his foreign masters in 
coining one out of Greek, Latin, Spanish, or 
Italian. ' No speech or wordes/ he wrote, ' of 
any power or force to confute or persuade 
but must be swelling and boisterous/ and he 
was compelled to resort, he explained, ' to 
his boisterous compound words in order to 
compensate for the great defect of the Eng- 
lish tongue, which, ' of all languages, most 
swarmetn with the single monev of mono- 
syllables.' ' Italianate ' verbs ending in ize, 
such as ' tyrannize or tympanize/ he claims 
to have introduced to the language. Like 
Rabelais, too, Nash sought to develop em- 
phasis by marshalling columns of synonyms 
and by constant reiteration of kindred 
phrases. His writings have at times some- 
thing of the fascination of Rabelais, but, as 
a rule, his subjects are of too local and topi- 
cal an interest to appeal to Rabelais's wide 
circle of readers. His romance of 'Jack 
Wilton/ which inaugurated the novel of ad- 
venture in England, will best preserve his 
reputation. 

His contemporaries acknowledged the 
strength of his individuality. Meres uncriti- 
cally reckoned him among ' the best poets 
for comedy/ Lodge described him more con- 
vincingly as ' true English Aretine ' ( Wits 
Miserte, p. 57), while Greene suggestively 
compared his temper with that of Juvenal. 
In the ' Returne from Pernassus ' (ed. Mac- 
ray, p. 87), full justice is done him. ' Ay, 
here is a fellow/ one critic declares, ' that 



carried the deadly stock [i.e. rapier] in his 
pen, whose muse was armed with a gag tooth 
[i.e. tusk], and his pen possessed with Her- 
cules' furies.' Another student answers : 

Let all his faults sleep with his mournful chest, 
And then for ever with his ashes rest. 
His style was witty, tho' he had some gall, 
Something he might have mended, so may all ; 
Yet this I say, that for a mother's wit, 
Few men have ever seen the like of it. 

Middleton very regretfully lamented that he 
did not live to do his talents full justice 
(Ant and Nightingale, 1604). Dekker, who 
mildly followed in some of Nash's footsteps, 
strenuously defended his memory in nis 
' Newes from Hell/ 1606, which was directly 
inspired by 'Piers Penniless/ and was re- 
issued as ' Knights Conjuring ' in 1607. Into 
Nash's soul (Dekker asserts) ' the raptures 
of that fierce and unconfineable Italian spirit 
was bounteously and boundlessly infused/ 
' Ingenious and ingenuous, fluent, facetious/ 
' sharpest satyre, luculent poet, elegant orator/ 
are among the phrases that Dekker bestows 
on his dead friend. Later Dekker described 
Nash as welcomed to the Elysian fields by 
Marlowe, Greene, and Peele, who laughed to 
see him, ' that was but newly come to their 
college, still hunted with the sharp and satiri- 
cal spirit that followed him here upon earth, 
inveighing against dry-fisted patrons, accus- 
ing them of his untimely death.' Michael 
Drayton is more sympathetic : 

Surely Nash, though he a proser were, 
A branch of laurel well deserved to bear ; 
Sharply satiric was he. 

Izaak Walton described Nash as ' a man of 
a sharp wit, and the master of a scoffing, 
satirical, and merry pen.' 

Besides the worts noted, Nash was author 
of a narrative noem of the boldest indecency, 
of which an imperfect manuscript copy is 
among the Tanner MSS. in the Bodleian 
Library. Oldys in his notes on Langbaine's 
' Dramatick Poets ' asserts that the work 
was published. John Davies of Hereford, 
in his ' Paper's Complaint ' (' Scourge of 
Folly') mentions the shameless performance, 
and declares that ' good men's hate did it in 
pieces tear ; ' but whether the work met this 
fate in manuscript or print Davies leaves- 
uncertain. In his ' New Letter of Notable 
Contents ' Harvey had denounced Nash for 
emulating Aretino's licentiousness. In his 
' Haue with you to Saffron Walden ' fiii. 44) 
Nash admitted that poverty had occasionally 
forced him to prostitute his pen ' in hope of 
gain' by penning 'amorous Villanellos and 
Quipassas for 'new-fangled Galiardos and 
senior Fantasticos.' These exercises are not 



Nash 



1 09 



Nash 



known to be extant, but the poem in the 
Tanner MSS. may perhaps be reckoned 
among them. An indelicate poem, ' The 
Choosing of Valentines by Thomas Nashe/ is 
in Inner Temple MS. 538. A few of the 
opening lines only are printed by Dr. Gro- 
eart. 

A caricature of Nash in irons in the Fleet 
is engraved in Harvey's ' Trimming ' (1597), 
and is reproduced in Dr. Grosart's large-paper 
edition of Harvey's ' Works/ iii. 43. Another 
very rough portrait is on the title-page of 
4 Tom Nash his Ghost ' (1642). 

All the works with certainty attributed 
to Nash, together with 'Martins Months 
Mind/ which is in all probability from 
another's pen, are reprinted in Dr. Grosart's 
« Huth Library ' (6 vols.), 1883-5. The fol- 
lowing list supplies the titles somewhat 
abbreviated. AU the volumes are very rare : 
1. * The Anatomie of Absurditie/ London, by 
I. Charlewood for Thomas Hacket, 1589, 4to ; 
the only perfect copy is in Mr. Christie 
Miller's library at Britwell; an imperfect 
copy, the only other known, is at the Bodleian 
Library ; another edition, dated 1590, is in 
the British Museum. 2. 'A Countercufte 

fiuen to Martin Iunior. . . . Anno Dom. 
589/ without printer's name or place (Brit. 
Mus. and Huth Libr.) 3. ' The Keturne of 
the Renowned Caualier Pasquill of England. 
. . . AnnoDom. 1589/ without printer's name 
or place (Huth Libr., Britwell, and Brit. Mus.) 
4. ' The First Parte of Pasquils Apologie/ 
Anno Dom. 1590, doubtless printed by James 
Robert for Danter (Huth Libr., Britwell, and 
Brit. Mus.) 5. ' A Wonderfull strange and 
miraculous Astrologicall Prognostication/ 
London, by Thomas Scarlet, 1591 (Bodl.) 
6. ' Pierce Pennilesse his Supplication to the 
Devill/ London, by Richard Jhones, 1592, 
an unauthorised edition (the only known 
copies are at Britwell and in Mr. Locker 
Lampson's library at Rowfant); reprinted 
for the Shakespeare Society by J. P. Collier, 
in 1 842 ; the authorised edition by Abel Ieffes, 
1592 (Bodl., Trin. Coll. Camb., Rowfant, 
Brit. Mus., and Huth Libr.); 1593 and 1595 
(both in Brit. Mus.). 7. ' Strange Newes of 
the Intercepting certaine Letters ... by 
Tho. Nashe, Gentleman/ printed 1592 (Brit. 
Mus.) ; London, by John Danter, 1593, with 
the title ' An Apologie for Pierce Pennilesse ' 
(Huth Libr.) ; reprinted by Collier in 1867. 
8. ' Christs Teares over Ierusalem, London, 
by James Roberts, and to be solde by Andrewe 
Wise,' 1593 (Brit. Mus., Britwell, and Huth 
Libr.) ; 1594, with new address ' to the 
Reader/ ' printed for Andrew Wise ' (Huth 
Libr.); 1613 (Bodl.), with the prefatory 
matter of 1593. 9. 'The Terrors of the 



Night/ London, printed bv John Danter 
for William Jones, London, 1594, 4to 
(Bodl., Britwell, and Bridgwater Libr.) 
10. 'The Unfortunate Traveller, or the Life 
of Iacke Wilton/ London, printed by T. 
Scarlet for C. Burbv, 1594, 4to (Brit. Mus. 
and Britwell) ; reprinted in ' Chiswick Press 
Reprints/ 1892, edited by Mr. Edmund 
Gosse. 11. 'The Tragedie of Dido ... by 
Christopher Marlowe and Thomas Nash, 
Gent/ London, by the Widdowe Orwin for 
Thomas Woodcocke, 1594 [see under Mab- 
lowb, ChkistophbrI. 12. « Haue with you 
to Satfron-Walden/ London, by John Danter, 
1596 (Brit. Mus., Britwell, and Huth Libr). 
13. 'Nashe's Lenten Stufte/ printed for 
H. L. and C. B., 1599 (Huth Libr., Bodl., 
Britwell, and Brit. Mus.) ; reprinted in 
' Harleian Miscellany.' 14. ' A pleasant 
Comedie called Summers Last Will and 
Testament/ London, by Simon Stafford for 
Walter Burre, 1600 (Brit. Mus., Britwell 
Huth Libr., Rowfant, and Duke of Devon- 
shire's Libr.) : reprinted in Dodsley's * Old 
Plays/ 

[Bibliographical information most kindly sup- 
plied by Mr. R. E. Graves of Brit. Mus. ; Grosart's 
introductions to his edition of Nash's Works, 
in vols. i. and yi. ; Collier's preface to his reprint 
of Pierce Pennilesse, for Shakespeare Soc. 1842 ; 
Mr. Goose's preface to his reprint of the Unfortu- 
nate Traveller, 1892 ; Cunningham's New Facts in 
the Life of Nash, in Shakspeare Society's Papers, 
iii. 178 ; Fleay's Biog. Chron. of English Drama ; 
Collier's Bibl. Account of Early English Lit. ; 
Cooper's Athente Cantabr. vol. ii. ; Jusserand's 
English Novel in the Time of Shakespere (Engl, 
transl.), 1800; Disraeli's Quarrels of Authors ; 
Herford's Lit. Relations of England and Ger- 
many, pp. 165, 372; 1)00816/8 Old Plays, ed. 
Hazlitt, 1874, viii. 1 seq. ; Harvey's Works, 
ed. Grosart; Hunter's manuscript Chorus Va- 
tum, in Addit. MS. 24489, f. 367; Oldys's 
manuscript notes on Langbaine's Drama tick 
Poets, 1691, f. 382, in Brit. Mus. (C. 28. g. 1.) ; 
Simpson's School of Shakspere ; AnglU, vii. 223 
(Shakspere and Puritanism, by F. G-. Fleay, 
whose conclusions there respecting Nash seem 
somewhat fantastic) ; Maskeus Martin Marp re- 
late Controversy; Arber's Introduction to the 
Martin Marprelate Controversy. A third-rate 
poem in Sloane MS., called ' The Trimming of 
Tom Nashe,' although its title is obviously bor- 
rowed from Harvey's tract, does not concern 
itself with either Harvey or Nash. See arts. : 
Greene, Robert ; Harvey, Gabriel; Harvet, 
I Richard ; Lyly, John ; and Marlowe, Chris- 
topher.] S. L. 

NASH, THOMAS (1588-1648), author, 
was second son of Thomas Nash of Tappenhall, 
Worcestershire! He matriculated as 'Thomas 
Naishe* from St. Edmund Hall/ Oxford, on 



Nash 



110 



Nash 



22 March 1604-5, aged 17 (Ox/. Univ. Beg. 
Oxf. Hist. Soc. n. h. 281), and entered the 
Inner Temple in November 1607 (Members of 
Inner Temple, 1671-1625, p. 109). He owned 
some property at Mildennam Mills, Olaines, 
"Worcestershire, but, unlike most members of 
the family who resided in the parish of St. 
Peter's, I)roitwich,he was a staunch loyalist, 
and was deprived of his possessions. The 
misfortunes of Charles I are said to have 
distressed him so greatly as to have caused 
his death. He died on 25 Aug. 1648, and 
was buried in the Temple Church (cf. Nash, 
Worcestershire, i. 327, and ii. Suppl. 24-5). 
He published ' Quaternio, or a Fourfold 
Way to a Happy Life, set fourth in a Dialogue 
between a Countryman and a Citizen, a Divine 
and a Lawyer, bv Tho. Nash, Philopolitem/ 
dedicated to Lord Coventry, London, for John 
Dawson, 1633, 4to ; 2nd edit., by Nicholas 
Okes for John Benson, 1636, 4to. A new 
edition, dated 1639, bore the new title ' Mis- 
celanea, or a Fourefold Way.' After a con- 
ventional comparison of the advantages of 
town and country life, Nash passes a eulogy 
on law, the whole of which he deduces from 
the ten commandments. He denounces the 
cruelty of field sports, expresses a hatred of 
separatists, and mentions Rous, keeper of the 
Bodleian Library at Oxford, and Captain 
Thomas James fq.v.] as his friends. An 
epistle addressed by Nash to 'my worthy 
mend and fellow templar Captain James ' is 
prefixed to James's ' Strange and Dangerous 
Voyage to discover the North- West Passage ' 
£1633). Nash also published a translation 
from the Latin of Evenkellius, entitled 
' TvfAvaalapYov, or the School of Potentates/ 
byT.N.PhUonomon,1648. Half the volume 
r* illustrations and observations ' 



by the translator. 

Another Thomas Nash (1593-1647), eldest 
son of Anthony Nash of Welcombe and Old 
Stratford, Warwickshire, by Mary, daughter 
of Rowland Baugh of Twining, Gloucester- 
shire, was baptised at Stratford- on- Avon on 
20 June 1593. He entered Lincoln's Inn in 
1619. His father, who died in 1622, and a 
younger brother John, who died in 1623, are 
remembered in Shakespeare's will of 1616 by 
gifts of rings. Thomas was intimate with 
Shakespeare's family. He was executor of 
his father's will in 1622, and received under 
its provisions two houses and a piece of land. 
On 22 April 1626 he married Elizabeth Hall, 
daughter of Dr. John Hall (1 575-1635) [q. v.], 
by his wife Susannah, Shakespeare's elder 
daughter. On the death of Hall in 1635 
Nash and his wife became owners of New 
Place, formerly Shakespeare's residence, and 
removed thither. On 24 Sept. 1642 he ad- 



vanced 100/. to the cause of Charles I, and 
was the largest contributor among the resi- 
dents of Stratford. Nash died at New Place 
on 4 April 1647, and was buried in the 
chancel of Stratford Church next day (Dug- 
dale, Warwickshire, ed. 1656, p. 518). He 
had no children. His widow married, 5 June 
1649, Sir John Barnard, and died at Abington, 
Northamptonshire, on 17 Feb. 1669-70. 

Dallaway in his ' West Sussex,' ii. 77, in- 
correctly credits Thomas Nash of Stratford- 
on-Avon with the paternity of three sons : 
Thomas Nash, who purchased the manor of 
Walberton, Sussex ; Walter Nash, B.D. ; and 
Gawen Nash. Both Walter and Gawen are 
said by Dallaway to have been fellows of 
Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, but of Gawen 
only is this true. 

Gawen Nash (1605-1658), son of Thomas 
Nash of Eltisley, Cambridgeshire, butler of 
Pembroke Hail, Cambridge, was admitted a 
sizar of that college in 1620, and a fellow on 
20 Oct. 1627. He has verses before William 
Hawkins's 'Varia Corolla/ 1634. After 
serving as incumbent of St. Mary's, Ipswich, 
he became rector of St. Matthew's, Ipswich, 
in 1638. He was afterwards charged with 
superstitious practices (Tanner MS. ccxx. 
32). He was appointed to the vicarage of 
Waresley, Huntingdonshire, in 1642, and 
was ejected from it in 1646. According to 
Walker's ' Sufferings ' (p. 319), he was also 
imprisoned for refusing the engagement. He 
died in 1658 (information kindly forwarded 
by the master of Pembroke College, Cam- 
bridge). A son of the same name graduated 
B.A. from Trinity College, Cambridge, in 
1671 (M.A. 1675). 

[For the Worcestershire Thomas Nash see 
Hunter 8 manuscript Chorus Vatum in Addit. 
MS. 24487, f. 85 ; Dallaways Sussex, p. 73 ; 
his works. For the Warwickshire Thomas Nash 
see pedigree in Addit. MS. 24494, f. 14 (Col- 
lectanea Hunteriana) ; Halliwell-Phillipps's Out- 
lines of the Life of Shakespeare ; and art. Hall, 
John, 1575-1635.] S. L. 

NASH, TREADWAY RUSSELL, D.D. 

(1726-1811), historian of Worcestershire,' 
born at Clerkenleap, in the parish of Kempsey, 
in that county, on 24 June 1725, was son of 
Richard Nash, esq., by Elizabeth, daughter of 
George Treadway, esq. At the age of twelve 
he was sent to the King's School at Worcester, 
and proceeded to Worcester College, Oxford, 
whence he matriculated on 14 July 1740. He 
graduated B.A. in 1744, and M.A. 20 Jan. 
1746-7 (Fosteb, Alumni Oxon.) In March 
1749 he started for the Continent, in com- 
pany with his brother Richard, and made the 
' grand tour/ returning to Oxford about 1751. 
About this time he was presented to the 



Nash 



in 



Nasmith 



vicarage of Evnsham, Oxfordshire, and be- 
came tutor at Worcester College, but resigned 
both positions on the death of his brother in 
1757. In 1758 he cumulated the degrees of 
B.D. and D.D., and soon afterwards quitted 
Oxford. In October 1758 he married Mar- 
garet, youngest daughter of John Martin, esq., 
of Overbury, near Tewkesbury. Immediately 
afterwards he purchased an estate at Bevere, 
in the parish of Olaines, Worcestershire. 

On 18 Feb. 1773 he was elected a fellow 
of the Society of Antiquaries of London 
(Gough, Chronological List, p. 26), and on 
23 Aug. 1792 he was instituted to the vicar- 
age of Leigh, Worcestershire. Some of his 
parishioners told ' Cuthbert Bede ' (the Rev. 
Edward Bradley) that he used to preach at 
Leigh once a year, just before the tithe audit, 
his text invariably being ' Owe no man any- 
thing.' On these occasions he drove from 
his residence at Bevere in a carriage-and-four, 
' with servants afore him and servants ahind 
him* (Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. vii. 325). 
On 23 Nov. 1797 he was collated to the 
rectory of Strensham, Worcestershire, and 
in 1802 he was appointed proctor to repre- 
sent the clergy of the diocese. He died at 
Bevere on 26 Jan. 1811, and on 4 Feb. his 
remains were interred in the family vault 
at St. Peter's, Droitwich, of which rectory he 
and his ancestors had long been patrons. 
Margaret, his sole daughter and heiress, was 
married in 1785 to John Somers Cocks, who, 
on the death of his father in 1806, succeeded 
to the title of Lord Somers. 

The doctor's penurious disposition gave 
rise to the following epigram : 

The Muse thy genius well divines, 

And "will not ask for cash; 
But gratis round thy brow she twines 

The laurel, Dr. Nash. 

Of his great topographical work, ' Collec- 
tions for the History of Worcestershire,' the 
first volume appeared at London in 1781, 
fol., and the second in 1782, the publication 
being superintended by Richard Gough [q.v.] 
A 'Supplement to the Collections for the 
History of Worcestershire' was issued in 
1799. To some copies a new title-page was 
affixed, bearing the date of 1799. To these 
an oval portrait of Nash is prefixed. A com- 
plete index to the work is about to be issued 
to members of the Worcestershire His- 
torical Society as supplementary volumes of 
the society's publications during 1894 and 
1895 (Athenatum, 2 Feb. 1894, p. 248). 

In 1793 Nash published a splendid edi- 
tion of Butler's 'Hudibras,' with enter- 
taining notes, in three vols. 4to. His own 
portrait, engraved by J. Caldwell from a 



painting by Gardner, is prefixed. This edi- 
tion is embellished with many engravings 
after Hogarth and John Skipp. It was re- 
published in two vols., London, 1835-40; 
and again in two vols., London, 1847, 8vo. 
Nash communicated to the Society of Anti- 
quaries papers ' On the Time of Death and 
Place of Burial of Queen Catharine Parr 
(ArcJuBoloffia, ix. 1) and 'On the Death 
Warrant of Humphrey Littleton ' (ib. xv. 130). 

[Addit. MSS. 29174 f. 283, 32329 ff. 92, 99, 
101 ; Bromley's Cat. of Engr. Portraits, p. 366 ; 
Chambers's Biog. Illustr. of Worcestershire, 
p. 469 : Gent Mag. 1811, i. 190, 393 ; Gough's 
Brit. Topography, ii. 385 ; Granger Letters, p. 
171 ; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn), pp. 336, 
1653 ; Nash's Worcestershire, vol. ii., Correction* 
and Additions, pp. 51, 72; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. 
vii. 282, viii. 103; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. 
vii. 173, 325, 3rd ser. viii. 174, 4th ser. ix. 34, 
95, xii. 87, 154, 5th ser. vii. 67, viii. 128; 
Pennant's Literary Life, pp. 23, 28 ; Upcott's 
Engl. Topography, iii. 1330.] T. C. 

NASMITH, DAVID (1799-1839), origi- 
nator of town and city missions, born at 
Glasgow on 21 March 1799, was sent to the 
city grammar school with a view to the uni- 
versity, but, as he made no progress, he was 
apprenticed about 1811 to a manufacturer 
there. In June 1813 he became secretary to 
the newly established Glasgow Youths* Bible 
Association, and devoted ail his leisure to 
religious work in Glasgow. From 1821 un- 
til 1828 he acted as assistant secretary to> 
twenty-three religious and charitable socie- 
ties connected with the Institution Rooms 
in Glassford Street. Chiefly through his 
exertions the Glasgow City Mission was 
founded on 1 Jan. 1826. He afterwards pro- 
ceeded to Dublin in order to establish a simi- 
lar institution there. He also formed the 
Local Missionary Society for Ireland, in con- 
nection with which he visited various places 
in the country. In July 1830 he sailed from 
Greenock to New York and visited between 
forty and fifty towns in the United States 
and Canada, forming in all thirty-one missions 
and various benevolent associations. In June 
1832 he went to France, and founded mis- 
sions at Paris and Havre. In 1835 he ac- 
cepted the secretaryship of the Continental 
Society in London. Tnere he organised the 
London City Mission, with the assistance of 
Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton [q. v.], as trea- 
surer, the Philanthropic Institution House, 
the Young Mens Society, the Adult School 
Society, the Metropolitan Monthly Tract 
Society, and finally the London Female Mis- 
sion. In March 1837 he resigned his office 
as gratuitous secretary of the London City- 
Mission, and with a few friends he formed, 



Nasmith 



112 



Nasmith 



on 16 March, the British and Foreign Mis- 
sion, for the purposes of corresponding with 
the city and town missions already in exist- 
ence and of planting new ones. While pro- 
secuting this work Nasmith died at Guild- 
ford, Surrey, on 17 Nov. 1839 {Gent Mag, 
1839, pt. ii. p. 665), and was buried on the 
25th in Bunhill Fields. He died poor, and 
2,420/. was collected by subscription and in- 
vested on behalf of his widow and five chil- 
dren. In March 1828 he had married 
Frances, daughter of Francis Hartridge, of 
East Farleigh, Kent. There is a portrait of 
him by J. C. Armytage. 

[Dr. John Campbell's Memoirs of David Nas- 
mith (with portrait); Chambers's Eminent 
Scotsmen, iii. 204.] G. G. 

NASMITH, JAMES (1740-1808), an- 
tiquary, son of a carrier who came from Scot- 
land, and plied between Norwich and London, 
was born at Norwich late in 1740. He was 
sent by his father to Amsterdam for a year 
to complete his school education, and was en- 
tered in 1760 at Corpus Christi College, Cam- 
bridge, where he graduated B. A. 17o4, M.A. 
1767, and D.D. 1797. In 1 765 he was elected 
to a fellowship in his college, he acted for 
some time as its sub-tutor, and in 1771 he 
was the junior proctor of the university. 
Having been ordained in the English church, 
he served for some years as the minister of the 
sequestrated benefice of Hinxton, Cambridge- 
shire. Nasmith devoted his leisure to anti- 
quarian research, and he was elected F.S.A. 
on 30 Nov. 1769. He was nominated by his 
•college in 1773 to the rectory of St. Mary 
Abchurch with St. Laurence Pountney, Lon- 
don, but he exchanged it before he could be 
instituted for the rectory of Snail well, Cam- 
bridgeshire. He was then occupied in ar- 
ranging and cataloguing the manuscripts 
which Archbishop Parker gave to his col- 
lege, and he desired for convenience in his 
work to be resident near the university. The 
catalogue was finished in February 1775, and 
presented by him to the master and fellows, 
who directed that it should be printed under 
his direction, and that the profits of the sale 
should be given to him. When the head- 
ship of his college became vacant in 1778, he 
was considered, being ' a decent man, of a 
good temper and beloved in his college/ to 
have pretensions for the post ; but he declined 
the offer of it, and was promoted by Bishop 
Yorke in 1796 to the rich rectory of Lever- 
ington, in the isle of Ely. As magistrate for 
Cambridgeshire and chairman for many years 
of the sessions at Cambridge and Ely, he 
studied the poor laws and other economical 
questions affecting his district. He was also 



for some time chaplain to John Hobart, second 
earl of Buckinghamshire [q. v/j After a long 
and painful illness he died at Leverington on 
16 Oct. 1808, aged 67, and was buried in the 
church, where his widow erected a monu- 
ment to his memory on the north side of 
the chancel. He married in 1774 Susanna, 
daughter of John Salmon, rector of Shelton, 
Norfolk, and sister of Benjamin Salmon, fel- 
low of his college. She died at Norwich on 
11 Nov. 1814, aged 75, bequeathing 'con- 
siderable sums for the use of public and 
private charities.' His character was warmly 
commended by Cole, in spite of differences 
of opinion in ecclesiastical matters, and Sir 
Egerton Brydges adds that he was much 
respected. ' His person and manners and 
habits were plain.' 

Nasmith edited: 1. 'Catalogus librorum 
manuscriptorum quos collegio Corporis Christi 
in Acad. Cantabrigiensi legavit Matthseus 
Parker, archiepiscopus Cantuariensis,' 1777. 
2. ' Itineraria Symonis Simeonis et Willelmi 
de Worcestre, quibus accedit tractatus de 
Metro/ 1778. 3. ' Notitia Monastics, or an 
Account of all the Abbies, Priories, and 
Houses of Friers formerly in England and 
Wales/ By Bishop Tanner. 'Published 1744 
by John Tanner, and now reprinted, with 
many additions/ 1787. The additions con- 
sisted mainly of references to books and 
manuscripts. Many copies of this edition of 
the 'Notitia Monastica' remained on hand, 
and, after being warehoused for twenty years, 
were consumed by fire on 8 Feb. 1808. 

Nasmith was also author of: 4. 'The Duties 
of Overseers of the Poor and the Sufficiency 
of the present system of Poor Laws con- 
sidered. A charge to the Grand Jury at Ely 
Quarter Sessions, 2 April. With remarks on 
a late publication on the Poor Laws by Robert 
Saunders/ 1799. 6. ' An Examination of the 
Statutes now in force relating to the Assize 
of Bread/ 1800. Saunders replied to these 
criticisms in ' An Abstract of Observations 
on the Poor Laws, with a Reply to the 
Remarks of the Rev. James Nasmith/ 1802. 
The assistance of Nasmith is acknowledged 
in the preface to Henry Swinden's • History 
of Great Yarmouth/ which was edited by 
John Ives in 1772. 

[Gent. Mag., 180S pt. ii. p. 058, 1814 pt. ii. 
p. 610; Masters's Corpus Christi Coll. (ed.Lamb), 
pp. 406-7 ; Lysons's Cambridgeshire, pp. 228, 
260 ; Watsons Wisbech, p. 464 ; Brydges's Resti- 
tnta, iii. 220-1; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ii. 164, 
viii. 593-9, 614, ix. 647.] W. P. C. 

NASMITH or NAYSMITH, JOHN 
(d. 1619 ?), surgeon to James VI of Scot- 
land and I of England, was second son of 



Nasmith 



"3 



Nasmyth 



Michael Naesmith of Posso, Peeblesshire, 
and Elizabeth Baird. The family trace their 
descent to a stalwart knight, who while in 
attendance on Alexander III was unable to 
repair his armour, bat so atoned for his 
lack of skill as a smith by his bravery in the 
fight that after its conclusion he was knighted 
by the king with the remark that, although 
' he was nae smith, he was a brave gentle- 
man.' Sir Michael, who was chamberlain to 
the Archbishop of St. Andrews, came into 
the possession of Posso, with the royal eirie 
of Posso Craig, by his marriage to Elizabeth, 
daughter of John Baird. He was an ad- 
herent of Mary Queen of Scots, and fought 
for her at Langside. The second son, John, 
was surgeon to King James. He was with 
other attendants of the king in Holyrood 
Palace when on 27 Dec. 1591 Both well [see 
Hbpbukn, Fbancis Stbwakt, fifth Eabl op 
Bothwbll] made an attempt to capture the 
king there. David Moysie says : * He was 
committed to ward within the castle of Edin- 
burgh, and found thereafter to have been the 
special plotter and deviser of that business ' 
(Memoirs , pp. 87-8). On Wednesday, 16 Jan . 
1591-2, he was brought to Glasgow, 'where/ 
says Calderwood, 'he was threatened with 
torments to confess that the Earl of Murray 
was with Bothwell that night he beset the 
king in the abbey. But he answered he 
would not damn his own soul with speaking 
an untruth for any bodily pain* (History, 
v. 147). Subsequently he was confined in 
Dumbarton Castle, and on 8 April caution 
was given for him in one thousand merks 
' that within twenty days after being released 
from Dumbarton Castle he shall go abroad, 
and shall not return without the king's li- 
cense ' (Reg. P. C. Scotl. iv. 741). This 
caution was, however, deleted by warrant 
of the king 1 Aug. 1593 (ib.) Naysmith was 
riding with the king while he was hunting at 
Falkland on 5 Aug. 1600, the morning of 
the Gowrie conspiracy, and was sent by the 
king to bring back Alexander Ruthven, with 
whom the king determined to proceed to 
Perth (Caldbewood, vi. 31). He was one 
of those to whom in 1601 the coinage was 
set in tack (Reg. P. C. Scotl. vi. 314). 

Naysmith accompanied James to London 
on his accession to the English throne in 
1603, and appears to have received from him 
a yearly gift of 66/. (Nichols, Progresses of 
James I f li. 44). He attended Prince Henry 
during his fatal illness in 1612 (ib. p. 483). On 
12 July 1612 Home of Cowdenlmowes sold 
to him the lands of Earlston, Berwickshire, 
under retorsion of an annual rent of 3,000/. 
Scots (Hist. MSS. Comm. 12th Rep. App. 
pt. viii. p. 120), and the sale was confirmed Dy 

VOL. XL. 



the king 17 June 1613 (Reg. Mag. Sig. Scot 
1609-20, entry 861). He died some time* 
before 12 June 1619, when Helen Makmath 
is referred to as his widow (ib. entry 1962). 
Among other children he left a son Henry, 
to whom on 12 Feb. 1620 the king conceded 
the land 8 of Cowdenknowes (ib. entry 2130). 
On 10 Nov. 1626 Charles I, among other in- 
structions to the president of the court of 
session, directed him * to take special notice* 
of the business of the children of John 
Nasmyth, so often recommended to your 
late dear father and us, and an end to be- 
put to that action' (Balfour, Annals, ii„ 
151). Nasmyth devoted special attention 
to botany, and is referred to in terms of higlk 

E raise by the botanist Lobel, who acknow- 
jdges several important communications- 
from him (Adversaria, 1605, pp. 487, 489,. 
490). 

[Reg. Mag. Sig. Scot. ; Reg. P. C. Scotl. ; 
Histories of Spotiswood and Calderwood; David 
Moysie's Memoirs (Bannatyne Club); Nichols's- 
Progresses of James I ; Birch's Life of Prince- 
Henry; Chambers's History of Peebles ; Ander- 
son's Scottish Nation ; Pulteney's Hist, and 
Biog. Sketches in the Progress of Botany.] 

T. F. H. 

NASMYTH, ALEXANDER (1758- 
1840), portrait and landscape painter, second 
son of Michael Nasmyth, a builder, and 
his wife, Mary Anderson, was born in the- 
Grassmarket, Edinburgh, on 9 Sept. 1758. 
He was educated in the high school, re- 
ceiving instruction from his father in men- 
suration and mathematics; and he studied 
art in the Trustees' Academy under Alex- 
ander Runciman, having been apprenticed to 
Crichton, a coachbuilder, by whom he was 
employed in painting arms and decorations 
upon the panels of carriages. His work of 
this kind attracted the notice of Allan Ram- 
say the portrait-painter, while he was on a 
visit to Edinburgh, and he induced Crichton 
to transfer to himself the indentures of hi* 
apprentice. Removing to London, the youth, 
was now employed upon the subordinate- 
portions of Ramsay's portraits, and he dili- 
gently profited by the study of a fine col- 
lection of drawings by the old masters which 
the artist possessed. 

In 1778 Nasmyth returned to Edinburgh 
and established himself as a portrait-painter,. 
His works were usually cabinet-sized full— 
lengths, frequently family groups, and in- 
troducing landscape backgrounds and views- 
of the mansions of the sitters. One of his 
best subjects of this kind is his group of 
Professor Dugald Stewart with his first wife- 
and their child ; and other examples are in* 
the possession of the Earls of Minto and 

I 



Nasmyth 



114 



Nasmyth 



Rosebery. He had already begun to mani- 
fest that interest in science which distin- 
guished him through life. His pencil was of 
much service to Patrick Miller j_q. v.] of Dal- 
swinton in connection with his mechanical 
inventions, and he was present on 14 Oct. 
1788 when Symington and Miller first ap- 
plied steam power for propelling a vessel on 
Dalswinton Lake ; his sketch of the boat 
is engraved in James Nasmyth's ' Autobio- 
graphy.' From that volume we learn that 
Miuer, as a reward for his aid, advanced a 
sum of 600/. to enable the artist to visit 
Italy. He left in the end of 1782, visited 
Rome, Florence, Bologna, and Padua, and 
returned to Edinburgh in the end of 1784 
with increased skill and many studies and 
sketches from nature. On 3 Jan. 1786 he 
married Barbara Foulis, daughter of William 
Foulis of Woodhall and Cofinton, and sister 
of Sir James Foulis, seventh baronet of 
Woodhall. 

He was introduced by Miller to Robert 
Burns, and in 1787 executed his celebrated 
cabinet-sized bust portrait of the poet, which 
he presented to Mrs. Burns. This portrait 
was bequeathed by her son, Colonel William 
Burns, to the National Gallery of Scotland. 
It was engraved in stipple by John Beugo, 
with the advantage of three sittings from 
the life, for the first Edinburgh edition of 
the 'Poems/ 1787, and the plate was re- 
peatedly used in subsequent editions. There 
are various other engravings from this pic- 
ture, the best being the mezzotint, on the 
scale of the original, executed by William 
Walker and Samuel Cousins in 1830, of 
which the painter stated that ' it conveys a 
more true and lively remembrance of Burns 
than my own picture does.' Nasmyth made 
two replicas of this portrait. One is in the 
National Portrait Gallery, London, the other 
in the possession of the Misses Cathcart of 
Auchendrane, Ayrshire. Nasmyth became 
intimate with the poet, and frequently ac- 
companied him in his walks in the neigh- 
bourhood of Edinburgh. On one of these 
occasions he executed a small full-length 
pencil sketch, formerly in the collection of 
Dr. David Laing, which served as the basis 
of a cabinet-sized full-length in oils, which , 
he painted, apparently about 1827, ' to enable | 
him to leave his record in this way of the 1 
general personal appearance of Burns, as ' 
well as his style of dress.' This picture is | 
deposited by its owner, Sir Hugn Hume I 
Campbell, in the National Gallery of Scot- ' 
land. Its subject was engraved in line by I 
W. Miller, with alterations in the background, , 
in Lockhart's 'Life of Burns/ 1828. I 

Nasmyth's liberal views in politics having \ 



alienated his aristocratic patrons, his em- 
ployment as a portrait-painter declined, and 
he finally restricted himself to landscape 
subjects, modelling his style chiefly upon tne 
Dutch masters. His work of this class is 
admirably represented in the National Gal- 
lery by a large view of Stirling Castle, and, 
less adequately, in the National Gallery of 
Scotland by a smaller view of Stirling. 
Among other works, he painted the stock 
scenery of the Theatre Royal, Glasgow , which 
greatly impressed David Roberts in his youth, 
produced in 1820 the scenery for ' The Heart 
of Midlothian ' in the Theatre Royal, Edin- 
burgh, and published in 1822 a series of 
views of places described by the author of 
' Waverley/ He was an original member 
of the Society of Associated Artists, Edin- 
burgh, contributing to their exhibitions 
1808-14. He exhibited in the Royal Insti- 
tution, Edinburgh, 1821-30, appearing as an 
associate of the Dody in 1825, and receiving 
an annuity from the directors in 1828 ; and 
he exhibited from 1830 to 1840 in the Royal 
Scottish Academy, of which he became an 
honorary member in 1834. He was a mem- 
ber of the Society of British Artists, Lon- 
don, and exhibited in their rooms, and in the 
Royal Academy and the British Institution 
between 1807 and 1839. 

He devoted considerable attention to archi- 
tecture, designing the Dean Bridge, Edin- 
burgh, and the Temple to Hygeia at St. 
Bernard's Well, Water of Leith, submitting 
a design for the Nelson Monument, Calton 
Hill, and affording so many valuable sug- 
gestions regarding the laying out of the 
New Town of Edinburgh, that the magi- 
strates presented him with a sum of 200/., 
with a complimentary letter addressed 4 Alex- 
ander Nasmyth, architect/ Most of the 
illustrations in the essay ' On the Origin of 
Gothic Architecture/ by Sir James Hall of 
Dunglass, are from his pencil. Nasmyth was 
also much employed by the Duke of Athol 
and others regarding the laying out of parks 
and ornamental grounds. In construction 
his most important discovery was the ' bow- 
and-string bridge/ which he invented about 
1794, ana which has been much used for 
spanning wide spaces, as in the Charing 
Uross and Birmingham stations. His draw- 
ings of this bridge, dated 1796, are repro- 
duced in James Nasmyth's 'Autobiography/ 
He died in Edinburgh 10 April 1840. 

In addition to his sons, Patrick [a. v.] and 
James [q. v.], Nasmyth had six daughters, all 
known as artists — Jane, born in 1778, Barbara 
in 1790, Margaret in 1791, Elizabeth in 1793, 
Anne in 1798, and Charlotte in 1804. They 
contributed to the chief exhibitions in Edin- 



Nasmyth 



"5 



Nasmyth 



burgh, London, and Manchester, and aided 
their father in the art classes held in his 
house, 47 York Place. Elizabeth Nasmyth 
married Daniel Terry the actor about 1821, 
and her second husband was Charles Richard- 
son [q. v.], author of the well-known dic- 
tionary. A collection of 166 works by Nas- 
myth, his son Patrick, and his six daughters, 
was brought to the hammer in Tait's Sale- 
room, Edinburgh, on 18 May 1840. 

The portraits of Nasmyth are : (1) an oil- 
sketch of him as a youth by Philip Reinagle, 
R.A., engraved in James Nasmyth's 'Auto- 
biography,' from the original in the author's 
possession; (2) an admirable dry-point by 
Andrew Geddes, A.R.A. ; (3) a water-colour 
by "William Nicholson, R.S.A., reproduced 
in a very scarce mezzotint by Edward Bur- 
ton ; (4) a cameo by Samuel Joseph, R.S.A., 
engraved in James Nasmyth's 'Autobio- 
graphy.' He is also included in a picture 
of the Edinburgh Dilettanti Club Dy Sir 
William Allan, P.R.S.A.,which was acquired 
by Mr. Horrocks of Preston. 

[James Nasmvth's Autobiography, London, 
1883 ; WilkieandGeddes's Etchings, Edinburgh, 
1875; Chambers's Life and Works of Barns, 1891, 
ti. 31, iv. 161; Art Journal, vol. xxxiv. 1882; 
Redgrave's Diet of Engl. Artists, London, 1878 ; 
Catalogues of Exhibitions, &c, mentioned above.] 

J. M. G. 
NASMYTH, CHARLES (182&-1861), 
major, ' defender of Silistria,' eldest son of 
Robert Nasmyth, fellow of the Royal Col- 
lege of Surgeons, Edinburgh, was born in 
Edinburgh in 1826. He entered the East 
India Company's military seminary at Ad- 
discombe in 1843, and subsequently was 
appointed direct to the Bombay artillery, in 
which he became a second lieutenant 12 Dec. 
1845 and first lieutenant 4 Feb. 1850. 
Having lost his health in Guzerat, he went 
on sick leave to Europe in 1853, and was re- 
commended to try the Mediterranean. From 
Malta he visited Constantinople, and was sent 
to Omar Pasha's camp at Shumla as ' Times ' 
correspondent. He visited the Dobruscha 
after it had been vacated by the Turks, and 
furnished some valuable information respect- 
ing the state of the country to Lord Strat- 
ford de Redcliffe [see Canning, Stratford]. 
His letters in the ' Times ' attracted a good 
deal of notice, and he was sent on by that 
paper to Silistria, which he reached before 
it was invested by the Russians, on 28 March 
1854. Nasmyth and another plucky, light- 
hearted young English officer, Captain James 
Armar Butler [q.v.], attained a wonderful 
ascendency over the Turkish garrison, and 
were the life and soul of the famous defence, 
which ended with the Russians being com- 



pelled to raise the siege, on 22 June 1854. 
The defence gave the first check to the Rus- 
sians, and probably saved the allies from a 
campaign amidst the marshes of the Danube. 
Nasmyth received the thanks of the British 
and Turkish governments and Turkish gold 
medals for tne Danube campaign and the 
defence of Silistria, and was voted the free- 
dom of his native city. He returned to 
Constantinople in broken health and having 
lost all his belongings. He was transferred 
from the East India Company's to the royal 
army, receiving an unattached company 
15 Sent. 1854, and a brevet majority the 
same aay ' for his distinguished services at 
the defence of Silistria? He was present 
with the headquarters staff at the Alma 
and the siege of Sevastapol (medal and 
clasp), and in 1855 was appointed assistant 
adjutant-general of the Kilkenny district, 
and was afterwards brigade-major at the 
Curragh camp, and brigade-major and de- 
puty-assistant adjutant-general in Dublin. 
His infirm health suggested a change to a 
southern climate, and he was transferred to 
New South Wales, as brigade-major at Syd- 
ney. He was invalided to Europe at the 
end of 1859, and, after long suffering, died at 
Pau, Basses-Pyrenees, France, 2 June 1861, 
aged 35. 

. Kinglake, who knew him in the Crimea, 
wrote of him as ' a man of quiet and gentle 
manners and so free from vanity — so free 
from all idea of self-gratulation — that it 
seemed as though he were unconscious of 
having stood as he did in the path of the 
Czar and had really omitted to tnink of the 
share which he had had in changing the 
face of events. He had gone to Silistria 
for the " Times/' and naturally the lustre of 
his achievement was in some degree shed on 
the keen and watchful company, which had 
the foresight to send him at the right mo- 
ment into the midst of events on which the 
fate of Russia was hanging* (Kinglake, 
revised edit. ii. 245). 

[For the defence of Silistria see Nasmyth's let- 
ters in the Times, April to June 1854 ; Annual 
Reg. 1854, [267] and 103 ; Fraser's Magazine, 
December 1854; Kinglake's Invasion of the 
Crimea, rev. edit. vol. ii. passim ; see also East 
India Registers, 1846-53 ; Hart's Army List, 
1860; Gent. Mag. 1861, ii. 92.] H. M. C. 

NASMYTH or NAESMITH, Sir 
JAMES (d. 1720), lawyer, was the son of 
John Nasmyth and his wife, Isabella, daugh- 
ter of Sir James Murray [q.v.] of Philiphaugh. 
He was admitted advocate in 1684, and be- 
came a successful lawyer, known by the sobri- 
quet of the * De'il o' Dawick.' He acquired the 
estate of Dawick from the last of the Veitch 

12 



Nasmyth 



116 



Nasmyth 



family. He had a crown charter of the 
barony of Dawick in 1703, ratified in parlia- 
ment in 1705. He was created a baronet of 
Scotland on 31 July 1706, and died in July 
1720. He married three times: first, Jane 
Stewart, widow of SirLudovic Gordon, bart., 
of Gordonstoun, Elgin ; secondly, Janet, 
daughter of Sir William Murray of Stanhope, 
Peeblesshire; and, thirdly, Barbara (d. 1768), 
daughter of Andrew Pringle of Clifton, Rox- 
burghshire. 

His eldest son James (d. 1779), by his first 
wife, succeeded him, and appears to have 
attained some note in his day as a botanist, 
haying studied under Linnaeus in Sweden. 
He is said to have made extensive collec- 
tions, and to have been among the first in 
Scotland to plant birch and silver firs. The 
genus Nasmythia ( = Eriocaidon) was most 
probably named in his honour by Hudson 
(1778). He was member of parliament for 
Peeblesshire from 1730 to 1741, and died on 
4 Feb. 1779. He had married Jean, daughter 
of Thomas Keith. 

[Burke's Peerage ; living's Book of Scotsmen; 
Hudson's Flora Anglica, 2nd ed. 1778.1 

B. B. W. 

NASMYTH, JAMES (1808-1890), en- 
gineer, son of Alexander Nasmyth [q. v.], 
artist, and of his wife Barbara Foulis, was 
born at 47 York Place, Edinburgh, on 19 Aug. 
1808. After being for a short time under a 
private tutor he was sent to the Edinburgh 
nigh school, which he left in 1820 to pursue 
his studies at private classes. His education 
seems to have been acquired in a very desul- 
tory way, much of his spare time being spent 
in a large iron-foundry owned by the father 
of one oi his schoolfellows, or in the chemical 
laboratory of another school friend. His 
father taught him drawing, in which he 
attained great proficiency. By the age of 
seventeenne had acquired so much skill in 
handling tools that he was able to construct 
a small steam-engine, which he used for the 
purpose of grinding his father's colours. He 
also made models of steam-engines to illus- 
trate the lectures given at mechanics' insti- 
tutions. The making of one of these models 
brought him into communication with Pro- 
fessor Leslie, of the Edinburgh University, 
who gave him a free ticket lor his lectures 
on natural philosophy. In 1821 he became a 
student at the Edinburgh school of arts, and, 
his model-making business proving very re- 
munerative, he was able to attend some of 
the classes at the university. "When only 
nineteen he was commissioned by the Scottish 
Society of Arts to build a steam-carriage 
capable of carrying half a dozen persons. 



This was successfully accomplished, and in 
1827-8 it was tried many times on the roads in 
the neighbourhood of Edinburgh. Hearing 
from some of his acquaintances of the fame of 
Henry Maudslay [q. v.], he determined to seek 
employment with nim at Lambeth, and in May 
1829 he became assistant to Maudslay in his 
private workshop. On Maudslay's death, in 
February 1831, he passed into the service of 
Joshua Field, Maudslay's partner, with whom 
he remained until the following August. 
Nasmyth's engagement with Maudslay was of 
great service to him, and he always spoke in 
the highest terms of his ' dear old master.' 

Returning to Edinburgh, he spent a couple 
of years in making a stock of tools and 
machines, and at the same time he executed 
any small orders which came in his way. In 
1834 he started in business on his own 
account in Dale Street, Manchester, his total 
capital amounting to only 63/. He received 
much help and encouragement from friends 
there, among others from the brothers 
Grant, the originals of the ' Brothers 
Cheeryble' of Dickens. His business in- 
creasing, he took a lease in 1836 of a plot of 
land, six acres in extent, at Patricroft, near 
Manchester, and commenced to lay the 
foundations of what eventually became the 
Bridgewater foundry. A few years after- 
wards he took into partnership Holbrook 
Gaskell ; and the firm of Nasmyth & Gas- 
kell acquired in time a very high reputation 
as constructors of machinery of all kinds, 
steam-engines, and especially of machine- 
tools, in which he made many improvements. 

The invention with which Nasmyth's name 
is most closely associated, and of which he 
himself seems to have been most proud, is 
that of the steam-hammer. This was called 
forth in 1839 by an order for a large paddle- 
shaft for the Great Britain steamship, then 
being built at Bristol. He at once applied 
his mind to the question, and ' in little more 
than half an hour I had the whole contri- 
vance in all its executant details before me, 
in a page of my scheme-book ' (Autobiography, 
p. 240). A reduced photographic copy of the 
sketch, dated 24 Nov. 1839, is given in his 
' Autobiography.' There is probably no in- 
stance of an invention of equal importance 
being planned out with such rapidity. The 
paddle-shaft was eventually not required, 
the proprietors having decided to adopt the 
screw-propeller, and, as there was no induce- 
ment to go to the expense of making a steam- 
hammer, the matter remained in abeyance. 
The sketches seem to have been freely shown, 
and in 1840 they were seen by Schneider, 
the proprietor of the great ironworks at 
Creuzot, during a visit to Patricroft. He 



Nasmyth 



117 



Nasmyth 



appears to have immediately grasped the 
importance of the invention, and the infor- 
mation which he and his manager obtained 
was sufficient to enable them to construct a 
steam-hammer, which was set to work about 
1841. Nasmyth first became aware of this 
in April 1842, when he saw his own hammer 
at work on the occasion of a chance visit to 
Creuzot. Upon his return to England he 
lost no time in securing his invention by 
taking out a patent (No. 9382, 9 June 1842), 
but Schneider had anticipated him in France 
by patenting the hammer in his own name on 
19 April. 

The first steam-hammer set up in this 
country was erected at Patricroft in the 
early part of 1843, and, after working for 
some time, it was sold to Muspratt & Sons 
of Newton-le-Willows for breaking stones 
(cf. Rowlandson, History of the Steam 
Hammer ', Manchester, 1875, p. 9). The valves 
of the early hammers were worked by hand, 
and much time was spent in making the 
machine self-acting, so that immediately 
upon the delivery of the blow steam should 
be admitted below the piston to raise the 
hammer up again. This self-acting gear was 
patented by Nasmyth in 1843 (No. 9850), 
but the invention is claimed for Robert Wil- 
son, one of the managers at Patricroft (op. 
cit. p. 6). Self-acting gear is now generally 
discarded, except in small hammers, where 
straightforward work is executed. Large 
hammers are now universally worked by 
hand, according to Nasmyth's original plan, 
the introduction of balanced valves giving 
the .hammer-man perfect control, even over 
the most ponderous machines (Pract. Meek, 
Journ. July 1848 p. 77, November 1855 
p. 174). The patent of 1843 contained a 
claim for the application of the invention 
as a pile-driver, and the first steam pile- 
driver was used in the Ilamoaze in July 1845. 
In that year Napier took out a further patent 
for a special form of steam-hammer for work- 
ing and dressing stone. So much was the 
machine in his mind that he designed a 
steam-engine in which the parts were arranged 
as in a steam-hammer, the cylinder being in- 
verted. For this engine he received a prize 
medal at the exhibition of 1851, and the de- 
sign has since been largely adopted for marine 
engines (cf. Engineer, 3 May 1867, p. 392). 

Attempts have been made to deprive 
Nasmyth of the credit of the invention of 
the steam-hammer, and it has been pointed 
out that James Watt in his patent of 1784 
(No. 1432), and William Deverell in 1806 
(No. 2939), had both suggested a direct- 
acting steam-hammer. In 1871 Schneider 
gave evidence before a select committee of 



the House of Commons, in the course of 
which he stated that the first idea of a steam- 
hammer was due to his chief manager. 
Thereupon Nasmyth obtained leave to be 
heard by the committee for the purpose of 
placing his version of the matter before 
them. The question of priority is fully dis- 
cussed in the ' Engineer/ 16 May 1890, 
p. 407. A working model of the hammer, 
with the self-acting gear, made at Patri- 
croft, may be seen at South Kensington, 
together with an oil-painting by Nasmyth 
himself, representing tne forging of a large 
shaft. 

The fame of Nasmyth's great invention 
has tended to obscure his merits as a con- 
triver of machine-tools. Though he was not 
the discoverer of what is known as the self- 
acting principle, in which the tool is held by 
an iron hand or vice while it is constrained 
to move in a definite direction by means of 
a slide, he saw very early in his career the 
importance of this principle. While in the 
employment of Maudslay he invented the 
nut-shaping machine, and in later years 
the Bridgewater foundry became famous 
for machine-tools of all kinds, of excellent 
workmanship and elegant design. He used 
to say that the artistic perception which he 
inherited from his father was of singular ser- 
vice to him. Many of these are figured and 
described in George Ronnie's edition of Bu- 
chanan's 'Essays on Mill work* (1841), to 
which Nasmyth contributed a section on the 
introduction of the slide principle in tools 
and machines. Most of his workshop contri- 
vances are included in the appendix to his 
' Autobiography.' As far back as 1829 he in- 
vented a flexible shaft, consisting of a close- 
coiled spiral wire, for driving small drills. 
This has been re-invented several times since, 
and is now in general use by dentists as a 
supposed American contrivance. He seems 
also to have been the first to suggest the use 
of a submerged chain for towing boats on 
rivers and canals. He proposed the use of 
chilled cast-iron shot at a meeting of the 
British Association at Cambridge in 1862, 
some months before Palliser took out his 

Eatent in May 1863. Having been requested 
v Faraday to furnish some striking example 
of the power of machinery in overcoming 
resistance to penetration, he contrived a 
rough hydraulic punching-machine, by which 
he was enabled to punch a hole through a 
block of iron five inches thick. This was 
exhibited by Faraday at one of his lectures 
at the Royal Institution. Subsequently 
Nasmyth communicated his ideas to Sir 
Charles Fox, of Fox, Henderson, & Co., and 
a machine was constructed for punching by 



Nasmyth 



118 



Nasmyth 



hydraulic power the holes in the links of a 
chain bridge then being constructed by the 
firm. 

From a very early age he took great in- 
terest in astronomy, and in 1827 he con- 
structed with his own hands a very effective 
reflecting telescope of six inches diameter. 
His first appearance as a writer on the sub- 
ject was in 1843, when he contributed a 
paper on the train of the great comet to the 
' Monthly Notices of the Royal Astrono- 
mical Society ' (v. 270). This was followed 
in 1846 by one on the telescopic appearance 
of the moon (Mem. Royal Astron. Soc. xv. 
147). The instrument with which most of 
his work was done was a telescope with a 
speculum of twenty inches diameter, mounted 
on a turntable according to a plan of his 
own invention, the object being viewed 
through one of the trunnions, which was 
made hollow for that purpose. He devoted 
himself more particularly to a study of the 
moon's surface, and made a series of careful 
drawings, which he sent to the exhibition 
of 1851, and for which he received a prize 
medal. In 1874 he published, in conjunc- 
tion with James Carpenter, an elaborate 
work under the title of 'The Moon con- 
sidered as a Planet, a World, and a Satellite/ 
This work embodied the results of many 
years' observations, and its object was to 
give ' a rational explanation of the surface 
details of the moon which should be in 
accordance with the generally received theory 
of planetary formation.' The illustrations 
consist of photographs taken from carefully 
constructed models placed in strong sun- 
light, which give a better idea of the tele- 
scopic aspect of the moon than photographs 
taken direct. He was the first to observe in 
June 1860 a peculiar mottled appearance of 
the sun's surface, to which he pave the name 
of 'willow leaves,' but which other ob- 
servers prefer to call ' rice grains.' He com- 
municated an account of this phenomenon 
to the Literary and Philosophical Society of 
Manchester in 1861 (Memoirs, 3rd ser. i. 
407). The discovery attracted much atten- 
tion at the time, and gave rise to consider- 
able discussion ; but no satisfactory explana- 
tion of the willow leaves has yet been 
propounded. 

In 1856 he retired from business, and settled 
at Penshurst, Kent, where he purchased the 
house formerly belonging to F. R. Lee, 
R.A. This he named Hammerfield, from his 
' hereditary regard for hammers, two broken 
hammer-shafts having been the crest of the 
family for hundreds of years.' He died at 
Bailey's Hotel, South Kensington, on 7 May 
1890. Nasmyth married, on 16 June 1840, 



Miss Hartop, daughter of the manager of 
Earl Fitzwiiliam's ironworks near Barnsley. 
[Jam es Nasmyth: an Autobiography, ed. 
Smiles, 1883 ; Griffin's Contemporary Biog. in 
Addit. MS. 28511, f. 212. A list of his scientific 
papers is given in the Royal Soc Cat., and his 
various patents are described in the Engineer, 
16 and 23 May 1890.] R. B. P. 

NASMYTH, PATRICK (1787-1881), 
landscape-painter, born in Edinburgh on 
7 Jan. 1787, was the eldest son of Alexander 
Nasmyth [q. v.] the painter, and his wife 
Barbara Foulis. He early displayed a turn 
for art, and was fond of playing truant from 
school in order that he might wander in the 
fields and sketch the scenes and objects that 
surrounded him. He received his earliest 
instruction in art from his father, and studied 
with immense care and industry, painting* 
with his left hand after his right had been 
incapacitated by an injury received while on 
a sketching expedition with the elder Nas- 
myth. He also suffered from deafness, the 
result of an illness produced by sleeping in 
a damp bed when he was about seventeen 
years of age. From 1808 to 1814 he exhi- 
bited his works in the rooms of the Society 
of Associated Artists, Edinburgh; and he 
contributed to the Royal Institution, Edin- 
burgh, 1821-8, and to the Scottish Academy 
in 1830 and 1831. In 1808 he removed to 
London, but he did not exhibit in the Royal 
Academy till 1811 (compare catalogues),when 
he was represented by a ' View of Loch Ka- 
trine/ ana he afterwards contributed at inter- 
vals till 1830. In 1824 he became a founda- 
tion member of the Society of British Artists, 
with whom, as also in the British Institu- 
tion, he exhibited during the rest of his life. 
His earliest productions dealt chiefly with 
Scottish landscape, but in the neighbourhood 
of London he found homely rustic scenes- 
better suited to his brush. He delighted to 
render nature in her humbler aspects, paint- 
ing hedgerow subjects with great care and 
delicacy, his favourite tree being the dwarfed 
oak. He also closely studied the Dutch land- 
scape-painters, and imitated their manner 
with such success that he has been styled 
' the English Hobbema, , so precise and spirited 
is his touch, so brilliant are the skies that ap- 
pear above the low-toned fields and foliage 
in his pictures. In all monetary matters- 
he was singularly careless, and he seems to 
have fallen into habits of dissipation which 
undermined his constitution. While re- 
covering from an attack of influenza he caught 
a chill as he was sketching a group of pollard 
willows on the Thames; and he died at 
Lambeth on 17 Aug. 1831, propped up in 
bed at his own request, that he might witness- 



Nassau 



119 



Nassau 



a thunderstorm that was then raging. He 
was buried in St. Mary's Church, where the 
Scottish artists in London erected a stone 
over his grave. Patrick Nasmyth is one of 
the characters ' brought upon the scene as 
sketches from the life' in John Burnet's 
' Progress of the Painter ' (London, 1864). 
Since his death the reputation of his works 
has greatly increased. One of the finest, 
' Haselmere,' sold for 1,300 guineas at Chris- 
tie's in 1892, and his ' Turner's Hill, East 
Grinstead,' realised 987/. at Christie's in 
1886. He is represented in the National 
Gallery by five works, in the South Kensing- 
ton Museum by three, and in the National 
Gallery of Scotland by one. His portrait, 
a chalk drawing by William Bewick, is in 
the National Portrait Gallery, London. 

[James Nasmyth's Autobiography, London, 
1883; Redgrave's Diet, of Artists, London, 
1878; Anderson's Scottish Nation; Catalogues 
of Exhibitions, &c, mentioned above ; Academy, 
29 May 1886; Scotsman, 20 June 1892. His 
name is duly entered as • Patrick ' in the City of 
Edinburgh Baptism Register, 6 Feb. 1787, though 
he appears as • Peter Nasmyth ' in some of the 
catalogues of the Society of Associated Artists 
and of the Royal Institution of Edinburgh.] 

J. M. G. 

NASSAU, GEORGE RICHARD 
SAVAGE (1756-1823), bibliophile, born 
on 5 Sept. 1756, was second son of the Hon. 
Richard Savage Nassau, who was second 
son of Frederic, third earl of Rochford. His 
mother, Anne, was only daughter and heiress 
of Edward Spencer of Rendlesham, Suffolk, 
and widow of James, third duke of Hamilton. 
Under the will of Sir John Fitch Barker of 
Grimston Hall, Trimley St. Martin, Suffolk, 
who died on 3 Jan. 1766, he inherited con- 
siderable possessions. In 1805 he served as 
high sheriff for Suffolk. He died in Charles 
Street, Berkeley Square, London, on 18 Aug. 
1823, from the effects of a paralytic seizure, 
and was buried in Easton Church, Suffolk, 
where a monument was erected to his 
memory. 

Nassau was a man of considerable attain- 
ments and culture. His literary tastes found 
gratification in the formation of a fine 
library, rich in emblem books, early English 
poetry, the drama, topography, and his- 
tory. In the two latter departments his 
collection comprised many large-paper copies, 
which were extra-illustrated by the inser- 
tion of numerous drawings, prints, and por- 
traits, and were accompanied by rare his- 
torical tracts. For the history of Suffolk he 
made extensive collections, both printed and 
manuscript, which he enriched by a profu- 
sion of portraits and engravings. He like- 



wise employed the pencils of Rooker, Hearne, 
and Byrne, and many Suffolk artists, parti- 
cularly Gainsborough, Frost, and Johnson, 
to depict the most striking scenes and ob- 
jects in his favourite county. Of this re- 
markable library only the volumes of Suffolk 
manuscripts, thirty in number, were reserved 
for the library of the family mansion at 
Easton. The bulk was sold by Evans in 
1824 in two parts, the first on 16 Feb. and 
eleven following days, and the second on 
8 March and seven following days. The 
catalogue contained 4,264 lots, and the 
whole collection realised the sum of 8,500/. 
A few of the most remarkable articles of 
Nassau's library are noticed in Adam Clarke's 
' Repertorium Bibliographicum.' 

[Nichols's Illustr. of Lit. vi. 327.] G. G. 

NASSAU, HENRY, Count and Lokd of 
Ajjverquerqfe (1641-1708), general, born 
in 1641, was third son of Louis, count of 
Nassau (illegitimate son of Maurice, prince of 
Orange, grand-uncle of William III, king of 
England), by his wife Elizabeth, daughter 
of Count de Horn. Henry accompanied 
William, prince of Orange, on his visit to 
Oxford in 1670, and received from the uni- 
versity the degree of D.C.L. (20 Dec.) He 
attended William with great devotion during 
his illness in the spring of 1675, and saved 
his life at the risk of his own at the battle 
of Mons, 13 Aug. (N.S.) 1678. In recognition 
of this service he was presented by the 
States-General with a gold-hilted sword, a 
gold inlaid pair of pistols, and a pair of gold 
horse-buckles. He came to England in 1686 
as William's special envoy to congratulate 
James II on bis accession, attended William 
to England in 1688 as captain of his body- 
guard, was appointed in February 1688-9 his 
master of the horse, and the same year was 
naturalised by act of parliament. He fought 
at the battle of the Boyne, 1 July 1690, and 
afterwards occupied Dublin with nine troops 
of horse, and served at Limerick. Advanced 
to the rank of major-general 16 March 1690- 1 , 
he served in the subsequent campaign in 
Flanders, and distinguished himself by the 
gallant manner in which he rescued the re- 
mains of Mackay's division at the battle of 
Steinkirk, July 1692. 

In February 1692-3 he was appointed 
deputy stadtholder, and in the summer of 
1697 was promoted to the rank of general in 
the English army. William on his death- 
bed thanked him for his long and faithful 
services. In command of the Dutch forces, 
with the rank of field-marshal, he co-operated 
with Marlborough, whose entire confidence 
he enjoyed, in the earlier campaigns of the 



Nassyngton 



I20 



Natares 



war of the Spanish succession, and died in 
the camp before Lille on 17 Oct. (N.S.) 1708. 
He was buried at Owerkerk (Auverquerque) 
in Zealand, of which place he was lord. 

Nassau married Isabella van Aersen, 
daughter of Cornelius, lord of Sommelsdyck 
and Plaata, who survived him, and died in 
January 1720. By her Nassau had issue five 
sons, the eldest of whom died in his life- 
time, and one daughter. Nassau's only daugh- 
ter, Isabella, became in 1691 the second wife 
of Charles Grenville, lord Lansdowne, after- 
wards second Earl of Bath. His second son, 
Henry (d. 1764), was raised to the peerage by 
letters patent of 24 Dec. 1698, by the titles 
of Baron Alford, Viscount of Boston, and 
Earl of Grantham. He married Henrietta, 
daughter of Thomas Butler, styled Earl of 
Ossory, by whom he had issue two sons, who 
died without issue, and three daughters, of 
whom the youngest, Henrietta, married, on 
27 June 1732, William, second earl Cowper. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Wood's Fasti Oxon. 
(Bliss), ii. 324 ; Harris's Life of William III, 
1749, p. 60 ; Harl. Misc. ii. 211 ; Clarendon and 
Rochester Corresp. i. 115, 116??.; Dalrymple's 
Memoirs of Great Britain and Ireland, ii. 116; 
Fox's Hist, of the Early Part of the Reign of 
James II, App. p. xl et seq. ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 
-6th Rep. App. p. 381, 7th Rep. App. p. 759, 
10th Rep. App. v. 130 et seq., 11th Rep. 
App. v. 178 ; Dean Dayies's Journ. (Camd. Soc.) 
p. 144 ; Grimblot's Letters of William III and 
Louis XIV, i. 323, 427, ii. 236 ; Burnet's Own 
Time, fol., ii. 78, 303, 381 ; LuttrelTs Relation of 
State Affairs ; Coxe's Marlborough, ii. 556-8 ; 
Carte's Ormonde, ii. 607 ; Hist. Reg. Chron. 
Diary (1728), p. 6 ; Notes and Queries, 5th ser. 
iv. 525 ; Commons' Journ. x. 130; Lords' Journ. 
xvi. 367; Groen Van Prinsterer's Archives de la 
Maison d'Orange-Nassau, 2 me se'rie, v. 348, 
350 ; Burke's Extinct Peerage ; Imhof 's No- 
titia S. Rom. German. Imp. Procer. (1699), 1. v. 
c. 6, § 30; Eg. MS. 1707, f. 328; Kobus and 
Rivecourt's Biog. Handwoordenboek van Neder- 
land; Van der Aa's Biog. Woordenboek der 
Nederlanden; Peerage of England, 1710,* Grant- 
ham;' and Complete Peerage, 1892, 'Grantham.'] 

J. M. R. 

NASSYNGTON, WILLIAM op (fl. 
1375?), translator, probably came from Nas- 
«ington in Northamptonshire, and is de- 
scribed as proctor in the ecclesiastical court 
of York. That he lived in the north of 
England is proved by the dialect in which 
his work is written, but his date has been 
very variously given. Warton puts him as 
lato as 1480 ; but as the transcript of his 
work in the Royal MSS. is dated 1418, it is 
almost certain that he lived in the latter 
half of the fourteenth century. He is pro- 
bably distinct from the William of Nassynton 



who is mentioned in 1356 in connection with 
the church of St. Peter, Exeter (Cal.Inq.post 
mortem, ii. 190 b). Nassyngton's one claim to 
remembrance is his translation into English 
verse of a ' Treatise on the Trinity and Unity, 
with a Declaration of God's Works and of the 
Passion of Jesus Christ/ written in Latin by 
one John of Waldeby or Waldly, who had 
studied in the Augustinian convent at Ox- 
ford, and became provincial of the Austin 
Friars in England. The ' Myrrour of Life,' 
sometimes attributed to Richard Rolle [q. v.] 
of Hampole, is identical with Nassyngton's 
translation. Three manuscript copies of it 
are in the British Museum, viz. Keg. MS. 
17. C. viii, Additional MS. 22568, and Addi- 
tional MS. 22283, ff. 33-61 ; two are in the 
Bodleian Library, Oxford, viz. Rawlinson 
MSS. 884 and 890 ; another, said by Warton 
to be in the library of Lincoln Cathedral, is 
really a different work. The British Museum 
MSS. show some variation at the end of the 
work, and Additional MS. 22283 is imperfect, 
lacking about 950 lines at the beginning. 
Additional MS. 22558, which appears to 
be the most complete, contains nearly fifteen 
thousand lines. It begins with a commentary 
on the Lord's Prayer, and ends with the Beati- 
tudes. The sentences from the Lord's Prayer 
are worked in in Latin, but the commentary 
is in English, and in Addit ioaal MS. 22283 the 
Latin sentences only appear in the margin. 
The authorship is determined by the con- 
cluding lines, which ask for prayers 

For Friere Johan saule of Waldly, 
That fast studyd day and nyght, 
And made this tale in Latyn right. 
Prayer also w* deuocion 
For William saule of Nassynetone. 
[Manuscript works in Brit. Mus. Libr. ; Tan- 
ner's Bibl. Anglo-Hibernica ; Warton's English 
Poets, ii. 367-8 ; Ritson's Bibl. Anglo-Poetica, 
pp. 91-2 ; Cox's Cat. Codicum in Bibl. Bodl. ; 
Morley's English Writers, ii. 442; Notes and 
Queries, 4th ser. iii. 169.] A. F. P. 

NATARES or NATURES, EDMUND 
(d. 1649), master of Clare Hall, Cambridge, 
born in Richmondshire (Yorkshire), was ad- 
mitted probably to Catharine Hall, Cam- 
bridge, aoout 1496. He graduated B.A. in 
1500, M.A.,by special grace, 1502,B.D. 1509, 
and D.D. 1516. He became a fellow of 
Catharine Hall, and in 1507 was one of the 
proctors for the un iversity . Seven years later, 
20 Oct. 1514, he was elected master of Clare 
Hall, and held that post till his resignation 
(libera cassatio) in 1530. During his master- 
ship the master's chamber and the college 
treasury were burned down (1521). The 
whole buildings now belonging to the master 
were erected four years later at Natares's 



Nathalan 



121 



Nathan 



expense (Clare Coll. MSS. ; see Willis and 
Clark, i. 79). During these years he was 
four times vice-chancellor of the university, 
1618, 1521, 1626-7; and in this capacity he 
presided at the preliminary trial for neresy of 
Kobert Barneb {a . v.] for his sermon preached 
on 24 Dec. 1625, at St. Edward's Church 
(Coopbb, Annals of Cambridge, i. 314, seq.) 
toxe styles ' Dr. Notaries' a rank enemy to 
Christ, and one of those who railed against 
Master Latimer. 

In 1617 he became rector of Weston 
Colville, Cambridgeshire, and on 26 June 
1622 was presented at Winchester to the 
rectory of Middleton-unon-Tees, Durham, 
void by the death of John Palswell (State 
Papers, 14 Henry VIII, 2356). In August of 
the same year he was included in a list of 
twenty people appointed to be surveyors in 
survivorship of mines in Devonshire and 
Cornwall (ib. pp. 24, 82). Natares's suc- 
cessor (William Bell) in the Middleton- 
upon-Tees rectory was instituted in 1649, 
( post mortem Natres.' ' He gave an estate 
or money to Clare Hall for an annual ser- 
mon at Weston Colville (Coopeb). 

[Cooper's Athense Cantabrigieoses quotes 
manuscript authorities ; Le Neve's Fasti ; 
Latimer's Works, n. xii. (Parker Society); 
Robert Barnes's Supplication to Henry VHI, 
1534; Willisand Clark's Architect. Hist, of 
Cambridge ; Cooper's Annals of Cambridge, 
i. 314 seq. ; State Papers, Henry VIII ; Foxe's 
Acts and Monuments, v. 415, vii. 451 ; Hutchin- 
son's Durham, iii. 278 ; extract from MS. regis- 
ter at Clare College, communicated by the Rev. 
the Master of Clare College, Cambridge ; infor- 
mation from the Rev. John Milner, rector of 
Middleton-in-Teesdale, and the Rev. the Master 
of St. Catharine's College, Cambridge.] 

W. A. S. 

NATHALAN or NATJCHLAN (d. 
452?), Scottish saint, said to have been 
born at Tullich, Aberdeenshire, was well 
educated as a member of a noble family, but 
devoted himself wholly to divine contem- 
plation, and adopted agriculture as an occu- 
pation best suited to this object. During a 
famine he distributed all the grain he had 
accumulated, and there being none left to 
sow the fields with, he sowed them with 
sand, which resulted in a plentiful and varied 
grain-crop. Subsequently, as a penance for 
murmuring against God, he bound his hand 
and leg togetner with a lock and iron chain, 
and threw the key into the Dee, with a vow 
not to release himself until he had visited 
Rome. Arrived there, he found the rusty 
key inside a fish he had bought, and the 
pope thereupon made him a bishop. Return- 
ing in his old age to Scotland, he founded 



the churches of Bothelney (now Meldrum), 
Collie (now Cowie), and Tullich, where he 
died and was buried. He is the patron saint 
of the churches he founded. At the old kirk 
of Bothelney is Naughlan's Well, and his 
name is preserved in Kilnaughlan in Islay, 
and by the fishermen of Cowie in the 
rhyme — 

Atween the kirk and the kirk-ford 
There lies Saint Nauchlan's hoard. 

Dempster (Hist. Eccles. Scot. Bannatyne 
Club, ii. 504) attributes to Nathalan five 
treatises, none of which are extant. 

According to Adam King's 'Kalendar' 
(given in Fobbes, Scottish Saints, p. 141), 
Nathalan died on 8 Jan. 452 ; but Skene, 
Forbes, and O'Hanlon have identified him 
with Nechtanan or Nectani, an Irish saint, 
who appears in the ' Felire ' of Oengus as 
' Nechtan from the East, from Alba/ and is 
said to have been a disciple of St. Patrick 
(Tripartite Life, Rolls Ser. ii. 506), became 
abbot of Dungeimhin or Dungiven, and died 
in 677 according to the Four Masters, or 
679 according to the Annals of Tighearnach. , 
But there were no less than four Irish saints 
of this name, and their chronology is very 
confused. 

[O'Hanlon's Irish Saints, i. 127-30; Forbes's 
Kalendars of Scottish Saints, pp. 141, 417-19; 
Dempster's Historia Eccles. Gentis Scotoram 
(Bannatyne Club), ii. 504 ; Skene's Celtic Scot- 
land, ii. 170; Colgan's Acta Sanctorum; Tri- 
partite Life of St. Patrick; Diet, of Christian 
Biog. ; Chambers's Days, i. 73.] A. F. P. 

NATHAN,ISAAC (1791P-1864), musical 
composer, teacher of singing, and author, was 
born at Canterbury, Kent, about 1791, of 
Jewish parents, fieing by them intended 
for the Hebrew priesthood, he was sent 
early in life to Cambridge to study Hebrew, 
German, and Chaldean, in all of which he 
made rapid progress, with one Lyon, a teacher 
of Hebrew in the university ; but in his leisure 
he diligently practised the violin, and showed 
such uncommon aptitude for music that his 
parents were persuaded to give their consent 
to his abandoning the study of theology for 
that of music. With this object, Nathan 
was taken away from Cambridge and articled 
in London to Domenico Corn (1746-1825), 
the Italian composer and teacher. Under 
Corn's guidance Nathan advanced rapidly. 
Eight months after the apprenticeship began 
the young composer wrote and published his 
first song, ' Infant Love.' There followed in 
quick succession more works in the same 
style, the best of which was ' The Sorrows 
of Absence.* 

About 1812 Nathan was introduced by 



Nathan 



122 



Nathan 



Douglas Klnnaird [q. v J to Lord Byron, and 
thus commenced a friendship which was 
only dissolved by the death of the poet. At 
Kinnaird's suggestion Byron wrote the 'He- 
brew Melodies ' for Nathan to set to music, 
and Nathan subsequently bought the copy- 
right of the work. He intended to publish 
the 'Melodies ' by subscription, and Braham, 
on putting his name down for two copies, sug- 
gested that he should aid in their arrangement, 
and sing them in public. Accordingly the 
title-page of the first edition, published in 
1815, stated that the music was newly ar- 
ranged, harmonised, and revised by I. Nathan 
and J. Braham. But Braham's engagements 
did not allow him to share actively in the 
undertaking, and in later editions his name 
was withdrawn (cf. Pref. to 1829 ed.) The 
melodies were mainly ' a selection from the 
favourite airs sung in the religious cere- 
monies of the Jews (cf. Nathan's ' Fugitive 
Pieces/ Pref. p. ix,ed. 1829 p. 144; cf. adver- 
tisement by Byron in his collected works,Lon- 
don, 1821). Lady Caroline Lamb [q.v.] was 
also among Nathan's friends, and wrote verses 
for him to set to music. In 1829 he published 
' Fugitive Pieces and Reminiscences of Lord 
Byron . . . together with his Lordship's 
Autograph ; also some original Poetry, Let- 
ters, and Recollections of Lady Caroline 
Lamb.' Despite Nathan's claim to long in- 
timacy with Byron, Moore avoids men- 
tion of him in his ' Life ' of the poet. A 
note affixed to the earlier editions of Byron's 
works stated that the poet never ' alludes 
to his share in the melodies with complacency, 
and that Mr. Moore, having on one occasion 
rallied him a little on the manner in which 
some of them had been set to music, received 
the reply, " Sunburn Nathan ! Why do you 
always twit me with his Ebrew nasalities P 
Have I not already told you it was all Kin- 
naird's doing and my own exquisite facility 
of temper? (see Notes and Queries, 6th ser. 
1884, ix. 71). Nathan's ' Fugitive Pieces ' 
gave him a wide reputation, but the success 
of the volume was not sufficient to keep him 
out of financial difficulties. He contracted 
a large number of debts, was compelled to 
quit London, and for a time lived in retire- 
ment in the west of England and in Wales. 
On returning to London he was advised to 
appear on the stage in an attempt to satisfy 
his creditors. He accordingly made his debut 
in the part of Henry Bertram in Bishop's 
opera, ' Guy Mannering,' at Covent Garden 
about 1816. His voice was, however, too 
small in compass and strength to admit of 
this being an entirely successful experiment, 
though his method was declared by competent 
judges to have been decidedly good. As his 



next resource he essayed opera writing, and 
several operas, pantomimes, and melodramas 
of his composition were produced at Covent 
Garden and Drury Lane Theatres, one or 
two of which obtained a certain amount of 
favour. Among them may be mentioned 
'Sweethearts and Wives,' a comedy with 
music by Nathan and libretto by James Ken- 
ney [q. v.], which ran for upwards of fifty 
nights after its production at the Haymarket 
Theatre on 7 July 1823. It included two of 
Nathan's most popular songs, ' Why are you 
wandering here P * and ' I'll not be a maiden 
forsaken.' Nathan's comic opera, ' The Alcaid, 
or the Secrets of Office,' the words also by 
Kenney, was produced at the Haymarket on 
10 Aug. 1824. Nathan's musical farce, 'The 
Illustrious Stranger, or Married and Buried,' 
the words written for List on by Kenney, was 
first given at Drury Lane in October 1827 
(see Cat. Sacred Harmonic Soc. Library, 181 2, 
p. 95). 

In 1823 Nathan published 'Musurgia Vo- 
calis : an Essay on the History and Theory 
of Music, and on the Qualities, Capabilities, 
and Management of the Human Voice, with 
an Appendix on Hebrew Music ' (London, 
4to), wnich he dedicated to George IV. The 
issue of an enlarged edition was begun in 
1836, but of this only the first volume seems 
to have appeared. Contemporary critics con- 
sidered the work excellent (see Monthly Re- 
view, June 1823 ; Quart. Mus. Rev. vol. xix. ; 
R&vue £ncyclopSdique f jp. 156, October 1823; 
La Belle AssernbUe, July 1823). Nathan also 
gave to the world a ' Life of Mme. Malibran 
ae Beriot, interspersed with original Anec- 
dotes and critical Remarks on her Musical 
Powers' (1st and 3rd ed. London, 1836, 
12mo). He was appointed musical historian 
to George IV, and instructor in music to the 
Princess Charlotte of Wales. 

In 1841 Nathan emigrated to Australia, 
because, it is said, of his failure to obtain from 
Lord Melbourne's ministry recognition of a 
claim for 2,326/. on account, he asserted, of 
work done and money expended in the service 
of the crown. The precise nature of the work 
is not stated by INathan, but his treatment 
at the hands of the ' Melbournitish Ministry ' 
weighed heavily upon him. The odd 326/. 
was paid him, but the remaining sum was 
disallowed (Notes and Queries, 6th ser. ix. 
355). The matter is fully dealt with by 
Nathan in 'The Southern Euphrosyne,' 
pp. 161-7, though again the precise nature of 
the business is omitted. He first took up his 
abode in Sydney at 105 Hunter Street, but 
later removed to Randwick, a suburb of that 
city; and there, and indeed in the entire 
colony, he did a great deal to benefit church 



Nathan 



"3 



Natter 



music and choral societies. In 1846 he 
published simultaneously in Sydney and 
in London ' The Southern Euphrosyne and 
Australian Miscellany, containing Oriental 
Moral Tales, original Anecdotes, Poetry, and 
Music ; an historical Sketch with Examples 
of the Native Aboriginal Melodies put. into 
modern Rhythm, and harmonised as Solos, 
Quartets, &c, together with several other 
vocal Pieces arranged to a Pianoforte Ac- 
companiment by the Editor and sole Pro- 
prietor, Isaac Nathan.' He also frequently 
lectured in Sydney on the theory and prac- 
tice of music. The first, second, and third of 
a series of lectures delivered at Sydney Pro- 
prietary College were published in that city 
in 1846. 

"While resident at Randwick, where he 
named his house after Byron, he took great 
interest in the Asylum for Destitute Children, 
for whose benefit he arranged in 1 859 a monster 
concert at the Prince of Wales's Theatre, 
Sydney. He subsequently went to live at 
442 Pitt Street. He was killed in Pitt 
Street, ' in descending from a tramcar,' on 
15 Jan. 1864. He was in his seventy-fourth 
year. His last composition was a piece en- 
titled ' A Song of Freedom/ a copy of which 
was sent, through Sir John Young, to the 
Queen. Nathan's remains were interred on 
17 Jan. 1864 in the cemetery at Camper- 
down (Sydney Morning Herald, 19 Jan. 1 864). 
He was twice married, and left a number of 
children. One son, Charles, was a F.R.C.S., 
enjoyed a wide reputation as a surgeon, and 
died in September 1872. Another son, 
Robert, was an officer in the New South 
"Wales regular artillery, and aide-de-camp to 
the governor, Lord Augustus Loftus. 

In the music catalogue of the British 
Museum no less than twelve pages are de- 
voted to Nathan's compositions and literary 
works, all of which savour strongly of the 
dilettante. Of those not hitherto mentioned 
the best are: 1. A national song, ' God save 
the Regent,' poem by J. J. Stockdale (London, 
fol. 1818). 2. ' Long live our Monarch,' for 
solo, chor us, and orchestra (London, fol. 1 830) . 

[Authorities cited abore ; also Notes and 
Queries, 6th ser. viii. 494, ix. 71, 137, 178, 197, 
355 ; Cat. Anglo-Jewish Hist. Exhib. ; Letters 
from Byron to Moore, 22 Feb. 1815; Allibone's 
Diet, of Eogl. Lit. 1870, Philadelphia; Geor- 
gian Era, iv. 281 ; Heaton's Australian Diet, of 
Dates, 1879, p. 160 ; Jewish Chronicle, 25 March 
1864.] R. H. L. 

NATTER, LORENZ (1705-1763), gem- 
engraver and medallist, was born 21 March 
1705 atBiberach in Suabia (Nattek, Treatise 
&c, p. xxix). At his native place he for six 



years followed the business of a jeweller, and 
then worked for the same period in Switzer- 
land, where he had relatives. At Berne he 
was taught by the seal-cutter Johann Ru- 
dolph Ochs [q. v.] He next went to study 
in Italy, and at Venice finally abandoned 
his jeweller's business and took to gem- 
engraving. His first productions were prin- 
cipally seals with coats of arms. On coming 
to Rome he was, he tells us (ib. p. xxviii), at 
once ' employed by the Chevalier Odam to 
copy the Venus of Mr. Vettori, to make a 
Danffi of it, and put the [supposed engraver's] 
name Aulus to it.' For this engraved stone, 
as well as for others copied by him from the 
antique, Natter found purchasers. Writing 
in 1754, he says that he is always willing to 
receive commissions to copy ancient gems, 
but declares that he never sold copies as 
originals. It is fair to notice that Natter's 
productions frequently bore a signature. His 
usual signature on gems is NATTEP or 
NATTHP. He also often signs YAPOS or 
YAPOY, a translation of the German word 
natter, a water-snake, and this was by some 
supposed to be an ancient Greek name. At 
Florence he was employed by Baron De 
Stosch, who doubtless was not scrupulous 
about disposing of Natter's imitations. Here 
also from 1732 to 1735 Natter was patronised 
by the Grand Duke of Tuscany, for whom he 
made aportrait of the Grand Duke himself, and 
one of Cardinal Albani. In 1733 he made at 
Florence a portrait-medal of Charles Sack- 
ville, earl of Middlesex (afterwards of Dor- 
set). This is signed l. natter p. flobent. 
SIawkins, Med. Illustr. ii. 504; reverse, 
arpocrates). In 1741 (or earlier) he came 
to England to work as a medallist and gem- 
engraver, bringing with him from Italy a 
collection of antique gems and sulphur casts. 
In 1743 he left England and visited, in com- 
pany with Martin Tuscher of Nuremberg, 
Denmark, Sweden, and St. Petersburg. Chris- 
tian VI, king of Denmark, gave him a room 
in his palace, where he worked at gem and 
die cutting for nearly a year. He was well 
paid, and presented by the king with a gold 
medal. Walpole (Anecdotes of Painting, 
' Natter') says that Natter visited Holland 
in 1746. Natter does not mention this visit, 
but he was certainly patronised by Wil- 
liam IV of Orange and his family, and made 
for them portraits in intaglio and portrait- 
medals, the latter executed in 1751 (Haw- 
kins, Med. Illustr. ii. 663, 666). He returned 
to England in or before 1754, and appears 
to have remained here till the summer of 
1762. 

During Natter's two visits to England he 
was patronised by the royal family, and in 



Natter 



124 



Nattes 



1741 made the medal ' Tribute to George II' 
(Hawkins, op. cit. ii. 566, signed L. nat- 
teb, and L. N.) He was much patro- 
nised by Sir Edward Walpole (H. Waxpole, 
Letters, ed. Cunningham, ix. 154) and by 
Thomas Hollis. He engraved two or three 
seals with the head of Sir Robert Walpole, 
and produced a medal (Hawkins, op. cit. ii. 
562, 567) of him with a bust from Rysbrach's 
model, and having on the reverse a statue 
of Cicero with the legend, * Regit dictis am- 
nios/ This medal was engraved in * The 
Medalist ' (Hawkins, u.s.), with the legend 
altered to 'Regit nummis amnios.' Natter, 
when at Count Moltke's table in Denmark, 
mentioned this alteration, and someone sugf- 
gested 4 Regit nummis animos et nummis re- 
gitur ipse/ a motto which was afterwards en- 
graved on the edge of some specimens of the 
medals, one of which is in the British Museum. 
For Hollis (who speaks of this artist as 
' a worthy man ') Natter engraved, for ten 
guineas, a seal with the head of Britannia, 
and also a cameo of ' Britannia Victrix,' with 
a head of Algernon Sydney on the reverse. 
He also engraved a portrait of Hollis in in- 
taglio, and a head of Socrates in green jasper, 
which latter Hollis presented to Archbishop 
Seeker in 1757 (Nichols, Lit. Illustr. iii. 479- 
480). A portrait of Natter drawn by him- 
self, ' exceeding like/ is mentioned in Hollis's 
4 Memoirs/ p. 183. Natter also worked for 
the Dukes of Devonshire and Marlborough, 
and drew up for the latter a catalogue of 
the Bessborough gems, which were incor- 
porated with the Marlborough cabinet. This 
was published in 1761 as ' Catalogue des 
pierres gravees tant en relief qu'en creux de 
Mylord Comte de Bessborough, London, 4to, 
with plates. On the title-page Natter is de- 
scribed as fellow of the Royal Society and 
of the Society of Antiquaries of London. He 
projected, but did not carry out, a work on 
glyptography, called ' Museum Britannicum.' 
According to Ruding (Annals of the Coinage, 
i. 45), Natter was employed as engraver or 
assistant-engraver at the English mint at the 
beginning of the reign of George III, but he 
cannot be right in stating that he was so 
employed in the fourth year of this reign, i.e. 
25 Oct. 1763—24 Oct. 1764. In the sum- 
mer of 1762 Natter went in the exercise of 
his profession to St. Petersburg, and died 
there of asthma late in the autumn of 1 763 (ac- 
cording to Walpole, Anecdotes, on 27 Dec. ; 
according to Allgemeine deutsche Biog. on 
27 Oct.) 

Numerous gems engraved by Natter are 
described by Kaspe in nis ' Catalogue of the 
Tassie Collection.' Among these may be 
mentioned No. 1706, pi. xxv., 'Birth of 



Athena;' No. 9116, pi. Ii., < Bust of Paris 
in Phrygian Cap/ apparently copied from a 
fine silver coin of Carthage (B. V. Head, 
Guide to Coins of Ancients, iii. C. 41) ; No. 
11043, « Head of Augustus ; ' No. 15787, onyx 
cameo with portrait of the Marchioness of 
Rockingham ; Nos. 15785-6, cameos of the 
Marquis of Rockingham. Among Natter's 
best imitations of the antique was his copy 
of the Medusa, with the name Sosikles, at 
that time in the cabinet of Hemsterhuys, 
a correspondent of Natter's on glyptography 
(King, Antique Gems, &c, p. xxviii). He 
also copied the ' Julia Titi of Evodus.' A 
description of his works preserved in the 
Imperial Cabinet at St. Petersburg is given 
in J. Bernoulli's « Travels/ iv. 248. Natter's 
talents as a gem-engraver were warmly eulo- 

5ised by Goethe ( Winckelmann und sein 
ahrhundert, ii. 100). H. K. Kohler(Gfe- 
sammelte Schrifte, 1851, p. 119) remarks on 
his freedom from mannerism. Charles Wil- 
liam King (Antique Gems, &c, i. 467), while 
calling him ' one of the greatest of the modern 
practitioners of the art/ considers that his 
works 'differ materially from the antique, 
particularly in the treatment of the hair ' (ib. 
p. 436). 

Asamedallist Natterwas decidedly skilful, 
though he produced comparatively few works. 
Natter published in 1754 ' A Treatise on the 
Ancient Method of Engraving on Precious 
Stones compared with the Modern/ London, 
fol. This was also published in French in 
the same year ('Trait6 de la methode antique 
de graver en pierres fines/ &c, folio). In 
this interesting treatise Natter gives from 
his own experience practical instructions in 
gem-engraving. He strongly advises be- 
ginners to copy from the antique. Godefrid 
Kraft of Danzig is mentioned by him as a 
pupil of his in the glyptic art. 

Nagler and Bolzenthal (Skizzen f y. 251), 
followed in Hawkins's ' Medallic Illustra- 
tions/give Natter's name as * Johann Lorenz.' 
There seems no authority for the ' Johann ; ' 
Natter on his gems and medals and on the 
title-pages of his publications uses only the 
christian name ' Lorenz ' (Laurent, Lauren- 
tius, &c.) 

[Natter's writings; P. Beck's art. 'Natter' 
in Allgemeine deutsche Biographic ; Hollis's 
Memoirs, pp. 81, 182-4; Hawkins's Medallic 
Illustrations, ed. Franks and Grueber; King's 
Antique Gems and Rings, and his Handbook of 
Engraved Gems ; Walpole's Anecdotes of Paint- 
ing, ed. Wornum, iii. 763, 764.] W. W. 

NATTES, JOHN CLAUDE (1765 P- 
1822), topographical draughtsman and water- 
colour painter, is stated to have been born in 
1765, and to have been a pupil of Hugh 



Nau 



"5 



Nau 



Primrose Deane,the Irish landscape-painter. 
Nattes worked as a topographical draughts- 
man, travelling all over Great Britain and 
also in France. His method of colouring 
causes his drawings to be ranked among the 
earliest examples of water-colour painting in 
this country, though there is little artistic 
merit in his productions. He published the 
following works, illustrated by himself: ' Hi- 
bernia Depicta,' 1802 ; ' Scotia Depicta/ 1804; 
• Select Views of Bath, Bristol, Malvern, 
Cheltenham, and Weymouth/ 1805 ; * Bath 
Illustrated/ 1806 ; ' Views of Versailles, j 
Paris, and St. Denis/ 1809 (?). Other draw- , 
ings of his were engraved for the * Beauties 
of England and Wales/ the ' Copperplate 
Magazine/ and Howlett's ' Views in the 
County of Lincoln/ Nattes was an occa- 
sional exhibitor at the Royal Academy from 
1782 to 1804. In the latter year he was 
one of the artists associated in the founda- 
tion of the 'Old* Society of Painters in 
Water-colours. He contributed to their ex- 
hibitions up to 1807, in which year he was 
convicted of having exhibited drawings 
that were not his own work. Nattes was 
therefore expelled from the society. He re- 
sumed exhibiting at the Royal Academy up 
to 1814, and died in London in 1822. He 
lived at No. 49 South Molton Street. 

[Roget's History of the ' Old Water- Colour * 
Society ; Redgrave's Diet, of Artists.] L. C. 

NATJ, CLAUDE db ia BOISSELIERE 
(fl. 1574-1605), secretary of Mary Queen of 
Scots, was descended from an old French 
family originally settled in Touraine, but 
subsequently in Paris under the patronage of 
the house of Guise. He was educated for 
the law, and for some time practised in the 
courts of parliament. After acting as secre- 
tary to the Cardinal of Lorraine, he entered 
the service of the king of France, by whom 
he was made counsellor and auditor of the 
Chambre des Comptes (M. Db La Chenaye- 
Desbois, Dictionnaire de la Noblesse, Paris, 
1775, s.n.) On the death of Queen Mary's 
secretary Kaullet, in 1574, he was, on the re- 
commendation of the Cardinal of Lorraine, 
chosen to succeed him, and entered upon his 
duties in the spring of 1575. Mary was 
then a prisoner in the Earl of Shrewsbury's 
house at Sheffield. Besides succeeding to the 
secretarial duties of Raullet, he was entrusted 
with the management of the queen's accounts. 
He was also her confidant and adviser in 
all important matters of policy. He showed 
himself both zealous and able, but a letter to 
his brother in 1577 indicates also supreme 
devotion to his own personal interests. He 
advised his brother, for whom he was de- 



sirous to obtain the office of treasurer to the 
queen, whenever he talked to any of the* 
king's servants about him, ' to always com- 
plain of my stay here, and that I am losing 
in this prison my best years, and the reward 
of my services and all hopes of advancement * 
(Leaoeb, Captivity of Mary Stuart, p. 397), 

In 1579 Nau was sent by Mary on a mis- 
sion to Scotland, the removal of Morton 
from the regency having aroused hopes that 
her cause might win the support of the new 
advisers of the king of Scots. On 17 June 
he presented himself at the castle of Edin- 
burgh, desiring to speak with the master of 
Gray, but was refused an audience (Moysie, 
Memoirs, p. 23]). He therefore, on the 19th, 
passed to Stirling; but as the communica- 
tion sent by Mary to King James was merely 
addressed ' To our Son the Prince of Scot- 
land/ the king, with the advice of the privy 
council, declared * the said Franscheman un- 
worthy of his Hienes presence or audience r 
and to deserve seveir puneisment for his 
presumptioun, meit to be execute presentlie 
upoun him war it nocht for the respect of 
his dearest suster, the Queene of England, 
and hir servand that accumpanyis him ' (Reg. 
P. C. Scotl iii. 186). He again undertook 
a mission to Scotland after the final fall of 
Morton, leaving Sheffield on 4 Dec. 1581 
(Cat. State Papers, Scott. Ser. p. 932), and 
returning again on 3 Dec. 1582 {ib. p. 935). 
In 1584, after long negotiations, he was per- 
mitted an interview with Elizabeth, chiefly 
to present complaints of the Scottish queen 
against Lady Shrewsbury (Sadler, State 
Papers, ii. passim). After a favourable re- 
ception he returned to Wingfield on 29 Dec. 

Nau, aided by his subordinate, Curie, 
was supposed to be the chief agent in 
carrying on the correspondence with An- 
thony Babington [q. v.] in connection with 
the conspiracy against Elizabeth. Both 
were apprehended, along with Mary Queen 
of Scots, on 8 Aug. 1586. They were 
sent up to London, and were several times 
examined as to their knowledge of the plot. 
Nau was stated to have confessed that Mary 
wrote the letter to Babington with her 
own hand (Cal. State Papers, Scott. Ser. p. 
1010), and that he admitted her knowledge 
of the plot is substantially borne out by the 
report of the trial (evidence against Mary 
Queen of Scots in Hardwicke, State Papers, 
i. 224-57) ; but he nevertheless, on 10 Sept., 
addressed a memorial to Elizabeth, in which 
he protested that Mary ' had no connection 
or concern with the designs of Babington 
and others' (Labanoff, Letters of Mary 
Stuart, vii. 194-5). Mary asserted that Nau 
had been induced by threats of torture to 



Nau 



126 



Naunton 



make untrue confessions against her. He 
seems to have ingeniously defended himself 
against the accusation 01 betraying her, by 
explaining that such confessions as he was 
induced to make were really more beneficial 
to her than absolute silence. The fact, how- 
ever, that he received his liberty while she 
was condemned seems to indicate that with 
him the main consideration was his own 
safety. Nau sent certain papers to Mary 
from London in vindication 01 his conduct, 
and she forwarded them for examination to 
the Duke of Guise, who declared his con- 
viction that the suspicions against Nau were 
not justified (manuscript in British Museum, 
Cottonian Library, Calig. D. fol. 89 b, quoted 
in Stevenson's preface to Natt, Hist, of Mary 
Stewart). The general impression among 
the friends of Mary was, however, that Nau 
had betrayed her. It was also stated that 
he had taken advantage of his opportunities, 
as manager of Mary's finance, to enrich him- 
self ; that when taken prisoner at Ohartlev, 
Staffordshire, twenty thousand livres, all in 
hard cash, were found in his wardrobe, to- 
gether with thirty costly mantles ; that when 
he crossed over to France he carried with 
him ten thousand livres, and that he had pro- 
perty in France amounting to one hundred 
thousand livres, all amassed within twelve 

J ears (' La Morte de la Royne d'JScosse/ in 
ebb, Collections, ii. 661). 

Nau was set at liberty about 7 Sept. 1587 
(Cdl. State Papers, Dom. Ser. 1581-90, p. 
424), and immediately crossed over to France. 
On his return he was nominated councillor 
and intendant of finances, and on 1 July 
1600 secretary in ordinary of the chamber of 
the king. By Henry IV he was ennobled 
by letters dated at Fontainebleau in May 
1605. In the same year he visited England, 
when he addressed a memorial to James I 
in vindication of his conduct in reference to 
Mary Stuart. 

By his wife, Anne du Jardin, Nau had a 
son, James, and three daughters, Claude, 
Martha, and Mary. During his residence at 
Chartley he vainly paid addresses, in 1586, to 
Bessie Pierrepoint, who was in attendance 
on the Queen of Scots (ib. Scott. Ser. passim). 

A manuscript in the British Museum en- 
titled ' An Historical Treatise concerning the 
Affairs of Scotland, chiefly in Vindication of 
Mary Queen of Scots ' (Caligula B. iv. 94- 
129), was published by Joseph Stevenson, 
S.J., as the work of Nau, under the title 
* History of Mary Stewart from the Murder 
of Riccio until her flight into England/ 
Edinburgh, 1883. Mr. Stevenson is of opi- 
nion that it was authoritatively the work of 
Mary herself. He also states that Nau seems 



to have intended to write an account of the 
royal house of Stuart from the accession of 
King Robert II to his own time, and that 
with that view ' he began his collections by 
translating into French the Latin history of 
Bishop Leslie ' (MS. Cot. Vesp. Calig. xvi. 
fol. 41, from a.d. 1436 to 1454), to which « he 
added a continuation, a few fragments of 
which remain.' Besides his skill as a finan- 
cier, Nau had special linguistic qualifications 
for Mary's service, could read and speak 
English and Italian, and was also a specially 
good latinist. He was reputed to be ' quick 
spirited ' and ' ready/ but given to ostenta- 
tion (Sadleb, State Papers, ii. 623). 

[Cal. State Papers, Scott. Ser.; Hardwicke 
State Papers ; Letters of Mary Stuart, ed. La- 
banoff ; Sadler's State Papers; M. DeLa Chenaye- 
Desbois's Diction d aire de La Noblesse, Paris, 
1775 ; Stevenson's Preface to Nan's Hist, of 
Mary Stewart.] T. F. H. 

NATJCHLAN (d. 452?), Scottish saint. 
[See Nathalan.] 

NAUNTON, Sir ROBERT (1563-1635), 
politician, born at Alderton, Suffolk, in 1563, 
was eldest son of Henry Naunton of Alderton, 
by Elizabeth Ashby, and was grandson of 
William Naunton, whose wife Elizabeth was 
daughter of Sir Anthony Wingfield, K.G. 
Robert was educated at Cambridge, where he 
matriculated as a fellow-commoner of Trinity 
College. On 11 Nov. 1582 he was elected a 
scholar, graduating B.A. in the same year ; 
he became on 2 Oct. 1585 a minor fellow, and 
on 15 March 1585-6 a major fellow, and pro- 
ceeded M. A. soon afterwards. In 1589 Naun- 
ton accompanied his uncle William Ashby to 
Scotland, where Ashby was acting as English 
ambassador. Naunton seems to have carried 
messages between his uncle and the English 
government, and spent much of his time at 
court in London in July. He returned to 
Scotland in August ; but Ashby died in the 
following January, and Naunton's connec- 
tion with Scotland ceased. Settling again in 
Cambridge, he was elected a fellow of Trinity 
Hall in 1592, and was appointed public ora- 
tor in 1594 (Lb Neve, Fasti, iii. 614). Soon 
afterwards he attracted the attention of the 
Earl of Essex, who determined to fit him 
for a diplomatic appointment by sending him 
abroad to study continental politics and 
foreign languages. Essex obtained for him 
the position of travelling tutor to a youth 
named Vernon, and Naunton undertook, 
while he journeyed about Europe with his 
charge, to regularly send to Essex all the 
political intelligence he could scrape toge- 
ther. Writing to his patron from the Hague 
in November 1596, he complained that nis 



Naunton 



127 



Naunton 



appointment combined the characteristics of 
a pedagogue and a spy, and he could not 
decide which office was ' the more odious or 
base, as well in their eyes with whom I live 
as in mine own ' (Harl. MS. 288, f. 127). 
Early in 1597 Naunton was in Paris, and 
Essex genially endeavoured to remove his 
scruples. ' I read no man's writing ' (Essex 
wrote to him) ' with more contentment, nor 
ever saw any man so much or so fast by any 
such-like improve himself. . . . The queen is 
every day more and more pleased with your 
letters/ In November, however, Naunton 
was still discontented, and begged a three 
years' release from his employment so that 
he might visit France and Italy, and return 
home through Germany. Such an experi- 
ence, he argued, would the better fit him for 
future work in Essex's service at home (ib. 
288, f. 128). It is probable that he obtained 
his request, and Essex's misfortunes doubt- 
less prevented him from re-entering the earl's 
service. At any rate, he returned to Cam- 
bridge about 1600, and resumed his duties as 
public orator. In 1601 he served the office 
of proctor. A speech which he delivered in 
behalf of the university before James I at 
Hinchinbrook on 29 April 1608 so favourably 
impressed the king and Sir Robert Cecil that 
Naunton once again sought his fortunes at 
court (cf. Sydney Papers, ii. 825). A few 
months later he attended the Earl of Rut- 
land on a special embassy to Denmark, and, 
according to James Howell, broke down while 
making a formal address at the Danish court 
(Howell, Letters, ed. Jacobs, i. 294). On 
his return he entered parliament as member 
for Helston, Cornwall, in May 1606. He was 
chosen for Camelford in 1614, and in the three 
parliaments of 1621, 1624, and 1625 he repre- 
sented the university of Cambridge. He 
sat for Suffolk in Charles Fs first parliament. 
Although he never took a prominent part in 
the proceedings of the House of Commons, 
Naunton secured, in the early days of his 
parliamentary career, the favour of George 
V illiers. He retained it till the death of the 
favourite, and preferments accordingly came 
to him in profusion. On 7 Sept. 1614 he was 
knighted at Windsor. In 1616, when he 
ceased to be fellow of Trinity Hall, he was 
made master of requests, in succession to Sir 
Lionel Cranfield (Caeew, Letters, p. 60, Cam- 
den Soc.), and afterwards became surveyor 
of the court of wards. The latter post had 
hitherto been held 'by men learned in the 
law,' and Sir James Whitelocke complained 
that Naunton was ' a scholar and mere 
stranger to the law' (Liber Famelicus, pp. 
54, 62, Camden Soc.) 

On 8 Jan. 1617-18 Naunton, owing to 



Buckingham's influence, was promoted to be 
secretary of state. Sir Ralph Winwood, the 
last holder of this high office, had died three 
months earlier, and the king had in the in- 
terval undertaken, with the aid of Sir Thomas 
Lake Tq. v.], to perform the duties himself. 
But the arrangement soon proved irksome 
to the king, and Buckingham recommended 
Naunton as a quiet and unconspicuous per- 
son, who would act in dependence on himself. 
In consideration of his promotion, Naunton 
made Buckingham's youngest brother, Chris- 
topher Villiers, heir to lands worth 500/. a 
year. In August Naunton was appointed a 
member of the commission to examine Sir 
Walter Raleigh. Popular report credited 
Naunton with a large share of responsibility 
for Raleigh's execution on 29 Oct. 1618, and 
a wealthy Londoner named Wiemark publicly 
declared that Raleigh's head ' would do well ' 
on Naunton's shoulders. When summoned 
before the council to account for his words, 
Wiemark explained that he was merely al- 
luding to the proverb, ' Two heads are better 
than one.' Naunton jestingly revenged him- 
self by directing Wiemark to double his sub- 
scription to the fund for restoring St. Paul's 
Catnedral, of which Naunton was a com- 
missioner. Wiemark had offered 100/., but 
Naunton retorted that two hundred pounds 
were better than one (Fullbb). ' Secretary 
Naunton forgets nothing,' wrote Francis 
Bacon (Spbdding, Life, vi. 320). 

Through 1619 Naunton was mainly occu- 
pied in negotiations between the king and the 
council respecting the support to be given 
by the English government to the king's son- 
in-law, the elector Frederick in Bohemia. 
Naunton was a staunch protestant, and such 
influence as he possessed* he doubtless exer- 
cised in the elector's behalf. In May 1620 he 
wrote to Buckingham that he had not had a 
free day for two years, and that his health was 
suffering in consequence. In October Gon- 
domar complained to James that Naunton 
was enforcing the laws against catholics with 
extravagant zeal. The kmg resented Gondo- 
mar's interference, and informed him that ' his 
secretary was not in the habit of acting in 
matters of importance without his own direc- 
tions.' In the January following Naunton for 
once belied the king s description of his con- 
duct by entering without instructions from 
James into negotiations with Cadenet, the 
French ambassador. He told Cadenet that 
the king was in desperate want of money, and, 
if the French government desired to marry 
Princess Henrietta Maria to Prince Charles, 
it would be prudent to offer James a large por- 
tion with the lady. The conversation reached 
Gondomar's ears, and he brought it to James's 



Naunton 



138 



Naunton 



knowledge Naunton was sharply repri- 
manded, and threatened! with dismissal* His 
wife was frightened by bts peril into a miscar- 
riage, and, although the storm passed away, 
Naunton had lost interest in his work. All 
the negotiations for the Spanish marriage 
were distasteful to him. In September 1622 
be begped Buckingham to protect him from 
immediate removal from his post, on account 
of his wife 1 * condition, but in January 1623 
he voluntarily retired on a pension of 1,000/. a 
year. Buckingham remained his friend, and, 
although in April he made a Tain appeal for 
the prOToatshtp of Eton, in July 1623 he 
received the lucrative office of master of the 
court of wards. He sent the king an effu- 
sive letter of thanks for the appointment 
{KarL MS. 1581, No. 23), but practically 
retired from further participation in politics. 
Although he was still a member of the 
council, he was not summoned fin July 1623) 
when the oath was taken to the articles of 
the Spanish marriage, and some _ indiscreet 
expression of opinion on the subject seems 
to have led to his confinement in his own 
house in the following October, But be sent a 
warm letter of congratulation to Buckingham 
on his return from Spain in the same month 
{ Fortescue Papers, pp, 192-3, Camden Soc.) 
As master of the court of wards he dis- 
charged his duties with exceptional integrity j 
but Charles Ps advisers complained that it 
proved under his control less profitable to 
them than it might be made in less scrupulous 
hands. In March 1635 Naunton was very ill, 
but Cottington vainly persuaded him to re- 
sign. At length Charles I intervened, and, 
after receiving vague promises of future 
favours, Naunton gave up his mastership to 
Cottington on 16 March. A day or two 
later be sent a petition to the king begging 
for the payment of the arrears of the pen- 
sion granted him by James I. But his ill- 
ness took an unfavourable turn, and before 
his petition was considered he died at bis 
house at Let her Ingham, Suffolk, on 27 March* 
Naunton had inherited, through his grand- 
mother Elizabeth Naunton, daughter of Sit 
Anthony Wingfield, a residence at Lether- 
ingham, which had been formerly a priory of 
Black canons. This Sir Robert converted 
into an imposing mansion, and he added to 
it a picture-gallery . He was buried in Letber- 
ingham Church, where in 1600 be had erected 
a monument to his father and other members 
of his family. An elaborate monument was 
also placed there to his own memory ; it is 
figured in Nichols's * Leicestershire,* iii* 
SltS ; but in 1789 the church was destroyed, 
with ill its contents* Naunton built alms- 
houses at Letberingham.but he failed to en- 



dow them, and they soon fell into neglect* 
His property in the parish he bequeathed to 
his brother Willi am, who died 11 July 1635* 
William's descendants held the property till 
1758, when the Leman family became its 
owners. The old house was pulled down in 
1770. Naunton married Penelope, daughter 
and heiress of Sir Thomas Ferrot, by Dorothy f 
daughter of Walter Bevereux, first earl of 
Essex, who survived him* Naunton'e only 
son, James, died in infancy in 1624* and a. 
long epitaph was inscribed by his father on 
his tomb in Letheringham Church* An only 
daughter, Penelope, married, first, Paul, vis- 
count Bayning \d. 1038) \ and, secondly*, 
Philip Herbert, fifth cst! of Pembroke [see 
under Herbert. Philip, fourth Earl], 
When Lady Naunton, Naunton's widow, 
was invited by the parliament in 1645--6 to 
compound for her estate, which was assessed 
at 8001.*. mention was made during the pro- 
tracted negotiations of a son of hers, called 
Sir Robert Naunton, who was at the time 
imprisoned in the king's bench for debt. The 
person referred to seems to be a nephew of 
Sir Robert Naunton (CaL Committee for 
Compounding pp. 188, 600). 

Naunton left unpublished a valuable ac- 
count of the chief courtiers of Queen Eliza- 
beth, embodying many interesting reminis- 
cences. Although he treats Leicester with 
marked disdain, he made it his endeavour to 
avoid all scandal, and he omitted, he tells us, 
much information rather than' trample upon 
the graves ofpersons at rest/ He mentions 
the death of Edward Somerset, earl of Wor- 
cester, in 1628, and Sir William Knollys, 
who was created Earl of Banbury on 18 Aug. 
1626. and died in 1032, he describes as an 
earl and as still alive, These facts point 
to 1630 as the date of the composition. 
Many manuscript copies are in the British 
Museum (ct Harl M$S. S787 and 7393; 
Lantdoum* MS&23S and 254; AddiLMSS. 
22951 and 28715); one belongs to the Duke 
of Westminster (Hist. MSS. Comm* 3rd Rep, 

S, 214, cf. 246). The work was printed for the 
rat time with great carelessness in 1641, 
and bore the title, 'Fragmenta Regalia writ- 
ten by Sir Robert Naunton, Master of the 
Court of Wards** An equally unsati s factory 
reprint appeared in 1642. A revised edition 
was issued in 1653, as ' Fragment a Regalia ; 
or Observations on the late Queen Elisabeth, 
her Times and Favourites, written by Sir 
Robert Naunton, Master of the Court of 
Wards*' James Caulfield reprinted the 1641 
edition, with biographical notes, in 1 814, and 
Professor Arberthe 1663 edition in 1870. One 
or other edition also reappeared in various col- 
lections of tracta, vii. : l Arcana Aulica/ 1694, 



Navarre 



129 



Nayler 



fp. 157-247; the 'Phoenix,' 1707-8, i. 181- 
21 ; « A Collection of Tracts/ 1721 ; ' Paul 
Hentener's Travels in England,' 1797, with 
portraits ; ' Memoirs of Robert Cary, Earl of 
Monmouth/ edited by Sir Walter Scott, 
pp. 169-301 ; the ' Harleian Miscellany/ 
1809, ii. 81-108, and the ' Somers Tracts/ 
A French translation of the work is appended 
to Gregorio Leti's 'La Vie d'Elisabeth, Reine 
d'Angleterre/ Amsterdam, 1703, 8vo, and an 
Italian translation made through the French 
appears in Leti's ' Historia o vero vita di Elisa- 
betta/ Amsterdam, 1703. Another French 
version, by S. Le Pelletier, was issued in Lon- 
don in 1745. 

Some Latin and English verses and epitaphs 
by Naunton on Lords Essex and Salisbury, 
and members of his own family, are printed 
in the ' Memoirs/ 1824, from manuscript notes 
in a copy of Holland's ' Heroologia/ once in 
Naunton's possession. Several of Naunton's 
letters to Buckingham between 161 8 and 1623 
are among the Fortescue Papers at Drop- 
more, and have been edited by Mr. S. K. 
Gardiner in the volume of Fortescue Papers 
issued by the Camden Society. Others of his 
letters are in the British Museum (cf. Harl. 
MSS. 1681, Nos. 22-3) ; at Melbourne Hall 
{Cowper MSS.), and at the Public Record 
Office. 

A fine engraving by Robert Cooper, from 
a painting dated 1615 ' in possession of Mr. 
Read/ a descendant of Naunton's brother 
William, appears in ' Memoirs of Sir Robert 
Naunton/ 1814. Another engraving is by 
Simon Passi. 

[Memoirs of Sir Robert Naunton, knt., Lon- 
don. 1814, fol. ; Weever's Fcinerall Monuments, 
1631, pp. 756-7; Fuller's Worthies, 1662, pt. 
it. p. 64; Birch's Memoirs of Queen Elizabeth; 
Lloyd's Memoirs, 1665; Nichols's Leicestershire, 
iii. 515 seq. ; Page's Suffolk, p. 119; Spedding's 
Life of Bacon; Cal. State Papers, 1618-35; 
Gardiner's Hist. ; Strafford Papers, i. 369, 372, 
389,410-12. A paper roll, containing a 'stemma' 
of the Naunton family made by James Jermyn in 
1806, is in Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 17098.] 

S. L. 

NAVARRE, JOAN op (1370 P-1437). 
[See Joak.] 

NAYLER, Sir GEORGE (1764P-1831), 
Garter king-of-arms, was fifth son of George 
Nayler, surgeon, of Stroud, Gloucestershire, 
and one of the coroners of the county, by 
Sarab, daughter of John Fark of Clitheroe, 
Lancashire. The Duke of Norfolk gave him 
a commission in the West York militia, and 
in recognition of his taste for genealogy ap- 
pointea him Blanc Coursier herald and ge- 
nealogist of the order of the Bath on 15 June 
1792. His noble vellum volumes of the 

VOL. XL. 



genealogies of the knights of the Bath, now 
in the library of the College of Arms, 
are eulogised by Mark Noble in the last 
paragraph of his ' History ' of the college 
(1804). Nayler became an actual member 
of the college when appointed Bluemantle 
Pursuivant in December 1793. On 16 March 
1794 he was made York herald. When the 
Emperor Alexander of Russia was to be in- 
vested with the Garter in September 1813, 
Nayler, greatly to his disappointment, was 
not included in the mission. By way of 
consolation, the Duke of York, to whom he 
was a persona grata, persuaded the regent 
to knight him (28 Nov. 1813). At the ex- 
tension of the order of the Bath in January 
1816, Nayler was confirmed in his position 
in connection with that order, ana every 
knight commander and companion were re- 
quired to furnish him with a statement of 
their respective military services, to be en- 
tered by him in books provided for that pur- 
pose. No salary was assigned to him in 
that capacity ; his fees were trifling, and the 
'services/ according to Sir Harris Nicolas 
(Hist of the Order of the Bath, 1842, pp. 
248-9), ' after the lapse of twenty-five years 
still, it is believed, remain unwritten/ When 
the Hanoverian Guelphic order was esta- 
blished in August 1816, he was appointed 
its first king-of-arms, and in the following 
year a knight of the order. Again, when an 
order was instituted for the Ionian Islands 
by the title of the Distinguished Order of 
St. Michael and St. George, he was also 
nominated its first king-of-arms on 17 April 
1818. On 23 May 1820 he was promoted 
Clarenceux king-of-arms, in which capa- 
city he officiated as deputy to the aged Sir 
Isaac Heard (then Garter) at the coronation 
of George IV, and succeeded him as Garter 
on 11 May 1822. He went on four missions 
to foreign sovereigns with the Garter : to 
Denmark in 1822, to Portugal in 1823, to 
France in 1825, and to Russia in 1827. 
From John VI of Portugal he received the 
insignia of a knight commander of the 
Tower and Sword, which he was licensed 
by George IV to wear (5 June 1824). He 
also received from Spain the order of 
Charles III. 

Nayler died suddenly at his house, 17 Han- 
over Square, on 28 Oct. 1831, aged about 67, 
having just survived the abridged ceremonial 
of the coronation of William IV and Queen 
Adelaide, and was buried in the family 
vault at St. John's Church, Gloucester, on 
9 Nov. He left a widow and four daugh- 
ters. His portrait, painted by Sir William 
Beechey, was engraved in mezzotint by 
Edward Scriven. 



Nayler 



130 



Nayler 



Nayler was elected F.S.A. on 27 March 
1794, and in the following year sent a paper 
to the society on 'An Inscription in the 
Tower of London/ which is printed in the 
1 Archaeologia ' (xii. 193), accompanied by 
a plate representing the tablet erected in 
the Tower in 1608 by Sir William Waad, 
the then lieutenant, to commemorate the 
Gunpowder plot (cf. ArcJusologia, xviii. 
29). 

He also undertook a ' History of the Co- 
ronation of King George IV,' which he did 
not live to complete. For this work he en- 
gaged the services of Chalon, Stephanoff, 
Fugin, Wild, and other able artists. Parts 
i. and ii. were published in 1824, in atlas 
folio, price twelve guineas each. After 
Nayler 8 death the plates came into the 
hands of Henry George Bohn, and he made 
up parts iii. and iv., combining another 
contemporary work on the same subject by 
Whittaker, and republished the whole at 
twelve guineas in 1839. 

In Lowndes's ' Bibliographer's Manual ' 
(ed. Bohn, 1860, p. 1655) there is attributed 
to Nayler an anonymous publication en- 
titled ' A Collection of the Coats of Arms 
borne by the Nobility and Gentry of Glouces- 
tershire,' 4to, 1786 (2nd ed. 1792); it was 
in reality the work of one Ames, an en- 
graver at Bristol, Nayler being merely one 
of the subscribers. 

Nayler formed a collection of private acts 
of parliament, which is now in the library 
of the city of London at Guildhall. It is 
in thirty-nine volumes, and each act is illus- 
trated in manuscript, with a pedigree de- 
noting the persons named in it. The series 
commences about 1733 and extends to 1830. 
Each volume is indexed. Nayler likewise 
made a collection of impressions from coffin- 
plates, which fills fourteen volumes, and is 
now in the British Museum, Addit. MSS. 
22292-22305. They extend from 1727 to 
1831, inclusive, and each volume has an index 
and a few biographical notes made by him. 
This collection was for some time in the pos- 
session of W. B. D. D. Turnbull [a. v.], who 
added a few impressions down to 1842. 

[Nichols's Herald and Genealogist, vii. 72-80 ; 
Gent. Mag. December 1831, p. 667; Barham's 
Life of K. H. Barham, 1870.] G. G. 

NAYLER, JAMES(1617P-1660),quaker, 
was born at Ardsley, near Wakefield, West 
Biding of Yorkshire, about 1617. His father, 
a substantial yeoman, gave him a good Eng- 
lish education. About the ajje of twenty- 
.two he married and settled in Wakefield, 
where his children were born. In 1642, on 
the outbreak of the civil war, he left his wife 



in Wakefield (he never lived with her again) 
and joined the parliamentary army, serving- 
first in a foot company under Fairfax, then 
for two years as quartermaster in Lambert's 
horse. Lambert afterwards spoke of him as 
' very useful ; ' he ' parted from him with 
great regret.' While in the army he became 
an independent and a preacher. He was at 
the battle of Dunbar (3 Sept. 1650). An 
officer who heard him preach shortly after- 
wards declares, 'I was struck with more 
terror by the preaching of James Nayler than 
I was at the battle of Dunbar' (Jaffray, 
Diary, 1833, p. 643). In the same year he 
returned home on the sick list, and took to 
agriculture. He was a member of the con- 
gregational church under Christopher Mar- 
shal (d. February 1674, aged 59), meeting 
in the parish church of Woodchurch (other- 
wise West Ardsley), also at Horbury (where 
Marshal had property), both near Wake- 
field. He became a quaker during the 
visit of George Fox (1624-1691) fq. v.] 
to Wakefield in 1651. Some time after he 
had left the independents he was excom- 
municated by Marshal's church. Early in 
1652 Fox attempted to preach to the inde- 
pendents in the 'steeple-house' at Wood- 
church, but was forciblv ejected. Hence 
Nayler's letter (1654?) l To the Independent 
Society' (Collect ion,?]*. 697 seq.),in which he 
denies their church standing. This church 
afterwards met at Topcliffe, near Wakefield. 
Miall represents Nayler as expelled from the 
Topcliffe church on a charge of adultery, and 
says that, removing to London, he became a 
member of the baptist church under Han- 
serd Knollys [q. v. J, from which also he was 
expelled. The Topcliffe records, to which 
Miall refers, do not begin till 15 Feb. 1653-4. 
His real source is Scatcherd; and Scatcherd 
relies upon Deacon, who, on Marshal's autho- 
rity ana that of his church, tells a gossiping 
story of Nayler's familiarity with one Mrs. 
Roper, whose husband was at sea, whence 
arose suspicions of incontinence. 

Nayler was ploughing when he became 
convinced of a call to the travelling ministry. 
Not immediately obeying it he fell ill; re- 
covering, he left home suddenly (1652) with- 
out leave-taking, and took his journey towards 
Westmoreland. At Swarthmoor Hall, Lan- 
cashire, he found Fox, who introduced him 
to Margaret Fell [q. v.l He accompanied 
Fox on a mission to Walney, Lancashire, 
and was present at Fox's trial at Lancaster, 
of which he wrote an account on 30 Oct. 
1652. At Orton, Westmoreland, he was 
arrested for preaching unsound doctrine. 
He had maintained against Francis Higgin- 
son (1587-1630) [q v.], vicar of Kirkby Ste- 



Nayler 



131 



Nayler 



phen, Westmoreland, that the body of the 
risen Christ is not fleshly, but spiritual. He 
was carried to Kirkby Stephen, where Francis 
Howgill was arrested", and the two were sent 
next day to Appleby. He was tried at the 
Appleby sessions in January 1663 by Anthony 
Pearson [q. v.], who became a quaker, and 
other Justices, for the blasphemy of alleging 
that 'Christ was in him/ and remitted to 
prison for about twenty weeks. Margaret 
Fell ' sent him 2/., he took but 6V She also 
despatched (18 Feb. 1653) his tract, « Spi- 
ritual Wickednesse/with some others, to her 
husband in London, to be printed. This 
appears to be the first batch of quaker tracts 
that was sent to press. Regaining his liberty, 
Nayler resumed preaching in the north. He 
went to London early in 1655, and soon 
became famous for a fervid oratory, rich in 
pathos, and with more cohesion of matter 
than was common in quaker appeals at that 
period. In July 1665 he held a public dis- 

Eutation in one of the separatist meeting- 
ouses (possibly that of Hanserd Knollys) ; 
in November he addressed ' a meeting at the 
house of Lady Darcy,' when several of the 
nobility and presbyterian clergy, and Sir 
Harry vane, were present. Meanwhile he 
had been holding successful meetings with 
Fox in Derbyshire, and had engaged in a 
discussion at Chesterfield with John Coope 
the vicar. 

He was idolised by the quaker women, and 
their enthusiasm turned his head. Quaker- 
ism had not yet emerged from its ranter 
stage; Fox's discipline was as yet only in 
course of gradual formation. Nayler was a 
man of striking appearance. The arrange- 
ment of his hair and beard aided the fancy of 
those who saw in his countenance a resem- 
blance to the common portraits of Christ. 
Foremost among his devoted followers was 
Martha, sister of Giles Calvert, the well- 
known publisher, and wife of Thomas Sim- 
mons, or Simmonds, a printer. Early in 
1656 she proposed (in his absence) that Nayler 
be set at the head of the London mission. 
The women's meetings were not yet esta- 
blished ; but Martha Simmons and her 
friends rebelled against Edward Burrough 
[q. v.] and Howgul, and were rebuked lor 
disturbing meetings. They went to Nayler 
with their grievance ; he declined to support 
them against Burrough and Howgill, out 
was overcome by their passionate tears, and 
put himself into their hands. 

Fox was at this time imprisoned in Laun- 
ceston gaol, Cornwall. Nayler's connection 
with him had been very close. He was Fox's 
senior by about seven years. During the first 
three years (1653-6) of Fox's authorship 



Nayler had joined him in the production 
of tracts, and Fox had greatly encouraged 
Nayler's preaching and disputations. At this 
crisis Nayler set out for Launceston to see 
Fox. His ' company ' went with him, making 
a sort of triumphalprogress through the west 
of England. At Bristol they created a dis- 
turbance, and thence moved on to Exeter, 
where in June Nayler and others were thrown 
into gaol by the authorities. 

Released from Launceston gaol (13 Sept. 
1656), Fox made his way to Exeter, and on 
the Saturday night (20 Sept.) of his arrival 
visited Nayler. He at once perceived that 
Nayler ' was out and wrong, and so was his 
company.' Next day Fox held a meeting in 
the prison ; Nayler did not attend it. On 
the Monday he saw Nayler again, and found 
him obstinate, but anxious to be friendly. 
Fox, however, refused his parting salutation. 
1 After I had been warring with the world,' 
he writes, 'there was now a wicked spirit 
risen up among Friends to war against.' He 
wrote two strong letters to Nayler, warning 
him * it will be narder for thee to set down 
thy rude company than it was to set them 
up.' But a series of extravagant letters 
reached Nayler from London. John Stranger, 
a combmaker, wrote (17 Oct.), ' Thy name is 
no more to be called James, but Jesus.' 
Thomas Simmons styled him ' the lamb of 
God.' His followers came to Exeter in in- 
creasing numbers just before his discharge 
from gaol. Three women, Hannah Stranger 
(wife of John), Martha Simmons, and Dorcas 
Erbury of Bristol, widow of William Erbury 
[q. v.], kneeled before him in the prison and 
kissed his feet. Dorcas Erbury claimed that 
he had raised her from the dead ; she had 
been two days dead, when he laid his hands 
on her head in Exeter gaol, saying, ' Dorcas, 
arise.' In ranter language this merely meant 
that he had revived her spirits. Vague 
charges of immorality with these women are 
made in the gossip of the period, but they 
rest on no evidence. 

Set free from Exetergaol, Nayler returned 
with his following to Bristol. At Glaston- 
bury and Wells garments were strewed on the 
way. On 24 Oct. 1666, amid pouring rain, he 
rode into Bristol at the Redcliffe gate, Time* 
thy Wedlock (Sewel calls him Thomas Wood- 
cock), a Devonshire man, preceding him bare- 
headed, the women Simmons ana Stranger 
leading his horse, and a concourse of ad- 
herents singing hosannas, and crying ' Holy, 
holy, holy, Lord God of Israel.' Julian 
Widgerley was the only quaker who remon- 
strated. They made for the White Hart in 
Broad Street. Nicholas Fox was the land- 
lord, and it was the property of Dennis 

K 2 



Nayler 



13* 



Nayler 



Hollister (d. 13 July 1676} and Henry Row, 
both leading quakers. The magistrates at 
once arrested Nayler and seven of his fol- 
lowing. Among them was 'Rob. Crab/ 
not improbably Roger Crab [q. v.] the 
hermit ; he was discharged with another on 
31 Oct. The rest were forwarded to Lon- 
don on 10 Nov., to be examined by the 
House of Commons on the report of Robert 
Aldworth, town clerk of Bristol, and one of 
the members for that city. They were not 
sent to prison, but kept under guard at an 
inn, where they received numerous visitors, 
and the homage of kneeling was repeated by 
Sarah Blackbury and others. 

On 15 Nov. they were brought before a 
committee (appointed 31 Oct.) of fifty-five 
members of the commons in the painted 
chamber, Thomas Bampfield [q. v.], recorder 
of Exeter, being the chairman. After four 
sittings the committee reported to the house 
on 5 Dec. The report mentioned the Roper 
business in a review of Nayler's life. He 
challenged a full inquiry into his past cha- 
racter ; no witnesses were examined on oath. 
Nayler was brought up at the bar of the 
house on 6 Dec., and adjudged, on 8 Dec, 
guilty of* hoirid blasphemy.' The blasphemy 
was constructive; Chalmers observes that 
it does not appear that he uttered any words 
at all in the incriminated transaction. Under 
examination he maintained that the honours 
had been paid not to himself, but to ' Christ 
within ' him. Petitions urging severity against 
quakers were presented from several English 
counties. For seven days the house debated 
whether the sentence should be made capital; 
it was carried in the negative by ninety-six 
votes to eighty-two on 16 Dec., when the 
following ingenious substitute was devised 
by the legislature. On 18 Dec. Nayler was 
to be pilloried for two hours in New Palace 
Yard, and then whipped by the hangman to 
the Exchange. On 20 Dec. he was to be pil- 
loried for two hours at the Exchange, his 
tongue pierced with a hot iron, and the letter 
B (For blasphemer) branded on his forehead. 
Afterwards he was to be taken to Bristol by 
the sheriffs of London, ridden through the 
city with his face to the horsetail, and then 
whipped through the city. Lastly, he was to 
be conveyed back to London, and kept in 
Bridewell during the pleasure of parliament, 
at hard and solitary labour, without use of 
pen and ink, his food to be dependent on the 
chances of his earnings by labour. Nayler 
was brought up to receive this sentence on 
17 Dec. He said he did not know his offence. 
The speaker, Thomas Widdringcon, told him 
he should know his offence by his punishment. 

Nayler was pilloried and whipped on 



18 Dec. He was left in such a mangled state 
that on the morning of 20 Dec. a petition for 
reprieve was presented to parliament by out- 
siders, and a respite granted till 27 Dec. On 
23 Dec. a petition, headed by Colonel Scrope, 
sometime governor of Bristol, for remission 
of the remaining sentence, was presented to 
parliament by Joshua Spring, formerly an 
independent minister. Parliament sent five 
divines (Caryl, Manton, Nye, Griffith, and 
Reynolds) to confer with Nayler, who de- 
fended the action of his followers by scrip- 
ture. The petition was followed up by an 
address to Cromwell, who on 25 Dec. wrote 
to the speaker, asking for the reasons of the 
house's procedure. A debate (26, 27, 30 Dec.) 
on this letter was adjourned to 2 Jan. and 
then dropped. It was a moot point whether 
the existing parliament had power to act as 
a judicatory. Meanwhile Nayler was sub- 
jected to the second part of his punishment 
on 27 Dec, when Robert Rich {d. 17 Nov. 
1679), a quaker merchant (who had appealed 
to parliament on 15 Dec.} stood beside him 
on the pillory, and placed a placard over his 
head, with the words, ' This is the king of 
the Jews.' An officer tore it down. Nayler 
*put out his tongue very willingly/ says 
Burton, ' but shrinked a little when the iron 
came upon his forehead. He was pale when 
he came out of the pillory, but hign-coloured 
after tongue-boring.' ' Rich . . . cried, stroked 
his hair and face, kissed Nayler's hand, and 
strove to suck the fire out of his forehead.' 
The Bristol part of the sentence was carried 
out on 17 Jan. 1657, amid a crowd of Nayler's 
sympathisers, Rich riding in front bareheaded, 
singing ' Holy, holy/ &c. Nayler was again 
immured (23 Jan.) in Bridewell, to which 
his associates had been sent. On 29 Jan. the 
governors of Bridewell were allowed to give 
his wife access to him ; and on 26 May, owing 
to the state of his health, a ' keeper ' was 
assigned to him. After a time pen and ink 
were allowed him, and he wrote a contrite 
letter to the London Friends. He fell ill in 
1658. Cromwell in August sent William 
Malyn to report upon him, but Cromwell's 
death occurred shortly after (3 Sept.) Not 
till 8 Sept. 1659 was Nayler released from 
prison* on the speaker's warrant. 

He came out sobered and penitent. His 
first act was to publish a short tract, 'Glory 
to God Almighty ' [1659], 4to, and then he 
repaired to George Fox, who was at Reading 
and ill. He was not allowed to see him, but 
subsequently Fox sanctioned his return to 
mission work. He went on to Bristol, and 
there made public confession of his offence. 
Early in 1660 (so Whitehead's date, 1657, a 
misprint for 1659, may be read, in modern 



Nayler 



133 



Nayler 



reckoning) he was preaching with George 
Whitehead [q. v.] in Westmoreland. Some- 
what later he lodged with Whitehead in 
Watling Street, London. 

In the autumn of 1660 he left London in 
ill-health, intending to return on foot to his 
family in Yorkshire. A friend who saw him 
sitting by the wavside near Hertford offered 
him hospitality, but he pressed on. A few 
miles north of Huntingdon he sank exhausted, 
and was robbed by footpads. A rustic, find- 
ing him in a field, took him to the house of 
a quaker at Holme, near King's Ripton, 
Huntingdonshire. Here he was visited by 
Thomas JParnel, a quaker phy sician. He died 
in October 1660, aged about 43, and was 
buried on 21 Oct. in Parcel's grave in the 
Friends 1 burying-ground (now an orchard) 
at King's lupton. He left a widow and 
children. The Wakefield parish register 
records the baptisms of Mary (28 March 
1640^, Jane (8 May 1641), and Sarah 
(25 March 1643), children of James Naylor. 
A Joseph Naylor of Ardsley was a prominent 
local quaker in 1689-94. A small contem- 

Sorary print of him, with the B on his fore- 
ead, is reproduced in Ephraim Pagitt's 
'Heresiography/ ed. 1661. From this his 
portrait was painted and engraved by Francis 
Place (d. 1728). Later engravings are by 
T. Preston and Grave. A small engraving 
was published (1823) by W. Dalton. 

Richard Baxter [<j. v.], in his account of 
the quakere (Reliqiace Baxteriana, 1696, i. 
77), does not mention Fox, and specifies 
Nayler as l their chief leader* prior to Penn. 
It seems probable that the authorities shared 
Baxter's mistake, and supposed that in crush- 
ing Nayler they were suppressing quakerism. 
The emotional mysticism of Nayler s devotees 
was one of the untrained forces, active in the 
religious field, and anterior to quakerism 
proper. To Fox, in his early career, was 
addressed language as exalted as any that 
was offered to Nayler (see Leslie, Snake in 
the Grass, 1698, pp. 369 seq. ; Buoo, Pilgrim's 
Progress, 1700, pp. 45 seq.) With very little 
encouragement Margaret Fell (see her letter 
in Wilkinson, Quakerism Examined, 1836, 
and cf. Nbwcome, Autobiog. 1852, i. 126) 
would have gone as far as Hannah Stranger. 
But Fox brought this tendency under con- 
trol and subdued it, while Navler was its 
dupe. He exhibits nothing of it in his own 
writings, which for depth of thought and 
beauty of expression deserve a place in the 
first rank of quaker literature. His contro- 
versial pamphlets compare favourably, in 
their restraint of tone, with those of many of 
his coadjutors. Some of his other pieces bear 
the stamp of spiritual genius of a nigh order. 



For a defence of his special mysticism, see 
his ' Satans Design Discovered,' 1655, 4to. 
A full bibliography of hispublications is 

fiven in Smith's * Catalogue ofFiriends' Books,' 
867, ii. 216 seq. His writings fell into neglect, 
but an admirable ' Collection ' of them (omit- 
ting his controversial pieces of 1655-6) was 
edited, 1716, 4to, by Whitehead, with an 
' Impartial Account ' of his career. His ' How 
Sin is Strengthened, and how it is Overcome/ 
&c, 1657, 4to, one of the many tracts written 
during his long imprisonment, has been very 
frequently reprintea ; the last edition, 1860, 
is edited by W. B. Sissison, who reprinted 
another of his tracts in the same year. His 
' Last Testimony,' beginning ' There is a 
Spirit which I feel,' has often been cited for 
the purity of its pathos. Bernard Barton 
[q. v.j paraphrased it (1824) in stanzas which 
are not so poetic as the original prose. 

[A Brief Account of James Nayler, the Quaker, 
1656 (published with the authority of parlia- 
ment); Deacon's Grand Impostor Examined, 
1656 (reprinted in Harleian Miscellany, 1810, 
vol. vi.) ; Deacon's Exact History, 1667 ; A True 
Narrative of the . . . Tryall, &c 1657 (by Fox, 
Rich, and William Tomlinson) ; A True Rela- 
tion of the Life,&c., 1657 (frontispiece) ; Grigge's 
The Quaker's Jesus, 1658 (answered in Rab- 
shakeh's Outrage Reproved, 1668) ; Bloine's 
Fanatick History, 1660 (answered by Richard 
Hubberthorn [q. v.] and Nayler in A Short 
Answer, 1660) ; Wharton's Gesta Britannorum, 
1667 ; George Fox's Journal, 1694, pp. 64, 70, 
167, 220* ; Croese's Historia Quakenana, 1696, 
pp. 159 seq. ; Whitehead's Impartial Account, 
171 6; Memoirs of the Life, &c. 1719 (by an ad- 
mirer, but apparently not a quaker) ; Sewel's 
History of the Quakers. 1 725, pp. 1 34 seq. ; 
Salmon's Chronological Historian, 1733, p. 130; 
Bevan's Life, &c, 1800 ; State Trials (Cobbett), 
1 810, v. 801 seq. (from the Commons' Journals ; 
gives the argument of Bulstrode Whitelocke 
against the capital penalty); Hughson's (i.e. Ed- 
ward Pugh's) Life, &c, 1814, also in M. Aikin's 
(i.e. Edward Pughs) Memoirs of Religious Im- 
porters (sic), 1821; Tuke's Life, &c., 1815; 
Chalmers's General Biog. Diet. 18l6,xxiii. 37 seq. ; 
Neal's Hist, of the Puritans (Toulmin), 1822, 
iv. 139 seq. ; Burton's Diary, 1828 i. 10 seq., ii. 
131 seq.; Scatcherd's Hist, of Morley, 1830, 
pp. 205 seq. ; Webb's Fells of Swarthmoor Hall, 
1867, pp. 37 seq. ; M iaH's Congregationalism in 
Yorkshire, 1868, p. 382 (cf. Calamy's Account, 
1 7 1 3, p. 801> ; Bickley's George Fox, 1 884, p. 144 ; 
Beck, Wells and Chalkley's Biog. Cat. 1888, 

?p. 459 seq.; Turner's Quakers, 1889, pp. 113 seq.; 
'ell Smith's Steven Crisp anl his Corre- 
spondents, 1892, pp. 50 seq. (portrait) ; infor- 
mation from D. Travers Burges, esq., town 
clerk, Bristol, and the Rev. £. Greene, rector of 
King's Ripton ; extracts from the parish register, 
Wakefield Cathedral ] A. G. 



Naylor 



134 



Neal 



NAYLOR, FRANCIS HARE (1753- ! 
1815), author. [See Habe-Natlor,] 

NEADE, WILLIAM (fl. 1625), archer j 
and inventor, began experiments in James I's 
reign with a ' warlike invention of the bow , 
and the pike/ a simple arrangement by which ! 
a bow could be attached to a movable pivot 
in the middle of the pike, thus making a com- 
bined weapon for offence or for close quarters. , 
In 1624 he exhibited his invention before the 
king in St. James's Park, and the Honourable 
Artillery Company soon afterwards made 
trial of it (Double-armed Manne, Epistle 
Ded.) In July 1683 (State Papers, Dom. 
ccxliii. 70) he petitioned the council to ap- , 
prove 'a direction for a commission to 
authorise the inventor to teach the service | 
and for a proclamation to command the 
general exercise thereof/ On 12 Aug. follow- 
ing (Record Olfice, Collection of Proclama- 
tions, Car. I, No. 166) the proclamation was | 
issued at Oatlands, and five days later a com- 
mission was given to Neade and his son Wil- 
liam to instruct lieutenants of counties and 
justices of the peace in the exercise. The : 
specification of the patent which was granted 
to Neade in the iollowing year (16 May, 
Patent Specifications, 1634, jNo. 69) recites 
that he had spent many years in practising 
the weapon. In 1635 and again in 1637 
Neade informed the king that he had laid 
out his whole estate of 600/. on his inven- 
tion, ' but by the evil example of the city of 
London the service is now wholly neglected,' 
although three hundred of the Artillery Com- 
pany had given an exhibition of the weapon 
in action before King Charles in St. James's 
Park. The council seems to have meditated 
some fresh concessions to Neade, but no 
further reference to the matter exists (State 
Papers, Dom. May 1637). 

Neade wrote : ' The Double-armed Man, 
by the New Invention, briefly showing some 
Famous Exploits achieved by our British 
Bowmen, with several Portraitures proper 
for the Pike and Bow/ London, 1625 (Brit. 
Mus.), with six plates, which have all been 
reproduced in Grose's * Military Antiquities.' 
Ward, in his 'Animadversions of vVarre,' 
1639, gives an engraving of a similar weapon, 
and Captain Venn, in his ' Military Observa- 
tions/ 1672, strongly recommends ' the gal- 
lant invention of the Half Pike.' 

[Hewitt's Ancient Armour in Europe, Supple- 
ment, p. 705; Grose's Military Antiquities, i. 
354 ; Ward's Animadversions of Warre ; Venn's 
Military Observations; Specifications of Patents, 
1634, No. 69; State Paper*, Dom. ubi supra; 
Epistle Dedicatory to Neade's Tract; Cat. of 
Huth Library, iii. 1020-1; Lowndes's Biblio- 
graphical Manual.] W. A. S. 



NEAGLE, JAMES (1760P-1822), en- 
graver, is said to have been born about 1760 ; 
he worked with ability in the line manner, con- 
fining himself almost entirely to book illus- 
trations, of which he executed a very large 
number, from designs by Stothard, Smirke, 
Fuseli, Hamilton, Singleton, R. Cook, and 
other popular artists. They include plates 
to Boyflell's and other editions of Snake- 
speare ; Sharpe's and Cooke's ' Classics/ For- 
ster's ' Arabian Nights,' 1802 ; ' Gil Bias/ 
1809 ; ' Ancient Terra-Cottas in the British 
Museum/ 1810 ; and Murphy's ' Arabian 
Antiquities of Spain/ 1816. Neagle's most 
important work is ' The Royal Procession in 
St. Paul's on St. George's Day, 1789/ from a 
drawing by E. Dayes. In 1 801 , in the action 
brought by Delattre the engraver against J. S. 
Copley, R.A., to recover tne price of a plate 
made from the latter's ' Death of Chatham/ 
Neagle was a witness for the plaintiff. To- 
wards the end of his life he emigrated to 
America, and, according to a statement on a 
crayon portrait of him in the print room of 
the British Museum, died there in 1822. He 
had a son, John B. Neagle, who practised as 
an engraver in Philadelphia until his death 
in 1866. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists : Dodd's manu- 
script Hist, of English Engravers (Brit. Mus. 
Addit. MS. 33403) ; Baker's American Engravers 
and their Works, 1876.] F. M. O'D. 

NEAL. [See also Neale, Neile, and 
Neill.] 

NEAL, DANIEL (1678-1743), historian 
of the puritans, was born in London on 14 Dec. 
1678. His parents dying when he was very 
young, he, the only surviving son, was brought 
up by a maternal uncle, to whose care he 
frequently in after life expressed himself as 
deeply indebted. On 11 Sept. 1686 he was 
sent to the Merchant Taylors' School, and 
became head scholar there. Thence he 
might have proceeded as exhibitioner to St. 
John's College, Oxford, but he declined the 
offer, preferring to be educated for the dis- 
senting ministry. About 1696 he entered 
a training college for the ministry in Little 
Britain, presided over by the Rev. Thomas 
Rowe, to which Isaac Watts, Josiah Hort 
(afterwards archbishop of Tuom), and other 
distinguished men were indebted for their 
more advanced education. According to a 
family tradition, Neal was honoured at this 
time by the notice of William III, and was 
even allowed to use a private entrance into 
Kensington Palace in order to gain admit- 
tance with less ceremony. If such were the 
case, it may possibly have some connection 
with Neals subsequent visit to Holland, 



Neal 



135 



Neal 



whither he went about 1699, studying first 
at Utrecht for two years, in the classes of 
D'Uries, Graevius, and Burman, and subse- 
quently for one year at Leyden. In 1703 he 
returned to England in company with two 
fellow students, Martin Tomkins [q. v.] and 
Nathaniel Lardner [q. v.] In 1704 he was 
appointed to act as assistant to Dr. John 
Singleton, pastor of an independent congre- 
gation in Aldersgate Street, and on Single- 
ton's death was elected to succeed him, being 
ordained at Loriner's Hall on 4 July 1706. 
The congregation, increasing considerably 
under his ministrations, removed to a larger 
chapel in Jewin Street, and this became his 
sphere of labour for life. He was at once an 
indefatigable minister and student, preaching 
regularly twice on each Sunday, and visiting 
the members of his flock two or three after- 
noons every week, while all the time he 
could spare from these duties was devoted to 
literary research. In 1720 he published his 
first work, the ' History of New England/ and 
the favourable impression produced by the 
volume in America led to nis receiving in 
the following year, from the university of 
Harvard, the honorary degree of M.A., ' the 
highest academical degree they were able to 
confer.' In the same year he published ' A 
Letter to the Rev. Dr. Francis Hare, dean of 
"Worcester, occasioned by his Reflections on 
the Dissenters in his late Visitation Sermon 
and Postscript/ In 1722 Lady Mary Wort- 
ley Montagu [q. v.] was endeavouring to 
introduce the practice of inoculation into this 
country, but her efforts were strongly con- 
demned by the majority of the medical pro- 
fession, as well as by the clergy, and popular 
prejudice generally was roused to venement 
opposition. Neal, however, had the courage 
to publish ' A Narrative of the Method and 
Success of Inoculating the Small Pox in New 
England, by Mr. Benj. Colman; with a Re- 
ply to the Objections made against it from 
Principles of Conscience, in a Letter from a 
Minister at Boston. To which is prefixed an 
Historical Introduction/ The 'Introduction' 
was from NeaTs own pen, and in it he mo- 
destly disclaims all idea of dogmatising on 
the question, declaring that he has only ' acted 
the part of an historian ' in order that the world 
might be enabled to judge ' whether inocula- 
tion would prove serviceable or prejudicial to 
the service of mankind/ On the appearance 
of the volume, the Princess Caroline sent for 
him in order to obtain further information 
on the subject. He was received by her in 
her closet, where he found her reading Foxe's 
* Martyrology/ The princess made inquiries 
respecting the state of the dissenting body in 
England, and of religion generally in New 



England. The Prince of Wales also dropped 
in for a quarter of an hour. On 1 Jan. 1723, 
Neal preached at the request of the managers 
of the Charity School in Gravel Lane, South- 
wark, a sermon (Job xxix. 12-18), on ' The 
Method of Education in the Charity Schools of 
Protestant Dissenters : with the Advantages 
that arise to the Public from them/ The school 
in Gravel Lane is said to have been the first 
founded by the dissenting body. It num- 
bered over one hundred children, who were 
taught gratuitously and instructed in reading 
and arithmetic and the assembly's catechism. 
They were required to attend public worship 
on Sundays. Neal urged on his audience 
that the surest foundation of the public weal 
was laid in the good education of children. In 
1730 he preached (2Thess.iii.l) on'TheDuty 
of Praying for Ministers and the Success of 
their Ministry/ In his discourse he said, ' Let 
us pray that all penal laws for religion may 
be taken away, and that no civil discourage- 
ments may be upon Christians of any denomi- 
nation for the peaceable profession of their 
faith, but that the Gospel may have free 
course/ In 1732 the first volume of the 
' History of the Puritans ' was published. The 
work originated in a project formed by Dr. 
John Evans [q. v.] of writing a history of 
nonconformity from the Reformation down 
to 1640, Neal undertaking to continue the 
narrative from that date, and to bring it 
down to the Act of Uniformity. Dr. Evans 
dying in 1730, Neal found it necessary him- 
self to write the earlier portion, and in doing 
so utilised the large collections which Evans 
had already made. The first volume was 
favourably received by the dissenting public, 
and was followed in 1738 by the second. 
The third appeared in 1736, and was followed 
in 1738 by tne fourth, bringing the narrative 
down to the Act of Toleration (1689). The 
whole work was warmly praised by Neal's 
party, but his occasionally serious misrepre- 
sentation or suppression of facts did not pass 
unchallenged. Isaac Maddox [q. v.], after- 
wards bishop of St. Asaph, published in 1733 
'A Vindication of the Doctrine, Discipline, and 
Worship of the Church of England, esta- 
blished in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, from 
the Injurious Reflections of Mr. Neal's first 
Volume of the History of the Puritans/ Neal 
replied in 'A Review of the Principal Facts 
objected to in the first Volume of the History 
of the Puritans,' and his party claimed that 
he had completely vindicated himself, and 
'established his character for an impartial 
regard to truth/ A far more formidable 
criticism, however, was that which proceeded 
from the pen of Zachary Grey [q. v.], who in 
1736, 1737, and 1739, published a searching 



Neal 



136 



Neal 



examination of the second, third, and fourth 
volumes respectively. To these attacks Neal 
never replied, although it was asserted that 
he intended doing so, but was prevented by 
ill-health. They were to some extent met 
by Dr. Joshua Toulmin in his elaborate edi- 
tion of Neal's ' History ' in five volumes in 
1797. 

In 1735, alarmed at the marked advance of 
Roman catholic doctrines, he arranged, in 
concert with certain other dissenting minis- 
ters, to deliver a series of discourses against 
the errors and practices of the Roman church, 
the subject allotted to him being ' The 
Supremacy of St. Peter and the Bishops of 
Rome, his successors.' In his treatment of 
this topic Neal discussed the lawfulness of 
the papal claims, and pointed out the abuses 
with which they had been attended, conclud- 
ing with the assertion that ' an open toleration 
of the popish religion is inconsistent with the 
safety of a free people and a protestant go- 
vernment ' (Cochkane, Protestant's Manual, 
vol. i.) 

NeaVs close application to his studies, com- 
bined with too sedentary habits, eventually 
undermined his health and brought on pa- 
ralysis. He died in his sixty-fifth year, 
4 April 1743, and was buried in Bunhill 
Fields. He married Elizabeth, only daugh- 
ter of Richard, and sister of his friend, Dr. 
Nathaniel Lardner, by whom he had one 
son, Nathanael, who was an eminent attorney 
and secretary to the Million Bank, and two 
daughters. One of these married Joseph 
Jennings, son of his friend, Dr. David Jen- 
nings ; the other married William Lester of 
Ware, for some time Neal's assistant. Neal's 
widow died in 1748. 

Many of NeaTs letters are preserved in the 
collection of Doddridge's correspondence, pub- 
lished in 1790 by the Rev. Thomas Stedman, 
vicar of St. Chad's, Shrewsbury [see Dod- 
dbidge, Philip]. His 'History of the Puri- 
tans ' was translated into Dutch by Ross, and 
published at Rotterdam in 1752. Zachary 
Grey's copy of the work, interleaved and 
containing numerous notes bv himself and 
some by Thomas Baker, is in the library 
of St. John's College, Cambridge. Grey 
animadverts with considerable severity on 
Neal's frequent practice of advancing state- 
ments reflecting on the church party without 
adducing his authorities. In a note to ii. 
287 he says, 'I am really unwilling to credit 
a Person without an authority, who is so 
apt when he has authorities to mistake or 
falsify them.' 

Neal's portrait, an engraving by Ravenet, 
after Wollaston, is given in the quarto edi- 
tion of his 4 History of the Puritans ' (1754), 



vol. i. It represents him with a full and 
somewhat sensual face, and black piercing 



[Life by Toulmin, compiled chiefly from 
Funeral Sermon by Dr. Jennings, and manu- 
script account by his son, Nathanael Neal, com- 
municated by his grandson, Daniel Lister, esq., 
of Hackney ; Wilson's Hist, of Dissenting 
Churches, iii. 90-102; Chalmers's Biog. Diet, 
xxiii. 41 ; information kindly supplied by Lady 
Jennings.] * J. B. M. 

NEAL or NEALE, THOMAS (1519- 
1590 P), professor of Hebrew at Oxford, was 
born about 1519 at Yeate (Gloucestershire), 
and became in 1531 scholar of Winchester 
College 'by the endeavours of his maternal 
uncle, Alexander Belsire, Fellow of New Col- 
lege, Oxford.' On 19 June 1538 he was chosen 
probationer of New College, and in 1540 ad- 
mitted perpetual fellow. He graduated B.A. 
16 May 1542, M.A. 11 July 1546, and was ad- 
mitted B.D. 23 July 1556. Before he took 
orders he had acquired a great reputation as 
a Greek and Hebrew scholar and theologian, 
and was allowed a pension of 10/. per annum 
by Sir Thomas Whyte, afterwards founder of 
St. John's. He travelled in France, probably 
during the time of the Edwardian reforma- 
tion, and appears to have been there in 155ft 
(see below), but soon after the beginning of 
Mary's reign he had been made chaplain (not 
domestic chaplain) to Bonner, bishop of Lon- 
don, and appointed rector of Thenford in 
Northamptonshire. His name does not ap- 
pear in the registers of that place. At the 
accession of Elizabeth he ' betook himself* 
to Oxford, and in 1559 was made Queen's 
professor of the Hebrew lecture. He entered 
himself as a commoner of Hart Hall, though 
he seems to be described of that hall in 1542, 
and built ' little lodgings ' for himself at the 
west end of New College, and opposite to 
Hart Hall. He seems at first to have been 
disturbed in his professorship, as the dean 
and chapter of Cnrist Church at one time 
detained his salary (Stbtpe, Annals, 1. i. 48 ; 
see two letters of the priw council ordering 
payment, Council Book, 1 feliz. 16 Jan. 155&- 
1569 ; HarL MS. 169, f. 26; Lansdovme MS. 
982, f. 162). He took a prominent part in 
the entertainment of Elizabeth at Oxford in 
1566, and wrote an account of it, which was 
embodied in Wood's ' History and Antiqui- 
ties of Oxford' (ed. Gutch, ii. 154), and which 
served as the source for Richard Stephens's 
' Brief Rehearsal.' In 1569, being timid be- 
cause of his Catholicism, he resigned his pro- 
fessorship and retired to Cassington, four 
miles from Oxford, purchased a house there, 
and ' spent the rest of his life in study and 
devotion.' He died either in or shortly after 



Neal 



137 



Neale 



1590, but whether at Cassington or Yeate is 
uncertain (see his epitaph as put up by him- 
self in Cassington church during his lifetime; 
Hearne, Dodicell). 

Neal is regarded as the ultimate authority 
for the ' Nag's Head Story.' But the state- 
ments that Bonner sent him to Bishop An- 
thony Kitchin [q. v.] to dissuade him from 
assisting in the consecration of Parker, and 
that he was present at the pretended cere- 
mony at the Nag's Head, rest on the doubtful 
assertion of Pits. 

NeaTs works are : 1. ' Dialogue in ad- 
ventum serenissimse Reginss Elizabeths 
gratulatorius inter eandem Reginam et D. 
Rob. Dudleium com item Leicestriee et Acad. 
Ox. cancellarium ' (Tanner speaks of this as 
' Gratulationem Hebraicam'), together with 
' Collegiorum scholarumque pubncarum Ac. 
Ox. Topographica delineatio/ being verses 
written to accompany drawings of the col- 
leges and public schools of Oxford by John 
Bearblock [q. v.] Neai's work was first 
printed imperfectly by Miles Windsor in 
' Academiarum Catalogus,' London, 1590 ; re- 
printed by Hearne, Oxford, 1713, at the end 
of his edition of Dodwell de Parma Equestri j ' 
also by Nichols in his ' Progresses of 
Elizabeth/ i. 225; by the Oxford Historical 
Society (vol. viii.), and reproduced in fac- 
simile, Oxford, 1882 (cf. Wood, Athena 
Oxon. i. 576). 2. ' Commentarii Rabbi Davidis 
Kimhi in Haggseum, Zachariam, et Ma- 
lachiam prophetes ex Hebraico idiomate in 
Latinum sermonem traducti/ Paris, 1557, 
dedicated to Cardinal Pole. Tanner also as- 
signs to Neal : 3. A translation ' of all the 
Prophets ' out of the Hebrew. 4. A trans- 
lation of 4 Commentarii Rabbi Davidis Kimhi 
super Ho8eam, Joelem, Amos, Abdeam, Mi- 
cheam, Nahum, Habacuc, et Sophoniam' 
(dedicated to Queen Elizabeth). Tanner 
quotes this and No. 5 thus: 'MS. Bibl. Reg. 
Westinon. 2 D. xxi.' 5. 'Rabbinic® qusedam 
observationes ex prsedictis commentariis ' 
(possibly identical with, although Tanner 
distinctly separates it from, 'Breves quaedam 
observationes in eosdem prophetes partim ex 
Hieronymo partim ex aliis probates fidei au- 
thoribus decerptse.' The latter is appended 
to No. 2 above. 

[Wood's Athena Oxon. i. 576, et passim; Fasti, 
and Hist, and Antiq. of Oxford ; Oxford Univ. 
Registers ; Kirby's Winchester Scholars, p. 
117; Plummer's Elizabethan Oxford (Oxford 
Hist. Soc.); Hearne'a Remains, ii. 199, and 
his edition of Dodwell de Parma Equestri (con- 
tains a life of Neal by Hearne, based on Wood) ; 
State Papers, Dom. 1/547-80 ; Hist. MSS. Com. 
4th Rep. p. 217a; Le Neve's Fasti; Strype's 
Annals, 1. i. 48 ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. ; Pits, De il- 



lustrious Anglise 8criptoribus; John Bearblock's 
Ephemerae Actiones, p. 282, printed by Hearne, 
Oxford, 1729 ; Fuller's Church History, ii. 867, 
iv. 290, and Worthies, i. 384 ; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Lansdowne MS. 982, 
f. 160 ; Harl. MS. 169, f. 26 ; information from 
the Rev. G. Montagu, rector of Thenford.1 

W. A. S. 

NEALE. [See also Neal, Neblb, Neilb, 
and Neill.] 

NEALE, ADAM, M.D. (d. 1832), army 
physician and author, was born in Scotland 
and educated in Edinburgh, where he gra- 
duated M.D. on 13 Sept. 1802, his thesis, 
being published as 'Disputatio de Acido Ni- 
trico/ 8vo, Edinburgh. He was admitted a 
licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians, 
London, on 25 June 1806, and during the* 
Peninsular war acted as physician to the 
forces, being also one of the physicians extra- 
ordinary to the Duke of Kent. In 1809 he* 
published, in 'Letters from Portugal and 
Spain/ an interesting account of the opera- 
tions of the armies under Sir John Moore 
and Sir Arthur Wellesley, from the landing 
of the troops in Mondego Bay to the battle 
of Coruna. Neale subsequently visited Ger- 
many, Poland, Moldavia, and T*urkey, where 
he was physician to the British embassy at 
Constant! nople, and in 181 8 gave to the public 
a description of his tour in * Travels through, 
some parts of Germany, Poland, Moldavia, 
and Turkey/ 4to, London, 1818, with fifteen 
coloured plates. About 1814 he settled at 
Exeter, but removed to Cheltenham in 1820. 
There he attempted to attract notice by pub- 
lishing a pamphlet in which he cast a doubt 
on the genuineness of the waters as served 
to visitors at the principal spring. It was 
called ' A Letter to a Professor of Medicine 
in the University of Edinburgh respecting 
the Nature and Properties of the Mineral 
Waters of Cheltenham/ 8vo, London, 1820. 
This discreditable pamphlet was soberly an- 
swered by Dr. Thomas Jameson of Chelten- 
ham, in * A Refutation/ &c, and more cate- 
gorically in 'Fact versus Assertion/ by Wil- 
liam Henry Halpin the younger, and in ' A 
Letter ' by Thomas Newell. The controversy 
was ended by a satirical pamphlet entitled 
' Hints to a Physician on the opening of his 
Medical Career at Cheltenham, 8vo, Stroud, 
1820. As the result of these tactics, Neale 
was obliged in a few months to return to 
Exeter. In 1824 he was an unsuccessful 
candidate for the office of physician to the 
Devon and Exeter Hospital. He accordingly 
went to London, and resided for some time 
at 58 Guilford Street, Russell Square, but 
died at Dunkirk on 22 Dec 1832. His sons, 



Neale 



138 



Neale 



Erskine and William Johnson Neale, are 
noticed separately. 

Neale, who was fellow of the Linnean 
Society, published, besides the works men- 
tioned: 1. ( The Spanish Campaign of 1808/ 
contributed to vol. xxvii. ot ' Constable's 
Miscellany/ 18mo, Edinburgh, 1828, which 
is entitled * Memorials of the late War/ 2 

farts. 2. ' Researches respecting the Natural 
listory, Chemical Analysis, and Medicinal 
Virtues of the Spur or Ergot of Rye when ad- 
ministered as a Remedy in certain States of the 
Uterus/ 8vo, London, 1828. 8. ' Researches 
to establish the Truth of the Linneean Doc- 
trine of Animal Contagions/ &c, 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1831. He also translated from the 
French of Paolo Assalini ' Observations on 
. . the Plague, the Dysentery, the Ophthal- 
my of Egypt/ &c, 12mo, London, 1804. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. 1878, iii. 37-8; Gent. 
Mag. 1833 i. 191; Cat. of Advocates* Library at 
Edinburgh.] G. G. 

NEALE, EDWARD VANSITTART 
(1810-1892), Christian socialist and co-opera- 
tor, of Bisham Abbey, Berkshire, and of Alles- 
ley Park, Warwickshire, was the only son of 
Edward Vansittart, LL.B., rector of Taplow, 
Buckinghamshire, by his second wife, Anne, 
second surviving daughter of Isaac Spooner 
of Elmdon, near Birmingham. The father 
took the surname Neale in compliance with the 
will of Mary, widow of Colonel John Neale of 
Allesley Park. George Vansittart of Bisham 
Abbey was Neale's paternal grandfather. 
Born at Bath in the house of his maternal 
grandfather, Isaac Spooner, on 2 April 1810, 
ne was educated at nome until he matricu- 
lated at Oriel College, Oxford, on 14 Dec. 
1827. After graduating B.A. in 1831, he 
made a long tour, principally on foot, 
through France, Germany, Italy, and Switz- 
erland, and thoroughly mastered the lan- 
guages of those countries. He proceeded 
M.A. in 1836, entered at Lincoln's Inn in 
1837, and was called to the bar. ' But he was 
too subtle for the judges, and wearied them by 
taking abstruse points which they could not 
or diet not choose to follow ' (J. M. Litdlow, 
Economic Journal, December 1892, p. 753). 

Keenly interested in social reform, Neale 
had obtained a firm grasp of the theoretical 
bases of the systems of Fourier, St. Simon, 
and other writers. In 1850 his attention 
was attracted by the Working Tailors' As- 
sociation, which was started in February of 
that year by the Society for Promoting 
Working Men's Associations. He became 
acquainted with the work of the Christian 
socialists, and, on the invitation of F. D. 
Maurice, joined the council of promoters, 



' ready to expend capital in the cause, and 
with manv new ideas on the subject ' {Life 
of F D. Maurice, ii. 75). The efforts of the 
promoters had hitherto been directed to the 
establishment of self-governing workshops 
on the lines of the Paris Associations 
Ou vrieres. Neale's accession to their ranks im- 
mediately had an important influence on the 
movement. He desired to try experiments 
in co-operation on a larger scale, and his 
wealth enabled him to realise his wish. He 
founded the first London co-operative stores 
in Charlotte Street, Fitzroy Square, and ad- 
vanced the capital for two builders' associa- 
tions, both of which ended disastrously, al- 
though the first of them began with a profit 
of 250/. on their contract for Neale's own 
house in Hill Street. So far there had been 
no marked divergence between Neale's views 
and those of the other members of the coun- 
cil. In 1851, however, on his own initiative, 
and without the direct sanction of the council, 
(Hughes in the Economic Review, January 
1893, p. 41), he established the Central Co- 
operative Agency, which, so far as the state 
of the law at that time admitted, anticipated 
the Co-operative Wholesale Society. Some 
of the promoters strongly disapproved of this 
experiment. The publication of an address 
to the trade societies of London and the 
United Kingdom, inviting them to support 
the agency as ' a legal and financial institu- 
tion tor aiding the formation of stores and 
associations, for buying and selling on their 
behalf, and ultimately for organising credit 
and exchange between them/ brought matters 
to a crisis, and an attempt was made, but 
checked by Maurice, to exclude from the 
council both Neale and Hughes, who, with- 
out undertaking any pecuniary liability, was 
associated with him as co-trustee of the 
agency (ib. p. 42 ; Co-operative News, 1 Oct. 
1892, p. 1103). The promoters and the 
agency continued to work side by side, on the 
understanding that the former were in no 
way pledged to support the latter ; but two 
years later Neale and the agency had ac- 
quired the chief influence in the movement 
(Life ofF D. Maurice, ii. 75, 220). 

On the great lock-out of engineers in 
1852, Neale not only presided at a meeting 
of the metropolitan trades, held at St. Mar- 
tin's Hall on 4 March, in support of the 
Amalgamated Society of Engineers, but 
gave them pecuniary aid. He also published 
' May I not do what I will with my own P 
Considerations on the present Contest be- 
tween the Operative Engineers and their 
Employers,' London, 1852. When the men 
were forced to return to work on the em- 
ployers' terms, Neale purchased the Atlas 



Neale 



139 



Neale 



Ironworks, Southwark, where he established 
several of the leading engineers as a produc- 
tive association. The scheme ended in total 
failure. The Central Co-operative Agency 
was at the same time involved in difficulties, 
and the loss on both schemes fell entirely on 
Neale, who is said to have spent 40,000/. in 
his efforts to promote co-operation (Economic 
Journal, December 1892, p. 763). From 
this time until he succeeded to the Bisham 
Abbey estate (November 1886) he was a 

Eoor man ; but failure seemed only to make 
im cling more tenaciously to the cause of 
co-operation, in which he saw the promise 
of great improvement in the condition of 
the working classes. 

Meanwhile Neale's activity in other direc- 
tions was incessant. He had already (1860) 
given evidence before the select committee 
on the savings of the middle and working 
classes. When the Industrial and Provi- 
dent Societies Act, which was the outcome 
of the inquiry, led to a great development 
of co-operation, Neale closely associated 
himself with the northern movement. This, 
however, did not prevent him from keeping 
in touch with the Society of Promoters, now 
merged in the Working Men's College, 
where he took a class in political economy tor 
two terms. He frequently acted as legal ad- 
viser to co-operative societies, which sought 
his aid in the revision of rules for registra- 
tion. Until 1876 he prepared, wholly or 
in part, all the amendments proposed in the 
act of 1862; the Consolidation Act (1862) 
and the Industrial and Provident Societies 
Act (1876) were almost entirely due to his 
efforts. He was a member of the executive 
committee appointed by the London confer- 
ence of delegates from co-operative societies 
(July 1852), which was the germ of the 
central co-operative board; and, in addition 
to lectures and pamphlets, he found time to 
write ' The Co-operator's Handbook, contain- 
ing the Laws relating to a Company of 
Limited Liability,' London, 1860, 8 vo, which 
he gave to Mr. G. J. Holyoake to publish for 
the use of co-operators, and 'The Analogy 
of Thought and Nature Investigated,' Lon- 
don, 1863, 8vo. He also spent some months 
in Calcutta winding up the affairs of a branch 
of the Albert Insurance Company with which 
he had unfortunately been connected. 

In the establishment of the central agency 
Neale had given practical expression to his 
view that associations of producers could be 
best promoted by concentrating the whole- 
sale trade of the co-operative stores. Natu- 
rally therefore he was keenly interested in 
the formation of the North of England Co- 
operative Wholesale Society (1863), of which 



he drafted the rules for registration. He 
was one of the founders of the Cobden 
Mills in 1866, and of the Agricultural and 
Horticultural Association in 1867, the ob- 
ject of which was to introduce co-operation 
into agriculture (Social Economist, 1 Nov. 
1868, p. 131). From 1869 he was one of 
the most active promoters of the annual co- 
operative congress. On the establishment 
of the central board at the Bolton congress 
(1872), he was elected one of the members 
of the London section, a position which he 
held until 1876. When, in that year, Wil- 
liam Nuttall resigned the post of general 
secretary to the board, Neale, mainly on the 
suggestion of Mr. G. J. Holyoake, undertook 
to succeed him. That position required the 
exercise of great tact and patience. Some 
of his friends indeed regarded his ap- 
pointment with anxiety, for it was doubtful 
how far he would be successful as the paid 
servant of working men. He received a 
salary of 260/. a year for his official work, 
acting gratuitously as legal adviser to the 
central !x>ard, until 1878, when his remunera- 
tion was increased to 850/. Devoting him- 
self entirely to his work, he took lodgings 
in Manchester, visiting his family at Hamp- 
stead once a week. His succession to the 
Bisham Abbey estate made no difference in 
his habits. Though he was for some time 
treated ' with a studied disrespect,' long be- 
fore he resigned the secretaryship he had 
completely won the confidence of the work- 
ing classes, who regarded him with reve- 
rence and affection. 

Neale was for seventeen years a director 
of the Co-operative Insurance Company, and 
for sixteen years a member of the committee 
of the Co-operative Newspaper Society. 
Throughout nis life he kept up a large 
correspondence with foreign co-operators, 
and frequently attended the continental 
congresses. In 1875 he visited America, 
with Dr. Rutherford and John Thomas 
of Leeds, on behalf of the Mississippi 
Valley Trading Company, with a view 
to opening up a direct trade between 
the English co-operative stores and the 
farmers of the Western States. A diary of 
this visit was published in the ' Co-opera- 
tive News.' In August 1890 Neale took part 
in a conference at the summer meeting of 
university extension students at Oxford on 
the relation of the university extension move- 
ment to working-class education. He re- 
signed the general secretaryship on 11 Sept. 
1891 , at the age of eighty-one. Even then 
he did not entirely give up work in the 
cause of co-operation. On the formation of 
the Christian Social Union, he became a 



Neale 



140 



Neale 



member of the Oxford University branch 
of that organisation. He wrote an article, 
'Thoughts on Social Problems and their 
Solution/ for the 4 Economic Review ' (Octo- 
ber 1892), which was passing through the 
press at the time of his death ; and a few 
months before that event he read a paper 
before the ' F. D. M./ a private society, named 
after Frederick Denison Maurice's initials, on 
4 Robert Owen/ which showed no diminution 
of his intellectual powers. He had been for 
some time suffering from a painful malady, 
aggravated by earlier neglect of his own 
health. He died on 16 Sept. 1892, and was 
buried in Bisham churchyard. A ' Vansittart 
Neale 7 scholarship for the sons of co-opera- 
tors was founded at Oriel College (February 
1890), with the subscriptions of co-operators 
in various parts of the country. 

With rare generosity Neale devoted his 
wealth and energies to co-operation when 
it was a new and struggling movement, 
In his judgment, the two systems of co- 
operation — viz. collective control of pro- 
duction by combinations of consumers, and 
production by self-governing workshops — 
were not mutually exclusive, but comple- 
mentary. The experiments of the Christian 
socialists, in which he took so prominent a 
part, showed that the workshops could not 
stand alone. On the other hand, although 
Neale was fully alive to the advantages 
which the working classes obtain by becom- 
ing their own shopkeepers, and although he 
himself had initiated the first wholesale 
society — the Central Co-operative Agency, 
such a system of combination among con- 
sumers with a view to their controlling pro- 
duction afforded in his own view no security 
that employes would receive better treat- 
ment from co-operative societies than they 
would under a competitive regime. It was 
his object to raise the condition of the work- 
ing classes in their character of producers. 
When, therefore, the wholesale society un- 
dertook the manufacture of commodities, he 
urged that it was the duty of co-operators 
to grant a share of the profits to the opera- 
tives in their factories, and so take an impor- 
tant step in the direction of what he regarded 
as complete co-operation. He failed, how- 
ever, to convince the wholesale society of 
the desirability of this course. 

Neale married on 14 June 1837, at St. 
George's, Hanover Square, Frances Sarah, 
eldest daughter of James William Farrer, 
master in chancery, of Ingleborouffh, York- 
shire, and widow of the Hon. John Scott, 
eldest son of John, first lord Eldon, by 
whom he had issue Edward Ernest Van- 
sittart, born 23 Jan. 1840 ; Henry James Van- 



sittart, bora 30 Nov. 1842, married, 16 April 
1887, Florence, daughter of His Honour 
Judge Shelley Ellis, and has issue George 
and Phyllis; Henrietta Vansittart, married, 
5 Oct. 1864, Henry Dickinson, and died 1879, 
leaving issue ; Constance Vansittart and Edith 
Vansittart. 

Neale published, in addition to the works 
already mentioned, nineteen pamphlets is- 
sued by the Co-operative Union, model rules 
for societies intending to register, the con- 
gress reports, with prefaces and statistical 
tables, and articles contributed to the ' Co- 
operator/ the 'Co-operative News/ &c. 
1. 'Feast 8 and Fasts: an Essay on the Rise, 
Progress, and present State of the Laws re- 
lating to Sundays, and other Holidays and 
Days of Fasting/ London, 1845, 8vo. 2. < The 
Real Property Acts of 1845 . . . with intro- 
ductory Observations and Notes/ London, 
1845, 8vo. 3. 'Thoughts on the Registration 
of the Title of Land; its Advantages and the 
Means of effecting it/ &c, London, 1849, 
8vo. 4. ' The Characteristic Features of some 
of the principal Systems of Socialism/ Lon- 
don, 1851 , 8vo. 5. ' Genesis critically analysed 
and continuously arranged ; with Introduc- 
tory Remarks/ Ramsgate, 1 869, 8vo. 6. ' Does 
Morality depend on Longevity P' London, 
1871, 8vo. 7. 'The new Bible Commen- 
tary and the Ten Commandments/ London 
[1872], 8vo. 8. ' The Mythical Element in 
Christianity/ London [18731,8vo. 9. ' Reason, 
Religion, and Revelation/ London, 1875, 
8vo. 10. ' A Manual for Co-operators. Pre- 
pared at the Request of the Co-operative 
Congress held at Gloucester, April 1879/ 
London, 1881, 8vo, in collaboration with 
Judge Hughes, who wrote the preface. 

[Berry's Buckinghamshire Genealogies, p. 63 ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886, p. 1009 ; 
Honours Register of the University of Oxford ; 
Gentleman's Magazine, 1837, ii. 82 ; Life of 
F. D. Maurice, ii. 75, 157, 220, 232 ; Furnivall's 
Early History of the Working Men's College 
(reprinted from the Working Men's College 
Magazine), 1860; Holyoake's History of Co-opera- 
tion, i. 189, ii. 55 t 58, 59, 393, 435, bis Co-opera- 
tive Movement to-day, pp. 25, 29, 47, 51, 95, 
103, 127, and hi» Sixty Years of an Agitator's 
Life, 3rd edit. ii. 6 ; Beatrice Potter's (Mrs. Sid- 
ney Webb) British Co-operative Movement, ch. 
v ; Brentano's Christlich-soziale Bewegung in 
England ; Laveleye's Socialism of To-day (trans- 
lated by G.H. Ophen), p. 302 ; Sidney and Beatrice 
Webb's Hist, of Trade Unionism, pp. 198, 326 ; 
Burke's Landed Gentry, 1894, ii. 2087; Report 
from the Select Committee on the Savings of the 
Middle and Working Classes, 1850, pp. 14, 24, 39, 
40; The Christian Socialist, 1850-1; The Social 
Economist; Co-operator; Almanach de la Co- 
operation Francaise, 1892, p. 19 ; Daily Chronicle, 



Neale 



141 



Neale 



19 Sept. 1892; Co-operatire News, especially 
the notices of Neale by Holyoake, Hughes, and 
others in the numbers for 24 Sept., 1 and 8 Oct. 
1892 ; Agricultural Economist, October 1892 ; 
obituary notice by J. M. Ludlow (Economic 
Journal, December 1892, pp. 752-4) ; Hughes's 
Neale as a Christian Socialist (Economic Review, 
January 1893 pp. 38-94, April 1893 pp. 174, 
189).] W. A. S. H. 

N EALE, ERSKINE (1804-1883), divine 
and author, born on 12 March 1804, was son 
of Dr. Adam Neale [q. v.], and brother of 
William Johnson Neale ha. v.] He was 
educated at Westminster School 1815-16, 
and at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, where 
he graduated B. A. 1828, and M. A. 1832. On 
24 June 1828 he became lecturer of St. Hilda 
Church, Jarrow, in the county of Durham, was 
appointed vicar of Adlingfleet, Yorkshire, on 
19 Oct. 1835, rector of Kirton, Suffolk, in 
1844, and vicar of Exning with Lanwade, 
Suffolk, in 1854. He possessed a very curious 
collection of autographs, including a number 
of letters written by the Duke of Kent re- 
ferring to his public life, and elucidating the 
mutiny at Gibraltar. His knowledge of hand- 
writing led to his being subpoenaed on the 
part 01 the crown at the trial of Ryves v. the 
Attorney-General in June 1866, when it was 
sought without success to establish the claim 
of Mrs. Serres, the mother of Mrs. Ryves, to 
be the Princess Olive of Cumberland. He 
died at Exning vicarage on 23 Nov. 1883, 
after an incumbency of twenty-nine years. 

In his day Neale was a well-known author, 
possessing a ready and graphic pen and con- 
siderable stores of information. His chief 
work, 1. 'The Closing Scene, or Christianity 
and Infidelity contrasted in the Last Hours 
of Remarkable Persons' (1st ser., 1848 ; 2nd 
ser., 1849), ran to several editions, and was 
reprinted in America ; but it is not a work of 
authority. He was also author of: 2. ' The 
Living and the Dead/ 1827 ; 2nd ser., 1829. 
3. ' Reason for Supporting the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts,' 
1830. 4. ' Sermons on the Dangers and 
Duties of a Christian/ 1830. 5. ' Whycotte 
of St. John's, or the Court, the Camp, the 
Quarter-Deck, and the Cloister/ 1833, 2 vols. 
6. ' The Life-Book of a Labourer : Essays/ 
1839; 2nd edit., 1850. 7. 'The Bishop's 
Daughter/ lcU2; 2nd edit., 1853. 8. 'Self- 
Sacrifice, or the Chancellor's Chaplain/ 1844 ; 
2nd edit., 1858. 9. 'Experiences of a Gaol 
Chaplain/ 1847, 3 vols.; three editions: a 
fictitious work. 10. ' The Track of the 
Murderer marked out by an Invisible Hand: 
Reflections suggested by the Case of the 
Mannings/ 1849. 11. ' Scenes where the 
Tempter has triumphed/ 1849. 12. 'The 



Life of Edward, Duke of Kent/ 1850; 2nd 
edit., 1850. 13. 'The Earthly Resting Place 
of the Just/ 1851. 14. 'The Riches that 
bringno Sorrow/ 1852. 15. 'The Summer 
and Winter of the Soul/ 1852. 16. ' Risen 
from the Ranks, or Conduct versus Caste/ 

1853. 17. ' My Comrade and my Colours, or 
Men who know not when they are beaten/ 

1854. 18. ' The Old Minor Canon, or a Life 
of Struggle and a Life of Song/ 1854 ; 2nd 
edit., 1858. 19. ' Sunsets and Sunshine, or 
Varied Aspects of Life/ including notices of 
Lola Monte8,Neild, Hone, and Cobbett, 1862. 

[Notes and Queries, 1885, 6th ser. xii. 465, 
1886, 7th ser. i. 31, 115, 156 ; Men of the Time, 
1872, p. 716.] G. C. B. 

NEALE, Sir HARRY BURRARD 
(1765-1840), admiral, born on 16 Sept. 1765, 
was the eldest son of Lieutenant-colonel 
William Burrard (1712-1780), governor of 
Yarmouth Castle in the Isle of Wight, whose 
elder brother, Harry Burrard (d. 1791), was 
created a baronet in 1769. He was first-cousin 
of General Sir Harry Burrard [a. v.] He 
entered the navy in 1778 on board the Roe- 
buck with Sir Andrew Snape Hamond [q. v.], 
and in her was present at the reduction of 
Charlestown in April 1780. He was after- 
wards in the Chatham, with Captain Dou- 
glas, Hamond's nephew, and took part in 
the capture of the French frigate, Magi- 
cienne, off Boston, 2 Sept. 1781. In 1783 
he returned to England, acting lieutenant of 
the Perseverance. He was afterwards with 
Sir John Hamilton in the Hector, and in 
1785 was in the Europe in the West Indies, 
and was officially thanked for his conduct 
in saving five men from a wreck during a 
hurricane. On 29 Sept. 1787 he was pro- 
moted to be lieutenant of the Expedition. 
In 1790 he was in the Southampton with 
Keats, and afterwards in the Victory, Lord 
Hood's flagship. On 3 Nov. 1790 he was 
promoted to be commander of the Orestes, 
employed in the preventive service. 

On the death 01 his uncle, Sir Harry Bur- 
rard, on 12 April 1791, he succeeded to the 
baronetcy, ana on 1 Feb. 1793 he was ad- 
vanced to post rank. He was then appointed to 
the Aimable frigate, in which he accompanied 
Lord Hood to the Mediterranean, where he 
was actively employed both in attendance on 
the fleet and in charge of convoys for the Le- 
vant. He returned to England towards the 
end of 1794, and by royal license, dated 
8 April 1795, assumed the name and arms of 
Neale, on his marriage (15 April) with Grace 
Elizabeth, daughter and coheiress of Robert 
Neale of Shaw House, Wiltshire. He was 
shortly afterwards appointed to the command 
of the San Fiorenzo of 42 guns, stationed 



Neale 



142 



Neale 



for some time at Weymouth, in attendance 
on the king. On 9 March 1797 the San 
Fiorenzo, in company with the Nymphe, cap- 
tured the French frigates Resistance and 
Constance off Brest [see Cooke, John, 1763- 
1805]. She was afterwards at the Nore 
when the mutiny broke out. Her crew re- 
fused to join in the mutiny j she was ordered 
to anchor under the stern of the Sandwich, 
but a few days later she effected her escape, 
running through a brisk fire opened on her 
by the revolted ships. Her escape was a 
fatal blow to the mutiny, and on 7 June a 
meeting of London merchants and ship- 
owners, held at the Royal Exchange, passed 
a vote of thanks to Neale and the officers 
and seamen of the San Fiorenzo for their 
spirited conduct. Neale continued in the 
ban Fiorenzo, and was, on 9 April 1799, in 
company with the Amelia of 38 guns, off 
Lonent, where three large frigates were 
lying in the outer road, ready for sea. In 
a sudden squall off the land the Amelia was 
partly dismasted, and the French frigates, 
seeing the disaster, slipped their cables and 
made sail towards the San Fiorenzo. The 
Amelia, however, cleared away the wreck 
with promptitude, and the two ships, keeping 
together, succeeded in repelling the attack, 
and the French, having lost severely, re- 
turned to Lorient (Troude, iii. 153 ; James, 
ii. 376). 

In 1801 Neale was appointed to the Cen- 
taur of 74 guns, from which he was moved 
into the royal yacht. In May and June 1804 
he was one of the lords of the admiralty, but 
in July returned to the yacht. In the follow- 
ing year he was appointed to the 98-gun ship 
London, one of the small squadron under Sir 
John Borlase Warren [q. v.] which captured 
the French ships Marengo and Belle Poule on 
13 March 1806. The two ships were actually 
brought to action by the London, but after 
an hour the Amazon frigate [see Pabkeb, Sir 
William, 1781-1866] coming up, engaged 
and captured the Belle Poule, while the 
Marengo, of 74 guns, under the personal 
command of Admiral Linois, seeing the 
Foudroyant, Warren's flagship, drawing near, 
struck to the London after a running fight 
of more than four hours [Tboude, iii. 456 ; 
James, iv. 130]. 

In 1808 Neale was captain of the fleet 
under Lord Gambier, witn whom, in 1809, 
he was present at the abortive attack on the 
French ships in Basque Roads [see Coch- 
rane, Thomas, tenth Earl op Dundonald]. 
On 31 July 1810 he was promoted to the 
rank of rear-admiral, and from 1811 to 1814 
commanded a squadron on the coast of France, 
with his flag in the Boyne, and afterwards 



in the Ville de Paris. On 4 June 1814 he 
was advanced to be vice-admiral, and on 
2 Jan. 1815 was nominated a K.C.B., and 
G.C.B. on 14 Sept. 1822. He was com- 
mander-in-chief in the Mediterranean, 1823- 
1826, a post which, by the rule then in force, 
carried with it a nomination as G.C.M.G. 
In 1824 his prompt action enforced the ob- 
servance of the treaty of 1816 on the Dey 
of Algiers, though not till a considerable 
force of bombs had been sent from England, 
and the squadron was actually in position 
for opening fire (Ann. Reg. 1824, pt. i. pp. 207- 
208). He became an admiral on 22 July 
1830 ; and in January 1833, on the death of 
Sir Thomas Foley, was offered the command 
at Portsmouth, on the condition of resign- 
ing his seat in the House of Commons. 
Neale refused the command on these terms, 
pointing out that the condition was unpre- 
cedented and therefore insulting. The case 
was brought up in the house, but Sir James 
Graham, then first lord, maintained that as 
the admiralty was responsible for its ap- 
pointments, it had and must have authority 
to make what stipulations it judged neces- 
sary (Hansard, 3rd ser. xv. 622). Neale 
died at Brighton on 15 Feb. 1840; and, 
having no issue, was succeeded in the baro- 
netcy by his brother, the Rev. George Bur- 
rard, rector of Yarmouth (I.W.) His wife 
survived him for several years, and died at 
the age of eighty-three, in 1855. His por- 
trait, by Matthew Brown, has been engraved. 
A handsome obelisk was erected to his me- 
mory on Mount Pleasant, opposite the town 
of Lymington, of which he was lord of the 
manor, and which he had represented in 
parliament for forty years. 

[Marshall's Roy. Nuv. Biog. ii. (vol. i.) 433; 
Gent Mag. 1840, i. 540 ; Foster's Baronetage, 
s.n. ' Burrard ;' James's Naval History (edit, of 
1860) ; Troude's Batailles Navales de la France.] 

J. K. L. 

NEALE, JAMES (1722-1792), biblical 
scholar, baptised on 12 Nov. 1722, was son of 
Robert Neale, druggist, of St. Paul's, Covent 
Garden. On 14 May 1731 he was elected to 
Christ's Hospital (List of Exhibitioners, ed. 
Lockhart), whence he proceeded with an ex- 
hibition to Pembroke College ('then Pembroke 
Hall) Cambridge, being admitted a sizar on 
4 July 1739 (College Register). He graduated 
B.A. in 1742, M.A. in 1746. From 1747 until 
1762 he was master of Henley-upon-Thames 
grammar school (Bttrn, * Menley-upon- 
Thames i p. 97), which flourished greatly 
under his superintendence; he also served 
the curacy of Bix, in the neighbourhood, 
under Thomas Hunt (1696-1774) [q. v.lthe 
rector, whom Neale describes as having been 



Neale 



143 



Neale 



1 a father to me in a thousand instances * (Pre- 
monition to Funeral Sermon on John Sarney, 
1760). He was subsequently curate of Aid- 
bourne, Wiltshire. Neale died in 1792. He 
left a son, James Neale, who graduated B. A. 
in 1771 as a member of St. John's College, 
Cambridge, became perpetual curate of Aller- 
ton Malleverer, near York, and died on 10 Nor. 
1828 at Botley, Hampshire (Gent. Mag. 1828, 
pt. ii. p. 571). 

Neale was an excellent classical and orien- 
tal scholar, but want of means prevented him 
from publishing very much. In 1771 ap- 
peared his translation, in small octavo, of the 
' Prophecies of Hosea,' strictly literal, with- 
out division of verses, accompanied by a 
scripture commentary, to which a few per- 
tinent notes were appended. 

His grandson, William Henry Neaxe 
(1785-1855), theological writer, baptised at 
Little Hampton, Sussex, on 12 May 1785, was 
third son of the Rev. James Neale (d. 1828) 
mentioned above. He was elected to Christ's 
Hospital in April 1793, where he gained an 
exhibition, was admitted sizar of Pembroke 
College, Cambridge, on 11 Feb. 1803, and 
graduated B.A. in 1808, M.A. in 1811. On 
§ Feb. 1808 he was appointed to the master- 
ship of Beverley grammar school, Yorkshire, 
but resigned it in December 1815 (Oliveb, 
Beverley, v. 279). In November 1823 he be- 
came chaplain of the county bridewell in Gos- 
port, Hampshire (Gent. Mag. 1823, pt. ii. p. 
463), where he continued until I80O. On 
5 March 1840 Neale was elected F.S.A. 
(Gent. Mag. 1840, pt. i. p. 416), but had 
withdrawn from the society by 1847. In 
1853 he accepted nomination as a poor 
brother of the Charterhouse, and died on 
20 Jan. 1855 (Charterhouse Register). 

Besides re-editing his grandfather's trans- 
lation of ' Hosea/ with much original matter, 
in 1850, Neale wrote: 1. 'The Mohammedan 
System of Theology; or, a compendious Sur- 
vey of the history and doctrines of Islamism, 
contrasted with Christianity/ 8vo, London, 
1828. 2. 'The Different Dispensations of 
the true Religion, Patriarchal, Levitical, and 
Christian, considered,' 8vo, London, 1843. 

[Information from the master of Pembroke 
College, Cambridge ; W. H. Neale's Preliminary 
Observations to J. Neale's Prophecies of Hosea, 
2nd edit. pp. 6-6.] " G. G. 

NEALE, JOHN MASON (1818-1866), 
divine and author, born at 40 Lamb's Conduit 
Street, London, on 24 Jan. 1818, was only 
son of the Rev. Cornelius Neale. The latter 
was senior wrangler and first Smith's prize- 
man at Cambridge in 1812, fellow of St. 
John's College, of evangelical views, and a 
writer of allegories, sermons, and various com- 



positions in prose and verse, which were col- 
lected and published after his death, with & 
memoir of the writer prefixed, by his brother- 
fellow of St. John's, the Rev. William Jowett 
[q. v.], a leader of the evangelical party at 
Cambridge. His mother, Susanna Neale, was 
a daughter of John Mason Good Tq. v.], and 
her religious opinions resembled those of her 
husbana. Cornelius Neale died at Chiswick 
in 1823, and the widow, with her son and 
three daughters, went to live at Shepperton, 
where the little boy was placed under the 
charge of the rector, William Russell, with 
whom he maintained a lifelong friendship. 
In 1829 the family removed from Shepperton, 
and Neale was educated sometimes at home 
and sometimes at school, first at Blackheath, 
next at Sherborne, Dorset, and then for & 
short time at Farnham, Surrey. Early in 
1836 he read with Dr. Challis, professor of 
astronomy, at Pap worth Everard, of which 
village Challis was incumbent, and in October 
1836 he won a scholarship at Trinity College, 
Cambridge. He was accounted the best clas- 
sical scholar of his year ; but, although the 
son of a senior wrangler, he had so rooted a 
distaste for mathematics that he would not 
qualify himself to become a candidate for 
classical honours by gaining a place in the 
mathematical tripos. The rule which ren- 
dered this necessary was rescinded in 1841, 
but Neale took an ordinary degree in 1840. 
He won the members' prize in 1838, and after 
his graduation he was elected fellow of 
Downing College, where for a while he acted 
as chaplain and assistant tutor. In 1845 he 
won the Seatonian prize for a sacred poem, 
an achievement which he repeated on ten 
subsequent occasions. The religious move- 
ment which is usually identified with Oxford 
was proceeding in a different way, but with 
scarcely less force, at Cambridge, and it 
deeply affected Neale. He warmly espoused 
high-church views, and in 1839, while yet 
an undergraduate, was one of the founders of 
the Cambridge Camden Society, which was 
afterwards, on its removal to London, called 
the Ecclesiological Society. Neale was or- 
dained deacon at St. Margaret's, Westmin- 
ster, bv the Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol 
(Dr. ]&onk), on Trinity Sunday, 1841, on the 
title of his fellowship. He began parochial 
work at St. Nicholas, Guildford, Smrrey, as 
assistant curate, or rather locum tenens, for 
his friend Hugh Nicolas Pearson [q. v.] ; but 
as a ' Camdenian ' he was now a marked man, 
and the Bishop of Winchester (Dr. Sumner) 
would not license him in his diocese. On 
Trinity Sunday 1 842 he was ordained priest by 
Bishop Monk at St. Margaret's, Westminster, 
and the next day he accepted the small living 



Neale 



144 



Neale 



of Crawley in Sussex. But the climate was 
unsuited to his frail health, and he was not 
instituted. A visit to Penzance proved no 
more satisfactory, and with his wife, Sarah 
Norman Webster (whom he had married on 
27 July 1842), he went in the first week of 
1843 to Madeira. The next three years were 
spent between Madeira and England, and 
during this time he was busy with his pen. 
In the autumn of 1845 Neale removed to 
Reigate, and in the spring of 1846 he was 
^presented by the Ladies Amherst and De la 
Warr, coheiresses of the third Duke of Dorset,' 
to the wardenship of Sackville College, East 
Grinstead. Sackville College was a charitable 
institution founded in 1608 by Robert Sack- 
ville, second earl of Dorset, for the shelter and 
maintenance of thirty poor and aged house- 
holders, under charge of a warden, not neces- 
sarily in holy orders, and two sub-wardens. 
The stipend was only between 20/. and 30/. 
a year; and this was the only^ preferment — 
which was not really any ecclesiastical prefer- 
ment at all— that Neale held, in spite of his 
high claims on the church. In 1850 he declined 
an offer of the deanery, or, as it was called, 
the provostship, of St. Ninian's, Perth, and 
he remained at East Grinstead for the rest of 
his life. Scotland, America, and Russia all 
showed themselves more appreciative of him 
than his own country. Harvard University 
conferred the degree of D.D. upon him, and 
in 1860 the Metropolitan of Moscow showed 
the appreciation in which his liturgical 
labours were held in Russia by sending him 
a valuable copy of the Liturgy of the Staro- 
vertzi (Old laith dissenters), with an inte- 
resting inscription. 

Neale's avowal of high-church doctrines 
and practices and his support of Puseyism 
raised against him much opposition, and even 
subjected him occasionally to mob violence. 
Although extremely gentle in manner, he ad- 
hered to his principles with iron inflexibility. 
When the college buildings, which were in a 
ruinous state, were restored early in his career 
at East Grinstead, he rebuilt the college 
chapel, adding such ornaments as are now 
the rule rather than the exception in every 
well-ordered church. The additional orna- 
ments were brought to the notice of the 
bishop of the diocese (Dr. Gilbert), who, in a 
painful controversy, denounced N eale's acces- 
sories to worship as 'frippery* or 'spiritual 
haberdashery/ and inhibited him from offi- 
ciating in his diocese. Sackville College 
chapel had not been under episcopal jurisdic- 
tion. Neale had desired to place it under the 
bishop, but the patrons objected. Indepen- 
dently of his natural desire to minister to the 
spiritual wants of his flock, he now felt bound 



to contend for the privileges of the college. 
A suit was instituted, and Neale was de- 
feated. The episcopal inhibition was not 
formally removed until November 1863. ' So, 
I hope,' writes the warden, ' ends a battle of 
more than sixteen years; I having neither 
withdrawn a single word, nor altered a single 
practice (except in a few instances by way of 
going further).' Bishop Wilberforce inter- 
ceded warmly with Bishop Gilbert in behalf 
of the college. Finally friendly relations 
were established between Neale and his dio- 
cesan, to whom he dedicated the volume of 
his collected ' Seatonian Poems.' 

While at East Grinstead Neale founded a 
well-known nursing sisterhood. It began in 
a very small way at Rotherfield, Neale work- 
ing in conjunction with Miss S. A. Gream, 
daughter of the rector of theparish. In 1856 
it was brought back to East Grinstead, where 
it still flourishes under the name of St. Mar- 
garet's Sisterhood. An orphanage, a middle- 
class school for girls, and a home at Alder- 
shot for the reformation of fallen women 
were one by one attached to the sisterhood ; 
but the home, after having done much useful 
work, was abandoned in consequence of the 
protestant prejudices raised against it. The 
work grew upon his hands, and he was anxious 
to see the buildings of the sisterhood en- 
larged. His last public act was to lav the 
foundation of a new convent for the sisters 
on St. Margaret's day (20 July) 1865; but 
he did not live to see it completed. His 
health utterly broke down, and, after a period 
of severe suffering, he died on the Feast 
of the Transfiguration (6 Aug.) 1866. His 
domestic life was eminently happy; he left 
behind him a widow and five children. He 
had also a circle of devoted friends, among 
whom maybe especially mentioned the Revs. 
Benjamin Webb and E. J.Boyce (co-founders 
of the Cambridge Camden Society), E. Has- 
koll, and Dr. Littledale. 

Neale is best known to the outer world as a 
writer. As a translator of ancient Latin and, 
still more, Greek hymns he has not an equal ; 
but he was a most voluminous writer on an 
infinite variety of other subjects. His lin- 
guistic powers were enormous; he knew 
more or less of twenty languages ; he was a 
true poet, and his Latin verses are not less 
graceful than his English. A story is told 
by Gerard Moultrie [see under Moultrie, 
John] of Neale's placing before Keble the 
Latin of one of Keble's hymns with the 
words, ' Why, Keble, I thought you told me 
that the " Christian Year n was entirely origi- 
nal/ Keble professed himself utterly con- 
founded until Neale relieved him by owning 
that he had just turned it into Latin. His 



Neale 



145 



Neale 



prose style is pure and lucid, and the range 
of his historical knowledge was very wide. 
In 1851 he undertook to write three leaders a 
week for the ' Morning Chronicle/ which he 
continued to do till the end of 1853, while at 
the same time he was contributing important 
articles to the ' Christian Remembrancer,' and 
afterwards, at the invitation of Mr. J. II . 
Parker, to the ' National Miscellany ' and the 
* Penny Post/ and to the * Churchman's Com- 
panion/ 

Neale's more important works, many of 
which appeared after his death, chiefly under 
the direction of Dr. Littledale, are here ar- 
ranged under four chief headings : I. Theo- 
logical and Ecclesiological ; II. Hymno- 
logical ; III. Tales and Books for the Young; 
IV. Miscellaneous. 

I. Theological and Ecclesiological : 
1. ' A History of the Jews/ 1841 (a supple- 
ment to this work appeared in the following 
year). 2. 'An Historical Outline of the 
book of Psalms' (originally written by 
his father, but revised and edited by him), 
1842. 3. 'A Translation of Durandus on 
Symbolism, with Introductory Essay, Notes, 
&c./ 1843. 4. ' A History of Alexandria/ 
1844. 5. 'Tetralogia Liturgica, sive S. 
Chry80stomi, S. Jacobi, S. Marci, Divinae 
Missae/1848. 6. ' The Patriarchate of Alex- 
andria* (the first instalment of his great 
work on the Eastern church), 1848. 7. ' Eccle- 
siological Notes in the Isle of Man/ 1848. 
8. ' An Introduction to the History of the 
Holy Eastern Church ' (an important work 
in two thick quarto volumes), 1850. 9. 'Life 
and Times of Patrick Torry, Bishop of St. 
Andre ws, Dunkeld, and Dunblane/ 1856. 
10. 'A History of the so-called Jansenist 
Church in Holland/ 1858. 11.' The Litur- 
gies of St. Mark, St. James, St. Clement, St. 
Chrysostom,and St. Basil/ 1859. 12. ' Voices 
from the East : Documents on the present 
State and Working of the Oriental Church, 
translated from the original Russ, Sclavonic, 
and French, with Notes/ 1859. 13. * A Com- 
mentary on the Psalms from primitive and 
mediaeval Writers/ 1860. 14. 'History of 
the Council of Florence/ 1861. 15. ' Essays 
on Liturgiology and Church History/ 1863. 
There appeared posthumously : 16. ' Twenty- 
eight Sermons for Children/ 1867. 17. ' Ser- 
mons for the Black-Letter Days ; or Minor 
Festivals of the Church of England/ 1868 
(a most valuable and interesting volume, quite 
unique of its kind). 18. ' Thirty-three Ser- 
mons for Children/ 1869. 19. ' Via Fidelium, 
being Litanies, Stations, and Hours, com- 
piled by J. M. N./ 1869. 20. ' Catechetical 
Notes and Class Questions, Literal and Mys- 
tical, chiefly on the Earlier Books of Holy 

TOL. XL. 



Scripture/ 1869. 21.' The Venerable Sacra- 
ment of the Altar ('De Sacramento Altaris' 
of St. Thomas Aquinas), translation com- 
menced by J. M. N./ 1871. In 1874 was 
published for the first time the full ' Com- 
mentary on the Psalms from primitive and 
mediaeval Writers/ compiled partly by Neale 
and partlv by Littledale, in 4 vols. In 1873 
was published for the first time, in 5 vols., all 
that Neale wrote — and that only a fragment 
— on 'The History of the Holy Eastern 
Church/ 

II. Hymnological : 1. * J. M. Nealii 
Epistola Critica de Sequentiis/ in the fifth 
volume of the 'Thesaurus Hvmnologicus/ 
1841. 2. 'Hymns for the "Sick/ 1843. 
3. ' Hymns for Children, in Accordance with 
the Catechism/ 1843. 4. ' Hymni Ecclesiee e 
Breviarii8 quibusdam et Missalibus Gallica- 
nis, Germanis, Hispanis, Lusitanis desumpti. 
Collect et recensuit J. M. N./ 1851. 6. 'Se- 
quentifle ex Missalibus Germanicis, Anglicis, 
Gallicis, aliisque Medii JEvi collectre. Re- 
censuit notulisque instruxit Johannes M. 
Neale' (a companion volume to the pre- 
ceding), 1852. 6. ' The Rhythm of Bernard 
de Morlaix ... on the Celestial Country* 
(Latin and English), 1859. 7. 'Hymns, 
chief! v mediaeval, on the Joys and Glories of 
Paradise/ 1865. 8. ' Hymns for Use during 
the Cattle Plague/ 1866. 9. 'The Invalid's 
Hymn Book ' (with a preface by Dr. Little- 
dale), 1866. 10. 'Sequences, Hymns, and 
other Ecclesiastical Verses/ 1866. 

In 1851 appeared the first part of the 
' Hymnal Noted/ the second and more popu- 
lar part appearing in 1854. The great 
majority of the hymns in both parts were 
translated by Neale. In 'Hymns Ancient 
and Modern no less than one-eighth of the 
hymns are from his pen, either originals or 
translated (this is exclusive of the last ap- 
pendix). No other hymn- writer is so largely 
represented in this the most popular of all 
English hymnals. Two admirable volumes 
of carols collected by Neale, with music by 
nelmore, ' Carols for Christmastide ' and 
'Carols for Eastertide/ were issued in 1853 
and 1854 respectively. 

III. Tales and Books fob the Young: 
1. 'Herbert Tresham: a Tale of the Great 
Rebellion/ 1842. 2. 'Agnes de Tracev: a 
Tale of the Times of St. Thomas of Canter- 
bury/ 1843. 3. ' Ay ton Priory ; or the re- 
stored Monastery/ 1843. 4. 'Shepperton 
Manor: a Tale of the Times of Bishop An- 
drewes/ 1844. 5. ' A Mirror of Faith : Lays 
and Legends of the Church of England/ 1845. 
6. ' Annals of Virgin Saints/ 1845. 7. ' Stories 
of the Crusades/ 1845. 8. 'The Unseen 
World/ 1847. 9. ' Duchenier : a Tale of the 



Neale 



146 



Neale 



Revolt in La Vendee/ 1847. 10. < Victories 
of the Saints/ 1850. 11 . « Stories for Children 
from Church History/ 1850; 2nd series, 1851. 

12. 'The Followers of the Lord/ 1851. 

13. 'Evenings at Sackviile College: Legends 
for Children/ 1852. 14. « The Pilgrim's Pro- 
press for the Use of Children in the English 
Church/ 1853. 15. < History of the Church 
for the Use of Children/ pt. 1. (no more pub- 
lished),1853. 16. 'TheEgyptianWanderers: 
a Story for Children of the Great Persecu- 
tion/1854. 17. ' Lent Legends: Stories from 
Church History/ 1855. 18. 'The Farm of 
Aptonga/ 1856. 19. < Church Papers : Tales 
illustrative of the Apostles' Creed/ 1857. 
20. < Theodora Phranza; or the Fall of Con- 
stantinople/ 1857 (an excellent story of the 
events preceding 1453). 

In 1845 he commenced a series of tales in I 
die Juvenile Englishman's Library, includ- 
ing ' The Triumphs of the Cross : Tales and 
Sketches of Christian Heroism ' (vol. vi.) ; 
* A History of Portugal ' (vol. xvi.\ ' Stories 
from Heathen Mythology and Greek History 
for the Use of Christian Children ' (voL xix.), 
' A History of Greece for Young Persons ' and 
' English History for Children ' (' Triumphs 
of the Cross/ 2nd ser.), and ' Tales of Chris- 
tian Endurance ' (vol. xxii.) In Parker's 
series of tales illustrating church history, 
' The Lazar House of Leros/ ' The Exiles of 
the Cevenna/ ' Lily of Tiflis/ ' Lucia's Mar- 
riage/ &c, were from his pen. 

IV. Neale's Miscellaneous Writings, 
translations, and editions include: 1. 'Hiero- 
logus; or the Church Tourists/ 1843. 2.'Son?s 
and Ballads for the People/ 1843. 3. ' Sir 
Henry Spelman's History and Fate of Sacri- 
lege ' (edited by J. M. N.), 1846. 4. < Songs 
and Ballads for Manufacturers/ 1850 5. ' A 
Few Words of Hope on the present Crisis of 
the English Church ' (in reference to the Gor- 
ham controversv), 1850. 6. ' Handbook for 
Travellers in Portugal/ 1855. 7. 'The Moral 
Concordances of St. Anthony of Padua, trans- 
lated by J. M. NV ('Mediaeval Preachers'), 
1856. 8. 'Notes Ecclesiological and Pic- 
turesque on Dalmatia, Croatia, Istria, Stvria, 
with a Visit to Montenegro/ 1861 . 9. ' Sea- 
tonian Poems ' (written many years before), 
1864. In 1848 he issued a volume called 
' Readings for the Aged/ and this was fol- 
lowed by a second series in 1854, a third 
series in 1856, and a fourth in 1858. 

To the Cambridge Camden Society's pub- 
lications he contributed ' A Few Words to 
Churchwardens on Churches and Church 
Ornaments/ * A Few Words to Church 
Builders/ ' A History of Pews/ and a ' Me- 
moir of Bishop Montague/ dedicated to his 
tutor at Trinity, Archdeacon Thorp, and pre- 



fixed to a reprint of Bishop Montague's 
< Visitation Articles ' (1839-41). 

[St. Margaret's Magazine from July 1887 on- 
wards (where the fullest and most accurate 
account of Neale's life and writings will be 
found) ; Littledale's Memoir of Dr. J. M. Neale ; 
Neale's own Works, passim ; Memoir of the Rev. 
Cornelius Neale by the Rev. William Jowett ; 
Julian's Diet, of Hymnology, pp. 785-90; Hunt- 
ington's Random Recollections, 1893, pp. 198- 
223; Newbery House Magazine for March 1893 
(A Layman's Recollections of the Church Move- 
ment of 1833); private information.] J. H. O. 

NEALE,JOHNPRESTON(178(M847), 
architectural draughtsman, was born in 1780. 
Neale's earliest works were drawings of in- 
sects, and the statement that his father was 
a painter of insects seems due to a misinter- 
pretation of this fact. While in search of 
specimens in Hornsey Wood in the spring of 
1796, Neale met John Varley [q. v.] the water- 
colour painter, and commenced a friendship 
which lasted through life. Together they 
projected a work to be entitled ' The Pic- 
turesque Cabinet of Nature/ for which Varley 
was to make the landscape drawings, and 
Neale was to etch and colour the plates. 
No. 1 was published on 1 Sept. 1796, but no 
more appeared. In 1797 Neale exhibited at 
the Royal Academy two drawings of insects, 
and sent others in 1799, 1801, and 1803. 
Meanwhile he was discharging the duties of 
a clerk in the General Post Office, but eventu- 
ally resigned his appointment in order to de- 
vote his whole time to art. In 1 804 he sent to 
the Royal Academy a drawing of the ' Custom 
House, Dover/ and continued to exhibit topo- 
graphical drawings and landscapes until 1844. 
He contributed also to the exhibitions of the 
Society of Painters in Oil and Water Colours 
in 1817 and 1818, and from time to time to 
those of the British Institution and of the So- 
ciety of British Artists. Some of his works 
were in oil-colours; but his reputation rests on 
his architect uraldrawings,which are executed 
carefully with the pen and tinted with water- 
colours. In 1816 he commenced the publi- 
cation of the ' History and Antiquities of the 
Abbey Church of St. Peter, Westminster/ 
which was completed in 1823, in two quarto 
volumes, with descriptive text by Eaward 
W. Bray ley. He next began, in 1818, his 
'Views of the Seats of Noblemen and Gentle- 
men in England, Wales, Scotland, and Ire- 
land/ of which the first series, in six volumes, 
was completed in 1824. The second series, in 
^ve volumes, was published between 1824 and 
1829, and the entire work comprised no less 
than seven hundred and thirty-two plates. 
He likewise in 1824-5 undertook, in colla- 
boration with John Le Keux [q. v.], the en- 



Neale 



147 



Neale 



graver, the publication of ' Views of the most 
interesting Collegiate and Parochial Churches 
in Great Britain/ but the work was discon- 
tinued after the issue of the second volume. 
Besides these works he published * SixViews 
of Blenheim, Oxfordshire/ 1823 ; ' Graphical 
Illustrations of Fonthill Abbey/ 1824; and 
4 An Account of the Deep-Dene in Surrey, 
the seat of Thomas Hope, Esq./ 1826. Many 
other works contain illustrations from his 
pen and pencil. 

Neale died at Tattingstone, near Ipswich, 
on 14 Nov. 1847, in the sixty-eighth year of 
his age. The South Kensington Museum has 
a drawing by him of ' Staplehurst, Kent/ 
made in 1830. 

[Ipswich Express, 23 Nov. 1847 ; Gent. Mag. 
1847, ii. 667; Bryan's Diet, of Painters and 
Engravers, ed. Graves and Armstrong, 1886-9, 
ii. 202; Roget's History of the Old Water- 
Colour Society, 1891, i. 168-70; Royal Academy 
Exhibition Catalogues, 1797-1 844.] R. E. G. 

NEALE, SAMUEL (1729-1792), quaker, 
born in Dublin on 9 Nov. 1729, was son of 
Thomas and Martha Neale. He succeeded 
to an estate in Kildare county at seventeen, 
and spent his youth in hunting, coursing, 
and 'frequenting the playhouse.' In his 
twenty-second year he was deeply impressed 
by the preaching of Catherine Peyton and 
Mary Peisley at Cork. He accompanied them 
on their mission to Bandon and Kinsale, and 
returned to Cork a changed man. Becoming 
a quaker minister, he started in March 1752, 
with an American Friend, on a journey 
through Ireland, attended the London yearly 
meeting, and travelled in Holland and 
Germany. He held many meetings on his 
own account. In 1756 he visited Scotland, 
and stayed at Ury, near Aberdeen, with the 
grandson of Robert Barclay (1648-1690) 
[q. v.] the apologist. He many times subse- 
quently visited England, but his home was at 
Kathangan, near Edenderry, King's County. 

In August 1770 he sailed for America on 
a ministerial visit, accompanied by Joseph 
Oxley [q. v.] He travelled on horseback to 
most of the meetings in Philadelphia, Mary- 
land, Virginia, North and South Carolina, 
East and West Jersey, New England and 
New York, and returned to Cork on 16 Sept. 
1772. 

He died at Cork on 27 Feb. 1792, and was 
buried in the Friends' burial-ground there on 
2 March, having been a minister forty years. 
Neale married Mary Peisley {b. 1717) on 
17 May 1757. She had lony teen a minister, 
and in her youth had a similar experience 
to Neale's. She travelled in England and 
America, and exerted much influence. She 
died suddenly three days after the marriage. 



Three years later Neale married Sarah Beale 
(d. 7 March 1793). Before his death he pre- 
pared the journals and letters of Mary Peisley 
for publication, Dublin, 1795. His own jour- 
nals were first published in Dublin in 1805. 

[Some Account of the Lives and Religious 
Labours of Samuel and Mary Neale, forming 
vol. viii. of Barclay's Select Series, London, 1845. 
Reprinted in vol. xi. of The Friends' Library, 
Philadelphia, 1847; Leadbeater's Biog. Notices, 
pp. 291-306.] C. F. S. 

NEALE, THOMAS (d. 1699 ?), was mas- 
ter of the mint and groom-porter in the latter 
part of the seventeenth century. Nothing 
seems known of his early life, but he is said 
to have run through two fortunes, doubtless 
through his gaming and speculative tenden- 
cies. He was appointed master and worker 
of the mint in the thirtieth year of Charles H 
(30 Jan. 1677-8—29 Jan. 1678-9), and held 
the office under James II and William III 
till about January 1699. His name in this 
capacity appears on certain medals of Wil- 
liam III (Hawkins, Med.Illustr. ii. 13). His 
salary in 1693 was 500/. per annum (Cham- 
bbblaynb, Present State of England, 1694, 
p. 618). 'A Proposal for amending the 
Silver Coins of England,' 1696, 8vo, by 
Neale is in the British Museum Library, and 
also the following proposal, printed 20 Feb. 
1696-7: 'The best way of disposing of 
Hammer'd Money and Plate, as well for 
the advantage of the Owners thereof as for 
raising One Million of Money in (and for 
the service of) the year 1697 by way of a 
Lottery, wherein the benefits will be the 
same ... as were had in the Million Ad- 
venture, and the blanks will be prizes be- 
sides, to be paid sooner or later, as chance 
shall determine, but all to be cleared in one 
year/ Hammered money and plate were by 
this scheme received at 6*. an ounce, and 
tickets of 10/. each given as an equivalent. 

In (or before) 1684 Neale was appointed 
groom-porter to Charles II {London Gazette, 
24-28 July 1684). He held the same post 
under William III till about 1699. His duties 
were to see the king's lodgings furnished 
with tables, chairs, and firing; to provide 
cards and dice, and to decide disputes at the 
card-table and on the bowling-green. His 
annual salary was 2/. 13*. 4d. y with board- 
wages 127/. 15*. ^Chambeklatnb, op. cit. 
p. 239). In 1684 ne was, as groom-porter, 
authorised by the king to license and sup- 

f>ress gaming-houses, and to prosecute un- 
icensed keepers of ' rafflings, ordinaries, and 
other public games ' {London Gazette, 24-28 
July 1684 ; Malcolm, Manners and Customs 
of London, 1811, pp. 430-1). 

In 1694 the government proposed to raise 

l2 



Neale 



148 



Neale 



a million by a lottery-loan, on the security 
of a new duty on salt, &c. (5 Will. & 
Mary, c. 7). The plan — a loan and lottery 
combined — appears to have originated witn 
Neale, who was appointed master of the 
transfer office established in that year (in 
Lombard Street) for conducting the busi- 
ness of the lottery. He acted in this way 
till about January 1699. The loan was di- 
vided into a hundred thousand shares of 
10/. each. The interest on each share was 
20*. annually, i.e. ten per cent, during six- 
teen years. As an additional inducement to 
the public to lend, some of the shares were 
to be prizes, and the holders of the prizes 
(determined by lot) were to receive not only 
the ten per cent, interest on their shares, but 
to divide among them the sum of 40,0001. 
annually during sixteen years. A million 
was obtained for the state in this way (cf. 
Ashton, Hist, of Engl. Lotteries, p. 49 ) . Neale 
conducted at least two other public lotteries. 
Several of his printed prospectuses are pre- 
served in the British Museum, that of the 
lottery-loan of 1694 being headed : * A Pro- 
fitable Adventure to the Fortunate, and can 
be unfortunate to none ' (London, 1693-4, s. 
sh. fol.) Pepys (Diary, ed. Braybrooke, v. 
344) speaks of Neaie's project for a lottery as 
the chief talk of the town, and Evelyn (whose 
coachman won a prize of 40/.) mentions 'the 
lottery set up after the Venetian manner by 
Mr. Neale ' (Evelyn, Diary, ed. Bray, ii. 326). 

Neale's name appears in the list of sub- 
scribers to the National Land Bank proposed 
by Briscoe in 1695, and carried into effect by 
Robert Harley [q. v.], afterwards Earl of Ox- 
ford, in the following year, his subscription 
being entered as 3,000/. On 24 Feb. 1695-6 
Neale printed a proposal entitled ' The Na- 
tional Land Bank, together with Money . . . 
capable also of supplying the Government 
with any sum of Money ... as likewise the 
Freeholder with Money at a more moderate 
Interest than if such Bank did consist of 
Money alone without Land ' (copy in Guild- 
hall Library, London). Two millions were 
to be raised by a subscription of money, and 
one million by a subscription of land. 

He also engaged in building and mining 
schemes, and was interested in the East India 
trade (Neale's tract ' To Preserve the East 
India Trade/ &c, 1695, s. sh. fol. in Brit. 
Mus.) He projected and began the build- 
ing of the London streets known as the 
Seven Dials. On 5 Oct. 1694 Evelyn (Diary, 
ii. p. 832) went ' to see the building beginning 
near St. Giles's, where seven streets make a 
star from a Doric pillar placed in the middle 
of a circular area* (cp. Pope, Works, ed. El win 
and Courthope, x. 281). The streets were not 



all completed till after 1708 (Walford, Old 
and New London, iii. 204). Before 1695 
Neale obtained from Sir Thomas Clarges 
[q. v.] a large piece of land on the road from 
Piccadilly to Hyde Park. The rent was 100/. 

?er annum, and Neale undertook to expend 
0,000/. in building on the land. He, how- 
ever, left the ground waste for ten years, and 
died insolvent, owinsr 800/. for rent to Sir 
"Walter (son of Sir Thomas) Clarges (Mal- 
colm, Londinium JRediv. iv. 328-9). Clarges 
Street was subsequently built on this site 
in 1717 (Walford, Old and New London, iv. 
292). On 28 Aug. 1697 Neale (and another) 
obtained by letters patent a lease for thirty- 
one years of ( the coal-mines in Lanton, alias 
Lampton Hills, in the common fields of 
Wickham/ Durham (Cal. State Papers, Trea- 
sury Ser. 1720-8, p. 456). 

It is sometimes stated that Neale died in 
1705, but a report of the commissioners of 
the lottery made to the lord high treasurer 
in 1710 refers to his death as having taken 
place 'about January 1699' (ib. 1708-14, 
p. 517). It is moreover certain that his 
connection with the mint and with the trans- 
fer office ceased just about that time. A rare 
medalet (or lottery ticket ?), existing in the 
British Museum, in silver and copper, is en- 
graved, and described in Hawkins s'Medallic 
Illustrations/ ii. 104-5. It has on the obverse 
a bust of Neale inscribed tho. neale ar- 
miger, and on the reverse a figure of Fortune 
on a globe, and the motto non eadem semper. 
The portrait bears out Matthew Priori ob- 
servation (made in France in 1701) as to the 
likeness between James II, ' lean, worn, and 
rivelled/ and * Neale the projector ' (Ellis, 
Letters of Eminent Men, p. 265). 

Another Neale, Thomas ( fl. 1643), was 
eldest son of Sir Thomas >ieale, knt. (d. 
1620), of Warnford, Hampshire, one of the 
auditors of Queen Elizabeth and James I. 
Waiter Neale [q. v.] was his uncle. Neale 
was author of ' A Treatise of Direction how 
to Travell safely and profitably into forraigne 
Countries/ published in London in 1643, 12mo 
(Brit Mus. Cat. ; Hazlitt, Bibl. Coll. and 
Notes,3Tdaer. 1887,p.l69). This work, which 
was originally written in Latin, is dedicated to 
the author's brother, William Neale. It is a 
pedantic little treatise, full of quotations from 
the classics, but devoid of a solitary hint 
from the writer's own experience. A second 
edition appeared in 1664, London, 12mo 
(Brit. Mus. Cat; Lowndes, Bibl. Manual). 
Complete copies have a portrait of the author 
by W. Marshall. Neale married on 15 Sept. 
1632 Lucy, third daughter of Sir William 
Uvedale of Wickham, Hampshire (Nichols, 
Herald and Genealogist, iv. 42). 



Neale 



149 



Neale 



Neale, Thomas (fl. 1667), enslaver, 
worked in the style of Wenceslaus Hollar 
[q. v.] He engraved, copying Hollar, twenty- 
four plates of Holbein's * Dance of Death/ 
The first plate is dated 'Paris, 1657/ and 
the plates are signed * T. N.,' or with his 
name in full. Nagler supposes him to have 
engraved the plates for the eighth edition of 
John Ogilby's ' Fables of ^Esop/ and states 
that he engraved some of the plates for Bar- 
low's ' Di verses Avium species/ Paris, 1659 
[see, however, under Barlow, Francis], 

[Neale's tracts and prospectuses in Brit.Mus. 
and Guildhall Library ; Buding's Annals of the 
Coinage; Cal. Slate Papers, Treasury Ser.; Lon- 
don Gazette ; Hawkins's Medallic Illustrations, 
ii. 104-5.&C ; Macaulay's Hist, of Engl. cb. zl, 
* 1694 ;' authorities cited above.] W. W. 

NEALE, WALTER (fl. 1689), New 
England explorer, was son of William Neale, 
one of the auditors to Queen Elizabeth, of 
Warnford, Hampshire, by his first wife, 
Agnes, daughter of Robert Bowyer of Chi- 
chester (Berry, Genealogies, ' Hampshire/ p. 
149). In 1618 he fought under Count Ernest 
of Mansfeld on behalf of the elector palatine, 
both in Bohemia and in the Rhine country, 
and rose to be captain. His difficulties com- 
pelled him in February 1625 to petition for a 
grant of two thousand decayed trees in the 
New Forest in lieu of a month's pay (460/.) 
due to his company (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1623-5, p. 487), andin February 1629 he again 
►rayed for relief (ib. 1628-9, p. 480). In 1630 
te sailed for Piscataqua, or the lower settle- 
ment of New Hampshire, to act as governor 
of the infant colony there, his commission 
being signed by Sir Ferdinando Gorges, John 
Mason, and otners. He promised to discover 
a reported great lake towards the west, so as 
to secure to his employers a monopoly of the 
beaver trade ( Winthrop, Hist, of New Eng- 
land, ed. Savage, 1825, i. 38). During a stay 
of three years he ( exactly discovered/ accord- 
ing to his own account, all the rivers and 
harbours in the habitable part of the country, 
reformed abuses, subdued the natives, and 
settled a staple trade of commodities, espe- 
cially for building ships. On 15 Aug. 1633 
Neale embarked for England, and in 1634, 
at the request of the king, was chosen cap- 
tain of the company of the Artillery Garden 
in London (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1633- 
1634, pp. 230, 443). He applied soon after- 
wards for the place of muster master of the 
city (ib. 1611-18, p. 340). After carefully 
drilling the company for four years, Neale 
asked to be appointed sergeant-major of 
Virginia, but George Donne, second son of 
the dean of St. Paul's, obtained the post 
(ib. Col. Ser., American and West Indies, 



E 



1574-1660, pp. 134-5, 285). He was ap- 
pointed in 1639 lieutenant-governor of Ports- 
mouth (ib. Dom. 1639, pp. 32, 391). 

[Fell's Eccl. Hist, of JSew England, i. 155, 
165, 190-1 ; Neill's Virginia Carolorum, pp. 
87, 132; Neill's Founders of Maryland, p. 184.1 

U.G. 

NEALE, Sib WILLIAM (1609-1691), 
royalist, belonged to the Neales of Wollas- 
1 ton, Northamptonshire, who came originallv 
from Staffordshire, and were the elder branch 
of the Buckinghamshire and Bedfordshire 
family of the same name (Noble, Memorials 
of Cromwell, pp. 11, 15 note, and 32). His 
father was probably John Neale, grandson 
of Richard Neale of Staffordshire, whose 
will was proved in 1610 (Northamptonshire 
and Rutland Wills, 1510-1652, Index 
Library). Sir Edmund Neale, knt., who 
had to compound for his estates as a royalist, 
and who died in 1671, aged 73, must have 
been his elder brother (Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1645, 1647, 1648; Bridges, Hist, of 
Northamptonshire) . 

William took an active part in the civil 
war as scoutmaster-general in Prince Ru- 
pert's army. On 3 Feb. 1643 he was knighted 
by the king at Oxford for bringing the news 
of the taking of Cirencester by the royalist 
army ; at the relieving of Newark, which 
was besieged by Sir John Meldrum [a. v.] in 
March 1644, he fought close to Prince Rupert, 
who was attacked at once by three ' sturdy 
souldiers,' one of whom, * being ready to lay 
hand on the Prince's Coller, had it almost 
chopt off by Sir William Neal.' At the 
end of the fight he was employed in a parley 
to draw up the terms upon which Meldrum s 
forces should retire. He was still in the 
army in 1659, in which year he seems to 
have been taken prisoner (Cal. State Papers, 
1659, 25 Aug.^1 Sept.) 

Presumably as a reward for his services 
a baronet's warrant was made out for him 
on 26 Feb. 1646, in which he was specially 
exempted from the 1,095/. ' usually payd in 
respect of that dignity ; ' but the grant was 
never completed. A second warrant of 
8 Aug. 1667 (made out to William Neale of 
Wollaston, omitting the title of kniffht) 
seems equally to have failed to procure him 
the honour which he sought. 

He died in Gray's Inn Lane on 24 March 
1691, and was buried in St. Paul's Church, 
Co vent Garden. His arms were the same as 
those of the Neales of Dean, Bedfordshire, 
and of Ellenborough, Berkshire: per pale 
sable and gules, a lion passant guardant or. 

[Metcalfe's Book of Knights ; Hist. Memoirs 
of the Life and Death of that Wise and Valiant 
Prince Rupert, &c, 1683; His Highnesse Prince 



Neale 



150 



Neate 



Rupert's Raising of the Siege at Newarke-upon- 
Trent March 21, 1643, being a letter written by 
an eye-witness to a Person of Honour (this is 
copied by Rush worth pt. iii. pp. 1 1, 308, and Old- 
mixon, p. 247); Marshall's Genealogist, vi. 211 ; 
CaL of State Papers, 8 Aug. 1667 ; Wood's A then© 
Oxon. iii. 902 ; Burke's General Armoury] 

E. G. P. 

NEALE, WILLIAM JOHNSON (1812- 
1893), whose full name was William John- 
stoun Nelson Neale, lawyer and novelist, born 
in 1812, was second son of Adam Neale (d. 
1882) [q. v.], and brother of Erskine Neale 

Sq. v.] In 1824 he entered the navy, and 
or his services on board the Talbot at the 
battle of Navarino in 1827 was awarded a 
medal. On 1 7 Jan. 1838 he became a student 
of Lincoln's Inn, but subsequently migrated 
to the Middle Temple, where he was called 
to the bar on 26 Nov. 1836. He went the 
Oxford circuit, and practised also at Shrop- 
shire and Staffordshire sessions. In 1869 he 
was appointed recorder of Walsall. Neale 
died at Cheltenham on 27 March 1893. He 
married, on 12 Dec. 1846, Frances Herbert, 
daughter of Captain Josiah Nisbet, R.N., 
and eldest grandchild and coheiress of Vis- 
countess Nelson. 

Neale wrote several stirrinff sea stories, 
many of which achieved considerable popu- 
larity. Their titles are : 1. ' Cavendish, or 
the Patrician at Sea ' [anon.], 3 vols. 12mo, 
London, 1831 (reprinted in 1864, 1860 as 
vol. ccxix. of the ' Parlour Library,' and 1861 
as vol. v. of the ' Naval and Military Library '). 
2. 'The Port Admiral, a Tale of the War' 
[anon.], 3 vols. 12mo, London, 1833 (also 
included in vol. iv. of the ' Naval and Mili- 
tary Library/ 1861). 3. < Will-Watch : from 
the Autobiography of a British Officer,' 
3 vols. 12mo, London, 1834. 4. < The Priors 
of Prague,' 3 vols. 12mo, London, 1836. 
6. ' Gentleman Jack, a Naval Story/ 3 vols. 
8vo, London, 1837. 6. ' The Flving Dutch- 
man : a Legend of the High Seas/ 3 vols. 
12mo, London, 1839. 7. 'The Naval Sur- 
geon/ 3 vols. 12mo, London, 1841 (reprinted 
in 1858, and again in 1861, in vol. vi. of the 
'Naval and Military Library'). 8. 'Paul 
Periwinkle, or the Pressgang/ 8vo, London, 
1841, with forty etchings by ' Phiz.' 9. ' The 
Captain's Wife/ 3 vols. 12mo, London, 1842 
(another edit. 1862). 10. ' The Lost Ship, 
or the Atlantic Steamer/ 3 vols. 12mo, Lon- 
don, 1843 (another edit. 1860). 11. ' Scape- 
grace at Sea ; or, Soldiers afloat and Sailors 
ashore/ 2nd edit. 3 vols. 12mo, London, 1863. 
12. 'History of the Mutiny at Spithead and 
the Nore ' (anon.), 8vo, London, 1842. 

Neale wrote also 'The Lauread, a . . . 
Satire . . . Book the first '(anon.), 8vo, Lon- 



don, 1833 (two editions), and, with Basil 
Montagu, a handbook on the ' Law of Par- 
liamentary Elections/ 2 pts. 12mo, London, 
1839-40. 

[Foster's Men at the Bar, p. 336 ; Law Lists ; 
Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Reynolds's Newspaper, 9 April 
1893, p. 6 ; Cat. of Library of Advocates.] 

G. G. 

NEATE, CHARLES (1784-1877),pianist 
and composer, born in London on 28 March 
1784, gained his earliest musical education 
on the pianoforte from James Windsor of 
Bath, and on the violoncello from William 
Sharp. Subsequently he studied the piano- 
forte under John Held, and composition 
under Woelfl. On 2 March 1806 Neate was 
admitted a member of the Royal Society of 
Musicians. In 1813 he was one of the ori- 
ginal members of the Philharmonic Society, 
of which he became a director and at whose 
concerts he was often a performer and occa- 
sionally conductor. In 1815 he spent eight 
months in Vienna, where he contracted a 
close intimacy with Beethoven, and for five 
months subsequently studied counterpoint 
with Winter at Munich. After spending 
two years abroad he returned to London, 
where he resided first in Foley Place, and 
afterwards in Charlotte Street. By this time 
he had acquired a considerable reputation as 
a pianist and teacher of music. He was the 
first to introduce to English audiences, at the 
Philharmonic Society's concerts, Beethoven's 
pianoforte concertos in C minor and E flat, 
Weber's Concertstiick, and HummeFs con- 
certo in E and septuor in D minor. As a 
composer he lacked fancy and originality. 
He died at Brighton on 30 March 1877, after 
a retirement of many years. His wife pre- 
deceased him, and he left one son. 

His compositions include a sonata in O 
minor for pianoforte, Op. 1, 1808 ; a sonata 
in D minor for pianoforte, 1822 ; a fantasia 
for pianoforte, with violoncello obblijjato, 
1825 (?) ; a hundred Impromptus for piano- 
forte, 1830 ; two trios for pianoforte, violin, 
and violoncello ; and various quadrilles, fan- 
tasias, and minor pieces for pianoforte. 

He was the author of 'An Essay on 
Fingering. . . . Together with some General 
Observations on Pianoforte Playing,' Lon- 
don [1855]. 

[Grove's Diet, of Music, ii. 450 ; Records of 
Royal Soc. of Musicians ; Musical Directory of 
1878, p. xiv; Quarterly Musical Magazine and 
Review, ii. 384 ; Brit. Mus. Catalogues.] 

R. F. S. 

NEATE, CHARLES (1806-1879), econo- 
mist and political writer, was the fifth of 
the eleven children of Thomas Neate, rector 



Neate 



151 



Neate 



and squire of Alvescot, Oxfordshire, and Ca- 
therine, his wife. He was born at Adstock, 
Buckinghamshire, on 18 June 1806, and, 
after remaining long enough in his rural home 
to acquire a lifelong love of field sports, he 
was sent to the Colldge Bourbon m Paris. 
There Sainte-Beuve was one of his school- 
fellows, and he obtained a prize for French 
composition, open to all the schools of France. 
He was matriculated as a commoner Of Lin- 
coln College, Oxford, on 2 June 1824, aged 
17 ; he was scholar 1826-8, and graduated 
as a first-class man in 1828. The same year 
he was elected fellow of Oriel College. Neate 
was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in 
1832, but an unfortunate fracas with Sir 
Richard Bethell, afterwards Lord Westbury, 
terminated his career there. It was charac- 
teristic of Neate that, when at a subsequent 
period member of the House of Commons, 
ne opposed the vote of censure which was 
passed upon his former opponent. By sup- 
porting Lord Palmerstons motion for the 
adjournment of the debate, Neate voted for 
the ' old scoundrel/ as he was in the habit 
of styling Westbury (Times, 4 and 6 July 
1866). 

In 1867 he was appointed Drummond pro- 
fessor of political economy at Oxford, but at 
the end of the five years for which the profes- 
sorship is held he was not again a candidate. 
Several pamphlets on economical subjects 
bear witness to his learning and activity at 
this period. He was also examiner in the 
School of Law and History at Oxford in 
1863-4-6, and was appointed lecturer on the 
same subjects at Oriel in 1866. 

In earlier life Neate acted as secretary 
to Sir Francis Thornhill Baring (afterwards 
Lord Northbrook) [q. v.] when chancellor of 
the exchequer ( 183&-41), and he was elected 
member ot parliament for the city of Oxford 
in the liberal interest in 1867. He was, how- 
ever, a few months later unseated for bribery. 
His second election was to the parliament 
which sat from 1863 to 1868 ; and on the dis- 
solution he did not seek re-election. As a 
speaker in the House of Commons he was 
effective from his evident sincerity, but made 
no special attempts at eloquence. On re- 
tiring from parliament he lived wholly at 
Oxford, amid a large circle of friends, who 
esteemed him on account of his fearless 
honesty and outspokenness. He died senior 
fellow of his college on 7 Feb. 1879, and 
was buried at Adstock. 

Neate's writings convey an inadequate idea 
of his powers. Oxford residents still remem- 
ber the spare, somewhat gaunt figure, and 
the keen eyes which flashed with wit. Many 
good sayings by him have been preserved. 



Thus, when speaking of some political leaders 
of a then failing party, he added : ' Wherever 
I look I see only brilliant political sunsets.' 
He was a liberal of the old school ; inclined to 
reform, but with certain paradoxical ten- 
dencies. His chivalrous disposition led him 
always to range himself on the weaker side. 
When he managed the estates of the college, 
he was always on the side of the tenants, fie 
favoured university reform till it was taken 
up by the government, and then resented its 
being forced upon the university, in his pam- 
phlet entitled 'Objections to the Govern- 
ment Scheme for the present Subjection and 
future Management of the University of 
Oxford/ 1854. He opposed the lavish outlays 
upon the new museum at Oxford, and when 
they had been voted, said : ' Gentlemen, you 
have given science a laced shirt, and you must 
pay for it/ In the same way his opposition 
to free trade was very characteristic. He 
was by temperament somewhat a 'laudator 
temporis acti.' Owing to his French educa- 
tion he had an exceptional mastery of that 
language. He wrote it with an elegance 
which elicited admiration from Frenchmen 
themselves. He was also a good Greek and 
Latin scholar of the old-fashioned type, and 
many humorous copies of verse in the latter 
language are familiar to old Oxonians, some 
of the happiest being directed against Lord 
Beaconsfield, whose policy and character he 
thoroughly disliked. He was at one time a 
well-known rider and steeplechaser. A good 
portrait of him, engraved on steel, is to bo 
seen in one of the Oriel common-rooms. 

The pamphlets written by Neate chiefly deal 
with political questions. The most remark- 
able is that entitled ' Considerations on the 
Punishment of Death,* in which the bene- 
volence of his character was shown by his 
arguments for its abolition. His most im- 
portant pamphlets, besides those already 
mentioned, are: 1. 'Game Laws' (anon.), 
London, 1830. 2. ' Arguments against Re- 
form ' (anon.), London, 1831. 3. * Quarrel 
with Canada ' (anon.), London, 1 838. 4. ' Sum- 
mary of Debates and Proceedings in Parlia- 
ment relating to the Corn Laws/ 1842. 
6. 'Dialogues des Morts; Guizot et Louis 
Blanc' (anon.), Oxford, 1848; Paris, 1849. 

6. 'Remarks on a late Decision of the Judges 
as Visitors of the Inns of Court,' 1848. 

7. ' Introduction au Manuel Descriptif de 
l'Universite d'Oxford' (anon.), Oxford, 1851. 

8. ' Observations on College Leases, Oxford, 
1853. 9. ' Remarks on the Legal and other 
Studies of the University,' 1856. 10. ' An- 
swer to a recent Vote of Convocation,' 1868. 
11. 'The proper Share of the University in 
the Board ofStreet Commissioners' (no date, 



Neaves 



152 



Nechtan 



but after 1868). 12. ' Two Lectures on the 
Currency/ Oxford, 1859. 13. 'Two Lec- 
tures on the History and Conditions of 
Landed Property/ Oxford, 1860. 14. 'Three 
Lectures on Taxation, especially that of 
Land/ Oxford, 1861. 15. 'Relations of Law 
and Equity as affected by Statute of Uses/ 
1861. 16. ' Two Lectures on Trades Unions/ 
Oxford, 1862. 17. ' Somnium Ricardi/ 1863. 
18. ' Law of Entail/ London, 1865. 19. ' Ob- 
servations on the Reorganisation of our 
Courts of Justice/ 1868. 20. ' Specimens of 
Composition in Prose and Verse/ Oxford, 
1874. 21. 'Oratio in Collegio Orielensi' 
(anon.), Oxford, 1875. 22. ' Besika Bay, a 
Dialogue/ Oxford, 1877. 23. 'Universities 
Reform Bill/ Oxford, 1877. 

[Thomas Mozley's Reminiscences, chiefly of 
Oriel College and the Oxford Movement ; Bur- 
gon's Lives of Twelve Good Men ; notes con- 
tributed by Rev. D. P. Chase, principal of St. 
Marv Hall, and the personal recollections of the 
writer.] W. R. M. 

NEAVES, CHARLES, Ix>rd Neaves 
(1800-1876), Scottish judge, son of Charles 
Neaves, a solicitor of Forfar, who was after- 
wards clerk of the justiciary court, Edin- 
burgh, belonged to an old Forfarshire family 
long settled in the town of Forfar. The ori- 
ginal name of Neave was altered to Neaves 
by the father. Charles, born in Edinburgh 
on 14 Oct. 1800, was educated at the hi^h 
school and university there, and after a bril- 
liant academical career was called to the bar 
in 1822. He soon gained an extensive prac- 
tice, and even in his early years was engaged 
in many difficult and important cases. At 
that time legal pleadings before the court 
were written, and the literary ability of 
Neaves speedily declared itself. In 1841 
he was appointed advocate-depute when Sir 
"William Kae [q. v.] was lord-advocate, and 
he retained this position for four veare. From 
1845 till 1852 he was sheriff of *Orknev and 
Shetland. On the resignation of Lord Pre- 
sident David Boyle [q. v.] in May 1852 Neaves 
was appointed solicitor-general for Scotland 
in Lord Derby's administration. He held 
office till Derby's resignation in January 1853 ; 
and in the following April was made a judge 
in the court of session, taking the title of 
Lord Neaves, to fill the vacancy caused by 
the death of Cockburn. Five years afterwards 
he was appointed a lord of justiciary, and he 
filled this office until his death on 23 Dec. 
1876. His widow, who survived him, was a 
daughter of Coll Macdonald of Dalness, writer 
to the signet, and one of his daughters was 
married to John Millar, lord Craighill, a judge 
of the court of session. 

In his profession Neaves was regarded as 



one of the greatest ' case lawyers ' of his day. 
His tenacious memory enabled him to quote 
apposite decisions with unfailing accuracy, 
and he was one of the foremost authorities 
on criminal law in Scotland. His reputation 
as a literary man was almost equally great. 
For more than forty years he was a regular 
contributor of prose and verse to ' Blackwood's 
Magazine/ though only a few of his poetical 
contributions have been republished. One of 
his favourite studies was philology, and his 
articles in 'Blackwood' on Grimm's philolo- 
gical works are still quoted as authoritative. 
As a humorist Neaves enjoyed a wide re- 
putation. Many of his most brilliant satires 
nave been published in the volume entitled 
' Songs and Verses, Social and Scientific ' 
(Edinburgh, 1868, 2nd edit. 1872). His wide 
knowledge of the classics was shown in his 
volume on 'The Greek Anthology/ 1870 (in 
Blackwood's 'Ancient Classics '), which con- 
tains many graceful translations and elabo- 
rate notes. For more than fifty years he was 
a prominent figure at all the public literary 
functions in Edinburgh. He was present at 
the Theatrical Fund oanquet in 1827, when 
Scott acknowledged the authorship of the 
' Waverley Novels ;' at the banquet given in 
honour of Dickens in 1841 ; at the similar 
function in recognition of Thackeray in 1857 ; 
and he presided at the Leyden centenary 
celebration in 1875. He received the degree 
of LL.D. from Edinburgh University in i860 
and was elected lord rector of St. Andrews 
University in 1872. Many of the voluminous 
manuscripts which he left behind, especially 
his translations and notes on Greek epigrams 
not included in his ' Anthology/ would be 
worthy of publication. 

Neaves's principal works besides those 
noticed are : 1. 'On Fiction as a Means of 
Popular Teaching/ Edinburgh, 1869. 2. 'A 
Glance at some of the Principles of Compara- 
tive Philology/ Edinburgh, 1870. 3. 'Lec- 
ture on Cheap and Accessible Pleasures/ Edin- 
burgh, 1872. 4. ' Inaugural Address as Lord 
Rector of the University of St. Andrews/ 
Edinburgh, 1873. 

[Campbell Smith's Writings by the Way, pp. 
468-81 ; private information.] A. H. M. 

NECHTAN, a Pictish personal name, of 
which there are many examples variously 
spelt in the ' Chronicles of the Picts in Scot- 
land/ besides others in Ireland ; it is sup- 
posed to survive in the Irish and Scottish clan 
names Macnaghten or Macnaughten,and the 
place names Dunnichen (Dun-nechtan) and 
Nechtans Mere in Forfarshire, and perhaps 
Xaughton in Fifeshire. Of the many persons 
so called, only two are of historical import- 



Nechtan 



153 



Nechtan 



ance, both of whom were kings of the Picts 
— Nechtan Morbet or Morbreac, son of Erip, 
and Nechtan, son of Derelei or Derjjard. 

Nechtan Morbet (d. 481 P) is said in the 
earliest verses of the Pictish chronicle or 
manuscript of the tenth century (Imperial 
Library, Paris, 41 26) to have reigned ' twenty- 
four years. In the third year of his reign, 
Darlugdach ("a. v. J abbess of Kildare, came as 
an exile to Britain for the sake of Christ. 
The second year after her arrival Nechtan 
dedicated Abernethy to St. Brigit [q. v.], and 
Darlugdach, who was present, shouted Alle- 
luia in respect of that offering.' The same 
legend is repeated in the additions to the 
Irish Nennius. The cause of the offering is 
said by the Pictish chronicle to have been 
that Nechtan had been driven to Ireland 
during the reign of his brother Drust, and, 
having sought St. Brigit, she prayed God for 
him, and promised that if he returned to his 
country he would possess the kingdom of the 
Picts in peace. It is not possible to reconcile 
the probable date of Nechtan Morbet's reign 
(457-81 With the probable dateof St.Brigit's 
life, as lier death is recorded in the Irish 
annals in 523, 524, or 525. Still the circum- 
stantiality of the above statement as to the 
dedication of Abernethy appears to point, 
as so often happens, to a fragment of true 
history, the dates of which have been mis- 
placed. Mr.E.W.Robert8on (Early Scottish 
Kings, i. 10) conjectures that the foundation 
of Abernethy was antedated, and that its real 
founder was Nechtan MacDereli. This would 
accord better with its geographical position, 
but is inconsistent with the introduction of 
Darlugdach into the story and with the con- 
nection assigned to Abernethy with the Irish 
and not with the Roman church. 

Nbchtan, son of Dereli or Dergard, king 
of the Picts (d. 732), is first mentioned as 
king of the Picts in 717, when he is said to 
have expelled * the family of Iona '—that is, 
the clerics who followed the Irish customs 
— across the mountains (trans dorsum Bri- 
tanni®). He reigned, according to the earliest 
chronicle of the Picts, fifteen years, which 
synchronises with the date of his death in 
732 in the 'Annals of Tighernach/ According 
to the legend of St. Boniface {Chronicles of 
Picts and Scots), that saint baptised him at 
Restenet, Forfarshire, along with his nobles 
and whole army. Bede, who narrates contem- 
porary facts, informs us that in 710 Naitan, 
as he calls the king, conformed to the Roman 
date of the observance of Easter, and sent to 
Ceolfrid, then abbot of Yarrow in Anglian 
Northumbria, with a request that he would 
supply him with the best arguments in 
favour of the Roman rule both with regard 



to Easter and the shape of the tonsure, in 
order to confute the heretical practices of the 
Celtic church. He also begged that archi- 
tects might be sent to instruct his countrv- 
men how to build a church of stone after tne 
Roman fashion. The answer of Ceolfrid has 
been preserved, and was perhaps written by 
Bede himself, at that time a monk of Yarrow. 
Tho adoption of these two svmbols of the 
Roman church throughout the territory of 
the Pictish king was the cause of the ex- 
pulsion from the Pictish territory of those 
Celtic monks who continued to recognise the 
Celtic customs. Skene conjectures that it 
was the publication of Nechtan's edict on 
these points which procured for the Moot- 
hill and Castle of Scone the titles of the Hill 
and Castle of Belief (Caislen Credi). A few 
years later Nechtan, after the fashion of so 
many early Celtic chiefs and kings, became 
a monk, and he was supplanted in the Pict- 
ish throne by Drust in 724 ; but, like the 
monks of that age, he did not abandon 
secular ambition or cease to fight for tem- 
poral power. In 726 he was taken prisoner 
and bound by Drust, as a son of Drust had 
been by Nechtan in the previous year. In 
728 Nechtan, after two victories over Drust's 
successor, Elphin or Alpin, one at Moncrieff 
and the other at Scone, both within a few 
miles of Perth, regained the kingdom. On 
12 Aug. 729 Drust was slain in a third battle 
at Drumderg or Mount Carno, the Cairn o* 
the Mount in Kincardineshire or the Mearns, 
by Angus, another king or chief of the Picts. 

In 732 Nechtan died. Wvntoun in his 
' Chronicle ' credits Nechtan with the founda- 
tion of the church of Rosmarkiein Ross-shire, 
which afterwards became the cathedral of 
Moray (Cronykil of Scotland, v. 5819), 
but, by an error either in transcription or 
chronology, dates this foundation in 600 a.d. 
It would appear that the error is in the latter, 
for he places the foundation in the reign of 
Maurice, the emperor of the East, who was 
killed by Phocas in 602. It is not likely that 
Nechtan's power extended so far north as 
Ross ; Scone was his capital. Perthshire and 
the adjacent counties of Forfar and Fife 
were the probable limits of his kingdom. 

The fact of his converting his subjects, as 
the result of his own conversion, to the Roman 
customs, and his consequent submission to 
the Roman see, appear to be clearly proved, 
on the authority of Bede, to have taken place 
in the first or second decade of the eighth 
century, which substantially agrees with the 
dates in the Irish annals. This conversion 
and submission were almost contemporaneous 
with that of the monks of Iona itself through 
the influence of the example of Adamnan 



Neckam 



154 



Neckam 



[q. v.], who had conformed to the Roman 
rule later in 703, and the exertions of the 
Anglian priest Egbert, who preached the 
orthodox doctrine in Iona in 716. 

[Baeda's Historia Eccleeiae Anglicans ; Chro- 
nicles of the Picts and Scots, edit, by W. F. 
Skene for the Lord Clerk Register of Scotland ; 
Keeves's Life of St. Columba ; T. Innes's Civil 
and Ecclesiastical Hist, of Scotland; Skene's 
Celtic Scotland, vol. L; E. W. Robertson's Scot- 
land under her Early Kings, vol. i.] JE. M. 

NECKAM or NECHAM, ALEX- 
ANDER (1167-1217), scholar, was born at 
St. Albans, Hertfordshire, in September 1 167, 
on the same night as Richard I. His mother 
was chosen to be Richard's foster-mother, 
and she suckled both the children together. 
Neckam received his early education at St. 
Albans, and is sometimes called Alexander de 
Sancto Albano. While very young he is said 
to have had charge of the school of Dunstable, 
dependent on St. Albans Abbey. He went 
to the university of Paris and became a mem- 
ber of the school of Petit Pons, then lately 
founded, and famous for its subtlety in dis- 
putation. By 1180 he was a distinguished 
teacher at the university (Du Botjlay). He 
was sometimes in joke called 'Nequam' 
(wicked) by his contemporaries. Returning 
to England in 1186, he seems to have again 
had charge of the Dunstable school for a year, 
and then to have applied for the mastership of 
the St. Albans school. In answer the Abbot 
Warin is said to have written punningly to 
him, ' Si bonus es, venias ; si nequam, nequa- 
quam,' to which he replied in the same spirit 
(Gcsta Abba turn S. Albani, i. 196; if this story 
is to be received at all, this version of it is of 
better authority than that quoted by Tanner 
from Boston of Bury). He is supposed to have 
been prior of St. Nicholas, Exeter, but of this 
there is no proof. Having become an A ugus- 
tinian canon, he was, in 1213, chosen abbot of 
Cirencester. It is asserted that he visited 
Rome with the Bishop of Worcester [see 
Grey or Gray, Walter De, archbishop of 
York], but this is unlikely ; for in his * De 
LaudibusDivinte Sapienti®/ written towards 
the end of his life, he speaks of the approach 
of old age as a bar to such a journey. He 
was a great deal at court at some period of 
his life. He died at Kempsey in Worcester- 
shire in 1217, and was buried at Worcester 
(Annates de Wigorma, sub an.) His nick- 
name, Nequam, was so frequently used that 
he is called by it in the record of his death 
and in the epitaph said to have been placed 
on his tomb (Wright, Biog. Lit ii. 460). 

His range of learning was wide, and he 
wrote much and on various subjects. Both 
in prose and verse he wrote better Latin than 



was then common, and he shows a consider* 
able acquaintance with the ancient Latin 
poets. Two of his works have been edited by 
T. Wright in one volume in the Rolls Series 
of ' Chronicles and Memorials/ They are 
both on natural science. The one entitled ' De 
naturis rerum ' is in prose, and exists in four 
manuscripts, two being in the Royal Library 
in the British Museum, and the other two at 
Magdalen and St. John's Colleges, Oxford. 
It was a popular work, and is frequently 
quoted, as by Sir Thomas de la More [q. v.] 
(ap. Chronicles of Edward I and II, Rolls 
Ser. ii. 309 ; Geoffrey lb Baker, ed. Thomp- 
son, p. 22), and by John Brompton (ed. 
Twysden, col. 814). It presents a highly 
interesting picture of the notions about 
natural science then held by men of learn- 
ing, together with many quaint stories and 
illustrations. The other work in the same 
volume of the Rolls Series is his 'De Laudi- 
bus Divin® Sapiential/ taken from a single 
manuscript in the Royal Library in the Bri- 
tish Museum. It is in elegiac verse, and is 
a paraphrase of the prose work, with some 
fresh matter, and with the stories left out. 
It was evidently written late in the life of the 
author, who says that he purposes to offer the 
book to Gloucester Abbey, and in case the con- 
vent there should not care for it, then to St. 
Albans. Neckam seems also to have been the 
author of another elegiac poem on the monas- 
tic life, entitled « De Contempt u Mundi,' which 
is found in several manuscripts, and has been 
attributed to St. Anselm, and printed with his 
works. Of his translation of ' yEsop's Fables ' 
into elegiacs, six fables have been printed from 
a Paris MS. in Robert's 'Fables inedites,' 
vol. i. Other poems, as one ' De Conversione 
Magdalense,' are known by name, but are per- 
haps not now extant. Neckam also wrote 
treatises on grammar, some of which are ex- 
tant. Of his learning in this direction Roger 
Bacon said that, though ' in many things he 
wrote what was true and useful, he neither has 
nor ought to have any title to be reckoned an 
authority ' ( Opera Inedita, p. 457). Grammar 
seems to have been his favourite pursuit, and 
when writing on other subjects he sometimes 
stops to note some derivation which now 
appears strange. He also wrote a kind of 
vocabulary in the form of a reading book, 
entitled ' De Utensilibus,' of which there are 
manuscripts in the British Museum (MS. 
Cotton, Titus D. 20), and at Caius College 
and Peterhouse, Cambridge. Some extracts 
from this have been printed by Wright. His 
other works are commentaries on parts of 
scripture, theological tracts and sermons, and 
commentaries on Aristotle, Ovid's ' Metamor- 
phoses,' and a portion of Martianus Capella. 



Necton 



155 



Needham 



[Wright's pref. to Neckam's De Naturis Rerum , 
&c, p. 503 (Rolls Ser.) ; Wright's Biog. Brit. Lit. 
ii. 449-59; there is nothing additional in the 
short notice in Morley's English Writers, iii. 196; 
Bale'sScriptt.Cat.pt.i.p.272, ed. 1687 ; Tanner's 
Bibl. Brit. pp. 639-42 (a full list of his works) ; 
Hardy's Cat. Mat. iii. 67, 58 (Rolls Ser.) ; Da 
Boalay's Hist Univ. Paris, ii. 427, 726; Hist. 
Litt. de France, zviii. 621; Geeta Abbatnm 
Mon. S. Albani, i. 196 (Rolls Ser.) ; Annals of 
Tewkesbury, an. 1 217, of Dunstable, an. 1213, of 
Worcester, an. 1217, ap. Ann. Monastici, i. 63, ii. 
40, 17. 409 (Rolls Ser.)] W. H. 

NECTON or NECHODUN, HUM- 
PHREY (d. 1803), Carmelite, was a native of 
Norfolk according to Leland, of Suffolk ac- 
cording to Bale. He joined the Carmelite 
order while it was new in England. De- 
voting himself to study, he went to Cam- 
bridge in 1259. and was the first Carmelite 
who took the degree of doctor of theology 
there. His preaching against heretics in the 
schools and to the populace met with praise 
(Bale, jETar/. MS. 8838, f. 5Sb). He was 
chaplain to William de Luda, bishop of 
Ely (1294-8) (Blombfield, vi. 49). He 
died and was buried in the Carmelite house 
at Norwich 1803 (Bale, MS. loc. cit.) His 
works, according to Bale, were : 1. Fourteen 
'Sermones Dominicales,' or 'Sacrce Con- 
dones/ in one book, beginning ' Omne debi- 
tum dimisi tibi,' which some attribute to 
John Foulsham (see Leland, Comment, ii. 
846). 2. 'Qusestiones ordinaries,' in one 
book. 8. ' Lecturse Scholastic®/ in one book. 
4. ' Super articulis theologicis,' in one book. 
No copies of these works are known to exist. 

[Pits, De Angliae Scriptoribns, p. 388 ; Bale's 
Scriptorum Catalogue iv. 24 ; Tanner's Biblio- 
theca, p. 542 ; Lelaod's Commentarii de Scripto- 
ribus, ii. 318.] M. B. 

NEEDHAM, CHARLES, fourth Vis- 
count Kilmorey (d. 1660), descended from 
Thomas, elder brother of Sir John Needham 
[q. v.], was second son of Robert (d. 1653), 
second viscount, by his second wife, Eleanor, 
daughter of Thomas Dutton of Dutton, Che- 
shire, and widow of Gilbert, lord Gerard of 
Gerard's Bromley, Staffordshire. He suc- 
ceeded to the title in January 1657 on the 
death, without issue, of his brother Robert, 
third viscount, who had three years pre- 
viously surrendered to him his interest in 
the family estates at Shavington, Shropshire. 
He was a staunch royalist, and these es- 
tates suffered in consequence by sequestra- 
tion and otherwise (cf. Act of Parliament 
for the Payment of the Debts of Charles, 
late Lord Viscount Kilmorey, 29 Charles n, 
ch. v.) In August 1659 he joined with Sir 
George Booth and the Earl of Derby in an 



attempt to restore Charles to the throne, which 
was defeated by General Lambert [q. v.]; and 
Lord Kilmorey was taken prisoner to London, 
where he died suddenly tne following year. 

He married, in February 1654, Bridget, 
eldest daughter of Sir William Drury of 
Drury House, London (which occupied the 
site of the present Drury Lane theatre), and 
Beesthorpe, Norfolk, by whom he had five 
sons (Charles, who diea in infancy; Robert 
and Thomas, who succeeded to the family 
honours as fifth and sixth viscounts respec- 
tively ; Byron, and a second Charles) and one 
daughter. His widow remarried Sir John 
Shaw, bart. His descendant, Francis Jack 
Needham, twelfth viscount Kilmorey, is 
noticed separately. 

[Case and Pedigree of Robert viscount Kill- 
morey on Claim to vote at Elections of Irish 
Peers, April 1813 ; Harrod's Hist, of Shavington, 
pp. 90 et seq. ; Lodge's Peerage, iv. 224 ; informa- 
tion kindly supplied by W. H. Weldon, esq., 
Windsor Herald.] T. H. 

NEEDHAM, ELIZABETH, commonly 
knowA as ' Mother Needham ' (d. 1731), a 
notorious procuress, kept a house in Park 
Place, near St. James's Street. " She is said 
to have been employed by the infamous 
Colonel Charteris [see Charteris, Francis], 
and in 'Don Francisco's Descent into the 
Infernal Regions ' — a satire published upon 
Charteris's death in February 1732— she is 
represented as proposing in hell to marry the 
colonel, much to the latter's horror ana dis- 
gust. She is represented in the first plate of 
Hogarth's ' Harlot's Progress,' in the court- 
yard of the Bell Inn, Wood Street, cajoling 
with flattering promises the then innocent 
Kate Hackabout on her first arrival in 
London. She is depicted as a middle-aged 
woman, simpering beneath her patches, and 
well dressed in silk. The male figure lean- 
ing on his stick, and leering at the maid 
from the inn door, is supposed to represent 
Charteris himself, while behind him stands 
his factotum, Jack Gourlay. In spite of per- 
tinacious efforts made to screen her, Mother 
Needham was committed to the Gate House 
on 24 March 1731, convicted of keeping a 
disorderly house on 29 April, and ordered to 
stand in the pillory over against Park Place 
on 30 April 1731. She is described in the 
contemporary journals as lying upon the 
pillory on her lace ; notwithstanding which 
evasion of the law, and the diligence of 
a number of beadles and other persons who 
had been paid to protect her, she was so 
severely pelted by the mob that her life 
was despaired of. She actually died on 
3 May 1731, declaring that what most 
affected her was the terror of standing in the 



Needham 



156 



Needham 



pillory again. She is alluded to in the 
4 Dunciad • as ' pious Needham/ Pope states 
in a note that she ' was a matron of great 
fame, and very religious in her way/ her 
constant prayer being that she might get 
enough by her profession to leave it off in 
time and make her peace with God. ' Mother 
Needham's Lamentation/ a sixpenny pam- 
phlet, was published in May 1731. 

[Daily Advertiser, 1 May 1731 ; Grub Street 
Journal, 25 March, 29 April, and 6 May 1731 ; 
Stephens's Cat. of Satirical Prints, Nos. 1833 and 
2031 ; Hogarth's Works, ed. Nichols and Steevens, 
1810, ii. 96-8 ; Wheat ley and Cunningham's 
London ; El win's Pope, iv. 124.] T. S. 

NEEDHAM, FRANCIS JACK, twelfth 
Viscount and first Earl of Kilmorey 
(1748-1832), descended from Charles Need- 
ham, fourth viscount Kilmorey [q. v.], third 
eon of John, tenth viscount, hy Anne, daugh- 
ter of John Hurleston, esq., of Newton, Che- 
shire, and widow of Geoftrey Shakerley, esq., 
of Somerford in the same county, was horn in 
1748. Entering the army in 1762 as a cornet 
in the 18th dragoons, he exchanged into the 
1st dragoons in 1763, and became lieutenant 
in that regiment in 1773, and captain in the 
17th dragoons in 1774. He served during the 
whole of the American war of independence, 
and was taken prisoner at the siege of York- 
town. When peace was proclaimed he was 
placed on half- pay. Shortly afterwards he 
purchased a majority in the 80th foot. In 1783 
ne became lieutenant-colonel in the 104th 
foot, and in the same year exchanged into the 
1st foot-guaids. In 1793 he became an aide- 
de-camp to the king. In the two following 
years he served in the war with France. 

Needham is best known for his action in 
Ireland during the rebellion of 1798. He 
commanded the loyalist troops at the de- 
cisive battle of Arklow on 9 June of that 
year ; and it was largely owing to his courage 
and skilful arrangements that a body of 
rebels, variously estimated at from nineteen 
thousand to thirty-four thousand, led by 
Father Michael Murphy [q. v.] (who was 
killed in the battle), was, after three hours of 
hard fighting, defeated by a force not more 
than sixteen hundred strong, and composed 
chiefly of militia and yeomen. Dublin was 
thus saved, and the back of the rebellion effec- 
tually broken in that part of the country. 
Needham also commanded one of the five 
columns which, a little later in the same 
month, were despatched by General Lake 
[see Lake, Gerabd, first Viscount Lake] 
to hem in the rebel encampment at Vinegar 
Hill. Whether from some misunderstanding 
of orders or with the actual design of tem- 
pering judgment with mercy, an opening, 



afterwards known as ' Needham's Gap/ was 
left by his troops arriving late, so that, when 
the battle turned against them, numbers of 
the rebels escaped. Needham became colonel 
of the 86th foot in 1810, and general in 1812. 

In December 1806 Needham entered the 
House of Commons as member for the 
borough of Newry, which he continued to 
represent uninterruptedly during four par- 
liaments. Needham's eldest brother, Tho- 
mas, had died unmarried in 1773, and in 
November 1818, on the death of his second 
brother Robert, eleventh viscount Kilmorey, 
he succeeded to the peerage. In February 
1822 he was created Earl of Kilmorey and 
Viscount Newry and Mourne; and, in memory 
of the event, he restored the Kilmorey chapel 
in the parish church of Adderley, Shropshire, 
in which Shavington Hall, the seat of the 
Needhams since 1438, is situated. He died 
at Shavington on 21 Nov. 1832, and was 
buried in Adderley Church, where a monu- 
ment stands to his memory. He was remem- 
bered as a liberal landlord and a kind friend 
of the poor on his extensive estates. 

He married on 20 Feb. 1787 Anne, second 
daughter of Thomas Fisher of Acton, Mid- 
dlesex, by whom he had two sons — of whom 
the eldest, Francis Jack (1787-1880), suc- 
ceeded to the earldom — and eight daughters. 

[Case and Pedigree of Robert, Viscount Kill- 
morey, on Claim to vote at Elections of Irish 
Peers, April 1813; Lodge's Peer.ige, ed. Arch- 
dall, iv. 226 ; Harrod's History of Shavington, 
1891, pp. 119 etseq.; Leck/s History of Eng- 
land in the Eighteenth Century, viii. 138 et 
seq. ; Froude's English in Ireland, iii. 419 et seq^. ; 
Musgrave's Memoirs of Different Rebellions in 
Ireland, 2nd ed. pp. 436, 473 et seq. ; Plowden's 
Historical Review of the State of Ireland, vol. ii. 
pt. ii. pp. 739, 754, 764 ; Journal and Correspond- 
ence of William, Lord Auckland, iv. 14 et seq. ; 
Sequel to Teeling's Personal Narrative, p. 114 ; 
Maxwell's History of the Irish Rebellion, pp. 
131 et seq. ; Gordon's History of the Irish Re- 
bellion, pp. 156 et seq.; information kindly 
supplied by the present Earl of Kilmorey and 
Robert Needham Cast, esq.] T. H. 

NEEDHAM or NEDEHAM, JAMES 
{ft, 1530), architect and master-carpenter, 
belonged to a Derbyshire family (Cussans, 
Hertfordshire, ii. 60) . In 1523 he accom- 
panied the Duke of Suffolk's army to France, 
and his name appears among the pioneers 
and artificers in Sir William Skevington's 
retinue as a master carpenter in the receipt 
of twelve pence a day. In September 1525 
he was appointed by grant a gunner in the 
Tower of London. After 1530 Needham's 
name frequently occurs in the State Papers 
in connection with the building operations of 
the king and Cromwell. He was appointed 



Needham 



157 



Needham 



clerk of the king's works on 30 April 1530, 
and during that and the two following years 
was engaged in devising and superintending 
the building alterations which were carried 
out at Esher, York Place, and Westminster 
Palace. In September 1532 he was engaged 
in the ' re-edifying* of St. Thomas's tower 
within the Tower of London, and was oc- 
cupied on that and other works in the Tower 
during the next three years. In April 1 533 
he was appointed by grant clerk and overseer 
of the king's works in England. An entry 
among the records of the Carpenters' Com- 
pany shows that Needham was master of 
the company in 1536. From 1537 to 1541 
large sums of money passed through his 
hands for works and alterations at the king's 
manors of Otford, Knole, Petworth, and 
More (Arundel MS. 97); and about this 
time he signs himself as * accountant, sur- 
veyor-general, and clerk of the king's works ' 
(Addit. MS. 10109, f. 173). Needham is 
doubtfully said to have died in 1546. 

On the dissolution of the monasteries the 
priory of Wymondlev in Hertfordshire was 
granted to James Needham for a term of 
twenty years, and subsequently an absolute 
grant of this property was made to his son, 
and it continued in his family until 1731. 
There was a brass plate in Wymondley 
church erected by his grandson to the memory 
of Needham, in which mention was made of 
his services to the king in England and 
France, and of the fact that his body ' lieth 
buried in our lady-church of Bolvine.' 

[Calendars of State Papers, Dom. Hen. VIII ; 
Jupp's Hist, of Carpenters' Company ; Diet, of 
Architecture ; Cussans's Hertfordshire, vol. ii.] 

W. C_n. 

NEEDHAM, Sir JOHN (d. 1480), judge, 
was third son of Robert Needham (d. 1448) 
of Cranach or Cranage, Cheshire, and brother 
of Thomas Needham, from whom was de- 
scended Robert Needham, created Viscount 
Kilmorey in the peerage of Ireland in 1625 
[see Neeohah, Charles, fourth Viscotjnt 
Kilmorey]. His grandfather William mar- 
ried, in 1875, Alice, daughter of William de 
Cranach, whose family had long been settled 
in Cheshire ; she brought her husband, as her 
dowry, half the manor of Cranage (Ormerod, 
hi. 78). John's mother was Dorothy, daugh- 
ter of Sir John Savage, K.G., of Clifton, 
Cheshire (Visitations of Shropshire, Harl. 
Soc. ii. 371 ; Harrod, History of Shavington, 
pp. 1&-21). 

On 28 Dec. 1441 John was elected M.P. for 
Newcastle-under-Lyme, being again returned 
for that constituency in 1446-7 and 1448-9. 
On 6 Oct. 1449 he was elected member for 
London, for which in the same year he was 



common Serjeant (Official Beturns,i.SSS,SS6 f 
339, 342). On 1 Feb. 1453 he was called to 
the degree of the coif, and on 18 July in the 
same year was appointed king's serjeant ; pro- 
bably this last appointment was temporary, 
for in 1454 he was again made king's serjeant 
'pro hac vice tantum ' (Cal. Rot. Pat. p. 296). 
His arguments in this capacity are reported 
in the year-books until 9 May 1457, when he 
was appointed justice of common pleas. He 
retained his post under Edward I V, received 
a fresh confirmation of it and was knighted 
on 9 Oct. 1470, when Henry VI was restored, 
and was again appointed in May 1471, after 
Edward IV 's return (Dugdale, Chronica 
Series, pp. 65, 70). He was a trier of peti- 
tions from England and Wales in 1461, 1463, 
1472-8, and 1477 (Bolls of Pari. v. 461 b y 
496*, vi. 8*, 84 a, 167*, 181*, 296 a); he 
also frequently acted as justice of assize in 
Yorkshire and Lancashire, and was chief 
justice of Chester (Notitia Cestrensis, i. 258). 
Ilis judgments are recorded in year-books as 
late as Hilary term 1479, and he died on 
25 April 1480; he was buried at Holmes- 
Chapel, Cheshire, where a monument was 
erected with an inscription to his memory. 

Needham married Margaret, youngest 
daughter of Randal Manwaring of Over- 
Pever, Cheshire, and widow of William, son 
of Sir John Bromley of Baddington ( Visita- 
tions of Shropshire, Harl. Soc. ii. 371). He 
left no issue, and settled his lands in Holme, 
called Hallum-lands, Cheshire, which he had 
purchased in 1471 from Thomas Chickford, 
with ail his estate, on his next brother r 
Robert Needham of Atherley (Ormerod, i. 
544). He also had a seat at Shavington, 
Shropshire, which subsequently descended to 
the Earls of Kilmorey. His sister Agnes 
married John Starkey of Oulton (Lancashire 
and Cheshire Wills, i. 11). 

[Rolls of Pari. vols. v. vi.; Cal. Rot. Pat. 
pp. 296, 316; Rymer's Foedera, ed. 1745, vii. 
178; Dugdale's Chronica Ser. pp. 65, 70, and 
Origines Joridiciales, p. 46 ; Official Returns of 
Members of Parliament ; Notitia Cestrensis and 
Lancashire and Cheshire Wills, published by the 
Chetham Soc. ; Visitation of Cheshire (Harl. 
Soc.) ; Ormerod's Hist, of Cheshire, i. 370, 544, 

i iii. 71, 78, &c. ; Philipps's Grandeur of the Law ; 

i Lodge's Peerage of Ireland, ed. Archdall, iv. 

| 219 seq. ; Harrod 's Hist, of Shavington, pp. 18- 
21 ; Foss's Judges of England.] A. F. P. 

NEEDHAM, JOHN TURBERVILLE 

(1713-1781), catholic divine and man of 
science, born in London on 10 Sept. 1718, 
was eldest son of John Needham and Mar-' 
garet Lucas, his wife, both of whom were 
| well descended. His father was a member 
of the younger and catholic branch of the 



Needham 



158 



Needham 



family of Needham seated at Ililston, Mon- 
mouthshire ; the head of the elder and pro- 
testant branch was Lord Kilmorey, created a 
viscount in 1625 [cf. Needham, Charles]. 
The father, a barrister in London, died young, 
leaving a considerable fortune and four chil- 
dren, two of whom became priests. 

John prosecuted his studies under the se- 
cular clergy of the English College at Douay, 
where he arrived 10 Oct. 1722. He was 
absent in England from ill-health between 
31 May 1729 and 12 June 1730, received 
the tonsure at Arras on 8 March 1731-2, 
and was ordained priest at Cambrai on 
31 May 1738. From 1736 till 1740 he taught 
rhetoric in the college. In 1740 he was 
ordered to the English mission, and directed 
with great success the school for catholic 
youth at Twyford, near Winchester. About 
1744 Needham went to Lisbon to teach philo- 
sophy in the English College, but, disliking 
the climate, he returned to England after a 
stay of fifteen months. 

Needham had always interested himself in 
natural science, and during the following 
years, spent partly in London and partly in 
Paris, he made important microscopical ob- 
servations, which he described in the ' Philo- 
sophical Transactions of the Royal Society 
of London ' in 1749. An account of them 
was also given in the first volumes of his 
4 Natural History ' by Needham's friend 
Buffon, the French naturalist, with whom 
Needham did much scientific work. On 
22 Jan. 1746-7 Needham was elected a fel- 
low of the Royal Society of London, being 
the first of the English catholic clergy who 
was admitted to that honour (Thomson, 
Hist of Royal Soc. App. p. xliv). On 10 Dec. 
1761 he was elected a fellow of the Society 
of Antiquaries of London. 

In 1751 Needham travelled abroad as 
tutor to the Earl of Fingall and Mr. Howard 
of Corbie. Subsequently he accompanied 
Lord Gormanston and Mr. Towneley in the 
same capacity; and lastly Charles Dillon, 
eldest son of Henry, eleventh viscount Dillon, 
with whom he spent five years in France 
and Italy (1762-7). At the end of 1767 
Needham retired to the English seminary at 
Paris, where he devoted himself solely to 
scientific pursuits; and on 26 March 1768 
he was chosen a member of the Royal Aca- 
demy of Sciences. In 1768 a literary society 
was founded at Brussels by the government 
of the Austrian Netherlands. Needham was 
appointed chief director of the new society 
in February 1768-9. It rapidly grew into 
the Imperial Academy, which was established 
in 1773, and Needham held the same office 
in relation to it till May 1780. The govern- 



ment also appointed him to a canonry in the 
collegiate church of Dendermonde, and he 
afterwards exchanged it for another canonry 
in the collegiate and royal church of Soignies 
in Hainaut, being installed on 29 Nov. 1773. 
He was elected a member of the Royal 
Basque Society of Amis de la Patrie, esta- 
blished at Vittoria in Spain, 19 Sept. 1771 ; 
of the Soci6t6 d'Emulation of Liege 10 Oct. 
1779; and of the Society of Antiquaries of 
Scotland 28 July 1781. He died at Brussels 
on 30 Dec. 1781, and was buried in the 
vaults of the abbey of Coudenberg. 

According to his biographer, the Abbe 
Mann, Needham was a pattern of piety, 
temperance, and purity; passionate in his 
opposition to infidels, and so simple and can- 
did as to be often the dupe of the dishonest. 
For more than thirty years he enjoyed a 
high reputation as a man of science. He was 
a Keen and judicious observer, and had a 
peculiar dexterity in confirming his observa- 
tions by experiments; but he was some- 
times too precipitate in his generalisations. 
'His pen/ observes the Abb6 Mann, 'was 
neither remarkable for fecundity nor method ; 
his writings are rather the great lines of a 
subject expressed with energy and thrown 
upon paper in a hurry than finished treatises. 1 

His works are : 1. ' An Account of some 
New Microscopical Discoveries founded on 
an Examination of the Calamary and its 
Wonderful Milt-vessels, &c./ London, 1746, 
8vo ; translated into French (' Decouvertes 
faites avec le Microscope/ Leyden, 1747, 
12mo) by a professor at Leyden, who added 
remarks of his own ; and again by Lavirotte 
('Nouvelles Observations Microscopiques/ 
Paris, 1750, 12mo), with a letter from the 
author to Martin Folkes. 2. « A Letter from 
Paris, concerning some New Electrical Ex- 
periments made there 1 (anon.), London, 1746, 
4to. 3. ' Observations upon the General 
Composition and Decomposition of Animal 
and Vegetable Substances ; addressed to the 
Royal Society/ London, 1749, 4to. In this 
work he laid the foundations of the physical 
and metaphysical system which he main- 
tained throughout his life with little varia- 
tion. 4. 'Nouvelles Observations Micros- 
copiques, avec des decouvertes int6ressantes 
sur la composition et la decomposition des 
corps organises/ Paris, 1750, 12 mo, pp. 524. 
This work contains the development of the 
author's system. The ' Biographie M6dicale ' 
says: 'Needham maintains that nature is 
endowed with a productive force, and that 
every organised substance, from the most 
simple to the most complex, is formed by 
vegetation. He undertakes to prove that 
animals are brought to life from putridity, 



Needham 



159 



Needham 



that they are formed by an expansive and a 
Tesistent force, and that they degenerate into 
vegetables. Generally speaking, his ideas 
are difficult of comprehension, because they 
are set forth without lucidity or method.' 
5. ' Observations des Hauteurs faites avec le 
barometre au mois d'Aoust, 1761, sur une 
partie des Alpes,' Berne, 1760, 4to; reprinted 
in Needham's 'Nouvelles recherches sur les 
Decouvertes Microscopiques/ ii. 221. 6. 'De 
Inscriptione quadam ^Egyptiac4 Taurini in- 
ventA, et Characteribus JEgyptiacis, olim 
Sinis communibus, exaratfi, Idolo cuidam 
antiquo in Regia universitate servato, ad 
utrasque Academias, Londinensem et Pari- 
siensem, rerum antiquarum investigationi et 
studio pwepositas, data Epistola,' Rome, 
1761, 8vo. In this work, which produced a 
great sensation among the antiquaries of 
Europe, Needham endeavoured, by means of 
the Chinese characters, to interpret an Egyp- 
tian inscription on a bust, supposed to be 
that of Isis, which is preserved at Turin. 
His ingenious theory was completely refuted 
by Guignes and Bartoli in the l Journal des 
Savans ' (December 1761 and August 1762) ; 
also by Winckelmann and Wortley Mon- 
tague. The Jesuits, assisted by the Chinese 
literati, decided that the characters in ques- 
tion, though four or five bore a sensible re- 
semblance to as many Chinese ones, were 
not genuine Chinese characters, having no 
connected sense nor proper resemblance to 
any of the different forms of writing, and 
that the whole inscription had nothing 
Chinese on the face of it; but, in order to 
promote discoveries, they sent an actual col- 
lation of the Egyptian with the Chinese 
hieroglyphics engraved on twenty-six plates. 
7. i Questions sur les Miracles/ Geneva, 1764, 
8vo, Lond. 1769, 8vo ; a collection of letters 
which passed between Needham and Vol- 
taire. 8. ' Nouvelles recherches sur les de- 
couvertes Microscopiques et la generation 
des corps organises ; traduites de Tltalien de 
M. l'ADbS Spalanzani ; avec des notes, des 
Recherches physiques et m6taphysiques sur 
la Nature et la Religion, et une nouvelle 
Theorie de la Terre, par M. de Needham/ 
2 vols. London and Paris, 1769, 8vo. Ap- 
pended to the second volume is Needham's 
' Relation de son voyage sur les Alpes, avec 
la mesure de leurs hauteurs, comparers a 
celles des Cordilleras.' 9. ' Memoire sur la 
maladie contagieuse des bStes a comes/ 
Brussels, 1770, 8vo. 10. ' Idee sommaire ou 
vue generale du systeme Physique et M6ta- 
physique de M. Needham sur la generation 
des corps organises/ first printed at the end 
of 'La vraie Philosophic ' of the Abb6 
Monestier (Brussels, 1780, 8vo), and after- 



wards separately (Brussels, 1781, 8vo). In 
this work he modifies, and even retracts, 
some of his ideas which seemed to tend 
towards materialism ; but he does this in an 
obscure and embarrassed manner, and he 
complains particularly of the consequences 
which had been deduced from his system by 
the Baron von Holbach. 11. 'Principes de 
l'Electricit6, traduits de 1' Anglois de My lord 
Mahon/ Brussels, 1781, 8vo. 

A list of his communications to the ' Phi- 
losophical Transactions of the Royal Society ' 
will be found in Watt's 'Bibliotheca Britan- 
nica.' His contributions to the 'Memoires 
de UAcademie Impenale et Royale des 
Sciences et Belles Lettres de Bruxelles ' in- 
clude treatises on the nature and economy 
of honey-bees ; a collection of physical ob- 
servations, and observations on the natural 
history of the ant. A complete list is given in 
Namur's ' Bibliographie Academique Beige/ 
pp. 6, 21, 36, 43, 56. 

Needham edited the translation into French 
verse by John Towneley of Butler's ' Hudi- 
bras/ London (Paris), 3 vols. 1757, 12mo, and 
' Lettre de Pekin, sur le genie de la langue 
Chinoise, et la nature de leur Scriture sym- 
bolique, compare avec celle des Anciens 
Egyptiens ; en reponse a celle de la Soci6t6 
Royale de Londres, sur le meme sujet : avec 
un Avis Preliminaire de M. Needham, et 
quelques autres pieces/ Brussels, 1773, 4to. 
This was written by Father Cibot, S.J. 

[Life by the Abbe Mann in 'Memoires de 
TAcad^mie de Bruxelles/ 1783, vol. iv. introd. 
pp. xxxiii. seq. ; Ellis's Letters of Eminent Lite* 
rary Men, pp. 418, 422 ; Hutton's Philosophical 
and Mathematical Diet. 1815; Lowndes's Bibl. 
Man.(Bohn),p.336; Monthly Review, 1784,lxx. 
524 ; Nichols's Illustr. of Lit. viii. 605 ,; Nichols's 
Lit. Anecd. vii. 283, 635 ; Nouvelle Biog. Gene- 
rale, xxx v\\. 602 ; Nouveau Diet. Hist] T. C. 

NEEDHAM or NEDHAM, MAR- 
CHAMONT (1620-1678), journalist, was 
born at Burford in Oxfordshire, and baptised 
there 21 Aug. 1620. His father, also named 
MarcbamontNedham, born of genteel parents 
in Derbyshire, matriculated at St. John's 
College, Oxford, 16 June 1610, and took the 
degree of B.A. from Gloucester Hall 19 Feb. 
1611-12. He was afterwards an attendant 
on the Lady Elizabeth Walter (wife of Sir 
William Walter of Sarsden, near Burford), 
and died in 1621. Nedham's mother was 
Margery, daughter of John Collier, the host 
of the George Inn at Burford, who took as 
her second husband, in 1622, Christopher 
Glynn, vicar of Burford and master of tbe 
free school there (Wood, Athena Oxon. iii. 
1180; Fostbe, Alumni Oxon. 1st ser. p. 
1055). Nedham was educated at Burford 



Needham 



160 



Needham 



school, and at fourteen years of age was sent 
as a chorister to All Souls' College, Oxford, 
where he continued till 1637. His name ap- 
pears in the subscription book under 22 Jan. 
1635-6, and he took his bachelor's degree 
on 24 Oct. 1637 (ib.) After a short stay 
in St. Mary Hall he left Oxford for 'an 
usher's place in Merchant Taylors 1 School, 
then presided by one Mr. Will. Staple ; ' and 
later, ' upon the change of the times, he be- 
came an under clerk in Gray's Inn, where, by 
virtue of a good legible court-hand, he ob- 
tained a comfortable subsistence ' (Wood). 
He was admitted a member of Gray's Inn on 
7 July 1652, as ' of the city of Westmin- 
ster, gent ' (Foster, Gray's Inn Register, 
p. 261). During the early part of his career 
Nedham also studied medicine, but soon dis- 
covered that his natural vocation was jour- 
nalism. 

The ' Mercurius Britanicus ' (sic) is dis- 
tinguished by several marked character- 
istics from other parliamentary newspapers. 
It professed to 'communicate the affairs 
of Great Britain for the better informa- 
tion of the people/ but was in reality little 
more than a railing commentary on the 
news of the day. Its object was to answer 
the statements of the royalist ' Mercurius 
Aulicus,' and to refute the charges brought 
there against the parliamentary cause and 
its leaders. The first number is dated 
16-22 Aug. 1643. Of this journal Nedham 
was from the beginning the chief, if not the 
sole, author, though its responsible editor 
seems to have been Captain Thomas Audley, 
and it is not always easy to decide whether 
Audley or Nedham is referred to in the at- 
tacks of the royalists upon ' Britannicus.' 
The scurrility and boldness of Nedham's 
writings soon made him notorious. One 
number parodied Charles I's speech to the 
inhabitants of Somerset ; another commented 
with the greatest freedom on the king's 
letters taken at Naseby (Mercurius Britanni- 
cus, 6-13 May 1644 ; 21-8 July 1645). In 
the number for 4 Aug. 1645 Nedham printed 
a ' Hue and Cry after a Wilful King . . . 
which hath gone astray these four Years 
from his Parliament, with a guilty Con- 
science, bloody Hands, and a Heart full of 
broken Vows and Protestations.' For this 
insult to monarchy Audley was committed 
to the Gatehouse, and Nedham seems to 
have shared the same fate (Lords 1 Journals, 
vii. 525, 539; Hist M8S. Comm. 5th Re]), 
p. 74 ; Aulicus his Hue and Cry after Bri- 
tannicus, 1645, 4to; Mercurius Anti-Britan- 
nicus, or the second part of the King's Cabinet 
vindicatedfrom the Aspersions of an impotent 
Libeller . . . now Prisoner in the Gate-House, 



1645, 4to). The author of the second of 
these pamphlets identifies Nedham with 
' Britannicus,' and describes him as ' once a 
week sacrificing to the beast of many heads 
the fame of some lord or person of quality, 
nay, even of the king himself.' Nedham was 
soon released, but on 21 May 1646 was com- 
plained of for publishing 'divers passages 
between the two Houses of Parliament, and 
other scandalous particulars not fit to be 
tolerated.' He was arrested by order of the 
lords, owned the authorship of the last 
eighty numbers of 'Britannicus' (which 
seems to show that Audley was the author 
of the earlier numbers), and was committed 
to the Fleet (23 May 1646). Nedham ap- 
pealed to the Earl of Denbigh to present his 
petition for release, protesting his loyalty to 
the House of Lords in spite of any errors 
which might have fallen from his pen, and 
was released on 4 June 1646. But he was 
obliged to give bail to the extent of 200/. 
for his good behaviour, and prohibited from 
writing any pamphlets in the future (Lords 9 
Journals,\m. 321, 325, 341, 355 ; Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 4th Rep. iv. 273). Debarred from 
journalism, Nedham turned to medicine, and 
describes himself on the title-page of a 
pamphlet published in 1647 as ' Med. Pr.' 

In 1647 Nedham, for some unexplained 
reason, resolved to change sides. ' Obtaining 
the favour of a known royalist to introduce 
him into his Majesty's presence at Hampton 
Court, he then and there knelt before him and 
desired forgiveness for what he had written 
against him and his cause; which being 
readily granted, he kissed his Majesty's hand ' 
(Wood). In defence of the kin£ he published 
a newspaper, entitled ' Mercurius Pragmati- 
cus,' 'communicating intelligence from all 
parts touching all affairs, designs, humours, 
and conditions, throughout the kingdom, es- 
pecially from Westminster and the Head- 
Quarters.' The first number is dated 14-21 
Sept. 1647. Like ' Mercurius Britannicus,' 
it consists mainly of commentaries on the 
news of the day, but it does contain a good 
deal of information not to be found else- 
where, especially with regard to proceedings 
in the two houses of parliament. It is for 
that reason frequently quoted by the com- 
pilers of the 'Old Parliamentary History.' 
One of the characteristics of this newspaper 
is that each number begins with four stanzas 
of verse on the state of public affairs. Its 
royalism is combined with bitter hostility 
to the Scots, shown even after they had 
invaded England to restore the king, and in 
the scurrility of its attacks on political 
enemies it matched 'Britannicus.' Crom- 
well, for instance, is referred to as ' Copper- 



Needham 



161 



Needham 



Nose/ * Nose Almighty/ and ' The Town- 
bull of Ely/ Nedham's journal, says Wood, 
'being very wittv, satirical against the pres- 
byterians, and full of loyalty, made him 
known to and admired by the bravadoes and 
wits of those times.' The government sought 
to suppress it, and Richard Lownes, itsprin- 
ter, was committed to prison by the House 
of Commons on 16 Oct. 1647 (Commons' 
Journals, v. 335). Nedham was obliged to 
leave London, and for a time lay concealed in 
the house of Dr. Peter Heylyn fq. v.] at Min- 
ster Lovel in Oxfordshire (Wood, hi. 1181). 
In June 1649 he was caught and committed 
to Newgate, but was discharged three months 
later (14 Nov.) on taking the ' engagement ' 
(Cal. State Tapers, Dom. 1649-50, pp. 537, 
554). According to Wood, Speaker Lenthall 
and John Bradsnaw saved his life, procured 
his pardon, and engaged him to adopt the 
cause of the Commonwealth. Thefirstfruit of 
his conversion was the publication, on 8 May 
1650, of ' The Case of the Commonwealth 
of England stated: or the equity, utility, and 
necessity of a submission to the present 
Government cleared, out of Monuments both 
Sacred and Civil . . . With a Discourse of 
the Excellency of a Free State above a 
Kingly Government.' In his address 'To the 
Reader ' Nedham boldly begins : ' Perhaps 
thou art of an opinion contrary to what is 
here written ; I confess that for a time I myself 
was so too, till some causes made me reflect 
with an impartial eye upon the affairs of 
the new government/ For this thorough- 
going and cynical vindication of the govern- 
ment, the council of state voted Nedham 
a gift of 50/., and ordered him for the future 
a pension of 100/. a year, ' whereby he may 
be enabled to subsist while he endeavours the 
service of the Commonwealth' (24 May 
1650; Cal State Papers, Dom. 1650, p. 14). 
Nedham next undertook the editorship of 
a new weekly paper, entitled ' Mercurius 
Politico*,' the first number of which was 
published on 18 June 1650. ' Now appeared 
in print/ writes Heath, ' as the weekly 
champion of the new Commonwealth, and to 
bespatter the King with the basest of scur- 
rilous raillery, one Marchamount Needham, 
under the name of PoHticus, transcendently 
gifted in opprobrious and treasonable droll, 
and hired therefore by Bradshaw to act the 
second part to his starched and more solemn 
treason ; who began his first diurnal with an 
invective against Monarchy and the Presby- 
terian Scotch Kirk, and ended it with an 
Hosanna to Oliver Cromwell' (Chronicle, ed. 
1663, p. 492 : cf. The Character of Mercurius 
Politicus, 1650, 4to\ The most character- 
istic feature of ' Mercurius Politicus ' was 

VOL. XL, 



the leading article, sometimes a commentary 
on the situation of public affairs, sometimes 
a short treatise on political principles in 
general, which was frequently continued from 
number to number. Milton was charged, 
from about March 1651, with the general 
supervision and censorship of 'Mercurius 
Politicus,' and Professor Masson suggests 
that certain passages in these leading articles 
may have been written or inspired by him 
(Life of Milton, iv. 324-35). 

The government also employed Nedham's 
pen in connection with its foreign policy. 
On 14 Oct. 1650 he was instructed l to put 
into Latin the treatise he wrote in answer to 
a Spanish piece written in defence of the 
murderers of Mr. Ascham ' ( Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1650, p. 387). On 10 Feb. 1653 he 
was voted 20O/. * for his great labour in trans- 
lating Mr. Selden's " Mare Clausum " ' (ib. 
1652-8, p. 486). Cromwell continued Ned- 
ham's pension, and maintained him as editor 
of ' Mercurius Politicus/ To this he added 
also the editorship of the * Public Intelli- 
gencer/ an official journal of the same nature 
as the ' Mercurius Politicus,' but published 
on Mondays instead of Thursdays (Masson, 
iv. 52). 

Nedham was also conspicuous as a cham- 
pion of the Protector's ecclesiastical policy. 
He attended the meetings of the fifth- 
monarchy men at Blackfriars, and reported to 
the Protector the hostile sermons of Christo- 
pher Feake [q. v.] and other leaders of that 
sect (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1653-4, 303, 
898 j cf. Thurloe, iii. 488\ When John 
Goodwin [q. v.] attacked tne Triers, Ned- 
ham took up their defence, and treated 
Goodwin with his usual scurrility (Han- 
btjry, Historical Memorials relating to the 
Independents, iii. 432). Goodwin retorted 
by describing Nedham as having ' a foul 
mouth, which Satan hath opened against the 
truth and mind of God,' and as being 'a per- 
son of an infamous and unclean character' 
( Triumviri, 1658, Preface). The charge against 
Nedham's morals was also repeated in a 
defence of Goodwin, entitled * A Letter 
of Address to the Protector,' by a writer 
styling himself D. F. (4to, 1657, p. 3). After 
Cromwell's death these attacks redoubled. 
Nedham was denounced as l a lying, railing 
Rabshakeh, and defamer of the Lord^ people.' 
His removal from all public employment 
was demanded. ' They that like him, or are 
like to him, will say: "He is a man of 
parts, and hath a notable vein of writing. n 
Doubtless so hath the Devil ; . . . must 
therefore the Devil ... be made use of P ' 
(A Second Narrative of the Late Parliament, 
1658, p. 87 ; A True Catalogue of the Places 



Needham 



162 



Needham 



where Richard Cromwell was proclaimed Pro- 
tector, 1059, p. 75). Obedient to these denun- 
ciations, the restored Long parliament, on 
13 May 1659, removed Nedham from the 
post of editor of the ' Public Intelligencer/ 
but restored him again on 15 Aug. following 
(Commons' Journals, vii. 652, 758). Profes- 
sor Masson concludes, from the wording of 
the orders, that Nedham contrived to retain 
the editorship of ' Mercurius Politicus ' during 
the three months of his suspension, and Wood 
states that he started a new paper called 
' The Moderate Informer/ of which the first 
number appeared on 12 May 1659 (Masson, 
Life of Milton, iv. 671 ; Athena Oxon. iii. 
1186). 

A pamphlet against the restoration of 
monarchy, entitled 'Interest will not lie/ 
proving that every party would lose by the 
return of Charles II, doubtless helped him 
to regain the favour of the republicans. But 
as he was hated by royalists and presby- 
terians, and suspected to be the author of a 
pretended letter from the court of Charles II, 
entitled ' News from Brussells/ he was re- 
moved from the editorship both of the ' Mer- 
curius' and the ' Intelligence ' by the council 
of state (9 April 1660; Wiiitelocke, Me- 
morials, iv. 406. ed. 1853). Royalist pam- 
phleteers were already suggesting that the 
coming restoration would be incomplete 
unless he were hanged. Extracts from ' Mer- 
curius Politicus/ bringing together all his 
abuse of Charles II and his family, were 
published under the title of ' A Rope for Pol, 
or a Hue and Cry after Marchamont Ned- 
ham/ May 1660 (see also Kilbuenb,^4 New 
Year's Gift for Mercurius Politicus; A 
Dialogue between Thomas Scot and Marcha- 
mont Nedham concerning the Affairs of the 
Nation; The Downfall of Mercurius Britan- 
nicus - Pragmaticus - Politicus, that Three- 
headed Cerberus). 

Nedham fled from England about the be- 
ginning of May 1660, and took refuge in 
Holland (Masson, Life of Milton, v. 702). 
A few months later, ' for money given to an 
hungry courtier/ he obtained his pardon 
under the great seal, and was able to return 
to England in safety. 

For the rest of his life Nedham lived by 
practising physic, but gradually returned to 
his old trade of pamphleteering. The * Dis- 
course concerning School s and School masters/ 
which he published in 1663, suggests several 
reforms in education, but was also written 
to serve a political purpose. In the interest 
of orthodoxy he proposed the exclusion of 
schismatic schoolmasters from the teaching 
profession. He asks * whether it be consistent 
to banish schism out of the church and to 



countenance it in the schools/ and answers: 
' If these schismatic schoolmasters were given 
by the vicar-general licence to practice 
physic instead of teach schools/ it would be 
safer for the public. Nedham's orthodoxy was 
probably only skin-deep ; in medicine, at all 
events, he remained an open heretic and 
scoffer. His ' Medela Meaicinte/ published 
in 1665, was * a plea for the free profession 
and renovation of the art of physic/ an at- 
tack on the College of Physicians and its 
methods, an<J a complaint of the neglect of 
chemistry for anatomy. This attracted several 
refutations, due rather to its vigour than its 
intrinsic value. ' Four champions/ boasted 
Nedham, * were employed by the College of 
Physicians to write against this book/ adding 
that two died shortly afterwards, the third 
took to drink, and the fourth asked his par- 
don publicly, ' confessing that he was set on 
by the brotherhood of the confederacy* 
( Wood, Athena Oxon. iii. 1187). Thegovern- 
ment of Charles II so far condoned Nedham's 
past political offences that it even employed 
nis pen to attack the parliamentary opposi- 
tion and its leaders. Nedham assailed tnem 
in his ' Pacquet of Advices to the Men of 
Shaftesbury ? (1676), for which service he is 
said to have been paid 500/., and possibly 
obtained 50/. (31th Hep. of the Deputy- 
Keeper of Public Records, p. 312). A cir- 
cumstantial account of his introduction to 
the Earl of Danby by Justice Warcup is 
given in a contemporary pamphlet (' No Pro- 
testant Plot/ 1682, 4to, pt. iii. p. 58). But he 
did not long enjoy the fruits of this new 
employment. ' This most seditious, mutable, 
and railing author/ says Wood, * died sud- 
denly in the house of one Kidder, in Devereux 
Court, near Temple Bar, London, in 1678, and 
was buried on the 29th of November at the 
upper end of the body of the church of St. 
Clement's Danes, near the entrance into the 
chancel/ But two years later, when the 
chancel was rebuilt, his monument was taken 
away or defaced (Wood, Athena Oxon. iii. 
1189). 

In person Nedham is described as short, 
thick-set, and black-haired (Aulicus his Hue 
and Cry after Britannicus, 1645). Nedham 
married twice. By his first wife, Lucy, he 
had a son named Marchamont (b. 6 May 
1652) (Masson, Life of Milton, iv. 433). His 
second wife was a widow named Elizabeth 
Thompson (Chester, London Marriage Li- 
cences, p. 962 ; the licence is dated 18 April 
1663). 

Omitting the newspapers mentioned in the 
article, the following is a list of Nedham's 
works : 1. ' A Check to the Checker of Bri- 
tannicus; or the Honour and Integrity of 



Needham 



163 



Needham 



Col. Nath. Fiennes revived/ 1644, 4to. 
2. ' Independency no Schism ; or an Answer 
to a Scandalous Book entitled " The Schis- 
matic Sifted," written by Mr. John Vicars/ 

1646, 4to : said to be ' By M. N., Med. Pr.' 
3. ' The Case of the Kingdom stated accord- 
ing to the proper Interests of the several 
Parties encaged/ 1647, 4to ; anon. 4. ' The 
Levellers Levelled ; or the Independents' 
Conspiracy to root out Monarchy : an Inter- 
lude, 1647, 4to (said to be by Mercurius 
Pragmaticus). 6. 'The Lawyer of Lincoln's 
Inn refuted ; or an Apology for the Army/ 

1647, 4to : attributed to Nedham by Barlow 
in the Bodleian copy. 6. ' A Plea for the 
King and Kingdom, by way of Answer to a 
late Remonstrance of the Army/ 1648, 4to. 
7. 'Digitus Dei; or God's Justice upon 
Treachery and Treason exemplified in the 
Life and Death of the late James Duke of 
Hamilton, 1649, 4to. This tract closely re- 
sembles another on the same subject, pub- 
lished in June 1648, entitled ' The Manifold 
Practices and Attempts of the Hamiltons 
• . . to get the Crown of Scotland/ which 
Wood in consequence attributes also to Ned- 
ham. 8. ' The Case of the Commonwealth 
of England stated. . . . With a Discourse 
of the Excellency of a Free State above a 
Kingly Government/ 1649, 4to; 2nd edit. 
1650. 9. ' The Excellency of a Free State/ 
12mo, 1656, anon. A reprint edited by 
Richard Baron, in 8vo, appeared in 1767 
(cf. Life of Thomas Hollis, 1780, p. 356). It 
was translated into French by T. Mandar 
(2 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1790). This work is a 
compilation from the leading articles of Mer- 
curius Politicus. 10. 'Trial of Mr. John 
Goodwin at the Bar of Religion and Right 
Reason/ 1667, 4to. 11. 'The great Accuser 
cast down ; an Answer to a scandalous Book, 
entitled "The Triers Tried and Cast, by Mr. 
John Goodwin," ' 1657, 4to. 12. ' Interest 
will not lie; or a View of England's true 
Interest ... in Refutation of a treasonable 
Pamphlet entitled " The Interest of England 
stated," ' 1669, 4to. The tract answered is 
reprinted by Maseres, ' Select Tracts relating 
to the Civil Wars/ 1816, ii. 273, who attri- 
butes it to John Fell. 13. ' News from Brus- 
sels, in a Letter from a near Attendant on 
His Majesty's Person to a Person of Honour 
here/ dated 10 March 1669. Answered by 
John Evelyn in ' The Late News from Brus- 
sels unmasqued/ and reprinted with the An- 
swer by Upcott in Evelvn's ' Miscellaneous 
Works/ 4to, 1825, p. 193. See also 'Baker's 
Chronicle/ continued by Phillips, ed. 1670, 
p. 721. 14. 'A Short History of the Eng- 
lish Rebellion, completed in Verse/ 1661, 
4to. This is a collection of verses printed in 



' Mercurius Pragmaticus/ now republished to 
curry favour with the royalists; 2nd edit. 1680. 
Reprinted in J. Morgan's 'Phoenix Britan- 
nicus/ 1732, p. 174; and in the 'Harleian Mis- 
cellany/ ed. Park, ii. 621. 15. ' A Discourse 
concerning Schools and Schoolmasters/ 1663, 
4to. 16. 'Medela Medicinae, a Plea for the 
Free Profession and a Renovation of the Art 
of Physick/ 8vo, 1665. Answered by John 
Twysden in 'Medicina Veterum vindicata/ 
8vo, 1666 ; Robert Sprackling in ' Medela 
Ignoranti®/ 1666, 8vo ; and by George Castle 
in 'Reflections on a Book called "Medela 
Medicines," ' printed with 'The Chymical 
Galenist' in 1667, 8vo. 17. 'An Epi- 
stolary Discourse before " Medicina Instau- 
rata, by Edward Bolnest, M.D./" 1665, 12mo. 
18. Preface to ' A New Idea of the Prac- 
tice of Physic/ by Franciscus de le Boe- 
Sylvius, 1675, 8vo. 19. ' A Pacquet of Ad- 
vices and Animadversions sent from Lon- 
don to the Men of Shaftesbury. . . . Occa- 
sioned by a seditious Pamphlet entitled " A 
Letter from a Person of Quality to his 
Friend in the Country/' ' 1676, 4to. 20. ' A 
Second Pacquet of Advices/ 1677, 4to. On 
these two pamphlets see Marvell's ' Account 
of the Growth of Popery and Arbitrary 
Government in England ; ' Marvell's ' Works/ 
ed. Grosart, iv. 316. 21. ' Christianissimus 
christianandus ; or Reasons for the Reduc- 
tion of France to a more Christian State in 
Europe/ 1678, 4to. 

Nedham also wrote several minor pieces 
which have not been identified. His trans- 
lation of Selden's ' Mare Clausum,' 1652, fol., 
suppressed the original dedication to the 
king, and added an appendix containing 
' additional evidences ' of the sovereignty of 
the kings of Great Britain on the sea, 'which 
he procured, as 'twas thought, of John Brad- 
shaw ' ( Wood). The translation was re-edited, 
and the original dedication restored by 
J[ames] H[owell] in 1662 (cf. Pepys, Diary, 
ed. Wheatley, iii. 93}. 

Satires against Neaham in prose and verse 
are very numerous. The following may be 
added to those already mentioned : ' Mer- 
curius Aquaticus ; or the Water Poet's An- 
swer to all that shall be Writ by Mercurius 
Britanicus/by John Taylor, 1643, 4to ; 'Re- 
bels Anathematised and Anatomised/ 1645, 
4to, by the same author. Sir Francis Wort- 
ley's 'Characters and Elegies/ 1646, 4to, 
contain ' Britanicus his Pedigree ' (j>. 26) ; 
and Wortley also wrote ' Britanicus his Wel- 
come to Hell/ 1647, 4to. Cleveland has a 
poem on 'Britanicus his Leap three-story 
high, and his Escape from London ' (Poems, 
ed. 1687, p. 247). ' The great Assizes holdcn 
on Parnassus by Apollo, 1645, 4to, reviews 

m2 



Need ham 



164 



Needham 



the character of all contemporary journalists, 
including Britannic us ; and Nedham is also 
mentioned in T. Wright's « Political Ballads ' 
(published during the Commonwealth), 1841, 
pp. 66-63. 

[A good life of Nedham is given in Athenae 
Oxon. iii. 1179. See also Masson's Life of Mil- 
ton, iv. 37, 226, 335, v. 671, 702, vi. 308; 
Bourne's English Newspapers, 1887, i. 12-29 ; 
other authorities mentioned in the article.] 

C. H. F. 

NEEDHAM, PETER (1680-1731), 
classical scholar, born at Stockport in 1680, 
was son of the Rev. Samuel Needham, who, 
after keeping a private school at Bradenham, 
Norfolk, was appointed master of Stock- 
port grammar school. Peter attended his 
father's school at Bradenham until he matri- 
culated at St. John's College, Cambridge, on 
18 April 1693 (Mayor, Admissions, pt. ii. p. 
129). He was elected Billingsley scholar in 
1693 on the same day as Ambrose Phillips 
became a foundation scholar, and he was a 
fellow of his college from 12 April 1698 
until March 1716 (Baker, Hist of St. John's 
College, i. 301-3). He graduated B.A. in 
1696, M.A. in 1700, B.D. in 1707, and D.D. 
in 1717. In 1706 he left Cambridge to be- 
come rector of Ovington, Norfolk. He was 
appointed vicar of Madingley in 1711, and 
rector both of Whatton, Leicestershire, and 
Conington, Cambridgeshire, in 1 713. In the 
following year a prebend in the church of 
St. Florence, Pembrokeshire, was conferred 
on him, and in 1717 the rectory of Stan- 
wick, Northamptonshire. He rebuilt the rec- 
tor's house at a cost of 1,000/., and died at 
Stanwick on 6 Dec. 1731. 

Needham was an accomplished scholar in 
both Latin and Greek. He published edi- 
tions of the ' Geoponica ; ' of the ' Commentary 
on the Golden Verses of Pythagoras/ by 
Hierocles the neoplatonist ; and of Theo- 
phrastus's ' Characters/ Bentley is said to 
nave supplied some notes for the Hierocles 
(cf. Nichols, Lit. Anecdotes, iv. 271). Need- 
ham also devoted much labour to the text 
of iEschylus, and his manuscript collections 
were freely used by Anthony Askew [q. v.], 
Samuel Butler (1774-1839) [q. v. J, and 
Bishop Blomfield in their editions of that 
dramatist. Bernard de Montfaucon, the 
editor of the Benedictine edition of 'St. 
Chrysostom' (1718), acknowledged much 
assistance from Needham, whom he described 
as ' vir doctissimus amicissimusque.' 

Needham was a frequent correspondent of 
Thomas Hearne [q. v7], who complained in 
1705 of his failure to acknowledge in his 
' Geoponica ' the help that he derived from 
Oxfoi d libraries, but afterwards described him 



as 'an ingenious, learned gentleman/ and 
examined many Greek manuscripts for him 
in the Bodleian Library (Hearne, Collec- 
tions, i. 78, iii. 123). Hearne credited him 
with being a ' most rash whig ' (ii. 93). A 
letter from Needham to Richard Rawlmson, 
another Oxford scholar, dated 18 Oct. 1715, 
is in the Bodleian Library (MS. Rawl. 268, 
No. 107). Cole, the Cambridge antiquary, 
represents Needham as ' a great epicure/ and 
relates some anecdotes by way of proof. 

Besides a sermon preached at Cambridge 
in 1716, Needham published: 1. ' Tcoirovucd. 
Geoponicorum sive de re rustics libri xx., 
Cassiano Basso Scholastico Collectore, antea 
Constantino Porphyrogesmeto a quibusdam 
adscript i. Gr. et Lat. cum not is et emenda- 
tionibus. Cantab. Typis Academicis. Im- 
pensis A. et J. Churchill Bibliopolarum Lon- 
dinensium, 1704 ; * dedicated to John Moore 
(1646-1714) [q. v.], bishop of Norwich. 
2. ' Hieroclis pnilosophi Alexandrini Com- 
mon tari us in Aurea Carmina de Providentia 
et Fato quae supersunt et reliqua fragments 
Greece et Latine. Graeca cum MSS. collata 
castigavit versionem recensuit notas et In- 
dicem adjecit Pet. Needham. Cantab. Typis 
Academicis. Impensis A. et J. Churchill Bi- 
bliopolarum Lonainensium/ 1709, 8vo; dedi- 
cated to William, lord Cowper, lord chan- 
cellor. 3. ' Qfo<f)paoTov XapaKrrjp€S HOucoi. 
Theophrasti Characteres Ethici Grace et 
Latine, Cantab. Typ. Acad./ by Cornelius 
Crownfield, 1712, with the notes of Isaac 
Casaubon, and the ' Prrolectiones ' of James 
Duport [q.v.], which Needham printed for 
the first time. It is a fine specimen of typo- 
graphy, extending to nearly five hundred 
pages, and is dedicated to John Moore, bishop 
of Ely. This edition was thrice reissued at 
Glasgow by Robert Foulis in 1743, 1748, and 
1785, in each case without Duport's ' Pr»lec- 
tiones/ 

[Cole's MS. Athente Cantab, in Brit. Mns. 
Addit. MS. 6877, f. 7 ; manuscript epitaph in 
British Mnseum copy of Needham's Geoponica, 
1704, once belonging to Thomas Tyrwhit ; Need- 
ham's works, and authorities cited.] S. L. 

NEEDHAM, WALTER (1631 P-1691 ?), 
physician and anatomist, born about 1631, 
is described in the scholars' register of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, as ' Salopensis/ and it 
therefore seems probable that he was dis- 
tantly connected with the Needhams of Sha- 
vington, a village on the Cheshire border of 
Shropshire. Educated as a queen's scholar at 
Westminster School, he was elected to Trinity 
College, Cambridge, in 1650, the senior Cam- 
bridge scholarforthe year being John Dryden. 
Needham was admitted to Trinity College as 
a pensioner on 17 June 1650. Dryden did 



Needham 



165 



Needier 



not enter till 2 Oct. In 1654 he graduated 
B. A., and on 25 July 1655 he was admitted 
a fellow of Queens' College. He seems to 
have resided in Cambridge until 1659, when 
he left the university to practise for a short 
time in Shropshire. In 1660 he was living in 
Oxford and attending the lectures of Willis, 
Millington, and his old schoolfellow Lower, 
who was his senior by a year. There he made 
Anthony a Wood's acquaintance, and asso- 
ciated with the men who shortly afterwards 
founded the Royal Society. Needham sub- 
sequently returned to Cambridge, and took 
the degree of doctor of physic from Queens* 
College on 5 July 1664. He was in Decem- 
ber 1664 admitted an honorary fellow of the 
Royal College of Physicians — a grade of 
fellows instituted in September 1664 at the 
suggestion of Sir Edward Alston, the presi- 
dent. On 4 Aug. 1667 his ' Disquisitio ana- 
tomica de formato Foetu ' was licensed to be 
printed ; in this work he states that he was 
living a long way from London. He was 
admitted a fellow of the Royal Society on 
6 April 1671, and on 7 Nov. 1672 he was 
appointed physician to Sutton's Charity (the 
Charterhouse) in succession to Dr. Castle. 
In 1673 he read a paper before the Royal 
Society giving the results of some experi- 
ments he had made in conjunction with 
Mr. Sergeant-surgeon Wiseman on the value 
of Denis's newly discovered liquor for stop- 

?>ing arterial bleeding. In 1681 he was 
iving in Great Queen Street, Broad Sanc- 
tuary ; on 30 Jan. of that year Wood incor- 
rectly recorded that Richard AUestree [q. v.] 
died there in his house. He was created a fel- 
low of the Royal College of Physicians under 
the charter of James H, and was admitted on 
12 April 1687. He died, Wood tells us, on 
5 April 1691, and was buried obscurely in 
the church of St. Giles-in-the-Fields, near 
London (Wood, Life and Times, Oxf. Hist. 
Soc. iii. 358). Executions were out against 
him to seize both body and goods. 

Needham was held in high esteem by his 
contemporaries, and, according to Wood, had 
much practice. 

His chief published work, apart from 
papers in the ' Philosophical Transactions,' 
was 'Disquisitio anatomica de formato Foetu,' 
London, 1667, 8vo, dedicated to Robert 
Boyle, and published by Radulph Needham 
at the Bell in Little Britain. It was re- 
printed at Amsterdam in 1668, and was in- 
cluded by Clericus and Mange tus in their 
* Bibliotheca Anatomica,' issued at Geneva 
in 1699, i. 687-723. The book treats of the 
structure and functions of the placenta or 
afterbirth in man and animals. It is written 
in excellent idiomatic Latin. Sydenham 



speaks of him in the dedicatory epistle of 
his ' Observations Medic® ' to Dr. Maple- 
toft, an old Westminster boy, as ' tarn 
Medicre Artis, quam rei literari® decus et 
laus.' 

[Wood's Life and Fasti ; Munk's Coll. of Phys. 
i. 472; additional facts kindly given to the 
writer by the president of Queens' College, Cam- 
bridge ; by the librarian of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge ; and by Mr. A. Chune Fletcher, the present 
medical officer to the Charterhouse.] D'A. P. 

NEEDLKR, BENJAMIN (1620-1682), 
ejected minister, son of Thomas Needier, of 
Laleham, Middlesex, was born on 29 Nov. 
1620. He was admitted to Merchant Taylors' 
School on 11 Sept. 1634, was head scholar 
in 1640, and was elected to St. John's Col- 
lege, Oxford, on 11 June 1642, matriculating 
on 1 July. He was elected fellow of his 
college in 1645, but appears to have been 
non-resident, as his submission is not regis- 
tered. Joining the presbyterian party, he 
was summoned to assist the parliamentary 
visitors of the university in 1648, and was 
by them created B.C.L. on 14 April of the 
same year. On 8 Aug. he was appointed to 
the rectory of St Margaret Moses, Friday 
Street, London. It is not known whether 
he took episcopal orders or not. He was one 
of the ministers in London who in January 
1648-9 signed the ' Serious and Faithful 
Representation ' to General Fairfax, petition- 
ing for the life of the king and the main- 
tenance of parliament. On his marriage in 
1651 with Marie, sister of Nathanael Cul- 
verwell [q. v.], Needier resigned his fellow- 
ship at St. John's College. 

In August 1662 he was ejected from his 
rectory by the Act of Uniformity, and after- 
wards retired to North Warnborouffh in 
Hampshire, where he preached privately till 
the time of his death. He was buried at 
Odiham, near Winchfield, on 20 Oct. 1682. 
Needier had several children. The baptisms 
of six are recorded in the registers of St. 
Margaret Moses between January 1651-2 
and May 1662, and the burials of two of 
them in 1658 and 1659 respectively. 

He was an able preacher, and, according to 
Baxter, a very humble, grave, and peaceable 
divine (Sylvester, Heliq. Baxt. iii. 94). He 
published ' Expository Notes with Practical 
Observations towards the opening of the five 
first Chapters of Genesis,' London, 1655, and 
three sermons which are reprinted in various 
editions of ' Morning Exercises' (cf. these of 
1660, 1661, 1675, 1676, 1677, and 1844). 
Dunn speaks highly of all these sermons. 
Needier also wrote some verses on the death 
of Jeremiah Whitaker, which were published 
in Simon Ashe's funeral sermon on Whitaker, 



Needier 



166 



Neele 



entitled ' Living Loves between Christ and 
Dying Christians/ London, 1654. 

CuLVBRWBLL Needler (Jl. 1710), son of 
Benjamin (baptised 5 March 1656 at St. 
Margaret Moses), was appointed additional 
writing clerk to the House of Lords on 
25 March 1679, and later on clerk-assistant 
to the House of Commons, which latter post 
he retained till December 1710, when he was 
'disabled by palsie.' He published 'De- 
bates of the House of Commons in January 
1704/ London, 1721 (2nd ed.) 

[Wood's Athenae (Bli?s\ vol. iv. col. 48; 
"Wood's Fasti (Bliss), vol. ii. col. 110; Robin- 
son's Reg. of Merchant Taylors' School, i. 136; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1600-1714; Burrows's 
Reg. of Visitors of Unir. of Oxford (Camden 
8oc.), p. 550 : Wilson's Hist, of Merchant Taylors' 
School, pp. 257-8, 295-8, 303, 315, 732, 825-6, 
1195; Dunn's Divines, p. 17; Lords' Journals, 
x. 428a, xiii. 487a ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 1 1 th Rep. 
App. ii. p. 1 72, App. iv. p. 143 ; parish register of 
Odiham per the Rev. W . H. Windle, of JSt. Mar- 
garet Moses per the Rev. C. Lloyd Lngstrom.] 

B. P. 

NEEDLER, HENRY (1685-1760), ama- 
teur of music, the last of the Needlers of 
Surrey, was born in London in 1685. As 
a young man he entered the excise office, 
and in March 1710 was appointed accountant 
for the candle duty, but through life he 
managed, without neglecting his profession, 
to practise music, 'his only pleasure* (Haw- 
kins). His father, an accomplished violinist, 
give him his earliest lessons. Daniel Pur- 
ceU taught him harmony (Grove), and the 
younger John Banister, first violin at Drury 
Lane Theatre, carried on his training. In 
due time Needier performed at the house of 
Thomas Britton [q. v.l, ' the musical small- 
coal man, 1 and at weekly private concerts in 
noblemen's houses. He came to know Han- 
del, who visited him in Clement's Lane, behind 
the church in the Strand, and he was an ac- 
tive member of the Academy of Vocal Music, 
a society meeting at the 6rown Tavern in 
the Strand. Here he led the violins, and 
undertook librarian's and secretary's duties, 
cataloguing the music. 

It is related that a volume of twelve of 
Corelii'8 concertos came accidentally into 
Needler's hands during a musical meeting, 
and that he and his friends forthwith played 
through the whole number. His admiration 
of Corelli led Needier to study his violin 
music until he excelled in its interpretation. 
He was in fact a fine and delicate performer, 
and equal to any difficulty before his arm 
grew stiff (Hawkdto). Twenty-eight volum es 
of Needler's extensive transcriptions from 
the Oxford and other libraries are in the 



British Museum Addit. MSS. 5035 to 5062. 
He died on 8 Aug. 1760, in his seventy-fifth 
vear, and was buried at Frindsbury, near 
tlocnester, where, in the previous century, the 
Needlers had owned for a time the famous 
quarry house and lands. He married late 
in life, and had no children. Needier had 
inherited property at Horley, Surrey, of which 
he left by will the life interest to nis widow 
Hester, and to his sister Elizabeth, and the 
reversion to other relatives and rightful heirs, 
A portrait of Needier, engraved by Grijjnion 
after Mathias, is given in Hawkins's ' History 
of Music/ 1776. 

A volume of anthems composed by Mrs, 
Needier, and dated 1751, is in Brit. Mus, 
Addit. MS. 5053. 

[Hawkins's Hist, of Music, pp. 791, 806 
Grove's Diet, of Music, ii. 450 ; Autobiography 
and Correspondence of Mrs. Delany, i. 228 
Archseologia Cantiana, xvii. 177 ; Records of tho 
Acad, of Vocal Music, Brit. Mus. Addit. MS, 
1 1 732 ; Registers of Wills, P. C. C. Lynch, 3; 
Official Registers of the Excise Office; inscrip- 
tions at FrinHsbury Church, kindly supplied by 
the Rev. W. H. Jackson.] L. M. M. 

NEELE, HENRY (1798-1828), poet and 
miscellaneous writer, was born on 29 Jan. 
1798 in the Strand, London, where his father 
carried on business as a map and heraldic en- 
graver. He was educated at a private school 
at Kentish Town, and afterwards articled to 
a solicitor, and admitted to practice after 
the expiration of the usual period. He never 
relinquished his profession, but his attention 
must have been mainly devoted to literature. 
In January 1817, while yet serving his 
articles, he had published at his father 8 ex- 
pense ' Odes, and other Poems/ betraying* 
the influence of Collins, which attracted the 
attention of Dr. Nathan Drake, by whom 
they were highly commended. A second 
edition was printed in July 1820; and in 
March 1823 appeared ' Poems, Dramatic and 
Miscellaneous/ inscribed to Joanna Baillie. 
This volume obtained considerable success, 
and made Neele a popular contributor to> 
magazines and annuals, for which he con- 
tinued to produce tales and poems during 
the remainder of his short life. He pre- 
pared in 1826, and delivered in 1827, a 
course of lectures on English poetry, which 
were published after his death, and which , 
if in no way original, exhibit a sensitive per- 
ception of poetical beauty and a correct taste. 
An edition of Shakespeare, issued in parts, 
was soon discontinued for want of support. 
In 1827 he published a collected edition of 
his poems (2 vols. 16mo), and in the same 
year produced his 'Romance of English 
History/ in three volumes, a collection of ' 



Neele 



167 



Negretti 



tales illustrative of romantic passages in Eng- 
lish history, one of a series of works on the 
histories of the chief nations of the world, 
composed by various authors as commissions 
from the publishing firm of Edward Bull. 
The 'Romance' of France was by Leitch 



Ritchie [q. v.], of Italy by Charles Macfar 
lane [q. v.], of Spain by Don T. de Trueba, 
and orlndia by John Hobart Caunter [q. v.] 
The five have been republished in the Unan- 
dos Classics. Notwithstanding the extent of 
Neele's contributions, it was written in six 
months, and the overstrain of composition 
and research was believed to have been the 
cause of the untimely fate of the author, who 
was found dead in bed on 7 Feb. 1828, having 
cut his throat in an access of insanity, under 
the delusion that his private affairs had be- 
come hopelessly embarrassed. No symptom 
of a disordered mind appears in his writings, 
which, although tinged with poetical melan- 
choly, are always lucid ana coherent; and 
his conversation is represented to have been 
cheerful and vivacious, while he was irre- 
proachable in every relation of life. His 
* Literary Remains, published in one volume 
in 1829, included his ' Lectures on English • 
Poetry ' and a number of tales and poems, 
some never before published, others collected 
from the ' Monthly Magazine/ ' Forget me 
not/ and other periodicals. 

As a poet, Neele can hardly claim higher 
rank than that of an elegant and natural ver- 
sifier, whose compositions are the fruit of a 
genuine poetical impulse, but who has neither 
sufficient originality of thought nor force of 
expression to produce any considerable effect. 
His sincerity and spontaneity plead in his 
favour so long as he confines himself to 
lyric ; his dramatic attempts are grievously 
defective in truth of representation. His 
short stories frequently exhibit considerable 
power of imagination and description, espe- 
cially one in which the legends of the Wan- 
dering Jew and Agrippa's Magic Mirror are 
very happily combined. v His romantic illus- 
trations of "English history were popular in 
their day, and might please in ours were not 
the curious dialect which was then considered 
to represent mediaeval English now entirely 
out of date. A portrait, engraved by Neele 
after Archer, was prefixed to the ' Literary 
Remains/ 

[Memoir prefixed to Neele's Literary Re- 
mains, 1829 ; Georgian Era, vol. iii. ; times, 
11 Feb. 1828 ; Gent. Mag. 1828, i. 276 ; Nathan 
Drake's Winter Nights, j R. G. 

NEELE or NEALE, Sib RICHARD (d. 
1486), judge, was son of Richard Neele, who 
was elected member of parliament for Leices- 
ter on 21 Dec. 1441 (Official Returns,!. 333), 



and died in the following year. Before 1461 
Neele had evidently received grants from the 
crown, as he was specially exempted from 
the Act of Resumption passed on Edward I Vs 
accession (Rolls of Pari. v. 475 a). In 1463 
he was a member of Gray's Inn, whence he 
was called Serjeant on 7 Nov. On 12 Aug. 
1464, according to Dugdale {Chron. Ser. 
p. 69), he was appointed King's Serjeant, but 
the ' Calendar of Patent Rolls ' records this 
promotion in 1466. When Henry VI was 
restored on 9 Oct. 1470, Neele was made a 
justice of the king's bench ; but on Edward's 
return he was, on 29 May, transferred to 
the common pleas. To this post he was re- 
appointed on the accession of Edward V, 
Richard III, and Henry VII. Before 1483 
he was knighted, and in that year served as 
a trier of petitions from England, Wales, 
and Ireland. He died on 11 June 1486, and 
was buried in Prestwold Church, Leicester- 
shire, where an alabaster monument was 
raised to his memory. He married Isabella 
Butler of Warrington, Lancashire, by whom 
he had two sons, Christopher and Richard, 
whose great-grandson married a sister of 
Chief-justice Coke. Prestwold, which was 
acquired by Neele, became the family seat. 

[Cat. Rot. Pat. pp. 308, 312 A, 316, 316 6; 
Rolls of Pari. v. 475 a ; Dugdale's Origines, p. 
47, and Chron. Ser. pp. 67, 70, 72; Burtons 
Description of Leicestershire, pp. 211-12; 
Gough's Monuments, ii. 94 ; Foss's Judges of 
England, v. 69.] A. F. P. 

NEGRETTI, ENRICO ANGELO LU- 
DOVICO (1817-1879), optician, was born at 
Como in Italy in 1817, and came to London 
in 1 829. As a glass-blower and thermometer 
maker, in partnership with M. Pizzi, he 
established himself at 19 Leather Lane, 
Holborn, in 1843, and thence removed to 
9 Hatton Garden in 1848. In 1850 he took 
Joseph Warren Zambra into partnership. 
At the Great Exhibition of 1851 they re- 
ceived prize medals as opticians, spectacle- 
makers, and constructors of almost every kind 
of scientific or mathematical instruments, 
and were then appointed meteorological 
instrument makers to the queen, Greenwich 
Observatory, and the British Meteorological 
Society. In 1 852 Negretti 1 00k out a patent, 
No. 14002, for thermometers and barometers. 
The firm obtained a world-wide reputation 
for the excellence of their work and the up- 
rightness of their dealing. In 1858 they 
removed to 107 Holborn Hill, and in 1809 
to Holborn Circus. Among the Italians in 
London Negretti enjoyed an almost patri- 
archal popularity : his purse was open to the 
poor, and his time, already overtaxed by his 
business, was never wanting in their service. 



Negus 



168 



Negus 



On 20 Dec. 1864 Serafino Pelizzioni was 
charged with killing Michael Harrington in 
a public-house, was tried, found guilty, and 
sentenced to be executed on 22 Feb. 1865. 
Through the interest of an Italian committee, 
headed by Negretti, the man was respited ; 
and in another trial on 2 March it was 
clearly proved that the murder had been 
committed by Gregorio Mogni, and Peliz- 
zioni was liberated on a free pardon ( Times, 
31 Dec. 1864, 5, 12, 24 Jan., 9, 10, 20 Feb., 
6, 7, 9, 13, 16 March 1865 ; J. D. Bar- 
nbtt and A. Buckler's Central Criminal 
Court Sessions Paper — Minutes of Evidence, 
1865, lxi. 283-302, 590-636). Negretti was 
also on terms of friendship with Garibaldi. 
The Italian hero was his guest in 1854, when 
he was coming from South America; and 
when in 1864, after the conquest of Sicily, 
he revisited London, Negretti was chief of 
the Italian reception committee. On 1 1 April 
1862 he was naturalised as a British subject, 
under the name of Henry Negretti. He died 
at Cricklewood House, Oricklewood, Middle- 
sex, on 24 Sept. 1879. 

[Times, 29 Sept. 1879, p. 11; Nature, 1879, 
xx. 542.] G. C. B. 

NEGUS, FRANCIS (d. 1732), reputed 
inventor of negus, is believed to have been 
connected with the Norfolk family of Negus. 
From 1685 to 1688 he was secretary to the 
Duke of Norfolk, and in that capacity made 
the acquaintance of Elias Ashmole (cf. Ash- 
mole, Diary, 1 April 1685). He served in 
the French wars under Marlborough, and at- 
tained to the rank of lieutenant-colonel in the 
25th or Suffolk regiment of foot. He was 
in 1715 appointed joint commissioner, and on 
27 June 1 7 17 sole commissioner, for executing 
the office of master of the horse, which office 
he held until the death of George I. He 
was appointed avener and clerk- martial to 
George II on 20 June 1727, and master of his 
majesty'sbuckhounds on 19 July in the same 
year. He represented Ipswich in parliament 
from 1717 until his death, at his seat at Dal- 
linghoo, Suffolk, on 9 Sept. 1732. His death 
occasioned a copy of verses in the ' Ipswich 
Gazette/ commencing ' Is Negus goneP Ah ! 
Ipswich, weep and mourn.' Negus was also 
ranger of Swinley Chace, lieutenant and 
deputy warden of Windsor Forest, and one 
of the commissioners of the lieutenancy of 
Middlesex and liberty of Westminster. 

It is related that on one occasion, when 
the bottle was passing rather more rapidly 
than good fellowship seemed to warrant over 
a hot political discussion, in which a number 
of prominent whigs and tories were taking 
part, Negus averted a fracas by recommend- 
ing the dilution of the wine with hot water 



and sugar. Attention was diverted from the 
point at issue to a discussion of the merits 
of wine and water, which ended in the com- 
pound being nicknamed 'negus.' A corre- 
spondent or the 'Gentleman's Magazine* 
(1799, i. 119) states that the term first ob- 
tained currency in Negus's regiment. A 
contemporary, Thomas Vernon of Ashton 
(1704-1753), thus recommends the mixture: 
* After a morning's walk, half a pint of white 
wine, made hot and sweetened a little, is 
recond very good. Col. Negus, a gent n of 
tast, advises it, I have heard say ' (Notes and 
Queries, 1st ser. x. 10). Malonein his ' Life 
of Dryden ' (prefixed to ' Prose Works/ 1800, 
i. 484) definitely states that the mixture 
called negus was invented by Colonel Negus 
in Queen Anne's time. The term was at first 
applied exclusively to a concoction made with 
port wine, and hence the ingenious but im- 
probable suggestion made by Dr. Fennell, 
that the name may have a punning connec- 
tion with the line m ' Paradise Lost,' xi. 397, 
1 Th' empire of Negus to his utmost port ' 
(Stanford Dictionary, p. 569). The word 
appears in French as nigus, and is defined by 
Littre" as a kind of ' limonade au vin/ 

A portrait of Francis Negus was in 1760 
in the possession of his nephew, a Mr. Potter 
of Frome. 

In 1724 Colonel Francis Negus's patronage 
was solicited by Samuel Negus, who was 
probably a poor relation. This Samuel Negus, 
who had been since 1722 a struggling printer 
in Silver Street, near Wood Street, in the 
city of London, published in 1724, through 
William Bowyer, ' A Compleat and Private 
List of all the Printing Houses in and about 
the Cities of London and Westminster, to- 
gether with the Printers' Names, what 
Newspapers they print, and where they are 
to be found : also an Account of the Print- 
ing Houses in the several Corporation Towns 
in England, most humbly laid before the 
Right Honourable the Lord Viscount To wns- 
hend.' For this work, which also professes 
to be a key to the political principles of the 
printers enumerated, Negus was rewarded by 
a letter-carrier's place in the post office. 

[Historical Reg. 1727, Chronological Diary, 
pp. 26, 28; Gent. Mag. 1732, p. 979; Notes 
and Queries, 1st ser. x. 10, 6th ser.xi. 189 ; Official 
Returns of Members of Pari. pt. ii. pp. 44, 66, 67 ; 
Timperley's Encycl.ofLit. and Typograph. Anec- 
dotes, p. 631 ; Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, i. 
288, 292 ; Doran's London in Jacobite Times ; 
Haydn's Book of Dignities, ed. Ockerby, p. 302 ; 
Hist MSS. Comm. 11th Rep. App. iv. pp. 102, 
339, and App. vii. 105-7; Whitney's Century 
D ictionary, s. v. * Negus.' For the analogous term 
1 grog ' see art. Admiral Vernon]. T. S. 



Negus 



169 



Neild 



NEGUS, WILLIAM (1659 P-1616), 
puritan minister, born about 1569, matricu- 
lated as a sizar of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, in June 1673, and graduated B.A. 
1677-8. He was lecturer or beneficed in 
Essex (probably Peldon) soon after 1 681 . In 
1582 he became a member of an association 
of Essex ministers which was formed in that 
year, and he continued with it until at least 
1586. He was first suspended (1583-4) 
for refusing Whitgift's three articles and the 
oath, but in October 1584 he informed the 
meeting of the association that the bishop 
had proceeded against him contrary to law, 
' and that he might preach again. In Fe- 
bruary 1585 he * took his journey to London 
for his restoring to liberty in his calling, and 
he was at that time restored to his public 
ministry again before he came back to us.' 
He thereupon settled at Ipswich on a year's 
agreement with the people, probably as 
assistant to Dr. Robert N orton [q. v.], common 
preacher there. Troubles arose between the 
two, and Negus seems to have displaced 
Norton. But his own agreement with the 
town was broken by the people before its 
expiry, and Negus ' accepted a good call ' to 
the church at Leigh, where he entered shortly 
before 3 May 1586. Papers preserved in 
the Norrice MSS. relating to his suspension, 
and a petition of the inhabitants of Leigh 
pressing him not to stand on trifles in matter 
of the ceremonies, must refer to a second 
suspension, doubtless in 1587. If so, this sus- 
pension also was recalled, and Negus lived 
quietly till James's reign, when ' he was again 
in trouble, and at length deprived before 
August 1609/ at which time nis successor 
was instituted to Leigh. Negus continued to 
live in the parish, where he had a house, and 
was buried in Leigh Church on 8 Jan. 1615- 
1616. His will (apparently holograph}, in 
which he gave 3/. to the poor of Leigh, is in 
the Commissary Court of Essex, dated 16 Jan. 
1616, and proved 4 March. His gravestone 
was ejected from the church in 1841. 

Jonathan (miscalled John in Newcourt's 
4 Repertorium'), one of the sons of William 
Negus, was vicar of the adjoining parish of 
Prittlewell, and died in 1633. 

Another William Negus matriculated from 
Christ Church, Oxford, on 13 Oct. 1598 ; 
graduated B.A. 1601, and M.A. 1604. He was 
rector of Gay ton-le- Wold, Lincolnshire, 161 1, 
and rector of Spelsbury, Oxfordshire, 1613 
(see Fosteb, Alumni Oxon. 1600-1714). 

Negus ' of Leigh ' was author of ' Man's 
active Obedience, or the Power of Godliness 
... or a Treatise of Faith worthily called 
Precious Faith ... by Master William 
Negus, lately Minister of God's Word at 



Lee in Essex' (pp. xxii, 341), London, 1619, 
4to (dedicated to Sir Thomas Smith by 
Jonathan, son of William Negus, and with a 

Sreface signed by Stephen Egerton and by 
ohn Syme, rector of Leigh in succession to 
Negus). 

[The main authority is the original Acts of the 
association referred to, formerly in the posses- 
sion of Sir Henry S pel man, now in that of J. II. 
Gurney, esq., of Keswick, Norwich. A transcript 
belongs to the present writer. This manuscript 
proves that the statements that Negus was made 
rector of Leigh in 1681, and was suspended at 
Leigh in 1584, are incorrect, as also Newcourt's 
date (31 March 1585) of his institution to Leigh. 
See also Roger Norrice MSS., A586, and ^ , p. 92 
(Dr. Williams's Library) ; Wodderspoon's Ips- 
wich, p. 366 ; Neal's Puritans, i. 345 ; Brook's 
Puritans, i. 296; Cooper's Athena? Cantabr. ; 
David's Nonconformity in Essex, pp. 115, 132 ; 
Newcourt's Repertorium ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; 
information from H. W. King, esq., Leigh Hall, 
Essex, and J. C. Gould, esq., Loughton, Essex.] 

W. A. S. 

NEILD, JAMES (1744-1814), philan- 
thropist, was born on 4 June (N.S.) 1744 at 
Knutsford, Cheshire, where his family had 
some property. His father died, leaving five 
children, and his mother supported the 
family by carrying on business as a linen- 
draper. After a very brief education Neild 
lived two years with an uncle, who was a 
farmer; but at the end of 1760 he obtained 
a situation with a jeweller in London, and 
was afterwards employed by Hemming, the 
king's goldsmith. Neild developed great me- 
chanical skill, and also learned to engrave, 
model, and draw, as well as to fence. In 
1770 a legacy from his uncle, the farmer, 
enabled him to set up in business as a jeweller 
in St. James's Street. The venture proved a 
success, and in 1792 he retired on a fortune. 

Since his first settlement in London Neild 
devoted his leisure to endeavours to reform 
the prisons of the country. "When visiting 
in 1762 a fellow-apprentice who was confined, 
for debt in the King's Bench, he had gained 
his first impression of the necessity of re- 
form. Subsequently he inspected Newgate, 
the Derby prisons, Liverpool, Bridewell, the 
Chester dungeons, andbetore 1770 the prisons 
at Calais, St. Omer, Dunkirk, Lille, ana Paris. 
The barbarous treatment to which prisoners 
were subjected in nearly all these places 
stirred Neild's energies, and on the formation 
in May 1773 of a Society for the Relief and 
Discharge of Persons imprisoned for Small 
Debts, Neild was appointed treasurer, and 
remained associated with the society till his 
death. In his capacity of treasurer he visited 
prisons in and aboutLondon, and made weekly 



Neild 



170 



Neild 



reports. Fifteen months after the formation [ 
of the society 986 prisoners had been dis- I 
charged, at a cost of a little less than 2,900/. 

In 1779 Neild extended his inspection to 1 
Flanders and Germany. In 1781 he caught ! 
gaol fever at Warwick, and his ill-health, j 
combined with business cares, for a time inter- 
rupted his philanthropic work. But in 1800 | 
he published his ' Account of Persons confined 
for Debt in the various Prisons of England 
and Wales . . . with their Provisionary Al- 
lowances during Confinement, as reported 
to the Society for the Discharge and Re- I 
lief of Small Debtors/ In the third edition, ' 
published in 1808, the results of further , 
investigations in Scotland, as well as in Eng- j 
land, were incorporated. He kept a diary of 
his tour, and wrote to his friend, Dr. John » 
Cookley Lettsom [a. v.], accounts of his ex- 
periences. These the latter prevailed on him 
to publish in the ' Gentleman's Magazine/ 
under the form of 'Prison Remarks/ They 
were prefaced by communications from Lett- 
som, and led to a great awakening of public 
interest. Gaolers were on the alert, and 
magistrates showed a keener sense of their re- 
sponsibilities (cf. Gent. Mag. 1805 ii. 892-4, 
1019, 1020, 1124-6, 1806 i. 19-24). In the 
latter half of 1809, during a four months' 
excursion in England and Scotland, Neild 
was presented with the freedom of Glasgow, 
Perth, Paisley, Inverness, and Ayr. 

In 1812, with the assistance of the Rev. 
Weeden Butler, he published in quarto his 
* State of the Prisons in England, Scotland, 
and Wales, extending to variousPlaces therein 
assigned, not for the Debtors only, but for 
Felons also, and other less criminal Offenders ; 
together with some useful Documents, Obser- , 
rations, and Remarks, adapted to explain and 
improve the Condition of Prisoners in general/ 
The first part exposed the absurdity of the ' 
prevailing system of imprisonment for debt. 
The book was favourably noticed in the 
' Edinburgh Review/ January 1814. j 

During the latter part of his life Neild i 
lived chiefly at 4 Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, 
where he died on 10 Feb. 1814. He had pro- | 
perty in several counties, and was high sheriff j 
of Buckinghamshire in 1804, when he was also i 
a J.P. in Kent, Middlesex, and Westminster. : 
He moreover held a commission for several i 
years in the Bucks volunteer infantry. j 

Neild married in 1778 Elizabeth, eldest ' 
daughter of John Camden, esq.., of Battersea. ; 
She died on 30 June 1791, and was buried in 
Battersea Church. Besides a daughter Eliza- 
beth, who died young, he had two sons. 
William, the elder (1779-1810), predeceased 
his father. He was educated at Eton and 
Trinity College, Cambridge, but was treated 



with such harshness by his father that he 
left England for the West Indies. He prac- 
tised as a barrister at Tortola in 1809, and 
was appointed in the following year king's 
advocate at St. Thomas's. Bad health, how- 
ever, compelled him to return to England, 
and he died immediately after his arrival at 
Falmouth on 19 Oct. 1810. Neild's treatment 
of his elder son resembled the similar conduct 
of Howard, his predecessor in the work of 
prison reform. Lettsom found the state 
of public opinion on the subject an insur- 
mountable obstacle to his efforts to raise a 
statue to his friend. The second son, John 
Camden Neild, is separately noticed. 

A portrait of James Neild by De Wilde, 
engraved by Maddocks, appears in Nichols's 
' Literary Illustrations ' and Faulkner's 
1 Chelsea.' 

[In J. C. Pettigrew's Memoirs of J. C. Lett- 
som, ii. 191-218,is a full autobiographical sketch 
of Neild s life up to 1806, to which are appended 
some lines on Neild by Miss Porter, and various 
letters written to Lettsom between 1807 and 
1811. There are other scattered references to 
him in Lettsom's Correspondence. See also 
Nichols's Literary Illustrations, ii. 689-706, and 
Anecdotes, ix. 225 ; Lipscomb's Hist, of Bucks, 
i. 341-2; Faulkner's Hist, of Chelsea, 1829, i. 
399, 403, ii. 67 ; Tattarns Memoir of John Camden 
Neild, pp. 1, 2; Biog. Diet, of Living Authors ; 
Allibone s Diet. Engl. Lit. ii. 1406-7 ; Gent. 
Mag. 1814 i. 206, 1852 ii. 429, 492, &c; 
Neild's Works.] G. Le G. N. 

NEILD, JOHN CAMDEN (1780P-1852), 
eccentric, son of James Neild [q. v.], was 
probably born in St. James's Street, Lon- 
don, about 1780. He was educated at Eton 
from 1793 to 1797, and then at Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, whence he graduated B.A. 
1801 and M.A. 1804. On 9 Feb. 1808 he 
was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn. Suc- 
ceeding in 1814 to the whole of his father's 
property, estimated at 230,000/., he developed 
into a confirmed miser, and the last thirty 
years of his life were solely employed in 
accumulating wealth. He lived in a large 
house, 5 Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, but it was* 
so meanly furnished that for some time he 
had not a bed to lie on. His dress con- 
sisted of a blue swallow-tailed coat with 
gilt buttons, brown trousers, short gaiters, 
and shoes which were patched and generally 
down at the heels, lie never allowed his 
clothes to be brushed, because, he said, it 
destroyed the nap. He continually visited 
his numerous estates, walking whenever it 
was possible, never went to the expense of 
a great-coat, and always stayed with his 
tenants, sharing their coarse meals and lodg- 
ing. While at North Marston, in Bucking- 



Neile 



171 



Neile 



hamshire, about 1828 be attempted to cut 
his throat, and his life was only saved by the 
prompt attention of his tenant's wife, Mrs. 
Neale. Unlike other eminent misers — Daniel 
Dancer or John Elwes — he occasionally in- 
dulged in acts of benevolence, possessed con- 
siderable knowledge of legal and general 
literature, and to the last retained a love for 
the classics. He died at 5 Cheyne Walk, 
Chelsea, 30 Aug. 1852, aged 72, and was 
buried in the chancel of North Marston 
Church on 9 Sept. By his will, after be- 
queathing a few trifling legacies, he left the 
whole of nis property, estimated at 500,000/., 
to ' Her Most Gracious Majesty Queen Vic- 
toria, begging Her Majesty's most gracious 
acceptance of the same for her sole use and 
benefit.' Two caveats were entered against 
the will, but were subsequently withdrawn. 
The queen increased Neild's bequests to the 
three executors from 100/. to 1,000/. each, 
she provided for his servants, for whom he 
had made no provision, and she secured an 
annuity of 100/. to Mrs. Neale, who had 
frustrated Neild's attempt at suicide. In 
1855 her majesty restored the chancel of 
North Marston Church and inserted a win- 
dow to Neild's memory. 

[Chambers's Book of Days, 1864, ii. 285-8 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1817 vol. lxxxvii. pt. i. pp. 305-9, 
1852 xxxviii. 429-31, 492, 1853 xxxix. 570 ; 
IUustr. London News, 1852 xxi. 222, 350, 1855 
xxvii. 379-80 ; Timbs's English Eccentrics, 
1875, pp. 99-103; Times, 8 Sept. 1852, p. 7, 
26 Oct. p. 6.] G. C. B. 

NEILE. [See also Neax, Neale, and 
Nbill.] 

NEILE, RICHARD (1562-1640), arch- 
bishop of York, born in Westminster in 1562, 
was son of a tallow-chandler, but his grand- 
father had held a considerable estate and an 
office at court under Henry VIII, till he was 
deprived for non-compliance with the Six 
Articles. Richard was educated at Westmin- 
ster School, under Edward Grant [q. v.] and 
William Camden [q. v.] (Wood, Athena 
Oxonienses, ii. 341), out never became a good 
scholar. When he was bishop of Durham he 
reproved a schoolmaster for severely flogging 
his boys, and said that he had himself been 
so much chastised at Westminster that he 
never acquired a mastery of Latin (Leighton, 
Epitome j p. 75). Dr. Grant would have per- 
suaded his mother to apprentice him to a 
bookseller, but he was sent by Mildred, lady 
Burghley, wife of the lord treasurer, on 
the recommendation of Gabriel Goodman 
[q. v.], dean of Westminster, to St. John's 
College, Cambridge, as ' a poor and father- 
less child, of good hope to be learned, and to 



continue therein ' (letter of Dr. Goodman, 
given in Lb Neve, Lives of Bishops since 
the Reformation, p. 187). He was admitted 
scholar of the college on 22 April 1580, and 
matriculated on 18 May. He continued to 
enjoy the patronage of the Burghley family, 
residing in their household, and became 
chaplain to Lord Burghley, and afterwards 
to his son, Robert Cecil, earl of Salisbury. 
He took the degree of doctor in divinity in 
1600, when he * kept the Commencement Act/ 
and therein maintained the following ques- 
tions: 1. * Auricularis Confessio Papistica 
non nititur Verbo Dei/ 2. ' AnimtB piorum 
erant in ceelo ante Christi Ascensum.' He 
preached before Queen Elizabeth, who was 
* much taken with him/ Among his early 
preferments was the vicarage of Cheshunt, 
Hertfordshire (resigned in 1609), and on the 
memorable 5 Nov. 1605 he was installed dean 
of Westminster. He resigned the deanery in 
1610. While at Westminster he took great 
interest in the progress of the school, and 
yearly sent two or three scholars to the uni- 
versities at his own cost, 'in thankful re- 
membrance of God's goodness/ through the 
beneficence of his patrons the Cecils. 

In 1608 he was nominated bishop of Ro- 
chester. He was elected on 2 July, con- 
firmed on 8 Oct., and consecrated at Lambeth 
on 9 Oct. In August he appointed Laud his 
chaplain, and it was by his introduction that 
the future archbishop first preached before 
the king on 17 Sept. 1619. He interested 
himself keenly in the advancement of his 
chaplain, and gave him several valuable pre- 
ferments. It was his interest with the king 
which procured the royal license for Laud^ 
election to the presidency of St. John's Col- 
lege, in spite of the representations of the 
chancellor of the university of Oxford. 

On the translation of Abbot from Lichfield 
to London in 1610, Neale was elected bishop 
of Lichfield and Coventry on 12 Oct., and 
confirmed on 6 Dec. In 1612 he was con- 
cerned in the trial for heresy of Edward 
Wightman. The unhappy man was con- 
demned for blasphemy on the doctrine of the 
Trinity, and finally burnt at the stake by the 
secular power (State Trials, ii. 727 j Cal. of 
State Papers, Dom. 1689-40). 

In 1613 Neile sat on the commission ap- 
pointed to try the Essex divorce suit, and 
with Bishop Andrewes and the majority he 
voted in favour of the dissolution of the 
unhappy marriage [see Deveeeux, Robert, 
third Earl op Essex]. He continued in high 
favour with the king. In 1614 he was 
translated to Lincoln. In the debate in the 
House of Lords on the commons' demand for 
a conference on the impositions (24 May 



Neile 



172 



Neile 



1614), he made himself prominent by a vio- 
lent attack upon the commons and a strong 
declaration of the royal prerogative. The 
House of Commons, after hot debate, de- 
manded satisfaction from the lords for the 
aspersions of Neile. The bishop finally apo- 
logised with tears, but the commons pro- 
ceeded to further charges and recriminations 
which were silenced only by the dissolution 
of parliament. James's favour was not alie- 
nated. Neile attended the king in his pro- 
gress to Scotland in 1617, and on his return 
was translated to Durham (9 Oct.) 'He 
presently set himself,' says Heylyn (Cypria- 
nus Anglicus, p. 74), ' on work to repair the 
palaces and houses belonging to it which 
he had found in great decay; but he so 
adorned and beautified them in a very short 
space, that they that saw them could not 
think that they were the same.' He pulled 
down part of the great hall in the castle of 
Durham (Wood, ii. 731). ' But that which 
gave him most content was his palace of 
Durham House in the Strand, not only 
because it afforded him convenient room for 
his retinue, but because it was large enough 
to allow sufficient quarters for Buckeridge, 
bishop of Rochester, and Laud, dean of 
Gloucester, which he enjoyed when he was 
bishop of St. David's also ; some otherquarters 
were reserved for his old servant, Doctor 
Linsell, and others for such learned men of 
his acquaintance as came from time to time 
to attend upon him, insomuch that it passed 
commonly by the name of Durham College' 
(Hbylyn, Cyprianvjs; see also Laud, Works, 
iii. 177). The affairs of the north kept him 
fully employed, but he attended the trial 
of Bacon, when he spoke against depriving 
the fallen chancellor of his peerage. In the 
northern province his political activity was 
considerable. He corresponded constantly 
with Secretary Conway on the defence of the 
coast, the tram bands, fortifications, ammu- 
nition, ordnance, and protection of fisheries 
(cf. Cal. State Papers, Dom. 27 Oct. 1625, 
5 Aug. 1026). 

From the end of 1625 the French am- 
bassador resided in Durham House (ib. 31 Dec. 
1625), and the riot that occurred when the 
king endeavoured to arrest the English Ro- 
manists attending mass in his chapel was 
only stayed by the personal intervention of 
Neile (see Gardiner, Hist, of England, 
vi. 70-1). At the end of April 1627 he was 
sworn of the privy council. On 9 Oct. in 
the same year he was placed on the com- 
mission appointed to exercise archiepiscopal 
jurisdiction duringthe sequestration of Abbot 
(Cal. of State Papers, Dom.) On 10 Dec. he 
was elected bishop of Winchester, was con- 



firmed on 7 Feb., and received the tempo- 
ralities on 19 Feb. 1628 (ib.) Neile was 
now recognised as one of the most prominent 
members of the party of which Laud was the 
admitted leader (ib. August 1628; Laud, 
Works, vi. 301), and complaints against him 
were made in parliament (February 1629). 
A patron of Jonn Cosin [q. v.] and Richard 
Montagu [q. v.], as well as of Laud, he was 
an uncompromising churchman and disci- 
plinarian. The commons declared that he 
silenced all opposition to popery, and in the 
debate on the pardons to Montagu, Cosin, 
and Sibthorpe his conduct furnished Oliver 
Cromwell with the subject of his first speech 
in the house. On 13 June the commons 
voted ' that Dr. Neile, Bishop of Winchester, 
and Dr. Laud, Bishop of Bath and Wells, be 
named to be those near about the king who 
are suspected to be Arminians, and that they 
are justly suspected to be unsound in their 
opinions that way.' His defence was based 
on the Anglican theory which found so little 
favour in the commons, but he was careful to 
purge himself from all suspicion of popery 
Dy severity towards recusants (Cal. of State 
Papers, Dom. passim). 

Neile regularly sat on the high commis- 
sion and in the Star-chamber. In the case 
of Leighton (1630, Star-chamber) he argued 
in favour of the divine right of episcopacy 
(cf. Gardiner, Cases in the Courts, &c., 
Camd. Soc. ; Cal. of State Papers, Dom. 

Eassim). His commission was from the Holv 
pirit. ' If he could not make that good, 
he would fling his rochet and all the rest 
from his back' (Leighton, Epitome, p. 75). 

On 5 Jan. 16131 he was put on the com- 
mission for inquiring into the execution of 
the laws concerning the relief of the poor, the 
binding of apprentices, &c, and on 10 April 
on that for the repair of St. Paul's Cathedral. 
On 28 Feb. he was elected to the archbishopric 
of York, vacant by the death of Harsnet. 
The royal assent to the election was given 
on 3 March, the confirmation took place on 
19 March, and the enthronement on 16 April 
(LeNeve; Cal. of State Papers). On24Nov. 
1633 he took part in the baptism of James, 
duke of York. In 1636 he vindicated the 
right of the archbishops of York to visit 
Queen's College, Oxford, as against the claim 
of Laud. 

In January 1633-4 he sent to the king a 
long report of the state of church affairs in 
his diocese and province (ib. with the king's 
notes). He had found the dioceses of Carlisle 
and Chester to have very widely departed 
from the practice of uniformity, many of 
the ministers ' chopping, changing, altering, 
omitting, and adding at their pleasure, and 



Neile 



173 



Neile 



lay officers interfering in ecclesiastical mat- 
ters in a highhanded way.* By January 1636 
he had ordered his province much more suc- 
cessfully. In his own diocese he ' scarce finds 
a beneficed minister stiffly unconformable/ 
and very large sums had been spent in repair- 
ing and adorning churches. The report of 
the diocese for 1636-7 states that he had 
not found ' any distractions of opinion touch- 
ing points of divinity lately controverted.' 
He declared himself a ' great adversary of the 
puritan faction ... yet (having been a bishop 
eight and twenty years) he never deprived 
any man, but has endeavoured their reforma- 
tion.' 

Though an old man, he continued till his 
death to be active in political as well as in 
ecclesiastical business. Till within a fort- 
night of his death his correspondence was kept 
up with Laud, Windebanke, and Sir Dudley 
Carleton. Neile died ' in the mansion house 
belonging to the prebend of Stillington, within 
the close of the church of York, on 81 Oct. 
1640, and was buried at the east end of the 
cathedral, in the chapel of All Saints, without 
a monument. He was a man of little learn- 
ing, but of much address and; great capacity 
for business, and he possessed in a marked 
degree the power of influencing and directing 
the work of others. He was popular both 
at court and among his clergy. Ready and 
humorous of speech, conscientious in his at- 
tachment to the principles advocated by men 
more learned than himself, hard working and 
careful of opportunity, he became prominent 
and successful where greater men failed. 
His best quality was a sound common-sense, 
his worst*a lack of prescience. He was ' a 
man of such a strange composition that 
whether he were of a larger ana more public 
soul, or of a more uncourtlv conversation, it 
were hard indeed to say* (Heylyn). Laud 
spoke of him as ' a man well known to be as 
true to, and as stout for, the church of Eng- 
land established by law as any man that 
came to preferment in it ' ( Works, iv. 293). 
Baillie mentions him on his death as ' a great 
enemy to us' (Baillib, Letters, ed. Lang, 
i. 270}. He left one son, Paul Neile of 
'Bowoill,' Yorkshire, who was knighted 
27 May 1633, and was father ofWflliam 
Neile [q. v.] 

He published : 1. Articles for his primary 
visitation as Bishop of Winchester, printed 
by R. Young, London, 1628. Containing in- 
quiries as to the ministering of the sacra- 
ments, ordering of penances, and mainte- 
nance of church discipline. 2. Articles for 
his metropolitical visitation, London, printed 
by John Norton, 1633. Almost exactly the 
same as the above. 3. ' By commandment 



of King James he printed in English and 
Latin tne conference that he had with the 
Archbishop of Spalatro after he had disco- 
vered his intention to return to Rome' (Lb 
Nbvb, Lives of the Bishops since the Jlefor- 
mation, p. 149, quoting from Neile's manu- 
script defence or himself in parliament). 

[Calendars of State Papers, Dom. 1625-40 ; 
Laud's Works ; Anthony Woods Athens Oxon. ; 
Gardiner's Hist, of England ; Le Neve's Lives 
of Protestant Bishops since the Reformation; 
Heylyn's Cyprianus Anglicus ; Perry's Hist, of 
the Church of England ; Gardiner's Reports of 
Cases in the Courts of Star Chamber and High 
Commission (Camd. Soc.), 1886.] W. H. H. 

NEILE, WILLIAM (1637-1670), mathe- 
matician, was the eldest son of Sir Paul 
Neile and the grandson of Richard Neile 
[q. v.], archbishop of York, in whose palace 
at Bishopsthorpe he was born on 7 Dec. 
1637. Entering Wadham College, Oxford, 
as a gentleman-commoner in 1652, but not 
matriculating in the university till 1655, he 
soon displayed mathematical genius, which 
was developed by the instructions of Dr. 
Wilkins and Dr. Seth Ward. In 1657 he 
became a student at the Middle Temple. 
In the same year, at the age of nineteen, he 
gave an exact rectification of the cubical 
parabola, and communicated his discovery — 
the first of its kind — to Brouncker, Wren, 
and others of the Gresham College Society. 
His demonstration was published in Wallis's 
' De Cycloide,' 1659, p. 91. Neile was elected 
a fellow of the Royal Society on 7 Jan. 1663, 
and a member of the council on 11 April 
1666. His theory of motion was communi- 
cated to the society on 29 April 1669 (Bibch, 
Hist, of the Royal Society, 11. 361). He pro- 
secuted astronomical observations with in- 
struments erected on the roof of his father's 
residence, the 'Hill House/ at White Walt- 
ham in Berkshire, where he died, in his 
thirty-third year, on 24 Aug. 1670, * to the 
great grief of his father, and resentment of 
all virtuosi and good men that were ac- 
quainted with his admirable parts' (Wood). 
A white marble monument in the parish 
church of White Waltham commemorates 
him, and an inscribed slab in the floor marks 
his burial-place. He belonged to the privy 
council of Charles H. Hearne says of him, 
' He was a virtuous, sober, pious man, and 
had such a powerful genius to mathematical 
learning that had he not been cut off in the 

Erime of his years, in all probability he would 
ave eaualled, if not excelled, the celebrated 
men of that profession. Deep melancholy 
hastened his end, through his love for a maid 
of honour, to marry whom he could not obtain 
his father's consent.' 



Neill 



174 



Neill 



[Fosters Alumni Oxcnienses, 1500-1714, 0. v. 
'Neale ; ' Wood's Athenae Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 902 ; 
Hearne's Itinerary of John Leland, 2nd edit. 
1744, p. 144 ; Rigaud's Correspondence of Scien- 
tific Men, ii. 488, 608 ; WallisVLetter on Neile's 
Invention (Phil. Trans, viii. 6146) ; Phil. Trans. 
Abridged, ii. 112 (Hutton) ; Birch's Hist, of the 
Royal Soc, ii. 460 ; Hutton's Mathematical Diet. 
1815 ; Marie's Hist, des Sciences, v. 117 ; Mon- 
tucla's Hist, des Mathematiques, ii. 353 ; Pog- 
gendorffs Biog. Lit. Handworterbuch.1 

A. M. C. 



[See also Neal, Neale, and 



NEILL. 

Neile.] 

NEILL, JAMES GEORGE SMITH 
(1810-1857), colonel and brigadier-general, 
eldest son of Colonel Neill of Burnweill and 
Swendridge Muir, Ayrshire, was born in the 
neighbourhood of Ayr on 27 May 1810. He 
was educated at Ayr and at Glasgow Uni- 
versity. He obtained an army cadetship in 
the East India Company's service, and ar- 
rived at Madras on 1 June 1827. Sir Thomas 
Munro [q. v.], governor of the Madras presi- 
dency, wno had married a relative of Neill, 
took kindly notice of the boy, and he was 
posted on 5 June, with date as ensign of 6 Dec. 
1826, to the Madras first European regiment, 
then quartered at Machlipatnam. He was pro- 
moted lieutenant on 7 Nov. 1828. He was 
appointed fort adjutant at Machlipatnam on 
15 Sept. 1829, and held the office until the 
regiment marched to Kampti. On 1 May 1831 
lie was made quartermaster and interpreter 
to the right wing of his regiment at Kampti. 
On 7 March 1834 he was nominated adjutant 
of his regiment, and was afterwards selected 
to command the escort of the resident of 
Nagpiir. 

On 1 Jan. 1837 he left Kolikod on sick fur- 
lough to Europe. He returned to Madras 
on 26 July 1839, before the expiration of his 
furlough, in the hope of being employed in 
the operations in Afghanistan; butinthishe 
was disappointed. 

On 23 March 1841 he was appointed to the 
general staff as deputy assistant adjutant- 
general in the ceded districts. While hold- 
ing this appointment he wrote a short ac- 
count of the history of his regiment, which 
was published in 1843 under the title of 
' Historical Record of the Madras European 
Regiment/ On 6 Jan. 1842 he was pro- 
moted brevet captain, and on 25 June he was 
made aide-de-camp to Major-general Wouife. 
Neill was promoted captain (regimental) on 
2 Jan. 1843, and major on 25 March 1850. 

When the second Burmese war broke out 
in 1852, Neill threw up his staff appointment 
and hastened to rejoin his regiment, which 
had been ordered to the seat of war. On 



his way he was met by the announcement 
that he had been appointed to the staff of Sir 
Scudamore Steele, commanding the Madras 
troops in Burmah, as deputy assistant adju- 
tant-general. He did admirable work all 
through the campaign. On the conclusion 
of the war he was left at Rangoon in com- 
mand of the Madras troops, and was actively 
employed under Sir John Cheape [q. v.] in 
suppressing insurrections near Thurygyeen, 
Bassein, and elsewhere. Constant exposure 
and hard work in a bad climate brought on 
fever, which nearly proved fatal; but he 
recovered, and was sent to England, arriving 
in June 1854. For his services in the Bur- 
mah war he was promoted brevet lieutenant- 
colonel on 9 Dec. 1853. 

When the war with Russia commenced, 
General (afterwards Sir) Robert Vivian, who 
had been adjutant-general of the Madras army, 
was selected to command the Anglo-Turkish 
force, called the Turkish contingent, and 
Neill was appointed his second in command. 
He was given the rank of colonel on the 
staff, and went to Constantinople in April 
1855. On his arrival he was appointed to 
command a division stationed in camp at 
Buyukdere, on the Bosphorus, where he re- 
mained till July, bringing the force under 
his command into a state of efficiency and 
discipline. Owing to the excesses of the 
Bashi-Bazoukhs, commanded by General 
Beatson, a military commission, composed 
partly of British officers and partly of Turk- 
ish officials, was appointed, with Neill as 
president, to inquire into the outrages. The 
commission was opened on 27 July at the 
embassy, and full powers were given to it to 
try and to punish the offenders. Severe and 
immediate punishment for plunder was ad- 
ministered, and soon produced good effects, 
while Neill reported that the excesses com- 
mitted were due to lax discipline, and indi- 
cated what steps should be taken to amend it. 
Neill received the thanks of Lord Stratford 
de Redcliffe, the ambassador, who directed 
General Beatson either to adopt Neill's re- 
commendations or adhere to the resolution- 
he had announced of resigning his command. 

Neill displayed considerable ability in or- 
ganising and reforming the Turkish contin- 
gent. He was determined to have no officers 
that were not fit for the work, and got rid of 
no less than twelve officers, including a briga- 
dier-general, three lieutenant-colonels, and 
three majors. On the conclusion of the war 
Neill returned home, and, after spending the 
remainder of his leave with his family, sailed 
for India again on 20 Feb. 1857, arriving in 
Madras on 29 March. His regiment was 
away in the Persian Gulf, forming part of 



Neill 



175 



Neill 



the expedition under Sir James Outram [q.v.] 
He was preparing to start for Bushire to join 
it when, on 6 April, intelligence arrived that 
the war with Persia was over, and on 20 April 
theMadra8 fusiliers reached Madras. Colonel 
Stevenson, who was in command, left for 
England on sick leave on the 28th, and Neill 
took over command of the regiment. 

On 16 May news came from Calcutta that 
the troops at Mirat and Delhi had mutinied, 
and Northern India was in a blaze. Neill 
embarked his regiment at once, fully equipped 
for service, in accordance with instructions 
received, and arrived at Calcutta on 23 May. 
They were * entrained ' by detachments en 
Toute for Banaras. 

Neill arrived at Banaras on 8 June 1857. 
The following day the 87th native infantry 
and a Sikh regiment mutinied. They were at- 
tacked and dispersed bf the artillery, some 
of the 10th foot and of the Madras fusiliers. 
Thrice the rebels charged the guns, and thrice 
were driven back with grape shot ; then they 
wavered and fled. Never was rout so com- 
plete. Brigadier-general Ponsonby, who 
was in command, was incapacitated by sun- 
stroke, and Neill assumed tne command. He 
was duly confirmed in the appointment as 
brigadier-general to commana the Haidara- 
bad contingent. His attention was at once 
called to Allahabad, where the 6th native 
infantry mutinied on 5 June and massacred 
their officers. The fort still remained in our 
hands, but was threatened from without by 
the mutineers, who were preparing to invest 
the place, while the fidelity of the Sikh 
troops within was doubtful. Neill at once 
despatched fifty men of the Madras fusiliers 
to Allahabad by forced marches. They ar- 
rived the following day (6th), and found the 
bridge in the hands of the enemy, but got in 
by a steamer sent from the fort for them. 
Another detachment sent by Neill arrived 
on the 9th, and on the 11th Neill himself, 
having made over the command at Banaras 
to Colonel Gordon, appeared with a further 
reinforcement of forty men. Neill experi- 
enced considerable difficulty in getting into 
Allahabad. He was nearly cut off en route 
from Banaras, and when he got near Allaha- 
bad it was blazing forenoon. A boat was ob- 
tained by stealing it from the rebels, and 
Neill and his men had to wade a mile through 
burning sand in the hot sun. Two of his 
men died in the boat of sunstroke. Neill's 
energetic measures soon altered the position 
of affairs. The heat was terrific, but Neill 
on 12 June recovered the bridge and secured 
a safe passage for another detachment of a 
hundred men of the fusiliers from Banaras. 
On the 13th he opened fire on the enemy in 



the adjacent villages, and on the 14th, a 
further detachment of fusiliers having ar- 
rived, the Sikh corps was moved outside the 
fort, and with it all immediate remaining 
danger. 

On the evening of the 14th and during the 
15th he continued to fire on the enemy in the 
villages adjoining. He also sent a steamer, 
with some gunners, a howitzer, and twenty 
picked shots of the fusiliers, up the Jamna. 
They did a great deal of execution. The Sikhs, 
supported by a party of the fusiliers, cleared 
the villages of Kaidganj and Matinganj. 
The insurgents were thoroughly beaten. The 
Moulavie fled, and the ringleaders dispersed. 
' At Allahabad/ wrote Lord Canning to the 
chairman of the East India Company,' the 6th 
regiment has mutinied, and fearful atrocities 
were committed by the people on Europeans 
outside the fort. But the fort has been 
saved. Colonel Neill, with nearly three 
hundred European fusiliers, is established 
in it ; and that point, the most precious in 
India at this moment, and for many years 
the one most neglected, is safe, thank God. 
A column will collect there (with all the 
speed which the means of conveyance will 
allow of), which Brigadier Havelock, just re- 
turned from Persia, will command/ Before 
Havelock came, cholera suddenly appeared. 
It did not last long, but within three days 
carried off fifty men. Neill set to work 
energetically to equip a small force to push 
into Cawnpore to relieve Wheeler ; he also 
collected guns and material for a large force 
to follow. For his services at Allahabad he 
was promoted colonel in the army and ap- 
pointed aide-de-camp to the queen. 

Havelock arrived on 30 June. The column 
which Neill had prepared for Cawnpore 
started under Major Renaud on 3 July. News 
had just arrived from Lucknow of the terri- 
ble tragedv enacted at Cawnpore, but it was 
not fully believed ; at any rate, hopes were 
entertained that the story might be the in- 
vention of Nana Sahib. Captain Spurgin 
of the Madras fusiliers, with one hundred 
men and two guns, also left Allahabad on 
3 July on board a river steamer to co-operate 
with Renaud. Havelock was delayed by 
want of bullocks for a few days, but finally 
left Allahabad on 7 July. Neill was left at 
Allahabad to reorganise another column. It 
was a great disappointment to Neill that, 
after his successes at Allahabad, he should 
be superseded by a senior officer ; but he was 
somewhat consoled on 16 Jiily by a telegram 
from the commander-in-chief directing him 
to hand over the command at Allahabad to 
the next senior officer, and to join Havelock 
as second in command. Neill reached Cawn- 



Neill 



176 



Neill 



pore in five day?. His instructions were, to 
say the least, injudicious. They led him to 
think, rightly or wrongly, that the authorities 
had misgivings as to Havelock, and had com- 
plete confidence in him, while it led Have- 
lock to regard Neill with some suspicion. 
On NeilTs arrival at Cawnpore he was at 
once met by Havelock, who desired that 
there might be a complete understanding be- 
tween them. Neill was to have no power 
nor authority while he was there, and was 
not to issue a single order. When Havelock 
marched on Lucknow he left Neill in com- 
mand at Cawnpore. 

One of Neill's first acts on assuming the 
command at Cawnpore was to inquire into 
the particulars of the dreadful tragedy. When 
he Decame aware of its full horror, he was 
determined to make such an example that 
it might be a warning to the mutineers at 
Lucknow and elsewhere. The following 
order was issued : ' 25 July 1867. The well, 
in which are the remains of the poor women 
and children so brutally murdered by this 
miscreant, the Nana, will be filled up, and 
neatly and decently covered over to form 
their grave; a party of European soldiers 
will do so this evening, under the superintend- 
ence of an officer. The house in which they 
were butchered, and which is stained with 
their blood, will not be washed nor cleaned 
by their countrymen ; but Brigadier-general 
Neill has determined that every stain of that 
innocent blood shall be cleared up and wiped 
out, previous to their execution, by such of 
the miscreants as may be hereafter appre- 
hended, who took an active jpart in the 
mutiny, to be selected according to their 
rank, caste, and degree of guilt. Each mis- 
creant, after sentence of death is pronounced 
upon him, will be taken down to the house 
in question, under a guard, and will be forced 
into cleaning up a small portion of the blood- 
stains ; the task will be made as revolting to 
his feelings as possible, and the provost 
marshal will use the lash in forcing any one 
objecting to complete his task. After pro- 
perly cleaning up his portion the culprit is 
to be immediately hanged, and for this pur- 
pose a gallows will be erected close at hand/ 
This was carried out. The sentence was 
severe, but ' severity at the first/ Neill wrote, 
' is mercy in the end/ 

Neill had only three hundred infantry, 
half a battery of European artillery, and 
twelve veteran gunners with him in Cawn- 
pore when Havelock endeavoured to advance 
to the relief of Lucknow. Neill's instruc- 
tions were to endeavour to defend so much 
of the trunk road as was then in British 
possession in the neighbourhood of Cawnpore, 



to aid in maintaining Havelock's communi- 
cations with Allahabad and with Cawnpore, 
to strengthen the defences on both sides of 
the river, to mount heavy guns in them, and 
to render the passage of the river secure by 
establishing, in co-operation with the two 
steamers, a boat communication from en- 
trenchment to entrenchment. Havelock com- 
menced the passage of the river on the 20th, 
but it took a week of labour and difficulty 
before the whole column was assembled on 
the Oudh bank. On the 29th Havelock ad- 
vanced on Onao and routed the enemy. 
He gained another victory at Bashiratganj 
and then fell back on Mangalwar. On 
31 July he informed Neill that he could 
not advance to Lucknow without further 
reinforcements, and desired Neill to furnish 
workmen to form a bridgehead on the Oudh 
bank, to collect rations for his troops, and 
get ready two 24-pounders to accompany his 
advance, and push across any British infan- 
try so soon as they might arrive. Havelock 
no doubt was right to risk nothing in order 
to make sure of relieving Lucknow effectu- 
ally, but his retrograde movement created 
bitter disappointment in Cawnpore, and Neill 
chafed so much under his mortifications that 
he wrote a very insubordinate letter to Have- 
lock, complaining bitterly of his action. He 
received a severe reply. Havelock again 
pushed forward, but once more, after further 
successes in the field, felt compelled to 
await reinforcements before he could make 
good his advance upon Lucknow. 

While Havelock was thus advancing and 
waiting, Neill was threatened at Cawnpore 
by large bodies of insurgent sepoys. He sent 
the steamers up the river with a small force 
and two field guns and a mortar, and checked 
the rebels to some extent, but on 10 Aug. 
they approached nearer. A part of Neill's 
small force was sick in hospital, and Neill 
Rent word to Havelock that he could not 
keep open his communications, as his force 
was barely sufficient to enable him to hold 
on to Cawnpore, and that four thousand men 
and five guns were at Bithor, already threat- 
ening Cawnpore. So Havelock, having struck 
another blow at the enemy at Burhiya, re- 
turned, attacked the enemy at Bithor on 
16 Aug., dispersed them, and established 
himself in Cawnpore. Then came cholera. 
The troops were not adequately provided 
with shelter during the rainy season, and 
Neill thought they were unnecessarily ex- 
posed. Neill, who was a friend of the com- 
mander-in-chief, Sir Patrick Grant, kept up 
a correspondence with him, in which he 
seems to have criticised Havelock's doings 
freely, and Grant, on relinquishing the com- 



Neill 



177 



Neill 



mand-in-chief to Sir Colin Campbell (after- 
wards Lord Clyde) [q. v.], wrote a friendly- 
letter to Neill, impressing upon him the 
necessity of loyally supporting his immediate 
superiors. Unfortunately Neill did not act 
upon this advice. He opened a correspond- 
ence with Outram, who was coming up with 
reinforcements to take command, and ex- 
pressed his opinions as freely to him as he 
had done to G rant. Havelock and Neill were 
essentially unlike both in character and dis- 
position, and neither sufficiently appreciated 
the other. But despite NeilTs attitude of 
disloyalty to HavelocK, which is the one blot 
upon Neill's fame, Havelock was magnani- 
mous enough to take Neill with him in the 
advance to Lucknow, with the rank of bri- 
gadier-general to command the right wing of 
the force. On the 15th, onOutram's arrival, 
the arrangement was confirmed, and orders 
issued, the right wing consisting of the 5th 
and 84th foot, the Madras fusiliers, and 
Maude's battery of artillery. 

The advance commenced on 19 Sept. On 
the 21st the enemy opened fire, but were 
driven off the field. Then it rained inces- 
santly, but the column marched on until 
half-past three, when the troops were quar- 
tered in a small serai. It rained all night 
and all the 22nd, when a similar march 
was made without any fighting, and on the 
arrival of the force at their bivouac the 
guns at Lucknow were distinctly heard. 
On the 23rd there was a bright sun, and the 
men felt the heat greatly. On approaching 
the Alambagh, where a considerable force 
of the enemy was posted, fire was opened 
by the British force advancing in line as 
soon as they came within range. "While 
crossing a deep watercourse Neill's horse 
plunged and nearly fell, and as he did so a 
round shot grazed the horse's quarters, pass- 
ing a few inches behind Neill. The line was 
exposed to a heavy fire, and many fell. Neill 
roue in front of the Madras fusiliers, and 
cheered on the men, waving his helmet. The 
enemy were driven back a mile beyond the 
Alambagh, and the force occupied the Alam- 
bagh for the night. The baggage had not 
come up, and a pouring rain for an hour 
caused discomfort to the force. Neill at once 
got permission for an extra dram for the 
men. On the morning of the 24th the enemy's 
fire was annoying, and the force was ordered 
to move a thousand yards to the rear, to be 
more out of range of the enemy's guns ; but 
in executing the movement there was much 
confusion among the baggage animals and 
carts, and the rebel cavalry charged the rear- 
guard and baggage-guard, killing a good many 
men. Neill ordered up two guns and the 

TOL. XL. 



volunteer cavalry. The rebel cavalry gal- 
loped off again, leaving fifteen of their num- 
ber dead. Then Havelock's force rested, and 
arrangements were made for the attack. On 
the morning of the 25th Neill marched off 
at 8 a.m. with the first brigade in advance. 
The brigade consisted of Maude's field bat- 
tery of artillery, the 5th fusiliers, a detach- 
ment of the 64th regiment, the 84th foot, 
and the Madras fusiliers. They had not ad- 
vanced two hundred yards when they were 
met with a murderous cross-fire from the 
rebel guns, and also with a heavy musketry 
fire. Neill pushed on, telling Maude to do 
his best to silence the guns. Neill directed 
his infantry to clear the walled enclosures 
on each side of the road, whence came the 
enemy's musketry fire. On turning into a 
village they were met by two guns firing 
straight down the road. Neill, at the head 
of the Madras fusiliers, charged the guns. 
Numbers of Neill's men were mowed down, 
but the guns were captured. Neill then led 
his men round the outskirts of the city with 
very trifling opposition until thev reached 
the road alony the bank of the Giimti to- 
wards the residency. They halted once or 
twice to let the guns come up, and thought 
the worst was over. But as they approached 
the Mess-house and the Kaisar Bagh a sharp 
musketry fire was opened upon them. The 
fire was returned, but for some two hundred 
yards the column was exposed to an inces- 
sant storm of bullets and grape shot. It was 
now nearly sunset. As they passed out of 
the lane into a courtyard, fire was opened 
from the tops of the houses on each side. 
Neill was on his horse giving orders, trying 
to prevent too hasty a rush through the 
archway at the end of the court, when he 
was shot dead from the top of a house. 
Spurgin, of the Madras fusiliers, saved his 
body, and, putting it on a gun-carriage, carried 
it into Lucknow. As the churchyard was 
too exposed to the enemy's fire to admit of 
funerals in the daytime, he was buried on the 
evening of the 28th. 

Great was the grief of the brigade for 
the loss of their commander, and both 
in India and in England it was felt that 
the death of Neill was the loss of a very 
resolute, brave, and energetic general, who 
had been the first to stem the torrent of re- 
volt, and who had, when in command for a 
short time, shown a capacity for the position, 
a fertility of resource, and a confidence in 
himself that had been equalled by few. Lord 
Canning, in publishing the despatches on the 
relief of Lucknow, wrote: ' Brigadier-general 
Neill, during his short but active career in 
Bengal, had won the respect and confidence 



Neili 



i 7 8 



Neill 



of the Government of India ; he had made 
himself conspicuous as an intelligent, prompt, 
and self-reliant soldier, ready of resource, 
and stout of heart.' 

The ' Gazette ' announced that, had Neill 
lived, he would have been made a K.O.B., 
and his widow was declared to enjoy the 
same title and precedence to which she would 
have been entitled had her husband survived 
and been invested with the insignia of a 
K.C.B. The East India Company gave a 
liberal pension to the widow. 

Memorials were erected in India in Neill's 
honour, and a colossal statue by Noble was 
erected in Wellington Square, in his native 
place, Ayr, in Scotland. Neill married, 
on 31 Oct. 1835, Isabella, daughter of 
Colonel Warde of the 5th regiment of Bengal 
cavalry, then employed as assistant to the 
resident at Nagpore. He left two sons. 

[India Office Records; Despatches; Marsh- 
man's Life of Havelock ; Kaye's History of the 
Sepoy War, and Lives of India Officers ; Malle- 
son's Hist, of the Indian Mutiny.] E. H. V. 

NEILL or NEIL, PATRICK (rf. 1705 P), 
first printer in Belfast, was a native of Scot- 
land. He was originally a printer in Glas- 
gow. In 1694 he was brought over to Bel- 
fast by William Crafford, or Crawford, sove- 
reign (mayor) of Belfast. Crafford, who was 
an enterprising merchant and a presbyterian, 
was placed on the burgess roll in 1686, and 
removed in 1706 in virtue of the act of par- 
liament disqualifying dissenters ; he sat for 
Belfast in the Irish parliaments of 1703 and 
1707. To encourage Neill to introduce the 
printing business into Belfast, he entered 
into partnership with him. NeilTs books are 
very rare ; a few dated 1697 and 1698 are 
presumed to be his, but none bearing" his im- 
print are known before 1699. Of that year 
there is an edition of ' The Christian's Great 
Interest/ by William Guthrie (1620-1665) 
[q.v.l 'Belfast: Printed by Patrick Neill 
and Company/ and an edition of 'The 
Psalms of David in Meeter/ with similar 
imprint. Appended to the latter is a list of 
three religious books ' Printed and Sold by 
Patrick Neill/ Of his press work in 1700 
four small volumes are extant. ' The Psalms 
of David in Meeter ' (of which a copy, bound 
in tortoiseshell and silver, belongs to the 
First Presbyterian Church, Belfast) bears 
the imprint, 'Belfast, Printed by Patrick 
Neil (sic) and Company, 1700/ An adver- 
tisement at the end of the ' Psalms ' specifies 
a New Testament and six more religious 
books, including the ' Pilgrim's Progress,' as 

Erinted ' by and for ' Neill ; it is not pro- 
able that the New Testament was of his own 



printing. To 1700 also belong his edition 
of Matthew Mead's ' Almost Christian/ and 
Bunyan's ' Sighs from Hell/ a small volume of 
sermons by John Flavel (1630 P-1691) [q. v.], 
with life. At the end of the ' Almost Cnris- 
tian ' is an advertisement specifying six more 
religious books as printed by Neill. In 1702 
his imprint appears on a local work (the only 
instance), viz., 'Advice for Assurance of Sal- 
vation/ by Robert Craghead (d. 22 Aug. 1711 ), 
presbyterian minister of Derry . No later im- 
print of his is known. NeilTs will bears date 
21 Dec. 1704; hence it is presumed that he 
died in 1705. He mentions as executors his 
brother-in-law, James Blow fa. v.], who mar- 
ried his sister Abigail, and died on 16 Aug. 
1759, leaving 40/. to the poor of Belfast 
(tablet formerly in the old church, now in 
the Old Poor House, Belfast), and Brice 
Blair (d. January 1722), bookseller and 
haberdasher, a prominent presbyterian and 
agent for distribution of regium donum in 
1? 08. Blair was probably one of Neill's com- 
pany. Neill left three young children, John, 
James, and Sarah, of whom John was to be 
brought up to his father's business by Blow. 
Patrick Neill (1776-1851) [q. v.] is said to 
have been a descendant of iSeill. 

[Benn's Hist of Belfast, 1877, pp. 425 sq. ; 
Historic Memorials of First Presb. Church of 
Belfast, 1887, pp. 14, 76 ; Anderson's Catalogue 
of Early Belfast Printed Books, 1890, pp. 5 sq. ; 
Young's Town Book of Belfast, 1892, pp. 231, 
235 sq. 337; Scottish Antiquary, October 1893, 
p. 65; Belfast News-Letter, 19 Jan. 1894, art 
by Andrew Gibson.] A. G-. 

NEILL, PATRICK (1776-1851), natu- 
ralist, was born in Edinburgh on 25 Oct. 
1776, and spent his life in that city. He 
became the head of the large printing firm 
of Neill & Co., but during the last thirty 
years of his life he took little active part 
in its management. Early in his career he 
devoted his spare time to natural history, 
especially botany and horticulture. The 
Wernerian Natural History Society was 
established in 1808, and in 1809 the Cale- 
donian Horticultural Society was founded. 
Neill was the first secretary of both societies, 
holding the latter post for forty years. In 
1806 appeared his 'Tour through Orkney 
and Shetland/ 8vo, a work which gave rise 
to much discussion, owing to its exposure of 
the then prevalent misery. In 1814 he issued 
a translation, 'An Account of the Basalts of 
Saxony, from the French of Dubuisson, with 
Notes/ Edinburgh, 8vo. He was the author 
of the article ' Gardening ' in the seventh 
edition of the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica/ 
which, subsequently published under the 
title of 'The Flower, Fruit, and Kitchen 



Neilson 



179 



Neilson 



Garden/ ran through several editions. In 
1817 Neill, with two other deputies from the 
Caledonian Society, made a tour through 
the Netherlands and the north of France, 
and he prepared an account of it, which was 
published in 1823. 

Edinburgh is indebted to Neill for the 
scheme of the West Princes Street gardens. 
In 1820 that portion of the north loch was 
drained, and five acres of ground were laid 
out and planted with seventy-seven thousand 
trees and shrubs under his direction ; it was 
also due to his public spirit that several anti- 
quities were preserved when on the point of 
being 1 demolished. 

His residence at Canonmills Cottage, near 
the city, was always open to visitors who 
cared for those pursuits in which Neill took 
an especial interest, and his garden was noted 
for tne character of the collection and its 
high cultivation. A short time before his 
death he became enfeebled by a stroke of 
paralysis, and after several months of suffer- 
ing he died at Canonmills on 3 Sept. 1851, 
and was buried in the cemetery at Warriston, 
Edinburgh. His tombstone states that he 
was 'distinguished for literature, science, 
patriotism, Benevolence, and piety.' 

He was fellow of the Linnean and Edin- 
burgh Royal Societies, and honorary LLD. 
of Edinburgh University. He died un- 
married, and among his various charitable 
bequests was one of 500/. to the Caledonian 
Horticultural Society to found a medal for 
distinguished Scottish botanists or culti- 
vators, and a similar sum to the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh for a medal to distin- 
guished Scottish naturalists. He is bo- 
tanically commemorated by the rosaceous 
genus NeilUa. 

[Particulars furnished by his nephew, Patrick 
Neill Fraser; Proc. Linn. Soc. ii. 191; Gard. 
Chron. 1851, p. 663; R. Greville's Algae Brit., 
lntrod.pp.4,25; Gent. Mag. 1851, p. 548; Flem- 
ing's Li thol. Edinb. 1859, pp. 15, 16; Crombie's 
Modern Athenians, 1882, p. 115; Descr. Testim. 
pres. 22 June 1843, Edinb. 1843, 12mo; Journ. 
Bot. 1890, xxviii. 55.] B. D. J. 

NEILSON, JAMES BEAUMONT 
(1792-1865), inventor of the hot blast in the 
iron manufacture, was born on 22 June 1792 
at Shettleston, a village near Glasgow. His 
father, Walter Neilson, originally a laborious 
and scantily paid millwright, became ulti- 
mately engine-wright at the Govan coal 
works, near Glasgow ; his mother, whose 
maiden name was Marion Smith, was a woman 
of capacity and an excellent housewife. Neil- 
son's education was of an elementary kind, 
and completed before he was fourteen. His 
first employment was to drive a condensing 



engine which his father had set up, and on 
leaving school he was for two years a ' giff-boy ' 
on a winding-engine at the Govan colliery. 
Showing a turn for mechanics, he was then 
apprenticed to his elder brother John, an 
engineman at Oakbank, near Glasgow, who 
drove a small engine, and acted as his brother's 
fireman . Some attempts by the two brothers 
at field preaching came to an end through 
the opposition of his father, and John de- 
voted his leisure to repairing the deficiencies 
of his early education. His apprenticeship 
finished, Neilson worked for a time as a 
journeyman to his brother, who rose to some 
eminence as an engineer, and who is said 
(Chambbbs) to have designed and constructed 
the first iron steamer that went to sea. At 
t wo-and-t wenty Neilson was appointed, with 
a salary of from 70/. to 80/., engine-wright 
of a colliery at Irvine, in the working of 
which he made various improvements. A 
year later he married Barbara Montgomerie, 
who belonged to Irvine. She brought him 
a dowry of 260/., which enabled them to 
live when the failure of his Irvine master 
threw him out of employment, and they 
migrated to Glasgow. Here, at the age 
of twenty-five, he was appointed foreman 
of the Glasgow gasworks* the first of the 
kind to be established in the city. At the 
end of five years he became manager and 
engineer of the works, and remained con- 
nected with them for thirty years. Into 
both the manufacture and the utilisation of 
gas he introduced several important improve- 
ments, among them the employment of clay 
retorts, the use of sulphate of iron as a puri- 
fier, and the swallow-tail jet, which came 
into general use. In these early successes 
as an inventor he was aided by the new 
knowledge of physical and chemical science 
which he acquired as a diligent student at 
the Andersonian University, Glasgow. At 
the same time he was exerting himself zeal- 
ously for the mental and technical improve- 
ment of the workmen under him, most of 
whom, Highlanders and Irishmen, could not 
even read. By degrees he overcame their 
reluctance to be taught, and, with the aid of 
the directors of the gas company, he suc- 
ceeded in establishing a thriving workman's 
institution, with a library, lecture-room, 
laboratory, and workshop. In 1825 the popu- 
larity of the institute rendered enlargement 
of the building necessary, and Neilson de- 
livered an excellent address to its members, 
which was published. 

It was about this time that he was led 
to the inquiries which resulted in the dis- 
covery of the value of the hot blast in the 
iron manufacture. The conception was en- 

n2 



Neilson 



1 80 



Neilson 



tirely opposed to the practice which an erro- 
neous tneory had caused to he universally 
adopted. Finding that iron, in greater quan- 
tity and of hetter quality, was turned out 
hy the hlast furnace in winter than in sum- 
mer, the ironmasters had come to the con- 
clusion that this was due to the greater cold- 
ness of the blast in winter than in summer. 
So strongly were they convinced of the truth 
of this theory that they had recourse to 
various devices for the artificial refrigeration 
of the blast. It is one of the chief merits of 
Neilson as an inventor that he discovered 
the baselessness of this theory, and convinced 
himself that the superior yield of the blast 
furnaces in winter was to be accounted for, 
partly at least, by the increased moisture of 
the air in summer. It was, however, the 
comparative inefficiency of the blast in a 
particular case, in which the blowing-engine, 
instead of being near the furnace, was half 
a mile distant from it, that drew Neilson's 
attention immediately to the experiments 
which led ultimately to his great invention. 
Neilson concluded that the effects of distance 
between the furnace and blowing-engine 
would be overcome if the blast were heated 
by passing it through a red-hot vessel, by 
which its volume, and therefore the work 
done by it, would be increased. Experi- 
menting on gas and on an ordinary smith's 
fire, he found in the one case that heated 
air in a tube surrounding the gas-burner in- 
creased the illuminating power of the gas, 
and in the other that by blowing heated air 
instead of air at its ordinary temperature 
into the fire its heat was much more in- 
tense. Of course, the cause of the increase 
was that the fire had not to expend a por- 
tion of its caloric to heat the cold air poured 
into it in the ordinary way. Neilson was 
now on the verge of the fruitful discovery 
that the blast was to be made more efficient 
by heating it, not by refrigerating it. Owing 
to a deep-seated belief in t he erroneous theory 
that cold benefited the blast, the ironmasters 
were reluctant to allow Neilson to try in 
their furnaces the effects of a substitution of 
the hot for the cold blast ; and even those 
who were disposed to permit it strongly ob- 
jected to the alterations in the arrangements 
of their furnaces which Neilson thought 
necessary for a fair trial of his invention. A 
trial under anything like adequate condi- 
tions was consequently long deferred. Its 
effects were first fairly tested at the Clyde 
ironworks, and with such success that 
Charles Macintosh [q. v.], the inventor of 
the well-known waterproof, Colin Dunlop, 
and John Wilson of Dundyvan entered into 
a partnership with Neilson for patenting the 



invention. Ultimately the partnership ap- 
pears to have consisted of Neilson, Macin- 
tosh, and Wilson ; Neilson being entitled to 
six-tenths of the profits, Macintosh to three- 
tenths, and Wilson to one-tenth (Neilson 
and Harford, p. 2). Separate patents were 
taken out in 1828 for England, Scotland, and 
Ireland, that for Englandbeing dated 11 Sept., 
those for Scotland and Ireland 1 Oct. The 
specification was dated 28 Feb. 1829. To 
encourage the employment of the hot blast 
by the trade, the charge for a license to smelt 
iron with the hot blast was fixed at a shilling 
a ton on all iron produced by the new pro- 
cess. In 1832 NeUsonjoined the Institution 
of Civil Engineers in London. 

Neilson and others soon improved the 
apparatus. After five years' trial at the 
Clyde ironworks it was found that with 
the hot blast the same amount of fuel pro- 
duced three times as much iron, and that 
the same amount of blast did twice as much 
work as the cold blast formerly. A subsi- 
diary benefit was that, whereas with the cold 
blast coke — at least in Scotland — had to be 
used, with the hot blast raw coal could be, 
and was, substituted, with a great saving of 
expenditure. To Scotland the invention was 
an inestimable benefit. It made available 
the black band ironstone which, since its 
discovery by David Mushet [q. v.], had been 
almost useless in the iron manufacture. In 
1839 the proprietor of one estate in Scotland 
derived a royalty of 16,500/. from the black 
band, although before the invention of the 
hot blast it had yielded him nothing (Smiles, 
p. 161). In the course of time the anthra- 
cite coal of England, which could not be used 
in smelting .iron with the cold blast, was 
made available for that purpose by the in- 
vention of the hot blast. By 1835 the hot 
blast was in operation in every ironwork in 
Scotland save one, and there it was in course 
of introduction. Except in the case of a few 
special bands of iron, it is now in general 
use in Great Britain and out of it. It has 
been justly said that Neilson did for the iron 
manufacture what Arkwright did for the 
cotton manufacture. 

Like Arkwright, Neilson was not allowed 
to enjoy undisturbed the fruits of his inven- 
tion. He and his partners, by beginning 
legal proceedings, had compelled at least one 
firm to give up infringing their patent and 
to take out a license for using it, when to- 
wards 1840 an association of Scottish iron- 
masters was formed, each member of which 
bound himself, under a penalty of 1,000/., to 
resist, by every method which a majority 
should recommend, any practical acknow- 
ledgment of the validity of Neilson's patent. 



Neilson 



181 



Neilson 



At the same time several English iron- 
masters were individually making use of the 
hot blast while refusing to take out licenses. 
The first action brought by the owners of 
the patent after the formation of the Scottish 
association was a test one, Neilson v. Har- 
ford, tried in the Court of Exchequer in May 
and June 1841. The most plausible of the 
pleas urged by the defendants was a vague- 
ness in that part of the specification which 
described the air-vessel or receptacle in which 
the blast was to be heated before entering 
the furnace. The ' form or shape ' was said 
to be 'immaterial to the effect. , The presid- 
ing judge considered that the specification 
should have here been more explicit, and on 
this issue entered j udgment for the defendants, 
although the jury had pronounced a verdict 
generally favourable to the validity of the 
patent. The full court, however, decided in 
favour of the plaintiffs, and the lord chan- 
cellor granted an injunction against the de- 
fendants. With this terminated the contest 
between the patentees and English iron- 
masters. It was renewed in Scotland in 
April 1842, when a Scottish jury gave a ver- 
dict against the Household Coal Company, 
mulcting them in 3,000/. damages for having 
infringed the patent. Nevertheless in May 
1843 the validity of the patent was again 
tried in the court of session, on a scale 
which made the action Neilson v. Baird a 
cause celebre. The defendants were the 
Bairds of Gartsherrie, who, after taking out 
a license for the use of the blast, continued 
to use it while ceasing to pay for it. The 
trial in Edinburgh lasted nine days, more 
than one hundred witnesses were examined, 
and the costs of the action were computed 
to have amounted to 40,000/. at least. It 
was admitted, on the part of the defendants, 
that during ten years they made 260,000/. net 
profit on hot-blast iron. The lord president 
summed up strongly in favour of the plain- 
tiffs, and the jury gave a verdict against the 
defendants. The plaintiffs claimed 20,000/. ; 
the jury granted them 11,876/. This was 
the last lawsuit in which the validity of the 
patent was tried. In a memoir of Neilson, 
whichclaims to be authoritative (Chambers), 
he is described as discouraged and broken 
down at the time when he received news of 
a ' final decision of the House of Lords ' in 
his favour. There is no record in the Law 
Reports of any such decision. The last re- 
ference in them to proceedings in the House 
of Lords belongs to February 1843, when that 
house affirmed one clause in a bill of excep- 
tions tendered, on the part of the Household 
Coal Company, to the summing-up of the 
Scottish judge who presided at the trial 



already mentioned. This decision of the 
House of Lords was unfavourable rather 
than favourable to Neilson, and might have 
led to a new trial, which was actually talked 
of but did not take place. The Scottish 
patent had expired in September, and the 
English oatent in October 1842. 

Resigning, in easy circumstances, the ma- 
nagership of the Glasgow gasworks, Neilson 
retired in 1847 to a property in the Isle of 
Bute, belonging to the Marquis of Bute, 
whose friendship he enjoyed. In 1851 he re- 
moved to an estate which he had purchased 
in the Stewartry of Kircudbright, where he 
was active in promoting local improvements, 
and founded an institution similar to that 
which he had established for the workmen 
of the Glasgow gasworks. Among the 
honours conferred on him was his election in 
1846 to fellowship of the Royal Society. 
In 1859, in the course of a discussion on Mr. 
H. Martin's paper on ' Hot Ovens for Iron 
Furnaces/ read at Birmingham before the 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Neilson 
gave an interesting account of the steps by 
which he had arrived at his invention. Neil- 
son was a man of strict integrity and of 
somewhat puritanical rigour. At the dis- 
ruption he left the established church of 
Scotland, and joined the free church. He 
died 18 Jan. 1865 at Queenshill, Kirkcud- 
brightshire. 

[The chief account of Neilson is in Smiles's 
Industrial Biography, chap. ix. This is supple- 
mented by the memoir in Chambers's Biographical 
Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen, which is said to 
be based on information supplied by Neilson's 
son. See also Proc. Institution of Civil Engineers, 
xxx. 461 . There is an excellent account of the hot 
blast and its history in the volume on Iron and 
Steel in Percy's Metallurgy. In the article Iron in 
the ninth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, 
p. 317, the respective merits of the hot and cold 
blasts are succinctly stated. A full report of 
the trial Neilson v. Harford was published in 
1841, and of Neilson v. Baird in 1843. There 
is a copy of the former, but not of the latter, in 
the library of the British Museum. The library 
of the Patent Office contains copies of both- 
Adequate notices of the various lawsuits in which 
Neilson and his partners were involved are given 
in Webster's Patent Cases, in Clark and Fin- 
nelly's Reports of Cases decided in the House of 
Lords, and in the Reports of Cases decided in 
the Court of Session, sub annis.] F. E. 

NEILSON, JOHN (1778-1839), bene- 
factor of Paisley, born in Paisley on 14 Dec 
1778, was the younger son of John Neilson 
procer in Paisley, and Elizabeth Sclatter, 
his wife. John entered his father's business, 
and before 1812 became, with his elder bro- 
ther James, a partner in the firm, which was 



Neilson 



182 



Neilson 



then styled John Neilson and Sons. James 
died on 12 Nov. 1831 ; John, continuing to 
carry on the business, amassed a consider- 
able fortune, and purchased the lands of 
Nethercommon, where he died on 6 Nov. 
1839. He was buried in the churchyard 
beside Paisley Abbey. A tombstone was 
erected to his memory and to that of his 
brother. He was a man of reserved habits, 
and entirely given up to business. By his 
deed of settlement he set apart a sum of 
17,187/. ' to form and endow for the edu- 
cating, clothing, and outfitting, and, if need 
be, the maintaining of boys who have resided 
within the parliamentary boundary of Paisley 
for at least three years, whose parents have 
died either without leaving sufficient funds 
for that purpose, or who from misfortune 
have been reduced, or who from the want of 
means are unable to give a suitable educa- 
tion to their children/ Although the trustees 
were required to feu or purchase a piece of 
ground in Paisley for the erection of an in- 
stitution at any time within five years, yet 
they were forbidden to commence building 
till after the expiry of that time. As a site 
for the building the trustees secured the 
town's bowling-green, the most conspicuous 
situation in Paisley, formerly the praBtorium 
of a Roman camp. On this they erected a 
building which forms one of the chief archi- 
tectural adornments of the town. The John 
Neilson Institution is now one of the best 
schools in the west of Scotland. There have 
been nearly nine hundred pupils educated as 
foundationers. The attendance at the open- 
ing of the institution in 1852 was about five 
hundred ; it is now over nine hundred. The 
trustees are invested with ' the most ample 
and unlimited powers,' the only restriction 
being that ' the education shall be based on 
the scriptures.' The school was incorporated 
in 1889 in a scheme made by the commis- 
sioners under the Educational Endowments 
(Scotland) Act, 1882. 

[Brown's History of Paisley, ii. 324-8 ; Re- 
ports of the Neilson Institution ; Hector's Van- 
duara.] G. S-h. 

NEILSON, JOHN (1776-1848), Cana- 
dian journalist, born at Balmaghie, Kirkcud- 
brightshire, Scotland, 17 July, 1776, was 
sent to Canada in 1790, and placed under 
the care of his elder brother, Samuel Neilson, 
then resident in Quebec, and editor of the 
' Quebec Gazette.' Samuel Neilson died in 
1793, and in 1790 John Neilson became editor 
of the paper. The ' Quebec Gazette,' published 
both in English and French, had a wide cir- 
culation. John Neilson, though really of con- 
servative views, vigorously championed the 



cause of the French Canadians, and in 1818 
he was elected member of the assembly of 
Lower Canada for the county of Quebec. He 
held his seat for fifteen consecutive years. 
He assumed the attitude of an independent 
member, paid great attention to agriculture 
and education, and, in order to have his 
hands completely free, ceased to edit the 
' Quebec Gazette,' which enjoyed the pri- 
vilege of publishing public advertisements. 
In 1823 he was sent, with other delegates, 
from Lower Canada to England, to protest 
against the proposed union of Upper and 
Lower Canada into one government. The 
mission was successful, and the proposal 
for the time withdrawn. In 1827 much dis- 
satisfaction arose in Lower Canada, owing 
to gross malversation on the part of Sir 
John Caldwell, the receiver-general, and 
to the refusal of the executive to allow cer- 
tain crown duties to pass into the hands of 
the assembly. In 1828 another mission, of 
which Neilson again formed a member, was 
sent to England to complain. Neilson care- 
fully stated his aversion to any fundamental 
changes. His representations were therefore 
readily accepted, the crown duties being re- 
signed, and a board of audit established to 
supervise public accounts. On 29 March 1830 
Neilson was publicly thanked for his services 
by the speaker of the assembly, and in Ja- 
nuary 1831 a silver vase was presented to 
him by the citizensof Quebec. From this date, 
however, Neilson began to separate from 
the French Canadian party. The assembly, 
under the leadership of Louis Papineau [q.v.], 
had refused to provide funds for the govern- 
ment expenses, and was loudly demanding 
an elective upper house. Both these demands 
were opposed by Neilson, who declared that, 
as the administration had been purified, no 
further change was necessary. As a re- 
sult he lost his seat at the general election 
of 1834. A constitutional association was 
now formed in Lower Canada, by those per- 
sons who wished to maintain the existing 
system. Neilson became a member of it, and 
in 1835 accepted the appointment of delegate 
to England to protest against the violent de- 
mands of the advanced party. He returned 
to Canada in 1836, and did his utmost to 
deter his fellow-countrymen from entering 
on the rebellion of 1837-8. On its suppres- 
sion the constitution was suspended, and a 
special council was created for the govern- 
ment of the two provinces by the high com- 
missioner, Lord Durham, a seat thereon being 
given to Neilson. Neilson, true to his old 
principles, bitterly opposed the reunion of 
the two provinces. He thus regained some 
of his old popularity with the French party, 



Neilson 



183 



Neilson 



and in 1841 he was elected to the united 
legislature for his former seat of the county 
of Quebec. He had now become a strong 
conservative, and resolutely opposed the de- 
mand for responsible government, promoted 
mainly by the inhabitants of Upper Canada. 
In 1844 he was made speaker of the assembly. 
In October 1847 ho headed a deputation of 
citizens of Quebec, and read a long address 
to the governor, Lord Elgin. A chill caught 
on this occasion settled on his lungs. He 
died on 1 Feb. 1848, and was buried in the 
cemetery attached to the presby terian church 
at Valcartier, near Quebec. 

[Morgan's Lives of Celebrated Canadians ; His- 
tories of Canada, by Garneau and Withrow ; 
Canadian Parliamentary Reports ; English Par- 
liamentary Reports.] G. P. M-t. 

NEILSON, LAURENCE CORNELIUS 
(1760 P-1830), organist, was born in London 
about 1760. At the age of seven he went 
with his parents to the West Indies, where 
his father died. Returning with his mother 
to London, he studied music under Valen- 
tine Nicolai, and began teaching at Notting- 
ham and Derby. He was organist for two 
years at Dudley, Worcestershire, and in 1808 
succeeded to the teaching engagements of 
Samuel Bower at Chesterheld, where he died 
in 1830. His compositions, none of which 
are important, include pianoforte sonatas, 
duets, songs, a ' Book of Psalms and Hymns/ 
and some flute music. His son, E. J. Neil- 
son, was one of the ten foundation students 
of the Royal Academy of Music. 

[Biographical Dictionary of Musicians, 1824 ; 
Brown's Dictionary of Musicians.] J. C. H. 

NEILSON, LILIAN ADELAIDE 
H848-1880), whose real name was Elizabeth 
Ann Brown, actress, was daughter of a some- 
what obscure actress named Brown, subse- 
quently known as Mrs. Bland. She was 
born at 35 St. Peter's Square, Leeds, on 
8 March 1848, lived as a child at Skipton, 
and subsequently worked as a mill hand at 
Guiseley. Her father's name is unrevealed. 
Before she was twelve years of age she used 
to recite passages from her mother's play- 
books. At the parish school of Guiseley she 
showed herself a quick child and an ardent 
reader. She then became a nurse girl, and 
on learning the particulars of her birth grew 
restless and, ultimately, under the name 
Lizzie Ann Bland, made her way secretly to 
London. Her early experiences were cruel, 
and remain unedifying. During a portion of 
the time she was behind the bar at a public- 
house near the Haymarket, where she had 
a reputation as a Shakespearean declaimer. 
She was first seen on the stage in 1865 at 



Margate as Juliet. Lizzie Ann Bland then 
blossomed into Lilian Adelaide Lessont, 
afterwards changed to Neilson, a name she 
maintained after a marriage contracted about 
this time with Mr. Philip Henry Lee, the 
son of the rector of Stoke Bruerne, near Tow- 
cester, from whom she was divorced in 1877. 
Her first appearance in London was made as 
Juliet at the Royalty Theatre in Dean Street 
in July 1865, her performance being witnessed 
by a scanty audience, including two or three 
theatrical reporters or critics, whom it pro- 
foundly impressed. Such knowledge as she 
possessed had been obtained from John 
Ryder, a brusque but capable actor, whose 
pupil she was. She possessed at that time 
remarkable beauty, of a somewhat southern 
type, girlish movement, and a voice musical 
and caressing. The earlier scenes were given 
with much grace and tenderness, and in the 
later scenes she exhibited tragic intensity. 
She was then engaged for the Princess s, 
where she was, 2 July 1866, the original 
Gabrielle de Savigny in Watts Phillips's 
' Huguenot Captain,' and the same year she 
played Victorine in a revival of the drama of 
that name at the Adelphi. On 16 March 
1867 she was, at the same house, the original 
Nelly Armroyd in "Watts Phillips's ' Lost in 
London/ On 25 Sept. 1868, at the Theatre 
Royal, Edinburgh, she was seen as Rosalind 
in ' As you like it, 1 appearing subsequently 
as Pauline in the 'Lady of Lyons/ and 
Julia in the ' Hunchback.' On 2 Oct. she 
was the heroine of ' Stage and State/ an un- 
successful adaptation of ' Beatrix, ou la Ma- 
done de l'Art/ of LeffouvG. In November 
she played at Birmingham in ' Millicent/ an 
adaptation by Mr. C. Williams of Birming- 
ham of Miss Braddon's novel the ' Captain 
of the Vulture/ Returning to London she 
' created/ 6 March 1869, at the Lyceum, the 
part of Lilian in Westland Marston's ' Life 
for Life/ At the Gaiety she was, on 1 1 Oct. 
1869, the first Mme. Vidal in ' A Life Chase/ 
by John Oxenford and Horace W igan, adapted 
from ' Le Drama de la Rue de la Paix/ and on 
13 Dec. the first Mary Belton in H. J. Byron's 
* Uncle Dick's Darling/ At the same house 
she appeared the following April as Julia in 
a revival of the ' Hunchback/ and on 26 May 
1870 she began, at St. James's Hall, a series of 
dramatic studies consisting of passages from 
the ' Provoked Husband/ ' Love for Love/ 
the ' Taming of the Shrew/ ' Wallenstein/ 
and ' Phedre/ with accompanying comments. 
She appeared as Amy Kobsart in Andrew 
Halliday's adaptation of 'Kenilworth' at 
Drury Lane 24 Sept. 1870, Rebecca in Hal- 
liday s version of 'lvanhoe' on 23 Sept. 1871, 
and Rosalind on 18 Dec. A series of fare- 



Neilson 



184 



Neilson 



well performances at the Queen's Theatre, 
in which she played Juliet and Pauline in 
the ' Lady of Lyons/ preceded her departure 
for New York, where, at Niblo's Theatre, she 

Performed for the first time 18 Nov. 1872. 
n America she was extremely popular, act- 
ing, in addition to other parts, Beatrice in 
' Much Ado about Nothing/ Lady Teazle, 
and Isabella in ' Measure for Measure/ Ame- 
rica was revisited in 1874, 1876, and 1879, 
and she added to her repertory Viola in 
'Twelfth Night' and Imogen. During an 
engagement at the Haymarket, beginning 
17 Jan. 1876, she reappeared as Isabella, ana 
was the first Anne Boleyn in Tom Taylor's 
play of that name. She played at the same 
house in 1 878, in the course of which she acted 
Viola. Her Queen Isabella in the * Crimson 
Cross ' was seen for the first time, 27 Feb. 
1879, at the Adelphi. This was her last ori- 
ginal part. Her latest visit to America ended 
on 28 July 1880, and soon after her arrival 
in England she left for Paris, complaining of 
illness, but with no sign of disease. But she 
took farewell of one or two intimate friends, 
declaring in unbelieving ears that she should 
never return. On 15 Aug. 1880 she drank a 
glass of iced milk in the Bois de Boulogne, 
and was seized with a sudden attack, appa- 
rently gistric, from which she died the same 
day. Her remains were brought to London 
and interred in Brompton cemetery. 

As a tragedian she has had no English 
rival during the last half of this century. 
Her Juliet was perfect, and her Isabella had 
marvellous earnestness and beaut v. In Julia 
also she has not been surpassed. *In comedy 
she was self-conscious, and spoilt her effects 
by over-acting. Her Viola was pretty/ and 
her Rosalind, though very bright, lacked 
poetry. The best of her original parts were 
Amy Robsart and Rebecca. It is not easy 
to see how these could have been improved. 
She was thoroughly loyal, and quite devoid 
of the jealousy that seeks to belittle a rival 
artist or deprive her of a chance. In the 
popularity she obtained her antecedents were 
forgotten. Her social triumphs were remark- 
able, and but for her unhappy marriage it is 
certain that she would have added another 
to the long list of titled actresses. Many 
portraits 01 her have appeared in magazines 
and other publications. A miniature on 
ivory, a little idealised, but effective, is in the 
possession of the present writer. 

[Personal knowledge; Smith's Old Yorkshire ; 
Pascoe's Dramatic Notes; Scott and Howard's 
life of E. L. Blanchard ; Winter's Shadows of 
the Stage; Era Almanac; Times, 17, 18, 21, and 
26 Aug. 1880 ; Athenaeum, August 1880 ; Aca- 
demy, August 1880.] J. K. 



NEILSON, PETER (1795-1861), poet 
and mechanical inventor, youngest son of 
George Neilson, calenderer, was born in Glas- 
gow on 24 Sept. 1796. Educated at Glasgow 
High School and University, he received 
a business training in various city offices, and 
then joined his father in exporting cambric 
and cotton goods to America. In 1820, on 
returning from a visit to the United States, 
he married his cousin, Elizabeth Robertson. 
From 1822 to 1828 he was in America oil 
business, and amassed a store of information, 
which he published on his return in 'Six 
Years' Residence in America,' 1828. The loss 
of his wife about this time turned his 
thoughts strongly towards religion,'and poems 
on scriptural themes — * The Millennium ' and 
'Scripture Gems' — which he published in 
1834, interested Dr. Chalmers and Professor 
Wilson. 

In 1841 Neilson settled in Kirkintilloch, 
Dumbartonshire, where a maiden sister man- 
aged for him and his family of three daugh- 
ters and one son. In 1846 he proposed im- 
provements on the life-buoy, which the lords 
of the admiralty deemed worthy of being 
patented (Whitelaw, Memoir), but he 
shrank from the expense. Continuing his 
literary efforts, he wrote a remarkable little 
work on slavery, published in 1846, and en- 
titled ' The Life and Adventures of Zamba, 
an African King; and his Experiences of 
Slavery in South Carolina.' Ostensibly only 
edited by Neilson, this work in some respects 
anticipated ' Uncle Tom's Cabin.' He also 
contributed to the ' Glasgow Herald ' a series 
of practical articles on ' Cotton Supply for 
Britain.' On 8 Jan. 1 848 he wrote a patriotic 
letter to Lord John Russell, suggesting iron- 
plated ships, and enclosing a plan of an inven- 
tion by him. In 18o5 he further corre- 
sponded on the subject with Lord Panmure 
and Admiral Earl Hardwicke, and appa- 
rently his proposals were adopted, though 
not formally acknowledged (ib.) After the 
building of the Warrior and the Black Prince 
according to his plan, Neilson suggested 
inside as well as outside plates, and summed 
up his views in ' Remarks on Iron-built 
Snips of War and Iron-plated Ships of War/ 
1861. Shortly afterwards he published an- 
other pamphlet, on the defence of unfortified 
cities such as London. In his latter years 
he suffered from heart disease, and he died 
at Kirkintilloch on 3 May 1861, and was 
interred in the burying-ground of Glasgow 
Cathedral. 

Neilson's ' Poems,' edited with memoir by 
Dr. Whitelaw, appeared in 1870. The pieces 
in this posthumous volume are vigorously 
conceived and marked by strong common- 



Neilson 



185 



Neilson 



sense, but they are not specially poetical. 
The most ambitious effort in the book, ' David : 
a Drama/ is a somewhat slim expansion of 
the Bible story. 
[Dr. Whitelaw's memoir as in text] T. B. 

NEILSON, SAMUEL (1761-1803), 
United Irishman, the son of Alexander Neil- 
son, a presbyterian minister, was born at 
Ballyroney, co. Down, in September 1761. 
He was educated partly by his father, partly 
at a neighbouring school, and displayed con- 
siderable aptitude for mathematics. About 
the affe of sixteen he was apprenticed to 
his elder brother John, a woollendraper in 
Belfast. He married in September 1786 
Miss Bryson, the daughter of a highly re- 
spectable and wealthy merchant of that town, 
and, starting in business for himself, esta- 
blished one of the largest woollen warehouses 
in Belfast. But, becoming absorbed in poli- 
tics, his business gradually declined to such 
an extent that it was eventually abandoned. 
In 1790 he was particularly active in pro- 
moting the candidature as M.JP. for the county 
Down of Robert Stuart, afterwards Viscount 
Castlereagh [q. v.], in opposition to Lord 
Hillsborough, in the tory interest. In 1791 
he suggested to Henry Joy McCracken [q. v.] 
the idea of a society of Irishmen of every 
persuasion for the promotion of a reform of 
parliament, and he may therefore be regarded 
as the founder of the United Irish Society, 
though the real organiser of it was Theobald 
Wolfe Tone [q. v.], with whom he in this 
year became acquainted, and with whose re- 
publican views, involving a complete separa- 
tion of Ireland from England, he cordially 
concurred. In order to propagate the prin- 
ciples of the society a bi-weekly newspaper, 
the * Northern Star/ was started under Is eil- 
son's editorship, the first number of which 
appeared on 4 Jan. 1792. At first only a 
shareholder, with a salary of 100/. per annum 
as editor, he eventually in 1794 became sole 
proprietor. "Without possessing the literary 
qualities of its successor, the * Press/ the 
' Northern Star* soon became a very popular 
and influential paper in the north of Ireland, 
and at the time of its suppression in 1797 
had attained a circulation of 4,200 copies of 
each issue. According to Tone, its object was 
' to give a fair statement of all that passed 
in France, whither every one turned their 
eyes; to inculcate the necessity of union 
among Irishmen of all religious persuasions ; 
to support the emancipation of the catholics ; 
and finally, as the necessary, though not 
avowed, consequence of all this, to erect Ire- 
land into a republic independent of England.' 
With such aims the paper naturally became 



an object of suspicion to government. In 
1792 the printer and proprietor were prose- 
cuted and acquitted. In January 1793 six 
injunctions were filed against them for sedi- 
tious libels, and in November 1794 they were 
prosecuted for publishing the address of the 
United Irishmen to the volunteers. After 
this Neilson became sole proprietor. In Sep- 
tember 1 796 the offices of the * Northern Star ' 
were ransacked by the military and Neilson 
arrested. A full account of the affair ap- 
peared in the next issue of the paper on 
16 Sept. He was at first placed in solitary 
confinement in Newgate, Dublin ; but, being 
shortly afterwards removed to Kilmainham, 
the rigour of his punishment was relaxed. 
During his imprisonment his neighbours dis- 
played great kindness to his wife and family. 
After his arrest the ' Northern Star* was at 
first edited by Thomas Corbett, and after- 
wards by the Rev. Mr. Porter, author of the 
highly treasonable articles ' Billy Bluff and 
the Squire,' but was finally suppressed with 
great violence in May 1797. 

After seventeen months' confinement,which 
told seriously on his health, Neilson was, 
on 22 Feb. 1798, three weeks before the 
arrest of the Leinster Directory at Oliver 
Bond's, released on his. own recognisances 
and those of his friend John Sweetman, on 
condition that he would for the future abstain 
from treasonable conspiracy. After his release 
he was, according to the younger G rattan 
(Life of Henry Grattan, iv. 368), ' sent for 
and closeted with Mr. Pelham, on an inquiry 
by the secretary as to the probability of 
conciliating the north of Ireland by granting 
reform, and at the period of his release he 
was in habits of intercourse with the people 
of the castle. They sought him in order 
to obtain intelligence, as he was an open- 
mouthed person.' Neilson was probably more 
astute than either Grattan or Pelham fancied. 
Mr. Leckv, who has no high opinion of him, 
suggests (England in the Eighteenth Century, 
viii. 44 71.) that in communicating with go- 
vernment he only did so in order to betray 
them. It is certain that he did not long ad- 
here to the conditions of his release. This 
he admitted in his examination before the 
secret committee, but pleaded in extenuation 
that he took no part in politics till he found 
that government had broken faith with him, 
and that he had reason to know that it was 
intended to arrest him again. Anyhow he 
soon entered into communication with Lord 
Edward Fitzgerald [q. v.l, and was very 
active in filling up the vacancies in the Di- 
rectory caused by the arrests at Bond's on 
12 March. His intimacy with Lord Edward 
Fitzgerald, by whom he was greatly esteemed, 



Neilson 



1 86 



Neilson 



and his extraordinary behaviour on the even- 
ing of that unfortunate nobleman's capture, 
led to a widespread but unfounded belief that 
it was he who betrayed him (Thomas Moore, 
Life of Lord E. Fitzgerald). On 22 May 
a reward of 300/. was offered for his appre- 
hension, and on the evening of the following 
day he was captured, after a desperate re- 
sistance, in which * he was cut and scarred 
in upwards of fifty places, and was only saved 
by the number of his assailants/ while recon- 
noitring Newgate, with a view to the rescue 
of Lord Edward Fitzgerald. When placed 
in the dock on 12 July he vehemently pro- 
tested against the indignity of being loaded 
with fetters, which the turnkey excused on 
the ground of his extraordinary strength and 
ferocity. He declined to name counsel, * lest 
he might in any degree give his concurrence 
to the transactions of a court which he looked 
upon as a sanguinary tribunal for conviction 
and death, and not for trial.' 

According to Roger O'Connor, who claimed 
to have special knowledge of the transaction, 
it was Neilson who, in order to save his own 
life, set on foot those negotiations which 
resulted in the famous compact of 29 July 
1798 between government and the political 
prisoners, whereby the latter, in order to stay 
" further executions, consented to disclose the 
plans and objects of the United Irish So- 
ciety, and to submit to banishment to any 
country in amity with Great Britain. Taken 
by itself, Roger O'Connor's statement would 
carry little weight ; for, as Secretary Marsden 
said, whatever the equality of his guilt might 
have been, he stood very low in the estima- 
tion of his companions ; but it receives some 
confirmation from a passage in a letter from 
Henry Alexander to Pelham (Leckt, Hist . 
of England, viii. 196 n.) ,The truth is that, 
though satisfied beyond a doubt of Neil- 
son's guilt and fully prepared to hang him 
for it, the government felt uncertain of se- 
curing a conviction, owing to the escape 
of McCormick, upon whom they depended 
for evidence of direct communication with 
Edward John Lewins [q. v.], and the un- 
willingness of their principal witness to come 
forward in open court, and consequently were 
fain to make a virtue of necessity, and include 
him in the compact (CoRior allis, Correspon- 
dence, ii. 870). He was examined before the 
committees of the lords and commons on 
9 Aug. 1798, and wrote a letter strongly pro- 
testing against the statements contained in 
the preamble to the Act of Banishment (38 
Geo. Ill, c. 78), which he was with difficulty 
restrained from publishing. 

After ten months' imprisonment in Dublin 
lie was on 19 March 1799, although confined 



to bed with a high fever, removed with the 
other prisoners on board ship, and trans- 
ported to Fort George, in Scotland, where, 
after a tedious voyage, during the greater 
part of which he was quite delirious, he 
arrived on 14 April. During his detention 
at Fort George he was treated with great 
consideration by the governor. Like Tone, 
he was a hard drinker, but his weakness in 
this respect has probably been exaggerated. 
Certainly he was able, in order to procure 
the necessary means to obtain permission for 
his son, whose education he wished to super- 
intend, to live with him, to deny himself the 
customary allowance of wine. On 21 July 
1799 he wrote a remarkable letter to his wife, 
in approbation of the scheme of the union, 
which Madden ( United Irishmen, 2nd ser. 
i. 247) improbably suggests did not represent 
his real opinion. On 4 July 1802 he was 
landed at Cuxhaven, and restored to liberty. 
But a rumour, originating probably with 
Roger O'Connor, having reached him reflect- 
ing on his conduct in regard to the compact 
of 29 July 1798, he formed the immediate 
resolution of revisiting Ireland. He suc- 
ceeded in eluding the vigilance of the autho- 
rities — though the captain of the ship in which 
he sailed was arrested and imprisoned — and 
about the end of July 1802 landed at Drog- 
heda, whence he made his way safely to 
Dublin. He lay concealed for some time in the 
house of Bernard Coile, at 16 Lurgan Street, 
and then, with the assistance of James Hope 
(1764-1846?) [q.v.], proceeded to Belfast, 
where he remained for three orfourdays,being 
visited in secret bv his friends and relatives. 
He returned to Dublin, and was sheltered 
by Charles O'Hara at Irishtown for some 
weeks, till the American vessel in which his 
passage was taken sailed. He landed at New 
York apparently early in December 1802, and 
was contemplating starting an evening paper 
when he died suddenly of apoplexy on 29 Aug. 
1803, at Poughkeepie, a small town on the 
Hudson, whither he had gone in the autumn 
to avoid the plague in New York. His remains 
were interred in the burial-place of a gentlei- 
man of his name, though no relation of his, 
and a small marble slab was subsequently 
erected to his memory. 

An engraved portrait of Neilson, from a 
miniature by Byrne, is prefixed to the memoir 
of him by Madden (to. 2nd ser. i. 73). He 
was a man of pleasing appearance, tall, well 
built, of extraordinary strength, boldness, and 
determination. In politics he aimed at the 
absolute separation of Ireland from England ; 
but, like the Belfast leaders generally, he 
relied more on native exertions than on foreign 
intervention. His widow embarked in business 



Neilson 



187 



Neligan 



in Belfast, and her live children attained 
respectable positions in life. She died in No- 
vember 1811, and was buried at Newtown, 
Breda. Neilson's only son, William Bryson, 
<died in Jamaica of yellow fever on 7 Feb. 
1817, aged 22. 

[A short sketch of Neilson's life by Bernard 
Dornin was published in New York in 18**4, and 
was reprinted above the signature ' Hibernus ' in 
the Irish Magazine of September 1811, edited by 
Walter Cox, to whom it was attributed. Another 
sketch appeared in the Dublin Morning Register 
of 29 Nov. 1831, by some one who possessed an 
intimate knowledge of his early life. Both these 
sources have since been superseded by the very 
full, but in some respects partial, memoir in 
Madden's United Irishmen, 2nd ser. vol. i. (1842- 
1846). For special information the following 
may be consulted with advantage : Teeling's Per- 
sonal Narrative of the Irish Rebellion; Mad- 
den's Hist, of Irish Periodical Literature, 1867 ; 
Tone's Autobiography; Grattan's Life of Henry 
Grattan. iv. 368-71 ; Fitzpatrick's Secret Service 
under Pitt; Curran's Life of Curran, ii. 134; 
the published Correspondence of John Beresford, 
ii. 1 79, and of Lords Cornwallis, Oastlereagh, and 
Auckland ; Fronde's English in Ireland ; Lecky's 
Hist, of England in the Eighteenth Century ; 
Pelham's Correspondence in Add it. MSS. Brit. 
Mus., particularly 33119*; Webb's Compendium 
of Irish Biography.] B. D. 

NEILSON, WILLIAM, D.D. (1760?- 
1821), grammarian, was born in co. Down 
about 1760, and received his classical educa- 
tion under John Young [q.v.], afterwards pro- 
fessor of Greek at Glasgow. Their friend- 
ship continued throughout life. Neilson 
dedicated one of his books (' Elementa ') to 
Young, and Young occasionally gave one of 
Neilson's books as a prize in his class at Glas- 

fo w (James Yates's copy in British Museum). 
Ee was ordained in the presbyterian church, 
and became minister of Dundalk, co. Louth, 
where he was also master of a school. In 
1804 he published at Dundalk, by subscrip- 
tion, ' Greek Exercises in Syntax, Ellipsis, 
Dialects, Prosody, and Metaphrasis.' The sub- 
scribers were about three hundred, and the 
list shows that he was esteemed by the chief 
landowners of his district, as well as by 
members of the popular party, such as John 
Patrick, the patriotic surgeon of Ballymena, 
so famous for his care of the wounded during 
the rebellion of 1798. The book was credit- 
ably printed by J. Parks in Dundalk, and 
is dedicated to Dr. John Kearney, provost of 
Trinity College, Dublin. It shows consi- 
derable scholarship, and became popular as a 
school-book. A second edition appeared at 
Dundalk in August 1806, a third in April 
1809, a fourth in November 1818, a fifth in 
Edinburgh in March 1818, a sixth in Edin- 



burgh in 1824, a seventh in London in 1824* 
and the eighth and last in London in 1846. 
His next work was ' An Introduction to the 
Irish Language/ published in Dublin in 1808. 
Irish was then the vernacular of a large part 
of the country people of Down and Louth, 
and Neilson haa had good opportunities of 
becoming acquainted with it. He was 
assisted (introduction to O'Donovan's Gram" 
mar, p. 60) by Patrick Lynch, a native of 
Inch, co. Down, a local scholar and scribe. 
The book is printed, except two extracts from 
literature, in Roman type, and is valuable as 
a faithful representation of Irish as spoken at 
the period in Down. The power of arrange- 
ment and good taste in selection of examples 
exhibited in the author's Greek books are 
noticeable in his Irish grammar. The dia- 
logues and familiar phrases which form the 
second part are a complete guide to the ideas 
as well as the phrases of the peasantry. 
Part of the fourth is taken from the dialogues 
in a rare Irish book called ' Bolg an tsolair/ 
published in Belfast in 1795, but the others 
are original. The third part was to have con- 
tained extracts from literature, of which only 
a chapter of Proverbs from the Irish Bible 
and part of the series of stories known as 
* The Sorrows of Storytelling ' were printed. 
A second edition, altogether in Irish type, 
was printed at Achill, co. Mayo, in 1843. In 
1810 he published in Dublin ' Greek Idioms 
exhibited in Select Passages from the best 
Authors/ The curious frontispiece, entitled 
KcftrjTos iriva£ 9 was drawn by his brother, 
J. A. Neilson, a doctor of physic in Dun- 
dalk. Neilson became professor of Greek 
and Hebrew in ' Belfast College/ that is in 
a training college for presbyterian minsters 
in connection with the Belfast academical 
institution in 1817, an office which he held 
till his death, and which caused him to re- 
side in Belfast. In 1820 he published ' Ele- 
menta Linguae Greecae/ of which a second 
edition appeared at Edinburgh in 1821. He 
died during the summer of 1821. 

[Works ; Keid's History of the Presbyterian 
Church in Ireland, ed. W. D. Killen, London, 
1853, vol. iii. ; O'Dohovan's Grammar of the 
Irish Language, Dublin, 1845.] N. M. 

NELIGAN, JOHN MOORE (1815-1863), 
physician, son of a medical practitioner, 
was born at Clonmel, co. Tipperary, in 1815. 
He graduated M.D. at Edinburgh in 1836, 
and began practice in his birthplace. Thence 
he moved to Cork, where he lectured on ma- 
teria medica and medical botany in a private 
school of anatomy, medicine, and surgery in 
Warren's Place. In 1840 he took a house 
in Dublin, and in 1841 was appointed physi- 



Nelson 



188 



Nelson 



cian to the Jervis Street Hospital. He also 
gave lectures on materia medica from 1841 
to 1846, and on medicine from 1846 to 1857, 
in the Dublin school of Peter Street. He 
published in 1844 t Medicines, their Uses and 
Mode of Administration/ which gives an 
account of all the drugs mentioned in the 
London, Scottish, and Irish pharmacopoeias, 
and of some others. Their sources, medicinal 
actions, doses, and most useful compounds 
are clearly stated; and the compilation, 
though containing no original matter, was 
useful to medical practitioners, and went 
through many editions. He enjoyed the 
friendship of Robert James Graves [q. v.], 
the famous lecturer on medicine, and in 1848 
edited the second edition of his * Clinical 
Lectures on the Practice of Medicine. , In 
the same year he published ' The Diagnosis 
and Treatment of Eruptive Diseases of the 
Scalp/ which was printed at the Dublin Uni- 
versity Press. He describes as inflammatory 
diseases herpes, eczema, impetigo, and pity- 
riasis, and as non-inflammatory porrigo, and 
gives a lucid statement of their characteristics 
in tabular form ; but he was ignorant of the 
parasitic nature of herpes capitis, as he calls 
ringworm, and seems not to have noticed 
the frequent relation between eczema of the 
occiput and animal parasites. From 1849 
to 1861 he edited the 'Dublin Quarterly 
Journal of Medical Science/ and published 
many medical papers of his own in it. In 
1852 he published ' A Practical Treatise on 
Diseases of the Skin/ and, like most men 
who attain notoriety as dermatologists, issued 
in 1855 a coloured ' Atlas of Skin Diseases/ 
His treatise is a compilation from standard 
authors, with a very small addition from his 
own experience. The subject is well arranged, 
and so set forth as to be useful to practi- 
tioners. It was much read, and led to his 
treating many patients with cutaneous affec- 
tions. His house in Dublin was 17 Merrion 
Square East. He married in 1839 Kate 
Gumbieton, but had no children, and died 
on 24 July 1863. 

[Cameron's Hist, of the Eoyal College of Sur- 
geons in Ireland, Dublin, 1886; Webb's Dic- 
tionary of Biography.] N. M. 

NELSON, Sib ALEXANDER ABER- 
CROMBY (1816-1893), lieutenant-general, 
born at Walmer, Kent, in 1816, and educated 
at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, 
was, on 6 March 1836, appointed ensign 40th 
foot (now 1st batt. South Lancashire), in 
which regiment his two brothers, and subse- 
quently his son, also served. He became 
lieutenant on 15 March 1839, and was in 
sole charge of the commissariat of the Bom- 



bay column during the operations under Sir 
William Nott [q. v.] at Kandahar and in 
Afghanistan in 1841-2 (medal). He accom- 

Sanied the Bombay column, under Colonel 
tack, which proceeded from Ferozepore to 
join Sir Charles James Napier [o^v.] in Sind, 
was present at the battle of Haidarabad, 
24 March 1843 (medal), and was thanked by 
the governor-general of India and the Bom- 
bay government for the manner in which the 
duties of the commissariat were performed. 
He was aide-de-camp to Sir Thomas Valiant 
at the battle of Maharajpore, 29 Dec. 1843, 
and had a horse shot under him (mentioned 
in despatches and bronze star). On 31 July 
1846 he obtained an unattached company. 
He was appointed adjutant of the Walmer 
depot battalion, 7 April 1854, but imme- 
diately afterwards was made deputy assistant 
adjutant-general, and subsequently brigade- 
major, at Portsmouth, which post he held 
during the period of the Crimean war and 
the Indian mutiny. He became major un- 
attached 6 June 1856, lieutenant-colonel 
9 Dec. 1864, and colonel 9 Dec. 1869. In 
1865, when deputy adjutant-general in Ja- 
maica, he was appointed brigadier-general to 
command the troops at St. Thomas-in-the- 
East at the time of the insurrection, for his 
services in suppressing which he received 
the thanks of government, and was unani- 
mously voted a sum of two hundred guineas 
for a testimonial by the Jamaica House of 
Assembly. He was lieutenant-governor of 
Guernsey from 1870 to 1883, and was a J.P. 
for Middlesex. Nelson became a major- 
general in 1880, and a retired lieutenant- 
general in 1883. He was made C.B. in 1875 
and K.C.B. in 1891. He married in 1846 
Emma Georgiana, daughter of Robert Hib- 
bert, of Hale Barns, Altrincham, Cheshire. 
She died in 1892. Nelson died at his resi- 
dence near Reading on 28 Sept. 1893. 

[Army Lists and London Gazette; Debrett's 
Knightage ; Times. 30 Sept. 1893.] H. M. C. 

NELSON, FRANCES HERBERT, Vis- 
couktess Nelson (1701-1831), baptised May 
1761, was the daughter of William Wool- 
ward (d. 18 Feb. 1779), senior judge of the 
island of Nevis in the West Indies, and, by 
her mother, niece of John Richardson Her- 
bert, president of the council of Nevis. On 
28 June 1779 (Notes and Queries, 8th ser. v. 
222) she married Josiah Nisbet, M.D., who 
shortly afterwards became deranged, and 
died within eighteen months, leaving her, 
with an infant son, dependent on her uncle. 
While living with him she became acquainted 
with Nelson, then the young captain of the 
Boreas, and was married to him at Nevis on 



Nelson 



189 



Nelson 



12 March 1787 [see Nelson, Hobatio, Vis- 
count]. The irregularly kept register at 
Nevis gives the date as 11 March (Mrs. 
Gamlin in Notes and Queries, 8th ser. iv. 
413); but in a letter to her husband on 
11 March 1797 Mrs. Nelson wrote: ' To- 
morrow is our wedding day, when it gave me 
a dear husband, and my child the best of 
fathers ' (Nicolas, i. 217). 

When the Boreas was paid off Mrs. Nelson 
lived with her husband at Burnham-Thorpe 
till February 1793, and during his first 
absence in the Mediterranean corresponded 
with him on most affectionate terms. When 
he returned home after losing his arm at 
Teneriffe,she tenderly nursed him during the 
months of pain that followed, and through 
1798 Nelson's letters to his wife appear as 
affectionate as ever. Lady Nelson, how- 
ever, seems to have been early disquieted by 
rumours which reached her from Naples, and 
on 7 Dec. Davison wrote to her husband : 
' Your valuable better half ... is in good 
health, but very uneasy and anxious, which 
is not to be wondered at. . . . She bids me 
say that unless you return home in a few 
months she will join the standard at Naples. 
Excuse a woman's tender feelings ; they are 
too acute to be expressed* (ib. iii. 138 n). 
Any reports of wrongdoing which she had 
received 1 at that time were certainly exagge- 
rated, though it may readily be understood 
that a lady of delicate taste disapproved of her 
husband's extreme intimacy with a woman 
of Lady Hamilton's antecedents, and felt in- 
sulted by that woman's presuming to write 
to her in terms of friendship {ib.) Later 
on it would seem that Nelson persuaded him- 
self that, as Sir William Hamilton did not 
object to his intimacy with Lady Hamilton, 
Lady Nelson had no reason to do so, and he 
was painfully surprised, on arriving in Lon- 
don in November 1800, to find that his 
wife received him with coldness and marks 
of disapproval. 

We know from Nelson's letter to Davison 
(23 April 1801) that the weeks which fol- 
lowed were rendered miserable by frequent 
altercations ; and, though the often quoted 
statement of Mr. Haslewood {ib. vii. 892) 
has been held to prove that the quarrel was 
a sudden outburst of anger on the part of 
Lady Nelson, goaded past endurance by the 
iterated reference to ' dear Lady Hamilton,' 
such a statement made forty-six years after 
the date by a very old man has but little 
value when it implies a contradiction of Nel- 
son's letter written at the time. On the other 
hand, Harrison asserted that there were many 
differences between the husband and wife 
respecting Nelson's nieces and nephews ; that 



Nelson loved the companionship and the 
prattle of the children, which annoyed his 
wife ; that they quarrelled, too, about Lady 
Nelson's son, Josiah Nisbet, at this time a 
captain in the navy, whom his mother wished 
to be considered as her husband's heir ; and 
that after ' one of these domestic broils' Nel- 
son * wandered all night through the streets 
of London in a state of absolute despair and 
distraction' {Life of Lord Nelson, ii. 276-8). 
It is well established that Nisbet was rude, 
quarrelsome, and intemperate (Nicolas, iii. 
195, 239, 333, 375, iv. 50) ; that he had much 
annoyed his stepfather while in command 
of the Thalia, and that when that ship was 
paid off he was never employed again. Harri- 
son's story is thus not m itself improbable, 
and is partly confirmed by Nelson's letter of 
23 April 1801, already referred to (ib. vii. 
p. ccix) ; but the source from which it comes 
is tainted, and there is no direct evidence in 
support of it. Even admitting serious differ- 
ences on the subject of Nisbet and the chil- 
dren, there can be no reasonable doubt that 
Lady Hamilton was the actual cause of the 
separation ; and it is quite certain that Nel- 
son's friends and society at large so under- 
stood it (Life and Letters of Sir Gilbert 
Elliot, iii. 284 ; Hotham MS.) 

After separating, early in 1801, from her 
husband, who settled 1,200/. a year on her, 
Lady Nelson lived a quiet, uneventful life, 
mostly in London, where in later years she 
was frequently visited by her brother-in-law, 
Earl Nelson, with whom she was to the last 
on friendly terms. She had been for some 
time in feeble health, when the death of her 
son in August 1830 proved a blow from which 
she did not recover. She died on 4 May 1831 
in Harley Street, London. 

[Nicolas's Despatches and Letters of Lord 
Nelson, passim ; Clarke and M'Arthur's Life of 
Lord Nelson ; Gent. Mag. 1831, pt. i. p. 571 ; 
manuscript of Sir William Hotham, q. v. ; art. 
Hamilton, Emma.] J. K. L. 

NELSON, HORATIO, Viscoihjt Nel- 
son (1768-1806), vice-admiral, third sur- 
viving son of Edmund Nelson (1722-1802), 
rector of Burnham-Thorpe, in Norfolk, and of 
his wife Catherine (1725-1 707), daughter of 
Dr. Maurice Suckling, prebendary of West- 
minster, was born at burnham-Thorpe on 
29 Sept. 1758. His father was son of Ed- 
mund Nelson (1698-1747), rector of Hil- 
borough, in Norfolk, of a family which had 
been settled iuNorfolkforseveralgenerations. 
His eldest brother William is separately 
noticed. His mother's maternal grandmother, 
Mary ? wife of Sir Charles Turner, bart., was 
the sister of Robert Walpole, first earl of 
Orford [ql v.], and of Horatio, first lord Wal- 



Nelson 



190 



Nelson 



pole, whose son Horatio, second lord Wal- 
pole, was Horatio Nelson's godfather. Nelson 
received his early education at the high school 
at Norwich ; he was also at school at North 
Walsham and at Downham, in Norfolk, and 
in November 1770 entered the navy on board 
the Kaisonnabie, under the care of his ma- 
ternal uncle, Captain Maurice Suckling [q.v.] 
A few months later, on the settlement of the 
dispute with Spain, he followed his uncle to 
the Triumph, guardship at Chatham, and, 
while borne on her books as ' captain's servant,' 
was sent for a voyage to the "West Indies on 
board a merchant ship commanded by John 
Rathbone, who had been a master's mate with 
Suckling in the Dreadnought some years 
before. After a rough lesson in practical sea- 
manship he rejoined the Triumph in July 
1772. His uncle then made him work steadily 
at navigation, and encouraged him in the 
practice of boat sailing, so that he became 
familiarly acquainted with the pilotage of 
both Medway and Thames from Chatham or 
the Tower down to the North Foreland, and 
was trained to a feeling of confidence among 
rocks and sands. 

In April 1773, when the expedition towards 
the North Pole was fitting out under the 
command of Captain Phipps [see Phipps, 

CONBTANTINB JOHN, LORD MuLGRAVE], Nel- 

son made interest with Captain Lutwidge, 
who was to command the Carcass in the ex- 
pedition, and, though only fourteen, was per- 
mitted to go as captain's coxswain. The 
ships returned in October, and Nelson was 
immediately appointed to the Seahorse frigate, 
fitting to go out to the East Indies under 
the command of Captain George Farmer [q.vj 
Thomas Troubridge (afterwards Sir) fq. v. J, 
was another of her midshipmen. After he had 
been two years in the East Indies, and had 
visited every part of the station ' from Bengal 
to Bassorah,' Nelson's health broke down, and 
the commodore, Sir Edward Hughes, ordered 
him a passage to England in the Dolphin of 
20 guns. The Dolphin paid off at Woolwich in 
September 1776,and Nelson was transferred to 
the Worcester, Captain Mark Robinson, with 
an acting order as lieutenant. The Worcester 
was sent to Gibraltar in charge of convoy, 
and on her return Nelson passed his exami- 
nation, 9 April 1777. By the interest of 
his uncle, then comptroller of the navy, he 
was promoted the next day, 10 April, to 
be second lieutenant of the Lowestoft, a 32- 
gun frigate, commanded by Captain William 
Locker [a. vj The Lowestoft went to Ja- 
maica, and Nelson had for some months the 
command of her tender, a schooner named, 
after Locker's daughter, the Little Lucy. In 
her he made himself acquainted witn the very 



intricate navigation among the keys to the 
north of Hispanioia. It was at this time, 
too, that he contracted an intimate friend- 
ship with Captain Locker, with whom during 
his whole career he carried on a confidential 
correspondence. 

In July 1778 Nelson was moved by Sir Peter 
Parker (1721-1811) [q. v.], the commander- 
in-chief, into his flagship, the Bristol, and on 
8 Dec. 1778 was promoted by him to be com- 
mander of the Badger brig, in which he was 
sent into the Bay of Honduras for the protec- 
tion of the trade against American privateers. 
On 11 June 1779 he was posted by Parker to 
the Hinchingbroke frigate, and in August, 
when D'Estaing, with the French fleet, came 
to Cape Francois, and an attack on Jamaica 
seemed imminent, Nelson was appointed to 
command one of the batteries for the defence 
of Kingston. Afterwards he went for a three 
months' cruise, and made a few prizes, his 
share of which, he wrote to Locker, would 
be about 800/. In January 1780 he was sent 
as senior naval officer in a joint expedition 
against San Juan, where he took an active 
part in the boat work up the river, and in 
the attack on the several forts. But the wet 
season set in, and the fever consequent on 
exposure and exhausting labour in a pesti- 
lential climate killed by far the greater part 
of the seamen, and would have killed Nelson 
had he not been happily recalled to Jamaica, 
on appointment to the 44-gun ship Janus. 
He was, however, too ill to take up the com- 
mand, and for the restoration of his health 
was compelled to return to England as a 
passenger in the Lion, with his friend Cap- 
tain (afterwards Sir) William Cornwallis 
[q.V.] 

On arriving in England Nelson went to 
Bath ; but it was not till near a year had 
passed that he was able to accept another 
command. In August 1781 he was appointed 
to the Albemarle, a 28-gun frigate employed 
in convoy service in the North Sea. Being 
sent to Elsinore to bring home the trade from 
the Baltic, he was able to make some observa- 
tions on the navigation of the Sound, which 
were to prove useful twenty years later. In 
February 1782 he was ordered round to Ports- 
mouth to prepare for a voyage to A merica, and 
sailed in April, in company with the Daedalus 
frigate and a large convoy. Having brought 
his charge safely to Newfoundland and into 
the Saint Lawrence, on 4 July he sailed for 
a cruise which lasted till 17 Sept., when he 
returned to Quebec ' knocked up with scurvy. 9 
For eight weeks he himself and the other 
officers had lived on salt beef, and the men 
had done so since 7 April. In other respects, 
too, the cruise had proved of no benefit beyond 



Nelson 



191 



Nelson 



giving him experience. Of several prizes that 
were made not one came into port ; and, with 
the exception of being once chased by a 
squadron of French lins-of-bat tie ships, there 
seems to have been no excitement. In No- 
vember he went in the Albemarle to New 
York, where Lord Hood [see Hood, Samttel, 
Viscotot] formed a high opinion of him, and 
took him and his ship back with him to the 
West Indies. Hood also introduced him to 
Prince William (afterwards William IV), 
telling the prince ' that if he wished to ask 
questions relative to naval tactics, Nelson 
could give him as much information as any 
officer in the fleet ' (Nicolas, L 72). At this 
time Nelson had never served with a fleet, so 
that whatever knowledge of the subject he 
had could only be theoretical, learnt probably 
in conversation with Locker ; but to have any 
at all, beyond the Fighting Instructions, was 
then remarkable, especially in a young officer. 
In March 1783, wnen cruising on the north 
coast of San Domingo, Nelson had intelli- 
gence that the French had captured Turk's 
Island. With the Resistance frigate and two 
brigs in company he at once went there ; but 
in an attack, on 8 March, the brigs were un- 
equal to the fire of the enemy's batteries, and 
the garrison, strongly entrenched, repelled 
the landing party. Conceiving nothing more 
could be done, Nelson drew off his force. In 
May he was ordered for England, and on 
3 July the Albemarle was paid off, when 
Nelson was placed on half-pay. In October, 
in company with Captain Macnamara, an old 
messmate in the Bristol, he went to France 
to economise and acquire the language. 
The two took up their abode at St. Omer, 
and no doubt learnt some French, though 
Nelson was never able to speak it with any 
ease. He describes himself in his letters as 
avoiding English society; in reality he seems 
to have gone little into any other, and he 
was frequently at the house of an English 
clergyman, Mr. Andrews, with one of whose 
daughters he fell deeply in love. It would 
appear that Miss Andrews rejected his pro- 
posals, for in the middle of January 1784, a 
few days after consulting his uncle, William 
Suckling, he returned suddenly to England ; 
nor was the intimacy renewed, though he 
continued on friendly terms with the family ; 
and when in March he was appointed to the 
Boreas, he took one of the boys, George 
Andrews, with him as a t captain's servant.' 
In the Boreas Nelson again went to the 
West Indies, where public opinion was un- 
willing to accept the change in the com- 
mercial position of the United States. This 
was more especially the case at St. Chris- 
topher's and the adjacent islands; and in 



November 1784, when Nelson was sent to 
that part of the station as senior officer, he 
found that the Americans were trading there 
on the same footing as formerly, and that 
American-built and American-commanded 
ships were freely granted colonial registers. 
The commander-in-chief, Sir Richard Hughes 
[q. v.], had sanctioned this irregular traffic, 
and had given orders that it was to be per- 
mitted at the discretion of the governors. 
Nelson, however, conceived that in so doing 
the admiral was exceeding his power ; and, 
rightly considering the trade an infringe- 
ment of the navigation laws, he promptly 
suppressed it, and seized five of the ships 
which were engaged in it. This drew on him 
the anger of the merchants, who took out 
writs against him, laying the damages at 
4,000/. ; and for eight weeks Nelson avoided 
arrest only by remaining a voluntary pri- 
soner on board his ship. Hughes had at first 
intended to supersede him, and to try him 
by court-martial for disobedience of orders, 
but changed his mind on ascertaining that 
all the captains in the squadron believed that 
the orders were illegal. ' Nevertheless, he 
declined to undertake the cost of Nelson's 
defence, which was finally done by the 
crown, on special orders from the king ; but 
the measure of Nelson's disgust was filled in 
March 1786, when Hughes coolly accepted 
for himself the thanks of the treasury for his 
activity and zeal in protecting the commerce 
of Great Britain. ' I feel much hurt/ Nel- 
son wrote, ' that, after the loss of health and 
risk of fortune, another should be thanked 
for what I did against his orders.' But this 
was not the onlv matter in which Nelson 
felt called on to disobey the admiral. Hughes 
had ordered Captain John Moutray [q. v.], 
the commissioner of the navy at Antigua, to 
hoist a broad pennant as commodore, and to 
carry out the duties of the port. As Moutray 
was on half-pay, the appointment was abso- 
lutely illegal; and Nelson, on arriving at 
Antigua early in February 1785, and finding 
the broad pennant flying on board the Latona, 
sent for her captain and ordered it to be 
struck, at the same time writing to Moutray 
that he could not obey his orders or put 
himself under his command. This action 
led to a correspondence with Hughes, who 
reported the matter to the admiralty, when 
Nelson was reprimanded for taking on him- 
self to settle the business, instead of referring 
it to them. Notwithstanding this unplea- 
sant episode Nelson was on the best possible 
terms with Moutray, and was a warm ad- 
mirer of Mrs. Moutray, of whom he wrote 
in enthusiastic terms as 'my dear, sweet 
I friend,' ' my sweet, amiable friend.' On her 



Nelson 



192 



Nelson 



sailing for England in March 1786, lie 
mourned her departure as that of his only 
valuable friend in the islands, and presently 
sought comfort in the conversation of Mrs. 
Nisbet, a young widow residing at Nevis, 
to whom he shortly became engaged, and 
whom two vears later he married at Nevis, on 
12 March 1787 (Nicolas, i. 217, but the date 
is often given as 11 March; Doyle, Baronage, 
and Mrs. Gamlin in Notes and Queries, 8th 
ser. iv. 413) ; Prince William, then captain 
of the Pegasus frigate, gave the bride away 
[see Nelson, Frances, Viscountess]. 

Towards the end of May the Boreas was 
ordered home, and on her arrival at Spithead 
was sent round to the Nore, where, in ex- 
pectation of a war with France, she lay for 
several months as a receiving ship. In De- 
cember she was paid off, and after some 
months at Bath, Nelson, with his wife, went 
to live with his father at Burnham-Thorpe, 
where he remained, with little interruption, 
for upwards of four years, employing him- 
self, it is said, in reading and drawing, or 
out of doors in gardening. During this time, 
too, several actions against him were brought 
or threatened on account of his conduct in 
the West Indies ; and though assured that his 
defence should be at the charge of the crown, 
and though eventually the ships he had seised 
were condemned as prizes to the Boreas, the 
proceedings were a continual source of irri- 
tation and annoyance. He seems to have 
thought that his zealous service and the 
worries it had brought on him gave him a 
just claim for further employment ; and when 
his repeated applications met with no success, 
he conceived that Lord Hood, then at the 
admiralty, had some pique against him. On 
the imminence of war with France, however, 
his prospects brightened. On 6 Jan. 1793 
he was summoned to London, when Lord 
Chatham offered him the command of a 
64-gun ship, if he would accept it till a 74 
was ready. ' The admiralty so smile upon 
me/ he wrote to his wife, ' that really I am 
as much surprised as when they frowned.' 
A few days later it was settled that he was 
to have the Agamemnon, to which he was 
actually appointed on 30 Jan. He joined the 
ship on 7 Feb., and, in his joy at the prospect 
of active service, wrote that ' the ship was 
without exception the finest 64 in the ser- 
vice; ' and a couple of months later, just as 
they were ready for sea : ' I not only like 
the ship, but think I am well appointed in 
officers, and we are manned exceedingly 
well.' ' We are all well/ he wrote to his 
wife from Spithead on 29 April; 'nobody 
can be ill with my ship's company, they are 
so fine a set. 1 



In May the Agamemnon sailed for the Me- 
diterranean with the fleet, under Lord Hood, 
and after touching at Cadiz and Gibraltar, 
arrived off Toulon in the middle of July. On 
23 Aug. Toulon was occupied by the allies ; 
and on the 25th, Nelson, in the Agamemnon, 
was sent to Naples to bring up a convoy of 
Neapolitan troops. It was at this time that he 
first made the acquaintance of the English 
minister, Sir William Hamilton (1730-1803) 

Eq. v.], and of his wife Emma, lady Hamilton 
q.v.J ; but the details of their meeting, and 
the conversations as afterwards related by 

her, are demonstrably apocryphal (Harri- 
son, i. 108 ; Memoirs of Lady Hamilton, p. 
I 137). It was arranged that the Agamemnon 
I was to escort six thousand troops to Toulon ; 
but the news of a French man-of-war on 
the coast of Sardinia sent her to sea at two 
hours' notice. The Frenchman, however, 
a 40-gun frigate, got into Leghorn, and was 
there blockaded for a few days by Nelson, 
till he was obliged to rejoin the admiral at 
Toulon in the early days of October. On the 
9th he was sent to join Commodore Linzee 
at Cagiiari, and on the way, on the 22nd, 
fell in with a squadron of four French 
frigates, one of which, the Melpomene, of 
40 guns, being separated from the others, 
was handled very roughly. The Agamem- 
non's rigging was so much cut that she was 
not able to follow up her advantage, and the 
Melpomene's consorts coming up carried her 
off. Eventually, in an almost sinking state, 
she got into Calvi. Nelson joined Linzee on 
the 24th, and accompanied him on a mission 
to Tunis, the object being to persuade th« 
bey to let them take possession of a French 
80-gun ship which had sought the shelter of 
the neutral port. Nelson thought that they 
should have seized her at once, and quieted 
the bey's scruples with a present of 60,000/.; 
but Linzee preferred to negotiate, and, when 
the bey refused to yield her, did not consider 
himself authorised to use force. The squa- 
dron therefore returned without effecting 
anything. But Nelson, much to his satisfac- 
tion, was sent with a few small frigates to 
look for the French ships he had met on 
22 Oct. Two of them were at San Fiorenzo ; 
one was at Bastia. The Melpomene remained 
at Calvi, and he could do nothing more than 
keep so close a watch on them that they 
could not put to sea without being brought 
to action. 

After being driven out of Toulon, Hood 
resolved on capturing Corsica as a base of 
operations. On landing the troops, San 
Fiorenzo was taken with little difficulty on 
17 Feb. 1794, but one of the imprisoned 
frigates was burnt ; the other, the Minerve, 



Nelson 



193 



Nelson 



though sunk, was weighed, and, under the 
name of San Fiorenzo, continued in the Eng- 
lish service during' the war. Hood was then 
anxious to march at once against Bastia, 
which he believed would fall as easily as 
San Fiorenzo had done. The general in com- 
mand of the troops judged the force to be 
too small, and refused to co-operate. There- 
upon Hood, partly at the suggestion of Nel- 
son, who had made himseli familiar with 
the appearance of the place, resolved to at- 
tempt it with such forcesas he could dispose 
of, and on 4 April landed about fourteen 
hundred men — seamen and marines, or sol- 
diers doing duty as marines— and with these 
and the ships in the offing formed the siege 
of the town. Nelson was landed in command 
of the seamen, and under his personal super- 
vision the batteries were built and armed 
and manned. On 21 May Bastia surrendered, 
and with it a third of the frigates. On the 
24th General Stuart, who had succeeded to 
the military command, arrived from San 
Fiorenzo, and it was then resolved to attack 
Calvi. The operation was necessarily de- 
ferred by the news of the French fleet being 
at sea ; but when it took shelter in Golfe Jouan, 
and there was no prospect of an immediate 
engagement, on 10 June the Agamemnon 
was sent back to Bastia, to convoy the 
troops to the western side of the island. On 
the 19th they were landed in the immediate 
neighbourhood of Calvi, Nelson himself tak- 
ing the command of two hundred seamen, 
who with infinite toil dragged the heavy 
guns into position, and afterwards served 
them in the batteries. On 12 July ('Nel- 
son's Journal, written Day by Day,' Nicolas, 
i. 486; but in a letter to his wife on 18 Aug. 
he says the 10th, ib. 484) a shot from the town, 
striking the battery near where he was stand- 
ing, drove the sand and gravel against his 
face and breast so as to bruise him severely at 
the time and to destroy the sight of his right 
eye. The men, both sailors and soldiers, 
suffered greatly from the heat, and nearly 
half the force on shore was down with sick- 
ness ; but through all difficulties the siege 
was continued, and on 10 Aug. Calvi sur- 
rendered, when the Melpomene and another 
frigate, the Mignonne, fell into the hands of 
the English. 

This completed the reduction of Corsica, 
and in October Hood returned to England, 
leaving the command with Admiral William 
(afterwards Lord) Hotham [q. v.] ; and the 
Agamemnon, continuing with the fleet, had 
a very distinguished part in the engagements 
of 13-14 March and 13 July 1796. Though 
spoken of as victories, Nelson described them 
as ' miserable ' affairs ; the results were very 

VOL. XL. 



imperfect, and ' the scrambling distant fire 
was a farce.' On 16 July he was ordered by 
Hotham to take command of the frigate 
squadron in the Gulf of Genoa, and to co- 
operate with the Austrians. On 4 April 
1796 he was ordered to hoist a broad pennant 
as commodore of the second class ; on 11 June, 
the Agamemnon being in need of a thorough 
refit, he moved into the Captain, a 74-gun 
ship; and on 11 Aug. was appointed com- 
modore of the first class, with Ralph Willett 
Miller [q. v.] as his flag-captain. But these 
promotions made no change in the service on 
which he was employed. For upwards of a 
year he remained in command of the inshore 
squadron, preventing in great measure the 
French coasting trade, and harassing their 
movements on shore. "What he effected, and 
still more what, from want of sufficient force, 
he failed to effect, are rightly considered as 
striking examples of the control which sea 
power is capable of exercising. Nelson always 
maintained that, if he had been adequately 
supported, the invasion of Italy could not 
have taken place. Captain Mahan, in a cri- 
tical examination of tne campaign of 1795, 
has pointed out that Hotham, while holding 
the enemy's fleet in check at Toulon, might 
have substantially increased the squadron 
with Nelson ; this* would have been less diffi- 
cult if Hotham ' had not thrown away his 
two opportunities of beating the Toulon 
fleet* (influence of Sea Potoer upon the 
French Revolution, i. 199-201). 

In November Hotham was superseded by 
Sir John Jervis (afterwards Earl of St. Vin- 
cent) [q. v.]; but the mischief then done 
was past the power of Jervis to remedy. In 
1796 the French rapidly overran the north 
of Italy, and forced a neutrality on Naples. 
Spain, too, was compelled to yield ; and when 
her fleet was joined to that of France, the 
combined force was of such overwhelming 
numerical strength that orders were sent to 
Jervis to evacuate Corsica and retire from 
the Mediterranean. An English garrison 
still held the island of Elba; but at Gibraltar 
Nelson was directed to hoist his broad pen- 
nant on board the Minerve frigate, and bring 
away this garrison also. In company with 
the Blanche, under the commodore's orders, 
the Minerve sailed from Gibraltar on 15 Dec. 
1796, and on the 20th, off Cartagena, fell in 
with two Spanish frigates, the Sabina and 
Ceres. The Sabina was engaged by the 
Minerve ; after a stubborn fight she surren- 
dered, and a prize crew was sent on board. 
The Blanche engaged the Ceres, which also 
presently struck her colours; but before 
she could be taken, a Spanish squadron 
of two ships of the line and two frigates 



Nelson 



194 



Nelson 



came in sight. The Blanche, being some 
distance to leeward, escaped without diffi- 
culty ; the Minerve was in greater danger. 
But the Sabina, hoisting English colours over 
the Spanish, induced the largest Spanish ship 
to leave the Minerve and follow her; her 
masts went over the side, and she was re- 
captured, but the Minerve escaped [see Cock- 
burn, Sir George; Hardy, Sir Thomas 
Mastebman]. On the 27th Nelson arrived 
at Porto Ferrajo, where he remained for a 
month leisurely embarking the naval stores ; 
but, as the general refused to leave his post 
without specific orders from the government, 
Nelson sailed without him on 29 Jan. 1797, 
and, after reconnoitring Toulon and Carta- 
gena, reached Gibraltar on 9 Feb. He sailed 
again on the 11th, and, passing through the 
Spanish fleet on the way, rejoined the ad- 
miral on the afternoon of the 13th. He 
returned to the Captain the same evening, 
and the next day the battle of Cape St. Vin- 
cent was fought. Nelson's share in this was 
particularly brilliant. The English line had 
cut the Spanish fleet into two parts, and was 
concentrating its attack on the weathermost 
of the two, when Nelson, commanding in the 
rear, observed that their leading ships were 
bearing up with a view to pass astern of the 
English line and rejoin the other division. 
To prevent this he wore out of his station, 
threw himself in the way of the leading ships, 
compelled them to haul their wind again, and 
closely engaged the Santisima Trinidad of 
130 guns, the largest ship then afloat. The 
delay gave time for other English ships to come 
up, and thus rendered the action general and 
decisive. The Captain continued in the thick 
of the battle, had many killed and wounded, 
her rigging cut to pieces, and her fore-top- 
mast gone. She was still closely engaged 
with the 80-gun ship San